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r/ /^ 






THE 

ODYSSEY OF HOMER 

EDITED 

WITH MARGINAL REFERENCES, VARIOUS READINGS, 
NOTES AND APPENDICES 

BT 



HENRY HAYMAN, B. D., 

LATE FELLOW OF ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE. OXFORD, 

HEADMASTER OF THE CHELTENHAM SCHOOL, 

AUTHOR OF "EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION INTO GREEK AND LATIN VERSE v, 

AND A CONTRIBUTOR TO DR. W. SMITH'S DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE. 



VOL. I. 
BOOKS I to VL 



t^v 'Odvastutv, Mtcliv dr9foi»tevov §iov yucroTiTfov. 

Alcidamas apnd Aristot. Bhtt. iii, 3, 4. 



LONDON: 

DAVID NUTT & CO., 270, STRAND. 

1866. 



ilL RianTS KBSSnTED. 






imm OF mt 

L£LAND STANFORD JR. UNIVERSITY, 

iw\r 31 1900 



PREFACE. 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. 



Est flomenis Grsconitn. scriptorum mullo el facillimas et difBeUlimiis: faciliimas del«clari 
copientibun, diCficiUimus inqaireotibus vel in diciioaem ejus, vftl in res quas commeinorat, ^«i in 
carminuoi ipsoram orig-ineni et compositionem. Hermann Opuse. Jil. piafaf, ad Hwi. II, 

I. Whoever believes that "God hath made of one '^^'^ "*<**■*' 

- • #» Ml /• 1 1 11 • ***** inlellectnal 

blood all nations of men'% will ieel that they have m claims of Homer 
the eenius of Homer a common heritafire and a perpetual *i'i"^' powerfui- 

•x XT- 1 X J J • I. J i.1. »y to lli« feeling's 

Witness. His moral standard is beyond compare the a„d t»sie of the 
highest with which the poetry of the heathen world p*^***"* •s^*' 
supplies us, and it is inseparably connected with the 
awe(i) of God. We find in the poet a moral sense pene- 
trated by the consciousness of responsibility and by the 
apprehension of retribution, but not benumbed by any 
overruling agency, coercive from without, to evacuate 
the will of its freedom. We see in him a pure theistic 
conception, struggling for the mastery with the grosser 
genius of mythology and polytheism — the Bens against 
the Zeus; but as regards humanity, he teems with testi: 
mony to what in it is good and true as its proper nature, 
in contrast with whatever embases and corrupts it. The 
heroism not only of action but of suflfering , and not the 

I iji t^iXo^uvoi^ iia£cq>iv voog iatl &eovd7iSt f. 121 (see note there) 1. 176 ; of. 
ngog yag Jiog eleiv Snavteg ^sCvoi zb nt<a%ol w, f. 207— 8. |. 57 — 8 ; Zivq 9* ini.- 
Ttfi>i7Ta>9 tmtatov t£ ^sivcov xs^ i. 270. o2 ^ alsl povlovxo 9'iol iienvfiad'ai 
ifpix^imv, 9. 353, where see note; ndvxsg 9h ^stov xaxiova* av&Q(anoi, y. 48. 
See also the description of an npright king as <9'£ov^^ff, r. 109 foil. Many other 
passages may be fonnd in N'agelsbacfa, V., die praktische Gotteserkenntniss. 

BOM. OD. I. K 



iv PREFACE. 

PART I IV. To the Middle Ages of the West Homer was 

Greek literature ^^^^^wii Only through the transmissivo agency of the La- 
greneraiiy took tin, as may be illustrated from the prevalence of the Ita- 
iand*'g!fvrurM' ^^^^ Trojan legend, wherever we catch a glimpse of his 
lo^caiiy , until Isubjcct matter (3). Till the ageof Bentley, Greek literature, 
tti*e?^1por«^on*8 ^^^^P* ^ ^^^ thcological uscs, had scanty attention paid 
time, as shown to it in this country. Such a translation as Chapman's (4) 
nltil^^ditionsof ^hows how little was known of the poet in the original, 
the poet. Few men of his own or the previous age, including even 

the divines, were such good Greek scholars as Milton, and 
Milton smacks far more of the Attic stage than of Ho- 
mer (5). In the earlier half of the eighteenth century popular 
scholarship was still Latin, or added a lacquer of Greek 
as an accomplishment merely, in a style which might en- 
title it to be called the silver-gilt age. This may be seen 
at a glance from Addison's criticism upon Milton (6). He 
seems to have had no consciousness of Bentley's exist- 

3 See Grote I. p. 397. In King Alfred's Boethius ch. zxxviii, and in the ap- 
pendix thereto in metre, is a version of the story of Odysseus, turning: chieQy on 
his adventure with Circ6. The remarkable point in it is that the virtue and vice of 
the characters are inverted. It is Odysseus who is willing to love and dwell with 
CircS, forgetful of his return, — nor is this so far wholly untrue to the original — 
and the comrades, literally *^his thegnes", who are turned to beasts because 
they resist and wish for their home. 

4 A single ex. may suffice : in N. 560 foil. Homer makes Adamas mark Anti- 
lochus , Chapman renders it as if Antilochus marked Adamas ; and following up 
the blunder makes Antilochus' spear stick in Adamas' shield instead of vice versa, 
as in the original, and makes Poseidon help the wrong man. 

5 Thus the opening of the epilogue to Comus, although traceable to Homer 
(see note on 9, 566), seems derived through Eurip. ffippoL 742 foil. 

6 The portion of this criticism which bears upon Homer has not a spark of 
originality or vigour. Addison is chiefly content to follow Aristotle and Louginus; 
and where he departs from them makes us perhaps wish that he liad stuck to 
them more closely. The superficiality of his remarks, that Vulcan among the Gods, 
and Thersites among mortals, are parallel examples of buffoonery (No. 273, 3'''* 
paragr.), that "there wants that delicacy in some of Homer's sentiments, which 
now appears in the works of men of a much inferior genius", and that his 
"thoughts" are sometimes "low and vulgar" (No. 279, 3'"'* and 4^'' paragr.), will 
strike every one. We may excuse Addison individually, as he does Homer, on the 
score of "the fault of the age", but it is of the age that I am here speaking. In 
Lord Macaulay's Essay upon Addison a similar opinion as regards his Greek scho- 
larship is even more strongly expressed. 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. v 

ence(7). Indeed Greek scholarship is first uninterruptedly pabt i 
luminous amongst us from the almost yesterday period 
of Porson. But, however that be, the history of the dif- 
fusion of Homer is to a great extent the history of the 
progress of Greek literature revived. It shows that 
not only the fifteenth, but the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries had passed by before there appeared even an 
English reprint of any foreign edition of the Iliad and 
Odyssey together. Barnes in 171 1 has the honours of 
our first native edition. Bentley is said to have intended 
to edit Homer. He would, no doubt, have done the work 
grandly, but how the text would have fared in his hands 
we may judge from the way in which he handled that 
of Horace. 

V. As the world goes on, every great poet needs illus- ^'^«** p<*^*» '^' 

i» 1 , mi .ii quire pcrpetaal 

tration m reierence to each successive age. Iheillustra- re -editing, ana 

tive resources of one period become stale to another, ^**®''® *®®'"* J"'^ 

while the poet retains the freshness of perpetual youth. tenUon drawn to 

This is the case whether there be or be not any fresh ac- Homer. 

quisitions to boast of in the province of scholarship. Our 

social state and manners^ and the fuller register of the 

world's experience, reflect something on the study of 

every first-rate literary treasure. To furnish this is , as 

it were , only putting a fresh wick into the lamp which 

burns from age to age with unquenchable brightness. 

The time seems more disposed than ever to regard 



7 In 1712 Addison wrote with easy confidence as follows: "Homer lived near 
300 years after the Trojan war; and as the writing of history was not then in use 
among the Greeks, we may very well suppose that the tradition of Achilles and 
Ulysses had brought down but very few particulars to his knowledge ; tho* there 
is no question but he has wrought into his two poems such of their remarkable 
adventures as were still talked of among his contemporaries". In 1713 ap- 
peared Bentley' s Remarks etc. hy PhUeleuthenui Lipsicnsis, in which (YII. p. 18) 
occurs the following remarkable anticipation of a part of the Wolfian view: 
*^ Homer wrote a sequel of songs and rhapsodies, to be sung by himself for 
small earnings and good cheer, at festivals and other days of merriment; the Ilias 
he made for the men, the OdysseTs for the other sex. These loose songs were not 
collected together in the form of an epic poem till Pisistratus's time above 500 
years after" (Wolfs Proleqg, § xxvii). The degree to which these divergent 
views nearly touch each other in point of time, is remarkable. 



vi PREFACE. 

PART I Homer with aflfectionate reverence. Homeric literature 
since Wolfs day has become a library in itself, as 
it did among the later Alexandrines. The homage of the 
foremost men of the age waits upon "the poet^', and the 
leaders of our Senate choose the laurel of their leisure 
from his chaplet. 
A hypothesis, VI. Tho Tcactiou which has taken place in the last 

aUhougrh perish- - ,« n i . i»4tt m/ \ 

able, may yei half ccntuTy trom thc cxtrcmc vicws of W olf (8) as to the 
have its value, origin and unity of the Homeric poems, is a warning 
against any sanguine hopes being cherished in favour of 
the permanent acceptance of any hypothesis, however 
sparkling with originality and enriched by learning. 
Still, a hypothesis, however perishable in itself, may 
have a subjective value as explaining an editor's point 
of view. Nor is its incompleteness at once an evi- 
dence against it, if it covers only such ground as seems 
probably secure, and is content to let many questions 
float. 
In Attica 700- VII. To draw such a rough line as the matter in de- 
roug-hiy iXn a! ^**^ admits of , it sccnis far more probable than the con- 
markiny the first trary that the Homeric poems , having originated about 
wrTiAlntTxitfrom ^^^^ — ^^^^^ ^' ^v remained, at least in Attica, until 
that point onward about 700 — 600 B. C. a deposUum of oral tradition. 
undcr'ThTinflu- They may have assumed a written form later in At- 
enceofMSS.,and tica than elsewhcrc, for instance in Sparta (9); but it is 
of organized and through the Attic liuc of tradition among philosophers 
and grammarians that we trace them in writing, and 

8 "During the last ten years", says Mr. Grote (I. i. xxi. p. 541) writing in 
1846, "a contrary (to the Woifian) tendency has manifested itself; the Wolfian 
theory has been re-examined and shaken by Nitzsch, who, as well as O. Miiller, 
Welcker, and other scholars, have revived the idea of original Homeric unity 
under certain modifications. The change in Gothe's opinion, coincident with this 
new direction, is recorded in one of his latest works." He also notices (ibid) 
its recent revival by Lachmann. Friedlander occupies medium ground on the 
question, as does Mr. Grote himself. Mr. Gladstone contends not only for unity, 
but for the poet's substantial fidelity as regards historical fact. On this last 
point I advance no opinion ; but as regards his dictum, " that we should assign to 
the Homeric evidence a primary rank upon all the subjects which it touches" 
(I. i. p. 72), we cannot, I think, discard the caution of Thucydides I. ^I'^OykriQO^ — 
£fc TO i%av6q tfyifirjQioiaai, 

9 See below p. xii. n. 14 and p. xxxvi. 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. vii 

during not only these four centuries but for certainly two part i 
centuries later they were still most popularly known by continuous crin 
oral recitation. During this time, however, they had cism. 
come under the influence of written texts. It will be 
seen that between the Pisistratic and the Ptolemasan pe- 
riods various persons busied themselves with explana- 
tions of the poems, on much of which a shadow of ob- 
scurity was then beginning to fall •, and the text was , of 
course, recopied perpetually. The preparation of the" 
text of the Iliad for Alexander by Aristotle is the culmi- 
nating point of these Homeristic eflForts before Zenodotus 
(300 B. C.) , from whose time criticism is first continu- 
ously traceable. 

VIII. The question, at what period the Homeric poems The feaiures of 

J* , 2 J J. *j.* i_ J. • n style, which seein 

were first reduced to writmg, has so great influence on i^ bespeak the 
any theory as to the history and present state of the ong-inai oral cha 
text, that I must be pardoned for spending a few para- are sulh as^Jc^ro 
ffraphs on a subiect so keenly debated by abler anta^o- antiquity wouiu 

. 1 /» T. . iM 1 .1 . .1 . . : not exhibit; 

nists beiore me. it seems most likely that their written 
form is of earlier date than VP'olf allowed ; yet that they 
existed from the first in writing, as Colonel Mure con- 
tends, seems against the balance of evidence. The man- 
ner of the poet's handling his machine of language seems 
to me to confirm its purely unwritten character. The \\ 
love of iterative phrase, and the perpetual grafting of || 
one set of words on another, the great tenacity for a for- 
mulaic cast of diction and of thought, and the apparent 
determination to dwell in familiar cadences , and to run 
new matter in the same moulds, all seem to me to mark the 
purely recitative poet ever trading on his fund of me- 
mory. Mere antiquity of written style, if we may judge • 
from the early books of Holy Scripture, would not pro- 
duce this characteristic of diction. We find in that ma- 
jestic cast of venerable language frequent iterations of 
expression, it is true, but we do not find that budding of 
phrase with phrase which we notice in Homer. A few 
instances Avill clear my meaning: I will first cite B. 721, 
where it is said of Philoctetes, suffering from a serpent's 
bite, 

(1) d?.V 6 fi€v iv vijaa xavro xgatiQ' aXyecc 7ta0%(ov^ 



PREFACE. 



PART 1 

especially the 
custom of OD- 
grraTting' one 
phrase on ano- 
ther, of which 
examples are 
cited. 



and in €. 13, with a single change of tense the same 
line is applied to describe Odysseus pining for his home. 
Now, compare both these with 6, 395, where the hero's 
delight at first sight of land is compared to that of a 
child for his sick father s recovery: — but a single word is 
changed, 

TtargSg^ Sg iv vov0(p xftrcct XQaxig* &?,y£ci Ttu^xciyv. 

{%) In T. J37, where Poseidon has been advising Herfe 
to retire from the conflict, he adds, 

in a. 358 — 9 Telemachus bids his mother resume her 
female labours , adding 

na^iy^dXi6xa d'i^oC' tovyccQ XQcitog s0t' ivl otxai^io) 
in A. ^2 — 3 Alcinoiis, re-assuring Odysseus in reply to 
one of his counsellors, says, '^let him wait till to-morrow, 
till I have completed the array of gifts for him'^ — 

TCO^TtTf d' &vdQS00l lieX7J06V 

7C&0ij (idXL0ta d' i^oL' rov yccQ xQatog i0x^ ivl diffica. 

(3) InO-. 1 34 Laodamas, admiring the figure of Odysseus, 
commends his 

(iriQOvg ta xvTjficcg ra xal &(ifp(o xstQccg vnsQ^tv^ 
in %. 173 Odysseus bids the trusty hinds seize Melan- 
theus , 

0(p^i 8* aitoxgi^avta no Sag xal xstQag vtcsq^bv, 
in jB. m et al. a deity imparts vigour to a hero, 
yvta d' id^ilxav iXatpQa^ noSag xal %BiQag vitiQ^ev, 

(4) In ^.416 Thetis, bemoaning her son's untimely fate 
impending, says 

. . . iitei vv xoc ulcu (livwd'd tcbq ov xl (idla d^v, 
with which comp. N, 573: again in %. 413 describing the 
death-struggles of the female slaves the poet says , 

ij07tacQov 8i n6i€00c iitvwd'd icbq ov xl (idXa 8ijv, 
Nor are these rare instances; on the contrary, there is 
hardly any feature of the poet's manner more broadly 
marked. We are so wholly without parallel examples 
showing how a poet so voluminous, trusting wholly to 



10 The passage has been rejected hj some critics, bat see note ad loc. 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. ix 

memory, would compose, that there is no room for noei- part i 
tiveness on the question ; but I think this characteristic 
commends itself to such a case by all the l-ules of mental 
analogy. When thrown side by side , as I have placed 
them, these have some of the eflfects of parody, or remind 
us of the Aristophanic Xjjtcv^lov d7tcSXs0€v tagged on to 
all sorts of initial penthimemers. 

IX. The great number of oversights and smaller in- Such a^ain are 

,-.,, - , n't minor incongrui- 

consistencies , which the poems betray, is a tuifner pre- ties of incident, 
sumption in favour of purely oral composition and publi- which wouidpass 
cation. If we can ventui'e to approach critically the hearers, and 
mental condition of a man carrying memonter over 20,000 ™''8^^* *»« <'^«'^- 
verses of his own composing, this at least may be said : — 
it . is absurd to expect the same relations to exime be- 
tween the mind and its work, as occur where it has the 
power of projecting the latter symbolized objectively be- 
fore its view. Flushed with the grander forms of his 
conception, would the poet be likely to adjust minutely 
the details ? In a sort of mental fresco style, where a great 
deal must often be done at a study, can we expect the 
small pottering exactness of a mosaic? Would not flaws in 
the filling up be most likely to occur in those more prosaic 
elements of time, place, and circumstance, which might be 
slurred or lost without prejudice to the picture presented 
by the imagination? But those grander forms would carry 
his audience with him, and a happy amnesty would cover 
all. They could not ''bring him to book^^, had their criti- 
cal astuteness been ever so vigorous. Nor, we may be 
sure, would they have cared to do so. Nay, I think it likely 
that these parsus existed even in MS. for some time, 
before such for is in them were noticed. Secure of a 
sympathetic carorcssness in his audience, the poet would 
probably look very little after such pins hs critics have 
since been picking up with elephantine laboriousness. A 
high degree of inaccuracy, in a poem which had no ob- 
jective existence as a whole, we may be sure, would pass 
unchallenged. And so far from regarding such flaws as 
any objection against the genuineness of the text as we 
have it; I am disposed to think that but for critical tin- 
keringwe should have foundthem ten, twenty, or fiftyfold. 



X PREFACE. 

PART I X. I should imagine that the danger^ to which a poet 

or might arise ^^ composing would be liable, would be that of having 
ihroug^h devia- a poworful grasp on the part of the poem immediately 
iXLai'mTde'by ^^^^^^ ^^^ mind, but retaining a comparatively feeble 
the poei himself, hold on the entire work ; that, the rigid safeguard of the 
letter being wanting, he would be merely guided by a 
sense of the pervading spirit of his song ; that, if he re- 
cited perpetually his own work, it would be morally im- 
possible for him to cheek the puUulation of fancy, so as 
to retain identity of phrase. Why indeed should he? 
Would not noveltv have a charm alike for his audience 
and himself? I should expect then that he would modify 
and recast, and judge of the relative effects of this or that 
version on his audience ; and that, crossing and diverging 
lines of thought being thus generated, he might some- 
times be at a loss to decipher accurately the mental pa- 
limpsest. If there be any approximation to truth in this 
conjecture, why may not some variants be alike genuine? 
Nor do I like to attempt to draw the line, as to what 
magnitude of discrepancies, in a poem seldom if ever 
recited save in portions, should be deemed to overstrain 
this licence which I have claimed. Mr. Grote's allega- 
tions as regards the Iliad might, I think, were that my 
present business, be largely answered on this principle. 
He thinks he detects in it an Achillei's recast into an 
Iliad. I think we may admit all the variations in detail 
which he urges without inferring such a change of de- 
sign. Such a view, I think, arises from the assumed ana- 
logy of a written poem. 
Such also are XI. Another token of oral recitation is the variety of 
enuivirem -ram*^ cquivalcut forms for the same word. Writing trains 
maiicai forms, dowu the wild luxuriaucc of language; it lops some 
Tdcarpecuiiarl ^^^^^^^ ^^^ devclopcs cxclusivoly others. In Homer the 
<ies. healthy vigour of the ^^ gadding vine'^ is predominant. 

We find a stage of language in which this profuseness, 
especially of pronominal and verbal forms, reigns un- 
checked. We find moreov(T a power of shifting the 
weight of the voice from syllable to syllable at will, so. 
as that igvOcDiiev should become ^Qvaao^sv^ and stag in 
effect dog\ which again suggests the first freedom of a 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. xi 

muse unbroken as yet to the yoke of written forms. The part i 
prevalence of hiatus as an original feature, undeniable, 
I think, by any who deals candidly with the text as he 
now finds it, is due to the same oral power of governing 
in recitation the sound generated ("). 

XII. Colonel Mure, it seems to me, is successful in The «i8e of wi it- 
establishing that a knowledge of writing existed in a „ity often exists 
fnreat part of Greece far earlier than Wolf allowed : and ^^"^ *^'® ••"'^ 

^ . . 1 /» . 11 poses, while iho 

that it was practised tor certain purposes, such as the re- general and r. 
ffister of sovereigns or other official personasres, the pub- ^^'^^'^ °^® °^ '* 

1.. PI ^ -I. n ^ ii». is unknown. 

lication ot laws, the recording of oracles, and the inscrip- 
tion of monuments (la). But that it was used for literary 
purposes is a point of which the proof falls whoUy short. 
A few official persons and a small class of public scribes 
might easily keep it to themselves, save that in every 
community a few congenial minds would appropriate and 
master it. Doubtless, the existence of such would leaven 
the body politic with such a smattering, that a small per- 
centage of the public might spell out the acts of early 
legislators when exposed at Athens on the inscribed turn- 
tables for the benefit of all. They would be able to inform 
public opinion; just as a meeting among ourselves is held 

III incline to think that the earliest written copies of Homer had the /, and 
also Buch hiatus as could be remedied by the voice in recitation. But the ques- 
tion is hardly a practical one for us. The loss of the / would leave in many lines 
a redundancy of hiatus, and through this, coupled with the reactionary influence 
of a written text, which reminds the ear of hiatus through the eye, the corrupt de- 
vices by which hiatus is stopped were probably generated. As regards the / it- 
self, it probably died out very gradually, going through many phases of semi- 
pronunciation; and probably possessed from the first a degree of elasticity which 
could evade lengthening a syllable before it by position; cf. the promiscuous 
use of " fl university " , **«n university", among ourselves, and the various ways in 
which the (probably at first guttural) -ougk is evaded, which guttural sound itself 
seemEf often to have been the remnant of a stronger consonantal sound decayed. 

12 The list of Olympic victors, from Corabus downwards, was kept at Elis, 
that of the Camean victors at Sparta, as also that of the Spartan kings with the 
years of their reigns. The priestesses of Herd were similarly registered at Sicyon. 
From these dvayqacpal or some of them was compiled by Charon of Lampsacus, 
before Herodotus had written, his work called the Prytanes or rulers of Laccdse- 
mon ; whilst Timseus drew up from comparison of them, what may be called Ffisti 
Borici, in which chronological differences were closely noted (Muller's Dorians, 
vol. I. p. 149—50). 



xii PREFACE. 

PART I to be public when the reporters are in the room 13. The 
Several arffu- ^t>solute usc of the word yquffBLV^ sc. v6(i0Vji4 confirms 
ments, especially this viev, ^^^ doubtlcss dcsccnded from the ancient time 
ir>rfoi?^and"an- ^^^^ Writing was very rare. How much older than So- 
other of Mares lou Written testaments were, or whether so old, it is im- 
boih the^po!mJ! po^siblc to know, and superfluous to enquire. In their 
shown to be in- earliest age they would doubtless be drawn by an official 
cone usive. gcribc. To take a familiar instance, the existence of the 
"Book of the Law" is no proof that writing, or even 
reading, was familiar to the Hebrew people. The Levites 
probably engrossed that knowledge, and doubtless the 
injunction of a "bill of divorcement" would operate as 
an impedynent rather than a facility in the age when it 
was given; since it would compel resort to a Levite, 
which would cause delay, and give passions time to 
cool (15). It is strange that Colonel Mure should think 
that Archilochus' allusion to the 6xvt(iXri{i6) implies that 
he "was in the habit of writing his works" and "of dis- 
tributing copies of them". His other arguments, based 
on the strictures of Herodotus on the ancient and 
later Greek alphabet, on the ascription to Palamedes of 
the invention of letters, and on the allusions by the dra- 
matic poets to the aii; of writing, as practised in the 
" heroic" age from which their fables were drawn (17), are 
either satisfied by the acknowledged existence of writing 

13 This would answer Colonel Mure^s ar^ment that *^a clamour for a new 
code of written laws could hardly have arisen among a people who were them- 
selves unable to read them". (III. iii. vii. § 17. p. 462.) 

14 The Doric rhettas include foreign treaties, and some ancient ones are 
said to have been preserved in writing (Miiller ub. sup. p. 153). A good example 
of a monumental rketra is preserved among the most ancient Greek inscriptions 
(BoeckhjVol.I.No. 11). It is a treaty for 100 years between the Eleans and Herseans. 

1 5 This is quite consistent with the New Testament condemnation of its principle. 

16 igim tiv' vfiCv cclvov co Kr^Qvu^drj, 

dxvviisvri anvtoikr} .... cited Mure ub. sup. p. 453. The connexion of 
the last two words* is not wholly clear: axwurui is in Homer always passive or 
neuter, and (FKvrciXri should probably be taken in apposition with Ki^qvx. The 
address to some person whom the poet chooses to designate as ^^messenger^s son'' 
— a jocularly fictitious name — is further reinforced by the appellation axvr. = 
"post-stick", just as from the name of his weapon &c. a knight is called "a lance", 
a rower "an oar" Mure takes it as if dxvvfjiivriv a^Kwdlr^v were the reading. 

17 ib. p. 447. 




PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. xili 

for a limited purpose, or nullified by the known licence part i 
of poetic fiction. With regard to the arguments gathered 
from the poems themselves, the famous passage in Z. 
168 foil, certainly proves that a despatch on a matter of 
life and death might in the poet's view be transmitted 
and deciphered. But it may be that this is meant to be 
regarded as a family secret, obtained tlirough the Asiatic 
connexion of Proetus rather than generally diffused. The 
word 07](iata or arj^a^ thrice repeated, rather points to 
some form of hieroglyph than to written characters, as , 
in the coin of Gortys here engraved, whose to ^«fta is 1 
the actual lion. A further argument, based on the expres-^ 
sion rd 8e navta ^ecjv iv yovvaav x£hat{iS)j which is 
interpreted by Colonel Mure to mean, in some book con- (Coin of Gortys 
taining the written decrees of fate, seems to me inade- ui/elire round 
quately supported. Copious as are the Homeric refer- i». be grinning 
ences to Fate under various terms , there is not one allu- 'vor,u*^iW(;lo5 
«ion any where to a "book" of fate, alaa spins the lot to aa/ja.) 
of suffering at birth, and Zeus has two vases (TcCd'oC) of 
good and evil fate on his threshold: further, the "lines 
(yteiQatu) of victory are held above by the gods'' (19). Such 
are the images of the poet's own finding, and we must abstain 
from adding to them. But even allowing ancient oracles, 
committed to writing, to have been alluded to, this is one 
of those rare and distinct purposes already allowed for 
above, to which early writing may have been directed (20). 
All these arguments fall short of the point at issue, which 
is the popular use of writing on such a scale as would as- 
sist the author of poems consisting of 1 2,000 lines apiece, 

XIII. On the other hand Mr. Grote, I think, takes But the first 
too narrow a view in lowering the age of written copies ^ere^^^^roTriir 
to that of the formation of an early class of readers. It not for grenerai 
might early be discovered that written copies, used by a H^rchLnicai Z 
prompter, would be a great assistance to rhapsodists to the rhapso 

18 P. 514, r. 435, a. 267, 400, n. 129. 

ig T. 128—9, 1^. 209—10, 527—8, H. loi— 2. 

20 The allusions to oracles have been challenged by Payne Knight (Prolegg, 
§XLvi) as proving the later date of the Odyssey, to which they are confined. Without 
admitting this, it is pertinent to observe that neither of them contains any allusion 
to writing as a modus vaiicinandi. See further some remarks on p. Lii inf. 



XIV 



PREFACE. 



PART I 

disls, and Solon's 
\dLMV ftegl rov^a- 
-ipoiditad^ai pro- 
bably soon fol- 
lowed. 



highly gifted in other respects, but whose memory was trea- 
cherous (21) ; or that, if public feeling was against this use 
of them, the memory might by their aid be better forti- 
fied beforehand (22). MSS would also be very useful in 
teaching other rhapsodists. In such a way it seems likely 
that the habit of copying crept in, but it was doubtless for 
a long while a TCccQSQyov merely, having no public import- 
ance, and carrying no authority. Yet still, as they mul- 
tiplied individually, copies would in time acquire a subsi- 
diary power of giving a consciousness of a text as an 
objective fact; and, on the whole, it seems more pro- 
bable that the law of Solon (23), providing that recitation 
should be i^ v7topoXrjg\ i. e, probably, following a given 
cue, or in orderly succession, was passed after that 
power had been acquired than before it. Those who ap- 
prove tliis view will perhaps be content to regard the 
habit from which a written text was thus first formed, as 
having grown up at Athens in the two centuries preceding 
Solon, viz. the 7*^ and 8*** before Christ (24), and to suppose 
that by the time of Solon, who closes the 7**^ century, that 
text was complete in its constituent elements, although 
probably these were in great disorder and were charged 
with much adventitious matter. On this view, however, 
it is less important to fix precisely an initial period for a 
first written text than on most others. 



21 Some have even thought that l| vno(ioli]q gaipcpSsied'oct ^ the term em- 
ployed in the law of Solon on recitations, means, ''to be recited with a prompter's 
aid*': so Hermann Opusc. p. 311. I take it rather to mean, each rhapsodist in 
turn givinof to (vno(idlX(Qv) and receiving from {vnoXccu^dvcav) another his cue ; 
cf. Wolf Prole gg. § xxxii, n. 4, 

22 Mr. Grote's argument (w/;. snji. p. 527), that a zvfpXog dvijQ (Hymn ApolL 
Del. 172) could not have used a MS., is superficial. He might have been prompted 
from it in case of need. 

23 Td^O^i^QOV i^ vnopoXrjg yiyqatpB QCCifjcnSstGd'cct., olov Snov 6 ng^zog 
^'Xri^sv, ?'KSi9'Sv cigiBcQ^ai xov exo^isvov. Dieuchides ap. Diog. Laert. II. 57. 

24 The many germs of civilization which Solon's time evinces, and which his 
legislation in regard to property leads us to suppose, make it difficult to think 
tliat the application of writing to so obviously useful a resource, as the fortifying 
the memory for recitation, could be longer delayed ; especially as men's wits would 
be stimulated to the application by the chance of a prize. We are to re- 
member also that for 300 years previously the use of convenient writing materials 
had been within the reach of the Egyptians and Phoenicians. 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. xv 

XIV. If a written Homer thus sprang up per accidens, part i 
and in its influence was rather felt than seen, and Solon „ ^ , , . 

' ^ Such a fortui- 

attempted in this crude state of the text to deal legisla- tous text at a- 

tively with recitations; it is quite consistent that difficul- '^2\^ TyVxZ- 

ties should have revealed themselves which threw Pi- trams suppie- 

sistratuB back on an endeavour to establish accuracy in "'!'"'^^, ^'^^ °" 

^ •' advised one. 

the text itself, and to do that advisedly which had 
been done fortuitously before. And in this sense we 
may allow that he, in the words of Wolf; '^carmina Ho- 
meri primus consignavit Uteris, et in eum ordinem rede- 
git quo nunc leguntur"(4s). If incompetent to expel what 
was extraneous — a question to which I purpose further 
returning — he would have to arrange what w^as received, 
and to familiarize the Athenian mind with the conscious- 
ness of a Homeric text as an objective w^hole. And here 
we may accept the suggestion of Mr. Grote (26) ^ that the 
period has now been reached, in which a class of readers 
may be looked for; and in which, a standard text having 
been settled, the poet, free before as a bird of the air, 
was , as it ;w^ere caged in a litera scriptUy although all but 
a few lettered men would still know him by recitation 
only; and, this continuing to be his popular life, a good 
deal of fluctuation might still exist among the readings 
of the rhapsodists. 

XV. On the whole there may be reason to think that i„fluence Zxl\l- 
too much has been made of the influence of Pisistratus mer, however, an 

TT r\ • 'x* fi j'j over-estimate 

upon xlomer. Uccupymg a position which no man did ^^^ perhaps 
afterwards — nor indeed before, taking into account li- i^'^p" formed. 
terary opportunities — he would be able with peculiar 
eas6 to appropriate the results of others' labours. But 
he also could bring the power of the executive to bear 
upon designs which might have been attempted by pri- 
vate hands too feebly for success or too obscurely for 

25 Prolegg. § xxxiii. The ancient authorities, cited by Wolf there (note 5), 
speak not of the formation of a written text , but of the introduction of order into 
the matter which had become conflised. The oldest of them is Cic. de 
Orat, m. 34. 

26 He fixeB such a period at 660 — 30 B. C, or nearly a century before Pisis- 
tratus (Grote ub. sub. p. 531): « /bWwri therefore , might it be the case, at Pisis- 
tratus^ time. 



xvi PREFACE. 

PART I notice (a;). He, no doubt, by these means gave a direction 
and a concentration to Athenian taste, and supplied 
Athens with the means of gratifying it, and the value of 
the result must be multiplied by the influence acquired 
by the Attic school of thought in later times. It will be 
more convenient, however, to resume consideration of 
this subject further on. 
The queBtions XVI. lu Considering the Homeric text as we now 

here discnssed -i . -i . • •■ 1*1 

relate to 1. the havc it, tlic most important questions are those which re- 
word forms, and i^\^q ^^ ^jjg ffenuinencfis of the forms of words , of their 

2. the matter of. .i?i. .ii tii t/. 

the tcxi. The Substantial identity with those used by the poet, and of 
quesiion of the ^]^^ substaucc of the tcxt as a whole, or of its main com- 

origrin of the va- _ .it 1 • mi 

riants, since ii poncut mcmbers, mcluding their arrangement. Theques- 

runs back to the ^[^^ of tlic originof the Variants is one of great collateral in- 
time before ahs- 11. 1 111 
tarchus, is ob tcrcst, but, subjcct to thc remark made abovc ou p. X., bc- 

score. Several Jongs rather to the history of the text in very early days, the 

of them are here materials of whichhavcmostly pcrishcd. We are all but en- 

mentioned. tircly at tho mcrcy of the Alexandrine School. Yet, as will 

be shown below (p. Liii foil.), the predecessors of Aristar- 

chus, and Crates, his opponent and contemporary, exercised 

a perceptible, although scarcely a significant influence over 

the judgment of subsequent ages. Some of their readings, 

which Aristarchus rejected, have been rescued by the 

SchoU., but the value of most is not so great as to enliance our 

regret for the loss of the larger portion (28). In them, how- 

27 We can thus justify the couplet of the epigram said to have been inscribed 
on the monument of Pisistratus at Athens, in which he declares himself as 
tov jieyav iv §ovXy IlBiGiGzqazoVj og xov OiirjQOV 
ff^'gotaa cnoQccSrjv to nqlv dstdofievov. 

Villoison e Dionys. Thrac. Anecd. Gr. p. 185. 
We may compare the action of Constantine upon the Canon in causing Euscbius 
to prepare 50 copies of Holy Scripture for the new Churches designed at Constan- 
tinople. That that Canon then was not settled — although probably not in such 
an unsettled state as the text of Homer in the time of Pisistratus — is shown by 
Mr. Westcott {The Bible in the C/tfirch pp. 155 — 60), who supposes that this drew 
further attention to questions of Canonicity, especially the attention of Athana- 
sius, and thus prepared the way for greater definiteness. This of Constantine Mr. 
Westcott calls "the first complete Greek Bible issued by authority for public use". 

18 The SchoU. have preserved many more than are mentioned in the marginal 
readings of this or probably of any edition. The scope of such a margin is not to be 
a receptacle for all refuse readings, but only to invite the reader's judgment to 
such as seem to possess at any rate plausibility, and generally something more. 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. xvU 

ever; we have a bare glimpse of a non- Aristarchean Homer . part i 
Since Aristarchus' time there is no trace of any sources 
which were unknown to him having been even enquired for : 
but from theAugustan era downwards several critics,among 
whom Didymus is the leading name, found that time had 
again brought round tlie period of lustration, and passed 
all the various streams of learning derived from the first 
Alexandrines through the filter again. Among the vast 
variety of readings of which now no trace is left, it is 
impossible to say how many that were true have perished ^^^^^ *^^ lo^^ed^to 
at each great revise. For such is human frailty that its various ciang^tMs 
best judgment has probably let slip on every such oc- **"**'' '" '" ""*' 
casion something that is true, and established something 
that is false. As regards the variants themselves, no 
general theory seems worth advancing. A probable 
source of a large number of original variants has been 
suggested above. The practice of recitation would lead 
to many more. The strongly formulaic chamcter of the 
phraseology would allow the substitution of one for- 
mula for another of the same metrical value. Even with- 
out, such distracting influences a reciter, whose wit was 
readier than his memory, might alter much, and, as will 
be shown below with regard to interpolations, might, if 
popular, establish a school of followers, and so garble or 
disguise the text as to make it difficult for all the re- 
sources of subsequent criticism to detect the tme read- 
ing. Then must be taken into account all the dangers ^nd its wniten 
to which MSS. are liable. But these the Homerie poems fo""» 
shaie in common with all other ancient writings, al- 
though since iioo B. C. they had for about four centuries 
such a hold on critical attention as prevented further 
textual eri'ors from accumulating. It must suffice to 
consider on their individual merits in the following 
notes ad loc, such variants as seem worth the trouble, 
and to omit the rest. There is one other circumstance, ^., . . , 

' whilst It also en 

which on the whole tells in favour of carefulness in pre- joyed one main 
serving the Homeric text: it is that from the earliest *^'^""'y- 
times, when education was systematically given, they 
were used as school-bo Dks, and were standard classics. 
It is natural to suppose a greater vigilance over such a 

HOM. OD. I. ^ 



xviii PREFACE. 

PART I text than ovo' one which was less essential to the mental 
culture of the Greek race. 

The ar^mcnt XVII. As regards the genuineness of the forms of 
yenJnenegs of words in Homor, the first broad argument in its favour 
ihc word-fonns jg ][)ased on their fitting into the metrical structure, and 
metrical siruc- on the fact that the later use of language tended mostly 
i"*^*' to cut them down, which therefore, if yielded to, would 

often have lamed the line. Even such contractions as 
would substitute spondees for dactyls, considering the 
dactylic preponderance which we find surviving, need 
no wide margin of allowance. It seems indeed likely 
that Homer's language was slightly archaic in his own 
time. We cannot suppose him to have reached the 
artistic level on which he stands without many steps of 
ascent having been raised by others before him. Many 
preludes of shorter flight must probably have been es- 
sayed, and ruder schools of song have had their day, be- 
fore he arose to transcend them all, and perhaps tacitly 
to incorporate the results of some (29). The very copious- 
ness of his matter suggests this, and still more its com- 
plication. Conventionalisms of diction and established 
formulae of expression, conmion to him with Hesiod, 
suggest previous workmen and a handicraft which had 
become traditionak They ca^ hardly fix themselves as 
features of manner in one man's lifetime. Now, such 
schools of song tend to arrest that flux of language to 
which all that we know of human speech bears witness, 
and the rhapsodists would doubtless maintain a fami- 
2. the rhajiso- Jiarity with whatever uncouth or prolix forms were 
was traditional dropping out of thc DTiost currcut vernacular; while the 
and conservative, ^jnculum of the mctrc, although not without some such 

and certainly did ,., . •!• itii 

not i)( gin in Ho- cksticity as lunovators might improve, would check 
'"^^- any wide licence of departure from the primitive stan- 

dard. If at or before the period of Solon interpolation 
was, as we shall see reason to think, successful for a 

29 The Anibros. and other Scholl. on y. 267 mention as doiSol earlier than 
Homer, Demodocus the Laconlan, Glaucus, Automedes of Mycenje, Perimedes of 
Argos, Ljcimnius of Buprasium, Sipis of Doris , Pharidas (or Phalaridas) the 
Laconian, Probolus of Sparta 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. xix 

time, it could only have been so by keeping to aeknow- part i 
ledged old Achjean forms, those which were vernacular 
once, but have come down to us as ^^Epic", so called 
from the works which have preserved them. 

XVIII. But before the time of Solon the dialects had t»»»'' "*' ^^»"« 

. I- 1 . 1 1 11 1 • 1 J '* tended lo keep 

been formed, the influence of which shall be considered the word forms 
presently: and by his time it has been considered likely ?*"»*» favoured 

r J T J '' mV^rpolation, 

that a cnide written text existed. So long as that text 
was ancillary to recitation, and had no documentary va- 
lue, it was not likely to exercise a corrupting influence 
on the word-forms. Even long afterwards, the fact that 
recitation continued to be the popular channel of Ho- 
meric knowledge would tend to check such corruptions. 
The rhapsodist would transmit the word-forms probably 
as he received them, the copyist from MS. to MS. would 
tend to clip them', to misunderstand, to guess and do 
mischief. On the other hand, tin? rhapsodist would per- 
petrate or admit interpolations freely, but the copyist, if 
he even incorporated them, would be checked by some 
other who had them not; and whenever a true critic 
arose, no matter how late, if he had only an adequate ar- 
ray of material, he would easily precipitate and expel 
them. It is true, the earliest class of interpolations might 
possibly baffle all subsequent acuteness (XXXVIII — 
IX w/*.). But the time when the most formidable 
danger would threaten the word-forms, was tlie age of 
criticism itself. The famous Alexandrine scliool set to 
work on the assumption that they knew Greek , and for 
all except Homeric purposes they perhaps knew it suf- «»<* **»<>«« '^o'^n^^ 
ficiently well. It was so far unfortunate that they were peruier^ln the 
worst equipped on that vei*y point at which they directed »ff^ ©^ professed 
the greatest force of their wits. Their non-recognition 
of the digamma in Homer, which they knew in ^olic, 
shows us how narrow was the basis of their view. It is 
no arrogance to say that, since no language can be 
known by itself, and since with all except Greek that 
school had but the most superficial acquaintance, modern 
scholarship has a collateral apparatus at command 
which sets it on a ground of conspicuous vantage. If 
we in the present day knew no Gothic language save 



xs PREFACE. 

PART I our own, how could we edit King Alfred or even Laya- 
mon? It has been the work of scholars since Bentley, 
but more especially since Wolf, to turn that apparatus to 
account; and to supply, if possible, the omissions ^ or 
even coiTCCt the mistakes of Aristarchus. 
3. Thopowerof XIX. As regards the preservation of the word-forms 
-TnaikLai"^! ^^ *^^t *^^> *^® tenacity of an unlettered populace for 
nument — in their ancicut forms of speech is remarkable in an age 
o/Vo°i5-foriM* the upper social sm-fiace of which may be over-run with 
written and even printed literature. Thus most rural 
nooks of England contain remnants of Chaucerian 
English. In Greece there were, however, but scanty 
tramps of a national life in rural quietude independent of 
the cities. It is not likely that antique traits of dialect 
lii^gered, unless in Boeotia, with the rustic muse. In At- 
tica especially the assimilation of the people's tongue to 
that of the capital was probably early accomplished. But 
the rhapsodists kept, the ancient tongue alive, and Homer 
held his own. The grand master of song had raised 
a monument of language which becafne a barrier in itself. 
Similar has been the influence of Shakspeare and, 
more uninterruptedly, of the Authorized Version of the 
Bible among puTselves. Homer would derive a still 
stronger influence from the fact that he was recited when 

and 4. the na- ^ities met in festive mirth around the altar of some na- 
tional enlhusi- , 

asm, which the tioual dcity. The heart of the nation would fix itself 

poet kept alive, ^j^]^ gjjgj reverence upon his words, which fired them 

should also be ^ , * ^ ' ^ 

allowed for. with a momentary impulse of patriotism beyond muni- 
cipal barriers, and reminded various tribes of their ori- 
ginal unity, as each retraced its dialectic rill in the parent 
lake of epos. Our argument does not descend to jot and 
tittle, but it hardly admits. of doubt that the ossential 
forms, familiar in their ring of sound upon the ear, would 
descend with the true song as its native vehicle, just as 
they would form the only possible credential for spurious 
imitations. I do not think that this view need be rejec^led 
even by one who were disposed to accept the ingeniously 
constructed antique text of Payne Knight. Those archaiams 
only disguise our present text, they cannot be said essen- 
tially to alter its forms. As regards the digamma, while 



lowed a dialectic 
direction, 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. xxi 

nothing is better eBtablished than its Homeric existence, part i 
nothing is more uncertain or perhaps less uniform^ than 
its actual force; see p. xi, n. ix. Fluctuating usage, and 
the poet's own caprice, might in mnny words mould this 
perishable element to a type either ppwninent or subdued. 
It is necessary to insist on the great elasticity proper to 
the yet unwritten Epic tongue, and to caution learners 
against the prejjudices imbibed from the early study of 
the most highly artificial poetry. If an Englishman 
would be a sympathetic student of Homeric diction , he 
should shut up Virgil and open Chaucer. Although even 
here the influence of writing renders the parallel im- 
perfect in the extreme. 

XX. If we assume, on the contrary, the word-forms of 6. The word- 
the Homeric text to have become corrupted, we know suf- f^"°* ""^ "7*/' 

x / il corrapted, 

ficiently the types which they must have followed. The must have foi 
supposed process of corruption could not have escaped 
the bias which determined contemporary language in the 
7*"* and 6**> centuries B. C. That bias was not single, but 
manifold, and of the resulting dialects we have adequate 
specimens in the extant remains of Archilochus, Tyrtaeus, 
Alcman, Alcaeus, Sappho, Stesichorus, Solon and Mim- ^ 

nermus, who flourished during those centuries at such ^ 

various places as Paros, Sparta, Lesbos, Himera, Athens 
and Colophon. It would lead us too far astray to analyse 
exhaustively the language of these various fragments. 
But it is clear at a glance that none of them reproduce 
the language of the Homeric poems , although most of 
them teem with Homeric quotations more or less direct, 
showing that those who now talked Ionic, Doric, or 
^olic^ had Homer also on their tongues (30). They 

30 Cf. Archil. V. i, 9'orjg Sia ciXfiaza vriog tpoitu with fi. 420, avtag iy<o 9ia 
pjiog ifpo£t(ovi t*. XXIV. 5 — 6, %aXBniiai &££v odvvr^civ %%rizi nsTCUQiiavog with 
jE. 399, idvvinti Tcsnagaivogj also with Hy. Jpol. Pyth. 180 %aUnriai . . , d^vi^tf^; 
with V, 42, ^log . . . ?x?yrt, M. 8 %b&v ii%7ixi\ ib, XXXII, vC%'qg S*iv &£Oiai ml- 
Quxa with H. 102, vCurigitBCqat ^%ovxai iv A^avutoiaL d^soiviv; ib. LXXII, noUrjg 
ilog iv neldyBaci with €. 335, A. 358, akog h mXayBaai^ ib. LXXXVIII. 4—5, 
alXu c'ii yacxriQ voov xs xal (pgivag naQi^yccysv slg dvaiSs^av with q, 286—7, Y^' 
cxiga . . ,ovXoiiivfiVf ij noXXa %dit' av^qaxoiai 6'C9<oavv, and K.^gi naQ^% voov ^ya- 
yav^Ettxa^Qi Tyrteus I.i, xsd'vdiisvttiyotgiiocXiv ivlnQOiiccxoLCtnecovx ayriihO, ^iiy 



xxii PREFACE. 

PART I exhibit the forms of all the principal dialects^ but not 
intermixed, as we find them in Homer. In each a dialect 
predominates, although in most not with the sharp ex- 
clusiveness which the poets of the following century ex- 
hibit. They stand in short, as they might be expected 
to stand, on the supposition that our present Homeric 
text is the genuine product of an age considerably ear- 
lier, each diverging iu a difl'erent direction from it and 
finding its new centre in some point nearer or more re- 
mote. Among the nearer may be rated firstly Archilo- 

sach as the poets ri-i lo* -t t* a 

of the early ly- chus, tlicn Stcsichorus and bimonides of Amorgos, then 
ric period show. JvUmnermus, Tyrtseus, and Solon, the last two having 
a narrower vein of epic language and showing the 
dialectic principle — that of the lonico-attic — more 
fully developed. Alcseus and Sappho have a greater 
divergency, and show dialectic features yet more 
marked. Alenian stands somewhat similarly by him- 
self in relation to Doric, but has a tinge of closer 
affinity with the first group. Simonides of Ceos I ex- 
clude from the list, as having a character too markedly 
advanced even to close it. He imbeds a good deal of 
Homeric phrase, but with the air of conscious adoption, 
even where an express citation is not meant. The Attic 
terseness of his epigram has nothing in common with 
the large fulness of measure which Homer yields. 



ivl TtQO^ocxoiaL daafjvaLj see also J. 458, P. 590; ib. 15, dkXcc iidxBa^s, nag' dX- 
Xtjloiai (livovTsg, with P 721, fiifivofisv o^vv *Aqria n&g' ocXXr]Xoiat fisvovxfg; 
besides such phrases as daitidog ofitpaXoeaarig, tccvrjlsyiog d'ccvdroio ib. III. 25, 35, 
which every one will recognize. See also III. 32, and cf. X. 602—3 (perhaps in- 
terpolated). Tyrtseus' words are uXX' vno y^g nsQ hov^ yivstcci ^'9'dvatog, which 
contain the germ of the idea evolved by a dichotouiy of the hero (Herakles) into 
his bI'SodXov and himsaU (avxog). Col.Mure has also compared VI. (Gaisf.I) 19 foil, 
with X. 71 foil., YII. (Gaisf. II) lo foil, with E. 529 foil, O. 561 foil., VII. 31 
with N. 129. Cf. also Alcraan VI. i — 2, Kdaxo^g ts ncoXoDv xcL%i(ov ^iiTjTTJgsg 
X. T. X. with F. 237, Kd^zoga &' tnnodccfiov; ib. IX. dvcnagt, %aX6nagi x. t. X., 
with F. 39, ji. 15s; also ib. XXIX. XQ'^^^^^ og^ov ^x^"^' with 0. 460 (same 
words) and with 6. 295—6. Cf. also Alcseus T. 5—6 v.a^vmgQ'Bv Tnnsioi Xotpov 
vsvoviftv with X' ' ^4' ^^f-vov $£ Xocpog Ticcd'vnsgd'Bv evsvsv^ O. 537 tnnsiov 
X6(pov] ib. II — 12, ^gnog taxvgov p^Xsvg with J 137 egnog dyiovzoav. II. 5 xaxxe^a-* 
X&g with d". 85 rf a/. ytav.'H scpccXr^gi besides again commonplace phrases, such as 
Tivacc TivXivSsTaL. pat fieXcciva. nag . . avtlog iGtonbdr^v ^x^^y Y^S dnb nsigdtwv* 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. xxui 

while his other pieces approach the form of the dramatic part i 
chorus. 

XXI. If, noW; the Homeric word-forms be genuine, '"**'**' dialects 
and represent a real stage of the development of the Homer nrata&i- 
Greek language far earlier than all these, it helps us to ^' e»pi*»n each 
account for them all, and by their fades qualis decet esse suppowUon that 
sororum, they account for it, as their common parent. **'* " consider- 

^ .^ . . , . . ., , ^ , . ably earlier than 

On any other supposition how is it possible to explain any, as ahown 
its existence? What poet from 7cx) to <5oo B. C. could *>y **»« example. 

,_ , , I 1 • o T 1 /• 1 • of the nearest to 

possibly nave produced itr 1 speak not oi the inner him, Archtio- 
soul of song, but of its mere shell of language. Archi- *•*"•• 
lochus comes undoubtedly nearest; so much so, that a 
high authority (31) has said, ^^his dialect is substantially 
the same as Homer's, with fewer antiquated forms, and 
otherwise slightly modified, to suit the. more familiar 
tenor of his own composition/' The compass of his dic- 
tion is, however, very much abridged. Where, for in- 
stance, is the vast variety in the forms of pronouns ? 
What has become of the -ijqpt -Tjxf^ -ofpv -od'sv -£^€v 
termination of nouns? What of the triple ending 
of the pros, infin. act.? What of the melodious open * 
vowel system of which BvxerocovtaL, oq6(o6lv^ (laifiGicoda 
tdQcuovtccgj are specimens? Where are the Homeric 
many particles, especially the characteristic xf? We 
find the epic pronoun 0, ij^ rd, sunk in the article. In 
the word avcc^ the digamma is inconstant, while olvog 
and oiycog^ occurring each several times, appear to have 
wholly lost it. One might easily extend the list of mis- 
sing features. Yet, as some one must stand next to Ho- 
mer, however lonr/o proximus intervallo, let us allow, — 
omitting for the present all consideration of Hesiod — that 
place to Archilocbus. Now, all these various offshoots 
of language prove that no poet of those centuries stood 
^t a level wherQ such a command of language as Homer 
wielded was possible. And, as we must probably allow 
at least a century for them to form, this throws us far 
back into the 8^*^ century B. C, and probably even fur- 



31 Mure vol. III. Bk. ill, ch. ill § 10. 



xxiv PREFACE. 

PART I ther. That which had been, probably at some time in 
the 9^*^ centuiy, one, was now manifold. The flattening 
down of the "epic" into Archilochus shows that epic was 
«. Further, vcmacular once. 
since Homer was XXII. And, in the casc of a poet so broadly popular 
aBTong- po!t$" of that the moment we arrive at a literary period it smacks 
all the diaiecu, strongly of him, is it likely that we should have one cor- 
ed tcxtonij^'but ruption only out of alj the dialects? The early writers 
acverai would i^ all of them are evidently familiar with Homer, many 
would have left of them boiTOw directly from him. He must have been in 



some traces. 



the mouths of Doric, Ionic, and iEolic rhapsodists alike. 
If recitation engendered corruption, where is the Dorico- 
Epic^ the -ffiolico-Epic etc. text ? Pisistratus ought by this 
theory to have found a text consisting of something like 
the Solonian Attic. The same process, if it had gone on 
at all, would have gone on alike in the various diverging 
dialectic streams. That they should have blended again 
\ into our present text of Homer is against all the analogy 
of language. All ought, on this supposition, to have had an 
existence, and there ought somewhere to be a trace of some 
of them (3»). The opposite is the fact. We infer safely 
that they never had existence^ and that Homeric diction 
was not in them fused down and recast. 
chiiochus' period XXIIL But if HomcT could HOt havc been a genuine 
or later could product of thoso conturics , still less could the Iliad and 
such a diction as the Odysscy have then arisen by a study of the past, 
the Homeric. The artificial process of the granmiarian poet was wholly 
foreign to the period (33). On this possibility, however, 
no moderately well-informed reader will waste a second- 
thought. Nor, if we adopt such an extravagant supposi- 
tion as that a poet of those centuries might have been 
equally familiar with all these dialects, could he even 
then have produced the Homer which we have. For 
that contains, besides the germs of them all, many other 
germs of language which did not fructify, but fell away. 

32 There was among the early edd. in the hands of the Alexandrine critics 
one known as the AloXixrj or AlollSf but there is no reason to suspect the de- 
signation of any other than a local force , as in the case of the 'AgyoXiTLrj etc; 
see schol. on Od. £. 280, and Buttraann^s note there. 

33 See Gladst. I, i. pp. 30—1. 



PARTI. GENERAL VIEWS. xxv 

This again is what we might expect; it resembles the part i 
spontaneous redundancy which ive trace so frequently 
where nature has her way. 

XXIV. As regards individual forms suspected of forms mu«i stand 
spuriousness or alteration; they must stand or fall on °' ^*" ^" ^*^*'" 
their own special grounds, and on the general analogies of some are eiuci- 
grammar(34). A number of apparently abnormal forms '^*^®'* ^^ ^^*® ^' 
have been reduced to symmetry by the digamma alone, 
although it may be impossible now to assign it its just 

power in every place to which it seems entitled. That 
such a key should ever have been applicable to the dif- 
ficulties of any text not substantially primitive, would 
have been in itself a paradox. The uncertainty which 
attaches to its use may probably arise from the fact that 
it was in the Homeric period an element which had be- 
gun to lose its hold upon the language. Some words, in 
which it was continued in iEolic, may in the poet's use 
of it have already lost it. 

•^ Homer is con- 

XXV. But the same suspicions which would destroy fim.edbyHesiod. 

1 TPi /»TT 111 ii/»i The probable pe- 

the credit oi the text ot Homer would be equally latal to riod of the vari 
that of the Hesiodic poems. I, indeed, can hardly ac- ^^^ Hesiodic (so 

1 p , 1 1 • 1 called) poems 

cept these three, or any two of them, as belonging to the considered. 
same author. They offer no scope whatever to what is 
to my mind the master-argument for the unity of author- 
ship' of the Iliad and Odyssey, the ethical consistency, 
namely, of characters introduced; whilst their mutual 
unlikenesses are far more startling. I shoiild be inclined 
to place the Theogony, allowing for some passages of a 
probably later origin, in the same century as the Homeric 
poems; the Works and Days — allowing conversely for 

34 Thus amoni^ the pronominal forms the epic ^ycov is found also in ^oHc, 
the epic ifisio is justified as a mere lengthened form of the iiiio of Ionic or the 
ili^o of Doric,, the epic rvvrj hy the Laconian Doric rovvrj, the epic tbIv is Doric 
also^ the pXv is parallelled by vlv of Attic and Doric tragedy, Sfiiis vniis Sfifii viifii 
are at once epic and .£olic, the case-forms of tI; and oazLg or OTr&ff in Homer are 
all traceable in the Ionic of Herodotus, the rare dfio^Bv («. lo) is explained by his 
ovd-aiJLOg, The extended forms of case-endings , as dxovovtsaaiy are directly in 
the line of grammatical analogy, and must in many cases have been supposed as 
its necessary links, even had they not occurred. To similar verb-forms the same 
remark will apply. 



xxvi PREFACE. 

PART I earlier matter most venerable and primitive which it in- 
corporates — in the following century ; and the Shield of 
Ilerciiles, which has superficially a greater resemblance to 
the diction of the Theogony, at a considerably later pe- 
riod than either, not however later than the earlier part 
of the 7»^» century (3s) B. C. Mr. Paley/ the mosi recent 
editor, has remarked, that ^4o a considerable extent it is 
a cento of Homeric phrases and expressions: more so 
even than of Hesiodic. This is precisely what we should 
expect from an Ionic rliapsodisf (36). 
Certain pecuii- XXVI. This opiniou of the late origin of the Works 
Works andDays, and Days , as compared with the Iliad and Odyssey, I 
found partly on its interaal character and partly on the 
pritud facie aspect of its diction. Its genius is, as Colonel 
Mure has observed, in a passage quoted by Mr. Paley (37), 
"essentially personal or subjective. ... In the Works 
not only is the author never out of sight, but it is the 
author, at least as much as the subject, which imparts in- 
terest to the whole. Instead of an inspired being trans- 
ported beyond self into the regions of heroism and glory, 
a gifted rustic impelled by his private feelings and ne- 
cessities, dresses up his own affairs a;id opinions in that 
poetical garb which the taste of his age and country en- 
joined as the best passport to notice and popularity ''(38). 
Now, although such a genius is not the creature perhaps 
of any period, yet that it should find and keep the ear of 
a people, argues that the facts of its moral and 
mental nature foimd theirs more in harmony with it than 
seems at all probable in the Homeric age. The quaint, 
terse, and pithy wisdom of its home-saws and rustic 
maxims would not alone necessarily imply a later origin, 
foi* they were probably a heritage from the earliest times. 
But they are not crudely transmitted , they have a back- 



35 "Herculea (on the Chest of Cypselus) appears armed with his bow as in 
the old Homeric legend, riot with the club and lion's skin as in the innovation oi 
the Rhodian Pisander which first acquired popularity in the age ot" Cypselus him- 
self." Mure vo). HI. iii. vii, § 7. 

36 Paley's Hesiod p. 108. See also note on Scutum H. 431. 

37 Paley's Hesiod, Pr6f. VI, note 3. 

38 Mure II. ii. xxi. § 2. 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. xxvii 

ground in the poet's own character, somewhat si» has the part i 
Vision of Piers Plowman. 

XXVII. The terse and word-stinted stvle of the ^^»»r^^ "-^^"^^/^^ 

»' • mark a posl-Ho 

purely gnomic passages, which form a considerabie part menc epoch, 
of the work , is utterly alien to the easy affluence of 
the Homeric muse. And these are of more value for 
the present argument, since in them any alterations 
in the forms of the words are far less easy; while 
the fact of their being proverbs is strongly conserv- 
ative of their native form, in which they would pass 
from mouth to mouth quite independently of their being 
committed to writing (39). The Hesiodic mannerism 
also, which makes predicative words, mostly compound 
adjectives, do duty as subjects , (40) marks reflection as 
superseding the outspoken first impression of the earlier 
style. And a still further refinement in the same direc- 
tion is the way of. telling a thing not in itself, but by its 
results (41) — the substitution of secondary for primary 

39 Of proverbs keeping peculiarities of verbal form we have English exx. in the 
rebel distich, "When Adam delved and Eyh span, Who etc.", the rhyme keeping the 
old preterite form intact; and Bacon's "When Hempe is spun, England's donne'' 
(Essays XXXV), the final e being needed to express the fact of a fifth aovereign 
(Elizabeth). 

40 Such are (pSQBOi'nog, dvoavsog, nivto^ogj for the snail, the cuttle-fish, and 
the hand respectively; so ;|r£ipo^txttt " might-for-right men", i. e. lawless, sv- 
tpQOvrj for the night, vrjog ntsga for sails (used in Homer for oars, but as a predi- 
cate, Ttt Tf ntSQoc vrjval niXovxai X. 124). Goettling, Ptmfat. ad Hes. Op, XXX — 1, 
notices that ^schylus '*cum Pythagor^t proxime aqcedit ad banc inventionera vo- 
cabulorum"; instancing av^ffiovpyog for the bee in Persoi 604, dp^Cavtog for tie 
sea i^. 570; and calls this an "oracular language", comparing that used by the 
Pythia at Delphi. He observes that the Works contains ma ny instances of this 
usage, but the Theogony few; which confirms the view taken above of the greater 
antiquity of the latter. To the same oracular class he refers the alvog (Works 
202 foil.) of the hawk and nightingale, — the oldest of Greek fables in the 
^sopian sense — connecting the term with ocHviyficCy ^U. e. sententia cujus tecta 
est significatio ". All these seem to me clear indications of a later school of 
thought. One might add also the vilification of women, or shall we say, with 
Mr. Paley on Works 375, the first indication of the courtesan? Either of these 
seems non-Homeric , and I think also post-Homeric. 

41 Such are the maxim yvp>ybv anBignv yvpvov 8\ ^omtstv in 391, cf. Virgil 
Geor.l. 2gg nudus ara, sere mtdns, meaning, that both would need to be done during 
the warmer weather; the direction Su,^og ^%(ov panBlriv novov OQvid'SGai riQ's^ri 
antQpcc TiatccKQVTttaiv, 470 — i, where the birds scratching labotvQ\vs»Vj 1c>t *vNx^ 



Srnomic vein. 



xxviii P R E F A C E. 

PART I phenomena — which Virgil has, with excellent taste as 
regards his own time and circumstances, imitated in the 
Georgics. 

especially ihe XXWII. But most remarkable is the width and com- 
pass of the gnomic range in Hesiod, beyond that of any 
modem and, omitting Holy Scripture and the Hagio- 
grapha, of any ancient too, except the purely gnomic 
Theognis. One may feel him at times almost rise 
to the impassioned dignity of prophetic warning, some- 
times he muses soberly in the vein of Jacques,' some- 
times he strikes the sententiously sarcastic vein of 
Franklin s "poor Richard '\ • In him the world seems to 
have done and suffered much since its exuberant heroic 
youth, and to have learned indignant sadness, quenilous- 
ness and close calculating thrift* That such a genius 
should have bloomed even in the shade side by side with 
the Homeric, seems strange, but passing strange that it 
should so early have found sympathetic admirers. 

The diction, al- 

thougrh less de- XXIX. As regards his diction, the question is more 

cisive as a test, difficult, siucc, owiug to a divergency in the standard of 

language, differences which seem due to time may be 

only the result of local influences. Many of those noticed 

below (42) would taken singly be utterly insignificant; nor, 

seed indicate the depth to which it is to be "buried"; and the caution in 496—7 
jLiiJ 6s nctnov xsificivog dfirixaviTj nazaiidQjpfi avv tisvltJj Isnt^ Sh naxvv 7s69a 
XSlqI nii^rjg, this descriptive action is noticed bj Victor Hugo in his Noire 
Dame^ p. 406 ed. 1 836, as characterizing sufferers from cold. 

43 We miss in the Works and Days the characteristic class of open-formed 
verbs in -o<a -ow, which are noted above as missing in Archilochus. TheTheogony 
has a fair sprinkling. The Shield of Hercules a due proportion, where it is pro- 
bably an imitative feature. There is one in the Works and Days in a passage 
which Goettling (lies. 0pp. not. ad v. 504), and Mr. Paley (Hesiod, Pref. p. ix) con- 
cur in regarding as non-Hesiodic. In this poem the table of pronominal inflexions 
is far more limited than in Homer, even allowing for the small scope which a di- 
dactic poem furnishes as compared with one so full of dramatic life as his. In the 
typical forms — 010 gen. sing., and — Sfisvai, pres. infin. act. the preponderance is 
slight, but it is on Homer's side. There is a great deficiency in the reduplicated Ho- 
meric forms of aorist and of future not being paulo-post. As regards some more 
special classes, the mixed aoristic forms, as §i^<ssto dvasto, are wanting. The forms 
of slftl and slfii are jejune as opposed to Homeric luxuriance. xtVo emov, frequent 
in Homer, occurs once only, I believe, in the Works (v. 345). I have observed in 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. xxix 

as between Homer and Hesiod, would all taken together part i 
have perhaps a decisive weight, since analogy would be 
in favour of the co-existence of a greater and a lesser 
dialectic richness of inflexional forms in the earliest 
known stage of the Greek language (43); that stage, how- 
ever ancient as regards us , being yet certainly in itself 
both late and transitional. Still, taken together, they 
amount to something, as confirming the argument de- conBnns ihe ar- 
rived from the subject matter of the Works and Days. frolT'ihe Jiucr. 
If there be, further, reason for regarding the passage 
V. 724 ad /f».(44) as older than the chief part of the 
poem, the argument gathers strength, since certain 
forms noted as rare in the previous portion occur fre- 
quently in this. 

them no nom. masc. of the form ticnora ijnvTa, save the conventional epithets of 
Zeus BVQVonu itritisxcc vs(psl7}ysQitcc, The contractions ficcatXstg and PozQvg 
(v. 248, 263, 61 1 ) are opposed to Homeric usage ks regards those words, althongh 
Yfeht^vt iuUomer tnnsis nsXi^sig&nd Sgvg acc.plur. (^.151, ^.851, ^.494,9^.118). 
The versatile adjective nolvg novXvg noXXog is reduced to fewer varieties. The 
article in one passage occurs with its full force of contrasting persons or things 
with filv and 91 in a clause. It is v. 287 — 9 

f^v iisv rot xaxoTi^TCK aal iXudov ^ariv IXicd'ai 
QTiiUCtx^g* XsCri filv 696g, fiaXa 9' iyyv^i vaCn. 
T^ g 9' ciQBtqg C^qAxoc d^sol x. t. X. 

43 Thus is the 14'** century, whilst Chaucer inflected the verh Ho ]ove\ in 
the pres. indie, I love, Thou lovest, He loveth, We, Ye, They loven. Barhour in 
Scotland wrote uninflexionally I, Thou, He loves, We, Ye, Hi (they) loves, and 
John de Trevisa, rector of Berkeley in Gloucestershire , in the sing, as Chaucer, 
bat in the plur. , We loveth, ye loveth, they loveth. Craik*s Engl, Lang, pp. 88, 
93. For this and some other English illustrations I am indebted to the Rev^. T. 
W- Norwood of Cheltenham. 

44 It is likely that such a calendar would have been among the earliest fruits 
of observation or of superstition, and that the rules of ceremonial propriety, which 
precede the calendar, are a highly venerable tradition. They will bear compar- 
ison with some of those laid down by Moses, or to which, already perhaps tradi- 
tional, he gave a sanction. The many proverbs and saws scattered in single lines, 
couplets and triplets up and down the poem, may possibly have even in their pre- 
sent form a higher antiquity than any single rhapsody of the Iliad. They, doubt- 
less, came down in some rude rhythm from father to son amid a rustic population, 
and would have been easily gathered by the poet from their lips for the benefit of 
the *'much mis^ided Perses**. 



XXX PREFACE. 

PART I XXX. But the Homeric word-forms derive some fur- 

As also does *^^^ Confirmation from the Hymns, in popular phrase 
that of the Ho- "Homeric^^, which date however, the bulk of them, as is 
Hmni*^"* *^*"*^^ clear from internal evidence, from a period when the 
rhapsodists' art had become little else than a handicraft 
of rules and phrases. We shall not far err in placing 
most of them with Mure at various intervals in the two 
centuries which terminate with the ascendancy of Pisi- 
stratus. That to Ceres is probably not older than the com- 
mencement of Solon's period, that to Pan is probably as late 
as the year of Marathon. " The blind old man of Scio's rocky 
isle" had become a conventionahV/^^^o, and the personality 
which he assumes in the Delian Hymn is strikingly con- 
trasted with the non-personal tone of his genuine works. 
The occurrence of the name Peloponnesus also marks a post- 
Homeric age. In all, altliough least in that to Ceres, there 
is a want of independence of diction, a perpetual tagging 
of Homeric phrase, sometimes queerly perverted from the 
Homeric use of it. All show an absence of lofty conception 
or powerfully marked individualityof character, a striving 
after petty effects, and an overdevelopment of accessories 
for the sake of their symbolic or mystical bearing, which 
marks the day when genius had left the epic vehicle to 
priestcraft. Owing to the sacro-festive element in the 
Greek mind, these Hymns were abundantly popular apart 
from the question of their merits (as) ; but they are import- 
ant as belonging to the period to which the first crude 
shape of a written text of Homer has above been 
ascribed ; and they carry down a living epic strain, how- 
ever shallowed and dwindled from its original volume, 
far into historic times. In them may be observed nearly 
the same retrenchment from the Homeric word-forms 
which was noticed as prevailing in the Works, whilst 
they are stiU more barren in some special forms, as 

45 They compare in this respect poorly with the lay of Deraodocus in the 
Ody. d". 266 foil., which is in the nature of a Hymn to Hephtestus (Mure II. ii. 
XX, § 2,), and even with a large portion of the "Shield of Hercules": they 
are, however, in close keeping with some of the legends in the Theogouy, which, 
indeed, might he viewed as an introduction to them. The Delian Hymn has been 
ascribed to Cynsethus or some other rhapsodist of Chios (ibid, p. 338}. 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. xxxi 

the case-endings in -rjipL -ofpt^ in the reduplicated part i 

aorist; and in the S*^** plural perf. and pluperf. pass, foniis 

in -atav -aro, save such as are expressly borrowed from 

Homer. They show a still greater fluctuation of the di- Heasons why 

/ \ rni • r I 111 ' r J. *^^*® Hymns are 

gamma (46). Ihe epic cast of language had become in tact imporiam \o the 
conventionalized, and they rather imitate Homer than p'^^^*^"^ «>^8«- 
create m his style, and rather repeat him, than imitate 
him. But, as regards our argument on his word-forms, 
they are highly valuable, because they show, as those 
word-forms through later speech became altered, what 
form the alteration took. They seem to exhibit in con- 
junction with Hesiod how the standard of epic diction 
gradually declined. If it had been flattened down into 
conventionalism by perpetual recitation, we should n(.t 
trace the difterences which now occur. As it is, primitive 
characteristics are thrown out in relief, and we rest as- 
sured that even the decomposing influences of writing, 
however early they may be assumed to have begun, have 
so far spared the archaic features as* to allow us to re- 
cognise the genuine style. If we continued to believe on 
other evidence than the language, tLat Homer, Hesiod 
and these Hymns belonged to dift'erent periods, then uni- 
formity, if found, would imply debasement. The extent 
to which the Homeric type recedes from the Hesiodic, 
and this from that of the Hymns, confirms on the con- 
trary the substantially primitive character of the former ; 
and this must form my excuse for having led the reader 
so far into matter which is, properly speaking, extraneous 
to the subject. 

XXXI. Mr. Gladstone Jias remarked on the tendency i''>« rhapsodiMs 
which the matches and prisfes of bards at solemn public creek ca!roihe7 
gatherings would have in checking corruptions (47 ) . I ha v e 
hinted above, and hope further on to show more fully, why 

46 Baumeister in his ed. of the Hy. Leipsic i860, p. 187, remarks on the author 
of the Hy. to Mercury, "d^mma non novit sed aliquot locis exempla Homeri 
secutus eas voces in hiatu positas habet, imprimis ot et kgya *\ In that to Ceres v. 
37 the f is lost in k'lmg, cf. Ody. w. loi, t. 84, in (v. 66) d'$sC, cf. q, 308, 454, and 
in (vv. 430, 440, 492) avaj «ind avotaaa. Some departures from the Homeric stand- 
ard in word-forms are also noticed by Baumeister ub, sup. p. 278. 

47 Gladst. I. i, p. 56. 



xxxii PREFACE. 

BART I I think that they would not equally check interpolations; 
but ihcir influ- ^^* *^^y would Qudoubtcdly tend to preserve the word- 
encc. wholesome foruis in their pui'ity. Local and dialectical peculiarities 
"^a!^ CTaduluy "^^ould bear witness against each other, and traditional 
lost as liicraiuie usagc would prcvcnt thosc forms which were independ- 
advaiiceii. ^^^ ^j. ^y dialcct froHi being warped in a dialectic direc- 

tion. If for instance a Dorian rhapsodist had recited 
with the p final instead of the <r, as in TtatQ^ rorp for 
jrafg, rotg{4^)^ or if an Attic one had substituted closed 
for open syllables; there is little doubt that such a liberty 
would have been resisted by his compeers. Yet it may 
contrariwise be also supposed that forms not retained in 
any known dialect would tend to drop out of use, and 
others to be tacitly substituted for them. Where the 
bond of the metre allowed such substitution, the tend- 
ency must be admitted as real; and the influence of a 
written text, when that came into extensive use, would 
concur with it. We should set off against ihis the influence 
of the 1 hapsodists, who in the time of Plato (49) had grown to 
be contemned by the cultivated minds of the day, and were 
probably men of the people holding fast a popular tradi- 
tion with a class feeling, while their cultivated despisers 
would have wished to improve them out of it. Whatever 
influence they could exercise on the copies which were in 
circulation, would probably be in favour of the early and 
genuine features of the text (50), and this perhaps is all 
that can be said. The rhapsodists' art does not seeiA to 
have come down to the Alexandrine period, or if it did, it 
had sunk so far in esteem as to be set aside in silent con- 
te^lpt. We hear universally of copies, and not of men. 

48 See the early Peloponnesian Monuments in Boeckh vol. I passim, 

49 In G rote's Greece I. i. xxi. p. 521 , there is an attempt to show that the 
rhapsodists were unduly depreciated by Plato's followers. Still, that estimate of 
them is probably to be taken as an index of opinion current in the more cultivated 
Athenian society, and would probably be influential far beyond the limits of 
Athens. Tlie rhcipsodists had done good work in their time, and for this probably 
Plato did not make sufficient allowance; but their apparently complete extinction 
within a century from Plato's time seems to show that their work was done , and 
that they were even then becoming effete. 

50 Tovg ydc^ rot gaxlJcoSovg olSec ta filv ^nrj aTtgL^ovvrag ccvtovg Si ndvv 
rilid'LOvg ovxag. Xeu. Meinor. IV. 2, 10. 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. xxxiii 

XXXII. But before the rhapsodisf d art had fallen part i 
thus low; it had had contributed something more than a notice of ear- 
oral recitation to preserve the text of Homer. On page 'y Homeric com- 
Lviii foil.; among the names of the Ante-Zenodotean com- of them probably 
mentators, appear those of several from the time of Pi- rhapsodisis, who 

,T , , ,. «, attest the poet's 

sistratus downwards, who wrote in explanation of the paramount influ- 
poet. Their labours were doubtless for the most part encedowntoPia- 
hermeneutical rather than critical; but as most of those 
between Theagehes the earliest, and Aristotle, who with 
two of his disciples edited or revised the Iliad and Odys- 
sey, were themselves probably rhapsodist8(s»), and as one 
of them, Antimachus, was a poet, we can hardly doubt 
that their feeling woul4 have been against the influence of 
transcribers. At any rate, in their hands the oral and the 
written text could hardly fail of being turned to some ac- 
count as useful checks upon each other; and as they 
flourished over a wide geographical area, from Rhegium 
in the southwest to Lampsacus in the north-east, a con- 
siderable variety of tradition may be supposed to have 
been embodied in their works. If any attempted to deal 
critically with the text, and we can hardly suppose that 
Aristotle's dto(>'9'a)ats was wholly without this element (s*), 
they probably did so on subjective grounds. At the same 
time they could hardly fail to accumulate materials for the 
better informed judgment of a later day. And as Plato, 
who flourished only a century before Zenodotus, mentions 
the names of several of them (53), and those not the most 
eminent of the number, there is little doubt that most of their 
works reached Aristarchus, who came sixty years later, and 

51 Lebrs regards these early Homeric glossographists as rhapsodists (Diss. i. 
p. 46). They wrote brief elementary explanations of difficult words. 

52 His acuteness could hardly have failed to notice the fact of existing varia- 
tions and the importance in some passages of their difference as regards the sense. 
But the time was not ripe for such investigations. As regards his interpretation 
Lehrs says (p. 50) ^*ad Homerum explicandum attulisse Aristotelem quod doctiori 
»vo alicujus momenti videretur, nee exempla quae ;ad manum sunt, nee Alexan- 
drinorum silentium credere patitur**. As an ex. of his emendation Lehrs says, 
'^nescivit explicare ^sog av^risaaa, quare conjecturasubstitnit ovdiisacuj t.tf. quae 
in terris domicilium habet (ibid) ^\ 

53 loh. p. 530. C. D. (this dialogue seems of doubtful genuineness, but was at 
any rate probably the work of a disciple); cf. Xenoph. Memorab. IV. i, 10. 

HOM. OD. I. V^ 



reached Aristar- 
chas. 



xxxiv PREFACE. 

PART I were included, so far as he cared to include them, in the 
apparatus criiicus which he employed. At this period or 
earlier, special names, as ^'the aQLOtata of Diomedes'' (s4), 
appear to have been already given to distinct portions of 
the Iliad, and, no doubt, the Odyssey also enjoyed a si- 
milar arrangement. Between Pisistratus and Plato Ho- 
mer was the ruling influence in intellectual Grreece. Phi- 
losophy then awoke to divide with him the empire of 
mind. But nowhere is the influence of his poetry more mar 
The influence of ^jf^g^ ^^j^ j^ Herodotus(5S), unlcss it be in Plato himself. 

statesmen, of pu* • \ // 

biic feeiinjT, and XXXIII. It has been mentioned that Homer was a 
of individual text-book of instruction for boys, and enjoyed in thatre- 

rhapsodists, on c n \ * t 

I he text, and the spcct a better chaucc of careful , supervision than most 
question as to pQ^^s. Hc wa& also a public care to eovemments in many 

the antiquity of^. i/.ii i, .. i 

the copies which citics of Grcccc, who tollowcd Or perhaps anticipated 
the example set by Pisistratus (5^). Statesmen, however, 
only concentrated and methodized the attention which 
the irregular but more sweeping influence of national 
enthusiasm secured to him. Wherever a rhapsodist of 
considerable fame had flourished, his readings would 
probably be accepted by his citizens, and adopted as 
the standard text; and in this way most of the more 
famous men who had lived by Homer and for him, would 
probably leave their impress on his works, and contri- 
bute positive testimony to be sifted by future gramma- 
rians. Those grammarians undoubtedly laboured under 
a deficiency of what Colonel Mure calls "black- 
letter scholarship^^ in the more flourishing period of li- 
terature. An anecdote, which Diogenes La^rtius has 

54 Herod. II. 1 1 6. 

55 Mure (IV. App. Q.) has collected the passages in Herodotus which directly 
reflect the language of Homer, but the subtle penetration of his matter by Ho- 
meric thought is not to be measured by so broad a standard. 

56 Conversely Clisthenes, the tyrant of Sicyon, is said (Herod. V. 67)' to have 
forbidden the competitive recitation of Homer in that city. Mr. Grote thinks 
(I. p. 514 note i) that the prohibition related to the ThebaU and the Epigani 
ascribed to the poet; Mr. Gladstone argues (I. i. p. 50) that the prominence given 
to Argos in the Iliad would provoke the jealousy of a despot even more. Certainly 
th6 subject matter recited seems to be of less importance than the public con- 
course and those national sentiments which it would stimulate, save in so far as 
the most popular lay would tend to produce that effect in the highest degree. 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. xxxv 

preserved^ bears on the point. "How^% enquired the part i 
poet Aratus, who professed criticism, "could one come 
by an tin vitiated text of Homer?'' Timo answered him, 
"If one could meet with the ancient copies, and not those 
now-a-days corrected'' (57). The tone of irony of this re- 
ply seems to indicate the hopelessness of any such quest. 
Yet, still as a good parchment will easily outlast its cen- 
tury (58), and as the expense of copying a work of i2,ocx5 
lines would operate to check destruction before it was 
worn out, it is probable that a fourth or even a third 
transcript from a Pisistratid archetype of the Iliad or 
Odyssey may have reached Zenodotus. "^^ *^*!' ^J* 

XXXIV. We come now to the question of the matter text would haye 
of the text. How far would it have been liable to sab- ^''f «P"«d to 

1 . fv o t , . . ,1 subsbtution or 

stitution or to mterpolation ? Such substitution as would interpolation. 
alter the facts of the story, would not have been easy 
everfin the earliest days of recitation, since the want of 
coherence with the rest of the known text would pro- 
bably have betrayed it. And this holds good to some 
extent even of an isolated rhapsody recited at an obscure 
local gathering; but much more so when we take the 
case of numerous rhapsodies and recitations, kept u:p 
perhaps for several days together, and that at the more 
celebrated centres of population and political life. Yet, 
within this limit it is by no means improbable that a 
passage may have been frequently recast; and that thus 

57 wcoff riiv'Ofbi^QOv noCriatv iaq>aX6g -nzriaano , , , si ro^g iqxaCoig dpuygct- 
(poig kvzvy%avoi %al (t^ toig Tjdrj diaQ&cniiivoig. Diog. Laert. IX. 113, ap. Wolf. 
Prolegg. xxxix. 

58 The argument is indeed, if anything, considerably understated. There 
are many remote rural parishes of England with parchment registers intact and 
legible from the time of Elizabeth, in a climate more adverse to such preseryation 
than that of the shores of the Mediterranean. What would have been the cost in 
the time of Pericles or of Aristotle of a single such ditpd-SQU as would contain a 
hundred hexameter lines? Probably, if we include the copyisVslabour, not less than 
12 drachmsB. Consequently 1440 dr., or over £50 present value would be needed 
for 13,000 lines. Copies of Wicklifife's translation of the Bible are said to have 
been sold for £40 each — a much greater sum, if we take into account the change 
in the value of money since then. But, although papyrus was a cheaper and more 
perishable material than skin, it is likely that in the case of Homer a sufficient 
number of copies on the more durable substance would have been transmitted to 
Aristarchus even without the conservative influence of "black-letter scholarship". 



in a less degree. 



xxxvi PREFACE. 

PART I to ^dd polish to the original work may have been during 
one period, and that no short one, an object of successful 
ambition to the rhapsodists. Allowing free play for the 
ordinary tendencies of the human mind, it seems more 
likely that* among a people of lively genius, like the 
Athenian, applause would have been sought by such ori- 
ginality as was not debarred by the conditions of the 
work, than by a fidelity to the supposed fixed tradition 
of a textus non scriptus. Moreover, it takes some time 
for such tradition to become fixed. Before that time love 
Athens would of uovclty would almost certainly preponderate, and such 
them*^\ ^kI attempts at innovation, as did not violate the sequence 
and Sparta of the story, would probably carry the popular voice 
with them. On the other hand, at Sparta and in Pelo- 
ponnesus generally the tendency would probably be con- 
servative. Of native poets there, save lyric (59), during 
the period down to Pisistratus, we do not hear. Tradi- 
tion asserts that the poetry of Homer was introduced by 
Lycurgus from Crete — a statement which means under 
that venerable name probably to designate an early act 
of the Spartan government. The poetry must have come 
in the person of a rhapsodist. Sparta in her early period 
freely imported poets (60)^ and as the universal vehicle of 
poetry was song or recitation, a rhapsodist would be 
necessary. But as Crete had early enjoyment of the sea, 
and therefore probably of Egyptian intercourse, a MS. 
may not improbably have accompanied the rhapsodist. 
The statements XXXV. If Homcr was thus introduced by thegovem- 
sirttuT'rL on Btt^iit, it is nearly certain that his text would be jealously 
authority of too watchod from the popular tampering of reciters. It 
receWed*Mvr^n might bc mutilatcd or interpolated, if the government 
broad greneraii- thought it had any interest in either (61), but such political 

ties. 

59 And of the so-called '^Dorian" lyrists the majoritj were ^olians or 
lonians by birth: seeMuller'sZ^ortanf vol. II. p. 381 foil. (TufnelPs and Lewis* transl.) 

60 Tyrtseus of Athens and Alcman of Sardis are instances, and but for his 
objectionable character, Archilochus would probably have been received there. 
Mure speaks (III. p. 144) of Lacedemon as being at his '^period the great mart for 
poetical commodities**. 

61 "Ecprepes the Ephor, on observing that the lyre of Phrynis had two 
striagg more than the allowed number, immediately cut them out.** MUUer*8 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. xxxvii 

chicane would be transparent at the first view. Sparta part i 
and Athens would probably represent the opposite ex- 
tremes of fixedness and variation; and this fact at 
any rate we may suppose Pisistratus would have re- 
cognized, if he had had a -mind prepared to enter- 
tain such questions. The Spartan government may have 
given him, since his family had hospitable relations with 
them, the benefit of their copy; for they would almost 
certainly by his time have possessed one, if not in that 
"of Lycurgus". But whether he would have known 
what value to attach to it is very doubtful, and not very 
important. There is great probability that eith^ in 
their copy obtained from Crete, or in that from Argos, 
the Alexandrines possessed what might represent the 
assumed Spartan MS. or its archetype; 'and most likely 
its characteristics would not have been lost by the year 
250B.C., the strongjealousy of independence between city 
and city operating as a safeguard of textual peculiarities. 
As regards the action of Pisistratus on the text, the 
Attic tradition has probably attached too much weight to 
it, Later authorities than Cicero insist on finding in the ^^^^ ^*g^"* 
Pisistratic era the literary activity of the Ptolem»an(62). 
The absurdity of this would be plain, even if the later form 
of the tradition did not diverge into an anachronism (63), 
which makes any reliance on the detail of its allegations 
impossible. Yet, taken in the most general outline merely, 
it amounts to this, that Pisistratic research extended to all 

Dorians vol. II. p. 335. From this specimen of imperious preciseneBS we may cal-» 
cnlate how far they wonld he likely to tolerate corruptions of a text which was 
government property. 

62 The words are iw^ffv^sv (Ilsit^iSTQatog) iv nd^fj t§ '^lla^i tov ^xpvrtc 
'OfifiQtiiovg cxi%ovg ay ay siv fCQog avtov, inl fipcd-A aQiafisvat %a^' hiaHTOv 
atC%ov, Villoison e Dionys. Thra. Anecdota Gr, II. p. 182. 

63 The anachronism in question is that out of the 72 or, according to 
Allatius, 70 grammarians, to whom was committed the rehahilitation of Homer by 
Pisistratus, were two whose collection and arrangement were allowed by all the 
rest to have excelled, and that these two were Ari-starchus and Zenodotus ! Wolf 
on the number mentioned remarks, ^^Aristese fabulam audis de LXXn interpret!* 
bus Bibliorum"; so Villoison uh. sup. p. 183 n. i. Gr&fenhan GescMchte der Pfdlo- 
logie sect. 54 — 64 voL I. ;p. 266—31 1 is cited, Grote*s Hist. Or, vol.1, p. 539 note, as 
giving a summary of the facts of the case as regards the rec«Tv«vQiL\)^ Vve^»Xx«^^^. 



xxxviii PREFACE. 

PABT I available quarters (64)^ and offered the most substantial in- 
ducement to all persons competent to ftiniish aid. Cicero's 
statement regarding Pisistratus shows that that -view was 
accepted in the schools at Athens in his day; but he is too 
remote from the peri od of which he testifies to carry weight 
on more than the most general statement. The notion of our 
inferring from him whether before Pisistratus a written 
text existed or not; is strange indeed. Onomacritus has 
come down to us as the name of Pisistratus' editor, coupled 
unfortunately with a charge of notorious interpolation (64). 
This may be taken, as an admission of the Attic school 
against itself, with less hesitation; whUst it has some 
value as showing that at that period some one was awake 
to the question of what was genuine Homer, and what 
spurious — a value which abides, whatever may become 
of the charge as against Onomacritus. 
The inierpoia XXXVI. In a crftical agc, newly conscious of becom- 

lions o( Onoma- ^ x i i /• 

ciitus probably ing 80, men are liable to the error of imputing to earlier 

resuUed in some ^„^^ ^J^g rCSUlts of the SamC aCCUmulatcd skill and ex- 
measure from *-' ^ 

the necessity of pericnce, which , in their own day, has originated 
ihe case. criticism. The value and criteria of evidence as be- 

tween different sources of authority, where to look and 
with what eyes to see, are things which time slowly 
teaches; but at first critics do not see why these gifts 
are not for every age. Hence literary gossips of the 
Alexandrine period heaped upon Pisistratus the gifts of 
research of a Ptolemy. The evidence of such research 
being wanting, what we learn of the character of Onoma- 
critus does not commend it to our belief. It is, however, 
not impossible that, after collecting all that was reputed 
Homeric, Pisistratus was obliged to find some one who 
could cement the material together. If the Corpus Home- 
ricum had be(5ome disjointed, and the separate members 
had, as it were, sprouted beneath the rhapsodists' hands, 
they might easily have become estranged from their 
former relation, and a new law of combination have been 
required to adjust them, involving the supply of connect- 

64 One of the lines alleged as his is I. 604, see the Harl. Schol. and Nitzsch 
ad loc. 



have des 
the 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. xxxix 

ing links — the exevi] in short implied in the title dia- part t 
ax€va'6t7Jg(^s). Probably an editor would have been in- 
competent, according to the standard of those days, who 
could not furnish haec ipsa ad mutiera gluten in sufficient 
quantities. This carries the Pisistratic recension a step 
farther than what was previously allowed, the enquiry 
viz. what was the text of Homer : but this next step would 
almost immediately follow from the answer to that enquiry 
being given: and if Pisistratus took stock of the existing 
material, it is not unlikely that his son Hipparchus 
should have thus followed out the work. 

XXXVIT. And yet all this while there may have been ^^^'' ^""'^^ 

/* A • 1 • • i?ni 1* *®*^®' ^^^*-'^ **** 

more periect texts out oi Attica than m it. Ihe literary the Athenian, 
splendor of Athens in a later day was able to ensure cur- ™*^ ?**^** 

,./,T^. . ^ f t cended to . 

rency to her claim for Pisistratus as the first known re- Alexandrines, 
viser of the text of Homer, and to obscure or obliterate 
the anticipative efforts of other cities, if any were 
made : and the genius of Cicero has perpetuated to her 
the advantage thus gained. But it is very likely, when 
we consider the long succession at an early age of 
considerable poets in Greek Asia, whose fragments 
testify to their love for Homer, that some earlier 
efforts were made there also to keep or to recover 
a standard text. The more inevitable does this view 
become in proportion as we suppose theii* Asiatic posi- 
tion to have earlier diffused among them the knowledge 
of the art of writing. In Sparta and perhaps some other 
Dorian states it is likely that copies would have imbibed 
a far less amount of corruption, owing, as has been 
said, to the repression of rhapsodical licence by the state 
itself. Thus Athens and her Pisistratid diaskeuasts may 
have been after all seri studiorum in their textual efforts ; 
but in the names of several cities fromSinopS to Marseilles, 
which furnished MSS. to the Alexandrines, we probably 
trace a legacy of the non- Attic traditions of the Homeric 

65 Quicunque hoc modo (by interpolation) genuinam carminum Homericorum 
formam corraperant dicebant Alexandrini ^Lccatisvactcig, Etenim quod nos solemus 
dicere interpolate vel quocunque modo genuinum textum scriptoris mutare, hoc a 
Gnecis Grammaticis proprio vocabulo dicitur diaCKSvuisiv. Lehrs p. 349, who 
there cites from the Schol. Venet. many examples of this use of the word. 



XL PREFACE. 

PART I text. As regards interpolations or substitutions, there 
all carrying alike ^^ "^^^^^ doubt that those found by Pisistratus and his 
iheir interpoia- diaskcuasts in the text , as well as those in any contem- 
as in (he absence porary non- Attic texts, would mostly remain there ] as it 
of criiicism, was ^as Certainly safest that they should, when we consider 
most 10 be wis - ^^^^ crfticism as yet was not. From the specimen of 
critical acumen shown by no less an authority than Thu- 
cydides, in reckoning the Hymn to Apollo as a genuine 
Homeric work, we may rate thePisistratic discrimination 
of a century earlier sufficiently low. Those revisers would 
probably have no suspicions where the passage presented 
no conflict with any other part of the known text: where 
they had suspicions, their capacity for applying a critical 
test is very doubtful; and where no solution occurred to 
them, they would almost certainly act on the maxim 
that "retention was safer than exclusion'\- And thus 
many passages, which Alexandrine criticism subsequently 
removed, may have cumbered their rhapsodies, and, 
through the vulgate which they, as we suppose, origin- 
ated, may have become for a while currently accepted in 
Greece (66). 
iMierpoiaiioM XXXVIII. Interpolations are Ukely to have been 
|"eriod*'wcTe pro- i^ost frcqucut in the earliest age, and at no period very 
babiy least no- j-^re, whilc rccitatiou lasted. Cyiwethus is distinctly 
numerous, "™°* charged with interpolating his own verses in his recita- 
tions at Syracuse ; Onomacritus, we have seen,- may have 
felt himself compelled by the necessity of his position to 
interpolate iat Athens, and Solon before him was taxed 
with a similar licence for a -political purpose. As re- 
gards the ante-Solonian period, if we endeavour to 
judge the question m the spirit of the primitive age 
of poetry, we shall see that the fraudulent essence 
of interpolation vanishes, although its effects remain. 
The song, I should conceive, was everything, and the 
poet little or nothing in those days. The poet found his 
account in the office of reciter; and this, after the song 

66 This would help to account for the various passages mentioned or alluded 
to by Wolf Prolegg. § xi, n. 7, as quoted by Plato, Aristotle and others from the 
Homer of their day, which are not found in our present text; without supposing 
that they mean to quote some other poem than the Iliad or Odyssey as Homeric. 



PAKT I. GENERAL VIEWS. xlI 

had lost its first freshness, would tend to obliterate dis- part i 
tinctions of authorship. The question, whose was the .n^ some of con- 
producing mind, was of barren interest and slender prac- siderabie size 
tical importance for those who were absorbed in the ob- pa*rlbiy Idhlrld. 
jective product. Thus the principle of suum cuique 
would obtain no homage. It was open to all who would, 
to sing the mighty deeds of ancient men. They were 
national property; the heir-loom of the Greek mind 
rather than the trophies of individual genius. All 
matched — there was no sense of trespass where all was 
publici juris, no animus decipiendi in the imitator, adaptor 
or interpolator, no suspicious sagacity in the public. 
Frauds, forgeries and literary detectives belong alike to a 
later age. Indeed the only form in which the critical 
faculty could exercise itself in that period was by allying 
itself with the creative. If a thonght seemed tame or an 
expression poor; the reciter who had the power would 
criticise by devising a new version; and if thus roused 
to try an original flight, he would decide the question 
whether or not to incorporate it by his poetical sense 
how far it matched and relieved the existing lay. If it 
be improper to say that interpolation and recasting is 
the oldest form of criticism; yet in this stage of mental 
progress one and the same germ involves the critical 
with other faculties, which afterwards are found to shoot 
different ways. Thus there could have been little in the 
modes of thought at that early period. to prevent the song 
of one man being taken up with additions by another (67). 
The feeling of profound reverence for Homer was neces- 
• sarily of far later growth than his own day. A rhapsodist, 
endowed with poetical gifts, would be warmed probably 
by the act of reciting, to unite his own out-flow with the 
stream which he transmitted; and would not have felt 
his genius dwarfed and rebuked by the juxtaposition. 

67 Let us consider how at a late? day Virgil borrowed of Ennius and Lucre- 
tins, Ovid of Catnllus, and all of them impartially of the Greek, nay in our own li- 
terature how the legend of King Lear went through the hands of VTace, Layamon, 
Robert of Gloucester and others, and was actually dramatized and put on the 
stage by an anonymous author within ten years of its being produced by Shak- 
speare before King James I in 1604. On the argument here and in XXXIX see 
Wolf Prplegg. § xxv. 



XLii PREFACE. 

PART I Where such additions were in the spirit of the original^ 
and of a date not far removed, - it might happen 
that they would pass undetected into the corpus Homeri- 
cumy and defy the criticism of later days. It is not 
likely that any large member of an epic whole, such as 
an entire rhapsody, could so have been added without 
having excited suspicion when criticism was finally 
awakened ; but many passages of from 50 to 100 lines 
may lurk in the text of Homer, which were from a dis- 
tinct source; and may have so completely coalesced with 
it as to have established their position. Those by whom 
the criticisms of Lachmann and W. MuUer are accepted, 
will of course as readily suspect whole rhapsodies. But 
I have no confidence in the criteria which they pro- 
pound, and think they may have often mutilated the 
body, for once that they have removed an accretion. 

XXXIX. With regard to short passages of one or of 
a few lines, it may be that there are several hundred 
such due to later authors than the original bard. Such 
short interpolations would be the readiest way of impart- 
ing a finish to whatever seemed left undeveloped before : 
and for a long period whatever enhanced the fulness of 
the image presented to the mind, or left on the ear in 
any close a better-balanced cadence of syllables, would 
ceives compie- |^^ acccptcd for its own sakc irrespectively of authority. 

mentary senlen- * , ■*•, " ,'' 

ces easily, and The structure 01 Homeric sentences is such that the m- 
a sympaiheiic ggrtion or cxtcnsion of a supernumerary clause ad libitim 

hand mig-ht es i-iip n ^^ 

cape detection, is a Complement which they often gracefully bear; run- 
but Interpol a^ niuff, as thcv do, loosely and at lar^e, like the heroic cha- 

tions with an end o' . , n i • i • 

to serve would riot-tcam with its Tta^YioQoi LTtTtOL. And in this way even . 
betray them- f^licitous touchcs mav somctimcs have been added by A 

selves, •' ^ •' 

sympathetic hand. And when this took place, a popular 
rhapsodist, winning prizes in every city by turns, might 
easily succeed in establishing his additions as gratifying to 
the uncritical ear. It seems at the present day hardly worth- 
while to trouble one's self or the reader with conjectures 
on such questions. One must in a matter of such anti- 
quity be content to a great extent to accept what one 
finds. On the other hand, additions designed to glorify 
particular houses or cities, or to favour special institu- 



The Homeric 
structure re- 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. xLiii 

tions^ or which bore the stamp of a given epoch , would part i 
betray themselves. There can be little doubt that 
such fungi yielded a copious crop to the pruning 
knives of the earlier critics, and to a great extent justi- 
fied the slashing expurgatorial zeal of Zenodotus. The 
probability of their existence is the best excuse for his 
excesses, from which, as we shall further see, the more 
discerning forbearance of his successors recoiled. But the 
distinction between disallowing and excising passages 
shows that strongsuspicions often existed, where a verdict n.^^^ bTIf ft 
of non liquet was the only safe course ; and in a similar de- doubtful , some 
cision we in the present day must in the greater number ™y^the^ Ithkai 
of cases be content to acquiesce. There is indeed one test, 
test which, I think, has hardly been hitherto sufficiently 
recognized — that of the congruity of the debateable 
passage with the '^d^og of the speaker, a point in which 
our feeling of Homeric character is often a safer guide 
than grammarian scruples; and on this ground I have 
endeavoured here and there to vindicate — with what 
success the reader must judge — passages which have 
laboured under, 1 think, unjust suspicion hitherto (68). 

XL. The ancient critics who believed in the separate Anciem xf^Qi- 
authorship of the Iliad and Odyssey obtained the name modern tmitatm's. 
of xaQiiovreg, as " separating '' what had by the voice t^^ "o^'o'* of » 

o • J. Ti* r J A number of de- 

of previous tradition been pronounced one. Among tached poems co- 
modem critics not only has this view been held, but aiescing: imo an 
the substance of each poem has been believed to con- I^ainsT Jlrobabl- 
sist of a patchwork, or cento of epic scraps, which had ^ity» 
accumulated round two great centres of heroic song. 
Thus Lachmann(69) has divided the Iliad into sixteen 
such fragments. Minute differences of word-forms, 
phrases, and grammatical manner, as also of costume, 
religion, moral tone and sentiment, have been relied on 
in support of these views, while the grand argument 

68 See the notes on a. 356-— 9, S. 353 and App. E. 8 (3) note **, 6, 511. 

69 In the Proceedings of the Berlin Academy for 1 843 an article of his wishes 
to reckon the wounding of Agamemnon, Diomedes and Odysseus as prior to the 
sending the embassy to Achilles, in the conception of the poet of book XIX. He 
builds this on the word x^iiov in T. 141, 195, which is precisely one of the in- 
accuracies referred to p. ix. sup. a^ characterizing a long unwritten poem. 



xLiv PREFACE. 

PART I in favour of unity, which arises from the ethical indi- 
andisrefatedby viduality of cach character, not only throughout each 
the unity of the pocm, but whcrever the same character appears in the 
fers?**^ ^ "^^ *w^ poems, has been overlooked. Of such critics it 
may be said that they verborum minutiis rerum frangunt 
pondera. But before touching on this it may be re- 
marked, that the Iliad and the Odyssey are the sole 
survivors of a wide circle of poems of which the rest 
have perished. How late those others survived is in 
most cases doubtful; but some of those ascribed to 
Homer came down certainly to the age of Aristotle; 
one of them, or a large portion of it, to that of Pau- 
sanias. In course of time these also perished, but the 
Iliad and the Odyssey survive and seem imperishable. 
This alone is a strong presumption in favour of their 
superior merit. Neither the ancient nor the modem 
world would let them die. But they let everything else 
of similar pretension die. Surely then it is imlikely 
that such a robust vitality as these poems exhibit could 
have been derived from such a fortuitous concurrence 
of epic atoms as the critics of that persuasion (70) believe. 
It is easy to believe in one mind of towering grandeur, 
and in its creations as permanent, while those of others 
perished. It is not easy to believe in ten or a dozen 
such; it is not so easy to believe in two such; although 
as regards the question of mere duality of authorship, 
the argument has less weight. Again, it is not easy 
to believe that ten or a dozen bards could have so 
sunk all idiosyncrasy as, when united, to appear one (71). 

70 In France the notion that the Odyssey and Iliad were each a congeries of 
poems was first started circa 1720 by Hedlin and Perrault. They were answered 
by Bolleau and Dacier. CasaubonandBentley (see above p.V.note6) favoured the 
same view, and were alleged by Wolf {Prolegg. § xxvi, note 84) as his own pre- 
decessors in the theory. Vico, as Dr. Friedlftnder says (I. p. a), had gone much 
farther than either of these last, but Wolf seems not to have known of him. All 
these, however, hazarded the assertion merely; to Wolf belongs the merit, what- 
ever it may be, of endeavouring to find a scientific ground for it (ibid, p. 4). 

71 Payne Knight has given from Fabricius, who rests on Suidas and others, 
a list of over twenty titles of poe^IS, said to have borne Homer> name. They are 
the Hymns to Apollo and other deities, the Epigrams, the Batrachomyomachia, 
the Contest (of Homer and Hesiod), the Goat with seven lengths of hair, the 



PAET I. GENERAL VIEWS. xlv 

The same character, as drawn by different hands, could part i 
not have had the coherency which we see it has. Nor 
would the work, so compounded, have had as much 
wholeness of colour and symmetry of movement as we 
perceive in the Homeric poems. In the first place, the 
more ample and powerful each such supposed genius is, 
the more original and self-possessed will its conceptions 
be, and the wider the range within which divergencies 
will be manifested. In the next, we must guard ourselves 
from viewing these poems •& the first rough samples of a stiu Homer is 
mere powerful genius wholly untrained. Such fully in «u probability 
moulded forms and such versatility of adventure, by the previous pro- 
complexity of the notions which they present, show, as has ^^^*' 
been hinted above (p.xviii), that not a few of those steps 
forward had already been taken by which an oral litera- 
ture forms itself. We recognize an age of vast pro- 
lific power, and one which, freely imbibing the external 
stimulants of war, locomotion and commerce, had left 
very far behind that initial stage of human progress 
in which uniformity prevails, because minds, cannot es- 
cape into diversity, until growth, pushing different ways, 
has developed it. Homer is not then, in my opinion, the 
symbol for a series of minds 5 but he may be viewed as 
the last term in a series, greater than all which had pre- 
ceded it(7»). But the longer the period of development 

Arachnomachia, the Geranomachia, the Psaromachia, the Cercopes, the Margites, 
the Epithalamia, the Epicichlides, the Amazons, the Gnomse, the Iresione, the 
Capture of iBchalia, the Thebais, the £pigoni, the Cyprian poem (Herod. III. 117)) 
the Little Iliad, the Nosti, the Cycle (Prolegg, vi). The firist three are extant. 
The Goat and fiye following were humorous or satirical, and of those theMargites 
was belieyed by Plato and Aristotle (Alcib. II. p. 147c, Eik, Nicom, VI. 7) to be 
Homer^s own, and had a high reputation. Suidas ascribes it toPigres of Colophon. 
The Thebais was by Pausanias esteemed next after the II. andOdy. (BcBot.]^. J2g). 
72 It is likely that the Iliad from its more highly episodic character contained 
the result of earlier poets* efforts recast and incorporated. Such are the stories 
of the earlier generation by Glaucus, Phoenix and Nestor (Z. i ji foil., 1. 529 foil., 
A, 67 f foil.). It is possible also that some of the aQiatBiai represent what had 
been sung in shorter single flights before, by either Homer, or his predecessors, or 
both. Some of these have been urged in favour of the composite theory of the 
Homeric poems, as if added by a later hand. I believe the opposite to this to be 
the more correct way of viewing them. In the Odyssey the boar hunt of Autoly- 
CU8 may be viewed as a similar episode introduced at t. 394. 



xLvi PREFACE. 

PART I through which poetry had passed; the greater necessarily 
is the distance which separates the Homeric age from 
that of first crude poetic endeavour, where monotony of 
type predominates, where individuality may be supposed 
nearly colourless; and in which accordingly samples of 
different minds might match by virtue of indigenous re- 
semblance. 
The characters XLI. Ad regards the argument based on characters 
las and Men'eiaus Contained in the two poems, I must refer the reader to 
(App. £. 1. 4. 8) Appendix E, in which most #f those so contained have 
offer each an been examined at some length. Those of Odysseus and 
identity, Pallas, from their complex and multi-lateral type, are 

the characters most effective for the present argument. 
That of Menelaus is hardly lees valuable for the same 
purpose, because, although greatly simpler, its traits are 
in the Iliad subdued and overshadowed , while in the 
Odyssey they shine out with great prominence andiustre. 
The conditions are so different, that the identity, if it can 
be established, is the more decisive. And this indeed is 
to a less degree observable of nearly all the characters so 
contained. The analysis does not yield a coincidence of 
ethical points, nor show us the features at the same angle 
of vision; hut pro re wtf/rf foreshortened, dilated^ reduced 
or enhanced; or changed and mellowed, as it were from 
sunlight to moonlight. The identity which, I think, results 
duly modified by is the morc cogcut, bccausc it is relative to the circumstances 
the different cir- ^^^ proportioned to their demand upon the actor. There 

cumslances o{ ^ ^ * 

the two poems, is ouc character, that of Nestor, whose share in the action 
of the Odyssey was hardly large enough for the formal 
notice of an Appendix, but which may be more briefly 
noticed here, as bearing on this point of the argument. 
The turn given to it in the Odyssey has a felicity and 
ease, which speak the master's hand. The element se- 
lected for development there is the jovial one; which, ir- 
repressible even amidst the alarms of war, blooms out 
exuberantly in the "piping times of peace '\ How 
plainly the old gentleman has a will of his own, and with 
what emphatic heartiness, and what a flood of overbear- 
ing good-humour, it'makes itself felt, has been noticed in 
some of the notes to book y. and in some of the remarks 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. xLvii 

in App. E. 4. Yet this, although in the happiest keep- part i 
ing with the Nestor of the Iliad; is less broadly expressed 
in it. The character marches with the circumstances, 
just as in our acquaintance with a real person further ex- 
perience corrects and completes our first impressions of 

what he is. ^'<»*^ instance, 

Odvsdcus is S6* 

XLII. Among the exteraal agencies which modify conded by dio. 
character as between the two poems, the most powerful '"^^*^' '"* ^^^ *'•' 

.iTfT 1 1 p» 1 11 ^"^ '* without 

18, thdt m the Iliad we have a number of princes banded him in the Ody. 
under a chief who is primus inter pares. Such interaction 
of character as thence results is wanting in the Odyssey. 
Thus Odysseus in the Iliad has Diomedes as an alter ego, 
his subordinate and executive half. The few lines at the 
beginning of K, in which Nestor is described rousing them 
in the night to a council give an admirable epitome 
of character. Odysseus is a light sleeper, and rouses 
up at the voice (73), comes forth from his hut where he 
has slept, and, after exchanging a few words, goes in 
again to fetch his shield{74). Diomedes is a heavy sleeper, 
is found sleeping outside his hut with his armour and 
weapons at his side, is stirred up with a kick (75) and a 
rousing objurgation from Nestor, and at once takes his 
spear. So the sequel of the book proceeds ; and so also 
in other passages which contain both these heroes com- 
bined, Odysseus is still the shield and Diomedes the 
spear {i^). But in the Odyssey the two are separated, and 
this draws on Odysseus to be both shield and spear. But Tins circum- 
even thus, his courage is ever cool, his daring kept well hu"chJLiir^^ 

73 14 vTCvov dviysiQB FsgjjvLog innoxa NiatoaQ 

tp&syidiisvos* xov S' al^a ne(jl (pqivag ^Xvd' ^©jf. K. 138-9, cf. 148—9. 

74 ib, 150 foil. 

75.Xa| arodl %i,vr^Gag, mzQVvs th vsUsai t' oivttjv* 

"lyp€0, TvSios vts' zi ndvwxov vnvov acnTStg''; ib. 158— 9, cf. 178. 

76 This is that hero's favourite and distinctive weapon, as may be seen from 
the many combats in which he engages. With it he wounds Apphrodite, Aros, and 
in the funeral games Ajax. See also the characteristic line, R m, where he says, 
he will not retire, otpga TtaV'EnzcoQ iiaizai el %al ifiov Sogv ficcivszixi iv na- 
XdfijiCiVy which same phrase Achilles borrows when, enlarging on the crippled 
condition of the Greek host in the persons of certain prime warriors, he says, ov ydg 
TvdBidiaJiOfi'qSsog iv naXdiiriaLv fialvszat iyxeirj x.r.A. 71. 74— 5. Diome- 
des is xar' i^ox'^v the spearman of the host, at any rate in the absence of Achilles, 



xLviii PKEFAC E. 

PART I in hand, and his enterprise circumspect. The act in 
which he conies nearest to the dare-devil gallantry of 
Dfomedes , is his attempt to spear the monster Scylla, 
who, like Ares, is immortal. But would Diomedes have 
similarly withheld from his comrades his knowledge of 
the monster's haunt and habits? If not, this rather shows 
that when the two approach most closely there is a clearly 
marked zone of character which separates them. 
Payne Kniffhrs XLIII. Payuc Knight thinks the judicial sev^ty of 
11*^^6 r tihLal Odysseus upon Melanthius and the handmaids in the 
standard of book Qdysscy a trait unworthy of the same character in the 
m-foundcd. Iliad, and founds a "chorizontic'^ argument on this sup- 
posed inconsistency (77). But we have really no situation 
in the Iliad to furnish a test. The treatment of open 
enemies can never supply a standard for that of domestic 
traitors, especially in a servile position. The example 
of Roman manners as regards the open enemy, the re- 
volted ally and the servile criminal, will occur to every 
one. Waiving for a moment the question of authorship, 
let us suppose the two poems recited to the same Greek 
audience. Would any Greek down to the time of Plato 
have felt in the execution done in book %. a lapse below 
his heroic ideal? He might feel the two poems appealed 
in a different way to his moral feelings,, but would he 
experience in %- particularly a shock to his moral sensi- 
tiveness? I submit that there is no reason to think so. 

77 ^'In foedis istis et immanibus suppliciis quae Ulysses et Telemachus de ca- 
prario et miseris aliquot maliercalis sumunt, judicium limatius et liberalins desi- 
(lerandum est. Bellatores suos atroces, saevos et feroces exhibuit Iliadis auctor; 
sed a frigida ea ac tarda crudelitate quse odium duntaxat et nauseam pariat 
omnes abhorrent. Csede et sanguine hostium non cruciatibus inimicorum gaudent: 
neque Achillis tantum vel Diomedis, sed Ulyssis etiam, qualis in Iliaco carmine 
adumbratur, excelsior et generosior est animus quam ut in servos et ancillas see- 
vierit aut tarn yili et miserando sanguine ultionem vel iram placayerit ^^ (Payne 
Knight Prolegg. in Horn, § l J. The mention of Achilles and Diomedes here sug- 
gests the remark that the atrocious treatment of the corpse of Hector by Achilles, 
and the butchery by Diomedes of the sleeping Rhesus and his comrades, although 
not strictly in pari materia with the conduct of Odysseus to his revolted slaves, go 
far to redeem it from falling below the actual Homeric standard. The former 
sinks below the ideal of the poet himself, as shown by the interposition of the 
gods to stay the outrage on humanity, and especially by the line nwp^v yuQ Srf 
yoctav demi^H fisvBocivoiv SI. 54. 



PAET I. GENERAL VIEWS. xlix 

And if this be true, why are we to tax the poet for a part i 
moral standard so far transcending that of his audience^ 
and really borrowed not from the Iliad but from 
Christianity? I cannot think that sudi a topic would 
ever have crossed the mind of any of the x^xiQiiovtsg of 
the. heathen world. But I believe that the mistake has 
partly arisen from the objector not observing that the 
aspect of Odysseus in this scene, long foreseen and pre- 
pared for, and allying might at last with right, proceeds 
in a course of measured and graduated retribution (78). 
The suitors perish as becomes Achaean nobles, the female 
slaves are denied an honorable (xad'ccifdg) end and 
strangled, the renegade caught in overt treachery is 
hacked to death. We may surely compare the penalties 
of the mediseval and Elizabethan English law of treason 
and the studied atrocities of executions in ante-revolutio- 
nary France. How long is it since the world grew so ten- 
der-hearted as to let simple death suffice for the highest 
penalties, that we should assume the manners of the Iliad 
to include that degree of clemency? 

XLIV. The conduct and bearing of Pallas upon the plot ^^^ bcaringr of 

• X 1 1. 1 11 .11 !.«. . ^, the groddcss Pal- 

is, 1 believe, thought by some too widely dinerent in the us in the two 

Iliad and Odyssey. In the former it is said, she appears p®*"*** **** """^ 

as the fellow-combatant of the hero whom she befriends, cumsuntiai dif- 

and in the latter as his familiar spirit. This opinion is, faience. 

I believe, based on the prominence with which every 

reader recals the magnificent aQL6xsta of Diomedes and 

the formidable figure which the Amazon goddess there 

makes. That is suited to the warlike rj^og of the poem : at 

the same time, however, it is an extreme case, and even in 

the Iliad itself is necessarily exceptional. To have kept her 

in that degree of predominance would have overwhelmed 

the life of the battle-pieces in that poein, and robbed 

them of their human interest by theurgic intervention (79). 

78 See some remarks in App. £. i. (14) to a similar purport, ftttir which M^ere 
written before reading the remarks of Payne Knight. 

79 Compare some remarks on her function in the (tv7ict'qQO<povia' in App. 
E. 4 (8). We flo not feel this so much in book E. because the hostile presence of 
Ares on the Trojan side restores the balance ; and so in the combat of Hephaestus 
with the riyer Xanthus in $. 

HOM. CD. II. T> 



PKEPACE. 



PART I 



Certain objec- 
tions arecxamin- 
de founded part- 
ly on the lan- 
gruagre, 



As regards her other appearances in the Iliad, the mode 
in which she acts upon Pandarus in /i. 86 foil, is so pre- 
cisely similar to her repeated interferences under various 
eidola in the Odyssey, that, assuming the priority of the 
former poem, it may be said to be the precedent which 
they follow. Her action upon Odysseus in B. 169 foil., 
and previously upon Achilles in A, 197 foil., is very si- 
milar to her confidential commimications with Odysseus 
in V. 288 foil, and in it. 157 foil., in a disguise which she 
readily abandons, or which he easily penetrates. Her 
action against Hector in A^ 314 foil., complicated as it is 
with an appearance undisguised to Achilles, and again 
under an eidolon to Hector, contains at any rate the germ 
of her operation against the suitors in %. 205, 256, 273, 
297. Her greater familiarity ^ith the hero in the Odys- 
sey may be accounted for by her avowed preference for 
him, and by his greater isolation there. Nor is it dis- 
proportioned to their respective characters, that she 
should appear to Diomedes as his fellow-combatant, and 
to Odysseus chiefly as his politic counsellor. 

XLV. As regards the variation stated by Payne 
Knight in the forms of certain words in the Odyssey 
from the same as found in the Iliad, such as 



in Odyssey 
i/oVvftog 

dyQozijg 

doaTp 

, I monosyllables 

xs%VB(oq^ TCBTtxEfog etc. 
ygairiy ytfifvgy yQijvg 



in Iliad 
vcivv^vog 
^eanidiog 
ayQoicixTig 
r^oog 
dod^aaxo 



XB^riiogj nsjcxtjajg etc. 



it may be noticed that vcivvfiog comes directly from 
oVo/ior, which, with the forms ovofid^oi) 6v6ficc0xog^ shows 
that it is the -i/og of vcivvfivog, which is accretive rather 
than the -^og of vcivv^og which is defective; ^ianig^ as 
Col. Mure remarks (80)^ is shown similarly by d'ecmSarjg 



80 Mure II. App. D. p. 494. 



PART I. GENERAL -VIEWS. Li 

to be as primitive as ^B67ti0ioQ^ or rather more so ; dYQOid' part i 
Tiyg, or rather its phir. -axai^ occurs in both poems; ay^o- 
xai is a noun &7ttt^ etgrjiitvov in 7t. 218. The former word 
is adjectival, and means rustic or even clownish, as shown 
by some such word as fiovxakoL^avsQag^laolyand the like, 
being always introduced with it (81), and by the line g>. 85 Z^^l^X 
vriicioi^ dyQOLCJtai, i<p)j^BQia (pQovaovrsg, where we have ▼aienoo af open 
three adjectives or adjectival clauses, all bearing a re- "' ^^^^^ ^^^"^^* 
proachful sense. As regards x^i, the argument depends 
firstly on the rejection of A, 705 as spurious, secondly on 
i!0i]g^ which follows, having the digarama(82). The only 
passage apparently favourable to XQsa being a monosyl- 
lable is t, 347, where the a final may probably be lost 
by hypermetral elision. For its general quantity see 
note on y, 33. i^ovg(^3) is common to both poems, so are 
tsd^emg and nanxEfogj tadvijcig and ^£:nrrijG}g(84), not to 
mention ted'veLfag and the variation -otog -iStog etc. in 
the case-forms; on Soccro see note at £;. 24%, where Wolfs 
reading Siar% confirmed by Butmann, LexiL 38, is to be 
preferred. yQccCrjg in a. 438 is a aTca^ alQtjfiBvoVj but 
Fgcctav in B. 498 occurs as a nom. prop., yQifC is not pe- 
culiarly Odyssean, witness F. 386, yaQacog is common to 
both poems (85). He further objects that 6nt]v == iTCsl &v 
is found not unfrequently followed by indie, in the 
Odyssey, but never so in the Iliad. He cites, however, 

81 A, 549, 676, O. 272, X. 292. 

82 I am inclined to think that the digarama is inconstant in Ttfog, and that 
%Coi is dissyll. in i, 42, 549. 

83 O. 470, 508, 525, fi. 3, V. 94; cf. AriTOvg in A. 9. 

84 r. 40«, '^' 84, P. 43S» 0. 23, J. 354, %. 384, 362, ^. 503, J. 474, X' 384- 

85 A vast number of close and open, dhort and long, etc. forms in the two 
poems might be raked together, which occur with sufficient promiscuousness in 
both , bat it is likely a close sifter might detect some confined by mere chance to 
either: such are nXtaidtov %Uci(ov, Bogiao BoQito, %vat Tivvsaaty but ddngvai not 
duKQVsoci, contrariwise T^goisaai noii]Q(oat,iisCSovaiiSLSci}j(i£iSovssfisiiovg,%'&n^mv€t 
■Hvnsmj d'wfitt and 9m^ d"vyaTQsg ^'vyatigsg, dvaaijtov Svaaiog^ ngSLoiv HgBmv, yiXcav 
yiXov, otsaai and Ssaai, Tuxgijatog ndgrizog Ttgdoctt ugatogy novkvg noXlog noXvg ; 
cf. also fia&'vggoov $. 8 with x^''i''dgQovg A. 493; d'sol is a monosyllable only in 
A. 18; besides the forms in -010 and -ov, case-forms in -94 represent -ov -oo -rig 
-rjy and we have a large variety in forms of pronouns and their possessives. It 
would be a work of some time to complete the list. But when complete it might 
be easily matched alike from Chaucer and from Shakspeare. 



Lii . PREFACE. 

PART I no instances; and I have not been able to find any such. 
Crusius notices none such, nor does Jelf or Donaldson. 
I believe the fact to be, that it is followed several times 
by optat., and more frequently by subjunct., in either 
poem. His objection, that Hermes is nowhere the mes- 
partiyonthemy- gengcr of Olympus in the Iliad, has been abundantly 
110^11^0? deiticg, answered by Col. Mure (86) and by Mr. Gladstone (87). 
His objection, that in the Iliad Poseidon has no trident, is 
singularly inapposite, for we find no proper function of 
the ffea-god in him there. He is there, as it were, a "fish 
out of water" 5 but in the Odyssey he shivers the rock, 
and rouses the tempest (88). The alleged inconsistency is 
a nice observance of propriety of costume. He objects 
that Delos is not mentioned as sacred to Apollo in the 
Iliad, the fact being that it is not mentioned at all, and 
only once in the Odyssey, and there as part of it travel- 
ler's reminiscence. Similarly Cilia is only mentioned as 
sacred to Apollo once in the Iliad (89), and nowhere in the 
Odyssey. Equally feeble is the objection that Theseus 
is mentioned as a hero in the Odyssey only. This as-. 
sumes jd, 365 to be an interpolation. Be it so ; why may 
not then A. ^22 — 5 and 631 be likewise iaterpolations ? 
But the objection assumes tliat a poet's mythological lore 
is to be equally exhibited in each of his works, and no 
god or hero named in one who is not also named in the 
other. If this principle were applied to Milton's Paradise 
Lost and Regained (90), what havoc it would make of the 

86 Mure II. App. B 3. 87 Gladst. II. iii. 239—41. 

88 d. 506— 7, fi. 291 — 2. It may be asked why has not Poseidon his trident when 
he shakes earth to her centre in T. 54 foil. ? And must we not understand it when 
he is matched, otherwise weaponless, against Phoebus in $. 43$ foil.? But even in 
the Ody., e. g, in v. 163, where it would seem proper, Poseidon has not always the 
trident; and perhaps the weapon used familiarly upon tunnies and lampreys 
would have been ridiculous in a d'SOfiaxtu, In Virgil's time the trident had be- 
come as purely conventional as it is to us now; hence he without scruple intro- 
duces, in JEn. II. 6io-^i, Neptune on shore digging up the walls of Troy with it. 

89 In A. 38 the prayer of Chryses, recurring in 452. 

90 It is remarkable how Milton, in the first half of his greater poem, inclines 
to the Ptolemsean, and in the latter half to the Copernican theory in his celestial 
machinery; which ought on " chorizontic " principles to imply duality of author- 
ship. Tliis was pointed out to me by M*". II. James, V. P. of the Normal College, 
Chelteuiiam. 



* PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. Liii 

poet's allusions! As regards another objection, the ab- part i 

sence of the oracular terms xgdc^Vj ;|^()i}<Tofi^o^, found in 

the Odyssey, from the Iliad, it may be answered that in 

the latter the Greeks are fast bound to one spot and have P*'^^y <>" ^^^ 

their soothsayer, Calchas, with them. Their fortunes on cies or ihe^s!" 

the voyage are most brieliy alluded to, their previous lence concerningr 

home-life hardly at all. The same god, however, who in 

the Odyssey gives oracles, inspires the soothsayer in the 

Iliad. Surely, under circumstances so different there is 

no room for the negative argument, even if we may not 

rather on general grounds claim a confirmation. 

XL VI. Payne Knight also traces a development in the *"<^ Pf«^*y ^^^ 
Odyssey of the social state and arts of life beyond that and comparative 
of the Iliad. The word Oijg^ ^tavoi^ is said to indicate P'offresg in ihe 
a class unknown to the Iliad, and not fitting into the in either poem. 
frame of society there. Such objections forget that what 
we have there is life in a camp with an occasional glimpse 
of a palace interior in Troy. Of civic life in Troy there 
is little or nothing, tand even the houses mentioned are 
all those of princes. How is it possible that a scene so 
circumscribed should afford scope for all the relations of 
social life to be stated? Take as an illustration the 
question of slaves : the word dovXog does not occur, 8^(Qq 
once only in II. (T. 333), in a line which could well be 
spared, and which is in fact no statement of events at 
Troy, but a retrospect of home-life by the bereaved Achil- . Thesociaistaie 
les •, the word avSQixoSov also once occurs (ff. 475) in a Iho^^^ hf ^the^ 
passage describing various articles of barter; and here ^^"^J 
again the line could be detached without being missed, 
and has been suspected by Thiersch (9*) and others before 
him for the sake of the word. There remains then but 
one undoubted passage in the Iliad, in which a slave of 
.the male sex is spoken of, against over 30 times mention 
of it in the Odyssey. The isolated mention in the home- 
picture in question supplies exactly the key to the dif- 
ficulty, and shows that the social state of the Iliad is ex- 
ceptional, and that therefore it is that 8\i^q occurs once 
only, and O'ljg not at all. For the same reason there is no 

91 Gr. Gr. 197, § 66. 



Liv PBEFACE. 

PART I Af'tf^^ in the Iliad. As regards the arts of peace what 
Payne Knight says is very likely to be true; on the con- 
trary, as regards the arts of war, the opposite is the case. 
We might not, save for the Iliad, have supposed the 
i^uir'to" war Glreeks of the period capable of orderly marshalling a 
appeurs there host of men (92), of cnclosiug and fortifying a camp with 
iV ed ^^ ^*"^^ ^ rampart, turrets, a foss and palisades (93), of the curious 
metallic combinations described in the armour of Agamem- 
non (94), or of contrivances for keeping a fleet of ships, 
drawn up on the beach for a long time, ready for instant 
launching by troughs and props (9s). The first two 
Ar«ruments examplcs of arts which he selects are both trivial and 
mention of cer- doubtful. Hc says^, the striugs of the lyre are in the Iliad 
tain artistic ap- ^f fl^x, and in the Odyssey of gut. Assuming that to 
p lances, ^^ ^^^ meaning of the passage, it is certainly open to 

question, whether the twisting fibres of flax into a chord 
be not on the contrary a mark of further civilization than 
the use of the intestine of an animal. Further, both in- 
ventions might have been in use at once, as are hempen 
and chain cables in modern ships. But one 'cannot but 
question the whimsical criticism which makes a string 
twisted of flax, a vegetable fibre, a proof of priority in the 
Iliad, and the cable (96) twisted of fivpiog^ another vege- 
table fibre, a mark of posteriority in the Odyssey. But the 
meaning assigned is at best questionable. The words Ilvov 
8^ v^o xalov ccslSsv having been, as the objector admits, 
taken to mean something very different (97). As regards the 
examined in de- ;eoAAo^ (98), or peg (?) for tightening the strings,somesuch 

92 J, 297 foil., 447—9- 93 H, 436—41. 94-4-19 ^oU- 95 ^' 486, B. 153. 

96 As regards this objection, it should be noticed that the word for cable in 
the same passage {onXov 9. 390 — i) is peculiar in this sense — and indeed in the 
singular in any sense — to the Ody. Obviously this is to be referred to the spe- 
cial scope of the poem. And, indeed, one might make from the details given of • 
the build and rigging of ships, and of the interior of a palace, a long list of Odys- 
sean words. 

97 '*Haud me effugit viros doctos Xivov istud pro cantiuncuU qu6dam habu- 
isse" {Prolegg. xLvii, note a). This was Aristarchus* view, Zenodotus preferred 
that of Payne Knight. Two Scholl. on 2, 570 explain flax as used because, the 
song being there a hymn to -a god, the gut was unsuited to the sacred occasion — 
evidently regarding the use of the two as contemporaneous. 

98 Yolkmann p. 120 contends for a different sense of xo/lXo^, '^nqn est vei" 



Arg:amen( 
founded on the 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. lv 

contrivance must. have been in use from a very eai'ly part i 
period of the lyrist's art, since they would always be 
liable to stretch. His other instance is that of columns in 
a palace interior, mentioned only in the Odyssey. But it 
is there only that such an interior comes in for descrip- 
tion, and the spaces assumed as inclosed in the Iliad 
make it difficult to understand how without columnsi the 
mass could have stood. His next objection is founded on 
the epithet dtOQQOog applied to the ocean, '^returning 
upon itself'', or ^* circumfluous", alleged as occunring 
only in the Ody»sey, and betokening there a further ad- 
vance of geography and navigation. But it is surely 
puerile to talk of any such advance a» would have dis- 
covered in fact that the continental mass was really sur- epithet a^o^ 
rounded on all sides by water. ^The notion must be taken ^^^^' 
as one of poetical conjecture only. Let us, however, 
waive this and allow with Payne Knight, £, 399, in 
which the word occurs, to be spurious. Yet we have two 
passages in the same book 2?. (99) which confirm the no/ton 
as in -the poet's mind. The one is 485 — 9, where "all the 
constellations which encircle heaven", save the Bear, are 
mentioned as setting in the ocean-stream. How is the 
conception possible, if that stream be not regarded as 
difOQQOog in fact? The other is 479 — 80, cf. 607 — 8, in 
which the ocean-stream is made to run round the rim 
which encompasses the shield. The rim runs round 
{n€Ql) the shield, the stream goes along (naQ) the rim. shown to be in- 
The obvious inference is surely that the poet's idea is conclusive; 
that of a stream d^oQQOog^ and thus the argument against 
the word collapses. The next objection, that certain me- 
thods of fowling and fishing (100) are also found men- 

ticUlttm quo chordae intenduntur et reinittuntur, sed jugum, der Steg, quod recen- 
tiores noXXctfiog vocant **. Crusius does not support this. 

99 It should be mentioned that Payne Knight protests (xi — xvii) against Uey- 
ne's (Exc. 111. ad £.) condemnation, following Zenodotus, of the whole shield- 
passage as post-Homeric. Surely then the amount of metallurgy involved in it, 
is such a step in advance, as throws all the art-knowledge of the Odyssey very 
far into the shade ; and this without assuming that metallnrg^c skill could then 
actually compass such group-casting as the shield implies. 

100 As regards fowling, it is very doubtful whether the birds are not rather 
mentioned as pursuing the chase for themselves ; see Mure^s remarks (II. Append. 
C.p.492): as regards fishing, Payne Knight consistently rejects £. 487 — qi^ s. «a.- 



Lvi PREFACE. 

PART I tioned only in the Odyssey, may surely be met by the 

general reply, that the war-scenes of the larger poem af- 

as also ihose <m f^j-^j jj^ gcepe for such things, and that in similes, in 

ceitaiii artsincn- i-rii • i r\ ^ »i. 

lioned in similes, which alone they occur in the Odyssey, a poets choice 
to use or to omit any particular image is surely free. On 
the other hand, we have in similes in the Iliad the 
method of irrigation alluded to, and the purple-staining 
of ivory by the Mseonian woman, of neither of which the 
Odyssey yields any trace. 
Beyond their XLVII. Thcsc aro the argumcuts of Pavnc Kuight f or 

own inconclu- i i » i i i i 

«vftncss, ihese Separate authorship and such answers to them perhaps as 
objections are eaubc givcu. But indeed all special answer is superfluous* 

overbalanced by 5* •ii^tti • i 

the ethical ar- whcu they are weighed in the balance agamst the gravc ar- 
gument; and the gupieut for Unity based on the ethical oneness of each cha- 
racter found in the two poems : for all such arguments hang 
in the fringe of the garment merely, but these figures are 
jndissolubly inwoven in the woof and warp of the fabric 
itself. With the arguments to a similar purport once 
urged by Nitzsch it is needless to meddle, since he him- 
self lived to own their insufficiency, and becimie a con- 
vert to the belief in the unity (« of ). It must be allowed 
that a far larger array of examples would be needed than 
those here reviewed to establish the conclusion aimed at, 
and that the force of those few which have been ad- 
vanced, is too far invalidated by others alleged per con- 
tra, for us to view it as established. And after all, there 
is nothing either in the vocabulary (loa) used or in the 

mile in which the net {at^iai Uvov) is spoken of, as interpolated. Why the two 
similes in %, 302 -6 and 383 — 9 may not be equally interpolations, I cannot see. 
In them alone are these methods spoken of. One or two such facts may he found 
not unfref^uently in contemporaries. Thus the ages of Shakspeare and Ben Jonson 
largely overlap, and yet while the latter mentions the familiar use of tobacco, the 
. former never once alludes to it. 

1 01 See Mure pref. p. vi, who refers to Nitzsch^s Sagenpoesie der Griechen, 

102 There are some excellent remarks on the words which occur exclusively 
.in either poem in Friedlander (II), who observes that by far the greater part of 

them are due to the object or person introduced into the one poem, whereas, 
either by chance or by the nature of the circumstances, occasions for their em- 
ployment are wanting in the other (pp. 795— 6J. On p. 812—4 he gives several 
lists of such words. Thus ifis^Bwog, Xoiyogy vrjnvrios, vri'JiCaxog, tnm^laaiosy 
dyeculBTig, fi^Byi^tD, xvdtOAi, aySixciy 8iavdi%a^ UBq^daCStOj savig (stavog), etd'aQ^ 
xvvTi^ vna^d'cc, and xQ€ctafiim, are Jioted as Iliadic words ; focms related to somei 



ulmosl whkh 
Ihey prove 



PART I. GENERAL VIEWS. lvu 

things mentioned,^ even if we allow the objections the» part i 
full force which the objector ascribes to them, beyond 
such a degree of progi'ess as may fall within the life of 
an individual man. As regards language, our own such a degrree of 
during the reign of Elizabeth (103) probably underwent a eoTpaulic^wiih 
greater change than the closest sifting could discover in uie deveiopmpiu 
the Odyssey as compared with the Iliad. As regards ll^^^^'^ZZiol 
things, compare the state of the arts of life in Europe rapidly iransui- 
wherever a busy and lively period has succeeded one of ®"*^* 
stAdstill, Italy before and during the period of the 
Medici, our own countiy during and after the Lancas- 
trian civil wars, and a development, proportionate to any 
conceivable as belonging to the period between the Iliad 
and the Odyssey, may readily be found. And certainly, 
if the unity and personality of Homer be allowed, there 
can be no reason for assuming the period which produced 
him to have been in itself a stagnant one. 

of these and common to both poems being ^QS§og and iifSfivog, vijniog, dyayLXvtog 
and dyaxlsixog, dliyta, yivdog, yivdQogt Tivdiarogj nvdccivto, S^x^t, dsidoa. Again 
XQ'qf/'OCta, i^rjg, danccazog, tnniiXazog, ccXsyvvat, ilnlg, iXnwif^, invvTog^ dXccog 
dlaom, SntSQog^ inristccvog, %dXXifiog, nsQifirjxavdoficci, are noted as Oclyssean, 
and related forms common to both are i^sirig,' dandaiog, ^Xnto, ^Xno(nxij dXaoaTio- 
niriy fti/ji^af aofitti. He remarks that two of the Iliadic class are certainly striking, 
viz. those remarked upon by Buttmann, iavog and jrpat0fi^(D, and that two others, 
Xotyog and ^^if/LittTix, although in his opinion referable to the distinct subject mat- 
ter treated of, may appear to some critics to present a proof of a distinct usage. 
As regards j^^fitfiftix, the promiscuous use of it with the Iliadic XTif/itaTtt in Ody. 
(». 384, 389) goes far to negative any such presumption. But we may surely ask, 
does not human speech progress in one generation with much more startling in- 
crements than these, even if none of those'given in the above lists were accounted 
for by the difference of tenor and subject in the poems? Dr. P. (I, p. vii) has 
also quoted from Lachmann some striking remarks on the mere casual use or dis- 
use of words highly familiar in everyday style. H& adds (II. 796) that such words 
as are peculiarly IHadic or Odyssean are mostly nouns and adjectives, rarely verbs, 
and still more rarely words of other classes, "which alone might suggest that the 
ground of the peculiarity lay, not in distinctness of vernacular but in that of sub- 
ject-matter". See on the other hand Volkmann, pp. 121 foil., on words "quae 
nulld . ; . rei novitate excusantur, multo majorem igitur novae originis suspicionem 
necessario movent". He alleges as such in the Ody. 7 nouns, 18 or 19 adjectives, 
and 8 verbs. Yolkmann views the later origin of the last six books of the Iliad, and 
of the eighth and eleventh books of the Ody. as established beyond a doubt (p. 1 20). 
How the niad could possibly have ended with the onXonoUa of 2, he does not 
explain. If any book of the poem leaves us expecting a sequel, S. surely does. 
103 See Latham's English Language I, p. 318 (4^^ edition). 



PART II. 
ANCIENT EDITORS AND COMMENTATORS, 



XLVIII. As regards attention early paid to the study of Homer 
and works meant to assist it, although their critical pretensions are 
very doubtful, the following sketch may suffice. 

Theagenes of Rhegium was a younger contemporary of Pisistratus, 
and is mentioned as "the first who wrote concerning Homer ^'(i). He 
is said to have had recourse to allegory in explaining the poet. That 
such a work should have found acceptance so early, seems to forbid 
the notion that Homer was up to the Pisistratid period only known as 
a loose collection of ballad pieces. The writings of Theagenes, no 
doubt, were known to the Alexandrine school; see Mure vol. IV p. 
95. Fabric. I. pp. 367 — 8. SchoJ. Aristoph. Av. 833. 

Anaxagoras the philosopher seems first to have unfolded the ethi- 
cal character of the Homeric poetry, as being tcsqI a(ȣT^g xal di^xaio- 
Oijvrig (Diog. Laert. II. 11). 

Euripides, the father of the poet, unless it were some other of the 
same name, is said to have revised Homer (Fabric, ibid p. 362). 

Stesimbrotus of Thasos and Metrodorus of Lampsacus (a) also wrote 
on Homer. Metrodorus is said by Diog. Laert. (ub, sup,) to have ap- 
plied to the Homeric mythology explanations of physical phenomena. 
He also, is said to have disbelieved the historical existence of the Ho- 
meric personages, and to have viewed them as introduced for the sake 
of the interest of the story {%dQiv oCxovofiiag). With these may be 
joined Hippias of Thasos, mentioned by Aristotle in the Poetics (cap. 
XXV. §. 8 ap. Fabric.) as having solved Homeric difficulties, and 
Glaucon, perhaps an Athenian. All these appear to have been rhap- 
sodists, and to have belonged to about the middle of the 5^** century 
B.C. : the first was a contemporary of Pericles, and was the teacher of 

1 Schol. Yeu. B. on T, 67; whether that on J, 381 speaks of the same man 
is not cler.r. 

2 Plato, Ion 530 D. 



PAST II. ANCIENT EDITORS AND COMMENTATORS. lix 

Antimachns(3) of Colophon, poet and grammarian, whose editions of 
Homer, or one of them, furnished matter for excerpia to the Scholl. 
Ven. and L, on A, 423, 598, iV. 59, ®. 397, 607 eial, Eustathius also 
cites him as an interpreter of the poet. His age was 404 B. C. (Fabric. 
ibid. pp. 358, 360 — i). He and Stesimbrotus are said to have treated 
'^de carmine, genere et tempore Homeri" (Tatian ap. Fabric. II. p. 
358). As Aristotle revised the Iliad for Alexander, so did Callisthe- 
nes his disciple, and Anaxarchus, the Odyssey (Fabric. I. p. 357) (4). 

Aratus, the poet of the Phcmomena, and Khianus, an epic poet of 
note in his day, although later than Zenodotus , yet as external to the 
Alexandrine School, may find a place here. The former edited the 
Odyssey, and his 8t6gd'G)6is is among the works cited by Suidas. He 
is said to have attached himself to Antiochus Soter, king of Syria, 
who urged him to undertake the Iliad also. Wolf thinks that, on his 
declining it, Rhianus accepted the task {Jh^olegg, § xLi). This edi- 
tion {j\ 'Plccvov or xatd ^Ptavov) is often cited by the Scholl. as an au- 
thority for readings in the Ody. also, showing that his labours ex- 
tended to both poems. Fabric, {vb. sup. p. 357) mentions a tradition 
that Aratus edited the Iliad also, being led to do so from its having 
been ^^ corrupted {kelviiavd'aC) by many^\ 

Chamseleon of Heraclea was a personal pupil of Aristotle, contem- 
porary with Heraclides Ponticus (s), against whom he charged a lite- 
rary larceny in purloining (which may perhaps mean plagiarizing 
from) a work of his on Homer and Hesiod (Fabric. I. p. 508). His 
name is introduced here for the same reason as that of Aratus , and 
on the same gro;ind stands the following name. 

Chrysippus, the Stoic philosopher, b. 280 B.C. (Smith's j9?V?/. Biogr,), 

3 Wolf. Prolegg, § xl. appears to have at one time supposed that the gram- 
marian was a distinct person from the poet of this name, but to have been con- 
vinced by the further light thrown by the Schol. Ven. Yet Fabricius (itb. sup. p. 
359) P^ts it as if Wolf had maintained the affirmative, and Villoison had donUted. 
Suidas identifies them. 

4 Antimaehus* own poetry is said to have shown a vigorous style and much 
power of expression, but to have been wanting in suavity and ease. Proclus, com- 
menting on Plato, (limcBus I p. 28) has a statement that Plato preferred his poems 
to those of Chterilus then highly popular. Some say that the specimen of prolix- 
ity censured in Hor. A, P, 136, commencing ''reditum Diomedis ab interitu Me- 
leagri", was really borrowed from a Thehais which he composed under the influ- 
ence of Homeric study. Aristotle {Rhet. iii. 6) cites from him an example of purely 
negative poetical description. Over a hundred fragments of Antimachus are given 
in the Script, Grcnc, Biblioth. Paris 1 840. 

5 The elder, not the one mentioned in this list in/*. 



Lx PBEFACB. 

wrote also on poetry and criticism in which he incidentally illustrated 
many passages of Homer. He is censured by Plutarch {de audiendis 
poeiis p. 31) as a frigid interpreter. He is cited by the SchoU. Ven. 
on N. 41 and on ^. 483, where the remark ascribed to him justifies 
Plutarch's censure. 

XLIX. From Villoison's Anecdoia Grceca and his Prolegg, in IL 
ad fidem Cod. Ven. the following brief summary of the sources of an- 
cient criticism, chiefly Alexandrine, has been drawn. We find men- 
tioned there the very ancient and now lo^t editions of Homer ob- 
tained from Chian, Cyprian, Cretan, Argolic, Sinopic and Massilio- 
tic sources, the edition of Aristotle (6) of the Iliad only, the two edi- 
tions of Aristarchus, the two of Antimachus, those of Zenodotus^ 
Aristophanes of Byzantium, Callistratus, Rhianus, Sosigenes, Phile- 
mon of Crete, Antiphanes etc. The "Cyclic^' {xvxUxrl) is the title 
of an ed. which embraced the II. and Ody. as part of the poems 
known as the xvxXog^ or viewed them as forming members of that 
series (Schol. Harl. on tc. 195, Lehrs p. 30). The -^olian (Alokvxil or 
. Aloklg)y and that known as the "museum'' ed. (^ ix tov fiovasiov)) 
«. e, kept in the temple of the Muses adjoining the Alex, library, 
are known from other SchoU. (on |. 280, 331, 0. 98, |. 204). The 
class, named from localities, are included in the class labelled, pro- 
bably, in the Alexandrine library, as al ccTcd tc5v noXecav^ the latter in 
that distinguished as aC xax avSQcc. Wolf has denied (7) that the former 

6 Called also that ix xov vugd'TfTiog, from the casket, literally *' hollow reed**, 
in which Alexander the Great, for whose use the poem had been revised by his 
great master, carried it with him. The casket was really one of the most precions 
amongst the personal spoils of Darius whose unguents it had held. Wolf refuses 
to allow that any reading ascribed to Aristotle belongs to this revise. The point 
is one which can never be proved. But it ought to be remembered that when 
Aristotle cites Homer, he cites a work on which he himself bestowed literary care; 
see Schol. Ven. on B. 73, 447, $.252,455, where readings etc. of his are mentioned. 
His ed. as well as the Sinopian and the Massiliotic had been previously known by 
name from Eustath. , the others are mentioned from the Schol. Venet. and Lips. 
(Wolf Prolegg. § xxxix and xl, p. CLxxxiii, note 46). Athen«eus, lib. XIV. p. 620, 
has a tradition to a similar purport regarding Cassander, King of Macedonia, 
ovtoas 7iv q>il6fi,rj(fog <og ^la atofiatog ^%Biv xcoy inav xa noXXd' %al 'iXiag i^v 
avT^ %al 'OSvcasCa IBitog yByQafifiivui. But this implies admiration for the poet 
rather than critical skill applied to his text. Villoison Profegg, in //. p. xxvi. 

7 " Publico jussu illas factas esse vel servatas publice, cave cuiquam ante 
credas, quam probabili argumento demonstratum fuerit, ejusmodi instituta olim in 
civitatibus Gr8eci» obtinuisse, quae res, meo quidem judicio, non cadit in ista tem- 
pera." Prolegg. § xxxix. On the other hand Villoison, Prolegg, in II, p. xxiii, 
views these as ^^editiones quas curaverant nonnullie civitates**; and .p. zxxvi in- 



PART n. ANCIENT EDITORS AND COMMENTATORS. Lxi 

designation means anything more than that the librarians at Alexan- 
dria named them from the places whence they had come, and in par- 
ticular, that they were in any sense public copies, which the civic au- 
thorities had caused to be prepared for the use of their citizens. In 
spite of Wolfs denial the fact seems to me highly probable, as well as 
more agi*eeable to the variety of phraseology in which the designation 
is couched : and Colonel Mure has expressed the same opinion. For 
we have not only aC djtd tcoXsov^ and ivcai tc5v xard Tcokng, but al 
8i.d t(3v xoksmv and at %oXixixal{^), The remarkable blank which 
we find in place of the name of Athens among these cities, is most 
easily explained by supposing, with Ritschl and Mr. Gladstone, that 
the Athenian recension had obtained the authority of a vulgate text, 
generally received in Greece central, to the standard of which those 
of the other outlying cities named might be referred (9). 

L. This view has at any rate the advantage of systematizing what 
little we know. The supposed parallel designation adduced by Wolf, 
%d ix nXoCov^ applied to writings brought by ship to Alexandria and 
returned in copy to their owners by the same, while the archetypes 
were deposited in its library, rather makes * against his hypothesis; 
for probably nearly all those designated d%6 x^v nokecav also came 

telligo editiones publice seiTatas vel publico jassu a quibusdam civitatibus factas. 
Payne Kiiight objects to this that he does not see how a city could discharge edi- 
torial functions, or how municipal decrees could deal with doubtful readings 
(§ xxziv). But surely such a body could appoint a curator and sanction his acts. 

8 These phrases seem to imply some action of the noXsig in reference to 
them, and some definite relation in which they stood to the nolsig. Nor is it easy 
to see why they should have been thus named as recensions, as if in contra- 
distinction to those which rested on individual authority, unless some correspond- 
ing authority, on grounds connected .with the noUg itself, had been ascribed to 
them. This probability is further strengthened by the known fact that at Athens 
and at Sparta the Homeric poems had been cared for by the state as early as the 
times of Solon, Pisistratus and (in the sense explained XXXIV sup.) Lycurgus; 
and by the credible statement that Pisistratus used written copies, and by means 
of them and the aid of the judgment of learned men either added or restored to 
them order and unity, which amounts to a public editorial care, however crude 
and tentative. That what was done at Athens and Sparta should have been done 
at least as early in some of those cities which claimed Homer for their country- 
man, as Chios, is more likely than not; especially in those which were the seats 
of public rhapsodic contests; and that it should have been omitted for the four 
centuries which elapsed between Pisistratus and Zenodotus is unlikely. 

9 As cited by Grote vol. I. pt. I. ch, xxi. p. 538 note. Gladst. vol. I. p. 63. 
This seems to me to be more likely than the inference of Payne Knight regarding 
this recension — cujus apud veteres hand magnam fuisse auctoritatem, e gram- 
maticorum silentlo eolligere licet (Prolegg. § xxxii). 



Lxii PREFACE. 

by ship. Those MSS. in rcSv nkoicav were so called, it seemS; not 
because their source could not be ascertained, but because it was not 
worth-while more specially to distinguish them. The inference is 
that in the case of those from ^^ cities ^^ it «4'«s worth-while. And why 
should it have been worth-while, unless their character as TtoXircxal 
had entered into the question of their authority ? — A view the more 
likely, since they are not merely so classed as writings or copies, 
{fivpXia^ yQaiifiaxa^ avxCyQaq)a^) but (teste Wolf himself /. c.^ as Sio^f- 
^(66eig '^revised" or ^^ corrected editions '^(lo). At any rate it would 
have sufficed on the other supposition to have merely classed them as 
from ^' cities'^, whereas we find beyond this the individual cities named. 
And this is further confirmed from our finding that the copies were 
rated as of more or less critical value, just as we reckon Aldine or 
Elzivir editions now. The epithets which show this are aC akXai 
6%BSdv Tcctoav SioQd^cS^evg as opposed to ai ^AQiexdQ%ov^ at laQiiiSt sQai^ 
6i ^^ higher merif 5 and again, the threefold classification of al xoival 
the "common, uncorrected'^ editions (it), al ^ixQiav^ those "of medio- 
crity/', al sixatoxsQai the "more correct". 

LI. Of the "men'' from whom the recensions xar' ardgag^i^) were 
designated, many of whom exercised a permanent influence over the 
Homeric text, it is worth-while to give a brief account. Those here 
mentioned may be arranged in three classes (i), (ii), (iii), one of 
which numerals is prefixed to each name, (i) consists of those who 
were editors of revisions of the poems or either of them, or of com- 
mentaries upon them, (ii) of those who furnished incidental illustra- 
tion, or wrote on special points of grammar, or were occupied in de- 
partments of Homeric study, (iii) of those who applied themselves 
to excerption and compilation of the materials contributed by those of 
(i) and (ii). After the first three or four gi'eat names, (i) and (ii) 
will be found interspersed, while (iii) for our present purpose begins 
with Porphyry. 

10 So Payne Knight, "Woltii autem sententiae vocabula iyidoastg et diOQ^oi- 
asiQy quibus Vetera exemplaria dignoscuntur, obstare videntur ; naQcidoatg enim 
non ^udooLg vel diOQ^toaig e& ratione facta fuisset'\ ibid. § xxxv. 

1 1 ^^ Quse venalia prostabant apud bibliopolas z^v ig VQctaiv yQcc<pofiiv<ov fit- 
§XtaiVf qufeque inquit Strabo, XHI. p. 419, ab ineptis exarabantur Ubrariis nee 
postca cum aliis codicibus contercbantur". Villoison Prolegg, in Iliad, p. xxvi. 

1 2 Those enumerated by Didymns are the edd. of Antimachus, Rhiauus, Phile- 
tas, Zenodotuo, Sosigenes, Philemon, Aristophanes, CaUistratns, Crates, those of 
Aristarchus are of course understood. Lehrs p. 30; for a more complete list 
see XLIX sup. 



PART II. ANCIENT EDITORS AND COMMENTATORS. Lxiii 

(i) I. ZENODOTUS OP EPHESUS 

flourished circa 300 B. C, was the pupil of Philetas of Cos, who, him- 
self an elegiac poet of some mark, contributed to Homeric criticism (Wolf 
Prolegg. § xli). He was the founder of the Alexandrine school of en- 
tries. Ptolemy Philadelphus, likewise a pupil of Philetas, made Zenodo- 
tus first curator of the Alexandrine library, and committed to him the 
revision of the Homeric and the other poems there, except the dramatic. 
He was a more daring critic than Aristophanes his pupil and successor, 
wholly excising passages (13) which the latter was content to "obelize" (14), 
cutting short the frequent repetitions of messages (Schol. Yen. on jB. 60 — 
70), and not allowing verses once read to recur in a new context. This 
shows a strange ignorance of Homeric manner (Lehrs p. 357)' Colonel 
Mure has thrown together a list of the discarded passages (15). Some of 
these are said to have been already omitted by the MSS. which he fol- 
lowed, but "the greater part are evidently disposed of without any pre- 
' text of MS. authority, merely from not happening to square with his own 
particular theories". Mure further charges him with " engrafting new mat- 
ter of his own on the genuine text". This last remark is so far true that 
he does not seem to have shaken oft' the old habits of the early SiaGUBva- 

13 'A(fiato(pdcvrig i^^iiH Zr^vodoxog Ss ov^l tyQaipsv Schol. Vulg. on 11, 237 et 
passim. Sometimes, however, conversely, as in the Scl»ol. Ven. A on ^.114, Zi^vodotog 
ij^^rft nuQa 'AQictofpavH d^ ouot tjv. Col. Mure, vol. II. ch. xvi p. 172 note, has 
remarked on the importance of the distinction between this "disallowing*- and 
the excising the line ivoni the text, as regards the right understanding of the 
method of the Alexandrian critics. Wolf remarks on Zenodotus, " dO'Stijastov au- 
tem ejus tanta est multitudo et licentia ut nonnullis visus sit Homernm ex Homero 
tollere" {Prolegg. § xLiii). The dd'hi^aig, however, was not a "siiblatio". 

14 The famous SpeXog, generally named from Aristarchas, was a single hori- 
zontal line thus , drawn in the margin against the beginning of a verse. 

By it spurious and disallowed (dd'szovfisvai) lines were noted. Besides this, Vil- 
loisofi, in his Prolegg. in 11. p. XLvi. gives the following symbols as used by the 
Alex, critics, the dipl§ ^ , either by itself (xa-^a^a), or dotted ^ {nsQi- 
BttxiffLBvi]), the former being used to mark a^ral slqri(iivix, and other peculiarities 
of a very miscellaneous character, the latter to mark the readings of Zenod. Grates 
and Aristar. The asterisk -X- denoted such verses as were especially admirable 

and apposite. This combined with the obelos •)J^ denoted lines which had 

become displaced from their proper context. The antisigma 3 denoted lines which 
had been altered, and the same dotted ^ marked tautology. Villoison gives at 
the end of his Prolegg, a treatise of Hephsestion nsgl anjusicov, from which it ap- 
pears that in MSS. of other poets too such symbols were familiar. Thns the 
obelus was used to mark the end of a paragraph, or by the lyric poets the end of 
a dtrophe ; and the asterisk marked the end of an inmdog and the commencement 
of a new piece in different metre. Hephsestion further remarks that the same 
signs have not the same meaning in different poets. 

15 up. sup, p, 173. Another list is given by Wolf (§ XLiii. n. 72): the two do 
not correspond, each having somewhat which the other omits. 



Lxiv PREFACE. 

tfra/; see XXXVI sup. He may perhaps be regarded as the last of them 
and the fii-st of the critics. But he did not, as the above words might 
seem to imply, wantonly interpolate. He is said in particular to have re- 
jected the OTtionoiicc of H, 

LII. The extreme censure of Colonel Mure is tempered by Wolf, who 
says that some of the readings ascribed to him were not emendations of 
his, but, monstrous as many of them are, probably belonged to the text, 
not only as he left but as he found it. The same may apply to some of 
his alleged interpolations (i6). He is said to have written a sort of lexilo- 
gus, explaining the more difficult words ; and a commentary {vn6(ivfifia) 
is cited under his name; but whether a distinct work, or merely some 
t)ther grammarian's view of his writings, is doubtful. Among his erroi-s 
were the endeavouring to foist on Homer the definite article, as by read- 
ing akloi for allots oilsvg for'OiXsvg] the corruptions of Homeric pro- 
nominal forms to suit the usage of his own day; the omission of the final 
V in cifislvav yAvx/cov; the removing anacoluihia, and others given in the 
notes 75 — 78 to § xLiii of Wolfs Prolegg. (17) ; who adds, that some valu- 
able criticisms of his, confirmed by Aristarchus and subsequent writers, 
and yielding traces of good original authorities, are found ; so that from 
his remains may be formed some estimate of the state of the Homeric 
text before his time. His study was not profound, and his censure often 
inconsiderate; as is plain from his readings preserved by the Schol. Ven. 
on n, 89 and the Schol. P. on ?/. 15, 140 ; so that Zrivodovog fiyvolrjGsv ou 
X. r. A. is quite a commonplace of the Scholl. in accounting for his read- 

16 It is Aristonicus who uses the expression Zijvo^OTOg ino^rjas or fiBziy^a'tlfS, 
following an opinion current among ancient grammarians. The probability, Lehrs 
thinks (p. 374), is that these, as suggested above, were unfairly credited to him 
because he let them stand with the authority of his name. 

17 Lehrs remarks (p. 352), *^Si nihil aliud prtestitisset Zenodotus quam nt 
Lane meditationem (of detecting spurious lines) ad Homerum attulisset, nunqnam 
ejus memoria perire deberet; quippe a quo omnis critic» primordia repetenda es- 
sent". Lehrs enumerates four reasons for pronouncing a verse spurious: "pri- 
raum deficiens carminum connexus vel discrepans: deinde, si quid displicet in 
arte poetae vel in hominum deorumque factis et moribus: turn, si quid in antiqdi- 
tatibus, denique si quid in sermone a poetse consuetudine discrepat. £t Zenodo- 
tus quidem prime et secundo genere substitisse reperitur, tertium et quartum ge- 
nus aliis relinquens, qui artem criticam cum arte grammaticft conjunctnri erant**. 
As an ex. he rejected dia to ccngsnlg, i. e. as containing something unworthy of 
the deity mentioned, J. 889, F. 424—5, ^.396 — 406, O, 18; so part of the episode 
of Thersites, ^ta to yiloiov; see Schol. Ven. on B. 231, 236. Not a few of his re- 
jections, 6. g. that of 0.64 — 77, have been adopted by Bekker. Perhaps under the 
second of these heads would be classed his objections to verses where he himself 
was at fault in scholarship: — "Zenodoto vocabulorum Homericorum parumgnaro, 
cum vulgarcs significatioues adhiberet, quaedam sensn omnino carere vel ridicula 
videbantur. Hajc ille non poterat non falsa judicare " (Lehrs p. 364). Lehrs 
adds (p. 374) that all early criticism is too free and sweeping, as in the revival of 
it in Italy at the renaissance^ 



PART n. ANCIENT EDITORS AND COMMENTATORS. lxv 

lugs; see ficholl. on N, 315 ^ 86^ 77. 697 etc. As an instance of rash 
exegesis may be noticed his view upon fi. 12; seeSchol.B. there. His writ- 
ings were edited by Ptolemy sumamed Epiilietes (Schol. Ven. on B, iii). 
Wolf remarks that we know his readings in about 400 passages, those 
of Aristophanes in about 200, those of Aristarchus in more than looo 
{Proleggi § xLii) and cites Ausonius(i8) as a witness to his reputation, 
conjoined with Aristarchus. His influence on the text is proved by the 
large number of places in which the Scholl. cite his readings in pointed 
contrast with the Aristarchean ; showing the extent to which subsequent 
criticism recognized on the whole both his ability and his fidelity. There 
is no trace of his having allowed variants. 

Lin. (i) 2. ARISTOPHANES op BYZANTIUM, 

son of Apelles, pupil of Callimachus, Zenodotus and Eratosthenes, of 
Dionysius toi; Idfipov and of Euphronides of Corinth, flourished 264 B.C., 
founded a school of his own at Alexandria, of the library of which he 
was curator, and invented, as it is said, the system of written accents (19). 
Similar irregularities to those of Zenodotus have been alleged against him; 
but his judgment as a scholar was superior. His studies extended beyond 
the letter to the spirit and meaning of his author, whose idea or general 
design and aesthetical points he sought to exhibit. Besides revising the 
text ofHomer, he wrote a "commentary" and a "glossary", cited by Schol. 
Ven. on A, 567. His chief care was directed, however, to the dramatists, and 
especially to his great namesake. Besides his illustrious pupil Aristarchus, 
two others of his school, Callistratus and Diodorus, left works on Homer, 
as did also others whose names have not come down. We know nothing. 
Wolf remarks, of either his method or his sources ; but may be sure that 
the greater part of any text which could have been called his, would have 
been some older vulgate common to him with Zenodotus, as shown by 
some absurdities which appear under both their names. These therefore 
were not due to him, and he can at most be charged, like Zenodotus, 
with letting them stand. It should be remembered that he had not the 
materials which Aristarchus found ready at hand(«o) ; and if he abstained 
from altering where he could not see his way to amend, this alone is 
greater praise than can be claimed for many distinguished critics in va- 
rious ages. It is unfair then both to him and. to Zenodotus, to charge these 
absurdities upon them, which may have been accumulating for centuries. 

1 8 In his Ludus Septem SapienHum^ 

Mseonio qualem caltum qusBBivit Homero 
Censor Aristarchus normaqae Zenodoti. 

19 Villoison (Anecd, Gr, II, p. 119) notes that these originally stood' on con- 
secutive syllahles, as '6^loda»po$, GsoSia^ogf ^*sed hunc usum, enjus nulla in 
nostris codd. vestigia, jam obsoleyisse ante Dionysii Thracis setatem, qui Aris- 
tarchi grammatici discipulas etc." They seein.to have soon become extensively 
current ; since Crates, (p. Lxxii) who had no connexion with Alexandria, and was 
a younger contemporary of Aristoph , used them (Scholl. BL on A. 591). 

20 £. 247 is given by Lehrs (p. 357) as an ex. of a verse not understood by 
Aristophanes, but rightly explained by Aristarchus. 

BORf. OD. II, '^ 



i,xvi • . PREFACE. 

Wolf further remarks that in such readings as can be ascribed to him, 
more learning and more moderation is shown than in those ofZenodotus, 
and that a good number of them were confirmed by Aristarchus; while 
others stuck in the text in spite of his attempt to turn them out of it, being 
ratified by the verdict of posterity {Prolegg. § xiiv). From the phrase ^t- 
%i»g ^Aqi<SToq>uvrigy used by Schol. Ven. oniV. 59, it would seem that he re- 
cognized variants ; and this is perhaps the earliest extant notice of them. 

LIV. (i) 3. ARISTARCHUS, 

born in Samothrace, flourished 222 B. C, in the school of Alexandria, 
and, times having changed for the worse with literature there, taught in 
his old age at Rome. The son of Ptolemy Philopator (a i) and Ptolemy 
Physcon were educated by him. By the time that he was curator of the 
Alexandrine library sufficient materials had accumulated there to place 
him in a highly adv ntageous position for critical labours. There he de- 
voted himself to the correction and explanation of the texts of ancient 
Greek poets, but especially of Homer. His texts were generally accepted. 
Those of the II. and Ody., which he first divided into 24 books each, be- 
came themes of commentary to his successors, and were no doubt the 
vulgate at the Augustan era.. His own commentaries also displayed wide re- 
search and sagacious judgment. He avoided, however, the snare of allego- 
rizing, which, as we have seen, beset the earliest school of commentators, and 
which soon after again became popular (^2). Wolfs statement, that we have 
over 1000 passages where his readings are known, relates to those in which 
some question has been raised; but the present text at large, so far as it 
has not suffered from subsequent corruption, probably owes its form 
mainly to him. By the Schol. Venet. his readings are cited most frequently 
of all. There are some indications that his opinion changed on cer- 
tain passages (23), but this may have been due only to the accumulation 
of further MS. evidence (24). Sometimes two readings were left evenly 

21 "Qui et ipse qoiZo/Liij^Off imV\ Wolf, citing ^lian N, H, xiii. 22. 

22 The Stoics were great patrons of Homeric allegory; but besides this, to 
save the credit at once of the gods and of the poet, they falsified readings and in^ 
terpolated lines. We have a specimen of snch a book of allegories under the name 
of Heraclides or Heraclitns (Heyne Excurs'. in II, W, 84, p. 236). 

23 As on T. 386, where occurs n^ot^qov 9\ y^d^mv 6 'Affiata^xog 

fistiyQatffSv varSQOv. 

24 As we seem to see in the Schol. on Z.4 nqoxEQOv iyiyQCcnto .... vatSQOv 
dl '(^^£<fT, ravtriv xiiv yqatpriv sv^mv in£%Qiv£, Such is the opinion of Lehrs. 
The flactaation of his opinion in some passages where further reflection, or added 
materials, modified his view, shows that he was not positive or obstinate. So the 
Schol. on JT. 613 says, the verse did not appear iv rj ttSQa rmv *AQiataQx^^i>'>v, 
iv dl tfi ^evtSQa aloyog (1. 6§tl6g} avz^ wapfxstro, and the same on T. 365, af- 
ter noticing a primary omission, adds, 6 fiivxoi 'Afificiviog iv tc5 tcsqI tfjg i^snio- 
^eiarjg Siogd'coaemg ovd'hv totovto Xiyet. This iitByt&od', Siogd^^a. is really the 
same, X take it, as 97 SevtSQa ; see the next note. 



PAET n. ANCIENT EDITORS AND COMMENTATORS, Lxvii 

, balanced by him, when both were allowed (»s). Traces of deference to his 
authority are found even where his reasons were not deemed conclusive (26). 
There were two revises of the text of Homer current under his name. 
From his pupil and successor Ammonius writing to prove that only one 
was his («7), we must suppose that the second was at any rate unauthorized, 
being perhaps an incorporation of some of his obiter dicta, or of notes 
from his lectures in his later years, with the text which he had previously 
put forth, which those later remarks may have corrected in some places. 
At any rate at ^AqtiSxiQxivot are cited, sometimes as agreeing, sometimes 
as differing. One is distinguished as ij devrigcc (see n. 24 p. Lxvi). Again 
the distinction is even more clearly marked in one being called the 
TC^ixioaig^ the other the iitindwrigj which would seem to denote posterio- 
rity in time; but there is no perceptible difference in the authority 
ascribed to them (28). Occasionally, as in Schol. B on 0, 252, we find 

95 As shown by the recurring phrase Sixo^g at 'AQiataQxov, These phrases 
may refer to the nQoi%docig and iniyi^oaig mentioned paul. tnf, 

26 Bo the Schol. Tenet, on i^. 572 ixsxQcirrias ^'h 17 tov 'Jgtatdqxov, %aCzoi Xoyov 
ova ^x^vacCj and on 11, 415, S^vtovmg dviyvto 6 'AgCctaqxog nal hnsla%'riaav ot 
YQafi^fMtnioi; cf. also ^chol. A. on £. 178, 289, Z. 150, N. 105, S, 38. Bnt see 
also on O. 320, which shows that such deference had its limits. 

27 nsgl TOV f[i^ ysyovivai nXslovccg iyidSoBtg rrjg 'AQiataqx^Cov Siog^<icBGig 
Didymns ap. Schol. K, 397 ; cf. on T. 365 for a title of a'work, also by Ammonins, 
9Bol xrig ins%9o9'siarjg diogd'ioGScog, whichWolf (/Vo/e^^.§xLTii, n. 19) thinks the 
same. Lehrs thinks that hy fiij yByovivai nXs^ovccg Ammonias meant *'not more 
than {wo^\ This is certainly a strain of the langnage. I believe Amm. meant 
that not more than one conld properly \^e reckoned as the genuine work of 
Aristar., the inB%9o%^Btaa ^lOQ^caatg, distingnished also as 7) SEvtiga^ having been 
tampered with by .disciples, although it was commonly cited as his, and might 
even contain his ripest and latest views formed after his own genuine ed.had been 
published. The Schol. A on T. 259 cites 7^ *AQi9teiifX0V, a*l is more common, or ij 
itiga x&v UgietaQXBicov, Lehrs says p. 1 5 ^^Bis ediderat Arist. Homemm : sed si 
eiiam post alteram editionem in publicum emissam in legendo et interpretando 
Homemm perrexit, hoc demnm tempore qusedam animadvertit antea nondum ob- 
servata. Haec sensim baud dubie, cum editiones identidem describerentur, textni 
addita ; attamen quae dam qnse ore tantum propagata vel per commentaries, quos 
non omnes habebant, disjecta essent, emenda fuisse patet ac sero accessisse. 
Attamen damns, nt jam antea significavimus, quasdam notas, quas Aristarchus nee 
posuerat nee indicaverat, ex ejus mente et doctrin& ab discipulis apposltas esse.*' 
The balance of evidence seems to me against the words bis and alteram. It may 
be added (Lehrs p. 30) that Aristar., before he prepared a text of his own, had 
annotated on the ed. of Aristophanes, perhaps that referred to by the Schol. A on 
SS, 236 as 7; Ugiatcigxov xorl 'Agiatogxxvovg ; cf. id, on B, 133, iv rotg xar' ^Agiato- 
tpdvrjv vnoiivT^iiaoiv 'Agiatdgxov, This may have helped to increase the confusion, 
which perhaps called forth the work of Amm. as aforesaid. All this shows the keen 
literary interest which the remains of Aristar. excited in the Alexandrine school. 

28 This is nearly the opinion of Wolf {Prolegg, % xtvii) cf. Villoison {Prolegg. 
p. xxvii). 



Lxviii PREFACE. 

the remark ^AQiaraQxog ayvozu and so the Schol. A on X, %% charges him 
with an error in accentuation. 

Ly. It has been urged that his reconstruction of the poet's text, not- 
withstanding its parade of authorities, was still too ideal and dogmatic; 
and that, while he collected copies from remote sources, £e did so only 
to ornament the decision which he really arrived at on subjective 
grounds (29); viz. by considering which of the readings before him was 
most worthy of the poet or best suited to the passage, instead of rigidly 
balancing the evidence. As far as we can see, Aristarchus was under 
two conflicting (30) influences, a scrupulous regard for authorities, and a 
rigid consistency in the application of principles ascertained by analogy. 
It is not perhaps too much to say that his famous a^exriGig^ or disallow- 
ance of a verse or passage without going so far as to remove it from the 
text, represents the practical balance or compromise which these two 
principles maintained in his mind. I hardly think that Lehrs in his 
estimate of the great critic has taken due account of the latter of these 
characteristics, whilst Wolf has, as, I think, Lehrs shows, not recognized 
the former with due frankness (3 0- -^ ^^ ^.pt example of the two prin- 

29 ''Yerom ista omnia sic accipi nolim, quasi bonos et accnratos emendatores 
negem antiquis et exquisitis codicibus usos esse, iisque comparandis genuinam 
formam textns qusesivisse. At genuina illis fait ea, quae poetam maxime decere 
yidebatur.. In quo, nemo non videt, omnia denique ad Alexandrinorum ingeniam 
et arbitrium redire.'' Lehrs (364) censures this as inconsistent, **neque enim 
poterant m\t oper& genuinam formam quserere comparandis antiquis et exquisitis 
codicibus suoque abuti arbitrio ", and Wolf (§ xLvii) even seems a few pages fur- 
ther on to repent of his dictum, for he in effect admits that we have not the ma- 
terials to decide how far Arist. used or abused his authorities. — "quid ille in 
summam carminum novi induxerit, qua relig^one antiquos libros excusserit quo- 
modo usus sit Zenodoti, Aristophanis et ceterorum, quos supra nominavi, recensio- 
nibus, hsec et alia certis aut probabilibus argumentis hodie perspici nequeant*\ 

30 "Singulares sunt in soholiis loci duo, unus ad t. 222, alter ad n, 466. In 
priore Aristarcho etiam reyerentia veterum recensionum tribuitur et nBQi.xzii 
svXd§Ha : in posteriore constautia emendationis eorum quae prseceptis suis con- 
traria putasset." Prolegg, § l, note 52. 

31 "Minimo audax fuit Aristarchus; imo mihi certum est si quid Aristarchus 
peccavit in contrarium peccasse: nam si totam hominis subtilitatem perspicio, 
opinor unum et alterum non laturum fuisse in Homcro^ ut alienum ab ejus con- 
sy^tudine, nisi qusedam religio obstitisset.'* Lehrs 381. Lehrs goes on to say that 
in Homer are some things which he ventures to affirm have no sense in them: 
that Aristarchus had no other reading of them than we have, and that he never- 
theless did not condemn them (379 — 80). It is a pity Lehrs has not given one or 
two examples. Perhaps ^.201 — 3 may be one such; see note there. See further, as 
against this, Wolfs charge that he "audaciores generosioresque sententias poetse 
corrupit non raro, quo eas propius ad naturam et veritatem reduceret", and the 
note (§ xLviii, 52) by which he substantiates it. Opposed to the religio qucedam^ 
ascribed above by Lehrs, is his mention that Arist. "indulged* his opinion" in re- 
•'^rting lines diet to nsQLttovy i.e. on account of redundancy, the sense being com- 



PART II. ANCIENT EDITOKS AND COMMENTATORS. Lxix 

ciples in conflict the following (Lehrs 375) may be cited: Aristarchus had 
arrived at a canon that q>6§oq is never in Homer an equivalent for. diog^ 
and wherever his codices provided him with a subsidiary reading, e, g, 
xQO^og, he escaped from the difficulty by adopting it, otherwise he sacri- 
ficed (fi^irffiB) the line. He would not allow authority to establish a line 
against his canon, nor allow scope to his canon where authority gave no 
countenance to its dicium, but set the mark of a^exridig against the line. 
Where the authority of two readings was balanced he preferred xo Cvvi]- 
Olg to TO diov^ Homeric usage to abstract fitness. (Apollon. Dysc. SynU 
p. 77, cited by Villoison and Lehrs.) But he did not allow this to influence 
him where the verdict of the authorities was clear. Thus he retained 
dvaaxo in P. 262, where his own judgment would have led him to read 
dvaexo^ and |S^ q>ivymv in B. 665, where q)BvyBiv would have been more 
Homeric (32). Again as an example of a canon allowed or not according 
to the state of the MSS., he retained in 77. 358 Aiag <J' 6 ^uyag where de (li- 
yag was equally metrical; but inB. I withstoodZenodotus' error wAAo*, read- 
ing aXloi, So in (P. 84 he dropped the augment in og fii xoi avxig dcone, 
where the metre would have allowed it; but contrariwise in O. 601 ix 
yicQ dfi xov IfiElks he kept it against Aristophanes' fiekXs, The MSS. in 
these cases were clear, where they differed he dropped the augment, as 
in ^Qya viiAOvxo and &av(ia xbvKxo. Lehrs (379) remarks that in deter- 
mining the balance of such doubtful cases, he showed good taste and 
nice discernment. 

LVI. On the whole Wolfs censure of Aristarchus* critical standard as 
ultimately arbitrary cannot stand. Wolf himself argues like a man who 
had swept out a conclusion boldly, and was trying back for reasons 
in support of it. He says that the ancient iot6ol were always viewed as 
addicted to emendation ad lib,,, and that this bad habit had descended 
till it infected *'all the critics'' {Prolegg, § XLvi, last par.). He forgets the 
great change from the ccoiSol to Zenodotus, and from Zenodotus to Aris- 
tarchus. In the first criticism was interpolatory, in the second expurga- 
torial, in the third explorative. The licentiousness of alteration indulged 
by the rhapsodists reacted in the wholesale excisions of Zenodotus — 
a practice which became moderated as criticism matured itself in Aris- 
tarchus. We must pardon in Zenodotus for reasons explained above (p. 
liXiv), not only what he cut out, but what he put in — if he did put in. 
He bad to patch up somehow a readable text from the materials which he 
had left himself, and in default of a due apparatus he had recourse to 

plete without them; as also in rejecting Unes which by extending only weakened 
the sense; as after A. 515 the extension, lovg x^ iv.tdykvsLV %al flnia (pdcQfAa^a 
ndccuv (359—60). . 

3a So in n. 636 Lehrs remarks *'nolait una deletA t omnem dubltandi mate- 
riem toUere, quid igitur veritus est nisi codicum auctoritatem?**. The slightness 
of the alteration in this and the above cases tends to enhance his respect for the 
codd. This cannot be said as regards the Aristarchean suggestion to read aV> 
inieavxo for ^$ ^qov %vxo in /. 222, which, Aristarchus remarked, would show 
that they partook onlj oat of compliment to Achilles, having feasted oiil^ V^x» 



Lxx PEEFACE. 

diaskeuastic resources, such as random conjecture and perhaps down< 
right coining. Conjectural emendation abates in Aristophanes, and in 
Aristarchus retires within the narrowest margin, being subdued by an 
abstemipus caution, if not guided by a more competent sagacity. This 
crude resource of early criticism gave way as larger materials enabled 
Aristarchus to pave a surer path. We have seen that in cases where the 
MS. evidence was strongly on one side, and yet his canon would have 
led him to rule contrariwise, he set the canon aside. In doubtful cases he 
would let the canon operate. What degree of defective evidence would 
constitute in his eyes a case to be ruled by a canon, is a question impos- 
sible to answer, further than that in the general his deference to autho- 
rity is extreme. His consummate judgment in cases of the different vari- 
ants is generally attested in strong terms by Wolf himself (33). 

LVn. Next to that lact of philology, which, as noticed above on p. 
xix — ^zx. narroMred the basis of his verbal criticism, his chief defect seems 
to have been a want of poetic sympathy for the thoughts of his author. 
For so symmetrical a mind uniformity and system would have an abiding 
charm, and he would perhaps miss the force of the poet's conception 
buoying up the epithet, or dilating the image into hyperbole. It is on the 
whole fortunate that he was so abstemious in conjecture. The few 
samples which we have contain no very bright specimens, while some are 
egregiously shallow, frigid and prosaic (34). Of the happy divination 
which has not rarely marked modem criticism I doubt we possess a 
single example among his remains. There is reason to think that* he 
himself, so encompassed was he with the power of judgment, and so con- 
scions alike of his forte and of his foible, detected hi» own want of capa- 
city in this respect, and in general distrusted, if on that account only, 
such unauthorized emendations as he might have made. The famous 
reply that "he would not write such verses as he could, and could not 
such as he would ", seems reflected in his careful eschewing of conjecture 
save in a few rare instances. Owing to the same defect he was offended 
at some Homeric similes, much as Addison was in the last century. The 
unhealthy super-refinement of the Ptolemsean age may be partly char- 
geable with this. Such men, as Lehrs remarks, are often spoilt between 
the court and the schools (35). 

before, and having in fact no ^oq left. Such a suggestion shows that the notion 
of ^4mproying" his author was not absolutely without place in the mind of one 
who conld make it. 

33 ^^ Videmus eum ex discrepantid plurium lectionum earn fere elegisse qun 
Homerico ingenio et consnetadini ipsique loco optime convenisset." (Wolf. Pro- 
1^99' § xLvii.) See also the i** par. of the same section. 

34 Thus ( Wolf § xLviii, n. 35) he would have read ivvBa%hCXovg ^ isxccxsUovg 
in £.'860, S. 148 for ivvsaxiXovg rj 6s%axilovg, and in Find. Pyth. III. 43 |?ttf»aTt 
iv tgnaxo} for fid fiat 1, iv n(f(6t(Oy thinking such a single leap alarmingly great 
even for a god. Such criticism knocks off natural flowers to substitute cut f^aper 
ones. So he took offence at v^ccg plur. in O. 417, and read v^u on account of the 
expression paul. sup.^ ta ds fii'^g tcbqI vrjog ^%ov novov, 

35 ^^lllos vero Alexandrinos et aulas loxuria affluentes, et philosophorum se- 



PART II. ANCIENT EDITORS AND COMMENTATORS, vxxi 

On the whole his memory has heen unjustly treated by Wolf, whose 
sagacity is overlaid by captiousness, and who overlooks the fact that in 
regard to other poetry sober canons (3<») of criticism had become accepted 
at Alexandria, and thut the presumption lies against Homer having been 
dealt with arbitrarily. Of course, the Homeric text had difficulties of its 
own, to solve which the ordinary principles of criticism were inadequate. 
Still, those principles remained true even where they failed of practical 
application. They were to be supplemented, not forsaken. Wolf seems 
to assume that critics who dealt soberly enough with other texts became 
suddenly crazed with an arbitrary furor when they turned to the Homeric. 
On the contrary Aristarchus (37) seems to have been in judgment almost 
a '^ faultless monster '' of sobriety. His mind shows, so far as samples of 
it Have reached us, great power of analysis, method, order and symme- 
trical combination. It was after all imperfectly dtored with materials from 
without, as has been above stated (p. xix), and in the creative depart- 
ment it was nearly blank — the judgment had so thoroughly tamed down 
the imagination. The mor^l temperament, so far as we can indirectly 
judge of it, was in harmony with the mental. There seems to have been 
in him a judicial calmness of temper, an absence of dictatorial presump- 
tion (38), a capacity for retracting and a readiness to use either end of 

veritate circomstrepentes, in multis offendisse mihi consentanenm videtur^', p. 355. 
So Wolf, § ZLTiii, " fnerunt olim hand dubie qai pntarent in prisco poet4 anomala 
qnsedam ferenda esse, nee indigna repetitn,. quse iile ad prsecepta sua rigide ma- 
Uverat." 

36 Lehrs -charges Wolf roundly that he " omnino falsanT de illorum grammati- 
coram operft conceperit notionem^', viz. inProlegg, §xLyi, contends for the careful 
study of MSS. among the ancient critics (p. 366), and rejects the notion of their 
contemning as a "pamm digna cura", the minutiae of subdivisions of texts, as 
into books etc. with summaries prefixed, of collating copies, correcting errors, of 
punctuation and accentuation (p. 373). 

37 Perhaps by no one remark can Wolfs unfairness to Aristarchus be better 
illustrated than by that in which he says that A. treated Homer as Cato treated 
Lncilius, or as Tucca and Yarius would have treated the ^ne'id.. The falseness 
of the parallel is obvious at a glance. For there was no doubt, we may fairly 
presume, in Cato^s mind, as to what Lucilius really wrote; only he thought he 
could improve upon it. Tucca and Yarius, again, had Yirgil^s autographs before 
them, but avowedly left in an unfinished state, and their thought was to do that 
for the ^neid which they conceived its author would have done for it. Where is 
the resemblance between such cases and that of a student feeling his way up the 
current of tradition upon the stepping-stones of divergent or contradictory texts? 

38 In testimony of this, no name so surpassingly great in its own provinee 
has ever excited so little of that envious detraction which leaves its mark upon 
great men and is the tribute of inferior to loftier minds. He was not only fa€iU 
princeps, but no one in the ancient world was looked upon as aimiUs out secundum t» 
him, nor am I aware of any attempt to disparage him till that of Wolf, fai- 
deed there Is hardly a man who is such a luminary in his own sphere, o€ whom as 
a person we know so little, although none lay more fully iathe tun od «JOkft^^Vsa^^ 



Lxxii PREFACE. 

the stile. The name of Aristarehus is a date in itself — a turning point 
where a long prospect opens. Before him there is none, but after him 
comes a long line of successors, forming around "the poet '^ of Greece aji 
undergrowth of parasitic literature unequalled perhaps in exhaustiveness 
and variety, unless it be by the Patristic commentaries on Holy Writ. 
Seventeen of his more illustrious personal pupils are known by name be- 
sides his tw^o sons, and forty-one are enumerated. He is said to havie 
written 800 books of commentaries, and to have died at the age of J 2,, 

LVIII. (i) 4. CRATES, 

cir. 155 ^- C., the adversary of Aristarehus, son of Timocrates, a stoic 
philosopher, was bom at Mallus in Cilicia, and educated at Tarsus, but 
flourished at Pergamus, where he founded a school or sect (39) of gram- 
marians which continued to enjoy reputation for Siome time after his 
death. His favourite prinxiiple is named avcoftaA/cr, as opposed to that of 
Aristarehus, ivaXoyia; and he is said to have taken it from Chrysippus. 
He viewed the critic's art as excursive into all the provinces of litera- 
ture ; and embraced mythology, geography aiid physical science among 
his illustrative materials. His chief work, arranged in nine books, was 
entitled dioQ^coCig ^Ihddog xotl 'OdvOGBiag. In what sense he used dio^to- 
cig is not certain, owing to the scanty traces which are extant. But pro- 
. bably It wa6 a revised edition of the poem, the word for commentaries 
being vnofiViifiavu, The key-word, ivtofuxXla^ sa opposed to avakoyia, sug- 
gests that he recognized the abnormal element in language, and resisted 
the dogmatical tendency of the Aristarchean canons. He is cited by SchoU. 
AB on 0. 365, (P. 558, MV on y. ^93, by Scholl. HQ on d, 260, by Schol. 
H on d, 6ti e( al. He wrote also on the Theogony of Hesiod, and on the 
Attic dialect, and enjoyed the distinction of introducing grammatical 
studies at Rome, whither he was sent as ambassador from King Attains II. 
Whilst there he fractured his leg, and while thus laid up, occupied his 
enforced leisure in lecturing on grammar. Traditions of his views de- 
scended there to Varro, who wrote about a century later. His reputation 
in antiquity was a« high perhaps as that of any after Aristarehus, over 
whose readings some of his have enjoyed a permanent preference in a 
few passages. 

mong^cr.s and literary gossips. He had the rare fortune to flourish when the time 
was duly tii^e for him. Never was a genius better tiraed to its epoch, or more 
exactly commetisurate with the province which awaited it, and this probably cen- 
tribated to perpetuate the reputation which he secured. He seemed to step spon- 
taneousiy into a biche of fame ready made for him, and no serious effort, until 
Wolfs, has ever been made to depose him from it. This, of course, does not im- 
ply that there was no school opposed to him; but the opposition was viewed as 
heterodox (see on Ptolemy of Ascalon p. lxxv. inf,\ the school had no vitality, 
and left his preeminence substantially unshaken. 

39 A treatise nspl r^^ KQaTrjts^ov eiigscsiog is ascribed to Ptolemy of Asca- 
lou. Pd^gameni or Cratetef was the name of hi« ^isciples, to whom is referred the 
drawing up of certain lists of writers and catalogues of the titles of works. 



PART II. ANCIENT EDITORS AND COMMENTATORS. Lxxiil 

(i) 5. RHIANUS 
rose from being a slave to be an epic poet and grammarian, contemporary 
with Aristarcbus and intimate with Eratosthenes at Alexandria. His 
birthplace is variously described as Crete or Messene, but the latter is 
probably a mis- description arising from his work on the Messenian war. 
He also wrote 'HgdxXsia^ ^HXiani^ 6f(>tfaAtxa and epigrams, some of which 
are extant and evince much simplicity and elegance. His remains are 
edited in Gaisford's Poetce Minores Grwci. His grammatical works in- 
cluded either a revise of or commentary upon Homer, and several of the 
readings cited from him by the Scholl. are worthy of special remark, e, g. 
those on 0. 607, /J. 241, 311, y. 24, 178. 

LIX. (ii) 6. CALLISTRATUS, 

mentioned above as a disciple of Aristophanes, is probably the same as 
the author of the work on Heraclea, cited by Stephanus of Byzantium, 
in seven books or more. 

(ii) 7. DIODORUS, 

also a disciple of Aristophanes or a supporter of his views (Villoison 
Prolegg. p. 29), possibly the same as the one mentioned by Athenasus 
(XI. p. 479) as the writer of certain yXmaaat ''IrahKccl etc. 

(ii) 8. PARMENISCUS 

addressed a book to Crates (40). Eustath. and the Scholl. cite him several 
times. Varro {de L. L. x. 10) ascribes to him some grammatical work, 
probably on the parts of speech. One interpretation of his of the word 
nQOtfirjatg in ji, 424, and a reading of Aristarcbus (from the book afore- 
said) are preserved (Fabric. I. p. 518). 

(ii) 9. APPOLLODORUS, 

son of Asclepiades, and pupil of Aristarcbus, as ako of Panaetius the 
philosopher and of Diogenes the Babylonian, flourished as a grammarian 
at Athens about 140 B. C, and was a voluminous writer. He is known 
as regards Homer only by a work in 12^ books, explaining historically 
and geographically the catalogue of ships in 5., and by a glossary 
(ylmzm) (Villoison Prolegg. p. xxix), but several of his other works on 
mythology, as that called the fiifiho^iiM], that n^gi ^ewv etc., must have 
partly covered Homeric ground. Of these the fii^kiod: has come down 
to us in an incomplete state, and has been edited by Heyne, Gottingen, 
1803 (Smith's Did. Biogr, s. n.), Eustath. cites a mention of him from 
Porphyry (Fabric, ub, sup. p. 504). He wrote also a xqovim} avvta^ig, 
being a history of the world continued from the mythical period to his 

40 If this were to be understood as an epistle to a contemporary, this would 
^ his date, but there is some reason to think that ngog KQcltrita was a mere con- 
ventional form of connecting^ a work on any subject with a name already famous 
in connexion with it. 



Lxxiv PREFACE. 

own %time, but now lost. He is said to have been the inventor of the 
"tragiambic." verse, and is cited by the Scholl. Venet. on A, 244, B. 
103, JV. 301, U. 95 el ah 

(ii) 10. DIONYSrUS, 

sumamed theThracian, pupil of Aristarchus (4O1 wrote "on quantities", 
cited by Schol. Yen. on B, Tii, in which he refuted incidentally some 
views of Zenodotus, and a r^x^iy ^^ treatise on grammar which was am- 
plified by successive grammarians, and was for several centuries a po- 
pular elementary treatise among teachers. He considered "criticism as 
the complement and crown of grammar''. A paraphrase pn the Ody. is 
ascribed to him (Fabric. I. p. 394). He also wrote against Crates, and 
in this and other works a good deal of Homeric illustration was con- 
tained; hence he is cited several times by Eustath., and more frequently 
by the Schol. Venet. That he had no servile deference for Aristarchus, 
appears from the Schol. on B. 262, 

LX. (ii) II. NICANDER OP COLOPHON, 

son of DamnsBus, poet, flourished at an uncertain date, the doubt lying 
between the period of Attains, circa 145 B. C. and the Ghristian era. He 
wrote -^i/ptaxof, " of venomous animals ", and aA£$t^a^^axa, "antidotes"; 
also lost works entitled AhtokiKa^ yeoogyMa^ yXciiSCai (cited by AthensBus 
VII, p. zSS) and others. His yXcoaaat is probably the work from which 
the Scholl. quote in citing his authority for certain readings, e, g. Scholl. 
AL on Z. 506. He is often reckoned amongst the mediciy and is said to 
have done into hexameters part of the works of HippocratQ/s under the 
title of nQoyvcoauncc, (Fabric, iv. p. 344.) He is referred to by Strabo, 
p. 823, as an authority regarding serpents. It is doubtful whether the 
Nicander sumamed of Thyatira, cited by Stephanus in his epitome {ibid, 
354) ^55)1 IS identical or different. 

(ii) la. DIONYSIUS, 
sumamed "the Sidonian'\ cited Schol. Ven. on B. 192, 26a, X, 39 et al,, 
by Varro {de L, L. IX 10), Apollonius Lex. Horner.^ and often by Eu- 
tath. He is mentioned once as censuring Aristarchus, and also as the 
author of a work on "the resemblances and differenced of words" (Vil- 
loison Prolegg p. xxix. Fabric. I. p. 511, VI. p. 3i64). 

(ii) 13. NICIAS OF COS, 
B. C. 50, was fortunate in being a literary friend of Cicero and Atticus, 
as on the score of merit he would hardly be entitled to much notice. He 

41 An article in Dr.W. Smith's Diet. Biogr. gives his period as B. C. 80, about 
which time he is said to have taught at Rome. This is probably an error, as he is 
said (Villoison Prolegg. p. xxix; Anecd. Gr, vol. II. p. 171) to have been "one of 
the 40 pupils of Aristarchus '\ not a later follower of his, It may have arisen 
from confounding him with some other of the name, perhaps "the Lindian'\ said 
(Fabric. YI. p. 364) to have taught at Rome in the time of Pompey. The same 
Qonfusion appears ii* Yillgisoa Aneed, Gr. II. 119. 



PART n. ANCIENT EDITORS AND COMMENTATORS. lxxv 

is mentioned in Strabo, p. 657 — 8, as 6 ««d' ^(nag Nmiag 6 netratv^ctwii' 
cag Kmwv, The mention of him in Cicero's letters (see Smith's Diet. 
Biogr.) seems to bespeak rather a light esteem of the man. He is cited 
by Eustath. and 9 times by the Venet. Schol., also by Scholl. EMQ on • 
a. 109 ei al, 

(ii) 14. IXION, 

surname given to Demetrius of Adramyttium, derived from his commit- 
ting a sacrilege in the Heroum at Alexandria, or, as others say, from his 
stealing a play from Philotimus (Fabric, vi. p. 446). He was a follower of 
Aristarchus and lived at Pergamus in the age of Augustus Csesar. He 
wrote of verbs and pronouns, and composed a commentary (i|t77^<^^$) 
upon Homer and Hesiod {ibid. p. 362). He is cited by Scholl. ALV on 
A. 513 and B. 137, 19a, by Scholl. AB on E. 31, by Scholl. HP on e. 
490 ei al. His hvfiokoyavfiBva are mentioned by Athenteus. 

(ii) 15. APOLLONIUS, 

sumamed "the Sophisf , son of Archebulus or Archebius, flourished aa a 
grammarian at Alexandria in the Augustan age (42), and wrote a Lexicon 
to the n. and'Ody. which is preserved, not however entire, and probably 
with considerable interpolations. It preserves a great number of very 
valuable ancient readings, and cites many early [authorities, and was 
edited elaborately by VOloison, Paris, 1773. Hesychius took his mate- 
rials largely from ApoUonius, who in turn is supposed by Yilloison to 
have incorporated the more valuable part of a similar work by his pupil 
Apion. He is cited by the Schol. A on Z. 414 ei ai. . 

LXI. (ii) 16. PTOLEMY or ASCALON, 

author of a work concerning the "difFerences of words" (43), probably the 
one still extant (ap. Fabric. YI. p, 156 foil.), also of Homeric prosody, 
and of a work on the revision of the Ody. by Aristarchus. He was a 
teacher at Rome; and is quoted by Herodian {inf. no. 25) who lived un- 
der M. Antoninus, but referred to also by Didymus (Lehrs), which fixes 
an earlier date for him. He seems to have ventured on a more decided 
difference from the views of Aristarchus than most of the grammarians ; 
see Schol. Ven. A, 396, O. 312. 

(i) 17. DIDYMUS OF ALEXANDRIA, 

temp. Tib. Os^ar, son of a salt-fij^h salesman of the same name, and from 
his devotion to study sumamed xotXaivxei^og , followed Aristarchus, whose 

43 Buhnken, however, places him abont a generation later (Smithes Did, 
Biogr . $,. n.); this is countenanced by Villoison Prolegg, p.zzix, who speaks of him 
'*et ejus magister Apion '\ 

43 Closely resembling another similar one ascribed toAmmonins^who belongs 
to the end of the fourth century (Fabric, loc, cit. and note n). Whether either of 
the ascriptions is just is a very obscure questioja. 



Lxxvi PREFACE. 

dioQ^coaLg of Homer he re-edited with consummate research and acumen (44). 
He IS said to have written 35^^ works, including commentaries on most 
of the more important Greek dramatists and orators (45). The best of the 
scholia on Pindar and Sophocles are said to be his (Smith's Bid. Biogr. 
s.n.). Most of these numerous works were probably compilations, in some 
of the latter of which he is said to have forgotten what he had written 
in the former. His Homeric studies formed the most valuable portion of 
his labours. In these he collated edd. earlier than Aristarchus, especially 
those of Zenod. and Aristoph., and often gives his judgment with great 
impartiality where they differ from Aristarchus' (Lehrs 28 — 9) ; cf. Schol. 
A on Z. 71. The Scholia minor Uy called also "Didymi", are a compilation 
partly from him, but including many other and some much later sources 
(Fabric. I. p. 388, cf. cap. 18). An account of them is given by Dindorf 
{Prwf. ad Scholl. in Odyss, p. xv). Didymus was the teacher of Apollonius, 
Apion and the Heraclides Ponticus mentioned inf. He was the contem- 
porary and in some sense the rival of Aristonicus. He was, however, a 
superior commentator to him, and made use of original authorities from 
which the latter abstained. He often corrects Aristonicus, and stows that 
readings accepted by him as Aristarchean could not have been so. But, 
Lehrs thinks, he could not have been in any sense indebted to hiih(46). 

44 ** Hunc Didyinum ejusque in Aristarcheis lectionibus exquirendis positam 
operamWolfins si cognovisset melins, hnnc si tenuisset Didymum esse qui per tota 
scholia duplicis Aristarchese editionis lectiones apponit, nnnqnam ille negasset 
duplicem AristarcM editionem fuisse'* (Lehrs, p. 26—7). As regards the value 
of his labours, Lehrs says, ''fait igfitur aliquot saeculis post perutile, quss tarn 
Aristarchese ferebantur lectiones ad fidorum monumentoram regulam ezigere. 
Prseterea turn accederet, ut non semel Aristarchus sed bis Homerum edidisset, hoc 
etiam pemtile, utriusqne editionis lectiones inter se conferre singulisque versibns 
utriusque editionis vel consensum vel dissensum notare. Bed ne sic quidem omnis 
in textu Homerico ab Aristarcho posita opera illnstrata. Nam cum post alteram 
editionem emissam mnltos annos in meditandp et interpretando Homero perstitis 
set, at que etiam commentarios edere pergeret, partim discipulis coram, partim in 
commentariis veteres snas lectiones reprobaverat, alias, nt dies diem docuerat, 
optaverat, defenderat, stabiliverat. Ergo hoc etiam pemtile, lectionibus editio- 
num constitutis, variante lectione ex ntr&que congests, addere ex commentariis et 
ex traditione (ea vero discipulorum scriptis vel etiam memoria continebatur) 
lectiones paulatim ab eodem adscitas. Tum demum recte de Aristarcheo textu 
constabat'* {ibid, 19). *^Quam artem subtiliter diligenterque traetare docuerat 
(Aristarchus); eam Did3rmus tarn egregie ad editiones Aristarchi Homericas ad« 
hibuit, nt nihil inihi videatur in hoc genere fingi posse perfectius" {ibid. p. 18). 

45 ^^He stands at the close of the period in which a comprehensive and in- 
dependent study of Greek Literature prevailed, and he himself must be regarded 
as the father of the scholiasts who were satisfied with compiling or abridging the 
works of their predecessors " (Smith's Diet. Biogr, s,n,). He is here placed in 
class (i) as having edited the text of Homer. 

46 "Didymus ipsos fontes adiens Aristonici breviario carebat facillime" 
(Lehrs p. 31). Amongst these "fontes" were the edd. of Antimachns, Rhianus, 



PART n. ANCIENT EDITORS AND COMMENTATORS, lxxvu 

His work nB(^l tvjg ^AQt^tagxsiov Siogd^aascag is recited at the end of every 
book by the compiler of the scboU. Venet. as having furnished materials 
for his work; see that on -ff. in. 

(ii) t8. ARISTONICUS, 
temp. Tib. Caesar, was esteemed a grammarian of high merit. Strabo 
mentions him p. 38 as of his own time, and as having, in what he wrote, 
concerning the wanderings of Menelaiis, recorded the opinions of many 
upon the matters therein contained. A schol. on F. 198, ascribed by 
Lehrs to Herodian, cites him as reading otcav where Aristarchus read 
oiciv* see also on N. 137, oAoo/T^o;|ro^. The remarks there adduced as 
his are supposed by Lehrs to be from his commentary on Homer. He 
also commented on Pindar (Schol. ad 01. /. 33, III. 31, YII. 153). He 
gave explanations of the marks of Aristarchus, whose name is often to be 
understood where he uses the 3*^^ pers. sing, anonymously. So his phrase 
arifAEiovvTal ttvsg is referred by Lehrs to Aristarchus or his disciples 
(Lehrs p. 5» § 4, p. 15? § 7). See further under Didymus, who with 
Ariston. is one of the four grammarians out of whose works the scholl. 
Venet. were compiled. 

LXn. (i) 19. APION, 

surnamed (iox^og from his literary toils, son of Plistonicus, or Posido- 
nius, but whether of Egyptian or Cretan origin, is doubted. A revision 
of the Homeric text with a commentary, the joint production of him and 
Herodorus, was in high popularity in the time of Caligula, and absolutely 
ruled the Homeric studies of the age. He is cited by Schol. B on B. ii^, 
BL on /I. 457, Q on 6, 419 et aL Hesychius mentions his expositions of 
Homeric U^Bigy and Eustath. often speaks of the commentary. Whether 
he was the author of a distinct Homeric Lexicon, has been doubted {v. s, 
ApoUonius), but his Homeric works, under whatever title, were compiled 
with great judgment, and (Valckenaer thinks) became the basis of subse- 
quent Homeric Lexicons (Fabric. I. p. 503 — 4). He excelled also in ora- 
tory, and was politically concerned in the embassy from Alexandria to 
Caligula against the Jews, whom he also attacked in writing, which called 
forth Josephus' famous reply. He also wrote Mgyptiaca, a topographical 
and descriptive work, an eulogy on Alexander the Great, and other works. 
His merits were undoubtedly high, but were obscured by his own over- 
weening estimate of them, which outran even the adulation apparently 
paid to him. 

Philetas, Zenodotus, Sosigenes, Philemon, Aristophanes, Callistratus, Crates, the 
one named ij icoXvcti%og (perhaps from the nnmber of lines in a column or page), 
those known as the xoival, ^rjfLaSstg etc., the w^'olic and the Cyclic; besides the 
commentaries of Dionysius Thrax, Dionjsins Sidonius, Choeris, Demetrius Ixion, 
Diodoms, Ptolemaeus Epithetes on the text of Zenodotas (^^si modo recte inter- 
pretamur B. iii", adds Lehrs), the tract of Ammonius, referred to p. Lzvii n. 27, 
Dionyslus Thrax on Crates nsgl noaoxr^z(ov, the writings of Dionysodorus, Par- 
meniscus, rtolemieus Oroandes, Apollonius Rhodias on Zenodotns, and a few more i 
(Lehrs p. 30). 



t 



Lxxviii PREFACE. 

(ii) ao. HERACLBDES PONTICUS, 
so called by Fabric, {ub, sup, p. 513), but possibly by confusion with tb^ 
better known one so named and sumamed, who was a pupil of Plato. He is 
claimed by Ammonius, a grammarian of Alexandria towards the close of 
the 4*** century, as "one of us" (^fiiw^oi/), t. e. probably of the Alexan- 
drine school. He wrote "solutions" (kvceig) of Homeric questions (47), 
and explained Homeric allegories (48). He is said by Fabric, {ub, sup. p. 
513, cf. VI, p. 369) to have been a pupil of Didymus the younger and 
to have flourished in the times of Claudius and Nero. 

(ii) 21. SELEUCUS OF ALEXANDRIA, 
sumamed ffomericuSy wrote i^riyfiTi%a on the whole of Homer, and also 
taught oratory at Rome. He was the author of other works grammatical 
and mythological. His date is uncertain, but was not later than Sueto- 
nius who cites him (Fabric. VI. 378) A. D. 90. 

(ii) 22. NICANOR 
of Alexandria (Suidas) or of Hierapolis (Steph. Byzant.) A. D. 130, was 
sumamed derisively axiy^nctxiag from his writing on punctuation, espe- 
cially that of Homer and Callimaehus, but also generally (itBql tijg x«- . 
d'olov otiy'fi^). His work furnished materials to the Schol. Venet. (Fa- 
bric. I. 368, 517, HI. 823, VI. 345). He is cited by the SchoU. BL on 
Z. 445 et al. 

Cii) 23. JBLIUS DI0NYSIU8, 

a Creek rhetorician of Halicarnassus temp, Hadrian^ who wrote a lexicon 
of '-4TT*Kcir ovojiiaTCf, cited by Eustath., also probably by the Schol. L. on Z. 
378. His other works were chiefly upon music. He must be distinguished 
from the more famous Dionysius, also sumamed ^^ of Halicarnassus ", who 
wrote on Roman arch»ology and belongs to the century B. C. 

(ii) 24. APOLLONrUS, 
sumamed 6 8v0%olog from having his temper soured by poverty, was bora 
at Alexandria, flourished under Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, and wrote 
on parts of speech, verbs in ^ti and ** Homeric figures*'. 

(ii) 25. HERODIAN, 

son of the last mentioned, also an Alexandrian, but removed to Rome 
and gained the favour of M. Aurelius, to whom he dedicated a book, ei- 

47 This was a favourite form of ancient Homeric criticism on detached points; 
cf. Villoison Anecd. Gr, II. p. 1 84, *' ac prsesertim ii qni ex Alexandrinft scholft, 
tanqnam ex equo Trojano, prosilaere, et vocabantnr ot /LvTtxol, et nt Enstathii 
verba usurpem, o( tav *OpL7jQt7t.av dnoQimv iltnrtKol, quod in Moffeo Alexandrine 
ut plnrimnm Homericis qusestionibns excogitandis et argnte solvendis vacarent." 
One such dno^Cntj ascribed to Aristotle, is mentioned by the Schol. Yen. on fi. 73. 

48 Unless these were the work of the elder Heraclides Ponticns, already re- 
ferred to, with whom Fabric, loc. cit. seems to confound him. 



PAKT n. ANCIENT EDITORS AND COMMENTATORS, lxxix 

tber his 'lliaK'ij «^«d/a (Scliol. Yen. on A. 576) (49), or his ^ xa^Xov 
7CQO0m6iiu in ao books. Both are cited by Schol. Yen. on A, 493; see also 
on O. 23% et ah He also wrote i7tt(iiQiciioi^ in which rare and difficult 
words and peculiar forms in Homer were discussed (so) ; see further in 
Smith's BicU Biogr, 8, n. 

(iii) 26. ATHENiEUS op NAUCRATIS 
names as his contemporary the emperor Commodus, and flourished to the 
time of Alexander (Rom. Emp.). His work is called the ismvocoiptaxttl^ 
which might be paraphrased as 'Meamed table-talk''; it is in the form of 
a dialogue supposed to take place at a banquet, but spun out to the in- 
ordinate length of 15 books. It is chiefly on literary and critical points, 
or on literature as illustrating the art of the bon vivant^ but is so illimitably 
discursive that anything may lead to anything else. The opinions ex- 
pressed in it are perhaps as often merely whimsical or jocosely exagger- 
ated as sincerely meant; such probably is the statement that Athenocles 
of Cysicus understood Homer better than Aristarchus (V. p. 177 e) ; so 
also the ajlusion to coa and vnegaa (cf. Schol. Y. on U. 184) and sundry 
other heavy pedantic jokes. He has rescued from perishing a vast mass 
of literary fragments, and wrote a lost laistory of the Kings of Syria. See 
further in Smith's Did, Biogr, s, n. 

iXni. (iii) 27. PORPHYRY, 

bom probably in Batanea (Bashan) of Trans- Jordanic Palestine, in his 
youth studied under the Christian Father, Origen, perhaps at Csesarea, but 
flourished as a Neo-Platonic philosopher of the school of Plotinus and an 
adversary of the Christians, from Gallienus to Diocletian or Probus. His 
original name was Malchus = fiaadsig^ from which "Porphyry" sprung 
by an easy association (Smith's Diet. Biogr. s, «.). He was a voluminous 
writer. Amongst his works were the '* Homeric Questions", probably a 
compilation (Fabric. I. p. 396), s^e p.Lxxviii n. 47, and an allegorical in- 
terpretation of the "Cave of the Nymphs" in Ody. v., which were much 
in favour with the early editors of Homer down to the 17^*^ century; thus 
even Barnes retains them; also scholia on the II., said to resemble closely 
the scholl. Yen,, and (whether distinct from the last named or not, is 

49 Herodian^s work on prosody furDished materials to the compiler of 
the schall. Venet., together with the works of Didymus, Aristonicus and Nica- 
nor, and Lehrs thinks that the first compilation took place not much later than 
Herodian^B age. A few additions were made from other writings of Herodian, 
eBpecially any which seemed to conflict with the viewd stated in his prosody. 
Casual observations which bore upon the point discussed might, Lethrs tliinks, 
have also been added to the commentaries of Didymus and Aristonicus ; and as 
time went on and further materials accumulated, as from Porphyry, other ad- 
ditions were made (Lehrs 35 — 6). 

50 " Summum magistrum Aristarchum ssepissime respicit, assentiens in pleris- 
que, rare et verecunde dissentiens (e. g. Z. 266, O. 10, 320, T. 228, see schol. 
there), .... doctissimnm opus est" (Lehrs p. 34 § 1 1). 



Lxxx PREFACE. 

not quite clear) "annotations on difficult passages in the II. and Ody." 
(Fabric. I. p. 394). He was careful in explaining difficulties, as also in 
adding citations of the passages which illustrate the doubtful word or 
phrase. He states this principle, as cited by the Schol. B on Z. 20Z, 
d^idiv 61 iya "Ofii^Qov i| ^Ofii^QOv aacprjvl^Btv^ avrov i^riyovfisvov iavxov vner^ 
dsiTivvov, He was also useful in handing down elder traditions. A MS. of 
these scholl. exists at Ley den, and an edition of them was promised by 
Voss, but he did not live to execute it. Valckenacfr has published those 
on book XXII of the H. (Fabric. I., pp. 309 — 400, cf. VI, p. 519). Such 
"questions'' propounded in the schools of Alexandria formed a favourite 
test ofthe students' knowledge of Homer; and scholia often take the form of 
ccTtOQia with its kvcig{B^) e.g, aiX. 147, S. :zoo, Z. 234, 359, 488 (Schol. B). 

(iii) 28. HESYCmUS 

of Alexandria or of Miletus, a Christian writer of the 3'*^ and 4**^ cen- 
tury. Whether the same as the Christian martyr under Diocletian is un- 
certain (Smith's Diet, Biogr. s. «.). The lexicon which goes under his 
name is replete with illustration of the Greek classic writers, and for the 
diction of the poets no one compiler has perhaps done so much by way 
of elucidation. It is no less useful for the LXX and N. T. It professes 
to be based on that of Herodian, and has again been added to successively 
by later hands. The most renowned scholars of Europe since the renais- 
sance have contributed to throw light upon its text. The only known 
MS. of it is in the Marcian Library Ven. (Fabric. VI. p. 199 foil.). 

LXIV. (iii) 29. TZETZES, 

a verbose and voluminous writer, who flourished in the middle of the 
12*^ centuiy, and wrote a poem in three parts: I. Pro-Bomerkay 
2. ffomerica, and 3. PostHomerica{j,t\ a "paraphrase on Homer", and 
"Homeric allegories ", which he dedicated to the Empress Iren^ Augusta. 
Parts I. and 2. are also called "the little Hiad". He is said to have had 
no knowledge of the Cyclic poets, but to have drawn his sources wholly 
from scholia etc. The libraries of Madrid and Vienna, the King's 
Library London (Brit. Mus.), and the Bodleian Oxford, contain unedited 
MSS. of various parts of his works. Most of what they contain is, how- 
ever, probably known from other sources (S3). 

LXV (iii) 30. EUSTATHIUS, 

archbishop of Thessalonica, bom at Constantinople, flourished in the 

51 See on p. Lxxviii, note 47. 

52 A fragment of the Post Homerica^ and another of the Paraphrase, was 
edited by Dodwell {Dissert, de vett. Gr. et Rom, Cyclis p. 802), and a fragment of 
the Pro- Homer ica by F.Morell (II. carmen Gr, poet(B cigns notuen ignoratur), and an- 
other by G. B. Schirach, Halle, 1770 (Fabric. I, p. 403 foil.). 

53 Concerning the Chiliades of Tzetzes, a work of over 12,000 lines ni3rthologi- 
cal and historical, but having no special reference to Homer, see Smithes Did, 
Biogr. s. v. Tzetzes, pp. 1200 — i. 



PAKT n. ANCIENT EDITORS AND COMMENTATORS. Lxxxi 

latter part of the la*** century, and published under the title of naQSKpoXat 
(excerpta) a laborious commentary on the Hiad and Odyssey, incorporat- 
ing all the Homeric learning of his time. It was £rst printed at Rome 
under the auspices of Pope Julius III, the Emperor Charles Y and King 
Henry I of Prance, in 3 voll. fol. 1542 — 9. A notice of other edd. will 
be found in Fabric I. pp. 391 — iz. The mere index of writers cited by 
him occupies forty-five 4*** pages of Fabric. Bibl, Gr. vol. I, and of these 
the great majority would be wholly unknown, or known by name only, 
but for him. Hence the value of his work may be estimated. It is, as 
it was inscribed by the author, a veritable xtpaj ^A^naX^zlaq, Valckenaer's 
opinion (ap. Fabric, loc. ciL) was that he found no poets extant but such 
as have come down to us (54), that all his other citations of poets are second- 
hand from Athen8eus(55) or from scholiasts now lost, that of all these, 
however, he was a most careful student (56), that his other chief sources 
were the commentary of Apion and Herodorus and other scholl. of high 
antiquity on either poem, the copious lexicons of iElius Dionysius, Pau- 
■ sanias and others, and the works of Heraclides and Herodian. His 
above mentioned references to ot Ttalaiol are accordingly derived . from 
this class of writers (S7). But his copies of many surviving poems were 
superior to any which we now have, and he has thus preserved some 
readings of high value. It is some testimony to the antiquity of his au- 
thorities that his work contains hardly any allusions to the Christian 
Scriptures, although the phraseology of a Christian writer and Divine is 
occasionally traceable in it (5^). 

.54 It appears, however, from **the Catalogue of the books of the Patriarch 
of Constantinople" 1578, that amoug them were extant probably down to the fall 
of that city, and therefore in Eustathius* time, 24 plays of Menander and "Ly- 
eot>hronis omnia ". This catalogue is in Sir T. Phillipps' library ; see page lxxxv 
note 6. 

55 '*fientley has shown by examining nearly a hundred of his references to 
Athencens, chat his only knowledge of him was through the epitome*^ (Smith's 
IHcL Biogr, «. n. Athenseus). 

56 Lehrs charges Eustath. with a careless use of the scholl. which he had at 
hand, "quem limis oculis quos ad manum sumserat libros percurrisse ccrtum est. 
(He here adduces instances.) Strictim oculis percurrisse copias suas Eustath., 
hoc etiam proditur illustri documento. Usus est schollorum volnmine eo, quffi 
hodie codex Yenetus A. habet sed pra^terea tractabat, quem ssDpisHime ad partes 
vocat, libmm commentationum Apionis et Herodori nomine inscriptum. £0 vero 
libro eadem ilia scholia contineri (qu od ita esse excursu opusculi mei ostendam) 
longum per iter hoc comitatu utenti non patuit" (p. 40 — i). 

57 Dr. Leonard Schmitz {ap. Dr. Smith's Diet, Biogr,, p. 120) further thinks 
that "he was personally acquainted with the greatest of the ancient critics, such 

as Aristoph. of Byz., Aristar., Zenod. and others, whose works were accessible to y 
him 'in the great libraries of Constantinople''. 

58 As is occasionally the case in some of the Scholl., e, g. ij x^Q^S "^^^ ^Ayiov 
Ilvsvfisctog ditt vitpovg ctccXaypLOvg SiScoat yvtocsag x. t. I., Scholl. H. Q. on <r. a. 

HOM. JOD. III.- \^ 



PART III. 
MSS OF THE ODYSSEY AND ITS SCHOLIA. 



LXVI. The list of ancient authorities which has been under review 
in Part II leads on naturally to the MSS. of the text and of the 
scholia upon it which we inherit from their labours. Our oldest Ho- 
meric codices are in fact a little older than the age of Eustathius, and 
were mostly imported several centuries later from Constantinople; 
the last native seat of Greek learning. 

The following account of MSS., so far as they are contained in 
public libraries ( I ), is probably not far from complete as regards its 

I 1 have to thank for the assistance which their replies to my enqniries have 
famished, the librarians of 

the Anibrosian library at Milan, 

the Imperial library at Paris, 

the Marcian library at Venice, 

the University library at Heidelberg, 

the Public library at Hamburg, 

the Catholic library at Louvain, 

the University library at Leyden, 

the Public library at Amsterdam, 

the Royal library at Madrid, 

the Imperial library at Vienna, 

the Royal library at Breslau, . 

the Modicean library at Florence, 

Caius College Cambridge, 

Corpus Christi Coll. Cambridge 

the Royal library at Berlin. 
The above arrangement follows the order in which their replies were received. 

I have also to thank the Rev<^. H. Bradshaw of King^s Coll. Cambridge, and 
especially the Bodleian Librarian in the University of Oxford, by whose permission 
the specimen of the MS. of the scholia on the Odyssey was copied, for valuable 
help which they have afforded in prosecuting the researches necessary for the 
j)urpose. 



PART III. MSS. OF THE ODYSSEY AND ITS SCHOLIA. Lxxxiii 

proper scope, the Odyssey. On one point, however, viz. how far the 
various codices enumerated have been collated, and in what editions 
the results of those collations have been embodied, the information 
which it has been found possible to obtain is in some respects defi- 
cient. I commend this branch of the enquiry to the good offices of 
any scholars who may be travelling on the continent. 

LX VII. In the library of the Brit. Mus. among the Harleian MSS- 
are four of the Odyssey, 
No. 5658, vellum, A. D. 1479. 

5673, paper, XV* century. 

5674, vellum, XIII**^ century. This was collated by Person with 
Emesti's ed. of theOdy. 1760, and before him, but cursorily, 
by Bentley, who, as Porson says, only noticed the various 
readings of the text, omitting those derivable from the 
schoU. These Bentley sent to S. Clarke (the son) for his 
edition of Homer left unfinished by his father. Cramer 
since collated the schoU. with those edited by Buttmann. Of 
the four this alone has scholL In some parts of the earlier 
books these are very copious. They sometimes fill the en- 
tire margin, including the spaces above and at the page-foot, 
and sometimes have an entire page or more to themselves. 
Cramer thought he detected a later hand in some of the 
longer scholl., and traces of erasure of those by the earlier 
hand to make room for them. On this question of unity of 
hand Porson suspends his judgment, adding, *'neque id 
sane multum refert, cum satis constet, unius jussu et con- 
silio totum MS. concinnatum esse". He remarks that it 
was written at a time when copyists had begun to hesitate 
between the i subscript^or written ad latus. The MS. is in 
beautiful condition and contains 150 leaves («). The ink is 

Enqniries have also been addressed to the Vatican library at Rome, the Pau- 
line library at Leipzig, and to the principal libraries at Strasbourg, Augsburg 
and Basle, also to the Imperial library at St. Petersburg, to that of the Holy 
Synod at Moscow, and to the Royal library at the Escurial; but no replies have 
been received from any of them. The notices of the MSS. said to be In their 
keeping are derived from Fabricius, Heyne, Dindorf and other scholars. As re- 
gards private libraries, it is quite possible that MSS. may exist there which are 
generally unknown. I shall of course be thankful for information concerning 
any such. 

a Heyne (vol. UI. iv. de subsidiis p. xcvii note) calls it an *" eximius codex 
com Townleiano Iliadis codice comparandus*\ The end ol t\ift ^fAs^xoL^ \xA.*Si 'Cqa. 



Lxxxiv PREFACE. 

in some places paler than in others, but the ink used by the same 
writer may not have been always of the same quality, A table of the 
var. led. which Person extracted from it, arranged in the order in 
which they occur in the poem, is appended to the Oxford Clarendon 
ed. i8cx). This MS. is cited as Harl., and its scholL as SchoU. H., in 
the present ed. 
No. 6325, vellum, XV**^ century. 

LXVIII. In the Bodleian library at Oxford is a MS. of scholl. on the 
Ody. without text, in beautiful condition and very legible, ascribed to the 
XI*'^ or Xn*^ century (3). They are those known as the scholl. minora^ 
as contrasted with those of Eustath., also as vidgata or scholl. Didymi, 
but with no due authority for the name; see under Didymus p. Lxxvi. 
Their form is that of conmients on the individual word or phrase, prefixed 
as a catch-word, in the order of the text. The books have short argu- 
ments prefixed. Dindorf collated this MS. for his ed. of scholl. on the 
Ody., Oxford Clarendon, 1855, *^*^ ^^1^ {ProefaU^, xviii) that the scholl., 
published by Asulanus at the AJdine Press in 152^8 were derived from 
a MS. closely akin (plane gemellus) to this. 

LXIX. In the library of Caius Coll., Cambr., is a MS. no. 76 fol., on 
vellum, containing an exegesis of the Ody., apparently a fragment of the 
scholl. Didymi on book I to VII. 54. (Fabric. I. 412, cf. p. 389. and 
Heyne III. p. lxx note.) In the margin are some additions in red ink, 
and the scholl. are occasionally displaced, e, y. at a, x88 (4). The li- 
brarian is not aware that it has ever been collated. 

In the library of Corpus Christi Coll., Cambr., is a MS. no. 81 fol. on 
paper, probably XV^*^ century (5), containing the 11., the Posi-Homerica of 
Q. Smyrn»us and the Ody. It was collated by Barnes for his ed. 
Cambr. 1711. 

LXX. In the boys' library, or School library of Eton College is a copy 
of the Florentine ed. prin. 1488, the ample margins of which contain MS. 
scholl. "by the hand of Aloysius Alamannus'' and precisely dated **thc 
6**^ of April 1518, being Easter Day* \ The scholl. on the II. are said 

subscription ^^Anionii Seripandi e( aniicorum^\ Seripandi was a Cardinal (Fabnc. 
I. p. 401) and Archbishop of Salerno, and died 1563. For this and some other 
similar information I am indebted to M"^. E. Deutsch of the Brit.Mus. A specimen 
of this MS., to follow this page, has been copied for the present work, by permis- 
sion of the anthorities of that Museum. 

3 A specimen of this MS., to follow that of the Harleian, has been copied for 
this work. 

4 It is bound up in a miscellaneous collection of Greek MSS. principally 
medical. 

5 From its haying the name of Theodore in gilt letters on the first page it 
has been ascribed to the Archbishop of Canterbury of that name in the VII^** cen- 
tury, but erroneously, as shown by the character and appearance, betokening a 
date not much earlier than the invention of printing. (Catal. of MSS. in C.C.C.C.) 



PART m. MSS. OP THE ODYSSEY AND ITS SCHOLIA, lxxxv 

to be less copious than those on the Ody. and to cease entirely after 
abont bk. XXI, There are none on the Batrachom. and Hymns. Barnes 
extracted the Odyssean schoU. (Heyne HI, iii, de Scholl. in Horn, LXXI, 
ef. Barnes proefaU p. vi. and Fabric. I, p. 390), and they also appear to 
have been previously used for the Camb. ed. of 1689 (Heyne III, i, de 
edd. Horn, p. xxx). 

In the library of Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart, of Middle Hill, is an 8^<> 
veUnm, XV*** or XVI*** century MS, no. 367, in extremely good preser- 
vation and very clearly written, but by a careless scribe, without scholia. 
It appears from a mem. at the end to have been the property of Matteo 
Palmieri of Pisa, and passed into the hands of the Jesuits of Clermont 
at Paris (6). 

LXXI. In the Imperial library at Paris are seven MSS. of the Ody., 
six of them with scholl. Their value is discussed by Villoison Prolegg, 
in II, p. XLV. foil. note. On applying to the librarian I have not been 
able to ascertain which of them have been collated, but one of them is 
doubtless that mentioned by Dindorf as "Parisinus 2403", the scholl. of 
which were collated by him and are cited under the letter D. This MS. 
is said to be on silk, of the XIV*** century, elegantly written in very 
black ink. Its scholl. on books I to III are copious, those on books IV 
to X fewer, after which they wholly cease. It is said to retain the name 
of Porphyry (7) attached to many scholl. where other MSS. had lost it. 
Another is probably the "Parisinus 2894'' of Dindorf, inspected by him, 
and cited under the letter S, same century and material, but square in 
form, with double columns in each page, and in each column 22 lines of 
text. The Ody. with scholl. and glosses occupies p. 209 — 333 of the 
MS., but these scholl. etc. disappear after v. 38 of book III. They are 
described as good and ancient, but less copious than those of the Harl. 
Cramer, adds Dindorf, gave some excerpts from this MS. in his Anecdot. 
Paris, vol. Ill, but omitted a good deal as illegible, and misread some 
(Preefai, siv). 

LXXn. In the Medicean library at Florence, book-case numbered 
XXXn, the following MSS. contain the Odyssey in whole or in part: 
No. 4, fol. vellum, XV*** century, of great beauty, containing also the 

6 By the courtesy of the owner, now residing at Thirlestaine House, Chelten- 
ham, I have inspected this MS., and collated, but too late to be of nse for the pre- 
sent volume, books a. and s, and a part of 9. It agrees more frequently with the 
Harl. 5674 than with any other MS. known to me; yet it differs from it, agreeing 
incidentally by turns with six or seven other MSS., or withEustath., often enough 
to give it an independent, and as it were, eclectic character. Among these variants 
I have found three which 1 do not see noticed as existing in any MS. whatever, 
although two of these are recorded by scholl. on the II. or on a later book of the 
Ody. The third, 6q(6q6i for odoodsLv in f. 60, is, I believe, new. There is also a 
MS. of Eustathius in the Middle Hill Library. 

7 This does not imply that Porphyry was the original source, he having 
largely compiled from others; see Porphyry on p. Lxxix sap. 



Lxxxvi P.REFACE. 

Vita Bom,^ the II. and Batrachom. : the booLi have arguments prefixed, 
but no schoU. 

No. 6, fol. vellum, XV*** century, of great beauty, the same without the 
Vitaj but having neither arguments nor schoU. 

No. 12^ large 4*® paper, XV* century, containing the Ody. alone, muti- 
lated in several places, with neither arguments nor scholl. except to 
book I. 

No. 23, 8^® paper, XV* century, containing the Ody. with very scanty 
scholl. by a much later hand, and which commence at book XVI. 

No. 24, 6^° vellum, X* century, containing the Ody. with interlinear 
glosses, mutilated towards the end. 

No. 30, large 4*® paper, XVI* century (8), containing the Ody., text only, 
with arguments to some only of the books. 

No. 39, 8^'® vellum,- XV* century, containing the Ody. with some inter- 
linear glosses and very brief scholl. on the first four pages ; no argu- 
ments. 

Book-case numbered LVn(9). 

No. 32, 8^° paper, XV* century, containing ancient scholl. by an un- 
certain author on books I — IV of the Ody., cited by Dindorf as R., and 
as Schol. E. in the margin of this edition. 

Book-case numbered Xd. 

No. 2, large 4*® silk, XIII* century, containing Ody. books I — XIV, no 
scholl., mutilated at the end. 

LXXni. In the Marcian library at Venice are the following : 
No. 460, fol. vellum, XII* century, in 250 leaves contains Eustathius 

on II. and Ody., and was used for the ed. Romana(io) 1542 ... 1550 ; 

see Fabric, ub. sup, p. 392. 
No. 513 (or 613 , as given by Fabric, ub, sup, and Dindorf) (n), fol. paper, 

8 " The trade of the copyist of Greek MSS., instead of sinking at once before 
the printer, held its ground for nearly a century. Some of the most elegant Greek 
books we possess in MS. were executed as late as the middle of the 16^** century. 
.... The public were supplied with cheap Greek books by the Aldine and other 
presses, but for copies de luxe, such as kings and collectors loved — chartas regia*^ 
novi libri — copyist and miniator still continued in request." Quarterly Rev, No 
234, P- 338- 

9 Erroneously given as 37 by Dindorf. 

10 Cardinal Bembo procured it for the Roman editors, as I am informed by the 
present librarian of the Marcian ; who adds that it was once, through misinter- 
pretation of the superscription, supposed to be an autograph of Eustath. himself. 
He refers me to Bembo^s Leltere^ Venezia 1729. vol HI. p. 125, Dorville Vann. Crit, 
Amsterdam vol I. p. 313. Its register will be found in the Marcian CataL 
Gr. MSS. II. p. 245 foil. 

11 Registered 313 in same Catal. p 315. Fabric, calls it a 4'% and Dindorf 
describes it as being ^'formd quadrat4' This was collated by Cobet, and is of 
all now extant the most perfect as regards the scboU. on books I^IV. 



PAST m. MSS. Of THPJ ODYSSEY and its scholia. Lxxxvii 

in 296 leaves, Xlir*^ century, the Ody. follows the Batrachom and 

has scholl. in its margin. 
No. 4 of Class fX, 4**^ paper, XIII*** to XV"* century, contains as follows : 

I. From the beginning to book VI, v. 190, with a preface prefixed, 
XIV* century. 

Z, From book IX, v. 541, to the end of the poem, with scholl. of 
XTTT* century. Dindorf used the scholl. in his ed. of the Scholl. 
in Odys,, and describes them as short and of little value, mentioning 
favourably, however, one long note probably transmitted by Por- 
phyry (12). He adds that the first portion of the MS. is on silk. 
No. 463, 8^'<* on paper, in 194 leaves, XIV* century, with interlinear 

scholl. (13), the books VIl and VIII are missing, while VI and IX are 

fragmentary. 
No. 456, fol. vellum in 541 leaves, XV* century, containing also the H., 

the Hymns and Batrachom., with the poem of Quintus Smymsus. 
No. 457 (14), 4^** paper, in 191 leaves, XV* century or thereabouts. 
No. 611 , fol. paper, in Z44 leaves, XV* century (15), has the Vita Horn. 

prefixed. 
No. 29 of Class IX (i 6), fol. paper, XV* century, "with interlinear Latin 

version, which does not agree with any published up to this day", and 

accompanied by marginal notes. 
No. 34 of Class IX, fol. paper, XV* century, with glosses and scholl. 

interlinear and marginal, bequeathed by Girolamo Contanni to the 

library; the end is missing. 
No. 610(17), fol. paper, in 590 leaves, about XVI* century. 
No. 20 of Class IX, 4*«» paper, in 279 leaves, XVI* century (18), contains 

among other things "Aunotationes grammaticales in Odysseam Ho- 

meri", p. 133 foil. 

12 On the question why Odys. discovered himself to Telemachus and the ser- 
vant43, and not to Penelop^. This is such an dnoglcc and Ivaig as those mentioned 
on p. Lxxvii note 47. They are as old as Aristotle. 

13 This and the next two are on p. 245 of the same catal. This is perhaps 
the one given as No. 263 by Fabric. 

14 Possibly that given by Fabric, {ub. sup, p. 408) as No. 647 4^, "Odyssea 
fine mntila", and by Villoison Anecd. Or, 11. p. 247, as being in the append, to Ca- 
taL of Gr. MSS. in the Marcian from the Catal. of 01. Zanetti, No. dcxlvii, 4^*^, 
in 194 leaves, XIV**» century, mutilated at the end. 

15 On p. 314 of the same catal. 

1 6 This and the next are in the Appendix to the catal. aforesaid. The quota- 
tion in the text is from the letter referred to in note 9. 

.17 On p. 314 of the same catalogue. 
18 This and the two following are in the Appendix aforesaid. This MS., as 
the Marcian librarian informs me, derives from .the library of the Nani family of 
Cefalonia, and is described by Mingarelli in the Greed Codd, MSS. B. 1 784, pp. 
484—6 



Lxxxviii PREFACE. 

No. 21 of Class IX, fol. paper, XVI^ century (* 9), imperfect at the begin- 
ning, contains parts of tbe poem. 

No. 36, 37 of Class IX. A copy of the Florentine ed. prin. of Horn, 
opp.j 1488, with scholl. written in the margin of the Ody., only dating 
from the XVI* century (20). Bequeathed by Contarini aforesaid. 

The Schol. Yen. on the H., whence Villoison edited in 1788 Homeri 
Ilias ad veteris codicis Veneli fidem recensitaj refers to his scholl. on the 
Ody., which Villoison, however, was nowhere 'able to find, see ibid. 
Prolegg, pp. 2, J and 44 note. 

LXXIV. In the Vatican library at Eome are MSS. scholl. on the Ody. 
by Georgius Ohrysococces, or perhaps copied only by him (Allatius de 
Georgiis 1^. 360 ap. Fabric. I. p. 416). 

In the library of the "Congregatio Cassinensis''(*0)^*^- ^^- ^» ^s Ody. 
fol. vellum. 

MSS. of Ody. are mentioned by Montfaucon in his Catal. as existing 
in the same library (Fabric, ub. sup, p. 412) : he docs not say how many, 
nor state particulars. One distinguished as "Kcginensis 91 ", paper, 
XV* century, containing also the Hymni, is mentioned by Baumeister, 
Hy. Horn, prolegg. p. 94. 

In the library of Padua is a (MS.?) translation of the Ody. by Manuel 
Chrysolores(2a). 

LXXV. The Ambrosian library at Milan has three MSS. with scholl. 
and two without, all carefully examined by Mail, who says Prasfat, de Codd. 
Ambros. Odyss. p. xLi, *' novum esse plerumque diversumqu© ab editis Ambro- 
sianorum scholiorum(23) genus nemo legens non videt '*. They are: 

A fol. MS. on paper, apparently XIV* century, entire with most valu- 
able and copious scholl. which diminish in number in the later books (24) 
(Maii, who first edited them at Milan 1 81 9, Pnefal, p. xxxvi). Battmann, 

19 The parts of the poem are said to be stated in Mingarelli, pp. 486 — 7 ; see 
last note. This also came through the Nani family. 

20 The marginal scholl. in MS. are a similar feature to thoae in the margin 
of the Etonian copy of the same ed. prin. ascribed to Aloysius Alamanmis* 
see p. Lxxxiv. § LXX. 

21 Supposed to be that of the Benedictines on Monte Cassino in Ijfaples. 

22 "Vel potius alicujus indocti." Fabric, uh. sup, p. 412. 

23 Villoison {Prolegg* ad II. p. xLi) notes that **in Ambrosiauis scholiis semel 
loquitur Christianus auctor anonymus (<r. 2) semel etiam Gregorius theologus 
('9'. 409)^^ adding, ^'noune etiam in Yenetianis scholiis Christiana vestigia im- 
pressasunt?" 

24 E. g. the first twelve books in Mali's ed. of the collated scholl. occupy 
■ over 100 pages, the last twelve 30 pages. These MSS. are registered respectively 

as Q. 38 part, sup., B. 99 part, sup., E. 89 part, sup., A. 77 part, inf., D. 120 part, 
sup., F. 85 part. sup. The description "part, sup." or "inf." probably refers to the 
part of book-case etc. The Ambrosian also contains an allegorical interpretation 
of the fables of the Ody., the work "Johannis Aurati, Gallicani poetae", sometime 
a teacher of Greek at Paris; it is a paper MS., 8*°, registered F. 85 part. sup. 



PART in. MSS. OF THE ODYSSEY AND ITS SCHOLIA. Lxxxix 

Berlin 1821, andDindorf have incorporated them in their respective edd. 
of ischoll. and cited them as Q. (25) : 

One of sqnare form on silk paper, XV**^ century (Maii says 4***, XIV^** 
century), has scholl., mostly short, as far as the beginning of book XXI; 
partly identical with other scholl., partly of much later origin; used by 
Mali and cited as B (Dindorf. ib, p. xii) : 

Another on silk, same age, contains books I to IX, with copious 
scholl. partly good and ancient, partly trifling and worthless. Brought 
from Scio into Italy. Used by Maii and cited as E (Dindorf ift. p. xiii). 

The two without scholl. are, one fol. on paper, containing the whol6 
poem but with the first book acephalous, beginning at v. 384; this has argu- 
ments of the books, is a western MS., and bears date as finished Nov. 1468; 
the other contains not the text, but the comments of Eustath. on the first 
book and the beginning of the second, and a latin commentary, also de- 
rived from Eustath., on books I — ^X. It is curious as being an autograph 
of Basil. Chalcondyles, younger son of the Demetrius Chalcondyles who 
edited the ed. prin. of Homer at Florence. 

LXXVI. In the Elizabethan library at Breslau are two MSS. of the 
Ody., both collated by F. Jacobs for Heyne (ITT. iv. de suhsidd. p. xc), 
and probably also by Clarke or Emesti before him, since the edition of 
Emesti, following Clarke, contains frequent references to their readings. 

One is a., large fol., vellum, in 176 leaves, very carelessly transcribed, 
but in an elegant hand, contains also Batrachom.^ the Vita Horn, and //. 
1 to VI. V. 356. 

Another, A., small folio in 484 leaves, XV**^ century; the 2"** vol. con- 
tains the Ody. by two hands, one that of Michael Apostoles of Constan- 
tinople, driven by the fall of that city into Candia. It has here and there 
various readings in the margin. 

LXXVll. In the Town library at Hamburgh is a large sized MS. on silk 
in Q,%i pages, XIII^^ or XIV*^ century (26), containing the Ody. as far as 
V. 67 of book XIV, with scholl., the text carefully written, and with no 
unusual contractions. Some of the scholl. are interlinear, but merely of 
the character of glosses, the greater part m the margin, difficult to de- 
cipher on account of their contractions and the tattered state of the 
edges. These seem also in places to have run away several pages from 
the text. At p. 151 a new series of scholl. commences in a later hand, 
occupying at first only the spaces left by the older series, which by and 
by fail, and the newer series appears alone. This is chiefly from Eustath., 
the older agree chiefly with the Ambrosian and with the Heidelberg MSS., 
and are diffuse and rhetorical. (Abridged from Preller's description ap. 
Dindorf Prcefat. ad Scholl. in Odyss. pp. ix — xi.) Dindorf, however, who 
incompletely collated it, says it is useful in checking other scholl., and 

J5 Fabric, {uh. sup. p. 411) speaks of a MS. of Ody., XIIP** century, in the 
Ambrosian library, Milan, as mentioned by Montfaueon Dior, Ital. pp.17 — 18. 
I cannot identify it with any known to the librarian there. 

36 Preller indicates that it had been preyioasly assigned to the XH'** ^ivoSwrj* 



3CG PREFACE. 

*' etiam scholia multa solus seryavit ex bonis et antiquis fontibus derivata'' 
{ibid, p. xii). He cites it as T. 

LXXVlll. In the University library at Heidelberg is a large 4^** MS., 
yellnm, in 468 pages, XIII^ or at the latest XIV^ century, having schoU. 
on the margins, which were collated by Buttmann (ed.schoU. Berlin 1828) 
and by Dindorf (27) (e^. sup. citat. prcefat. p. xii), who cites it as P and 
rates it as of less value than the last mentioned, T. It contains also the 
Batrachom., an argument of the Ody. and some other pieces. The scholl. 
on books IV to VII inclusive are difficult through their small and highly 
contracted characters, but of greater value (often agreeing with H and 
Q) than those of the other books, which are by a later hand (Dind. t6id.). 

In the Public library at Nuremburgh is a MS. in % vol. of the Opera 
ffom,y written in 155^ by Charles Stephanus(28). (Fabric, ub. sup. p. 41:;^.) 

LXXIX. In the Imperial library at Vienna 27 are the following: 
No. 5, large foL, 191 leaves, containing the H., the Ody. and the poem 

of Q. SmyrnsBus, without scholl., on page 5 of the catal. 
No. 50 ) containing in 2,1^ leaves the H. and the Ody., on page 33. 
No. 56, containing on 169 leaves the Ody. with scholl. interlinear and 

margin, on page 36. 
No. 117, containing on ^51 leaves the H. and Ody. with scholl. inter- 
linear and marginal, on page J 2, 
No. T33, containing in 146 leaves scholl. only on the Ody., on page 77. 
No. :j89, containing fragments of Homer, whether any of the Ody. is not 

stated, on page 143. 
No. 307, containing in 90 leaves a large fragment of the Ody., on 

page 147. 

F. C. Alter edited in 1794 at Vienna the Ody., Batrachom., Hymns 
and other poems vulgarly ascribed to Homer, giving a "varietas lectionis 
e codd. Vindobonensibus". Dindorf {ub, sub. p. xv) has incorporated in 
his ed. of Scholl. in Odyss. some excerpts given by Alter from Nos. 5, 56 
and 133. The librarian refers to Max von Karajan, "Ueber die Hand- 
schriften der Scholien der Odyssee", 8^*», Vienna 1857, and to the pre- 
faces of Dindorf, Bekker and others, as further showing to what extent 
collations of these MSS. have been made. No. 5 is called the "codex 
Busbequianus'S probably brought home by Baron de Busbecq, ambas- 
sador from Germany to the Sultan about 1580, and is noted by Heyne 
{de codd. HI. ii. xLiv) as superior to the others. That called by Heyne 
"Codex Hohendorffianus'' {ibid. p. xlv), No. 116, is not a MS., but a 
copy of the ed. of Libert, Paris i6ao, the H., however, only, with scholl. 

LXXX. In the library of the Holy Synod at Moscow, No. 286, is. a 
MS. ascribed to the XIP** century, on vellum, but Heyne (HI. iv. de 

27 From an original letter from the Heidelberg University librarian to the pre- 
sent editor, June 20*'* 1 864. 

28 The librarian refers to '^Nessel, DanieL Catalogus sive recensio specialis 
omnium codicum manuscriptorum Grseconun .... bibliothecfle Csesarese Vindobo- 
nensis. VindobonaB et Norimbergae 1690 fol." The pages on which the MSS. are 
mentioned as found are those of this catalogue. 



PART III. MSS. OF THE ODYSSEY AND ITS SCHOLIA. xci 

subsidd, p. xcii) on collating it throughout, thought it later. It is not 
mentioned by Fabricius. 

In the library of the Escurial, out of (l) (2) (3) (4) Homeric MSS. 
mentioned in Pluer's index, (4) contains excerpts from the Ody., as veri- 
fied by Tyschen (Fabric. I. pp. 409, 41 1). 

In the Eoyal library at Madrid, No. zy in the catal. of Gr.MSS. p. i:Z2, 
is a MS. on paper, XV*^* century, containing besides the Argonauiica of 
Orpheus 20 books of the ^>dy., with a few interlinear latin glosses on 
bks. I, n, and part of III 

Another, No. 67, contains brief annotations on certain books of the II. 
and Ody. gathered from v^arious sources (Fabric, ub. sup. p. 41 1). 

In the library of CsBsena a MS. of the year 131 1, Ody. with scholl., 
gome in latin being intermixed (Fabric, ibid,). 



PART IV. 
THE PRESENT EDITION. 



.d^i(5v H iya '^OfnjQOv i£ *OfijjQ0v aaq>7iv£isiv, avtov i^riyovitsvov i«vt6v 
vn^dBfyvvov, e Porpbyrio ap. Schol. Vea. B in II. Z. 201. 

LXXXI. In the present edition the attempt has been^ by means of a 
margin giving parallel and illustrative passages; to make Homer as far 
as possible his own scholiast; and to show the remarkable peculiarity 
of his style, that of never parting from a phrase so long as it was 
possible to use or adapt it, which has been noticed p. vii sup. For 
those who lack the leisure or the perseverance to make use of this 
margin it is hoped the notes may provide a secondary assistance. In 
compiling it the difficulty lay ten times perhaps in selecting from a 
multitude of passages for once that it arose from a paucity of choice. 
To record all the iterations and resemblances of phrase would be 
cumbrous and impossible. Some are of course too trivial to need even 
a single citation, and their space has been better bestowed on others 
that need more copious illustration. Yet after all, many passages must 
necessarily be of very unequal value, although I hope that to the Ho- 
meric investigator all wiU be of some. Less rigorous students may 
therefore be counselled to use the margin only when referred to in 
the notes. 

LXXXII. As regards the text adopted, it rests on no collation of 
MSS.; nor, if I had enjoyed the leisure to collate (i) any one, al- 
though general Homeric scholarship might have benefitted, would 
this edition probably have been perceptibly improved by the labour. 
I'he time has long gone by when it was worth while to edit a single 
codex of Homer as such, or at any rate such a work is wholly dis- 
tinct in scope from that which I had proposed to myself; which was 
to give the student a text which, resting on the results of the most 
advanced collations, would as far as possible eliminate the imperfec- 
tions and defects of any one MS. It is, further, advantageous in 
the present day to adopt the economy obtained by dividing the la- 
bours of collating and editing — the preparation of the material and 
the digesting and selecting from it. 

I See, however, page lxxxv. n. 6. 



PART IV. THE PRESENT EDITION. xciii 

The editions on which the present is based are as follows Bekker s 
Bonn 1858, Dindorfs Leipzig 1852, Faesi's Leipzig 1849, Lowe's 
Leipzig 1828, Emesti's Leipzig 1824, Wolfs Leipzig 1807, the Ox- 
ford edition of 1800, Barnes' Cambridge 171 1. 

LXXXni. The Oxford edition byDindorf of the collected scholia on 
the Odyssey; Eustathius; and Nitzsch's commentary^ have been con- 
stantly before me both in establishing the text and in furnishing the 
notes. The Oxford text of 1800 contains at the end the highly va- 
luable results of Person's collation of the Harleian MS. no.. 5674 with 
the text of Emesti of 176O; and a less important table of the read- 
ings of Clarke as compared with its own. From some of these the 
various readings of the margin above the footnotes have been mostly 
derived. Others have been taken from the margin of Emesti or of 
Barnes. The digammated readings find place by themselves in an 
intermediate margin. I have already indicated the uncertainties 
which beset this question (p. xxi, xi. n. 11), and regard this portion of 
the work as tentative merely. From the scholia or from EustathiuB 
is necessarily drawn all that is known of the readings preferred by 
the ancient critics and grammarians ^ while the same scholia often 
show the reading of the text which each scholiast followed. Where 
the name of such a critic etc. is followed by the designation of a 
Scholiast with a {,) between them, it is to be understood that the cri- 
tic etc. is cited on the faith of the Schol. : where this too Is followed 
by the name of any modern editor, it is also separated by a (,) ; thus 
<m /J. 321, "<J3ra0ar' Arlst., Scholl.H. Q. R.(»), Wolf" means that the 
Harleiau; the Ambfosian and the Florentine Scholiasts all assign the 
reading 6%d^ax^ to Aristarchus, and that Wolf adopted it. Nitzsch's 
commentary is cited as Ni., Faesi's and Lowe's editions are referred 
to as Fa. and Low., the Oxford edition of 1800 as ed. Ox.; and the 
other names of editors, critics and authorities, whether ancient or 
modem, are designated by abbreviations which will, I think, be 
easily made out ; the scholiasts by the letters made use of by Bekker 
in his edition of them. The sign [] in the margin above the footnotes 
marks a line or lines as disallowed by some modern critic, the sign f 
by some ancient one. A frequent abbreviation in the same margin, 

8 These letters and the others used in that margin to designate certain 
HSS. are the same as those used by Dindorf in his Scholia Gratca in Odyss,: 
see Prmfal, to the same. ' In this ed. the letters are used to distinguish the MSS. 
of the scholia from those of the poem. Thus the Harleian MS. of the poem is 
cited as Harl., but its scholia as schol. H., and so of others. 



xoiv PREFACE. 

^' Wolf et recentt.^^ marks the fact that his reading has been generally 
adopted by recent editors. 

LXXXIV. In the marginal references ei al for et alibi refers to other 
places in the same book of the poem last referred to; the references 
to books of the Iliad are made by the capitals of the G-reek alphabet^ 
those of the Odyssey by the small letters; and this has been adopted 
for its compendiousness; not only in the margin but generally. 

The abbreviation "mar.^' appended in the margin to a reference 
there refers to the marginal references given at the passage indicated. 

The Appendices are referred to in the margin under the ktter and 
number which distinguishes them, thus App. A. no mar. refers to the 
Appendix on yHvofiivGi on p. XXXI; and to the marginal references 
to be found there. 

The abbreviation "cf.'' in the margin refers to passages of colla- 
teral interest, or introduced to illustrate the subject matter where the 
primary reference is to the form of the language. Where a parallel 
is cited with a less obvious bearing on the text, the purpose will ge- 
nerally be found explained in the note ad Iqc, 

The remark et scepius or et scepiss, (scepissime)^ accompanying a refe- 
rence, indicates that the passage recurs so frequently, either in the 
particular book or the whole poem, as to make it inconvenient to 
enumerate the recurrences, while none have any special prominence. 
Sometimes, as on ijiiata ndvta j3. 55 , the first and the last occasion 
of such recurrence are given. 

LXXXV. In the notes and Appendices the proper names which 
occur frequently have been abbreviated; as Ni. for Nitzsch, II. for 
Iliad, Ody, for Odyssey, Odys. for Odysseus, Penel. for Penelopfi, 
Telem. for Telemaehus : and generally in the notes any proper names 
occurring in the text to which they stand subjoined will be found in 
an abbreviated form. The common abbreviations of granmiatical 
terms as sing., subjunct or subj., adj., demonstr., rel., for singular, 
subjunctive, adjective, demonstrative, relative, (subj. also for subject 
where the sense is unmistakeable), proby. for probably, H. for Ho- 
mer, have been freely employed. 

For the sources of the few illustrations introduced, and for infor- 
mation concerning them, I am indebted to the Rev^. W. Burgon, 
Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford (3). 

The plans attached to App. F. 2 simply reflect my own notions de- 

3 For the two facsimiles of MSS. see pref. p. Lxxxiv. n. 2, 3. 



PAET IV. TTHE PRESENT EDITION. xor 

rived from a Jstudy of the passages to which they relate. I have 
not thought it worthwhile to attempt to harmonize them with the 
plan given in Kruse {Hellas^ Atlas), Gell and Schreiber, of the 
rains of the traditional domus Ulyssis in Theaki. Such a minutely rea- 
listic spirit would , in my opinion^ be utterly misplaced, as regards 
Homeric poetry. The plans which are given make no pretence there- 
fore to represent literal facts, but may enable the eye to guide the 
mind to a clearer grasp of what the Appendix means, and I hope also 
of what Homer meant. 

LXXXVI. In two instances only have I attempted to amend the 
text without the authority of a MS., and in both the amount of al- 
teration is the slightest possible. Both depend on the same principle, 
the easy displacement of a ts or Sh when elided. The places are y. 33 
and S, 665. In the first the common reading before Wolf was XQ^a 
mnxfov&Xka 6* i%BiQov\ the Florent. however has xqia r* &7cxmv &Vm 
t* insLQOv, Wolf, adopting for d' of the vulg. the second r' of the 
Flor., gave hqbu S7cra>v akXu r' litBiQOv, I believe the true reading 
to be TtQia STttov rakXa r' Itcbvqov^ see note ad loc] but that some 
editor offended at the hiatus, not knowing the length of the -a in 
xgid inserted r' after it; the next step probably was that in careless 
copying the z^kXa was corrupted into r' iiXAa^ and that then another 
editor, finding one t' too many, struck out the wrong one. The d' 
is probably due to an independent coiTuption. 

In S, 665 the common reading, which Wolf follows, is ix to^ecov 
d' dixijtL. I have stated in the note ad loc, the reasons against ac- 
cepting it. I suppose ix Sh toacov dsxriu to have been the true read- 
ing. H then the roacov acquired a d', as the transition from r66og to 
the somewhat stronger toCocSb is easy, a subsequent error detached 
the d' and made it rd^coi; di, and the next editor or copyist finding 
di twice in one clause, struck out the wrong one. 

To each book a " summary ^^ or argument is prefixed, and the day 
of the poem^s action is printed at \he top of every page. I ascribe but 
little value, however, to any such attempt to reduce the poem to a 
diary. It seemed worthwile making for the sake of method and con- 
nexion of parts, but must be taken as indicating a possibility only. 

LXXXVII. The Appendices contain discussions of such points as 
seemed to require rather fuller treatment than could be extended to 
them in the footnotes. 

Appendix A. is chiefly grammatical, or is occupied with the forms 
of certain rare and difficult words, but contains also articles on the 



xcvi PREFACE. 

meaning of certain words or classes of words, or on the naure of the 
tilings for which they stand. They are arranged nearly in the order 
in which each word first occurs. 

Appendix B. treats of the various terms employed by Homer for 
the sea, with their epithets and compounds; 

Appendix C. is mythological; 

Ap}iendix D. is geographical; 

Appendix E. relates to the principal characters of the poem, con- 
sidered in their ethical bearing upon both the U. and the Ody.(4) 

4 In the review of the characters of the Homeric poems in App. £., and in 
the consideration of the subject matter generally, it is convenient to speak on 
the assumption that the personages and the facts are real. To sustain any such 
theory in detail is, howeyer, beyond the province of an editor and commenta- 
tor. Nevertheless I am on the whole disposed to view the Iliadic story as en- 
veloping a core of reality, although any attempt to restore by analysis a pro- 
bable residuum of historical fact would no doubt be valueless. The state of 
natural conflict between rival and kindred races may probably have culminated 
in an invasion of the principal neighbouring dominion of Western Asia by a 
confederacy of the principal nation of South Eastern Europe. Thus a historical 
source of the many legends which perhaps united to make up the ^* Tale of Tro/ 
divine" is to my mind more probable than any other. Such individual legends 
would probably attach themselves from the first to the chief locM personages 
of such a confederacy. If the banded Achaean princes with their forces were 
absent for even a much shorter period than the traditional ten years, news of 
them would be eagerly looked for at home. And, as we may reasonably ascribe 
to the office of the doi^og an antiquity at least as great as any period when 
such an united effort could have been possible, the probability of such metrical 
news bearers wandering homewards from the wars, with their imaginations glow- 
ing from the scenes which they had lately left, is sufficient to allow us to as- 
sume many historical points of departure for such legends. All the main person- 
ages in Homer are strictly anchored upon localities, to an extent, I believe, un- 
parallelled in any similar mass of legend. The difficulty lies in assuming that 
where local features come out so clearly, personal traits are purely mythical; 
and that, in spite of the strong tendency in the human mind to associate real 
actors with real scenes, while all that we are told about the places, so far as we 
can test it, is true, all about the persons should be false. At any rate the otnts pro- 
handi may fairly be left with those who make the assertion. On the other hand,^ 
assuming, as antecedently likely, the historical fact of such an cj^pedition as en- 
gaged the flower of the Achsean race on the North Eastern shore of the ^gsean, 
we may assume an animus pervading the period somewhat approximating to that 
of the earlier crusades. That the chief princes of Argos, Mycen^ and Sparta * 
may have each had one or more uoi^ol amongst their followers, who would 
have brought over contemporaneous versions of their exploits and would have 
become sources of their transmission to posterity, even as Geoffrey Vinsauf 
sung the deeds of Coeur de Lion, is a srpposition containing nothing unreason- 



PART IV. THE PRESENT EDITION. xcvii 

Appendix F. relates to structural details, and is arranged in two 
parts, I, the Homeric Galley, and ci. the Homeric Palace, 

able, save to an ''over strict incrednlity". Even the personality of Acliilles 
has this in favour of it, that he is ascribed to a district comparatively insigni- 
ficant and locally remote from the centre of the movement assumed in the poem 
It is difficult to conceive why, if the poet had been in search of a purely fa 
bulous protagonist to his epos, he should have gone so far north as to Thessaly 
to find one. In a poem so teeming with marks of local interest, a prime war- 
rior of pure fiction would probably have adorned some great centre of the Achaean 
name. It is clear from the Catalogue in B, 68i foil, that the poet knew locally 
but little of Thessaly as compared with many other regions which furnished 
his contingents. He names only three cities there, and each of those without 
a single descriptive epithet. The other names in this passage are those of re- 
gions and of races. It is easy to account for prominence of locality being 
here overpowered by that of individuality, if we assume the latter based upon 
a personal fact. I do not see how it is so easy to account for it otherwise. 
Homer's veracity has been impugned in various times for different reasons. We 
know from Chaucer that he was in the middle-age looked upon as a fabulist 
because he extolled the valour of the Greeks: 

One said that Omer made lies, 

Feyning in his poetries, 

And was to the Greekes favourable, 

Therefore held he it but fable. (House of Fame iii. 387—90.) 
in short the empire of the West was then VirgiPs; but, as between Greek and 
Greek, the selection of PhthiS for his hero's home throws upon the *' fable" the 
suspicion of a truth; and the same may be said as regards Odysseus and Ithaca. 
At the same time it is a remarkable accident that the names of Hellas and 
Hellenes, destined in after time to such undying fame, should in this pre-his- 
toric period of their obscurity be thus closely associated with the grand typical 
hero of the Hellenic name and race. 

of t' elj^ov ^d-lr^v iqd' *EXXdda HaXXtyvvai%ct9 
MvQiiidovsg d' iytaXsvvxo %al'*EXXijvsg %cil 'Axcitol, 
t&v av nkvzri%ovxu vsmv rjv dgxog AxtXXsvg, B, 683 — 5. 

As regards the Odyssey, its beginning and its end may possibly embody histo- 
rical facts — the state of anarchy in Odysseus' palace, his return, and the mas- 
sacre of th^ intriguing nobles, — whilst all the intermediate portion may be such 
a train of romance and floating legend, as a great name in a dark age, once 
become traditional, is found to draw to and weave about itself. We may com- 
pare the Iliad in some of the foregoing respects with the romance of Charle- 
magne, and the Odyssey with that of Arthur, as suggested in the Essay on 
Carlovingian Komance, Oxford Essays^ vol. «. p. 377. The early English me- 
trical romances of Bichard Cosur de Lion and of Guy of Warwick, or Bevis 
'of Hamptoun, might offer other parallels. I think the Homeric poems may in 
the same sense as these be viewed as Chansons de Gesie, or the Iliad perhaps 
as incorporating many such. To examine, however, the analogies offered by 
these or by the Niebelungenlied would require a wide and careful survey of ground 
lying entirely beyond my present compass, and might well be made the subject 
of an independent work. 

HOK. OD. I. Q^ 



xcviii PREFACE. 

LXXXVIII. Four of the above A. C. D. and E. are divided into 
numerous articles, and for all the following table is subjoined: 

Appendix A. 
PAGE I. I. Ivvsna. 

n. 2. Epic forms in -00 -coca for -acs. 

3. (i) dXodipQiDV, oAo'og, ovXog (^Agrjgjj J^ovXog^ ovXog^ oAo- 
tpmog, oXoipvSvds, 6^og)VQO(iittL^ (rz) ovXij {Xdxvri)^ oi- 
kal {pXal\ ovXoxvxaij oXvQai^ (yuXa(i6s,, oilfXoxdQrivog^ 
tovXog^ (3) ovXog (pXog)y ovXs^ ovXtj (scar). 
III. 4. fiovX'^j iyoQij. 
VII. 5. 7ce00oi, 

6. (i) ttSijascs, dSijxotsg. (2) ccStvog^ aSriVy adiji/ -ivog 
(acorn), adog^ atog. (3) avSdvto^ aSetv^ ^Soiim^ i^Svg, 

tx. 7. dovXi^j S(inigy S(ici)'^^ i^id'og^ d'^g^ olxevgy xuinCri^ d^iipi- 

noXog, d'aXafiTJTCoXog^ dpijilri]^, S^^tslqu. 
XI. 8. x^T'^Q^ SdTtag, xvnsXXoVy aXaiCov^ kl66v§lov^ 6xvtpog, 
xin. 9. On the use of moods by Homer. 
XXIV. 10. ^Ss. 

II. (I)^..^. (2)iJK..i (3)^^..^^' (4)^^...i {5)n 

...el XB. (9) si .,.ij. 
XXV. I a. ilvXov i^iiadvsvta. 

13. dvoTcava. 
XXVI. 14. iSva, isSva. 
xxvn. 15. xXijtg, 

16, dxr^v^ dxitov. 
XXVIII. 17. (i) SUXog, SiaXog, {%) ivSiogy deiXri. (3) svSsisXog, 
XXIX. 18. (i) ij xadvTtSQd'S XCoio vsoi(iisd'a 3tai7taXosa0rig 

V1J0OV i%l WvQirig, aixriv iiC dqiQxiq Ix^vtsg, 

y. 17c 
(rz) .... iz* dQiatsgd XHQog ixovta. £. 277 
XXX. 19. vd06a {yaCtOy vdj^col). 
XXXI. 20. ysivoiiivp. 

2i» ovXcciiogy voXsiihgy vcoXsnicog. 
xxxn. 22. Xiywy Xkxxo. 

Appendix B. 
XXXin. The Homeric use of aXg^ %dXa6(Say TtiXayog, novxog. 

Appendix C. 
XXXVI. I, The legend of the oxen and sheep of the sun. 



PART IV. THE PRESENT EDITION. xcix 

PAGE XXXVI. 2. Hermes, 
xxxvn. 3. Atlas. 
XXXIX. 4. Phorcys. 

5. TQiToyivBva. 
XL. 6. At yccQ Zsv ts ndtSQy xal ^AQ^valri^ xal "AtcoXXov. 
XLii. ;• Proteus and Eidothefi. 
XLiv. 8. I118, LeucotheS, Cadmus. 

Appendix D. 
XLVi. I. The Ethiopians. 
XLvn. 2. OgygiS. 
XLvm. 3. Sparta. 
XLix. 4. Pylus. 

5. The Taphians. 
L. 6. TemesS. 

7. Dulichium. 
Li. 8. Ephyr6. 
Lll. 9. Argos. 
Lm. 10. Cyprus. 

II. Phcenic^, SidoniS. 
Liv. i::^. The Erembi. 

13. Libya. 

14. The Styx. 
LV. 15. ScheriS. 

Appendix E. 
Lvn. I. Odysseus. 
LXV 2. Penelopfi, 
Lxx. 3. Telemachus 
Lxxn. 4. Pallas Athenfi. 
Lxxxiv. 5. iEgisthus. 
Lxxxv. 6. Antinous. 
liXXXvn. 7. Eurymachus 
Lxxxvin. 8. Menelatis. 
c. 9. Helen. 

Appendix F. i, 
CVi. The Homeric Galley. 

Appendix F. 2. 
cxxi. The Homeric Palace. 



c PREFACE. 

LXXXIX. The following are the principal works referred to in 
the preface, notes and Appendices. 

Grammatical. 
Donaldson, Greek Grammar. Cited as Donalds. Gr. Gr, 

New Cratylus. Donalds. New CraU 

Jelf, Greek Grammar. Jelf Gr. Gr. 

Buttmann, Lexilogus (Fishlake's translation). Buttm. LexU. or Lex. 

Irregular Greek Verbs (do). Buttm. Gr. Verbs , or Gr. 

v., or Irreg. Verbs. 
SpUzner, Versuch einer kurzen Anweisung Spitzner, Gr. Pros. 
zur griechischen Prosodik. 

De versu heroico. Spitzner de vers. her. 

Adverbiorum qu» in d'sv desinunt ^^itzn^v adverb.in%'BV. 

ufeus Homericus. 
Thiersch, B., Uebersicht der Homer. Formen. Thiersch Horn. Form. 
Thiersch, F^, Griechische Grammatik. Thiersch Gr. Gr. 

Ahrens, Griechische Formenlehre. Ahrens Gr. Form, or 

Griech. Formenl. 

De hiatus legitimis quibusdam gene- Ahrens de hiaiu. 

ribus. 
La Roche, iiber den Hiatus und die Elision. La Roche de hiaiu. 
Crusius, Worterbuch iiber die Gedichte des Crusius. 

Homeros etc. 
Curtius, Grundzuge der Griech. Etymologic. Curtius. 
Liddell and Scott, Lexicon. . Liddell and S. 

Doederlein, Homerisches Glossarium. Doed. or Doederl. 

Apollonius, Homeric Lexicon. ApoUonius or Apol- 

Hesychius, do. do. Hesychius. \\.on.Lex. 

Etymologicon Magnum. Etym. Mag. 

Volkmann, Commentationes Epicse. Volkmann. 

Hermann, Opuscula. Hermann Opusc. 

dc legibus quibusdam subtilioribus Hermann etc. verbatim. 

sermonis Homerici. 
Werner, de conditionalium enunciationum ^qyhqv decondit.enun. 
apud Homerum formis. ap. Hom. formis. 

Dindorf, Scholia Grseca in Homeri Odysseam. Schol. on a., /?., etc. 
Bekker, Scholia in Homeri Iliadem. Schol. on A., B., etc. 

Mythological. 
von Nagelsbach, Homerische Theologie. Nftgelsbach or 

NUgelsb. 



PAET IV. THE PEESENT EDITION. 



01 



Welcker, Griechische Gotterlekre. 
Battmami; Mythologus. 



Cited as Welcker Gr. Gott 
Buttm. Myth. 



Geographical. 
Volcker, Homerische Geographie. 

Schreiber^ Ithaka. 

Krase^ Hellas. 

GeU, Sir W., Itinerary of the Morea. 

Dodwell; Classical and Topographical Tour 

through Greece. 
Leake^ Topography of the Morea. 
Spmner^ Atlas. 
Rawlinson, Herodotus. 
Wheeler, Geography of Herodotus. 

Miscellaneous. 
Nitzsch, ErklM.rende Anmerkungen zu Ho- 
mer's Odyssee. 
Heyne, Excursus in Homerum. 
Gladstone, Homeric Studies, (s) 
Bekker, Homerische Blatter. 
Wolf, Prolegomena in Homerum. 
Payne Knight, Prolegomena in Homerum. 
Villoison, Prolegomena in Iliadem. 

Anecdota Grseca. 

Spohn, de extremS, Odyssese parte. 

Schmitt, Jo. Car,, de secundo in Odysseft deo- 

rum concilio. 
Lehrs, de studiis Aristarchi. 
Buffon, Histoire Naturelle g^n^rale et parti- 

culifere, Translation 1791. 



Volcker or 

VSlcker Horn, Geogr. 

Schreiber. 

Ejruse Hellas. 

GeU. 

Dodwell. 

Leake. 

Spruner Atlas. 
Rawlinson Herod. 
Wheeler Geogr. of He- 
rod. 



Ni. 

Heyne Exc. ad II. A, etc. 

Gladst. 

Bek. Homer. Bldtt. 

Wolf Prolegg. 

Payne Knight Prolegg. 

Villoison Prolegg. 

Villoison Anecd. Gr. 

Spohn de extr. Odys. 

par. 
Schmitt, Jo. Car. de 
Il^^'inOdys.Deor.Conc. 
Lehrs. 
Buffon Transl. 1791. 



5 I have been indebted to this work in some passages, chiefly in the ap- 
pendices, where the references have not been made; such are Gladst. vol. n. 
86; comp. App. E. 4. (14); p. 87, comp. ibid, p. LXXIII note ***; p. 113 comp. 
ibid. p. LXXIII 1. 7 from bott.; pp. 331—7 and 341, comp. ibid. 1. ii— 16 from 
top; p. 426, comp. App. E. 1. (11); pp. 484—5, comp. App. E. 2, p. LXIX 1. 3-- 
4 from top, and App. E. 9, p. CI,. 1. 16 from top; vol. Ill, p. 25, comp. note on 
f. 1. There may possibly be others which have escaped me, for which I hope 
this general acknowledgement may suffice. 



Cll 



PREFACE. 



Mure, History of the literature of Ancient 

Greece. Cited as Mure. 

Grote, History of Greece. Grote. 

Lewis, Sir G. C, Astronomy of the Ancients. Lewis AncL Astron. 
Millin, Min6ralogieHom6rique (German trans- Millin Horn. Mineral. 

lation by Rink). 
Voss, AnmerkungenundRandglossenzuGrie- Voss Anmerk. Gr. und 

chen und Roemem. Bom. 

Friedlander, die Homerische Kritik von Wolf FriedlS.nder I.' 
bis Grote. 

Zwei Homerische Worterver- Friedlander II. 

zeichnisse. 
Sober, Inde^ Homericus. Seber's Index. 

Kiesel, Ulixis ingenium quale et Homerus fin- 
xerit et tragici Grsecorum poetae. (6) 
Houben, Qualem Homerus in OdysseS, finxe- 

rit Ulixem. (6) 
Grashof, Das Schiff bei Homer und Hesiod. Grashof. 
Rumpf, I. de aedibus Homericis. Rumpf I. 

II. de aedibus Homericis altera pars. Rumpf II. 
in. de interioribus aedium Homerica- Rumpf HI. 
rum partibus. 
Eggers, de aedium Homericarum partibus. Eggers. 
MtQler's Dorians, translated by Lewis Miiller's Dorians. 

andTufnell. 
Hynmi Homerici ed. Baumeister. Hy. ApolL Del., Merc. 

Cer. etc. 
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography Smith's Biogr. Diet. 
and Mythology, edited by D^ W. 
Smith. 
Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca. Fabricius or Fabric. 

Gaisford, Poetae Graeci minores » not cited by name, but referred to 
Giles, Scriptores Graeci minores I under the name of the poet. Gais- 
ford's ed. has been used ; but for poets not contained in it re- 
course has been had to that of Giles. 

6 These have not been cited, but I wish to acknowledge a general use 
made of them with regard tp references on the subjects of which they treat. 



PAET IV. THE PRESENT EDITION. oui 



ON VOL. I. 

XC. The present volume contains the first six books of the Odys- 
sey ; and my intention is, if life and leisure are allowed me, to com- 
plete the poem in two volumes more. I am aware that this division is 
possibly open to objection; and if I had been able to devote myself 
more entirely to the task, I should have preferred making the en- 
tire work one of two volumes. With the reasons why this course was 
not open to me, as they are purely personal, I need not trouble the 
reader. A first volume must needs bear the weight of many questions 
which relate to subjects spread over the whole poem, and which, when 
settled once, are settled once for all. The necessity of thus consider- 
ing them has thrown upon the first volume a quantity of general 
discussion disproportionate to the nucleus of text which it contains. 
This, however, if the work be useftdly done, will hardly be an objec- 
tion to it; and I have even some hbpe that students of the Iliad may 
find in it a good deal of assistance. As regards minor imperfections 
it may be some extenuation, that the publisher's office is in London 
and the printer's at Leipzig, whilst I myself, except in vacations, 
have been engaged at Cheltenham. To any who undertakes the cen- 
sure of these or of graver faults I may say in the words of Person, 
'4eniter an acerbe faciat, nihil prorsus mea refert, modo vere; ali- 
quid forsan ipsius referat, si modo mavult cseteris lectoribus videri 
hoc onus suscepisse studio literas juvandi potius quam semulum de- 
primendi,^' 



Cheltenham, Nov^ 22,^ 1865. H. H. 



ERRATA. 



p. xxxiii 1. 2 omit "had". 

p. xciv 1. 4 omit "same" before book. 

p. xcvi 1. 1 for "naure" read "nature". 

p. 2o note on cc, 268 — 9 for "Buttman^s" read ^Buttmann^s" and so in a few 

other places. 
p. XXII footnote * for "there" read "the", 
p. XXV, 12 1. 7 for epicene read „epice com.", i. e. common, 
p. XXVIII footnote * for "scens" read „ seems". 
p. LII 1. 21 for "caplains" read "explains", 
p. LV 1. 32 for "Top." read ''Geogr:\ 
p. LXVI 1. 5 from bott. for (i) read (2). 
p. LXIX 1. 4 from bott. of text omit, "to" before "her", 
p. LXXIX 1. 12 from bott. of text for "bad" read "had", 
p. LXXXIII note * for "from" read "form", 
p. LXXXIV 1. 16 from bott. for **become" read "became". 
p. LXXXV 1. 6 from bott. after "without" omit the (,). 
p. XCIII 1. 6 for "alliegance" read "allegiance", 
p. XCIV 1. 14 at end omit "to". 

p. CXV 1. 12 from bott. of text for "Iper/Aov" read "iparftdv." 
p. CXX 1. 13 for "trambles" read "brambles". 

Notice omitted on p. xciv, at end of § LXXXIII of preface: 

"The words in spaced type in the Greek Text are the anu^ slgrmiva. A 
list of such is found in Friedlander II., with which Bekker^s annbtatio at the 
end of his Odyssey, and the words marked in Crusius* Lexicon have been 
compared". 



OATSSEIAS A. 



UOII. OD. f. 



SUMMARY OF BOOK 1. 

The invocation and statement of the general subject, commencing from the 
moment when the hero is about to leave Calypso's island (i — lo). 

In Poseidon's absence, it is resolved in the council of Olympus, at the in- 
stance of Pallas , that the home return of Odysseus be no longer delayed on 
account of Poseidon's wrath by the wiles of Calypso (11—95). 

Pallas hastens to descend to Ithaca, in order to further this resolve. There 
the suitors, a numerous body, are found besetting the palace, and wasting its 
substance in daily revels (96 — 112). 

Among them Telemachus sitting, as he broods over the thought of his father's 
return, is surprised by the arrival of a guest, professing to be Mentes, prince 
of the neighbouring Taphians, but really Pallas under that disguise. He re- 
ceives her in the spirit of heroic hospitality. She animates his hopes of his 
father's return, and suggests projects for the overthrow of the suitors' faction; 
as a first step to which, he> is to call a council of state (ayop^) and denounce 
their outrages, and then to depart to visit Nestor and Menelaus with the view 
of gaining news of his father (113 — 318). 

The goddess departs, with a token of her true personality, and the scene of 
revel is pursued, the minstrel Phemius singing the hapless return of the Achseans 
from Troy. PenelopS overhears the strain and descends, wounded in her feel- 
ings, to bespeak a change of theme. Telemachus, emboldened by the goddess' 
visit, reproves her interference, and rebukes the suitors, giving notice of the 
dyoQij for the morrow, with an intimation of his purpose in calling it (319—419). 

The first day closes with the break-up of the revel and the retirement of 
Telemachus, attended by Euryclea, to rest (420—44). 



&e<Sv ayoQa. ^Ad^rjvag ^aQaiveOig :tQ6g TrjXe^iaj^ov. 



AvSqu (tot £vvs7t£y^ ^ovda^ TColvtQOTtov,^ og iidXcc TCOkkd 
7tXdyx^9 ^^fi TQoCrig isqov^ 7CxoUb%'qov ^TCBQasv/ 



aB.76l;cf.<r.831,' 

042. 
I. X. 330. c (. 165. 
.1 cf. ^. 494 - 620, 

y. 230. 
e 0. 492, jt. «3, f. 



f J 



170, U;. 207. 



3. J^ids J^CCGtSa. 



J. pro TtoXka Harl. ndvtmv. 3. voiaov. 



In this exordium the hero is singled 
cat characteristically; comp. that of the 
IHad, where Achilles, the hero of gloomy 
wrath and fearful prowess, is in con- 
trast with Odysseus, the hero of en- 
durance and wide adventure. The latter 
lost all his comrades (5 — 9), and was still 
roaming and pining when his brother 
chiefs had ended their toils (11 — 12). 
Hence he stands per se, cf.Tovd' olovt 13. 

I— a. &v6Qa and TtXayx^s ^^^^ 
leading a line, stamp the man and his 
wanderings as the general subject, cv- 
veTte, see App. A. i . fiovaa, the epic 
bard conceived himself the recipient of 
divine teaching, in an age when such 
intercourse with men, once frequent, 
had otherwise ceased. The muses (whose 
number, nine, first appears Hes. Tkeog. 
53—60) had knowledge of all themes of 
song, as being divinely ever present, B. 
48A— 6; of men the bard says, i^^stg S'k 
%liog olov inovoiisv, ov9i ti CSfiBv^ nor 
could the bard know more, unless taught 
by the muse. Hence Odys. thinks, a 
muse or Apollo must have taught {idi- 
^a|€) Demodocus in &. 488. Hence also 
one eiplanation of nal rjfiiv^ v. 10, inf. is, 
"tell us, that we, too, may know as you 
do." In H. the song is the specialty of the 
muses, the lyre, that of Apollo, A, 603 — 4. 
The notion of their teaching sciences 
came with those sciences — later. In 
H. and Hesiod they teach only facts. 



7toXvtQ,y some take this as explain- 
ed by Off fi. 7c. nXdyx^Vi J^st as ata- 
tqofpovijoc in 299, by off of nattiQa . . . 
I'xra following. Nor is this un-Homeric, 
cf. I. 124. Thus it would be =a ffoZv- 
TrXayxTOff, p. 511. It would then be from 
TQamdon (r. 531), as svQvxoQog fr. x^' 
QOg, But some epithet of distinct mean- 
ing suits the exoidium better: render 
-^versatile", showing, as says a SchoL, 
TO rov rjd'ovg svfist(i§oXov , in which 
sense Hermes is tcoXvtq.^ h, Merc. 439. 
£ustathius takes it passively, o 9iol noX- 
Xiiv i(t,nsiQtav noXv(pQ<ov, "well versed'* 
in men and things, but this hardly dif- 
fers enough from noXX&v d*. . . iyvto 
in 3. SneQCe, cf. the epithet nzoXinoQ- 
^off, gfiven only to Achilles as in prow- 
ess, and to Odys. as in counsel iirst; 
on which Cicero erroneously (see O. 77. 
^. 550 foil.) says, *'HomerusnonAiacem, 
nonAckiUem, sed Ulixem appellavit nto- 
X6r.*' Cic. ad Fam. X. 13. Horace ren- 
ders 1 — 2 {de A. P. 141 — 2) with no 
equivalent for noXvvg.y his other render- 
ing {Episi. I. ii. 19) gives, loosely, pro- 
vidut for it. 

3—4. voov cV»^ "learned all they 
knew." o y*; by yg, an emphasis is 
laid on the whole action, as related to 
the further action of v. 6. C. F. Na- 
gelsbach in a monograph on the Home- 
ric y« says, "ponitur in sententiis cau- 
sam rei cujuspiam continentibus'\ here 



0ATSSEIA2 A. 4-17. 



[day I. 



133 



a f ■ 444, V. 59, xp. 

345, ^. 769. 
b a. 23, f. 324, 379. 
c2r. 409; cf. X.27, 

y. 416, V. «7. 
dls^ 177, O. 104, 

P. 497, y. 14». 
e fi. 261 foil. 
i &. 480, /A 

«/ a/, 
e a. 168, 354; cf. 

Z. 455, n. 880. 
h a. 83, 47. 
i cf. y. 180-92, d. 

685—6. 
k<.286,u.287,446. 
1 *'.507,p.47<r/a/. 
m 182. 

n ^ 124, V. 378. 
o «. 78 et al. , (. 

29-30, V.334-5. 
p d. 403, «. 155, 114, 

V/. 335. 
q (. 32. 
r X. 248, ^. 833, 

B, 551, e. 404, 

418. 
f i2. 625, 2. 139, 

<r. 208; cf. «. 

1«7— 8. 
t B. 290, 364, r. 

390, <f^. 229. 



Tcolka d' y' iv tcovxc) stdd'sv aXyea oV xaxa dv^ioVj 
dQvvfiEVog i]v %s ilfvxfjv xal v66tov itaifcav. I 

aAA'*» ovS' Sg haQOvg iQ^vHaro^ tiiiavog nsQ' 
avtol yctQ 0(p£tiQy0LV ata<s%'aXiri<iiv oAoi/ro,* 
vrjniOL,^ 0? xard^ fiovg 'TnsQiovog ^HMolo^ 
tJ6d'Lov' avtccQ o tot6iv itpaCXsro vo^ufiovf^ tjiiccf, 
\xSv a(i6d'€v y€y d'Bcc d^at€Q ^log^ elick %al^ 'fuiXv.'] i< 

iv%'^ aXXoi ^Iv ndvrsgy o0ov^ qyuyov^ alnvv oXb^qov^ 
otxov iaav^ 3t6X€ii6v xb neg)€vy6t€g i^di %'aXa66av' 
xbv d' olov/^ v66xov xsxQrunivov^ v^Sh ywaixdg, 
vv(ig)fi %6xvi iQVxe,^ KaXvtlH^ Sta d'sdavy 
iv OTti^ifLP yXaq)VQOt0L^ XvXaio(iivfi^ 7c66iv alvai. i< 

dXX^ ox a dij hog f^XQ'B nBQLitXo(iivci)v^ iviavx^v^ 
Tc5 ot iTcaxXciaavxo^ d'Bol olx6vSb^ via^Q'av 



4» /o'v. 5. Pnv. 



6. J^iifisvog, 12. SoUoi. 



16. fitog. 17. «Fo» 



7. avt&v Schol. K. 204. 



the action of ys should have been a 
cause, but failed of its effect — "much 
'<w truCf he suffered, etc., but not even 
so did he rescue his comrades*'. xavT^^ 
the g^reat expanse of sea, see App. B. 

5 — 6. aQVVfi.f the notion is avtina- 
xcciluaatov, Schol., "staking his suffer- 
ings to win the safety of s^f and com- 
rades*'; &Qvvfiai, (itCvvfiaif al^QOfiai^ 
are akin, this verb denotes, however, 
rather effort than result, tieq and xal 
with participles mark the concessive 
notion with a certain emphasis; see 
Donalds. Gr, Gr, 548 (32); Jelf, § 697. d.; 
so with nouns, as Q'BoC nsQ "the very 
gods". ^ 

7 — 8. azaaS;, in H. always plur., is 
ascribed especially to ^gisthus, to the 
suitors, and, as here, to the comrades 
(mar.), fiovg, for the legend in ques- 
tion see App. C. i. Some take '2^;«r€- 
qIcov as contracted from ^TitBgiovCtav^ 
and so patronymic; so in yi, 176 'T»f- 
QLOviScco is found, but the line is sus- 
pected; others better as a patronym- 
ically formed adj., as TsQTtid^rjg, Tcxto- 
vidjig, 'HnvxC^rig, fr. tbqiko, rixzotVy 
rinvtu (Ni.). As in ^HiXiog ^aid'nVf 
the epith. had become a cognomen. 



10. This line is probably spurious: 
aa69'8v is unknown to epic usage, and 
Binl should have the / (see, however, 
d. 28; A. 106), which violates the quan- 
tity of Jiog: besides, the invocation of 
line I is feebly repeated ; and the natl 
is weak, iu spite of the explanation 
given above on fiovoa. Perhaps, as 
Ni. suggests, the line was due to some 
rhapsodist, who, by xal iQiitv meant 
himself in contra-distinction with the 
poet. Twv depends on affto^sy. ifiO' 
S'Bv, or afiod'BVf has the same root as 
ovd-aiiagf arj9'a(img. 

II— 3. 0001 ^vyov. See mar. for 
who these' were , as mentioned in the 
poem. ainvVs the notion of high, 
deep, steep, precipitous, sudden (t. e, 
of a fall), overwhelming, are transi- 
tionally connected; thus alipa^ '*8ud- 
denly"; cf. ^.369, alnu gisd'QCC, ;r€- 
tfBvym see on 18, nBtpvyyi^ivoi. xe^ 
XQVf'* "yearning for". 

16. d^ combined with all* orf, as, 
with avTUQ inriv 293, marks that a 
narrative has reached a critical point, 
when some thing of special ^ interest 
occurs. i%oq (to which ininXofisvov is 
epith. 17. 261. |. 287) seems specially 



DAT I.] 



0AT22EIAS A. 18-29. 



sig 'Id'dxtiVj {ov8^ h%'a Ttstpvyiisvog^ rjev asd'kov^' 
xal iisrd olci fpCloi0i^) %'sol S* iXiaigov^ anavtsg 
'2ov60g)L^ IloCstddcDvog ^ o tf' a07CeQX^9^ ^svsacvsv 

aAA' o fihv Jid'CoTcag ^srsxiad'e njAoO-' iovxag^ 
Ald'Co%a!^ xol 8v%%'d SfSaiataty iiS%atov dvSQcSv^ 
cit (ihv dv^ofiivov^ ^TiCBQCovog^ oJ 8' • aviovtog^^ 
25 dinidav ravQCDv ts xal dqvBKSv ixato^Ptig. 

ivd'* o ye xiQTtsxo^ Sairl TtaQij^svog* oX 8h 8iq dXlov 
Z^ivo^ ivl iieydgoiCtv '0Xv(i7tL0v dd'QOOc f^iSav, 
xoliSi^ 81 (ivd'tov '^Qxa naxYiQ dv8QSv xs d-eaiv xs' 
(imjaaxo'^ yd^ xaxd d-vfiov diiv^ovog^ j4ly(0%'Oio^ 



488, 



a I. 455, Z. 

X. 21 D. 
b cr. ;.. 115 foil, 
c jf. 399. 

dr.?. c X. 10. 
f urf. 140; cf. a.70, 

d. 571, V. 378, 

\. 217, 182, X. 3te. 
gr 17. 193, 196, d, 

545 mar. 
h cf. a. 50-1, J?. 

671-3, 871—2, 

Z. 396-7, r.371 

-2, X. 127-8. 
i.cf. y. 251, I 97, 

cp. 108. 
k X. 135, e. 538. 
1 ». 429. 
m <r. 74; cf. Y, 

6—10. 
n X. 167, Si. 103. 
o d. 187-9. 
p t. 332, 11. 

Z. 171. 



261. 



19. foiai. 



21. friv. 



22. fiStSKslad's nonnulli metri giatiS, Schol. 



23. Aid-loTtsg, Schol. Z. 154. 



nsed in H. of a year at the end of a 
series, and hence in sing. only. nsQUtX* 
render, "completing their course". 

17—8. enexX. the action of spinn- 
ing, expressed by this and by litivim, 
is often applied to Zeus or Deity, 
(i) as breaking off, or continuing at 
will the ** thread of life"; (2) of bring- 
ing to pass, as here, particular events 
in it X6<pvyfi. only here occurs with 
gen., elsewhere an ace. follows it (mar.), 
as nsfpBvyoxsg in 12, which means ac- 
tively "having escaped"; this rather, 
passively, "rid or quit of", passing into 
a merely adjectival sense. Such Do- 
nalds. Gr. Gr. 425 (cc), calls a perf. of 
immediate consequence. The aeS^Xa 
are his contests with the suitors and 
rebellious Ithacans in books % ^^^ f^- 

19. ovd' evS-a.^.ipiXotat, a brief 
parenthesis relating to events after his 
retom. The apodosis of ilX^ ore 8'^ in 
16 is shown by &' in d* dansQxhgy 20; 
'Vhen the year came . . . , and all the 
gods were feeling for him save Posei- 
don, the latter (0 9') cherished wrath, 
etc." xai is = "although". 

21 — 4. avzi^my an epithet applied to 
heroes and their comrades, to the kind- 
red of the Gods, Otus, the Cyclops and 
the suitors (mar.), comp. avtiavBigat 
applied to the Amazons. xdQOC, an 
epic equivalent for nglv, but always 
followed by the infin, Jelf. Gr. Gr, § 848 
obs. 7. In sense of prtusquam both nglv 
. . . nglv and naQog . . . nqlv are found. 



Al'9'io2t»j the epanalepsis keeps the 
word before the mind, while adding 
to it impressiveness, see mar. For 
the .Ethiopians see App. D. i. fisve^ 
xiaS'S some read -Tisiad's metri causd, 
but the I is by arsis. TijXoS'* iovrag 
L e. the distance was great even for 
a god. Homeric deities- are for the most 
part under human limitations of time 
and space, only with a wider range, 
cf. E. 770—4, and "their faculties are 
no more than an improvement and ex- 
tension of the human". Gladst. II, v. 
349. Poseidon is got out of the way 
that the hero may have a fair start in 
book a. on his raft. He knows nothing 
of what goes on, even on the sea, in 
his absence. ifvao/i/XxeQ; gen. of 
place (mar.) ; see on 8. The participle 
belongs to a miz^d form of aor., at;- 
CBtOf fi. 388. 

25—6. avTi6wVy a real future, a 
being dropped Donalds. Gr. Gr. 331 (d). 
Like ixofiai and the like, this verb 
takes gen. of contact, but also accus., 
as including motion, in sense of going 
to meet, avxdio, the prose form, has 
sometimes dat. 6ii continues empha- 
tically the clause introduced by ot 8\, 
as in 49 that by o?. 

29. The story of the return of Agam. 
is given y. 255—75; and allusions to it 
, recur so often that it forms as it were 
a tragic back-ground to the action of 
the Ody., perhaps implying a warning 
to the atacQ'ttXiai of the suitors, ce^i^ 



0AT2SEIAL A. 



-46. 



[day 



a N. 633, «. 153, 

E 601 , Si. 376. 
b a. 7 mar. 
c «. 436 roar, 
d Z. 346, I. S99. 
e d. 534. 
f «r. 11 mar. 
g: see App. C. 2. 

mar. 
h cf. I. 28. 
I Z. 162. 
k X. 271. 
1 fi. 356. 
m cf. y. 210. 
no. 81, CO. 473, 

e. 31; cf. JB. 

756. 
r. 203, I. 477, 

X. 1S1, p. 393. 
p cf. d. 371, y. 

421. 



rov ^' '^yausiivoviSr^g rrjXexlvtdg &rai/' 'OQiCrrjg' 3c 
toiJ 8 y' imnvrjcsd^slg eits* a^avdtoioi fiBxrivSa' 
" oJ TCOTtoi, olov Svj vv %'Bovg^ PqotoI aixi6(Qvtai • 
^5 ri^ifXiv yaQ (pa0i xdx' i^fUBvai^ 0? S\ not aixol 

6g xal vvv Atyvo^og imlQ (ioqov 'AtQsidcco 3^ 

y^ft' aloxov^ (ivriari^Vy rdv d* Iwcuva vo6riJ0avtay 
slSiog^ ccItcvv^ oked'Qov^ iicsl tcqo of stTto^ev iq(i£tg^ 
'EQiisiav^ nsiiJifavtsg iv6xoxov *A^stq)6vrrjv^ 
liijt* avrov xxbCvbiv ^fjts (ivdaiSd'ac axoiriv* 
ix yccQ ^OQE0rao xCOig i66Bxm ^Ar^BiSao^ 4c 

OTticot^ av '^PfjOf] XB xal ijg tyiBCgBxai atiqg,^ 
cSg Sq)ad'' ^EQ{iBLag, alV ov (pgivag AiytCd'OLO 
TCBtd"'^ dyad'd (pgoviov vvv 8^ d^goa^ ndvx^^ ditixiiSBvJ^^^^ 
xov d' yulbC^bx' BTCBixa d^Bd ylavxmTtig 'AdT^vij' 

"(D** TtdxBQ rillixBQB KqOvIStI^ VTCaXB^ XQBlOVXQDVy 4^ 

xal^ lirjvv xetvog ys ioixoxt XBtxac dXsd'Qp, 



31. Joins'. 37. /gtdcoff, /ofc; ngosfBtTCo^sv omisso of, quod toUit Hoffmannus. 
41. omisso Tf, ipfjc:, 46. fBfomoTi. 

31. ^nsa msQOSvta ngoarivSci Harl., receptfi tameu in margmem nostrfi, lect. 
35. VTciQfiOQOv Arist. 38. nifiilfccvxs Aristoph. etZen.: tj MaaaiXimtLji^y ^^nsfi- 
ipavxss MctLCcg igiyivSiog dyXaov vt6v^\ Schol. 41. ^fi^asis Vind., lijJiJcrj t« lib, ; 



fjuov was at first an epithet of distinc- 
tive excellence (mar.), but had become 
a purely conventional style as applied 
to a class, like our ^^ honourable and 
gallant", or ** learned, gentleman". 

32. olov 6yi w, *'only see how!" 
olog $ri is used scornfully, as here, 
indignantly, and admiringly (mar.), vv 
marks urgency, inf, 59 — 62. 

34 — 5. The double sense in the words 
v7t€Q fiOQOv shows that a moral ele- 
ment was involved in Homer's view of 
the **lot" of man. Men incur woes 
graiuitously {inhg fi,) e. g, ^gisthus 
did so by acting unwarrantably {inhg 
fi.); see on s. 436. 

36—7. yvipC* We should of course 
say, he did not inarry her, for she was 
the wife of another man. As in Paris* 
case, 80 in iBgisthus', the wrong lay, 
in Homer's view, in the primary ab- 
duction {ctQuayii) of Helen, or of Cly- 
tsemn., also of course in the murder 
of Agam., which the guilty pair shar- 
ed. See further App. K. 9, (^). Pa- 
ris is called the husband {jioaig) of 



Helen, F. 427; so Hor. Carm, I. xv. 7 
'Huas rumpere nuptias^*, eiif(og aL 
ok* sl9a)s with neut. pi. adj. following 
is said of one whose mind and thoughts 
are bent in one direction; so ijxia, 0X0- 
tpma, ui'aiftoc &c., siSmg, niSv* sidvCa, 
a. 428; here it means '^having a sight 
or clear knowledge of awful ruin "; — 
whose? The eTtsl x. t. X. following 
points to his own: he was forewarned, 
but reckless; ifcsl might, but harshly, be 
thrown back to 34 for its connexion. 
It shows why the case of iBgiathus, 35, 
illustrates the maxinr about **men*s own 
presumption" in 34. So, 9, 534, ovx 
slSoroXs&QOv (of Agam, slain), **with 
no knowledge of his doom". 

39. /ivdaaS'aig see App. A. 2. 

40—1. eaOBxai, the reasoa is here 
added in the ordtio recta, the previous 
statement might be viewed as in the 
same by taking the infin. %xBlvBiVy 
livdaa^'tti, as put for imper. 'AvQeid\ 
depends as object on t£oig. For Hermes 
and his epithets see App. C. 2. ifielQe' 
zai for -ijTCKt subjunct. shortened epice. 



DAT I.] 



OATSSEIAS A. 47—57. 



(6g aitoloLto xal aAAog, ong roiaikd ye ^s^ot.^ 
dXXd (lot aybip* 'OSvOrji 8ai(pQ0vv^ Satstac rjtOQy 
dv^fiOQPy og Srj Srid'cc q)lk(ov &7C0^ xtjiiata^ 7cd0%si 
50 viftfcj® iv d(iq)iQvrij^ od^c r' OfjupaXog^ idxv d'cddtStSrig^ 

"AtXavxog dvydrriQ 6Xo6q)QOvog^^ og xa d'aldeaijg 
Ttd^fjg pivd'sa olSsv, ixsi 8f xs yilovag avxog 
liaxQag^ at yatdv xs xal (yvQuvov dfKplg''' i%ov^iv, 
55 xov %vydxriQ Sv0xijvov odvQoiisvov xaxeqvxsi^ 
alsl 8\ iiaXaxotOt xal aC(ivXioc0L^ X6yoi0iv 
^iXyst, OTtcog^ ^Id'dxrjg imXi^^sxac "^ avxaQ ^08v66svg^ 



a y- 316 , W. 494. 
hlf. 687, C. 256, 

0.356, J.4H7,X' 

lib etai.. Si. m. 
c •. ltd» C. 40, 0. 

617. d E. 886. 
e a. 198, u. 2S3, d. 

656—}*. 
f J. 625, ji. 34, 

iS2. 273. 
g cf. 9C. 308. 
h a, 340, t. 60 
i d. 811, 517, «. SO, 

I. 18. 
k see App. A. 3. 

mar. 
1 fi. 181, t. 10s, X. 

':l05-6, I. 537, 

u. 90-1, ^. 733 

-4, O. 275. 
m y. 486, O. 709. 

^ 352, r. 115, 

n cf. £. 49. 

d. 109, ^.14, F. 

144, o. 270, 295 

— Ji. 
p v. 85, f. 324; 

cf. a. 65. 



53. fotSBV, 



49. trjX' ttXdXritm Schol. s. 8. 50. toyvyiji Strabo ex 85. 5a. 6Xo6(pQ(ov 

Schol. ex conjecturft. 



46. xal XI,, ibis pbraae, onlj found 
in conversation, conveys a tin^e of in- 
dignation or even irony, comp. the Engl, 
"anrf serves bim quite right". Xirjv, 
though here long in thes., is said to 
occur 10 times with t in II. , 30 times 
with t. 

48. Buttm. Lex. 37, says da'ttpQ. is 
used of a woman, 0. 356 ; better refer it 
there to Laertes. He contrasts SattpQ, 
tnnoddfioio of n. with Sattpg. noirnXo- 
lnqtTjv of Ody.; but the last occurs of 
Odys. in both (mar.). In Hes. ScuL 
119 it may as well mean '* skilful*^ as 
any more properly warlike quality, as 
it refers to managing a horse. This 
is probably its primary meaning, and 
its application to martial persons, as 
skilled in their special province, merely 
secondary f comp. ^^notable*', as ap- 
plied to a woman whom H. would call 
BQy* HSvta, 

49. 4v0fi», observe what emphasis 
an adj. gains when standing first of a 
yerse, next before a pause, its subst. 
having preceded; so often vrimogy 
6%itXiog, &c. ano, ^^i&i from", so 
in 75. 

50 — 4. 0^1 X* , the rs gives a relative 
word a special and emphatic value, thus 
«S Tfi is "the particidar person who" 
(Donalds. Gv, Gr, 24$ b). This is fur- 



ther illustrated by the Attic use oionats, 
otos ze; the latter = **just such a per- 
son as to". vijCoq, epanalepsis, see 
on 23, with case varied by attraction of 
o(npocXog preceding. "AxXav* x.r.^. sec 
App. C. 3. Hesiod. Theog. 359 makes her 
the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. 
piv&ea is akin to ^a^og as nivG'og to 
nd9'og, 6e and T6 conjoined make a 
clause appear at once contrasted and 
coordinated with another, here with og 
TS .., ol9sv previous, (mar.). dfMfplq, 
this prep, signifies (i) "on either side", 
(2) "asunder, or away from", (3) "be- 
tween" ; (3) is the converse of (i), being 
the relation of a mean to extremes, (i) 
that of extremes to a mean; see mar. 

57. S'iXyeis cf. (Zevg) A%aiviv &f. 
voov, M, 254—5 "was sapping their cou- 
rage". For a specimen of the atfivXiot 
Xoyoi see Calypso^s words e. 206—10, 
where the tone is that of wheedling a 
strong mind to weak compliance. ijtiX, 
Ni. says, not subjunct. shortened epice 
— a doubtful statement, as that mood 
with oncag, to express an effect, is more 
frequent than the fut. Yet a clear exam- 
ple of fut. is A. 136 Sgcavtsg Hocta ^v- 
(t,6von(og dvToi^LOv iazai^ see also Jelf 
fiV". (rr. § 812, I. 2, and Heyne Excur, 
III. ad II. A, 251,677. Fov^IB-dxTiq, g^n, 
with ini,Xi}aEzaif see on Xu%oCyi>riv, 65. 



8 



OATSEEIAT A. 58—76. 



[day 



ax. !^U. 140; cf, 30. 

b B. ;o2, n.i4». 

d a 34T, ja. 33-4. 

f IT. a-s. 

^ V. S, ^. -JT3. f. 

m, ij. 191; a. 
a. 56/ 
h ^. 411, 

k •, 27, *. 4«2, ^. 

7fl y.2:(0^«. tea, 

1 ;f. a^B, I. #9. 
m J5r, 243, 

P. 2TO, S^ 190. 

^. 3S9, ^. am 

344, V- 2>j0, 
« ^, 3h, ^'^ 43, 
r 31- 

1 J. 543. r, 68. 

D iT. 660, S. 646, 

-v I. 51fi, ^. fi4. 
w cf. J. 11, r. 12il 

-4. 
n B. 32S, IT. 208, 
1 i2. 311. 

u cf. ^ 87. 
bb Of. 15 mar, 
«e *. see, 5f. 66, 

271, ^. 3i4,- (. 

^#, JL 252, •. 

I4*j 15tf. 
dd tl^ tf. 211, 252, 

f. M^, 476. 



rig yidTjg^ ^avhiv [pLsigetm^ ovSi w^ 0oi Tte^' 
ivTQijtstai q^iXov 1^0^^ 'Olvptms. qv vv x *OSv0iS€vg 6c 

Tgoifi iv BVfsiy; xi vv^ ot xoffov mSv&m^^ ZsiJ;" 
x^v S* &jt€t^£ip6[isv0g jrpo^/yi? vefEkfiys^ha Zavg ^ 
^^xixvop /|iOi'5 Ttotov^ 0a inog pvyev igmg^ oSovr&v; 

a^fxvaxQi6iv^ IdaxB, tol ov^avov svgvv i%ov&iv\ 

alha no6€i8amv^ yati^oxog a^xsllg^ aUl 

KvuXcjTtog XEx6kmtia° ov otpd'aXpt^v'' aldm6£Vj 

avxt&sov Uolv^yiyiov^ oou* nqixog iml ptriyiatov^ 7< 

na0iv^ KvKkwTt^COi^ S6m0a 3i^ ^tv xixe NvfL<p% 

t^OQXvvog ^yyaTTjQ ^Aog atQvyBtoio iiiSovtog^ 

iv 07th0i^^ yXa<pvQottfi nofJBiSamvi ^lysV^m, 

in xov Sri 'OSva^a Jlotf^iJctcoi'" ivo^ix^mv 

ov ti nataxtUvsiy 7tXa%u S* ajto Ttaz^idog mi!r}g, *li 



58. fUfisvog, 



59. ^V9' 



62. foi» 



64. finog* 



60. ovvsx* (pro ov vv t*): t* esse rot monebat Herm. 70. Iff*« Schol. 72. fii- 
dovti Aristoph. 76. <Sd€. 



58. xaxvav dxo^» voij. Lowe com- 
pares Ov. E ponio I. iii, 33 opiat Fu- 
mum de patriU posse videre focis, doubt- 
less an imitation of this. 

59. XCQ implies that, '^althongh an- 
other's heart would relent at such woe, 
thine does not'*; so d. 729, where see 
note. 

60—5. Hermann considers r' in ov 
vv r* as trot, ijiifvif. playing on the 
name 'Odvtrff. in 57 and 60 (mar.l. CQX^ 
idovT, The image is that of the pali- 
sades {otttVQol, £. 11), by driving in 
which a fence (Sgnog) was made, and 
to which the teeth are likened. Others, 
not so well, think the lips, as an outer 
fence round the teeth {odovx. gen. ob- 
jective), intended by ^gnog. XaB^ifi» 
This verb, when mid, takes gen*, cf. ini- 



Irjostai 57, when act., accus. (mar.); 
so fivdo^up, epic for (ivdofiai, 9. 106, 
in sense its opposite, takes gen., rarely 
accu8.« as £. 168—9. 

69— -77. JEvxJtv^gen.of source whence 
wrath proceeds, Donalds. Gr. Or, 447. 
JIoXv^. is by laverse attraction drawn 
to the rel. clause, Jelf Gr, Gr, 824. ii. 4: 
see mar. ;ra4Fcy> ''amongst all", di 
fiiv %,x,X, this clause apparently in- 
volves a TtpiD^ffTS^oy, but m is em- 
phatic and nearly =3 yap; it was not 
80 much his prowess as his being the 
god's own son, which infuriated the 
latter, as shown by Ix xov following, 
"in consequence of this". A tor. lecU 
fkidovxi refers this word, not so well, to 
Iloa ei9aavi in 7^. xXt^ei <f' ax 6 in 
tmesis (mar.). SXS^Oi, the old form 
in iiif -(oiLfct, 'ijeO-a, -^t(y)y is prevalent 



DAY I.] 



0ATS2EIAS A. 77—96. 



i/o<yroi/,* ojtiog ll^dc. IloOstSaav dl (isd'ii^si^ 
ov jfiXov^ ov (ih/ yaQ xt dvvT^^srcci avxCa^ n:dvr(ov 

80 tov 8* iJfie/JJar' iTceira d'Bct ylavxamg A^i^vri • 
^^m^ ndtSQ '/jfiirefs KgoviSij^ Unaxs XQSiovtov^ 
bP fiiv S'q vvv roiko tpCXov (iaxdQSCai d^BotHiv, 
vo6tiiiSat ^08v6ria SattpQOva^ Svds^ dofiovSs^ 
^EQiieiav^ [ihv iscBira StdxroQOv ^AQyeLtpovxr^v 

85 vi}6ov is ^Slyvyiijv^ dxQvyoiisv^ wpga xd%i0xa 
vv(iq>fj^ ivTtXoxdfip bH^tj vri(iBQxia /JovAiJi/, 
voiSxov *OSv66rjog xala0i<pQOvog^^ Sg xb verjxat, 
avxaQ^ iy(ov ^Id'dxrjv i0BXBveoiiecv^ bq)Qa ot vlov 
fialXov i^oxQm'io^ xaC 01 (livog iv fpQB^l d'Blio^^ 

90 Big dyoQrjvP xakioavxa xdQrj xofiocjvxag 'AxULovg 
n&Oi iivri6x7JQB06Lv dytBiTtsfiBVy^ ot XB ot alsl 
fiiyA' dSivd^ 6cpd^ov0i xal BlXCicoiag sXixag fiovg.* 
TtBiiilfca^ d' ig Uicd^xriv xb xal ig IlvXoV^ i^fiad^oBvxa^ 
v66xov XBv^oiiBvov^ TtaxQog q>Ckov^ ijv tcov axovCrj^ 

95 V^* ti/a jLttv xUog"^ ied'Xov iv dv^QoinoiCLv Sxrj0ivJ' 
Sg^ Blnov0^ vnb Tcooelv idrj6ccxo xaXd ^idiXa, 



a a. 87, d. 470. 
b cf. tp. 377, 126 
c A. 230, o. 377. 
d M. 8, O. 720. 
e a. 43 mar. 
f $. 831. 
^ a. 48 mar. 
h 27. 445. 
i see App. C. 2. mar, 
k see App. D.2.mar. 
I «. 29-30. 
m y. 84, ji, 466; 

cf. N. 300. 
n ^. 52. 
) <h. 145. 
p A. 54, T. 84. 
q A. 515, I. 309, 

431, 9t. 340. 
r S. 320, 721, w. 

274, X. 413, ?r. 

216,r.516,U^.320. 

J5.87,4C9,£r.48l. 
» t. 40, Z. 462, *P. 

166. 
t/?. 214 -5, a. 284 

—5. 
a L 257, B. 77, S. 

308, A, 252. 
▼ /9. 264, a. 28L 
w J. 415. 
X a. 44—6, Si. 340 

-2. 



78. fov, 79. dfi%jjti. 83. J^ovds, 86. ^slnrf. 88^ 89. 91. /ofc. 

fivrjav^QSca' anofsmifisv 92. fiU%aq, 96. J^smova', 

80. TOV d' avre nQoainns, 85. iv t^ xax' *AvxCfi>a%ov^ **(»yv)l6yv" ypay^tat, 

Schol. 87. H€v Txi^Tai. 88. '^I'&axi^v^'; insUvaofiaii et dt£A€t;<ro|iiat. 

89. <^(rco. 93. ifua'd'dftrtrav ; post v. 93 codd. Ambros. Harlej. Yind. ubi&sv 

Si KQi^trjvds nuQ *Jdo(isvija ivccnta. 95. pro ^Xfjciv Rhian. Xdpri6iv. 



in tUe^ subj. mood sing. , Donalds. Gr. 
Gr* 331. 3. f. Ahrens Griech. FormenL 
§ 49. D. Anra. 3. 

78 — 80. One thongbt is here en- 
grafted on another; **be will not be 
able (i) to strive alone against air' 
and (3) "to strive inmHs dis" ndv" 
xwv, like &XXmv 132, is inclnsive, where 
the tiionght is really exclusive , = "all 
the other*^; see also q. 401—2. 

82—7. vvv emphatic, as showing that 
what before was doubtful now was fix- 
ed: to this eTteixa, cf. 84, is retro- 
spective, "that being settled*'. *EQfi, 
see App. C. 2. ^idxx.y Buttm. Lex. 
40, regards "runner" as the original 
sense, tracing it fr. d/<», dtcsxoo (t. q, 
ducxco, dinntOf with analogy of d'&Tiogt 
4^a%ogf igfmytx (ijywfiif &c.) and re- 



jecting dtayo. The later view of Her- 
mes as ipvxonojinog suggested the ety- 
mol. from didym meaning transveho, 
'Styvy., see App. D. 2. oxQVVo^g epic 
for *o>ft£v, as 41 , q. v, voCxoq and 
viofiat are specially used of returning 
home (mar.). xaXaOltp^y another form 
is taXdq>Q<ov (mar.). 

88—98. oi Odys., 88, and ot Telem., 
89, are both datives of special re- 
ference; so is ot in 91. Refer x«A^- 
Cavxa in 90 to vtov in 88. aTteix,, 
"warn oflF", from acting as in 92; else- 
where (mar.) = "refuse, renounce"; also 
"report (a message) in answer", wivicy 
see App. A. 6, (2). Sxdq. x. t. X., see 
Apj>. D. 3. iifia9'.f see App. A. 12. 
tpeQOV, imp erf., of her habitual move- 
ment; her actual flight begins in 102. 



lO 



OATSSEIAS A. 97—109. 



[day I. 



a 6. 709, K. 27, 

S- 308. 
b 0. 79, Q. 386, 418, 

H. 446. 
c/?.148,(r.839, Ai. 

207, 77. 149. 
d K. 136, ^. 12, 

O. 482, r. 338. 
e 0. 390-1. 
f y. 135. 
g- 01. 487, J. 7i, 

H. 19, X. 1S7, 

i2. 121,'^. 44. 
h /J. 239, ^. 555. 
i seeApp. F.2. (=). 

mar. 
k /9. JO. 
I F. 73. 
m a. 181 , 419. ^ 

452, 0. 427; cf. 

a. 417. 
n /. 189. 
o A. 321, 334. 
p d. 38, 23; cf. ;i, 

255. 



»)d' £7r' ditBLQOva^ yaiav icfia Tcvoiyg^ dviyLOio. 
ellaro^ d' aXxifiov syxoSj dxaxii^vov d^A' xccXx^y 
^Qid'v^ (leya Ori^aQOv^ ta Sd^ivTiOL 0xCx(^g avSgaiv 
i^Qciov^ xotolv TB xote60€tav 6fiQL(ioxdtQri.^ 
jJi2^ dh %ax OvXv^TCoiQ xa^vav dt^aaa, 
6t^ d* 'Id'dxtjs ivl dijfic}^ ijtl ngod'VQOi^ *Odv(Sijogy 
ovSov ix' avXeioVy TtaXdfirjl^ d' ix^ ;|raAx€Ot/ fyx^^y 
elSoiiivYi^ ^€cvc[>y Taq)icov^ ^ytjroQi, Mivtrj. 
€VQ€ d' aQa iiVTiot'^Qag dyrjvoQag. ot (ihv ijtsita 
7C a a (Sot (Si nQOTtdQoid'e ^vQdcov d'Vfiov^ ixBQnoVy 
illiBvoi iv ^tvot(SL fioiSvj ovg ixtavov avtoC* 
XTJQvxBg^ d' avrotCi xal drQrjQol ^BQdicovxBg^ 



ic 



ic 



105. f€i9ofi£vri. 



101. oiiPgtfiOTcdxQrj Bek. 109. ccv xoici, Nicias. 



vv^^y, J' watery", i, e. surface; so 
XSgaog, fineiQog^ really adj. but taken 
as uouns; so Cowper, Time piece t 55 — 6, 
"When did the waves so haughtily 
o'erleap Their ancient barriers, delug- 
ing the dry?^^ afJia^ simuly t. e. "as 
swiftly as". 

97 — 101. These verses are wrongly 
inserted here by some copyist from the 
II. (mar.). There they suit the sequel, 
which relates Pallas' taking the 5eld 
in propria persona; not so here. Fur- 
ther,' the ty%og recurs in 104, as part 
of the disguise suited to the sl'daXov 
adopted by Pallas. 

loi — 5. o^QifiOTt, On this epithet 
see App. E. 4, (14). ^^t-, of arbitrary 
length, is probably the root of o§QLfiog'y 
so in pQid'oa, ^Qtagriv^ Bgidgsav, who is 
called 'OpQiagsixg in Hes. Theog. 734. 
fSjjfJUf^ means (mar.) (i) region, as here, 
(2) soil, (3) people. For jtQoS'VQOig 
and ov6ov avkBiov, see App. F. 2. 
i5). Ta<piiifv, see App. D. 5. 

106. In BTiBiTa a transition takes 
place from the progress of Pallas, 
to the course of events in the pa- 
lace. 

107. TiBCCy a game resembling our 
draughts or chess; see App. A. 5. 

109. xiiQVxeq in r. 135 are reckoned 
drifiLOsgyoLj i. e. persons who had func- 
tions to discharge in which the people 
were interested, a class which also 
includes in q, 383 — 5 the seer, the sur- 



geon, the artisan, and the minstrel. 
The bulk of the people found their 
^gya in agriculture, each tilling his 
own field, but the above pursuits were 
useful to all. The nijgv^ seems to have 
been personally attached to the man 
of high rank. To a king they w^re 
"his only immediate agents. They con- 
veyed his orders; they assisted him in 
the assembly, in sacrifice, and in ban- 
quets. They appear to be the only 
executive officers that are found in Ho- 
mer." Gladst. III. I. 69. But of course 
their functions were limited by the sta- 
tion of their immediate chief. In the 
Ody. they are not, except Medon (see 
^' 252, X' 357—8), of the household of 
Odys. The office of ^BQanwv, a sort 
of lower comrade, with a mixture of 
inferiority with equality which may be 
compared to the Scottish ^^Henchman", 
was one of high honour. Patroclus is 
the great embodiment of the idea. In 
the 11. we trace in Eurybates, B. 183—4, 
a ^Bg, to Odys. He himself, in the Ody,, 
in disguise, speaks of x^pvf Evpt;^., 
"whom he regarded above all his com- 
rades, as his sentiments were in unison 
with his own" (t. 244 — 8). And indeed 
the oc^pvf and ^sg. might be united in 
the same person. In a borrowed sense 
kings and warriors are ^BgdnovtBg 
'Agriog, Jiog, &c. 

109 — 12. While this was going on 
within the palace (comp. 126, 144); 



DAY I.] 



0Ar2:i:EiA.2 a. ho— 1*2. 



11 



10 or ^iv &Q* olvov^ iiiiayov ivl XQi]riJQ0L xal vScag^ 
oi d' avrs 07t6yyoiOi^ TtoXvtQrjtocat xQaTta^ag 
vc^ov xal XQ6tid'€Vj toi dl xgea Tcolla daravvro,^ 

v^v dh noli) ycQiSrog £ds Trili^axoq d'eosLdrjg' 
YiiSxo yccQ iv (ivriOt'^QiSL (pCkov tsxirnnivog,^ ^^0^, 

15 bcaoiihvog^ jtazBQ' iiSd^lov ivl q>Q66lv, bI nod'Bv ik^&v 
liV7i6T7JQc:>v^ xSv^ lihv axiSa0iv xaxa Sciiiaxa d'scrj^ 
XL^T^v^ d' avxog 'i%oi xal xxtj^aOiv OI01V dvd00oc. 

xd q)Q0V6C0V^ IIV710X'^Q0L [l cd'tj ^€vog^ Bt0lS^ 'Ad'TJl^lV^ 
fifj^ d* Idifg JtQOdVQOlO^ V€ll€00rjdl]^ 8' ivl d^V(lO? 

20 istvov drj^d d'VQri0tv i<p€0xd[iev ' iyyv^i^ 81 0xdg 
%BtQ'^ eke SsiixsQTJv^ xal ide^axo^ xdlxiov ly%og^ 
xaC (iLV (pc}vr]0ag iitsa nxBQOSvxa 7tQO0rjvda' 



a r. 269-70. 
^. 414. 

c 0. 140, e. &00; 

d a IW, J. 5;>r., 
«. 4J7, I. 13. 

e v.h\,A. Uib, S. 
17, /J. 152, «.35i», 

f V. 2Z\ 

S }[. 401 , «. 497, 

<^.353,^.118-^^. 
h Z. 1M3--5, .X 

4!»5, M.310-II; 

cLJl. 186, C. 2'^«, 

«. 335. 
i p. 325, ©. 822, 

M. 10«}. 
k N. 122, Z. 351, 

F. 254. 
J J. 158, n. 644. 
m cf. K. 2.M. 
n y. 35 , H. 108, 

S' 137. 



\io iihv fotvov, Ji^.f^^sd'toJFsLdTig. \ i^j . S^otci F ccvdccoi. n^. icfid\ 122 fiTtSix. 



121. Ss^it sg^. 



the suitors were without. The Homeric 
narrative does not carry on two sets 
of actions as contemporaneous. Thus 
here the parts which describe the ban- 
quet are divorced from their real s6quel 
by the reception of Mentes (Pallas) by 
Telem. The real continuation of 112 
is 144. This is betrayed by ^%to&sv 
aAAcoy tivrjaTi^Q(0Vf a, 132, which shows 
that the suitors were then coming or 
come in. Each guest ordinarily had a 
table to himself, hut in ^. 54 two 
sh:iro a table; so in p. 334 Eumseus 
takes his place and eats at Telemachus' 
table. The division of the viands (^a- 
TBvvto) was the last thing done before 
the feast, as in 146, commenced; see 
o. 140, Q. 331. We may compare with 
Satsofiai, dam daXg^ natiofiai nd- 
aciaQ'ai,xati(o %doq. 

115. 6006 fisvoq.*. ivl <fQ^y "men- 
tally regarding, wishfully brooding 
over''; comp. the Lat. opio akin to 06- 
tfo/iiat. Fixedness of regard, seems the 
most general idea of o<r<Td^., especially 
when compounded with Trpog; the mind 
realizing the image by dwelling on it. 
Thus with xaxot', oIb%qov^ &c., " fore- 
boding*' is the sense. Hamlet's words, 
**In my mind's eye, Horatio", Act I, 
So. II, are an obvious parallel. 

116. fivri0x. xwv fihvy the pronoun, 
emphatically repeating the noun (see 
mar.), takes the latter's place in con- 
struction, introducing the contrast with 



avtoq in 117. The noun far more com- 
monly follows the pronoun, as in 125 
and in A. 488—9,^ avxcLQ fn^vL8...6io- 
ysviig Tlrjliog vtog, until, when it fol- 
lows immediately, the pronoun lapses 
into the force of the article, as in 6 
ysgnv, 6 ysgcciog, A, zj^^ 35. 

117—23. Ti fjiiiv, **his due", including 
the yigag, or substantial part of roy- 
alty. So Achilles, in the Shades, en- 
quires about Peleus, rj h' ^XBi tLfir]V 
. ; . fisxd MttgiiidoveaaLV (mar.), ve^ 
fiS00ri^, "felt ashamed", because 
he represented the host; the feeling 
is sometimes expressed hjalda xal 
vsiisaiv; comp. og ^dri vipisaiv zs xal 
ara;^£a, nearly = vsfisaarid^ ceHaxsa 
(mar.). iyyvS'i, here of place, is 
also used (mar.) of time, and takes 
either gen. or dat. , as does lyyvQ'bv. 
(piXtjceai, with pass, force, "shalt be 
well treated", used specially of hospi- 
table entertainment. 60 Menel., N. 627, 
upbraids the Trojans; "ye carried off 
my wife, insl q>ilisa&B xag* avitj; 
and so the active,, og XE qjLXT^ejj, "who 
may entertain", 8, 29. Observe the 
hospitable rule, to supply the guest's 
wants first, and then enquire his er- 
rand. So Nestor, y. 69 — 70, when his 
guests are sated, says, "hou; it is more 
seemly to enquire who our guests are". 
Comp. also the reception of Telem. by 
Menel., and subsequent conversation, 
d. 60—4, 117—39- 



13 



OATISEIAS A. 123—139. 



[day I. 



f. 



« a. 3gL. 

h J. 4fl4. ^. 76, 

c j¥. 1S9, h 507. 
I. 191 . F. 20(1. 

d rt. '!», o. ns. 

ei}^ mi; tl. vr (36, 

473 
Ifi; jr. 9«0-l, 
r n. »7. 
fi (f. 51 ; cr fl. HS, 

y. 389. 

X 3*2 If/. 234, 
K If, 3ia, 367, 2:. 

330. ' 
1 X. 314, 5'. 24i^, 

^. 23fij SI. mi. 

nii.a^l,I.4Sil, T. 
307, ^, 381, «J>. 
70,£.2a5,iP',31."., 
r. 423, 1. ^0. 

o iJ. S2^fi, 11. 172 
— C, Jf. 33i-72, 
*. 1%—^, p. fll 
— &: pf,y,44*— I 

p J. !23, f/J, 2S0, 

q 0.333, 447, ¥.74. 

r S. %% 

fi /*. 345, y. 479j 



^. 4£h6. 



449; 



tSg sizdv iiy£i^\ i} S* i^nato nalkaq ^ji%iqvii. i 

Oh tf' 0T£ ill ^' ivzots%$v i^av 86iiov vijjfilotOf 
ifXog^ ^iv ^' §6X7151 {pBQcav TC^og xiova^ ilkk^v 
SQVQo66xi]g^ Svroad^sv iif^oov, §v^a ste^ aXla. 
fyX^^ '0Sv66fl(}g talaaitpQovogf^ L6tato TzoXkct^ 
aiziiv (5' iq %q6vqv^ u0Bv afmv^ vzo Alta^ nEtd66ccg^ i 
KccXdv'^ dKiddlEOv'^ 6it6 dh d-Q'^i^vg 7t06lv ti^v, 
^ii^ S' avTog xXia^ov''' #£ra TtoiniloVy iKzod'iv &Xk(Dv 
pLV7i6tfJQtoi\ ^)J ^Bivog ccviYi^Eig ogv^aySm 

t]6' h'cc fitv jriQi Ttar^ig aTTOixoiiivoto i^DLto. i 

Xtgvijia'* (3* diig:inoXog Ttgoxom iitit^vt (pagov^a 
xalfi yQv6Ei7i vnlQ aQyvQBo^o Upfjtog^^ 
vitlJaOd^ai' Jtagd. dl imriqv iTdvv66E tgdithf^avJ^ 



125. fnnmv, 134. J^a&ijasisv, 
124. (iv^TjCEO, 127. (laTiQOV, 134. Yind. di^dTJasLsv et oiTidicastsVf alii dddTJasisv, 



124. naccdfi,* only this aor. and 
the pluperf. nsnacfiriv are found in H. 
The verb also takes an accus. 

1 26 —30. 01 6*^ ote^ 6ii ^* . . • €YX<>^ 
fiiv ^\ • • avziiv 6\ with this train 
of conjunctions and particles comp. 
r. 15 — 21, oW 0x6 W . . . Tq&civ fihv 
. . . xov d* 009, where qu alone is want- 
ing to complete the parallel, xiova, 
fern., but also masc. (mar.). For 60VQO' 
66xn and Xita see App. F. 2. (21), (17). 
The drapery spread under the seat (since 
the floor was native earth), was X{g, 
* 'smooth", not embroidered; Xlg in this 
sense becomes a noun. On the seat 
was laid a dyed fleece (mar.). Lid- 
de*ll & S. explain both as being on the 
seat. 

ijji — 2. xaXov d^idm, refer these to 
^Qovov (mar.). xXiCfiov, haying set 
a ^Qovos for the guest, he sets a 
nXiciiog for himself; so Helen in her 
palace sits on a xZ., and so Here and 
Pallas in Olympus O. 436, while Zeus 
on a 9q, A, 536. Probably the Q'o. 
was the seat of dignity, ^^ throne^. 
Herd promises to give a*' throne", as 



a reward to the Sleep-god, ^, 238, and 
has herself the epitrhet %Qva69'qovo£, 
Women or younger persons use a xXt- 
(Tfioff, but the distinction, especially 
in the camp-life of the II., is not ri- 
gidly observed. Either might be used 
with a ^grivvg. Athenseus says (V. 4.), 
the 9q, was for mere sitting, the xi. 
for reclining; but of reclining, save in 
bed, H. has no trace ; nay, %liafim xc- 
nXifiiyi] is used, q. 96—7, to^further 
describe the attitude of tts, &XX<av, 
like ndvvaVf j^, where see note ; comp. 
^ 84, fffta t^8 xffl iiL^CnoXoi %Cov 
aXXai, 

134. a67^euv, see App. A. 6, (2). 

137—9- XiBijV; "wash-basin". The 
utensil was also used to heat water. It 
appears thus in simile to illustrate Gha- 
rybdis boiling with surge, and the wa- 
ters of Xanthus bubbling in the flamcH 
of Hephsestus. In an enumeration of 
presents it often occurs in conjunction 
with the "tripod", which was not, how- 
ever, a mere stand for the Xi§rjg, but 
included a containing vessel; see !F. 
264. For the vafUfi see App. A. 7 (4). 



DAY I.] 



OAT23rEIAr A. 140-155. 



13 



i^letdata^ tcoXV ijti^stoa^ XccQi^oiievr^ TcaQeovttov 
SattQog^ Si xq£l(Sv scLvaxag naQidijxsv detQag 
TCavtoltaVj jcaQct Sd 6q)i tC^ai XQViSSia^ xvjtiXlcc *] 
xiJQvi^ 8* avtol0iv ^d^L iixipxaro oivoxoev&v, 
ig tf' ^Adov fivfidtiJQeg dytjvoQeg, 0? (ilv ineixa 

[45 S^eCrig £{E;bi/ro xaxd xkL6(iovg^ re ^Qovovg xSy 
xotOi^ SI XTJQvxeg ^hv vScdq^ iitl x^^Q^g ^X^vaVj 
0txov 81 8iii,(aai nagevTJvaov iv xaveoiaiVy 
xovQOL^ 81 XQtjx'^gag i%B0xiiljavx6^ noxoto. 
oV^ d* ijt' dvBcad'' ixot^ia nQOxsifisva x^^Q^S tccXXov. 

[50 uvxccQ inal no^cog xal iSi^xiiog i^ igov avxo 
fiV7i0xilQagy xotaiv fihv ivl q)Q£0lv akka (iSfi^XsiVj 
fioXjtTj^ r' 6QXfi<ixvg xer xd yuQ x* &vad^(iaxu Saixog. 
x^()v|'" d' iv ;f€p<yli/ xid'agiv xsQtxalXicc Q'ijxsv 
Orj^LCDf 0^ ^' rjstSs nagd (ivi]<Jx^q(Scv dvdyxri, 

^55 ^ ^<>^ ^' q)OQ(iif^(OV dvefidXXexo^ xaXov deiSecv^ 



a (. 84, /(, 252; cf. 

£.369. 
b Q. 331. 
c X. 357, r. 348. 
d <r. 677. n. 252. 
e a. 132 mar. 
f y. 339— 40, y.270 

-1, I. 174-5. 
S d. 213, r. 270. 
h A. 470. 
i e. 232. 
k d. 67, 218, •.200. 

^.71,484,^453. 

0. 142. n. 54, ^. 

98, 1;. 256, J. 91 

-2, 221-2, Si. 

627-8. 
l9>.430; cf.(.371, 

^. 99. 
m^. 67-9, 105-7, 

256-7. 
n X' 830-1, 356, 

a. 337. 
0^.266,^.262-3. 



141. foivoxosvoiv. 



140 delet Nitzschius probante Herm. 142. tid^rj, jDubiiim ex h. 355 an legen- 

dam sit nccvsiu; turn fortasse 141 cum 142 permutandos. post 146 nonnuUi codd. 

149 babent, torn W/Liijffay d* aga naaiv inag^dfisvoi dsTrdfaaiVy tarn 147, 148, 150. 

Harlcj. Illi vcifirioav — , post 148 posito, subjungit 147 et 149. 



She bad general charge of the bread 
{c£tog)f and the eatables (^rdara) ge- 
nerally except fleshmeat. Each guest 
had a table laid {itdwaas) for him. 

140—3. Verse 140 is prohably borrow- 
ed from rj, 176, where it belongs pro- 
perly; see note there. ei6uta is also 
used for ''bait'* of fish, and sing. slSag 
(mar.) for "fodder" for horses. It is 
objected to w. 141—2 (rejected by Bek. 
here and at d. 57) that the ^esh (112) 
appears to have been already distri- 
buted; but see on 109 — 12. It does 
not, at any rate, appear that the guest 
had been served, and his table was 
only just set. The daiXQoq has no 
business with the %vnflltt. This, how- 
ever, need condemn 141 only; but see 
the emendation suggested in the lower 
margin. For xvTteXjM see App. A. 8. 
The x^QV§ is Medon (mar.). 

146—8. vd. ixl X^^Q^^> * phrase 
of Holy Writ is here parallelled, 2 Kings 
III. II. ixeCxhfm, ''crowned*', t. e, 
'♦filled brim-fuir' of wine. The vina 
coronant of Virg. Mn, I. 724 (comp. 
III. 525), as meaning crowning mUi i 



ckaplet, perhaps arose from a mistake 
in the sense here. Butt. Lex, 50. 

152. ava^iqfi., '* embellishments**, 
properly used of offerings to deck a 
shrine. Comp. Hor. Od, III. xi. 6, of the 
lyre, dimium mensts et arnica templis. (Ni.) 

154. ^hjfiUq>, calledTf^TT^adi^ff (mar.). 
He is spared in the fivriatrjQoipovia on 
this plea of having acted *' under con- 
straint**. The name, like Phronius, 
Noemon §, 386, also Aglaia and Cha- 
rop8> B. 672, belong to the class of 
pames made up to suit character or 
circumstances. Similar are the Phea- 
clan princes* names, <9'. 111 — 9. and Ki. 
on p. 386, says that Hermann con- 
tended for an extension of the same 
principle to first • class personages. 
There is no doubt of its being general 
with subordinate ones. 

155* V xoi, in discourse these par- 
ticles add strong asseveration, emphatic 
statement, or hearty assent; \kkvj vv^ 
or yap^ is sometimes put between theui. 
dvspdXX; sounded or "struck up** a 
prelude; this was done by touching a 
few notes first on the tpoQfui^ whence 



OATLSEIAS A. 



-46. 



[day 



a N. 633, «. 153, 

E 601 , JQ. 376. 
b a. 7 mar. 
c «. 436 mar. 
d Z. 246, I. 899. 
e 6. 534. 
f a. 11 mar. 
9 see App. C. 2. 

mar. 
h cf. I. 28. 
I Z. 102. 
k X. 271. 
1 fi. 35C. 
m cf. y. 210. 
n a. 81, CD. 473, 

©. 31; cf. E. 

756. 
y. 203, I. 477, 

;i. ISl, V. 393. 
p cf. d. 371, V. 

421. 



roi/ ^' 'JyausiivoviSrig ttjXexXvrdg extav' 'OgiiSrrig' 3c 

roiJ 8 y' ijtL^vrj^d'slg btib a^avdtoiGv iisxrivSw 

"cS noTtOL, olov Sij vv d-sovg^ figotol aki6(avxai' 

£§ T^fiicov y(XQ (pa6i xdn' i^ifiBvai^ ot dh xal avtol 

6(pri0iv^ ataiS%'aXiri<Siv vtcIq [ioqov^ aXye* ixov0iv^ 

6g xal vvv Atyvo^og vtzIq fiOQOv ^AxQeidao 3^ 

y^ft' &ko%ov^ ILvrifSxriv^ xov d' ixxava vo0X7J0avxa, 

eld(og^ ecixvv^ oXed'QOVy insl ngo ot etzoiiev '^iistg, 

^EQiieiccv^ Tcs^ilfuvxsg ivaxonov ^A^BKpovxriv^ 

fnfr' avxov xxalvaiv ^tjxa iivdcc6d-aL axoixiv* 

ix ydg ^OQidxao xioig iaaexai ^AxQBiSao^ 4c 

bnnox* av '^Pi](Jr] xa xal ^g t^alQaxai atrig,^ 

(Sg §q)ad'' ^EQ{iBLagj aW ov (pQivag Aiycad'Oio 

Ttald'^'^ dyad'd tpQovicov' vvv 8^ dd'Qoa^ icdvx^^ dnaxiiSavJ^^^^ 

xov d' Yi^aC^ax' inaixa %'ad ykavxcSmg 'AdTJvtj' 
"co^ TcdxBQ ri^ixBQB K^ovlSri^ VTtaxa XQaiovxeov^ 4i 

xal^ Ili]vV xatvog ya ioixoxi xatxac dXid'Qp, 



31. Joins', 37. J^siddog^ /ot; nQOsfstnoiiev omisso of, quod tollit Hoffmannus. 
41. omisso T£, if-fjg. 46. ffj^oinoti. 

31. Ixrfia TcrSQOSvta ngoarivda Harl., receptfi tameii in marginem nostrfi, lect. 
35. VTcigiiOQOv Arist. 38. ni^ipavxB Ariatoph. etZen.: ij MafffftvltfipTtxiJ, ^^nsfi- 
ipavtsg Maiag igiyivSiog dyXaov vt6v^\ Schol. 41. ^^i^asis Vind., i}/5ij(y|y xs lib. ; 

STlLpTJaftOCl. 



fUOV was at first an epithet of distinc* 
tire excellence (mar.), but had become 
a purely conventional style as applied 
to a class, like our ^^ honourable and 
gallant", or *' learned, gentleman*'. 

32. olov 6ri w, "only see how!" 
olog di) is used scornfully, as here, 
indignantly, and admiringly (mar.), vv 
marks urgency, inf. 59—62. 

34 — 5. The double sense in the words 
VTtkg fiOQOV shows that a moral ele- 
ment was involved in Homer's view of 
the **lot" of man. Men incur woes 
gratuitously {in\Q fi,) e, g, iEgisthus 
did so by acting unwarrantably {vn\Q 
/Li.); see on €. 436. 

36—7. yrifA, We should of course 
say, he did not marry her, for she was 
the wife of another man. As in Paris' 
case, so in JEgisthus', the wrong lay, 
in Homer's view, in the primary ab- 
duction {agnayii) of Helen, or of Cly- 
tsemn., also of course in the murder 
of Agam., which the guilty pair shar- 
ed. See further App. E. 9, (3). Pa- 
ris is called the husband ijioaig) of 



Helen, 1^427; so Hor. Carm, I. xv. 7 
"tuas rumpere nuptias^\ ei^iog aL 
ok, sldoag with neut, pi. adj. following 
is said of one whose mind and thoughts 
are bent in one direction; so ijxiay oXo- 
qxoiUy al'aifia &c., sl8(og, %i8v* sldvia, 
a. 428; here it means *^ having a sight 
or clear knowledge of awful ruin"; — 
whose? The eTtel x. t. X. following 
points to his own: he was forewarned, 
but reckless ; insl might, but harshly, be 
thrown back to 34 for its •connexion. 
It shows why the case of -^gisthus, 35, 
illustrates the maxinr about **men's own 
presumption" in 34. 80, 9. 534, ovx 
sldoTolsQ'QOv (of Agam. slain), "with 
no knowledge of his doom". 

39. fivdaa^aij, see App. A. 2. 

40—1. eaaexai, the reasoa is here 
added in the oratio recta, the previous 
statement might be viewed as in the 
same by taking the infin. %te{vBLVy 
livdacd'ai, as put for imper. 'AtQald. 
depends as object onxiatg. For Hermes 
and his epithets see App. C. 2. ifielQS' 
rat for -ijrat subjunct. shortened epice. 



DAY I.] 



OATUSEIAS A. 47—57. 



(OS djtolovto xal alXog^ Sngi tocaOrd ys ^i^oi^ 
uXka (lov d(iq>* 'OdvO'^L Satq)QOvc^ Saistat ^to^, 
dv6(i6Q^j OS di) Sri^d q)iX(ov aico^ n:ijiiarcfi %d6%Bi, 

50 vriQG)^ iv aiiq>LQvry^ o^l r* 0(jLq>al6s^ icxi %'aXd00ris^ 
viiaos SBv8QriB60a^^ ^ed 8^ iv^ ddiiata valai^ 
"AxXavxQS Qvydti^Q oXooq^Qovos^^ os te d'aXd^ans 
7cd0ris fiivd'sa olSev^ i%Bi 8i^ ts xiovas avtos 
liaxQas^ cX yaldv ts xal ovqolvov d(iq)ls''^ i%ov0iv. 

55 tov d^vydrijQ 8v0t7ivov o8vq6\ibvov xoxbqvxbi^ 
aUl 8\ ybaXaxoMi xal al^vXloL6i^ loyoiOiv 
^aXyBCj ojttos^ ^Id'dxris iitiXri^Bxai •* avtaQ ^O8v60svs^ 



a y. 316, V. 4M. 
b^. 687, ^ 256, 

0.368, ^.4S2,y. 

Ubetai,,Si.m. 
c «. It3» C- 40. 0. 

617. d E. 8MJ. 
e «. 198,4*.2S3, ^. 

656-!5. 
f J. 526, J. 34, 

52.273. 

fcf. If. 308. 
/r. 840, t. 60 
i i. 811, 617, t. SO, 

I. 18. 
k see App. A. 3. 

mar. 
I 8. 181, ^ 10S, X. 

;l05-6, L 537. 

u. 90-1. N. 733 

-4, O. 276. 
m y. 486, O. 709, 

^ 362. r. 115, 

n cf. E, 49. 

<r. 109, J. 14, P. 

144, a. 270, 296 

— 0. 
p V. 86, 9. 324; 

cf. a. 65. 



53. fotdsv. 



49. T^A' dldXritai, Bchol. s. 8. 

Schol. 



50. dyvyiji Strabo ex 85. 
ex conjecturA. 



52. 6lo6(pQ(ov 



46. xal Xi., this phrase, onlj found 
in conversation, conveys a tinge of in- 
dignation or even irony, comp. the Engl. 
^^and serves him quite right '\ ^^V^i 
though here long in thes., is said to 
occur 10 times with t in II., 30 times 
with i. 

48. Buttm. Lex, 37, says 6at<pQ* is 
used of a woman, o. 356 ; better refer it 
there to Laertes. He contrasts dattpq. 
i7t7to9iicfioio of n. with 8atq>Q. noiTiiXo- 
fii^rriv of Ody. ; but the last occurs of 
Odys. in both (mar.). In Hes. Scut, 
119 it may as well mean '^skilful*' as 
any more properly warlike quality, as 
it refers to managing a horse. This 
is probably its primary meaning, and 
its application to martial persons, as 
skilled in their special province, merely 
secondary f. comp. **notable", as ap- 
plied to a woman whom H. would call 
BQy* slSvia, 

49. 6v0fM„s observe what emphasis 
an adj. gains when standing first of a 
verse, next before a pause, its subst. 
having preceded; so often vnniog^ 
axitliog, &c. axo, **far from", so 
in 75. 

50 — 4. 0^1 t\ the ra gives a relative 
word a special and emphatic value, thus 
og ts is ^Hhe particiUar person who" 
(Donalds. Gr, Gr. 345 b). This is fur- 



ther illustrated by the Attic use of (offTS, 
olog t«; the latter = **just such a per- 
son as to". v^Ooq, epanalepsis, see 
on 33, with case varied by attraction of 
ofiipalog preceding. "AzXaVm ic.t.Z. sec 
App. C. 3. Hesiod. Theog, 359 makes her 
the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. 
^epS'Ca is akin to fidO'og as nivQ'og to 
nd^og, 6i and te conjoined make a 
clause appear at once contrasted and 
coordinated with another, here with og 
r£ ... ol9sv previous, (mar.), dfjuplq, 
this prep, signifies (i) **on either siae", 
(2) "asunder, or away from", (3) "be- 
tween" ; (3) is the converse of (i), being 
the relation of a mean to extremes, (i) 
that of extremes to a mean ; see mar. 

57. ^iXysi, cf. (Zevg) A%aiSiv ^f. 
voov, M, 254—5 **was sapping their cou- 
rage ". For a specimen of the uiyLvlioi 
Xoyoi see Calypso's words b, 206—10, 
where the tone is that of wheedling a 
strong mind to weak compliance. btiiX, 
Ni. says, not subjunct. shortened epice 
— a doubtful statement , as that mood 
with onmg, to express an effect, is more 
frequent than the fiit. Yet a clear exam- 
ple of fut. is A. 136 Sgaccvtsg Hutd d'v- 
fiovonoDg dvtd^tov iaxaiy see also Jelf 
Gr. Gr. § 812, i. 2, and Heyne Excur. 
III. ad II, A. 251,677. For^IB-dxfi^, gen. 
with intXijaetoci, see on Xa^oCiiriVy 65. 



8 



OATSTEIAS A. 58—76. 



[day I. 



iJ o a*?. i2, 33-4. 
r /r, 272. 
\m, ij. 101; cf. 

i T. 407, X 2f»Z. 

Tfl.y 2;io,». m, 

X. S3 
1 X. S2$, f, 408. 
m K. 243. 
n f. 97, a m, 

y TIQ, ^, 19*}, 
pk§g, tl*,^.44, 

r J. 378, 479, ^. 
^09, ;t. 133, it. 
944, yp. 2^0. 

1 #. 322. N^ 43, 
r. 31. 

1 J. 543, T. fig. 
u JT, 660, iT. 646, 

If t, elfl, -^^ 04, 

w cf, J. II, r. m 
-4, 

y J3. an. 

AS fif. ^ 87. 

bi> a. 1^ laar^ 

Efi t. 366, n. A«, 

171. ^.3^4,- c! 

28rf, a. 252, *. 

146j 15». 
dd tKjl, 212, 252, 

r, 3J^ 47&. 



'^g y«^i)ff, d'avhiv tpLsiQB'^ai.^ ovSi vv'^ Cot 7teg>^ 

ivxpiTCStm q>tXov i|to^, *OXviims. ov vv t' *OdviS0€vg 60 

^A^fBlmv^ srapa vifivcl xoQilBto tsf^u ^i^mv'^ 

T^oifl iv EVfsi^i %i v^ 01 totfov mSv^^m,' Z€t?;" 

r^v S aicafieiPofiBvog srpog/cpiy vs^EXt^yE^ha Zeug' 

^^t^xvov it^ovj Ttotov^ 6e Img ipvyEv egiiog^ odovrmv^ 

7£iSg^ av insLt^ ^OSvtSijog iym d'Eioio Xa^iyLifiv^ 65 

og TCe^l^ (tir VQQv i^%l ^gotmv^ ^e^]^ tf' i^a ^Eot6iv 

ad'avatQLCiv^ iSmxE^ tol otJ^ai/ot^ evqvv l^oviftvi^ 

aliA Jlo^BiSdmv* y^Li^oxog a^xElig^ atsl 

KvxlciT^og XEx6XiS}rat° Sv o^d'al^v'' alda^ifEV^ 

ivt^Eov Tlolv^Tqyi'OV^ Zov^ xgdcrog ictl pLEfiCrov^ 7^ 

itaiSiv^ KvxlwTtiC^i.^ 06w6a 3i^ (itv tixs Nv^ij^ 

0QQXWQg ^ydri^Q aXog ar^vy^toio iiidovrog^ 

iv 6%ic0i^^ yXatpv^otiSi IIofSEtSamvi ^lysWm, 

ix rou S^ *0Sv(S7ia IlofSiiSamv'''' ivo&ix^mv 

ov XI xataxtEivEiy xXi^st S^ ano nazQidog atr^g, 75 

all* ayid'*^^^ ^^i^stg olds Tts^if^at^^B^a navxig 



58. ftifiBvog, 59. /^ff. 62. foi. 



64. finog. 



60. ovv€%* (pro ov vv t): %* esse %oi monebat Herm. 70. Iffxe Schol. 72. \i,i' 
9ovTi Aristoph. 76. i98. 



58. xaxvov axoS'. vo^* Lowe com- 
pares Ov. E ponto I. iii, 33 opiat Fu- 
mum de patrHs posse videre fods, doubt- 
less an imitation of this. 

59. 7€SQ implies that, ''although an- 
other's heart would relent at such woe, 
thine does not"; so d. 729, where see 
note. 

60—5. Hermann considers t' in ov 
vv T* as TOt. ei4vC playing on the 
name 'O^vtfff. in 57 and 60 (mar.). Mqx* 
i66vr* The image is that of the pali- 
sades {otavQoXy £. 11), by driving in 
which a fence (%Q%og) was made, and 
to which the teeth are likened. Others, 
not So well, think the lips, as an outer 
fence round the teeth (0^01^. gen. ob- 
jective), intended by %q%og, XaB^ifi. 
This verb, when mid, takes gen., cf. ini- 



Xr^OBxai, 57, when act., accus. (mar.); 
so fivtaofiaif epic for uvuofiai, i, 106, 
in sense its opposite, takes gen., rarely 
accus., as £. 168—9. 

69— 7 7, KvxXm, gen. of source whence 
wrath proceeds, Donalds, (rr. 6r, 447. 
noXvq>. is by inverse attraction drawn 
to the rel. clause, Jelf Gr, Gr, 824. ii. 4: 
see mar. jt&Civ, '* amongst all". 6e 
fiLV 71. t, I, this clause apparently in- 
volves a ng€a9^0t8Q0v , but di is em- 
phatic and nearly =3 yap; it was not 
so much his prowess as his being the 
god^s own son, which infuriated the 
latter, as shown by in %ov following, 
**in consequence of this". Avar. led. 
[lidovti refers this word, not so well, to 
UoaeMawi in 7^. xXti^ei 6* and in 
tmesis (mar.). StM%0i, the old form 
in |L»t, -ofbi, --j^ff^a, -Hfii^v^ is prevalent 



DAY I.] 



OATSSEIAS A. 77—96. 



i/o<yrov,* ojtog iX^6i, lloiSsiScccJv d} (isdnjast^ 
ov xoXov' ov ii^v yaQ re dvvTjtfsrcci at/rtV itavxav 
a9'avax(av aiTcritc^ d^sfSv iQvdaivi^sv olog.^^ 

80 tov d* i^fisipsT* litSLta d'sd yXavxiSxcg Jld'tjvri • 
"cJ® ndtSQ i^(iirBQ€ KQOvidrjy Cjcate XQBLovrojv^ 
sl^ fi€v 8ij vvv rovTO q>iXov (iaxdQ600L d'eot^vv, 
vo6t'^fSai ^08v6^a datfpQOva^ Zv8s^ S6(iovd6y 
^.EQiisiav^ jihv inscta didxrOQOv ^AQyBKpovtriv 

85 vfiiSov is ^StyvyCriv^ dtQvpofisv^ ^ga xd%i6ra 
vvfiq>rj^ ivxloxdfiG) bItcyi vrniBQxia /JovAiJv, 
voazov '08v66ijog raka6{(pQOvog^^ Sg xe vei^tai. 
avrdg^ iyciv ^I^dxriv iCBXsveofieci^ *6q>Qa oC vlov 
(iSXlov iTtoTQWicn^ xaC ov fiivog iv ipQS^l d'sito^^ 

90 slg dyoQ'^vP xakioavxa xd^ri xofioaovtag 'AxaLi}vg 
naai pLvrjetiJQeaiJLv dnstTtsfieVy*^ 0? rs oC alsl 
firjX^ dSivd^ acpd^ovat xal elXtitoSag IXixag fiovg* 
3CBfLil;(o^ d' ig UzdQtrjv za xal eg IIvXoV^ i^^ax^oevta^ 
vdotov nevdoyiBvov^ naxQog (pCXov^ iqv tcov dxov6ij^ 

95 ^*' ^"^^ V'f'V xXdog^ iad'Xov iv dv^Qcizoi0iv Sxyaiv.'^ 
ag^ Blnov0^ vno 7co06lv iSnjcaxo xaXcc jciSiXa^ 



a a. 87, d. 470. 
b cf. 9. 377, I2« 
c A. 280, o. 377. 
d Af. 8, O. 720. 
e a. 45 mar. 
f i. 831. 
f; a. 48 mar. 

h m 445. 

i see App. C. 2. mar. 
k see App. D.2.mar. 
I t. 29-30. 
m y. 84, J. 466; 

cl K. 300. 
n Q. 52. 
> *. 145. 
p A. 54, T. 84. 
q A. 515, L 309, 

431, 9t. 840. 
r <r. 320, 721, w. 

274, X. 413, TT. 

216,r.516,V3'iG. 

JB. 87,409, Zf.48l. 
» t. 46, I. 452, *P. 

166. 
t /J. 214-5,0. 284 

— S. 
a i. 257, B. 77, S. 

309, A, 252. 
▼ fi. 264, a. 28L 
w /. 415. 
X t. 44—6, i2. 340 

—2. 



78. fov. 79. afiHjjti. 83. J^ovdB. 86. J^B^nrj, 88^ 89. 91. /ot. 

(ivTjatiJQsaa* anofsmifiev 9a. J^iXixag, 96. J^sinova', 



80. Toy ^' avT» nQoassLTcs. 
Schol. 87. H€y Txi^rat. 

89. ^ff«. 93. 97ua<9'0€<j<ra«' ; post y. 93 codd. Ambros. Harlej. Vind. usi^sv 

Si Kgi^TrivSs nccQ *IdoiiBvrja avaitxa, 95. pro Hjjaiv Rhian. Xafir^civ. 



85. iv XV xyf-r* 'Avtiaaxov^ **ci)yi?X6jv" ypaqpftai, 
'*'* I^dftrivd'; hislsvaoiiai et dielBvaofitxi, 



in the subj. mood sing., Donalds. Gr, 
Gr. 331. 3. f. Ahrens Griech, FarmenL 
§ 49. D. Anra. 2. 

78—80. One thongbt is bcre en- 
grafted on another; **he will not be 
able (i) to strive alone against all" 
and (2) *Ho strive invitU Su'* xdv^ 
XGiVi li*^« SXKmv 132, is inclusive, where 
the thonght is really exclusive, = *'all 
the other**; see also g, 401 — 2. 

82 — 7. vvv emphatic, as showing that 
what before was doubtful now was fix- 
ed: to this BKBixa, cf. 84, is retro- 
spective, '*that being settled*\ *EQfji» 
see App. 0. 2. didxtn, Buttm. Lex, 
40, regards ** runner" as the original 
sense, tracing it fr. d£m, dioi^m (t. 9. 
9i:d%a)f divyioiy with analogy of d'&niog, 
d'&KOs, iggmyte jifyyvfit, &c.) and re- 



jecting Sidyoo, The later view of Her- 
mes as ipvxonofinog suggested the ety- 
mol. from iLtxym meaning transveho, 
'Siyvy., see App. D. 2. oxqvvo.s epic 
for '(DfiBv^ as 41, q, v, voCxog and 
vioiiai are specially used of returning 
home (mar.). xaXaCiip,, another form 
is xaXatpgav (mar.). 

88—98. oi Odys., 88, and at Telem., 
89, are both datives of special re- 
ference; so is ot in 91. Refer xaXi' 
Cttvxa in 90 to vlov in 88. dTteiTt., 
**warn off", from acting as in 92; else- 
where (mar.) = ''refuse, renounce"; also 
^'report (a message) in answer". d6iva, 
see App. A. 6, (2). SnoQ, w. t. X., see 
App. D. 3. ■lifictS',, see App. A. 12. 
tpeQOV, imperf., of her habitual move- 
ment; her actual flight begins in 102. 



lO 



OATSSEIAS A. 97—109. 



[day I. 



a 6. 709, K. 27, 
bT 79,0.' 386, 418, 

c /?. 148, d. 839, Ai. 

207, 77. 149. 
d a:. 136, S- 12, 

O. 482, r. 338. 
e 0. 390-1. 
f y. 135. 
g- CO. 4S7, J. 7 J, 

H. 19, X. 1S7, 

i2. 121,^. 44. 
h /J. 239, ^. 555. 
i seeApp. F.2. 0. 

mar. 
k /9. JO. 
I F. 73. 
m a. 181 , 419, ^ 

452, 0. 427; cf. 

o. 417. 
n /. 189. 
o A. 321, 334. 
p d. 38, 23; cf. X. 

255. 



»)d' £7r' uTtaCQOva}' yatav cc(ia n^vovyg^ avi^oio. 
ellBro^ d' aXxifiov iyx^Sj dxaxfi^vov d^iv xccXx^j 
^Qid'v^ liiya art^aQoVj raJ dd(ivi]0i 6tix^g avSgiSv 
i^QcicDv, xoioCv re xotii50Btai b^QifioxdtQTfiS^ 
firjs 8h xar' Ovkvi^TCoio xuQTJvav dt^a0a, 
6rrj d* ^Id'dxrjs ivl dijfip^ ijci UQO%"VQOi^*O8v0rloqj 
ovdov i^t' avkaCov^ nakdiirj^ d' ixe ;|raAxaoi/ iyx^Sj 
sldoiievif ^€ivc}y Tafprnv^ iqyTJtOQt Mhty. 
6v^6 d' aQu (ivrjat'^Qag dyrfvoQag. 6t (ihv ineixa 
Ttaaaotai TtQoxdQovd'e d'VQdcov d'viiov^ heQTtovy 
fjiisvot iv ^Lvol6i Po(Svj ovg Sxtai/ov avtoC' 
x7]QvxEg^ d' avrotOL xal drQrjQol ^€Qd7tovt£g^ 



ic 



ic 



105. J^SL^Oflivt], 



1 01. ofiPQLfiOTtdxQTj Bek. 109. av zoiot Nicias. 



vv^^y, J' watery", i. e. surface; so 
XSgaog, fineiQog^ really adj. but taken 
as uouns; so Cowper, Time piece, 55 — 6, 
"When did the waves so haughtily 
o'erleap Their ancient barriers, delug- 
ing the dry?^^ afia, simul, t. e, "as 
swiftly as". 

97 — 101. These verses are wrongly 
inserted here by some copyist from the 
II. (mar.). There they suit the sequel, 
which relates Pallas' taking the Seld 
in propria persona; not so here. Fur- 
ther," the ty%og recurs in 104, as part 
of the disguise suited to the sl'SaXov 
adopted by Pallas, 

joi — 5. o^QifiOTt, On this epithet 
see App. E. 4, (14). ^^t-, of arbitrary 
length, is probably the root of oPgtfiog; 
so in pQid'a), PgiagriVy Bgtdgsoav, who is 
called '0§gicigsixg in Hes. Theog. 734. 
drifJU^ means (mar.) (1) region, as here, 
(2) soil, (3) people. For Ttqo^^vqoio, 
and ov6oit> avkalov, see App. F. 2. 
(5). Ta<pio}v, see App. D. 5. 

106. In €7t eira a transition takes 
place from the progress of Pallas, 
to the course of events in the pa- 
lace. 

107. JtBCC*9 a game resembling our 
draughts or chess; see App. A. 5. 

109. XTiQVxeq in r. 135 are reckoned 
drjfiLOsgyoL, i. e. persons who had func- 
tions to discharge in which the people 
were interested, a class which also 
includes in g. 383 — 5 the seer, the sur- 



geon, the artisan, and the minstrel. 
The bulk of the people found their 
^gya in agriculture, each tilling his 
own field, but the above pursuits were 
useful to all. The nijgv^ seems to have 
been personally attached to the man 
of high rank. To a king they were 
"his only immediate agents. They con- 
veyed his orders; they assisted him in 
the assembly, in sacrifice, and in ban- 
quets. They appear to be the only 
executive officers that are found in Ho- 
mer." Gladst. III. I. 69. But of course 
their functions were limited by the sta- 
tion of their immediate chief. In the 
Ody. they are not, except Medon (see 
jr. 252, %. 357 — 8), of the household of 
Odys. The office of ^SQamav, a sort 
of lower comrade, with a mixture of 
inferiority with equality which may be 
compared to the Scottish "Henchman", 
was one of high honour. Patroclus is 
the great embodiment of the idea. In 
the II. we trace in Eurybates, B. 183—4, 
a Q^sg, to Odys. He himself, in the Ody., 
in disguise, speaks of %T]gv^ Evgyfi,, 
"whom he regarded above all his com- 
rades, as his sentiments were in unison 
with his own" (t. 244 — 8). And indeed 
the nijgv^ and ^Bg» might be united in 
the same person. In a borrowed sense 
kings and warriors are ^sgdnovtsg 
'Agfjog, Jiog, &c. 

109 — 12. While this was going on 
within the palace (comp. 126, 144); 



DAY I.] 



OATSLEUS A. no— ia2. 



11 



10 of fiiv &q' olvov^ i^iayov ivl XQfjtrJQOt xal vSg^q^ 

ol d' avra 07t6yyoi6L^ TtolvtQTJtoi^t xQaTta^ag 

vC^ov xal ngoxid'evj toi SI xoia nolku Satsvvxo^ 
ri)i/ SI noXv TCQmzog USe Triki^axog d'eoeiSi/jg' 

riCxo yuQ iv (ivi^6T'^Q6t (pCkov tsrtrnisvog^ ^^op, 
15 6aa6(i6vog'^ Ttaxiq iad'Xov ivl q)Qe0lv, at no^sv ikd'cav 

livrjartjQcoiv^ xSv^ fiav 6xiSa0LV xaxa Sci^axa d'eirj^ 

Ttftiji/*^ d' avxog s%ol xal xxfj^a0LV olciv avdcaoi, 

xa g)QovecoVy ^vri0xiJQaL iied'rjfievog^ el'CcS' 'Jd^rjvriv^ 

pfj^ S* Idifg n^odvQoio^ ve[i€60rjdifi^ d' ivl d'viiai^ 
JO iatvov Srjd'cc d'VQyaiv i(p€0xd(isv ' iyyv^i^ SI 0xdg 

XbIq'^ eke SeiixeQTJv^ xal iSe^axo^ xdkxeov ly%og^ 

xaC fiLV (povrj^ag licea Tcxegoevxa TtgoarjvSw 

no iievfoVvov. Ji^.ff^sd'tofstdTjg. ii'j.S-oteiFccvotGGoi. jiS. icfid\ J2Z finsv. 

121. ds^iTSg^. 



a r. 269-70. 

^. 414. 
C 0. 140, e. 5oO; 

cr. w. i'i\. 

d a IW, J. bhv>, 
«. 4J7, I. 13. 

e v.hl,A. Uib,S. 
17, /J. 152, «.35i», 

f V. 2Z\ 

S }[. 401 , «. 497, 

<^.353,/*.118-!^. 
h Z. 1M3--5, .X 

45)5, M. 310-1 1; 

cLi. 186, C- 2'^«, 

«. 335. 
i o. 325, e. 822, 

M. 10»}. 
k N. 122, Z. 351, 

F. 254. 
1 d. 158, n. 544. 
m cf. K. 2.M. 
n y. 35 , H. 108, 



the suitors were without. The Homeric 
narrative does not carry on two sets 
of actions as contemporaneous. Thus 
here the parts which describe the ban- 
quet are divorced from their real s6quel 
by the reception of Mentes (Pallas) by 
Telem. The real continuation of 112 
is 144. This is betrayed by ^uto&sv 
aXXci}v iJLvqazqQav, a. 132, which shows 
that the suitors were then coming or 
come in. Each guest ordinarily had a 
table to himself, hut in d. 54 two 
share a table; so in p. 334 Eumseus 
takes his place and eats at Telemachus' 
table. The division of the viands (^a- 
xsvvTo) was the last thing done before 
the feast, as in 146, commenced; see 
o. 140, Q. 331. We may compare with 
Satiofiai 6d(o Sdxg^ natiofiui nd- 
aaa^m^Xaxioi xdog, 

115. 6aa6fAevoq..,ivl<fQ,y **men- 
tally regarding, wishfully brooding 
over"; comp. the Lat. opio akin to off- 
40fiat, Fixedness of regard, seems the 
most general idea of oaaoti,, especially 
when compounded with ngog; the mind 
realizing the image by dwelling on it. 
Thus with nayiovj ols^gov, &c., " fore- 
boding'^ is the sense. Hamlet's words, 
"In my mind's eye, Horatio", Act I, 
Sc. II, are an obvious parallel. 

116. fiV7j0T, xwv fihv, the pronoun, 
emphatically repeating the noun (see 
mar.), takes the latter's place in con- 
struction, introducing the contrast with 



otvzog in 117. The noun far more com- 
monly follows the pronoun, as in 125 
and in A, 488—9, atJrap o fA9Jytg...dto- 
ytvijff Ilriliog vtog^ until, when it fol- 
lows immediately, the pronoun lapses 
into the force of the article, as in 6 
ysgnv, 6 ysgai^og, A. 33, 35. 

117 — 23. xifiiiv, *'his due", including 
the ysQCLg, or substantial part of roy- 
alty. So Achilles, in the Shades, en- 
quires about Peleus, 7} h' ^%n xniriv 
. ; . lisxd MtiQfiidovsaaiv (mar.). v€- 
fi€4J07iS^, "felt ashamed", because 
he represented the host; the feeling 
is sometimes expressed by * al9m xal 
vsfiBGiv; comp. og ^drj vifisaiv xs xal 
aCaxBoCy nearly = vsfisaa'qd'Ti ul'axsa 
(mar.). iyyvB'i, here of place, is 
also used (mar.) of time, and takes 
either gen. or dat. , as does iyyvd'sv. 
€ftXifiCeaiy with pass, force, "shalt be 
well treated", used specially of hospi- 
table entertainment. So Menel., N. 627, 
upbraids the Trojans; "ye carried^ off 
my wife, insl (piXisa^'s xecg* avt^; 
and so the active,, og XE cpiX'qe'g, "who 
may entertain", S, 29. Observe the 
hospitable rule, to supply the guest's 
wants first, and then enquire his er- 
rand. So Nestor, y. 69 — 70, when his 
guests are sated, says, "hou; it is more 
seemly to enquire who our guests are". 
Comp. also the reception of Telem. by 
Menel., and subsequent conversation, 
d. 60—4, 117—39- 



13 



OATISEIAS A. 123-139. 



[day I. 



I 



* 0. ^L 

J2. 612. 
c if, 169, L hiil. 

I. m , F. 300- 
d p. '29, O. 12a. 

473 
r d. JV. MO«L 
r a. 87. 

i ti. 55a, 0, 44L, 
S. MJJ2, i|/. 264. 

k *. SiS, 567, X 
390. 

^: 390. 
m ^, 130, A. ,H36, 

(I. 86, J. Iftfl. 

njii.asj. f.4e9, T. 
307 , X 2fl! , <IJ 
70,£.'iO3,^315, 
T. An. i. 2yo, 

o ^. b2-B, «. 172 
— e. If. 36S-72, 

-6, cf.y.44ft^l. 

pX tn/^. 269, 

2(V7,Jtt.2a7, 1^.13, 

* m. 

q 0,333, 447, y. 71. 
r I. 259, 

s >. 34» . y, 47i>, 
4. J6fi, ^. 449, 

i- m. 



iSg BlTtmv iifEi%'\ ij S^ i^TtfTO Ilalkag ^JdijvTi. i 

diovQodoxTig^ ivtoddsv iv^oovy iv^a %eq aXXa 

^TX^* 'Odvaa^og talaattpgovog^ t^rato TtoXla, 

ocvf^v 6^ ig d'^oimv^' il(j£v aymvj v%h ktxa^ ^Btd06ag^ i 

%al6v^ SaiSdlmv'^ vkq ^l %'Q7ivvg 7tQ(Sh^ ^bv. 

na^ d^ avTvg xh6^i6v^ d-ito itotxilov^ intod'ev Hlkcov 

ijtf* iVftf ^UV MEQt TZtitQOg aTtOLlO^ivOlQ iQOLtO. I 

l^qvifia'^ d' diLtpiTtoXog it^ajptp i%i%Ev^ ^pigovfSa 
vifa^^at- T^a^d Si i^:^Ti^p izdvvtfCB tQUTta^ccpA 



125. fstndv, 134. faS-qoBiBv. 

124. fLv^ija80. 127. (la^QOv, 134. Yind. dTjdijasisv et dridioasisv^ alii dSS-qaeiBV, 



124. 7€aC4Jdfi», only this aor. aud 
the pluperf. nsnaofiriv are found in H. 
The verb also takes an accus. 

1 26 —30. 01 if\ ore^ <f jj ^* • • . iyxoq 
fiiv ^\ • • avziiv 6\ with this train 
of conjunctions and particles comp. 
r. 15 — 21, oW 0X6 ^5 • • . Tgrnaiv fihv 
. . . Tov &* dog, where qu alone is want- 
ing to complete the parallel, xlova, 
fern., but also masc. (mar.). For 60VQO' 
66xjj and Xita see App. F. 2. (21), (17). 
The drapery spread underthe seat (since 
the floor was native earth), was X{g, 
* 'smooth", not embroidered; Xlg in this 
sense becomes a noun. On the seat 
was laid a dyed fleece (mar.). Lid- 
de*ll & S. explain both as being on the 
seat. 

i^i — 2. xaXov fftiiff; refer these to 
d-QOvov (mar.). xXiCfiov, haying set 
a d'QOvos for the guest, he sets a 
xXiaiiog for himself; so Helen in her 
palace sits on a xX., and so Here and 
Pallas in Olympus G, 436, while Zeus 
on a d^. A, 536. Probably the ^o, 
was the seat of dignity, ^Uhrone^^, 
Herd promises to give a "throne", as 



a reward to the Sleep-god, S^ 238, and 
has herself the epithet xgycohgovog. 
Women or younger persons use a %U- 
Ofiogi but the distinction, especially 
in the camp-life of the II., is not ri- 
gidly observed. Either might be used 
with a ^Qtivvg. Athenseus says (V. 4.), 
the 9'Q. was for mere sitting, the xi. 
for reclining; but of reclining, save in 
bed, H. has no trace; nay, %liafim xs- 
tiXififivrj is used, g, 9^ ^7 9 ^ further 
describe the attitude of lis, aXXmVj 
like navxav., 79, where see note; comp. 
^ 84, fffta xyyB xal iiL^CnoXoi %Cov 
aXXai, 

134. a^TjCeuv, see App. A. 6, (2). 

137—9. Xij^fiv*, "wash-basin". The 
utensil was also used to heat water. It 
appears thus in simile to illustrate Gha- 
rybdis boiling with surge, and the wa- 
ters of Xanthus bubbling in the flames 
of Hephsestus. In an enumeration of 
presents It often occurs in conjunction 
with the "tripod", which was not, how- 
ever, a mere stand for the Xifirjg, but 
included a containing vessel; see !F. 
264. For the va/iifi see App. A. 7 (4). 



DAY I.] 



OATSrEIAS A. 140-155. 



13 



[40 \_8[dccta^ TCoXX* ijtLd'Stea^ XccQi^oiievri TtaQSovtcav • 
Saiz(fdg^ dl xqbiSv nivaxag 7taQi%^XBv dsiQag 
nainoC(oVj jtaQa dd Ctpi tid'Bi XQijiSsia"^ xvTtaXla '] 
xiJQvi'^ tf' avrot0iv ^dfi* iixipxero oivoxoev&v, 
ig 6* '^Id'ov iiv7i6ti}Q€g dyfjvoQsg. o? (ilv ineixu 

45 el^eCrig Sfjovto xara xXi0(iovg^ re ^Qovovg r£, 
totci^ SI xiJQvxeg (iiv vScoq^ ijtl x^^Q^S ix^vav, 
Olxov 8a Snaal jcaQSvtjvaov iv xavioioiv^ 
xovQoi^ 81 XQtjf^Qag iicaaxiiljavxo^ nototo. 
oi^ d' in* dvaiad'* azot^a n:QOxai(iavcc x^^Q^S takXov. 

50 avtuQ ijcal itoiSiog xal aSi^rvog i^ iQOV avxo 
(ivriax'^^agy xotfftv fthv ivl q)Qa6lv aXXu iia^TJlaLv, 
^oXtciI^ r' OQXflOxvg xa' xa yccQ r' ava9'^iiaxu 8aLx6g. 
xi^Qv^'"^ d' iv jf^pali/ xCd'aQbv TcaQixakXia d'ijxav 
0rj^ic)^ Off" ^' 7Jai8a naga (ivri<Jx^Q6LV dvdyxrj. 

55 V ^^^ ^ q)OQ[iiiG}v dvafiaXkaxo^ xaXov aaCSaiv^ 



a (.84, /(, 25); cf. 

£.369. 
b q. 331. 
c X. 357, r. 248. 
d <r. 677. n. 252. 
e a. 132 mar. 
fy. 339—40,9.270 

-1, I. 174-5. 
J d. 213, r. 270. 
h A. 470. 
i e. 232. 
k d. 67, 218, •.200. 

^.71,484,^453. 

0. 142, n. 54, (. 

98, 1;. 256, J. 91 

-2, 221-2, i2. 

627-8. 
I9.43O; cf.^.27I, 

9. 99. 
m^. 67-9, 105-7, 

256-7. 
n /. 830-1, 356, 

a. 337. 
0^.266,^.262-3. 



141. foivo%osv(fiv. 



140 delet Nitzschius probante Herm. 142. Tt<9^. jDubium ex h. 355 an legen- 

dam sit iiuvBia\ tarn fortasse 141 cum 142 permatandos. post 146 nonnulli codd. 

149 babent, turn W|Xij<yay ^ Sga n&aiv inag^dcfLSvoi Ssndsaetv, turn 147, 148, 150. 

Harlcj. illi voi^iriaav — , post 148 posito, subjungit 147 et 149. 



She bad general charge of the bread 
(aitog)y and the eatables (crdaroc) ge- 
nerally except fleshmeat. Each guest 
had a table laid {itdwaas)JoT him. 

140—3. Verse 140 is probably borrow- 
ed from 17. 176, where it belongs pro- 
perly; see note there, eiffma is also 
used for *'bait'* of fish, and sing. bIBuq 
(mar.) for "fodder" for horses. It is 
objected to w. 141—2 (rejected by Bek. 
here and at ^.57) that the ^esh (112) 
appears to have been already distri- 
buted; but see on 109 — 12. It does 
not, at any rate, appear that the guest 
had been served, and his table was 
only just set. The ifaiXQdq has no 
business with the %vnfXXtt, This, how- 
ever, need condemn 141 only; but see 
the emendation suggested in the lower 
margin. For xvTtaXJia see App. A. 8. 
The xiQV§ is Medon (mar.). 

146—8. vd» exl X^^Q^^ * phrase 
of Holy Writ is here parallelled, 2 Kings 
III. II. ixeOxi'^m, "crowned**, t. e, 
"filled brim -full'' of wine. The vina 
coronant of Virg. Mn, I. 724 (comp. 
III. 525), as meaning crowning with i 



ckaplet, perhaps arose from a mistake 
in the sense here. Butt. Lex, 50. 

152. dvu^iifi., "embellishments", 
properly used of offerings to deck a 
shrine. Comp. Hor. Od» III. xi. 6, of the 
lyre, diuitum memis et arnica tempHs. (Ni.) 

154. ^tjfiUq^, c&lledTsQntddrig {m&r.). 
He is spared in the (ivrjatrjgoq^ovia on 
this plea of having acted *^ under con- 
straint". The name, like Phronius, 
Noemon §. 386, also Aglaia and Cha- 
rop8> B. 672, belong to the class of 
pames made up to suit character or 
circumstances. Similar are the Phea- 
cian princes* names, ^. iii — 9. and Ki. 
on p, 3S6, says that Hermann con- 
tended for an extension of the same 
principle to first - class personages. 
There is no doubt of its being general 
with subordinate ones. 

155. 1/ TOi, in discourse these par- 
ticles add strong asseveration, emphatic 
statement, or hearty assent; ^hv, vv, 
or yag is sometimes put between theui. 
dvBpdXX; sounded or "struck up" a 
prelude; this was done by touching a 
few notes first on the fpogfu^f whence 



H 



OATSLEIAS A. 156—170. 



[day I. 



a a. 70, p. 592. 
b &. 248, r. 54. 
e 0. 280, f 377, 

417, a. a77, fi. 

142. 
d 2.221, ». 72, 76, 

n, 347, «F. 263, 

n. 793. 

e tf'. 328, ^.174; 

cf. ji, 395. 
f |. 135-6, w. 290 

~2. 
e a. 235, i9.35l,d. 

832, |. Vo, 90. 
h I. 361. 
i I. 303, <l^. 133. 
k Z. 412. 
I a. 188, 204, t. 221, 

u. 348—9; cf. «. 

471, ». 204,^374, 

9f. 98, 116. 
m a. 135, y. 414, 

J. 45. ^ 
n o. 9 mar. 
o a. 206, 224^^ a/. 
p |. 187—90, *. 

150; cf.y.71, 6. 

138, ^. 550. 



ayxv^ 0%(ov x£q)aXi^Vy Xva iirj nevd'oiad'' oC alloc 

''^£tV€ tpll\ ^ TtCCL flOt V8(JL€07J6Sai OXTt XSV d7t(0\ 

rovxoi0iv H'lv tccvta fi^XeCj xCd^aQiq^ xal docdi^y 

(S^rV «^«i dlloTQLOV PIOTOV VTJTtOLVOV iSoVfStV^ I< 

avBQog ov d7J nov levTi*^ 66xia Ttv^'Stai^ o^Pqg) 
X8L(i£v^^ ix^ i^jteigovy ri elv all xv(ia xvlCvdet. 
el xsrvov^ y* Id'dxrivds IdoCato vo^T'^^avta^^ 
Tidvxeg x' dQi^Oaiar' ilacpQOteQOt %6Sag alvai 

7 dtpVBlOtSQOl XQVeotO XB i^d^tog TB, n 

vvv d* fihv (Sg aTtolalB^ xaxov (lOQOVj ovdi tig i^fitv 
d'alTtcD^,^ Bi^ niQ rig imx^ovtcDv"^^ dv^Qcintov 
(f^aiv ilBv6B6%rai' rod d' SIbxo^ voaxcixov r^iaQ. 
dlV^ ays (tot xods alnh xal dxQBxitog xaxdls^ov 
xlg^ Tto^Bv alg dvSQcSv; nod'L xot nolig rida xoxtjag; v 



158. us JFBCnm. 163. fiSotaxo. 165. fsc^Tixog rf. 169. fsmi. 
158. si tiaC. 167. ilnoDQTJ. 168. codd. ^ijast yel (priaiv\ (pyaiv Schol. A. 129. 



sooiQ derive qpo^/ittl, quasi (pgo^fii^, from 
(pQOi'pLtov, Lat, proasmium, Lowe com- 
pares Ov. liieiam, V. 339. prcpleniat pol- 
tice chordas. In later Greek dvafioXal 
properly ai^ifics a prelude, Pind. Pyth, 
I. 7, ngooifiioDv d[i,§olagy cf. Aristoph. 
Av, 1385 ioW.j' Pac, 830, comp. 1267 

— 7®- 

158 — 60. v€fiec, o. X. eiTtOy "be 

provoked at what I am going* to say"; 
for the force of this «ubjiinct. see on 
316. The ^en. dvBQOq is evolved from 
the possessive dXkoxqiov, 

162 — 5. The obj, of xvllv6€i is the 
same as the subj. of nv^stai. The 
double compar., iXcc(pg6tSQ0i ^^ dq>vsi- 
otSQOij is used of two qualities con- 
trasted in the same object; Donalds. 
Cfr. Gr. 415 (cc); so Herod. III. 65, 
InoCriGa taxvtsga ij aofpcatsgoc, £ur. 
Med, 485, ngo^vfiog fi&llov ij Co- 
(patTigct, Jelf Gr. Gr. § 782. /. In 
xsivov, 163, we may notice an in- 
stance of the tacitly emphatic way 
of speaking of the hero without men- 
tioning his name, as though it were 
sacredly cherished, used by his wife 
son, and attached servitor Euma^us 
(mar.). 

166. vvv if , contrasts an actual with 
a supposed or a past state. dxoXmke, 



oiXexo, 168, comp. y. 87—9, diKoXszo 
conversely followed by oXcaXsv^ "the 
perfect representing the state conse- 
quent on an action' , easily becomes in 
usage passive (Donalds. Gr. Gr. 347, 
obs.) ^*he is lost"; the aor. suggests 
how he reached that state. 

i6jr. B'almaQTif for form comp. iX- 
ntogri , aXstogri. Comp. the Coronach 
in The Lady of the Lake, *'To us comes 
no cheering, to Duncan no morrow". 
This despondent dwelling on the worst 
view is characteristic of Telem.; see 
App. E. 3. 

168. ipnaiVy so Bek. , following the 
Schol.; si with subjunct. is common in 
• Epic Greek, Jelf Gr. Or. § 854, obs. i. 
For examples of si with subj. pros, and 
aor. in Ody. see mar. In Iliad are 
given by Jul. Werner de condiL enun, 
ap. Horn, forms, subj. pr. J. 261, M. 
245, aor. A. 81, 340, E. 258, K. 225, 
A. 116, M. 223, n. 263, 0. 576, X. 
86, 191. 

170. tI§ JtoB'BV, see Donalds. Gr. Gr. 
413 {bh) "who and whence are thou?" 
Ni. cites Eur. Helen 85, dzug zlq sl\ 
7c6%'sv\ rivog; Phoeniss. 122, tig; no^sv 
ysytog\ N. B. Bek. for slg writes slg^ 
contrarily to the most recent gram- 
marians. 



DAY I.] 



OATSTEIAS A. 171-186. 



15 



iiiCTCoCrig d* ijtl vrjog iq>ix£0' nmg Si <se vaircat^ 

0^ liTjv yuQ xC 6B Tcslbv dtofiat iv^dS^ Cxi^Sd'ai. 
xai^ (loi row' ayoQeveov irijrvfiov, 8^^' ev elddi^ 

JSV^^ ^^'^^ fi«^^3r£t5, ij xal xatQciiog^ iaci 
^Blvog^ inal Tcoklol toav^ aviqag xi^itaQOv 8(3 
aXXov^ iTtal xal xstvog i7cC6xQO(pog^ })v civd'QciTCCJvJ^ 

rov d' avt€ 7tQO06€V7t€ ^ect ykavxfQTCtg ^A^vri • 
'^toiyoQ^ iyd rot tavta [idV dtQBxmg dyoQSV0ci}, 

80 MivXTig^ ^Ay%idloLO 8at(pQQV0^ Bv%oiiLat elvat 
vtog, dtdg Ta(pCoi6L q)UrjQ€r(iOLatv^ dvdaaco, 
vvv d' codf^ Sin/ v^Yii xazijXvd'ov ijtf' hdQOiCiv^ 
Tclecov inl otvona^ novrov lie* dXXo^^Qoovg^ dvd'QciTCovg^ 
ig Te^siSriv iietd ;|r«A;c6v, aycD d' at^mva aidrjQOV,^ 

85 V7ivgv Si ^oc '^S' €0tYjX€v in^ dyQov vo^tpi icoXriog^ 
iv kinivt 'PaCd^Qp^ vtco^ Nrico vXr^avri. 



a n. 57-9, 222-4. 

b d- ^)4& mar. 

c 0.268,408./?. 29, 

30, 32, 317, 326, 

— S, y. 72, i. 632, 

C. 120-1, X, 172, 

A. 203. 
d a. 1S7, q. 522, 

Z. 2J6, 231. 
eff.l94icf.*r.335. 
f cf. Q. 486. 
^ d. met at,, K. 

413, 427. 
h a. 418-9. 
i a. 48 mar. 
k«. 386, ». 96, i- 

349, V. 36. 
1 see App. A. 10. 

mar. 
m /*. 42! , y. 286, 

6. 474, •. 349. 
o y. 302, t. 43, o. 

463; cf. J. 437 

-8, B. 867. 
^. 485, H. 473, 

r. 372. 
p to. 308, 212, ft. 

383; cf. 0. 503, 

553. 
q y. 81. 



174. fciddi. 178. ngoGsJ^sins. 18 j. fpUTjQStfioiai, J^avdaaoit. 183. J^oivona, 

171. ^*: t' Arist. <7€: Tf. 171 — 3 omittebant nonnalli, Schol. 172. fv;i;£- 

TOoi)VTa&. 175. Dind. ^K . . ?J: (is&infj, 176. ^(rai^. 183. I;r*: ^g. 



171. OTtJtoifi^j here the interrog. 
changes from the direct to the indirect 
form, and again conversely; in 406 —7 
the onnod'sv of the indirect is followed 
by noiTjg and nov. 

172. evxaz^y self-assertion is usually 
expressed by this verb, sometimes also 
the act of prayer, as in [i, 356. 

173. A quaint proverbial truism, be- 
ing probably the islander^s customary 
address to the voyager. Telem. repeats 
what he had perhaps heard his elders 
say to a stranger newly landed. Mure 
Literal, of A, G, XIII. § 7, ranks this as a 
specimen of Homeric burlesque. Butthe 
poet's thought has the natveti of child- 
hood, which is not comic to the child, 
only to us in the old age pf the world. 
Such a truism is x, 163, oi vkq dnb 
dgvog iccL 7taXai(pdtov ovd'dno nitQrjs* 

175 — 82. viov fieB'^, "art newly, 
I. e. for the first time, our visitor". 
For ']qh».*'iq, see App, A. 11. For the 
"Taphians" see App. D. 5. Only to 
them and to the Phseacians is the epi- 
thet €pikriQaxfioi applied by H. For 
ace. after i^cav without a preposition 
see mar. ejti0tQOq>, occurs .<Esch. 
Agam, Z91' For code^ see App. A. 10. 



^83 — ^4. dXXoi^QOOvg, ** of foreign 
tongue", used of Egyptians, and fo- 
reigners generally (mar.), comp. (iaq^a- 
QOtpmvoi and dygiocpiovoi,. (mar.) Homer's 
dlXo&Q, uvd'Q, always speak without 
any interpreter to Greeks in the Greek 
tongue. He is conscious of the "strange 
speech" existing as an objective fact 
only. Cf. ^sch. Sept c, Th. 170, itsgo- 
(pcavto atgatm, of the Argive army. Tc- 
fi^a'., see App. D. 6. 

185—6. These lines are not found 
in some copies, and were rejected by 
Arlst. (Schol.). They seem, however, 
genuine. ^dSy here, pointing to it. 
dyoov, the harbour named is a' little 
E. N. E. of the town, but perhaps the 
spot where the ship lay was visible 
thence. The town was accessible from 
the sea (mar.); but one landing from 
the Epirus side would first reach Rhei- 
thron. From Ntjiq} is derived the 
epith. vTCOvrjiog, applied to Ithaca 
(mar.), kifiavi, before the liquid and 
sometimes S (comp. 203) i has tliis 
quantity; see Spitzner, Gr. Pros. § 9. a. 
*P€iS'Qq}»m*Nfiiq}, a large gulf indent- 
ing Ithaca on the N. £. side nearly di- 
vides it into two parts, a head, the 8. E. 



i6 



OAT22SEIAS A. 187—208. 



DAT I. 



a a. 175 mar. 
b a. 167 mar. 
e fi. 238, X. 176. 
d o. 49 mar. 

• t. 209, 246, 248, 
r. 72. 

f J. 230. 

p X. 193, 323, S. 

67, 438. 
h X. 160, 7t, 280, 

f 282. 
ia.238, 52. 262; 

ef. I. 64. 
k y. 34, H. 271, 

V. 461. 
1 J. 498, 612, 377. 
m a. 50, fi. 288. 
n 0.172-3, y.226. 
cf.o. 631-2, ilf. 

237—43. 
p cf. fi. 163-6. 
q/9.36,285,;f.473, 

A. 416. 
r B. 162, 178. 

• a. 167 dutr. (1). 
t a. 169 mar. 

a «. 86, 88. 

▼ r. 158, K. 547, 

V.66;cf.a.l43, 

149-60. 



^stvoL^ d' &kX^X(ov natQmoi svxotisd'' elvai 

bi, dgx^Sj ^P* ^^9 ^^ yigovt* et^ai, ijceXQ'civ 

Jaigrrjv rJQ(oaj tov ovxin q>a0l n6Xi,v8^ 

SQ%e(S%'\ &kV andvBvd'Bv in^ ayQOv n^^iiara^ ndcxai^v i 

ygril 6vv ifUfpiTCokqiy 7} o[ (igScCv te ndoiv ts^ 

TcaQtt^eij sit' &v ^itv xdiiatog xavd yvta XdPy0LV^ 

6Qjtv^ovt^ avd yovvov^ dXcD'^g olvoxedoio, 

vvv d' rjXd'ov' dfj ydQ^ (itv itpavr^ iTtidijiiLOv^ alvai 

aov TCatBQ^' aXXd vv tov ye d'sol fiXdzzovOL^ xsle'tj^ov' i 

ov ydg tcgj ri^vrixav inl %%'ovl dtog ^Odv00avg, 

dXV in Ttov icoog xaxeQVxetccv^ svqsV novrci 

vfjatp^' iv d(iq)LQVty, %aXB7tol Si fiLV avSgag ixovOiv^ 

[dyQioi^ oX Ttov xatvov i^vxavotoo^ daxovta,'} 

ai5rap" vvv roc iym iiavravoo(iai^ dg avl 9vfi^ 2< 

ad-dvaxoL fidXlov6L xai (og TaXaa0%ac dtco^ 

ovia XL iidvxLg acjv om oicoviSv^ odqxx, alScig 

otJp tov hc^ SfjQov ya (piXrig djco TtaxgCSog aUrjg^ 

a00axai^ ovS' al^ tcbq ta GiStiQau da^fiax* i%i[iCiv' 

(pQd00arai Sg xa virirai^ anal TtoXvfifjx^'^og icxiv, V 

dW^ aya [lOc xoda aina xal dxgaxifog xaxdXa^ov^ 

al Srj i^ ccvroto xdaog^ icalg alg ^O8v0ilog. 

alvSg"' [ihv xafpaXrjv ra xal oii(iaxu xald iovxag 



191. /o&. 193. J^OLVonsdoio. 199. dj^iiiovta, 202. faiddq. 206. J^bitcL 

208. fifoiY.otg. 



190. ttXysot, ^ 1:5. TiBXsvd'ovs* 
margin! all' insernit. 208. fte 



201. tstsXiG^ttt, 



ivd'ovg, 201. tstsliaO'ai, ^ 204. pro ov6* Harl. 

208. fiev Arist. et Arlstoph.; yap Dind. e Schol. P, 156. 



extremity, and a body running North- 
westerly. The former contains Neios, 
a still woody mountain, now Stephano ; 
and at its foot, being a smaller bay 
of the same gulf, is a harbour called 
Bathmoi, with a stream of fresh water 
running into it, prob. the qbiJ^^qov which 
gave the name. Schreiber, Gell, Dodwell. 

188—91. el TtBQ, see on 168 for sub- 
junct. with si. The reading aXyBU in 
190 for nrn^ata, may stand, hiatus be- 
ing admissible after the 4^** foot; sue 
App. A. p. III. note. yQril...diA€pi:t; 
she is said in co. 366 to be a '^8icillan'\ 

193. yovvbv dXia^q, Deed. 101 1 
takes this from yovv^ and understands 
elevation as the leading idea; comp. 
%vn(i6g for the slope of a mountain. 
This seems better than y6vo$, yev-j in 



sense of "seed", whence others derive 
it. A hill position certainly suits the 
vineyard; **Bacchu8 amat coUes", Virg. 
Georg, II. 1 13. The threshing floor, too, for 
which yovvoq aXtaf^g also stands, would 
be higher than the ground about it. 

195—9. pjidxTOvCi, this verb often 
means "to hinder" (mar.), comp. 
^schyl. Agam. 1 20, pXafiivta Xoia&^oav 
^QOfimv, For 197 — 8, xaxeQVX* and 
axovC*, see.on 162. Bek. rejects v. 199; 
yet it adds a more precise character to 
the detention supposed. 

203. For axt ffijQov see on 186. The 
I seems long before ^ by arsis only, 
we may comp. iiaXd Siiv. 

207. xoOog Implies admiration; as 
does rotog in 223, 371, inf, ; so Virg. JEn, 
I. 606, qui tanti totem genuere parentes T 



DAY I.] 



0ATS2EIAS A. 209—226. 



*7 



10 7CQLV ys TOP ig TQoirjv dvuprjfisvat^ Ivd'a tcsq akXoi 
^AQyeCaov of &qi0xol ifiav xoilijg inl vi^vaiv 
ix tov S' ovr' 'OSveija iy(Dv tSov oik* ifil^ xetvog.'^ 

rrjv S* av Th]XB(iaxog TCSTCvvfiivog^ avxCov fjvdw 
"rotyap iy§i tov^ ^atva^ ftaA' axQSximg dyoQ€v6(o. 

j^ lifjrrjQ (idv t' ifie (ptiav zov ifiiisvccc^ avtccQ iyd ys 
ovK olS'* oi yuQ 7t(6 ttg iov yovov avx6g^ dveyvo), 
(6g 8^ iyci y* ^bXov^ fidxaQdg vv xbv ifiiievat vidg 
dviQog^ ov xxsdxsa^Lv iotg Stcl yrjgag hsxfisv. 
vvv 8\ og dnox^Loxaxog^ yivexo d'vrjxcSv dvd'QciTCiDv,^ 

10 xav^ ft' ix (pa0i yaviisd'ai^ ijtsl av [le xovx* iQSstveig.^^' 
xov S* avxe Ttgoaieiits d^ed yXavxcoTttg 'Ad^vri 
"or fifjv xov ysvsTJv ys d'eol vcivvfivov^ 67t{0(S(o 
dTJxav^ inel 6i ya xoiov^ iyaCvaxo^ IlrivakoTtaia. 
dXV aya^ (lov x68a ai%a xal dxQax^og xaxakal^ov 

t^Ttg Salg, xCg Sh 0[ivkog o<J' iTtXaxo; xCicxa^ di 6a ;f()£CJ; 
alkuTtCvri^ r^a ydfiog;^ iTcal ovx i^avog xdda y' iaxCv. 



a y. 321, d. 776, 

V. 30, 0. 451, V. 

302, «f. 246, <r. 

37!. 
b SI. 90. 
c y. 20, X. 495, a. 

2a0-2, W. 440, 

SI. 377, T. 169, 

SI. 442. 
d JV". 734. 
e 8. 183 mar. 
f cf. Si. 266. 
^ r. 220, 233. 
h o. 128, 4^. 159; 

cf. d. 387. 
i a. 231. 
k V. 239, ^ 182. 
I cf a. 207 mar. 
m A. 280, E. 800, 

\l 61, 9. 312; 

A pp. A. 20, mar. 

o e. 707, L 76, 197, 
if. %\ I. 136, I 
tiOT-8,j|. 409,600, 
<^. 322, cf. .<?. 
28, J. 312, 634, 
M. IS!». t. 136, 
^,341, K. 118, 
172. 

p S. 57, I. 415, jr. 
il7, S. 491, ^. 
201 , 0. 466--7. 

q 3. i 



212. J^iioV. 



216. OV J^oid' ij^ov, 
221. TCQoaifsms. 



21&. Htsdrsaai. fsoig, -aiv ij^oig? 
224. fsmi. 



212. Ix tov9' Dind. exore V. 214. 
215. zi (IS Bek. Dind. 222. ita Bek, 



Tiatali^n Harl. dyogevato Schol. H. 
(liv lib. 225. t^g 3i as %Qslu alii. 



209. S-afid TOloVf lit. "often, so very^\ 
the qualifying word following the qua- 
lified with ellipse of the relatiye clause 
which should supply some measure of the 
degree, which by this very indefinite- 
ness is enhanced. Jelf. Gr, Gr, 823, obs, 2, 
explains this by **the fact that the de- 
monstratiye* originally performed the 
functions of the relative'*, but y. 321 
niluyog (iifu roiov, o^sv rs nsg ov$' 
oiavol ttvzoszsg ot%vsvvzaty rather sug- 
gests the explanation by ellipse ; comp. 
also orov, as used in 410 without roroi^, 
— the converse usage. 

210—2. xqIv, Jelf. Gr, Gr. § 848 b 
lays down a rule for nqlv with the infin. 
which would exclude this instance. and 
many more, as, d, 668, 97. 83, ^, 301, 
t, 65. In Homer's use the infin. after 
nqlv does not differ from the indie. 
in sense, only n^lv becomes quasi- 
prepositional ; here = wpo xov uva§'^- 
fisvcti. In dvafidtCv, observe, the no- 
tion of going up is involved in that 
of going on board ship, comp. d. 473. 

213 — 23. H. uses TtajtVm (comp. ni- 
HOM. on. I. 



vvxog, 229), for having knowledge, pre- 
sence of mind, &c., yoo) (supplied ii. 377) 
being understood; nvsvay, snvsvaSj for 
inspiring fiivog or like qualities; and 
Tcvsi^o) for mere breathing. For iysi- 
vazo see App. A. 20 (mar.). 

225. Before o/iitXoq obs. hiatus, more 
common in 2°*^ than in i** foot (Spitz- 
ner de vers, her, § 11). as XQ^^y *^? 
preferential rule of H. is to use ypg© 
as with a verbal force (rarely with S0xi) 
governing ace. of pers., Si,sxQ^6i §ovX^g 
Ifil xal as, K. -13 ; but jjpat© with a verb 
expressed, timvsi ^r the like j^mar.). 

226. eikajtlvtj ije, the -ri ^- must 
be read in synizesis. Observe yd/iidq, 
by pause and ictus. The stlccn, was 
sumptuous, perhaps sacrificial; cf. Hes. 
Frag. CXXXII. 2 — 4, who says the song 
of Linus was always sung iv slkanC- 
vocig xs xoQOtg xs, which phrase sug- 
gests religion; so Find. Nem, V. 38 fv- 
(pQOvsg IXai . . .d'sov SstiovxaL; Donald- 
son's note there says, an sllun. was 
"a feast of the gods xar' tlctg^l\ of 
the sgavo^ we have a hint in v{imv 

1 



.i8 



OATSSEIAS A. 127—242. 



[day 1. 



a cf. n. 108—9, V. 

318-9. 
b <r. 211. 
c «. 213 mar. 
d )/ 243, 9. 390, 

402, t. 171, \p. 

99, r. 177 
e «. 175—7, X, 653, 

r.293,<r.l38,B. 

39, X 356, 'I'. 

514. 
f a. 163 mar. 
g a. 194 mar. 
h cf. n. 103, 179, 

X 17* ^- i8. 
i ^. 387, urf. 319. 
k a. 163 mar. 
1 a. 242, A. 258; 

cr. JC. 259, v. 79. 
m A. 417. 
a -Of. 360. 
o f. 367-71, «». 

31-4. _ 
p d, 490. X 86. *. 

137, SI. 1. 
qJS.404;cf.B.530. 
r S. 727-8. 
8 XT. 150. 
t $. 371, V. 77. 
u d. 675. «. 127. 



Sg ti fiot vfiQi^ovreg^ vnsQtpvdkGig doxiovacv 
Saivv0^ai xatct SfSiicc vBiisO07J6air6 xbv ai/ijp, 
tttiSxsa noXX* 6q6(dv^ og rvg mvvrog^ ys (isrild'oiJ^ 

ti^v d' av TriXd(iccxog itsnvv(iivog^ avxCov rjvSa 2^ 

"Iffv', inisl Sq Si^ xavxd ft' avaCQsav^ ijdi fisraXXagy 
(leXXsv* fiiv Tcots olxog od' dg)vsv6g xal afiviicnv 
i(i(isvai^ hfp(f hi xstvog^ dvi^Q incS7J(iLog^ tjsv 
trSv S* itdQCDg^ ipoXoyto^ d'col xaxd (irfttoovtsg, 
6S xetvov^ (ihv avarov^ inoirj^ocv xegl^ jtdtmov 21 

dvd'Qcinmv^ iytsl ov xe d'avovtc nsQ cod' dxaxoififiv^^ 
si (i€td olg BxdQOi^v dd(irj^ TqcScdv ivl dijfioif, 
i^h ^IXmv iv %eQ(S\v^ i^tel TCoXefiov xoXvneviSBV.^ 
xp xiv ot xyfifiov nhv iTtoiviOav Ilavaxcctol^^ 
i^Si X6 xal cJ ^aidl (leya xXiog iJQax' onl0eG3, 2a 

vvv 8i (iiv dxXeicSg^ '^jQTtviai^ dvrjQsitccvxo'^ 
&%sr* ccl'0xog ajrvcTrog," ifiol S* ddvvccg ts ydovg xe 



232. /otxoff. 2s$. afiatov. 237. /org. 239. /ot. 240./©. 242, aj^iatog, 

a 

234. ijfolovxo Harl., ^§dcXovto Eustath. bcbol. H,, iolovto, i§ovlovTO, Povlovto alii. 
236. ovti Harl., ovus Schol. H., Ss pro tie Rec. 242. oix^v* Apoll. Soph. (Bek.), 

ita Schol. B. 



XTiffittr' ^Sovteg dfinpofievoi %axd of!- 
xovff fi. 140, and in a scene iu 9. 620 
—4 where Menelaus^ ^nests brin? their 
own provisions. In X, 415 the Iqavoq 
is said to be a *'rieh man*s'', being 
"his" in whose house it took place. 
The banquets given by a king -to his 
yigovtsg (referred to by Ni.) in J, 250, 
/. 70, 71, 49, cf. &, 38—9, &c., provided 
doubtless out of his receipts in kind, 
are dccttsg limited by the relation of the 
guests, who are said dijiiia JtivBiv, P. 
250; cf. X. 185 — 6. 

232 — 5. fiiXXfv • • • TtaxBy "there 
wa» a time when / thought this house 
would be"; this subjectivity of state- 
ment often marks the Homeric use of 
fiilXm (mar.), dfivfiatv, applied some- 
times, HS here, to things, keeps up the 
sense of distinction in its own class: 
see fi. 261, Z. 171. izigiog i^oXovxo, 
Ni., after Eustath. prefers ifiixXovto; 
Spitz, rfc vers, her. 97, reads itiQOja' 
ipdkovtOf in alteram partem se verte- 
runt; for stegmas see mar.; for ifio- 
XovTO see Buttm. LexiL s, v. pdXXsiv. 
iiiCxoVy out of sight 01 knowledge, So 
that X cannot love him if living, nor 
pay the honour due to him if dead. 



236 — 7. 9'avavxi, a dat. which may 
be referred to the general notion of 
bestowing our sorrow or joy (so iX&'ovri 
nsxagOLTOf fi, 249) on the object which 
excites it. nCQ, see on 6. For the 
sense of 6ii/iiif> see on 103. 

238. noXvnev*, Penel. in t. 137, says 
iym dh SoKovg xoXvnsvtOj as we speak 
of *^ spinning a thing out", t. e. pro- 
tracting. Here the notion of finishing 
predominate;^, as given more precisely 
by novov i^tolvnsvaag in Hes. Scut, 44. 

241. a;ff^€t€d$^ '^silently", leaving no 
tiXiog, 283, so dnlia 8, 728; an idea 
further expanded in 242, m%sx.,.£nv- 
azog, Z4.Q7iviai are impersonations of 
hurricanes, as Evgog, Zifpvgog, &c. of 
ordinary winds; one of the "Agn, is 
named Podarge in TI, 150. Hesiod. 
2'heog, 267, names two, Aelld and Ocy- 
petg. ^viXXcct sometimes appear = 
"Aon, (mar.). Elemental deities often 
are interchanged in poetic idea with 
the powers of nature which they rule 
and involve. This is most common with 
the various winds Eurus, &c., and fire 
^'HfpmQtog, the physical function and the 
personal action blending in one image. 
dvijiQthff*^ akin to iginxofiaiy t, 533. 



I.] 



OATSSEIAU A. 243—260. 



19 



t7t€v. ovS* hi xetvov divQOiiBvog 6r€vaxii(o 
iTCei vv (loi aXXa d'eol xaxcc xrjSs* Inviccv. 
t* yag vt]<Soi6iv inLXQaxiovdv aQiCtoi^ 
[iX^Gi^ ^^ ^ii^Xl ^^ ^^* vkrisvti^ Zaxvv^py 
ioffoc XQavar^v ^Id'dxfjv xdta^ xoLQCcviov6iv^ 
n (n^ziQ^ ifiT^v ^vSvxaiy XQvxovav^ dh olxov. 
ot5r' aQVBtxtti 0xvysQdv^ ydiiov ovxe xsXsvfqv 
yat Svvaxai' xol SI tpd'ivvd'ovCLv iSovxs$i^ 
' ifiov xdxa Stj (is Si,aQQaC0ov0i xccl avxovJ' 
/ 6' inaXaax'ijCcceu^ TCQO^tjvSa IIaXXds*^d'rjt^ 
toxoLy ri dq noXlbv ccnotxoii^vov ^Odv0rjog 
,^ X6 iivri0x^Q6iv dvaiSi6t X^^Q^S ig^^iij* 
aQ vvv Hd'cav dofiov iv XQcixij0i^ dvgijiHv 
I, ^;i^c}i/ zijlrjxa xal dtfxida xal Svo dovgs,^ 
» idv olov (iLV iya xd ngSx^ ivoijCa 
' iv Tj^exigp xivovxd xs x6Q7c6(iev6v xe^ 
pvQfigP dvLovxa 7taQ*'7Xov MeQ(i6QidttO' 
) ydg xal xat6B d'O^g djtl v^iog '0Sv66Bvg 



a ft. 122-6, n, 247 

-61, t. 130-3, 

if. 214. 
b I 336, i. 292, 

B. 626. 
c cf. c. 24. 
d V. 377, JET. 332. 
e ft. 84, ^. 387. 
f a. 272, *. 157. 
g t. 169, 534. 
h M. 163, O 21. 
i F. 142, W. 484 
k ef. a. 384—6. 
i X 260, X 66. 
m fi. 228, ft. 295, 

0. 377, X- lOl- 
n i. 342-6, X. 499 

-501, Q. 138-7, 

«. 376-9, A. 

262-3. 
or. 233. 
p App. D. 8 mar 



248, 251. J^oi%ov, 



258. foC%<o» 



'T^Sb* Rec. 246. 2ccfitp Rec. 247. tiatofKOLQaviovaiv Schol. £. 332. 

Bv^ Aristoph.^ dBvst vindicant Scholl. H. M. Q. R. iq)Bt'Q Herm. coll. J, 191. 
259. ''Iqov Scholl. H, M, "llXov Rec. 



ajtvC* is not found in II., but 
in Ody. with active, as well as 
e force (mar.). We have arv^-, 
r (^sch. SepL C, Th. 54), anv- 
like niG'-y nicxiq^ ajciatog. 

For Dolichium see App. D. 7. 
is in JB. 634 Samo^, and, with Za- 
IS, part of the dominion of Odys., 
> Dulichium, which belongs to 
.s, B, 625. H. scans ^ and ffx, 
ancing proper names, as single 
, e. g, ZHbucv, B. 824, Snafittv- 
E.^36. 

BTtaXaCx^aaiSa. This word 
f here read, although dXaoxrioag 
;curs (mar.), and dlaatov is neut. 
pithet of niv9'0Sy Sxog : also dla- 
rocat., is applied by Achilles in 
cnt passion to Hector. Out of this 
agedians, especially in the forms 
OQj dXdatOQog, developed a tragic 
of meaning, which far transcends 
imeric idea, although the dluaxl 
illes, **accursed wretch", comes 
t to it. No satisfactory deri- 

has been suggested: that of 
fdva may be rejected without 



scruple. See ^sch. Pers. 355, Eumen, 
227, Soph. 4/. 374, Aniig. 974. 

254. devy, 2. sing. pres. mid.; the 
var, led, of Aristophanes, SBvsiy is a verb 
impersonal = XbIkbi^ Schol. i<p€ifi, 
Herm. reads i(p€i|7 subj. , ^ comparing 
A, igiy wdgjiax* a %sv navaij6i, 

255. el yao (or as some read at ya^)* 
is said by Ki. ad loc, to differ in sense 
from Bt^B (or aCd'B), as expressing, not 
a simple wish, but one combined with a 
conditional proposition, or with a conse- 
quence following from the thing wished 
for, if obtained. The passages adduced, 
however, do not bear out this doctrine ; 
e. g, at ydg (or bI yug) and atd'B (or 
Bed's) g. 251, 494, seem to express pre- 
cisely the same notion. Also A. 189 
bI yccg dij ovtrng f fij is surely a simple 
wish; and again bC^-' Sg 'qpcioiiii x. x,X., 
H. 157, is followed by precisely such 
a statement of a consequence. JNi. 
admits also, what in effect nullities the 
distinction, that the prop, aforesaid 
may at times not be expressed. Now 
surely in {, 468, A, 313 — 6, it is as 
easy to supply a suppressed prop, after 

1* 



20 



OATSSEIAS A. 261—276. 



[day 



a /S. 329, d. 219, 
230, X. 236, 287, 
326~7,cf.u<.741. 

b B. 138, 239, @. 
407, B. 296-7. 

c a. 378 mar. 

d a. 208. 

e ^. 417, X. 75- 

f tt. I'i'J, jP. 514, 
r. 435 J cf. X 
238, 345, y, 92, 
x.481,tl47,810, 
;i 66, a. 433, J. 
608. 

^ d. 632, X. 493, 
jB. 238, 300, 349, 
jr.445,cf. 0.137. 

h a. 295, d. 646, 
P. 144. 

i a. 305, J7.50; cf. 
n. 422 

k T. 34 ; cf. /?. 7. 

1 jr.- 70, ^ 394; 
cf. /9. 66, 143. 

m /!?. 262. 

n cf. B. 6S1. 

o /?. 52—3, 196—7. 



(fiXQliaxov^ &vSQO(p6vov di^'^iievog, oq)Qa oC stri 
lovg XQis^d'ai xakyn^Qsag' akV o ^Iv ov ol 
dcjxevy iicsC ^a %'aovg ve^etsit^Eto^ aihv^ iovtag^ 
alia TcarijQ of Scoxsv i^dg, q/ikiaaxa yccQ aiviBg-^ 
rotog icav ^v7i6xiiQ6iv 6fiLX7J6aL£v ^OSvCOavg^ 
itdvxag x' dxviioQoi^ ta yavoCaxo jctXQoyaiioi ra. 
aXV Tj tov fihv xavta d'a(Sv iv yovvaiSi^ xatxav, 
Yi xav vo0X7J6ag aTtoxiaaxaty iqh^ xal ovxly 
OI0LV ivl fiaytiQOL0c * 6h Sh g)Qdia0d'ai avcoya^ 
oTCTCfo^ xa [ivrjaxrJQag anciaaai ax fiayaQOLO. 
si d' ay a vvv ^vvCai xal iynDv iiiJtdia& iivd'cav 
avQiov alg ayoQriv^ xaXiaag fJQCoag ^Axaio'vg 
avd'ov natpQaSa TcatSiy %'aol d' iitl (idgxvQOt} i<Sxmv. 
^ivri^xfJQag fiav iicl 0tpaxaQa 0xCSva6d'ai^ avcox^h 
ar^xiQa^ 8\ at' ol d'Vfiog ig)OQ^axac yafiiacd'acy 
atjj^ tx(o eg fiayagov naxgbg (idya Svva(iivoio' 



261, 262, 264. foi. 262, ov. 269. fotaiv. 275. foi. 

261. Sasiri pro oi Btri Zenod. alii f^v nov itpsvgoiy Scholl. H. M. 270. xal Schol. E. 

272. ita Harl. iTtifidQTVQOi Dind. ini.{iciQTVQsg al. 274. avtoys, 

275. fi'qTTiQ Schol. H. et Barnes. 



ai'^6 (or ei^s) as iu t. 22, v. 169 after 
celt yag (or si yap). Ibee further on d. 341. 

259 — 62. 'E<pvQ.j see App. D. 8. o 
fihvj i, e, Ilus. The restraining motive 
in his case was the fear of the gods, 
but this, it seems, was overpowered in 
the other by love for Odys. — a token 
of the intense affection which Odys. in- 
spired. <pd(ffim includes wholesome as 
well as baneful drugs (mar.), here the 
latter are meant. The feeling against 
poisoned weapon^ is a remarkable an- 
ticipation of civilized warfure. 

263. vefiaol^*^ here has ace, but in 
the same sense, "to feel an awe of", 
it has also a gen. (mar.). In the sense 
of "be angry with" it has dat., or ace. 
followed by infin. 

265. xoioq iaw, the sentence inter- 
rupted starts anew in its leading word 
xoLog, The same form of wish for the 
return of Odys. recurs elsewhere, si- 
milarly interrupted by an anecdote and 
resumed (mar.). 

266—7. cixvfi* is also found active, 
"swiftly slaying". With TtiXQOy* comp. 
Eurip. Med, 400, ni^ytgovg d' iyca , , . 
d'ljaa) ya^ovg. iv yovv; perhaps be- 
cause suppliants grasped the knees; thus 



not merely **at the god's disposal", but 
"to be suppliantly sought" is intended. 
The sanctity of the knees ^ appears 
from adjurations, as Uaaofi* insg ^v- 
X^g nal^yovveiv, mar., and ft?) ngog 
a% yovviiiv Eurip. Med, 325. 

268—9. i^^^ ^^^ wi*^ voGtriGag, Do- 
nalds. Or. Gr. 505, p. 543 says, "the 
apodotic use of the participle wi^ uv 
is generally found in objective, rela- 
tive, and causal sentences". Here the 
protasis, **if he return at all", may be 
understood, ixvoiyay Buttm. Lexil, a. v, 
avrivo&Bv (26) supposes a radical Jform 
avfjyo}, or, rj being non-essential, Syym, 
The analogy of iXijXv&a, ivi^voxccy ioT^- 
dona &c. requires a tetrasyllable with 
a short vowel in 3'* syllable. He seems 
to imply that avr^voya would be the 
link form. With Buttman's ivqyio we 
may comp. InBCym, 
,273 — 5. 7tiq>(faif€, see on a. 444. 
ijtl = adhibiii, t. e. to witness his de- 
nunciation; so he invokes Zeus and 
Themis fi, 68. In 275 the sentence ran 
on from the preceding clause, iivfjctij' 
gagjilv , . . 6%£Svaa&'ai, uvmxd'i,, ayixiqa 
if (uip livai), but was suddenly changed 
in the latter, as if (I'^trjif had preceded 



DAY I.] 



OATSSEIAS A. 377—296. 



21 



oF Sh ydfiov tsv^ovei, xal ccQXViHovaiv isdva^ 
TCoXXa^ (idX\ 000a §oixe q>iXrjg iitl TtatSos €7t60d'at. 
0ol d' avrp 7CVKLV(Sg V7co%^0o^at^^ €^ xe Tttd'TiccL' 

jo ^^'® ciQ0ag iQdty0Lv hC7CO0vv^ H tig^ dQt0tri, 
^9X^o« 7t6v06(i€vog natgdg drjv olypiLivoio^ 
rjv^ tig tov €tnfj0t figotiSv, v] o00av^ cixov0yg 
ix Jiog^ fj xs [idXi0ta (piQSt xXiogi dvd'QciTCOL0vv. 
jtQmta^ [ihv ig IlvXov iXd'h xal stQBO Ni0roQa Stovy 

%^xsi%^sv Sh ZjtdQtijvSs 7taQ& lav%^6v MsvdXaov 

^ og^ ydg dsytatog"^ rjXd'sv 'AxavSv xaXxoxLtcSvcov, 
bI^ (idv xav TcatQog fiCotov xal v60tov dxov0Tigy'' 
^ r' av tQVXo^svog tcsq hi tkalrig iviavtov 
si Ss X€ red'vri^tog dxov0yg (iijS' St* iovtog^ 

.50 vo0t'^0ag di) insLta q)iXf]v ig naxQida yatav 
0rj(id^ ri oi x^vat xal ijcl xreQsa^ xza^st^aL 
TtoXld^ (idX\ 000a iotxs, xal dviQt, (irjtiga dovvat. 
avtaQ iveijv Sr^ tavta tsXsvtrJ0y^ rs xal iQ^yg^ 
^Qdis09'ai di} inevta xatd (pgiva xal xatd d'viiov^^ 

9^ STtTCiD^ xs (ivri0t7JQag ivl iisydQoi0L rsot0LV 
xtsivijg i^h doXp ^ diifpaSoV' ovSs tl 0s XQ'h 



a App A. 14 mar. 
b a. 292, 8, 197, 

223, I. 2&. 
c 8 194, 9. 143, 

b. 293. 
d A. 207, y. 82. 
e App. F 1. (17) 

ad fin. mar. 
t 8. 294, &. 424, 

5.30. 

r 0. 270, a. 94, 8. 

360, ¥. 415. 
h /?. 216-7. 
i B. 93, w. 413, 

cf. f. 89, y. 215. 
j B. 486. 
k a. 93,/}. 214, 359. 
I ^. 172. 

m T. 61, ^p 342. 
n/J.218-2?J; cf.ii. 

'137-9, 7r.408-5, 

^. 79—83. 
q. 520, 525. 
p X. 75, H. 86, Sil. 

799, d. 584 mar. 
q y. 285, JB. 38. 
r a. 278 mar 
s X. 80. 

t d, 120 mar., 117. 
u K 119-20. 
r |. 330, t. 299, H. 

243, cf. •. 120. 



277. iJ^BSva, 



278. fifot%s» 

291. /ot. 



280. ifsi%oaiv. 

292. fifoiHS, 



282. fBin'QiSi foccav. 



278. ^a£a'9'a( Schol. H. hsa^ai al. Hnnc v. amittit Bhian. 282. iycoyaocg 

Schol. i4. 105. 286. ^fvrfpo^ Var. lect. Harl., cf. W, 248. 287. ccTiovaeig 

Harl. ex emendatione. 289. ita Harl. ex «mend. ts^vstcotos, 291* ;i;£v<FCKt 

Clark. iniTtr^Qsa, HTsgilC^ov Harl, 293. wavra pro ravrcc Schol. X. 468. 



as subject; see Jelf, § 581. i. The 
SchoU. H. M. think (itjts^ was de- 
veloped by some copyist adding a to 
[liJQ the ancient abbreviation for jlitjttjV 

277. 04, I. c. ot dfitpl xov natiga, 
Eustath. ssffvcc, see App. A. 14. 

a8i. TtSvCOfA, takes a gen., see Do- 
nalds. Gr, Gr, 451 gg, "To hear of" one 
absent is here the sense; but &. 12 'Ho 
hear" (the speech of) one present. It has 
also ace, as voaxov /?. 215, 360, properly 
of the actual statement heard; cf.a^cov- 
am a, 287, 289, and see ^.315 note. 
Toe verb of sense may be classed with 
lufifiuvm, cctgicD etc. in ambiguity of 
syntax. None of them wholly lose the 
right of a trans, verb , yet all partake 
of the possessive and partitive idea; 
cf. a. 121 xetg* sIb Se^tzsQ7)v, and H. 
108 ds^iTSQTJg ^Is x^^QOS' 



282. oacav, "rumour", is distinct 
from (pijfirj, Soph. (Ed, R, 43, p. 35, 
V. 100, and from 6fiq>'^ y. 215, Hy. 
Merc. 543 — 5, which mean "prophetic 
voice". Rumour widely prevalent and 
rapidly spreading, yet not traceable 
to a human source was ascribed to 
God, Buttm. Lexil. s. v.; so vox populi 
vox Dei J comp. Hes. Opp, 761 wrifirj 
9' ovTig ndfinav inoXlvxai^^ rivxiva 
TCoXXol Xaol^iptfibiiovai* ^sog vv xCg 
IcxL xal ecvxrj. Nagelsb. Horn, Theol. 
8 II. 14 adopts this view, but § IV. 2j 
inclines to identify it here with o^qp?j. 

'?84 — 6. IIvXov, see App. D. 4. oc; 
in epic usage was demonstrative as 
well as relat.; cf. &g fbr "so" and "as". 

289 — 99. dxov0i^g takes a construc- 
tion similar to nvvS^ocvoiioti] see on 281. 



22 



OATSSEIAS A. 297-322. 



D 



DAY I. 



fj ovx dUig'' olov xXiog UXafie dtog ^OQdatrig'^ 
ndvxag^ in avQ^Qcinovg^ insi SxtccvB TCatQOfpovqa,^ 
Alyi0%'ov SoXoiiriuVy og ot jtariga xXvrdv ixta\ 
xaU 6Vy g)LXog,^ (iidXa yag <y' 6q6(o xaXov^ xb (leyav rs) 
alxtfiog i06% %va rig 6b xccl 64fty6v(ov^ bv stTtij. 
avtccQ iymv inl v^a d'O^v xarBXevaoficct rjdri 
ijd' kzdqovg^^ oX nov [is (idX* d6xaX6(o6i^ (livovtBg' 
6oi d' aiut£ (iBXitiOy^ xal ificSv ifixd^BO^ fiv^cji/.'' 

trjv d* ccv TrilB(iccxog 7tB7tvv(ihog dvxCov ijvSa' 
" 5«rv', ^ rok (ilv rccvta tpika^ ^Qovimv dyoQBVBig, 
Sg ts natriQ cS naiSC^ xal ov note Xij^oiiav aitSv, 
a)X^ aye vuv iiclyLBLvov^ iTtsiyoiievog^ tcbq odoto^^ 
irpga Xosacdiisvog^ ts zstaQTtoiiBvog^ tb tplkov xrJQ 
S(3qov^ ixcov inl v^a xiijg, xaCgcuv"^ ivl d'viip, 
niirjsv (idXa xalov^ o xoi xbiiitjXlov^ f6tm 
^1 i^iBVy ola (pCXoL ^Blvoi 1^bli/ol0l 8l8ov6lvJ^ 

x6v d' i^iiBifiax^ Insixa d'Bct yXccvxiSmg ^Ad^vtj' 
"fi>; ft' hi vvv xaxiQVXf:^ XiXai6[iBv6v tcsq oSoto. ; 
8(0 gov y (J* 8m xi (tot iovvM tpCXov r^xog ivdyy^ 
avxtg dvBQXOf'^ivo) 86^bvccl oIxovSb tpigBOd'ai^^ 
xal fidXa xaXov iXdv • ** 0ol d' al^vov^^ l6xai dfioifi^g,^' 

^'cc ^^p g^' cJg sijtova* dnipri yXavxdnig ^A^vri^ 
OQvig d' mg avoie at a Svinxaxo*^^ rc5 d' ivl &V(a^ 
d'^XB (idvog^^ xal d'dQ6ogj V7ti(ipij6iv xi i xaxgog 
liaXXov ix* if x6 TtdgoL^Bv. o 81 q>QS(flv ij<yt v(yij6ag 

?oo. o /ot. 302, J^sinff, 308. /». 317. J^ot%6vS6, 319. J^emova', 

321. /«. 322. q>QBal f^di, 

297. vYinii%Oiq et vri%ia%ov%\ 300. 8 Arist., Schol. M. 305. uix&v Bee. 
314. avxB VQoaisms Rec. dnafiuPoftivti nqocin^ Harl. ex emend, antiq. 
316. sic Voss., Jib. ivfoyti, 320. sic Clark, secntus Arist., dvonata Herod., 

dv* 6nuta Voss. 



a cf. X. 619. 

b f. 88, 0.20, a 

176. 
e a. 11, O. 248. 
d n. 882-3, «. .107 

-8, ^U. 136. 
e K. 21s. 
fy. 197-8, 807-8. 
gr y. 199-200. 
h y. 376, J. 189, 

J. 601, <b. 106. 
i <l>. 108. c 613, 

k r. 353, H. 87. 
1 0. 2()9. 
m ^. 193 mar. 
n If. 206. 

a. 271 mar. 
p J. 219. 

q 6. 687, Z. 340, 
o. 277, T. 142;' 
cf. I 350-1. I 

r o. 49, y. 30. 

• a. 316, i. 733; 
cf. X 23, 26. 

1 ». 427, f. 96. 
u /. 705. 

V 0. 75. 

w ^^. 395. 

X (T. 600, 'f'. 618, 

o. 91, 101, 159. 
y d. 600. 
z 0. 83, ^. 319. 
aa p. 400, ^. 356, 

/; IIJ. 
bb 9. 405, «^. 562, 

885. 
ee J?. 133. 
dd O. 83, 172, J?. 

9!». 
ee E. 2, *. 145, 

t. 140. 



r^A/xog^ here = taniulus. in* dv^-ge^ 
xovq, the accus. signifies extent or 
diffusion. 'Of^iax. see on a. 29. 

301. ifiXog, for other examples of 
this voc. see mar.; fpilB is also fonnd, 

304—9. aaxako.f a pres. aa%aXXm 
in fonnd,^ |}. 193. For XijaofMci see 
on 65. oiolo, gen. of thing desired, 
(cf. iUXaioft. od.o 315) involving a me- 
taohor from motion, as shown in h<sv- 
fifvog, titaiv6fitvog y &c. odotOf as of 
argent pursuit; see Jelf, Gr. (rr. § 510. 



316 — 8. Ni. suggests CB for xe and 
objects to Svxi xe*..dv€iYfi, as leav- 
ing the giving in uncertain expectation, 
in fact s= iucv . . . dvw/^; but OTTt %b 
is used (mar.) of what a man is just 
going to say, &c., and which has no 
farther uncertainty than that it is not 
yet said. iJiciv is construed with do- 
fisvai as (mar.) with lxa>, bat transposed 
into the subjoined clause %ul fuila . . . 

320—2. dvox^j see App. A. 13 and 
note on y. 372. xaxooq, see App. 
E. 3. 



DAY I.J 



0AT2SEIAS A. 323-344. 



^3 



d^dnPri^sv^ xatd tv^ov otaaro yag ^sov elvcci. 
avzixa dh (ivYi6ti]Q(£g iTCeixeto i069'£og^ g>G}g. 

25 tot0L d' doiSog^ aside nsQixlvtog^ oi dl 6i,ony'^ 
^Jar' dxovovrsg' o d* *A%aiSv yoiSxov RblSsv 
Xvypdvj^ ov ix TQoirjs i^stiikato Ilallas 'AdTJVf]. 

rod d* VTtBQmod'SP q)Q€6l 6vv^ato^ d'icjtiv ctoioiiv 
xovQij^ 'IxaQioiQ ksgi^Qtop ntjvekoxetay 

^o ^xXifiaxcc^ d' v^rjAfjv xarspijeszo olo SofioiOy 
ovx^ oTri' Sfia rp ys xal dii^tkploi^^ 8v* eiiovxo, 
i]^ d' 8r« Sri (LVfj6t^Qag a^txsto 9td yvvaixmv^ 
<yiriy° Qa xaQcc Ctataov tiysog nvxa Ttoi^rjtoto 
dvxa^ jtaQitcTcm/ ix^iiavij li^agcc XQifSifivwi* 

J5 diiwvTtolog d' apa of xeSv^ ^X(irsQ9€^ n&^i0trj, 
SaxQvfSa(Sa^ d' sjtSLta jcooorivda d'Btav* doidov 
^'9^fLi6y TCoUd yaQ aXht Pqot(Sv ^sixtijQva fidijgj 



iQy^ dvSqtav xa %'bSv r«, rd xa xXa£ov6iv^ dovSoC' 
X(3v av^ yi 0wiv aaiSa jia^'^"'^''^'^^^^ f^^^- ^^ fsimtt^^ 
\p olvov ikivovrmv xavri]g 



xcDV ^v^ y( Orpiv SaiSa iaQ'qfi.avog^ oE 81 aimTcg 

y dpfOTjcava* dotd'^g 
^ 6xnh^e6(fL wlkov x 



kvy^gy ^ xa (lov aial ivl^,^6xn^ 



t^CQaiy ^inal 



as udXtata xcc&ixsxo xavi 
xawalfiv Tco^ato^^ uaavnuat 



ogy aXa6xov' 



xoCriv^ yaQ ^xaflaXvv ico^m^^ iia(ivriiiav^ atal 
dvdQogj^^xov xXfog avQV xnd'^^EXXdSa xal (ia6ov"j4Qyog,^' 



^u 



a cf. y. 371—3. 
b V. 124, B. 5H5, 

*y. 677. 
c ^r 83, 867 •'Q, 

521. 
d a. 340 m&r. 
e y. 132. 

fv.02,o.27,H.44. 
8rir.435,ff.245,285, 

t, 375, V. 388, a. 

321 ; cf. d. 797, 
h tt. 5. 

i If. bb% I. 63. 
k ff. 207, r, 143, 

C. 84, t. 601, rf 

U; cf. B. 715. 

I ^ 18, G. 182—4. 
/.483;cf.X.450. 

m i*. 414—6, a. 
208-11, 9. 63 
-6; App. F. 2. 
(3) ad A'M* mar. 

D &. 458. 

cf. C. HI. 

p «'.1S4, X.470. 
t. 846; cf.v.S5>8 
qjf. 181,M9. 
r Q, 83, V- 207. 
« ^. 43, 47. 
t g. 418, a. 351. 

II 0.83. 

V cf. Q. 521. 

w a. «5-6, f 167 

—8, 0. 891, a. 

3U0-1O. 
x».309, 9r.274— 5. 
y ». 423, n 105. 

1 i. 519,556, y. 16. 
aa JET. 414. 

bba 726,816,0.80. 



324. J^iaod'sog. 321J. fucagioio* 330. J^oto. 335. /ot J^s%cixSQd's. 

337* ^l}^^ff« 338. /fi^y. 340. fotvop. 

337. oZ^ag lib., ^^a? sive, fide Porsoni, sfdng Zenod. 338. ioidovg al. 

342. Clark. Dind. Slaotov. 344. f Arist. Bek. 



326—7. 'Ax* VOCtov, all the lays of 
bards in the Odj., except that of Ares 
and Aphrodite in book ^. (comp. 338 
9iAv)i relate to the Trojan war. The 
idea of its renown is thus, to the 
reader, poetically enhanced; comp. the 
reason assigned by Telem. for the 
minstrers choice of theme, 351 — 2. 
ixexeiX*, "decreed", cf. JEsch. /Vow. 
99 — 100 iiox^ov xQTi t^Qftata ... ini- 

XBtlui* 

328 — 31. VTtBQiO, and xXlfA., see 
App. F. 2.(32). dfMflnm (cf. ccfitpiniXrjzai 
35a) always female. The names of these 
appears. 182 as Aatonol and Hippoda- 
mcia. Nansicaa (mar.) is attended by 
sach; but also the aged Laertes has his 
ygr^vg dfitpiTi. 191 ; and Telem. is waited 
on by Euryclea 438 — 41. Hence dfiipi' 



nolBvoo "to wait on''; see further App. 
A. 7. 

333— '4- '^i^a^-^€y*>8eo App. F. a. (16), 
Xifijifefi; a band or fillet of linen iised 
to tie or entwine with the hair, but 
also held loose, kerchief-wise, as hero. 
The Schol. H. thinks it was to stay 
her tears. Ind gives one to Odys. to 
bind under his breast. Figuratively, 
it means the battlement of a city- wall: 
see mar. 

339. CvtAK^i not a hint to be quiet, 
but a common -place phrase of a party 
drinking and listening at once, so 325. 

342—4. dXaCTOVf see on 252. v. 344 
is rejected by Arist. and Bek., but 
needlessly. Penel. may naturally speak 
of Odysseus^ fame as "extending to 
Hellas (in Thessaly) and all Argos in- 



H 



OATSLEIAL A. 156—170. 



[day I. 



t a. 70, Q. 592. 
b &. 248, r. 54. 
e a. 28(), t 377, 

417, a. a77, 8. 

142. 
d 1.221, CD. 72,76, 

/T. 347, »P. 263, 

n. 793. 

e tf^. 328, ^.174; 

cf. J, 395. 
f |. 135-6, w. 290 

—2. 
g a. 235, /9.351,(r. 

832, |. Vo, 90. 
h A. 361. 
i (. 303, 0. 133. 
Jr. Z. 412. 
1 a. 188, 204, e. 221, 

u. 348—9; cf. «. 

471, ». 204, f 874, 

7t. 98, 116. 
m <f. 135, y. 414, 

^. 45. 
n a. 9 mar. 
o cr. 206, 22ieiaJ. 
p ^ 187—90, *. 

150; cf.y.71, d. 

138, ^. 650. 



ay%i^ 0X(ov X£q)aXi^Vj Xva firj Ttsvd^oia^' ot akkoi* 
''i,etvs q>Ck\ Yi xat fLOL vBiisailoeaL ozxi xsv sHjtG); 
TOvtoicfLv (j'iv xavta ^iXec^ xid'agig^ xal aotd^, 
QSt\^ BTtsl dXk&CQLOv ^loxov vfjjtoLvov idovCvv, i( 

dvsQog ov dfj nov kevx'^ darea Ttvd'srca^ o^ifiooj 
K£ifiBv'^ ix* i^7t€iQ0v^ fj bIv dXl xviia xvkCvSBt, 
bI kbTvov^ y* ^Id'dxrjvdB ISoCato vo0r^6avrccy^ 
TtdvtBg K dQi^6avat' ikatpQOXBQOv n6Sag Bivac 

^ dtpVBlOXBQOl XQVaotO XB i0d"^x6g XB, i( 

vvv S' fihv cog ditokcakB^ xaxov fioQOV^ ovSd xig i^iitv 
d'akTtco^y^ Bi^ TtiQ xig iTCix^oviov^^ dvd^QciTtcov 

(pfl6iV iXBV6B6%'ai' XOV d' &XbXO^ VOCXtfiOV TiiiaQ, 

dkV^ ays ftofc xoSb slich xal dxQBxicjg xaxdkB^ov 

rigP jtod'Bv Big dvSQcSv; Tcod't xoi jtoXtg i^Sb xox^Bg; ij 



158. xfi feinm. 163. fidoCaxo. 165. fsad'TJtog ts, 169. fBini. 
158. st-nai. 167. ilncDQrj. 168. codd. (pr^ost, vel q)fja£v\ q>^ai,v Schol. A. 129. 



some derive qiOQfjLi^j quasi (pQO^nL^^ from 
(pQOiiiioVy Lat. procemium, Lowe com- 
pare.s Ov. Meiam, V. 339. prceleniat pol- 
lice chordas. In later Greek dva^oXal 
properly si^ifies a prelude, Pind. P^k» 
I. 7, ngooifiLCDv (xn>polagy cf. Aristoph. 
Av. 1385 foU.j'Ptfc. 830, comp. 1267 

—70- 

158 — 60. vBfitBC. o. X. e'txctty **be 
provoked at what I am going to say"; 
for the force of this «ubjanct. Bee on 
316. The gen. dvigoq is evolved from 
the possessive dXKoxgiov, 

162 — 5. The obj. of xvXiv6ei is the 
same as the subj. oi nv^sxai. The 
double compar., ItatpgozB^^oi r(h dtpvBi- 
orsQOi,, is Qsed of two qualities con- 
trasted in the same object; Donalds. 
Gr. Gr, 415 (cc); so Herod. III. 65, 
InoCriaa xa%vxBQa iq aofpmxsQcc, Eur. 
Med. 485, TtQod'Vfi^og (i&lXov i} co- 
(prnxiga, Jelf Gr. Gr. § 782. f. In 
xeivov, 163, we may notice an in- 
stance of the tacitly emphatic way 
of speaking of the hero without men- 
tioning his name, as though it were 
sacredly cherished, used by his wife 
son, and attached servitor Eumsous 
(mar.). 

166. vvv 6 , contrasts an actual with 
a supposed or a past state, djiokmke, 



wXsTOj 168, comp. y. 87—9, dnooXsro 
conversely followed by oX(oXsv\ "the 
perfect representing the state conse- 
quent on an action'', easily becomes in 
usage passive (Donalds. Gr. Gr. 347, 
obs.) ^*he is lost''; the aor. suggests 
how he reached that state. 

167. ^aXTtcfQfi, for form comp. iX- 
noDQTi f dXsagri. Comp. the Coronach 
in The Lady of (he Lake, **To us comes 
no cheering, to Duncan no morrow". 
This despondent dwelling on the worst 
view is characteristic of Telem.; see 
App. E. 3. 

168. q>n0LV^ so Bek. , following the 
Schol.; sc with subjunct. is common in 

• Epic Greek, Jelf Gr. Gr. § 854, obs. i. 
For examples of bI with subj. pres. and 
aor. in Ody. see mar. In Iliad are 
given by Jul. Werner de condit. enun, 
ap. Horn, forms, subj. pr. ^. 261, M. 
245, aor. A. 81, 340, E. 258, K. 225, 
A. 116, M. 223, il. 263, ^. 576, X. 
86, 191. 

170. rig JtoS'SV, see Donalds. Gr. Gr. 
413 {bh) **who and whence are thou?" 
Ni. cites Eur. Helen 85, dxag xig bI\ 
7t6%'Bv\ xCvog; Phceniss. 122, xCg\ no^sv 
ysymg; N. B. Bek. for Big writes sig, 
contrarily to the most recent gram- 
marians. 



DAT I.] 



OATSSEIA23 A. 171—186. 



15 



&7e7toifjg d* inl vridg AtpiHSO' ntSg Si 6a vavtat^ 

, rjyayov eig ^^dxrjv; tlvsg Ifiiisvai bvx£t6(X)vto; 
oi (lijv yaQ xC 0s TCB^bv 6to(iaL ivd'dS' Cxiod'ai. 
xcci^ liot^ tovt* ayoQBv^ov itijrvfiov^ 0(pQ* ev bIScS, 

15 V^'^ vfW (isd'dxsvgy ij xal kargmog^ iaoi 
l^etvog^ sjtsl TtoXXol t<Sav^ ctveQsg i^fiixeQOv d(S 
aXXov^ ijtel xal xstvog iiti0tQog)og^ })v ccvd'gdTCcovJ' 

rdv d' avtB ngoahiTts d'Bci yXavxtSnig ^Adr^vvi • 
''rovyaQ's iyd rot taika fidV dtQSxecDg dyogsvOG). 

80 Mivtrig^ ^Ayxi'dkoio SatfpQOvo^ Bv%oyiav Bivai 
vtog^ dtaQ TatplovOi (pUfjghnoLfftv^ dvdeao), 
vvv d' €oSb^ i,xyv v^ril xarijXvd'ov ijd' ardgoiOLv^ 
7tXi(ov inl otvona^ novxov in* dlXo^Qoovg"^ dv^Qcinovg^ 
ig Ts^B6fjv (iBtd %akxbvj ayca d' at^ova aCStigov,"^ 

85 vrivg^ Si [iol fjS^ B6triXBv iic^ dygov v60(pt 7c6kriog^ 
iv Xtfiivc 'Paid^gc)^ vito^ NriCa vXrJBvtv. 



a n. 57-9, 222-4. 

b d. <>45 mar. 

c a.26S, 408,/9.2i), 

30, 32, 317, 326, 

—S, y. 72, 6. 632, 

C. 120—1, X. 172, 

A. 203. 
d o. 1S7, Q. 522, 

Z. 216, m. 
ea.l94;cf./r.335. 
f cf. Q. 486. 
g d. *3S3 ci al.y K. 

413, 427. 
h a. 418-9. 
i a. 48 qaar. 
k «. 386, ^. 96, i - 

349, y. 36. 
1 see App. A. 10. 

mar. 
m fi. 421 , y. 286, 

J. 474, •. 349. 
y. 302, t. 43, 0. 

463 J cf. J. 437 

-8, B. 867. 
J. 485, H. 473, 

r. 372. 
p 01. 308, 212, n. 

3»3; cf. 0. 503, 

553. 
q y. 81. 



174. fci8d}» 178. nQoasJ^SLJts. 181. cptltiQitfioiai J^avdaao). 183. foCvona, 
171. d': t' Arist. 



xoaivxai. 



as: TS, 171 — 3 omittebant nonnulli, Scliol. 172. Bvxe- 

175, Dind. iJK ..?J: fis&inji, 176. I'ffav. 183. In: ig. 



171. o;r;iO€)}^, here the interrog. 
changes from the direct to the indirect 
form, and again conversely; in 406 —7 
the onno&sv of the indirect is followed 
by no^Tjg and nov, 

172. evxBT; self-assertion is usually 
expressed by this verb, sometimes also 
the act of prayer, as in ft. 356. 

173. A quaint proverbial truism, be- 
ing probably the islander^s customary 
address to the voyager. Telem. repeats 
what he had perhaps heard his elders 
say to a stranger newly landed. Mure 
LiteraL of A, G. XIII. § 7, ranks this as a 
specimen of Homeric burlesque. But the 
poet^s thought has the natveti of child- 
hoody which is not comic to the child, 
only to us in the old age pf the world. 
Such a truism is r. 163, ov vug and 
dffvog iaai nalaKpazov ovd' dno nixgrig, 

175— -82. viov fieS',, "art newly, 
t. c. for the first time, our visitor". 
For 'ih.**7i, see App. A. 11. For the 
"Taphians" see App. D. 5. Only to 
them and to the Phseacians is the epi- 
thet <pLXiigBXiAOi applied by H. For 
ace. after taav without a preposition 
see mar. eTtlCtQpw, occurs .<£sch. 
Agam, 397. For woe, see App. A. 10. 



183 — 4. dXXoO'ifOOvg, ** of foreign 
tongue", used of Egyptians, and fo- 
reigners generall:^ (mar.), comp. pccgfia- 
Qoqxovot SLn6idyQi6(p(ovot. (mar.)Horoer*8 
dXXo&Q. uvd'Q. always speak without 
any interpreter to Greeks in the Greek 
tongue. He is conscious of the "strange 
speech" existing as an objective fact 
only. Cf. -^sch. Sept c. Th. 170, Irfpo- 
tpoivqi atgatrnj of the Argive army. Te- 
/niif; see App. D. 6. 

185 — 6. These lines are not found 
in some copies, and were rejected by 
Arist. (Schol.). They seem, however, 
genuine. ij^B, here, pointing to it. 
dygov, the harbour named is si little 
E. N. E. of the town, but perhaps the 
spot where the ship lay was visible 
thence. The town was accessible from 
the sea (mar.); but one landing from 
the Epirus side would first reach Rhei- 
thron. From Nr^Lqi is derived the 
epith. iicovTiiogy applied to Ithaca 
(mar.). Xifiivl, before the liquid and 
sometimes S (comp. 203) i has this 
quantity; see Spitzner, Gr. Pros, § 9. a. 
*PslS'Q<p»».Nrilq>, a large gulf indent- 
ing Ithaca on the N. £. side nearly di- 
vides it into two parts, a head, the 8. E. 



i6 



0AT2SEIAL A. 187—208. 



[dat I. 



a a. 175 mar. 
b a. 167 mar. 
c ft, 238, X. 176. 
d a. 49 mar. 
e C. 209, 246, 248, 

V. 72. 
tJ. 230. 

y ;i. ift3, 323, :?. 

67. 438. 
h X. 160, TT. 28U, 

^ 282. 
i a.233, Si. 262i 

cf. 1. 64. 
k y. 34, H. 271, 

«f. 461. 
1 d. 498, 6»2, 377. 
m a. 50, jiA. 288. 
n 0.172-3, y.226. 
o cf.o. 531-2, ikf. 

237-43. 
p cf. /J. 163-6. 
q /9. 36, 285,/. 473, 

d. 416. 
r B. 162, 178. 
• a. 167 dMr. G)- 
i a. 169 mar. 
u t. 86, 88. 
▼ r. 158, jr. 547, 

!f'.66;cf.d.l43, 

149-50. 



^stvoc^ d' alXijloDv xaxQciioi €vx6fied'^ elvai 

JaiQtrjv iJQCDay tov ovxetL yatfl TtoXtvde^ 
BQ%B0%'\ &X1C andvBV%Bv i%^ aygov ntj^ata^ TcdcxEiv 
ygrjl 0vv A^qunoXtp^ r} ot PQ(S6iv ts n6<Jiv ra* 
Ttagrtd'aty svt* &v ybiv xd^atog xavd yvta kdpyacv^ 
SQJtv^ovt* avd yovvov^ dXfO'^g oivonddoto. 
vvv S' '^Xd'ov' dj) yd(f^^ [ivv Sq)ccvr* iTtiSijficov^ alvai 
06v TtatBQ*' dkld vv tov ye &B0I ^Xdicxovoi^ xsXev&ov 
oi ydg itta tad'vijKSv iTtl x^o^^ ^^og ^OSvaoevg^ 
dkV iu nov ^(obg xazBQVxetac^ svqbV novtcj) 
V7]0G)^ iv dfiq)Lgvry, jja^e^ol di (ivv uvSQsg ix^v0iVj 
[ayQLOL^ 0? Ttov XBtvov iQVxav6(O0* daxovtaJ] 
avzaQ^ vvv roc iyd [lavtBVUOfiac^ dg ivl 9'vii^ 
ad'dvazoL fidllov6L xai cog teXh^d'av otco^ 
oms tc (idvug idv ovr' oicovcov^ 0d(pa alScig 
ovP TOL hv^ SrjQOv ye q)LXijg dzo uaxQidog atrig^ 
i00Btaiy oi5d' bI:^ jcbq tb eiSfJQBa dicyiat' ixji^i'V 
g)Qd06sr<xL Sg xa virirai^ iital jtoXvfitjxccvog i0rvv, 
dkX*^ aya yboi xoSa aina xal axQaxicag xaxdla^ov^ 
al Sri i^ avxoto x60og^ TCatg alg ^OSv0riog. 
(xlv£g^ lilv xag)alrjv xa xal ofifiaxa xaXd ioixag 



191. j^oi, 193. J^oivonidoio, 199. dfitiovra, 

208. fifoi%aq. 



202. J^Bi9f6g. 206. fnni^ 



190. alysa, ^ 1:5. ^Blsvd'ovg, 201. retsliad'ai, ^ 204. pro ov9' Harl. 

margfint all' inseruit. 208. (ihv Arist. et Aristoph.; yag Dind. e Schol. r, 156. 



extremity, and a body running North- 
westerly. The former contains Neios, 
a still woody mountain, now Stephano ; 
and at its foot, being a smaller bay 
of the same gulf, is a harbour called 
Bathmoi, with a stream of fresh water 
running into it, prob. the (sid'QOV which 
gave the name. Schreiber, Gell, Dodwell. 

188—91. ei yt€Q, see on 168 for sub- 
junct. with sL The reading alysoc in 
190 for Tti^fiata may stand, hiatus be- 
ing admissible after the 4^** foot; sue 
App. A. p. III. note. YQril»..dfi€pi7i; 
she is said in 00. 366 to be a '*Sicilian'\ 

193* yovvov dXioiiq, Deed. loii 
takes this from yovv, and understands 
elevation as the leading idea; comp. 
%vnii6g for the slope of a mountain. 
This seems better than yoVof, y«v-, in 



sense of "seed'', whence others derive 
it. A hill position certainly suits the 
vineyard; '^Bacchus amat coUes", Virg. 
Georg, II. 1 13. The threshing floor, too, for 
which yovvog aXco^g also stands, would 
be higher than the ground about it. 

195—9. ^XaxxovCi, this verb often 
means "to hinder" (mar.), comp. 
^schyl. Agam» 1 20, piupivxa loia^itav 
$Q6fA<ov, For 197 -—8, xaxBQvx* and 
BXOvCm, see.on 162. Bek. rejects v. 199; 
yet it adds a more precise character to 
the detention supposed. 

203. For axl 67iQav see on 186. The 
I seems long before ^ by arsis only, 
we may comp. yitciku djjv. 

207. voco^ implies admiration; as 
does xoiog in 223, 371, inf, ; so Virg. JEn. 
I. 606, qui tanti talem genuere parentes T 



DAY I.] 



0ATS2EIAS A. 209—226. 



10 ytQLV ys XQv ig TQoirjv dvapTJ^isvaL^ ivd'a nag aXloi 
^AQyaCcnv ot &Qi0tot i^av xoiXfjg ijtl vriveiv 
ix zov d' ovr' 'OSvarja iycDV tdov om ifil^ xetvog.'^ 

rrjv d' av Tb^Ufiaxog xsTtwiiivog^ avtCov tivSw 
''rotyaQ iym tot, ^sive^ ybdV dxQBximg dyoQBv0(o. 

15 /^^'^^P f^v ^' ^V^^ 9V^'' T^ov IfifiBvccL^ avxdQ iyd yB 
ovx o?d'* od ydg Tcai tig iov ydvov avtog^ dvayvoo, 
cjg dij iyd y' ikpBXov^ fidxaQog vv zbv ifiiiBvac v[6g 
dvigog^ ov xrBdts00Lv sotg Sjtt yiJQag hat^BV. 
vvv 8\ og dnoxyL&taxog^ yivBxo %'vritiSv dv^'gdiccDv^^ 

10 '^oi?' ft' ix g)a0L yBvio^ai^ inal av fia tovt^ iqaaCvBig^^^ 
t^v d' avTB 7CQO0iBi7CS d'Ba yXavxiSnig 'jidTJvri 

"ov fMjV TOt yBVBtjv yB d'BOl VCOVVflVOV^ 6%{0fS(O 

d'fjxccv^ BTtBl ci yB totov^ iyBtvaro'^ UifjvsloTtBLa, 
dkV ayB"^ fioi toSb bItiI xal dtQBxiog xardlBl^ov' 
Z^rig Salg, xCg SI oiitXog od' SjtXBto; tCnxB^ 8b 6b xqbco^ 
BlXaTtCvri^ riB ydfiog^'i inBi ovx i'^avog xddB y' iaxCv, 



a y. 321, d. 776, 

)/. 30, 0. 451, V. 

302, «f. 246, <r. 

37!. 
b n. 90. 
c y. 20, X. 495, a. 

2S0-2, W. 440, 

n. 377, T. 169, 

n. 442. 
d JV". 734. 
e 8. 183 mar. 
f cf. Si 255. 
g- r. 220, 233. 
h o. 128, 4^. 159; 

cf. d. 387. 
i a. 231. 
k *. 239, f 182. 
I cf c. 207 mar. 
m A. 280, E. 800, 

1/. 61, 9. 312; 

App. A. 20, mar. 
n a. 169. 
d. 707, 1. 76, 197, 

K. 85, e. 136, I 

607-8,^.409,606, 

*. 322, cf. fi. 

28, d. 312, 634, 



A. 341 
172. 



i_89, t. 136; 



iw; 



p 8. 57, X. 415, jr. 

'217, 2. 491, ^. 

201 . 0. 466—7. 
d. 3. 



212. fCBov, 



2 1 6. OV fold* ij^ov, 
221. ngoaij^sms. 



21&. nxsdxsaai fsoi:sy civ ij^oig? 
224. J^smi. 



212. Ix toys' Dind. axoTC V. 214. 
215. T£ (IS Bek. Dind. 222. ita Bek. 



yiataUin Harl. ayo9£t;(Tco Schol. H. 
(liv lib. 225. r/g Si as %Qsla alii. 



209. B'afidTOioVyMl. '*often,5ot;ery'*, 
the qualifying word following the qua- 
lified with ellipse of the relatiye clause 
which should supply some measure of the 
degree, which by this very indefinite- 
ness is enhanced. Jelf. Gr. Gr.Si^, obs, 2, 
explains this by "the fact that the de- 
monstratiye* originally performed the 
functions of the relative*', but y. 321 
nilayog fii'^a xotovy o^sv xs nsQ ovd' 
oiavol ccvrosxsg ot%vsvvzuiy rather sug- 
gests the explanation by ellipse ; comp. 
also orov, as used in 410 without rotov^ 
— the converse usage. 

210—2. xqIv, Jelf. Gr. Gr. § 848 b 
lays down a rule for nqlv with the infin. 
which would exclude this instance. and 
many more, as, 9, 668, ij. 83, '9'. 301, 
t. 65. In Homer's use the infin. after 
%qlv does not differ from the indie, 
in sense, only nglv becomes quasi- 
prepositional ; here = ^r^o zov dvu§i^" 
fisvai. In dvafinCv, observe, the no- 
tion of going up is involved in that 
of going on board ship, comp. 6. 473. 

213 — 23. H. uses TtBJtv* (comp. m- 

HOM. on. I. 



vvzog^ 229), for having knowledge, pre- 
sence of mind, &c., vooi (supplied 112.377) 
being understood; nvsvay, Invsvas^ for 
inspiring fiivog or like qualities ; and 
Tcvsica for mere breathing. For iysi- 
vazo see App. A. 20 (mar.). 

225. Before OfitXog obs. hiatus, more 
common in i^^ than in i"* foot (Spitz- 
ner de vers. her. § 11). C€ XQ^^y *^i? 
preferential rule of H. is to use rgsoi 
as with a verbal force (rarely with sazi) 
governing ace. of pers., Si.sxQSai §ovXijg 
Ifil %ocl as J K. 4S; but XQSim with a verb 
expressed, tykdvsi ^r the like (mar.). 

226. eiXajtlvtj iie, the -ij 97- must 
be read in synizesis. Observe ydfio^, 
by pause and ictus. The sUccn. was 
sumptuous, perhaps sacrificial ; cf. Hes. 
Frag. CXXXII. 2 — 4, who says the song 
of Linus was always sung iv slkanC- 
vaig zs xoQOig zs, which phrase sug- 
gests religion; so Pind. Nem, V. 38 sv- 
(pQOvsg IXai . . .d'sov dsyiovzcct; Donald- 
son's note there says, an sikun. was 
"a feast of the gods xar' TAag''; of 
the BQavog we have a hint in viicav 

1 



.i8 



OATSSEIAS A. 127—242. 



[day 



I 



a cf. *. 108—9, V. 

318-9. 
b d. 211. 
c «. 213 mar. 
d » 243, 9. 390, 

402, <- 171, tff, 

99, r. 177 
e t. 175—7, 2. 553, 

r.293, <F.138,B. 

39, X. 356, *i^. 

511. 
f a. 163 mar. 

a. 194 mar. 
fi cf. n. I<i3, 179, 

jT 17, X 18. 
1 1r. 387, utf. 919. 
k a. 163 mar. 
1 a. 242, ^S*. 258; 

cr. X. 259, v. 79. 
m A. 417. 
a tl/. 360. 
o f. 367-71, «». 

31-4. _ 
p d. 490. X 86. t. 

137, i2. 7. 
qJ9.404;cf.B.530. 
r S. 727—8. 
8 XT. 150. 
t $. 371, V. 77. 
u c^. 675. «. 127. 



co^ re /iot vj8ptgoi/Wff* VTCSQfpidXiog Soxiovavv 
Saivv0d'oci xata ddificc' v€^€00^0ait6 X€V dprjQ^ 
aHaxscc jrdAA' 690(01/, 0^ r^g ^rtwrdg^ ya (isreld'oiJ^ 

rrjv S' av Tijleiiaxog nsnvviidvog^ avriov rivda 
"l^rv*, i^sl ccQ di) tavtd ft' dveCQeav^ ijdi fisraXXagy 
[iskkev^ liiv note olxog od' a^i/^td^ xa2 dfiviicav 
i^fievcci, &q)Q* ht xstvog^ dv^Q incS7J(iiog^ ^bv 
vvv d' irigcog^ ipdlovro^ d'sol xaxd iirjttocDvtsgj 
6S xetvov^ (ihv aVOtov^ iTtoirj^av xbqI^ icdvxtov 
dvd'QoiTtGiv^ iitel ov xs d'ccvovtc nsQ cad' dxaxoifirjv^^ 
ei (iBtd olg irdQOvCL dd^ij^ TQcicov ivl Sijfiaf, 
i^h g>il(X)v iv X^Q^lv^ ijtel TCoXsfiov xoXvtcsv^bv.^ 
tip xiv ot rvft/Sov nlv inoiriOav Ilavccxcttol^^ 
rjde xa xccl S TtatSl fLsya xXhg iJQar' oitC06(a. 
vvv 8i fitv dxlsKag^ '^AQTtvvav^ dvrjQsitccvtO'^ 
Sxat* &l'0tog ajTvcTrog," i^ol d* ddvvccg rs ydovg ts 



%'- 



%i 



232. /oixoff. 235. afioxov, 237. fotg, 239. fou 240. /©. 242. afiazos, 

a ■ 

234. ijfoXovto Harl., ^paXovto Eustath. Schol. H,, solovxo, ifiovlovto, fiovlopto alii. 
236. ovti HarL, ovyis Schol. H., 6s pro x« Rec. 242. oixsv' Apoll. Soph. (Bek.), 

ita Schol. B. 



XTiffittT* ^dovxeg d(iBip6fisvot xara ot- 
%ovg p, 14O) and in a scene iu 9. 620 
—4 where Menelaus' guests brine their 
own provisions. In I, 415 the Igccvog 
is said to be a '^rich man*s", being 
^^his" in whose house it took place. 
The banquets given by a king to his 
yigovtss (referred to by Ni.) in J. 250, 
/. 70, 71. 49, cf. ^. 38—9, &c., provided 
doubtless out of his receipts in kind, 
are dccttsg limited by the relation of the 
guests, who are said difftta nivHv, P. 
250; cf. X, 185 — 6. 

232 — 5. /AekXfv . . • TiOTB, "there 
wa.'t a time when / thought this house 
would be"; this subjectivity of state- 
ment often marks the Homeric use of 
lj.6lXa (mar.). dfiVfiOJV, applied some- 
times, H8 here, to things, keeps up the 
sense of distinction in its own class: 
see fi. 261, Z. 171. exiQia^ e^okovxo, 
Ni., after Eustath. prefers ipvlovro; 
Sjpitz. de vers, her, 97, reads iriQaa" 
ipcckovtOf in alteram partem se verte- 
runt; for izsgcoaa see mar.; for ifio- 
XovTO see Buttm. LexiL s, v, ^oiXXsiv, 
iiiCxoVy out of sight 01 knowledge, So 
that 1 cannot love him if living, nor 
pay the honour due to him if dead. 



236 — 7. 9'av^irti, a dat. which may 
be referred to the general notion of 
bestowing our sorrow or joy (so iX&'ovri 
xsj^apo^TO, |3. 249) on the object which 
excites it. TtSQ, see on 6. For the 
sense of ffnfi^ see on 103. 

238. xoXv:t€V; Penel. in t, 137, says 
iym 9h SoKovg xoXvTCSVfOy as we speak 
of ''spinning a thing out", t. e, pro* 
tracting. Here the notion of finishing 
prcdominate/{, as given more precisely 
by novov i^toXimsvaag in Hes. Scut. 44. 

241. a;ffil€tct>$^ '^silently", leaving no 
^Xiog, 283, so d%Xia 9. 728; an idea 
further expanded in 242, m%B%,,,&nV' 
Gxog. Z4.Q7tviai are impersonations of 
hurricanes, as Evgog^ Ziipygog, &c. of 
ordinary winds; one of the Agn, is 
named Podarge in 71. 150. Hesiod. 
Theog. 267, names two, Aelld and Ocy- 
pete. ^viXXccL sometimes appear = 
'jign, (mar.). Elemental deities often 
are interchanged in poetic idea with 
the powers of nature which they rule 
and involve. This is most common with 
the various winds Enrus, &c., and fire 
'^'Hipaiatogy the physical function and the 
personal action blending in one image. 
dvijiQthff*^ ^kin to iginxofiaiy x, 533. 



DAT I.] 



OATSSEIAU A. 243—260. 



19 



KcilXtTtsv. ovS' In xetvov divQoiiBvog 6xBva%{itii 
olovy inei vv (lov aXXa %'Bol xaxcc XfjSe* Inviav. 

1-5 00001^ yctQ vtJ0oi0tv imxQatiov0iv &Qv0tot^ 

J jdovXix^G}^ ts Zccfiy t's xal vlfjsvu^ Zaxvv^py 
qd' 00001 xQavariv 'Id'dxfiv xdta^ xoiQaviov0LV^ 
1 6000c (irjriQ' i^n^v iiviSvtaiy tQvxov0v^ dl otxov. 
f] d' ovt* &QV6ttccL 0zvysQ6v^ ydfiov ovrs zBXsvriqv 

%onov'^0aL Svvaxai' xol 81 (pd'ivvd'ov0iv iSovrss^s 
olxov inov xd%a Sij (is 8iaQQal0ov0i xal avxovJ^ 

rov S' i7taXa0t'^0a0u^ 7tQO0rjvSa IlaXXdg^A^ijvri 
" c5 Tcoxovy ri Siq noXXov dnoi%0(iivov *OSv0rjog 
6evy^^ o xa iivfi0r^if0iv &vaiSi0t xstqag ig)Biri. 

55 ei^ ydg vvv Hd'cav Sofiov iv X(f(6tij0i} d"VQi]0iv 
0taiijy i%Giv XTJXrixa xal d0nl8a xal dvo dovQS,^ 
toto^ idv oldv fiLV iyto xd nQ<Sx^ iv6ri0a 
otx^° iv rjiiBxiQm nlvovxd xa xaQTCOfiavov xa^ 
ii 'EkpvQfjs^ dvLovxa nuQ^^IXov MaqyLBQldao' 

5o ^axo ydQ xal XBl0a d'o^g ijtl v^iog ^O8v00Bvg 



a n. 122-6, n. 247 

-61, t. 130-3, 

K, 214. 
b «. 336, «. 292, 

B. 626. 
c cf. i. 24. 
d V. 377, E. 332. 
e ft. 84, ^. 387. 
f a. 272, *. 157. 
fS t. 169, 534. 
h M. 163, O 21. 
i F. 142, W. 484 
k ef. a. 384—6. 
i X 250, X 66. 
m fi. 228, n. 295, 

0. 377, X' 191- 
n <r. 342-6, X. 499 

-501, (». 138-7, 

«. 376-9, A^ 

262-3. 
or. 233. 
p App. D. 8 mar 



248, 2gl. J^Ol%OV, 



258. foilMO, 



244. fuj^^fi* Rec. 246. IldyL€o Rec. 247. nataiioiQaviovaiv Schol, E. 332. 

254. dnvifi Aristoph.^ davu vindicant ScholL H. M. Q. R. b^bCti Herm. coll. ^. 191. 

259. "Iqov Scholl. H. M, *'llXov Rec. 

242. ajtvC* is not found in 11., but 
used in Ody. with active, as well as 
passive force (mar.). We have srv^-, 
nvctig (^sch. Sept. C, Th. 54), Snv- 
fftog, like niG'-y nicxiq^ aTciatog. 

246. For Dulichium see App. D. 7. 
Sam^ is in JB. 634 Samo«, and, with Za- 
cjnthus, part of the dominion of Odys., 
not so Dulichium, which belongs to 
Phileus, B, 625. H. scans i and (Tx, 
commencing proper names, as single 
letters, e. g, ZiXsMv^ B. 824, 2%€ifi€CV' 
^Qto, E. 36. 

252. i:taXa0riJ0a0a. This word 
is only here read, although dXaatT^aas 
also occurs (mar.), and dlaatov is neut. 
adj., epithet of niv9'0Sy Sxog : also dla- 
atiy Tocat., is applied by Achilles in 
vehement passion to Hector. Out of this 
the Tragedians, especially in the forms 
dlafftUQ^ dldatOQogy developed a tragic 
depth of meaning, which far transcends 
the Homeric idea, although the dlu^fxl 
of Achilles, **accur8ed wretch", comes 
nearest to it. No satisfactory deri- 
vation has been suggested: that of 
u-lavd'dva may be rejected without 



scruple. See ^sch. Pers. 355, Eumen, 
227, Soph. 4/. 374, Aniig, 974. 

254. 6evxif ^* ^^^£r* pres. mid.; the 
var, lecU of Aristophanes, Sevsiy is a verb 
impersonal == Xsiitsiy Schol. i<p€ifi, 
Herm. reads iwBifi subj. , comparing 
J, igi, wdgjiax a %sv navowsi, 

255. el yaq (or as some read ccX ya^), 
is said by Ki. ad loc. to differ in sense 
from ff'9's (or aCd's), as expressing, not 
a simple wish, but one combined with a 
conditional proposition, or with a conse- 
quence following from the thing wished 
for, if obtained. The passages adduced, 
however, do not bear out this doctrine ; 
e. g, cct ydg (or el yuQ) and atd'B (or 
bCS's) q, 251, 494, seem to express pre- 
cisely the same notion. Also J, 189 
si yag drj ovvmg Btr^ is surely a simple 
wish; and again bI^* mg 'qpcioifn x. r.X.f 
H, 157, is followed by precisely such 
a statement of a consequence. JNi. 
admits also, what in effect nullities the 
distinction, that the prop, aforesaid 
may at times not be expressed. Now 
surely in {. 468, J, 313 — 6, it is as 
easy to supply a suppressed prop, after 

2,* 



20 



OATSSEIAS A. 261—276. 



[day 



a /J. 329, d. 219, 
230, X. 236, 287, 
326-7, cf.uf.741. 

b /9. 138, 239, ®. 
407, B. 296-7. 

c a. 378 mar. 

d a. 208. 

e ^. 417, X' 75- 

f !;r. i'i'J, jP. 514, 
r. 435; cf. X. 
238, 345, y. 92, 
x.481,tl47,810, 
X 66, a. 433, uf. 
608. 

^ (T. 632, il. 493, 
B. 238, 300, 349, 
jr.445,cf. 0.137. 

h a. 295, d. 646, 
P. 144. 

i a. 305, J7. 50 ; cf. 
n. 422 

k T. 34 ; cf. /?. 7. 

1 Jf.- 70, ^ 394; 
cf. /9. 66, 143. 

m /!?. 252. 

n cf. B. 681. 

o /?. 52—3, 196—7. 



(fccQiiaxov^ ccv8Qog)6vov di^TJ^ievog^ og)Qa oC etri 
iovg xQi80d'at x^^^VQ^^S' ^^^' o (ihv ov ot 
ScjKev^ iitsC ^a d'sovg V6^60c^sro^ ccihv^ iovtccg^ 
dlXct TtatTJQ o[ S(3x£v i^idg, ^lX8S07cs yccQ aiv6g'^ 
totog icav [ivri^t'^QOLv oiitlijffSLSv 'OSv60€vg, 
itdvxeg x' dxviioQoi^ rs ysvoiaro jCLXQoyaiioi rs, 
aW HI XQi (ihv ravta d'S(Sv iv yovva^tf xetrav^ 
if K£v vo0t7J0ag anoxl0Bxaty r^l^ xal ovxl^ 
ohcv ivl iLByuQOLCi ' 6l 8h q>Q(ii60d'ai &v(Dya^ 
oTcna^ XB iivrjaf^Qag aTtciasai ix ^Byaqoio. 
el d' ayB vvv ^vvCbv xal i^KDV e(i7tdi6& [ivd-CDV 
avQLOV Big dyoQTJv^ xakiaug ^^Qcoag ^A%ttLOvg 
avd'ov nitpQaSB itSifSi^ %'boI d' iitl iiaQtvQOt,^ i<Sr(ov. 
^ivifj6trJQag fihv ijtl 0tpEtBQa 0xCSva6d'aL^ avcDX^h 
arixiga'^ d\ el of d'Vfiog iq)OQ^atai yaiiiB6%'aiy 
atjj^ tx(o ig fiByagov naxgbg (idya Svvafidvoto' 



261, 262, 264. /ot. 262. ov. 269. fotaiv, 275. foi. 

261. iasirj pro ot stri Zenod. alii f^v nov i(psvQOi,f Scholl. H. M. 270. xal Scbol. K. 

272. ita Harl. inifidQzvgoi Dind. ini.{idQTVQsg al. 274. avtoys, 

275. (i7]T7}Q Schol. H. et Barnes. 



ai'^6 (or si^s) as in r. 22, v. 169 alter 
at' yag (or si yap), bee further on 6. 341. 

259 — 62. 'E<pvQ., see App. D. 8. o 
fihv, i, e, Ilus. The restraining motive 
in his case was the fear of the gods, 
but this, it seems, was overpowered in 
the other by love for Odys. — a token 
of the intense affection which Odys. in- 
spired, ipdqfi* includes wholesome as 
well as baneful drugs (mar.), here the 
latter are meant. The feeling against 
poisoned weapon^ is a remarkable an- 
ticipation of civilized warfure. 

263. v€fi€(Ji^»j here has ace, but in 
the same sense, '*to feel an awe of", 
it has also a gen. (mar.). In the sense 
of "be angry with'' it has dat., or ace. 
followed by infin. 

265. zoioq iaw, the sentence inter- 
rupted starts anew in its leading word 
Torog. The same form of wish for the 
return of Odys. recurs elsewhere, si- 
milarly interrupted by an anecdote and 
resumed (mar.). 

266—7. cixvfi'» is also found active, 
"swiftly slaying". With;rcx^oy. comp. 
Eurip. Med. 400, nv%QOvg d* iyd . . , 
O-if crai yd^ovg. iv yovv; perhaps be- 
cause suppliants grasped the knees; thus 



not merely *'at the god's disposal", but 
*Ho be suppliantly sought" is intended. 
The sanctity of the knees ^ appears 
from adjurations, as UaGOfi* vnsQ ^v- 
X^g %al^yovviav, mar., and ft^ nqbg 
a% yovviiiv Eurip. Med, 325. 

268—9. J^^^ ^^^ ^i*^ vodtr^aag, Do- 
nalds. Or, Gr, 505, p. 543 says, "the 
apodotic use of the participle wi^ uv 
is generally found in objective, rela- 
tive, and causal sentences". Here the 
protasis, **if he return at all", may be 
understood. cBVO^ya, Buttm. Lexil. s. v, 
dvi^voG'ev (26) supposes a radical Jform 
dvijym, or, rj being non-essential, ayyco. 
The analogy of iXijlv&a, ivi^voxoCy iai^' 
dona &c. requires a tetrasyllable with 
a short vowel in 3'* syllable. He seems 
to imply that dvr^voya would be the 
link form. With Buttman's dvqycn we 
may comp. inB^yoa, 
,273 — 5. 7t€q>Qa6€, see on a. 444. 
ijtl ==: adhibiiu t. e. to witness his de- 
nunciation; so he invokes Zeus and 
Themis fi. 68. In 275 the sentence ran 
on from the preceding clause, lAVfjczi]' 
oag filv . . . anlSvaad'ai, Svax^i'i (iritSQCc 
o (aip livat), but was suddenly changed 
in the latter, as if ftifrijp had preceded 



DAY I.] 



OATSSEIAS A. 277—296. 



21 



oF dh yd(iov tsv^oveL xal dgtviKovaiv ieSva^ 
TtolXa^ lidX\ S06a ioixs (pCXrig iTcl TcavSos €7C60d'at, 
60I 6' avrp Ttvxtvdg vnodTJiSo^at^'^ sif^ xb TiiQ^^^ccc' 

Jo v^'® &Q0ccg iQitri0vv iaixotStv, ^ rig^ AqC^xtIj 
IqXBO^ nsveofisvog TCatQog drjv olxoyLBvovo^ 
ijv^ rig roc Blnri^i figotiSvy ij o60av^ dxovisyg 
ix jdiog^ {} XB fidXtara fpiQBL xXiogi dvd'QciTCOLOtv. 
TCgmta^ [ihv ig Ilvkov iXd'h xal BtQBO Ni6tOQa Stov^ 

l^ xBtd'Bv Sh ZndQXYivSB 7taQ& i,av^ov MBvikaov 
og^ ycLQ dBytatog"^ '^Xd'Bv 'AxaitSv xaXxoxctcivov. 
sl^ liiv XBv TCuxQog pioxov xal voaxov dxoviSTigy'' 
^ t' av XQVxo^Bvog tcsq ht xkalrig iviavxov 
bI Sb xb XBd'VYi^xog dxoviSrjg (irjS' ix* iovxog^ 

JO voiSX'q6ag Srj ixBixa fpCkriv ig TtaxgCSa yaXav 
C^fidi^ xi ot x^vcct' >cal iytl xxigBcfi^ xxB^Bti^ai 
TCokXd^ (idX\ o0isa ioLXB, xal aviQv ^rjxdga dovvav. 
avxaQ ini]v Sr^ xavxa XBXBVxiJ0rjg^ xb xal ig^yg^ 
^QdiB6d'cci Sfj inBixa xaxd (pgiva xal xaxd d^viwv^^ 

)^ S^rjriDs^ XB (ivfjCx'^Qag ivl (iBydQOi^i^ xbo16lv 
xxB^vyg ijh doXo) ^ d(i(paS6v"^ ovdi xl 6b XQ'h 



a App A. 14 mar. 
b a. 292, /J. 197, 

223, I. 2b0. 
c /? 194, •. 143, 

as». 293. 
d A. 207, y. 82. 
e App. F 1. (17) 



294, 9. 424, 



t 8. 29 
5.30. 



r 0. 270, a. 94, if. 

360, ¥. 415. 
h /?. 216-7. 
i B. 93, CO. 413, 

cf. ^ 89, y. 215. 
j B. 486. 
k a. 93, /f. 214, 359. 
I ^. 172. 

m T. 61, V 342. 
n/f.218-2fj; cf. ii. 

137-9, 7r.408-5, 

^. 79—83. 
q. 520, 525. 
p X. 75, H. 86, i2. 

799, d. 684 mar. 
q y. 285, SI. 38. 
r a. 278 mar 
s X. 80. 

t d. 120 mar., 117 
u K 119-20. 
V ^ 330, X. 299, H 

'243; cf. «. 120 



377. iJ-sSva. 



278. /f/oix». 

291. /Ofc. 



280. ijFsiTioaiv, 
292. fifoiTis, 



282. fBln'QiSi foaaav. 



278. £(r€a'9'at Schol. H. hsed'ai al. Hnnc v. omittit Bhian. 
Schol. A. 105. 286. ^fvrfpo^ Var. lect. Harl., cf. W, 248. 

Harl. ex emendatione. 289. ita Harl. ex «mend. tsd'vsi^cotogy 



282. ijtoyaag 
287. anovaeig 
291. ;fev<yat 



Clark. iTtiTLTigscc, KTsgil^ov Harl. 293. navra pro rofi^TCf Schol. X 468 



as subject; see Jelf, § 581. i. The 
SchoU. H. M. think (irjtif^cc was de- 
veloped by some copyist adding a to 
fiTJQ the ancient abbreviation for firittjo^ 

277. 01, i, e. ot dfKpl %ov natiga, 
Eustath. SBffva, see App. A. 14. 

281. TtBvCOfi, takes a gen., see Do- 
nalds. Gr, Gr, 451 gg. "To hear of" one 
absent is here the sense; but Q'. 12 'Ho 
hear" (the speech of) one present. It has 
also ace, as voczov p. 215, 360, properly 
of the actual statement heard; cf.axov- 
ffwff a. 287, 289, and see (3. 315 note. 
The verb of sense may be classed with 
lctfi§uvcii, cctgio) etc. in ambiguity of 
syntax. None of them wholly lose the 
right of a trans, verb , yet all partake 
of the possessive and partitive idea; 
cf, a. 121 Jj^rp' sIb Se^izSQriv, and H. 
108 SsitTSQ'^g sks ;tfi90ff. 



282. oacav, "rumour", is distinct 
from qp?JiEA»?> Soph. (Ed.R, 43, p. 35, 
V, 100, and from oiitpii y. 215, Hy. 
Merc, 543 — 5, which mean "prophetic 
voice". Rumour widely prevalent and 
rapidly spreading, yet not traceable 
to a human source was ascribed to 
God, Buttm. Lexil. 8, v.; so vox populi 
vox Dei J comp. Hes. Opp, 761 q>7ifirj 
9* ovTig ndfknav inoXXvzai^^ ^vztva 
noXXol Xaol 9 17ft /£ overt* 9's6g vv zig 
inzi xal ecvzri. Nagelsb. Bom, Theol. 
8 II. 14 adopts this view, but § IV. 2j 
inclines to identify it here with o^qp??. 

'?84 — 6. IIvXov, see App. D. 4. og 
in epic usage was demonstrative as 
well as relat.; cf. mg fbr "so" and "as". 

289 — 99. axovCi^g takes a construc- 
tion similar to nvvS^oivo[ioct> ; see on 281. 



22 



OAXrSEIAi: A. 297-3". 



[day I. 



a cf. X. 619. 

b t. 8S, o. 30. a 

175. 
c a. 11, O. 248. 
d ». 332—3, t. .107 

-8, 1//. 135. 
e iiC. 213. 
f y. 197-8, 307-8. 
y y. 199-200. 
h y. 375, J. 189, 

J. 601, <P, 106. 
i <r». 108, i 513, 

cf. |. 7, •. 418, 

ir. 168. 
k r. 353, H. 87. 
1 0. 269. 
m fi. 193 nuir. 
n I}. 208. 

a. 271 mar. 
p J. 219. 

q i. 687, Z. 840, 
o. 277, r. 142; 
cf. X 350-1. 

r 0. 49, V. 30. 

t a. 316, 6. 733; 
cf. X. 23, 26. 

1 &. 427, t. 96. 
u J. 705. 

V o. 75. 

w &. 395. • 

X d. OIHI, W. 618, 

o. 91, 101, 159. 
y d. 600. 
z 0. 83, <p. 319. 
aa Q. 400, ^. 356, 

rill. 

bb &. 405, !^. 562, 

885. 
ee E. 133. 
dd O. 83, 172, J?. 

9!>. 
ee E. 2, *. 145, 

t. 140. 



VTjTCidag dxistv^^ inst ovxhi ttiXixog^ i66L 
q ovx ateig'^ olov xXiog IXXafif! Stog^Qdctrig'^ 
nivtag^ in* dvd'QoiTtovgj insl ixtavs JtatQO<povrja,^ 
AHyi^d'ov Sokofirjuv^ og of natd^a xXvt6v ixra; 
xal^ dVy (pvlogj^ (fidXa yaQ 6* 6q6(o xakov'^ xb (liyav ts) 
aXxcfiog i66\ Xva tig as xal o^vyovcav^ bv bIzij. 
avtccQ iyciv inl vrja d'oiqv xarBlsvaofiat fjdri 
i}d* BtaQOvg^^ oZ %ov (is (idX* &6%aX6cocv^ fievovtsg' 
6ol d' avra ^skdton,^ xal i^cSv ^pjrag^o® ^v^cjv,^' 

triv 6^ av TijlBiiaxog 7t6^vv(idvog ivxCov rivda' 
" liBtv\ ij ro^ lihv tavra tpCka^ tpQOvdcov dyoQsvscg, 
Sg rs xatrjQ a itaiSCy xal ov tcoxb kfJ6ofiav adtcSv, 
aAA'^i ayB vvv ini^BLvov, ixBiyofiBvog^ xbq odoro,* 
.(ifpQa XoBaadiiBvog^ ts tstaQnoiisvdg^ ts tpCkov xiJQ 
ddiQOv^ i%(xiv ijtl v^a xiyg^ xaCgiXiv"^ ivl ^v[i^^ 
tifi'^sv (idXa xalovj o toi xsniijXiov'^ l6tat 
il^ ilisvy ola (fUoL ^bIvoi. l^sivoiai SlSovClv.^^ 

tdv d* i^fisi^st^ Insita d'sd yXavxfSmg ^Ad^jvij* 
"fty/ /x' hi vvv xatdQVXBy Xtlai6fiBv6v tcbq oSoto. 
dfOQOvy d' Ztti xi (lov dovvai q>ilov ^rop ivdyy^ 
avtig dvsgxo(idva) So^svai olxovis q)dQS6d'ai^^ 
xal fidXa xalov iXdv • ** 6ol d' aJicov^^ Satai afiotfi^gJ* 

^'cc ^^y gp' cHg slnov6^ dndfirj yXavx(SxLg ^j4&ijvijj 
OQVtg d' dig dv^xaia SuTCtato'^^ tS d' dvl d'Vfi^ 
^ijxs [idvog^^ xal ^dQ6og, yndjivriiSdv td s xatQog 
fiaXXov it* fj to ndgoLd'SV. o SI (pgs^lv f^6i voijcag 



?oo. o foi, 30a. J^Binjj. 308. J^a. 317. fomovi^s, 319. J^einova', 

321. /e. 32a. q>ifsal f^ai. 

297. vriniOL%oig et wixid%ovx\ 300. Arist., Schol. M. 305. ecvtmv Rec. 
314. avts nQoaisms Rec. dnapLuPoiiivfi xgociipi^ Harl. ex emend, antiq. 
316. sic Voss., lib. avcoyH. 320. sic Clark, secntut Arist., dvonaia Herod., 

dv* onata Voss. 



TiiXlxog, here = tanMus, ijt* dvB^Qelh' 
xovq, the accas. signifies extent or 
diffasion. *OQict» see on a. 29. 

301. iflko^, for other examples of 
this voc. see mar.; ipClB is also fonnd, 

304—9. aCx^Xo** A Pf^<s* aaiaXXm 
is found ,^ ^. 193. For k'icofiai see 
on 65. 660I0, gen. of thing desired, 
(cf. Xtlatofi. od: 315) involving a me- 
taphor from motion, as shown in hsv- 
fiivog, xi>taiv6(iivog y &c. odofo, as of 
argent pursuit; see Jelf, Gr. Gr. § 510. 



316 — 8. Ni. suggests ae for xe and 
objects to Svti »B**.avfaYXi, as leav- 
ing the giving in uncertain expectation, 
in fact s=: iav . . . dvwy^\ but oxzi xe 
is used (mar.) of what a man is just 
going to say, &c., and which has no 
farther uncertainty than that it is not 
yet said, ikdv is construed witii do- 
fisyflfi as (mar.) with i%my but transposed 
into the subjoined clause xal ^dXa . . . 

330—3. avox.^ see Ajpp. A. 13 and 
note on y. 373. xavQoq^ see App. 
E. 3. 



DAY I.j 



OATSSEIAS A. 323—344. 



23 



ccvtixa Sh iivYjatiJQag iTCcixsto l06d;€og^ qxiig. 
25 tot6L d' doiSog^ ubiSb TtSQixXvtogy oi SI eion^"^ 




iciyvar]^ '"IxaQioio^BQi^pQmv IlrivsXoTteiccj 
30 ^xll^fiaxa^ d' vtlrrlifjv xatsfiijasto olo Sofioio, 
ovx^ oTfj' S(ia ry ye xccl dji^^iit^pkoL^ dv* e^dvio. 
17" d' ot€ di) livi^arrJQag dipcxBto' Sta yvvaixSv^ 
6trj^ pa jtaQcc atad'udv teysog' nvTut'^TCOtritoto 
avTtt^ TcaQSlahv oxoiisvij kin:agd XQrfpBfiva • i* , ,, , ^ 
^ dfiwijto^og d' &Qa oC xsSvij BxatBQ^B^ 7CciQi6tri. 
ddxQvaaifa^ d' BTtBita icgoanvSa d'Btov^ doiSov 
^'QfjfiiBy JtoXXd yuQ aXlu ^QOtcSy ^BXxrijQLa fjSijg^ 
iqy^ dySQfov xs .%^bSv tBj rd tb xXb^ov^lv^ dotdoi' 
tiSv av^ yi atpw oblSb TtagrniBvog^ of 81 dtcwrj^ 
4.0 olvov Ttivovicov ravtfjg d' imoitavB^ doiSrjg 
Xvyorig. n xi aoi ccIbI ivl^ (Trw-S'Wiyt wcXov xno^ 



ra xamxBxo Ttevd'og^ uXaCxov 



^iloBu ^iitBi as udXi6xa xamxB^ 
xoCriv^ yag XBipaXiiv Ttoffsco*^ ^Biivri^Bv^ aul * 
dvdgog^^^xov xXfog Bvgv xad'^^EXXdSa xal iiB(iov"j4gyog," 



9, 



a cf. y. 371—3. 
b V. 124, B. 6«5, 

fF. 677. 
c ^. 83, 367 

521. 
d a. 340 mar. 
e y. 132. 

ft;.92,o.27,H^.44. 
gr^. 435,^.245, 285, 

*. 375, V. 388, ffi. 

321 ; cf. d. 797: 
h w. 5. 

i it. 558, L 63. 
k a. 207, r. 143, 

C. 84, t. 601, rf 

II; cf. B. 715. 
I ^ 18, a. 182-4, 

;f.483;cf.X.460. 
m *«. 414 — 6, a. 

208-11, a. 63 

-6; App. F. 2. 

(3) a<f /in, mar. 
D ^. 458. 
cf. t- 141. 
p ^. 184, X. 470, 

8.846; cf.v.388 
q/. 181,C. 19. 
r Q, 33, V- 207. 
8 -9. 43, 47. 
t g. 418, a. 351. 
u o. 83. 
V cf. o. 521. 
w ff.«5-6, 1.167 

—8, 0. 391, CD. 

309-10. 
xw.SOO, 7r.274— 5. 
y ». 423, n 105. 
Zil.549,556, «f'.16. 
aa E. 414. 
bbiT 726,816,0.80. 



324. fiao^sog, 32^. fma^ioio, 330. ^ofo. 335. /ot fs'^dxBQd's, 

337' ^17*^7?- 338. i^«Py« 340. foVvov. 

337. oldag lib., jf^ag sive, fide^Porsoni, Btdnq Zenod. 338, doidovg al. 

342. Clark. Bind, alucctov. 344. f Arist. Bek. 



326—7. *Ax* voazov, all the lays of 
bards in the Ody., except that of Ares 
and Aphrodite in book d", (comp. 338 
^Bmv)j relate to the Trojan war. The 
idea of its renown is thus, to the 
reader, poetically enhanced ; comp. the 
reason assigned by Telem. for the 
minstrel's choice of theme, 351 — 2. 
ixevBlX; "decreed", cf. JSsch. /Voja. 
99—100 iioxd'av jrpjj tiQfiata ... ini- 
tsUcci. 

328 — 31. VTtSQW. and xXlfi., see 

App. F. 2.(32). dfMMfln. (cf. CCfiq>l7tBXTJT€Cl 

352) always female. The names of these 
appear (F. 182 as Antono^ and Hippoda- 
moia. Nansicaa (mar.) is attended by 
such; but also the aged Laertes has his 
ygrjvg dfup^n, 191 ; and Telem. is waited 
on by Euryclea 438 — 41. Hence dftipi' 



noksvon "to wait on"; see further App. 
A. 7. 

335 — 4'ifTaO'.T€Y.,»eeApp.F, 2. ',16). 
X^^iefi., a band or fillet of linen used 
to tie or entwine with the hair, but 
also held loose, kerchief-wise, as hero. 
The Schol. H. thinks it was to stay 
her tears. Ind gives one "to Odys. to 
bind under his breast. Figuratively, 
it means the battlement of a city- wall: 
see mar. 

339. Cmixflf not a hint to be quiet, 
but a common -place phrase of a party 
drinking and listening at once, so 325. 

342—4. aXaOxov, see on 252. v. 344 
is rejected by Arist. and Bek., but 
needlessly. Penel. may naturally speak 
of Odysseus* fame as "extending to 
Hellas (in Thessaly) and all Argos in- 



34 



OAXrSEIAL A. 345—360. 



[day I. 



a &. 62, 471. 
b ^. 46, t. 590. 
c T^273, d. 34. 
d I. 568-9; c\ 

r. 164, r.8()-7. 
e ^ 8, v. 2ftl; cf. 

0. 463. 
f C. 189. 
g V. 330, r. 156, 

i«.80. 
h y. 134, ^. 489, 

578, r. 417, 0. 

364, I. 563, i2. 

388. 
I tf. 338; cf. ^.71. 
k T. 220, «F.691. 
I a. 168. 
m J. 538, a. S94, 

^ 200. 
n m. 350 — 8, Z. 

45o-3. • 
o (T. 131, 136. 
p ^. 227, a 363. 
u ..62, X. 226, 254, 

^. 31. 
r A. 352-3, r. 137. 
8T.324;cf.(r. 23?. 



ri)i/ d' av TrjXdfiaxog iC6icvv(idvoQ Avxlov rjvSa ^^ 

"^^rsQ i^ri^ xl r' apa q)d'Ovdsvg iQitiQOV^ aoiSov 
tSQicsLv^ ojtTty oC voog OQVvtai; ov vv r* aocdol 
atxioi^ alXd Ttod'L^ Zsvg atuog^^ og ts SiSco^iv 
dvS(f<i6Lv dXq)ri0ty0LVj^ OTCcag^ id'dXijavVy sxdatG). 
TovtGi S' ov vd^66ig^ jdavacSv xaxdv oltov^ dsideLV 3^ 
ri)i/ ydg doiStjv (idXXov i7Ciickscov0*^ avd'QCOTCOL^ 
ij rig dxov6vtB66L vsiotdtri d^fpvnikritai. 
0ol S' iTtLtoX^dtcj^ XQaSiij xal d'V(i6g dxov^vv 
ov yuQ 'OSvaasvg olog d7tciXe6s vo^rniov^ ijfiaQ 
iv TqoCti, TCokXol'^ 81 xal aXlot q)iSt€g oXovto. 3J 

aAA'" elg olxov lov6€c td 0* avtijg i^ya xo^c^e^ 
[atov r' riXaxdtriv^ ra, xal cc(iq)V7t6Xoi0i xsXevs 

§QyOVl^ i7toC%BiS%'UV'^ flvd'Og d* &vdQ€(S0L ^£X7J06L^ 

Tt&6i^ ^dXiOtcc 8' ifioi' rov^ ydg xgdrog i'dr' ivl otxfpJ^ 
rj fihv d^afiPfj^a^a ndXiv olxovds ^^xbiv ^i 



346. iQifrjQOv. 347. foi. 349. id'sl'jsat fs%datq}, 356. foHov, J^igya, 
358. J^igyov, 359. J^oUm. 360. /oixovds. 

^46. &Q* av Kec; tpQSvosig ex emend. Schol. M., Bek. annot. 356. oitla 

--'•- — ---" 356--9. delevit Arist." & Ss rofrff 



av y' Bl6BX&ovGa Scholl E.^ H. M. Q. R. 
XccQtBaxiQaig ygatpaCg ov% riaav^^ Scholl. H. Q. R. 

E. H. M. Q. R. 



360. d'alccfiovds Scholl. 



tervening " ; see App. D. 9 (5) ; nor can 
the phrase in 0. 80, where it recurs, 
be spared. 

348 — 9. Tto&i = novj "I suppose", 
giving a modest tone to the speak- 
er's words. &X(priO., this epith. , not 
found in II., occurs only with av- 
dgsq in the sense of enterprising'', 
Fa. ad loc. The phrase "knights 
errant", or "merchant- adventurers", 
may, allowing for a different state of 
society, nearly represent its force. Ni. 
explains dCSmaiv as of Zeus assigning 
their lots to venturesome men, and so 
giving rise to those adventures, which, 
as in the case of the Greeks at Troy, 
become the minstrers theme. It is man 
who seeks, god who sends the lot 
(comp.Nausicaa's words, mar.) — one of 
blended good and evil ; we cannot alter 
facts, and though the woe be that of 
the Greeks, blame not the bard, he 
only chose it as the newest tale. This 
seems to imply, for the epos, that it 
meant to be faithful to an accepted 
view of facts, and did not consciously 
romance; see espy. -9'. 488 — 91. The 



Chorus in Soph. Antig, 332—48 noXXa ta 
9sLva . . . nsQKpgaSrig uvrig' is a good 
commentary on dvd, a^ip. here : cf. Soph. 
Pkiloct, 799. -^schyl. Sept. c. Th. 767. 

350. oizov.s "lot", always in evil 
sense, Nagelsbach Bojh. Theol, III. § 3 b. 
It is connected with otaoyLuv as fors 
with fero. In %•, 489 — 90 olxov is pa- 
raphrased as oaa* ^g^av t* tna^ov re 
xca Saa* ifioyricav A%ai,oL 

351—2, quoted Plato de Rep, IV. p. 
424 B. Contrast with the sentiment 
here that of Hes. Tkeog, 99—101, where 
the doidog f^ovffacov ^sgdnoav sin^s 
ulstcc ngotigmv dv%'gmi(ov. The sub- 
junct. dfJiq>i7tiXtirai is here used to 
give that indefiniteness which a ge- 
neral statement implies; see Jelf Gr, Gr, 
§ 828, 2. 

356 — 9. These lines have been sus- 
pected by various critics, but need- 
lessly. They suit the occasion and the 
speaker. Telem., conscious of new 
strength (321), is somewhat full of self- 
assertion: see App. E. 3. rov uttered 
with some gesture added to show that 
he speaks of himself. Ni. 



DAY I.] 



0ATSSEIA2 A. 361-384 



25 



Staid og yccQ fivd'ov 7ta7Cvv(iivov*ivd'eto^ d'vii^. 
ig^ d* vnsQfp^ &va^&0a 0i)v &iig)i7t6loi6L yvvail^lv 
xXatsv Snett' ^OSvCiia g)iXov nomv, otpQu ol vnvov 
ridvv iTtl pXsipd^oKSi pdXs yXavxtoTtig 'jid^vtj. 

55 fivrjdtrJQsg^ d' 6fidSri6av avd fidyaga ^xioevtay 
ucdvtsg^ 8* i^^0ccvto ^agal kB%isc!<Si xkLdijvai. 
totai^ Sh Tfi^^fiaxog steotvvfi^vog ijQX^'^o ^vd'CDV 
"^rjTQog^ ifi'^g (ivri^tiJQeg v7tiQ^v(yi; v^qlv l%ovtBg^ 
vvv (ihv SacvvfisvoL t£Q7tci(isO'a^ (irjSh Por/rvg 

70 i'^ro, iTCel rdfi^ ys xaXdv dxovifisv i6tlv aovdov 
roiovS\^ olog oS^ iatl, ^eotg^ ivccliyxtog avdrjv, 
T^c5d'€v d* dyo()rjvSs xad'stci(i€0d'a^ xiovtag 
ndtnsg^ vv' v(itv ^ivd'ov^ dnrilsyiiog uTtosiTKo^^ 
i^iivai^ (leydQCDV aXXag d' dXsyvvats^ Sattag 

f^viid^ xtijfiat* idovtsg^ dfiecfid^Bvoi^ xatd oUxovg. 
si d' viilv Soxiai rode XmrsQOv xal &iiaivov 
ifiliavaL^ dvdQog ivog fiCoxov^ vijytotvov 6li6%'ai^ 
xaiQBt' iy(6 dh d^aovg inifioi^oii^ai allv^ iovtag, 
at^ xi no%'v Zavg 8(p0t TtaXCvxita^ Igya yavdad'ai' 

Jo vTJjtocvoL xav inaixa So^ov ivto0%'av oloi0d'aJ^ 

cog^ lq)a^\ 6i d' aQa ndvtag (Jdag iv %aCkaiSi ipvytag"^ 
• TriXdfiaxov ^avfiaiov^ o^ ^aQ^ccXdcog^ dyoQavav. 
tov d' avt^ ^Avtlvoog %QOiSa(pri EvnaCd'Bog vlog 
''Tril^fiax\ f^ fidXa dfj 0a 8iSd6xov6iv^ %'aol avrol 



a 2. 102, 
cf. 0. 27. 



. 342; 



b <r. 751, 760, 0.49, 
t. 602—4, CD. 356 
—8, -W, 364; cf 
/J.35S,7r.449-51, 

n. 184. 

c d. 768, a. 399, 
q. 360, X' 21-2. 

d a. 213. 

e o. 502. 

f ft. 410. 

r I. 3-4. 

h a. 257 mar. 

i T. 250, /9. 4 mar. 

k r. 136. 

1 I, 309. 

m J. 431, a. 91 
mar. 

ft p. 139-46. 

9. 38. 

p E. 489, N. 815 ; 

cf.2.481, Z.414. 
q J. 471. 

r«. 160,^377, 417. 
s a. 263, ». 365, A. 

290,494, *.518. 

1 Z. 526, y, 92. 
u q. 51. 

V <r. 410— 2, t;.268 

^70.. 
w cf./^.302,w.410, 

A. 513. 
X y. 166, 14. 375, 

V. 340, (T: 206. 
y a. 385, o. 329— 

30, 389-90. 

2 cf. W. 307 , Q. 
518-9. 



363. /oi. 364. priSvv. 373. dnoj^s^nm. 375. foinov^. 379. J^iqya, 

370. aoidiiv Rec. 373 et 376. v^iv et vfipLiv. 377. oXia&'ai, Harl., rulgf., 
oXsaacci Clark. 379. pro ttf Bek. passim ff. nrors et nod'i Harl., nod's 

etiam Hesjch. 



362 — 71. For VTtBQqta and Cxioev. 

see App. F. 2. (32) (18). roLOv6\ see 
on 207. 
373—80. fivS'Ov dntik. dnoeL, 

"may utter fearlessly a prohibition'*; 
see on 91. dkeyvv^, the imper. shows 
that Telem., declaring what he will say 
in council, warms with the occasion 
into actually saying it. yif;r., '*as my 
substance is wasted without compen- 
sation, 80 may your death be'*; t. e, 
be unavenged. 66fKav evx. foresha- 
dows the actual catastrophe of the 
suitors in %, and vij-xoivoi the futile 
attempt to avenge them in 00. 

379—81. For a2fx6 Bek. always gives 
ei!%s. These particles with a subjunct., 



when some verb of urgency or entreaty 
precedes, mean.*Ho try if": with an 
optat. they expresses a wish, "if you 
only would . , .", and in the apodosis 
Ticci %s sometimes follows, "then would 
1". The at ydg of adjurations "would 
God*' has an apodosis understood. 
iv •• •<pvwcq, a tmesis, "clinging 
with teeth as if growing into their lips'* r 
comp. the common phrase iv x' aga 
ot q>v %Biql (mar.). 

382. o = quod, (i) "that**, simply 
connecting a clause as object, (2) "for 
that" C3 as regards the fact that, as 
here, (3) c=: ^t S "wherefore** (mar.). 

384 — 8. This short speech is in a 
strain of ironical banter; see App. E. 6. 



26 



0ATSSEIA2 A, 385—402. 



[day I. 



a/9.S5,303, ^.406; 

cf. w. 274. 
b <r. «99, Q. 399, 

V. 344. 
c a. 395, /9. 293, 

(p. 252. 
d cl. o. 533-4. 
e a. 15S, K. 115. 
f cf. O. 207. 
S a. 411, y.377. 
h Z. 121-2. 
i a. 3*5 mar. 

k (i. 293. 

1 a. 3S6 mar. 
m &. 58. 

n i'.28; 6^^-357. 
o or. 267 mar. 
p a. 386 mar. 

q cf. T. 174, V. 

320. 
r a. 117; cf. x. 

ItO 



|i*ij*» ^fi' y' iv dfifpidXcD^ ^I^dxy pa0cX^a KqovC(qv 
jtoi7J0HBv^ 8 rot yti/fj TCatQmov^ icuv.*' 

xov S' av TijXi(iaxog itBTCvviiivog dvtCov ijvda 
^'^AvcCvo\ ij Kal fioL vB^e0iJ0eaL^ Sttv xsv Btjta; 
xai XBV rovr* id'Hovfiv^ ^i6g yB SiSovrog^ dQiad^ai,, y 
V ^V^ toiko xdxtatov iv dvd'Qcijtot^t xbtvx^^^'^^ 
ov^ fLrjv ydg xi xaxov pa6UBvi(iBV' altlfd xi ol SA^ 
dq>vBibv niXBxai xal rifirjitSxBQog avxog. 
dW ^ xoi fia0cX'^Bg ^A%aiSv bIcI xal dlXoi,^ 
TtoXkol^ iv dfupcdkGt^ 'I^dxTf^ vioi^ ijdi xdlixiolj y 

xcSv xiv xig x68^ Ixyaiv^ inBl, d'dvB Stog '0Sv66Bvg • 
avxdp iydv olxoio avpc^ ifobfi ri^iiigoio 
xal oficDm/, ovg ^ov Xijl66axo^ Stog '0Sv66Bvg.'^ 

xov d' avr' EvQviiaxog Ilokv^ov itatg dvxCov tjiida 
" TriXi(iax\ rj xov xavxa %'bSv iv yovva6i^ XBtxai^ 4( 
og xig iv d^pvdXpi^ 'Id'dxij fia0ilBvaBv 'AxavSv 
xxrj^axa S* avxog ^x^cg xal 8(6^a6L 6otai,v^ avd06oLgJ 



389. K€ fBCnm. 392. ^ot. 397. SoUoio, J^dvui. 402. aol^ai favdoooi^. 

389. hi pro ^ Scbol. H. BUnsq fiOi xal uydaoitti Schol. M. 392. sic Bek., ptlv lib. 

402. olatv. 



^ 386, fifi oi y', 80 40^^, /ti^ yap oy* 
sl&ot, ; comp. the N, T. fijj yivoito ; here 
the phrase is ironical or insincere. **It 
is admitted by the suitors that the so- 
vereignty descended to Telem. from his 
father. Yet there was evidently some 
special if not formal act to be done, 
without which he could not be king; 
for An tin. expresses his hope that Ju- 
piter will never make Telem. king of 
Ithaca. Not because the throne was 
full, for on the contrary the death of 
Ulysses is assumed to have occurred; 
but apparently because this act, what- 
ever it was, had not been performed 
in his case.'' Gladst. III. i. 51. The 
same writer notices the change in the 
sense of §atnlBvg in the Ody. from 
that of the II. , the Ody. representing 
the political condition of Greece after 
the great shock of the Trojan war. 
Thus the suitors are paaiX^sg *A%«imv 
(cf. #. 390 — i), though no one of them 
is actually ^a<riXei;; ; and, as the pres- 
sure of the j|7a<y. in chief was removed, 
the minor ^aciXr^ig would of course ex* 



pand in importance. Nay, Telem. ad- 
mits (396) the right of such a chief jSatf. 
being chosen from among them in de- 
feat of his hereditary right. 

390 — 8. Telem. speaks in a matter- 
of-^ct way, which blunts the effect of 
Antinous' irony by taking his words not 
ironically. With humility, in disclaim- 
ing royalty, he shows firmness in claim- 
ing domestic supremacy ; see App. £. 3. 

396. ^dv€ = tid'vri'KS ; comp. coif to, 
168; so 413. 

402. ifolOiv, 80 Bek. and Buttm. for 
otaiv of the mss. On the argument 
whether 8;, log can be possess, of the 
2°** (and i*^) pers. see Liddell k S. s. v, 
who affirm, and Buttm. LexiL s, v, iijog, 
note, who denies. Of the passages 
(mar.) adduced as supporting this use, 
^aiv in T. 174 is merely a var. lect,^ 
aiatv also being read, as in ^. 221, 
17. 36, etc. and v. 320 has been marked 
by various ancient critics as probably 
spurious. Thus our present passage 
alone remains; and, considering the 
great frequency of recurrence of ifiog 



DAT I.] 



OATSLEIAS A. 403-419. 



27 



xtfjfiat* axoQQccCifsi^^^ T^dxtig hi i/at£iraov<yi;^._ll_. 

05 dXX' i^eia as, (psQiatB,^ tcbqI l^eivoio iQB<i&ai^ 
OTCTto&sv^ ovrog dvfJQj noitig d* i^ ii!;i;fiTat« Bivai 
yairjs; kov da vv ot yavBri xal naxQlg^ &QOVQa; 
'^s tiv^ ayYBkiriv^ TCaxQog tpigBi iQXoltBvoLO, 
^ iov avTOv XQBtog BBXSo^Bvog^ rod'* tx&vBc; 

10 olov avai^ag atpag oi!%Btm^ ovo ™ wcb^blvbv 

yvS^Bvav oi (irjv ydg ti xaxp Big WTca BpxBvvJ' 
xov d' av TijlB^axog jeBTttrufidvog dtniov rjvSa 
"E}uQVfiax\ ^ rot voatog^ dxciXsto Ttatgog i^iolo' 
ovt^ ovv dyyBUy hi nBid'O^aiy Bt nod'Bv iXd'ot^ 

i^oijtB d'BOotQonifjg'* i^^dioiiai^ qv tiva ftifrijpi* 
ig ^syaQOv xaXi0a6a ^BongoKov i^Bgirirai. 
^Btvog^ d' ovrog i(idg Ttargciiog ix Tdq)Ov'^ inxlv^ 
Mivxr/g* d' *JyxidXoio datg>QOvog Bv%Bxai bIvui 
vCog, dxdg TatploiCi q>ikriQix^oi6iv dvdtSCBi.^^ 



a a. J)S6 mar. 

b T. 944. 

e i. 646, A. 430. 

d^. 42S. 

e i. 269, Z. 123, 

O. 247, i2. ^1. 
f y. 80, I 47, «. 

162; cf. a. 170. 
ff V. 192-3. 
h X. 29. 
i /9. 30, 42. 
k «. 210, ^. 

tf'. 122. 

I «. 407, ; 

^. 172, Q. 

524. 
m n, 814. 
n I. 413 ; ^f. a. 351. 
17. 50, /9. 201. 
p cf. t 126-8. 
q a 187, q. 52?, Z. 

215. 
r App. D. 5 mar. 
8 a. 180-1. 



. 276, 



444, 



403. dfi%ovTa, 407. /ot. 



409. J^Bov, ifeX96pL8vog. 
419. JravdacBi,. 



411. JrBfwiBiv, 



403. od'. 404. sic Voss. Bek., dnoggaiasi lib. 408. olxo^ivoio Schol. H. 

411. sic Bek. filv lib. 414. dyyBXlrig Eastath. -v^i al. inineid'oiiai Schol. M. 

a mana rec. 415. rip «t. 416. Hccliovaa, 



and 00^) a ana^ Xsy, or, what is prac- 
tically such, has little or no proba- 
bility when d<ofiaai (SoTciv lay so ob- 
viously in the poet^s way. Further, we 
might expect the usage, if it existed, 
to be frequent, as is the use of og re- 
lative for all persons. On the other hand, 
the recurring a may have offended the 
older critics , and so caused the altera- 
tion. 

403—4. fjifi yoQ, see on 386. dxoQ* 
QaiOBi*, optat., not -gaicsi fut. ind., for 
in H. where oatig occurs in a subjoined 
clause, it mostly takes optat., if optat. 
has preceded; exceptions are y. 3 19—30, 
N. 233 — 4 where otfTt; takes subjunct. 

406. xoifigy see on 171 iup, 

408 — 9. 9}e • • • ^^ see App. A. 11. 
ieXdofi^ is found with gen. as well as 
with ace. (mar.), rod' Ixdvei, "comes 
hither '\ rods marking the present 
plaee, as od$ the present person. Fa. 
thinks it marks the act of coming. 



410 — II. olois ^see on 209. elg 
titxa, comp. $ig avxn (or Bfouvxa) 

tSsa'&'ai, ^. ai7, which verb may be 
here supplied. 

414—5. For dfyyeXLxi Eustath. reads 
dyyBlCriq^ so in K. 57 the gen. occurs 
as a var, led. The gen. also follows 
XBlS^fiai in Herod. I. 126; see B&hr 
and SchweighSuser ad toe. Jelf. Chr. 
6r, 8a8, 3, resolves i^v xtva as if = 
idv tivcc, expressing a ''definite attri- 
bute of the principal clause, about the 
existence of which some di>ubt exists. 
This is rare in Attic Greek, as they 
usually prefer the optat. for that pur- 
pose": in H. a subjunct often follows; 
comp. ^ Ttff . . . diLtpiniXrixui ^ a, 352. 
On the optat. lA^ot see App. A. 9 
(19) end. 

416. e^BQBf^xai, here middle voice; 
the act. has also the meaning of *^ask**, 
but also, like Ifepcs^^oo, that of "utter, ' 
declare". 



28 



OATSSEIAS A. 420—439. 



[day I. 



a n. 464; cf. y. 

373-8. 
b a. 304-6. 
c N. 731. 
d d. im, Si. 351. 
e y. 396, w. 229, 

V. 17, ul. 60«, 

»/A 58. 
f-rf.358jcf./J.181, 

y. 251. ' 
r Z. 247-^. 
h f 6. 
i «. 185, jr. 285; 

cf. A 337. 
k X. 211. 
I X. 438, 2.204, v. 

41, /. 333, n. 

647. 
m a. 434, S. 434, 

»/. 101. ' 
n T. 346, V. 57, t//. 

182, 232. 

V. 148. 

p 0. 483, t 115, 

452. 
q a. 218, 0. 89. 
r &. 263, ©. 518. 
s Z. 2.36, 5'. 593. 

1 jf. 223, Si. 730. 
u «. 126, O.420— 1, 

Z. 25. 
V iy. 171, jT. 389. 
w ip. 325, 9. 283, 

X. 67. V. 210. 
X a. 333 mar. , v. 

455, S. «08. 
y B. 42, K. 21. 
z *. 256. 
aaj^. 198, ^. 179, 

2: 502, «F. 743. 



ol^ S' Big 6Qxri6tvv^ ts xal t(i6Q6€06av doUS^v 

tQsfdiisvoL tdQTtovtOj (livov d* inl S6^bqov iXd'stv^ 

xot^v SI rBQ7eofiivov6i ^dXag inl B0iCBQog ^Id'BV 

^^« t&CB xaxxBiovtsg ifiav oIx6vSb BxaCtog, 

TijXB(iaxog 9% o^•^^ of d'dXafiog ucBQixaXkiog avX'^g^ 42 

vtln^Xog^ diS(iijtOj^ jtBQiCxBTCtp^ ivl xcSq^^ 

ivd'' iprj Big Bvvi^v, noXld tpQBeV (iBQfujQi^cov. 

tfp 8' &q' &ii^ aid'Ofiivag"' iatSag tpigB xiSv*"" BiSvta 

EvQVxkBi' ® ^SlTtog %'vydxriQ IlBUSrivoQiSao^ 

tijvi^ noxB AaiQxrig TCQiato xtBdtB06vv^ iotdiv^ 4^ 

TtQmd^Priv^ it" iov6aVy iBcxo0dfioLa^ d* iScoxBv, 

l6u Si (iLV xbSv^^ dloxcD xIbv bv (iBydgoitScv^ 

Bvvfj d' ov Ttox' i^ixxOj"^ ;|r6Aoi/ d' dXiBLVB yvvmxog- 

ij oC Sfi* ald'OfiBvag SatSag tpigs^ xaC i ^dXtaxa'' 

S(i(od(ov (pLlh^XB, xal ixQBq)B"^ xyxQ-ov iovxa. 4^ 

m^BV dh d'VQag ^ccXdfiov Ttiixa^ Teocrjxoto, 

B^Bxay 8* iv XixxQG), (laXaxbv S* ixSvvB %ero5va' 

xal xov iihv YQalrig TCvxi^riSiog ififiaXB x^Q^^v. 

^' fihv xov nxvia0a^ xal d0xtj0a0a^^ ;ftirflJva, 



422. J^iansQOv. 423. J^itfnsgog. 424. /otxoVde J^i%ccatos, 425.^ J^oi. 

428. Hidva J^idvVcc, 430. ^S-otaiv or Y,xBoitBcai J^eotatv, 431. i^smoadpoioc, 

432. /raa. 434. J^ot, J^s, 



420. ^sdv, 424. ^vioi ^^9rj tors HOLfiiiaavto xal vnvov Smgov ^Xovxo^* Schol. H. 
429. 'Slnog, 435. zix&ov Harl. 438. ypT^og Schol. 



420. aS-avdxTiv. The a, due to arsis, 
is frequent in ^pertrisjllabic words, 
e, g. a%dfiatog, anovhaiai, Spitzner, 
Gr, Pros, § 10 b. Comp. IlQXaii£drjg, 
which Virgil follows, who also has 
Ttalia. 

424. Some read here ^17 tote HOtfiij' 
aavto xal vnvov 9&qov elovtOy ascrib- 
ing the text as above to Arist. 

425 — 6. oB'i governs avXijq as gen. 
of place; comp. SvcofiivovTnsQiovog, 
a. 24, local gen. withont any adverb; 
see mar. there. For the arrangement 
of the avXfi and d'dlafiog see App. F. 
2. (5), (25) foil. The form Sidfirjxo from 
Sdfivrjiih 7*304, should be distinguished 
from this. 



429 — 33. On Euryclea's position, du- 
ties, &c., see App. A. 7 (2). isixoadp. 
oxen were the primitive standard of 
value, comp. lxarofi|7ot' ivvsctpo^atv, and 
nag^ivoi dXquaCfoiai (mar.). So in the 
funeral games the female slave is prized 
at four oxen and the tripod at twelve, 
W. 705, 703. For xo^oy yvr. comp. 
the story of Phoenix, J. 449 foil. The 
8\ after ^j^oXoi^ is = yap. So in y. 48. 

436. S^oa^ S-ak*, see App. F. 2. 
(28). 

437. sx6wB, active in mid. sense, 
**he (not she) took off his coat''; comp. 
mar. for hSvvat so used. 

439. dox7iif*9 "smoothed"; often 
used of fine artistic finish given to a 
work of art in metal, wool, &c. (mar.). 



DAY I.] 



OATSSEIAT A. 440-444. 



^9 



aQyvQiy^ i%l Si xltjtS^^ irdvvaaav [iidvti, 
£1/^' o ye 7Cavvv%iogy X€xaXv(iL(idv6g olog^ dcitp, 



a cf. &. 67, 106, 

g>. 53. 
by. 390, 3. 315, 

r. 448, S2. 720. 
c ^. 188, cf. 166. 
d n. 90, CD. 46—7, 

138, ^."^111. 
e d. 838, A. 168, 

Si. 455. 
f IV. 599, 716; cf. 

«. 434, I. 661. 
S X. 111. 



44^. (pQsel J^^aiv, 



440. sic Clark, et ed. Oxon. ex dubi4 Harl. lect, tQrjtoCai. Isxisaai, **ubi aut 
TQTjToVg, aut Xixeeaiy prout mavis, legere potes" Pors.; al. rgi^tots 

Xsxieaai. 



441—4. xoQoivxi, the handle, crook- 
ed, like a ^^beak", as being so more 
surely grasped in pulling the door to. 
From 9. 165, where the arrow is set 
doVn to rest against it, its height on 
the door could not have been above 



the arrow's length (about 3 feet) from 
the ground. For xXtjlff* , here the 
*'bolt", see App. A. 15. ni<pQa6*, 
a reduplicated aor. of which XeXa^coy, 
xixXfro, nsnvd'ono are also instances, 
so at V. 273, 



OATSSEIAS B. 



SUMMARY OF BOOK IL 

On the morning of the Second Day Telemachus summons the Ithacans to the 
Assemhly, which had not met since Odysseus' departure (1—34). 

He exposes the importunity, rapacity, and insolence of the suitors, and his 
own helplessness, and implores the people not to ahet them (35 -—79). 

Antinous replies hy impudently throwing the hlame on PenelopS, detailing 
her artifices to elude their suit: — let her choose her hushand and they would 
be gone, but not till then (80 — 128). 

Telemachus states his scruples at forcing her will, or sending her away. 
The debate is here interrupted by an omen, which, is interpreted by Halither- 
ses to portend the suitors' doom. This draws on him the violent language of 
Eurymachus, who re -states the suitors* resolve (129 — 207). 

Telemachus drops the question and proceeds to that of his projected voyage 
to Peloponnesus. Mentor urges the Ithacans to oppose the suitors; to whom 
Leocritus replies with sneering disparagement and the Assembly breaks up 
(208 — 259). 

Pallas, in the guise of Mentor, appearing in answer to Telemachus* prayer, 
instructs him as regards his voyage. He, returning to the palace and resisting 
the overtures of Antinous, directs Euryclea to prepare the stores and not to 
tell his mother of his departure (260 — 381). 

Pallas, in the guise of Telemachus, obtains a ship and crew, and sends on 
the suitors a strange sleep while they sit and drink. She then changes her 
form to that of Mentor and summons Telemachus to embark. Their voyage 
commences as the second day ends (382 — 434). 



^Id'ccocfjaiwv ayoQti. Ti/jXe^iaxov aito6rnila. 



fffiog* d' tJQtyeveta^ (pdvri ^oSoSdxrvXog 'ifcJff, 
Sqvvt^^ &q' ig BVir^q)Lv^ 'OSv6^'^og tpCXog vtog, 

XOC0I S* vno U7eaQ0l6vv idrj^azo xaXa otiSiXay 



i. 428, A. All, 

d. 4U0 mar. 
b t. 320, V. 15S. 
cy.405,d.306seqq., 

V. 124—6; cf. 

O. 580. 
d cf. fl0. 88, y. 110 

J. 59. 
e S. 44-45. 



3. ^s£(iata J^eacdfisvog, 



3. pro ^^<pog . . . oifitp nonnulli fi^ycc pdllBto tpaQog ex B. 43 ^ addito etiam 

yersu ex B. 45. 



The !■* day of the poem's action 
here begins. 

On the proceedings of the dyOQtj 
which form a large part of §, see A pp. 
A. 4. In order to nnderstand the po- 
sition assumed bj the suitors in p., 
we must remember that the long ab- 
sence and presumable death of the 
king, the long minority of the heir, 
and the defect of near relatives (see 
n. 115— ai), had weakened royalty in 
Ithaca, and that the members of the 
PovXriy being the advisers of the so- 
verei^ and natural leaders of the 
dyogi^j had no proper function in his 
absence and while the dyoQ^ {p, 26—7) 
had ceased to meet. Still they might 
find a pretext for assembling at the 
palace in their large stake in the 
country — to use a modern phrase — 
and in their prospective interest in a 
royalty not necessarily hereditary. They 
camo thither in the. kin^^s iatercsts, 
as they might say: fetill their Mving at 
free -quarters in the palace is always 
viewed as a lawless intrusion on pri- 
vate rights without even a colour of 
justice (p. 140-S, 235—7, <5^- 198—207). 
As hopes of his return ebbed away — 
and they would soonest expire in those 

HOM. OD. I. 



who looked to succeed him — the 
questions of who should fill his throne, 
and who marry his widow (the latter 
being an easy step to the former, at 
least in the case of an Ithacan noble), 
would be more boldly stirred. Hence 
the suitors^ clamour rises higher, as 
Penelop6^s forlorn hope fades , and we 
the more admire the tenacity with 
which she clings to that hope and to 
her hold on the palace and estate, with 
all these forces arrayed against her. 
If she had accepted her widowhood 
and returned, as urged, to her father^s 
house , the remaining property of 
Odys. would have been at once dis- 
sipated. Hence, as on his own force 
of character his return depends, so on 
hers it wholly depends that he has a 
home io return to. See further A pp. E. 2 . 
I. '^fioq <r, see on ^.^400. ^j^iyiv. 
Some take t^qi- as if ijSQij with re- 
ference to the "mistiness" of mom, 
cf. iisQi TCoXXy A. 752. Others better, 
however, from adv. 7JQI> "early", as 
illustrated by otpCyovog a. 302, and (He- 
sycli.) oipiy^vTiq, A Schol. also notices 
that yivsia may have an act. or pass, 
force.; the latter is best, thus "early 
born" is the sense. Curtius gives rjqi 



34 



OATSSEIAS B. 5—14. 



[day II. 



a ca. 370, a. 371, 
«. 4, r. 260; cf 
&. 174, Z. 401. 

b jB. 60-2, 442— 4, 

1. 10, *f. 39. 

c &. 24, (». 421, 

A. 57* 
d a. 104, o. 62-4. 
e o. 100, ^B. 822; 

cr. oe. 331 mar. 
f ^. 50, S. 878, 

2. 283, 42. 211 ; 
cf. 0.161, !^.30. 

g C. 229, 236, ». 

10, »f. 172seqq., 

a. 190 &c. 
h «l». 728. 881. 
i cf. a, 887. 
k /9.26, C.3, 0.468. 
1 ffl. 21, n. 189, 

i5.53;cf.r.l49. 



a?^a^ dh UriQVxe00L Xiyvq)%'6yyoitSt xiX6v6€v 
HriQv66stv Ayo^vSa xd^ri xo^ocovtag ^A%aiovg. 
oF i^kv ixrJQvaaov, tol d' i^yevQOvto (idk* (5xa. 
avraQ^ ijtsi ^* ^yegd'sv S^ijysQhg r* iyivovto, 
P^ ^' t^€v slg iyoQi^v, Tcakccfirj d' 1%^ xdXxeov iy%og^^ u 
ovx^ olog' Sfia tp ys Svcd xvveg d^yoV Sicovto. 
Q'BiSTtBCCriv S* &Qa r© ye %dQiv^ xatixBVBv ^Ad'ijvij' 
tov d' aQa TcdvtBg Xaol istBQXoiiBvov dijBvvro'^ 
B^Bto d* iv TtcctQdg^ d'dxpj^ Bll^av 81 yiQOvtBg.^ 



14. Fitlttv. 



6. %iXBv9. 



II. ita Bek. Pars, decuti E. Venet. Ambros., pro Sv(o %vvBq Dind. 
livvBg nodaq secntns Harl. ex 27. 578. 



as distinct from 179 /^p, ver, -gi being 
afformative, and rj- same root as in 
iqmS' In 5^. 226 — 7 

imafpOQog slci (pomg igiav inl 

ov XB (lita ngononsnlog vnslg aXa 
%CBvaxai ^co^, 
the first line seems to speak of the 
dawn, the next of daylight; but in £. 
48 — 9 it is ^cog who comes fpotog igi- 
ovaa like the i<oaq)6Qog of W, 226; 
thus the distinction vanishes, unless 
seated in iiQO%6nsnXog. The ''rosy" 
hue here may attend or follow dawn, 
according to state of atmosphere &c. 
Why applied to the ddntvXoi is not 
clear: perhaps rays breaking diver- 
gently through clouds may be taken 
to representaliand with fingers spread. 
Virgil iCn. Vll. 26 has combined — or 
confounded — fo9o$, and HQononsn, in 
Aurora in roseis fulgehat lutea bigis, 
Arist. Rhet, III. 2. 13 remarks on the 
poetic superiority of (oSoS. to tpoivi- 
xo^tfxt. or. igv9'Qo8d%t, 

3. ^Upoq, this was probably the 
(pdcyavov which the suitors wield in 
X' 74) 90; persons of free birth com- 
monly wore it, cf. Thucyd. I. 6 on 
. the habit of aiSrjgocpOQSiv long retained 
in Greece , which Aristotle {fol, II. v.) 
associates with the traffic in women as a 
mark of barbarous manners. The spear 
is borne, as by Mentes a, 104, and 
Theoclymenus 0. 282, who were tra- 
vellers, so here by Telem., who had 
been all night thinking of his journey 
(a. 444) and prepared for it at once. 



The "sceptre" is afterwards presented 
by a herald, 37—8. 

5—6. evaXiyx. the simple aXCyaiog 
occurs twice (mar.). xriQVXBCm see 
on a. 109. XiyvfpS-my a rarer epith. 
for the heralds is riBQoqxovot "raising 
the voice", JS. 505. 

II. oix oloq, these words, used also 
where human attendants (mar.) are 
added, show a sense of comradeship 
between dog and man which culminates 
in the episode of Argus in 9. 291 foil., 
where dogs for the chase (t. 436) are 
distinguished from mere household pets, 
or watch -dogs {tQaxeSTJsg d'vgaiaQoi 
X, 69), like Eumceus' in |. 29 foil., p. 
200. These last recognize the deity, 
of Pallas («. 162—3) when Telem. does 
not. From A, 50 we may suppose the 
Greeks took dogs over sea to Troy. 
dgyol, this word has no connexion 
with igyov, which retains its / in H. ; 
the oigyog =a a - sgyog is post-Homeric. 
Here it seems to mean (i) '* stalwart, 
powerful", cf. its use for posg (5*". 30), 
and (2) "swift", as depending on 
strength of foot: cf. noSagni^g epith. 
of Achilles, dgyinodsg also of dogs 
{SI, 211), AndAgnvia Iloddgyrj, sug- 
gestive of ag(^y)' or ap(x)- as root, as 
in dgHBLV dgrjysLV (Donalds. New CraL 
§ 285). A totally distinct radical sense 
is "white" or rather ** glistering ", as 
in ccgyr^g, dgyivosig, dgyv€psog or -qpog, 
agyvgog, SgyiXXogy argentum, argilla, 

1*2. See mar. for similar %dgig given 
to Odyss. and Penel. 

14. S'iaxo^y or open form %'6(oiiog 26, 



DAT n.] 



OAT23LEIA23 B. 15—31. 



35 



i^tot6v S* insLd'* flQcag jilymctcog q^'* dyoQevsiv^ 
Sg Srj yiJQaV xvg>6g irjv xal (ivQ^a^ ^di;. 
xal yccQ tov (piXog vtdg Sfi* dvtiS'dp ^Odv0fji, 
^hov^ €ig emcaXov ifiti xoikijg^ ivl vijvfflvy 
^j4vtiq>og oclxfiriv^g' tdv S* &yQMg ixravs Kvxkmtif 

20 iv 67e^L yXafpvQpy 7tv(i€Ctov 8* ci7cXC60ato Soqtcov^ 
XQBtg Si ot akkoL iaav xal o {ihv (ivti^f^QCvv^ o^Cksiv, 
EvQvvoiiogjs Svo S^ alkv ^x^v^ xat Qciuc iQya'^ 
dXk*^ ovS'^ ag tov kijd'St^ dSvQoiievog"^ xal axBvmv. 
roi)° 8 ys ddxQv xdcov dyoQfjaato xal iietasi^nsv 

25 "xixXvTs^ di) vvv (iBVy *Id'axfj6coLj orri xev atnm* 
oiks nod'' '^^etiQfi dyo(f^ ydvsr* oiits ^dcixogP 
i^ ov *O8v06evg Stog ipij xoiXyg ivl vtjvaiv, 
vvv Sh tCg cotf'^ ^y^f'Q^y tiva XQ^^^ t66ov vxsi 
ij^l vi(Dv dvSQfSy ^ ot ^QoysvicrsgoC sl6i,v; 

30 q^ tiv^ dyyslirjv 6tQatov Ixkvsv iQxo^iivoto ,^ 
^v xJ i^ytXv 6dtf>a slTtoi^y ors^ TtQotSQog ys jtv%'ono^ 



a ft. 345, a. 849, 

V 869, X' 4«»» 

S, 249. 
b ». 188, «. 188, 

B. 218, Sr. 355, 

T. 219, *. 440, 

cf. W. 812. 
c I. 169. f 71, JB. 

551 . A. 576! 
d 8. rijct. 211, a. 

181, H. 389, X. 

115. 
e C.344, ^.86; ef. 

«. 369, «P; 158-9. 
r a. 265. /9. 288, 381. 

f i'. 737.' 

i /J. 127, i. 318, 

W. 98, §.222,844; 

cf. ^. 117, ^. 97. 
k ef. o. 355, n. 

144-6. 
1 a. 6 mar. 
m (T. 100, |. 40, /. - 

612, a. 128. 
n M. 425, |. 142; 

cf. X 426. 
cf. K' 239. 
p p. 14 mar. 
q a. 182, App. A. 

10 mar. 
r a. 225 mar. 
8 8 42-4, a. 408, 

'JB. 160. 
t«.18f);cf.cr.47,229. 



16. FiBji, 18. J^CUov, 



21. foi. 22. J^iqya. 
31. fsinot. 



24. \iBtifBinBv» 25. felnm. 



18. ^«l. 22. dvo ^' c^XXoi alii, utrumqne Arist., Schol. H. ^ 24. rori^Harl. 

Clark., tovq Harl. mar.; o^e; 9a%qv%imv. 26. ovd'^ ... ovdi alii; ovt£ «<» 

Arist. 28. ^M€i. 31. oxi Schol. H. 



means (mar.) both na^iSqa as here, 
and awi^Qiov: ii; was like the stately 
seat of ''smoothed stones *\ whereon 
sat the yigovtBg ''in a sacred circle'* 
in the Assembly {2, 504). AU the 
people, however, usually sat (S, 246 
— 8). On dcoxog, d'anog and d'od^m 
see on 336 inf. ysQavTsq, not ne- 
cessarily in age , but in rank the first. 
Thus in the II. Diomedes is of the 
number, although quite young. In the 
Greek camp, and at the court of Al- 
cinous we find yii^ovtss (mar.). 

16. yiiQat, this dative depends on 
(ivQ^a ^arj as well as on %vfp6g irjVy 
cf. nalccid xe noXXd te sldmg. inf. 188. 
The statement that the iyogri had not 
met so long gives us a measure of the 
importance of the step of convening 
it, and of the public prominence into 
which Telem. thereby starts. 

22. EvQVV*^ the party of the suitors 
would naturally lie among the younger 
Ithacans v. 51, but there was a lack 
of elder men to control them, these 
having gone to Troy and left a wide 



social chasm behind them. We may 
sujppose that the father ^gyptius, now 
yriQctX %vfpog^ was just too old, and 
the three sons mentioned, too young 
for service then; hence the suitors* 
party now might be both numerous and 
headstrong. Thus vioi and nffoysvi- 
azsQot of V. 29 indicate parties; cf. cc 
395. Saya, used of men, when not 
qualified, as by noXsfiTJittf d'ccldaaia, 
means agriculture, of women, weav- 
ing etc. 

25. xixXvTC, with gen. here, as below 
V. 30 with atcus.; see on a. 281. <9'd<k>- 
xo^, "assembly", see above on 14, 
and cf. 69 0s(jLtatog 1] r' olvBq&v dyo- 
gag .... ita^i^st. 

28—31. For «5d' see App. A. 10; for 
XQSid> see on a. 225. voaov*^ to such 
an extent", cannot agree ^ with XQ^''^ 
which is fern., cf. %QBiot ivay%aC'n 0. 
57; so the adjectives Srjiiiovy toiov^ 
8, 3iii, do not agree^with XQHOi in 312. 
For ^€ . . . 5 and «?«••• ^€ see App. 
A. II. CXQaxov • • • • SQXOfM,*9 i' e. 
the Greek army retarning, see on o. 



f 



36 0AT22EU2 B. 3«— 47- [day II. 

b/*. 44. fiiy-d-Aoff fAOt dox^r slvacj'^ dvfjfisvog. eld's ot aixS 



C. 180, o. Ill, 



X ni\m. ' cSs qxito^ xat^e Sh qytjlif}^ ^Odva&^og q>iXog vCog, ^ 

f/j*397,' c. 33, /?! ovS' &Q* itv^ S'qv^0to, ^lbvoCvtiCbv d' dyoQsvsiv^ 

r cf.'if*79.' * (Trijfir di /it^i^j «yopS' ^yc'^^tQov^ Sd of iiifialB xslqI 

-8, b/ 101, a:, x^^vg^ nH0ijvcoQ it€7cvv(iiva fiTJdea^ siddg. 

i K. 278.' * TtgStov STtSLta yiQOvttt xad'ttTtto^Bvog^ nQogieiTCBv 

4«, >. '325,' 2. ''© yiQOVy ov% BKctg"^ ovtog dviJQ {td%a S* Bt^sai avtog) 4 

I ^.W; /!?.'24o, oc Aaov nysLoa' udliaxa Si a akyog [xdvBv.^ 

)'. 346. 6. 127, V » » 1/ ^ • i 1 . / 

ir. 421. otnrf rti/ ayysliriv 0tQatov ixXvov ioxoiiBvoiOj 

n a:. J5. s.' 465, ^1/ %' vferv ^cfqpa s&roj oir£ ntQiksgog ye nvd'OvfiriVj 

^.93. * * ovts tv 8i](icov^ akko yttg)av6xoiiatr ovd' dyoQSVCt)^ 

pa. 409°**'' dlV ifiovv avtov xQS^og, S (lov xaxbv l^Tts^sv ofxp, ^ 

'* Jr. a. 76/' * ' doid' TO ficj/, TtaxBQ^ iad-Xov dn(iikB6a^ og %ot iv v^lv 

' -9; kVt.W, totgSB60iv^ fia6ikBVBj nav^Q d' (Sg rjmog' rJBV 

S3» J-OL, 34. (pQsal /^«. 37. /ot. 38. J^si9(og, 39. naoaifunsv, 
40. fs%ag J^BicBcti, 43. J^sCtco), 45. Sol%ta, 

41. rjysLQS Zenod. , Schol. H. 42. aut ijtoi/tt pro ayyeKiyy, aut ^tov pro 

ivLlvov legisse Zenod. teatatur Schol. H. 44. pro ovS* rjS\ 45. ita Arist., 

TtccKU Aristoph. , Scholl. B. H. M. E.; %a%6v ifinBOS xrjSog Yen, 

408. BiTtoi, on this optat., which in- bear the a%ijx.j Menelans, making a 

fuses a tone of doubt into the sug- judicial appeal, receives it, and so 

gestion of news of the armj, and on Hector when swearin? to Dolon (mar.); 

the moods of the passage here and as of. Arist PoL III. 9. 9h OQHog r^v tov 

repeated 43 — 3, see App. I. 9. (18). cni^ntQOv inavdtaaig. The previous 

33. 6viifi$voqf i.cBtri, ^^may he be speaker here accordingly has it not, 

gratified" c= I wish him well! cf. (irj being a mere private person. 

vvv ovccifirjv Soph. (Ed, Tyr, 644, and 39 — 4i» X€C^SvjtT., this participle 

ovaio (Ed, Col. 1042. The closely si- bespeaks impressiveness , used kindly 

milar forms of some parts of the dif- or harshly according to context (mar.), 

ferent verbs ovlvripn and ovofiai should ovro^ specially notes the person spoken 

be noticed (Donalds. Gr, Gr, p. 301). of as related to the person addressed; 

The revival of the dyoQ^ naturally "you will .find j/our man not far off'*, 

gratifies the old man who had doubt- Scan v. 41 og Xa\6v rHyBlga etc. — ixd" 

less spoken in it in his 'youth. Ob- v€i is used especially of physical states 

serve also the thought of news from or mental emotions arising; so with 

the army uppermost in his mind, as vnvog^ fiOQog, niv^og, t€c<pog (mar.), 

having a sou there. 43— 5. c£v<o^siibjutict., App.A..9.(i8). 

35 ~ 7* ^Vf^tif ^ord or phrase of o, see on tt. 382. xaxov, xaxcr, read 
omen, such was the last part of the by Arlstoph., is justified by the ad- 
previous speech in 33—4. For hi be- missibility of hiatus after 4"* foot in 
fore Sijv see on a. 186. axiJTtTqov, heroic hexam, La Roche p. 17; but in 
this was the badge of public office. 0. 375 huhov ^iin. orxoi recurs, also 
Telem. having summoned the assembly, the Ven., reading xaxov ifin, x^do;, 
it was his ex officio to address it, as favours %a%6v, 4oid agrees with both 
well as from his occupying the natQog the evils following (46 — 8). 
^(OTiog V. 14. Thus judges and heralds 47. vfitv xotod*, ^^you here", see 



DAY H.} 



0AT2SEIAS B. 48—54. 



37 



vvv d' av 9tal nolv {isitov, o 8^ ta%a olxov aitavta 
7tay%v SiUQQaCdai^^ fiiotov d' aTCo Ttd^Ttav 6Xi66ai. 

tSv AvSqAv (pilot vhg oi ivd'dds y eielv &Qi6toi^^ 
oK jtatQog filv ig olxov diCBQQlyaOi vie<i^ai^ 
*IxaQiov^^ Sg x' avtog isdvciaatro^ dvyavQUj* 
doirj d' c5 x' id'iloc xa£ oC X6xa(fc0fiBvog^ il^ov 



a tt.4u4;cf. »r.428, 
«. 221, C 326, I. 
459. 

bjT. 771, «F. 156-7. 

c IT. 352— 6, «. 3»fi, 
X. 64, 9. ^^ ^ 



.69, «f> 



d a. 245, ;r. 251. 
e cf. o. IC. 
f App. A. 14 mar. 
g cf. fi. 225-6. 



48. J^oi%ov, 52. ft^v J^otnov. 53. J^muQLOv ij^sSvmaccito, 54. J^04. 
50. fiTjTpiT t' ^ftj. 53. pro wg Sg SchoL P. 54. Soiri , . . id'ikrj, il9-jf Rec. 



Donalds. Gr, Ch. §. 239. xax^Q. Ari- 
stotle [PoL I. 5» in. 4) bases royalty 
on the paternal relation, quoting the 
Homeric title nat^Q avSgrnv X8 d-smv 
T£ as suitable to the soyereign of all 
things, and says that despotism trans- 
gresses by ruling for one's own in- 
terest, disregarding that of the ruled, 
whereas the rule over one's children 
includes their benefit as a motive; cf. 
ib. IV. 8. The heroic monarchy is the 
fourth kind enumerated and examined 
by him (ib. III. 9). Contrast with this 
Achilles^ reproach to Agam., in A* 231 
as a SrjfioPoQog pocciXsyg, which again 
might largely be illustrated from Pol, 
V. 9. So Penel. speaks {9, 691 foil.) of 
the practice of kings in general and 
of the character of Odys. in particular, 
which Eumseus (g. 62, 138 foil.) illus- 
trates. Some points of a popular king*s 
character are fair division of spoil etc. 
((. 42, A. 704), protecting refugees (n. 
424), uprightness in administering jus- 
tice (t. Ill, 21. 387 foil.), princely re- 
cogpution of services ('9'. 38 foil.), and 
general hospitality (Ni.); in this last 
duty, however, his "gifts" supported 
him, so that what was partaken of 
was reckoned ^ijf^iff, P. 248 foil.; cf. 
V. 264. 

48 — p. xoXv fiaZ^ov, in reference 
to his nouse (%u%6v . . . o^xa> 45) the 
suitors' licence and pillage were worse 
than his father^s death. This gives 
great rhetorical force to his complaint. 
IfiaQQalifsi, iinoQQaCm occurs (mar.) 
with double accus. : ^aCa simple, akin 
to dqiccm, is used of ship-wreck and 
other violent sundering. This hint of 
its meaning may be gathered from its 
derivatives, ^aiaxrig the smith's "ham- 
mer ", ^vfLOQctXatTjg "life - crushing ", 



and nvvoQce'iarijg the "dog -tick" (2V. 
544 » Q' 300), 

50 — I. fioi refers the action dis- 
tinctly to the person speaking. Do- 
nalds. 6fr, Gr, § 459 a a, calls this a 
"dat. of special limitation". It im- 
plies a closer personal interest in the 
fact stated than lf*§ would convey. 
i7tixif€iOV, this and its simple verb 
occur in H. only in the imperf., which 
loses its proper force, meaning, "have 
been and are worrying": see the si- 
mile in which it describes wolves wor- 
rying kids (mar.). This passage seems 
to liave suggested to Dissen the resto- 
ration, doubtful however, of a frag- 
ment of Pindar (44), aidyoi norl '9'(d- 
gaxd'slg inixQocsv aXloxQiif. vltq, so 
in the last ayoqii (co. 456 — 7) the 
Ithacans are reminded of their sons* 
recklessness having brought ruin. aQi" 
ifzoi, from Ithaca there were 12, all 
aQiatOL (mar.). 

52—4. aTtegOm "abhor", f. «. "shrink 
from the trouble", — a well -chosen 
word, especially if Icarius abode, as 
a SchoJ. supposes, in Ithaca; as mean- 
ing, "they give her the greatest an- 
noyance instead of taking the least 
trouble themselves". Annother suppo- 
sition, that Icarius abode in Sparta, 
does not well suit Pallas' words to .Te- 
lem. in 0. 16. It seems assumed that, 
when a widow remarried, she did so 
from her father's house and with con- 
sent of her relatives; i, e,, her hus- 
band's right failing, that of her family 
revived. isifvioO*, see App. A. 14: 
the optat. here and in v. 54 is forcible 
as if "to give him the chance of so 
doing, if he pleased'*\ see Jelf Gr, Gr. 
§ 807 ^. The subject of ^X^oi is bor- 
rowed from the object of $oCri^ Sovvai 
being understood after id'iXoi. 



38 



OATSSEIAS B. 55—70. 



[day n. 



s 



a 0. 534—8. 
fcl3, m. 2ft7. 

c -J, a8<, an, X. 

240, jf 352. 

to. 25, 

e a. I9<l-i, V. 21, 
h. 278—80; cf. 

i a. 226 mar. 
X.251;of.X473. 
d.689, <p.94, cf. 

<r. m. . 

i y. 208, JU. 384, 
rg. 485, /r. 612, 
i2.489;af.d.767, 
O 378, 598, y. 
199, 

k ^. 134. 

i ^. 402. 

m S. 212, T. 104, 
100, cf. 12 488. 

n O. 52, 203. 

H. 41, y. 639. 

p cf. X. 66, V. 324, 
o. 261, X. 338. 

g r. 4; cf. n. 403, 
y€. 238. 

Tr.68, cf. A419, 
&. 422. 

8 X 416, cf. 4^.379. 



j3oi}g i'f^f'uovifg* Hal oVg uccl nhvaq id^ag^ 

slXaTctpdtovfSiv^ nlvov6£ te ai^onta olvov 

ftflf0tJ<te>s' ret Sh xolla xatdvst&i.^ ov yag i7z* dv^^ 

'^^stg d' w vv ti totot d^vvdiisv* jJ xal huBitcc 6 

levyaXiov r' i^diietfd'ay xal 0^ Sedarix&vss^ dlxijv. 

rj r* av dfivvaifiriVy et fiot dvpaficg ys JtaQsiij. 

ov yaQ h^ dv^xBtd iQya tstsvxcctai^ , odd* hi xaldSg 

olxog iiiog StdXcals. vsfi€6(Sf]d7ita xcd avroly 

alXovg r' aldd^dTjts^ nsQixtiovag"^ av^^dnovg^ 6 

ov %aQivaistdov0i' d'sSv S* vicoS Bits axe ^'^vvv, 

ftij rt ii,Btu0tQiil)(D6iv^ dyaecdfisvot^ xaxd Ifycc. 

li6iSofiac i^fihw Zfivog ^Olvfiitiov i^dh @diiL0togy^ 

^ t dvSQ(Sv dyoQctg ijaiv Ivec i}d^ xaO'l^evJ^ 

6xd6^6y^ (pCXoiy xaC ft' olov idtSaxs niv^aX XvygS ^ 



57. J^otvov, 59. folmoi}. 63. figya, 64. fot%oq, 67. figya. 

5^. ^(iszigov Ven.; cf. Hy. Merc. 370, Herodot. I. 35. 60. "^(isti ov ti w et 

ov vv xoi iiy^iZg\ f>ro %aC Schol. %bv, 63. pro xaXcog Hejn. xaAa, coll. 

Z. 326, 2V. 116. 70. ita Arist., fiif yk* olov Aristoph. 



58. fi€e^fi6.y this word, save in 
the phrase ^. dXaXrifS^B or -^a» y. 72, 
leads the line in which it stands, as 
does also p^ccip nearly^ always, xatd* 
verai, the simple SvcOf primary of 
dvv(Of is fonnd always save once (mar.) 
with a. — i:t' is here insatt, 

59. doiiv, dgri **woe" has &, dgii 
** prayer^' or "curse" has a in H., hut 
the latter is always in arsis; hence 
most Lexicons (see Liddell & S. and 
Crusius 8, V,) give them, as the same 
word; but in 135 inf. dgiiasx* is in 
thesis, showing that a^is natural in 
a^aof^ai, and therefore in 0917. Thus ag^ 
is a distinct word. 

60 — 2. "And we are no ways able to 
repel (the wrong) 5 — sure enough in that 
case (i. e. in case we were) we should 
be (lit. shall be)- poor creatures, and 
incapable of a bold deed; of course I 
would resist, if I had only the power". 
Ni. compares Ov. Heroid, 1. 97---8, Tres 
sumus imbelles numero, sine viribus uxor, 
Laertesque senex, Telemachusque puer. 
ToZoi is =3 the Attic ofo^^rf, ^ and Ov 
<fed'«9^x.=3Latiu7ie5cit. 17 r* av shows 
that it is T£ elided not tot in crasis 
(Ni.).. 



64 — 6. The argument, appealing to 
their sense of wrong, of shame, and of 
awe for the gods, rises in an ascending 
scale. X€q19CtL (whi^h is explained 
by the rel. clause following, see on 
noXvxgonov og ftdXa x. z, X. a, 1 — 2,) 
occurs nowhere else in the Ody., while 
nsgivcctBt. is not found in the II. (Ni.). 

67—^. fisraOTQ.^ "repent", i, e, no 
more allow you; sometimes voov fol- 
lows, completing the sense fmar.), here 
firjviv preceding suggests some such 
word. Crusius takes igya following as 
its object, "rebuke your misdeeds". 
Zr^voq ••• ^ifit4ft.,'^en, of adjura- 
tion, referred by Donalds. Gr, Gr, § 453 ee 
(a) to "relation": ngog or vnlg more 
commonly assists this construction : with 
Xiacoficct und. vgiag. The deities etc. 
in such adjurations are chosen pro re 
natd; here, in presence of the ayogri^ 
Zeus and Themis are preferred (cf. 
mar.). Themis is "ordinance" perso- 
nified : it is hers to conyene the Olym- 
plan Assembly (mar.), as here that of 
men. Biyiiig has accus. Biykioxu, xa- 
S'l^*, transit., elsewhere neut. (mar.). 

70. Cx^O0'€, q>. "hold, friends" — 
to the Ithacans, viewed as abetting 



DAY II.] 



OATSEEIAS B. 71—85. 



39 



SvgfievicDv %aW SqbI^sv ivxvTJiiiSag^j^xccvoiigy 
tfSv fv' dTeotivvfisvoL xaxd firsts dvgfisvdovtsg^^ 
tovtovg itQVvovtsg. ifi^l Si xs xigiiov^ etri 

y^ v^iag i^d'i^LBvav xsi^fifjXui ts ytQ6fia6iv te. 

ev % viistg ys (pdyovtSy xA'i &v srore xal ti6ig^ bUt]' 
x6ffQa ydg &v xccrd dfftv %orimv66oCn,B^a^ fivd'p 
jrpijfiar' dxatti^ovtag^y ?cog x* dnd ndvra So^Birj' 
vvv dd iiov djtQijxtovg^ 69vvag iiifidXXBtB dv(i^'^ 

80 (Sg« (pdto xcsoiiBvogj notl Si ex'^^tgov fidls yaiy, 
SdxQv* dvajtQfjdag'^ olxrog d* Hb Xadv aTtavra, 
^vd'^^ aXXoi (ilv TcdvxBg dxrjv iaav, oifSi teg hli] 
TtiXa^axov [ivd'ocacv^ dfiBitlfaa^M %aKBnot6iv* 
^AvtCvoog Si iitv olog dfiBLfidiiBvog nQogiBVTCBv 

85 "Ti]Ufiax'^ vtfjaydQfi, (isvog u^xbtb^^ tcoIov iBinag 



a V. 314. 

b /?. 320 et iopiss, 
» 339. 

C (Bf. X' W— 7» V'. 

357-8. 
d d. 647, y. 22, (f. 

509. X. 451. 
e d 651, Q. 222, 

228,346,502,558, 

V. 179. 
f ^.223, cf.x.202, 

568. 
gr ^. 245 
h I. 433, n. 349 

-50i cf. fi. 427. 
I A. 22 cf. I. 430. 
k ^. 395. 
I a. 385 mar. 
m y. 104. 



77. fucxv. 84. ngocijrntnsv. 85. iS-Bvnsg, 

72. ^QB^sv Yen. (| k mann sec. adscript^). 77. ngotintvaaoiiis^'a Harl. Yen. 

Ambros. cam SchoU. 81. ^axpva 9'BQf^u fimv Zenod., Scholl. H. M. Q. B. 

82. ita Herman. Bek. Dind. secuti Schol. S., .ovtB libri. 



{otQVvovtBg 74) the suitors — **and 
leave me to pine merely with sorrow! 
Unless it be that my father (said iro- 
nically) ever wrought the Achseans ill, 
then in requital go on wronging me'^ 
Take oIqv with xBhQBe. used as a noun: 
it might also, however, as in X. 416, 
agree with ^b, 

73-^7' djtOTivvfi,, some edd. double 
the V, needlessly, as viva) has i in H. 
Spitzner Gr. Pros, § 5^, 3 c. Vfiiaq, 
he is addressing the ceyoQiQ, i. e, na- 
tive Ithacans, many of the suitors being 
aliens. TtOTiTezvaam, "we (I and Pe- 
nel.) would address you with our plea", 
probably a legal phrase, with a formal 
plea at law intended, which the ayog^ 
would decide; see App. A. 4 (3) (4). 
The verb, not found in the II., means 
somietimes merely to address, also to 
embrace (mar.) 

78—9. ajtaizi^m, the simple alxCim 
(which is not found in the II.) always 
includes some notion of importunity, and 
is used for a beggar, thus joined with 
T/iaxa Sjjfiov etc., as an act which is 
(mar.) inconsistent with alSdag: so 
XQVficcta iu sense of property is not 



found in the II. dxQ'ixtm "without 
redress ". 

80 — 2. This same line describes the 
action of Achilles under strong emo- 
tion in public (mar.), ^o doubt this 
was meant to add dignity to our im- 
pressions of the young Telem., warm- 
ing out of indecision and reserve to a 
burst of generous 'indignation, like the 
hero of wrath. The words 9d%QV* avce- 
TCQifaagy however, sufficiently distin- 
guish the two. Achilles has tears ready 
in torrents io^ his friend's loss , but 
not when provoked by injury. Xadv, 
see App. A. 4 (3): th^e word has more 
personal force than Srjitov, dxiiPf see 
App. A. 16. 

85—7. The words 'd^ay., fiivoq Sax* 
are used in derision cloaked under iro- 
nical deprecation; see App. E. 3, and 
6 (1). The speech assumes that the 
suitors are rather the injured party 
than the injurers — a shrewd piece of 
impudence , meant to evade the appeal 
of Telem. and make him ridiculous. 
This banter recurs in 302. fiu>fiov 
dvdiff, "to fix derision on us" — a 
phrase occurring only here. *Axai* with 
tiVTiatTiQBg as with xov^ot, visg etc. 



40 



OATSSEIAr B. 86—104. 



[day n. 



a A. 153, r. 164. 
b 9^. 322, 709. 
c cf. /?. 106-7, V. 

877- 
4 V 204, (p. 312; 

cf. «,42, ¥'.834. 
^ ^. 40. 
f *. 136 — 56, o». 

12s -46. 
ffef./9.424— 5, 431. 
h X. 223. 
i q. 174, ^r. 248; 

cf. a. 148 mar. 
k I. 318. 
t 0. 332, J. 363. 
m /. 238, X. 171, 

398, 9. 70, X. 

210. 
n (^. 245 mar. 
o T. 32, i2. 554. 
p J7. 57, CO. 207. 
q i. 585-7, 596-7, 

K. «ft-90. 



YiiLiaq al^xvvmv^ id'ilotg Sd kb (icSiiov dvctfai.. 
aol d' ov TV [ivfj6trJQsg ^A%auSv ahioC^ ai6vv, 
dlXa ipvXrj injtrjQy rj toi Tcigv xigSBa^ olSsv. 
^dri yccQ^ XQitov iiSxlv hog, xi%a d' d^i titaQtov, 
i^ ov^ drd[iP6v %vn6v'' ivl 0t7Jd'€60cv *A%amv, 
Tcdvtag {lev ^* iljtei xal vTtiaxstoa avSQi ixd^tai 
dyyaXCag nQ0M6a, voog dd ot aXka (isvovva. 
rj^ Sh dolov t6vS' aXXov ivl g)Q€6l ^SQii^qQiiev - 
0tri6aiidv7i« [idyav [6v6v ivl fisydgoi6iv vfpaivsvj 
XsTtxiyv^ xal jtBQi(if.XQOV' &tpaQ d' ^ftfv (isrdsvTtsv 
'xovQoi'^j iliol iivricfxiJQBg, iTCBl d'dvs dtog *0Sv66Bi)g, 
lii^vBx'^ iTtBiyd^Bvov xov ifiov ydfiov, Big o xb ipagog 
ixxBldiJ(Oj (iTJ (loi iiBxaiiqipLa^ vi^^uxx* oXrixai, 
AadQxy i^Qtoi xaqyiji^ov, alg mB xdv (itv 
^olQ* dXoTJ xad-dXriai xavriXsydog"^ %'avdxoio, 
ftif xCg [lov xaxd dijftov ^JxaadSfQv vb(ib0iJ01]^ 
at xbv &XBQ 07cb(qov^ XBtxai^ nolld xxBaxi60ag.^ ^ 
(Sg ifpad'\ rifitv d' avr' iitBTtBld'BXO %^^6g dy^jvoQ, 
ivd'a xal iqiiaxd] (ihv vtpalvBCxBv'^ [idyav liSxdv, 



5 



i< 



88. fot9sv, 89. f^rog. 91. fiiv,Filnsi fsndatm. 92. /ot. 

95. fietifemBv. 

«6. ita Harl., vulg. id-iXstg; &l nal Harl. 93. (ik8Q(ii]QiiBV Harl. cum var. 

lect. -j€v. "88 — 9 qui scripsit, veraus omisit 93 — no'*, Herman, ap. Bek. 

98. fisraiiaXtce Schol. P., y,sxafi,tovicc Harl. 103. x^rat Ven., ita Wolf. Bek. 



88 — 9. xiQi, as at «. 66, so inf, 116. 
The words xqixov Icxlv Ir. and xixaq- 
xov may be reconciled with 106 — 7 by 
supposing T^. hoq to mean '* third 
completed yesLr^\ and thus with iaxlv 
= "the third year is ended", and xdxa 
d' sh xixag. = **the fourth year will 
soon come to an end''; on the other 
hand xsxq* fiXd'sv ix, 107, means "the 
fourth year'', not complete, but co^n- 
meneing. This reckoning is confirmed 
^7 ^' 377» "^e suitors are now three 
years {xgisxss) lording it in thy palace. 
A Schol. explains xdxa slai as = xa- 
Xsong dt^9;i;£Tai "is swiftly passing", 
which at once strains the language and 
yields a poor sense. 
^91—6. eXxBi, active only here in H. 
akkov, "besides" what was mentioned 
in 91. fiifiVBz', the force of this word 
here is hardly more than a negative, 
nolite properare: for a similar sense of 
the partic. fiivovxi see mar. 



97—100. Biq o XBf here with sub- 
jnnct. (so mox inf, with iia9'iXi^ot) 
takes also opt., with the usual dis- 
tinction of a principal or a historic 
tense having preceded. Of the fut. ind. 
Dind. retains one instance in ^. 318 
dnodoiesi, where Bek. and others read 
subjunct. All other apparent cases of 
the fut. in H. with slg o %s may be epic 
subjunct. Laertes having no female 
relative, this provision for his death 
devolved on Penel. before quitting her 
home. 

loa. xeiT,, Buttm., Gr, Verbs s, ». xet- 
ficciy says, "Wolf has altered, according 
to the Venet. MS., the old reading of 
the text nsCxcei (which as indicat. would 
be certainly incorrect), to a conjunct, 
x^rcti. But this was unnecessary, as 
by an old usage xsr/Ltat, %eixcci served 
for both conjunct, and indicat." 

104 — 7. For the combination of the 
form in ^ckov, marking continued or 



DAY n.] 



OATSSEIAS B. 105—126. 



41 



05 vvxtag S' dllvstSxsv^^ ijtsl^ datdag nuQa^stto^ 
cSg XQlaxsg^ ^hv IXr^d-e dolp xal S^bl^sv *J%aiovg' 
dXl^ ore tit gat ov '^Wev hog oucl ixijlv^ov £qul^^ 
9cal tote Sij tig hms yvvaMtSv, '^ 6dq>a^ V^V^ 
xal tr^v y' cclkvov^av iq>evQOfi,Bv Aykaov htov. 

10 Sg to iihv iiatil600e xal ovx fd'ilov6% vic^ dvdyxrig' 
iJol d' (Sds livijer^fsg vnoxQlvovtai^^ lv* siSfjg 
avtog (f© d^fuicSy sii<S0L dh xdvtsg ''J%aioL 
yLt\ti^a^ 6i\v dnone^itlJOVj avi»x%'L Si (itv yafiie^d^ai^ 
to Steci ve Ti^ari;^ xiXstai xal avSdvBi avffi. 

15 £1 6 iz^ dvi^an yjB nolvv %q6vov vtag ^A%aifav^ 
r& ipQOviov<S^ ivd d^vfiov & of TciQv dtSxsv '^O^'i^, 
i^^a^ X* hti^nxa^ai TtsQixaXXia xal tpQivag io^kdg 
xi^dsd^ ^\ oV ov TCCD tiv* dxovonev ovdh JtaXaiSv, 
{vdiov aC Jtdgoq ^6av iihtXoxa(itS£g°* *A%aial^ 

7JO Tv^d^ t 'JXxfiijvrj ts iv0titpav6g ta Mvxijvri' 
tdcov ov tvg ifiota vorjiiata UriveXoneiy^ 
^Si]' dtd(f iihv toiko y'p ivai0Liiov ovx ivori^sv) 
t6q>Qa^ yd(f ovv fiCotov ts tsbv xal xtrjfiat^ sdovtaij 
og)Qa^ xe xeCvq tovtov Ixy v6ov^ ov tivd ot vvv 

25 iv iJt7Jd'£00L tid'6t6L^ d'€0i\ ^iya fiiv xXiog avtfi 
xoLSltj avtdg 001 ys nod^v TCoXiog piotoio. 



a 2.686-7, 596-7, 

K. 489-90. 
b 10. 2.54, i2. 22:. 
c 0. bW. 
d V. 377. 
e X. 296, I 294. 
f ^. 307, 153,373, 

01. 404, B. 192. 
g H. 407, 170, 

*. 565. 
h a. 274 seq<|. 
i /?. 12s, a. 289. 
k a. 366, 17. 110- 1, 

97, X. 223. 
1 cf. V. 256. 
m t. 642. 
nl. 236. 

cf. «r.279, P. 61. 
p 17.299; cf.«.190, 

<r. 220. 

q /. 560-1. i cf. 
J, 220-1. 

r N, 732. 



106. xqCfBXBq, 107. fitog, 108. Ilffftwfi. /ij^jy. 
112. fsid&ai. 114. favBdvH,. 116. S^oi, 

134. S-oi. 



III. vnongivov^' tvcc fsi^ig* 
117. fSgya. 12a. fii^ri. 



106. erant qui leg^erent tag Sisthg .... dXX' ats dii tQitov, coil. 89. ^ post^ 107 
nonnalli x, 153 inserebant. 114. alii avtA Bek. 115. 9s %* dvi'^esiB 

Sehol. H., dvCriGiv Schol. E., dvijjorjGL Herman. 120. ivnXoyiafiog Harl. Yen. 
ed. Clark. 123. "videntur fuisse qui filotov zov cbv (vel §i6xotp tsov) (Lvrj- 
et^Qsg idovxm legerent^\ Bek. 124. ^xsi Harl. 125. aixfig Schol. 

126. noQ'ri Arist. 



r^oeated actiou, with the optat. naga- 
9$txo, see App. A. 9 (20). Skfi^'S, 
the pres. XriO'to occurs r. 88, 91. For 
cSg ZQlereg %. r. i. some have wished, 
says ^a Schol. , to read mg dhxBg . . . 
tfilX' oxB 8ri xghov; but in note on 89 
the text is shown to be admissible. 

109. iatov **web", but 94 **loom". 
So Dry den, of the spider, she **runs 
&lon{^ her loo7n^\ N, B,, in 110 to fi^v 
means igyovj for taxov is ace. of masc. 
nom. toxog, see 94. 

114. There is a similar change of 
subject for object here to that in •54 
sup., where see note. 



115 — 26. The parenthesis suspends 
the sense so far that in 123 totpQCC.,* 
the whole is yirtually resumed, and 
the si S' ix* dvL-qasi n.x.X. of 115 is 
left without a formal apodosis. *^It 
she will go on baffling the Achseans 
.... they so long will go on consuming 
thy substance as she retains this pur- 
pose." Further, the xdtov ov xig %. x, X. 
of 121 repeats independently the state- 
ment made depending on axovoftsi; of 
118, and xal in 117 couples fpgiv^g iad", 
TLSgdsdc x' to the substantival clause 
epya r' InCaxua^ai srsptx. Thus tpg^.- 
vccg is not obj. of Inicx, dtdq x. x, X,^ 



42 



OATSSEIAS B. 127—134. 



[day n. 



a a. 288—9. 
b^ 262, V^. 138-9. 
c B. 218- 9. 
d O.280, v. 343-4, 

y. 76. 
e J. 223-4. 
f d. 110, 837, X. 

464, cf. 1. 701-2. 
^ /9, 194, <r. 049, 

w. 321. A. 137. 
h i». 179, ir. 20&, 

fe. 651. 

C. 172, ?. 



61, 3< 64;cf.yJ27, 
©. 201, A.m, 
O. 403, r. 182. 



Tjfistg^ d' o^' ^Ttl iQya^ TcaQog^ y* tiisv oOte Tty alXy^ 

tov d' av T^iXdfiaxog Teenvvfiivog avtCov rivSa 
'^^AvtCvo\ ov ncng i0tL Sofioiv ainovaaif^ aTcmaac i 

^ ft* hsx\ V f*' i^Qe^B'^ nccf^Q S' iiiog allod't yairig, 
g<D6t^ 3 y' ^ rsd'vflHS' xaxov Si (is jtoXX' dicotlvBtv 
^InuQCip^ st x^ avtbg^ iytov djco {Ltitiqa xefii^m, 
ix yuQ tov TtatQog xaxcc^ JteiiJofAcct, aXXa SI Sai^cov^ 



127. J^igycc, 130. afi^ovaav, 133. ftHagiq}, 
133. Harl. Sxav, Schol, H. eydv, 137 t Arist. 



the blame here conveyed gains force 
from the encomium which leads up to 
it. egya . • • xiQ6sd , for by a mix- 
ture of these she had baffled them. 

ival^. ovx ivo,, a phrase of po- 
lite but cold irony — "this device of 
hers was not judicious ", or "for your 
interests''. Antin. speaks not of the 
moral quality of the act, but only of 
its effect on their course of action, as 
shown by yag following. The word 
has another sense z/z/*. 159, 182, ^^related 
to aZcra", as **fate'', t. e. "portentous": 
see also mar. 

TvQci, mother of Neleus and others 
by Poseidon and Cretheus (mar.) ; Mv- 
xri* daughter of Inachus. ofioia TLriv., 
"like (those of) Penel.", a contracted 
constrn. Ni. compares (poovijv i^c-novc' 
aXoxotaiv d, 279. 

127 — 9. xoieir*, Donalds. Gr, Gr, 
130 says the apparent elisions of ai 
belong to synizesis, — a rash doctrine, 
especially where, as here, a comma 
intervenes, see Jelf Gr. Gr, § 18. 5 and 6. 
Ttexwfi. see on a. 213. 

132. gcJei • • • riS^p, this phrase, 
elsewhere introduced by ovds zi olSa^ 
tdiisvy or the like, stands here abso- 
lutely; sH T€ might be understood to 
complete the sense; see App. A. 9 (i) 
and cf, idaofiBv, ij nsv HfjOLV ^ x£ fiivjj 
(mar.) where the latter clause contains 
a contingency yet to be decided, where as 
S<6sL . . . xi^v7i%8 stands as a fact ac- 
complished one way or the other, but 
unknown which.' snoiv , read for iymv, 
being really J^btkov, impedes the pro- 
sody. 

134. Some refer zov naxQ. to'Jxap., 
"^er father", and explain xaxdr nsC- 
aofiat, by noXX' dnot^veiv, a weak 



meaning for words so strong. The 
whole speech (see App. E. 3) is frag- 
mentary and lacks sequence. Render, 
"ill were it for me to make large com- 
pensation to Ic. (as I must) , if of my- 
self I dismiss my mother. — Why, from 
that father (mentioned in 131) I shall 
have woe to suffer; further woe the 
powers above will addj since my mo- 
ther on going forth from home will 
invoke the abhorred Erinnyes (see on 
y. 310); indignation, too, from men will 
attend me." His father, if alive, would 
return to punish him ; if dead , would 
retain a power to curse. dTtoxlv* pro- 
bably means that, as the injured hus- 
band re -demanded what he had given 
the father, when a wife was dismissed 
for adultery {Q', 318), and the husband 
repaid what he had received in pre- 
sents etc., if she were sent away cause- 
lessly, so the same rule would apply 
to Telem. dismissing his mother as pro- 
posed; see App. A. 14. 

ifatfjum^, Nagelsb., I. § 47, says, 
that although clear cases occur where 
8a£fi, stands indifferently for ^sog, or 
for numen divinum, yet only twice in H. 
has it a clear sense of god as helping, 
benefiting etc., and that in the Ody. 
the sense inclines mostly in malam par- 
tem, cf. the adj. Saifioviogj a term 
of reproof; but cf. also oX^ioda^fimv. 
Yet he rejects any notion of an inde- 
pendent coordinate power of evil, and 
connects with SaiyLtov the notion of 
divine agency as strange and myste- 
rious, and especially as exerted for 
harm. Hes. Opp- 121 — 3 has a quite 
different view of dalfiovsg, as the spi- 
rits of the men of the golden age, 
who, departed this world, exercise in- 



DAY n.] 



OAT232EIA2 B. 135—153. 



43 



oUxov &itSQ%Of»,ivri* vBfis6cg^ di (tot i^ avd'Qoijtaiv 
iijaetat* fSg oi xoOrov iyd %ota ^vd'ov ivifo.^ 
vfAdtSQog d' si fihv ^vfiog vsiiB^i^etaL^ a'dtcSv^ 
i^Lts^ ft06 fisyccQWVj aXXag d' dXsyvvsts SaXxag 

pvfta xnjiiat^ Sdovtsg^ d^sipoficvov xcctd otxovg. 
el d' viitv Soxisi toSe XmlxsQOV xtd &{i6ivov 
IfilisvaCy dvdgdg ivog filotov tnjjtocvov hli^d'ai^ 
xelQSt^'^ iyio 8h Wsovg iTCtfiaiiSOfiai^ alhv iovtag^ 
Bt^ xi Tto^t Zsvg d(p6v TCaklvtita iQya ysviiSd'M' 

4.5 mjytOLVol xBv iitsua d6(i(ov hno6d'ev oXoi6d'e,^' 

fSg q>dto TfjlBfiaxog^ tp^ d* alet(Q^ sv^oxa Zsvg 
v^o^sv ix xoQVipfjg ^Qsog ^Qodrjxs yths6d'M. 
t(o d' Sag (liv^ $' initovto fistd^ TtvoLjjg dv^iiovOy 
%kri6C(Q dXXi/iXoiCi utacvofidvfD"^ JttSQvys60cv' 

50 dXX^ Sts d^ (idcarjv dyog^v xoXvq>rjfiov^ CxiadTjv, 
ivQ'* ixLdivrjd'ivts^ tcvaidadTjv TCrsgd xoXXd^ 
ig d' ISstr^v tcccvtcdv xsipaXdg ii66ovtoi^ d' ZXsd'Qov^ 
9Qtnl;aikdvc3^ d' 6vvxs00i itaQSidg dfifpi ts dsLgdg 



a L 2S0, I. 454, 

V.78, O.404, T. 

418, 4^,412. 
b a. 350 mar. 
e X. 148, q. 529, 

H:447; cf. a.l, 

CO. 414. 
d cf. fi, 239-40, 

Z. 336. 
e a. 374—80. 
f fi. 312, 01. 459. 
gr^. 51, -4. 128— 9. 
h 0. 168, N. 821. 
i S. 245-7, n. 

292, 0. lea— 4; 

cf. K, 274-5. 
k y. 126; cf. P. 

178, 2, 599. 
I a. 98 mar. 
m L 599, X. 23, 

y. 618. 
n /. 376. 
o i. 538, V 218, 

H. 269 
p a. 116, «. 389, 

«. 31, a. 154, V. 

it,. A. 105, S. 

224, Si, 172. 
q cf. «. 426, 485, 

n. 324. 



136. J^olnov, 140. J^ol%ovs. 144. J^fpya. 

144. %€ Zbvs doinci F. ed. Ozon. 146. xm Codd. quatuor, tat tres, sed 

horum SchoU. xm agnoscunt. 147. (pigsa^'ai, 14^. st(og Schol. A, 193. 

149. nXriaiov. 151. xiva^io^v Rec; pro noXXd Harl. et plerique nv%vd^ ita 

Bek., cf. A. 454. 152. oceavxo Rhian. interp. Pors. 



fluence in it. i&q not oxytone, which 
would mean ''so that", but =: $ib 
"wherefore'*, ivl'^at see App. A. 1. 

138. veu, avzdHv, "has anj awe for 
all these", t. e, the wrath of gods, 
Erinuyes, parents and men. The gen. 
is that of canse or motive (Donalds. 
Gr. Gr, § 453 «e (a)); see also the ex- 
amples of gen. with verbs of wondering 
etc. in Jelf Gr, Gr. § ^9<, 499, 5oo,^and 
woxoi Tgfimv %6Xqi ovoB vspbsaai iifuriv 
(mar.); bnt vBfiBal^oitai is not else- 
where found with gen. ; see on 239— '40. 

139-- 45- 86® o» «• 374—80. 

148. B(t>q (scanned in sTuizesis) 
"awhile", t. e, really, while On their 
way in 146 — 7. This indefinite use is 
in correlative clauses common with its, 
more rare with ^mg (mar.). 

150—6. xoXvq),y this well expresses 
the hum of voices rising into the air; 
which makes the birds' descent more 



ominous, they not being scared by it. 
Ttva^da., "shook om/"; cf. e. 368, N. 243. 
Scaov* %. X. X. "looked with omen of 
destruction", see on a. 115, and cf. 
iEschyl. Sept, c. Th, 53 Xb6vx<ov oig 
'jigrj oBSoQHOxatv. 

153. drnv^afi; the mid. voice shows 
that the birds pecked themselves , not 
those in the ayo^^, SQvnxto being (mar.) 
transitive. Eustathius mentions a notion 
of birds destroying themselves being an 
omen of ill. But by "themselves" he 
might mean "one another" iavtovg for 
.dXXi]Xovgj cf. Soph, Ant. 145, Jelf Gr, Gr. 
§ ^54* 3i Teiresias Soph. Ant. 1003 ^so 
regards birds anmvxag iv xr^Xatetv dX- 
XifXovg (povatg, — 6s^idi, either on the 
observers* right, or on the absolute 
right, t. e. &e Eastern side (mar.). 
The gazers gave the omen its real in- 
terpretation , I. e. woe to the suitors. 
The reading ^ii.BXXhv 156 is needless, 



>■ 



34 



OATSSEIAS B. 5—14. 



[day II. 



a CD. 370, a. 371, 

«. 4, T. 260; cf. 

&. 174, Z. 401. 
b jB. 60-2, 442-4, 

I. 10, W, 39. 
c ;^. 24, CD. 421, 

A. 57* 
d a. 104, p. 62-4. 
e o. 100, ^JB. 822; 

cF. a. 331 mar. 
f -4. 50, J?. 678, 

1. 2S3, i2. 211 ; 

cf. 0.161, ^.30. 
g C. 229, 235, &. 

19, ^. 172seqq., 

a. 190 &c. 
h !l». 728, 881. 
i cf. a, 387. 
k /?.26, «.3, 0.468. 
1 o). 21, ». 189, 

B.53;cf.r.l49. 



/S^ d' ffA£i/ ix Q'aXdiiovo d'sp ivaXfyxiog^ Svtrjv. 
al'il;a^ Sh olr]QVX£00v Xtyvipd'oyyouSL xilsvfSBV 
xriQV06siv AyoQ'qvSs xagrj xo^ocDvtag ^A%aiovq. 
oX ^hv ixiJQV00oVf rol d' i^ysiQOvto fidV dxa. 
aiJrap* iitsC ^^ ^ysQd'Sv ofiriysQieg x* iyivovxo^ 
firj ^' tfisv slg iyoQiiVj itaXdiiy d' 1%^ xdkxsov Sy%og^^ n 
ovx^ olog' &iia rc5 ye dvco xvveg aQyol^ snovro. 
%'B6UBfiCriv d' &Qa r^ ys %dQiv« xati%avav ^Ad'tjvri' 
tbv d' uQa ^dvteg Xaol i7CBQ%QiLavov d'tjevvto'^ 
B^Bto d' iv TtccTQog^ d'dxpj^ al^av dh yiQOvxBg,^ 



14. fsi^av. 



6. TiiXsvs. 



II. ita Bek. Pars, fiecuti E. Yenet. Ambros., pro 9va> %vvsg Dind. 
Tivvss noSag secutas Harl. ex S, 578. 



as distinct from f^g frJQ, ver, -gt being 
afformative, and 97- same root as in 
fjmg. In !P. 226 — 7 

iaatpoQog slat (pomg igicov inl 

Sv te y,itcc ^goKonsnlog vicBlg aXa 
%C$vaxai r^dig^ 
the first line seems to speak of the 
dawn, the next of daylight; bnt in B. 
48 — 9 it is ^(Off who comes 9009$ igi- 
ov6a like the imatpogog of ^, 226; 
thus the distinction vanishes, unless 
seated in ngoKonsnXog. The "rosy" 
hue here may attend or follow dawn, 
according to state of atmosphere &c. 
Why applied to the 9d%xvloi is not 
clear: perhaps rays breaking diver- 
gently through clouds may be taken 
to represent a hand with fingers spread. 
Virgil JEn, YH, 26 has combined — or 
confounded — (oifo$, and itgononsn. in 
Aurora in roseis fulgehat luiea bigis* 
Arist. Khet, III. 2. 13 remarks on the 
poetic superiority of ^080$, to <poivi- 
%o9ti%t. or. igv9'go8d%t, 

3. §l(poq, this was probably the 
fpdeyavov which the suitors wield in 
%. 74, 90; persons of free birth com- 
monly wore it, cf. Thucyd. I. 6 on 
. the habit of oi^rigotpogBiv long retained 
in Greece , which Aristotle {PoL II. v.) 
associates with the traffic in women as a 
mark of barbarous manners. The spear 
is borne, as by Mentes a. 104, and 
Theoclymenus 0. 282, who were tra- 
vellers, so here by Telem., who had 
been all night thinking of his journey 
(a. 444) and prepared for it at once. 



The ** sceptre" is afterwards presented 
by a herald, 37—8. 

5 — 6. epaXlyx. the simple aXCy%iog 
occurs twice (mar.). xtiqvxbC. see 
on a, 109. kLyv<p9'., a rarer epith. 
for the heralds is ^Bgofptovoi, "raising 
the voice", S. 505. 

11. oix olog, these words, used also 
where human attendants (mar.) are 
added, show a sense of comradeship 
between dog and man which culminates 
in the episode of Argus in 9. 291 foil., 
where dogs for the chase (r. 436) are 
distinguished from mere household pets, 
or watch -dogs (xganBlriBg .^vgaotgoi 
X, 69), like Eumseus' in f. 29 foil., g. 
200. These last recognize the deity, 
of Pallas (tt. 162 — 3) when Telem. does 
not. From A, 50 we may suppose the 
Greeks took dogs over sea to Troy. 
aQyol, this word has no connexion 
with igyov, which retains its / in H. ; 
the dgy6g=s d-egyog is post-Homeric. 
Here it seems to mean (i) '* stalwart, 
powerful", cf. its use for posg (^, 30), 
and (2) "swift", as defending on 
strength of foot: cf. noSag'urjg epith. 
of Achilles, dgyCnodsg also of dogs 
(51. 211), smdiAgnvia noSagyq^ sug- 
gestive of ugiy)- or a^(x)- as root, as 
in dg%Btv dgrjysLV (Donalds. New CraL 
§ 285). A totally distinct radical sense 
is "white" or rather "glistering", as 
in dgyr^g^ dgyivoBig^ dgyvcpsog or -tpogf 
icgyvgog, agyUXog, argenium, argiUa. 

12. See mar. for similar %dgig given 
to Odyss. and Penel. 

14. O'fjixog^ or open form &6(a%og 26, 



DAY n.] 



OAT2323EIA23 B. 15—31. 



35 



i^totdv d* iTtsid'* iJQCDg Alyvitxiog ^qtC*' iyoQSvsLVj 
8g dij jnJQat xvg)dg ifjv xal (ivQia^ ^Srj. 
Tcal yag tav tpCXog vldg S^i' dvtiS'ip 'OSvdijv 
llvov^ slg sv%GiXov ifiij xoiXyg^ ivl vriv^lv^ 
"Avxi^fpog alxfifivqg' tdv d' Rygvog ixtavs KvxXfotlf 

zo iv Cjc^i^ ylag>VQ^y nviiarov d' (i%XhS6ato Soqtcov.^ 
TQStg 9i ol akkov icav xal o (ihv iivri6riJQ0vv^ ofiilstv, 
EvQVvofi,ogJs Svo d' al^v ixov^ natgoivu igya''^ 
dkX'^ ovd'i (Sg tov Xijd'st^ oivgdiiBvog^ xal a%eiimv. 
xov^ 8 ya 8dxQV %ivav dyoQi}6ato xal fistisiTtBv 

Z5 ''xixXvxB^ d^ vvv (isvy ^d'axijdioc, Srrt xav etnm' 
ovtB no%'^ '^(iBtiifri dyoiftj ydvBt^ ovta d'daxog^ 
i^ ov *09v66Big itog i§ri xoiXijg ivl vrivcCv. 
vvv Sh tig o5d'^ ijysiQB; tlva %QBim^ toffov iXBi 
1^^ VBGiv avSgSy ^ oF TtQoyBvd^tSQoi BlfSiv\ 

'p^i xiv^ dyysXiijv CtQatov ixXvav igx^i''^'^^''^ ^^ 
^v X* ^f*^v iSdg>a aticov^ Srs* ^Qotsgog ya Ttv^ottOy 



a f€. 345, a. S49, 

V 359, X- ^^^* 

2. 249. 
b fi. 188, u. 188, 

B, 213, Jf. 355, 

T. 219, <P. 440, 

cf. *F. 812. 
c X. 169. ^ 71, E. 

551, II. 576. 
d /f. 27, a. 211, a. 

181, H. 389, X. 

116. 
e «.344, .^.86; cf. 

«. 369, «F. 158-9. 
fa.266.jJ.288,881. 

S S: 737.' 

i /J. 127, d. 318, 

X. 98, ^ 222, 344; 

cf. /J. 117, ij. 97. 
k cf. o. 355, 9€. 

144-5. 
1 a. 6 mar. 
m d. 100, ^. 40, J. ' 

612, n. 128. 
n 00. 425, ^ 142; 

cf. X 426. 
o cf. C. 239. 
p /9. 14 mar. 
q a. 182, App. A. 

10 mar. 
r a. 225 mar. 
8 /9 42-4, a. 408, 

'JB. 150. 
tc.l8»;cf.a.47,229. 



16. fi^ri, 18. fUiov, 21. J^ot. 



22. figya, 
31. fiinoi. 



24. itBtiJ^stnBv* 25. J^ninm. 



18. Isrl. ^ 22. ^vo d' alXot alii, Qtrumqne Arist, Schol. H. ^ 24. Tori^HarL 

Clark., TOvg Harl. mar.; o^e; danQvximv. 26. ovd'^ ... ov^l alii; ovt€ xoo 

Arist. 28. ^xst. 31. ort Schol. H. 



means (mar.) both xa^i^^a as here, 
and awi9QiOvi it was like the stately 
seat of "smoothed stones", whereon 
sat the yigovtsg "in a sacred circle'* 
in the Assembly {2, 504). All the 
people, however, usually sat (2, 246 
— 8). On ^Anogy d'&%og and ^oa^oo 
see on 336 inf. yiQOvteq, not ne- 
cessarily in age , but in rank the first. 
Thus in the II. Diomedes is of the 
number, although quite young. In the 
Greek camp, and at the court of Al- 
cinous we find yigovtsg (mar.). 

16. yAoat, this datiye depends on 
livgia ^017 as well as on nvtpog ifjv, 
cf. naXaui ts noXXd xs slSmg^ inf, 188. 
The statement that the iyoQrj had not 
met so long gives us a measure of the 
importance of the step of convening 
it, and of the public prominence into 
which Telem. thereby starts. 

22. EvQVV^, the party of the suitors 
would naturally lie among the younger 
Ithacans v. 51, but there was a lack 
of elder men to control them, these 
having gone to Troy and left a wide 



social chasm behind them. We may 
suppose that the father .£gyptiu8, now 
yrjQat nvtpog, was just too old, and 
the three sons mentioned, too young 
for service then; hence the suitors* 
party now might be both numerous and 
headstrong. Thus viot and fcgoysvi" 
atsgot of V. 29 indicate parties; cf. a. 
395. eqya, used of men, when not 
qualified, as by noXsfifjicc y ^aXdaaiaj 
means agriculture, of women, weav- 
ing etc. 

25. xixXvre, with gen. here, as below 
V. 30 with atcus. ; see on a. 281. '9'do- 
xog, "assembly", see above on 14, 
and cf. 69 Oifttctog rj r' dv$Q&v dyo- 
Qug .... liccd'^isi, 

28—31. For c5d' see App. A. 10; for 
XQBKO see on er. 225. xoifov "to such 
an extent", cannot agree with xqbvo) 
which is fem., cf. %QBiot ivay^aiji 0, 
57; so the adjectives Si^fiiov, toiov^ 
a. 31^, do not agree^with %Q§ioi in 312. 
For ^€ • • • ^ and 97€ • • • iia see App. 
A. II. axqaxov • • • • agxofi^, ^ e. 
the Greek army returning, see on a. 



* 



36 0ATSSEIA2 B. 3«— 47- [l>AY II. 

* 5b4, i^. '239/p.* ^fi r6 Silfivov^ alio 7CC(pay6xBtaL^ tj8* dyogeiiBt; 
b/i. 44. ia^log (loi Soxst slvat,^^ 6v^[isvog. sl^s ot aixS 

*^^ 415, v'.l*/ Zfv^ dya^dv teki^suvj ou q>QE6lv^ ^61 ^svocvdJ' 
^. n\\ M4. ' Sg (pdxo^ %alQB 81 qytjlii]^ ^O8v06'^os (pCXog vtog, o 

e V. 100, 105, 120. y 9.9 ff i p r ^ \ T ^ » ^ ^9 j f 

f/J 397, C.33, /?. OVQ aQ BXL^ O^V 1^0X0, H£V0LVri6€V O ayOQBVSlVj 

t cf.*i^*79.' * 0xil^ SI (ii0y dyoQy' CxrjjtxQOV^ Sd oC i^fiaJiB xblqI 

h V. 568, ^. 234 -"vstt^' ' '^ h PJt ' 

-8, B. 101, K, XTIQV^^ nSl01]VG}Q nSTCVVfiSVa ^flOBU^ BLOCDg, 

i H. 278* * 7tQ(Sxov IxBixa yiQovxtt xad'axxofiBvog^ ngogiBiJcav 

4«, >. 325,' ^\ ^'cJ ydQOVy ov% Bxag"" oixog dnJQ {xdxa S* Btasav ccvxog) 4, 
I ^. W! /?.* 240, OC Xaov riVBLoa' adlicxa 8b it' dXyog [xdvBt,^ 

y. 345, 6. 127, „ ,", -/ ^ • ^ i . » 

/z. 421. oinrf rti/ ayyBALijv (SxQaxov ixkvov BoxofiBvotOj 

n k. 53. 2.* 465, ^V %' vftrv <fa9?a sfecj ore TCQdxsgog yB TCvd^oifiTjv^ 

^.'93. ' ' ' ovXB XI SriiLLOv^ akXo 7tig)ccv0xo(iaL ovS* dyoQBvoD^ 
pa. 409. ^'^ dXX* i/tioj/P avxov XQ^^og^ o ft06 xaxbv ^^7CB0bv otxG)^ a 

cf. a. 76. oota • TO ttci/, TtaxsQ BCd-Xov aTCOABOa. og 710X BV vaiv 

r 8. 234, $. 62, 138 * * ^^ « i ^/i > J^J t. i/ , y 

-9; cf. ^. 448, XOigOB60VV^ paaUBVBy 7taX1]Q O COg ^TCLOg' 1JBV' 
d. 090 — 3 

3i» foi, 34, tpq^al J-^ei. 37. /^ot. 38. ^Bidmg. 39. nqoaifhiiCBV, 
40. /{xcfg J^s£asat. 43. J^sCnat, 45. SoCnat, 

41. ^yftpa Zenod., Schol. H. 42. aut ijtot^a pro ay^jaX/^v , ant ^lov pro 

i%lvov legisse Zenod. testatnr Schol. H. 44. pro ov9' ri^*, 45. ita Arist., 

xaxa Aristoph., Scholl. B. H, M. E.; %a%ov ipLnBOS x^^og Ven. 

408. €i7toi, on this optat., which in- bear the e%YJye,, Menelans, making a 

fuses a tone of doubt into the sug- judicial appeal, receives it» and so 

gestion of news of th6 army, and on Hector when 8wearin|^ to Dolon (mar,); 

the moods of the passage here and as cf. Arist. PoL III. 9. o dh OQHog f^v tov 

repeated 42 — 3, see App. I. 9. (18). cni^ntgov inavdezaaig. The previous 

33. ovijfievoq, ue.stri, ^'mayhebe speaker here accordingly has it not, 

gratified" t= I wish him well! cf. fiij being a mere private person. 

vvv ovci^firiv Soph. CEd. Tyr, 644, and 39~~4i* xnt^d^jtx*, this participle 

ovaio (Ed, Col. 1042. The elosely si- bespeaks impressiveness , used kindly 

milar forms of some parts of the dif- or harshly according to context (mar.), 

ferent verbs ovlvT^fii and ovofiai should ovroq specially notes the person spoken 

be noticed (Donalds. Gfr, Gr. p. 301). of as related to the person addressed; 

The revival of the uyoQ^ naturally "you will ,find jyour man not far off*', 

gratifies the old man who had doubt- Scan v. 41 og Xa\6v 7J\ysi^u etc. — lxd» 

less spoken in it in his 'youth. Ob- vei is used especially of physical states 

serve also the thought of news from or mental emotions arising; so with 

the army uppermost in his mind, as VTtvog, fiogog, nivd'og, xatpog (mar.), 

having a sou there. 43—5. c^co^subjuUct., App.A..9.(i8). 

35- 7' viMiy word or phrase of o, see on a. 382. xaxov, xaxa, read 
omen, such was the last part of the by Aristoph., is justified by the ad- 
previous speech in 33—4. For hi be- missibillty of hiatus after 4^** foot in 
fore Sriv see on a. 186. 0xiJ7t;XQOV, heroic hexam, La Roche p. 17; but in 
this was the badge of public office. 0. 375 xaxoy ^(in, ofxco recurs, also 
Telem. having summoned the assembly, the Yen., reading %a%QV i^n, ytrjdog, 
it was his ea; officio to address it, as favours %a%6v. 6 Old agrees with both 
well as from his occupying the naxqog the evils following (46 — 8). 
^(oyLog V. 14. Thus judges and heralds 47. vfiiv void., "you here**, see 



DAY H.} 



0AT2SEIAS B. 48—54. 



37 



vvv d' av 9tal xoXv (isitov, o di} tdxa olxov aitavta 
Ttuyxv SiUQQttifSai^^ fiiotov d' aTCo Ttd^Ttav 6XiiS6ai. 
50 iii^tdQL fto^^ iivi]iJt^Qsg ijtdxQccor^ ovx i^sXov6rj , 
tSv avSgrnv <piloL vhg oi ivd'dds y eielv aQtCtoi^^ 
oi TtatQog (ihv ig olxov diCBQQlyaOi viefS^at^ 
*IxaQiov^^ Sg % avtog isdvcieaito^ dvyavQUj* 
dolri d' 0) x' id'iloc xa£ of xsxccQcaiidvog^ il^oc* 



a a.4u4;cf. ^.428, 

«. 221, t 828, t. 

459. 
bjT. 771, «F. 156-7. 
c IT. 352— «, 9. 396, 

X. 64, 0). 69, 4> 

369. 
d a. 245, T(. 251. 
e cf. 0. 16. 
f App. A. 14 mar. 
g cf. fi. 225-6. 



48. J^oinov. 52. ft^v J^otnov, 53. J^muQLOv ij^sSvmeccito, 54. J^04. 
50. ftTjrpt t' ^f*i. 53. pro wg Sg SchoL P. 54. Soiri . . . id'ikrj, il9-jf Rec. 



Donalds. Gr, Ch. §. 239. xax^Q. Ari- 
stotle [Pol, I, 5, in. 4) bases royalty 
on the paternal relation, quoting the 
Homeric title natiiQ ivSgrnv X8 d-smv 
T£ as suitable to the soyereign of all 
things, and says that despotism trans- 
gresses by ruling for one's own in- 
terest, disregarding that of the ruled, 
whereas the rule oyer one's children 
includes their benefit as a motive; cf. 
ib. IV. 8. The heroic monarchy is the 
fourth kind enumerated and examined 
by him {ib. III. 9). Contrast with this 
Achilles* reproach to Agam.. in A, 231 
as a SrjfioPoQog pocciXsyg, which again 
might largely be illustrated from Pol, 
V. 9. So Penel. speaks {9, 691 foil.) of 
the practice of kings in general and 
of the character of Odys. in particular, 
which Eumseus (g. 62, 138 foil.) illus- 
trates. Some points of a popular king*s 
character are fair division of spoil etc. 
((. 42, A, 704), protecting refugees {n, 
424), uprightness in administering jus- 
tice (t. Ill, 21. 387 foil,), princely re- 
cogpiition of services (^. 38 foil.), and 
general hospitality (Ni.); in this last 
duty, however, his "gifts" supported 
him, so that what was partaken of 
was reckoned ^iffita, P. 248 foil.; cf. 
v. 264. 

48 — p. xoXv fieZ^ov, in reference 
to his house (%a%6v . . . o^xa> 45) the 
suitors' licence and pillage were worse 
than his father^s death. This gives 
great rhetorical force to his complaint. 
diaQifalOsi, anoQQaCm occurs (mar.) 
with double accus. : ^aCta simple, akin 
to dgiacm, is used of ship-wreck and 
other violent sundering. This hint of 
its meaning may be gathered from its 
derivatives, fat^xrig the smithes *' ham- 
mer ", d'vpLOQoc'CavTjg "life - crushing ", 



and nvvoQa'Caxijg the "dog -tick" (2V. 
544 » Q' 300), 

50 — I . fioi refers the action dis- 
tinctly to the person speaking. Do- 
nalds. 6fr, 6r, % 459 a a, calls this a 
"dat. of special limitation". It im- 
plies a closer personal interest in the 
fact stated than !/*§ would convey. 
i7tixif€iOv, this and its simple verb 
occur in H. only in the imperf., which 
loses its proper force, meaning, "have 
been and are worrying": see the si- 
mile in which it describes wolves wor- 
rying kids (mar.). This passage seems 
to have suggested to Dissen the resto- 
ration, doubtful however, of a frag- 
ment of Pindar (44), dXoffp noxl '9'(d- 
gaxd'slg inixQOCSv aXlotglif. vleg, so 
in the last dyoQ^ (co. 456 — 7) the 
Ithacans are reminded of their sons* 
recklessness having brought ruin. Sqi-' 
ifxoif from Ithaca there were 12, all 
agiatOL (mar.). 

52—4. aTtego. "abhor", ue, "shrink 
from the trouble", — a well -chosen 
word, especially if Icarius abode, as 
a SchoJ. supposes, in Ithaca; as mean- 
ing, "they give her the greatest an- 
noyance instead of taking the least 
trouble themselves". Annother suppo- 
sition, that Icarius abode in Sparta, 
does not well suit Pallas* words to Te- 
lem. in 0. 16. It seems assumed that, 
when a widow remarried, she did so 
from her father's house and with con- 
sent of her relatives; i, e,, her hus- 
band's right failing, that of her family 
revived. isifvioO*, see App. A. 14: 
the optat. here and in v. 54 is forcible 
as if "to give him the chance of so 
doing, if he pleased^\ see Jelf Gr, Gr. 
§ 807 ^. The subject of A-d-ot is bor- 
rowed from the object of SoCri^ Sovvai 
being understood after i&sXoi. 



38 



OATSSEIAS B. 55—70. 



[day II. 



a 0. 594— B. 

bi 301, ^.%% 0- 

&13. m. 267. 
c *. 3S4, Ml, L 

340, y 352. 

a. 25. 
e o. lSO-1, V. 24, 
ff, 278-80; cf. 

f a. 226 taw. 
X.251;of.X47». 



S 



d.689,<p. 94, cf. 



i y. 208, M. 334, 
71'. 485, n. 612, 
i2.489;af.d.767, 
O 378, 598, y, 
199, 

k ^. 134. 

1 J. 402. 

m S. 212, T. 104, 
100, cf. 12 488. 

n O. 52, 203. 

H. 41, y. 639. 

p cf. X. 66, f . 324, 
o. 261, ±. 338. 

q r.4; cf. 9f.403, 
y€. 238. 

Tr.68, cf. A419, 
&. 422. 

8X416,cf.<».379. 



j3d% kQ€vovTE£^ xal ol^ xal Jt£ovag adyug^ 

8iXcc^ii/dtov&tv^ nivov&l rs ai^oyta olvov 

pt^aij^idiejg- rd dh itolXd xaxdvBxaiS ov yaq in* dv^Q 

ri^slg S" ov vv tt totov d^iwd^ev jJ kuI innxa \ 

lavyaXioL r' i66(ie6d'ay xal oi SedarjX&vsg^ dlxifv. 

^ r* av diivvaifirjv, et (lov ivvafiig ys Ttagsiij, 

ov yaQ h^ dv6%^d iQya x&chv%atav^ odi* Stv xaXdSg 

olxog i^dg didkcoXe. VBiis06fjQ7ite xal avtoly 

SilXovg tr' aldi6^ta^ nsQixtCovag"^ dvd'Qoiyeovgy 

OL TCSQLvautdovOc d'emv d' vno8 Bits axe (I'^viv, 

ftif XV ^Bxa0XQi^(o6iv^ dya(f6d(iBV0v° xaxct i)ya. 

U66oitac iq^hw Ztivog ^OXviiniov ijdi ®i(iL6xogy'^ 

^ t* dvigcSv dyogdg ijaiv Xvec i^dh xad't^e^J 

6xifS%'By* q>CXoij xaC ft' olov id6axs Tcivd'Bt Xvyg^ 



57. fotvov, 59. foC%ov, 63. figya. 64. J^ot%og. 67. figya. 

55; iJ/f€ti^ot; Ven.; cf. Hy. Merc. 370, Herodot. 1. 35. 60. '^fj^stg ov « w et 

ov vv tot Tjfiai^g; f>ro %a£ Schol. hsv. 63. pro maXAs Hejn. nccXd, coll. 

Z. 326, N, 116. 70. ita Arist., fiif (i* olov Aristoph. 

64—6. The argument, appealiug to 
their sense of wrong, of shame, and of 
awe for the gods, rises in an ascending 
scale. XBQixzl. (whi.'^h is explained 
by the reL clause following, see on 
noXvxgonov og fi^dXcc %, t. X, ce, 1 — 2,) 
occurs nowhere else in the Ody., while 
nsgivcuBX. is not found in the II. (Ni.). 

67—^. fiBXttOXQ.^ "repent", i. e, no 
more allow you; sometimes voov fol- 
lows, completing the sense fmar.), here 
fiijviv preceding suggests some such 
word. Crusius takes igya following as 
its object, "rebuke your misdeeds'*. 
Zfivoq ••• ^ifitax.,^^en, of adjara- 



58. ^ce^id., this word, save in 
the phrase (i. dXaXti^d's or -^at y. 72, 
leads the line in which it stands, as 
does also ficctp nearly always, xaxd" 
VBxai, the simple ceroo, primary of 
dvv(Of is found always save once (mar.) 
with a. — €7t' is here insati. 

59. difiiv, dg-q **woe** has a, dg'^ 
** prayer^' or '* curse" has a in H., but 
the latter is always in arsis; hence 
most Lexicons (see Liddell & S. and 
Crusius 8. V.) give them, as the same 
word; but in 135 in/*, dgiicsx' is in 
thesis, showing that a^is natural in 
apcto/Ltat, and therefore in ff 9^. Thus 09^ 
is a distinct word. 

60 — 2. " And we are no ways able to 
repel (the wrong) 5 — sure enough in that 
case ((. e, in case we were) we should 
be (lit. shall be)- poor creatures, and 
incapable of a bold deed; of course I 
would resist, if I had only the power". 
Ni. compares Ov. Heroid, 1. 97---8, Tres 
sumus imbeUes numero, sine virihus uxor, 
Laertesque senex, Telemachusque puer. 
xoloi is =3 the Attic ofo^^Tf , ^ and Ov 
^e^aijx^^iljB.imnescii. ri x' av shows 
that it is T£ elided not tot in crasis 
(Ni.).. 



tion, referred by Donalds. Gr, Gr. § 453 ee 
(a) to "relation": ngog or vnlg more 
commonly assists this construction: with 
XCccoyJat und. v^iag. The deities etc. 
in such adjurations are chosen j^ro re 
natd; here, in presence of the otyogri^ 
Zeus and Themis are preferred (cf. 
mar.). Themis is ** ordinance" perso- 
nified: it is hers to conyene the Olym- 
pian Assembly (mar.), as here that of 
men. Gi^i^ig has accus. Gifit6xcc. xa- 
^1^*9 transit., elsewhere neut. (mar.). 
70. axB^B-e, 9. "hold, friends" — 
to the Ithacans, viewed as abetting 



DAY II.] 



OAT2J23EIA2: B. 71—85. 



39 



r6iQS6d'\ si ftij Tcov ri jipat^Q ifiog ia^Xdg *Odv60svg 
dvgfieviov xdx* igel^sv ivxtnj(iuSag ^Axaiovg^ 
tSv fi' dTCOtttwfiBvoi xaxct ^i^sts Svgfvsvdovtsg^^ 
tovtovg itQVvovtsg, ifi^l S4 xs xigStov^ bIti 

y^ viiiccg idd'^iievccv xsiiiijXcd ts ngd^aeiv xs. 

si X v^stg ys (pdyovxsy td% &v note xal tC6vg^ sltj- 
x6tfQu ydg &v xaxd &fftv nrxixxv66oi(isd'a^ {ivQ'p 
XQW^''^' djcai^xCiovxsg^j Smg x^ dnd Ttdvxa Sod'siij' 
vvv 8i [IOC djtQijxtovg^ divvag iiifidXXsxs d^iip^' 

80 (Sg^ q)dzo X'^o^isvog^ itoxl SI ax^xxgav fidXs yaiy^ 
ddxQv* dva7tQfJ0ag'^ olxxog tf' SXs Xadv anuvxa. 
^vQ"^^ aXXoi [ihv Ttdvxsg dxriv iaav, oifdi xig hXij 
IhfjXsiiaxov fivd'oi0Lv^ dfisiil^aCd'ai jKaA^jroftf ^t/ * 
'Avxlvoog Si (ilv olog dfisifidfisvog %Qogisv%sv 

85 "Trjlsfiax'^ v^ayo^^ (isvog atSx^^^^ stotov Ssmsg 



a V. 314. 

b /?. 320 et sapist, 

to 289. 
c icf. X' W— 7, lb. 

357-8. 
d d. 647, y. 22, ^. 

&09. X. 451. 
e d 651, q. 222, 

228,346,502,558, 

V. 179. 
f At. 223, cf.x.202, 

568. 
gr-4. 245 
h I. 433, n. 349 

-50; cf. ^. 427. 
1 A. 22 cf. I. 430. 
k ^. 395. 
1 a. 385 mar. 
m y. 104. 



77. faictv. 84. ngoaiJ^Hnsv* 85. ifBtnsg. 

72. ^QS^Bv Yen. (| k manu sec. adscript^). 77. nQO%inxvisaoCyi>B^a Harl. Yen. 

Ambros. cam Scholl. 81. 9oL%Qva Q'SQft^u ximv Zenod., ScholL H. M. Q. B. 

82. ita Herman. Bek. Dind. secuti Schol. S., .ovts libri. 



{otQvvovteg 74) the suitors — **and 
leave me to pine merely with sorrow! 
Unless it be that my father (said iro- 
nically) ever wrought the Achseans ill, 
then in requital go on wronging me'\ 
Take oIqv with tslq£6. used as a noun: 
it might also, however, as in X, 416, 
agree with ^is. 

73—7. aTtoxivvfi,, some edd. doable 
the Vy needlessly, as thm has I in H. 
Spitzner Gr. Pros, § 5^, 3 c. vfiiaq, 
he is addressing the ccyogrif i, e» na- 
tive Ithacans, many of the suitors being 
aliens. :toxi7txvOO., "we (I and Pe- 
nel.) would address you with our plea", 
probably a legal phrase, with a formal 
plea at law intended, which the ayog'^ 
would decide; see App. A. 4 (3) (4). 
The verb, not found in the II., means 
sometimes merely to address, also to 
embrace (mar.) 

78—9. aTtaixi^., the simple alxCim 
(which is not found in the II.) always 
includes some notion of importunity, and 
is used for a beggar, thus joined with 
KtfTa Sijfiov etc., as an act which is 
(mar.) inconsistent with alifmgi so 
XQVfifxra iu .sense of property is not 



found in the II. dxi^iixt. '* without 
redress ". 

80 — 2. This same line describes the 
action of Achilles under strong emo- 
tion in public (mar.), ^o doubt this 
was meant to add dignity to our im- 
pressions of the young Telem,, warm- 
ing out of indecision and reserve to a 
burst of generous'indignation, like the 
hero of wrath. The words 9d%gv* iva- 
ngi^eagy however, sufficiently distin- 
guish the two. Achilles has tears ready 
in torrents f<^ his friend's loss , but 
not when provoked by injury, kaov, 
see App. A. 4 (3): th^e word has more 
personal force than Srjitov, dxTip^ see 
App. A. 16. 

85—7. The words i^ay.,/fivo$ aCx* 
are used in derision cloaked under iro- 
nical deprecation; see App. E. 3, and 
6 (i). The speech assumes that the 
suitors are rather the injured party 
than the injurers — a shrewd piece of 
impudence , meant to evade the appeal 
of Telem. and make him ridiculous. 
This banter recurs in 302. fid>fiov 
dvdiff, *'to fix derision on us*' — a 
phrase occurring only here. 'Axaci* with 
fivTiCtjJQsg as with novQOh visg etc. 



40 



OATSSEIAr B. 86—104. 



[day n. 



A A. 153, r'.164. 
b y. 322, 709. 
c cf. /?. 106-7, V. 

877 
4 V 294, <p. 312; 

cf. i,42, ¥^.834. 
^ ^. 40. 
f *. 136 — 56, o». 

12S-46. 
^ef./9.424— 5, 431. 
h X. 223. 
i Q. 174, 9t. 248; 

cf. a. 148 mar. 
k I. 318. 
1 a, 332, ^. 363. 
m /. 238, X. 171, 

398, S. 70, X. 

210. 
n d. 245 mar. 
o T. 32, i2. 554. 
p JT. 57, a. 207. 
q i. 585-7, 596--7, 

K. «ft-90. 



^ftAxff ato^^vt/aiv, id'eloig Si xs (imfiov ivdilfac. 
aol d' ov XV livijetri^sg ^AxaiSv aCtioi^ si^iv, 
dXla g)ilri t^^ijtrjQ, ^ toi jcigv xigdta^ oWsv. 
ijdri yccQ^ xqCxov iaxlv hog, x&%a d' sldv xixaQXOVy 
ig ov^ dxdiifist d'v^dv'' ivl 6x7Jd'£60tv ^Ayx.mv, 
TC&vxag [iBV ^' iXiitev xal vitCo%BX(u avSql ixdexp 
dyyalCag %Q0XBt6a, voog Si ot &XXa (levoiva. 
'q^ Sh S6X0V x6vS' aXkov ivl (pQsal fLS(f(iijQii€V' 
axri6a(iiv7i^ (liyav idxov ivl (isydQOtiScv vtpacvBv, 
XBXXdv^ xal TCBQifiBXQOV' &tpaQ S* ^ftft/ (iBxi6vn;Bv 
'xovqol'^j ifiol ^vijhx'^Qsg, iiCBl d'dvB Stag *0Sva6Big, 
(li^vsx*^ i^BvyoiiBvoc xov ifidv ydfiov^ Big 3 xa ipaQog 
ixx6li6(xi, (iTJ (IOC ^Bxa^civta^ mjimx* olrixaty 
AaiQxy rfgcDi xaqyijcov, slg oxs xiv fiiv 
liolQ* 6X07} xad'iXji^i xavriXsyiog'^ d'avdxovo, 
^7J xCg (lOL xaxd S^(iov ^JxaudScnv vb(ib6ii0i]^ 
at XBv &XBQ 07cb(qov^ XBtXKL^ noXXd xxBaxC60agJ '^ 
Sg i(pad'\ rifitv S* avr' iitBTtaid'BXO d^^og dy^jvoQ, 
ivd'a xal i^fiaxirj (ilv vgxaivBaxBv*^ (liyav iCxov, 



i( 



88. foiSsv, 89. fizog, 91. fiiv,FiXn8i fsndattp. 92. /ot. 

95. fietij^emsv. 

^6. ita Harl., yulg. id'iXeig; 91 xal HarL 93. iiLSQfiiiQiisv Harl. cum var. 

lect. -isv. "88 — 9 qui scripait, veraus omisit 93 — no'*, Herman, ap. Bek. 

98. iistafimlM Schol. P., fiSTaittovLtt Harl. 103. x^rcrt Yen., ita Wolf. Bek. 



88 — 9. xiQi, as at «. 66, so inf, 116. 
The words xqlxov hxlv it, and ritaq- 
tov may be reconciled with 106 — 7 by 
supposing T^. itog to mean '* third 
completed year", and thus with iaxlv 
= "the third year is ended", and tdxa 
d' si. tstttQ. = "the fourth year will 
soon come to an end"; on the other 
hand titQ. nX9'8v h» 107, means "the 
fourth year", not complete, but co^n- 
meneing. This reckoning is confirmed 
by V, 377, **£he suitors are now three 
years (xgietsg) lording it in thy palace. 
A Schol. explains xdxoc sl6i as = xa- 
ximg 9iiQX8xai "is swiftly passing", 
which at once strains the language and 
yields a poor sense. 

91—6. eXxeiy active only here in H. 
dXXov, "besides" what was mentioned 
in 91. fiifiVBT*, the force of this word 
here is hardly more than a negative, 
nolite properare: for a similar sense of 
the partic. (Livovxi see mar. 



97—100. eiq o X€, here with sub- 
jnnct. (so mox inf, with •HM^'iXr^isC) 
takes also opt., with the usual dis- 
tinction of a principal or a historic 
tense having preceded. Of the fut. ind. 
Dind. retains one instance in '9'. 318 
axco^ootfst, where Bek. and others read 
subjunct. AH other apparent cases of 
the fut. in H. with slg xe may be epic 
subjunct. Laertes having no female 
relative, this provision for his death 
devolved on Penel. before quitting her 
home. 

102. X€2r«, Buttm., Gr, Verbs s. v, xsr- 
ficciy says, "Wolf has altered, according 
to the Venet. MS., the old reading of 
the text %sCxai (which as indicat. would 
be certainly incorrect), to a conjunct, 
x^rcei. But this was unnecessary, as 
by an old usage xer/Ltat, xs^xai served 
for both conjunct, and indicat." 

104—7. ^^^ *^^ combination of the 
form in -citov, marking continued or 



DAY n.] 



OATSSEIAS B. 105—126. 



41 



D5 vvxtag d' dllvs6xev,^ insl^ datdag naga^stto^ 
Sg tglstsg^ (ihv ilrid-e ddXp xal inei^Bv ^Jxaiovg- 
dkX' ots zitQtxtov ijld'sv hog oucl ijcqlv^ov dgai^^ 
xal tore Sij rig hms yvvai^TtSv^ fi ad<pa^ V^V^ 
xal tijv y* ccXXtjov^ocv Bg>€VQO(isv dylaov Uixov. 

10 Sg x6 iihv iiaril600s xal odx f'^iXov6\ vn,* dvayxrig- 
60I d' wds livijOT^fsg vnoTCQCvovtm ^^ Zv^ siSyg 
avtog (f© d^fiucSy si^<S0L Sh xdvtsg ''J^ftmL 
(irize^a^ (f^p dn6ne[itlJ0Vj &vi»x%'L Si (itv ya^nia^^ai^ 
rp Srerf re lumig xslerat xal avSdvBi avxfi, 

15 ei 6 iz"* dvitjOH fs noXvv %q6vov vtag ^A%aifav^ 
xa ipQOviov<S^ ivd d'y^nov a of niQv dtSxsv '^O^'i^, 
i^a^ X* ihtC0x<ead'av TtaQvxaXkia xal (pgivag i0d'Xdg 
xi^Ssd^ ^\ oV ov jtcD tiv* dxavo^ev ovdh xaXavSv, 
{zdiDv at itdgoQ f^oav ivjtXoxa^t8£g°* ^A%aial^ 

zo Tvi^d^ z 'AXxiifjvfj ZB iv6zifpav6g zb Mvxffvt]' 
zdcov ov zig ifiota vorjiiaza nrivaXoytaiy^ 
gtfiy* dzaQ ^iv zoOzo y'P ivaicifiov ovx ivoTidav) 
t6q)Qa^ ydq ovv fiCozov zs zbov xal xzij^az* iSovzai^ 
otpqa^ XB xbCvti zovzov Ixy voovy ov zvvd oC vvv 

25 iv 6Z7Jd'B00v zid'Bt6c^ %'Boi, ^iya fi£i/ xXiog airtfi 
X0LBtz\ avzaQ 0oC ya nod^v noXiog jStoroto. 



a 2.585-7, 59(5-7, 

K. 489-90. 
b 10. 2.54, i2. 227. 
c 0. bm. 
d V. 377. 
e I. 295, I 294. 
f ^. 307, 153,373, 

01. 404, B. 192. 
ff H. 407, 170, 

*. 555. 
h a. 274 seq<|. 
i fi. 12s, a. 289. 
k a. 856,1/. 110- 1, 

97, X. 223. 
1 of. V. 255. 
m t. 542. 
nl. 235. 

cf. «r.279, P.51. 
!p 17.299; cf.«.190, 

a. 220. 

q /. 550-1.; cf. 
J. 220-1. 

r N. 732. 



106. tgiJ^stBg. 107. fsTog. 108. ^S-biub, S'^9rj, 
112. J^siSmai, 114. favBdvn.. 116. S^oi, 

124. S-oi. 



III. vnongivov^* tvcc fstd^g, 
117. figycc. 12a. J-fi^rj. 



106. erant qui leg^erent mg SiBzhg .... dXX' its dii xqCxov, coil. 89. ^ post^ 107 
nonnalli t. 153 inserebant. 114. alii avx& Bek. 115. 9i x* dvt^asiB 

Schol. H., dvCriGiv Schol. E., avnjorjGi Herman. 120. ivnX67ia(iog Harl. Yen. 
ed. Clark, 123. '^videntur fuisse qui ftotov. xov cov (vel §16x010 xsoif) fivrj- 
ex^QSg iSovxai legerent", Bek. 124. i%Bi Harl. 125. uixfig Schol. 

126. noQ'ii Arist. 



r^oeated actioii, with the optat. naga- 
^ii^xOy see App. A. 9 (20). Skvib'Sy 
the pres. Xri^'O} occurs r. 88, 91. For 
cSg XQiezBg x. r. X. some have wished, 
says ^a Schol. , to read mg dhxsg . . . 
dXX' 0x8 9ri xgixov; but in note on 89 
the text is shown to be admissible. 

109. laxov "web", but 94 "loom". 
So Dryden, of the spider, she "runs 
&lon{^ her loom^\ N. B,, in no to (i^v 
means igyovj for taxov is ace. of masc. 
nom. to tog, see 94. 

114. There is a similar change of 
subject for object here to that in*54 
sup., where see note. 



115 — 26. The parenthesis suspends 
the sense so far that in 123 x6q>QCC.,, 
the whole is virtually resumed, and 
the si d' ix' dvn^ost, n.x.X, of 115 is 
left without a formal apodosis. "If 
she will go on baffling the Achseans 
.... they so long will go on consuming 
thy substance as she retains this pur- 
pose." Further, the xdtov ov xig %.x.X. 
of 121 repeats independently the state- 
ment made depending on a%ovo{i,iv of 
118, and xal in 117 couples fpQivfcg icd'. 
KsgSBoi X* to the substantival clause 
^pya X* hiioxao^ai, srsptx. Thus tfgk- 
vag is not obj. of Inicx* dxdi^ "^^ "^^ ^m 



4^ 



OAXrSEIAS B. 127—134. 



[day II. 



a a. 288—9. 

b /J.262,V'.138— 9. 

c E. 218- 9. 

d 0. 280, V. 343—4, 

y. 76. 
e Zi. 223-4. 
f d. 110, 837, X. 

464, cf. 1. 701-2. 
g S, 194, d. 649, 

(w. 321, .4. 137. 
h S. 179, fT. 206, 

<». 651. 
i «. 396, C. 172, X. 

61,3* 64;cf.yJ27, 

ffl. 201, J. TO2, 

O. 403, r. 182. 



tov d' av Trii.diiccxog nsTCWfisvog avtCov tjiidu 

^aSsL^ 8 y' 17 tdd'vfJKS' Tcaxov di (le %6kV dnotCveiv 
ix yotQ TOtJ TtatQog xaxd^ Tteiao^aL^ aXXa Sh dai[icov^ 



127. ^igya. 130. dj^inovisav, 133. Fi%aqiqt, 
133. Harl. Ixcuv, Schol, H. By<ov, 137 t Arist. 



the blame here conveyed gains force 
from the encomium which leads up to 
it. BQya • • • xiQifed , for by a mix- 
ture of these she had baffled them. 

ivaiC ovx svo*, a phrase of po- 
lite but cold irony — "this device of 
hers was not judicious", or "for your 
interests". Antin. speaks not of the 
moral quality of the act, but only of 
its effect on their course of action, as 
shown by yag following. The word 
has another sense inf, 159, 182, "related 
to altfa", as **fate", t. e, "portentous": 
see also mar. 

TvQia, mother of Neleus and others 
by Poseidon and Cretheus (mar.) ; Mv" 
xii* daughter of Inachus. Ofioia Ilfiv*, 
"like (those of) Penel.", a contracted 
constrn. Ni. compares (pcovijv tanova' 
dXoxoiaiv S, 279. 

127 — 9. noieZr*, Donalds. Gr, Gr, 
139 says the apparent elisions of ai 
belong to syuizesis, — a rash doctrine, 
especially where, as here, a comma 
intervenes, see Jelf ^. ^. § 18. 5 and 6. 
Ttexwiu.. see on a. 213. 

132. go>€t . . • Ta-dy., this phrase, 
elsewhere introduced by ovSi xi oZda, 
l!8yi,BVy or the like, stands here abso- 
lutely; «r T€ might be understood to 
complete the sense; see App. A. 9 (i) 
and cf. idcaopLSv, 7! %bv tyciv ^ xa /*^«'17 
(mar.) where the latter clause contains 
a contingency yet to be decided, whereas 
^mi . . . 'csd'V7i%s stands as a fact ac- 
complished one way or the other, but 
unknown which.* fxcov , read for syoavt 
being really fsyimv, impedes the pro- 
sody. 

134. Some refer rov TtazQ* to'/xap., 
^^her father**, and explain xaxa nsi- 
aopLut, by noXX' dnozivsiv^ a weak 



meaning for words so strong. The 
whole speech (see App. E. 3) is frag- 
mentary and lacks sequence. Render, 
**ill were it for me to make large com- 
pensation to Ic. (as I must) , if of my- 
self I dismiss my mother. — Why, from 
that father (mentioned in 131) I shall 
have woe to suffer; further woe the 
powers above will add, since my mo- 
ther on going forth from home will 
invoke the abhorred Erinnyes (see on 
y. 310); indignation, too, from men will 
attend me." His father, if alive, would 
return to punish him; if dead, would 
retain a power to curse. aTtoxlv. pro- 
bably means that, as the injured hus- 
band re - demanded what he had given 
the father, when a wife was dismissed 
for adultery ('&•. 318), and the husband 
repaid what he had received in pre- 
sents etc., if she were sent away cause- 
lessly, so the same rule would apply 
to Telem. dismissing his mother as pro- 
posed; see App. A. 14. 

6atfjutiv, Nagelsb. , I. § 47, says, 
that although clear cases occur where 
SaliL. stands indifferently for ^gog, or 
for numen divinmn, yet only twice in H. 
has it a clear sense of god as helping, 
benefiting etc., and that in the Ody. 
the sense inclines mostly in malam par- 
tem , cf. the adj. Saifiovtog, a term 
of reproof; but cf. also oX^ioSca^fioav. 
Yet he rejects any notion of an inde- 
pendent coordinate power of evil, and 
connects with Saifioov the notion of 
divine agency as strange and myste- 
rious, and especially as exerted for 
harm. Hes. 0pp. 121 — 3 has a quite 
different view of Saifiovsg , as the spi- 
rits of the men of the golden age, 
who, departed this world, exercise in- 



DAY n.] 



OATSSEIAS B. 135—153. 



43 



otxov &%SQ%oiiivri' vspiSiStg^ 8d (lov i^ avd'Qcijtaiv 
l00Btav' Sg o{f tovrov iyd tcots nvd'ov ivi^co.'^ 
vfiiteQog 8^ si (ihv dvfiog vstieffi^staL^ ainSv^ 
iiiti^ (lot (isyaQmv, allag S^ ilsyvvBxs Satxag 

40 Vila xvijiiar^ Idovteg^ dfietfidfievoi xtxtd otxovg, 
st S' vfitv SoxiBV xoSb Imltsgov xcd &(isi,vov 
l(i(i6vav, dvdQog ivog fiiotov vijjcocvov hXia^ai^ 
xbCqbx*'^ iym Sh d^ovg iTtLfideoiiav alhv iovtag, 
bI^ xi TCod'L ZBvg 8(061 nakCvtixa igya yBvitS&at' 

45 vTJxoivoi XBV SitBixa 86(i(ov fvxoa^Bv oXoted'BJ' 

Sg ipdxo TijiBiiaxog ^ xp^ S^ atsxcb^ bvqvotcu ZBvg 
{nl)6%'BV ix xoQvq>'qg OQBog ye^odijxB TcixstSd'ai. 
rd tf' Bmg (liv^ ^' iTtixovxo (iBxd^ Ttvoifjg dv^fioto^ 
TtXrja^ci) dllijloLOc xixaivoyiiva}^ yexBQvyB60LV' 

50 dlX^ SxB di) fii60riv dyofTJv 7toXvg)riiiov^ txitfdijv, 
ivd'^ iicvSiwi^ivxB^ xtva^dadijv nxBgd nolXdy 
ig tf' ISixriv Tcdvxcav xBq)akdg i^aovxo^ tf' ZXbQ'qov^ 
dgvilja^iivm^ d' 6vvxB06t TeagBcdg dfitpi xb dBtgag 



a X, 2S0, J. 454» 

V. 78, O. 404, T. 

418, <h. 412. 
b a. 350 mar. 
e X. 148, q. 529, 

H.447; cf. tf.l, 

CO. 414. 
d cf. /?. 239-40, 

Z. 335. 
e a. 374-80. 
f /». 312, ttt. 459. 
gr (f. 51, A. 125— 9. 
h 0. 168, N. 821. 

i e. 246-7, n. 

292, o. 160—4; 

cf. JC. 274-5. 
k y. 126; cf. P. 

178, S. 599. 
I a. 98 mar. 
m X, 599, X. 23, 

V. 618. 



n X' 376. 

o i. 538, 

H. 269 



V 218, 



p a. 115, a. 389, 

97. SI, a. 154, t;. 

it,. A. 105, S. 

224, Si. 172. 
q cf. t. 426, 485, 

n. 824. 



136. Jroi%(yo, 140. foi%ovq, 144. Jrigya, 

144. %B Zavff dfl^crt F. ed. Ozon. 146. x& Codd. quatuor, xm tres, Bed 

horum Scholl. xm a^noscunt. 147. (pigsad'cci. i^fi* stms Schol. A, 193. 

149. nXrialov. 151. xiva^icd^v Rec; pro nolXa Harl. et pleriqne nvxva, ita 

Bek., cf. A. 454. 152. oaaavto Rhian. interp. Pors. 

ominous, they not being scared by it. 
ziva^dC; "shook ouf^; cf. «. 368, N, 243. 
oCOav. X. T. X. "looked with omen of 
destruction", see on a, 115, and cf. 
iEschyl. Sept, c. Th, 53 Isovxmv 0)9 
*ilp97 isdoQTioxoiiv, 

153* d^v^afi», the mid. voice shows 
that the birds pecked themselyes , not 
those in the ciyoQ'^ , &Qvnxm being (mar.) 
transitive. Etistathius mentions a notion 
of birds destroying themselves bein? an 
omen of ill. But by "themselves" he 
might mean "one another" iavtovg for 
.dXXi^lovgy cf. Soph. Ant 145, Jelf Ghr, Gr, 
§ ^54* 3) Teiresias Soph, Ant. 1003 so 
regards birds anSnnaq iv xtjlciiaiv aX- 
Irflovg (povatg. — 6€^Ld, either on the 
observers* right, or on the absolute 
right, t. e. Qie Eastern side (mar.). 
The gazers gave the omen its real in- 
terpretation, i. e. woe to the suitors. 
The reading ^fiBXXhv 156 is needless, 



flnence in it. oi^ not ozytone, which 
would mean "so that", but = ^*d 
"wherefore", ivly^at see App. A. 1. 
138. veil, aiixwv, "has any awe for 
all these", t e. the wrath of gods, 
Erinnyes, parents and men. The gen. 
is that of cause or motive (Donalds. 
Gr. Gr, § 453 66 (a)); see also the ex- 
amples of gen. with verbs of wondering 
etc. in Jelf Gr, Gr, § 49^, 499, 5oo,^and 

(mar.); but vefiaaiiofiai is not else- 
where found with gen. ; see on 239—40. 

139— 45- see oa a. 374 — 80. 

148. Sfog (scanned in synizesis) 
"awhile", t. e, really, while On their 
way in 146 — 7, This indefinite use is 
in correlative clauses common with ots, 
more rare with log (mar.). 

150—6. 7toXvg>., this well expresses 
the hum of voices rising into the air; 
which makes the birds* descent more 



44 



0ATESEIA2 B. 154—176. 



[pay n. 



a o. 164, Si. 320, 
K, 2JA, M. 239. 

b O. 488. 

c *. 137. 

d cf. 0. 172-8. 

e B. 36;cf.^.l60, 
233, J. 310, e. 
137. 

ro». 461-4. 

gr N. 431, n. 808, 

B. 530, S' 124, 

i2. 535. 
h ^.74, Z. 376, 

382. 
i ;i. 137, r. 7. 

k >. 81, X 347; 

P. 688. 
I cf. /?. 237, 283, 

|. 168 — 64, «. 

300—7, S5fi— 8, 

585-7. 

m ^. 82, O. 134. 

n cf. <o. 526—8. 

o £.21,$^. 212,234, 
t. 182. 

p /9. 241, 244, i». 

457. 
q Q. 417, V- 109. 
r M. 304, P. 41. 
s a. 210, a. 252, 

Z. 74. 
t a. 6, 7. 
u V. 191, 397. 
r p. 327, 1^. 102, 

170. 
w X. 432, r. 132, 

xf/. 72. 
X c. 302, v. 178, a. 

271 , B. 329-30. 

X. 48. 



tot0c^ Sh xal (isthvTCS ydgcav ^Qog ^AXi^igCrig 
Ma0TOQ(Srig* yAg olog SiirjXvxiriv ixixaaro^ 
iiQVid'ag yvtSvai xal ivaitStfia (ivd^ffcc^d'ar^ 
6(piv ivfpQOvicDv dyo^iSccto xccl iisthtTtsvi j 

'^xixlvxB 5^ vvv [isvy *I^axiJ6iot, Stn xsv elicta' 
iivr}0t'^Q0LV dh [idXtiSta m,(pavOx6[i6vog tads etoco.^ 
totaiv yaQ [idya Ttijiia^ xvXivdetM' (yd ydg ^OSvaoBvg 
driv uTcdvBv^a q)Ckmv (Sv i(S66tac^, dkXd tcov '^Si] 
syyvg imv totgSaa6L (p6vov xal X'^Qa (pvtsvet"^ i 

7tdvrs60cv' %oXi6iv 8b xal aXXoiOiv^ xaxov aaraij 
ot vB(i6(iB0d'^ ^Id'dxijv^ bvSbCbXov, dXXd tcoXv tcqIv 
g)QaiGiiiBad'^ Sg xbv xataTca'd^oyLBV^ oi 8h xal avtol 
Tcavdad'ov xal ydQ atpiv aq)aQ toSb Xmov^ iativ. 
ov ydg dnBCQrirog^ iiavrBvo(iai ^ dXX* bv BlScig' 1 

xal yaQ ixBivfp gyijfil TBXBvrrj^'^vai anavxa 
Sg 01 ifivd'BoiiijVj ozB "IXiov Bigavifiaivov^ 
^AgystOL, [iBtd Ss 6(piv ^/Jij xoXvinjtvg ^0Sv66Bvg. 
q)ijv xaxd TCoXXd 7tad'6vT% 6Xi6avx^^ aico ndvtag itaCqovg^ 
ayvoatov^ 7cdvtB(S0LV iBLXoatp^ BViavxip 1 

oftcad' iXaviSBiSd'ai''^ td 81 8fj vvv ndvxa XBXBltaU^^ 



154. Mma. 

162. J^S^QOi, 



IBS' J^^^ov. 
164. fmv. 



157. (istijFsms, 
170. ^siddg. 



f6o. fisti^SLiisv. 161. JrBlnw, 
17a. /o* HUov. 175. iJrBino^xm. 
176. 179. M^aS'. 



154. pro ccvtwv Aristoph. ovtoag, Scholl. H. M. 156. ita Scholl. E. H. S. Q. V. 

Codd. aliqaot fyeXXsv, ita Harl. k prima m ana. 168. pro ot d^^ Schol. K. 167 tidh, 

170. dnsiQrix(og Rec; (iccvtsvaoiicci Harl., sine tf Schol. H. 



as in II. and the non- Attic poets the 
pi. occurs with pi. neut. nouns (mar.) ; 
see Jelf Cfr, Gr, § 385, Obs. a. 

158 — 9. ixexaO., see on y. a8a. 
evaiif*, see on 122; so also inf. i8a. 

1 6a — 6. €iQ(0 rare epic pres., only 
found in Ody. It was doubtless J^igoHy 
or lengthened J^iggm, Lat. sero, as in 
Virg. Mn, VI. 160 sermone serebant; the 
fut. igim is used in phrases of solemn 
enunciation, ielXo Si xoi igim, cv S' 
%. r. X. (mar.). xola6. see on 47. 

167—9. bv6bIB; see App. A. 17 (3). 
Ttiflv is ady. in 167, but in 128 con- 



junction; in J. 403 both uses occnr, 
TO nglv in* sigijvrig xglv iX&siv x. t. X. 
xaxccTt; t. e. fivnat^gagy it may be fat. 
as in q>QCii(6pLs9' Snag ^cxai wds igfu 
J, 14, or subjunct. shortened epici, as 
in J, 112. avxol = sponie, 

170—2. eidd^y often, as here, "ex- 
perienced^'; the experience meant is 
shown by the sequel xal yag x. x. X.; 
he had foretold what was in part ful- 
filled, and he infers that " all is being 
fulfilled'' in 176. BlgavB^. see on a. 
210. With the vaticination in 174 — 6 
Ni. compares that of Calchas to the 
Greeks, given B. 265 foil. 



BAT n.] 



OATSSEIAS B. i77--aoo. 



45 



tdv S^ avx* Eigviiaxog IloXvfiov natg avtCov rivSa 
"c5 yiQOv^ el tf' ays vvv (lavtsiieo tfot6L^ r^xe06iv, 
otxad^ iiov, ^irj nov tt xaxov^ ndcxcDCSiv 67ti06(O' 

80 ravra d' iyd 6eo TCoXldv diieivtov iiavrsve6d'M, 
OQvvd-Bg di ts xollol vtc*^ aiyccg i^slioM 
fpoixojff y^ ovii t€ yedvtsg ivai^niov^ avraQ *0dv66€vg 
SXsro r^il-, dg^ xal Cv xarcap^'iad'at^ 6vv ixeivp 
Sq)£l6g, oix Sv x666a ^BOJiQonimv^ dyoQSvsg^ 

85 ovS^ X6 Trjiifiaxov xsxok(X)(i^vov aS^ avieCrig^ 
ap otxm S(Sqov TCortSiyfievog^'^ el xe 7c6qij6cv, 
aAA'^ Ix toe iQicDj to Sh xal teteXe6(iavov icxav 
al xe vedtegov avSga itaXaid re TCoXkd^ re ei3(6g 
xagq>diievog^ ixie6iiiv inoxQvvrig xalenaiveiv^ 

90 ainrco ft^v ol Tcgdotov dviriQi6teQ0v^ ictui^ 

[jrpiygat® tf' ^ft^rijg ov xi 8wfj6erat elvexa xSvSe-'] 
60I 8iy yiQOV, d'Gnjv^ inid7]6oiieVy ijv x' ivl ^v^ai 
xtvmv d^xdXX'jjg'^ x^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ i66exav akyog, 
TrjXeiidxp d' iv TC&tfiv^ iy(ov imo9^6o(iav avrog- 

g5 (ifltdQ* i^v ig xaxQbg dvmyixG)^ dnovie^d'm' 
oF* SI ydiiov xev^ovac xtX i^xvvioviSiv iedvn 
TCoXXd"^ ltdX% Z6<Sa ioixe fpCXrig inl naidog ene<S^ai.\ 
ev yaQ nQlv nav6e6&ai dtoficci vlag '^^cetcSi/ 
[ivr]6xvog doyaXirig^ inel ov xiva Seidtiiev ^;tjrt;^,^ 

oooiJt'" ovv TijXi^iaxov, ndXa neg TCoXvfiv^ov iovxa' 



a O. 197. 

b fi. 134 mar. 

c X. 498, 619, N. 

817. 
d X. 119, fi. 4?0, 

B. 779, M. 266, 

r. 6. 

e fi. 159, B. 353; 

cf./J.122,Z.519. 
f a. 217, ^. 812, 

a. 548, r. 428, 

I. 698. 
i; A. 109, B. 321. 
h ^. 73, E. 761, 

i. 568, ^. 359, 

X 80, /f. 300 
1 fi. 205, 403. 
k B. 257. 
1 fi. 16 mar 
m 3f.287, t. 6; cf. 

«'. 217, O. 404. 
a (f. 220. 
o ^. 562. 
p N. 669. 
q a. 304, « J59, 

634, B. 293, 297, 

X. 412, n. 403. 
r I. 121, 528. 
s a. 260, V'. 132. 
t a. 277—8 mar. 
u a. 278 mar. 
V H. I9«, t 205, 

i. 4S1 , M. 32U, 

f. 632. 



186. S-oCfim. 



187. fiQ^m. 
195- ^^«'- 



188. fndmq. 
196. ifsdva. 



189. /s9ree<r<T»t'. 
197. J^sfoi%s, 



190. /ot. 



180. diiksivat Schol. U. 182. srotcoyt' SchoU. M. Q. 8. 190. dvirigmtsgov Bek. 
191. omittant nonnnlli. pro etvsKu tmvdB (vel tmv ye) olog die* Slltov. 192. ini- 

^ijaoiiui Schol. H. 198. pro navege^ui Tiavaac^ai. Hftrl., navea^at alii. 



181 — 9. <fc Tfjr see on a. 53. i5;r' 
at^yce^ ^eil., vno here with ace. does 
not mean *Ho or towards*', bat fixed 
position (mar.), cf. ad or apud superos 
Viig. JEn.YL, 481, 568. dvielng, this 
verb means **to set free, loose or 
op^en", here "to set on or rouse", in 
mid. "to rip up" (mar.) It is here 
optat. \ as depending mediately on dyo- 
Q8vsg\ "you would not be talking and 
Mer«6y rousing Telem. to wrath" (x€;|^Oil. 
a further predicate). 7taoq>dfi;^ as we 
say ** talking over^\ cf. Teagaggritoi, 
iniseetv, I. 526. 

191 — 5. The line 191, not found in 



many of the best copies, is probably 
from II. (mar.). S'fo^v * 'mulct", which 
the dyog'^ could probably impose; see 
App. A. 4 (3). The sense of "blame" 
suggested by Ni. is doubtful, and would 
here certainly be poor. doxdX*, else- 
where daxalda or epice -ooo; H. has the 
form daxdllm only here; ^see mar. 
iv Ttdo, coram omnibus. For a in ci;ro- 
viecO'ai see on a, 420. 

196—203. For 01 6k .». ee6va see 
App. A. 14. Mfjuiri^, "iu' every sup- 
posable case ";. hence, "anyhow"; see 
mar. ovr* ovv x. r. X., **no, nor do 
we fear Telem."; this seems to answer 



46 



OATSSEIAS B. 201—224. 



[day n. 



a a. 415, 27. 50; 

cf.tt.271,9r.422. 
b cf. fi. 126. 
c J. 336 M. 436» 

I. 42. 
d /?. 265, V. 341, 

/y. 404, J, 42, 

T. 150. 
e cf. (}. 401, V'. 24. 
f J. 763, ff. 251. 
K fi. 336, JNT. 379, 

429, C- «3i ^• 

304. 
h d. 681, t 180, 

a. 99, 9. 174, 232. 
i cf. f 406, n. 47. 
k /9. 44. 
1 a. 327, 331, x. 

574; cf 17. 86, 

£. 462, 476, H. 

156. 
m a. 93—4 mar. 
n a. 281—92 mar. 
Si. 88. 
p Ji. 68, 101, B. 

76, H. 364, 365, 

n 213. 



liv9iav dxQdavtovy a7CB%%'dvBai 8* hv (i&XXov. 
X^fiata^ d' avt€ xccxiSg PsfiQcicerccCy (yddd not* l0a^ 
i06e%ai^ otpQu x€v ^ ys SiatQCfii^^iv^ *A%aiovg^ 
ov ydnov 7J(i6tg S* av nondiyfievoL ijfiata ndvxa 2 
atvextt r^g d^etiqg^ iQtSaivofisVy odds iisr* alXag 
iQX6(iBd'% ag iTtLBLxhg djcvvsii€v« iatlv ixd6rp,^' 

xov 8* av Tijlificcxog nB%vv(tkvog dvxCov tifi8a 
'^EvQviiax* 1^81 xal aXkov^ o0oc iivij6t^Q6g^ dyavol, 
tavtcc filv ovx vi^iag iti, XlWoiim^ ovtf'^ ayo(>fvo' 3 
y]8ri ydq td tCa<Sv ^sol xal Ttdvtsg ^Axo^i'OC. 
AXX' ays [loi 86ts vrja ^otjv xal Btxotf* itaiQOvgj 
0% xk (tot, fvd'a^ xal Ivd'a 8tax(f^66(06v xiXsvd'Ov. 
elfit"^ ydg ig IjitdQttiv ra xal ig IIvXov i^fiad'dsvtaj 
vdtftov nsv66^Bvog TcatQog 8^v olxoiiivoiOy^ 2 

r^v tig (lov stTtyOv figotcSvy ^ oi^<Tai^ dxovcm 
ix /diog^ H ta {idXidta q>iQ6t> xXsog dvd'QcixoiiSiv, 
si iiiv XBv TcatQog fiiotov xal v66tov dxovpcDy 
ij t* av t(fvx6ii6v6g tcbq hv tXaiijv ivvavtov 
ai 8a %a tad'vriiStog dxavtSm imj8* St* idvtog, 2 

voiSt7J0ag tfi} inaita fpiXrjv ig 7tatQi8a yatav 
(S'^fid td ol ravfo xal i%l xtdgaa^ xtagat^o} 
TtoXXd iidX\ batSa iotxs, xal dvigi (iijtaQa 8(66(0 J^ 

ijp TOt 8 y' Sg ai7t(ov xat ag* S^atOy tottft 8* dvi^fq 



305. fov, 20'^, he JsiTilg fi%d<sx(p, 211. fiaaui. 212. fsi%oc\ 

216. J^sinjiai focaav, 222. Jroi, 223. ^ij^oms, 224. J^sm6v, 

205. TtQOti&iyfiSvoi, 206. de hoc v. dabitavit Aristoph., Scholl. H. M. Q. B. 

211. TO. 213. ^lanQ'^amai Harl., diunQijoaiSi Schol. B.; %ilsv9'€c Bee. 

214. riiia&osisuav Bee. 222. ita Herod.^ xsim Arist., alii XBvaai, Schol. H. 

imnxigbcc Hesych. 



a ^supposed query, as in nc, 414. ovx* 
ovy . . . answers a real one. lifa 
"equivalent**, t*. e. ** compensation*', 
so xat' lace, in laa (mar.). 

204—6. 6iat(^. 'Ax* ov Y*i 9k rare 
double aceus., with which we may 
compare .ZEschyl. Eumen, 221—2 diyiag 
u^rstfii tovde qimxa and mar. e. 
"Puts off her wedding*' or "puts off 
the Aehseans", would be simple; this 
sentence complicates the two transitive 
constructions, having one object in the 
persons deprived, and another in the 



thing debarred; cf. the similar use of 
aTtoggaiifBi a, 404. dgez^q, "supe- 
riority^, see mar. 

207. OTtvi; the act. with accus. is 
used of men, tiie pass, or mid. of women 
(mar.). 

212 — 3. aya often becomes purely 
adverbial, as shown here bprtheplur. 
96xB following. IV^a x* a\ here of 
motion, "to and fro", but also of po- 
sition "here and there*' (mar.). 

214 — 23 are nearly verbatim recurring 
lines (mar.). 



DAT II.] 



0AT2SEIAS B. 225—241. 



47 



35 MdvtfOQ, og ^' 'O8v0^og dfivfiovos ^sv BtatQog^^ 
%al of l&v iv vijv0lv inixQenav^ olxov anavxa^ 
jcsi^e6%'al ts yigovti xal iiiTceSa ndvtu g)vla66€iv' 
0^ dfpvv ivfpQovacDv dyoQ'^aaro Tcal (lethtxav 
"xixkvxB Sri ^^^ f*^^j ^Id'axijCioc ^ &tzL x€v at7C(b' 

30 /[tif® Tig hv 7CQ6g)Q(ov^ dyavog xal f^TCiog itfta) 

0xri7itov%og^ ^MiXevgy iiijSh (pQsalv aHiSL^icc^ eldtog^ 

dkX' aisl %alB%6g^ r sUri xal atCvXa^ ^ilor 

dg ov rig (leiivrjtav 'Odv06'^og %'eCoiO 

laiSv oldLV &va00e^ itatriQ d' Sg iJTtiog^ r^ev. 

^ dXV ri xoi (ivij^t'^Qag dyrjvOQag oii tl^ iisyaiQca. 
iQdBLV iQya fiCaia 7caKOQQa(piy0L^ vooio' 
6(pdg yuQ ytagd'siisvoi^ X6(paldg naxidovdi fiiaicng 
olxov ^Odvaailog^ rov 8^ oixiti q>a0l vieo&av.^ 
vvv S* allp Sfj(ip v£U66^oiiaCyP olov^ &7tavtsg 

40 V0^* &v€0 ^^ dtd(f ov ti xccd'aTCtdfisvot^ iitiecaiv 
TCavQOvg^ (ivri0v^Qag xatanavsrs seoXkol iovrsgJ' 



a 8. 253—4, 286, 

Q. 68-9. 
b cf. y. 268, ff. 266. 
c X. 178, t. 525. 
d /?. 160-1. 
e «. 8-12. 
f cf. A. 77, e. 40, 

175. 
g- A. 279; cf. B, 

101-7. 
h O. 207. 
i Q. 388. 

j E. 408, *. 214. 
k fi. 47 mar. 
I ». 206, H. 408, 

cf. J. 54. 
ta fi. 26, O. 16. 
n y. 74, c. 265. 
o y. 61, |. 152, r. 

257, S. 101, 13«. 
p a. 263, fi. 138, 

E. 757, &. 407. 
q B. 320, P. 173. 
r n. 144, V?. 93, 

B. 323, r. 84, 

I. 30, 695. 
s fi. 39 mar. 
t cf. a. 383. 



226. ^01, foi%ov, 228. fisti^smBV. 229. fsinm, 231. J^sidpg, 
234. fdvaaas. 236. J^igSsiv figya. 238. ^ot^ov. 



240. J^S7tis66lV. 



232. ^i^onr Harl. mar. 236. %ttv,o(pgaS£fjUi> Scholl. H. M. S. 240. ccvsro 

libri et 8choll. Bek. Diud. Fa. Low, 241. ita Rhian., Schol. H., ita Bek. Fa., 

libri TtaxsgvtiBte , ita Dind. edd. Clark, et Oxoti. 



225 — 6. Mentor here only appears 
in prop, persond, beln^ elsewhere an 
Btdmlov assumed by Pallas, who re- 
peats his words here (irar.). In oq 
• • • xal • • • Iw, the subject of 
the second clause is borrowed, as in 
249 — 50, from the object of the first. 
So yigovxvy 227, is Mentor, the subj. 
of fpvidaaBiv. It -is probable that Men- 
tor was older than Odys. See on y. 268. 

230—8. XQ6<pQ<av %, X, X., "forward 
(in being) gentle", or "taking pains 
to be so". Tt^ . • . ^XT^TtTOvxog ^., 
the xiq separated gives notice of the 
noun following, as does the demonstr. o, 
e. g, A. 488 , avrag 6 fii^vis . . . no&ag 
(D%vg 'jix''^^^'^9' — vieoS'aiy this verb 
appears only in pres. and imp erf. , but 
the pres. has also a fut. force^ as here 
(mar., Buttm. Gr, Verbs s. v,): it appears 
in epic pres. vsvfbcci, vsiai\ vsCtai, 

239 — 4©' VBfieoVi. (mar.), in sense 
of **be angry" this verb takes dat. of 
person or accus. of thing, or both; in 



sense of **feel awe at", accus. of pers. 
and once^gen., viz. 138 «fp., where see 
note, olov x. t. >l., this sudden turn 
from speaking of them to directly ad- 
dressing them g^ves much vigour to the 
address. avBiji, so Bek. in Ody. (but 
ivBOi in II., see mar.); and so *4he 
earlier edd. till Wolf" says Crusius 
s, v., who, however, gives avBm, regard- 
ing it as an adverb. It certainlv occurs 
-0. 93 with sing, subject, ^ &* avsoa d?)v 
rjaxOf where avsm is found in all edd. 
Buttm. Lexil, 20 writes it always &vha> 
as an adv., t. e, he disregards the 
seven times of avBto for the once of 
avfio. Those who regard the MSS. 
will probably still keep al^m as an 
adj. plur., when joined with a plur. 
verb., as do the Scholl. H.M. here; even 
although it may be doubtful whether 
avion of i/>. 93 be a fem. form or an 
adverb. Mentor appeals here, as Hali- 
therses did in 68, to the people as a 
last resort amid the disaffection of the 
jJovX?}; see App. A. 4 (3). 



48 



OAXrrEIAS B. 242-256. 



[day u. 



a y. 2114. 

b A. 223. 

c O. 128, I 464. 

d *F. 791, r. 366, 

(T. 698, r. 16; 

cf. n. 88-9. 
e V. 42, ^. 366, 

./£. 680. 
f y. 46. 

g^.386,cf.».462. 
h AT. 209 mar. 
i «. 462—3, A' 604, 

a. 42-3. 
k V. 280. 
I /. 317, 416, d. 

\m, 340 Q, 130, 

131 . *. 6«), ^. 

396 
in 0.63, N. 789; 

cf. ;;r. 88. 
n y. 386, a. 170, 

w. 37, y. 486. 

a 2747 T* 277, 
uf . 487. 

p E, 878, JJ. 775. 
4 7t, 356, a. 86. 
r 8. 2S6, o. 68-9. 
8 !^. 180. ^ 

1 a. 408, 414. 
u «. 347. 



rdr; tf' EvfivoQidrjg AeLcixQvtog^ avtCov ijvSa 
^'MevtOQ dtaQtriQh,^ q)Qivag ijAai/ !jeotov lsmi$ 
i^liiag &c(fvv(ov xavaxavifiev. a^fyaXiov^ dh 
avdQcifiL xal 7tXB6vB66i (laxtjuaod'ai xsqI ^mtC. 
bI ytsQ^ yd(f x' *OSv66vg *Id'axij6tog^ avtog iirfiM'tov 
SccLwii^vovg^ xatct ficSiia iov (ivijar'^Qctg^ dyavovg 
iisXccdat fiBycgoLO (isvoLVfjifet,' ivl dvyaS^ 
ov ociv oP xsxdffOLro yvn), {idXa^ tcsq xaxiovCa^ 
iX^6vx\ dXXd xev adzov dsixea^ Ttoxfiov i%i6xov^ 
[_bI TcXsovBtfiSL^ (idxovro: 0v d" o^ xatd^ ^lotQocv isijCBg,] 
dXX^ ay By Xaol [liv fSxidvafSd'^ ^ i^tl igya Bxadtog^^ 

TOVTG) a' OtQVVBBt^ MdvTCof oSoV 1^3^ ^jiXLd'BQ^ljg y 

oX TB of i^ dQxrjg naxQmoC b10lv itatQov,^ 
dXX^^ otco xal dijd'd xccdijiiBvog dyyBXidav^ 
7tBv6BtM bIv ^Id'dxy, xBXiBi d' oSinf^ ov tcoxb tavtr^vJ' 



243- £f«wcs. 



247. fsbv. 249. foi, 
252. fiifya Sinactoi, 



250. d^Bmia. 
254. J^oi, 



251. ifnTceg, 



245. xod navQOiai Scholl. H. M. Q. 247.^00 Scholl. M. S. 250. knianifi ex 

emend. Harl. 251. H T.Uovig ot Bnoivto Har]. Yen. Ambros., quorum Scholl. 

quoque nostram lect. improbant. 



243 — 5. draqr,, prob^. a reduplicated 
form of drriQi, from axfi but with a, 
as in atda^alog. dv^qd^i x. nXeov., 

'^ *ti8 a hard thing for men though out- 
numbering (us) to do battle (with us) 
about a meal. For if Odys. himself 
were to return and try to drive us out, 
the attempt would be fatal to him". 
y. 251 (see note there) was doubtless 
added by some diasceuast, who mis- 
took the connejiion of avdgdai xal njL, 
in 245, governing it by pLUX'O^ccu^at, 
That connexion is plain from 239—41. 
Leiocritus takes up indignantly the 
closing sentence of Mentor^s speech; 
hence the word iQiisag answers to nav- 
Qovg iLVTjatTJgagy and the dvigdai Hal 
nX, must mean not the same suitors, 
but the more numerous party to whom 
Mentor^ had appealed. The reading 
xal navQOiai, seems an attempt to recon- 
cile 245 with 239—41, while governing 
dvdgdci by fiux'iioaad'ai, 

251. ei H. T. I. This 2"* protas., 
after the i^' with its apod, has been 
completed, is a clog to the sentence. 
With either reading this objection holds, 
unless si be strained to mean xal si-, 
see E. 350 — I. Then, if the text be 



taken, this upsets the condition (245 
and 241) of superior numbers being 
against the suitors. If we read si 
ytliovsg ot bnoivto , tb'S re-states that 
condition, most unsultaoly to the stress 
laid by dvtog (246) on Odys. appearing 
personally: — which same applies to 
the sense suggested for the text by a 
Schol.; of his "fighting with more on 
his^8ide''\ The other words, at; 9* ov x. 
Ikotgav iff after noiov hmeg of 243, 
seem very feeble: the phrase, too, doe" 
not elsewhere H. occur with ov, 

253. TOVTq>, said, as in 336, con- 
temptuously. Telem. had asked the 
dyogrf to further his voyage in quest 
of Odys. as a public errand. The 
suitors pass this by in derision; ''Men- 
tor and Hal. have taken his part, they 
are his father^s cronies, let them speed 
his errand*'; cf. inf, 265, 306, 319. 
OTQVvet, as it is found with other 
objects, as f/^dxTjVj d,/sUfiv, so with 
odov here (mar.), meaning '^prompt his 
journey", t. e. prompt him to go. 

255 — 7. 6t€0 X. T. I., **I rather think, 
etc.", said ironically in derision of the 
want of decision attributable to Telem. 



DAT II.] 



OATSSEIAS B, 257-267. 



49 



^vfjariJQ^g d^ ig SmpLut^ £aav d-^iov ^Odv0^og\ 

xai ft* iv VTjl ^iXBvaag iz' r^sgoAiSia^ jrdvTOV, 
v6<frov^ navCopLEVov MatQog S^v oi'jjjoftii/oto, 
5^ lgxe0^at^' ta Sh %dvTa diatQt^Qveiv^ ^jixaool, 
yc.VT^Gt-q^Eg' di iidXL0ta xaKwg tmegrivOQiovTBgJ' 

dSg iipat avxopLavog^ 6x^^^^^^^ dp oI'^^Mev !/rf#?Jwj5 



a T. ;^ti, S. 103. 
b Jf. 252 Jnir. 
« t 336. 

a J* 405, ^. ^3ft, 

cf, 1, 110 mar.T 
cL O. 2B6, <;P. 

I r. 10s, J. i%2, 

gr a. ^4, :»]. 
h ^. m mar. 

k 0, TIX n. 157. 



258. /eov. S&yLa J^iyt,aatog, 263. rjsQoJ^Bt9ia. 267 /ot. 

257. lv(X^v Apollon. Soph.; Xmiprjgrjv Hari. ex'emend. et Scholl. H. P. 259. iva 

£rn. 01. ed. Oxon., ig Wolf. 260. itimv Harl. & prima mana ita Wolf., ttov ex 

emend Schol. H. ita Barnes. £rn. CI. ed. Oxon.; 9'i^va Arist., d'lvl alii, Scholl. 

H. M. Q. R. S. 262. (lot pleriquo. 



aitfniQiiv, a further predicate, see 
Donalds. Gr. 6r. § 489; in familiar 
English **he broke up the assembly 

260 — 2. Purification was customary 
before prayer or sacrifice^ (mar.) ; cf. 
Hes. 0pp. 739 — 40. dXog, gen. of 
source whence the material of the act 
proceeded , of. its use with in to aid 
the sense £. 224 dX. noXi.'^g by Seber's 
index occurs 16 times in II., 3 times 
in Ody. ; aX. noXioio once in XL, twice 
in Ody. (mar.), o = Sg, 

265. ra 6k xdvra 6., *^are baffling 
all this plan'\ t. e. his voyage, see 
on 204 — 6. The Ithacans had shown 
apathy, the suitors contempt; cf. his 
words to Antinous 319 — 20 ov ydg vfjog 
ini]§oXog X. t. X, and note. In the 
speech 262 — 6 there is no prayer beyond 
the %XvQ'C fisv in 262, but "prosper 
me in the way wherein thou hast sent 
me**, is clearly implied. Human aid 
failing, he bespeaks divine. Hence in 
271 — 87 Pallas, not without rebuking 
his faint spirit,* promises help for the 
voyage. 

267. Pallas» who appeared cc. 105 as 
Mentes, here ari ^. 205 — 49, at, 445 foil, 
as Mentor, and fj. 383 as Telem., as- 
sumes in rj, 20, n. 155 — 7, the form of a 
a woman, d", 194 that of a man in 
the crowd, and v. 222 that of a young 
shepherd. Thrice, viz. a. 320, y. 372, 
%. 240, she disappears under the form of 

HOM. OD. I. 



a bird. She is recognized by Odys. as 
his "staunch comrade*' in ^. 200, %, 
210, and by the dogs in n. 162, but by 
others only in the moment of such dis- 
appearance e,g. a, 420, y. 378. Observe 
here, that Mentor is not evacuated of his 
personality, any more than Telem., by 
the goddess assuming his form. The 
real Mentor loses that share in the poem's 
action which we might have expected 
from p. 253 — ^4, but we have a glimpse 
of him in proprid persond in 9, 654 foil., 
where Noemon, from the presence of 
the real Mentor in Ithaca, suggests the 
inference that the Pseudo-Mentor, who 
had embarked , was a deity. Me- 
don is aware of the disguised deity 
at last (<o. 445 — 9), but had perhaps 
heard Noemon's statement, and had, 
further, witnessed the marvellous tri- 
umph of Odys. against enormous odds. 
Hence, perhaps, his conviction. The 
statement in 9r. 161 ov ydg noa ndv- 
t€cai \^8ol (pttCvovxai ivagysig, shows 
that euch recognition was to the poet's 
mind the privilege of the favoured 
few; cf. A, 197 — 8. The Phaeacians, 
whose position is wholly exceptional, 
s%dg avBg&v dXtprjaxdmv , boast (rj. 
201 — 6) of their privileged intimacy 
with the gods. H. seems to have thought 
that such intimacy was familiar in the 
earlier age, limited in the heroic, un- 
known — we may infer from B. 485 — 
in his own. NSgelsbach § in 4—6. 

4 



so 



OATSSEIAS B. 268-284. 



[day II. 



» /?. 401, r. 206, 

w. 503, fits, 
b «. 222, fi. TIB, 

y. 875. ' 
e r, 466, r. 80. 
d fi. 304. 
e/9. 60. 

f cf. /J.318, ^.26. 
g cf. y. 122-3. 
h y. 375, t. «7», ^. 

315, Jr. 186. 
i J. 399-406; cf. 

405. 
k cf. E. 800, Z. 

479. 
I t. 314. 
m fi, 373, y. 12 s 

m, d, 5U4, C- 

314. 
n d. 267, iU 177, 

u, 211, r. 305, 

S:.374;cf.y.l28. 
e y. 133, v. 209. 
p /*. 165, 237. 
q '/*. 352, y. 242, 

o. 275, tj. 127, 

P. 714, *. 66. 
r P. 202. 
8 T. 110, 229, u. 

105, ^ 105. 



MevtOQi^ sldoiidvri yj^Lsv ddfiag i^Sh xal avdijv, 
xai fiLv ipG)V7J0a6* iTCsa nteQoevta uCQogijvda' 

d 8r{ toL 00V natQog ivictaxtav fiivog'^ i}t;, 

olog ixetvog h^v xeksaUi f^yov^ n ^itog re' 

ov xoi ijtSLd''^ aXlri^ bSog iaaercci ovS' ciriXsiStog. 

bI^ S* qv Tceivov y* i00l yovog xal IIijvsXoTCsirig , 

ov 0s y* iiCBixa iolica^ tBl6vr7J0eiv a (isvoLV^g. 2*^ 

TcavQOv^ yaQ rot TtatSag oiiotov naxQl neXovvaLj 

oi nXkoveg xaxiovg^ navQOi Se re TtarQog d^siovg.^ 

dXl^ inel oid* hcid'ev xccxog l00ecct oi5d' dvofjitcov^ 

ovde 0e ucdyxv ye [I'^ng ^OSv00rjog jtQokekomeVj 

ilTCcoQ-q^ xrofr ^Tceira rsl€vr'^0aL^ rdSe iQya. 2l 

ra vvv iLV7i0r7JQcov [ilv la PovXrjv'^ re voov re 

dq)^ads(X)v^ izel ov ri voijiioveg^ ovSh Sixavoi' 

ovde^' ri t0a0LV %'dvatov xal xrjga iielacvavy^ 

og^ Srj 0q)t axeSov i0riv^ in*^ iiiiarv Tcdvrag 6Xe0d'at. 



268. feiSoitivTi. 



269. tpovilGaaa fsTtea. 
280. J^elncoQTj J^igya, 



272. J^igvov J snog. 
283. HaaGLv. 



■'i7B' fiJ^oincc. 



276 — 7. [] Bek. 281. T(M Schol. H. 



270 — 2. The drift of this speech is 
to throw Telem. on his own resources. 
o;re^€y*** hereafter"; Homeric nsage, 
contrary to ours, regards the future 
as behind, and the past as before, thus 
Sfia ngoeism xal OTtiaGoa A. 343, means, 
"as well for the past as for the fu- 
ture". This is indeed the order of 
time itself. Render, "you. will not turn 
out a coward or a fool, if indeed you 
have a drop of your father^s spirit in 
you". A youth is often said to be 
"his father's son", when showing his 
father^s spirit; hence she continues, 
"but if you are not his son etc." 
iviOT; not elsewhefe '^ound in Hdmer, 
but" see Herod. IX. 3 dlid at Ssivog 
tig iviatanto ttisQog (Ni.). The 
name of his father acts like a spell 
on Telem., and this is the chief key 
to his character, see App. E. 3. He 
is recognized by Nestor from the judi- 
cious character of his address as Odys- 
seus* son (y. 123 — 5); so is Pisistratus by 
Menelaus as Nestor's (d.206). — xeXiCat 
eQY* X. r. I. refers to his brave words in 
theAssembly, which now required energy 
(jiivog ijv) to accomplish them (Ni.). 

276—7 are by Bek. set in the mar- 



gin as suspicious; but they have the 
Air of traditional saws current in the 
poet's time, familiar to every one, and 
needing no apology, in his hearers' 
view, for their introduction where the 
sense of the passage has only a ge- 
neral connexion with them. Cf. the 
similar maxim of Menel , Qsi^a 9* agl- 
yvtaxog yovog avigog x. t. I,, 9. 207 — 8. 
Observe, however, that to Mentor, as 
an elderly man addressing a young one, 
the yvaofLOtvnsLv or stating maxims is 
adapted (Aristot. Rhet. II. 21). Ni. here 
cites Aristotle's remarks on the tendency 
of degeneracy to follow a certain analogy 
oitjpe{RheLlL 15.3). Telem. bears some 
such marks of a feebler copy of Odys. 

280. xeXevxTjOai , the aor. often 
follows phrases of hoping, promising, 
and others where a fut. might be ex- 
pected (mar.), cf. -^schyl. Prom, 685—6, 
^x /^log (lolsiv KsgocvvoVy following 
[iv^ovfiivrj "warning". 

281 — 2. ea "never mind", voov, 
see on a. 3. — vofifiovsq, this word is 
limited in H. to the Ody. and to this 
context. NotjiLKov becomes a proper 
name in 386, like the Latin Cato. 

284. 6;;r ' i^fiUha, with oU^^ai, "upon 



DAY U.] 



OATSSEIAS B. 285—300. 



51 



rotog^ yccQ toi ixaiQog iyci xatQciiog alfity^ 
og rot vqa O'otjv^ atekim xal ayb^^ etlfO^iM ait6g. 
dlld 4Sv (ihv nQog Sdfiat iav iitniCv^Qdv^ ofiiXsv, 
Zjcli666v r* i^ia^ xal &yyitfiv^&Q0ov anavxa^ 

^olvov'^ iv^ diiq>tg>OQev0i xal altpixa^ (iv^Xdv dvSQciv^ 
Sigiiatfcv iv xvxivolCiv^ iyd d* dvd S'^fiov ira^QOvg^ 
altlf^ id'BlovtH^ag CvXXil^oiiaL' sM 8h vilsg 
noXXccl'^ iv diiq)tdX^ ^Id'dxij y viav i^$€ nuXaiai' 
tdcav iiBV tov iy^v iia6i>oiiai^ ij ttgP dQiatij, 

j5 cDxa 8* ig)O7cXi60avt€g^ ivij^onev^ sigk novtfp,^^ 

^ Sg q)dT* ^jid'ijvairi^. xovQfj jdi6g' oiS^ &qi* ftrt* Sr^v 

TijXenaxog xccQintiivev ^ iTCsl d'sov ixXvev^ avdi^v^ 
/Jw S* livdi XQog Smiia, (pilov rsurniivog'^ ^rop. 
svos aga (ivri6TijQag ayijvoQag iv iieyaQOLHiv ^ 

y> tttyag dvLSiiivovg"^ 6tdXovg •&•' avovtag iv avX^. 



a^.l50;cf.C.K0. 
b E. 828, i2. 1S2, 

d. 206, O. ^54, 

a. 343. 
c fi, 225 mar 
d'i. 248. 
ey. 359, C.32, 1^. 

127,9. 104, n. 

182. 
f a. 265, a. 381. 
S S, no, d, 363, 

u. 329, c. 212, 

iir.103, 1.266, 368. 
h B. in. 
i fi. 349—55. 
k «.204; cr.t.265, 

t 78, 1. 196, r, 

247. 
I V. 108, t. 197; 

cf./9.354-^, 380, 

jf. %W, i.,631, 

520, 2. 28, {. 77. 
m •^. 35- 8. 
a. a 395 386. 
I 167. 
p ^. 36, V. 335 
q C. 37, 57. 
r /i. 293, 401. 
SI 382. (0.529, 547, 

E. 733. e, 384. 
t a. 203, 13, 36. 
u (T. 831, jr. 311, 

481. 
V a. 114 mar. 
w X. 80, fi, 185 



290. J^CtVOV, 

289. onUifccci Bek. annot 292. Sip Harl. a pr. manu. 297. nagiiisiviv. 

{98. tfisvai Barnes. CI. ed. Oxon. 290. delet dyiqvoQag Harl. addito ivl 

fieydqoteiff fotifiv. 



a day (not iixed)" t. e. some day: else- 
where defined by t&ds^ "on this day", 
bnt also meanlne '*for a day^s space''. 
So, tQlg in' ^/i., ** thrice a -day" 
(mar.). Ni. joins it with (fxs96v = "daily 
near", but this lacks Homeric anthority 
and is weak in sense. 

280. iita, also rjta ^a (mar.), "vic- 
inaj"; Eustath. says "properly the 
stalks of beans", which sense Cortius 
ascribes, s. v. fetal, to e^al, sloi. For 
these forms, which resemble fem. and 
masc. plur. of which ^ta might be epic 
neut., there seems no authority bat 
Snidas, who renders it "chaflf", which 
'^£»p certainly means in s, 368. Several 
Scholl. explain it erroneously by itpo- 
dea ano xov Hvai, — ayyeCiv aQ; 
"secure in vessels", for carriage and 
stowage on board: oifi<pL(poQ^sg and 
dsQiiaxa are two varieties of uyysoc 
for liquids and solids respectively; the 
da%og is also a common receptacle for 
wine (mar.). Hesiod. 0pp. 600 directs 
the storing of com iv ayysaiv, 

35^. aJJpita, coupled sometimes 



with dlBiata (mar.), so aXBvqd %b xal 
altpixa Herod. VU. 119. ail^*d$ 
albus seems to exhibit ^e root (Cur- 
tins 399), to which the epithet Xbvuol 
also points, suggesting "white" meal 
(of barleuj usage so limiting it) as 
meant. Observe that the dltpCfOv axxi} 
^'^A 355 means just the same as aX- 
(pita here and 354. uXtpi apocopated 
occurs for the same, Hy. Ceres 208. 
iXslaza and aXev^a are connected 
with itXioy merely meaning "things 
ground", but by usage restricted to 
meal of wheaL 

291. xvxtv., here = "waterproof", 
from the general idea of density which 
resists external action, hence used of 
houses, chests, armour, brushwood, 
and by metaph. of plan, counsel, etc. 

^00. dviCfi., "ripping open", cf. 
noXnov dvisfiivrj (mar.) of a garment. 
The traditional sense of "flaying" 
seems a needless extension of the 
simple^ meaning of dvifjiiif nor does 
the ttivsito Xayovvg of Eurip. Elec, 
826, "was ripping the flanks", confirm 



52 



0AT22ETA2 B. 301—318. 



[day II. 



b d. 311, f 1^1, 

£, 254, 4, UO, 

e S, S&, u. 2T4. 
d W, 27'i. 

f ffl. m. 

ft *ii. 212, 

i f. lOJj t. -366; 

Jc i. 703, #. 19, I 

179, e- *3* 
1 cf, App* A. 14* 
ID u, m, f. 91, 

167, If. m 

n ^- 3^19, T. 450, 
^F* iI70, o. 2!f8, 

CI i¥^ 143 tn&r. 

p Z. 452, ii. 520, 

qff. 2ia-2ft. 2^ 
*-'}, *. 160-1, 
530-2, 

? c. M. 

■ S. 110. 

t ^. fla 

V a. 175 mHr, 
w fr. 103 mar* 
X ^, 273. 



*^T^XilLa% '^ vffiyoQTi^ p,ivog aaxsts^ ftiy tl toi aXlo 
iv 0TT^&^€(f0t XGXOV pLeXktixi e^yov^ %b iTCog t£^ 
clXXd lioi'' iad-U^BV^ «ai divi^ev oig to nsicQog jtc^, c 
zavza Si tot ^dXa ndvra rBXirfT'^aoviSiv ^Axatol^^ 

Tov S' ccv TriXificc^og xsTtvv^ivog avziov r^vSa 

Saivvad-m t' dxiovta^ xal BV{p^alv€6%at bxt^Xov.'"^ 
^ ovx^ ^Xig mg t& Ttd^oi^sv mei^Bta^ noXXaV Hal itsd^Xa 
Ht^fiat^ ifia^ pLV7l0ti^^Eg J iym'i St hi vi^^iog ^u\ ^l^^ 
vvv S^ 0T£ Si^ ftcyKg ai^lj xcd &lXmv livd-Qv dxQvmv 
Ttw^dvQpLccLj^ X(d d'^ ptoi d^^ezat^ ivSod-L ^Vjiog ^ 3 

TtBiQijam^ mg «' vii^t xccxag i^l x^Qag ^ifAcDj^ 
^i^ JIvlovS" ik^'mv^Ti^ avzov %m6^ ivl ififfira,'* 
ftfii lihv (ovd' liAtiy* 6iog i0&Btm ijv dyoQBvm) 



302. foi finoq, 304. figyov finoq. 312. ov fdXig, 

305. fiOi Wolf., i^dX' Harl. Amb. E. Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Oxon. 311. ita Rhian., 
Schol. M. ita Harl. Ven. Wolf. ed. Oxon., &iv,ovxu Schol. M. Barnes. Em. CI. 



it. Yet all the Scholiasts , and lexico- 
graphers from Hesychius, will have it 
**flaying". 

303 — 8. On the tone of this speech 
of Antin. see App. E. 6. The mock- 
assurance given in 306, **the Achseans 
will do all you wish", may be com- 
pared with the contemptuous words of 
Leocritus in 253, and with what Te- 
lem. says in 265. — ^Vcog x. r. it., see 
on 8» 610. 

311. A line of balanced harmony ex- 
pressive of the cheerful content and 
calm 'enjoyment of which it speaks. 
For dxiovta see App. A 16; for cx^y- 
Aog cf. -^sch. Sept. c. Th. 238, IxT^Aog 
tc^i^ lirj^' ayav vn8Qq>oPov, 

313. Tia "is aor. according to Her- 
mann" (Ni.)» whether so, or as Do- 
nalds. Gr, Gr, §. 321 gives it, imperf., 
its analogy with rjia from elftt, eo, in 
all persons, is observable. 

315 — 7. aMOvciiv xvvS'dv. This 
sentence well brings out the difference 
in sense between these two words; cf. 
Tlv%«t the oracle, as that which in- 
fbrms, in which however H. has v. 



Curtius (328) traces this force in the 
Sanskrit words related to nv&, — 9'V^ 
fio^, "mental power ".^Eustath. com- 
pares Herod. HI. 1^54 ai^ocvoiiivto yiff 
TOO adpiazi avvav^ccvovtcci xal at q)Qi' 
vsg\ or specially "anger", of. roXogy 
oatB .... dvSgoav iv ctijd'saciv ui^stat 
(mar.). ^ For ^^qk • • • ij here , and ^ • . . 
7i •••Tib inf. 326 — 8, see App. A iir 

Il6kov6\ this purpose is perhaps 
based on Mentes' words a. 284 — 5, 
293 — 6 (which ar6 perhaps alluded to 
in alXoiV fivd'ov 314), by inferentially 
connecting the two heads of his advice ; 
which, however, as given, seem not 
meant to be so connected; for there 
the errand to Sparta is suggested to 
obtain news merely. It is natural, 
however, that Telem., after proving 
the weakness of his party in the As- 
sembly, should recur to Sparta as a 
probable source not only of tidings but 
of help. This is brought out plainly 
in the surmises of the hearers which 
follow inf. 325 — 6. 

318. ovd* dXiri x. t. X., these words 
only re-affirm negatively the resolution 



DAY II.] 



OATSSEIAS B. 319—333. 



58* 



ianoQog'^ ov yag vrjog ijtripqloc ovo iosta&v 

Yi QKy Tcal ix xsvQog xstga 07cd(Sat* ^Avrivooib 
QEla-^ ^vTjOtiJQsg Sh Soiiov xdta Satta nivovto^ 
or d' inskd^evov xal ixegrdiisov^ iTciecaiv, 
iSdss di tig atjce^xB vdcav iycsQtivoQsdvtmv 

25 "ij f*a^a Tr^X^iiaxog fp&vov fnitv fi€Q(iriQi^si' 
^^ tivag ix TLvkov'^ aisi d(ivvvoQag ijiia^oevtog^ 
'^^ o y€ xccl UxaQtrid'sv, ixei vv tcbq lexiKi,^ alvfSg- 
^ril^ xccl slg 'EqpiJpiji/ id'iXev^ Tcieigav'^ aQOvgav^ 
ii^stVy 099' ivd'sv d'V[ioq)d'6Qa^ g>dQiiccx* iveCxri^ 

30 iv dh pdXy XQrit'^QL xal '^(liag ndvtag dliaarjj' 
aXXog^ d' avt' etneOxs veoDv vjcsQtjvoQsdvtfDv 
"tig? S^ oW el x€ xal 4xvtdg l(ov xoiXrig^ i%l vijog 
rrjXs^ q>ik(ov^ dTtoXijtaL dXdiievog Sg tcbq '0dv66svg; 



a «. 300. 

b a. 59 mar. 

c fi, 74, t 355. 

d a. 160 mar. 

e (T. 624, S. 558. 

f ». 17, ^. 153, a>. 
239,^.6, E. 419. 

g- d, 769, o. 482, 
t/. 376, «. 361, 
401; cf. d, 772, 
9. 170, V 152. 

h a. 175 mar. 

i a. 93. 

k n, 866. 

1 a, 259-62 mar. 

m S. 541. 

n Z. 169. 

/!?. 324 mar. 

p y. 216, O. 403, 
/r. 860. 

817, 2. 508, 
216, t. 259. 

rcf./?.182,365— 6 

8 a. 49. ' 



qcJ. 



331. av /«t«6(FX8. 



320. ij^siaavo, 322. fBnhceiv, 324. J^siicscTis, 

2S2. J^oid'. 

321. andaat Arist., Scholl. H. Q. R., Wolf., aicdcBv Harl. Amb. FL- Barnes. Ern. 

CI. ed. Oxon. «2 f Aristoph. et nonnulli, Scholl. M. Q. R., [] Bek. Dind. 

327. fi vv xal lit Snciqxriq t)ionys. Halic. 333. anoXoixo Schol. JC. 204. 



filfi'fr ff'^v, "I mean to go", as shown 
by ovB* tttiXsatos added sup. 273 ; they 
affirm nothing $is to the result of his 
mission. 

319. ifiTtOQog, one who voyaged 
vrjog in* dXXoxQiag, *4n a ship not his 
own'% paying an inC^a^QOV^ "fare" 
(mar.). Not that Telem. actually so 
paid, Pallas otherwise arranging, inf. 
383 foil. — iTiiqp. , " successful in ob- 
taining"; cf. Soph. Fragm, 95, qppg- 
v&v ini^PoXov. Ho had not obtained 
any public notice of his request for a 
ship, but was left to the resources of 
friends and yolunteers. Hence he de- 
scribes his errand to Nestor as iSiri 
ov diifiiog, y. 82. He says nothing 
to Antin. of Pallas* promise sup, 287, 
but leaves him to infer that he had 
now the means of going; which Antin. 
evidently disbelieves; cf. the eager 
surprise of his questions in d, 642 foil., 
on learning that Telem. had really 
gone, and the suitors* bantering sur- 
mises which here follow, inf, 323 foil. 
This reticence is a trace of the pru- 
dence in which Telem. imitates his 
father, see App. £. 3. 

322. This line, suspected by Aristoph. 



of Byzant., probably because o^l $\ 
323, follows as if no noun had pre- 
ceded, is set in the mar. by Bek ; 
but we left the suitors in 300 preparing 
the banquet, and the subject is here 
naturally resumed. 

324. re^j the different suppositions 
which follow evidently belong to dif- 
ferent persons, and represent so many 
conjectures hazarded and remarks ex- 
changed among the company. The line 
is forn^ulaic, but specially adapted, 
and dramatizes the current opinion and 
feeling in the subordinate agents, after 
some impressive exhortation or example 
given by some principal person. 

328. E<pvQ; see App. D. 8. — niei" 
Q€tv with this fem. of nlagog {nioav) 
cf. vBiaiQU from vBaqoq {viog)j and 
prop, name Niaiga, Ni. adds also 
dygotsigav Eurip. Electr, 168. 

329. ffdofimi the knowledge of these 
is expressly ascribed (mar.) to the 
Epean princess AgamedS, A, 740 — i, 
see App. D. 8; so Egypt bears tfaq- 
fiayia^ xoXXa fbhv ia&Xa /LiSftty/isVa, 
noXXa d^ Xvyqoiy d, 230, see also on 
a. 261, and so-ilschyl. (/'rfl^wi.428 Dind.) 
speaks of the Tyrrhenians, Tvi^r^vov 



54 



OATSEEIAi: B. 334—347- 



[day n. 



a B. 420, 27. «51. 
b /9. 368, V. 216. 
c S, 253. 
d d, 121, r. 423, 

n. 191, 317, I. 

582; cf. y.8,42. 
e cf. J.137; V.136, 

ffl. 10, 62. 
f w, 51-2; cf. &» 

l24, 438. 
jr cf. ^. 186. 
h V'. 305. 
i vT 391, 0. 507. 
k cf. ;i.357, t. 63, 

B. 800, Z. 424. 
I I. 297, w. 73. 
m /J. 351 , B. 97-' 
n «. 449, ^ 175. 

0. 489, «. 483, 

w. 207, V- l«^ 

169, 338. 
y. 128; cf. App. 

F. 2 (4) mar. 
p o. 268, M. 455. 
$ a. 139, y. 479, 

^. 152, g. 495, 

<r. 169. *.l96, 1//. 

154, Z. 381, i2. 

302 
r w. V3, £. 490, 

i2. 73. 
8 V. 77. 
t a. 429-32. 



otfrci X6V xal fiaXXov 6g>iXXBuy*^ %6vov &iiiiLV' 
Ktijiiata yoLQ xsv TCavta SaOaifiB^cCy^ olxCa d' avxa 
tovtov^ (iritiQC dotiiev l%Biv ijtf' o^ xiq iTCvioi,^^ 

(Sg <pdv^ o d' vil;6QOfpov d'cilaiiov^ xcctsfi'^tfsto narQog^ 
BVQvv^ od^i vijtdg XQvadg'' xal xccXxog ixsitOy 
iiSdTJg^ r* iv xriXottfLV, aXig t* BvSdeg lXcctov.« 
iv SI Ttid'Oi^ oft/ofco xaXoiov '^'/jSv7t6tovo^ 
eataaavj axQTjtov^ ^stov icoxbv ivtdg l%ovtBg^ 
Biairig tcoxI xoi%ov aQriQoxsg, at %ot^^ 'OSvatfBvg 
otxads votSxTJCBts^ xal aXysa"^ Ttol^a iioyijtfag. 
xXijiCxal S* iasaav CaviSag^ nvxivSg dQaQvtav, 
dixXiSeg'V iv dh ywi} xafiCri^ vvxxag^ re xal ^(laQ 
i0x\ fi ndvx* i(pvXa0iS6 voov 7toXvi:dQ€irj0iv^^ 
EvqvxXbl* ^ ^SlTtog d^vydxrjQ IlsKSrivoQCdao, 



335. foiv,la. 339. fBoQ^q ^ccXig, 340. foivoio fridmtotoio, 343. JroUaSi, 

346. noXvMgslrict, 



ysvsav (paQfittnonotov ^d'vog. Of this 
treacherous use of poison the heroic 
legends contain no instance, and only 
this allusion to it from the suitors who 
stand the lowest in the scale of heroic 
morality. 

334-«6, said in derisive irony, "he 
will give us all the more trouble, for 
then we should have to divide the 
property &c.", which was exactly the 
consummation designed in their plans. 
TOVTOV* contemptuously, as mar. 

337. v'^6qo€p* S'dX. see App. F. 2 
(29) end. xaxe^iqa. This verb is used 
with accus. of object somewhat loosely 
by H. Thus we find %axi^aiv^ iuBQma 
"went down from the upper- story'*, 
and %Xly^axa %axh§ria, "went down by 
the ladder", here **<o the chamber' . 

340 — 3. olvoio • , . 7i6v:t6xoio, cf. 
mar. for instances of other rhyming 
lines, or members of lines: they are 
probably all accidental, doi^q* "se- 
cured" probably to the wall is meant, 
but how is not clear; mere contact 
would be insufficient, etxox^ u e» kept 
for the special contingency, referred 
to also in 351. — xal "although". 

345. rafilfi, chief of the female do- 
mestics; the title is applied to (i) Eu- 
ryclea, (2) Eurynome (mar.) , who was 
probably a younger woman and may 



be the ifitpinoXoq tapL^rj oin, 152, cf. 
tl>» 292—3. Thus in r. 356 Euryc. is 
described as oXiyrinsXiovaa "decrepit". 
It seems to be asserted that she was 
always in the ^aXocpbog — a poetic am- 
plification of her vigilance , or else a 
tacit recognition of her deputy. The 
designation rafilfi did not exclude the 
person from other special offices. Thus 
Eurycl. acts as Q'ccXafirinoXog to Telem. 
a. 428—9 and even here, when acting 
as TOffi'/i}, is called q>lXrj XQOtpog in the 
same passage, inf, 361. We also find 
her setting out seats, q. 32, ordering 
household work to the other servants, 
V, 147 foil., and bathing Odys., x, 356 
foil. Cf. the office of Nausicaa's nurse, 
rj. 7 — 13. Euryc, as housekeeper, had 
charge of stores and oversight of do- 
mestics %. 396, 421 — 3, but has the air 
of a factotum, turning her hand to what- 
ever most needed her personal care. 
Similarly Euryn. bathed Odys. iff, 154, 
brought a seat for Penel. after con- 
versing with her (probably not in the 
store-room x, 96 — 7, so again f. 495), 
and in a, 169 is aloft in the vnsQaa, 
Euryn, further acts as ^aXociitinoXog 
to Odys. and Penel. after aiding Eu- 
rycl. in preparing the bed, '^.289—95. 
.346— -53. eax*» imperf. of sliil,^ so 
^. 59. — noXvMQ; cf. the nctXaia %9 



DAY II.] 



OATSSEIAS B. 348—362. 



55 



xr^v tots Tijliiucxog jCQO^ifpri d'dlaiiovds KaXi66ccg' 
''(laf, ayB Stj yioi olvov iv d[i(pvg>OQ€V(Siv^ aipi)66ov 

50 'ffSvVy artg iiBxa tov Xagcit at osy ov cv tpvXdtSiSscs 
xstvov dVo^idvij TOV xdiifiOQOv ^^ el itod'sv^ iXQ'Oi 
Sioyevrig^ '0Sv6Bvg d'dvatov^ Hccl K^Qccg idXvl^ag. 
dddexa d' SiiJcXrjfSov , x<d %(6^a6iv^ &q6ov anavtag, 
iv« Sd fioc alfpitu^ xsvov 6ifQQaq>ds06v doQOtaiv, 

55 bI!ko0v d' BtSta (isTQCc [ivXijfpdtov dliplrov dxx^g.^ 
avrrj S* oftj lad^L' td S^ dd'Qoa^ ndvta rBXv%%'(0' 
B07tBQiog ydg iycsv al^dofiat^ OTtTCoxB xbv dj} 
iitixriQ Big VTCBQ^* dvaPy xoCxov xb fiiSiixccc, 
bIili yaQ ig STcd^xriv xb xal ig Ilvkov i^nad^oBvxa, 

60 votstov^ 7tBV06iiBvog TcaxQog (pCXov^ ijv tcov dxov^ojj^ 
fSg^ g)dxo, X(DXV0BV 8h (pUij XQ()q>dg EvQVxXBcay^ 
xaC^ ^' 6koq>VQo^Bvri Itcbu nxsgoBvxa TtQogrjvSa 



9,p,290,yf, 905. 
b «. 160, 339, 2. 

216, v. 33. 
c fi, 342-3 mar. 
d«. 387. 
e <[>, 565, p. 283 

mar. 
f &, 413, 447, «. 

314, J. 116. 
er /?. 290-1 mar. 
h V. 108. 
i ^ 429, J, 631, 

639-40. 
k a. 43, X. 271, 

/?. 410-1. 
1 a, 284-5, fi. 

214-5, y. 15. 
mi2. 200. 
n d, 742, *. 21, x> 

419, 485, 492, %p. 

25, 39, 69. 
S. 72. 



349. foivov. 350. fridvv, 355. fsUoai, 356. S^ad^i, 357. J^sanipiog, 362. finsa, 

350. ita Eustath. Vulg. Harl. Ven. Amb. Wolf. ed. Oxon. XagmtSQog Barnes. 
Era. CI.; mox cov Ven. Harl. var. lect., ov Schol. M, et edd. rec. 354. xsv- 

aov Harl. Barnes. Era. CI. ed. Oxon., ^ffivov Wolf. 



TeoXld XB sldmgy and iivgia ^871^ ap- 
plied to ^gyptius and Halitherses 
sup, 16, 188. On account of her ^^ ex- 
perience^*, trustiness, and attachment, 
Eurycl. is called Sia yvvam&v v. 147 
— a high-ranking epithet, testifying 
to the moral and social aspect of he- 
roic servitude. ^dXafi6v6e x,, how- 
could he summon her to the chamber, 
if according to 345 — 6 sup, she was 
always there, and therefore there then ? 
Ni. suggests fc?x* for iax* from ^xm in 
the sense of "kept (the doors) fast"; 
but the difficulty rather arises from 
the ivj which implies that she was as 
much inside as were the stores, cf. 
iv at 340. The ^dXafiog or d'dXay,OL 
probably contained a range or row of 
chambers (App. F. 2 (29) and not«), and 
to all there might be general access 
by the doors described 344 — 5. It is 
likely that the wine and oil would be 
stored in a different compartment from 
the treasures of 338; cf. cp, 51 — 4. 
Hence, if she were in one, and he 
first reached the other, he might be 
said to call her ^dXafiovda even though 
she came from a d-dXafiog to him. 
Thus the iv S'h yvvri . . . ^0%* means, 
"was within the whole range of such 
chambers"; they were never left on 



account of the value of their stores. 
Those whom this explanation dissatisfies 
will probably have to alter the text, 
as by reading ^uXd^i^ov $1 yidXsifCsv, 
— "called forth from", he being at 
the door — or the like, fietd xov, 
the expectation of his father, now 
keenly roused, peeps out in this detail 
of his voyage: he will not take the 
best — that is reserved for Odyss, — 
but the next best. ilci^ct>r. obs. Xapog 
a gull, €.51. Obs. var, led. Xagcats- 
Qog, The spirit of the passage cer- 
tainly requires the superlative^^ xeZ" 
vov see on a. 163. — xdfi, icifOov, 
"secure with stoppers or capsules''; cf. 
nS)^a (pagitgrig (mar.) "lid of quiver". 

354 — 5. UixpLxa dX<plxov, see on 
299 sup. 

356. dO-Qoa 7t. xexvX'9 "l>® s®* 
forth togetiier ready". ^ B«k. after 
Aristarch. aspirates dd'QOog, 

357 — 9. aiQTJif., as we say, "shall 
take myself off". For Sparta and 
Ephyre see App. D. 3, 8. For IlvXav 
i^fiaS'* see App. A. 13. 

361—2. ;eQ>;9V<J«, onomatopoeic from 
xco — , a cry of sorrow; to cry for joy 
is oXoXv^Siv, y, 450.^ — 6Xoq>VQ», for 
its connexion with ovXog, oXocpmog see 
App. A, 3. 



56 



0AT22E1AS B. 3^3-3^$' 



[day II. 



c a. I J 7—20. 

d J. rn, 817. 

e jf. 3^a mar. 
h if. 335, u. 2t3. 

o. 2a«; cf. a. 4. 
a P* 384 mar, 
fi a. 213 mar. 
p cf. J. 40, «&.4^t4. 
Q ft. 5S8i cf. 1. 192, 

tp. !56, ^. J63, 

*, 82, .X. as, jU. 

44T,i, 314, -^. 

6(0-2. m—i, 
7B4-5.fJ*l&scq 

r ^. 425. 

ft a. a43, *. 138. 

t tf, 728* I, 497, 

u d. 749. 

If *. 345 -fi, X 
27a -Sfl. 

y if. 393, J. Wu 

tf. 187, If. 242, 

344, ^f'. T03. 
1 E. 41M^. 
ah .t. 10; cf. X. 

377, <■>. 51 fl. 
bb 0. ITI , tp. 6T, 

<F. 491, iZT 50S, 



^^Tiitts Si rot, ^tUf* Tfxi/oVj /I'i q>^E0l roiJtro i>otj^« 

piovpog"^ imv dyaitriTogi^ o 6' mX$to tJ^^cJO-t jtdrgrig^ 3d 

dioyEvi^S '0Sv6Bvg dXXoypmtm^ ivl ^aj^m. 

otff Si tot avxin^ lovzv xc^xA <pQu6aovTat om^^m^ 

Sg X£ dSlm q^d'irig^ rdSs d^ avrol Ttdvrcc Sdtfovtcci^^ 

dXXa piiv' av^'' ijtl 6ot6i xad^^avog-^ ovSi^ %l 6b jjpij 

itQvtoV^ in^^ argvysrov KaK&7tdiS%Hv ovd^ dldXn^^d-atJ' 3^ 

T^v 6^ av T!^ki^ax^g TtSTtw^Bvog"^ dvciov r^vda 
"#ff^tf£t, fiat\ iitiEl ov Tot avEV ^sov^ ijdf ys fiovli]. 
dW oprQtSov ftij ^nitQi <pilfj rdSa ^v^ifcraa^at, 
TtQtv y^ 3t' av ivSExdti]^ te SvmSixdrj}^ t£ yivjitaiy 
^ ctvt^v Jto^ifXat^ KOfi upogpifjd'ivTog dxoveai^*' 3; 

dg av ^^] nlahviSa %a%d xqoa xalov idzrrjJ'^ 

mg ag' iipti^ y^y}vg Sh d^amv ^dyav Sqkov aTtm^vv.'' 

*XVzdg ETtSL Q V^OflEV TE TElEVtflflEV ZS TOV QQKOVy 

aizm"^' inBizd ol olvov iv d(ifpL<po^av0iv u<pv0(SEVy 
iv Si ol aXq)ita xevev iv^QatpEEfSffi Sogot^iv 3J 

TqXi^axQS S^ ig Sd^az^ imv iivijiStrJQaiv^ ofiiXEiv. 
iv^'y avz' dXX* ivQT!}0€ d'Ba yXaimmmg ^J^jjvri^ 
Tr^Xs^dx^ S' hlxvla Katd^ itxoXtv ^%EtQ Ttdvvrjy 
xai ga^^ Exdcztp (porl %aQi6zu^ivifi ^>dzQ^^ ^v%'t>v^ 
i07t€giovg S' inl v^a ^oijv'^^ dyBpi0^at dvciyuv. 3I 



379, legend. J^oivov insird foi, aitU\ 380. J^oi, 383. JrBi.%vta omisso 9* 
et ad fin. 382 plene distincto. 384. fsTiccavco, 385. J^sansgCovg, 

366. dXloyvooTtov Apollon., et hoc et dXXoyvdatq} Scholl. 368. <p^8£ris Amb. B. ; 
ddamvtai Era. CI. ed. Oxon. 373. fivd^i^afad'ai Harl. marg. et Schol. 376. (diffjf 
ApoUon. 385. ita Wolf. Thiersch. Buttm. Bek. Fa., dyigsad'ai Vulg. Dind. Low. 



367. oxiCCdi as Sni^ev 270, where 
see note. 

368. (pS-ljiQ • • • 6dCovxai, see App. 
A. 9 (5) on this change of moods. 

373 — 4. fivQ'Tqa.y see on 280^ «Mp^. 
^qIv y y the full form is TtgXv ^ or* 
Siv Donalds. Gr, Gr, § 583 (e); nglv 
m&y be followed by a subjnnct. (or, 
tense so requiring, by an optat.) when a 
negat., as /iij 373, has preceded, by an 
infin. whether affirm, or neg. has pre- 
ceded. ivdexdzTi x. r. i. ; cf. Hor. 
Sai, II. VI. 40 septimtts octavo propior 
.... acinus, and our similarly formulaic 
way of speaking **the eleventh or 
twelfth']. So the tenth day, U e. the 
ninth' with one complementary, is the 



most frequent Homeric reckoning (mar.); 
cf. Hes. Theog. 802 — 3. Telem. here 
takes fuller measure, perhaps to allow 
for unforeseen impediments; so does 
Menel., in the spirit of hospitality, S, 
588 , when j>ressing his stay. 

377. dxatfivv c=a coftvv /A^, 373; cf. 
dnunBtv^ which sometimes =: Blnttv 
strengthened, so in6y,vvfii in Thucyd. 
V. 50 is oiivvfii strengthened, but never 
so in H. 

380. aXifvta see on 290 sup* 

384—5. Comp. with this the proceed- 
ings of Odys. in the Grecian camp, 
B. 189 foil. 

385 — 92. dySQiifS'ai is 2. aor., as 
dyigovto, Z, 245, dyigsa^oii var, led. 



BAY II.] 



OATL2EIAS B. 386—407. 



57 



^* d* airs 0QOv{ovo Nbrjiiova tpaCSv^ov vlbv 
rixBB v^a d'oijv' o Si of TtQOfpQov^ vniSexro. 
dvasio^ r' i^eXcog 0xi6(ovt6 ts nScat dyvval^ 
x«l^ tore v^a d'oi^v aXad^ et(fv6€y ndvxQ d' iv avxrl 

90 &rA' * it£d'€i y xd xb vrii^ Jiv^oekfLOv qpoQeovCiv. 

iSxri^s d' iit^^ i^xaxiij Ki\iivoq^ negi d' iad'Xols sxatQOv 
dd'QOOt i^yBQi^ovxo^ ^sa 8^ Sxqvvbv bxMxov. 

-■ ivd'^^ avr' aXX" ivorfiB 9bu ykavKfSnL^ ^Ad-rjvri'- 

firj d' livai TtQdg Scdfiax' X>dv60ijog d'hioco'^ 

95 ivd'a^ (ivri^xtJQB^Cvv inl ylvxyv vnvov i%BVBy^ 
'TtXaiB^ dB7civovxa£j xBiQOiv S' fx^aXXs xvnBXXa, 
6i d' bvSblv g)qvvvxo xaxa tcxoXlVj ovS'^ ao* ixi Sriv 

BiaX 3 BTtBi 6tpi6lV VTCVOg BTtl plBtpaQOlClV BTCtTtXBV.'^ 

ocvxccQ TnXi(iaxQ^, ^Qogifpri yXavxwTtig ^Ad^vn^ 
cx> BX7CQ0xukB66aiiByri^ iiBj^dpcov Iv vaiBxaovxmVj^ 
MivxoQv'^ BiSbiiivil ijftii/ dijidg ijdi xal ctvdijV" 




05 (Sg apa IgpiwiwjVaa*^ rjyrjddxo IlaXXag ^AdTJvri^ 
xaQnaXifiag' d' btcbixu ^lbx^ t%via fialvB d'BOto. 
avxccQ"^ hcBi ^' inl v^a xaxfjXvd^ov i/jSi d'dXa^oav, 



a d, 639-56. 

b }. M, V, 372, \p. 

314, J. 480. 
c y. 487, 497, 0. 

185, 296, 471. 
d *. 260-1. 

d. 781-3, &. 51 
-4; cf. ^ 346, 
to. 390. 

■f #. 182, X. 06; cf. 

d. 517, •. 288, 

489, <. 280, a. 

357, 01. 150. 
r«.110,133j.251, 
^. 113, Jl. 327. 
h ^. 385, B. 304, 

r. 231. 
i fi. 382 roar, 
k fi, 298, <r. 799, 

^. 230, 402. 

1 it. 338, V, 54, ^. 
164-5. 

incf.*.470,:5.311. 
n S. 36 mar. * 
o •.271, y.79; cf. 

jr. 26. 
p cf. ^. 515. 
q B. 648, //. 45; 

cf. t. 21. 
r /9. 268 mar. 
8 <r. 659; cf. ..16, 

141,^224,^.145. 
t K. 123 i cf. B. 

137. 
u /9. 204 mar. 
V y, 29-30, ti. 37 

-8, /J. 413, •. 

192-3, ^. 46, 

104. 
w d, 428, 573, ^. 

60, /I, 391, *. 70. 



387. foi, 392. coT^tjye J^i'Kocctov, 401. fsidofiivrj. 

391. itaHarl. S. Wolf., ^ffyan^ff Barnes. £rn. CI. ed. Oxon. 392. pro dd'QOOij 
avzriv HarL var. lect. Schol. H. 404 f Zenod., Schol. M. 



is pres. For riyBQiQ^ovzo a pres. •qyhQi- 
^ovtcti occurs. For the form in -^ai 
see the list of such verbs in Jelf Gr. 
Or. § 263, obs. I., cf. § 248 c. — ava>- 
y^iv, for a defence of the final v in 
the pluperf. 3'** sing, see Bek. Homer, 
Bldit. n. p. 29. On the names Noemon 
and Phronius see ona. 154. — oi ••• 
V7ti^., "undertook it at her request''. 
In the recurring y. 388 the effect of 
suns^ as casting into gloom the roads 
before a traveller seems intended. 
oxX*, "tackle", in sing. **a rope'' 
(mar.) see App. F. i (7). 

395— ;j. VTivov, "drowsincHs", the im- 
perf. Triafs, ^upcclXe, &c., denote its effect 
as sustained.^ ere ffijv sec on of. 186. 

400 — 3. sacTtQOxaX.y cf. hngoXi- 
ntov unice lect. ev vatex., sometimes 
written as one word svvaift, vocistccoDf 
here nent., is also transit, with name 



of piace; bv vaiofisvog is a more com- 
mon formula, eiscvfjfi.y this and ndgfj 
TiOfioojixsg 408, being in H. epithets 
of 'AxoiLol, are used of Ithacans, as 
being of that race. eTtijqer*, if li- 
terally meant, thej would be sitting 
(cf. 408), on the shore oar in hand, 
"man and oar being inseparable" (Ar- 
nold's Thucyd. vol. I. App. III.). With 
this accords d. 782 showing that the 
oars were put on board, oo Elpenor 
begs that his oar, with which he rowed 
in life, may bo set. up as his personal 
badge over his tomb. X. 77 — 8; see 
App. F. I (13) (14). ini^QSt. elsewhere 
is epith. of the ship. 

405 — 6. This dependence of Telem. 
for his smallest actions on the gui- 
dance Qf Pallas, supposed by him Men- 
tor (so 416 — 7 inf.), illustrates his cha- 
racter as yet unformed, see App. E. .;. 



58 



OATSEETAS B. 4^18—426. 



[day II. 



a cf. w. 167, <r. 34, 

I. 601 y B. 851. 
b /?. 288 mar. 
c ^. 356 mar. 
d t. 207, \p. 227. 
e ^ 345. 
f 0. 284—95. 
g e. 177. 

h o. 206, jr. 570, 
U.411; cf.r.75. 
5 (i. 224 mar. 
k i. 137, 178, 0. 

552; ct. 498. 
i X. 638, 0. 221, 

549; cf. ^. 37. 
m i. 7. 
n (T. 357, 520, 360, 

«. 268-9. 
o ^. 253, 299. 
p.cf.«.295, /(.289^ 
q V'. 208, S. 576, 

*. 16, 
r a. 183 mar. 
sApp.F.l(7)mar., 

L 9, /?. 390, 430. 
t iWA (6) mar.; 

cf. S. 109. 
u o. 289, t. 37, V. 

354. 
▼ y. 11. 
w «. 427, ^. 167, 

^ 346, y. 408, 

jY. 599. ^ 



BVQOv insvt^ iicl ^ivl xaQfi X(m6'(6vrag itaiQOvg. 
total SI xal (i6thcq>* [sqt] fg^^ijle(i(ixoio . 

ad'Qo ^ ivl iih'jfaqGi* mxriQ o\^su/ij ov xv nizv6rat, 
ovd* akkai o^cmiy (iCa^ d* oUri ]iv^ov axovdei/." 

dig &Qa (pcovrj^ag riyqCato^ tol d' ufi' ixovto, 
6i d' ttQu ndvza g)iQOvteg iv06iXiip ijcl vrji^ 
xdrd'e^av, 6g ixilevasv *OSv00'^og tpCXog vCog. 
^Sv^ d' aga TriXi(ia%og mfjog Patv\ '^qxs S* 'Adnjvrj^ 
vrjl S' ivl nQVfivy^ xar'^ 5p' €^sto' ayxi d' ap' avri^g 
e^svo Tijkificcxog' tol Sh TtQviivrjet^ ^ llv^av^ 
&v^ 8h xal avtol pdvteg inl xXijldt rad^tiov. 
tot0iv 8' txiisvov"^ ovQOV^ Uv yXccvXiSxig ^AdTJVTj J 
axga^^^ Ze^VQOVyV xekdSovt*^ inl otvoTCa^ Ttovtov. 
T7jXi[itaxog 8' itdQOiaiv ivrotQvvag ixkksv6Bv 
onXcDv^ antsa^ai' tol 8* ot^vvotnog dxov6av, 
[atdv^ 8^ ilkdtvvov xolXrig ivtoad's (i€a68(ifig'^ 
Of^Cav"^ dsLQavteg, xatd 8h i!tQot6voi6iv iSij^aVj 
eXxov 8' tiStCa Xevxd iv0tQhctot,6t^ posvdiv. 



409. fists J^SKp' fig, 421. J^oCvonu. . 

410. pro riia Callistr. Stpq' r^u^ Scholl. H. M. Q. 411. iaol Harl. a pr. mana 
Wolf. Dind., ifti) Harl. ex emend. Em. CI. ed. Ox. Bek. Fa. Low. 414. 5fta 
Em. CI. ed. Ox., ciqu Harl. Wolf., mox ivl vi^l Harl. 422. infitQvvag Harl. a 
pr. manu, sed -oov ex emend, cum Schol., -ag Barnes. CI. ed. Ox. \t edd. rec. 



409—10. icQfi l§, Bek. writes tsgd. 
The denoting a person by a conspi- 
cuous quality is a form of language 
widely diffused, cf. (S^ij 'ifpaxXrjf^iy 
(mar.). Ni. adds tg iddfiaifas pCrig 
'HganX.y Hes. Theog. 332. leQfi, prob. 
as being of kingly race,, cf. Siorgs- 
q>S(ov pccaiXrjtov, For i^ia see on 289. 

411. dS'QO*, see on 356. iu^, this 
reading is preferable to ifiol, there 
being no call for a dative of special 
limitation in the action. . 

416. VTioq, Jelf Gr, Gr, § 624 obs. 
refers this to the head of gen. parti- 
tive (as implying the part of the ship 
which he reached), or local. 

417 — 8. TtQVfivin ••• 7CQVfivi2<f* see 
App. F. I (s) (lo) (11). These ngv' 
fLvqa. (nsicficcra) fastened the ship to 
the shore, after she had been launched. 

420. IxfiBvov is referred by Doederl. 
to st%(o as meaning *Ho suit'', or 
"comply with", in which sense, as 
J^si%<a is the real word, xoiai de JrC- 



Tifisvov would be needed. Ni. refers it 
to Ufiag "moisture", not, however, 
taking ^ftsvov to mean ^moist" (cf. dvi- 
limviisvog vygor aivtvf)^ but "smooth- 
ly and equably gliding*. This seems 
forced. The siraple>}t ii^ay is to take 
it from fxco, but way it should lose 
the breathing is diffieult to say. Per- 
haps it is a touch of nautical verna- 
cular. Simijarly we-" find riiiccg but- 
rinigri* — ovQoq is doubtless a form of 
avga^ cf. anovgag parfcic. of dnavgim, 

421—2. dxodriy the Seholiast^s mean- 
ing of d%gbg a?^^t, ''blowing neither too 
much nor too little*', is ^ the best; cf. 
aXioLTig, Svaai^g,^ For ixozQvvaq a 
Schol. has inozgvvtov, doubtless based 
on oxgvvovTog mox inf. xeXd6ovx\ 
Lowe would rcfex this to novtovy as 
more used in H. of the roar of water; 
he perhaps overlooked Zitpvgov xcAa- 
Ssivov (mar*)* Here position also 
awards it rarther to Zitpvgov. 

424 — 6. iotovy in form identical with 



DAY II.] 



OATSEETAS B. 427—434. 



59 



^inq^i^Bv^ d' &vBfkoq fkktsov htiavj ccfupl 8h xviia 
tttsCQij^ no(f(pvQ€Ov^ fieydX' taie^ vijdg lovifris' 
^ d* i&ievitajtu xvfia Sian(ffjiSaov6a^ xikevd'ov. 
30 SfjifdiiBvoi d' &(ftt Sxla ^01)1/ iva v^a nikmvav 
6tiJ6avro XQijt'^Qccg imfftifpeag^ olvoiOj 
ietpov d' &%'avdtovfSt %'BOtq^ aisiyevitji^cv , 
ix Tcivxav dh^iidXLffra Jibg yXavxoijtUii,^ xovqij. 
navvvxiri^ ftii/ if* ^ ye xal ijco™ jtstQB^ xiXev^ov. 



a A. 481-3. 
b cf./9.81, 7.471. 
tcf.x.622, V.186. 
d^.l6;cf.<r.427, 

H, 64. 
•« ^. 606, y. 81, 

^ 125, £ 219» 

(.392. 
f jSr. 213, y. 476, 

0. 47. 
«r^. 87. 
h e. 232, a. 148. 

A. 470. 
i r. 296, Z, 527, 

r. 104. 

k 12. 26. 
1 y. 217. 
m e. 66, <;^. Ill, 

«. 390 mar. 
n &, 183, y. 91. 



428. fiiyte J^ia%9, 431. ^oCvoio. 
430. 9iJ6tevxBg Schol. P. 434 f Schol. ?. 89 Bek. annot. 



tcxov "weaver's beam", also "web", 
109 sup.^ — IM£C66., see App. F. i. 
(6). — ivOTQ€7tz.^ see^App. F. i. (8); 
tiie forms Bvatgstprig, BvcxQOtpogy also 
occur (mar.).^ 

427—34. The melodious flow of these 
lines is admirable. The line describing 
the sail - hoisting is sncceded by a 
dactylic burst, as if to mark the bound- 
ing of the vessel. Observe also the 
sudden stability introduced into this 
billowy measure by the spondan stabiles 
(Hor. de A/P. 256.) in 431, where the 
bowls are set in equilibrium, as it were, 
by a dactylic between two spondaic 
dipodia. With .this metrical effect may 
be contrasted t]iii^ of Virg. £n. III. 
208 Armixi iortmaU sptintas et casnUa 
verpinl, in wieo the measured oar- 
strbke seems iiuitatod' in the train of 
spondees. On afi(pl • • • CxslQ%i see 
App.F. 1.(2). — taxB, also t (mar.), is 
used of a bow -twang, war -shout, 
trumpet-call, and of water, hissing on 



hot iron (mar.). difOdfii*, ^* having 
made fast the sheets", used in hoisting 
the sails. ixiCxifp*, see on a. 148. 
i^flS^ ace. "during the early morning", 
cf. vi%zag 105; besides this, Ni., fol- 
lowing Eustath., gives three senses, 
further extended, of ijoof, viz, (1) the 
forenoon, (2) the whole day till sunset, 
(3) the vv%b'r^^BQOv of 24 hours, (i) 
may be allowed, as the terminus a quo 
is put for the space it helps to measure ; 
so in ofpga ykhv iimg fiv xal ai^Bto 
Zbqov i^ap; so 1710^, SbCXti^ and the' 
ykicov rj^tuQ , which sunders them, make 
up the day: but (a) and (3) are mere 
poetic figures of part for whole, as 
"morns" are used for days, "summers" 
for years in English poetry. In y. 93-^5 
the idea of this word rjm is expanded 
into 3 lines of description. 

Bek. attaches v. 434 to the first 
paragraph of book III. With it the 
third day begins. 



50 



OATSSEIAS B. 268—284. 



[day II. 



* /J. 401, y. 206, 

w. 503, 54iS. 
b a. 222, fi. 278, 

y. 876. ' 
e P. 466, r. 80. 
d/9. 304. 
e/9. 60. 

f cf. /J. 319, 2/. 26. 
g cf. y. 122-3. 
hy. 375, •.370,^. 

315, r. 186. 
i 2/. 399-406; cf. 

405. 
k cf. E, 800, Z. 

479. 
1 C. 314. 
m /J. 373, y. 12 >, 

&^, (T. 504, C- 

314. 
n d. 267, X. 177, 

11. 211, V. 305, 

k.374; cf.y.l28. 
e y. 133, r. 209. 
p /». 165, 237. 
q 'fi. 352, y. 242, 

o. 275, w. 127, 

JP. 714, *. 66. 
r P. 202. 
8 T. 110, 229, it. 

105, ^. 105. 



MivtoQi^ eldo(idvri rj^hv difiag ijdi xal avdijv, 
xai (iLV (pG)V7J0a6^ ixBa msQOBVta TCQogrivda' 

^^TriXi(iax\ ovd' oTCid'sv^ xaxog Soaeai ovS' dvcytjiiwv, %\ 
si dij rov 60V TtatQog iveataxtav fusvog^ 17V, 
olog ixetvog ir)v taka^ai Igyov^ n inog tb' 
ov tot, inai^'^ aXitj^ odog i^asrat ovd' atkXe^tog. 
sl^ 8* ov xeivov y' itsal yovog xal nrjvslojtsirig , 
ov 66 y* iitBixa iolna^ rakevrriCBiv S (iBvotvag. 2[ 

TtavQOt^ yuQ tOL Ttatdsg 6(iotoc xuzqI nkkovrai^ 
oC TcXiovBg xaxLOvg^ TtavQOc Sb tb naxQog aQBiovg,^ 
olM! ijtBl o^d' OTtcd^Bv xaxog l66Bm oi5d' dvorjiicov^ 
ovSs 0B ndyxv yB [lijtig ^Odv^ai^og TtQoXsXoLTCBVy 
il7tG)Qrj^ tov STCBLtcc TBlavf^CaL^ xddB iQya. 2I 

rw vvv ^vr^OtfJQOv [ilv ia fiovXrjv^ tB voov xb 
d(p^adB(x)v, izBl ov xi vornLOvsg^ ovSh dcxaioc 
ovSb^' XL t6tt(Siv %'dvaxov xal xtIqu ^iXaivaVy^ 
og^ drj 0(pi axsdov iaxiVj in*^ ^iiaxi ndvxag dXicd'at, 



268. J^evdo^iivTi, 



269. q>ovT}aaacc J^BTteoc. 
280. J^slntoQTj J^i^ycc, 



272. J^iQVOv Ssnog. 
283. HaaCLv, 



^75. J-sJ-olncc, 



276 — 7. [] Bek. 281. Toi Schol. H. 



270 — 2. The drift of this speech is 
to throw Telem. on his own rescurces, 
o;ri^€l^** here after"; Homeric usage, 
contrary to onrs, regards the future 
as behind, and the past as before, thus 
Sifia ngoeam xal onicaos A, 343, means, 
"as well for the past as for the fu- 
ture". This is indeed the order of 
time itself. Render, "yoiL will not turn 
out a coward or a fool, if indeed you 
have a drop of your father's spirit in 
you". A youth is often said to be 
"his father's son", when showing his 
father^s spirit; hence she continues, 
"but if you are not his son etc." 
iviOT; not elsewhefe found in Homer, 
but^see Herod. IX. 3 dlld ot dsivog 
xig iviata%to tfiBQog (Ni.). The 
name of his father acts like a spell 
on Telem., and this is the chief key 
to his character, see App. E. 3. He 
is recognized by Nestor from the judi- 
cious character of his address as Odys- 
seus* son (y. 123 — 5); so is Pisistratus by 
Menelaus as Nestor's (tf.206). — reXiOai 
BQYm X. r. i. refers to his brave words in 
theAssembly, which now required energy 
(ftivog iqv) to accomplish them (Ni.). 

276—7 are by Bek. set in the mar- 



gin as suspicious; but they hax'^e the 
air of traditional saws current in the 
poet's time, familiar to every one, and 
needing no apology, in his hearers* 
view, for their introduction where the 
sense of the passage has only a ge- 
neral connexion with them. Cf. the 
srimilar maxim of Menel , (eia i* dgC- 
yvazog yovog dvigog x. r. X., S. 207 — 8. 
Observe, however, that to Mentor, as 
an elderly man addressing a young one, 
the yvmiiotvnsiv or stating maxims is 
adapted (Aristot. Rhet II. 21). Ni. here 
cites Aristotle's remarks on the tendency 
of degeneracy to follow a certain analogy 
of type(ilAe/.II. 15.3). Telem. bears some 
such marks of a feebler copy of Odys. 

280. reXevTfjOai , the aor. often 
follows phrases of hoping, promising, 
and others where a fut. might be ex- 
pected (mar.), cf. -^schyl. Prom. 685—6, 
in /iiog fiolsLV HSQavvov, following 
fivd'ov(iivi] "warning". 

281 — 2. i'a "never mind", voov, 
see on of. 3. — voi^fioVBg, this word is 
limited in H. to the Ody. and to this 
context. NoijfKov becomes a proper 
name in 386, like the Latin Cato. 

284. in * ijfUhiiy with oXitf^at, "upon 



DAY U.] 



OATSSEIAS B. 285—300. 



51 



J5 60I d'* 686g ovxsri, Srigdv &jts(S6€tccij ijv (fv (isvovv^g' 
rotog^ ydg rot ircctQpg iycs Jtatqmog eliity^ 
Off rot vya -froijv* erekm nal a/x'® sipofiav a'dtdg. 

ZxXi666v T* ijia^ xal &yyB6tv^&Q0ov anavta^ 
-polvov'^ iv^ dii(piq>0QSv6t xal aXtpita^ (ivBldv avSgcSvy 
iigiia^LV iv nvxivoliStv' iyd d* dvd S'^iiov itaigovg^ 
alrl>* id'aXovtiiQag (rt;AAi|ofKK£ * al^l Sh vrjsg 
nollal'^ iv d(i(puilp *Id'dxij y vkai i^ds xaXavai' 
xdonv (liv xoi iy(ov imoilfoiiai^ rj tigP dQiCtTj, 
^5 iSxa S^ ig>O7tXi60avt€g^ ivTJaofiev^ sigii: novnp.^' 
___ wg tpdr^ 'Ad'rjvairi^. xovqij dt6g' aid* &q^ Sn^ Stjv 
Ttjleiiaxog TCaQsiiv^vsv ^ insl d'sov SxXvbv^ avd^t/, 
/Jw d' iivccL TCQog 8(0(ia, q^ilov tstLfifiivog'^ ^rop. 
£vo€ d^ aga (ivfiOf^Qug dyTJvogag iv (isyaQOc^vv ^ 
X) atyag dvieiisvovg"^ ataXovg -d*' svovtccg iv avXij. 



a^.l50;cf.C.220. 
b J?. 828, i2. 1S2, 

<r. 206, O. 254, 

tf. 343. 
c /}. 225 mar 
(I |. 248. 
e y. 359, C- 32, ^p, 

127,9. 104, n, 

182. 
r a. 265, 8. 381. 
ST /». 410,*^ <r. 363, 

u. 329, e. 212, 

ir.|03,«.266,8«8. 
h B. 471. 
i S. 349—55. 
k £.204; cr.f.265, 

t 78, «.196, r. 

247. 
I V. 108, <. 197; 

cf./9. 354— 6,380, 

«. '234, i. Wl, 

520. 2. 28, |. 77. 
m -9. 35- 8. 
n.a 395 386. 
e 1 167. 
p ^. 36, V. 33S 
q C. 37, 57. 
r/£. 293, 401. 
s« 382, (0.529, 547, 

E. 733, e. 384. 
t a. 203, fi. 36. 
u (T. 831, It. 311, 

481. 
V a. 114 mar. 
w X. 80, /». 185 

mar. 



290. J^ctvov, 



289. onliaaai Bek. annot. 292. ai^ Harl. a pr. manu. 297. xagsfisivsv. 

298. C(i6vai Barnes. CI. ed. Oxon. 290. delet dyiqvoQas Harl. addito ivl 

fisydootaiv ftitisiv. 



a day (not iized)*' t. e. some day: else- 
where defined by rcsde, **on this day", 
bat also meanine "for a day's space". 
So, T^ls in ^^., ** thrice a -day" 
(mar.). Ni. joins it with a%Mv = **daily 
near", but this lacks Homeric authority 
and is weak in sense. 

280. ^ea, also ijta ^a (mar.), "vic- 
tual"; Eustath. says "properly the 
stalks of beans", which sense Curtius 
ascribes, s. v. ^ctal, to bCccI, slot,. For 
these forms, which resemble fem. and 
masc. plur. of which Tjia might be epic 
neut., there seems no anthority but 
Suidas, who renders it "chaff", which 
iqCuv certainly means in s, 368. Several 
Scholl. explain it erroneously by itpo- 
9ia ixo Tov livai, — ayyeOiv &Q; 
"secure in vessels", for carriage and 
stowage on board: ai»,tpi^0Qri8g and 
^SQfiaza are two varieties of ayyscc 
for liquids and solids respectively; the 
&a%og is also a common receptacle for 
wine (mar.). Hesiod. 0pp. 600 directs 
the storing of com iv ayysciv. 

390. akipixay coupled sometimes 



with dlstata (mar.), so aXsvQci ts notl 
Altpixtt Herod. VII. 119. dX^^dq 
albus seems to exhibit the root (Cur- 
tins 399), to which the epithet Xevxc^ 
also points, suggesting "white" meal 
(of barley, usage so limiting it) as 
meant. Observe that the dltpCr.ov axxi} 
^V* 355 means just the same as al- 
(pita here and 354. aXg>t apocopated 
occurs for the same, Hy. Ceres 308. 
dlsiaxa and aXsvga are connected 
with alia, merely meaning "things 
ground", but by usage restricted to 
meal of wheat, 

291. xvxiv,, here = "waterproof", 
from the general idea of density which 
resists external action, hence used of 
houses, chests, armour, brushwood, 
and by metaph. of plan, counsel, etc. 

^00. dviCfi*, "ripping open", cf. 
noXnov avtsfiivri (mar.) of a garment. 
The traditional sense of "Haying" 
seems a needless extension of the 
simple meaning of avirnii, nor does 
the vLavBtto Xaytivag of Eurip. Elec, 
826, "was ripping the flanks", confirm 



5^ 



OATSSEUS: B. 301—318. 



[day II. 



E 



h d. ail, f i%\, 

C- 264, 4 950* 
*. 194. 
c fl. B5, y. 274, 

f a?. 60. 
h ^. 212. 

17ft, e^ 4a. 
J ef. App, A. Ifl ♦ 
m it. 301, £. 91f 

l&T, 9, SOfl, 
n E. 34», F. 4M, 

J*, 343 mar. 

p !Z. 4&2, i2. 520. 

q (T. 21«^'iO, 22s 

— tJ, *. JOO-^1, 

B30-2> 
r a. 04. 
ft X 110, 

m jf . 4». 

V a. 175 mir. 

X ^. 273. 



uTT^ 



£V drifd-fOf^yt 3cof3cdi^ fi^Airca l^j^or*^ T£ IsFOg rf, 

kAAk ^Of « iiS%tBpL8v^ %al mvB^EV dg to TcaQog TtegJ ^ 

zavta Si ro^ ^«Aa Ttdvta relEvt'^^oviStv yfj^aioi,^ 

ig^ JJvXov "i^yad-hjv pLBX^ dyavov Ttatgog dxov^v,^' 
tov S^ av T7}Xi(ia^og nenvvfiivog dirriov rivSa 

^ oiJjjj'* uUg mg to n&^ot%-EV inBiQ^xB^ TtoXld'^ xffl ic^ld 

vvv tf' ma Sr^ yiiyag dpbl^ xtd aXl^v ^v&'ov d%ov6}v^ 

TruQTJfSd^^ mg x* ^^fii xaxdg ijtl x'^Qccg ci/Xm/ 
jji^ IlvXovd^ iXp'(DV^^7J'' aitov trod* ivl rfif^p* 



302. J^oi J^inog. 304. J^ipyov J^inog, 312. ov J^dXig, 

305. jLiOt Wolf., ftttX' Harl. Amb. E. Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Oxon. 311. ita Rhian., 
Schol. M. ita Harl. Ven, Wolf. ed. Oxon., &i%ovxtt Schol. M. Barnes. Em. CI. 



it. Yet all the Scholiasts, and lexico- 
graphers from Hesjchius, will have it 
**flaying". 

303 — 8. On the tone of this speech 
of Antin. see App. £. 6. The mock- 
assurance given in 306, *Hhe Achaeans 
will do all you wish", may be com- 
pared with the contemptuous words of 
Leocritus in 253, and with what Te- 
lem. says in 265. — Sno^ x. r. X., see 
on 8. 610. 

311. A line of balanced harmony ex- 
pressive of the cheerful content and 
calm 'enjoyment of which it speaks. 
For aTiiovra see App. A 16; for sxri" 
kog cf. ^sch. SepU c. Th, 238, %%rilog 
iVr^t, fH2^' ayoff^ vnsQcpofiov. 

313. Tja "is aor. according to Her- 
mann" (Ni.), whether so, or as Do- 
nalds. Gr, Gr, §. 321 gives it, imperf., 
its analogy with rjia from slfii, eo, in 
all persons, is observable. 

315 — 7. dMOVGiv xvvB-dv* This 
sentence well brings out the difference 
in sense between these two words; cf. 
i7t*'9(& the oracle, as that which in- 
fbrms, in which however H. has v. 



Curtius (328) traces this force in the 
Sanskrit words related to nv&, — -d'V- 
fioq, *' mental power". Eustath. com- 
pares Herod. III. iy$4 aviavo(iivat yuQ 
tA a<ofiati Gvvav^avovtai xal at wpi" 
vBg\ or specially "anger", of.^roXo^, 

(mar.). ^ For ^k • • • ^ here , and ^ • • • 
fly *•• lib inf. 326 — 8, see App. A ii, 

Jl6Xov6\ this purpose is perhaps 
based on Mentes* words a. 284 — 5, 
293—6 (which are perhaps alluded to 
in &XX(DV ikv&ov 314) > by inferentially 
connecting the tw6 heads of his advice ; 
which, however, as given, seem not 
meant to be so connected; for there ' 
the errand to Sparta is suggested to 
obtain news merely. It is natural, 
however, that Telem., after proving 
the weakness of his party in the As- 
sembly, should recur to Sparta as a 
probable source not only of tidings but 
of help. This is brought out plainly 
in the surmises of the hearers which 
follow inf. 325 — 6. 

318. ovd* dXiri x. r. i., these words 
only re-affirm negatively the resolution 



DAY II.] 



OATZZEIAS B. 319—333. 



53' 



■ ^i>^ - 



20 yfyvoiiaL, Ss vv^ nov v^iilv ieCcaxo "x^qSiov^ bivui.'^ 
^ QUy xal ix x^f'Qog X^^Q^ Oxdcav^ ^Avtiv6oiJo 
Q£ta'^ {LVTiavqQBg 81 do^iov xdta Salta ytivovxo.^ 
of d' ijtaXdfisvov xal ixegrdiisov^ iniefS0i,v. 
Sds^ Si ttg e[jt€0x€ vimv mcBQrivoQBovtcDV' 

25 ^^7j ^la TfiU(ia%og g>6vov ^(liv fi€pfii;p^£&- 
ij^ ttvag ix IIvXov'^ a|a d(ivvtOQag f]iiad'6svtog^ 
^^ o ys xal UxdQttjd'ev, ijeei vv itSQ lerai^ aivcSg- 
^ijh^ xai elg*Eg>VQriv i^ileij nisiQav^ aQovgav^ 
il^etVj 09P* ivd'sv d'V(io(pd'6Qa^ qxigfiax^ iveixy^ 

30 iv dh pdXy XQfiriJQi xal 'qfiiag ndvtag 6Xi06rj.^^ 
aXXog^ d' avt* Bins0xs veoov vneffivogaovtayif 
"r^ijP S' old* bI xb xal avtog lav xoiXijg^ ijcl Vfjog 
vijXB^ fpCX(ov^ dnoXrixai dXci(iBvog Sg tcbq ^OSv00Bvg; 



ft «. 3U0. 

b a. 59 mir. 

c /?. 74, I. 355. 

d a. 160 mar. 

e <r. 624, S. 558. 

f 5. 17, ^. 153. «. 
239,^.6,E.4I9. 

f (T. 769, ff. 4R7, 
V, 375, •. 361, 
401; cf. d. 772, 
». 170, %ff, 152, 

h a. 175 mar. 

i a. 93. 

k n. S66. 

1 a. 259—62 Diir. 

m S. 541. 

a Z. 169. 

o fi. 324 mir. 

p y. 216, O. «», 
h. S60. 

q (T. 817, 1. 508. 
V. 216, «. 259. 

r cf. fi, 182, 365-6 

8 a. 48. 



331, av J^8ixsc%s. 



332. /of^*. 

321. andcat Arist., Scholl. H. Q. R., Wolf., andesv Harl. Amb. Fl.- Barnes. £ni. 

CI. ed. Ozon. J22 f Aristoph. et nonnulli, Scholl. M. Q. R., [] Bek. Dind. 

327. 7} vv xal ix Snaqtr^q Dionys. Halic. 333. anoXoito Schol. K, 204. 



£lfAt f'^v^ "I mean to go", as shown 
by ov9* atiXsatog added «i/p. 273; they 
affirm nothing fis to the resuU of his 
mission. 

»V9' pff^^Q^^^ ^^^ ^^^ voyaged 
vrjog in* dXXotQiagj *'in a ship not his 
own'', paying an inifia&QOV^ "fare" 
(mar.). Not that Telem. actaally so 
paid, Pallas otherwise arranging, inf. 
383 foil. — BTtiqP, , " snccessful in ob- 
taining"; cf. Soph. Fragm, 95, fpQB- 
v&v im^fioXov, Ho had not obtained 
any public notice of his request for a 
ship, but was left to the resources of 
friends and volunteers. Hence he de- 
scribes his errand to Nestor as ^^ti} 
ov ^rjfiiogy y. 82. He says nothing 
to Antin. of Pallas* promise sup, iS'j, 
but leaves him to infer that he had 
now the means of going; which Antin. 
evidently disbelieves; cf. the eager 
surprise of his questions in 9, 642 foil., 
on learning that Telem. had really 
gone, and the suitors* bantering sur- 
mises which here follow, inf, 323 foil. 
This reticence is a trace of the pru- 
dence in which Telem. imitates his 
father, see App. E. 3. 

322. This line, suspected by Aristoph. 



of Byzant., probably because oV $\ 
323, follows as if no noun had pre- 
ceded, is set in the mar. by Bek ; 
but we left the suitors in 300 preparing 
the banquet, and the subject is here 
naturally resumed. 

324. Tig J the different suppositions 
which follow evidently belong to dif- 
ferent persons, and represent so many 
conjectures hazarded and remarks ex- 
changed among the company. The line 
is forn^ulaic, but specially adapted, 
and dramatizes the current opinion and 
feeling in the subordinate agents, after 
some impressive exhortation or example 
given by some principal person. 

328. *EipVQ; see App. D. 8. — Tzlei^ 
Qav with this fem. of niaqog (nimv) 
cf. vBiaiQU from VBagog (viog)^ and 
prop, name Nicciga, Ni. adds also 
dygotsigav Eurip. Electr, 168. 

329. <pdQfA.y the knowledge of these 
is expressly ascribed (mar.) to the 
Epean princess AgamedS, A, 740—1, 
sec App. D. 8; so Egypt bears cpaQ- 
liaxa, KoXXd fi^hv ia^'Xd ymtiyyi^ivu^ 
icoXXot 8\ Xvyga, S, 230, see also on 
a. 261, and so-ffischyl. (Fragm, 42S Dind.) 
speaks of the Tyrrhenians, Tvifijvov 



54 



0AT22EU2 B. 334—347- 



[day II. 



a B. 4*20, n, m. 

b fi. 368, V. 216. 

c ». 253. 

d d. 121, r. 423, 

Si. m, 317, I. 

682; cf. a).8,42. 
ecf. /.137;v.l36, 

<p, 10, 62. 
f w, 51-2; cf. ^. 

^, 438. 
g cf. V'. 186. 
b y/, 305. 
i vT 891, 0. 507. 
kef. 2.357, C- 63, 

B. 800, Z. 424. 
1 e. 297, o». 73. 
m /J. 351, B. 97^' 
n •. 449, C. 175. 

o. 489, «. 483, 

a. 2(yi, xU. 101, 

169, 338. 
o y. 128; cf. App. 

F. 2 (4) mar. 
p o. 268, M. 455. 
4 a. 139, y. 479, 

^. 152, Q. 495, 

<T. 169, *.^6, \U. 

154, Z. 381, i2. 

302 
r CO. >S3, E, 490, 

^.73. 
8 V' 77. 
na. 429-32. 



oJkcD x£i/ xal [laXXov dfpiXlscev^ icivov &(iiit,v' 
xt7J(iata yaQ x€v navta dafJaified'aj^ oixia d' avta 
rovtov^ (ifjtiQL SotfiBV Ixsiv ^d* og xiq dTCviocJ^j 

cSg q>dv, o 8' vi>6Qoq>ov Q'dXccfiov^ xatspijaato narpog^ 
evQvv^ SO-t vritog ^tpvtfoj* xal xaXxog ixsito^ 
iadTJg^ r* iv xijXot6LV, aXig t' evdiSeg fXatov.^ 
iv 81 7ti%ov^ otvoio xaXacov ^^Sva6toto^ 
eataaavj &XQrjtov^ ^stov Jtotov ivtog i%ovxsg^ 
iisCrig notl xoi%ov aQijQOtsg^ sItcot*'^ 'O8v066vg 
otxaSs vo6rfi6€C6, xal aXyea"^ nok^k \ioyrfiu,g. 
xXfjc^tal 8^ i^€0av 6avi8eg^ TCvxLvcSg dQagvlM, 
dvxXlSsg*^ iv Sh yvvfi ta(iirj*^ vvxtag^ xs xal '^(iuq 
i0x\ ^ navx i(pvXa00a voov aoXvVSQeirj^Lv,^ 
EvQvxXei^ * ^Sljtog ^vydxriQ IlBL^yivoQCSao. 



ii 



335. foi^^a, 339. J^saO^g MUg. 340. folvoio fri^vnozoio, 343, J^oUadB. 

346. noXvfiSQBtrici. 



'^evsdv q>aQiitt%onoi6v i^vog. Of tluB 
treacherous use of poison the heroic 
legends contain no instance, and only 
this allusion to it from the suitors who 
stand the lowest in the scale of heroic 
morality. 

334—-^, said in derisive irony, **he 
will give us all the more trouble, for 
then we should have to divide the 
property &c.", which was exactly the 
consummation designed in their plans. 
XOVXOV9 contemptuously, as mar. 

337.. ihpOQO^p. ^dX. see App, F. 2 
(29) end. xaxe^iio. This verb is used 
with accus. of object somewhat loosely 
by H. Thus we find TiarS^atv* wcsgma 
"went down from the upper- story", 
and TLXiiiazu xars^ifff. "went down by 
the ladder*', here **/o the chamber". 

340 — 3. oXvoio • , . 7i6v7t6xoio y cf. 
mar. for instances of other rhyming 
lines, or members of lines: they are 
probably all accidental. doriQ. "se- 
cured" probably to the wall is meant, 
but how is not clear; mere contact 
would be insufficient, etnox* t. e, kept 
for the special contingency, referred 
to also in 351. — xal "altiiough". 

345. xafUfj, chief of the female do- 
mestics; the title is applied to (i) Eu- 
ryclea, (2) Eurynome (mar.) , who was 
probably a younger woman and may 



be the apL(pinoXog tapL^ri otic. 152, cf. 
^. 292—3, Thus in r. 356 Euryc. is 
described as oXtyTinskiovea "decrepit". 
It seems to be asserted that she was 
always in the &dXafiog — a poetic am- 
plification of her vigilance , or else a 
tacit recognition of her deputy. The 
designation xafiiri did not exclude the 
person from other special offices. Thus 
Eurycl. acts as %ttXaibrin6Xog to Telem. 
a. 428—9 and even here, when acting 
as raiiii^y is called €p£Xri XQ6(pog in the 
same passage, inf, 361. We also find 
her setting out seats, q. 32, ordering 
household work to the other servants, 
V, 147 foil., and bathing Odys., r. 356 
foil. Cf. the office of Nausicaa's nurse, 
V' 7 — *3' Euryc, as housekeeper, had 
charge of stores and oversight of do- 
mestics %. 396, 421 — 3, but has the air 
of a factotum, turning her hand to what- 
ever most needed her personal care. 
Similarly Euryn. bathed Odys. ip, 154, 
brought a seat for Penel. after con- 
versing with her (probably not in the 
store-room t. 96—7, so again f, 495), 
and in a. 169 is aloft in the vrngma, 
Euryn, further acts as ^aXccfiriitoXog 
to Odys. and Penel. after aiding Eu- 
rycl. in preparing the bed, '^. 289— 95. 
346 — 53. €iJx*9 imperf. of sifilj^ so 
P' 59. — 9CoXvi6i^; cf. the nccXttid xe 



DAY II.] 



OATrSEIAS B. 348—362. 



55 



riji/ tore 3^A^(ta%o$ nQogiq>ri 9dXa(i6vds xaXi06ag' 
''(lafy &y€ dif jito^ olvov iv d(iq>ig)0Q£v6cv^ affOCCov 

50 i^dih/j ong (isra tov XaQiorarogy ov 6v fpvXd0<SBig 
XBtvov oVo^dvij tov xd(i(ioQOVy^ st no^sv^ iXd'oi, 
SL(yysvi^g^ ^08v6svg d'dvurov^ xal K^a^ ccXv^ag. 
ScSSexa S* liixXijaovy xocl TCci^aOiv^ SqCov aTcavtag. 
iv^ Si ^ioi aXifLta^ %svov ivQQaq>is0Ci doQOt6vv. 

^^ eUxoat d' i6t(o (istqcc (ivXriq)dtov dXtpitov dxf^g.^ 
avtri d* otri [(Sd'c ra d' ad'Qoa^ ndvra tatv%d'Gi' 
i07tiQiog yctQ iy<Qv alQ7J6oiiat^ 6n%6ts xav di} 
(iTJtfiQ elg v7t€Q^* dvafifj xoCxov te ^iSnitai. 
6l(ii yaQ ig Sjcd^xriv rs xal ig UvXov i^fiad'oevraf 

60 v66tov^ 7t6v06ii6vog TtatQog (pCXov^ f^v %ov dxov(S(o?^ 
cSg^ qidxOj xdxvCsv Sh (ptXij tQb(pdg EigyxXeva^^ 
xaC^ Q oXotpvQO^ivrj Itcscc ntegoBvra ^Qogrjvdcc 



ft/9.290, xp. 306. 
b «. 160, 339, 2. 

216, v. 33. 
c fi, 342-3 mar. 
d«. 387. 
e 4». 565, /?. 283 

mar. 
f ^. 443, 447, i. 

314, J. 116. 
fS /?. 290-1 mar. 
h t/. 108. 
i ^ 429, A, 631, 

639-40. 
k a. 43, X. 271, 

/J. 410-1. 
1 a. 284 — 5, fi. 

214-5, y. 15. 
mi2. 200. 
n <r. 742, «. 21, /. 

419, 485, 492, V^. 

35, 39, 69. 
S. 72. 



349. fotvov, 350. J^rjdvv, 355. S-bUooi, 356. fCcQ'i. 357. fsanSpios, 362. fiitBa, 

350. ita Eustath. Vulg. Harl. Ven. Amb. Wolf. ed. Oxon. XagmtSQog Barnes. 
Em. CI.; mox mv Ven. Harl. var. lect., ov Schol. M. et edd. rec. 354. ^gev- 

aov Harl. Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Oxon., jffivov Wolf. 

account of the value of their stores. 
Those whom this explanation dissatisfies 
will probably have to alter the text, 
as by reading d'aXdfiov SI %dXB6aeVj 
— "called forth from", he being at 
the door — or the like, fiexd xov; 
the expectation of his father, now 
keenly roused, peeps out in this detail 
of his voyage: he will not take the 
best —. that is reserved for Odyss. — 
but the next best. Xaqiox. obs. Xapog 
a gull, £.51. Obs. var. lect. Xccgcots- 
gog. The spirit of the passage cer- 
tainly requires the superlative^^ xeZ' 
vov see on cc. 163. — x(6fi. aoOoVy 
* 'secure with stoppers or capsules ; cf. 
nitpLU tpaghgrjg (mar.) "lid of quiver". 

354 — 5. &Xfpixa dXq>ixov, see on 
299 sup. ^ 

356. aS'Qoa 7t. XBXvx*> "be set 
forth together ready". ^ Btek. after 
Aristarch. aspirates aQ-goog, 

357 ~ 9- tclQiiC, as we say, "shall 
take myself off". For Sparta ^ and 
Ephyre see App. D. 3, 8. For IIvXov 
rifiaS'. see App. A. 12. 

361—2. x<6xvC»t onomatopoeic from 
xfl) — , a cry of sorrow; to cry for joy 
is oXoXvisiv^ y. 450.^ — 6Xo<pVQ*i for 
its connexion with ovXog^ oXoipmog see 
App. A. 3. 



noXXd re std(og, and (ivg^a ^Srjj ap- 
plied to ^gyptius and Halitherses 
sup. 16, 188. On account of her "ex- 
perience", trustiness, and attachment, 
Eurycl. is called Sta yvvam&v v. 147 
— a high-ranking epithet, testifying 
to the moral and social aspect of he- 
roic servitude. S'dXafi6v6e x*, how 
could he summon her to the chamber, 
if according to 345 — 6 sup. she was 
always there, and therefore there Iken ? 
Ni. suggests tax' for ^cx* from ixta in 
the sense of "kept (the doors) fast"; 
but the difficulty rather arises from 
the ivj which implies that she was as 
much inside as were the stores, cf. 
iv at 340. The ^dXafiog or d'dXafioi 
probably contained a range or row of 
chambers (App. F. 2 (29) and not«), and 
to all there might be general access 
by the doors described 344 — 5. It is 
likely that the wine and oil would be 
stored in a different compartment from 
the treasures of 338; cf. (p. 51 — 4, 
Hence, if she were in one, and he 
first reached the other, he might be 
said to call her &dXocfi6vis even though 
she came from a ^dXaiiog to him. 
Thus the iv dl yvvrj . . . ^cx' means, 
"was within the whole range of such 
chambers"; they were never left on 



56 



OATrSElAS B. 363-385. 



[day n. 



a y. 164. ». 125, 500. 
h k* 380, *. 284, 

t 71. ti7-m 

d ^. 727, B17. 
e J?, 3H:i iiinr. 
f^L^.2n,T.324. 

lSO-1. 
h /J, 335, y* 516. 
if 150, l^ su- 
it S. 2i5. o. i56. 

14(1, 158/ I/. 7U, 
^, 289; cl. a. 4. 

n d. 71^ mar. 

p cf. 1.40, ii..444. 

q ir.5S8;cf.r,102. 

447, % 314, ^. 

fi3, Z. 174. SI. 

6>«-2, 6«4— 7, 

784-5, r.tWflsdq 
X A. 425. 
9 a, 11J3, f. 136. 
t d. 72S, t. 437. 
u if. 14$. 
T K, 845-^6, ^. 

27^ -SO. 
w J¥, 349 --55. 

y if. 393, J. 705. 
». 382, t U2, 
ff. 1S7, v^. 342, 
344, tff. I03. 

I £. 4tt5. 

an ^. 10; cf- X. 
37L <U' S16. 

bb 0, 171, jp, BL 
^. mX, iX 508, 

cc -£ 245. 



^^%i7ttB 8i tot, 9^6^ %mvov^ ivl ipQBfA tqvtq vori^a 
iTtlito; TTp d* id'ilBtg livat itolk^v IkI yalav^^ 
liovvog^ imv dyaiti^tog;^ S d' torero tyjXod'L ndrgfig"^ 36 
Sioysv^g 'OSv^avg dX^Qyvrnz^^ ivl ^i^P^^i^ 
ot'^ Se tot octJrfK' i6vtL Ktcna tp^uceovzai 6iti<ifSm^ 
mg XE SoIgi ^#t7^^, tads S* amol Ttdvta SdiSovtm.^ 
dlld liiv' av^^* ijtl 0ot(?t nadnifi^vog^^ ovdi^ %C tff %(iii 
jtovtov^ iit^'' dt^vyBTOv xaxit itdoxnv ovS" dkdX7i6^atJ^ 35 

t^v S^ av D^ki^iaxog TteTtw^ivog'' dvrlov r^vda 
^^&dQ0u^ (lafj and ov irot &vsv d-sovP rjis ya ^oul'^, 
dXV opLo0ov ^ij fi7|t^t (p^kf] tads ^vd'ijtsaad'aL ^ 
ngiv y' qz &v ivdexdzf}^ zb dvcoSendtf}'^ zb yivritai, 

dg av ^71 KXaiov6a Tcatd XQoa xalov idnrr^J^'^ 

iSg &Q^ 1^71 J yg^ivg dh d'smv ^iyav qq-kqv dnmiivv."' 
*]t{h:dQ BTtii ^' oiio6iv ta zekivtri^Bv ze tov o^a^ov, 
avzC^'"^^ inBiid ol otvov iv d^fpttpoQsviJtv aipvtsaEV.^ 
iv di qC al<pita x^vev ivg^aq)BE00L dogot^tv 3! 

Tifiki^aiog <S' ig dm^ar^ imv pLVtptiigmv^ 6(iiXsLp. 
Ii/^'y avz^ aXy Bv6ri6E &Bd yXavx^^ttg '-/fd-jji/ij^ 
TriXepidx^ S' uKvta %aza^ mtoXiv ^jcato jrcti/Ti|^, 

iOTCBQ^QVs (J' iTtl vija ^oijv^^ dyB^ia^cct^ dvmyEip, 3I 



379. legend, fotvov insLtd foi avzCv.'. 380. J^oi, 383. fsi^vta omisso d' 
et ad fin. 382 plene distincto. 384. fB%d9x(p. 385. J^BOnBgiovg. 

366. dXloyvmztov ApoUon., et hoc et aXXoyvdatcit Scholl. 368. <pd'B£7ig -^m^* B. ; 
idatovtai Ern. CI. ed. Oxon. 373. (ivd^i]6f6d'at Harl. marg. et Schol. 376. Id^y 
ApoUon. 385. ita Wolf. Thiersch. Buttm. Bek. Fa., dysQB6&ui Vulg. Dind. Low. 



367. OTtiaCm as oni^Bv 270, where 
see note. 

368. <p3'li(iQ . . . 6d€(avxaiy see App, 
A. 9 (5) on this change of moods. 

373 — 4. fivO'djO,, see on 28o^«Mp» 
jzqIv y's *lie full form is nglv rj or' 
Sv Donalds. Gr, Gr, § 583 (e); nglv 
may be followed bj a subjunct. (or, 
tense so requiring, by an optat.) when a 
negat., as f*^ 373, has preceded, by an 
infin. whether affirm, or neg. has pre- 
ceded. ivdexaVTi x. t, i. ; cf. Hor. 
Sat, II. VI. 40 Septimus octavo propior 
.... annus, and our similarly formulaic 
way of speaking *'the eleventh or 
twelfth']. So the tenth day, U e. the 
ninth' with one complementary, is the 



most frequent Homeric reckoning (mar.); 
cf. Hes. Theog, 802 — 3. Telem. here 
takes fuller measure, perhaps to allow 
for unforeseen impediments; so does 
Menel., in the spirit of hospitality, ^. 
588 , when pressing his stay. 

377. dxmfiw =a Sfivv fn^i 375i cf. 
duBiitBtv^ which sometimes = bItcbiv 
strengthened, so anofivviii in Thucyd. 
v. 50 is Ofivv{ii strengthened, but never 
so in Hj^ 

380. SXcpita see on 290 sup. 

384—5. Comp, with this the proceed- 
ings of Odys. in the Grecian camp, 
B. 189 foil. 

, 385 — 92. dyeQicP'ai is 2. aor., as 
dyigovto, 27. 245, ayiqBcQ'ui var. tect. 



BAY II.] 



OATL2EIAS B. 386—407. 



57 



^* d* avTS 0QOVIOIO Nbrj^ova g>aiSLfiov vtov 
lixaB v^a d'Oijv o di ol nqocpQCDV^ vnidsxto. 
dvCBto* r' riikvog 0xi6(ovx6 te nSaat ay vial ^ 
xal^ rdra v^cc d'O'^v aXad^ etQvas, ndvxQ d' iv avzfl 

JO OTcX^ * itCd'ec , td xb vrii^ ivCOsXiioi qpoQBOvOiv. 

0Xfj(f6 d' ijt'^ 6<y;i;aTt^ ki^ivog^ nsQl d' i^d'i.oU sxatQOv 
dd'Qooc iiysQi^ovxp^ ^BOL S^Sxqvvbv Bxa6xov, 

^^- iv%^^ avr' aXV ivorfiB i^Bu ykavTCfSnic 'Ad^vri — 
/Jij d' livav iCQog Scdfiax' [Odvtfifijog ^hioLO'^ 

?5 lyd'a^ ^vr^tfxiJQBaCLV inl yXvxyv vjtvov i%BVBv^ 
'TcXa^B"^ SinCvovxag^ 'xHQ(av S' Jk^ccXXb xv^^AAa. , 
6i d' bvSbiv aovvvxo xaxd xxoXiv. ovd'^ ao' ixi dwr 
Biax 3 6;r£^ 0q>v0vv vjtvog btcI plB(paQOv0vv BJtL7txBv.° 
ccvxctQ TnXiiic^xov ^Qogsfprj yXavxiSxig ^Adijvri, 

DO ixxQOxalB60afiLByri^ ^BydQ(ov r' '"'*" ''■ 

Mirxogi"^ kldoiiivii fljftlz/ Siaag ijSh 
" Triki{ia%. ^dq ftcV rot Bvkvri^i 
itdii^'^JjiijQBx\iLOi^^ xrjv a^y noxt^dByftsyoL^ OQJirjv* 
dlV loiiBv. an 07)9d dcuxgcSGiUBV^ SSoto}^ 

D5 ©S a^pa qxQvriCaO ^ riyijoaxo uakla^ A9^v7i ^ 
xaQ7caXi(ic3g' d' BTCBixa ^bx t%via ficctvB d-Boto. 
avrap^ hcBi ^' iTtl v^a xaxfjXvd^ov i^Si %'dka0oav^ 



tv vixiBxaovxoVj^ 
xal dySijv 



Ifwct/wji't^^ BxatQOc 



a (T. 639-56. 

b }. M, «. 372, \p. 

314,1.480. 
c y. 487, 497, 0. 

185, 296, 471. 
d *. 260-1. 

d. 781-3, &. 51 
-4; cf. ^ 346, 
to. 390. 

•f I. 182, X. 96; cf. 

d. 517, •. 288, 

489, (. 280, a. 

357, CO. 150. 
g:«. 110,133^1?. 251, 
^^. 113, iZ: 327. 
h fi, 385, B. 304, 

r. 231. 
i fi. 382 mar. 
k /J. 298, <r. 799, 

^. 230, 402. 

1 it. 338, V, 54, S'. 
164-5. 

mcf.«.470,X311. 

n /?. 36 mar. 

o •. 271, y.79; cf. 

jr. 26. 
p cf. ^. 515. 
q B. 648, //. 45; 

cf. t. 21. 
r /J. 268 mar. 
s d. 559; cf. «. 16, 

141,^.224,^.145. 
t jr. 123, cf. B. 

137. 
u /J. 204 mar. 
V y. 29-30, w. 37 

-8, /J. 413, «. 

192-3, ^. 46, 

104. 
w ^. 428, 573, &. 

50, /I. 391, *. 70. 



387. /ot. 392. m^tjye J^iMocetov. 401. fsidofiivrj. 

391. ita Harl.^ S. Wolf., ^ayart^ff Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Oxon. 392. pro dd'QOOi, 
avtrjv Harl. var. lect. Schol. H. 404 f Zenod., Schol. M. 



is pres. For iqysgid'ovzo a pres. riysQi- 
&ovxoti occars. For the form in -hto 
see the list of such verbs in Jelf Gr. 
Or. § 263, obs. I., cf. § 248 c. — dviO' 
yeiv, for a defence of the final v in 
the pluperf. 3'** sing, see Bek. Homer, 
Bldii, n. p. 29. On the names Noemon 
and Phronius see ona. 154. -— oi .,• 
vn€6m, **undertook it at her request''. 
In the recurring v. 388 the effect of 
suns^ as casting into gloom the roads 
before a traveller seems intended. 
07tX\ "tackle", in sing. **a rope" 
(mar.) see App. F. i (7). 

395—7. VTIVOV; "drowsiness", the im- 
perf. Triaf f, ^nfiaklB^ &c., denote its effect 
as sustained, ere ffriv see on of. 186. 

400 — 3. eiCJtQOxaX.y cf. i^ngoXi- 
ndav untce lect. iv vatex,, sometimes 
written as one word svvaifr. voctstdcOf 
here nent., is also transit, with name 



of piace; bv vatofisvog is a more com- 
mon formula, eixvfjfi., this and ndgri 
Tio^ioojvxsg 408, being in II. epithets 
of 'A%(iiolj are used of Ithacans, as 
being of that race, cnriqex^y if li- 
terally meant, thej would be sitting 
(cf. 408), on the shore oar in hand, 
"man and oar being inseparable" (Ar- 
nold's Thucyd. vol. I. App. III.). With 
this accords 8. 782 showing that the 
oars were put on board, do Elpenor 
begs that his oar, with which he rowed 
in life, may be set. up as his personal 
badge over his tomb. X. 77 — 8; see 
App. F. I (13) (14). ^nriQBx. elsewhere 
is epith. of the ship. 

405 — 6. This dependence of Tolem. 
for his smallest actions on the gui- 
dance Qf Pallas, supposed by him Men- 
tor (so 416 — 7 inf.)^ illustrates his cha- 
racter as yet unformed, see App. E. .;. 



58 



OATSSETAS B. 4^18—426. 



[day II. 



a cf. n. 167, a. 34, 

X. 601, B. 851. 
b /?. 288 mar. 
c ^. 356 mar. 
d «. 207, V- 227. 
e ^ 345. 
f 0. 284—95. 
? e. 177. 

h o. 206, jr. 570, 
U.411; cf.r.75. 
\ p. 224 mar. 
k i. 137, 178, 0. 

552; ct. 498. 
i X. 638, 0. 221, 

549; cf. ^. 37. 
mZ. 7. 
n d, 357, 520, 360, 

«. 268-9. 
o ^. 253, 299. 
p.cf. «. 295, /u. 2894 
q V'. 208, X 576, 

*. 16, 
r a. 183 mar. 
8App.F.l(7)mar., 

X, 9. /?. 390, 430. 
t iWrf. (6) mar.; 

cf. 8. 109. 
u o. 289, t. 37, V. 

354. 
▼ y. 11. 
w «. 427, H, 167, 

4. 346, ip. 408, 

5V^. 599. ^ 



rotec dlxal (iBtdsup* leffij fg^ TijXeiidxoto . 
'ysyta. (piXot/^ca^ <peQ0iis9a* ndvta ydg^J^f] j 

ad'QO ^ ivl (iBvaqoi • fiTJtriQ &^ iwfl ov rv nmv6tai^ " 
ot;d' aXXat o^ioaly (ita^ d* oPrj (iv^ov axovdei/." 

wg &Qa fp(x>vtj6ag r^yqiSato^ tol tf' Sfi* enovro, 
0? *' &Qa Tcdvta g)€QOvtsg iv06eX(ip ixl vijl^ 
xdtd'saav, 6g ixiXevcsv 'OSv(S6'^og tpiXog vCog. 
^av^ d' &QU TriXifiaxog vrjog Patv% '^Qxe d' 'Ad^vrjy 
VTil d' ivl TtQViivij^ xar'^ &q' s^sro' 'dy%i S* ap' avtiqg 
?^eto TriXifiaxog' tol 8h 7CQV^v7J0t^^ SXvCaVj 
av^ SI xal avtol ^dvxeg iiil xkritCi rccd'tiov. 
tot0iv d' [7C(isvov°^ ovQov^ iBi yXav7C(S%Lg ^AdTJvrjj 
dxQa'^^ ZsfpvQOVy^ xekdSovt*^ i^l otvoTta^ novrov, 
TriXk^axog S' itdQOi0LV iTTotQvvccg ixiXsvOsv 
OTcXcov^ &7tt€0d'm' Tol S* ot^vvovTog axovCav. 
[0t6v^ d' dkdtvvov xoUrjg ivxocQ'B (is06d(irig'^ 
(ff^cav"^ dsLQavrsg, xaxd dl ^qox&voiClv ISij^av, 
eXxov d' tfStCa Xsvxd ivtftQmtOL^i^ fioBv6tv. 



409. fists J^SLcp' fig. 421. J^oCvonu. 

410. pro fiia Callistr. S^q' ^a, Scholl. H. M. Q. 411. saol Had. a pr. manu 
Wolf. Dind., ifti} Harl. ex emend. Em. CI. ed. Ox. Bek, Fa. L5w. 414. a]ta 
Ern. CI, ed. Ox., ciqa Harl. Wolf., mox ivl vrjl Harl. 422. inpzgvvag Harl. a 
pr. manu, sed -oov ex emend, cum Schol., -ag Barnes. CI. ed. Ox. et edd. rec. 



409 — 10. ieQfi l^y Bek. writes tsgd. 
The denoting a person by a conspi- 
cuous quality is a form of language 
widely diffused, cf. §£ri ^ ^HgaytXrjsiri 
(mar.). Ni. adds tg iddfiai/as §Crig 
'HganX.y Hes. Theog, 332. isQ^^, prob. 
as being of kingly race,- cf. iiozgs- 
q>S(ov §cciSiX7](ov, For i^ia see on 289. 

411. dS'QO*, see on 356. euiiy this 
reading is preferable to ifiol, there 
being no call for a dative of special 
limitation in the action. . 

416. VTioq, Jelf Gr, Gr, § 624 obs. 
refers this to the head of gen. parti- 
tive (as implying the part of the ship 
which he reached), or local. 

417 — 8. TtQVfivin ••• XQVfiviia. see 
App. F. I (s) (10) (11). These tcqv- 
fivT^o* (nsiGfiata) fastened the ship to 
the shore, after she had been launched. 

420. Ixfievov is referred by Doederl. 
to stY,(o as meaning **to suit", or 
"comply with", in which sense, as 
j^sU<a is the real word, xoiai Ss JrC- 



nfisvov would be needed. Ni. refers it 
to Ufiag "moisture", not, however, 
taking lUftsvov to mean "moist" (cf, dvi- 
(imviiivog vygor tt^»y), but "smooth- 
ly and equably gliding * . This seems 
forced. The sirBpIe>}t 'v^ay is to take 
it from fxa), but way it should lose 
the breathing is diffienlt to say. Per- 
haps it is a touch o£ nautical verna- 
cular. Similarly we--* find rjficcg but- 
'^(ligTi* — ovQoq is dcriibtless a form of 
avgUf cf. anovgccg parfeic. oi dnavgdm, 

421—2. dxgd^y the Sehollasf s mean- 
ing of ccTigog ccrjiiif "blowing neither too 
much nor too little*', is^the best; cf. 
iXiw^g, Svaai^g,^ For ixozifvvaq a 
Schol. has inozgvvmvy doubtless based 
on oxgvvovxoq mox inf. XBXd6ovx' , 
Lowe would rcfex this to novtovy as 
more used in H. of the roar of water; 
he perhaps overlooked Zicpvgov nsXec 
Ssivov (mar*)* Here position also 
awards it rarther to Z^tpvgov. 

424—6. iCTOVj in form identical with 



DAY II.] 



OATSEETAS B. 427—434. 



59 



^in^0Bv^ d' ttvsfkoq fiiffov httavj dfupl 8h xviia 
tSteiQi]^ no(f(pvQSOV^ (isydX^ taiB^ vijdg lovfSriq' 
71 d* i&ievitajtu xvfia Sian(ffjiSaoviSa^ xiXsvd'OV. 
30 SfjCdiisvoi d' &(fa oicla %'O'qv ivot v^a fiiXacvav 
(ftijfravro XQTjt'^Qag imfftiipeas^ olvocOj 
kstpov S^ dd'avdtoKSc O'sotg'^ aisiyevivjitfcVf 
ix Tcdvxav 8h ,iidXL0ta Jibg yXavxoinUii,^ xovqtj. 
navvv%lri^ fiiv if' ^ ys xal ijco™ sestQB^ xiXevd-ov. 



a A. 481-3. 
b cf.tf.81, 7.471. 
e cf. X, 522, V, 186. 
d«s.l6;cf.(r.427, 

H. 64. 
•« J, 606, y. 81, 

^ 125, Z 219, 

(. 392. 
f |J. 213, y. 476, 

0. 47. 
«r^. 87. 
h e. 232, a. 148, 

A. 470. 
i r. 296, Z, 527, 

r. 104. 

k 12. 26. 
1 y. 217. 
m e. 66, <;^. HI, 

«. 390 m%r. 
n &. 183, y. 91. 



428. i»^ya J^la%9. 431. ^oCvoio, 
430. 9iJ6tevtBg Schol. P. 434 f Schol. ?. 89 Bek. annot. 



r<nroy "weaver's beam'', also **web", 
109 8up,^ — fji^c66my see App. F. i. 
(6). — ivCrj^Bnx.^ see^App. F. i. (8); 
tiie forms evffr^e^i^g, wx^otpo^y also 
occur (mar.).^ 

427—34. The melodious flow of these 
lines is admirable. The line describing 
the sail - hoisting is succeded by a 
dactylic burst, as if to mark the bound- 
ing of the vessel. Observe also the 
sudden stability introduced into this 
billowy measure by the spondfgi stabiles 
(Hor. de A/P. 256.) in 431 , where the 
bowls are set in equilibrium, as it were, 
by a dactylic between two spondaic 
dipodia. With .this metrical effect may 
be contrasted t]iii^ of Virg. £n. III. 
208 Armixi iortmetU spumas et casnUa 
verpinl, in wieo the measured oar- 
strbke seems intitatod' in the train of 
spondees. On afHfl • • • CT€Iqi;i see 
App. F. 1.(2). — ?«x€, also ?(m.ar.), is 
used of a bovv-- twang, war -shout, 
trumpet-call, and of water , hissing on 



hot iron (mar.). 6i/^a§u, '* having 
made fast the sheets*', used in hoisting 
the sails. ixiOxiip., see on a. 148. 
r^^y ace. "during the early morning '% 
cf. vwttag 105; besides this» Ni., fol- 
lowing Eustath., gives three senses, 
further extended, of iQcog, viz, (1) the 
forenoon, (2) the whole day till sunset, 
(3) the vvxd-ijiifQOv of 24 hours, (i) 
may be allowed, as the ierndrms a quo 
is put for the space it helps to measure ; 
so in oqppa {i^v img tjv xttl ii^sto 
ZhQOv i^ttp; so 1700^, ^£^17, and the' 
ykicov ri^taQy which sunders them, make 
up the day: but (2) and (3) are mere 
poetic figures of part for whole, as 
"morns" are used for days, "summers" 
for years in English poetry. In v. 93— -5 
the idea of this word rjm is expanded 
into 3 lines of description. 

Bek. attaches v. 434 to the first 
paragraph of book III. With it the 
third day begins. 



OATSSEIAS r. 



SUMMARY OF BOOK III. 

On the morning of the third day Telemachus , with Pallas in the guise of 
Mentor, lands at Pylns, where he finds Nestor with; his family and the whole 
Pylian population sacrificing to Poseidon on the shore. They are hospitably 
invited to share the banqnet. Pallas, receiving 'the cup, prays to Poseidon, as 
does Telemachus, and they join the feast; after which Nestor enquires who 
they are, and what their errand (i — 74). 

Telemachus states his purpose of enquiry for his father, and begs for any 
news of him (75 — loi). 

Nestor in reply gives a narrative of how the war closed with divided counsels, 
he himself with some others coming home straightway, Odysseus and the rest 
waiting to gratify Agamemnon, who was lingering in hopes to propitiate Pal- 
las, but in vain. He mentions Agamemnon's fate and how it was avenged 
(101 — 300). 

Telemachus opens the question of his domestic troubles. Nestor encourages 
him to hope for Odysseus* return. He replies despondingly, and enquires more 
particularly about Menelaus (201 — 252). 

Nestor relates in fuller detail the course pursued by^gisthus, and how Me- 
nelaus was driven by the loss of his pilot and stress of weather to Egypt, 
whilst his brother^s death, as also Orestes* return and vengeance , took place 
before his wanderings ended. He advises Telemachus to go to Menelaus at 
Sparta, and offers him conduct thither (253 — 328). 

Telemachus accepts Nestor^s invitation to sleep at his palace, while Pallas, 
disappearing under the form of a bird, is recognized by Nestor, who vows a 
sacrifice, and all retire to rest (329 — 403). 

The fourth day opens with the sacrifice, as vowed, to Pallas, described with 
much solemnity: the usual banquet follows; on which Nestor at once gives 
orders to prepare for the journey to Sparta. Pisistratus accompanies Tele- 
machus. They halt for the night at Pherse, and spend the fifth day on the 
journey thence to Sparta (404 — 497). 



Ta iv TlvX 



Q. 



ovQavbv ig nolv%akKOv^^ Iv* dd^avatot^t, ^ubCvov^ 
xccl d'vrirot^t figorotCvv iid ^evSaQOv^ aQOVQav 
of ds TlvXov NfjX'^og^ ivxti[i€vov ittoXCs^QOv 
5 Igov. tot 8' STtl d'Lvl %^akd66rig Csqcc qs^ov^ 
tavQOvg 7Ca(i(i6kccvagy^ ivo6l%%'OVL xvavoxccitrj,^ 



a r. 433-4, y. 197, 
if.422-3,0.48o. 

b f 5fS. 

c A". 21, 32, Si. 19, 

d E. 504, F. 425, 
0. 329. 

e u. 383. 

i' ». 463, X. 309. 

gr Jl. 235 — 57. 

h X. 625-7, X. 33. 

ir.224,X.401— 2, 
^. 93-4, .irf. 629; 
cr. I. 628, 536, 
n. 66, J. 242. 



a. q>ccsCvoi Bek. Dind. Fa., qfusivjj Harl. Em. CI. ed. Oxon., tpavBCri Wolf. Low. 



I — 4. The bre&k of the third day. 
XlfiVfiv, Eelius, viewed in reference 
to the whole physical system, rises 
out of and sinks into the Ocean river. 
But to those voyaging by sea he would 
seem to rise from it; and, as ki^vri in 
H. certainly signifies the sea close to 
shore, or between islands (mar.), it 
might well suit here, where they are 
close to the N. E. coast of Pelopon- 
nesus. In 0, 246, where X^fi, occurs 
in some copies, of the Xanthus, diving 
is a better reading. In Hesiod Theog, 
364 foil, the daughter-nymphs of Ocean 
haunt yaiav xal fiiv^soc X^iivr^g as 
if = ^aXdaarig, Later poets use it 
freely in that sense, as Virgil uses 
siagna, vada, etc., as Eurip. Sec. 446. 
iit old[ia X^nvag. On the mythical 
cosmography of Eelius see Volcker 
Bomer, Geogr, § 15, p. 20. — noXvxak^ 
XOV, conveys the notion of stability, 
so firmamentum, LXX. ctSQioaiia, and the 
Heb. 5'^]^'^, which they render, which 
means something hammered out, as 
if metallic. So Pind. Nem^ VI. 3 — 4, 
6 6\ vdX'aBog dacpaXsg atsv sSog iie-' 
vBi ovgavog: and Pyik, X. 27. See 
Sir G. C. Lewis And. Asiron. 3 (4). 



In same sense U. has aidriQtog (mar.). 
HvkoVi see App. D. 4. 

5 — 6. l^ov, a mixed form of aor., 
the ending ~ov of the 2"* preceded bv 
the a (r|co = Hca) of the i»'; cf. dv- 
CBto §ijasto and othersi ivodlx* xva- 
vox» ^^ rioGsiSdavi, He begat Ne- 
leus who begat Nestor (X. 235—57). 

;cv«voxaer^ stands elsewhere alone 
for Poseidon, so apyvpOToj' ^.37 for 
Apollo, and noXvdsyfioav for Hades, 
Hy. Cer. 17, 31. It is epith. also of 
a horse (mar.), of Hades in Hy. Ceres 
348, and Hector has ^a^rat 'Kvdvsoct. 
Here, as in the avdvsov vitpog^ tpd" 
Xctyysg xvofv., and in mourning gar- 
ments, an intensely dark hue is in- 
tended. The material nvocvog is cer- 
tainly a metal, and probably bronze, 
the darkest -hued of metals, hence 
furnishing . a standard of colour ; so 
nvdvsog is c=: black, see App. F. L 
(19). The victims are "all-black" as 
if to an infernal deity; Poseidon and 
Hades, as devourers and destroyers, 
having much in common. The former 
is tTiTtiog, the latter 'nXvTOjrmXog ; so 
Holy Scripture couples "the sea'' with 
"Death and Hades" in Rev. XX. 13.I 



64 



OATSSEIAS r. 7-ri8. 



[day III. 



a P. 355. 
b t. IftO, Z. 174. 
c ff. 44, y. 170. 
d V. 56-7, 73-7, 

M. 373—5. 
e y. 178, it, 322, 

>f.l40; cf.*.202. 
f /9. 41 e. 

r (7. 355, cp. 288, 
t. 402. 

h Z. 291, r. 47; 

cf.«.240, <l>.302. 
i a. 281, B. 360, 

^. 12. ' 
k Z. 464, ^. 114; 

cf. X. 482, C. 

303, <. 348. 
1 a. 119, o. 325. 
in V'. 71. 
n a. 406. 



SLUtOy xal :7rpot;%oi/ro* ixdetod'L ivvsa^ tavQOvg. 
av^^ oC 6nXdyxv^ indoavxo^ ^B(p d' iTtl^ l^'^Q^ ixtjaVy 
oi S^^ idijg xardyovro^^ IS^ [<Stia vijog itdrjg k 

atstkav dsLQavtsg^ tiqv 6* SqilvOuVj ix d' ifiav aircoL 
ix ^ d' &Qa TrjXsiiaxog vrjog fiaiv% tjqx^ d' ^^dd^jvij. 

"TrjXeiiax'y ov (lev 06 %pi} i%^ alSovg^ ovd' i^fiatov'^ 
tovvBxa yuQ xal novtov iTtijcXog,^ 0(pQa Jtvd-rjaL^ i^ 
TcatQog^ OTtov xvds^ yata xal ov xvva Jtorfiov ijci^jcsv. 
dlV aye vvv Id'vg^ xU NioroQog [jtaoSdjiiovo' 
eUdofLBV^ r^v xiva fiijuv ivl 0tfjd'€66L xixsvd'svJ"^ 



7. d£ fsHaarTj. 8. fsyidaTod'i, 10. fiS' ij^^arig, 13. ngoaiJ^nTCS, 18. J^s£dofisv. 

7. TtsvtaTioaiot'^ Arist. Herod. , Scholl. , nsvtiiyLOVzcc 9* iv Budexri Harl. suprascr. 
nsytrifOGioi 6* av b^daxriv, 8. nQOv^Bvto^,y inaatod'sv Scholl. H. M. Q, R. 
9. iddaocvTO Scholl. E. H. M. Q., vLaCov CI. ed. Ox. 10. natdyov xol d* 

Arist. » Scholl. H. M. 11. GBieav Zenod., Scholl. quinque. 16. Schol. H. 

17. id. pro tmtoddfioio oq)Qa t(i%Lata. 

15. ijtijtk., nX6m means '*1 float", 
but with inl both it and nXim become 
compounds in the sense of sailing over; 
this inl here takes ace. of motion over 
a surface, not towards a point,. see a. 
299 note. 

16. OTiov. XV. yaia, the words, if 
interpreted by uLUttt yata %aXvnroij 
and vno Y.tvQ'BCi yairjg (mar.), would 
implj death and burial; but Pallas, as 
Mentor, would then be contradicting 
Pallas as Mentes, who (or. 195 foil.) 
strongly asserts the fact of Odys. being 
alive. So does Halitherses, with whom 
Mentor is associated (/}. 163—6) ; and 
the object of this voyage is to raise 
up hope in Telem.; thus, as uLevd'm is 
u«ed also (mar.) of a ship , a city etc., 
merely as "containing", we may render, 
"what country keeps him from our 
sight". The form of sentence, "hear 
of thy father, where he is", is com- 
mon in all simple styles; so scin' me 
in quibus sim gaudiis, Ter. Eun, V. 8, 5. 

18. ei^Ofiev, epic for -mfisv^ follows 
•K18 without conjunction, as often in 
admonitions brief through urgency, and 
is the hortative subjunct., cf. Jelf, 
Gr. Gr. § 416, i. So in d'dnrs ^s otti 
td%LCxcc^ nvlag *AtSao nsgiiaa, ^. 71, 
and often after ays, fpSQS, and the 
like; the non - recognition of this gave 
rise to the var. led. oq)Qa tcixiata in 
V. 17. 



insan 

7. iwea , nine cities are under 
Nestor^s sway in J3. 591 foil. Obs. here 
the varr, lect. Ni. thinks nBvxri'novtvg 
may be the true reading. The Scholl., 
however, note the agreement between 
9 (seats) X 500 (men), and, in Nestor^s 
armament, B, 602, 90 (ships) X 50 
(men); "fifty" being the least number 
. mentioned as manning a ship in the 
Catalogue. The agreement is probably 
not accidental, but based on some 
politiciEkl divisions familiar to the poet*s 
hearers, but now lost. 

8—9. TtQOvx^f the oxen were "held 
in front" of each tdpa ready for 
slaughter. For the number 9 in sa- 
crifice and banquet, see mar. 

iTti expresses destination, as in xdq 
(yaaxigag) inl Sogntp yiax^ifis^a 
(mar.). fifiQia, see on' y. 456. The 
verbs in this are in effect pluperf., the 
aor. involving in its absolute past no- 
tion that of the past before a given 
epoch. 

10— II. oe <f *, the SI is apodotic of 
svxs in 9, '"''when they had sacrificed 
then these began to land": for 8\ so 
used see mar. For the mode of furling 
sails and landing see App.F. i (9)— (11). 

xazay,, "brought to shore", opposed 
to dvdyovxo "put to sea". 

14-5. ri^aiovy often follows ovd\ 
as here, enhancing negation, but is 
used also in affirmation (mar.). 



DAY III.] 



0AT2SEIAS r. 19—33. 



65 



zorpevdog d* ovx igiBt' ^dka yccQ Ttenvviiivog^ i^tCvJ^I 
Tijv d' av TrjUfiaxog JCSTtvviiivog avtCov r^vda 
" AfeWo(>/ 7C(Sg r' &q tea ; xag r ' Sq TCQO^xtv^OfLai,^ ccvrov ; 

Ovde XL JtCO (lvd'Ot0t Jt67t€iQ7l(iat^ 7lVXlV0t6LV' 

alSfog d' av viov uvSqu ysQaCtBQOv i^SQseffd'at,'^ 
25 Tov d' avt£ jtQoedevTCs ^sa ylavxcSmg ^A^vri 
''TfiXdfiax^ aXktt (ilv ccitdg ivl fpQSCl ofjOL voiJ6€tg, 
aXla 61 xal Saificov^ VTCo^ijesrccf ov yctg 6tm 
ov« 66 d'SfSv aaxijTi^ yaviod'm^ ts xQa(piiLBv xbP 
(3g^ &Qa (fOVTJiSa^' i^yTJaaro Ilalkag 'AdTJvrj 
y) xaQTCaUnLdog* o d' iTCBvta ilbx* txvva fiatvB %'Boto, 
l^ov d' ig IIvlicDv avSgiSv ayvQiv^ tb xal i'dQccg,^^ 
ivd'* &Qa Nb0x(X)q ^0x0 avv vCdciv^ d^itpl d' ixatQOL 
datx* ivxvvofiBvoL^ XQsa cUtcxcov xakXa^ r' hcBVQOv, 



% y. 327-8. 
b a, 213. 
c/9. 368. 

d />. 77, 9. 478, 
2.451, v. 338-41. 

e 9, 23. 
f /J. 134. 
(f 01. 251 , <r. 805, 

^. 280. 
h e. 177, ^. 43; cf. 

a. 7», ^ 94. 
i H. 189, S. 436; 

cl. (r.723, ^201, 

A. 251. 
k /}. 405—0. 
I 2r. 661, n. 141. 
m y. 7. 
a 0. 500. 
y. 462, ^ 430. 



19. fs^Ttfj, 20. OV J^sgisi, 25. %QOcifHicB, 28. dH%7ixi„ 

19. avtoff Arlst., Schol. H. ad 327 m/1, ita Bek. Diud. Fa., avtov Cl. ed. Oxon. 

24. ^£0) at/^^l Bbian., Scholl. H. M. 31. dyogriv Hcldelb. Schol. M. et a 

recent, man. Harl. ^^, yigicc z' Harl. cum aliis, xpia Dind. aXXa omnes. 



19-^20. These lines are set in the 
margfin bj Bek. and belong more fitly 
to 327—8. For TtBTtwfi. see on a/213. 

22—3. lVt> ••• TtQOGTi^Tv^oiuMii pre^. 
Bubj. followed by fut. indie; cf. Zg 
%B .... tp^ir^e %d$B d' .... Sdaov- 
retiy jJ. 368: see App. A. 9 (5). ;r6- 
xelQijfiai, this verb commonly has a 
gen., the ** trial" implying a process 
of contact; here the result, — one who 
has made trial of and is well versed 
in words Qtvd'OLai dat.) — is implied. 
In ^. 23 we have a singular constrn. 
Tovg {ai^Xovs) 0airj%sg insigi^accvt' 
'Odvc^og = which they "tried on" 
upon Odys. Donalds. Gr, Gr § 454 cc 
distinguishes a gen. "tentative*^ but, 
to aim at, to reach to, to be in con- 
tact with, or in possession of, are but 
extended degrees of one notion. 

24. Telem. justifies the aiSag Vhich 
Mentor declared inopportune v. 14, 
i^eQiecS'ai, see on a. 416. 

27—8. ov yccQ . • • ov, the negative 
repeated in same clause adds empha- 
sis, as in "no! I am sure not;" so in bv 
fjLfv . , . ov as nofi^iH etc., for instances 
see mar. As exifrc is " by the good will 
or blessing" of Apollo, Hermes, etc. 
(o. 319, T. 86), so afxjjvt is without such 

HOM. OD. I. 



their good-will or blessing. The Greek 
wall at the ships diyLTfti ^b&v ixitvuTOj 
wherefore ov %i noXvv xqovov i^nB^ov 
(i7€i',Ji.8,9). Conversely, Mentor means, 
Telem. might expect the ^ods would 
protect and prosper him. a^x. is also 
used of active opposition, "in spite 
of", cf. mar. — yev* XQatp* re, "born 
and bred". 

31. ayvQiVf not exactly = ayoQuv, 
which means a formal assembly of 
men, the former applies equally to 
(mar.) corpses, ships etc. (Ni.) effgag, 
the component parts of the whole uyvQ., 
forming hendiadys with it. 

33. XQia &7ixiav xaXJLa x*, Dind. 
and most edd. give %Qsa mnzmv aXXa % , 
The Harl. has xp^ce t' anzmv, or, as 
Bek. says, ngsat'. Now the plur. of 
%giag in H. andHes. is %gia syncopated, 
or xpfa contracted, which last, occurring 
only before a vowel, becomes Ttgicc, 
Thus TLQSaz* lacks authority. But the 
main difficulty lies in uXXa x insigov. 
To say, "were roasting steaks and 
spitting others^^ is nonsense. But by 
regarding the x' of ngia t' (Harl.) as 
displaced and really belonging to zalla 
following, and viewing the acts £nz(ov, 
^nsiQOv, as a prothysteron , we h.ive 



66 



0AT2SEIAS r. 34—4^. 



[day hi. 



ft A^. 543. 

c d. 630, *. fl3, 

d f. 200. 

e u. 3j 95. 

f *. n% O. 362. 

g *. ISO, *. 59, J. 
4, I. I9ii, 22i, 
tf. 111, w. 410. 

h 3f. 633. - - 

i n. 50, JC. 2IT, X. 

k a, 25. 

I Q. 149—53. 

tti y. lS7j je. 73, J.. 
451, /. m, 'P> 
5S1; cf. I m, 

J2 «52, li. m, 

I 21B. 
n X 545, J^ 34fl, 
r. atlSi ef u. 4S, 



d^<poztQmv i'X8 XilQ^Cy Kal idgv^BV itagd dmzl 

UalXdd'' ^A^rivaifiv^ xovgriv zftdg aiytoxoio' 

"£i!;if£o'^ vvv^ m ^blve^ Uo^atddrnvi dvaKti\ 
Tov ydg Kul dmtrig'^ -^vt^^ats^ deygo ^oX6vtBg. 
aiftaQ^ iitr^v 67tEi6rig %b Koi EV^Eaij ^'"^ ^i^ig ictlv, .^ 
dig xffl rovZG} inEixu 8i%mg pLslLi]ddog'' oi:vov 



34. J^Cdov, 39. /w. 43. /avofxn. 46. fieXifrjdiog. 

41. ita AriBt., SchoU. H. M., Wolf. XQvaim iv Sinai HarL Ven. Em. CI. 
45. ri Thiersch. Bek. Dind., ^ Scholl. H. M. Ni. Wolf. CI. ed. Ox. 

40 — !♦ The (iT^Qia were wholly sa- 
crificed, the CJtL shared reUgionsly, 
each having a taste {indaavrOy inf. 
461 , cf. Aristoph. Pax 1039 Ssvqo cv- 
GnXa%vEVBXB) y see on 456—9 m/'.? ^-h© 
rest (TaUa, 33) were shared festively. 
The guests arrive when the Pylians 
have began the festive business, but 
are initiated with a share of the anX.y 
and in 65 — 6 join in the banquet. 
6€tdiOx., we have pluperf. Ss^dsHzo 
of ds^%vvfit in sense of "welcomed" 
or "pledged" (and so dsLUPv^Bvog 
"pledging"), and from the perf. a pres. 
SstdiaTLOfiaif as here, "holding the cup 
out to pledge" (cf. dsiS^CGojicciy ds^- 
S<o), and in the same sense $si%avdo- 
ytai (Buttm. Gr. V, s, v, df^xvvftt); 
for examples see mar. 

43 — 6. €v/fO, addressed to Mentor 
individually, whereas rjvti^aats com- 
prehends Telem. and his followers; cf. 
7C. 91 — 4, where 'nataddnTSt* and (pdvs 
are followed by ci^sv. (Ni.) For ^v- 
ttJct. see on cc, 25. The phrase iq -d-e- 
fiiq eCvlv or ri &6fi. ia. passes from 
the sense of abstract right into that 
of mere custom (mar.); here it seems 
to mean the former, "as one ought"; 
in the latter sense stands sometimes 
^ Siyirj iatt (ma»-.). On the former is 
based the reproachful epithet d^s- 
liLavog, I. 106, /. 63. — oivov is one of 
the Homeric words in which the / is 
inconstant. Ii^ a. no, §. 349 et alih. 



in xukXa the well-known expression 
for the "remnants", when the sacri- 
ficial portions, as in 9 sup,, had been 
disposed of. The "spitting" these then 
corresponds with what is more fully 
described iVi/1^462, A. 465, sls aiarvX- 
Xov t' Squ xiXXa Ticcl dfiq>' opsXcCaiv 
^nsigav. The meaning thus is, "were 
spitting the remnants and roasting 
steaks of them". For this sense of 
KQia cf. Certamen Hes. et Horn, Goett- 
ling, p.^3i9» V» ^3» , , , 

mvzri'iiovx ricav nvgog fcr^jja^ai.* iv 
Sh iTtdatn 

nsvtTJuovt' opsXol, nsgl di ngia 
nBvxri%ovxtt. 

34. o2 cf'^ t e. Nestor and his sons. 

36. 7tQ&tO(^, he was the youngest 
son (413—5) of seven, of whom Anti- 
lochus, beloved next after Patroclus 
by Achilles, fell by Memnon's hand 
(d. 187). It is his office, as youngest, 
to attend to the guests (Ni.). Herod, 
y. 65, says that Pisistr. the Athenian 
usurper was so named from a notion 
of family descent from the Nele'ids. 

38 — 9. The xijlta^ was the actual 
fleece (oHog digptcc, |. 519), used in 
coarser bedding; the (i^yscc (epith. ttaXd 
noQq>vQsa) , probably xma dressed and 
dyed, were commonly thrown over 
the Q'QOvot, X. 352, or formed part of 
the bedding , as in r}. 336. SQaCvfi., 
the eldest brother, who went with his 
father and Antilochus to the war. (Ni.) 



DAY III.] 



0AT2LEIAL T. 47-63. 



67 



67t6t0aL * 



ixsl xal tovtov 6io[icci dd'avatoi^iv 

y>tovvBxa Ool TtQOtiQtp odcfcaxQvaHov &lh(fovJ^^ 
cog BliCfov iv xsQ^l tC^u Sinaq fjdiog otvov 1 
iaZoB^ d' ^Ad'TivaCri nsnvi)aivq^^ dvdgl dtxaicoJ 
ovvBxa 01 nQOtsgy ocoxs %gv0Bvov alBLOov 
a'dtixa tf' svxbto^ nokkd no^BiSd&vt avaxw^ 

55 "-KAiJO't, IIoaBiSaov yo^n^o%By fLtjSh (iByiJQijg^ 
i^(itv Bvxd(iBvoc6L iiXByrriaaL rdSs igya. 
JNicxoQi (ilv TCQcixiCta xur vld6L xyoog ona^B • ^ 
avxaQ IjtBix^ &XloL0v Sidov %dQCB(Sdav afiOLfiijv^ 
6vii7ca0vv nvkCoi6vV aydxtBvxrig ixaxdfififig,^ 

So Sog S* hv Trjkiiiaxov xal ifih ng^t^vxa'^' vBBdh'di 
oUvBxa dBVQ^ tx6(iB6d'a d'oy <Svv vrjl ^tXccivtj,'^ 

cSg &Q* iTtBix^ i^g&xo^ xal «^i) Tcdyxa xBkBvxa'^ 
dtSxs Sh TtjXBfidxG) xaXov Sdjcag dfUjpLXVTtBkXov. 



a fi. 249, V. 280, 

0. 376. 

b C. 23, /. 209, /J. 

158, y. 364. 
c App. A. 8 (3) 

mar. 
d cf. P 507-8 
e a. 213 mar. 
r y. 133. 

h O. 8, q. 354. 
i p. 235, ^. 206, 
^. 64, jV. 663. 
k 0. 320, &. 498, 

1. 90. 

I a. 318, ^. 382. 
m {. 202. 
n yj. 191. 

p. 171, y. 56, 9. 
200. 



51. J^Binmv. 53. ^o*. 54. fdvccnTi. 56. figya, 
51. pro iinag '^9iog of. alii di defcxTO xuCgtov ex 9"'. 797, Bek. annot. 



J^oivov is proper, but here and y. 51 
otvov. The ending (iBkta^iog oUvov 
occurs Find. Fragm, 147. Donalds. 44. 

48 — 9, A passage remarkable for 
simple and straight - forward piety 
mingled with high courtesy. Ni. with 
the sentiment here compares Arat. 4. 
ndvtri 6^ Jiog^ KSXQi^fis^u ndvtsg. 
Here d^ is =3 yag , as in a, 433. Obs. 
Of€7iJLixlti IB used individually of a per- 
son or collectively of a generation, as 
ndvtsg oiirjXi'ntrj ... TrjXsfiixoio (mar.). 

50—3. aksiOov, for this and the 
other Homeric cups etc. see App. A. 8 
(3). The young Pisistr. imitates Nestor 
in his sententiousness , see on 69 — 70 
inf., where Nestor leads oflf with a 
maxim. ; but there is also much naivete 
in a youth laying down this principle 
of seniores priores, and adding that 
he shall proceed to act upon it in his 
office to the guests. 

nBTtvvfi. ••• 6ixaiip, "discreetly 
respectful", cf. 133, where the Greeks, 
being not all vojjfiovsg and diiicciOL, in- 
cur woe through the wrath of Pallas. 
ovvsxa, see on 61 inf. The discern- 
ment lay in giving the cup first to 
Mentor on the score of age, passing 
by the princely rank of Telem. The 



compliment, paid really to the eidolon 
Mentor, is accepted by the goddess; so 
;i^. 213 foil. Agelaus threatens (as he 
supposes) Mentor, which Pallas in per- 
son resents, 224. 

.55 — 7. The verb fiieyalQO is fol- 
lowed by a gen. case N. 563, but here 
the infin. supplies the object, i^fitv 
includes all who had partaken, not 
merely the Trjkifi. %al iiih of 60 inf. 
Observe the precedence given to Nestor 
and his sons, as the hosts, and per- 
haps further in return for the dis- 
cerning courtesy of Fisist. in 40 — 2. 
These '^minor morals" show the spirit 
of the Homeric age. 

59 — 61. avfiJtaCtVy recognizes the 
occasion as one common to the whole 
people, not private in Nestor's family. 
TtQfi^avxa, though sing., virtually in- 
cludes both the persons named; no 
trace of such a reading- as TCQij^avts 
occurs, ovvexa, = to ov ?v«xof, "that 
for the sake of which"; cf. this with 
ovvaxa *' because" in 63 sup. and often 
in H. , as ovvskcc zbv Xgvai^v '^t^firja' 
dgrjtiJQtt A. 11. 

62 — 4. Poseidon was still among the 
^Ethiopians, whither he went a. 22. 

5* 



68 



OATSSEIAL r. 64-76. 



[day III. 



a C. 166, <. 31. 
b y. 470, A. 290. 
c y. 309, <f. 3, ». 

io, tf'. 201. 
d JC. 203. 
ea.231inar.,y.243, 

$. 378, Z. 174-6. 

f «. 201, V'- 300, 

316, i. 227, ^. 

»t, 429, V- 301, 

301). 
S I. 252-6, a. 

170-3. 
ht^.82, x.202,668. 
i /^. 58, 17. 3i0. 
k /f. 370. 
I /*. 237. 

in ^ 231 , a. 183. 
n a. 213 mar. 
o A. 85, 92. 
p ^ 139-40, a. 

321. 



cSff* ^' ttvros r\QO(xo ^OdydCnog (piXog vCdg. 

di d' ijiel Sxti^dav xgi* VTCSQtSQa^ xal iQvcfavtOj 6; 

[lOLQag oa00aiiavoL ddivvvz' iglTivSea datra,^ 

avtccQ insl noatog Tcal ioijziiog ig igov evro, 

totg &Qa (ivd'ov tjqx^ FeQTJvLog tTCTCota NietcjQ'^ 

^sivovgy 0? Ttvdg sliSiv^ ijcsl tdgnrj^av^ iScod'^g. yc 

^s ^stvoi, xivag iati; Ttod'sv nketd'' vygd xiXsvd'a; 
i] XL xatd TtQ'q^tv^ ^ (la^t^cdicog^ aXaXri^^e^^ 
old XB Xrit0xfJQ£gy vjisIq &ka^ xoC r* aXofovxav 
iyv%dg jiaQd'^(i£vot ^^ xaxov dXXoSaxoteo^ tpsQOvxBg^^^ 

xbv d' av TijXd^axog JtBKWfidvog^ dvxiov i]vSa^ yt 
d-aQarjaag'^ aixr^ yccQ ivl q)Qe6l d'dQ^ogv ^jidTJvij 

65. fsQvaavxo, 

72 — 4 improbabat hdc 1. Aristoph.; permittente Arist. et hie et ad i, 253 — 55, 
qnamquam ibi magls propria, Scholl. H. M. Q. R. 

racteristic of heroic courtesy. The 
epith. reQTjviog applied to him, is based 
on a place given as regrjv^a^ FsQrjva 
(xa) , or rigjivov, where Nestor either 
was bom or found refuge when all 
the eleven other sons of Neleus were 
slain. Hes. Frag* xlv, 2,3, Goettl. 
dm^inarog dl Fsgiivtog innoza 

isivog iav itvxrias arap* Innodd- 
fioioi FeQi^voig, 

70 — 3. xaQTtiiO. This verb is ca- 
pricious in its construction; the dat. is 
commonly found with the pres. and 
imperf. and once with the i*' aor. (d*. 
131), with which and with the 2^ aor. 
the gen. mostly follows. Aristoph. re- 
jected 72—4 here, thinking them bor- 
rowed fr. t. 253-5; Arist. also thought 
them more proper there, yet allowed 
the iteration, fia'^idian; "at random", 
i. e. wherever they could pick up 
plunder; whereas a ngrj^ig would imply 
a fixed destination. Odys. in his feigned 
story J. 222 — 30, as a Cretan prince, 
speaks of such marauding expeditions 
as occurring before the Trojan war. 
On the question of piracy cf. Thucyd. 
I. 5, who infers the reputableness of 
the employment, and is a testimony to 
the genuineness of the passage here. 

76. O'^QO'^Caq* That Telem. should 
show less hesitation after the hospitable 
reception than he expressed 22 — 4 sup. 
is natural. 



It would seem as if, during such ab- 
sences, prayers and sacrifices from 
mortals must fail of their effect; see 
«. 21—4 note. Here, as regards Men- 
tor and Telem., the question does not 
arise, the prayer being only part of 
the disguise ; as regards Nestor and his 
sons, they were probably performing 
rites stated and due, and the poet's 
consciousness does not seem to re- 
cognize the coincidence of their festival 
with the god's absence. As regards 
the prayer for Nestor, she herself, we 
are told, accomplished it. Thus the 
sacrifice was effectual although the god 
to whom it was offered took no ac- 
count of it. iqQctro 'Ocf. hiatus is 
frequent after the caesura of 3'^ foot, 
especially the bucolic cses. 

65 — 6. vniQZ.f "upper or outer", 
as contrasted with the entrails pre- 
viously tasted 40 sup,\ then came the 
libation and prayer, and now in due 
course the feast. igvO. *^ pulled (the 
jneat) off (the spits)", flumseus on the 
contrary presents his guest, in ruder 
fashion, the pieces on the spits (£. 
76 — 7). 6accdfji. daivvvv • This 
juxtaposition illustrates the connexion 
between daiw^ai. "feast" and Sttio- 
fjLat "dvide shares". 

68—9. Nestor leads off with a maxim 
see on 50—3 sup. This hospitable rule, 
to ask no question till the guest's 
wants have been supplied, is cha- 



DAY III.] 



OATSSEIAS r. 77—95. 



69 



[ijd'* Iva (itv xXdog iad'Xdv iv dvd'Qci7Coi,0iv lxfi<ftv'] 
"q Nb0roQ NrilriLadri ^ ^eya^ xvSog ^A%aiSv^ 

80 sCQsatj OTtTtod'sv eifiiv' iyd dd xi vol xaraXi^co. 
T^^stg i^ 'Id'dxi^g VTCovTjioV^ sllTJlovd'iisv' 
Tt^^tg^ S* ^'d' lS£riy ov dTJiiiogy* ^v dyoQ€vto. 
TcatQog ifiov xXeog^ €vqv iistiQxoiiccL^ ijv nov axovffm^ 
Siov ^OSvtsciiog taka^tfpgovog ^^ ov note tpaeiv 

85 0iyv o^ot iiaQvd(i6vov Tq/dcov %6kvv il^aland^iXii,,^ 
iUXovg fiiv yaQ Ttavrccgj o6ov Tq(061v xolifLi^ov^ 
7t£vd'6(i€d'\ ri%i^ €xa6tog aTCmXato XvygS dXed'QCi)' 
xbCvov d' av xal oXsd'gov dxsvd'ia^ d'ijxs Kgovimv. 
ov ydg rig Svvatai 6d(pa £ljci(i£Vj o%7c6&*^ oXoiXBV' 

90«t -d"'"* o y' ix* i^jtsiQOv ddfiij avSgdei dvgfi6vi€66vv^ 
at r£™ xal iv nskdyei ^sxd xv^a0LV ^Afig>ttQivrig. 
Tovvsxa^ vvv rd 6d yovvad'^ p [xdvofiac^ at^ x* id'Htjad'a 
xaCvov IvyQov oXsd'QOv ivt^xetv^ at nov oxcaxag 
difd'aXfiotot^ tBot6LVj 7} aXXov fiv^ov* &xov0ag 

95 TtXaionivov* Ttsgl ydg [iiv dltvQOV rixf* (iijtriQ. 



cf. Z. 



176, 



a a. 95. 
b fi. 184. 
c a. 186; 

396—7. 
d d. 314. 
e fi. 32, 44. 
f a. 28S, 344. 
g a. 87 mar. 
h Z. 251, S. 

^. 49ft. 
i y. 292, A. 607. 
k y. 184; cf. a. 

242, a. 675, c 

127. 
I /. 577. 
m a.28-9,4fif6-7, 

i.371, ujr.83,65, 

jr. 349, M, 239, 

240. 
n Z. 453. 

a. 322—31. 
p a. 267 mar. 
q a. 379 mar. 

r a. 226, &. 459, 

1.343. 
8 fi. 314. 

1 ». 197-8, «.355, 
r, 127-8, Z. 
345, #. 904; cf. 
u<. 417-8, X. 
477. 



87. J^ixaatoff, 89. J^smifisv, 



78 caret Vien. , marg. inseruit. Harl., [] Wolf, et edd. rec. 81. ino Nriiov 

Schol. B. 82. ixdijjbitog Aristoph. , Scboll. H. M. 87. Ivygov SIb^qov Bek. 

annot. 90— 1. pro eH f r Bek. ij ij, 95 [] Bek. 



78 — 83. V. 78 is probably an inser- 
tion by some copyist from a. 95 ; thas 
the question of iXT^Giv subjonct. fol- 
lowing ^QOiTO op tat., each with S^vm in 
same dependence, need not arise ; see, 
however, some instances of optat. and 
snbj. mixed in the same dependance 
App. A. 9 (16) end. vxovfitov, see 
on a. 186. On ;r^^|e$ • • • 6fifiio^ cf. 
q).^ 16 — 7 'Odvacsvg rjld's fista XQ^t^^S ^9 
gd otn&g dijfiog 0(psllsv. — xXio^ 
here bears partly the sense of "renown" 
as in tt. 344, and partly that of "tid- 
ings'\ as in a. 283; the renown of Odys. 
consisting in the news spread of him. 

87-9^ ^X«> Jelf, GV. Gr. § 339» » 
writes ^;|rt ; bat it seems better to view 
it as a real ep. dat. , a twin form of 
the dat. locative in qpt, ib. §83, i, 
and then the i, which is subscript in 
i becomes fin*l in vji. — dnevS'ia, 
in active sense at 184, here in pass.; 
being found in no other book of either 
poem it is marked as unice lectitm; 
for both act. and pass, use cf. Snvatog 



(mar.). ijtJtoiJh*, here i is elided, as 
in the dat. nl. and in itftl, ubqI^ oti, 

90 — 1 c« -d*'^. . . ce TC, here Bek. 
prints ^ 'O'* . . . ^ T« without adequate 
reason; bI following verbs of saying, 
in sense of 'Uell me if etc.'' is com- 
mon enough, and stands elsewhere, on 
good MS. authority, repeated with a 
double clause. We find once indeed 
at xi of one clause followed by ^« %al 
of the other, but though this shows 
that the meanings approach each other, 
it gives no ground for rejecting oae 
of the expressions; see mar. — 7teXd» 
yet, see App. B. (3). — 'AfJupiX; see 
on €. 422. 

92. yovvaS'* , see on a. 267. Ixd' 
vofiai here shows the sense of txf- 
trjg, **come suppliantly ". For ai x* 
see on a. 379. The subjunct. here re- 
sembles that called, deliberative, as in 
cpQuaaofiB^' rj us vBt6(ts^' x. r. X. App. 
A. 9 (6) end. 

95. Bek. suspects this linens genuine- 
ness here and d. 325 where it recurs, 



70 



OATSLEIAS r. 96-103. 



[day III. 



a f. 387. 

b J. 388, X 419, 

:^.23;cf.^.l72. 
c H. 410, 0. 374. 
d Q. 44. 
c a. 25. 
f /*. 68-73. 
« A. 89, (T. 76*. 
h /J. 272, o. 375. 
i *. 457. 
k a. 49 mar. 
1 d. 765. 
m y. 327, (>. 314, 

331, 642, A. 148, 

^. 112, X' IW, 

V/. 35. 



aW^ Bv iioi xcctdXs^ov STCcog rjvri](fccg^ dTCcazi^g. 
U^aoiiuLy^ 6i! Ttorde xol xv TtatiqQ i(idg ioQ'Xbg^OSvOCavg 
rj STCog^ ?}6 Ti egyov vnoOtag^ i^axiXsO^Bv 
drjficD evv Tgci&v, o^t, 7td6%BXB^ TtTJfiax* ^A%aLoC' ic 

rc5i;i vvv (lOL (iv^6at^ xai ftofc™ vij(iBQxhg ivt67C£g,^' 
xbv d* /i^^Bi^sx^ ixBixa rBQrjvLog [jtTtoxa NitfxoQ 
"(D (piX\ ijtBi ft' i(ivfj6ag dv^vog, ijV iv ixBiva 



99. finoq, figyov. 



97. pro oncDTirjg B. marg. dyiovfjg. 100. pro m^fiat' Veiiet. marg'. Slys', 



with the whole passage 92 — 101 ; but 
although It might be spared, it does 
not weaken the sense, or encumber 
the sentence. nXa^Ofiivov is referable 
to Tisivov 92 , and sC nov .... iiyd'ov 
anovcuq is parenthetical, or nlai, may 
depend on y^v^ov to be rendered ob- 
jectively, "tidings of him roaming", 
cf. X. 492 zQv nuipbq dyccvov fivd'ov. 
Yet to read nlaioasvog would be more 
Homeric, oi^vqav xixB, i.e. a man 
was born ill-fated, as he was ji)om strong 
or healthy; elsewhere (mar.) we read 
of cclaa as spinning at a man's birth 
the thread of weal or woe which he has 
thereafter to endure ; cf. Thetis* lament 
to her son t£ vv <t' ^tQBtpov alva %b- 
Tiovca ... ^.nsC vv toi alaa fitvvvd'd 
TtSQ ovu fioilcc drjv. A, 414 — 6. 

96. aWofiai , here in sense of 
"compassionate", see mar.; aldeoiiat 
is also found. For a word descriptive 
of shame borrowed for compassion, cf. 
Virg. JEn, II. 541—2 jura fidemque sup- 
plicis eruhuit. The pres. imper. /MCe- 
XlOifeo is continued in 97 oy yitxtd- 
le^ov the former injunction being ge- 
neral, and not limited, as the latter is, 
by the occasion of the moment; Jelf, 
Gr. Gr. § 420, 2. 

97—8. xaxdXB^ov, Buttm. assumes 
a root Xsy- in sense of to **say, talk 
of'*, and another Xbx- in that of **lie 
down"; Curtius also (I. p. I63) views 
them as distinct^ but in ravriXayiog the 
elements are xavaog and Xsy- "lay"; 
see App. A. 22. For livxTiC. see on 
a, 25. Xiaaofjuci, fof the sentiment 
and the manner of urging Odysseus* 
memory as a topic of appeal cf. (mar.) 
X^aaofiai » "il fiii nov xi leatriQ 
iftog tav X. T. X. 

99—101. exo^ and egyov, although 



disjoined by ^ ... ijc seem to mean "word 
as accomplished in act", reflecting the 
sense of i&BxiXBCaav as joined with 
vjtotfxdq (mar.). — tc5v, the plural is 
more forcible, as assuming that the 
supposed good offices on Odysseus* part 
were in fact frequent. For eviOxeq 
see App. A. i. 6ri/jup, see on 0;. loi — 5. 

102—200. This whole speech is chu- 
racteristic of Nestor and may be com- 
pared with one in the II. to Patroclns 
{A, 670 foil.) — a long narrative, clos- 
ing like this with urgent advice. Ob- 
serve in both speeches how accessories 
are engrafted, and episode set within 
episode ; especially see A 690 — 3, 700, 
711, 714, 722, 750, 753, 766—70. The 
old warrior talks on and off his real 
subject, somewhat presuming on his 
years and the well -won respect of his 
juniors, but guided by kindness and 
good sense through all the ramifica- 
tions of his tale. Shakspeare hatf given 
us some traits of such a character in 
the Menenins of his Coriolanus, 

103, BTtsl would lead us to expect 
some apodosis introduced by tot yag 
iymv iifia) or the like ; and indeed, by 
throwing into a parenthesis all^ from 
ivd'u n^v 109 to nd^ofisv xaxce 113, 
we might there take t/g %sv hsiva x.r.X. 
apodotically, as equivalent to, "I can- 
not tell you all, for no one could (lit. 
^^who could"), even were you to go on 
asking for years". But the clauses 
so parenthesized are too closely knit 
with their immediate predecessors and 
followers to allow this. It is better, then, 
to view the structural outline as lost 
in the accumulation of details evoked 
in 105 — 13 by Telemachus' appeal to 
the events of the war; and of which 
the enumeration is simply impossible. 



DAY III.] 



OATSSEIAL r. 104-115. 



71 



d^^jco dvatlriiisv fuevog^ &6%Btoi vhg ^A%aiav^ 
o^YiiLBv^ 00a gvi/ vrjvolv in' T^SQOuSia itovtov 
xXa^ofLSvoL xatcc XriCS\ oTcy &q1^6ibv^ 'A%ikkavg^ 
1J1J' ^ o<Sa xal ^bqI &0tv iifycc JlQidiwu) avaxrog 
liaQvd^sd'' ivd'a d' iTtstta xaxBxrad'sv 8^(yot<* &qi0xoi' 
ivd'a (ihv Atag^ xetrat 'AQfjiog, Ivd'a d' 'AxilXevg^ 
10 ivd'u 61 TI&tQOxkog d'BOtpvv^ fitjeroQ drdXavrog, 

Bvd'a d' i^Log (pikog vlog^ aiia XQarBQog xal diiviicov^^ 
^\4vrCXo%og ^^ %bqI^ IIBv^ %'bCblv xaxvg r^Sl (laxritTJg. 
alKa XB noW i%l xolg Tcdd'Ofiav xaxd • xig xbv ixBlva 
Ttdvxa yB jivd'7J0aLXO xaxad'vriXiSv^ dvd'QciTCcov; 
15 ovS' bI itBvxdBxig"^ ya ocal i^daxag^ TtaQafiiiivov 



a/9. 85. 

b^. 383, 576, H. 

301-2, >. 240. 
c t 230. 
d M. 13, t. 2&7, 

&. 250. 
e A. 543 foil. 
(P. Ally H. 366, 

S. 318. 

g^ <r. 187. 
h <r. 202. 

i M. 78. 

k a. 66 mar. 

1 JOr. 186. 

m Z. 123. 

n cr.|.419,B403, 

K. 315. 
o ^F'. 286, 655. 



105. iqsQoJ^sidia, 107. fdctv J^dva%xog, J15. fCsvtciFstig i^dfsteg, 

111, pro ci(iv(t,(ov Heidelb. B. arap^ifff. 113. dXXd yc icoll' Harl. mar., sed 

r€ Schol. H. 

Jievq^ see J. 328 foil, where Achilles 
speaks of twelve adventures bj sea 
and eleven by land. 

109. XBirau Nestor (H. 334) states 
a purpose of gathering the bones of 
the deceased, after burning the bodies, 
to take them home to their children. 
He was an old man and had left 
children. The Hebrew idea that a 
man should "sleep with his fathers^ ^ 
fo«ind little place with H. Those who 
had left no children at home were 
buried on the spot — even Achilles, 
the prime hero , with his best beloved 
comrades Patroelus and Antilochus (9*. 
91, 244, 09. 78—80), as he himself had 
directed. The Greek^s idea was rather 
to plant his fame abroad, and mark 
remote regions with his memory (d. 
584). Thus Elpenor (X. 75—8); and 
so Hector supposes will be done for 
any champion whom he may overthrow 
(H, 85—91). The examples to the con- 
trary, of Sarpedou^s translation by Sleep 
and Death, and of the suitors' corpses 
sent home (JI. 453—7, (o. 418--9) , can 
be easily explained by their respective 
circumstances. 

113— 6. aJiXa TBj we should expect 
some more marked conjunction than xb ; 
yet it illustrates the easy loquacious 
style of Nestor. xaxa9^infUy a mere 
intensative of &vrixoq\^ cf. fiyrjXog and 
At^tccggiytiXog, ctvfpslog and ncetucxv- 
xpBlog, — ovo, *'I could not tell them 
aU, even if etc." 



Thus far it seems as though Nestor 
mistook Telemachus* words, xatv vvv fioi 
fbv^aai loi , as meaning, "pray make 
mention of all this to me", cf. naxQog 

fiVTjad^vcci S, 118, and Movaai 

fiVTjcociaS'' y B. 491 — 2. In the same 
strain he goes on to show why it is 
impossible; — "for nine years long we 
manoeuvred against them with every 
sort of artifice (d6Xoiai)*\ and this 
word seems to lead him to <^e first 
recognition of Odys., rather, however, 
as the prime deviser of these d6Xot 
than as the subject of the enquiry 
which he is answering. He then a^ain 
breaks off in an apostrophe to Telem. — 
"thy father surpassed all in stratagem, 
if so be thou art indeed his son". 

In 126 Nestor may be said to settle 
down to his tale. Its ^ow is copious 
and unbroken, but w« find in its course 
little completed events, like islands 
in a stream (see below on 165 foil.)* 
in which the imperf. is exchanged for 
the aor. At its close the news of others 
is added to his own, and the final men- 
tion of the fate of Agamemnon and the 
deed of Orestes gives occasion to an ad- 
monition to his young guest and friend. 

105—6. Oifa • • • TtXa^Ofi,, join this 
with dvixXrifisv 104, "all that we en- 
dured in wandering"; hence, oacc 
liaQvdfisv' is slightly in anacoluthon 
as if = dvixXrjfisv ficcQvdfiLBvoi. — Hq' 
^Bi€V, for the optat. following the im- 
perf. or aor. see App. A. 9 (zo'i. — ^Ax^tJ^" 



72 



OATSEEIAS r. ii6— 126. 



[day iri. 



a ^. 375, t. 166; 

cf. f . 365, «r. 440. 
b fi. 167, A. 2». 
c cf. S. 460. 
d «. 107, I 240; 

cf. J?. 295. 
e ft. 379, 422, 423 ; 

cf. S. 236. 

I T. m. 

g y. 122, r. 202. 
I S. 334, K. Ill, 

1. 353, <|i. 366. 
i cf. /J. 88, 118. 
j E. 104, Jtf. 359, 

i»f. 233. 
k 2. 236, o. 225; 

cf. d. 204-8. 
I rf. 75, 142, ^.384. 
HI d. 206, 597. 
n cf. 17. 294. 
o <r. 141, 239, a. 46. 
Pi9. 148,^.90,120, 

ii.327,-f.630,ilf. 

141 ; cf. ft. 139. 
q X 512, J. 767; 

cf. I. 179-80. 



^Scpa'o^ff* 00a xsW'L Ttdd'ov xaxd Slot ^A%avoC' 

TCQiv^ xsv dvCrjd'slg^ 6^v xatQiScc yatav r^oto. 

BCvuBxeq^ ya^ atptv xaxa gaxrofiev'^ aiiq)LB7Covt€g^ - 

ndvxdCouii^ doXoiav, (loyvg tf* IxekBe^s Kqovlcdv. 

Ivd"* ov nq noxB iirixiv ifioiiadii^BVM avxriv ic> 

ijd^BX%^ ijtBl (idXa Jtokkov ivCxa Stog ^08v66Bvg 

navxoioLOi dokoiaij^ naxriq XBog^ bI btbov^ ys 

xBivov ^sxyovog^ i06L' 00ag^ (i* ixBi BlgoQoavxa^ 

^ tOL yccQ fivd'oi^ yB ioixoxBg^ ovSb xb tpaCrig 

avSqa vmxBQOv^ SSb ioix6xa^ ^vd'rJ0a0d'(xt. 1/ 

ivd"* ^ XOL 6t(DgP fiiv iy(6 xal Stog 'OSv00Bvg^ 



118. slvafsTsg. 123. fttsov, 124. fBjroi%6xBg, 125. J^efomota. 
116. i^BQSBis Harl. sed Schol. H. i^sQioig. 120. ov nw vtff Bek. annot. 



1 17— 8. xqiv, adverbial, "thou would'st 
have gone home ftrsi, out of weariness'*. 
Somey placing a comma at 'Axcciol^ 
render it conjunctionally, *'I should 
not have told all before thou hadst 
gone home". This is, harsh, for^ by 
introducing the indefinite limit of the 
hearer^s patience, it clashes with the de- 
finite limit of **5 or 6 years" previously 
supposed. — ifdTtTOfiBV is imperf. 

121. Tq9'BX\ not merely = idvvaxo, 
as Schol., but "no one ventured** 
(mar.) ; so .^schyl. Prom, 1049, ♦«'ti7<'J 

for a similar tenor, A, 186 —7, atvyiy 
dh xal alXog Icoy ifiol (pda^ai xal 
oiioimd'fifisvai ccvtrjv, 

122. With the 66X01 in which Odys. 
was thus facile princeps, cf. the ^tsgdsa 
of which Penel. was mistress; see App. 

124—5. BOixozeg ••• eoixova* The 
senses of ^oma^ "to seem like" and 
"to be seemly", are played upon here. 
The latter sense is clear in ioiuoxi 
%SLtai 6Xi9'Qco and ioixota yap xava- 
Xi^to (mar.) while to take both ioiyLoxeg 
and ^otxo'ra, with Ni., in sense of "suit- 
able" seems lame and tautological, and 
evacuates ys of its force, which is, "your 
words at any rate are like his", referring 
to the doubt of his sonship just before 
stated; and to take them both in sense 
of "like", I. e, like Odysseus' way of 
speaking, would leave ai^oiq fi' fjrct 
X. T. X, without due force. Render, "I 



am astonished as I behold you, for 
indeed your words are like his, and 
yet one would not say that a man so 
much younger would speak so suitably 
{. e. so sensibly". The fact that to 
speak like Odys. wotdd he to speak 
sensibly, makes the two thoughts play 
into each other with a very subtle 
transition. They appear more plainly 
as put by the less rhetorical Menelaus, 
xotov ydg xal ftaxQog, 8 xal ns- 
nvvii^iva fidtsig, S. 206. 

126. cT(oq^ "all that while", relat. 
for demonstr. xs^cag; cf. oroy a. 410 
and note. He means " whilst the siege 
went on", in contrast with the sub- 
sequent events, introduced by avxag 
insl 130 inf, which dissolved their 
unanimity. Even then, it was rather 
the resolve of Zeus for evil, and Pal- 
las* fateful wrath breaking up its 
brotherhood of chiefs, than any per- 
sonal disunion, which severed Nestor 
from Odys. (132—5). The same crisis 
bred drunken discord and prolonged 
debate (App. A. 4 (2) note). Yet even 
then Odys. inclined in . judgment to 
go with Nestor, and went as far as 
to Tenedos with him, bat thence turned 
back to gratify Agam., clinging to his 
chief even when his brother left him 
(141 — 65, see App. £. i (1)). It is 
observable that H. says nothing here, 
or in £. 108 — 9, of the outrage of Ajax 
O'ileus on Cassandra as causing Athene's 
wrath, but perhaps it is hinted at in 9. 



DAY III.] 



OATSSEIAT r. 117—139. 



73 



ovTB 3ror' iiv Syo^fj SC'i^ i^d^OfiBv^ ofe' ivl fiovlfj^ 

xal tots #1} Zsvg IvyQov^ ivl qp^f^l iii^SiTO^ i^dtfToy 

Ttdvteg i0av* Tw 0ipE€JV ^oXieg xa%6v^ ohov iTti^icov^ 
35^ifi/tos"' i% 0X017S yXav%iA%LSog'^ o^Qifio^dtpTfig ^ 

tcj di X€£kE00u^ivm dyoQi^v ig^ nuvtag ^^^movg^ 



c o. TIO. 

e I. 420, «, 3C&^ 
Uf. 117. 

jV. 625; cF. f. 

31(1-7,1.341-2- 
gr a. S26-7. 
h y.lBO, 349, i 92, 

i *. 2S2, y. 20U. 

a. 602, i. JU8-9. 
V. IflL 
p O. 69, ^i'. SIS 
q B. m, B. 769, 

rf.iiL cr. o.ia, 

r T. Iti2. 

*. 122, ^. ^& 



139. J-oCv(o. 



128. i%{<pQOva PovlfiV Bek. aunot. 129. yit^Ttti Ern. CI. ed. Ox., yft^OiTO 

Wolf. 131. **aberravit ex v. 317" Bek, 139. fiefiaQTi'Kotsg Ambros. E. 

8cliol. H., fiepecQfjfiivoi Bek. annot. 



502. But beyond special provocations, 
men are nearest, in Homeric view, to 
the wrath of heaven, when thej have 
no earthly check to their will, as the 
Greeks in the moment of conquest, and 
the suitors in the absence of Odys. 
Pallas, as the calm wisdom which 
checks impulse and controls passion, 
is directly hostile to such arrogance; 
see App. £. 4 (6). Her wrath had been 
fatal to Troy, and now pursued the 
conquerors, to whom, unlike the "Ar- 
give" Herl, she had no national at- 
tachment. Und, (4). Thus she occurs 
alone, «. 327, as decreeinfir the ill-fated 
reiam of the Greeks , and wrought her 
end not only by moral agency but by 
physical, raising waves and storm 
(c. 108 — 9) to thwart their homeward 
voyage. 

128 — g^ixUpQ.9 "opportune", ap- 
plying (pif^v to the occasion, hence 
iniq>Qoavvrj, s, 437, is a gift of Athend, 
who is lauded by Hesiod Theog, 896 
as Icov ^lovcav naxQiyi^ivog %al inC- 
€pQova povXriv, — 'AQyeloiaiv de- 
pends on yivoixo. With the snperl. we 
find o/a (cf. vnsiQOxog i^oxog) like tog 
in Attic Gr., = "the best etc. po89ihle'\ 

131. This line is out of place, for 
they do not embark till 157 tn/!, and 
then only one half do so. It is pro- 
bably inserted from v, 317, the same 
line leading up to it there as (130) here. 



There might indeed be room for it as 
the apodosis of avxctQ ixsl introduced 
by dlf and epitomizing what is ex- 
panded in 132—64 (cf. dt d' ixBl ovv 
iqysod'sv .... totai d' dinCTci(tBvog 
HBTSfprj, A. 57—58), but for the^ more 
formally apodotic phrase %al roti drj 
of 132, which precludes sjich a yiew. 

155- ^n^t'Og ••• oXoiiq, Bee latter 
part of note on 126 sup,, and, for 6X., 
App. A. 3 (i). 

137—8. Tco dh is subject of fiv^B^- 
c^'rivin 140; 139 adds a circumstance, 
the excess of wine on the part of the 
troops, as a reason for the expression 
ftdtp ... %6aiiov, 61 being s=i yag, see 
on 49. (iidip and [LatpidCtoq commonly 
lead the verse; for exceptions cf. mar.: 
join fidi^ X. t. X. and iq y^^\ov «. with 
(ivd'ov fiv^. following. €q iqsX. xav*, 
the debate was so long, because in 
the state of the Assembly, otvm /?£/?., 
much time would be idly lost. 

139. oiv^ /)€/)• Agam. is reproached 
as otvopaghg by Achilles, but also as 
a coward, which he certainly was not, 
see A,y his dQKftstcc, Hence the re- 
reproach is probably the contumely of 
unmeasured anger. So in insolent scorn 
Antin. reproaches Odys., 9. 293 — 4. 
Odys. pleads vinous excitement as 
leading a man to act beyond himself, 
play, dance, sing, etc. The suitors 
once appear to sit over their wine till 



74 



OATSLEIAS r. 140-153. 



[day III.., 



a <r. 313, 862, 560, 

r 17, 142, B. 159. 
b A. 24. 

c X.105; cf.v.313. 
d J. 3«, I. 507; 

cf. O. 217. 
e a. 8 mar. 
I r. 466. 
«r uf. 28». 427. 
h «. 79, ^ 228, 0. 

54, 400. 
i d. 583. 
k A. 304-^. 
I y.1,^518,y.23, 

/. 193, ^.^77. 
m I. 43, $33, e. 

159, M.252, N. 

S34, O. 355, 590, 

7r.7«9, *lf. 213; 

cf. B. 3«7. 
n I 337. 
Y 490, 0. 40, 188, 

n, 387, *. 842. 
p y. 131, 160. 
q «. 179, 187, X. 

3U0, 344, ^. 446. 



'•■■'■J*' >'A^ '«^»'' 0'"-'^'' M 

[ivd'ov (ivd'sC^dijv xov BivBxa Aaov ayeiQav. 
Ivd"^ ^ roL MeviXaog avcDyn Tcdvtag ^Axaiovg 
v66tov (iLfiinjOxicfSr'ai ex* Bvgi^fx^^vSta d'ccXd00ijgj 
ovS*^ 'jdya^i^vovc TCccfiTtav irivoavs' fiovXeTO ydg ^a 
kabv iQvxaxiuv^ ^eiac d'' Csodg ixarofifiag^ 
dg tov ^A%^riva{^g Sblvov %o)^ov i^dxiisaito ^^ 
^vTjmog/ ovSh to^iSri o ov '7cat6£^9'di^ i^eiksv. 
ov ydg^ t* at^a Q^bSv t^ikiiai voo'g auv^ i6vt(ov. 
cSg^ t(D fiiv %akB7tot6iv dfiBLpo[iiv4ji} i%iB66iv 
B0ta0av' oF d' &v6QOv6av^ ivocviip^idsg *A%mol 
VXfi ^s<f^B0iy9^ Sixa Sd 6(pv6iv ^vSava fiovitj.'^ 
vvxtcc [ihv dica^Bv^ %aXBnd <pQB6lv SQfiaivovtBg 
dXkfjkoLg' ijcl y&Q ZBvgV ijQtvB X'^fia^ xaxoto' 
i^(3&Bv 8* o'C flip viag eXxoyLBv Big aXa Slav 



143. ifrivdavB, 146. /^diy. 148. fsniBCiSiv, 150. ^xfi fi^vSavB, 

149. ^araaav £ni. CI. ed. Ox., %exaaav Harl. Yen. Wolf. lO. sldaufisv a 
potioribns legi monent SchoU. £. H. M. Q. B. 153. pro slg ala 8tav Harl. 

mar. dumieX^caccg* 

r^^j( ■/.■■■ •• ■■■. ■ /■■vr--- 



slumber supervenes, but the effect is 
there ascribjed to the express agency 
of Pallas. £lpenor is the only clear 
case of a Homeric Greek overcome 
with wine (olvo§aQs£(ov) , save the A«- 
sembly here (mar.). The Cyclops is 
the only example of stupid or *Mead*' 
drunkenness , And the centaur Eury tion 
of aggressive insolence produced by 
wine ; but both these lie without Greek 
society, in which the rule utaifia nl- 
vBiv, 9. 294, seems to have prevailed. 
See Oladst. II. 447. 

144—7. iQVxax.yct for reduplica- 
tion in a»* syllable iivCnanov and kvi- 
vmov from Ivlnta, -— i^axin*, so we 
have %6Xog &vri%BC%og (mar.). — vffiiioq 
implies that Nestor, the speaker, knew 
better. SfieJiXe, t. e. *Ad^vrjy was not 
likely to comply or relent, ov ydg r' 
X. r. X. Witii the sentiment con&ast 
£uri]>. Med, 960, TCsi^Btv dag a %al 
&80vg Xoyog^ and I. 497 ctgint^t 
di TC xal ^Bol aixoL t* \% tB (see 
mar.) adding emphasis to yapcs **but 
no! for the mind of the gods etc.", 
ahfta seems the emphatic word, **sud- 
denly" = without grave reason. For 
al'^a see on a. 11, alnvv, Cf. the vain 
attempt of the Trojans to propitiate 
Pallas in Z. 3L1. 

149. Here the aor. coiiie« in, see on 



103 near the end. The affair of the 
dyoQTi ^^ apoken of as a completed 
event. For this discord between the 
Atridae see App. E. 1(1), 4 (4) end, 
8(8). 

149 — 50. dvoQOvif., used especially 
of a start of surprise, breaking off 
some occupation (mar.), ^ecxeif*, 
Doederl. 500, notices that the sense 
of tlnsPv is so far lost in this com- 
pound, that Sophoc. (Ed. Tyr, 463 
has re - introduced it in 9'S97Ctsnsi€c\ 
render "awfuj". 

151. diaafi., used, commonly with 
vvyittt, of a halt in travelliiig, not 
implying sleep (mar.), aijftt to blow 
(cf. dvifcvsvaccv of breathiiig, respite, 
SchoL), is the probable present; but 
in meaning lavto comes nearer this 
aor. &B6a, ^ Curtius (I. 587 ^ connects 
radically Srifii (dfato l-afn lava) 
diiQ asXXa tivQU ovgog. — x^^c^d 
<PQ. OQfJUclv., *' revolving ungentle 
thoughts", as variance of opinion 
produced misunderstanding. 

15a — 3. xrifia xaxolo, so nfjfkuc 
xaxoy, xaxoy xctl nijfiay and dvrig 
Tcfjfuc are found; nrjiuic often stands 
for some bane wrought by supernatural 
power, e.g. p. 446, TeV ^aipLwv toSe 



DAY III.] 



OATSSEIAS r. 154-167. 



75 



^^i^fiiCssg d' &Qa kaol igi^rvovto^ ^^vovteg 

'^(iL^ssg 8* uva^dvreg iXavvofisv a£ 8h (idX^ <Sxa 
inkeovy i^toQs^sv 8h d'sog ^syaxTJrsa^ novxov, 
ig Tivsdov^ 8' iXd'ovtsg eQi^afiev [qcc %'Bot0iv^ 

So ol'xade U^avoi^ Zevg 8' ov no fLijSato^ v60tov^ 
axitkiog^ og §* Iqi^v ^qCb^ xaxriv i%i SevtSQOv^ avxig, 
oi (ilv dLJC06tQi'^avxBg ifiav viag ciiifptsXi^eag 
a/ty'* ^08v6'^a avaxxa 8cctq)Q0va^ novxLlofiTJtriv y 
avtvg iiC ^jixQeiSij Ayccfiifivovt ijpa* tpigovxag. 

55 avxcLQ iyd 6vv vrjvolv dokkidiv^^ ai ^ov sxovxo^ 
q>avyov^ iital ylyvmCxov^ o di) xaxa fiifd^TO daifuov, 
(fsvys 81 Tv8hg vCdg d^tog^ (dq0s 8* haCQOvg' 



a I. 40— 2, t 263 

-5, J. 138-9. 
b 1.594; cf. 5. 122. 
c e. 345, O. 3, 367. 
d <P>. 22. d. 1, B. 

581 , J. 600. 
9 A. 38. 452, J. 

625, N. 33. 
f y. 132 mar. 
gr A. 10. 
h t. 65, X' ^^ 
i Z. 436 sen. , I. 

81 — 6, M. 139 

seq., O. 301 seq. 
k a. 48 mar. 
1 n. 875, a. 56, A. 

572. 578, X 132, 

X, 343. 
m y. 412, 427, d. 

448, ^. 394, X. 

132, 259, I. 228, 

O. 306, 312, 494, 

718. 
n n. 205. 



i6o. J^oUafs J^iifisvoi, 162. dfitpiSsXiaaccg, 163. fdva%xa, 164. fri^a, 
163. nomiXofirixiv Harl. ex emend. 



154 — 7. yvy«c;««s, as part of the 
spoil (mar.). thaIc.^ half the forces 
tarried with Agam., the rest, among 
them Nestor, emharking at once against 
his wishes, al cfi, i. «. vfiBq under- 
stood from^ uvapttvteg. With ^aS^^. 
cf. pad'VKoXniov (mar.). What we call 
a ''Gredan waist" is short; hut the 
arrangement of the girdle would cer- 
tainly fluctuate with taste and fashion. 
Here prohahly loose folds hanging deep 
over the girdle, are meant; see JHct 
antiq. s. v, TUNICA. 

158 — 9. iotOQCif*, cf. stratum silet 
ee^or, Virg. BucoL IX. 57. fieyaxiq., 
this epith. yiews the whole sea as 
frathered in one vast gulf (cf. the cava 
flumina of Virg. Geor. I. 326) , a liquid 
bulk filling an immense concavitj; see 
^vXim,Lexil. 70, 9. i note, andApp.B. 

162—4. ol fihv ••• dfup' 'Odvif; 
i, e. **Odjss. and his people". Donalds. 
Gr. Gr. § 399 (y) would restrict this 
usage to "later Greek", but the pas- 
sages (mar.) adduced by Ni. seem to 
proye it Homeric, ijt* ••• ijQa <piQ; 
tmesis for initpigovtsg ijpa. Buttm. 
LexiL 62 4oes not recognize Inlriqa^ 
but always detaches the Iwl, wherever 
htlriQa is commonly read, to go in 
tmesis with q>SQ(o, always found in 
ecmjunetion with it. Tet iffirJQsg and 
imrigtLva ^sorely justify in^TjQix^ cf. 
als» inifiigvvgoif and adyerBs ittino' 



v(ogy iniOfivysQoi^, in some of yrhich 
some critics detach the inL 

165—85. Nestor provided for himself, 
and his age probably enabled him to 
dispense with personal deference to 
the chief of the host. We ma;jr con- 
jecture that Odys., secure perhaps 
of the favour of Pallas for himself, felt 
not the alarm of Nestor, and had a 
strong sense of duty to his chief; since 
Nestor with delicacy omits to touch 
on what was the ^Qig xaxi) (159) in 
which he and Odys. were involved. 
For Odysseus' adherence to Agam. see 
App. E. I, (i), for Menelaus' aban- 
donment of him see App. £. 8 (8). 
aoXXi*, this adj., which occurs 30 
times in H., is always placed as here, 
closing the 4^*^ foot and making it, as 
also the 3*, a dactyl, mostly followed 
by. some slight pause (mar.). It is 
strikingly descriptive of men, ships, &c. 
thronging each other mostly with some 
sense of disorder and hurry; certain 
parts of the verbs doXXsmy doXX^^oa 
occur, but not in the Ody. After tie 
first halt expressed by the aor. diaa- 
asv (151)/ the imperf. tense is resumed 
m ^QTV€ (152); then again follows de- 
lay at Tenedos and further division 
described by the aor. 158 — 64; again 
a short progress in the imperf. 165 — 7; 
then further delay at Lesbos again, in 
the aor. 168—9. The imperf, takes, us 



76 



OATSSEIAS r. 168—182. 



[day III. 



a <r. 706, 9. 322, 
fj. 155, V. 321. 

b e. 277, J?. 526, 
E. 355, H. 238, 
^. 498, M, 118, 
240, A. 765. 

c B. 324, u. 394, 
r. 645-7, i»f. 
199— 209, i2. 292. 

d N. 244. 

e App. B. (3) mar. 

f «. 414, i. 489, X. 

129, V- 238. 

I. 84; (0. 20. 

(T. 357, 667. 
1 df. 380-1. 
k y. <0. 
I A. 130, y. 6. 
m y. 9 

n y.273,^. 40— 1. 
o u. 347. 
p y. 321, ^. 16. 
q cf. S. 389. 
r t. 262, u. 399. 
s B. 65^. 
t B. 525, ;if. M. 
u .irf. 760, XT. 378. 
V I. 471. 



f 



iv Ai^^fp 8* Hvxev SoUxbv tcXoov oQfiaivovtag y 
ri xad'V7C£Q&6 XCoLO vsoifisd'a xaiTtakoiaarig , 
vrjaov lici WvQfr^g^ avrrjv ix* aQvdxiQ^ i%ovtagj 
fl vnivBQ^B XCovOy zclq" i^vBiidBvra Mi^iavra. 
ytBOfLBV 8h ^eov fp'^vai. ttgag'^ avrccQ o y* i^fitv 
Sbl^s^^ xal i^vdyBi nikayog^ (i^aov Big Evfiovav 
TBiivBLV, oq)Qa xd%i6t(x mchx xaxottiva^ (pvyoLfiBv. i 

(DQto S* iitl^ Xiyvg^ ovgog drjfiBvav at 81 fidX' (Sxa 
ix^vosvta'^ x^kBvd'a 8u8qcc[10Vj ig 8h rBQav0tbv 
ivvvxiai xazdyovxo'^ noCBi8diovi,^ 8h tavQCov 
noXX inl^ [nilq^ Id'BfLBVj^TtdXayog^ liBya(iBtQ7J0avtBg.^ 
tixQaxov ri^iuQ^ ^'lyi/, or' iv^AgyBt^ v^ccg it0ag 1 

Tv8bC8b(o BxagoL ^toiif}8Bog [7t7to8d(ioco 
aata&av'^ avrciQ iyd yBnvXov8^ ix^v,^ o'd8i %ox^ loprf 



180. ij^iaug. 



169. AiaPqt 9' 



av Bek. annot. 

Schol. H. 



171. d' in Harl. 
, ita Heidelb. mar. 



178. hvv%ioi Rhian., 



up again in 173—4, but is broken by the 
momentary action d£(|f ; and in 176 the 
last stage, including the arrival home, 
closes the whole in the aor.; broken, 
however, by the continued action ^%ov 
in 182. Thus a series of completed 
pauses is interspersed with the pro- 
gress of the tale. 

168. vctii, dual, Diomedes and me. 

170 — 2. From Lesbos Chios lies to 
the S., and Psyria to the W. according 
to one Scholiast about 80, or to another 
about 40 stadia from Chios, sheltering 
vessels, when storm-beaten, from the 
^gaean. The alternative was to steer 
*' above" t. e, to the N. of (yia^vnBQQ'B) 
Chios in the direction of Psyria and 
keeping Chios (avr^v) on their left, or 
to sail between Chios and the Asiatic 
coast, of which Mimas (named from 
a fabulous giant, one of those who 
warred against Zeus. Hor. Carm, III. 
IV. 53) is a cape, this is called "under 
Chios". In the former case they would 
cross the ^gsean at once, which course 
they eventually took ; in the latter they 
would make short casts from island to 
island, as was usual in the timorous 
navigation of that early day, en aQi* 
ifriQ*, see App. A. 18. 

173. O'eoVj the god meant could not 
be Zeus nor Pallas, who were then 



enraged with the Greeks, but is pro- 
bably Poseidon, the deity of the Ne- 
leid house, and in whose worship the 
speaker had been recently engaged, 
who is also named 1 78 inf, as thanked 
by sacrifice for the passage. This god 
effects a rsoccg in v, 162—9, although 
the word is not there used; cf., how- 
ever, its use in £. 324 for a similar 
transformation. See also, for a tigort 
to sailors, J, 75 — 7, aaveQcc ....^^ vav- 
tfjat tigag '^l ctQatm svgit Xccav. 
Such is, perhaps, intended here. 

176—8. aS cfc, t. e. vijsg as in 157. 
FeQaiifT., the southern point of Eu- 
boea; a temple of Poseidon is said to 
have stood there. iwvx^Mi, a Schol. 
gives ivvvfioi, as if meant of the men : 
N.B, ivvvxt'Og, like navvv%iog^ is of 
3 terminations, ivw%og navvvfog of 3. 
It means *^in the night'' following the 
3'* day, see on 180. 

179 — 80. in;l, with Tlocstd. 178 means 
"in honour" of that god. zitQaTOV, 
the four stages were probably Tene- 
dos, Lesbos, Euboea (reached in the 
night), Argos. 80 Achilles could in 3. 
days from the Troad reach Phthia, I, 
362. A Schol. reckons the 4 days, 
however, from quitting Lesbos. 

182—3. Bifvaifav, 3. pi. i. aor. for 
^ctrjaav, a rare form, and in several 



DAT III. 



OATSSEIAS r. 183—196. 



77 



ovQog^ iTCsl Sri %Q(oxa ^aog TtQOsrixsv^ arlvut, 

tSg ijA-^oi/, fpcXe rexvovy^ djcevd-ris^^ ovSd re olSa 

|5x6tVoi/, 01 r' iedcod^sv ^AjIjoliSv of r aitokovxo^ 
006a d' ivl fieyd^oiet xadTJfiavog i^fisrigoiatv^ 
Ttsvd-oiiai, 7J^ d-efiig i6xl^ darjtSBaiy^ oiiSi 0e xsvCca.^ 
€v (i€v MvQfivdovag tp&a^ iXd^ifiev iy%e0Lii(6QOvg^^ 
ovg ay' 'A%LXXiiog (ieyad'V(iov q)a{dv(iog'^ vtog, 

^o sv da 0iloxTr}triv^ Ilocdvziov dyXaov^ vtov 
itdvxag 6' 'Idoiievevg^ KQrjxriv €l6rjyay* ixacQOvg^ 
o'C (fvyov^ ix noX^nov^ Tcovxog Sb ot ov rti/' anrivQa,^ 
'AxQBidriv 8b xal^ avxol dxovBXB v60q)tv iovxBg^ 
(Sg t' rjXd'* (Sg x AtyiO^og iiirjoaxo^ Xvygov olBd'QOV, 

95 aAA' 17 TO* xBtvog (ibv i%i6iLvyBQf5g^ a%ixi6BV, 
dg dyad'ov xal nalSa xaxaq>d'iiiBPOio XtJti6d'aL* 



125, 



a X. 2^. 

b fi. 363, 0. 

M9, \p. 26. 
c y. 88 mar. 
d d. 101. 
e y. 46 mar. 
f *. 325. 
gr V- 27S. 
h B. 692, 840, Jf. 

134; cf. J. 242, 

«'. 479,^29,71.4. 
i L 506-37. 
k B. 721-3. 
1 <r. 188, n. 185. 
m B. 645. 
n a. 11, 12. 
;i. 203, a. 273. 
p y. 255. 
q y. 249. 
r d. 672. 
s d. 495, 710, (. 

816, J?. 154, S. 

485, 7. 230, :I35. 



184. foidce. 192. /ot. 



196. dnoqid'ifiivoio Schol. A, 793. 



places, where found, theMSS. fluctuate 
between it and tataaaVf as JB. 525. 
eX^'^f with object vrja; ixm is espe- 
cially 80 used, with ship, chariot, 
etc. (mar.). ovQaq, H. does not no- 
tice that the same wind which was 
fair from Lesbos to Greece would not 
have him carried them round Tsenarus 
and thence northwards to Pylos. Poe- 
ticallj, however, the wind never failed 
and was an ovqoq still. 

184 — 7. aJtevO-., see on 88. xel- 
vwVs ** those" whom we left 155 — 6 
with Agam. *Axaiwv, this gen. is 
^'elegantly redundant", u e, added to 
give dignity to the manner of stating 
without adding anything to the matter 
of the statement; so |3. 87. 17 S'ifi*, 
(see on 45) refers to Sai^caoci ''you shall 
know, as it is right you should". 

188. iyj^BCifi. With this cf. ^Oftco- 
pot, vXanoiiatgoi for the second element, 
for the other ogsaoi- PccTTjg xu%BCt' 
nl'qtrjg, these last suggest that that 
second element is a verbal, probably 
akin to fisiQOfiai ififiogUy in sense of 
having allotted to one; this also suits 
civd(i(OQog Herod. V. 92, in which the 
former element is the noun aivog ; for 
the to in -ft^mgog cf. xgmndfo xgoicog^ 
yttftttco vofiog. Indeed iyxsa^fiogog vXa- 
%6noQog could not enter the hexameter, 
any more than CiQ'avaxog or ngtafiidrig. 

189. viog, Neoptolemus, left in Scy- 



ros by his father during the earlier 
part of the war, whence Odys. fetched 
him at its close. His valour and coun- 
sel are lauded X, 506 — 37. Pindar, 
iV'cw. VII. 50 foil., has preserved a 
tradition that, after being king in Mo- 
lossia on his return from Troy, he was 
slain at Delphi by the priest there, 
Machserus, whose claim to a share of 
the victim offered he had despised; see 
on d, 5 foil. 

190. Philoctetes, son of Pcsan, B. 
721 — 3, abode in Lemnos, disabled by 
the bite of a serpent. From -9*. 219 — 20 
we see that he subsequently joined the 
Greek army, as perhaps is implied B. 
724 — 5. In -d*. 219 Odys. confesses his 
superior archery. Sophocles has em- 
bodied in his Philoctetes a legend that 
the hero was conveyed to Troy by 
Odys. and Neoptol. ' 

193 — 5. axov.s see on d. 688 for 
accus., *AxQel6riv, in this sense fol- 
lowing this verb, for the form of sen- 
tence see on 16 sup* AXyioB-,, see 
A pp. E. 5. iniCfi*, probably akin 
to fioyog ftoysat; cf. Cft^ixgog fiiUQog, 
and in Eng. smelt and melt, smoulder 
and moulder; there is no adj. inLCfivys- 
Qog , but the verb iniiioyio} is found in 
tmesis (n. 19) in sense of ''to feel an- 
guish /br" a person; so here, "he 
(-^gisth.) has expiated it to his sorrow^\ 

196 — 8. oJ§ dyaO"., "bow good it 



78 



OAXrSETAS r. 197-209. 



[day III. 



a a. 298-302, 40 

—3. 
b r. 353, H. 87. 
c y. 79. 
d /u. 184. 
e a. 46, (. 477, it, 

37. 
fa. 344, y. 83. 
r il. 76, w. 255, co. 

433, B. 119; cf. 

Z. 358, 9. 580, 

<u. 197. 
h V. 193, y. 64, 

168. 
1 r. 366. 
k 9r. 93, p. 588, a. 

143, u. 170, 370, 

A. 695. 
1 d. 208, 9r. 64; 

cf. C. 188. 
m C- 190, V. 311. 



dvdQog,^ ijtsl xccl xetvog iti6ato TtatQOfpov^cCj 
Afyi6&ov dolofiTjtLv, 5g ot naxiQa xlvrov ?xta. 
[xal 0Vy (pCkog^ (fidXa yaQ 6* oqog) xaXov ts (isyav te) 
akxLfiog S00\ vva xCg 0s xal dfiyovav^ ev ttitri^y^ 2c 

xov d' av Trilifiaxog JtSTCvvfisvog avxCov rjvda 
"cJc NiiftOQ Nrjlricddrij (idya^ xvSog '^^arcoi/, 
xccl^ Urjv xetvog ^hv it ((faro, xai ot^j^xaiol 
ot0ov6L xkiog^ £VQV xal i60O[iivot6L^ 7Cv%'i6Q'aL. 
al ydg ifiol to667Jvds d^6ol dvvaficv xegLd-etav^ 2c 

^tieaad'aLy iiv')]6T'^gag v%£gfia6irig aXeyBLt/^g^ 
OL re ^ot, vfiQi^ovreg drdad^aXd^ firi%av6(ovtat ^ 
dkV ov iLoi tOLOvtov iitixX(o6av^ d'Bol HXfioVj 
icatqC t* i^i^ xal i^Lor vvv SI xqti terXd^eV^ ffiTtrig.^^ 



198. o /ot. 200. J^sinrj. 203. foi, 

199 — 200. auctore Aristoph. improbantur ex a, 301 — 2 hue translati, Scholl. 
H. M. Q. 203. fiiv pro fihv Bek. annot. 204. doiSijv Em. CI. ed. Ox., 

nvd'iad'ai Wolf., utramqne Eustath. 205. nsgii'stsv Bek. juxta Schol. H., 

cseteri nagad'sisv. 



is!" JiiTiia-O'ai, U. uses the 2 aor. 
mid. of Ks^Tca in pass, sense, (mar.) 
iXCnriv Xmnvai etc. not being found in 
him. Sg 01 X. T. X. , a clause expansive 
of Tcatgotpovrja J see on «. i nolvrgo- 
nov, and cf. a^/Liifrijv fjv «. r. I, y. 383. 

199 — 20b, these verses recur from 
a. 301, but are probably genuine here 
also, and hint obliqueij (Nestor's po- 
liteness preventing more direct allusion 
to the private difficulties even of one 
so much younger) , at the occasion for 
vigour afforded by the state of affairs 
at Ithaca. This allusion draws out a 
full statement of those affairs from 
Telem. , see App. E. 3 (end). 

204. xal eCCOfiivoiCi , the xal 
implies to future as well as present 
hearers. xvB'icS'ai, the reading doL- 
9riv seems to have originated in a gloss 
on %liog svgv based on ^. 580, tva 
Tjai %otl iaaoiiivoiaiv doi^iq, and 
CD. 197 tsv^ovai 9* inixQ'ovConsiv 
doiSriv, H. has two forms of phrase, 
with slight variation, to express the 
prospect of renown or infamy among% 
future ages: one is "this will be base 
or will be a shame {al6%gov^ Xoopri), or 
the like, for future ages to hear (nv- 
-0"f<r^at)"; the other, "they will make 
a song in future ages about such a 
person", or "such an event will be- 
come a sonffy such person will be sung 



about {ttoi&iq €co£di(ioi)f etc. among 
future ages": nowhere, unless cioi9fj 
be read here, is it brought in as a 
second to a previous noun like uliog, 
nor here is it so good a second to 
%Xiog as nvd'sc^ai is: "shall diffuse 
his renown widely for future ages to 
hear^* is better than the hendiadys 
"his renown and a song about him for 
future men". The difference, however 
slight, on either ground, seems in fa- 
vour of nv^ic^ui, 

205. TOCCiip^e, followed by infin., 
with ellipsis of offoy, expresses "just 
so much as to punish". 

206 — 7. rlCaCS'*, this accus. of per- 
son with gen. of thing is common with 
this verb, see Jelf, Gr, Gr. § 500: in 
216 ctnotioBtai has dat. (etpi) of per- 
son, accus. of thing, and in 0. 236 an 
accus. of each. For dtd^^', see on a. 7. 

208—9. f*'^'' • • * ^^'^qI x^ ^f^^ ^^^ 
ifiol, Uie ever present remembrance 
of his father (cf. a. 115, 135, (5. 46, 134) 
occurs to Telem. as he is speaking of 
himself, and occasions him thus to cor- 
rect, as it were, his words. ijtixX; 
see on a. 17 ; in similar sense of destiny 
or lot, we have iitivrios, "spun", T. 128, 
SI, 210. oXpog means ^'wealth", alike 
in the older sense of happiness and in 
the modern sense of riches. Pindar is 



a.] 



0AT22EIAS T. 210—224. 



79 



q)ik\ inel drl raikd ft' dvsiivijaag xal istTtsg' 
(ivijatfJQccg 0fjg (ifirdQog evvsxd ^olXovg 
yaQOigj aiicriiL^ dsd'sv, xccxct iifixavdcc0&ac.^ 
loi ria BKOtv V7c68dnva(fdi, ^ 6d ya kaol 
'(K)va' dvd Srjfiov, inidkof/LBvoi^ d'sov ^liq>fj»* 
V olS' at xi xoti0(pt, ^iag a^otl^stai^ aX^iDv, 
'S [lovvog^ ifovy ^ xal 6viiicavtag *Jxacoi; 
XQ 0' G)g ad^aXoi tpiktaiv ykavxpicig ^Adijvri , 
ir' 'Odv60rjog TcaQvxTjSato^ xvSaUfioio 
^ ivv Tq(6giVj 0^1 nd6%oiiav aXya^ *A%aLo\y 
aQ ncD tdov SSa &aovg dvaq>avSd^ q>iXavvrag 
iiv€0 dvaq>av8d TCaQlorato^ Ilakkdg ^A^r^vri') 
ovtcng id'iXoi tpiXiavv xijliotro^ ta d'viip, 
•V tCg^xalviov ya xal ixiaiabovto ydfiotdy* 



fa f. 103, y. 91—6. 
b «. 177, o. 19, ft, 

91, Q. 43, V. 42; 

cf. a. 79, y. 28, 

n. 93-6. 
c ft. 131, Q. 499, 

9. 376 
d ^ 262, Q. 431, 

CO. Ib3. 
e J5. 41, r. 129; 

cf. e. 250. 
f /*. 832. 
gr a. 26S, 0.510, 

(u. 480. ' 

h V. 30, 40, V.3S, 

J. 388. 
i K. 285—91. 
k ^ 527. 
I y. 100. <r. 380. 
m Z. 466, n. 17S; 

cf. ^ 288, V. 48. 
n r. 121. 
A. 196, H. »|. 
p a. 302, y. 804, 

427. 



. ifsinsg. 213. oj^exi^Ti. 214. fBink, J^SKtov. 216. rtg J^oCd\ 

r> >,., .>,^. 221. //do V. c<^ • . 'c*>.. •, .>. 

tBfivrjaag Harl. suprascript. et in marg. inavifivrjaagj ut omisso ft' praecedat - 
213. (ifjxccvdaed'ai Venet. marg. 214 — 5 [] Bek., quippe ex n. 95 — 6 
translates. 216 — 7. dnoxiasai, av ys Zenod., Schol. H. 



ally fond of this term ; for some 
related words see App. A. 3 (3). 

see on 200. 

—5. The genuineness of these 
here is doubtful. The question 
bj them is not answered, as it 
jre they recur (mar.): it implies 
*Telem. were oYerbome against 
II, it must be through the kaol 

part against him — a strong 
nation of the weight due to the 
.r element in Homeric politics, 
1 down in App. A. 4. aTtiOnofi* 
„y this is added politely, not to 
to suppose that Telem. could 
given any ground for enmity. 

Ofiipri, oracular or prophetic 
ig, see on u, 282, Buttm. LexiL 
id App. A. I. 

— 7. CipL^ dat. of special rela- 
ke ot a, 88, 91 : here the accus. 

deed {fiiag) follows aTtoxlC; 
206 sup, one of the doer follows 
►«t. . 

— 23. The long -spun sentence 
itself in a parenthesis, and then 
ng, resembles that in a. 255 foil., 
)te on a. 265. dva<pav6d we 
so i^avatpavdov , and dficpccdtov 
V. Visible and manifest help is 



a more special mark of a god^s favour 
than help merely, ov yag nm ndvt- 
€661 d'sol ipcclvovxai ivagysCg n, 161, 
cf. ov ci y' ineita tdov %ovq7j /iiog 
ovS' ivorjca «. t. X, v, 318 — 9; see also 
App. E. X (ix). 

There is a reading of Zenodotus ^ 
9y ya for 7] ySy and dnotiasai for 
dnox£6Bxui,^ meaning, "who knows 
whether you may perchance return to 
paj off their wrong, either alone or 
with all the Acheeans to aid you": 
but although the words of Telem. 226 — 8 
suit this well, those of AthenS in 231 
plainly refer to Odys. returning to 
avenge ; besides , sr . . . tcoxb . . . ild-dtv 
hardly applies with due force to Te- 
lem., and the ^'united Achaeans'* is a 
phrase pointing clearly to Odys., cf. 
nccvaxccvoi (mar.). The variation per- 
haps arose from the difficulty felt at 
passing from rj p ys (217) to sC ydg 6* 
(218) and sC a' ovxcag (223), which, 
however, is only an instance of the 
rambling Nestorian style. 

224. Tiq, used by epic litotes as if 
= nag ng. The litotes shows con- 
temptuous irony: for aTtXaXaB-. yd" 
fioio cf. Ixi. Aq)QoSixrjg %, 444. 



8o 



OATSLEIAS r. 215—238. 



[day III. 



a n, 24S, d. 371, 

o. 406. 
b *. 221. 
c %. IftS, CD. 209, 

H. 7, ^.108. 
d a. 64 mar. 
e jBl 656, ^. 322, 

d. 207, «. 573, 

9t.l98,V/.185— 6. 
f «. 452, «. 309, 

E. 224. ^ 
^ /J. 343, «. 483. 
h «. 9. 
» 17. 248, "Of. 65, 

k <r. 525-37, X. 

409-10. 
1 A 140, 211, I. 

701. 
m J. 315, 444, a. 

264. 
a a. 10. 
o /9. 100, «. 145, 

w. 135. 
p X. 398; cf. H. 

669, (. 461. 



xhv S* av Ti]Xsfiaxog xsxvviidvog dvriov i]via 
'^(S y£p6i>, ov 7ce> tovto iicog^tetieo&at otii}' 
Xiijv^ yd^ [laya SiJtag* aytj^ ^l* ixeu' oyx av i^ov ys 
iknoiLav^^ xayivoit% oid^ si d'sol cSg id'ikouvJ^ 

top <5' avTS jcgoaseLTts ^ed yXavxc57Ctg ^jddijvti 
"Ti^ksiiaxs, notov OB iitog (pvysv SQxog'^ adoptiov. 
Qsia^ ^sog y id'ikaiv xal irf^wev avSga aacioaiJ 
fiovXot^riv S av iyci ya, xal aXyea noXXd fibyi]ddgf^ ' 
olxaSi X iXd'efievai xal vodiifiov ifj(iccQ ^ iSed^ai , 
^ iXd^dv dnoXea^at iipsa^xiog^^ (og ^Ayajisyi^vov 
ai/ie^^^ VTC^ AiyCod'OLO dokcj Tcal ^ dXoxoio. 
aAA'* rj rot d^dvarov ^ev o^o^ov^ bvSh 9'soi tvbq 
xal^ g>£Xp dvd^l Svvavrai dXa^xifikv^ 6zjc6t€ xsv dij 
(idi()* oAo^® xad-iXfjet TavijXsyiog^ %'avdtoi6P^ 



227. J^itnag. 



228. J^sXnoiiBvtp. ^ 
233« foUa^i. 



329. ngoakfemB. 



230. ftnog* 



228. pro ovd* si Zenod. el (itj, Scboll. H. M. 230. TrjXeiiaxog. 231. x' pro y*, 
caaiau Harl. suprascript. 232 — 8 improbantibos quinque SchoU. receperant 



Dind. Fa. Low., 236—8 solos [] Bek. 



;.\v:. 



226 — 8. Telem. answers only the 
latter words of Nestor (aiajj— 4), which 
had fairly astonished him {ayri il* ixBi)i 
— for him, though divinely succoured, 
to baffle the suitors, was in his eyes 
Uriv ^iya, — eXnofi., see Jelf Gr. Gr» 
§ 599. 3; a dativus commodi often car- 
ries a participle describing the feeling 
etc. of the person accommodated ; in 
-<Esch. Agam. 1631 the pronoun is omitt- 
ed^, 9sxo{i.ivoig Xsysig d'avsiv 6s. — 
ovd* el B'Sol X. t. X, This is not felt to 
involve actual impiety, as the Homeric 
conception of divinity is in nearly all 
its aspects restrained by limits; cf. 
note on of. 22 and App. E. 4 (16). 
Atheu^ points out (221) that the act 
which he supposed beyond those limits 
lay really within them. 

230—1. For T7i2,ifiax^ some MSS. 
have Tf^Xifiaxog, but they are of in- 
ferior authority. Hermann contends 
that in no such word is the voc. in 
-og found except (piXog (Bek.) as in 
a. 301. — i^eia is especially used by II. 
to characterise the ease with which a 
god does what man finds impossible; 
ef. QsCa fiaX' £g ts d'sog T. 381, T. 
444, which phrase commonly begin.s 
a line (mar.). For ys the early edd. 
give %s after d'sog, — xai • • • Oaoicai 



''could bring a man safe (home) even 
from a distance": for this sense of 
eaoicai see mar.; so Xenoph. Anab. Vl. 
5, § 20, rjv 9h Srj xal eatd-^iisv inl 
^dXattocv. 

232 — 5. These lines (which were re- 
jected by some ancient critics) if re- 
tained, require us to press the sense of 
xal ... fioyijcag '*and (if he be brought 
safe home) I for my part would prefer 
that lot, even 'though 1 had to toil hard for 
it, to the lot of Agam., who (reached home 
without toilsome wandering, but) died 
at the domestic hearth by treachery" ; 
t. e. your father's lot, hard as it is, may 
be less so than his. In this view, these 
lines need not be rejected. For ^ovXoi* 
fifiv in sense of malim, followed by 17 
than, cf. X, 489 — 91. — Aiylo9'. and 
dkox* depend on^no, and doXq} is 
dat of manner, f^q dXox* Is an ad- 
dition to the previous statement of 194 
which spoke of .£gisthus only. For the 
full details see X. 409 foil, and d. 529 
foil. The wife abstracted the victim's 
last weapon, the (pdayavovy leaving 
him thereby defenceless. 

236 — 8. dXX' JiTOi (mar.) appears 
to be a phrase for breaking off a sub- 
ject = "but there — death, the com- 
mon lot, not even the gods can etc." 



DAY III. I 



OATSSEIAS r. 239-246. 



81 



ri}v d' av Trjl^iiaxog nsTtvvfiiyog avxCov ripda 

XBivGi d' ovxht v6(Stog it7Jtv(iog ^'^ akkd ot riSti 
q)Qa0iavt^ dd'dvaroi d'dvatov xal xrjQa iLiAaivav, 
vvv <5' i^ikcD iTCog alio fisraXi'^iSai^ xal igso^ai 



Neat 00 , ixsl TtSQcotSe^ ^cxag^ riSh woovcv^ aXlov 
45 T^Qt'g Y^Q 07} [iLV fpa0iv ccvat,a0%av^ ysve avoQcav, 
Sg ts fioi d^dvaxog ivUdXXsiac^ eigoQcldoitaL. 



a f. 296, N. 292. 

b X. 416. 

c d. 157, cf. 140, 

y 122. 
d y. 69 mar. 
e ^. 317, N. 728. 
f «. 215, X. 570. 
gr <^. 258. 
h A. 250—2. 
i (^. 177, 602. 
k t. 224, P. 213, 

V'. 400. 



24)[. /ot. 243. 244. finog, 244. neffCfoids. 
246. J^ividllszai, 



245. j^aWSaiF'O'at. 



239. TOi' fiarnes. pro xijv. 241 — 2. in dubium vocant quatuor Sclioll., parum 

perspect& loquentis indole. 244 — 6 Bcholl. H. M. Improbant [J Bo.k. 245. pro 

dvdQoiv alii allmv. 246. ita Aristoph., Scholl. H. M., et ita Woh., d^avtitoig 

Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox. 



Bek. sets i$6 — 8 in the mar. as spu- 
rious. Five Scholl. mark the whole 
pass. 232 — 8 as spurious, the lirst four 
lines as lacking coherence with the 
preceding (see, however, note on 232 
— 5 sup.\ the last three as incoherent 
with 231. The Venet. Schol. explains 
the apparent conflict of this with 231 
on the principle that the asngmfiivri 
(fiotga) in that case is supposed not to 
have reached him, in the latter to have 
done so. But there is no conflict if 
xi]Xod'£v ... audcui be understood, as 
in note on 230—1 sup. Then 236 — 8 
is added rather in reference to the death 
of Agam. than to the main question 
of Odysseus* return. Telemachus had 
positively asserted 227 — 8 that that 
retorn was beyond hope. He gives in 
hit next speech 242 the reason, as 
though admitting, "a god could bring 
him home from however far, were he 
alive; but (he is not, for) the gods have 
decided on and (he implies) executed 
his doom". The general sense of 
fioi(f' 6X. X. r. X. is natural death, 
but the x^ga fiiXaiva of 242 is some 
violent cutting short of the course of 
natare. Whether even Zeus could thwart 
the course of fioigcc is discussed on c. 
436, q, V, For TavfiX,^ see on 97—8 
sup, and App. A. 22; of tdvaog other 
compounds occur (mar.). 

241 — 2 are marked as doubtful by 
four Scholl. ovx* ixiix. means merely 
"not assured", but implies "sure not 
to be". This despondency, perhaps, 
expresses the blank disappointment left 

HOM. OD. I. 



on the speaker's mind by Nestor's words; 
although inconsistent with the spirit of 
Telemachus' errand of enquiry about 
his father, it is yet characteristic of 
his tone of mind; see App. £. 3. erijr* 
has cognate forms ^tvfiog^ iteog. 

244 — 6 arc rejected by two Scholl. 
as superfluous, but needlessly, dlxaq 
in sing, means ofte 1 custom or the 
course of things, but in plnr. bears a 
higher sense (mar.), cf. mos and mores^ 
and our **by rights": — "he is supe- 
rior to others in sense of justice and 
in information": meaning he is good 
and well informed; cf. ifjsvdog 9* ova 
igist* fidla yocg nenvvfiivog iaxlvj y. 
328. — <pq6viv is only found in one 
other place (mar,). For aXXtov, go- 
verned by nsgl, cf. a. 66; there is a 
var, lee, dv9g&v^ arising perhaps from 
245. — dvd%aC» In A, 252 Nestor f»£ta 
xgizdxoiGiv ttvaaeev^ the change of 
expression here " marks the difference 
between his age in the two poems". 
Gladst. Ill, IV. § III. p. 450. We have 
dvdcaovxai, pass. , and the active verb 
frequently (mar.); here the sense is 
*'to continue king", followed by ace. 
of duration, yive*, see on t. 35. He- 
rod. 11. 142 reckons 3 yivsa to a 
century, or about 30 years each; see 
Gladst. ub. sup, IvffaXX*, this wOrd 
is used in II. (mar.) of a prominent 
appearance; so here, "he strikes me 
as immortal", since his age and vi- 
gjour seem to defy death; cf. x, 224, 
o>s^ }ioi ivicclXsxui ^xog^ where^^v- 
9dXX. is probably impers. and '^xog 



8a 



OATSLEIAS r. 247-260. 



[day III. 



a y..l01 mar. 

b y. J94. 

« a. 300. 

d cf. I. 409 foil. 

e A'pp. D. 9 (3); 

cl'. a. 24 mar. 
t p. 127, a. 288, 

;r. 140. 
g^ a. 183 mar. 
h e;. 282, Z. 280. 
i S. 646, ft). 284-5. 
k E. 887, J7. 445. 
1 a. 218, 4.81, J. 

293, Z. 615. 
m ff'.256, Z.464; 

cf. i. 75. 
n .2". 271 , X. 89, 

335,509, WAU. 
o TT. 92. 

p y. 263, iJ. 517-8. 
q 4>. 404. 



(J NdiStOQ JNrjXriLddfiy 6v, S' dXrjd'sg ivitsxsg'^ 
TtcSg id'av^ 'JttQecdfjg svqv xgsicav '^yaiiiiivcov^ 
Ttov MaviXaog ii]v; xiva S' avrtp fiTJeaz^ bXsd'QOv^ 
Atyi6^og^ doXoiirittg; ^tcbI xrdvs^ nokkov dQai(o, 
if ov7c"A(fyeog^ rjsv ^A%au7iov^ dkXd nrj^ cckkij 
jckd^sr* ItC dvd'QCiijcovg ^^ o dh d^aQ6iJ6ag xatinBtpvav^^^ 

xov d' ruiaC^Bx^ S%Bita rsQTJviog tnTCora Nicrog 
"rotyap iyd toi^ rixvov, dkijd^Ba ndvt^ dyoQBv6(o. 
ij toi, [liv tdSs xavrdg^ otaaij Sg xav hvx^Vj 
sl'^ icoov^ y' Atyt0%'ov ivl iLBydgoiCiv hatfiBv^ 
^Atgeldrig TQodjd^av Icjv ^avd'og Mavikaog' 
tip XB OL ovdh d'avovTL xvT'^v"^ inl yatav ^xBvav^ 
dkV ccQa xov ye xvvag^ ra xal olavol xatidafav"^ 
xsCiiBVOv^ iv TCedCco^ ixdg &6tBog' ovSd xi rig ilvv 



258. Pol, 260. /sxa ptiateog. 



247. fiiyu HvSog *A%aiSiv pro^ <Jv d' dXri%^^q hCensg Vind. 251. "Aqyu I'jjv iv 
'A%au%& Scholl. H. Q., al. "Aqyog ii^v in'^ 'A%au%ov Bek. annot. 255. zoSh 

Ilarl. correctum pro xdSs a man. pri. &g %sv Harl. nsg supniscr., nsv Ern. 
Cl. ed. Ox. Bek. Dind., nsg Wolf. Jb^a. Low. 258. nonnulli i%BVBv^ Schol. 

Seholl. £. M. Q. et H. marg. 260. &6XBog Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox. Bek. Dind. 
Fa., "AqyBog Schol. H. Wolf. Low. 



accus., "in my mind". The reading 
d&avdtoiq was corrected by Wolf to 
nom. from the Harl. Schol., who ascribes 
the latter to Aristoph. (Ni.) The verb 
is not elsewhere found with dat. of 
thing resembled. 

247. iviC7t*y «ee App. A. i. 

248. Ttiitq, the question means ''how 
came he to die?" and, coupled with 
further questions 249 — 50, implies that 
the speaker could not account for the 
two facts of Menel. not defending or 
ayenglng Agam., and of .^gisth. over- 
coming a so much better man than 
himself. The question nov Msvil. irjv 
is a testimony to the strong brotherly 
attachment of Menel.; see App. E. 8 (8). 
Telemachus had heard no details of 
the voyage home of the Atridae, save 
that Menel. was of the party who 
urged departure (168 sup J), whilst Agam. 
was for delay. Hence he might have 
reasonably supposed that Menel. would 
have reached home at least as soon. 

2^1, lAQyeoq, local gen., explicable 
as a gen. of contact, see on 23; Jelf 
6r, Gr, § 522. i, 2 connects with it 
the local adverbial forms nov, dyxov, 



TTiXov &c. , and the gen. following 
verbs of motion, expressing the space 
traversed, ^htv nsdioio X, 23, so in/*. 
476, and the like, which, as well as 
the strictly local gen., is very rare in 
prose. The two other readings here 
are perhaps attempts to get rid of an 
unfamiliar construction. The "Achaean 
Argos" = Peloponnesus, see App. D. 

255. xavxoq, plainly by crasis of 
xal avxog (see mar.), some read x' av- 
Tog, but there is no sense in ns (Ni.). 
cijfg xev, var, iect, maitsg, which, how- 
ever, should mean "as the actu<al fact 
was" not — as the sense requires — 
"would have been". 

256 — 8. ^Q>6v y, var. led, fcoovr', 
but ys is found in some parallel 
places (mar.) and suits this place better. 
We also find rare ep. contracted forms 
img i(ov (mar.). x€ extends its force 
to xaxi^atffav, 259. 

260. Ucxeoqy the reading "Agy^og 
possibly arose from a wrong notion 
that "Agyog was the city of Agam. ; see 
App. D. 9 (i), or it may have been 



DAY III. 



0AT22EIAS V. 261—269. 



83 



i^li£tg (ihv yoLQ xstd't Tcoksag'' taUovtsg d^d'Xovg 
filled''' o d* eihcriXog^ ^vxp^^AQysog^ tutitofiotoio 
noXX* 'u4yoc^£(ivovsfiv aXoxov d'dXysex'^ i%ia66vv. 

6^7J d' Tj rot TO jcqIv (lev avaivsto Igyov asiTthg,^ 
Sta KXvTai[iv7]0tQri' (pQseV yccQ xs'xQrjT^ &yad"^6iv. 
Jt&Q S' UQ* Irjv xal doidog^ dviqQ,^ cj xoXX' iicixaXXsv 

i 'AzQeCdrigj TgovrivSe xitov, s^Qvad'ai^ axoitiv. 
a A A' 0X6 Sfj iLvv fiotgu d'ScSv ijts'drjOs^ Saii'^vai^ 



a X. 72; cf. J. 197 

-8. 
b y. 275, E. 303, 

77. JOS. 
c <r. 170. 

d A. 554, I 479. 
e Z. 152. 
f App. D. 9 (2). 
g: a. 57, ft. $9S, 

g. 521 
h^^. 13, X. 395. 
i f. 421, e. 3W; 

cf. ;i. 367. 
k cf. &. 487 — 90, 

JL. 36S~9, Q.blH 

I (. 391. J, 515. 
m I. 194, O. 141. 
n ;i.292, or. 155-6, 
X. 5. 



261. fsQyov, 264. ^ilysOKe J^insaeiv. 265. fsgyov dfsmig, 268. fB^gvad'ai, 

262. noXlag Harl. snprascr. (contra metrum), nolsig Bek. annot. 266. var. lect. 
xg'xpwT* Eustath. Schol. P. 267. '^nag o £g' Schol. uni prsefigitnr sed nag 

yag alii", Pors. yotg Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox., d' ccg' Wolf, et recentt. 



at first a gloss to explain nsSiqn the 
expression corresponds to that,' ay^ov 
in' iax€cxi^, where JEgisthus is said 
to have dwelt, and to that of {ivx^ 
"Agysog (mar.). 

261. xXavO; the %Xavd'ii6g was part 
of the rites due; so Elpenor says, jlh} 
(i' anXavxov a&anrov x. x. L (mar.)* 
fiaya • • • 6^y«, this phrase means (mar.) 
(i) arduous task, often physical effort^ 
(2) heroic achievement, (3) heinous 
crime, as here. 

262—4, This well describes the con- 
trast between the toils of the warrior 
lord abroad and the sly craft and quiet 
enjoyment (evHTjlog) of the effeminate 
schemer at home. 

266. See App. E. 2 (7). 

267. dviiQ, this added to a noun 
(so to xalTisifg, Iritgog, etc.), imparts 
greater dignity -than such a noun alone 
would convey ; contrast with this usage 
the expression tpatg 9siitrig, by which 
contempt perhaps is intended. The 
name of the bard is said by a Schol. 
to have been Demodocus, the supposi- 
tion being that a real name is perpe- 
tuated in d", 262 foil. 

268. ^JLQvCB-ai, see on e. 484. Obs. 
that no such charge was given by 
Odys, concerning Penelop^ — a tri- 
bute perhaps to her superior discre- 
tion — Mentor's commission extending 
only to the house and goods (§, 225—7). 



The Minstrel was singled out for this 
office perhaps owing to the sacredness 
of his character [%, 345—6), to which 
the mode of his death was no doubt 
a tribute ; with the barbarous casuistry 
which dictated the fate of Antigone 
(Soph. Aniig, 773 foil.), he was not 
slain by blow of hand, but his death 
contrived to appear quasi-natural. The 
moral influence of bards is also dwelt 
on by the Schol. ; ndvtsg avtotg ngoasi- 
%ov mg cotpotg, xcel naiSevd'^vai xov 
voig nocgsdiSoaccv tovg avaynatovg. It 
is clear also that their attainments were 
viewed with reverence (mar.) and re- 
ferred to a divine source. Such an 
one would be free from the political 
temptation which partly animated the 
suitors against the absent Odys. ; thus, 
Phemius on the whole remained true 
to his lord, and only sung to the suitors 
under compulsion [%, 352 foil., cf. a. 
154). 

269. fitv, whom? Ni. says the dot- 
dog, oi whom the reader's mind, he 
says, is full: but then the noun for 
which luv stands (ctoidov) would hardly 
be found in the clause $rj rots . . . 
Y. 270; besides the fiolQa i^etov seems 
to refer us rather to the denunciation 
of Zeus (flf. 35 — 43. see note there) 
in spite of whicli iSgisthus sinned, 
sidatg oclnvv oXed'gov, i, e. with a 
knowledge of his dqqm -^ the fioi^ga 
here. 



84 



OATSSEIAS r. 270—282. 



[day III. 



208, 



a ii. 361. 
b T. 151. 
c «. 473, V 

0). 292. 
d 0. 4«0, P. 272. 
e «. 155. 
f a. 83, n. 445. 
s y- 179. 
h B. 305, J, 808. 
i cf. <. 184, <0.246 

—7, ^. 25». 
k Y 438, d. 602, 

^. 509, u. 347, 

or. 300, t 257. 
I cf. 01. 37, u. 51, 

162, 179. 
m cf. Z. 302. 
n v. 261 mar. 
o y. 319 
p cf. y 262. 
f| w 64, o. 410, o. 

281,<r.86,i?.758, 

V. 276 - 8 , «). 

258 — 67; cf. X. 

172, 198, o. 478, 

a. 202, w. 71 , 80. 
r «.265; cf. x 32. 
s^. 127, 219; cf 

/*. 15<i, ^. 124; 

cf. «. 553-4. 



di) Torf TO!/ (ihv ccolSov aycDV ig v^^ov iQij^riv^ 
^dlhiCBv^' olcDvotOtv eXcDQ"^ Ttal xvQiia^ yevic^ai, 
tiqv d' i%'iX(ov*^ i%ilov0av dvtjyaysv cvSs ddftoi^df,^ 
Ttollct dh fHfiQL^^ ixriB ^B(Sv CsQotg iTcl paiiioig,^ 
TtokXa^ tf ' aydlfiai^^ &v^f€v,^ V(pd6iiard"^rs xqvGov r£, 
iztBliaag (idya igyov^^ o ov Ttots ikTCBto d'VfiS,^ 2 

iJftfrgP iihv yaQ &iia nXioiLsv TQO^fid'sv iovtsg^ 
^AtQBCSifig Hal iy(o^ <plXa siS&teg dlXTJXot^Civ 
dXV 8rfi IJovpiov Iqov dq)Lx6(isd'\ axQOv ^A^rivimv^ 
svd'a xv^SQVTJrrjv MevaXdov ^otfiog ^AnoXliov^ 
olg dyavotg §sXi£00iv inocx6(ievog xatinBtpvBv^ 1 

nriMhov^ (iBrd xbqoI d'Bov^rig vi]6g ixovta, 
^QovtLV 'Ovr^TOQLdrjVy og ixaivvto^ q)vX* avd^Qcijcov 



271. J^iliJOQ. 272. J^ovds, 275. figyov J^iXTtsxo. 277. feidovsg. 280. /org. 

271, nvQtia Barnes. Em. Bok., tivqilu Schol. B. Wolf. Dind. Fa. Low. 27<. jjl- 

nsto Barnes. 276. pro a^a nX, Zenod. male avanXiofisv, Scbol. M. 278. Ad'ri- 

va^tov Harl. contra metrum nisi omisso ccyigov et a metri grati& products ; cf. 

Bek. ad Aristopli. Nub, 400. 



270. vriCov, a Schol. calls itCarpliS. 

274. See mar. for various aydXyi^axtt, 
— iffd^fA. . .^, XQ'^^ov are two de- 
scriptions of aydXfiara, which sub- 
division of a general term is common 
in H., see for examples mar.; they 
were thank - offerings for the unex- 
pected (275) success of his crime. 

277. 'ATQcMjjg, t. e. Menelaus. 

278. 27. iQOV, the S. cape of At- 
tica, sacred to Poseidon, who is invoked 
Aristoph. Eg, 560 as UovviuQOcts. (Ni.) 
A sacred character is ascribed to all 
striking natural objects, showing a 
sense of the influence of superhuman 
power. (Ni.) Aristoph. Nub. 400 has 
xal Zovviov S'HQov A9"qvi(0Vj where 
aTiQOV seems required by the sense, 
still, 'A&'Tjvatoav whicli is also read ^* in 
all editions before Brunck" (Pors.), 
might scan, omitting S%qov. But on 
the whole it seems more likely that 
*A&rivul(ov was a gloss both here and 
in Aristoph. /. c, since Sunium could 
not literally be called a "cape of 
Athens (the city)". So in Aristoph. Eq. 
1 59 'A9"i^vaiaiv crept into the text for 
A&Tivmv or 'Ad'rivsmv. 

279 — 80. In the Ody. Apollo rarely 
appears, [t is noticed that h** gave 



stature and mauly ripeness to youths, 
with which is to be connected his 
function, the privative of this, of cutt- 
ing short tiie prime of youth and man- 
hood by a sudden extinction. His sister 
Artemis has precisely the same func- 
tions for her sex. He occurs as the 
patron of archery, worshipped with 
special festivals in Ithaca, and she is 
loxicciga, as he Ixij^oXoc. The epith. 
^yicitos H, 83 may also be compared, 
with the name ^Excxrij, which in post- 
Homeric mythology is a synonym of 
Artemis. The death of the chilcbren of 
Niob^ {SI, 605 etc.) was not an exer- 
cise of those previous functions, so 
much as an act of vengeance or dis- 
pleasure; so also probably that of Otus 
and Ephialtes (X. 318), though the 
added fact of their early youth (319 
— 20) suggests a reference to such 
functions; as does the case of Eurytus 
cf. ovd* inl y^QUs ttist* (^. 226 — 7). 
Artemis* slaying Orion pertains per- 
haps to her functions as a huntress 
(e. 123—4). 

282. FerhtLj^s %cciw(iaif in connexion 
with K£%dciisvog iasiidcftriv etc. (as 
clearly traced by Buttm. Gr, Verbs a. ».), 
is also related to %di<Q^ Tiiaccdov^ %s- 



DAY in.] 



OAT23rEIAS V. 283-294. 



85 



Sg o iihv ivd'a ¥.(xxi0%h%^ i7teLy6(i6v6g^ tcbq 6dotOj 
55 iq)Q* haqov Q'dnxoi xal izl xtdQsa^ xtsqCobibv^ 
dXV oir« dij xal xstvog, i(ov iitl oivona^ novxov 
iv vijv6l yla<pvQ/}0Ly MalBcdrnv^ Zgog cclxv 
Igc8r d'ewvy tots dij 6tvys^v od&v siQVoxtt^ Zsvg 
i(pQd0atOy Xt>y6(ov^ d^ dv^iimv ix^ dik[iivcc %avBv 
90 xv[iatd te tQog)6evta^ TtsXcigiay l0€c oqb06iv. 
— iy%'a dcat(i7]l^ag^ rag [ihv KQijtfi iiiika60BvJ^ — -^ 
71%!,^ KvdcDVB^^ $yai(^v^taQ8dvov^ dfitpl pBB$Qu. 
i6tv Si tig ki60ri^ alnBld tB alg aXcc TtBtgi] 
Shxdti^^roQtvvog^* iv iqBQOBldiV jcovto)' 



a j^. 334, t. 304. 
b a. 809, 0. 49, cf 

o. 297. 
c a. 291, S. 222. 
d cf. u. 12-6. 
e a. 183 mar. 
f <r. 614, t. 80. 
t J, 807, «. 442. 
h /i. 146. 
i I. 399, 406, cf. 

X' 17, O. 620. 
k O. 621. 
1 ^, 3, «. 409. 
m y. 300, d, 600, 

». 277, o. 4S2, 

f. 350, 358. 
n C- 94, t. 653, ul. 

607, r. 326. 
o t, 176. 
p H. 136. 
q •. 412, X. 4. 
r X. 96. 
8 B. 646 
t y. 105, «f^. 744. 



286. foCvfmu, 290. f rffff. 294. ^€^0«F£«^€^. 

283. ensQXOisv £ru. CI. ed. Ox. Bek., fortasse ex N. 334, cf. e, 304, tfsrfp- 
xoiat' Harl. ex emend, ejusd. man. Wolf, et receutt., alii anigrfoaiv vsr. 1. H. Ste- 
phan. 289. pro S* alii t\ ntramque dedit Arist. 290. XQOfplovto Ambros. quod 
Aiistarcho vix probabiliter triboit Schol., ipse vitium procul dubio passns. Ian 
vero xQBq>6BvttL et manifesto error e xQOfpoBvxo pro xgotpiovxo ScboU. exhibent. 
xQOtpiovxa Scbol. A. 307. Enstath. et bic et O. 621 tarn xqotpiovxa turn xqo- 
tpoBvxa legi memorat. 293. Atccri Scboll. H. M. Q. V., Ainciiv Crates, 

ScboU. M, V. 



%d9ovxo^ XB-Mcdi^itai, of wbicb he says 
^'the act. Yoice bad in the older lan- 
guage the csusatiye sense of '/ cause 
to retire, drive back^; thus i%a£wxo 
here 'distanced*, lit. * caused to retire 
from him', so iliqiavxi jiuidifiov madv 
xsnadftivog Find., distingiiishea or 
differenced by ivory". Jelf, Or. Gr. 
667, obs. I, notices that an infin. fol- 
lows this verb as it does adjectives, 
e. g. 9'Binv xa%vg, 

284 — 5. o gAkv, Menel. "was de- 
tained'', it is implied (cf. ^fteti? 276, 
and %Btvoq 286) that Nestor sailed on. 
^'dnxoiy since to omit a burial caused 
a fiifvifia, X. 73. 

286 — 7. £;rl^^see on a. 299. MaX.^ 
the S. E. cape of Peloponn., now Cape 
St. Angelo; vessels creeping along the 
shore would often encounter a sharp 
gale from the west in rounding it. 

289 — 90. That this description is not 
overcharged is clear from the men- 
tion in The Times, Naval and Mil. In- 
tell. Apr. i3t*» 1861, of **H. M. Gun- 
boat Lapwing lying at Piraeus, suffering 
from a gale of wind in the Archipe- 
lago, from which she had saved her- 
self by throwing her guns overboard." 



dvTfiiva, there is also a fern, avxfi^ 
(roar.) in same sense. 

292. Kwf., the Cretan tribes (mar.) 
were the AchsBans, Eteocretans, Cy- 
donians, Dorians, Pelasgians. The first, 
certainly, and the last two apparently, 
being invaders who had settled there. 
These Cydonians lay in the N.W. re- 
gion of Crete, at the root of a spur 
of its coast -line jutting northwards, 
and would be first reached from Ma- 
lea (Herod. III. 59). 

293. XiOif'i, obs. that the Schol. 
makes it a proper name, said to be 
BXicari in the Cretan dialect. 

294. Gortys lay about the middle of 
the island towards the S. coast , its 
ruins are widely conspicuous still, and 
some traces of the famous labyrinth 
exist near in cavernous rocks, etc.; 
see, however. Sir G. C. Lewis {AncL 
Astron, p. 441), who treats the labyrinth 
9k6 wholly fabulous. Phsestus lay S. W. 
of it, distant about 60 stadia (Ni.), at 
the root of a spur of the southern coast- 
line jutting southwards, and faces the W. 
A river flowing from E. toW., having it 
en the S. bank near the month, and uror- 
tys on the N. bank higher up, is pro 
bably the lardanus; see Spruner's ^//tf«. 



86 



a 0. 2fi, :=:. 154, 

236, r. 114. 
h 0. 325, y. 221. 
c V 279, o. 20». 
d fi. 40, 405, I. 105. 
e cf. «. 415-e. 
f I. 482, 539, X. 

127. 
g" y. 291 niai-. 
h y. 312, d. 81,90, 

125-32. 
i a. 183. 
k y. 194. 
1 «. 454, I. 621, 

r. 183; cf. a. 

426 mar. 
m 6.278—9,1*. 447, 

;-. 249-527 
o H. 180, A. 46. 
o 0. 39, /«. lis. 
p a. 40. 
q a. 290 — 300, y. 

197 — S. 
T y. 00, ^. 3, ». 

SO, 'i'. 201. 



OATSSEIAX r. 295—309. 



[day III. 



iv^a Nozog ^iya Tcvfia tcoxI ctxacov qCov^ cSd'Sty 
ig 0ac0t6v^ [iDCQog dh Xid'og (liya xv[i' aTtosQysiy 

avSgeg^ dtccQ vridg ys tcoxX 07CiXdSB60iv^ iai^av"^ 
xv[iat*' dtaQ rdg tibvxs viag KvavSjtQCjQsiovg^ 
AlyvnxG) i^6Aa0&€^ cpeQCDv avBiiog x€ xccl vdog, 
(Sg (i€v iv&a JcoXtfv ^Cbxov xal xqvOov aysigiov^ 
i]Aaro ^v vriv6l xax' dXXod'QOOvg dvd^gaiTCOvg'^ 
x6g)Qa Sh raw' Myiad'og ^fiiljdaxo^ otxod'i XvyQUj 
xxsvvag^j^xQsidrjv^iSBd^flxo^dB kabg v%^%'6x(p- 
BTCxdBXBg^^ d\,T]va06B 7CoXvxqv06lo Mvxijvi]g'^ 
xiS Si ot bySodxca xaxov^ rilvd'B Stog *OQB0xrigi' 
aijj dit* ^A^rjvdoVf xaxd d' ixxdvB 7taxqog)6v'^d ^^ 
Atyi0d'ov Sok6(iy]xcVy og of Tcaxiga xXvxov txxcc, 
7J xoL o xov xxBvvag ouCvv^ xdtpov ^AgyBioiOvv 



296. dnoHqyBi, 298. ^J^a^av. 303. foUo&i. 305. imdj^stsg S'ifcivccGas. 
p, c s. . rv- 306. /ot. 308. o /ot. ^. 

296. pro (iiTiQog Zeuod. MctXsov^ SchoU. E. M. Q. V. 297. ol fisv Harl. ex 
emend. 302. Barnes. CI. ed. Ox. vrjvalv in* fortasse ex a. 183, Harl. %at\ 

30^' 304 a quibuadam abesse monet Schol. H. pro oUxod^i idem m^ftata. 304. 
Arist dsdfii^vto, Scholl. H. M. Q, R. 306. tw 9' ag' dvmaxov ApoUon. So- 
phista ex ^. 39. 307. pro a»* 'A'd'rivdatv Zenod. et Eustath. ano cPaMtiJov, Arist. 
an' U9rivatrjgy coll. 9j. 80, an* "Ad-rivaimv Schol. H. 309—10 deerant in 

noiyiullis vett exemplaribns, Scholl. M. Q. R. T. ^ 
jitlAjl'-iij. - A'.rw.: I, '.,..'' -' V •'• ^••-'•' 



295. Qiov in II. (mar.) means always 
"peak" (of Olympus). 

296. For fjLtXQO^ • • kiS'Oq 4 Scholl. 
give a reading MaXiov .. XC^og\ the 
xvfia is the roll of the Mediterranean 
from the west. 

297. axov^Xif with great effort =: 
" scarcely " ; cf . aoyiq and fioyio), 

298 — 300. ea^av scvfiat', a neut. 
plur. with plur. verb, is common in H.: 
Jelf, 6r, Gr, § 385. obs. 2, says, this 
is "often merely for the metre"; here 
and at @, 137, no such reason could 
apply. xvavoTtQiOQ, , cf. the other 
epith. for the prows of ships, fiUto- 
naQfjogf t. 125; this however is far 
more common; for its probable mean- 
ing see App. F. 1(19). ALyvjtXij} x. r. X, 
cf. Eurip. Hel. 682, tod* iniXaa* Ai- 
yvntat, and 671 iniXaas NsiXco, 

304. 6B6fi7ixOy from dafidco^ see on 
a. 426. The attempt of iEgisth. had, 
like the suitorship of Penel., a poli- 
tical element in it; marriage with the 
wife of the absent being the direct 



step to the occupancy of his throne; 
see App.E. 5, and preliminary note to^. 

305 — 6. For Homer's formula of fixing 
a number and then adding one to make 
it complementary (mar.) see on (J. 374. 
Holy Scripture exhibits something si- 
milar, e. g. Prov. XXX. 15. 

306—8. Orestes was sent from home 
a boy, to return grown up. The exile 
of Or. was with his uncle Strophius in 
Phocis, according to the legend fol- 
lowed by the dramatists. H. seems to 
speak only of Athens (Zenod. however 
read ano ^odxt^odv 307), whither the 
iBschylean form of the legend sends 
him to expiate his guilt. The shade 
of Agam. {X, 458 — 60) enquires where 
he is, at Orchomenus, Pylus, or 
Sparta? as though assured that he was 
not at Mycenae. Of course the date of 
that enquiry was previous to the re- 
turn of Orestes, since .^gisthus ruled 
for 7 years after the fall of Troy. 

309. daivv xdifOVy cf. datvvvxo 
datza^ daivvvta ydfiov (mar.). 



DAY III. I 



OATSSEIAS r. 310-321. 



87 






TCoXXu^ xitj^ai^ aycov^ o(Su ol vieg ax96g aeiqav.^ 

xrifiiiata ra tc^XitccoIv avS^ag ir' iv 6ot6i S6(iol0iv 
^15 ovia vjtkQfpLccXovgj (iij roi xata Tcdyxa fpccymOiv 
XTTJiiara SdddiciisvoL^^ 6v Sh tiiv^lriv oSov iXd'tjg. 
aXX* ig^ (ihv MaviXaov i^a xaXoiitccL xal av(Qya 
iX^etv xelvog ydg viov aXio%'sv slXnXov^av^'^ 
ix r(Sv av^^Tcdv od'av ovx aXTtocto^ ya d'vvLa 
20 iXj&iaaVj ov rvva n^Stov dnoa<fy>jX(o0LV^ SaXXav 
ig TtiXdyog (idya totov^^ od'av ri nag ovS^ oldvol 



a X, 410, 424, 432. 
b P. 665. 
c y. .*<0l mar. 
d T. 386, 'K730, 
cf. tp. 18. 

o. 10-6. 
f /?. 370. 

8r /*. 868. 
h t 127. 
i V. 360, ^. 112, 

n. 26. 
k y. 275. 

1 E. 567. 

m a. 209 mar., I. 
135. 



311. 312. foi, 319. OV J^iXnotro, 



315. pro toi alii S"^. 



cuk 



310. iifiTQOgi this is the only hint, if 
the line be genuine , that Orestes slew 
his mother. That it should be so is then 
a mark of Homer's euphemistic reserve, 
as contrasted with the violent promi- 
nence which subsequent poetry gave 
that action. Arist. remarks (Scholl.) 
that her death may be inferred from 
it, but not necessarily by Orestes* hand. 
This shows that he accepted the line; 
and assuming it Homeric, the re- 
mark may find place here that the 
iQivvsg were already established in 
mythology , especially in connexion 
with a mother^s curse (jJ. 135, I. 571, 
^. 412); but, N^gelsbach says, not 
yet having a distinct penal agency, 
and rather related to the Z£i;g Hatcc- 
X&ovios as (ioCqcc is to Zsvg (Homer. 
TheoL V. § 38). Yet the description 
of Erinys (sing.) as * 'walking in dark- 
ness'' [riBQOtpoixig) , hearing from Ere- 
bus imprecations on the guilty, and 
having an implacable (a^eAtjrov) heart, 
is a formidable image, and, combined 
with ctvyBqal^ as proper to an infernal 
power, carries with it the idea of 
vengeance as a special function. Th« 
doubtful epithet 9a6nXi]%iq (0. 234), 
whether "vehemently hasting", as 
N&gelsbach {ibid, note) suggests, or 
'^ striking heavy blows" (Lid. and S.)» 
furthers this idea. Thus Erinys instils 
uxri — the wrong which works retri- 
bution -^ into the mind (0. 234), and 
the Erinyes wait upon the elders of a 
family (O. 204) even among the gods. 



and watch with divine power over the 
helpless on earth {n%ta%&v ya ^sol %al 
*EQLVvsg ilciv q. 475). They also guard 
against transgressions of the physical 
or moral laws of the world, against* 
what ever seems a portentous or im- 
pious privilege ; thus stopping the pro- 
phetic voice of the horse Xanthus, and 
redressing the advantages lavished by 
fond goddesses on some pampered mai- 
dens (T. 418, v. 78). It is clear then that 
the elements of a crime against nature, 
and of these powers as its chastisers, 
existed in Homeric legend. The -ffischy- 
lean Eumenides form their legitimate 
development, adding the notion of pur- 
suit, borrowed, perhaps, from the Atri 
of I. 505—7. See Gladst. U. 302 foil. 

312. daiqav, "supported or floated 
under", a rare sense of isCgia, but 
following easily from that of "lifting" ; 
see mar. for the closest examples. An- 
other sense j ** carrying oflf as spoil", 
occurs; with which compare the cattle 
"lifting" of the Scotch borderers. 

316. trfioiipf, with this word, from 
the prou. of the 3'* person, cf. avrcog- 
"just so and no more" (see on d. 665), 
and hence "merely", passing into the 
notion of "idly, in vain", a sense 
more fully developed in ixcaoiogf which 
is probably xrivaiog slightly altered. 
Hence the Schol. gives fiatociccv to ex- 
plain Ti^va. here. (Doed. § 260 — i,^ 

320—1. ov Tiva, not merely = ovy 
but as the force of the subjunct. with 
oavig is to make the statement general 



88 



OATLLEIAS P. 52^-336. 



[day III. 



a I. 384, E. 790, 

O. 640. 
b I. 173. 
c y. 37«, ^. 362, 

V.71; cf. ^.566, 

r. 174, n, 671, 

681. 
d a. 285, /?. 214. 
e y. 19, 20. 
fa. 2J3 mar. 
g A. 476, e. 225, 

1.168,558, X. 185. 
h /J. 251, d. 7S3, 

»/. 227, T. 1S6. 
ly 3?»0,«93,ff.423. 
ky. 6,43, 51, 55,178. 
1 iJ. 3oS, tj, m, 

V. 138. 
m t. 510. 
n X. 190, X. 57, t. 

28, V. 241. 
o ^. 76. : 
p I. 104, O. 124. 



civ to Stag olxviviScv^^ insl (isya t€ oaivov ts. 
aAA' l^i> vvv 0VV vrjc ts 6fj xul 6otg itccQOLijiv • ^ 
si d' id^sXsig ns^og^ Ttdga tot oi^tp^og ts Tial ljctcoi, 
TCaQ 8s rot vlsg saoly 01 tot jtoujtifsg^ leovtat 32 

ig^ AaxsScciuova otccv. od'c iav^og MsviXaog, 
Uodsad'cci^ OS (iiv avtogj tvcc vfjiisotsg svC07trj' 
tifsvdog d' ovic /gist' [tklic yuQ nskvv^svog^ iativj^ 

(Sg ifpat • r^sXiog^ S' ap' Mv, Ttal inl xviq)ag '^Id'sv. 
totCi dh xcci (istssiTCS d'sct yXavKfSxtg ^Jd^fjvi] 33 

"oj ysQOv^ 1] tot tavtcc xata^ ^otQav xatiXs^ag' 
alV aysy tdfivsts [ihv ykdtSiSag xsQda0%'s^ 81 olvov^ 
o(pQcc no6svSd(OVL^ xal akXoig dd'avdtoKStv 
aitsiaavtsg xokoio^ fisScifisd^w toto yag Sqij."^ 
ijSifi yccQ (pdog ot^s^^* vxb gdcjpoi/,'* ov8l ?otxsv 3^ 

8ri%^d d'scSv iv Sattl^ d'aa06s^sv^ dXXd vss0^ai," 



32Z,avzQjreze^. ^zS. ov fsgisi. 330, fUteJ^SLns, 332, foCvov, 335. /?J o/x£v. 

325. snovttxi, Schol. B. cf. 376. 327. ctvrov Bek. Bind., avtog Arist., teste 

^chol. H. quod recepit Fa. 331. pro ravTCK alii navtcc ex T. 186. 335. al. 

^QXsd'' Bek. annot Zenod. tox^^\ Schol. H, ov yag ^oiytBV S<;hol. A. 475. 



(Jelf. Gr. Gr. § 828, 2), so here that 
general statement is a principle or cause 
to which the previous statement SO'zv 

iX^ifi€v is referred. — TteXayoq, 

see Appj B. fiiya zoZov, the relat. 
clause oS'SV ri xsq x. r. X, explains 
toiov "great so as that"; see on a. 209. 
In the fictitious tale in |. 257 they reach 
Egypt on the 5'^ day from Crete with 
a Nor^h wind. There Odys., as a man 
of wide experience, speaks soberly. 
Nestor knowing probably nothing of the 
distance beyond hearsay, as story-tel- 
lers will, exaggerates hugely, oitavol, 
**drawing his idea from those birds which 
periodically migrate", Gladst. In T. 3 
foil, we have a simile noticing the flight 
of cranes at winter's approach. (NL) 

325—6. Tto/iJt*, "your escort", the 
form jcofinoi also occurs (mar.). — ^a- 
XBifaifi., previously Sparta has been 
named as the dwelling-place of Menel. 
(mar.); in ^. i — 10 we find him at 
Laced, (the region), and fetching a wife 
for his son from Sparta (its chief city); 
see B, ^8i — 2, nate on 8, i, and App. 
D. 3. 

327. XlOOeoS'at depends on ufAo- 
ficci in 317 sup., and the <f€ is cor- 
respondent to filv there. 

332. yAa><r<fceg. The tongue was re- 



served as a choice part, and offered 
in the old Homeric cultus to the god 
specially worshipped, here Poseidon. 
This rite the Athenians retained, and 
Aristoph. Av, 171 1 says Ttccvraxov trjg 
'Attmrji 17 yZcoTta xagig tefivsTai, so 
Fax 1060, when the thighs have been 
ofi^ered and the entrails tasted, the 
tongue is called for as in due course. 
In the Plutus of the same poet (mo) 
it is alluded to as if specially offered 
to Hermes, ?} yl. rm xif^vxt tovtohv 
TSlivsrcci, which was doubtless a con- 
version of the old rite to a special 
symbolism, when Hermes had become 
worshipped as the god of oratory, and 
public-speaking had become the ruling 
art of Athenian life. Of this H. knows 
nothing; nor can any such notion be 
based on the custom ascribed to the 
Pha^acians, 77. 138, of pouring a li- 
bation to Hermes the last thing be- 
fore going to bed; although Athenseus 
(I. 14) would connect the two. For 
the Homeric functions of Hermes see 
App. C. 3. The word t^/llvcd, tdfivta, 
found so generally with the phrase, 
sho'7S that the tongue was cut out as 
a distinct act (^coptg) when the other 
parts had been dealt with. 
336. B-aaCmf Buttm. points out (Z^e- 



DAT ni.] 



0ATSSEIA2 r. 337-3SS- 



89 



^ $a /libg %'vydtriQ^ tol 8^ ixXvov avdriodorig.^ 
tot6i^ dh XTJQvxsg [ihv HSoq^ inl xbIquq ixBvav^ 
KovQOi 81 xQTjtiJQag inaiSxiifavto Jtozolo^ 

\o^v(6[i7iaav^ d' &qcc 7ta0iv iTraQ^dfisvoi^ 8£nd£66LV 
yXcicfcfag^ tf ' iv xvqI fidXXov^^^ dviHtdiisvoL 8* iTciXai^ov. 
avrdg^ insl 6nBl0dv r' §ni6v ©•' odov fi^aXe d'viidg, 
81^ x6%* ^Ad^tivairj xccl TrjXiiiaxog^ d'S06L8'iqg 
&Hq)(o Ucfdifjv^ xocXijv btcI v^cc vieiS^av, 

^5 NictcDQ 8* av xate'gvxs xad'anto^svog iniB0(Svv' 

^'Zevg to y* dXB%ri6BU xal dd-dvaroi ^eol aXXot,"^ 
mg vfistg nag* ifisto d-o^v inl vija xioire 
Sg t£ rsv 1) Tcagd TtdfiTtav dvsCyiovog rjlh TtewxQOV^ 
5J ov r* jjAafvat** xal Qijysa^ xoXX' ivl otx^, 

JO oiJr' avt^ (laXaxcog oiire g6(rVofc(?ii/ iv€v8£Lv, 
avrdg ifiol ndga p,hv ;|^Aari/cttP xal §7Jy€a xaXd. 
ov ^v^ 8iq rovd' avSgog ^O8vcf6rjog'^ q>CXog viog 
vriog ijc' IxQtotpvv^ xaraXi^Btai^ otpQ^ av iyci ya 
gcoo,^ ijtBita 8b 7tat8Bg ivl iiaydgoKSi XCntovrat,^ 

55 Uivovg"" ^BvvCiBiv^ Zg ng"^ x i(id 8oiiia&^ ?xijra*." 



a d. 505, Jt. 47, 

77. 76. 
b a. 146 — 8 mar., 

<p. 270-3, A. 

4TO~l,J.I74~7. 
c r. 26S~70. ^ 
d or. 425; cF. a. 

141. 
e it. 218, (p. 3».% 

m, H. 238, O. 

677. 
f y. 446, I. 422, 

fi V. 446, f 422. 
i y. 395, n. 184, 

k a. 113, 

i a. 6. 

m X. 366. 

n d, 50, «. 229. x. 

542, ^ 478, o. 

ail; cf. o. 86, 

179, t;. 24a. 
a. 1H9, t. 337; 

cf. d. 297-301. 
p y. 349 mar. 
.1 «. 211, n. 276, 

u/ 365, N. 813, 

*. 568. 
r y. 64. 
8 r. 74, iu. 414, o. 

283, 552. 
t cf. A. 88._ 
u E. 154, ^. 485. 
V ». 190. 
w 9. 32, 1. 153, V. 

295, (p. 313. 



343. d'sofndiig. 



fih^v. 345. fBnhaciv, 
349. Mum. 



348. afsifiovog. 



349. Arist. o«w, Zeuod. rv^rcp, vulg. ovr€; mox pro irjyscc Zenod. uti^fiocTU, 
Schol. M. 351. Bek. fAiJv. 353. pro oqpp* alii evr' Bek. annot. 



xil, 63) that the Attic ^doceiv (with 
cogn. noun ^axo^) is a contraction 
of this. The d'cc- and -d'O are probably 
equally radical, cf. SinXacn and <Ti- 
nlom, thus we have ^ooffai, <9'(u?eo9, 
d-oamog, and &aciaa(o^ ^a<r<rco, '8'axoff. 
340. This line, describing a ritualistic 
act, is not found in the parallel a* 146 
foil., which merely describes the meal 
of the suitors, whose impiety omitted 
recognition of the gods, vcififi^av, 
here = circxmferehant , is used of ply- 
ing, wielding, or turning a bow, pole, 
helm, etc. (mar.); but enaQ%* is a 
word of ritual, containing the notion 
of an aqxri , t. e. something religiously 
given or taken first. The simple verb 
is used of solid as this of liquid of- 
ferings, cf. nuvxmv ccQXOfiBvog fiBlsoav, 
|. 428, and similarly dndgxsG^cci of 
the victim^s hair, natdgx. of lustration 
and of the sacred barley (mar.). Buttm. 
Lexil. 29 (4), says the inl adds the no- 



tion of relation to individuals. — ;ca- 
Civ, t. e, the guests. — dCT^eCOiv is 
dat. of instrument. 

344 — 9. lioSffV, "were making a 
move to go", the literal sense, from 
which comes the notion of desire. — ;r€- 
viXQOv, for poverty as shown in regard 
to garments, cf. |. 513 — 4. — x^ccr- 
vai is sometimes, as here, found joined 
with Qi^ysoCf as bedding, oftener with 
Xitcaveg, as garments, the generic it- 
fiata TiaXtt following (mar.). For the 
(p&Qog see 466 — 7 note. The x^f'^t^vcti 
alone were also used as seat- covers 
(mar.); see further on S, 297—9. 

352 — 3. ov ^fiV, found only in 
speeches , as is %-riv affirmative, espe- 
cially ij %riVf xal ydg -O'lyv, etc., =: "I 
should rather think", expresses in- 
dignant irony or surprise (mar.); tlie 
same feeling of indignation is con- 
tinued in the xov d* otv^QOg ^06vG, — ■ 
ixQiO€fiVs see App. F. i (3). 



90 



OATSSEIAS r. 356—372. 



[day III. 



a St. 660. 

b cf. A. 259. 

c ». 643. 

d cf^I. 427. 

ex. 292, ^.26, 165, 

V. 385, w. 2S6-7, 

261-2, 33» 
f I. 60. 

g cf. fi. 383-4. 
h y. 49 mar. 
i t, 598. 

k <r. 731 , X. 272. 
I cf. (p 279-^. 
m K. 429, r. 829. 
n <p. 17, ^. 686-g. 
ft. 78, r. 35J, 

u. 332. 
p cf. (f. 8. 
q cf. *F. 749. 
r E. 266. 

s cf. a. 320,;^. 240. 
t (p. 122, r. 342, 

J. 79, 'f'. 815, 

i2. 482-3, 



tdv d' avxB TtQogsBLTCs d'sa ykavxSmg *Ad^vfi 
"6t; dij tavtd y Bffytfi^a^ ysQOv^ q>CkE' 60I 8h socxev 
Tfikd^axov xsid'€6d'av^y inel^ xoXv xdXXvov ovtaog. 
aAA' ovtog (ilv vvv 60I Sfi* eilfstavy wpga xsv svSy^ 
0OL0iv ivl fiayttQOvavv' iym d' i%l v^a iibXccivccv ^( 

slii% Lvcc d'aQiSvvG) ^' irdgovg stTtoD^ rs €xa0ta, 
olog yccQ ^std zotCi ysQaitsQog^ €vxo(iac alvai' 
ot S' aXXoi g)Mr7}rL vedxegoi avSgsg^ eitovxaiy 
Tcdvtsg 6(ifiXcxLri^ ^syad'V[iov Trjle^dxoLO. 
§i/d'a'^ X6 Xslainfjv xoiXt]^ nagcc vril yLBkaCvy ^( 

vvv'^ dtctQ TJad'Bv liBtd Kavxmvag"^ [isyad'vfiovg 
bI^\ ivd'a XQBtog^ (loc dtpaXkBtaty ov n vaov yB 
ovS* dUyov oi) Sh tovrovj btcbI zbov lxbto^ Sixl(iaj 
^Buiffov^ 0VV SbfpQp ts xal vIbV' Sog Sb ot Z^novg^ 
0% tot iXaq)Q6xaroi^ %'sIbiv xal xdgtog &qv6toc.'^'^ 35 

(Sg aga qxDvrjoa^^ dni^ri yXavxiSmg ^AdTJvtj 
qyijvy bISoiibvti'^ d'diifiog^ d' bXb ndvxag idovxag. 



356. ngoaij^sim, 357. fiJ^oi%sv. 361. fsinto fs%aata, 369. foi. 

372. JrBiSoiiBvri, 

358. Trjlifjkaxs Bek. annot. 364. ofirjliyiirj Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox., ofirjXixirj 

Ilarl. Wolf, et recentt. 367. Arist. XQSimg, Scholl. H. M. pro ov xt v. y. 

Strabo VIII. 526 ^Ulidt d^rj, 368. Zenod. insl ta aa yovva^' t%dv£i, Scholl. 

H. Q. V. 372. 'Axcciovg pro idovxag Scholl. H. E. M. Q. e W. 815. 



357. BV X. T. A., we miss the usual 
courteous phrase of approval xotvtd ys 
ndvxcc . . . licixa. (iolqccv hmocg ; nor 
does the curt ev k'cprjad'a elsewhere 
occur. It is worthwhile to contrast the 
businesslike terseness of Mentor here 
with the genial loquacity of Nestor in 
the preceding 346—55. — yi^. q)lXs is 
the style of Achillejs to Priam (mar.). 

366. Kavx.f Cauconians appear in 
H. ab allies of the Trojans, in Dolours 
enumeration to Diomedes, grouped with 
the Leleges and Pelasgi; and again in 
a later battle as in an extreme rear- 
ward or flank position (mar.). With 
the former cf. Herod. I. 146, where 
Rawlinson says: ''The Caucous are 
reckoned by Strabo among the earliest 
inhabitants of Greece and associated 
with the Pelasgi, Leleges, and Dryo- 
pes;- like their kindred tribes, they 
were very widely spread. Their chief 
settlements, however, appear to have 
been on the north coast of Asia Minor 
. . . and on the west coast of the Pelopon- 



nese in Messenia, Ells, and Triphylia. 

From the Peloponnese the race 

had entirely disappeared when Strabo 
wrote, but had left their name to the 
river Caucon, a small stream in the 
N. W. corner of the peninsula (Strabo 
VIII. p. 496—7)"; cf. also Herod. 
IV. 148. 

3^7* XQ^^^^^ ^^' thinks that the 
debt may have been conceived as one 
of compensation for plunder, but this 
would need to be backed by force, for 
which a single small ship and crew 
was inadequate. Such commercial traf- 
fic as we have a glimpse of in «. 184 
might more probably lead to a debt. 
Aristarch. read XQB^ODg against authority 
and probability, as far as we know. 
OipeXXerai. Buttm. Irreg. Verbs s, v, 
regards ocpslXa as the only true epic 
present; and Bekk. follows him by 
altering the received ocpsUsx^ o<pstXov, 
A, 686— -8, to 6(piXl, 

372 — 3. ^fJ^viSf said by Billerbeck 
ap. Crusius to be the osprey — an 



DAY III.] 



OATSSEIAS r. 373—384. 



9^ 



75 "fo q)Uogj oij (SE ioXna xaxov^ xal avccXkiv^ iaBOd-aCy^ 

si Stj tOL VSp ^Ss d'Bol TtOfJLTtiJBg^ BTCOVtai. 

ov firiv yttQugod' aXlog 'OXviiTCva^ ddfiat* ixovxcuv^ 
akltt Jibg %'vydrriq. xvbv6xri TgvtoyivBLcc^^ 
rj tot xal Ttatig tcd'ibv iv *AQyBCoi6LV iri^a.'^ 
iodUd^ ai/a<y<?'^'" Urjd'v, diSod'L 8b hoi xXiog'' iad'lov, 
al5rc5*» xal 7tcii8B00L xal dt^oiv^ jcixQaxoiti,' 
6ol^ d' av iyto Qsico ^ovv i^vlv^ BVQV^itcjJtov^ 
*ad/Ltifri?i/,° 7Jv ov 7C(D vjto t^vybv ^yayBV dvTJQ- 
tfjv xoi iya p^io, XQvdov xigMiv icBQL%BvagJ^ ^ 



a /?. 155. 
b K. 275. 
c cf. S. 302. 
d w. 330, 0.215, a. 
Ie3,^.218,i2.286. 
^-flr.-i»l. 
f A. 120. 
gr cf. /^. 270. 
h y. 325 roar, 
i V. 79, xl). Itf7. 
k J, 515. 
1 iC. 246 ;cf. IT. 237. 
m t 175, e. 450^ 

^.184; cf. y.43, 

n. 233. 
n a. 95, J. 415. 
cf. y. 208-9. 
p y. 451 , *. 479. 
q K. 292-4. 
r Z. 94, 275, 309. 
s Jl. 289, u. 262, 

355, r. 495. 
t cf. a. 1—2, 299 

— 300, I. 124. 
u H^. 266, 655. 
V y. 437, 426. 



373. H9bv, 374. finoq, 375. HfoXnu, 380. fdvaec'. 

375. ov ti a' Schol. 378. Zenod. 'nvdf^ctrjy Scholl. H. M. ita Wolf, et recentt., 
ay sXsiri Barnes. Erri. CI. ed. Ox. 380. pro TItj^i, Zenod. iXiaigs , Scholl. H. M, 



instance of the preference of H. for 
specific over generic terms noticed App. 
A. 13. To the view of dvonaCa (a. 
320) there taken add the conjecture, 
that avonaicc might he a noun de- 
scribing the bird as roosting etc. 
dva to onaiov, on the smoke -vent; 
duch a bird is the swallow, found as 
Pallas* eidolon in %. 240. B-dfA^* and 
B-avfA. are radically identical, |3 being 
= v, and v/tt = (i^ by metath. The 
root is Xtt€p, or zujp, strengthened with 
/ir and aspirated; cf. rdtpog xB%"rina, 
iifovrac cannot take the / here. — 
oxfoq iif€V, with this use of ojcag 
as = when, cfj^M. 208 i^giyrjcav onoDg 
tSov atoXov otpiv %. X, X, 

374—5. £;ro$ T* e<fax\ ex x. t. I. 
This phrase occurs more than 40 times 
in II. and Ody., often without any name 
following, or even word of address, 
like m epilog here, as ovofia^s (cf. S. 278) 
would seem to require. The speeches 
introduced by it mostly begin a con- 
versation, or a third speaker by it 
strikes into one. Such addresses have 
a tone of ejaculatory abruptness, as 
if prompted by some demonstrative emo- 
tion — joy, sorrow, sympathy, scorn, 
antipathy — or sudden thought striking 
the speaker. Thus it is often intro- 
duced by grasping the hand, as here. 
For some of the more remarkable ex- 



amples of its use see man With tpilog 
voc. cf. a. 301. 

378 — 80. See on ivugyrig 420 inf. 
TQiToyiv*, see App. C. 5. — avaiS6\ 
cf. Hor. Cairn, HI. 11 1. 2, regina . . . 
Calliope. So ava^ , of a god (mar.). — 
dL6isiS'i9 vepr rare; commonly ^^^0 v. 

383 — 83. iqvlv evQVfi* ddfiii., the 
second epithet is peculiar to oxen. 
ddfiiiiTTlv is paraphrased by the foil. 
^v ov na> X. t. X. as often in H., see 
on a, I. TtoXvxQonov. Obs. also the 
repetition of the statement of 382, ^«J(a 
jJovv in 384, xriv ... ^aloo, with which 
cf. |5. 118 — 31, nccXaiojv tdi(ov at nccQog 
7J60CV ... rdcav ov xig x. t. X., and S. 
125 — 33, ^vXa d' dgyvQSOv xaXagov 
tpigs ... tov gd o[ dfitpinoXog 0vXio 
X. r. X, In all these the main state- 
ment is emphatically re -asserted after 
subordinate circumstances have been 
added, tivlv, before a vowel, is an in- 
stance of the power of a liquid in 
doubling itself to the ear, seen in iiifi- 
fieXirjg y. 400, svyv-qzog tj. 97, and 
more remarkably in ivl fifisydcgoiaiv 
Harl. §. 94. These instances are all in 
arsis, and so is the well known Virgilian 
example ^n. III. 91, Limina que lau- 
rusque (as if que ll)\ comp. , however, 
in thesis ^Xoovgcanlg icxs(pccv(OT0 ^ A, 
36; also CO. 452, A. 343, where 
7tg6aa\(o yial un\L6Ca ends the line. 



9^ 



OATSSEIAS r. 394-413. 



[day IV, 



a y. 68 mar. 
b /. 42S, •. 381. 
c ff. 145. 
d /?. 340; cf. (. 196 

-211. 
e a. 139 mar., k. 

152. 
f a. 334 mar 
gr|. 331, ^.288. 
h y. 342 mar. 
i a. 424 mar. 
k /. 352. 
1 1}. 345. 
m a. 440 mar. 
n App,F.2(8)mar. 
o ^. 165, F. 69. 
p y. 454, 482, x 

224, |. 22, V. 185; 

cf. (T. 156. 
q K- 62-3. 
r y. 354. 
8 App. F. 2 (34) 

mar. 
tr. 411. 
u /}. 2 mar. 
V *. 6; cf. ;t.408, 

X. 211, 253. 



Sg i<pat' e^xdfisvogj iov d' ixXvs IlaXlccg 'Ad^vt}. 38 
tot0(v d' iJy£ftoi/«i;a r€Q7Jviog iTtTtota Ns6t(X)Qj^ 
vtd6i Hal yaiiPQOt(SLV , id XQog Scifiata xaXdl 
alV ots Scificcd'* txovto dyaxlvtcc^ toto avaxTog, 
B^eifig^ €^ovio xata xlctinovg ta d'QSvovg tSj 
totg S* 6 yigoov iX9'ov0cv dyd XQijt'^Qa kiga66Bv 39 

otvov T^SvTtotoio ^^ xov BvdBxdtip iviccvTp 
(otiiv ta(iiri^ xal cctco XQTfdsfivov^ iXv0£V' 
iov 6 yeQcov xQijt^Qcc xeQd00ato, TCoXXct S' *A9^vy 
Bv%Bx &7Co6jcivSGiv ^^ xovQf] dtog atyioydiO, 
avtotQ^ ixel dket^iuv r' ll%iov %'* O0ov ^d'sXs 9viiog, 
oP fihv xdxxsiovTsg ij^av oixovSb Bxdcftogj 
xbv S' avtov xoL^ij&B rBQrjvtog iTCTtotu NiHttOQ^ 
TriXiybaji^ov ipiXov vtov^ 'OSv66'^og d'sioto^ 
^tgritoig^ iv XaxiaaCiv^ vx*^ al^o'66ri ^qiJSovx^' 
TtccQ S^ &Q* ivfifiBXiriv^ IlBiaiavQatovoQxdiiov^ dvdQ<Sv, 40 
Sg of it* i^L&'Bog^ naiScav rjv iv ^BydgoiiSivS 
ccvTog S* ccvtsxtt^BvSB [ivxdi^ dofiov vtprjXoto^ 
Tc5 d' aXoxog Si0xoivd, Uxfig 3ropcrvv«* xal bvvtjv. 

^fiog d' iqQLVBVHa (pdvri ^oSoSdxtvXog ^H(ag^ 
Sqvvv'^ aQ^ b1^ Bvv7J<pL rBQTJvLog [TtTCota NiaroQ' 40 
ix d' iXd'cov xax* ap' b%bx* bkI ^B0xot0c X£d'0L6tVy^ 



39 



387. J-Ba, 388. J-ttvcc%Tog. 391. J-oivov J-rjovnozoio. 
J^i%aaxoq, 401. /ot. 



396. foLKovds 



394. inionivdciv Bek. annot. 400. SI ot svfisUfiv, avdga id. 



-iii-l 



_!:^ 



385 — 94. The conversation on the 
sea -shore here closes and the scene 
is shifted to the palace of Nestor. 

386—9. regijviog, see on y. 68. 
xXiiSfjt, ••• ^Qov.i see on a. 131— 2. 

391—2. For Nestor's appreciation of 
wine cf. A* 629 foil., for Homer's fre- 
quent commendation of it cf. Hor. Ep. 
I. XIX. 6. Laudibus arguitur vini vinosus 
Homerus. XQii6»s not the stopper {nm- 
fitt, p. 353), hut a fillet round the neck 
of the jar, probably securing the stopper. 
On the various senses of xpif^. see on 
^' 334' ^^ *be paraphrase of m^BV 
by the following phrase, see on 382 — 3 
(atfftijrijv) and on a, 1. 

396. ohcovde, the married sons of 
Nestor are said to come next morning 
in ^aXdfimVy 413 inf. Probably ol%ov 
is here in a general sense, '' abode '\ 
So it is used of Penelope's abode, the 



vfCBgmovy a. 356; see App. F. 2 (31) 
(32). It might thus include ^uXctfiov 
for inmates of the palace. 

399. aiS'Ovifxiy see App. F. 2 (8) (9). 

400. ivfifjt*y an epithet applied to 
Priam, Euphorbus, and others (mar.); 
here it, as also Sqx^ dv^Q*, seems 
applied to a young prince merely as 
such, so to Polites (mar.); Eumaaus 
and Philsetius are called Sqx. ivdg. aa 
set over others. 

402. fivx^s see App. F. 2 (34). 

403 — 4. xoqO., this word with Xs- 
Xos following is used always of the 
wife who shares the bed. The form 
noQisaivai is found Hy. Ceres 156, and 
the Cod. Yen. reads nogaccviovacc from 
it in r, 411. f^o6o6dxt., see on (i, i. 
The fourth day of the poem^s action 
here begins. 

406. %BCt» Xl^., these appear to 



DAY IV.] 



0ATS2EIA2 V. 407—425. 



93 



oZ of iaav TCQOJcaQOcd'e dijQdGiv^ vtjnjldcDVj 

Xavxol dTCoatiXpovtsg'ciXsi^tttog'^ olg Im nlv tcqIv 

Nrikavg l^a^xBv^^ ^eoapiv'^^^OtCDQ axdXavxog' 

iQ dlV (ihv ^Sfi KtiqL SafiBlg ''/iVdogSs fiefi'^xsLV'^ 
Ni^tfOQ av tot' iq)t^€ PeQijvcogj odffOg^ ^A%aL^v^ 
(Sx'^TttQOv^ i%G}v. tcsqI d' vleg dokXieg^ iqysQed'ovto 
ix d'dXdjicDv ild'ovtsgy 'JEj^eypcoi/^ ts HtQatCog re 
Il€Q0€vg x* "AQTitog^ ts xal &vt^£og &Qa0vii7JS'qg'^ 

i^rot6v d' InsiQ'' Sxtog nai(Sl0tQaxog ^lyd'ey '^gag- 
TCttQ d* aga Trili(iLa%Qv ^sosCxekov siiSav^ ayovxag. 
roV6t dh (AV&'Giv ^qx^ ragrfvLog [jtTtoxa NiaxcjQ* 

^^ xagicalifiog (loi^y xixva tplXa^ XQriijvax' i^XSouQ/^ 
oq)Q* ij xoL nQcixi0xa ^atSv ttaWo/x'" ^/i&TJvriv, 

20^ fiOL ivuQyrjg^ fjXd^a &aov ig datxav d-dXacav. 

dW ay o [ilv xaSCovS^ inl'^ fiovv txcoy o<pQcc xdxi6xa 
IXd'tj^LVj Hdcji Sh fioiSv inifiovxdkog^ dvtJQ- 
alg d' inl Trjkaiidxov ^ayadv(iov v^a iiiXaivav 
ndvxag iav axdQOvg dyixco, kcnaxto Sh dv'* oHovg' 

25 alg d' av xQ'^^oxoov Aaagxaa SavQO xai,i6%'(o 



a a. 32, t. 304, u. 

107, ft. 344. 
b cf W. 170. 
c SI. 472. 
d y. 110, H. 360 
e t. 11, r. 291, 

i. 362 
f 0. 80, A. S40 

O. 370, «59. 
g B. 101, 279, S 

657. 
h y. 427, Z. 228. 

V. 233, y. 165. 
i cf. d. Ill, V 332 
j P. 494, 527, 535: 

cf. «. 64, 66. 
fc J. «1, X. 255, 

jP. 705. 
I a. 130, A. 311, 

J. 392, W 6%, 

9. 471—2. 
in 0. 242, cp. 200, 

Vf. 54, ^.41,466, 

604, ^ 24i. 
n A. 444. 
17. 20t, n. Kil, 

r. 131, <r. 841. 
p *. 76, 99. H. 

475. 
q e. 149, u. 439. 
I- w. 235, y. 26S, 

285, 292; cf. r. 

222, |. 102. 
s fi. 154; cf. i2. 

473. 



407. /ot. 410. 'AfMgSs. 416. ^soJ^bUbXov. 

411. Ig^ttc Wolf, et recentt., ^qptfc Barnes. £rn. CI. ed. Ox. Low. 416. 417. Inter 

hos versus in marg. Heidelb. insertus legitnr avTag inst ^' rjyBg&sv ofiriysghg 

%' iykvovto. 42 r. akXd y* Em. CI. ed. Ox. oXX' uy' Barnes et recentt. 



have been fixed thrones for the king 
and persons of distinction on occasions 
of state, here of sacrificial solemnity. 
Nestor here seats Telem. by his side 
(416 inf.)^ as Alcinoiis does Odys. in 
h, 6 — 7: ** smoothed stones" are the 
material of palace walls; here an or- 
namental polish is further given by 
iXntpaq y of the nature of stucco. The 
word also means unguent. In a fragm. 
Sophocl. tfXotfia occurs, explained by 
Hesych. as xgicy^a xoixcDv. Seats of 
smoothed stones occur also in the ctyog^f 
see on §, 14—6, and App. F. 2 (4) (6) 
and note. The gen. dXsitpatog arises 
from the ''action being regarded as 
springing into lifo from the materials 
of which it was composed". Jelf Gr, 
(^' § 540 0^8. 

409—11. NriXeiygi for his birth and 
posterity see X. 235 foil., 281 foil, ov- 
ifoq 'Ax* 9 &n epithet distinctive of 
Nestor, see mar. 

412. dokXia^, see on 165. 



419 — 20. IkdcCOfi, obs. elision of 
-at, frequent in mid. voice, whether 
pres. i"^ pers. as here, or pres.infin. as in 
cr. 270, 287. — ivaqyiig, "recognizable", 
t. e, by the mode of her departure ; so 
a. 323 Telem. concludes that it is a 
deity, though he does not seem to know 
which (^. 262). Nestor^B divining that 
it was Athens is doubtless meant to 
exemplify his sagacity. He may have 
perhaps concluded from her known 
partiality to Odys. her attendance on 
his son. 

422. IkS'XiOiV, ikdiSiii, a form of 
prothusteron arising from the end oc- 
curring to the speaker first and the 
means afterwards, ^owv 6;rc/$«^ cf. 
alnoXi atyavt atitoXog aly&Vj avav 
avfiocBia. With ini^ovv,6Xog cf. ini- 
fiatroDQ V, 222; and obs. that ^ovuoXita 
the verb is used in a borrowed sense 
of horses in T. 221 (Ni.). On dvrig 
see on 267 sup, ^ 

425. XQ^^oxoov* No actual fusion 



94 



0AT2SEIA2 T. 426—440. 



[day IV. 



a y. 384, 437; of. 

J. Ill 
b y. 412 mar. 
c /?. 322 mar. 
d y. 7, 31. 
e 0. 467, «. 455, 

n. 28, T. 278, 

«i. 203, V, 184. 
f I. 140, B. 307, 

<t>. 345. 
gr V. 149, A. 600. 

0. 219, ^. 156. 
h ^. 187, O. 309. 
i AT. 79, H. 502, 

ff'. 350, i". 501, 

H. 402, /u. 51. 
k :S 476-Tr — ^ 
1 A. 194. 
m a. 25. 
n y. 384, 426. 
a. 439 mar. 
274 mar. 

7, <r. 



p y 

q a. 136 
62—3. 



r V. 885, B. 4G7. 



ild'stVy o(pQa §odg xqvCov^ xigaOLV TtSQcxevy. 
of d' ofAAot [iBVBz^ avtov aokXiag^^ sUTtats d' f^iTo 
S(icof}6tv xttta ddyiccr dyaxkvta Satra^ nivacd'ai^ 
ISgag^ re %vka r' aiitpiy^ xal aykabv^ oloi^iBV vScoqJ' 
(Sg i'(pccd'% o'i d' iiga Tcavxag inoijcvr^ov'^ ^Xd'S [ihv 4^ 

Sq povg 
ix Ttediovy '^kd'ov Sh d'oijg Ttagcc vrjog it^fjg 
TrjXsiidxov sxaQOi iisyaXrjtOQog , '^Id'S 8h ;|^aAxai)ff,** 
onk' iv x€Q0lv Ix^'^ x^^M^^t ^^^Qccrcc'^ tBxvrjg^ 
ax[iovd^ xs atpvQav r' evnoCritov te nvQay^riv, 
oleCv ts xQ'^^ov siQyd^sto* ^Xd'€ d' ^^dTJvrj^^ 
[q(Sv dvuocoaa*^^ yigav 8' [jtTtrjkdta Nd<St(OQ 
XQVtfov iSa'x ' o d' iitBira ^oog xsQd&ivJ^ nsQtx^vsv 
'&6xiJ6iKg/ IV' ayaX^a^ d'sd xsxdQOLto iSbv6a, 
§ovv d' dyarrjv ksQdcDV UtQatiog xal 8 tog 'Ex^ipQcov. 
X^QVL^a^ 8d 6(p* ^'j^Qrjrog iv av9ayi,6avxt^ ia^rin 



4- 



427. J^B^naxs, dolXsss prflecedente per synizesim lectA. 431. if^crjg. 
435. J-SLQycc^szo. 438. fiSovGcc. 

436. dvzTJaovca AthensBUS. 



of the gold follows; it is merely ham- 
mered thin and made a leaf- wrapper 
for the horns. Yet we read of xof>ivot 
in Z. 470, showing an acquaintance 
with fusion of metals. In q, 383 — 5, 
''^' ^3Si '^^ have the craftsmen and 
professionals enumerated , the prophet, 
surgeon, carpenter or builder, minstrel, 
and herald, to which the XQvaoX' and 
the x^iltisvg, often, as here, one person 
(432), should be added; and from the 
11. the tanner (P. 389 foil.), potter {2. 
600 foil.), and currier (H. 220). The 
tititciv includes ship-building, and one 
mentioned in E, 62 foil, was a person 
evidently of importance. A smithy 
existed in the town of Ithaca (<r. 328), 
and the connexion in which it is men- 
tioned suggests the notion that it was 
an office of the palace. The designa- 
tion SrjiiiosQyol denotes working not for 
themselves only but for all. They were 
doubtless of the free people — the 
Sfjfiog who shared the land and are 
called by the same name as it (see on a. 
103) — not reckoned noble, yet invited 
to the king's table (p. 382 — 6) in re- 
cognition of their public usefulness 
cf. Si^^iia •JiCvitv P. 250. The name 



AaiQ%rig is probably based on 6 iac5 
inccQTimv, and nearly = tfrjinos^yog 
(Eustath.). 

429 — 30. a/Kpl is in tmesis with 
nivsa&ocL. — tnoinvvovy sometimes v 
(mar.). Buttm. Lexil. (93) says it is 
from nvi(o invvto with reduplication, 
as noitpvaam from tpvcdm. The diphth. 
ot may be observed as much used in 
forming words of sound, tplolefog 
(oCpdog, and the like. It is not quite 
certain that noiTC-j a mere word of 
sound, like our "puff", is not the 
whole root of this and of noiqJViSCio. 

433—4. ;t€/^«ra, "sum total = whole 
resources", arising from the notion of 
a "limit or bound". The simple sense 
of a "rope" is probably the primary 
one, as seen in noXifioio nfigaQ in- 
cclkd^ocvtsg in' dficpotigotai rdvva- 
auv (mar.); cf. our word "line" {XC- 
vov) for boundary. {f<pvQav, smaller, 
probably, than the QOCi^JtJJQ (mar., cf. 
-ffisch. Prom, 56). 

435— 40' 'AS"jiv7i, u e invisibly: the 
condition of local nearness is required 
by H. for the conception of a present 
deity. dvziOioOa , see on a. 25 and 
App. £. 4 (2) note, xeqdoiv, gen. of 



DAY IV.] 



0AT2SEU2 r. 44I-4S3. 



95 



iv icixvep'^ nikaxw^ 8h lievBicToXBiiog^ ®^a0vn7J8rjg 



otw^ 



\5 ^Z«>v^/J« 



€vx£t' dnccQXoi^^vogj^ x€q)ak'^g r^%K^ ^^ 5^?^ pikk^v. 
avzoLQ^ iitaC ^* Iv^avro xal ovkoxvtag TtQOj^dkovto , - 
avxcxa Nearooog vCog VTtSQd'vpog (^^aCvfiTJdrjg^ 
^Xa&iv ayx^ dxagxTtiisxvg d' htiitoiija tivoviag^ 
\o av%svl6vg^ kv6sv Sh fioog ^aifog' al' *' okokv^av^ 
d'vyatSQsg^^ ravvoi xa xal^atSoirj ^ka^akoiXLg 
NioxoQog^ EvQvSC%ri.nQa0fid^ Kkviiivoio d'vyaxQoiv. 
ot iiav anaix avakovxag uico x^^^^^^ avQvooaCrig 



a cf. y. 415, A. 

449. 
b <r. 761. 
c ». 231, t. 573, 

io. 120, O. 711, 

N. 612, if. 851. 
d K. 255. 
e P. 620. 
f cf. r. 270-4. 
« Si. 304. 

y. .^40, <r. 761, 

^. 422, 428, ». 

263; cf. $. 424, 

T. 254. 
i |. 42S, <p. 263; 

cf. r 25I 

k A. 45S. 

I cf. JT. 6S7. 

ra (f. 767, y. 408, 

411, Z. Sol 
n n. 166. 
o E. 721, e. 383. 
p n. 635. 



44.V X^^9^ Arist., Schol. H. 444. atfiviov Apollod. et al. , idcfiviov Zenod. 

Nicander et al., Scholl. H. M. Q. K. 453. ocviffxovtsg (contra metrum) Arist., 

Schol. H., iinde Porson. &vi%ovxBq, 



part held ; so Xafil yovvmv A. 407. Xi- 
^Tfitiy see on a. 137. 

441. hrkqifXi i.e, xsiglj probably the 
left. ovXug, see App. A. 3 (2). 

442. jtiXaxvv, used mostly as a 
woodman's or carpenter's tool, also 
associated with a^ivri as a weapon; 
its stock, TriAsxxog, is once of olive 
(mar.). In the bow -contest of the 
suitors in 9. the *^ axes'' have rings 
at the ends of the handles, perhaps 
to hang them up by. From the men- 
tion of i^/itTEsXfxxtt, it is probable that 
the tcbX, had a double head, like the 
Lat. hipennis. 

444. a/eWov, probably a sacrificial 
word of uncertain derivation, perhaps 
from alyi»a as catching the blood; and 
a Schol. adds that the Cretans pro- 
nounced it atfiv^ov. Others interpret 
it of the sacrificial knife , and suppose 
that Sctfiviov connected with iafiam is 
the proper form of it — an unlikely 
meaning, since Pisistr. in 454 uses 
the knife, and it is unlikely that an- 
other should previously have care of it. 

445. This may be exhibited by re- 
solution into rjQXBTO (ritualistic word), 
'*took religiously first", Hccta xigvi^a 
X. r. X. , xara directing action to ob- 
ject (Bnttm. Lexil, 29); see on 340 
ixtt^^dpL. Jelf, Gr, Gr. § 516 obs., 
gives an explanation based on a mis- 
conception of KUfqifX^^^* "" X^^^*i^« 



here the water, means also the vessel 
used. It was poured by an attendant, 
here Aretus (440 sup.); see P. 270, 
•ft- 303-74. 

446. ajtaqx^f"> ^^^ oil 340} para- 
phrased here by the sequel Key. rp^- 
Xo^ iv n, §., as in 383, 393 sup,, see 
on DC, I. 

447. The rest follow the example of 
Nestor, who officiates as if in priestly 
character {A. 451), all washing (|J. 261) 
and flinging meal before praying. The 
ovlal of 441 become ovloxvzai when 
flung; see App. A. 3 (2). Ni. dwells on 
this and similar features of ritual as 
showing that H, knows of no priesthood 
save as attached to a temple, and that 
all might sacrificially approach the 
deity for themselves. 

450. 6x6k*, the oloXvyrj was the 
cry of women for joy, used sacrificially 
(as here, perhaps to drown the vic- 
tim's groan), or otherwise (mar.). So 
we find aXalccito, and Lat. ululo which, 
however, is a cry of wail, or the howl 
of an animal, formed like this from 
the mere sound. 

453 • dveXovTSg* The victim had 
been felled, the elder brothers (oV fisv, 
opposed to Pisistr. who used the knife) 
raised it bodily from the ground. In 
Chryses' sacrifice, A. 459 foil., which 
compare with this, we find ccv ^gvcav^ 
resufnnaverunt y being probably a less 



86 



a 0. 25, ;=:. 154, 

226, r. 114. 
h 0. 325, 9. 221. 
c V 279, o. 209. 
d «. 40, 405, I. 105. 
e cf. «. 415-6. 
f «. 482, 53U, X. 

127. 
g: y. 291 mar. 
h y. 312, d. 81, 90, 

125-32. 
i a. 183. 
k y. 194. 
1 «. 454, Jl. 621, 

r. 183; cf. «. 

426 mar. 
m e. 278-9, u. 447, 

^ 249-52. 
o //. 180, A. 46. 
o 0. 39, /«. 118. 
p or. 40. 
»j a. 299 — 300, y. 

197 — S. 
T y. GO, (J. 3, 1;. 

SO, IF. 201. 



OATSSEIAS r. 295-309/ 



[day ni. 



fWa A^oirog ^iya xvfia tcozI diiavov qCov^ dd'sty 
ig 0ac6t6v^ HLKQog dh Xid'og (iBycc xv(i' anoigysiy 

avSQeg^ dtaQ v^dg ya tcozI 07CiXdSB00LV^ Sai,av^ 
xviiat'* dtuQ rd^ itivrs viag xvav6jtQ(OQacovg^ 
Alyvitrc} i%iXaci6d^ (psQtov avaiiog xa xal vScdq, 
(Sg o ^hv ivd'a nbXvv fiiiitdv xal XQ'^<^ov ayaiQG)v^ 
ijAairo ^v vriv6l xat dXXo^QOOvg dvd'QcdTtovg*^ 
t6g)Qd'Sa tavt^ jdtvcad'og I^i/j6axo^ oUxod't Xvy^d, 
xtatvag ^j^TQaiSijv ^SiSiiTjro^ da Xaog vii^'^avrai. 
iTCzdazag^^ S\ijva00a tcoXvxqv^olo Mvxijvrig'^ 
z(p Si of dySodzG) xaxov^ ijlvd'a dtog ^OQB0ri]g\' 
ajp d%^ 'Ad'TjvdiDv ^ xazd d' axzdva TtazQOtpov^a ^^ 
Atyi0^ov Solo^Yiziv^ og of TcazaQcc xXvzov Ixza, 
rj zoi o xov xzaCvag Sdcvv^ zdtpov ^AQyaCoi6iv 



296. ccnOiFi^yBi. 298. ^fa^av, 303. foUo^i, 305. imdj^stsg $' ij^dvccaas, 
p.- K; , :vt« 306. fo$. 308. o /ot. ^ ., 

296. pro fiiTiQog Zenod. MaXsoVy Sclioll. E. M. Q. V. 297. ot fisv Harl. ex 
emend. 302. Barnes. CI. ed. Ox. vrivalv in' fortasse ex a. 183, Harl. %at\ 

303. 304 a quibusdam abesse monet Schol. H. pro oC%o9l idem Ttrifiara. 304. 
Arist d^dfiTivto, Scholl. H. M. Q. R. 306. tc5 d' Sg' dvmatov Aj)oIlon. So- 
pbista ex ^. 39. 307. pro an* 'A9'rivd(ov Zenod. et Eustath. dno ^wxijov, Arist. 
cin' 'A^rivairiq y coU. iq, 80, an* "Ad'T^vaimv Schol. H. 309—10 deerant in 

nol^lulli8 vett. exemplaribns , Scholl. M. Q. R. T. ; 
jaci-^^Liij-i-. /-'fC-i: ',.'■.'' ... ^•.■^ tj ■ 

295. i^iov in II. (mar.) means always 
"peak" (of Olympus). 

296. For fiiXQOq • • kiS-og 4 Scholl. 
give a reading Muliov .. U^og\ the 
xvfia is the roll of the Mediterranean 
from the west. 

297. ajtOVi$Xif Y^^^ great effort =: 
" scarcely " ; cf . aoyig and (loyion, 

298 — 300. ta%av Tcvfiax', a neut. 
plur. with plur. verb, is common in H.: 
Jelf, Gr, Gr. § 385. obs. 2, says, this 
is "often merely for the metre"; here 
and at G, 137, no such reason could 
apply. xvavO7tQi0Q», cf. the other 
epith. for the prows of ships, ftiXto- 
nocQi^ogy t. 125; this however is far 
more common; for its probable mean- 
ing see App. F. 1(19). Aiyvjtxfi^ x. t. X. 
cf. Eurip. Bel. 682, id iniXota' Ai- 
yvntiOy and 671 insXocas Ns^Xco, 

304. 6i6fji7ixo, from ^aficco), see on 
a. 426. The attempt of iRgisth. had, 
like the suitorship of Penel., a poli- 
tical element in it; marriage with the 
wife of the absent being the direct 



step to the occupancy of his throne; 
see App.E. 5, and preliminary note to f, 

305 — 6. For Homer^s formula of fixing 
a number and then adding one to make 
it complementary (mar.) see on fi. 374. 
Holy Scripture exhibits something si- 
milar, e. g. Prov. XXX. 15. 

306 — 8. Orestes was sent from home 
a boy, to return grown up. The exile 
of Or. was with his uncle Strophins in 
Phocis, according to the legend fol- 
lowed by the dramatists. H. seems to 
speak only of Athens (Zenod. however 
read ano ^coxi^ooi' 307), whither the 
^schylean form of the legend sends 
him to expiate his guilt. The shade 
of Agam. \X. 458 — 60) enquires where 
he is, at Orchomenus, Pylus, or 
Sparta? as though assured that he was 
not at Mycense. Of course the date of 
that enquiry was previous to the re- 
turn of Orestes, since ^gisthus ruled 
for 7 years after the fall of Troy. 

309. 6alvv xd<fOv, cf. daCwvxo 
darra, dahvvtu ydfiov (mar.). 



DAY III.] 



0AT22EIA2 T. 310-321. 



87 



TtoXXd^ Kvijl^ai^ aycov^ 06a oC vieg afwg aslouv^ 
xal** 6v. (pikog. uw hin^a douaiv &7to iriX' aXccXri^oJ 
xtr)uata ta jt&OMJtiov avooccg t ev 6ot6i ooiiouiiv 
^15 ovxa vjieQqplcclovg ^ (irj roc xccta nayta qjuym^iv 
XTTJfiata da&aafiBVoc^^ 6v Sh tnveirfv oSov ild'rjg. 
dXX* ig^ ft>lv MeviXaov iyd zeXofiai xal &vayya 
iXd'atv xatvog yag vioy alXop^av scXfjkov^^ 
ix rdSv ccvd'odTtfov od'sv ovx akTCOixo^ ye d^vaa 



;20 iXd'auav^ ov xiva nqmxov d7io6q)fjk(o6LV^ ccallac 
ig TtiXayog ^leya xotov^^ od'ev xd nag ovS^ otiXit 



wvol 



a I, 410, 424, 432. 
b F. 665. 
c y. .'^01 mar. 
d T. 386, fP.730. 
cf. (p. 18. 

o. 10—6. 
f /!?. 370. 
«:/?. 868. 
h |. 127. 

i V. 360, 

n. 26. 
k y. 275. 

1 E. 567. 
m a. 209 

135. 



^ 112, 



311. 312. J^oi, 319. OV S-iXnotro, 



315. pro rot alii d^. 



^Xl, 



310. ^eej^r^d^^ this is the only hint, if 
the line be genuine , that Orestes slew 
his mother. That it should be so is therx 
a mark of Homer's euphemistic reserve, 
as contrasted with the violent promi- 
nence which subsequent poetry gave 
that action. Arist. remarks (Scholl.) 
that her death may be inferred from 
it, but not necessarily by Orestes* hand. 
This shows that he accepted the line; 
and assuming it Homeric, the re- 
mark may find place here that the 
igipvsg were already established in 
mythology , especially in connexion 
with a mother's curse (p. 135, I. 571, 
<&. 412); but, Nagelsbach says, not 
yet having a distinct penal agency, 
and rather related to the Zeis ^octa- 
Xd'oviog &B (lo^Qoc is to Zsvg {Homer. 
Theol V. § 38). Yet the description 
of Erinys (sing.) as '^walking in dark- 
ness*' {ri^QOtpoixig) , hearing from Ere- 
bus imprecations on the guilty, and 
having an implacable (ayi,B£ii%ov) heart, 
is a formidable image, and, combined 
with cxvyBQttl^ as proper to an infernal 
power, carries with it the idea of 
vengeance as a special function. The 
doubtful epithet SaanXrixig (0. 234), 
whether 'Vehemently hasting*', as 
Nagelsbach {ihid, note) suggests, or 
** striking heavy blows" (Lid, and S.), 
furthers this idea. Thus Erinys instils 
uxr^ — the wrong which works retri- 
bution -^ into the mind (o. 234), and 
the Erinyes wait upon the elders of a 
family (O. 204) even among the gods, 



and watch with divine power over the 
helpless on earth [ntai%Siv y« %£ol xai 
^EqivvBg Uaiv q, 475). They also guard 
against transgressions of the physical 
or moral laws of the world, against' 
what ever seems a portentous or im- 
pious privilege ; thus stopping the pro- 
phetic voice of the horse Xanthus, and 
redressing the advantages lavished by 
fond goddesses on some pampered mai- 
dens (T. 418, V. 78). It is clear then that 
the elements of a crime against nature, 
and of these powers as its chastisers, 
existed in Homeric legend. The ^schy- 
leau Eumenides form their legitimate 
development, adding the notion of pur- 
suit, borrowed, perhaps, from the Ati] 
of I. 505 — 7. See Gladst. H. 302 foil. 

312. &BiQav, '^supported or floated 
under", a rare sense of asiQto, but 
following easily from that of "lifting"; 
see mar. for the closest examples. An- 
other sense, ** carrying oflf as spoil", 
occurs; with which compare the cattle 
"lifting" of the Scotch borderers. 

316. TT^Clfiv, with this word, from 
the proa, of the 3'* person, cf. avroagr 
"just so and no more" (see on 9. 665), 
and hence "merely", passing into the 
notion of "idly, in vain", a sense 
more fully developed in itcaaiog^ which 
is probably trivaiog slightly altered. 
Hence the Schol. gives ficcta£av to ex- 
plain xTjva. here. (Doed. § 260 — 1.]|^ 

320—1. ov Tiva, not merely = ov, 
but as the force of the subjunct. with 
oatig is to make the statement general , 



88 



OATSSEIAS r. 322-336. 



[day III. 



a L 384, E. 790, 

O. 640. 
b I. 173. 
c y. 37«, d. 362, 

V.71; cf. ^.666, 

y. 174, n, 671, 

6B1. 
d a, 285, /J. 214. 
e y, 19, 20. 
fa. 2J3 mar. 
8 A. 475, «. 225, 

1. 168, 558, X. 185. 
h S. 251, d. 7H3, 

>}. 227, T. 186. 
ly 3«)0,«.93,a.423. 
ky. 6.43, 51, 55,178. 
1 /J. 3oS, 1?. 138, 

u. 138. 
m t. 510. 
n X. 190, I. 57, r. 

26, V. 241. 
o ^. 76. : 
p I. 104, O. 124. 



avtosisg olxvBViSiv^^ ixsl [leya te ohvov ts, 
dlX* tSi vvv 0VV vijv ts 6fi Kul 6otg bxAqolOlv • ^ 
si d' id^skstg nstog, Jtccga tot a^Sjp^og rs xal titicoi^ 
jtctQ Se Toc vhg iaol^ oi tov TCOust^Bg^ ItSovtat 
ig^ AaxeSaiuovcc otav^ od'c ^ccvd'og MsviXaog. 
Uod€0d'ccc^ da fitv avrog^ f,va vfifisotsg ivCOTCy 
iffevdog d' ovx i^Qest' (iccXk yaQ TtBicvv^navog^ iatLvJ' 

(Sg Sg>ar • i^slvog^ d' ap' iSv, xal iytl xvBtpccg r^k^sv. 
rotCL Sh xal (israeiTtB d^aa ykavxtOTCig ^Ad'TJvi] 

"oj ys()Ov^ 7] toi tavxa xara^ (lotQav xataXal^ag' 
aXX* ay By rdiiVBTS [thv ylci(56ag XBQCca^d'B* dh olvov^ 
otpQa noaaiSccGivc^ xal alloLg dd'avdtoctfLv 
(SitaCoavxag xoCtoio^ ^adcifnad'a' rolo yccQ cSpij."* 
ijSj] yccQ (pdog ot%a%^^ vnb iotpov^^ ov8l ?olxbv 
drid-d d'BCDv iv dattl^ d'aa00a(iavv dkla vaaoQ'ai." 



3: 



32*. «VTo/€Tfff. 328. ov j^fp^et. 3S^. fiBzifsiTts, $32, J^OLvov, 335 /?J otxfv. 

325. fJTOVTOft, Schol. B. cf. 376. 327. ccvrov Bek. Dind., avtog Arist. , teste 

3cliol. H. quod recepit Fa. 331. pro tavta aMi ndvva ex T. 186. 335. al. 

igxsd'' Bek, annot Zenod. m%6&'\ Schol. H. ov yag k'oixev S<;hoL A. 475. 



(Jelf. Gr. Gr, § 828, 2), so here that 
general statement is a principle or cause 
to which the previous statement S^bv 

iX&ifisv is referred. — TteXayoq, 

see Appj B. fiiya zoZov, the relat, 
clause o&ev xi nSQ x. t. X, explains 
rotoi' "great so as that"; see on a. 209. 
In the fictitious tale in |. 257 they reach 
Egypt on the 5*** day from Crete with 
a North wind. There Odys., as a man 
of wide experience, speaks soberly. 
Nestor knowing probably nothing of the 
distance beyond hearsay, as story-tel- 
lers will, exaggerates hugely, oiayyol, 
"drawinghisidea from thosebirds which 
periodically migrate", Gladst. In jf. 3 
foil, we have a simile noticing the flight 
of cranes at winter's approach. (Ni.) 

325—6. TtOfix*, "your escort", the 
form nofinol also occurs (mar.). — Aa* 
XB6aifi*, previously Sparta has been 
named as the dwelling-place of Menel. 
(mar.); iu 8» i — 10 we find him at 
Laced, (the region), and fetching a wife 
for his son from Sparta (its chief city) ; 
see B. 581 — 2, note on 8. r, and App. 
D. 3. . 

327. XiOOeOS'aL depends on ^(Xo- 
(icti in 317 sup., and the dk is cor- 
respondent to filv there. 

332. yXciaoag. The tongue was re- 



served as a choice part, And tiered 
in the old Homeric cultus to the god 
specially worshipped, here Poseidon. 
This rite the Athenians retained, and 
Aristoph. Av, 171 1 says Ttavtaxov t^g 
'Atwarji ^ yXcoTra x^Q''S tept^vBTOu, so 
Pax 1060, when the thighs have been 
offered and the entrails tasted, the 
tongue is called for as in due course. 
In the Plutus of the same poet (1110) 
it is alluded to as if specially offered 
to Hermes, ij yX. xm %riqv%i tovttov 
rifiVBtceiy which was doubtless a con- 
version of the old rite to a special 
symbolism, when Hermes had become 
worshipped as the god of oratory, and 
public-speaking had become the ruling 
art of Athenian life. Of this H. knows 
nothing; nor can any such notion be 
based on the custom ascribed to the 
Phajacians, rj. 138, of pouring a li- 
bation to Hermes the last thing be- 
fore going to bed; although Athenseus 
(I. 14) would connect the two. For 
the Homeric functions of Hermes see 
App. C. 3. The word rtfivo), tdfiva, 
found so generally with the phrase, 
sho'7S that the tongue was cut out as 
a distinct act (x^gig) when the other 
parts had been dealt with. 
336. B-aaC.y Buttra. points out (Xe- 



DAT lU.] 



0ATS2EIAS r. 331-3Si' 



89 



ij ^a ^log d'vydtriQ^ tol d' ixkvov avdrjadarig.^ 
rot6c^ di XTJQVxsg (ilv vSoq^ iitl x^^Q^S i%Bvav^ 
KOVQOi Si XQrjtiJQag iite^tiipuvro Tcorolo^ 

\o^v(6(ifi6av^ 8' &Qa na6iv iTraQ^dfiEvoL^ SsTcds^aLV 
ylciaaag^ S* iv tcvqI /Ja'AAoi/,** dvi0rd(ievoL d' iTtiXsi^ov, 
avrap^ iitsl 07tst0dv t* ^Ttiov ©•' o6ov ijd'sXs d'Vfiog, 
di) rot* *Ad"rivairi xal Trjliiiaxog^ d'sosiS'iqg 
afitpG) [eodijv^ xoCXriv inl vija visG^'av, 

1^5 Ne6t{0Q d* ccv xccreQtJXS xad'anto^svog ijciaOfSiv' 

"Zevg to y* dXh%ri^BiB xaX d&dvavot d'sol alloL^^ 
wg vfLBtg naQ* iiieto 9'O'^v inl vija xCoitB 
Sg titevri TtccQct Ttd^itav avsi^iovog i^h TceviXQOV^ 
5? ov TL %Aar2/at" xal Qrjysa^ itokV ivl otxtp^ 

;o oyr' uvtip (lakaxtSg ovrs l^sCvoiiSiv svsvSblv. 
avxttQ ffiol TcdQCC ^Iv ;[Aari/atP xal ^yea xaXd. 
ov difjv^ Stj rovd^ dvdQog 'Odv(f0^og^ g)iXog viog 
vfjog ijt' ixQLOfpiv^ xataks^stac^ oq)Q &v iyci ya 
fcjo,^ iTtsLta Sa Ttatdeg ivl [laydgoLCi kiTtcovtac^^ 

)5 iavvovg'' ^aivi^aiv^ 0^ rtg*^ x* i[icc Sdnad'^ Ixritai?^ 



a d. 505, K. 47, 

n. 76. 

b a. 146 — 8 mar., 

y. 270-3, A. 

470-1,1.174-7- 
c r, 268—70. ^ 
d or. 425; cF. «p. 

141. 
e li. 218, (D. 393, 

400, H, 238, O. 

677. 
f y. 445, I. 422, 

428, (p. 263. 
e y. 332. 
fi y. 446, f 422. 
i y. 395, I/. 184, 

k a. 113, 

1 a. 6. 

m X. 366. 

n d. 60, 8. 229, x. 

542, $. 478, o. 

331; cf. p. 86, 

179, V. 24«. 
o I. 1S9, ir. 337; 

cf. d. 297-301. 
I» y. 349 mar. 
u e. 211, n. 21Cy, 

J 365, N. 813, 

*. 568. 
r y. 64. 
8 y. 74, u. 414, o. 

283, 552. 
t cf. A. 88. 
u £. 154, ^. 485. 
V 1^. 190. 
w &. 32, 1. 153, V. 

295, (p. 313. 



343. '8'fioJ^adifs. m; J^iiae^v, $4$, fsnhaaiv, 348. a/«t>ovos. 

349. foi%a}, 

349. AHst. ovw, Zenod. rwr£p, vulg. ovts; mox pro ^ijyscc Zenod. Tin^fiara, 
Schol. M. 351. Bek. fiijv, 353. pro ocpg* alii evx' Bek. annot. 



a?i7. 63) that the Attic &dcasiv (with 
cogn. noun d'&yios) is a contraction 
of this. The ^a- and -^o are probably 
eqaally radical, cf. dinXdoD and <¥t- 
nXom, thus we have ^oa^co, d'mtiogj 
^omHog, and '9'aa<T(rco, 'd'aoraoo, d'ccnog, 
340. This line, describing a ritualistic 
act, is not found in the parallel a, 146 
foil., which merely describes the meal 
of the suitors, whose impiety omitted 
recognition of the gods, vaifiij^av, 
here = circumferehant , is used of ply- 
ing, wielding, or turning a bow, pole, 
helm, etc. (mar.); but e7taq%. is a 
word of ritual, containing the notion 
of an dgxii , i. e, something religiously 
given or taken first. The simple verb 
is used of solid as this of liquid of- 
ferings, cf* ndvxtov ocQxofisvog fislsiovj 
|. 428, and similarly dndQXsad'cci of 
the victim^s hair, naTagx. of lustration 
and of the sacred barley (mar.). Buttm. 
Lexil. 29 (4), says the iitl adds the no- 



tion of relation to individuals. — ;t«- 
aiv, I. e, the guests. — ^eTtdeaaiv is 
dat. of instrument. 

344—9. liO^'Wy "were making a 
move to go", the literal sense, from 
which comes the notion of desire* — ;r€- 
viXQOv, for poverty as shown in regard 
to garments, cf. J. 5x3 — 4. -— ^X(«e- 
f^at is sometimes, as here, found joined 
with p?Jy£a, as bedding, oftener with 
Xitoivsgy as garments, the generic st- 
fiata TiaXd following (mar.). For the 
(pccQog see 466 — 7 note. The jU/Latvat 
alone were also used as seat -covers 
(mar.); see further on d, 297—9. 

352 — 3. ov S-fiV, found only in 
speeches , as is ^i^v affirmative, espe- 
cially ij d'TjVy xal 'fCCQ d"qv, etc., =3 '*I 
should rather think", expresses in- 
dignant irony or surprise (mar.); the 
same feeling of indignation is con- 
tinued in the tov 9' oivSgog ^OSvG. — • 
ixQi6<piv, see App. F. i (3). 



90 



OATSSEIAS r. 356—373. 



[day hi. 



a i2. «50. 
b cf. A. 259. 
c ». 643. 
d cf^I. 427. 
ex.292,/ii.26,165, 

y, 385, cu. 2S6-7, 

261-2, 339 
f I. 60. 

g- cf. ^. 383-4. 
h y. 49 mar. 
i t. 598. 

k d. 731, X. 272. 
I cf. (p 279—80. 
m K, 429, r. 329. 
n y. 17, A. 686—8. 
/r. 78, i. 35], 

u. 332. 
p cf. <f. 8. 
q cf. »ff. 749. 
r jB. 266. 

s cf. a. 320,/. 240. 
t (p. 122, r. 342, 

^. 79, W, 815, 

i2. 482-3, 



"fv dij rawa y' aqyrjad'a^ ysQOv^ fpCks' 0ol 81 hixsv 

TriXi^i^axov %BC%'B0%'aL^^ iital^ noXv ndkhov ovtag. 

cilX' ovtog iilv vvv Col &fi a^axaiy wpga xav avSy^ 

6OL0LV ivl (layaQOtCiv iy(o S* inl v^a (nikaivav ^( 

ai(i% Iva &'aQ6vvc3 &' atdgovg aCjcco^ ta axaata. 

olog yccQ ^atd TottSi ysQaCraQog^ avxoft^ccc alvui,' 

of d' aXXoi q>iX6rritL vadtaQOL avSgag^ BTCovxaVj 

Tcdvxag b^rihxCri^ (layccd'viiov Ttilaii<ixot.o. 

ivd'a^ xa Xa^ai^fjv xoCkri^ tcccqcc vril (laAaivy 3C 

vvv'^ atotQ TjiSd'av iiatcc Kavxcovag"^ (layad'viiovg 

alii\ Svd'cc XQBtog'^ [iol 6q)6XXataL, ov tc viov ya 

ovS' dXiyov gv 8h tovtov, anal taov Xxato'* StSfia^ 

jr^a^ovP 6vv diq)Qp ta xal vlaV Sog Sa ol X%novgy 

Ofc rot iXccq)Q6taT0L^ %'aCavv xal xccQZog aQi0toi.^^^ 35 

£g aga q>iXivi^6ae^ ana§ri ykavxtSmg ^Ad^inj 
gytjvy alSo^ivri'^ d^dnfiog^ d' ala ndvtag idovrag. 



356. n^oaiJ^Bina, 357. J^ifoiycev. 361. J^sinm /ixa<rra. 369. J^oi. 

372. fsidotisvrj, 

358. TrjXifi>ax8 Bek. annot. 364. OfAriU'n^Tj Barnes. £rn. CI. ed. Ox., oiii^lfK^ri 

Ilarl. Wolf, et recentt. 367. Arist. XQSioDg, Scholl. H. M. pro ov ri v. y. 

Strabo VIII. $26^Hli9t dirj, 368. Zenod. insl ta aa yovva^* tuavsi, Scholl. 

H. Q. V. 372. 'Axctiovg pro Idovxaq Scholl. H. E. M. Q. e W. 815. 



357. av X. T. >l., we miss the usual 
courteous phrase of approval xavtd ys 
ndvxa . . . xofra; fiovQav hmag ; nor 
does the curt sv ^q>7jad'a elsewhere 
occur. It is worthwhile to contrast the 
businesslike terseness of Mentor here 
with the genial loquacity of Nestor in 
the preceding 346—55. — yf^. <flXe is 
the style of Achilles to Priam (mar.). 

366. Kavx*j Cauconians appear in 
H. ab allies of the Trojans, in Dolon's 
enumeration to Diomedes, grouped with 
the Leleges and Pelasgi; and again in 
a later battle as in an extreme rear- 
ward or flank position (mar.). With 
the former cf. Herod. I. 146, where 
Rawlinson says: "The Caucons are 
reckoned by Strabo among the earliest 
inhabitants of Greece and atsociated 
with the Pelasgi, Leleges, and Dryo- 
pes;- like their kindred tribes, they 
were very widely spread. Their chief 
settlements, however, appear to have 
been on the north coast of Asia Minor 
. . . and on the west coast of the Pelopon- 



nese in Messenia, Elis, and Triphylia. 

From the Peloponnese the race 

had entirely disappeared when Strabo 
wrote, but had left their name to the 
river Caucon, a small stream in the 
N. W. corner of the peninsula (Strabo 
VIII. p. 496 — 7)"; cf. also Herod. 
IV. 148. 

3^7* XQ^^^^* ^^* thinks that the 
debt may have been conceived as one 
of compensation for plunder, but this 
would need to be backed by force, for 
which a single small ship and crew 
was inadequate. Such commercial traf- 
fic as we have a glimpse of in a. 184 
might more probably lead to a debt. 
Aristarch. read %qsi<og against authority 
and probability, as far as we know. 
OipeXXarai* Buttm. Irreg. Verbs s. v, 
regards 6q>ikX<o as the only true epic 
present; and Bekk. follows him by 
altering the received 6<peUst* StpstXov, 
A, 686—8, to otpekX, 

372 — 3. <ftivxi9 said by Billerbeck 
ap. Crusius to be the osprey — an 



DAY III.] 



0ATS2EIAS r. 373—384. 



91 



Triksyid%ov'' 8' Us X^tQa, inog^ r' l(par\ Sx r' ovoficctsv. 

ei dfj tOL via) (oSs d'sol TtofiTcrjsg*' STtovtac. 
ov ftiji/ yccQ ng oS'^ aXXog 'OXv^ma^ do'ftatr' ixovxcDV^ 
aXka jdibg d'vydtrjo. zv^tdtri TgitoyivBitc^^ 
7} tot xal Tcateg iaS'Xov iv ^AqyeCoiOiv iti^a} 
80 dXU, avaaa\;'' Urid'L, diScod^c 8s [lov nXsog^ iad'Xov^ 
ctvt(o^ Kal Ttaidsaac xal at^otri^ TtccoaxoLti' 
6ol^ S' av iy(o ^ago ^ovv rfvcv^ avQviistCDTCov^ 
^adfiTJtrjv,'' ijv ov 7t(o vn;6 ^vyov r^yaysv avr^q* 
tTJv roc iya Qd^co^ xQViSdv xiQaCiv ksQixsvagP^ 



a 8. 155. 
b K. 275. 
c cf. 8. 302. 
d 17.330, p. 215, a. 
Iti3, ^.218,^2.286. 



em.- 131. 
f ^. 120. 



cf. /?. 270. 
H y. 325 mar. 
i w. 79, 1//. 167. 
k J. 515. 
lJSr.245;cf.ir.237. 
m i:. 175, «. 450^ 

;t, 184; cf. y.43, 

n. 233. 
n a. 95, I. 415. 
o cf. y. 208-9. 
p y. 451 , <?>. 479. 
q K. 292-4. 
r Z. 94, 275, 309. 
s i. 289, I*. 262, 

355, r. 405. 
t cf. a. 1—2, 299 

-300, I. 124. 
u »f^. 266, 655. 
V y. 437, 426. 



373. S-ldsv, 374. finoq, 375. fsfolnot. 380. fdvac9\ 

375. ov Tt a' Schol. 378. Zenod. yny&^atrjy Scholl. H. M. ita Wolf, et receutt., 
ayslsiTi Barnes. Erri. CL ed. Ox. 380. pro tlTi^i Zenod. iXiaigSt Scholl. H. M. 



instance of the preference of H. for 
specific over generic terms noticed App. 
A. 13. To the view of dvonuia (a. 
320) there taken add the conjecture, 
that dvonaia might be a noun de- 
scribing the bird as roosting etc. 
oivu to onaiovy on the smoke -vent; 
duch a bird is the swallow, found as 
Pallas^ eidolon in %» 240. ^dfji^* and 
S'avfi* are radically identical, |? being 
= Vy and vfi, = j5ft by metath. The 
root is ratp. or taf. strengthened with 
fi and aspirated; cf. toc(pog tid'T^na, 
idovraQ cannot take the / here. — 
Sxiog idev, with this use of 07C0)g 
as =: when, cf. M. 208 iggiyrjaav onmg 
tSov utoXov otpiv x. r. X, 

374—5. exoq t' €€par:\ ex x. r. X. 
This phrase occurs more than 40 times 
in II. and Ody., often without any name 
following, or even word of address, 
like CO ^>CXog here, as ovofiais (cf. 9, 278) 
would seem to require. The speeches 
introduced by it mostly begin a con- 
versation, or a third speaker by it 
strikes into one. Such addresses have 
a tone of ejaculatory abruptness, as 
if prompted by some demonstrative emo- 
tion — joy, sorrow, sympathy, scorn, 
antipathy — or sudden thought striking 
the speaker. Thus it is often intro- 
duced by grasping the hand, as here. 
For some of the more remarkable ex- 



amples of its use see mar. With (p^Xog 
voc. cf. a. 301. 

378 — 80. See on hocgyrig 420 inf. 
TQiToytv., Bee App. C. 5. — avaaa\ 
cf. Hor. Caim. III. iii. 2, regina . . . 
Calliope, So ava^ , of a god (mar.). — 
di^Oi^i, very rare; commonly ^t'dou. 

383—83. Tivlv evQVfi. d6firi., the 
second epithet is peculiar to oxen. 
a6fii^r7iv is paraphrased by the foil. 
fiv ov Ttiii X. r. X. as often in H., see 
on a. I. noXvxQonov. Obs. also the 
repetition of the statement of 382, pffo) 
^ovv in 384, ziiv ... 9€|g>, with which 
cf. p. 118 — 21, nuXai6!)v xdtov at ndgog 
rjaccv ... T Of CO 1/ ov rig x. t. X., and 9. 
125 — 33, ^vX(o d' aQYVQSOv tocXagov 
(pigs ... tov gcc ot dfitpinoXog ^vXda 
X. T. X, In all these the main state- 
ment is emphatically re- asserted after 
subordinate circumstances have been 
added. rjvlVy before a vowel, is an in- 
stance of the power of a liquid in 
doubling itself to the ear, seen in ii)^- 
iisXCrjg y. 400, svvvrixog tj. 97, and 
more remarkably in ivl fifisyccgoiGiv 
Harl. §. 94. These instances arc all in 
arsis, and so is the well known Virgiliau 
example JEn, III. 91, Limina que lau- 
rusque (as if que ll)\ comp., however, 
in thesis pXoovgmnlg iaxsq}ccvG)T0 ^ A. 
36;^ also 00. 452, A. 343, whcic 
ngoaaloa nal 6n\Lacm ends the line. 



9X 



OATSSEIAS r. 394-412. 



[day IV, 



a y. 68 mar. 
b /. 42S, •. 381. 
c or. 145. 
d /?. 340; cf. (. 196 

-211. 
e a. 139 mar., k. 

152. 
f a. 334 mar 
gr|. 331, ^.288. 
h y. 342 mar. 
i a. 424 mar. 
k y. 362. 
1 17. 345. 
m or. 440 niar. 
n App.F.2(8)mar. 
o J. 165, F. 69. 
p y. 454, 482, x 

224, |. 22, V. 185; 

cf. (T. 156. 
q t 62-3. 
r y. 354. 
8 A pp. F. 2 (34) 

mar. 
tr. 411. 
u /}. 2 mar. 
V *. 6; cf. ;t.408, 

X. 211, 253. 



cog ^qpar' Bv%oiLBvogy iov d' iWAt;£ IlaXlccg 'Ad^vt}. 38 
ro?Wv d' ijy£fi6i/ai;a rsQrjviog fTtnota iV£<yrcj^,* 
i;fo'<y^ ;eal yccfiPQotaLV y ict jCQog Scifiata xaXd: 
akV oxB ScifLcc^* vkovto dyaxlvtcc^ toto avaxtog, 
B^sifig^ B^ovio xata xXctffiovg xb d'QSvovg xb, 
xotg S* 6 yigcov iX%'ov(5iv &vd XQrixiiqa xiQa(S0Bv 39 

otvov T^SvTtoxoio ^^ xbv BvSBxdxp iviavxp 
(ot^sv xafiiij^ xal ditd xgrfiBfivov^ lXv0BV' 
xov 6 ysQcov xgrixriQu XBQd00axo^ itolXd S' ^AQ^vfj 
BvxBx* ditod^Bvdhvj^ xovqj] dtbg ccfytoyoco, 
avxaQ^ btcbI cfkBtddv x* Hxlov -O*' ^ov ijd-sXB 9viiog, 39 
oP (liv xdxxBlovxBg i$av oIxovSb Bxacfxogy 
xov S' ccvxov xoifiiicfB rBQfjvtog iTcnoxa jNi0X(OQy 
TriUiia'jffiv tpClov vCov^ 'Odv00fjog %'BtoiOy 
'rpijrorg™ iv kBxiB06LV^ vx*^ cMov0ri iQtdovxci' 
TCciQ S^ &Q^ ivfiifiBXifiv^ nsteipxQccxov OQX^iiovv dvdQcSv^ 40 
Sg ol Ix* Tji^Bog^ naCSoiv rjv iv ^BydQ0L6ivJ 
avxog d' ccvxb xattBiiSB (iv)^^^ Sdfiov vtpYJXoto^ 
xS d' dko^og 8i07Coiva,ii%og ^iogavvB^ xal Bvtnjv. 

'^liog d' riQiyivBia (pdvri ^odoSdxxvXog ^Hcjg ^ 
(Spi/VT'" &q' ig Bvvij<pi rBQTJVLog Ctctcoxcc Nb0xoq' 40 

ix d' ikd'COV XCCX^ Sq* B^BX* ixl ^B0XOt0l Xid'OC0CVy'' 



■.^»,t- 



387. /aa. 388. J^ttvccuros. 391. folvov ^Svnototo, 396. foCaovde 
394. inianivdcuv Bek. annot, 400. SI ot sviisUrjv^ &v8qu id. 



385 — 94. The conversation on the 
sea -shore here closes and the scene 
is shifted to the palace of Nestor. 

386 — 9. FBQrfvioq, see on y. 68. 
xXi0fi. ••• ^QOv*f see on a. 131— 2. 

391—2. For Nfestor's appreciation of 
wine cf. A* 629 foil., for Homer^s fre- 
quent commendation of it cf. Hor. Ep. 
I. XIX. 6. Laudibus argmiur vini vinosus 
Homerus* XQ'^^; not the stopper {nm- 
(itt, p, 353), but a fillet round the neck 
of the jar, probably securing the stopper. 
On the various senses of ngi^d. see on 
«• 334* ^Ji the paraphrase of m^ev 
by the following phrase, see on 382 — 3 
(adfAifriyv) and on of. 1. 

396. olxovde, the married sons of 
Nestor are said to come next morning 
in ^•aXdfimVy 413 inf. Probably ol%ov 
is here in a general sense, ^* abode". 
So it is used of Penelopl^s abode, the 



vnsgmovy a. 356; see App. P. 2 (31) 
(32). It might thus include ^ciXafiov 
for inmates of the palace. 

399. aiS-ov0xiy 8ee App. F. 2 (8) (9). 

400. ivfjtfjt*y an epithet applied to 
Priam, Euphorbus, and others (mar.); 
here it, as also Sqx» dv6q., seems 
applied to a young prince merely as 
such, so to Polites (mar.); Eumaaus 
and Philsetius are called oq%. ivdQ, aa 
set over others. 

402. fivx^^s see App. P. 2 (34). 

403 — 4. x6q0., this word with X^- 
Xog following is used always of the 
wife who shares the bed. The form 
noQOaivm is found Hy. Ceres 156, and 
the Cod. Ven. reads nogaaviovacc from 
it in r. 411. ifo6o6dxx.f see on |3. i. 
The fourth day of the poem^s action 
here begins. 

406. %B0Xm Xl^», these appear to 



DAY IV.f 



0ATS2EIA2 V. 407—425. 



93 



oZ of laav TCQon&QOi^B d'vgclcov^ vtj/ijkdGiv, 

Isvxol &7c66tiXpovt€gdXei(patog' ^ olg Sac iiev jcqIv 

NriXivq lla^xBv^^ d^eofpLV"^ (iTJatcoQ atdkavrog' 

.10 akV o (ilv iiSri K^qL Safislg ''^^SogSa pefirjxecv'^ 
Ni6t(0Q av tot iq)ti€ PsQiivcogj ov^og^ *A%aL(Sv^ 
ifx^Tttgoy^ ixmv. tcsqI d' vUg doXXhg^ '^ysge&ovto 
ix d'aXdjiCDv iXd'ovtsgy 'Exdq)Q(ov^ ts Ht gat Cog te 
IlBQ0€vg t*"AQrit6g^ ts 9tal ain^eog ©patJv/tijdijs'*^ 

.15 toloi S* IniSiO'' Sxtog nBi(SC0tQatog ^Xy&sv '^Qiog- 
n&Q S* aga TriXijiaxov ^sbsCxeXov stoav^ ayovtsg. 
tot6i Sh ii,vd'ix)v ^Qx^ raQTJvLog licitota NsattOQ- 

'' xagicaUiLCig fio^, tixva tpCla^ XQrftjvat' idldouQj^ 
oipQ* ij toi 7tQcitL6ta d'€(Sv Udaaofi''^ ^A&ijvriv, 

20^ (lOL ivagyi^g^ ijAO-a &80v ig Sattav 9'dXetav. 

dkV ay o fiiv xeSiovS^ iTfl'i fiovv hfo^ wpga rajrtcyra 
iXd^y6cv, ildaij di fiocSv imfiovxdXog^ dvi^Q' 
elg d* inl TrjXsiidxov ^syad'Viiov vrja [liXaivav 
ndvtag iav itdgovg dyitcs, Xinit(o dh dt;'* oCovg' 

.2^ stg S* av XQ'^<^ox6ov Aasgxea Ssvqo xeXiaQ'o 



a a. 32, i. 304, a. 

107, ft, 344. 
b cf *P. 170. 
c n. 472. 
d y. 110, H. 360 
e t. 11, r. 291, 

X. 362 
f &. 80, J. S40 

O. 370, 659. 
e B. 101, 279, 1" 

657. 
h y. 427, I. 22s, 

V. 233, Y 16S. 
i cf. d. Ul, r 33? 
j P. 494, mi, ^^: 

cf. ii. bt, 0». 
k I. Ht, K. 2S5, 

F. 7U5. 
I a. V^ii, A, 311, 

J. SMS, ^' 69». 

in Q. 2n, rp 200, 

1^.^,^,41,455, 

504. 61 ?U. 
n A. iU. 
17. 2(JI, ?r. 1(i1, 

r. 131, d. 841. 
p ^. 76, 99. H. 

476. 
q c. 149, u. 439. 
I- V. 235, y. 209, 

285, 292; cf. i. 

222, |. 102. 
s u. 164; cf. i2. 

473. 



407. /ot. 410. !^/tdoff^6. 416. &soJ^8£7tsXov. 

411. Ig^ttc Wolf, et recentt., Stpi^i Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox. Low. 416. 417. Inter 

hos versus in marg. Heidelb. insertus legitar avtocg insl $' riysQ^sv ofiriyBghg 

X iyivovto. 421. dXXd y* Em. CI. ed. Ox. all* icy' Bamea et recentt. 



have been fixed thrones for the king 
and persons of distinction on occasions 
of state, here of sacrificial solemnity. 
Nestor here seats Telem. by his side 
(416 inf.)t as Alcinous does Odys. in 
^. 6 — 7: ** smoothed stones" are the 
material of palace walls; here an or- 
namental polish is further given by 
iiXstgfaQj of the nature of stucco. The 
word also means unguent. In a fragm. 
Sophocl. iXoifia occurs, explained by 
Hesych. as Z9^^(''^ xolxcdv. Seats of 
smoothed stones occur also in the dyog^f 
see on §, 14—6, and App. F. 2 (4) (6) 
and note. The gen. dXsCtpatog arises 
from the ''action being regarded as 
springing into llfo from the materials 
of which it was composed *\ Jelf Gr, 
^. § 540 obs. 

409—11. NfiXevg, for his birth and 
posterity see X. 235 foil., 281 foil, ov 
ifog *^X*f ^^ epithet distinctive of 
Nestor, see mar. 

412. doXXieq, see on 165. 



419 — 20. IkdcCOfi, obs. elision of 
-aiy frequent in mid. voice, whether 
pres. i"^ pers. as here, or pres.infin. as in 
cr. 270, 287. — ivaqyiiq, "recognizable", 
%,e, by the mode of her departure; so 
CK. 323 Telem. concludes that it is a 
deity, though he does not seem to know 
which (^. 262). Nestor^B divining that 
it was Athens is doubtless meant to 
exemplify his sagacity. He may have 
perhaps concluded from her known 
partiality to Odys. her attendance on 
his son. 

422. bX9%Civ, ikdciii, a form of 
prothusteron arising from the end oc- 
curring to the speaker first and the 
means afterwards, ^owv i^i^*, cf. 
alnoXi aiyav, atnoXos alymvj avav 
cvQocua, With ini^ov%6Xog cf. bicl- 
§o)tiioQ V, 222; and obs. that povyLoXita 
the verb is used in a borrowed sense 
of horses in T. 321 (Ni.). On dviiQ 
see on 267 sup. ^ 

425* XQ^^oxoov. No actual fusion 



94 



0AT2SEIA2 T. 426—440. 



[day IV. 



a y. 384, 437; of. 

J. Ill 
b /. 412 inar. 
c /?. 322 mar. 
d y. 7, 31. 
e 0. 4G7, t. 455, 

n. 28, T. 278, 

«i. 203, V, 184. 
f «. 140, B. 307, 

^. 345. 
gr V. 149, A. 600. 

0. 219, ^. 156. 
h ^. 187, O. 309. 
i AT. 79, H. 102, 

ff'. 350, X 501, 

H, 402, |U. 51. 

k .S 476-7:; ^ 

1 A. 194. 
m a. 25. 
n y. 384, 426. 
a. 439 mar. 
p y. 274 mar. 
q a. 136 — 7 

62-3. 
r tf'. 885, B. 4G7 



<r. 



ild'stVf o(pQa poog xqvCov^ TtiQaOvv TtSQ^xevrj, 
ol S' aXkov inivBz avtov aoXUag^^ eUnars d' sCect 
SfiCDiJCtv xtttcc dcifiar^ dyaxXvtd Satra^ nivaod'aL^ 
ISgag^ ts %vka r' ai^piy^ xccl dylaov^ oiaifisv vScoq.^' 
(Sg i'fpa%'\ o'i S' uqu Ttdvrsg inoCnvvov^ riXd's ftii/4; 

aQ §ovg 
ix naSiov^ rikd^ov SI d'oijg Ttagd vrjog it6rig 
Trikandxov atagoc iisyaliJTOQog , '^Xd^s Sh ;|^aAxfiVff,** 
OTtX' iv x€Q6lv ^x^'^ ;|jaAxiffca, xsiQata'^ tBXvrig^ 
axftora^ TS 0<pvQav r' svTtOLritov te nvgdyQriv^ 
ol6{v ts XQV0dy slgyd^sto' '^k^s d' 'Ad^vri ^^ ~ ._. _ 4. 
[q(Sv dvzidcoacc*^^ ysQav d' fejri^Aara NiHttOQ 
XQv66v ^ax* ' o tf' Sn:sLta poog xiQa&tv^'Tts^^ 
'^(Xicij0ag/ IV ayak^a^ d'sd xsxaQOLto ISovOa. 
fiovv 8' aysxTiv xsQadv DtQUtCog xal dtog 'ExstpQCDv. 
X^QVLpd^ Sd 6(p^ ^'AlQrjrog iv av^^oavti^ ks^rjrc 4^ 



427. J^sincczs, dolXssg praecedente per synizeaim lectA. 431. if^crjg, 
435. J-SLQytx^sto. 438. fiSovGcc, 

J 4.36. dvti]60v6a AthenfiBUS. 



of the gold follows; it is merely ham- 
mered thin and made a leaf- wrapper 
for the horns. Yet we read of %Ofivoi 
in .Z. 470, showing an acquaintance 
with fusion of metals. In ^. 383 — 5, 
'^' '35 » ^^ have the craftsmen and 
professionals enumerated , the prophet, 
surgeon, carpenter or builder, minstrel, 
and herald, to which the X'^vqox. and 
the %aX-AZvq^ often, as here, one person 
(432), should be added; and from the 
II. the tanner (P. 389 foil.), potter (2?. 
600 foil.), and currier (H. 220). The 
zi%zmv includes ship-building, and one 
mentioned in £. 62 foil, was a person 
evidently of importance. A smithy 
existed in the town of Ithaca (<r. 328), 
and the connexion in which it is men- 
tioned suggests the notion that it was 
an office of the palace. The designa- 
tion drjiiiosgyol denotes working not for 
themselves only but for all. They were 
doubtless of the free people — the 
Sfjfiog who shared the land and are 
called by the same name as it (see on cc. 
103) — not reckoned noble, yet invited 
to the king's table (p. 382 — 6) in re- 
cognition of their public usefulness 
cf, d/fft/cc nCvitv P. 250. The name 



AaBQV,7ig is probably based on o Xam 
inccQ%mv, and nearly = drjfiiosQyog 
(Eustath.). 

429 — 30. afi<pl is in tmesis with 
nivsa&aL. — hnoinvvov, sometimes v 
(mar.). Buttm. LexiL (93) says it is 
from nvi(o invvro with reduplication, 
as noKpvffCO} from fpvcd(o. The diphth. 
0( may be observed as much used in 
forming words of sound, tploi'afiog 
(oipdog, and the like. It is not quite 
certain that nom-^ a mere word of 
sound, like our "puff", is not the 
whole root of this and of nottp-vaam, 

433—4. Ttelgava, "sum total=whole 
resources", arising from the notion of 
a "limit or bound". The simple sense 
of a "rope" is probably the primary 
one, as seen in noXifioio nFLgag iit^ 
ccXXd^ocvTsg in' dficpotigoiat rdvva- 
aav (mar.); cf. our word "line" {Xi- 
vov) for boundary. ^(pvQav, smaller, 
probably, than the Qocioti^Q (mar., cf. 
uEsch. From. 56). 

435— -40. 'AS'fivijy u e invisibly: the 
condition of local nearness is required 
by H, for the conception of a present 
deity. dvtiomOa, see on a, 25 and 
App. £. 4 (2) note, xs^dtav , gen. of 



DAY IV.] 



0AT2SEIAS r. 441—453. 



95 



iv icixi/Bp'^ nikBKvv^ Sh ftBVBktoiBfiog^ 0Qa0vfnjSfig 
olvv® ^;jjfi)v iv XBQCi 7ta^iCfrdit>, fiovv iTCLXOJlfcoiv! 
IIsQ6Bvg S* a'aviov bIxb* ysQav i' [jtTtrjXdta NiazfOQ 

1-5 ^X^Qvipd^ "J^' ovXorvxaQ XB 7carriQ%BX0^^ nokkd S'*jid7Jvt] 
€t;;ij£r ainrap^oftai/og ,^ XBipaAtig tq>i%ag iv tcvqI paAAfOv. 
avtuQ^ iiCBi ^' Ivlavto xal ovijo%vxag ngo^dkovxo^ - 
avxUa NiaxoQog vlog VTtigd'Vjiog 0Qa6vaySijg^ 
r^ia&iv ayxv axdg:^7cii,BKvg S' aitixo^B xivovxag^ 

;o av%Bv{6vgj kv6BV 8b ^obg fiii^og' cX #' okokv^av^ 
%'vyaxiQBg'^ xbvvoIxb xal.aiSohj^kd^&kolxLg 
JNd6xoQog^ EuQvSCxri nQBC^d^ Kkvfiivoio d'vyccxQtSv. 
or pilv iitBix^ avBAovxBg £716 %^6ii)og'!^ BVQVoSBir^g 



a cf. y. 415, A. 

440. 
b <r. 761. 
c ». 231, t. 573, 

w. 120, O. 711, 

^. 612, if. 851. 
d X. 255. 
e P. 620. 
f cf. r. 270-4. 
gr i2. 304. 

v. .^40, <r. 761, 

^. 422, 428, (0. 

263; cf. $. 424, 

T. 254. 
i |. 428, y. 263; 

cf. r 254. 
k uf . 45S. 
I cf. n. 5S7. 
m d. 767, y. 408, 

411, z. m 

n /2. 166. 

o £.721, e, 383. 

p JI. 635. 



443. x*^^^ Arist., Schol. H. 444. atfivt^ov^ ApoWod, et al., dd^viov Zenod. 

Nicander et al., Scholl. H. M. Q. K. 453. dcviaxovtsg (contra metrum) Arist., 
Schol. H., iinde Porson. civsxovTsg, 



H '.>-^. 



part held ; so Xafis yovvav A. 407. Xi^ 
^Tfitiy see on a. 137. 

441. ixiQtj, i.e. xsiqI, probably the 
left. ovXug, see App. A. 3 (2). 

442. xiXfXVV, used mostly as a 
woodman's or carpenter^s tool, also 
associated with a^lvri as a weapon; 
its stock, TriAsxxog, is once of olive 
(mar.). In the bow -contest of the 
suitors in 9. the "axes" have rings 
at the ends of the handles, perhaps 
to hang them up by. From the men- 
tion of i7fit7E£^£xxo;, It is probable that 
the TC^X, had a double head, like the 
Lat. bipennis. 

444. d^vlov, probably a sacrificial 
word of uncertain derivation, perhaps 
from alficc as catching the blood; and 
a Schol. adds that the Cretans pro- 
nounced it atfivlov. Others interpret 
it of the sacrificial knife , and suppose 
that Sufiviov connected with iafiam is 
the proper form of it — an unlikely 
meaning, since Pisistr. in 454 uses 
the knife, and it is unlikely that an- 
other should previously have care of it. 

445. This may be exhibited by re- 
solution into rjQXBTO (ritualistic word), 
"took religiously first", xata ^^fpyt^a 
X. r. X., Tictrot directing action to ob- 
ject (Buttm. Leanl, 29); see on 340 
ixa^^dpL, Jelf, Gr, Gr. § 516 obs., 
gives an explanation based on a mis- 
conception of ^atriQX^to, — x^Q'^^?^ 



here the water, means also the vessel 
used. It was poured by an attendant, 
here Aretus (440 «i<p. ); see P. 270, 
•ft- 303-74. 

446. ajtaqx^f^*> see on 340, para- 
phrased here by the sequel %s(p. xql- 
Xccs iv n, j5., as in 383, 393 sup,, see 
on tt. I. 

447. The rest follow the example of 
Nestor, who officiates as if in priestly 
character (^i. 451), all washing {p. 261) 
and flinging meal before praying. The 
ovXal of 441 become ovXoxvzai when 
flung; see App. A. 3 (2). Ni. dwells on 
this and similar features of ritual as 
showing that H. knows of no priesthood 
save as attached to a temple, and that 
all might sacrificially approach the 
deity for themselves. 

450. oXoX., the oXoX'dyri was the 
cry of women for joy, used sacrificially 
(as here, perhaps to drown the vic- 
tim's groan), or otherwise (mar.). So 
we find dXaXu^tOy and Lat. ululo which, 
however, is a cry of wail, or the howl 
of an animal, formed like this from 
the mere sound. 

453- dveXovreq. The victim had 
been felled, the elder brothers (oV fisvy 
opposed to Pisistr. who used the knife) 
raised it bodily from the ground. In 
Chryses' sacrifice, J, 459 foil., which 
compare with this , we find av ^gvcavy 
resupinaveruni , being probably a less 



96 



0AT2SEIA2J T. 454—460, 



[day IV. 



8 cf. A. 469, B. 

422. 
y. 400 mar 
c TI. 743. 
d |. 427, t 421, 

If. 31B. 
e (J. 783, ^. 54, 

«. 342, i*. 35. 
f o. 270, .4. 66, 

•Jl7; cf. X. 10. 
g^cf.r.224, tf^.243. 
fi \. 427—8. 
i $. 425. 



trjig ^' «V£l ^x nJXav affta pv^j ^^i*^ S\60tia d'viiog, 4 
altlf^ aga ^lv Siexsvav,^ atpccg 8 ix firfQi* itafivov 
Ttdvta xccTcc aotpav ^^ xatd texvitfy^ ixdXvi^ccv 
^mtv%a^ TtOL'ijcidvtegj ix' avrtSv S'^ciiiLo9itri0av.^ 
xala S' inl i^x^US^ ^ yigcDV, ixl 6' acd'oxa olvov 
letfie' vioc SI itaQ* avxov Sx^v TtB^Ttcifiola x^Q<f^v, 4 



459. J^olvov, 



full and formal way of effecting tlie 
same thing, by raising the head and 
throat merely backward and upward. 
The notion was that in offering to a 
celestial ^eity the rite required an up- 
ward direction. Probably the blood 
spirted upwards : contrast with this the 
rites to the dead, where the lambs' 
throats are cut *4nto the trench'' dug, 
as the libations are poured thither 

a- 25-36). 

456. 6tix»» **hroke up*', including 
the dismemberment and the opening 
and removal of intestines, fifiqla (461 
yi^riqu^ or A, 460 firjQoifg) are probably 
the upper joints of the four quarters 
ending at the knee. Ni. quotes an 
authority of doubtful value, stating 
that iiTiQol are called it,riQCa or fi'^ga 
when viewed as consecrated, and notes 
that what are sacrificially burnt in H. 
are always fLTiqla or ft^pa. In Soph. 
Antig, 1008, ion, ii7}Qia and (it^qoI 
alike express what are so burnt. Some 
think that by either term the bones 
are alone meant, — a view chiefly 
resting on Hes. Theoy, 535 foil, which, 
however (Heyne ap, Ni.), is best taken 
for a local custom limited to Mecone 
(Sicyon). We may assume that the bones 
are included in the ftTjp^of, not mere slices 
from the limb offered, as Mr. Paley on 
Hes. Theog* 556 thinks. The %vlGri %(o^a 
avyyt,aXv7Cxu of -ffischyl. Prom, 504 is 
decisive against the latter view, and 
in Soph. Antig, the fivdmoa utiidg (17}- 
(iCtnv cannot so well be understood of 
mere bones which had "slipped out of 
their fatty envelope'*. These joints with 
the fat had the highest sacrificial value. 

457. xvlOvi* The omentum f caul of 
fat, enveloping intestines, is prin- 
cipally meant. The word primarily 
means nidor^ the smell of flesh roast 
or burnt (mar.), and the fat as yielding 
it. The fat burnt best -- a sufficient 



ground for preferring it: so in the 
Mosaic ritual Lev. III. 14 — 6. The 
blood on the contrary has no special 
prominence in H. 

458. dlTtTVXf^f hest taken as a noun 
from Stntv^i but dCnxv%o$ adj. also 
occurs. The bones of the dead are 
also wrapped dCnXu%i dimA (mar.), 
Heyne on A, 461 gives for aim, noiija, 
omenlo bis circumducio, mfiO&ir, is 
cleared by |. 427 — 8, where Euroseus 
"slicing votive parts {ccQXOiievog) from 
all the members was setting them raw 
on {ig) the rich fat", t, e. to burn. 
Besides the chief joints, prime morsels 
from the rest laid on the fatty en- 
velope completed the burnt - offering. 
Thus the whole victim was represen- 
tatively burnt (Schol.). 

459' ^X^S^S* ** cloven", as burning 
more quickly. This again recals Jewish 
ritual, see Qen. XXII. 3, i. Sam. VI. 14, 
the cx^tfi is not, however, exclusively 
sacrificial ({.425). — al&OTtay "spark- 
ling", see App. D. i. The "pouring 
wine" ended the strictly sacrificial part 
relating to the god, as the sprinkling 
barley began^ it ; the banquet had a 
wholly human relation; the "tasting 
the entrails*' (461) is a link uniting 
the two, bringing the worshipper, as 
it were sacramentally, into direct con- 
tact with the rite. 

460. vioi X. T. X., the purpose seems 
to have been to keep the sacrifice from 
falling apart — an ill-omened acci- 
dent cf. Soph. ub,sup. In y. $^ these 
rites had all been performed before 
Telem. arrived. In comparing the 
simpler ritual of Eumaeus in |. 425, 
71. b, that sacrifice is not there, as here, 
the primary object, but only, in mak- 
ing the feast, he "did not forget the 
gods**. Where lambs are the victims, 
in consecrating the oath (F. 260 — 92), 
their throats are cut merely. 



DAY IV.] 



OATSSEIAS r. 461—476. 



97 



avtaQ iieel xat ct (I'^q* izdij, xal 07cXdy%v^ ind^avto^ 

Sxtav d' dxQOxdQOvg dfiakovg^ iv x^Q^^v Ixovtsg. 
xotpQu SI TijXeiiaxov Xov66v xaXtj Ilolvxdavfiy 

6^ Nd^tOQog Imlotdtri^ d^jydvrjQ tiijkiiiddcco. 
aikaQ'^ ixsl kov9iv re xal 1x9^^ ^'^ ^^^' ilalip^ 
diitpl di iiiv (pdgog^ xaX&v fidXev ijdi j^rcJi^a, 
Ix f* d^iqiivd'ov^ fi^ dsfiocg d9'e:vdtOL0iv ijiotog* 
naQ d' o ys Nd^tof* UAv xat' &q* ^£iro, xoiiiiva^ ladv, 

70 clt^ d* ix€l &7ttij6av xq€ VTtiQXBQa xal i(fv6avT0, 
dcciwvd'' iioiiavot,' ixl S* dviQBg^ ia&Xol oqoptOj 
olvov ivoivoxosvvxsg ivl jjpvtfeotg* Ssxdsaatv. 
a'draQ^ sxel x6ai.og xal iSrjrvog il^ Iqov SvtOj 
xolci 81 iiiid'CDv ^pjra rsQTJviog titnoxa Niaxag 

;5 "natSsg iiiol, ayB^ Thfjlsiidx^ xaUhQix^g"" tjtieovg 
tevl^ad'' vq>^ Sg^ax^ dyovxeg^'' Xva itif^a&yaiv^ 6SotoJ^ 



a fn. 385. 

b n. 58, 1. 28S, o. 

&4, r. IW. 

c d, 49-56, «. 353 
—65, 456, p.^ 
—9, t. 665, JC. 
577, A. 171, X 
356; cf. E. 905. 

d^.84, 88, J}. 43, 
9. 321 , /?. 97. 
X 353, «. 236, 
«. 543, V. 168. 

e V>.163;cf.(r.lt8, 
^. 96, ^. 456. 

f^ 169. 

8r y. 66, V. 279. 

h ^. 164. 

i App. A. 8 (2) 
mar. 

k a. 156. 

1 d 776, B. 331. 

m •. 3S6, o. 216, 
B. 323, 0. 348. 

n y.478, 0.47; ef. 
81, US, 196, 
E. 73l~2. 

0.47, 219, i2. 264. 



470. J^BQvaavTO, 47 a. J^otvov foivoxoBvvxig, 



469. alii 914X9 #^ y«, noii^sva Heidelb. Bek., noif/bivt Schol. P. 01. ed. Ox. 
Dind. Fa. Ld. 471. olvo%oh^vx^^ ut «f consulatury SchoU. H. Y. 476. alii 



463. filCtvXXov, opposed to dii- 
Xsvccvy as snbdividing into small por- 
tions, not, however, "mincing"; suoh 
portions are called ngia in y. ^$ where 
see note. 

464. x6<pQa, since neither Sfpga nor 
?o>g precedes , is better taken to mean 
"then" than "all this while". Xovaev, 
Ni. seems to think that a daughter of 
the host, where there was one, usually 
so assisted the guest; cf. d* 252; as 
Heb^ in Olympus (£. 905) who how* 
ever has general ministerial functions, 
and is not a daughter of Zeus, but of 
Kronos (72a, cf. J. 2). But in Alcinous* 
palace, itisnotKausicaa, but the slaves, 
who do so, as in the Spartan and 
Ithacan palaces (^. 454, i. 49, 9. 88). 
Faesi's account is better, that out of 
distinguished friendship Polycaste waits 
on Telem. as a sister. Calyp.s6 and 
Circ^ with her nymphs so attend Odys. 
From f. 215 foil, and ??. 296 lovasv or 
Xosv appears to mean, in all these 
cases except *the last, merely "pre- 
pared or furnished a baih" ; see Gladst. 
II. 513 foil. IloXvxdoxri, accQrdiDg 
to one legend she afterwards married 
Telem. 

HOH. on. I. 



466—7. XLk iX., Un* is best taken 
as accus. of iX^f and, being =: x^icyLa^ 
is the accus. ol the equivalent object 
after l%i^\,9h\ so Xln* iXeiff^sv f. a2p 
but may also be dat. X/tJri, and iXccCm 
a noun in appos., cf. .£sch. Agam. 1402 
XCno^ ^7t oiifidtmv aZfiatog iintginHv^ 
or with Heyne on ii[. 577 as = an adj. 
<pdQog and x^rcuvce are in inverted 
order: the tp&gog was ample and could 
muffle the head, or serve as a shroud; 
it is described as (tiya xoQq>VQBOv^ 
seems to have been worn over the ^j^it. 
like the xXaiva. It was also worn by 
females. Calypsd gives Odys. several 
tp.UQBa to make his sail. The looms 
of the nymphs in Ithaca produce (pciQBu 
aXmogtpvga^ by which epithet probably 
some choice dve is intended (mar.). 

469. noLfiiva, the edd. mostly 
favour noiyLBvi, Juxtaposition with t<ov 
gives the preference to the accus., as 
of motion, with naga .over the dat. of 
rest. Thus NkCxoQ* is Niatoga, 

470 — I. XQ€*^ X. T. X.,^ see on 33 and 
65—6 sup, — aviQ€q eC^-Xoy, a more 
dignified term than xO'D^Oi in 339 sup. ; 
cf. d, 236 and mar. 

475-- 6. That Nestor can be brief 



98 



OATSSEIAS r. 477—493. 



[day 



a ^. 73S. 

b n, 14. 

c a. 130 mar. 

d cr. I 80. 

e t;. SS7, J. 4S6, 

£.20. 
f y. 400. 
r£.365-0,i2.441; 

cf. C. 7S. 
h c. W. 
i y. 494, 0. J92, 

E. 7«8, 9. 45, 

K. 530, ^. 519, 

X. 400. 
k o. 183. 
I X. 8! , B, &38. 
m 0. 184-91 ; cf. 

L 11. 
n a.54; cf. 1^.706, 

1.352. 
/9. 388 mar. 
p E. 542—52. 
q ^. 15. 
r r. 239. 
8 y IM mar. 
t y. 404. 
n E. 239, ^.226. 



xaQTtaXiiMiDg d' ^g«i;gai/*» t;9?' Sq^c:6iv cixeccg tTcnovg. 

iv di yvv^'^ tcc^iij 6txov xal otvov S^yixbv^ 

otl>a Tf, olu ldov0i.^ 8L0TQsg>B€g ficcaU'^sg. 4 J 

av d' &Qa TfiXefiaxog nsQixaXX^a^ ptjoaro SCfpQov 

xaQ d' &Qa NsfStOQidrig nH0{6tQatog ofx^V^og^ avSgdiv^ 

ig^ Sifpgov r' dvifiaivs xal r^vCa Id^eto x^9<^^^j 

(idauisv*^ d' iXdav^ rcj 8' ovx axovTS TtBtsad^ijv' 

ig^ neSCov^ Xmixriv SI TIvXov alitv^ nroXlB^QOv* 4^ 

oP SI TtavfifiiQiOL^ 6Blov Ivyov ififplg^ ixovzBg. 

8v6Bt6^ r' T^iXiog 0xi6(avt6 ts n&6aL dyviai' 

ig ^rigdg d' txovtOj ^toxX'^ogi^ noxl SfSiia, 

vtiog 'OQ6iX6xoio,*^ tbv ^AX(pei6g tixB^ natScc. 

Iv^a 8b vvxt^ &B(fccv'^ 8h totg nag ^Bvvia d^XBv. 4S 

rjiiog^ d' TjQLyivBca fpdvrj ^o8o8dxtvXog ^Hcog y 

vTCXovg tB iBvyvvvr' avd -d*' icQ^ara TtotxiX'^ fficccvov 

ix d' i'AaiJav :n:QO^VQOLO xal aCd'0v6rig igiSovTCov 



479. J^oivov. 484. a/axovra. 



479. supra Iv av^ supra k'&rj'KSv ^xsvsv liabet Harl. script, probante Schol. H. 
484. Tnnovg pro hdav Schol. M. 486. d^siov et aii(pU%ovTBq Aristoph., Scholl. 
if. Q. R. T., sed a/iqpiff ^lovx^q Schol. M. Harl. ^biov sed in marg. et Schol. 
Oitov. 489. 'OqziXqxoio Harl. a manii pr., sed mutatur r in <r, <r Bchol. In 
0. 187, 9. 16 Harl. per % constauter. ^' Schol. ad E. 542 in Cod. Townleiano 
patris nomen per r, nlii per scrlbivult'^ Vors. 490. S* agu ^stvi]i,a dA%s 
Harl., 91 toVg nuQ iivict daiisv Venet. in textu, sed ^rjnfv Scholl. H. M. 
493. omittunt codd. complures. 



on oooation is shown by this the shortest 
speech of his in either poem. Dis- 

gatch is here the prime object, and 
is absolute tone to his sons suits it. 
His farewell is witheld clearly because 
ho counted on his guest's return, as 
Tel em. was well aware; who, in dread 
of hi.} pressing hospitality, discreetly 
avoids him on his way back (o. 193 foil.). 
For 660I0 see on 251 and 23 sup, 

480. oia N. r. X. Eumseus bids Odys. 
**cat such as servants have to give" — 
his choicer animals (such as are here 
perhaps by distinction intended} being 
devoured by the suitors ({. 80 — i). 
(Ni.) This line rn remarkable for hia- 
tus twice occurrlnffi 

486. With oe 6b Jta%\ cf. navPvxiri 
nsv g' ij ys, of the ship on her voyage 
f^- 434)* Aristarchus here proposed 
dsidv (ran) ^vyov ccfi^q>iexovtBg, The 
»vords mean as they stand, "shook the 



yoke, having it about (their necks)". 
From SI, 268 foil, we see that the 
yoke, or rather cross-bar, was first 
secured to the pole and then the cattle 
led under it, there being but one yoke 
for the pair. (Ni.); see further on f. 73 
for this subject. 

4i88— 90. ^fiQag, see App. D. 3. 
A later Orsilochus son of Diodes and 
grandson of AlpheUs the river-god went 
to the Trojan war; Odys. had also in 
his youth visited an Orsil. at Messen^ 
(mar.). There is considerable varia- 
tion, and even confusion between a 
and t in the orthography of the name. 
aeoav, see on 151 sup, 

491. See on |?. i. The fifth day here 
begins. 

493. This y. is wanting in some MSS. 
but seems to be quite as allowable heve 
as in 0. 191. (Ni.) For the Jtgd^'V* 
Qov and aiS-ovCa see App. F, 2 (8). 



DAY v.] 



OATZSGIAS r. 494—497. 



99 



[lid6til^£v d* ildav^ no d' ovx axovrs XBtiadijv,'] 

^vov^ odov totov yccQ vnixtpsQOV^ cixieg Xititoi, 
iv&€t6^ r* i^ihog 0xi6(Qvr6 t£ n&iSai dyviaL 



a M. 314, S. 123, 

<ty, 602. 
b K. 251, S. 473, 

«. 357, 243. 

e E. 316, 3n, e. 

268, O. 628. 
d ^. 3$S mar. 



494. ttfi-KOVtS, 



494 [] Bek. 496. rjvvov (v omisso o^oy?) Schoi. Vind. 



494 — 6, Homer^s love of repetition 
of details in the same words (cf. 483 
— 5) is remarkably instanced here. 
Bek. however rejects 494. — 1§<W, see 
on y. 5—6. For xe^lov xvff^if. see 
App. D. 3. This adj. is more common 
nnder the form nvifoqtopog (mar.). — 
i^vov, strictly imperf. "were finishing' \ 



{, e, " were near their jonrney^s endy : 
tiie pres. forms ivoiicci pass, and uvva 
act. are fonnd in H., not Swin or 
ivviiai] past forms ijvvas i^yvfo, also 
occur (mar.). 

The fifth day of the action of the 
poem, measured strictly, ends with this 
book; but see on d. i. 



0ATS2EIA2 A. 



SUMMARY OF BOOK IV. 

In the coarse of the fifth day Telemachns and Pisistratns reach Sparta and 
find Men elans engaged in the nuptials of his children. A remark of Tele- 
machus on the splendour of the palace draws from Me&elaus a brief sketch 
of his wanderings, which leads him to dwell on the comrades whom he had 
lost, especially Odysseus (i — 119). JEIelen appears from her chamber and re- 
cognizes Telemachns by his likeness to his father. This leads to a climax of 
sorrow which pointedly depicts the tenderness of Menelaus* character, and the 
surpassing merit of Odysseus (120 — 218). Helen assuages their grief by the 
Nepenthe y and after further conversation on Odysseus' exploits at Troy, they 
retire to rest and the fifth day ends (219—305). 

On the morning of the sixth day, Telemachus, in answer to Menelaus* en- 
quiry, states his domestic troubles , and declares his errand at Sparta to enquire 
after his father's fate (306—350). This leads to the episode of Proteus of the 
Kile from whom Menelaus, when detained in those parts by baffling winds^ 
had learnt the fate of Ajax son of Oiteus, and of Agamemnon, and the fact 
of Odysseus* detention in Calypso's island. He then presses Telemachus to 
stay and- o£Pers him presents (351 — 624). 

The scene then shifts to Ithaca, where the suitors, haying discovered Tele- 
machus' departure, at Antlnous' suggestion plot an ambush to destroy him on 
his return (625 — 674). Medon overhears and discovers their plot to Penelop^, 
who, until this disclosure, was ignorant of his departure. Her affliction at 
the news is viyidly pourtrayed. Euryclea soothes her, suggesting prayer to 
Pallas, which she offers. The suitors then prepare for their expedition, and 
the sixth day ends (675—786) by Penelope's retiring, in a fast of sorrow, to 
her chamber, where, falling asleep, she is reassured as regards her son by a 
vision sent by Pallas. In the night the suitors place their vessel as Asteris to 
lurk for Telemachus on his return (787—847). 



Ta Iv Jaze&aiiiovi. 



OX d' Igov xoilrjv^ jiaxsSaifiova zijtDie^Oav ^^ 
jCQog d' &Qa Sd^aax* ikcov" Mavsldov xvdaU^ovo. 
xbv d' avQOv Saivvvta^ ydpiov nolkolotv iTy6vv^ 
vihg fjdl ^vy at Qog diiiifiovog gj ivl ottcGi, 



a B.581; cr.x.9r 
b cf.y.158. *.22. 
c Si. U96. 
d y. 309, T. 299. 
e d. 16, 0. 273, Z. 

262, 239, K. 295, 

I. 464, Zr. 456, 

674. 
f H. 228, IT. 576, 

n. 63, cr. ^217. 



I. xcrt£Tc^f(r(rav sive xatfTO£0(ray Zenod., Scholl. H. M. Q. R. 3—20. delebat 
Diodorus Aristophaneus , Wolf, prolegg. p. 264, [J Low. 4. dfivfiova Bek. 

ob J^ subsequens. 



1. The fifth day of the poem^s action 
is continued after sunset. 

l^ovy see on y. 5, 6. xolXfiP de- 
scribes the region rather than the town: 
y^ under its Doric form Sa (iEschyl. 
Prom, efio) suggests $7Jfiog d&iiost to 
which the 2"** element in Aans-da^ficov 
is akin, as yata to yrj; the i«' is la% — 
as in Idyrnog, a pit, Herod. IV. 195, 
Lat. lacero, lacus, lacuna, and suggests 
XT^e^COav "full of hollows or ra- 
vines" (Bnttm. Lexil. 70, Curtius 86). 
For noiiriv cf. Ca?/o-Syria,^ yto^XTj^HUg^ 
and Soph. (Ed, CoL 371 to tloiIov 'jIq- 
yog. The region here intended, is the 
narrow valley of the Eurotas between 
mounts Taygetus and Parthenius (App. 
D. 3), on entering which they were 
probably near the town. 

2. HXwv, here strictly imperf., "were 
driving" while he was (v. 3) feasting: 
but by some 3 — 19 is viewed as an 
interpolation; see on 15 — 10 inf. 

3. ivTiOiv (and yiixovsg i}di Bxat 16), 
this word, always plur. in H., has the 
fy and seems akin to J^itog a year, 
and Lat. vetus. It denotes lapse of time 
spent together, as yshovsg local near- 
ness (mar.), and expresses intimacy 



based on that idea, not, therefore, im- 
plying kin, nor feeling like tplKoi^ 
nor comradeship like httZqoi^ although 
these may be accidentally included and 
are often found in connexion with it; 
and its tie may arise from any or se- 
veral of these, as any may produce 
the mutual habituation. Thus the hro- 
ihers and lra» of Theociymenus are 
mighty princes of the AchsBans, and 
pursue him for tribal homicide. 0. 273 
foil.; Ajax Telamon has hag ncelitai- 
Qovg^ the former antecedent to, the 
latter arising out of the war. Menel. 
has no kin to celebrate his children's 
nuptials , hence his yBltoveg here. ^ 60 
Eteoneus ov noXv vuUv an avtov 0. 
96. In Lat. neeessarii seems closest to 
hai, Apollonius 8, v, ha explains it 
by avtrj^betgy whom two Scholl. follow. 
4 — 5. "Sophocles in the Hermione 
says that Hermiong was given in mar- 
riage to Orestes by Tyndarus while 
Menel. was yet in Troy, and that, when 
Neoptolemus came to' demand her ac- 
cording to promise, she was ta^en away 
from O., but that afterwards, when 
Neoptol. was slain at Pyth6 by the priest 
Machsdrns, O. resumed her as his wife 



I04 



OATSEEIAr A. 6—19. 



[day V. 



t K m, N. m 

—&, m, 335, A, 
BU, M. sac 

C IT. 170, to. 1?5 4, 

J 12 2m, /?. a:*^. 

IT N, 47(1, r. 143. 

2BS, r. m, E^ 
h .^r. r. 4oa. 

i <J. ]5& nmr. 

k App.A, ao mar. 

n r. fli, X. 47a. 
t} 4. ley, I. m 

t cf. IT 74ft-M- 
a 2. 51. 

V *, fi7, d, Ml. 
w 1^. 144, (T. 447, 
IF. SS. 



T'^v &^^ y' ^v^' JjtTTOtcJt^^ xal agpLaiSt Tti^itB'^ vhad'cci 
MvQiiidovcav Tt^otl a6tv %t^iKlvthv ^"^ ol^iv uvaaGBvJ 

og o[ tiqlvyexog^ yiv^TO ^(ja^gpog MiyuTrivd-fig 
ix^ dovXTig^ ^EMpt} 6h &€qI yovov ovxh' iipmvQVj 
inal #ij TO Tf^mtov' iyaCvato^ %atS^ i^atEiv^v^ 

[(iV ^^' ^i^ SaCvvvto «a#' vfegsfplg"^ ^iya dm^a 



U 



I' 



9. J^datv J^dvaaasv, 11. J^oi» 14. J^si9og. r6. fitai» 

9. ^totiqotI nsgl HarU es emond. antiq. certe si non ejusd. man. 12. f non- 
nulli; *E>l/vi]S Aristoph. Rhian., ScUol. M,, ita Harl. (f superscripto. 15— 0- hos 
VY. non Homeri sed Arist. esse afiirmabat Athen. fV. 180, SchoU. M. T., [j Bek. 
Dind. 17 — 9. [] Fa. 19. i^dgxovtog Athen. ub. sup. Wolf. i^dgxoviBg (ab 
Arist. fictum, Atben.) Em. CI. ed. Ozon. (Asaaov Harl. a manu pri. ita Low. 
(liccovg Harl. ex emend, recent, ita Bek. Dind. Fa. 



and begat Tisamenus.^' Schol. Another 
legend made O. kill Neoptol. patrias ad 
aras (Virg.^n.IIl.330— 2), te. probably 
at Delphi. Cf,al8oEarip.^n(/r. iii^foll. 

8—10. Ttifixe coresponds with riY^ro 
in 10, '^ sending^' his daughter as a 
bride, "bringing home'' a bride for 
his son. aCxv, no "city of the Myr- 
midones is named in B. 683 foil., nor 
in /. 440, 479-^80, where we might 
expect it, if at all : their land is Phthia. 
The Scholl. would identify Pharsalia 
with the site — XxaQTiiO'ev t. 6. his own 
city, where Alector dwelt, like Eteo- 
neos in 22, a grandson of Pelops and 
cousin of the AtridsB (Schol.). 

1 1. Ti^XvyeToq* The etymology which 
connects this with ^ijlvg d'dXlat suits 
best the decisive passage (pofiog idfis 
tJilvvBtov mg, and is justified by the 
paraphrastic expansion following in I. 

Tallin ivl TtolX^; see on a. i, 299, 
and cf. y. 383, 392, S, 788 for other 
instances of this usjige. — MeyaTfiV' 
B^^, ^f. for significance the scriptural 
names Benoni, Ichabod, etc. For the 
"great sorrow" which gave the name 
see App. £. 8 (16). 



12—4. 6ovkriq, see App, JT. 7 (i). 
The Scholl. have a name for her, va- 
riously given as Teris, Te'iris, Teri- 
dae, or Getis. The same notice a fit- 
ness in Helenas having no children after 
Hermion^, as tending to preserve her 
beauty, and avoiding the notion of her 
bearing any to Paris. Soph. Electr, 539 
says she had two bv Menel. inel has 
i by arsis. For iyelvavo see App. 
A. 20. 

15—9. These lines, some of which 
occur in 11. (mar.), are ascribed by 
Atheneeus to Aristarchns. KL and Bek. 
condemn them. Fa. rejects only vv. 
17—9, but L5we all vv. 3—19, ad- 
mitting, however, that zm d' aJt' in 
20 does not aptly continue 2. If only 
vv. 15 — 19 were omitted, the actual 
nuptials might be supposed over. This 
would be more consistent with the ab- 
sence of any further mention of a yd- 
pLog, That Menelaus' attention is ab- 
sorbed in his guests is hardly an ar- 
gument against the genuineness of the 
passage; since the Homeric narrative 
does not concern itself with groups not 
connected with the main narrative, 
save perhaps in a passage of transl- 



DAY v.] 



OATSZEUS A. 20-34. 



105 



zo ipci *' «vr* iv TCQO^vQOLet^ Soficnv avtcS^ tB xccl Ihtcg)^ 
TfiXi(iax6g ^' fJQGiQ xal Ni6tOQog dyXaog^ vlog^ 
€xri6Kv'^ o Sh 7tQO(iol<ov^ tSsro xQsiov 'Etscsvevg, 
itgriQog^ ^BQaTCfx^v MbvsXuov xvdaXt^oio^ 
§7l« S* [fiBV dyyBXiaiv Slcc ddfiata Ttoifiivi Aacoi/,^ 

15 dyxov^ #' htdiiBvog Ixbu ntBQOBVta jtQogrjvSa' 
"g«A/o dij UVB tcidB^ dyotQBq)}g'^ S MBviXaB, 

\ &vSqb dv», yBVB^ dh ^Log^ (iBydloto Itxrov. 
dXX* Btn* si 6q>mtv xuxalvaoiiBv^ dxiag litnovg^ 
rl a^Aoi/ xifiTCfOfiBv [xavi(isvj og xb q)iX7J07i,'^ 

JO tov°^ dh (liy^ 6xd^(fccg TtQogirpri ^avd'og MBvUuog 
"01; fiiji/ tnJTCiog ijorf^a, Bo7]d'o£97j 'Etbcdvbv, 
TO yeQ^v dtuQ (ihv vvv ys Ttdtg mg viJTtta fid^BLg, 
7] fkiv d'l) v(Si ^Btviji^a noXXd q)ay6vtB 
akXtov dvd'Qci7tc3v Sbvq* fxdfifd', af xb nad'i ZBvg 



a App. F. 2 (7) to 

(9) mar. 
b N. 684. 
c d. 303, o. 144, 

d. 1S8, K. 106. 
d 1}. 4. 
e S. 3S2. 
f d. 217, a. 109 

mar.; ui. 321. 
9 d. 52S, 679. 
h X- 100. Q. 349, 

•. 169, o. 9. 
i d. 561, P. 702. 
k *. 198, T. 111. 
1 1^. 6. 
m d. 332, o. 325. 



aa. J^idBxo, 25. finBce, 27. fifmxov. 

ao. ttvro/ ra xal S^irot alii, Bek. annot. 27. ysvitiv Schol. V. itatrjv var. 

1. Stephan. 32. aTcrp (trjv vvv Bok. vw i^^t^ id. annot. • $^, tpayovzsg Harl. 

Augsb. ita Bek, 34. pro at Bek. sC; pro nod't nota Bek, annot. 



UoA, as S, 621 — 4, where see note. 
The revelling suitors on the contrary 
are kept in view throughout the hos- 
pitalities of Telem. to the Pseudo- 
Mentes, bnt the suitors have a direct 
connexioin with the story. The question 
of fiii0€ap or niecovg is hardly worth 
discussing where the whole passage is 
so doubtful, ig fiiaaov often occurs 
(mar.) meaning *4nto the midst of a 
company '\ 

30—3. 7€QoS^(^oiai , see App. F. a 
(7) — (9).— S'eQuatmVs see on a. 109. 
The ^sgdnovtsg perform for Menelaus' 
guests duties discharged for those of 
Nestor by his sons; ef. y. 475—80 and 

SB— 43 *^f' 

27—8. yevei, **family type", that of 
a royal race, styled commonly Siaye- 
VBi^g or diorgstps^g; so X 474 avzm yag 
yBvsvv &y%iaxa i(o%Biv, — ktinov, 
Ni. allows a var, led, itKtrjVj since the 
speaker has them no loneer in yiew, 
or retiring in 24. For eijt' el Bek. 
writes efLTt* ij, but see on y. 90—1, 
^ 29. TtifiTtfxtfiiBV subjunct. coupled by 
7} to ind. fut. See App. A. 9 (5). 

31—3. Menelaus derived only injury 
from his hospitality to Paris, which jus- 
tifies Eteoueus' hesitation here (Schol.). 



It is characteristic of Menel. that he 
remembers the good that he has re- 
ceived rather than the evil; see App. 
E. 8 (10) (13). Eteoneus, once his 
comrade in war and wanderings, was 
now a neighbour (0. 96). — ov firtv, 
Bekker^s alteration of fkkv after ov,, 
Httl, ij, etc. to fimf {Homer. BlcUt, 34), 
wherever metre allows, has been fol- 
lowed only where there is some strong 
and emphatic abruptness of negation, 
as here and a, 222. Jelf , Gr, Gr, § 729, 
3. b., reading ov fi^i', notes this as a 
rare use of it in reference to what 
follows, dxag ftlv vvv x. z, I, For 
^BLViiia see ouIbCvi y. 490. 

33 —4» fpnyovxe, Bek. tpayovtBg^ 
but vm often has dual participle, e. g, 
ngotpavBica 9. 377—8, &. 314. Bek., 
however, even when vm has another 
dual word joined, as in 9. 282, vmi (isv 
dfitpotigmt prefers the fuller sound, 
fisvsijvaiiBv ogfirf^'ivtsg, for the end 
of the line {/lamer, Bldit, 31 — 2), which 
two MSS. favour. In 0. 398, in the 
i*** foot, the metre requires nCvovts, — 
IxofjiBO'' "are come'*, aor. forperf., ac- 
cordingly Off x« with subjunct. follows, 
meaning , " (trying to sec) if Zeus may 
hereafter (I|o7r/a(o, mostly of place, 



io6 



OATSZETAS A. 35-4?. 



[day v; 



a V 144; cr.^.4(il. 
b d. 812, 0. 342. 

c .r.4oa~i, <J.e67, 

«. 91. 
d X 4ft0. - 
e n. 657. 
f d. 23 mar. 
«• y. 324, E. 423, 
' r. 379, if. 77, X. 

246, M: 395, xV. 

570. 
h 0. 431. 
i J.604,cf. E.IJM}, 

(9. 5«i4, ISS-'J. 
k «. 358, r. 49B. 
I «.435;cf. y. 121, 

N. 261. 
m cf. Z. 252. 
n J. 338, i2. 80:i. 
o »;. 81-5. 
p rr. 296. 
q (f. 15 mar. 
r ;f. 181 , Si 633. 
s o. 4H2, X. 169. 
t o. 87— ^». /C.576; 

cf. y. 464-7. 
u a. 128. 



B^OTcidG)^ n6Q navarj^ ot^vog. aXXa Xv X%nov£ ; 

gftVov, £g **' avrovff iiQori^G)^ ays d'OLVi]d'rjvav,'^ 

(Sg fpd%'\ S*iH iiayaQOio dlsa0vto,*^ Tciiitsto^ 6^ aXkovg 
dtQrjQOvg^ ^SQccjtovtag a^a^ d7ti6^ai eot air^, 
0? d' "ijtTtovg (liv Xv0av vtco ^vyov [SQcaovtag^ 
xal Tovg fihv xcctedfj0av itp^ lnnhiri6i xairjtfrv,*^ a 

"naQ d* eficiXov ^etccg^'^ dva Sh XQt^ Xsyxov t^iiccv^ 
a^ftara^ 5' exXivav jcgog ivdnta Ttafitpavoiovtoc ^ 
avtovg d' eigrjyov"' d'€top S6(ioy' ot Sh iSovteg 
d'ccvficciov xarot d(S^a dcoTQsrpiog^ pa0iXijog' 
Sg zB^ yag i^eXiov^ aiyXrj TteXsv i^h 0€X7]vrig 4 

d(i5(ia xad"' vtl'SQSipig^ MBveXdov xvdaXL(iOLo, 
avtccg^ iitsl tdQ7t')]Cav OQciiisvot^ 6q)&aX(iot6LV ^^ 
Bg^ Q cc0a(iiv^ovg'^ pdvtsg iv^^0Tag Xovcfavto. 



38. feoi, 43. J^idovrsg, 



37. pro d' in dB Arist., Scholl. M. H. Q. R, 38. afj^' ^aniad'at Barnes, ed. 

Ox. Low., ttfta arciG^ctL Schol, %» 324 ita Bek. Dind. Fa. 39. Xvoav Arist., 

Schol. H,, Wolf. Dind. Fa. Low. ^Xvauv Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox. Bek. 



see mar., here of time) give us rest'*; 
see on a. 379—81. Zsvg^ the sacred- 
ness of hospitality suggests his name; 
cf. f. 270, TiBvq tTatiiir^ttoQ ... ^BCvfov. 

36. :tqotiQCii aye, *' lead them in", 
obeyed in siarjyov 43 : they were yet 
iv TtQod'vooiatj see 20 sup, 

38. OTteoO-ai, the question between 
this and icnic^ai seems settled (i) by 
the fact that cniad'ui suits every pas- 
sage, bat icniad'tti is excluded in %. 
324; (2) that compounds of ^nofiat drop 
the s, as ini^anofisvos ; (3) that oni- 
ad-ai being found mostly preceded by 
a vowel (a or s) was easily corrupted 
into icnsad'ai (mar.), and (4) by the 
analogy of ^%o> iaxov ax^ea^ai x. t. X, 
the same applies to cnBad'O) cnoifirjv 
<!n6fiBvog, Yet Buttm. (G^, Verbs) and 
Spitzner {Exc» X, ad IL) hold the 8- in 
all these to be correct as an old epic 
form. Heyne, Ni. , Bek., Thiersch, 
and Ahrens reject it. 

41. i€iccq, Virgil's farra (Geor, I. 73), 
resembling wheat, to which some on 
economic grounds prefer it, and said 
to be distinct from spelt, by which term 
some render olvqui, Ni. cites Sprengel 
HisL rex kerb, as showing this ; but lie- 
rod. II. 36 identiHes ^ftorl with okvQtti 
or with a species of it. In $, 604 



^fital are classed with nvQol wheat, 
and %Qt barley. In II. %qi and oXvQai 
are the usual horse-meat. Kruse, again 
{Hellas I. p. 341 note) cites Pliny (iV. 
H, XVIII. 19) to show that ^Bia is spelt, 
and is distinct from oXv^a^ which he 
makes a kind of wheat. The whole 
subject seems full of doubt. The word 
occurs also in d, 604 but nowhere else 
in H. 

4a. ive^Jtta, see App. F. 2 (8) and 
(16) end. 

43—7 • eloiiyov, sec on 36. Bladyo) 
has also a neut. sense (mar.). i^iXio^ 
akin to ^Xri etlrj **heat", and oeXnvfi 
to ciXag '* brightness", as giving light 
but no heat. H. has also fiijvri, akin 
to firjv fislg, mensis, for **moon", Sir 
G. C. Lewis, Anc. Astron. p. 17 (65). 
6(f<ofjiBVOi , middle, often means to 
survey with admiration; so here. 

48. Yoss would have the bath-cham- 
bers in the ngoSoiiog, on the right as 
one entered. The fullest description, 
however {%, 358 — 63), rather implies 
that there were no chambers specially 
80 used, but that with rooyeable ves- 
sels, a tripod was set up, a fire kindled, 
and water wanned, wherever conve- 
nient, the floor being the native earth 
App. F. a (17). 



DAY v.] 



OAr22:fc:iAS a. 49-66. 



107 



oaftyld' aga xXictvag ovXag fiaXov fiSl fttroJi/ag, 
^ ig ^a d'Q&i/ovg s^omo 7t<xQ^ 'ArQhC8i]v MeviXaov, 
XBQvi§a^ 8' AiilpiTtolog JtgbxScD iniy^avs q>iQOVfSa 

^ vitl^affd'av' TtaQct SI ^^€6t^v itavv&ds tQane^av. 
i^6irov d' aidoir] tafiif] nicQid'ijxe (pigovau^ 
stiata nolV ^jud'stifd^ ^[^(Jt^ofie'i'iy' irai^^oinrcjv^^ 



ISccitQog^ Si xqH^v^^ TCtvaHag TCaQi^rinsv Ststgag 
Teiivioicav ^ ytafix Si 6q)i tC^Bi yovtSHuv,vnBkXa.'] 
^ %(o xal Siixvyjisvog^ TCQogifprj %avp'og Msvikaog 
So'^^lvidv^ 9"' &7CXB0%'ov xal xj^t^stov' avtctQ lititra 
SeiJtvov ^a66a(iivG)^ itjpijiyoftefr' 01 TtWs^ itsrov 
dvSQfSv oi yaQ ci<pSv ye yivog anokcoke xoxi^mVy^^ 
aAA' dvSQfSv ysvdg idrl Svoxgerprnv^ ^acfvlrjov 
0xi]ict6v^Gw y iTtsl ov %e xccxol roLovgoB liaxoiBvy^^ 
65 iSg q>drOy xaC pwiv v^ta^^ fiodg itaQct nCova ^^xev 
&rr' Bv jrf^cTfci/" eiiov^ xd gd oi yiga^ ndQd'S0av avx^. 



cf. 



a Si. 587. 

b a. 136-42 msr 

c Q. 331. 

d n. 49-50. 

e cf. y. 41. 

f cf. |. 4t>-7. 

«: y. 69-70 

Si. 641. 
h t. 252. 
i cf. t. 163. 
k J. 176, H. 98 

ef. d. 24 mar. 

27, n. 401. 
1 cf. yJ. i76-7. 
ni ^. 475, ^ 437 

H. 321. 
n O, 474. 
J. 49. 



50. fovXagl' ^ 61. J^sigrjaonBd''. 



66. foL, 



51. naga ^dvd'ov Miv. pro var. 1. notat Schol. H. 54. ^scttjv Harl, text, et 
8chol., XQva^v mar. 57. 58. omittit Harl., [J plerique edd. 61. navectfifvtD 
Harl. cum 8chol. 62 — 4. f Aristoph. et Zenod.» Scholl. H. M, [] Bek. 

62. 6qtmv Arist. et Herod., a<pcov (quod legi volunt Sclioll. M. V.; Apollon.. 

\Scholl. H. M. 



50 — 1. ovXaq, "of crisp wool", see 
App. A, 3 (2). - eg is used, as s^ovro 
a verb of rest implies previous motion, 
Jelf €rr. Or, §, 641. i. — B'QOVOV, see 
on «. 131 — 2. 

52 — 8, see on a. 136 — 42, whence 
these lines recur. In the Harl. M8. 
57 — 8 are wanting. They en camber 
the passage, as the action of Menel. 
In 65 — 6 inf, supersedes that of the 
duitQog here; see also on «. 140 — 3, 
and the readings in the inferior mar- 
gin there. 

59—61. dBiscvvfiisvoq , see on y. 41. 
Contrast with Menel ans' courtesy in 
60 — 1, and that of Nestor y. 69 foil., 
the abrupt question of Polyphemus in 
I. 252. — ifeixvov, see on 194 inf. 

62. C4pd}V, the common text has 
Gq>&v^ but this dat. dual contracted, 
althongh common in Attic Greek, is 
nowhere else found in H. Similar dual 
forms at vaty vmXv, vatttsgoe, afptot- 
tBQog, also ay Old contraction, which 



has been one ground for rejecting vv. 
62 — 3. Ni. proposes to take crqpcov (the 
vulgate according to Eustath.) as in- 
stead of vii(ov^ which sense he ascribes 
to a Scliol., who only says it is to be 
referred to the 2°** ptrson, and means 
probably to take <fq>£v as gen. plur. 
of a(p6g in sense of ctpattsgog {A. 216): 
47970$ might indeed as well be posses* 
sive of 6(pia or (Kpcas *'you two", as of 
acpstg **they". There is no other in- 
stance in H. of arpog for the 2"** person. 
Nor yet is Homeric analogy against it, 
as it is against c<p&v for acpoiXv, — /£• 
roq, apparently used like ysvfrj 27 «wp., 
"the type of your parents is not lost" 
in you. 

65. vcHra, the chine, pi. as con- 
taining both loins, was the special por- 
tion of honour; so (mar.) Odys. sends 
part of that which Alcinous had as- 
signed to him to Demodocus. 

66. If the lines 3 — 19 (see on 2) be 
an interpolation, this verse should also 



io8 



0AT2:£EIA2 A. 6y— 75. 



[day V. 



a a. 149-50 
b (T. 444. 
c a. 167 mar. 
d o. 167, E. 440, 

5*. 3, 470. 
e£. 243, 826, K. 

234, ^. 608, T, 

287, ^. 23. 
1 Ji. 83, ^ 268, o. 

437; cf. »/. SG-I. 
g 0, 460, a. 295. 
h A. 704; cf. y. 

424. 

i y. 123. 



avxag inal 7to0Log xal iSrirvog il^ bqov evto, 

Si) tore TrjXeiiaxog TCQogsqxDves NiaroQog vlov^ 

ay%i^ (?jrdi/ xs^ccX-^Vy iva fi^ jtshd'oia^^ ol aXXot' J 

%tcXxov^ t€ iSt€Q07i^v xatot dcifiata rixi^svta^ 
XQvaov r' 'qkix:rQOv^ re xal aQyvQOv i^rf' iX^fpdvrog. 
Zrivog Ttov toiijds y' ^OkviinCov ivSo%£v aiXfi^ 
oaaa tad' &0:tBra ^ Ttekkd. 66pag'^ (i' ixsv eigoQomvxa.'^ 7 



72. frixriBvxa, 



70. ita Zenod., nBy^oiuxo &IX01 Arist, Sclioll. H. M. 72. xal ^(Ofkaxa Harl., 
fortasse e nad dcouocza (Barnes. Dind. Fa. Low.) corrupte ortam, Bek. xorta 9. 
74. toiocvtu doiioig iv XDj/ttartt TiBCxtxi Schol. P. et Seleucns ap. Athen. V. 189, 



be rejected, as there is then no ap- 
positeness in the mention of Menel. 
haying had the Tmxu set before him 
first. 

71—2. £/M0 X6X* O-; cf. Virg. >E7t. 
XII. 142 , animo gratissime nostra, X«iL- 
xoVf cf. Ov. Fast, VI. 363, cerata per 
atria, 

73. TiXexxQOV 3 the sense of amber 
may safely be preferred to that of the 
admixture of gold with Vs ^^ silver 
(Pliny N. H, XXXIH. 4), of which So- 
phocles probably speaks, Antig. 1037, 
as tov ngog ZdoSstov ^Xcx., and couples 
with Indian gold. In Hes. Scut, 142 
it occurs in conjunction with gold, 
ivory, and xixavog (commonly supposed 
gypsum), as a material of embellish- 
ment. Hesiod Fragm, 355 notices the 
fable of the daughters of the Sun being 
changed to poplars and their tears to 
amber, which looks, like the mythical 
statement of a mere natural fact. On 
it the lost Elxades of iEschylus was 
based and the PJiagthon of Euripides. 
Qi, also the name *'Electra'\ and the 
"KXinxqai nvXat (^schvl. TAeb. 418). 
The derivation from ijAexToop (name of 
the Sun) is probable, and suits its 
glittering golden hue ; although Buttm. 
Mythol. 162 prefers to derive it from 
tXna}, as if el'ntQOVy ^'the attracter". 
Amber being a primitive substance is 
more likely to have given its name to 
the compound metal than conversely. 
Herod. III. 115 knew of it as a com- 
mercial commodity fetched, as was said, 
from the fabulous (as ho thinks) river 
Eridanus. See Rawlinson^s Herod, and 
notes ad loc. The vast antiquity of 



amber, being found, as here, in do* 
mestic ornamentation among the rem- 
nants of the lacustrine villages of 
Switzerland, which are apparency pre- 
historic {Revue de deux mondes Febr. 
f86i), and in tombs of the *' bronze*' 
period, gives a probability to its rather 
being meant here than the metallic 
vXsyixQOv, The use of the plur., too, 
rjXiTiXQOiaiv hgxo or isgfiivov (og- 
uov mar.), surely suits the notion of 
"lumps of amber'*, and is inapplicable 
if it were a metal. The Baltic Prus- 
sian region is. not the only one where 
it is found. Sir Q. C. Lewis, who views 
it as amber here, speaks of a larg^ 
lump (i8'i*) said to have been found 
in Lithuania, and now at Berlin (Jnc, 
Astron, VIIL § 4, 461). 

74. Cf. for the idea Hy. Merc. 251 
ota d'B&v fiaTLdgaiv tegol foiiov ivxog 
^j^civ, A var, lect. Zrivog nov to*- 
avxa dofioig h 7ixrj(i€CTa nstxixi is re- 
tained by Athenseus, which better suits 
Ttxi^fiaxa 79; xoii]9e also hardly leads 
apply to ocaa, Ki. remarks that avX'q 
is the court without, which the speaker 
saw not when he spoke: but the si- 
milar amazement of Odys. at Alci- 
nous' palace refers to its outer deco- 
ration, nglv 2<^>lx€oy ovdov hicd'ai. 
Besides, Telem. sitting within might 
easily express his thoughts of what had 
struck him first on entering and was 
continued around him; a continuation 
which Movsv easily suggests, and 
avX^ itself may even be conceived as 
put for all that it contained, viz. the 
utYccoov, Cf. /. 404, ocau Xdtvog ov- 
^6g tttp^xogog ivxog iigysi. 



DAY v.] 



OATSSEIAS A. 76—89. 



109 



roiJ 8* ayoQBvovrog l^eto l^avO'dg MeviXaog^ 
xa£ 6(peag^ q)C}v^(fag iitBu sit €(f6avt a XQogijvSa' 
//''xixva q)ik\ ^ rot Zijvl PQOtmv oi5x &v tig ig^oi,'^ 
t d^dvarot yccQ tov ye 86(ioi xal xtijfiav* £a4Siv' 
iodvdQoiv 8* ij xav tig [lOi iqis^Btai,^ 'qh^ xal ovxl 
xtfj(ia0iv. ^ yccQ noila xad'mv xal srdAA' in€cli]9'dg^ 
i^yayoiifiv^ iv vriv6l^ xal 6y8odtp« it€i> ^A^oi/, 
KvTCQOVy^ 9oivlxriv'^ ts xal AlyvjctCovg^ iTCalrjd'slg ^ 
Ai^iondg^ 9'* [xofiijv xal ZtSoviovg"^ xal ^EQeiifiovg 
J5 xal Ai^vriVy^ Xva ir' aifVBg aq>aQ xsquoI taXid'0v6iV' 
tglg ydg tixtsi fiijXa taX€gg>6Q0v^ eig ivvavtdv. 
ivd'a (ilv oiks ava^ ixUfevfjgy (wtB ti 7toL(ir^v 
tvQ(yv^ xal XQSuSvy ovih yXvxaQOto ydXaxtog, 
aXV aal %aQi%ov6iv ixijstav&v^ ydXa Q^eO'at.^ 



a O. 145. 
b cf. «.213, J. 389. 
c E. 172. 
d a. 268 mar. 
a o 170, 401. 
I H. 389—90, X 
115—6. 

f 5.362,0.442-3, 

448.u<:21. 
i ^ 291; ef.y.272, 

0.415-9, !F.744. 
k y. 300, d. q. Q. 

smpims, I. 382. 
1 a. 22-3, •. 282, 

2S7, A. 423, V. 

206. 
m 0.425, Z.29U—], 

f^. 743, |. 295. 
n f 296;et. J.441. 
X. 267, ^. 292, 

230. 
p M.299ief.I.225. 
q (. 219, 225, 232, 

V. 69. 
r t. 86 mar. 
• i2 58. 



77. J^inea, 82. J^itsi, 8$. tva ^uQvsg. 87. fdvul, 

83. noDnnlli in ilrjO'stg Schol. Y. 84. ita Arist., alii 'Egsfivovg et ^EQUfiPove, 
BchoU. H. M. Q^E., Zeno Zidoviovg "Aga^dg rf, Scholl. H. M. 85. pro tvce 
Herod. IV. 29, S&i. 86. pro tplg nonnalli dig, SchoII. H. M.; hunc v. Bek. 

nostro 88 postposuit. 



78. igi^oi^ this verb found with dat. 
and ace. (mar.), and with double dat.; 
see 80, 81 and mar. there. For the 
sentiment see App. £. 8 (3). 

80. ii xiv ziq ••• 'ik xal avxl, the 
question is suggested without prepon- 
derance intended towards either alter- 
natiye: the mar. giyes examples both 
of this force of the phrase and of its 
use to show preponderance, mosUj, 
but not alwaji3, towards the first. 

83. VY^y** often used for bringing 
home a wife, here for treasures etc. 

83 — 5 , for the countries and peoples 
mentioned see App. D. 10 — 13 

83. ixaX., Eustath. gives in' «Jl?;- 
^ttg^ ''came to the true, t. e. sooth- 
saying Egyptians^*, if this were adopt- 
ed, we should recognize a play on the 
word at end of 81, cf. QuiaiXB ttui^v 

^i^aato (taiov^ Sl» 57—8; alrj- 

d-Big might also mean '*just''; cf. M, 

433- 

85. ^erod.» IV. 29, quotes this line 
with S9'i for tva; he says,^ on the xe- 
oaol, doniH 9i fiot xal to yivog tav 
pomv 10 TioXov 9i,a tavta av q>vsiv %i- 
gea avtod^i {iv ty Irtcw^txJ), (lagtv- 
oin di fiov %7i yv(oyi>i[i xal *0(iiJqov inog 
\ 'OSvGGsitjj Bxov dSe' og^ag 



I; 



stg7}fisvoVf iv toioi ^hoiioiai, xa%v ntx- 
gayCvBOtai ra xe^«a,^ iv Sh tOLaiiexv- 
goici, nliv^sai Jl oy qfVBt iilgea xu xxjj- 
vsa dgxfiVy ^ tpvovxa q>vBi> fioycg* Ni. 
compares Aristot. Bisi, Anim, VIII, a8, 
xal iv iihv Ai^vjj sv&yg yCvizai xi- 
guxa i%Qvzu xcc TtBgattodTj xoov %gtd)v, 
"the sort of rams which have horns 
are born at once with them'\ For 
which Ni. suggests' tsgaxiodri , but there 
is no xigag in the matter. Buffon 
{Transl. 1791) says of the ram, without 
regard to country, that "his horns ap- 
pear the first year and often €U birth'^ 
adding that in warm countries ewes 
can produce twice a year. The goat 
goes about 5 months with young; hence 
3 concBpiions in the year would seem 
possible. Thus poetic exaggeration re- 
cedes within narrow limits. The yap 
in 86 means, *^all increase is rapid 
in proportion, for the ewes etc.'' Bek. 
transposes the line to come after ydXa 
^<F'9'ai, so yielding a neater but not 
a more Homeric structure. Had it 
stood. so at first, it is difficult to think 
it could have been altered. 

89. ixtfeT*, perenne, derived from 
riB' =^dBlj with -zavog cf. annot-inus 
diu-tinu8 Lat. So Doederlein § 1040, 



no 



OdT2:2:EIA2 A. 90-106. 



[day v. 



a y. 301, ^ 323. 

b y. 32!. 

e *. 39. 

d X. 410, 01. 97. 

« a. 402. 

f A. 12o. 

gr J. 492. 

h a. 404. 

i W. 269. 

k /9. 312, fA. 347, 

o. 169, *. 272; 

cf. C. 284, fti. 427. 
1 cf. A. 117. 
m 2. 246, y. 2G3, 

B. 2&7, Z. U2. 
n fi. 23, S. 40, I. 

612, Si. 128. 
o i2. 10, uf.84-5, 

506— ». 
p r. 23. 
q cf. T. 221. 
r X. 212; i2. 624. 
8 X. 424— 5, d. 819, 

|. 142, O). 250, 

¥*. 2?2. 
ljr.405;cf.ir.788, i 

T. 30»-7, 346. 



f?os ^yci jrapl xsivcc nokvv fiiorov CvvayalQcuv^ 
i^XG)(iriv,^ teiog (loc ddal(psov akXog InftpvBv 
Idd^QYly dvcoL0tlj^ dolcD ovko^ivTi]g^ dX6%oiO' 
(Sg oii tot xcciQCDV totgSs xrsdtsaaLv dvd06a.^ 
xal jcccT8QG)v rdds^ (niXXBt* dxovsfiBv^ of tvvsg v(itv 
bIoIvj ind ^dXaS jtoXk^ iTtad'Ov^ xal dTtaileaa olxov 
ev (idla vauxdovxtt^^ xe%av86tu^ nokXd^ xal iad'Xd, 
wv og)€Xov tQtrdtijv tibq l%(ov iv dcj^ccOt ^oIquv 
vaiBiv^ of d' avdQBg^ Hoot SiiiiBvcci, ov tot' oXovro 
Tgoirj iv BVQBiy^ Bxag^A^yBog^ Ititco^oxoio. 
d}X ffiTcrig ^^vrf)ig (isv dSvQOfiBvog^ xal dxBVOi^ ] 

noXldxig iv ^eydgoiiSi xa&rjfiBvog 7](iBXBQ0iacv . 
aXXoxs^ (Aiv XB yoG) g>QBva rignofiaL^^ aXXoxB d' avie 
Tcavo^at' alip^rjQog^ Sh xogog XQVBQoto yoot^o^ — 
xcjv Ttdvtcov ov xoOfSov 6dvQ0(iaL^^ dxvv(ist*6g ^bq^ 
(og Bvog, og xs fioi vtcvov dTCB^d'aiQBi^ xal iSosdi^v ] 
Hvci)0[iivG}j iTtsl ov xig 'J^aicSv ird<?<T' iiidyr^OBv 



93. J^avdanio. 95. J^oHov, 99. Ss%ag» 

90. ^cag tnentur ed. Ox. Fa. Low., slog Bek. Dind. secuti Thiersch § 168, 10, 

etag Harl. et Scholl. E. Q. 93 f nonnulli. contra ridical6 sabjnngnnt alii 

ov9i XI fiovlofievog dlXoi nQatsg^g vn* dvdyTiTjg. 94 — 6 [] Bek. 97. nug- 

ivov pro TCiq ^x^V Harl. 99 f nonnulli. 100 — 3. [] Bek. 



and Cnriius 353; Bek. from writing 
inrjj^itavog seems to adopt the affinity 
of fitog annus f which Crusius also 
gives. ^^aS'ait ep. for ^cta&m (^d<o). 
The only other part found in H. is 

94. fiiXXet' is imporf., cf. 9. 181, 
It. 232 

95. d7€ciX€4fa olxov* The commen- 
tators say, **his own house". But it 
is odd in accoanting for his prenent 
wealth to enumerate his losses. The 
words will not easily cohere with what 
follows in this sense, nor with yLultt 
nolX' ^nad'ov preceding in any other. 
Bek. cuts the knot by putting these 
lines in his margin. The fact is that 
Menel. is strong in feelings and weak 
in power of expression. On the whole 
retrospect, the melancholy to which 
his character leans, tinges all the cir- 
cumstances; and ho dwells rather on 
the break up of his home and the for- 
mer contents of it, than on the sub- 
sequent enrichment, which is more in 



the way of the topic of the moment, 
but which he leaves to be understood. 
The %tT^fi<xtu carried off by Paris are 
often mentioned among the objects to 
be won back by the war (r. 70, 91, 4C8). 
The whole is a specimen of the int^ 
tgoxdd'rjv dyoQSvsiv ascribed to Menel. 
See App. E. 8 (4) (5) (16) (17). The 
difficulty has led to the suggestion that 
olnov means that of Priam, yielding 
a very feeble sense. 

96. TtoXXd xal iaS'Xd, these ad- 
jectives, combined in various genders 
and cases, are. a favourite formula 
closing a line (mar.). 

100. 66vq6fM,*s here with ace, but 
104 — 5 with gen. 

105. dnex^alQ^iy in a rare sense, 
*' grudges me my sleep and food'^ t. e. 
makes me take less, the bold figure, 
imputing as to Odys. the effect of his 
involuntary absence, expresses well die 
ardent feelingn of the speaker; cf. l^ 
560, Zivg — Gxgatov f^x^fiffB^ "bore 
a grudge" to it. 



DAY v.] 



0AT22EIAS A. 107-123. 



Ill 



• 066' 'OSvaavg i(i6yri66'^ xai iJQato.^ tc5 d' &q' iiisXXsv*' 
avxfp xfjdB' f6s6d'ac^ i[iol 8' &%og alhv aXaOtov^ 
xsivov^ o7t(og Stj driQOV^ anoCxBxai^ ovSi xi td^sv/ 
oiciet? 3 y' ^' ri^v^KSv, oSvQovtai^ vv tcov avrov 
AaiQTtig^ d' 6 ysQCOv xal ixicpQCOV^ IlTivsXoJtsta 

I Trilsiiaxos^ d'\ ov iXstTis veov ysyadt'"' ivl otxip,^' 
Sg^ q)dro^ t^ S' uga naxgog v(p*1ii€Q0v dgas yoovo' 
SdxQv^ d* and fiXetpaQcav xafidStg^ fidXe nazgog cixovoag^ 

£5 xXatvav^ 7Cogg>vghjv avr oipd'alfiohv dvaax(ov 
clfiq)Ot€gij0vv^ X^g^i^ v&i]0b Si fiiv Mevilaog^ 

) (legfujgtl^e* 8' inBita xarcc q>gava xal xccrd d'V[i6v 
i^i (iiv ccvtov Tcatgog idOBis (ivrja^vai^ 
rj TtgfSt' iJ^sgioito ixaatd re n6igii0aito. 

Zo elog 8 ravQ'^ Sg^aivB^ xatd ipgsva xal xatd d'V(i6vy 
ix 8' 'EXivi]^ d'aXdfiOLo'^ d^dSsog vfogofpoto 
fjXvd'ev^ l^prfijutdt^ XgvariXaxdtci^ iixvla. 
' ry tf' ag' aft' 'ASgr^Ctri xAttfijjvy svtvxxov id^mxav^ 



a d.151— 2,170, 1^. 

307 7 cf. J. 240-1. 
b a. 240, :£. 165. 
c t 165. 
d a. 342 mar. ; cf. 

t 174. 
e X 37fi, 0. 270, 

a.31S,u.2t6.290. 
f 
gr ». 132, d. 837, 

i 464. 
h n. 740. 
i $. 9, 172, 451. 
k g. 390, 01. 204. 
1 / 141. 
m t. 400. 
n SI. &07 , d. 188, 

W. 10«. 
o F. 437-«. 
p O. 435, 714 , 77. 

136, p. 193,;^. 04, 

118, P. 43S. 
q d. 154, t. 225. 
r •. 528. 
8 if. 151, v. 10, fti. 

235, E. 671, 6>. 

169. 
t «. 365-6, 424, 

t. 118, A. 193, 

2 15. 
u cf. o. 123. 
V cf. 0. 191-2, 31 7. 
w n. 183. r. 70. 
X cf. d. 131. 
y a:. 58e, N. 240. 



109. J^C9[LBv. 112. S-oUm, 119. fi%otata, 122. fnxvict, 

113. opa£ Harl. a man. pr. 115. alii 09>^aXf(0t<rtv. 119. re nBiQ^atciro 

Stepban. Wolf, f^vd^aatro Em. CI. ed. Ox, x' iirf^piftfatTO [i, e. insQazq- 
CBiBv) alii, Scholl. H. M. ^. 120. foog ut sup.^ad v. 90. 123. fffi* 'itfdpifcrri? 
Arist. et Herod. SfLtt Sqtictti Scholl. H. M.; svuxvuxov Plarl. nnde fiek. sibi 
duxit svntVTitov, sea svxmttov Schol. H. marg., alii omnes nos'tram lect. tiientar. 



108. aXaOtov, see on a. 252. 

109. 07tm^ ^h J^' X, X., this should 
be referred to ht^Sb' head'ai, in 108, 
as well as to iiiol d* ixog x. t. X. 
Sxcag like guoniam or ^t/oif := '* since or 
seeing that", takes indie; see Heyne 
Exc, III. ad II, A, 251, 677. 

113. Aristotle (Rhet. I. 11. 12) quotes 
this verse to prove that %al iv xotg niv- 
9'€6i nul d'Qijvoig iyyivBxui Ttff iidovri 
K. X, X, 

114— 8. x^fid6iq with nias, pdls^ 
lis etc. is constantly found in this same 
metrical position (mar.). /MOfiiiigi§€, 
a favourite phrase, when followed by 
111 ...rij to express wavering between 
alternatives; see App. £. 8 (17) for 
Menelans^ slowness of resolve ; cf. also 
the repetition of the formula nearly 
verbaiim 120 inf. The poet by repeating 
it means to give prominence to this 
characteristic. vofjCS knew (mar.), not 
as usually ** perceived". 

122. XQ^^'^Xax^ The word ^laxdtrj 



in 131 means the "distaff" which held 
the wool for spinning (v. 135 inf.): in 

gQvariXa%, it means "arrow", each 
eing a shaft of reed terminating in 
a point. So an arrow is called con- 
temptuously aroofxtog "spindle" inThu- 
cyd. IV. 40. i^ldnoizu pi. ueut. is the 
wool as held for spinning ; see 17. 105, 
d' 3i5> It was carded or combed (tcc^xoi, 
^ccipwy %, 423) by the handmaids, who 
also spun and wove with their mistress. 
Helen is industrious even amid her 
Trojan loxury, designing in her web 
the combats of the war waged on her 
account {P. 125, Ni.).^ 

123. The reading Uficc SQijatr^ may 
be barely noticed. ^ We have dpij- 
<Tt7fp masc. and dgi^atsi^oc fem.; see 
App. A. 7 (4); but Sqriaxri is highly 
doubtful. xXicli^v Bvtvxxovy "well- 
fashioned seat", in same sense as xXt- 
0/Lto?, see on u. 132, which name is 
used for it in 136 inf. Penelope's xXt- 
airi in r. 55 is wreathed, i. e. carved^ 



115^ 



OAXrSEIAS A. 124-139. 



[day v. 



a K. m, d. 298, 

17. 337. 
b (. 247, 2. 688. 
c I. 381-2. 
d J. 48 mar 
e J. 122, 264. 
f I. 201. 

y ». 439, 0. 106. 
h a. 357. (T. 136. 
i d. 616, 0. 116. 
k \p. 189. 
I «. 426. 
m SI. 697. 
21 2. 380, «. 131, 

», 816, 867.- 
<r. 632. 
p X. 5S4. 
q2. 385. 



0vkci d' d(fyv(f£OV rdXtHQOV^ fpiqB^ xov ot ISmxBv 
'AXxdvSQfjy Ilokvfioto SdiiaQf Sg ivaL* ivl Siffiys"^ 
AlyvictCys^ oQ'i nXBt6ra dofioig iv xt^^fiava xsttuv 
og Msvsldta S(3x6 dv' dqyvQiag a6aiiiv^ovgy^ 
SoLOvg ith XQtTioSag^ Sixa 81 XQvaoto tdXavta.^ 
XCDQlg 8' ftvd'' 'EXevTj aXoxog noQe^ xdlli(ia^ 8(SQa' 
XQV^ifjv r ' i^Xaxdttjv^ tdkaqov ^^ vnoxvxkov hca66ev 
d^yvfetn/ ^ XQVOp^ 8' inl %£tA£a xsxffuf&ino. 
t6v ^d ot dnq>ixokog <^vlfo naqid^xe (p^QovOa 
vtjiiatog d6xriroto^ fiafiv^nivov avrccQ fV aiJr^ 
iji,axdtri tsrdvvCto io8v£g)hg^ bIqoq ix^vaa. 
fgfro" 8* iv xli^iiiS^ {m8 81 d'ifijwg no6lv ^^v." 
avtixcc d' fj y* inhMi no^iv iqhivBv exadta. 
'^i8^£v^ 8ijj Mevikas SioxQ^tpig^ ol tivsg ot8e 
dv8Q(Sv svxsTOiovrccL^ txavifiev^ i^^itaQOv 8(S; 



r iV^/ 133. /ot. !$$, J^toSvstphg. isj, J^STtsaai Sinastcc, i^S. J^iSfiBv. 

128. aQyvQSOvg Bek. annot. ^ ^ 131. XQVffiriv Barnes. XQvaijv Venet. Em. CI. 
ed. Ox. 134. avtov et avvoi^ Bek. annot. 139. Bvxst6mv%o Schol. Vulg. 



with ivory and silver. Pindar and En- 
rip, also use %Xia£cc for a couch or bed 
(Pyih. IV. 236, AlcesL 994). Perhaps 
the chair, like Penelope's, had a stool 
7cqoaq>v8 is avt^ff "fashioned of a 
piece with it^', as one is mentioned 
136 inf. In II. nXiairj svt. or BUnrjTizog 
means *'tent or hut". 

123—5. Oirce has four diitpinoXot, 
Penel, commonly two — the ^usual 
number, probably, Helen being Jiog 
iytysyavtcij the poet amplifies her state. 
See App. £. 9 (8) for her tasteful in- 
dustry. rdXfXQOV, **basket", elsewhere 
as containing cjieese or fruits (mar.). 

126. For the wealth of Thebes, and 
its hundred gates see mar. The name 
is plur. Herod. II. 15 says the name 
"Egypt'* anciently belonged to Thebes, 
meaning evidently the Thebaid or • 
"upper" Egypt. In i. 477 the Nile 
is called AHyvntog, 

128 — 9. '* Bath- vessels" do not else- 
where occur as presents. There is a 
subtle propriety in ascribing such gifts 
to Egypt, the land of punctilious ablu- 
tions, r^htoda^ soe on a, 137. The 
nom. is xp^srovff, and X. 164 xginog, 

131. VTtoxvx.y following the ana- 
logy of vnoQ^rivog^ based like this on 
A noun, it should mean, **haviug %v%Xoi> 



under it", i, e., "on wheels". Some 
explain it "somewhat round", but we 
do not find vno — in adjectival com- 
pounds so used by H., who for "round" 
has %v%XoxBQiig and nBQiTQO%og^ 

132. inX • • • xex^^davrai, see App. 
A. 8 (i) and note. Buttm., Gr, Verbs 
p. 154 note, suggests that %qu{v& is 
contracted from %QBaCv(ia y \mi its pro- 
bable connexion with %iQd ngd-xog 
points to x^a— as the form, in sense 
of "put a head to" and so finish off; 
further shown in 9", 390 —i %uxd dfj' 
(iov paatXiiBg aQxol %guivpvaiy "are 
th6 head or chief"; cf. %i^aCvtov 
x^gds xijg x^gagj Soiphoc. Oeed.Col 296. 

134. ^epviTfi* "crammed", §va> does 
not occur elsewhere in H., but Herod. 
YI. 125, uses it to describe Aristago- 
ras* mouth stuffed up (ipi^vaxo) with 
gold in Darius* treasury. The vjjiia 
was what she had spun: hence the 
basket^s repletion denotes her industry. 
The lo6veq>hq BiQOq, *Mark-hued 
wool", was her raw material. 

138 — 9« 'idfiBV (epic and Ion. for 
t^iiBv, Donalds. Gr. Gr, p. 289 note i), 
"do we know?" t. e, have they yet 
declared themselves? — alluding to the 
rule of not asking them at first, see on 
59-~6iA2fp. evx£T<><k>^^o(Oseeona. 172. 



DAY v.] 



OATSSEIAiS^ A. 140-153. 



"3 



oik* &vSq* ovrs yvvatxa {0i^ag^ f*' ix^L slsoQOcoaav) 
dg od' *OSv60rlog ^syaXijto^g vU eoixsv^ 
Ti^l€li<iXG>^^ rov iXsLns viov y^yafer' ivl otxG) 

ijlib'sd'*^ VTcb TgoCriVj tcoIs^ov ffgadvp bg^uCvovtegP 

xiiv 8* axaiistfiofisvog XQogifti ^avQ'dg MeyiXaog 
'^ovtG> vvv xal iyd yoicoj yvvdi^ (6g 6v itifxkg'^ 
xBivov yccQ tovoids noHsg^ toiaCds re xetQsg 
50 6ipd'al(nSv re ^oXal^ xsipiiXi] r' i<pv7csq%i xb xo^^tra^-?* 
xal vvv ij rov iyio^^^v^fi^tig dii(p* *08v6'^v 
livd'sofiTjv^ ooa XBlvog ott^ccg i(ioyfi6sv^ 
dli(p* i(iol^ avTccQ o ^ixgSv vz* 6g>Q'6ifti SiixQvovf bX^'bVj 



a K. 534. 

b ^.5M— 5, T.187. 

c T. 380; cf. y. 

124-6. 
d i. 75. 
e d. 112. 
f q. 243, ip. 201. 
gr r. 180, 2. 396, 

». 319. 
h K. 28. 
i V. 313, n. 187, 

V. 362. 
k »f . 627. 
1 q. 283, a>. 161. 
m ?. 230 - 1 , xfj. 

157-8. 
n ^. 106 mar. , y/. 

307. 
6 ^. 531, X. 39t, 

9r. 219, 332, w. 

233, 280 



140. 



J^egsat, 141. fsj^omozci J^idiad'ai! 143. J^eJ^omsv, 144. fo^wp. 



141. pro Idia&ai, Schol. £. yBvkaO'ai. 143. Harl. supra jLteyailTfTOpo^ s^riptum ha- 
bet Tttilacr^^povoff ; mox pro vli (quod prlmo fuerat) tr£^^. 146. i]^*^^^ ^hol. M. 



140^ tlfBvOouai ri e. €., cf. jJ. 132 
J;aJ«f o y' ^ tiS'VTjHSy which might he 
read as a question, like this. 

143 — 4. Helen with feminine quick- 
ness (whilst Mex^el. was spelling out the 
several features, 148 — 50), discerning 
the likeness, contracts the argument, 
"this is very like Odys. and therefore 
probably his son", into "this is very 
like the son of Odys.". 

145. xwc^Ttiifoq, a term of vehe- 
ment reproach. The same is applied 
by Hephaestus to his faithless wife in 
^* 319* which strengthens the argu- 
ment in App. £. 9 (5). Achilles re- 
proaches. Agam. in A, 225 as %vv6g 
oiifittt' I'ro)!/. See also 0, 423, <^. 481. 

148. etaxco {fBf{0%m), or ta%ai 
(JFi9%m\ means "to think like", as 
here, or "make like", as in 279. They 
are kindred formii of bH<o wh. only 
occurs in imperf. ; see Buttm. Gr, Verbs 
8, V. Bt%(o, So 21, 520 CfpCeiv il%B, i. e. 
^ddxffr, "it seemed to them likely". 

149. TOioids jnodeq it. t, X, That 
the physical family type should be 
marked in the descendants was per- 
haps prized as conveying a proilnise 
of moral likeness also. Thus Nestor 
found the fJkvd'Ot of Teletn. like his 
father^s y. 124. In a, 208 the Pseudo- 

HOM. OD. I. 



Mentes finds the head and eyes of 
Telem. like his faiher^s , who is 
generally described in' F. 193 -r- 8. 
SfeneL here notices th« feet, hands, 
and not only the head but its hair 
(which in Odys. is described [f. 231, 
V. 176] as crisp and black, and "like 
the hyacinth", probably in its curling 
line), also th6 ^dXai, "glances or looks", 
of his eyes ; comp. Yirg. Mn. III. 490," 
Sic oculos, sic ille Tnanus, sic or a ferehat^^ 
So Penel. (t. 359) notices' the travel- 
worn hands and feet of the guest as 
perhaps like her husband^s, supposing 
him aged by toil; and f^yctea ob- 
serves, not quite consistently (r. 381), 
the whole figure (^s/Ltag), the voice, and 
the feet y as like her lord^s, r. e, as she 
remembered him. From the notice of 
nodsg we may infer that the feet were 
so far at any rate bare as to show 
their distinctive form. The family 
likeness is represented in ^. 474, as 
noticed by an enemy iu battle. 

153. el^ev is found, in all its forms 
that occur, always closing a line and 
with daiUQVOV preceding. With Xsipon 
sl(i(»; cf. Xcii^riQog ccC^rj^og, ld%vri 
ci%v7i\ so dental and guttural mutes 
are lost when initial, as iti dtooxo) 
/coxcD, yaCa aCcc. Donalds. Gr, Gr. § 118. 
We have In N, Si dscKgvcc Xet§ov. 

8 



IH 



OATUSEIAL A. 154—169. 



[day v. 



a d. 115 mar. 

d. 291, 316, 0. 

64, b7, 167, P. 12. 
c <ii. 462. 
d a. 119, n. 544; 

cf. Jr. 254, Z. 

351, J\r. 122, /9. 

64-5. 
e (T. 13, ^467; cf. 

Z. 489, M. 420. 
f B. 275. 
^ X. 394. 
h y. 68, jr. 203. 
t Q. 182, 437, $. 

826. 
k ^. 395, fi. 272, 

304, y. 99. 
1 J. 788. 
m a. 281, /J. 215, 

264, o. 270. 
n .y/ 119, O. 735, 

254. 
X. 288, JC. 196. 
p X. 297, 373. 



tov d' av Ns6tOQ£8rig Il€i0i6tQarog,avriov rjvSa 
"'AtQeiSij^ MsviXae SLOtQSfhg OQxaiis XafSv^ 
KsCvov (iivtOL od' vtog iti]rv(iov^ tog dy6(fsv€tg' 
cilia 6a6(pqmv^ i6tl^ vsiisd6ataL^ d' ivl d^fi^ 
do' ild'fDV TO tcqSzov^ i^sg^oliag^ dvatpaiyscv 
avta 0ed'£v, TOV vcSl d-aov^ Sg rap^r o/i«'9'* dvdy. 
ainuq i(ih scQOBijxa TeQtjvLog^ t%7c6xa Nd6t(o^ 
rp Sua TCoiiTCov^ soteo&ai,' iilSsxo yaQ 6b ISidd'aVy 
og)Qa ot 7] ii iitog^ vjcod^tfeai] i^d n iQvov, 
nolld yaQ alya^ 1%ev icaxQog Ttatg ov%oiiBVOio^ 
iv iisyaQOLg, w jti] ^iXov aod^fji'^QBg^ Sioeiv^ 
(6g vvv Trilsiidxp ^ilv oCxstac^ ovda ol allot 
st6^ 0% xsv xixtd tfij/tov dldXxoisv ® xaxitijtaj^ 

tov d' dxafisipo^evog Tcqogitpri ^dvd'dg Mevdlaog 
"cJp Jtojtov, ^ [lala di) (ptlov dvigog vCdg-e^iv 8(o 



T59. xa ngmxtt J^snBa§oUttg. 162. ifiXdsto fidio&ai. 163. /ot J^inog J^igyov. 
165. dfooaritrJQsg. 166. foi. 

158 — 60. ab Rhiauo omissos notat Schol^ H., [] Low. 159. ^matofiiag Ze- 

nod., Schol. H. 162. pro iiXSsto Zenod. or£TO, Schol. H. i63t nonpulli, 

BcboU. H. M. Q. R., utramque v. 162 et 163 improbari vult Dind. 168. tov Si 

(liy' 6xd'T]acig Schol, H. , quod ex v. 30 peti notat Bek. 



158. vsfieoo.y a Schol. says that 
158—60 had been viewed as suspicious, 
yet they account for Pisistr., who is 
only the Ttofvnogy speaking first; and are 
characteristic, as he, unlike Telem., is 
evidently forward, ready of speech and 
busy. Thus he prefaces his welcome to 
the guests with some suitable remarks, 
and manages, rather than Nestor, their 
reception in y^ 36—50; and thus he re- 
calls his host from the burst of un- 
measured sorrow in 190 iTt/l So, here, 
it is quite natural that he should thus 
slightly patronize Telem. and compli- 
ment Menel. by the way. The use of 
vBfisaa, for ccldsttai, is objected to; but 
the feelings are closely akin, see on 
a. 117—23. 

159* TO xqAtav should go with iX- 
d'toVi ^= ^'i^^ 70 ^Q' V^ff ^'fts soon 
as he has come", ixsif^ol*,^^ oyer- 
tures"; the noun occurs nowhere else 
in H« Its elements are inog ffd^Xa; 
cf. initfioXogy adj., mar. 

160. veil,, t. e. Telem. and I: it does 
not appear thlit Pisist., who had not 
been at Troy, was previously known 



to Menel., and Helenas enquiry {138 — 9) 
shows that to her both were strangers. 

163. BTtoq and Sqyov, although put 
disjunctively, have a blended meaning, 
as in hendiadjs; see on y. 99. 

165. /i^ aXXoi, obs. synizesis of ^ S. 

167. dXdXx*, this verb is used with 
xi xivog andt^Ttvt, as here, meaning 
"to keep off"; and so *'defend" or 
generally "help" (mar.). It is found 
with dat. of both person and instru- 
ment. 

169—82. It is remarkable how Me- 
nel. in this speech entirely ignores the 
busy and forward Pisistr., the previous 
speaker, and concentrates his atten- 
tion on the silent and backward Te- 
lem. for his absent father's sake; no- 
thing could more enhance the interest 
in that father, or more happily exhibit 
the frank and ardent temperameht of 
Menel., than this simple poetic contri- 
vance; — the rather, that the verv 
emphatic exclamation about tpCXov opi- 
Qog vtog is exactly as applicabli» to 
Pisistr. as to Telem., but is clearly 
meant for the latter only. 



DAY v.] 



OATSSELAJB A. 170-188. 



"5 



70 Zxsd'\ og €lv6x^ ifietb noUag i^6fif^6^v^ ai^^oyg- 

^AQysCiov^ bI vmv v^hq aXa v66x6v iocaxsv 
vr^vifl d'ofjtSt y€V60d'ai 'OXiJiintog bvqvo^cc Zevg. 
xai xi ot^AgyaV vda6a^ %6Xvv xal dduar* hev^a^ 

75 i^ ^Id'dxfig S^ccyci^ dvv xt^'^dtfi xccl taxet a^ 
xal n&6iv Xdot6ty (lili^ %6Uv i^ccXanal^ag^ 
aX XBqivaux&ov6vv js dva^dovtai^ d' ifiol ait^. 
xaixs^dli''^ ivd'dd' iovxag ifiv^onBd'* oiSi xsv ^^Uag 
aXXo iiixQivBv fpiXiovti^ ts rBqitOfUvm ra, 

ionQvv y^ otB^ di} d'avdtoio"^ (liXdv vitpog diig)BxdXvfBV. 
dXXd td (iiv xov (liXXBv^ dyd(S(SB6d'ai^ d'Bdg aidtogy 
8g XBtvov 8v6x7ii>ov dvo^tifiov^ olov id^ixBv^'^ 

(Sg q)dtOy tol6i 81 n&6iv vfp* XfiBQOV mgOB ydoLO. 
xXatB (ihv ^AQyBiri ^EXivij' Aiog ixyByavta^ 

85 xXats dh TijXiiiaxog %b xal ^ArffBCSrig MBviXaog' 
ovS^ &Qa Ni0tOQog vC6g dSaxQvtfX)^ S%bv 0066' 
(ivf]0ato^ ydq xatd dv(i^ dfiviiovog 'AvtvXdxoio j^ 
t&i/ ^' ^Hovg ixtBiVB fpaBLvrjg dyXadg vtog'^ 



a i, 106 mar. 
b Jff. 61, o. 70. 
c «. 118, r. 641, 

P. 368. 
d App. A. 19 mar. 

cf. 0.254, B. 629. 
e-Q. 36-7. 
^ A, 129, S. 251, 

9. 495. . 
ff /J. 66, ^. 561. 
h y. 245. 
i a. 209. 
k a. 316. 
1 /? . 374. 
m n. 360. 
n d. 377, y. 322, 

cf. a. syi: 

o «. 129, a. 70, 6. 

67,d.U58,^.665, 

V. 173. 
p cf. d. 806, V. 333. 
q to. 528. 
r V. 218, JT. 418. 
s ». 61, A. 415 
t a. 29-31; cf. T. 

338-9. 
u ;i. 468, 0). 16, y. 

112, i. 202, io 

78. 
V X. 622. 



174. ^01. 175. /flj. 177. J^ixvaaaovTCCi. 

170. noXiag Schol. H., ita Wolf, et edd. recentt. nolsCg Barnes. 171. ^^ozov 

ttllav Schol. M., ita plerique edd. i^oxcc ndvtav Yenet. Ilarl. fortasse ex i2. 134. 

176—7. [] L3w. probante Ni. 178—9 apnd Plutarch, (de adult, et am, diner. 

XY.) &IX0 Sfviis, Ni. 181. ftslXsi, Bek. annot. 



-- 174. vdCiSa, see App. A. 19, "would 
hare settled for him' , t. e. assigned 
for his dwelling, a city. Ni. says Me- 
nelaus' intended offer "could only have 
been a flight of friendly fancy ". The 
offer indeed was one which Odys. could 
not haye .accepted, even if it lay in 
the other's power to make; but, he 
adds, "it contradicts our notions of 
the- relation of king to people, as we 
find it among the Achseans''. This is 
true; but Menel., as a wanderer not 
long come home from Asia, Egypt, etc., 
may not limit his feelings at the mo- 
ment by strictly constitutional notions, 
but talk with the unciilculating ar- 
dour which characterizes him: see App. 
E. 8 (19) end. What would have be- 
come of the townsmen whom he pro- 
posed to turn out (i|«l«9ra£aff) ? Pro- 
bably H. means that Menel. did not 
ask himself the question. If any answer 
be ifiven, it should seem that they 



were to take the place of the immi- 
grants; and this treatment of friends 
and subjects was nearly parallelled by 
Xerxes or Nebuchadnezzar in their 
conquests; comp. the "dragging'' of 
Sanios for Syloson by the Persians, 
Herod, yi. 31. 

181. dydiSif*, this verb means (i) to 
think a thing dyav or too great, (2) to 
envy or grudge, as here, (3) to ad- 
mire or wonder , (4) to wonder with in- 
dignation, (5) to grudge with indigna- 
tion | see mar. for examples. 

182. dvoCxifiav occurs nowhere else 
in H., but we find the similar avoazoq^ 
and voaxiikoq (mar.) meaning similarly 
"fated to return". 

186 — 9. Pisistr., weeping for his own 
loss, although it is suggested by that 
of Telem., is a touch of nature; so in 
T. 302 the women weep ndxQO%Xov icqo- 
tpaciv atpmv 9' avxoiy %ijSs' inciatTj. 
— *Hovq H. T. X., cf. Pind. Nem, III. 

8* 



ii6 



OAT23SEIA2 A. 189-300. 



[day v. 



a a. 6G mar. 
b L 229, C. 286. 
c t. 179;cf.r.l80. 
d t. 513; cf. ^. 

100-?. 
• cf. V. 46, t. 234, 

249. 
f *. 264, a. 227. 

er CO. 190, 296, n. 

457, .676, *F.9. 
h N. 56(li. 
i ff. 46; cf. 141. 
k U. 670; cf. ^. 

415, O. 11. 
I J. 374-5. 



irot5 8 y' inL(ivi]6d'€lg inaa TttsQdevt' dyogevsv 
'^'AxQBiSri^ nsgi^ ^iv 6b figortSv nenvv^Livov slvai k 
NiatcDQ q)d6%^ 6 yigcDV^ or' iTtciivrj^a^iisd'a 6sto 
[oliSiv ivl ^syaQOvdi^ xal dXkiji.ovg igioL^sv.']^ 
xal vvv, Bt^ xl Ttov i6tL^ 7cid'OL6 {ioc ' (yd yccQ iyd ye 
TBQTtoii^^ dSvQOfLBvog ^iBT udoQTC Log'^ dlXot xccl Tjcog 
S66sxav riQiyivBia, vBiiB66(5iiai^ yB ^isv ovSiv n 

Klaiecv og xb d'dvy6L figotiSv xal 7t6%iiov i%C6%ri. 
roiJrd vv xal yigag^ olov 6t^VQ0t6v fiQOxot6(,v^ 
XBiga0^aC^ XB xd^Lriv fiaksBLV x* dTtd Sdxgv TtaQBtSv. 
xal ydQ ifiog xidi/rfXBv dSBlcpaog^ ov xi^ xdxi,6xog 
*A(fyBi(DV fiBklBvg 8h 6v tSiLBvav ov ydg iycS yB^ ac 



189. fin fa, 192. foiaiv. 200. fiSfisvai, 

192 t Arist., Scholl. H. Q. [] Bek. Dind. Fa. Low. dXlTJlovg fere omnes, et 
dlXijloig notant Scholl. H. Q. 194. fisxaSogniog Harl. supra iistoc habet snif 
(letaio^mov Bek. annot. 197. olov (admirantis) Eustath. 198. HsiQuaO'ttt Harl. 



62—3; see App. D. i. Strabo XV. jp. 
728 says, (prial Si xai Atax'^^^^S t»?v 
pLtixiqu Mifivovog KiGaCccv. 

191. See App. A. 9 (20) for the im- 
perf. in -g%ov followed by op tat. 

193. The rejection of this line pro- 
ceeds on the sense of "were saying 
or speaking to each other" being 
ascribed to dXX'qXovg igioLf/^BVy which 
Homeric usage will not allow. But as 
IpfOijLit ^ optat. bears in X. 229, fiov- 
Xsvov OTtmg igioiiii, iiidtitTiv, the 
sense of "ask" with accus. of person, 
we may retain it, rendering "were 
asking one another". 

193. c^r/ Ttov sifTiy I. e. nCd'ead'ttty 
"if to comply be possible or reason- 
able"; a modest way of introducing his 
advice: cf. Hsemon^s words to his father 
in Soph. Aniig, 719, yvtofirj yotQ bH zig 
Y.dn Sfiov X. T. X, 

194. fABxa^OQTt; "during supper", 
which had been interrupted by their 
burst of sorrow; see 216 — 8 where it is 
resumed. Sognov was the latest of the 
meals; ctagiatttj Sstnvci, Sogna^* 
cctgsicd^ttt xglttty y^schyl. Fragm, ap. 
Athen. I. 11 e. Yet this same is called 
Ssinvov 61 sup,, agittxov ocours n. 2, 
SI, 124. For the form cf. fista&iifi^iov 
(niar.) "in or among the people". In 
XBQTtOfi' odvQOfievoq the yoa tpgivtc 
xignoiioci of Menel. 100—2 is reflected. 
"I at any rate ", says Pisistr., "find no 
solace in lamentations over our meal". 



cf. also Menelaus^ words 105 sup, and 
Penelope's words describing her forlorn 
state (mar.) TfyLUxa. . . . xig7to[i' odv- 
gofisvn yoowffa. 

^95 — 7' ^^ey^vctcc, see on p. i. — 
vefiBCO* ye x.T.i., see on 158 s\ip. The 
force of ys may be given \^j " 710^ that 
I am ashamed of weeping for one etc." 

6t^Vi^olCi, ^QOXOiCtv , contains a 
blended notion of the lost and the sur- 
vivors, the yigug being paid by the 
latter to the former. o'C^vgog pourtrays 
the estate of man, exemplified, in the 
poet*8 notion, most strikingly in the 
greatest heroes : cf . Thetis to Achilles, 
^.417, dnivyLogog %ciX ottvgog nsgl 
ndvxfov iTfifio, and Telem. of Odys., 
y. 95, nsgl ydg fiiv otivgov ti^s 
fiT^xrig, also the contrast of this with 
the state of the gods fsia imovxBgj 
and Sg ydg insuXmaavxo d'soi 9si- 
Xotai pgoxoiaiv ^cohv dxwfis- 
vovg, avxol di x' ccyiriSisg ilaCv SI, 
525—6; see Nagelsbach I. § 9. 10. 

198. xelQaa^aty so Achilles and his 
. Myrmidones cover the corpse of Pa- 
troolus with their shoiu hair, and in 
the opening scene of The Choephone 
Orestes deposits his shorn lock on his 
father's tomb. This verb there becomes 
trans, in t. 272 (Diud.^ ovx iaxtv Sctig 
nXiiv kyboy ^te^gaixo viVy so Herod. 
II. 61, xov Ss xvnxovxoLi x. t. X., and 
so here we might render "to shear 
one's hair for them (§goxof}^\ 



DAY v.] 



0AT2SEIA2 A. 2oi— 117. 



117 



f^vx7i0^ oiSs tSov %bqI d* akktov fpa6l fsvi^d'cu 
*AvrCko%ov^^ %iQv (ihv ^bIblv ttt%vv ijdi [laxtjrijv.'^ 
tbv d' dTcaiiSLfidiievog 7tQ0sig>ri l^avQ'dg MBviXaog 
^'cD ^CX\ insl x66tt eiTteg &?' av n£7tvv(iivog dvrJQ 

05 sUtvol Hal ^il^siSy xal og nQoyBvi6xsQog sUri' 

tOLOv^ yccQ xal JcarQdg^ xal ytS7tvv[idva^ pd^etg' 
^sia d' dQCyv(otog^ yovog dviQog c5 ra KQOvCnv 
okfiov iTCLxkci^y^ ya[iiovt£ ra yaivofiavcD^ r£, 
(og vvv Na^roQL d(3xe SvafinaQhg^ TJfLara ndvxa^ 

10 avxov ^hv kLTCUQiBg^ y7iQa6xd(iav iv iiayaQOiCLV, 
vUag av TtLvvxovg xa xal iy%a0iv alvav dgLtStovg. » 
'^fiatg Sh xXavd'iidv ^thv idtfofiav^ og %qIv ixv%^ri^ 
SoQTCov d* iliaikig ^ivijiSciiiad'a ^^ x^Q^^^ ^ ^9* vdatQ 
XBvdvxcjv (ivd'OL Sh xal i^fSd'iv naQ i6ovxai. 

15 Trika^dx^ xal i^ol dva£L3ci^av^ dkkrjXoLiSivJ' 

dig ?<pax\ ^A6(palCmv S* ag* vSmg^ ijtl x^^Q^S ix^vav^ 
dxQfiQog ^agaTCOiv^ MavaXdov xvSaXi(ioto. 



a #. 187 mar. 

b y. 124 — 6; cf 

n. 377. 

c J. 58; cf. (r.392. 
d ^ 108, 300, Q. 

205; cf. 375. 
e y. 208 mar. 
f App. A. 20 mar. 
gr n. 4M. 
h X. 136, T. 3«8, 

%f/. 288; ef. o. 

332. 
i T. 148, Si. 601, 

o 477. 

k «. 146 mar. 

1 fi 16. X. 425. 

J, 706. 
m 4, 218. 
n (r.23, 38, «.100, 

A. 321. 



201. J^CSov. 204. J^s^nsg. 205. J^ilnoi, 215. diafBiniyi>Bv, 

207. dpiyvtotgv yivog H. Stephan. 208. intnloiafj Ern. CI. ed. Ox. et reoentt., 
iniTiXmifsi Wolf. Low. secuti Schol. H. et var. lect. ms. GC. 210. avx^ [iriv 
Bek. annot. 212. ^17 pro Si Eustath. 213. pro dognov Ssinvov Schol. ad 61 sup. 



204 — 6. The apodosis of BTtel x64Sa 
el:tag is Buspended bj a parenthesis 
devoted to the praise of Nestor and his 
sons, as far as v. 211, when it appears 
in y. 212^ ^fiisiq dk x. t. X. tn 205 og 
n;Qoyev£4JX€Qog Bhi is an adjectival 
clau.se coupled by xal to 7t€7tWfiivog 
in 204. In 206 o is **wherefore", by el- 
lipsis of dia , see Liddell and S. 8. v. og; 
cf. for the sentiment 611 inf, and note. 

208. yafiiovti xe yeiv. xa, "at 
his marriage and at his birth*'; a 
ytgtod'vatSQOV which ISfi. illustrates by 
a*. 723, H. 417, ft. 134, A. 251, where 
rearing precedes birth; so y. 467, S, 50, 
£. 264 etc. Bek. here and in the pa- 
rallel passages (mar.) edits yiyvoyiitvm 
in the same sense. The text is sup- 
ported by the Schol. B. here who, how- 
ever, mistakenly renders it xsytvovvxi 
"begetting'-, to be in keeping with yovog 
dvigog (207) and vtiag (211). Authority, 
however, is against the pres. yshofiai 
in this sense (see Crusius s. v., Ni. ad 
loc, Donalds. Gfr. Gr. p. 286 s. v., Jelf. 
Gr, Gr. § 261. 5. obs. 3); Buttra. Gr, 
Verbs a, v,j however allows it, but cites 



no passage: see further App. A. 20. 
We may for the sense compare Hes. 
Theog, 218-^9, KXcad'm ts Adxsciv xs 
xal AtQonov, at ts Bifototai ysivo- 
fiivotai diiovaiv i%Biv dycc^ov xs 

nUKOV T€. 

210. XiTtUQciq, Xmagog expresses 
(mar.) "in holiday trim^', as the suitors, 
or "dainty" e, g, a lady's veil, so Xt- 
noegOTig'qdsiivogof Charis; cf. Itnagag 
yLukiasiBv 'AQ"qvag Aristoph. Acharn, 
639. In Latin nitidus most nearly ex- 
presses it which Virgil applies [Gcorg. 
IIL 437) to youth, as H. aoes Xinagog 
to such old age as Nestor's; see also 
yriQuX XinctQ& (mar.) and cf. Find. Nem. 
yil. 99, fjificf. Xinag& ts yi/jgaX dice- 
nXinoLQ. 

212—5. fifieig ifk, see on 204 sup, 
ifiaaiTtifiav, "to have our talk out'\ 
Sid = "thoroughly", not "to speak 
in turn, converse'*; so J. 47 Siani- 
(pgaSs, la this form the word occurs 
in H. only here; but forms, in which, 
as not uncommonly in i^c- sin- and 
their derirates, the j^ is lost, also oc- 
cur, as Stsmaiv etc. (mar.). 



ii8 



0AT22EIAS A. ai8-a29. 



[day v. 



a/f. 393, 6. 7»5; 

«f. /f. M. 
h ef. «. 77. 
e /f.SM, X. 23I-7. 
d cf. i;. 220— 1, V. 

86. 
e cf. fi. 240. 
f T. 208, i2. 227. 
8: /9. 330. 
h A 163, P. 6W, 

V'. 176. 
ir.30#;cf.(r.269, 

t. IW, /u. 238. 
k «. 10, £. 348. 
1 J. 741. 
m y. 3, «. 483, 17., 

332, t. 367, Jl. 

.109. 



iv%'*^ avt SXV iv6fi6^ ^Ekivri ^Log ixysyavtcc' 
avtix*^ &Q^ sig olvov fidXB {pccQ^aocoVj^ iv%'sv Snivov^ 21 
vijnevO'ig r' &xoi.6vrBj octmSv iTcilij^ov^ andvtcDV, 
Sg to xatafiQol^etsv^^ iniiv^ XQfjt'qQi^ (icyisijjj 
ov xev ifp7i(i6QL6g ye fidloi xard ddxQv nuQBiiSv^ 
bvS* at ol xaxaxB^aCri (I'fftriQ te nariJQ ts, 
ovS* at oi ttQOTcdQOcd'av d9alg>a6v ^ tpUov vlov 
%akx^^ Sijioaiav^ d' d^aXfioUfiv iQ^roJ 
totm jdibg d'vydrrjQ^ l%a q)d(fiiaxa iifjtLoavra 
iff^kd^ xd ot nokvSccfiva %6Qav^ @(5vog xaQdxoing 
AiyvnxCri^ xy nkatexa^ <paQat iaiS&Qog^ &qovqu 



2: 



224. 225. 228. /Oi. 



221. inClri^'ov Arist., SchoU. H. Q., ita Hesjch. Eustath. et edd. recentt.: htt' 
Xii^ov Ascalonita., ScholL H. Q., quod Buttm. placuit, et IniXrfiov et iniXil' 
9'ov agnoscant SchoU. T. Y., Harl. ipse iniXtj^eVy Schol. iytiXri^ov prasbente. 
iniXi^Ssg- £. ita (teste Pors.) Dion Chrysost. XII. p. 209 et Plutarch, yit. Horn., 
Barnes. 222. naxccPgd^sisv yar. lect. Scholl. H. E. 223. ov nsv Harl. a 
manu pr. Wolf.; ovk av Harl. ex emend. £m. CI. ed. Ox. 227. itritionvta 
Schol. P. 229. TO'9't pro tij Theophr. nsgl q)vtav, 1. IX. cap. 15, Barnes. 



220-— I. olvov meaning the n^xrig 
in which the wine was mixed, see 222 
inf, vfjxavS'i^, Sprengel and others 
think the opium intended by these qua- 
lities. Sir H. Halford, Essay X., sup- 
poses this possible, but adds that the 
substance may more probably be "the 
hyoseyamus , used at Constantinople, 
and , I belieye , throughout the Morea, 
at this day under the name Nebensck''\ 
To the hyosc. belong the deadly night- 
shade and the potato. Two species 
are described by Dioscorides as both 
being jiiai^fos^sri^and xapMtiXol "heady*', 
but a third as an useful sedatiye: cf. 
noXXa fthv iad'Xa iis^iyitivu noXXu 9h 
Xvyga, also fi. 328 — 30 and note there. 
Without further knowledge, however, 
of the Nebensch, its identity with the 
VTinsv^^g plant, if plant it were, can- 
not be relied on. Spenser has built 
on the purely negative Homeric idea, 
and amplified it into an allegory, as 
follows : 

NepenthI is a drink of sovereign 
grace, 

Devised by the Gods, for to assuage 

Heart's grief, and bitter gall away 
to chase, 

Which stirs up anguish and conten- 
tious rage: 



Instead thereof sweet peace and 

quiet affe 
It doth establish in the troubled mind. 
Few men, but such as sober are 

and sage. 
Are by the Qods to drink thereof 

assigned; 
But such as drink eternal happiness 

do find. 
Faery Queen, B. 4, Cant. 3, St. 43. 

ixiX'ti^'Ov, an adj.; cf. inaKOvov 
Hes. Opp, 29 for the form and iniXij- 
esxai a. 57 for the gen. following. 
Crusius sUys Buttmann reads intlrj^ov 
as if a partic. of inU'qd'a. Pind. Pyth, 
I. 90 has xeifi^xoov S kniXuaiv naqd- 
a%oi ; cf. Nem, X. 24. Ni. compares the 
(pvXXov vdUvvov of Soph. PMloct. 44. 

222. i'TtfiVy the optat. prevails through- 
out the following clauses, the whole 
train of thought being that of a hypo- 
thetical cause contingently producing 
an effect; see App. A. 9 (20). 

228 — 9. IloXv6.y a Schol. notices 
that this word may be read as an adj. 
referred to xa, but on the authority 
of Euphorion takes it as a prop. name. 
On #<ur see App. C. 7. Obs. the 
synizesis of it^ in AlyvnzCri, 



DAY v.] 



OATEZEIAS A. 230—241. 



119 



30 q>KQlic:xa^ TCoXXa fiiv i6%'ka iisfiiyiiiva nokka 8h kvygd • 
IritQog^ dh Sxcc0rog i7Cu6tdii8vog^ tcsqI juiwcov 
dvd'Qci7t(ov* i| yaQ Umijovog^ eiiSi yevsd'lrig.^ 
avrccQ iitsi ({' ivhixs xiisvai ts olvoxjo^^ai,^ 
il^avug iivd'ot^iv diistpo^ivri nQogismBV 

o^ "'AtQeidti Mavikas /ItoxQBtphg^ ijtfi xal oWe 
dvSQtSv i6d'k(Sv jccctSsg (dtaQ d'eog akkoxa &kkm 
Zavg^ dyad'ov ta xaxov xa SlSoZ- SvvaxaiyaQ^ anavxa) 
if xov vvv 8aCvv6^B xad^fiavot^ iv iiaydQ0t6iV 
xal (ivd'ovg xigicaiSd'a'^ iotxoxa yuQ xatakS^ia. 

Ao ndvxtt^ iihv ovx av iytio fLvdTJiSoiiai^ oyd[ dvofiijviOj — 
066OL 'OSv66f}og xkka6^g>QOv6g al^lv da^koi*^ 



a A. »14. 

b t. 19, V. 313, |. 

359, V- 185- 
c iff. 401, 899,900; 

cf. A. 473, X. 

391. 
d V. 130, E. 270, 

r. Ill; cf. B. 

857. 
e t. 188-9. 
f^. 612,827, «. 26. 
g- 9. 89. 
h d. 597, \p. 301, 

7t. 39S, A. 643 i 

cf. %. 590. 
i y 125, d. 141. 
k X. 328, 517, B. 



1 J. 270-1; cf. (T. 
107 mar. 



231. J^fKuatog, 233. J^oivoxoijaai. 234. TiQoaiJrEinsv, 239. ^Bj^otnota. 

230. tstvyiiiva ibid. Barnes. 231—2. ^Tta/ ffqpttft ^eoxcy ^!i^9rdil>Uov tae^cci' 

xal yap Arist., SchoU. B. H. Q., dvd'Qoancav et tpagfiayiBoav SchoU. M. V. 

236. aXXor' iie' alXtp Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox., SlXozs Wolf. 



230—1 . €pdQfUCX€C, cf. -ffischyl. Fragm, 
428 Dind. Tvf^Tivov ysvsdv tpUQfia- 
71 on o 10 V id'vog, — 'ifiXQog, cf, Herod. 
If. S4, III. 129, and the statement of 
the Egyptians^ monthly course of physic 
ibid. II. 77. 

232. Haiiiovog, Paeon, absorbed by 
later mythology into Apollo (^sch. 
Agam, 146, Soph. (Ed, Tyr, 154), is in 
a fragm. of Hesiod (Schol.) distin- 
guished from him. It is il fi-q 'AnoX-^ 
Xmv ^otpog inl% %'avdxmo aawasi, rj 
dcvtog Uatoiv x. r. X, -ffischyl. [Fragm, 
229 Dind. supposed from the Philoc- 
ietes), invokes death as co Gdvects 
Ilaidv. PsBon appears in H. as the 
healer of Olympus (mar.), just as Po- 
dalirius and. Machaon in the Grecian 
camp. Fa. notes that those skilled in 
healing are his ysvi&Xri, just as a war- 
like hero is oi;og '^Agriog, We also find 
naiT^mv for a hymn, of thanksgiving 
or of triumph: twice in the II. the 
Greeks slag it, once to Apollo when 
appeased after the plague, and again 
on the death of Hector (mar.). 

235—7. oide, here of the 2"* pers. 
as tov in a. 359 of the i»'. — drdg 
^ao^ • • • • 61601, the relation of this 
common -place formula on human af- 
fairs to the subject finds its link — a 
somewhat loose one — in ivdg. iaO', 
nutdeg". "Sons of good sires, — though 
all (good and bad alike) must take 



their lot of fortune, good or bad, as 
Zeus awards. " Homer's view of hu- 
man affairs includes their chequered 
aspect and promiscuous distribution. 
Hence the good and brave, if disaster 
comes, must tszXdiisv ^(inrig (^. 190, 
cf. «•. 570, f, 287, a. 134— 5)- No less 
clearly is it crossed by a notion of 
fatality — alaa spinning at his birth 
the thread of man's weal or woe. Yet 
on the whole, the particular events in 
their relation to each are represented 
as dealt out by Zeus ; see the allegory 
of his two itCQ'oi of good and evil in 
SI. 527 foil. But there is not traceable 
any notion of a scheme of Providence 
shaping the individual's lot, much less 
comprehending that of all men, save 
in CU0U aforesaid, nor of any general 
control covering the whole flight of 
human action, neither is there any 
recognition of a geneiral end of good 
seen amid partial evil. Divine know- 
ledge, will, and choice, are merely 
incidental where they Occur. See Nil- 
gelsbach I. S 28, p. 5a — 3» HI. § 6, 
p. 132, VII. §. 3, p. 361—2. Still 
cJiance is excluded from this aspect: 
all that happens has a cause, under 
whatever name of SaifioDV,^ atacCy Zsifg, 
or (lotQtty and that of tv%ri does not 
even occur. For the relation of Zsvg 
to ftotgu see on «. 436. 

239—43- ioixoTa, "suited to the 
purpose*', /. e. nv&oig tigrcBC^ui. 



120 



OATSSKIAS A. 242- 2 J i. 



[day v. 



» E. 601. 

b y. 100. 

c B, 264. 

d C. 269, 179; cf. 
/*. 102. 

e C- 129, o. 505, 
^.462, cf. 0.518, 
JB. 235, ^. 194. 

* «. 54, 17. 11. 

r ;i. 144. 

h 4 31 , X. 247. 



aAA' oJor* rod' Eqb^b %al atXi] ^agteqio^ dvrjQ 
dfjficD ivi Tq(6(ov^ od'ir Tcixifx^ts jajfLdt* ^A%ix,ioL^ 
avTov [iLV TcXriyrlebv^ asloceXiijeL Scificc(f<5ccgj 

dvSQ(dv Svg^svswv xarsdv jtoliv [evQvayviav 
aXkca d' avrov ^oori® TtataTCQVntGiv i]L6x€v^ 
OBXti]^ og ovShv totog iriv inl vriv6iv 'A^cckSv. 
rc5 txskog^ xccredv TQCobr nohv] 0? d' a^dxri^av 
ndvrsg^ iy(o di fiLV oirj dveyvmv^ rotov iovrccj 
xaC (iLv dvriQCOtciV' Sh xegSo^vvrj^ dXhivev. 



2^ 



V 



244. aJ^SlTlsXLTjGL. 



245. /©(-xiit- fBjromiugy 
249. fCuBloq. 



24.7 



. i/^A 



ia%Bv. 



242. olov Parmeniscus, Scholl. H. P. Q. 244. avxov codd. omn. f Barnes, qui 
putat avxov scribi debere). 246 — 9. Bek. respuit inde ab BVQvayviav usque 

ad Tq(6(ov noliv. 



olov, used admiringly, as often TOtov, 
see on a, 209 , 410. 

244 — 58. This expedition may be 
viewed as shortly preceding the Wooden 
Horse, and as undertaken to procure 
the necessary information (gjpoviv). In 
Eurip, ffec. 239 foil. Hecuba asserts 
that Helen disclosed to her Odysseus^ 
arrival, and that she effected his escape, 
a variation which impoverishes both 
these female characters. The Scholl. 
notice a pertinence in this mention of 
the beggar^s disguise borne by Odys^ 
in Troy to his similar personation in 

the later books n x- y *^^^ P*"®' 

paring: Telem. for the unfolding of the 
plot, but if 246 — 9 be rejected (see 
note inf.) of course this has no place. 
With the whole story, especially the 
nXrjy^<si dwx. cf. the artifice of Zopy- 
rus, Herod. III. 153 foil. Eurip. loc, 
cit. enhances it by Ofifidzmv ano tpo- 
vov atccXayfiol ar^v 'natiatoctov yivvv. 

244 — 5. avTOV 411V «=> savtovj a 
pron. which as one word never occurs 
in H. Donalds. Gr, Gr. § 235. — ajtelQa 
is used of coarse wrappers, sails, 
shrouds, etic. (mar.). 

246—9. Bek. sets in the mair. from 
evQvdy* to noXiv 249; reading con- 
tinuously uvSq^v ^vGfisif^cov naxf^v 
noXiV an d' dfidiiTiGocv — a rejection 
probably well-founded: ifOdys. Tiocridv 
noXiv olnrj'C Jotxooff, how could he do 
the same thing xm (Siiizjf) tnsXog, for 
the two are wholly distinct? Of course 
he might have shifted his disguise, but 



the assertion, that he naxidv noXiv 
first as one and then as the other, 
has all the air of an insertion; and 
ov8\v xotog ^Tjv, if _a|)plied to Odys,, 
is languid, if used as = otog ovSslg 
iriVy involves some violence to th4 
sense and the relations of words. Tlie 
imitator however probably tneant it in 
this sense — to show the cleverness 
of Odys. Had he, appeared in a dis- 
guise which might have been picked 
up IttI vq, 'AX', he might have been 
suspected, so he shifted it to one pe- 
culiar to the city. As an alternative, 
we might reject from og ovdlv in 248 
to ncivxBg in 250. 

247. ^corl^ Ni. distinguishes between 
tpmg and dvi^Q, as though dvrjQ here 
would have meant so!me definite indi- 
vidual; but in fact tpmg occurs (mar.) 
in this definite sense, and dvriQ with 
aXXog^ rig J etc. in the ihdef ; see K. 
3.30, 34'. ^ 

^ 748 — 9. dixtxi and dpdxffCav are 
dna^ Xsy., the latter from saying no- 
thing («-jJafo») evolves the meaning 
of "took no notice", t. e, were duped 
by his trick. Jn Sapph. 29, ed. Giles 
a|3axi7if occurs expressive of simple 
placidity, as epith. of (pgivoc. 

250 —I. roiov e.y i.e. "though in 
such guise". — xeodoff., he evaded 
her enquiries by ready guile, until, on 
his stripping for the bath, his identity 
became too clear for the illusion to be 
kept up. 



1>AY v.] 



OATSSEIAXJ A. 252—269. 



121 



aAA' OTS 8tj (iLv iyco Xosov xtcl xqIov 7iat(p,^^'" 
d^q)l dh H{iara^ eaiSa. xal Slioda xaQtsi^hv oQXOVy^ 
^T] filv tiqIv*^ 'Odva^a itsrct TQcisaa^ ccvocijp'^vixL, 

"yfy TtQtv y£ rbv ig vrjdg'' ta d'oocg TcXceiag r' aq>ixia%^cci^ 
zai tors 8rj fioi Jtdvta voov^ xccteXel^sv ^A%uimf. 
jtoXkovg 8 6 TQcicov xtstvag tavcctfxsi %akx(p 
rjld-s ^er' 'A^ysCovg^ Kara S'e fpQovLV^ rjyays tioIXtJv. 
Bv%^ alXav TQGial X(y'^ tTicikvov' avrccQ i^ov xi^Q 

5o jta?(>*, iTtsl ijdri fioL HtpaSiri rBtQanro vise^ai^ 
aip oTx6vd\ aii]v 8 6 iisrt6r6'vov^ rjv ^Aq)^o8Crri^ 
8^%\ ore /i' riyays xsi6e q>Utig ano xatQiSog aitjg^ 
TtatSd r ifii^v vo6(pi06ayLivriv^ Q^dXafiov re 7c6(iiv xe 
ov rev ^ivo^avoVf om Sq q)Q8vag ovts rt eioog.'^"^ 

J5 rifV 8' aTca^Bifio^svog TcgogBiptj lavd'og MeviXcog 
"vol 8ii xavrd yf Tcdvra^ yvvai^ xard (lotgav iiiTtsg. 
■7]8ri (ihv noXicav i8driv fiovXtjv^ re -voov re 
dv8Qmv i^Qcicjv^ 7tokXrjv° 8' ijtSATJlvd'a yatav 
dkV ov Tcco rotovroi/ iydv /Sovp 6(pd'ak[ioi:0Lv ^ 



a X. 3()4, 450, E. 

905, 17.069-70. 
b C. 228, rj. 265, 

I 396. 
c X. 381, fj. 298, 

<r. 55, r. 108, 

127. 
d ^.97, £.288, O. 

72-1 i cf. /9. 128. 
e A. 487, ^. 392. 
1* a. 3 mar. 
g:y. 244. 
h r. 284. 
i cf. r. 139-40, 

173, 400, Z. 350. 
k r. 380-6, 413 

seqq.,/2. 27-30. 
I t, 339, 579, (p. 

77. 104; cf. X. 

425. 
m L 337, a. 249 j 

cf. e. 212-3. 
n /9. 281 mar. 
/J. 364, t. 284. 
p (f. 226 mar. 



^53. J-BCikttxu fscaa, 261. /o«toW. 264. fsCSog. 266. ej^sinsg. 

269. J^idov. 

252. Jyei X6s6v Harl. text, et plerique Wolf. , ^yo>v iXoBvv Harl. marg. Ambros. 
E. V. et (teste Buttm.) P. Schol. H. Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox. 254. aij fihv codd. 
(Harl. fnf fis etiam praaebet) , j«,i) fi^v Bek. 260. '^Si^ Arist. ij drj Crates., 

SchoU. H. Q. 263. vocqiiaauiisvrjv Wolf., vocquaaa^svi^ Barnes, Ern. CI. ed. Ox. 



252. Jioeov, the var, led. here should 
be noticed. Bathing the guest (see on 
y. 464) was sometimes the office of a 
daughter of the hoiise, here Helen is 
represented as doing it. Her curiosity 
may have been roused, we will sup- 
pose, by the suspected presence of 
Odys., and such attendance gave her 
the opportunity of private conference. 
He refused, however, to gratify her 
curiosity, until he had bound her by 
an oath; see App. E. i (i) note, and 
(4). The poet doubtless intends here 
and in 143 — 4 sup, to ascribe to Helen 
the quality of quick discernment. 

254- fiii fi^yy Be^k. here again adopts 
ti7}V, as if by a canon of his own; 
others fiiv. It may be urged that fihv 
adds little or nothing to the sense, and 
indeed ofiooai ^rj without filv or firjv 
occurs in x. 343—4, g. 55—6; but our 
present text undeniably uses ^hv for 



a mere complementary syllable; see 
a, 252 and cf. r. 124, where in the 
same phrase fisv is inserted and omitted, 
apparently without any modification of 
the sense. 

257 — 8. The details are not given, 
but this line and half suggests the si- 
milar excursion of book K, and makes 
it probable that night gave tlie op- 
portunity. <p(^6viV intelligence ; cf. 

y- 244- 

260 — 4. Helen omits all mention of 
Paris as offensive to her husband. 
According to a later legend, counte- 
nanced however by 8. I'j^ and ^.517 
— 20, after Paris' death she lived in 
Troy as De'iphobus' wife; Eurip. Troiad. 
962, Virg. JEn, VI. 5 1 1 foil, voafpiaa., 
this verb in the middle voice once 
means "to take away'' (mar.), but 
mostly, as here, *'to go away from". 



122 



OATSSEIAS A. 470—291. 



[day v. 



a d. 242. 
b V. 393. 
c ^. 493-520, X, 

623-32. 
d I. 3, 

e B. 352, r. 6. 
ft. 381, ^488, jr. 

194, t. 10, 138. 
g- A. 79. 

Ti M. 94, ^. 617. 
i cf. w. 78. 
k cf. I. 11. 
i d. 148 mar. 
m ui. 767-8. 
n H. 384, 417, T. 

77. 
o X. 83. 
p TT. 430. 
q /?. 82, 84. 
r »f . 489. 
s tf/.ldi cf. T. 479 

-80, r. 324. 
t App. A. 21 not. 
u A. 509. 
Y d, 156 roar. 



oloi/ 'OSv60Hog tcckaaitpQOVog i^ks q){Xov x^(>. 2 

o?oi;» 3cal rod' 4«^^ ^«j.^ ^'I^^^ xapr^^o?** avi)(> 
I'jrjro)*' ivi §Wrc5, 7v* ^i^>C'9'a iTrai/wg*^ &qi6xoi 
'jQyslGiVy TQoisaat^ (povov xal Kvi^cc g>dQOvr£g. 
^kd'sg fkitra dv XBt(fs' xsXsvdeiisvtxL di cr' ^^bXXbv 
dcctiKov^^ 05' Tgcisa^iv^ i^ovXsto xv&og OQs^ici' 2 

xai tot JriCfpo^og^ i^BoeCxBXog S6itBt' iov6y. 
TQlg dl TtBQiatBL^ag^ xoZlov Xoxov d(ig)ag)6(06a ^ 
ix S' 6vo^axki}di/iv^ JavatSv ivoiiaiBg dgidtovg^ 
Tcdvtcav ^AgyBCfov qxsDinjv £6xov6^^ dXoxoiOcv. 
ccvtaQ iym"^ xal TvdBidtjg xal dtog '0Sv66Bvgj 2\ 

ijiiBvoi, iv^ (IS60OL6LV axov6a^BV cJ§ ifiotj^ag. 
vm iihv &iig)OtBQa> iiBVBrjvaiiBv OQiiijd'BvtB 
ri ilbX%^B^Bvai ri EvSo^bv alf' vxaxov^at'^ 
aAA'P '08v6Bvg xaxBQVXB xal i6%B%'BV [b(ibvg} tcbq. 
[^i/O"'^ aXXot iilv icdvxBg dxr^v icav vhg 'A%ai(Sv^ %\ 

"AvuxXog Sh 6b y olog diLBC^a6%'ai^ inBBO0iv 
ijd'BXBV dXX' 'OSv(SBvg inl iidtStaxa^ xbq^I tiCbIbv 
vcuXB^BCog^ XQarBQr}6L, edcotSB 8h xdvrag 'A%aiovg^ 
rofpQa^ d' iX oq)Qa 0b voiSipiv dTCijyayB naXXdg'AdTJvfj^Y^ 

xbv S' av TijXBfiaxog itBTtwyLBvog dvxCov rjvda 2\ 

"'AxqblSyi^ MBvkXaB AioxQBfplg oqx^V'^ Xamv^ 



276. ^sofsiyLBlog, 279. JFlo%ovc'. 284. fiB(ifvto. 286. fsnheaiv. 

«73- '^QVS^OL Harl. 276 f apud nonnullos Scholl. H. Q. 277. itSQ^aTi^ccg 

Arist., Scholl. H. Q., ita Ambros. et B. 279. sl^aiiova' Harl. Flor. (?) 282. 09^17- 

9'ivtsg joxta Harl. Bek. OQibrid'ivts reliqui. 285 — 9 t Arist., dcholL H. Q. 

et plerisque abesse monet Schol. H.; [J Bek. Dind. L6w. 



270—1. 'Odv4f0. ••• xiiQ, like tg 
Tr^iBii^axoio , fi. 409 , where see note, 
for the person's self. Not resuming 
and repeating the olov of 270, but used 
as in 242, see note there. 

274. X€X€V0» 71, t. X,y **I think some 
god must have bidden yovL^\ see on 
et. 232. This is the usual formula of 
excuse or extenuation to an indulged 
culprit; so Priam tells her ov ti [loi 
alzCri hclf ^solvv ftot utxioi stai F. 
164 — the object beine to spare the 
hearer's feelings; see App. E. 9 (6), 
and, for the account of this action, (9). 

279—84. Il0xov0' see on 148. — ccilo- 
XOiOiVf^ a contracted constm. for (pm- 
vaig dXoxtov, see on ^. 121. — Tvdel* 
dfiq, it is remarkable that Virgil. Mn. 
ri. 261 , in the list of heroes who 



descend from the Horse omits Tydides, 
whose place next before Sthenelus ,^ his 
constant ^'sgrnnov (cf. iym Z^ivBlog tb 
i.48), is occupied by the unknown Thes- 
sandrus or Tisandrus. OQfifiS'iwe, 
Bek. as usual gives -ivrsgy but see on 33 
sup. — vxaxov0{Us "to answer" (mar.). 

285—9. These hare been rejected hy 
Aristarchus, and Anticlus is unknown in 
the II.; but the conclusion, as Ni. re- 
marks, is inadeauate without them, 
w}iereac crcfcotfs ii navtag 'A, of- 288 
justifies ttll* olov to^' iQB^B of 271 9up, 
This, however, may account for their 
insertion — a view wh. seems to haVe 
escaped Ni. 

287—8. dX^* *O<fv0,y for this action 
and the whole passage see App. £. i 
(4). For v<oXefiia>q see App. A. 21. 



DAY VI.] 



OATUSEIAS A. 292—311. 



123 



tUlytov*^ ov yoLQ 0? ti xd */ ^qx66s Ivy gov iXsd'QOVj^ 

ovS' at of x^adiTj ys 6tSrjQiri^ ivSo%'BV rJ€v, 

dXX* ayet^ eig svviiv rgduts^'^ W^ccg^ StpQa xal TJdrj^ 

}^ ihcvfp vno ylvxsgp raQnc6(is9'a xoiiirid'ivtsgJ^ 
iSg itpax\ ^AgysCri^ d' 'EXevij Snanj6C hbXbv^bv 
dinvt^^ vtC ttld'ovarj^ ^'i^isvavj xal ^yea'^ xaXd 
TtogtpvQS^ i^fialisLVy 6xogiiSai, r' iipvjtsgd'B xdnrixag^ 
%kaCvag x* iv^ifiBvm oiiXug xad'vnsgd'sv e6a6^ai, 

X5 cS 8' t6av ix fisydgovo Sdog fisxd xegfjlv §xovaai, 
SilLviK 9h 6x6ge6av' ix 8h l^sivavg^ ays x^pvg.i 
oE" (ihv &g' iv ytgod6(iG)^ Sdfiov adxod'i, xotfifjcavxo^ 
TijXiliKXog^ -d*' iiQfog xal NiiSxoQog dyXaog vCog' 
^AxQslSrig^ Sh xad'SvSs livx^^ do^v^ v^koto^ 

^^xdg d' ^Eiivri xaviinenkog^ iXSiaxo^ Sta^ yvvaixSv.^ 
rjliog d' riQcyivsia <pdvi^ ^o&oddxxvlog 'Hwg^ 
mgvvx^"' ag ^g 6vvrig)v'^ pOTJv dyud'dg Mavikaog^ 
eviiceta ic^dfisvog' Jtsgl 8h l^itpog^ 6§t) d'dx* <oftC9, 
7to66l d' vjto kinagot6vv iSijaaxo xaXd iciSiXa^ 

to /JiJ d' ^f*«^ i^ %'aXdiLoio d'ep ivaUyxvog avxriv^ 

TriX€(idxp^ Si nugZ^ev^^ i^tog^^ r' itpat* ix r' dvofLa^sv. 



*,^. 147, 0.14, T. 

322, 2. 778, 306. 
b Z. 16, r. 289, 

N, 440. ' 

c cf. t. 191, tp. 

172, X. 357. ^ 
d cf. &, 292, r. 

441, t. 316. 
e U/. 254-6, S2. 

635—36. 
f d. 184, D. 118, 

jr. 458. ^ 
^ 17. 336—39, n. 

643-49; cf. r, 

599. 
h App. F. 2. (7)— 

(9) mar. 
i y. 349 mar., 351. 
k 0. 642, p. 72. 
1 &. 477, Si. 674. 
m JQ. 673. 
n 0. 5, V. 1, 143; 

cf. i. 5. 
^. 21, 0. 4. 
p y. 402, fi. 346. 
q App. F. 2 (34) 

mar. 
r a. 106. 
8 0. 171. 
t tt. 332, 0. 106, 

*. 414, r. 171. 
u jr. 228. 
V /J. 2-6 

1.124- 

42—5. 
w O. 580. 
X I 528. 
y y. 374. 
z cf. y. 40t>. 
aa fi. 302 mar. 



y. 405, 
; of. B. 



292. 293. /0(. 



299. fovXag J^hcccftti, 
311. finog. 



308. \FsifM)cta J^scaaivsvog. 



294. XQsnsd'' Barnes. Em. €1. ed« Ox., tgeins^' Wolf. 295. TapTra/Lia^cK 

var. 1. GC. Wolf., tBffncaiis&oc Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox., navadfisd'a Scholl. H. P. 

yioi.fiTid'ivTS Harl. 



292 — 5. aXyioVf "all the more 
sad!" ue. to think of his brave deeds, 
which could not save him, although 
they preserved others (v. 288). The 
single word has great force, ovd* ei 
X. T. X., '*not even if his heart had heen 
of iron, wd. this have availed tt^x£ffai 
Ivyg. oie^.". — vtio expresses the no- 
don of being covered, overwhelmed 
with sleep. Fa. compares e. 493, tpUa 
fXitpag* uftipLiidkiytffag (vnvog), Hes. 
Theog. 798, xaxoy S' inl %afia hoc- 
XintH, 

297—9. This bed is meant to be of 
the most luxurious kind which H. knew i 
the 9i(i/ina d'ifisvccvj or stogeifai, is 
comprehensive of the whole, of which 
(ijyset ... tttiti^tug... xXctivug are the 
parts. In V. 2—4 Odys. sleeps (as here 
in the ngodofi. = atO^ovaa ; see on 302 
inf.) on a bull's hide and many fleeces, 
raw, it seems, from the animals lately 



slaughtered, and covered by a simple 
xXatvUt ^ There the hide — the bed 
being %ttii,u6ig (t. 599; cf. v. 9J--7) -- 
supplies the place of tgijxa XixecCj on 
which all the bedding was usually laid 
(y. 359)* III 7. 349—5* Nestor speaks 
of prjy. and xXaiv. only; here ToiTtrjtsg 
are the added element of greater lu- 
xury; see mar. for the passage as re- 
curring. In V. 58 Xi%TQOiai fi,aXci%otoi, 
seems generally to express the whole 
of that, 071 or in which one slept. 

301 — 2. xijgv^, he was specially 
charged with care of guests (mar.). 
avToS'if referring us to cci^ovafj of 
297, seems to identify it with the tt^o- 
iofi., see App. F. 2 (9). 

306—9, See on p. i— 5. Milton, Fa- 



rad. Reg. ly. 426 foil., imitates qoSoS. 
^coff, by *' morning fair ... with radiant 



finger 
3" 



-2. TtaQi^sVy perhaps on such 



124 



OAXSSEIAS A. 3i»-336. 



[day VI. 



a Q, 120-1. 

b /J. 28 mar., X, 

164. 
c y. 142 mar. 
d y. 82, fi. 32. 
e y. 101 mar. 
f cJ. 156 mar. 
gr (T. 117, V. 1*20. 
h y. 83. 
i a. 160, 377, /9. 

4S-9, 237. 
k ^. 64. 
1 fi, 252. 
m /?. 55-6. 
n a. 92 mar. 
a. 92 mar. 
p a. 368; cf. y. 

206-7. 
q y. 92—101 mar. 
r J. 30, 0. 325. 
« ^. 124-141. 
t n. 745, X. 297, 

373. 
tt y. 121 mar., v, 

262, *. 281. 
V cf. J. 113-6. 
w *. 446, J. 415, 

*. 573. _ 
X <t>. 29, X. 189 

-90. 



ig Aaxsdai^ova Stav^ in^^ svQea vSta ^aXdifai^g; 
drj^iov'^ ^' £Stov*y toSa iipv^ vrjiiBQxhg ividTCsg?' 

zov d' av TrjXsiiccxog xsjcvvfiivog avtCov rivSa 3 

"'AtQsCSri^ MaviXaa JtOTQ£q>ig i^X^^M ^ac5^? 
rilvd'OVj st ZLvcc iiOL xkrjrjdova^ naxQog^ iv£67tOLg. 
icd^LSxai^ (lOL 01x05, iiXcois^ dh JtCova iQya^^ 
SvgiiEvicDv^ d' avSgiSv Jtlatog doiiog^ 0? xe fiot aisl 
ItrjX'" ASiva 6tpdlov6i xal MiTtodag akiKag fiovg^"" 3 
firjXQogP iii% nvri^xiiifBg vnig^iov v^qlv ixovxeg, 
xoijvBxa^ vvv xd 6d yovvad'* [xdvoiiac^ al' x i^iXrfi^a 
XBLVov Ivyqbv qJlb^qov ivufnatv, bH xov oxcojtag 
6ipd'aXiiot6L XBot6iv, '^ aXXovfivd'Ov &xov6ag 
7cXaio(iivov * %iQL ydg {llv itivQbv xixB [i^xtjq. 3 

lifjSd xC fi' alS6(iBVog iibM66bo ^rjS* iXBaCQcuv^ 
dXX' Bv /lot xaxdXB^ov ojccag ijvxfi^ag iicioniig. 
XiaaoiiaL^ Btnoxi xol xv icaxiiQ i^bg i6d'Xdg ^0dv66Bvg, 
7] inog r^i xv igyov vnoOxdg ilsxaXBaaav 
Srj^o) Ivi TQfoav, od'v 7cd6xBXB ntjiiax' ^Axc^ioC' 3, 

XSV vvv {JLQL (AV^6at^ XUl ^LOL VTJllBQXhg ivLOTCBgJ^ 

xov^ 8h iiiy ox^ri^ag TtQogitpri liavd'og MBviXaog 
"(»« jcoTCOL^^ ^ fidXa di) XQaxB(f6ipQOvog dvdQog iv evvfi 
TJd'sXov^ BvvTid'^vca dvdXxidag avxol iovxBg. 
^ff^ S' OTiox' iv ivXox^"^ iXatpog XQCcxsQoto Xiovxog 3; 
vBfigovg^ xoL(i7i6d6a vBriyBviag ydXad^jvovg 



318. J^otnog fiqya. 320. filiinxg. 329. finog figyov. 

314. iviansg Harl. a mana pr., Schol. Q. Bek. Dind. Fa., ivisne Harl. ox emend. 

Ambros, CI. ed. Ox. Low. 317. xal ytXrjdopu E. Schol. ad A. 105. 321;. | ] Bek. 

336. Aristoph. Byzant. legisse videtur (e Soholl. E. H. Q. T. ad 339) vifigov . . . 

vsrjysvia yaXad'Tivov, vsoysviag Arist. 



^eaxol Xi^oi as formed a seat for 
Nestor, outside the palace (mar.). 
enoq X. T. X. see on y. 374. vlTtxe 
X. T. X. see on «. 225. 

314. iffifiiov ^ ^6iov, **i8 the matter 
private eto.?^', see on §, 28. 

317—21. These words of Telem. are 
plainly and broadly to the point, with- 
out the tone of apolog^y and hesitation 
of his similar speech to Nestor in y. 
79 — loi ; but there, it is his first speech, 
and at first introduction; here he has 
spent a night in the house and society 
of the host, whose character, too, is, to 



a youth, more winning and less awe- 
inspiring than Nestor^s. xXTifjifova, 
c= %Xiog, but elsewhere (mar.) TtXsrjd, 

318 — 20. Mqya, see on jj. 22. — 
d^ivd, see App. A. 6 (2). 

322 — 31. See on y. 92 — loi, but obs. 
that rovv£xa in y. 92 refers to the 
uncertainty in which his father^s fate 
lay, here to his difficulties at home. 

334. iiS-eXpv, "were venturing", see 
on y. 121; avciXyndsg following gives 
force to it. Here Menel. dwells on the 
scene wh. Telem. had left behind him. 
Hence the imp erf. 



DAY VI.] 



OAT23SEIA2 A. 337~343. 



12.5 



poOKOiiivTi^ 8' iTtSLta Bfiv slg^Xvd'Bv^ evv^Vf 
cc[i<pot6QOL6L Sh totOivaiikecc noificiv i<prix6v^^ 
40 (Sg 'OSvdsvg HBivoi6iv asixiu^ tc&ciiov sqiijasL, 

atyccQ^ IZbv ta xccv€q xal ^A^rivaCri xal"jinokXov ^^ 
xotog^ edv ol6g not' ivxtL^^^y^ ^'^^ Ai0^(p 
ii §Qi8og^ OiXoiLriXeCSriBnaiai^sv^ avacftag, 



a B. 821, <P. 449, 
559, *F. 117. 

b u. 259. 

c 2. 321, r. 490. 

d J. 145. 

e J. 396. 

f t. 550. 

^ V. 311, a. 23S, 
(u. 376, B. 37 J, 
J. 288, H. 132, 
n, 97. 

h a, 257 mar. 

i I. 129, 271. 

k if. 111. 

I cf. *F. 733. 



33^- 'TSn^' 339- 340. dcj^styiscc. 
337. %Q7j[ivovg B., sed ejusd. Schol. %vriiiove. 342. iv 'Ag^aprj P. 



337. xv7jfiOvg, this word in 11. is 
used always of Mount Ida, mostly with 
a mention of its wooded character. 
€§€^e^<ri "explores", cf. the simitar 
use oi i^8Q8siva>v (mar.). For the sub- 
junct. in comparisons see Jelf, Gr, Or. 
§ 419, 2. In A. 113—5 ^'® fi^^ what 
seems like a first cast of this simile: 
here the *' seeking out the slopes and 
glens and grazing'' seems added to 
mark the security of the suitors' 
depredations on Odysseus' house and 
-substance in his absence (318); and 
with like intent noiinjeaaa is added 
as marking the presumptuous con- 
fidence of the intruder. In A. 115 we 
have iXd'diV sig svv^v said of the 
lion, to describe his breaking up the 
fawns at his leisure, not that there he 
finds them , as here , in his lair, eiyxen 
"hollows" is found only in simile: it 
is akin to Synrj^ aynvXogy dynvlrj. 

338. eiCiqXvS'ev, this aor., with ^qp^- 
x«v 339 » following i^SQbTjai subjunct., 
as it might a fut., is to be taken as 
denoting the certainty of the con- 
sequence; see Jelf, Gr, Gi\ % 403, 2. 
It is thus not a case of the "aor. (or 
other narrative tense) of simile" (Jelf, 
Gr. Gr, § 402, 3), which (since a simile 
is under no limitation as to time) merely 
reflects the time of the action compared 
— a practice which is most plain in the 
shorter similes, e, g, N. 389, 7Jqi,7C8 
S' (og^ots tig ^pvgJjQiTcsv, T. 403 — 4, 
nul rjgvysv tog 0x8 tavgog '^Qvysv, 
and so in @, 455— -60, N. 62—5, O 
271—80, and n. 633, where ogooffet- is 
pluperf. with force of imperf., but the 
same is traceable also in longer similes, 
e.g. A. 324--6, 557— «• 

339. dfjufoxiqoici, t e. both the 



hind and her fawns; Ni. would limit 
it to the fawns viewed as twins; but 
ocfKpOT, is properly referred to two 
things which have been distinctly 
enumerated .Fa. compares Virg. AE71 
I. 458. Atridas Priamumque ei siwum 
ambobus AcMtlem.t 

341. at yaQ, Zev x. x. A., for this 
famous trine invocation see App. C 6. 
Ni. says it is used of a wish the fulfil- 
ment of which is not expected by the 
speaker. It is true wishes so expressed 
are commonly extravagant or hyper- 
bolical in their terras; yet they gener- 
ally point to some substantial object 
on which the speaker's heart is set at 
the moment. Jn a. 255 (where see 
note) a wish of precisely similar im- 
port is introduced by si yag without 
any appeal to deities, and concludes 
with the same apodosis as in ^46 here ; 
and in H. 157, A. 670 st^ is used 
just as at yocg^ Ztv x. t. I. here. In 
all these optative forms the speaker 
seems in the fervour of his earnest- 
ness lifted out of the sphere of the 
present and catches at the remem- 
brance of some past state,, which he 
would fain recall, without at the mo- 
ment considering whether such a recall 
be possible. In all, being originally 
protatic in character, an apodosis, ex- 
pressed or implied, seems due. 

342—3. evlAiiS^q>f the reading iy 
*AgCaPri{mai,T.) points to a site on the Hel- 
lespont, which therefore is less suited 
to an exploit performed, wo must sup- 
pose, on the way to Troy, than that 
of Lesbos, to which the epithet Jvxrt- 
/tf'vt; also belongs (mar.). — f| cipt- 
6oq, so is ^gi&og i^axeod'eii, , H. m 
(Ni.), "by way of rivalry", or as we say 



126 



OAT22EIA22 A. 344-355. 



[day VI. 



h a. 265— fi. 

te. 3M, 401, 51t 

^ f. SIB, J. 741, 
f, H3, ^ 467, o. 
1S4, I. 209. ^. 



1 ir 



,736, 1^. 22S 

V, S50, ^. SO, 5i», 

1 i?8lS,cf.J2.&70. 
in< ll«S ere. 103, 

n :. 204 , *, m. 
a 1. lefl. 



tOtog^ Mv ^VTJ&T^^^tV 6(tikl^0£iEV *0Sv6iSEV£'_ _. 3^ 

tavta^ d* a ^' li^mtag xal Xihasm^ ovk av iym ys 

tmv ovSiv %0L iyi^ ^^v^m inoq^^ ovd^ imzsvam. 31 

of tf' aid §ovkQvtQ #£oi fiEfiv^6^ai^ i<pBt^i&v, 
Vfi&oq^ iitnttfk tig iati. noXixlvatm"^ Svl ^ovtm 



353. t Zenod., SchoU. E. H. P. Q., [] Wolf. Bek. Dind. Fa. Low. ^ovXoivro 

var. lect. H. Steph. 



*4n a match against'^; cf. the Latin 
certaUm, — ^iXofifi., the mother of 
Patroclas was named Philomela; as, 
however, metronjmics are not Homer's 
usage, and as the overthrow of Pa- 
troclus could not have caused joy to 
the Achseans , a son of some Philomeles 
or — leus , is meant. Eustathius says 
that he was king of Leshos , and chal- 
lenged all who sailed hy to wrestle 
with him; Odys., accepting the chal- 
lenge, overthrew him. Lesbos was a 
dependency of Priam, see SI. 544, 
where Macar is named as its king, 
whether then or formerly is not clear. 
^ 345—8. TOZoq, see on «. 265—6. — 
aXXa is contrasted with %a filv 349. 
Ttagk^ has the same force as if com- 
pounded with 6lVrOi/ii^ and developes 
the force of nuifayiXtSov (only read 
here and 9*139) more distinctly: '^other 
things, digressing from and declining 
what you ask". 

350. Here begins tha narrative of 
Menel., which may be viewed as com- 
plementary to that of Nestor concerning 
him, and fitting in between y. 302 and 
311. He tells how in pinch of famine 
through baffling winds he was taught 
by £Udothe^ to entrap Proteus of the 
Nile , who then told him all he wished 
to know — and more. This brings us 
to definite tidings of Odys. (555—60), 
as detained in Calypsd's island with 
no present prospect of escape, and 



justifies so far the whole episode, as 
also the errand of Telem. at Sparta. 
The whole passage stands unmatched, 
even in H., for vigour of delineation, 
novelty of adventure, and the happy 
play of light and shade; the archness 
of EidotheS and the grotesque humour 
of the capture of Proteus relieving the 
forlorn aspect of Menel., and the dis- 
mal tragedy of his brother's death. 

351. AiytrnTq} seems here to mean 
the river. • — iri enforces devgo, as 
seen in 736 inf, ^xi d, movatf, other- 
wise it might seem rather to go with 
iaxov. 

353, this v. has been suspected as 
spurious, but see App. E. 8 (3) note **, 
cf. ^schyl. Suppl. 205 — 6 Dind. ft«- 
fivijad'ai GB&Bv %h8vcig itpsTfLccg] 
wh. suggests that this line was in the 
Homeric text as known to ^schyl.; 
also Pind. Pyth. IL 21 d-sAv d' itpa- 
tfjkoctg, — tTtsi ov should be read in 
synizesis. 

355. ^aQOV, of the fact of its 
having once been an island there 
seems no doubt; the question is whe- 
ther the interval of a day's sail be 
not too large. Herod. (II. 179) says 
that of old the lower portion of Egypt 
was all sea, and was added to the 
land by the deposit of the Nile. This 
leaves open the question of distance^ 
which need not be taken as that of thft 
shortest line from Phuros to the coast. 



DAY VI.] 



OATS23EUS A. 356-36^. 



11^7 



t600ov avet 



r 066OV re navij^iiQiri^ 



vrivg 



iv^ dh XtiiTJv avoi>p,og, od'sv x* djtd v^ccg ittfag 
ig novtov fiaikov6tVj cc^v&6d^ivot (isXav^ vde 

60 iv^'a^ fi* iaikbOLV ^(nat Ijlov d^ol, ovdd kot* ovQdt 
dvUovtig q>atv6'»fd'* dAiaiegj^ ov od xa vricSv 
Tto^Tt'^eg^ yiyvovxai in* avQia^ vcDxd d'aXd66rig, 
xaC^ vv xsvijia^ ndvxcc iidxiffbixo xai fiive*^ dv8Q(Sv, 
ai^ liTJ xCg [la ^£(Sv 6i,og)VQaxo xai ft' iauGi^avj 

6^ IlQmxaog lip^ty^ov %vydxriQj aXfoio^ yiQovxog, 
ElSod'dri' rg yuQ $a (idlv(Sxd va d'Vfiov^ o^tvd. 
if (i' qtcD Iqqovxv ^vvTJvxaxo vo6q>iv ixdiQcov . 
alal yuQ naql v^0ov^ dlcifiavoi t%Q'vdu0xov^ 



a X. 11. 

b y. 287, d, 613. 

c (0. 71. 

d y. 176. 

e I. 139, E. 698. 

f i. 136. 

^ t 91, y.409, cf. 

V. 158, IT. 3-4. 
h cf. d. 585-0. 
i cf. i.286, <l^.335. 
ky.325,376, y.71, 

V. 864. 
I y. 142. 

m^. 329, cf. i.l63. 
n tf . 289 mar. 
J. 447, B. 61. 
p <. 157, cf. •. 336, 

I. 142. 
q d. 349 mar. 
r e. 178, $. 361, 

V. 9. 
s /u. 333. 
t u. 330-2 i c[.u. 

95, 261-4, n. 

80-2. 



^r. 



358. ij^iaccg. 



360. iJrBi%OClV* 



366, ^BiSo&ifj* 



367. J^iQQOVTL, 



356. avevd'sv o6ov Sohol. H. sed avevd"' in text. 359. et d(pvaa6fi>svoL Scboll. 

E. P. 36^. pro fiivs' (isvog Bek. annot. 364. iUrjasv var. lect. H. Steph. 

366. EvQVvoiifi Zenod., Scholl. E. H. Q. 367. gvvtivxbb Bek. annot. 



It would saffice to consider it measnred 
from the nearest port or frequented 
point, e. g. to Naucratis on the eastern 
side of the western and most ancient 
month of the Nile; and, according to 
Aristotle, '* then the emporium (Schol.) 
of Egypt". Or the terminus a quo for 
the daj^s sail might reckon from the 
station for ships, which, from ai\> $' slg 
Atyvnxoio x. r. X, 581 inf. (cf. |. 258), 
seems to have been within and perhaps 
some way up the river. Lowe cites 
Lucan. Phars, X. 509 foil, claustrum pe- 
lagi cepti Pharon^ insula quondam in 
medio steiii ilia mari, sub tempore vatis 
Proteos: at nunc est Pellacis proxima 
tnuris. The Schol. has preserved a 
story that Pharos was named from the 
pilot who brought Helen thither and 
then perished by a serpent's bite. 
Herod. (H. iii), who makes Proteus 
a king of Egypt, gives ^sgmg as his 
immediate predecessor. This is very 
suggestive of "Pharaoh" as in con- 
nexion with ^dgog. The clause ^d- 
gov . . . THnXijayiovaiv bespeaks the 
foreign origin ^^of the tale, being 
such a phrase as a Phoenician voyager 
might use in recounting it to a Greek. 
atiiXiicx* is used of an appellation 
given by foreigners, by men in con- 
trast with gods, or with some such 



special significance; but also of sum- 
moning, invoking, etc. 

357 — 9- iiwCev^ this aor., for which 
the future might be substituted, de- 
notes an "habitual act regarded as 
single, separate, and of repeated but 
distinct occurrence". Donalds. Cfr. Gr. 
§ 427 {bh), — d€pvO(f, fi. vifwQ, this 
verb is constantly used of drawing or 
pouring off wine from the 'KQrjrrJQ into 
the drinking cups, here of ships water- 
ing from a spring or pool. ' 

361—3. dXidieg, not denoting 
direction to or from the sea, t. e. off 
or on shore, but "blowing along the 
sea*s surface", as explained by the 
sequel oP gd ts vri&v. For this ex- 
pension of a word bv the sequel see 
notes on a. i, noXvtgonovy ce. 199, 
nazgo(povija y also cf. y. 382 — 3 and 
note. — vv has somewhat of "an 
ironical bitterness" (Jelf Gr. Gr, § 732), 
cf. a. 347, j5. 320, A. 416. 

364—5. el followed by fi'^ is in H. 
far more frequent with optat. than 
with indie, and with the subjunct. is 
not found. — JIq(oT; see App. C. 7. 
In 2, 43 nga>T(o is the name of one 
of Thetis' nymphs; cf. Hes. Theog. 243, 
248. For Eidotheg see App. C. 7. 

368. ixS^daO; this resource marks 
the approach of famine. Agricultural 



128 



OATSSEIAi: A. 369-379. 



[day VI. 



a cf. E. 796. 
b C. oO . X. 400. 
c t. 273, V. 237. 
d o. 405. . 
c ^.530; cf.^.310, 

XV. 13. 
1 Z. 523, K. 121. 
g- d. 194 mar. 
h cf. a. 50, 55, 6, 

460-7. 
i «. 30-1 , J. 48, 

418, JV^. 20. 
k cf. d, 481, 538, 

et stepius. 
I «. 445, C- i49. 
m d. 372-3. 
n e. 108, i2. 570. 
or. 67 mar. 
p d. 468-70, V. 

74—6, ^119, B. 

485; cf. «. 386, 

fi. 374, 2V. 521. 



ij^ 8d [isv ayxi 0xa0a Inoq (paxo qxavr^oiv xs 37 

'vrjmog^ sig, cJ garva, Xirjv^ xodov r^Sl xaXig>Q<ov,^ 
jji ix<DV^ lie^ietg oial xiQTCsai^ akyea nd(S%Giv^ 
(og^ dfj drjd'^ ivl vijeci i(fvx8av^ ov8a xi xex^img^ 
svQB^Bvai SvvatSM, litvvd'st Sd rot ^rop^ ixa^Qav,^ 

(Sg iq)ax\ ccvxccq iyci fiLV d^etpo^evog TtQogiBiicov 37 
Hx fiiv xov iQeo), ^ xig^ 0v tcbq iact ^euovj 
cag iyci ov xt ixdv'^ Kat€QVxo(iaL , dlXd vv iLikkca 
d^avdxovg^ dXixid^ai^^ oVp oiQavov evQvv ixov6iv. 
dkXd^ 6v TtBQ iLOv alni (J&sol Si xs Tcdvxa i'0a0iv) 



370. finog, si^' J^SHoav, 375. nQOciJ^nnov. 376. J^egioD, 377. J^stkov. 

379. J^Bini J^iaaaiv. 



369. yaiimoig ibid. 370. rj di fioi dvtofisvrj Zenod., Scholl. E. H. 372. (is- 

^Ui.g Harl. Ambros. E. Scholl. E. P. Q. Wolf., ita Schol. ad Plat. Alcibiad. I. 

74 (teste Pors.), fis^irjg Era. CI. ed. Ox. 394. toi, ivdo^Bv rixoq Schol. E. 

379. Zenod. perperam him, Schol. H. 



or pastoral pursuits (the lipya of men 
^. 22 note), furnished man's ordinary 
food. Fisliing, although well known, 
was an exceptional pursuit. It was 
practised by the net (E.487), and by the 
angle with a hook of copper (11. 407 - 8) 
or of buffalo horn , weighted with lead 
(ft. 251 — 4, SI. 80 — 2). It furnishes a 
simile {%, 384 — 8), and among the 
sources of wealth in a rich country it 
is mentioned Q'dkctaaa 61 nagi^^si 
iX&vg (t. 113). In Hes. Scut, 214 — 5 
the fisherman and his action are 
described with some minuteness. dXi- 
svg in the Ody. moans a fisherman, but 
also a seafaring man generally (n.. 349, 
CO. 419). Commercial or marauding 
enterprise offered richer prizes to those 
who could command a vessel, and fish- 
ing was doubtless left to the poor and 
the unenterprising, t*. e, was despised. 
Virg. {Gear. I. 141 — 2) speaks of fish- 
ing as an art wh. came in as the 
golden age went out. 

369. txeiae , **was beginning to af- 
flict". By tiius pressing the imperf. 
sense we may reconcile this line with 
363 aup. 

372, fie^leiq, "in the 2^^ and 3^** 
sing, (pres.) collateral forms according 
to the conjugation in <o are in ti^ri^iL 
not unusual even in the Attic dialect^' 



Donalds. Gr, Gr, § 319 I. (3); such 
occur in H. in the verb Tij/it, as m 
ngotBi B. 752, dvUig (Bek. -rig) £. 880 
and the imper. Zbi <P. 338, see also mar. 
Here the ms. authority seems in favour 
of fisd'isig not -179, and this is confirmed 
by the Schol. 

373. riiCfia>if, the notion of finality 
pervades this word. In A. 536 Zeus 
promises to nod, that being his (liyi- 
tsxov Tfx^oo^, ** Supreme or decisive 
token". There it procures the deliver- 
ance from doubt, here from difficulty: 
so in 12. 472 it signifies remedy or 
riddance. The verb zsyLiiaigoficct si- 
milarly involves the notion of final 
appointment, but not necessarily by 
divine authority (ij. 317, x. 563); see 
Buttm. LexiL 98. 

379. ^£ol 6b T£ X. T. X.y H. asserts 
a theoretic omnipotence (9, 237, x. 306, 
£. 444), as hero an omniscience, for his 
deities , but of coarse both break down 
in practice through the anthropomor- 
phic limitations inseparable from such 
conceptions. Thus Zeus himself is 
beguiled by HerS (^. 352 foil., cf. Z* 
168, 184, T. 112); see Nagelsbach I. 
§ 5—7. Hence Proteus knows nothing 
of the assault meditated upon him, 
and suspects not the device of the 
seal -skins (451 — 3 inf*), Homeric 



DAY VI.] 



0ATS2EIAS A. 3«o-393. 



129 



Jo 8s Ttg ft' dd'avdraov naddcc xal idijae^ xelsvd'ovy 
v66tov^ d'% cog inl tcovxov ilsviSo^at Ix^vosvtaJ^ 

Sjs^ iqxtfirjVj ly S' avrix* aiLsCfiaxo 8ta d'sdaVy 
^toiYUQ^ iyd xoi i^etvs fidl^ dtQBxmg ciyoQ€v6to, 
XiolstxaC^ rig Sbvqo y^Q(ov« Sliog V7i(iSQti^g^ 

J5 d^dvarog IlQcatevg Alyvmiogy og tb^ d'alda^rjg 
nd6rig fiivd'Ba olSs^ JIoasiSdovQg vnoS(icig. 
tovdB'^ T* i(i6v (pa6tv naxiql* S^iisvat iqdh taxi^^ai, 
xov y* bI nmg 6v Svvaio Xox7i(fd(isvog kBlufiiod^av^ 
og^ xiv xoc Btxydtv 6d6v xal ^dzQu xaXavd'ov 

}o v66xov^ d', <6g iul novxov bIbvoboll Ix^voBvxa* 
xal di xi toi stnji^ty ^iox(fBq>hgy at W i^ikvfi^a^ 
oxti^ tov iv (iBydQOt0L xaxov r' dyad'ov xb xixvxxai 
oixoiiivoto 6i9'Bv 8oli%^v oditv^ aQyaXiriv taJ 



b d. 390, 421, X. 

640; cf, a. 77. 
c^.516, e.420, tp. 

317. 
d X. 487, 503, fi. 

115. 
• a. 179, 214, .^ 

192, o. 266, 352, 

9t. 113. 
f cf. /?. 55 mar. 
gr ^- 349 mar. 
h a. 52— 3. 
i cf. a. 216-6. 
k X. 539-40, cf. 
. a. 2S6, ^ 198. 
I d, 381 mar. 
m cf. V. 306. 
D d. 483, d. 426. 



386. JrOtde. 389. fsiTtfjClV. 391. J^SlTtTjCl, 

380. nsXev^ovs Uarl. nilivd'ov Bek. annot. 383 et 399. dyoQSvocn Harl. 

Wolf. %ataXi^to Ern. CI. ed. Ox. 387. nati^cc tpaa' Schol. P. (Buttm.). 

388. Xelad-iad'ai Bek. annot. 



deities enjoy a range of knowledge , as 
of power, irregularly transcending 
human, and the poet extends, ahridges, 
and economizes either at will, to suit 
the interest of the poem. Thus Meuel. 
after outwitting Proteus, still addresses 
him as widely knowing, or even as 
all -knowing (465—8). Poseidon knows 
not what takes place even on his own 
element, until he comes within sight 
of it («. 286). Apollo only knows be- 
cause he "keeps a good look-out" (ovd* 
dlaoa%oitiriv slxsv K, 515), but even 
then he knows less soon than concerns 
the interest of those whom he befriends. 
Cf. also ^. 286 foil. Thus the ndvxa dv- 
vavtai or tauci sinks into a hyperbole, 
drawn forth perhaps by the lowering 
sens^e of human weakness. The Muses 
are said to "be present and know all 
things '\ but this is their function, as 
instructing the bard, and this very 
condition carries its own limitation 
with it ; and, manifestly, /breknowledge 
formed no part of the gift. This indeed, 
seldom enters into the poeVs concep- 
tion, save as through the medium of 
vaticination {A* 69 — 72): when it does, 
it is chiefly in express reference to 
alcu or ftotipa (v. 306, T. 407 — 10, f. 
206 — 7), as indeed is Proteus' state- 

HOU. OD. I. 



ment, so far as regards the future 
(m/*. 475, cf. 561). The Sirens also 
profess to know all things that come 
to pass on earth (yi,, 189 — 91), but the 
poet may have meant their words to 
be untrue. 

384. 6bvqo, with TtmkBltai, a verb 
of motion to and fro involves the no- 
tion of frequenting the spot, not merely 
coming to it. 

388—9. elLTtOMq X. T. 1., the apodosis 
is og %^v xoi X. T. X. where 0$ t=i avzo£» 
For the subjunct. in apodos. with optat. 

in protas. cf. A, 386— 7 , bI yLBV dri 

nsiQTiQ'sirjgj ov% &v tot XQcciafirjui 
fiiog, and see some remarks inApp. A.9. 
(19). With fiixQa xeXev^ov cf. Hes. 
Opp, 648, dfi^J© di} T04 ftitQdc noXv- 
q>XoCa§oio d'aXdaarig, and Herod. I. 47, 
olda d* iym .... (lizga &€cXccair7jg, 
Here the words odov xal iiirQU xcA. 
seem to promise a detail regarding 
Menelaus* homeward voyage, which the 
sequel does not verify. 

392. The line was often cited by So- 
crates but with a new application, as 
meaning the knowledge best worth 
knowing, good and evil morally, in rela-^ 
tion to one's self. (Aul. Gell. XIV. vi.) 

393. Oifdv. with ol%0(iEvoio is an 
accus. of the equivalent notion, similar 



I30 



0AT2SEUS A. 394-404. 



[day VI. 



a X. 274—5. 
b cf. V. 312. 
c d. 382 mar. 
d S. 383 mar. 

c &. 68, mm— 

80. 
f u. 312, 439-41, 

V. 95, H. 433-4, 

^. 226-8. 
g ij. 318. 
h S, 460. 
i (^. 349 mar. 
k H. 64—5, *. 

126, «#^. 692. 
1 a. 15 mar. 
m (f. 448, 450, 

4b0. 
n r. 207. 



(dV i^cct^ avxoLQ iyci ^iv ci(i6Lfi6[i6Vog XQogeHTCov 
'avtfj vvv q>QciiBv 0v koxov Q'bCoio yd^ovtog, 35 

(ifj xdg (IS XQOtS(Av^ i^h XQodaslg aUrixai' 
dgyaXdog^ ydg r' i^tl d'cog §Q(ycip &vSq\ da^iijvaLJ 

cSg^ ig)dli7iv, if d* aixlyC dfisipeto dta d'sdov 
'xoLydQ^ iyd rot, l^stve^ (idX* dtQSxiog dyoQ6v6<x}. 
^fjliog^ tf' T^fhog (iioov ovQuvdv dfi^tPsfi'^Krij 4c 

t'^fiog^ &Q* ^5 aXog^ slat ysQCDv^ akiog vtniSQxrjg 
nvotf} vno Zsq>VQOiOy (islaivrj g)(ftxl^ X€clvg}d'slg, 
ix d* il^iov xoLnataL vnb 67ts60t^ ylatpvQotaiv 
d(ig)l ds fiiv (p(Sxai°^ vinoSsg xc^X'^g akotsvdvrjg^ 



394. ngoaij^smov, -396: ngoJ^tSmv, 

399. iymv iQSfo av S* M (pQsal pdXkto awsiv Yenet. P. et ex Boman^ Eust. 

ed. Stephan., nostram tnentur Flor. Lot. (Barnes.). 400. dfKpipefiTj'nij Bek. 

Dind. Fa., ccfKpifis^ii'KH Eustath. Ern. CI. ed. Ox. Wolf. Low., etiam afitpipB- 

Pt^hsiv prodit Schol. H. 



to that of the object cognate with the 
verb ; see Donalds. Gr, 6?". 466. So Vir- 
gil has currimus cequory ^n. III. 191, cf. 

V. 235..^ 

400. rifio^ o / the absence of any 
logical ground for the presence of SI 
here led Ni. to suppose that d' was 
d"^. He probably means that it forms 
a crasis SriiXtog , or rather a synizesis 
Stq TiiUog. This would gain some sup- 
port from ^. 399, 0. 477, dij ^fiSofiov 
and other instances collected by Bek. 
{Homer. Bldlt, p. 173) who also reads 
\kri Sri ovrmg in A, 131, £. 218. But 
this presumption is of no value against 
the undeviatinff custom that ri(iog is 
followed by Sb, not, as some have 
supposed,^ coalescing in sense with it, 
as in toiogds toeoaSs, but as a con- 
junction having a definite grammatical 
function, as in t. 558—61, A, 475—8, 
H. 433, 9. 68, W, 226. It is probably 
the same here as SI resumptive of 
r, 200, 229, where Helen's reply to 
Priam's successive questions, ''who is 
this and that warrior", commences 
with ovtog S'; see Jelf, Gr. Gr, § 768, 
4. Tet it should be remarked that 
Homer's style rather overflows with 
conjunctions, and that he feels him- 
self at liberty to connect a clause by 
Si , whether there is or is not anything 
in the subject matter or form of the 
sentence to require it; cf. E. 890 
^X&LCrog Si {lqCwi^ 635, ipsvSofisvoi 
$s as (paaiy phrases preceded by an 



imperative mood or a* question. Pro- 
bably this abundance of conjunctions 
is a trace of the recitative style, they 
forming links to the recitation whether 
there were anything in the matter 
recited to require a conjunction or not. 
The Schol. indicates a var. lect, diKpi' 
fisfii^iiBiv (see Dindorf s note thereon), 
but prefers dfi<pi§eBi^%si, Granting 
even that, as dfKpipiprjitag is said to 
be used with a present force in A. 37, 
so here the pluperf. could in sense be 
imperf. or simply past, still to say "when 
the sun was going" or "went round", 
would not suit the sequel sla\ which 
requires "shall have gone round". 
We may comp. JI. 54, onnots S^ xov 
oi^otov dvriq i^iXrjCiv dftignai . . . . t£ 
itQcitBlC nQofiBfiii'K'g, where also ngo' 
pB^T^TiBi is wrongly read (Bek. Homer. 
Bldtt, p. 67). Virg. Georg, IV. 401 
imitating this , has medios quum sol ac' 
cenderit (BStuSj and 426, ccbIo et medium 
sol igneus orbem Hauserat, 

402 — 4. See App. C. 7 for xvoi^, 
(pQixl, and ipwxai. The "Zephyr^' 
might seem, on comparing 360 — i, to 
be the foul wind which had detained 
Menel. so long, but it is rather men- 
tioned as a fact attending the time of 
Proteus' emerging, t. e. noon. — vi- 
Ttoife^m Gurtius (I. 232) takes this as 
from VBTC- related to dviiptog nepo(()s, 
neptis, nephew, and meaning "brood"; 
so Eustath. gives dnoyovoi as one 
interpretation. Curt, cites Theocr. 



DAY VI.] 



OATI^ZEIAS A. 405—417. 



13' 



nvxQov iitonvaCovaai^ aXbq noXvfiBvd'iog^ ddfi'^v^ 
ivd'a <y' iyiov &yayov6a a(i* i^ot^ g)atvo(iivri(piv 
B'6v(i6(o^ i^sirig' <Sv d^ iv XQivMd'ai^ itaiQOvg 
tQ€tg, 0% toi Tcaga vijv6lv iv60il[ioi0Lv &QL0roi, 

londvta Ss roc igico dXatpciia'^ roto^ yigovtog. 
q)cixag^ (isv rot 7CQ<Srov aQt^firjost xal i7CBi0iv'^ 
airccQ ijc^v ndoag Jt€(i7cd66€rai rjSV ^drjraL,^ 
Xi^srcci iv iii66rj0ty^ vofiBvgi^ Sg Tcdaat [iijlaiv, 
rov yilv inr^v^ Sri nqSra xarsvvi^d'svrcc^ Hdi^cd's^ 

i^xal ror Stibi^' v(itv iiBXirco xccQrog^ rB fieri ra, 
avd'v d' ixBiv fiB(ia(5ra xal i0<Sv(is^6v^ tcbq akv^av 
xdvra dl yiyvofiBvog TCBL^^arav^ o06* inl yalav 



869, 



a 8, 261 mar. 
b « 43S, A, 

496 
c Z. 182. 
d A. 432. 
e A. 415, (T. 442, 

446 

§r d. 440 

h d, 530, 666, ». 

36, w. 10». 
i d. 460, tt, 289, o, 

24%. ^ 

k n. 577. 
1 d' 404 mar. 
m \p. 359. 
a V. 21.S. 
o «. 487. 
p O. 632. 
qy. 183, 

159 mar. 
r r. 448. 
s C 197. 
t K. 484, ^ 33; cf. 

a. 309, 3t5. 



cf. d. 



410. J^sgim, 412. fC^rizai, 414. J^^Srjad's, 

413. ftiaaoiai, £m. CI. fiiaarjai Wolf. ed. Ox. 415. Iirc&r' vfifiiv Ambros. 

Em. CI. ineid"' v\ktv Harl. Wolf. ed. Ox., mox ^qyov ts ^nog xb Heidelb. Yind. 

pro nctQXoq %b P^tj xb, quod mavnlt ntriusque Schol. 



XYII. 2$, dd'oivatoi 9h uccXsvvtai iol 
vi7Co9$g. He also (II. 220) views 
'CvSvri in aloavdvqg as = Indo-ger- 
maiiie su-n'Jdt and connects it with 
the fern, of a masc. which in Sanscrit 
corresponds with the German Sohn 
(son). Thus ** daughter of the sea^' 
(applied thus also to Thetis, cf.'^vya- 
triQ &Xloi,o yigovtog) is the sense. Pro- 
bably 'Gvdvri might also be akin to vSmg 
(sudor), as in sylva vXrj, etc. Cf. Virg. 
Georg. IV. 394 Immania cnjus Armenia 
et turpes pascU sub gurgite phocas, 

405. xoJL. dJio^y see on §. 261. 

406—8. Obs. the rare usage of ;rft- 
XQOV as an adj. of 2 terminj|tions , in 
contrast with aXfivv niytgriv «. 322—3. 
See inf, on 442, olomtcetog od/itif. — 
svvdCdiy see on 440 inf. 

410. 6ilo<jpaMa> *^ elvish tricks", cf. 
olotpma drjvsa KlQ%rig^ and Melanthius 
to EumsBUS , oXotpmia sldtog (mar.) ; see 
App. A. 3- 

411. ijt€i0iv, "will go over" as 
items in a total, An easy transition 
from the notion of traversing a surface 
cf. in<pxsTO inf, 451 and mar. there. 

412—6. TtBfiJtdcCBxaiy this.mjay be 
subjunct. shortened epice, but need 
not, see App. A. 9, 4 (end^ and 5: cf. 
iEsch. Eumen, 748, nsfinccist* og^cog 
i%fioXag ifijfptov, and Pers. 981 , fivgia 
n$(inactav, "reckoning by tens of 



thousands", t.e. the host of Xerxes (He- 
rod. Vn. 60)5 also the Heb. Q'^^wn 
Exod. Xni. 18 in "ranks of five (or 
fifty)" where the A. V: has "harnes- 
sed**; also the Koman numeral V, which 
was probably originally the hiero- 
glyphic for the hand with its fingers 
spread. It suits here the simple humour 
of the passage to keep the primitive 
sense of "counting on the fingers". 
xdQTOq re ^. re may have suggested 
to -^schylus his names of the mini- 
stering fiends whp bind Prometheus; 
Prom, V, 1. — eCCvfievov , often used 
as if == liSiicccata , here bears its primi- 
tive sense of "set in motion, struggl- 
ing", shown also in N* 142, the simile 
of the stone, which, after reaching the 
flat, ov ti %vXiv9ez€ici, iaavfisvog nsg. 

417. TteiQiioerai , t*. e. dXv^oii] this 
gives greater force to the d^: render 
"and (to escape) he will endeavour", 
not by joining Trnpif (7. with ytyvofisvogy 
"will endeavour to become", which Ni. 
notes as generally a later participial 
idiom, not, however, without Homeric 
example, as with agxan and navofiaiy 
cf. (J. 15, B. 378, I"' 447, N. 815-6, 
X 502, and see Jelf Gr. Gr. § 681, 
3, 4. Ni. therefore proposes a colon 
at dXi^au Hor. Sat. II. 3, 73 follows 
this , varying the images , in Fiei aptr, 



133 



OATSSEIAr X 418—427. 



[day VI. 



a cf.(y.l31, P.447. 

b M. 177, O. 597, 
r. 490, *. 342, 
3M, 'i^. 216. 

c B. 344, r: 219. 

fl ,«. 19e-, 164, d. 

e cf. (J 376 

f d. 3S1 mar. 

g- <J. 570-6, t. 362, 

Ji- 253. 
h ^. 229. 
i y'. 38, a. 433, t. 

646, ^.486, I. 

385, O. 362. 
k X. 309, *. 651. 
1 ^.16; cf./?.42S, 



v^stg S' AezB^tpscDg'' i%a^€i> n&kkov xb %iilBivA 

aXV oxB xsv dif cr' avtog avBCgrirai i7CiB66iv^ 42^ 

xotog mv olov xe xaxavvri^ivta KriadSy 

Tcal x&tB Srj 0x^^^^^ ^^ P^V^ Ivcfcci xb ysQOvxa , 

^Qcog^ BvQB0&at Siy d'Bciv^ og xig 6b %alinxBin 

v60xov^ 'd'', (og izl novxov iXBv6Bav ixd'voBvxaJ 

cSgf^ Bl7cov0^ vnb novxov iSii6Bxo Hv^ialvovxa^^ 4^, 
avxaQ By<Dv ixl v^ag^^ oO*' BOxa0av iv ^a^d%^oi0iv^ 
Yiia^TCoXka 8b [loc xgadiri TCOQfpvQS^ %i6vxv. 



420. J^snisaaiv, 421. fidrjad's. 425. J^smovo*, 

419. ncsistv Apion, Schol. Q. ^ 420. avxog Arist., Schol. H., et ipsfe Harl. 

ex em^nd. rec. in textu, alii avtig, 421. pro tSric%'B Schol. M. a man. rec. 

tSriai mavult. 426. ^araaav Em. CI. ed. Ox. %Gtaaav Wolf. 



modo avis, modo saxum, et cUm volet, 
arboi\ Ovid Met, XI. 243 foil, ascribes 
similar transformations to Thetis, as 
a sea -goddess. 

The transformations of Proteus have 
been viewed as allegorizing i. phy- 
sically, the various forms assumed by 
primary (Jl^or-) matter (Harris' Her- 
mes\ or by the watery element as con- 
stituent of all things (Thales' theory), 

2. ethically, the dangers which beset the 
sea-faring man, wh. he meets and con- 
quers by enterprise and resoluteness, 
and wh*. teach at last by experience, 
thus imparting knowledge not other- 
wise attainable. So Longfellow, 

"Wouldst thou'*, so the helmsman 
answer'd , 
"Learn the secret of the sea? 
Only those who brave its dangers 
Comprehend its' mystery.". 
Ni. further notes that Plato applied 
the* fable to express {Euthyd. 426^ 
the wiles of the Sophists; LuciAn.(<^e 
iSall. 19) to the intricate changes of a 
dance; Himerius {Or, XXI. 9) to the 
artifices of rhetoric; Horace {Sat. 11. 

3. 71) to a pettifogger — all involving 
the notion of versatility or evasive- 
ness. Prof. Conington on Virg. Georg, 
IV. 388 has other applications col- 
lected by Taubmann; who adds, "tot 
autem fere allegorias huic figmento 
indiierunt, quot Proteus ipse formas.'* 
To the notion that Proteus was an al- 
legory of the versatility of matter was 
Gilded that of Eidothe^ being an al- 



legory of form («2^off). Ovid, Met, VIII. 
731 foil., to the transformations men- 
tioned here and 456 foil, adds those 
of a bull and of a stone. See App. C. 
7, and parts of 3. 

418—20. i^TtezcCj = t£a Schol., as 
^gneiv inl yaiuv (mar.) includes all 
motion on the earth's surface. S'BOTti" 
6ahq, this epithet applied to fire in 
its own nature, without .regard to its 
quantity or size, suggests a god as 
the first giver, and leads up to the 
legend of Prometheus' stealing it from 
heaven. dXJL* ores see on cc. 16. 
avToq «= sponte or tdtro, without be- 
ing first addressed. 

419. me%Biv» so Virg. Georg, IV. 
412, TaniOj note, magis cqniende tena- 
da vincla, cf. also Silenus bound by 
Chromis and Mnasylos Bucol, VI. 19 
foil. 

426. tpccfidB'OiCiv , plur. used col- 
lectively for "the beach*'. In one or 
two places, where the sing, once stood 
in this sense, the best edd. now prefer 
the plur., as^^. 486^ ^'^$3- We find 
also 'iffccfiad'og xs "^ovig ts to express 
"the sand of the shore", and 'ilfdiia- 
%'ov ace. for "a heap of sand*' (mar.). 

427. 7t6q<pvoB, this word, in later 
authors transitive, is in H. neut. as 
applied to the sea rolling and heaving: 
here the metaphor is from the turbid 
state of the water when so moved. 
So Sophoc. Antig, ao HalxaJvovo' Enogy 
and Virg. .-En. VIII. 19, magno curarum 
ffvrfiint (Bstu. Obs. v, but nOQq>VQBQgj 



DAY VI.] 



OATSSEIAS A. 428—442. 



133 



avTccQ^ iTcei ^' inl vqoc aatfjXvd'Ov i^dh %dXa60av, 

.30 daj Tore xoL(ifjdifiiisv in:l ^yiitvL^ d'ccXda^tjg, 
^ftog* d' rlgiyivBia tpdvri ^oSoddztvkog ^H(og^ 
ocal tors dtj nugu d-tva ^aAaMijff^ BVQvn6QOvo 
iJLtt TCoXXd^ d'BOvg yovvovfisvog- avt&Q staiQOvg 
TQStg ayovj oIol ^dXiCta nsnoCd'sa^ na6av in^ l&vv^ 

iS t6q>Qa S^ aq* rjy^ V7todv6cc^ ^aXdaarig svQsa^ xdlnov 
tk6<Saqa qxoxdcov ix ndvzov dsQiiat^ Svetxsv 
(udvta d' i6av va68aQxa^)^ Solov d* i;r«fiifdaro° 

itaxQL 
sivdg d* iv tlfafidd-otift^ diayldtpac' dXiijiStv 
ri^ro ^ivov0*' fj(i€tg Sh (ndXa 0%B8bv ijXd'Oficv a'drrjg* 

4^ iieiijg d' €VVtj66,v fidkev d' izl di^fia ixdazG). 
iv%'a x^v alv&catog l6xog iTcksro' tetge^ ydq aiv(Sg 
(prnxdcmf akiorgBtpimv dkodtatog dSfiTJ* 



a fi, 407 mar. 

b /I. 292. 

c «. 283, :S. 267-8; 

cf. X. 330, A. 78. 
d (r.449,575,c.]50, 

169, 647, 559, x. 

1S6, u. 6, o. 499, 

^. 437, 0. 601. 
e d. 306. 
f fi, 2, O. 381. 
y A. 29, X 621, y. 

312, O. 660, X. 

240. 
h cf. ft.m, JV. 96, 

27. 171.» 
i Z. 79, &. 377, 

n. 364, <l^. 303. 
k ».481— 2, ©.332, 

5.145; cf.C- 127, 

V. 53, X. 398. 
I 2. 140, *. 125. 
m /.363;'^f.a.108. 
n . f. X. 305. 
o d. 426 mar. 
p ct. a. 758, e.381. 
q n. 510, fiK 51, 

166; cf. X. 78. 



446. ffKuaxtp. 



429, Sognov ag' Harl. ex emend, rec. 437. vBodsgtcc Harl. 438. Siayldtpaa* 
scriba Harl. scripserat sed in diocyvdii'tpcca' mntayit, quod Apollonlo Sophistse 
Bek. tribnit, Siaylv^aa' Scholl. B. £., sed in text, utriusque diayXdilfaa' . 
440. Sigfiar' Harl. 441. ivd'u %sv Bek. Bind. Fa. joxta Scholl. H. P. Q. 
collato 0, 130, HStd't 9rj CI. ed. Ox. Low. quod Harl. Heidelb. Ambr. habent. 



ftnd t' 53 iXmogtpvgcc; so nogtpvgu in 
Attic Greek, as -ZEschyl. Agam, 957. 

433. xoXXd B'sovq X. T. l.y so Ovid 
represents Peleos {Meiam, XI. 347—8) 
Jnde deos pelagi .... adorat, yowov" 
fievoq, yovvoviioci means "to entreat*^ 
often as a phrase of supplication, yov 
vovficci as (mar.), whereas yovvd^oiica 
is rather the actual taking bj the knees, 
sometimes with yovvmVf gen. of part 
seized, added — an energetic mode 
of supplication. 

434. iS-vVi in H. onlj found in ace, 
has motion for its primary notion. The 
vulgar English use of "go'' as a noun 
may illustrate the lively image of force 
associated with motion, "for every go'' ; 
©f. JP, 73c, fd'vcuv 8\ (rushed on) 
nvvBcaiv ioiTiotsg. Sometimes its sense 
is more general, as **purpose" (mar.). 
Like* H&iia E. 778 ^ it contains the root 
of bIili ibo, as shown in td"!. its impe- 
rative. 

435. v7Co6vitay used, as here, with 
ace. to "plunge into", with gen. to 
"come forth of", and rarely with dat 



of person, as nactv vni9v y6oq "took 
possession of all" (mar.). 

440 — I. evvfjife, ivv&aa in 408 sup. 
is from Bvvdifo. evvda is also used 
figuratively, with yoov or dvifiovg 
(mar.) to mean "lulled". . tsIqs, 
said also of fiery vapour or of sweat 
(mar.), oppressing and overpowering; 
perhaps our verb "tire" is akin to it. 

443. dXciOTaro^, here fem.; some 
comp. and superl. adjs. are of 2 ter- 
minations in other writers, as Hy. Cer. 
157, ngokiatov oncDTtrjv, Thucyd. V. no 
dnogoitsgog ij Irjiffig (Jelf. (rr. 6rr. § 127, 
Obs. 3).^ Li H. we have also ni-ngbv 
.... opft^v 406 sup.y Sygiov Stfjv T. 88, 
aXvtog with 'AfiipitgCtrj and InnoSd- 
ILBiCty B. 434, B. 742, and d'Bgfiog diitfi^ 
Hy. Merc. no. For the sentiment see 
App. C. 7. p. XLiii, and comp. Trin- 
culo's repugnance to Caliban as yield- 
ing "a very ancient and fish-like smell ; 
a kind of, not of the newest, Poor- 
John"; Tke Tempest,, II. 2. Buflfon 
{7'ransL 1 791) speaks of their offensive 
odour as characterizing seals. 



^34 



OATSSEIAS A. 443-454- 



[day VI. 



a 9. 67, 0. 479. 
b o. 78, X. 433, 

486. 
c E, 777 , JT. 170, 

n. 670, 680, T. 

88-0. 
d cf.17.li9, (r.406. 
e S. 459, Z. l&tr^«- 

37, V'. 100, 168.. 
f ». 47, 65-6, iV. 

15. 
er «. 65, 119. 
h B. 773, d. 430 

mar. 
I ji. 726. 
k F. 356. 
1 (.335. 

m n. 475, I. 453. 
n ^.346; cf./. 196. 



d(iPQOtfifiv^ {mo ^tva ixd^xG) dijxs (pigov^a 



vdv uaXa nvsiovffav,^ ol66(f€ dl xmsoc dduriv, 
wmxdv 8^ ii dXhg 'nlO'ov^ aoXXiss' at ahv i7C€ita 

gcnr^aigp^ag, nd0ag d' &Q^i^f%Bvi&^ Xixto^ 8* dpiJd'(i6v. 
iv d^ yiiiag XQ(6t<yvg Xiyilc^tscfiVy &v8i ti %^^m\ 
mcd-ij"^ odXov elvat* InaitaiSl abxxo^ xal avx6g. 
'^^stg 8s la%ovtBg i7ti^ci'^(is&'\ dfi(pl 8h xelgag 



ic. 



445- Jfi>t«fftQi. • 446. J-T^ffv, 454. j-taxo^'T^ff' 



4^3. X* Wolf, air Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox. 449. r^vvdiovxo Em. CI. ed. Ox. 

Bvvd^vto Wolf. A50. pro ivBioq Bek. annot. s^fSiog Meiog, 454. iJ/Lt^rs d' 

al^' (addito ulip ex emend.) Harl., ita Era. CI. ed. Ox. '^fistg dh Wolf. 



444 — 50. ovBiaQf "dainty or solace^*. 
Hector is so called hj his mother and 
wife in their fond laments for his death 
(mar.), dfi^qocbpf^ Buttm. LexiL 15 
{i) (4) regards this as a no an mean- 
ing /'immortality*^ that quality which 
imparts and perpetnates vigour, a qua- 
lity partaken of hy everything which 
helongs to the gods and is around them : 
hence the adj. ctfbPQoeiog, This thought 
seems to have possessed Milton also in 
Parad. Reg, IV. 588 foil. 

A tahle of eelesHal food, dimney 
Ambro$iiU fruits fetched from the 

tree of Life, 
And from the fount of Life am- 
brosial drink. 

Such a substance , although not used 
as food, is here meant; not an un- 
guent, as when used by Her^ in order 
to captivate Zeus, and as when applied 
by Apollo to the dead body of Sarpe- 
don (j^Qiciv t dfi§Qoa£fj mar.) Virgil's 
imitation suggests the image of a casket 
opened, diffusing odour, and its con*^ 
tents then applied by inunction to in- 
Tigorate; see Oeorg. IV, 415 — 8 and 
Prof. Conington's note. But H. here 
speaks of a substance placed inh (Vvu 
fndaxcf}, and, when applied thus to the 
part aggrieved, quelling the noisome 
odour of the seal -skin. And so far 
only as such fetor tends to kill, as 



olotoTccTog perhaps suggests, does the 
immortal quality of the antidote come 
intd view. This brings out fresh force 
in iadcaoB. In the case of Patroclus' 
corpse Thetis instils ambrosia and 
nectar through the nostrils, dfi^QOClriv 
maiviiitttg igvd'QOV ctd^s nata (ir- 
vmv tva ot xgag ifntsdog 9tri (mar.). 
But there the notion is probably that 
the life giving principle^ in order to 
counteract the effects of death, must 
be applied in the usual channel of 
life , the nostrils , through which passes 
that breath which is the life. 

447—50. xetXi/i6xi S'm, "patiently". 
For doXXifq see on y. 165 ; for €v8ioq 
see App. A. 17 (3). 

451. ix^X!^^» ^^^ o^ inBiaiv 411 
gup, — Xixto, here and in 453 there 
is a play on this word in the senses 
of "he reckoned'* and "he lay down"; 
see on y. 114— 5- ^h^ ^^ 4P ^^^ 
iiiyfifiv (mar.) are said of reckoning 
the items ; but to express the total also 
wc have here Xixto. Further in 453 
although lying down is the notion which 
predominates, yet there is a bye-sense 
of adding himself as the last item to 
the total, which much assists the hu- 
mour of the whole. 

453 — 4. 8k, a var, /., to avoid, 
probably, the hiatus, is d' alip': but 
IdxovxBg may have the Jr (cf, however. 



DAY Vf.j 



OATSSKIAS A. 455—465. 



^35 



uvTC£0 iTtEitcc 6^ax€Sv KCcl kd^SaXcg^ iqdl ^iyag^ 6iig^ 
yiyvEXQ S^ vfgov vdcjg xal Sivd^Eov^ itljiTsizriXov, 

«al roTf jJj^' fc' i%ii^6GLV avdiaopLBVog^ itQoghiitBV 
Htg vv toi^ ^JxQiog vih^ d^tmv iSv^^gdiS<JatQ^ povXag^ 

cjgp i^at\ avtd^ iym ptiv d^Eip6pbSvog Tt^oghvmov 
j.65 ^ote^a j^ ftQQV - %i (16 tavTfx nagaxgoTtimv^ uyo- 

pav€ig\ 



b V. 419. 

J. SIS, 
d iV. US, ^. 573. 

f X. :m N. ^a7, 
cf. 4 Iftti. 

B IW 

h d 447 mar. 

1 ^, 111 , 6. m% 

r, 87, S. mi, 
^, 270. 
k i. 410 mar, 

m A. 53^, 51©, / 
3t4. 

cf. r- 5:1. 
(J a. ™, / 377 
p J. 375. 
tl ^. 3ft&. 
r I. 500 W. 3»a, 

423. 



4JS0. j^siSfog. 



461. fiicsaatv ngot/ifsmsv* 463. dj^inovtu. 
J^smov. 465. fotoQ'cc, 



464. ngBdi- 



457. srce^^ail&ff Eustath. Harl. marg^. Em. Cl.^ed. Ox. Bek. Fa. srd^^aXtg Ap- 
pollon. Harl. a pr. manu Wolf. Dind. 461. ifi8i§6fiBvog Harl. ex emend, (sed 
in marg. rorsus correxit) et H«idelb., sed Schol. et text, a pr. manu ccvsigo- 
(i8vog. 462 itpqdaaaxo Harl. ascripsit snpra cviKpQccccccto, 465. iQ88ivBi>s 
Arist., Schol. P., Harl. Barnes. Em. Gl. ed. Ox. dyogevng Schol. H. Wojf. 



!F. 216) and the d^ is then long by ar- 
sis. ixeOifvfieS** 2"^ aor. The change 
of tense to imp erf. in 455 (|3ttXXo- 
fiBv insXii^sto) has no force. A very 
familiar instance of this interchange 
is in ul. 3,^4i^'^vroig^'ji'£9i, xgotccfpsv 
'^gmnVy avtovg oh sXeagia xbvxb xv- 
vscciVy espy, as rsv^B is read in H., 
and here the time of both verbs is 
clearly Uie same. Still H. often pre- 
vents monotony by presenting some in< 
cidents as having incidence merely and 
others duration also, in the same nar- 
rative. With ov^' 6 'yigatv%.t.l, cf. 
Virg. Georg, IV. 440 llle sucb contra 
non immemor arlia, 

4$ 7* xdq^ttkiq, Liddell and S. say, 
^^nogdaiig is in H. now everywhere 
found in the text". Bek., however, 
prefers ndgdaXig, as in II. does pind. 
also. Porson says (Posiscr, ad varr, 
I. e cod, Harl, ad loc,\ ''Apollonius in 
Schol. supra ad y. i|6, ndg^alig ^ 9ogd 
Kffl jcogSaXig to iaov^\ The Oxford 
reprint of Dindorf s ed. of the Scholl. 
gives nagSaXfj . . ndgdaXig as the read- 
ing of this Schol., xccgSaX^ being (not. 
ad loc.) a correction of Cobet for 



ndgdaXig, This seems more likely to 
be the true reading of the Schol. 
Besides the orthography, the gender 
is very doubtful. In ^. 573 foil., Hy. 
Ven, 71, it is found f em., but is classed 
with male animals, the Xmv and the ovg 
Tidngogj in that Hy. and in P. to — i. 
Prof. Gonington from his note on Georg, 
IV. 408 ftdvd cervice leepna, seems to 
take it as fem. But as H. does not 
seem to have felt any difficulty about 
sex in his metaphors or similes, neither 
need he in transformations; cf. Her§ 
^ to Artemis 0. 483 6B Xiovta yt;yat|l 
' ZBvg d^%Bv^ and the comparison of 
Penelope to a lion in 791 inf,, where 
see note. Nor is there perhaps any 
propriety in retaining a tie of sex for 
Proteus whom form does not bind, and 
whose metamorphoses transcend all 
human and even animal limits. 

460. dvla^', for the use of this 
verb, neut., as here, and trans, see 
mar. 

465. Ttaoect^xiiav, not found else- 
where in H., has (ib for object. ; cf. the 
use of nagaxgonog actively by Eurip. 



136 



OAT23SEIAI: A. 466—477. 



[day VI. 



ft d, 973—4 mar. 
b d. 370-81 mar. 
c 9. 382, 464. 
d *P, 646, Z. 350, 

Si, 764. 
e a. 626, I. 357. 
i 5. 191, A. 139, I. 

663,;U». 277, X 

727, V". 186, 209. 
r «. 210, (T. 579, 

I. 177. 
h ^. 151, 9, 410, 

x. 416. 
i a. 183 mar., i7. 

88. 
k t/41-2, 114^5, 

t. 314-6, 17. 76 

-7, ;^. 410, I. 

632-3. 
I .S. 190, Si. 781; 

cf. X. 334—5, V. 

192-3 
m/f, 374, d. 180, 

I 488. 
n d. 681 , »;. 284, 

/T. 174, F. 263, 

*. 26«, 326. 



BVQiiiBvav ^vva(iat^ (livvd'eC di (lov iv$oi'£v rjtog. 
dkka^ 0v 7C€Q^^0L stTCs {9'€ol ds ts Tcdvxa idadiv) 
og rig ^' ad'avdrcov xeida xal sSri6s xbXsv&oVj^ 
vofStov %'\ (DS ixl xovrov iXsvf^dficci Cxd'voivtaJ 47( 

cSs^ itpd^yv^ o Si [i* ccvrCx* &^sip6(ievos 3tQogB£i7C€v 
'dXXot iidX' Sg)MBg^ jdU r' aikoiclv xb ^BOt^tV" 
QB^ag^CBQa xdX* dvaPuvvB^BVj^ og)Qa taxifSia 
aiiv ig TcatQtd*^ txoto tcXbcov inl Mvona^ Ttovtov, 
ov^'yccQ roLn^Qlfi^ (lotQa (piUiovg r* ISbblv xal fxifif^at 47, 
olxov ig vilfOQoqiov xal 6i^v ig TCaxQlSa yatav^ 
7Cq(v^ y* or' Sv AlyvTCxoio ouTtsxiog^ Jtoxccfioto 



46S, \Fsini IFicotaiv/ ' 471. irpo<T^/€tW«v.^^ 474. Jttivona, 475. J^iiisiv 
omisso r*. 476. J^oPkov, 

468. hint Schol. H. cf. ad 379. 469. ^isXsv^ov Harl. sed erasp g ad fin. 

tanquam hsIsv^'ovq faisset. 471. avttg £rn. CI. ed. Ox. avxU* Wolf. 

477. 9iBmerios Zenod., SchoU. £. H. Q. 



Androm. 528, and passively by Pind. 
P. II. 65. We find ncLQDCTQixifag of turn- 
ing a chariot itixog oSov , also in later 
writers of perverting, falsifying, and 
nccQatQamam of turning away anger 
(miir.). Ni., thinking that nagoczQ. is 
more correctly intrans., as, he says, 
nepitgonim is always, defends Ari- 
starchus* reading igBsivsig for dyogsv- 
sig, making fiB its obj. Bnt in Hy. 
Merc, 542, nBgirgonimv , . . tpvl' iv^'grn- 
nmvj where Schneider would read ncc- 
gcctg., it seems trans., so certainly is 
tgonim in 2, 224, and nagatgotTcda 
in J. 500. ^ 

466 — 9. ct>gf connects the clause 
with olad'cc (Low.). — ^ rixfUOQ, see 
on 374. — e^ijCs = ccTtigvuBf as wo 
say "weather-bound". 

472—3. dXXa is adversative of some 
statement omitted in the vehemence of 
the reply, such as, "yes, the gods 
detain you, for you have neglected 
them; but you surely ought etc." 
cjyeXXeg, see on y. 367. — dva^at^ 
VBfiBVs see on a. 210. 

475— 7« For ;r^lv • • • • nf^lv with 
optat. following see mar. at 475: for 
ngCv y* oxb with av and subjunct., also 
'^th indie, and optat., see m&r. at 477. 



Bek. (Homer, Bldtl, p. 89, 8) notes that 
nowhere in H. is nQiv followed simply 
by indie, ^uitexeoq ia epith. also of 
the Spercheiis, of theScamander, and of 
**a river" indefinitely in a simile (mar.) : 
so Hes. Fragm, ccxii. In ^. 195 — 7 
all rivers, as well as the O'dXtnGOa^ the 
fountains and the wells, spring (vaovfftv) 
from Oceanus. In T, 7, 8 all rivers, 
except Oceanus, attend as deities the 
great Assembly of Olympus, and the 
nymphs come next. The statement in 
4>. is that of a supposed physical fact 
— . one great cosmical water-system. 
Still, the dependence of rivers on 

Srecipitation , and their sympathy with 
rought or heavy rain must have been 
instantly observed. Hence their epi- 
thet ^uuBxrigy and their mythological 
relation to Zeus and Olympus, some- 
times more closely expressed, as in 
the case of the Xanthus {^, 434) by 
affiliation: in which, however, Zeus' 
own seat Ida, beiilg the local source, 
helps out the relationship. The Ocean 
river was conceived as external to 
both yctia and ttvgavhg, and hence is 
independent {Z. 607 — 8, cf. 483) and 
keeps aloof from Zeus. In Hjr. 
Ven, 4 9unBXBag epith. of olmvovg 



DAY VI.] 



0AT2LEUS A. 478--488. 



137 



cCvrig vdcoQ tXO'ijs!^ ^^Ss?* ^* tsQccg sKCctofipag 
dd'avdroL0v^ d'SotiSv ioV oigavov bvqvv lxov6tv' 
So xctl TOW tot dci(i6v6tv 060V d^€ol ijv^ 6v ^levoLvag,^ 
Sg lg)aT% a^ctp i^oC ys xdrsTiXiia&ij q>lXov ijrop/ 
ovvexd ft* dvrvg avcoysv ik* iqsQoeiiSsa novtov^ 
AtyvTCXOvd^ livcci^ doXixtiv 68dv djfyaXiriv ts 



dkkd xal eog fiiv Ijce^aiv dfietpofievog ^Qogiecitov 
S5 'tccika^ filv oviib drjtsiim^ ysQOVj &g^ 0v xetstii 



evBig' 



dlX'^ ays^ (lov tSlfe stnl xal dtQSxmg xdtdkstov 
si TcdvxBg 0VV vr^viflv iim}[i6v€g'^ '^Ib-ov ^Axatol^ 
ovg^ JNi6r(OQ xal iyd X^Ckofiev^ TgoirjO'Sv^ lovteg^ 



a y. 144. 

b a. 97 mar. 

c/9. 385. 

d d. 538, i, 256, x. 

198, 190, 566, /u. 

277. 
e p, 265 mar. 
f Jl.80, W. 20, 180. 
^ &. 347, 402; cf. 

jf. 443, i. 507. 
h a. 169 mar. 
: If. 744. 
k cf. y. 16S-0. 
I cf. /. 119. 
m y. 276. 



483. fjSQofBiiia, 484. Sfns&civ Sg /«. ngoaifsinov. 486. ftinL 

484. iS; fivd'oiCiv Harl. Schol. M. ^ 486. dyoQSvaov Uarl. ascripflit supra 

naxdXsiov. 



involves the notion of vizoit>at, as 
**fljing". The word occurs as epith. 
of the image of "AqtBiiigy which was 
perhaps an aerolith, in Acts XIX. 35. 

479. S'BOlCiy these are not the 
Eg^yptian local deities, but those of 
Homer*8 own mythology, who recog- 
nises none but his own theistic sy- 
stem. 

483—4. otfov,^see on 393. ~ fiiv 
SnBiSCiVy here ikv^oiaiv is a var, led. 
On reviewing the passages in the Ody. 
where dfistfi. stands with ineaci and 
fiv&oici respectively, the former far 
preponderate; and even if we add to 
the latter those in which avsigofisvog, 
or some such participle, has fivd'oici 
subjoined, and those in which the 
phrase d(jk$lpsxo lAvd-m occurs, the 
majority remains as before. Obs. 
Hvhoi plur. specially means '* narra- 
tive'* or "tales", as inf, 597, ft^vd'oi- 
CIV inscci xBy *Hale6 and talk*' (cf. 
^' 579)) ^ut also a speech or conversa- 
tion generally; see 17. 47, 72, 157, 233, 
1. 511, V, 298, Q. 488. The verb ^v- 
9'iofiai means iu Ody. either "to tell 
a tale", or "to declare as with author- 
ity, oracularly", etc. At a, 124 mar.; 
S. 829 mar. the chief passages are col- 
lected. In q>, 193 occurs inog %£ %B 
fivd'rica^firjv, "I could a tale unfold". 

487. eiy Bek. reads iq, thinking 
(Bomer. BldtU pp. 59—61) (i) that bI 
and ^ are only dialectic varieties of 



the same original word , and assuming 

(2) that ^ was the original, and there- 
fore the Homeric form, and further 

(3) that words so differing should not 
be found in the same poem — all three 
questionable doctrines. For "dialectic 
varieties " " phonic modifications " 
seems preferable, t. e. slight changes 
in the sound to express a recognition 
of the difference between two forms 
of thought so closely cognate, as the 
simple hypothetical and the disjunctive. 
(2) and (3) seem unfounded assumptions; 
and (3), if I understand it aright, would 
tend to exclude bI altogether. He fol- 
lows up (2Vby supposing that the co- 
pyists favoured bI^ and, agreeably to 
the norma loquendi of a lafcer period, let 
it slip into the place of 17. st seems, 
however, to represent utrum and an in 
Latin dependent questions, "if" and 
"^whether" in English ones. Thus it 
cannot be shown by the analogy of 
language that the conjunction which 
introduces such bifurcate questions 
must be the same as thtft which sub- 
joins the alternative or. 2°'* branch of 
them: see further on y. 90 — 1. 

487. dxrifiove^, this adj. and &%lav' 
tog 494 t^. are found, like duBv^iig 
and anvetog, alike in active and pas- 
sive sense {mar.); see on y. 88: also 
dniiiLmv seems by an accretion of po- 
sitive meaning to stand sometimes for 
"beneficent". 

488. Niavmq Pcal iyA corresponds 



138 



OATSSElAi: A. 489—502. 



[day VI. 



a y. 87; cf. 0. 268. 

b a. 238 mar. 

c d. 471 roar. 

d cf. y/. 2M-6. 

e fi. 369, ft. 154. 

f a. 3. 

gr A. 64, X. 386. 

h M, 14. 

i a. 286, in ii. plus 

vicies. 
ki.383, cr.y.185. 
1 a. 197. 
m t. 239, V/. 176; 

cf. ». 191, 369, 

V. 166. 
n (T. 607. 
/. 291 mar. 
p J. 12. 
q d. 612, n, 687. 



Sg^ i(pci^riv^ o 8i /i' ccvrix* dfieifiofievog nQogisLTCBv 
'^ArgBCSti, xC^ (ne tavra duigscci; oiSi rC 0a x^^ 
td[i€vat^ ovSh Saijvai i^ov voov'^ ovdd 0b (pruni 
Siqv axkavrov^ SCB^^av^ invjv bv ndvxa %v%^rim. 
TtoXlol^ [ihv ydg xfSv ys dd^Bv^ Tcqllol dh kCTiovxo' 4( 
dQ%ol S* av dvo (novvov ^Axamv'^ ;|raAxo%tra)V(oi/ 
iv v60xm aTCoXovxo'^ C'dxji 8s xb xal 0v 7taQ'^0^a, 
slg^ d* hv 7C0V ^(oog xaxBQVXBXcct bvqbV tcovxcd. 
Atag ^Iv ^Bxd vriv0l Sd^ij SoXixfflQ^ii^oi0iv.^ 
rvQy0iv^ (iLv UQSxa IIo0BL8d(Qv i7CBka00BV^ 5c 

7tBX(f7j0uv fiBydi,y0i,f xccl B^B0d(O0B^ d'akd00rig* 
xaC vv XBV ixipvys^ X'^ga^ xal ix^^t^^'^^S ^^Q *Adijvy^ 



489. /^ff. 4gi. nQOcifHTtsv, 4g$, J^Cdfisvai, 

491. ocyttg Em. CL ed. Ox. avT^x' Wolf. 492. [lij tavta ^uigso var. 1. Steph. 
49^' <^* otoa pro ai (prjfit Bek. annot. 494. ayiXavatov Hhrh, mox ins£ 11* supra 
inriv ascripsit. 495. pro dd^isv Arist. d'ccvov vulg., Schol. H. 497 f Zenod. 
quern refellit Schol. H. ex v. 551. Ttagrias Schol. H. (fide Pors.) sive nccgriag 
(Dlnd, ed. Scholl. Bek. annot.). 498. BvgiX HOCfiip Tzetzes (Barnes.). 499. 
doXixriQirfirjCiv Bek. annot. 500. idd(icc0<fB Scholl. H. P. 



with 'AxqBlfirig xal lym of Nestor's 
speech in y. 277. 

499. A^aq^ i, e, Qtliades, VirgiPs 
account varies (^n. I. 44-— 5). There 
Pallas, after he had been transfixed 
by a thunderbolt, turbine corripuit sco- 
puloque infixit acuto. H. gives a cue 
to this in saying that Pallas owed him 
a grudge; cf. y. 145: but Poseidon 
would, on his own element, have 
guaranteed his safety, but for his pre- 
sumption. Lowe here notices that 
Lycophron (Cassand* 392) follows H., 
and that the story had been painted 
by Apollodorus at Pergamus, and by 
Polygnotus at Delphi (Pliny XXXV. 9, 
Pausan. X. 26. i). — dokixVQ'f epi- 
thet of ships or (cf. ipiltJQSt(iog X, 349) 
of seamen, viz. thePhseacians, as using 
long oars, when it has the comple- 
mentary phrase vavaUXvxoi ivogsg 
(mar). 

500. rvQ^Civ, a mere cluster of 
rocky islets. Myconus, one of the 
Cyclades, is the region assigned to 
♦>iem by the Scholl. Spruner, J Has XV., 



makes a Gyros Pmt. the S. E. cape 
of Tenos. Virg, Mn, XI. 260 seems to 
take the S. E. point of Euboea as the 
scene of Ajax^s wreck, Evboxcce cautes 
tdiorque Capkereus: and so Quintus Cal. 
XIV. 547 (Lowe). Distinct from both is 
the Oyarug to which state prisoners were 
exiled in the Boman Imperial period 
Juv. Sat, I, 73. X. 170. As yt;pos = xv- 
%Xiyi,6g the name might be = Cyclades^ 
importing the disposition of the group 
not the shape of any individual islands: 
But this hardly suite TvQaCriP netgriv 
507 inf. The name probably imports 
the shape, ''rounded"; cf. yvgog kv 
mfionfiv T. 246, and Lat. gyrus "a 
round". BTtiXaOaBV, the var. led, 
i9diiae€sv does not so well suit i^e- 
cdfocB d'aXdcarjg 501. 

^02. 'AS"iivi^, H. perhaps tacitly al- 
ludes to his outrage on Cassandra in 
the temple of Pallas, cf. note on y. 310, 
where a similar reticence is seemingly 
used; at any rate Virg. Mn. II. 403 
foil, has embodied a tradition trans- 
mitted probably by the Cyclic poets. 



DAY VI.] 



OATSSEIAS A. 503—506. 



p^rov dl no^eiSdtav (leydX*^ ixXvsv^ aydtjeavrog' 



139 



a n. 685, T. 113, 

136-7. 
b a. 79 mar. 
c cf. y. 124—5, a. 

280, y. 320,/?. 373. 
d App. B. (3) mar. 
ey. 227, n. 243, 

y. 288, A. 450. 
f X. 47, n, 76; 

cf. e. 407. 
gr «. 292. 
h M, 397, ¥^.711, 

6S6. 



503. J^inog. 504. dfsyirizi. 



503. i'x^aXe, cf. Milton Comus, 760, 
"I hate when Vice can 60// her arffu- 
ments**, and iEschjl. /Vowi. 932, tOiaS' 
i%Q£nT(ov ^nrj, where the notion is 
that of audacious temerity; comp. the 
expression "to hurl defiance'*. — 
aa09^, "was led to presume", the 
pass, form points to the current notion 
of an external agency, loading man to 
be foolish or wicked, while the i . aor. 
mid. daadfirjv expresses his yielding 
to that influence; cf. I. 115 --6, T. 95 
(where Aristarchus* reading Zsvg aaato 
seems better that Zrjv' aaato as Na- 
gelsbach I. § 46 would take it), 137. 
Sometimes, as in the self-defence of 
Agam. T. 91, 129, "Jxrj is personified 
as the Power rj ndvtag ccatai; she 
being, by the usual theogonic device, 
a daughter of Zevs, who, however, 
hurled her from Olympus in anger 
when he had himself suffered by her. 
This her fall supports the view of 
GUdst. n. 158 foil., as embodying the 
tradition of the Evil One as tempting 
by guile. She also includes the notion 
of the evil so wrought recoiling on him 
who yields to it, even although he re- 
pent (1. 504—13). Yet, as NUgelsbach 
(I. § 46— -7) remarks, her personality 
is indistinct. Sometimes a power to 
tempt exerted by some deity, by Erin- 
nys, or the indefinite deciiioav, is all 
that is meant (9, 261 — 3, X, 61, 0. 
*33~4» T. 88, 370); sometimes the 
notion of injury is most prominent, but 
probably nowhere without that of wrong 
AS its basis. Thus comrades, sleep, 
wine, injure a man (%, 68, tp, 296—7, 
where the drunkard Zaasv ipgivag 
oCvtpy but just before olvog &u€ev with 
pers. for obj.). Thus the power of ex- 
ternal objects or agents to ftimulate 
inward desire, or that of such desire 
to mislead, might equally be personi- 
fied by "Axti, and not improperly, since 



such ** temptations from within and 
from without coincide and imply each 
other" (Bp. Butler Anal. P* I. Ch. iv). 
So as regards the consequences : a man 
regretful after folly, or repentant after 
sin, experienced a change in his af- 
fections towards certain objects; that 
change implied a power, which he 
would at once in Homer's language 
personify as "Atrji and if retribution, 
or a calamity viewed as such, over- 
took him, this would probably be a 
function of the same person. Thus 
wrong done, woe ensuing, temptation 
exerted, and yielded to, all meet in 
this complex ethioal notion. 

504. dix. S'CdiVy cf. -ffischyl. Sept 
c, Th, 427—8, &eov tB yap 9ilovtog 
iyLTtSQastv noUVj %ul (irj Q'iXovxog 
(priciv x.sr, X, — tpvyisiv, for this 
aor. aeh on §» 280, and cf. mar. L9we 
cites Senec. Agam, 534 foil. 

Tandem occupatft rupe furibundum 

intonat 
Superasse nunc se |)elagus atque 

ignes; juvat 
Yiclsse caelum, Palladem, fulmen, 
mare ; 

and a paraphrastic expansion of the pre 
sent passage from Quint. Gal. 564 foil 
For XalTfAa^X. see App. B. ^2) (3) 

505. fiJeydX* belongs to avdrjaavto 
here not to i'KXvsv^ Homeric usage con 
stantly joins iisydXa with words of 
uttering, shouting and the like (mar.). 

506/ xolaivav, so in ^schyl. Suppl, 
214 and m Pind. OL IX. 30 {tqioSov- 
tog) this appears as Poseidon^s weapon, 
It was originally the fish spear (Plat. 
Soph. 220 c) used for large fish, e, g, the 
tunny^ the hook and line being t%^v€i, 
xotg oX£yoi6iy ft. 253. The commotions 
and convulsions in which sea and land 
often sympathize were ascribed to the 
trident- wielding Poseidon; cf. T. 57— 8 
ttvtUQ hegd-s UoaeiScitov itha^ev 



I40 



0AT2:SEIA2 A. 507-518. 



[day VI. 



a (^. 150 mar. 
b ^. 603 mar. 
c |. 1S7;cf.a.l66, 

d <r. &02. 

e X. 400; cf. ilf. 

327. 
f y. 287. 
gr cf. n, 72. 
hx.276, u^.181-2. 
i y. 287, «. 80, *. 

187. 
j t. 4!9~20, K. 48, 

V'-31^-.7, V.63; 

cf. Z. 346, T. 

378, 
k$. 354. 
I CD. 150. 
m a. 238, 489» cr. 

358, f. 391, y. 

294. 
n S, 106—7. 
o App. £. 1» mar. 



^Aa<f£ JPy^^a^jv xh(friv, and d' i6%v6sv aifvqv* 
xalto nhv avtoQ'c iietve^ rd 81 XQvq>og iinca^a xovtp^ 
tp ^' Atag to tcqSxov^ iq)ei6(isvoQ (liy*^ dafJ&ijj 
tdv 8* ig)6QSL xatd novrov dxeiQOva xvfiaivovta. 
(Sg^ S (nhv iv%^ uTtoXioXev^ btcbX nCev it^vQOv v8(oq. 
Cog 8i Ttov ixg>vys'^ xfJQCcg dSelg)sdg ijd* vTcdlvisv*^ 
iv vrivaV ylag)VQy0f 0dc906 8h gtotvia ^H^.« 
dXX*^ St€ 8rj rdx* ifiB^Xe MccXscd&v'^ OQog uItcv 
t^B^^av^ x6rB 87J (itv dvaQ7cd^a6a d'VBXlai 
novtov in* Ix'&voBvxa (piqBv (isydXa^ CzBvdxovza^ 
dygov^ in* i0%atiriv^^ Sd*^ 8ci(iata vtctB ®vi6trig^ 
to nglvj dtdg tin* ivaiB &vBC%id8ifig Alyi6^og.^ 



51" 



51, 



507. ijlaaesv PvQiriv Bek. annot. 508. p^-o fistvs Scbol. H. ^lyi^vn. 
Bek. Dind. Low.; null& inSoaei contineri non tamen 



s" n 

ab Arist. damnatam SchoU. 
H. P. testantur. 516. (iBydcXu fere omnes ficcgia £., cf. s, 430. 517—30. Bek« 
borum. vy. ordinem mutayit, nt qtii 319 et 320 in nostro teztu sunt, sint 317 
et 318. 517. iaxuttijg Harl. a m. primft et Schol. 



yaiccv dnsiQBO^Tjv ogimv t' alnsivcc 
nugrjvcc, 

507. i^Xaae X. t, I. ^^ drove «/ the 
rock'* t*. e, struck it; so in 9. 219 
oiXriv ZT^v .. pL8 cvg ijXaas, ^^yroxind 
which the boar inflicted on me'\ where 
YijV is the accus. of the equivalent ob- 
ject. In 71. 219 iXocotfi yakiivfjv, "drive 
ah)ng the calm '' the neut. verb of mo- 
tion becomes by usaee transitive; cf. 
to ^'run the blockade^'. 

50Q. TO nQcir* seems merely to 
heignten the contrast between his mo- 
mentary security and his subsequent 
fall. 

510. xatds "down into"; but €. 377 
"along". * wibIq. scvfialv., th^se 
epithets are not elsewhere found con- 
joined. Their union is most expressive 
of the momentary aspect of the sea <— 
"boundless, surging" — to one fall- 
ing suddenly into it. Out of several 
other classes of epith. including '^sqo- 
Sidla, tosi^iut otvtma,, azQvyetov, 
Ix^vSevTtt^ fftsyaxifrea, [see App. B 
(4)] none, nor any two combined would 
have been so forcible here. 

511. This V. was current in none of 
the editions {indoaeig)^ b&js Eustath., 
as being yery poor («t;reXfi^).This rea- 
son being assigned seems to imply that 



the external evidence in its favour was 
adequate. As regards internal grounds, 
of rejection, the earlier clause is for- 
mulaic (mar.), for the latter cf. s. 321 
-^3: it suits Proteus, as a grim irony 
against him who defied the sea and its 
powers: — "So there was an end of 
him (with all his boasting) after a 
mouthful of salt water!" 

514. MaXsidoiv, see on y. 287. 

517. SS-i is said by Faesi to refer 
not to iaxcct, but to djQOv; but cf. s, 
338 v^eov in icxactirjg od't divdQBcc 

ya^rjg .... odt^ ^avd-og Paddfiavd'vg, 
B. 489 dyg, in* iax* i (tv ndga yBl- 
xovBg iXXoi'^ from all of which it is 
unlikely that the rel. clause following 
the phrase relates to the position of 
the aygog generally rather &an to that 
of iaX' Besides^ to say that iBgisthus 
lived in the dygog of Thyestes is poor ; 
for where else should he have lived 
who had usurped the royalty wh. was 
once Thyestes*? To say that he lived in 
its icxocz, has some descriptive force. . 
The extremity of Agamemnon^s terri- 
tory trenched on that of Pylus , and in 
J. 150 Cardamyl^, and other cities 
perhaps on the W. side of Tsenaras, 
are apparently claimed by him, but 



DAY VI.] 



OATSLEU23 A. 519-534. 



141 



dXX^ ore Siq xal Kstd'cv iipaCvsxo^ v60tog dxfjfiaiVy^ 
loSip dh ^sol ovQOv^ 0t(f^rl^av^ xal otaad^ Ixovto^ 
^ rot fihv x^^Q^'^ iirspfj^sto xarQvdog alrjg^ 
xal^ xvvBv aTttoiievog ijv ^atgida' noXXd d' &7C^ Dcvtov 
idxQva^ &S(f(id xiovr\ ijtsl a67ta6iG}g^ tSe yatav. 
tbv d' aq* iacb Cxom^^g^ slSe 6xo7cdgj ov ^a xccd'st^sv 
Z5 Atyio^og^ SoXofitixtg aymv, vno d* S6xBto (it^d-dv 
XifV0ov dotd rdXavta''^ q)vXa60€ d' S y slg iviavtovy 
[ifj i Xd^oi, nccQtdvj ^vrj^atto dl ^ovQtSog dkxijg.^ 
/}i}^ d' H^sv dyysXdoov n:Q6g ddfiata ytoiiiivi Xa(Sv. 
a'dtCxa d' Atyip^og doliijv^ ig)ifd(f6aro r^jrt/ijv 
^o^XQivdnevog^ xatd dijiiov i£ixo6i g)(Stag dgtatovg 
eliS8 loxovy itegod'c d* dvciyec datra jtivs&d'at. 
aixaQ"^ o firj xaliav *Aya[id(ivova'^ Ttoifisva laSv 
L7C7C0L6tv xal oxB(Sg>LV^ dsLxda iiSQfirjQi^iov. 
xbv d' o{>x BiSor^ oXsd'Qov d'uijyayBj xal xaxinB^VBv 



a te. 79. 

b v. 2i>6, it. 167. 

c d.5S6-B, t 167, 

o. 34, Q 148. 
d t. 463, r. 354. 
e cu. 46, r. 362, H. 

428, n. 3, P. 

437-8. S, 17, 

235. 

f ^. 4rf0, V. 33, 

333; cf, i. 466. 

h /pp. t. 6. mar. 
i J, 12Sn 1.202, o». 

^74, T. 247; cf. 

a. m, ilf. 433, 

X 209. 
kZ. 113, 9: 174, 

O. 487. IZ: 270, 

P. 1g&. 
I a. 34, 679. 
ni a. 155. 
a |. 217-8, Z. 

188-90, cf *. 

195, J 391-6, 

A^. 276-7. 
d. 408 mar., /, 

521, T. 193. 
p r, 407. 
q^*. 22. 
r a. 37. 



520. J^oC%u9\ 522. /^v. 523. //dc 524. fatdB. ^ 527. J^e. 530. ij^6^ 

HOffi. 533. ttSsi%ia, 534. J^Bi86t\ 

521. inefii^aazo Harl. 524. xa^^xe Bek. annot 527. 



^rapecoy Scholl. H. P. 



all this side , including of course Malea 
itself, is out of the apparent coarse 
from Troy to Mycenae. 

5r9. X6l9'€V, if the whole passage 
be retained as it stands, this shoald 
mean the last named locality, the ay gov 
iax,; but this does not suit the notion 
of the ovQOg bringing them home 520, 
which should mean from the novzog 
not from the dyg. iar. Further their 
being brought aygov In ia%, serves no 
poetic purpose whatever. Then, too, 
knl twice repeated with same case but 
in di£ferent sense , in\ novxov ^*over the 
sei>", in' iaxat. "^o the extremity", is 
harsh. Again novtov in' ixd'. is used 
elsewhere (mar. J of a storm driving 
voyagers out to the open sea away 
from any shore, which makes it less 
suitable to make dygov in* iox. a mere 
extension of the same drift. There- 
fore the lines 517—8 either are spurious 
or have been displaced from their con- 
text. They might, if retained, follow 
528, or as Bek. sets them, 520; see 
App. E. 5. ^ 

521. B7tB^7i0exo is used most com- 
monly of mounting a chariot (mar,)« 



522—3. TtaxQida depends on hvvbi, 
— X^ovx*, obs, plur. verb with neut. 
plur. noun; see on ifiBiXav |}. 156. 

524—37. On the details of the story 
here compared with other forms of the 
tradition see App. E. 5. 

527—8. Seber's Index gives S'OVQi' 
6oq dXxnq about 20 times in II., in 
which fivriaccad'8 d'ovg, aX'H'^g is a for- 
mula of warlike exhortation, in Ody. 
only here. The accus. is d'ovgiv, 
O, 308, 2?. 157. — noifiivi Xawv 
t. e. ^gisthus. 

531. ixsQioO'i, the murder took 
place, in Homer^s version of it, in the 
[liyagov or great hall of the palace, 
used commonly for the banquet, sxi- 
gtod't has, in respect of this, a peculiar 
meafling, * at the further end or walP; 
cf. itigtoG'sv App. F. 2 (26). Thus 
the Xoxog was secreted somewhere in 
the fiiy.; but details are wanting. 

534. el66x\ see on a, 37. — «yij- 
ycvye is perhaps part of the action 
illustrated by the simile, as the animal 
marked for slaughter was first fetched 



142 



0AT2SEIA2 A 535—550. 



[day VI. 



a X. 411.. 

b n. 481 

c cf. J. 397. 

d t. 219, y. 165. 

e A. 691. 

f I. 388-9.» 

e: X. 496-500. 

h d. 481 mar. 

i «. 82, 

k d. 426 mar. 

1 (J^. 833. ^ 44, V. 

207, X 442, i2. 

558. 
m cf. :5.23— 7, Si. 

165. 
n cr. d.l03, ;i.212, 

n. 227. 
o ^. 349 mar. 
p a. 68 mar. 
q B. 347, cf. n. 

524. 
r ft: 44. 
s CD. 284. 
t cf. H. 144. 
a V. 229;cf. <r.271. 
V a. 61, K. 220. 
^ d. 840, 0. 165, 

fF. 598, 600, 1^. 

321. 



dsiTtvCaoag^^ Sg rig xa xardxravs^ fiovv inl g>citvy. ^^ 
ovdi^ rig 'AxQBCSscii irdgcov Xixs^^ ot^ ot Snovto^ 
ovSi Tvg AlyCod'OVy aAA' ixrad'Bv* iv iisyccQOLffLvJ^ 

Sg^ i(pat\ avtccQ i^oi ys xarsxXdcd^^ tpCXov ^tOQ^ 
xlatov^ d* iv^ tl;<x(idd'0t6v xadTJ^svog, ovSi vv (lot x'^q 
^d'eV he idsLv xal oqSv fpdog '^eXCoto.^ ^ 54 

avruQ^ iicsl xkaCtov re xvXvv86^Bv6g x* ixoQi6dijVj^ 
Srj r6rs (is TcgogiamB yigcov^ ahog vrjiiSQTTJg 

^/xi^xcrt, ^AxQiog vij, itokvv xqovov d^xsXhgP ovrcog 
xXaf, insl ovx avvcCv^ XLva Sfjo^iBV^ dXXd td%i,6Ta 
^bCqu oncDg xev Si] 6rjv icatQlSa yatav Xxticcl 54 

7J ydQ (itv ^(Dov* yB xcxfjOBCci^ ij xbv 'OQiarrjg 
xxBlvBv VTCOfp^diLBvog^^ av Si XBV xd<p9v AvxLpol7J6aLgJ^ 

(Sg i(pttx\ avxuQ iiiol XQuSCri"' xal dviiog dyijvmQ 
ccvxtg ivl 0X7Jd'Ba6Lj xal dxvviidvm icbq^ ldv%^y^ 
xal (itv <p(ovfJ6ag inaa TixsQOBvxa nQogfjvS&v* 55^ 



536. /ot. 542. ngoaij^stne, 550. J^inscc, 

535. Ssmiriqaag Harl. text, et marg. ^ 539. ovdi vv u>ot nrjg Schol. H., 

ovdi fioi rixOQ sed supra scripta vv juot^ %^o Harl. 543. aanskhg alsl E. Am- 

bros. hujus Schol. ovrco. 546. xal 'OQsaxrjg Bek. 550. Tcgoarivda Harl. 

(cum emend. — 9<ov) CI. ed. Ox., ngoiri^vScov fere cseteri. 



from the pasture; see y. 421, also xQBig 
aidXovg %uxdy<oVj v. 163. 

535 — 6. The sense of the var, led, 
Sstnirqoagj as measured by the simile, 
is weaker than that of Sstnvlacag, 
wh. indicates the image of the beast 
fattened for the knife, and knocked 
on* the head while at his manger. The 
same idea prevails in X. 412—5 where 
the comrades of Agam. %xBCvovtOy avsg 
(Off dgyLoSovxeg, 0? Sd x' iv dtpvsiov 
dvdgog fiiya dvvafisvoio %. x. X. — 
xaxtXT; aor. of simile, see on 338 sup, 
Povv B7tl q>; this simile, designating 
the helplessness of superior strength 
(cf. y. 250) through supine security, 
seems, as it were, a melancholy reflex 
of that found B. 480—1, where Agam. 
armed and leading his host to war is 
compared to "the bull mightiest of the 
herd". 

539 — 4^' "^^^ violence of the emo- 
tion of sorrow is even more intensely 
manifested by Achilles for Patroclns, 
and by Priam for Hector; but neither 
does self-reproach or the sense of total 
ruin and loss to self and people em- 



bitter Menelaus* loss here, nor is his 
loss enacted before his eyes, but only 
narrated by Proteus. 

544. avvOiv^ with the sentiment 
cf. (mar.) ov ydg xig ngrj^ig ni- 
Xbxui ngvsgoio yooio. — 6ijof£€V, 
Buttm. Jrr. Verbs s, v, /iA-^ (4) gives 
this as an epic fut. from that stem 
formed from fut. dccito by contraction, 
dccs'Oftsv dn-Ofisv. So the fut. xsi-o 
becomes xf/o by contraction, and this is 
shortened to xeoii, and of these forms 
we have infin. ^siifisv and participles 
xe/oi/ xioi/, -S". .3i5» ^- 340, ij. 34«- 
The use of the i»'. pers. plur. seems 
a touch of sympathy between the sea- 
god and the hero whom his news has 
so afflicted— shown further (asEustath. 
remarks) by his waiting to be further 
questioned when the fit of grief was over. 

546 — 7. For the moods of verbs here, 
see App. A. 9 (i). With indic.,^ as 
ytxstyh, xfv is rare, the optat. avxi- 
^oXi^catg expresses the uncertainty of 
a further consequence depending on 
the first uncertainty expressed by rj 
ydg ij %ep. 



DAY VI.] 



OATSLEIAS A. 551—563. 



143 



'zovtovg (ihv di) olda' 6v Si xqCxov &vSq' dvona^s^ 
8ff* tig iti i(o6g xccrsQvxetai^ evQiV novrp 
[^h d'avdv id'iXm dhj xal dxvv^svog tcsq, dxov6aL.y 
cSg^ iqxiliriVy Si ft' a^rtx* d^BtpofiBvog TCQogiBiMBV 

55*t;fog^ AaigtBGD ^Id'dxfj ivi olxca^ vaiav 

rov^ S' tSov iv^ t/7}6p d'ccXBQOv^ xard SdxQv %iovxa^ 
vviiq)rig iv (LBydgoiOi Kakvij)Ovgy ^ (itv dvdyxri'^ 
t^xBi' tf' ov Svvaxai iJV nargCSa yaXav txifSd'av 
(yd^ ydg of icdQu v^sg^ inrJQBrfioi^ xal BxatQOi^ 

60 0% xiv ^LV TtifiTCOiBv BTt^ BVQia^ v(Sra %'aXd66rig, 
60I S" oi d'i6(pat6v° ieti^ SiotQBtpBg^ cJ MbvbXkb^ 
^AgyBL^ iv lit%ofi&ttp d'aviBiv^ xal Ttoiefiov i%i67tBtv^ 
dkkd c* ig *HXv6lov ubSCov xal nBLQaxa^ yairjg 



a d. 40S.I 
b d. 373, 377, 466. 
c d. 471. 

d t. 505, 531, u. 
104. 

e d. 798, H. 221. 
f •. 13-17, Q. 

142-6. ^ 

g B. 721. 
E X. 201, 409, 570, 

X. 5, 406, Z. 496. 
i cf. o. 311. 
k ». 141-2. 
1 f 224, cf./!?.212, 

291—2, d. 669. 
m fi. 403 mar. 
n y. 142 mar. 

X. 473; cf. e, 
477. 

p d. 26. 

q y. 263, d. 99. 

1 ». SOS, u. 342, 
I 274, H. 52. 

8 ^. 200—3, 301. 



551. J^oCda. 554. ngocifsmsv. 555. foi-niu, 556. tov j^tdoy. 558. /tJv. 

559. /ot. 

551. ovonaaaov Bek. annot. 552. cvpii: yioafica Tsetzes (Harnes.)* 553 t 

JScholl. H. P. Q., [J Bek. Dind. Fa.^ Low. ' 554. avug Ern. CI. ed. Ox. 

avxC%* Wolf. 



553 is said hy the Scholl. to be 
rejected by all the ancient copies as 
being opposed tl) the previous state- 
ment of the speaker in 496 — 7 sup. 
Ni. urges against this that phrases 
like ^oooff iji f^avdv had lost .their 
distinctive meaning by usage, and 
become mere formuicB meaning vaguely 
'* under any circumstances", and cites 
Lobeck Phryn, p. 764, who is of the 
same opinion, and who has adduced 
Soph. Antig. 108—9, t%' tt ondovsg, ot 
T* opxsg ot T* dnovTsg, adding **quis 
non videt, hoc tantum dlci quotquot 
8unt^\ But the question whether Odjs. 
be alive or dead, is that on which 
this whole portion of the poem turns. 
Hence we cannot suppose that wordif 
which state that question could here 
be used without their full signiiicance. 
It is true that Menel. has a natural 
tendency to despondency, and of this 
he has already given a token in no 
foil., 181 — 2, passages, which, as Lowe 
thinks, may have given a hint to the 
copyist who probably inserted this v., 
wh. is not, perhaps, unsuited to the 
character of Menel. [see App. E. 8 (2) 
(5) (16)] Y ^^^^^ ^t seems too strong a 
contradiction of Proteus^ words uh, sup. 
to occur in the same conversation. 



That Menel. on Telemachus' visit, see- 
ing that Odys. was still missing, should 
indulge in gloomy forebodings, is not 
similarly inconsistent. 

559- ijtnQBXfioi, see ^ on p. 403. 
Crusius s, V. refers this to hccigoi , but 
see £. 234 where it qualifies vijBg; and 
so presumably here. Cf. SoXixtjqb- 
tfiOLGi, 499 sup. and note. 

563—9. Hes. 0pp. 170 — 3 makes 
those heroes who escaped death dwell 
d%ri8ia ^vfiov ivovtsg 
iv fiayidifay vijaoici nag' Slyisavov 

adding paul. sup, that it was ig nhC- 
Quxa yai'rjg apart from men and far 
from immortals, and that Cronus reigned 
among them; who, however, {Theog. 
851) is placed ** under Tartarus" with 
the Titans; cf. /a?. 274 — 9, O. 225 and 
G. 478 — 81 , where the ns^gata yoc^rjg 
(mar.) are distinguished in their penal 
aspect by the epithet vbCuxUj and xal 
novxoio is added; ** there sit Japelus 
and Cronus, solaced by neither sun- 
beam (cf. X. 15 — 19) nor breeze (con- 
trasted with 567 here), but with deep 
Tartarus around". H. only knows 
Cronus as in a state of punishment 
and exclusion, but the *^ends of earth", 
from their remoteness, are the seat of 



£44 



0ATS2EIAS A. 564—569. 



[day VI. 



a d. 586 

b I/. 323, ^.321 -2. 

c cf. C* 43—6, «. 

117-8. 
d K.Ticf. O.170, 

M. 278-80. 
e }. 522. 
f cf. n 160-1. 
gr y. 285), /?. 421, 

h (. 139, O. 626. 

i u. 106. 

kX 795; cf. udf. 

621-2. 
I c. Ill, 368, 48, 

70, i. 771. 



a^dvatoi^ 7teiiil;ov0LV ^ od'c ^avd'0g'PaSd(iecvdvs^^ 

zy TtBQ QrjtatYi fiiotf] nilai civd'^mTtoiavv' 56 

oiJc viq)8T6g,^ om ag ;|[£t^i/« ^oXvg oiks %ox ofififios^, 

dXX* alsl ZsipvQOio^ Xtyv^ nvsiovtag atjrag^ 

^Siicsavog avlri6iv'^ ava^v%Biv^ avQ'Qcijtovg' 

ovvsx* iX^ig 'EXivriv xai 6(pLV^ ya^^Qog diog i(S<SiJ 



$6'j, nv8£optog Harl. marg. Scholl. H. P. nvslovxaq Harl. text. 568. naqu- 

ipv%iiv dv^Qnanoig Pindar. Schol. (Barnes.) 569. abesse a quibasdam exx., 

in nonnullis legi (p^Xog ical monent Scboll. H. P. Q. 



these sequestered heroes, as the ^^ends 
of Ocean" (I. 13) are of the dead, 
the former glad and ever -fresh, the 
lattei' gloomy and cheerless^ H. says 
nothing df islands, but the Ocean send- 
ing Zs(p, drixdg favoars the notion of 
the *Hlvaiov nsd, being in the far west. 
On the prassnge see App. E. 8 (2) and 

9 (8) note. 

564* *Pa6diiav.i son of Zens and 
a daughter ofPhoBnix, and brother of 
Minos; he is not here introduced as 
judge, which office has regard to the 
penal view of the departed (Virg. ^n. 
YI. 566 foil.), but as sharing the abode 
of ^e heroes by privilege oT birth, as 
Menel. (569) by marriage. Yet a 
glimpse of some such office appears 
in his being brought to Euboea *Ho 
visit Tityus" by the Phseacians; Ti- 
tyus being among the doomed (X. 576— 9), 
and his offence having been committed 
at Pythd not far from Euboea (mar.). 
Yet Pind., 01, II. 129—40, who also ma- 
kes the retreat of the blessed an isle of 
ocean (iv^a fiandgmv vicaog ionsdvi,' 
deg avgat nsifinvioiaiv)^ introduces the 
"just decrees of Rhad." into the pic- 
ture, and, more notably, makes Cronus 
and Rhea — so far from penal humilia- 
tion — • the centre of the beatified 
scene. 

5^5* ifiitCXfl, the notion is the 
same as in ^boI (bio ^movvBg (mar.) 
"living at ease", ^torri, only here 
in H., elsewhere (iCotog\ in Hy, VIII. 

10 we find ^lotfixa. from nom. Piovqg. 
566. ov vuf^eroq x. r. X., the de^ 

scription, chiefly negative, and which 
may bo compared with that of the 
abode of the gods (mar.), suits the 
climate of Madeira and the Canaries 



with their equable temperature; the 
prevalent wind over the western ocean 
may be a reflex of the trade -wind. 
These mere general facts were known 
to H.; a little later, as the peak of 
Teneriffe is visible at xoo miles, some' 
of that group may have ffivbn He- 
siod the outline of his iiwaagmv irqaoi 
(above). The Zephyr. **ever" blows, 
as an element of the delightful tem^ 
perature, and the negatives of 566 
imply uninterrupted sunshine. Comp. 
the absence of the sunbeam and the 
breeze in the abode of the Titans^ 
(9. 480 — I. Hence Milton has perhaps 
derived some images in his epilogue 
to ^^Comus", although blending others 
with them. 
Spirit To the ocean now I fly, 

And those happy climes that 

Where day never shuts his ey«, 
• ♦ « • 

There eternal summer dwells. 
And west-winda etc. 
Wolf {Prolegg. XLIX, 253, note 39) 
mentions {teste Sallust.) another pas- 
sage descriptive of Elysium once found 
\p. H., but wh. has disappeared from 
our texts. Vi<p€t6g3 snow-storm or 
drift; cf. vBtog of rain, vifpdg is a 
flake; cf. M. 278 viq>d9Bg x^ovog: vitpto 
is found ib, 280. 

569 is rejected in some edd. (Scholl.). 
0<plv, dat. of special reference, a» it 
were ** precious in their sight" (mar.).. 
Was Menel. not to die? The text only 
says he was not "to die in Argos^\ re- 
ferring to the death of his brother there, 
but to be sent by the gods to the Elys, 
plain. Yet on the whole this implies 
not only an extension of life and a 



DAY Vj] 



OATS2EIA2 A. 570—585. 



M5 



70 cSg* eln^v vno novvov iSvoeto xv(iaivovtcc. 
ccvtccQ iytov inl v^ag S[i^ dvtiS'docg hdQoi6iv 
iJLa, jtollcc Sil iiot, XQadiri 7c6Q(pvQ€ xiovzt. 
a'itdQfinfi ^' ixl vrjcc xaT7]Xd'0(isv i^Sh ^dka^auv^ 
86q7COv ^' 67tXi6d(i£ad'\ ini V ijXvd'Sv dfiPgo^iij vv^ • 

y^ irl tote X0L(Mi9ijnsv iicl ^tiyfilvt d'aXda^rig. 
^ftoff d' iiQiyivstK q)dvrj ^ododdxtvXog 'Hroj, 
v^ag^ [ilv TtdfiitQCDtov igvaeafisv^ eig aka SlaVy 
it/d $^ htovg ttd'd(i€69'a xal t^tCa vijvgIv it6ijgy 
av* dl xal avtol pdvtsg^ inl xlritev xdd'L^oVy 

80 ^^S^ tf' itofievot TtoXcr^v aka tvsttov iQetfiotg.^ 

— ap d' aig AlyvTCtoio duTtstdog notafioto^ 



6tij0cc. viccg^ xal Iffa^a^ tsXiji^isag ixatofifiag, 
avtdg i^tsl xat^%av0a %'SiSv ZOAoW allv^ iovtmv^ 
X^v'^ *j4yd^ilii>bvv tvfipov^ Xv] a(S^B6tov^ xiiog str^ 
85 tavta^ isiavtrjifag^ h'a6iirjiVy Sioodav Sa (loi ovgi^y 



a ^. 425-31 mar. 
h&.B4, I, 2, jc. 

403,423, w(f. 141, 

X, 76, ft. 348. 
c ef. «. 261 
d jf. 480, /J. 424 

~«; cf. o. 496. 
e App. F. 1 (13) 

mar. 
f d, 473 mar. 
S fi, 180. 
h cf. X. 77-8, fi. 

16, V. 22, 0. 497, 

A. 485. 
i d. 477-8, ^ 26%. 
k d . 352 mar. 
I y. 147. 
m Z. 75, fi. 141, 

cu.80-1, H.33e, 

cf. a. 291 mar. 
ni2.383; cf. /. 413 
g 148—9. 
p d. 520 mar. 



!-.>.TJ l^ot''^'^. 



'570. feiniov. 577. wfiiCQata J^SQ'vaaafisv. 578. ij^hjii, 

570. idvacsto Harl. 573. ^axr^Xv^ov Bek. annot. 578. £<rToi;$ r* id'ifisud'a 
Harl. jnox yi]v<rl i^tfti' Scholl. H. P., vijl fielaivjj Heidelb., VTjog itarjg SchoL P. 
579. iv Era. CI. ed. Ox. Sv Wolf., cf. 785. 585. idoaav Era. CI. ed. Ox. 

diSoaav Harl. Wolf. 



solace after its woes , but an ultimate 
exemption from death: although, as the 
Tyndaridae were only allowed bj Zeus 
an alternate life between them, and that 
viq^Bv yri9y after submitting to death 
(X. 300 — ^4, r. 343 — ^4), it is not consi- 
stent that Menelaus should attain im- 
mortality by marrying their sister. The 
Tyndaridie probably embody in myth 
the natural alternation of seasons , and 
so far support the yiew that the tale of 
Troy is developed from nature -myth 
also. Eurip. Androm, 1253 foil. h& 
adopted from this passage the immor- 
tality of Peleus for Thetis^ sake, see 
Thetis' words, (F^ d*, <ig Sv siSyg xfjg 
ilitng svvijg xagtVy %. t. X. 

The tale of Proteus being told, Menel. 
narrates his return from Pharos (sup, 
355} ^ ^1^6 Nile, how he performed 
all dues to the deities and to h.U bro- 
ther's memory, and sailed home. He 
then invites Telem. to stay, and offers 
him an unsuitable present. 

570. Cf. Virg. Georg. IV. 528, H(bc 
Proteus: et se jactu dedii tequor in al- 
HOM. on. I. 



tunif and Ov. Met, XI. 250, IHxerat 
hcBC Proteus et condidit wquore vultum. 

571 — 6. See notes on d. 425—31, and 
for ivxMoig on cc. 21. On 573 v^ x. 
T. A., see App. F. i (21). dfi^. w^ is 
here a faint personification, brought 
fully out in Hes. Theog, — 756 foil., where 
Nv\ goes forth having Tnvog in her 
arms. On ^ijyfiiivi, as being of the 
water rather than of the land, see Lid- 
dell and S. s, v. On 576 see notes on |}. i. 

577-80. See App. F. i (6) (7) (10) ( 14). 

581. See on d. 351, 355, 477. 

583 — 4. Menelaus' piety and bro- 
therly affection are alike marked here ; 
see App. E. 8 (3) (8). He might sup- 
pose that udBgisthus' ascendancy would 
prevent any such tribute from being 
paid in Argos. See also note on y. 
109. The Scholl. will have it^ the 
monument was inscribed; but some 
symbol only like the oar of Elpenor 
{L 77, n. 15 , cf. Virg. /Kn, VI. 233), 
would probably be erected. Of course 
there would be a crr^Xi} (fi, 14). 

585-^6. Menel. evidently rcognizes 

10 



14^ 



0ATSSEIA2 A. 609-622. 



[daf VI. 



a tf'. 556. 

n «. 181, A, 961, 

E, 372, Z. 485, 

i2.127;cf.tf.3(tt. 
c £. 479, %. 255, 

i. 95. 
d a. 827, «L 25; cf. 

«. 98. 
e o. n$— 19. 
I |. 326. o. 101, -?. 

295, A. 182. 
g>App.A.8(l)mar. 
h i.223, x.210,252. 

v.WJ.x.3S5;cf. 

i rf. 132; cf. IC- 

232-4, V* l&fi 

-61. 
k ID. 75; cf. ». 92, 

€>. 195, X 371- 

8«, 473-7. 
1 '), 130 mar. 
m App. D. 11 mar. 
n W. 146, t. 258, 

«.405,X60,441. 
o hie V. s«piwiine 
p (.7, i7.1(»,o.467. 
q/». 259; cf. 299 

r cf. q. 170—1, v. 

163, 174. 
8 K 19. 



XBlqC^ xi HLV xaiigB^sv ixog t* iq>at Ix r' ^^^'a^sv. 

"aJfioroff slg ayad'Oto, fpCkov xixog, oV^ dyoQevstg' 
xoi/yocQ iyd xoc xavxa [i^cchtffifci' i^aiioU,^ ydg. 
Scigov^ S% 3<J<y' iv ifip otxp XBiiiifXiM^ xstxaiy 
Sci^ca o x&kh0tov xal xi^rii6xax6v i^xvv. 
8(i0(o xoc x(MjT^^afi^ TBxvyiiivov'^ dgyvgaog 8b 
i6ziv 3xag/x(l^^^^ *^ ^^ xb^H^bu xaxQaaviccr 
Igyov^ 3' *Hq>ai6xoio' x^qbv^ Si a 0a{Sv^og T^giogy 
SvSovCiov^' fia^iiavgy o&* iog Sofiog i(iq>Bxaivtl}Bv 
xBt0i fiB vo0rij6avxec''^ xbXv S^ H^ikaa xoS' 67cd00aiP 

mg° ot ^Iv xoiavxa nqo^ alXifXovg dyigBvov. 
[Satxv(i6vBgy S* ig^ Sdfiax' t<5av ^bIov fiMikiiog, 
ot S' ^yoj/' {ihv liiiXdy tpigov d* ^^voga^ olvov 



610. 



613. fot%(0. 



617. J-sgyov J-s. 



618. or ij^g. 



622. J^oivov* 



609. fiB^^Tiasv Schol. H. yij^riasv, 611. pro dyad'oCo Crates olooto Schol. H. 

613. dciQOv Bek. 617. dubium an propriam nomen ^aCI^Lfiog , ^ Schoil. P. Q. 

621—4. [j Bek. Dind. 621. pro ig Schol. H. dvu. 



seems to be that of "leanings on'' or, 
as here, "sloping towards" (mar.). On 
i'xog X* €€pax' x. r. A. see on y. 374. 
611. Menelaus* enthusiastic sympa- 
thy with his juniors, and bis delight 
at recognizing tlieir father's traits in 
them are part of the generous eleva- 
tion of his character; cf. his words 
206 — 7 sup. to the young Pisistratus: 
contrast with this the barely passing 
touch which Nestor gives to the same 
thought in y. 124 — 5. Nor in <r. i«6 
does Odys., although noticing a similar 
fact, so expatiate upon it. 

615 — 7. xexvyfiiivov does not ne- 
cessarily imply a high decree of finish, 
being used e, g. of Polypnemus' milk- 
vessels , but only " wrought '' or 
** fashioned". On the TiQrjvrnf here 
described see App. A. (8) i. — SidO' 
vifoVf see App* D. 11. — ^aiififiog, 
some who take this as an adj. say that 
Sobalos or Sethlos was his name. 

621—4. Wolf. Prolegg. 78—80 (131 
—3) rejects these lines as **ipsa ora- 
tionis insolentia et anibiguitate duris- 



simi, nihilque Homeric! colons haben- 
tes". The '^obscuritas" he illustrates 
by saying that'Eustath. thought they 
referred to the suitors at Ithaca, not, 
as plainly shown by Spohn {de exir, 
Od, par, pp. 9, 10), to the palace at 
Sparta. Eustath. also took iattv/JUO' 
veq in sense of ** cooks"; cf. 0. 467. 
The lines form indeed a very weak 
bridge over a rather sudden chasm of 
transition and are probably some dia- 
sceuast's work: remove them and we 
have the passage g, 126 foil. From the 
way in which we suppose the Homeric 
poems first composed and recited, ao 
abruptness of transition need startle ns; 
and, when reduced to a whole , such 
points of articulation are just where we 
should look for padding. Whoever com- 
posed 621 — 4 seems to biwe had an 
igccvog in view; as the ordinary form 
of entertainment by a king, after the 
extraordinary one of a ydfiog had been 
despatched; see a. 226 and note. The 
word insunov implies that the **wives" 
were according to custom not present 
at the banquet of the men. Ni.« how* 



DAY VI.] 



OATZSEIAS A. 623—636. 



T49 



(Sg ot ^6v xhgl Salxvov ivl (i£ydQ0c6L Tcivovto,'] 
15 iivri^t'^Qeg^ Sh TcdgoLd'ev 'OSvC6'^os (ley dgoto 

'^Sc0xoi0LV^ tiQ^oyro nai aiyamyisLv^ tivxsg^ 

iv trv'xrp^ SaiiiSp^^ Sd'L xig ndgog vfigiv !%B07tov. 

^AvxCvoog^ Ss xa9^0to xal Ed^vfiaxog d'eoevdrjgj 

ccQxoV^ (ivij0t7JQ(ovy aQst^ d' i^dv igojf ^gidtoi.^ 
JO tolg d^ vTog 0QOvloco Notj^csv^ iyyv^av^ iXS'dv 

Avxlvoov iJLvd'OL0cv dveiQ6iisvog^ itQogisLiCBv. 

^'^AvtCvo\ ^ ^d TV iSyLBv^ "ivl q)Qeolvy iJifP xal ovxl, 

bicTC&iB TriXina%og vett' ix IIvXov^ ']^iid9dBvxog; 

i/^a'ftW 'b^Vr'*^*'^ya)i/, i(il dl 'xQSio'^ yCyvatai ccvt^g 
l^''HXiS'^ ig evQv%0Q6v S'a^^iiBvcciy Ivd'u (lot tjtTtov'^ 

Sd^Bxa^ d'jjXBiuL, vnb 8^ ruiCo'vOi"*' xaXaBQyoi^' 



a cf. S, 382. 
b Q. 167—9. 
cB.774; cf.a.l07. 
d ». 186, *P, 43J, 

623. 
e I. 156, n, 689. 
f d.366;cf. p.206, 

g X. 227, i. 420, 
577, y, 188, ^.2. 

h 10. 1&~7. 

i ^. 891. 

kr. 244, o 416; 
cT. ft 419-20. 

1 /?. 386, d. 648. 

m V. 36 mar. 

n J. 461 mar. 

X. 190, y. 26, K, 
100; cf wrf. 719. 

p a. 268 mar. 
q a. 93 mar. 
rr.216;cf.^.l68. 
s or. 225 mar. 

1 V. 275, 0. 298^ cp. 
347, CO. 431, B. 
616. JL. 673, 686. 

a .il. 681. 
va».23; cf. tf^.654 

—5, 662, 666. 
w (^ 37 tf/ satpiuSy 

jf. 2, 6, JB. 150 

X cf. i2. 277. 



628. ^eoJ^Biotig. 631. TtQOGsfBLTcev, 632. f£S(lSV. 



636. xaXttfBQyoL 



623. ivsmav Schol. H. ^vsifiav Bek. annot. SnSfiTCOv var. l.^Steph. 627. ^;i;ov- 
T€S, distlncto post Trapog, Arist., Schol. P. 635. ig Bvinnov Bek. annot. 



ever, inclines to allow the passage as 
genuine. 

623. xaXXtXQ.y see notes on a, 334, 
and on 7. 394. 

625 foil. The scene here changes to 
Ithaca. Noemon by his enquiry of 
Antinoiis about his ship interrupts the 
suitors^ sports, who, startled at the 
news of Telemachus^ departure, con- 
cert measures to waylay him on his 
return. Medon, overhearing their plot, 
informs Penelop^. Which of the days 
since Telemachus* departure is here 
resumed, is not directly stated. An- 
tinotis' question 642, not' Sxsto, is 
left unanswered; but v. 656 shows that 
it was not the first day. Doubtless 
(see on 594 sup.) the same 6**^ day of 
the whole action, left unfinished at 
Sparta, is meant to be continued. 

627. 6a:is6iji, the 9a - is =; y^; 
see on ^. i: the ground itself with a 
levelled surface (TVxrcS), not strictly, (as 
the Schol.) a "pavement", is intended. 

628—9. ^^ *^® P*^ taken here by 
Antin. see App. E. 6 (2). — xaS^Oxo, 
they sat perhaps as arbiters or umpires 
to the rest (mar.). 



^iZ — 4- velx', **retumed". This 
enquiry elicits that they knew not of 
his havinff gone. —HvXov, see App. 
D. 4, and A. 12. — XQ^^ ylyvexai 
is an exception to the general usage 
mentioned in note on a, 225. 

635. *'H3u6\ Elis, distinguished as 
%oll7i (see on 9, i), as a level space 
between mountains, is, to judge from 
map delineations, the most unbroken 
plain in Peloponnesus. In A, 678-- 81 
the spoils of this fCBdiov are described. 
Herod. (IV. 30) says, that mules could 
not be bred there, but implies, that 
it was a great pasture ground for 
them. Lowe remarks, that v. 605 
shows why Noemous mares etc. were 
not kept in Ithaca. — evQyxoQOV, 
the 2°^ element in this is rflo^o?, not 
XOQOs: the epithet is vaguely applied 
to any region large or small, if not 
broken up by crags and ravines.^ Pind. 
Pyth, Vm. 57 applies it to the dyviagj 
"streets" of a town. 

636. TifUovoi, Nausioaa's car, and 
that in which Hector*a corpse is 
brought back by Priam (mar.) are 
drawn by mules, hence called ivtecisQ' 



^5o 



0AT2SEIAS A. 6.^7-650. 



[day VI. 



a^ 3%3, ^ 109, 

b M. 106, 126. 
c J. t»2; cf. y. 4. 
d y. 101 mar. 
e B. 227; cf. S. 

307. 
f «. 409, iC. 204. 
gr App. A. 7 (3) 

mar. 
h App. A. 7 (1) 

mar. 
i e. 90. 
k a. 174, V. 232, 

^ 186, w. 258, 

297, 403. 
1 A. 430, a. 403; 

c(. H. 197, O. 

186. 
■m ^. 77 mar. 
n /!?. 133. 
o t;.56, t^.343, »F. 

62. 



aS^TJxsg'^ t(Sv xiv rtv' ^XaSd^afCfivog iShfiaOaviirjvJ^ 

(Sg 6tpa%'\ oFd' ai/a d'V(i6v i^d^^eov ov yccQ ig)avto^ 
ig Ilvkov otxB6%'ai NrjliJLOV^^ aXkd Ttov avxov 
dyQ(Sv ^ iLr^koKSi TtaQe^fisvccc i^s ^vfiairy, 6^ 

xbv d' avt ^AvrCvoog 7tQog6q>7j^ EvTcel^sog vtog' 
"vri^BQtig^ ILOv ivc67t£, jrot* ^%£to xal tCvsg avrcJ 
iiovQOv €7C0vr*; ^Id'dxrig i^aLQEtoi^^ ^' ioi^ avxov 
d"^X6g^ xa dfiaig^ xs; dvvauxo xe xal x6 xeXi^Om.^ 
xai^ (lOL xovx' dyoQevCov ixrjxv^ioVy otpQ^ sv eidci^ 61 
^ 6B pit] dsKOvxa^ aTtr^VQa v^a ^ikaivav^ 
r]B Bxciv oC d(3xagy btcbI 7CQog7Cxvi,axo^ /xt;^©;" 
xbv S* vCog ^Qovloio No^^cdv dvxiov rjiiSa' 
"avxog^ iyci ot dcSxa- xC xbv ^b^bib xal aXXog^ 
ojtjrdr' dvi^Q xoiovxog Ix^"^ iiBkBdri^axa^ d'v^di 6^ 



643. J^so£. 645, AiOBo. 646. dJ^i'novTa, 647. fsyitov foi. 649. /ot. 

641. *AvzCvoog dnausCfisTO q)(6vriaBv ts Harl. margp. Scholl. H. P. 646. rj pro 

si Bek., mox dnrjvQccto Em. CI. ed. Ox. dm^vga Harl. Wolf. 649. iym Bek., 

sumv cffiteri, quod ob f stare nequit. 



yol, "harness- working". The mule was 
fitter for heavy draught and burden {tec- 
lasgyog) than the horse, as also for 
mountain use, being sure-footed, hence 
suited to Ithaca. From ogog mons 
comes OQSvg, Epice ovgsig. For war 
he lacked the weight, speed, and 
strength of the horse. H. uses 'qfi^ov. 
and ovg, as synonyms; cf. SI* 697, 716. 
Arist. de animal, VI. 29 says that the 
rjfiCov. is bred from male ass and 
mare , and the ogsvg by reversing the 
parentage, sometimes called a "mute". 
In B. 852 we read of wild mules, un- 
derstood by Koppen ad loc. to be the 
Jiggetai, known in Persia (eguus ke- 
mionus Linn.). In W. 655 one of 6 
years old is yet unbroken, but this 
cannot have been usual; indeed, the 
poet adds rj x' tilyi^XTi ^cciidcaad'oii,. 
Mules afterwards ran in the Olympic 
games (Pind. 01. VI.). 

639—42. NfiXiiiov,^ see App. A. 12. 
— avTOv , dep. on dygav. ttov go- 
verns eeypcov "somewhere in his own 
fields". — Ovpah:i^9 Eumaeus, who 
forms a leading personage in 4- ^' 
find p., is hero first H-llndcd to. — 
f'vtOJie, see App. A. r. 

(143. xovQOi denotes vig«»iir, but also 



intimates subordination to the dgxog 
as senior, cf. y. 362 — 4, and Cic. de 
Sen, VI. 17. Some punctuate yiovgOL 
snovz* 'id'ccurjg i^aigsxoi,; but no ade- 
quate sense can be given to '!&•. l^nCg, 
wh. wd. not exclude their being his 
own dependents. 

644 — 7. TO is the manning his ship 
by his own Q^i^xsg and dfiasg: for these 
see App. A. 7 (i) (3). The vulg. is 
dsxovxog^ which cannot be gen. after 
Plfl, the phrase ^cqi xivog being post- 
Homeric for " against one's will "; nor 
can it as in A, 430 depend on dnriv- 
gcoVy because as precedes: and in a 
phrase so short a gen. absolute , inter- 
posed between the object to which it 
refers and tlie verb, is not to be 
thought of, nor is it justifiable by 
GcpiOL .... Xsvaaovxmv of f. 155 — 7 
(Fa.), where it follows as a separate 
clause. Hence, the conjecture of 
Ahrens de hiatu 21, and La Roche 
19, that di%ovxa is right, but was 
altered by some early critic to avoid 
the hiatus of -a c?- (cf. (9. 503 kq>\onXi' 
<s6\yLl<59^ d\tdg)y has been received. 
See mar. for places where dinovxa 
agreeing witli a pron. has ^{ti con- 
m'ct<'d with tlio governing verb. 



DAY VI.] 



OATSSEIAS A. 651-665. 



15J 



TtovQOi 8* ol xatd d^jxov ccQi0rsvov6v^ fta^'^ W^ccg^ 
oX ot eicovr** iv d' ccqxov^ iy(o fiaivovt* iv6i]6a 
MavtOQa^ ij^ d'sov^ np S' avrm ndvxa^ icixscv, 

;5 dXld to d'avfid^oi tSov evd'dde Mivro^a Slov 
%%^i^bv vTiYiolov^^ tote 8* sfi^i] vr^V^ nvkov8eJ^ 

ciV^ &QCC (pcDV7J0ccs diti^ri Ttgog 8ciiiata TCatgbg^ 
tot6iv d' d^LtpotBQOiciiv dyd^Cuto^ ^v^iog dytjvcoQ. 
[iVfjCtiJQag tf' afLv8Lg^ xd%'L6av xal itavCav dsd'XcDV. 

)0 totOLV d' 'AvtLvoog ^etitpn^ EvTtsCd'aog vlog^ 

[d%vviiLBVog*^ ^Bvsog 8s (leya (pQivsg"^ diifptiidlaLVccv 
7cl^7tXavt\ 066b 8b of ytvQl Xa^nBtofovtt, itxtrjv.l 
"c5<* TtOTCoVy Tj fidya i^yov vzBQtpidXiDg itsX^6di] 
TfjlBfiaxG) 686g ^da* (pd^av 8b of ov tBXBB6%'aiJ' 

)5 BK^ 8b ^ to6<3v8^ ddxrjtt vsog Jtatg otxBtav aijt(og^\ 



a tf. 387, cr. 1.239. 
b ^. 36; cf. d. 066. 
c ft. 419, B, 113, 

I. 54. 
d &. 1G*>, X. 204, 

A. 311. 
e fi. 267-8. 
f cu. 446. 
g Q. 25, &. 530, 2. 

h ft. 24, 142, Q, 42. 
i d. 715, «. 148. 
k a.l81mar.ff.7l; 



cl'. g. 



[«)7, r. J14,' 



N. 336. 
mA. I03--4. 
n P. 83, 499, 573. 
o 7t. 346-7. 
p cf. 8, 256. 
q Z.TO. 384, 7. 

384. 
r -4.436-7-8-9, 

S, 330, 340, 351, 

1380, 416, «. 295, 

254, 260, 265, 267, 

487, t]. 95. 
8 B. 342, P. 143, 

450, O. 128, V. 

130, 379. 



653. /ot. 654. fBf(OY,HV, 655. fldov, 662. j^Ot J'Sj^l'KtTlV, 663. J^SQyOV. 

6O4. /ofc. 665. ceJ^STirjTi, 

652. vfiiag Barnes. 656. vw' i^o^ov Barnes. Ern. Cl. ed. Ox. vnrioiov Wolf. 

659. fivTjGt^gsg B. 660. ngoGhtpri Harl. 661—2. translatitii w. ex ^. 103, 

Scholl. H. Q. [] Bek. Dind. Fa. 664. (pufisv 9i fjnv nonnulli perperani, 

SchoU. H. P. 665. TocaoDv S' plerique roaamvS' Ascalonlta, Scholl. P. Q. 



652. Tjfiiaqy the var. led. vfiiag 
perhaps arose from an opinion that 
fista with accus. conld not mean 
** among", which it can (mar.). 

654—6. 7ik S'sdVf see mar. — tots 
refers to the start on the evening of 
Day II, If the words (see on 625 sup.) 
are spoken on Day VI., x^^-^bv would 
•mean Day V. . Telem. made his pas- 
sage in one night, reaching Pylos the 
next morning or forenoon. With an 
equally fair wind back he might cer- 
tainly have returned , but after a stay 
of 24 hours only, within the time. Thus 
Noemon , as such a degree of dispatch 
was unlikely, is atnazed at having 
seen Mentor on Day V. at dawn. 

658 — 9. dydooazo here expresses 
wonder mixed with indignation see on 
d. 181. — &fiv6iQ, for the form cf. 
X0ifi>(x9ig from xo^f'^^i ^^^ afiOL^ridlgi it 
is a more intense form of a|[ta , its con- 
nexion with which is shown by s. 467, 

Xvg iigarj Safiaar}. 

66/— 2. These lines were probably 



transferred hither by some copyist from 
A, 103—4; see on a, 97—101. 

663. fjiiya ei^yav, iee on y. 261, 
with which cf. also Pind. Nem. X. 64, 
fiiycc ^gyov ifirjauvr;*, — v:teq<pidXo>(^, 
Buttm. LexiU 102, notices that this 
adv. is "free from any meaning strictly 
reproachful", such as the adj. vnBQ- 
(pCaXog sometimes admits: and cites 
this passage as more clearly showing 
than others that the word is based on 
VTCBQtpVTig, That which transcends 
nature and implies supernatural aid 
being required by the sense, not that 
which is overbearing or arrogant. 
Cf. Shakspeare's "passing strangn". 
Buttm. notes that itsliaO'Ti is here = 
tSTiXscrai, 

664. xeXieoO^at. is here fut. mid. 
with pafls. sense, cf. ©, 415, eodf yuQ 
iQTCstlrjas . . . ^. 

665. The edd, all give Ix xoaaoDv 
d'; but dsTirixt cannot easily stand 
absolutely: it governs Tocycov, and ix 
is in tmesis with otxsTcci (for i^oixo- 
(Aai see mar.). Now Homeric usage 



15^ 



OATL'SEIAS A. 666-668. 



[day VI. 



a (^. 408 mar. 

b ¥^. 490. 

c 0. 697. 

d ». 1«5, •. 340, ^ 
110, 218, 0. 178, 
o. 27, 82. 159, 



134. 



ir^cc iQV06diieVog XQivag^ r' dva Sii^ov &Qi0TOvg. 
aQ^et Tcal jtfordQio^ xccxov iii(i6vcu' dXla ot avra 
Zsvg^ 6Xi6BU pCriv tcqXv ri^lv ^"^(la q)vtBv6m.^ 



666. ^agvaadfiEvog. 667. foi. 



667. ccXXd ot £m. CI. ed. Ox. iXla ol Wolf, quod mavult SchoL H. 668. i}§7ig 
ftitQOV tuiad'ai, Arist., vulg. '^(iiv nrifiec yevia&ai Harl. mar; Scholl. H^ Q. 
iQliiv Tf^iia (pvtevaai, Barnes. Cl. ed. Ox. Dind. Fa. Low., Bed Bek. Arist. 

sequitar. 



is (see mar.), in eoupling by 91 a 
sentence beginning with a. prep, in 
tmesis, to join the Sh to the prep. 
If the text be the true reading, the 
second Ss might easily become de- 
tached, and then from Sh seeming 
repeated, the first SI might be let 
drop. xoa&v9* is of course from zoaoaSs 
the stronger demonstr., ^'so many as 
you see here", wh. well suits the pas- 
sage. Bek. prints ix voaamvd', but 
the leaving the monosyl. in thus iso- 
lated is not in Homeric manner. — 
avuiaq with Ig oi'^rratj^^is got off 
baffling us". **Utrum avrcog an ccv- 
ttog viri summi dissentiunt " , Lowe. 
Buttm. {LexiL 30) writes ttvrcog, Herm. 
avxfog always. It seems based on ai- 
76s, the adverbial sense of wh. it 
bears, meaning in that way itself, 
• hence "in that very way", as is most 
clearly seen in the phrase Zg tf * uv- 
xtog, V. 338 ^ and avzmg, if read, seems 
to imply avxog as existing, wh., howe- 
ver, is post-Homeric, as is even eav- 
xov for wh. H. has fo avxov, ot avx^ 
et<s Beyond this presumption no evi- 
dence appears: possibly it acquired 
the aspirate by a grammatical sym- 
pathy with ovxtog. By a slight ac- 
cretion of force avxtog means "in the 
same way as before , as usually^\ etc. 
Thus Penel. avxmg ^axui "sits just as 
she was", v. 336. It points also em- 
phatically to a present or actual state, 
so J. 520 ««l avxcag, "even as mat- 
ters stand", or A. 133 "as you see". 
And by further growing into the sense 
of "so much and no more", (cf. Latin 
ionium "only" from tanius "so much") 
it becomes contemptuous, like French 
comme fa and our "so so". Thus it is 
"merely", as in niiXg 6* ixi vijitiog 
avtiogy SI, 726. But there seems a 
class of passages (mar.) which demand 
a more precise meaning, as "in vain. 



absurdly", and so imply another av- 
xmgy in that sense a distinct word: 
for I. in order to enhance "just so" 
and the like into a notion of fidip 
"in vain", the mode pointed at by 
the "so" should palpably involve that 
meaning, as in 0. 8a — 3 ov9i xig iq^iccg 
avxatg ccnniftiffsit where "send us so 
away as we came^^ is = "send us away 
booiless^\ but this condition often fails; 
and 2. the strong stress so required upon 
the word avxtog calls for an emphatic 
position, as (here and v. 336) at the 
end of the line, which, however^ it 
often has not. Further, the curious 
passage sr. no — i , otxov i9ovxag Aia^, 
avx<og, dxilsisxov, dvrivvaxqt inligymt 
seems to contain a pile of' adverbial 
phrases reinforcing one another in the 
same sense, and avtiog should have ac- 
cordingly as properly definitive a sense 
as pudtif or dxile<sxov. Thus we have 
(i) avxtog the adv. as it were of av- 
xog, with arrange of meaning as above, 
and (2) avxag irrito, as here. It is 
impossible to settle the breathing or 
derivation of this last, but the onus 
probandi may be left to those who as- 
sert the aspirate. Boeder. 256— -7 thinks 
it is really a/ara>s from djhdxrj {avdxa 
Pind.) = aTi; — • a doubtful doctrine. 

667. TtQariQO}, with this, as referr- 
ing to fut. time, cf. nQoaaoa in the 
plu'ase ngooam xal onCoom^ and see 
note on ontd'sv p, 270. The Sehol.' 
gives it as = Tcoigatxigoj which would 
similarly mean ** further on in time", 
t. e. "hereafter". 

668. For the var. led, here see 
inferior mar.: the authority of Arist. 
claimed by 2 Scholl. for ^firjg (kix, t%, 
is undecisive, since on what ground 
he preferred it, we know not. It is 
not strictly consistent with Penelo- 
pe's words of her son (a. 217^ r. 532, 
cf. X. 317), iLsyag hzl x«l i^P^jg ftrf- 



DAY VI.] 



OATSSEIAS A. 669-682. 



153 



&kX*^ aye yiov dots vrja ^orjv xal €tzo6^ ixaiQOvg^ 
10 oq>QU fiM/ avrov iovxa^ koxrjdoiiccL i^dh g)vXd^a} 
iv^ ytOQd'fip 'WaHrig ts Edinoio xa 7tav7taXoe6Ct]g^^ 
<6g av im^iivysQiSg^ vavxCkkaxai^ eXvaxa Ttaxgog.^'^ 

(Sg^ iq>ccd'\ ol d' &qcc ndvxag iTCrjvaov i^d* ixsXavov 
aixix^'^ inaix^ av6xdvxag^ ifiav So^ov^ aig 'Odvarjog. 
?5 ovd' aga IhivaloTtaca koXvv xQoi^ov ^iv UTtv^xog^^' 
(ivd-av^ ovg [ivti^X'^^g ii/l (pQa6l Bv^ooSoiiavov'^ 
miovi ydq'ot iavxs Medav,*^ 0^ iTCavd'axo fiovXdg 
dvi'^g iktog idv ell tf' tv^oift (I'^xiy^ v^AiWW.P 
P'^^ d' tfiav ayyaXmv oca dcijimxa tir^vakoitaCri • 
lotov Sa icax' ovoov^^dtndlnQogrjvSa Ilrivakd^aia 
''xwovl/ xtTtxa Sa Ca ligoatiav (iirrjax'^Qag dyccvoi; 
7} atnaj^vav ^^iiciyaLv ^O8v06^og d^aioto. 



a /J. 212; cf. n. 

S48— 9. 
b|. 181, ft. 463. 
c d, 845-7, 0. 29. 
d I. 480. 
e y. 195. 
f |. 246. 
g- a. 281, /?. 308, 

J. 701. 
h w. 226, &. d%, 

v\ 47, a. 66, ff. 

539, ^. 380. 
\jf. 407. 
Xtt. 358. 
I ^. 328. 

ra«. 127;cf.a.242. 
n 0.66,465,5^.273, 

t. 816, V. 184. 
rc- 412, 252. X' 

357, 361. 
p S. 739, ». 356, t. 

422, Z. 187, H. 

324, /. 93. 
q <y,528mai-., (;:50. 
r App. F. 2. 
s d, 707. 



-.W'CCl'.^ , 



669. fsinoa*. 677. /ot ^fsins, ^^zTpHneiisvai omisso ^. 
670. oiitii Bek., mox Xo%7i0(o et rvxi^cofiai Bek. annot. 682. 17 delet Bek. 



Tpoy fxayst (is come to); but it well 
suits his disparagement by Antin. as 
a "mere boy" (665). Still, the tone 
of unfeigned alarm which the speech 
shows suits better the other reading. 
And the contrast which lifiiv offers to 
ot avx^ strengthens the passage. With 
nmi^u tpvTsvaat cf. d'dvatov or xcxxa 
(anxBiv (w. 423 , 2?. 367). The reading 
yeviad'ccL is probably taken from Eu- 
mfieus* woids xovs (the suitors) Zevg 
i^olioBLe nglv '^fiiv nijfia ysvi- 
c^ai (mar.). Ni. leaves the question 
unnoticed. 

670. I6vxa = ot%aS6 vieooitivov 
in 701. — koxio. '^k €pvk; on ques- 
tion of mood here see App. A. 9 (5). 

671. TtOQS'fuS, see on 844 foil. 

672. e7iiC§i\yyeQisi^, see on y. 105. 
— vavnikXenai includes, as Ni. thinks, 
a touch of derision; if so, our expression 
of '*a wild-goose chase" would nearly 
suit. The mood is subj. shortened epice. 

675. anvoxoq, see on u, 342. 

677. Mi^oiV, the speech of Penel. 
681 foil, shows that he is in her eyes 
a partizan of the suitors. He has 
favoured their lawlessness hitherto, 
but seems shocked at their plot against 
Teiem. and betrays it; and not feeling 
secure through this negative loyalty, 
when vengeance overtakes the suitors, 



he skulks under a seat (%, 362 foil.). 
Telem. intercedes, yet he comes forth 
faintly reassured and pleading still. 
Odys. in the line dg naiiOSQyiTjg €v- 
BQyBoCri (liy' dfishcoVf seems there to 
balance his claims, based by Telem., 
however , rather on early services , and 
to admit him, though sternly, to grace. 
Spohn. de extr. Od, par. p. 6. finds an 
inconsistency in this with the state- 
ment 9. 172—3 that Medon was "most 
acceptable of all the heralds (to the 
suitors) and was present at their ban- 
quet"; but then Medou^s conduct is 
not meant to be consistent. He is a 
"trimmer". Phemius, too, entertained 
them by singing; but this was avdynTi 
(tt. 154): whereas Penelop^^s language 
here, although intemperate through 
sorrow, leaves no doubt as to Medon's 
leanings up (to a certain point. Me- 
don is also the name of a son of Oi- 
leus, (iV. 694) killed by .^neas (O. 332 

foil.). 

678 — 80. avkriq — 6iifiaxa — ot5- 
60V, see App. F. 2 (5) (6)^(10) (23) (24). 

682. Obs. synizesis in 17 elTeifiavan 
which, however, is lost when the 
dlgamma is restored, rj disappearing. 
— 6fM4ii^Oiv, since Medon had in- 
truded on the apartment where Penel. 
was sitting with her attendants, she 



1.54 



OATSrEIAi: A. 683—692. 



[day VI. 



a J. 351 mar 

h y. 13, IIG— «», X 

203; cf. IS. 20. 
c Y. 36, yj, 356, 

a>.459;cf.a.37S. 
d $. 94. 
c M. 40. 
f >'. 193, 0. 403. 
g- cf. /if. 230—4, -f. 

315. 
h o. 577, 0. 598. 
i X. 218, ^*. 59, o. 

275, t. 13, 168, 

CO. 255. 
k d. 631. 
I cf. u. 132-3, jT. 

415. 
m 0. 70—1. 
n /(. 15fi, E. 567, 

O. 697—9. 



^)J (ivri0t6v6ocvT€gj ai]8* aAAoO*' OfitXijOccvteg ^ 

Of ^a^ aysLpo^svot pvotov TcaraxBLQBts^ TtOAAov^ 
%rri0iv Trjle^dxoLO SatipQOvog' ovSe xl jtatQiSv^ 
v^sziQGiv to TCQdiid'Sv^ ccxovstB ^^ Ttavdeg iovrsg^ 
otog^ 'OSv06€vg iais [isd'* v^BtiQ0L6L toksv^cv^ 
ovrs'^tLva ^^ag ^cliaiov^ ovta tc klkSv ^'"'"' 65 



cciXov^ x' ixd'i 






(piXoirj.^ 



683. fiqytov. 690. /ftTTCoy. 



685. dsiTcvrjaaiTS Harl. 686. ^* ufi* Harl. sed cum var. lect. &difi', ita Flor. 
Steph. utrumquo Scholl. H. P. 688. zmv pro to Bek. annot. 



asks this questiou in anger, viewing 
Mm as a partizan of the suitors, **are 
you come to order the women (off their 
work here) to wait on the suitors?" 

684. fi'^ X. r. X., the two participles 
are nejjatively conjoined, and with 
aXlo^' (aXXoTS of time, not &XX0&1 of 
place) express a condition of the main 
action dsmvija,, — "may they, never 
again suitoring nor even forming a 
party (here), sup their very last here 
now". With an aorist verb the parti- 
ciples of condition are often aor. also, 
as Z. 302—3 7] 9* ccQcc ninXov sXov- 
cu .... ^i]%BV'j @, 2i8*-9 bI ^ij 
Bvl tp^Bol '9'iJK* 'Ayufiifivovi, , . . ttVTqo 
noLTCvvaavTi d'oag otgvvon 'Axai- 
ovq\ SI. 48 dXX* 17 toi ytXavaag xal 
o^vgdifievog ae^irj^isv, Herm. {ad 
Viger. not. 262), whom Ni. and Lowe 
follow, ^ives another construction, in 
which iJkri and ^7iB' are taken as one 
strengthened neg. applied to ofiiXijo, 
only, and y,VTiatBva. stands as =3 the 
subj. of the sentence, — "may they 
who have come hither as suitors never 
form a party again, but sup etc." 
But the rhyming clauses imply a clo- 
ser parallelism in the relation of the 
words so linked than wd. allow of one 
being th* subject {quasi fiv7iGT7]QEgy 
rather more energetically put) and the 
other a part of the predication. In 
X. 613, fifj vsxvrjadfjLevog fir^d* otXXo 
XI xs^xvriaaito^ which Herm. cites, 
zsxvrjd, is further defined by the rel. 
clause, OS h, t. X,y in 614: but in the 



similar rel. clause here (686) the tense 
changes to pres. The participial clause 
of condition, which is there included 
in one word (xsxvnc,), is here ex- 
panded into two (i) [iTj {ivriat, (2) 
fifjS* .... 6(iiX,, the one enhancing the 
other by ftij^*, rather stroKiger than 

686. scaraseelQere , this change of 
person from dBrnvqaBLav 685 is an 
angry apostrophe including in the 
reproach Medon, as abetting the 
suitors. This ethical point is enfeebled 
by reading 8Bi,nvri<saixB in 685. 

687. 6av(pQOvoq, see on a. 48. 

688. aTCOvsxe takes for obj.. the 
i^entence olog '09, ^culb x. t. X. For 
its tense see Donalds. Gr, Gr. 423 (3), 
"the present is used for the perf. in 
verbs which express the permanence 
of a state, or an impression, and its 
results. Such are axovco, xAvo, etc., 
expressing the continuance of a per- 
ception". 

689. Penel. implies that Medon was 
one of the younger generation, sym- 
pathizing chiefly with the suitors. 

690. xiva and xi belong with ^ga/- 
010V equally to both clauses. 

691—2. iix* icxl 6 1X71 y this phrase 
appears limited to the Ody. ; cf. note 
on VI %'iyLig icxi y. 45. — ex^^^iQXi^^ 
• • • • <piXoi7i* In mar. are the passages 
given Jelf Gr, Gr, § 809, 2. in which H. 
interchanges the subjunct. and optat. 
mood. In all these Bek. edits either 
both subj. or both optat., thus ignoring 



DAY VI.] 



0AT2SEIAS A. 693—705. 



'55 



5p« ; 



^5 (pccvvBxai, ovoe ng aOti xaQig fistO7tt0d' evBQysov.^^ 
xriv d' avTS nQogieiite MiSfoVy ji'^TtiJviiiva sWcig 
"<it ya^^d^ij, 'Bkdileca^ tods %Xsl0iov xaxbv bUj]. 
dkXa TtiiXv lut^ov'ts xal ccQyccXsioisQOv aXko 
(ivijiSt'^Qsg (pQci^ovtai 5^^ ji^ tSAsddu^ KQOvitov. 
X) TrjXeiitxxov^ jiBiidW^tzcctaxidjiev ^^€1* %<^Xxw, 

OLxads^ vt(fd6(ievov' o S' i'pri iisid TtavQog^y dxov^v 
eg' IIvlov Yiya^iriv r^S' eg AaxeSaCiiova otav,'' 

cSg^ g)dtq^ t^g d' avtov Xvro yo'dvarcc xal tpCkov 

^Sriv^ ha [liv a^ipadvi] ijtecoy Xd^Sy rco Se o[ o66e 
35 daxQvocpc 7C?y^6d'ev, S'aXeQTj Se ol e0%exo^ gxovij. 



a a. 139, y. 314, 

47. 
b X. 395, 'K 21, 

S2. 733. 
c X- -^l^. 
d /?. 367-8. 
e fi. 34, ^. 570, o. 

112, o. 399, i;. 

230, 344. 
1 d. 740, 9. 18-20, 

0. 30. 
ff ^ 181. 
h /?. .308, f 179, 

^. 43. 
i e. 20, a. 281-5, 

fi. 359, y. 320, v. 

440. 
k *. 297. 406, Y. 

68, 147, XV. 205, 

cu. 345. 
1 i'.695-0,-r. 172, 

^. 396—7, X. 247 

-8,i;.34S— 9;cf. 

«. 151--2. 
m cf. &. 542. 



693. J^sffogyBLV. 694. ccJ^6i%iot J^igya. 695. evfsQyioDv, 696. ngoasj^sms 
fsLdcag. 7oi. J^oinccSs, 704. J^snemv ^i, 705. /ot. 



697. 8^ Harl. Heidelb. Ambr. Bek. a? Scholl. Dind. Fa. Low. 701. vsiaofis- 

vov B. vsL6o6{iBvov Bamcs. 702. rifiad'^rjv Rhian., Scholl. H. P. 705. ^cabxo 

Arist., Scholl. H. P. Q. 



the fact for which Jelf there finds 
reasons. The text here will hardly 
bear any such reasoning as Jelf ap- 
plies, and here even Bek. retains the 
moods different. See App. A. 9 (16) 
for some explanatory remarks. 

In the sentiment we have a glimpse 
of "the right divine (%'b£(ov) of kings 
to govern wrong", which wrought its 
usual effect. This confirms the tradition 
of the speedy downfall of the "heroic " 
monarchies throughout Greece as pro- 
bably a true picture of history; see 
the stories of migrations which Virgil 
has embodied in Mn, III. 399 — 402. 
Odys. is spoken of as a noble excep- 
tion, rather confirming than invalidat- 
ing the rule. 

693. iiO^yevVf this pluperf. has force 
of an aor., the perf. iogya retaining 
always its proper force "have done". 

694—5. O^fio^ xal ••• eqya, tfie 
one as expressed in the other; see on 
71 inog TJi XI ^gyov, y. 99. Penelope's 
view of Medon as being of the hostile 
faction finds here complete expression. 

695. jcdifi^, Lowe cites Sopli. Aj, 
1283 yfi/, tov d'ccvovzog a>s taxsCd zig 



Pgotoig xdgig dtccffstn, r. X. and 
Plaut. Pom. X. 17 Si quid bene facias^ 
levior pluma est gratia, 

702. T^aO-BTiv^ Buttm. Lexil. 58, 
prefers the etymol. of ayar ^stog^ in 
Pinu. dyd^Bog^ "used only of cities, 
countries and mountains, to which the 
idea of divine^ sacred^ belongs as a 
fixed epithet" : so fSiav here of Laced. 

705. fox^TO, Arist. read ^axero =« 
iysvsTQ (Schol.) when ^aXsg^ would 
become a predicate, "became faint". 
In 699 tTi/*. we have ^axc, but no trace 
of l^x£iro occurs in the parallel pas- 
sages (mar.) and the form lacks autiior- 
ity. There (mar. II.) d'aXeg'^, used of 
the voices of Antilochue and Eumelus, 
muftt be a general epith., as in the 
phrase ^aXsg&v atirjcov K. 259, and 
therefore h^re is probably not distinc- 
tive of a female voice, but rather 
meaning "vigorous". The opposite 
meaning of "effeminate" comes out 
in d^aXsgov Si ot iTiTceae Sd%gv, B, 
266. Thus lt?;|r«TO ipaivij means ^^ sound 
was stayed or stifled" (mid. for pas8.)> 
as by sobs — a stage beyond the 
ctfKpaaCij iKSOiV, inability to utter 



156 



OATSSEIAS A. 706-720. 



[day VI. 



a P. 466, n. 155, 

V. 321. 
b d. 481. 
c d. 681. 
d d. 665. 
e a. 225 mar. 
f X, 308, ^.156, 

^'. 58, 110. 
ST K. 27. 
h a. m roar, 
i $. 182, (a. 93. 
k ^. 677 mar. 

1 cf. w. 263. 

m t. 201, V- 222; 

cf. y. 26-7. 
n A. 24)6. 
o y. 15-16. 
p fi 215, 218, 264. 
q d. -6/ mar. 
r ^. 657 mar. 
8 ^. 541 , (0. 315, 

r. 282. 
t ^. 253, V. 63. 
u /*. 329 X. 363, «. 

323. Z. 169; cf. 

^. 186. 
V r. 421, X 136, 

^ 269, Q. 438. 
wr. 152,^ 'f'. 878. 
X T. 195, m. 272; 

cf. 0. 253. 
y App. F. 2. (23). 

2 X. 409, f. 643, 
tti. 59. 

aa E. 889. 
bb /!?. 293 mar. 



"jfijpvS,* xi^xa Sd (lOL Tcatg^ otxsxai; ovoi xi fLLVXQea^ 
vrjiSv SicvnoQOv^ iitcpcccviiiisv j al d'* akog Xtctcol 

^ Xva'iLtiS^ oi/i/Mr** avxov iv av%'QGijtoi<Sv ktxrixai\^' ^^ 

XT^v d' i^^sipsx^ iTtsvxa MiStav^ nsjtvv^iva eldcig' 
"o^x^ o?<$' i] xig (iiv d-eog Sq6^6V^^ 7}e xccl avxov 
d'Vfidg ig)mQ(ifjd"ij^ t^Bv ig TZvAor, oipQot nv9'rixav^ 
naxQog iov ^ voexov^ ^* Sv xiva n^fiov^ ixddTtsvJ^ 

<Sg^ aga )j>(ov^0ng d^sfirj xdxa S(S(i^ *0^v6i}og, yj 

xriv (J' 5%05' iiiitpB%v%^^ ^vjidqi^QOv ^^ oi5tf'^ ap' ^r' 

Siq)gp ^fpit,a6^aL"^ itollfSv^ xaxa olxov iovxcuv^ 
cfAA' ap' ix^ y ovSov l^s 7toXv7C[iLi]Xov Q'aXd^oco 
oI'kxq'^ oioipvQO^ivyi* TtaqX Sh d[ici)al iicvvgltov^^ 
TtSaaiy o6ai icaxa dciiiax* eisuv vial^^ iqSh itakdtaL "jd 



706. J^B fijisaaiv nQoaspHnsv. 



'jii.fBi^cag, 
717. foiyiov. 



712.' bv foCi*. " 714. i^ov. 



707. pro ovdh iqs interrog. Bek. annot. 712. sC r^g DInd. Low. CI. ed. Ox. 

17 T^g Arist., Scboll. H. P. Q., ita Bek. Fa. 717. ^itpgov Bek. annot. 



words 704. V;rg. Mn, III, 308—9 has 
expressed it with variation thus 

Derigoit yisu in medio: calor osaa 
reliquit. 

Labitur et lougo vix tandem tem- 
pore fatur. 
707 — 8. fiiv X^€ft>, see on a, 25^. 
— iTCTioi, "clmriots"; ci, vatuv an-q- 
vr^v Eurip. Med. 11 19. Properly tn- 
noi (or mn(o dual, £. 13, 19) is a 
chariot: but, as we cannot pluralize 
it further, "chariots" would still be 
Titnoi, The all but universal practise 
of chariot -driving instead of horse- 
riding in H. favours this. Still, from 
Pind. Isthm, IV. 5, v&Bg iv novxtp xal 
iv Sgficcaiv Tnnoi, the simple sense 
of "horses" might well stand. In 
simile a ship runs like a team of four 
horses, and on the other hand Odjs. 
bestrides a plank of his raft like a 
riding- horse (r. 8t, f. 371). 

712. <t!^o^£> the more common word 
with SaifimVf i'eog etc. is toQCSf as in 



rousing a hero to warlike effort etc. 
In &, 539 £qoq8 is not transitive. 

716. axoq dfupex*^ the metaphor 
is that of a cloud or mist involving 
a person, so axcog vstpiXri iHcilinps and 
other like expressions. 

717—8. 6i<pQi^ ic. T. Z., she could 
not endure to take her chair of state 
[see App. F. 2 (20) (22)] and face the 
company, now numerous, under the 
shock which Medon's news gave her: 
she sank therefore with a piteous cry 
on the threshold of the Q'ikaitog* — 
For nokvxfirixov see App. F. 2 (30). 

715. 6fiiaal^ see App. A, 7 (i). — 
fiivvQiliov probably a word based on 
vocal sound eA the fitvvQOfiai of 
iBschyL Agam, 16; cf. also iptOvgiim 
and our "whine", "whimper", German 
wimmern, 

720. xdoai, oOai %, t. X.J we know 
that 12 of these were guilty of in- 
triguing with the suitors {%. 424), yet 
the comprehensive expressioQ here 



DAY VI.] 



OATSSEIAS A. 721—729. 



157 



ryg S' ddtvdv^ yo6(O0a ^Btrivda nijvsXdjtSLa 

ix Ttaaicav o06ac [loi. ofiov XQUfpBV^ i}(J' iyivovto" 
ri'^ TtQiv ilIv %66vv i^d'Xdv d^(6X€6a d'viioldovtcc/ 
15 Tcavroiijg dQsrfj^t^ XBxa0[ir'vov^ iv Juvaol6iv* 

[^tf^A6v/ xov xldog bvqv xccd"* ^EkXdSa xal [istfov 

"'^orog-^ 

vvv av itatS^^ dya^rjtov dvriQBC^avro^ QvBXkm^ 
dxkia ix (iBydgav, ovtf' SQfiijd'dvtog^ &xov6oc. 
6%ixkiai^^ (yds* vfLStg JtBQ ivl^ g>QB6l d'i^d'B ixd^tri 



a ce. 92 mar. 
b f 495, B. 56. 
c ^. 9tt, B. 375, 

n 2u. 

dcl.d.208, X.417, 
A. 261; cf. u. 

m. 

e d. 814-5. 

( X, 267, E. 639, 

H. 228. 
g O. 642. 
p cf. J. 339. 
1 a. 344, d. 816. 
k «. 18. 
I a, 241 mar. 
m d. bib mar. 
<r. 282. 
o a. 28, ^. 150, J. 

p i^.*121. 



729. fs%ccaTrj. 



721. tag 
'Olv(ini,og 



fCQoariv&tt Bek. annot. 722. 'Olv(inioi ... iSatnav Em. CI. ed. Ox. 
,. I'^coxev Wolt, 'OXviimog ... l^coxgJ Harl. 726 f Arist., Schol. 
I. 395, redandare (collato 724) notant Scholi. H. Q., defendit £astath., [] Bek. 
Dind. Fa. 727. dnotitsivat (tBfidccaiv Harl., supra scripts nostr. lect., qaam 
Aristarcho tribatam habent Schol. et marg., eandem SchoU. £. P. Q. 



seems to mean that even these were 
for the while overpowered by the force 
of their mistress' sorrow. 

721. T^g <f*, Ni. remarks that 
Thiersch rejects the S\ alleging that 
the ending — yg ought, as is the rule 
in H., to have a vowel following, and 
that the nexas of Homeric sentences 
requires the ^' to be cancelled. No 
editor has ventured on following 
Thiersch. Indeed as regards the lat- 
ter argument we have with the dative 
sing, and other forms of the article 
not a few examples to the contrary 
e. g» II. loi — ^4, I. 50—2. On d6iv6v 
see App. A. 6 (2). 

723. TQdq>ev iifi* iyiv; see mar. 
for examples of similar nQon&vffTegov, 

726. This v., which appears to be 
genuine in 0. 80 and a, 344, where see 
note , is here condemned by the clumsi- 
ness of its coherence with 725, iv dav. 
being feebly repeated in xv^' *£. xal 
(I. 'A, So in 816 inf. 

727. dvfjQei'^avTO x. t. A., cf. a. 

241 and note, where the expression 
closely approaches this: in v. 66, 77 
both that and this apjiear blended 
{dvilovxo d'vsXlai .... Aqnviai avr^- 
QsCiff,). Penel. in the wild surprise 
of her sorrow overstateb with maternal 
Vjehemence the fact, suddenly realized, 



of Telemachus' departure , and refuses 
to distinguish between such fact and 
her fears — inconsistently with her 
own calmer language by and by in 731 

728. OQfJiTiB'Bvxoq a., "did I hear 
(till now) of his having gone''''. The 
aor. is proper here, as also in |?. 375, 
marking the fact as kept from her for 
some time after its accomplishment: 
contrast with this 732 inf, si . . , nv- 
&6firjv ogaa^lvovta where "if I had 
heard of his meditating this voyage'*, 
is the sense , as shown by what follows. 

729. OxixXiai, this adj. occurs in 
H. mostly at beginning of line and in 
quantity axBtX,, but axM. in JT. 414 
It is always used of persons, save that 
cxixXut ^gya occurs several times with 
a range of meaning like that of La- 
tin improbus, "harsh, unkind, brazen, 
pertinacious". In position, especially 
with a contrasted clause following 
coupled by ovSh, it may be compared 
with vrJTHog : both words are also often 
followed by a clause og x. t. X., stat- 
ing some act in which the quality of 
0%$%. or vjJtt. is involved. — nCQ seems 
rather to belong to iTnatdfisvai,; it re- 
flects, however, the force of that par- 
ticiple at once on vfisig; "you did 
not, though you ought, ... as knowing, 
etc." see on a, 59. 



158 



OATSSEIAS A. 730—740. 



[day VI. 



a K. 138. 
b J. 404. 
c y. Sft5; cf. A. 

300, T. 331. 
d y, lt>9. 
e X. 08, V. 403, T. 

339. 
f p. 212, or. 322, 

oi. 222, 3»7, 409, 

411. 
gr d. 361. 
h 1^. 228. 
i xp. 139, 359. 
k v.334;cf.y.411, 

E. 889. 
I J. 678 roar, 
m 6. 700 mar. 



bTCTtox* ixstvog sfiri xoiXriv^ inl v^a iiiXatvav. 
si yaQ iycj nvd'o^tiv tavrriv odov oQ^aCvovxa^^ 
tip x£ fidX^ ij xsv iyLSivB^ xal i06vii^6g icbq SSoto, 
ij xi fis rsdvfjxvtav ivl iisydgoiOLv^ iXeiTCBv. 
dXXd tig 6tQi]Q(5g ^okCov^ xaXiOavB yigovta^ 
diidi^ ifiov, ov ^ol iSoxs TtatrJQ ht^ Sbvqo xiovay^^^ 
xav [lov xiJTtov i%Bi itolvSivSQaov^^^itpQa td%L0ta 
Aaigry xdds %dvta TtaQB^OfiBvog^ xazaXi^y, 
bI St} nov tivcc XBtvog ivl (pQB0l (lijriv^ vqyqvag 
i^sT^mv kaot0iv iSvQEtaij oX fiBiida^LV^ 



7, 



730. ficcXa (cf. V. 313, 1^. 185) Harl. sed supra adcpa, ita marg. et Schol., cf. 
z/. 404. 732. OQfirjQ'ivTa nonnulli perperam, Scholl. H. P. 734. rs&vrjviuv 
Bek. Fa. juxta Thiersch., xsd'VTjxviccv Dind. Low., qui tamen in X, 84, 141 » 
205 literam % rejiciunt In tt&tare^v, 735. orgrjQog Eustath. Heidelb. Ambr. 

lijrn. CI. ed. Ox. otQTjgcog var. 1. ap. Schol. V. et MS. Aloysii, ita Harl. vulg. 
Wolf. 736. d&KS Eustath. 



732. OQfiaiv* t. e, q>Qietv, ** meditat- 
ing" (mar.) 

735. doXiov* This trusty servant 
of Penel. who tends her garden, has 
a son Melanthius, and a daughter Me- 
lanthd (mar.), the former goat-herd to 
Odys., but taking part with the suitors 
against him, as does the latter, who 
has been petted and spoilt by Penel., 
and repays her by insolence, even 
becoming the concubine of Eurymachus 
the suitor ((7.325). The question whether 
the Dolius of (o,^ who with his Sicilian 
wife and six sons forms a complete fa- 
mily, is the same as this one, is of doubt- 
ful solution. It appears ($. 451) that 
Penel. and Laert. had some joint owner- 
ship in or authority ov>er the slaves of 
Odys.; and that there should be two, 
both yigovzsg, both gardeners, one with 
Penel. and one with Laert., and yet the 
former summoned to take him a message 
is unlikely. On the other hand Dolius 
here is called by Penel. her "own slave 
whom her father gave her when she 
first came to Ithaca;" whereas Laer. 
bad his own house and establishment, 
a ysgag or tsfisvog with a mansion (Fa. 
on o. 207 ; cf. p, 102), with a numerous 
body of slaves "who did his pleasure", 
and whose society he shared (w. 205 
— 10, 7t. 140 — i). It is not likely that 
the one who was by age his fittest 
companion (09. 498 — 9) and had been 



the longest with him — the head, in 
short, of his slave - household — should 
have been his daughter-in-law's pro- 
perty, and the one most frequently 
away, as a confidential servant of 
Penel. must have been. The Dolius 
whom she sent would certainly have 
returned to her; but the Dol. of Laer. 
knows nothing of her more than others, 
and suggests that some one shall be 
sent, not oifering to go, to carry news 
to her of her husband's return (0.403 — 
5). Further, the treatment of Melantho 
(a, 322—3) by Penel. would rather sug- 
gest that she had lost her mother (cf. 
v. 67 — 8), and then she could not welJ 
be daughter to Laertes' Dolius, whose 
wife was living (o). 389). .These que- 
stions will be further considered under 
the passages referred to in co, 

740. odvQBTai, subj. shortened 
epice. The sense is **to see if he 
will", in which sense the phrase is 
usually led by at xs, as in A, 408, 
420. See on a. 204 for subj. with sL 
In all ^parts of this verb H. has iJ, 
but oSvvri and todvcao from oBvuco- 
yi.ai {a, 62). In 0% fiBfidaai, Penel., 
her fears still exaggerating the facts 
(see on 727 sup.),, imputes to all the 
Xaol a share in the suitors^ design; 
cf. what Telem. says of the *A%aioly 
fivriarriQBg 8\ fidXtata^ p. 265 — 6; for 
Xaol see on §, 13; the Schol. errs in 



DAY VI.] 



0ATS2EIAS A. 741—757. 



159 



ov xccl 'Odv00ijog g)d't0ai yovov avxid^ioioJ' 

v^v 8* avrs TtQOQiains tpCXvi^ XQOtpog EvQVHleca 
''vviig)a^ g)ilriy av (ihv &q (is xccroioitave vrjlsV^ xalxci, 
rj la^ iv (isyaQG)' (ivd'ov S^ rov ovx ijttXBV0(o.^ 

^5 gtffi' iy(i tdSs ndvxd^ tcoqov 8i oC 566' ixiksvbv^^ 
6trov^ xal (led'v '^Sv' ifisv S* eleto^ (idyav oqxov 
firj^ ^qCv 60L iQhiv Ttglv ScDSsxdtijv ys ysvi6d'aCy 
71 6* avxf^v no^i6ai xal (Kg)OQiir}d'avtog axov6aty 
c5g av yLYl xlcciovo'a xatd XQoa xaXov^ IccTtryg. 

5oaAA'^ vSifriva^iivri ^ xad'a^d XQot el^iad'' ekov6a^^ 
slg^ VTCSQ^' dvccfid6a 6vv d(iq)L7t6XoL6L yvvav^lv 
svxa" 'A%^vaCri xovQy jdiog alyioxovo'^ 
rj ydg xiv (ilv litBtta xal ix %'avdxoio 6aci6aL.^ 
(iTjSh yiQovra xdxov xsxaxoiievov'^ ov yaQ 6tca\ 

55 ^dyxv^ d'sotg^ iiaxdQ€66i yovr/v 'uiQXSt0vdSao^ 
^^-S-for^V ^^^' ^^^ ^^^ ^*ff ini66Brai og xsv ixV^^'^ 
Scilicet d^ d'^ v^BQStpia xal anonQO^'i'^ TCCovag dyQOvgP 



a 8. 361. 
b r. 130. 
c d. 507, X. S32, X, 

45, $. 418, a. 8(), 

y>300, X' 476, in 

11. undecies. 
d 8. 281, ^. 42. 
e 0. 263, d, 350 

mar. 
f B. 349-55. 
ff g. 265, o. 533 
hX. 119.^ 
i /?. 373 — 6 mar. 
kV 398, 430, t, 

263, (u. 44. 
1 d, 759, Q. 48, 68. 
ra t 61. 
n a. 362 mar. 
o eu. 529, 647, E. 

7:i3, &. 384 i d. 

^. 106 mar. 
p cr. y. 231. 
q C- 137, J.. 689-- 

90; cf. 7t. 212, 

V. 99. 
r |. 182. 
8 X. 74, a. 82, c. 

186, ^. 326, y. 

66, a. 426. 
t (u. 617, ^. 118, 

CO. 270. 
u cf. Z. 140. 
V ».86, 226, x.lll, 

T. 526. 
w W, 832, i. 35, 

9. 660, <r. 811, 

c. 80, i. 18. 



741. /di'. 742. nQoasfsiTcs. 745. J^iJ^f' /oi. 

750. J^sifia&'. 



746. /r^v. 747. J^sgisLV. 



741. tp^lvui Harl. ex. emend., gj^frff-d-at (cp&lad'ai Bek. annot.) doiiov Schol. M, 

744. ^^^ XI Ern. CI. ed. Ox. di zoi Hiarl. Wolf. ^ 745. k%BlsvCB Era. CI. ed. 

Ox. SHslsvev Wolf. x£>l£t;£«/. Bek. 753. aacocrct Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox. 

aamai Heidelb. HarL et Schol. H. Steph. Wolf. 756. ax^sad'' Schol. B. 



supposing them the suitors , an appeal 
to the people is intended, as at p. 228 
— 41 by Mentor. 

743—4. vvfKfa, shortened vocat. 
from nom. vvtitpi], — ijea, "or let 
me (live)'*: the var, led. 7] iu (i. pers. 
imperf. for rjv), "who was in the pa- 
lace", is somewhat tame, especially 
when we come to yds' ... nuvta. Obs. 
that in idat the 3. sing, ia, i. pi. im- 
Mv, 3. pi. idcovaiv (E. 256, K. 344, 
9« '^3S)j all suffer sjnizesis in the first 
two vowels. Some forms of this verb 
were similarly pronounced in Attic 
Greek. 

746. ifiev 6* eX. fiey. oqx, the same 
expression occurs with dat. of pers. 
(mar.), TgatCLV &' av . . oqtiov ^X(Ofiai, 

749. idxxi^^, Ni. says the optat. 
would be fitter, but the subj. is prefer- 



able, as having a lively transition to 
pr«s. time; see App. A. 9 (12); *'he 
bound me not to (and I have not 
told) that you may not by wailing etc." 
754. xdxov, imper. pres. xaxof 
contracted, *'do not worry him already 
worried". We should here rather ex- 
spect the imperat. aor. %d%a)60v; but 
Ni. on a similar pres. imper. pueiS^aaso 
in y. 96, says the pres. imper. may 
stand in prohibitions of an action be- 
fore purposed, if one supposes this 
purpose as already adopted, or the 
action as already previously present 
in the thought. This is especially the 
case in references to a preceding state- 
ment of such purpose ". He then refers 
to this passage. The statement of the 
purpose is that given by Pen el. 737-- 
40 sup. 



i6o 



OAXrSEIAS A. 758—773. 



[day vr. 






9 d. 440; cf. •. 

384, n. 524. 
b d. 186. 
c d. 801, f 288. 
(1 d. 750 mar. 
e a. 362 mar. 
f.y. 445, 447, u<. 

449, 453, B. 410, 

421. 
. 323. 

324, B. 167, 
. 116, 714, K. 

284, 4». 420. 
i *. 366 > A. 40. 

O. 373. 
k y. 101, d. 331. 
1 y. 259; cf. J. b, 

JS. 908. 
mfi. 266. 
n X. 348 
o v. 450 mar. 
p XT. 631. 
q cf. <r. 831. 
r a. 365 mar. 
s /?. 324, 331, ^. 

772, g. 482, w. 

375, a>. 361, V- 

148. 
t iz;. 149. 
u cf. a. 277,/?. 196. 
V a. 382, 8.4b, u. 

231. 
wr. 170—1,^.152. 
X 2. 405. 



slg^ VTtSQa CCV8 fiaive 6vv ccfig)ix6Xoi0L ywav^v^ 7 

Bv 8^ id'Bt^ oiXoxtirag^ xavsci, i^qSzo^ d* *jid^vfj' 

'^xXvd'i^ liBVj alyioxovo jdiog rdxog dtQvrtdvri. 

bH %o%i toi TtoXviiritcg ivl (iBydgoi^fiv ^OSvtStSBvg 

ri'^ fioog ^ Qtog xata icCova (ir^Q^ ixriBVj 

t(Sv^ vvv fiOL (n^v^Ci^cLj xa£ fiov fpCXov^ via 6d(O0ov^ 7 

(ivriiStiJQag^ *' aTtdkaXxB^ xax6g vTCBQrivoQBOvragP 

Sg Blnov6* 6l6Xvi,B^^ %'Ba Sd^ ol ixXvBV^ dg'^g. 
^vfiev^Qsg^ d* 6(idSriaai/ dvd fiiyaqu 6Xf,6Bvxa' 
(SSb^ dd rig stytsaxB vd(ov weBQijvoQBOvtGn/' 
"17 (idla S'^ ydfiov afiiic 7Colv[ivij6rij* fiaiSilBia 7 

aprvft," ovSd ti oISbv o^ of fpovog vh tdxvxzm.''^ 

(Sg"^ Jiga xcg bI^bUxb^ ra 8^ ovx l6av^ ^g ixdtvxvo. 
tot6iv (f ^AvxCvoog dyofyr^daxo xal (iBtdBiTCBv 



759. J^s£fiad'\ 

762. nlvd'i {loi Barnes. 



767. fsinova' Joi. 769, 772, J^e^nsans, 771. ^oi9$v /oi. 
772. ov ^(cav» *i*i2t' pLBtiJ^emsv. 



765. (tdtaacti Vr. 767. avSri^ Bek. annot. 
UQzvvH Barnes. 



758. yoov • • yooio, this repetition 
offends by' its tameness. voov should 
probablj be read. It is unusual to 
find yooio applied to the eyes; but our 
double use of the verb "to cry" may be 
compared, also the scriptural expres- 
sion **he wept aloud" or "lifted up his 
voice and wept".^ Eurip. Pkcsn, 1583, 
has 8av.Qvu yoagu, so 801 inf, yooio 
danQVOSinog. 

761. ovXoxvzaq, see App^ A. 3, 
and y. 447 note. 

762—3. dxQVXiiwi, see App. E. 4 
(14). — ivl fiBy.f Ni. regards this as 
an indication that Pallas* worship was 
established in the family of Odys., 
which is confirmed by K, 571. 

763. *O^V4S0BV^, it is characteristic 
of Penel., in who^e thoughts he Is ever 
uppermost, that she does not say "if 
T have ever", but "if Odys, has ever 
sacrificed etc.", yet adds ftot (ivn<sut 
^aC /to I X. T. X., thus identifying ner- 
self with him. 

766—8. aTtdkakxe, cf. dXccX'noiii' 
vriig (mar.) epith. of Pallas. oXokv^B, 
for this cry of adoratioli see on y. 450. 



The suitors evidently hear it from above 
(App. F. a (32), and recognize it as an 
act of worship, but put their own inters 
pretation on the prayer which, they 
infer, it accompanies, ol following 
is dativus commodi (Lowe). 6fid&7iaay 
denotes their exultation. For axiO' 
tvxa see App. F. 2 (19). 

769. See on §. 324. 

770—1. The atrocity of the suitors 
is perhaps more effectively expressed 
in these two lines than in any part of 
the poem. They surmise that Penel. 
is about to comply with their wishes, 
and choose one of them in Odysseus* 
room, yet they never relent for a 
moment from their plot against her 
son's Ufe, but show a diabolical exalta- 
tion in her unconsciousness ef the blow 
prepared for her. This is a striking 
example of the effectiveness of simple 
touches by wh. a great poet makes 
his characters paint theiiiselves.. For 
6 quod see on a 382. 

772. IVxav short for ^<rav, 3.pl.plaperf. 
of pres. perf. oldcc * in all oUier places 
of H, save those noted (mar.) tcav is 



DAY Jfl,] 



OATSSEMS A. 774—786. 



i6l 



dacfiovLOL, livd'ovg [liv vxeQtptdJLovg akiaiS^s 
75 ndvtag^ ofiiSg^ ^tj Ttov tig iTcayyetlydL^ hccI at'ea)."^ 
dXV ays 6iyy^ totov ivaCxavxag teXsaJiiBv 
Hvd'ov, o tfij xal 7ia6tv ivl (p^ealv iJQaQSv rj^tv.'^ 

(Sg aliciov ixQivar^ iaUoiSi^ (ptStag aQCarovg^ 
fidv« 8^ livai ijtl v^a d'O'^v xal ^Zva d'aldaarjg, 
iov^a^ (ihv ovi>*nd(i7tQ(DTOV aXog ^dvd'ogSa fgveaav^ 
iv d' [ctov r' irid'svto oial toxCa vrjl fiakecivyj 
riQ/tvyavto d' igatiia^ XQOTtotg iv 8aQ{i€itLvoi(Siv^ 
%KVt&^ xatd fiotgav Avd d'* [aria lavTcd nataaaav 
^tavxBa^ 8a Ofp* i^vavxav xmiQ^vyiov %'aQditovtag. 
85 vil)ov^ 8^ iv voxLG}^ XTJv y' SQ(iic6av, ix 8* Sfiav avxov' 
ivd'a 8h 86Qjtovv aXovxo^ fiavov d' inl a^jtagov iXd'atv,^ 



a U: .332. 
b <p. 229. 
c cf. i: «75~!). 

a 17. :m, a. 209, 

e d. 530 mar. 

fa. 2S0 

g u. 3«i7, X. 151, 

402, 5®*, V. H:., 

Q. 205. 
h 9. 61-4, d. M7 

—8 mar. 
i cf. ». 37. 
k 9. 94, A, 480; 

cf. A|>p. F. 1 (10) 

(13) niAr. 
I n. 326, 300. 
m 0. 218. 
n ^.55; cf.ii.3l7, 

A. 77. 
o y. 11; cf..i^.811, 

V. 715. 
p f 347, H. 466. 
q a. 422, a. 305. 



778. ^Binwv ij^sinoci, 780. figvaaav. 786. J^iansgov. 

775. noig Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox., nov Harl, Wolf., mox dnayysClwsi ex emend. 
Harl. Bek. , inayyeClrjci, CI. ed. Ox. Dind. Fa. Low. ^ 777. svaosv Schol. H. 
783. A«vx* initaaaav Eustath. Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. 0« 783. f flarl., abun- 
dare xiotat Schol. M., [] Bek. Dind. Low. 784. acpkv ^vhtlclv Barnes. Ern. 

CI. ed. Ox. Bek., ctp' ^vsinav Eustath. Harl. Rom. Wolf. Dind. Fa. Low. 785. 
slvodCm Aristoph. (sive, ut Lehrsio placet, slvoSiov), Scholl. B. E. IL P. Qj, ix 
a' i^av Vr. et tres Harl., iv 9' ifiav cseteri omnes. 



for Ti'Ceav 3. pi. imp. of elfii; so co. 
rii, cf. i^, 

774—5. 6atu6vtoi is in H. a word 
of reproach, cf. SaifiovLS (mar.), xdv^ 
xa^y Lowe refers this rightly to ftv- 
^ovg, "all wordsi aUke (dftcoff)", t. c. 
concerning both the ycifi^og and the 
<p6pog (770—1). Ni., after Voss, in- 
clines to read ndvtsg (vfLBig) ; but this 
seems less forcible. 

776-7. CTcy^ TOioVj see on a. 209, 
and, for Antinoos^ caution and yet 
contera])t of T«dem, here, App. E. 6 
(3). — iiQCCQSVy Buttm. Gr. verbs s. v, 
agagia^m notes the intrans. sense (as 
here) of this reduplicated aor. ; in J7. 
214 both this and the, transit, sense 
are shown, ig oz^ zotxov aviig dgdg'fj, 
... cag agugov ^ogvQ-Bg. Buttm. ihid, 
compares with the present passage A, 
136 ugaavxBg %cttoc p-vfiov^ J, e. ifi^ zat 
yBgtf^ also |3. 353 7t(6fia6Lv agaov anav- 
tag, and «. 95 'IjQaQS ^vfibv iSoodfj-^ 
a<lding, *^it is clear that ugiaTia) dgiacDj 
which is used in the same sense, co- 
mes from APSl with inflexion -aao)." 

780 — 5. For the various naval details 
here see App. F. i (6) (7) (10) (13), 
and especially (9) note ** for 783, and 

HOM. OD. I. 



(8) for Tsvxsa 784. With iv voxCtp ct 
Eurip. Hec, 1241 Pors. novzlct voxlg. 
For the vulg. iv 6\^^av should be read 
with the Vr. and three flarl. mss. i% 9" 
^Pav, as in y. 11. In -9*. 52—5 the same 
lines (with the omission of 784 and the 
change of ovv ndfingmvov into ot ys 
fiilaivav) recur verbatim as far as ©o- 
liiaav, when follows avrdg iitsixa fiav 
(^ tfisv ^AJL%iv6oio . .:. ig fiiyoc dmfioiy in 
which house they banquet. To read iv 
makes the or^w sup on board here, 
besides making dvapdvxsg miperftuous 
in 842 inf* Now, although in exigen- 
cies food must have been eaten on 
board (x. 80, cf. fi, 431 — 3), it was an 
unheard of thing to do so with one's 
ship in harbour. They do not start 
finally until evening, although they 
ship the tackle etc. now. Having then • 
to wait inl ^ansgOif ^.XQ'bCv, nothing 
would have been gained either iu time 
or in secrecy (since their embarcatioa. 
by daylight must have been noticed) 
by supping on board: so they got out 
(?x) and supped iv&oc "/Aere", i. e. 
on the shore, 779. v'^ov need not im- 
ply such distance from shore as to 
cause a difficulty iu their landing. 

11 



i62 



OATSSEIAi: A. 787—796. 



[day VI. 



Ci- ^ 



a 0. 517, App. Tt~^ <J* VTCSQcacG)'' ttv^c 7tSQi(pQ(ov Ili]V£k6xaia — - — 

2 (32) nia» . 
b t 250, T. 3H>. 
c «. 201, X. 3S4, I), f / ^3 o ^ • ** ii. ' ' f» > ' *■ 

eo3. ^. 780. ooauivovC ® £f 01. d^avarov wvyoL vtog aavucov* 

d cf. t. S7, X. 58. ^*^ 

e o. 300. 

r A. 514. 

gu. 311, 366, V. 

7y, B. 2; cf. a. 

364, X. 31, y. 28V. 
h a. 189. 
i I. 371. 
k »^. 343. 
1 ^. :«J2 mar. 
m'jB. 449, f*'. 104; 

cf. $. 496, V. 87, 

0). 12, 14. 
n r. 288, 7t, 167, 

V. 31. 



xfrr' &Q^ &6Lrog^ ajcaatog^^ id7}rvog^ i^Sa Ttor-^zog^^ 



006a Sh ^SQ^rJQL^s kiav olvSq^v^ iv oiilXg) 
SaCoag^ otitioxb fitv Soliov zsql xvkXov ayxooiv, 
xoOOa iiLV OQfiacv'ovCav eTttjkvd'a vTJSviiog^ vnvog' 
€vds^ d' avankiv^BtCa^^ Xv%'Bv^ &i ol ail>Ba ndvta. 

atSioXov"" %olri0B^ Sdiiag d' ij(.zro yvvavxl^^ 



789. J^ot. 793. J^Svfiog, 794. J^oi, 796. fsiStoXov ij/^xro. 

787. ita Uarl. Flor. Steph. Wolf., vnsg^' ava^aca Eustath. Yen. Ambr. Barnes. 
Em. CI. ed. Ox. 788. Hsft* ag' uvavdog Rhian., Scholl. H. P., aaitog de- 
fendit Enstath. 792. Syovai Harl. 793. ifciXXa§s Barnes. Em. CI. ed. Ox., 
in'qlvd's Eustath. Harl. I^m. rar. 1. Steph. Wolf. 796. Midy pro dii^aq Hem- 
sterhusius ad Lucian^. d. p. 270 (Bek. annot.) secutas Schol. M. ad 797. 



787—841. The poet reverts again to 
Penei. in the upper chamber, lying 
weary and sorrow-sick, till sleep over- 
comes her; Pallas then sends a phan- 
tom in the form of her sister « who 
soothes her anxiety about her son, but 
en her enquiring about her husband 
vanishes into thin air. 

788. For aifiToq Bhianns gave &vav- 
$og, objecting tautology toiait, Snaat, 
H. T. X. Yet the Saizog is merely para- 
phrastically expanded by anaavog id, 
following, as naxQOfpovrjcc a. 299 by 30a: 
noT^tog moreover adds to the idea. 

791. XiotVy Eustath. says, a lion, not 
with his courage up, but fearful, un- 
decided and inactive, is meant in this 
simile: by this he would alleviate the 
diversity of sex. But Homer's sense 
of creature -sympathy carries him far 
beyond such considerations in his com- 
parisons; see thatof Menel. to abereav- 
led dam, and to a fly, (fem.) in P. 4, 
5, and 570—1. See also d, 457 and 
note. Ni. says that the poet aims at 
laying before us not an imposing whole 
but a single feature. Better, Homer'^ 
simile^s are mostly not so much in- 
troduced for the sake of illustration 
as they are the spontaneous rebound of 
poetic sympathy from the human scene 
which he is deHcribing to the scenes 
of nature, and the *^ single feature'^ is 



the link of poetic keeping which pre- 
vents them from being irrelevant. Yet 
neither must we exclude the element of 
illustration, as in the workmen with 
the wimble, applied to the boring out 
Polyphemus' eye, the tanner and his 
crew, to "the tug of war" over Pa- 
troclus' corpse (i. 384—6, P. 389 foil.); 
and such are mostly very close in their 
resemblances. Both elements may per- 
haps be found in many. 

792—3. xvxXov, "circle" of men, 
dogs etc. : perhaps the Highland " Tiu- 
chel", Lady of the Lake, vi. 17. A 
Schol. says it = SiKxvov. — vii^Vfio^y 
Buttm. LexiL 81 believes this to be 
nothing but an ancient error for the 
digammated fi^Svfiog, arising from the 
separable v of a preceding word ad- 
hering to it when the/ was lost; see 
App. A. 21. 

796. eMioXoVf visions, and phantom 
appearances in H. are all conceived of 
as having an objective reality and a 
substance, ^^of such stuff as dreams 
are made of," and their form, although 
arbitrary, is always human (Penelope's 
dream t. 536 foil, is liardly an exception, 
see 549). Thus Nestor's form is adopted 
by the ovsigog in B.6 foil., as Iphthirae's 
here. Similar in character are the ef- 
ddoXa by which in the battles of the 
II. a deity imposes on au enemy (£. 



DAY VI.] 



0AT22EIAS A. 797—799. 



163 



trjv Ev[i7ilog^ wcvu^ OsQyg^ ft/t« olxia vattov. 



a X. 105-6, 0. 364. 

b a. 329 mar. 

c B. 714. 

d B. 711. 

e <^. 565. 

f p. 394 mar. 



798. J^omia, 



Post 796 Vindobon. yiccX^ ts y>ByciXr} ts xal dylaa igy' BldvCifi. 797. 'iwd'ifiji 
nom. prop. Eustath. Heidelb. et omues edd., dubitasse Arist. ^^notsgov inCQ'B- 
xov 7j KVQiov^* monet Schol. P. 798. onvs Harl., "quae vera et antiq. forma 

videtur", Pors. 



449 foil., X 227, 298 — 9). But further, 
Pallas herself appears to Nausicaa in 
the person of a female friend, and 
there the same goddess, whose massiye 
weight oppressed the axle of Diome- 
des* car. modifies herself to be dvifnov 
tog nvoiTi , just as the figure here enters 
and departs without moving door or 
bolt (nuQa xlriCSa or ulriiSog [fiuvzccy 
9. 838, 802), and vanishes ig nvoidg 
dvifimv. Still the objective reality of 
the goddess^ figure is plain, and this 
tenuity of substance, indicated only 
in the moments of appearance and of 
departure, points to the fact that the 
ovsiQogf like the stScaXov on the field, 
exists not beyond the purpose of the 
moment and the physical state of the 
dreamer. Other formulaic tokens of the 
ovsiQog are its '^standing above the 
head", t. e, appearing hovering in air, 
and addressing the dreamer, ^^sleepest 
thou?" To some such substance the de- 
parted soul is compared {L 207, 222, ^, 
100, 104), called also stSmloVy and such 
souls and dreams have alike the epith. 
dfiivrivog. In Hes. Tkeog. ^211^-12 
Night bare GdvatoVy tins d' "Tnvov, 
iunTS dh (pvXov 'Ovsigmvy un begotten 
by any father. In JZ. 672, 682 Death 
and Sleep are twin brothers; cf. Virg. 
JEn, VI, 278 consangidneus Leihi Sopor: 
so 5?. 23x1 Tkeog, 756, 758 — 61, where 
their joint abode is, like the Cim- 
merian land of X. 14 — 9, unvisited by 
the sun's rays, either rising or setting. 
So in (D. 12 the Sfjfiog ovsigoov is a 
stage on the road to Hades; and 
Virgil. JEn. VJ. 283 foil, makes his 
Somnia roost *^in numbers numberless" 
beneath the boughs of a massive elm 
in the entry of Hades. So the famous 
doublcT dream -gate of r. 562 foil, is 
objectively the exit of dreams from 
the world of shadows, and again as 
it were subjective to the sleeper, inf. 



809, who is said, although in her own 
chamber , to slumber iv ovBigziriei nv- 
XjiGi. So the il}vxri of Patroclus, not 
being itself an ovaQ, appears to the 
sleeping Achilles; and Pallas appears 
to Telem., and again to Odys., she 
being no ovaQj and they being not 
even asleep: yet here the situation 
governs the manner of the appearance, 
and we find^^the formula az^ &' Sg' 
VTtlg x€q>., and in Patroclus* case the 
question sidsig^ wh. in that of the 
waking Odys. seems to find its equi- 
valent in XLTCt' ccvz' iygi^aasi^g {W, 65 
foil., V. 30 foil.). The many well at- 
tested tales of the appearances of the 
dead or absent wh. bewilder modern theo- 
ries of psychology would be simply ac- 
cepted, if current in Homer^s day, and 
fall naturally into a place in his my- 
thology. Penel. dreams of her husband; 
and thus her dream • life has more so- 
lace than her daily life, and seems to 
be weaning her thoughts from things 
visible. Cf. her prayer to Artemis — 
commencing in a petition to the god- 
dess, but passing off into a rhapsody of 
meditation on what she suffered by day 
and dreamed by night (v. 61 foil.). So 
she expects to remember **even in a 
dream" the home of her youth (t. 541, 
581). Dreams are sent by Zeus, or 
other god, or by a daiiimv (8. 831, 
V, 87), and may be true or false, or 
even intended to deceive (ovXog, x, 562 
foil., B. 6, cf. 80—1). The word 
%u%og applied to them may mean de- 
lusive, or, of evil omen (v. 87, K, 406). 
Hence the function of the ovkigonoXoq 
{A. 63, cf. £. 149); cf. ovHgofiavrig 
iEschyl. Choepk, ^$ Dind. 

797 — 8. 'I^^ifi'fiy Arist. doubted 
whether this was a common or a prop, 
noun. See mar. and cf. ^aiSifiog ^Q<ag 
(Fa.). — EvfiTikoq, son of Admetus 
and Alcestis, daughter of Pelias, led 



164 



OATSSEIAS A. 800-815. 



[DAT VI. 



a c. 386, C> SO, (. 

376, t. 367. 
b«.613;cf.tf'.106. 

tti. 333^ cf. 0. 

768, 812. 
d App.A. 15,mar.; 

cr. \p. 201. 
e C. 21, w. 32, J8. 

20, 59, JC 496, 

»(P. 68, i2. 682. 
f B.23,60, fF.69. 
g fi. 298, a. 114 

mar. 
h ^. 280, P. 641. 
i 9. J22, Z. 138. 
k r. 335. 
1 v. 333. 
m <r. 378, ^^.596; 

cf. 7t. 317. 
Q «. 562. 
o I. 93—4; cf. u<. 

202. 
p •. ^, udT. 553. 
q 8, 55, <^. 384; 

cf. e. 189. 
r c. 80, c. 18, d. 

757mar.;cf.i^.244. 
s t. 517. 
i d. 120 mar., a, 

294 mar. 
u d. 724—5 mar. 



eicog^ IlrjvakoTtSLav oSijQOiiivi^v^ yoocaeav 30 

nav(S€L€^ otXtctfd'iioto j}6ol6 xb SaxQvosvtog. 

ig d'aXafiov tf' eigijld'S nuQU KkTilSog [^dvra^^ 

(Trij® d' &Q* VTciQ xsg)alrjg^ xai ^iv TtQog (ivd'ov hiTtsv 

"avSaigy^ nriveXoicaia^ (piXov« zatvfififvi] iqtoQ; 

o'd^ fiijv 0' ovdh i(S0v -O-fol* Qsla Idovxeg go 

xkaCetv ovd' cix<ixv^^<^f"t^ i^al q* ht vodt L(i6g^ ictcv 

oog %atg' ov iihv yaQ tt d'sotg aXvxijiievog"^ iottvJ' 

jjtft) ftaAa xv(od0ov0* iv 6v£LQ£lrJ0L icv^iri^Lv^ 
"xintB^^ xaoiyvqtrij Ssvq* ijkvd'Bg; ov tv TCaQogi^ ys 81 
ncoiti'^y^ iiesl fidXa itokkbv &W6n^6%'i^ Sdj^ata vcciacg' 
xav fiB xiXsac Jtavaaed-at oi^vog ijd' odvidcDv 
Ttokkmv^ at ft' igsd'oveL^ xard^ fp^ihfa xal xatd d'Vfiov, 
rj^ icqIv iiiv tcoOlv bO^Xov anoikBCa d'VfioXiovtd j 
navtoiyg agst'^OL XBxaa(iivov iv jdavaotaiv 81 



803. llf«i7P«v. 809. fridv. 



800. Btnmc: Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox., iTonq Harl. et Schol. H. ita Wolf. 806. axa- 

%il0^cn,^ Ascalonita, Scholl. H. P.^ et ex emend. Harl., ita Barnes. CI. ed. Ox. 

811. Creole' Ern. CI. ed. Ox., nmXi Barnes. Wolf., ^rcoXeat Harl., ^rcojlci; Thiersch. 

812. %ili[i Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox., xfiAsat Harl. Wolf. 



troops in the Catalogue (mar.) from 
Pherse and laolcus. This connects the 
Trojan story with that of the Argd ; see 
Eurip. Med. 5, 6. In Eurip. Jlcest. 393 
folK he is introduced as a child be- 
wailing his mother. 

800. euaq, for onrnq (Eustath.), for 
other examples see mar. : the distinction 
between an action tending to produce 
a result, and one to continue until the 
result has been attained, is easily eon- 
founded, for instance often in 0(pQCi\ 
cf. the use of "till" in the Irish - 
English common speech. 

802—3. xki^Mp^^ ifidv; see App. 
A. 15. — 4JTij ••. VTiBQy see on 796 «/;?.; 
cf. Herod. VII. 17, ovsiQOV .... vnsg- 
azav ... xov 'AqxccPuvov elns (Ni.). 

805. The hiatus ovdl imat might 
be avoided by transposing imav to the 
end, but s in hiatus in the 2°'^ foot 
is found B, 8 ovXa "Ovsiqs, F, 46 toiog- 
d"8 id)v, £. 3io octi(pl ^l oaaSy T. 288 
^(oov fiiv as ^lunov (Hofifmann Quaesi, 
Horn, pp. 92—3). — ^eia 5a>., not the 
seeurum agere aevum of Hor, Sat. I. v. 
101, following Lucret. VI. 57, which 
is quite against the abundant theurgy 



of H., but expressing an absence. of 
effort in whatever they do, as compared 
with mortals; see on 197 sup.; cf. QSta 
fidl' (Off TS ^sog^ T. 444,^also x. 573. 
So ^schyl. Suppl. 93 Tcocv anovov oat- 
fiov^mv; see^ also Nagelsb. I. § 9. 

806—7. dxdx'»lif*y the participle of 
this perf. is irreg. in accent, being 
proparox. as if pres., which sense the 
intin. here bears : so dXali^fisvog v. 333 
and dXiTij fievo^y either a shortened 
perf. or a syncop. aor. , (Buttm. Gr. 
Ferbs^. The forms in pres. are axo- 
fiaiy uxvv(i€iiy OB%ax^S(o. 

809. xvijMSaov0\ used by Pind. OL 
XIII. 71, Pyth. 1.8, as by Bion XV. 27, 
and Theocr. XXI. 65 , in same sense as 
here, of sound sleep. Moschtis II. 23 
has adopted the entire phrase ijdu fi. 
XV. The etymol. is uncertain; it may 
be quasi nvoiaam from vnvtoaacOf or cor- 
rupted fr. natavmriScD (Doederl. 2480). 
iv ovBLQBixiai Jim see on 796 sup. 

811. KiiikB pres., at elided, a tense 
often found with itaqog (mar.), past ac- 
tion continuing into pres. time, as with 
Lat. jamdudum. The Harl. writes it in 
full, ntoXiut^ in 8ynizesis,8o xsAeat 812. 



DAY vr.] 



OAT23SEIAL A. 816-832. 



165 



[^(y^Aoi/,* tov xXsog €VQv xa&' 'EUdda xal fiieov 

vvv^ av Ttcctg ayanrirog l^n xoi'Xri'g'' inl vjjogy ' 

vqnvog^ ovra stovov ev siScig oik' ayoQutov. 

iov Sri iy(D xal fiaXXov oSvQOfiat^ ij Ttsg ixaCyov 

zotov d' cc(ig)^ttQ'6)pLdc3''^ xal Ssc^ia {irj tl Ttd&fiatv^^' 
IJ o ys t<Sv ivl StJ^C) ?i;^V ot%BraL^ ^ ivl novxip- 
Svgfisvhg yaQ nokXol ^^' aiJrp ii,ifi%av6(xyptaf,^ 
lifisvot, xrstvdi tcqIv Tcatgida yatav [xB<s%'ai?^ 

tiiv d' djtaii6Lfi6fiBvov TtQogiipri stoaykov d^avQov 

25 "d'dQ0eij^ (iriSi xl ndyxv fisrd q)QS6l Hsiii'Ud't "tirjv- 
iolri^ ydg ot Ttofi^tog «fi* iQXstaij ^v ts xal allov 
dvsQsg ij[Qri6avxo naQB6xaii,B'0Ui ^ Svvaxdv^'ydQ^ 
IlaXXdg 'Jd'rjvairi' 6h S' ddvQOfiBvriv iXsaiQBt' 
^ vvv fiB ^QoiijxSy xbXv xdSs iivdTJdMd'ai^.^^ 

30 T^V S' aVXB TCQOghlTCB JtSQi(pQ(DV TlrivBldTtBca 

'^sl ^hv dij d'sog iaai d'soto"' xb exXvBg'^ avd^g, 
si S* ays fioi. xal xstvov 6i%vq6v^ xaxdXs^ov^ 



a d. 726 mar. 

b <r. 727. 

c fi. 332. 

d d. 104 mar. 

e JT. 290i d". <f>. 

507, X. 241. 
fP. 242, N. 52, 

K. 93, P. 240; 

cf. A. 508, O. 

123, ^. 328. 
g C- 27, 56, &. 313, 

K. 127. 
h Tt. 134, Q. 499. 
i V. 362, ft. 436, 

(a. 357. 
k n. 182, fi. 286, 

C. 82, d. 162, J. 

390. 
I ^.612 mar. 
m fi. 297, I 89. 
n (T. 767. 
o y. 95, <r. 325, ». 

105. 



818. fsi,Smg, 823. fiS(i£voi. 824. J^€lS(oIov. 826. j^ot. 830. ngocifuns. 



822. firjxcivoaociv Harl. sed covrofi supra cgffii'. 826. pro w rot Barnes. Ern. 

CI. ed. Ox., ot Harl. Wolf., mox apu sansToci, Vr. Harl. var. lect., quam natam 
e glossft snBtui jure suspicatur Buttm. 827. xal diivvsiv Vien. Heidelb., 6v- 
vatai yag Schol. P.^ 828. UalXad* 'Ad'Tjva^rjv Bek. annot. 831. Bck. con- 
tra omnes avSriv fretus p. 297, |. 8p. 832. xaxftvov Vr. Harl. 



816. See on 726 sup. 

818. viiTtipq, ovzs, see on 729 sup. 
— novmv sv eiifet^q, the personal verb 
also takes gen. (mar.): cf. aotpog yia- 
%&v, JCschyl. Suppl. 453 ; see Jelf Gr. 
Gr, % 493, I. 

819. xal fidXXov, the novelty of 
her anxiety makes it at the moment 
more severe. Ni. cites .^schyl. Prom. 
26—7 asl 91 TOV nagovtog dx^rjdoiv 
KccTiov rgvasi a\ 

820. dfi<piTQ» takes gen. as ocfitpi- 
fidiXOfiaL O. 391, IT. 533; but jcBgiSsC- 
^tahasdat. (mar.). The physical sen- 
sation of tremor pervading (dyi,(pi) the 
frame is probably the basis of the com- 
pound notion. Ni. refers SsifJa also 
to tov, but it is best referred solely 
to /Ai} Tt n. following. 

821. xdhf. The constrn. is, "should 
suffer from those in the region where" 
etc.; this gen. of origin or cause is 
assisted by Jx in jJ. 134. For the unas- 



sisted gen. cf. Eurip. Electr. 123—4, 
Paley, aoig aX6%ov atpoiyBlg 'AiyC- 
0%'ov t', 'Aydfiefivov. — for 6iifi(p, 
see on a. 103. — iv* , "where", some- 
times also "there"; see mar. 

824—6. dfiavQOVj see LlddeU and 
S. s. v.: this enith. seems to refer to 
the appearance to the sense, that of 
ivagy^g 841 inf. to the effect on the 
mind, "unmistakeable". — BQXSxai. 
Buttm. on Schol. ad loc. rejects the 
var» lect, ^ansrav or ^{fnstcciy the forms 
of ^an — found in H. being all aorists. 

831 — 2. ^'SO^, as Hermes is Zeus* 
messenger: cevd^^ implies a reference 
to TCgosfiHS 829. For the va7\ lect. in- 
volving avdiiv (mar.) see on a. 281. — 
si if ays, "come then", so often; 
only here the s^/tlvof 831 seems com- 
plemented, but really is not so, in st d\ 
the hypothetical force of si in si d' 
ays being sunk in colloquial usage, so 
that it means merely age vero. 



i66 



OATSSEIAS A. 833—847. 



DAY VI.] 



a S. 540 mar. 

ii a. S24. 
rt 17. 241. /*, m 
f! s. nt raw. 
f X 4fi4, J. 355, 
E. ■2(6, r. m, 

if. 80, o sm 

MSj. r. 418, <J>. 

ait&, X. \7, *F. 

87«, i2. 98. 
I p. Elib mar. 
k K. 519. 

I *. S40- 

in t' 20; cf, u. 87. 
n ^. 173, O. 3Z4, 

X. 28. 
o y. 71 mtr- 
p rf. 370^cf. a(. 37. 
q y. 151. 
L 0, S&i luar.. t, 

* en IK 244. 

II tf , 671 mar. 

V x,Ul, er.t. 404^ 
I. m. 

w V. 42£, |. Lil, 
a. 3«, jt. 36». 



f^ xov ht* ^gSii Kul oga tpdog ^aUoio^ 

'^QV fliv tot, ^B^VOV yS SiTlVEXBGJg^ AyO^$V0€J^ 

g®£t^ S y^ ij' zd^v7}%e* xaxdv ^ dvtiicSAm^ ^utBiv.'^ 

mg BiTtov iJta^f^o^o naqa ^hritSa^ Im^^'r}^ 
ig Ttvoidg^ difdpLGiv^ '^ d^ i| ijTtvov^ dvo^ov^Bv 
xovQifj ^iHa^ioto * <piXov Si ol -qtoq ^ iavd^rj , 8^ 

Sg ol ivagyhg ov££(>oi/ iTtdMvto'^ vvxtog^ dpiolym. 

^vi^tff^QBg S' dva^dvtag iitiitXBnv vy^d^ nilav^-a^ 
TqlBfiaxm (povov^ uItlvv ivl q^qBelv^ SgpLccivovTBg. 
i0tL^ Si tig vfj0og pt^i^^ri dkl^ sr^r^ifftfcTGf, 
piB667iyvg^ 'I^dxrig ta ^fioio %b mainakoiij&riq ^"^ ^A 

'j0tBglg^ ov fiEydXj}' ki^ivig"* tf' §vt> vavXo%QL a-otf} 
d^^lSv^LOi^ t^ tov y£ itivov loxocovrBg ^ ^A%amL 



834. *AJrlSao, 835. S^MtuXw, 838. J^smov, 840. fmuQCoio foi. 841. /oi 
833* ^ ^00 Bek. Fa. 846. aixrig addito serius g sed ab eadem manu. 



^36 — 7* Eustath. remarks on the 
economj shown by the poet in the 
interest of his tale by leaving ^Penel. 
thus uninformed. — goice o y $ tr,> 
see on |}. 132. 

838. Xidc9^, Bnttm. LexU, 77, con- 
.nects this, in sense of ''to go aside^ 
turn away from", with aXCuatoq^ and 
disconnects it with XiUiiiLivoq akin to 
XilaCofkai, 

^ 841. ivaQykq, see on 824 sup. — 
dfiokyqi, Buttm. LexU. 16. considers 
= '*iu the depth or dead'' of night, 
and accepts the Eustathian floss on 
O. 324^ that the Achssans call ai^oX- 
yov xnv d%iLfiv\ the fia^a dpkoXyairi 
of Hes. Opp, 590 he regards as s= 
d%p.ttla in sense of ''exactly baked''. 



Doederl. 377 — 8 connects it with 110- 
X^feo, /*Aaff, "black". 

846. ^Acxei^lq, Strabo X. p. 700 ed. 
Casaubon, calls it Asteria, and says 
that Scepsius and Apollodorus differed, 
the one denying, the other affirming the 
continued existence of the Xifiivsg vavX. 
Gell., Ithaca p. 78, names the modem 
Dascallio, as the only island situated 
in the passage ; but adds that no vessel 
could lie safely there ^ and thut it is 
out of the way for the purpose of 
Intercepting one returning from Pelo- 
ponnesus, which could only be safely 
done by lying in the southern harbour 
of the headland Chelia, partly formed 
by that same island. 

The 6*** Day of the poem^s action here 
ends. 



OATSSEIAS R 



SUMMARY OF BOOK V. 

On the seventh morning the gods are assembled in council, and, at the 
instance of Pallas, Zeus despatches Hermes to bid Caljps^ dismiss Odysseus. 
His errand is received by her with reluctant submission, and on his departure 
she seeks out the hero pining on the shore, and bids him prepare a raft (i — 170). 
He distrusts her at first, but is reassured by her oath, and in their conversation 
the seventh day ends (171—227). 

On the eighth day he sets about his work, which is completed in four days. 
On the twelfth she furnishes him with stores, and he departs alone (228 — 77). 
On the eighteenth day* of his voyage and twenty-ninth of the poem^s action he 
sights the land of the Phseacians; when Poseidon, returning from the Ethio- 
pians, catches sight of him and raises a tempest in which the raft becomes 
unmanageable (278—332). In6 Leucothe^ rises to his rescue from the deep, 
and gives him her immortal scarf; bidding him quit the raft and the scarf will 
support him. He yet clings to the raft till it goes to pieces; when he puts on 
the scarf And swims, while Poseidon departs to ^gm (333 — 81). 

Pallas sends a fair north-wind; and, after drifting yet two days and nights, 
on the thirty-first day of the poem*s action he reaches a river's mouth in utter 
exhaustion and naked', there he seeks the shelter of a wood and falls asleep 
(382—493). 

* The first of the eighteen days of his run is the twelfth of the poem's action, 
and is further marked as the fifth from the commencement of the work of 
raft-building {s. 263): see notes on c. 262—3, 279. It is not absolutely 
certain, perhaps, from e. 278 that that fifth day, on which he starts, should 
not be reckoned distinct from the eighteen, instead of coincident with the 
first of them ; yet I think it safer on the whole to regard it as so coincident. 



'06v6aiog o'xedta. 



^'Hdg^ 8' ix XB%i(ov Jtccg^ ayavov Tid'covoto 

aQvvd-^ ?v' dd'avdzoLOo (pocag q>iQOi rfSs §QOtot0iv' 

ol^ Sh d'soi d^fSxovSB^ xad'c^avov^ iv S' uQa tot0tv 

Zsvg^ vilji^QSuhrig ^ ov^ ts KQcitog icxl iiiyKSxov, 

^ roldc d' ^A%^vaCri kdys« xrjSsa^ nolk' 'OSvOrlog 
5 
(ivriffccusv^rj'^ fidXs ydg ot icdv iv^ doi^iaOi Nv(iq)r}g. 

"Zev^ ndtSQ i}d' alloc (idxaQsg d'soi aliv iovxsg^ 



a A. 1-2, T. 2, 

B. 48-9; cf. ®. 

1, v. 94, W. 22». 

-7. 
b d 188, 8. 121, 0. 

260. 
c J. 1, 2V". 689. 

i, 439-46, r. 4 

-11. 
e xf). 831, A. 1354. 
f a. 70, B. 118. 
yd. 452, /i. 165, 

t, 203. 
h Z. 376,^185, 197. 
i T. 314. 
k s. 426, 554. 
1 ^. 306, fi. 371. 



6. /ot. 



1-86. The seventh day of the poem's 
action here begins. The gods muster 
in session, and Athen^ reminds them 
of the case of Odys. detained still by 
Calypsd, a grievance unredressed and 
now aggravated by the snare spread 
for his son. Zeus receives her appeal 
with an air of surprise, and, viewing 
her request as granted, at once des- 
patches Hermes to bid Calypso speed 
Odys. on his way. His flight to her 
isle is described, terminating at her 
grotto, the romantic beauty of which 
forms a noble contrast with the view 
of the forlorn hero, pining in his con- 
stancy, with his tearful face fixed ever 
on the sea. 

I. *Hct>g* Homer's heaven has its 
day and night, and dawn visits the 
gods, even as mortals. Thus in fi. 382 
— 3 the Sun -god threatens that, if 
Odysseus' crew be not punished for 
their sacrilegious slaughter of his herds, 
he will *' descend to Hades and shine 
among the dead'\ Milton has allowed 
the image of dawn in heaven Parafi, 
L. VI. 6—13, 



which makes through heav'n 

Grateful vicissitude like day and 
night : 

Light issues forth, and at the other 
door 

Obsequious darkness enters, 'tilllier 
hour 

To veil the heav'n; etc. 
— TvO-fOV* He occurs in the Trojan 
pedigree (T. 215—40) as a son of Lao- 
medon and elder brother of Priam. In 
Hy. Aphrod, 218 — 34 we find the story 
of his being the darling of Eos and of 
his joyless immortality (cf. Tennyson's 
Titkonus). Payne Knight considers it 
as "e seriorum opinionibus de diis pro- 
fecta"; which, although he is disput- 
ing its genuineness in A. 1 — 2 only, 
would condemn it wherever (mar.) it 
occurs. Hes. Tkeog. 984 mentions -^ma- 
thion and Memnon sons of Tith., the 
latter only being named in H., see d. 
188, X. 522. 

3—5. 9'wx6v6e, the locative $b im- 
plies their going thither before sitting 
there, liya, "was enumerating"; see 
mar. for this sense, and note on d. 
451. — xli^ea n6kX\ inclnding the 



170 



OATS23EIA23 E. 8-18. 



[day vn. 



a /}. 230— *4 mar. 

b ^.142->6,B.721, 
c. 395, o. 232, I. 
593. 

c d. 557— eo mar. 

dd.727, cf. d.700, 
740. 



6icrinzov%og fia6iXBvq^ (iriSh g)Q€6lv aCcfLfia slSdg' 
aXV aUX %aXB'Jt6g r' Blri xal at0viM ^ot. 
(oq ov rig (lifivritai *Odv66'^og d'sioio 
[IccfSv ol6iv &va66s, TtatrlQ tf' Sg iJTCiog ijfii/.] 
dlV^ iihv sv v7J6p xsttai TCQutig* akyaa nddx^V} 
vvi^qyrig^ iv fisyaQOiCi KccXvilfOvg ^ fj fiiv dvccyxy 
t(i%Bi' o S* ov Svvarai fiv jcaxQlda yatav [xitfd'at- 
od yaQ ol ndga r/^sg inrJQeriiOL xal iratQOL, 
0? xiv (icv niiLitouv iic^ svQdcc vcira d'aXd66ijg. 
vvv^ av ncctd^ dyanrixov dstoxretvccv (iB(ida6iv 



9. ^Hidi, 12. J^dva068. 15. fijv, 16. ^01, 



8. dyccvog xs %al P. Knight y. not. ad loc. 

E. 876. 



10. d'qcvXa var. 1. Barnes, coll. 



obduracy of Calyps6, and the ever ris- 
ing insolence of the suitors in Ithaca. 
8 — II. A man so just had deserved 
better of the gods, who treat him as 
though a righteous character were of 
no account with them. The topic is 
borrowed from Mentor^s appeal to the 
Ithacan Assembly in fi. 230—4, where 
see note. Indeed the whole passage 
1—48 is largely made up of lines which 
occur with or without modification else- 
where; see mar. passim. On this J. 
C. Schmitt de 12^'* in Odyss. Deor, Con- 
di, has framed an argument against 
its genuineness. He constructs accord- 
ingly a commencement of £. in which 
Pallas^ appeal is omitted, and suppo- 
ses £. to start anew on ihe same day 
as a. — a notion quite against Ho- 
meric usage; see on d* 594. Further, 
the delay in sending Hermes, as she 
had suggested in u. 84 — 7, is not in- 
consistent with Zeus* character, who, 
as a rule, is indolent and requires to be 
moved, whereas Pallas is prompt, ea- 
ger and bustling [App. E. 4.. (4) (7)] ; 
see belovir on 22 — 7. His reply to 
her also in a. 76 — 9 leaves a door 
open for procrastination, and even im- 
plies that further deliberation should 
precede action {nBQi(pQ(xi(0{iBQ'OL). Nor 
in point of fact had Poseidon yet 
'^relaxed his ire". That deliberation, 
w€ may suppose, was now to take 
place, but the urgency of Pallas cuts 
bort: she carries the Assembly with 



her, and the still absent Poseidon is 
forgotten. 

12. This V. seems certainly out of 
place here. It is nothing to the spea- 
ker's purpose that the Ithacans forget 
their king. It is Zeus and the gods 
who should remember him and do not. 
Omitting 12, ov zig oi 11 would then 
mean **no one of you^^ — an apt re- 
minder of the resolution which she 
had assumed as taken in a, 76—87. 
The line probably crept in here from 
§. by the force of the attraction of 
its context. Similarly in a, 96 foil., 
where see note, the descent of Pallas 
drew after it the description of her 
spear from E, 745—7, which does not 
suit her errand in a. 

13. xeZrai conveys a notion of in- 
activity, of which it is the proper pos- 
ture, as in B. 688, xcTto yuQ iv vij' 
Bcci . . . 'AxilXsvg, The same line (mar.) 
describes the forced inactivity of Phi-, 
loctetes in Lemnos; and, by a singular 
change of vi^aip to vovam, is in e. 395 
adapted to a totally different image. 

14 — 17. See notes on d, 557 — 60. 

18. fiSfidaOiv, omitting 12, this 
stands without a subject expressed, 
but this omission in a speech of ra- 
pid urgency is insignificant. Nor could 
this attempt be fairly charged on the 
Xao£; see n. 375 foil. It is easily un- 
derstood of whom she speaks, as Zeus 
shows by supplying (ivrjOt^QSg in 27. 
The passage 18 — 20 is not here incon- 



DAY VII.] 



OATrSBU23 E. 1^—35- 



171 



otxttSs'' vt(f06(i€vov' o d' ififf [Uta natQog ixov^v 
\,o ig nvlov ijyad'irjv 17*' ig Jaxedai^ovec Slav?' 

Tiji/*» 8^ dna^BiPofisvog itQogitpri vB^sXtiyBQixa ZBvg 

"rfxi/ov ^ftoi/, notov ae inog q>vyBv ^Qxog oSovrov. 

o^« yaQ tfij tovrov (ihv ifiovksv6ag voov a^ri), 

(og ij rot xBlvovg 'OSv66vg dnoti^stccv^ iXd'dv; 
J5 T^l6(iaxov 8h 6v ni^^fov^ STCiAftaiidvag^ (Svvaaai^ 

Sg^ KB iidV &6uri%ilg^ ifv naxQlSa yatav ticijtai.j 
^vri^xiiQBg S' iv vijl jtaXL^iCBthg^ aicovdannaLJ^ ^ 
rj pa, xal 'EgfLsiav"^ vtbv q)iXov dvtioV rjvSa 
'''EQfiBLa- 6v^ yccQ uvvb td r' akka tcbq ayyBXdg ia6L' p 
JO vviiq)y^ ivxXoxdup BlnBtv vijfiBQtia fiovXtjvj 
votftov 'OSvaa^og raXa6ig>QOvog^ Sg xb viipuij 

OVTB^ d'BfSv TtOflTCy oOzB ^IJTcJv* dv^QdlCiOV' 

dXX' 8 y' iitl axBSlrig^ xoXvSiifiiov jrif/tara" TcdtSxmv 
^ftart"^ x* bIxo0x^ ZX^Q^W i9^fi(X}Xov'^ txotroy 
J5 9av^xmv* ig yatav ^ oX dyxi^BOv yByda6vv^ 



a d, 701—2 nutr. 
b a. 63—4 mar. 
e «. 479-«). 
d y. 216, X, 118, 

i. 255. • 
ey. 869. 
f 2. 36S, V. 161, 

K. 265. 
§r d. 612 jnar. 
he. 144, 168, «.79. 
i fc_ 255; K. 212, 

il. 247. 
kir. 395. 
I 0. 308, O. 305. 
mi2. 333. 
n 9. 200. 
o cf. 0.540,^.273. 
p cf. O. 144. 
q a. 86->7. 
r (.521; cf.2.332, 

352, Z. 171. 
8 a. 219. 
t 9. 338, n- 3M: 

cf. •. 177, fl. 274. 
a q. 444, 524. 
V C. 170. 
w I. 863, X 67. 
X «. 279-80, V'. 

388-41. 



19. Mnocde. 22. finog. 36. /i}y. 30. fsinsiv. 34. fsmoctA omisso «'. 

19. veiaotisvov Baraes. £rn. CI. ed. Ox., vtaaofisvov Wolf. 27. dnoviovtai 
(qaasi signif. fat.) Flor. Lov. 28. (pdov vtov £rn. CI. ed. Ox., viov tpCTiov 

Barnes. Wolf. 



sistent with her assurance to Penel. 
in d. 825—8, since the insolence of 
the suitors remains the same, and to 
contrast this with the heroic hut un- 
heeded endurance of Odys. is the main 
point of her opening speech. 

22 — 7. Zeus in u. had given no ex- 
plicit assent to Pallas* proposal ahout 
sending Hermes ; but she had assumed 
his compliance and acted on it. He lets 
things rest for six days in statu quo, 
and when she renews her appeal throws 
the responsibility upon her, as though 
the executiye were her province ex- 
clusively. Thus his character for lau- 
sex /aire and hers for energy are ef- 
fectively contrasted. This ethical point 
is lost by those who impugn the pas- 
sage; see on 8— 11 sup. v6ov=^ pov- 
Xi^p; of. the hendiadys §ovXfiv %e voov 
T«, d, 267. 25 — 6 could be spared: 27 
coheres exactly with 24, since sub- 
jnnct. may stand as =3 fut. after cog, 
99cmg etc., in final sentences FApp. A. 
5- (j)]. The other reading ccnoviov- 



T«i is itself a pres. with fut. force. 
To omit 25—6 would suit exactly the 
fact shown in d, 825—8 tiiat Pallas 
had already settled it all, and needed 
not the exhortation which 25 — 6 ad- 
dresses to her. Yet this need not be 
present to Zeus* mind, whose words 
arise naturally out of hers in 18 — 20 
sup, 

27. xaXifinBrk^ cannot be naXin- 
nstiag with s elided, see Buttm. Le- 
xil 51 (i). 

28. ^EofifiaVy see App. C. 2. and 
Gladst. II. iii. 231 — ^41. 

30 — I. See note on a. 82 — 7. 

32. This is verified by the hero's de- 
parture on his solitary raft 263 m/*., 
and explains her words 140 foil.: Ca- 
lypsd in fact only despatches him dno 
vTicov with a fair wind which she her- 
self sends. 

33—4. Cx^^^'H^ xoX., see^pp. F. 
— UxBQh 



. (4> 
35 



UXBQiTiv see App. D. 14. 
36. dyxl^eoi, cf. tf. 205, in9^ 



iJH 



OATSSEIAS E. 36—50. 



[day vn. 



a ^ I&8, ». 69, o. 
245, J. 46, 63, 
if. 119, 206, 430, 
n, 61 , 423, 435. 

b n- 7i. 

c V. 339-41. 
d &. 440, 0. 207. 
e ♦. 136-8; cf. x. 

40-1. 
f x84. 
fir ^. 487 mar. 
£5.327: cf.t232 

-3, A. 625-7. 
i 9. 114-5, ». 76 

-7, «. 632-3, it. 

473-4. 
k i2. 340-5. 
I «. 75, 9#, 146, 9. 

338, (u. 9», B. 

103, <t>, 497, i2. 

m a. 96-8 mar. 

n w. 2—4. 

o V. 429, TT. 172, 

456, X. 238; cf. 

JV. 59. 
p It. 195. 
q «. 148, JT. 181. 
r X226— 7,J5 706. 
s d. 508, c. 318. 



of niv fiLV Ttsgl^ ^VQ^y d'sov^ Ss^ rtfwforovtffri/, 
7t^fiil;ov0iv^ S' iv vrjl (piktiv ig itaxQCda yatav, 
Xcclxov t€ %QV66v xa ichg iiSdijrd^ ta dovtag, 
7t6XX\^ 00' av odda notaTgoCrig H^iJQat^^ '08v<S6avg^ 
at TtaQ aTCTJiiiov^ ^A-O-f, kaxf^v^ UTcd XrjiSog alaav. 4( 
cSff^ yaQ ot fiotQ* iatl (pCXovg r' iShiv, xal Ina^^m 
olxov ig vilfOQOfpov xal arjv ig xaxQlda yatav," 

(Sg^ lfpar\ ovS* aitid'ri^a Si^dxtOQog^ ^AQyaitpovxrig, 
avxlx^^^ ijtatS'* VTio xoiSalv iSrjaccxo xaXot itiSika^ 
ayi^QoOia xgyaava^ xd (iiv (pigov i^fuav £9?' vygriv 4^ 

ijd' in!* anaCgova yatav icfia nvoirlg dvi^oi^o^ 
avkaxo^ dh qd^Sov^^ x^ r' dvdQc5v o^^axa d^iXyac^* 
av id'iXac^ xovg d' avxa xal vnvciovxag iyaiQav 
XYiv [laxd xagGlv ^^ov icixaxo xgaxvg^ ^AqyaLq)6vxrig. 
nugCriv^ S' imfidg il^ ai^'igog ifiTCaaa^ Tcovxp' 5< 



38. J^ttXis fsad'fjtd, 41. J^ot Mistv. 42. fotnov ij^i^v. 

36. nsql Eustath. Ern. CI. ed. Ox. Bek. Fa., nsQi Wolf. Dind. Low. 39. ov- 
9inoxs sine in Harl. Wolf., ovSinot* in Barnes. Ern. CI. ed. Ox. 45. tpigoi, 
var. 1. Barnes. 50. Schol. P. yirgnlam post ai&i(fog non post inifias appinxit 



Cfpidiv iyyv9'Bv Bi(tiv. — ticqI xjigt, 

a phrase found also wi|;h vsfi6aampi,ai,y 
(piUaty i%Q'aCgai etc., cf. the nriQoQ'i 
fi&XXov of s. 284 et aL (mar.). On the 
question whether to take nsgl in such 
sense as if it had ndvxmv following 
(cf. a. 235),