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The portion of the Dictionary which treats of the words beginning with M contains 12,988 Main words, 
2,986 Special Combinations explained under these, 6,422 Subordinate entries, and 3,636 Obvious Combina- 
tions ; in all 26,032 words. Of the Main words, 2,838 arc marked f as obsolete, and 866 are marked || as 
alien or not fully naturalized.* 

Etymologically considered, the words beginning with M form a typical portion of the English vocabulary. 
every one of the many sources of our composite language being represented, while none isoverwhelmingly 
predominant. The words inherited from Old English are relatively less numerous than in some other letters, 
but some of them occupy unusually large space in the Dictionary on account either of their great variety of 
senses and applications, or of the multitude of their combinations. Among them is the verb make, the article 
on which fills eleven pages, and would have been much longer if every subtle variety of meaning had been 
explained and illustrated. Other native words of importance are man, meet vb., mind sb. and vb., moon, 
month, mother, much, more, most. The articles on the pronouns me, mine, my, myself, and the auxiliaries may 
and must, contain much that is instructive as bearing on the history of English syntax and idiom. The 
Scandinavian element is very sparsely represented, chiefly by words of local or dialectal currency, such as 
marram, maugh, may (a maiden) ; but there are also meek, mire, and a few other words in general use. The 
Latin and French derivatives surpass the native words both in number and in the amount of space required for 
their treatment, and a very large proportion of them have an interesting history. Such instances as manner, 
market, master, matter, measure, medicine, memory, mend, mischief, mission, mode, model, moment, monster, 
mount vb., move, movement, multiply (to mention only a few of the more prominent) show how indispensable 
a part of the word-store of modern English has come from French. Greek derivatives are present in 
more than average proportions. Besides those which were introduced in the Middle Ages through the 
medium of Latin and French, such as magic, mathematics, metaphysics, muse sb. 1 , music, mystery, there are 
many later formations, especially with the prefixes mega-, meso-, met a-, micro-, miso-, mono- ; and the words 
beginning with my- arc also mainly of Greek origin. Of words from Celtic there arc nearly a score, but few, 
if any, of them would be recognized as familiar by Englishmen generally. The adoptions from Continental 
Teutonic, and from Italian and Spanish, are somewhat numerous. One very characteristic feature of the 
M portion of the Dictionary is the multitude of words from Oriental, African, Australian, and American 
languages. It may be noted that in Arabic ma-, mi- (or me-), and mu- (or mo-) are prefixes forming participia 
and other derivatives ; formations of this kind, which have been adopted into English from Arabic through 
the medium either of European or Indian languages, are macrame, magazine, mahal, marabout, Maugrabi. 
minaret, miskal, Mofussil, monsoon, Moslem, mosque, Mozarabic, muezzin, mufti, mullah, musellim. Mussulman 
As the sound of the letter M is one that lends itself easily to echoic use, the number of onomatopoeic words 
with this initial is considerable. 

Among the many words the etymology of which is here more fully or more accurately treated than 
in other English dictionaries are macaronic, mad-apple, madrepore, maelstrom, magic lantern, major sb. 1 , 
malignant, malmsey, mammon, mammoth, melanochroi, menstruum, meter sb. 3 , methyl, middling, minus, minute, 
mire sb. 1 and sb. 2 , mire-drum, miss sb. 1 , mix vb., mohair, moor vb. 1 , mother sb. 2 , mould sb. 2 , moxa, mnckender, 
mustachio, mutton, mystery. 

The material for Ma- was sub-edited (before 1888) and subsequently revised (before 1900) by Mr. Joseph 
Brown, M.A., of the Grammar School, Kendal, who has since sub-edited some part of S, and is now working 
at U ; Me- and Ml- were sub-edited in 1884-5 by the late Rev. T. Sheppard, Exeter College, Oxford ; Mo- 
to MOND- in 1885 by the late Hon. and Rev. S. W. Lawley, Spurfield, Exminster ; Mone- to MuCE- by the 
late Mr. J. Anderson, Markinch, Fife ; and the remainder of the letter (Much to the end) in 1894 by the late 
Rev. J. Smallpeice, M.A., then of St. Bees. In 1899-1904 the whole of the material from Me- to My/.-, which in 
the interim had more than doubled in quantity, was laboriously re-subedited by Mr. Tames Bartlett B A 
Cloverlea, Bramley, near Guildford. 

Among those who have rendered help of various kinds in the later stages of preparation of this portion of 
the Dictionary, it is fitting to mention in the first place three honoured workers who are no longer livino- to 
receive the grateful acknowledgement which is their due. Lord Aldenham. who had been a zealous and able 
collaborator in the work from its beginning, continued, in spite of his advanced age, to read the proofs and 
to furnish valuable suggestions, until very shortly before his death. Dr. W. Sykes, F.S.A., who died in 
beptember, 1906, had read the proofs for the greater portion of the letter M, supplying a great number of 

* For the letter M the comparative scale of this work and of certain other Dictionaries is shown by the following figures:- 

Johnson. 'rtndudln^the' 'Century ' Diet. Funk's 'Standard '. Here. 


stasr- il 'W ■:« « Sg 

5» c61 5.120 9>"34 1,506 

The number of quotations in the M part of Richardson's Dictionary 



additional instances of the words relating to medicine and the kindred sciences. Mr. E. L. Brandreth, whose 
abundant work for the Dictionary has been acknowledged in the prefaces to former issues, had latterly devoted 
himself to the verification at the British Museum of quotations from works not accessible in Oxford, a service 
which since his death has been performed by Mr. W. W. Jenkinson. In the revision of the proofs continued 
aid has been received from Mr. A. Caland, of Wageningen, Holland, the Rev. Canon Fowler, D.C.L., of Durham, 
Mr. H. Chichester Hart, the Rev. Professor Skeat, and the Rev. W. B. R. Wilson, of Dollar. For information 
on etymological questions thanks are due to Professors Margoliouth, Morfill, Napier, and Wright, of Oxford ; 
Prof. A. Salmon, of Reading ; Hr. Verner Dahlerup, of Copenhagen ; Dr. A. Kluyver, of Leiden ; and 
Mr. J. Piatt, jun., whose extensive researches into the history of words from American Indian and other remote 
languages have been of great service. In the explanation of scientific terms valuable aid has been received 
from Professors Clifton and Love, Dr. V. H. Veley, Mr. A. E. Jolliffe, and Mr. C. Leudesdorf, of Oxford, 
and Prof. Sylvanus Thompson, of London. Among others who have rendered help on special points are 
Professors Bywater and Robinson Ellis, of Oxford ; Sir W. R. Anson, Bart. ; Sir Howard Elphinstone, Bart. ; 
Mr. Horace Hart, M.A., Controller of the Oxford University Press ; Mr. E. W. Hulme, of H.M. Patent Office ; 
Sir F. Pollock, Bart. ; Mr. W. H. Stevenson, M.A., of St. John's College, Oxford ; Mr. R. J. Whitwell, 
B.Litt.. Oxford ; Mr. J. Maitland Anderson, St. Andrews University ; and Mr. C. W. Ernst and 
Mr. Albert Matthews, of Boston, U.S.A. The constant assistance of Dr. F. J. Furnivall has, in this as in 
all former parts of the work, been of inestimable value. Special thanks are also due to Bodley's Librarian, 
Mr. Falconer Madan, Mr. A. E. Cowley, and the staff of the Bodleian Library generally; and to the Editor of 
Notes and Queries and the many correspondents of that periodical who have furnished replies to inquiries. 

The members of the editorial staff who have been engaged on M are : Mr. Walter Worrall, B.A., 
Mr. C. T. Onions, M.A. (who has specially prepared the portions containing the words beginning with Mis-, 
Multi-, and My-), Mr. W. J. Lewis, Mr. H. J. Bayliss, Mr. James Dallas, Mr. G. R. Carline, and Miss 
E. S. Bradley. 

Oxford, July, 190S. HENRY BRADLEY. 


Machit, var. of Mf.sq.uita 2 . 

Macute. The Rev. W. Holman Bentley, writing from the Congo Free 
State, informs 11s that makuta is the plural of *ekuta, and denotes 
a bundle of ten mats of palm-fibre, still used as currency north of the 
Congo near the French frontier. Elsewhere the word survives only as 
the name of the Angola ' penny ' piece or its value. Mr. Bentley says 
that it is derived from a Congo verb kuta to tie, now obsolete, but 
preserved in the reversing form kululula to untie. 

Mademoiselle. Earlier example : — 31450 Knt. de la Tour (186^) 
1 26 Madamoiselle ! y praie you that ye ansuere not vnto this fole. 

Marrhoore, obs. variant of Mogul. 

Magnetician. Example: — 1854 Pereira's Polarized Light (ed. 2) 
65 The electrician and the magnetician have assumed, respectively, an 
electric and a magnetic fluid. 

Mahone. Earlier example : — 1572 Malim in HakltiyCs Voy. (1599) 
II. I. 122 Great Hulkes called Maones. 
Maidfeloun, obs. variant of Matfellon. 

maim sb. Earlier example: — c 14/5 Parlcnay 6356 That mariage 
no mahyme to his kinred. 

Main-brace -. Earlier example : — 1680 Sib J. Founs Acct. Bk. 
13 Aug. (Sc. Hist. Soc.) 487 To James Wilson, sadler, for . . helping 
y e main braces. 

Mainmort. Earlier example : — 1387 Trevisa Higdcn (Rolls) VIII. 

Maiolica, var. form of Majolica. 

Man sb. 1 15. The view that Chess-men originated as a corruption 
of chess-meinie is untenable, the word for ' (chess-)man ' in AH. being 
regularly horn. Earlier instances of man in this sense are : — c 1400 
Beryn 1820 The Burgeyse seid : ' comyth nere ! ye shul se ]is man, 
How he shall be matid, with what man me list ! ' He drou3e, & seyd 
' chek mate ! ' c 1440 Gesta Rom. xxi. 71 (Harl. MS.) The first man, 
)>at goth afore hath not but 00 poynt, but whenne he goth aside, he 
takith anojjer. . . The secund, scil. alphyn, renneth iij poyntes both 
vpward and douneward. 

Mandarin 1 b. Earlier example : — 1 791 Bos well Johnson (ed. Hill) 
I. 31 From a man so still and so tame . . conversation could no more lie 
expected, than from a Chinese mandarin on a chimney-piece. 

Mandrague. Add etymology : — Corruptly a. F. madragtie. 

Mandrake 3. Earlier example : — 1836 Backwoods of Canada 248 
There is a plant in our woods, known by the names of man-drake, may- 
apple, and duck's-foot. 

Mangy a. 1. Earlier example:— 1526 Skelton Magnyf. (E.E.T.S.) 
1 1 23 Fol. In faythe, there is not a better dogge. . . Fan. Ye, but trowest 
thou that he be not maungey ? 

fMantist. Obs. [f. Gr. pirns + -1ST.] A seer, prophet. 1588 J. 
Harvey Disc. Probl. 1. 84 Without which felicitie, neither Persian 
Magician . . nor Athenian Mantist . . shall euer passe with me for a 

Manumotive. Earlier example :— 1825 Mech. Mag. V. 97 (heading) 
Idea for a manumotive carriage. 

Maracaibo. Earlier example: — 1S43 Holtzapffel Turning I. 94 
Maracaybo is a furniture wood of moderate size, as hard as good 
mahogany, and in appearance between it and tulip-wood. 

Marble sb. 3. Earlier example : — 167 1 Salmon Syti. Med. III. 474 
The reducing of any thing into a fine powder, by grynding it on a Marble. 

Margent sb. 2. Additional form and earlier quot. : — 1432-50 
tr. Higden (Rolls) I. 41 Y schalle purpulle the mariantes [Trevisa 
margyns] . . with a dowble ordre of yeres. 

Mariner 1 b. See also Master sb. 1 29. Mariner portage (in 
Mariner 4) : Delete the explanation ; see Portage. 

Maritime. Add form and quot.: — 1654 Earl Monm. tr. Benti- 
voglio's IVars Flanders 56 One of the most considerable Towns of all 
the Maretine part. 

Mark sb. 1 11 i. Earlier quot. : — 1625 B. Jonson Staple of News IV. 
iv, Were he a learned Herald, I would tell him He can giue Amies, 
and markes. 

Marriage 8. Earlier example of marriage-rites : — 1621 Brathwait 
Natures Embass., Sheph. Tales Egl. ii. 198 For I your patience might 
wrong, To stand vpon these marriage rites too long. — According to 
modern editors marriage rite or rites should be read in Shaks. Pericles 
IV. Gower 17, where the first Quarto (1608) has 'Euen right for 
marriage sight '. 

Masse(n)ger(e, -inger(e, obs. forms of Messenger. 

Massy a. 5. The following quot. should have been given : — 1632 
Milton Pcnseroso 158 With antick Pillars massy proof. 

Mastsr-hunt in Master sb. 1 28. Read ' master-hunt [see Hunt 
sb. 1 }, a head huntsman' and transfer to 29, adding the following earlier 
instance:— c 1369 Chaucer Dethe Blaunche 375 (Fairf. MS.) The 
mayster hunte anoon fote hotc With a grete home blewe thre mote. 

Mere a. 2 1 c. Earlier example :— c 1400 Maundev. (Roxb.) xxv. 1 16 
Bringand cowpez of gold full of meere mylk. 

Mesquital. Earlier example : — 1477 Caxton Dictes 58 b, Somme 
men saye that legmon is buried in a town called karauelle bitwene the 
mesquitte & the marche. 

Mickle?'. Additional example :— a 1225 Ancr. R. 182 Sicnesse . . halt 
ine edmodnesse & mucheleS \>c mede. 

Minute sb. 1 7. To the definitions of minute-bell, -gun, add : — ' used 
as a sign of mourning or distress'. 

Montanous a. Earlier example : — 1658 Rowland tr. Moufet's 
Theat. his. 947 Bombilophagus, is a Fly, montanous, big, very black. 

Moot v. 1 1. Quots. 1642 ff. probably do not belong to this word : 
see Mute v. 2 

Moquet. Delete this article, and substitute :— Moquet, obs. var. 

Morhwell. The word (morhuel) is quoted as English by Rondelet 
De Pise. Mar., 1554, p. 280. 

Motional a. Earlier quot. :— 1679 tr - WtiRt Pharmac. Rationalis 
I. I. ii. 7 This Coat contains manifold orders of motional Fibre*. 

Motor sb. 1 a. (a) The explanation given is erroneous ; read : — ' in 
mediaeval astronomy, = Primum mobile i.' 

Moustache 6. Mustache monkey occurs in Pennant Syn. Quadrut 
1771, p. 114. 


M(em), the thirteenth letter of the modern 
and twelfth of the ancient Roman alpha- 
bet, represents historically the Greek mil and the 
Semitic mem. The Phoenician form of the letter 
is v ^, whence the early Gr. and L. *"*! , /w, M. Its 
phonetic value has varied little ; in Eng. it has 
always expressed what was doubtless its original 
sound, that of the bilabial nasal consonant, which 
is normally voiced, though when it is followed by 
an unvoiced consonant it has an unvoiced ending. 
Like the other nasals, m is capable of being used 
as a sonant or vowel, denoted by ('m) in the pho- 
netic notation here employed ; but in Eng. this 
occurs only after S and z at the end of words (of 
(Jr. etymology), as rhythm, spasm, schism, and 
the suffix -ism; in these words many speakers 
substitute (-sm). The letter is never silent, exc. 
initially before n in Gr. derivatives, as mnemonic. 

I. 1. The letter and its sound. 

r 1000 /Elfric Cram. iii. (Z.)6 Semiivcales syndon seofan : 
f, 1, m, n, r, s, x. 1530 Palsgr. Introd. 17 These thre letters 
Si, N or E the very and onely causes why these 
thre vowelles A, E, O, be formed in the brest and sounded 
by the nose, a 1637 B. Jonson Eng. Gram, iv, 
pronoune'd with a kind of humming inward, the lips clos'd. 
Open, and full in the beginning : obscure in the end : and 
meanly in the midd'st. 17x0 Steele & Addison Tat/erNo. 
260 F s Which Would . . pronounce the Letters M or N and 
in short, do all the Functions of a Genuine and Natural 
Nose. 1717-41 Chambers Cyct. s.v., Quintilian observes, 
that the M sometimes ends Latin words, but never Greek. 
1854 Bushnan in Circ. Set. {c 1865) L 288/1 The mouth is 
closed by the lips while m is pronounced. 1900 Pilot 3 Mar. 
28 The middle^ stage of the evolution of the eagle, namely, 
its transformation from the Gothic M to the fleur-de-lis. 
b. M roof: see quot. 1825. 

1797 Encycl. Brit. (ed. 3) II. 246/2 Fig. 2. Exhibits an M 
roof. 1825 J. Nicholson Opcrat. Mechanic 573 In roofs of 
rectangular buildings, .a valley is introduced, which makes 
the vertical section in the form of the letter M, or rather an 
inverted W ; hence it has obtained the name of an M roof. 
1842-59 Gwilt Encycl. Archit. Gloss. 

2. J'rinting. = Em. Comb, m-thick : see quot. 
1683 Moxon Mech. Exerc, Printing xiii. § 1 Some [types] 

are m thick ; by m thick is meant m Quadrat thick, which 
is just so thick as the Body is high. 1868 Daily News 
10 Aug., Compositors are allowed 60 cents per thousand ill's 
(not reckoning by n's as in England). 1892 Academy 3 Sept. 
199/3 <advt.), 49,000 American ems (equal to 98,000 English 
ens) were set in eight hours. 

II. Symbolical uses. 

3. Used like the other letters of the alphabet to 
denote serial order ; applied e.g. to the thirteenth 
(or more usually the twelfth, either I or J being 
often omitted) group or section in classification, 
the twelfth sheet of a book or quire of a MS., etc. 

1850 Forshai.l & Maddes IVyclif's Bible Pref. 29 The 
MS. M (Queen's Coll. 23). 1899 Blackw. Mag. Sept. 354/1, 
I to M are the most original passages of the hymn. 1900 
Dundee Advert. 21 Mar. 5, M Battery Royal Horse 

4. The Roman numeral symbol for : A thousand. 
(In the t5-i6th c. it could be substituted for the numeral 

word in any context ; it is now rare exc. in dates.) 

141220 Lvdg. Chron. Troy 1. ix, There came .. seuen M 
knightes. 1535 Coverdale Judg. xii. 6 There fell of 
Lplirann two St. fortye M. 1553 Short Catcch. 62 b, We be 
feble, weake, subiect to a thousand peri les, a M . temptations. 
1603 Owen Pembrokeshire (1892) 139 The M of oysters at 
the waterside is vsuallie sold for x d or xij d . 

III. 5. Abbreviations. 

M. = various proper names, as Mark, Margaret, 
etc. ; f = Majesty ; used in ancient criminal pro- 
cedure (see qnots. 1487, 1727-41) ; = Member, as 
in M.P. (q.v.), M.C., Member of Congress (C?.S.\ 
M.R.C.P., Member of the Royal College of Phy- 
sicians, M.R.C.S., Member of the Royal College 
of Surgeons; Mas. = metronome ; Math. = modu- 
lus ; (M. or m.) in astronomical tables, etc. = meri- 
dian or meridional ; also (after the numeral twelve) 
-L. meridies noon (cf. A.M., P.M.) ; m. = mass, 
in Mech. ; - molar, in dental formula ; = minute, 
metre (mm. = millimetre) ; in log-books = mist ; 
Mus. = It. mano or F. main (as mano destra, 
main droite, right hand), mezzo (as /«/= mezzo- 
forte), in organ music, manual. See also M.B., 
M.D., MS. 

1487 Acta, Hen. VII ' c. 13 Every suchepersone so convicted 
for murdre to be marked with a M. upon the brawne of the 
left* thumbe. .581 J. Hamilton in Cath. Tract. (S. T. S.) 
75/3 His thankfull spreit tovart your M. 1500 A. M tr 
Gabelhouer s Bk. Physick 360 Take vnpeeled Barlye M iiii. 
1727-41 Chambers Cycl M, in astronomical tables, . . is used 
tor Meridional or southern, sometimes for M,~u;.. „.. „:j_ 

Vol. VI. 

southern, sometimes for Meridies or mid- 

day. M, in law, the brand or stigma of a person convicted 
of manslaughter, and admitted to the benefit of clergy. 
1840 K. H. Dana Be/. Mast xxxiv. 129 At twelve M„ it 
bore N.W. .} N. 1869 D. G. RossETTI in Mackait IV. 
Morris (1899) I. 204 The Ms [=Morrises] at Ems. 

b. Abbreviation for Master: f(n) generally, 
and as a conventional title of address or mention 
= the later MlSTEB, Mrt. Phr. To have (or cany) 
an M under one's girdle : to use a respectful prefix 
(Mr., Mrs.) when addressing or mentioning a person. 
(b) Used for master or the L. magister in academ- 
ical degrees, as M.A. or A.M. {magister arlium), 
Master of Arts; M.Ch. {magister chirurgiic . 
Master of Surgery- also in M.C., Master of the 
ceremonies ; M.F.H., Master of fox-hounds. 

a 1540 Barnes Wis. (1573) 349 - i Our M. Christ teaching 
a! creatures to pray. 1549 Latimer's 2nd Serm. be/. Edit). I 7 
To Rdr. 1 Arb.) 52 The deuourer of townes and countryes as 
M. Latimer tearmeth them rightly, a 1553 Udall Royster 
I), in. iii. (Arb.) 48 If faire fine mistresse distance sawe 
you now Ralph Royster Doister were hir owne I warrant 
you. A*. Royster. Neare an M by your girdle? 1553 Eden 
Treat. Newe hid. (Arb.) 39 Where .. the M. Pilate of this 
name lost his shippe. 1579 E. K. Spenser's Sheph. Cat. 
Epistle, Postscr., Now I trust, M. Harvey, that [etc.]. 1596 
Spenser Prothalamion (heading), The two worthie Genile- 
men M. Henry Gilford, and M. William Peter, Esquyers. 
1605 B. Johson, etc. Eastw. Hoe ! iv, Quid. Must Golding 
sit upon us? Con. You might carry an M under your girdle, 
to Mr. Deputy's worship. 1712 Great Britons llonycomie 
(MS.) (N.i, What, plaine Budwaies ! have yon nere an M. 
under your girdle. 1730-6 Bailey (folio), M, is an abbrevia- 
tion of Magister, as M.A. or A. .11. Magister Artium, i.e. 
Master of Arts. 1738 Swift Pol. Convcrsat. i. 28 You might 
have an M under your Girdle, Miss. 1811 Byron Hints/)-. 
Horace 240 He . . retires M.A. ; Master of arts 1 1816 Scoi T 
Old Mort. xxix, Ye might hae had an M under your belt 
for Mistress Wilson of Milnwood. 1843 Surtees Handler 
Cross I. v. 92 The loose riding M.C. sitting like ' the Drunken 
Hussar' at the circus. Ibid. II. vii. 147 First public day as 
an M.F.H. 1869 ' Bradwood ' O. V.H. I. iii. 33 He was 
not the man to violate modesty by proposing himself to a 
nearly strange Hunt as a new M.F.H. 

II C. ■= Monsieur (q.v.) as prefixed title. 

M-, a clipped form of Me sometimes found in 
Middle English before vowels. 

£ T 393 Chalcer Scogan 36, I mexcuse. 1426 Lydg. De 
Guil. Pilgr. 9802 Out off my shyp make maryue. 

-m, in l'.M = I am : see Be v., A. I. 1. 

Ma (ma). A childish and colloquial shortening 
of Mamma. Now often ridiculed as vulgar. 

[1823 Moor Suffolk Words s.v. Pa, It is sometimes rather 
comic to hear a great chuckle-headed lout— paa-ing his 
father—or maa-ing his mother.] 1829 Censor 225 These 
exhibitions, though affording wonderous delight to affec- 
tionate Pas and Mas, are productive of the most injurious 
results to their children. 1829 Lytton Disowned 20 How 
could he admire that odious cap of Ma's. 1830 T. Hook 
G. Curney I. 196 Gtissy, as her ma' called her. 1885 1'. 
Anstey Tinted Venus 119, I've got to dine with aunt and 
meet Matilda and her ma. 

Ma., obs. abbreviation of Majesty, Master. 

1579 E. K. Spenser's Shepli. Cat. Epistle, Myne owne 
good friend Ma. Harvey. 1605 Bacon Adv. Learn. 11. To 
King 1 Since wee have so bright and benigne a starre, as 
your Ma: to conduct and prosper us. 

Ma: see Make v., May v., Me, Mo, My. 

Maa, obs. f. Make v. ; var. Mo Obs., more. 

Maae, maad : see Make v. 

Maakins, variant of Mackin(o)s. 

fMaal. Obs. rare- 1 . Wyclifs transl. of L. 
malum apple, taken by him to mean fir-tree, by 
confusion with miilus mast (see quot.). 

1382 Wyclif Joel i. 12 Poumgarnet, and palme tree, and 
maal tree, or fir, of whom mastis ben maad. 

Maale, obs. form cf Mail. 
Maam (mam). A South American bird, the 

1825 Watkrton Wand. S. Amer. 23 The forest contains 
an abundance of . . maams, maroudis and waracabas. Ibid. 
32 The maam sends forth its plaintive note. 

Ma'am (mam ; usually unstressed mam, 'm). 
Also 7 mam. In representations of vulgar speech 
written marm, mem, mim, mum, 'm. A collo- 
quial shortening of Madam. 

1. Used vocatively, as the usual oral equivalent 
of Madam. 

Now only used parenthetically or at the end of a sentence. 
Formerly the ordinary respectful form of address to a woman 
(originally only to a married woman) of equal or superior 
rank or station (unless entitled to be called ' my lady '). The 
present tendency is to confine it to the speech of servants or 
other persons of markedly inferior position. (Used at Court, 
instead of madam, in addressing the Queen or a royal 

1668 Drydf.n Evening's Love III. i. (1671) 33 Madam me 
no Madam, but learn to retrench your words; and say 
Mam ; as yes Mam, and no Mam, as other Ladies Women 

do. Madam ! 'tis a year in pronouncing. 1765 Foote Com. 
missary 1. Wks. 1799 II. 8 Indeed, Ma'am, you'll kill your. 
self. 1838 Dickens O. Tmstxvu. Mrs. Mann, ma'am good 
morning. 1840 — Bam. Pudge xix, ■ Here's master, mini ', 
said Miggs. 'Oh, what a happiness it is when man and wile 
come round again ! ' rj8so L.YTTON Lionel Hastings ii in 
Life (1S83) 1. 11. xi. 180' Well, Marm—' Mr. Cotton preserved 
that broad pronunciation of the ellipsis Ma'am, from Ma- 
dame, which was formerly considered high bred, and is still 
the Court mode. 1854 DlCKENS Hard T. 1. xvi, ' Mrs. Sparsit 
ma'am', said Mr. liounderby. ' I am going to astonish you ' 
1885 V. A nstey Tinted Venus 1 16 'Dear me, mum, you don't 
say so!' exclaimed Leander. Ibid. 142 ' Now, marm ', he 
said, in a voice which trembled with repressed rage. 1887 
Gordonhavenxi. 104' What have you been doing?' ' Nothing 
mem'. iVooSpeaicr 33 June 324/2 In Tha. keray's time every 
man among equals of a certain refinement was Sir, and every 
woman Ma'am. 

2. Prefixed to a surname. Obs. exc. U.S. vulgar. 
(See Madam.) 

1837 Haliblrton Clockiu. Ser. 1. x, Marm Pugwash is as 

onsartin in her temper as a momin in April. 

f 3. A person addressed as ' ma'am ', a married 
woman. Obs. 

1765 Meretriciad (ed. 6! 43 Or when Mam walks, he, twenty 
steps behind. 1779 Sheridan Critic 1. i, Then to be con- 
tinually alarmed with misses and ma'ams piping hysteric 
changes on Juliets, and Doriiulas. 

4. attrib.: ma'am-school U. S., a dame-school. 

1857 S. G. Goodrich Recoil. Lifetime iv. I. 39 , I found 
a girl, .keeping a ma'am-school for about twenty scholars. 

Hence Ma'am v. trans., to address as 'ma'am '. 

1813 Sketches Charac. (ed. 2) I. 121 You should not 'sir' 
and 'ma'am 'people as you do, unless you wish to keep them 
at a distance. 1887 G. R. Sims Mary Jane's Mem. 6 Don't 
ma'am me— I'm a miss. 1889 H. Johnston Chron. Glen- 
buckiev. 58 'Indeed, mem '. . .' Yeneedna' " mem " me.. I'm 
a common body like yoursel '. 

Ma'amselle. Corresponds to F. mam'selle, 
familiar abbreviation of Mademoiselle. 

c J J94 Search aft. Perfect. 1. i. in New Brit. Theatre (1814) 
HI. 37 The first four out of the eleven were ma'amselles. 

Maand, variant of Mauxd (basket). 

Maane, obs. form of Mane. 

Maarmor, erron. form of Maormor. 

Maas, Maat, obs. forms of Mace, Mate. 

rMab, si. Obs. [Cf. Mab v. and map, 17th c. 
form of Mop sb. ; also Mab, short for Mabel.} 

1. A slattern ; a woman of loose character. 

'557-8 Jacob $ Esau v. vi. (1568) Gj, Come out thou 
mother Mab, out olde rotten witche. 1691 Ray A'. C. II erds 
47 To Mab; to dress carelessly : Mabs are Slatterns, a 1700 
B. E. Vict. Cant. Crew, Mab, a Slattern. Mab 'd up, Drest 
carelesly, like a Slattern. 1725 New Cant. Vict., Mob, or 
Mab, a Wench or Harlot. 

2. A mop. 

1623 Whitbourne Newfoundland 75 Thrummes for Pitch 
inabs, 000/r. 01s. 6d. 

tMab, v. Obs.-" [Belongs to Mab sb. Cf. 
Mabblb, M011 vis.] intr. To dress untidily. 

1691, a 1700 [see Mab sb.]. 1829 Brockett A". C. Words, 
Mab, v. to dress carelessly. Hence, Mab-cap, generally 
called mob-cap, a cap which ties under the chin— worn by 
elderly women. 

t Mabble, v. Obs. Also mable. [Cf. Moble 
v.~\ trans. To wrap or muffle up (the head). 

1615 G. Sandys Trav. 69 Their heads and faces so mabled 
in fine linnen, that no more is to be scene of them then their 
eyes. Ibid. 148 The elder mabble their heads in linnen. 

Mac 1 (ma:k). Also Mack. [Irish and Gaelic 
mac:— OCeltic *maktt>-s, cogn. w. 'Welsh mab:— 
OYVelsh map :-OCeltic *mahivo-s.] The Gaelic 
word for ' son ', occurring as a prefix in manv 
Scottish and Irish names of Celtic origin, and thus 
equivalent to the Eng. suffix -son. Hence : A 
person whose name contains the prefix Mac. 

The prefix is written also Mc, AF, M' ; e. g. Macdonaid 
MacVonald, McVonald, M' Donald, M'Vonald. 

1656 in Blount Glossogr. 1689 [Farewell] Irish Hudi- 
bras 108 The Champions of the Irish Cause, A numerous 
Train of Mac's and O's. 1730 Fielding Tom Thumb 1. 
iii, Ireland her O's, her Macs let Scotland boast. 1764 
Wilkes Coir. (1805) III. 126 The list of the company (of 
the Macs and Sawneys not in the French service) would 
divert you. 1828 Scott /". M. Perth vi, If the son of some 
great Mac or O was to become an artizan. 1830 N. S. 
Wheaton Jrnl. 472 A feather or two stuck in his bonnet 
denotes his alliance in the 50th degree with some Highland 
Mac. 1887 [see O sb.']. 1898 Tit-Bits 21 May 148/1 In the 
house of Commons the ' Macs' are numerically strong enough 
to form a considerable party of their own. 

Mac 2 (mask), colloq. Short for Macadam. 

1851 Mayhew Lond. Lalwur II. 197 The Scavengers call 
mud allthat is swept from the granite or wood pavements, in 
contradistinction to mac which is scraped and swept on the 
macadamized roads. x88S Pall MallG. 2 Oct. 2/2 The thou- 
sands of yards of old mac that were taken offthe roads foruse 



Mac: see Mack, Make v. 
Macabaa, -bao, variants of Maccobot. 
Macaberesque (makabare'sk), a, [f. Maca- 
bre + -ESQUE.] —Macabre 2. 

1876 Encycl. Brit, V. 104/1 A curious reaction is visible in 
the work of Peter Breughel (1510-1570) towards the grotesque 
diablerie and macaberesque morality of mediaeval art. 

II Macabre (makffbr), a. Also 5 Machabree, 
7 Machabray, 9 Macaber. [The form now usual 
represents F. macabre, an error for OF. macabre 1 , 
whence the earlier Kng. forms. 

The OF. word occurs first in Jean le Fevre's Respit de la 
Mori (1376), where the author, 'if he be correctly interpreted 
by M. Gaston Paris {Romania XXIV. 131*, claims to have 
written a work called la danse Macabri. The etymology 
of the word is obscure ; so far as its form is concerned it 
might be a popular corruption of OF. Macabe = Macca- 
keus (an example of 'Judas Macabre' has been found), 
and in the 15th c. the 'Dance of Death' was called chorea 
Machabxorum in Latin (Du Cange cites a Besaucon docu- 
ment of 1453), and Makkabeusdansm Du. M. Gaston Paris, 
however, thinks Macabre may have been the name of the 
artist who painted the picture which suggested the first poem 
on the subject.] 

1. Danse Macabre, also in anglicized forms 
f dance of Machabree, -bray (obs.), dance Macaber ; 
the Dance of Death (see Daxce sb. 6 c). 

14.. Lydg. {title) The daunce of Machabree wherin is 
liucly expressed and shewed the state of manne, and howe 
he is called at vncertayne tymes by death, and when he 
thinketh least theron. Ibid. Prol. iii, I toke on me to 
translaten all, Out of the Frenche Machabrees daunce. 1598 
Stow Surz: 264 About this Cloysterwas artificially & richly 
painted the dance of Machabray, or dance of death, com- 
monly called the dance of Pauls. 1833 J. Dallawav Disc. * 
Archil. Eug, 137 The Dance of Macabre (Holbein's Dance 
of Death) was painted on the walls of the cloisters. 1851 
Longf. Gold. Leg., Nativ. v. 12 Elsie. What are these paint- 
ing* on the walls around us? Henry. The Dance Macaber ! 
Elsie. What ? Henry. The Dance of Death. 

2. Characterized by the gruesomeness of the 
danse Macabre (see 1): applied chiefly to literary 
or artistic productions. 

1889 A tken&um 1 4 Sept. 347/2 One Dance of Death circles 
uninterruptedly from end to end. . .The book is macabre, but 
unaffectedly macabre. 1892 Speaker 29 Oct. 528/1^ It was 
the material representation, .of the ghastly, the grim, and 
the macabre which Webster intended. 1902 Spectator 12 Apr. 
557 Her habits are bizarre, even macabre. 

Macac, variant of Macaque. 

Macaco 1 (mak^'ko). Also 7-8 macaquo, 
(erron. -guo), 9maeauco, vulgar m&cc&cco, mux - 
karker. [a. Pg. macaco monkey, ape (whence 
macaqnear to ape) ; cited (in the form macaquo) 
by Marcgrave Hist. Nat. Brazil (1648) 227 as 
the name used in Congo for this species of monkey.] 

1. Originally, a South African monkey incident- 
ally described by Marcgrave in his Natural His- 
tory of Brazil, and after him by various writers 
on zoology. Subsequently applied to any monkey 
of the genus Macacus (either in its earlier or 
later extension) ; = Macaque. 

(1693 Ray Syn. Anim. Quad. etc. 155 Cercopithecus ango- 
lensis major, Congensibus Macaquo Marcgr.] 1774G0LDSM. 
Nat. Hist. IV. 233 Of the monkiesof the ancient continent, 
the first, he [Burton] describes, is the Macaguo ; somewhat 
resembling a baboon in size. 1854 Bushxan in Circ. Sci. 
(c 1865I I. 290/2 In the mandril, pavian, and macacos, mem- 
branous sacs are observed. 1874 Slang Diet., Murkarker x 
a monkey, vulgar Cockney pronunciation of Macauco. . . 
Jacko Macauco, or Maccacco, as he was mostly called, was 
the name of a famous fighting monkey, .who used nearlyfifly 
years ago to display his prowess at the Westminster Pit. 

2. Comb. : macaco-wood, Tococa guianensis, a 
Brazilian shrub (Cassell); macaco-worm, the larva 
of a South American insect, Dermatobia noxialis, 
which infests the skin of animals. 

1875 Beneden's Anim. Parasites viil 175 A gadfly found 
at Cayenne is distinguished by the name of the Macaco 
Worm ; it. .usually attacks the skin of oxen and dogs. 

IHacaCO 2 (makt 7|, k0). Also 8 mococo, 8-9 
maucauco, 9 iiiacauco. [a. F. (Button) mococo ; 
ulterior origin obscure. Cf. Maki.] A name ap- 
plied to certain lemurs, esp. to the genus Lemur. 

1751 G. Edwards Nat. Hist. Birds, etc. iv. 197 The 
Maucauco .. is about the Bigness of a middling sized Cat. 
1774 Goi.dsm. Nat. Hist. IV. 239 The last of the monkey 
kind are the Makis...The first of this kind is the Mococo ; 
a beautiful animal about the size of a common cat, but. .of 
a longer make. 1797 Encycl. Brit. (ed. 3) IX. 785 Lemur, 
the Maucauco.. 1. The tardigradus, or tail-less maucauco. 
1834 Nat. Philos., Phys. Geog. 54/2 (U. K. S.) The flying 
macauco or lemur. 1839 Penny Cycl. XIII. 419/1 The 
Makis, or Macaucos, properly so called, Lemur. 1840 
Blyth tr. Cuviers Anim. Kingd. (1849) 64 The Murine 
Macauco (Lemur murinus). 1884 Riverside Nat. Hist. 
(1888) I. 228 The Mongoose Lemur, or Woolly Macaco 
[Lemur mongoz]. 

|| Macacus ^mak^'k^s). PI. maeaci (ma- 
k^'soi). [mod.L., ad. F. macaque: see Macaque.] 
A genus of Old World catarrhine monkeys of the 
family Cercopithecidx ; originally including a great 
number of African and Asiatic species, but now 
restricted to species resembling the bonnet ma- 
caque or toque; a monkey of this genus. 

1871 Darwix Desc. Man I. i. 23 In .. baboons and some 
species of macacus the upper portions of the ear is slightly 
pointed. 187s Encycl. Brit. II. 152/1 The Maeaci present 

us with the most northern forms of apes. 1893 Daily 
News 8 June 5/3 A small monkey, a macacus, has been 
placed in his cell to keep him [an ourang-outang] company. 
Macadam (mafe'dam). (Formerly with 
capital M ; also Mac-Adam, M c Adam.) 

1. The name of John Loudon M°Adam (1756- 
1836) used attrib. to designate the kind of roadway 
which he invented and the material used in making 
it : see Macadamize. 

Now apprehended as an attributive use of 2. 

1824 Miss Mitfokd Village Ser. 1. 277 We shall see no 
more of him [our surveyor]; for the Mac-Adam ways are 
warranted not to wear out. 1878 N. Amer. Rev. CXXVI. 
91 Closet warriors, in cozy studies, with smooth McAdam 
roadways before their doors. 1881 Macm. Mag. XLIV. 
342 All piles of spare macadam material were carefully 

2. The material of which a macadamized road 
is made. 

1826 J. Wilson Noct. Ambr. Wks. 1855 I. 178 What a.. 
rattle o' wheels !. .intolerable aneuch ower the macadam, 
but Lord hae mercy on us, when you're on the causeway ! 
1831 Moore Summer Pete 121 Where never gleam of gas 
must dare 'Gainst ancient Darkness to revolt, Nor smooth 
Macadam hope to spare The dowagers one single jolt. 
1856 Fonblanojje in Life <5- Labours (1874) 520 He may 
gravely serve out Macadam for rations, and supply biscuit 
for making roads. 1862 Athen.rrmi 30 Aug. 268 The dral> 
coloured mud of the macadam. 189a Times 20 Apr. 7/4 It 
is broken up into macadam, and forms a splendid material 
for making roads. 

fig. 1871 R. H. Hutton Ess. II. 126 He sprinkles a 
little macadam of stony fact along the fair upland path of 
liis imagination. 1892 Academy 29 Oct. 382/3 It is an un« 
finished macadam of inverted commas and references. 

3. nonce-use as adj. Level as macadam. 

a 1845 Hood St. to 'Pom 11 'oodgate v, Does that hard, 
honest hand now.. tug the oar, a gondolier On smooth Mac- 
ad am seas ? 

Macadamite (maekae'damait), sb. and a. Now 

rare or Obs. [f. Macadam t- -1TB.] 

A. sb. One who practises or advocates M c Adam*s 
system of road-making. 

1821 Monthly Mag. LII. 104 Some incidental remarks of 
mine in a paper I sent you in May last, have caused the 
Mackadainites to throw some of their spare dirt about. 
1839 Murchison Silur. Syst. 1. xxxix. ^35 In certain 
districts, .they [boulders] are fast disappearing through the 
labours of the Macadamites. 

B. adj. Pertaining to M c Adam's system of road- 

1824 Miss Mitford Village Ser. 1. 276 The Mac-Adamite 
enormity of the stony road. 1846 Thackeray Comhill to 
Cairo vii. Wks. 1900 V. 650 Roads were being repaired in 
the Macadamite manner. 

Macaclamization (mxkse^amsiz^ 1 'Jan). 
(Formerly with capital M.) [f. next + -atiox.] 
The process, practice, or system of making mac- 
adamized roads; rarely concr. a macadamized road. 
Also, the converting of stone into road-metal. * 

1824 Land. Mag. X. 350 Major-Taylorization against Mac- 
adamization any day! 1834 Ne^vcastle Mag. ill* 07 The 
only road in our neighbourhood on which something like 
Macadamization has been attempted. 18*5 Blackw. Mag. 
XV IL 87 Along street under the process of Macadamization. 
1826 Miss MlTPORD Village Ser. 11.2 That, .turnpike-road., 
is now so perfect and so beautiful a specimen of Macadam- 
ization, that [etc.]. 1861 Musgrave By-roads 75 Mac-adam- 
ization. 1860 ' Bradwood' O. V. H. (1870) 184 Miss Warren 
. .was cantering down the turf border that fringed the mac- 
adamisation. 1871 L. Stephen Playgr. Eur. v. (1894) 121 
The glacier., crushed into smaller fragments, producing . . 
a kind of incipient macadamisation. 

Jig. 1847 Tait's Mag. XIV. 746 So very strange a 
macadamization of parties has taken place. 

Macadamize (m&kccvlamsiz), v. Also 
M Adamise, -ize. [f. Macadam + -ize.] 

1. trans. To make or repair (a road) according 
to J. L. McAdam's system, which consists in 
laying down successive layers of stone broken into 
pieces of nearly uniform size, each layer being 
allowedto consolidate underthe pressure of ordinary 
wheel traffic before the next is laid upon it. 

See M c Adam's pamphlet, Remarks on the Present System 
oj Road-Making (ed. 5, 1822^. He did not approve of the 
placing of any kind of foundation under the layers of stone, 
of the use of sand or gravel as ' binding ' material, or of the 
smoothing of the surface by heavy rollers ; though the name 
of ' macadamizing ' is now often given to methods in which 
some or all of these practices are admitted. 

1826 L ion Hunting 78 The road . . was what we now deemed 
a great luxury, — M'Adamized, instead of paved. 1828 
Southey To A. Cunningham 23 A street not yet Macadam- 
ized. i863A.C.RAMSAY/7y£.6V^.(i878)6i3lIasalts. .areill 
adapted for macadamising roads. 1871 L. Stephen Playgr. 
Eur. (1854) 135 A heap of granite stones prepared for 
macadamising a road. 

absol. 1871 M. Collins Mrq. $■ Mcrch. I. vi. 188 There 
is no hard stone nearer than Mount Sorel, so they mac- 
adamize with something almost as soft as loaf sugar. 
b. fig. To render level or even ; to level, raze. 

1826 J. Shekman in Mem. (1863) 219 Grace indeed 
macadamises the road, makes the stones smaller. 1827 J elf 
Let. to Pusey in Liddon, etc. Life P. (1893^ I. 117 Your 
mind is certainly macadamized ; mine resembles the road 
between this [Berlin] and Strelitz. 1829 Makrvat P. Mild- 
7ttay iii, The enemy's centre should have been macadamised 
by our seven three-deckers. 1842 Orderson Creol. iv. 38 
Our. .Bishop has. .macadamized the way for his successor. 
1868 Peard Water-Farm. \\. 14 Each successful labour of 
to-day will macadamise the road for to-morrow. 


2. To convert into road-metal. 

1841 J. T. Hewlett Parish Clerk II. 154 Coarse, thick 
slates, that would certainly have been macadamized in these 
days as excellent materials for road-making. 

b. transf. and fig. To break up (something 
' hard or figured as being hard) into pieces. ? Obs. 

1825 Good Study Med. (ed. 2) V. 539 By grinding, or as 
we should now perhaps call it macadamizing the stone into 
granules. 1825 New Monthly Mag. XV. 296 In Macadamiz- 
ing a few broad, simple, and impressive sounds into passages 
of numberless rapid notes, there is no time left for giving the 
emphasis required. 1852 Smedley L. Arundel xxxxi. 270 
Richard Frere . . devoted himself to that indurated specimen 
of the original granite formation,.. and by trying to mac- 
adamise her into small-talk [etc.]. 1855 — //. Coverdale 
i. 2 Fathers have flinty hearts, and even the amenities of 

. the nineteenth century have failed to macadamise them. 

Macadamized (m&kardamaizd), ppl, a. [f. 
; Macadamize + -ed l.] 

1. Of a road (see Macadamize i). 

1827 Blackiv. Mag. XXI. 791 We were not seen stumbling 
even upon a Macadamized road. 1837 Civil Eug. <$- Arch. 
Jrnl. 1. 1/2 Filled in with broken stones, such as are used for 
M'Adamized roads. 1861 Mcscrave By-roads 282, I found 
even a Mac-adamized road, which crosses the plain, miry 
enough, in heavy rain. 1889 p. Findlay Eng. Railway 49 
A well-constructed macadamized road. 

Jig. 1827 Lvtton Falkland 45 Neither in person nor in 
character was he much beneath or above the ordinary 
standard of men. He was one of Nature's Macadamized 
achievements. His great fault was his equality. 1863 
Cowden Clarke Shaks. Char. xi. 291 The hard and mac- 
adamised road of dry duty and daily labour. 

2. broken up into road-metal. Also {nonce-use\ 
strewn with broken stones. 

1849 Capt. C. Sturt Exped. Centr. Austral. I. 238 We 
then proceeded . . down the creek, keeping close upon its 
banks to avoid the macadamized plains on either side. 1888 
Times (weekly ed.) 23 Nov. 3/3 Some loose macadamised 
stones lying about. 

Macadamizer. [f. Macadamize + -eb i.] 

1. One who makes macadamized roads. 

1824 Newcastle Mag. 1 1 1. 26 [The paviours] have . . nothing 
to do but to transform themselves into Macadamizers. 1864 
Reader 11 June 747/3 Our London macadamizers go about 
their work in a very unscientific way. i£3i Instr. Census 
Clerks (1885)87 Paviour. ..Macadamiser. 

2. One who rides on a macadamized road ; esp. 
one who keeps to the roads when hunting. 

1832 G. Downes Lett. Cont. Countries I. 11 Our little 
Gallic Macadamizer asked one of the Hibernians present 
[etc.]. 1838 Slrtees Jorrocks's Jaunts 55 A private road 
and a line of gates through fields now greet the eyes of our 
M'Adamisers. 1869' Bradwood* O. V.H. I. xii.219 ' Here 
come all the roadsters !' growled the latter, as the hounds., 
crossed a bye-road — along which in the rear clattered some 
fifty macadamisers. 

Macadamizing, vbl. sb. [-nra *.] The 

action of the verb Macadamize; macadamization. 
1851-61 Mayhew Lend. Labour II. 181 The macadamiz- 
ing of the latter thoroughfare. 1876 Page Adv. Text-Bk. 
Geol. vii. 136 Their extensive use in causewaying and mac- 

Macadamizing, ppl. a. [-ing 2 .] a. That 
macadamizes, b. (Cf. Macadamizer 2.) 

1826 Hentham in Il'est/n. Rev. VI. 457 It performs the 
function of a Mac-adamizing hammer, in breaking down the 
aggregate mass, i860 O. W. Holmes Pro/. Breakf.-t. i, 
This is the great Macadamizing place, always cracking up 
something. 1869' Uradwood' O. V.H. 1. 224 Jack Marshall, 
in the safe pursuit of pleasure, as far as compatible with 
macadamising action, nad suddenly espied . . the Maule 

Macaleb, obs. form of Mahaleb. 

Macalive, variant of Mackallow Obs. 

Macamethe, obs. form of Mahomet. 

]| Macana (maka*na). Smith American. [Said 
by Humboldt to be Haytian.] An ironwood club. 

1622 R. Hawkins Vpy. S. Sea § 27 (1847) 98 Their armes 
for the warre, which is a sword of heavie hlacke wood... 
They [the Indians of Brazil] call it macana, and it is carved 
and wrought with inlayd works very curiously, but his edges 
are blunt. Ibid. § 41. 147 Their [the islanders of Mocha, 
Chile] weapons are bowes and arrowes and macanas. 1822 
Sara Coleridge tr. Dobrizhoffer's Hist. Abipones [Para- 
guay! H.360 The wooden club, macana. 1861 W. Bollaert 
tr. P. Simon's Exped. Aguirre (Hakl, Soc.) xix. 79 Darts 
and macanas (a sort of club). [The reference is to Peru.] 

+ Macao. Obs. Also makao. [f. the name 
of Macao, a Portuguese settlement on the coast of 
China, noted for gambling. In Fr. macao. • Cf. 
Macco.] A gambling game at cards, 'a kind of 
vingt-et-un ' (Littre). 

1778 Earl Malmesbury Diaries $ Corr. I. 179 Macao, 
(a game much in vogue here at present). 1783 H. Walpolk 
Lett. (1858) VIIL 388 When she wants to play at macao. 
1794 C. Pigot Female Jockey Club 109 We have beheld her 
ready to burst with rage, when the consequences have been 
against her at Macao. 1827 Sporting Mag. XX. 58 A 
diplomatic character and member of a fashionable Club at 
Brussels, has been accused of cheating at Macao. 1883 
Times 11 July 7 He consorted much with . . needy players 
at . . roulette, makao, and similar games of hazard. 

Macao, obs. form of Macaw. 

Macaque (makak). Also 9 macac. [a. F. 
macaque, ad. Pg. macaco : see Macaco ] .] 

+ 1. SomeBrazilianspecies of monkey. Obs. rare -1 . 

1698 Froger Voy. 115 We observed two sorts of Monkeys 
there [viz. Brazil], which they distinguished by the Names 
of Sagovins and Macaques [Fr. orig. Macaos]. . .The 
Macaques are. .of a brown Colour. 



2. A monkey of the genus Macaci;s. 

1840 Blyth tr. Cuvier's Aniiu, Kiugd. (1849) 58 The 
Macaques( Macacus, Desm. f. Zbid.sgThG Bonnetecf Macaque 
{M. Sinicits). Ibid., The Pig-tailed Macaque. . .The Black 
Macaque. xSjsEucycl. Brit. II. 152/1 The Thibet Macaque 
{Macacus thibetanus'). 1878 Browning La Saisiaz 590 
What though monkeys and macaques Gibber ' Byron ' \ 1885 
E. Balfour Cycl. India(e<5. 3) II. 753/2 Macacus cynomol- 
gus, common macac. 

Macare, obs. form of Maker. 

Mac ari Sill (nue'kariz'm). rare. Also ma- 
karism. [ad. Gr. p.a/capi(rp-6s, f. pia/capifav : see 
next and -ISM.] a. (See tjuot, 1818-60; and cf. 
next vb.) b. -^ Beatitude 2. 

1818-60 Whately Commpl, Bk. (1S64) 25 note, The words 
' felicitate ' and * congratulate ' are used only in application to 
events, which are one branch only of 'macarism '. Ibid. 28 
To admiration, contempt seems to be the direct contrary ; 
censure to commendation ; pity to macarism. a i860 J. A. 
Alexander Gosp. Matth. (1861) no A series of beatitudes 
or macarisins [Footnote, fia«api<7>ids], so called from tfie 
word with which they severally open. 1882 A. B. Bhuce 
Parab. Teach. Christ 380 The makarisms and woes with 
which Luke's version of the Sermon on the Mount begins. 
1889 — Kingd. God Introd. 10 Luke's .. form of the 'ma- 
carisms \ 

Macarize (markaroiz), v. rare. Also ma- 
carise, makarize. [f. Gr. fiaKapt(ctV) f. fmfcap 
happy : see-lZE.J trans. To account or call happy 
or blessed (cf. quot. 1816-60). 

1816-60 Whately Commpl. Bk. (1865) 9 A man is admired 
for what he is, macarized for what he has, praised for what 
he does. Ibid. (1864) 25 If a man possess a genius, or a 
person that is admirable, he is himself admired ; but not if 
he has an admirable horse or house ; the sentiment we feel 
towards him is of a different nature, and we have no English 
word to express it ; so much are we at a loss as to resort to 
the word 'envy 1 . I should like to introduce the word l ma- 
carise '. 1840 Arnold Let. in Stanley Life $ Corr. (1844) 
II. ix. 227 Therefore I ' macarize ' you the more, for having 
both an inherited home, and in a county and part of the 
county per se delightful, a 1871 Grote Eth. Fragm. v. 
(1876) 177 No man praises happiness, as he praises justice, 
but macarises (blesses) it as something more divine and 

Macaron, variant of Macaroon. 

Macaroni (meekir^rni). PL -ies. Also 6-9 
maccaroni, 8 mac(c)arone, makarony, 9 mack- 
erony. [a. It. maccaroni (Florio 1 598), earlier form 
of maccheroni (^Florio 1611) pi. of maccherone ; 
the ulterior etymology is obscure. 

Some scholars have suggested connexion with Gr. fxaicapia, 
explained by Hesychins to mean a sort of barley-broth. 
Diez regarded the word as a derivative of It. maccare to 
bruise, crush.] 

1. A kind of wheaten paste, of Italian origin, 
formed into long tubes and dried for use as food. 

The same ' Italian paste ' is prepared also in the form of 
Vermicelli, q.v. 

J 599 B. Jonson Cynthia's Rev. n. i, He doth 
eat senchouies, maccaroni, bouoli, fagioli, and cauiare. 1750 
Chesterf. Lett. (1792) II. 345 You would do very well to 
take one or two such sort of people home with you to 
dinner every day ; it would be only a little mincstra and 
macaroni the more. 1769 Mrs. Rafeald Eug. Housekpr. 
(177 8 ) 285 To dress Macaroni with Parmesan Cheese. 1813 
Sir H. Davy Agric. Chem. (1814) 142 The wheat of the 
south of Europe, in consequence of the larger quantity of 
gluten it contains, is peculiarly fitted for making macaroni. 
1825 Lvtton Zicci 45 Merton had heard much of the excel- 
lence of the macaroni at Portici. 1893 Spectators June 
768 A Sicilian sawyer fed on macaroni and melons. 

2. a. Hist. An exquisite of a class which arose 
in England about 1 760 and consisted of young 
men who had travelled and affected the tastes and 
fashions prevalent in continental society, b. dial. 
A fop, dandy. 

[This use seems to be from the name of the Macaroni Club, 
a designation prob. adopted to indicate the preference of the 
members for foreign cookery, macaroni being at that time little 
eaten in England. There appears to be no connexion with 
the transferred use of It. maccherone in the senses ' block- 
head, fool, mountebank", referred to in 1711 by Addison 
Sped. No. 47 p 5.] 

[1764 H. Walpolk Let. Earl Hertford 6 Feb. (1857) IV. 
17S The Maccaroni Club (which is composed of all the 
travelled young men who wear long curls and spying- 
glasses).] ( 1764 — Let. Earl Hertford 27 May Ibid. 258 Lady 
talkener's daughter is to be married to a young rich Mr. 
Crewe, a Macarone, and of our Loo. 1770 Oxford Mag. 
June 228/2 There is indeed a kind of animal, neither male 
nor female, a thing of the neuter gender, lately started up 
amongst us. It is called a Macaroni. It talks without 
meaning, it smiles without pleasantry, it eats without appe- 
tite, it rides without exercise, it wenches without passion. 
1773 Boswell Johnson 21 Aug., You are a delicate Lon- 
doner ; you are a maccaroni; you can't ride. 1773 [C. 
Hitchcock] Macaroni 1. 5, I wanted you to be a man of 
spirit ; your ambition was to appear a iirst-rate Macaroni ; 
you are returned fully qualified, and determined, I see, to 
shew the world what a contemptible creature an English- 
man dwindles into, when he adopts the follies and vices of 
other nations. 1783 Mme. D'Arblay Diary 9 Dec, It is 
the custom, you know, among the Macaronies, to wear two 
watches. 1820 Lamb Elia Ser. 1. South-Sea House, He wore the fashion which I remember to have seen in 
caricatures of what were termed, in my young days, Mac- 
caromes. 1854 A. E. Baker Nhampton Words H, Ma- 
carom, a fop. Equivalent to the modern dandy J now 
nearly, if not quite, obsolete. 1859 Thackeray Virgin. 
11879) I. 357 If he brags a little to-night . . and talks about 
London and Lord March, and White's, and Almack's, with the 
air of a macaroni. i88x At/tenteum 5 Nov. 603/2 The weak 
chin, . .resolute brow, and good forehead, portray Sheridan to 

the life, as he appeared, a macaroni and brilliant lounger in 
Carlton House. 1891 Sheffield Gloss., Mackcrony, an over- 
dressed, or gaudily -dressed person. 

transf. 1778 [W, Marshall] Minutes Agric. 3 Feb. 1775 
Harnessed the old oxen in all their new finery. . ; the Pan- 
theon never saw two more ridiculous Macaronies. 

3. A species of crested penguin, liudyptes c/iry- 
solophus. In full macaroni penguin. 

[App. so called because its crest was thought to resemble 
the coiffure of the ' macaronies '. The Pall Mall Gazette 
Extra of 24 July 1884, p, 29/2 gives from a print of 1777 
two figures of head-dresses then in use, one of which is called 
' the macaroni '. Cf. also quot. 1820 in 2.] 

1838 Poe A. G. Pym Wks. 1864 IV. 123 The maccaroni, 
the jackass and the rookery penguin, i860 C. C. Abboit 
in Ibis 338 This bird is called in the Falkland Islands the 
Maccaroni Penguin. . . It has an orange-coloured crest. 1885 
Encycl. Brit. YJVXW.^yifiEudyptrs, containing the crested 
Penguins, known to sailors as . .' Macaronis \ 

4. A medley (such as a macaronic poem). 

1884 Rogers Six Cent. Work $ Wages (1886/166 Poli- 
tical songs in Latin or in a maccaroni of Latin and English. 

5. In the West Indies, a coin of the value of a 
quarter of a dollar. ? Obs. 

1834 M. G. Lewis Jrnl. W. Ind. 403 Each grown person 
received a present of half a dollar, and every child a mac- 
caroni. 1838 W. Jameson in A. Robb Cos/. Africans 1 1860 
iv. 88 The masters began to offer a macaroni, or is. sterling, 
a day. 

f6. The name of a gambling-room at New- 
market. (Cf. Macco.) Obs. 

1771 P. Parsons Newmarket I. 186 The Maccaroni is no 
other than a pretty large and whimsically painted room. 

7. (See quot.) 

1876 R. L. Wallace Canary Bk. xiv. 165 Lizards [sc. 
canaries] are known among Scotchmen as ' macaronies '. 

8. Short for macaroni tool. 

1867 G. A. Rogers Wood Carr-ing 12 Now take the mac- 
caroni and cut away the wood on either side of the vein.. . 
The maccaroni. .is shaped to cut at both angles. 

9. attrib., as (sense 1) macaroni dealer, -stall, 
wheat ; (sense 2) macaroni cane, dress, intellt- 
goner ^ marquis, philosopher, shrug, train; f ma- 
caroni riddle, V some kind of small violin ; f ma- 
caroni gin, a kind of colliery gin (E. D. 1).); 
t macaroni stake (see quot.); macaroni tool, 
a square-cutting tool used in wood-carving. 

1781 Westiu. Mag. IX. 71 A supple-jack or a ^macaroni 
cane, embellished with silk and gold tassels. 1851 in Hlustr. 
Loud. News 5 Aug. (1854) 110/1 Occupations of the People, 
. . *Maccaroni-dealer. 177a Foote Nabob 1. (1778) 26 The 
waiter at Almack's has just brought him home his 'macaroni 
dressfor the hazard table. 1777 Mme. D'Arblay Early Diary 
Apr.-July (1889) II. 185 First came a French horn,— ..then 
a violin, — a bass,— a bassoon, — a ^Macaroni fiddle. 1789 
Brand Hist. Newcastle II. 684 There is a sort of gins 
called 'whim gins', and a kind known by the name of 
' "macaroni gins'. 1769 Public Advert. 18 May 4/2 Thy 
Paper is the *Macarony Intelligencer, 1859 Thackeray 
I irgin. xcii. (1S78J 758, I never bargained to have a *Mac- 
caroni Marquis to command me. 1797 Monthly Mag. III. 
92 In this fanciful a^ra, when ^macaroni philosophers hold 
flirtation with science. 1775 Mme. D'Arblay Early Diary 
2i Nov., 'It is not at all the ton to like her': .. (with 
a 'Macarony shrug). 1823 'Jon Bee' Diet. 7'urf,*Ma- 
caroni stakes, those ridden by gentlemen, not jockies. 1814 
Sporting Mag. XLIV. 103 You dash among the pots of 
a *maccaroiii-stalI. 1867 G. A. Rogers Wood Carving 2 A 
*maccaroni tool. 1890 C. G. Leland Wood Carving 10 The 
Macaroni Tool.. is for removing wood on each side of a 
vein or leaf, or similar delicate work. Ibid. 42 The so-called 
'macaroni-tool '.. is really very little used, owing to the 
great difficulty of keeping it sharp, and its liability to break. 
1773 Goldsm. Stoops to Cong. Epil., Ye travell'd tribe, ye 
^macaroni train, igoi Westm. Gaz. 23 July 7/3 The *ma- 
caroni wheat crop (a new venture in the United States). 

t Macaro'nian, a. Obs. [f. prec. + -an.] 

1. =Macakonjc a. 1. 

1727-41 Chambers Cycl., Macaronic, or Macaronian, a 
kind of burlesque poetry.. .We have little in English in the 
Macaronian way. 1751 Cambridge Scribieriad n. 184 note, 
The Macaronian is a kind of burlesque poetry, consisting 
of a jumble of words of different languages, with words of 
the vulgar tongue latinized, and latin words modernized. 

2. =MACAROMCtf. 3. 

1788 R. Galloway Poems (1792) 16 Give ear ilk Maca- ! 
ronian beau, Tween George's Square an eke Soho. 

Macaronic (msekar^-nik), a. and sb. Also 7 1 
makeronick, 8 maccaronic. [ad. mod.L. maca- ! 
ronie-us ^ It. (f macaronicd) maccheronico, f. {-\rna- 
caroni) maccheroni Macaroni. 

The word seems to have been invented by Teofilo Folengo 
(' Merlinus Cocaius ') whose ' macaronic ' poem (Liber 
Macarouices) was published in 1517. He explains (ed. 2, 
1521) that the 'macaronic art ' is so called from macaroni, 
which is 'quoddam pulmentuni farina, caseo, botiro com- 
paginatum, grossum, rude, et rusticanum '.] 

A. adj. 1. Used to designate a burlesque form of 
verse in which vernacular words are introduced 
into a Latin context with Latin terminations and 
in Latin constructions. Also, applied to similar 
verse of which the basis is Greek instead of Latin ; 
and loosely to any form of verse in which two or 
more languages are mingled together. Hence of 
language, style, etc. : Resembling the mixed jargon 
of macaronic poetry. 

1638 Sir J. Beaumont in fousonns Virbius 12 He Latin 
Horace found . . Translated in the Macaromcke loung, Cloth'd 
in such raggs as [etc.]. 1711 Drumm. of llaiuth's 
Wks., Life 5 For diverting himself and his Friends, he 
wrote a Sheet which he called PokmO'Middinia \ 'Tis a 

■ sort of Macaronick Poetry, in which the Scots Words are 
I put In Latin Terminations. 1778 Johnson 14 Apr. in 
Boswell, Maccaronick verses are verses made out of a mix- 
ture of different languages. 1837 Hallam Hist. Lit. 1. vi. 
1 $ 31 I. 519 Maillard.. whose sermons, printed if not preached 
I in Latin, with sometimes a sort of almost macaronic inter- 
mixture of French. 1897 Dowoen Er. Lit. n. i. 90 The 
macaronic poet Folengo. 1898 Stevenson .S7. Ives 236 
Grace was said, .in a macaronic latin. 
f2. Of the nature of a jumble or medley. Obs. 
1611 (title) Coryats Crambe,or his Colwort Twise Sodden, 
And Now serued in with other Macaronicke dishes, as the 
second course to his Crudities. 1806 J. Dai.laway Obs. 
Lug. Arch. 222 Those Travellers who have seen the new 
buildings of Edinburgh and Glasgow will look on the archi- 
tecture of Bath, as belonging to the maccaronick order. 1816 
G. Colman Br. Grins, Lament, xiv. (1872J 271 My coame, 
macaronic style may here and there excite a smile. 
3. Pertaining to a macaroni, rare" . 
1828-33 Webster, Macaronic, pertaining to or like a 
macaroni ; empty ; trifling ; vain ; affected. 
B. sb. 
1. a. Macaronic language or composition, b. 
//. Macaronic verses. 

a 1668 Denham Dialogue 33 You that were once so cecono- 
mick, Quitting the thrifty style Laconick, Turn Prodigal in 
Makeronick. 1693 ApoL. Clergy Scot. 31 When some of his 
Party mounts the Desk and declaims their Maccaronicks. 
1727 Bailey vol. II, Macaronicks [among the Italians], a 
sort of Burlesque Poetry made out of their Language, and 
the Scraps and Terminations of divers other. 1839 Hallam 
Introd. Lit. Europe II. v. 267 note, Folengo. .sat down for 
the rest of his lite to write Macaronics, a 1864 Lucy Aikin 
in Mem. etc. 77 Our own people were turning Scotch with- 
out knuwing it. We began to allow the macaronic of the 
Fdinburgh Review for actual English ! 
f 2. A jumble or medley. Obs. 

1611 CorciR., Macaronioue, a Macaronick; a confused 
heape, or huddle of many seueiall things. 

t MacarO'Hical, a. Obs. Also 6 macheron- 
icall. [See prec. and -ical.] = Macaronic a. 
1585 E. I). Prayse of Nothing Hj b, The macheronicall 

phantasies of Merlinus Cocaius. 1596 Nashe Saffron II 'at- 
deu F, Who. .hath translated my Piers J'cwiilcssc into the 
Macaronicall tongue. 

Macaronically, adv. [f. Macaronic: see 
-ically.J In the macaronic manner. 

1821 W. Taylor in Monthly Rev. XCYI. 82 That strange 
mixture of Portuguese, Spanish, .. [etc.] names with which 
most European maps of South America are macaronically 
diversified. 1900 G. W. E. Russell Conferences ii. 24 The 
earliest pieces . . are in the learned language, sometimes 
macaronically interspersed with the vernacular. 

Macaronicism (ma.'karfnisiz'm). [f. Ma- 
caronic +] Macaronic style. 

1830 Genii. Mag. C. n. 123 Moliere gives an amusing 
specimen of macaronicism, in the troisiemc intermede of 
Le Malade Imaginaire. 1845 Encycl. Metro/. XXI. 629/2 
It may be doubted, however, whether the Ancients would 
be very solicitous to establish a prior claim to Macaronicism. 

Macai'Ollism (nuekan^-niz'm). Also 8 maca- 
ronyism, 9 maccaroni-ism. [f. Macaroni + 
-ISM.] Behaviour characteristic of a macaroni; 

1775 Mme. D'Arblay Early Diary 21 Nov., He is a good 
deal in the present ton, which is not Macaronyism. 1835 
laifs Mag. II. 20 His colonel, .requited his maccaroni-ism 
by a week's arrest. 1863 Sala Capt. Dangerous II. viii. 
252 We would have thought it vile poltroonery and ma- 
caronism to have worn wigs. 1868 C'tess Minto Mem. 
It ' . Elliot i. 28 His maccaionism seems to have been a sub- 
ject of jest among his friends. 

Macaro'nyisli, a. rare- 1 , [f. Macaroni + 
-ish.] Characteristic of dandyism. 

1859 Sala Tic. round Clock (1861) 2S8 There is something 
supercilious, pragmatical, macaronyish, un-English, in the 
announcement, ' No half-price'. 

Macaroon (nuekar«-n). Also 7 makeron(e, 
maquaroon, mackroom, mackroon, 7-8 macke- 
roou(e, mackaroon(e, macaron, 8 makeroon, 
macron, 7-9 maccaroon. [a. Y .macaron (i6thc), 
ad. It. maccarone (now maccherone) sing, of 
maccaroni: see Macaroni.] 

1. A small sweet cake or biscuit consisting chiefly 
of ground almonds, white of egg, and sugar. 

1611 Cotgr., Macarons, Macarons ; little Fritter-like 
Bunnes, or thicke Losenges, compounded of Sugar, Almonds, 
Rosewater, and Muske. 1611 Makkham Country Content. 11. 
ii. (1668) q8 To make Jumbals more fine and curious . . and 
nearer to the taste of the Macaroon. 1630 J. Taylor (Water 
P.) 67. Eater Kent W r ks. 1. 146/1 Whether it bee .. Fritter, 
or Flapiacke, or Posset, Galley-Mawfrey, Mackeroone, 
Kickshaw, or Tantablin. 1688 R. Holml Armoury 111. 
83/2 Mackrooms, a kind of roul of sweet Bread. 1725 
Bradlky Earn. Diet. s.v. Tourte, You may also put a 
pounded Macaroon into the Artichoke Cream. 1747 Mrs. 
GLAssEC^v-fcfryxv. 141 To make Maccaroons. 1848 I . Grant 
Adv. A ide-de-C '. xxviii. (Rtldg.) 227 Little maccaroons, sweet 
as sugar and almonds could make them. 1875 A. R. Hoi'E 
My School-boy Er. 138 We were regaling on macaroons. 

altrib. 1783 Mme. D'Arblay Diary 9 Dec., I had no more 
power to prevent it than this macaroon cake in my hand. 
1836 T. Hook G. Gurney I. 297 A Jew boy, selling maca- 
roon cakes. 1898 Gully in Daily Ne7vs 21 July 7/5 A 
Marchpane is an edifice in macaroon work. 

f2. = Macaroni i. Obs. 

17*04 J. Pitts Ace. Mahometans iii. (1738) 24 What they 
call Mackaroon is some Paste made only with Flonr and 
Water. 1738 [G. Smith] Curious Kelat. II. 302 A Sort of 
Pudding, which they [in Malta] call Macron. 1753 Cham- 
bers Cycl.Supp., Macaron, the name of a sort of vermicelli, 
a paste made of flour and water, and formed into the shape 
of the barrel of u quill, or the guts of small fowls. 




f3. A buffoon ; a blockhead, dolt. Also dial, a 
fop ( -— Macakoxi 2). Obs. [Cf. It. maccherone.'} 

a 1631 Donne Sat. iv. 117 Like a bigge wife, at sight of 
lothed meat. . ; so I sigh and sweat To heare this Makeron 
talke in vaine. a 1633 R. B. In Mem., Donne's Poems 401 
A Macaroon And no way fit to speake to clouted shoone. 
a 1835 Forby Voc. E. Anglia, Macaroon, a fop. 

Macartney (makautni). [Thename of George, 
Y.3lx\ Macartney {* 137 -1806).] Used in Macartney 
cock , pheasant, and in shortened form Macartney. 
A pheasant of the genus Ettplocamus, esp. E. 
Ignitus ; a nreback. 

[179. Or. Shaw in Sir G. Staunton Macartney's Embassy 
to China (1797) I. 248 It may be called the fi repacked 
pheasant. 1813 Tkmminck Hist. Nat. des Pigeons etc. II. 
273 Houpifere Macartney. Gallus Macartneyi. Mihi. .. 
Cette belle espece de Gallinace .. a ete indiquee .. par 
sir Georges Staunton, d'apres un individu qui fut offert a 
Lord Macartney, Ambassadeur Anglais aupresde l'Empereur 
de la Chine.] 1834 Sir W. Jardine Nat. 1 1 ist .Gallinaceous 
Birds I. 214 The Macartney Cock. Euplocamus Ignitus. 
Tire-backed Pheasant of Java. 1840 Blyth tr. Cuvier's 
Anini. Kingd. (1849) 227 The Macartneys. 

Macary bitter. ' A West Indian name for /V-s. 
cramnia Antidesma* (Treas. Bat. 1866). 

atn6 H. Barham Hortus Americanus (1794) 96^ Majoe. 
. . It is also called Macary bitter from its growing in great 
plenty in the bay of Macary. 

Macassar (makarsai). [The name (in the 
native form Mangkasara^ of a district in the island 
of Celebes.] Macassar oil, an unguent for the 
hair, grandiloquently advertised in the early part 
of the 19th century, and represented by the makers 
(Rowland and Son) to consist of ingredients ob- 
tained from Macassar. The name has subsequently 
been given commercially to various natural pro- 
ducts imported from the East, e.g. to the oils ex- 
pressed from the seeds of Schleichcra trijuga, Car- 
thamus tinctorius, and the berries of Stadtmannia 
Sidero.xylon. (Hence Macassar-oiled a., anointed 
with this oil. Macassar poison, the gum of a 
tree, with which the Malays poison their arrows. 

1666-7 Phil. Trans. II. 417 Whether it be true, that the 
otiely Antidote hitherto known, against the.. Macassar- 
poison., is humane Ordure, taken inwardly? 1797 Encycl. 
Brit. »ed. 31 X. 357/1 Macassar Poison,, .called ippo in the 
Macassar and Malayan tongue. 1809 Alex. Rowland jun. 
{title) Essay on. .the Human Hair, with Remarks on the 
Virtues of the Macassar Oil. 1819 Byron yuan 1. xvii, In 
virtues nothing earthly could surpass her, Save thine 'in- 
comparable oil,' Macassar ! 1831 Trelawny Adv. Younger 
Son III. i'So [The author professes to have met in Celebes 
with] the ole.iginous extract from a fruit-tree, since that 
period become so notorious in Europe, (by name I mean,) 
— Maca-.sar oil. 1842 S. Lover Handy Andy x. 99 He ran 
his fingers through his Macassar-oiled ringlets. 1896 Brannt 
Pats <y Oils (ed. 2) II. 82 Macassar oil .. is obtained from 
the seed of Schleicher a trijuga . . Considerable quantities 
of the oil were formerly imported, but what at present comes 
into commerce under the name of ; macassar oil' is mostly 
a mixture of cocoa-nut oil and ylang-ylang extract, coloured 
red with alkannin. 

Macauco, variant of Macaco. 

Macaulayism (makoUVz'm)- U- the name 
of Thomas Habington (Lord) Macauiay (1800- 
1859) -(--ism.] The characteristic historical method 
or literary style of Macauiay ; an instance of this. So 
Maoaulayan, Macaulaye sriue, Macairlayish 
adjs.j pertaining to or modelled upon Macaulay's 
method orstyle. MacatUaye*se (erron. Macautese), 
Macaulay's kind of diction. 

1846 Poe Cary \Vks. 1864 III. 68 Models of style in these 
days of rhodomontade*s and Macaulayisms. 1859 Nailer 
Life Visct. Dundee I. 4 note, How often does he give us 
Macaulese for history ! 1865 Spectator 492 Lord Derby 
does not talk leading articles after this Macaulayish fashion. 
1871 M. Arnold Friendship' s Garland 71 Why do you 
call Mr. Hepworth Dixon's style middle-class Macaulayese? 
1884 Pall MallG. 26 Sept. 3/1 There is something quite 
Macaulayesque in the description . . of the way in which [etc.]. 
1887 Sf>ectator2-j Aug. 1159 Macaulayan and other historical 
— or at least other historians' — incrustations. 189a AtJu- 
nxmii 11 June 758/3 Dressing up platitudes in a sort of 
faded Macaulayese. 

Macaw 1 ,mak§'\ Also 7machao, 7-8macao, 
7-9 maccaw, 8 maccau, 8-9 mackaw. [a. Pg. 
macao, of obscure origin ; a Tupi name for the bird 
is macavuana, 

Cf. Sp. ' mdea, a Bird in the Province of Quito, in South- 
America, less than our Cocks, with a long Bill Red and 
Yellow, and its Feathers of such Variety of Colours as is 
admirable ' (Pineda, 1740).] 

1. Thj name for several species of large long- 
tailed birds of the parrot kind constituting the 
genus Ara; they inhabit tropical and subtropical 
America and are remarkable for their gaudy 

1668 Chakleton Onomasticon Zoicon 66 Great blew and 

ellow Panat called the Machao, or Cockaioon. a 167a 
>Vri.i.u<;niiv Otniihol. n. xi. (1676) 73 Psittacus maximus 
alter Akin j v. Angl. Maccaw, seu Macao & Cockatoon. 1703 
Damimkk. Voy. (1729) II 1. 1. 405 The Red Maccaw. 1707 Fun- 
nell Voy. iv. 7oTheMaccaw..isaboutthebignessofa Hawk. 
1788 New Loud. Mag. 61 The larger Psittaci are called 
Macaos. 180a Bingley Anim. Piog. {1813) II. 75 The 
Brasilian Green Macaw. 1821-30 Ln. Cockbi'rn Mem. v. 
(1874) 257 [He] was walking., dressed like a mackaw,asthe 
Commissioner's purse-bearer. 1870 Disraeli Lothairxxxv, 
Upon gilt and painted perches also there were .. macaws. 


1 2. Applied (? erron.) to some oriental bird. Obs. 

1699 Da.mher Voy. II. 1. 12S In the [Achinl Woods there 
are many sorts of wild Fowls, viz. Maccaws, Parrots [etc.]. 

3. attrib., as macaw tribe ; trnacaw-fish, some 
brightly coloured fish iyS. parrot -fish). 

1753 Chambers Cycl. Supp. s.v., With some it [cockatoon] 
is made the synonymous name of all the Macaw tribe. 1792 
Mar. Riddell Voy. Madeira 69 The parrot-fish, the ma- 

Macaw- ijnakg). Also 7 macow, 7-8 mac- 
caw, $-9 mackaw, 9 macca-. [Prob. repr. one 
or more Carib words; cf. Arawak (Guiana) mo- 
caya, macoya, the macaw-palm.] The West Indian 
name for palms of the genus Acrocomia ; formerly 
also *|*the fruit of these palms. Now only attrib. 
in macaw-berry , -palm, -tree; also macaw-bush, 
a West Indian plant, Solatium mammosum (Treas. 
Bot. i86'5) ; macaw-fat, a West Indian name for 
the Oil Palm, Ehvis guineensis . 

1657 Ligon Barbados 72 The Macow is one of the strangest 
trees the Hand affords. 1672 R. Blome yamaica, etc. 73 
[Descr. Barbadoes] Limes, Lemons, Macows, Grapes [etc.]. 
1697 Da.mpier Voy. (169S) I. ii. 20 We got M acaw- berries . . 
wherewitli we satisfied ourselves this day, though coursly. 
1699 L.Wafer Voy. 16 We found there a Maccaw tree, which 
afforded us berries, of which we eat greedily. Ibid. 20 This 
being the 7th Day of our Fast, save only the Maccaw- berries 
before related. 1756 P. Browne Jamaica 343 The Mackaw 
Tree.. is very common in most of" the sugar-colonies. 1858 
Simmonds Diet. Trade, Macaw-fat, a West Indian name 
for oil palm, Elais Guineensis. Macaw-Palm, the Acro- 
comia sclerocarpa of Martius. 1864 Grisebach Plora IV. 
Ind. 785 Mackaw Tree, Acrocomia sclerocarpa. 1882 J. 
Smith Diet. Pop. Names Plants, Macaw Palm or Gru^ 
Gru {Acrocomia f usi for mis). 1894 Outing (U.S.) XXIII, 
380/2 The oil palm or macca-fat. 

t Maccarib. Obs. [App. cogn. w. caribou, a. 
Micmac kaleboo, lit. ' shoveller ' (N. & Q. 9th Ser. 
IX. 465). Cf. F. macaribo (Littre).] — Caribou. 

1672 Josselyn Neiu Eng. Parities 20 The Maccarib, 
Caribo, or Pohano, a kind yf Deer, as big as a Stag, round 
huoved, smooth hair'd and soft as silk. 

Maccaroni, Maccase e)ne, Maccaw: see 
Macabohi, Moccasin, Macaw. 

Macche, obs. form of Match. 

Macciavelian : see Machiavellian. 

MaCCO (marko). 1 0bs. [?A variant spelling 
of Macao.] A gambling game; = Macao. 

1809 I.yrom "in Moore Life (1875J 143 When macco (or 
whatever they spell it) was introduced. 1815 Sporting Mag. 
XVI. 277 A rubber of whist, or a game of Macco. 1859 
Thackeray Virgin, xli, He dines at White's ordinary, and 
sits down to macco and lansquenet afterwards. 

attrib. 1825 T. Hook Man of Many Pr., Say. fy Doings 
Ser. 11, II. 18 His uncle was still at the Macco table. 1859 
Thackeray Virgin. xYiv, I ..left it at the Macco-table. 

Maccoboy (mark^boi). Also 8 macabao, 
macauba, 9 maccaboy, maccubau, mac(c)ouba, 
maskabaw, Sc. macabaa, -baw, maccaba^w. 
[Xamed from A/acouba, a district in Martinique.] 
A kind of snuff, usually scented with attar of roses. 

1740 Wimble's List of Snuffs in Fairholt Tobacco (1859) 
269 Macabao. 1799 Hull Advertiser 27 July 4/4 You are 
famous . . For having the best Macauba [rime draw], 18.. 
G. Wushart in Mactaggart Gallozdd, Encycl, (1824) 223 Ye 
maun bring me a teat o' this same Macabaa. 1823 J. Bad- 
cock Dan. Amusem. 99 The snuff of Martinico, celebrated 
under the term ' Macouba '. 1849 Thackeray Pendenuis 

II. ii. 14 [He] pocketted his snufT-box, not desirous that 
Madame Brack's dubious fingers should plunge too fre- 
quently into his Mackabaw. 1858 Simmonds Diet. Trade, 
Maccoboy, Maccubau, a kind of snuff. 1893 Stevenson 
Catriona xix. 218 Him I found already at his desk and 
already bedabbled with maccabaw. 1896 E. Marriage tr. 
Balzac's Old Goriot 21 His snuff-box is always likely to be 
filled with maccaboy. 

Mace (nv's), sb.l Also 4-5 mas, 4-7 mase, 
5-6 mais, (5 maas, mass, meyce, 6 maysse, 
6-7 masse), [a. OF. masse, mace = Yx. massa, It. 
mazza, Sp. maza, Pg. maca :— L. type *mat{t)ea 
vprob. the origin of the rare mat{l)eola ? mallet).] 

1. A heavy staff or club, either entirely of metal 
or having a metal head, often spiked; formerly a 
regular weapon of war. (Also called + mace of 
arms^y. masse d'armes.) fin early use also, a 
club of any kind. 

"97 R- Glolc (Rolls) 4210 pis geant .. bigan is mace 
adrawe. c 13*0 Sir Beues 3800 pel leide on . . Wib swerdes and 
wib maces, a 1330 Otuel 1112 He cam wi)> a mase of bras. 
X 37S IUkhocr Bruce xi. 600 The Ynglis men..Kest emang 
tnameswerdisandmas. c 1386 Chaucer A'nt.'s T. 1753 With 
myghty maces the bones they tobreste. 1390 Goweh Conf. 

III. 359 And Hercules. .Was ther, berende his grete Mace. 
1426 Lydg. DeGuil. Pilgr. 22171 And with this ylke sturdy 
Maas, Iputte hemoutafful greet paas. Ibid. 23160 Then cam 
Treason with hir mas Hevy as a clobbe of leed. 1555 Edkn 
Decades 161 Laton whereof they make such maces and ham- 
mers as are vsed in the warres. 1585 T. Washington tr. 
Nickolays Voy. in. v. 78 Yppon their saddle bow, their 
roundel & the Uusdeghan (being the mase of armes). 1678 
Wanley IVond. Lit. World \\ ii. § 86. 473/1 He would cast a 
Horseman's Mace of nine or ten pounds weight farther than 
any other of his Court. 1728 Pope Dune. 1.85 Pomps without 
guilt, of bloodless swords and maces. 1825 Scott Talism. \, 
A steel axe, or hammer, called a mace-of-arms. 1834 
Planche Brit. Costume 244 The pistol superseded the 
mace in the hands of officers during this reign [Hen. VIIIJ. 

fb. Applied to the trident of Neptune. Obs. 
158a Stanvhukst sEucis n. (Arb.) 63 Thee wals God Nep- 
tune, with mace thrceforcked, vphurleth. 1590 Sr-ENSER 

I Muiopotmos 315 The God of Seas, .strikes the rockes with 
! his three-forked mace. 1791 Cowi'kr Iliad xn. 29 Neptune 
with his tridental mace himself Led them. 

1601 Shaks. Jul. C. iv. iii. 268 Murd'rous slumber ! 
Layest thou thy Leaden Mace vpon my Boy ? 1667 Milton 
P. L. x. 294 The aggregated isoyle Death, with his Mace 
petrific, cold and dry, As with a Trident smote . 1840 Longf. 
Sp. Stud. 1. v, Hark ! how the loud and ponderous mace 
of Time Knocks at the golden portals of the day ! 1878 
Browning La Saisiaz 385 As .. Beethoven's Titan mace 
Smote the immense to storm. 

2. A sceptre or staff of office, resembling in 
shape the weapon of war, which is borne before 
(or was formerly carried by) certain officials. 
T Also formerly = the sceptre of sovereignty. 

For Sergeant at (or of) Mace, see Sergeant. The mace 
which lies on the table in the House of Commons when the 
Speaker is in the chair is viewed as a symbol of the autho- 
rity of the House (cf. b). 

c 1440 Protnp. Parv. 319/1 Mace of aseriawnt,j 1 r c]r//r?/;//, 
clava. 1471 Rii'LEY Comp. Alch. v. xxviii. in Ashm. (1652) 
155 WythSylver Macys- -Sarjaunts awaytingon them every 
owre. 1526 Pilgr. Per/. (W. de W. 1531) 253 They gaue hym 
a rede in his hande for a septer or a mace. 1559 Mirr. Mag., 
Jos. I xx. 5 Myinurdring uncle. .That longed for my king- 
dome and my mace. 1580 Nottingham Pec. IV. 195 Payd 
to Towley for the other ij. maces mendyng. 1593 Shaks. 
2 Hen. VI, iv. vii. 144 With these borne before vs, in steed of 

. Maces, Will we ride through the streets. 1633-4 in Swayne 
Church™. Ace. Sarum (1S96) 177 The Iron w fl » holds the 
Mase at the end of M r . Maiorspewe. 1677 E. Smith in 12//1 
Pep. Hist. MSS. Comm. App. v. 37 Some mischievous persons 

j to dishonour my Lord Chancellour.. stole the mace and the 
two purses. 1708 J. Chamberi.ayne St. Gt. Brit. 1. 11. xiii. 
(1710) 100 The Mace, while the Speaker is in the Chair, is 

1 always upon the Table, except when sent upon any extra- 
ordinary Occasion into Westminster-Hall, and Court of 

! Requests, to summon the Members to attend. 1758 Johnson 
idler No. 96 » 1 He. .read the Gothick characters inscribed 

1 on his brazen mace. 1856 K.merson Eng. Traits, Ability 
Wks. (Bohn) II. 45 The chancellor carries England on his 
mace. 1877 J. D. Chamuehs Div. Worship 186 A Beadle, 
or other official, with a wand or mace, clearing the way. 

b. By {warrant of) the mace: in House of 
Commons use, said of occasions when the Serjeant- 

; at-Arms is sent with the mace as his warrant for 

! demanding obedience to a command of the House. 

1576 Jrnl. Ho. Comm. 22 Feb. 1. 107 The said Committees 

found no Precedent for setting at large by the Mace any 

Person in Arrest; but only by Writ. Ibid. 27 Feb. I. 108 
1 It is Resolved, That Edward Smalleye. .shall be brought 

hither To-morrow, by the Serjeant ; and so set at Liberty, 

by Warrant of the Mace, and not by writ. 

c. A mace-bearer. 

1663 Plagellum or O. Cromwell (1672) 26 And here upon 
a Mace was sent to bring Cromwell into the Court. 1670 
Mabvbll Let. 21 Mar. Wks. (Grosart) II. 315 Sir Thomas 
Clifford carryed Speaker and Mace, and all members there, 
into the King's cellar, to drink his health. 1753 Gray Long 
Story iii, My grave Lord-Keeper led the brawls ; The seals 
and maces dane'd before him. 1855 Macaulay Hist. Eng. 
xi. III. 1 Garter King at arms., was followed by the maces of 
the two Houses, by the two Speakers [etc.]. 

3. a. Billiards. A stick with a flat square head, 
formerly used for propelling the balls ; now super- 
seded by the cue. (Cf. Mast sb.%) b. A similar 
instrument used in Bagatelle. 

17*7 Boyer Er. Diet., Masse, (IViUard dont on joue) Mass, 
or Billiard Stick. 1734 R. Seymour Compl. Gamester in. 
^d. 5) 84 If a Person breaks a Stick, or the Mace, he must 
pay Six-pence for the Stick and two Shillings for the Mace. 
1744 J. Love Cricket 4 The dull Ball trails before the feeble 
Mace. 1797 Encycl. Ihit. (ed. 3' III. 229 (Billiards] is 
played with sticks, called maces, or with cues; the first 
consist of a long straight stick, with a head at the end, and 
are the most powerful instruments of the two.. .In England 
the mace is the prevailing instrument, which the foreigners 
hold in contempt. 1814 Col. Hawker Diary (1893)1. 119 
We .. enjoyed the novelty of playing with the Emperor's 
favourite cue, and Maria Louisa's mace. 1856 'Cait. 
Crawley' Billiards (1859) 8 The Mace, by the way, is seldom 
or never used by the present generation of billiard players. 
1873 Bennett & ' Cavendish ' Billiards 4 Maces (called 
' masts ') only were used, made of lignum vitae or some other 
weighty wood, and tipped with ivory. 1883 CasselVs Sports <y 
Past. 329 [Bagatelle]. The balls are struck with either a cue 
or a mace ; of these two the latter will be found the easier. 

4. Tanning. (See quots.) 

1839 Ure Diet. Artsyfi The chief operations of the currier 
are four ; — 1. Dipping the leather, which consists in moisten- 
ing it with water, and beating it with the mace, or a mallet 
upon the hurdle. 185a Morfit Tanning A> Currying (1853) 
462 The leather may either be beaten out with the feet, or 
with an instrument called the mace. 

5. attrib. and Comb., as mace-blow, head; fmace- 
proof a., nonce-ivd., safe from airest. 

1879 G. Meredith Egoist II. v. 104 The effect . . was to 
produce an image of surpassingness in the features of Clara 
that gave him the final, or "mace-blow. 1899 Daily Ncivs 
12 Sept. 7/2 Sargon of Accad. .of whom a *mace head bear- 
ing his name is to be seen in the British Museum. 1633 
Shirley Bird in a Cage u. 13 3 b, You shall., come vp to the 
face of a Sergiant,. .and be *mace proofe. 

Mace (m<^s), sb.- Forms : a. 4-5 macys, 4-6 
macis, maces, ^4 *nacz, 5 macez, masis, 6 
mases). 0. 4- mace, (6 mase). [ME. macis, 
a. F. macis (14th c. in Godef.), of unknown origin ; 
cf. F. (16th c.) massia, ? cinnamon flower. The 
form macis being in Eng. apprehended M a plural, 
the new singular mace was formed from it. 

It is not likely that the word has any connexion with 
L. maccis (accus, maccida) occurring once in Plautu-- in 
a bombastic list of unknown and perhaps imaginary spices.] 


1. A spice consisting of the dried outer covering 
of the nutmeg. 

a 1377 Abingdon Ace. (Camden) 38 In farina xxviijj. In 
croco xli. In macys iU. xd. [etc.]. 1398 Trevtsa Bart/!. 
I)c P. R. xvii. ii. (1495) 595 The Mace is the Howre,and the 
Notinygge is the fruyte. Ibid. cix. 672 The rynde of Nux 
musticata, the notinygge, hight Macis. c 1400 Maundkv. 
(Roxb. ) xxi. 94 pe macez er be huskes of be nutemug. c 1410 
Liber Cocarum (1862) 13 Fors hit with clowes or macys gode. 
1471 Pastou Lett. III. 25 Sende me word qwat price a li. of 
peppyr, clowys, masis, gingyr [etc.]. 1527 R. Thornk in 
Ilakluyt's Voy. [1589) 252 The Islands are fertile of Cluues, 
Nutmegs, Mace, and Cinnamom. 1544 Phaer Kcgim. Ly/e 
(>55j) Eja, Mithridatum..wel tempered in a littel white 
wine with afewe maces. 1594 BlUNDEVIL Exerc. v. xi. (1636) 
554 But when the Nut waxeth dry, the Mace do sever from 
the Nut. Ibid. xii. 557 From the He Banda doth come Nut- 
megs and Maces. 173a Arbuthnot Rules of Diet 259 Spices, 
as Cinnamon, Mace, Nutmeg. 1747 Mks. Glasse Cookery 
ii. 32 Add some. .Pepper and Salt, and a little beaten Mace. 
1811 A. T. Thomson Loud. Disp. (1818) 262 Oil of Mace. 
1871 C. At Last v, The nutmegs, the mace still 
clinging round them, lie scattered on the grass. 

2. attrib. : t maee-ale, ale spiced with mace. 
1611 Beaum. & Fl. Four PI., Triumph o/Loz'o iv, She 

had more need of mace-ale . . than your aged discipline. 1676 
Wiseman Surg. IV. v. 318 That night she took an anodyne 
Syrup in a draught of Mace-ale. 

Mace v mJ's', si.% Forms : 6 raase, 7 mas(se, 
maz, mess. 8 masscie, 8- mace. [a. Malay yA» 
mas (also ^Ul emds) ; said to be rtpr. Skr. mdsha 
a weight of about 17 grains.] 

1. In Malay countries : A small gold coin weigh- 
ing 9 grains and worth about IS. id. Also, 'a 
weight used in Sumatra, being according to Craw- 
furd i-i6thof a Malay tael,or about 40 grains' (Y.). 

1598 W. Phillip tr. L inschotens Voy. 44 A Tael of Malacca 
isi6Mases. 1600J. Davis in Purchas Pilgrimage (161s) I. 
ill. i. 117 That [coin] of Gold is named a Mas, and is nine 
pence halfe penie neerest. Those of Lead are called Caxas '. 
whereof a thousand sixe hundred make one Mas. 1699 Dam- 
pier Voy. II. I. 132 Of these [cash] 1500 make a Mess, which a small thin piece of Gold. . . It is in value 15 pence Eng- 
lish. 1727 A. Hamilton New Ace. K. Ind. II. xli. 109 At 
Atcheen they have a small Coin of Leaden Money called 
Cash, from twelve to sixteen hundred of them goes to one 
Mace, or Masscie. 1813 Milblrn Oriental Comiii. (1825) 
348 The currency here [Tringano, Malay Peninsula] consists 
also of the following : . . 16 mace equal to 1 tale. Ibid. 360 
[Sumatra] The lesser weights are as follow : — 4 Copangs 
equal to 1 Mace. 

2. A Chinese money of account equivalent to 
one-tenth of a silver liang or tael. 

1615 R. Cocks Diary \\ZZ3) 1. 1 We bought 5 greate square 
postes . . cost 2 ma s 6condriusperpeece. 1796 Morse Amer. 
Ceog. II. 531 Although the terms candereen and mace are 
employed to certify a certain quantity of caxees, there are 
no coins. .which bear that specific value, 1802 Capt. El- 
more in Naval Chron. VIII. 382 At seven mace two can- 
dereen per head. 1896 Block™. Mag. Apr. 580/2 The [poppy] 
tax is stated to be one mace or six-tenths of a mace the plot. 

Mace (nu?is), si.* slang. Swindling, robbery 
by fraud. On mace : on credit, ' on tick '. 

1781 G. Parker Vieiu Soc. II. 34 The mace is a man who 
goes to any capital tradesman . . in an elegant vis-a-vis [etc.]. 
1879 J. W. Horsley in Macm. Mag. XL. 502 The following 
people used to gc'in there — toy-getters (watch-stealers) . . 
men at the mace (sham loan offices). 1893 P. H. Emerson 
Signer Lippo xxii. 100 Letting 'em have the super and slang 
on mace, for he gets to know their account and he puts the 
pot on 'em settling day, 
b. Comb.: maee-eove,-gloak, -man = Macer- 2 . 

1812 J. H. Vaux Flask Diet., Macc-gloak, a man who lives 
upon the mace. 1823' J.Bee 'Diet. Tur/ s.v. Mace, The mace- 
cove is he who will cheat, take in, or swindle, as often as may 
be. 1859 Sala Tw. round Clock (1861) 160 The nightside of 
I>ondon is fruitful in ' macemen ', ' mouchers ', and 'go- 
alongs'. 1865 M. Collins Win is the Heir 1 . II. 245 What 
is a maceman?. . A person who buys anything he can get with- 
out paying for it, and sells it again at once for anything 
he can get. 1884 Daily News 5 Jan. 5/2 The victim appears 
to have entered an omnibus and to have been at once pounced 
upon by two * macemen ', otherwise ' swell mobsmen '. 

Mace, v\ rare— 1 , [f. IbcuLl] trans. To 
strike as with a mace. 

1840 Dickens Barn. Rudge iv, The 'prentices no longer 
carried clubs wherewith to mace the citizens. 

t Mace, v.' z Obs. rare- 1 , [f. Mace sb. 2 ] trans. 
To season with mace. In quot.y^. 

a 1640 Dav Peregr. Schol. (18S1) 70 If anie of you come 
vnder there clowches theile pepper you and mace you with 
a vengeance. 

Maoe, v.* slang, [f. Mace si.*] trans, and 
iulr. To swindle. Hence Macing vbl. sb. 

1790 Potter New Diet. Cant. (1795) Mace, to cheat. 
1812 Sporting Mag. XXXIX. : 3 8 A . . party of inferior 
pugilists had been macing in the southern towns. 1819 J. H. 
Vaux Mem. I 53, 1 sometimes raised the wind by. .obtaining 
goods on credit, called in the cant language maceing. 1885 
Daily Pel. 18 Aug. 3/2 Fancy him being so soft as to give 
that jay a quid back out of the ten he'd maced him of I 

Ma - ce-l)earer. One who carries a mace; spec. 
an official whose duty it is to carry a mace, as a 
symbol of authority, before some high functionary. 

1552 Huloet, Mace bearer, cliduchus. 1683 Addr. fr. 
c 'V<>r? >n Loud. Gaz. No. 1863/5 Our respective Mayor, 

««' w ' ' ' Town - c| erk, Mace bearer or any other Officers. 
1687 Wood Life 3 Sept., Afterwards the macebearer put the 
mace into the mayor's hands. 1763 H. Walpole Catal. 
Engravers (1765) 20 John bishop of Lincoln, with purse- 
bearer, mace-bearer [etc.]. 1823 Dk Quincey Incognito 
Wks. 1862 X. 2 The chief-burgomaster .. turned the 

mace-bearer out of the room. 1835 1st Mimic. Corp. 1 
Cotuiu. Rep. App. mi. 1686 Other officers of the Corpora- 
tion [of Preston) are, Mace- Bearer, Beadle [etc.]. 1841 
Elphinstone Hut. Ind. II. 349 A mace-bearer called out to 
him, with mock solemnity, to receive the salutations of his 
servants. 1870 Bryant Iliaii I. vil. 210 The mace-bearer 

Macedon (ma."s«](m). [ad. L. Maccdon-cm 
{Afacedo), Gr. MaKtooV-a (-»}.] 

f 1. One of the people (to which Alexander the 
Great belonged) that inhabited Macedonia. Obs. 

[1382 Wyclie 2 Cor. ix. 4 When Macedonyes schulen come 
with me.] a 1400-50 A lexauderg^i, 1179, 1253, etc., Messa- 
dones, Messedones.-edoyns, Mas.s.ndons. 1594 Kvu Cornelia 
1. 63 Macedons or Medes. 1632 Massinger City Madam iv. 
ii, The valiant Macedon . . Lamented that there were no more 
[worlds] to conquer. 1700 DRYDEN Fables, To Duchess oj 
Ormond 133 As once the Macedon, by Jove's decree, Was 
taught to dream an herb for Ptolemy. 

fb. appos. or quasi-i;«/'. ^ Macedonian. Obs. 
1710 The Tipting Philosophers 17 Diogenes, Surly and 
Proud, Who Snarlcl at the Macedon Youth. 
2. Anglicized name of Macedonin. arch. 
1584 C. Robinson Hand/. Pies. Dclites (Arb.) 46 The 
famous Prince of Macedon. 1625 Bacon Ess., Prophecies, 
Phillip of Macedon. 1871 S. J. Stone Hymn, Through 
midnight gloom from Macedon. 

Macedonian (ma:s/d<Tirnian), trA and sb. 1 [f. 
L. Maccdoni-us ( - Gr. MaKeooVios, f. Maxf Suiy : see 
prec.) + -an.] A. adj. Pertaining to Macedonia, 
a country north of Greece. 
Macedonian Parsley : see Parsley'. 

1556 Robinsons tr. Mores Utopia Printer to Reader 
(Arb.) 168 Seyng it is a tongue to vs muche straunger then 
the Indian, ..the Macedonian,, .etc. 1607 Topskll Four-/. 
Beasts 106 At one time is giuen them nine Macedonian 
Bushels, but.. of drinke eyther wine or water thirty Mace- 
donian pintes at a time. 1707 Curios, in llnsb. A> Card. 257 
To make Celery, and Macedonian Parsly grow very fast. 
1844 Thirlwall Greece lxvi. VIII. 419 It had received a 
Macedonian admiral in its port. 

B. sb. A native of Macedonia. 
1582 N. T. (Rhem.) 2 Cor. ix. 2, I know your prompt minde : ' 
for the which I glorie of you to the Macedonians. 1834 Lyt- 
ton Pompeii II. i, I will teach thee, young braggart, to play 
the Macedonian with me. 1840 Penny Cycl. XVIII. 75,2 
He was stabbed by a young Macedonian of his own body- 

Macedonian \iiues/'d<'"'nian),ir. :! audi/'.- [ad. 
Eccl. L. Macedonian-us, f. Macedonius : sec -an.] 
A follower of Macedonius, a heretical Bishop of 
Constantinople in the 4th century. 

1577 Vautrouillier Luther en Ep. Gal.yZ Arians, Euno- 
mians, Macedonians, and such other heretikes. 1701 tr. Le 1 
Clcrc's Prim. Fathers 252 He [Gregory] disputes about the 
Consubstantiality of the Holy Spirit against the Mace- 
donians. 1727-52 Chambers Cycl. s.v. Semi-Ariaus, Anew 
branch of Macedonian Semi-arians, or Pneumatomachi. 
1882-3 Scha/fs Encycl. Relig. Knowl. II. 1578 They are 
Macedonians, esteeming the Holy Spirit as no person, but 
only an influence or emanation. 
Hence Macedonianism. 

1642 HAl.ES.SV/z/.r7«9Manichanisme, Valentinianisme, Ma- 
cedonianisme, Mahometisme, are truly and properly Here- 
sies. 1646 Bp. Maxwell Surd. Issach. 21 The grossest 1 
Heresies, Arianisme, Arminianisme, Macedoniauisme [etc.]. 
[Macegriefs, ' such as willingly buy stolen flesh ' 
(Cowell 1607, whence in later Law Diets.), is a 
spurious word, due to misunderstanding of the AF. 
text of liritton I. xxx. § 3, which speaks of butch- 
ers {macegriers) who knowingly sell stolen flesh '.] 
Macelency, obs. form of Macilency. 
tMacella-rious, a. Obs.-" [f. L. macel- 
lari-us (T. macellum meat market) + -ODS.] 

1656 Blount Glossogr., Macetlarious, pertaining to the 
Butchers Row or Shambles. 

Macer 1 (m^'sai). Also Sc. 5-6 maser(e, 
masar, 6 messer, measer, masser, 6-7 maissar, 
-er. [a. OF. maissier, mossier, i. masse Mace j 
si. 1 : see -er 2 .] A mace-bcarer; spec, in Scot- 
land, an official who keeps order in courts of law. 

13. . St. Erkenwolde 143 in Horstm. Altengl.Lcg. (1881) 269 
be maire with mony ma3U mene & macers before hyme. 1377 
Langl. P. PI. B. hi. 76 Meires and maceres that menes ben 
bitweneThekyngeandthecomunetokepethelawes. C1440 
Promp. Parv. 319/1 Macer, or he bat berythe mace, seep- 
t(r)iger. c 1470 Henry Wallace vn. 304 Thar folowed him 
fyfteyn Wicht, wallyt men . .With a maser [ed. 1 570 maissar], 
to tach him to the law. 1535 Stewart Cron. Scot. III. 275 
Sextie that tyme quhilk war summond aw Be ane masar 
for to cum to the law. 1546 Reg. Privy Council Scot. I. 26 
Heraldis, pursevantis, masseries, and utheris officiaris of 
amies. 1550 Ibid. 105 Ane messer or uthir officiar of amies. 
1583 Lee. Bp. St. Andreas 1065 A rneas' vpon the gait him 
mett. 1679 RoyalProclam. in Lond.Gaz. No 1406/1 Charles 
by the Grace of God [etc.].. To Our Lyon King at Arms, and 
his Brethren Heraulds, Macers, or Messengers at Arms. 
1709 Strype Ann. Re/. I. xxi. 237 Thomas Lever, S.T.B. 
formerly of S. John's College and sometime macer (as was 
the Bishop himself). 1710 C/iamberlayne's St. Gt. Brit. 11. 
in. (ed. 23) 662 Macers of Exchequer. Sal. 50/. per Ann. 
each. 1752 J. Louthian Form 0/ Process (ed. 2) 7 The 
Justice-Court has three Macers. ..The Macer's chief Busi- j 
ness is, to execute all Indictments, Criminal Letters, &c. ] 
1818 Scott llrt. Midi, v. Noil omnia— as Mr. Crossmy- 
loof said, when he was called by two macers at once, non 
omnia possumus—pessimtis—possimis. 1893 Stevenson 
Catrioua 189 And the very macer cried ' Cruachan '. 
b. attrib. : f macer wand, a mace. 
,535 Stewart Cron. Scot. II. 677 [He] Arreistit thame, syne 
with ane maissar wand, Or tha passit out of Northumber- j 
\ land, Richt mony thousand of thame thair wes slane. | 


Hence Macership. 

1883 Edinb. Daily Rev. 6 June 2/5 Mr. G. G. has been 
appointed . . to the vacant macership in the Court of Session. 

Macer - (m^'sai). slang, [f. Mace vfi + -er 1.] 
A swindler. 

1819 Sporting Mag. V. 123 The cup-and-ball Macers. 
1870 Steinmeiz Gaming Table 11. vii. 220 A well known 
inacer, who was celebrated for slipping an ' old gentleman ' 
(a long card) into the pack. 

t Ma'Cerable, <*• Obs. rare, [as if ad. L. 
*macerabilis, f. mdcerare to Macerate.] That 
may be macerated. 

a 1631 Donne Six Serm. i. (1634) 30 Miserable, (inex- 
pressible, unimaginable niacerable condition, where the 
sufferer would be glad to be but a devil. 1742 Fames in 
Phil. Trans. XLII. 33 The Auditory Bones are of a tar- 
lareous kind of friable and easily macerable Substance. 

t Macerate, ppl. a. Obs. [ad. L. mdcerat-tts, 
f. macerdre to MACERATE.] Wasted, weakened : 
^ the later Macerated. 

1540-1 Elyot Image Gov. 30 Macerate with labours, and 
made feeble with age. 1632 Woiiuus Rights 332 Shee 
chuse. .not a man macerate and dryed vp with study. 

Macerate (nite'ser^t),^. Also6 7masserate, 
7mascerate. [f. L. maccrdl-, ppl.stemof/«<;t«v;/v, 
f. root «/&:-, perh. cogn. w. Gr. fxaaanv (:—*maly-, 
mnky-) to knead. For the suffix cf. tolerare, rc- 
, uperdre. Cf. F. t/iacerer.'] 

1. trans. To soften by steeping in a liquid, with 
or without heat; to wear away or separate the 
soft parts of, by steeping. Also with away. Ap- 
plied also to the treatment of food in the process 
of digestion. 

1563 T. Gam: Antidot. 11. 10 Macerate them [sc. lard and 
rose [eaves] and let them stand together >euen dayer-. 1620 
Venner Via Recta vii. 133 They [sc. Pine-Apple or Nut] 
must first be macerated the space of an home in Marine 
water, and then eaten. 1660 R. Coke Power Kt Sub/. 129 Iron 
macerated with vinegar, so as it should be inflexible. 1691 
Ray Creation (1714) 27 It is by the Heat thereof concocted 
macerated and reduced into a Chyle or Cremor. 1759 
Brown Compleat Farmer 79 The gizzard that macerates 
their food. 1773 Cook I'oy. (1700) IV. 1418 The bark i> 
rolled up, and macerated for some time in water. 1822 
Imison Sci. \ Art II. 178 Soak, or macerate the rags suf- 
ficiently. 1835-6 Todd Cycl. Auat. I. 479/1 More com- 
plete mastication is performed after the fuod has been long 
macerated in the paunch. 1875 Darwin Insectiv. PI. vi. 88 
The leaves were macerated for some hours. 1899 Allbntt s 
Syst.Mcd. VIII. 558 In the axillary, anal and scrotal region, 
where the scales are often macerated away. 

Jig. 1829 Landor Imag. Com: Wks. 1846 II. 211 A good 
writer will not. .macerate things into such paiticles that 
nothing shall be remaining of their natural contexture. 
b. /'////'. for pass. To undergo maceration. 

1610 B. Jonson Alth. II. v, Let 'hem macerate, together. 1641 
French Distill, ii. (1651)48 Beat the spices small and bruise 
the Hearbs, letting them macerate twehe houres. 1755 B. 
Martin Mag. Arts ft Sci. 111. viii. 329 The ignotant Farmer 
cuts down his Corn and his Hay . . and leaves them to 
macerate, .in the soaking Showers. 1816 Accum Cheiu. 
Tests (1818) Si Suffering the whole to macerate for a few 
boms. 1889 J. M. Duncan Led. Dis. Worn. v. (ed. 4) ■•2 
If the liquor amnii is not discharged it is absorbed, and the 
contents of the uterus either macerate or become mummified. 

2. trans. To cause (the body, flesh, etc.) to waste 
or wear away, esp. by fasting. 

1547 Boorde" Bre-<: Health i. 7 Fastynge to much it dryelh 
and macerateth the body. 1613 Pukchas Pilgrimage v. 
xiv. 442 To.. macerate his body for bis owne sinnes. 1647 
Clarendon Contempt, t's. Tracts (1727) 41S Macerating 
our bodies with imprisonments and torments. 171a Steele 
Sped. No. 2S2 r 5 The Happiness of him who is macerated 
by Abstinence. 1830 D Israeli Chas. I, III. vii. 135 Her 
frame was macerated by her secret sorrows. i860 T. 
Martin Horace 24 The fierce unrest, the deathless flame, 
That slowly macerates my frame. 1877 C. Geikie Christ 
xxxiii. (1879) 385 Men who lodged in tombs and macerated 
themselves with fasting. 

+ b. jig. To oppress, ' crush '. Obs. 
1637 BastwiCK Litany I. 4/1 They greatly dishonour his 
Cesarean Maiestie, & miserably afflict and macerate [printed 
macecrate] his poore subiects. 1640 H. Parker Case Ship 
Money 46 Civil] w ars have . . infected and macerated that 
goodly Country. 

f c. intr. (or pass. To waste, pine away. Obs. 

1599 Marston.SVo. Villanie I. ii. 176 Once to be pursie 
fat Had wont be cause that life did macerate. 

t3. In immaterial sense : To fret, vex, worry. Obs. 

1588 Spenser I'irg. Gnat 94 No such sad cares, as wont to 
macerate And rend the greedie mindes of covetous men. 1591 
Troub. Raigne K. Iohn(i6u)n \ viper, who with poysoned 
words Doth masserate the bowels of my soule. a 1695 Z. 
Cradock Serm. on Charity (1740) 8 Why dosome Christians 
..macerate and torment themselves? 1761 Sterne '1 r. 
Shandy III. iv, A city so macerated with expectation. 

Macerated (mwsfireited), ///• a. [f. Mace- 
rate v. + -ed 1.] In senses of the vb. 

1587 Fleming Coulu. Holinshed III. 1399/ 1 Whether it 
were possible to find a bodie more withered, afflicted, 
macerated,, .or pale. 1659 Gentl. Calling (1696) 98 It need 
not doubt to maintain the Field against poor macerated 
Chastity. 1706 Hearne Collect. 4 Mar. (O. H. S.) I. 197 
What might recruit his macerated Body. 1899 Allbntt s 
Syst. Med. VIII. 611 This application is repeated, and the 
macerated skin cleansed, every forty-eight hours. 

absol. 1694 Motteux Rabelais (1737) V. 232 Th Opime 
you'd linquish for the Macerated. 

Macerating (marsereitin), vbl. sb. [f. Mace- 
rate v. -r -ing 'J The action of Macerate v. 

1600 Surflet Country Farms HI. Ixiii. 575 Infusion is 
nothing else but a macerating or steeping of the thing 



intended to be distilled in some licour. 1630 Bkaihwait 
Eng. Gsmittm. ll&jX) 183 It is macerating of the flesh that 
fattens the spirit. J775 in Ash, Suppl. 

Macerating (mre-sereitin. ),///. a. [f. Mace- 
bate v. + -ing -.] That macerates (see the vb.)- 

1689 Harvey Curing' Dis. by Expect xiv. 113 The Jesuit 
Confessor redoubles his macerating penance. 1836 J. M. 
Gully MagendiYs E'oriuut. (ed. 2) 132 The disgusting 
odour arising from the macerating intestines. 1899 Allbntt's 
Syst. Med. VIII. 605 The macerating action of a plaster. 

Maceration (ratresSitfi'fan), [ad. L. macera- 
tidn-em, n. of action f. macerare to Macerate.] 

1. The action or process of softening by steeping 
in a liquid; also, the state of being subjected to 
this process ; an instance of this. 

1612 Woodall Surg. Mate Wks. (1653) 272 Maceration is 
preparation of things not unlike to Humectation. a 165a 
J. Smith Set, Disc. iv. 75 The very grass, .may,, .after many 
refinings, macerations, and maturations .. spring up into so 
many rational souls. 1691 Ray Creation 1. (1692) 121 For 
the maceration and dissolution of the Meat into a Chyle. 
1794 Sullivan View Nat. II. 157 Decomposed by long 
maceration in water. 1861 Bumstead Vcn. Dis. (1879) 591 
The constant maceration of the mucous membrane of the 
mouth. 1880 Hvxlky Crtiyjish iii. 100 When the exoskeleton 
is cleaned by maceration. 

atirib. 1898 Rev. Brit. Pharm. 34 The maceration tinctures 
are not to be made up to a prescribed volume with the 

b. In smelting iron ore (see quot.). 

1868 Rep. to Govt. U. S. Munitions War 120 It [the 
ore] is then allowed to remain exposed to the air for 
a time long enough to permit the small traces of sulphur to 
be dissipated, [etc.].. .This process is termed maceration. 

c. quaswww. A product of maceration. 

1836 J. M. Gully MagendiYs Formul. (ed. 2) 153 He 
collects the different spirituous macerations in an alembic. 

2. The process of wasting or wearing away (the 
body, flesh, etc.) ; mortification ; an instance of 
this ; also the condition of being macerated. 

1491 CaxtON Vitas Patr. (W. de W. 1495) I. xl. 57 b/2 
She gaaf . . her body . . to were the hay re, and other macera- 
cyons of the flesshe. 1605 Bacon Adv. Learn, n. ix. $ 3. 37 
Fastings, abstinences, and other macerations and humilia- 
tions of the bodie. 1628 Up. Hall Serm. 30 Mar., Wks. 
iSoS V. 361, I speak of a true and serious maceration 
of our bodies by an absolute and total refraining from 
sustenance. 1827 Hake Guesses Ser. 1. (1873) 178 The 
voluptuousness and the macerations of Oriental religions. 
1856 Emerson Eng. Traits. Race Wks. (Bohn) II. 31 
In describing the poverty and maceration of Father Lacey. 
1881 STEVENSON Virg. Pucrisque 167 It should be a place 
for nobody but hermits dwelling in prayer and maceration. 

1 3. In immaterial sense : Fretting, vexation, 
worry ; an instance of this. Obs. 

1616 Rick Cabinet 142 b, Sorrow is the cause of., many 
melancholike maladies and macerations. 1645 Bp. Hall 
Rente iy Discontents 163 What maceration is there here 
with feares, and jealousies. 1669 Clarendon Ess. Tracts 
(1727) 174 This maceration,, .is a sawcy contradiction of 
God's wisdom in the creation. 

Macerator ^iTue'ser^'tar). Also maceratsr. 
[agent-n. f. Macerate v. : see -or.] a. One who 
macerates or mortifies (the body), rare. b. A vessel 
used for the process ofmaceralion(6V//l. Diet. 1891). 

1891 Augusta T. Drake Hist. St. Dominic 167 A man of 
rare abstinence, the frequent macerator of his own body. 

t Ma'COry. Obs. In 6 masarie. [f. Macer +- 
-v.] The functions of a macer. 

1545 Reg. Privy CouncilScot. I. 7 Discharges all the saidis 
masseru of all using of thair offices of ma-sarie in all tymes 

Macfa'rlanite. Min. [Named by A. II. 
Sibley, 1880, after T. A/acfarlane, who described 
it: see -ite.] l A mixture of huntilite, animikitc 
and other minerals, which constitutes the ore of the 
mines at Silver Islet, Ontario* (A. H. Chester). 

Mach, obs. form of Match sb. and v. 

Machserodont (adki^iWpnt), a. Zool. [f. 

Gr. fmxaipa sword, sabre + dbovr-, o^ovs tooth.] 
Characterized by teeth like those of the genus 
Machairodus ; sabre-toothed. 

1883 Flower in Encycl. Brit. XV. 435/s Many modifica- 
tions of this commonly-called ' machasrodont' type have been 
met with, /bid., The sabre-toothed or machierodont den- 
tition, the most specially carnivorous type of structure known. 

t MacliEeromaiicy. Obs. rare- 1 , [f. Gr. pa- 
\aipa sword + /xavrua divination.] (See quot. ^ 

165a Gaule Magastrom, 165 Macharomancy [sic], [divin- 
ing] by knives or swords. 

II Machairodus ^nak3i-»'rJJz?s). Pahvant. Also 
machferoduB. [mod.L. (Kaup 1833), f. Gr. 
fidxatpa sword, sabre + o5Ws tooth.] A genus of 
extinct animals of the cat family, having the upper 
canines enormously developed. 

1836 Huckland Geol. <y Min. (18371 1. ai note. iZy^Peuny 
Cycl. XIV. 244/1 The canine teeth of Machairodus are very 
far from those of the bears. 1880 Hawkins Early Man 31 
The Machairodus, or sabre-toothed lion. 

t Mac ham. Obs. rare" 1 . (See quot.) 

1689 [ Farewell] Irish Hudibras 35 Some play the Trump, 
some trot the Hay, Some at Machain, some Noddy play. 
marg. note A Game at Cards. 

Machamete, -ote, -yte, obs. ff. Mahomet. 

„ Maclian (au>|tjta$i Also 9 muchan, mu- 
charn. [Hindi machdn.'] An elevated platform ; 
a scaffolding erected to watch for a tiger, etc. 

1886 Yule Hobson-Jobson, Muchan. 1887 J. C Fife-Cook- 
son Tiger Shooting 41 W. at once arranged for a machan, or 

platform, to be made in a neighbouring tree from which he 
could watch the kill. 1890 Sik S. \V. Laker Wild Beasts I. 
1 53 Branches . . so arranged as to form a screen that will con- 
ceal the watcher. . .This arrangement is called a ' mucharn '. 
1902 Speaker 6 Sept. 600/2 We struggle up the ravine to 
our machans or rather the trees they are to be slung in. 

Maehance : see Maychanck adv. 

Machanic, obs. form of Mechanic a. 

Machavil(l)ian, obs. form of Machiavellian. 

Mache, obs. form of Match sb. and v. 

Macheat, variant of Matchet. 

t Machecole, v. Obs. Also 5 magecolle, 
matchecole. [a. OF. machecoller, connected with 
Machicoulis.] trans. To machicolate. Chiefly 
in pa. pple. 

1412-20 Lydg. Chron. Troy 11. ii, The walles were. .Mage- 
colled without for sautes and assaye. 1470-85 Malory 
Arthur vn. x. 226 They saweatoureas whyteas ony snowe 
wel matchecold al aboute. c 1500 Melusine xix. 103 Forty- 
fyed round aboute with grete toures machecolyd. 1530 
Palsgk. 616/2, I inage colle (Lydgate). 

Machecollate, obs. form of Machicolate v. 

Machecoulis : see Machicoulis. 

t Maches. Obs. Also 8 masches, maschets, 
maskets. [a. F. mdche!\ The plant corn-salad 
\V ale r land la olitoria). 

1693 Evelyn De la Quint. Coiupl. Card. II. 197 Maches, 
are a sort of little Sallet. .seldom, .brought before any noble 
Company. They are multiplied by Seed which is gathered 
in July, and are only used towards the end of Winter. 1704 
Diet. Rust, fy L'rb., Maches or Maschets. 1706 Phillips 
(ed. Kersey), Maches or Masches, a kind of (Jorn-Sallet. 
1719 London & Wise Compl. Card. 221 Maches. 

Machete, machete*, -ette: see Matchet. 

Machiavel markiavel). Also 6 Machivell, 
6 -S Maehiavell, 7-8 -vil.T, 7-9 Macehiavel. 
[Anglicized name of Niccolo Machiavelli, a cele- 
brated Florentine statesman, who advocated in his 
work Del Principe the pursuit of statecraft at the 
expense of morality.] One who acts on the prin- 
ciples of Machiavelli; an intriguer, an unscrupulous 
schemer, f Also appositive. 

1570 Buchanan Adm&nitioun Wks. (S. T. S.) 24 Proud 
contempnars or maehiavell mokkaris of all religioun and 
vertew. 1597 J. Payne Royal E.vch. 11, I wyshe you 
bannishe from your tables suche Atheists and machivells. 
1598 Shaks. Merry W. in. i. 104 Am I politfcke? Am I 
subtle? Am I a Machiuell? 163a U. Jonson Magn. Lady 
1, The very Agat Of State and Politie: cut from the Quar of 
Macehiavel. 1691 Norris Pract. Disc. 20 Intreaguers and 
Projectors, the very Machiavels of their age. 1712 Addison 
Sped. No. 305 p 15 These young Machiavils will, in a little 
time, turn their College upside-down with Plots and Strata- 
gems. 1775 Sheridan Duennaw. iv, Oh, this little cunning 
head ! I'm a Machiavel— a very Machiavel. 1863 Reade 
Hard Cash xxix, This artful man, who had now become a 
very Machiavel. 

Hence fMachiavelize v. intr. = Macluavellianize. 
t Machiavelizing- vbl. sb. 

1611 Cot<jr., Machiavelizer, to Machiauelize it; to prac- 
tise Machiauellisme. 1617 MmsHEU Ductor, Macheualiw. 
1656 Blount Glossogr., Machevalize or Machiavelianhe . 
1775 Ash, Suppb, Machiavelizing, the act of practising the 
politics of Machiavel. 

Machiavellian (mxkiavedian), a. and sb. 
Forms: 6 Macciaveliau, 6 7 Mac(h)avil(l)ian, 
Mache velian, -vilian, Machivil(l)ian, 7 Mac- 
chiavilian, Matehia-, Matchievil.lian, 7-8 
Machiavil(l)ian, 7~9-velian,6- Machiavellian. 
[f. Machiavel or Machiavelli + -(i)ak.] 

A. adj. Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of 
Machiavelli, or his alleged principles ; following 
the methods recommended by Machiavelli in pre- 
ferring expediency to morality ; practising dupli- 
city in statecraft or in general conduct ; astute, 
cunning, intriguing. 

1579 J- Stubbes Gaping Gulf C\n], Thys absurd manner 
of reasoning is very Macciauelian logick. 159a Gkekne 
Groat's W. Wit (1617) 35 Is it pestilent MachiuiHan pi 
that thou hast studied? 1613 Chapman Revenge Bussy 

Groat's W. Wit (1617) 35 Is it pestilent MachiuiHan policie 

S13 " 
D'Atubois Plays 1873 II. 159 These are your Macheuilian 

Villaines. 1631 Gouge GotVs Arrows 1. xix. 26 What got 
that Machivillian politician Achitophell. 1637-50 Kow Hist. 
Kirk (1842) 162 Divide et rcgna is an old Matchiavilian 
maxime and trick. 1653 A. Wilson Jas. I 185 The true 
way of Treaties is with Christian, not Machiavelian policy. 
172a W. Bond Ded. to Hartcliffc's Virtues s The refined 
Matchiavillian thinkers have .. altered the very nature o! 
ethicks. 1790 Buhke Fr. Rev. Wks. V. 158 Where men 
follow their natural impulses, they would not bear the odious 
maxims of a Machiavelian policy. 1848 Thackeray Van. 
Fair xxiii, So this Machiavellian captain of infantry cast 
about him for some .. stratagem. 1878 E. Jenkins Haver- 
holme 63 Conducting his party with Machiavellian subtlety. 
B. sb. A follower of Machiavelli ; one who 
adopts Machiavelli's principles in statecraft or in 
general conduct. 

1568 Salir. /'actus Reform, ix. 113 This false Machivilian. 
1598 Makston Pygmal. 11. 145 A. damn'd Macheuelian 
Holds candle to the deuill for a while. 1608 Willet 
Ilcxapia Exod. 320 Protagoras with the Machiauellians. . 
were doubtful whether there were any God. 16*7 Hnsband- 
}iiafCs Plea agst. Tithes 91 Never any Machivilian, or cruell 
State Politician . . could never have devised a more effectuall 
way. 1668 R. Stekle Husbandman's Calling \\\. (1672) 
187 He hath need of discretion, .that he be neither monk 
nor Matchevillian. 1710 Steele Tatter No. 193 r 3 During 
this Retreat the Machiavilian was not idle, but secretly 
fomented Divisions. 1814 Scott Let. to J. B. S. Morritt 

30 Apr., An awful lesson to sovereigns that morality is not 
so indifferent to politics as Machiavellians will assert. 

Hence Machiavellianism, the principles and 
practice of Machiavelli or of the Machiavellians, 
the employment of cunning and duplicity in state- 
craft or in general conduct ; an instance of this. 
f MacliiaveTlianize ?/., to practise Machiavellian- 
ism (Blount Glossogr. 1656). -\ Machiave llianly 
adv.y in a Machiavellian manner. 

1626 Bernard Isle of Man (1627) 104 The Bills of Indite- 
nient framed by those false informers. . Formalitie. . Machia- 
villianisme, Statisnie. .against Christian Conference. 1640 
Howell Dodona's Gr. 173 Behold a notable peece of machia- 
villianisme. 1660 Evelyn Ne^osfr. Brussels Misc. Writ. £1805) 
198 This impress he hath so Machiavelianly, and with such 
art and cunning, besprinkled and scattered over the whole 
paper. 1711 W. King tr. Nande's Ref. Politics i. 19 The 
courts . . where these M achiavilianisms are so common. i88z 
Palgrave in Grosart Spenser's Wks. IV. p. xxv, The 
Machiavellianism of the sixteenth century. 

Machiavellic m;e kiave - lik\ a. Also -velic. 
[formed as prec. adj. +-IC.] Machiavellian. 

i838i.7rt £ AV>. Mag. XLIII. 510 The Whigs indeed had 
concocted their schemes beforehand with all the Machiavelic 
forecast of veterans in the art of creating family broils. 1879 
Farrar St, Paul (18S3) 350 The astute and machiavellic 
policy of Rome. 

t Machiave'lline, a. Obs. rare- 1 . In 7 
Machiaveline. [formed as prec. + -ink.] =^prec. 

i6o2 Patehicke tr. Gentillet 312 They have so well profited 
in their Machiaveline philosophic, that [etc.]. 

Macliiavellism i^ma^kiavelizm). Also 6-7 
Machiavilisme, 7 -velism(e, iratchiavellisme, 
9 Mac(c hiavelism. [formed as prec. + -ISM.] 

— Machiavellianism. 

159a Nashe /*. Penilcsse (Shaks. Soc.) 68, I comprehend 
. . vnder hypocrisie, al Machiavilisme. 1607 Walkington 
Opt. Glass 66 b, A brocher of dangerous matchiauellisme. 
1617 Bi'. Hall Quo Vadis ? § 21 Where had we . . the art of 
dishonestie in practicall Machiauelisme, in false equiuoca- 
lions r 1810 Bent ham Offic. Apt. Maximized, Def Econ. 
(1830* 57 A Government, in which, under the guidance of 
upstart Machiavelism, titled and confederated imbecility 
should lord it over King and people. 1897 Daily News 
3 June 6/1 What., is the history of the Italian Republics. . 
but the history of Macliiavellism before Machiavelli? 

Ma chiave'llist. Also 6 Machivelist, 7 
Matchi(a^vel:,l ist, 89 Machiavelist. [formed 
as prec. + -ist.] One who practises or favours the 
principles of Machiavelli. 

1589 Nashe Martins Months Mimic To Rdr., I meddle 
not here with the Anabaptists, Pamely louists, Machiauel- 
lists, nor Atheists. Ibid. H, Yee Machiuelists, Athiests, 
and each mischieuous head. 1640 K. Baillie Canterb. Self- 
Convict. 7 The contrarie maximes of the Turkish Empire, 
wherewith Matchivelists this day every where are labouring 
to poyson the eares of all Christian Princes. 1799 Hull 
Advertiser 6 July 1/4 A profound Machiavelist. 1829 
Southey Sir T. More II. 80 The art of directing enthusiasm 
. . is the most difficult which the Machiavelhsts of Papal 
Rome have ever been called upon to practise. 

Machicolate (matJVkJktt), v. Also 8-9 ma- 
ehecollate, matchicolate. [f. ppl. stem of med.L. 
machicolJ)dre = Or=" '. machecoller ; seeMACHECOLK 
v.] trans. To furnish with machicolations. Chiefly 
in Machi"Colated/rt. pple. and ppl. a. 

1773 Gentl. Mag. XLIII. 536 The gate-house, .is fortified 
with a port-cluse or port-cullis, and machecollated. 1814 
Bkitton Archil. Antiq. IV. 1S1 Caesar's- tower . . is sur- 
mounted by a bold machicolated parapet. 184a Bakham 
Ingot. Leg., Bloudie Jackc, With iron it's plated And 
machecollated, To pour boiling oil or lead down, i860 
Hawthohne Marble Faun (1879^ I. vi. 61 A mediaeval 
tower,, .battlemcnted and machicolated at the summit. 1890 
Times 8 Apr. 1 1/3 The machicolated towers of Raglan Castle. 

trausf 1848 W. S. Mayo Kaloolah (1887) 7, I could see 
every .stone of" the towers, matchicolated with stork's nests. 

Machicolation (matJiUU'i-Jon). Arch., [f. 
prec. : see -ation.] 

1. An opening between the corbels which support 
a projecting parapet, or in the vault of a portal, 
through which combustibles, molten lead, stones, 
etc., were dropped on the heads of assailants. 
Also, a projecting structure containing a range of 
such openings. 

1788 Ghose Milit. Antiq. II. 336 The grand entrance was 
mostly through a gate flanked by two large and strong towers, 
with a projection over the passage, called a machicolation. 
1806 Dallaway Obserz>. EJug. Archil. 92 Lofty embattled 
walls . . crested with hanging galleries and macchicolatiom> 
which served the double purpose of military defence and 
giL-at external beauty. 1833 0. Downes Lett. Cent. Coun- 
tries I. 521 The antique castle is furnished with a machico- 
lation. 1848 Rickman Archil, no Wakefield steeple .. is 
.singular for its machicolations in the top of the lower. 1871 
Miss Bkaddon Lovetsv. 87 The crenellated roof, with its 
machicolations, is considered a great success. 

2. The action of discharging missiles, etc., through 
such apertures, rare" ; perh. an error. 

1828 32 in Weuster; and in later Diets. 

|| Machicoulis (maJik/7 - li). Also 9 mache- 
coulis. machicouli, and in quasi- anglicized form 
machicoule. [F. mUchecou/is, machicotdis , OF. 
maschecoulis.~\ *= Machicolation i. 

1793 Smeaton Edystone L. Introd. 4 A lodgment, in forti- 
fication called a Machicoulis, is built upon the wall over the 
siairs. 1802 James Milit. Diet, s.v., When a place is be- 
sieged, detached parties of the garrison inay be posted in 
the several machicoulises. 1851 Eraser's Mag. XLIII. 
154 A large granite block, formed like a machicoule, and 


projecting from the front wall of the castle. 1859 Parker 
Dom. Archit. III. i. 5 The bastions carried upon corbels, 
with open intervals between them for throwing down, .mis- 
siles, and commonly known by the name of machicoulis. 
1865 Street Gothic Archil. Spain 193 A parapet boldly 
corbelled out on machicoulis from the walls. 1885 Lady 
Hirhfrt tr. Lagrange's Life Dupanloup I. 340 This 
picturesque old chateau, with its postern gate, its portcullis, 
and machicoulis. 

attrib. 1834-47 J. S. Macaulay Field Fortif. (1851) 151 
The machicoulis gallery is made to project 2 feet from the 
wall, i860 Tristram Gt. Sahara xi. 180 Guardrooms witli 
loopholes, .and machicouli gallery. 

II Maxhina. Obs. PI. machinas. [L. ma- 
china Machixe.] = Machine in various senses. 

1612 Siifi.ton Quix. 1. v. I. 32 The Labourer grew almost 
mad for Anger to hear that Machina of Follies. 1622 
Mabbe tr. Aleman's Guzman dAlf. II. 97 So great a Ma- 
china, and such a masse of things. 1640 Glapthorne Hol- 
lander IV. G 3, If I doe not second you confidently, may my 
tongue be cramped,, .and the machma of my invention mind 
perpetually. 1653 H. More Antid. Ath. ill. xi. (1712) 124 
To assert that Animals themselves were Machinas. 1676 
Hale ConUmpl. 1. 220 One poor unthought of accident., 
breaks all to shivers the whole elaborate Machina. 

f Machinal, a. Obs. [acl. L. mdchind/-is f f. 
machina Machine. Cf. ¥. machinal.'] Of or 
pertaining to a machine or machines ; mechanical. 

1680 Moxox Mech. Exerc. x Turning- 236 But to make 
it move thus . . there are required several Machinal Helps. 
1685 Boyle Knq. Notion Nat. 330 Man is.. like a Mann'd 
Boat, where, besides the Machinal Part,. . there is an Intel- 
ligent Being. 1760 Projects in Ann. Reg. 147/1 In the 
erection of the machinal crane-works. 

t Macbinament. Obs. [ad. L. machina- 
ment-um^ f. mdchindrl (see next).] A contrivance, 
engine, machine, vehicle. 

1413 Pilgr. Smvle (Caxton) iv. xxix. (1859) 60 At the last 
I saw before me a wonder machynament, and meruaylous ! 
c 14*5 Found. St. Bartholomew's 37 And skippynge forth 
with all Iryne machynamentis he came to the doer. 1658 
Bromhall Treat. Specters iv. 255 A very stormy South - 
wind did . , palsie and shoulder-shake . . machinaments and 
fortifications. 1674 Petty Disc. Dupl. Proportion 7 Mate- 
rials applied . .to Carts, or any other Machinaments intended 
for strength. 1727 in Bailey vol. II. 

Machinate (mse-kin^t), v. Also 7 machinat. 
[f. L. machinal-, ppl. stem of mdchindrl to con- 
trive, f. machina Machine.] 

1. intr. To lay plots; to intrigue, scheme. 

1600 W. Watson Decacordon (1602J 243 Such persons as 
shall machinate and deuise to execute such outragkms 
designements against their prince, 1689 Dcf. Liberty agst. 
Tyrants 130 A Tyrant conspires, machinates, and lays his 
plots and practises. 1830 Frascr's Mag. I. 101 The blackest 
treason may lurk and machinate at his very threshold. 1858 
Kaber Bartolify Maffei's Life Xavier 312 Whilst the Portu- 
guese had been preparing for their departure, the bonzes 
had been machinating against them. 

2. trans. To contrive, plan, plot. Now rare. 
1602 Fulhkcke 2nd Pt. Parallel 23 Dolus bonus, is when 

a man doth machinate or deuise anie thin:* to entrap a 
thiefe, or a traytour. 1643 Prynne Romes A/asterpeece 14 
He thought tit, that a desperate Treason, machinated against 
so many soules was to be revealed. 1651 Howell Venice 
187 Which makes Urban the 8. machinat violent means 
for to invest his Nephews in another Princes Estate. 1760-72 
H. Brooke Fool of Qual. (1809) I. 122 The .. robberies, 
massacres, and assassinations, that the violent machinate 
against the peaceful. 1822 T. Taylor Apuleius 359 [He] 
injures himself in a greater degree than he injures him 
against whom he machinates destruction. 

Machinating (mce-kinVUirj ) t ppl. a. [-IXG 2 .] 
That machinates or plots ; given to plotting. 

1748 Richardson Clarissa (1811) III. 355 Willingness to 
think well of a spirit so inventive, and so machinating. 1754 
— Grandisnn (1781I V. xlii. 261 It was all open day, no 
dark machinating night, in the heart of the undissembling 
Olivia. 1900 O. Onions Compl. Bachelor v. 57 The ma- 
chinating married woman ! No bachelor is safe with her. 

Machination (msekin^i'Jan). Also 7 matchin- 
ation. [ad. L. machination-em (either directly, 
or through F. machination^) , n. of action f. md- 
chindri to contrive, Machinate.] 

1. The action or process of contriving or plan- 
ning ; contrivance, intrigue, plotting. Now rare. 

1549 Compl. Scot. xi. 90 There liberte. .vas ane lang tyme 
in captiuite, be the machination of 5our aid enemes. 1605 
* Shaks. Lear v. i. 46 If you miscarry, Your businesse of the 
world hath so an end, And machination ceases. 1651 
Hobbes Leviath. 1. xiii. 60 By secret machination, or by 
confederacy with others. 1667 Milton /'. L. vi. 504 Some 
one ..inspired With dev'lish machination, might devise 
Like instrument. 1835 I. Taylor Spir. Despot, iv. 159 The 
machination in closets of interests that ought to be openly 
discussed is a treason against the community. 

2. An instance of plotting or contrivance ; an 
intrigue, plot, scheme. Usually in bad sense. 

c 1477 Caxton Jason 77 b, Some welwillars of the king . . 
tolde to him the machmacion of Zethephius. 1539 Cromwell 
Let. 286 in Mernman Life % Lett. (1902) II. 168 Albeit his 
nighnes dothe in no wise feare any of his Censures attemp- 
tates or other malicious & devilishe machinacions. 1656 
J. Hammond Leah % R. (1844) 24 His Highnesse, (not 
acquainted with these matchinations), had [etc.]. 1678 Wood 
Life 29 Sept., This machinacion fayling, another, .was put 
on foote. 1713 Steele Englishman No. 12. 81 Such Men 
would stand up .. against the Machinations of Popery and 
Slavery. 1749 Fielding Tom Jones xvi. iv, To defeat my 
wisest machinations by your blunders. 1855 Macaulay Hist. 
Eng. xiii. III. 306 Ludlow escaped unhurt from all the ma- 
chinations of his enemies. 1867 Freeman Norm. Cong. 
(1876) I. iv. 224 The French and German writers know 
nothing of these machinations of Arnulf, 

f3. The use or construction of machinery. Obs. 
1641 Earl Monm. tr. Bwndi's Civil iVarres iv. 50 Hoping 
that time and hunger might effect that, which, .by all their 
machinations and assaults they could not doe. 1711 W. 
Sutherland Shipbuild. Assist. 21 Machination, or the 
forming Machines or Engines. 

f4. Something contrived or constructed ; esp. in 
material sense, e.g. a mechanical appliance for war, 
a framework or apparatus. Obs. 

1605 Bacon Adv. Learn, 1. vi. 14 The Edict .. was . . 

accounted a more pernitious engine and machination against 

the Christian faith, than [etc.]. 1613 R. Cawdkey 'Table 

Alplt. (ed. 3), Machinations, war-like weapons. 1652 GAULE 

. Magastro/u. 108 Will not then their whole machination, or 

1 fabrick of judiciall Astrologie fall to the ground? 1680 

Moxon Mech. Fxcrc., Turning 235 If the Puppet be made 

j to it with the Machination described in Plate 17. 

Machinator (mEe'kin^'tw). [a. L. mdchindtor. 

j agent-n. f. mdchindrl to contrive, Machinate.] 
One who contrives or schemes; a contriver, intriguer, 

' plotter, schemer ; usually in bad sense. 

i6n Cotgr., A/achinateur, a machinator, framer, deuiser, 
(especially of bad things). 1627 H. Burton Baiting 1 "ope s 
Bull 26 Their art infernall,. .infused into them by that .. 
chiefe machinator of all mischiefe. 1760 C. Johnston 
Chrysal (1822) II. 152 Not only escape the ruin meditated 
against him, but also retort it on the machinators. 1839 
I. Taylor Anc. Chr. I. Pref. 7 Certain wary machinators 
around us. i86» Latham Channel /si. 111. xvi. (ed. 2) 381 
There were intrigues and divisions of all sorts : Lord Digby 
being the chief machinator. 1892 Pall Mall G. 3 May 2/2 

I The machinators of the Union ..destroyed nearly every 

i document bearing on that shameful transaction. 

Machine (majrn), sb. Also 7-8 machin. [ad. 

1 F. machine ( =, Pg. maquina, machina. 

' It. macchina), ad. L. machina, ad. Gr. fiqx av lf 
f. fif)X 0S contrivance, cogn. w. Teut. *magau to 
be able (see May v.). 

The Fr. word has passed into all the mod. Teut. langs. : 
G. maschine, Du. machine, Da. maskiue, Sw. maskin. 
In i7~i8th c. the word was often stressed on the first sy 11. ] 
1. A structure of any kind, material or im- 
material ; a fabric, an erection. Now rare. 

1549 Compl. Scot. Ep. to Queen 3 The maist iliustir potent 
prince of the maist fertil is: p:i.cebil realme, vndir the machine 
of the supreme olimp. 1599 A. Hume Hymnes ii. 38 Be 
his wisdome. .so wondroushe of nocht, This machin round, 
this vniuers, this vther world he wrocht. 1674 Playfohd Skill 
I A/us. Pref. 2 Disposing the whole Machine of the World. 1674 
i Hickman Quinquart. Hist. (ed. 2) 225 They that asserted 
\ Universal redemption by the death of Christ destroyed 
the whole Machine of the Calvinian predestination. 1682 
N. O. tr. Boiteau's Luirin 1. 239 Behind this Machine 
[a pulpit], cover'd as with a skreen, The Sneaking Chanter 
scarce could then be seen. 1687 A. Lovell tr. Tlutenot's 
Trav. in, 23 They put fire next to a Machine which 
seemed to be a blew Tree when it was on lire. 1697 
Dry den sEneid 11. 25 With inward Arms the dire Machine 
[sc. the wooden horse] they load. 1753 Hanway Trav. (1762) 
I. v. Ixii. 286 Her imperial majesty is drawn a large 
machine, which contains her bed, a table, and other conveni- 
ences. .. This machine is set on a sledge, and drawn by 
. twenty-four post horses. 1784 J. Barky in Led. Paint, v. 
(1848) 196 Had the whole of this great machine of the 
Fontana di Trevi been committed to any one of those 
sculptors. i7gi Charlotte Smith Celestina (ed. 2) I. 129 
Her new laylock bonnet . . for the safety of which she was 
so solicitous that she would have taken the great machine 
in which it was contained into the coach, had it not been 
opposed by the coachman. 1829 R, Hall Wks. (1832) VI. 
457 The mind casts its eye over the whole machine of 
I society. 1878 Browning La Saisiaz 279 To each mortal 
peradventure earth becomes a new machine. 

b. spec. A vehicle of any kind (usually wheeled). 
; In the 18th and part of the 19th centuries com- 
: monly applied to a stage-coach or mail-coach. 
\ Obs. exc. Sc* Also short for bathing-machine. 

1687 A. Lovell tr. Thevcnofs Trav. in. 54 They make 
use of an Engine which they call Palanquin. ..This Machine 
hangs by a long Pole [etc.]. 1704 Swift Mech. Operat. 
Spirit Misc. (1711) 275 Tho' there is not any other Nation 
in the World so plentifully provided with Carriages for that 
: Journey., yet there are abundance of us who will not be 
! satisfy 'd with any other Machine besides this of Mahomet. 
1709 Lond. Gaz. No. 4545/1 His Serenity, accompanied by 
.. the Boy who drew the Balls for the Election [of Doge] 
sitting in the same Machine, was carried out of the Church. 
1769 De Foe's Tour Gt. Britain III. 106 A Machine going 
out to, and coming in from, London three Times a Week in 
, the Summer. 1759 Adam Smith Mor. Sent. 11781) 267 The 
poor man's son . . sees his superiors carried about in machines. 
1772 Burke Corr. (1844) I. 372 Your very kind letter of the 
15 th , . . I received by the machine. 1791 Mhs. Grant Lett. 
I fr. Mountains (1813) II. xxxvii. 184, 1 came in a little open 
1 machine we keep for these journies. 1822 Ace. Establ. Gen. 
, P.-O. 8 in Pari. Pap. XVIII. 175 To loss by death of two 
' horses before the machine commenced running. 1832 
Massachusetts Stat. c. 75 § 4 Every cart, wagon, or other 
machine, drawn by two or four oxen. 1859 All Year Round 
No. 19. 446, I got into the wrong machine [sc. a bathing- 
machine] fir^st. 1893 H. Joyce Hist. Post Office xii. 215 
In that year [1784], and for some little time afterwards, 
coaches which carried the mails were called diligences or 
machines, and the coachmen were called machine-drivers. 
1894 Black Highland Cousins I. 37, 1 would bring a machine 
and drive you up to the Drill-Hall. 

+ C. Applied to a ship or other vessel. Obs. 
1637 Hevwood Royal Ship 27 Shee [Pallas] hath (no doubt) 
raptured our Undertaker This Machine to devise first, and 
then make her. 1702 S. Parker tr. Cicero's De P'inibus v. 
320 In vain upon the Canvas plays A wanton Gale. The 
Machin stays Becalm'd with Harmony. 1717 W.Sutherland 
{title) Britain's Glory or Ship-building Unveil'd, being a 
General Director for Building and Compleating the said 
j Machines, 1782 Crevecoeuk Lett. 220 [Slaves] carried in a 


strange machine over an ever agitated element, which they 
had never seen before. 1807 Southf.y Esprielld's Lett. II. 
155 We .. embarked upon the canal m a stage boat bound 
for Chester. .. The shape of the machine resembles the 
common representations of Noah's ark. 
d. (See quot.) (Cf. sense 3.) 

1883 S. Plimsoll in 19th Cent. July 147 The box called 
by many names, as ' van ', ' machine ', ' tank ', ' trunk ', &c. 
Ibid. 162 The 'kit ' haddocks are put loose into what are 
called machines. These machines are long boxes lined with 
lead. .divided internally into four equal spaces. 

2. A military engine, siege-tower, or the like. 
Now rare. Chiefly Anc. Hist. ( = 1- machina . 

1656 Blount Glossogr., Machine, an instrument or engine 
i»f War. 1674 Ch. fy Court of Rome 4 These are the goodly 
.Machines . . recommended to batter down the Protestant 
Cause. 1732 Lediard Sethos II. ix. 277 He [raised] enor- 
mous machines round about the city. 1839 Tmirlwall 
Greece VI. xlix. 165 The besieged made many vigorous 
sallies for the purpose of setting fire to the machines. 

f3. An apparatus, appliance, instrument. Obs. 

1650 Bulwek Anthropomct. 92 In the curious Machin of 
speech, the Nose is added as a Recorder. 1707 Curios, 
in Husb. -y Card. 27 The Microscope .. has been but lately 
discover'd : for the Naturalists .. were not aided by that 
Machine. 1727-41 Chambers Cycl., Racket is also a ma- 
chine, which the savages of Canada bind to their feet, to 
enable them to walk more coinmodiously over the snow. 

fb. In immaterial sense: A de\icc, machina- 
tion. Obs. 

I 595~6 <J. Eliz. Let. to Jas. VI [Camden Soc.) 113 In 
wurdz . . of such waight, as, in honest dimars, bit may mar 
the facon of diuelische machines, and erase the hartz of 
treason-mynding men. /bid. 173 And how I mynde tokipe 
my owne dores from my ennemis malice ; and so do wische 
that our solide amitie may overthawrt thes develische ma- 

4. In a narrower sense: An apparatus for apply- 
ing mechanical power, consisting of a number of 
interrelated parts, each having a definite function. 

In recent use the word tends to be applied esp. to an ap- 
paratus so devised that the result of its operation is not 
dependent on the strength or manipulative skill of the work- 
man ; thus the term printing-machine does not in ordinary 
language include the hand-press, but is reserved for those 
apparatus of later invention in which manual labour is super- 
seded by the action of the mechanism. 

1673 Ray Joum. Low C. 5 This kind of Machin is gene- 
rally used., for raising up Water. 1756-7 tr. Keystcr's 
Trav. (1760) II. 250 For raising this obelisk out of the 
ground, .. Fontana contrived forty-one machines. 1822 
Kobison Syst. Mech. Philos. II. 48 It is certain that the 
account given in the ' Century of Inventions ' cuuld instruct 
no person who was not sufficiently acquainted with the pro- 
perty of steam to be able to invent the machine himself. 
1851 Carpenter Man. Phys. iii. (ed. 2)96 Examining the 
component parts of the Machine. — its springs, wheels, levers, 
cords, pulleys, &c. 1881 Nik W. Thomson in Nature No. 619. 
434 Windmills as hitherto made are very costly machines. 
1888 Pall MallG. 13 Apr. 12 1 An Automatic Gas Machine. 
. . The machine is charged with one of the first products of 
petroleum, or gasolene. 

fig. 1749 Fielding Tom Jones vi. ii, The great state wheels 
in all the political machines of Europe. 1801 Wellington in 
Gurw. Desp. (1S37) I. 342 Mote experience than we have yet 
had of the operation of the court (of the manner in which 
the machine works). 1809-10 Coleridge Friend xv. (18S7,) 
64 To expose the folly and the legerdemain of those who 
have thus abused the blessed machine of language. 1876 
L. Stephen Eng. Th. in iZth Cent. II. ix. iii. 19 The 
Church was excellent as a national refrigerating machine. 

b. Used spec, for the particular kind of machine 
with which the speaker is chiefly concerned ; e.g. 
short for sewing-machine, printing-machine. Also, 
in recent use, often for a bicycle or tricycle. 

1841 Penny Cycl. XIX. 20/1 A sheet of paper is.. put into 
the machine by one attendant and taken out printed on both 
sides by the other attendant. 1883 Stubmy Tricyclisfs Ann. 
(ed. 3) 126 A glance at the tricycle trade ..with full descrip- 
tion of upwards of 250 machines, /bid. 190 A well-made 
machine, and the easiest, .folded tricycle in the market. 

c. Applied to the human and animal frame as a 
combination of several ports. (Cf. sense 1.) 

Now chiefly with metaphorical intention. 

1602 Shaks. Ham. it. ii. 124 Thine euermore most deere 
Lady, whilst this Machine is to him. 1687 Death's Vis. ix. 
130 What Nobler Souls the Nobler Macliins Wear. 1609 
Garth Dispcns. v. 54 And shall so useful a Machin as I 
Engage in civil lhoyls, I know not why? 1712 Addison 
Spat. No. 387 F 2 Cheerfulness is.. the best Promoter of 
Health. Repinings . . wear out the Machine insensibly. 
1722 QuiNCV Lex. Phys.-Mcd. (ed. 2) 17 Until some Authors 
. . have demonstrated the Laws of Circulation in an Animal 
Machine. 1804 WoRDfiW. ' She was a Phantom of delight' 
22 And now I see with eye serene Tlie very pulse of the 
machine. 1805 Med. Jmt. XIV. 181 When a product of 
diseased action has been effected, . . in consequence of which 
the machine becomes again sensible to the impressions of 
ordinary causes. 1876 Pheece & SlWWRIGHT Telegraphy 
114 The human machine tires, and as a' consequence not 
only is the speed of working reduced, but [etc.]. 

d. A combination of parts moving mechanically, 
as contrasted with a being having life, conscious- 
ness and will. Hence applied to a person who 
acts merely from habit or obedience to rule, with- 
out intelligence, or to one whose actions have the 
undeviating precision and uniformity of a 'machine*. 

1692 Bentlev Boyle Lect. 59 If brutes be supposed to be 
bare engins and machins. 177^9 A. Hamilton Wks. (1886) 
VII. 565 The nearer the soldiers approach to machines, 
perhaps the better. 1809-10 Coleridge Friend (1865) jw 
Man must be free ; or to what purpose was he made a spirit 
of reason, and not a machine of instinct ? 1820 Hvron Afar. 
Fal. 1. ii. 302 They are .. mere machines, To serve the 
nobles' most patrician pleasure, 1830 Carlylk in Froqde 


Lift- 11S82) II. 90 Wherefore their system [Utilitarianism] is 
a machine and cannot grow or endure. 1866 Geo. Eliot 
/'". Holt (1868) 18 I'll have old Hickes. He was a neat little 
machine of a hutler. 1890 ' L. Falconer * Mile, Ixe (1891) 
108, I believe women think horses are machines, and made 
of cast-iron too. 1895 Outiug (U. S.) Dec. 248/2 Too much 
preparation .. makes a man a mere machine, set to go off 
at a particular day. 

5. Meek, Any instrument employed to transmit 
force, or to modify its application. Simple ma- 
chine : one in which there is no combination of 
parts, e. g. a lever, or any other of the so-called 
mechanical powers* Compound machine : one 
whose efficiency depends on the combined action 
of two or more parts. 

[An artificial extension of sense 4, the notion of complexity 
implied in that sense being treated as unessential.] 

1704 J. Harris Lex. Tcchn., Machine, or Engine, in 
Mechanicks, is whatsoever hath Force sufficient either to 
raise or stop the Motion of a Jiody. .. Simple Machines are 
commonly reckoned to be Six in Number, viz. the Ballance, 
Leaver, Pulley, Wheel, Wedge, and Screw. . . Compound 
Machines, or Engines, are innumerable. 1831 Lardnlk 
Hydrost. ii. 10 By this singular power of transmitting pres- 
sure, a fluid becomes, in the strictest sense of the term, a 
machine. 1839 (1. Bird Nat. Philos. 60 By means of these 
simple machines it must not be supposed that we beget or 
increase force. 1866 I>k. Argyll Reign Law ii. (ed. 4) 90 
A man's arm is a machine. 

6. Tkeatr, [*=L. machiua.] A contrivance for the 
production of stage-effects. Also in pi. — stage- 
machinery. Obs. exc. in occasional allusion to the 
ancient stage. 

1658 Hist. Q. Christina 225 This play succeeded very 
well, especially for the admirable beauty and finenesse 
of the machins. 1681 Cotton Wond. Peak (ed. 4) 9 Like 
a Machine which, when some god appears, We see de- 
scend upon our Theaters. 1687 Settle Rcjl. Dryden 
56 The Poet if he had thought on't, might have intro- 
duced her by a Machin. 1712-1$ Pope Rape Lock iv. 
46 Now lakes of liquid gold, Elysian scenes, And crystal 
domes, and angels in machines. 1720 Dk Foe Duncan 
Campbell (1895) 177 She .. descended into that room full of 
company, as a miracle appearing in a machine from above. 
1741 Betterton Eng. Stage i. 9 Adorned, .with all the 
.Machines and Decorations, the Skill of those Times could 
afford. (71845 Hood Vauxhall vii, Time's ripe for the 
Ballet, Like bees they all rally liefore the machine! 1873 
Browning Red Cot t. A't. -cap 124 Forth steps the needy tailor 
on the stage, Deity-like from dusk machine of fog. 

7. Hence in literary use: A contrivance for the 
sake of effect ; a supernatural agency or personage 
introduced into a poem ; the interposition of one 
of these. 

1678 Dryden CEdifus Epil. 10 Terror and pity this whole 
poem sway ; The mightiest machines that can move a 
play. 1693 — Juvenal Ded. (1697) 13 His [Milton'*] 
Heavenly .Machines are many, and his Human Persons are 
but two. 1700 — Fables Pref, Wks. (Globe) 49S Virgil 
never made use of such machines, when he was moving 
you to commiserate the death of Dido. 1705 Addison 
Italy 425 The Apparition of Venus comes in very pro- 
perly . . for without such a Machine . . I can't see how the 
Heroe could .. leave Neoptolemus triumphant. 1712 — 
Sped. No. 351 r 5 The changing of the Trojan fleet 
into Water-Nymphs . . is the most violent Machine of the 
whole ./Eneid. 1713 Stickle Guardian No. 130P20, 1 come 
now to consider the machines ; a sort of beings that have 
the outside and appearance of men, without being really 
such. 1715 Pope Iliad I. Pref. B 4 b, The Marvelous Fable 
includes whatever is supernatural, and especially the Ma- 
chines of the Gods. 1716 Lady M. W. Montagu Let. to 
PoPe 14 Sept., The story of the opera . . gives opportunities 
for a great variety of machines. 17*7 Pope, etc. Art 0/ 
Sinking 120 [Recipe] for the Machines; Take of deities, 
male and female, as many as you can use. 1756-83 J, 
Warton Ess. Pope (ed. 4) I. iv. 230 These machines are 
vastly superior to the allegorical personages of Koileau and 
Garth. 1765 H. Walpole Otranto (ed. 2) Pref., The actions, 
sentiments, conversations, of the heroes and heroines of 
ancient days were as unnatural as the machines employed to 
put them in motion. 1774 Warton Hist. Ens. Poetry III. 
xxiii. 83 It has nothing, except the machine of the chime, In 
common with Fabylt's Ghoste. > 1897 W. P. ICer Epic <y 
Romance 36 The episodes of Circe, of the Sirens, and of 
Polyphemus, are machines. 

8. U. S. politics. The controlling organization of 
a political party. Hence applied, with disparag- 
ing emphasis, to organizations of more or less 
similar character fan Kngland. 

1876 H. V. Bovnton in Jr. Amer. Rev. CXXIII. 327 In 
a word he encountered the combinations inside politics,-— 
the machine. 1884 Lpool Mercury 18 Feb. 5/5 An election 
which gives to Lord Randolph Churchill the practical 
control of the Conservative electioneering machine. 1888 
ISryce Amer. Commw. II. 111. lxvi. 498 The officials. .in 
whose gift this patronage lies place it at the disposal of the 
leaders of the Machine. Now there are three Machines in 
New York ; two Democratic, because the Democratic party divided into two factions,., and one Republican. 1890 
Review of Rev. II. 602/1 His followers in Ireland, the men 
of the machine, the members whom he nominated to their 
constituencies, . . set about making noisy demonstrations in 
his favour. 1892 Boston (Mass.) Jrnl. 29 Nov. 3/1 (heading) 
The Machine Drops Senator Wm. S. McNary. 1901 N. 
Amer. Rev. Feb. 255 The Nationalist Party ., are working 
the machine with unflagging energy. 

9. attrib. and Comb. a. simple attributive, as 
(sense 4) machine-action , -drill, -electricity t -horse, 
-room, -strap ; (sense 4 c!) machine-society ; (sense 
8) machine-politician, -polities ; also machine-like 
adj.; b. objective, as machine-breaking, -drawing, 
-maker , -minder, -monger, -operator y -overseer, 


-owner, -tender ; c. instrumental, with sense 'by or 
with a machine*, esp. in contradistinction to what 
is done by hand, as machine-drilling, 'printing, 
-stitching; machine-closed, -cut, -divided, -driven, 
-ginned, -wade, -planed, -ruled, -sewed, -stitched, 
-welted, - w rou ght adjs. 

1882 Rep. to Ho. Repr. Prec. Met. U. S. 593 The first of 
these conditions .. is the strains of "machine action. 1832 
Miss Mitfokd Village Ser. v. ir Several men had been 
arraigned together for *machine-breaking. 1862 Catal. 
Internal. Exhib. II. xxvii. 55 *Machine-closed uppers. 1897 
Daily News 29 Mar. 8/7 A supply of large files . . to be 
hand cut, *machine cut, or partly hand and partly machine 
cut. 1900 Ibid. 2 Nov. 9/1 Machine-cut tobacco is affected 
adversely by the heat engendered. 1902 Marshall Metal 
Tools 7 A *machine-divided steel rule. 1887 D. A. Low 
Machine Draw. Pref, *Machine drawing is simply the 
application of the principles of descriptive geometry to the 
representation of machines. 1877 Raymond Statist. Mines 
A> Mining iyi The company has also determined to use 
'machine drills in the mine. 1902 Westm. Gaz. 13 Oct. 7/3 
Fine dust given off during the ^machine-drilling operations. 
1901 Daily Citron. 29 May 3/7 A *machine-driven vehicle 
naturally needs restrictions that do not apply to horse- 
driven vehicles. 1843 Mill Logic in. ix. § 2 (1856) I. 450 
Common, or "machine electricity. 1883 Times 27 Aug. 
9/6 Fine *machine-ginned Broach [cotton], i860 Geo. 
Eliot Mill on El. 1. viii, The depressed, unexpectant look 
of a *machine-horse. 1880 L. Wallace Ben-Hur 117 The 
*macbine-like unity of the whole moving mass. 1858 
Greener Gunnery 431 Enfield "machine-made arms. 1899 
Daily News 27 Nov. 3/1 Above the level of what are known 
in America as ' machine-made plays \ 1813 Examiner 
26 Apr. 262/j R. Roberts, Pudsey, Yorkshire, Machine- 
maker. 1858 Simmonds Diet. Trade, Machine-maker . . 
a constructive builder, who designs or supplies machines . . 
to order. 1835 Ure Philos. Manuf. 213 From the hand- 
openers the flax is carried to the heckling machines. Young 
boys, called *machine-minders, . . tend them. 1876 J. Gould 
Letterpress Printer (1893) 130 The machine-minder must 
examine every sheet for some time. 1840 Gen. P. Thompson 
Exerc. (1842) V.9 Everyman isa*machine-monger when the 
question is of himself. 1896 Indianopolis Typogr. Jrnl. 16 
Nov. 407 The man is a ""machine-operator on a city daily. 
1899 Daily News 23 May 10 '6 Letterpress ^machine overseer 
..seeks permanency. 1817 Cobhett Wks. XXXII. 363 Vio- 
lences against "machine owners. 1888 Brvce A me r. Commw. 
III. iv. Ixxix. 44 Committees are often formed in cities to 
combat the 'Machine politicians in the interests of municipal 
reform. 1893 'Times 26 Apr. 9/5 Irishmen exhibit a faculty 
for assimilating the baser elements in the "machine politics 
of America. 1897 Chiswick Press 4 They have obtained. . 
greater facilities for "Machine Printing. 1878 Sala InGentt. 
Mag. May 565 Much of his [G. Cruikshank sj .. foreground 
work was. .' "machine-ruled ', instead of being free-handed. 
1757 Mrs. Griffith Lett. Henry <y Trances (1767) 1. 8 When 
I am confined to such "machine society . . I fancy I am got 
into Powell's commonwealth. 1900 Daily News 19 May 
6/5 White silk "machine-stitched in a pattern. 1899 Ibid. 
28 Oct. 7/3 The coatbodice has "machine-stitching all round 
the outlines, 1858 Simmonds Diet. Trade, * Machine-strap 
make?; a manufacturer of leather and other connecting 
bands. 1890 Spectator 8 Feb., The Emperor . . forgets the 
"machine-tenders altogether. 1895 Daily News 16 Mar. 6/5 
"Machine-welted work. 1867; W. Felkin {title) A History of 
the "Machine- Wrought Hosiery and Lace Manufactures. 

10. Special combs. : machine-bolt, a bolt with 
a thread, and a square or hexagonal head (Knight 
1884); machine-boy, a boy who attends to a 
machine ; *h machine-driver, the-driver of a mail- 
coach ; machine-gun, a mounted gun which is 
mechanically loaded and fired, delivering a con- 
tinuous fire of projectiles ; machine-head, a 
head for a double-bass or guitar, having worms 
and pinions, instead of pegs, for tightening the 
strings; machine-holder (see quot.); machine- 
man, one who works a machine (esp. a printing- 
machine) ; also, a manager of the political machine 
(see 8), a ( wire-puller'; machine-ruler, a machine 
for ruling lines on paper (Ogilvie, 1882); machine- 
shop, a workshop for making or repairing machines 
or parts of machines ; also attrib. ; machine-tool, 
a machine for cutting or shaping wood, metals, etc., 
by means of a tool, esp. one designed for use in a 
machine-shop; machine-twist U.S., a kind of silk 
twist, made especially for the sewing-machine 
(Knight Suppl. 1884^,; f machine-vessel, a fire- 
ship ; machine-whim (see quot.) ; machine- 
work, j- (a) poetic 'machinery' (see sense 7) as 
represented in art ; {b) work done by a machine, 
as distinguished from that done by hand, esp. with 
reference to printing. 

1875 Southward Diet. Typogr., * Machine-boy, a boy 
engaged in the machine-room for laying-on and taking-off 
the sheets. 1893 "Machine-driver [see 1 b]. 1884 Knight | 
Diet. Mech. Suppl., *Machine Gun. 1890 W. J. Gordon j 
Foundry 26 We may as well say something here about the I 
machine guns. 1844 G. Dodd Textile Manuf . vii. 213 He I 
lets them [lace making machines] out at so much a day 
to middlemen called '"machine-holders'. 1876 J. Gould 
Letterpress Printer (1893) 125 My remarks must be taken 
as those of a workman, . . not as those of a *machine-man , 
proper. 1883 Nation 21 June 520/3 The Republican Ma- , 
chine men are in possession of the regular party organiza- ' 
tion. 1890 Daily News 17 Feb. 3/3 For the last ten years 
I have been employed as machine man at the London and 
Tilbury Railway Works. 1897 Literature 13 Nov. 124/1 The 
' machine-men ' of the printing-houses of Edinburgh. 1901 ; 
Daily Chron. 10 Sept, 9/7 Pork and Beef Butcher.— Young 
man wants Situation as machineman. 1856 Emerson Eng. 
Traits, Wealth Wks. (Bohn) II. 70 'Tis a curious chapter ■ 
in modern history, the growth of the *machine-shop. 1898 | 


Engineering Mag. XVI. 38 A pile of machine-shop scrap 
containing 149 different things. 1861 W. Fairbairn Ad- 
dress to Brit. Assoc. 64 It is to the exactitude and ac- 
curacy of our *machine tools that our machinery of the 
present time owes its smoothness of motion and certainty 
of action. 1694 Llttrell Brief R el. (1857) III. 342, 2 'ma- 
chine vessells, wherein were lodged some 100 chests of 
powder to tear up all before it. 1811 Self Instructor 587 
Vessels of war are . . a ketch, a machine-vessel, i860 Eng. 
<r Eor. MiningGloss. (Cornwall Terms), * Machine-whim, a 
rotary steam-engine employed for winding. 1711 Shaftesb. 
Charact. (1737) 1 1 1. 384 The separate ornaments, independent 
both of figures and perspective; such as the *machine-work 
or divinitys in the sky. 

Machine (mafrn), v. Also 5-6 machyne. 
[In early use a. F. machiner, ad. L. mdchindri: 
sec Machinate v. In later use f. Machine sb.] 

f 1. a. trans. To contrive, plot; also, to resolve 
that. b. inlr. To plot, devise schemes {against 
a person). Obs. 

< 1450 St. Cuthbert (Surtees) 523 Sho..machynd in hir 
mynde for thy pat it was best for hir to fly. 1456 Sir G. 
Haye Law Arms (S.T.S.) 64/6 The traytouris that had his 
dede machynit had ordanyt [etc.]. 1484 Caxton Curial 12 
Somme shal machyne by somme moyen to deceyue the. 
1530 Palsgr. 616/1 He hath not onely machyned agaynst 
me to make me lese my good, but also he hath machyned 
my dethe. 1679 Gavan in Speeches Jesuits 7 As I never in 
my life did machine, or contrive either the deposition or 
death of the King. 

2. trans. To form, make, or operate upon (e. g. 
to cut, engrave, make, and esp. to print, to sew) by 
means of a machine. 

1878 Sala in Geutl. Mag. May 565 Some of the.. plates 
. .seem tobe. .machined. 1881 Greener Gun 246 The work 
is fitted into slots machined under the body of breech- 
action. 1886 Besant Childr. Gibeon n. xxv, Making 
shirts, machining men's coats [etc.]. 189a Times 31 Dec. 12/t 
A book put in type in America, and only 'machined' by 
them. 1896 Lh-ing Topics Cycl. (N. V.) II. 260, 5 [rifled 
guns] were well advanced, and the parts for the remainder 
were nearly all forged and some of them machined. 1901 
Census Schedule, Instructions, Sewing machinists should 
name the article they machine — as Boot Machinist. 

3. To place (a tree) on the transplanting machine. 

1827 Stelart Planter s G. (1828) 247 It is a material con- 
sideration so to machine the Tree, as that its lee-side 
branches, . . should, if possible, be uppermost on the pole. 

4. a. ?ionce-use. Jig. To manage, work (a project, 
etc.) like a machine, b. To furnish (a tale) with 
the machinery of a plot. 

1881 H. Labolchere in Daily Neivs 22 Mar. 6/3 The 
paper was machined by your father. 1889 Academy 1 June 
374/2 It is not, as a story, very cunningly machined. 

+ 5. intr. To appear, as a god, from a * machine' ; 
to serve the function of a poetic ' machine '. Obs. 

1697 [see Machining///, a.]. 

Hence 'M.&chi' ned ppl. a. 

1891 R. Bukhanan Coming Terror 149 Highly finished, 
perfectly machined. 1891 Wheeling 25 Feb. 399 AH sorts 
of lamps, bells, spanners, and machined parts. 1893 Daily 
News 13 June 5/6 The mechanically machined amendments 
not evoking any interest. 

Machineel, -elle : see Manchineel. 

Macllineful (majrnful). nonce-wd. [See 
-FCL 2.] As much as a machine will hold. 

1890 ' K. Boldrewood ' Miner's Right (1899) 66/2 Enough 
to complete a machineful of wash-dirt. 

Machiner (maj/'nai). [f. Machine sb. + -er V] 

1. One who works a machine a. for transplanting 
trees; b. for sewing; a sewing-machine. 

1837 Steuart Planter's G. (1828) 246 Whom [sc. the planter] 
I have ventured todenominate the Machiner. . . The Machiner 
. .at once ascertains the side, upon which the Tree can be 
best laid along the pole. 1888 Times 20 Sept. 7/4 Mr. M. 
never knew a good machiner who would work for less than 
six shillings a day. 

2. A horse employed to draw a * machine* or 
vehicle; a post-, stage-, coach-, or van-horse. 

1835 Sir G. Stephen Adv. Search Horse xv. (1841) 210 
Machiners, as they are called, that is, post-horses, or stage- 
horses. 1854 Knight Once upon a Time I. 156 Hence 
stage-coach horses were called 'Machiners 1 . 1857 Mus- 
crave Pilgr. into Dauphini I. xiii. 203 The Poncheron 
horse . . is . . the favourite 'machiner' in this part of the 
country. 1875 ' Stonehenge ' Brit. Sports 11. 111. i. § 2. 
518 The ordinary hunter .. comprehends every variety be- 
tween the one described above and the heavy machiner. 

Machinery (majrneri). Also 8 maehinary. 
[f. Machine so. t -ery. Cf. F. machineries] 

1. Theatr. and literary. +a. Stage appliances 
and contrivances. (Cf. Machine sb. 6.) Obs. exc. as 
in 2. b. The assemblage of 'machines' (Ma- 
chine sb. 7) employed in a poem ; supernatural 
personages and incidents introduced in narrative 

or dramatic poetry. 

1687 \VinsT\HLEY Lives Poets 216 Vying with the Opera's 
of Italy, in the Pomp of Scenes, Marchinry [sic] and Musical 
performance. 17x3 Steele Englishman No. 52. 336 His 
Maehinary is not a Jargon of Heathenism and Christianity. 
1714 Pope Rape Lock Ded., The Machinery, Madam, is a 
term invented by the Critics, to signify that pan which the 
Deities, Angels, or Daemons, are made to act in a Poem. 
1756-82 J. Warton Ess. Pope (ed. 4) I.iv. 226 The insertion 
of the machinery of the sylphs . . is one of the happiest 
efforts of judgment and art. 1799 Han. More Fem.Educ. 
(ed. 4) I. 40 Those who most earnestly deny the immor- 
tality of the soul are most eager to introduce the machinery 
of ghosts. 1848 Mrs. Jameson Sacr. * Leg. Art (1850) 129 
The angels always allowable as machinery, have here a 
particular propriety. 1861 O'Currv Led. MS. Materials 




Irish Hist. 242 The rules of these compositions permitted 
the introduction of a certain amount of poetic machinery. 

2. Machines, or the constituent parts of a machine, 
taken collectively; the mechanism or 'works' of 
a machine or machines. 

1731 in Bailey vol.11. 1765 A. Dickson Treat, Agric, 
(ed. 2) 219 The more machinery there is in any instru- 
ment, it is the more liable to he broken. 1776 Adam 
Smith IV. iV. 1. xi. (1869) I. 256 In consequence of better 
machinery . . a much smaller quantity of labour becomes 
requisite. 1803 Med. Jrnl. IX. 291 The communication 
is then formed and interrupted" alternately by means of 
machinery. 1871 Yeats Tcchn. Hist. Comm. 180 Lock- 
making was undoubtedly the parent of much of our ma- 
chinery. 1878 Tevons Prim. Pol. Econ. 73 Spinning 
machinery, which can do an immense quantity of work 
compared with the number of hands employed. 

b. transf. andyS^. 

1770 Junius Lett. xl. 206 note, Luttrell,. .for whom the 
whole machinery is put in motion, becomes adjutant-general. 
1788 Gibbon Decl. <y F. 1. {1846) V. 12 The nice and artificial 
machinery of the Greek and Roman republics. 1818 Hallam 
Mid. Ages (1872) I. 461 The terrible and odious machinery of 
a police. 1855 Macaulay//w/. Eng. xiv. III. 409 The whole 
machinery of government was out of joint. 1859 Darwin 
Orig. Spec. iv. (1878) 65 She [Nature] can act on the whole 
machinery of life. 1876 Freeman Norm. Conq. V. xxiv. 404 
Nor does the machinery of the court seem to have been 
greatly altered. 

c. A system or a kind of machinery. lit. andy%'-. 
1849 Macaulay Hist. Eng. hi. I. 290'rhe beacons. .were 

regarded rather as curious relics of ancient manners than as 
parts of a machinery necessary to the safety of the state. 
1864 Spectator 438 The County franchise, .is.. a machinery 
for returning anybody the local peers choose to nominate. 
i866Carlyi.e Remin. (188 1) 1. 138 Little .. sea villages, with 
their .. rude innocent machineries. 

3. attrib. 

1887 Daily News S July 2/5 There is now . . a machinery 
hall, an agricultural hall, and an armoury. 1898 Engineer' 
ing Mag. XVI. 100 A machinery installation.. should be 
one source of energy. 

Machining (maji"-nirj), vbl. sb. [f. Machine 
v. + -ing 1.] The action of Machine v. in various 
senses ; also attrib. 

1560 Rolland Crt. Venus u. 173 We Intend on vther 
machyning, In Musicall Airt, and diuers science. 1678 Dry- 
den Kind Keeper Prol. 8 Now our machining lumber will 
not sell, And you no longer care for Heaven or Hell. 1714 
Pope Let. to Blount 27 Aug., Wks. 1737 I. 140 The machin- 
ing part of poetry. 1827 Steuart Planter's G. (1828) 246 
The Tree, being in readiness .. for removal to its new site, 
the Machining of it (if I may be permitted the expression), 
is a work deserving of .. particular attention. 1887 G. R. 
Sims Mary Jane's Mem. 298 Many girls give up service . . 
to work at shops and factories, and do machining. 1889 
Athensenm 5 Oct. 453/2 The mistake .. of supposing that 
anything will do for the sixpenny public — old type, bad 
paper, and slovenly machining. 1890 Nature n Sept., The 
sole machining, .consisting in, the formation of the bore and 
the drilling of the vent. 1891 Econ. Jrnl. I. 638 The ma- 
chining of trousers and waistcoats in London is performed 
exclusively by women. 

Machining (majrnin), ///. a. [f. Machine 

v. + -ING-.] That machines; f appearing, as a 
god, from a 'machine* ; serving the function of a 
poetic 'machine'. 

1697 Dryden JEneld Ded. (a) 3 b, If there had not been 
more Machining Persons than Humane in his Poem, a 1700 
— Ovid's Art of Love I. 120 The stage with rushes or with 
leaves they strew'd, No scenes in prospect, no machining god. 

Machinist (maj>nist). Also 8-9 erron. ma- 
chinest. [orig. ad. F. machinisle f I. machine ; 
but prob. re-formed on Machine sb. + -ist.] 

1. One who invents, makes or controls machines 
or machinery ; an engineer. 

1706 Phillips (ed Kersey), Machinist, an Inventer, or 
Manager of Engines. #1774 Goldsm. Surv, Exp. Philos, 
(1776) II. 29 The machinist that directed the whole was at a 
loss, till a countryman taught him to shorten the cords by 
the affusion of water. 1788 in Titles Patents (1854) I. 302 
A grant unto Andrew Meikle . . engineer and machinist, of 
his new invented mill or machine for separating corn, .from 
the straw. ^ 1817 J. Bradbury Trav. Amer. 311 Prohibit- 
ingthe emigration of manufacturers and machinists to the 
United States. 1873 J. Richards Wood-working P"actories* 
81 An operator of wood machinery should be a machinist. 
Good operators are generally able to do ordinary repairs. 
i8g$ Booth's Life $ Labour W. 86 The machinist's shop, for 
planing, moulding, mortising, and turning, being now an 
annexe of every large joinery works. 

b. esp. with reference to the theatre: one who 
constructs or manages the mechanical appliances 
used for the production of scenic effects. Now rare. 

*739 Cidber Apol. (1756) II. 67 A manager is to direct 
and oversee the painters, machinists, musicians, singers, and 
dancers. 1751 Beau-philosopher 227 The Machinest of the 
Opera and his Wife, who were her Relations. ai8ooSTEEVENs 
Note on Macb. t Plays Shaks. (1803) X. 324 Has the insuf- 
ficiency of machinists hitherto disgraced the imagery of the 
poet? 1806-7 J- Beresford Miseries Hum. £^(1826) v. 
Conch, The accumulated crimes of author, composer, ma- 
chinist. 1837 Hallam Hist. Lit. I. r. iii. § 107. 299 The 
decorations of this theatre must have appeared splendid.. . 
Nor was the machinist's art unknown. 1863 Kirk Chas. 
Bold I. 471 'Histories'— a kind of dramatic representation, 
in which the poet ..was forced to follow the inspirations of 
the machinest. 

e. Jig. (Cf. Machine 4^.) 

1799 G. Wakefield in Mem. (1804) II. 409, [I] am no 
political machinist, nor was ever occupied in., the fraudulent 
intrigues of rival partisans. 

2. One who works a machine, esp. a sewing- 

Vol. VI. 

1879 St. George's Hasp. Rep. IX. 577 The laundress, the 
machinist, the signalman maybe persons who work hard on 
scanty diet. 1888 Times 20 Sept. 7/4 A tailor's machinist. 
1890 A nthony's Photogr. Bull. 1 1 1. 349 Such . . hardly rank 
as photographers — they are machinists. 1901 Census Sche- 
dule, Instructions, Such terms as. . Machinist ..must not be 
used alone. Sewing Machinists should name the article they 

3. A painter who works mechanically and by rule. 
c 1801 rUSKLi in Lect. Paint, v. (1848) 461 Though the first 

and greatest, Correggio was no mote than a machinist. 1879 
Encycl. Brit, IX. 687/1 Franceschini . . is reckoned among 
those painters of the decline of art to whom the general name 
of ' machinist ' is applied. 

4. U.S. a. An engine-room artificer or attendant. 
1890 in Century Diet. 

b. A ' machine ' politician (see Machine sb. 8). 
1883 Nation 21 June 520/3 While the Machinists may be 
willing to nominate 'good men', the Independents are re- 
minded of the fact that [etc.], 1884 Goldw. Smith in 
Coutemp. Rev. Sept. 320 The machine once fairly con- 
structed and installed in power, the country is in the hands 
of the machinists. 189a — in 19//* Cent. Sept. 347 There 
was a struggle between the thoroughly 'machinist 1 sectiorkof 
the party and the section less loyal to the machine. 

Machinize (majrnsiz), v. ff. Machine sh +* 
-ize.] trans. To make into a machine ; to reduce 
to the form and semblance of a machine. Hence 
JWachinization, the action or process of making 
into a machine ; the result of the process. 

1856 Emerson Eng. Traits iii. 41 The traveller .. reads 
quietly the Times newspaper, which, by its immense corre- 
spondence and reporting, seems to have machini/ed the rest 
of the world for hisoccasion. 1890 Jrnl. Educ. 1 Aug. 423/2 
[Theirjadmirable discipline and organization almost amount 
to Machinization. 

1 Machinous, a. Obs. 

!. [f. Machine sb. 

+ -ous. Cf. L. mdchinosus.] Cunningly contrived. 
1633 Marmion Fine Companion v. ii. K.2b, lie., stand in 
his defence against all machinous Engines that shall bee 
planted for the battery of his wit and fortune, 

Macliinule (moe'kiniwl). [As if ad. L. 

*machinula y dim. of machina Machine sb. : see 
-ule. Cf. F. machinuk little machine.] A sur- 
veyor's instrument for obtaining a right angle. 
In some mod. Diets. 

Machivell, obs. form of Machtavel. 

II Macho (ma'tJV). U. S. [Sp. macho mullet.] 
The Californian mullet (see quot.). 

1882 Jordan & Gilbert Fishes N. Amer. (Bulletin U. S. 
Nat. Mus. no. 16) 403 Mugil mexicanus Steindachner. 
California Mullet ; Macho . . Pacific coast. 

Machoinet, -an, etc. : see Mahomet, -an, etc. 

Machopolyp (mce^p^rlip). Zool. Also -po- 
lype, [f. Gr. pixy fight + Polyp.] A zooid 
modified to serve a defensive function. (See quots.) 

1883 W. S. Dallas [tr. Von Lendenfeld] in Ann. <$• Mag. 
Nat. Hist. Oct. 250 Hamann explains the contents of the 
nematophore as a modified polyp, for which he proposes the 
designation * machopolyp \ 1888 Roli.fston & Jackson 
Forms Atiim. Life (ed. 2) 758 The structures known as 
nematophores, sarcotheca:, guard-polypes or macho-polyps 
[sic] which are confined to the. . Plumularidae. Hid., In the 
genus Aglaophenia .. the machopolypes are usually dis- 
posed in a median and two lateral rows. 

Machoun, obs. form of Mason. 

Machoun (d, obs. form of Mahound. 

Macht, obs. Sc. f. Might sb. and v., Matjgh sb. 

Machumetan, -ist: see Mahometan, -ist. 

-lliacliy, in actual use -omachy (^maki), repre- 
sents the ending -fiaxia of certain Gr. sbs. with 
the general sense * fighting, warfare', which are 
derivatives of adjs. in -paxos with the general 
sense ( that fights'; the root is that of fiax^oOat 
to fight, /*ax7 battle. Of the Eng. words with 
this ending, some are adoptions of actual Gr. words, 
as logomachy ; others have been formed from Gr. 
elements on Gr. analogies, as angelomacky ; the 
ending has not been employed in hybrid formations. 

t Macia'tion. Obs. [n. of action f. late L. 
maciare, f. macies (see next) : cf. Emaciation.] 
* A making lean' (Bailey 1727 vol. II). 

II Macies (nu'i's^fz). Path. [L.] Emaciation. 

1801 Med. Jrnl. V. 65 The leading circumstance in dia- 
betes is the macies. 1889 in Syd. Soc. Lex. 

ii Macigno (matjrn^). Geo/. [It. macigno.~\ 
An Eocene sandstone from the Italian Alps. 

1832 De la Beciie Geol. Alan. fed. 2) 325 It [brown sand- 
stone]. . is one of the macignos of the Italians. 

Macileiice (mEe'silens). rare, [as if ad. L. 
*maciientia, f. macilenttts Macilent : cf. F. maci- 
lence.] Thinness, leanness. 

1852 Eraser's Mag. XLV. 31 A certain gentility of style 
..derived from the excessive macilence of his face and 
figure. 1889 Syd.'Soc. Lex., Macilence, extreme thinness 
of the whole or part of the body. 

Macilency (mse'silensi). Now rare. [See 
prec. and -ency.] Leanness, lit. and Jig. 

1632 Sandys Ovia"s Metam. xiv. Notes 484 His [sc. a 
Heron's] vigilant feare, . . macilency, and pittiful screamings. 
1633 T. Adams Exp. 2 Peter'x. 6 These effects [of intemper- 
ance] are,.. 2. Macilency of grace. 1798 C. Crowthek in 
Beddoes Contrib. Phys. fy Med. Knmvl. (1799) 350 From a 
state of extreme macilency [she] became obese. 1822 Black™. 
Mag. XII. 525 On recollecting the macilency of the Pari- 
sians, he justly inferred, that double the number of French 
people might inhabit London.. without inconvenience. 

Macilent (marsilent), a. Now rare. Also 6 
ma-cilente. [ad. L. macilent-us lean.] Lean, 
shrivelled, thin ; a. in material sense. 

!■$& Stewart Cron. Scot. (1858) II. 512 With sic abun- 
dance of exceidand sweit, His cumlte cors. .lene wes maid, 
and macilent. 1607 Topsell Four-/. Beasts (1658) 1S1 If 
they [goats] be fat, they are lesse veuereous then being maci- 
lent or lean. 1647 Lilly Chr. Astrol. clxxvi. 747 Other 
Significators represent a body somewhat dry, macilent, 
erect and straight. 1683 W. Harris Pharmacologia xiv. 
260 By reason of the exanguious macilent condition of the 
Junctures after Feavers. 1755 in Johnson. 1865 Reader 
2-3 Jan. 93/2 George I. seated at supper with the tall, maci- 
lent, and ill-favoured Duchess of Kendal standing bolt up- 
right behind him. 1871 M. Collins Inn Strange Meetings 
4 Not Mephistophiles is macilenter Than the man. 
b. Jig. Of verses : Jejune, poor. 

1624 Bp. Mountagu Gagg 252 Thnt jejune and macilent 
conceit of Zwinglius. 1658 J. R. tr. Moujfefs Theat. In- 
sects 898 Balm : concerning which Macer sang these ma- 
cilent verses. 1702 J. Howe Liv. Temple 11. xi. Wks. 1724 

I. 240 So copious an effusion of the Holy Spirit, as will. . 
make it spring up, out of its macilent wither 'd State, into 
its primitive Liveliness and Beauty. 

Macintosh : see Mackintosh. 

Macis : obs. form of Mace sb.- 

1* Mack j/'. 1 Obs. Some game at cards. 

1548 Forrest Pleas. Poesye 221 At ale bowse, too sitt, 
at mack or at maU. 1592 Chettle Kind-Harts Dr. F, 
Macke, Maw, Ruffe, Noddy, andTrumpe. 1602 Warner 
Alb. Eng. ix. xlvi. 217 Hence arrant Preachers, humming 
out a common. place or two, With bad, ill, naught, Pope, 
pots, play, mack, keeping of fowle adoe. 

Mack (msek) sb.~ Obs. exc. dial. Also 6 meke, 
9 macks. [An unmeaning word, suggested either 
by 'by Mary' or by ( by the Mass' (see Mass 
sd.l). Cf. ' by the matte ' (Udall Roister D. IV. vii. 
118), also Mackins and dial, megs.] In the phrase 
By {the) mack! (also simply mack! as quasi-f/i/.), 
an exclamatory form of asseveration. 

c 1560 Misogonus iv. i. 55 (Brand!) Bith meke, Isbell. 1508 

II. JoNSON Ev. Man in Hum. in. iv, Humour? mack, 
I thinke it be so, indeed. 1599 Sir John Q ideas tie (1600) 
C4, Now by the macke, a prettie wench indeed. 1638 
Whiting Hist. Albino 130 Is not my daughter Maudge as 
fine a mayd, And yet, by mack, you see she troules the 
bowle. 1664 Cotton Starron. 1. 105 Uy the Mack. 

f Mack j£.3 Obs. Variant of Mac ». Used con- 
temptuously for : A Celtic Irishman. Also attrib. 

[1596 Spenser State IreL Wks. (Globe ed.) 677/1 The Oes 
and Macks, which the heads of the septs have taken to theyr 
names.] 1617 Moryson ///;/. ir. 138, 1 cannot dissemble how 
confident I am, to beate these Spanish Dons, as well as 
euer I did our Irish Macks and Oes. 1681 Luttrell Brief 
Rel. (1857) I. gr Another of these Mack Irish papists has 
sworn that [etc.]. c 1688 New Tetany iii. in Third Collect. 
Poems 8/1 Who's Rid, and Impos'd on, by many a score Of 
Priests, Macks, and Footmen, his Q. and his Wh— . 

Mack (meek), sbA slang. Also mac. [Short 
for Mackerel-.] A pander. 

1887 W. E. Henley Villon's Straight Tip ii. (F.), Fiddle, 
or fence, or mace, or mack. 1894 Stead If Christ came to 
Chicago 372 The procurers, the souteneurs and the ' macs *. 

t Mack, a. Also 5 make, 5, 9 mak. [a. ON. 
mak-r (found in compar. only). Cf. Mackly adv., 
and dial, mackerly, mackly adj., mack-like, macky 
seemly, etc.] a. Apt, convenient, b. Neat, tidy. 

c 1440 Promp. Parv. 321/1 Make, or fyt, and mete {MS. 
K. mak, fyt, or esy), apt us, conveniens. 1825-80 Jamieson, 
Mack, mak, neat, tidy ; Ro.xb. 

Mack: see Black-mack. Mack, obs. f. Make. 

Mackabaw, variant of Maccoboy. 

f Mackabroin. Obs. rare — l . [Derived from 
macabree : see Macabre.] An old hag. 

1546 J. Heywood Prov. (1867) 6r Such an olde witche, 
suche a mackabroyne, As euermore like a hog hangeth the 
groyne, On hir husbande, except he be hir slaue. 

t Mackallow. Sc. Obs. Also 7 mac(k)helve, 
8 macalive. [Gael, macaladh fostering.] Some- 
thing handed over to a foster-parent along with a 
child for the benefit of the latter. Also attrib. 

1580 in Black Bk. Taymouth, etc. (Bannatyne Club) 224 
The said father and foster father giving between them of 
makhelve guddis in donation to the said bairn at Beltane 
thereafter the value of two hundred merks of ky [etc.]. 1671 
Contract in Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot. XXX. (1896) 22 The 
makhelve is 9 ky. 1678 Ibid. 20 Whilk wholl mackallow 
goods.. the said Duncan and Margret oblidges them.. to 
gress and pastur and hird to the behoofe of thersaid foster. 
1775 Johnson Western 1st. Wks. X. 484 These beasts are 
considered as a portion and called Macalive Cattle. 

Mackar, obs. Sc. form of Maker. 

Mackarel(l, variant of Mackerel 1 . 

Mackaroon : see Macakook. 

Mackassin, obs. form of Mocassin. 

Mackaw s see Macaw. 

t Maxkeler. rare~ l . [ad. Du. makelaar, f. 
makelen to negotiate. Cf. Mackle v.%] A broker. 

1682 Scarlett Exchanges 9 Exchange is concluded, either 
by the Mackelers or Brogers, alone betwixt themselves, or 
by bringing the parties face to face. 

f Mackeleredge. Obs. rare — 1 , [ad. Du. 
makelarij, f. makelaar Mackeler.] Brokerage. 

1682 Scarlett Exchanges 177 The Factor, .must place his 
Principal to account Courtagie and Mackeleridge. 

t Macke nboy. Obs. Also 7 mackenbory, 
mackinboy, makimboy, 7-9 makinboy. [a. 
Irish meacan buidhe {an t-sleibhe) 'yellow root 



(of the mountain) '.] An Irish spurge {Euphorbia 
hiberna) said tohave powerful purgative properties. 
1652 Hartlib's Lcgacie (ed. 2) App., Interrogatory, Mac- 
eavtboy. Whether there he such a tiling at all, that this 
herb .should purge the body meerly by external touch, or 
whether it be a fable, [etc.] ? 1670 Km fatal. Plant. Aiiglix 
299 Tithymtilits llibernicus, Makinboy. 167a Pettt Pol. 
Anat. (1691) in What is said of the Herb Mackenbory 
is fabulous. 1678 Phillips, Mackenboy, or Makimboy,n kind 
of Spurge with a knotty Root, growing naturally in Ireland, 
which being but carried about one, causeth the party to 

fo often to stool 1687 Ashf. in Phil. Trans. XX. 294 
'he famous Irish Herb called Mackenboy. 1816-20 T. 
Green Univ. Herbal I. 543 Euphorbia Hibernica, Irish 
Spurge.. .Native of Ireland. . where it is known by the name 
of makinboy. 

Mackerel 1 (mx'karel). Forms: 3-6 mak- 
erel(l, 5 makerelle, makyrelle, 4-7 macrel 1, 
raakrell, 5 macrelle, 6 maequerell, 7 ma- 
querel, 7-8 macril\l, mayeril, 6-8 maekrell, 
7-9 maokrel, 4-9 raackerell, 7-9 maekarel, 8 
maekarell, 7- mackerel, [a. OK. maierel (¥. 
maquereait) of unknown origin.] 

1. A well-known sea-fish, Scomber scomber, much 
used for food, that approaches the shore in shoals 
in summer-rime for the purpose of spawning. 

c 1300 Ilavelok 758 Keling he tok, and tumberel, Hering, 
and be makerel. a 1377 Abingdon Ace. (Camden) 38 In 
mak.rell, xxxiijf. e 1425 Voc. in Wr.-Wiilcker 642/2 Hie 
megarits, makyrelle. c 1460 J. Rlssell/j^. A'«;/Krt'55SMer- 
lynge, makerelle. 1530 Palsgr. 241/2 Maequerell a fysshe, 
tnacquerel. 1573'l'ussER llnsb. xii. (1878)28 When Maekrell 
ceaseth from the Seas, John Baptist brings grassebeafe and 
pease. 1601 Chester Love's Mart., Dialogue Ixxix, 
Sommer lotting Maekrell. 1623 Miudleton & Rowley 
Sft. Gipsy in. li, Had fortunes are like mackerel at mid- 
summer, a 1658 Cleveland Poor Cavalier 51 Thou shalt 
. . Uait Fishes Hooks to couzen Mackrels Lips. 1704 SwiF r 
T. Tub Conclus., A book that misses its tide, shall be 
neglected.. like maekarel a week after the season. 1741 
Compl. Fain. -Piece 1. iii. 214 Slit your Mackrel in halves, 
take out the Roes, gut and clean them. 1789 Mits. Piozzi 
jfourn. France 1. 2 Shoals of mayeril. 1870 Yeats Nat. Hist. 
Comm. 321 Mackerel will bite at almost any bait. 
b. In proverbs and proverbial expressions. 

1760 Koote Minor 1. Wks. 1799 I. 238 You can be secret 
as well as serviceable? . . Mute as a mackrel. 1819 Metro- 
polis III. 154 We were as mute as maekarel for exactly 
seven minutes and a half. 1890 Hall Caine Bondman it, 
xiii, Was he throwing a sprat to catch a mackerel 't 

2. Applied with qualifying word to other fishes, 
t Great mackerel, 1 the tunny. Spanish mackerel, 
f (a) the tunny, {b) in England the Scomber colias, 
{c) in U. S. the Scomberomerus viacitlatiis. See 

a 1672 Willughby Icthyogr. (1686) Tab. M. 1 Thynnus 
sive Thunnns Cesn. Spanish Mackerel. 1700 Dampibk 
Voy. (1729) III. I. 414 The Great Maekarell is 7 Foot long. 
1832 Couch in Mag. Xat. Hist. V. 22 Spanish Maekarel 
(Scombe r macu latus). 1880 Gunther Fishes 457 S[comber\ 
colias . . often called ' Spanish ' Mackerel. 

3. Angling. Short for mackerel-Jiy. 

1799 G. Smith Laboratory II. 311, 1. Maekarel. Dubbing, 
of light brown camel's hair. 1864 Intell. Observ. VI. 152 
A By known to anglers as the mackerel. 

4. at/rib. and Comb. , as mackerel-catcher, -fishery, 
-fleet, -gaff, -smack ; f mackerel-back sb. (see 
quot. 01700); mackerel-back, -backed adjs., 
t (a) slang, long-backed ; (b) said of clouds, sky : see 
mackerel-sky ; mackerel-bait, a fisherman's name 
for jelly-fish (Cent. Vict.) ; mackerel-bird, local 
name for the wryneck and the young kittiwake (see 
quots.) ; mackerel-boat, a boat for mackerel-fish- 
ing ; ' a stout clinch-worked vessel, with a large fore- 
sail, spritsail, andmizen' (Smyth Sailor s Word-bk.); 
mackerel-bob, a four-pointed fish-jig, for catching 
mackerel; mackerel-breeze, a breeze that ruffles 
the water, so as to favour the catching of mackerel 
(cf. mackerel-gale) ; hence mackerel-breezy a. ; 
mackerel-clouds (see mackerel-sky) ; mackerel- 
cock, a local name for the Manx Shearwater 
(Newton) ; mackerel-cry, the hawker's cry of 
' new mackerel ' ; mackerel-fly Angling, a species 
of May-fly, also an artificial fly imitating this; 
mackerel-gale, a strong breeze such as mackerel 
are best caught in ; mackerel-guide, a local name 
for the gar-fish ; mackerel-gull, a name in U. S. 
for the tern ; mackerel-midge, the young of the 
rockling (Motella) (Gunther); f mackerel-mint, 
common mint (Mentha viridis) ; mackerel-pike, 
any fish of the genus Scombresocidx ; a saury (_ Cent. 
Diet.); mackerel-plough, a knife used for creas- 
ing the sides of lean mackerel in order to improve 
their appearance (Knight Diet. Mech. 1884) ; 
mackerel-scad, an American fish, Decapterus 
macarellus ; mackerel - scout -= mackerel - guide ; 
mackerel-shark, a name for the porbeagle ; mack- 
erel-sky, a sky dappled with small white fleecy 
clouds (cirro-cumulus) ; mackerel-sture, a north- 
ern name for the tunny. 

a 1700 B. E. Diet. Cant. Crew, * Mackarel-back, a very 
tall, lank Person. 1844 H. Stephens Bk. of Farm I. 249 At 
other times it is .. mottled like a mackerel's back, when it 
is called the'mackerel.back sky'. 1888 Pall Mall "G. 11 Sept. 
1/2 In some places the clouds were what we sailors call 'mack- 


! erel back', 1785 Grose Diet. Vulg. Tongue, * Maekarel 
backed, long backed. 1865 Intell. Observ. VIII. 257 Cirro- 

■ cumulus, or a 'mackerel-backed ' sky. 1879 Cecil, Smith 
Birds of Guernsey 94 The Wryneck .. arriving .. about 
ihe same time as the mackerel, wherefore it has aUo ob- 
tained the local name of ' 'Mackerel Bird*. 1882-4 Y a k- 

- kell Brit* Birds (ed. 4) III. 654 Mr. Cordeaux says that 

1 the Flamborough fishermen call the young Kittiwakes 

I Mackerel-birds ', because they usually appear at sea with 
their parents in August when the fish are approaching the 
coast. 1768 Ann. Keg. 120 A premium, .for encouraging the 

J *inackerel-boats to bring their fish to market. 1883 fisheries 
Exhib. Catal. 195 *Mackerel bob formerly used by New 
England fishermen for the capture of mackerel without the use 
I of bait. 175X Smollett J'er. Pic. (1779) II. xiv. 209 They 
: tacked to and fro in the river under the impulse of a ^mackerel 
breeze. 1843I.E Fevke /-//*■ Trav. Phys. III. ill. L 89ltwas 
! blowing a maekarel breeze only. 1834 K. M.udie Brit. Birds 
(1841) I. 2 It is oneof those *mackerel-breezy days on which 
! the surface of the water just dances and dimples. 1614 Etig. 
1 way to wealth va //art. Misc. (Malh.j 111. 244 The fishermen* 
I *mackarel-catchers. 1830 N. S. Whf.aton yrul. 510 *Mack- 
! arel clouds.. are hung around the horizon. 177a Rutty Nat* 
] Hist. Co. Dublin I. 329 The * Mackarel-Cock. .a bird of pas- 
sage coming to us in June and July, about the time of the 
I Mackarels. . . It is commonly as big as a Cormorant [etc.]. 
. ^714 Gay Trivia 11. 310 Ev'n Sundays are prophan'd by 
"Maekrell Cries. 1883 HYxley Addr. Eishery Congress 18 
i June 16, I believe then that the .. ^mackerel-fishery, and 
1 probably all the great sea-fisheries, are inexhaustible. 1894 

II all Cai\k Manxman 425 The mackerel fleet were leaving 
for Kinsale. 1829 Glover** Hist. Derby I. 177 Lesser 
hackle fly, *mackerel fly [etc.]. 1883 Eisheries Exhib. 
Catal. 195 *Mackerel gaff., used by New England fisher- 

I men. 1577-87 Harbison Englandx. x. in Holinslud I. 45/1 
Scarse comparable to the *makerell gale, 1687 Dryden 
Hind#f P. in. 456 The wind was fair, but blew a mackrel 
gale. 1769 Pennant /.ool. III. 222 This fish [mackrel] is 
easily taken by a bait, but the best time is during a fresh 
gale of wind, which is thence called a mackrel gale. 1835 
Jknyns Man. Brit. Vert. Auim. 419 Beloue vulgaris... 
From its usually preceding the Mackerel, is sometimes 
called the 'Mackerel-Guide. 1796 Nemmch Polygl.-Lex, 
Nat. Hist. v. £20 *Mackarel gull Larits ridibundus. 1883 
Century Mag. Sept. 653/1 Among the most common birds 
are the. .tern or mackerell-gull. 1832 Coucn in Mag. 
Nat. //ist. V. 16 It is the 'mackerel midge of our fishermen, 
to whom it is well known, i860 Gosse Pont. Nat. Hist. 
149 The mackerel-midge . . never surpasses an inch and a 
quarter in length. 1597 Gerarde Herbal u. cexv. 553 The 
third [Mint] is called .. in English Speare Mint, . . Browne 
Mint, and *Macrell Mint. 1880-4 *. Day Brit. Eis/ies II. 
148 In Ireland horn-eel (Belfast Bay) ; * mackerel-scout 
(Strangford Lough). 1669 Worudce Syst. Agric. (1681) 295 
In a fair day, if the sky seem to be dapled with white Clouds, 
(which they usually term a *Mackarel-skyt it usually pre- 
dicts Rain. 1883 R. H. Scott Elem. Meteorol. 126 Small 
detached rounded masses [of cloud].. like the markings of 
a mackerel, whence the name 'mackerel sky'. 1697 Loud. 
Gas. No. 3295/3 An open Pinnace, .came into the Downes, 
.. put on Board a *Mackrel Smack, and carried away the 
Master. 177a Barrington \x\Phil. 'Trans. LXIL 31OH0/V, 
The tunny fish [are caught] on the coast of Argyleshire, .. 
where they are called *mackrel sture. 

t Maxkerel -. Obs. Forms : 5-6 makerel(l, 
makrel(l, 5-7 ma(c)querel, 7 maquerell^e, 
mackarel(l, -erel(le, macrell ; also in quasi- 
Italian form maquerel(l)a. [ad, OF. maquerel 
(F. maquereait, maqacrelle) of unknown origin ; 
possibly the same word as Mackerel 1 ; some 
have conjectured that it is from Du. makelaar 
broker.] One who ministers to sexual debauchery ; 
a bawd, pimp, procurer or procuress. 

1426 Lydg. DeGuil. Pilgr. 13478 Glotonye: Yiff thow me 
calle . . Lyk as I am, A Bocneresse, Or in ffrench . . I am callyd 
a Makerel, Whos offyce..Ys in ynglysshe bauderye. 1483 
Caxton Cato Bvij, Nyghehys howsdwellyd a maquerel or 
bawde. 1513 Douglas JEneisw. Prol. 192 Sic poyd makrellis 
for Lucifer bene leche. 1585 Jas. I Ess. Poesie (Arb.) 27, 1 no 
wais can, vnwet my cheekes, beholde My sisters made by 
Frenchemen macquerelsolde. (iioooMontgomerieoV;/;/. lxx. 
8 Quhy maks thou makrels of the modest Muses, a 1613 Sir 
T. Overbury A Wife, etc. (1638) 142 A Maquerela, in plaine 
English, a Bawde. 1630 J. Taylor (Water P.) Gt. Eater 
Kent Wks. 1. 143/1 Some get their liuing. .by Ma- 
querellaes, Concubines, Curtezanes [etc.]. < 1645 Howkll 
Lett. 11. xxiv, The Pander did his Office, but brought him 
a Citizen clad in Damoisells apparell, so she and her Ma- 
querell were paid accordingly. 1658 in Phillips, a 1700 in 
B. E. Diet. Cant. Crew. 

t Mackerelage. Obs. In 7 maquorelage. 
[a. F. maqtterelage, f. *maquerel, maquereau : see 
prec] The services of a bawd or pander. 

1602 Florio Montaigne u. vii. (1632) 211. 

Mackereler (mre*kereh.i). [f. Mackerel 1 + 
-er 1.] a. One who goes mackerel- fishing, b. A 
boat used in mackerel-fishing. 

1883 C/iamb, Jrnl. 272 Here is a model of that vast net 
used by the mackereler. 1886 Century Mag. XXXII. 824 
The mackerelers do not keep together so much as formerly. 

Mackereling (m^-km-lin), vbl. sb. [f. Mack- 
erel 1 + -ING 1 .] Fishing for mackerel. 

1887 Goode, etc. Eisheries of U. S. v. II. 604 Men who go 

Maekeroon, variant of Macaroon. 

Mackinaw (marking). The name (also written 
Mackinac) of an island in the strait between Lakes 
Huron and Michigan ; occurring in the following | 
collocations. Mackinaw blanket, also simply 
Mackinaw, a thick blanket, such as used to 
be distributed to the Indians of the North-west 
by the U.S. government. Mackinaw (boat), a 
large flat-bottomed sharp-ended boat, used on the 


I Great Lakes. Mackinaw trout, the lake-trout 

' (see Trout). 

1841 Catlin N. Amer. Ind. (1844) I. x. 73 A mackinaw- 
boat, capable of carrying 50 or 100 casks. 1851 Mayne Reiu 
Scalp Hunt. iii. 22 My ' Mackinaw * .. makes my bed by 
night and my great coat on other occasions. 1876 G. B. 
Goode An im. Resources U.S. 41 Lure-fish used in taking 
Mackinaw trout. 1901 Longm. Mag. J an. 218 Sedate family 
boats with three pairs of oars, mackinaws with white sails 
light in the fresh breeze. 

Mackinboy, variant of Mackenboy Obs. 

Mackins (mx-kinz). Obs. exc. dial. Also 6 
9 dial, macklins, makkers, etc. : see E. D. D. 
[Formed as Mack ^ with suffix -kin frequent in 
similar words.] Used in the asseverative exclama- 
tion By [the] mackins. (Cf. Mack sh.*) 

c 1560 Misogonus in. iii. 73 (Brand!) Bith meckinse. 1605 
Loud. Prodigal 11. ii. C, A by the mackins. good syr Lance- 
lot. 1654 Gay ion Pleas. Notes in. ii. 75 Twas well thought 
on, by the mackins. 1694 Eciiabo /'lautus 12 By the 
Mackins, I believe Phebus has been playing the Good- Fellow. 
1697 Vanbklgh Kelapse iv. i. (1708.' 40 Eashion. Pray ac- 
cept of this small Acknowledgment. Nurse. (Aside.) Gold, 
by makings, your Honour's goodness is too great. 1887 
.S. Cheshire Gloss, s.v. By, By the makkins. 

Mackintosh (mse*kint£p. Also macintosh. 

1. The name of Charles Macintosh (1766-1843), 
applied at t rib. to designate garments made of the 
waterproof material invented by him (patent no. 
4804, 17 June 1823), consisting of two or more 
layers of cloth cemented together with india-rubber. 
Now viewed as an attributive use of 3, and written 
with small initial. 

1836 Murray's //audbk. N. Germ. p. xx. A Mackintosh 
cloak is almost indispensable. 1849 Brit. Q. Rev. Feb. 5 
Old port, tender mutton and Mackintosh capes are excellent 
things, no doubt. 1853 Reaoe Chr. Johnstone 227 A 
fisherman's long mackintosh coat. 1859 W. Collins Q. 0/ 
Hearts (1875) 39 Jessie put on my mackintosh cloak. 

2. Short ior Mackintosh cloak, coat. etc. Also 
Comb., as ?nackintosh-maker. 

1836 Frith Let. 18 Oct. in Autobiog. (1888) III. 61, I like 
the mackintosh very much. 1840 Longf. in Life (iZqi) I. 
365 Sumner striding down Hancock Street in his white 
mackintosh. 1842 Barium Iugol. Leg., Misadv. Margate 
xiv, I could not see my Macintosh. . Nor yet my best white 
beaver hat. 1851 fttuslr. Lond. News 5 Aug. (1854) 119/1 
Macintosh-maker. 1871 Carlyle in Mrs. Carlyle's Lett. I. 
141 Wrapt in an old dressing-gown with mackintosh buttoned 
round it. 1900Q. Rev.JvAy 56 The bodies of officers having 
been buried in mackintoshes had not so disappeared. 

3. The material of which ■ Mackintosh ' garments 
are made; now applied to any cloth made water- 
proof by a coating of india-rubber. Also attrib. 

1880 MauCokmac Antisebt. Surg. 170 The mackintosh 
should be dipped, shortly before use, in carbolic solution. 
1889 Lancet 27 Apr. 830/1 The bed is covered with a mack- 
intosh sheet. 1896 AlllmtVs Sxst. Med. I. 429 If necessary, 
a square of mackintosh is placed under the draw-sheet. 1899 
/bid. VIII. 579 India-rubber or mackintosh coverings are 
certainly effectual. 

Mackle, made (mark*l), sb. Printing, [ad. 
F. macule, ad. L. macula spot. Cf. G. makel spot, 
stain.] A blur in printing; a doubling of the im- 
pression ; also, a blurred sheet. (Cf. Macule sb.) 

1706 Phillips (ed. Kersey), Macutature, or Made, a waste 
Sheet of printed Paper. 1825 Hansard Typographia 928 
Mackle, when part of the impression on a page appears 
double, owing to the platten's dragging on the frisk et. 1871 
Amer. Encycl. Printing i&&. Ringwalt)s.v., If the frame of the 
tympan rubs against the platen, it will cause a slur or mackle. 
1888 Ja< obi Printirs' I 'ocab., Mackle, a printed sheet with 
a slurred appearance. 

Mackle, made (mark'l), v. 1 Printing, [f. 
Mackle sfJ] a. trans. To blur, spot, or spoil 
(a sheet of paper) ; also (now usually) to print 
(a page) blurred or double, b. intr. Of the paper : 
To become blurred or spoiled. v.Cf. Macule v.) 
Hence Ma'ckled ppl. a., Mackling vbl. sb. 

1594 R. Ashley tr. Loys le Roy 22 On a double tympan 
or parchinin (hauing a wollen cloth betwixt them) and a 
moyst linnen cloth to keepe the leafe from mackling. 1724 
Bailey, Mackled, blotted or daub'd in Printing. 1867 I-ry 
Ptaying-Card Terms in Philol. Soc. Trans. 56 To Mackle, 
To Macule, v. a. To spot, stain, soil ; to set off newly 
printed or painted work. Mackled, adj. Spotted, stained, 
soiled. Macktiugs, M 'ack ling-paper, Mackling-sheets, soil- 
ing-paper; sheet of paper put between printed sheets of 
playing-cards, to prevent rubbing, setting-off, and soiling. 

Mackle, v£ Obs.-° [ad. Du. makelen to 
offer for sale.] intr. 'To sell weavers' goods 
to shop-keepers ' (Bailey 1724). 

Hence +Ma*ckler, a seller of weavers' goods 
(Bailey 1731 vol. II). 

Mackless, variant of Makeless a. 1 and 2 . 

t Ma'dtly, ado. Obs. In 5-6 makly. [f. Mack 
a.+ -LY -.] livenly, aptly, easily. 

c 1440 Promp. Pari: 321/2 Makly, or esyly, faciliter 
(P. apte). 1513 Douglas Etna's v. xiv. 32 The windis 
blawis full evin and rycht inakly. 

1 Mackni'liny. Obs. rare— 1 , [a. It. mac- 
chinine, pi. dim. of maahina Machine sb.] ?A 
pup pet -show. 

a 1734 North Exam. 111. viii. § 12 11740) 590 He .. could 
. .represent emblematically the Downfall of Majesty ; as in 
his Raree-Show and Mackninny. 

Mackrel, -ell, obs. forms of Mackerel, 


Made (mse'k'l). See also Mascle. [a. V 
mack, ad. L. macula spot, mesh.] 

L Cryst. A hemitropic or twin crystal. Also 
attrib. [AfterRom(kleL'Isle'suseofF.w<zc/<r,i783.] 

1801 De Bo 11 mon's Ace. certain Minerals in Phil. Trans. 
XCI. 185 Whence results a kind of made, the form of which 
is a rhomboidal telraedral prism. 1829 Nat. Philos. , Polaris. 
Light xvi. 60 (U. K. S.) The irregularities of crystallisation, 
which are known by the name of Made, or Hcmitropc forms. 
i860 Mai ry Phys. Ceog. Sea ix. § 442 Crystals of ice, like 
nuclei of snow, were observed to form near the bottom. 
1883 All Year Round 17 Nov. 535 A diamond at last, of 
made shape, weighing some twenty carats ! 

2. Min. (See quot. 1865.) 
1839 Ure Diet. Arts, Made, is the name of certain 

diagonal black spots in minerals, like the ace of diamonds in 
cards, a 1852 MACGILUVRAY Xat. Hist. Pec .Side (1855) 
454 Orthodase . . forms large macles in Rubislaw quarries, 
near Aberdeen. 1865 Watts Diet. C/iein., Made is the 
name given to certain spots in minerals of a deeper hue 
than the rest; sometimes proceeding from difference of 
aggregation, sometimes from the presence of a foreign 
substance: clay-slate, for example, may be macled with 
iron pyrites. 1872 Pack Adv. 'Iext-Bk. Ccol. vii. 118 Fel- 
spar with large macles of mica. 

3. =Chiastolitb. 

[1821 JAMESON Man. Mineral. 318 Chiastolite, Made, 
Haiiy.] 1821 Mawk Catal. Minerals fed. 4) 99 Chiastolite— 
Made, is of a yellowish white colour. 1822 Ci.kavki.ani> 
Mineral, ty Ccol. I. 427 The term Made, as the name of 
a distinct species, applies to the whitish prisms only. 
1862 Dana Man. Ccol. § 60. 58 [Andalusite] often having 
the interior tesselated with black, in which case it is usually 
called made or chiastolite. 1896 CHESTER Diet. Min., 
Made, a syn. of chiastolite, alluding particularly to the 
black centre which a crystal often shows when cut trans- 
versely, similar to the mascle of heraldry. 

4. Her. - Mascle. 

1727-41 Chambers Cyd., Mascle, or Made. 1828-40 
Berry Fncyd. Her. I, Macles or Mashes. These terms 
occur in ancient books of armory, meaning the same as 
Mascles. 1847 Gloss. Heraldry, Made, see Mascle, 

Made, Printing: see Mackle. 

Macled (mayk'ld), ppl. a. Also mackled. 
[f. Macle-t-ed.] a. Of a crystal: Hemitropic. 

b. Marked like chiastolite (Webster Suppl. 1880). 

c. Her. = Mascled (Webster 1897). 

1822 Cleaveland Mineral. ,y Gcol. II. 793 Macled Crystal, 
a hemitrope crystal is sometimes thus called, re 1852 Mac- 
gillivkay Nat. Hist. Dee Side (1855) 455 Garnet . . In pen- 
tagonal dodecahedrons, single or macled. 1858 Maury 
Phys. Geog. Sea xiii. § 761 Organisms as delicate as the 
macled frost. 1862 G. P. Scrope I'oleanos 33 note, The 
crystals being, .many of them mackled. 1865 [see Macle a], 

Machrr e'ite. Min. [Named afterW.Maclure, 
U. S. geologist : sec -ite.J A name independently 
proposed in 1822 for two different minerals, now 
identified respectively witli augite and chondrodite. 

1822 Nuttall in Amcr, jCrnt. Sci. V. 246 Maclurite. 1822 
Skybert ibid. 344 Maclurcite. 1822 Cleaveland Mineral. 
f,Geol. II.783. 

Macmi llanite. [Named after John Mac- 
millan {died 1 753), the founder of the body : see 
-ITE.] A member of the body known as the 
Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland. 

1799 Statist. Ace. Scotl. XXI. Index I, Macmillanites. 
1818 Scott Hrt. Midi, xvii, I only meant to say that you 
were a Cameroiiian, or MaeMillanite. 

Macock, var. Maycock, kind of pumpkin. 

Macomet, -it(e, -yt(e, obs. ff. Mahomet. 

Macon, obs. form of MAHOUND, Mason. 

Maconite (mMc/nait). Mitt. [f. Macon, name 
of a county in Georgia, U. S. A. : see -ite.] A 
hydrous silicate of aluminium, iron and magnesium. 

1873 F. A. Gknth in Proc. Amcr. Pliilos. Soc. XIII. 396 
Maconite, (a new species [of corundum]). 

Maooute, variant of Macute. 

Macquerel(l, obs. form of Mackerel. 

II Macquignon. Obs. [F. mai/uiguon.] A 

1798 Charlotte Smith Yng. Philos. III. 126 'Lord who?' 
said the macquignon* in a surly tone. [Fool-n.] *A sort of 
jobber in horses who still calls himself a gentleman. [1834 
James jf. Marston Hall x, I remember his turning off his 
chief ecuyer for merely whispering in the street with a ma- 
quignon, who was bringing him a horse for stile.] 

Macrame (makra'irnj). Also macrami. 
[App. a. Turk, maqrama towel, napkin, hand- 
kerchief, a. Arab. ', miqrama!' ?stripcd cloth.] 

A fringe or trimming of knotted thread or cord ; 
knotted-work ; the art of making this. Msoallrib. 

1869 Mrs. Pali.iser Lace iv. 65 This art is principally 
applied to the ornamenting of huckaback towels, termed 
Macrame, a long fringe of thread being left at each end, 
tor the purpose of being knotted together in geometrical 
designs. 1881 Daily News 16 July 2/7 Macrami laces con- 
tinue to attract some attention. 1882 Caui.fkild & Saw akd 
Diet. Necdleiuk. 331 The basis of all Macrame Lace is 
knots... Macrame is celebrated for its durability and excel- 
lence. 1898 Daily News 8 Dec. 3/2 The girls had the result 
of their deft labours in woolwork, needlework, macramiwork. 

II Macrauchenia (maiikrgkrnia). Also in 
anglicized form macrauehene. [mod.L. Ma- 
crauchenia (Owen 1838), generic name f. Or. /ia- 
Kpavxi" long-necked, f. ftaxp-o'v long 4- aixqv neck.] 
A fossil animal of the order Pachydermata having 
some resemblance to a camel. 

1838 Owen Fossil Malum., Zool. Voy. Beagle (1S40) I. 35 


1 The animal— which.. I propose to call Macrauchenia. /bid. ' 
42 The Macrauehene. 1859 Darwin Grig. Spec. vii. (1878) 1 
178 The camel, guauaco, and macrauchenia. 1903 Q. Rev. I 
Jan. 59 The macrauchenia, a three-toed ungulate of the size 
and proportions of a camel. 

Maerell, obs. form of Mackerel -. 

t Ma'crio. Obs. rare - '. [? altered from F. | 
maquereau.] = Mackerel-. 

a 1627 MlODLBTON Anything for Quiet Life v. ii. (1662) 
G 3, Pander, Wittoll, Macrio, basest of knaves. 

t Ma'critude. Ol>s. — °. [ad. L. macritudo, \ 
f. maccr lean.] Leanness. 

1623 in Cockeram \machr-). 1656 in Blocnt Clossogr. 

Macro- (rax'kre), before a vowel macr-, repr. 
Or. /tempo-, comb, form of paitpus long, large, used 
in many scientific terms (see also the main words). 

a. Phys. and Path., in sbs. of mod.L. form in 
-ia compounded with Gr. names for different parts 
of the body, and signifying excessive development 
of the part in question, as Ma crocephalia [Gr. 
Keipaki] head] (also anglicized Macrocephaly), 
excessive length or size of the head. Macro- 
chei'lia [Gr. YfiXos lip], an enlargement and 
thickening of the lips. Macroglo'ssia[(;r.7AttVrra 
tongue], a progressive enlargement of the tongue, 
with protrusion from the mouth. Macromelia 
[Gr. /«'Aos limb], abnormal development of a limb. 
Ma crostomia [Gr. arufia mouth], abnormal ex- 
tension of one or both angles of the mouth. 

1889 Syd. Soc. L.e.r., * MacrocephaRa, Macrocephaly. 
1883 Asliliurst's Intcrnat. Encyd. Stag. III. 34 * Macro- 
chilia. 1899 Allbutt's Syst. Med. VI. 4^5 Macrochilia is 

: a similar condition to macroglossia. 1862 Syd. Soc. Year. 

1 bk. 117 Case of * Macroglossia. 1870 Holmes' Syst. Surg. 
(ed. 2) IV. 216 Macro-glossia. 1899 Allbutt's Syst. Med. 
VI. 452 They, .may occur on the limbs, giving rise to*macro- 
melia. 1854J0NES&S1EV. Pathol. Anat. (1874) 535 »Makro- 
stomia, is prolongation of the corners of the mouth. 

b. in sbs. in which the combining form macro- 
is prefixed to a sb. to indicate either that the 
individual is of unusual size, or that it contains a 

I number of smaller individuals (for the signification 
see the second member in each case) ; chiefly formed 
for antithesis with words beginning with micro- of 
earlier or simultaneous formation, as {micrococcus, 

i macroconidium, macro-cyst, macro-farad, macro- 
gamete, macrogamdocyte, macro-gonidium, macro- 
merozoile, macro-molecule, macro-nucleus, macro- 
septum, macro-somite (hence -somilic adj. ) , macro- 
sty lospore, macro-'.oogouidium, macrozoospore. 

1887 Garnsey & Balfour tr. De Bary's Fungi 458 Cocci 
..are distinguished .. according to their dimensions into 
micrococci, *inaerococci, and monad-farms. 1874 Cooke 
Fungi 175 As early as i860 lie [Tulasne] recognized the 

i large.. vesicles which originate the fertile tissue, hut did not 
comprehend the part which these *Macrocysls were to per- 
form. 1884 H.M.WARDinO. 7ml. Microscop.Sci.XXlV. 
279 Each pair consists of a macrocyst and a so-called 
paracyst. 1899 Allbutt's Syst. Med. VIII. 945 The female 
gametocyte, consisting of a single *macrogamete. 1903 E. A. 
Minchin Sporozoa in Ray l.ankester Zool. 1. Protozoa 215 
Since . . the gametes are differentiated into male elements 

! or microgaiuetcs, and female elements or macrogametcs, 
their mother cells must be distinguished further into micro- 
^amctocytes and * macrogamctoeytcs. 1853 Henkrey [tr. 
Braun's Rejuveitcsc] Bot. $ Physiol. Mem. (Ray Soc.) 137 
Plants with two kinds of moving germ-cells, large {'macro- 
gonidia) and small {microgonidia). 1903 E. A. MINCHIN 
Sporozoa in Ray Lankester Zool. I. Protozoa 256 Within 
the cytocyst the schizont may break up into smaller micro- 
merozoites or larger 'inacronierozoites. 1892 J. A. THOM- 
SON Outlines 0/ Zoology 101 In the ciliated Infusorians 
there are two nuclear bodies. .. The smaller or micro- 
nucleus lies by the side of the larger or 'macro-nucleus. 
1880 Bessey Botany 223 The protoplasmic contents of cer- 
tain cells [of Hydrodictyon] bieak up into a large number 
of daughter-cells (*macrozoogonidia). 187s Q. J 'nil. Micro- 
scop. Sci. XV. 396 "Macrozoospores (which germinate asexu- 
ally). 1888 Amer. Nat. XXII. 942 The head . . is divided 
into.. the primitive head-segment, .and the gnathophorous 
*macrosoinite. Ibid. 941 The. .primary or "maorosoniitic 
segmentation of the primitive body. 

c. Cryst. Macro-axis = macrodiagonal sb. 
Ma crodia gonal sb. the longer of the diagonals 
of a rhombic prism ; also adj., pertaining to this 
diagonal. Macrodome, a dome (see Dome 5 b) 
parallel to the macrodiagonal ,^lence Macrodo- 
matic a., pertaining to the macrodome. Macro- 
pinacoid, a pinacoid parallel to the vertical and 
macrodiagonal axes. Macroprism, a prism of 
an orthorhombic crystal between the macropina- 
coid and the unit prism. Ma cropyramid, a 
pyramid corresponding to the macroprism. 

1898 Dana Mineral., 'Macro-axis. 1848 Webster, * Macro- 
diagonal. 1858 TtiuDlcHL'M Urine 143 The planes, .of the 
macrodiagonal prism [are inclined] at an angle of 85 14'. 
1883 Heddi.e in Emyd. Brit. XVI. 360/; To the greater 
lateral axis the name macrodiagonal is given. Ibid. 
360/2 When n = 00 a "macrodome results. /bid.,'lbc limit- 
ing "macropinacoid. Ibid., On the one side originate nu- 
merous *macroprisms. Ibid., A new pyramid is produced, 
named a *niacropyramid. 1878 Lawrence tr. Cotta's Rocks 
Classified 29 Cleavage prismatic, very perfect, *Macro- 
domatic perfect. 

d. in adjs., with sense ' containing or possessed 
of some object in a largely developed form ', as 
Macra 'nitrous a. Bot. [Gr. avSp-, dirjp man], 


having elongated male plants. Macroda'ctyl a. 
-next; sb. (see quot.). MacrodactyTic, -da'c- 
tylous adjs. [Gr. SdicrvKot finger, toe], having long 
fingers or toes. Maxrodont a. [Gr. 65ofT-, uBotis 
tooth], having long teeth. Macropetalous a. 
[Gr. iriraKov kaf], having long or large leaves or 
petals (Maync Expos. Lex. i8-;6). Macrophyll- 
ine, -phyllovrs adjs. [Gr. cpvWov leaf], having 
long or large leaves. Macropleu-ral a. [Gr. 
irAtupa rib, side], having long pleurae. Ma cro- 
stylous a. pot., having a long style (Maync 
Expos. Lex, 1856). Macrotous a. [Gr. bit-, 
ovs ear], having long ears. Macrotypous a. 
Min. [Type], having a long form. 

1882-4 Cooke Brit. Frcsh--v. Algce I. 148 Male plants, 
dwarf (nannandrous) . . or elongated i*macrandrous>. 1837 
Partington Brit. Cyd. Nat. Hist. III. 73 * Macrodactylcs, 
long toes. The last of the regular families into which 
Cuvier divides the stilt birds or waders. 1836— Ibid. II. 386 
Cuvier's *Macrodactylic, or long-toed family of Echassiers, 
or stilt birds. 1848 Maunder Treas, Nat. Hist. Gloss., 
* Macrodactylous, furnished with loivg toes adapted for 
traversing floating leaves and aquatic herbage. 1891 Flower 
& Lydkkkkr Mammals 745[Negroid type.] Thick, everted 
lips; prognathous jaws ; large teeth fmacrodont). 1871 
W. A. Leichton Lichen-flora 55 Thallus •macrophylline. 
1856 Maynk F.xpos. Lex., J/,r(-/yy»/y//ws..*niacroi>hyllous. 
1881 in Academy 22 Oct. 315 The *macropleural and brachy- 
pleural types. 1886 Ford in Amcr. Jrnl. Sci. Ser. in. 
XXXII. 475 Reasons for believing that the Brachypleural 
species of the genus Paradoxidcs are more recent than the 
Macropleural. * 1887 Ward tr. Sachs' Physiol. Plants 790 
The pollen of the * macrostylous flowers is transferred to the 
microstylous stigma of another plant. 1840 Smart, 'Macro, 
tons, long-eared. 1821 Jameson .I/<t». Mineral. 53 "Macro- 
typous Limestone. 

Macrobian (makrJn'bian),a. [f Gr./in*()<i/3to-s 
(f. /10/rpd-s long + £ios life) + -as.] Long-lived. 

[1727 Bradley Fain. Did. s.v. Age, 'the Macrobian Pills. . 
have their Name from a Greek Word which signifies long Life.] 
1859 R. F. Burton Ceulr. Afr. in Jrnl.Gcogr. Soc. XXIX. 
323 The race is still macrobian, arriving late at maturity. 

Macrobiote (-bai'out). rare— 1 , [ad. Gr. fianpo- 
fsioTos. f. iMiicpu-s long + 0ioTos life.] A long-liver. 

1882 F. L. Oswald in Pop. Sci. Monthly XXI. 590 The 
Thessalian mountaineers were the macrobiotes, the long- 
livers, par excellence, of the Roman Empire. 

Macrobiotic (mre-'krobaiirtik), a. and sb. 
[Formed as prec. +-ic] a. adj. Inclined or tend- 
ing to prolong life; relating to the prolongation 
of life. b. sb. pi. The science of prolonging life. 

1797 Huf elands Art Prolong. Life Pref. (1853) it Hence_ 
arises a particular science, the Macrobiotic, or the art of 
prolonging it |life], which forms the subject of the present 
work. 1822 Mem Monthly Mag. V. 351 Any of your 
readers.. of macrobiotic tendencies. 1862 De QliNCV Wks. 
X. 251 note, A Greek work on the subject of macro- 
biotics. 1879 Punch I Nov. 201/2 Dr. Richardson . . is a 
great makrobiotic sage. 

Macrocephalic (m.x kr^s/Lbe'lik), a. [f. Gr. 
fiaKpoit(<pa\-oi(f. /xaKpii-s long + K«pa\rj head) + -IC.] 

a. Pertaining to persons with long or large heads. 

b. Of a person : Having a long or large head. 
1851 D. Wilson Preh. Ann. (1863) I. ix. 236 The macro- 
cephalic skulls of the Crimea. 1877 Bcrnett Far 25 In 
macrocephalic heads we find large massive ears. 1898 RE in Nature 15 Dec. 150/1 To the physician the 
professional athlete is neither more nor less interesting than 
the macrocephalic dwarf. 

Macrocephalous (mrekwisefalas), a. [f. 
Gr./ta«po/«'</>< lA - os ( see P rec -) + -OUS.1 Long-headed. 
a. Having or pertaining to a long head. b. Bot. 
Said of dicotyledonous embryos whose cotyledons 
are consolidated. 

1835 Lindley In/rod. Bot. 1. ii. (1839) 251 Those embryos 
which .. Richard [called] macrocephalous. 1865 ThuRNAH 
in Nat. /fist. Rev. V. 266 The macrocephalous skulls of 
the Crimea. 

Macrocosm (markrokpz'm). Also rarely in 
L. and quasi-Gr. forms : 7 macrocosmus, 9 -cos- 
mos, [ad. F. macrocosme (C1300), ad. med.L. 
macrocosmus, repr. Gr. * r iaxpos kuo/ios (fiaxpus 
long, great, K00710S world). (Cf. MSGACOSM.) 

Although med.L. macrocosmus has not been found earlier 
than in Higden (c 1350) it must be the source of the 
Fr. form recorded c 1300, and it seems to imply the prior 
existence of a Gr. phrase *nanptK Kotr/ios formed in imitation 
of ni«pbt *d<rnoc Microcosm. For the idea expressed, cf. 
Macrobius in Soliin. Scit. l. xii, ' Ideo physicl mundum 
magnum hominem, et hominem brevem mundum esse 
dixerunt '. F'rom the use of brevem here, and the gloss 
• Microscosmum. .petit nionde, e'est tliommc fui pan dure ' 
(Du Cange), it may be suspected that naicpoc was at first 
intended in the sense of 'long', interpreted with regard 10 
duration ; though the inference is not absolutely necessary, 
as the formal similarity of the word to mi»P.o« would 
sufficiently account for its selection in an antithetic phrase. 
However this may be, the relation of the words macrocosm 
and microcosm has suggested the use of Macro- with the 
sense ' on a large scale ', ill many modern words antithetic 
to words beginning with micro-.] 

1. The ' great world ' or universe, in contra- 
distinction to the ' little world ' or Microcosm, i. e. 
to man viewed as an epitome of the universe. 

The earliest instances of the word in Eng. occur in Lyd- 
gate's Assembly of the Gods (1:1420; oldest MS. <ii50o), 
where however it is a mistake (either on the part of Lydgate 
or of the scribe) for microcosm. (See, e.g., line 1 82S : And as 
for Macrocosme, hit ys no more to say But the lesse worlde.l 



1600 W. Watson Dccacordon (1602) 274 Throughout all 
thisvaste Macrocosme, theyfinde not one patterne. .like to 
ours- 4 1794 G. Adams Nat. <$■ Exp. Philos. IV. xlix. 353 
Applied and determined hy an Infinite Mind in the macro- 
cosm, or universe. 1867 Froude Short Stud,, Set. Hist. 9 
He desires, first, to see the spirit of the Macrocosmos. 
1881 Huxley in Nature No. 615. 340 The microcosm re- 
peats the macrocosm. 

- 2. transf. In various occasional applications, de- 
noting some great whole, the structure of which 
is conceived to be imaged on a smaller scale by 
that of some constituent portion of it. 

1851 Sik F. Palgrave Norm, <S- Eng. I. 347 No population 
. .is absolutely inert in the macrocosm of humanity, 1875 
N. A/ner. Rev. CXX. 256 The macrocosm of society can be 
inferred from the microcosm of individual human nature. 
1896 J. R. Harris Union iviih God iii. 59 His life is the 
great life, and all our little lives are involved in it, Christ 
being the macrocosm, and ourselves the microcosm. 

Hence Ma crocosmic a. [-icj, of or pertaining 
to the macrocosm or universe. + Macrocosmi- 
cal a. [-ic + -al], = prec. Macrocosmology 
[-(o)logy], a description of the macrocosm. 

1625 Gill Sacr. Philos. iv. S3 There is some powerful! 
principle, for sending up such waters which naturally doe 
flee from heat, as this macrocosmicall Sun is for drawing of 
them upward. 1690 W. Y. Artif. Wines To Rdr. A ij b, 
When the Macrocosinical World wasiinished. 1856 Maynb 
Expos. Lex., Macrocosm ical, Macrocosmology. 1871 Tylor 
Prim. Cult. I. 316 It forms part of that macrocosmic 
description of the universe well known in Asiatic myth. 

Macrocyte (markr&ait). rath. [f. Macro- + 
-cyte.] An abnormally large red blood -corpuscle , 
found in some forms of anoemia. Hence || Macro- 
cythseiuia, -emia (-sibrmia) [Gr. alfxa blood], ! 
the presence of macroeytes in the blood. 

1889 Syd, Soc. Lex. t Macrocyte. 1894 Gould IHustr. 
Diet. Med., Macrocythania. 1897 Allbutfs Syst. Med. 
II. 750 If., a further examination of the blood be made, .. , 
both microcystes and macroeytes will have practically dis- j 
appeared. 1898 /hid. V. 414 This condition, named macro- i 
cythxmia, is apt to occur, .in any ca^e of severe anaemia. 

Macro gnathic (ma^kr^gnaebik), a. [f. 
Macro- + Gr. yvaQ-os jaw + -ic] Having long or 
protruding jaws. So Macrog-nathism (malay- 
gnabiz'm), the peculiarity or fact of being macro- 
gnathic ; protrusion of the jaws. Macrognathous 
[makr^'gnabos) a. = Macrogn athic. 
_ 1856 Mayne Expos. Lex., Macrognathous. 1864 Huxley \ 
in Reader 5 Mar., The jaws . . project more forward than 
in man, so that the chimpanzee is both macrognithous and 
prognathous. 1864 — ibid. 19 Mar. 364/3 The macro- 
gnathUm and prognathism are carried to about the same 
extent. 1874 D.uvkins Cave Hunt. vi. 193 The entire max- 
illary apparatus is so largely developed, that the term 
' macrognathic ', introduced by Professor Huxley, is par- 
ticularly applicable. 

Micrography (ni£kip'grafi). [f. Macro- + 
Gr. -ypa<(>ia writing.] Abnormally large writing (as 
a symptom of nervous disorder). Hence Maxro- 
graphic a. 

1899 Pop. Set. Monthly June 203 The macrography alter- 
nating with the micrography. Ibid. 205 Fig. 3, Macro- 
graphic and micrographic writing by the same epileptic. 

Macrology (ra&krp*lodxi). [ad. L. maerologia, 

a. Gr. fxanpo\oyia, f. fia/cpo^uyos speaking at length, ! 
f. fiattpo-s long + -Kvyos speaking.] a. As a rhetor- ( 
ical figure : The use of redundant words or phrases. | 

b. gen. Prolixity of speech. 

[1586 A. Day Eng. Secretary 11. (1595) 82 Macro/ogia ' 
where a clause is finally added to the matter going before, 
in seeming more then needed. .] 1616 Bullokar Eng. 
Expos., Macrologic, long and tedious talke. 1656 Blount ' 
G/ossogr. t Macro/ogy, prolixity in speaking. 1727 Pope, etc. 
Art of Sinking 105 The Macrology and Pleonasm are as 
generally coupled, as a lean rabbit with a fat one. 

Macromere (nurkrvrnfo). Embryology, [f. 
Gr. ftaicpo-s long + ^t'poy part.] The larger of the 
two masses into which the vitellus of the develop- 
ing ovum of Lamellibranchiata divides : cf. Mi- 
ckomeke. Hence Macroiue ral, Macromeric 
arf/'s., of or pertaining to the macromere. 

1877 Huxley Anat. Inv. Anim. viii. 483 Those [blasto- : 
meres] which proceed from the macromere long remain larger 
and more granular than those which proceed from the 
micromere._ Ibid. 484 The macromeral hemisphere next 
undergoes invagination. Ibid. 499 The macromeric part of I 
the vitellus. 1895 J. A. Thomson Outlines Zoo/, (ed. 2) 417 ' 
The third cleavage .. gives rise to four larger cells (or macro- i 
meres), . .and to four smaller cells (or micromeres). 

Macronieritic (m;v:krJmcriiik), a. [f. Ma- ; 
cro- -f Gr. fttp-os part + -iTE + -ic] Of granitoid : 
rocks: Having a structure discernible by the naked 
eye ; opposed to micromeritic. 

[1881 Geikie Text-book Geo/. 11. 11. iii. 00 This structure is 
characteristic of many eruptive rocks. Though usually dis- 
tinctly recognizable^ by the naked eye (' macromerite ' of 
Vogelsang), it sometimes becomes very fine (' micromerite ').] 
In mod. Diets. 

Macrometer (markrjrmftaj). [f. Macho- + 
-Mkter.] An instrument for' measuring distant or 
inaccessible objects. 

1825 W. Hamilton Handbk. Terms Arts% Sci, Macro- 
meter, in Mathematics, an instrument contrived to measure 
the distance of inaccessible objects by means of two reflec- ! 
tors on a common sextant. 1888 Eucy*/, Brit. XXIII. j 
126/1 Porro's telemeter, Elliott's telescope, and Nordenfelt's j 
macrometer illustrate the principle. 

Macromyelon ^nuckitfmaK-l^n). Anat. [f. | 


Macho- + Myelon.] Owen's name for the me- 
dulla oblongata. Hence Macromy -clonal a. 

1846 OwtN Lect. Anat. Vertebrate Anim. Contents g 
' Macromyelon ' or Medulla Oblongata. 1868 — Aunt. 
Vertebrates III. 83 The floor of the expanded luacro- 
myclonal canal. 

II Macron (mrc'kr^n, nvi-kr^n). [a. Gr. iiaxpuv, 
neut. of fxanpus long.] A straight horizontal line (") 
placed over a vowel to indicate that it is 'long'. 

1851 G. Brown Grant, of Granun. Bio note, The different 
uses made of the breve, the macron, and the accents. 
1891 H. Bradley Stratmaun's M.-E. Diet. Pref. viii, In my 
notation the macron is placed over an original long vowel 
which remained long in Middle-English. 

Macrophage (mark^te'd,?). Phys. [ad. 
mod.L. macrophagus, f. Gr. piaitpu-s long + ifiayuo 
to devour.] A name given to certain large leuco- 
cytes, from their supposed power of devouring other 
organisms, especially pathogenic microbes. 

1890 Run kr in Q. Jml. Microsc. Sci. Feb. 483 Cells to 
which he [Metschnikoff] has given the name of macro- 
phages and microphages. 1897 Allbutt's Syst. Med. II. 7 
These macrophages can destroy the tubercle bacilli. 

MacrophagOCyte (mn^krofce-gtoit). rhys. 
[f. Macho- + Phagocyte.] —prec. 
1896 Allbutt's Syst. Med. I. 79. (m#kiypis3id). ttmce-tod. See 

next and -cide i.] A slayer of kangaroos. 

1866 Comb. Mag. Dec. 744 The stockmen, .were decidedly 
the most efficient macropicides. 

Macropine (mae - kr#pain),«. [<1.L.»/am>/- 
us (ad. (jx. iiaapu-novs • see next) kangaroo + -INK.] 
Of or pertaining to the kangaroo. 

1888 O. Thomas fatal. Marsupialia Brit. Mus. 122 The 
macropine characters of its lower jaw. 1891 Flowhr & 
Lydekkbr Mammals 162 The macropine characters of the 
mandible preponderate. 

Macropod (mse'krippcl), a. and si. [a. Gr. 

piaKpoTwb- , paiepuvovs long-footed, f. pmxpu-s long + 
rto5-, ttovs foot.] a. adj. Long-footed, b. si. A 
long-footed animal, e. g. a spider-crab. (In recent 
Diets.) Macro poda.1 a. Bot., of a monocotyle- 
donous embryo : Having the radicle large in pro- 
portion to the cotyledon. Macropo -dian Zoo!., 
one of a tribe of brachyutous decapod crustaceans. 
Macropodons a. = Mackopodal. 

1830 LlMDLEY Nat. Syst. Bet. 253 The plants belonging to 
Alismaceaj . . and Butoinea;, have all a disproporttonally 
large radicle, whence the embryos of such were called by 
the late M. Richard, macropodal. 1839 Fenny Cycl. XIV. 
256/2 Macropodians, 185a Hknslow Diet. Bet. Terms, 
Maeropodeus. 1887 GarnSEV & Balk>cr tr. Geebel^s Classif. 
<V Merplwl. Plants 431 In the Helobiae the axial portion 
forms the larger part of the embryo (macropodous embryo). 

Macropterous (makrfj-pteras), a. [f. Gr. 
lia/cpoTTTfpos i^f. fiaKpu-s long + nrepu-f wing) -f- 
-oi's.] Long-winged. 

1835-6 Toud Cycl. Anat. I. 280/2 Macropterous Sea-birds. 

MaCl'OSCian (makr ( > jian; , a. and si. [I. Gr. 
fiaicpuoKtos, f. fianpo-s long + er/r/a shadow. Cf. 
Antiscian.] a. adj. Having a long shadow. 
b. si. One having a long shadow, an inhabitant 
of the polar regions. In some mod. Diets. 

Macroscopic (irnrkntiilffpilr). a. [f. Macbo- 
+ -scopic] Visible to the naked eye, in opposition 
to MicKosconc. 

1872 Peaslee Ovar. Tumonrs 31 The macroscopic char- 
acter of these two forms of cystoma depends on the number 
and size of their constituent cysts. 1897 Atbemeum 7 Aug. 
194/3 The structure of lavas, microscopic and macroscopic. 

Hence Ma crosco'pical a. — prec. Ma croscopi- 
cally adv., by the naked eye, as studied by the 
naked eye without the aid of a lens. 

1877 Q. Jml. Microse. Sci. XVII. 228 Macroscopieally j 
and microscopically the retina, exposed to yellow light, 
behaves in the same way as after the operation of red light. 
1878 T. Bryant Pract. Surg. I. 388 Its L macroscopical 
appearance was that of a fibrous tumour. 1879 Dana Man. 
Geol. (ed. 3) 66 A rock may be studied microscopically or 
macroscopieally. 1899 Allbutt's Syst. Med. VII. 236 At 
the autopsy, nothing pathological was found macroscopic- 
ally. Ibid. 837 Macroscopical examinations of the central 
nervous system in uncomplicated cases of chorea. 

Macrosnia'tic, n. ran. [irrcg. f. Macro- + 
Gr. bopLT) smell.] "^Capable of smelling at a distance. 

1899 Allbutt's Syst. Med. VI. 753 All that remains in man 
of the great rhinencephalon of macrosmatic mammals is the 
olfactory bulb and tract. 

Macrosporange (mcekr<7|Spor;u-nd,^). Also 
in mod.L. form -sporangium, [f. Macro- + 
SroitANGE.] The sporange or capsule containing 
the macrospores. (Cf. Meoasrorange.) 

1875 Bennett & Dyer Saclts' Bet. 396 If a micro- 
sporangium is about to be formed, each of the mother-cells 
js broken up into four tell ahcdral spores, which all develope 
into microspores ; in the macrosporangium, on the contrary, 
the mother-cells remain, with one exception, undivided. 
1882 Card. Citron. XVIII. 40 Four of these macrospores I 
occur in each macrosporange. 

Macrospore (msM0wsp6>i). [f. Macro- + 
Spore.] a. Bot. One of the specially large 
(ipiasi-female) spores of certain llowerless plants. ' 
b. Zool. One of the spore-like parts into which 
a monad subdivides. (Cf. Megaspore.) 

1859 Todd Cyel. Anat. V. 243/1 The development of the | 


prothallium commences . . several months after the macro- 
spore has been sown. 1870 Hookkr Stud. Flora 469 The 
macrospores of Selagtnclla and Isoetes develop a cellular 
prothallus. 1875 Uknnktt & Dyer Sachs' Bot. 335 The 
separation of the sexes is already prefigured by the two 
kinds of spores, the Macrospores being female, in so far as 
they develope a small prothallium. 

Macrothere fnckx^tfox). Also in L. form 
macrotherium. [ad. mod.L. macrolhcrittm, f, Gr. 
paicpu-s long + Brjphv wild beast.] A member of an 
extinct European genus of the sloth tribe. 

1862 Dana Man. Geo/, iv. 528 The Macrothere .. was 
related to the African Pangolin (the Anteater) but was six 
or eight times its size. 1884 G. Allen in Longm. Mag. June 
192 The macrotherium, a monstrous ant-eater. 

Ma crotone. rare- . [?f. Macro- + Tone. 
Cf. Gr. fxatcpuToi'-os stretched out.] — Macko>\ 
1880 in Weisster ; and in later Diets. 

Macrurous, macrourous (maknVras), a. 
Zool. [f. mod.L. macrura neut. pi. (f. Gr. fiatcpv-s 
long + ovpd tail) -t -ODS.1 Pertaining to the Macrura, 
or long-tailed tribe of the Decapod Crustacea, 
which includes the lobster and its congeners. 

1826 Kikby & Sp. Entomo/. xlviii. IV. 452 Exochnata 
(Macrurous Decapod Crustacea, Latr.). 1839-47 Toud Cyc/. 
Anat. III. 445/1 The Macrourous Decapods .. are all 
organized for swimming. 1890 Nature n Sept., The descent 
of crabs from macrurous ancestors. 

So Macnrral, -on'ral a. (also sb. one of the 
Macrura') ; Macnvran, -oii'ran a. and sb. 

1842 Brande Diet. Sci. etc., Macrourans. 1851 Brit. 
Assoc. Rep.) Sections 81 On the Antenna 8 : of the Annulosa, 
and their Homology in the Macrourals. By Dr. W. Mac- 
donald. 1852 Dana Crust. 1. 33 Corresponding precisely in 
its course to that of the Macroural suture. 1877 Huxley 
Anat. Inv. Anim. vi. 340 Nor are the antennules capable of 
being folded back into distinct chambers in any Macruran at 
present known. 1902 Edin. Rev. Jan. 202 It is not technically 
a crab but a Pagurid, a macruran hermit. 

I Mactate, v. Obs. — ° [f. L. mactdl-, ppl. 
stem of mactare to slay.] trans. To kill or slay. 

1623 111 COCKEKAM. 

Mactatiou (maekfcFt'JJMi). [ad. L. mactdtion- 
em, f. mactare to slay.] The action of killing, 
csp. the slaughtering of a sacrificial victim. 

1640 Sir K. Doting Prop. Sacr. (1644) 57 He.. neither 
sacrificed by mactatton or killing of beasts. 1711 Hickks 
Treat. Christ. Priesih. (1817) II. ill To sacrifice or offer 
animals by slaughter, or mactation. 1838 M. Kasskll ///*/. 
Egypt vi. (18531 192 The deity before whom the mactation 
is about to be performed. 1888 Ch. Times 24 Aug. 720 The 
view gained ground that each Mass is a separate mactation. 

t Macta'tor, Obs. rare~°. [a. L. mactdtor, 
agent-n. f. mactare to slay.] 

1656 Blount G/ossogr., Mactator, a killer or murderer. 
(In recent Diets.) 

II Macula (mx'ki//la). PI. -88. [L.] A spot or 
stain. Chiefly in scientific use : Astron. one of the 
dark spots in the sun ; Mm. a spot in a mineral 
due to the presence of particles of some other 
mineral; Ent. (see quot. 1826); rath, a spot or 
stain in the skin, now esp. one which is permanent. 

e 1400 Lanfranc's Cirurg. 247 Macula is a wem in a 
mannys i^e. 1690 T. Burnet Th. Earth 111. xi. 97 The 
Body of the Sun may contract .. some Spots or Macule 
greater than usual. 172a Quncy Lex. Physico-Mfd. (ed. 
2) Macula, is applied by Physicians to express any Spots 
upon the Skin, whether those in Fevers, or scorbutick 
Habits. 1766 Ann. Reg. 92/2 The spot or macula on 
the sun, mentioned to have appeared lately. 180a Play- 
l-AlR lllustr. Ituttott. Theory 298 Rectangular macul.e 
of feltspar. 1826 Kirby & Sp. Entomo/. IV. 285 Macula 
(Macu/a),n larger indeterminately shaped spot. 1849 Saxe 
Times 152 Their honoured name Bears.. some maculae of 
shame. 1867-77 (i. K. Chambkrs Astron. 1. i. 7 In the 
equatorial zones of the Sun dark spots or maculae. 1877 
Roberts /landbk. Med. (ed. 3) I. ill The macula; on the 
skin which are observed during life are frequently per- 
silent after death. 1899 AUbutCs Syst. Med. VIII. 640 
In all cases a deeply pigmented macula remains. 

Macular ,m^'ki//la-i), <*• Bki* and Path. [f. 
Macula + -ah.] Of or pertaining to macula- ; 
characterized by the presence of macula?. 

1822 Good Study Med. IV. 670 Macular skin. 1826 
Kirby & Sp. Eutomol. IV. 289 Macular Fascia \Pascia 
macularis\ a band consisting of distinct spots. 1880 J. W. 
Lecg BUc 468 The macular eruption was thought to be 
cured. 1897 Brit. Birds II. 175 Slightly macular along 
its inferior margin. 1898 P. Manson Prop, Diseases xxvi. 
389 The primary exanthem or macular stage. 1900 J. 
Hutchinson Arch. Surg. XI. 46 Macular leprosy. 

Maculate (marki«U'it), ///. a. [ad. L. macu- 
ldt-us t pa. pple. of maculare, f. macula spot.] - 
Maculated; in early use oceas./tf. pple. Now only 
in expressed or implied antithesis to immaculate. 

1490 Caxion Eneydos iv. 20 So departe thou thenne fro 
this londe, maculate, and full of fylthe and ordure. 1509 
Barclay Shyp 0/ Polys (1570) 144 The places that ye haue 
edified, Are nowe disordred, and with vices maculate. 1549 
Comp/.Scot. xiii. 150 That the honour of verteous genttl 
men be nocht maculat vitht the vice ande inciuiHte of 
vicius pretendit guntil men. 1575-85 Aup. Sandys Serm. 
vii. 122 Hauing cloathed ourselves with the maculate 
coate of sinne. 1612 Two Noble K. v. iii, Thy rare 
greene eye . . never yet Beheld things maculate. 1756-7 
tr. Keyslers Trav. (1760) I. 74 The cardinal of St. Clemente 
hurt himself by declaring for the maculate conception. 1878 
N. Amer. Rcz>. CXXVII. 296 Unfortunately for her already 
maculate reputation. 1887 Stevenson Misattv. J. Nicholson 
ii, Foul walls and maculate table linen. 

Maculate ,nuvj-ki«k''t), v. Pa. t. 5 maculate. 


[f. L. maculal-, ppl. stem of maculare, f. maaihi 
spot.] trans. To spot, stain, soil, defile, pollute. 
1432-50 tr. Higden (Rolls) V. 235 Whiche commynge to 
AfiYike wastede hit, and maculate [Trevisei defouled] the 
feithe in hit. 1481 Caxton Godfrey clxxxvii. 274 The 
hethen men . . whiche had fowled and shamefully had 
maculated [the place] with theyr mahometry. 1490 — 
Eneydos viii. 35 Hir innocente blood whiche maculate 
& bysprange all theym that stode by. 1513 Bradshaw 
St. Werburge 1. 2791 A sensuall prynce . . Purposed to 
maculate this vyrgyn gloryous. 1531 Elyot Gov. I. xxvi, 
They wolde nat maculate the honour of their people. 
? a 1350 Scltote-liouse of Il^om. 914 in Hazl. A'. P. P. IV. 140 
Whose drops vncleen dooth maculate The finest vesture that 
any man weres; 1632 J. Hayward tr. Piondis Eromeita 
28 Thou hast done too much in maculating our blond. 1719 
D'Urfey Pills (1872! IV. 166 They maculate Men's Blood, 
and make them silly. 

Maculated (mse-RWUttW), ///. a. [f. Macu- 
late V. + -ED !.] 

1. Spotted, stained, defiled, polluted. 

1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. v. xxi. 272 For Warts we 
..commit any maculated part unto the touch of the dead. 
a 1661 FuLL.BR Worthies, Merionethsh. (1662) iv. 43 Who 
being casually cast into bad company . . keep their own 
innocency entire, not maculated with the mixture of their 
bad manners. 1841 D'Israeli Amen. Lit. 11867)660 A macu- 
lated man seeking to shelter himself in dejection and in 
shade. 1883 Forttt. Rev. Feb. 158 A variegated record of 
profitless extravagance and maculated victory. 

2. In scientific use : Marked with maculae. 

1676 Dk Garencieres Coral 15 Red coral will grow., 
maculated with several spots. 1819G. Samouelle Etito mol. 
Compend. no Body cinereous, maculated with fuscous. 
1875 H. C. Woou Tlterap. (1879) 373 f ne gastric mucous 
membrane is .. maculated with patches of a deep-crimson. 

Mactllation (mrekujle'i-Jan.). [ad. L. macu- 
lation-em, agent-n. f. maculare Maculate v. Cf. 
F. inoculation^ 

1. The action of spotting or staining ; the con- 
dition of being spotted or defiled. 

a 1450 Ok: Myst. xiv. (Shaks. Soc.) 138 If he be gilty, sum 
maculaeion Pleyne in his face xalshewe it owth. Hid. 141, 
I nevyr knew of mannys maculaeion, But evyr have lyved in 
trew virginite. 1606 Shaks. Tr. $ Cr. IV. iv. 66, I will throw 
my Gloue to death himselfe, That there's no niaculation in 
thy heart. 1772 Nugent tr. Hist. Fr. Gerund I. 531 The 
nigrescent maculation of their pristine niveous candour. 
1853 G* J. Cayley Las Alforjas I. 34, I waged a blind and 
ineffectual warfare all night, to the loss of my rest and the 
maculation of my countenance. 1887 Stevenson Mem. A> 
Portraits vi. 102 It was from the maculation of sheep's 
blood that he had come, .to cleanse himself. 

2. In scientific use : The state of being marked 
with macula; ; a particular arrangement or pattern 
of macul;c. 

1826 Kirhy & Sp. Entomol. xxxv. III. 650 Numerous Libel- 
lulin.c emulate the Heliconian butterflies by their macula- 
tion. 1879 Proctor Picas. Ways Set ii. 40 The doctrine 
that an intimate association exists between solar macu- 
lation (or spottiness) and terrestrial meteorological pheno- 
mena. 1884 Science IV. 44/2 The niaculation is normally 
noctuidous, and the wings are ample. 1888 Amcr. Nat. 
XXII. 642 Patches of vividly red Poppies, with fine black 
maculations, like eyes, edged with white. 

t Maculatory, a. 06s. rare - '. [f. L. macu- 
lat-, ppl. stem. + -ory.] Apt to spot or defile. 

1614 T. Adams Devil's Banquet 17 The lutulent, spumy, 
maculatorie. waters of Sinne. 

t Maculature. 06s.-" [I. L. maculal-, ppl. 
stem of maculare to stain + -mus. Cf. F. macu- 
lature (Cotgr.), G. inakulatur.] (See quots.) 

1656 Blount Glossogr., Maculatures, blotting or waste 
papers. 1706 Phillips (ed. Kersey), Maculature ox Made, 
a waste Sheet of printed Paper. 1721 Bailey, Maculature, 
a Waste or blotting Paper. 

Macule (mse'kial), si. Also 6 Sc. macull, 
makle. [f. L. macula, either directly or through F. 
macule.] A blemish, spot. 06s. in general sense. 

1483 Caxton G. de la Tour Kvb, It is a perle whiche is 
.. without macule or spotte. 1490 — Encydos xxix. 113 The 
throte quycke, and without spotte or macule. 1500-20 
Dunbar Poems xlviii. 152 But ony spot or macull doing 
spring. Hid. lxxxv. 22 Haile.moder and maid but makle ! 

D. Path. = Macula. 

1863 Edinb. Med. 7rnl. Jan. 509 Skin diseases. .1. Macules 
and Deformities. 1899 Allbutfs Syst. Med. VIII. 465 The 
eruption commonly consists of macules. 

c. Printing. A blur causing the impression of 
a page to appear double ; =Mackle s6. 

1841 Savage Diet. Printing 775 Instead of its being a 
macule, it is nothing more than [etc.]. 

Macule (marki/d), v. [f. F. maculer,!. macule a 
spot.] trans. To spot, stain. 06s. in general use. 

1484 Caxton Fables 0/ Al/once (1889) 261, 1 byleue not that 
this poure [man] may be maculed ne gylty of the blame. 

b. Printing = Mackle v. {trans, anil intr.). 
1841 Savage Diet. Printings.v., If the joints of the tympan, 
or the head, or the nut of the spindle be loose, or any accident 
happen in pulling, so that the impression be somewhat 
doubled, and not clear, it is said to be maculed. Ibid. 775, 
I have heard many complaints of the middle pages of a 
twelves form maculing at a two-pull press. 

Maculiferous (nLwldKU-fea*), „. [f. Macule 
+ -(i>erous.] Bearing or marked by spots, spottv. 

1853 Herschei. Pop. Led. Sci. 11. xxxv. (1873) 77 The 
maculiferous belts of the sun. 

Maculose (rrux-ki/a<7us), a . [ad. L. maculos-us, 
i. macula spot.] Full of spots ; spotted. 

i7>7 i" Bailey vol. II. 1819 G. Samouelle Entomol. 
Compend. 124 A .. maculose, dentated band. 1861 Hagfn 
Syn. Neuroptera _V. Amer. 341 (Smithsonian Collect. 1V.L 


Ma'culous, a. rare-' . [See -ors.] = prec. 

1688 R. Holme A rmoury n. 366/1 A Masculous [sic : in the 
1 Table ' Maculous], or spotted Cramp-fish, hath the Eyes 
turned into black round spots. 1735 Dychb & Pardon Diet., 
Maeulousox Maculose, troubled or affected with Spots, De- 
fects, or natural Deformities. 1856 in Mayne Expos. Lex. 

Macute (maki/Vt). Also S maccuta, mac- 
cute, macoute, 8-9 raacuta. [ad. native African 
macula.'] At the beginning of the iSth c, said to 
be the name for one of the pieces of cloth used as 
money by the negroes of the Congo. Subsequently 
used in the W. African trade as the name for a 
money of account (= 2000 cowries), and hence 
adopted by the Portuguese at Angola as a de- 
nomination in their local coinage ( = 50 reis) ; the 
Sierra Leone Company also issued (1791-1S05) 
pieces of I, 2, 5 and 10 macutes, the silver macule 
being worth about 4^/. sterling. The account 
given by Montesquieu (quot. 174S), and adopted 
by Mill and other English writers on political 
economy, appears to be based on misapprehension. 

1704 tr. Mcrol!a?s V T oy. Congo in ChurchilVs I'oy. I. 740 
The current Coins here are the Maccuta's, being certain 
pieces of Straw-Cloth of about the largeness of a Sheet of 
Pastboard each. 1704 tr. Aec. Gaithids I'oy. Congo ibid. 
I. 620 There is but little Mony passes in that Country, but 
instead of it they buy and sell with Maccutes... .The Mac- 
cutcs are pieces of coarse Cotton Cloth., five Ells long, and 
cost 200 Keys the Piece. Ibid., Two thousand of them 
[Zimbis] are worth a Maccute. 1748 Nugent tr. Monies- 
quiett's Spirit Laws xxii. viii. (1752) 77 The negroes on the 
coast of Africa have a sign of value without money. It is a 
sign merely ideal. ..A certain commodity or merchandise i:. 
worth three macoutes ; another six macoutes; another ten 
macoutes.. .The price is formed by a comparison of all mer- 
chandises with each other. They have therefore no par- 
ticular money; but each kind of merchandise is money to 
the other. 1823 Crabb Tcchuol. Diet., Macuta. 1848 J. S. 
Mill Pol. Econ. in. vii. § 1. 

t Mad, sbJ Oh. (?exc. dial.) [var. ot Matiif.] 

1, A maggot or grub ; esp. the larva of the blow- 
fly, which causes a disease in sheep. Also //., the 
disease so caused. 

1573 Tusshr llusb. I. (1S78) 109 Sheepe wriglmg taile hath 
mads without faile. 1641 Best Farm. Bks. (Surtees) 6 
Lainbes that wriggle theyre tayles..are to bee . . searched, 
for fear of maddes breedinge. 1669 Worudge Syst. Agric. 
273 A f adds, a Disease in Sheep. 1688 R. Jr Iolme A rmoury 
in. 268/1 Keep Sheeps Tails from Maggots and Mads. 

2. An earthworm. 

1586 Warner Alb. Eug. 11. ix. 41 Content thee, Daphles, 
mooles take mads. 1592 Ibid. vn. xxxvii. 1S0 Here maiest 
thou feast thee with a Made. 1601 Holland Pliny II. 361 
Earth-worms or mads stamped and laid too are verie good 
to cure the biting of scorpions. 1674-91 Kay .V. «V E. C. 
Words, Mad, an earth-worm. 

Matl (mrcd), so.- dial, and U. S. slang, [subst. 
use of Mad a.] Madness, fury, anger. 

1847-89 Halliwell, Mail, madness, intoxication. Clone. 
1884 Century Mag. Nov. 57/2 His mad was getting up. 1897 
Outing (\J. S.) XXX. 487/2 Let the pony get his mad up. 

Mad (ma?d), a. Forms: 1 semeed(e)d, 3-4 
med(d, medde, 3-6 madd(e, (5 made, maad), 
3- mad. [Aphetic repr. OE.gemted(e)d (see Amajj), 
pa. pple. of *gemiedan to render insane, f. gemad 
insane (' veiOrs, semaad', Corpus Gl.), correspond- 
ing to OS. gimed foolish, OHG. gameil, kimeit, 
foolish, vain, boastful (MHG. gimeit merry, stately, 
handsome), Goth, gamaips crippled :— OTeut. *ga~ 
mai<to~ t f. *ga- prefix (Y-) + *maido- :— pre-Teut. 
*//toilo-, pa. pple of the Indogermanic root *nici- 
to change (cf. L. mutare). The primary sense of 
*maido- changed, appears in the derivative Goth. 
maidjan to change, adulterate {in-maideitis ex- 
change) ; the corresponding OX. mei$a means to 
cripple (cf. the sense of the Goth. adj. above). 
The OK. mad adj., without prefix, app. occurs 
once in the compound m&iimSd folly. 

It is commonly stated that the OE. (ge)mdd survived into 
ME. in the form mad, m§d. The examples cited are the 
following, c 1310 in Wright Lyric P. viii. 31 For-thi on 
molde y waxe mot (riming with blod in the next line but 
one, with ivot y lot in the previous quatrain). ^1425 Seven 
Sages (P.) 2091 To sla the childe he was ful rade. He ferde 
as man that was made, c 1460 Lybcaus Disc. (Ritson) 2001 
Lybeaus began to swete, Ther he satte yn hys sete, Maad 
as he were (the earlier texts read quite differently). In the 
first quot. the text is certainly corrupt (? read wod : biod) \ 
the later quots. do not prove the length of the vowel.] 

1. Suffering from mental disease ; beside oneself, 
out of one's mind; insane, lunatic. In mod. use 
chiefly with a more restricted application, imply- 
ing violent excitement or extravagant delusions : 
Maniacal, frenzied. 

The word has always had some tinge of contempt or dis- 
gust, and would now be quite inappropriate in medical use, 
or in referring sympathetically to an insane person as the 
subject of an affliction. 

a 1000 Riddles xii. 6 Ic pais nowhit wat |?a:t heo swa 
Semaedde mode bestolene Da;de gedwolene deoraj? mine 
Won wisan ^ehwam. C1050 I'oc. in Wr.-Wulcker 347/19 
A mens, ^ema:d. e 1050 Gloss, ibid. 513/33 Uecordcm, 
Semxdedne. 1390 Gowkk Con/. I. 46 For certes such a 
maladie . . It myghte make a wisman madd. Ibid. II. 144 
And jf.. hir list noght to be gladd, He berth an hond that 
sche is madd. c 1440 Promp. Parv. 319/1 Madde,or wood, 
aniens, demens, furiosus. 1489 Ca.xton Faytes 0/ A. in. 


xx. 213 Whyche duke" or eric happeth to wex madde so that 
al alone as a fole be gothe renning by wodes and hedges. 
1500-20 Dunbar Poems xix. 12 Gife I be sorrowfull and 
sad, Than will thay say that I am mad. 1590 Shaks. Com. 
Err. 11. ii. 11 Wast thou mad, That thus so madlie thou 
didst answerc me? 1590 Swinburne Treat. Test. 37 They 
did see him hisse like a goose or barke lyke a dogge, or play 
such other parts as madfolks vse to doo. 1611 ISiblk John 
x. 20 And many of them said, He hath a deuill, and is mad, 
whyheareye him? 1664-5 Pei'YS Diary 25 Jan., He told 
me what a mad freaking R-llow Sir Ellis Layton hath been, 
and is, and once at Antwerp was really mad. 1726 Swift 
Gulliver u. viii, Some of them, upon hearing me talk so 
wildly, thought I was mad. 1791 Boswell Johnson an. 
1729 (1847) 15/1 If a man tells me that he 'sees' tins [a 
ruffian with a drawn sword] and in consternation calls tome 
to look at it I pronounce him to be mad. 1855 Tennyson 
Maud. 11. v. i, And then to hear a dead man chatter Is 
enough to drive one mad. 

absol. 1728 Poi'E Dune. \. 106 She saw slow Philips creep 
like Tate's poor page, And all the mighty Mad in Dennis rage. 
b. Phrases, To fjall, go, run mad. 

1589 Rider Bibl. Schol., Running madde, Bacchatus. 
1596 Shaks. i Hen. IV, in. i. 212 Nay, if thou inelt, then 
will she runne madde. 1654 R. Codkington tr. lustinc, 
etc. 567 Being troubled in his Conscience he did fall mad. 
1670 G. H. Hist. Cardinals 11. in. 191 Seeing Nini prc- 
ferr'd, [he] was ready to run mad, c 1709 Lady M. W. 
Montagu Let. to Mrs. Ilewet 12 Nov., You have not then 
received my letter? Well ! I shall run mad. a 1850 
RosSETTi Dante <V Circ. I. U874) 27 A perversion of gospel- 
teaching which had gained ground in his day to the extent 
of becoming a popular frenzy. People went literally mad. 

Jig. 1735 Pope Prol. Sat. i38 It is not Poetry, but Prose 
run mad. 1762 WESLEY Jrnl. 6 Nov,, That manner of writ- 
ing, in prose run mad, I cordially dislike. 

C. Like mad: literally, in the manner of one who 
is mad ; hence, furiously, with excessive violence 
or enthusiasm. Also f like any mad, \for mad. 

c 1420 Anturs o/Arth. no (Thornton MS.) It marrede, it 
mournede, it niuyssede for made. [1530 Pai.sgk. 572/1, 
I go madde, I go up and downe lyke a madde body, je 
cours les rrtcs.] 1653 H. More Ant id. Ath. in. vii. (171:") 
108 For she was then seen . . in her fetters, running about 
like mad. 1663 Pepyh Diary 13 June, Thence by coach, 
with a mad coachman, that drove like mad. 1732 FIELD- 
ING Covent Card. Trag. 11. xii, My reeling head ! which 
aches like any mad. 1742 Richardson Pamela IV. 118 
Several Harlequins, and uther ludicrous Forms, that jump'd 
and ran about like mad. 1745 C. J. Hamilton in Academy 
18 Nov. (1893) 410/3 They were Shooting at y° Standards 
Like Mad. 1824 Lady Gkanville Lett. (1S94) I. 262 We 
are writing like mad for the post. 1893 Forbes-Mitchkll 
Kemitt. Gt. Mutiny 101 We . . heard our fellows cheering 
like mad. 

d. trans/, of the effects of alcoholic drink. 

1743 Bulkelky & Cummins I'oy. S. Seas 19 Being drunk 
and mad with Liquor, they plunder'd Cheats and Cabins. 
t e. Causing madness. Ohs. ran: 

1567 Maplet Cr. Forest 41 I), There is another kind of the 
self same name which is called mad Dwale. Which being 
drunken sheweth wonders by a certain false shewe of imagin- 
ation. 1658 Rowland tr. MouJct's Thcat. Ins. 909 There 
is also another kinde of pernicious honey made, which from 
the madness that it cause th, is termed Mad-honey. 1676 
Dkyden Aurcngz. iv. i. 1890 Pow'r like new Wine, does 
your weak Brain surprize, And it's mad Fumes, in hot 
Discourses rise. 

2. Foolish, unwise. Now only in stronger sense 
(corresponding to the modern restricted applica- 
tion of sense 1) : Extravagantly or wildly foolish ; 
ruinously imprudent. 

^725 Corpus Gloss. (Hessels) I. 412 lueptus, ^emedid. 
Ibid. U. 36 L'anus, gemaeded. >i 1300 Body -y Soul (MS. 
Laud 10S) 100, I bolede be and [dude] as mad to be maister 
and i bi cnaue. 13.. E. E. A Hit. P. A. 267 Me bynk be 
put in a mad porpose, & busyez be aboute a raysoun bref. 
c 1400 Destr. Troy 1S64 Me meruellis of bi momlvng & bi 
mad wordes. a 1540 BARNES Whs. (1573) 349A ' s not 
this a madde manner of prayer that men vse to our Lady 1 
1600 Shaks. A. Y. L. ill. ii. 438, I draue my Sutor from 
his mad humor uf loue to a lining humor of niadnes. 
1608 Middleton {title) A Mad World my Masters. 161 1 
Bible Eccl. ii. 2, I saide of laughter, It is mad : and of 
mirth, What doeth it? 1743 Bulkeley 8c Cummins Voy. 
S. Seas Pref. 14 Our Attempt for Liberty in sailing .. with 
such a number of People, stow'd in a Long Boat, has been 
censur'd as a mad Undertaking. 1849 Macaulay Hist. 
Eug. v. I. 643 The chief justice .. was not mad enough to 
risk a quarrel on such a subject. 1864 Browning Confes- 
sions ix, How sad and bad and mad it was— But then, how 
it was sweet ! 1878 B. Taylor Deukation \. ii. 27 Wa> I 
mad, To fear, one moment, thou could^t ever die 'i 

f/uasi-adz'. 13.. E. E. Allit. P. A. 1166 Hit payed hym 
not bat I so fionc, Ouer meruelous merezso mad arayed. 

f 3. Stupefied with astonishment, fear, or suffer- 
ing; dazed. Obs. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 10310 For bat bright-ties was he sa 
raddj pat he stode still als he war madd. Ibid. 10831 Sant 
gabneL.said her till, 'Maria, quarfor es bou madd? Es be 
na nede to be radd '. Ibid. 24886 All baa bat in bat ferr cost 
fard War medd [Gotl. mad ; Kdin. med] quen bai him [sc. 
the angel] sagh and herd, c 1400 Destr. Troy 1154 2 P us ' n 
pouert am I pyght, put vnder fote, pat makes me full mad, 
& mournes in my hert. 

4. Carried away by enthusiasm or desire ; wildly 
excited; infatuated. Const, about > after ; for, \of t 
on, upon. 

c 1330 R. Brunne Chron. Wace (Rolls) 7604 Out of mesure 
was he glad, Opon bat mayden he wax al mad. 1601 Shaks. 
All's Well v. iii. 260 He loued her, for indeede he was 
madde for her. 1611 Bible Jer. 1. 38 It Is the land of 
gt auen images, and they are madde vpon their idoles. 1614 
B. Jonson Barthot. Fair 1. (1631)9, I thought he would ha' 
runne madde o' the blacke boy in Bucklers- bury. 1678 Rymer 
Trag. Last Age 7, 1 cannot be perswaded that the people are 
so very mad of Acorns, but that they could be well content to 




eat the Hread of civil persons. 1690 W. Walker Idiomai. 
Anglo-Bat. .183 He began to be mad on her. 1693 Dkvdkn 
Cleomencs Pref. A 4, The World is running mad after Farce, 
— the Extremitie of bad Poetry. 1700 — Cinyras <£ Myrrha 
128 Mad with desire, she ruminates her Sin And wishes all 
her Wishes o'er again. 1719 Die Foe Crusoe 11. ix. (1840) 
208 They were mad upon their journey. 1744 H. Wai.pole 
i'orr. (ed. 3) I. c v. 350 We are now mad about tar-water. 
1849 Macaulay Hist. Eng. ii. I. 175 The people were mad 
with loyal enthusiasm. 1868 Freeman Norm. Cong. (1876) 
II. vii. 42 When all the world seemed mad after monks. 
1881 Tennyson Heavy Brigatic Hi, O mad for the charge 
and the battle were we. 

b. Wildly desirous to do something. Now rare, 
a 1627 MmDLKTON* Worn, beware Worn. in. ii, This makes 

me madder to enjoy him now. 173a Swirx Jrnl. Mod. 
Lady 178 All mad to speak, and none to hearken. 1794 
Miss GUNNING Packet IV. be. 166 Kvery honest cottager 
was so mad to pursue it after his own mode, that [etc.]. 1814 
Southey Roderick 1, Mad to wreak His vengeance for his 
violated child On Roderick's head. 

c. Frequently used as the second element in 
combinations, as music-mad, poetry-mad. 

5. 'Beside oneself with anger; moved to un- 
controllable rage ; furious. Now only coltoq. (In 
many dialects in Great Britain and the U. S. the 
ordinary word for ' angry'.) 

a 1300 Cursor M. 17595 For-bi baa Iuus war full medd, 
pair sandes come again vn-spedd. < 1330 K. IIkunnf. Citron, 
ir'ace (Rolls) 608 pys lady Venus was al glad, pe obere were 
for wrayth al mad. 14.. Arthur 234 Whan pis lettre was 
open & rad, pe bretouns & alle men were mad, And wolde 
pe messager scle. 1539 Bible /'s. cii. 8 They that are mad 
vpon me, are sworne together agaynst me. [Similarly, 1611 ; 
the Heb. word literally means 'insane'.] 1577 Hanmer 
Auc. Eccl. Hist. 75 They which for familiarity sake used 
moderation before, now were exceedingly moved and mad 
with us. a 1604— Chron. />r/. (1633) 125 Roderic was mad, 
and in his rage, caused his pledges head be cut off. 
1622 Mabbe tr. Alcinan's Guzman a" 'A if. it. 155 Whereat 
the merchant was so mad, and so transported with passion, 
that he knew not what to say. 170s Hickeringill 
Priest-cr. in. Wks 1716 III. 184 That makes them so mad 
at me, when I touch the Craft by which they get their 
Wealth. 1707 Reflex, upon Ridicule 350 You are mad to 
hear other's Works commended. 1766 GARRICK Neck or 
Nothing I. ii, He was damned mad that he could not be 
at the wedding. 1806 Simple Narrative II. 9 I'll pump 
out of her how she got the book ; — how deuced mad she 
will be. 1847 Marryat Childr. N. Forest vii, He thought would be mad at the idea of this injustice. 1867 
Trollope Last Chron. BarseHiS6g) II. i. 4* I am sometimes 
so mad with myself when I think over it all,— that I should 
like to blow my brains out. 

8. Of an animal: Abnormally furious, rabid. 
Often said of bulls ; also, in a more specific sense, 
of dogs, horses, etc. suffering from rabies. 

The sense appears to be of late emergence ; before the 
16th c. it was expressed by Wood a. 

1538 [implied in Madness i]. 1565 CoOPER Thesaurus 
s.v, Furibuudus, Cants furibundus, a madde done. Taurus 
furt'bundus, a madde bull. 1579 FuLKB H cskins' Part 463 
Dogges after they had eaten the sacrament, . . ratine madde. 
1590 Shaks. Com. Err. v. i. 70. 170a in \itk Rep. Hist. 
MSS. Comm. App. lit. 7 A great ^Iad Bull to be turned 
loose in the Game-place, with Fire-works all over him. 
1766 Goldsm. Elegy Mad Dog 20 The dog, to gain some 
private ends, Went mad, and bit the man. 1769 Pennant 
/.ool. III. 315 Fish thus affected the Thames fishermen call 
mad bleaks. 1800 Med. J ml. IV. 58 Keep the dogs, or 
other animals, supposed mad, shut up safely in a convenient 
place for live or six weeks. 1848 Dickens Dombey vi, A 
thundering alarm of Mad Bull ' was raised. 

t b. Mad dog \ another name for IIuff-CAP. Obs. 

1577 [See Hlkk-cai' 11 1]- 

7. Uncontrolled by reason ; passing all rational 
bounds in demeanour or conduct ; extravagant in 
gaiety ; wild. 

1597, 1635 Mad Greeke [see Greek sb. §]. 1598 MarbtoN 
\n Shaks. C. Praise 29 Why, how now, currish, mad Athenian'.' 
1605 Camden Rem. (1637) 377 A merry mad maker as they 
call Poets now, was he, which .. made this for John Calfe. 
1655 Nicholas Papers (Caindenl II. 338 You will heare mad 
work shortly, for the Jesuit is at works, # <*I7 X 5 BURNrr 
Own Time (1724^ I. 244 He.. was engaged in a mad-ramble 
after pleasure and minded no business. 173a Berkeley 
Alciphr, 11. § 10 The mad sallies of intemperance and 
debauchery. 1777 Mme. D'Arblay Barb Diaty 7 Apr., The 
sweet little thing was quite in mad spirits. 1862 G. Mkki - 
dith Marian iii, She is steadfast as a star, And yet the 
maddest maiden. 1873 OuiDA Fascaret I, 69 They would 
play me all sorts of sweet little mad canzoni. 

b. transf. Of storm, wind : Wild, violent. 

1836 Mrs. Browning Poet's I'oiv I. xi'ii, Mad winds that 
howling go From east to west. 1863 Wooi.nkk My Beautiful 
Lady 50 Here the mad gale had rioted and thrown Far 
drifts of snowy petals. 

8. Proverbs. As mad as a buck, a hatter, a 
March hare (see Uakk sb. 1 b), etc. 

a 1529 Skblto* Reply a<.ion 35 Thou madde Marche lure. 
1529 (see HarkjA i t>). 1590 Shaks. Com. Err. lit, i. 72 
It would make a man mad as a Bucke to be so bought ami 
sold. 1609 Ev. Wont, in Humorx. in Bullen ( >/</ Plays IV. 
314 If he were as madde as a weaver. 1626 FLETCHER 
Noble Cent. 1. ii, Monsieur ShaltilHon's mad... Mad as May- 
batter. And which is more, mad for a wench. 1837-40, 1857 
[see Hatter t\ 1849 Thackeray /VWi'««/s x, We were.. 
< hamng Derby Oaks— until he was as mad as a hatter. 1901 
T. Ratclikfkiii N. * Q. 9th Ser. Vlll. 501/2 In Derbyshire 
. . there is no commoner saying to express anger shown by 
any one than to say that he or she was 'as mad as a tup'. 

9. Comb., parasynthetic, as mad-blooded, -hit- 
Piourcd, -mooded, -/tfWadjs.; with adjs., indicating 
some condition that proceeds from, resembles, or 
results in madness, as f mad-angry, -Mazing, -drunk, 

f -hardy (hence f mad- hardiness), f -hungry ; 
*f -merry, f -proud, f-red adjs. ; also mad-tike adj. 
and in attributive combinations of the adj. used 
absol., as mad nurse (cottoa.) a nurse attending 
on insane patients; Maim>octor, Madhouse. 

1589 Rider Bibl. Schot., * Madde angrie, or raging madde, 
s&i'us, furiosus. 1632 J. HAYWARDtr. Biondts Eromtnax. 
142 Whose Prince mad angry for being discovered, assay 1- 
ing with a sudden furie the Granadan Galley, easily tooke 
her. 1837 Carlylk Fr. Rev. II I. v. vii, 'Mad-blazing with 
flame of all imaginable tints. 1885 Rcnciman Skippers ty 
S/i. 84 He was a *mad blooded rip that cared for nothing. 
1653 Baxter Chr. Concord 32, 1 have neighbours that go 
*mad-drunk about the streets. 1871 Routledge's Ev, Boys 
Ann. 33 He was mad drunk, and did not know what he was 
doing. 1534 Whitinton Tullycs Offices 1.(1540)28 Of 
the hye pride of herte whiche is in reproche, and maye 
be called *madhardynesse. Ibid, 35 *Madhardy men of 
our cyte of Rome. 1665 Pepvs Diary 6 Dec, Knipp, 
who is . . the most excellent *mad-humoured thing, and 
sings the noblest that ever 1 heard. 1608 Chapman 
Byron's Conspir. Plays 1873 II. 233 Such *mad-hungrie 
men, as well may eate Hote coles of fire. 1836 [G. K. 
Ihhan] Sir Orfco 6 With a x mad-like dreaminess crying. 
1887 P. M'Neili. Blawearic 144 The mad-like act would 
never have been heard of. 1599 Sir John O Ideas tic 
(1600) C 4, Ye olde *mad merry Constable, art thou aduisde 
of that? 1609 BOYS Wkt, (1629) 30 The wicked are often 
merrie, sometime mad-merry. 1583 T. Watson Ccntnrie 
of Loue Hi. Poems (Arb.) 88 *Mad mooded Loue vsurping 
Reasons place. 1753 The World No. 23 f 7 After such 
hospitals are built,, .and doctors, surgeons, apothecaries and 
*mad nurses provided. 1771 T. Hull Sir IK Harring- 
ton (1797) II. 223 Your "mad-pated Julia. 14.. I'oc. in 
Wr.-Wiilcker 605/15 Prodncnlus, *madprud. 1614 Lodge 
Seneca, Life ix, This Prince waxed *mad red with anger. 

Mad (maed), v. [f. Mao a.] 

1. trans. To make mad, in various senses of the 
adj. ; to madden, make insane ; f to render foolish; 
fto bewilder, stupefy, daze; to infuriate, enrage. 
Now rare exc. t". S, cottoa., to exasperate. 

1399 Langl. Rich. Redclcs 1.63 And nosoule personeto 
punnyshe be wrongis ; And bat inaddid bi men. Ibid. it. 132 
With many derke mystis pat maddid her eyne. c 1400 
Dcstr. Troy 8061 So full are pofairefild of dessait, And men 
for to mad is most bere dessyre. 1561 T. Norton Calvin's 
Inst. iv. 125 The deucll hath with horrible bewitchyng 
madded their myndes. 1593 Nashe Christ's T. (1613) 44 
Nothing so much doth macerate and mad mee. 1600 
Holland Livy xxvm. xv. 679 The Elephants also affrighted 
and madded - . ran from the wings. 1621 Bi'rton Anat. 
Mel. 11. iii. VII. 425 He plaid on his drunimc and by that 
meanes madded her more. 168a Southern e Loyal Brother 
iv. i, O Hell ! it mads my reason hut to think on't. 1810 
Crabbe Borough viii, Again ! By Heav'n, it mads ine. 1850 
Blackik Mschylns I. 22 Sin .. Mads the ill-coumell'd 
heart. 1863 J. Weiss Life T, Parker I. 191 You have 
madded Parker and in tin's way he shews his spite. 

2. iutr. To be or to become mad ; to act like 
a madman, rage, behave furiously. Now rare. 

a 1366 Chaucer Rom. Rose 1072 Richesse a robe of 
purpie on hadde, Ne trowe not that I lye or madde. 1383 
Wvclik Acts xxvi. 24 Festus with greet vois seyde, Poul, 
thou maddist, or wexist wood, c 1386 Chaucer Millers 
T. 373 Sufiiseth thee, but if thy wittes madde^ To ban 
as greet a grace as Noe hadde. < 1394 /*. PI Crcde 280 
'Alas ! ' quab be frier * almost y madde in mynde, To sen 
hoin bis Minoures many men begyleth !' C141J Hoc- 
CLEVI De Reg. Prime* 930, I., muse so, that vn-to lite 
I madde. 11440 Promp. Pan: 319/2 Maddyn, or dotyn, 
desipio. Maddyn, or waxyn woode, iusani<>,furio. 15*9 
LuPSBT Charity (1539) 23, I maye loue for my sensual! 
luste, as when.. I madde or dote vppon women. 1530 
Palsor. 616/1, I madde, I waxe or become mad.yir enraigc. 
I holde my lyfe on it the felowe maddcth. 1574 Hellowes 
Cueuara's Bam. Ep. (1577) 310 He brawleth and maddcth 
with the maids. 1873 M. Aknold Lit. /»- Dogma (1876) 14S 
The unclean spirits, .came raging and madding before him. 

fb. Piirase, 'J '0 go or run madding. Obs. 

n 1619 FOTMKUY Athcom. 11. ii. S 5 {'622) 205 Wee runne 
madding after Cold. i6ai T. Wii.mvmson tr. GoularCs 
Wise I'ieitlard 25 Ouer violent passions of the minde.. 
ouerwhehne the soule,. .making it to goc gadding and mad- 
ding heere and there to and fro. 1650 HOWKIX GiraffCs 
Rev. Naples 1. 79 doing thus arming daily more and more, 
and madding up and down the streets, a 1691 PococK 
Thcol.Wks. (1740) 11.199/1 A.. mad-headed, unruly heifer, 
that.. runs wantonly madding about 

fc. To become infatuated. Const, after, upon. 
1594 Kv 1 > Cornelia \. 60 A martiall people madding after 

Arrne-. 1614 K. Wiiitk Rcpl. Fisher 555 The practise of 
your people, .madding vpon the merits of Saints, and con- 
temnoig the merits of Christ, .is intollerable. 

Madagass. Also Madegass, Madccass. 
[Variant of Malagash.] f 

1. A native or inhabitant of Madagascar. 

1793 Trait tr. Rochou's 1'oy. Madagascar 33 The in- 
habitants of Mad:iga>car call t'hemselve-. indistinctly Male- 
gashes, or Madecasses 1815 A IIikn Mem. v. (1816) io8 
It is lamentable th;it some altempts are not made to convert 
the Madagas»es to Christianity. 1839 Penny Cycl. XIV. 
259/2 The Madegasses have made considerable progress in 
the arts of civilization. 

2. A ne<;ro of Jamaica, having skin less black 
and hair less crisped than the ordinary negro. 

1873 Garonek IHst. Jamaica \\. iv. 97 The term Mada- 
gass is still applied to certain light complexioned negroes, 
especially those whose hair is less woolly than common. 

Madam (nue'dam), sb. Forms: 3-6 madame, 
4-5 madaum St. madem \ e, 5 maydame, 6 
maddamo, 4-y madamo, 4- madam, [a. OK. 
ma dame (in mod.Fr. written Madame), literally, 
'my lady' (sec Dame, Dam), corresp. etymologi- 
cally to It. madonna, monna, med.L. mea domina. 

The spelling madame is still preferred by some writer?, but 
the more general and convenient practice is to write madam 
when the word is used as English, and Madame when it is 
used as a foreign title. For the plural (in sense 1) Mes- 
dames is now used ; the Eng. plural is obs. exc. in 
sense 3. J 

1. A form of respectful or polite address (substi- 
tuted for the name) originally used by servants in 
speaking to their mistress, and by people generally 
in speaking to a lady of high rank ; subsequently 
used with progressively extended application, and 
now capable of being (in certain circumstances) 
employed in addressing a woman of whatever rank 
or position. (Corresponding to Sir.) 

The early occurrence of Dame in the sense of mother 
suggests that in AF. and early ME. madame was very 
commonly used by children to their mother; but in the 
extant examples the mother so addressed is a queen or a 
lady of very high rank. In Chaucer's time (C. T. Prol, 
376) to be addressed as madame was one of the advantages 
which a citizen's wife gained by her husband's being made 
alderman ; this probably indicates the lowest social grade 
in which at that time the title could be claimed as a matter 
of customary right. In poetry of the 14th and 15th c. the 
lover often addresses his mistress as madame. Nuns 
(originally only the elder ones : see quot. c 1400J were called 
madame down to the Reformation. 

While in France the title has (with certain customary ex- 
ceptions) been confined to married women, in England no 
such rule has been generally adopted, though there are 
t races of a tendency in the 1 6-1 7th c. to address matrons as 
' madam ' and spinsters as * mistress '. 

From the 17th c. madam has been the title normally used 
in beginning or subscribing a letter to a woman of any 
station, except where the use of the name (as in ' Dear Mrs. 
A. ' etc.) is permitted (' my lady ', etc. not being admitted in 
epistolary usage). In oral use the title now rarely occurs; 
from the has been, except in very formal use, largely 
superseded by the contracted form Ma'am, which has itself 
in recent years been greatly restricted in currency ; how- 
ever, madam is in London and other towns still the word 
commonly used by salesmen to their female customers, and 
by persons in the position of servants to the public. 

1297 R. Glouc. (Rolls) 832 Heo [sc. CordeilleJ sedc.Mid 
hou mani knijtes is he come, be ober a;en sede, Ma dame 
IxHe mid o man. Ibid. 5858 Certes ma dame quab be king 
(to his stepmother] so ne may it no^t be. a 1300 1400 
Cursor M. 4340 (G<>tt.) In chamber hendely he [Joseph] nir 
grett, And said, ' madam [Cott. lauedi], cum to $our mett '. 
1 1330 Arth. <y Mcrt. 4644 (Kolbing) po bispac Wawain 
curteys [addressing his mother] Madame, purvaieb ous 
harnais. £1375^. Leg. Saints I. (Katerine) 658 [T]hane 
purphir sad till hir [sc. the queen] alsone : 'dred nocbt, 
mademe ! It sail be done'. 1390 (Jower Conf. I. 47 Ma 
dame, I am a man of thync, That in thi Court have longe 
served, a 1400-50 Alexander 229 ' Haile, modi qwene of 
Messidoyne ' he maister-likc said ; pare deyned him na 
daynte 'madame' hire to call. Ibid. 874 pen airis him on 
Alexander to his awen mod ire ; 'Bees not a-glopened, 
m;idame ne greued at inyfadire'. (1400 Rule St. Bcnet 
2210 ' Damisel ' be congest [nun] es, pe elder ' madaum ' & 
' mastres '. pe Priores als principal! Es ' lady ' & leder of 
bam all. 11440 Sir Dcgrcv. 785 'Maydame !' sche seid, 
'grainercyof thi gret cortesy'. £1470 Henkv Wallace v. 
1030 'Grace*, scho cryit, *for hym that deit on tre'. Than 
Wallace said ; * Mademe, your noyis lat be '. 1513 Kkad- 
shaw St. Werbnrgc It, 1393 'Alas', he sayd, ' ma dame and 
patronesse, For sorowe I can nat my peynes cxpresse '. 1547 
Eakl Sussex in Ellis Orig. Lett. Ser. 1. II. 137 (To his 
wife.] Madame., thies be tosignifie (etc.]. Ibid. 138 Thus, 
good Madame albeit (etc.]. 155a Lvnulsav Monarche 
in. 4664 The seilye Nun wyll thynk gret si.hanic, 
Without scho callit be Madame. 1597 Shaks. 2 Hen. IV, 
11. i. 109 And didst not tbou.. desire me to be no more 
familiar with such poore people, saying, that ere long 
they should call me Madam? i6o» — Ham. 11. ii. 06 Qu. 
More matter, with lesse Art. Pol. Madam, I sweaie I 
vse no Art at all. 1609 H.Jonson.SV/c«/ Woman v. (i62o>0 2, 
Trtt. You see, what creatures you may l>estow your fauours 
on, Madames. 1648 Milton Sonn. x. 1 1 'To tlu: Lady Mar- 
garet Ley, Though later born, than to have known the 
dayes Wherein your Father flourish!, yet by you Madam, 
me thinks I see him living yet.^ 1696 I'iiiilips (ed. 5), 
Madam, a Title of Honour, which is given as well in 
Writing as Speaking, to Women of Quality, as Princesses, 
Dutchesses, and others ; but grown a little too common of 
late. 1749 FiEi.hiNG Tom Jones xvn. vi, ' If you will have 
patience, madam', answered Mrs. Miller, ' I will acquaint 
you who I am'..' I have no curiosity, madam, to know any- 
thing ', cries Sophia. 1851 Tknnyson To the Queen, Take, 
Madam, this poor book of song. 1884 I. QutttCY Figures 
of Past 325 'So you've been over the farm, Colonel Pick- 
ering', said my mother... 'Why, yes, Madame', was the 
reply. ' I have been all over the farm, and a weary tramp 
I've had of it '. 1901 Paily Chron. 10 Dec. 5/2 The street- 
car conductors of Boston are compelled to address all their 
women passengers as 'madam'. 

b. Non-vocatively, substituted for the name of 
a lady entitled to be addressed as ' madam \ 'iObs. 

c 1500 Mclusinc 1 1 Sire, Madame the queue Pressyne your 
wyf .. is delyuercd of thre dougbtirs. 1605 Shaks. Lear 

I. ii. 9 Why Hastard? . . When my Dimensions are as well 
compact .. As honest Madams issue? 1716 Swii-t Phillis 
Wks. 1755 HI. 11. 159 Old madam, who went up to 
find What papers Phil had left behind. 17*0 -Fates 
Ctcrgym. ibid. II. n. 28 He kept a miserable house, but 
the blame was laid wholly ui>on madam; for the good 
doctor was always at his books. 176a Hick tRSTAi 11 Ltm W 
Village l. ix. 1 1765) iS, I know what makes you false hearted 
to me, that you may keen company with young niadani\s 
waiting woman. 1839-41 Wakhkn Ten Thotts. a Year w\\. 

II. 91 It's very hard ma'am, thai madam's maid Is to go 
with her, and I'm not to go with you\ ['Madam' btM 
lady of the house; the speaker is her sister-in-law's maid] 

c. Used in contempt or anger. Chiefly dial. 
1854 Miss'Bakkr Northamft. Gloss., I'll s ive il y° u » 

madam, if you don't do as you re bid. 


2. As a prefixed title, fa. Prefixed to a first or I 
sole name. Obs. 

1.1386 Chaucer Prol. 121 She [the prioress] was cleped 
madame Eglentyne. 1591 Shaks. Two Cent. 11.1. 9 Goe 
to, sir, telt me : do you know Madam Siluia? Ibid. II. V. 8 
But sirha, how did thy Master part with Madam Julia f 
1613 Hkywood Brazen Age II, ii, Iason. Madam Medea. 
Medea. Leaue circumstance, away. 1749 Fielding Tom 
Jones vm. viii, etc. [An unmarried young lady is referred 
to by servants and inferiors as ' Madam Sophia '.J 

b. Prefixed to a surname: (a) Now in U.S., 
and perh. formerly in Kngland, the style of a 
woman who has a married son (whose wife has 
the style of * Mrs.'}, [b) dial. The style of a 
married woman of position, such as the squire's 
wife. (V) U.S. (see quot. 1809). 

1703 Petiver Musei Petiver. 94 Madam Elizabeth Glan- 
ville. To this Curious Gentlewoman I am obliged for an 
hundred Insects. 1705 Loud. Gas, No. 4106/4 Madam 
Clark of Yeovil, Mrs. Jervice of Favent. « 1774 Goi.dsm. 
Elegy on Mrs. Maize, Good people all, with one accord 
Lament for Madam lUaize. 1809 Kendall Trap, II. xxxviii. 
44 It has been, and still is the practice, to prefix to the 
name of a deceased female of some consideration .. the title 
of madam, a 182$ Fobbv / 'oc. E. Anglt'a, Madam, a term 
of respect to gentlewomen ; below lady, but above mistress. 
In a village, the Esquire's wife, .must have madam prefixed 
to her surname. The parson's wife, if he be a doctor, or a 
man of ..genteel figure, must be madam too. 1849 LyrLL. 
?ud I 'isit U. S. I. ix. 162 The title of Madam is sometimes 
given here [in Boston], and generally .. in the South, to a 
mother whose son has married, and the daughter-in-law 
is then called Mrs. 

•fc, Afadame regent = queen regent. Ahofig. Obs, 

1523 Skelton Carl. Laurel 53 [to Pallas] Prynces moost 
pusant . . All other transcendyng . . Madame regent of the 
seyence seuyn. Ibid. 951. a 156a G. Cavendish Wolsey 
11893) 84 Nowe was there lodged also Madame Regent, the | 
kyug's mother, and all hir trayn of ladys and gentillwoiuen. 
td. In playful or derisive uses. Obs. 

1603 Shaks. Meas. for M. 1. ii. 43 Behold, behold, where 
madam Mitigation comes. 1624 Hkywood Captives iv. i. in 
Bulltn O. It, IV, Naye, make his honest and chast wyfe 
no better Then a madam makarell. 1633 Ford "Lis Pity 
n. ii, Tis not your new Mistresse, Your goodly Madam 
Merchant, shall triumph On my defection. 1670 EacHABO 
Cont. Clergy 28 After a lad has taken his leave of Madam 
University,, .he is not likely to deal.. with much Eatine. 
1687 Drydkn I Hnd iff P. II. 250 But madam Panther, you, 
though more sincere, Are not so wise as your adulterer. 
a 1806 H. K. Whits My Study, The ideal flights of Madam 

3. A woman who is addressed as 'madam*, 
fa. A lady of rank or station. Also jig. Obs, 

1543 Bale Yet a Course 38 b, She [holy church] became 
a gloryouse madame of the earth. 1550 — Image Botk Ch, \ 
Pref. Avj b, They have alwaies for lucres sake, gloriouslye 
garnished their holy mother, the madame of mischiefe and 
proude synagog of Sathan w* golde, siluer [etc.]. 1576 
Fleming Panopl. Epist. Epit, Preceptes Aijb, His grand- 
mother a sober matrone and vertuous old maddame. 1589 
Pcttenham Eng. Poesie 111. i. (Arb.) 149 As we see in these 
great Madames of honour. 1616 R. C. Times* Whistle, etc. 
(1871) 134 'Tis certaine he had been a knight a[t] lest, And 
made his wife (what she hath lookt for long) A Madame. 

appositively. 1632 Massinger City Madam 1. i, The want 
of one [sc. a male heir] Swells my young Mistresses, and 
their madam mother With hopes above their birth, and scale. 

b. The mistress of a house. Now only U, S, , 

1824 Galt Rothelan 11. xv, We shall.. use a little more 
freedom with the madam of the mansion. 1879 Tolrgke 
Pool's Err. xv. 75 Well, Colonel, ., I've brought back the 
books I borrowed of the madam the other day. 

C. In derisive or opprobrious use. (a) An af- 
fected fine lady. f(b) A kept mistress, a cour- 
tesan, prostitute (obs.). (c) Used as a general 
term of contempt for a female : a 'hussy', * minx '. 
These uses may perhaps, so far as origin is concerned, belong 
partly to Madame, as being more or less due to prejudice 
against foreign women. Cf. ' Madam Van [?i.e. a Dutch- 
woman :cf. Madame i] a whore' {Diet Cant. Creiv, a 1700). 

(a) 1598MARSTON.SV0. Vittanieln Lect. B 2, Let ine alone, the 
Madams call for thee Longing to laugh at thy wits pouertie. 
1623 Massinger Dk. Milan m. ii, Fine meeters To tinckle 
in the eares of ignorant Madams. 1664 Power Exp. Philos. 
1. 11 Ovid's Lydian-Spinstresse, that proud Madam which 
Pallas, for her Rivalship trausforin'd into the Spider. 1682 
O. N. Boileau"s Lntrin 1. Argt. 11 Thus Queasie Madams 
meat forbear Untill they read, The Bill of Fare. 1725 New , 
Cant, Diet., Mistress Princum-Prancnm, such a stiff, 
over-nice, precise Madam. 1803 Mary Charlton Wife t? 
Mistress III, 57 What should I care what those fine 
Madams says of me ! 1840 Hood Kilmansegg, Hojieymoon 
xxii, She was far too pamper'd a madam. 

(b) 1719 D'Urfey Pills IV. 139 Hide-Park maybe term'd the 
Market of Madams, or Lady-Fair. 1721 Amherst Terrx 
Pit. No. 28 (1754) 152 At Oxford ..several of our most ' 
celebrated and right beautiful madams would pluck off their 
fine feathers, and betake themselves loan honest livelihood. 
1747 Centl. Mag. 96 On a Gentleman who mistook a Kept 
Madam for a Lady of Fashion. 1761 Ann. Rtm 11. 66 He 
indulged himself and madam with green peas at live shillings 

a quart. 

(c) 1802 Wolcot (P. Pindar) Middlesex Elect, ii. Witt, 1816 
IV. 183 I'd make the madams squall. 1874 S. Beauchamp 
Grantley Grange I. 68 ' I do not think they [hop-pickers] 
are troubled with much shyness'. '0, not a bit of it, Sir 
Charles . . they're brazen madams, and quite above my hands '. 

t4. Comb, {appositive). Obs. 

ISM G - Harvey Pierce's Super. 174 Floorishing London, 
the Staple of Wealth, & Madame-towne of the Realme. 

Hence (nonce-wds.) Madamish a., like a ' fine 
lady'; f Ma damship. 


1620 Swetnam Arraigned (i88o> 62, I thanke your 
Madame-ship, Ime glad o' this. 1881 J. Younger Autobiog, 
xv. 171 The mistress at home grew quite madamish. 

Madam (mardam), v. [f. Madam sb.] trans. 
To address as 'madam', f Also with ///. 

1622 Rowlands Good Newes <$- B. 7 She .. would be 
Madam'd, Worship'd, Laditide. 1668 Dryden Evening's 
Love 111. i. I1671) 33 Madam me no Madam. 1741 
Richardson Pamela (1824) I. 58 In came the coachman., 
and madamed me up strangely. 1748 — Clarissa Wks. 
1883 VIII. 447, I am.. Madam'd up perhaps to matrimonial 
perfection. 1829 Examiner 116/1 The sparring scene 
between her and Mrs. Chatterley, wherein they 'Madam' 
each other with genteel petulance. 

II Madame (madam ; often mada'm, or angli- 
cized iruvdam). Also madam. PI. Mekdamkh; 
f madames. [Fr. : see Madam sb. 

The uses in which the word is meant to represent a foreign 
title are treated in the present article, although in early 
examples the spelling is often madam. For madame, 
when it is a mere variant spelling of the Eng. word, see 

1. The title prefixed to the surname of a French 
married woman (corresponding to the Eng. 'Mrs.', 
'Lady', etc., according to degree of rank). Ab- 
breviated Mme,\ in Eng. books and newspapers 
Mdme. often occurs. 

In English use it is very commonly applied to a married 
woman belonging to any foreign nation (substituted, e.g., 
for the Ger. Pratt or the Du. Mevrouw). It is also 
frequently assumed (instead of* Mrs.') by English or Amer- 
ican professional singers or musicians, and by women engaged 
in businesses such as dressmaking, in which native ta^te 
or skill is reputed to be inferior to that of French women. 

a 1674 CLARENDON Hist. AY/\ xv. § 155 One day he 
visited madam Turyn. 1699 Petiver Musei Petiver, 46 
Madam Margaretha Hendnna van Otteren, Widow t<>.. 
Dr. Olden land. 1706 Luttrell Brief R el. 18 May (1857 1 
VI. 46 Mrs. Skelton, daughter to Madam Orfeur. 1838 
DlCKBMS N it'll. Nick, x, ' The Lady's name ', said Ralph,. . 
'is Mantalini — Madame Mantalini'. 1871 E. C. G. Murray 
Member for Paris I. 258 One of Madame Roderheim's 
plushed footmen. Ibid. 296 ' Father Glabre never talks 
polities', answered Mdme. de Margauld. 1877 J. Grant 
Six Yrs.AgO II. 188 Madame von Hohenthal. i888Mai'LE- 
son Mem. (ed. 2) 1. 193 Mdme. Christine Nilsson. 

b. Used (both vocatively and otherwise) with 
omission of the name, or in substitution for it. 

1853 Urontk Vitlette xiv, As soon as Georgette was well, 
Madame sent her away into the country. 1894 S. J. Wi:v- 
man Man in Black 198 Presently madame followed her 

f 2. The title given to female members of the 
French royal family ; a French princess ; spec, the 
eldest daughter of the French king or of the dau- 
phin ; in the reign of Louis XIV, the wife of Mon- 
sieur, the king's only brother. Obs. 

1670 G. H. Hist. Cardinals 1. 1. 14 In the presence of 
Madam Royall in Turin. 1679 Marriage Charles II, 7 
Next to her followed Madam. 1701 Lond. Gaz. No. 3714/3 
Madame does not yet give Audience. /Z1715 Burnet Own 
Time (1724) I. 302 The King of France had courted Madame 
Sotssons, and made a shew of courting Madame [sc. the 
Duchess of Orleans]. 1765 Ann. Beg. 112 Don Philip, duke 
of Parma, . . has left issue, by the late madame of France, 
a prince and a princess. 1766 Ibid. 11. 4 The Madames of 
France were much devoted to reading in their private 
apartments. 1798 R. C. Dallas tr. Clery's Jml. Occur. 
Louis Xl'I 40 A small antichamber almost without light, 
was occupied by Madame Royale and Madame Elizabeth. 

+ 3. A French married woman; a Frenchman's 
wife. Obs. 

1599 Shaks. Hen. V % \. i. 23 The Madams too, not vs'd to 
toyle, did almost sweat to beare The Pride vpon them. 
Ibid. 111. v. 28 Dolphin. By Faith and Honor, Our Madames 
mock at vs. 1599 B. Jonson Cynthia's Rev. iv. i, I would 
tell you, which Madame lou'd a Monsieur. 1627 Drayton 
Agincourt cxlvii, In which [a Chariot] they meane to Paris 
him to bring, To make sport to their Madames and their 
Boyes. 1765 Hickekstaffe Maid of Mill \. vi. 11 When I 
was on my travels, among the madames, and signoras, we 
never saluted more than the tip of the ear. 

Madamoiselle, obs. variant of Mademoiselle. 

Madane, obs. form of Maiden. 

Madapollam (mardap^lam). Also -pollaud, 
-polam, [From Madapollam {AIddhava-palam) t 
a suburb of Narsapur, Madras presidency.] A 
kind of cotton cloth, orig. manufactured at Mada- 
pollam, and afterwards imitated on the British 
looms, and exported in great quantities to India. 

1832 in M. Russell Egypt viii. (1853) 3?7 He intends to 
send long-cloths, madapollands [etc.]. 1858 SimmondsZ>/W. 
Trade, Aladapottam, a kind of fine long cloth, shipped to 
the Eastern markets. 1882 Caulfeild &:Sawaki) Diet. 
Needlework, Madapolams, a coarse description of calico 
cloth, of a stiff, heavy make, originally of Indian manu- 
facture, where it was employed for Quilts. 1885 Manch. 
Exam. 31 Dec. 4/4 Buff-end madapollams. 

Ma d-apple. [A translation of mod.L. malum 
insdmiw, a corruption of the oriental word 
which appears variously as melongena, badingan, 
Hrin.tal. Also called raging (love) apple: see 
Raging ///. a. 2.] The fruit of the Egg-plant. 

1597 Gekakde Herbal 11. Hv. 274 Madde or raging Apples. 
1688 R. Holme Armoury 11. 82/2 An Assirian Made Apple. 
The pod is whitish green, and the cup jagged [etc.]- 
1760 J. Lee Introd. Bot. 318 Mad Apple, Solanum. 1785 
Martyn Rousseau's Bot. xvi. (1794) 202 Mad-Apple is also 
of this genus, 1864 Gkiseuach Flora IV. Imi. 783 Mad- 
apple, Solanum Melongena. 

Madar : see Mudak. 


II Madarosis (maxlar^-sis). Med. [mod.L., 

a. Gr. fxabapojais, f. /wzoapos bald : see -osis.] Loss 
of hair ; esp. of that of the eyebrows. 

1693 in Btancards Physical Diet. (ed. 2}. 1706 in Phillu-s 
(ed. Kersey 1 . In mod. Diets. 

t Ma'dbrain, sb. (and a.) Obs. 

A. sb, A mad-brained person ; a 'scatter-brain \ 
c. 1570 Marr. Wit fy Sci, v. i. E 1 b, Thou ait some mad 

braine, or some foolc. 1608 Mm>i>lkton Mad World 1. A 3 
Ileer's a mad-braine a'th first, whose piankes scorne to bane 
presidents. 1616 J. Deacon 'Tobacco Tortured 57 Alas 
pooi e Tobacco, .thou that hast bene hitherto accompted.. 
the mad-braines merriment,, .and the vnthrifts pasport. 

B. attrib, or adj. ~ Mad-hrained. 

1592 (). Harvey Four Lett. 45, I haue .. seene the tnad- 
braynest Roister-doister in acountrey dashte out of counten- 
aunce. 1596 Siiaks. Tarn. Shr. in. ii. 10, I must forsooth 
In; foist To give my hand. .Vnto a mad-braine rudesby. 1605 
Rowlands Hell's Broke Loose 33 With.. mad-braine heat, 
Munster they enter. 1631 \\'i-.i:\i-.nAuc. Funeral Man. 295 
That wilde mad braine Lalques. 

Mad-brained (tnae-dbrv'nd), a. Having or 
manifesting a mad brain; hot-headed, uncontrolled. 

1577 (1. Harvey I.etter-bk. (Camden) 57 And Skelton that 
same madbrayiid knave Look how he knawes a deade horse 
boane. 1596 Shaks. lam. Shr. 111. ii. 165 This mad-hrain'd 
bridegroome tooke him such a cuffe, That downe fell Priest 
and booke. 1607 — Timon\. i. 177 Gluing our holy \ n gins 
to the staine Of contumelious, beastly, mad-braiuM wane. 
1649 (1. Daniel I'rinarch., Hen. J l\ cxlvii, The Mad- 
Iirain'd Spartacus. 1751 Eliza Hev\yooi> Betsy 'Thought- 
less I. 104 The heedless levities of the one sex, and the 
mad-brained passions of the other. 1819 Shelli v Peter 
Bell vi. xx, A mad-brained goblin for a guide. 1894 G. M. 
1m-;nm Real Gold 379 Your father's mad-brained ideas. 

Madcap (mce'dkjep), sb. and a. [f. Mad a. + 
Cap sb. ; d./ttddArap, hujfiap.] 

A. sb. fa. In early use, a mailman, maniac 
{obs, rare), b. One who acts like a maniac; a 
reckless, wildly impulsive person. In recent use 
often applied playfully to young women of lively 
and impulsive temperament. 

1589 Greene Sp. Masqverado (."3 b, This crue of popish 
Madcaps, 1591 Siiaks. Two Gent. 11. v. 3 Come-on you 
madcap: He to the Ale-house with you. 15^9 Haywakd 
isi Pt. Hen. IV 10 There was .. Sir Hugh Ltnne, a good 
souldier, but a very mad-cap. 1607 Dekker Northward 
Hoe iv. Wks. 1873 I II. 57 What mad-caps haue you in your 
house [Bedlam]. 1667 Dryden Secret Love 111. i. 1166S) 34 
Lord, that such a Mad-Cap as I should ever live to be jealous ! 
1711 Coitntrev-Man's Let. to Curat 12 There were.. some 
Mad-caps alias High-Flyers, in the Council that opposed 
the granting of it. 1861 Thackeray Four Georges ii. 
(1876) 53, I should like to have seen that noble old madcap 
[Peterborough]. 1869 Tiili.i.n-s / 'esuv. ii. 12 To be Mnninj; 
when Vesuvius was thundering . . was not unfitting the im- 
perial madcap. 1885 Mabel Collins Prettiest Woman'x, On 
theboardsshe was the merriest, gayest, madcap in the world. 

B. attrib. and adj. Mad, 'crack-brained ' ; reck- 
less, wildly impulsive. 

1588 Siiaks. /,. L. L. 11. i. 215 That last is Ileroune, the 
mery mad-cap Lord. 1598 E. Guilpin Sk/al. (1878)27 When 
thou hast read this mad-cap stufTe. 1619 Fletcher ill. 
Thomas 1. iii, Dor. And is your hate so mortal! ? Mar. 
Not to his person, Uutto his qualities, his madcap follies. 
1807 W. Irving Salmag. (1824) 274 The thoughtless How of 
mad-cap spirits. 1853 Thackeray Esmond in. ii, The mad- 
cap girl ran up to her mother. 1887 AIowen Virg. Eel. ix. 43 
Let the madcap billows in thunder break on the shore. 1893 
Vizetklly Glances Back 11. xxxiii. 233 Madcap republicans 
bent on disturbing the emperor's pleasure. 

Madded (mae'ded), ///. a. Now rare, [f. Mai> 
v. + -ED 3 .] Rendered mad, in various senses of 
the adj. a. Deprived of reason or intelligence. 

b. Excited to fury, enraged. 

(■ 1580 Sidney Ps. xxii. vii, I am enclos'd with yong bulls 
madded rowt. 1611 Shaks. Cymb. iv. ii. 313 All Curses 
madded Hecuba gaue the Greekes. a 1641 lip. Mocntagu 
Acts $ Mon. (1642) 290 The two Confitents. . were by the 
madded multitude stoned to death. 1681 Wharton Disc. 
Soul WorldWks. (1683) 647 But Tycho-l'.rahe. .shall, .un- 
fold to us this matter far different from the Madded Nursery 
of Peripateticks. 1766 Nicoi. Poems 240 Shall I so besotted 
beAnd madded, as to sell My soul to flames..? 1872 Blackie 
Lavs Highl. 101 Downward Sheer the madded torrent pours. 

Madden ^mard'n), v. [f. Mad a. + -en 5.] 

1. intr. To become mad. 

1735 Pope Prol. Sat. 6 They rave, recite, and madden 
round the land. 1796 Mrs. M. Robinson A ngelina I. 8 My 
mind would madden at the retrospect of her injuries. 1802 
Noble Wanderers II. 85,1 saw her strength wasting, .and 
maddened at the view ! 1811 W. R. Spencer Poems 19 My 
fierce steed maddens to be gone. 1855 Milman Lat. Ch>: 
ix, vii. (1864) V. 369 Whole populations maddening to 
avenge the cause of the injured Son of God. 1858 H. Law 
Christ is All, Numbers 79 Malignant passions maddened 
in opposing breasts. 

2. trans. To make mad ; to drive out of one's 
mind; to excite to frenzy or uncontrollable anger. 

1822 Goon Study Med. IV. 167 Opium maddens the head. 
1833 Ht. Mahtineau Loom $ Logger 11. v. 105 It was 
enough to madden the most gentle. 1849 Macaulay Hist, 
Eng. ii. I. 267 Fierce spirits, unrestrained by principle, 
maddened by fanaticism. 1879 Farkar St. PaulUBSj) 119 
The raging passion which maddens a crowd of Eastern 

Hence Maddened ///. a., Ma-ddening" ///. a. 
and vbl. sb. Also Ma'ddeningly adv., in a madden- 
ing manner. 

a 1743 SAVAGE To % Poivetl 35 Calm, on the beach while 
maddening billows rave, He gains Philosophy from every 
wave. 1775 Ash Suppl., Maddening, the act of making 
mad. 1806 Sukk Winter in Lond. 111. 79 The shrieks.. of 


its maddened mother . . did not arouse the sleeping nurse. 
1822 Good Study Med. IV. 624. The burning and maddening 
pain, .can rarely be alleviated but by opium, a 1861 Mrs. 
Browning From Nonnus Poems 1890 V. S5 She named her 
hero, and raged maddeningly Against the brine of waters. 
1863 Wooi.ner My Beautiful Lady Introd. 3 The wind 
Heaving the ocean into maddened arms That clutch and 
dash huge vessels on the rocks. 1891 T. Hardy 'J "ess (1900) 
1 17/2 There never was such a maddening mouth since Eve's ! 

Madder (ttse*d&l), sb. 1 Forms: 1 msedere, 
nueddre, meederu, 3-7 mader, 4-5 madyr, (5 
madur, maddyre, madre), 5-6 niaddre, 6-7 
mather, (8 maddar), 4- madder. [OE. nuvdere 
wk. fem. corresp. to OX. madra in place-names 
(S\v. madra, dial, mfidra, Mara, Nonv. modra, 
maure); app. related in some way are MDu., 
MLG. male (mod.Du. mede, mee), madder. 

The word in OE. and ON. could not originally have 
denoted the exotic Rubify but probably belonged to various 
species of the allied genera Asfierula and Galium, some of 
which are still used as substitutes for madder. In Iceland, 
Sweden, and Norway, it is now applied chiefly to Galium 
boreale; in Sweden also to Asperula tinctoria (Dyer's 
Woodruff), while Rubin tiuctorum is called ?-<>'</ madra and 
krapp. In the mod. Wiltshire dialect madder is used for 
the Sweet Woodruff {Asperula odorata); the meu1der{s or 
mather applied in several dialects to the Stinking Camo- 
mile is prob. a distinct word (see Maythe).] 

1. A herbaceous climbing plant, Rubia tinctorum, 
having rough hairy stems and bearing panicles of 
small yellowish flowers: cultivated, esp. in Hol- 
land and France, for the dye obtained from it 
(see 2). Called also dyer y s madder, 

c 1000 Sax. Leechd. I. 1 54 Deos wyrt be man gryas & oSrum 
naman masdere nemneQ byS cenned fyrmust in lucania. 
< 1050 Herbarium in Sax. Leec/id. I. 24 Herba gryas ba-t 
is msederu [v.r. maxlere]. < 1265 V'oc. Plants in Wr.- 
Wulcker 608/17 Rubca, mader. 14.. Voc. ibid. 576/22 
Cressula, Mader. c 1440 Promp. Pan'. 319/1 Madyr, herbe. 
1562 Turner He?'l>al 11. 118 The stalkes of madder are foure 
squared, longe, rough lyke vnto the stalkes of gooshareth. 
1688 R. Holme Armoury 11. 76/2 The Garden Madder 
hath a long rough leaf. 1758 P. Miller {title) The Method 
of cultivating Madder, As it is now practised by the Dutch 
in Zealand. 1846 M c CfLLOCH^cr. Brit. Empire{i%$$) 1. 109 
Madder has been attempted to be raised [in England], but 
without success. 1882 Holden Hum. OsteoL (ed. 6) 33 The 
colouring principle of the madder {Rubia tiuctorum) has a 
strong affinity for phosphate of lime. 

b. With specific qualification, applied to other 
plants. Bengal Madder, Rubia cordifolia (Treas. 
Bot. 1866). Field Madder (see Field sb, 20). 
Hog's Madder (see Hog s&£ 13 d). Indian 
Madder, (a) A', cordifolia ; (b) Ohienlandia urn- 
bellata (Treas. Bot.). Petty Madder, the genus 
Crucianclla. "Wild Madder, (a) A\ peregrina, 
native to the south-west of England; (b) Galium 

14.. I'oc.'m Wr.-Wi'ilcker 570 'loCandeo, wylde madur. 1578 
Lyte Dodoens iv. lxxiii. 537 There be two sortes of Madder, 
the tame Madder .. and the wild Madder. 1597 Gerarde 
Herbal 961, 1 Rubia tiuctorum. Red Madder. 2 Rubia 
syluestris, Wilde Madder. 3 Rubia marina, Sea Madder. 
1760 J. Lke Introd. Bot. App. 318 Petty Madder, Crucia- 
nella. 1776 Withering Bot. Arrangem. Vegetables I. 81 
Madder, Mollugo. Goosegrass.. .Wild Madder, Great Bas- 
tard Madder. 1813 Ainslie Mat. Med. Hindoslan 87 
Bengal Madder, Rubia Manjitli Roxb. 

2. The root of this plant, employed medicinally 
or as a source of colouring matter; the dye-stuff 
or pigment prepared from this. 

The chief colouring matters contained in madder are ali- 
zarin and purpurin. The ' Turkey red ', used in dyeing cotton, 
is prepared from madder. 

1347-8 Rolls o/Parlt. II. 215/2 Come il ait fait avenir en 
Engleterre xi pokes de madder a Lenn. f 1374 Chaucer 
Former Age 17 No mader [v.rr. madyr, madder], welde, or 
wood no litestere Ne knew. 1389 in Fug. Gilds (1870) 358 
Euerych a cart y'lade w 1 mader, b' comeb to selle, twey pans. 
1436 Pol. Poems (Rolls) II. 180 Yit marchaundy of Braban 
and Selande, The madre and woode that dyers take on hande 
Todynewyth. 1579 Lahgua^ Gard. Health (1633) 377 Mad- 
der. The root is sharp and bitter, and therefore purgeth the 
liuer and the milt. 1581 Act 23 Fliz. c. 9 § 3 Wherein no 
Mather shalbe used. 1601 R. Johnson Kingd. % Commw. 
(1603) 28 It bringeth forth great quantitie of mather, very j 
perfect woade, but no great store. 1747 Cooke in Han way 
Trav. (1762) I. iv. Iv. 258 These Tartars trade.. with the 
Russians with their madder. 1846 J. Baxter Libr. Pract. ' 
Agric. (ed. 4) II. 311 Sulphur and madder are the best 
alterants in foulness of the skin or habit. 1882 W. T. 
Suffolk in Sci. Gossip Mar. 50 Avoid .. cochineal colours; 
the madders are the only safe substitutes. 

"b. \Yith defining word, indicating a special 
kind or quality, as bale-, bunch-, fat-, pipe-madder \ 
sometimes with designation adopted from Du., as 
viull, umbro madder', crap-madder [Chap sb.-'], 
corruptly crop-, grape-madder, the best quality of . 

1640 in Entick London (1766) II. 168 Crop madder,and all \ 
other bale madder .. Fat madder .. Mull madder, a 1661 
Fuller Worthies, Kent 11. (1662) 57 Madder .. there are . 
three kinds thereof. 1. Crop-Madder. 2. Umber-Owe. 3. ; 
Pipe or Fat-Madder. 1765 Museum Rust. IV. 176 The j 
best umbro madder, imported from Holland. 1797 Fncycl. 
Brit. (ed. 3) X. 400/2 The commodity, when manufactured, 
is distinguished into different kinds, as grape-madder, bunch- . 
madder, ftft The grape-madder is the heart of the root. 

3. The colour produced by madder dyes or pig- I 
ments; also with defining word, as crimson mad- ■ 
der % Also attrib. or adj. 


1861 Thornburv Turner I. 30 Of the yellow and madder 
sails, .he took careful note. 1863 Kingsley Water-Bab. 12 
A crimson madder petticoat. 1886 Klskin Pr.rterita 1. 
306 Shade cobalt through pink madder into yellow ochre for 

4. attrib. and Comb., as madder-bath, -croft, 
-crop, -dye, -dyeing, -Jieid, -grinder, -ground, -miller, 
-pit, -plant, root, -stove, style, tribe; madder-printed 
adj. Also in names of colours produced by dyes 
or pigments in which madder is an ingredient, 
as madder-black, -brown, -lake, -purple, -red, etc. 
Also madderwort /lot., Lindley's term for a 
plant of the N.O. Galiacex. 

1763 W. Lewis Philos. Comm. Arts 420 The colour hence 
produced [sc. by madder upon blue cloth] is called *madder- 
black. 1897 Anne Page Afternoon Ride 63 Ineffaceable *mad- 
der brown— a pigment lost to art. 1 .. . XevvmiusterCartul. 
(1878,! 237 Juxta pontem de le *Madercroft. 1816 J. Smith 
Panorama Set. <y Art II. 536 The use of archil gives a . . 
bloom to the *madder dye. 1899 Mackail W. Mortis II. 
34 Water, .required for *madder-dyeing. 1901 }i'estm.Gaz. 
30 Aug. 3/1 The *inadder fields of Alsace, of Southern 
France, and of Algeria have practically ceased to exist. 
1851 in fllustr. Lond. A'rtw 5 Aug. (1854) 119/1 * Madder- 
grinder. 1758 P. Miller Cultiv. Aladder 35 The Dutch 
always sow Grain upon their *Madder Ground. 1822 Imi- 
son Sci. <y Art II. 411 *Madder-lake. 1851 in Illustr. , 
Lond. News 5 Aug. (1854) 119/1 *M adder-miller. 1616 
Browne Brit. Past. 11. ill. 39 The bowels of our mother 
were not ript For *Mader-pits. 1758 P. Miller Cnlth: 
Madder 7 A *Madder Plant, that has many of these [side] 
Roots, is called a well bearded Madder Plant. 1881 W. 
Morris in Mackail Life (1899) II. 53 The best hanging 
would be the inclosed *madder-printed cotton. 1838 T. 
Thomson Chem. Org. Bodies 392 Sulphuric acid .. throws 
down the *madder-purple. 1727-52 Chambers Cycl. s.v. 
Red, *Madder red is dyed with madder. 1744 Phil. Trans. 
XLI. 390 These Callicoe-printcrs make use of the Rubia 
Tinctorum, or *Madder-root. 1757 Act 31 Geo. II, c. 35 § 5 
For preventing the stealing or destroying of Madder roots. 
1758 P. Miller Cultiv. Madder 12 In the *Madder Stoves, 
the People work more by Night than Day. 1839 Ure Diet. 
Arts 224 The *madder style [of calico-printing] .. in which 
the mordants are applied to the white cloth, .and the colours , 
are afterwards brought up in the dye-bath. 1836 Linoley 
Nat. Syst. Bot. 249 Order exxxix. Stellatae, or Galiaceae. 
The *Madder Tribe. 1845 — Sch. Bot. (ed. 14) 77 Order i 
xxxiv. Galiaceae — Madderworts, or Stellates. 

Madder (mardai), $b? Anglo-Irish. Also ! 
meadar, mether. [a. Irish meadar.] A square 
wooden drinking vessel. 

1720 Swift hish Feast \\\ Misc. (1735) V. 14 Usquebagh 
to our Feast In Pails was brought up, An hundred at least, ' 
And a Madder our Cup. 1832 Lady Morgan Mem. (1862) 
II. 337 The ' madder ' so often mentioned in Irish song was 
a wooden Tankard, made square. 1886 Wood-Martin 
Lake Dwellings Irel. 1. v. 103 ' Meadar ', or ' Mether ', is the 
Irish designation for a species of drinking-cup. 

Madder (mce-dai), v. [f. Madder sb. 1 ] trans. ! 
To treat or dye with madder. 

c 1461 F. F. Misc. (Warton Club) 00 To a dosyne of 
violettes viij pownde of Madyre. .and loke je madere theme 
as }e do jour redys. 1464 Rolls of Parlt. V. 562/1 That 
the same Wolle and Cloth be perfitly boyled and madered. 1 
1530 Palsgr. 616/1, I madder clothe to be dyed... Your 
vyolet bath nat his full dye but he is maddered. 1763 W. 
Lswis Comm. Philos. Techn. 405 The. .regulations for the 
French Dyers.. require the cloth, after it has been blued, to 
be maddered. 1811 Set/ 'instructor 539 They are maddered 
higher than black. 

Hence Ma'ddered fpl. a., Ma'ddering vbl. sb. 

c 1461 E. F. Misc. (Warton Club) 88 At }oure Maderynge 
5e schall take of the same wateris. 1581 Act 23 Etiz. c. 9 
§ 2 Where Clothes Karsies & Hosen. .have been died with 
. . a galled & mathered lilack. 1808 Nicholson's Jrnl. XXI. 
44 On the maddering of Cotton and Linen Thread. 1839 Ure 
Diet. A rts 7^87 There next follows . . the galling, the aluming, 
the maddering. 

Madderisli, a. [f. Madder sbA + -ish.] Re- 
sembling the colour of madder. 

1888 Harper's Mag. July 212 Some. .seem . . to be made 
of gold vapor ; others have a madderish tone. 

i Ma dderlen. Obs. rare~\ [f. Madder ^.l , 
+ -ten (? — -LIHO ').] A name (perh. invented by 
Hill) for the genus Sherardia. 

1770 Hill Herb. Brit. II. 153 Sherardia. Madderlen. 
Ibid. 154 Sherardia arz'ensis. Field Madderlen. 

Madding (mx-dirj), vbl. sb. [f. Mad v. + ' 
-]N(J 1.] The action of the vb. Mad ; becoming or 
being mad, madness; mad behaviour. Now only 
in phrases {arch, or dial.) to go, frun, set a-mad- 
ding (or + on madding). 

13.. E. F. Allit. P. A. 1153 My manez mynde to maddyng 
malte. a 1400-50 Alexander 3546 Madding marrid has M 
mode & bi mynd changid. 1526 Skelton Magnyf. 288 It 
is but a maddynge, these wayes that ye vse. 1565 Calfhill 
Ansiu. Treat. Cross Pref. 5 They.. went a madding after 
their Idols, a 1586 Sidney Arcadia iv. (1598) 394 Poore 
Dametas began now to thinke, that . . a generall madding 
was falne. 1600 Holland JUkvxxXYM. xli. 969 The drome- 
darie camels.. were unruly and set a madding. 1611 Speed 
Hist. Gt. Brit. ix. xiii. (1623) 733 [They] forced sundry . 
principall Gentlemen to attend them in their madding. 1614 ' 
Bp. Hall Contempt., O. T. vn. iii, All the world would be 
glad to runne on madding after their bait. 1627-77 Kelt- 
ham Resolves 1. xxix. 49 Our error of opinion,.. and our 
madding after unnecessary gold, have brambled the way of 
Vertue. 171a Arbuthnot John Bull 1. viii, John had not , 
run on a madding so long, had it not been for an extra- 
vagant bitch of a wife. 1775 Mmk. IVArblay Early Diary 
21 Nov., Lady Edgecumbe. .declared she was seta-madding. 
1857 Mrs. Mathews 'Tea-Table Talk I. 205 Men.. whose 
crazed brains go a madding after forbidden fruit. J865 | 


t Mrs. Whitney Gay.vorthys viii. (1879) 79 To set all the 
urchins' brains a madding. 

tb. attrib., as madding-day, month, time. 
16. . I. T. Grim the Collier of Croydon in. (1662) 50 Why 
how now man ! is this your madding month ! 162s Con- 
salviWs Sp. Inquis. 34 In all her madding time shee had 
nothing else in her mouth. 1691 Ludlow Let. to Sir F. S. 
title-p., Occasioned by the reading Dr. Pelling's Lewd 
Harangues upon the 30th of Janvary, being the Anniversary, 
or General Madding-Day. 1717 {title) A Rebuke to the 
High Church Priests for turning the 3o t1 ' of January into 
a Madding-Day. 

Madding (mce-dirj), ///. a. Now poet, or 
rhetorical, [f. Mad v. + -ikq ^.] 

1. Uecoming mad ; acting madly ; frenzied. 

1579 Spenser Shcplu Cat. Apr. 26 But'now from me hys 
madding mynd is starte, And woes the Widdowes daughter 
of the glenne. 158a T. Watson Centurie of Loue lxxvi. 
heading, The Author being, as it were, in halfe a madding 
moode. 1614 Drumm. of Hawth. Sonn. ' Deare Wood* 
Fane from the madding Worldling's hoarse discords. 163s 
Urathwait Arcad. Pr. 171 Observe the madding motion of 
his eyes. 1667 Milton /'. L. vi. 210 The madding Wheeles 
Of brazen Chariots rag'd. 1697 Dryden AEtieid vn. 539 
She .. mixing with the throng Of madding matrons, bears 
the bride alonj?. 1714 Addison To Princess of Wales, with 
Cato 38 liid impious discord cease, And sooth the mad- 
ding factions into peace. 1749 Gray Elegy 73 Far from 
the madding crowd s ignoble strife. [Cf. quot. 1614 above.] 
1802 Fng. Fncycl. VIII. 308/1 These [words] are poetical, 
but were never in common use.. shook (shaken), madding 
[etc.]. 1822 Words w. Eccl. Sonn. 11. xx. Monastic Volupt., 
High conceits to madding Fancy dear. 

2. That makes mad ; maddening. 
*:i6ooShaks. Sonn. cxix, How haue mine eyes out of their 

Spheares bene fitted In the distraction of this madding feuer. 
1644 Maxwell Prerog. Chr. Kings 67 Superstition is a 
mad and madding tiling. 1650 Baxter Saints' R. iv. vi. 
§ 7 (1651) 154 Are these such saddingand madding thoughts? 
1871 K. Ei. lis tr. Catullus lxiv. 94 O thou cruel of heart, 
thou madding worker of anguish. 

Hence f Ma'ddingly adv. 

a 1625 Fletcher Women Pleased iv. i, Your poor neigh- 
bours Run inaddingly affrighted through the Villages. 

Maddish (mae'di/), a. [f. Mad a. + -ish*.] 
f a. Having the manner or ideas of a madman; 
like a madman in behaviour ; appropriate to or 
befitting a madman (obs.). b. Somewhat mad. 

x 573 Tusser Husb. etc. (1580) 83 What with voluptuous- 
nes, and other maddish toies. C1638 Strafford in Brown- 
ing Life (1891) 208 ' Hypochondriack humours ' . . is to be 
civilly and silently maddish. 1642 Bp. Morton Presentm. 
Schismatic 6, I have reserved for the last place a Character 
..called by Austen maddish obstinacy. 1655 M. Casaubon 
J.nthus. iii. (1656) 109 Some. .became (in a degree) maddish 
of the stage, and were perpetually acting some part of a 
Tragedy. 1740 tr. De Moulds Fort. Country-Maid (1741J 
II. 141 Do you know I am a little maddish. 1778 Lear?t- 
ing at a L.oss II. 161 A maddish looking Gentleman. 1815 
Lamd Let. to Words-.v. in Final Mem. vi. 244 Excuse this 
maddish letter. 1829 Scott Jml. 20 Apr., [The] wit., 
of Lord Erskine was moody and maddish. 

Maddle ,ma."d'l), v. Obs. exc. dial. [f. Mad a. : 
see -le 3.] a. intr. To be or become crazy ; to be 
confused in mind ; to be dotingly fond of. b. trans. 
To craze ; to confuse in mind, bewilder. 

c 1540 tr. Pot. I'erg, Eng. Hist. (Camden No. 29^ 205 He 
was becoome feble by reason of sore and dayly siknes and 
began to maddle. 1570 Levins Manip. 8/18 To Maddle, 
deiirare, dissipere. Ibid. 126/40 To Maddil,<rV//;vm'. 1691 
Ray N. C. Words 47 To Maddle ; to be fond. She maddtes 
of this Fellow, she is fond of him. 1829 J. Hunter Hal- 
lamsh. Gloss., Maddle, to cause distraction of thought, con- 
fusion of mind, as by long continued and loud talking. Ibid. 
App., Maddled, puzzled. 1850 Tales of Kirkbeck Ser. n. 
79 I'm afraid she's quite maddled. 1855 Robinson Whitby 
Gloss., To Maddle, to be fond of to the extent of losing 
one's wits. 1864 T. Clakke in Kendal Mercury 30 Jan., 
A wes faer maddl't amang em. 

T Mart dock (^nuvdok). Obs. Also 3 matjok. 
See also Mawk. [Early ME. madeh. a. (or corre- 
sponding to) ON. madk-r (Da. madike, S\v. mask), 
MLG. medeke, dim. (with -k- suffix : see -ock) of the 
word which appears in OE. as madu, mada : see 
Mathe. There may have been an OE. *ma&uc] 

1. a. An earthworm, b. A maggot. 

a 1240 Sawla Warde'm Cott. Horn. 251 As meaSen [MS. 
Titus ma6ekes] in forrotet flench. c 1400 Lanfranc's 
Cirurg. 44 Maddockis — hat ben wormes of be erbe. 14. . 
I'oc. in Wr.-Wiilcker 594/ ^Lumbricus, a maddock. c 1450 
ME. Med. Bk. (Heinrich) 210 Item Euytes eyron & mad- 
dolkes, & openes, & wasche hem clene. < 1450 Atphita 
(Anecd. Oxon.) 87/30 Uermes siue lunibrici terreni. .. Angl. 
angeltwychches uel maddokkes. 1684 G. Mekiton Praise 
Yorks. Ale, etc. Clavis, Mawks are Maddocks. 

2. north, dial. A whim (Grose 1790). Cf. Maggot. 
Ma*d-do*Ctor. [f. Mau a. used subst.] A 

physician who treats mental diseases ; an alienist. 

1703 Fabouhar Inconstant iv. iv, No mad-doctor in 
Christendom could have done it more effectually. 1818 
Coubktt/V/. AV^. XXXIII. 363 His father was a mad- 
doctor. 1881 W. S. Gilbert Foggerty's Fairy 111, Clear- 
headed, logical men of sense, these mad-doctors. 

tMa'ddy, a. Obs. [f. Mali a. + -Y.] Some- 
what mad. 

1710 D'Urff.y Pills II. 159 They must be .. drunk or 

Made {meh\),ppt. a. [pa. pple.of Makk z'.l] 
I. Produced or obtained by 'making' as distin- 
guished from other modes of origin or acquisition. 

1. Artificially constructed or produced, artificial 
as opposed to ' natural '. So made earth, ground; 




solid ground that has been ' made* by filling up a | 
marsh, embanking a river, etc. 

a 1578 Lindesav (Pitscottie) Citron. Scot. (S. T. S.) II. 
301 It was conclwdit that na salt nor wictuallis noma maid 
uaik sould be convoyit of the real me. 1590 SPENSER 
Muiopottuos 166 Arte . . doth aspire T'excell the natural!, 
with made delights. 159677 S. FlNCHB in Ducarel Hist. 
Croydon App. (1783) 153 Findinge that grounds made and 
false, digged the trenche alonge the door. 1643 Twvse 
in Wood's Life (O. H. %.\ I. 96 The earth allso beinge 
found to be made ground all there a bouts. 1687 B. Ran- 
dolph Archipelago 65 Where formerly was a made-way 
in the sea for people to pass over. 1691 T. H[ale] Acc. 
New Invent p. lxxi, It was all such as we call made 
Earth, and had been gain'd out of the Thames. 1699 
R. L'Estrange F.rasm. Colloq. (1711) 76 How comes^ it 
that all your made-Hedges are green too? 1719 De Foe 
Crusoe 11. xii. (1840) 252 This canal is a navigable made 
stream. 1878 Huxley Pkysiogr. xvii. 277 The successive 
beds of made ground. 1884 T. Urown Ann. Disruption 
iv. (1890) 37 There was not a made road in the parish. 1895 
Outing (0. SjXXVL 16/2 They were most of them gentle- 
men — I mean gentlemen born. *And you', said Miss 
Harriman pleasantly, 'are a gentleman made '. 1897 Mrs. 
Lynn Linton Geo. Eliot in Women Novelists 114 Her 
whole life and being were moulded to an artificial pose, 
and the ' made ' woman could not possibly be the spon- 
taneous artist. 190a A. E. W. Mason Four Feathers xii. 
112 The hedged fields and made roads. 

b. Of a story : Invented, fictitious. Of a word : 
Invented, ' coined '. Of an errand : Invented for 
a pretext. 7 06s. (Cf. made- tip.) 

1387 Higden (Rolls) II. 195 Hit is no made tale, 
but hit is soob as be lettre is i-write. 1607 NoRDEN 
Sum. Dial. 11. 41 The word [mannor] is used among our 
Lawyers, as many other made words are, which haue bin 
termes raised by our Lawes, & are not elsewhere in use. 
1629 Orkney Witch Trial in County Folk-Lore III. (1903) 
78 Christane Reid in Clett cam in ane maid errand. 1655 
Nicholas Papers (Camden) II. 273 These are but made 
stories to delude fooles. 1687 MlEGB Gt. Fr. Diet. II. s.v., 
A made Word, Un Mot factice, imagine, on fait a piaisir. 
1843 J. H* Newman Miracles 124 It reads like a made story. 
C. Brought about by contrivance. 

1594 Lyly Mother Boml'ie 1. iii. 49 (Bond) She forsooth 
will choose her own husband ; made marriages prone mad 
marriages. 1802-12 Behthah Ration. Judic. livid. Wks. 
1843 VII. 306 Made offices are partly the effects, partly the 
causes, of made business. Create useless work, you create 
the necessity of useless hands for the performance of it. 

2. Formed by composition. In certain specific 
applications, a. Cookery. Made dish : a disb 
composed of several ingredients; so fmade meal. 
Made gravy: a 'gravy* artificially compounded, 
as opposed to one consisting only of the juices 
exuding from meat in cooking. 

1598 Epulario D j b, To make a kind of made meat in 
flesh time. 1621 Burton Aunt. Mel, 1. ii. 11. i. 96 An infinite 
number of compound artificiall made dishes. 1622 Mabrk 
tr. Alemau's Guzman a" A If. 1. 106 What made dishes ; what 
hot, what cold, what boyld, what rost? 1632 Ii. Jonson 
Magu. Lady t. (1640) 17 A farragoe, Or a made dish in 
Court. 1747 Mrs. Glasse Cookery ii. 13 Force-Meat Balls . 
are a great Addition to all Made-Dishes. 1796 Ibid. viii. 142 I 
You may use made-gravy, if you have not time to use the 
bones. 1852 Dickens Bleak Ho. xlix, The made-gravy ac- 
quiring no flavor, and turning out of a flaxen complexion. 
1858 Mayhem* Upper Rhine ii. § 1(1860) 48 The subtle nicety 
of a French made-dish. 

b. Naut. Made mast : one composed of several 
pieces of timber. Made block : a pulley-block 
composed of several parts joined together. Made 
eye ; * synonymous with flemish eye' ( Adm. Smyth). 

1627 Cait. Smith Seaman's Gram. iii. 15 If it be a made 
Mast, that is greater than one Tree. 1794 Rigging %■ Sea- 
jnanship I. 1 Masts, .made of several trees joined together 
[are called] made-masts. Ibid. 153 Very large, .blocks are 
formed of separate pieces, . . when thus made, they are termed 
made-blocks. 1867 Smyth Sailor's Word-bk., Made Masts, 
the large masts made in several pieces. A ship's lower mast 
is a made spar. . . Made block is one having its shell com- 
posed of different pieces. 

3. Said occas. of articles of domestic or local 
manufacture, in contradistinction to those obtained 
from a distance. Made wines : a term applied to 
the so-called 'British wines' (as currant, ginger, 
gooseberry, etc. wine). 

1750 T. Short [title) Discourses on Tea, Sugar, Milk, 
Made Wines, Spirits, Punch, 'Tobacco, &c. 1805 Pikk 
Sources Mississ. (1810) 7 Gave them one quart of made 
whiskey, a few biscuit and some salt. 1806-7 J. Beresform 
Miseries Hum. Life (1826) xix. ii. 216 Brewing at home what 
are curiously called ' made wines ', (as if all foreign wines 
were self-existent!). 1884 S. Dowell Hist. Taxation II. 
289 The beverages termed British wines or made wines. 
II. Of which the making has taken place. ' 

4. Already framed or produced, rare in attribu- 
tive use. 

a 1635 Corbet /Vc;;« (1807) 121 Made lawes were uselesse 
growne To him, he needed but his owne. 

5. That has undergone the process of manufac- 
ture. Also occas. prepared for use (cf. senses of 
Make v.). rare. 

1428 Burgh Bees. Edinb. (1S69) 1. 3 Of the last of maid irne 
viijrf. iS4SRatesCustome Ho, av'),Corkz made the laste,xlj. 
Corke made the barell, iiU. \n\.d. 1582 Ibid. B ivb, Cork 
made for diers the last.. iiij/. .. Cork made for shoomakers. 
*795 J- Aikim Manchester 239 The raw materials come from 
Manchester . . and the made goods are sent thither. 1806 A. \ 
H uktbb Cuhmi (ed. 3) 209 A tea-spoonful of made mustard. ' 

6. Of soldiers, also of horses, hounds, eta -• Fully 

Vol. VI. 

1673 Boyle Ess. Effluviums ill, Iv. 28 To make a tryal 
whether a young Blood-hound was well instructed, (or as 
the Huntsmen call it, made) he cnus'd one of his Servants walk to a Country-town [etc.]. 1796 Campaigns 1793-4 
I, 1. vi. 45 None but made soldiers and servireable horses 
would be employed. 1901 Daily Chron. 29 Apr. 6/2 In the 
' made' class the best pony was Mr. Matherson's Lotus. 

7. Of a person: Having his success in life assured. 
Chiefly in phr. a made man. 

c" 1590 Marlowe Faust (1631) K3D, 0, joy full day, now 
am I a made man for euer. 1605 S. Rowlf.y When Von 
See Me C 3, Hele lafe, and be as inerie as a magge pie, and 
thow't bee a mayd man by it. 1708 Brit. Apollo No. 38. 
2/2 You are a Made Man. 1871 Smiles Charae. ii. {1876) 54 
Teach a boy arithmetic thoroughly, and lie is a made man. 
b. Golf. (See quot.) 

1897 Encycl. Sport I. 473 (Golf) Made, a player is said to 
he made when he is within a full shot of the green. 

III. Combinations. 

8. With prefixed sb., adj., or adv., forming com- 
binations usually hyphened when used attributively, 
and in some instances also when used predicatively. 
a. With sb. in locative or instrumental relation, 
or adj., giving the general sense ' Made in a certain 
locality or by a certain class of agents', as in 
conntry-, foreign-, English-, German-, London-, 
Swiss-made, 1 lOME-MADE ; God-, man-, self-, state-, 
tailor-made. b. With adv. (or sometimes adj. 
giving the sense ( made in a certain manner, having 
a certain quality or kind of make', as in badly-, 
neatly-, well-made ; often with reference to the 
* make ' or * build ' of the body ( = -bnilt), as in 
loosely-, powerfully-, stonily-, strong(ly)-made. 
Most of these combs, are treated undertheir first ele- 
ment, or in their alphabetical place as Main words. 

9. In Comb, with adv. (hyphened in attributive 
use) corresponding to the similar combinations of 
Make v., as made-out, made-over ; made-up, 
f(a) consummate, accomplished {obs.) ; {b) put 
together ; composed of parts from various sources ; 
(c) artificially contrived or prepared, esp. for the 
purpose of deception or producing a favourable 
impression; (</) of a person's 'mind', resolved, 

1607 Shaks. Timou v. i. 101 Know his grosse patchery. . 
Vet remaine assur'd That he's a made-vp Villaine. 1677 
Hubbard Narrative (1865) I. 82 They defended themselves 
under a small hastily made up Defence. 1773 Goldsm, 
Stoops to Cong. 11, (near end), Yes, you must allow her some 
beauty. Tony. Bandbox ! She's all a made-up thing, num. 
1789 Charlotte Smith Elhclinde {1814) IV. 115 And as to 
that made-up antiquity, Mrs. Maltravers, she hates you. 
1806 Surr // inter in Lond. (ed. 3) 1 1, 95 Yours will be con- 
sidered as a made-up character. 1820 T. Chalmers Con- 
gregat. Senu. (1838) II. 14 The logical process which leads. . 
to the ultimate and made-out conclusion. 1859 E?/g. Cookery 
Bk. 156 Chap. xiii. — Warmed-up Meats and Made-up 
Dishes or Kntrees. 1863 Mrs. Gaskeli. Sylvia's Lovers 
xx. II. 105 In a forced made-up voice she inquired aloud 
[etc.]. 1871 HowELLS Wcdd. Joum. (1892) 246 She bought 
and bought of the made-up wares. 1873 L. WALLACE Fair 
Godwv'm. 311 Ye. .are of made-up minds. 1896 A. Dobson 
iZth Cent. Vign. Ser. in. i. 14 This made-up face was not 
produced by stage paint. 1900 Lr>. Roberts in Daily Ne^vs 
4 May 5/2 Hamilton speaks in high terms of the good service 
performed by . . a made-up regiment of Lancers. 

Made, obs, form of Maid sb. 
Madefacient, a. Obs. ran--°. [ad. L. 
madefacient-em, pr.pple. of madefac^re^to Madefy.] 

1727 Bailey vol. II, Madefacient, making moist, wetting. 

Madefaction (maeoVfae'kJan). Now rare or 
Obs. [a. F. madefaction, ad. L. madefaction -em, n. 
of action f, madefacere : see Madefy.] A wetting ; 
the action or process of making wet or moist. 

1581 E. Campion in Confer, in. (1584) U iij, If it please 
God to take away the substance of water, and leaue the 
qualitie of madefaction, what hurt were it? 1626 Bacon 
Sylva § 865 To all Madefaction there is required an Imbibi- 
tion. 1657 Tomlinson Renou's Disp. 121 Such parts .. are 
hurt with fluent madefactions. 

humorously pedantic. 1859 Thackeray Virgin. lxxvu, 
Aunt Lambert (who was indulging in that madefaction 
of pocket-handkerchiefs which I have before described). 

t Madefy, v. Obs. Also madify(e, -ie. [a. F. 
madiJUr, ad. L. madefacere, f. madere to be wet : 
see -fy.] trans. To make wet ; to moisten. 

c 1420 Ballad, on Husb. tv. 145 Her seed yf me reclyne In 
baume. .other in masticyne, Or maditie it so in oil lauryne. 
1597 A. M. tr. Guillemeau 's Fr. Chirnrg. 18 b/2 A sponge 
which is madefied and wetted in wyne. 1599 — tr. Gabet- 
houer's Bk. Physicke 2/2 Madefy e it with Rosewater. 1618 
T. Adams Rage Oppression Wks. (1629) 609 The Bonners 
.. rode ouer the faces of Gods Saints, and madefied the 
earth with their bloods. 1671 J. Webster Metallogr. xvi. 
235 Being madefied, it doth most easily contract a rust. 

Hence fMadefica'tion [see -FlCATiox],'amoisten- 
ing or wetting' (1727 Bailey vol. II, spelt modi- 
fication); Ma'defied, Ma'defying-///. adjs. 

1597 A. M. tr. Guillemeau's Fr. Chirnrg. 31 b/i With 
wett and madefyed cloutes. 1599 — tr. Gabelhouer's Bk. 
Physicke 84/1 Dipp therin a madefyed finger. 1646 SirT. 
Browne Pseud. Ep. vi. xii. 334 Any kinde of vaporous or 
madefying excretion. 

Madeira 1 (madi»*ra). Also 6-8 Madera, 
[a. Pg. Madeira^ the island was so called because 
formerly thickly wooded (Pg. madeira — Sp. madera 
wood timber :— L. materia \ see Matter sb.).] 

1. (With capital M.) The name of an island 
situated in the Atlantic Ocean, about 400 miles 
from the N. W. coast of Africa. Used attrib. in 
the designations of various things produced in or 
connected with the island, as Madeira lace, laurel, 
orchis, pear, tea, work (see quots.); Madeira 
chair, a kind of wicker or cane chair; Madeira 
mahogany, Canary wood, the wood of Persea 
^formerly Laurus iiulica \ Madeira nut I/. S. 
[perh. belongs to 2 c], the common European wal- 
nut, esp. the ' Titmouse ' or thin-shelled variety 
{Juglans regia tenera) ; Madeira wine = sense 
2 ; Madeira wood (see quot. ; cf. Madeira -\ 

1889 Rider Haggard A". Solomon's Mines 16 Sir Henry 
was sitting opposite to me in a "Madeira chair. 1882 Cacl- 
feild& S award Diet. Needlework * Madeira lace. The lace 
made by the natives of Madeira is not a native production. 
..The laces made are Maltese, Torchon, and a coarse 
description of Mechlin. 1796 Nemnich Polygl. Lex. Xat. 
Hist. v. 820 "Madeira laurel, Laurus foetens. Ibid. 955 
* Madeira mahogany, Laurus iudica. 1829 Loudon Encycl. 
Plants 334 Laurus iudica. .The wood . . is called Vigniatico 
in the island of Madeira, and is probably what is imported 
into England under the name of Madeira mahogany. 1866 
Treas. Bot., Mahogany, Madeira, Persea indica. 1845-50 
Mrs. Lincoln Led. Bot. App. n6 Juglans regia ("madeira 
nut). 1881 Garden n Feb. 89/2 The "Madeira Orchis (P. 
foliosa) is remarkable . . for the readiness with which it 
doubles its bulb. 1664 Evelvn Kal. Hori. June (1679) i3 
Pears, The Maudlin (first ripe), "Madera, Green-Royal 
[etc.]. 1892 Walsh Tea 33 Regular shipments of ' "Madeira 
tea ' are now being made to the London market. 1687 
Cong rev e Old Bach. iv. ix, Why this same *Madera-wine 
has made me as light as a grasshopper. 1705 Lend. Gaz. 
No. 4131/4, 09 Pipes and 9 Hogsheads of White Madera 
Wines, 13 Hogsheads of Red Ditto. 1839 Penny Cycl. 
XIV. 262/1 The importation of Madeira wine into England 
in 1833 was 301,057 gallons. 1796 Nemnich Polygl. Lex. 
Nat. Hist. v. 820 'Madeira wood, Cedrela odorata. 1882 
Caulfkild & Saward Diet. Needlework, * Madeira work. 
This is white Embroidery upon tine linen, or cambric, .made 
by the nuns in Madeira. 

2. (Also Madeira wine: see 1.) A white wine 
produced in the island of Madeira. 

It is of* a deep amber tint, full body, and some sweetness, 
resembling a well-matured full-bodied brown sherry, 

150 Shaks. i Hen. /K,l.ii. 128 A Cup of Madera, and a 
cold Capons legge. 1612 Sc. Bk. of Rates in Hatybnrton's 
Ledger (,18(17) 335 Sackes Canareis Malagas Maderais . . 
Teynts and Allacants. 1708 S. Sew all Diary 12 Apr., We 
drank a Bottle of Madera together. 1787 M. Cutler in Life, 
etc. (1888) L 235 You cannot please him more than byprais- 
ing his Madeira. 1823 Byron Juan xiii. v, But then they 
have theirclaret and Madeira. 1861 Dutton Cook P. Foster"? 
D. viii, I think I could eat a chop, .and a glass of Madeira, 
b. with various qualifying prefixes. 

Last Indian madeira was madeira which had been sent 
on a sea voyage to the East Indies, to improve its quality. 

1723 Lond. Gaz. No. 6173/3 There will be noother Malm- 
sey Madera Wine landed tin's Year. 31 Pipes .. of. .White 
Vidonia Madera Wine. 1819 Shelley Peter Bell the Third 

IV. xviii. 5 Yenison, .. And best East Indian madeira. 

C. Comb. j as madeira glass ; matleira-drinking 
adj. ; madeira cake, a kind of sponge-cake. 

1800 Asiat. Ann. Reg., Chron. 123/2 A tea spoonful of 
the alkali in a Madeira glass half filled with water. 1845 
Miss Acton Mod. Cookery 515 A good Madeira Cake. 1902 
Mnusey's Mag. XXVI. 522/1 The interruptions, .from the 
Madeira-drinking men of letters overhead. 

Madeira 2 (madl»*ra). In 7-S madera. [a. Sp, 
madera wood ( = Pg. madeira: see prec). The 
usual spelling is due to assimilation to Madeira 1 .] 
A West Indian name for Mahogany [Swietenia 
Mahagoni). Also madeira wood. 

1663 GerbIBR Counsel 108 Precious Woods are to be had 
. .in the West-Indies, some.. hard as Marble; besides rare 
Madera, and other variously figured. 1736 Mortimer 
in Phil. Trans. XXXIX. 254 It is next in Beauty to what 
is here called Madera, which is the Mahogany of Jamaica. 
1829 Loudon Encycl. Plants 352 The trees on the Bahama 
islands .. are known in Europe as Madeira wood. 

I! Mademoiselle (madfmwazgl ; often angli- 
cized mxdami'ze'l). Also 7-S madamoiselle, 
(7 -ella). [Fr. ; orig. two words ma my (fern. ] t 
demoiselle (see Damsel).] 

1. The title (prefixed to the surname or the Chris- 
tian name, or used absol. as a substitute for the 
name) applied to an unmarried Frenchwoman. In 
English use very often applied to unmarried women 
of foreign nationality other than French, instead 
of using the equivalent prefix (e.g.) in Dutch or 
Swedish, or substituting the English ' Miss '. Often 
used absol. as the designation of a French governess 
or the French teacher in a girls' school. Abbre- 
viated A/lle.y in English often incorrectly Mdlle* 
Plural, mesdemoiselles (nwtemwazgl), abbre- 
viated Miles. 

In early Fr. use, the prefix mademoiselle was applied also 
to married women whose husbands were below the rank of 

1696 Phillips (ed. 5), Mademoiselle, a Title of Honour 
given to the Daughters and Wives of born Gentlemen ; much 
us'd in France, a 1734 North Exam. in. vi. § 76 (1740) 479 
The beautiful Mademoiselle Car well, afterwards Duchess 
of Portsmouth. 1733 Smollett Ct. Fathom ix. Wks. 1872 

V. 47 She [the maid] took the first opportunity of going to 
mademoiselle, and demanding money for some necessary 
expense. 1794 Mrs. Radcliffe Myst. Udolpho vii, Our 
cottage may be envied, sir, since you and Mademoiselle have 
honoured it with your presence. 1840 Barham Ingol. Leg., 





Spectre of Tappington, Mademoiselle boxed Mr. Mnguire's 
ears, and Mr. Maguire pulled Mademoiselle upon his knee. 
1850 Julia Kavanagh Nathalie ix. 213 Mademoiselle Dan- 
tin coughed, by way of opening the conversation. 1880 
Theatre Feb. 118 Mademoiselle Lido sang well and tune- 
fully as Irene. 1888 Mapleson Mem. (ed. 2) I. 306 The 
duty, therefore, of singing fell to Mdlle. Dotti. 

2. French Hist. The title (used as a substitute 
for the name) of the eldest daughter of ' Monsieur ', 
the eldest brother of the king. Subsequently ap- 
plied to the eldest daughter of the king, or, if he 
had no daughter, to the first princess of the blood, 
so long as she remained unmarried. 

1679 Marriage Chas. II 3 It was . . time for her to bring 
Madamoiselle to him. 1768 Ann. Reg. 192/2 His Danish 
majesty handed mademoiselle to her place. 1783 Ibid. 240 
Deaths. . . At Versailles, mademoiselle of France, aged five 
years, only daughter of the French king. 

3..occas. A person usually referred to as * made- 
moiselle*, an unmarried Frenchwoman; spec, fa 
(foreign) serving-maid (obs.) ; a French governess. 

Occas. in forms representing uneducated pronunciation. 

164a Milton Apol. Smect. Wks. 1851 III. 268 Prostituting 
the shame of that ministery. . to" the eyes of Courtiers and 
Court- Ladies, with their Groomesand Madamoisellaes. 1765 
Bickerstafee Maid of 'Mill 1. i. 2 She sits there all day .. 
dressed like a fine madumasel. 1833 M. Scott Tom Cringle 
xvi. (1842) 439 ' De tout mon cceur', said a buxom brown 
dame, about eighteen stone. .. The extensive mademoiselle, 
suiting the action to the word, started up [etc.]. 1861 Mrs. 
H. Wood East Lynne III. iii, When I heard that Mrs. Car- 
lyle had engaged a madmoselle for these children. 

trans/. 1712 Budge ll Sped. No. 277 p 2 This Wooden 
Madamoiselle [a dressmaker's lay-figure]. 

4. U. S. A sea fish (see quot.). 

1882 Jordan & Gilbert Syu. Fishes IV. Amer, 570 {Bull, 
I'. S. Nat. Mas. No. 16) Sci&na punctata . . Silver Perch ; 
Yellow-tail ; Mademoiselle. 

Maden, obs. and dial. f. Maiden sb. 
Madeiit. Obs. rare— , [ad. L. madent-em, 
pres. pple. of madcrc, to be wet.] "Wet, moist 
(Biiley vol. II, 1727). 

Madeus, variant of Maideux Obs. 

t Ma'dful, a. Obs. rare— 1 , [f. Mad a. + -ful.] 

14. . Pol. Rel. ff L. Poems 245 A madful mone may men 
make Quan pat suete Ihesu was take ! 

Maclge ! (mced^). [app. identical with Madge, 
pet-name for Margaret.] 

1. The Bum-Owl,. 1/ncoJ/am mens. Also madge- 
howlet, -owl, -owlet. 

1591 Sylvester Du Bartas 1. v. 767 Thou lasie Madge 
That, fearing light, still seekest where to hide. 1598 1J. Jos- 
son Ev. Man in Hum. 11. i, lie sit in a barne, with Madge- 
liowlet, and catch mice first. 1603 Harsnet Pop. Impost. 
io3 This must needes make the poore Madge Owlets cry out. 
1606 D,\y lie of Gttlsii.iv. (i83i) 54 The black swan of beauty 
and madg-howlet of admiration. 1635 Swan Spec. M. (1670) 
359 Ulula .. which we call the Howlet, or the Madge. 
1637 B. Jonson Sad Slteph. 11. i, Thou shoul'dst ha' given 
her a Madge-Owle. 1694 Motteux Rabelais v. i.v, Under 
his Cage he perceived a Madge howlet. 1823 Lamb Lett. 
xii. To B. Barton 119 A silent meeting of madge-owlets. 
1848 Zoologist VI. 2191 The barn owl . . in Warwickshire. . 
is generally called a 'madge' or ' madge owlet'. 

2. The Common Magpie, Pica caudata. 

1823 Moor Suffolk Words, Madge, Mag, Meg, a magpie. 
1828 J. Fleming Hist. Brit. Aram, 87 /'. caudata. Com- 
mon Magpie. .. E. Pianet, Madge. 1894. Newton Diet. 
Birds 720 note, ' Magot ' and ' Madge ', are names frequently 
given in England to the Pie. 

Madge - (moed^). A leaden hammer covered 
thickly with stout woollen cloth, used in hard 
solder plating. 

1870 Eng. Mech. 25 Feb. 573/1 A lead en hammer, clothed 
f ith kersey or woollen cloth, called a madge. 

I Madhead 1 . Obs. [See -head.] Madness. 

c iyj$Cursor M. 22865 (Fairf.) pat to wene is bot madhede 
[older texts sothede], a 1450 Mvrc 1657 Lest bow do ojt 
on madhede. 

t Madhead -. Obs. [f. Mad a. + Head sb.] 
A mad person. Also appos. or attrib. 

1600 Breton Pasquils Fooles-cap (Grosart) 22/1 Such 
Madhead fellowes are but Fooles indeede. 1602 — Merry 
Wonders To Rdr., Hoping that some mad-head in the world 
might have as much leysure to read as I haue had [to] write. 

Mad-headed, a. [f. Mad a. + Headed a.] 

= Mai>bkainei>. 

1567 R.^ Edwards Damon fy Pithias (1571) Eiv, For well 
I knewe it was some madheded chylde 1 hat inuented this 
name. 1596 Shaks. i lien. IV, it. iii. 80. 1599 Breton 
Praise Vertuous Ladies (Grosart) 56 For a few mad-headed 
wenches, they seek to bring . .almost all women in contempt. 
J 793 Southey Lett. (18561 1. 20 Nor does it become a young 
mad-headed enthusiast to judge. 1809-xoCoLERiDGE Friend 
{1865) 216 The inflammatory harangues of some mad-headed 
enthusiast. 1897 Hentv On the Irraivaddy 37 It seems to 
me a mad-headed thing to begin at the present time. 

Madhouse (mardhaus). Now rhetorical or 
derisive, [f. Mad a. (used subst.) + House sb.] 
A house set apart for the reception and detention 
of the insane ; a lunatic asylum. 

1687 Luttrell Brief Rel. (1857) !• 4°7 He was severely 
reprimanded, and told he was fitter for a mad house. 1695 
Par. Reg., S. James, C lerkenivell (Harl. Soc. V. 171) 
Burials. .. Ann Pallmer, widow, from Dr. Newton's Mad 
house. 1774 Act 14 Geo. Ill, c. 49 (title), An Act for regu- 
lating Madhouses. 1828 Carlyle Misc. (1857) I. 234 Tasso 
f>ines in the cell of a madhouse. 1833 Marryat P. Simple 
xiv, I was a prisoner in a madhouse. 1901 Scotsman 29 
Nov. 5/4 The American Eagle screams like a madhouse. 

II Madia (m^i-dia). [a. mod.L. madia, a. Chilian 
madi.] The plant Madia sativa, a coarse, hairy, 
erect annual, allied to the Sunflowers. It is a 
native of Chili, and is cultivated for its seeds, 
which yield a valuable oil, and are made into cake 
for cattle. Also attrib. in madia oil. 

[1809 (Italian original 1787) tr. Molina's Hist. Chili I. iii. 
in The mad i (madia, gen. nov.). Of this plant there are 
two kinds, the one wild, the other cultivated. The culti- 
vated, which I have called madia sativa, has a branching 
hairy stalk.] 1839 Gardener's Mag. XV. 143, 100 parts of 
the Madia oil consist of 45 parts of oleine [etc.]. 1846 Lind- 
ley i'eget. Kingd. 707 Madia oil, expressed without heat, 
is described as transparent, yellow, scentless. 1855 Stephens 
/>'/.-. of the Farm (ed. 2) II. 106 The madia is in the same 
botanical position as the sunflower. 

Madid (mardid),#. Now rare. Also7maddid. 
[ad. L. madid-us, f. madert to be wet.] Wet, moist. 

1615 Crooke Body of Man 425 Auicen. .saith they \sc. the 
lungs] are not soft but maddid. 1627-77 Feltham Resolves 1. 
lxii. 95 The madid South, sorrowful, and full of tears. 1657 
Tomlinson Renou's Disp. 146 No where save in wine cellars 
or such madid places. 1720 Wei.ton Suffer. Son of God I. v. 
98 The very Ground, .is madid and Bedew'd with Drops that 
distil from thine Eyes. 1762 Falconer Slupivr. 1. 356 Full 
from the madid south the winds arise. 1844 Disraeli Con- 
ings/y 1. iii, His large deep blue eye, madid and yet piercing. 
1881 J. E. H. Thomson Upland Tarti 1.92 The evening with 
its madid mantle grey Had shrouded all the sky. 

t Madidate, v. Obs~° [f. late L. madidat-, 
ppl. stem of madiddre, f. madid-us moist.] traus. 
'To wet or moisten' (Blount Glossogr. 1656). 

tMa'didity. Obs.—° [f.M.\DiD + -iTY.] 'Mois- 
ture or fulness of moisture (, Blount Glossogr. 1656). 

t Ma didness. Obs~° [f. Madid -*- -nkss.] 
' Moistness, wetness*. 1731 Bailey vol. II. 

Madifie, -fy(e, variant forms of Madefy Obs. 

Madin, obs. form of Medixe. 

Madin >, madinne, obs. forms of Maiden. 

Madinhad, -held, variants of Maidenhead. 

Madjoon, -oun, variant forms of Ma.ioox. 

Madle, obs. variant of Male a. 

Madlie, variant of Ma idly a. Obs. 

Madling (mce-dlirj), sb. 1 [f. Mad a. + -ling 1 .] 
A mad creature ; one who acts wildly or foolishly. 

c 1648-50 Brathwait Bamabees Jml. 1. (1818) 19 There 
another wanton madling Who her hog was set a sadling. 
1841 Let. in R. Oastler Fleet Papers I. viu, 58 Poor mad- 
lings ! they are killing the goose, to get at the golden eggs. 
1847 E. Bronte Wutheriug Heights xiiL 120 Gooid-for- 
nowt madling ! .. flinging t' precious gifts uh God under 
fooit i' yer flaysome rages. 

t Madling, sb:- [? Corruption of F. Madeleine 
a kind of small cake.] attrib. in moiiling cake, 

1747 Mrs. Gi.asse Cookery xv. 141 Madling Cakes. 

t Madling, a. Obs. [? attrib. use of Madling 
sb. 1 or adv. ; ? or = maddhng f. M ADDLE v.] Mad. 

1608 T. Morton Preamh. Encounter 126 Why doe I trouble 
my selfe with these my Aduersaries madling conceits? 

T Madling, adv. Obs. [? f. Mad a. + -ling 2 : 

cf. darkling.] = Madly. 

1584 Hudson Du Bartas'' Judith VI. (1608) 93 Some mad- 
ling runnes, some trembles in a traunce. 

Madly ;mardli), a. rare— 1 , [f. M.u>«. + -LT*.] 
Characteristic of a mad person. 

1816 Byron Parisina xviii, It was a woman's shriek and 
ne'er In madlier accents rose despair. 

Madly (mse'dli), adv. [f. Mad a. + -ly ^.] In 

a mad, insane or foolish manner. 

a 1235 Leg. A'alh. 2083 Hwi motestu se medliche? f 1375 
Cursor M. 14608 (Fairf.) Als witles men madli bai lete. 
c 1475 Rauf Coil^ear 22 Amang thay myrk Montanis sa 
madlie thay mer. 1535 Covekdale /'s. Ixxiv. 4, I sayde 
vnto the madde people : deale not so madly. 1590 Shaks. 
Midi. .V. 11. i. 171 The iuyce of it, on sleeping eye-lids laid, 
Will make or man or woman madly dote. 1606 — Tr. Kf 
Cr. 11. ii. 116 Or is your bloud So madly hot, that [etc]? 
1654 Martini's Conq. China 9 The men, though madly, use 
it Ihorse-hairJ in tying up their hair. 0:1717 Paknell Elegy 
Old Beauty 33 And all that's madly wild, or oddly gay, We 
call it only pretty Fanny's way. 1778 Mmf.. D'Arblav 
Let. 6 July, Half the flattery I have had would have made 
me madly merry. 1849 Macaulav Hist. Eng. ix. II. 463 
The help of that single power he had madly rejected. 1874 
Gkeen Short Hist. iii. § 5. 139 The young King drew his 
sword, and rushed madly on the Justiciary. 
b. Comb., as madly-used, -wrested adjs. 

1601 Shaks. Twel. N. v. i. 319 The madly us'd Maluolio. 
1656 Earl Monm. tr. Boccalinis Advts. fr. Famass. I. 
xxviii. (1674) 30 The madly-wrested Reason of State which 
was now practised by many. 

Madman (mardmaen). [Originally two words : 
see Mad a. and Man sb.] One who is insane; a 
lunatic. Also trans/, and hyperbolically, one who 
behaves like a lunatic, a wildly foolish person. 

1377 Langl. P. PI. B. ix. 69 Faderelees children ; And 
wydwes, .. Madde men, and maydenes, bat helplees were. 
c 1475 Rauf C oily ar 441, I am bot ane mad man. la 1500 
Chester PL (Shaks. Soc.) II. 168 Madmen, maddmen, leeve 
on me, That am on god, so is not he. a 1533 Ln. Berners 
Ihton xxiii. 68 He wyll come after vs lyke a madd man. 
1601 Siiaks. Twel. N. 1. v. 115 Fetch him off I pray you, he 
speakes nothing but madman. 1611 Bible i Sam. xxi. 15 
Haue I need of mad-men, that ye haue brought this fellow 
to play the mad-man in my presence? 1648 Bovle Seraph. 
Love xiv. (1700) 84 The wicked's spite against God is but 
like a madman's running his head against the wall. 1674 
Marvkll Corr. Wks. 1872-5 II. 424 Carleton the B[ishop]of 
Bristol hath played the madman in that City. 1796 Morse 

AmeK Geog. I. 547 This hospital is the general receptr.rh 
of lunatics and madmen. 1810 Scott Lady of L. 11. xxxiv, 
Madmen, forbear your frantic jar ! 1843 Betiu'NE Sc. Fire- 
side Stor. 75, 1 have been a madman and a fool. 1885 Manch. 
I'.xam. 16 May 5/1 Policemen who find a half-naked mad- 
man howling at midnight. 

t Madme. 0^. Forms: I m&1S^)um, mdlSra, 
mddm, 3//. mat5mes, ruadmes, Ornt. maddmess. 
[OE. mddm masc corresponds to OS. meQmos pi. 
gifts, MHG. meidem, ON. meidmar pi, gifts, 
presents, Goth, maipm-s gift [bwpov) :— O.Teut. 
*maipmo-z :— pre-Tent. type *moitmo-s f. *;noit- to 
exchange (as in L. mut(7re:—*moitarc..] A precious 
tiling, treasure, valuable gift. 

a 1000 Boeth. Metr. xxi. 20 Gylden maSm, sylofren sinc- 
stan.. modes ea^an aefre neonlyhtac*. a xooo Gnomic verses 
{.Exeter Bk.) 155 Mabbum opres weor3, gold mon sceal 
sifan. ( izoo Okmin 6471 & illc an king oppnede bar Hi-.s 
hord off hise maddmess. c 1305 Lav. 896 5eue us be king & 
al his gold, & ba maSmes of his lond. a ia$o Prov. Ailfred 
^84 in O. E. Misc. 126 Vyches cunnes madmes to mixe schulen 

t Ma'dnep. Obs. Also -nip. [f. Mad a. (cf. 
quot. 16S6) -r nep, nip, Nekp.] The Cow Parsnip, 
Heracleum Sphondylium. 

1597 Girarde Herbal 11. ccclxxvii. 856 Spondylium .. is 
called .. in English Cow Parsnep, meddowe Parsnep, ami 
Madnepe. 1601 Holland /Y/wy II. 181 Spondylium, a kind 
of wild Parsnep or Madnep. 1652 Culpepper Eng. Physic. 
161 The seed of the wilde Parsnipe being ripe about the 
beginning of August, and if they do flower for seed in the 
first year of sowing the Countrey people call them ' Mad- 
neps '. 1686 Rav Hist. Plant. I. 410 Nostrates asserunt 
I'astinacas ipsas vetustiores & annosas delirium, .inducere, 
unde eas Madneps. .vocant. 171a tr. Pomet's Hist. Drugs 
I. 30 The Peasants call it the RIad Nip. 

Madness (mardnes). [f. Mad a. + -ness.] 
The quality or condition of being mad. 

1. Mental disease, insanity ; now applied esp. to 
insanity characterized by wild excitement or extra- 
vagant delusions ; mania. Also (in animals) rabies. 

1398 Trevisa Barth. De P. R. vn. vi. (1495) 226 And thise 
passions ben dyuers madnesse that hyghte Inania [read 
Mania] & madnesse that hyghte Malencolonia [sic], c 1440 
Promp. farv. 319/2 Maddenesse, amencia, demencia. 1538 
P^lvot Diet., Raines, Madnesse of a dogge. 1567 Maplet 
Gr. Forest 46 Henbane, hath the name to be a cause of 
madnesse or furie. 1602 Shaks. Ham. in. iv. 187 Let him.. 
Make you to rauell all this matter out, That I essentially 
am not in madnesse But made in craft. x6ti Bible Zech. 
xil 4, I will smite euery horse with astonishment, and his 
rider with madnesse. 1687 Mayern in Phil. Trans. XVI. 
408 Doggs are Subject to these several sorts of Madness or 
rather diseases. 1753 Chambers Cycl. Suf>p. s.v. Mania, 
Madness arising from immaterial causes is much more diffi- 
cult to cure. 1849 Macaulav Hist. Ping. iv. I. 524 This 
delusion becomes almost a madness when many exiles . . herd 
together. 1879 Lindsav Mind in Lower Anim. I. 16 Mad- 
ness in lower animals may mean any one of several very 
different affections, including especially insanity and rabies. 

2. Imprudence or delusion resembling insanity; 
extravagant folly. 

1382 Wvclif II os. ix. 7 Vrael, wite thou thee a fool, a wood 
prophete, . . for the multitude of thi wickidnesse, and multi- 
tude of madnesse. 1560 Daus tr. Sleidane's Comm. 368 
What madnes were this, with his own mony . . to maintaine 
the force of his adversarye. 1697 Dryuen Virg. Georg. iv. 
642 What Madness cou'd provoke A Mortal Man t' invade 
a sleeping God ? 17M R. Keith tr. 7". a Kempis' Solil. Soul 
x. 173 Wander not forth, O my Soul, after Vanities, nor after 
lying Madnesses. 1849 Macaulav Hist. Eng. v. I. 602 To 
advance towards London would have been madness. 1862 
G. Long Thoughts of Antoninus (1877) Ir 3 To seek what is 
impossible is^nadness. 1885 J. Pavn Talk of Town II. 69 
It would have been madness indeed to have any altercation. 

3. Ungovernable anger, rage, fury. 

1665 Manlev Grotius' Loiv C. Warres 273 The baser sort 
of people cover 'd nothing of their Madness, but shew'd their 
Kury in their Speeches. 1698 Vanbri'GH Prov. Wife 11. i, 
Now could I cry for madness, but that I know he'd laugh at 
me for it. 1781 Gibbon Decl. a> /•". xxx. III. 157 The madness 
of the people soon subsided. 1802 Mrs. J. West Infidel 
Father III. 45 Sir Bronze absolutely stamped for madness 
at this intelligence. 

transf. 1697 Dryden I'irg. Georg. in. 367 Not with more 
Madness, rolling from afar, The spumy Waves proclaim the 
watry War. 1884 W. C. Smith Kildrostan 87 Then 1 see 
. . the waves Lashed into madness. 

4. Extravagant excitement or enthusiasm; ecstasy. 
1596 Shaks. Merch. I'. 1. ii. 21 Such a hare is madness 

the youth, to skip ore the meshes of good counsaile the 
cripple. 1607 Norden Surv. Dial. I. 9 A kind of madness, 
as I may call it, but in the best sence it is a kind of ambi- 
tious .. emulation. 1775 Johnson Tax. no Tyr. 55 The 
madness of independence has spread from Colony to Colony. 
1799 Campbell Pleas. Hopei. 160 The smiling Muse. .Shall 
..breathe a holy madness o'er thy mind. 1820 Shelley 
Skylark 103 Such harmonious madness From my lips would 
flow. 1822 Lamb Fllia Ser. 1. On Some Old Actors, None. . 
possessed even a portion of that fine madness which he threw 
out in Hotspur's famous rant. 1879 Svmonos Shelley tg$ 
The Muses filled this man with sacred madness. 

Madonna (mad^-na). Also 7 Maddona, 6-9 
madona. [a. It. madonna, orig. two words {ina 
Olt. unstressed form of mia fern., my ; donna = 
F. dame:—h. domino, lady) corresponding to F. 
ma dame : see Madam.] 

|| 1. a. As an Italian form of address or title : 
My lady, madam. Obs. 

1584 R. W. Three Ladies Lond. 1. B \\\s,Merca. Madona, me 
be a Merchant and be cald senior Merkadorus. 1592 Nashe 
P. Peuitesse 20b, They drawe out a dinner with sallets,.. 
& make Madona Nature their best Caterer. 1601 Shaks. 


Twcl.N. I. v. 72 Good Madona, why mournst thou? a 1626 
Mi dim-eton More Dissemblers v. i. (1657) 67 Crotch. (Here 
they sing Prick-song) How like you this Madona? Celia. 
Pretty. 163* Massinokr Maid of Hon. v. ii, Gracious Mad- 
dona, Nome Generall, Brave Captaines, and my quondam 
rivalls, wear 'em. 1827 Macaulay Song Misc. Writ, (i860) 
II. 417 Oh stay, Madonna ! stay, 
f b. An Italian lady. Obs. 
1602 Middleton Blurt ii. ii. C2IJ, ////. Well Sir, you 
know, .the flea-bitten fae'd Ladie. Doit. Oh Sir, the freckle 
cheeke Madona, I know her Signior, as well — Hip. Not 
as I doe, I hope Sir. a 1625 Fletcher Fair Maid of Inn 
in. i, A dancer .. that by teaching great Madonnas to foot 
it, has miraculously purchast a ribanded wastcote. 1639 
Shirley Gent. I'en. v. ii. 1 1655) 64 De'e think to mount Ma- 
donas here, and not Pay for the sweet Carreere. 

2. a. An Italian designation of the Virgin Mary; 
usually with the ; occas. used vocatively. b. A 
picture or statue (esp. Italian) of the Virgin Mary. 

1644 Kvelyn Diary (1879) 1. 122 A faire Madona of Pietro 
Perugino, painted on the wall. 1645 Ibid. I. 203 The mira- 
culous shrine of the Madona w ch Pope Paul III. brought 
barefooted to the place. 1717 Lady M. W. Montagu Let. 
to Abbe" Cotiti 29 May, They shewed me . . a picture of the 
Virgin Mary, drawn by the hand of St. Luke, .. the finest 
Madonna of Italy is not more famous for her miracles. 1816 
BYRON Siege Cor. xxx, Madonna's face upon him shone, 
Painted in heavenly hues above. 1825-9 Mrs. Sherwood 
Lady of ' Manor \. xxxii. 338 A beautiful madonna in white 
marble which I had seen id a church in Rome. 1833 Ten- 
nyson Mariana in South 22 'Ave Mary' was her moan, 
* Madonna, sad is night and morn '. 1849 James Woodman 
ii, A very early painting of the Madonna and Child. 1853 
Kroude Eng. Forgotten Worthies Short Stud. (ed. 2) 30^ 
WhoM pretences to religion might rank with the devotion 
of an Italian bandit to the Madonna. 1855 Browning 
One Word More ii, Rafael made a century of sonnets, .. 
Else he only used to draw Madonnas. 

3. A mode of dressing a woman's hair, with the 
parting down the middle, and the hair arranged 
smoothly on each side. (Cf. 4.) 

a 1839 T. H. Bayly Songs $■ Bait. 1. 139 I've tried all styles 
of hair dressing, Madonnas, frizzes, crops. 

4. altrib. and Comb. (esp. with reference to pic- 
tures cf the Madonna and the mode, of dressing 
the hair), as Madonna braid, coiffure, face, front % 
lid, style; Madonna-wise adv.; Madonna-braided 
a., (of the hair) arranged in smooth braids on each 
side of the face, after the manner of Italian repre- 
sentations of the Madonna ; Madonna lily, the 
White Lily, Lilium candidum, often represented 
with the Madonna in pictures. 

1829 Souvenir 1 1. 317/2 (Stanf.) The hair is beautifully ar- 
ranged in a *Madonna braid in front. 1849 Aytoun Poems, 
Buried FtoiverZi, Raven locks, 'Madonna-braided O'er her 
sweet and blushing face. 1890 Pall Mall G. 26 Nov. 1/3 
Her fair hair . . is simply parted in the centre, in the way 
which is now often playfully called the ' *madonna coiffure '. 
1790 Hi:l. M. Williams Julia I. i. 3 She had a *madona 
face. 1849 Thackeray Pendennis I. xvi. 143 She returned 
a rather elderly character with a *Madonna front and a 
melancholy countenance. 1863 Woolner My Beautiful 
Lady 95 O wan girl-mother with *Madonna lids Downcast. 
1900 Field 23 June 903 '3 The *Madonna lily {Liliiau can- 
didum). 1902 Daily Chron. 1 Apr. 2/1 Large branches of 
Madonna lilies. 1818 La Belle Assemblee XVII. 86 The 
hair is worn more in the * Madona style. 1830 Tennyson 
Isabel \, Locks not wide-dispread, *Madonna-wise on either 
side her head. 

Hence Madcnnahood, the character or quality 
of a Madonna. Madonnaish a., like a Madonna. 

i860 Ruskin Mod. Paint. V. ix. iv. 236 Brown gleams of 
gipsy Madonnahood from Murillo. 1891 Athcnxum 24 Oct. 
547/1 She is too Madonnaish in one way, too languishing 
and sentimental in another. 

Madoqua (mard<?k\va). [Amharic] A tiny 
antelope of Abyssinia, Neotragtts saltianus (JV. 
madoqua), of about the size of a hare. 

[1681 J. Ludolf Hist. Aethiop. 1. x. F 73 Amharice Mada- 
kua; animalia quae capris assimilabat Gregoiius. Rupi- 
caprae vel Ibices esse videntur.] 1790 Bruce Trav. Source 
Nile V. 83 Among the wild animals are prodigious numbers 
of the gazel or antelope kind ; the bohur, sassa, feeho, and 
madoqua. 1885 Casselts Nat. Hist. III. 18. 

II Ma'dor. Med. Obs. Also 7 madour. [L. 
mador moisture, f. madere : see Madid.] Sweat. 

1620 Venner_ Via Recta (1650) 296 If in sleep the body . . 
be sometimes in a little mador or light sweat. 1658 Phil- 
lips, Madidity or Madour, moistness or wetness. 1705 Phil. 
Trans. XXV. 2105 Without any offensive Smell, or fastidi- 
ous Mador. 1856 Mayne E.v/os. Lex., Mador, . . Moisture 
that is superfluous or unnatural. Old term for that kind of 
sweat which takes place in syncope, whether warm or cold. 

Mador, variant of Madar. 

t Madpash. Obs. [f. Mad a. +■ Pash head.] 
A cracl»braiued person. Also altrib. 

16x1 Cotgr., Mat, a foole, fop, gull ; mad-pash, harebrained 
mnnie. 01693 Urqnkarfs Rabelais 111. xxv, Let us leave 
this Madpash Bedlam, this hair-brained Fop. 

Madras (madra*s). 

1. The name of a city of India and the province 
of which it is the capital ; used altrib. in the names 
of things produced there or originally connected 
therewith : Madras lace, (net) muslin (see quots. 
1882); Madras stucco - Chunam ; Madras 
work (see quot.). 

tMiChamb. Fncyct.Xl. 151/1 Madras stucco, or chunam, 
is largely employed in the decoration of public buildings. 
1882 Caulfeild & Saward Did. Needlewk., Madras Lace, 
A school for lace making has lately been founded in Madras. 
The lace made is the black and white silk Maltese guipure. 


Madras-net Muslin, This is a handsome, but coarse make 
of Muslin, produced in several varieties .. They are all 72 
inches wide. Madras Work, This is so called from its 
being executed upon the brightly coloured silk handkerchiefs 
that are known as Madras handkerchiefs. 1895 Army <f 
Navy Co-ope r. Soc. Price List 1105/1 Frilled Madras Muslin. 

2. In full Madras handkerchief: A bright-colour- 
ed handkerchief of silk and cotton worn by the 
negroes of the West Indies as a head-dress, ' for- 
merly exported from Madras' Yule). 

1833 M- SCOTT Tom Cringle xvi. (1842) 437 The black 
officers, in general, covered their woolly pates with Madras 
handkerchiefs. x88i Cable Mad. Delphine, etc. 97 Old 
Charlie.. was sitting on his bench under a China- tree, his 
head, as was his fashion, bound in a Madras handkerchief. 
1888 — BonavenUire, An Large i. 146 A black woman in 
. . red-and-yellow Madras turban,., crouched against the wall. 

3. —Madras-net muslin (see 1). 

1902 Westm. Gaz. 27 Aug. 8/1 The shirt, a fine madras, 
plaited neglige with square point narrow link cuffs. 

II Madrasah (madrse-sa), medresseh (me- 

dre's^). Also 7 mandresa, 9 madrasa, madrassah, 
-asseh, -assee, -esse, medresse^ Diets, madres- 
sah, -issa(h. [The various forms represent Indian, 
Turkish, and Persian pronunciations of Arab. 
a«j.X» madrasa^, f. ^^ darasa to study.] A Mo- 
hammedan college. 

1662 J. Davies lr. Olearius Voy. Andnxss. 214 We. .found 
that it was a School or College, which they call Mandrcs;i, 
of which kind there arc very many all over Persia. 1819 
T. Hope Anastasius (1820) III. xi. 271 His fortune was 
spent in placing me in a Medressc. 1834 Mokikk Aycsha 
I. xii. L'69 The medresseh, or school, which adjoined the 
principal mosque. 1876 A. Arnold in Contcmp. Eev, June 
47 The Madrassee or mosque school of Ispahan. 1881 
Hunter in Encycl. Brit. XII. 774/2 The Calcutta ma- 
drasa for Mahometan teaching. 1882 O'Donovan Merv 
Oasis xvi. I. 276 Within sight are three medressfa, or 
collegiate institutions, for the instruction of Turcoman 
students for the priesthood. 

t Madreail. Obs. Also 4 madryan, -am. [a. 
OF. madrian 'sorte de fruit* (Godef.).] A spice, 
?a kind of ginger. 

1357-8 Durham Ace. Rolls iSurtee.s) 124 In 4 cofynes de 
Anys comfeyt, madryan, et aliarum specierum. Ibid. 560 
In diversis specie-bus .. videlicet .. anys Comfett, et Ma- 
dryam, viis. nijd. 1390-1 Earl Derby's Fxped. (Camden) 
19 Pro ijlb. ginger madrean, ijs, iiijd. a 1400 in ilenslow 
Med. Whs. 14//1 C. (1899) 122 To make conserue of madrian. 

Madregal (mae'dr/gsel). Also med-. [Of 
unknown origin.] A fish of the genus Seriola. 

1884 G. 13. Goou.E etc. Nat. Hist. Aquatic Anim. 351 
Seriola fasciata, This fish, called in Cuba the 'Medregal' 
and in IJemiuda the ' lionito', has been observed in South 
Florida. 1896 Jordan & Evkr.mann Fishes N. <\ Mid. 
Amer. 904 {Hull. U.S. Nat. Mus. No. 47) Seriola fasciata 
(Medregal). Ibid. 905 Seriola falcata. .(Madregal : 'Rock 

Madre-perl. rare" 1 , [ad. It. madreperla y f. 
madre mother +perla Peael.] Mother-of-pearl. 

1878 Loncf. Kcramos 175 Nor less Maestro Giorgio shines 
With madre-perl and golden lines Of arabesques. 

Madreporacean (ni.xulr/po^r^-Jan'. Zool [f. 

mod.L. Aladreporacea, f. Madrepora : see -ackan.] 
A coral of the group Madreporacea or Madre- 

1878 Encycl. Brit. VI. 380/ 1 In tne great coralliferous 
deposits of the Carboniferous, again, no representative of 
the group [Perforata] is known, save the single genus 
Pal.raiisy which appears to be a Madreporacean. 

lUCadreporarian (mLv:dr/po<>re>rian), a. and 
sb. Zool. \i. mod.L. Madreporaria (f. Madrepora 
Madrepore) + -AN.] 

A. adj. Pertaining to the group Madreporaria 

(the madrepores and related corals). B. sb. A 

coral of this group. 

1881 Athemeum 6 Aug. 181/1 The true or Madreporarian 

1 corals. 1893 ^* I' 1 * 0014 (title), Catalogue of the Madrepora- 

1 rian Corals in the British Museum. 

Madrepore (mse'dripou). [ad. mod.L. madre- 
\ porg or F. madrepore (1710), ad. It. madrepora. 
T^; Italian naturalist Ferrante Imperato (Hist. Nat., 

• 1599) uses Poro as a name for 'a kind of vegetable the 
i substance of which resembles that of coral, but differs in 

being porous '. He evidently regarded this word as identical 

with the ordinary It. poro, ad. h.porus Pore sb. ; but perh. 

it really represented late L. pbrus, a. Gr. irdipo? calcareous 
I stone, stalactite. Among the species of ' poro ' he enumerates 
; millepora, frondipora, and ' those plants by some called 

madrepores (here madripore, but elsewhere madrepora 

• occurs), which are tubular growths, issuing from a common 
stem, and attached together at their roots, so that they 
resemble a honeycomb '. The word madrepora (which 
Imperato app. did not invent) seems to be f. madre mother + 
Poro, the ending of the latter being changed to suit the 
gender of the sb. prefixed in apposition ; on this view, the 

i other words, millepora, frondipora, etc., must have been 
I formed later in imitation of madrepora. A comparison of 
i Imperato's woodcut of the 'madrepores' with those of the 
j other species of Poro seems to suggest that the prefix 
j ' mother ' may refer to the appearance of prolific growth 
' characteristic of this ' plant'.] 

1. Formerly applied loosely to most or all of the 
j perforate corals (which, however, were not origin- 
ally classed as corals) ; now usually in more re- 
; stricted use, a polypidom of the genus Madrepora 
! (or family Madreporidw). 

1751 Stack (tr. from French) in Phil. Trans. XLVIL 449 
; The several species of vermicular tubes found in the sea, 
! the madrepores, uiilleporcs, lithophytons, corallines, sponges. 


Ibid. 460 They have denominated pora that class of them, 
which seem'd piere'd with holes. Of these they found 
some, the holes of which were large; and these they call'd 
madrepnra. i8oz Hingi.ev Anim. Biog. (1S13) III. 475 The 
Brandling and Prickly Madrepore. 1832 Lyell Princ. 
Geol. 11. in The madrepores or IameUiferous polyparia, are 
found in their fullest development only in the tropical seas 
of Polynesia and the East and West Indies. 1840 BLYTH,etc. 
tr. Cuvier's Anim. Kingd. (1849] 658 When the Madrepore 
is branched, and the stars are confined to the extremities of 
each branch, it is the Caryopkyllia of Lamouroux. . . Madre- 
pora, or Madrepores properly so called, have the whole 
surface roughened by little stars. 1875 Huxley in Encycl. 
Brit. I. 130/2 In some madrepores the whole skeleton is 
reduced to a mere network of delist calcareous substance. 
1882 CassclTs Nat. Hist. VI. 207 The common so-called 
Madrepore of the Devonshire coast, and those which are 
dredged up out of moderately dee]) water in the North 
Atlantic, are common examples of the genus Caryophyllia. 

2. The animal producing the madrepore coral. 
1841 Esiekson Address, Method Nature YVkv (Uohn) II. 

224 Nature turns off new firmaments fast as the madre- 
pores make coral. 1875 Mehivale Gen. I fist. Rome xxiii. 
(1877) 160 The. .instinct with which the madrepore extends 
his empire over the bottom of the ocean. 

3. Limestone composed of fos.sil madrepores. 
1809 Valentia Voy. HI. 309 The houses in Jidda are far 

superior to those at Mocha. They are built of large blocks 
of very fine madrapore [sic], 

4. altrib. , as madrepore coral, hole, island ; 
madrepore marble, = sense 3. 

1866 7 Lu im.siunk Last y>nls. (1873) I. iv. 85 The yelluw 
plains .. look like yellow hamiatite with madrepore holes in 
ii. 1869 tr. Pouchet's Universe (187 76 Twenty-six madre- 
pore islands. 1876 Page Adv. Tcxt-Bk. Geol. iii. 67 A branch 
of the common madrepore coral. 1879 Cassell's Techn. t-'dm. 
n. 87 Many blocks are almost entirely formed of fossil coral.--, 
and known as madrepore marbles. 

Madreporic (ma'dr/p^nk), a. [{. mod.L. 

Madrepora or Madrepore + -ic] 

1. Lertainin^ or related to, consisting or charac- 
teristic of, madrepore coral. 

1817 Q. Rev. XVII. 240 The madriporic [sic] productions 
which have been found to exist, .above the present level 
of the sea, 1833 Lyell Princ. Geol. III. 133 Part of the 
madrepoi ic rock has been converted intosilex and t ah edotiy. 
1887 H. H. Howorth Mammoth % Flood 360 The madre- 
poric calcareous deposits surrounding Havana. 

2. The distinctive epithet of certain structures 
in cehinoderms {madreporic body, canal, plate, 
tubercle), so called because perforated with small 
holes like a madrepore. 

1861 Dana Man. Geol. 160 To one side of the dorsal centre the regular Echinoids, there is a small porous prominence 
on the shell, often called the madreporic body, from a degree 
of resemblance in structure to coral. 1862 Thomson in Q. 
Jrnl. Microscop. Set. II. 139 The madreporic tubercle 
gradually increases in size and distinctness. 1870 Nichol- 
son Man. Zool. 123 The madreporic canals and their tuber- 
cles depending freely from the circular canal into the peri- 
visceral cavity. 1878 Bell Gegenbaur's Comp. Anal. 204 
One of these [genital plates of the Desmosticha] is the madre* 
poric plate. 

Madreporid (mcedr/po^rid), sb. and a. Zool. 
[ad. mod.L. Madreporidx, f. madrepora : see Ma- 
drepore and -ID.] a. sb. An animal of the family 
I Madreporidze, including the genus Madrepora. b. 
: adj. Pertaining to the Madreporidx. Hence Madre 
po-ridan a., characteristic of the Madreporidx. 

1899 Bernakd in Jrnl. Linn. Soc., Zool. XXVII. 130 
Pontes is. .related to the Madreporids. Ibid. 141 An ex- 
clusively Madreporid origin. Ibid. 142 There is no reason 
why further growth should not simply enlarge it without 
necessarily running it into ancestral Madreporidan lines. 

Madreporiform (mcedr/poe-rif^.im), a. [f. 
mod.L. JlJadrepora + -form.] Having the form or 
characters of madrepore coral ; spec. == Madre- 
poric 2. 

1843 FouBiiS in Proe. Benu. Nat. Club II. No. n. 79 
Madreporiform tubercle nearer the margin than centre. 
1870 Nicholson Alan. Zool. 125 One of the genital plates is 
larger than the others, and supports a spongy tubercle, per- 
forated by many minute apertures, .and termed the ' madre- 
poriform tubercle'. 1877 C. W. Thomson Voy. Challenger 
II. iv. 237. 

Madrepoi'igenous (ma^dripo-'ri-d.^nss), a. 
rare. Zool. [f. mod.L. Madrepora Madrepore + 
-gknous.] Producing madrepore coral. 

1847-9 Todd Cycl. Anat. IV. 33/1 Madreporigenous 
polypes can only exist at depths where they enjoy the 
influences of light and air. 

Madreporite(ma.'dr/"p6^r3it). [f. Madrepore 
+ -ite. Cf. G. madrepority F. madreforite.~] 

1. Pahvant. Fossil madrepore. 

1828-32 in Webster. 1843 Humble Did. Geol., etc., 
Madreporite. 1. Fossil madrepore. 

2. Min. A calcareous rock of columnar struc- 
ture marked by radiated prismatic concretions. 

1802-3 tr ' Pallas" s Trav. (1812) I. 147 Its cells and tubes 
extend, as is the case with maandrites, or madreporites, in 
a. parallel line from the surface. 1821 Ure Diet. Che/u. s.v. 
Limestone, It [prismatic lucuUite] was at one time called 
madreporite. 1839 Penny Cycl. XIV. 271/2 Madreporite. — 
Anthraconite ; Columnar Carbonate of Lime. 

3. Zool. The madreporic tubercle in echinodcrms. 
1877 Huxr.EV Anat. Inv. Anim. ix. 554 The madreporic 

tubercle or madreporite. 1884 Slauen in Q. Jrnl. Microscop. 
Set. XXIV. 31 The madreporite or water-pore in Asterids 
usually punctures a basal plate. 
I! Madrier (mardriaj). Fortif. [Fr.] (See 




1704 J. Hahris Lex. Techn., Madrier, in Fortification, is a 
thick Plankarm'd with Platesof Iron, and havinga Concavity 
sufficient to receive the Mouth of the Petard when charged, 
with which it is applied against a Gate, or any thing else 
that you design to break down. This term is also appro- 
priated to certain flat Beams, which are nVd at the bottom 
of a Moat, to support a Wall. There are also Madrier* 
lined with Tin, which are cover'd with Earth, to serve as a De- 
fence against Artificial Fires. 1758 J.Watson Mitit. Diet. 
(ed. 5). 1826 Scorr Woodst. xxxiii, The petard, .is secured 
witli a thick.. piece of plank, termed the madder. 

Madrigal (maeHhigal), sb. Also 6 -7 -ale, -all. 
[ad. It. madrigaie (whence Fr. # Sp. madrigal). 

The origin of the It. word is obscure. On the ground of 
the occurrence in early It. of the variant forms madriale, 
mandriale (cf. ohs. Sp. jnandrial, maudrigal), Diez 
(followed by most later etymologists) accepts Menage's 
derivation from it. mandria herd, f. L. mandra, a. Gr.'Spa fold; the primitive sense according to this view- 
would be ' pastoral song' (cf. quots. 1597, 1614 in 3).] 

1. A short lyrical poem of amatory character; 
chiefly, a poem suitable for a musical setting such 
as is described below (see 2). 

1588 {title) Mvsica Transalpina, Madrigales translated of 
foure, fine, and sixe parts, chosen oute of diners excellent 
Authors. Ibid. Aij, I had the hap to find in the hands uf 
some of my good friends, certaine Italian Madrigales, trans- 
lated most of them fine yeeres agoe by a Gentleman for his 
priuate delight. 1621 Burton Anal. Mel. u. ii- vi. iii. (1651) 
9og How to make Jigs, Sonnets, Madrigals in commenda- 
tion of his Mistress, a 1637 B. Jonson ('mlerwoods (1640' 
209 He That chanc'd the lace, laid on a Smock, to see And 
straight-way spent a Sonnet ; with that other That (in pure 
Madrigalb unto his Mother Commended the French-hood 
[etc.]. 1736 Shkkidan in Swifts Lett. (1768) IV. 167, 1 know 
you love Alexandrines; for which reason I closed the above 
madrigal with one. I think it is of a very good proportion, 
which I hope you will set to musick. aiyjt Gray Metrnm 
Wks. 1843 V. 250 Madrigals of Eight [lines], on Three 
Rhymes. Sir T. Wyatt. 1774 Warton Hist. Eng. Poetry 
{1840' III. 142 He [Clement Marot] was the inventor of the 
rondeau, and the restorer of the madrigal. 1888 Murray's 
Mag. July 43 Poetically speaking a madrigal may be de- 
fined as the shortest form of lyrical poetry. 

2. Mus. A kind of part song for three or more 
voices (usually, five or six) characterized by adher- 
ence to an ecclesiastical mode, elaborate contra- 
puntal imitation, and the absence of instrumental 
accompaniment ; also applied loosely to part 
songs or glees not bound by these conditions. 

See Encyd. Brit. (ed. 9) XV. 192/1, XVII. 84/i. 

1588 [see 1]. 1593 Nashe Christ's T. 34b, Their merry- 
running Madrigals, and sportiue Base-bidding Roundelayes. 
1594 Morlev {title) Madrigalles to foure Yoyoes, the first 
Booke. 1597 — Introd, Mus. 180 The light musicke hath 
beene of late more deepely diued into .. the best kind of 
it is termed Madrigal . . it is a kinde of musicke made vpon 
songs and sonnets.. .As for the musicke it is next unto the 
Motet, the most artificial and to men of vnderstanding 
most delightful*. 1644 Milton Areop. (Arb.) 50 Andwho 
shall silence all the airs and madrigalls, that whisper 
softnes in chambers? 1674 Play ford Skill Mus. 1. 59 
Your Madrigals or Fala's of five and six Parts, which were 
composed for Viols and Voices by many of our excellent 
English Authors, as Mr. Morley, Wilks, Wilbey, Ward, and 
others. 1789 Burney Hist. Mus. (ed. 2) III. ii 201 The 
most chearful species of secular Music, .was that of madri* 
gals, a style of composition, that was brought to its highest 
degree of perfection about the latter end of the 16th century. 
1811 L. M. Hawkins C'tess <y Gertr. I. 31 A little club, 
where catches, glees, motets, and madrigals, with the canon 
4 Non nobis ' in finale, were ' done ' in plain correctness. 

1879 E. Prout in Grove Diet. Mus. I. 306 The only 
difference between the canzona and the madrigal being 
that the former was less strict in style. 1879 I. Hullah 
ibid. 598 The glee differs from the madrigal . . in its tonality, 
which is uniformly modern. 

3. transf. and Jig. A song, ditty. 

1589 Greene Menaj>hon (Arb.) 25 If a wrinckle appeare in 
her brow, then our shepheard must put on his working day 
face, and frame nought but dolefull Madrigalls of sorrowe. 
a 1593 Marlowe Pass. Sheph. to his Love ii, By shallow 
Rivers, to whose fals Melodious birds sing Madrigals. 1597 
Middleton Wisdom oj 'Solomon xvii. 16 The merry shepherd 
..Tuning sweet madrigals of harvest's joy. 1614 Sir W. 
Alexander Alexis to Damon in Drumm. of Hawth. Poems, 
Those Madrigals we song amidst our Flockes. 1634 Milton 
Comus 495 Thyrsis? Whose artful strains have oft delaid 
The huddling brook to hear his madrigal, a 1640 Jackson 
Creed x. xxni. § 8 Changing their late joyful hymns of 
Hosannatothe Son of David into sad madrigals of Crucifige, 
crucifige. 1800-24 Campbell (TConnor's Child iii, And oft 
amidst the lonely rocks She sings sweet madrigals. i8ai 
Clare VUl. Minstr. I. 178 Thrushes chant their madrigals 
1848 Dickens Dotnbey xli, Gentle Mr. Toots, .hears the re- 
quiem of little Dombey on the waters, rising and falling in 
the lulls of their eternal madrigal in praise of Florence. 

4. atlrib. and Comb. 

1611 Florio, Madrigdli, Madridli, Madrigall songs. 1877 
W. A. Barrett {title) English Glee and Madrigal Writers. 

1880 Mackeson in Grovels Diet. Mus. II. 192 Founded in 
1741 by John Immyns.a member of the Academyof Ancient 
Music, the Madrigal Society enjoys the distinction of being 
the oldest musical association in Europe, 1883 Encycl. Brit. 
XV. 192/1 The art of madrigal composition was never 
practised in Germany, and it died out in other countries 
early in the 17th century. 1888 J. A. F. Maitland in Diet. 
Nat. Biog. XVI. 327/1 The madrigal form as used by the 

Hence Ma'drig'al v. {rare) intr. t to write, com- 
pose, or sing madrigals. Also with it. 

1593 G. Harvey Piercers Super. 48 When Elderton began 
to ballat, Gascoine to sonnet, 1'urberuile to madrigal. Drant 
to versify [etc.]. 174a Jarvis Quix. 11. Ixviii. 272 Madrigal 
it as much as your worship pleases. 

Madrigalian (mseclrigJ'-lian), a. [f. Madrigal 

sb. + -ian.] Pertaining to, consisting or character- 
istic of, or dealing with madrigals. 

1848 {title) Madrigalian Feast, a collection of twenty 
Madrigals. 1869 Olselky Counterp. xiv. 89 The old madri- 
galian composers. 1879 E. G. Monk in Grove Diet. Mus. 
I. 72 Anthems of the Madrigalian era. i88z Athenxum 
No. 2854. 58 The English madrigalian writers being repre- 
sented solely by a few songs and unimportant pieces. 

Madrigalist (rmWrigalist). ff. Madrigal 
sb. + -1st.] A writer or composer of madrigals. 

1789 Burney Hist. Mus. III. 123 The best madrigalists 
of our country. 1888 J. A. F. Maitland in Diet. Nat. Biog. 
XVI. 328/1 In the next few years [after 1596] nearly all the 
masterpieces of the English madrigalists were issued. 

IWCadrigaller. [IMadbigalw. + -Eiii.] = prec. 

a 1704 T. T.KOWN Lett. Dead to Living 11. (1707) 33 
Sonniters, Songsters, Satyrists, Panegyrists, Madrigallers. 
1710 Wychekley in Pope's Lett. (1735) I. 46 No Madrigaller 
can entertain the Head, unless he pleases the Ear. 

II Madrono (niadr(7*n y ij). Also madrona, ma- 
drono. [Sp.] A handsome evergreen tree of western 
North America, Arbutus Menziesii, having a very 
hard wood and bearing yellow berries. Also atlril>. 

1850 B. Taylor Eldorado xiii. (1862) 130 Clumps of the 
madrono — a native evergreen, .. filled the ravines. 1882 
J. Hawthorne Fort. Pool 1. xxvi, The whisper of the 
breeze iii the niadrorio. 1883 Stevenson Silverado So. 71 
Woods of oak and madrona, dotted with enormous pines. 
1888 Amer. Humor. 5 May 12/1 Here and there a madrona 
tree grows, with its bark peeling off in its own peculiar 
way, leaving the tree bright red and as smooth as satin. 

Comb. 1900 K. Ruling /'><?/« Sea to Sea xxvi, There were 
the pines and the madrone-clad hills. 

Madryam, -an, var. forms of Madkeax Obs. 

t Ma'dship. Obs. In 3 mad-, med-, mead- 
schipe. [f. Mad a. + -ship.] Madness. 

a 1225 Leg. A'at/i. 327 Hwat is mare madschipe pen for 
to leueti on him & seggen % he is Godes Sune? e 1230 Halt 
Mcid. 52 Ha is. .mare amead, 3ef ha mei, ben is meadschipe 

Mads tone (mae'dst^ui). U. S. [f. Mad a. 

used subst. + STONE sb.] A stone supposed to have 
the power of allaying or curing the madness caused 
by the bite of a ' mad ' animal. 

1864 Round Table 18 June 2/2 We are not so ready with 
an explanation of the ' mad-stone ' used to obviate ill effects 
from the bites of rabid animals. 1888 Boston (Mass.) Jrnl. 
9 Aug. 2/4 The Orlando (Fla.) Record tells a remarkable 
.story of the effects of a madstone in a case of snakebite. 

Madura (ma'dura). The name of a district 
of Madras, used attrib. in Madura foot, a disease 
of the foot common in Madura and other parts of 
India ; « Mycetoma. Also Madura disease. 

1863 W. T. Fox Skin Dis. Parasitic Grig. 15 In the 
Transactions of the Medical and Physical Society of Bombay 
for i860, is a description by Dr. H. V. Carter, of a disease 
occurring in many parts of India, called variously 'Ulcus 
grave ', ' Morbus tuberculosis pedis ', * Madura foot ', * Podel- 
koma ', ' Mycetoma '. 1868 J. H. N klson Madura Country 
L iv. 91 Its classical name is morbus pedis en tophyt tens', 
but it is better known in this District by the name of ' the 
Madura foot'. 1871 Bristowe in Trans. Pailwl.Soc. Lotui. 
XXII. 326 The fungus of the Madura foot. 1874 Q. Jrnl. 
Microscop. Set XIV. 263 On the Etiology of Madura-foot. 

Madwoman, [f- Mad a. + Woman, after 
Madman.] An insane woman. 

1622 T. Scorr Belg. Pismire 15, I remember a witty mad- 
woman.. told a friend of hers [etc.]. 1842 Dickens Amer. 
Notes iii, The rest of the madwomen seemed to understand 
the joke perfectly. 1844 Marg. Fuller Worn, in 19th C. 
(1862) 105 She.. wilt not be pitied as a mad-woman, nor 
shrunk from as unnatural. 

Madwort (mae"d|wwt). [Cf. <juot. 1597; the 
name is peih. a transl. of L. alyssum, a. Gr. akvo- 
aov, f. d- (privative particle) + \vooa rabies.] 

1. A herb of the genus Alyssum. 

Britten and Holland {Plant-n.) consider Gerande's 'mad- 
wort' to be of doubtful identity, and assign his 'German 
madwort * to the genus Stachys or Sideritis. 

1597 Gkrardc Herbal n. c.wiii. 379 The Germaine Mad- 
woort bringeth foorth from a fibrous roote, two broad, 
rough, and hoarie leaues ; between which riseth vp a hoarie 
brittle stalke, diuided into sundrie small branches, wlwe- 
upon do growe long, narrow leaues. . ; from the bosom"of 
which leaues come foorth small roundles of purple flowers 
like those of the dead Nettle. Ibid. 380 Madwoortor 
Moonewort is called .. of the Latines Alyssum: in English 
Galens Madwoort : of some Heale dog; and it hath the 
name thereof, bicause it is a present remedie for them that 
are bitten of a mad dog. 1611 Cotub., Alysson, the hearbe 
Madwort, Moonewort, heale dog. 1640 Parkinson Theatr. 
Bot. 590 Alyssum montanum Columtuv. Mountame Mad- 
wort of Columna. 1760 J. Lee Introd. Bot App. 313 Mad- 
wort, Alyssum. 1861 Miss Pratt Flower. PI. I. 105 Alys- 
sum, which is the Mad-wort of the ancients, and the plants 
of whicli were supposed to allay anger. 

2. The Trailing Catchweed, Asperugo proutm- 
bens. (Also called German madtvort.) 

1760 J. Lee Introd. Bot. App. 318 German Mad-wort, 
Asperugo. 1806 Galpine Brit. Bot. 79 Asperugo, Madwort. 

Madyn/e, -ynne, obs. forms of Maiden. 

Mae (»/)i z>* dial. [Onomatopoeic. Cf. bae, 
Ba.] intr. Of a lamb : To utter its peculiar cry. 

1728 Ramsay Robert, Ricky, <y Sandy 124 While ewes 
shall bleat, and little lambkins mae, 

Mae, variant of Mo, more. 

Mseander, etc. : see Meander, etc. 

Maecenas fm&Pnses). PI. Maecenases, 
fMfficenates (-e" l ttz). Also 6-7 Mecenas, 6- 
erron. Meceenas. The name of a Roman knight, 

the friend of Augustus and the patron of Horace 
and Virgil. Hence used for ; A generous patron 
of literature or art ; + occas. gen. a patron. 

C1561 Veron Free-will 7 This my rude labor, whiche.. 
I offer unto youre honoure,asunto the Mecenas and patron 
of all godly e learninge. 1590 Spensss /". Q. Verses addr. to 
Noblemen, This lowly Muse,. .Flies for like aide unto your 
Patronage, That are the great Mecsenas of this age. 1597 
Moki.ey Introd. Mus. in. 179 The composers of musick who 
otherwise would follow the depth of their skill, . . are com- 
pelled for lacke of ma:cenates to put on another humor. 
1611 Cokvat Crudities Ep. Ded., My illustrious Mecamas 
Sir Edward Philips Ma>ter of the Rulles. c 1620 T. Robin- 
son Mary Magdalene Ded. 105 Yet some Maecenases this 
age hath left vs. 1663 Glrbilr Counsel b viij b, A Mecenas 
to all vertues. 1711 Shaktesb. Charact. (1737) I. 216 The 
Muses .., with or without their Maecenas's, will grow in 
credit and esteem. 1779 Sheridan Critic 1. i, Are you not 
called ..a mock Maecenas to second-hand Authors? 1812 
I,. Hum in F..xaminer 14 Dec. 7S7/2 This Mecamas of the 
Age. 1827 Lytton Pelham xlvi, See what it is to furni.-h 
a house differently from other people; one becomes a bel 
esprit, and a Maxamas, immediately. 1875 Escott in Bel- 
gravia XXV. 80 The Maecenas of the la^t century did in- 
fluence literature and art ; the Maxenas of to-day cannot. 

Hence KEsece'nas v. trans., to act as a patron to. 
Msece'nassMp, the position of a Maecenas. 

1832 Caklyle Ess. (1872) IV. iot Neither . . was the new 
way of bookseller Meca^nasship worthless. 1837 Makryat 
Olla Podr. .\.\.\, Literary men are not Mxccnascd by. .the 

[f. Mxcenat-y 

. .aristocracy. 

t Mseccnatism. Obs. rare" 
M.kcenas + -ism.] Patronage. 

1606 BlRKXB Kirk'Burtall Ded., I strong-hold myself 
under your Marqueships Mecenatisme. 

Maeht, ohs. form of Might. 

Mael(e, Sc. form of Mole v spot). 

Maelstrom (W'"lstr6m\ Also 7 [male- 
strand,] male stream, 8 malestrom, 9 mael- 
strom, and in Ger. form mahlstrom. [a. early 
mod.Du. maelstrom (now maahtrooni) , whirlpool,!. 
malen to grind, also to whirl round + slroom stream. 

The use of maelstrom as a proper name (also in Fr.) seems 
to come from Du. maps, e.g. that in Mercator's Atlas (1595). 
Dutch philologists are of opinion that the word is native. 
It is true that it is found in all the mod. Scandinavian langs. 
as a common noun, but it is purely literary, and Danish 
scholars regard it as adopted from Du. or LG. The earliest 
known instance of Da. malstrjm (formerly also written 
malestrfm) occurs in 1673 in Debes P'xroa reserata, the 
author of which was a pastorin the Kaeroe Islands. Cf. 
Norw. dial, malstraum (admitted by Aasen to be 'little 
used ', which prob. means that he had never heard it in 
actual popular use), Sw. malstrom, Fa-roic mat\n)streymur 
{}\\xv&T£L&&mxsfo Fa»rfsk Anthologi, Glossary; the vb. mala 
in Faeroic means ' to grind ', ' to whirl round '). 

The form Malestrand in quot. C1560 can only be a blunder ; 
probably Jenkinson hearing the name Malestrfm confused 
it with the name of Malestrand :? meaning ' pebbly shore '), 
now Marstrand, in South Sweden.] 

A famous whirlpool in the Arctic Ocean on the 
west coast of Norway, formerly supposed to suck 
in and destroy all vessels within a long radius. Also 
transf. a great whirlpool. 

be 1560 A. Jenkinson in Hakluyt's I'oy. (1589) 33^ There is 
between the said Rost Islands, and Lofoote, a whirle poole, 
called Malestrand, which . . maketh such a terrible noi^e, that 
it shaketh the rings in the doores of the inhabitants houses 
of the said Islands, ten miles of] 1682 R. Burton IVond. 
Curios. (1684) 229 Between the coast of Cathnessand Orkney 
is a dreadful Frith or Gulf, in the North end of which, by 
reason of the meeting of 9 contrary Tides or Currents, is 
a Male Stream or great Whirlpool. 1701 C. Wolley Jrnl. 
New York (i860) 47 A dangerous Current, . . as dangerous 
and as unaccountable as the Norway Whirl-Pool or Mael- 
strom. 1755 tr. Poutoppidan 's Nat. Hist. Norzvay L 77 There 
is another "kind of current, -in the sea of Norway, . .namely 
the Malestrom, or Moskoestrom [orig. 1752 den vidtbkiendtc 
Male-str^m eller Moske-strfftu], . .near the island Moskoe. 
a 1844 Poe {title) A descent into the Maelstrom. 1856 W. E. 
Aytoun Bothwell {lZsfi 56 And if a ship should chance to 
pass within the maelstrom's sweep, i860 Miss Braddon 
'Trail Serpent 1. i, Every gutter in every one of these streets 
was a little Niagara, with a maelstrom at the corner. 


1831 Cauialk Sart. Rfs. 1. iv. (1858! 19 Some single billow 
in that vast World-Mahlstrom of Humour. 1854 J. S. C. 
Abuott Napoleon (1855) II. iv. 69 An accumulated mass, in 
one wild maelstrom of affrighted men, struggling In frantic 
eddies. 1883 Harper s Ultrg: July 956 I In the wild and 
glittering maelstrom of luxury and extravagance. 

Maenad (mTnsed). [ad. L. Mxnad-, Mmnis, 
a. Gr. MatfaS-, Matfcis, f. naiv-foBat to rave.] A 
Bacch a nt e. 

1579 E. K. CIoss. Spenser's Shepk. Cat. Oct. 1 1 1 The 
Ma:nades (that is Bacchus franticke priestes). eifaa T. 
Robinson Mary Magdalene 795 Like to y B Meiiades y* 
Euhce crie. 1638-48 G. Daniel Eclog iii. 153 The Women 
. . Like yaulingMamades, their loo's send To the full-fraught, 
lest drinking there should end. 1820 Shkiaey Ode Liberty 
vii, Like a wolf-cub from a Cadmaan Maenad, She drew 
the milk of greatness. 1882 Athenienm 7 Jan. 22/2 Another 
[nymph], furious as a maenad, is about to whirl on high 
the headless body of a kid. 

Hence Msena'dic a., characteristic of a Miuiiad ; 
resembling a Ma'nad, infuriated. 

1830 Cahlvle Misc. (1872) III. 2 Phallophori and Mama- 
dic women. 1830 Fraser's Mag. I. 587 There is a clapping 
of hands, and shouts of Maenadic glorification. 

Maende, obs. form of Mend. 

Mesne : see Mean, Mene. 

Maenial^l, obs. form of Mental. 


Maer, Msere, obs. forms of Mora, Mm. 

Maes, Maesse, obs. forms of Maize, Mass. 

Maest, obs. form of Most. 

Mfflstive, variant of MHTIV1. 

II Maestoso (,ma£St<vstf). Mils. [It. - majestic] 
A direction denoting that a composition is to be 
executed majestically. 

1724 Expl. For. Words Music, Maestoso, or Macstuoso. 
1815 Enrop. Mag. LXVIII. 154 Var. 8 (Maestoso) in minor. 

Maestral, variant of Mistbal. 

Maestriss, obs. Sc. form of Mistress. 

II Maestro (maestro). [It. = 'master'.] A 
master in music ; a great musical composer, teacher, 
or conductor. 

1797 Mks. KadcLIPFB Italian vii, He might be a ghost, 
by his silence, for aught I know, Maestro. 184s E. Holmes 
Mo-art 79 The archduke and his bride .. inclined their 
heads from their box and applauded the maestro. 1884 V. M. 
Crawford Rom. Singer I. 22, 1 went to the Maestro's 
house and sat for two hours listening to the singing. 1891 
Speaker 2 May 528/1 The performance of some musical 
maestro on an instrument that almost seems part of himself. 

Maez, obs. form of Maize. 

Ma fal ( - may fall, perhaps) : sec May v.< 

1 Mafey, int. Obs. Also 5 mai-, mayfay, 
maffay, ma v f,fay, ma fa; maffeith, -feyth. 
[a. OF. ma fell (mod.F. ma foil) 'my faith': 
see Fay sb^] An asseveration, lit. = 'my faith ! ' 

e 1374 Chaucer Troylus 111. 3 (52) Mafey bought he bus 
vole 1 sey. < 1400 Pride of Life (lirandl 1898.1 451 Noll, 
maifay, hit schal be sene. 1401 Pol. Poems (Rolls) II. 75 
A, Iak, mafey, me merveilith moche of thin lewidheed ! 
04a Hoccleve De Keg. Prim. 3283 Maffeith! jour lif 
stood bere in iupartie. c 1440 Promp. Pari'. 319/2 Mafey, 
othe (MS. S. malfeyth), medius fidius. e 1460 Tomncley 
Myst. xxiii. 564 Ma-fay, I tell his lyfe is lorne. [1791 J. 
Learuont Poems 143 Mafoy I yell dwindle to a den. 
1842 Barium Ingot. Leg. Scr. 11. Black Mousquctaire, 
Stay I I have it— ma foi !] 

Maffaisour.Maffia.var. ff.M.u. feasor, Mafia. 

Maffick (mrefik), v. [Back-formation from 
mafficking (i.e., the proper name MafekingtKa\£& 
jocularly as a gerund or pres. pple. ).] intr. Origin- 
ally used to designate the behaviour of the crowds 
;in London and other towns) that celebrated with 
uproarious rejoicings the relief of the British gar- 
rison besieged in Mafeking (17 May 1900). Hence 
gen. to indulge in extravagant demonstrations of 
exultation on occasions of national rejoicing. Hence 
Mafficking' vbl. sb. and ppl. a. ; Ma'ffioker, one 
who 'mafficks' ; Ma-ffickJ*., an act of ' mafficking'. 

The words appear to be confined to journalistic use ; but 
we have a large number of examples from newspapers of 
all shades of political opinion. 

1900 Pall Mall G. 21 May 2/2 We trust Cape Town . . will 
' maffick ' to-day, if we may coin a word, as we at home did 
on Friday and Saturday. 1900 lVestm.Caz.-2S May 23 
The feathers, .are sold for a penny each to enable ' Maffick- 
ing ' revellers to tickle other revellers' noses. 1902 Daily 
Chron. 9 July 6/5 We have no wish to advocate the hysteria 
of which the name is 'mafficking 1 . 1902 IVestm. Gaz. 
4 June 7/3 The Peace 'maffick' has not yet been com- 
pletely worked olT. 1902 Times 11 June 12/1 [The ' Merry 
Wives of Windsor '] is.. 'a pure anticipated cognition ', as 
Shelley would have said, of the mafficking spirit. 

+ Ma-fflard. Obs. [f. Maffle v. + -ard.] A 
stammering or blundering fool. 

e 1450 Pol. Poems (Rolls) II. 225 The churche of Chester, 
whiche crieth, alas ! That to suche a mafflarde marryede 
she was, 

Maffle (mavfl), v. Obs. exc. dial. Also 7 
maffell. [Cf. early mod.Dtt. maffelen to move the 
jaws (Kilian). The Eng. word has a wide dialectal 
currency in several senses < v see E. D. D.).] 

1. intr. To stammer; to speak indistinctly, 
mumble, f Also with an obj. 

1387 Tkevisa Iligden (Rolls) II. 91 }if Alfrede seib nay 
in pat, he wot nou;t what he mafflep. Ibid. V. 215. 1399 
Langl. Rich. Redeles tv. 63 Somme mafilid with Jje moup 
and nyst what bey mente. 1365 Cooper Thesaurus, Bal- 
butio, to maffle in the mouth, as not able to sounde his 
wordes. 1603 Holland Plutarch's Mor. 34 Those disciples 
who.. would needs stut, stammer and maffle as Aristotle 
did. 1623 Cockeram, Maffell, to stammer. 1875 Lane. 
Gloss., Maffle, to hesitate, to falter, to stammer, to mumble. 

2. To blunder, bungle ; to delay, waste time. 
1781 Hutton Tour to Caves. 1837 [see Maffling vbl. sb.]. 

3. trans. To confuse, bewilder, muddle (see 
E. D. D. and Maffled///. a.). 

Hence Maffling- vbl. sb. and ppl. a., Mafflingly 
aJv. Also Ma filer, one who ' maffles '. 

1552 Elyot Diet., Balbus, that can not well pronounce 
wordes in speakyng, a mafflar. 156s Cooper Thesaurus, 
Falbe, obscurely : mafflyingly : witli no perfit sowne. 1577- 
87 Holinsiied Chron. II. 13/1 It [Aqua Vitae] keepeth .. 
the toong from lisping, the mouth from maffling. 1586 [. 
Hooker Hist. Ircl. in Hotinshed II. 88/2 He deliuered his 
speeches by reason of his palseie, in such staggering and 
mafiing wise, that [etc.]. 1603 Holland Plutarch's Mor. 
65,3 They.. go too far in their commandements . . who en- 
joine stutters, stammerers and mafflers to sing. 1608 Top- 
sell Serpents 252 They make a maffeling with their mouth 
and stammer so that they cannot distinctly be understood. 
1609 Bible (Douay) Isa. xxxii. 4 The tongue of mafflers 
shal speake _ readely and plaine. Ibid, xxxii. Comm., 
This prophecie of maffling or uiiperfect tongues, to speake 
readily, is fulfilled in the Church of Christ. 1611 Cotgr., 
Bredouillement, a faultering, or maffling ; an ill-fauoured 


speaking, imperfect pronunciation. 1837 Carlvle Let. to | 
Margaret 22 Jan. in Froude Life (1884) I. iv. 04 After much 
higgling and maffling. the printers have got fairly afloat. 

Maffled (mre-f 'Id), ///. a. dial. [f. Maffle v. 
+ -KD 1 .] Confused, muddled. 

1820 Southky Lett. (18561 III. 186 She was, what they 
call in the country, maffled ; that is, confused in her in- 
tellect. 1845 De Quiscey Coleridge .5- Opium-eating Wks. 
1859 XII. 93 The Westmorland people, .expounded his 
condition to us by saying that he was ' maflled ' ; which 
word means ' perplexed in the extreme'. 1886 Mks. Lynn 
Linton Fasten Care-.u II. x. 211 She did not smell of drink, 
and was sober though decidedly maffled. 

!l Mafia (mafra 1. Also maffia. [Sicilian.] In 
Sicily, the spirit of hostility to the law and its 
ministers prevailing among a large portion of the 
population, and manifesting itself frequently in vin- 
dictive crimes. Also, the body of those who share 
in this anti-legal spirit (often erroneously supposed 
to constitute an organized secret society existing 
for criminal purposes'. Hence || Maf f ioso (pi. 
-osi), one who sympathizes with the mafia. 

187S Times 9 June 5/4 The malevolent influence and op- 
pression of the Mafia and the Mafiosi. 1902 Encycl. Brit. 
XXXI. 163/1 (art. New Orleans) He had been active in 
proceedings against certain Italians accused of crime, and 
11 was popularly believed that his death was the work of a 
maffia, or sworn secret society. 1902G. MoscA/toV.XXXII. 
618/1 (art.Sicily) The Maffia is not, as is generally believed, 
one vast society of criminals, but is rather a sentiment akin 
to arrogance which imposes a special line of conduct upon 
persons affected by it.. .The maffwso considers it dishonour- 
able to have recourse to lawful authority to obtain redress 
for a wrong or a crime committed against him. 

Mafortune: see May v\ 

Mag (mag , sb. 1 colloq. [f. Mag v.] 

a. Chatter, talk. b. A chatterbox. 

a. 1778 Mme. LYArblay Diary Sept., Mrs. Tkrale : Oh, if 

you have any mag in you, we'll draw it out ! 1875 Mrs. 
Lynn Linton Patricia /Cembali II. iv. 78 Hold your mag 
on things you don't understand. 1885 E. C SharLand 
Ways Devonsh. Village ii. 26 You go away for a while, my 
dear, and let me have a little mag with Emma. 

b. 1892 F. Anstey The Talking Horse, etc. 46 'Alick 
does call me a " mag ",' said Priscilla ; ' but that's wrong, 
because I never speak without having something to say '. 

Mag (maeg), sb:- Cf. Meg. [Playful shorten- 
ing of the female name Margaret] 

1. Used as a personal name in various proverbial 
phrases, t Magics tales : nonsense, trifling. Mag's 
diversion (also Meg's : see Meg). 

e 1410 Love Bouavent. Mirr. xxxix. 85 (Sherard MS.) 
[The Lollard] scorneth. .suche miracles haldynge hem but 
as magges tales [B.N.C. MS. magge tales, IV. de IV. (eds. 
1517-301 madde tales] and feyned illusiouns. 1834 M. G. 
Dowling Othello Travestie 1. iii, The galley slaves Are 
playing mag's diversion on the waves. [1837 Socthey 
Doctor IV. exxv. 250 Who was Magg? and what was his 
diversion ?j 1849 Dickens in Forster Life (1S72) II. xx. 432 
Mag's Diversions. Being the personal history of M r. Thomas 
Mag the Younger, Of Blunderstone House. 

2. Used as a proper name for a magpie. Also 
as a common noun = Magpie. 

1802 G. Montagu Omith. Did. (1833) 311. 18. . Clare 
Life $ Rem. (1873) 245 While mag's on her nest with her 
tail peeping out. 1885 Swainson Prov. Names Birds, Mag- 
pie (Pica rustica). . . Familiar names. Mag, or Madge. 

3. Rifle-shooting. = Magpie. 

1895 Pall MallG. 29 July 11/2 If Winans made a 'mag' 
with his first shot he would probably cease firing. 

4. Long-tailed Mag (dial.) : the Long-tailed 
Titmouse, Acreditla rosea. 

1851 Moral Hist. Brit. Birds I. 275. 

Mag (maeg), sb.3 slang. Also meg. [Of obscure 
origin : cf. the synon. Make sb.] A halfpenny. 

1781 G. Parker Life's Fainter 129 Mag is a halfpenny. 
Ibid. 161 Halfpenny— A meg. 1813 Sporting Mag. XLII. 
219 Neither of these forsaken damsels had one single mag, 
or piece of any kind of coin. 1852 Dickens Bleak Ho. xxiii, 
It can't be worth a mag to him. 1862 H. Kingsley Ravens- 
hoe I. ix. 111 As long as he had a 'mag' to bless himself 
with, he would always be a lazy, useless humbug. 

b. Comb. Ma-gflyinsf vbl. sb., playing ' pitch 
and toss ' ; Magflyer. 

1882 Standard 8 Aug. 3/7 There were usually three_ or 
four in a gang, one acting as the ' magflyer ', the ' mag ' being 
the coin, another as the caller of the odds or amounts, a 
third as treasurer. 1883 Daily Tel. 26 Mar. 2/8 (Farmer) 
Ofthetwenty-mne'night-charges', byfar the greater number 
were of. .boys for mag flying, 1. e., 'pitch and toss '. 

Mag (mtegV A . 4 ,abbrev.of Magazine (sense 5 b). 

1801 Wolcot (P. Pindar) Tears t Smiles Wks. 1812 V. 55 
Who wrote in mags for hire. 1869 Chaiub. J ml. 8 May 
303/2 Why don't you fellows write something for the mags I 
1888 Jacobi Printer's Voc, Mag, an abbieviation very 
generally used by printers for ' magazine '. 

Mag (mreg), v. Also meg. [f. Mag sb.-] intr. 
To chatter ; also with away. 

1810 Splendid Follies I. 68 Don't you think she magged 
away pretty sharply ! That's the worst of the young ones 
—they will cackle so confoundedly. 1885 Runciman Ship- 
pers » Sh. 248 I'll snap your backbone acrossmyknee if you 
' meg half a second more. 

Maga (mre'ga). [Shortened form of Magazine.] 

A familiar abbreviation for Blackwood's Magazine. 

1825 Blackw. Mag. XVII. 384 Two Numbers of Maga, 

you dog. 1886 Saintsbuky Ess. Eng. Lit. (1891) 301 'the 

monkey tricks of mannerism which.. were incumbent on a 

1 reviewer in ' Maga '. 1809 Literature 4 Feb. 123 With more 

! than the lightness and speed of the Quagga, She'll . . show 

, them a clean pair of heels, will our Maga I 


+ Magade. Obs. tare. Also 5 magada. [ad. 
mcd.L. magadakm., f. Or. /irryds (aceus. /myaSa .] 
The bridge or fret of a stringed instrument. 

1432-50 tr. Iligden (Rolls) III. 211 The wire extendede on 
a holowe body is distreynede diametrally by an instrumciile 
restreynenge the wyre to a certeyne acsrde callede magada 
[L. magada]. 1609 DowLAND Omith. MUrol. 22 That shall 
be the first Magade of the Instrument. Ibid. 23 In the 
extreame point of the Magades, set little props. 

II Magadis (mse'gadis). Ancient Music. [Gr. 
fidyaSis.] An instrument with twenty strings, 
arranged in octaves. Also, the Lydian llageolet 
(l.iddell & Scott . 

1721 A. Malcolm Treat. Mus. 473 The Psalterium, Tri- 
ton, Sambuca, Pedis, Magadis, Barbital). 1763 J. Brown 
Poetry x- Mus. v. t»; One Instrument they [the Ancients] 
used, which had two Strings to every Note .. called the 
Magadis. 1864 Engel Mus.Auc. Nat. v. 200 Of the Mac.i- 
dis it is even not satisfactorily ascertained whether it was a 
stringed or a wind instrument. 1884 Eu,y,l. Brit. XVII. 
79/1 Anacreon <-,.(<> b.c.) sang to the accompaniment of the 
magadis (doubling bridge), an instrument imported from 
Egypt to Greece. 

Magadize (mtcgadoiz), -j. Ancient Mus. [ad. 
Gr. /uryaSiffiy, f. /id^vaSiv Magadis : see -tzi:.] a. 
intr. To play or sing in octaves. b. To piny 
upon the magadis. iknee Magadized ///. a., 
Ma'gadizing vbl. sb. 

1776 Bckney Hist. Mus. (17S9' I. v iii. 132 It appears that 
the union of two voic :s in octaves was called Magadizing 
hum a treble instrument of the name of Magadis, strung 
with double strings tuned octaves to each other. 1898 
Stained & Barrett Diet. Mus. '1 erms s.v., To Magadize. 
1 1 ) To play upon the magadis. (2) To play in octaves. 1901 
H. E. Wooldriuge Oxf. Hist. Mus. I. 44 The Greek prai 
lice of magadizing, in which, .lay the fundamental prim iple 
of Polyphony. Ibid. 47 In addition to the old magadized 
octal e the consonances of the fourth and filth were now sung 
in parallel movement. 

i Magar. Obs. rare- 1 . Some kind of ship. 
1590 Greene Oil. Fur. (1599) 4 Stately Argosies, Caluars, 
and Magars, hulkes of burden great. 

Magaseine, -sin, -son, obs. ff. Magazine. 

■I Maga-Stromancy. Obs. rare. [f. L. mag-us 

sec- Mage, Magic, Magos) + AsTKOMANCY.] A 
name invented by Gaule for: 'Magical astrology'. 

1652 Gaule Mag.tstrom. 202 If there were any congruity 
or consistency betwixt prophecy and magastromancy. 

So Maga-stroma:ncer, one who practises ' mag- 
astromancy '. Maga-stromaintic a., pertaining to 
' magastromancy'. 

1652 Gaule (title) llvs-iuurrta. The Mag-astro-mancer, 
or the Magicall-Astrologicall-Diviner Posed, and Puzzled. 
Ibid. 223 To what end serve the feigned mirables of nature 
but to fcigne the magastromantick art for the greatest 
mirable? tbid.369 Examples of the magastromancers fatall 
miseries, .are too many to be instanc't in at large. 

Magatapie, obs. form of Maggot-pie. 

Magazan, erron. form of Mazagan. 

i Magazinage. Obs. rare— °. (See quot.) 

1730 -6 Bailey vfolio) Pref., Magazinage .. the Hire or Rent 
of a Warehouse or Place for laying up Goods or Stores ; 
also the Warehouse, cic. itself. 

Magazinary (nuegazj-nari). nonce-wd. [I. 
Magazine sb. + -aky.] The office or place of 
production of a magazine. 

1825 Blackw. Mag. XV. 445 He In editorial gloom, In 
Colburn's magazinary, Gives each his destined room. 

Magazine (ma.'gazrn),j A . Forms: 6 magason, 
magosine, 6-7 magasin, -Bin, 7 magazen , (mag- 
gezzine, megazin(e, magaseine, magozin), 7-8 
magazeen(e, 6- magazine, [a. F. magasin (OF. 
magazin), It. magazzino (Sardinian magasintt, 
metathetically camasinu), Sp. magacen, a. Arab, 
^-li" makhazin, pi. of ^ysf makhzan storehouse, 
f. ^i. khazana to store tip. The Arab, word, 
with prefixed article al-, appears asSp. almagacen, 
almacen, Pg. armazem warehouse.] 

1. A place where goods are laid up j a storehouse 
or repository for goods or merchandise ; a ware- 
house, depot. Now rare. 

1583 J- Newbery Let.'m Purchas Pilgrims (1625) II. 1643 
That the Bashaw, neither any other Officer shall meddle 
with the goods, but that it may be kept in a Magosine. 
1588 T. Hickock tr. Frederick's Voy. 27 The merchants 
haue all one house or Magason.. and there they put all 
their goods of any valure. 1613 Purchas Pilgrimage vi. 
x 511 Vnder which Porches or Galleries [of the Church] 
are Magazines or Store-houses, wherein are kept lampes, 
oile, mats, and other necessaries. tyy.Gentl.Mag.1. Introd., 
This Consideration hasinduced several Gentlemen topromote 
a Monthly Collection to treasure up, as 111 a Magazine, the 
most remarkable Pieces on the Subjects aboveniention d. 
1768 Sterne Sent. Journ. (Rtldg.) 304 ( Tkt Rem*) Moos. 
Dessein came up with the key of the remise in his hand, 
and forthwith let us into his magazine of chaises. 1793 
Bmu Corr. (1844) IV. 143 No magazine, from the ware- 
houses of the East India Company to the grocer s and 
the baker's shop, possesses the smallest degree of saiety. 
1808 Pike Sources Mississ. 111. App. 23 A public magazine 
for provisions, where every farmer brings whatever gram 
and produce he may have for sale. 1875 Stanley 111 Con. 
temp. Rev. XXV. 489 Imported.. from the magazines of 
France and of Belgium, according to the last fashions ot 
Brussels or Paris. ... , 

tig. IS99 B. Jonson Ev. Man out of Hum. 11. in, What 
more thariheauenly pulchritude is this? What Magf'"f. 
or treasurie of bliss? <ii6io Healey Theophraslus (16361 
To Rdr., That great Magazine or Storehouse of all learning 


M. Cassaubon. J738 [G. Smith] Curious Rclat. II. 216 My 
V fiend ! the Rich are the Poor Man's Magazine. 1817 
Pari. Debates 352 A magazine of petitions had been opened 
in Scotland. 

b. transf. esp. of a country or district with 
reference to its natural products or of a city, etc., 
as a centre of commerce. 

1596 Raleigh Discov. Gviana 3 Guiana (the Magazin of 
all rich mettels 1 . 163a Lithgow Trav. iv. 165 Constan- 
tinople. .Aleppo. .and grand Cayro. .are the three Maggez- 
zines of the whole Empire. 1640 Digbv in Lismore Papers 
Ser. 11.(1888) IT. 133 Heconceaued that the City of London 
was the Magazine of money. 1650 Fuller Pisgah in. i. 
410 Timber they fetched from Mount Libanus (the maga* 
zeen of cedars). 1705 Addison Itaiy (1767) 196 (Route) The 
gr«at magazine for all kinds of treasure, is supposed to be 
the bed of the Tiber. 1787 Genii. Mag. LVII. 11. 1115/2 
The Dutch islands of Cura^oa and St. Eustatius are now 
converted into complete magazines for all kinds of European 
goods. 1833 L. Ritchie Wand, by Loire ioq Thcbourg of 
Chouze', set down in a perfect magazine of fruit and vege- 
tables, grain and wine. 

C. A portable receptacle containing articles of 
value. Now rare. 

1768 Sterne Sent. Journ. (RtldgJ 341 {Case Conscience) 
She opened her little magazine, and laid all her laces., 
before me. 1779-81 Johnson L. P., Thomson, He had re- 
commendations .. which he had tied up carefully in his 
handkerchief; but. .his magazine of credentials was stolen 
from him. 1861 Holland Less. Life viii. 120 The great 
army of little men that is yearly commissioned to go forth 
into the world with a case of sharp knives in one hand, and 
a magazine of drugs in the other. 

2. Mil. a. gen. A building in which is stored 
a supply of arms, ammunition and provisions for 
an army for use in time of war. b. spec. A place 
in which gunpowder and other explosives are 
stored in large quantities ; a powder magazine. 

1596 Spenser State Irel. Wks. (Globe) 669/2 Then would 
I wish that there should be good store of houses and maga- 
t-ins erected in all those greate places of garrison, and in all 
great townes, as well for the vittayling of souldiours and 
shippes, as for. .preventing of all times of dearthe. 1644 Nye 
Gunnery (1647) 72 A barrell of the best powder in the Maga- 
zin.-. 1667 Milton/'. L. iv. 816 A heap of nitrous Powder, 
laid Fit for the Tun som Magazin to store Against a rumord 
Warr. 1709 Pope Ess. Crit. 671 Thus useful arms in maga- 
zines we place, rt 1744 Swift Epigram Wks. 1824 XIV. 399 
Here Irish wit is seen ! When nothing's left that's worth de- 
fence, We build a magazine. 1769 Falconer Diet. Marine 
(1780', Magazine, a.. store-house, built in the fore, or after- 
part of a ship's hold, to contain the gunpowder. 1800 Wkl- 
UNGTONinGurw.Z>f^.(i8j7) I. 213, 1 have no power to order 
the repair of magazines, storerooms, &c. 1849 Pkescoi 1 
Peru (1850) II.23 * n another quarter they beheld one of those 
magazines destined for the army, filled with grain and with 
articles of clothing. 1868 Regui. a> Ord. Army p 1238 The 
reserve Ammunition will be kept in the Magazine. 1877 
A. B. Edwards Up Niie ix. 239 To provide a safe under- 
ground magazine for gunpowder. 

fig. 1653 R - Sanders P/iysiogu. 25 The Heart is the Maga- 
zine and Arsenal of Life. 1715-20 Pope I Had xn. 332 As 
when high Jove his sharp artillery forms, And opes his cloudy 
magazine of storms. 1750 Johnson Rambler No. 76 r 6 He 
has stored his magazine of malice with weapons equally 
sharp, a 1764 Lloyd Law Student Poet. Wks. 1774 I. 23 
While armed with these, the student views with awe His 
rooms become the magazine of Law. 

3. a. Mil. The contents of a magazine ; a store. 
Also collect, pi. (f rarely collect, sing.) : Stores, 
provisions, munitions of war; armament, military 
equipments. , 

1589 I'oy. Spaine <$• Portiugaie 17 Aboundant store of 
victualls. .which was confessed, .to be the beginning of a 
Magasin of all sorts of prouision for a new Voiage into 
England. 1591 Ralek;h Last Fight Rev. (Arb.) 16 Of 
which [Armada] the number of souldiers. .with all other their 
magasines of prouision, were put in print, a 1613 Overblhv 
Observ. Trav. (1626) n Megazinsof powder. 1644 in Rushw. 
/list. Coll. 111. II. 670 The Kings forces, .marcht away with 
their Artillery and Magazeen towards Oxford. 1666 Dryden 
Ann. Mirab. eclxxi, And bade him swiftly drive the ap- 
proaching fire From where our naval magazines were stored. 
1671 Milton Samson 1281 Thir Armories and Magazins. 
«774T. West A ntiq. ^"*r«<:i\s(i8o5)48Theytook most part of 
their arms., with a coup laden with magazeen, drawn by six 
oxen. 1781 Gibbon Dccl.% F. xxxi. III. 259 He used, with 
so much skill and resolution, a large magazine of darts and 
arrows, that [etc.]. 1810 Wellington in Gurw. Desp, (1838) 
VI. 27 A corps of 5000 men., had carried away a magazine of 
arms. \Zi\Ibid. X. 419 Whenever a magazine of provisions 
shall be taken from the enemy by the troops. 
fig- 1638 Hakek tr. Balzac's Lett. (vol. III.) 242, I take 
not upon me to contend with you in complements, .who. . 
have whole magasins of good words. 1663 Cowlky Misc., 
Chronicle, The Lace, the Paint. and warlike things That make 
up all their Magazins. 174a Vol ng Nt. Th. 11. 478 Speech 
burnishes our mental magazine; Brightens, for ornament ; 
and whets for use. 1836 Emerson Nature, Language Wks. 
(Bohn) II. 154 That which was unconscious truth, becomes 
. -a new weapon in the magazine of power. 

b. gen. A store, heap (of provisions, materials, 
etc.); ta stock of clothing, wardrobe. 

1615 H. Crooke Body of Man 6i Next vnder the Skin 
lyeth the Fat.. a Stowage or Magazine of nourishment 
against a time of dearth. 1624 Heyuood Captives 11. ii. in 
# Bullen O.Pl. IV. 145 That have no more left of a magazine 
Then these wett cloathes upon mee. 1637— Loud. Mt'rr. 
Wks. 1874 IV. 314 By which small mites to Magazines in- 
crease. 1661 Evelyn Futuifugium To Rdr.,The Deformity 
of so frequent Wharfes and Magazines of Wood, Coale, 
Boards, and other course Materials. 1669 J. Rose.£«&. Vine* 
yard (167 $> 34 A load of lime, to every ten loads of dung, will 
make an admirable compost . . but your magazine will require 
the maturity of two, or three years. 171a Akbuthnot John 
Bull 11. iv, She [Usury] had amassed vast magazines of all 


' sorts of things. 17x4 Gay Fan I. 243 Should you the Ward- 
robe's^ Magazine rehearse, And glossy Manteaus rustle in 
, thy Verse. 1719 De Foe Crusoe 1. x. (1840) 182 A .. 
J magazine of flesh, milk, butter, and cheese. 1771 Goldsm. 
Hist. Eng. III. 165 A magazine of coals were usually 
! deposited there. 1790 Bewick Hist. Quadrupeds (1807)419 
I Each Beaver forms its bed of moss, and each family lays in 
its magazine of winter provisions. 1828 Svn. Smith Wks. 
I (1859) II. 21/1 Distillation, too, always insures a magazine 
1 against famine. . . It opens a market for grain. 1849 Mac- 
' aulay Hist. Eng. ix. II. 437 In every asylum were collected 
magazines of stolen or smuggled goods. 
fig. 1^09 Sacheverell Serm. 15 Aug. 15 What a Maga- 
zine of Sin, what an Inexhaustible Fund of Debauchery, . . 
does any Authur of Heresie. .set up ! 1795 Burke Let. to 
\V. Elliot Wks. VII. 348 The magazine of topicks and 
common-places which I suppose he keeps by him. 1836-7 
Sir W. Hamilton Metaph. (1877) I. ii. 23 An individual may 

twssess an ample magazine of knowledge, and still be little 
>etter than an intellectual barbarian. 
+ 4. A ship laden with stores, a victualling ship ; 
more fully magazine{s ship. (Cf. F. magasins, 
'the store-ships which attend on a fleet of men of 
war', Falconer Diet. Marine, Fr. Sea-Terms 17S0.) 
1624 Capt. Smith Virginia iv. 155 Some pety Magazines 
came this Summer. Ibid. v. 189 About this time arriued 
the Diana with a good supply of men and prouision, and 
the first Magazin euer seene in those lies. Ibid. 194 The 
Magazin ship, .came into the Harbour. Ibid. 195 He 
made . . a large new storehouse of Cedar for the yeerely 
Magazines goods. Ibid. 196 The Magazins ship. Ibid. 198 
Constrained to buy what they wanted, and sell what they 
had at what price the Magazin pleased. 

5. f a. Used in the titles of books, with the sense 
{Jig. from 1 and 2): A storehouse of information 
on a specified subject or for a paiticular class of 
persons. Obs. 

1639 R. Ward, Animadversions of Warre ; or, a Militarie 
Magazine of the trvest rvles..for the Managingof Warre. 
1669 Stuhmy, The Mariners Magazine. 1705 G. Shslley, 
The Penman's Magazine : or, a New Copy-book, of the 
Knglish, French and Italian Hands. 1719K. Hayes, Nego- 
tiator's Magazine. 1802 J. Allen, Spiritual Magazine, or 
Chilian's Grand Treasure. 

b. A periodical publication containing articles 
by various writers ; chiefly, a periodical publication 
intended for general rather than learned or pro- 
fessional readers, and consisting of a miscellany of 
critical and descriptive articles, essays, works of 
fiction, etc. 

i71i(titlc) 1 "he Gentleman's Magazine: or. Monthly Intelli- 
gencer. [Cf. quot. 1731 in sense 1.] 174a Pope Dune. 1. 42 
Hence Journals, Medleys, Mere'ries, Magazines; ..and all 
the Grub-street race. 1748 Lady Lcxbokolgh Let. to S/ien- 
stone 28 Apr., Nothing can be more just than the criticism 
upon the Play in the Magazine. 1758-65 Goldsm. Ess., Spec. 
Mag., It is the life and soul of a magazine never to be long 
dull upon one subject. 1798 A. Tilloch (title) The Philo- 
sophical Magazine. 1819 Bykon Juan 1. ccflri, All other 
magazines of art or science, Daily, or monthly, or three 
monthly. 1823 (title) The Mechanics' Magazine. 1857 
Mks. Mathews Tea-Table T. I. 2 A Magazine is the fancy 
fair of literature— a reader's veritable bazaar, i860 (title) 
Uaily's Monthly Magazine of Sports and Pastimes. 1880 
M'Carthy(/«>« Times IV. lix. 304 He wrote largely on the 
subject in reviews and magazines. 

6. In various transferred uses of sense 2. fa. A 
chamber for a supply of bullets in a 'magazine 
wind-gun \ b. A ciiamber in a repeating rifle, 
machine-gun, etc., containing a supply of cartridges 
which are fed automatically to the breech, c. 
A case in which a supply of cartridges is carried. 
d. A reservoir or supply-chamber in a machine, 
stove, battery, etc. e. Magnetic magazine : see quot. 

a. 1744 Desaguliers Exper. Philos. II. 399 The small 
or shooting Barrel, which receives the Bullets one at a time 
from the Magazine, being a serpentine Cavity, wherein the 
Bullets, .nine or ten, are lodged. 

b. x868 Rep. to Govt. U. S. Munitions War 28 Drop 
the cartridges into the outer magazine, kill foremost, to 
the numl>er of seven. 1884 H. Bono Treat. Small Arms 
89 Magazine arms in which the cartridges are placed in a 
tube or magazine under the barrel. 1890 Henty With 
Lee hi I'irginia 153 Many of the men carried repeating 
rifles, and the magazines were filled before these were slung 
across the riders' shoulders. 

C. 1893 Greener Breech Loader 184 Cartridges are best 
carried in a magazine of solid leather. 

d. ,1873 J. Richards Wood-working Factories 45 Ex- 
hausting the air from the magazine by fans. 1884 Knight 
Diet. Mech., Suppl. 570/2 As in the Darnells' battery, which 
has a magazine of sulphate of copper crystals. 1893 Botham- 
ley Ilford Man. Photogr. xix. 136 Hand-cameras, .in which 
the plate-reservoir or magazine is detachable. 

e. 1870 Atkinson tr. Ganofs Physics <ed. 4 1 602 A mag- 
netic battery or magazine consists of a number of magnets 
joined together by their similar poles. 

7. attrib. and Comb., as (sense 5 b) magazine 
article, -editor ', -monger, paper, verse, world, -writer, 
writing^ (senses 1, 2 j magazine house, ^store- 
house; (sense 1 c) f magazine t>ag\ sense 6 b) 
magazine arms ', rifle, weapon ; magazine battery, 
a voltaic battery witli a magazine containing crys- 
tals to keep the solution saturated (Knight Diet, 
Mech. Suppl. 1884) ; magazine camera, a camera ! 
in which the plates for exposure are put in in | 
batches ; magazine clothing, woollen clothing ! 
to be put on before entering a powder magazine ; j 
magazine day, the day upon which periodical j 
magazines are issued to the trade ; magazine gun, I 


! T (a) (see quot. i/4-f\ also called magazine wind- 
gun (obs.); \_b) a gun (i.e. either a cannon or a 
rifle etc.) provided with a ' magazine ' (sense 6 b) ; 
f magazine ship (see 4 ; magazine stove (see 
quot.) ; magazine work, {a) wiiting for maga- 
zines ; [6) Printing, setting up type for magazines. 
1868 Rep. to Govt. (■'. S. Munitions War 19 These car- 
tridges cannot with safety be used in ^magazine arms. 1884 
[see 6b]. 1854 S. Lover Handy Andy (ed. 4) Pref., The 
early pages were written.. as a *magazine article. 1681 
Chktham Anglers Vadc-m. xxxiv. (1689) 185 The Angler 
must always have in readiness a large *Magazine Bag or 
Budget plentifully furnished with the following materials. 
1893 Beginner's Guide to Photogr. (ed. 5) 130 The . . 
-Magazine Camera was highly extolled. .as least compli- 
cated of Reservoir Cameras. 1876 Voyle & Stevksscn 
Milit. Diet. 558 All persons employed in magazines, .will. . 
change their own clothes and boots for "magazine clothing 
and slippers. 1858 Simmonds Diet. Trade,* Magazine-day : 
lfyz 1-orster Life Dickens I. 129 The magazine-day of 
that April month, I remember, fell upon a Saturday. 1877 
W. T. Thornton Word for Wordfr. Horace Pref. 8 Fail- 
ing to discover a *Magazine-Editor good-natured enough 

> to print any of my versions. 1744 Desaguliers E.xpcr. 

I Philos. II. 399 An ingenious Workman call'd L. Colbe 
has very much hnprov'd it [sc. the old Wind-Gun], by 
making it a "Magazine Wind-Gun; so that 10 Bullets 

! are t so lodg'd in a Cavity . . that they may be . . suc- 
cessively shot. Ibid., The Magazine-Gun, as he calls it. 
1880 Eticycl. Brit. XI. 284/2 The Vetterli gun . . isa repeater 

' or magazine gun. a 1649 Drumm. of Hawth. Consid. to 
Parlt. Wks. (1711) 185 That.. the town's * magazine-houses 
be furnished with arms. 1767 S. Paterson Auot/ier Trav. 
II. 134 A nuted book-maker, "magazine-monger, and anti- 
critic of the eighteentli-century. 1833 Eraser's Mag. VIII. 
482/1 He had written some smart "magazine papers, bound 
up in a volume called Pelham. 1876 Voyle & Stevenson 
Milit. Diet. 344 2 the best known "magazine rifles are the 
Spencer, the Winchester, and the Vetterli rifles, a 1654 in 
Wotton Lett. (1654) II. 91 Toerectand set up. .a Company, 
to be called The East Indian Company of Scotland, making 
their first *Magazin Storehouse . . in some parts of our Kealm 
of Ireland. 1875 Knight Diet. Mech., *Magazine-sto7'e, 
one in which is a fuel-chamber which supplies coal to the 
fire as that in the grate burns away. 1891 E. Peacock 
N. Brendon I. 49 Please don't quote silly "magazine verses. 

1884 Pall Mall G. 28 Aug. 5/1 The information as to "maga- 
zine or repeating weapons is very meagre. 1831 Cahlyle 
in Froude Life 11882)11.151 "Magazine work is belowstreet- 
sweeping as a trade. 1891 Labour Commission Gloss., 
Magazine Work, printing work paid by the 100 lines. 1833 
Eraser's Mag. VIII. 482/1 He [Bulwer] came into our 
"magazine world with an impertinent swagger. 1787 P. 
Maty tr. Riesbecfrs Trav. Germ. II. xlv. 206 Reviewers, 
"magazine-writers. 1835 Makkyat Otla Podr. xxx, 'Maga- 
zine writing. .is the mo>t difficult of all writing. 

Magazine, v. Now rare, [f. Magazine sb.] 

1. trans. To lay up in or as in a magazine or 
storehouse. Also with ///. 

1643 Let. in Boys Sandivich (1792) 754 Those arms, .shall 
he magazined up, in such convenient place as shall lie 
thought fit. 1651 R. Child in Hartlib's Legacy '1655) 93 
It isa great Deficiency in England, that we do not magazine 
or store up Corn. 1656 S. H. Golden Law 97 Thus the 
Sweden King, so the great Alexander, . . did contract and 
magazine al the Honour &c. in their own names, which . . 
their Commanders, Officers, and Souldiery had a great share 
in. a 1734 North Exam. 1. iii. (1740) 222 Such Secrets .. 
that, being magazined up in a Diary, might serve for 
Materials, as.. might serve to build up his Plot. 

2. intr. To conduct a magazine. 
a 1763 [implied in the///. a. below]. 

Hence Magazining vbl. sb. and///, a. 

a 1763 H\hom Pas*. Partuip. Petit, i. Poems 1773 I. 106 
Urban or Sylvan, . .thou foremost in the Fame Of Maga/in- 
ing Chiefs. i86s Dana Man. Geol. iv. 747 The Vegetable- 
Kingdom is a provision for the storing away or magazining 
of force for the Animal Kingdom. 

Magaziner (magazrnaj). rare. [f. Magazine 
sb. + -er!.] One who writes articles for a magazine. 

1758-65 Goldsm. Ess., Spec. Mag., If a magaziner be dull 
upon the Spanish war, he soon has us up again with the 
Ghost in Cock-lane, i&yx Eraser s Mag. IX. 124 Consider- 
ing Macaulay as a magaziner, his papers in Knight's 
Quarterly were in general full of talent. 

Magazinery. rare. [f. as prec. + -ekv.] The 
profession of a magazine-writer. 

1833 Eraser's Mag. VIII. 482/1 We, the old long-trained 
veterans of magazinery. 

Magazinish (ma-gaz/'nij), A [f. as prec. + 
•XMK.1 Having the characteristics of what is usually 
found in magazines. 

1794 Goucnooa Lett. (1895) I. 117 The mediocrity of the 
eight first lines is most miserably magazinisli. 1883 Black 
Shandon Bells x.wi, 'It is very ', fie said. 
'Why should the magazines monopolize literature?' she 

Magazinism (ma:gaz/"-nizm). [f. as prec. + 
-ism.] The profession of writing for magazines. 

1882 Spectator 22 Apr. 533 Magazinism .. is threatening 
now-a-days to become merely journalism writ large. 1889 
Sat. Rev. n June 761/1 Is editing and conducting a maga- 
zine magazinism ? 

Magazinist (ma-gazrnist). [f. as prec. + 
-1st.] One who writes for magazines. 

1821 Blackio. Mag. X. 557 Christopher, Cock of the 
North, Prince of Periodicals, and Monarch of Magazinists. 
1833 Dk Qltncev Lett. Vug. Man iii. Wks. 1890 X. 43 
Reviewer, magazinist and author of all work. 1880 M. 
Coi.i.iss Th. in Garden I. 102 The modern magazinist isa 
pitiable poetaster. 

Magaziuy (msegufai), a. [f. as prec. + -Y 1 .] 

Of the nature of, or suitable for, a magazine. 

1885 Sat. Rev. 9 May 621/1 Not unamusing, though a 




little' magaziny', to use a word of reproach. iSg+Athen&um 
22 Sept. 383/2 We have heard his writings called ' shallow ' 
and ' magaziny '. 

Mag'dala (moe'gdala). The name of a town 
in Abyssinia, where a victory was gained in 186S 
by General Napier. Used attrib. for the name of 
a red aniline dye. 

1875 lire's Diet. Arts (ed. 7). 1890 Thorpe Diet, Appl. 
Chew. I. 233/2 Magdala red... This old and very beautiful 
colouring matter is the saffranhie of the naphthalene series. 

Magdalen, Magdalene (mae'gd&len, -lib). 

[ad. Keel. Latin {Maria) Magdalena, -lend, a. Gr. 
[Wlapia 17) MaySakrjvq, [Mary) of Magdala (a town 
on the Sea of Galilee). The vernacular form of 
the word (adopted through Fr.) is Maudlin ; the 
pronunciation ;mg*dlin) represented bythis spelling 
is still current for the names of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, and Magdalene College, Cambridge.] 

1. a. The Magdalenie : the appellation of a'dis- 
ciple of Christ named Mary, 'out of whom went 
seven devils* (Luke viii. 2). She has commonly 
been supposed to be identical with the unnamed 
' sinner' of Luke vii. 37, and therefore appears in 
Western hagiology as a harlot restored to purity 
and elevated to saintship by repentance and faith. 
(In the full designation Mary Magdalen e the 
article is omitted.) For early examples see also 
Maudlin sb. 

c 1386 Chaucer Pars. T. ? 428 As Iudas grucched ayeines 
the Magdaleyne. 1500-20 Dunbar Poews xxxvii. 18 The 
Magdalene and Mare Salamee Abasit wer in spirit. 1850 
S. Dohf.ll Rowan ii, Heaven, Where angels hail the 
Magdalen. 1865 Plu.mptre Master A> Scholar 93 The 
twain, The sinner and the .Magdalene, they joyed To think 
that [etc.]. 

b. A representation of Mary Magdalen in art. 

1661 Evelyn Diary 9 Aug., Many excellent pictures, 
especialy rhe Magdalen of Caracci. 1851 Ruskin Stones 
l'i-n. (1894) I. 160 But a smooth Magdalen of Carlo Dolci 
with a tear on each cheek, .rarely fails of being verily, often 
deeply, felt for the time. 

2. transf. One whose history resembles that of 
the Magdalen ; esp. a reformed prostitute. 

1697 Dennis Plot A> no Plot Epil., I, your young, buxom 
Magdalens despise, She-Saints, that have sev'n Devils in 
their eyes. [1737 Bailey vol. II, Magdalens, an order of 
nuns, or rather worn out and penitent courtesans at Rome, 
upon whom a revenue was settled by Pope Clement VIII.] 
1758 Plan for esta/dishing Magdalen-Charity 36 The 
General Committee shall empower three of their number to 
visit the wards, toenquireinto the behavior of the Magdalens 
[etc.]. 1777 Sheridan Trip Scarb. Prol., Those writers 
well and wisely use their pens Who turn our wantons into 
Magdalens. a 1882 Trollope Antobiog. xviiL (1883) II. 180 
A poor abased creature.. with very little of the Magdalene 
about her— because though there may be Magdalenes they 
are not often found. 

3. A home for the refuge and reformation of 
prostitutes. [Short for Magdalen hospital^ 

1766 Entick London IV. 311 In Prescot-street..\ve find 
a modern institution, .founded by the name of the Mag- 
dalen. 1792 MAKY\VoLLSTOSECR./v > /^A/.r Worn, iv. 155 Many 
innocent girls . .are . . ' ruined ' before they know the difference 
between virtue and vice,. .Asylums and Magdalenes are 
not the proper remedies for these abuses. 1859 C. Barker 
Assoc. Prine.x. 1 The numerous temples, hospitals, .. and 
magdalens which then covered our land. 

4. The name of a kind of peach. [Cf. Maudlix.] 
1706 London & Wise Retir\i Gard'nerl. 1. viii. 38 The 

White Magdalen has a.. sugar'd winy Taste. iyig~Compl. 
Card. p. viij. There are sometimes .. but scurvy Peaches 
among the Minions, Magdalens, Violets, Admirables, &c. 
17^5 Museum Rnsticum IV. iv. 17 The magdalene is gene- 
rally a vigorous tree. 

1 5. Some plant. Obs. [Cf. Maudlin.] 
C 159° J; Eldred in Hakluyt's Voy. (1599) II. 1. 270 These 
camels will Hue very well two or three dayes without water : 
their feeding is on thistles, worme-wood, magdalene, and 
other strong weeds. 

6. attrib. and Comb., as (sense i) Magdalen like 
adj., -look, -style; Magdalen day, the feast of 
St. Mary Magdalen, 22 July ; Magdalen asylum, 
charity, home, hospital, house = sense 3; Mag- 
dalen (also Maudlin) pear, some variety of pear ; 
Magdalen ward, the ward (fa) a hospital) devoted 
to the reception of * Magdalens \ 

1869 Lecky Europ. Mor. iv. (1877) II. 08 *Magdalen asy- 
lums and foundling hospitals. 1758 (title) A plan for 
establishing a Charity. House . . for the reception of repenting 
Prostitutes, to be called the *Magdalen Charity. 1485 Cer- 
tificate in Surtecs Misc. (1890) 46 The Sunday after be 
* Magdaleyne day. 1901 Daily Chron. 14 Aug. c/ 7 These 
institutions are *Magdalene homes. 1758 Ann. Reg., 
Chron. 10 Aug. (1783) 104/2 The *Magdalen hospital in 
Goodman s fields, .was opened. 1758 {title) The plan of the 

Magdalen House for the reception of penitent Prostitutes. 
1776 Carlisle Mag. 21 Sept. 169 Obtaining admittance into 
the Magdalen-house. 1794 Charlotte Smith Wandering 
of U anvtck 169 With all her penitent looks, and *Magda- 
ill f graces. i 75 » Sir H. Beaumont Crito n That 

Magdalen-look in some fine Faces after weeping. 1741 
Lowpl. Faw.-Piece 11. iii. 388 And these Pears: [Aug.] .. 
Gross Oignonet, *Magdalen Pear, Cassolette. 1765 Ann. 
K<X-,fharac. 59/1 She wrote a letter to her husband 
d hstiolles, in the true *Magdalen style; intreating him to 
receive her again. 

t Magdaleon. Pharmacy. Obs, [ad. med.L. 
magdaleon-em, ?nagdaleo (whence F. magdalton, 
16th c.) ; also magdaliwu, f. Gr. /w^SaAja, dough 

or bread-crumb (Galen), later form of arrofiaySakta 
soft bread to wipe one's hands upon at table, f. 
airofiaaoetv to wipe.] A cylindrical roll of plaster, 
salve, or any medicinal substance. 

^1450 ME. Med. Bk. iHeinrich) 182 When bou hast 
medled al by poudre, ben forme ber of by inagdaleones in 
newe wyt leber or in good pauper. 1646 Sir T. Browne 
Pseud. Ep. 11. iii. 74 Applying the magdaleon or roale unto 
the Needle it would both stir and attract it. 1670 W. 
Simpson Hydrol. Ess. 108 We.. melted it, and in small lead 
pipes cast it into magdaleons. .resembling common sulphur. 
1673 E. Brown 'Prav. Germ. etc. (1677) 168 We saw also the 
manner of casting the Brimstone into Rolls, or Magdaleons. 
1725 I.radlf.v Fam. Diet. s.v. Sulphur, They . .liquify it 
JsnlphurJ by Fire, then pour it into Moulds, and form it into 
Sticks or Pieces, call'd abroad Magdaleons. 1731 Bailey 
Vol. II, Magdaleon, a roll of salve or plaister. 

Magdeburg centuries, hemispheres : see 


Mage (ra£'dg). arch. [Anglicized ' form of 
Mac us. Cf. F. mage (OF. had fnagne).'] 

1. A magician ; transf. a person of exceptional 
wisdom and learning. 

c 1400 Afiol. Poll. 95 We callen be magis, boo bat calculun 
bi be sternis bingis to cum, wening as pel were Goddis 
gouernours. 1586 T. I*. La Primavd. Fr. Acad. 1. 157 
Plato^after he was well instructed by Socrates, sought out 
the mages and wise men of Egypt, by whose nuanes he 
saw the booke's of Moises. 1590 Spknser /•'. Q. 111. iii. 14 
The hardy Mayd :. the dreadfull Mage there fownd Depe 
busied bout worke of wondrous end. 1611 DoNNE Anat. 
World 390 Th' Egyptian Mages, i860 Forster Gr. Re- 
monstr. 63 Though such circumstances worked well for 
the Mage [Henry VII] upon the English throne, he did nut 
with all his craft [etc.]. 1869 Tfnnvsox Cowing of Arthur 
279 And there I saw mage Merlin. 

t 2. One of the magi : see Magus i. Obs. 

1585 T. Washington* tr. Nicholays Voy. iv. ii. 115 Their 
Mages .. annoynted their sacrifice with oyle. 1594 R. 
Ashlky tr. Lays le Roy 31 b, As we will declare hereafter 
when we speake of the Persians, and of their Mages. 

Magecolle, variant of Machecolk v. Obs. 

Mageirics, -istic: see Magirics, -istic. 

I Magel. Obs. 'OnlyinTrevisa.; Alscmag g ed, 
magil, magyl. V Fictitious, fabulous. 

1387 Trkvisa Higden (Rolls) V. 337 Here William telleb 
a magel [v. r. maged] tale wib oute evidence. Ibid. 339 
Madde men telle magel [v. rr. magil, magged] tales, 

Magellan (mage'lan). The Eng. form of the 
name of a famous Portuguese navigator, Fernao 
de Magalh2es (? 1470-1521), the first European 
discoverer who passed through the channel now 
called the Straits of Magellan into the PacificOcean; 
used attrib. (or in possessive) = Magellanic. 

1638 J. Chil.mead Treat. Globes 11. vii. (Hakl. Soc. 1 ! 67 
Our mariners used to call them Magellanes Clouds. 1671 
Ogilby Amer. 474 viarg., Description of the Magellan 
Straights. 1696 Phillips (ed. 5), Magellan's Clouds, two 
small Clouds of the same colour with Via Lactea, not far dis- 
tant from the South Pole. 1840 R. H. Dana Bef. Mast v. 9 
The Magellan Clouds consist of three small nebula: in the 
southern part of the heavens. 1867 Smyth Sailor's Word-bk., 
Magellan Jacket, a name given to a watch-coat with a hood, 
worn in high latitudes. 

b. = ' Magellan's Straits', ? nonce-use. 

1787 Burns To W. Simpson vii, Ur whare wild-meeting 
oceans boil Besouth Magellan. 

Hence f Magella nian a. = next. 

1698 Fryer Ace. E. India %■ P. 1 The Magellanian Clouds. 

Magellanic fmcegelarnik), a. [ad. mod.L. 
Magellanic -its, f. Magellan : see -IC.] Pertaining 
to or named after Magellan (see prec), used in 
the appellations of regions discovered by him, 
nautical objects, etc. 

Magellanic bark, a kind of Peruvian bo>k. Magel- 
lanic Clouds, two large globular cloudy spots formed 
of vast numbers of nebula; and clusters of stars, visible 
in the southern hemisphere. Magellanic fox (see quotj. 
Magellanic jacket, a sailor's waich-coat with a hood. 
Magellanic regions, those regions of Patagonia visited 
by Magellan. t Magellanic Sea, the South Pacific 
Ocean. Magellanic Straits, the straits through which 
Magellan passed from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 

1775 Sir E. Barry Observ. Wines 221 An equal quantity 
of the Peruvian and 'Magellanic bark. 1685-6 Mackrith 
Let. 5 Feb. in Boyle's Wks. (1744) V. 651 The "Magellanick 
clouds . . consist of a greater and a lesser. 1880 Proctor 
Poetry Astron. xii. 434 The Magellanic Clouds are roughly 
spherical in shape. 1837 J. E. Gray in Mag. Nat. Hist, 
Nov. 578 Vnlpcs wagellanica (*Magellanic Fox). Greyish, 
varied with black on the back [etc.]. Inhabits Magellan's 
Straits. 1773 Hawkksworth Voy. II. 40 Each of them 
received what is called a *Magellanic jacket and a pair 
of trowsers. The jacket is made of a thick woollen 
stuff called Fearnought. 1771 Ann. Reg. 2/2 That, .right 
which they [the Spaniards] pretend to all the ^Magellanic 
regions. 1602 Metamorfh. Tabacco (1863) 17 The "Ma- 
gellanick sea her visions brought. 1708 Brit. Apollo No. 91. 
2/2 The Magellanic Sea. 1696 J. Edwards Demoustr. 
Exist. <$■ Proz'id. God 1. 231 The people about the *Megal- 
lanick Streights are white. 

Magenta (magenta). The name of a town 
in Northern Italy where, in 1859, the Austrians 
were defeated by the French and Sardinians. Used 
for the name of a brilliant crimson aniline dye, 
discovered shortly after the date of the battle. 

i860 R. Smithes Patent n Aug. in Newton's Lond. Jml. 
Arts % Set. (1861) XIII. 225 What is called ' Magenta red ', 
. .may be obtained as follows. 1861 R. Hunt in St. James's 
Mag. I. 43 The much-admired tones of the Mauve and 
Magenta. 1863 W. Roberts in Proc. Roy. Soc. XII. 481 

On Peculiar Appearances exhibited by lilood-corpuscies 
under the influence of Solutions of Magenta and Tannin. 
1891 Truth 10 Dec. 1240/2 Velvet of a peculiarly bright 
and daring tone of dahlia red, almost a magenta. 
b. attrib. passing into adj. 

1875 HUXLEY & Martin Elem. Biol. (1877) 7 Run in 
magenta solution under the cover-glass. 1877 Reade // 'out, 
/later ix. I. 208 He wore .. a magenta tie that g;»ve Zoe 
a pain in the eye. 1896 Harrik Ma?g. Ogihy ix. 178, 1 
used to wear a magenta frock and a white pinafore. 
C. Qualifying other designations of colour. 

1882 Garden 29 Apr. 288/2 Tulips. .Proserpine, magenta- 
pink. Ibid. 298/3 The flowers, .a glowing magenta-crimson. 

Mager, variant of MAUfiKK. 

Mageram, obs. form of Makjoram. 

Magery, obs. form of Maugre. 

Mageste, -ical, obs. ff. Majesty, Majestical. 

Magest- : see Magist-. 

tMagg,^. 1 Obs.rare~ x . [Cf.MAGGLE.] trans. 
To mangle. 

a 1400-50 Alexander 1268 (Ashm. MS.) pen moumes all 
be Messedones. . For maistris Si mynistris menere & grettir, 
pat was in morsels magged [Dub/in MS. made] & martrid 
a hundreth. 

Magg imajg), v.- Sc. [?f. Mag sb.'-, magpie.] 
trans. TO pilfer. 

1818 Scott Hrt. Midi, xlii, I hae made a clean house o' 
Jenny llalchristie and her niece. They were a bad pack 
steal'd meat ami mault, and loot the carters magg the coaU. 

Maggecl nia-gd), </. Kant. See quot. 

1867 Smyth Sailor's 11 'ord-bk., Magged, worn, fretted, and 
stretched rope, as a magged brace. 

Magger, Magget, variants of Maugre, Magi; i >t. 

Maggezzine, obs. form of Magazine. 

Maggie mae*gi), [f. Mag sb* + -ie.] 

1. Sc. A. girl. 

1603 Phi lotus cxxxvi, ^e trowit to get ane burd of blisse, 

To haue ane of tliir Maggies. 1819 G. Beattie Ketty 
Pert Poems (1826) 83 Troth, little profit has she made By 
fisher maggies. 

2. iSf. Local name for the Common Guillemot 
{Alca troile). 

1885 in Swainson Provinc. Names Birds. 

3. Rifle-shooting. = Magpie 7, Mag sb.- 3. 

1901 Daily Chron. 22 July 7/2 The Englishman fired 
again, and once more it was only a ' maggie '. 

Magging (mse-gin), vbl. sb. slang, [f. Mag 
v. + -i.N'G 1.] Chattering, talking. 

1814 PegGE Suppl. to Grose, Magging, prating, chattering. 
a 1845 Hood Sweep's Complaint 34 But I'm bound the 
members as silenced us, in doing it had plenty of magging. 
1849 Alb. Smith Pottleton Leg. vii. 48 ' It's a pity she's 
so deaf. ..'Oh, it's a great comfort, sir. .. It stops all 
magging'. 1864 E. Yates Broken to Harness xx,\, The 
chatter and magging of these silly women. 

Maggie, v. Sc. Obs. Also 6 maggill, 
magel, 7 maigle. [Of obscure etymology : con- 
nexion with Mangle v. is difficult to justify.] 
trans. To mangle, maul, damage. 

1456 Sia G. Have Law Arms (S.T.S.) 278 Gif it hapnyt 
ony. .man to be slayn in felde, and sa magglit that his visage 
mycht nocht be knawin. 1500-20 Dunbar Poews lix. 3 A 
refyng soneof rakyng Minis Hes magellit my making. 1513 
Douglas sEneis, Time, etc. of Trans/. 24 Bot redis leill. 
and tak gud tent in tyme, ^he nowder maggill nor mis- 
metir my ryme. 1570 Levins Manip. 10 26 To Maggie, 
mac tare, excamificare. ibid. 127/24 To Maggil, viactitate. 

Hence Ma-ggled///. a. 

1513 Douglas Aineisw. viii. 39 King Priamus son, with 
body tore and rent, Thair he beheld, and creuell mag lit 
face, a 1555 Lyndesay Tragedie 385 Lyke doytit Doctoris 
new cum out of A then is, And mummyll ouer ane pair of 
maglit matenis. 1603 Philotns cliii, My maiglit face maks 
mee to feill, That myne man be the same [i. e. a devil]. 

Maggot 1 (mse'g^t). Forms: 4, 6 magotte, 

5 magat, maked, 5-6 mag(g)ote, 5-7, 9 magot, 

6 mag(g ette, magot(t)e, 7 magget, 6- maggot. 
[Prob. related in some way to the synonymous 
ME. mafiek Maddocij ; but the exact formation is 
not easy to deternrfne. 

The 15th c. form maked (only once, in a glossary) may be 
a metathetic alteration of maSek, madek ; but even if so, it 
may be only an individual blunder, and in any case it seems 
unlikely to be the source of the mod. form; more probably 
it represents an occasional pronunciation of maggot {cf. 
mod. Somerset tnacket for Maggot*). Possibly the form 
viak t Mawk (a variant of Haddock) may have suggested 
a jocular application of the female nickname Maggot for 
Margaret (cf. Maggot' and the north midland dial, dick 
for a lousej.] 

1. .A worm or grub of the kind formerly supposed 
to be generated by corruption ; chiefly applied to 
the larva of a dipterous fly, esp. those of the 
cheese-fly and the flesh-fly or ' blue-bottle \ Red 
maggot-, the larva (destructive to corn) of the 

1398 Trevtsa Barth. De P. R. xvm. cxv. (1495) 856 Ma- 
gottes ben wormes that brede of corrupt and rot yd moysture 
in flesshe. c 1440 Promp. Parv. 321 (s.v. Make) Winchester 
MS., Magat, may, or math, tarnn/s, cimex {Pliillipps MS. 
and Pynson c 1500 have magot]. c 1475 Pict. I 'oc. in Wr.- 
Wiilcker 767/5 Hie tariuus [read tannus], hie si?nax I? = 
cimex], a maked. 1496 Fysshynge W, Angle (1883) 29 In 
Juyll take.. the codworme & maggotes vnto Mighelmas. 
c 1515 Cocke Lorelfs B. 2 His hosen gresy upon his thyes, 
That place for magottes was very good. 1543 Boorde 
Dyetary xiii, In High Alemen the chese whiche is full 
of magotes is called there the best chese. x6oa Shaks. 
Ham. iv. iii. 24 Your v^rm is your onely Emperor for 
diet. We fat all creatures else to fat vs, and we fat our 




selfe for Magots. 1663 Bonn ffiuf. 1. iii. 1276 But I deny 
they are the same, More then a .Maggot and I am. 1698 
G. Thomas Pensilvania (1848) 22 Sheep, .are generally free 
from those infectious Diseases.. the Rot, Scab, or Mag- 
gots. 1774 Goi.dsm. Nat. Hist.(iyj6) VIII. 4 Caterpillars 
may be easily distinguished from worms or maggots, by 
the number of their feet. 1859 Darwin Orig. Spec. xiv. 
(1873) 387 The larva or maggot of a fly, namely the Ceci- 
domyia, producing asexually other larva:. 1867 F. Francis 
Angling i. (1880) 27 Maggots, or gantles, as they are more 
commonly called by metropolitan anglers. 1871 Tyndall 
Fragm. Sci. (1879) II. xiii. 293, I jumped to the conclusion 
that these maggots had been spontaneously generated in 
the meat. 1886 Times 18 Aug. 10/6 The wheat midge 
. .produces the red maggots which so seriously damage the 
ripening ears of corn. 

fig. 1649 (" 7 - Daniel Triuarch., Hen. /Fccclxxi, The Mag- 
Rots of the Court Eate into favour ; where they bred, they 
bite. 1780 Cowper Progr. Er?: 326 Ye pimps. .Who fasten 
without mercy on the fair, And suck, and leave a crawling 
maggot there. 1809 E. S. Barrett Setting Sun II. 125 
The disgusting scene of the maggots of avarice, corruption, 
and meretricious influence preying on the state. 

2. A whimsical or perverse fancy; a crotchet. 

a 1625 Fletcher Women Pleased in. iv, Are not you mad, 
my friend ? . . Have not you Maggots in your braines ? 
c 1645 Howell Lett. (1688) II. 328 There's a strange Magot 
hath got into their Brain. 1678 Dryden Limberliam v. i, 
What new maggot's this; you dare not, sure, be jealous! 
1685 S Wesley (title) Maggots; or Poems on several 
subjects. 1693 Shadwell Volunteers v. Wks. 1720 IV. 480 
Blunt Ha Fellow ! what dost thou mean by a maggot ? 
Hop. Sir, a little concern of mine in my way, a little whim, 
or so, Sir. 1717 Prior Alma 1. 400 Your Horace owns, he 
various writ, As wild or sober maggots bit. 1784 Burns 
Common PI. Bk. August, One who spends the hours, .with 
Ossian, Shakspeare, .. &c ; or, as the maggot takes him, 
a gun, a fiddle, or a song to make or mend. 1802 Wolcot 
(P. Pindar) Pitt <y his Statue Wks. 1812 IV. 501 Soon as a 
maggot crept into my head I caught a stump of pen and 
put it down. 1816 Scott Antiq. xxxviii, For a" the non- 
sense maggots that ye whiles take into your head, ye are 
the maist wise and discreet o' a' our country gentles. _ 1898 
D. C. Murray Tales 255 She's got some maggot in her 
head about being loved for her own sake. 

f b. Fancifalness. Obs. rare. 

1701 Collier M. Anton, etc. 257 A handsome young Lady 
..dress'd like Quality, but not to any degree of Magot or 


c. Proverb, 

1687 Miege Gt. Er. Diet. it. s.v., I shall <\o it, when the 
magget bites. Je leferai, quand il m y en prendra envie. 
*j*d. Used in the names of many dance-tunes. Obs. 

1716 Dancing-Master (ed. 16) 179 Betty's Maggot. Ibid. 
1 So Mr. Bevendge's Maggot, /bid. 191 Huntington's Mag- 
got. Ibid. 203 Drapers Maggot. Ibid. 211 Mr. Lane's 
Maggot Ibid. 224 Captain's Maggot. Ibid. 245 My Lord 
Byron's Maggot Ibid. 258 Carpenters Maggot. _ Ibid. ■?(>!, 
George's Maggot [etc.]. 1719 Ibid. II. 75 [ten similar titles]. 

3. A whimsical or capricious person. 

1681 T. Flatman Heraclitus Rideus No. 39 (1713I I. 259 
Whose britch has most Fire in it, Harry's, or the Maggots 
and Whigs ? a 1700 B. E. Diet. Cant. Crew, Maggot, a whim- 
sical Fellow, full of strange Fancies. 1723 Bailey Erasm. 
Cotloq. (1733) 230 You were as great a Maggot as any in the 
World when you were at Paris. 1735 Dvche & Pahdon 
Diet., Maggot,.. a. whimsical Fellow that is full of strange 
freakish Fancies. 

4. attrib.wd Comb., a^ maggot ostentation ; mag- 
got-e aten, (sense 2) -headed, -fated adjs. ; maggot- 
boiler sfangi a tallow-chandler ; maggot -fishing, 
angling with a maggot for bait; f maggot-monger, 
a crotcheteer; t maggot-pate, a siily whimsical 
person ; maggot-pimple, a form of acne {Acne 
punctata) ; maggot-race, a race between maggots 
or grubs. 

1796 Grose's Did. Vulgar Tongue, * Maggot boiler, a 
tallow chandler. 1621 Buuton Auat. Mel. Deinocr. to Rdr. 
(1651) 28 Going barefoot to . . our Lady of Lauretts .. to 
creep to those counterfeit and "Maggot-eaten Reliques. 
1804 Kentish Angler title-p., Worm, Minnow, Cadis, and 
*Maggot Fishing. (11695 Woon Life (O. H. S.) I. 273 A 
*maggot-headed person and humourous, 1660 IHbliotheca 
Fauatica 2 Jeremy Ives, the gifted * Maggot; Monger. 
1588 Shaks /.. L. L. v. ii. 409 These summer flies, Haue 
blowne me full of "maggot ostentation. 1622 Fletcher 
Sp. Curate iv. v, Did you thinke, had this man been rich, 
..He would have chosen such a Wolfe, a Cancker, A 
"Maggot-pate, to be his whole Executor. 1681 T. Flat- 
man Heraclitus Ridens No. 39 (1713) L 259 The *Maggot- 
pated Whigs, who would .. set us all on Fire at^ Home. 
1687 Kirby & Bishop Marrow of Astrol. 1. 60 Nice con- 
clusions, and maggot pated whimsies, to no purpose. 
a 1700 B. E. Diet. Cant. Crew, Bully-fop, a Maggot- 
pated, huffing, silly, ratling Fellow. 1822 Good Study 
Med. II. 292 It is necessary to make the pressure harder 
than for the discharge of the mucus in the *maggot- 
pimple. 1856 Mayne Expos. Lex., Maggot Pimple, a 
common name for the Varus punctatus. 1792 W. Roberts 
Looker-on No. 28 (1794^ I. 4°° To run a *maggot-race with 
Jack Smoaky. 1810 Sporting Mag. XXXV. 69 Lost fifty 
pounds with Jack Frolic on a maggot race. 

Maggot 2 (margfJt). [A use of Magote (Cursor 
M. 25455), a. F. Margot, pet name for Marguerite 
Margaret.] fa. Applied as a proper name to 
(a) a magpie; (b) a sow. Obs. b. A magpie 
(see also Maggot-pie). Now dial. 

i 573l etc - t see Maggot-I'ik]. 1608 H. Clapham Errour 
on Left Hand 49 Maggot my sow. 1791 Wolcot (P. Pindar) 
Magpie $ Robin Wks. 1812 II. 475 AH on a sudden, Maggot 
starts and stares. 1848 Zoologist VI. 2290 The magpie is 
a ' maggot ' [in Worcestershire]. 

MaggotinesS. [f- Maggoty + -ness.] Mag- 
goty condition. 1727 Bailey vol. II, Maggottiness. 

f Ma ggotish, a. Obs. [f. Maggot 1 2 + -ish.] 

a 1700 B. E. Diet. Cant. Crew, Whimsical, maggotish. 
1731 Bailey, Freakish, freaked, whimsical, maggottish. 

Maggot-pie. Obs. exc. dial. Forms : 6 
magget the py, 6-7 mag(g)ot-a-pie, 7 magot o' 
pye, maggot-pie, -pye, ydial. maggotty-pie. [f. 
Maggot^ (as quasi-proper name) + Pie; the middle 
syllable of some forms represents the ; cf. F. Margot 
la pie.} A magpie. 

1573 Tl-sser Ilusb. (187BI 108 If gentils be scrauling, call 
magget the py. 1598 Florio, Garzetta, a magot a pie, or 
piot. ..Gazzotto, a maggot-a-pie. 1604 Breton Grimcllos 
Fortunes D 4 b, His wife, .had in her house a young Pie ; 
(which we call a Magot-a-Pie). 1605 Shaks. Macb. in. iv. 
125 Maggot Pyes, & Choughes, & Rookes. 1605 Camden 
Rem. (1637) 166 So an Hare on a bottle for Harebottle; a 
Maggot-pie upon a Goate for Pigot [etc.]. 1611 Cotgr., 
Agasse, a Pie, Piannet, or Magatapte. Ibid., Pie, a Pye, 
Pyannat, Meggata-pye. 1632 Chapman & Shirley Pall t. 
i, At the Maggot-a-pie in the Strand, Sir. 1681 Hickeringill 
Black Non'Conf. Introd., Wks. 1716 II. 2 Did \ou never 
see a Crow or a Maggottepye sit pecking, and cawing. . 
upon an Asses back? 1893 Wilts. Gloss., Maggotty-pie. . 
still in use. 

t Ma'ggotry. Obs. [f. Maggot 1 + -it y.] Folly, 

1706 Re/lex. upon Ridicule 326 The maggotry of some 
people is inconceivable. 1731 Medley Kolbens Cape G. 
Hope I. 309 The magotry is this. 

Maggoty mx-i^ti;, a. [f. Maggot i + -y.] 

1. Full of maggots. 

1727 Bailey vol. II, Maggot ty,{\A\oi Maggots. 1787 Farley 
Loud. Art Cookery (ed. 4) 13 If it [cheese] be . .full of holes, 
it will give reason to suspect that it is maggotty. 1844 P. 
Parley's Ann. V. 293 Jack, .was fed with maggoty biscuit 
and bilge water. 1867 Morn. Star 9 Sept., A man was let 
off lightly for working up maggoty meat into polonies. 

2. Full of whims and foolish fancies; freakish. 
1678 Norris Coll. Afisc.(i6gg) 136 To pretend to work out 

a neat Scheme of Thoughts with a maggoty unsettled Head 
is. .ridiculous. 1706 Farquhar Recruiting Officer 11. ii, 
Then should I have some rogue of a builder. ..Transform 
my noble oaks and elms into cornices.. to adorn some mag- 
gotty, new-fashioned bauble upon the Thames. 1707 Reflex. 
upon Ridicule 304 He borrows an apish and magotty 
Carriage. 1816 Kirby & Sp. Entomot. (1843) I. 126 The 
common saying that a whimsical person is maggoty, .per- 
haps arose from the freaks the sheep have been observed to 
exhibit when infested by their bots. 1834-43 Southey 
Doctor xxiv. (1862) 62 His son proved as maggoty as the 
father. 1864 R. Reid Old Glasgow 381 A maggoty fancy. 
b. Comb., as maggoty- headed, -pated adjs. 
1667 Wood Life 31 Aug., He [Aubrey] was a shiftless 
person, roving and magotie-headed. 1850 N. fy Q. 1st Ser. 
II. 173/2 A maggoty-pated fellow is often used to express 
a whimsical man. 

Magh(e, variant of Maugh, Maw. 

■|- Magha. Oh. rare~ l . [App. misspelling of 
L. maga, fern, of Magus.] A sorceress. 

1609 Daniel Civ. Wars vm. cv, And doth with idle rest 
deforme vs more Than any Magha can or sorceresse. 

Maght, ma^t, etc. : see Miortr, etc. 

Magi (mtfi'dgai), : see Magus. 

Magian (WWl:$iiin), a. and sb. [f. L. MaG-CR 
-h-ian.] A. adj. a. Of or pertaining to the Magi. 

1716 Prideaux 0. -y N. Pest. Connect. 1. IV. (1718) 170 
Another reformation which he [Zoroaster] made in the 
Magian religion, was [etc. J. 1796 Bp. Watson APpl. Bible 160 
Addicted to the magian superstition of two independent 
Beings. 1875 Lightfoot Comm. Cotoss. 151 It was then., 
that the magian system took root in Asia Minor. 
b. Magical, {poet, rare.) 

1818 Keats Endym. in. 264 Will he. .keep mens a chosen 
food to draw His magian fish through hated lire and (lame? 
B. sb. One of the Magi ; a follower of or believer 
in the Magi ; a magician, wizard. 

1578 Bk. Com. Prayer New Calendar 6 Jan., The Magians 
as vpon this day. .worshipped Christ. 1716 Prideaux O. <«(- 
N. Pest. Connect. 1. iv. (1718) 174 It is not to be understood 
that all Magians, that is, all of the sect, were thus learned. 
1768-74 Tucker Lt. Nat. (1834) II. 471 His star appeared 
in the East, filling the Magians there with exceeding great 
joy. 1817 Byron Manfred 11. iv. 31 A Magian of great 
power, and fearful skill ! 1861 Goldw. Smith Lect. Mod. 
Hist. 61 It little avails the king to rule the people if the Ma- 
gian is to rule the king. 1877 Outlines Hist. Relig. 165 The 
Magians were.. a pre-Semitic and pre-Aryan priestly tribe 
in West Asia. 

Magianism (na/'xl^ianiz'm). [f. Magian + 
-ism.] The tenets or doctrines of the Magi. 

1716 Prideaux O. <$■ N. Test. Connect. 1. iv. (1718) 171 
His [Zoroaster's] reformation of Magianism. 1841 Blackw. 
Mag. XLIX. 233 Some. .were so deeply tainted, .with 
mysticism and Magianism, as to retain but little trace of 
the primitive doctrines of Islam. 1864 Pusey Lect Daniel 
vi. 325 He had the.. prejudice, that the Bible was indebted 
to Magianism for the belief in the life to come. 1880 Huxley 
in 19M Cent. June 932 His mode of divination was fraught 
with danger to magianism in general. 

Magic (mard.^ik), sb. Forms: 4-6 magike, 
magyke, (5 malgyk, 6 magict, magika), 4-7 
magique, 7-8magick, 7magic. [ad. OF. magique^ 
ad. late L. magica (Pliny has magice — Gr. payi/ci) 
sc. Ttx v v)> subst. use (by ellipsis of ars art) of the 
fem. of magicus Magic a. 

In the mod. Rom. langs. the place of the word is taken by 
the cognate F. magie, It., Sp. , Pg. magia, ad. med.L. ttiagia, 
a. Gr. naytia f, jxayo? Magus.] 

1. The pretended art of influencing the course 
of events, and of producing marvellous physical 
phenomena, by processes supposed to owe their 
efficacy to their power of compelling the interven- 
tion of spiritual beings, or of bringing into opera- 
tion some occult controlling principle of nature ; 
sorcery, witchcraft. Also, the practice of this art. 

The ' magic ' which made use of the invocation of evil or 
doubtful spirits was of course always regarded as sinful; 
but natural magic, i. e. that which did not involve recourse 
to the agency of personal spirits, was in the Middle Ages 
usually recognized as a legitimate department of study and 
practice, so long as it was not employed for maleficent ends. 
Of ' natural magic ' as understood by medixval writers, 
typical examples are the making of an image, under certain 
astrological conditions, in order to injure or benefit the health 
of the person represented ; and the application of a medica- 
ment to a weapon in order to heal the wound made by it. 
These things, if now practised, would still be called ' magic *, 
though the qualification 'natural' would seem quite inap- 
propriate. On the other hand, the 'natural magic' of the 
Middle Ages included much that from the standpoint of 
modern science is ' natural ', but not ' magical ', the processes 
resorted to being really, according to the now known laws 
of physical causation, adapted to produce the intended 

C1386 Chaucer Man of Law s T. 116 They speken 
of Magyk and Abusion. 1390 Gower Conf. III. 46 Ma- 
gique he useth forto winne His love. 1447 Bokenham 
Seyntys (Roxb.) 268 The myht of malgyk or enchauntement. 
1490 Caxton Eneydos xxiv. 88 She inuoqued..the moder of 
magyque in her triple proporcyon. 1509 H awes Past. Pleas. 
xxxvi. (Percy Soc.) 189 My swerde. .set with magykes arte. 
1569 Bp. Parkhurst Injunctions Articles to be inquired of 
P 29 Whether ye know any that vse any sorcerie Inchant- 
ments, Magika [etc.]. 1581 N. Burse Dispnt. xxii. 102 b, 
As for the practeis of magict I micht obiect vnto you Willox, 
quhais sone raised the deuil. c 1590 Marlowe Faust Prol., 
Nothing so swecte as magicke is to him. 164a Fuller Holy 
<y Prof. St. 11. x. 89 When they cannot fiie up to heaven to 
make it a Miracle, they fetch it from hell to make it Magick. 
1776 Gibbon Decl. <$■ F. xxiii. (1869) I. 649 The arts of magic 
and divination were strictly prohibited. 1867 W. W, Smyth 
Coal $ Coal-mining 104 It is like an effect of magic to pass, 
with the safety-lamp in hand, into a fiery stall. 1884 H. 
Jennings Phallicism ii. 8 Magic, which means the unnatural 
interference with nature. 

b. With defining adj. Black magic [= F. magie 
noire] : a designation given by modern writers to 
the kind of magic that was supposed to involve 
the invocation of devils ; opposed to white magic 
[ = F. magie blanche]. Natural magic : see above. 

c 1384 Chaucer //. Fame in. 176 And Clerkes eke which 
konne wel Alle this magikes naturel That craftely doon her 
ententes To maken in certeyn ascendentes Ymages, lo, 
thrugh which magike To make a man ben hool or syke. c 1386 
— Prol. 416. 1477 Norton Ord. Aleh. L in Ashm, (1652) 21 
And also of Magique naturall. 1605 Bacon Adv. L.earn. 1. 
iv. § 11 Natural magic pretendethtocall and reduce natural 
philosophy from variety of speculations to the magnitude of 
works. 1718 Bp. Hutchinson Witchcraft ii. (1720) 34 White 
Magic, that pretends to deal only with Good Angels. 1871 
Tyi.or Prim. Cult. \. 125 What with slavery and what with 
black-magic, life is precarious among the Wakhutu. 

f e. A magical procedure or rite ; also concr. a 
magical object, a charm, fetish. Obs. 

c 13,86 Chaucer Sgr.'s T. 210 It is rather lyk An appar- 
ence ymaad by som Magyk. 1573 L. Lloyd Pilgr. Princes 
37 'There are diners kindes of these Magicks, whereby they 
bragge and boast that they are able to do any thing, and 
that they know hereby all things. 1603 Drayton Bar. 
Warsu. xi, To sing.. Of gloomie Magiques, and benumming 
Charmes. 18x4 Brackenkidge Jrnl. in Vieivs Louisiana 
256 Besides their public resident lodge, in which they have 
a great collection of magic, or sacred things, every one has 
his private magic in his lodge about his person. Ibid. 257 
On these occasions, each one suspends his private magic on 
a high pole before his door. 

2. fig. A secret and overmastering influence re- 
sembling magic in its effects. 

1611 Shaks. Winter T. v. iii. 39 Oh Royall Peece : 
There's Magick in thy Maiestie. a 1631 Donne Poems 
(1650) 19 All such rules, loves magique can undoe. 170a Eng. 
Theophrast. 104 Civility is a strong Political magick. 1792 
S. Rogers Pleas. Mem. 11. 26 The Moon.. gilds the brow 
of night With the mild magic of reflected light. 1805 
Foster Ess. iv. v. 192 A transforming magic of genius. 
1822 W. Irving Braceb. Itall'm. 28 The work of the house 
is performed as if by magic, but it is the magic ofsystem. 
1837 Disraeli Veuetia 1. xviti, What mourner has not felt 
the magic of time? 1869 Freeman Norm. Couq. (1876) III. 
xi. 60 Won over by the magic of his personal presence. 

3. transf. The art of producing (by legerdemain, 
optical illusion, or devices suggested by knowledge 
of physical science) surprising phenomena resem- 
bling the pretended results of ' magic ' ; conjuring. 

1831 Brewster {title) Natural Magic. Mod. Advt., Pro- 
fessor — 's Home of Magic and Mystery'- 

4. Comb., as magic- monger; magic-gifted, -lihe, 
-planted, -tempered adjs. 

1811 W. R. Si'ENCER Poems 49 [Painting's] *magic-gifted 
hand. 186a Lytton Str. Story II. 223 That wand, of which 
I have described to you the *inagic-Iike effects. 1635-56 
Cowley Davideis 1. 519 note, Which Texts . . are ill produe'd 
by the *Magick-mongers for a Proof of the Power of Charms. 
1852 J. H. Newman Callista (1856) 168 Mere atheists and 
magic-mongers. 1759 Mason Caractacus 2 These mighty 
piles of *magic-planted rock. 1777 Warton Poems 71 The 
monarch's massy blade Of *magick temper'd metal made. 

Magic v m;E * d 3 ik )» a - J>- F - mtgiqne ( = Pr. 
magic, Sp. mdgico, It., Pg. magico), ad. L. magic-us, 
'ad. Gr. fxayttevs, lit. pertaining to the Magi, f. 
^idyos : see Magus.] 




1. Of or pertaining to magic (freq. in phr. f art 
magic, magic arts, etc.). Also, working or pro- 
duced by enchantment. Not in predicative use. 

1390 Gower Conf. II. 259 Jason. .Upon Medea made him 
bold, Of nit magitjue, which sche couthe. a 1547 Surrry 
sKneid iv. (1557) F iij, To magike artes against my will I 
bend, c 1590 Gkrenk Fr. Beacon iv, Set him but Non-plus in 
his magicke spels. 1591 Shaks. i Hen. VI, 1. i. 26 Sorcerers 
. .liy Magick Verses haue contriu'd his end. 1634 Milton 
Comhs 798 Till all thy magick structures rear'd so high, 
Were shatter'd into heaps o're thy false head. 1658 Waller 
sEncis iv. Poems (1664) 189 With loose hair The Magick 
Prophetess begins her prayr. 1679 Dryden TroUus ty Cr. 
11. iii, He may know Ins man without art magic. 1695 Ld. 
Preston Boeth. iv. 175 Whilst into various Forms her Ma- 
gick Hand Doth turn those Men. 1736 Gray Statins 1. 54 
The sun's pale sister, drawn by magic strain. 1767 Sir W. 
Jones Seven Fount, in Poems (1777) 41 A. .joyless place, A 
scene of nameless deeds, and magick spells. 1830 Pusey 
Hist. Enq. 11. 289 By some magic process [to] form the dis- 
severed members into a frame of more youthful vigour. 

b. Of a material object, a diagram, etc. : Em- 
ployed in magic rites, endued with magic powers, 
enchanted. Magic glass, mirror \ one in which 
the spectator is supposed to see the representation of 
future events or distant scenes; often fig. 

1697 Dryden Virg. Georg. m. 446 This.. With noxious 
Weeds.. Dire Stepdames in the Magick Howl infuse. 1712 
Steele Sped. No. 332 p 1 They describe a sort of Magick 
Circle. 1786 Burns To J. S. xii, Where Pleasure is the 
Magic- wand, That, wielded right, Maks Hours like Minutes 
[etc.]. 1792 S. Rogers Pleas. Mem. 1. 91 Memory — What 
softened views thy magic glass reveals. 1843 Caklyi.e 
Past $ Pr. 11. i, And in this manner vanishes King Lackland ; 
traverses swiftly our strange intermittent magic-mirror. 1870 
L'Estrange Life Miss Mitford I. vi. 185 The possessor of 
a magic crystal ball, 1877 W. Jones Finger-ring 107 A 
portrait of Hadrian, engraved with Mercury in a magic 
ling. 1903 F. W. H. Myers I/nman Personality 1. 158 Just 
as the magic mill of the fable continues magical. 
f C. Addicted to magic. Ohs. rare. 

1634 Sir T. Herbert Trav. 24 A Magique Nation. 

2. Producing wonderful appearances or results, 
like those commonly attributed to sorcery. 

1696 [see Magic lantern]. 1744 Akenside/Y*7i.s. fmag. 
1. 16 The glances of her magic eye, She blends and shifts at 
wiH. 1826 Scott Rev. Life Kemble in Lock/tart ii. (1839) 
22/x The vain longings which we felt that . . the magic curtain 
[.would] once more arise. 1842 Tennyson Day Dream„ 
Arrival iv, The Magic Music in his heart Beats quick and 
quicker. 1877 C. Geikie Christ xlix. (1879) 580 Water at all 
times is a magic word in a sultry climate like Palestine* 

3. Magic square : a diagram consisting of a 
square divided into smaller squares, in each of 
which a number is written, their position being so 
arranged that the sum of the figures in a row, 
vertical, horizontal, or diagonal, is always the 
same. Magic circle : an arrangement of numbers 
in concentric circles with radial divisions, with 
arithmetical properties similar to those of the 
magic square; invented by Ben i, Franklin in 1749. 

1704J. Harris Z.w. Techn., Magick Square. 1749 Frank- 
lin Let. Wks. 1887 II. 159 You will readily allow this 
square of sixteen to be the most magically magical of any 
magic square ever made by any magician. 1797 Encycl. 
Brit. (ed. 3) X. 422 Dr. Franklin, .has constructed, not only 
a magic square of squares, but likewise a magic circle of 
circles. [Description follows.] 1892 Barnard Smith & 
Hudson Arithm.forSch. 19 Magic and nasik squares. 

Magical (mx-d^ikal), a. [f. Magic a. + -al.] 

1. Of or pertaining to magic; = Magic a. 1. 

1555 Eden Decades 181 They, .vsed certeine secreate ma- 
gical! operations, c 1590 Marlowe Faust i, Come, shewe 
me some demonstrations magical, c 16x0 Women Saints 
146 The superstition of the Christians, whose magicall artes 
do make them verie bragge. 1665 Glanvill Def Vanity 
Dogm. 35 Those strange operations are not Mechanical 
but Magical. 1692 Locke Toleration in. x. Wks. 1727 II. 
427 To confound the magical delusions of the Hereticks 
of that time. 1727 De Foe Syst. Magic 1. iii. (1840) 63 
Two things.. naturally made way for these magical studies. 
1761-71 H. Walpole Vertues Anecd. Paint. (1786) III. 253 
Some thought his musical assembly only a cover.. for ma- 
gical purposes. 1863 Frovde Hist. Eng. VII. 74 The service 
of God was asserted to be a reasonable service of the mind 
and heart, and not a magical superstition. 

t b. = Magic a. 1 b. Obs. 

1623 Webster Duchess Maljl iv. i, It wastes me more, 
lhan were't my picture, fashion'd out of wax, Stucke with 
a magicall needle, and then buried. 1624 Middleton Game 
at Chess 111. n, This is the room he did appear to me in ; 
And, look you, this the magical glass that show'd him. 1652 
Ashmole Theat. Chem. Prol. 8 Py the Magicall or Prospec- 
tive Stone it is possible to discover any Person in what part 
of the World soever. 1750 tr. Leonardos' Mirr. Stones 100 
r-astened over the heart with magical bands. 
fc. -Magic a. 1 c. Obs. 

1634 Sir T. Herbert Trav. 24 They [of Mohelia] are 
superstitious and Magicall. 

2. Resembling magic in action or effect. Also, 
produced as if by magic. 

1606 Shaks. Ant. 4- CI. in. \. 31 He humbly signifie what 
in his name, That magicall word of Warre we haue effected. 
fK75p*RANKUN£f//. Wks. 1840 VI. 103 The most magically 
magical of any magic square. 1818 Byron Ch. Har. iv. 
»? iX ' iv Us ues lheu ' magical variety diffuse. 1824 
Miss Mitford in L'Estrange Life (1870) II. ix. 183 Some 
little hay was got in in a magical sort of way between the 
showers. 1851 Nichol^ rchit.Heav. i 3 The almost magical 
velocity of light. 1877 Black Green Past ii. (1878) 14 The 
magical disappearance of about fifty or sixty rabbits. 1884 
Nonconf. tf Indep. 12 June 577/2 The warm and abundant 

rain-showers, .have already had a magical effect upon the 
face of the country. 

f3. Magical circle, square-, see Magic a. 3. Obs. 

1749 Franklin Lett. Wks. 1887 II. 160, I am glad the 
perusal of the magical squares afforded you any amusement. 
I now send you the magical circle. 

Hence Mag'icalize v. trans., to give a magical 
character to. 

1867 M. Arnold Celtic Lit. 161 The landscape. .is sud- 
denly magicalised by the romance touch. 

Magically (mge'dijikaii), adv. [f. Magical + 
-ly 2 .] In a magical manner ; by or as if by magic. 

1605 Camden Rem. (1657) 244 A ring magically prepared. 
1701 Grew Cosm. Sacra iv. viii. 269 It was believed, that 
unless they were Magically used, they would do more hurt, 
than good. 1707 J. Stevens tr. Qutvedds Com. Wks. (170a) 
454 Others more Superstitious, and Magically inclined. 
1727-52 Chambers Cycl. s. v. Magic Square, This done, with 
the fust progression repeated, he fills the square of the root 
7 magically. 1870 Huxlrv Lay Serm. xiv. 352 'there are 
other men who attain greatness because they embody the 
potentiality of their own day, and magically reflect the future. 
1879 Farkar St. Paul (1883) 680 The stratagem was for the 
time almost magically successful. 

Magician vmad^i-Jan). Forms: 4 magicien, 
6 (J>V.)~7 magitian, 6 magission, 7- magician, 
[a. F. magicien, f. L. magic-a Magic sb.] One 
skilled in magic or sorcery ; a necromancer, wizard. 
Also occas. a practitioner of legerdemain, a conjuror. 

c 1384 Chaucer H. Lame in. 170 Ther saugh I pley Ma- 
giciens and tregetours. 1390 Gower Conf. II. 250 Protheiis 
..was an Astronomien And ek a gret Magicien. £1560 
Misogonus 111. iii. 43 (Brand!), I am also a very scilfull 
southsaier and magission. 1596 Dalrymple tr. Leslie's Hist. 
Scot. I. 122 Burne ane and al Juglaris, magitianis, familiars 
w* wicked and euill spirits. 16x1 Bible Kxod. viii. 18 The 
Magicians did so with their enchantments. 1687 Dryden 
Hind <y P. in. 721 The dire magicians threw their mists 
around. 1780 Harris Philol. Enq. Wks. (1841) 499 Virgil 
himself had been foolishly thought a magician. 1822 Byron 
Werner in. i. 341 A wise magician who has bound the devil. 
1831 Brewster Nat, Magic vi. (1833) 148 Even the most 
ignorant beholder regards the modern magician as but an 
ordinary man. 1878 Maclear Celts ii. 25 The monarch of 
Ireland, .having in his service his.. magicians. 

b. ftg. One who exercises a power compared to 
that of magic. 

18.. Lockhart Life Scott (1869) IV. xxv. 40 A set of 
beautiful stanzas, inscribed to Scott by Mr. Wilson [in 1812J 
under the title of the 'Magic Mirror', in which .. he 
designated him [ScottJ for the first time by what afterwards 
became one of his standing titles, that of 'The Great 
Magician'. 1831 Cablyle Sart. Res. m. ix.The Magician, 
Shakespeare. 1877 Ld. W. P. Lennox Celebrities Ser. it. 
II. 22 All have done equal justice to the genius of the 
Magician of the North [i.e. Walter Scott]. 

Hence fMagrixianess, aiemale magician. rare~ l . 

1651 J. F[keakk] Agrippds Occ. Philos. 74 Which the 
Egyptians seeing called Nature a Magicianess. 

i, Magicieime. Obs. rare- 1 . [Fr., fern, of 
magitien : see prec] A female magician. 

1490 Caxton Eneydos xxiv. 88 The vierge dyane, wherof 
maketh her Inuocacion this lady olde magicieime. 

Ma'gic lantern, [transl. of mod.L. laterna 
magica : cf. F. lanterne magique (also, } lanterne 
vive), G. zauberlateme. 

De Chales Curs. Math. 1674 II. 655,665, says that in 1665 
l a learned Dane' exhibited at Lyons a contrivance 'sub 
nomine Laternee magica;', which his description shows to 
be identical with the instrument now so called. The com- 
mon statement that the magic lantern is described by 
Kircher Ars Magna Lucis et Umbroe (1646) appears to be 

An optical instrument by means of which a mag- 
nified image of a picture on glass is thrown upon 
a white screen or wall in a darkened room. 

1696 Phillips s.v. Lantkom, A Magic Lanthorn, a cer- 
tain small Optical Macheen, that shews by a gloomy Light 
upon a white Wall, Spectres and Monsters so hideous, 
that he who knows not the Secret, believes it to be perform'd 
by Magick Art. 1753 Smollett Ct. Fathom (1784) 172/2 The 
travelling Savoyards who stroll about Europe, amusing 
ignorant people with the effects of a magick-lanthorn. 1894 
Engineer 23 Nov., The first to make magic lanterns in this 
country was Philip Carpenter, about 1808. 

aitrib. 1784 J. Barry in Led. Paint, v. (1848) 183 
That appearance of magic-lanthorn-Iike. .contrivance which 
sometimes offends in the works of Rembrandt. 1802 Mak. 
Eogeworth in A. J. C. Hare Life I. 105 Push on the 
magic-lanthorn slide. 1817 Keats Wks. (1889J III. 4 To 
him they are mere magic-lantern horrors. 1874 W. Cory 
Lett. # Jrnls. (1897) 368 The jerky magic-lantern-slide 
manner of introducing scenes. 

Hence Ma'gic- la' nternist, one who gives an 
exhibition with a magic lantern ; Magic-lantern 
v. {nonce-ivd.), to exhibit as in a magic lantern. 

1859 Athenxum 12 Feb. 219 That devil, whom the monks 
magic-lanterned till he grew so large as to be [etc.]. 1891 
S. Mostyn Curatica 165 After the tea they were handed over 
to a Punch, a Magic Lanternist, and a Conjuror. 

I Ma"g'icly, adv. Obs. rare—*, [f. Magic a. + 
-ly^.] = Magically. 

1683 E. Hooker Pref. P or doge's Mystic Div. 79 Wisdom 
doth sometimes as it were magicly transfigure a man. 

tMagie. Obs. rare~ l . [?ad. late L. magia 
(whence F. magie) : see Magic sb. (But perh. only 
a misprint.)] — Magic sb. 

1592 G. Harvey Four Lett. 56 Naturall Magie. 

Magilp, variant of Megilp. 

II Magilus (mard3il#s). Conch. PI. magili. 
[mod. Latin (D. de Montfort, 1S10; the authorities 

cited by him do not contain the name, the origin 
of which is unexplained.)] A gasteropod mollusc 
(Magihis antiquus) found in the Red Sea, parasitic 
upon living coral. 

1824 Dunois Epit. Lamarck's A rrangem. Testacca, 21 The 
animal of the Magilus. 1851-6 Woodward Mollusca 12. 
1876 Bencdcn's Anim. Parasites 38 A mollusc called Ma~ 
gitits, which naturalists considered for a long time to be the 
calcareous tube of an annelid. Ibid., All conchologistsknow 
the shell of the Magili, so valued by collectors. 

i Maginate, v. Obs. rare— °. [? Shortened 
form oi Imaginate v.~\ (See quot.) 

1623 Cockkram, Maginate, to trifle. 

f Magine, v. Obs. Aphetic variant of Imagine. 

'530 Palsgr. 616/2, 1 magyne, declared in ' I ymagyn '. 

Magir, variant of Maughe. 

Magiric (mad^oi"rik), a. and sb. rare. Also 
mageirie. [ad. Gr. fiayttpiKos, f. payfipos cook.] 
A. adj. Of or pertaining to cookery. 

1853 Soyer Pautroph. 173 The magiric science, therefore, 
began in the year of the world 1656. 
B. sb. pi. The art of cooking. 

1889 Syd. Soc. Lex., Mageirics. 

Magirist (mad^ai^-rist). rare-' 1 , [f. Gr. fxd- 
yeip-os cook + -1ST.] An expert in cookery. So 
Mag-iri stic a. (in quot. mageir-), pertaining to 
cookery. Magi rolo gical a., skilled in cookery. 
MagiroTogist » Magirist. Mag*iroTogy [see 
-oi.ogy], the art or science of cookery. 

1814 Sch. Gd. Living 53 To their Magirists was given an 
appointment of culinary artists. Ibid, 59 From the very 
first appearance of magirology in Greece, it produced effects 
absolutely magical. Ibid. 72 Peace to your shades, ye 
noble magirologists. Ibid. 107 Roberto da Nola, a magiro- 
togical^tist of the most transcendent genius. 1892 Punch 
21 May 249/1 Immortal contributions to mageiristic lore. 

Magism (m^i-dgiz'm). [f. L. mag-us + -ism.] 
The beliefs, principles and practices of the Magi. 

1844 W. Kay Flcurys Eccl. Hist. I II. 232 note, This may 
be another trace of Magism : for Mithra bad his 'oblation 
of bread '. 1852 Badger Nestorians I. 331 The connection 
of some of their doctrines and rites with Sabianism and 
Magism. 1864 Pusey Led. Daniel 539 It is then a mere 
myth, to speak of the relative purity of early Magism. 

II Magister (miid^i-staj). [L.; see Master^.] 
A mediaeval and modern Latin title of academic 
rank, usually rendered by Masteh, but occas. em- 
ployed Hist, or in speaking of foreign universities. 

1756-7 tr. Keysler's Trav. (1760) I. 125 The first two years 
are again employed in. .exercises, introductory to the degree 
of magister. 1864 Burton Scot Abr. I. v. 255 Of old, when 
every magister was entitled to teach in the university, the 
regents were persons selected from among them. 

Magisterial (mcTd^ist^-rial), a. Also 7 
mages-, magisteriall. [ad. med.L. viagisteri- 
alis, f. late L. magisterius, f. L. magister Master 
sb.] Of or pertaining to a master or a magistrate. 

fl. Of or pertaining to a master-workman; dis- 
playing a master's skill ; also, having the qualifi- 
cations of a master. Obs. 

1643 Sir T. IJrownk Retig. Med. 1. § 34 These are certainly 
the Magisterial and master-pieces of the Creator. 1664 
Evelyn tr. FrearCs Arc/lit. u. i. 90 Though it concede 
somewhat to it in the execution and magisterial handling. 
1683 Pettus Eleta Mm. 1. 11686) 343 These [Engravings] 
are not designed for Magisterial Artists. 

2. Of, pertaining, or proper to a master or teacher, 
or one qualified to speak with authority. Of 
opinions, utterances, etc. : Authoritative. Of per- 
sons: Having the bearing of a master; invested 
with authority. Sometimes in unfavourable sense : 
Assuming authority, dictatorial. 

1632 Sanderson Serm. ad Pop. (1681) 293 [TheyJ exercise 
a spiritual Lordship over their disciples . . by imposing upon 
their consciences sundry Magisterial conclusions. 1644 
Milton Judgm. Bucer To Parlt., Wks. 1851 IV. 299 Where 
they thought to be most Magisterial, they have display 'd 
their own want, both of reading, and of judgment, c 1645 
Howell Lett. (1650) I. 427 Not to make any one's opinion 
so magisterial and binding, but that I might be at liberty to 
recede from it. 1690 Locke Hum. Vnd. in. ix. § 23 It 
would become us to be .. less magisterial, positive, and 
imperious, in imposing our own Sense and Interpretations, 
1697 Collier Ess. Mor. SubJ. 11. (1698) 86 These Magis- 
terial Propositions don't Dispute for Belief, but demand it. 
1699 P>entlf.v Plial. Pref. 101 A Magisterial Air and too 
much Heat and Passion appear in their Writings. 1819 
Bvron yuan II, Ivi, For Juan wore the magisterial face 
Which courage gives. 1838-9 Hall AM Hist. Lit. III. 111. 
vi. § 54. 317 There is something magisterial in the manner 
wherein he dismisses each play like a boy's exercise. 1903 
Class. Rev. XVII. 131/2 His magisterial method of criticism 
as exhibited in the castigation of Thucydides. 

3. Of, pertaining to, or proper to a magistrate or 
magistrates. Of persons : Holding the office of a 
magistrate. Of an inquiry : Conducted by magis- 

1660 R. Coke Potver $ Sidy. 31 When the laws or higher 
powers enable such men to nominate their magistrate, there 
the nominators are the instruments, by which the law does 
transfer this magisterial power. 1711 Shaftesb. Charac. 
vi. iii. (1737) III. 363 We need give her only in her hand 
the .. Magisterial Sword. 1775 Adair Amer. Did. 288 
While this military man acted in the magisterial office. 
1795 Coleridge Plot Discovered -27 Any man, whom a 
magisterial neighbour chooses to insult under pretext of 
suspicion. 1883 Fortn. Rev. May 693 The progressive exten- 
sionofmagisterialjurisdiction. i88sMauch. Exam. 20 Feb. 
4/6 The magisterial inquiry into the charge of arson. 


f4. Alch. and Med. Pertaining to a magistery; 
aISO t = MAGISTRAL 2. Obs. 

1658 Phillips s.v., A pill or plaister, &c. prepared after the 
best manner is calletl Magisterial. 1683 Pettus Fleta Min. 
11. 3 It [the word hern] may intend also that magisterial 
pouder of Projection. ijzzQvixcy Lex. J*hysico-Mcd.{ed. 2), 
Magisterial Remedy, is yet sometimes retained in the Cant 
of Empiricks, more for its great Sound than any Signilicancy. 

f5. quasi-^. or sin = Magistery 3. Obs. 

1638 H. Shirley Mart. Soldier n\. iv. in Bullen O.Pl. I. 217 
With it was dissolv'd the Magisteriall Made of the Home 
Armenia so much boast of. 1657 Tomlinson Reuou's Disp. 
Pref., Every man must have his own Compositions and 
Magisterial*. 1658 Osbokn Jas. I, Wks. 1,1673) 533 Ibis 
Monster in excess, eat., a whole Pie. .composed of Amber- 
Greece, Magesterial of Pearl, Musk, Sic. 1662 J. Chandler 
/ 'an Helmont's Oriat. 215 Magisterial among Chymists, 
do indeed melt the Ixniy of a thing, and do open it with a 
seperating of some certain dregs also. 

T Magisteriality. Obs. Also7majesterialty. 
[f. prec. +• -ITY.] The quality or condition of being 
magisterial ; mastership, authoritative position. 

1655 Fuller Ch. Hist. ix. iv. §11 When these Statutes 
were first in the state, or magisteriality thereof, they were 
severely put in practice on such offendours as they first 
lighted on. a 1661 — Worthies, Leicestersh. It. (1662) 132 
He [William de Leicester] was also known by the name 
of Mr. William an evidence .. sufficient to avouch his 
Majcsterialty in all Learning. 

Magisterially (>nx t^istle'riali), adv. [-LY 2.] 
In a magisterial manner. 

1. In the manner of a master : a. like a school- 
master ; with superior knowledge or the assumption 
of it ; b. like a lord over subjects ; domineeringly. 

1647 Clarendon Hist, Reb. vi. § 126 Whilst the King 
was at Nottingham, .they gave orders Magisterially for the 
War. 1651 in E. D. Neill Virginia Carolorum (1886) 213 
The reason why they talk so Magisterially to us*s this, 
we are forsooth their worships slaves. 1693 Evelyn De la 
Quint. Compl. Gard., Re/l. Agric. 50, I do not pretend 
Magisterially to Determine, whither of the two Opinions 
has the more of . . Reason on its side. 17*9 Butlkr Ser/u. 
Hum. Nat. ii. Wks. 1S74 II. 24 Conscience . . without being 
advised with, magisterially exerts itself. 1761-3 Hume Hist, 
ling. (18061 III. xlv. 645 He [James I] was employed in 
dictating magisterially to an assembly of divines. 1865 M. 
Arnold Ess. Crit. \. U375) 40 When Protestantism . . gives 
the law to criticism too magisterially. 

2. In the capacity of a magistrate; also, by a 
magistrate or magistrates. 

1875 Poste Gains 1. led. 2) 138 A magisterially appointed 
guardian is called by modern commentators tutor dativus. 
1883 Pall Mall G. 30 May 8 / 2 The men arrested .. were 
magisterially examined at Castlebar to-day. 

t Magiste'rialness. Obs. [-nkss.] The 

quality or condition of being magisterial ; assump- 
tion of authority. 

16S 1 H, More Second Lash in Enthus. Tr/\, etc. (1656* 
168 Those two famous Philosophers .. whom your Magis- 
terialnesse has made bold to use at least as coursely as 
1 seem to have used you. 1674^ Govt. Tongue xi. § 1 A 
magisterialness in matters of opinion. 1713 Nelson Life 
Dr. Bull 225 He chargeth him with too much precipitancy 
and magisterialness in judging. 

t Magiste'rical, a. Obs. rare. Also 7 majes- 
terical, -ycall. [f. L. magister + -ic + -AL.] Per- 
taining or proper to a magistrate. 

1646 LiLBURNH & Overton Out-cryes Oppressed Comm. 
(ed. 2) 16 In case of Korfiting the Majesterycall trust, the 
trusters (the people) are disobleged from their obedience. 
1670 liAXTER Cure Church-div. 288. 1680 Hickeringill 
Meroz 31 A Style.. more Magisterial, Dictator-like. 

1 Magis terious, a. Obs~° [f. late L. 
magisteri-us (see Magisterial) + -ous.] Exer- 
cising the authority of a master. Hence + Magis- 
te'riously adv.., with an assumption of authority. 
t" Magiste'riovtsness, assumption of authority. 

1650 R. Hollingworth E.verc. Usurped Powers 54 He 
deliTering it (as he doth other odd and unsound stuffe) with 
a pythagoricall magisteriousnesse. 1673 Lady's Call. 1. i. 
§ y He that ingrosses the talk, enforces silence upon the 
rest, and so is presumed to look on them only as his Auditors 
and Pupils, whilst he magisteriously dictates to them. 1684 
N. S. Crit. Enq. Edit. Bible xv. 148 He censures the 
generality of Divines, who take upon them Magisteriously 
to judge of the matter in hand. 

||Magiaterium(ma;:d^istw-ri//m).[L.: = next.] 

fl. Alchemy. *= Magistery 3 a. Obs. 

"593 G. Harvey Pienes Super. 30 Hee is a Pythagorean, 
and a close fellow of his tongue, and pen, that hath the 
right magisterium hideede. x6io B. Jonson Alch. 1. iv, This 
is the day, I am to perfect for him The magisterium, our 
great worke, the stone. 1654 G avion Pleas. Notes it. ii. 39 
Which without doubt hath a villanous contaginm upon the 
grand magisterium of the Stone. 

2. A\ C. Theol. The teaching function of the 

1866 Dublin Rev. Apr. 422 Roman Catholics, throughout 
the world, are instructed in certain doctrines ; are exhorted 
to certain practices ; are encouraged and trained in certain 
tempers and dispositions. The Church's office in providing 
for this is called her 'magisterium'. 1893 Tablet 11 Feb. 
205 Catholic obedience is due to the Church's magisterium, 
namely, the authoritative teaching of the Pope and the 
Hishops. 1899 Dublin Rev. Apr. 262 Opposed to the ordi- 
nary teaching magisterium of the Catholic Church. 

Magistery (rme*d:?istcri). Obs. exc. Hist. 
Also 7 majestery, 9 magestry, magistry. [ad. 
L. viagisterinm t (1) in classical L. the office of 
a master, (2) in med.L. the philosopher's stone ; 
f. ^agister Master sb,] 

fl. a. = Magistracy 2. b. = Magistracy^ Obs. 

1566 Painter I'al. Pleas. (1575) I. 18 A goodlie document 

I to men of like calling, to moderate them selues, and their 
magisterie with good and honest life. 1585 Silbbks Anat. 

\ Abits. 1. 16 It is lawfull for the nobilitie, the gentrie, and 

| the magisterie, to weare riche attire. 

f 2. a. The quality or functions of a master ; 
mastership, authority, authoritative appearance. 
b. The office of a (Grand) Master. Obs. 

1642 Fuller Ansiv. to Dr. Feme 1 Blowing aside the 
Magistery of the Title, Author, Style of tins Treatise, as 
but the pindust of it, that gilds but intercepts the Letter. 
1644 J. Goodwin' Inuoc. Triumph. (1645) 7 Resigne up his .. 

1 conscience to be ordered, obliged, and tied, by the meere 
authority and magistery of men. 1660 Jer. Taylor Duct. 
Dubit. in. iv. rule 22 § 1 To give them [General Councils] a 
legislative power and magistery in faith. 1670 G. H. Hist. 
Cardinals 11. 11. 142 Francisco began .. to manage it (the 

' Church] with great Magistery and Dominion. 1706 Phillips 

, (ed. Kersey), Magistery, Mastership; especially the Office 
of the great Master of Maltha. 
3. Alchemy, Medicine ,etc. a. A master principle 

I of nature ; a potent transmuting or curative quality 
or agency; concr. a substance that has the power 
of transmuting or changing the nature of other 
substances, c. g. the philosopher's stone. 

1594 Plat Jeivell-ho.,Chcm, Concl. 37, I wil not.. discover 
any magistery upon so base an occasion. 1601 Holland 
Pliny II. 165 Moreouer, they made proofe of the said floures 
dried, and this high magistery they found, That being beaten 
to pouder, they cured [etc.]. c 1645 Howell Lett. vi. xli. 
(1650) 232 He that hath water turn'd to ashes, hath the 
Magistery, and the true Philosophers stone. 1670 Moral 
State Eng. 43 That great Magistery of Nature (as they call 
iti the Philosophers stone. 1678 R. R[l'ssell] Geber 11. i. 1. 
v. 31 For there is one Stone, one Medicine in which the 
Magistery consists, im {title) The Hermetical Triumph, or, 
Victorious Philosophical Stone: a Treatise., concerning the 
Hermetical Magistery. _ 1837 Whewell Hist, Indttct. Sci. 
(1857) I. 232 There existed preparations which possessed 
the power of changing the whole of a body into a substance 
of another kind : these were called magisteries. 
Jig. ai6j7 Hale Contempt. 11, 179 This is the great 
Engine of a Christian, a Magistery, that was never attained 
by the most exquisite Philosopher. 

b. A product or result of transmutation. 
1605 Tihiib Quersit. 1. i. 3 Which meale or flower we 
mixe with water, we leaven and bake; whereof ariseth a 
great magistery, namely bread. 1655 in Hartlib Re/. 
Commw. Bees 35 Honey is a Vegetable Magistery, in part 
perfected by the Specifick virtue of the flour, . . compleated by 
the peerlesse virtue of the Bee, which doth transmute that 
sweetnesse into a new Creature, which is Honey. 1671 
J. Webster Metallogr. xii. 190 By this solvent the whole 
Metal is brought into another disposition, (which he calls a 

C. The concentrated essence of a substance. 
1641 French Distill, i. (1651) 26 Thou sbalt have the true 
magistery or Spirit of Wine. 1658 tr. Porta's Nat. Magic 
x. xiv. 270 A Magistery . . is what can be extracted out of 
things without separation of the Elements. 1668 Phil. 
Trans. III. 787 The volatile Salt, Spirit, Oyle, Magistery, 
made of the several parts of the Stagg. 

d. The residuum obtained by precipitation from 
an acid solution, e.g. Magistery of bismuth, pearls, 
etc. ; a precipitate. Applied also to a resinous 

1602 F. Hering Anatomyes 15 Vnicornes home,. .Magis. 
tery of Pearles, and Forreine Bugges and Drugges. 1663 
Bovle Use/. Exp. Nat. Philos. 11. ii. 159 The mag'istery 
prepared by dissolving them [pearls] in acid spirits. 1678 
Salmon Lond. Disp. 852/1 Magisteries of Bones.. -They are 
dissolved with Acids.. and precipitated with Alkalies. 171a 
tr. Pomet's Hist. Drugs I. 29 The Resin or Magistery of 
Jalap is made with Spirit of Wine. 1756 C. Lucas Ess. 
Waters I. 6o_The metals are suddenly precipitated in the 
form of a magistery. 1794-6 E. Darwin Zoon. IV. 96 A calx, 
or magistery, of bismuth. 1822 Imjson Sci. <r ArtW. 116 
The magistry of bismuth, or pearl white. 1861 Hllme tr. 
Moquin-'Tandon 11. 111. ii. 89 J'he old practitioners .. made 
use of a magestry or precipitate of coral. 

e. A specially prepared medicine; a specific. 
1669 W. Simpson Hydrol. Chym, 162 It would have proved 

a very good magistery for a horse. < 1720 W. Gibson 
Farrier's DisPens. 111. 11. (1734) 112 There is a magistery 
made from Calamine. 

f4. An art, craft, or employment. Obs. 

1647 Lilly Chr. Astral, lxxxiv. 450 These two Planets 
are trie Significators of Magistery, Trade or Profession. 
1669 Addr. hopeful young Gentry Eng. 72 These mistresses 
of the Magistery of dissimulation are the greatest enemies 
to the convers of the world. 

Magistracy (mard^istrasi). Also fi-7 magis- 
tracies magistratio. [f. Maoistratk : sec-ACY.] 

+ 1. The existence of magistrates; the condition 
of being a magistrate. Obs. 

c 1585 R. Browne Answ. Cartwright 3 As for the Maies- 
tracie of Byshops there is no lawe to warrant it. 1587 T. 
Norton's Calvin's Inst. iv. xx. 496 rnarg., Magistracy [is] 
not taken away by the Hbertie which is promised in the 
gospel!. 1612 T. Taylor Comm. Titus ii. 12 We. .in magis- 
tracy and subjection, must shew what price we set onCods 
mercie. 1644 A. Burgkssk Magis tr. Commiss./r. Heaven 
2 He was convinced the state of Magistracie he lived in to 
l>e pleasing to God. 1693 Urydkn Persius (1697) 455 
Young Noblemen.. were too forward in aspiring to Publick 

2. The office of the magistrate ; magisterial power 
or dignity ; occas. conduct in office as a magistrate. 
Now rare. 

1577 tr. /iiilliuger's Decades (1^92) 169 The Magistracie 
(that I mayhencefoiwarde vse this wordeof the magistrates 
power ancf place) is an office, and an action in executing 
the same. 1697 C Leslie Snake in Grass (ed. 2} 1.31 Their | 

MAGISTRAL. Contempt of Magistracy and the Laws. 1765 Black- 
stone Comm. I. ii. 142 In all tyrannical governments the 
supreme magistracy, or the right both of making and of en- 
forcing the laws, is vested in one and the same man. 1782 
Gcntl. Mag. LII. 597 [TheyJ were both committed to New 
Bridewell .. for contempt of magistracy. 1835 I. Taylor 
Spir. Despot. 111. 112 A principal portion of the .. spiritual 
magistracy had been usurped. 1849 Macali.ay Hist. Eng. 
viii. II. 277 Literature and science were, in the academical 
system of England,., armed with magistracy. 1875 Jowett 
Plato (ed. 2) V . 169 All magistrates . . must give an account 
of their magistracy. 

3. The office, dignity, and functions of some 
magistrate (e.g. a consul, justice of the peace, etc.) 
contextually indicated. 

1600 Holland Livy x. xv. 361 To plucke the Consulship 
out of the mire . . and to restore the auncient majestie . . to 
the Magistracie. 1695 Ln. Preston Boeth. 1. 17, I had no 
other end in aspiring to the Magistracy, than that one, of 
doing good to all. 1715 Leoni Palladia's Archit. (1742) 
II. 65 The Candidates, who put in for any Magistracy. 
1790 Burke Fr. Rev. 18 A popular choice is necessary to 
the legal existence of the sovereign magistracy. 1849 
Macallay Hist. Eng. \. I. 74 The public regarded them 
merely as eminent citizens invested with temporary magis- 
tracies. 1868 Freeman Norm. Canq. (18761 II. vii. 136 
A town over which he exercised the powers of the highest 
civil magistracy. 

4. Magistrates collectively ; the whole body of 

1601 Dent Pathw. Heaven, Morn. Prayer (1631) Dd 5 b, 
We pray thee blesse Magistracie, Ministerie, & Common- 
alt);. 1651 Biggs AVzc Disp. Pref. 9 So grave a Magistracie 
sitting in Parliament. 1755 Magkns Insurances II. 276 
A just Valuation, which must be confirmed by a Sentence of 
the nearest Magistracy or other competent Tribunal. 1758 
J. Blake Plan Mar. Syst. 52 Our sea-ports, to the shame 
of magistracy, abound with lewd. .women. i8ooColquhoin 
Coium. Thames viii. 265 Checks established under the con- 
trol of a vigilant magistracy. 1849 Macallay Hist. Eng. 
x - II- 555 The peers repaired to Guildhall, and were received 
there with all honor by the magistracy of the city. 1883 
Fortn. Rev. May 700 Guardians have come to be regarded 
with almost as much respect as the magistracy. 

5. a. A district under the government of a magis- 
trate, b. A magistrate's residence or station. 

1888 Athenceum^ 7 Apr. 439/1 Dividing the country into 
magistracies, and instituting local courts and officials. 1895 
, Scully Kajfir Stories 1 89 The Kwesa clan of Pondos dwelt 
1 ..within thirty miles of the Magistracy. 

Magistral (.mad^i'stial), a. and sb. Also 6-7 
magiatrall. [a. F. magistral or ad. L. magistralis, 
f. magister Master sb.] A. adj. 

1. Of or pertaining to, or befitting a master; 
authoritative, dogmatic. Now rare. 

1605 Bacon Adv. Learn. \. v. § 9 Another Error is in the 
manner of the tradition and deliuerie of knowledge, which 
is for the most part Magistral! and peremptorie ; and not 
ingenuous and faithful 1. i6a6 T. H[awkins] Canssvfs 
Holy Crt. 149 We must haue an authority moouing, magis- 
tral!, and decisiue. 1641 Ansiv. Vind. Smectymnuns 27 
Your assertion .. is more Magistrall, then true. 1862 
Kuskin Munera P. (1872) no Magistral powers, of the 
More over the less, and the forceful and free over the weak 
and servile elements of life. 

fb. Ofa problem, a point of instruction: ?Handed 
down from the masters ofa science; forming part 
of the accepted course of teaching. Obs. 

1572 Dei. Math. Pre/., Which thing, I laaue to your 
consideration : making hast to despatch an other Magis- 
trall Probleme : and to bring it, nerer to your knowledge, 
..then the world (before this day) had it for you. 1644 
Bulwer Chiron. 80 This action is Magistrall in Rhetorique, 
but grounded upon Nature. 

2. Pharntaey. Of a remedy, a formula : Devised 
by a physician for a particular case ; not included 
in the recognized phaimacopaia ; opposed to 


1605 Bacon Adv. Learn, n. x. § 8 Here is the deficience 
which I finde, that Physitians haue not.. set downe and de- 
liueredouer, certaine Experimental! Medicines, for the Cure 
of particular Diseases; besides their own Coniecturall anil 
Magistrall Descriptions. 1635 A. Reaij Tumorsfy I 'leers 271 
Some magistral! compositions are required in thecurationof 
these griefes. 1638 RAWLKYtr. Baton's Li/ety Death (1651* 
29 Some Magistrall Opiate weaker than those that are com- 
monly in use. 1710T. VviA.F.R Pharm. E.xtemp. 409 The Ma- 
siatxttU I >ecoction of Mallows. 1831 J. Davii-s Manual Mat. 
Med. Pref. n Some magistral fonnukc to serve as examples 
of the manner of prescribing it. 1875 H. C. Wood The>ap. 
(1879) 582 Cacao Butter, .is.. very largely used in the pre- 
paration of suppositories, both officinal and magistral. 1878 
tr. von Ziemssen's Cycl. Med. VIII. 419 note, The curious 
magistral formula for this tincture is the following. 

f b. By some writers app. taken to mean : 
' Sovereign', supremely effective. Obs. 

159a G. Harvey Pierce's Super. 37 Who knoweth not 
that Magistrall vnguent [cf. magistralis tinctio in Du 
CangeJ, knoweth nothing : and who hath that magistral 
vnguent, feareth no gunshott. 1641 Shirley Cardinal v. 
iii. Receive This ivory box ; in it, an antidote 'Bove that 
they boast the great magistral medicine. 1678 Salmox 
Lond. Disp. 645/2 A magistral pouder against worm. 
3. Fortification. Leading, pi incipal, ' master-'. 
1828 J. M. Spearman Brit. Gunner (ed. 2^ 302 The prin- 
cipal or magistral gallery runs all round the work, under the 
t>anquette of the covered-way. 1838 Penny Cycl. X. 375/2 
The line which on the plan indicates the directions of the 
faces, flanks, etc., of the works is called the magistral line. 
1872 Voyle & Stevenson Mil. Diet., Magistral line.. An 
field fortifications, this line is the interior crest line, ln 
permanent fortifications, it is usually the line of the top of 
the escarp of each work. 




4. In occasional uses: Having the title of 'Master'; 
of or pertaining to a 'master' or 'masters* (in 
various applications of the word). 

1837 G. S. Fabbr Prim. Doctr. JustiJ. 268 Thomas Aqui- 
nas . . and his magistral predecessor \sc. the Master of the 
Sentences]. 1878 Res kin Fors Clav. lxxxvi, The men are 
rebuked, in the magistral homilies, for their ingratitude in 
striking. 1881 F. E. To^vn, College, <y Neighb. 
Mmr&9fm&k 91 The magistral staff is composed of the 
Master and about thirty assistant masters. tfj&z Genii. Mag. 
May 570 According to the masters \sc. the MeistersingersJ, 
the institution of the school of magistral song was of the 
remotest antiquity. 

5. Used for: Masterly. [So in Fr.] rare- 1 . 
1889 J. M. Robertson Ess. Crt't Method 256 Magistral 

as Milton at his greatest, but subtle beyond his scope. 

B. sb. 

fl. Pharmacy. A magistral preparation or for- 
mula. Obs. 

1621 Burton Atutt. Mel. 11, iv. 1. v, Every Citty, Towne, 
almost eueiy priuate man hath his owne. .receits, magis- 
tralls, precepts, as if hee scorned antiquity. 1654 Wbitlock 
Zootomia 103 Hee pretendeth to Magistralls, that none but 
his Apothecary and he must understand. j&joLe.v Tettionis 
29 He shall ..prescribe so many of his Nostrums and Magis- 
trals, as he calls them. 

Jig. 1647 Hammond Semi. x. Wks. 1683 IV. 535 But for the 
magistrals of nature and art, such are Gods smitings and 
punishments, which cost God dear, as it were, he is fain to 
fetch them from far. 

2. Fortification. —Magistral line. (See A. 3.) 

1853 Stocqueler Milit. Encyct., Magistral, the tracing 
or guiding Hue in fortification, .from which the position of 
all the other works is determined. In field fortification the 
crest line of the parapet is the magistral ; in permanent 
fortification the cordon . . is the guide. 

|| 3. Ecel. A Spanish cathedral priest, with special 
duties as a preacher. 

1772 Nugent tr. Hist. Friar Gerund II. 83 The Magis- 
tral, .had purposely seated himself in the confessional of the 
parson of the parish. 

114. Min. [Sp. (maxz'strai).] (See quot.) 

1839 Ure Did. Arts, Magistral, in the language of the 
Spanish smelters of Mexico and South America, is the 
roasted and pulverized copper pyrites, which is added to 
the ground ores of silver, .for the purpose of decomposing 
the horn silver present. 1881 in Raymond Mining Gloss. 

t Magistraiity. Obs. [f. prec. + -ity.] The 
quality or condition of being magistral, a. The 
standing of a master or mistress ; the right to lay 
down the law or to dogmatize ; authoritative char- 
acter, b. quasi-concr. a dogmatic utterance ; in 
Mai. a special prescription. 

a. 1603 iVort/is Plutarch, Seneca (1612) 1213 Agrippina 
..thinking she could by her magistralitie remedie this well 
inough. 1605 Bacoh Adv. Learn. 11. viii. § 5 To those that 
seeke truth and not Magistralitie it cannot but seeme a 
Matter of great profit. 1641 J. Jackson True Evang. T. 
!. 71 The authority and magistraiity of the first asset- tor 
of it. 

b. 1605 Bacon Adv. Learn, 11. x. § 8 The phisitians 
haue frustrated the fruite of tradition & experience by their 
magistral it ies. 1691 Woon Ath. Oxon. II. 572 Humane 
Magistracies, self-weaved Ratiocinations, .. have laid.. 
claim to the highest advance of humane learning. 

t Magi'Strally, adv. Obs. [f. as prec. + -Ly2.] 
In a magistral manner; authoritatively, dogmati- 

^1603 T. Cartwright Con/ut. Khun. N. T. (1618) 172 
You haue put that magistrally which Ambrose maketh a 
perhaps of. 1656 Hobbes Liberty, Necess., etc. (1841) 257 
To assume, .alicence to control so magistrally ..the doctors 
of the Church in general. 

Magistraild (mard^istand). Se. Also 7 ma- 
gestrand. [ad. med.L. magistrand-us, gerundive 
pple. of magistrdri to become a Master (of Arts).] 
Originally, in Scottish Universities, an Arts student 
in the fourth or highest class; subsequently, one 
in the fourth year. Now retained, in official use, 
only at Aberdeen. At St. Andrews it has recently 
been revived, among the students, as an unofficial 
designation. Also attrib. in magist rand-class. 

16.. in Crauford's Hist. Cniv. Edin. (1808) 24 The 
Magestrands (as now) conveened in the high hall. 1642 
Statutes Visitation S Aug. (St. Andrews), The whole Magis- 
trandes and Doctaloures in the two Coiledges of Philosophy 
. .sail only haue voice in choyseing the Rector of the Uni- 
versity. 1708 J. Chambi:rlavne.SV. Gt. Brit. 11. 111.x. (1710) 
470 'I his is the last Year, after which they go out Masters 
of Arts; and for that reason this is called the Magistrand 
Class. i8» \V. Tennant Auster F. ii. xiv. (1871) 25 Up 
from their mouldy books and tasks had sprung Bigent and 
M agi stra nd to try the game. 1879 G. Macdonald SirGibbie 
III. ix. 153 Although now a magistrand— that is, one about 
to take his degree of Master of Arts. 1889 Univ. Nexvs Sheet 
(St. Andrews) 11 Jan. 7 With us at St. Andrews the words 
semi, tertian, and magistrand, ,. have long since entirely 
gone out of use. 1891 College Echoes (St. Andrews) 15 Jan., 
Ihe present designations— Second-year man, Third-year 
man, and toiirth-year-man are colourless and awkward. 
\V hy .should not Bejants become Semis, then Tertians, and 
close their career with the melancholy glory of Magistrand? 

Magistrate (mrc-dsistra), j£. Forms: 4-6' 
magestrat(e, maiestrat^e, 4-7 magistrat, 5- 
magistrate. [ad. L. magistrdtus («-stem\ orig. 
^magisterial rank or office, a magistracy; hence 
a person holding such an office ; f. ma^ister 
Master sb. (see -atjsI i a). Cf. R magistral.'] 

1 1. The office and dignity of a magistrate ; magis- 
tracy. Obs. 

c 1374 Chaucer Boeth. m. pr. iv. 37 (Camb. MS.) That 
thow woldest beren the magestrat with decdrat. 1530 
Palsgr. 241/2 Magistrate dignyte, magistral. 

2. A civil officer charged with the administration 
of the laws, a member of the executive government- 
Chief magistrate ) first magistrate : in a monarchy, 
the sovereign : in a republic, usually the president. 

1382 Wyclif Luke xxxiii. 14 The magestratis of the peplc 
clepid to gidere, Pilat setde to hem. 1432-50 tr. Higitcn 
(.Rolls) III. 255 The peple of Rome not sufTrenge. .the 
sedicion of be magistrates, ordeynede x. men to write be 
lawes. X6«0 CROWLEY Epigr. 27 b, Woulde God the niaies- 
trates woulde se men set a-worke. 1581 Pettie Gnazzo y s 
Civ. Conv. 11. (1586) 101 A discreet Magistrate ought not to 
..alter his manners in respect of his dtguitie. 1502 DaVIEs 
Immort. Soul XXI X. iv, The Common's Peace the Magis- 
trates preserve. 1614 Raleigh Hist. World 111.(1634) 7- 
Every Estate., were governed by Lawes, ..and by their 
owne Magistrates. 1681 Dbvden Hind -y P. 1. 489 Suppose 
the magistrate revenge her cause, 'Tis only for transgressing 
human laws. 1761 Hume Hist. Eng. III. liv. 175 The 
king was too eminent a magistrate to be trusted with dis- 
cretionary power. 1791 Jefferson in Washington's Writ. 
(1892) XII. 20 note. It is fortunate that our first chief magis- 
trate is purely and zealously republican. 1821 Bykon Mar. 
Fat. 1. li, Health and respect to the Doge Faliero, Chief 
magistrate of Venice. 1857 Toulmin Smith Parish 372 The 
Coroner himself is an elected Magistrate. 

attrib. 1602 Patekicke tr. Gentillet 26 The Paynim 
Lawyer may serve for a goodly example to condemne many 
Magistrate Lawyers of our time. 

Jig. 1612 Bacon Ess., Custom (Arb.) 370 Custome is the 
principal Magistrate of mans life. 

3. spec. In England and Ireland, a more frequent 
synonym for ' justice of the peace ' (see Justice sb. 
10) ; also applied (chiefly with prefixed word, as 
in police, stipendiary magistrate, and, in Ireland, 
resident magistrate) to salaried officials having, 
like the justices of the peace, criminal jurisdiction 
of the first instance. In Scotland, applied to the 
provost and bailies of a burgh, as forming a court 
for police jurisdiction and the granting of licences. 

The mayor of a town is sometimes referred to as its 'chief 1 
or ' first magistrate '. 

a 1688 G. Dallas Stiles 12 The said M. R. .. and the 
remanent Magistrats of the raid Burgh .. The said R. M. 
Bailie of the said Burgh, and the Provost and remanent 
Bailies of the same. 1727 in Quincy Hist. Harvard '(1840) 
I. 567 The signification of magistrate in England, and even 
now in New England, extends to every one of his Majesty's 
Justices of the Peace ; but in the time when the act above- 
said was made [1642], .. the known signification extended 
only to those who were Assistants to the Governor in 
Council. 1752 Fielding Amelia r. ii, The worthy magis- 
trate submitted to hear his defence. 1889 Doyle Micah 
Clarke xxiii. 237 This fellow would make two of the gauger, 
and leave enough over to fashion a magistrate's clerk. 

f Magistrate, v. Obs.~° [f. ppl, stem of L. 
magistrarc : see Magistkation.] inlr. To play 
the master (Cockeram 1623). 

Magistrateship, [f. Magistrate sb. + 
-ship.] The dignity, office, and functions of a 
magistrate; also, the term of a magistrate's office. 

1574 Life Abp. Parker B viij b, He was wonte to rubbe 
his minde with the memorye off that sentence, that all fame, 
. .all magistratshippes . . shall perishe, and decaye. a 1656 
Usshf.r Ann. (1658) 595 Rullus, the beginning of his 
magistrateship, published the Agrarian Law. 1884J. Pavne 
1001 Nights VIII. 93 'Tis one of the duties of magistrate- 
ship, To hang up the chief of police o'er his door. 1886 
Athenxmu 10 July 47/2 He was something of a soldier, and 
iwhich was much rarer at the time than either soldiership or 
magistrateship) he was a bibliophile. 

t Magistra'tial, a. Obs. rare" 1 , [f: as prec. 
+ -ial.] — Magisterial 3. 

1774 Poetry in Ann, Reg. 208 Hast thou . . seen . . In the 
plain hall the magistratial chair? 

t Magistra'tic, a, Obs. Also 7 magistra- 
tique. [f. as prec. + -10.] = prec. 

1653 Gauobm Hierasp. 458 Onely to look exactly to civill 
interests and safety J is to make Magistratiek power, . . to 
concurre with the malice of the Divels. 1667 Watkrhoiwb 
Fire L.oiut. 79 Publick places of Magistratfque dispatch. 
1677 Gale Crt. Gentiles iv. 206 Clemence also ought to be 
illustrious in magistrate administrations. 

Magistratical (ma^dsistrartikal), a. [f. 
prec. + -AL.] Of or pertaining to, or befitting a 
magistrate or magistrates. (Cf. MAGISTERIAL 3.) 

1638 Dh. # Pol. Observations 55 A stile no lesse Magis- 
trate, if not so Magistraticall as this Speech. 1644 J. Win- 
thkoi' New Eng. (1826) II. 205 Whether the deputies in the 
general court have judicial and magistratical authority? 
a 1683 Sidney Disc. Govt. (1714) 3S3 The original of Magis- 
tratical Power. 1752 Fiklding Amelia t. ii, Mr. Thrasher 
. .had some few imperfections in his magistratical capacity. 
1769 De Foe"s Tour Gt. Brit. 1 1 . 324 They are allowed the 
highest Marks of magistratical Honour. 1848 P. Macfak- 
lane in Mem. A*. Craig x. (1862) 244 God is the fountain, 
the first source of human magistratical power. 1850 Tait's 
Mag. XVII. 556/1 The magistratical and clerical orders. 
1893 M. Hutchison Pe/. Prcsb. Ch. Scot. v. 121 With such 
conceptions of magistratical powers. . .the Revolution settle- 
ment would appear to be deserving only of condemnation. 

Hence Magistra'tically adv., in a magistratical 
or magisterial manner. 

1650 K. Holmngworth E.xcrc. Usurped Powers %2 That 
such things should be maintained Magistratically by a 
Tyrant. 1872 I. Walker Theology .y Theologians Scot. 
v. (1888) 147 Unless.. he acted in this sovereign way, with 
the sword behind all his enactments and injunctions, he did 
not act in the proper sense magistratically. 

t Magistra tiou. Obs, rare~K [ad. late L. 

magiitrdtion-cm. n. of action f. magistrate to rule, 
f. magister MASTER sb.] Command, direction. 

1490 Caxton Eneydos i. n Agamenon .. hadde the 
magystracyon. . of alle the.xcersite and hoost to-fore Troye. 

Magistrative (mx*d^istraiv), a. rare— 1 , [f. 
magistral-, ppl. stem of magist rdre (see prec.) + 
-1VE.] Proper to a magistrate, requisite for ruling. 

1865 Bushmell Vicar. Sacr, ui. iii. 241 A want of system 
and magistrative firmness. 

Magist rat lire (mse'dgistrAiiu). [a. F. magis- 
tralure, f. magistral Magistrate sb.] 

1. The dignity or office of a magistrate ; magis- 
terial office; occas. the exercise of the office; with 
a and pi. an individual office. (Cf. Magistracy 3.) 

1672 Essex Papers (Camden) 23 That noe person whatso- 
ever bee admitted into any Place of Magistratureor Govern- 
ment. .till [etc.]. 1791 State Papers in Ann. Keg. 183* Incase 
..of a collision between magistracies. 1824 La N DOR I mag. 
Conv., Marcus TulUus $ Quinctus Cicero Wks. 1S53 I. 
2^8/1 Finding all our niagistratures in the disposal of the 
:>enate. i8zg Ibid., Diog. ^ Plato ibid. 504/1 Giving to 
this one rightly what that one would bold wrongfully, is 
justice in magistral nre. 1833 New Monthly Mag. XXXVII. 
465 The family rose to the dignities of the magistralure. 
1833 Erasers Mag. VII. 650 With these some of the niagis- 
tratures are now filled. 

Jig. 1796 Bubney Mem. Metastasio II. 3^5 Does music 
aspire at this supreme magistrature? 

b. The term of a magistrate's office. 

1720 Ozkll VertoCs Rom. Rep. I. 1, 59 The two Consul-, 
whose Magistrature was expiring, appointed the Assembly 
for the Election of their Successors. 1824 Landor Imag. 
Conv., Leopold -V Prcsid. du Paty Wks. 1853 I. 68/2 A., 
man, who can reproach himself with no perversion or neglect 
of justice, in a magistrature of twenty years. 

2. collect. The body of magistrates; = Magis- 
tracy 4. 

1679 Evelyn Diary 21 Nov., I dined at my Lord Mayor's 
.. Such a.. splendid magistrature does no city in the world 
show. 1830 Examiner 548/1 The magistrature continued. 
The very men who had opposed the liberty of the press . . 
continued in their positions. 1859 Sat. Rev. VII. 273/2 
That illustrious; magistrature which, in former days, guided 
France by their counsels. 1898 A. W. Ward in Eng. Hist. 
Rev. Jan. 175 The conservative tendencies of the Belgian 

Magi-stricide. nonce-zed. [f. as if L. *magis- 
trictda (after parriefda, etc. : see -cun: 1 ). f. magis- 
ter master.] A murderer of one's master or teacher. 

1670 Lassels i'oy. Italy II. 172 Nero the Magistricide, 
who put this rare man bis master to death. 

Magitian, obs. form of Magician. 

Magma ,mai'gma\ [a. L. magma (sense 1), 
Gr. fAayfia, f. root of paoauv to knead.] 

fl. The dregs that remain from a semi-liquid 
substance after the more liquid part has been re- 
moved by pressure or evaporation. Obs. 

< 1420 Patlad. on Ifusb. xi. 351 Taak aloen & mine & 
magma with Saffron [L. crocomagma lees of saffron], of 
yche yliche. a 1648 Dighy Closet Open. (1677) 18 You may 
squeze out the clear juyce and hang the Magma in a bag 
in the bung. 1694 Salmon Pate's Dispens. (1713)38/2 Hy 
another Distillation, reduce ihe Magma at bottom, to the 
Consistency of Honey. 1730 Stack in Phil. Trans. XXXV I. 
271 The Eggs, .resemble a Magma of a brown Colour. 1737 
lik.\CKi;N Farriery Impr. (1756) L 310 Apply the Magma 
(or Herbs after they are squeezed out of the Liquor) to the 
Wound. 1856 Maynk Expos. Lex., Magma, .. a squeezed 
mas* of a certain consistence. 

2. 'Any crudemixture of mineral or organic matters, 
in a thin pasty state' (Ure Diet. Arts 1839). 

1681 tr. Willis' Rem. Med. Wks. Vocab., Magma, the 
blended dross and faeces of several metals, as also of chynii- 
cal extractions. 1782 Kirwan \\\Phil. Trans. LXXIII. 17 
f They] afford no crystals, but oidy a magma or mother 
liquor. 1806 Hatcuett ibid. XCVI. in It formed with 
sulphuric acid a thick black magma. 1838 T. Thomson 
Chem. Org. Bodies 688 A concentrated solution of potash 
forms with bird-lime a whitish magma, which becomes brown 
by evaporation. 1854 J. Scokiern in Orr's Circ. Sci., 
Chem. 24 A magma of dark-coloured sugar. 1875 H. C. 
Woou Therap. (1879) 93 It . . should be so moist as to con- 
stitute a magma. 1894 Huxley Wks. IX. 8 Our earth 
may once have formed part of a nebulous cosmic magma. 

3. G'eol. a. One of two or more supposed strata 
of fluid or semi-fluid matter lying beneath the 
solid crust of the earth, b. The amorphous basis 
of certain porphyritic rocks. 

1865 Haughton Man.Gcol. 3 According to Durocher .. 
the first and second layers of the globe are composed of 
totally different materials. The outer layer, which he calls 
the Acid Magma, corresponds with the granites; and the 
inner or second layer, which he calls the Basic Magma, 
corresponds with the trap rocks and the greenstones. 1869 
Phillips Vesuv. xii. 336 Whether these rocks .. constitute 
practically a solid basis, or float in a magma of slow 
fluidity. 1874 Dawkins in Ess. Owen's Colt. Manchester 
V. 148 Two distinct layers or magmas beneath the stratified 
rocks. 1882 Geikie Text-bk. Gcol. it. 11. iii. 87 Many 
crystalline rocks consist .. of a magma or paste, in which 
the crystalline particles are .. embedded. 1897 — Anc. 
Volcanoes Gt. Brit. I. 12 There will thus be a constant 
pressure of the molten magma into the roots of volcanoes. 

4. Pharmacy. An ointment or confection of a 
softish consistence. {Syd. Soe. Lex. 1889.) 

1855 Dunglison Med, Zf.i.fed. 12), Magma, .also, asalve 
of a certain consistence. 

Hence Magrma-tic a. s of or pertaining to the 
magma (sense 3). In recent Diets. 

t Ma'gment. Obs. rare'- . [ad. L. mag- 
mentum.\ Great increase. 1623 in Cockeram. 



Magmoid (mog-gmoid), a. Bot. [f. Magma + 
-oil).] (^See quot.) 

1879 W. A. Leighton Lichen.jlora (ed. 3) 516 Magmoid, 
like an alga, consisting of spherical green cellules. 

Magna Charta, Magna Carta (mse -gna 

ka-Jta). Also 1 pi. magna chartaes. [med.L., sig- 
nifying 'great charter'.] The Great Charter of 
English personal and political liberty, obtained 
from King John in 1215, repeatedly confirmed, 
and appealed to in all disputes between the sove- 
reign and his subjects, till the establishment of 
constitutional government. 

[1279 Rolls o/Parlt. I. 224 Quod tollatur magna carta de 
foribus Ecclesiarum.] 1568 Gkafton Chrou. II. 118 This 
Parliament king Edwards lawes were again restored, & 
Magna carta confirmed. 1641 Ld. J. Digby Sp. in Ho. 
Comm. 19 Jan. 15 An Accumulation of all the publique 
Grievances since Magna Carta. 1766 Blackstone Comm. 
1, « v - 74 John was obliged to consent, by his magna carta, 
that (etc.]. 1865 Dickens Mat. Fr. 1. v, Considered to 
represent the penn'orth appointed by Magna Charta. 

trans/, a.nd_/ig. 1630 13. Jonson New Inn 1. i, It is against 
my freehold, my inheritance, My Magna Charta.. To drink 
such balderdash, or bonny-clabber. 1643 Pkvnne Sov. Power 
Pari. 1. (ed. 2) 22 Which you may reade in ancient Magna 
Chartaes. a 1686 T. Watson Body Divin. (1692) 460 The 
Covenant of Grace is our Magna Charta, by vertue of which 
God passeth himself over to us to be our God. 1879 G. G. 
Scott Led. Median/. Arckit. II. 181, I have called the use 
of diagonal ribs the Magna Charta of the art of vaulting. 

t Maguae VOUS, a. Obs. rare— , [as if f. L. 
*mqgnxv~us 'J. magn-us great + sevum age) + -ous.] 
Of great age. — GSAHDBVOUS, 

1727 in Bailey vol. II. 

I! Magna' le. Obs. [as if a. L. * magnate, sing, of 
Mag N ALIA.] A great or wonderful thing, a wonder. 

1623 Cocker am, M agnails, great things to be wondered at 
fi6z6 Bacon Sylva § 747 To restore Teeth in Age, were 
Magnale Naturae.] 1646 J, Hall Horx Vac. 115 'Tis great 
art in dissimulation to dissemble the art of dissimulation, 
greater to performe that Magnale in Perspective. 1650 
Chaki.kton Paradoxes Ep. Ded. A 4 b, In the discovery of 
some Magnale in Knowledg. 1665 Glanvill Scepsis Set. 
vi. 24 We'l examine these Accounts of the Magnale. 

Magnalia, Obs. Also 7 erron, mag- 
nalia's. [L. magnolia neut. pi., f. magnus great.] 
Great or wonderful works ; wonders. 

c 1645 Howell Lett. (1S92) II. 663 In Natures Cabinet .. 
there are divers mysteries and Magnalia's yet unknown. 
1649 G. Daniel Trinarch., Hen. IV, cvii, These the Mag- 
nalia, w rk but some can find In Nature, Earth by Earth only 
Calcin'd. 1681 Glanvill Sadducismus 82 He made no dis- 
covery of the Magnalia of Art or Nature. 

t Magna'lity. Obs. [f. Magnalia + -ity.] 
A great or wonderful thing. 

1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. 11. in, 70 Too greedy of 
magnalities, we are apt to make but favourable experiments 
concerning welcome truths. 1682 — C/ir. Mor. m. {• 14 Fill 
thy Spirit .. with the mysteries of Faith, the magnalities of 

II Magnanerie (man y an*r* J. [F., f. magnan 
silkworm.] A silkworm house. 

1887 Paton in Encycl. Brit. XXII. 59/2 Small educations 
reared apart from the ordinary magnanerie, for the produc- 
tion of graine alone, were recommended. 1888 E. A. Butlkr 
Silkworms 53 In large establishments, or magnaueries, as 
they are called. 

1 Magna nimate, v. Obs. rare- 1 . [f. L. 
magnanim-us (see MAGNANIMOUS) + -ate.] trans. 
To render high-souled ; to cheer, inspirit. 

1640 Howell Dodona's Gr. g Present danger magnanimats 
them, and inflames their courage. 

t Magnan i me, a. Obs. AIsoGmagnanyme. 
[a. F. magnanime, ad. L. magnanimtts : see Mag- 
nanimous.] High-souled, lofty, magnanimous. 

*5»3 Cromwell in Merriman Life <y Lett. (1002) I. 30 This 
high and Magnanyme enterpryse. 1549 Compl. Scot. Ep. 
Queen 2 Illustir princes, engendrit of magnanime genoli^ie. 
1590 R. Hitchcock Quiutess. Wit 1 b. Neither to profitte, 
but to most magnamme and hautie endes. 

Magnanimious, obs. form of Magnanimous. 

Magnanimity (mce^gnanrmTti). [a. F. mag- 
nanimite, ad. L. magnanimitdt-em, f. magnanimus 

f 1. Used (with somewhat vague meaning) as the 
name of one of the virtues recognized in mediaeval 
ethics. Obs. 

Primarily this represented the Aristotelian ntyaXotyvxi* 
(see 3), but in scholastic descriptions the notion was modi- 
fied in accordance with Christian ideals, and blended with 
elements suggested by the etymology of the L. word {animus 
being capable of the sense ' courage ') ; hence ' magnanimity' 
is often classed as a subdivision of 'fortitude ' (so Aquinas, 
following Macrobius In Somu. Scip. 1. vui. § 7). 

1340 Ayenb. 164 Magnanimite is he^nesse gratnesse and 
noblesse of wylhede ..bis uirtue heb tuo delles : greate 
hinges onworbi, and wel grater to nime an hand, c 1386 
Chaucer Sec. Nun's T. 110 Right so men goostly in this 
inayden free Seyen of feith the magnanymytee. c 141a 
Hoccleve De Keg. Princ. 3900 Off magnanimite now 
wole I trete, |>at is to seyn, strong herte or grete corage. 
15*6 Pilgr. Per/. [W, de W. 1531) 136 Magnanimity is the 
vertue, wherby man or woman hath a discrete doughtynesse 
. . to speke or to do that thynge that they ought to do by 
right and reason for the loue of god. 

t2. LoUy courage; fortitude. Obs. 

(In some examples perh. the Aristotelian sense : see 3.) 

1509 V>Anci.\\ Sliyp o/Eolys (1570J 206 For his strength and 
magnanimitie . . One founde on grounde like to him can not be. 
1560 Dam tr. Sleidane's Comm. 322 This . . magnanimiti 

in so great adversity [L. in rebus adversis animi/ortitudo] 
got hi 111 great love every wher amongs al men. 1576 Gas- 
coigne Steele Ct. Ded. (Arb.) 43 Shall I yelde to my*ery 
as a iust plague apointed for my portion V Magnaniuiiue 
saith no. 1610 Willet Hcxapla Daniel 62 In courage and 
inagnanimitie superiour to Hercules. 1744 Hakris Three 
Treat. Wks. (1841) 107, I can bear whatever happens with 
manlike magnanimity. 1801 Mar. Edgewokth Angelina 
ii. (1832) 13 The courage and magnanimity with which she 
had escaped from her aristocratic persecutors. 

3. In the Aristotelian sense of fityaKoipvx'ta (see 
below). Also, loftiness of thought or purpose ; 
grandeur of designs, nobly ambitious spirit. Now 

In Aristotle the word (by modern translators rendered 
' great sou led ness ', ' highmindedness') expresses the atti- 
tude of one who, rightly conscious of his own great merits, 
is indifferent to praise except from those whose approval is 
valuable, regards the chances of fortune with equanimity, 
and, while ready to confer benefits, will seldom condescend 
to accept them. ~ 

1598 Bakckley Felic. Man (1631) 167 Carolus Martellus 
shewed great inagnanimitie in refusing principal! tie. c 1651 
Hobbes Rhet. (1840) 437 Magnanimity .. is a virtue by 
which a man is apt to do great benefits. 1717 L. Howel 
Desiderius 74 We are indued with a spiritual Magnan- 
imity, that sets us above the Desire of temporal Goods. 
1761 HUME Htst, Eng. II. xliv. 499 The queen's magnani- 
mity in forming such extensive projects was the more remark- 
able. 1769 Robertson Clias. V y xi. Wks. 1813 II 1. 267 That 
magnanimity of soul which delights in bold enterprizes. 

4. Nobility of feeling; superiority to petty resent- 
ment or jealousy ; generous disregard of injuries. 

1771 Burke Lett., to Pp. o/Chestcr (1844) I. 271 It may be 
magnanimity in Lord Mansfield to despise attacks made 
upon himself. 1785 Palev Mor. Philos. Wks. 1825 IV. 9 
Forgiveness of injuries is accounted by one sort of people 
magnanimity, by another meanness. 1841 Eli-hinstone 
Hist. India II. 219 The mean spirit of Mahmud was incap- 
able of imitating the magnanimity of his enemy. 1868 E. 
Edwards Ralegh I. xiii. 258 Ralegh .. on former occasions 
had shown towards Essex a wise and noble magnanimity. 
1900 J. H. Muikhead Chapters /r, Aristotle's Ethics 243 
With regard to honour and dishonour, there is a mean called 
magnanimity, or high-mindedness, a species of excess called 
vanity, and a defect called pusillanimity or little-mindedness. 
b. //. Instances of magnanimity. 

a 1639 Wotton in Reliq. (1672) 241 Some seeming Mag- 
nanimities being indeed (if you sound them well) at the 
bottom, very Impotencies. 1844 Mrs. Browning Drama 0/ 
Exile Poems 1850 I. 73 Aspire Unto the calms and mag- 
nanimities, ..To which thou art elect. 

f5. In occasional use: Affectatien of grandeur; 
magnificence. Obs. 

1658 Sir T. Browne Hydriot. 48 Pyramids, Arches, Obe- 
lisks, were but the irregularities of vain-glory and wilde 
enormities of ancient magnanimity. 

t 6. IVater of magnanimity : any gently stimu- 
lating remedy. (Syd. Soc. Lex.) Obs. 

1861 Hulme tr. Moquin-Tandon II. in. 65 Distilled Ants 
(Water of Magnanimity). 

Magnanimous (ma-'gnarnimas), a. Also 6-7 
magnanimioua. [f. L. magnanim-us (f. magnus 
great + animus soul : corresponding in formation 
to Gr. fityaX6\pvxos t and in scholastic Latin used 
as its translation) + -ous. Cf. F. magnanime.'] 

1. Great in courage ; nobly brave or valiant. Of 
qualities, actions, etc. : Proceeding from or mani- 
festing high courage. ? Obs. 

1584 Mirr. Mag. 1 b, The incouragement, that the mag- 
nanimious Cesar gaue vnto his souldiours. 1589 Warnek 
Alb. Eng. Prose Add. (1612) 332 Elisa (whom the Phoeni- 
cians for her magnanimious dying, did afterwardes name 
Dido). 166s G. Havers P. delta ValUs Trav. E. India 196 
The first course seem'd safest and most considerate; the 
latter was more magnanimous, but with-all temerarious, 
1x1719 Addison Evut. Chr. Relig. iii. (1733) 25 The irre- 
proachable lives and magnanimous sufferings of their fol- 
lowers. 1761 Hume Hist. Eng. II. xli. 430 When she saw 
an evident necessity she braved danger with magnanimous 
courage. 1770 Junius Lett, xxxviii. 1S9 note, All their mag- 
nanimous threats ended in a ridiculous vote of censure. 1828 
Scott E. M. Perth x.xxiv, The Douglas.. was too mag- 
nanimous not to interest himself in what was passing. 1858 
Longf. M. Standish iii, For he was great of heart, mag- 
nanimous, courtly, courageous. 

2. High-souled ; nobly ambitious; lofty of pur- 
pose ; noble in feeling or conduct. Now chiefly : 
Superior to petty resentment or jealousy, loftily 
generous in disregard of injuries. (Cf. Magnan- 
imity 3, 4.) 

1598 Havdocke tr. Lomazzo 11. 30 Ivstice being .. a mas- 
culine vertue, hath manlie, magnanimious, considerate and 
moderate actions. 1604 T. Wright Passions v. § 4. 225 It 
cannot but proceede from a noble magnanimious minde to 
contemneall base iniuries offered. 1633 G. Herbert Temple, 
Ch. Porch lvi, Pitch thy behaviour low, thy projects high ; 
So shalt thou humble and magnanimous be. C 1665 Mrs. 
Hutchinson Mem. Col. Hutchinson (1846) 33 He was so 
truly magnanimous, that prosperity could never lift him 
up in the least. 1769 Blackstone Comm. iv. xxxiii, 416 
Richard the first, a brave and magnanimous prince, was a 
sportsman as well as a soldier. 180a Wordsw. Sonu.,' Great 
men have been among us'j They knew,, what strength, 
that would not bend But in magnanimous meekness. 1847 
Disraeli Tancred 11. i, They think they are doing a very 
kind and generousand magnanimous thing. 1849 Macaulay 
Hist. Eng. II. 167 The magnanimous frankness of a man 
who had done great things, and who could well afford to 
acknowledge some deficiencies. 

Hence Magiia'nimously adv. ; Magnainmous- 
ness rare ■ Magnanimity - . 

1606 W. W[oodcocke] Itiil. Ivstine xviii. 71 They should 


..see he had the like liberallity and magnanimousnesse 
of mind. 1611 Coicb., Magiiauininncnt, magnanimously. 
1614 Earl Stirling Domes-day iv. lxxvii. (1637) 88 Who 
first from death hy deeds redeem'd their names, And emi- 
nent magnanimously grew. 1796 Blkke Kcgic. Peace 
i. Wks. VIII. 159 With Hannibal at her gates* she [Hol- 
land] had nobly and magnanimously refused all separate 
treaty. 1851 D. Wilson t'reh. Ann. (1863) II. III. iv. 126 
A golden treasure which they magnanimously resolved 
should be equitably divided. 1S61 Mks. Oliihant Last 0/ 
Mortimers II. 257, I am not sure my great magnanimous- 
ness did not have a root in what Harry tailed 'feeling ex- 
travagant '. 1885 Manch. Exam. 7 Feb. 5/2 I he French 
journals magnanimously drop their querulous tone. 

Magnase. rare-". A workman's corrupt form 
of Mangankse. (Cf. Magkus.) Only altrib. in 
magnase black. 

'849-50 Weale's Diet. Terms, Magnase Mack is the best 
of all blacks for drying in oil without addition, or prepara- 
tion of the oil. 1854 in Faikholt Did. Terms Art. 

Magnate ima'-gnJit). Chiefly //. Also 8-9 
maguat. [ad. late L. magnat-, magnds (also 
magnatus), f. magnus yreat.] 

1. A great man ; a noble ; a man of wealth or 
eminence in any sphere. 

Not in Johnson or Todd. It is possible that all the ex- 
amples before the 19th c. represent the I., plural magnatls. 

, 43°-4<> Lvdg. Bochas IX. xxxiv. (1558) 35 The greatest 
states rulers of the toun Called Magnates. 1590 Sir J. 
Smyth Disc. Weapons Ded. 15 Your Lordships (being the 
Nobilitie and Magnates of the Kingdome). 1654 Trait 
Comm. Job iii. 322 F'or Magnates are Magnetes, they 
draw many by their example. 1790 Blkke Fr. Rev. 39 The 
popular representative and . . the magnates of the kingdom. 
1814 Byron Lara 1. vii, Born of high lineage . . He mingled 
with the Magnates of his land. 1844 Ld. Brougham Brit. 
Const. L (1862) 5 A patrician body accustomed to consider 
themselves as the magnates in a country. 1850 W.Irving 
Goldsmith xx. 220 The associate of Johnson, Burke, Topham 
Beauclerc, and other magnates. 1874 L. Stephen Hours 
in Library (1892) I. iv. 167 Unlike the irritable race of 
literary magnates . . [Scott] never lost a friend. 1883 Fortn. 
Rev. 1 Nov. 609 The small class of territorial magnates who 
possess the soil of the country. 

trans/. 1853 Kane Criunell Exp. xxxiii. (1856) 290 The 
stars, except one or two of the northern magnates, invisible 
at noonday. 

2. spec. In Hungary, and formerly in Poland, a 
member of the Upper House in the Diet. 

1797 Encycl. Brit. (ed. 3) XV. 290/1 The bishops of Cracow 
and Kiow . . and several magnats declared that they would 
never consent to the establishment of such a commission. 
1845 S. Austin Ranke's Hist. Re/. I. 181 In Hungary some 
magnates and cities were quickly reduced to obedience. 
Ibid. II. 461 A few magnates collected around the king. 

t Magnatical, a. Obs. [f. prec. + -ical.] 
V Lordly, domineering. 

1608 H. Clapham Errour on Lc/t Hand, To Rdr. A 2 b, 
Their magnaticall one-eard Inuectiues were set on lire from 
hell, for destroying the Church peace. 

Mague- (margin) an irregular combining form 
used instead of Magneto-, in certain scientific 
terms introduced by Faraday : — 

Ma gne-cry stal, a crystal acted upon by magnet- 
ism. Magrtecrystallic a., pertainingto the effect 
produced by magnetism upon a crystalline body. 
Ma g-nelectric a. = Magneto-electric. Magne- 
optio a., pertaining to the relation between the 
optic axis of a crystal and the line of magnetic 
force through it. 

1831 Faraday [see Magneto-electric]. 1848 — in PAH. 
Trans. CXXXIX. 4 They [sc. results] appear to present to 
us a new force., which. . I will conventionally designate by 
a new word, as the magnecrystallic force, [bid. 33, I ..could 
perceive no traces of any phenomena having either niagne- 
optic, or magnecrystallic, or any other relation to the crys- 
talline structure of the masses. 1870 Bence Jones Li/e 
Earaday II. 348 The action of heat on inagne-crystals. 1879 
Noad & Preece Electricity 300 An impelling force distinct 
from the magnetic and the diamagnetic, and which he 
(Faraday] called the magne-crystallic /orce. 1881 Max- 
well Electr. <y Alagit. II. 46 Magnecrystallic phenomena. 

Magnefy, obs. form of Magnify. 

Magnelle, obs. form of Mangonel. 

+ Maglies. Obs. Also 4 erron. magiias. [L. 
magncs^ijr. <i Md-yi/r/s A1805, the Magnesian stone, 
Magnet.] A magnet, loadstone. 

1398 Tkeyisa Barth. De P. R. xvi. vii. (1495) 557 Though 
the magnas drawyth yren to itself: the admas drawyth it 
away fro the magnas. Ibid. lxii. 573 It semyth that the 
ymage hangyth in the ayre by the myghte and vertue of the 
stone magnes. ijjsg W. Cunningham Cosmogr. Glassc i6t 
Thys is a nierveilous nedle, whiche beinge touched, (as I 
heare) onlye with the Magnes shoulde knowe to turne al- 
waye to the North pole, a 1586 Sidney Arcadia 11. (1590) 
113 b, As a perfect Magnes, though put in an iuorie boxe, 
will thorow the boxe send forth his imbraced vertue to a 
beloued needle, a 1677 Hale Prim. Orig. Man. iv. iv. 329 
In this lower Worldthere seems many things directed to the 
special use of Mankind, .the Metalsof Silver, Gold, Copper, 
the very Situation of the Seas, the Magnes. 1750 tr. Leon- 
ardos' Mirr. Stones 206. 

b. altrib. : magnes-stone, in the same sense. 
1398 Tkeyisa Barth. De P. R. xvi. lxii. (1495) 573 There 

ben mountayns of suche magnes stones and they drawe to 
them and breke shippes that ben nayled with yren. a 1586 
Sidney Arcadia 111. (1590) 267 As if the sight of the enimie 
had bene a Magnes stone to his courage. 1590 Spenser 
!■'. Q. II. xii. 4. 1625 Pukchas Pilgrims II. 1487 There is 
neither Iron or Steele, or the Magnes Stone that should so 
make the Tombe of Mahomet to hang in the Ayre. 

c. transf. Magnetic virtue. 


1664 Sylva 33 There is such a Magnes in this 
simple Tree as does manifestly draw to it self some occult, 
and wonderful virtue. 

d. Applied to each of the poles. 

a 1653 G. Daniel Idyll v. 164 His tempered Earth, whips 
(as you Agitate The Ayre) to either Magn«s, This, or That. 

+ Magnesane. Chem. Obs. [f. Magnks-ia : 
see -ane a .] Chloride of magnesium. 

1812 Sir H, Davy Ckem. Philos. 353 It is evident that 
there exists a combination of magnesium and chlorine; 
though this body, which may be called magnesane, has 
never been examined in a separate state. 

Magnesia (m;egnrpa). Also 4 magnasia, 5 
magnetia. [a. med.L. Magnesia, a. Gr. t) Mayvrjaia 
\i$os, * the Magnesian stone', a designation of two 
different minerals: {i) the loadstone; (2) a stone- 
shining like silver, perhaps talc (Liddell & Scott). 

It is not clear which of these two senses gave rise to the 
alchemical use ; the brilliant lustre ascribed by the alchemists 
to ( magnesia ' favours the latter view, and the substance 
seems not to have been identified with the loadstone, in spite 
of the resemblance of its name to the familiar word Magnes.] 

fl. Alchemy. A mineral alleged by some al- 
chemists to be one of the ingredients of the philo- 
sopher's stone. Obs. 

c 1386 Chaucer Can. Ycom. Pro!, <y- T, 902 Take the stoon 
that Titanos men name. Which is that quod he. Magnasia 
is the same, Seyde Plato. Ibid. 905 What is Magnasia, 
good sire, I yow preye. It is a water that is maad, I seye, 
Of elementes foure, quod Plato. 1472 Ripley Coutp. Alch. 
Pref. in Ashm. (1652) 133 Our Stone ys callyd the lesse 
World one and three, Magnesia also of Sulphure and Mer- 
cury Proportionate by Nature most perfytly. 1477 Norton 
Ord. hick, ih. ibid. 42 Another Stone., you must have 
withall . . A Stone glittering with perspective . . The price 
of an Ounce Conveniently Is twenty shillings; ..Her name 
is Magnetia, lew people her knowe. 1610 15. Jonson Alch. 
n. iii, Your marchesite, your tutie, your magnesia. 

Jig. 1651 Biggs Nrso Disp. Pref. b 2 b, We catch at onely 
painted Butter-flyes, and speculate not the Magnesia or sub- 
stantiality of Physicks, but rather its Umbrage; not the 
Body, but the Bark, and superficial out side. 

f b. Used by Paracelsus for : Amalgam. Obs. 

1641 Frkuch Distill, vh (1651) 185 Hang plates of gold 
over the fume of Argent vive, and they will become white, 
friable, and fluxil as wax. This is called the Magnesia of 
gold, as saith Paracelsus. 

+ 2. = Manganese 1. Also black magnesia. Obs. 

[This use prob. arose from the notion that manganese was 
a form of the ' magnesia ' of alchemy. There may, however, 
have been some early confusion of manganese with loadstone : 
Pliny N. H. xxxvi. Ixvi says that loadstone {magnes lapis) 
was used in making glass. In the Latin of early chemistry 
the word was applied to various other substances : e.g. mag- 
iicsiaopalina\vzsz.xe& sulphide of antimony (?— Kermks 3).] 

1677 Plot Oxfordsh. 79 Magnesia (in the Glass-houses, 
called Manganese). 1712 tr. Pomct's Hist. Drugs I. 103/2 
The last ingredient [sc. of Cristalline Glass] is Manganese, 
or Magnesia, so called from its Likeness in Colour, Weight 
and Substance to the Load-Stone. 1753 CHAMBERS Cycl. 
Supp. s.v. Magnissa, Many have supposed the Magnissa 
to be the same with magnesia, that is, manganese, but this 
is an error. 1797 Encycl. Brit. (ed. 3) X. 427/1 Black Mag- 
nesia. See Manganese, 

3. (In early use often f white magnesia = mod.L. 
magnesia alba, in contradistinction to black mag- 
nesia: see 2.) a. Originally, and still in popular 
language, applied to hyd rated magnesium car- 
bonate, a white earthy powder, used in medicine 
as an antacid and cathartic. Calcined magnesia : 
magnesium oxide (pure * magnesia*: see b) pre- 
pared by heating the carbonate, b. In modern 
Chemistry, an alkaline earth, now recognized as 
the oxide of magnesium (MgO). 

[This application of the word seems not to be connected 
with the use in sense 1, but to have been suggested by the 
mod.L. magnes carneus 'flesh-magnet', applied 4:1550 by 
Cardan {De Subtililate vn, Opera III. 475) to a white earth 
resembling osteocolla, because it was found to adhere 
strongly to the lips, and was therefore supposed to have the 
same attraction for flesh that the loadstone has for iron. 
The mod.L. term magnesia alba seems to have been first 
employed by Hoffmann in 1722 {Opera 1740 IV. 479/2).] 

'755 J- Black Exper. Magnesia Alba etc. (1893)7, I have 
had no opportunity of seeing Hoffman's first magnesia. 
Ibid. 8 Those who would prepare a magnesia from Epsom 
salt may use the following process. 1794 Sullivan View 
Mat. I. 240 It exists in a state of combination, in lime-stone, 
common magnesia, alkalis, ike. 1799 Med. yrnl. II. 206 
Magnesia has long been a celebrated remedy for these [sto- 
machic] complaints.^ i8iz Sir H. Daw Chem. Philos. 48 
Hoffman, in the beginning of the 18th century, pointed out 
magnesia as a peculiar substance. 1823 Bvron J?mn x. 
Ixxiii, These sodas and magnesias Which form that bitter 
draught, the human species. 1878 Huxley Physiogr. So 
The metal combines with the oxygen of the air to form 
oxide of magnesium or magnesia. 
C. attrib. 
1846 G. E. Day tr. Simon's Anim. Chem. II. 133 The mag- 
nesia salts would . . answer this purpose better. 1876 Preece 
& SfVEWKIOHT Telegraphy 34 A solution of the magnesia 
sulphate (MgSOi. Epsom salts). 

Magnesian (msegarji&n), a. [f. Magnesia -t- 
-ax,] Of or pertaining to. or containing magnesia. 

1794 Sullivan Vino Nat. I. 434 The five simple earths 
are, _ the calcareous, the ponderous, the magnesian or 
muriatic, the argillaceous, and the siliceous. 1799T/ENNANT 
in Phil. Trans. LXXXIX. 309 Magnesian limestone may 
be easily distinguished from that which is purely calcareous, 
by the slowness of its solution in acids. 1807 T. Thomson 
Chem. (ed. 3) II. 476 Magnesia has a very marked affinity 
for alumina. ..This affinity was first pointed out by Mr. 
Chenevix in his analysis of magnesian stones. 1812 Sir H. 


Davy Chem. Philos. 33 In 1756 Dr. Black published his 
admirable researches on calcareous, magnesian, and alkaline 
substances. 1876 Page Adv. Textd>k. Geol. v. 102 Dolo- 
mite is a granular or crystalline variety of magnesian lime- 
stone. 1882 Rep. to Ho. Repr. Prec. Met. U. S. 622 This 
earth has a magnesian or chalky aspect. 

b. Magnesian limestone Geol., a name for 
the lower division of the New Red Sandstone rocks, 
now known as * Permian '. 

1836 T, Thomson Outl. Min., Geol, # Min. Anal. II. 142 
The magnesian limestone begins at Tynemouth, and extends 
. .as far as Nottingham. 1865 Lyell F.lcm. Geol. (ed. 6) 456 
For the lower, or Magnesian Limestone division of English 
Geologists, Sir R. Murchison proposed, in 1841, the name 
of Permian. 

t Magne'siated, a. Chem. Obs. [f. Mag- 
nesia + -ate 4- -ed L] Combined with magnesia. 

1796 Kirwan Eton. Min. (ed. 2) II. 386 After dissolving 
the Magnesiated Iron in any acid. 

Magnesic (ma^nrsik), a. [f. MagnES-IA and 
Magnes-ium + -ic] a. Containing magnesia, b. 
In names of salts : Of or pertaining to magnesium. 

1877 Kingzktt Alkali Trade 208 This tendency to fuse 
on the part of the mixture is due to the magnesic chloride. 
1881S.P. TnoMi'SONin Nature XXIV, 465 Magnesic platuio- 
cyanidc. 1894 U. S. Tariff "in Times 16 Aug. 6/2 Mag- 
nesic fire-brick. 

MagnesiferousCmxgiu'si-f'erss),^. [f. mod.L. 
magnesi-a : see -FKROUS.] Containing magnesia. 

1856 Maynk Expos. Lex. 

Magnesioferrite nvvgnrsitffe'rsit;. Min. [f. 
magnesio-y taken as combining form of Magnesia + 
Fehrite.] Black octahedral crystals of magnesia 
and oxide of iron, from Vesuvius. 

x868 Dana Min. (ed. 5) 152. 

Magnesite (m:c'gn/soit). Min. [f. Mag- 
NES-IA + -ITE 1 .] Carbonate of magnesium, occur- 
ring commonly in compact white masses, but occa- 
sionally crystalline. 

Formerly applied also to the hydrous silicate of magnesium 
{sepiolite or meerschaum). 

_ 1815 W. Phillips Outl. Min. -y Geol. (1S1S) 27 Magnesia 
is combined with the carbonic acid in the magnesite. 1862 
Dana Elem. Geol. 63. 1877 King/kit Alkali 'Trade 207 
Neutralising the acid liquor . . with Greek stone or very 
nearly pure magnesite icarbonate of magnesium). 

Magnesium (mregnrsiimi, 'iyvm). Chem. [f. 
Magnesia, on the type of other names of metals 
in -um, -ITJM.] 

fl. = Manganese. Obs. 

1808 Sir H. Davy in Phil. Trans. XCVIII. 346, I shall 
venture to denominate the metals from the alkaline earths 
barium, strontium, calcium, and magnium : the last of these 
words is undoubtedly objectionable, but magnesium \foot- 
?iote refers to Bergman Opusc. II. 200] has been already 
applied to metallic manganese. 

2. A chemical element, one of the ' metals of the 
alkaline earths ', being the base of magnesia. 

Though one of the most widely diffused of elements it is 
found in nature only in composition, and was discovered by 
Sir H. Davy in 1807 and first successfully separated by 
Bussy in 1830, as a light silvery metal, ductile and malleable, 
which is stable in dry air but tarnishes when exposed to 
moisture, and burns with a blinding white light when held 
in a flame. Symbol Mg. 

i8iz Sir H. Davy Chem. Philos. 352 That magnesia con- 
sists of magnesium and oxygene, is proved both by analysis 
and synthesis. 1841 Brande Man. Chem. (ed. 5) 705. 1880 
Nature XXI. 289 On the dichroitic fluorescence of magne- 
sium-platinum-cyanide. 1881 Lockyf.r in Nature N\?. 617. 
394 The spectra are as distinct as the spectrum of magnesium. 

3. attrib.'. magnesium lamp, a lampconstructed 
to burn magnesium ; magnesium light, a brilliant 
light produced by the combustion of magnesium ; 
magnesium ribbon, thread, wire, a thin strip 
or wire of magnesium prepared for burning. 

i860 Photogr. News 8 June 70/2 A rival.. to the strong 
lights hitherto used is like to spring up in Bunsen's •mag- 
nesium-lamp. 1871 M. Collins Mrq. fy Merch. I. vi. 204 
A magnesium lamp stood on the table, i860 Photogr. Neivs 
8 June 70/2 The excellence of the ^magnesium-light. 1871 
Kingsley At Last vi, My host, .. by the help of the mag- 
nesium light, had penetrated further into the cave. 1890 
Anthony's Photogr. Bull. III. 126 ^Magnesium ribbon. 
i860 Photogr. News 8 June 70/2 Notwithstanding the high 
price of the *magnesium thread. 1864 Proc. Amcr. Phil. 
Soc. IX. 458 ^Magnesium wire. 1878 H. S. Wilson Alp. 
Ascents iii. 94 The intense flame of the magnesium wire. 

Magnet ^margnet). Also 5-7 magnete, 6 
mangnet. [a. OF. magnete (also manette), or di- 
rectly ad. L. magnela, accus. of magnes : see 

The word has been superseded In mod. F. by aimaut,\mt 
is current in the other Rom. and Teut. langs. : It., Sp., Pg. 
magnete, Ger., Da., Sw. magnet, Du. wagucel.] 

1. Min, ^ Loadstone ; a variety of magnetite 
(proto-sesquioxide of iron) characterized by its 
power of attracting iron and steel, and by certain 
other associated properties (see 2). 

( 1440 Promp. Parv. 325/1 Magnete, precyowse stone, 
magnes. 1447 Bokenham Scyntys (Roxb. J 14 liym thowte 
that nevere in so lytyl space He had more seyn, wych his 
herte drow As the magnet doth iryn. 1555 Eden Decodes 
322 The Ilande of Magnete that is the Hand of the lode 
stone which is vnder or near abowte the northe pole. 1601 
Holland Pliny II. 515 Dinocrates began to make the 
arched roufe of the temple of Arsinoe all of Magnet or this 
Loadstone, a 1674 Milton Hist. Mosc. iii. Wks. 1851 
VIII. 487 In midst of this white City stands a Castle built 
of Magnet. 1728 Pembebton Nwton** Philos. 13 That 


any stone should have so amazing a property, as we find in 
the magnet [etc.]. c i860 Faraday Torres Nat. v. 130 There 
are some curious bodies in nature . . which are called mag- 
nets or loadstones - ores of iron. 1861 C. W. King Ant. 
Gems (1866) 60 On Magnet, a black compact and hard iron- 
ore, I have seen rude iutagli of the Lower Empire. 

2. A piece of loadstone ; also, a piece of-iron or 
steel to which the characteristic properties of load- 
stone have been imparted, either permanently or 
temporarily, by contact with another magnet, by 
induction, or by means of an electric current. A 
magnet has an axis, at the extremities of which 
(the * poles') the attractive power is greatest, and 
at the middle of which it becomes nil. \Vhen 
suspended freely, a magnet assumes such a position 
that one of its poles (hence called the north pole) 
points approximately north, and the other (the 
south pole) approximately south ; the like poles 
of two magnets repel each other, while the unlike 
poles attract each other. 

Bar magnet, a polarized rod of iron, now much used in 
the construction of electromagnetic apparatus. Horse-shoe 
magnet, a magnet made of stud in the form of a hor>e-shoe. 
Natural magnet '. one consisting of loadstone ; opposed to 
artificial magnet. Sec also Electro-magnet. 

1625 N. Carpentek Geog. Del. 1. iii. (1635) 57 Let there 
bee cut out of a rockeof Load-stone, a Magnet of reasonable 
quantity. 1727 Dk Foe Syst. Magic 1. ii. (1840* 58-9 What 
would have been said, to see him make a piece of iron dance 
round a table, while the agent held the Magnet underneath. 
1777 Pkilstlev Matt, .y Spir. 11782; I. xiii. 151 We are not to conceive how it is that a magnet attracts iron. 
1832 Nat. Philos. II. Magnetism v. 53 (U. K. S.) These 
horse-shoe magnets .. may be rendered magnetic by the 
same process as a straight bar. 1839 (1. Bird Nat. Philos, 
146 Each portion will become a perfect magnet, each of the 
fractured ends exhibiting a polar state, as perfect as the 
entire magnet. 1894 Bottone Electr. Instr. Making (ed. 6) 
156 A bar-magnet, around one pole of which is coiled about 
a hundred feet of.. copper wire. Ibid. 231 It is easilyseen, 
that if (as in bell magnets, horseshoe magnets) the winding 
is not carried on [etc.]. 

b. In extended sense : A body possessing the 
properties characteristic of a magnet. 

1797 Encycl. Brit. fed. 3) X. 435/2 [Cavallo's hypothesis] 
is, that the earth itself is a magnet. 

3. Jig. Something which attracts. 

1655 H. Vaughan Si lex Sciut., Starre vi, These are the 
Magnets which so strongly move And work all night upon 
thy light and love. 1687 Drvden Hind $ P. in. 368 Two 
magnets, heaven and earth, allure to bliss, The larger load- 
stone that, the nearer this. 1691-8 Norris Tract. Disc. 
(1711) III. 12 God is the true great Magnet of our souls. 
1777 Miss Blrney Evelina xxi, They know the attraction 
of" the magnet that draws me. 1800 Mrs. Hekvey Mourtray 
Earn. II.64 1 he lovely Emma was the magnet that attracted 
them both. 1821 Joanna Baillie Metr. Leg., Columbus i, 
The magnet of a thousand eyes. 1868 Lynch Rivulet cxi.i. 
iii, Let love your magnet be To draw him back to you. 

4. attrib. and Comb., as magnet-like adj. ; mag- 
net-wise adv.; magnet core, the rod or bar of soit 
magnetized iron placed in the middle of an electro- 
magnet ; magnet-cylinder, a metal cylinder, con- 
taining magnets, used for generating electricity; 
magnet helix, a coil of wire such as surrounds 
the core of an electro-magnet ; magnet house, 
a house in which magnetic apparatus is kept. 

1894 Bottone Elect. Instr. Making (ed. 6) 231 This is true 
whatever be the form of the *magnet core. 1866 H. Wilde 
in Phil. Trails. CLVII. 91 A compound hollow cylinder 
of brass and iron, hereafter called the ^magnet-cylinder. 
1879 Prescott Sp. Telephone 23 Whenever one part of a 
circuit is brought in proximity to another, as is the case in 
' magnet helices. 1900 Daily News 3 July 5/2 The *magnet 
house of the Observatory. 1821 Shellhy Prometh. Hub. 
iv. 466 Borne beside thee by a power Like the polar Para- 
dise, *Magnet-Iike of lovers' eyes. 1849 Mozlky ^"^.(1878) 
II. 201 The obliquity of this visible system is .. the one 
theme, which is ever drawing them y magnet-wise. 

t Magnetarian, a. Obs.rare-K [f. Mag. 
NET + -A1UAN".] Conversant with the magnet. 

1654 Charleton Physiol. Epic.-Gass.-Charltoniana 388 
The Speculations and Observations of our Modern Magnet- 
arian Authors, Gilbert, Cabeus, Kircher, &c. 

Magnetarium(ma3gnete9'ri#m). [quasi-Latin, 
f. Magnet + -AKIUM.] An instrument for the illus- 
tration of the phenomena of the earth's magnetism. 

1894 H. WildkItx Proc. Roy. Soc. LV. 210 By means of some 
electro-mechanism, new to experimental science, which fin 
a paper read in June 1890] I termed a magnetarium, the 
period of backward rotation [etc.]. 190a Encycl. Brit. 
XXX. 463/1 Wilde had succeeded in reproducing some of 
the most conspicuous features of the earth's magnetization 
by a contrivance called a magnetarium. 

II Magnates. Obs. [L., a. Gr. txayvriTijs ^ 
fiayv^s Magnet.] ^Magnet. 

c 1581 Lodge Rept. Gossou's Sch. Abuse iShaks. Soc. 1S53) 
21 As the magnetes draweth Musik [etc.]. 

Magnetic (mxgne'tik), a. and stu [ad. mod. I,. 
magnelic-us (F. magne'tique, Sp. magne'tico, It. 
magnetico), f. magnet- : see Magnet and -ic] 
A. adj. 

1. Having the properties of a magnet ; pertain- 
ing to a magnet or to magnetism ; producing, 
caused by, or operating by means of, magnetism. 

Frequently forming phraseological combs, with sbs., as in 
magnetic amplitude, azimuth, compass, core, declination, 
dip, equator, field, Jluid, meridian, needle, north, pole t 
Potential, separator, storm, telegraph, zenith ; see the sbs. 




1634 Habington Castara I, (Arb.t 23 Why doth the 
Hira w nw iron prove So gentle to th' magnetique stone? 
1635 (Jcakles Sm t i, 1. xiii. 11718* 53 Like as the am'rous 
needle joys to bend To her magnetick friend. 1647 H. Moke 
Phitos. Poems 385 Let the arrow K keep in 1IC the same 
line of the air or earthly magnetick spirit. 1656 Blount 
Glossogr., M^agnetlck, belonging to the Lodestone. 1796 
H. Hunter tr. Sl.-Picrre's Stum. Nat. (17991 I. 64 Metals, 
which have magnetic powers, most of which are still un- 
known to us. 1796 KhtWAM Eicm. Min. II. 158 Common 
Magnetic Iron Ore. Ibid. 161 Magnetic Sand. 1851 
Carpenter Man. Pays, (ed. 2) 12 note, When iron rail-, 
pokers, &C. become magnetic by the influence of the earth. 
1884 A. Danibll Priuc. Physics xv'i. 609 When an iron 
or cobalt bar is magnetised it. .emits a slight sound— a 
'magnetic tick '. 

f b. Formerly applied to a healing plaster of 
which ' magnet ' or loadstone formed an ingredient, 
and which was regarded as possessing occult 
attractive power similar to that of the magnet. Obs. 

1658 A. Fox WartS Surg. 11. x. 86 Then u it requi- 
site, that you have a good Medicine, which penetrate with 
its vxrtue, and that is the Magnetick plaister. 1658 tr. 
Bergenias Satyr. Char. xii. 47, I teach them to find.. the 
magnetique plaster. 1671 Salmon* Syn. Med. III. lxxvii. 67-, 
Apply the magnetick Emplaster. .till it [the wound] is suffi- 
ciently cleansed. 

+ c. Said with reference to other attractive forces 
formerly confused with magnetism. Obs. 

1667 Milton P. L. in. 583 They [the Constellations] 
towards his all-chearing I ..amp Turn swift their various 
motions, or are turnd By his Magnetic beam. 

2. Jig. Having powers of attraction; very attrac- 
tive or seductive. Now often with some mixture 
of sense 4. 

1632 B. JotfsON {title) The Magnetick Lady. 1638 SikT. 
Herbert Traz/.(ed. 2> 55 Turk, Jew, and others, drawne 
thither by the magnetick power of gaine. 1658 Row- 
land Topselfs Four-/. Beasts Pref, There is such a mag- 
netick force in Goodness, that it draws the hearts of 
men after it. 1778 Miss Burnev Evelina xxiii, The mag- 
netic power of beauty. 1845 M. Pattison Ess. (1889) I. 9 
That magnetic influence which irresistibly draws our feet to 
spots on which our imagination has long fed. 1880 Spectator 
3 Nov. 1437 The Americans have invented, and English- 
men are slowly adopting into their political vocabulary, a 
new word, intended to account for the otherwise unaccount- 
able popularity of some politicians. They say they are 
'magnetic*. 1888 BrycB Awer, Commw. II. m.Ixxiv. 612 
If he can join to them a ready and winning address, a 
geniality of manner if not of heart, he becomes what is 
called magnetic. 1901 Scotsman 7 Oct. 2/7, I found him 
one of the most magnetic and companionable of men. 
b. Const. to t f of. 

1667 Wateruolse Fire Loud. 107 Whose appositeness 
for lrade, was Magnetique of all Nations and Merchan- 
dises to it. 1864 Tennyson Ay-liner's /•'. 626 His face 
magnetic to the hand from which Livid he pluck'd it forth. 

3. Applied to those bodies, as iron, nickel, cobalt, 
which are capable of receiving the properties of 
the loadstone, or of being attracted by it; also, 
- Paramagnetic. 

1837 Prewster Magnet. 9 He [Gilbert ci6oo\ applies the 
term magnetic to all bodies which are acted upon by load- 
stones and magnets. 1843 Pokti.ock Geol. 225 Magnetic 
pyrites occurs in considerable quantity in a greenstone dike. 
1846 (see DlAMAGMETic a.]. 1871 Roscoe Elan. Chem. 
239 Ferrous oxide and the ferrous salts are magnetic. 

4. Pertaining to animal magnetism ; mesmeric. 
1800 Med. Jrul. IV. 130 The magnetic influence of 

Mesmer. 1834 Penny Cycl. II. 33/1 The mode of bringing 
the magnetised under the influence of the magnetic fluid 
was peculiar. 1838 Dickens Nick. Nick, vii, As if he had 
been in a magnetic slumber. 1855 Smedley Occult Set. 222 
The magnetic awakening in the body. 
B. sf>. 

fl. *= Magnet, lit. andyT^. Obs. 

1654 H. L'Ksirangk Chat. I (1655) 60 They [alliances 
between princes] are not souldered by any magnetique of 
Love. 1658 J. Webb Clcofiatra vin. 11. 20 Retiring her 
eyes from a magnetick which even forceably attracted them. 
1671 Milton* P. A\ n. 168 Such object hath the power to., 
lead At will the manliest, resolutest brest, As the Mag- 
netic hardest Iron draws, 

2. a. 'Any metal, as iron, steel, nickel, cobalt, 
&c, which may receive the properties of the load- 
stone' (Webster 1847-54 citing Dana), b. A 
paramagnetic body {Cent. Diet. 1S90). 

3. Magnetics : the science of magnetism. 

1786 Cavallo in Pkil. Trans. LXXVII. 11 It is a pro- 
position well established in magnetics, that soft iron, or soft 
steel, acquires magnetism very easily. 1881 Maxwell 
Flectr. ry Magn. I. 12 lu electrostatics and magnetics. 

Magnetical (micgnctikal), a. Now rare. 
[f. mod.L. magnctic-us (see prcc.) + -AL.1 
1. -Magnetic a. 1. 

1581 Borough (title"' A Discours of the Variation of the 
Cumpas, or Magneticall Needle. 1581 — Vise. Far. Com- 
pass i. B j, The magneticall meridian. 1625 N. Cak- 
i'KNter Geogr. Del. I. iii. (1635) 46 A Magneticall Body 
by some is defined to bee that which seated in the Aire 
doth place it selfe in one place natural!, not alterable. 
,6 33*' ■ James Voy. Qij b, The Magneticall Azimuths. 1606 
Whiston Th. Earth If. (1722) 109 Dr. IIalley..has dis- 
co^r'dat least two Magnetical Poles. X773 Bkydone 
Sicily xi. (1776) I. 231 The needle . . entirely lo^t its mag- 
netical power, standing indiscriminately at every point 
of the compass. 1794 G. Adams Hat. <y Exp. Phitos. IV. 
1. 382 You will find the iron appear more magnetical than 
the steel. 1797 t-lncycl. Brit. (ed. 3) X. 435/2 The variation 
of the compass first showed, .that the earth had two mag- 
netical poles by which the needle is influenced. 1876 

Davis Polaris Exp. App. 639 The Coast Survey, .has con- 
tributed astronomical and magnetical instruments. 

fb. = Magnetic i c. Also const, of. Obs. 
1626 Bacon Sylva § 75 There is an Opinion, that the 

Moone is Magneticall of Heat, as the Sun is of Cold, and 
Moisture. 1642 H. More Song 0/ Soul 11. i. 11. xxvi, 
All these be substances self-moveable : And that we call 
virtue magneticall. . I comprehend it in the life plantall. 
1671 Grew Anat. Plants 1. iii. § 21 It will in its own mag- 
netical tendency to ascend, reduce the Cortical Body to 
a compliance with it. 1686 Goad Cclest. Bodies n. i. 124 
For who, almost, grants not. .that the Planets are Mag- 
netical Uodys touched by the Sun,.. and thereupon move 
faster when in $ with him, direct. 

fc. Of a writer: That treats of magnetism. Obs. 

1676 Boyi.k Mech. Grig. divers QuaL, Magnetism 20 But 
Magnetism is so fertile a Subject, that if I had now the 
leisure and con veniency to range among Magnetical Writers, 
I should scarce doubt of finding [etc.]. 

^d. In the 17th c. often applied to remedies for 
which a magical or occult virtue was claimed. 

1638 Burton Anat. Mel. 11. i. 1. i. (ed. 3) 209 Whether by 
these diabolical meanes..this disease and the like may be 
cured ? and if they may whether it bee lawful! to make 
of them, those magneticall cures? 1632 Ibid. ii. iv. (ed. 4) 
281 Balsomes, strange extracts, elixars, and such like 
magico-magneticall cures* 1621 Ibid. in. ii. v. iv. 651 Cardan 
. .reckons up many magneticall remedies. 1630 Hauls Gold. 
Ran. 1. (1673) 289 He tells of a great Person, who usually 
works such Magnetical Cures of that disease. 1663 Boyle 
I f sef. Exp. Nat. Phitos. 11. v. 226 Eminent physicians 
have both made use of and commended magnetical remedies. 
1722 QuiNCY Lex. Physiio-Mcd. (ed. 2', Magnetism, and 
Magnetical Virtues, are much used by some who find their 
Account more in Amusement than useful Knowledge : and 
some affect to explain or recommend by such Terms, those 
Remedies, for the Application and Operation of which, they 
have no better Reasons at hand. 

2. fig. =MAGNKTIC a. 2. 

a 1649 DRUMM. of Hawth. Hist. Jas. V, Wks. (1711) 96 
That the king had a magnetical affection towards him. 
1675 Trahernb Chr. Ethics 468 Modesty .. prefeneth 
another above it self, and in that its magnetical and obliging 
quality much consisteth. a 1792 Horne Wks. (1818) III. 
iii. 34 The virtue of his death, and the consequent 'power of 
his resurrection ' . . compose a divine magnetical influence. 

3. Pertaining to animal magnetism. 

1794 Godwin Cat. Williams 112 There was a magnetical 
sympathy between me and my master. 1797 Encycl. Brit. 
(ed. 3) X. 449/2 The room where the patients underwent 
the magnetical operations. 1802 Acrrbi Trav. I. 273 The 
proficiency of the Baron in the magnetical science has not 
met with very great success. 

fB. sb. fl. Magnetic properties. Obs. rare. 

1646 Sir T. Browne /'scud. Ep. 11. iii. 71 Menthat ascribe 
thus much unto rocks of the north, must presume or dis- 
cover the like niagneticals in the south. 

Magnetically (maegneuikali), adv. [f. prec. 
+ -LY-.] In a magnetic manner; by means or in 
respect of magnetism. 

1621 Burton Anat. Mel. 1. ii. in. ii. 126 Many greene 
wounds magnetically cured. 1682 Sir T. Browne Chr. Mor. 
1. § 9 Stand magnetically upon that Axis, when prudent sim- 
plicity hath fixt there, c 1790 Lmison Sch. Art 11. 166 
The operator ought not to stop longer on the first bar than 
is necessary to open the pores, and to arrange them mag- 
netically. 1873 Maxwell Electr. <$• Magn. II. 45 Iron 
which is magnetically hard is.. more apt to break. 1878 
C. Stanford Symb. Christ ii. 44 On a sudden they became 
magnetically conscious of supernatural presence. 

t Magneticalness. Obs. rare- 1 , [nkss.] 

Magnetic quality or condition. 

1757 Birch Hist. R. Soc. IV. 253 It related not to the 
instances of the magneticalness of lightning. 

Magnetician ^msegnetrjan). [f. Magnetic 
+ -ian.] One skilled in magnetism; a magnetist. 

18.. Mi/rchison (.Wore). 

t Magneticness. Obs. rare- 1 , [f. Mag- 
netic <z + -NEss.] - Magneticalness, 

1663 Water house Comm. Fortescue 187 They fortified 
themselves against all iucursionsj.. which the Magnetique* 
nessof their external success. .might.. occasion them. 

Magnetico- (msegne'tit?), used {rarely) as 
combining f. Magnetic to denote 'magnetic and . .\ 

1816 Bentham Chrestomathia Wks. 1843 VIII. 145 There 
are— 1. The Magnetic or Magnetico-spastic. 2. The Elec- 
tric or Electrico-spastic fete.]. 

Magneti'ferous, a. [£ Magnet + -ifehols.] 
Producing or conducting magnetism. 

1832 Webster (citing Journal oj Science). In mod. Diets. 

1 Magiie'tify, v. Obs. [f. Magnet + -ify.] 
trans, m Magnetize. Hence Magnotified///. a. 

1650 Chaki. i-ton Paradoxes Ptol. 2 Like the Aguish mag- 
netificd Needle, reels to and fro. 1797 Emycl. Brit. (ed. 3) 
X. 450/1 Several persons in a higher sphere of life were 
magnetitied and felt nothing. Ibid. XVI II. 621/1 The south 
pole of a small niagnetified needle. 

t Magnetimeter. Obs. [f. Magnet + 
-meteh, after calorimeter.'] — Magnktometkk. 

1821 W. Scoresbv Jun. in Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinh. (1823) 
IX. 243 Description of a Ma-netiineter, being a New In- 
strument for Measuring Magnetic Attractions, and Finding 
the I >ip of the Needle. 

Magnetiue (mtCgneAia). [f. Magnet + -ine.] 

tl. A hypothetical imponderable substance re- 
garded as the principle of magnelisip. Obs. rare~ l . 
* 1848 Land. Jml. Arts, etc XXXII. 6/[where aUo other 
related terms (magnelide etc.) are proposed]. 

2. A mixture of some magnetized material and 
cement, used in making magnetic belts, etc. 

1890 in Century Diet. 

Iaaguctipolar (matgattipArUx), a. [£ Mag- 

net + I'oeak a.~\ Having the property of magnetic 

polarity. l8 9° IB Cc/itnry Diet. 

f Magnetish, a. obs. [f. Magnet t -SBlr.] 

1683 I'ettls Fleta Minor 1. 317 Some of these Iron-stones 
are Magnetish, and draw the Iron apparently, which pro- 
ceeds from their hidden heat. 

Magnetism (margnutizW. [ad. mod.L. 
magnet ismusiy ' .magnet is me , 1724 in IlaU.-Darm.), 
f. magnet- : see Magnet and -ism.] 

1. The characteristic properties of the magnet ; 
magnetic phenomena and their laws. Also, the 
natural agency or principle concerned in the pro- 
duction of magnetic phenomena ; formerly often 
supposed to be an * imponderable fluid \ but now 
regarded as a modification of energy. 

Terrestrial magnetism : the magnetic properties of the 
earth, considered as a whole. 

1616 W. IJaklowk Magn. Aduert. Ep. Ded. A 2, What I 
had built vpon his foundation of the Magnetisme of the 
earth. 1664 Powkk Exp. Phitos. 111. 160 You shall thereby 
give it a most powerful Magnetisme, so that it will then 
as actively move the Needle . . as the Loadstone it-self. 
1775 Harris Phitos. Arraugtm. Wks. (1841) 376 Are we to 
speak of those other motive powers, the powers of magnetism 
and electricity? 1816 J. Smith Panorama ScL <V Art II. 
164 A peculiar species of attraction, exerted by bodies called 
magnets or loadstones, receives the appellation of magnetism. 
1837 Whkwkll Hist. Induct. Sci. (1857) III. 38 The sub- 
ject of terrestrial magnetism forms a very important addition 
to the general facts. 1839 Penny Cycl. XIV. 2B8/1 The 
mutual relations of the two magnetisms [Austral and 
Iloreal], and those of positive and negative electricity. 
t 1865 J. in Circ. Sci. I. 249/2 The magnetic effect 
remains for some time; and this is called residuary mag- 
netism. 1871 Tvndall Fragm. Sci. (1879) II. xvi. 423 
A blue flame, which being usually bent by the earth's mag- 
netism, received the name of the Voltaic Arc 

fb. In the 17th c. often confused with various 
phenomena of attraction not now recognized as 
immediately related to it. Obs. 

1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. 11. iii. (1658) 85 Many 
other Magnetisms may be pretended, and the like attrac- 
tions through all the creatures of Nature. 1671 Gkew 
Anat. Plants t. ii. § 25 The two Contrary Tendencies 
of the Lignous and Cortical Bodies . . (being most probably 
external, and a kind of Magnetisme). 

c. Jig. Attractive power or influence, esp. per- 
sonal charm or ascendancy. Sometimes with allu- 
sion to sense 3. 

1655 H. Valghan Silex Sciut. 11. Cock-crowing i, Their 
magnetisme works all night And dreams of Paradise and 
light. 166a Glanvill Lux Orient, xiv. 13 The bodies they 
have contracted, .may by a kind of fatal magnetisme be 
chained down to their proper element. 1671 Makvell Co rr. 
Wks. 1872-5 II. 393 The magnetism of two souls, rightly 
touched, works beyond all natural limits. 1691 Nokkis 
Pract. Disc. 172 Nothing is more common than to see Men 
of singular Strictness .. who yet .. stoop and yield to the 
Magnetism of this dirty Planet, a 1711 Ken Preparatives 
Poet. Wks. 1721 IV. 64 The Magnetism of Heav'nly Love, 
Draws some to God above. 1753 Richardson Grandison 
(1781) III. ix. 67 There is a kind of magnetism in goodness. 
i8sg Misc. I. 28 He could draw round him. .by 
the spiritual magnetism of his genius, many a noble soul. 
1888 Ukvce Amur, Commw. II. 111. Ixxiv. 612 Now, mag- 
netism is among the highest qualities which an American 
popular leader can possess. 

2. The science which is concerned with magnetic 

1828-31 in Wi-.uster. 1885 S. P. Thompson {title) Lessons 
in Electricity and Magnetism. 

3. Short for animal magnetism (see Animal 
C. i)« 

( 1784. etc. ; see Animal C. 1.] 1785 Mcsmcr's Aphorisms 
M It cannot be determined how long a tree may preserve 
the magnetism. 1797 Etuycl. Brit. (ed. 3) X. 450 1 The 
principal application of magnetism., was by pressure of the 
hands. .011 the hypochondria. 1855 Smi-.pi.ev QtemM Sci. 
224 Magnetism by the eye is indeed often more powerful 
than by the hands. 

Magnetist (margnetist). [f. Mag.\kt + -ist.] 

1. One skilled in the science of magnetism. 

1761 T. II. Ckokek Syst. Magn. 7 A noted Magnetist's 
Pretence of making steadier compasses, 1859 Uache 
Discuss, Magn. <$• Meteorol. Observ. 1. 14 The same dis- 
tinguished magnetist. 

2. One who practises 'animal magnetism 1 ; a mes- 
merist. Also animal magnetist (see Animal C. i). 

1802-12 BnCTHAM Ration. Judic. Evtd. (1827) V. 189 The 
operations .. of the magnetist .. in the expulsion of non- 
existetlt diseases. 1807 South i-;v Espriella"s Lett. 1 1. 397 
The animal magnetists kept up this unnatural state of 
attention long enough., to produce .. insensibility. 1846 
niacin: Mag. LX. 235 The magnetist. .made the usual 
passes along "the arm. 1855 Smwdley Occult Set. 234 The 
will, after all, is the real power exercised by the magnetist. 

Magnetite (mivgnitait). Min. [ad. G. mag- 
nctit ^Ilaidingcr 1845) : see M.u;nkt and -IT*.] 
rroto-sesfjuioxide of iron, which is readily attracted 
by the magnet ; magnetic oxide of iron. 

1851 1). Wilson Preh. Ann. (1863) II. 10 The most 
important iron ore wrought in Norway and Sweden is 
Magnetite. 1879 Kutley Stud. Rocks x. 153 Magnetite is 
frequently titaniferous. 

Magnetizability (lmegmuizabiliti). [f. 

next : see -m\] Capacity of being magnetized. 

1880 Nature XXIII. 210 The magnetisability of iron at 
very high temperatures. x88i Maxweu. Electr. $ Magn. 
II. 412 Not exactly proportional to its diamagnetic or ferro- 
magnetic magnetizability. 




Magnetizable (mce'gnetoizabV, a. [f. Mag- 
netize + -able.] Capable of being magnetized. 

1797 EncycL Brit. (ed. 3) XVIII. 623/2 These intervening 
masses of magneiisable iron-ore. 1837 B-REW8 tbh Magnet. 
92 The continuous parts of a magnetizable body. 1881 Times 
11 Apr. 4 Diamagnetism, which gave indications that 
' space '. .is magnetizable. 

Magnetization (maeigniteiz^i'Jan). [f. Mag- 
netize +-ation.] The action of magnetizing or 

the condition of being magnetized. 

1801 EncycL Brit. Suppl. II. 133/2 The striking it with a 
key will.. make the process of magnetization very quick. 
1832 AW. Philos. II. Electro-Magnet, x. 56 (U. K. S.J We 
shall call the action which produces an arrangement of poles 
similar to that resulting from a voltaic current, positive 
magnetization. 1845 Todd & Bowman Phys. Anat. I. 239 
Further tests of the presence of galvanic action are found 
in the magnetization of a steel needle placed within a coil. 
1849 S. R. Maiti.and Illnstr. Mesmerism 74 M. Sweden- 
horg being present, she begged him to increase the efficacy 
of the water, by joining in the magnetisation. 1868 Athe- 
nxuin 14 Mar. 390/2 Dr. Tyndall repeated Faraday's mar- 
vellous experiment — the magnetization of tight, 1871 
Tyndall Eragm. Set. (1S79) 1. xiii. 373 Previous to mag- 
netization, a dipping needle .. stands accurately level. 

Magnetize (macgnetaiz), v. [f. Magnet + 


1. trans. To charge or supply with magnetic 

1801 EncycL Brit. Suppl. II. 133/2 The most simple method 
of magnetising a steel bar. 1831 BkrwSTBK Optics x. 92 
The violet rays.. had the power of magnetising small steel 
needles. 1894 Botton'e Electr. tnstr. Making (ed. 6) 215 
If, therefore, we wind our field magnets with al>out 6 lbs. 
No. 20= i2'5 ohms, we shall get a sufficient number of turns 
on to magnetise them efficiently. 

2. intr. To become magnetic. In mod. Diets. 

3. trans. To attract as a magnet does. Chiefly 
fig- (with mixture of sense 4), to subdue or win by 

personal charm. 

1836 Edin. Rev. LX1I. 310 The noblest associations, thus 
insensibly introduced into the mind, magnetize it anew. 
1842 Tennyson Talking Oak 255, I kiss it twice, 1 kiss 
it thrice, The warmth it thence shall win To riper life 
may magneiise The baby-oak within. 1847 Disraeli i'an- 
crcd iv. Hi, You will magnetise the Queen as yon have 
magnetised me. 1876 Mozlkv Uuiv. Semi, vi. 141 External 
Nature is.. an enchantress who magnetises the human spirit. 

4. To influence by ' animal magnetism ' ; to mes- 
merize. Also _/?£-. 

1785 Mesmer's Aphorisms n The operation must be re- 
peated, till you have magnetized every side of the plant. 
1797 EncycL Brit. (ed. 3) X. 450/1 Seven of Deslon's patients 
were magnetised at Dr. Franklin's bouse. 1849 S. R. Mait- 
LAXnflli/str. Mesmerism 74 M. Rcnard. .had requested that 
Adele the clairvoyante might, while in her sleep, magnetise 
a little bottle of water for him. 1864 LowSLL Fireside Trav, 
189 You must magnetize him many times to get him en 
rapport with a jest. 

Hence Ma-gnetized ppl. a. (also absol.) ; Mag- 
netizing vbl. sl>. and ppl. a. 

1787 Mmr. D'Arblay Diary 19 June, He whispered . .that 
..he intended to introduce magnetizing. 1797 EncycL Brit. 
(ed. 3) X. 450/1 A magnetised tree was said to produce con- 
vulsions. 1830 Herschel Stud. Nat. Phil. 57 Masks of 
magnetized steel wire are .. adapted to the faces of the 
workmen. 1834 Penny Cycl. II. 33/1 The mode of bringing 
the magnetised under the influence of the magnetic fluid was 
peculiar. 1843 Rep. Brit. Assoc. 27 The magnetizing action 
of transitory electric currents. 1877 Academy 3 Nov. 42S/1 
In an article on the magnetising of animals, Herr Prayer 
investigates the physiological effects [etc.]. 1880 J. E. H. 
Gordon Electr. $ Magn. I. 147 The magnetized bar. 

Magnetizer (mse-gnetaizaj). [f. Magnetize 
+ -er t,] * 

1. One who magnetizes ; in quots. one who prac- 
tises ' animal magnetism ', a mesmerist. 

1802 Acerbi Trav. I. 270, I saw my fellow traveller. .fall 
into a profound sleep by the mere motion of the magnetiser's 
fingers. 1834 P amy CycL II. 32/2 Hundreds were ready 
to attest the wonderful cures wrought upon their own per- 
sons by the great magnetizer [Mesmer]. 1867 Carlylf. 
Remin. (18S1) II. 269 Two magnetisers, first a man, then a 
quack woman. 1886 Pall Mall G. 7 July 3/2 The Italian 
magnetizer Donato. 

2. That which imparts magnetism. In mod. Diets. 
Magneto (mcegnrt<?), sb. Used colloq. as an 

abbreviation for magneto-electric machine. 

1882 Daily Neivs 27 Jan. 2/1 Various curious forms of 
early telegraphs are shown, . . for instance . . Highton's gold- 
leaf and horseshoe needle, Henley's magnetof and others. 
1893 Frkecf. & Stubbs Man. Telephony 129 For such a pur- 
pose commutated magnetos are made. 

Magneto- (mxgnX'to), formally repr. the com- 
bining form of Gr. ndyvtjT-, fidyvjjs Magnet, first 
occurring in quasi-Greek derivatives like Magneto- 
meter, and now used without restriction to form 
combinations (chiefly written with hyphen) denot- 
ing processes carried on by magnetic means, or 
the application of magnetism to particular depart- 
ments of art or industry, as in magnet o-electro- 
telluric, -inductive, -optic, -optical adjs. ; magneto- 
generator, -induction, -rotation. Also in the fol- 
lowing: magneto-bell, magueto-call-bell, an 
electric bell in which the armature of the electro- 
magnet is polarized; magneto-dynamo (see 
quot.>; magneto-instrument {Cent. Diet. 1890), 
-machine, a magneto-electric machine ; magneto- 
optics, that branch of physics which deals with 

the phenomena of the magnetization of light ; 
magneto-phonograph, a sound-recording and 
producing instrument worked by means of mag- 
netic electricity ; magneto-pointer in mod. 
Diets.), the index of a magneto-electric dial tele- 
graph ; magneto-printer (in mod. Diets.), a re- 
cording telegraph worked by magneto-electricity ; 
magneto-telegraph (in mod. Diets.), a telegraph 
worked by magneto-electricity; magneto-tele- 
phone, a magneto-electric sound transmitter ; 
magneto-therapy, the treatment of disease by 
the external application of metal plates inducing 
magnetic electricity {Syd. Soc. Lex. 1889) ; mag- 
neto-transmitter (in mod. Diets.), a magneto-elec- 
tric machine for the transmission of [a) electric force, 
\b) sound. 

1889 Prekcf. & Maif.r Telephone Index, Magneto Bell. 
1884 Knight Diet. Mech. Suppl., ^Magneto Call-bell, the 
sounder of a telephone circuit. 1884 S. P. Thompson 
Dynamo- Electr. Machinery 199 In *magneto-dynamos, in 
which the field is i\ue to permanent magnets of steel. 
1846 J. Jovcf. Set, Dial. vi. 423 The machine in tins case 
has been termed the *magneto-electro-telluric machine. 
1893 Prebce & Stubbs Man. Telephony 125 The Ericsson- 
Hell Company's 'magneto generators. 1892 S. P. Thompson 
Magneto- Electr. Machinery 8 Within a few months ma- 
chines on the principle of *magneto-induction had been 
devised by Dal I.egro and by Pixii. 1879 G. Prkscott Sp. 
Telephone 259 The 'magneto-inductive waves were super- 
posed, c 1865 (i. Gore in Circ.Sci. I. 229/1 The ^magneto- 
machine being in some cases employed. 1891 S. P. Thompson 
tr. Guiltemins Aiagn. £ Electr. 415 Gramme's magneto- 
machine. 1881 - - Etetu. Electr. .5- Magnet. § 387. 350 
Wlagneto-optic Rotation of the Plane of Polarisation of a 
Ray of Light. 1848 Faraday in Phil. Trans. CXXXIX. 35 
Pliicker's *magneto-optical results. 1850 Tyndall in Rep. 
Brit. Assoc, Sections (1851) 23 On the Magneto-Optical 
Properties of Crystals. 1902 J. j. Thomson in EncycL Brit. 
XXX. 464*Magneto-Optics, 1902 Harper s Mag. Feb. 49G 
It has been variously designated as the ' telegraphone ', 
the ' microphonograph ' anil the ' ^magneto-phonograph ' in 
Europe. iWgSyd.Soc. Lex.,* Magneto-rotation. 1883S. P. 
Thompson P. Keisg In 1877, when the * Magneto- Telephones 
of Graham Hell began to make their way into Europe. 

Magneto-crystallic (niLvgiwt^kristx'-lik),^. 
[f. Magneto- + Cbystalxig] Of or relating to 
the magnetic properties possessed by crystals. 

1848 Faraday in Phil. Trans. CXXXIX. 30 In that case 
the word magnetocrystallic ought probably to be applied to 
this force, as it is generated or developed under the influence 
of the magnet, ibid. 40 Jloth the magnetic and magneto- 
crystallic forces are at thesame timedoubled or quadrupled. 

t Magnetocl. Obs. [SeeOn*.] ^Seequot. 1889.) 

1850 AsHBURNJjt tr. Reichenbactis Dynamics 224 We may 
name this product < rystallod, . . that from electricity briefly 
as clod, from light photod, and so on, vtagnetod, chymotf, 
hetiod[ttc.]. 1889 Syd. Sac. Lex., Magnetod, Reichenbach's 
term for the odylic force found in magnets. 

Magneto-electric, a. Pertaining to elec- 
tric phenomena involving electric currents induced 
in conductors by the relative motion of these con- 
ductors with respect to either permanent magnets 
or electro-magnets. 

Introduced, in 1831, by Faraday, who employed it in its 
most general sense for describing the currents induced by 
motion of conduction in conjunction with any of the follow- 
ing kinds of magnet : permanent steel magnets, ordinary 
loadstones, electro-magnets, the earth. He used it tenta- 
tively at first in contradistinction to the term volta-electric, 
which he applied to the induction of electricity by turning 
on or turning off an electric current in a stationary coil. 

1831 Faraday in Phil. 'Trans. (18321 CXXII. 139 As a 
distinction in language is still necessary, I propose to call the 
agency thus exerted by ordinary magnets, magneto-electric 
or magnelectric induction. Ibid. 173 Upon the supposition 
that the rotation of the earth tended, by magneto-electric 
induction, to cause currents in its own mass. 1833 Ibid. 
CXXIII. 44, 1 had the pleasure.. of making an experiment, 
for which the great magnet [a loadstone] in the museum 
..and the magneto-electric coil described in my first paper, 
were put in requisition. 1834 — in Philos. Mag. V. 349 
When I first obtained the magneto-electric spark it was 
by the use of a secondary magnet. .. My principal was an 
electromagnet ; Nobili's was, I believe, an ordinary mag- 
net ; others have used the natural magnet. 1839 J. I*\ 
Danif.i.l Introd. Chem. Philos. 489 Magneto-electric is 
the converse to electro-magnetic action. 1854 G. Bird & 
C. Brooke Eleni. Nat. Philos. xvii. (ed. 4) 421 note, Simi- 
larly, electro-magnetic induction would mean the develop- 
ment of magnetism by a current, and magneto-electric in- 
duction, that of a current by magnetism. 1881 Max WELL 
Electr. A> Magn. II- 208 This is the electiontoti\e force 
which must be supplied from sources independent of mag- 
neto-electric induction. 

b. Magneto-electric current. Used by Fara- 
day to distinguish currents generated mechanically 
by magneto-electric induction from those generated 
in a voltaic battery. 

1851 Faraday in Phil. Trans. CXLII. (1852) 137 On the 
employment of the Induced Magneto-electric Current as a 
test and measure of Magnetic Forces. 

c. Magneto-elactric machine. First used by 
Faraday, in 1831, to denote a machine generating 
currents by magneto-electric induction. By later 
writers employed in variously limited senses. 

The appellation continued to be used in Faraday's wide 
sense by various writers down to about 1867, when the im- 
provements of Wilde, Wheatstone, Siemens, I .add, Varley 
and others attracted much attention, and the term 'dynamo- 
electric machine ' was introduced by Brooke. This term was 
defined by Brooke himself to denote in general a machine 

[ 'in which dynamic energy is employed to produce an 
electric current 1 (Proc. Roy. Soc. XV. 409, footnote); by 

( others, however, it has been applied to signify only such 
machines as emUxlied the principle of self-excitation and 
did not contain any permanent magnets. Those who adopted 

; the latter usage limited the meaning of ' magneto-electric 

l machine '; some including under that term only the ma- 

I chines with permanent magnets of steel, while others in- 
cluded under the name both these and the machines with 

! separately-excited electro-magnets. The present tendency 
is to confine the term strictly to the machines with permanent 

! steel magnets. Some writers define magneto-electric ma- 
chines as simply old-fashioned or rudimentary kinds of 
dynamos; others treat the terms as synonymous. On the 
other hand some writers treat 'magneto-electric machine" 
as a generic term, of which dynamo-electric machines form 
a sub-class. 

1831 Faraday in Phil. Trans. (1832) CXXII. 160 Two 
rough trials were made with the intention of constructing 
magneto-electric machines. Ibid. 163 [Under heading Ter- 
restrial Magneto-electric Induction, describes as magneto- 
electric machines discs of copper caused to revolve, and there- 
by generate electric currents under the magnetic influence 
01 the earth.) 1866 Crookes in Q. Jrnl. Sci. XII. 504 
Magneto-electric machines, with revolving armatures, in 
which electro-magnets had been substituted for permanent 
magnets, had been constructed. 1867 Wheatstone in Proc. 
Roy. Soc. XV. 369 The magneto-electric machines which 
have been hitherto described are actuateil either by a per- 
manent magnet or by an electro-magnet. 1878 7 V< v. Inst. 
Civ. Engin. LI I. 63 M. Alfred Niaudet remarked that he 
did not agree with . . the distinction between dynamo-electric 
and magneto-electric machines. In all these instruments 
mechanical power was converted into electricity by the 
action of magnetism ; consequently all were both magneto- 
electric and dynamo-electric. 1878 J. N. Shoolurkd Pres. 
State Electric Lighting 6 For the older form, where per- 
manent magnets are employed, the term ' magneto-electric ' 
machine lias been retained. 1880 A. Siemens in ?ruL 
Soc. Tiiegr. Engin. IX. 93 A constant and permanent 
magnetic- field is, therefore, of paramount importance, and 
it can be produced in the way proposed by Mr. Wilde in 
1863 for magneto-electric machines by employing a separate 
machine for exciting the iiekl-magnets of one or more 
similar machines. 1882 S. P. Tiiomi'sos in Jrnl. Soc. Arts 
XXXI. 120 The arbitrary distinction between so-called 
magneto-electric machines and dynamo-electric machines 
fails when examined carefully. In all these machines a 
magnet, whether permanently excited, independently ex- 
cited, or self-excited, is employed to provide a tie-Id of mag- 
netic force. Ami in all of them dynamic power is employed. 
1887 W. B. Esson Magneto- A- Dynamo-electric Machines 22 
In all the machines yet described, the electric currents were 
induced by means of steel magnets, or, as in Wilde's machine, 
by magnets that were magnetised by the current produced 
in another mat bine. Such machines are usually called 
'magneto-electric' machines, to distinguish them from the 
'dynamo-electric' machines. 1889 Chambers's EncycL IV. 
146/2 The term ' dynamo-electric ' was at first applied to dis- 
tinguish those machines which were self-exciting from 'mag- 
neto-electric ' machines, which had permanent magnets to 
give the field ; but this distinction is no longer maintained. 
1891 J. W. U rquhart Dynamo-Constr. 2 A magneto-electric 
machine— an apparatus in which steel magnets are used to 
furnish the 'magnetic field'— is not strictly by common 
consent called a dynamo. 

So Magneto-ele'ctrical a., in the same sense. 

1836 Mui.i.iH.s in Lond. A> Edinb. Philos. Mag. Aug. 120 
On certain Improvements in the Construction of Magneto- 
electrical Machines. 1873 F. Jrnkin Electr. ,y Magn. xx. 
§ 1. 280 It is convenient to retain the name magneto-electrical 
apparatus for those arrangements- in which powerful electric 
currents are induced in wire; moved across a magnetic field 
produced by permanent magnets or electro-magnets. 

Magneto-electricity. Electricity gene- 
rated by the relative movement of electric con- 
ductors and magnets of any kind. Also the branch 
of science concerned with (his. 

1832 Faraday in Phil. Trans. (1S33) CXXIII. 44, I have 
made many endeavours to effect chemical decomposition by 
magneto-electricity. 184a W. R. GROVE Led. I'rogr. Phys. 
Sci. 21 Here originates the Science of Magneto-electricity, 
the true converse of Electro-magnetism. 1845 Joule in 
Electr. Mag. I. 138 The magneto-electricity developed in 
the coils of the revolving electro-magnet. 1853 F. C. Kakf- 
well Electric Sci. 143 Electro-magnets, .have been some- 
times used instead of permanent magnets for the induction 

1 of magneto-electricity. 1866 H. in Phil. Trans. 
CLVII. 92 Waves of magneto-electricity were generated. 

Magnet ogr am (ma'gn/"'ti?gra3m). [f. Mag- 
neto- + -ckam. J The automatic record of mag- 
netic needles. 

1884 C. M el drum in Erupt. Krakaioa (ed. Symons i88S> 
473, 1 forwarded copies of magnetograms. 1902 EncycL Brit. 
XXX. 460/2 Any number of examples are afforded by the 
magnetograms from stations such as Kew and Falmouth. 

Magnetograph (mxgnPiograi). [f. Mag- 
neto- + -GRAPH.] 

1. An instrument arranged to record automatically 
the movements of the magnetometer. Also attrib. 

1847 Ronalds in Phil. Trans. CXXXVII. 113 The ap- 
plicability of this system of self-registration to a magneto- 
graph was sufficiently obvious. 1883 C. Carpmael in Erupt, 
Krakatoa (ed. Symons 1888) 474 The three magnetograph 
traces were unusually steady. 190a EncycL Brit. XXX. 
460/2 The records from ordinary Kew pattern magneto- 
graphs not infrequently show a repetition of. . small rhythmic 

2. =Magnetogbam. (In recent U.S. Diets.) 

3. (Seequot.) 

1896 Current Hist. (Buffalo, N. Y.) VI. 467 Professor John 
S. McKay., has obtained interesting pictures, which he 
calls ' magnetographs ' ; resembling X-ray prints in being 
silhouettes of objects excluded from light. 

Hence Magne togra'phic a., of or belonging to 
the magnetograph. 


1887 Science (U. S.) 20 May 409/1 The earthquake was re- 
corded automatically upon the niagiietographic traces in the 

Magnetoid (msegnftoid), a. [f. Magnet + 
-OID.] Resembling, or having the characteristics 
of, a magnet. 

1851 Ruttkh {title) Magnetoid Currents, their forces and 
directions ; with a description of the Magnetoscope. 

Magnetology (ma-giu-tplodsi). [f. Magnet 
+ -OLOGV. Cf. K magne'tologie.] A treatise on the 
magnet anil magnetism. 1856 .Wayne Expos. Lex. 

Magnetometer (mcegn/ty-m/'taj). [ad. F. 
magnitomctre, i. magntto- Magneto- + -mitre, ad. 
Gr. fitTpov measure, -meter.] An instrument for 
measuring magnetic forces, esp. the force of terres- 
trial magnetism at any point. 

1827 Eaton in Amer. Jrnl. Sci. XII. 15 Delicately sus- 
pended needles, which might be called a suit of magnetro- 
meters [sic]. 1830 Proc. Amer. Phil.Soc. I. r54 A magneto- 
meter for the declination. 1902 Encycl. Brit. XXX. 453/1 
Under Wilde's auspices a variety of forms of magnetometers 
and earth-inductors have been used. 

Hence Magneto-me trie, -me-trical adfs., of, 
pertaining to, or measured by the magnetometer. 
Magneto metry, the measurement of magnetic 
force by means of the magnetometer {Cent. J)ict.). 

1847 Sir J. C. Ross I 'oy. S. $ Antarctic Reg. 1. 91 A valu- 
able series of hourly magnetometric observations was con- 
tinued. 1902 Encycl. Brit. XXX. 433/2 A magnetizing 
coil such as is used in magnetometric experiments. 

Magnetomo'tive, "■ U- Magneto- + 
Motive «.] Magnetomotive force : a term intro- 
duced by R. II. M. liosanquet to denote the line 
integral of the magnetizing forces exerted around 
a magnetic circuit by an electric current inter- 
linked with it. 

1883 BoSANQUET in Pltilos. ii/ag. XV. 205, I shall use the 
expression ' magnetomotive force ' to indicate the analogue 
of electromotive force. It is a difference of magnetic poten- 
tial 1896 S. P. Thompson Dynamo-electric Machinery 
(ed. 5) 119 The total magnetomotive-force in a magnetic . 
circuit is the sum of the magnetomotive-forces separately 
produced by each coil of wire. 

Magne tomo'tor. [f. Magneto- + Motob.] 
' A voltaic series of two or more large plates which 
produce a great quantity of eleatricity of low in- 
tensity, adapted to the exhibition of electro-mag- 
netic phenomena' (Knight Diet. Mech. 1875). 

1823 T. Gill Techn. Repot. III. 313 On the Magneto- 
motor;— a new form of the Voltaic Apparatus. liy Mr. 

Magnetophone (mxgn/'t0fi»in). [f. Mag- 
neto- + Gr. c/icvrij sound.] A magnetic instrument 
used for the production of musical tones. 

1883 CaBHART in Science 1 1 . 394 The intensity of the sounds 
obtained by the magnetophone is sometimes so great as to 
be painful to the ear when the telephone is held closely 
against it. 

Magnetoscope (msegtu-tosktfiip). [f. Mag- 
neto- + -SCOPE.] 

f 1. An instrument used by mesmerists for detect- 
ing the supposed magnetism of the human body. 

1851 [see Magnetoid]. 1852 Ln. Carlisle Let. 19 Slay 
in Macaulay's Life <y Lett. (187S) II. 309 We talked a good 
deal about the magnetoscope. 

2. 'A person supposed to see, or a thing sup- 
posed to aid in seeing, by means of magnetism ; a 
clairvoyant, or a clairvoyant's device ' (Cent. Diet.). 

3. Physics. An apparatus for indicating the pre- 
sence of magnetic force without measuring its 
amount. (In recent Diets.) 

Magnicaudate (mregnikj'il^tt), a. Zool. [a. 
mod.L. tiiagnicaitdat-us, f. magn-us great + cauda 
tail : see -ate 2.] ' Having a long tail ' (Mayne 
Expos, lex. 1856). So Magnicaudatous, (./:/(('. . 

Magnifiable (mre-gnifoiiab'l), a. rare. [f. 
Magnifv + -AiiLE.] Capable of being magnified. 

1646 Sir T. Hrowne Pseud. Pp. IV. xii. 208 Thus is it not 
improbable it hath also fared with number ; which though 
wonderfull in it self, and sufficiently magnyfiahle from its ■ 
demonstrable affections [etc.]. 

Magnific (ma.'gni"fik), a. Now literary and 
arch. Also 5-7 magnifique ; see also Magni- 
ficjue. [a. r. magnifique, ad. L. niagnific-ns 
(whence also Sp., Pg., It. magnifico), f. magnus 
great : see -Fie] 

fl. Renowned, glorious. (Cf. Magnificent 1.) 

1490 Caxton Eneydos vi. 25 This gentylman was. .of name 
magnyfynue. 1512 Ilelyas in Thorns E. E. Pr. Rom. (1858) 
III. 38 The magnifike and excellent lignage. 1513 Brad- 
MtAW St. H'erburge Hal. to St. W. 13 Diners of thy kynne 
magnifique Redact in the catholique papall. 1622 J. Tavlor 
(Water P.) Mem. Monarchs (1630) F 8, In peace and warre, 
Magnifique, Glorious. 1669 Gale Crt. Gentiles 1. II. vii. 85 
This Adramelech signifies a magnific King. 

f2. Nobly lavish or munificent; = Magnifi- 
cent 2. Obs. 

1611 Speed Hist. CI. Brit. vni. iii. § 13. 385 And that this 
Kings zeale might be further scene, by his magniticke workes 
lelc.J. 1617 Mure Misc. Poems xxi. 45 A liberall hand, a 
most magnifick hart. 1655 Sir W. Lower tr. de Ceriziers' 
Innoc. Lord 141 He [God] is just, if he ordain us punish- 
ment ; he is magnifick, if he doth us good. 

3. Sumptuous, splendid ; = Magnificent 3, 4. 
1490 Caxton Eneydos xvi.60 For whome folke of Moryenne ; 


' haucmadean assemble magnyfyque of metes and of wynes 
I fur toa solempnelle feste. 1541 Elyot Image Gov. 78 Finally 
I the saied foure hosphalles . . were builded on the riuer of 
Tyber, in the most ample and magnifike facion. 1550 J. 
Coke Eng. <$• Er. Heralds (1877) 116 Considre the magni- 
fique and decorate churches (of London]. 1x1631 Donne 
Serm. lvi.(i64o) srVjCovernot thyextortionswith magnifique 
buildings and sumptuous furniture. 1654 tr. Scudery's Curia 
Pol. 38 Tis true, thy life must be short, but thy Hearse shall 
be the more Magnificke. 1730-46 Thomson Autumn 134 
The pillared dome magnific heaved Its ample roof. 1742 
Young Nt. Th. ix. 852 And dare Earth's bold Inhabitants 
deny The sumptuous, the magnific Embassy A Moment's 
Audience? 1861 I. Tavlor Spir. Heb. Poetry 239 Objects 
held forth in vision, for a symbolic purpose, may be stupen- 
dous, or they may be magnific or splendid. 

4. Imposing by vastness or dignity. Of language, 
ideas, etc. : Exalted, sublime ; occas. in derisive 
sense, pompous, grandiloquent. 

_ 1558-66 Hist. Est. Scotl. in Wodrow Soc. Misc. (1844) 56 
The Bishop sang a magnifick Mass. 1589 Puttknham 
Eng. Poesie UI.V, (Arb.) 164 They be matter stately and 
high, and require a stile to be lift vp . . by choyse of 
wordes . . high, loftie, eloquent, and magnifik in propor- 
tion. x6a8 Le Grvs tr. Barclays Aigenis 57 A man 
of no common presence, which a mighty confidence made 
appeare more magnifique. 1676GLANVILL Ess. in. 16 Astro- 
nomy, one of the grandest and most magnifique of all those 
that lie within the compass of Natural Inquiry. 1744 Aki n- 
side Pleas, /mag. in. 140 He stalks, resounding in magnific 
phrase The vanity of riches. 1807 Words w. Wh. Doe in. 
150 Magnific limbs of withered state; A face to fear and 
venerate. 1817 Coleridge Satyrane's Lett. L in Biog. Lit. 
etc. (1882)240 He commenced the conversation in the most 
magnific style. 1837 T. C. Grattan in New Monthly 
Mag. LI. 333 The magnific hill shooting far up above the 
clouds ! 1864 Cd. Words 11/1 This magnific heaving of the 
bosom of the ocean. 1880 Browning Clive 34 Power.. 
God's gift magnific, exercised for good or ill. 

f5. Of compositions, also (with mixture of sense 
4) of titles, expressions, etc. : Serving to magnify 
or extol ; highly honorific or eulogistic. Obs. 

1548 Udall Erasm. Par. Mark xii. 84 What with theyr 
magnifike and hye titles. 1641 Milton Ch. Govt. Wks. 1738 
I. 30 Those magnific Odes and Hymns wherin Pindnrus 
and Callimachus are in most things worthy, some others in 
their frame judicious, in their matter most an end faulty. 
1644 Maxwell Prerog. Chr. Kings 23 To say. .that Sover- 
aignty in the King is immediately from God by approbation 
or confirmation onely. .doth not sort well with the magnifick 
expressionsof Holy Scripture. 1649 Earl Monm. tr. Senault's 
Use Passions (1671) 355 The magnifique titles which His- 
torians would give him in their Writings. 1667 Milton 
/'. L. v. 770 Thrones, Dominations, Princedomes, Vertues, 
Powers, If these magnific lilies yet remain Not meerly 

MagnifLcal (maegni-fikal), a. Also 6-7 mag- 
niflcial. [f. prec. +-al.] 

f 1. Eminent, renowned, glorious. Obs. 
x 557 N. T. (Genev.) Epistle *iv, The magnificat and 
triumphing Kyng Solomon. 1574 Life Abp. Parker To 
Rdr. C vj b, The magnifienge of that magnificall seignorie 
and Archipiscopall territorie off Canterburye. 1579 * WYNK 
Phisicke agst. Port. 1. xxxviL 51 Pompeius .. being then 
great in deede and magnificiall. 
t 2. ' Royally ' liberal or bountiful, munificent. 
1586 T. B. La Primaud. Er. Acad. 1. 624 Neither must he 
be onely liberal, but magnifical also & sumptuous, provided 
alwaies that of magnificall, he become not prodigall. 1597 
A. M. tr. Guillemeaus Er. Chlrurg, 3 What is more mag- 
nificall and more divine, then to recreate the afflicted. 1623 
in Crt. -V Times yas. I (1849) II. 357 Sheriff Hawford hath 
been very magnifical, and feasted all the king's servants. 

3. Splendid, stately, sumptuous; = Magnificknt 
3, 4. arch. 

1538 Starkey England '11. L 176 Gudly cytes and townys, | 
wytn magnyfycal and gudly housys. 1560 Bible (Genev.) | 
1 Chron. xxii. 5 We must buylde an house for the Lord. ' 
magnifical [1611 exceeding magnificall], excellent and of 1 
great fame, a 1577 ^ 1R '*' Smith Commw. Eng. (1609) 26 1 
August and Magnifical apparell both of stuff and fashion. | 
"599 Sandys Europie Spec. (1632) 152 Very magnificall and 
ceremoniall in his outward comportement. 1604 Edmonds 
Observ. Cxsars Comm. 25 Their funerals . . are magnificall 
and sumptuous, a 1619 Foihkrbv A theom. n. xi. §3(1622) 
314 They daunce a most stately and magnificall daunce. | 
1890 /E. Prince Of Joyous Card iii. 363 The sight mag- 
nifical, beyond desire. 

4. => Magnific 4. arch, f Also, ^Magnific 5. 

1572 tr. Buchanan's Detection lib, Now you hike to heare ' 
how this magnificall boaster of valiantnesse did acquit bym- 
selfe. 1581 J. Bell H addon's A ks^o. Osor. 453 These be lofty, 
glorious, Si. magnificall speeches, but besides the bare sounde 1 
of wordes, no matter at all. 1582 Bentley Mon. Matrones 
ill. 321 A magnifical Vow of a Queene consecrated to the j 
King of heauen. 158a G. Martin Corrupt. Holy Script, j 
xiv. 214 What . . could be spoken more magnifical of any 
Sacrament I 1600 Holland Livy vi. xii. 247 A man that 
in the hearing of his souldiours, could onely make goodly 
and magnifioall Orations, a 1626 Bp. Andrewes Serm. (1661) , 
429 We (no doubt) will rise straight in our magnifical, lofty 
style and say [etc.]. 1867 Tracts for the Day, Purgatory 2 
A truly magnifical and stupendous act of worship. 1895 
W. Patkr IVks. (1901) VIII. 71 Certain distinguished, mag- 
nificat, or elect souls, vessels of election. 

Magnifically (ma;gni-nkali), adv. arch. [f. 
Magnifical + -ly 2 .] In a 'magnific' manner; 
magnificently, splendidly; in eulogistic terms. 

"555 Eden Decades 139 They frendely & magnifycally ' 
enterteyned owr men. 1578 T. N. tr. Couq. W. India 361 
The Emperour received Cortes magnilicially. 1570 Fulke I 
Con/. Sanders 668 Chrysostome . . speaketh magnifically of 
the crosse. 1609 Bible (Douay) Ps. cxxv[i]. a Our I^jrd ! 
hath done magnifically with them. 1617 Moryson I tin. III. ' 
113 The Venetians live sparingly. The Siennesi magnifi- ! 
cally. x6sj tr. Dclas-Coveras^ Don Eenise 247 Treating I 


him magnifically, he began to qualifie him with the name 
of sonne-in-Iaw. 1889 Sar. Rev. 11 May 562/1 A paragraph 
magnifically headed ' Mr. Harrison's Return to Oxford '. 

li Magnificat (ma-gni-fikivt). [L. ; 3rd peis. 
sing. pres. ind. of magnificare to Magnify.] 

1. The hymn of the Virgin Mary in Puke i. 46-55 
(in the Vulgate beginning Magnificat anima mea 
Dominum Jy used as a canticle at evensong or ves- 
pers. Also, a musical setting of this canticle. 

C1200 I'ices <f Virtues 55 £)e hali woordes Se ic habbe 
iwriten on magnificat. (-1380 Wyclif Wks. (1880) 169 
Gret criynge & ioly chauntynge bat. .lettip men fro pe sen- 
tence of holy writt, as Magnyficat, sanctus & agnus dei, 
pat is so broken bi newe knackynge. ? 14.. Stasyons 0/ 
Jems. 724 in Horstm. AltengL Leg. (1881)365 Sche[Mary] 
knelyd after onne a stone Magnificat sche made anone. 
1552 A*. Com. Prayer Even. Pr. (Rubric), After that, %• 
nijlcat, in Engfishe as foloweth. 1597 Hooker Eccl. Pol. 
V. xl. § 1 Of reading or singing. .Magnificat, Benedict us, 
and Nunc Dimittis oftener than the rest of the Psalms. 
1862 LOOKUP. A". Root, of Sicily 6 Robert of Sicily ves- 
pers, proudly sat And heard the priests chant the Magnificat. 

2. trans/. A song of praise ; a ■ prean '. 

1614 Jackson Creed 111. ix. 179 The lauish Magnificates of 
present times. 1707 Hearnk Collect. 13 June (O. H. S.) II. 
20 His magnificat upon Plato is a disparagement to his 
Cause, a 1711 Ken Sion Poet. Wks. 1721 IV. 422 Philothea, 
Mary-like, in Jesus joy'd And in Magnificats her days em- 
ploy'd. 1896 Daily Nt-ivs 23 Apr. 5/4 M. Beurdeley de- 
livered himself of a magnificat in honour of the Orleans and 
MacMahon families. 

3. In various proverbial phrases (translated from 
Fr. : see Littre and Hatz.-Darm.). To correct 
Magnificat', a byword for presumptuous fault- 
finding. To correct Magnificat before one has 
learnt Te Deum : to attempt that for which one 
has no qualifications. Magnificat at matins: 
something out of place. 

1533 Elyot Knowledge Pref., Accomptyng to be in 
me no lyttell presumption, that I wylle in notynge other 
mens vices correct Magnificat. 154° Palsgr. tr. Acolastus 
B iij, Thou Philyp fynde faute (which takest vppon the to 
correct Magnificat). 1542 Udall Erasm. Apoph. 342 b, 
Suche . . y l will take vrjon theim to bee doctours in those 
thynges 111 whiche theimselfes haue no skille at all, for 
whiche wee saie in Englyshe, to correcte Magnificat before 
lie haue learned Te Deum. 1588 Br. Andrewes Semi, at 
Spital (1629) 24 The note is heere all out of place . . and so, 
their note comes in like Magnificat at Matins. 1622 Mabbe 
tr. Alemans Guzman D'Alf. 11. 75 To looke to heare a 
Magnificat at Mattens, or to seeke after the man in the 
Moone. 1694 R. L'Estrangk Eablcs cccxiii. (1714) 329 
Where Subjects take upon them to Correct the Magnificat, 
and to prescribe to their Superiors. 

t Magni ficate, ppl, a. Obs. rare. [ad. L. 
magnified / -us , pa. pple. of magnificare to Mag- 
nify.] Made unduly great, exaggerated. 

a 1592 H. Smith Serm. (1592) 443 A magnificate opinion of 
themselues and an ouerweening of their owne gifts. 

t Magnificate, v. Obs. [f. ppL stem of L. 
magnificare to Magnify.] trans. = Magnify v. 

1598 Marston Pygmal. etc. Sat. ii. 42 [He] With that de- 
paints a church reformed state, The which the female 
tongues magnificate. 1599 — Sco. i'illauie 11. Proem. 192, 
I cannot with swolne lines magnificate Mine owne poore 
worth. 1672 Maryell Kelt. Transp. \. 295 To Magnificate 
the Church with triumphal Pomp and Ceremony. 

Magnification (ma^gnifik^i'Jan). [f. L* 
magnificdtiCm-em , n. of action f. magnificare: see 
Magnify and -ation.] The action of magnifying ; 
the condition of being magnified. 

1. The action of representing as great or greater ; 
laudation, extolling. 

1625 Jackson Creed \: xxxu. § 3 The distempered zeale 
which the one bare vnto a Moses of his owne making and 
magnification did empoyson hissoule(etc. J. 1663 J er. Taylor 
Elites formata Wks. 1850 VIII. 292 Those words so often 
used in scripture, for the magnification of faith, ' The just 
shall live by faith '. 1670 G. H. Hist. Cardinals 1. 1. 3 Of 
the Rodomontadoes which the Roman Theologues write in 
magnification of the Pope. Ibid. 25 Looking themselves 
some times in magnifications of their virtues, as false as 
tedious. 1802-12 Bentham Ration. Judic. Evid. (1827) 
IV. 196 The unfeigned love and indefatigable magnification 
of that sham law. 1863 Lytton Caxtoniana I. 60 That 
magnification which proverbially belongs to the unknown. 
1879 *- HR - Rossetti Seek <y /'. 62 Frost and cold .. are in- 
voked to render blessing, praise, and magnification, to the 
Lord their Ordainer. 1899 Q. Rev. Jan. 82 Next to the 
glorification of himself iDumas], his mission was the mag- 
nification of his country. 

2. The apparent enlargement of an object as seen 
through a lens. 

1672 Gregory in Rigaud Corr. Sci. Men (1841) IF. 245 
Neither is it probable to me that the errors of ihe object 
speculum are made more sensible (the magnification being 
always the same) by a concave or convex speculum and an 
eyeglass, c 1790 iMisotiSch.Art I. 253 If the diameters be 
multiplied into one another, the product will express the 
magnification of the whole visible area. 1867 J. Hogg 
Microsc. 1. ii. 78 The Kelner eye-piece, while it increases the 
magnification detracts from the definition. 1881 Lockyer 
in Nature No. 614. 319 A perfect photograph will bear a 
very considerable amount of magnification. 1896 Altbutt's 
Syst. Med. 1. 83 Two giant-cells seen under high magnifica- 
tion (X1515 diam.). 

b. transf. Also quasi-concr. a magnified re- 

1833 Coleridge Tabte-t. 10 Apr., America would then be 
.. Great Britain in a state of glorious magnification ! 1858 
Hawthorne Er. <«j- ft. Nole-bks. (1871) I. 60 They looked 
like a magnification of soiae exquisite piece of Tunbridge 


ware. 1874 ML Arnold God «, tlu Bible (1875) Introd. 21 
Its divinities are magnifications of nothing unworthy. 
Magnificative (uMegnHiHtiv). Gram. rare. 


187S Whitney Life Lang. xi. 214 Distinguishing always 
the large, the medium, and the small individuals of a kind, 
by diminutives and magnificatives. 

Magnificence (nuegnrfa&s). Also 4, 6 
raagniflence. [a. F. magnificence (OF. also 
magnifiance), ad. L. magnificeniia, f. magnificent- : 
see Magnificent and -ence.] 
1. As the name of one of the ' moral virtues ' 
recognized in Aristotelian and scholastic ethics; 
rendering Or. ntyaXoirpinfia, explained by Aris- 
totle to mean liberality of expenditure combined 
with good taste. 

1340 Ayenb. 168 pe zixte stape of prouesse hi clepieb mag- 
nificence, bke uirtue hi descriueb bous. Magnificence is 
hi ziggeb of heje nyede yblissede bleuinge. c 1386 Chaucer 
Pars. T. r 662 Thanne comth Magnificence, that is to seyn, 
whan a man dooth and perfourneth grete werkes of good- 
nesse. 1506 [see Magnificential]. a 1670 Hobbes Rhet. 
ix. (168O 22 Magnificence; which is a vertue, by which 
a man is apt to be at great cost. 1691 Hartcliffe Virtues 
103 Magnificence . . is a Virtue.that teaches us how to observe 
a Decorum in the managing of great and costly Expences. 
1879 Morlf.v Burke 36 The noble mean of magnificence, 
standing midway between the two extremes of vulgar osten- 
tation and narrow pettiness, 
f 2. Sovereign bounty or munificence. Obs. 
14.. in Tnndale's Vis. (1843) 122 Graunt vs thys day of 
thi magnyfycence The gold of love the franke of innocence. 
1473 Proclam. Edw. IV 10 Nov. (Pat. Roll 13 Edw. IV, 
Pt. 2), For which we thank most humbly His infinite magni- 
ficence, c 1502 Joseph Arim. (E. E. T. S.) 51/456 Vnto the 
whiche god bryng bothe you & me Of his fauour, grace, and 
magnyfycence. 1508 Kennf.die Flyting 7v. Dunbar 421 
Traistand to haue of his magnificence Guerdon, reward, and 
benefice bedene. 163X Malinger Emperor East III. H, 
His exorbitant prodigality, How ere his . . flatterers call it 
Royall magnificence. 1647 Cottereu. Davila's Hist. Fr. 
10 That magnificence, he [Francis I] showed towards men. 
T 3. Glory ; greatness of nature or reputation. 
c 1386 Chaucer Prioress" T. 22 Lady thy bountee, thy 
magnificence, . . Ther may no tonge expresse in no science. 
1509 Barclay Shyp of Folys (1570) 104 God by his power 
and hye magnificence Made him a beast. 1545 Primer, 
Third Hour E iij, Let long & hart, strength and sense, 
Commende thy magnificence. x6xx Bible Acts xix. 27 So 
that . . the Temple of the great goddesse Diana should be 
despised, and her magnificence should be destroyed. 1667 
Milton P. L.Vttt. 101 And for the Heav'ns wide Circuit, 
let it speak The Makers high magnificence. 
4. Snmptuousness or splendour of surroundings 
or appointments. 

1383 Wyclif Dan. iv. 33 [36], I am ordeyned in my king- 
dam, and my magnyfience \sic : gloss or gretenesse], is addid 
to me. c 1460 Fortescue Abs. A> Lint. Mon. vii. (1885) 125 It 
shall nede bat the kyng . . mey make new bildynges whan 
he woll, ffor his pleasure and magnificence. 1500-20 Dun- 
bar Poems lxxvii. 28 Thow gart the orient kingis thrie 
Offer to Chryst . . Gold, sence, and mir, . . Schawand him 
king with most magnificence. 1553 Eden Treat. Newe 
Irtd. (Arb.) 25 In what pompe & triumphant magnificence 
he sheweth him self when he goeth to hauke or hunt. 
1671 Milton P. 1\. iv. m Nor doth this grandeur and ma- 
jestic show Of luxury, though call'd magnificence, ..allure 
mine eye. a 17*0 Sheffield (Dk. Buckhm.) Wks. (1753) 1. 269 
By these refin'd diversions, we perceive This town retains 
its old magnificence. 1796 Morse Amer. Geog. II. 17 The 
fur [of the ermine] forms a principal part even of royal 
magnificence 1841 Trench Parables xii. (1877) 236 It was 
and is part of the magnificence of Oriental princes .. to 
have vast stores of costly dresses laid up. 1859 Tennyson 
Enid 296 His dress a suit of fray 'd magnificence, Once fit 
for feast of ceremony. 

t b. An instance or particular display of magni- 
ficence ; a splendid ceremony. Obs. 
. a '533 LD. Berners Gold. Bk. AT. Aurel. (1546) Cvij, It 
is a greatte magnifience to a man, to haue diuers sortes of 
meates.^ 1615 tr. De Monfart's Surz: E. Indies 10 At this 
his entrie they made him a great triumph, with a long magni- 
ficence. 165a T. Wright tr. Camus' Nat. Paradox xn. 365 
Such Pomp, '1 iltings, Masks, Banquets, and other Magnifi- 
cences. 1670 Cotton Espernon 11. vm. 415 The Cere- 
mony of this Marriage was perform'd in the Marquis de 
Saint-Chaumont's House, ..but the Magnificences at the 
Duke's own Lodgings. 1S74 Got't. Tongue ix. § 6 (1684) 151 
With what gust and sensuality will they tell how such a jest 
of theirs took, or such a magnificence was admired ? 

5. Grandeur or imposing beauty of appearance, 
t Also //. features constituting magnificence. Obs. 

(■1430 Lydg. A/in. Poems (Percy Soc.) n This tabernacle 
of most magnyfycence Whas of his byldyng. 1355 Eden 
Decades To Rdr. (Arb.) 49 They . . whiche in buyldynge of 
cities . . haue so ioyned magnificence with profecte. 1645 
Evelyn Diary 6 May, That Cittie [Rome], with its Am- 
phitheaters, Naumachia . . and other magnificences. 1667 
Milton P. /.. 1. 718 Not Babilon, Nor great Alcairo such 
magnificence Equal'd in all thir glories, a 1703 Po.mfret 
Eleazar's Lament. Jerus. i. 10 Where's now the vast Magni. 
licence, which made The Souls of Foreigners adore Thy 
[ Jerusalem's] wond'rous Brightness ? i860 Tyndall Glac. 1. 
xxiv. 175 The weather had been fine, and towards evening 
augmented to magnificence. 1879 W. H. Bartlett Egypt 
to Pal. xxvii. 537 These ruins are remarkable, both for their 
great extent and magnificence [etc.]. 
b. of language or speech. 

1697DRYDEN Virg. Georg. in. 456 The mean Matter which 
my Theme affords, To embellish with Magnificence of 

6. As a title of honour, applied to kings and 
other distinguished persons. Obs. exc. Hist, and 
as rendering of a foreign title. 

Vol. VI. 


(1278 Rolls of Farlt. I. 1/2 Magnificentie Regis mon- 
strant Abbas et Conventus Bordesleg 1 .] c 1420 Lydg. 
Assembly of Gods 82 Pluto to thy magnyfycence I shall 
reherse what thys creature Eolus hath doon to me out of 
mesure. 1598 Hakluyt I'oy. I. 150 The said Master 
generall therefore maketh no doubt, that al the aboue 
written damages .. be altogether vnknown vnto your mag- 
nificence, a 1604 Hanmer Chron. Irel. (1633) 107 Your 
magnificence hath beene very carefull and studious how you 
might enlarge the Church of God here on earth. 1755 
Magens Insurances I. 300 Illustrious Lords, Respected 
Patrons ! We the underwritten skillful Calculators, chosen 
and appointed by your Magnificences [etc.]. 1901 Times 
20 June 5/4 In reply to the toast of his health, proposed 
by the burgomaster, the [German] Emperor . . spoke as 
follows: — Your magnificence .. gave us a sketch of the 
development of German yachting [etc.]. 

Magnificency. Also 6 -centie, manyfy- 
cency. [ad. L. magnificenti-a: see prec.and-EXCY.] 
yl. = Magnificence in various senses. Obs. 

1538 in Lett. Suppress. Monasteries (Camden) 243, 1 com- 
mend me unto your good lordship, ever more thauckyng you 
of your manyfycency and gret goodnes. c 1540 tr. Pol. 
Verg. Eng. /list. (Camden No. 36) 219 In number of 
schollers and magnificentie of colliges it is not superior. 
1604 T. Wright Passions v. § iv. 244 The necessity of the 
gift declared the magnificency of hir mind. 1668 Lone/. 
Gaz. No. 283/1 She has been since entertained with much 
State and Magnificency. 1686 F. Spence tr. I'arillas' Ho. 
Media's 113 His humour was naturally prone to magnifi- 

2. With a and//. A magnificent or imposingly 
beautiful object, ceremony, etc. Obs. or arch, 

1585 T. Washington tr. Nichola/s Voy. \. xxi. 27 The 
castle, where for a magnificency were set vp 2. faire 
pauillions. 1645 Evelyn Mem. (1819) I. 178 This canopy 
or arch of water, I thought one of the most surprizing 
magnificienctes I had ever seene. 1653 H. Cogan tr. 
Pinto's Trav. xxiii. 86 The Portugals . . could not sufficiently 
commend the excellent order and Gentilenesse of these 
Magnificencies. 1670 G. H. Hist. Cardinals II. HI. 192 He 
delights in certain magnificencies and pastimes. 1670-98 
Lassels Voy. Italy II. 52 It deserves to be mentioned 
among the rare Magnificencies of ancient Rome. _ 1839 J. 
Wilson in Blackiv. Mag. XLV. 564 This Christian poet 
journeyed religiously among the magnificencies of nature. 

Magnificent (mregni"fisent), a. and sb. Also 
7 erron. -ficient. [a. OF. magnificent^ f. L. magni- 
ficent-j altered stem (found in the comparative 
magni ficentior, after benevolentior from benevolens 
= benevolus) of magnifiats } lit. doing great deeds, 
f. magn-zis great : see -fic. All the senses below 
were already approximately developed in Latin.] 
A. adj. 

1. Characterized by greatness of achievement 
or by the conduct befitting lofty position. Obs. 
exc. in the titular epithet the Magnificent ( = L. 
magnificus) historically attached to the names of 
certain distinguished rulers, as Eadmund I of 
England, Sultan Solyman, Lorenzo de* Medici. 

1513 More in Grafton's Chron. (1568) II. 878 Yet the 
King [Hen. VII] of his magnificent minde, pardoned the 
innocent and rurall people. 1602 Warner Alb. Eng. Epit. 
(1612) 356 Of whom many, and some of them heere-bome 
Incolents, became afterwards the most magnificent of the 
Emperors. 1656 Blount Glossogr., Magnifi cent,.. that 
atchieveth worthy acts,.. acting great matters. 1717 Hist. 
Ace. Hungary 332 This was formerly the Bulwark of Hun- 
gary, 'till taken by Soliman the Magnificent. 1795 W. Roscoe 
{title) The Life of Lorenzo de' Medici, called The Magnificent. 
1875 Fortnum Maiolica xi. 107 Lorenzo the magnificent. 

f b. As the rendering of the customary title 
(usually L. magnificus) of certain foreign officials 
and official bodies. Obs. 

1763 Ann. Reg. 86 The proceedings of the magnificent 
council [of Geneva]. 

t C Proud, arrogantly ambitious. Obs, 

1603 Knolles Hist. Turks (1621) 732 This Perenus 
was one of the greatest peeres of Hungarie, but of a most 
haughtie and magnificent mind. 

2. Characterized by expenditure or munificence 
on a great scale ; ' royally * lavish or munificent. 
Now rare. 

1579 G. Harvey Lett, to Spenser (1 580) 65 Your lauishe, 
and magnificent liberalitie. a 1586 Sidxf.y Arcadia 11. (1590) 
169 b, If he were magnificent, he spent much with an aspiring 
intent. 1593 R. Harvey Phllaa. Ded. 21 Thus trusting to 
your Lordships magnificent . . fauour. 1631 Massinger 
F.mperor Eastu. i, A Prince is neuer so magnificent, As 
when hee's sparing to inrich a few With th'imuries of many. 
1647 Clarendon Hist. Reb. 1. § 126 Nor had his Heir cause 
to complain, . .though his Expences had been very magni- 
ficent, .. considering the wealth he left in Jewels, Plate, 
and Furniture, a 1661 Fuller Worthies (1840) II. 313 
Hampton Court was built by .. Cardinal Wolsey ; once so 
magnificent in his expenses. 1667 Milton P. L. ix. 153 
Man he made, and for him built Magnificent this World, 
and Earth his seat. 1737 Whiston Joscphus, Antiq. xv. 
ix. § 5 Herod . . bestowed presents on every one . . using 
his magnificent disposition, so as his kingdom might be 
the better secured. 1855 Macaulav Hist. Eng. xi. III. 
24 He received from the private bounty of the magnificent 
Chamberlain a pension equal to the salary which had been 
withdrawn. 1868 Milman St. Paul's 332 He was munificent, 
almost magnificent. 

3. Of conditions of life : Characterized by 
grandeur or stateliness. Of persons : Living in 
splendour ; characterized by display of wealth 
and ceremonial pomp. 

1526 Pi/gr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 203 Delapsed and com- 
mynge downefrom his magnifycent glory. 1585 T. Wash- 
ington tr. Niello/ay's Voy. 1. ix. 12 b, Such was the 


beginning of the magnificent estate of Cariedtn Barbe- 
rousse. 1706 Phillips (ed. Kersey), Magnificent, that lives 
in great State ; stately, noble, great, fine, costly, lofty. 1709 
Atterbury Serm. {Luke x. 32) 4 Whether we are not too 
Magnificent and Sumptuous in our Table and Attendance. 
1849 Macaulay Hist. Eng. vii. II. 183 The magnificent 
king who, in more than one sense, represented France. 

4. Sumptuously constructed or adorned ; also, in 
wider sense, imposingly beautiful, splendid. 

111540 Barnes Wks. (1573) 357 That magnificent Temple 
of Salomon. 1658 Hist. Christina Alessandra Q. Swed- 
land 109 Of a modern structure and one of the magnifi- 
centest fabriques of Europe. 1667 Milton P. L. III. 502 
Karr distant hee descries Ascending by degrees magnificent 
Up to the wall of Heaven a Structure high. 1687 T. Brown 
Lib. Consc. in Dk. Buckingham's Wks. (1705) II. 122 She 
did not delight in gaudy Liveries, and what the World calls 
a Magnificient Equipage. 1701 Addison Let. fr. Ita/y 72 
When Rome's exalted beauties I descry, Magnificent in 
piles of ruine lye. 1725 De Foe Voy. round World (1840) 
268 Two rooms., very magnificent in their way. 1756 Burkk 
Subl. <y B. 11. xiii, A great profusion of things which are 
splendid or valuable in themselves, is magnificent. 1841 
i Lane Arab. Nts. I. 107 She then arose, and attired herself 
in the most magnificent of her apparel. 1894 J. T. Fowler 
Adamnan Introd. 51 Lord Dunraven's magnificent work 
entitled Notes on Irish Architecture. 

5. Of immaterial things, conceptions, language, 
etc. : Imposing, exalted. 

1639 N. N. tr. Du Bosq's Compl. Woman I. 3 There 

neecfes but a pleasing voice, a magnificent tone, a sweet 

accent,.. to charme those who hearken. 1665 Boyle Chras. 

Rejl. Disc. Occas. A/edit. (1848) 76 Making good that 

magnificent Assertion of the Apostle, That all things work 

together for good to them that love God. 1701 Stanley's 

, Hist. Philos. Biog. 4 Thales was thought to deserve the 

\ Magnificent Title of Wise for his Noble Discoveries. 1748 

; Hume Ess, ix. Brit. Govt. 72 These Considerations are apt to 

make one entertain a very magnificent Idea of the British 

Spirit and Love of Liberty. 1781 Cowter Truth 412 The 

I song magnificent— the theme a worm ! 1781 — Tabled. 593 

1 Language.. Was natural as is the flowing stream, And yet 

1 magnificent, a God the theme. 

6. Used to express enthusiastic admiration : 
* Splendid ', wonderfully fine. 

a 1704 T. Brown Praise of Drunkenness Wks. 1730 I. 37 
Pray take notice of his belly, how plump and round it is, of 
what a magnificent circumference. 1704 Yalden On Sir 
Willoughby Aston. 348 Methinks I see a pompous tomb 
arise, Beauteous the form, magnificent the size. 1858 
Ruskin Arroyos ofChace (1880) I. 130 All the drawings so 
kept are in magnificent preservation, i860 Tyndall Glac. 
1. xii. 90 The day was magnificent. 1867 W. W. Smyth 
Coal # Coal-mining 91 At Lehigh Summit mine the great 
coal-bed is a magnificent seam of 50 feet. 
B. sb. 

f 1. An eminent personage. Obs, 

1612 W. Parkes Curtaine-Dr. (1876) 20 The Courts and 
mansions of the Potentates and Magnificents of the World. 

2. pi. slang. A mood of haughty indignation. 

1836 Marryat Midsh. Easy xxvi, Nevertheless, Jack 
, walked his first watch in the ' magnificents ', as all middies 
do when they cannot go on shore. 

Hence f Mag-nrficent v. (nonce-ivd.), trans, to 
make or proclaim great. Magnificentness, the 
1 state or condition of being magnificent (1727 in 
Bailey vol. II). 

1656* S. H. Go/den Law 2 His mercy is above all his 
works, and doth magnificent hirn. 

t Magnificential, a. Obs. rare~ l . [f. L. 
mag/nficen/ia Magnificence + -al.] Magnificent. 

1506 A'a/ender Sheph. (1892) 98 Magnyfycens is a Ioyeous 
I clerenes of courage admynystrynge thynges laudable & 
i magnyfycencyall, that is to saye, hye or grete. 

Magnificently (maegnrfisentli), adv. [f. 
1 Magnificent a. + -ly -.] In a magnificent manner. 

1, With great splendour or stateliness. 

1538 Lelano Itin. I. 97 The Castel stondith magnificently 
I and strongely on a Rok. 1599 Life Sir T. More in 
Wordsw. Ecc/. Biog. (1853) II. 93 Charles the fifth .. was 
j most magnificentlie received by the cittee of London. 1659 
Hammond On Ps. Ixxiii. 6 They set themselves out most 
magnificently. 1709 Steele Tatler No. 49 f 7 No Persian 
Prince was ever so magnificently bountiful. 1717 Lady M. W. 
: Montagu Let. to C'tess Mar 10 Mar., Her house was magni- 
' ficently furnished. 1725 Pope Odyss. vni. 494 And to the 
feast magnificently treads. 1816 Byron Ch. Har. ni.xxviii, 
The Battle's magnificently stern array ! 1849 Macaulay 
: Hist. Eng. vi. II. 69 She loved to adorn herself magnifi- 
cently. 1884 Lazv Times LXXVII. 402/1 The business 
meetings will be held in the magnificently furnished council 

b. With grandeur or impressiveness. 
1818 Shelley Let. to Mr. 4- Mrs. Gisborne 10 Tuly, 
Scenery magnificently fine. 1856 Kane Arct. Expl. II. 
I xxiv. 245 How magnificently the surf beats against its sides. 
1877 Lady Brassey Voy. Sunbeam xv. (1878) 268 It was all 
terribly grand, magnificently sublime.^ 
e. After a great or noble fashion. 
1831 Lamb Ella Ser. 11. Etlistoniana, Waiving his great 
loss as nothing, and magnificently sinking the sense of fallen 
material grandeur. 

2. With reference to expression : In an elevated 
'■ manner, f Also, in highly laudatory terms. 

1630 R. Johnsons Kingd. $ Conimiu. A iij, In like manner 
I hath Botero .. beene suspected to have had a feeling of the 
! Spanish Pistolets, for that hee hath written so magnificently 
of that Nation. 1651 Baxter Inf. Bapt. 340 So that the 
Scripture speaks more magnificently of the Church of Christ 
for the extent of it, then Mr. T. doth. 1710 Dr. Whitby 
Disc. in. i. § 2 (1735) 209 That Duty of which the Scripture 
speaketh so magnificently. 1835 J. H. Newman Par. Serm. 
(1842) II. v. 61 Writers . . talk magnificently about loving 
the whole human race. 





|| Magllificet. Obs. [L. ; 3rd pers. sing. pres. 
subj. oimagnifcare to Magnify.] (See quot.) 

1841 Hampson Medii ALvi Kalend. II. 254 Magnified, 
a name of Midlent Thursday, taken from the fust word of 
the collect. 

Magnificial, obs. form of Magnifical. 

fMagnificie. Obs. rare" 1 , [f. Magnific a. + 
-ie : see -y.] Greatness, importance. 

1570 Satir. Poems Reform, xix. 109 And he that is of 
maist Magnificie 5°ur baner sail display. 

t Magni'ficly, adv. Obs, [f. Magnific + 


1538 Elyot Diet. Addit., A mpliter, largely, abundantly, 
magnifikely. 1591 Sylvester Ivry 273 That.. can, as King, 
magnifikly advance His faithful! Servants. 1609 Hume 
Admonit. in Wodrow Soc. Misc. (1844*1 57 2 Yc were not 
aschamed to ryde to parliament magnifickly mounted and 

|| MagniflCO (ma?gni-fik£?). fit. magnifico adj. 
= Magnific.] An honorary descriptive title be- 
stowed upon the magnates of Venice : transf. any 
person in an exalted position. 

1573 G. Harvey Letter-bk. (Camden) 175 A cumpanie of 
sutch Italian magnificoes. 1591 Spenser M. Hubberd 665 
Where the fond Ape., stalketh stately by, As if he were 
some great Magnifico. 1596 Shaks. Merch. V. in. i. 282 
The Duke himselfe, and the Magnificoes Of greatest port 
haue all perswaded with him. 1630 R. Johnson's Kingd. 
.v Commiv. 476 Hee must turne himselfe about, and not 
dare to looke this Magnifico in the face. 1745 Eliza Hey- 
wood Fe?nale Sped. No. 16(1748) III. 183 The mechanics 
forsake their shops, to ride about the town in state like so 
many magnificoes. 1845 Disraeli Sybil \1863) 15 Rocking- 
ham, a virtuous magnifico, . . resolved to revive something 
of the pristine purity .. of the old whig connection. 1891 
Spectator 11 July, The reception, .by the populace has been 
..cordial, though it is doubtful if., they know who the 
magnificoes are. 

b. attrib. or adj. = Magnificent, 'grand'. 

1654 "Whit-lock Zootomia 41 It is a Magnifico gate^ of 
spirit .. not to mend, or slack our pace, for all the barking 
Currs, great or small. 1808 South ey Lett. (1856) II. 75 The 
magnifico book-case is greatly increased in ricosiiy. 

Magnrficous, a. rare~~ u . [f. L. magnific-us 

Magnific + -ot'.s.] =■= Magnificent. In mod. Diets. 

Hence + Magni ficously adv. rare"' 1 . 

1683 E. Hooker Pre/. Pordage's Mystic Dht. 10^ How 
magnificously soever wee bragg. .of our Reason, or Faith. 

Magnified (mre-gnifoid),///. a* [f. Magnify 

+ -edT] 

+ 1. Extolled, lauded. Obs. 

1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. I. vi. 22 The magnified 
Virgil. 1660 Waterhouse Arms fy Arm. 190 The illus- 
trious Copies drawn by their fair and magnified hands. 1664 
H. More Synopsis Proph. To Rdr. 185 Those worthily 
magnified elucubrations of Mr. Joseph Mede. 1690 Locke 
Hum. Und. iv. vii. § 11 They are far enough from receiv- 
ing any help from the Contemplation of these, or the like 
magnify *d Maxims. 

2. Enlarged to the sight, lit. andfg. 

1839 Penny Cycl. XV. 177/2 An instrument for enabling 
the eye. .to see magnified images of small objects. 1852 
Robertson Serm. Ser. m. xii. 151 This is but prudence 
after all, it is but magnified selfishness carried on into 
eternity. 1876 Geo. Eliot Dan. Dcr. II. xxviii. 217 Her 
hands showing curves and dimples like a magnified baby's. 
1899 J. Caird Fundamental Ideas Chr. I. iii. 57 Ordinary 
thought finds no impossibility in representing to itself a 
personality who is simply a magnified man. 

Magnifier (mccgnifaiaj). [f. Magnify v. + 


1. One who or something which magnifies. 

1550 J. Coke Eng. <$• Fr. Heralds v. (1877) 58 The 
Frenchemen be great braggers, hosiers, and mangnifyers of 
them selves. 1570-6 Lambarde Peramb. Kent (1826) 281 
These Monks were marveylous and monstruous magnifiers, 
of such deceivable trumperie. 1621 Burton Anat. Mel. 11. 
it. vi. iv. (1676) 189 Mens hilaris, realties, modcrata diseta 
. . is a great magnifier of honest mirth, a 1763 Shensione 
Ess. (1806) 238 Imagination is a great magnifier and causes 
the hopes we conceive to grow too large for their object. 

2. A lens or combination of lenses used to in- 
crease the apparent size of objects. 

1665 Boyle Exp. Hist. Cold ix. 249 One of our Micrv> 
scopes, .has been counted, .as good a Magnifier, as perhaps 
any is in the world. 1759 Knight in Phil. Trans. LI. 296 
Some of them, when viewed with a microscope, required a 
third or fourth magnifier to see them distinctly. 1830 
Herschel-.SVW. Nat. Phil. 297 Noexamination with magni- 
fiers is .. sufficient to detect the ingredients. 1856 Kane 
A ret. Expl. I. xiii. 144 We barely succeeded by magnifiers 
in reading the verniers. 

fig. 1791 Washington Lett. Wr, 1892 XII. 56 Each of 
whom . . looking through a magnifier, would speak of the 
greatest extent to which there was any probability of their 
numbers reaching. 1813 Examiner 22 Mar. 186/2 His 
Lordship may be permitted to examine the gallant Chief- 
tain's actions through a magnifier. 1818 Hazlitt Eng. 
Poets iv. (1870) 95 The wrong end of the magnifier is, to be 
sure, held to everything. 

II Magnifique. Obs. [Fr.= Magnific] Pro- 
fuse in expenditure. 

1759 Compl. Let. writer fed. 6) 225 The Considerable and 
the Magnifique in such Sorts of Assemblies. 1775 Mme. 
D'Arblay Early Diary (iSSq) II. 110 He is handsome, 
tall, fat, upright, and magnifique. 1823 Bykon Juan x. 
lxx, Juan, though careless, young, and magnifique And rich 
in rubles, diamonds, cash, and credit. 

Magnify (margnifai), v. Also 4, 6 magni- 
fye, 4-6 magnefie, magnyfye, 4-7 raagnifle, 
6 magnifi, mangnify, 4- magnify, [ad. L. 
magnificdre (partly through F. magnifier \ cf. It. 

magnifcare, Sp. magnificar) y f. magnijiats : see 
Magnificent and -fy. Sense 4 is purely Eng. ; the 
Rom. langs. have the word chiefly in the biblical 
sense l to extol '.] 

1. trans. To speak or act for the honour or glory 
of (a person or thing) ; to glorify, extol, arch. 

C1380 Wyclif Set. Wks. II. 2 For bei maken Cristis 
wordis unworshipid and magnifien ber owne wordis. 
a 1400-50 Alexander 2838 Obey be to be baratour be best 
I con rede; Magnifie him with bi mouthe. 1430-40 Lydg. 
Bochas ix. ii. (1554) 197 b, This was the ende of false 
Machomete, . . whom Sarazins so greatly magnifie. 1508 
Dunbar Poems viii. 14 Quhois force all France in fame did 
magnifie. 1553 Eden Jreat. Neive Ind. (Arb.) 29 Colum- 
bus .. was .. greatlye magnified with innumerable glorious 
tittles. J568 Grafton Chron. II. 524 After this victorie, the 
Lorde Scales, .returned to the siege, where he was.. highly 
magnified and praysed. 1605 Bacon Adv. Learn. 1. viii. 
§ 6 If the invention of the ship was thought so noble,, .how 
much more are letters to be magnified, which as ships pass 
through the vast seas of time. 1668-9 Pepys Diary 10 Feb., 
Here he dined, and did mightily magnify his sauce, a 1715 
Bl-rnet Oivn Time (1724) I. 248 He had magnified him 
highly to the King, as much the greatest man in the Scotish 
Clergy. 1837 Ht. Martineau Soc. Amcr. III. 64 Sunday- 
school teachers admire their pupils ; and the scholars 
magnify their teachers. 1840 Macali.ay Hist. Eng. ii. 1. 191 
Everywhere men magnified his valour, genius, and patriotism. 
b. esp. To praise, render honour to (God), arch. 

1382 Wyclif Luke i. 46 And Marie seide, My soule magny- 
fieth the Lord, and my spirit hath gladid in God, myn 
heelthe. c 1420 Lydg. Assembly of Gods 2102 With heuynly 
spyrytes, hys name to magnyfy. 1535 Coverdale Eeelus. 
xlih. 30 Prayse the Lorde, and magnifie him as inoch as ye 
maye. 1864 Skeat tr. Uhland's Poems 91 When on your 
knees ye humbly fell And magnified a Higher Power. 

2. To make greater in size, status, importance, 
or qualities ; to enlarge, augment. Now rare. 
f Also, to render magnificent. Obs. 

138a Wyclif Matt, xxiiL 5 Forsothe thei alargen her 
filateries, and magnifie hemmys. 1390 Gower Conf. I. 143 
Thanne he gan to syke For cloth of gold and for perrie, 
Which him was wont to magnefie. £1430 Lydg. Compl. 
BI. Knt. 428 And can hemselve now best magnify With 
feyned port and false presumption. 1535 Coverdale Job 
xx. 6 Though he be magnified vp to the heauen. 1598 
Grenewey Tacitus, Ann. xii. vii. (1622) 162 Agrippina also 
was magnified [L. augelur] with the surname of Augusta. 
1611 Bible Job xix. 5 If indeed yee will magnifie your 
selues against me, and plead against me my reproch. 1701 
Grew Cosm. Sacra 11. v. 53 The least error in a Small 
Quantity, as in a Small Circle : will, in a great one, as in 
the Circles of the Heavenly Orbs, be proportionally Magni- 
fy "d. 1715 Addison Freeholder No. 10 p 3 Arbitrary Power 
..creates [in a man] an Ambition of magnifying Himself, 
by the Exertion of such a Power in all its Instances. 1726 
Butler Serm. Rolls Chap. ix. 159 The imagined Dignity of 
the Person offended would scarce ever fail to magnifie the 
Offence, a 1729 Congreve To Cynthia 54 Speak, ere my 
Fancy magnifie my Fears. 1784 Cowper Task iv. 542 Her 
head, adorned with lappets pinned aloft, And magnified 
beyond all human size. 1841 Myers Cath. Th. IV. § 37* 
369 The spirit of law is also represented as magnified by 
the very act of superseding its letter, i860 Tyndall Clac. 

I. xxvii. 210 The oblique arrangement of the crevasses also 
magnified the labour by increasing the circuits. 

b. intr. To become greater, nonce-use. 
1814 J. Randolph 22 Mar. in Life of Jos. Quincy 350 The 
curse of slavery, however,— an evil daily magnifying, great 
as it alreadyis,— embitters many a moment of the Virginian 

3. trans. To represent (persons, actions, or things) 
as great or greater than they are ; to exaggerate. 
Now often associated with sense 4. 

1759 Robertson Hist. Scot. vi. Wks. 1813 I. 399 Fame 
magnified the number and progress of their troops. 1766 
Goldsm. I'ic. W. xvi, It must be owned my wife.. used 
every art to magnify the merit of her daughter. 1784 
Cowi'ER Tiroc. 476 Each vainly magnifies his own success, 
Resents his fellows, wishes it were less. 1838 Tiiirlwall 
Greece xxv. III. 397 But his enemies at home magnified 
the danger of Argos. 1839 Yeowell Anc. Brit. Ch. ix. 
(1847) 93 Fame magnified his labours. 1841 Myers Cath. 
Th. iv. 19. 276 Unquestionably external evidences, .have 
been unduly magnified. 1862 Sir B. Brodie Psychol, /no. 

II. iii. Si Small evils which cannot be avoided are magnified 
into great ones. 

4. To increase the apparent size of an object by 
artifixinl means (as with a lens or microscope). 
Also absol. (often with advb. accusative, to mag- 
nify ten, twenty^ etc. diameters). 

1665 Phil. Trans. I. 60 It would magnifie but 600 times 
in Diameter. 1726 Swift Gulliver in. iii, Although their 
largest Telescopes do not exceed three Feet, they magnify 
much more than those of an hundred among us. 1776-96 
Withering Brit. Plants (ed. 3) IV. 3 When magnified they 
appear like ill-formed warts. 18x2-16 J. Smith Panorama 
Sci. % Art I. 407 It is supposed that the ancient engravers 
used glass globes to magnify their figures. 1837 Goring & 
Pritchard Microgr. 57 You only wish to know exactly how 
much it magnifies. 1868 Lockyer Elenu Astron, iii. (1879) 
91 A powerful telescope will magnify an object 1,000 times. 
fig- 1853 Kane Grinnelt Exp. xiv. (1856) no The effects of 
fogs upon our estimation of dimension . . are well known : men 
are magnified to giants. 1862 Mrs. H. Wood Mrs. Ha/lib. 

III. xii. 155 111 reports never lose by carrying : the two cats 
on the tiles, you know, were magnified into a hundred. 

5. intr. 'A cant word for to have effect* (J.); 
to signify. Now dial. 

1712 Steele Sped. No. 431 r 3 My Governess . . told him 
I was continually eating some Trash or other. . . But this 
magnified but little with my Father. 1733 Gentl.Mag. III. 
532 Now may hap, zir, what doez ael this magnify ? 1880 
Antrim <•$• Dozvn Gloss, s. v., That hurt won't magnify. 

Magnifying (margnifoi|in), vbl. sb. [f. Mag- 
nify v. + -ing i.J The action of the verb Magnify. 

c 1380 Wvclif Wks. (1880) 162 pei meyntenen anticristis 
prestis and here lawis. .& magnifyenge of menuus lawis & 
dispisynge of goddis lawis. 1382 — Jude 25 To God aloone 
oure sauyour, bi Jhesu Crist oure Lord, glorye and mag- 
nyfiying. c 1384 Chaucer H. Fame 1. 306 Of oon he wolde 
have fame In magnifying of his name. 1612 Bacon Ess. , 
Praise (Arb.) 354 Too much magnifying of man or matter, 
doth irritate contradiction. 1651 Hobbes Lernath. 11. xxxi. 
189 Praise, and Magnifying are signified but by Words, and 
Actions. 1868 J. M. Camtbell in Mem. (1877) II. xiii. 203 
A growing magnifying of their office on the part of the 

h. attrib. , in magnify big power. 

£1705 Berkeley Commonpl. Bk. Wks. 1871 IV. 481 The 
magnifying power of glasses. 1774 M. Mackenzie Mari- 
time Sum. 1 10 Write down .. what Sort of Telescope you 
observed with, and its length and magnifying Power. 1807 
J. E.^ Smith Phys. Bot. 14 By the help of the highest 
magnifying powers. 

magnifying (mK-gnifoiiirj), ppl.a. [f. Mag- 
nify v. + -ing 2. J That magnifies, in various senses. 

1650 Ashmole Chym. Collect. Proleg. 17 The airy and 
empty glory of Mngnifying-Fame. 1901 Munsey's Mag. 
(U. S.) XXV. 641/1 The microbes of disease are such minute 
. . germs of life . . under the microscopist's three-hundred 
magnifying lens. 

b. Magnifying glass. A glass lens, or com- 
bination of lenses, used to increase the apparent 
size of any object seen through it. 

1665 Boyle Occas. Refl. Disc. Occas. Medit. (1848) 28 
Attention, like a magnifying glass, shews us . . divers par- 
ticularities undiscerned by those who want that advantage. 
1705 Pope Let. to Wycherley 23 June, 'Tis certain, the 
greatest magnifying Glasses in the World are a Man's own 
Eyes. 1859 Reeve Brittany 187 With a strong magnifying- 
glass the words.. may be distinctly read. 

Magniloquence (mcegni'Ukwens). [f. Mag- 
niloquent: see -ence.] The quality of being 
magniloquent ; lofdness of speech or expression. 

1623 Cockeram, Magniloquence, proud speeches. 1656 
Blolnt Glossogr., Magniloquence, ..a lofty manner of 
speaking, or a discourse of great matters, a 1670 Hacket 
Alp. Williams 11. (1692) 65 He [Buckingham] magnified 
himself to serve the King, who did not foresee the 
envy that his magniloquence bred. 1713 Bentley Rem. 
Disc. Freethink. 11. § 44. 28 And our Author might have 
seen, how all the Sects ridiculed this Magniloquence of 
Epicurus. 1859 I. Tavlor Logic in Theol. 179 We must 
discharge a mass of magniloquence and affectation. 1863 
Cowden Clahke Shaks. Char, xviii. 455 Cibber. .foisted his 
own bombast into the company of Shakespeare's magni- 
loquence. 187a Spuiigeon Treas. Dav. Ps. lxxiii. 8 Their 
language is colossal, their magniloquence ridiculous. 

So f Hagrni'lociuency, in the same sense. 

1615 A. Stafford Heav. Dogge 38 Neyther was this 
onely Stoicall Magniloquency : hee did the great things he 

Magniloquent (m^gniliTkwent), a. [f. L. 
magniloqu-us (of the same meaning), f. magnus 
great + -loquus speaking + -ENT.] Of persons, hence 
of utterances or compositions : Lofty or ambitious 
in expression, grandiloquent. Also, occas. , 'talk- 
ing big ', boastful. 

1656 Blount Glossogr., Magniloquent, that useth a stately 

manner of speaking or wnteing. 1659 Gal* den Slight 

Healers (1660) 10 Really they are no other than imperious 

Hypocrites, magniloquent Alontebanks. 1849 Longf. Ka- 

\ vanagh xxi. Pr. Wks. 1886 II. 545 A large basket, contain- 

i ing what the Squire, .in Don Quixote, called his' fiambreras", 

—that magniloquent Castilian word for cold collation. 1854 

Thackeray Neivcomes I. xxiii. 222 She was a trifle more 

magniloquent than usual, and entertained us with stories 

of colonial governors and their ladies. 1891 Lounsbiry 

Stud. Chaucer I. iv.426 If he meant intentionally to describe 

j so slight a performance in so magniloquent a manner. 

•lb. Misused for: Pompous, 'mouthing*. 

1850 Kingsley Alt. Locke viii, I read my verses aloud in 
as resonant and magniloquent a voice as I could command. 

Hence Ma^niToquently adv. 

1849 Eraser's Mag. XL. 12 So he, magniloquently, as 
was his wont [etc.]. 1892 Stevenson Across the Plains iii. 
141 To finish a study and magniloquently ticket it a picture. 

fMagni'loquous, a. Obs~° [f. L. mag- 
nibqu-us (see prec.) + -0U3.] m Magnil0QU£NT. 
1727 in Bailey vol. II. 
Magniloquy (ma:gni'l^kwi). rare. [ad. L. 

magniloqtti-iuii\ Magniloquence. 

1656 Blount Glossogr. 1889 Buck's Handbk. Med. Set. 
VIII. 520 Of many anatomical terms the chief characteristics 
are antiquity, magniloquy, and unintelligibility. 

Magniot, obs. form of Manioc. 

tMagnipend, v - Obs~° [ad. L. phrase 
magni fendHre {magni at a great price, penctire to 
esteem, lit. to weigh).] ' Much to esteeme or set 
by' ^Cockeram 1623). 

Magni potence. rare- 1 , [f. L. magnipo- 
lent-em: see next and -ence.] The quality of 
being ' magnipotent ' ; mighty power. 

1861 Patmore in Macm. Mag. V. 114 Jehovah's mild 
magnipotence Smiles to behold His children play. 

f Magnipotent, a. Obs. rare. [ad. L. type 
*magnipotent-em, f. magn-us great + potent-em : 
see Potent a.] Possessing great power. 

1680 Observ. ' Curse Ye Meroz ' 8 Though this be so magni- 
potent and all-sufficient a Sermon. 1727 I)e Foe Syst. 
Magic \. iii. (1840)84 Satan, as he is a spirit, is magnipotent, 
but he never was omnipotent. 




Magllirostrate (rnxgnirp'sireX), a. [ad. 
mod.L. magnirostral-us, f. magn-us great + 
rostr-um beak: see -ate 2 .] 'Having a long 
and strong beak' (Mayne Expos. Lex. 1856). 

Magni sonant (nnvgnrscmant), a. rare. [ad. 
late L. magnisonant-em, f. magn-us great + pr. 
pple. of sonar e to Sound.] High sounding. 

a 1843 Southev Doctor, Cats Greta Hall (1847) VII. 500 
Rumpelstilzchen ., that strange and magnisonant appella- 
tion. 1843 Carol. Wiseman Ess. (1853) III. 442 A new 
city just starting from the mud, with some magnisonant 
name from Egypt or Greece. 

Magnitude (mre*gniti«d). [ad. L. magni- 
ludo, f. magn-us great, cogn. w. Gr. /«7«y, OTcut. 
* mi kilo- : see Much. Cf. OF. magnitude.'] 

1. The qtfality or fact of being great, in various 
senses ; = Greatness. 

fa. Greatness of character, rank, or position. 
Also jocularly, as a title of address. Obs. 

1398 TreVISA Barth. De P. R. 1. (1495) 3 Our wytte maye 
be led to the consyderacyon of the gretnesse, or magnytude, 
of the moost excellent bewteuous clarete dyuyne & In- 
uy^yble. 1433-50 tr. Higden (Rolls) III. 117 This Nubugo- 
donosor transcendede in- magnitude and fortitude HercuK s 
in his actes. 1609 P>. Jonson Masque Queens Wks. 1616 I. 
961 [Boadicea's] orations, .wherein is expressed all magnitude 
of a spirit, breathing to the libertie and redemption of her 
Countrie. 1620 Shhlton Quix. III. xxxii. 231 And, for proof 
of this, let me tell your Magnitudes [etc.]. 1647 Clarendon 
Hist. Reb. t, § 141 The two Secretaries of State (which were 
not in those days officers of that magnitude they have been 
since. .) were [etc.]. 1665 Manley Cretins' 1 Low C. ll'arres 
741 The United States did not omit forthwith to send an 
Embassy to congratulate him [King James] for his new 
access of magnitude. 

b. In physical sense : Greatness of size or ex- 
tent. + Of sound : Loudness. Obs. 

c 1420 Patlad. on Ifusb. 1. 1066 To bey thy been biholde 
hem riche and fulle, Or preve hem by their murmurs magni- 
tude. 1432-50 tr. Higdeu (Rolls) I. 127 Profitable waters 
and wholsome, whkhe be callede sees what for the magni- 
tude of theyme and for the copious multitude of fisches. 
1640 Wilkins New Planet 11. (1684) 149 Tis said, that 
Magnitude does always add to the swiftness of a violent 
motion. 1650 Bulwer Anthropomet. xxi. 230 That 
which fails in magnitude is called smal. 1727 De Foe 
Syst. Magic 1. i. (1840) 9 The height, and strength, and 
magnitude of their building could only serve to make its 
fall . . more terrible. 18x7 Chalmers Astron. Disc. i. (1852) 
22 We have something more than the mere magnitude of 
the planets to allege in favour of the idea that they are in- 
habited. 1860 Tyndall Glac. 1. xi. 82 And as our eye 
ranged over the broad shoulders of the mountain, .. the 
conception of its magnitude grew upon us. 

c. Of immaterial things : Great amount or im- 

i43*-5o tr. i/igdeu (Rolls) II. 343 He [Saturnus] was., 
namede as godde of alle guddes for the magnitude of his 
power. 1526 Pilgr. Per/. (\V. de W. 1531) 268b, And how the 
effectes y* suche ioye of y e spiryt leueth behynde it, sheweth 
y magnitude or greatnes therof. 1769 Junius Lett, xx'iii. 
108 A great man,, .even in the magnitude of his crimes, finds 
a rescue from contempt, a 1806 Horsley Serm. I. iv. (1816) 
70 We commonly find in the ambitious man a superiority 
of parts, in some measure proportioned to the magnitude of 
his designs. 1844 Thirlwall Greece lx. VIII. 29 The pre- 
parations, .were, .on a scale proportioned to the magnitude 
of the object he had^ in view. 1861 Stanley East. C/u vi. 
(1869) 189 No conversion of such magnitude [as that of Con- 
stantine] had occurred since the Apostolic age. 

2. Size whether great or small ; in geometrical 
use, the measure or extent of a particular line 3 
area, volume, or angle. 

1570 Billingsley Euclid \. t. i A signe or poynt . . is the 
beginning of magnitude. 1599 A. M. tr. Gabclhouer's Bk. 
Physicke 74/1 Mixe of this poulder the magnitude of a hasell- 
nutte amongst a little Cotten. 1615 Crooke Body of Man 
355 It is a Membrane enclosing the whole cauity of the 
Chest, wherefore his Figure and magnitude is answerable 
to that cauity. 1658 Rowland tr. Mou/ets Theat. Ins. 
1080 It is a small creature, and contemptible for its magni- 
tude. 1725 De Foe Voy. round World (1840) 284 As to the 
magnitude of those rivers, he could say little. 1754 Sher- 
lock Disc. (1759) I. iv. 159 Reason can measure the Magni- 
tudes and Distances of the heavenly Bodies. 1840 Lardner 
Gcam. v. 59 We can never obtain an arc of the precise value 
of any one of the usual denominations of angular magni- 
tude. 1854 Brewster More Worlds v. 94 The creations of 
the material world, whether they be of colossal or atomic 
magnitude. 1885 Watson & Burbury Math. Th. Electr. 
fy Magn. I. 119 Two infinite series of images, the magni- 
tudes or values of which converge. 
b. quasi- concr. 

1570 Dee Math. Pre/. 3 What Magnitude so euer, is Solide 
or '1 hicke, is also broade, and long. . . A long magnitude, we 
terme a Line. 1570 Billingsley Euclid v. ix. 141 Magni- 
tudes which haue to one and the same magnitude one and 
the same proportion : are equall the one to the other. 1850 
Barn. Smith Arith. £ Algebra (ed. 6) 192 The term Magm- 
tude or Quantity is used in Mathematics to express what- 
ever is capable of increase or diminution. Thus a sum of 
money is a magnitude or quantity. 1864 Kowen Logic iv, 
66 A Concept is a magnitude or Quantity. 

3. A class in a system of classification determined 
by size. a. Each of the classes into which the 
fixed stars have been arranged according to their 
degree of brilliancy. 

The stars ' of the first magnitude' are the most brilliant ; 
the sixth magnitude' includes those that are barely visible 
to the naked eye ; the seventh and lower magnitudes are 
telescopic only. The classification into ' magnitudes \ origi- 
nally somewhat loose, as depending on the estimate formed 
by the individual observer, is now a matter of photometric 

measurement. The word magnitude in this application is 
a literal rendering of the Gr. jut'y<0os, used by PtoUniy. 
Formerly often denoted by the symbol m, as 2.111, 3.111, 

[1594BLUNDEVH. Excrc. iv. xxxi. (1636) 485 The lift shuweth 
the magnitude or greatnesse of the starre, whether it be of 
the first, second, or third bignesse.J a 1641 Br. Mountagu 
Acts <y Men. (1642) 121 In the firmament of heaven be many 
Starres; .. of the first, second, third magnitude, as they use 
to speak. 1667 Milton P. L. vn, 357 He form'il the Moon 
Globose, and everie magnitude of Starrs. 1690 Leyboukn 
Curs. Math. 383 A star of the 1 Magnitude may be seen 
when the Sun is but 12 deg. below the Horizon. 1796 Hek- 
sciiELin Phil. Trans. LXXXVI. 171, 2.3 m, however, cannot 
be sufficiently kept apart from 3.2 m, or either of these ex- 
pressions from 3 m, or from 2 m. 1893 Sir R. Ball Story 
of Sun 13 A star of about the eighth magnitude. 1902 
Daily Chron. 11 Aug. 6/7 Eros will be detected by the 
naked eye as a sixth magnitude star. 

t b. Numismatics. Obs. 
1705 Heaune Collect. 19 Dec. (O. H. S.) I. 133 The said 
Coyns are all Brass of the 3d magnitude. 

c. Occas. in other applications. Also, Of lite 
first magnitude (fig.) : °f * ne utmost greatness or 

1693 G. StEPNY Juvenal Sat. VIII. 47 Whatever lie your 
Birth, you're sure to be A Peer of the First Magnitude to me. 
1830 LVELL /'rinc. Gcol. I. 413 In the following year there 
were one hundred and fifty-one [sc. earthquake shocks : 
they were registered in four classes], of which ninety-eight 
were of the first magnitude. Mod. To do this would be 
a blunder of the first magnitude. 

Magnitudinous (moegniti^dinss), a. [f. I.. 

magnitudin- (-l/ldo) Magnitude + -ous.] Char- 
acterized by magnitude; involving greatness of scale. 
1803 W. Taylor in Monthly Mag. XVI. 223 The inference, in its possible consequences, too magnitudinous, 
to be lightly stated in words. 1826 Examiner 120/1 His 
designs were bold, severe, magnitudinous. 1893 Age Mel- 
bourne) iq May, It has gone abroad.. that directors .. may 
plead positive ignorance of magnitudinous transactions. 

t Ma'gnity, a. Obs. rare -1 , [ad. L. magnit&s 
i. magn-us great: sec -itv.] « Magnitude i b. 

1790 Bystander 198 A fool . . excites no wonder though he 
commit every moment follies of the greatest magnity. 

1 Magnium. Obs. [f. Magn(esia) + -ium.] 

^Magnesium; a name applied to the metal by 
Sir H. Davy in 1808 and withdrawn in 181 2. 

1808 [See Magnesium i]. 1812 — Chcm. Philos. 348. 

Magnolia (ma'gn^i'lia). fa. mod.L. magnolia, 
f. name of Pierre Magnol (latinized Jllagnolius), 
professor of botany at Montpcllier, i6^S-i^i^.^ 
A genus of large (rarely shrubby) trees (the typical 
genus of the N. O. Magnoliacea>)> cultivated for 
the beauty of their foliage and (lowers. 

1748 Phil. Trans. XLV. 166 The Magnolia .. tho' scarce 
in Virginia, has been since found to grow in great plenty in 
the North-West Parts of Pensylvania. 1751 Bartram 
Obscrv. in Trait. Peusilv.^ic. 67 A great hill, clo;tthed with 
hirge Magnolia, 2 feet diameter and 100 feet high. 1799 
Wordsw. Ruth xi, He told of the magnolia spread High as 
a cloud, high over head ! 1823 Rutteb Eonthill 90 Here 
and there the beautiful magnolia displayed the exquisite 
whiteness of its large blossoms. 1858 Hogg I'eg. Kingd. 24 
The bark and fruit of all the Magnolias are possessed of the 
same medicinal properties. 

b. ' The phannacopceial name (U. S. A.) for 
the bark of several species of Magnolia ' (Mayne 
Expos. Lex. 1856). 
C. attrib. and Comb. 

a 182 1 Shelley Eragm. Unfinished Drama 146 Holding 
a cup like a magnolia flower. 1897 Pullen-Burry Blotted 
Out 11 Mrs. Aylesbury's magnolia-covered house. 

Magnoliaceous (msegn5nli£i-j3s),<x. Bot [f. 

mod.L. Magndliace-iVy f. Magnolia: see -aceoi's.] 
Of or belonging to the N. O. Alagnoliacex. 

1852 Th. Ross tr. Humboldfs Trav. I. vi. 213 note, Magno- 
Haceous plants. 

Magno'liad. Bot. [f. Magnolia + -ad.] Lind- 
ley's name for : A plant of the N. O. Magnoliacew. 

1846 Lindley Veg. Kingd. 417 Wintered, which do not 
seem to possess any solid distinction from Magnoliads. 

Magnolite (margn^hit). Min, [f. the place- 
name Magnolia + -ite.] A white tellurate of 
mercury found in minute acicular crystals, in the 
Magnolia district of Colorado. 

1877 F. A. Genth in Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. XVII. 11S 
Magnolite, a new Mineral. This highly interesting mineral 
is the product of the oxydation of coloradoite, 

Magnoperate (maegnp'per^t),^. rare. [Two 
formations : (1) f. L. magnopere greatly (short for 
magno opere) -f -ate 3; (2) f. L. magn-us great 
+ oper-, opus work: after operate.] 

f 1. trans. To make greater. Obs. 

1610 Hopton Baculum Geod. Ep. Ded. (1614), Which will 
not a little magnoperate the splendour of your well knowne 
Honour, to these succeeding times. 

2. intr. {nonce-use.) To work at a 'magnum opus '. 

1821 Byron Let. 22 June, That is right ; keep to your 
magnum opus— magnoperate away. 

Magnum (margnym). [sb. use of neut. sing, 
of L. magnus great.] 

1. A bottle containing two quarts of wine or 
spirits ; also, the measure of liquor contained in 
such a bottle. 

1788 Burns Prose Wks. 40 If you add a tankard of brown 
stout, and superadd a magnum of right Oporto. 1816 Scott 
Antiq. ii, Bearing in his hand an immense double quart bottle, 
or magnum, as it is called in Scotland. 1855 Ld. Houghton 

in Li/e 11S91) I. xi. 505 Tell my father we had four mag- 
nums of 1841 claret on the table. 1893 Vizetelly Glances 
bach I. xvii. 328 [His] weakness was a too great partiality 
for . . magnums of old port. 1895 Strand Mag. X. 556/2 
The party broached a magnum of whisky. 

b. nonce-use. A large glass (of spirits). 
1837 Dickens Pickiv. xix, They, .ordered a glass of brandy 
and water all rotuid, with a magnum of extra strength, for 
Mr. Samuel Weller. 

2. Short for Magnum Bonum 2. 

1889 Daily News 25 Nov. 7/6 Potatoes at wholesale Prices. 
— H2lb. Floury Magnums, 3^. 6d. 

Magnum bonum (margnom b<>""*n,pm). [neut. 
sing, of Ix magnus great and bonus good.] 

1. A particular kind of large yellow cooking- 
plum. Also magnum bonum plum. 

1721 Mortimer Hush. II. 298 The Bonum Magnum a fair 
yellowish green Plumb. 1769 Mrs. Raffald Eng. Hotisckpr. 
(1778) 230 To preserve Magnum Bonum Plums. 1813 Sir 
\\. Davy Agric. Chem, (1S14) 257 Two fruits can scarcely 
be conceived more different in colour, size, and appearance, 
than the wild plum and the rich Magnum bonum. 1879 
Miss Yonge Magnum Bonum 1. 183 A basket of plums, .as 
unlike magnum bonums as could well be. 

2. A kind of potato. 

1882 Garden 4 Feb. 75/2 In . . 1S79 my employer wished me 
to plant half a rood 01 ground with Magnum Bonums. 

•|*3. Sc. (Meaning not clear: ? =Maonum i.) 

1790 Burns Ball. Dum/rics Election, While Welsh, who 
ne'er yet flinched his ground High wav'd his magnum- 
bonum round With Cyclopean fury. 

4. A large-barrelled steel pen. 

1851 Mayhew Loud. Labour (1864) I. 287 The street- 
stationers do not go beyond zs. the gross, which is for 
magnum bonums. 

II Magnum opus. See Opus 2. 
Magnus. Obs. [var. of Manganese: cf. 
Mac.vase.] Black oxide of manganese, used in 
the Staffordshire potteries. 

1640 Rates in Noorthouck Loudon (1773) 838/2 Malt, the 
quarter \d. Magnus, the cwt. id. 1686 Plot Staffordsh. 
123 The Motley-colour .. is procured by blending the Lead 
With Manganese, by the Workmen call d Magnus. 

t MagO-chemical, a. OSs.rare— 1 . [f.mago-, 
comb, form of Gr. ^(170-j: see Mac us, Magic] 
Pertaining to magic and chemistry. 

1652 Gauls Magastrom, 307 Magical! or mago-chymicall 
arts, &c 

Magoll, obs. form of Mogul. 

Magonell, magonneaul, obs. ff. Mangonel. 

Magophony (mag^foni). rare, [ad. Gr. 

fj.ayoipoi>ia, f. fxdyo-s MAGUS + <f>6vos slaughter.] 
The Massacre of the Magi, a famous event in Per- 
sian history. Hence trans/, or Jig. 

171 1 ShafTesb. Charac. I. 86 Much less wou'd you 
(my Friend !) have carry'd on this Magophony, or Priest- 
Massacre, with such a barbarous Zeal. 

Magor(e,Magosine,obs.ii'.Mo(;uL, Magazine. 
II Magot (mse-g^t, mago). [^r.] 

1. A species of ape (Macacus inuus) ; the ' tail- 
less* Barbary Ape of Gibraltar and North Africa. 

1607 Toi'sell Four-/. Beasts 12 There was at Paris an- 
other beast called a Tartarine, and in some places a Magot 
(much lyke a Baboun). 1774 Goldsm. Nat. Hist. (1862) 
I. vil, i. 498 The Cynocephalus, or the Magot of Puffon. 
1882 A. K. Wallace in Contemp. Rez: Mar. 423 In some 
few this stump is so very short that there appears to be no 
tail, as in the magot of North Africa and Gibraltar. 

2. A small grotesque figure of porcelain, ivory, 
wood, etc. of Chinese or Japanese workmanship. 

1844 Thackeray Barry Lyndon xiii, Her rooms were 
crowded with hideous China magots. 1881 Saintsbury 
Dryden ii. 35 This [see Ann. Mirab. st. 29] cannot be con- 
sidered the happiest possible means of informing us that 
the Dutch fleet was laden with spices and magots. 

Magot, Magozin, obs. ft. Maggot, Magazine. 

Magpie (margpoi). Also 7 magge pye, 
megpye. [f. Mag sb.- + Pie 1. Cf. Maggot-pie, 

1. A common European bird, Pica caudata, of 
the family Corvidtv, having a long pointed tail 
and black-and-white plumage. It is well known for 
its noisy chatter, and is often taught to speak ; its 
habits of pilfering and hoarding nre proverbial, 
and it is popularly regarded as a bird of ill omen. 

1605 S. Rowley When You See Me C3 As t merie as 
a magge pie. 1634 Peacham Gentl. Exerc. 11. i. 108 Dis- 
simulation. A Lady wearing a vizard of two faces, . . in 
her right hand a magpye. 1647 R. Stapylton Jit-icnal 
62 The nine daughters of Pierus..were for that saucy 
ambition transformed into meg-pyes. 1664 H. More Myst. 
Eniq. 333 The Loquacity of the Magpie. 1720 Gay Poems 
(1745) I. 70 No magpie chatter'd, nor the painted Jay. 1751 
in Hone Every-day Bk. II. 1457 No horseshoe nor magpye 
shall baffle our skill. i8ai Clare Vill. Minstr. I. 159 And 
magpies that chattered, no omen so black. 1835 Ti nnyson 
To E. D. Maurice 19 And only hear the Magpie gossip 
Garrulous under a roof of pine. 1859 Darwis Orig. Spec. 
viii. (1873) 209 The magpie, so wary in England, is tame in 

b. Austral. Applied to the black-and-white 
Crow-shrike (Gymnorrhind) ; also, in Tasmania, 
to the genus Strepera. 

1859 H. Kingsley G. Hamlyn xviii. II. 4 A magpie was 
chanting his noble vesper hymn from a lofty tret-. Ibid. 
xxxiii. II. 314 note, Magpie, a large, pied crow. Of all the 
birds I have ever seen, the cleverest, the most grotesque, 
and the mo^t musical. 1886 T. Heney Eortunatc Days 47 



The magpie swells from knoll or silent brake His loud sweet 
tune. 1898 Morris Austral Eng. 277. 

2. transf. An idle or impertinent chatterer. 
163a Massinger & Field Fatal Dowry iv. i, I haue 

waited, sir, Three houres to speake w'ee, and not take it 
well, Such magpies, are admitted, whilst I daunce Attend- 
ance. 1791 Burke Let, to Cliev. de Rivarol (1844) III. 211 
He will not care what ..the whole flight of the magpies 
and jays of philosophy, may fancy and chatter. 1838 Lett, 
fr. Madras (1843) 189 The Moonshee .. is not the little 
talkative magpie who told me about the language of the 
planets. 1895 Scully Kafir Stories 132 He was so fond of 
talking that his comrades nicknamed him 'magpie'. 

3. fa- A derisive term for an Anglican bishop, 
from the black chimere and white rochet forming 
his ordinary ceremonial attire {obs.). b. In recent 
use, a jocular name for the episcopal costume 
consisting of these vestments. 

[C1645 Howell Lett. Verses to Rdr., Prelats, like mag- 
pies, in the Ayr had flown. 1663 Killigrew Parsons 
IVedd. in. v. 114 Have you not heard of the Scriveners Wife 
that. .was deliyer'd of a Mag-Pie ;. .the Mid-wife cri'd out, 
'twas born a Bishop, with Tippet and white-sleeves] a X704 
T. Brown IVks. (1730': I. 107 Root out of them all Anti- 
Christian Tyranny of most abominable Bishops; let not 
those Silk-worms and Magpies have dominion over us. 
Mod. Did he wear a cope, or only his magpie 1 

4. A kind of potato. 

1794 Billingslev Agric. Somerset (1797) 116 The sorts 
[of potatoes] cultivated are the kidney,, .magpie, rough red 
[etc.]. i8ag J ml. 0/ Naturalist 31 Our chief sorts [of 
potato] are pink eyes,, .magpies, and china oranges. 

5. A name given to a particular variety of the 
domestic pigeon. 

1868 Tegetmeier Pigeons xxi. 174 Magpies are another 
variety of German Toys that are well known in England. 
1895 Times 16 Jan. 11/6 For the rest, the Magpies, Mack, 
red, yellow, and blue. .deserve to be mentioned. 1898 Daily 
News 5 Jan. 2 Mr. F. Warner has some excellent magpies. 

6. slang. A halfpenny. Cf. Mag sb.'S) 

1838 Dickens O. Twist viii, I'm at low-water-mark my 
self— only one bob and a magpie. 

7. Mil. slang. A shot from a rifle which strikes 
the outermost division but one of a target, and is 
signalled by a black and white flag. 

1884 Times 23 July 8/1 After running through the scoring 
gamut with an outer, a magpie, and a miss. 1894 Ibid. 
14 July 10/1 He followed his first two bull's eyes with two 
more, then came a magpie. 

8. attrib. and Comb., as magpie-like adj. ; mag- 
pie diver, (a) the Golden-eye Duck, Clangttla 
g/attcion ; (b) the Smew, Merganser albellus ; ' 
magpie finch, a bird of the genus Spermestes ; \ 
magpie goose (see quot.) ; magpie lark, a small ; 
Australian bird, Grallina picata; magpie-maki, 

a species of lemur, Lemur macaco (Cent. Diet.) ; \ 
magpie moth, a white moth, patched with black 
and some yellow spots, Abraxas grossulariata-, \ 
magpie perch ,see quot.) ; magpie robin = Dial- j 
bird ; magpie shrike, a South American bird, 
Cissopis leverianus. 

1796 N em mich Polygl. Lex. Nat. Hist. v. 82o*Magpie diver, 
the smew. 1882 Pavne-Gallwey Fowler in Irel. 107 Another I 
local name [of the Goldeneye] is the ' Magpie Diver ', a 
very descriptive one by reason of the black and white 
plumage of the adult male. 1869-73 T. R. Jones CasselCs 
Bk. of Birds I. 158 The "Magpie Finch is an inhabitant 
of the countries in the vicinity of the river Gambia. ; 
1898 Mokris Austral Eng. 278 * Magpie-Goose, a common 
name for the Australian Goose, Anseranus melanoleuca, 
1888 Casselfs Pict. Australasia II. 2^5 The little "magpie- 
lark. 1805 T. Hakrol Scenes 0/ Li/e III. 104 What was 
before black had now assumed a *magpie-like appearance. 
1796 Nk.mnich Polygl. Lex. Nat. Hist. v. 820 The large 
"Magpie moth, Phal. grossulariata. The small Magpie 
moth, Phal. urticata. 1819 G. Samouelle 'Entomol. j 
Compend. 252 Magpie moth {A braxas grossulariata). I 
1890 E. A. Or.merod Injur. Insects (eu. 2) 310 The 
caterpillars of the Magpie Moth sometimes do a great deal 
of mischief. 1898 Morris Austral Eng. 278 *Magpic~ 
Perch, a West Australian, Victorian, and Tasmanian fish, 
Chilodactylus gibbosus. 1839 Jerdon in Madras Jrnl. X. 
263 Dial bird. ..Large or * Magpie Robin. 1781 Latham 
Gen. Syu. Birds I. 192 "Magpie Shrike. Size of a Song- 
thrush : length ten inches. 

Hence (nonce-7ods.) Mag-pied ///. a., made like 
a magpie ; Magpieish a., magpie-like. 

1845 E. Warburton Crescent $ Cross I. 64 Black slaves, 
magpied with white napkins round their head and loins. 
1880 Daily Neius 9 Aug. 2/2 Money, which.. had been | 
abstracted and disposed of 111 a magpieish spirit of mischief. 

Magpiety (nuegpareti). nonce-tad. [jocular 
f. Magpie, after piety.'] (Cf. quots.) 

a 1845 Hood Jarvis fy Mrs. Cope ii, Not pious in its 
proper sense, But chattring like a bird, Of sin and grace— j 
in such a case Mag-piety 's the word. 1891 Btackw. Mag. ' 
CL. 4^00/2 Conceive the agony of suppressed speech when a 
man is as garrulous as a magpie by nature ; and my friend 
is that, though his magpiety is of an elevated sort. 

Magre, variant of Maugre. 

Magrei, -rey, -rie, -ry : see Maugke. 

Magryme, obs. form of Megrim. 

Magsmail ,margsmaen). slang. [C Mag sbA]. 
A street swindler, ' confidence man '. 

1838 The Town 27 Jan. 276 A magsman must of necessity 
be a great actor and a most studious observer of human 
nature. 1866 Dickens Reprinted Pieces, Detective Police 
(1868) 241 Tally-ho Thompson was a famous horse-stealer, 
couper, and magsman. 1897 M. Davitt in Westm. Gaz. 
30 Sept. 2/1 Almost every pos>ible kind of convict, from the 
sneak-thief, .to professional magsmen. 


II Maguari (magwa-ri). [Tupi mbagudri (Ruiz 
de Montoya Tesorode la Lingua Guarani 1639).] 
A South American Stork, Euxenura maguari, 
with a forked tail. 

1678 Ray Willughbys Ornith. 287 The American Stork, 
called by the Brasilians Maguari of Marggrave. 1824 
Latham Gen. Hist. Birds IX. 54 The Spaniards call it 
Cicogne; the Guarinis Baguari and Maguari. 1889 P. L. 
Sclater Argentine Ornith. II. 107 The Maguari Stork is 
a well-known bird on the pampas. 
Maguder, variant of ^1AGYDARE. Obs. 
II Maguey (mse'gwt'' ; Sp. mag^-y). Forms : 6 
magueans, magueis, -eiz, -aiz, maguay, 7 man- 
guay, mangouay, 8 ma'y)quey. [Sp., a. ITay- 
tian.] The American aloe, Agave Americana. 

J 555 Eden Decades 135 Magueans which is an herbe 
muche lyke vnto that which is commonly cauled Sengrene or 
Orpin. [The Latin haspalmarumputa Magueiorum, qrneest 
lierba,ctc] i$fi6 Chilton's I'oy. in Hakluyt y About Mexico. . 
there groweth a certeine plant called magueis which yceldeth 
wine [etc.]. 1589 I'ahke tr. Mendozns Hist. China, etc. 320 
A plant called Maguey. . . They take out of this plant wine, 
which is that which th» Indians doo drinke ordinarily, and 
the Negros. 1604 E. GUimstonk] D'Acos/a's I/ist. Indies 
v. xxix. 420 They strewd round about a great quantitie of 
the boughes of Manguay, the leaves whereof are large and 
pricking. 1660 F. Brooke tr. Le Blanc's Trav. 363 There 
are some that furiously lash their bare shoulders with thorns 
of Mangouay. 1706 Phillips (ed. Kerseyi, Maijuey or 
Mayquey, an admirable Tree in New Spain, in the West- 
Indies. 1712 W. Rogers I'oy. (1718) 318 Their most 
remarkable plant is that call'd Maguey. 1899 Atlantic 
Monthly LXXXIII. 758/1 He who has once slept upon a 
mass of the shredded fibres of the maguey, or Spanish 
bayonet, will not be envious of the down couches of kings. 
b. altn'b., as maguey fibre, leaf, tree. 
1745 P. Thomas Jrnl. Anson's Voy. 128 They call it a 
Maguey Tree, and from it they get Wine, Vinegar, Honey, 
Thread, Needles, Stuffs for cloathing, or Sails for Canoes 
and Small Boats, and Timber for building. 1893 Outing 
(U.S.) XXII. iii/i A small roll made from the fiber of the 
maguey leaf. 1901 Westm. Gaz. 21 Oct. 5/1 All the maguey 
fibre Mexico can produce will be taken at good prices. 

II MagUS ;nV-i-g&0. PI. Magi (m/i-d^ai) ; also 
4 raagy. f L., a. Gr. fidyos, a. OPersian magu-s.] 
1. Hist. A member of the ancient Persian priestly 
caste, said by ancient historians to have been 
originally a Median tribe. Hence, in wider sense, 
one skilled in Oriental magic and astrology, an 
ancient magician or sorcerer. 

sing, [c 1384 Chaucer //. Fame m. 184 Ther saugh I 
Hermes Ballenus, Lymote, and eek Simon Magus.] 1621 
Qlarles Div. Poems, Esther (1638 1 93 Tyrant Cambyses 
being dead and gone,. .Mounts up a Magus, with dissembled 
right. 1638 SirT. Herbert Trav. 214 Let me rather busie 
my brains in quest of what a Magus was . . under which 
Title, many Witches, Sorcerers . . and other Diaboliques 
have cloakt their trumperies. 174a Pope Dune. IV. 516 
Thy Magus, Goddess ! shall perform the rest. 1805 H. K. 
White Let. 10 Nov. Remains (1816) I. 207, I have as much 
expectation of gaining it, as of being elected supreme magus 
over the mysteries of Mithra. 1821 Shelley Prometh. Utib. 
1. 192 The Magus Zoroaster. 

ptur. [c 1400 Three Kings Cologne 49 Seynt Austyn seib 
pat bis word Magi in the tung of Chaldee is as moche to 
seye as a Philosophre.J 1555 Watreman Fardle of Facions 
ii. viL K iv b, [In Persiajtheir Magi (that is to say men 
skylfull in y* secretes of nature). 1609 Holland Amm. 
Marccll. xxm. vi. 231 In these tracts lye the fertile fields of 
the Magi. 1614 Sylvester Bethulias Rescue v. 301 You 
Parthians, Cossians, and Arabians too, By your sad Magi's 
deep prophetlike Charms Sacredly counsellM. 1711 Pope 
'Temp. Fame 97 There in long robes the royal Magi stand, 
Grave Zoroaster waves the circling wand. 1864 PuseyZ.<t/. 
Daniel vii. 418 Among the Persians, those who are wise 
as to the Deity, and are its ministers, are called Magi. 

b. Applied by Irish historians to the heathen 
sorcerers who opposed St. Patrick. 

1822 Lanigan Feci. Hist. Irel. I. 224 Leogaire . . set out.. 
with a_ considerable number of followers and one or two of 
the principal Magi. 1845 Petrie Round Towers Irel. 11. 
ii. 132 Quoted as the composition of a certain magus of the 
name of Con, in the ancient Life of St. Patrick. 1887 Sir 
D. O. Hunter Blair tr. A. Betlesheim's Hist. Cath. Ch. 
0/ Scott. I. 72 Thereupon the Magi, or Druadh, bitterly 
reproached the parents for their adoption of Christianity. 
Ibid. I. 73 Broichan, the Magus of King Brudc. 
C transf. 

1851 Carlyi.e Sterling 11. ii. (1S72) 94 His Father, .. the 
magus of the Times, had talk and argument ever ready. 

2. spec. The {three) Magi: the three 'wise men* 
who came from the East, bearing offerings to the 
infant Christ. 

1377 Langl. P. PI. B. xix. 81 Wherfore and whi wyse 
men that tyme, Maistres and lettred men Magy [C. Magi] 
hem called. 165s Gaule Magastrom. 13 The Magi that 
came to Christ. 1656 Blolnt Glossogr., Balthasar,. .one 
of the Magi, or wise-men, vulgarly called the three Kings 
of Collein. «7$6-7 tr. Keystcrs Trav. (1760) I. 405 A : 
golden medal, said to be among the offerings of the eastern 
magi to Jesus Christ. 1839 Penny Cycl. XIV. 281 Whence 
the wise men of the East who came to see Christ are called 
simply Magi. 
tMagUBian. Obs. rare-' 1 , [f. prec. + -ian.] 
A magian; a follower of the magi. 

1587 Goi.ding De Mornay xxxiii. 530 The Magusians . . 
are giuen to Incest after the custome of their Mother country 

Magyar (mad- v ar), sb. and a. [The native 
name. J 

A. sb. 
1. An individual of that Mongoloid race, now 


forming, numerically and politically, the pre- 
dominant section of the inhabitants of Hungary. 

1797 Townson Trav. Hungary 141 An old Magyar to be 
obliged to learn, and to learn the German language ! 1828 
Foreign Q. Rev. III. 20 That the Magyars settled in 

1 Hungary during the ninth century is certain. 1864 Spec- 
tator 438 The moment it [a British fleet] threatens Trieste 
thfl Magyar will be in arms. 1878 A'. Amer. Rev. CXXVL 

, 557 The Magyars received the knowledge of southern pro- 
ducts and of agriculture from their Turkic neighbors. 
2. The language of the Magyars ; Hungarian. 
1828 Foreign Q. Rev. III. 73 Volumes written in Latin, 
German and Magyar. 1866 Charnock in Aulhrop. Rev. 
IV. 172 In the Magyar there is only one conjugation for all 

! regular verbs. 1884 Em. de Laveleye in Con temp. Rev. Dec. 
820 He . . translated Stuart Mill's ' Liberty ' into Magyar. 

Comb. 1886 W. J. Tucker S. Europe 231 The Hungarian 
stage, being thus limited to the Magyar-speaking popula- 
tion.. can never enjoy European fame. 

B. adj. Of or pertaining to the Magyars, or to 
tiie language of the Magyars. 
1828 Foreign Q. Rev. III. 34 The letters of the Magyar 

1 alphabet which require particular notice are 6 [etc.]. Ibid. 
30 Scarcely a fragment remains of old Magyar minstrelsy. 
1851 Mayhew Lond. Labour I. 25 The Magyar noblesse. 
1888 L. Oliphant Episodes in Life Adventure 180 Divers 
hospitable Magyar country-houses. 

Hence Ma-g-yarism, the principles of Magyar 
patriotism ; Ma -gy arize v. trans., to assimilate to 
the Magyar type ; to translate (names) into Mag- 
yar; hence Ma-gryarized///. a. ; Ma-gyarization ; 
Magyarizing vbl. sb. 

1862 Sat. Rev. 8 Feb. 158 Magyarism once meant a 
tyranny of race. 1879 W. R. Moreill in Westm. Rev. Oct., 
How long this small nationality [of Slovaks] will be able to 
resist Magyarisation is doubtful. 1880 Echo 23 Oct. 1/5 
The Chauvinist agitators for the ' Magyarising of Com- 
merce'. 1884 Em. de Laveleye in Contemp. Rev. Dec. 
826 Austria Hungary can neither Magyarize nor Germanize 
Bosnia. 1886 W J. Tucker E. Europe 48 Those amongst us 
bearing German names Magyarise them. Ibid. 133 Govern- 
ment, in the frenzy of its Magyarizing hallucinations, heralds 
the Magyarizing of the name with applause. 1889 Daily 
News 21 Nov. 5/3 The. .completely Magyarised family of 
the Archduke Joseph. 1897 Contemp. Rev. Jan. 13 The 
Roumanian subjects, .refuse to be Magyarised. 

t Magydare. Obs. Also 6 maguder. fad. 
L. magitaaris, magydaris, -deris, a. Gr. /xa-yiJSa/M?.] 
The root of the plant laserwort; the plant itself. 

1530 Palsgb. 241/2 Maguder a stalke of an herbe, chion. 
1597 Gerabde Herbal n. ccclxxv. 854 It is called in Latin 
Laserpitium '. in English Laserwoort and Magydare : the 
gum or liquor that issueth out of the same is called Lacer. 
1706 Phillips (ed. Kersey), Magydare, a sort of Herb. 

Mahadee, obs. form of Mahdi. 

I! Mahajun (maha'dszm). [Hindi mahdfan, 
repr. Skr. mahajana great man, head of tribe or 
caste.] A money-lender, usurer. 

1858 J. B. Norton Topics 245 The mahajun kindly under- 
takes to advance the money, c 1861 A. C. Lyall Old Pin- 
daree(Y.), Down there lives a Mahajun— my father gave 
hirn a bill, I have paid the knave thrice over, and here I'm 
paying him still. 

II Mahal (maha/1). Indian. Also7mahael,mo- 
hol(l, 8-9 mahl, 9 muhal. [Urdu (Arab.) U* 
mahally f. Arab, root halla to lodge.] 

1. Private apartments or lodgings. 

1638 Sir T. Herbert Trav. 71 Who.. leads him into the 
Manael (or private lodging). 1662 J. Davies tr. Mandelslo"s 
Trav. 76 He went to the Maluul, or Queens Lodgings. 
1793 T. Maurice Ind. Antiq. I. 67 The mahls, the courts, 
the galleries, the rooms of state, are almost endless. 1799 
Wellington Suppl. Desp. (1858) I. 322, I beg that you will 
desire my moonshee to write a letter to the ladies in the 
mahal. 1800 Asiat. Ann. Reg., Misc. Tracts 294/1 These 
inner apartments are said to have been the mahl, or private 
chambers of Gundrufsein. 

2. A summer house or palace. 

1635 Purchas Pilgrims I. iv. 428 A Garden, and Moholl 
or Summer house of the Queene Mothers. 1638 Sir T. 
Herbert Trav. 159 An even delicate street .. bestrew'd 
with Moholls or Summer houses. 1800 Asiat. Ann. Reg., 
Misc. Tracts \tefi Rajah Ragonaut's old mahal or house 
under Goosapahar. 1834 Baboo I. xi. 200 This old dwelling 
is not like the ancient Muhal of my fathers. 

3. A territorial division in India; a ward of a 
town. Also, a division of an estate or tract of land 
for farming or hunting purposes. 

1793 T. Maurice Ind. Antiq. I. 106 The soobah of Bengal 
is said to consist of twenty-four circars and seven hundred 
and eighty-seven mahls. 1800 Asiat. Ann. Reg., Char. 3/1 
Colar is a mahl of Sera. 1815 Sir J. Malcolm Hist. Persia 
II. 177 note, He was made magistrate of all the Hyderee 
mahals, or wards termed Hyderee, which included more 
than half the city. 1813 — Mem. Central India I. 146 note, 
The first grants of twelve Mahals to Mulharjee Holkar. 1883 
19M Cent. Sept. .424 The supervisors uere instructed to pre- 
pare rent-rolls of each mahal, or farm. 1885 Sir W. Hunter 
Imp. Gaz. India I. 349 The elephant hunting-grounds.. are 
divided into several mahals, which are leased out. 

Malialeb (ma'haleb). Also 6-8 macaleb, 8 
mahalep, y mahlib, melub. [a. F« macaleb, 
-lep (Cotgr.), a. Arab. *-**** mahlab. Cf. It. 
macalepo * a kinde of perfume or swecte smell ' 
(Florio 1598).] A kind of cherry, Prunus Ma- 
haleby the kernels of which are used by perfumers ; 
the tree itself is used as a dwarf grafting-stock for 

1558 Warde tr. Alexis' Seer. 50 Take the Macaleb, whiche 
are litle ^x>te and odoriferous graynes so called. 1597 


Gerarde Herbal in. lv. 1211 This shrubbie tree called Ma- 
caleb or Mahaleb is also one of the Priucts. 1656 Blount 
Glossogr. , Maealcb, the bastard Coral or Pomander ; of whose 
sweet and shining black berries, chains, and bracelets are 
made. I7« tr. I'omei's Hist. Drugs I. 13 Mahalep is the 
Kernel of a small Berry, almost like a Cherry-Stone. 1858 
Simmonus Diet. Trade, Mahlib, liiclnh, the fragrant kernels 
of Primus Malialcbot Linnaeus, strung as necklaces, which 
are much valued by the women of Sinde and other parts 
of India. 1891 J. Wright Fruit Grower's Guide II. 120 
The Mahaleb is the principal dwarfing stock. 

Mahammudan, obs. form of Mohammedan. 
Mahan, obs. form of Maund, Indian weight. 
II Mahant (mahfnl). Indian. Also 9 mehunt. 
[Hindi.] A religious superior. 

1800 Asiat. Ann. Keg., Misc. Tr. 247/1 The ruling power 
was., held by the priests of the Goosaigns, distinguished by 
the appellation of Mchunts. 1896 Mrs. 1!. M. Choker 
Village Talcs 160 A venerable Mahant, or high-priest of 
the Gosains, now advanced. 

II Maharaj (maharfrdj). [Hindi maharaj, f. 
malm great + raj sovereignty, (in compounds) 
sovereign.] =next. 

1826 Hockley I'aiuiiirang HariX. n A small tent through 
which all must pass before they could enter the presence of 
the Ma.ha.raj. 1903 Wcstm. Gaz. 13 Aug. 8/2 Calcutta 
Corporation . -the following resolution was proposed by the 
Maharaj Kumar Prodyat Tagore. 
II Maharajajl) (mahara^a). Also <J mau 
raja(h. [Hindi maluiraja great king, f. mahd great 
+ raja Raja(h.] The title of certain Indian princes. 
1698 Fkyer Ace. E. India <y /'. 76 Seva Gi . . is preparing 
to be install'd Mau Raja, or Arch Raja, at his Court at 
Rairee. Ibid. 174 Mau Rajah. 177S Trial of Joseph I'moke 
2/1, 1 went to Maha Rajah Nundocomar. 1859 Lang Wand. 
Ind. 38 The Maharajah with his suite appeared. 

II Maharanee (mahai5.'nf). [Hindi maharam, 
f. maha great + ram queen.] The wife of a maha- 

1862 Beveridge Hist. India III. vm. vi. 472 The maha- 
rajah was.. childless. His wife, the maharanee, was.. only 
twelve years of age. 
Mahaseer, -sur, variants of Mahseer. 
Mahatma (mahartma). [ad. Skr. mahdtman 
' great-souled ', f. maha great + atman soul.] In 
' Esoteric Buddhism ', one of a class of persons 
with preternatural powers, imagined to exist in 
India and Tibet. 

1884 PallMallG. 19 Aug. r/i One of Madame Blavatsky's 
Mahatmas. 1888 Mme. Blavatsky Seer. Doctr. II. 173 The 
Third Race had thus created the so-called Sons of Will and 
Yoga, or the 'ancestors'., of all the subsequent and present 
Arhats, or Mahatmas, in a truly immaculate way. 
Mahayme, obs. form of Maim. 
II Mahdi v madi). Also9mohdi,mahadi,-dee, 
mehdi, rnehdee. [Arab. C$*4r* mahdiy, lit. 'he 
who is guided aright ', passive pple. of <jjj>, 
hadd to lead in the right way.] A spiritual and 
temporal leader expected by the Mohammedans to 
appear in the latter days. In recent use chiefly 
applied to certain insurrectionary leaders in the 
Soudan from about 1880, who are alleged to have 
claimed to be the predicted ' Mahdi '. 

1800 Asiat. Ann. Reg., Misc. Tr. 125/1 Mahommed, who 
was proclaimed Khalifat Medina in the year of the Hejira 
145, and who assumed the title of Mohdi or Mahadi. 1803 
T. WlNTERBOTTOM Sierra Leone I. xiv. 246 Some years ago 
a celebrated impostor, who called himself Mahadee,. .made 
his appearance among the Soosoos and Mandingos. 1868 
J. P. Brown Dervislu-s ii. 74 It is from among the descen- 
dants of 'Alee that the more devout Moslems expect the 
Mehdee. 1885 'limes 20 Mar. 5/5 The desert Arabs state 
that a new Mahdi has appeared in Kordofan. 

Hence Ma'hdiship, the dignity or position of a 
Mahdi ; Ma hdism, Ma hdi-ism, the rebel move- 
ments in the Soudan about 1880-1885, and sub- 
sequently, under leaders claiming to be the Mahdi ; 
Ma-hdian, Ma'hdist, Ma-hdi-ist, an adherent of 
a pretended Mahdi. 

1884 iq//< Cent. May 8ifi The impostor who has .. laid 
claim to the Mahdiship. 1884 Times (weekly ed.) 20 Aug. 1 
Mahdism is essentially a Shiya doctrine. 1885 Pall Mall G. 
10 J[une 3/1 Mahdi. ism is in his eyes a real danger. 1885 
Daily Tel. 19 Feb. 5/2 A demonstration . . was . . made 
against Metemneh, in order to draw the Mahdists off. 1885 
Ibid. 21 Mar. 5/1 No hardy Mahdian got nearer than twenty 
yards. 1891 Daily AVrra 18 Dec. 6/1 The invasion of 
Egypt by the Mahdiists in August, 1889. 1897 Ibid. 
22 Sept. 6/4 Gordon, and Sir Samuel Baker . . were even 
more responsible for the rise of Soudanese Mahdism than 
the Mahdi himself. 

Mahe, Mahem, obs. ff. Maw sb.l, Maim. 

Mahen, Maheym, obs. ff. May v., Maim. 

Mahiz, obs. form of Maize. 

Mahlstick, variant of Maulstick. 

Mahlstrom, Ger. form of Maelstrom. 

II Mahmu'di. Obs. Also 7 mammotheo, raa- 
mudee, mahomedee, mamoodo, mammo(o)da, 
mam(m)oodee, mahmoudi, -y, 7-8 mamooda, 
8 mahmoodee, mahmudie, mahmoude. [l'ers. 
l/.>j»s? mahmudi, f. the name of Shah Mahmud.\ 
A Persian money of account, orig. a silver coin 
of the approximate value of twelve pence. Also, 
a gold coin formerly circulating in India. 


1612 R. Coverte True Rep. etc. 34 A Mammothee. .being 
nine pence English. 1625 Pcrciias Pilgrims I. 523 Their 
moneyes in Persia of Siluer, are the Abacee, the Mahome- 
dee [etc.]. 1687 A. Lovell tr. ThcvenoCs Trav. II. 63 An 
Abassi and a Mahmoudi, which is asmuch as a Chai, and 
a Para. Ibid. 111. 18 There is also a Mogole Silver-Coin, 
called Mahmoudy, which is worth about eleven Sols and 
a half. 1783 Gladwin Ayeen Akbery I. 17 The Mahmoodee 
and Mozuffery of Guzerat and Malwah. 1797 Encycl. Brit. 
(ed. 3) XIV. 176/1 An abassee is worth two manmoudes. 
1878 Note in Hawkins* Voy. iHakluyt Soc.) 407 The Mah- 
mudi was a gold coin of Gujrat. 

Maho, variant of Mahu Obs. 

!|Mahoe 1 (mah(Ju-). Bot. AU07 8mahot,maho, 
8 mono, 9 mohoe, mohaul. [Carib mahou ; the 
early spelling mahot is Fr.] 

1. The name of several trees. (Also mahoe-lree.' 
a. A sterculiaceous tree or large shrub (Stcrculia 
caribxd), a native of the West Indies, b. A mal- 
vaceous shrub or tree (J'aritium tiliaceum and 
P. elatum), with a wide range through tropical 
countries. C. Applied with qualifications to similar 
plants of various genera. (See ciuot. 1866.) 

1666 J. Daviks Hist. Carib. 1st. 1. viii. 49 [tr. Rochefort 
1658] Of the Tree called Mahot there are two kinds, Mahot- 
franc, and Mahot d'herbe. 1671 Ogilby America 348 The 
Mahot-Tree, of the Bark of which are made Laces and 
Points. 1697DAMHER Voy. (1729) I. iii. 37 They make their 
Lines both for fishing and striking with the Bark of Maho. 
1756 P. Browne Jamaica 284 The Mountain Mohoe. .grows 
to a considerable size,.. and is generally reckoned an excel- 
lent timber-tree. 1774 Goldsm. Nat. Hist. (1S24) III. 162 
Having fed upon the flowers of the mahot. .it [the iguana] 
goes to repose upon the branches of the trees. 1838 Penny 
Cycl. XII. 193/1 In the West Indies the whips with which 
the slaves are lashed are made from the fibres of //[ibiscus] 
arboreus (mohoe or mohaul). 1866 Treas. Bot. 711/1 
Mahoe, blue or common, I'aritium datum. — , bombast, 
OchromaLagofnis. — , Congo, Hibiscus clypeatus. — ,grey 
or mountain, Paritium elatum, — , seaside, Thcspesia 

2. The wood or the fibre of some of these trees. 

1897 Daily News 10 Mar. 6/3 In rods alone there was an 
almost endless variety, whether of built cane,., blue mahoe, 
. . or any other material. 

3. attrib., as mahoe hush ; mahoe-piment, Daph- 
nopsis caribsva (Grisebach Flora IV. Ind. 1864, 
p. 785). 

1827 Roberts Voy. Centr.Amer. 127 Some of the very low 
land is covered with water, .producing only rank coarse 
grass and Mohoe bushes. 

I! Mahoe 2 (mah^v)- [Maori.] The New Zea- 
land Whitewood-tree, Melicytus ramijlorus. 

1835 W. YatzAccN. Zealand^. 2)49 Mahoe {Melicytus 
ramijlorus') . .grows to a height of not more than fifty feet. 
1866 Treas. Bot. s.v. Melicytus, M. ramijlorus is the 
Mahoe of the New Zealanders, which must not be con- 
founded with the Mahoe of the West Indies. 

t Maho'ganite. slang. Obs. [f. Mahogany 
+ -ITE.] (See quot.^i 

1825 Sporting Mag. XVI. 9 note, A mahoganite is one who 
rides at a most infernal pace about the introduction of the 
second bottle .. with his knees under any semicircular 
mahogany fire table. 

Mahoganize (mahp*gan3iz\ v. U. S. Also 
mahoganyize. [f. Mahogany + -ize.] trans. (See 

1848-59 Bartlett Diet. Amer., MaJtoganyke, to paint 
wood in imitation of mahogany. 1855 Ogilyie, Mahoganize. 

Mahogany (mahfgani). Also 7 mohogeney, 
8 mohog(g)ony, mahogena, mahogon(e)y. 
[Written mohogeney in 1671 ; of unknown origin. 
The Eng. word was adopted into botanical Latin 
by Linnaeus (1762) as mahagoni, and is prob. the 
source of the continental forms : F. mahagoni, 
moliogon (rare), It. mogano (mogogaue, mogogon, 
etc.), Pg. mogno, G. mahagoni, Du. mahonie, Sw. 
mahogny, Da. mahogni. 

The statement that the word is Carib is founded on a mis- 
reading by Von Martius : see J. Piatt, Jr. in N. $Q. 9th 
Ser. VIII. 201. The only known name in the Carib lan- 
guage is caoba, which has been adopted in Sp.J 

1. The wood of Swietenia Mahagoni (N. O. 
Cedrelacex), a tree indigenous to the tropical parts 
of America, esp. Mexico, Central America, and 
the West Indies. It varies in colour from yellow 
to a rich red brown, is remarkably hard and 6ne- 
grained, and takes a high polish. Also with quali- 
fication denoting the special variety or place of 
origin, as Baywood, Cuba, Honduras, Jamaica, 
Spanish mahogany. 

1671 Ogilbv America 338 Here [in Jamaica 1 are., the most 
curious and rich sorts of Woods, as Cedar, Mohogeney, 
Lignum-vita:, Ebony [etc. ]. 1703 Eond. Gaz. No. 3891/3 On 
Wednesday. ., will be. .exposed to Publick Sale. ., the Cargo 
of the Galeon called the Tauro . ., consisting of . . Cocoa, . . 
Brazelletto, Mohogony. 1733 Bramston Man 0/ Taste 15 
Say thou that do'st thy father's table praise, Was there 
Mahogena in former days? <i 1746 T. Warton Poems 
(1748) 109 Odious ! upon a walnut-plank to dine ! No— the 
red-vein'd Mohoggony be mine ! 1817 Byron Beppo lxx, 
He was a Turk, the colour of mahogany. 1842 Gwilt 
Archil. (1859)487 The variety called Spanish Mahogany, and 
imported from Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and other West 
India islands [etc.]. Ibid. 996 The Jamaica mahogany is 
the hardest and most beautiful, i860 Jeaffreson Bk. about 
Drs. I. 185 He [Gibbons] brought into domestic use the 
mahogany with which one has so many pleasant associa- 


tions. 1875 Carpentry fy Join, is Oak, teak, and mahogany 
should find a place in the workshop more often than they 
do, the mahogany being what is often called cedar, to dis- 
tinguish it from the very hard Spanish wood. The softer 
and more common kind is from Honduras. 1892 Mod. 
Trade Circular^ Mahogany, Mexican, 5^. to 6d. per foot, 
superficial. Do., Tobasco, $kd. to jd. per foot, superficial. 
b. The tree itself. 
1759 Miller (lard. Did. (ed. 7) s.v. Cedrus. The second 
Sort is the Mahogony, whose Wood is now well known in 
England. 1846 Lindlev Veg. Kingd. 462 The bark ..of Maho- 
gany \Swietenia Mahagoni) is also accounted febrifugal. 

2. transf. Applied, chiefly with qualification, to 
various woods resembling mahogany, and to the 
trees producing them. In Australia mainly used 
for various species of Eucalyptus, esp. the Jarrah 
(£. marginata), and for Tristania conferla (N. O. 
J/yrtacen 1 ) : see Morris Austral Eng. (1898) 278-9. 

African mahogany, Khaya Semgalensis; Bastard 
mahogany, Matayba {Katonid) apd<tla\ also Eucnlyp- 
tus bot ry aides 3l\\<\ Ii. marginata; East India mahogany, 
Soymidafebrifuz'i \ Forest mahogany, Eucalyptus re- 
siui/cra and E. microcorys; Indian mahogany, Cedreta 
'Toona; Madeira mahogany, Persea iudka (bee Ma- 
deira 1 1); Mountain mahogany, Bdu la tenia ami Cere*- 
carpus ledi/olins; Red mahogany, Eucalyptus resini. 
/era ; Swamp mahogany, Eucalyptus robusta and E. 
botryoides\ Whitemanogaiiy,(in Jamaka).Steuostomum 
bifttrcatum', tin Australia) Eucalyptus robusta', al^o E. 
pilularis. (See Treas. Bot. i860*.) 

1842 Penny Cycl. XXIII. 404/2 S[u-idcu?a] Seuegalcusis 
has also been formed into a new genus, Khaya, and is the 
tree yielding African mahogany. 1846 Stokes Diseov. 
Australia II. iv. 132 Mahogany— Jarrail— Eucalyptus- 
grows on white sandy land. 1884 Pall MatiC. 22 Aug. 3/1 
The main saloon is finished in white mahogany throughuut. 

3. colloq. A table, esp. a dining-table. 

1840 Dickens OldC. Slwp Ixvi, I had hoped, .to have seen 
you three gentleman, .with your legs undtr the mahogany 
in my humble parlour. 1846 Th ACKER AY Bk. Snobs xxxi, 
Other families did not welcome us to their mahogany. 1848 
— Van. Pair xiii, George was going .. to bring tin: supply 
question on the mahogany. 1850 Elorists Jrnl. 149 Nearly 
forty gathered round Mr. Lidgard's mahogany after the ex- 
hibition. 1891 Mrs. Wali-ord Mischief of Monica III. 90, 
I could have put my feet under his mahogany., with the 
very greatest satisfaction. 

4. slang and dial. a. A Cornish beverage com- 
pounded of gin and treacle, b. A strong mixture 
of brandy and water. 

1791 Boswell Johnson an. 1781, 30 Man, They [the Cor- 
nish fishermen] call it Mahogany ; and it is made of two 
parts gin and one part treacle well beaten together. 1816 
'Quiz' Grand Master n. 54 note, It is believed that drinking 
mahogany (a strong description of brandy pauny) is the best 
preventive against the sun's heat. The remedy is in general 
repute in Bombay. 1823 1'. Bond Hist. E. <$- IV. Eooe 82 
note, At a trial at the Cornish Assizes some years ago, a 
witness . . puzzled his lordship and the council, by telling 
them he was. .'eating Fair maids and drinking Mahogany'. 
1852 C. J. Mathews Little Toddlekins 20 Capt. Littlepop. 
I've been obliged to.. diet myself on stiff brandy and water. 
Broivnsmith. Mahogany? I have got some, .. black as 
coffee, strong as mustard. 

5. A kind of moth, Noctua tetra. 

1819 G. Samocelle Entomol. Compcnd. 370 Nodua tetra, 
the Mahogany, 

6. attrib. and quasi-a^'. a. Made of mahogany. 
1730 W. Warren Collectanea in Willis & Clark Cambridge 

(1886) I. 225 Mohogany window Seats : A Marble Table for 
y e Side-board on a Mohogany Stand. 1763 Museum Rus- 
ticum (ed. 2) I. 179 The world of England has been, for 
some years past, running mad after mahogany furniture. 
1773 Goldsm. Stoops to Conq. iv, Then there's a mahogany 
table. 1864 Sala Quite Atone I. v. 75 In a recess were 
three handsome mahogany desks. 1885 R. Buchanan 
Annan Water ix, At one side of the room stood a large 
mahogany bed. 

b. Of the colour of polished mahogany, red- 
dish-brown. Also absol. 

1737 W. Salmon Country Builder's Estim. (ed. 2) 101 
Chocolate-Colour, Mahogony-Colour, Cedar and Walnut- 
tree-Colour. 1751 Smollett Per. Pie. II. lxix, Their 
natural colour.. degenerated into a mahogany tint. 1761 
Brit. Mag. II. 44/2 To stain Wood of a Mahogony Colour. 
1823 Spirit Pubt. Jmls. (1825) 292 Molly Lowe, suffused 
with mahogany blushes. 1834 'Pair's 'Mag. I. 384/1 His 
testy temper and mahogany complexion obtained him credit 
for being an American. 1839 tr. Eatuartine's Trav. East 
103/1 Their legs and hands were . . painted a mahogany 
colour. 1855 Dickens Dorrit 1. xxiv, Travelling people 
usually get more or less mahogany. 1893 Stevenson Catri- 
<> Ha 359 We saw he was a big fellow with a mahogany face. 

7. attrib. and Comb. : simple attrib., as ma- 
hogany-dust, -plank t -trade, -wood; mahogany- 
brown, -red adjs. ; parasynthetic, as mahogany- 
coloured, -faced adjs. Also mahogany-birch, 
Betula lenta; mahogany cutter, a workman 
employed in felling and trimming mahogany ; 
mahogany gum, Australian, the jarrah ; maho- 
gany scrub, Australian, a tract thickly covered 
with 'mahogany* or jarrah trees; mahogany 
tree, (a) the Swietenia Mahagoni, or any of the 
trees to which the name is transferred (see 2) ; 
{b) Jocularly, a dining table. 

1850 Chaloner & Fleming Mahogany Tree 42, 1st of April, 
when the * Mahogany Cutters' harvest may be said to com- 
mence. 1875 Carpentry $ Join. 70 By "mahogany dust 
and glue a nail hole may be partially hidden. 1739 *f ill 
in Payne Eng. Catlt. (1889) 53 My coffin to be of *mahogany 
plank. 1843 Portlock Geol. 513 The paste, . . is of a dark 
red, frequently "mahogany-red, felspar. 1846 Stokes Diseov. 
Australia II. vi. 231 Part of our road lay through a thick 


•mahogany scrub. 1850 Chaloner & Fleming Mahogany* 
Tree Pref., The promotion of the interest:, of the * Mahogany 
trade. 1747 Mortimer in Pkil. Traits. XI. IV. 599 He begins 
this Set with the * Mahogony-Tree. 1847 Thackeray Maho- 
gany Tree i, Little we fear Weather without, Sheltered about 
The Mahogany Tree. 1875 T. Laslett Timber $ Timber 
Trees 1S9 The Jarrah or Mahogany tree . . is also found in 
Western Australia. 1703 Lend. Gas. No. 3S91/3 On Wed- 
nesday.., will be exposed to Publick Sale Goods .. consist- 
ing of .. Nicaragua and 'Mohogony Wood,. .&c. 

Mahoganyize: see Mahogamze. 

t Mahoitre. Obs. [ad. OF. mahustrc, -hoitre, 
-heu/re.'] A padding placed in the upper part of 
the sleeve of a garment for the purpose of in- 
creasing the apparent breadth of the shoulders. 

1834 Planche Brit. Costume 201 The shoulders were 
padded out with large waddings called mahoitres. i860 
I-'airholt Costume ted. 21 Glos-.., Mahoitre, . . the wadded 
and upraised shoulders in fashion during the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. 

t Mahoniery. Obs. In 4 mameri, 5 ma- 
hom m^erye. [a, OF. mahomerie, f. Mahom 
Mahound.] A mosque. 

e 1330 Sir Beues 1350 Aboute be time of middai Out of a 
mameri a sai Sarasms come gret foisoun, f>at hadde anourcd 
here Mahoun. 1481 Caxtos Go*ifrey civ. 157 Our barons 
had aduysed to make a grete a mahommerye 
that the turkes bad. Ibid. cvi. 162 Oute of theyr graues in 
the mahomerye. 

Mahomet 'mahfm<t; in verse occas.m/i'b^met). 
Forms: 4 Macamethe, 4-5 Machamete. Mac-, 
Makomete, Makaniete, 4-6 Machomete, 5-6 
Machomet, 6 Machamyte, Macomit e, -yt e, 
Mahomet t e, -ite, 6-7 Mahumet, 6- Mahomet. 
See also Mahovxd, Mumet. [Cf. F. Mahomet, 
med.L. Machometus, Mahumctus* Mahomet its.] 

L The popular rendering of the Arabic name 
Muhammad, borne by the founder of the religion 
of Islam {died 632). In literary use now largely 
superseded by the more correct form Mohammed. 

^1380 Wvcuf H'ks. (1SS0) 301 f>e secte of macamethe. 
l- 1380 — Set. H'ks. III. 364 Aljif be fende . . medle good 
wip be yvel; for bus dide Machamete in bis la we. 1:1386 
Chaucer Man 0/ Lazes T. 235 The hooly lawes of oure 
Alkaron, Yeuen by goddes message Makomete [v.r. Maka- 
mete}. Ibid. 238 Makometcs lawe [r.r. Macometis]. 1387 
Trevisa Higdeu | Rolls) I. 33 pe fifte leuynge [L. ritus] of 
Sarazynes bygan vndir Makomete [1433-50 Machomete]. 

1400 Maundev. (1&39' xii. 131 Alkaron.. the whiche Book 
Machamete toke hem. Ibid. 135 Machomet. 1547 Boorde 
Introd. Knoivl. xxxvii. 1870 214, 1 am a Turk, and Macha- 
m\ tes law do kepe. (Also: Macomyt(e, -iti'e.J 1600 J. Pory 
tr. Leo's Africa hi. 151 Mahumets law affirmeth all kinde 
of diuinations to be vaine. 16*5 Bacon Ess., Of Boldness 
(Arb.) 519 If the Hill will not come to Mahomet, Mahomet 
wil go to the hil. 1678 Butler Hud. in. ii. 605 To hang, 
like Mah'met in the air. Or St. Ignatius, at his prayer. i8ai 
Shelley Hellas 221 The moon of Mahomet Arose, and it 
shall set. 1881 Sir W. Hvktek in Encycl. Brit. XII. 792/1 
Muhammad commonly known as Mahomet. 

t2. A quasi-deity. Obs. rare — 1 . 

1553 Edes Treat. Newt tn .*'. Arb.l 25 Whom they hon- 
oure & reuerence as a great God is: mighti Mabumet. 

t3. An idol. Obs. Cf. Maumet. 

[cijos etc: see Mal.met.] tat&o Cluster PI. x. 285 
For Mahomet is, both one and all, that men of Egipt Gods 
can call, at your coming downe shall fall, c 1530 Ld. Ber- 
ners Artk. Lyt. Bryt. (1814] 147 At the laste .. Arthur 
founde two ymages of coper . . and whan Arthur sawe them, 
he toke his swerde in his hande, & layde on with alt his 
myght on these mahomettes. 1553 Becox Reliques of Rome 
(1563) S8 Afterwarde thys doung-hel of Idolatry .. set vp 
agayne her Idoles and mahomets. Ibid, 93* Brought into 
our Churche Idolles and Mahomettes. 

+ 4. = Mahometan*. Mohammedan. Obs. (Cf. 


1508 Kesnedie Fly ting w. Dunbar 526 Sarazene, symo- 
nyte, . . Mahomete, maue>uorne. 1533 Gal* Rickt Vay (1888) 
105 The machometis and the turkis, the iowis and oder 
infidelK 1601 W. Parry Trav. Sir A. Sherley 10 They are 
damned Infidels and Zodomiticall Mahomets. 1747 Mem. 
Xntrebian Crt II. 197 From all parts of the neighbouring 
kingdom had drawn mahomets, Coptics, and idolaters. 

5. A kind of pigeon. ? Obs. 

(So called in allusion to the story that Mohammed had 
a pigeon which used to peck corn out of his ear, in order to 
make his followers believe that he received communication 
from the Holy Ghost in the form of a dove.] 

I1678: see Maumet] .1735 J. Moore Columbarium 51 
Columba Xumidica Alba. The Mahomet. This Pigeon is 
no more in Reality than a white Barb. 1765 Treat. Dom. 
Pigeons 141 It is the opinion of many fanciers, that the 
Bird called a mahomet is nearly of a cream colour. 

Mahometan (mahumetan), a. and sb. Abo 
6 Machometan. Machumetan, 7-S Mahume- 
tan^, 6- Mahometan, [ad. med.L. Machome- 
tdn-us, Mahomet anus, f. Machumetus, Mahomet us \ 
see prec. Cf. F. mahome'tain.'] 
A. adj. 1. = Mohammedan a. 

1600 J. PoRYtr. Leo' s Africa l 10 The Mahumetan priestes 
alwaies forbad the Arabians to passe over Nilus with their 
armies. Ibid. 111. 165 No Mahumetan king or prince may 
weare a crowne. 1714 Spe:t. No. 631 P 7 The Jewish Law, 
(and the Mahometan, which in some things copies after it) 
is filled with Bathings .. and other Rites. 1777 Watson 
Philip II (1839' 161 Putting to death . . all the priests and 
other Christians who refused to embrace the Mahometan 
religion. 1850 Robertson Serm. Ser. in. it (1S72) 25 The 
anticipated rewards and punishments must be of a Maho- 
metan character. 

ta. -TumosH. Ois. 


1600 R. Carr {title) The Mahumetane or Turkish His- t 
torie, in three Bookes. 


1529 Moke Dyaloge iv. Wks. 260/1 The Machometanys 
beyng a sensual sect, dyd in fewe yeres draw the great part 
of the world vnto it. 1600 J. Pory tr. Leo's Africa lit. 160 
In old Fez neither gold nor siluer is coined, nor any Ma- 
humetans are suffered to be goldsmiths. 1727*41 Chambers 
CycL s.v. Mahometanism, The Mahometans account all 
such as own anything of number in the divinity, to be infi- 
dels or idolaters. 1841 Elphisstone Hist. Ind. I. 147 It i> 
these three descriptions of persons, together with others 
who have risen under the Mahometans [etc.]. 

Hence f M ahometa'nical * — Mohammedan a. ; 
Maho -metaiiize v. trans. , to convert to Moham- 

1632 Lithgow Trav. iv. 147 The Alcoran, . . whereupon 
dependeth the whole Mahometanicall Law. 1779 Swinburne 
Trav. Spain xliv. 419, I am inclined to suspect that our old 
structures have been new-named, and Mahometanised with- 
out sufficient proof of their Arabic origin. 

Mahometanism 'mah^maaniz'm). Also 7 
Mahumetanism. [f. Mahometan + -ism. Cf. 
F. mahome'tanisme] — Mohammedanism. 

1612 Bkerewood Lang, fy Relig. x. 83 In Africk, all the 
regions in a manner, that Christian religion had gained 
from idolatry, Mahumetanism hath regained from Chris- 
tianity. 1632 Lithgow Trav. iv. 144 They were, .initiated 
in Mahometanisme. 1756-7 tr. Keyslcr's Trav. (1760) 1. 103 
Even Mahometanism was preferable to Calvinism. 1840 
Caklyle Heroes (1S53J 216 Mahometanism among the Arabs. 

t Maho metant. rare— 1 . Corrupt form of Ma- 
hometan, after sbs. in -ant. = Mohammedan. So 
t Mabo'nietantism (also Mahtt-) ^ Mohamme- 

1635 Pacitt Christianogr. 1. ii. (1636) 46 The Mahomet- 
ants have but three Temples or Meskites. 1656 Blount 
Glos$ogr. % Mahuntetism, or Maltumetanttsm, the Religion 
and profession of Mahumet and the great Turk. 

t Mahometic, a. Obs. rare. Also 7 Mahu- 
nietic. [a. med.L. mahometic -us -, f. Makomet-us. 
Cf. OF. mahomdtique] Mohammedan. 

1585 T. Washington tr. Xicholay's I'oy. 165 Doctours of 
the lawe Mahometicke. 1648-99 J. Beaumont Psyche xvn. 
xii. (Grosart) II. 06 The Land of Milk and Honey lay .. 
overflown With Mahumetick Poison. 

t Mahome tical, a. Obs. [f. med.L. ma- 

hometie-us ^see prec. +-al.] =prec. 

1561 Daus tr. Bullingzr on Afoc. (1573I 126 The Papisti- 
call and Mahometicall conception, wickednes and tyranny. 
1601 R. Johnson Kingd. fr Co mm en t . (1603) 227 The slaugh- 
ter of the Moores by the Christians spoken of in their Ma- 
hometicall legend. 1647 Fabingdox Serm. iv. 72 A Ma- 
hometical Paradise of all sensual delights. 17x3 Gentl. 
Instr. in. viiL (ed % 5) 435 Those Obscenities that make up 
here the Mahometical Elysium of Libertines. 

Mahometrcian. Obs. [(. Mahomet: see 

-ICIAN. Cf. OF. mahommetiiieti.] AMohammkdan. 

1588 J. Harvey Disc. Probl. 49 There continue euen to 

this day ..certaine furious creatures, or mad rauing wizardes 

amongst the Mahometicians. 

t Mahometish, a. Obs. rare- 1 , [f. Ma- 
homet + -ish.] = Mohammedan a. 

1583 Stockeb Ciz\ Warm Lorve C. 11. 42 a, To the ende 
the Mahometishe and Jeweshe religion, myght not any way 
derogate from the Catholique Religion. 

Maho'metism. Obs. Also 6-7 Mahumet- 
ism e. Mahumatism. [f. Mahomet + -ism.] = 

1597 Beard Theatre Gods jfudgtm. (1612) 158 Their 
detestable Mahumetisme and Turkish religion. 1600 W. 
Watson Decacordon (1602)301 This is right Mahumetisme, 
and tendeth to the ouerthrow of the Gospel and church 
Catholike. 1615 G. Sandys Trav. 50 Manometisme had 
not yet vtterly extinguished all good literature. 1715 }. 
Chappelow Rt. way Rich (1717) 164 Far more frightful., 
than popery, slavery, mahometism, or the devil himself. 1793 
Trappit. Rochons Voy. Madagascar 48 It is surprising that 
Mahometism should not have made more progress in this 

t Maho'metist. Obs. [f. Mahomet + -ist.] 
Also 6 Machumetiste, -hometiste, 6-7 Mahu- 
metist, 7 Mohammetist, Mahumatist. [f. Ma- 
homet + -1ST.] A M'lHAMMEDAN. 

1553 Kl-fn Treat. Am Ind, (Arb.) 27 Amonge certayne 
Mahumetistes are found a few Christian men. '555 — 
Decades 226 If they had byn Moores (that is Macbume- 
ti>te<). 1594 Blcndevil Exerx. v. viii. (1636) 549 Now as 
touching their religion they be Mahometists. 1602 Fi_l- 
hecke \st Pt. Parall. Introd. 21 The Portugallians make 
villaines of the Mahometistes. 1603 Florio Montaigne 11. 
xxix. (1632) 398 The Assassines .. are esteemed among the 
Mahometists of a soveraigne devotion and puritie of 
manners. 1650 Bclwer Anthropomet. 205 They educate 
them very delicately, and afterwards sell them to the 
Persians and other Mahumatists. 1654 Vilvain Epit. Ess. 
in. w Christians, Mahometists. 

t Maho'metize, v. Obs. Forms : see Ma- 
homet ; also Mahemat-, Mehemetize. [f. Ma- 
homet + -IZE.] a. trans. To convert to Moham- 
medanism. D. intr. To act like a Mohammedan. 

1585 T. Washington tr. Nicholafs Voy. \. viiL 8 The 
most part, .are Christians renied,or Mahumetised. Ibid. 11. 
xxi. 58 In Constantinople as also in all the other cities 
Mahematised in Graxia. 1656 H. More Enthus. TrL 22 
Though born a Christian, yet he did Mahomiti-e [cd. 1712 
M ahometue] in this that he also did indulge plurality of wivts. 

Hence f Maho'metized///. a. 

1585 T. Washington tr. Xicholay's Voy. n. xxi. 59 The 
Turks, Moors, and generally al the Mebemetised frequent 
thither most often. | 


Mahometry (mahfmetri). Obs. exc. arch. 
See also Mai methy. [f. Mahomet + -by.] -Mo- 
hammedanism. In the 1 6th c. sometimes misused 
for - false religion ', - idolatry \ 

1481 Caxton Godfrey cl xxxvii. 274 Theyr mahometry and 
fowle lawe of machomet. X530 Tinuale Ahsw. Marc's 
Dial. Wks. (1573) 256/1 The sacrifices which God gaue 
Adams sonnes were no dumme popetrie or superstitious 
Mahometrie. 1561 Daus tr. Bullingcr on Apoc. (1573) 
121 b, The sixt conflict or fight is of Mahometrie by 
the Saracenes, Turkes, and Tartarians. 1579 Fulke Kef- 
Rastel 752 It is wholesome diuinitie, to iusttne all supersti- 
tion, Mahometrie and Idolatrie in the world. .to be excus- 
able. 1804 Southey in Robberds Mem. W. Taylor I. 502 
Fatalism is the comer-stone of Mahometry. 1890 E. John- 
son Rise Christendom 339 Their mission was to.. denounce 
destruction again>t Mahometry* and Jewry. 

t Mahomite. Oh. [f. Mahom(et + -ite.] 
A Mohammedan. (C£ Mahomet 4.) 

'559 W. Cunningham Cosmogr. Gtasse 197 Christians. 
Turkes, Mahomites, Caffranans, Idolaters. 1564 tr. Jt— nfi 
A/ol. Ch. Eng. Hij, The Mahomytes at this day .. chuse 
rather to be caled Saracenes, as though they came of Sara, 
the free woman, and Abraham's wyfe. a 1618 SVUTBSTU 
Minn: Peace Sonn. xxxviii, The Mahomite.. His mooned 
Standards hath already pight. 

Ii Mahone. Obs. Also 6 mahume, 7 mahoon, 
9 maou, mahonna. [Occurs as K. mahonnc. Sp. 
wahoiia, It. maona, Turk. bj.U mait'iina.] A flat- 

Dottomed sailing vessel formerly used by the Turks. 

1585 T. Washington tr. Xidtolay's Voy. L xxi. 27 The 
gallies, foists and galliots. ., besides the great gallion and 2. 
Mahumez [Fr. Mahomcz\ 1651 Howell Venice 197 Meet- 
in.; with a great Fleet of Turkish Gallies and Mahoons in 
the Egean Sea. 1658 Earl Monm. tr. Paruta"s liars 
Cyprus 204 Vluzzali, and Piali Bashaw, put to sea.. with 
150 Gallies, 30 Fliboats, and ten Mahones. 1696 Philliis 
(ed. 5', Mahoon. 1858 Simmonus Diet. Trade. 1867 Smyth 
Sailor's H'ord-bk., Mahone, Mahonna, or Maou. 

Hence t Maho nnet [see -et]. 

a 1599 Hakluyfs Voy. II. 78 The number of the ships 
were these : 50 galliasses, 103 gallies, as well bastards aa 
subtill mahonnets. 

!! Mahonia (mahiTBnia). Bot. [mod.L., f. the 
name of Bernard M c J/a/'f?«, an American botanist 
-1- -ia.] A genus of Berberidaceee, having ever- 
green pinnate leaves ; a plant of this genus. 

1829 Loudon Encycl. Plants 1055 The Berberises.. 
especially the species with pinnated leaves, which are some- 
times called Mahonias. 1883 Harper's Mag. Apr. 731/1 
Mahonias from Japan. 

Mahoot, mahot/e : see Mahoe, Mahout. 

Mahound mah«-nd, mahati'nd). Forms : 
a. 3 Mahum, Mahun, 4. 6 Mahoune, 4-6, 8 
Mahoun, 5 Mahone, Mawhown, Machoun, 
5, 7 Mahowne, 6-7 Macon; j8. 4 Mahount, 
6 Machound, 7 Mauhound, 6- 
Mahound. [Early ME* Mahuti, Mahum, a. OF. 
Mahun, Mahum, Mahont, shortened form of 
Mahomet. Cf. Mahomet. Mal.met.] 

1. The 'false prophet* Mohammed; in the Middle 
Ages often vaguely imagined to be worshipped as 
a god. (Cf. Mahomet i.) Now only arch. 

c iaoo S. Eng. Leg. 1S7/101 pes bef us wole ouer-come; 
Mahun, 3 wane is bi mi^te ? a 1300 Cursor M. 7458 Moglit 
i euer wit me wit him ming .. I suld him sla, bi sir mahun ! 
[Gott. saint mahoune]. c 1380 Sir Ferumb. 4939 f>e |MM 
of Mahoun y-mad of golde Wib be axe smot he oppon pe 
molde. a 1400 Octouian 1092 The Sarsyns ciyde all yn 
fere To hare God Mahone To help her geaunt in that fyght. 
1460 Tcnvneley Myst. xxii. 408 Now by mahowne, oure 
heuen kyng. C1540 J. Kedfobd Mor. Play Wit 4 Sci. 
(Shales. Soc.) Ii By Mahowndes bones, Mahowndes 
nose. 1591 Harrington Orl. Eur. xvi. liv. 125 By Macon 
and Lanfusa he doth sweare. 1596 Sfenser F. Q. vi. vii. 
47 The Carle did fret And fume.. And oftentimes by 
Turmagant and Mahound swore. 1600 Fairfax Tasso xii. 
x. 215 Praised (quotb he) be Macon, whom we serue. 1605 
TryallChev. v. ii, in Bullen a/'/. (1884) HI. 344 And Ma- 
hound and Termagant come against us, weele fight with 
them. 1735 Pope Donne Sat. iv. 239 The Presence seems, 
with things so richly odd, The mosoue of Mahound, or some 
queer Pagod. 18x5 Scott Talism. hi, Down with Mahound, 
Termagaunt, and all their adherents. 1849 Jam l> Wood- 
man iv, The very approach of a follower of Mahound, how- 
ever, was an abomination to the good nun. 

1 2. gen. A false god; an idol. (Cf. Maumet.) Obs. 

c 1205 Lay. 230 Ah heo nom bene mahum [c 1275 mahun], 
pe heo tolden for godd. Ibid. 8079 f>er stoden in pere temple 
ten bu5*nd monnen. .bi-foren heore mahun. 1 1400 Destr. 
Froy 4312 The false goddes in fere fell to be ground ; Kothe 
Mawhownus & maumettes myrtild in peces. 14*6 Lydc. 
De Guil. Pilgr. 17224 (Avarice tog.] Ley doun thy skryppe 
and thy bordoun, And do homage to my Mabown ! c 1450 
Mirour Saluacioun 1554 A grete dragon Wham alle that 
landes folk held god and thare mahon. 

1 3. A monster ; a hideous creature. Obs. 

c 1400 Destr. Troy 77 58 There met hym pis Mawhown, 
bat was so mysshap, Luyn fane in his face, as he fie wold. 
1598 Florio, Mamau, a machound, a bugbeare, a raw-head 
and bloodie bone. 

f4. Sc. Used as a name for the devil. Also 
iransf. as a term of execration applied to a man. 
Obs. tfexedia/.}. 

1377 Langl. P. PI. B. xm. 82 And wisshed. .That disshes 
and dobleres bifor this ilke doc tour, Were molten led in his 
maw and Mahoun amyddes. 1500-10 Dlnbab Poems xxvi. 6 
Me thocht, amangis the feyndis fell, Mahoun gart cry ane 
dance Off schrewis. Ibid, xxvii. 3 Nixt that a turnament 
wes tryid» That lang befoir in hell wes cryid. In presens of 
Mahvon. 1578 N. La.\ilkCo*Wm tm Jonah £p. Ded. 3 In 




the pestilent pollicies of that Mahound Matchiavile. 1794 I 
Burns The De'ifs awa 3 The Dell cam fiddling thro' the ; 
town, And danc'd awa wi' the Exciseman ; And ilka wife 
ci y'd, ' Auld Mahoun, We wish you luck o' your prize, man '. 

f5. attrib. or adj. Mohammedan, heathen. 

1624 Fletcher Rule a Wife iv. iii, My pagan cozen, My 
mighty Mahound kinsman, what quirk now? Ibid, v. v, 
Who' 1 ? this? my Mauhound cousin ? 

II Mahout 'mahairt). Indian. Also 9 mahote, 
mahoot, mohaut, mahouhut, mohout. [Hindi 
mahaut, mahdwal.] An elephant-driver. 

166a J. D.uus tr. Mandelslo's Trazt. 81 The Serrieivan 
hath the oversight of the Camels, and the Mahout, that of 
the Elephants/ 1799 Corse in Phil. Traits. LXXXIX. 36 
not,; 1 sent for the driver [note, Or Mahote-, as he is gener- 
ally called] to ask some questions concerning this elephant. 
1819 Smarting Mag". IV. 174 "The scuffle between the 
elephant and the "Mahout. i8z6 Hockley Paudurang 
//art I. 6 A MaJtonhut, or elephant driver. 1859 Lang 
Wand. India 90 The mahoot, or elephant-driver, was attired 
in the most gorgeous manner. 1891 R. Kipling Life's 
Handicap 307 The very best of the elephants belonged to 
the very worst of the drivers or mahouts. 

Mahova, niahower, var. forms of Mahwa. 

II Mahratta ^mararta). Also S Moratta, Ma- 
harattor, Morattoe, Mar(h N atta, Merhattah, 
8-9 Mharatta, 9 Maratha. [Hindi Marhalta.'] 

1. One. of a warlike Hindu race occupying the 
central and south-western parts of India. 

1763 Scrafton Indostan (1770) 36 He was suddenly 
alarmed with an invasion of eighty thousand Mharattas. 
1765 Holwell Hist. Events Bengal 1. (1766) 105 These 
united princes and people are those which are known by the 
general name of Maharattors. 1778 R. Okme Hist. Milit. 
Trans. II. 1. 32 An army of 80,000 Morattoes. 1844 H. H. 
Wilson Brit. India I. 3 In the outset of the contest, native 
opinion had inclined to the Mahrattas. 

2. The language of the Mahrattas. =Mahrattj. 
1837 Colebrooke Mite. Ess. II. 29 The Maharashtra, or 

Mahratta, is the language of a nation which has in the 
present century greatly enlarged its ancient limits. 

3. attrib. or adj. Pertaining to the Mahrattas. 
Mahratta Ditch (or Entrenchment^ : a ditch made in 

1742 to protect Calcutta from invasion by Mahrattas; a 
similar ditch made at Madras in 1780. 

1758 Ann. Keg-. 285 There was a man who carried a large 
Moratta battle-ax on his shoulder. 1778 R. Orme Hist. 
Milit. Trans. II. 1. 45 The Morattoe ditch. 1781 Indian 
Gaz. to Aug. (V.l, To the Proprietors and Occupiers of 
Houses, .within the Mahratta Entrenchment. 1797 EticycL 
Brit. (ed. 3) X. 563/2 Rajah Sahou, who considerably ex- 
tended the Marhaua dominions. 1823 Sir J. Malcolm 
Mem. Central India II.nsThe Mahratta Brahmins. 1842 
Tennyson Locksley H. 155 Where in wild Mahratta-battle 
fell my father evil-starr'd. 1858 J. M. Mitchell Mem. R. 
Nesbit iii. 65 The Maratha chiefs soon claimed to be the 
lords paramount of India. 1874 Lal Behari Day Gcruuda 
Samanta I. iv. 25 The Calcutta cockney, who glories in the 
Mahratta Ditch. 

II Mahratti (maravti). Also 7 moratty, 9 
niarathi, -ee, murathee. [Hindi Marhattt, f. 
Marhatta : see prec.] The language of the 
Mahrattas. Also attrib, 

1698 Fryer Ace. E. India % P. 174 They tell their Tale in 
Moratty. 1827 R. Nesbit in Mem. iii. (1858) 82, I attended 
the Marat hi worship. . . I performed worship with the servants 
in Marathi. 1831 J. T. Molesworth (title) A Dictionary 
Murathee and English. 1868 Bellairs & Lakshman {title) 
A Grammar of the Marathi Language. 1878 O. Smith Life 
y. Wilson ii. (1879) 34 The New Testament in the Verna- 
cular Marathee. 

I! Maliseer (ma'ski). Also niahase(e)r. mah- 
sir, marseir, Diets. mah(a)sur, maseer. [Hindi 
mahasir, believed to represent Skr. mahaciras * big- 
head'. Another Hindi name is mahasaula, of 
obscure origin.] A large Indian freshwater eypri- 
noid fish, Barbus tor % resembling the barbel. 

1854 Hooker Himalayan Jrnls. I. xvii. 39S A fine 
'Mahaser' (a very large carp). 1858 Simmonds Diet. 
Trade, MaJiaseer. 1859 Lang Watui. India 3 In the 
broad tributaries to the Ganges and the Jumna, may be 
caught [with a fly} the mahseer, the leviathan salmon. 
1880 Gum her Fishes 594 The ' Mahaseer ' of the mountain 
streams of India. 1894 Pollok lucid. Tor. Sport 355 
Mahseer Fishing. Ibid. 366, 1 got 277 pounds of mahseer. 

t Ma*hu. Obs. Also 7 Maho. [Perh. suggested 
by Mahound,] Used as the name of a devil. 

1603 Harsnet Popish Impost, x. 50 Maho was generall 
Dictator of hell : and yet for good manners sake, hee was 
contented of his good nature to make shew, that himselfe 
was vnder the check of Modu. 1605 Shaks. Lear 111. iv. 
149 The Prince of Darknesse is a Gentleman. Modo he's 
call'd and Mahu. Ibid. iv. i. 63 (1608 Qa) Hobbididence 
Prince of dumbnes, Mahu of stealing, Modo of murder. 

Mahume, variant of Mahone Obs. 

Mahumetan v e, variant of Mahometan. 

II Mahwa (ma*wa). Also 7 mahova, mahoua, 
mahua.muohwa, raahower. [Hindi mahwa. also 
mahtia, repr. Skr. madhuka, I. madhu sweet.] 

1. An East Indian timber tree, Bassia latifolia 
(N. O. Sapotacex) ; also Bassia butyracea ; both 
species are cultivated for their Mowers and seeds. 
Also mahwa-tree. 

1687 A. Lovell tr. Thevenot's Trav. hi. 73 Manguiers, 
Mahova, Quieson, Caboul, and other sorts of Trees. Ibid. 
94 They are Trees which they call Mahoua. 1785 C. 
Hamilton in Asiat. Researches (1790) I. 300 There is a 
very curious and useful tree called by the Natives of Bahar 
. . the Mahwah or Mawee . . the Sanscrit name is Madhuca 
or Madhudruma. Ibid., A description of the Mahwah tree. 

1803 J. T. Blunt ibid. VII. 58 We encamped at a tank and 
grove of Mowah trees. 1813 J. Forbes Orient. Mem. II. 
451 The mowah (bassia butyracea). .attains the size of an 
English oak. 1854S1MMONDSC0W//W r. Prod. Veget. Kingd. 
538 Mahower {Bassia latifolia) is common in most parts of 
the Bengal Presidency. The oil a good deal resembles that 
last described. 1879 E. Arnold Lt. Asia VI. (1881) 140 
Beneath broad-leaved mahua trees. 

2. An ardent spirit distilled from the flowers of 
the Mahwa tree. 

1810 V. M. Williamson E. India I'ade Mecum II. 153 
Shops where. . Mowah, Pariah Arrack, &c, are served out. 

3. attrib. , as malnua-arrack. -butter \ -flower, -oil. 

1813 J. Forbes Orient. Mem. II. 451 This by way of dis- 
tinction is called mowah-arrack. 1854 Simmonds Commerc. 
Prod. Vegct. Kingd. 511 Illiepie oil .and Muohwaoil. 1873 
Drury Usef Plants India 70 In 1848 a quantity of Mahw.ili 
oil was forwarded to the Secretary of the E. I. and China 
Association. 1876 Cornh. Mag. Sept. 321 A great cup of 
liquor distilled from the Mhowa flower. 1889 Syd. Sox. 
Lex. t MaJiivah butter, a greenish or yellow Uh concrete 
oil obtained from the seeds of Bassia latifolia, 

y TWT n-'i q - (nvi'a, mai'a). Zcol. [L. maia, Gr. 
naia.] A spider-crab. 

1706 Phillips (ed. Kersey), Maia, ..a kind of SeaCrab-fi-h. 
1865 Gosse Laud <y Sea < 1874) 81 The spider-crab, or maia ; 
of little value as food, though occasionally eaten. 

Mai an (m^*an). Zoo/, [f. prec. + -an.] A 
crustacean of the family Maiidse. (Cf. Maioid.) 

1839 Penny Cycl. XIV. 296 Maiide or Maians, the second 
tribe of the family of Oxyrhynchi, according to the system 
of M. Milne Edwards, 

Maieh, Sc- form of Malgh. 

Maid ;nv ! cT , sb.l Forms : 2 meide, 2-3 mede, 
3 mseide, 3-6 nieyde, mayde, 3-7 maide. 5-7 
mayd, (6 mayed, 7 mad3', 6- maid, [shortened 
from Maiden: nut identical with OE. miege6 (i. 

1. A girl; a young (unmarried) woman. 
MAIDEN I. Now only ^\c. dial.) arch, or playful. 

c 1205 Lav. 256 pa bis child was feir muche pa luuede he a 
maide. 1297 R. Glouc (Rollsi 297 pis mayde isp-.uscd was 
of so heye blode. c 13*0 Sir Tristr. 2702 pe maide answerd 
in lede, ' per of haue pow no care '. c 1407 Lvdo. Reas. \ 
Sens. 151 Faire and fresh of hewe. As a mayde in hir beaute. 
1546-7 Test. Ebor. {Surtees Soc.) VI. 252 Desiringe her to 
be good ladie to my litle meyde, her god doughter. 1571 
Abp. Grindal Articles § 54 Legacies giuen . . to other., 
godly vses as to..poore Maydes marriages. 1596 Spenser 
F. Q. vi. xiL 20 She found . . That this young Mayd . . Is 
her owne daughter. 1629 Milton Hymn Nath: xxii, In 
vain the Tyrian Maids their wounded Thamuz mourn. 
1782 Cowper 'Sweet stream'. Sweet stream.. Apt emblem 
of a virtuous maid ! 1800 Coleridge Christabel 11. 238 
Sweet maid,. .Thy sire and I will crush the snake! 1830 
Tfnnvson Poems 142 There are no maids like English 
maids So beautiful as they be. 1886 Kiflinc. Departm. 
Ditties, etc. (i833) 64 ' By all I am mi-understood ! ' if the 
Matron shall say, or the Maid. 
b. poet, in personifications. (Kreq. in the iSth c. N 

1742 Gray Adversity 27 Melancholy, silent maid, With 
leaden eye. 1747 Collins Ode Passions 1 When Music, 
heavenly maid, was young. 

2. A virgin; spec, of the Virgin Mary (f maid 
Mary) ; = Maidex 2. Obs. or arch. 

a X175 Cott. Horn. 227 To ane mede be was Maria ^ehaten. 
.' 1175 Lamb. Horn. 77 pet halie meide [sc. Marial c 1275 
Passion our Lord 597 in O. E. Misc. 54 Vre louerd ihesu crist 
be wes ibore of be meyde. c 1*90 S. Eng. Leg. 79/57 I-bore 
of mayde marie, c 13*0 Sir Beues 2197 pat i ne tok neuer 
wif, Boute $he were maide clene. ( 1386 Chaucer A"« .'.'.-. 
T. 1470 Thou art mayde and kepere of vs alle. .And whil I 
lyue a mayde I wol thee serue. c 1410 Hocclevk Moder of 
iiodw Humble lady mayde modir and wyf. c 1483 Caxton 
Dialogues 48/17 Who serueih our lord, And the mayde 
marye. 1500-20 Dunbar Poems Ixx. 4 Thow ..Gabriell 
send with the salutatioun On-to the mayd of maist humilite. 
a 1529 Skelton Replyc. 47 Wks. 1843 1. 210 Wotte ye what 
ye saved Of Mary, mother and mayed ? 1697 Dryden / ~irg. 
Georg. iv. 479 Cydippe with Licorias, one a Maid, And one 
that once had call'd Lucina's Aid. 1834 Sir H. Taylor 
2nd Pt. Philip r an Artevelde v. i. (song), Quoth tongue of 
neither maid nor wife To heart of neither wife nor maid. 

b. Hist. As a title of Joan of Arc, The Maid 
{of God, of Orleans), a rendering of F. la Burette. 

a 1548 Hall Chron., Hen. I'l (1809) 157 This wytch or 
manly woman, (called the maide of God) the Frenchemen 
greatly glorified. 1691 J. Heath E'ng. Chrou. 164 Joan, 
called by the French, the Maid of God. 1762 Hume Hist. 
Eng. to Hen. I'll, II. 335 marg., The maid of Orleans. 
1849 Lingard Hist. Eng. (1S55) W- l - x ll 2 The maid of 
Orleans, .led the assailants. 187s J- Gaikdner Lancaster % 
York vii. (ed. 2) 130 Rumours of the. .miracles of the Maid 
were repeated even in the English camp. 

+ C. transf. A man that has always abstained 
from sexual intercourse. (Cf. Gr. irap$o'os and 
patristic L. virgo.*) Obs. 

1340 Ayenb. 230 Saint Ion be ewangelist bet wes mayde 
wes amang be apostles be meste belouede of oure Ihorde. 
1387 Tkevisa Higden (Rolls) I. 365 A preost bat is clene 
mayde, 1460 Capcrave Chron. (1858) 5 Abel,, a mayde, a 
martire, killid of his brothir of pure envy. 1525 Ln. 
Berners Froiss. II. cxv. [cxi.]33i He was swete, courtesse, 
meke, and a mayde of body. 1601 Shaks. Tioel. N. v. i. 
270 You are betroth'd both to a maid and man. 1606 B. 
Jonson Hytnenxi 04 View two noble Maids Of either sexe, 
to Union sacrificed, a 1641 Bp. Mountagu Acts <$• Mon. 
(1642) 542 Joseph was .. a maid, never knowing woman, as 
never being married before. 1710 Brit. Apollo III. No. 60. 
2/2 He Dy'd a Maid. 

8. An unmarried woman, spinster, f To stand 
on the maid: (of a woman) to remain single. ^Xu\v 
rare exc. in Old Majd.) 

1603 Dekker Wonderfull Yeare E, To die maides ! O 
horrible ! 1615 Chapman Odyss.\\. 52 Because thou slialt no 
more stand on the Maid [iirel ourot cti bi)y TrapfoVov iatrtut]. 
1648 Par. Reg. St. John Maddermarket, Norwich 1 MS.), A 
maid almost a hundred yeare old, buried 14 Nov. Anno 
dni 1648. 1700 Dryden Sigis. % Guise. 16 For this, when 
ripe for marriage, he delayed Her nuptial bands, and kept 
her long a maid. 1747 General Advertiser 4 July, The 
Match [at Cricket] .. between the Maids of Charlton and 
the Maids of Singleton, .will be play'd in the Artillery- 
Ground. 1814 Scott Wav. v, Miss Lucy St. Aubin lived 
and died a maid for his sake. 

4. Afemalcservantorattendant; aMAiD-SERVANT; 
often with defining word prefixed as bar- f chamber-, 

farm-, house-, nurse-, servant-maid, etc., q.v. ; 
lady's maid see Lady 17 . 

1390 GowtR Conf. I. 12S Sche. .goth to chambre and hath 
conipleigned Unto a Maide which she triste. 1513 More 
R/./i. Ill 1.1803) 59 That it was not princely to mary hys 
owne subject,-. onely as it were a rich man that would mary 
his mayde. 1567 Gude fy Godlie B. ix. yS. T. S.) 9 Thy 
nychtbouris wyfe . . Thow couet not to the, . . his oxe, hi-, 
maide nor page, j.658 Evelyn Diary 27 Jan., He [a child] 
would .. select the most pathetic psalms, .. to rcade to his 
mayde during his sicknesse. 1698 Wanley in Lett. Lit. 
Men iCamden.i 253 The maid told me that Dr. Smith had 
been there since I went. 1794 Mr\ Radcliffe Myst. 
Vdolpho xxv, You mn^t distni-s your raaid. lady. 1835 
Genii. Mag. Nov. 491 We kept no maid : — and 1 had much 
to do. i860 Q. Victoria Life Highl. (i£6£) 133 The two 
maids had driven over by another road in the waggonette. 
1880 Olida Moths I. 39 My maid mu^-t run U] 
- wear by to-morrow. 
b. MaiJ-of-all-work, a female servant who does 
all kinds of house-work. 

1809 Malkis' Gil Bits iv. vii. ?8 An eld abigail. whom I 
had formerly known as maid-of-all-work to an ac::<.->. 1848 
Thackeray Trav. Loud. Wks. i£S6 XXIV. 350 The red- 
haired maid-of-all-work coming out with yesterday's paper. 
1887 Spectator 16 Apr. 534/2 First she is a maid of-all-work 
in the family of a poor clergyman. 

transf. 1858 Huxley in Life iyoo) I. xii. 153 Non-official 
maid-of-all-work in Natural Science to the Government. 

5. In certain American universities v.sed as a 
decree-title in correspondence to Bachelor. 

1885 Pall Mall G. 5 Mar. 32 The Americans .. talk of 
Miss Bluestocking .. as ' Maid of Philo-ophy ', 'Maid of 
Science ', ' Maid of Arts'. 1888 Hrycf Amer. Comtmv. III. 
vi. cii. 445 note, Mr. D. C. Gilman. .mentions the \o.\ 
amwiig the degree titles awarded in some in-titutions to 
women .. Laureate of Science, Proficient in Music, Maid of 

6. Applied dial, to various inanimate objects see 
also K.D.I). . a. *= Maiden- sb.$. b. -Maidek 
sb. 6. c. A clothes-horse ; = Maidejt sb. 7 b. d. 
A washerwoman's dolly ; = Maiden* 7 c. 

a. a 1700 P. E. Vict. Cant. Crew, Kissing the Maid, an 
Engine in Scotland, and at Halifax in England. 

b. 1786 Har'st Rig cxlii. 11794) 43 Lan.^ was the Har'-t 
and little corn 1 And, sad mi* hance ! the Maid was si 
After sunset. 

C. 1795 Lond. Chron. 23 July 7;' A* if a horse, or mail 
for clothes, had been thrown with violence to the ground. 
d. 188a »W. Wore. Gloss. 36. 

7. A name given to the Skate and Thornback 
{Raia batis and R. elavata) when young. Also to 
the Twait Shad, Alosafinta (in Fr. similarly called 
pucelte). Cf. Maiden sb. 8. 

1579 J. Jones Preset-. Bodie <$- Sotde 1. xiv. 26 Of fishes, 
. . Whiting, Smelt, Maid*, Loch, Sammon. 1598 Epulario 
F iiij. Take out the guts of maids or Thornebackes by the gils 
with a forke or string. 1655 Moufet & Penset Healths 
I/uproT'. i57Maidesareas little and tender Skates. 1714 Gay 
Trivia 11. 292 The golden-belly'd Carp, the broad-hnn'd 
Maid. 1769 Pennant Brit. Zool. III. 70 Their {the thorn- 
backs'] young., which (as well as those of the skate> before 
they are old enough to breed, are called maid*. 1851 May- 
hew Lond. Labour I. 65 Piles of huge maid*, dropping 
slime from the counter, are eagerly examined and bartered 
for. 1862 Coi-ch Brit. Fishes'W. 122 Twait Shad. Maid. 

8. Comb. : a. appositive, as maid-attendant, 
-mother, -nurse, -slave, -widow, f -woman', b. 
attributive, as maid-face-, c. originative, as maid- 
birth, -bom adjs. ; d. parasynthetic, as maid-faeed 
adj. ; e. similative, as maid-like, -pale adjs. ; also 
maid -fish = sense 7 ; f maids' ale, the festival of 
themaidenV guild; fmaid'shair, Galiumverum; 
maids sickness - Gkeen-stcknes-. 

1896 Daily Xezvs 30 Oct. 10 7 *Maid-Attendant to an 
elderly or invalid lady. 1855 Bailky Mystic, etc. 91 The 
pearl conceived of dew and lightning, type Of that pure 
*maid-birth yet to bless the world, a 1649 Drimm. of 
Hawth. Poems \Vks. (1711* 24 Mild creatures, in whose 
warm crib now lies That, .holy *maid-born Wight, c 1407 
Lydg. Reas. 4- Sens. 3629 Euerych hath a *mayde face Of 
syghte lusty to enbrace. 1610 Healey St. Aug. Citie of 
God 686 Sphinx *maid-fac'd, fetherd-foule, foure-footed 
beast. 1810 Splendid Follies 1. 130 Distorting her counte- 
nance to the semblance of a *maid-nsh. 1606 Sylvester Dn 
Bartas 11. iv. il Magnif 1417 A Mars-like Courage in a 
*Maid-like blush. 1839 Bailey Festus iii. (1852) a3 Seven 
fair maidlike moons attending him Perfect his sky. 1830 
Tennyson Palace of Art xxiv, The *maid-mother . . Sat 
smiling, babe inarm. 1895 Daily if civs 15 May to/6 Mrs. 
H. wishes to recommend her maid .. as *Maid-Xurse. 
1593 Shaks. Rich. II, m. iii. o3 Ten thousand bloody 
crownes of Mothers Sonnes Shall. .Change the complexion 
of her *Maid-pale Peace To Scarlet Indignation. 1547 
Croscombe Ch.-wardens y Atets. (Som. Rec. Soc\ [Received 
from] The *maydes ayll xxij.?. \\d. 1597 G ekardk Herbal 11. 
ccccxlviii. 968 In English our Ladies Bedstraw, Cheese 
renning, *Maides Haire, and petie Mugwet. 1657 Coles 
Adam in Eden cccxliii, It is called . . in English Ladies 
Bedstraw, and sometimes Maids haire, from the finenesse 




of the Leaves. 1633 Ford 'Tis Pity in. ii, May bee, 'tis but 
the *Maides sicknesse, an ouer-flux of youth. 1603 North's 
Plutarch, Catnillus (1612) 150 Faire *maide slaues dressed 
vp lilce gentlewomen. 1655 Fuller Ch. Hist. 11. ii. § 92 He 
stayed so long, that his Church presumed him dead, and 
herself a "Maid-Widow, which lawfully might receive an- 
other Husband, c 13*0 Sir Beues (MS. A) 2203 And boute 
be finde me *maide wimman . . Send me a^en to me fon. 

t Maid, sh: 1 Corrupt form of Medink, Egyptian 
coin. Obs. 

1674 Jeake Arith. ("1696) 134 At .. Alexandria, They ac- 
compt by Ducats, either Ducat de Pargo, of 120 Maids,.. 
or Italian Ducat of 35 Maids. 

Maid, v. [f. Maid sb.' 1 ] 

1. intr. To do maids' work ; to act as a maid. 
1900 Pinero Gay Ld. Quex 1. 14 And when I got sick of 

maiding, I went to Dundas's opposite, and served three 
years at the hairdressing. 

2. dial, = Maiden v, 2. Hence maiding-tub. 
1882 W. Wore. Gloss. 

Maid, obs. pa. t. and pa. pple. of Make v, 

|| Maidan (maida-n). Indian. Also 7 may-dan, 
medon, mei-, m(e)ydan, midan, 9 maidaun. 
[Pers. tjlx^ maidan.'] An open space in or near 
a town ; an esplanade or parade-ground. 

1625 Purchas Pilgrims I. iv. 423 The Medon, which is a 
pleasant greene, in the middest whereof is a May-pole to 
hang a light on. 1662 J. Da vies tr. Olearius* Voy.Ambass. 
V. (1669) 172 The Meydan, that is the great Market-place. 
Ibid. 178 The Market-place, or Maydan, is large and noble. 
1698 Frver Acc. E. India $■ P. 249 The Midan, or open 
space before the Caun's Palace. 1845 Stocqueler //<*«<#£. 
Brit. India (1854) 189 DumDum. .is aspacious cantonment, 
with an extensive maidaun, or esplanade. 1879 A. Forbes 
Camps, Quarters, etc. (1896) 283 Before me on the maidan 
is the plain monument to Sir Mountstuart Jackson. 

t Maid-child. Obs. = Maiden-child. 

c 1205 Lav. 14378 He bad Hengest his dring }iuen him bat 
maide-child. Ibid. 24529 Moni ma:ide child wes here, c 1375 
Cursor AI. 1 1299 (Laud) For maide child [other te.vts maiden 
child] as long also. C1386 Chaucer Shipmans T. 95 A 
mayde child cam in hire compaignye. a 1450 Myrc 217 Also 
thys mote ben hem sayde, Bobe for knaue chyldere & for 
mayde, That [etc.}. 1535 Coverdale Lev. xii. 5 But yf she 
beare a maydechilde [1611 maid child]. 1608 Shaks. Per. 
v. iii. 6 [She] brought forth a Mayd child calld Marina. 

Maiden (m<?wrn), sb. and a. Forms : 1 mees- 
den, mseden, Nor thumb, mai(s)den, 2 mae^ddn, 
2-3 mei-, meyden, 3 maeiden, Orm. ma^denn, 
4-7 mayden, (4 mapen, 4-6 ma-, mai-, maj-, 
maydan, -din(e, -don, -dun, -dyn, 6 madne, 
9 maden), 3- maiden. [OE. mxgden str. neut. 
= OHG, magatin (MHG. magel/n; the mod.G. 
madchtn is not identical) :— OTeut. type *waga~ 
dtno m :— pre-Teut. *mogh w otfno-m, a dim. forma- 
tion (see -en) from *mogh w 6ti-s maiden, girl, repre- 
sented by Goth, magap-s, OHG. magad (MUG. 
maget, mod.G. viagd, maidservant), OS. magath 
(MDu. maghet y Du. maagd), OK. viaged, ms%9 
maid, virgin ; related to pre-Teut. *moghu-s boy, 
young man (Olrish mug slave, Avestic magu young 
man), whence Goth, magus, ON. mpg-r, OS., OK. 
magu. Cf. May sb.i] 
A. sb. 

1. A girl ; a young (unmarried) woman ; c=Maid 
I. (Not now in colloquial use exc. dial,) 

c 1000 Ags. Gosp. Matt. ix. 24 GaS heonun nys bys masden 
[c 1 160 Hatton maegdon] dead so31tce ac heo slsepo. a 1x00 
Voc. in Wr.-Wiilcker 310/9 Puella, madden, oSfle jeong 
wifman. c im>5 Lav. 2214 He 110m of ban monkunne preo 
swi5e feire mseidene. c 1250 Gen.fy Ex. 2749 Hirdes wul- 
den Se maidenes deren, Oc moyses eW hem gan weren. 
1340 Hampole Pr. Consc. 4966 Alle men sal ryse ban bat 
ever had life, Man and woman, mayden and wyfe. c 1375 
Sc. Leg. Saints vi. {Thomas) 58 A madyne com amange 
bam all of hebrow borne In-to be land, c 1400 Destr. Troy 
1363 Maydons for mornyng haue bere mynde loste. <~ 1470 
Henry Wallace v. 580 In Lanryk duelt a gentill woman 
thar, A madyn myld. 1539 Mirr. Mag., Dk. Clarence vii, 
A maiden of a noble house and old. 1601 Shaks. Airs 
Weill, iii. 155 (Gods mercie maiden)dos it curd thy blood 
To say I am thy mother ? 1710 Tatler No. 252 p 5 We . . 
have a Boy and a Girl : The Lad Seventeen, the Maiden 
Sixteen. 1853 M. Arnold Scholar-Gipsy ix, Maidens, who 
from the distant hamlets come To dance around the Kyfield 
elm in May. 1855 Cornwall 227 ' Maidens', as the Cornish 
people term girls from :6 to 17 years of age. i86oTvndall 
Glac. 1. xxiv. 173 A vigorous English maiden might have 
ascended the [ice] fall without much difficulty. 1887 Bowfn 
Virg., /Eneid 11. 238 Round it advance in procession un- 
wedded maiden and boy. 

b. A female child. Obs. exc. dial. 

c iaoo Ormin 4107 To clippen swa be cnapess shapp, & 
toffrenn lac forr ma^denn. 

2. A virgin ; spec, of the Virgin Mary (f maiden 
Alary); =Maiu a. Now rare. 

a 1035 Laws of Cnnt 11. c. 52 {53) Gif hwa maeden nyd- 
nxme, si guts violenter virginem opprhnat. ^1175 
Lamb. Horn. 77 {>et halie meiden onswerede and seide 
Quomodo [etc.], cnoo Ormin 2102 J>e$i wenndenn batt 
3ho waere wif, Acc ;ho wass ma33denn dene. _ c 1290 S, 
Eng. Leg. 3 '68 I -bore he was of be maydene Marie 1 c 1300 
Cursor AI. 28483 (Cott.), I.. forced sum woman with nede, 
and mabens reft pair mabenhede. 1387 Trevisa Higden 
(Rolls) VI. 319 pe kyng 3af here lond for to bulde tweie 
abbayes of maydons. c 1400 Destr. Troy 2940 J?at comes 
but to harme, Gers maidnes be mart, mariage fordone, a 1400 
Relig. Pieces fr. Thornton AIS. 27 Goddes sone tuke tlesche 
and blode of be blyssed maydene Marie. 1470-85 Malory 
Arthur xvm. xix. 760 A clene mayden I am for hym and 

for alle other. 1599 Shaks. Much Ado iv. i. 88 Why then 
you are no maiden. 

b. trans/. A man that has always abstained from 
sexual intercourse ; — Maid 2 c. Obs. 

< 1300 Havelok 995 Of hodi was he mayden clene. 1377 
Langl. P. PI. B. ix. 173 Maydenes and maydenes macche 
50W togideres. < 1440 Jacobus Well 277 He was a munk 
and priour of his hows, & a clene mayden. 1470-85 Malory 
Arthur xi. xiv, Syre Percyuale. .was a parfyte clene may- 
den. 1497 Bp. Alcock Mons Perfect. D iij, Y 8 grete nombre 
of his apostles were maydens. 

3. An unmarried woman, spinster; = Maid 3. 
Obs. exc. dial. Old maiden (rare) m Old maid. 
To go maiden : to remain single. 

1775 Tender Father I. 139 This gentlewoman was an old 
maiden, and possessed many particularities, a 1802 Cruel 
Sister xiv. in Child Ballads I. 128/2 Your cherry cheeks 
and your yellow hair Garrd me gang maiden evermair. 

4. A maid-servant, a female attendant. (Cf. 
Maid 4.) arch. natXdial. f Maiden of honour — 
Maid of honour. 

971 Blickl. Horn. 159 Forbon bu nu sceawa bines maes- 
(djenes eabmodnesse. 1*97 R. Glouc. (Rolls) 8965 Hire 
maidens bro^te hire clene water euere wanne heo lete. 13. . 
Coer de L. 880 The kynges doughter lay in her bower, 
With her maydenys of honour. 1377 Langl. P. PI. B. v. 
630 Charite and Chastite ben his chief maydenes. 1434 
E. E. Wills (1882) 97 To Aneys hir mayden, a russet kyrtell. 
a 1550 Freiris o/Berwik 251 in Dunbar's Poems 293 He 
bad the madin kindill on the fyre. 1596 Dalrymple tr. 
Leslie's Hist. Scot. n. 113 He requyres in mariage ane of 
the Quenes madnes. 1611 Bible Ps. exxiii. 2 As the eyes 
of a maiden [looke] vnto the hand of her inistresse. 1631 
W'efver Anc. L'uneral Alon. 446 The Ladies of the Court, 
and Maydens of Honor. 

5. The instrument, similar to the guillotine, for- 
merly used in Edinburgh for beheading criminals ; 
applied occas. to the Halifax gibbet (see Gibbet i c). 

1581 in Row Hist. Kirk (1842) 86, June 2, 1581. — The 
Earle of Morton was beheaded with the axe of the Maiden 
he himself had caused make. 1721 Ramsay Genty Tibby Hi, 
My wyzen with the maiden shore. 172a Wodrow Hist. 
Sujler. Ch. Scot. 1 1. 545 Falling down on his Knees upon the 
Stool, [the Earl of Argyle] embraced the Maiden, .very plea- 
santly. 1810 Bentham Packing (1821) 121 The Guillotine 
. .(a French edition of our Halifax Maiden). 1849 Macau- 
lay Hist. Eng. v. I. 565 The rude old guillotine of Scot- 
laud, called the Maiden. 

6. Sc. The last handful of corn cut in the harvest- 
field, often rudely shaped into the figure of a girl 
and decorated with ribbons (cf. Kirn- baby). Also 
harvest maiden. 

1786 Harst Eigcxxxvl. (1794) 42 For now the Maiden has 
been win, And Winter is at last brought in. 1797 Statist. 
Acc. Scotl. XIX. 550 The fortunate lass who took the 
maiden was the Queen of the feast. 1814 J. Train Moun- 
tain Muse 95 A former neighbour ..Who had with them 
for wedding bruises run, And from them oft the harvest 
maiden won. 

b. The harvest-home and the feast with which 
it was celebrated. 

1806 A. Douglas Poems 144 (Jam.) The master has them 
bidden Come back again, be't foul or fair 'Gainst gloamin', 
to the Maiden. 1899 Westm. Gaz. 13 Mar. 2/1 We speak 
always of our Harvest Homes as ' Maidens*. 

7. t&- (See quot. 1688.) b. dial. A clothes- 
horse. C. north, dial. A washerwoman's dolly. 

a. 1688 R. Holme Armoury in. 286/2 The Maidens or 
Damsels, the two Stands in which the Spindle turns. 

b. 1859 E. Waugh ' Come whoam to thi Childvr A> Me ' 
28 Poems 55 So aw iron't o my clooas reet weel, An' aw 
hang'd 'em o' th maiden to dry. 1881 [see maiden-maker 
in 10]. 

C. ij$»Gentl. Mag. XXII. 32 A Machine for washing 
of Linnen, called a Yorkshire Maiden. 1781 Rees Cycl. t 
Alaiden.Aht name of a machine first used in Yorkshire, 
and since introduced into other places, for washing of linen. 
[The apparatus as described consists of a dolly fitted to 
a covered wooden tub. This use of the name has app. not 
survived] 1829 J. Hunter Hallamsh. Gloss., Maiden, an 
instrument used in the laundry. x888 Sheffield Gloss. s.v., 
The maiden is sometimes called a peggy or dolly. 

f8. The name of a fish. (? = Maid^. 8.) Obs. 

1555 Eden Decades 269 Dryed fysshe as soles maydens 
playces. [1624 Hkvwood Captives 11. ii. in Bullen Old Plays 
(1885) IV. 145 For whom weare you a fislnnge? Mild. 
Marry, for maydens;.. But, my gutts, Howe they are 
sweld with sea brine V) 

9. Short for maiden horse % over, ?-ace, tree (see B). 

1807 Sir J. Malcolm in Lift (1856) I. xiv. 379 note, Grant 
and I have two horses for the two first maidens. 1880 Times 
28 Sept. 1 1/5 I Cricket] Shaw joined Selby, and when a couple 
of maidens had been sent down luncheon intervened. 1894 
Field 9 June 850/2 A plantation of young apple trees, 

mostly maidens and two-year-olds, was badly attacked by 
green aphis. 1898 StratJ'ord-on-Avon Herald 11 Feb. 4/j 
The Warwickshire Hunt Cup. .. For horses 
and upwards, maidens at the time of closing. 


The Warwickshire Hunt Cup. .. For horses five years 
nd upwards, maidens at the time of closing. 
10. attrib. and Comb., as maiden-blush ; maiden- 
faced y tongued adjs. ; maiden-maker ; -monger ; 
maiden-bark, ? the bark of saplings ; maiden- 
feast, the feast after cutting the maiden (sense 6) ; 
fmaiden-gear, f-geni, virginity ;fmaiden-heart, 
a variety of pear ; maiden-meek a., meek as befits 
a maiden ; f maiden-nut (see quot.) ; maiden- 
rip Sc.= 6 ; maiden-servant — sense 4 ; maiden- 
skate Sc. (see quot.) ; f maidens* light, a light 
(in a church) maintained by maidens ; t maidens' 
milk = Lac Vieginis ; maiden-widowed a., 
nonce-u'd. y widowed while still a maiden. 
1831 Planting 92 in Lib. Use/. Knowl., Husb. Ill, Tiller 

or Tellar, a shoot selected . . to stand . . for *maiden bark. 
1605 Breton Soules Immort. Crowne (Grosart) 7/2 She 
shewes her there the *Maiden-btush complection, Betwixt 
the cherrie Red, and snowie White. 1655 Gurnall Chr. in 
Ann. versei4. ix. (1669) 36/2 His Maiden-Mush modesty will 
not suffer him to declare his sin. 1861 J. Ruffini Dr. An- 
tonio i, The maidenblush clearness of the skin. 1567 Golding 
Ovid's Alet. vii. (1593) »5i Boreas sonnes had chaste Away 
the *maiden-faced foules that did the vittels waste. 1797 
Statist. Acc. Scotl. XIX. 550 It was, till very lately, the 
custom to give what was called a *Maiden Feast, upon the 
finishing of the harvest. 1719 D'Urfey Pills I. 130 My 
father takes me for a Saint, Tho' weary of my *Maiden 
Geer. 1612 Drayton Poly-olb. x. 148 Chaste Winifrid : who 
chose Before her *mayden-gem she forcibly would lose [etc.]. 
17*1 Mortimer Huso. II. 295 The Lewis Pear, or by some 
the *Maiden-heart. 1881 Instr. Census Clerks (1885) 143 
*Maiden Maker (Clothes Horse). 1847 Tennyson Princess 
in. 118 Yet *maiden-meek, I prayed Concealment, a 1625 
Fletcher Custom of Country 1. i, This thing you study to 
betray your child to. This *Maiden-monger. 1884 Knight 
Diet. Aleck. Suppt., * Maiden Nut, the inner one of two nuts 
on the same screw ; the outer is the jam-nut . 1882 J. Walker 
Jaunt to Auld Reekie, etc. 12 She grips some stalks and 
twists the *maiden-rip In triple strands. 1533 GAD Richt 
Vay ( 1 888) 11 Thou sal noth desir thy nichtburs wiff*madin 
seruand beist or ony thing quhilk pertenis to hime. 1741 
Richardson Pamela (1824) I. iv. iglfthe wench, (for so she 
calls us maiden -servants) takes care of herself she'll improve. 
1547-8 in Swayne Sarum Church-w. Acc. (1896) 27s For 
viij li. of wex for the *Maydens light v.r. 1810 Neill List 
Fishes 28 (Jam.) The young both of the Thornback and the 
Skate are denominated * Maiden -skate. a> 1400-50 Stockh. 
Med. MS. 4 A water bat is clepyd *maydinis mylke. 1507 
Shaks. Lover's Compl. 100 *Maiden tongu'd he was, and 
thereof free. 159a — Rom. $ Jul. in. ii. 135, I a Maid, die 
' Maiden-widowed. 

b. Invariousplant-names; +maiden-lip(s, ■£>///- 
nospermunt Lappula; f maiden mercury, a name 
for male plants of A/ercurialis annua ; maiden oak, 
Qucrats sessiliflora\ maiden pink, Dianthus del- 
toides ; maiden plum (tree), a name given to two 
West Indian trees, (a) Comocladia integrifolia, (b) 
Chrysobalanus\ maiden rose = Maiden's blush; 
t maidens* honesty, Clematis vitalba. Also 
Maidenhair, Maidenweed. 

1589 Rider Bibl. Schol. 1748 *Maiden lips, or tasil, lap- 
pago. 1578 Lyte Dodoens 1. hi. 78 This kinde may be called 
in English. .Daughters Phyllon, or *Mayden Mercury. 1848 
Phytotogist III. 883 note, The Quercus sessiliflora they 
(woodmen] call White Oak and *Maiden Oak. 1755 B. 
Stillingfl. Cal. Flora 7 July, Pinks, *maiden, Dianthus 
deltoides. 1776-96 Withering Brit. Plants (ed. 3) II. 410 
Maiden Pink. Sandy meadows, pastures, and heaths. 1882 
J. Hardy in Proc. Berw. Nat. Club IX. 476 At Makerstoun 
Crags .. the spindle-tree, maiden-pink,, .and the common 
feverfew grew. 1715 Sloane Jamaica II. 131 The *Maiden- 
Plumb-Tree. 1760 J. Lee Introd. Bot. App. 318 Maiden 
Plumb, Chrysobalanus. 1864GRISEBACH Flora W.Ind.-jZs 
Maiden-plum, Comocladia integrifolia. 1837 G. Darlev 
Sylvia 102 Here's a garland of red *maiden-roses for you. 
183a Miss Mitford Village Ser. v. 89 She has just as much 
colour as any woman ought to have — the maiden-rose tint. 
a 1691 Aubrey Nat. Hist. Wilts {1847) 49 Wild vetch, 
^maiden's honesty, polypodium [etc.]. 1691 Ray Ibid. 50 
Calver-keys, hare's-parseley, mayden's-honesty.are countrey 
names unknown to me. 

B. adj. (from appositive and attributive uses 
of the sb.). Cf. ViBGlN. 

I, Literal uses. 

1. Appositive uses. a. Unmarried ; now chiefly 
in ?naiden aunt, lady i sister, f b. Of a child : 
Female; see Maiden-child {obs.), fc. Virgin; 
sometimes said of men {obs.), 

a 1300 Cursor M. 5546 (Colt.) f>e knau barns .. bai suld . . 
sla, pe maiden barns ]>ai suld lat ga. 1300-1400///./. 21019 
(Gutt.) Iohn, maiden saint, iam brober, [was] mar luued wid 
crist pan ani ober. 1303 R. Brunne Hatidl. Synne 6080 5>'f 
an husbond chyldryn haue, One or two, mayden or knaue. 
crii+Guy li'arw. (A.) 196 And euerich knijt [ches] his leman 
Ofbat gentil maiden wiman. 1585 T. Washington tr. Nicho- 
lay y sVoy. 1. viii. 8 b. The Moorishe women and mayden slaues. 
1589 Plttenham Eng. Poesic in. (Arb.) 192 To blazon foorth 
the Brytton mayden Q ueene. 1591 Shaks. i Hen. VI, iv. vii. 
38 Thou Maiden youth, be vanquisht by a Maide. 1640 Wits 
Recreat. § 166 She will, .sit at dinner like a mayden-bride. 
1647 Tbapp Comm. Alatt. xxvii. 60 A new tomb it was, and 
fit it should be for that virgin body, or mai den -corpse, as 
one calls it. 1758 Johnson Idler No. 24 p 5 Maiden aunts 
with small fortunes. 1765 in Waghorn Cricket Scores 
(1899) 59 A cricket-match was played .. by eleven married 
against eleven maiden women. 1777 Sheridan Sch. Scand. 
iv. i, Here, now, is a maiden sister of his. 1798 Monthly 
Mag. VI. 75 [Died] At Windsor Castle, Mrs. Hannah 
Corbett, a maiden lady. 185a Rock Ch. of Fathers III. 1. 
269 The girl-like maiden-mother bowed down before the crib. 

2. Of or pertaining to a maiden, or to maiden- 
hood ; befitting a maiden, having the qualities of 
a maiden. Maiden name : the surname borne by 
a married woman before her marriage. 

1591 Shaks. i Hen. VI, n. iv. 47, I pluck this pale and 
maiden blossom here. Ibid. v. iv. 52 Joan of Arc. Whose 
Maiden-blood, thus rigorously effus'd, Will cry for Ven- 
geance at the Gates of Heauen. 159a — Rom. <y Jul. n. ii. 
86 The maske of night is on my face, Else would a Maiden 
blush bepaint my cheeke. 1601 — Twel. N. v. i. 262 He 
bring you to a Captaine in this Towne, Where lye my 
maiden weeds. 161J — Hen. VIII, iv. ii. 169 Strew me 
ouer With Maiden Flowers, that all the world may know 
I was a chaste Wife, to my Graue. 1648 Hf.rrick Hesper., 
To Anne Soatne, The meanest part of her Smells like the 
maiden -pomander. 1700 Drvden Cinyras -V Myrrha 113 
The tender sire who saw her blush and cry Ascrib'd it all to 
maiden-modesty. 1773 Life N. Frowde 5, I was baptized 
by her [the mother's] maiden Name Neville. 1814 Scott 




Ld. of Isles i. iv, Wake, Maid of Lorn ! the moments My, 
Which yet that maiden-name allow. 1844 Diskaixi Con* 
ingsby v. vi, Not.. a word that could call forth a maiden 

y. Of female animals : Uncoupled, unmated. 

1840 Boston Advertiser 30 June 3/4, I killed two sheep ; 
one was a maiden ewe, and the other a wether. 1885 Hell's 
Life 15 June 1/1 To he Sold, Two Maiden Three Year Old 
Fillies, 189a Stratford-on-Avon Herald 18 Nov. 4/1 To 
the owner and feeder of the best Pair of. . Maiden Sows. 

II. Figurative uses. 

4. That has yielded no results, a. Of an assize, 
circuit, session : Formerly, one at which no prisoner 
was condemned to death ; now, one at which there 
are no cases for trial, b. Of a game, esp. Cricket 
of an over : One in which no runs are scored, c. 
Of a tide : One on which no vessels enter or leave 
the dock. d. (See quot.) 

a. a 1700 B. E. Dtct, Cant. Crew, Maiden-sessions, when 
none are Har.g'd. 1742 Centl. Mag, July 386 Ended the 
sessions at the Old Bailey, which proved a maiden one, none 
having been capitally convicted. 1826 Scott Jml. 17 Apr., 
The judge was presented with a pair of white gloves, in 
consideration of its being a maiden circuit. 1847 Hai.liwei.l 
s.v., Maiden-assize. 1868 Daily Tel. 16 Apr., It is nearly 
half a century since there has been a maiden sessions at 

b- 1598 Fi.okio s.v. Marcio,. .a lurch or a maiden set at 
any game. 1864 Daily Tel. 16 May, Half-a-dozen ' maiden 
overs' in succession, every ball dead on the middle stump, 
and yet played steadily back again to the bowler. 1893 W. 
S. Gilbert Utopia 11, An occasional 'maiden over", 

C i8gy Daily Tel. 30 Nov. ic/a Hull.— There was to-day 
a maiden tide, no vessel being able either to enter or to leave, 
owing to the storm and flood. 

d. 1900 New Cent. Rev. VII. 374, 7 was called the 
maiden number, because within the decade it has no factors 
or product. 

e. Of a horse, etc. : That has never won a prize. 
Hence of a prize or a race : Offered or open to 
maiden horses, etc. 

1760 R. Hebkr Horse Matches ix. 40 All Maiden Horses 
favoured 2 lb. 1856 ' Stonchengb ' Brit, Sports n. 1. xni. 
(ed. 2) 364 A Maiden horse or mare is one that has never 
won. 1886 York Herald 10 Aug. 7/5 Two Miles .Maiden 
Bicycle Handicap. 1896 Daily News 1 7 July 3/4 The maiden 
class for horses that have never won a first prize before. 

5. That has not been conquered, tried, worked, 
etc. a. Of a town, castle, fortress, etc. : That has 
never been taken, ' virgin'. 

The appellation Maiden Castle (quot. 1639) given to Edin- 
burgh prob. did not originally mean 'virgin fortress', as in 
Geoffrey of Monmouth (12th c.) ft appears as Castrum Pit- 
ellarum, ' maidens' castle '. Several ancient earthworks in 
England are also called Maiden Castle: the sense may pos- 
sibly be 'a fortress so strong as to be capable of being de- 
fended by maidens ' ; there may have been an allusion to 
some forgotten legend. Cf. the equivalent Ger. name 

1593 Smaks. Lucr. 408 Her breasts .. A paire of maiden 
worlds vnconquered. i6ox J. Wheeler 'Treat. Comm. 30 that time termed the Maiden Citie. 1631 j. 
Taylor (Water P.) Tarn Fort. /f//t't7(Halliw.) 9 Victone 
forsook him for ever since he ransacked the maiden town of 
Magdenburg. 1639 Dkumm. of Hawtji. Sp.for Edinburgh 
Wks. (1711) 216 Relieving king James III. when he was 
beleaguer'd in his maiden-castle. 1648 J. BOND Fschol 27 
Those parts of the Kingdome which had hitherto been un- 
toucht, the Mayden Counties, as they call them, have been 
now most of all defloured. 1756 Nicest 6r. Tour, France 
IV. 26 [Abbeville] is called The maiden town, because it 
was never taken by an enemy. 1802 Wordsw. Sonn. 
Extinct. Venet. Repub., She was a maiden City, bright and 

b. Of a plant or tree : (a) That has grown from 
seed, not from a stock; {b) That has not been 
budded, lopped, pruned, or transplanted. 

a 1649 Drumm. of Hawth, Tonus Wks. (1711) 22/1 Though 
envy, avarice, time, your tombs throw down, With maiden- 
lawrells nature will them crown. 1655 Moufkt & Bennet 
Health's Itnprov. (1746) 320 The unset Leek, or Maiden- 
leek, is not so hot as the knopped ones. 1763 Burn 
Elect. Law II. 413 Maiden trees of beech proceeding from 
stools above 20 years growth. 1803 R, W. Dickson Pract. 
Agric. 1095 In cutting-wood one madett standard is left 
to each lugg or forty-nine square yards. 1832 Planting 
91 in Lib. Usef. Knowl, Hush. III. Maiden-plant.— A 
young tree raised from seed, in opposition to one produced 
from an old root or stub. 1900 Brit. Med. Jml. No. 2080. 
1367 The child so suffering [from congenital hernia] is passed 
naked through a cleft maiden ash on a Sunday morning 
at sunrise. 

c. Of soil, metals, etc. : That has never been 
disturbed, ploughed, or worked. Also maiden- 
wax, * virgin' wax ( = F. are vierge, Dn. maagden- 
was), wax taken from the comb without melting. 

1622 Mai.ynes Anc. Law-Mcrch. 259 There is Mayden- 
gold so called because it was never in the fire. 1726 Leoni 
Albcrti s Archit. 1. 50/2 Cramps doneoverwith Maiden-wax 
..never rot. 1776 G. Sf.mi-le Building in Water 34 You 
work on fresh maiden Ground, that has not been fouled or 
incumbered with Stones. 1812 Sir R. Hoare Anc. South 
11 Jits. 1 6 Maiden downs, by which I mean all land untouched 
by the plough. 1849 Florist 43 Refreshing my beds annually 
with a few barrowfuls of maiden earth mixed with pig or 
horse dung. 1878 Archxol. Cantiana XII. 8 I found the 
earth was almost entirely maiden soil. 1897 Daily News 
23 Apr. 3/1 Much of it [coal] was in its ' maiden state '—that 
is, had not been worked over in the past. 

d. Of a soldier, etc. ; also of a weapon : Untried. 
1603 Drayton Odes xvii. 102 Though but a Maiden 

Knight. 1647 Clarendon Hist. Reb. vi. § 291 The Horse 
he put under the Command of his Brother, the Lord John 
Somerset, a maiden Soldier too. 1834 L. Ritchie Wand. 

Vol. VI. 

by Seine 15 He bad not as yet fleshed his maiden sword. 
1838 Lytton Alice iv. v, The air rather of a martyr than a 
maiden placeman. 1842 Tennyson SirGalahadfa A maiden 
knight — tome is given Such hope, I know not fear, 

6. That is the first of its kind ; made, used, etc. 
for the first time. Occas. in sense early, earliest. 
Maiden-speech : the first speech delivered in the 
House by a member of parliament. 

I S55 W. Watkkman Fardle Facions Pref. 20 He but 
borowyng their woordes, bryngeth it foorthe for a mayden 
booke. 1622 Cuius Stat. Sewers v. (1647) 219 Your Reader 
took in hand to read upon a Maiden-law, which never 
before this time abide [sic] his Exposition in any Inns of 
Court. . 1645 HOWELL Lett. (1650) II. 122, I send one of 
the maiden Copies heerwith to attend you. 1786 Wolcot 
(P, Pindar) Odes to R. Ai's ii, But not a single maiden dish, 
poor gentleman, of flesh or fish. 1794 Hist. \\\ Ann. Reg. 
61 Mr. Canning, In his maiden speech (according to the 
technical language of the house) said [etc.]. 1798 Sporting 
Mag- XII. 4 A maiden deer was turned out at Tower Hill. 
1799 G. Smith Laboratory II. 261 The usual baits are the 
tail-part of a maiden lob-worm, a 1813 A. Wilson Foresters 
Poet. Wks. (1846) 211 Fresh on his maiden cruise to see 
the world. 1813 Vancouver Agric. Devon 213 The maiden 
bite of the artificial grasses and white clover, 1825 Col. 
Hawker Diary (1893) I. 284 This was my maiden day at 
English black game shooting. 1842 H. Rogers Ess, (1874) 
I. i. 4 The same year was signalised by his maiden publica- 
tion. 1843 Le 1'V.vrk Life Trav. Phys. I. 1. i. 20 It was at 
this time, .that I took my maiden fee. 1883 Casselfs Fan/. 
Mag. Aug. 527/2 In the second year the planter gets a very 
small crop called the maiden-crop. 1884 Times (weekly ed.) 
31 Oct. 19/4 The. .new steamship., sailed from Plymouth., 
on her maiden trip to the Antipodes. 1001 Scotsman 11 Mar. 
8/7 The. .steamer. .was on her maiden voyage from London 
to China. 

Maiden (ntfi'd'n), v. [f. Maiden sb.] 

1 1. In phr. 'Jo maiden it : to act like a maiden ; 
to be coy. Obs. 

1597-8 Bp. Hall Sat. III. iii. 5 Forbad I mayden'd it, as 
many use, Loath for to graunt, but leather to refuse. 

2. trans, {dial.) To wash clothes with a 
'maiden'. 1 fence maidening-pot, -tub. 

1839 BYWATER Sheffield Dial. 132 Salla do yo pull toud 
maidnin tub tot table. 1890 Sheffield Daily Tel. 11 Apr. 
7/1 The child was standing near a maidening pot half full 
of water. 

t Maiden-child. Obs. A female child. (Cf. 

C893 K. &LFRED Oros. I. x. § 2 Eft bonne ha wif heora 
beam cendon, bonne feddonhie pa ma:dencild. c 1200 Okm in 
7897, & ma^dennchild bitacnebb uss W'ac mahht i gode 
dedess. c 1250 Gen, ty Ex. 2574 Do bad monophis pharaun 
. . leten Se mayden childre huen. < 1440 Bone Flor. 31 A 
feyre lady he had to wyfe, That., dyed of a maydyn chylde. 
1587 Fleming; Contn. Holinshcd III. 1999/1 Leaving but 
one maiden-child and princesse. 1643 J. Steer tr. Exp. 
Chyrurg. ix. 42 There was a Maiden childe, of the age of 
two yeares. 

Maidenhair ^m" , 'd , n|lnj' , i\ A lso6-7 maiden's 
hair. [f. Maiden sb. + Hair.] 

1. The name of certain ferns having fine hair- 
like stalks and delicate fronds. a. Adia'ntum 
Capillus-veneris, called also black or True Maiden- 
hair ; formerly much used in medicine. 

1 1450 ME. Med, Bk. (Heinrich) 102 Take . . verueyne, 
maydenher [etc.], 1549 Compl. Scot. vi. 67, I sau madyn 
hayr, of the quhilk ane siropmaid of it is remeid contrar the 
infectione of the melt. 1562 Turner Hcrbalu. 157 b, Tricho- 
manes (that is our English Maydens heare) is supposed to 
haue the same vertue that the Lumbardy Maydens heare 
hath. 1507 Gerarde Herbal u. cccclvii. 982-3 True Maiden 
haire. . . the right Maiden haire groweth vpon wals . . it is 
a stranger in Englande. .. In English black Maiden haire, 
and Venus haire. 1697 Trvon Way to Health xv. (ed. 3) 368 
Take . . a pint and half, Tincture of Saffron, and Syrup of 
Maidenhair. 1785 Martvn Rousseau's Bot. xxxii. (1794) 491 
True Maiden-hair. . is used or supposed to be so, in the syrup 
of capillaire. 1887 E. Lyai.l Knight-Errant (1889) 87 
A little lizard.. plunged into the maidenhair that fringed the 

b. Asplenium Trichomanes, called also Common 
or English Maidenhair. 

a 1400-50 Stockh. Med. MS. 176 Maydenheer or watir- 
wourt, capillus virgiuis. 1562 [see a]. 1579 Langham Card. 
Health (1633) 379 Tricomanes, Polytricon or English Maiden- 
haire hath y e same vertues that Capillus Veneris hath. 1597 
Gerarde Herbal 11. cccclviii. 984 Of English or common 
Maiden haire. 1634 Peacham Centl. Excrc. in. 11. vii. 144 
June in a mantle of darke grasse greene, upon his head a gar- 
landof Uents, King-cups, and Maidenshaire. 1688R. Holme 
Armoury 11. 74/1 The English Maiden-hair is a small spiry 
stalk with two round leaves fixed to the side [etc.]. 1760 
J. Lee Introd. Bot. App. 318 Maiden-hair, English black, 

c. /1spleniumNuta-muraria,\Xhite Maidenhair. 
1597 Gerarde Herbal it. cccclvii. 983 Wall Rue, or Rue 

Maiden haire. .White Maiden haire. 1718 Quincy Compl. 
Disp. 115 White Maidenhair. — It is used in Decays of the 
Lungs. 1760 J. Lee Introd. Bot. App. 318 Maiden-hair, 
White, Asplenium. 1861 Miss Pratt Floiver. PI. VI. 213. 

2. In other plant-names, a. Golden Maidenhair, 
the moss Polytrichum commune. 

\*fl%\srwDodoens in. Ixxi. 412 Goldylockes, Polytrichon, 
or Golden Maydenheare. 1783 Martvn Rousseau's Bot, 
xxxii. (1794) 493 Greater Golden Maidenhair .. is a large 
sort of moss and abundant in woods, heaths and bogs. 

b. The Lancashire Asphodel, Nartheciuni osst- 
fragum (see quot.). 

1633 Johnson Gerarde* s Herbal 1. Ixxi. 96 Another water 
Asphodill, which.. in Lancashire is vsed by women to die 
their haire of a yellowish colour, and therefore by them 
it is termed Maiden-haire, if we may beleeue Lobell. 

C. Yellow liedslraw, Galium verum. 
1548 Turner Name qfHerbes (E.D.S.) 39 Gallon or gal- 
lion is named in English in the North tountrey Maydens 
heire. 1562 — Herbal u, 6b. 

d. Ground Ivy, A T epeta Glechoma. 
1657 Coles Adam in Eden xxvi. 53 Some Country people 
that would have the barren Ivy to be the true Ground-Ivy, 
call the other Maiden-hair. 

f3. Some textile fabric. Obs. 

1359 Will of Agnes Selby in Test. Ebor. (Surtees) I. 71 
Lego Anabillae quondam servient! mea;..unam tuincam de 

f 4. ?Some kind of marking; on flowers. Obs. 

?i6o7 Dav Pari. Bees xi. (1641) G 3 b, July-flowers, and 
Carnations weare Leaves double strenkt with Maiden haire. 

*I5. In literal sense : A maiden's hair. rare~ x . 

1648 Herrick Hesper., Idleness, Play not 
with the maiden-haire For each ringlet there's a snare. 

6. attrib. and Comb., as f maidenhair - syrup ; 

maidenhair fern = 1 ; maidenhair grass, L'riza 
media; (golden) maidenhair-moss— 2 a ; maid- 
enhair-spleenwort, a book-name for various 
plants of the genus Asplenium (see quot. io'3^) ; 
maidenhair-tree, a name for the Gingko. 

1833 Penny Cycl. I. 130/1 The A[diantum] Capillus Ve- 
neris, or the *maiden-hair fern. 1640 Parkinson Theatr. 
Bot. 1165 Gramen tremulum medium. *Maidenhaire 
grasse, or the lesser quaking grasse. 1597 Gerarde Herbal 
hi. civil. 1371 Aluscus capiltaris . , Goldilocks, or Golden 

* Maiden haire Mosse. 1837 Macgii.livray Withering's 
Brit. Plants 383 Asplenium Triihomancs. Common 

* Maidenhair Spleenwort. . . A. vtride. Green Maidenhair 
Spleenwort. ., A, Adiantum-nigruw. Plack Maidenhair 
Spleenwort. 1862 Ansieh Channel 1st. 11. viii. (ed. 2) 183 
The a. trhhomanes or maiden-hair spleen-wort, is the most 
delicate of the group, 1711 Loud. Car,. No. 4845/4, 200 
half pint P.ottles of 'Maidenhair Sin up. 1773 Centl. Mag. 
X LI 1 1. 338 The Ginkgo, or * Maiden- hair tree, from China, 
..has been propagated by Mr. Gordon, of Mile-End. 1882 
Garden 12 Aug. 145/3 The leaves bear a good deal of re- 
semblance to those of the Maidenhair tree. 

Maidenhead 1 (m^-d'nhed). arch, ff. Maiden 

sb. -t -HEAD.] 

1. The state or condition of a maiden; virginity; 
said occas. of a man (see MaIPEN sb. 2 b). 

a 1300 Cursor M. 10S80, I herd it neuer in lijf ne ledd 
Worn man her barn in maidm-bedd. ibid. 12706 Sent Ion, 
be wangelist. .he liued in maiden-hede. "357 Lay Polks 
Catech. 125 Iesu crist. .was sothefastely consayued of the 
maiden mari,. .Without en ony mynnyng of hir maidenhede. 
1423 J as. I Kingis (J. 55 Pitee was to here 'the crueltee of 
that vnknyghtly dede, (Juhare was fro the bereft thi maiden- 
hede, 1535 COVER DA LF Judg. xi. 38 Then wente shee with 
her playefeeres, and bewayled hir mayden heade vpon the 
mountaynes. 1613 Shaks. Hen. I'/II, 11. iii. 23 By my 
troth, and Maidenhead, I would not be a Queene. 1697 
Drvden Virg. Georg, Ded., He who carries a Maidenhead 
into a Cloyster, is sometimes apt to lose it there. 1749 
Kiellunc; Tom Jones xvm. -viii, A merry song which bore 
some relation to matrimony and the loss of a maidenhead. 
1796 Pkgge Anonym. (1809) 457 To be able to look upon 
the sun, they say, is a siyn of oifc's having a maidenhead. 
1885-94 R. Bridges Eros $ Psyche Teh. xxiv, His earthly 
bride, Who won his love, in simple maidenhead. 

f b. Phrases : to enjoy, get, have, prove, take, 
win {a woman S; maidenhead', also of a woman 
{rarely of a man), to keep, lose (So. tine) one's 
maidenhead. Obs. 

t tnj/oGen. <$■ Fx. 1852 Sichem tok hire maiden-hed. c iiao 
Sir Tristr, 2:34, V loued neuer man wib mode Pot him pat 
hadde mi maidenhede. r 1330. 4 misty A mil. 767 So thai plaid 
in word and dede, That he wan hir maidenhede. c 1375 Sc. 
Leg. Saints xviii. {Egiplciaue) 446 Myn madynned quhow I 
fust tynt par. c 1400 Destr. Troy 3997 Most was hir mynde 
hir maidonhede to kepe. c 1450 St. Cuthbert (Surtees) 204 
Sho wepid. .bat wyked dede pat made hir lose hir mayden- 
hede. 1567 Gude ty Godlie B. (S. T. S.) 146 Zit keipit scho 
hir madinheid vnforlorne. 1591 Lvi.v Sappho n. i, Phcebus 
in his godhead sought to get my maidenhead. 1663 Drvden 
Wild Gallant Prol., As some raw squire, by tender mother 
bred, 'Till one-and-twenty keeps his maidenhead. 1697 Van- 
bri'gh -2nd Pt. sEsop iii. 51 sEsop. How long did you stay? 
Beau. Till I had lost my maidenhead. 

f2. trans/, and Jig., esp. the first stage or first- 
fruits of anything; the first example, proof, trial, 
or use ; also in phrases (see 1 b). Obs. 

c 1412 Hoccleve De Reg. Princ. 3036 mayden- 
hede of this Iuel Shalt preue anone. a 1550 Tales <%■ Quick 
Ansio. xcv. (1814) 98 That he wolde gyue him leaue to 
haue the maidenheed of the pyllory. 1591 Fi.okio 2nd 
Fruites Ep. Ded., The maiden head of my industrie I 
yeelded to a noble Mecenas (renoumed Lecester) the honor 
of England, a 1592 H. Smith Ser/u. (1599) 536 God requir- 
ing the first labours of his seruants, and (as I may say), the 
maidenhead of euery man. 1612 (title) Parthenia, or the 
Maydenhead of the first inusicke that euer was printed 
for the Virginalls. a 1687 Petty Pol. Arith. i. (1691) 20 
One sort of Vessels, and Rigging, where haste is requisite 
for the Maidenhead of a Market. 17^5 Smollet Quix. 
(1803) I. ig Others affirm, that the windmills had the maiden- 
head of his valour. 1775 S. J. Pratt Liberal Opin. exxxvii. 
(1783) IV. 260 He had received a present, of which, he insisted 
upon it, we should have the maidenhead. 

I Mai'denhead-'. Obs. [f. Maiden^. + Head.] 
A representation of the head or bust of the Virgin 
Mary. a. As an ornamental finish to the handle 
of a spoon ; occas, , the spoon itself. 

[1446 Wills A> Inv. (Surtees Soc.) I. 92 In Prompt.uario 
sunt ij Coclearia argentea et deaurata .. cum ymaginjbus 
Beatae Mariae in fine eorundem.] 1495 in Wadley Notes 
Wills inGt. Orphan Bk. Bristol (1886) 170 [Six silver spoons] 
cum Maidenheddis. [Six silver spoons] de Maidenheddis. 
ifiM Test. Ebor. (Surtees) V. 162 Mariae Evers sex cocliaria 





de arg. cum le mad ynhed ties. 1538 Bury Wills (Camden) 
134 Allso I bequeth to Nycholas Esthaw my syluer pece 
and iij syluer sponys w* mayeden hedes. 1567 Richmond 
Wills (Surtees Soc.) 198, xiij postle spones. .J dossone lyones 
and \ doss, madinehedes. 

b. Her. As a bearing on a shield, etc. 

1615 Heywood Four* Prentises Wks. 1874 II. 239 God- 
freyes shield, hauing a Maidenhead with a Crowne in it. 
1618 J. Taylor (Water P.) Pennyless Pilgr. A 4 b, 1 . . went 
that night as farre as Islington, There did I finde. .A May- 
denhead of twenty hue yeeres old, Hut surely it was painted, 
. .And for a signe or wonder, hang'd at' dore. 1728 S. Kent 
Banner Display d II. 764 Crest, on a Torce of his Colours, 
a maidenhead proper, enclos'd in a Ring of Gold. 

Maidenhood (nvWl'nhud). Forms : see 
Maiden sb. and -hood. [OE. mxgdenhdd, f. m teg- 
den Maiden + -had -hood.] The condition of 
being a maiden ; the time of life during which one 
is a maiden. Formerly also — Maidenhead x 1 b 
and 2, in phrases to have, hold, keep, .to, etc. (ones) 

(1900 Cynewulp Crist 1419 J>a ic sylf Restas maga in 
modor, peah waes hyre niEe^denhad sejhwaes onwal^. c 1200 
Vices ty Virtues 55 pat hie ne behiet hire maidenhad seure 
mo to healden. c iwkOrmin 46 Forr maidenhad & widd- 
wesshad & weddlac birrb ben clene. a 1225 Ancr. R. 54 
Heo leas hire meidenhod, & was imaked hore. c 1290 S. 
Eng. Leg. 380/137 For $e habbez jeot ouwer Maiden* 
hod. 136a Langl. P. PI. A. 1. 158 >e naue no more merit 
In Masse ne In houres pen Malkyn of hir May den hod, pat 
no Mon desyrep. 1388 Luke ii. 36 [She] hadde 
lyued with hir hoselxmde seuene }eer fro hir maydynhod. 
1 1450 Lonelich Grail xxix. 150 For Maydenhod is In this 
maner trewly, that felte neuere man fleschly,. .but virginite 
is An heighere tiling, c 1575 Balfour's Prac ticks 67S The 
Lord of the ground sail have the maidenhood of all maidenis 
..dwelland on the ground. 1591 Shaks. i Hen. VI, iv. vi. 
17 The irefull Bastard Orleance, that drew blood From thee 
my Hoy, and had the Maidenhood Of thy first fight, I soone 
encountred. a 1603 [see MaiueslessJ. 1641 Earl Monm. 
tr. Biondts Civil Warres 11. 83 No maidenhood was unde- 
fiowred, nor marriage bed unviolated. 18461 . G. 
Prometheus Bound 40 In loveless maidenhood outworn. 
1858 Hawthorne Fr. $ It. Jrnls. I, 226 There is . . a very 
pleasant atmosphere of maidenhood about her. 1863 Wool- 
ner My Beautiful Lady In trod. 5 A man. .who has found 
H^. .daughter. -Fallen from her maidenhood. 

Maidenish (m*?*'d*nif). a. [f. Maiden sb. + 
-ish.] Resembling a maiden, characteristic of a 
maiden. Used in depreciatory sense. 

1749 Fielding Tom Jones vi. vii, 'Come, come*, says 
Western, 'none of your maidenish airs'. 181$ Zehtca I. 
172 Do not let one word of this rhodoniontade come within 
ken of your maidenish aunts. 1825 New Monthly Mag. 
XV. 299 A pretty affectation of maidenish coyness. 

Comb. 1789 Anna Seward Lett. (1811 I II. 250 But, Lord ! 
what a pale, maidenishdooking animal for a voluptuary ! 

Maidenism nv'd'niz'm). rare. [f. Maiden j£. 
+ -ism.] Maidenish bearing and behaviour ; a 
maidenish notion or peculiarity. 

1790 Anna Seward LetJ. (181 1 I III. 38 When he confessed 
these maidenisms, I despaired of his suiting the pleasant, 
prancing, pop-gun situation of butler at Prior's Lea. 1825 
Gentl. Mag. XCV. 1. 626 The elegant simplicity and delicate 
maidenism of the pretty Miriam Gray. 

t Mavdenkin. Obs~ l [f. Maiden^. + -kin.] 

l 1330 Arth. <y Merlin G71 (KOlbing"tTo ligge bi a maiden- 
kin &: bi^eten a child her in. c 1440 [see MaidkinJ. 

t Maidenless, a. nonee-tvd, [f. Maiden;.?. 

+ -less.] Not truly ' maiden*. 
a 1603 T. Cartwright Coufut. Rhem. N. T. (1618) 39 The 
Greeke Church, which neuer liked of the maidenlesse maiden- 
hood of their Priests. 

Maidenlike, <*. and adv. [f. Maiden sb. + 
-like.] a. adj. Such as is usual with maidens; 
befitting a maiden, fb. adv. After the manner of 
maidens. Obs. 

15.. Robin Conscience 318 in Had. E. P. P. III. 246 To 
clatter and flatter is no maidenlike way. a 1548 Hall Chron., 
Hen. VI 183 The yong erle of Rutland, .scace of y* age of 
.xii. yeres, a faire gentleman and a maydenlike person. 1589 
Fleming Virg. Georg. 1. 15 If sheouercast vpon hir face a 
virgins rednesse Or blushing maidenlike. 163a Lithcow 
Trav. in. 96 He was maiden-like brought vp amongst the 
Kings daughters, 1825 J. Neal Bro. Jonathan II. 179 Our 
boy contrived . . to do a multitude of .. pretty, maiden-like 
things. 1834 Lytton Pompeii 23 Her manners are not 
maidenlike. 1847 Tennyson Princess iv. 73 And maidenlike 
as far As I could ape their treble, did I sing. 

Maidenliness (m^-'d'nlines). [f. Maidenly 
+ -NE8S.] The quality of being maidenly ; the 
behaviour proper to a maiden. 

1555 W. Watreman Bardie Facialis App. 326 Any man 
of a shamefaced maindenlines [sic], 1583 IUbington Cow* 
tnaundm. (1615) 42 Silence is ignorance, modesty is too much 
maidenlinesse. 1617 Rider's Vict., Virginalitas, Maiden- 
linesse. 1868 Pusey Serm. Pharisaism 13 Those who used 
to furnish our ideal of maidenliness and purity. 1879 G. 
Meredith Egoist I. x. 193 That fair childish maidenliness 
had ceased. 

Maidenly (m^-d'nli), a. and adv. [f. Maiden 
sb. + -LT.J A. adj. 

1. Of or pertaining to a maiden, or to maiden- 
hood. In early use = Virgin a. 

1450-1530 Myrr. our Lad ye 112 Whyche shulde be con- 
ceyued and borne of thy maidenly body. 158a Kentlf.y 
Mon. Matrones Pref. Bj, Even from their tender and 
maidenlie yeeres, to spend their time . . in the studies of 
noble and approved sciences. 1871 R. tr. Catullus 
lx-iv. 78 J 'axed of her youthful array, her maidenly bloom 

fresh -glowing. 189a Temple Bar May 114 The maidenly 
curve of her bust 

b. nonce-use. (Cf. Maiden a. 6.) 

1823 Uyron Juan xiii. xc, An orator,. .Who had deliver'd 
well a very set Smooth speech, his first and maidenly trans- 

f2. Of persons: Resembling a maiden in action 
or bearing. Characterized by a maiden's qualities, 

e. g. gentleness, modesty, timidity. Obs. 

1523 Skelton Garl. Laurel 865 Lyke to Aryna maydenly 
of porte. 1549 Chaloner Erasmus on Folly A ij, Shall one 
of those shamefast and maidenly men not sticke than to 
displaie his pecockes fethers? 1592 Greene Gioatsn: Wit 
(1617)!) 3 b,RIy brother is a maidenly Hatcheler. 1597SHAKS. 
2 Hen. IV, 11. ti. 82 Wherefore blush you now? what a 
Maidenly man at Armes are you become ? 1655 Gurnall 
C hr. in Arm, verse 14. iii. (1669) 8/2 They, .were so maidenly 
and fearful, as not to venture down their hills, for fear of 
drowning. 167a Marvf.ll Reh. Tramp. 1. 4 < )ur author is 
very maidenly, and condescends to his JJookseller not with- 
out some reluctance. 

3. Of qualities, actions, etc. : Proper to, or 
characteristic of a maiden. 

1532 More Confut. Tindale Wks. 626/1 To learne of hys 
lemman some very maidenly shamefastenes. 1590 Shaks. 
Mids. N. in. ii. 217 And will you rent our ancient loue 
asunder, To ioyne with men in scorning your poore friend ? 
It is not friendly, 'tis not maidenly. 1748 Richardson 
Clarissa (1811) II. 68 A confession, that all your past be- 
haviour was maidenly reserve only. 1849 James Wood- 
man xxii, She. .with maidenly modesty retired till she had 
the sanction of her guardian's presence. 1884 Contemp. 
Rep. Oct. 547 The manner in which Miss Victoria Dare.. 
captures Lord not exactly maidenly. 

B. adv. After the fashion of a maiden ; in a 
maidenly manner. 

1596 Harincton Metam. Ajax (1S13) 20, I that maidenly 
to write was wont. 1625 Gonsalvio s Sp. Inquis. 59 Bend- 
ing her head downeward maidenly. 1844 Mrs. drowning 
Crcnvnedfy Wedded, Her looks turned maidenly to ground. 
1889 F. M, Crawford Greifenstein I. ii. 39 She was.. away 
from the world,, .and maidenly ignorant of all it contained. 

i Maiclenman. Obs. [f. Maiden j^. + Man 
sbA] A maiden, virgin. 

c 893 K. /Elfred Ores. 1. xiv. § 1 Mesiane noldon Saet 
Laecedemonia ma^denmenn mid heora ofreden. c 1000 
Sax. Leechd. Ill, 42 Ga J>a:niie an maclen man to and ho 
hit on his sweoran. < 1200 ( )hmin 2085 Sannte Mar^e. .wass 
a;fre ma33dennmann. a 1310 in Wright Lyric P. 82 For 
nou thou wost of moder fare thou thou be clene maydeu mon. 

Maiden's blush. 

1. Used as a name for a delicate pink colour. 
Hence, a rose of this colour. 

Cf. maiden blush, s.v. Maiden A. 10. 

1648 Hekrick Hesper., Epithat. Sir C. Carrttf, But for 
prick-madam, and for gentle-heart, And soft maidens-blush, 
the bride Makes holy these. 1661 Peacham Compl. Gent. 
{ed. 3) 156 Of the signification of Colours. Maidens-blush, 
[signifieth] Envy. 1750 G. Hughes Barbadoes 226 From 
which Place rise several many-leav'd Flowers, of a Maiden 's- 
blush. 1882 Garden 19 Aug. 168/2 The Maiden's Blush 
Rose, once so popular, but now seldom met with. 

2. A small geometrid moth, Ephyra pitnetaria. 
1869 E. Newman Brit. Moths 73. 

Maidenship (m^-d'njip). [f. Maiden- sb. + 
-ship.] The personality of a maiden; chiefly in 
Your Maidenshif, as a playful form of address. 

160a Rowlands Tis Merrie 22 Vour Mayden-ship takes 
Liquor in too nice. 1637 Heywood Royall Kingxw. 1. E 2 b, 
Yes if it please your Maidenship. 1756 Mrs. F. Brooke Old 
Maid No. 0. 64 Your maidenship has opened a channel, 
through which my thoughts may flow. 1831 Eraser's Mag. 
IV. 183 We trust that their chaste maidenships the Muses 
will not suffer much of this metrical rubbish to fall in our way. 

1 Maiden weed. Obs. [In sense I fox*maythen~ 
weed (see Maythen) ; in sense 2 f. Maiden sdJ] 

1. = Maidweed. 

1490 Promp. Pan'. (Pynson) [see Maidweed quot. 1:1440]. 
1530 Palsgr. 241/2 Maydenwede. 1591 Percivall Sp. Vict,, 
Ervato, maidenweeds, hogfenell, /Ywi»<fa««w. 159a R. D. 
Hypnerotomachia 29 A garland.. of hitter alisander com- 
mixt with dead leaves of maydenweede. 1607 Topsell 
Four-f. Beasts (1658) 39 Castoreum. . procure th sleep, they 
being anointed with it, maiden-weed, and conserve of roses. 
1718 Rowe tr. Lucan 404 Wound-wort and Maiden-weed 
perfume the Air. 

2. *= Maidenhair i a. 

IS«4 Crete Herball 'xxxvii, Adianthos. Maydenweede. 

t Mai deux. Obs. Also 5 madeus, maydese, 
ma aydeus. [OF. in aide dens *God help me'.] 
In phrase So ?naideux = i so help me God*. 

a 1400-50 Alexander 729 'So madeus 1 [Ashm.MS. Sa ma 
aydeus], quod pis oper man. Ibid. 4446 And maydese jit. 
Ibid. 5024 ■ So maideux ', quod be mone-tree. 

t Mai'dhead. Obs. [f. Maid sb. + -head.] = 
Maidenhead 1 . 

1390 Gower Conf. II. 341 The beaute of his face streited 
He hath, and threste out bothe hise yhen, That alle wommen 
whiche him syhen Thanne afterward, of him ne roghte. And 
thus his maidehiede he boghte. 1567 Gude <fr Godlie B. 
(S. T. S.) 146 note, Yet keipit shee her maid-heid vnforlorne. 

Maidhood (m£id,hud). [f. Maid sb. + -hood. 
In the earliest examples repr. OE. mseg{e)j>-h(id t 

f. mxg(e)P (see Madden sb.).] ^Maidenhood. 

a 900 O. E, Martyrol. 31 May 88 Heo on ma:g5hade hire 
lif geendade. c 1200 Okmin 2497 Babe leddenn i ma^bhad 
All berflre lif till ende. ciaoo Trin. Coll. Horn. 21 Ne hire 
maidhod ne was awemned. a 1225 St. Marher. 3 Ich habbe 
a deore ajmstan ant ich hit habbe ijeuen be mi meidhad ich 
meane. 1601 Shaks. Twel. N. in. 1. 162. 1604 — Oth. t. i. 
171 I< there not Charmrs By which the propertie of Youth, 
and Maidhood May be abus'd ? 1800 Helena Wells Con- 

stant ia Neville (ed. 2) II. 159 As by a matron the airs and 
graces of maidhood would be relinquished. 1881 W. Wilkins 
Songs of Study 154 The innocence of her maidhood. 

Maidie: see Maidy. 

Maidish. (m^-dij"), a. [f. Maid sb. + -ish.] = 

1872 Grosart Donne's Poems I. 22 note, The delays of 
maidish indecision. 1895 Crockett Men of Moss Hags 
xxxvi. 258 From a maidish and natural liking for a young 
and unmarried man. 

f Mai'dkin. Oi>s.—° In 5 maydekin. [f. 
Maid sb. + -kin.] A little maid. 

c 1440 Promp. Pan: %\$fz Maydekin, or lytylle mayde 
(//., y.,maydyn kyn\ puelta. 

Maidling (nmlHa). nonce-wd. [f. Maid sb. 
+ -ling.] A little maid. 

In quot. 1831 coined to render MHG. niagetteiii, which is 
not really equivalent in formation. 

1831 Cahi.m.f. Misc. Ess. (1857.1 II. 226 She let it [her hair] 
flow down, The lovely maidling. 1896 J 'ail Matt Mag. Sept. 
30 The dissonant pipings of ten charity maidbngs. 

t Mai'dly, a. Obs. [f. Maid sb. + -ly *.] Re- 
sembling a maid. 

1563 B. Googe Eglogs, etc. (Arb.) 71 O Cowards all, and 
maydly men of Courage faynt and weake. 1565 Satir. 
Poems Reform, i. 376 Howe the Fren^he Kinge in marag 
did endowe me w ,h Koyall right, amadlie wydowe. 

Maid Marian. Also 6 mayd(e-, mawd-, 
-marion, 7 -marrian, -marrion, -morion. A 
female personage in the May-game and morris- 
dance. In the later forms of the story of Robin 
Hood she appears as the companion of the outlaw, 
the association having prob. been suggested by 
the fact that the two were both represented in the 
May-day pageants. 

' 1525 Barclay Eclog iv. (1570) Cvj, Yet would I gladly 
heare nowe some mery fit Of mayde Marion, or els of Robin 
hood. 1575 Laneham Let. (1871) 22 A liuely morisdauns 
according loo the auncient manner, six daunserz, Mawd- 
marion, and the fool. 1589 Pasquifs Ret. Biij b, Martin the Mayd-marian, trimlie drest vppe in a cast Gowne, 
and a Kercher. 1596 Shaks. i Hen. IV, 111. iii. 129 For 
Woomandiood, Maid-marian may be the Deputies wife of 
the Ward to thee. 165a C. B. Stapylton Herodian 65 
Train'd Bands are Pamp'red like unto Maidmarians. 1656 
Blount Glossogr. s.v., Moriseo, a Boy dressed in a Girles 
habit, whom they call the Maid Marrian. 1696 Phillips, 
Maid Marrion, or Morion, a 1699 Temple Of Health <y 
Long Life Wks. 1720 I. 277 A Sett of Morrice Dancers, 
composed of Ten Men who danced, a Maid Marian, and 
a Tabor and Pipe. [Misquoted by Johnson, who in con- 
sequence explains Maidmarian as 'a kind of dance', an 
error which is copied in later Diets.] 

Maid of honour. 

1. An unmarried lady, usually of noble birth, 
who attends upon a queen or princess. 

c 1586 Ctess Pembroke Pi, xlv. vii, Her maides of honor 
shall on her attend. 1646 Chashaw Sosp. a % Herode xlii, 
The foul queen's most abhorred maids of honour . . stand to 
wait upon her. 1711 Steele Sped. No. 109 f 4 The Action 
at the Tilt-yard you may be sure won the fair Lady, who 
was a Maid of Honour. 1756-7 tr. Keysler's Trav. (1760) 
IV. 189 Another court-festivity is at the marriage of one of 
the empress's maids of honour. 184a Tennyson Day Vreaiu 
80 The maid-of-honour blooming fair. 

2. A kind of cheesecake sold at Richmond, Surrey. 
1769 Public Advertiser 11 Mar. 3/3 Almond and Lemon 

Cheescakes, Maid of Honour, Sweetmeat Tarts. 1836 T. 
Hook G. Gurneyl. no What are called cheesecakes else- 
where, are here called maids of honour. 1865 Reader 
i6Sept 311/2 A maid-of-honour, fresh from the cuisine o( the 
Star and Garter, is relishable with its adjuncts. 

Hence Maid-of-honourshlp nonce-wd. 

1896 A. Dobson in Longm. Mag. Sept. 456 Her Maid-of- 
Honourship came to an end with her marriage. 

Maidservant, [f. Maid sb. + Servant.] A 
female servant, usually a domestic servant. 

1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 83 A mayde seruaunt, 
thrall and bonde, all naked, fylthy, and deformed. 1600 J. 
Pory tr. Leo's Africa vii. 287 All the women of this region 
except maid-seruants go with their faces couered. a 1687 
Petty Pol. Arith. (1690)101 The Wages given to the poorest 
Maid-Servant in the Countrey .. is -xos. per annum. 1849 
Mrs.Carlyle Lett. II. 68 The maid-servant met me at the 
front door. 1876 T. Hardy Ethelberta (1890) 395 One of 
the pretty maid-servants. 

Maidsweet : see Meadsweet. 

t Maidweed. Obs. Also 5-6 mayde-, 6 
mayd-, made-. [For *maithe-, *maythc'%vced : 
see Maythe.] a. Stinking Camomile, Anthemis 
Cotnla. b. Red Maidiveed, Red or Purple Camo- 
mile, Adonis autumnalis. (Cf. Mayweed.) 

c 1440 Promp. Pan: 319/2 Mayde wede, herbe, or maythys 
{MS. S. maydewode, /'. maydenwede), ruelissa, amnmsca. 
1548 Turner Names of Herbes (E.D.S.) 14 They call it in 
Englishe red mathes, alij, red mayde wed,alij purple camo- 
myle. Ibid. 60 Stynkyng maydweede. 1551 — Herbal 
1. Dij, Dyuers thynke, that heranthemon is the herbe: 
whych is called of the herbaryes, amarisca rubra : and of 
oure countre men, red mathe, or red made wede. «66o 
Lt'PTON 1000 Notable Things vm. § 46. 202 Which Maid- 
weed is a stinking herb, having a flower like a Daysie. 

Maidy (m^-'di). dial. Also maidie. [f. Maid 
sb. : see -ie and -\\] ' A little maid. 

1880 T. Hardy Trumpet-Major I. iii. 57 You and maidy 
Anne must come in, if it be only for half an hour. 1882 
W, S. Gilbert Iolanthe (1886) 32 If you go in You're 
sure to win — Yours will be the charming maidie. 1891 T. 
Hardy Tess (1900) 47/2 ' Is it so, maidy P he said. 

Maied, obs. f. Meadj/'.i ; pa. ppl. of May v. Obs. 

Maierom(e, obs. form of Makjokam. 




Maiest- : see Majest-. 

Maiester, obs. form of Master. 

Maieutic (nvuw'tik), a. (and sb.). Also 7 
raajeutie. [ad. Gr. ixaitvTw-is {lit. ' obstetric ' : 
usedyTf. by Socrates), f. nmtviaSat to act as a mid- 
wife, f. \iaxa midwife.] Pertaining to (intellectual) 
midwifery, i.e. to the Socratic process of assisting 
a person to bring out into clear consciousness 
conceptions previously latent in his mind. 

1655 Stanley Hist. Philos., Plato xv. 46 Of Platonitk 
Discourse there are two kinds, Hyphegetick and Exegetick 
[of which a sub-division is called] Majeutick. 1856 W. A. 
Butler Hist. Ane. Philos. I. 374 The method of Socrates 
is. .essentially a ' maieutic' or obstetric method. 1868 Can. 
temp. Rev. VII. la Teaching botany . . by what he truly 
calls a maieutic process, drawing out intelligence before com- 
municating knowledge. _l88j Sat. Rev. 23 Sept. 415/2 Ex- 
amples of Mr. Cory's stimulating and maieutic method of 
dealing with history. 1886 SvMONDS Reuaiss. It., Cath. 
React. (1898) VII. xi. 176 Their maieutic ingenuity was vain. 
b. sb. pi. The maieutic method. 

1885 W. H. Payne tr. Compayri's Hist. Pedagogy 23 
Maieutics, or the art of giving birth to ideas. 

I Maieutical, a. Obs. rare- 1 , [f. prec. + 
-at..] =prec. adj. 

1678 Cudwobth Inlell. Syst. 1. v. 693 Yet is all humane 
teaching but maieutical or obstetricious. 

Maigne, Maigne, -ie, obs. ff. Mains., Meynik. 

Maigre (mt'i-gsr), sb. Also () meagre, [a. F. 
maigre] A large fish, Scixita aquila, common 
in the Mediterranean. 

The Megyr of Promfi. Parv. is prob. unconnected. 

'835 Jenyns Man. Brit. Vert. Anim. 352 Scixna Aouila 
Cuv. (Maigre*. 1836 Yarrell Brit. Fislies I. 90 The 
Maigre. Ibid. 92 Three fishermen once took twenty 
Maigres by a single sweep of their net. 1880 Gunthek 
Fishes 430 Sciaena aquila . . not rarely reaches the British 
coasts, where it is known as ' Meagre '. 1883 Fisheries 
Exhib. Catal. (ed. 4) 118 Skeleton of Maigre or Royal Fish. 

II Maigre (mt'gr, m^-gaj), a. [F. maigre, lit. 
lean : see Meagre a.] 

1. Of articles of diet, esp. soup : Not containing 
flesh or the juices of flesh; proper for 'maigre' 

1787 P. Beckeokd Italy (1805) I- 36s A common 
maigre dish in this country. 1806 H. Hunter Culina 
(ed. 3) 58 For want of this precaution, the soup has a maigre 
taste. Ibid. 122 In this receipt for a maigre soup, much is 
left to the taste of the Cook. 1831 Scott Q. Duriv. Introd. 
57 The soup, although bearing the term maigre, . . was most 
delicately flavoured. 

2. Applied to those days on which, in the Roman 
Church, abstinence from flesh is enjoined. 

1683 Robinson in Ray's Corr. (1848) 132 Most of the in- 
habitants here, do generally eat it in Lent, and upon maigre 
days. 1768 Pennant Zool. I. 68 The Romish church per- 
nuts the use of it [otter] on maigre-days. 1879 R. Luuuocis 
launa of Norfolk 77 Sustenance upon maigre days. 

to. To eat, keep, live maigre: to live on ' maitrre' 
diet. Obs. s 

1739 H. Waltole Corr. (1S20) I. t8 A greater penance 
than eating maigre. 1764 — Lett., to G. Montagu 18 June 
(1S46) I V. 429, I must keep maigre. 1764 Smollett France 
* 1 -?/",•"• (l766) 340 A good catholic, who lives maigre 
one half of the year. 1778 Han. More Let. in W. Roberts 
Mem. (1834) I. 136 At last he [the doctor] consented on con- 
dition that I should.. live maigre and drink no wine. 

Maigre, obs. form of Meagre. 

Maii, -ij, obs. forms of May (the month). 

Maik, Maikless, Sc. ff. Make sb., Makeless. j 

Mail (rrwil), sbA Forms : 4-7 maill(e, maile, 
4-5 mayll(e, Sc. mailje, (5 mailye, 6 Sc. mail- 
yie), 5 mayl, 5-8 mayle, 4- mail ; //. 4 mailez, 
5 maylez, -is, -us, malys, Sc. maily(h)eis, 5-6 
mail5eis, -^ies. [a. F. maille (whence MDu. 
maelge,Dn. malie)--L. macula spot, mesh of a net.] 

1 1. One of the metal rings or plates of which 
mail-armour was composed. Obs. 

c 1320 Sir Bcucs 2836 Al to-brosten is ventaile, And of his 
,pn! * a .l*>" n d ma'le. c 1330 R. Brunne Chron. Wace 
(Rolls) 13807 Ne hauberk [was ber] non, wyth maille gret, 
Pat his spere ne borow schet. c 1420 Anlurs of Arth. 
(Camden Soc.) xi, Syxti maylisand moe, The squrd squappes 

"ri T r. , ,4?< L L / de "" S D J SC - 2 5* (Kaluga) And an haubeVk 
bn?t pat richely was adijt With mailes bikke and smale. 

"r 1 .? j°u AS C E " eis v - "• 9 1 As solden mail 3 eis hir scabs 
gll terandbrycht. 1597 A. U. lr. Guiltemeau's Fr.C/iirurg. 
130/2 lo drawe out any..May!es which mighte remayne 
stitckinge [stc\ in the Woundc. 161 1 Cotgr , Amu-let, a 

TuHi/' «mS V 8 °- f m ? yle ' *T* Phillips (ed. Kersey), 
Mail, a httle Iron-nng for Armour. 
fig. 15*9 Coverdale, etc. Erasm. Par. Eph. vi. 10-17 
tor the breste plate, put on innocencie and righteousnes, to 

„,7JlI^r' nW f par S es "l,?™' mynd safe and 5Ure w ''h the 
mayles of vertue and godlines. 

+ b. Proverb. (Literally from OFr.) Obs. 

' S 'L? KENE . Dc Y, e r b - Sign. s.v. Hawbert, The common 

nLk"an melkle "* "^ an ''a^ergion, monie littles 

to. Jransf. pi. The scales (of a fish). Obs. rare. 
hi'^U^T u&° S P °i:". (.889) 303 And at the bothe 
his elboweshe [the monstre] hadde wyngesryght brode and 
grete of fysshes mayles wherwith he swymmed. 

A. collect. Armour composed of interlaced rings 
or chain-work or of overlapping plates fastened 
upon a groundwork. Coal of mail: see Coat sb. 5. 
i,Cf. CH\w-mail, YLXTE-mail, RiXG-mail.) 

c 1374 Chaucer Troylus v. 1559 Achilles thorwgh the 

maylle, And thorwgh the body gan bym for to ryve. c 1386 
— Clerk's T. 1146 Though thyn housbonde armed be in 
maille. c 1400 Destr. Troy 1 1 107 Sho was bare of hir breast 
to be bright mayll. 1460 Lybeaits Disc. i23o(Kaluza) Hys 
foinen wer well boun, To perce his acketoun, Gipell, maile 
and plate. 1*465 Marc. Pastun in P. Lett. II. 190 A standard 
of mayle. 1513 Douglas sFrtcis xn. ii. 95 Abowt his 
schuldris assais his hawbryk fyne, Of burnist mail!. 1552 
Reg. Privy Council Scot. I. 130 A jack of plett, steilbonet, 
splent slevis, ofmailyie or plait. 1600 J. Poky tr._ Leo's 
Africa 21 Their armour.. certaine shirts of male verie long 
and streight. 1667 Milton /'. L. VI. 368 Mangl'd with 
gastly wounds through Plate and Maile. 1810 Cami'Beli. 
Ballads vii, Every bosom shook Beneath it's iron mail. 1838 
I.YiTON Leila v. i. 49 The king was armed cap-a-picd 111 
mail. 1877 Morris Sigurd 4 Through the glimmering 
thicket the linked mail rang out. 

t b. A piece of mail-armour. Obs. 
1606 Shaks. Tr. a> Cr. lit iii. 152 To hang Quite out of 
fashion, like a rustic male. 1607 ToPSELL Foitrf. Beasts 
zoo The trunk of the elephant was couered with a maile for 
defence. 1617 Murvson Itin. ill. 25 They presently arme 
al their bodies, and . . their very shinbones, and hinder parts, 
with males of Iron. 

c. trans/, of the protective shell or scales of 
certain animals. 

1714 Gay Pan III. 179 For this .. His clouded Mail the 
Tortoise shall resign. 1833 Tennyson Two Voices iv, To- 
day I saw the dragon-fly. . . From head to tail Came out 
clear plates of sapphire mail. 1849 M. Arnold Forsaken 
Merman, Where the sea-snakes coil and twine, Dry their 
mail and bask in the brine. 1885 R. L. & F. STEVENSON 
Dynamiter 106 The mail of a boiled lobster. 

A. Jig. 

1813 J. N. Erewer Beaut. Eng. II. 77 The antiquaries 

who have entered the lists, have come cased up in the mail 
of prejudice. 1866 H.Taylor Poems, Autumnal Vespers 
j8 In stiff December's mail. 1866 G. Macdonald Ann. Q. 
Neighb. xxxiL (1878) 547 She was clad in the mail of 

3. A * web ' in the eye. [So F. maille (Cotgr.) ; 
cf. Macula quot. c 1400.] Obs. exc. dial. 

1601 Holland Pliny (1634) II. 312 Which eie-satue they 
say, serues also for the mailles or spots [L. argema\. .in the 
ties. 1847 Halliwlll, J/(»7, a defect in vision. Devon. 

1 4. A hole tor the passage of a lace, clasp, or 
other fastening of a garment ; an eyelet-hole, ' eye ' . 
Alsoy%". Obs. 

<ri47o Henrvson Garm. Gudc LaJeis 15 Poems (1865) 8 
Hir kirtill suld be of dene Constance, Lasit with lestim lufe, 
The mailyheis of continuance For nevir to remufe. 1530 
Palsgr. 241/2 Mayle that receyveth the claspe of agowne 
into it, forte. 157a Satir. Poems Reform, xxxiii. 25 My 
Sleifis wer of to borrow and len glaidlie; My Lais and 
MaUzies of trew permanence. 1588 Thomas Out. (i6oo\ 
Orbieulus, the male or rundle thorough which the latchet of 
the shoe passeth. 1607 Parley- Urease (1877) 16 And day 
by day this lace a mayle doth bate. 

b. spec, in Weaving. (See quots.) 
_ 1731 Mortimer in Phil. Trans. XXXVII. 106 Every 
Thread of the Warp goes through a small Brass Ring called 
a Male. 1831 G. R. Porter Silk Manuf.iib A modem 
improvement substitutes for the loops small metallic eyes, 
through which the warp threads are passed, . . these eyes are 
called mails. 1835 Webster Rhymes 152 (E. D. D.) Temper 
yer ilka thrum and thread, Yea, whether they wimple thro' 
a head, Or thro' a mail. 

5. Hawking. The breast- feathers of a hawk when 
the feathers are full-grown. Occas. applied to 
the plumage of other birds. 

i486 Bk. St. Albans A vij, Hawkes haue White maill, 
Canuas maill or Rede mail!. And som call Rede maill Iren 
mayll. White maill is soone knawe, Canuas maill is 
betwene white maill and Iron maill. And Iron maill is 
varri Rede. Ibid. A vij b, A Goshawke nor a tercell in thare 
sore aage haue nott thair mayles named hot it is calde 
their plumage, and after the cote it is calde theyr Maill. 
1530 Palsgr. 241/2 Mayle of a hziul:e,greu£lure. 1575 [see 
Mailed ppl. a. 4]. 1614 Makkham Cheap Husb. (1623) 135 
His [adunghill cock's] eyes round and great, the colour 
answering the colour of his plume or male. 1655 Walton 
Angler (1661) 107 The wings made of the blackish mail 
of the Drake. 1678 IViltughby's Omithol. App. 398 The 
Mail of a Hawk is the Breast or Plumage of the Breast 
in reference to its colour : So they say a Hawk changes the 
mail, or is white-maild, &c. 1686 Blome Gentt. Recr. n. 
182/1 The little Dun-flye hath his Body made of Dun- 
Wooll, and his Wings of the Mayle of a Partridge. 1852 
R. F. Burton Falconry Valley oflndusv'm. 76 Full breast, 
covered with regular mail. Note. The ' mails ' are the breast 

b. (See quot. : cf. Mailed///, a. 4b.) 
17*7 Phillips (ed. Kersey), Mail, a Speck on the Feathers 
of Birds. 

6. Rope-making. (See quot. 1 794.) 

1750 Blanckley Nav. Expositor, Mails, are made of Iron, 
and interwoven, not unlike a Chain ; they are for rubbing 
off the loose Hemp which remains on Lines or white Cord- 
age after it is made. 1794 Rigging % Seamanship 55 Mail, 
to rub off the loose hemp that remains on white cordage, is 
a kind of steel chain-work, flat, and fastened upon leather, 
about nine-inches long and seven-inches broad. 1867 Smyth 
Sailor's Word-bit, 

7. attrib. and Comb. y as mail-armour, -coal, 
-plate, -quilt, -sark, -shirt, -work; instrumental, 
as mail-clati, -covered, -sheathed adjs. ; mail net 
(see quot.) ; mail-shell, a name for the genus 
Chiton (Smyth Sailor's Word-bk. 1867). 

1868 G. Stephens Runic Man. I. 184 The ring-like dots— 
which I take to be a conventional representation of ^mail- 
armour. 1777 R. Potter tr. yEschylus, Persians 515 Thy 
*mail-clad horse. 1805 Scott Last Minstr. 1. v, Ten 
squires,_ ten yeomen, mail-clad men. 1862 Ansikh Channel 
I si. \. ii. (ed. 2) 24 Should an attack be made with mail- 
clad ships. 1653 Ukquhart Rabelais 1. xi, He ..would 

have the *Mait-coats to be made link after link. 1803 
Byron On Leaving Neiustead Abbey ii, The *mail-cover'd 
Barons. 1773 J. Campbell Mod. Falconry 262 * Male- 
feathers, those on the breast. 1875 Knight Diet. Mech., 
* Mail-net, a form of loom-made net, which is a combina- 
tion of common gauze and whip-net in the same fabric. 
1771 Mickle tr. Camoens' Lusiad in. (1776) 128 Vain were 
the *mail-p!ates of Granada's bands. Ibia.i. 47 There clasp- 
ing greaves, and plated "mail-quilts strong. 1838 Longk. 
Beo7yulf's Exp. //tort 76 The Weather people . . their 
*mail-sarks shook. 1850 Ogii.vie, * Mall-sheathed. 181 7 
Scott Harold 1. ix. 16 Wilt thou .. Lay down thy "mail- 
shirt for clothing of hair. 1869 BoUTELL Arms <y Arm. vii. 
107 This mail shirt, or hauberk, was fitted almost tightly to 
the person. Ibid. ii. 18 The cuirass, .was formed, .of inter- 
woven *mail-work. 

Mail {me'A), sb: 1 Now only .9c. Forms: 1-3 
mal, 3 mol, 3-6 male, 5 maile, 7 maille, 7-8 
meal, 5-7, 9 maill, 6- mail. [Late OE. mal, a. 
ON. wtzVneut., speech, agreement -OE. (poet.) miel 
speech ; prob. a contracted form of the word which 
appears asOIIG.,OS. mahal assembly, judgement, 
treaty, OE. madcl meeting, discussion, Goth, mafl 
meeting-place. (Cf. MalluM.) In sense, how- 
ever, the Eng. word seems rather to represent the 
ON. derivative male wk. masc, contract, stipula- 
tion, stipulated pay; cf. Ormin's male accus. 

The word has survived only in Sc. and northern dialects, 
and hence its phonetic form is northern. If it had come 
down in midland or southern use its form would have been 
mole (m(j u l).] 

1. Payment, tax, tribute, rent. Mails and duties 
(sec quot. 1S61). Cf. Black mail. 

O. E. Chron. an. 1086 Se cyng sealde his land swa deore 
to male swa heo deorost mihte. c 1200 Okmin 10188 Forrbi 
badd hem m Saiint Johan . . sammnenn la^helike & rihht Jje 
kingess rihhte male, c 1200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 179 And 
giet ne wile be louerd ben paid mid his rihete mol. t 1275 
XI Pains Hell 161 in O. E. Misc. 151 Of heom hi token 
vnriht mol. a 1300 Cursor M. 5J7'\ I giue him woningsted 
to wale For euer-mare, wii-outen male. 1396 in Scottish 
Antiq. XIV. 217 The forsayd Seller Jone sal haf the malys 
ofOuchtyrtyre. 1430-31 RollsofFarlt. IV. 376/1 That no 
maile of siclie certificate made, .put to ony prejudice, .any 
persone. £1480 Henkyson Mor. pab. mi. {IVolffy Lamb) 
x.v, Scantlie may he purches by his maill To leif vpon dry 
breid. 1549 Comfit. Scot. xv. 123 1'he malis and fcrmis of 
the grond. .is hychtit to sic ane price. 1746-7 Act 20 Geo. II, 
c. 43 g 17 Recovering and uplifting from the vassals. .the 
mails and duties or rents and profits thereof, a 1768 Erskine 
Inst. in. vii. § 20 (1773) 529 The arrears of rent, or, in our 
law-style, of mails and duties, prescribe, if [etc.]. 1824 Scott 
Rcdgauntlet Let. xi, The rental-book. .Ixjre evidence against 
the Goodman of Prinirose-Knowe, as behind the hand with 
his mails and duties. 1861 W. Bell Diet. Law Scot, s.v., 
Maills and Duties are the rents of an estate, whether in 
money or grain ; hence, an action for the rents of an estate 
. -is termed an action of maills and duties. 1900 Crockeit 
Little Anna Mark viii, He carried a great sum about with 
him, being the rents and mails of all his New Milns 

b. With word prefixed, as borough, feu, grass, 
house mail ; land mail : see Lakd sb. \i; silver 
mail, rent paid in money. 

1424 Sc. Acts Jas. I, c. 8 All be gret and smal custumys 
& burovmaills of be Realme. 1479-1752 Grass mail [see 
Grass sb. 1 12]. 1566-67 Reg. Privy Council Scot. I. 499 
He. . wes in possessioun . . of the hous maill occupiit be the 
saidis tennentis. 1585 Reg. Privy Council Scot. Ser. 1. IV. 
14 To mak pament of his few maills. 1597 Skene De I 'erb. 
Sign., s.v. Firmarius, Firma signifies the duty quhilk the 
tennent paies to the landis-lord, quhidder it be siluer-maill, 
victual!, or vther duetie. 1609 — Reg. M^aj. 125 Gif thy 
mail-man will not pay to thee the house maill at the teriue. 
1640 Baillie Lett. (1841) I. 272 Our house maills evcrie week 
above eleven pound Sterling. 

c. fig. To pay the mail ^to pay the penalty. 
1807 Hogg Mount. Bard 199 Poet. Wks. {1838J II. 263 My 

sister. . By Lairistan foully was betrayed, And roundly has 
he payed the mail. 

2. attrib. and Comb., as mail-payer, paying', 
mail-duty, rent; mail-free a. and adv., free of 
rent, exempt from payment of rent ; mail garden, 
' a garden, the products of which are raised for 
sale (Jam.) (hence mail -gardener) ; mail-man, 
one who pays rent, a tenant ; mailmart, a cow sent 
in payment of rent ; mail-rooms//., rented rooms. 

1638 Extracts Burgh Rec. Glasgoru (1876) L 392 That na 
burges .. sett or promeis to sett for *maill dewtie or vther- 
wayes, . . wntill [etc.], 1818 Scott Hrt. Midi, viii, Deans . . 
contrived to maintain his ground upon the estate by regular 
payment of mail-duties. 1471^!^^ Dom. Audit. 10/2 *MaIe 
fre fore be formale pait be him to pe said Alexander. 1638 
Rutherford Lett. iii. (1664) 14 Many. .of you ..have been 
like a tennent that sitteth mealfree. 1798 J. Naismyth Agric. 
Clydesd. vi. 101 The "mail gardens around the city of Glasgow. 
1820 Scott Abbot xxxv, The candle shines from the house of 
Blinkhoolie, the*mailgardener. 1480 Henryson Mor. Fab. 
xn. (IVolffy L^amb) xiv, The pure people.. As *maill-men, 
marchandis, and all lawboreris. 1609 Skene Reg. Maj. 113 
Na Mail-man, or Fermour, may thirle his Lord of his fria 
tenement. 1445 Exch. Rolls Scot. V. 213 Lez *mailmartis 
insule de Bute. 1597 Skene De Verb. Sign., Firmarius, 
ane *mail-payer, ane mailer, or mail-man. 1724 Ramsay 
Vision ix, Mailpayers wiss it to the devil. 1581 Reg. Privy 
Council Scot. Ser. 1. III. 417 Throw the quhilk waist, *maill- 
paying, and tyning of the proffites of the saidis landis, he 
is utterlie wrakktt. c 1626 in W. K. Tweedie Set. Biog. 
(1845) 1. 351 He warned me from the rest of my "mail-rooms 
in Salt-coats and East Mains. 

Mail (mJil), sb.Z Forms: 3-S male, 5 maylle, 
5-6 mayle, maile, 6 maale, 6- mail. [ME. 
male, a. OF. male (F. maile) — Pr., Sp., Pg., It. 



ma/a; of Teut. origin: cf. OHG. malha (MHG. 
ma/hc ), MDu. male (Du. maa/)J] 

1. A bag, pack, or wallet; a travelling bag. Now 
only 5V. and U.S. in //. = baggage. 

C 1205 Lay. 3543 Ich be wulle bi-tache a male riche. c 1300 
Havelok 48 A man that bore, .gold upon hijs bac, In a male 
with or blac. £1320 Sir Bettes 1297 Inou} a leide him be- 
fore, Bred and flesc out of is male, c 1386 Chaucer Can. 
Yeom. Pro/. 13 A male tweyfold on hiscroper lay. 1489-90 
Plumpton Corr. 89 Robart, my servant .. is large to ryde 
afore my male, and ouer weyghty for my horse. 1552 Act 
5 fy 6 Edw. Vf t c. 15 § 2 Such as make Males, Bougets, 
"Leather Pots, ..or any other Wares of Leather. 1567 K. 
Edwards Damon %■ Pithias F ij, Who inuented these 
monsters [breeches] first, did it to a gostly ende, To haue 
a male readie to put in other folkes stufie. 1609 Bible 
(Douay) 1 Kings ix. 7 The bread is spent in our males. 
1632 Deloney Thomas of Reacting xi, G4, They .. take 
away the mans apparell, as also his money, In his male or 
cap-case. 1670 Cotton Espemon n. vii, 335 His Jewels 
..were lock'd up in a little iron Chest, and carried in a 
Male. 1706 Phillips (ed. Kersey), Mai/, . .also a kind of 
Port-mantle, Sack or Trunk to travel with. 1820 Scott 
Abbot xxxv'm, They charged me with bearing letters for the 
Queen, and searched my mail. 1893 Stevenson Catriona 
xvii. 190 He . . emptied out his mails upon the floor that I 
might have a change of clothes. 

tb. As a measure of quantity. Obs. wit 1 , 

1502 Arnolde Chron. (1811) 191 Wulle is bought by the 
sacke by the tod by the stone and by the mayle. 
t C / ra n sf. and fig. Obs. 

c 1250 Gen. 8f Ex. 22 Quhu lucifer. .[Bronte mankinde in 
sinne and bale] And held hem sperd in helles male, c 1386 
Chaucer Parson's Pro/. 26 Vnbokele and shewe vs what 
is in thy Male, c 1430 LvDG. Bochas ix. iii. (1494) E vij/i If 
ye shall tell youre owne tale. .Ye wylt vnclose but a lytyll 
male, Shewe of youre vices but a small parcele. 1450 Myrc 
1343 Art thou I-wonet to go to the ale To fulle there thy 
fowle male. 

2. A bag or packet of letters or dispatches for 
conveyance by post, more fully mail of Utters ; 
thence, the letters or dispatches so conveyed {obs'.). 
The mail, the postal matter, collectively, conveyed 
from office to office. 

1654 Ord. Office Postage Lett. § 8 To have in readiness 
one good Horse or Mare to receive and carry the Male of 
Letters. .. That no other person (besides the Post that 
carrieth the Male) be suffered to ride Post with the Male. 
1684 Loud. Gaz. No. 190^/2 Our Pacquet-Boats put to Sea 
yesterday with the Mads for Calais. 1692 Luttrell Brief 
Re/. (1857) II. 489 Yesterday a Flanders mail of an old date, 
confirms the several repulses of the enemy. 1746 Smollett 
Reproof 160 With all the horrors of prophetic dread That 
rack his bosom while the mail is read. 1767 Colman Eng. 
Mcrch. 1. i, I collect the articles of news from the other 
papers, .. translate the mails, write occasional letters [etc.]. 
1776 C. Carroll frnl. (1845) 53 Dr. Franklin found in 
the Canada mail, which he opened, a letter for General 
Schuyler. 1782 Cowper Expostulation 6q& Now think,.. 
If the new mail thy merchants now receive, Or expectation 
of the next, give leave. 1792 Stat. U. S. I, vii. § 17 (1856) 

I. 237 That if any person, .shall rob any carrier of the mail 
. .of such mail, or if any person shall rob the mail, in which 
letters are sent to be conveyed by post, .or shall steal such 
mail. 1794 Ibid. 1. xxiii. § 26 (1856) I. 365 And the letters 
so received shall be formed into a mail, sealed up, and di- 
rected to the postmaster of the port. 1838 Act i «y 2 Vict, 
c. 98 § 5_ The Mails or Post Letter Bags so to be carried Railways. 1852 Hawthorne Amer. Nole-Bks. {1883) 
424 The regular passenger-boat is now coining in, and 
probably brings the mail. 1873 Black /V. T/tule vii, Every- 
thing will be as right as the mail. 1883 Whitakcr's At* 
vtanack 384 [Postal Guide.] India. — Mails made up every 
Friday evening at the rate of 5*/. per ioz. 1893 Daily News 
22 Sept 6/5 Little incidents of camp life in the East, as the 
arrival and distribution of a mail of letters. 

b. U.S. (A person's) batch of letters. 
1890 T. L. James in Railways Amer. 319 That official 
was opening his mail. 1901 Itarper's Mag. GIL 784/1 
Stormheld b his mail that day. .found a despatch : ' Unex- 
pectedly called home'. 

3. The person, vehicle, or train that carries the 

mail or postal matter ; often short for mail coach f 
mail train, etc. Hence, the method or system 
of transmission of letters by post; the official 
conveyance or dispatch of postal matter ; the Post. 

Sousednow in U. S. In England the word in ordinary 
use is limited to the dispatch ofletters abroad, as the Indian 
mai/, etc., or as_ short for mail-train, as the down tnai/ t 
night mail. It is retained as the official word for the dis- 
patch and delivery of inland letters where the general public 
use Post. 

1654 Ord. Office Postage Lett. § 2 The said John Manley 
.. shall, .safely and faithfully carry all.. Letters and Dis- 
patches, .and that by the Common, Ordinary Male or other 
speedy and safe passage. 1692 Luttrell Brief Ret. (1857! 

II. 489 One letter by the last mail sayes, the king intended 
to fight the enemy Satturday 7 night last. 1720 Lotui. Gaz. 
No. 5850/2 The Bristol Mail was robbed. 1778 Abigail 
Adams in Earn. Lett. (1876) 343 Four or five sheets of paper, 
written to you by the last mail, were destroyed when the 
vessel was taken. 1794 Coleridge Lett. 26 Sept. (1895) I. 
86, I . .sent them off by the mail directed to Mrs. Southey. 
1822-56 De Quincey Confess. Wks. 1890 III. 348 The mails 
were, .made so strong as to be the heaviest of all carriages. 
1831 in Par/. Papers (1831-2) XLV. 128 b, When it is per- 
mitted in England for the mails to take parcels on the road. 
1842 Tennyson Walking to the Mail 102, I fear That we 
shall miss the mail. 1864 J. H. Newman Apologia 96 While 
waiting for the down mail to Falmouth. 1880 Print. Trades 
Jrnl. No. 30. 34 Tender and brittle, and hardly bears its 
journey through the mail. 1886 P. Robinson Valley Teeto- 
tum Trees 71 Justin time to catch the night-mail to London. 
1888 Amer. Humorist 2 June 3/2 Why didn't he send his 
poem hy mail? 1891 37^/1 Kept. Postm.-General 5 Sixty- 
four additional direct Parcel Mails between London and 


other places have been established in the year. 1900 Post 
Office Guide 1 Jan. 14 When intended for despatch by a 
particular mail they should.. be presented for registration 
half an hour before the closing of the letter-box for that mail. 
b. Short for mail coach or van (on a wilway). 

1862 Building News 6 June 389/2, 555 Locomotives and 
Tenders. 494 First Class Mails. 

4. attrib. and Comb.: a. (sense 1) simple attrib., 
chiefly obsolete, as mail-band, -girl, -girth, -horse, 
-lock, -man, -panel, -pillion, -saddle, -trunk; also 
objective, as mail-maker. 

*S*$ Test. Ebor. (Surtees) V. 69 A male wyth ij *male 
bandys. 1607 Toi'SELL Eourf. Beasts (1658) 155 The females 
[sl. elephants] carry over their calves upon their snowis, .. 
bindingthem fast with their truncks, like as with ropes or 
'male girts. 1673 12th Rep. Hist. MSS. Comm. App. vii. 
(1890) 384 For a *male-girth and tabbs is. 6d. c 1440 Promp. 
Parv. 323/1 *Male horse, gerulus. 1469 Househ. Ord. 
(1790) 97 A maile horse and a botell horse whiche the 
made-man shall keepe. 1673 \%th Rep. Hist. MSS. Comm. 
App. vii. (1890) 384 For a "male-lock and a letter, 8d. 1311 
Cat. Lett.-Bks. Loud., Lett-Bk. D. (1902) 74 [The same 
day, John Morice] *melmakere, [admitted], c 1515 Cocke 
LorelCs B. 9 Masones, male makers, and merbelers. 1469 
*Maile-man [see mail horse], 1392 Earl Derby's Exp. 
(Camden) 152 Pro iij capistris et *male panel. 1639 T. de 
Grey Compt. Horsem. 216 A galled backe commeth.. with 
the.. pack-saddle or *male-pilliun. 1686 Land. Gaz. No. 
2130/4 A black Gelding.. a little hurt of his back with a 
Mail-pillion. 1833 M. Scott Tom Cringle xi. (1842) 257 His 
portmanteau behind him on a mail-piilion. 1378--9 Durh. 
Ace. Rolls (Surtees) 388 In una 4 malesadill empt. iss. \V)d. 
1414-15 /bid. 184, j Malesadil. a 1726 Vanbkugh Joitm. 
Lond. 1. i. 81 My lady.. laid on four *mail-trunks, besides 
the great deal-box. 

b. (sense 2) simple attrib., e. g. in the names 
of vehicles employed to carry the mail, as mail 
boat, diligence, gig, packet, schooner^ ship, steamer, 
wagon ; also mail-carrier, letter, matter, room, 
time ; mail-bag, a large bag in which the mail 
is carried ; mail-box, (a) a box in which the 
mail-bags were placed on a mail-coach; {b) 
U. S., a letter-box ; mail-car, {a) a railway car 
in which the mail is carried ; (/') Ire/and, an 
' outside car * used for conveyance of the mails ; 
mail-cart, (a) a vehicle in which the mail is car- 
ried by road; also attrib.; (b) a light vehicle to 
carry children, made with shafts to be drawn or 
pushed by hand; mail-catcher U.S. (see quot. 
1890); mail contractor, one who contracts witli 
the government for the conveyance of the mail ; 
mail-guard, the guard of a mail-coach ; mail 
horn, a long horn used by the guard of a mail- 
coach ; f mail-maker, an official in the General 
Letter-Office; mail-man, one who carries the 
mail ; mail-master U.S., -officer (see quot. 1855) ; 
mail-phaeton, a high two-seated phaeton (q-v.) 
drawn by a pair of horses; mail-pouch {U.S.) y a 
locked leather mail-bag; mail-rack (U.S.), a 
letter-rack ; mail-rider, a mail-carrier ; mail- 
road, -route, the road or route by which the mail 
is regularly conveyed ; mail-runner, a mail-car- 
rier (in India); mail sack (U.S.), a canvas bag 
used for the conveyance of the mail ; f mail- 
setting a., that robs the mail; mail-stage (U.S.) 
= Mail-coach ; mail-train, a fast train which 
carries the mails. Also Mail-coach. 

1840 Longf. in Life (1891) I. 358 There were three insides 
besides myself, and a dozen *mail-bags. 1855 Hyde Clarke 
Diet., ^Mail-boat. 1895 A. H. Norway P.-O. Packet Ser. 
vice i. 3 The Post-Office selected Falmouth in 1688 as the 
point of embarkation, .for the., mail boats. 1810 in J. W. 
Hyde Roy. Mail iii. (1885) 34 The bags of letters, .were 
stolen from the *mail-box. .whilst the horses were changing. 
1842 S. C. Hall Ireland II. 77 *Mail-cars. 1889 Ch. Times 
27 Dec. 1227 The regular train consists of two sleepers, . .and 
enough mad-cars to contain the mail. 1709 Stat. U. S. in. 
.\liii. § 13 (1856) I. 736 The receipt and delivery of letters on 
the way, between post-offices, shall not be required of the 
*mail -carriers. 1901 N. Amer. Rev. Feb. 289 The useful- 
ness of fast steamships as mail-carriers. 1837 Act 7 Will. IV 
$ 1 Vict. c. 33 § 18 No Mail Coach, Mail Diligence, or 
*Mail Cart conveying . . any Mail or Bag of Letters in Ireland. 
1893 H. Joyce Hist. Post Office xiii. 316 The London Mail- 
Cart and Van Service. 1903 G. IV. R. Time Tables, Parcels 
and Goods Arrangem., Perambulators and Children's Mail 
Carts. 1884 Knight Diet. Mcch. Suppl., * ^Mail-catcher. 
1890 T. L. James in Rai/ways Amer. 326 The letter car is 
provided with a 'mail catcher ', which is placed at a small 
door through which mail pouches are snatched from con- 
veniently placed posts at wayside stations where stops are 
not made. 1830 Act 1 1 Geo. IV % 1 Will. IV, c. 68 'Mail 
Contractors, Stage Coach Proprietors [etc.]. 1837 *Mail 
Diligence [see mail-cart], 1887 C. F. Holder Living 
Lights 119 John Stewart, who for many years drove a "mail- 
gig between Dunkeld and Aberfeldy. 1790 Wolcot (P. 
Pindar) Advice to Euture Laureat Wks. 1812 II. 341 The 
*Mail guard To load his blunderbuss and blow his horn. 
1844 Mail Guard [see mail-train). 1852 K. S. Surtees 
Sponge's Sp. Tour (1893) 299 The shrill twang, twang, twang, 
of the now almost forgotten *maiI-hom. 1799 Stat. U. S. 
111. xliii. § 15 I1856) I. 737 If any person, .shall secrete, em- 
bezzle or destroy any such *mail letter or packet. 1735-55 
J. Chamderlayne St. Gt. Brit. 11. iii, List of Officers in 
General Letter-Office. [Two] *Mail-makers. 1881 Mrs. 
C. Praed Policy <y P. I. i. 9 Tom Dungie, the 'mailman, . . 
had just removed his saddle with its load of brown leather 
post-bags. 1889 Westm. Gaz. 5 Sept. 8/1 The mails are still 
conveyed for the most part upon the heads and backs of native 
mailmen. 1855 Hyde Clarke Diet., "Mail-master, officer 


having charge of the mail. 1875 A tlantic Monthly XXXV. 
98/1 The *mail matter can be classified into letters, daily 
papers [etc.]. 1882 Floyer Unexpl. Baluchistan 138 The 
*mail-officer passed us with the mails [in a boat]. 1844 
Rowland Hill State Penny Postage 16 The net expense of 
the *Mail packets to these Islands, .amounted in 1840-41 to 
about 7000/. 1857 G. A. Lawrence Guy Livingstone viii. 
64 We were driving over in his *mail-phaelon. 1890 T. L. 
James in Railways Amer. 312 The *mail pouch just thrown 
from the car. 1896 Cosmopolitan XX. 406 Near one of the 
doors.. is.. the -mail-rack. 1897 Outing (U. S.) XXIX. 
385/1 These Turkish *mail-riders.. drive two horses loaded 
with the mail-bags at a gallop in front of them. 1837 Row- 
land Hill /'. O. Reform 29 The cost of transit afong the 
'mail-roads.. being so trifling. 1882 OciLVlB, ^Mail-room. 
1891 Pall Mall G. 27 Aug. 7/2 The mail-room occupies the 
place of what was formerly the second saloon. 1840 Penny 
Cycl. XVIII. 457/2 Sorting [letters] according to the dif- 
ferent "mail-routes. 1892 R. Kii-ling Barrack-r. Ballads 
121 Up the hill to Simoorie. .The bags on his shoulder, the 
*mail-runner trudges. iSzz Ace. Establ. Gen. P.-O. Part. 
Pap. XVIII. 166 b, Hire of Seven *Mail Schooners in the 
West Indies ,£5,100. ci68& JVew Let any vm. in Coll.Poems 
Popery (1689) 8/1 A Turncoat, "Mail-setting, King-killing 
Rascal. 1891 Act 54 a> 55 Vict. c. 31 § 2 The master of a 
Pritish *mail ship, .when carrying mails to or from any port 
[etc.]. Ibid. § 10 This Act may be cited as the Mail Snips 
Act, 1891. 1803 M. Cutler in Life, Jrnls. $ Corr. (1888) 
II. 135 At 8 o'clock at night, set out in the *mail stage. 
1866 Sala Let. 11 Apr. in Frith Antobiog. (1888) III. 255 
All the wonderful people you see on board the *mail- 
st earner. 1841 Thackeray Eatal Boots xi, In the evening, 
after *mail-time, I [a letter-carrier] went hack to my mamma 
and sister. 1844 Act 7 $ 8 Vict. c. 85 § 11 It shall be also 
lawful for the Postmaster General to send any Mail Guard 
with Hags, .by any Trains other than a "Mail Train. 1890 
T. L. James in Railways Amer. 325 The big lumbering 
*mail wagons which are familiar sights in the streets of the 
metropolis [New Voik]. 

Mail, -f<M Obs. exc. Hist. Also 6 Sc. mal;e, 9 
maille. fa. AF. mayle,QV. maille, meaii/e (whence 
MDu. maetge) :— late L. *melaliea : see Medal.] 

1. A halfpenny. 

[129a Pjritton 1. xxxi. § 2 Quant a ii. s. vi. d. dune soit le 
poys liiii. s. iiii. d. mayle ferling. 1379 Rolls of Parlt. III. 
64/2 De faire ordeiner Mayles & Ferthinges, pur paier pur 
les petites mesures. 1415 Act 3 Hen. V, Et ces quest trove 
bon argent p r estre illoeques ferrez & coynez en mayls 
Engleys.] 1570 Saiir. Poems Reform, xiii. 125 5e left him 
nocht ane Mnl^e or Deneir. 1707 Fleetwood Chron. Prec. 
Pief., Till about 1544, the Silver Money of England con- 
sisted of Groats, Half-Groats, Pence, Half-Pence (called, 
of old, Mails) and Farthings. 1890 Service Thir Nolan- 
dums ix. 67 Gold Pennies and Mailles, Lozenge Lions letc.]. 

2. Maille noble : a gold coin of the reign of 
Edw. Ill ; a half-noble. 

[1344 in Rymer/'>/rVra(i7o8) V. 416/1 Et une autre Monoie 
d"Or, Currante la piece pur Quarante Deners d'Esterlings, 
que serraapptlle Maille Noble.] 1884 Kkxxqh Gold Coins i&. 

I Mail, sb.5 Obs. exc. as alien word (may). 
Also 7 maill(e; and see Mall. [a. F. mail:— 
L. malleus hammer. Cf. Du. matte.] The game 
of pall-mall ; a place where the game was played ; 
hence (from the 'Mail 1 at Paris), apubliepromenade 
bordered by trees. The Mail (in St. James's Park, 
London): now called the Mall. 

1644 Evelyn Diary 8 May, Recreating myself sometimes 
at the maill, and sometymes about the towne. (See ante, 
■z May, where the word appears as mall.) 1670 Lassels 
i 'oy. Italy I. 29 Going out of the house, you find a handsome 
Mail, and rare Ponds of water. 1703 Addison Italy 217 
A Highway .. near as long and as broad as the Mail in 
St. James's Park. [1903 Westm. Gaz. u Feb. 1/3 A long 
r mail of elms looks down into the gulf] 

b. High Mail: - high Mall (see Mall sh. x 4). 

1676 I^theredge Man of Mode 111. iii, 'Tis now but high 
Mad, Madam, the most entertaining Time of all the Evening. 

Mail (m<?*l\ zj.1 [f. Mail j&lj partly back- 
formation from Mailed a.] trans. To clothe or 
arm with or as with mail. 

1795 Southey Joan of Arc v. 4 The martial Maid arose. 
She mail'd her limbs ; The white plumes nodded o'er her 
helmed head. 1848 Lytton I /a ro/d (1Z62) 58, I will .. ask 
what Englishmen are there who^vill aim shaft or spear at 
this breast, never mailed against England. 1858 Longf. 
Warden Cimjue Ports, A single warrior, In sombre harness 

Mail (nv'l), v.'* Sc. [f. Mail sb.-~\ trans. To 
rent, pay rent for. Hence Mailed///, a. 

1425 Sc. Acts Jos. /(1814) II. 12/2 Ande gif it be a man at 
mala be hous & birnis it reklesly he sal amende be scaitb efter 
his power. 1877 Alexander Notes ty Sk. 8(E.D.D.) A lone 
woman or two in a * mailt-house *. 

Mail (mt 7 il), v.z [Of obscure origin: sense 2 
may possibly be the original use. Cf. Mail sb. 1 
and sb. : *] 

fl. trans. To tie («/), wrap up (goods, a parcel, 
etc.) ; to envelop. Also fig. Obs. 

In the early 17th c. often in expressions like 'mailed in 
armour', with allusion to Mails/'. 1 

[1548-78 implied in Mailing vbl. sb. 1 ] 1570 Foxi -•/. .y M. 
(ed. 2) III. 1644/1 It [g_oldand silver] was matted about with 
mattes and mayled in httell bundels about ij. foote long. 1588 
Parke tr. Mcndoza's Hist. China 209 [A present] was mailed 
and sealed and so sent vnto the viceroy of Aucbeo. 1593 
Siiaks. 2 Hen. VI, 11. iv. 31 Me thinkes I should not thus be 
led along, Mayl'dvp in shame, with Papers on my back. 1598 
Drayton Heroic. Ep. xiii. 59 How could it be, those that were 
wont to stand, To see my pompe.. Should after see meemayld 
vp in a sheete, Doe shameful! penance. 1601 Weever Mirr. 
Mart. C iv, Then ledde I warre niailde vp in sheetes of 
brasse. 1619 Let. fr. Eactors at Sural to the E. I. C. in 
Embassy Sir T. Roe (Hakl.) 517 To whom wee have 
delivered a box sealed, maled, and covered. 1653 in T. 



Fowler Hist, C. C. C. (O. H. S.) 228 A basket mal'd up 
with Cords. 1657 Trai-p Ccnim. Ezra^ ix. 11 Who .. do 
miserably mail themselves in the filthiness of leudnesse. 
1060 K. Bkookf. tr. Le Blanc's Trav. 225 Three hundred 
Elephants follow richly mail'd with Sea-wolfskins. 
2. spec, ill Hawking. (See quot. 1SS3.) 
157S TUBBEJtV. Faulconric 295 Mayle your hawke fast. 
c 1610 Ueaum. & Vl. Pliitastcr v. iv, Prince, by your leave 
I'le have a Sursingle, And Male you like a Hawke. 1623 
1'l.ETCiiKR & Rowi.EV Maid in Mill in. iii, If you had .. 
handled her as men do unmand Hawks, Cast her, and malde 
her up in Rood clean linnen. 1883 HarTING Gloss. Per/. Bk. 
Kepinge Sparhaivkcs 44 To mail a hawk, i. e. to wrap her up 
it) a handkerchief, .cither to tame her,, .or to keep her quiet 
during an operation. 
Mail (m,"il), v.* U. S. [f. Mail sb.'i (senses 
2 > 3)0 traits. To send Ijy post, to post. 

1828-31 Webster, Mail, to inclose in a wrapper and direct 
to a post-olTice. We say, letters were mailed 'for Philadelphia. 
1850 OciLVlE, Mail, to post letters, papers, &Ct 1862 Mom. 
Star 14 Oct., The Federal Post-office department has issued 
a notice that any letter mailed with stamps at all soiled or 
defaced will be treated as unpaid. 1872 O. W. Holmes Poet 
Break/.-t. iii. 89 Those creatures, .who mail the newspaper 
which has the article we bad much better not have seen. 1875 
Atlantic Monthly XXXV. 98/2 They mail 244,000,000 letters 
a year. 

Mail, (Hal. var. Meal ; Sc. f. Mole (spot). 

Mailable (m^-lab'l), a. U. S. [f. Mail vA + 
-able.] That may be sent through the post. 

1845 Stat. U. S. 11. xliii. § 10 (1856) V. 736 Any letter . . 
or other mailable matter whatsoever. 1886 Pall Mall G. 
3 Sept. 14/1 Any one in the United States can send any 
mailable matter to any post-office, .for immediate delivery. 

Mai 1-coach. [Mail sbJ 2] 

1. A slage-coaeh used primarily for the convey- 
ance of the mail. In recent use, a coach employed 
by the Post Office for carrying parcels by road. 

The mail-coach system was introduced by John Palmer in 
1784, and was superseded by the railway. 

1787 Han. More Let. Iv'alpolc ]u\y Mem. (1834) II. 77 Mail 
coaches, which come to others, come not to me. 1797 Encycl. 
Brit. (ed. 3) V. 86/2 Mail-coaches, are stage-coaches of a 
particular construction to prevent overturns ; and for a 
certain consideration carry his majesty's mails. 1813 Act 53 
Geo. Ill, c. 68 § 6 All letters and Packets which be shall con- 
vey, carry or send Post, in or by any Mail Coach or Carriage. 
1896 4?«</ Refit. Pesi/n. -General 5 There has been no exten- 
sion this year of the system of night mail coaches for the 
conveyance of parcels. 1899 Cassell's Mag. 404/2 The mail- 
coaches [for 'road-borne 'parcels], .with their swiftly trotting 
teams and armed guards. 

attrib. 1813 Byron Let. to Moore 22 Aug., In a ' mail-coach 
copy 1 of the Edinburgh, I perceive The Giaour is second 
article. The numbers are still in the Leith smack. 1815 
Ibid. 10 Jan., Scott's ' Lord of the Isles' is out— 'the mail- 
coach copy ' I have, by special licence, of Murray. 1832 Ace. 
Establ.Gcn. P.-O. Pari. Pap. XVIII. 175 To eight pair of 
best mail coach lamps ,£12 12s. 1885 J. W. Hyde Hoy. Mail 
iii. (ed : 2) 65 Yet the mail-coach days had charms and 
attractions for travellers. 

2. A railway carriage carrying the mail. 

1838 Act 1 , r 2 / 'ict. c. 98 § i2 If the Company, .shall refuse 
to carry on their Railway any Mail Coaches [etc.]. 1890 
T. L. James in Railways^ Amcr. 335 The fifth. .car is the 
last mail coach on the train. 

Mailed (miM), a. [f. Mail j//.i + -ei> -.] 
f 1. Covered with or composed of mail or plates 
of metal. Obs. 

1382 Wyclip 1 Sam. xvii. 5 And he was clothid with a 
maylid [Vulg. s<]namata\ hawberioun. — 1 Mace. vi. 35 
A thousand men stoden 1113 in mailid to gidre hauberi- 
ownes [Vulg. in lorieis coueatcnatis]. 1450 W. Lomner in 
Fasten Lett. 1. 125 Oon . . toke awey his gown of russet, and 
hisdobelette of velvet mayled. 1513 Douglas .Eneis ix. xi. 
92 The dowbyll malyt traste hawbryk. 158a Stanyhurst 
J&nei* III. (Arb.) 85 A shirt mayled with gould. 1597 A. M. 
tr. Guillemcau's Er. Chirurg. 7/2 We muste consider, if it be 
a mayled doublete, how manye mayles are wantinge. 1856 
R. A. Valghan Mystics (i860) I. 170 The mailed glove [is) 
manfully hurled in his teeth. 

2. Armed with mail, mail-clad. Of a vessel : 

1596 Shaks. 1 Hen. IV, iv. i. 1 16 The mayled Mars shall on 
his Altar sit Vp to the eares in blood. 1607 — Cor. I. iii. 38 His 
bloody brow With his mail'd hand, then wiping.forth he goes. 
1773-83 Hoole Orl. Fur. root He.. stands with point 
addrest To pierce the mailed side or plated brest. 1827 
Keble Chr. Y. Adv. Slind., A crown'd monarch's mailed 
breast, i860 Tknxent Story Guns 111. i. (1864) 229 None of 
the mailed gun-boats.. were ready in time. 18S3 Woolner 
My Beautiful I^ady 137 When Norman William . . with 
charge of mailed horse and showers Of steel won England. 
1897 Times 17 Dec. 7/1 [tr. Emp. Will. II of Germany] But 
should any one essay to detract from our just rights or to 
injure us, then up and at him with your mailed fist [G.fahre 
darein nut gepauzertcr Eaust]. 

fig- »799 Campbell Pleas. Hope 11. 10 In self-adoring pride 
securely mail'd. 1850 Blackie .-Uschylus II. 230 With con- 
stancy mailed for the fight. 1870 Bryant Iliad I. 1. 9 Thou 
mailed in impudence [1. 149 dratSetV eiriei/ieVf]. 

3. trans/, of animals, etc. : Having a skin or 
protective covering resembling mail-armour. 

Mailed-clucks, the family Stierogcnid;e of fishes. 

1681 Grew Musxum 117 The Mailed-fish, Cataphractus 
Sehonvddi. 1828 Stark Elem. Nat. Hist. I. 489 Centriseus, 
Lin. Back mailed with long scaly plates. 1834 MOIlrtrie 
Cu-.ncrs Auim. Kingd. 195 Ijucca Loricala;. The family 
of the Mailed-Cheeks. 1838SWMNSON Nat. Hist. Fishes. elc. 
I. 330 I he I.oricarinx or mailed cat-fish. 1839 Ibid. II. 21 
'I he Holocenlrinx, or mailed-perches. 1854 Owen Skel. t* 
Teeth 3 The ball-proof character of the skin of the largest 
of these mailed examples. 1860G0SSE Rom. Nat. Hist. 290 
lhe mailed and glittering beings that shoot along like ani- 
mated beams of light. 


4. Of a hawk: Having mail or breast-feathers 
(of a specified colour). 

1575 Turberv. Faulconrie 34 They are ordinarily of foure 
mayles, eyther blancke, russet, brownc, or turtle maylde, and 
some pure white maylde. 1672 Josselyn New Bug. Rarities 
11 The Osprcy, which in this Country is white mail'd. 1683 
Land. Gaz. No. 1799/4 A large black Mayled, whole 
Feathered, and thorough mewed Falcon, 
f b. Speckled or spotted. Obs. 

1611 Cotgr. s. v. Maitte, Perdrix maillee, a maylde, 
menild, or spotted Partridge. 1706 Phillips (ed. Kersey), 
Mailed, full of Specks, or speckled, as the Feathers of 
Hawks, Partridges, &c. or as the Furrs of some wild Beasts 
are. [So 1726 Diet. Rust. (ed. 3) ; 1727 Bailey vol. II.] 

Mail eiss, Sc. variant of M A lease Obs. 

Mailer 1 (m£**lai). Sc, Also 5-6 mailler, 
malar, 8 mealier, [f. Mail sb.'- + -eh '.] 

1. One who pays rent; also, see quots, 1792-3. 

1452 in Tytlcr Hist. Scot. (1864) II. 387 All the tenants and 
maillcrs being within my lands quatsomever sail remane with 
thair tacks and mating quhile Whitsonday come a year. 
c 1470 Henryson A/or. Fab. xii. {Wolftf Lamb) xix, Lordis, 
that hes land be goddis lane, And settis to the mailleris ane 
village. 1565 Reg. Privy Council Scot. I. 358 Gif ony 
malaris, takkismeii, rentalaris or commonis sal nappiti to be 
slane. 1597 Skene De Verb. Sign., Firmarius, ane mail- 
payer, ane mailer. 179a Statist. Ace. Scot/. II. 560 A species 
of cottagers, here [sc. co. Ross) called mcalleis, who build a 
small house for themselves, on a waste piece of ground, 
with the consent of the proprietor, and there, are ready to 
hire themselves out as day-labourers. 1793 Ibid. VII. 254 
Two classes, tenants and cottagers; or, as the latter are 
called here [co. Ross and Inverness] mailers. 1894 Liberal 
1 Dec. 69 His farm stock was better cared for than those of 
any other mailer in Netherclugh. 

f2. ? = Landlord. Obs. 

1456 Sir G. Have La;a Anns iS.T.S.) 103 Crist in men that 
ar duelland in the mistrouaml meiiis housi* under nialis stild 
be lele to thair malaris and obeisand. 

Mailer- (m*i"lw). c'.S. [f. Mail vA and sb.% 

+ -ER l.J 

1. One who mails or dispatches by post. 
1884-94 J. T. Perry in \V. F. Crafts Man (ed. 7) 

328 Editors and compositors are kept up until the small 
hours on Sunday morning; presMiien and mailers for an 
hour or two later. 1887 Bureau Statist. Labour, New 
York 490 Newspaper mailers. 

2. A boat which carries the mail ; a mail-boat. 

1883 Century Mac. Nov. 160/1 Showing the skill and good 
control On Transatlantic Mailers. 

3. —Mailing machine. 1902 in Webster Suppl. 
Mail ess, Sc. variant of Malease Obs. 
Mailet, obs. form of Mallet. 
Mailhouris, Sc. variant of Maleurous Obs. 
Mailing (m^Hig), sb. Sc. Also 5 malyn, 

5-7 mailling, 6 maling, 8 mealing, 8-y mailin, 
mailen. [f. Mail sb.'- + -inu ] .] 

1. A rented farm. 

1452 [see Mailer 1 i]. _ 1459 Peebles Charters^ etc. (1S72) 
132 That neuir nan of hym nahis sed com in that malyn agan. 
c 1470 Hknrvson Mor. Fab. xii, {lV'ol/i<f Lamb) xvii, Thay 
gif na rak, Dot ouer his held his mailling will thay tak. 
1562 Reg. Privy Council Scot. I. 222 Thair landis, fische- 
ingis, malingis, rowmes, and possessions. 1674 W. Ccn- 
NiNGfiAM Diary 24 Aug. (1887) 3 John Murdie who dwells in 
a mailling neir by. 1725 Ramsay Gentle She/>h. v. iii, And 
to your heirs, I give, in endless feu, The mailens ye possess. 
a 1818 Macneill Poems (1844) 78 Greenswaird hows, and 
dainty mealing. 1824 Scott Rctlgauntlet ch. xx, I had 
two or three bonnie bits of mailings amang the closes. 1843 
Hardy in Proc. Bcrw. Nat. Club II. No. 11. 64 The farmer 
and his family, .managed their limited mailings, without ex- 
trinsic aid. 

2. The rent paid for a farm. 

1725 Ramsay Gentle Sheph. 11. i, Nor sbor'd to raise Our 
mailens when we put on Sunday claes. 1768R0SS Ilelenore 
1. 13 Our house is happed, an' our mailen paid. 1818 Scott 
II rt. Midi, viii, Let the creatures stay at a moderate mailing. 

3. The term during which a tenant possesses a 
farm (Jam.). 

1609 Skene Reg. Maj. 113 Nor }U is he prejudged in bis 
right be the deed of his Fermour, done be him in the time 
of his mailling. 

t Marling, vbl.sbA Obs. [£ Mail 9.8+ -wo 1 .] 

The action of tying or wrapping up. (attrib.} 

1531 Privy Purse Exp. Hen. VIII (1827) 159 Item for 
mayling Clothes and Cordes to trusse the same stuf. 1548 
I^udlcno Churchiv. Ace. (Camden) 35 Item, for iij. maylinge 
coordes to hange up the vaile in the quyre afore the alter. 
1558 Lane. Wills (1857) I. 177 On malinge sheete of canvas 
xij' 1 . 1569 Bury Wills (Camd. Soc.) 155 A malyn lyne withe 
my woadfat coveryings. 1578 Richmond Wills (Surtees) 2S2 
A capp case, a malynge cover. 

Mailing (m^'liij), vH. sbfi U. S. [f. Mail b.*] 
The action of sending by mail; posting. Also 
attrib., as mailing machine, table. 

1871 Amcr. Etteyct. Print, (etl. Ringwalt) 292/2 Mailing 
Machines, contrivances. . to facilitate the operation of direct- 
ing newspapers. 1884 Knight Diet. Mccli. Suppl., Mailing 
Table, a table at which mail matter is distributed to the 
mail bags. 1900 Daily Neivs 8 Jan. 3/1 Up to the time of 
mailing no particulars are to hand. 

Maill(e, obs. f. Mail, Male ; obs. Sc. f. Meal. 

II Maillechort (may'JJr). [Fr. ; said to be i. 
the names of the inventors, Maillot and Chorier.] 
An alloy of zinc, copper, and nickel. 

1851 Watts tr. GmclbCs Handbk. Chem. V. 497. 1895 
United Serz'ice Mag. Feb. 456 Bullet, No. 12. Material, 

Mailless (nrw>l|Us), a. [f. Mail rf.i + -LEsa.] 
\\ ithout mail-armour; not protected with mail. 


1817 Scott Harold nr. viii, Unshielded, mail-less, on he 
goes. 1848 Lytton Harold \x. iii, Let each shaft be aimed 
at whatever space in my mailless body I leave unguarded. 

Maillet, obs. form of Mallet. 

tMaill(e)y. Obs. [Cf. OF. tnaillic ^ravcle 
(Vfinc gravel), w/oi/marl, maillierXo marl inland).] 

1747 Uooson Miners Dt'ct.s.v. Stone, Madly Stone... 
Maiiley, is a softer sort of Lime very dusty, and will cut 
pritty well. 

Maill eys, Sc. variant of Malkase Obs. 

Mailteth, var. Mkltith Sc. 

t Mailure. Obs, rare— 1 , [f. Mail sb} + -uhk, 
after OK. emmailleureA Mail-armour, mail. 

c 1430 Pilgr. Lyf Manhode \. cxx. 086<y) 62 Thou shuldest 
wite that this armure [the gorgeer] is maad of double 
mailure (14=6 Lydg, maylle; Y . cmmaiilcure\ 

tMaily. a. Obs. rare— 1 . [?a. OF. maittU 
speckled. Hut cf. Mealy a."\ 'Sense uncertain., 

1610 Markham Masttrp. 1. x. 27 His [the horse's] colour 
is..darke bay, with mayly nose [edd. 1^36-75 mayly mouth]. 

Mailyeis, obs. form of Malice. 

Maim (mt 7 irn), sb. Obs. or arch. Forms : a. 4 
maheym, 4, 6-S maime, 5 mayra, 57 maymc, 
6 mamc, mahayme, 6- maim; (3. 5-6 mnyue, 
6 7 maine. Sec also MAYHEM and Maxyie. 
[ME. maheym, mayitc, a. OF. mayhem, mahaing, 
Main, etc. (for the forms see Godef.), also fern. 
meshaigne, maaigne ; vbl. sb. related to mahaignier 
Maim v. Cf. It. magagna^\ An injury to the body 
which causes the loss of a limb, or of the use of it ; 
a mutilation, or mutilating wound, f In early use 
more widely, any lasting wound or bodily injury. 

1340 Aycnb. 135 He is ase be y-niaymcd ate uorche of [> e 
( herche bet ne heb nunc ssame uor to sscawy alle his maimes 
to alle }'on bet her guob. c 1430 Syr Gcner. (Roxb.) 3432 In 
wcrre somtyme a wound had he, A mayme in the nam me 
behind the kne. c i^o Promp, Ptirz'. 320/1 Mayne, or hurte 
(//.,/'., mayme), mutilacio. a 1450 Rut. de la 'J'our(iStS) 9 
Thorughe whiehe misauenture the lady was one-yed. And 
for that foule mayme her husbonde kiste away his hertc 
from his wyff. 1496 Dives $■ /Viw/.iYv*. de W.) v. xviii. 221/2 
Ther shoble no man serue at goddes aulter that had ony 
gieate foule mayme. ijiig Horman / 'nig. 14 b, Xo man that 
..hath a mahayme or a blemmysshe, that maketh hym vn- 
goodly, shall take orders. 1552 Elyot Diet., Coloboma, the 
mayme or Ia<_ke of any niembre of the body, a 1568 Ascuam 
Sc/iotcm. ii. (Arb.) 14S Asa foote of wood is a plaineshewof 
a manifest maime. 1601 Holland Pliny L 170 His Col- 
leagues, .would not permit him to be at the solenine sacri- 
fices, because he bad a maim, and wanted a lim. 1653 
Holcroft Procopius i. 26 The Law excluded him, for his 
mayme of an eye. 1712 Steele Sped. No. 474 f 3 The 
more Maims this llrotherhood [of huntsmen] shall have met 
with, the easier will their Conversation (low. 1741 Kichaku- 
SON Pamela (1S24) I. 87 These bruises and maims that I 
have gotten. 1764 Foote Mayor o/G. 1. Wks. 1799 I. 162 
Maims, bruises, contusions, dislocations,, .may likely ensue. 
b. Jn generalized sense: Loss or permanent dis- 
ablement of a limb. In early use, any serious 
bodily injury. 

C1386CHALC1-:]; Pars. T.y 551 Forpeyneissentbytbcright- 
wys sonde of god,, .be it Meselric, or Maheym 01 maladie. 
14.. in 'PundaWs Vis. (1S43) 91 Hytcureth sores hyt heleth 
euery wownd And saveth men fro maym of swyrd and sper. 
c 1450 Merlin 161 God VS deffende fro deth tins day and fro 
mayme. 1529 m I 'ieary's Anat. (1888) App.xiv. 255 Personts 
. .whiche ysin perell of deth or mayne. 1876 ISanckoi-t Hist. 
U.S. I. x. 326 A crowd gathered round the scaffold when 
Prynne and Bastwick and Burton were to suffer maim. 

C. transf. ?a\<\fig. Mutilation or loss of some 
essential part ; a grave defect, blemish, or disable- 
ment ; an injury or hurt of any kind. 

1543 Grafton* Coutn. Harding Pref. xii, Whiche booker, 
if they had neuer been set out, It had been a greale maime 
to our knowlage. 1577 HARRISON England u. v. (1877) 1. 111 
It is accounted a maime in anie one oi them [thecleargiej not 
tobeexactlie seene in theGicekeand Hebrue. 1594 Hooker 
E'cel. Pol. iv. xii. § 6 It was a weakenes in the Christian 
I ewes, and a maime of Judgement in them, that they thought 
the Gentiles polluted by the eating of those meates [etc.]. 
1596 Shaks. i Hen. IV, iv. i. 42 Wor. Your Father's sick- 
nesse is a mayme to vs. Hotsp. A perillous Gash, a very 
Limme lopt off. 1602 Makston Antonio's Rev. 1. iv, Cast 
my life In a dead sleepe, whilst lawe cuts off yon maine, 
Von putred ulcer of my rolall bloode. 1610 Holland 
Camden's Brit. I. 679 This without any maime of the name 
is called at this day Bod-vari, that is Mansion-Vari. a 1627 
Hayward Edw. VI (1630) 47 A noble writer in our time 
esteemes it to be a mayme in historic that acts of Parliament 
should not bee recited, a 1661 Fuller // 'orthics (1840) I. 
xxv. 99 They are so eminent in their generations, that their 
omission would make a maim in history. 1689-90 Temile 
Eu.y Learning Wks. 1731 I. 168 The last Maim given to 
Learning, has been by the Scorn of Pedantry. 1704 Swift 
T. Tub i, But the greatest Maim given to that general 
reception, which the writings of our society have formerly 
received, .hath been a superficial vein among many readers. 

Maim (m^im), a. rare. Also 5 mayn, 7 
maime. [Related to prec. : cf. OF. mehaignc, 
mod.F. dial, mtfcaig/ie (Godef.).] = Maimed. 

Not in any F,ng. Diet. 

citfSPict. Voc. in Wr.-Wulcker 791/18 Hie mutulatus, 
a mayn. 1653 Holcroft Procopius Pref. A 3, It hath since 
been the fate of this . . to be exposed maime, and mangled 
to the world. 1687 Mikge Eng.-Fr. Diet., Maim, curtailed 
of any member, manchot, estropic. 1760 Baketti Fng.- 
/tab. Diet. 1865 tr. Strauss's New Life Jesus I. 1. 3J3 
Such a thing could not properly be expected of the poor 
and the maim. 1880 World 19 May 6 Refuges for the halt, 
the maim, the sick, and the blind. 1881 Stevenson Moral. 
Profess. Lett, in Fortn. Rev. Apr., His own life being maim, 
some of them are not admitted in his theory. 



Maim (ttffm), v. Forms: a. 3-7 mayme, 4 
mahayme, 5 mayheime, 5-6 raayra, raeyme, 
6 meyheme, mayhime, mayhme, 6-7 maihme, 
5- maim. £.4maynhe,5 meygne, 5 7 mayn(e, 
6-7 main(e; see also Sc. Manyie v. [ME. 
maynhe, mayn, etc. (and, with assimilation to 
Maim sb., mahayme, mayme, etc.), a. OK. ma- 
haignier, mayner, etc. (see Godef. for forms) = Pr. 
maganhar, It. magagnare, mcd.L. mahemiare. 
The ulterior origin is uncertain : the conjectures of 
Diez and others have little probability.] trans. 
To deprive of the use of some member ; to mutilate, 
cripple, f In early use more widely, to disable, 
wound, cause bodily hurt or disfigurement to. 

1297 R. Glouc (Rolls) 5853 Hii velle & to brusede some 
anon to debe & some ymaymed [v. r. maymed] & some 
yhurt. c 1330 R. Brunne Chron. (1810) 305 Was no man 
Inglis maynhed no dede bat day. a 1350 St Andrew 38 in 
Horstm. Altcngl. Leg. (iSSri 132 And eghen sight j>ai toke 
fro sum, And sum croked, bat pai might noghtga: And all 
pat thai mahayinid swa [etc.]. 1393 Langu P. Ft. C. xxi. 
387 Ho so hitteth out a mannes eye . . Othere eny manere 
memhre maymeth other hurteth. c \\(x> Lanfranc' s Cirurg. 
313 A mannes nose is sumtyme to-broken, .. & if it be 
longe or he haue ony help, panne he schal be maymed 
for euermore. c 1400 Destr. Troy xxv. 10012 Mony of 
bo Mirmydons maynet fur eucr. r 1450 St. Cnthbcrt 
(Surtees) 7843 Some pai hedid, some pai mayne. 1470-85 
Malory Arthur n. x, Kynge Arthur slewe that daye xx 
knyghtes is. maymed xl. 1528 More Dint, Hcrcsycs 
iv. xiv. Wks. 277^2 And destroy as that sect hath done 
many a good religious house, spoyled, meyhemed, & slaine 
many a good vertuous man [etc.L 1530 Palsgr. 617/1, 
I mayne, or 1 mayne one, I take the use ofone of his lymmes 
from bytn. iS7+tr. Littleton's 7V««r^4ob,TheLordemaye 
not mayme hysvillayne. 1604 Shaks. Oth. v. i. 27, I am 
niaym'd for euer: Helpe boa: Murther, murthcr. 1622 R,, 
Hawkins Voy. S. Sea lix. 137 Sometimes the winde of the 
shott ouerthroweth one, and the splinters.. mayne and hurt 
others. 1635 R. N. Camden's Hist. Eliz. Introd., Better it is 
t hat a member be joyned to the head, though it be maymed, 
thai quite cut off. a 1674 Clarendon Hist. Feb. xiv. § 140 
Who had lost his father and had been himself maimed in 
the King'sservice. 1769 Blackstone Comm. iv. xv. 206 
By the antient law of England he that maimed any man, 
whereby he lost any part of his body, was sentenced to lose 
the like part. 179a Burke Let. Sir If. Langrishc Wks. 
1842 I. 546 Nocturnal assemblies for the purpose of pulling 
down hedges,., firing barns, maiming cattle. 1867 Lady 
Herbert Cradle L. 1. 26 They maim themselves in every 
way to escape it [conscription]. 1868 AY/, to Govt, U. S. 
Munitions War 182 Thousands who have lost limbs alto- 
gether, . . have done the State . . good service after they were 

^>\f l S' To mutilate, cripple, render powerless 
or essentially incomplete ; f to deprive of. 

c 1386 Chaucer Wife's T. 276 For of onre eldres may we 
no thyng clayme, But temporel thyng, bat man may hurte 
and mayme. c 1400 Rom. Rose 5317 For it maymeth, in 
many wyse, Syke hertis with coveityse. 1562 Cooi-er 
Ausw. Def. Truth iii. 21b, Hee that altereth or taketh 
away any doth alter and maime christes institution. 1563 
B. Googe Eglogs* etc. (Arb.) 102 A Creature maymde of 
Reasons parte. 1593 Shaks. 2 lien. VI, iv. ii. 172 Thereby 
is England main'd And faine to go with a staffe. 1613 — 
Hen. V/lf, in. ii. 312 You wrought to be a Legate, by 
which power You maini'd the Jurisdiction of all Bishops. 
1682 Dryuen Religio Laid 279 For since the original 
Scripture has been lost, All copies disagreeing, maimed the 
most. 1759 Franklin Ess. Wks. 1840 III. 399 To abridge 
would be to maim one of the most lively pieces that liberty 
ever inspired. 1767 Harte Medit. T. a Kempis 117 But 
ah ! their neighbour's pittance maims their field. 1823 
Scott Peveril xv, That .. act of royalty and supreme 
jurisdiction, the consequences of which maimed my estate 
so cruelly. 1868 M. Pattison Academ. Org. 6 The House 
passed the Government Bill, maiming it in vital points in 
its passage through Committee. 

Maimed (nvimd), ///. a. [f. Maim v. + 
-ed 1.] Mutilated, crippled, injured : see the verb. 

a 1400-50 Alexander 4544 Lo, to so many mayned gods 
;our menbris ;e dele. 1578 Nottingham Rcc. IV. 176, iiij. 
meymed men that cum fourth of Eyrland. 1591 Spenser 
M. Hubberd 272 But my late maymed limbs "lack wonted 
might To doo their kindly services. 1625 Bacon Ess., 
Greatness h'ingd. (Arb.) 491 Hospitals for Maimed Soldiers. 
1638 Junius Paint. Ancients 42 They stand and stare upon 
such maimed creatures as want either legges or amies. 1720 
1>e Foe Capf. Singleton xi. (1840) 198 This maimed man. 
1864-7 Geo. Eliot Sp. Gipsy 1. (1868) 4 A maimed giant 
in his agony. 

\>.fi g . 

157" Billincslf.y Euclid vii. Introd. 1S3 Geometric 
boroweth of it [Arithmetic] principles,.. and is as it were 
maymed without it. 1602 Shaks. Ham. v. i. 242 Who is 
that they follow, And with such maimed rites? 1877 
J. D. Chambers Divine Worship 308 In such a maimed 
and dislocated form. 1900 S. Phillips Paolo A> h'rancesca 1. 
26 All these maime'd wants and thwarted thoughts. 
C. alisol. 

1340 Aycnb. 135 [see Maim si.]. Ibid. 141 po he hedde 
ypreched and y-ued bet uolk and be zike and be ymamtd 
y-held. c 14.20 Chron. Vilod. 1098 For leuer here was be 
pore to fede, pe maymot, be seke to wasshe & hele. 1526 
Tindale Matt. xv. 31 In so moche that the people wondred, 
to se..the maymed whole. 1764 FootV Mayor o/G. 1. 
Wks. 1799 I. 162 Is it your Worship's will that I lend a 
ministrtng hand to the maim'd? 1848 Mrs. Jameson^c*-. 
•V Leg. Art II. 298 The sick and maimed who are healed 
by her intercession. 

t Mai'medly, adv. Obs. [-ly -.] In .1 maimed 

1596 Nashe Saffron Il'aldeuWks. (Grosart) III. 47 Being 
aboue 2 yeres since maimedly translated into the French 


tongue. 1508 Hakluyt's Voy. I. 614, I rather leaue it out 
altogether, then presume to doe it maymedly. 1680 II. More 
Apocal. Apoc. 154 Some strictures there were,.. but hinted 
very maimedly, obscurely and interruptedly. 

Mainiedness (mt^-mednes). [-ness.] The 
condition of being maimed {lit. andy^O. 

1607 Hieron Wks. I. 122 He will see such weakenesse,. . 
such maimednesse, such imperfection, in his best perform- 
ances^ 1613 Purciias Pilgrimage 11. vii. (1614) 135 The 
conditions required in the High Priest, as that he should 
not haue the bodily defects of Blindnesse, lamenesse, 
maymednesse, &c. 1886 Ruskin Prxtcrita I. xii. 425 So 
much did its sullenness and mainiedness pollute the meagre 

Maimer (m£*mai). [f. Maim z>. + -xb).] One 

who maims or mutilates. 

1530 Palsgr. 241/2 Maymer of men, mvtilatevr. 1769 
Blackstone Comm. IV. 13 If a man maliciously should 
put out the remaining eye of him who had lost one before, 
it is too slight a punishment for the maimer to lose only 
one of his. 1884 Atlienxum 9 Feb. 1S2/1 Terrorists and 
maimers of cattle. 

Maiming (Wi'min), vbL sb. [-nro*.] The 

action of the verb Maim. 

a 1400-50 Alexander 40S8 J>an wald his pepill & his 
princes haue past ouir be bourne, And m"i5t no^t for be 
morsure & maynyng of bestis. a 1568 Ascham Scholem. n. 
(Arb.) 99 To the marring and raaymng of the Scholer in 
learning. 160a Fuliiecke 1st Pt. Parall. 78 The opinion 
of M. Brooke is that hee may beate him if hee cannot other- 
wise escape without stripes or wounds or mayming. 1727 
Swift Let. Eng. Tongue Wks. 1755 II. 1. 188 Another 
cause., which hath contributed .. to the maiming of our 
language, is a foolish opinion, .. that we ought to spell 
exactly a.s we speak. 1768-74 Tucker Lt. Nat. (18341 II. 
43 Inevitable evils are .. such as sudden deaths, maimings, 
or other bodily hurts by the stroke of lightning. 

Maimonidean (maim^nidran), Maimo- 

nidian (maimoni'dian), a. (sb.). [f. L. Maimo- 
uid-cs + -an, -ian.] a. Pertaining to the Jewish 
theologian Maimonides (Aldshc ,t ben Maymon 
1 135-1204). b. sb. An adherent of Maimonides. 

1864 Chambcrs^s Encycl. VI. 273 The. .spiritualistic Mai- 
monidian and the ' literal Talmudistic schools. 1876 
Scuiller-Szinessy Ctital. Ilcbr. MSS. Cambr. I. 1S7 The 
so-called Maimonidean school. 1882-3 ScHAFF Encycl. 
Relig. Kttoivl. II. 13S8 Judaism was soon divided into the 
Maimonidians and Anti-Maimonidians. 1886 Encycl. Brit. 
XX. 283/2 The Maimonidean controversy. 

Maimonist (mai-mJnist). [f. Maimon-ides 
(see prec.) + -I8T.] An adherent of Maimonides. 

1881 Friedlandes Maimonides'' Guide 0/ Perplexed I. 
Life 35 _The controversy between Maimonists and anti- 

Main (m£ln), sbX Forms: 1 msesen, maesn, 
2-4 mein, (3 Lay. msoin), 3-4 meyn, 3-6 raayn, 
4-6 Sc. mane, 4-7 maine, mayne, 3- main. 
[OE. nieVgen, — OS. megin^ OIIG. magan, megin, 
ON. magji, megn, megin, f. root *mag- : see May 
v., Might jA] 

I. 1. Physical strength, force, or power. Obs. 
cxc. in phr. with might and main (see 2). 

PcoiwtlfjBg Se be manna wss ina:^ene strengest. c 1205 
Lay. 26698 t>er he finden mihte be his main wolde fondien 
hond ajan honde. c 1275 Luue Ron 69 in O. E. Misc. 55 
Ector wip his scharpe meyne. ?ci32^ Old Age x. in 
E. E. P. (1862) 149, I spend, an marrit is mi main. 1375 
Barbour Bruce \. 444 The king. .went till Ingland. .With 
mony man off mekill mayn. Ibid. vi. 318 Thair chiftane 
Wes of sic heit and of sic mane, That [etc.]. 1460 Lybeatts 
Disc. iKaluza) 560 He nadde main ne mi}t. c 1470 Henry 
Wallace 1. 320 Hyr eldest son, that mekill was of mayn. 
1501 Douglas Pal. Hon. 111. Ixxvi, Thay witli speir, with 
swordis, and with kniues, In just battell war fundin maist 
of mane. 1590 Stknser /'*. Q. \. vii. 11 He gan aduauncc 
With huge force and insupportable mayne. 

fb. fig.y and in immaterial applications. Obs. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 21051 (Cott.) O treind wandes gold he 
wroght . . And efter-ward wit crisis main J>am turnd to pair 
kind egain. 1390 Gowkr Con/. III. 4 Love is of so gret 
a main, That . . Ther mai nothing his miht withstonde. 
c 1440 York Myst. xx. 123 J>ou arte nowthir of myght ne 
mayne To kenne it as a clerke may knawe. 1549-62 
Sternhold & H. Ps. xciii. 1 And he lo shew his strength 
and maine, hath girt himselfe with might. 

f C. trans/. Of things : Power, virtue, efficacy. 

c 1000 Sax. Lccchd. I. 94 ponne ys seo a;rre [wyrt] hwitrc, 
& heo hxf3 bas imegnu. c 1320 Sit Trtstr. 1581 Sche com 
wip adrink of main. 

2. Phrases, f With {mid) or in all one's main, 
with main, %vith all, great or mickle main (in M E. 
poetry often used as a metrical stopgap or tag) : 
with the utmost strength or vigour one is capable 
of. t To set one's main to : to apply all one's 
energies to. f To do one's main : to do one's ut- 
most, one's best. With might and main, -\tuith 
main and might, f Vfith mood and main, etc. : see 
Might sb., Mood sb. See also Amain. 

c 1175 Lamb. Horn. 123 Luuian we hine mid aire beorte. . 
mid alle meine. C1290 6'. Eng. Leg. I. 104/113 A bousend 
men with al heore main on hire gonne drawe. 1 1314 Guy 
Wanv. (A.) 884 stede toke bi the reyn, & lepe vp 
wib gret meyn. c 1320 Sir Trtstr. 1083 Tristrem smot wi(» 
main, c 1375 Sc. Leg. Saints iv. (Jacobus) 299 He gert fele 
knychtis. .pryk efter pame in al par mayne. Ibid, xxvii. 
(Machor) 8, I wald fayne,..set my mayne sunie thing to 
say of sancte inoryse. c 1375 Cursor M. 1076 (Fairf.) 
<)uen he [sc. Cain] had his brober slayne To hide him he dide 
his mayne. c 1450 St* Cnthbcrt (Surtees) 4048 He thanked 

fod with all his mayne. c 1460 Towncley Myst. xv. lot 
'ell me, loseph, with mayn, youre red. 1542 Becon Potat. 
Lent Divb, That ye cleue stedfastly with all mayne to the 


promyses which [etc.]. a 1568 Wyfc of Auchicrmuchty vii, 
Than owt he ran in all his mane. 

f3. A host of men ; a (military) force. Obs. 

a xooo A ndreas S76 We 5a;r heahfa;deras halige oncneowon 
& martyra majjen unlytel. 10. . O. E. Chron. an. 1004 Deer 
wa;rtS East Engla folces seo yld of slafcen, ac £if l^t ^"He 
man^en baere wa;re, ne eodan hi nsefre eft to scipon swa hi 
sylfessedon. 1297 R. Glouc (Rolls) 8999 William courtehese 
he made of pe verste wardein & in be oper bilunde he was 
him sulf mid al is main. 

II. Senses arising from absol. uses of Main a. 

4. ellipt. for main land, Mainland, arch. 

'555 Kden Decades 351 At three leaques off the mayne, 
there is xv. fadome. 1577-87 Holinsheu Chron. I. 43/2 
This Hand, which for the quaniitie thereof maie well lie 
called a maine, although it be inuironed about with the 
Ocean sea. 1600 J.^ Poky tr. Leo's Africa 50 Not far from 
the main are certaine dry and rockie isles. 1698 Fryer 
Ace. E. India *V P. 14 The most traded Empories here, 
are St. _ Augustine on the Island [Madagascar], and 
Mosambique 011 the Main. 1711 Steele Spect. No. 11 f 5 
The Achilles, in some distress, put into a Creek on the 
Main of America. 1823 Byron Juan \\\. xxxi, Their 
Delhis mann'd some boats and. .tried to make a landing on 
the main. 1839 Thiklwall Greece VI. 1. 196 The island . . 
was separated from the main by a channel half a mile 
broad. 1891 J. Winsor Columbus xiii. 290 He was anxious 
to make a thorough examination of Cuba, which was a part 
of the neighboring main of Cathay, as he was ready to 

b. Short for Spanish Main, q. v. 

1890 Cokbett Sir F. Drake iii. 33 Drake, .sailed once 
more for the Mai^ 1897 Henley ffawt/torn « T Lavender, 
etc. (1901) 95 The (rim Slaver. .Held. .Her musky course 
from Benin to the Main, And back again for niggers. 

6. ellipt. for Main ska: The high sea, the open 
ocean. Now poet. 

>579 80 North Plutarch, C. Marius (1595) 468 The 
winde stoode full against them comming from the maine 
[ 1' . lc ucnt se tourna dn coste de la pleitie mer\. 1601 R. 
Johnson Kingd. *f Commw. (1603) 211 They dare not 
venter into the maine, but houering by the shore, timerously 
saile from one place to another. 1695 Woodward Hist. 
Earth 1. 27 The Tides and Storms . . affect only the super- 
ficial parts of the Ocean, .. but never reach the greater 
I >epths, or disturb the bottom of the Main. 1698 Froger 
I'oy. 65 A gentle Breeze came off from the Main [ F. du 
large], 1731 PorE Ep. Burlington 198 Bid the broad Arch 
the dang rous Flood contain, The Mole projected break 
the roaring Main. 1764 Goldsm. Trav. 410 To traverse 
climes beyond the western main. 1847 Tennyson Princess 
\ 11. 21 As one that climbs a peak to gaze O'er land and main. 

Jig. 1597 R. Johnson Champions (1608J 11. Addr., But hav- 
ing better hope I boldly leade thee to this mayne from this 
doubtfull floude where I rebt. 1602 Marston Ant. <y Mel. 
iv. Wks. 1S56 1. 46 Launched out Into the surgy maine of 
government. 1839 Longf. Ps. of Life viii, Sailing o'er life's 
solemn main. 

+ b. trans/. A broad expanse, poet. Obs. 

c 1600SHAKS. Sonn. Ix. 5 Natiuity once in the maine of light, 
Crawles to maturity. 1667 Milton P. L. x. 257 Adventrou?. 
work, found a path Over this Maine from Hell lo that 
new World Where Satan now prevailes. 

6. The most important part of some business, 
subject, argument, or the like ; the chief matter or 
principal thing in hand. (Cf. Main j/v* i b.) 

1602 Shaks. Dam. w. ii, 56, I doubt it is no other, but the 
maine, His Fathers death, and our o'er-hasty^ Marriage. 
1615 tr. De M^onfarfs Su-nn E. Indies Pref. B lij, Neyther 
doth he stand vpon any other vayne particulars, but directly 
goeth to the maine. 1650 Baxter Saints' A*. 1. ii. § 1 (1651) 
192 If I should here enter upon that task.. I should make 
too broad a digression, and set upon a work as large as the 
iiiaiti, for whose sake I .should undertake it. 1663 Cowley 
Country-Mouse 5 Frugal, and grave, and careful of the 
Main. 170a Eng. Theophrast. 132 We let the Main go, 
while we grasp at the accessories. 1716-20 Mist's 
Jml. (1722) I. 244 She complied with your last Advice, as 
lo the Main. 

b. Phrases : in, \/or, "\on, f upon the main : 
for the most part ; in all essential points ; mainly. 

a 1628 Preston A'eiu Cor't. (1634) 12 Holy men have that 
apprehension in the maine, but not in a constant tenour at 
all times. 1639 Fuller Holy War 1. xvi. (1840) 28 As long 
us they agree in the main, we need not be much moved 
with their petty dissen.sions. 1662 H. Moke Philos. Writ. 
Pref. Gen. p. vi, Being carried captive by the power of reason 
into a true belief of things for the main. 1697 J. Sergeant 
Solid Philos. 80 Whence, upon the main, is clearly dis- 
covered, how all true Philosophy is nothing but the know- 
ledge of Things. 1699 Ben'i ley That. 49 Generally and for 
the main he resided at Crotona. 1711 Steele Sped. 
No. 118 F 3, I do not know whether in the main I am the 
worse for having loved her. 1748 Richardson Clarissa 
{1811) II. 145 If Nancy did not think well of you upon the 
main. 1799 in Spirit Tub. Jrnls. III. 394 John is, uj>on 
the main, no foot. 1832 J. C. Hake P/iitol. Mus. I. 163 
note, Since writing the above I have found a reading agree- 
ing on the main with mine in the edition of Asconius by 
Paulus Maiuitius. 1840 Dickens OldC. Shop lvi, Mr. Swi- 
veller being in the main a good-natured fellow. i8g3 R. Wil- 
liams in Traill Social Eng. i. 31 In the main, therefore, the 
leading ideas of the heathen Celt were those of heathen 
nations generally. 

c. Const. 0/ The chief or principal part (<7/"some 
whole, material or immaterial) ; the important or 
essential point. Phr. f the main 0/ all. 

1595 Daniel QV. Wars 111. xxxvii, I know you know how 
much the thing doth touch The maine of all your states, 
your blood, your seed. 1601 Sir W. Cornwallis Disc. 
Seneca (1631) M 1112, It is no charity to giue so violently as 
may waste the maine of an estate. 1631 Heywood -2nd Pt. 
Maid of West 11. Wks. 1874 II. 363 Why that's the main of 
all : all without his freedome That we can aime at's nothing. 
1647 May Hist. Pari. 1. viii. 104 It was not onely agreed 
that their Ships . . should be restored . . but for the maine of all, 
it was resolved upon by both houses, to give the full summeof 




£300000. 1653 Holcroft /V<w////.r 11.33 FJutthe maine ofall: 
studies he not (etc.]? 1683 Cave Ecclcsiastici, Chrysostom 
501 The main of the Church was destroyed [by fire] in three 
hours space. 1693 Mem. Cnt. Teckely iv. 49 He assaulted 
them in the Front with the main of his Army. 1711 Addison 
Sped. No. 47 P 9 The Persons we laugh at may in the main 
of their Characters he much wiser Men than our selves. 
1750 Johnson Rambler No. 68 f 3 The main of life is 
composed of small incidents. 1781 Wks. (1S72) IV. 
215 He has sufficiently proved the main of his hypothesis. 
1845 Stephen Comm. Laws Eng. (1874) I. 119 If a lord had 
a parcel of land detached from the mam of his estate. 1880 
Bi.ackmoke Mary Anerley II. xvi 279 The main of their 
cargo was landed. 1880 Annie R. Ellis Sylvestra II. 275 
She told him the main of the morning's news. 1903 Contcmp. 
Rev, Feb. 190 The main of us have never set eyes upon 
a Dane before. 

f 7. The object aimed at ; end, purpose. Obs. 

Perh. orig. a term of archery. Cf. Main sb. 3 2. 

rti6io Healev Epictetus Man. (1636) 6 The ayme of 
appetite, is to attaine what it affecteth, and the maine of 
dislike is to avoide what it disliketh. x6io W. Folkingham 
Art of Survey To Kdr. 3, I ayme not at the Racke nor the 
Slack, the qualified Meane is the Maine of my Marke. 1623 
Webster Duchess Malji II, i, Bos. You say you would 
fain be taken for an eminent courtier? Cast. 'Tis the very 
main of my ambition. 1633 B. Jonson Tale of a Tub \\\. 
iv, Wee have by this meanes disappointed him, And that 
was all the maine I aimed at. 1652 R. BoREHAH Country' 
mans Catech. i. 1 This Happinesse (or the Salvation of our 
Soules) being the maine of all our enlarged desires. 1657 
Sparkow Bk. Com, Prayer 173 Therefore differing so much 
in the main of the Feast, they would not comply with 

8. A principal channel, duct, or conductor for 
conveying water, sewage, gas, or electricity, e. g. 
along the street of a town. (Cf. main drain, 
1707-12 s.v. Main a. 8 b.) 

1727 Bradley Earn. Diet. s.v. Building, Where any Stock- 
Blocks of Wood with Plugs, or any Fire-Cocks, were made 
and hVd on any Mains [etc.]. 176a Ann. Reg. 120/1 Wooden 
pipes were inserted into the mains in almost every street. 
1808 Murdoch in Phil. Trans. XCVIII. 125 The gas.. is 
conveyed by iron pipes into .. ga/ometers, . . previous to its 
being conveyed through other pipes, called mains, to the 
mill. 1835 Loudon Encycl. Agric. 658 The use of both the 
large and small mains is to feed the various trenches with 
water, which branch out into all parts of the meadow. 1871 
Tvndall Fragm. Set. {1879) II. xvi. 449 The electric mam 
carrying the outgoing current. 1894 Nat. Observer 189/2 
Take the case of a lead-pipe led into a block of houses from 
the iron main. 1895 S. P. Thompson & E. Thomas Electr. 
Tab. .y Mem. 4 In factory wiring it is often preferred to 
keep the positive and negative mains far apart. 
fig. 1865 Masson Rec. Brit. Philos. i. 15 It is not only 
Britain . . that the writer accuses of this folly of not drawing 
its philosophy from the main. 

b. In jocular phr. To turn on the main, to 
begin to weep copiously. 

1837 Ifrnnrim Pickw. xvi, Blessed if I don't think he's 
got a main in his head as is always turned on. 1857 
Bradley (C. Bede) Verdant Green in. xi. 90 You've no idea 
how she turned on the main, and did the briny ! 1878 
M. C. Jackson Chaperon's Cares I. x. 128 The mains were 
turned on, and tears flowed until weeping became infectious. 

9. Short for mainsail (obs.), mainmast. 

1535 Stewart Cron. Scot. I. 373 Tha led thame in with 
musall, fuk, and mane. 1894 Times 7 Apr. 7/3 All the 
ships . . were gaily decked with bunting, the German flag 
flying at the main. 1903 Blackw. Mag. Apr. 523/1 Skiffs 
with well-reefed mains scudded for sheltering creeks. 

10. techn. a. ? A principal vein of mineral, b. 
A main line of railway. 

1867 Musgrave Nooks $ Corners II. 2 A wide main of 
this mineral lies beneath the stupendous masses of dark 
blueish rock. 1893 Daily News 8 June 2/3 The railway will 
be a double main. 

Main (m^'n), sb2 Se. and north. Alsosmayn; 
//. 6 may nis, man is , maines, 7 maynea , mainnes, 
8 mainae. [Aphetic f. Domain, Demesne.] 

fl. Mains or main lands - demesne lands. Obs. 

1454 En 14AI Rep. Hist. MSS. Comm. App. in. 10 The 
sayde Androw Ker sal gyff. .-tyl the sayde Thorn Robson. . 
his mayn landis of Hownum. 1577-95 Descr. Isles Scot, 
in Skene Celtic Scot. III. App. 436 The said John Stewart 
hes it all under maynes. 

2. //. The farm attached to a mansion house ; 
a home farm. (Now esp. retained in Scotland in 
the names of farms, e. g. the Mains of Forthar.) 

1533 Clyfford in St. Papers Hen. VIII, IV. 633 
Wher we brynt theis townes that is to wite, Sesfurth .. 
Sesfurth Mayns, Mows Mayns .. Cavertone Mayns [etc.]. 
1573-4 Reg- Privy Council Scot. Ser. 1. II. 320 The landis 
mains and cornis of Sanct Thomas Chapell. a 1578 Lindesay 
(Pitscottie) Chron. Scot. (S.T.S.) I. 226 }e sail haue the 
manis of Kirkforther for it. 1589 Wills % Inv. N. C. 
(Surtees 1S60) 164, I geue to Mathew Forster,..Edderstoun 
east hall, and the maynis thairofT. 1597 Skene De Verb. 
Sign, t Mauerivm, . . ane mainnes, or domaine landes, . . 
Because they ar laboured and inhabited be the Lorde, and 
propnetar of the samin. 1606 in North Riding Rec. (1884) 
I. 48 John Dodsworth of Massam Maynes. 1766 W. Gordon 
Gen Counhngdw. 468 The tenants and Mainse fall now to 
be debited for crop 1765. 1769 De Foe's Tour Gt. Brit. 
IV. 72 Every Nobleman's House [in Scotland] hath what 
they call the Mains, where their Land-labourers, Grooms, 
and every Body belonging to the Stable and Poultry, 
reside. 1814 Scott IVav. xv, That the Bailie should send 
his own three milk cows down to the mains for the use of 
the Baron s family. 1834 H. Miller Scenes fy Leg. xxvii. 
(1857) 398 He was employed.. at the Mains of Invergordon. 

Main (mt 7 in), sb.% Also 6-7 maine, mayne. 
[Of obscure history. 

From the early use in antithesis with by (which seems in the 
game of hazard to have meant the same as cliance in the 

later language) the word would appear to be an absolute 
or elliptical application of Main a. (Cf. Main chance.) 
The usual view that the word is a. F. main 'hand ' has no 
evidence; quot. c 1685-8 in sense 3 prob, embodies a mere 
etymological speculation.] 

1. In the game of hazard, a number (from five 
to nine inclusive) called by the ' caster ' before the 
dice are thrown. 

' If lie " throws in ", or "nicks ", he wins the sum played for 
from the banker or " setter ". . .If the caster" throws out " by 
throwing aces, or deuce, ace (called crabs), he loses.. . If the 
caster neither nicks nor throws out, the number thrown is 
his "chance", and he keeps on throwing till either the 
chance comes up, when he wins, or till the main comes up, 
when he loses' {Encycl. Brit, s.v. Hazarii), 

1580 Ld, Ofealkv in Stanyhurst /Eneis, etc. (Arb.) 153, I 
loathe too see them [sc. dire-players [sweare. .,\Vhen they the 
mayne haue lost ; Forgetting al thee byes, that weare With 
God and holyegoast. 1580 Lylv F uplines I. \rh.) 289 Not vn- 
lyke the vseof foule gamesters, who hauing lost the maine by 
true Judgement, thiuke to face it out with a false oath. 1598 
Barckley Felic. Man Pref., Diceplayers, that game more by 
the bye then by the maine. a 1635 Corbet Poems (1807) 
12S Amongst the gamsters, where they name thee [the pox] 
thicke At the last maine, or the last pocky nicke. 1665 
Earl Dokset Song written at Sea vii, To pass our tedious 
Hours away, We throw a merry Main. 1684 Otway 
Atheist ill. i, The Main was Seven, and the Cliance Four. 
1726 Art <y Myst. of Gaming Exposed 29 Loaded or 
Scooped Dice are. .changed as often as the Main anil 
Chance, or Occasion requires. 1731 Fielding Mod. Husb. 
11. x. La. Char. Eleven mains together, Modern; you are 
a devil. Air. Gaywit. She lias always great luck at 
Hazard. 1777 Colman E.pil. Sheridan's Sch. Scand. (1883) 
76 Seven's the main. 1837 Thackeray Ravenswing viii, 
He likes to throw a main of an evening. 1881 Shokthoise 
y. Ingtesaut {1882) II. 306 Come and take your chances in 
the next main. 1894 M askelyne Sharps t, Flats 255 The 
first throw made by the player is called the 'main '. 

fb. fig. esp. coupled with or in antithesis to by 
(seellv sb.- 1). Obs. 

*3&7> '580 I see Bv*£. a ij. 1589 Warner Alb. Eng. Prose 
Addit. 155 Whatsoeuer thy play be in Affrick, let hence- 
forth the Mayne be Italic 1593 Shaks. 2 Hen. II, 
I. i. 2o3 Then lets make hast away, And looke vnto the 
maine. 1595 Maroccus Ext. (Percy Soc. ) 12 Horse. No, 
no, his minde was on the twentieth dale of the moucth fol- 
lowing, when his money was due. Bankcs. Tis good to 
haue an eie to the maine. 1596 Shaks. i Hen. IV. iv. i. 47 
To set so rich a mayne On the nice hazard of one doubt full 
houre. 1602 Daniel Civ. Wars vii. xxv, The doubtful Dye 
of War cast at the Main Is such as one bad Chance may 
lose you all. 1612 R. Dabokne Chr. turrid Turke 8 Deale 
Merchant-like, put it vpon one maine, And throw at all. 
1676 Towekson Decalogue 462 Recreations .. must con- 
sequently be.. used as things on the by and not as the main. 
1781 Westm. Mag. IX. 604 When each grave Senator the 
sport promotes, And throws the main with— cogg'd and 
loaded votes. 

f 2. A match (at archery, boxing, bowls). Obs. 

Cf. Main sb. 1 7. But in the first quot. a maine may pos- 
sibly be Amain cutv, 

1589 Nashe Martins Months Mind To Rdr. C3b, To 
shoote a maine for the vpshot, at the fairest mnrkes of 
all. 181a Sporting Mag. XXXIX. 19 The champion has won 
a main, and certainly Molineux could have no chariot in 
any combat with him, 1886 Cheshire Gloss. s.v., A main 
at bowls is a match played by a number of couples, the 
winners again playing in couples against each other till one 
man is left the victor. [Cf. Welsh main in 3.] 

3. A match fought between cocks. Hence occas. 
a number of cocks engaged in a match. Welsh 
main (see quot. 1770) ; trans/, (see quot. 1886). 

[c 1685-8 MS. LJfe of Aldtrman Barnes in I'rand Pop. 
Antiq. {1813) I. 481 His chief Recreation was Cock-fighting. 
..One Cock particularly he had, called 'Spang Counter', 
which came off victor in a great many battles a la main. 
1716 Lond. Gaz. No. 5429/4 There will he I!y-I!attles, . . 
And in the Afternoon will begin the main Match.] 1760 R. 
Hebek Horse Matches ix. 154 A Main of Cocks were 
fought between the D. of Cleveland and Ld. Northumber- 
land. 1770 S. Pegge in Archarolcgia (1775) I. 149 The 
Welsh-main consists, we will suppose of sixteen pair of 
cocks ; of these the sixteen conquerors are pitted a second 
time; the eight conquerors of these are pitted a third time; 
the four conquerors the fourth time; and lastly, the two 
conquerors of these are pitted a fifth time. 1828 Scott 
F. M. Perth xxi, Laying schemes for massacring men on 
Palm Sunday, as if he were backing a Welsh main, where 
all must fight to death. 1855 Macaulay Hist. Eng. xvii. 
IV. 57 The dexterity with which he .. turned conversation 
away from matters of state to a main of cocks or the 
pedigree of a racehorse. 1880 Jefferies Gr. Feme F. 59 
He could swear and drink no more, nor fight a main of 
cocks every Sunday afternoon on his dining room table. 
1886 Cheshire Gloss, s.v., There is also the term Welsh 
main, applied in a secondary sense to voting : voting until 
two only are left in, and then for those two alone. 1890 
H. Frederic Lawton Girl 33, I've seen dog-fights and 
cock-mains in England. 

Main (m^n), sb* Also 7 meane. [a. F. main.] 

f 1. Her. The hand. Obs. 

1688 R. Holme Armoury i. 103/2 Our old English terms 
were.. Maine for Hand. Meane Dexter for R. Hand. 

2. ' A banker's shovel for coin' (Knight 1875). 
Cf. F. main, 'pelle de tule, a manche de bois tres-court* 


Main (m^n),a. Forms: [1 mas3en-],3 msein, 
4-7 mayn, 5 Se. mane, 5-7 mayne, 6-7 maine, 
maigne, 5- main. [Prob. partly repr. OE. 
mtegen- (Main sb. 1 ) in compounds, and partly an 
adoption of the cognate ON. megenn, megn adj., 
strong, powerful; in some uses (e.g. in Main sea 
= ON. megensid?-) it seems to represent ON. 
?negen- ( = Main sb. 1 ) in compounds. 

It is doubtful whether the development of the Eng. word 
owes anything to the influence of OF. maine, maigne 
great :— L. magnns. The ( )Fr. word is purely poetical, and 
occurs chiefly as an epithet of kings and nobles; it may 
prob. have influenced the use of main by ME. poets, but 
the only unequivocal evidence of its adoption is the 15th c. Sc. 
Ale.xandir the mane, Charlis the mane (see Mane a.).] 

1. Strong, vigorous, mighty; possessed of, mani- 
festing, or exerting, great physical strength 01 
force, fa. Said of acts or activities which imply 
force or energy. Obs. 

[Beou'ulf 1519 (dr.) M;exeiirses for^eaf hildebille.] 13.. 
Can'. <y Gr. Knt. 336 No more mate ne dismayd for hys 
mayn dintez. 1:1400 Destr, l'?oy 6gi$ He myst of be man 
with his mayn dynt. c 1600 in Boys' Whs. (1629) 626 Jesu 
thy loue within me is so maine, .. That with thy loue m,y 
heart is well nigh rent. 1629 Maxu ell tr. Iterodian (16 55' 
273 If they be driven to fly, or pursue the eneime, their long 
loose garments are a maine let to them. 1641 Baker Chron. 
(1660)87 Ibis was a main blow to Prince Lewis, and the 
last of his battels in England. 1644 DjGBV Mans Soul 
(1645) 33 These two powcifull motives . . have so maine an 
influence in mens actions. 1653 II. Moke Antid, .-lilt. 11. 
viii. (1712) 6a Without main violence done to our Faculties 
we can in no wise deny it. 1667 Milton /'. L. VI. 243 Soar- 
ing 011 main wing. 1671 — Samson 1634 Those two massie 
Pillars That to the arched roof gave main support. 1671 
II. Fot'Lis Hist. Rom. Treasons III. ii. 136 She also gave 
a main stroke against Cecchino. 

b. As an epithet offeree, strength, etc. : Kxerted 
to the full, sheer. Esp. in phr. by (or •fwith) 
main force; + similarly, by or with main strength, 
dint, power, courage, importunity, labour, fll'ith 
main logic by sheer force of reasoning. 

[Beowulf sdyZ (fir.) |»a ^en guScyning niieida xt'iim'^c, 
niaesenstrengo, sK.>h luldehtlle. a 1000 Guthtac 1105 iLlr.) 
pas werus stihtung, mod & msegencraft.] 1542 Hfxon 
Christinas Banq. F viij, Therfore ought all men. .with all 
mayne & ftancke courage to apply themselues to the dili- 
gent practyse of good wurkes. 1579 Lvi.y En/hues (Arb. ) 
ni Loue creepeth into the minde by priuie craft, and 
kecpeth his holde by maine courage. 1579 Ft'I.KK Re/. 
Rastel 734 M. K. hath gotten the day, and that with maine 
logike. 1593 Shaks. 2 Hen. VI, 1. i. 20S '1 bat Maine, which 
by maine force VVarwicke did winne. 1605 Vemstecan I'ci. 
Inietl. iii. (1628) 56 By meere valour and maine force of 
amies they attained vnto their desired habitation. 1613 
Shaks. Hen. I'll/, 11. ii. 7 A man of my Lord Caidi nails, by 
Commission, and maine power tooke 'em from me. 1651 
I Iobbes G/T't. Sf Soc. iii. S 9. 43 Each one.. is supposM, with 
all his main might, to intend the procurement of those 
things which are necessary to his own preservation. 1655 
Fuller Ch. Hist. 11. v. § 46 Next Night they on afresh ; and, 
with main Force, plucked up the ponderous C'oflin upon the 
Pavement, a 1680 Butle b Rem. (1751;) II. 68 To pioseeute 
his suit, till lia-rgcover it against him by main Importunity. 
1687 LoVKi.L tr. Thevenots Trav. 1. 18 They [old Galleys] 
were carried by main strength over the Isthmus of Corinth. 
1697 tr. Le Comte*s Mem. a> Rem. China iv. (1737) 103 By 
main labour they drained the water. 1755 Smollett Qnix. 
(1803) II. 182 We were. .by main dint of rowing kept from 
running a-ground. 1810 Scott Lady of L. 1. xxiv, Yel with 
main strength his strokes he drew. 1849 Macaulay Hist. 
Eng. i. I. 123 To restrain his musqiieteers and dragoons 
from invading by main force the pulpits of ministers. 

+ c. Ol motion, etc. : Swift, speedy, rapid. 
A main pace or speed = at full speed. Obs. 

1577-87 Holinshei) t"//?-<?«. (1807-8) II. 254 They were con- 
stramd. .to run awaie a maine pase. 1581 Savii.E Tacitus, 
Hist, iv, xi. (1591) 175 With a maine course [he] drewe the 
whole manage of affaires into his owne handes. 1607 Mark- 
ham Caval. III. x. 51 Some Horsemen, .wil. .hreake into a 
maine chace and so giue their Horse a sweat e. 1609 Dekker 
Ravens Aim. C, Citizens, Schollers and Saylers thinke a 
horse neuer goes fast enough though he run a maine gallop. 
a 1625 Fletcher Cust. Country 1. i, We saw e'm Making 
with all maine speed to 'th port. 1632 ]. Haywako tr. 
Biondis Eromena 4 Gallopping a maine speede out of the 

+ d. By or with main hand', with a strong 
hand, forcibly. Obs. 

1567 Fenton Trag. Disc. Ep. Ded., Vet, brydlinge wythe 
maine hand, the humour of theyr inordinate luste. 1583 
Golding Calvin on Dent, lxxii. 444 God therefore must be 
faine to ouermaster vs, and to tame vs by maine hande. 

t e. Of drink : Potent. Of a voice or cry : 
Loud. Of a fit, a storm : Violent. Obs. 

13.. Gaw. <y Gr. Knt, 497 pa; men ben mery in mynde, 
quen bay han mayn drynk. 1582 Stanyhurst /Eneis in. 
(Arb.) 72 With mayne noise lifted to the slayne soule lastlye 
we shouted. 1611 Speed Hist. Gt. Brit. ix. xv. (16231 810 
[He] made towards his Pages with a maine cry. 1627 Abp. 
Ahbot Narr. in Rushw. Hist. Coll. (1659) '• 449 My main 
fit of the Stone did call upon me to get me to the Countrey. 
1628 Digby Voy. Medit. (1868) 51 It was a maine storme. 

t 2. Of an army, host, multitude : Great in num- 
bers ; numerous; * mighty'; powerful in arms. 
In i6-i7th c, the usual epithet distinctive of a 
complete and equipped army, as opposed to small 
or irregular forces. Main battle : a pitched battle, 
as opposed to mere skirmishing. Obs. 

[a 900 Cynewule Crist 877 (Gr.) Swa on syne beor^ somod 
up cymeo" ma^enfolc micel.] a 1400-50 Alexander 3018 
He had of men out of mynde many mayn hundreth. 1529 
More Dyaloge m. Wks. 227/2 That company, wherof there 
is such a main multitude, c 1540 tr. Pot. Verg. Eng. Hist. 
(Camden No. 29) 42 Returned againe with a mayne hoste 
to relieve his people. 1555 Eden Decades 116 They goo 
foorth .. with a mayne armye of purpose to hunt for men. 
1368 Grafton Chron. II. 497 And first the warre beganne 
by light skirmishes, but after it proceeded into mayne 
battles. 1583 Stocker Civ. Warres Lowe C. 1. 29 King 
Philip.. determined.. to come downe. .with a mayne force. 
1602 Marston Ant. % Met. 111. Wks. 1856 I. 33 Huge troups 
of barbed steeds, Maine squares of pikes, millions of hargue- 




bush. 1601 Carew Cornwall (1769) 149 To withstand any 
great Navie or maigne invasion. 1612 Daviks Why Interna, 
etc. 19 This young Prince.. with a traine of yong Noble- 
men and Gentlemen,, .but not with any maine army, came 
ouer to take possession of his new Patrimony. i62oShelton 
Quix. iv. iii. II. 34 My Father knew that this Giant, .would 
pass with a main power into my Land. 

3. Of material things, animals, etc. : Of great 
size or bulk. (Sometimes connoting strength, 
resisting power, or the like.) Obs. exc. dial, 

[Beowulf '3091 (Gr.) Ic on ofoste &efeng micle mid mun- 
dum ma^enhyrdenne hord^estreona. a 1000 Boeth. Mctr. 
v. 16 05 him on innan felS muntes ma^enstan.] c 1205 Lav. 
15292 ^Knne muchelne ma;in clubbe he bar an his rugge. 
13. . Gau>. Iff Gr. Knt. 187 \>e mane of J>at mayn hors. c 1400 
Destr. Troy 8748 The triet stones.. lemet so light, bat ledes 
might se A bout e midnyght merke as with mayn torches. 
a 1400-50 Alexander 3932 pan mys out of bis marras as any 
mayn foxes Come furth. 1604 K. G[rimstone] D'Acostas 
Hist. Indies iv. iv. 212 In their Temples they set vppe maine 
Images of pure golde. 1607 Walkington Opt. Glass 125 
Hoist vp to the ridge of a maine billow, c 1630 Risdon 
Surv. Devon § 329 (1811) 340 A man of extraordinary 
strength and stature. A main stone,, .by him thrown a far 
distance, witnesseth the one. 1667 Milton P. L. vi. 654 
Themselves invaded next, and on thir heads Main Promon- 
tories flung. 1850 Gower Dial, in Proc. Philol. Soc. IV. 
232 Main, strong, fine (of growing crops). 1883 Hampshire 
Gloss. s.v., ' What a great main pond ! * 

b. Of quantity or amount : Large. Obs. exc. dial. 

1609 Holland Amm. Marcell. xxii. vii. 199 A maine 
deale of water breaketh forth. 1868 in N. $ Q. 4th Ser. II. 
287 My vowles eat a main deal of barley. 1894 Raymond 
Love <y Quiet Life iv. 34 He axed a main lot o questions. 

4. Said of a considerable, uninterrupted stretch 
of land or water; occas. also of void space. See 
Mainland, Main sea. 

a 1548 Hall Citron., Hen, J 'III (1550) 258 The army., so 
returned home by land, through all the mayn contry of 
Scotlande. 1553 Eden Treat. Nrwe Ind. (Ark) 7 The 
mayne South sea. 1577 R, WiLLES Eden's Decades Pref. 
1 The disconery of Peru, in the maigne west Indish lande. 
1630 R. Johnson's Kingd. $ Comntw. 119 Upon the West, 
the South, and the North, the maine Ocean incomuasseth it. 
1660 tr. Amyra/dus' Treat, cone. Relig. III. viii. 481 An 
infinite essence, .diffus'd infinitely in the mane space, beyond 
the world. 1667 Milton P. L. ill. 83 Whom no bounds 
Prescrib'd, no barrs of Hell.. nor yet the main Abyss Wide 
interrupt can hold. Ibid. vn. 279 Over all the faceof Earth 
Main Ocean flow'd. 1867 Smyth Sailors IVord-bk., Main- 
ice, a body of impenetrable ice apparently detached from the 
land, but immovable. 

+ b. Of earth, rock: Forming the principal or 
entire mass ; 'solid'. Obs. 

1538 Lki.and I tin, V. 79 Penbroke . . standith on a veri 
maine Rocki Ground. 1586 Waknf.r Alb. Eng. 1. vi. (1589) 
18 The entrance is so straite, Cut out the rough maine stonie 
Rocke. 1615 G. Sandys Trap. 174 In the vineyards are 
sundry places of buriall hewne out of the maine rocke. 1632 
Llthgow Trav. 11. 56 The large promontore. .eight miles in 
length, being the face of a square and maine Rocke. 1638 
Junius Paint. Ancients 68 Fountaines gushing forth out of 
a main rock. 1647 Striggk Anglia Rediv. 111. i. (1854) 133 
Sir Charles Lloyd . . had added to the strength of its natural 
situation, .having cut out of the main earth several works. 
+ c. Of main white \ mainly of white. Obs, 

1523 FnzHF.RB. Husb. § 68 Put. .to your coloured mares 
of mayne whyte, ahorse of colour of mayn whyte. 

f 5. Of an affair, event, etc.: Highly important ; 
having great results or important consequences; 
momentous. Rarely const, to. Obs. 

1581 Mulcastf.r Positions Ep. Ded. (1887)4 Many and 
maine affaires of your estate. 1602 Warner Alb. Eng. 
Epit., Hasten we to our purposed prosecution of State 
matters, mainer, and of more note. 1613 Shaks. Hen. VIII, 
111. ii. 215 What croste Diuell Made me put this maine 
Secret in the Packet I sent the King? a 1619 Fletcher 
Mad Lover in. 1, 'Tis a maine worke and full of feare. a 1626 
Bacon New Ail. (1900) 19 So you see, by this maine 
Accident of Time, wee lost our TrafTique with the Americans. 
1643 Milton Divorce IL be. Wks. 1851 IV. 8$ In competi- 
tion with higher things, as religion and charity in mainest 
matters. 1667 — /*. L. vi. 471 That, which thou aright 
lieleivst so main to our success. 1671 — P. R. I. 1 12 They 
all commit the care And management of this main enter- 
prize To him their great Dictator. 

b. Of a person: Great, mighty (in power, rank 
or position), rare. 

[a gooCYNKWULK Crist m? ( Gr -> Waldendescyme, maexen- 
cyninges.] c 1400 Destr. Troy 10290 The Mirmydons hade 
mynd of be mayne troiell. Ibid. 10294 But inony of bo 
Mirmydons be mayn knight slogh. 1623 Fletcher & 
Rowley Maid in Mill 111. ii, How dare you (Sirrha), 'gainst 
so main a person, A man of so much Noble note and honour, 
Put up this base complaint ? 

6. Of things in general, qualities, conditions, 
actions, etc. : Very great (in degree, value, etc.) ; 
highly remarkable (for some quality indicated by 
the sb.) ; very great or considerable of its kind. 
(Occas. in superlative^) Obs. exc. dial. 

[c 1000 Ags. Go$p. Matt. xxv. 31 ponne mannes sunu cymS 
on hys maifcen-brymme.] 13.. Gaw. fyGr. Knt. 94 Of sum 
mayn meruayle, bat he myjt trawe. c 1400 Destr. Troy 
8807 pen bos maistersgert make, all with mayncrafte, Fovre 
lampis full light, a 1400-50 Alexander ym J>ai wi;tly 
him sente . . Of mony & of mekill quat mayn giftis. 1565 
Jewel Def. Apol. (161 1) 41 And this he reckoneth for a 
great maine lie. 1573 G. Harvey Letter-bk. (Camden) 23 
Slain evils you know must have main remmedies. 1600 H icy- 
wood 1st Pt. Edw. IV, Wks. 1874 I. 32 Affaires, I mean, of 
so maine consequence, a 1619 Fletcher Mad Lover 11. 
ii, And to purchase This day the company of one deare 
Custard, Or a messe of Rice ap Thomas, needs a maine wit. 
1634 Relat. Ld. Baltimore s Plantat. (1865) 8 The losse of 
pmch linnen, and amongst the rest, I lost the best of mine 

which is a very maine losse in these parts. 1638 Featly 
Strict. Lyndovi, 11. 1 1 And indeed this is one of our mainest 
exceptions against the Roman Church. a 1656 Usshek 
Ann. vi. (1658) 96 Cyaxares and Cyrus, inarch against the 
Babylonian King and Croesus, and gain a main Victory 
against them. 1668 H. More Div. Dial. II. 437 He pro- 
fesses he understands clearly the truth of severall Prophecies 
of the mainest concernment. 167* Marvell Rclt.Transp. 
1. 80 We shall find ere we have done that there is still a 
mainer reason. 1815 Scott Guy M. v, It's a main untruth. 
1883 Stevenson Treas. Isl. 11. xii. (1886) 95 It [the island] 
were a main place for pirates once. 

b. With sb. indicating a person or agent : Great, 
remarkable, or pre-eminent for the quality or 
characteristics indicated. Obs. exc. dial, 

c 1400 Destr. Troy 12260 Thelamon. .manast horn mightily 
as his mayn fos. 1642 Rogers Naaman 346 That carnal! 
reason is a maine enemy to all the matters of revealed 
truths. 1654 WHITLOCK Zootomia 497 Many a one that in 
his own conceit is a main Husband, and is forward enough 
to call some. .prodigal), will l>ee found to live, as I said, but 
in another Street of it. 1691 Woon Ath. Ox on, II. 328 
Mathew Hazard .. a main Incendiary in the Reljcllion. 
1777 Sheridan Trip Scarb. v. ii, 1 am a main bungler at a 
long story, i860 Penrupdocke Content 31 (E. D. D.) Vow 
be a main fool. 

"|C. Main and . , . = Main adv. (Cf. fine 
and . ., nice and . . .) dial. 

1762 Collins Misc. 13 iHalliw.) Observing Dick looked 
main and blue. 1863 Mrs. G ask ell Sylvia's L. xxh II. 
121 T'shop is doing main an' well. 1895' Rosemary' Chil- 
ternsv. 163 He 's a main an' bad, and I believe as 'ee's took 
for death. 

7. Chief in size or extent ; constituting the bulk 
or principal part; the chief part of (that which is 
denoted by the sb.). Alain body, + battle, the body 
of troops which form the bulk of an army or armed 
force, marching between the vanguard and the rear. 

1593 Shaks. 3 Hen. VI. u i. 8 Ix)rd Clifford and Lord 
StalTord all a-brest Charg'd our maine Hattailes Front. 1600 
— A. V. L. 111. v. 103 To gleane the broken eares after the 
man That the maine haruest reapes. 1603 Knolles Hist. 
Turks (1621) 195 In the maine battell he stood himselfe; the 
vaimtgard was conducted by Temurtases, 1640 Fuller 
Joseph's Coat (1867) n The apostle, commending the 
Corinthians, meaneth the main and general body of the 
church, though there might be many stragglers justly to be 
reproved. 1642 Rogers Naaman To Rdr., Into which the 
maine sap of the root is carried. 1670 Cotton Esperuou 1. 
in. iii The King of Navarre commanded the Vant -Guard 
of the Army, and his Majesty himself the main Battel, reserv- 
ing the command of the Rear for the Duke of Espernon. 
1687 T. BROWN Saints in Uproar Wks. 1730 I. 78 Whether 
you march 'd in one main body, or in several columns. 1761 
Hume Hist. Eng. II. xxvii. 131 Lord Howard led the main 
body of the first line. 1775 Johnson Let. to Mrs. 'Titrate 
1 Aug., Our business is to pursue their main army, and dis- 
perse it by a decisive battle, 1807 Southey Espriella's 
Lett. I. 277 Of the baptismal names the main proportion 
are Saxon and Norman. 1812 Wellington Disp. 28 July 
in Examiner 24 Aug. 535/2 The main Iwxly of the allied 
army is., on the Adajaand Zapardiel rivers. 1849 Macau lay 
Hist, Eng. iv. I. 456 The sturdy country gentlemen who 
formed the main strength of the Tory party. 

f b. Referring or pertaining to all or the ma- 
jority; general. Obs. 

'599 Shaks. Hen. V, 1. ii. 144 We do not meane the cours- 
ing snatchers onely, Put feare the maine intendment of the 
Scot. 1602 — Ham, 1. iii. 28 Which is no further, Then the 
maine voyce of Denmarkc goes withall. 1613 — Hen. I Til, 
IV. i. 31 lly the maine assent Of all these learned men, she 
was diuore'd. cx6i8 Fletcher Queen 0/ Corinth n. iii, 
For I am nothing now but a maine pestilence Able to poy- 
son all. a 1638 Meuk //'a\j. (1672) 761 There may be some 
Pradudiaof some particulars converted upon other motives, 
as a forerunner of the great and main Conversion. 

8. Great or important above others of the kind ; of 
pre-eminent importance ; principal, chief, leading. 

1588 J. Udall Demonstr. Discipl. (Arb.) 42 They fight 
hard against this, because it striketh at a maine pillar of 
their kingdome. 1594 Hooker Eccl. Pol. iv. i. § 2 In every 
grand or main public duty which God retmirethat the hands 
of his Church. 1602 Shaks. Ham. 1. i. 105 And this (I take 
it) Is the maine Motiue of our Preparations. 1618 BOLTOM 
Florns (1636) 47 Capua, .once accounted after Rome, and 
Carthage, the third maine City of the World. 1633 l!r. 
Hall Occas. Medit. 138 Every parcell thereof shall seeme 
maine and essentiall. 1651 Hobhes Leviatti. in. xxxiv. 210 
Submission to that main Article of Christian faith, that 
Jesus is the Christ. 1667 Milton P. L. 11. 121 If what was 
urg'd Main reason to perswade immediate Warr, Did not 
disswade me most. 1732 Law Serious C. i. (ed. 2) 15 They 
are like Heathens in alTthe main and chief articles of their 
lives. 1779 Sheridan Critic if, ii, Let your under-plot have 
as little connection with your main-plot as possible. 1852 
H. Rogers Eel. Faith (1853) 166, I went carefully over all 
the main points of the argument, i860 Tynoall. Glac. II. 
xxi. 341 Mr. Thomson's main thought was familiar to ine 
long before his first communication, .appeared. i86«; Lf.cky 
Ration. II. v. 178 The main champions of tyrannicide were 
the Jesuits. 1867 Frekman Norm. Cong. (1876) I. App. 779 
The statements may be grouped under two main heads. 

b. Chief or principal in permanent relation to 
others of the same kind or group. In many 
collocations, e.g. main drain, road, street, saver, 
pipe, stream, root, line (of a railway), sometimes 
written with a hyphen. 

a 1490 Uotoner Itin. (Nasmith 1778) 260 The hyest toure 
called the mayn, id est myghtyest toure aboue all the iiii 
towres. 1551-60 Inv. in H. Hall Eliz. Soc. (1887) 151 Twoo 
great standing chestes withe one mayne cheste. 1568 
Grafton Chron. II. 23 The maine roofe of the great Church 
of Sarisbury was consumed and brent with light nyng. 1610 
W. Folkingham Art of Survey 11. v. 55 Plant not the Table 
at euery Angle, but, . .extend from some fewe Maine Angles 

..Base lines., for Boundaries. 1615 W. Law son Country 
Housew. Gard. (1626* 15, I vtterly dislike the opinion of 
those great Gardiners, that . . would haue the maine roots 
cut away. 16x7-18 in Swayne Sarum Church-iv. Ace. 
( 1896) 167 Mendinge one of the maine pypes of the Organ. 
1667 Milton P. L. iv. 233 The neather Flood,, .now divided 
into four main Streames. 1707-12 Mortimer Husb. (1721) 
I. 23 Make your main Drains wide and deep enough to 
carry off the Water from the whole Level. 1741-3 Wesley 
Extract of Jrnl. (1749) 117 They made no more stop 'till 
they had carried me thro' the main-street, from one end of 
the town to the other. 1818 Scott Hrt. Midi, vii, 
Opening.. the wicket of the main-gate. 1820 W. Irving 
Sketch Bk. I. 50 After turning from the main road up a 
narrow lane. 1840 Dickens Barn. Rudge lxvii, They 
meant to cut off the main-pipes, so that there might be no 
water. 1858 Lytton What will he do 1. i, The main street 
was lined with booths. 1865 Troi.lopk Belton Est. vii. 74 
At Taunton there branched away from the mainline that 
line which was to take her to Perivale. 1876 Encycl. Brit. 
IV. 467/2 A rate of fall of 1 in 120.. is desirable, .for a main 
sewer. 1878 Act 41 (V 42 Vict. c. 77 § 15 Where it appears 
to any highway authority that any highway . . ought to 
become a main road by reason of its being a medium of com- 
munication between great towns [etc.]. 1879 Sir G. Scott 
Lect. Archil. I. 195 An eastern transept, in addition to that 
at the main crossing. 1884 Bower & Scott De Bary's 
Phauer. 357 The subsidiary roots., in this class., usually far 
exceed the main-roots in thickness. 1889 Spectator 9 Mar. 
331/2 The burglar who leaves the back-door open forescape 
in case the policeman should enter by the main entrance. 

f9. Main food', a. High water, b. A large 
or full-flowing body of water. Also main tide 
(in quot. /£■.). c. The ocean or Main sea. Obs. 

c 1303 Reg. Pal. Duvelm. (Rolls) HI. 40 Et eadem aqua 
mensurari debet a le mainflod, quando eadem aqua ita rluit 
uLsit plena de bank' en bank'. 1311 Ibid. I. 8 Eadem aqua 
mensurari debet ad mayne flod. 1549-62 Stehnholu & H. 
Ps, cxiv. 8, I meane the God which from hard rocks Doth 
cause mayne flouds appeare. 1555 W. Watreman Fardte 
Facions Pref. n Riuers, and maigne floudes, whichc.ouer- 
flowed the neighboured aboute. 1596 Shaks. Merch. V. IV. 
i. 72 You may as well go stand vpon the beach, And bid the 
maine flood baite his vsuall height. 1596 Dalrymple tr. 
Leslie's Hist. Scot. I. 35 Quhatevir land is betueine thir 
twa mane fludes Forth southward, and Tai northward, Fife 
is called. 1605 Camden Rem. (1637) 13 If I should but 
enter into consideration thereof, I should be over-whelmed 
with maine tides of matter. 

10. Naut, in the sense 'pertaining to, connected 
with, or near the mainmast or mainsail*, as main- 
bonnet, -boom, -bo7i'lines, -bridles, -capstan, -chains, 
f -dryiige (?), -hatch, -hatchway, -hold, -jeers, 
\ -knight, -lifts, -parrels, -pendant t -rigging, -royal, 
-royal-mast, -shrouds, -spencer, studding-sail, 
-tack, -taeklej -truck, -truss, -tyes. Also Main- 

BKACE, etc. 

1485 Naval Ace. Hen. VII (1896) 37 Mayne shrowdes. 
Ibid. 39 Maine perells. Ibid. 47 Mainestaies. .Maynetyes. 
Ibid. 48 Mayne trusses. Ibid., Mayne takkes. Ibid., 
Mayne lyfts. Ibid., Mayne Bowlynes, Ibid. 53 Mayne 
drynges. 1495 Ibid. 198 Mayne Jeres. 1626 Capt. Smith 
Accid. Yng. Seamen 14 The maine-shroudes and chaines. 
Ibid. 15 The maine bowling and bridles. 1635 Brereton 
Trav. (Chethain Soc.) 125 The Sailors did in all haste take 
down the lower part of the main-sail and the foresail, which 
they call the main-bowline or main bonnet. 1678 Phillii's 
(ed. 4) s.v., Fore-knight and Main-knight, in Navigation 
are two short thick pieces of Wood carved, with the head of 
a Man fast bolted to the Beams upon the second Deck. 1712 
W. Rogers Voy. 34 He was lashd to the Main-Gears and 
drub'd. 1748 Ansoti's I'oy. 1. viii. 80 Two of our main- 
shrouds, .broke. Ibid. x. 99 We. .lost a main studding-sail- 
boom. 1769 Falconer Diet. Marine (1780) Bbb 3 b, The 
main-boom of a brig, sloop, or schooner. 1772-84 Cook I \y. 
(1790) V. 1914 The main-tack of the Discovery gave way. 
1833 Marryat /'. Simple xv, The second lieutenant went 
up the main-rUiging. 1835 Sik J. Ross Narr. -zud Voy. 
vi. 87 The main and fore hatchway. 1858 Simmonds 
Diet. Trade, Chain-plates.. take their name from the mast 
and are hence called fore-chains, main-chains, or mizen- 
chains. 1861 Sat. Rev. 22 June 635 Entire freedom from 
dizziness.. is possessed by every sailor who mounts to the 
maintruck of a man-of-war. 1867 Smyth Sailor's Word- 
bk., Main-tackle, a large and strong tackle, hooked occasion- 
ally upon the main pendant. 1872 Blackmokk Maid of 
Skcr (1881) 46 The ship had no canvas left, except some 
tatters of the fore-topsail, and a piece of the main-royals. 
1897 R. Kipling Captains Courageous iii. 62 Uncle Sailers 
..sat stiffly on the main-hatch. 

11. Special collocations in technical use (mostly 
hyphened) : main-bar (seequot.); main-breadth, 
main half-breadth (see quots.) ; main centre 
(see qnot.) ; main couple Arch., the principal 
truss in a roof; main earth, the chief 4 earth' in 
which the fox kennels ; t main-holder (see quot.); 
main keel, the principal keel of a ship, as distin- 
guished from the false keel and the kelson ; main- 
master (? supposed by Disraeli to be a miner's 
word for a colliery owner') ; main-piece Ship- 
building, (a) * the principal piece of timber in 
a rudder ' ; (b) ■ the strong horizontal beam of 
a windlass* (Smyth Sailors Word-bk. 1867); 
(e) 'the principal piece of the head' (Knight 
1875) ; main-plate, the principal plate of a lock ; 
main-post Shipbuilding, the stern-post ; t main- 
shire, ?an old name for Warwickshire; main- 
transom Shipbuilding = wing-transom (Smyth) ; 
main-wale Naut., the lower wale (Smyth) ; 
main-way, the gangway or principal passage in 
a mine ; main word, the term adopted in this 


dictionary to designate a word of sufficient im- 
portance to be regarded as a principal word, as 
distinguished from a subordinate word or a com- 
bination (see Preface pp. xviii-xix) ; main-work 
Fortify 'the enceinte or principal works inclosing 
the body of the place * (Knight Diet. Mech. 1S75). 

1897 F.ncyci. Sport I. 341 (Driving), * Main-bar, the cross 
timber fixed to the pole-head, from which hang the swing-bars 
or leadingbars. e 1850 Rudim. Navig. (Weale) \-y>*Main- 
hreadth, the broadest part of the ship at any particular timber 
orframe. 1797 Kncyct. />'77V.(ed.3)XVII. 378/1 Main half 
breadth, is a section of the ship at its broadest part, c 1850 
Rudim. Navig. (Weale) 130 Main half breadth, half of the 
main breadth. 1858 R. Murray Marine Engines (ed. 3) 231 
*Main centre, in side-lever engines, is the strong shaft upon 
which the side levers vibrate. 1842 Gwilt A rchit. Gloss. 958 
The *maincouplesanswer to the trusses. 1897 Encyel. Sport 
I. 582 (Hunting), *Main ^w/Z/.thefox' sown lair and breeding 
place. 1688 R. Holme Armoury n. 84/1 In the Root there 
is The "Main-holder, which is that part of the root next the 
tree. 1769 Falconer Diet. Marine^ (1780) s.y. Keel, The 
false-keel, which is also very useful in preserving the lower 
side of the *main keel. 1845 Disraeli Sybil in. i, It's as 
easy for a miner to speak to a ^main-master, as it is for me 
to pick coal with this here clay, c 1850 Rudim. Navig. 
(Weale) 144 It [the rudder] is formed of several pieces of 
timber, of which the *main piece is generally of oak. 1867 
Smyth Sailor's Word-bk., Main-piece, the strong horizontal 
* beam of the windlass. 1677 Moxom Mech. Exerc. 22 Cut 
out of an Iron plate with a Cold Chissel the size and shape 
of the *Main-Plate. C1850 Rudim. Navig. (Weale) 131 

M tin f>ost. 1626 B. Jonson Masque of Owls, Though 
that have been a fit Of our *main-shire wit. 1769 Fal- 
coner Diet. Marine (1780) s.v. Walts. They are usually 
distinguished into the *main-wale and the channel-wale. 
1881 Raymond Mining Gloss., *Maimuay, a gangway or 
principal passage. 1892 Daily Navs 3 Mar. 5/7 Counting 
( mainways ', passages, and cuttings of all descriptions. 1833 
Straith Fortif. 3 Detached works are those which it some- 
times becomes necessary to construct beyond the range of 
the defensive musketry of the *main works. 

Main (m^n), adv. Now dial. [f. Main" a. 
Cf. similar use of mighty ; also the use of ON. 
megen- ( = Main sbA) in megenhatr very cheerful, 
megenmildr very mild, megenvel very well.] 
Very, exceedingly. (After the 17th c. chiefly in 
representations of rustic or illiterate speech.) 

1632 St. Papers Chas. 1, 17 May No. 216 fol. 56 I(Hampsh. 
Gloss.), Sparing the Toppes of the Trees, which yeeld maine 
good knees. 1647 Lilly Chr. Astral, xxxviii. 220 A maine 
strong argument. #1700 B. E. Diet. Cant. Crew s.v., Main- 
good, very good. 1741 Richardson Pamela I. 201 Ay, said 
the Idiot, she is main good Company, Madam; no wonder 
you miss her. 1754 Foote Knights it. i. (1765) 40 Waiter. 
Would you chuse any refreshment? Suck. A draught of 
ale, friend, for I'm main dry. 1794 Godwin Cat. Williams 40, 
I know, your honour, that it is main foolish of me to talk to 
you thus. 1828 Scott Jrnl. II. 149, I was main stupid 
indeed, and much disposed to sleep, 1872 Punch 31 Aug. 
91/1 Beg your pardon, sir ; but I be main deaf, to lie sure, 
1897 Baring-Gould Bladys of the Steuponey viii, TheStew- 
poney is a great house, and ours is a main little one. 

Main, obs. f. Mane, Moan. Maina, var. Mina-. 

Main-brace '. Naut. [See Matn#. and Brace 
5/;. 3] The brace attached to the main-yard. 

1487 Naval Ace. Hen. JV/11896) 67 Mayne brases. 1626 
Capt. Smith Accid, Vug. Seamen 28 Ease your mayne 
brases. 1801 Col. Stewart Narr. in Nicolas Disp. 
Nelson (1845) IV. 309 By another shot several of the Marines, 
while hauling on the main-brace shared the same fate. 1840 
K. H. Dana Bef. Mast xxiii. 69 All the rest of the crew., 
tallied on to the main brace. 

b. A r aut. slang. To splice the main-brace : to 
serve out 'grog'; hence, to drink freely. 

1805 Naval Chron. XIII. 480 Now splice the main brace. 
1833 Marryat P. Simple xv, Mr. Falcon, splice the main- 
brace, and call the watch. 1836 Ht. Martineau Antobiog. 
(1877) II. App. 480 Yesterday the captain shouted, for the 
first time, 'Splice the main-brace'. 

Mai'n-brace '-. [See Main a. and Brace sb. 2 ] 
A principal brace; Mech. in a system of braces, 
that which resists the main strain. 

1794 W. Ff.lton Carriages {1801) 1. 210 Main braces.. Are 
what the body [of the coach] hangs by. 1870 Spons Diet. 
Engin. II. 679 (Bridges) In Fig. 1394, U is the upper chord 
. .M, main-brace. 

Main chance. [Main a.] 

■\- 1, A term in the game of Hazard ; - Main 
sb.% 1. In quots. only fig. or allusive, a. The 
venture or course of action from which most is 
hoped ; the likeliest course to obtain success. To 
stand to the main chance : ? to take one's own risk. 
To look, have an eye, etc., to the main chance : to 
use one's best endeavours, be solicitous (for some 
object), b. The general probability with regard 
to a future event or the success of an undertaking. 
c. The most important point risked or at stake ; 
also, the general outcome of a series of events; 
the whole fortunes of a person, a nation, etc. Obs. 

1579 Lyly Euphnes (Arb.) 104 Good Father either con- 
tent your selfe with my choice [sc. of a husband], or lette 
mee stande to the maine chaunce. 1587 Holinshed Chron. 
Scot. 300 Nothing could be either more fond or foolish, than 
to fight at pleasure of the enimie, and to set all on a maine 
chance at his will and appointment. 1591 Greene Disc. 
Coosnage (1592) C3 When their other trades fail.. then to 
maintaine the main chance, they vse the benefite of their 
wiues or friends. 1593 Nashe Four Lett. Confut. 84 
Haue an eie to the maine-chaunce, for so sooner shall they 
vnderstand what thou hast said by mee of them, but theyle 
goe neere to haue thee about the eares for this geare. 1597 
Vol. VI, 


I Shaks. 2 Hen. IV, in. 1. 83 A man may prophecie With a 
i neere ayme, of the maine chance of things, As yet not come 
' to Life. 1600 Holland Livy ix. xviii. 327 Every one should 
have lived and died according to the fatall course of his 
owne severall destinie, without the hazard of the whole and 
maine chance [L, summa rerum]. Ibid, xxi. xvi, 402 So 
ashamed in themselves they were, ..and so mightily feared 
the losse of the verie maine chance at home, as if the enemie 
had beene already at the gates of the cittie. 1610 — Cam- 
den s Brit. 1. 22 With whom the Romans for many yeeres 
maintained war,, .for the very main-chance of life and living. 
1625 I'lkchas Pilgrims 11. 1822 It behoued the Bashaw to 
looke to the main chance for the quenching of the Fire. 1655 
Fuller Ch. Hist. in. i. § 5 Vet witball he was carefull of 
the main chance to keep the essentials of his Crown. 1703 
, Collier Ess. II. 67 None so fit to prescribe, to direct the 
enterprise, and secure the main-chance. 
2. That which is of principal importance in life ; 
' now esp. the opportunity of enriching oneself or 
of getting gain ; one's own interests. (Often in 
I phr. to have an eye to, be careful of the main 

1584 R. W. Three Ladies Land. 1. E ij b, Trust me thou 
art as craftie to haue an eye to the mayne chaunce : As the 
Taylor that out of seuen yardes stole one and a halfe of 
durance. 1644 Hr. H all Serm. Rem. Wks. (1660) II, 136 Shall 
we he Iesse carefull of the m.iin-chance, even of the eternal 
inheritance of Heaven? 1693 Drydew Persius\\. (1697)497 
Be careful still of the main Chance, my Son. 1698 Collier 
Ess. Mor.Subj. 11. (ed. 3) 136 Wise men will, .take care oft lie 
main Chance, and provide for Accident sand Age. 1751 John- 
son Rambler No. 1 16 P 6 My Master., had all the good quali- 
ties which naturally arise from a close and unwearied atten- 
tion to the main chance. 1767 G ray in C'"';'. w. Nichol/s (1843) 
69 Come quickly, if the main chance will suffer you, or I will 
know the reason why. 1828 Lights £ Shades II. 159 A 
Scotchman looks only to the main-chance. 1902 L. Stephen 
Stud. Biographer IV. i. 36 It. .cannot he said that an eye 
for the main chance is inconsistent with the poetical 

Maincheat, obs. form of Manchet. 
Main-course. Naut. ? Obs, [See Main a. 
and Course sb. 32.] = Mainsail. 

C1515 Cocke LorelVs B. (Percy Soc.) 12 Some y» longe 
bote dyde launce, some mende y u corse, Mayne corfe [read 
corse] toke in a refe byforce. 1610 Shaks. Temp. \. \. 38 
Down v«th the top-Mast ; yare, lower, lower, bring her to 
Try with Maine-course. 1626 Cait. Smith Accid. Yng. 
Seamen 16 The maine course or a paire of courses. 1687 
B. Randolph Archipelago 102 Towards break of day we 
handed our main course, but before it was well secured the 
storm came. 1719 De Fop; Crusoe (1858) 11. ii, Having no 
sails to work the ship with, but a main course [etc.], 1867 
Smyth Sailors Word-bk. 

Main-deck. Naitt. [See Main a. and Deck 
sb. 2, 2 b.] a. In a man-of-war, the deck next 
below the spar-deck, b. In a merchantman, that 
part of the upper deck which lies between the 
poop and the forecastle. 

1748 Anson's Voy. in, vii. 360 The crew, .were drawn up 
underarms on the main-deck. 1798 Anti-Jacobin No. 33 
(1852) 189 We walk the main-deck. 1824 W. Irving T. Trav. 
(1849) 416 There was a shout of victory from the main-deck. 
1833 Marryat P. Simple vi, Washing down the main-deck. 
attrib. 1868 Rep. to Govt. U. S. Munit. War26f That part 
of the ship supported by and below the main-deck beams. 

c. fig. Used for : The main body or chief 
representatives (of). 

1847 De Quincey Secret Societies Wks. 1863 VI. 258 No 
round-robins, signed by the whole maindeck of the Platonic 

f Maine, sb. Obs. Also 5-6 mayne, Sc. mane, 
6-7 mayn. [Aphetic f. demaine in Pain-demaine, 
Demeine. (Cf. Manchet.)] Used attrib. in the 
following terms : a. Maine bread, occas. (Sc.) 
breid of mane (?also simply mane, quot. C1470), 
bread of the finest quality ; - Pain-demaine, De- 
meine. (The city of York was once famous for 
a kind of bread so called.) 

1443 Burgh Rec. Edinb. (1869) I. 7 It is. .ordanit that na 
ba.vter baik na mayne breid to sell frahine furthwart, saiffing 
allenarly at Witsounday [etc.]. c 1470 Hknryson Mor. Fab. 
11. xviii. (ed. Laing), And mane full fyne scho brocht in steid 
I of eeill. 1509 Test. Ebor. (Surtees) V. 5 And at tharbe , 
I skallapis of mayne breid. ?«iS5o Freiris Benvik 160 in 
I Dunbar's Poems (1893) 290 And eik ane creill full of breid of 
mane. Ibid. 376 Mayne breid. 1572 J. Jones Bathes Buck- 
stone 9 b, But these and all other the mayne bread of York 
, excelleth, for that it is of the finest floure of the Wheat 
; well tempered, a 1578 Lindesay (Pitscottie) Chron. Scot. 
j (S. T. S.) I. 337 Quhyte breid, maine breid, and gingebreid. 
1584 Cogan Haven Health iv. (1636) 25 Good bread is 
made thereof, especially that of Yorke, which they call Maine 
1 bread. 1622 in J. J. Cartwright Cha£t. Hist. Yks. (1872) 
I 281 Bakers, .disobedient in not bakeinge of mayn bread 
I beinge an auncient mistery used in this cittie and in no 
j other citties of this kingdome. 

b. Maine flour, flour of the finest quality. 

Maine multure, the portion of 'maine flour' 

payable as multure. 

a 1483 Liber Niger in Househ. Ord. (1790) 70 One yoman 

! in this office [of Bakehouse] for the kinge's mouthe recevyng 

; the mayne floure of the Sergeaunt, by tayle. 1523 Burgh 

\ Rec. Edinb. (1869) I. 217 The baillies and counsall ordanis 

all the maisteris of the baxter craft till content and pay to 

the fermoraris thair mayne mutter, that is to say, of ilk iiij 

laid that thai brek aboue ane pek of mayne flour, and gif 

thai brek les to pay na thing. 1524-5 Ibid. 220 Als thai 

ordane the saidis baxteris to pay the mayne flour to the saidis 

fermoraris as vs and Wont hes bene in tymes bygane. 

t Maine, v. Naut. Obs. Also mayne. [Aphetic 

j f. Amain(e v.~\ trans. To lower (a sail). 


! 1517 Torkington Pilgr. (1884) 59 He made vs to mayne, 
that ys to sey stryk Downe ower sayles. 1579 T. Stk\ ens 
irt Hakhiyfs Voy. (1599) II. 11. 99 When it is tempest almost 
intolerable for other ships, and maketh them maine all their 
sailes, these hoise vp, and saile excellent well. 

Maine, obs. form of Mane, Meinie. 

Maineath, variant of Manath Obs. 

Maiixferre. Obs. exc. Hist. Also 5 mayne- 
fere,7maineleere,maxnefaire, (S-o.//fVAmane-, 
manifaire). [Perh. rcpr. F. mainfern'e (iron-chid 
hand) or main-ele-fer (hand of iron) : the latter 
occurs in this sense in Viollet-lc-T)uc Diet. Mobilier 
fra/rcais (iSyq.) V. 449.] Some piece of armour ; 
prob. the gauntlet for the lell arm, of which 
. examples are preserved. 

t 1470 in Arch eologia XVII. 292 A maynefere with a 
ryngge. #1548 Hall Chron., Hen. IV 12 Some had the 
niainferres, the close gantlettes the qmssettes the flancardes 
dropped & gutted with red. 1631 in Archxologia XXXVI 1. 
486 The horse's furniture being a saddle, barbe, crinett,. . 
and for the man 2 gran gardes, 2 pa^gardes, 2 mainefeeres, 
2 peer of vambraces [etc.]. 1660 Surv. Armoury Tower in 
Archatologia XI. 99 Masking armor complete, reported to be 
made lor king Henry the Seventh. .. Slainefaires, russet, 
white. 1786 Grose Ane. Artnour y> [Writes the word as 
nianefure, and erroneously refers it to Mank sb. ; hence 
he treats it as synonymous with Crinikrf. So in Mryrick 
1824. 1 1830 James Pamleyx, With his chanfron, snaffle-bit, 
manifaire, and tinted poitrel. 1844 — Agincourt I. 77. 

1 Mainful, a. Obs. In 3 meinfuT(e, 4 mayn- 
ful. [f. Main j^.1 + -ful.] Powerful, mighty. 

« 1225 Leg. Kath. 1097 purh -J? he is drihtin meinful .^ 

almihti. a 1225 Juliana 35 Lef me bat ich mute mihti 

meinfule godd iseon him i-.cheomet. 13.. E. E. A /tit. P. 

A. 109^ Ry^tas he maynful mone con rys, Er Jtcnne be day 

! glem dryue al doun. Ibid. ¥•. 1730. 


1. Fortif. The keep of a castle ; also, the build - 

! ing within a fortress in which the ' main-guard ' 
(sense 2 b) is lodged. Also fig. 
1653 E. Watkkiigusk .-//('/. Learn. Pref., Nothing. . is ^j 

I great a security to the main-guard of Religion, as well to 
provide for her out-ports & lines of learning. 1662 Pepvs 
Diary 19 Dec, With the Lieutenant's leave set them to 
work in the garden, in the corner against the mayneguatd. 
1690 Loud. (ia::. No. 2544/2 They passed the Ditch, and 
made themselvt-s Masters of the Main-guard. 1778 Eng. 
(iazelteer (ed. 2) s.v. Marlborough, The keep or main guard 
of the castle. 1902 Daily Chron. 3 Mar. 3/1 The hideous 
new main-guard which has been built close to the White 

; Tower. 

2. Mil. a. = Grand guard 2. b. (See quot. 187^1.) 
1706 Phillips 'ed. Kerrey) s.v. Guard, Main Guard, (in 

the Field) is a considerable Body of Horse sent out to the 
H<-ad of the Camp to secure the Army, by diligently guard- 
ing all the Avenues or Passages that lead to it. 1797 Encycl. 
! fi>it.(cd. 3) VIII. 170/2 Main Guard, is that from which 
all other guards are detached. 1876 Vovle & Stevenson 
MHit. Diet, (ed, 3) s.v., Large forts or fortresses have a 
main guard chosen from the troops garrisoning them, under 
which guard all disturbers of the peace, drunkards, &c, are 

Maingy, obs. form of Mangy a. 
Mainland (rn/i'nlsend). Forms : see Main a. 
I and Land sb. 1 ; also 4-5 Sc. mauland. [See 
Majn a. 4. Cf. ON. megenland.'] 

1. That continuous body of land which includes 
the greater part of a country or territory, in contra- 
distinction to the portions outlying as islands or 
peninsulas, f Formerly occas. = land as opposed 
to sea, terra fir -ma; also in ME. poetry, great ex- 
tent of country, wide territory. 

1375 Barbour Bruce in. 389 And then he thocht, but mar 
delay, In-to the manland till arywe. ? a 1400 Morte Art/i. 
427 And merke sythene over the mounttez in-to his mayne 
londez. Ibid. 4071 This was a mache vn-mete, . .To melle 
with that multitude in thase man londis. c 1470 Henry 
Wallace x. 1015 Na man was left all this mayn land 
[ -- Scotland] within, a 1490 Botoner Itin. (Nasmith 
1778) 153 Insula Prestholm .. distat a le mayn lond circa 
spacium duarum arcuum. 1511 Glvlforde Pilgr. (1851) 
11 There be ij. stronge castelles stondynge upon two 
rokkes . . and the Turkes mayne lande lyeth within .ij. or 
.iij. myle of theym. 1527 K. Thorne in Hakluyt Voy. 
I (1589) 253 It appeareth the said land that we found and the 
j Indies to be all one maine land. 1530 Palsgr. 242/1 Mayne- 
; land, terre ferine. 1535 Stewart Cron. Scot. (1858) I. 100 
Befoir wes medow and mane land, Quhair now is nocht hot 
salt, water and sand. 1600 E. Blount tr. Conestaggio 2 It 
contains in circuit 850 miles, whereof 400 run along the Sea 
shore, the rest is maine land. 1604E. G[rimstone] D'Acosta's 
Hist. Indies 1. vi. 20 The Isles of Acores, Cape Verd and 
others, . .are not above three hundred leagues or five hundred 
from the Mayne land. 1719 De Foe Crusoe 1. xv, Friday, 
the weather being very serene, looks very earnestly towards 
the main land. 1838 Thirlwall Greece II. xii. 83 The 
ancient iEolian cities on the main-land, .amounted to eleven. 
1878 Huxley Physiogr. 168 Pillars of chalk have thus been 
separated from the mainland. 

b. Applied to the largest island of the Sbetlands 

I and to the largest island of the Orkneys (Pomona). 

1596 Dalrymple tr. Leslie's Hist. Scot. I. 63 Pomonia, 

j quhilke is of sik a boundes that the inhabitouris calles it the 

i mayne land. 1822 Scorr Pirate i, That long, narrow, and 

' irregular island, usually called the Mainland of Zetland. 

1846 M^Culloch Ace. Brit. Empire (1854) I. 315 There are 

; about a dozen principal islands : Pomona, or the mainland, 

being decidedly the largest. 

2. attrib. 

1810 Scott Lady of L. 111. xii, When it [sc. the boat] had 

I 73 




neared the mainland hill. 1867 Symc's Aw Bot. (ed. 3) 
VII. 49 Extending east to Sussex and mainland Hants. 
1895 Westm. Gaz. 24 Oct. 4/2 The possible recognition by 
mainland Powers of the Cubans as belligerents. 

T 3. (See quot.) Obs. 

1686 Plot Staffordsh. ix. 341 A mixt sort of land, either 
of Clay and Gravel, or Clay and Sand. .this, .they call in 
the Moorelands their Main-land, which is indeed the best 
they have. 

Hence Mainlander, a dweller on the mainland. 

i860 Palfrey Hist. Ne-w Eng. II. 359 The mainlanders 
and the ishuiders. i88z A. J. Evans in A rcha?ologia~X.lN 'III. 
17 We find a self-governing community, waging war with 
the Illyrian mainlanders. 1897 Mary Kingsley IV. Africa 
56 A thing that differentiates them more than any other 
characteristic from the mainlanders. 

I Mainless, a. Obs. [f. OE. mtercnUas, f. 
mxjpn Main sb.*- + -le'as -less.] Powerless. 

c 1000 /Elfric Gloss, in Wr.-Wulcker 162/24 Enerrtis, 
ma^enleas. cisao Bestiary 128 He is lene and mainles. 

II Main levee. [Fr. = (literally) 'raised hand '.] 

1653 Sir R. Browne in Evelyn y s Diary, etc. (1S79) IV. 
291 Captain Anthonio hath. .by this means obtained main- 
levee of all the goods arrested. 

"Mainly (rm'i-nli), adv. Forms : 3 mainliche, 
5 maineliche, manly, 4-7 maynly, g-6 raayne- 
ly, -lie, 6-7 mainely, 7- mainly, [f. Main a. 

+ -LY 2.] 

1 1. Of physical actions : \\ ith force, vigour, or 
violence; mightily, vigorously, violently. Obs. 

.1275 Lay. 1915, I grop bine bi ban gurdle, and hine 
mainliche heof. Ibid. 14705 To-gadere hit come and main- 
Hebe on-slowe. a 1400-50 Alexander 2042 Fra morne to be 
mirke ni^t maynly bacocken [Dub/. MS. manly bai feghtyn]. 
1582 Stanyhubst ACneis iv. fArb.) 103 Not to the sky 
maynely, but neere sea meanelye she [se. a bird] flickreth. 
1586 Marlowe 1st Pt. Tamburl. 11. i. (1590) B2I), Such 
breadth of shoulders as might mainely beare Olde Atlas 
burthen. 1590 Spenser F. Q. 1. vii. 12 The geaunt strooke 
so maynly mercilesse, That could have overthrowne a stony 
towre. 1603 Holland Plutarch's Mor. 163 When he 
would rid the ground of some wilde bushes, ..he laieth at 
them mainely with his grubbing hooke or mattocke. 1621 
Lady M. Wroth Urania 553 A terrible, fierce and mighty 
boare, issued out of the wood, running mainly at Amphil- 
anthus. 1640 tr. Verdere's Rom. Rem. III. 50 One of 
them took his Scimitar. .and. .strook so mainly at his head, 
that [etc.]. 1656 M. Ben Ishaf.l Find. Judxorum in Phenix 
(1708) II. 396 Every day the Jews [they] mainly strike, and 
buffet, shamefully spitting on them. 

b. Of the production of sound : Lustily, loudly. 
e-1275 Lav. 808 He. .his horn mainliche bleu. 13.. R. E. 

A Hit. P. B. 1427 Maynly his marschal be mayster vpon 
calles. 1563 Homilies 11. Passion 11. (1640) 184 He cried 
mainely out against sinners. 1631 Wekver Arte Funeral 
Mon. 15 They., cried out mainly. 1881 Slow IViltsh. 
Rhymes 123 Mainly he did roar. 

t c. Of expression, thought : Vehemently, 
strongly ; earnestly, eagerly. Obs. 

c 1400 Destr. Troy 13860 This mild of his moder so mainly 
dessiret, bat [etc.]. a 1400-50 Alexander 1217 pan was ser 
Meliager moued & maynly [Dubl. MS. manly] debatis. 
Ibid. 34?4 My mekill mi^tfull gods I maynly 30W swere. 
1588 J. UdaLL Demonstr. Discipl. (Arb.) 76 Men mainly 
suspected of notorious transgressions. 1611 Speed Hist. 
Gi. Brit. ix. xvb (1623) 847 His.. opinion.. was as mainely 
opposed by the Cardinall. 

f 2. In a great degree ; greatly, considerably, 
very much, a great deal. Also occas. entirely, 
perfectly. Obs. 

c 1400-50 Alexander 934 His men & all be Messadones 
full maynly ware siourbed. 1562 J. Heywood Prov. <$- 
Epigr. (1867) in Thou fleest that vice not meanly nor 
barely, But mainely, scrupulously. 1602 Shaks. Ham. iv. 
vii. 9 As by your Safety, Wisedome, all things else, You 
mainly were stirr'd vp. 1605 — Lear iv. vii. 65, I am 
mainely ignorant What place this is. 1616 Beaum. & Fl. 
Scornful Lady 11. i, The people are so mainely giuen to 
spoonemeate. 1617 Fletcher Mad Lover in. iv, Still she 
eyes him inainlie. 1628 Dicbv Voy. Medit. (1868J 6 Per- 
ceiuing she \sc. a ship] gott mainely of vs wee gaue ouer 
our chace. 170a Farquhar Inconstant 11. i, I like her 
mainly. 177a I*ootf. Nabob 111. Wks. 1799 II. 318 Things are 
mainly changed since we were boys. 1800 Lamb Lett. vi. 
to Manning 51, I think we should suit one another mainly, 
fb. Abundantly, copiously ; lavishly. Obs. 

1618 J. Bullokar in Farr S. P. Jas. I (1847^ 2 9 l Tfcb 
precious liquor.. Whose sweet-distilling drops full mainly 
showres Adowne his neck. 163a Lithgow Trav. 1. 25 This 
Prouince is mainely watered through the middle with 
stately Po. Ibid. ix. 381 Danser tooke the presence of the 
Bashaw for a great fauour, and mainely feasted him with 
good cheare. 

c. Used as an intensive with adjs. and advs. = 
Very, exceedingly. = Main adv. Now dial. 

1670 Eachard Cont. Clergy 127 This invention pleases 
some mainly well. 1684 Bcnyan Pilgr. 11. 191 She ioveth 
Banqueting, and Feasting mainly well. 1718 D'Urfev 
Grecian Heroines', ii, I like mine mainly well, faith. 1748 
Smollett Rod. Rand. xxiv. (1760) I. 193 The captain was 
mainly wroth, and would certainly have done him a mis- 
chief. 1890 Glouc. Gloss., Main, Mainly, very, exceedingly. 

3. For the most part ; in the main ; as the chief 
thing, chiefly, principally. 

1667 Milton /'. L. xi. 519 Ungovern'd appetite,, .a brutish 
vice, Inductive mainly to the sin of Eve. 1695 Woodward 
Nat. Hist. Earth iv. 188 The metallick. .matter, .was. .ori- 
ginally, .interspersed, .amongst the.. Matter, whereof the 
said Strata mainly consist. 1820 Marshall Const. Opin. 
(1839) 218 The cause depends mainly on the validity of this 
act. 1874 Green Short Hist. iv. § 3. 183 The body of com- 
missioners which the King nominated were mainly Scotch. 

I 1894 J. T. Adamnan Introd. 15 It is with Ireland 
that we are mainly concerned. 

Mainmast (m^'nmust, -mast), [f. Main a. 
(sense 10) + Mast.] The principal mast in a ship. 

15. . [see tjj. 1596 Si'ENSKR Pies. St. Ireland Wks. (Globe) 
666/2 So that he might sitt, as it were, at the very mayne 
mast of his shipp. 161 1 Shaks. U'int. 7". in, iii. 94 The Sbippe 
boaring the Moone with her maine Mast. 1634 BjUUUETOH 
Trav. iChetham Soc.) 169 The main-mast which is placed 
almost in the middle of the ship. 1748 Anson s Foy. 11. iv. 161 
We convened the fore-mast of the Victualler into a main-mast 
for the Tryal Sloop. 1764 Veitch in Phil. Trans. LIV. 
2S7 Sometimes the name of main-mast is applied to all the 
three pieces as they stand erected, and sometimes to the 
lower piece, or part of the mast only: anil when they are 
distinguished severally, they are called the main-mast, 
main top-mast, and main-top-gallant-mast. 1855 Browhikg 
By the Fireside iii, Out we slip To cut from the hazels by 
the creek A mainmast for our ship. 

b. at/rib., as mainmast-top, -tree. 

15.. Sir Andrew Barton xxii. in Surtees Misc. (188S) 70 
Pie hange them al on my mayn mast tree. 1768-74 Tucker 
LI. Nat. (1834) II- 18 A sailor ordered up the main-mast 
top to descry ships, 

jMainmission. Obs. rare~~ x . [a. OF. main- 
mission {1461), refashioning of manumission after 
main hand.] Mam mission. 

risoo Medwall Nature (Brandb 166 Thou bast now 
lybertye and nedest no mayn-myssyon. 

t Main-mi'zeu. Aaut. Obs. [f. Main a. 
(sense 10) + Mizkn.] a. ? A spanker, b. The 
foremost of the two mizen masts formerly in use. 
(Also main mizen mas/, sail.) 

i486 Naval Ace. Hen. I'll (1896) 14 A Mayne Meson 
mast for the said Ship. Ibid. 43 Mayne meson sailes. 
C1515 Cocke Lore/Is B. (Percy Soc), Some pulde at the 
beryll, some sprede y- mayne myssyll. 1704 J. Harris 
Lex. Techu. s.v. Alissen-Mast, Some great Ships require 
two [mizens]; then that next the Main-mast is the Main- 

t Mainmort. Obs. [a. F. mainnwrte *= Dead- 
hand.] a. = Mortmain. b. French Feudal 
Law (see quot. 1727-41). 

1598 Dallington Meth. Trav. Eiijb, Nominations of 

Chappels, goods of Main-snort, fifts of Lands sold. [1727-41 
CHAMBERS ('yd.. Maiu-Morte, a term in some' antient 
customs, still obtaining in Burgundy, signifying a right 
which the lord has, 011 the death of the chief of a family 
that is Mainmortable, of taking the best moveable in the 

Mainmortable (nvinm^utabl), a. and sb. 
Hist. [a. F. mainmortable^ f. mainmorte : see 
prec] A. adj. Applied to serfs (in France) who 
were not at liberty to alienate their possessions 
if they died childless ; also to their possessions. 

[1727-41: see prec] 1779 Genii. Mag. XLIX. 544 The 
maiumortable heritages, situated in our lands and signiories. 
1889 M. Betham-Edwards Introd. A. Young's Trav. 
France 21 These bond-servants .. were up to that time 

B. sb. A i mainmortable * serf. 

jjjgGentl. Mag. XLIX. 545 We ordain that the Droit 
de Suite over mainmortables shall henceforth be abolished 
and suppressed. 1882 W. Ii. Weedbh Soc. Law Labor 84 
The lords . . held the right of pursuit, by which they could 
follow a mainmortable who had abandoned the land. 

Marnour, ma'nner. Obs. exc. Hist, or arch. 
Forms : 5 menowr, manor, fi-8 nianer, (6 raay- 
ner, -tire, 6-7 maynour, 7 manoir), 7-8 Law 
; Diets, manour, meinor, -our(e, 6- mainour, 
manner. [a. AF. mcinot/re, mainottre, mai- 
noevere, a. OF. inaneuvre t lit. * hand-work': see 

From the etymology, it would seem probable that the 
original sense was 'the act or fact (of a crime)', as in 2 
below. The AFr. examples, however, already show the con- 
crete sense as in 1. The phrase fris oz> mainoure (' taken 
with the mainour' ; =capta cum manuopere, Fleta, c 1290) 
seems to have been framed to render the OE. set haebbendre 
handa gefangen \ see Hand-habfnd a. Since the 16th c. 
the word has in non-technical use often been confused with 
Manner sb., and assimilated to that word in spelling.] 
1. Law. The stolen thing which is found in a 
thief's possession when lie is arrested : chiefly in 
phr. taken, found with the mainour. 

I1275 Act 3 Edw. 1 1 Stat. Westm. 1. c. 15 Tozque sunt pns 
ov meinoure. 1311 Act 5 Edw. II, Ordin.c. 19 Qe desormes 
nul ne soit pris ne enprisone pur vert ne pur veneson, si il ne 
j soit trove ove mainoure. 1399 Liber Cnst. 487 Et quod 
I pra^dictus Dux. .haberet quascunque bona et catalla vocata 
'manuopera' capta vel capienda cum quacunque persona 
infra . . feoda praidicta.] ?i473 Plumpton Cor?: (Camden) 
26 One Richard of the liurgh, that had take and led away 
feloniously certaine ky and other cattell .. was take and 
arested with the s:iid manor att Spofford, whearat they yett 
remaine. 1481 Caxton Reynard (Arb.) 8 Yet al bad he 
courtoys hanged whan he fonde hym with the menowr, 
he had not moche mysdon ne trespaced. 1550 Latimer 
Serm. bef. Edw. VI, Div, Euen as a theefe that is taken 
with the manner when [ed, 1584 that] he stealeth. 1551 
Robinson tr. More's (/top. 1. (1895) 69 Moneye fownde 
abowte them shoulde betraye the robberye. They shoulde 
be no soner taken wyth the maner, but furth wyth they 
shoulde be punysshed. 1597 Shaks. 2 Hen. IV, 11. iv. 347 
O Villaine, thou stolest a Cup of Sacke eighteene yeeres 
agoe, and were taken with the manner. 1607 Co well 
Interpr., Mainour, alias Manour, alias Meinoure, signifieth 
in our common lawe, the thing that a theefe taketh away or 
stealeth. 1769 Blackstone Comm. IN. 303 When a thief 
was taken with the mainour, that is, with the thing stolen 
upon him, in inanu. 1838-42 Arnold Hist. Rome (1846) I. 
xiv. 293 note, No power could bail a thief taken with the 

manner, that is, with the thing stolen upon him. 1867 Pear- 
son Hist. Eng. I. 274 The thief overtaken with the mainour 
might be killed. 

2. With (later in) the mainour (usually manner) : 
in the act of doing something unlawful, ( in fla- 
grante delicto'. 

1530 Pai.sgr. 752/1, I take with the maner, as a thefe is 
taken with thefte, or a person in the doyng of any other 
acte, j'e prens sur le faict. 1566 Pasguiue in a Traunce 
107 Whether fryers . . hauing bene so often taken with the 
maner to vse deceyte,. .be therefore any more to be trusted 
afterwarde. 1579 Fcrmes of the Lawe 144 b (s.v. Maynour\, 
We commonly e vse to saye when we finde one doing of 
an vnlawfull act, that wee tooke him wyth the mainour, 
or manner. 1597 Beard Theat?-e God's Judgem. (1612) 46 
Being taken in the manner, the Christians stoned him to 
death. 1609 Holland Amm. Marcel/, xxi. ii. 168 [He] 
committed those and such like outrages, .but being taken 
with the manoir and convict, he forbare and abstained. 
1611 Bible Nitm. v. 13 If. .a man lye with her carnally,. . 
and there be no witnesse against her, neither she be taken 
with the maner [etc.]. 1615CROOKE Body of Man 282 They 
feigne that when Venus and Mars were in bed together, they 
were deprehended or taken in the manner, as we say, by 
Mercury. 1760-72 H. Brooke FoolofQual. (1809) IV. 124, 
I held it beneath me to be caught in the manner. 182S 
Scott F. M. Perth xii, ' Ha ! my jolly Smith \ he said, ' have 
I caught thee in the manner?' 1866 Chamb. Jrn/. No. 28. 
261 If he were taken in the actor mainour. 

f Mainpernable, a. Obs. [a. AF. main- 
pernable, *mainprenabte, f. mainprendre : see 
Mainprise sb.] Capable of being mainprized. 

1 133° -Act 4 Edw. Ill, c. 2 Sils ne soyent meynpernables 
par la lei.] 1487 Act 3 Hen. VII, c. 3 Dyverse persones 
such as wer not maynp r nable ware oftymes leten to bailie 
and maynprise. 1630 in Rushw. Hist. Coll. (1659) I. 27 
Although he did nothing, he is not main-pernable until the 
King sent his pleasure, because he was armed and furiously 
disposed. 1647 Sir R. Holbourne Freeholders 1 Grand 
j Inquest 34 The penalty for detaining a Prisoner that is 
mainpernable is a Fine at the Kings Pleasure. 1772 Junius 
Lett, lxviii. 342 In the two preceding statutes, the words 
bailable, replevisable, and mainpernable, are used synonym- 

Mainpernor. Law. Obs. exc. Hist, or arch. 
Forms : 3-4 meynpernour, 4 mein-, mene- 
pernour, 4, 7, S mainpernor, 5 mayn pern our, 

meynpurnour, 5-7, 9 mainpemour, 6 mayne- 
perner, 6-7 mainperner, 7 mainepernour, 
manipernor. [a. AF. mainpemour =QY . *main- 
prenor, -preneur, agent-n . f. mainprendre : see 
Mainprize sb. Cf. Majjucaptou.] A surety for 
a prisoner's appearance in court on a specified day ; 
one who gives mainprize for another. (Alsoy/^.) 
For the alleged distinction between mainpernor and bail 
see quot. 1768. With regard to the etymological misap- 
prehensions in quots. 1607 and 1768, see Mainprize 2. 

1 1292 Bkitton i. ii. § 6 Les nouns des meynpemours, solom 
ceo qe il troverunt par le verdit, face enrouler. 1336-7 Ait 
1 Edw. Ill, Stat. \. c. 8, & le nouns des meinpernours face 
liverer a mesmes les verders, a respoundre en eir devant 
Justices.] 136a Langi.. P. PI. A. iv. 99 That Meede moste 
be meynpernour Reson heo bi-sou3te. c 1412 Hoccleve 
De Reg. Princ. 2399 And to prison he gooth ; he gette no 
l>ettre, Til his mainpemour his arrest vnfettre. 1459 Rolls 
' of Par/t.V. 368/1 Unto the tyme that they have founde 
suerte of im Meynpurnours. a 1548 Hall Citron.* Hen. IV 
I 12 b, Thou knowest wel enough that I am thy pledge 
j borowe and mayneperner, body for body, and land for 
I goodes in open parliament. 1586 J. Hooker Hist. Irel. in 
! it olinshed II. 72/1 [They] became mainpernours for the said 
carle of Desmond, that he should come into England, and 
abide such triall as the law would award. 1607 Cowell 
interpr. s.v. Mainprise, They that do thus vndertake for 
any, are called Mainpernours, because they do receiue him 
into their hands. 1647 N. Bacon Disc. Govt. Eng. 1. liii. 
('739) 94 Mainperners are not to be punished as Principals, 
unless they be parties or privies to the failing of the Prin- 
cipal. 1768 Blackstone Comm. III. 128 Mainpernors differ 
from bail, in that a man's bail may imprison or surrender 
him up before the stipulated day of appearance; main- 
pernors can do neither, but are barely sureties for his 
appearance at the day: bail are only sureties, that the party 
be answerable for the special matter for which they stipu- 
late; mainpernors are bound to produce him to answer all 
charges whatsoever. 1837 Sir F. Palgrave Norm, ty Eng. 
II. 691 If any friend had pledged himself to the assurance 
that., the fine young Duke had always conducted himself 
j with strictly edifying propriety we should say. .a bold main- 
pemour was he, 
H See quot. (Prob. some error.) 
1631 Weever Anc. Funeral Mon. 342 Officers belonging 
, to these Staples, were Maiors, Constables, Mainpernors. 
i Mainport. Obs. Also 7 manport, maine- 
porto, maynport. [Of obscure origin : possibly 
f. F. main t L. manus hand, and F. porter, L. 
por/dre to carry.] (See quot. 1670-91.) 

1664 Spelman Gloss. s.v., Vicaria de Wragby consjstit in 
toto Altaragio & in ceragio vulgariter diet. iVaxskot, in 
panibus vulgariter diet. Manport. Ibid., Mainport. 1670-91 
Bloint Lazu Diet., Maine-Porte (in manu portaium), is 
a small tribute (commonly of Loaves of Bread) which in 
some places the Parishioners pay to the Rector of their 
Church, in recompence for certain Tythes. 1677 Thoroton 
Antiq. Nottingh. 474 They also . . assigned him [the Vicar 
of Blytb] many small matters in which the Vicarage was to 
consist, as. .in the Bread which is called Maynport. 

Mainprize (m^nproiz), sb. Obs. exc. /List. 
Forms : 4 meynprize, 4-5 meyn-, maynprise, 
-pryse, 5 main-, maympris, maynprice, Vmaun- 
prese, 5-6 maynpris(e, 6 -prize, mempria, 6-7 
main(e)prise, 7- mainprize. [a. AF., OF. 
: mein-, mainprise, n. of action f. mainprendre (f. 




main \xan<k+ prendre to take : see Prize j£.), the 
equivalent of the med.L. manucapcre, lit. 'to take 
in the hand', hence 'to assume responsibility, 
pledge oneself'. 

The Latinized form mciuprisa, in the general sense ( under- 
taking, promise under penalties ', is cited by Du Cange from 
an English charter of 1174.] 

1. gen. The action of making oneself legally 
responsible for the fulfilment of a contract or 
undertaking by another person ; suretyship. 

1447 Water/. Arch, in 10M Rep. Hist. MSS. Coniut. 
App. v. 297 No citsayn or freman shal receve none estrauu- 
gers in pledge or maynprice for ony bargaine. la 1500 in Chron. (1811) 24 That. .an English Marchaunt 
bee not amytted into the fraunches of y* cite of any craflc 
but be Mempris of vi good men and sufficyent of the crafte. 

2. spec. The action of procuring the release of a 
prisoner by becoming surety ('mainpernor') for 
his appearance in court at a specified time. Chiefly 
in phr. to let or receive to (or in) mainprize, to 
deliver upon (or by) mainprize, to nim under main- 
prize [^AF. laisser par, mettre par mey uprise"]. 

Without bail or mainprise: with no permission to 
obtain release by finding sureties. Writ of main- 
prize see quot. 1768. 

By the legal antiquaries of the 16th c, the ' taking in hand 1 
etymologically implied by AF. mainprise* med. L. manu- 
eaptio, was supposed to denote the act of 'receiving into 
friendly custody' the person who would otherwise have 
been committed to prison (cf. Bail s&A 3), and the later 
definitions of mainprise and mainpernor, e.g. those of 
Cowell and Blackstone (see Mainpernor) are worded in 
accordance with this misapprehension. 

[izqz BUTTON i. xviii. § 1 Les aloygneours soint mis par 
meynprise jekes en heyre des Justices.] 1377 LAHGL. /'. 
PL B. xx. 17 Nede anon ri^te nymeth hym vnder meyn- 
pryse. a 1400 Pride of Life (Brandl, 1898) 370 per [in hell) 
ne fallit ne maynpris ne supersidias. c 1400 Gamelyn 744, 
I bidde him to maynpris [v.r. maympris] that tliou graunte 
him me Til the nexte sitting of deliveraunce. 1414 Rolls of 
Parlt. IV. 57/2 Sith the tyme that I was resseyved to meyn- 
pryse. 1433 Ibid. 258/2 Imprisnementof a moneth, withoute 
bailie or mainpris. 1444 Ibid. V. 107/1 To abide in Prison. . 
withoute lettyng to maynprise, or in any other wise to goat 
large. 1509 Barclay Shyp of Folys (1570) 4 There shal! be 
no bayle nor treating of mainprise. 1554 Act 1 $ 2 Phil. 
.y Mary c. 13 § 1 The same Justices to be presente together 
at the tyme of the said Bailement or Mayneprise. 1577 
Northurooke Dicing' (1843) 1 37 They should bee committed 
to the gaole without bayle or mainprise, for the space of 
three monethes. 1586 J. Hookkr Hist. tret, in Holinshed II. 
71/2 He afterward deliuered him vpon mainprise of these 
suerties whose names insue. i6iz Da vies Why Ireland, 
etc. 202 Though the Earle of Desmond were left [sic] to 
Mainprise, vpon condition hee should appeare before the 
King by a certain day. 4x625 Sir H. Finch Law (1636) 
446 At writ of mainprise to set at liberty one baileable 
finding baile. 1655 Fuller Ch. Hist. iv. ii. § 4 (Petit, agst. 
LolRlrds) That they. .be. .put in Prison, without being de- 
livered in Bail, or otherwise, except by good and sufficient 
mainprise, to be taken before the Chancellour of England. 
1744 Act 17 Geo. It, c. 40 § xo There to remain without Bail 
or Mainprize, until Payment be made. 1768 Blackstone 
Comm. III. 128 The writ of mainprize.. is a writ directed 
to the sheriff, .commanding him to take sureties for the 
prisoners appearance, usually called mainpernors, and to 
set him at large, a 1845 Barham Ingot. Leg. Ser. lit. House 
Warming, Taken to jail., without mainprise or bail. 
b. fig. and in fig. contexts. 

1412-20 Lvdg. Chron. Troy in. xxv, That of the death 
stode tho vnder a reste, Without maynpryse sothly as of Jyfe. 
1631 Heylin St. George 42 Without hope of Bayle, or any 
mercie of mainprise; he must be in Hell. 1636 FKATLY 
Clavis Myst. xxii. 290 No baile or mainprize from this 
common prison of all mankinde, the grave. 1663 Cowley 
Cutter Colman St. u. iv, Come on ; I'll send thee presently 
to Erebus ; Without either Bail or Main-prize. 1698 Fryer 
Ace. E. India $■ P. 13 Had she [the ship] given way never 
so little, we must have sunk without Bail or Mainprize. 

3. concr. One's mainpernor or mainpernors. 

136a Langl. /'. Pt. A. iv. 75 And he amendes make let 
meynprize him liaue. 1678 Butler Hud. in. L 60 He there- 
fore .. Resolv'd to leave the Squire for Bail And Mainprize 
for him to the Goal. 1847 Sir H. Taylor Eve of Conquest 
Wks. 1864 III. 211 He greatly grudged This mainprize of 
my loyalty to let loose. 

t Mainprize, v. Law. Obs. Forms: 4 mayn- 
pris, 4-5 -prise, -pryse, meynprise, (5 mayn- 
price, -prese , meyme-, maym-, mempryse, 
mem-, menprise, maynsprise), 7 mainprise, 
-prize, [f. prec] trans. To procure or grant the 
release of (a prisoner) by mainprize ; to accept 
mainpernors for the appearance of. Often y*^. 

£133° R. Bkunnk Chron.(iZio) 138 Bot if he to ber bay- 
lifes makly's sikernesse, pat bei wille him maynp[r]is. 1377 
Langl. /'. PI. B. iv. 170 Mede shal nou^te meynprise 30W bi 
the Mane of heuene ! 1393 Ibid. C. xxt. 189 God hath . . 
grautited to al mankynde, Mercy, my raster, and me to 
maynprise hem alle. C1440 Promp. Pan;. 320/1 Mayn- 
prysyd, or menprisyd {MS. K. maynsprisid, MS. S. maym- 
prysyd, or memprisyd), manucaptus, fidejussus. a 1500 
Medwall Nature (Brandl) n. i I23 God . . Dyd vs . . wyth 
hys own blode maynpryce And vs redemed fro paynes endles. 
1598 Manwood Lowes Forest 1. 167. 1681 W. Robkrtson 
Phraseol. Gen. (1693) 857 To mainprize, vadimonio ob- 

% Erroneously used for Misprize. 

(The error prob. arose from association of the first syllable 
with OF. meins, mains less; cf. the spelling maynsprisid 
in the King's College MS. of Promp. Pan:] 

C1450 Lydg. & Burgh Secrces 2219 He is so trewe no 
good man may hym mempryse. 

Hence f Mainprizingf vfoi. sl>. Muntkize sb. 
Also f Mai'nprizer = MaISTEBNOR, 

c 1440 Promp. Pare. 320/2 Maynprisynge, nianucapyt)io. 
Ibid., Maynprisowre, mancipator [? iiiauucaptor], fide- 
jussor. 1610 Holland's Camden's Brit. 11. 176 There was 
the Earle of Vlster enlarged, who .. found mainprisers or 
sureties to answer the writs of law. 

Mainrent, Mains Sc. : see Manned, Main sbf> 

Mainsail (mi 1 *ns^l J m£i*ns1)« Naut. [See 
Main a. 10.] The principal sail of a ship. a. In 
square-rigged vessels, the sail which is bent to the 
main-yard. b. In fore-and-aft rigged vessels, the 
sail which is set on the after part of the mainmast. 

1485 Naval Ace. Hen. VII (1896)40 Mayne sailes. c 1515 
Cocke Lorell's B. (Percy Soc) 12 Some howysed the mayne 
sayle. 1536 Tindale Ads xxvii. 40 They . . hoysed vppe 
the mayne sayle to the wynde. 1626 Caft. Smith Aeet'd. 
Vng. Seamen 6 The Younkers are the yong men called Fore- 
mast men, to..Furle, and Sling the maine Saile. 1772 84 
Cook I'oy. (1790) I. 151 It blew a storm from the east,.. 
which compelled us to bring the ship to, under her mainsail. 
1783 Wolcot (P. Pindar) Odes to ii. A.'s vii. Wks. 1812 I. 
65 Broad as the Mainsail of a man of war. 1794 Rigging 
$ Seamanship II. 319 Raise tacks and sheets, and mam s.iil 
haul. 1835 Sir J. Ross Narr. -2nd I'oy. iii. 33 The close- 
reefed mainsail. 1873 Black Pr. Thuie (1874) 5 there was 
just enough wind to catch the brown mainsail. 

attrib. 1549 Cotnpl. Scotl. vi. 40 Hail out the mane sail 

Jig. 1579 Fui.kk Hi-skins' Part. 29 He tnueyeth with 
mayn sayle of op'Jil rayling against the people. 

Mainschot, Sc. variant of Manchet. 
Main sea. arch. [See Main a. 4. Cf. ON. 
megeusio-r.'] The high sea; — Main sbA 5. 
1526 Pilgr. Per/: iW. de W. 1531) 181 b, No more. .than 

a particular ryuer is to be compared to y° mayne see. 1573 
Tusskk llusb. (187S) 30 At cliange or at full, come it late 
or else soone, Maine sea is at highest, at midnight and 
noone. 1617 Mdkyson /////, 1. 312 In the maine Sea, greater 
Dolphins, and in greater number, did play about our ship. 
1623 Cockeram, Ocean, the vniuersall maine Sea. 1695 
Woodward Nat. Hist. Earth 27 '1'he Pelagir, or those 
kinds of Shells which naturally have their abude at main- 
sea, and which therefore are now never Hung up upon the 
Shores. 1709 STEELE Tatter No. 12 P 22 The starving 
Wolves along the main Sea prowl. 1876 Swinburne 
Erechtheus 1699 Who shall meet The wind's whole soul and 
might of the main sea Full in the face of battle. 
Jig. 1570-6 Lamhakde I'eramb. Kent 236 The maine Sea^ 
of sinne and iniquitie, wherein the worlde . . was almost 
whole t«V] drenched. 1575-85 Abp, Sandys Serin, xviii. 
211 Through the middest 01 sundrte maine seas of troubles 
and afflictions. 

Main-sheet, mainsheet. Naut. 

1. The rope which secures the mainsail when set. 
1485 Naval Ace. Hen. VII (1896) 48 Mayne shetes. a 1637 

1!. Jonson Discoif., De orattonis digit., The main-sheet and 
the boulin, 1694 Ace. Sev. Late Voy. 1. (1711) 163 We .. 
veered out the main-Sheet to ware the Ship. 1762 Falconer 
Shipwr. 11. 27 Let the main-sheet fly ! 1862 Marsh Eng. 
Lang. xi. 164 A sailor will not be likely to interlard his go- 
ashore talk with clew-lines, main-sheets, and halliards. 

fig> a '575 Gascoignk Dan Bartholomew Posies Flowers 
So Yet hauld I in the mayne-sheate of the minde. 
b. attrib. , as mains keet-b lock, -/torse. 

1867 Smyth Sailors lVordd>k. t Mainshecl-horse, a kind 
of iron dog fixed at the middle of a wooden beam, stretching 
across a craft's stern, from one quarter stanchion to the 
other; on it the tuainsheet-bloek travels. 

2. Jamaica slang. (See first quot.) 

1882 Pall Mall G. 2q May 4/2 Main-sheet is weak rum- 
and-water .. and it seems to derive its quaintly expressive 
name from the native habit of taking constant pulls at it all 
day long, 1890 Hlaclcv. Mag. June 784 An old man invited 
to have a drink of mainsheet. 

Mainspring (m<. 7 i*n,sprin). [Main a. S b.] 

1. A principal sprint; in a piece of mechanism. 
a. In a gun-lock, the spring which drives the 
hammer. (Alsoy% r .) 

a 1616 Beaum. & Fl. Custom of Country in. iii, Hee's joule 
i'th touch-hole; and recoiles againe, The main spring's 
weakned that holds up his cock. 1824 Col. Hawker Instr. 
Vng. Sport sm. (ed. 3) 42 The mainspring to be well regu- 
lated should at first pull up very hard. 1828 Scott F. M. 
Perth vi, How now, Smith, is thy mainspring rusted? 

b. The principal coiled spring of a watch, clock, 
or other piece of mechanism. 

1591 Sylvester Du Bartas I. vii. 162 God's the main 
spring, that maketh every way All the small wheels of this 
great Engin play. 1763 T. Mudce 'Ph. Improv. Watches 
(1709) 12 The wheel that communicates the force of the 
mam-spring to the balance. 1830 Kater & Lakoner Meek. 
xiv. 195 In watches and portable chronometers, ..a spiral 
spring, called the mainspring, is the moving power. 1869 
Noad Electricity 381 Levers are released, and the machinery 
of the telegraph worked by mainsprings, are [sic] left free to 

2. fig. The chief motive power ; the main in- 

C1695 J. Miller Descr. New Vork (1843) 30 It being 
proposed that the bishop himself who shall be sent over be 
the main-spring and mover in this work. 1799 Nelson 21 
Apr, in Nicolas Disp. (1846) VII. p. clxxx, I am here the 
mainspring which keeps all things in proper train. 1823 
IJyron fuati ix. Ixxiii, Some heathenish philosophers Make 
love the main-spring of the universe. 1850 Merivai.k Pom. 
Emp. (1865) I. i. 23 The cupidity which animated individuals 
was . . the mainspring of the political factions of the time. 
1888 Hurgon 12 Gd. Men II. x. 287 Truth.. was the very 
mainspring, .which actuated everything he thought, or said, 
or did. 

3. attrib., as mainspring cramp (in a gun-lock), 
hook, punch, winder (in a watch). 

1844 Rtgul. ,y Ord. Army 96 note, One Main-Spring 
Cramp. 1884 F. J. Britten Watch % Clockm. 16s Main 
Spring Hook.. Main Spring Punch- .Main Spring Winder. 

Mainstay ( s m^n,st^)- [See Main a. 8, 10.] 

1. Naut* The stay which extends from the main- 
top to the foot of the foremast. 

1485 Naval Ace. Hen. VII (1896) 37 Cablettes for the 
mayne slay. 1626 Cur. Smith Acctd. Vng. Seamen 14 
The tacklings are the fore stay, the maine stay. 1709 Land. 
Gaz. No. 4521/2 Having, .our Shrouds and Back-stays cut to 
pieces; as al-.o our Main and False-stay. 

b. attrib. ; mairistaysail, a storm-sail set on 
the mainstay. 

1742 Woodroofe in Hauways I'rav. (1762) I. 11. wiii. 
rx» We furled the foresail, and lay to under a mainstaysail. 
1867 Smyth Sailor's Word-bk.y Main-staysail. 

2. Chief support; that on which one mainly relies. 
1787 Jefferson Writ. (1859) II. 163 The points of contact 

and connection with this country, which I consider as our 
surest mainstay under every event. 1839-40 \V. Irving 
// olfcrPs A'. (1855) 207 This maxim, which has been pretty 
much my mainstay throughout life. 1861 Hems Tom 
Bro?vn at O.r/'. iv. ,1809) ; ,, The host, .was uiie of the main- 
stays of the "College boat-club. 1865 Tvlor Early Hist. 
Man. vii. 150 Direct record is the mainstay of History. 
1867 Freeman Norm. Canq. (1876^ I. vi. 458 The Norman 
I tulce was the mainstay of the French kingdom. 

t Mahistrong , a. Obs. [( )E. nuxgenstrang : 
see Main sb. { and Stiiong a.] Strong in power. 

a 1000 Piddles Ixxxvii. 3 (Gr.) J^n folgade mae^enstrong 
»^ mundrof. ('1205 J. ay. ^7751 peos ueoren on moncunne 
eorles main stronge. 

Mainswear, obs. form of Manswear, 
Mai lit 'inJ'nt', a. rare, (pseudo-arch.) [a. K. 
maintJ\ Many, numerous. 

1706 Phillips (ed. Kersey), ii faint, .. an old Word for 
many, several. 1801 Mookk Ping 170 Ifow Austin was a 
reverend man, Who acted wonders maim. 1866 J. B. Rose 
Eel. fy Gecrg. Virg. 70 View ihe wide world and ran:-. 
maint of man. — tr. Ovid's Met. 77 Ah me, ah me, there'.-, 
maint an honest dame, Brought by fictitious Joves to grief 
and shame. 

Maintain,: Obs. In ^maynterne,-teyn,e, 
-teygne, -tyen(e f -tiene, 6 maintene, -taine. 
[f. next vb., after F. maint ic/r] 

1. Bearing, deportment, behaviour. 

1470-85 Malory Arthurs, ii. 163 He-.holdeth the most 
noble courte of the world, alle other kynges ne prynces 
inaye not compare vnto his noble mayntene. 1471 CaxtON 
Recuyell (ed. Sommer) 124 He bad not the maynteygne of 
a yoman or of a seruaunt. Ibid. 130 (She] began to wexe 
reed and to kse her mayntyene and contenance whan she 
sawe hym. 1481 — Myrr. 111. \. 15; Atte longc, Nature 
may not suffre dyuerse mayntenes vnresonable. c 1500 
Melusine 20J The king lecomforted bis peuple by his 
wnfrjby contenaunce & valyaunt mayn ten. 1578 Proctors 
Gorg. Gallery N iv, Joy were to here their prety wordes, 
and sweet maintain [1 read maintain] to see, And how all 
day they passe the time, til darknes dimmes the skye. 

2. Maintenance, support. 

1483 in Rymer Eoedera X 1 1 . f 1 7 1 1 ) 174/1 To the upholde, 
maynteyne and encrease of their both Kstatis against alle 
Persones. 1599 Porter Angry Worn. Abingt. (Percy Soc.) 
16 The mettell of our minds, Having the temper of true 
reason in them, Aflfoordes a better edge of argument For 
the maintaine of our familiar loues Then the soft leaden 
wit of women can. 

Maintain (m^tnt^i'n, m^ht^i'n), v. Forms: 
3-6 main ten e, maynten(e, 4-5 mayne tene, 
4-6mein-, meyntene, 4-5 meynetene, 4-6man- 
tene, GSc. manteane. 4-5 mentene, -teene ; 3-7 
main-, mayntein(e, -teyn(e, 5-6 mainteigne } 
4-6 mein-, meyntein(e, -teyn(e, 4-5 meyne- 
teyne, 3-6 mantein(e, -teyn^e, 6 manteigne, 
4-6 menteyn(e, -teine ; 4-5 mayntyn(e, maln- 
tiene,meintiene,6-7 -5'f.mantine; 4-6, 
maynteme, -teym^e ; 5 mayntan ; 5-7 main-, 
mayntayn(e, -taine, man-, mainetayne, 4-6 
mentayne, 8 Sc, mentain, 6- maintain. [NIE. 
maiutene, -let'ne, a. F. maintenir (OF. 3 sing. pres. 
ind. -tient, -tent, subj. -teigne, -tiegne), =Vr. man- 
lener, meutener, Sp. mantener, Pg. mauler, It. 
mantenere\—\: phrase manu tenere, lit. 'to hold 
in one's hand ' (manu abl. of manus hand ; latere 
to hold). Cf. Du. maiuteneeren (from Fr.).] 

f 1. trans. To practise habitually (an action, a 
virtue or vice) ; to observe (a rule, custom). Obs. 

(Z1250 Owl <y Night. (Cotton) 759 Ich kan wit and song 
manteine [Jesus MS. reads mony eine] Ne triste ich to 
non ober maine. 1303 R. Brunne Handl. Syune 6558 pou 
art vnbuxum, And manteynest an euyl custum. a 1340 
Hampole Psalter xxvii. 5 f>a sail bai be punyst bat first 
fyndes bairn, and all bat oyses bairn & mayntens \>3.\m [sc. 
ill deeds]. C1375 Cursor M. 2454 (Fairf.) Pa folk ware fulle 
of misdede and maynteined wrang and wikkedhede. c 1400 
Destr. Troy 2049 How bai maintene bere malis with manas 
& pride. 1550 Crowley Last Trumpet 1287 Thou wilt., 
mayntayne outragiouse playe, Tylthou haue spent both 
lande and fee. 1611 Bible Titus iii. 14 And let ours also 
learne to maintaine good workes [Gr. Kakwv ipytov n-po- 
io-raaBat] for necessarie vses, that they be not vnfruitfull. 

2. fa. gen. To go on with, continue, persevere 
in (an undertaking). Also occas. to go on with 
the use of (something). Obs. 

1375 Barbour Bruce a. 189 Frendis, and frendschip pui- 
chesand, To maynteym that he had begunnyn. c 1386 
Chaucer Knt's T. 920 A proud despitous man That wol 
ma>Titeyne that he first bigan. i5»6 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de 
W. 1531) 14 Lest they sbolde waxe febl« afterwarde, and 





so to be not able to mayntayne theyr iourney. 1545 Ascham 
Toxoph. To Gentlem. Eng. (Arb.) 19 Some shooters take in 
hande stronger bowes, than they be able to niayntayne. 

b. To carry on, keep up, prosecute (a war, fight, 
siege, contest). 

e 1350 Witt, Palerne 3002 How heie walles were broke . . 
^at bei mijt no more meintene be sege. 1375 Barbour 
Bruce x. 184 Quhill at thar rout, .. Cum for to maynteme 
the melle. Ibid. xm. 280 Thai that wicht war and hardy, 
. .At gret myschef mantemyt the f.cht. a 1400 A'. Brunne's 
Chrou. Wace (Rolls) 5464 V schal vndertake [Petyt MS. 
sail maynten forbe] J?ys were, c 1400 Rom. Rose 3550, 
1 pray you . . For to mayntene no lenger here, Such cruel 
werre agayn your man. 1560 Daus tr. Sleidane's Comm. 
137 Than had Charles Duke of Savoye, a certen space 
maynteyned warre against the Citie of Geneva. 1665 Man* 
ley Grotius' Low C. Warres 277 To.. raise a Siege which 
is so strongly setled and maintained. 1697 Dryden Virg. 
Gcorg. iv. 128 Long the doubtful Combat they maintain, 
'Till one prevails (for one can only Reign). 1828 Scott 
F. M. Perth xxix, It is false. .1 ..will maintain the combat 
with him that shall call it true. 

c. To carry on (an action at law) ; to have 
ground for sustaining (an action). 

1463-4 Rolls of Parlt. V. 506/2 To haue and maynten 
Action or Actions of Dette. 1512 Act 3 Hen. VIll % c. 1 § 4 
Any maner of accion be . . mayntened aycnst any of 
the Kingis Subgiettes. 1620 J. Wilkinson Coroners $ 
S'terifcs 67 No sherife shall suffer a Barreter to maintaine 
any actions or quarrels in their countie courts. x8x8 Cruise 
Digest (ed. 2) II. 417 This Court granted an injunction 
against him, though no action whatsoever could be main- 
tained at law. 1892 Law Times Rep. LXVII. 142/1 In 
order to maintain an action of deceit there must be moral 
delinquency on the part of the person proceeded against. 

d. To continue in, preserve, retain (a physical 
or mental condition, a position, attitude, etc.), in 
spite of disturbing influences. 

1837 Disraeli Venetia 1. .\, Lady Annabel for some time 
maintained complete silence. 1856 Vhovdk Hist. Eng.(iSjS) 
I. i. 10 The old English organization maintained its full 
activity. 1869 Freeman Norm. Com/. (1876) III. xi. 3 The 
English writers maintain a sort of sullen silence. 1879 
R. K. Douglas Confucianism iii. 72 The Sage, .maintains 
a perfect uprightness and pursues the heavenly way without 
the slightest deflection. 1898 [G. W. E. Russell] Coll. ty 
Recoil, x. 131 Amidst all this hurly burly Pitt maintained a 
stately. .reserve. 

e. To keep up (friendly relations, correspond- 

1622 Bacon Hen. Vll 240 When they [sc. ambassadors] 
were returned, they did commonly maintatne Intelligence 
with him. 1706 Hearne Collect. 2 Apr. (O. H. S.) I. 215 He 
is . . much addicted to maintain Correspondence. 1718 
Freethinker No. 79 P 5 A brotherly Correspondence was 
maintained with all the Foreign Protestant Churches. 

f3. To keep a stock of. Obs. rarv~\ [A fre- 
quent sense in OFr.] 

c 1483 Caxton Dialogues 6/29 Who wyne wyll mayntene 
Behoueth to haue selers And a lowe chambre. 

4. To keep up, preserve, cause to continue in 
being (a state of things, a condition or activity, 
etc.) ; to keep vigorous, effective, or unimpaired; 
to guard from loss or derogation. 

C 1330 R. BruHNB Citron. (1810) 60 Eldolf, bisshop of Bath, 
be pes inayntend & helde. c 1350 Will. Paleme 2676 
Meyntenes 3U 3011 re manchip manh a while. 1375 Barbour 
Bruce xx, 605 The law sa Weill mantemyt he, And held in 
pess swa the cuntre. <. 1440 York Myst. xvii. 310, I rede 
we reste a thrawe, For to maynteyne our myght. a 1535 
More Edw. V (1641! 29 He .. had holpe to maintaine a 
long continued grudge. 1581 Mulcaster Positions vL 
(1837J 42 How health is maintained, and disease auoided. 
1651 Hobbes Leviath. n. xxx. 175 It is the Office of the 
Soveraign, to maintain those Rights entire. 1675 H. Ne- 
vile tr. Mackiavelli's Prince iii. (1883) 16 Maintaining to 
them their old condition. 174a Hume Ess. i. v. (1777) I. 35 
All men are sensible of the necessity of justice to maintain 
peace and order. 1855 Bain Senses % Int. it i. § 6 (1864^ 77 
Nervous influence is required for maintaining the breathing 
action. 1855 Macaulay Hist. Eng. xi. III. 43 All that was 
necessary for the purpose of maintaining military discipline. 
1875 Jowett Plato (ed. 2) I. 28 As he had a reputation to 

b. With concrete obj. : To preserve in existence. 

1659 Pearson Creed (1839) 220 We are still preserved by his 
power, and as he made us, so doth he maintain us. 1715 
De Foe Earn. Instruct. 1. i. (184O I. 17 And the same 
power preserves and maintains all things. 

5. To cause to continue in a specified state, rela- 
tion, or position, f to secure the continuance of (a 
possession) to a person {obs.) ; to secure (a person) 
in continued possession of property. 

1300-1400 ^v, Gloucester's Chron. (Rolls) App. XX. 70 J>e 
amperessc.made him ob swere To meinteini engelond to 
hure. c 1380 Wyclif Wks. (1880) 24 To procure, norische, 
& meyntene cristen soulis in good gouernaile and holy lif. 
1800 Addison Amcr. Law Rep. 274 Young contended 
that M c Culloch.. ought to be maintained in possession of 
the land. 1874 Carpenter;!/*:///. P/iys. i.ii. §68 (1879)71 The 
limb was maintained in this state of tension for several 
seconds. 1879 Casselfs Techn. Educ. IV. 72/2 That the 
tools shall be maintained in proper position upon the rest. 
b. Comm. To keep (stock) from decline in price. 

1881 Daily News 8 July 6/1 American railroads are not 
quite maintained. 1892 Daily Tel. 5 Sept. 4/6 Consols rose 
i per cent, and English railways were maintained. 

f 6. To keep in good order, to rule, sway (a 
people > country) ; to preserve in (a state of peace, 

etc.). Obs. 

C1375 Lay Folks Mass Bk. (MS. B.) 365 J>at bai be wele 
mavntenande hore states in alle godnesse, and reule bo folk 
In rightwisnesse. 1375 Barbour Bruce xm. 709 God grant 

' that thai, .maynteyme the land, And hald the folk weill to 
warrand. Ibid. xvi. 34 Vardams in [his] absens maid he, 
For till manteym weill the cuntre. 11533 Ld. Berners 
Huou lxvi. 228, I have, .maynteyned the countre in peace 
& rest and good iustyce. 1535 Coverdale Ecclus. xxxviii. 
32 Without these maye not the cities be manteyned, in- 
habited ner occupied. 1602 S. Patericke {title) A Discovrse 

. vpon the meanes of wel governing and maintaining in good 
peace, a Kingdome, or other Principalitie. 

f7. refl. a. To bear or conduct oneself (in a 
specified manner). Obs. 
1375 Barbour Bruce 11. 486 Bot always, as A man off" 

: mayn,-He mayntemyt him full manlyly. l 1400 MAUHDSV. 

I (1839) xiv. 155 Thei gon often tyme in sowd, to help of other 

' Kynges, in here Werres . . : and thei meyntenen hem self 
right vygouresly. 1481 Caxton Godfrey botvi heoiling. 
How Tancre mayntenyd hym moche wel in conqueryng 
contrees. 1530 Palsgr. 617/1 You shall se me mayntayne 
my selfe so honestly that you shall prayse me. 

t b. To continue in an action or state ; to keep 
oneself resolutely in a specified state (indicated by 

' adj. complement). Obs. 

1481 Caxton Godfrey clxxviii. 262 They shold alle goo 
vnto the mount of Olyuet, And they shold mayntene them 

! this day in fastyng. 1597 Bacon Ess., Faction (Arb.) 76 
Great men that haue str-.-ugth in themselues were better to 
maintaine themselues indifferent and neutrall. 

8. a. To support (one's state in life) by expen- 
diture, etc. b. To sustain (life) by nourishment. 

1375 Bahhour Bruce x. 77*) The king,.. to manteym his 
slat, him gaff Rentis and landis fair eneuch. C1386CHAUCER 
Kn.'i's T. 583 Of his chambre he made hym a Squier And 
gaf him gold to mayntene his degree. 1495 Act 11 Hen. I'll, 
c. 39 He hath not yerely revenues to maynteyn honorably 
and convenyently the astate of a Duke. 1584 Cogan Haven 
Health iii. 1.1636) 23 Nature hath taught all living creatures 
to secke by sustenance to maintaine their lives. 1592 No- 
body <*r Someb. in Simpson Sch. Shahs. I. 289 Nobody takes 
them in, provides them harbor, Maintaines their ruind for- 
tunes at his charge. 1593 Siiaks. 2 Hen. I'l, iv. x. 24 Suf- 
liceth, that I haue maintaines my state. 1614 Earl Stir- 
ling Doomes-day vm. xU. (1637) ioy Whil'st old (and poore 
perchance) with toyle and strife, Glad iby his labour) to 
maintaine his life. 1647-8 Con ekell Davild's Hist. Fr. 

' (1678) 11 Finding the narrowness of his fortune could not 
maintain the greatness of his Birth. 1856 Frolde Hist. 
Eng. (1858) I. i. 52 The first condition of a worthy life was 
the ability to maintain it in independence. 1856 Sir B. 
Bkouie Psychol. I'ii/. I. v. 187 Food is required because 
life cannot be maintained without it. 

•\ c. To bear the expense of, afford. Obs. 
la 1366 Chaucer Rom. Rose 1144 And Richesse mighte it 
wel susteue And hir dispenses wel mayntene. 1596 Shaks. 
Tain. Shr. v. i. 79 What cernes it you, if I weare Pearle 
and gold : 1 thank my good Father, I am able to maintaine 
it. 1605 Loud. Prodigal 1. i, But honesty maintains not 
a French hood, Goes very seldom in a chain of gold. 

0. To provide with livelihood; to furnish with 
means of subsistence or necessaries of life ; to bear 
the expenses of (a person) for living, education, 
etc. Also, fto keep (a person) in (^clothing). 

a 1400 Cursor M. 28961 (Cott. Galba) For ay be more man 
is of elde, be more men aw... for to do him almus dede and 
mayntene him for sawl mede. 1487 Dietary to in Barbour s 

> BrucC, etc. (1870) 539 Eftir thi power maynteme ay thihous- 
hald. 1546 Supplic. Poore Commons (E. E. T. S.) 80 Suche 
possessionem as. .vsed to maintain their ownechyldren, and 
some of ours, tolernyng. 158a N. Licit EFiKLDtr. Castanheda's 
Conq. E. Ind. 1. ii. 6 These people doe mainteine themselues 
with rootes of hearbes, . .and whale fish. 1676 Lady Cha- 
worth in xith Rep. Hist. MSS. Comm. App. v. 31 (It] 
frights Sir Carr Scrope. .from marying her, saying his estate 
will scarce maintaine her in clothes. 1709 TatlerNo. 101 r 1, 
150/. per Annum, which would very handsomely maintain me 
and my little family. 1749 Fielding Tom Jones XVIII. vii, 
I believe you bred the young man up, and maintained him 
at the university. 1770 Goldsm. Des. I 'ill. 58 A time there 
was, ere England's griefs began, When every rood of ground 

; maintained its man. 1816 Scott Antiq. xxvi, I maun hae a 
man that can nainteen his wife. 1838 JaMM Robber vii, 
Sufficient to maintain me in comfort and independence as a 

fb. To provide for the ( keep 1 of (an animal), 
1576 Flkming tr. Caius' Dogs iv. u88o) 28 And therfore 
were certain dogges founde and maintained at the common 
costes and charges of the Citizens of Rome in the place called 
Capitolium. 167a Petty Pol. Attat. (1691) 53 AnOxof6or 7 
years old . . will be maintained with two Acres of good Pasture. 
10. To pay for the keeping up of, bear the ex- 
pense of; to keep supplied or equipped (e.g. a ship, 

I a garrison) ; to keep (a light) burning by supply of 

I fuel ; to keep (a road, building) in repair. 

1389 in Eng. Gilds (1870) 27 pis light bey hoten & a-vowed 

, to kepyn & myntenyn [sic]. Ibid. 62 To meyteyn [tic] wit-al 
a lythe brennynge in ye chyrche of sent Jame. I533~4 Act 

, 25 Hen. Villi c. 8 Euerie person . . hauinge anie of the 
saide landes. .shall, .sufficiently meintein the pauement of 
the said waye. ^1578 Lindesay (Pitscottie) Chron. Scot. 
(S. T. S.) I- 227 Witht tua schipis weill mantenitt and ar- 
taillzeit. 1600 J. Pory tr. Leo's Africa v. 237 Here is 
an hospitall maintained at the common charges of the 
towne, to entertaine strangers that passe by. 161 x Bidlk 
1 Esdras iv. 52 Tenne talents yeerely, to maintaine the burnt 
offerings vpon the Altar euery day. 1617 Moryson Itin. 1. 55 
The States maintained some men of warre in this Inland 
Sea. a 1687 Petty Pol. Arith. (1690) 77 The annual charge 
of maintaining the Shipping of England, by new Buildings 
and Preparations. 1707 J. Chamberlayne St. Gt. Brit. in. 

I ix. 341 They.. maintain Lectures upon the Holy Sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper, almost every Lord's Day Evening. 
1725 De Foe Voy. round^ World (1840) 280 Strong forts 
erected .. and strong garrisons maintained in them. 1846 
J. Baxter Libr. Pract. Agric. (ed. 4) II. 233 Stone, wood, 
and iron, are the materials principally employed in making 
and maintaining roads. 1861 M. Pattison Bit. (1889) I. 

I 48 The Germans . . maintained in it [thb church] an altar. 

b. To furnish the means for conducting (a suit 
or action at law). Cf. 12 d. 

[c 1380 : see 11.] 1540 A ct 32 He n. VI I L c- 9 § 3 That no 
maner of personne. .doo herafter unlaufully maineteyne or 
cause or procure any unlaufull mayntenance in any action. 
1769 Ulackstone Comm. IV. 134 A man may however main- 
tain the suit of his near kinsman, servant, or poor neighbour, 
out of charity and compassion, with impunity. 1843 Meeson 
•y iVclsbys Exchcq. Rep. (1844) XI. 676 The defendants 
resisted and maintained, supported, &c such defences and 

11. To back up, stand, give one's support to, 
defend, uphold (a cause, something established, 
one's side or interest, etc.). 

c 13*0 Sir Beues (A.) 4123 We redeb meintene }our parti. 
<; 1330 R. Bkunne Chron. Wace (Rolls) 6528 pe Frensche 
..rysen ajeyn Conan to fight ; Bot Conan mtyntende wel 
his right. 1375 liAKBOCK Bruce x. 2S9 He byet honor 
and largess, And ay mantemyt richtwi^ne-. c 1380 Wyclif 

1 Scl. Whs. III. 322 Alle bat taken and meyntenen false 
causes ben cursed grevously. .. Also lurdis holdynge grele 

! lovedaies, and bi here lordischip meyntenenge be fals 
jiert, for money frendischip or favour, fallen opynly in bis 
curs, and so don men of lawe, wib alle false witnesses bat 
meyntenen falsenesse a^enst treube, wityngly or unwit- 
tyngly. -1420 Lyoc. Assembly of Gods 747 Vertew dyd 
hys be>y peyne Pepyll to reyse hys quarell to menteyne. 
t 1440 York Myst. xxxviii. 11, 13 pat we may-ntayne and 
stand berby bat werke all-way. Cajph. 5's, sir, bat dede 
schall we mayntayne, By lawe it was done all be-dene. 
1482 Surtces Misc. (1888) 40 Every trew Cristen man . . is 
bunden forto supporte and maynteyn y" trewth. 1513 
Douglas Aimis xi. xii. 114 By hurtis frill fur to manteym 
thar rycht 1535 Cuvehuale Ps. ix. 4 Fur thou hast man- 
teyned my right and my cause. 1558 Knox First Blast 
lArh.) 8 Suche as oght to mainteine the truth and veritie of 
God. 1560 Dals tr. Slcidane's Comm. 122 The true & noi- 
some doctrine is. .every where oppressed, ..and opencrymes 

: mainteined. 1638 R. Bakek ti. Balzac's Lett. (vol. II.) 16 
The cause I maintaine is the cause of my Prince and Coun- 
try. 1667 Milton /'. /,. VI. 30 Who single hast mamtaind 

1 Against revolted multitudes the Cause Of Truth. 1678 
Butler Hud, in. iii. 584 H''d two equal ways of 
gaining : By hindring Justice, or maintaining. 179a Burke 
Let. to Sir II. Langrishe Wits. 1842 I. 548 First, the king 
swears he will maintain, to the utmost of his power, ' the 
laws of God '. 

12. To uphold, back up, stand by, support the 
■ cause of (a person, party, etc.) ; to defend, protect, 
; assist; to support or uphold in (an action), arch. 

a 1300 Cursor JSI. 7374 His sede and his barntem Ouer al 
men 1 sal maintein. t-1330 R. Brunne Chron. Wace (Rolls) 
16661 Cadwaladre batl Iuorhis sone, & Iny his neuew. 
' wende & wone In to Bretaigne, & meintene efte po bat 
were of Bretons lefte '. 1340 Hamiole Pr. Cousc. 1108 Ur 
he sal J?e tane of bam mayntene And be tother despyse 
(Matt. vi. 24k C1350 Will. Palerne 2698 Sche. .preyed ful 

, pitousli to pe prince of heuene, mayntene hire & help, 
bat hire foos for no cas wib fors hire conquerede. c 1460 
Tcrzoneley Myst. xxvi. 96 To mayntene vs euermore ye aw. 
1470-85 Malokv Arthur xv. i, To mayntene his neuewe 
ageynst the myghty Erie. 1530 Palsgr. 438/2, I assyste, 
or stande by, or mayntayne a person in doynge of a dede. 
a 1553 Udall Royster D. v. v. (Arb.) 84 We must to make 
vs mirth, maintaine hym all we can. 1576 Fleming Panopl. 
F.pist. 383 One frend to take another frendes part, to defend 
and maintaine him against backbiting. 1593 Shaks. 2 Hen. 
VI, 1. i. 161 Iesu maintaine your Royall Excellence, a 1604 
HAMMER Chron. Ircl. (1633) 31 His three sonnes.. formerly 

' went into Ireland to maintaine one of the factions. 1625 
Bacon Ess., Frktuiship (Arb.) 171 He.. would often main- 

! taiue Plantianus, in doing Affronts to his Son. 1883 Gar- 
diner Hist. Eng. II. xix. 328 In spite of all, lames was still 
ready to maintain Somerset against his ill-willers hi public, 
if he expostulated with him in private. 

+ b. In bad sense : To give support or counten- 
ance to evil-doers ; to aid or abet in (wrong- 

I doing) ; to back up in (error or wickedness). Obs. 

1362 Langl. P. PI. A. hi. 232 To meyntene misdoers meede 

thei taken. 1377 Ibid. B. 111. 90 Of alle suche sellers syluer 

to take, . . Ringes or other ricchesse, the regrateres to mayne- 

! tene. c 1380 WTCUF Sel. Wks. III. 323 Officeris bat meyn- 

, tenen obere men in synne. 1390 Langl. Rich. Redeles 111. 

1 311 Thus is the lawe louyd thoru myjbty lordis willys, 
That meyneteyne myssdoevs more than other peple. c 1400 
Maundev. (Roxb.) xxxiv. 155 A fende . . tellez jam many 
thinges,..for to mayntene bam in baire mawmetry and baire 
errour. c 1430 Freemasonry 255 To lere him so that for no 
mon No fals mantenans he take hym apun Ny maynteine 
hys felows yn here synne For no good that he my$ht wynne. 
1528 Northumberland in Si. Papers Hen. I III, IV. 514 
Also I can not perceyve that any redresse can be maid 

i uppon the Borders, for the Kyng of Scottes doth maynteyn 
all the theves and rebelles of the same. 155a Latimek 
Serm. Lincolnsh. iii. (15621 81 O crafty deuil : he went 
away, not for feare of the holy water, but because he would 
mayntaine men in errour and foolishnes. 

-f*c. With inf. : To assist, encourage, incite (to 
do something, esp. something evil ;, to support or 
uphold (in doing it). Obs. 
c 1325 Poem times Ediu. II (Percy Soc.^ xxxvii, He shal 

1 be maintend full wel To lede a sory life. 1362 Langl. /'. PI. 
A. 111. 145 Prouendreres, perstms, preosles Iieo nieynteneth, 
To holde lemmons and lotebyes al heor lyf-dayes. Ibid. A 
iv. 42 He meynteneth his men to morthere myn owne. 1393 
Ibid. C. xvni. 234 The pope. .That with moneye menteyneih 
men to werren vp-on cristine. 1546 J. Alen in St, Papers 
Hen. VIII, III. 577 The Justices nephew maynteyned the 
burgesses of the Newcastell, to take from me a paicell of 
pasture. 1626 Scogin's fests'm Hazl. Sltaks. Jcst-bks. (1864) 
124 When the king's servants had espied him, they did main- 
taine their dogges to runne at Scogin. 

d. Law. To give support to (a suitor) in an 

, action in which one is not concerned. Cf. 10 b; 
also Maintenance 6. 
1716 W. Hawiuns Pleas Crown 1. 249 Of this second kind 




of Maintenance there seem to be three Species : . . 2. Where 
one maintains one Side, to have Part of the Thing in Suit, 
which is called Champerty. Ibid. 252 A Man may lawfully 
maintain those who are infeoffed of Lands in Trust for him 
in any Action concerning those Lands. 1836 Bingham's 
New Cases Co/urn. Picas II. 650 The Defendant .. has 
voluntarily and officiously undertaken to maintain the 
Plaintiff in a suit with which the Defendant has no connec- 
tion. 1886 Law Rep. 17 Q. B. D. 504 The present action 
was brought by the plaintiff against the defendant to re- 
cover the 118/. on the ground that he had 'maintained' 
Nailer in the former action. 

13. To hold, keep, defend (a place, position, 
possession) against hostility or attack, actual or 
threatened. Phr. To maintain one* $ ground {often 

Jig.). Also refl. = to make a stand, defend one's 
position ; similarly f to maintain one's own. 

(-1350 Will. Paleme 3642 William say ber ober side of 
fers & so breme, bat his men mfat noujt meyntene here 
owne. « 1400-50 Alexander 1972 Mi^t bou be marches so 
Messedoyne mayntene bi-sclfe. 1513 Douglas Mneis iv. 
v. 81 And now that secund Paris, .. By reif mantemys hir 
suld ouris be. 1595 Daniel Civ. Wars iv. xlvi. 75 b, Bed- 
ford who our onely hold maintaind. 1595 Shaks. John nr. 
iv. 136 A Scepter snatch'd with an vnruly hand Must be as 
boysterously maintain'd as gain'd. 1599 — Hen. V, in. vi. 
95 Flu. The Duke of Exeter ha's very gallantly maintain'd 
the Pridge. 1615 G. Sandys Trav. 217 A fort maintained by 
a small garrison of Moores. 1624 Fletcher Rule a Wife 
in. v. (1640) 37 Leon.. .1 stand upon the ground of mine own 
honor, And will maintaine it. 1660 F. Brooke tr. La Blanc's 
Trav. 15 There are four avenues cut through the Mountain, 
easie to be maintained. 1736 Butler Anal. 1. iii. Wks. 
1874 I. 63 In this case then, brute force might more than 
maintain its ground against reason. 1748 Gray Alliance 
88 An Iron race the mountain cliffs maintain. 1792 Anccd. 
W. Pitt I. xviii. 283 The King of Prussia, though surrounded 
by his numerous enemies, maintained himself with astonish- 
ing skill and valour. 1849 James Woodman iv, She main- 
tained her ground, although the Moor rode close up to her 
with Iris companions. 1853 J- **. Newman Hist, Sk, (1873) 
II. 1. iv. 178 Venice .. by a system cf jealous and odious 
tyranny, . . continued to maintain its ground. 1893 Sir L. 
Griffin in lgthCeut. Nov. 684 Our subsidies and open sup- 
port have enabled Abdur Rahman Khan to maintain him- 
self against his many enemies. 

14. To support or uphold in speech or argument ; 
to defend (an opinion, statement, tenet, etc.); to 
assert the truth of, contend to be true or right. 

1340 Hami'ole Pr. Consc. 3080 Yhit has men herd som 
clerkes maynte[ne] Swilk an opinion, als I wene, pat a saule 
[etc.]. C1380 Wyclif Set. Wks. HI. 323 Clerkis bat don 
evyl and meyntene it hi sotilte of word, t-1449 Pecock 
Repr. 1. i. 5 Alle the othere vntiewe opiniouns and holding is 
.. muste needis..lacke it wherbi thei mitten in eny colour 
or semyng be mentened, holde, and supported, c 1450 Pistill 
of Susan (MS. I) 220 pies wordes bat we say, On bis wom- 
man verray, J?at wil we mayntan for aye. 1512 Act 4 
Hen. VIII) c. 19 Preamble, The seid Frensche Kyng .. 
alway erronyously defendyng & maynteynyng his seid 
obstynate opynyons agayne the unitye of the holye Churche. 
1530 Palsgr. 617/1 And he ones saye a thyng, he wyll 
mayntayne it to dye for it. 1616 R. C. Times' Whistle 
v. 2120 What phisitian .. would .. such a lye maintaine? 
1651 HoiiUEs Levlath. 180 The doctrines maintained 
by so many Preachers. 1686 Horneck Crucif. Jesus xi. 
205 This point they do so stiffly, and so uncharitably main- 
tain. 1772-84 Cook Voy. (1790) V. 1649 They also, in some 
degree, maintain our old doctrine of planetary influence. 
1856 Wmately Bacon's Ess. i. 10 It is not enough to believe 
what you maintain ; you must maintain what you believe, 
and maintain it because you believe it. 

b. With clause : To affirm, assert, or contend 
{that). With obj. and infm. : To assert (some- 
thing) to be (etc.) ; + also in passive. 

c 1380 Wyclif Wks. (1880) 10 5if bei seyn and meyntenen 
in scole and obere placis bat be wordis of holy writt ben 
false. 1594 Hooker Eccl. Pol. in. viii. § 13 Because we 
maintaine that in scripture we are taught all things neces- 
sary vnto saluation. 1605 Shaks. Lear 1. ii. 77, I haue 
heard him oft maintaine it to be fit, that [etc.]. 1646 Sir 
T. Browne Pseud. Ep. in. xxiv. 169 Some [animalsj there 
are in the Land which were never maintained to be in the 
Sea, as Panthers, Hyaena's [etc.]. 1652 Needham tr. Sei- 
dell's Mare Cl. 203 It is mainteined by divers learned Men 
that these were the ruins of the same Tower. 1682 DRVDEN 
Medal 86 He .. Maintains the Multitude can never err. 
1729 Butler Scrm. Wks. 1874 II. Pref. 24 The Epicureans. . 
maintained that absence of pain was the highest happiness. 
1849 Macaulay Hist. Eng. ii. I. 195 The country, he main- 
tained, would never be well governed till [etc.]. 1875 
Jowett Plato (ed. 2) V. 222 Pleasure and pain I maintain 
to be the first perceptions of children. 

fl5. ?To hold upright. Obs. rare— 1 . 

1661 Morgan Sph. Gentry in. vi. 61 Vert, a Flower-pot 
Argent maintaining Gilliflowers Gules. 

f 16. ? To stand for, represent. Obs. rare— 1 . 

1588 SHAKS. L.L. L.y. ii. 902 This side is litems, Winter, 
This I er, the Spring: the one maintained by the Owle, 
I h other by the Guckow. 

Maintainable (nwkl-, EB&t£'*o£bT), a. Also 
5 mayntenable,6 raayn-, mainteinable, 7 main- 
tenable, [f. Maintain v. + -able.] 

1. That can be maintained, kept up, held, de- 
fended, etc. ; esp. of an opinion, an action at law. 

1439 i^olls o/Parlt. V. 22/1 No action to be mayntenable 
ayenste the seid named Executours. 1541 Act 33 Hen. VIII, 
c. 21 § 1 Wordes vttered by them .. not mainteinable in 
your lawes. 1559 m Strype Ann. Re/. (1824) I. 11. App. viii. 
427 No suite forany cause rysinge within the realme,mayn- 
teinable in any place out of the realm. 1586 A. Day Bng, 
Secretary 1. (1625) 88 A matter sinisterly suggested unto 
you against mee without any maintainable reason. 1602 
t ulbecke 1st PL Parall. 68 Your exception is good, and 
maintenable by our Law. 1648 tr. Senault's Paraphr. 
Job 338 Doe you thinke that your Propositions are main- 

taineable? 1680 Lond. Gaz. No. 1522/3 His Excellency 
called a Council of War, where it was judged, That the Out 
Forts were not maintainable. 1777 Hamilton Wks. (1886) 
VII. 483 To effect this would require a chain of posts, and 
such a number of men at each as would never be practicable 
or maintainable, but to an "immense army. 1826 Southey 
Lett, (1856) III. 527, I think he extends the inspiration of 
Scripture further than is maintainable. 1837 Sir N. C. 
Tindal in Binghani's New Cases I. 99, I think this action 
is maintainable against the husband and wife jointly. 1873 
M. Arnold Lit. <jj- Dogma (1876) 350 It is a maintainable 
thesis that the allegorising of the Fathers is right. 

f 2. Affording a livelihood. Obs. rare* 

1583 Stubbes Auat. Abus. n. (1S82.) 84 May a pastor .. 
(having a maintainable liuing allowed him of his flock) 
preach in other places for monie ? Ibid. 88. 

Hence Maintai nableness. 

1727 in Bailey vol. II. 1865 Pail Mali G. 11 Nov. 6 The 
point in favour of the maintainableness of the action - - had 
been argued by two able counsel. 

Maintain er (m^n-, m&it^i'nax). Forms: 4-5 
mayn-, raeyntenour(e, 4-6 -tener, 5 -tenowre, 
main-, mayntayner, -temour, -teiner, -teyner, 
,5V. main-, man-, menteiner, -teinar, -tenar, 
-teaner, 7 .SV. mainteener, 9 {Law) maintainor, 
6- maintainer. [ME. mayntenour,^.. AF. mayn- 
tenour, OF. maintencor, agent-n. f. maintenir 
Maintain v. ; the mod. word is a new formation 
on Maintain v. + -er 1.] 

1. One who upholds, defends, guards, keeps in 
being, preserves unharmed (a cause, right, state of 
things, etc.). 

c 1420 Lydg. Assembly of Gods 918 Mayntenours of ryght, 
. . Distroyers of errour. 1447 Bokenham Seyntys (Roxb.) 186 
Of crystene feyth a meynteynour. 1514 Barclay Cyt. $ 
Uploudysh/n. (Percy Soc.) 34 O where be rulers meynteyners 
of justyce. 1526 Tin-dale Matt. v. 9 Blessed are the mayn- 
tayners of peace. 1579 E. K. in Spenser's Sheph. Cat. Ep. 
Ded., Ma. Phi. Sidney, a special fauourer & maintainer of all 
kind of learning, c 1635 Mure Ps. xvi. 6 Mainteener of my 
lote thow arL 1639 Cokaine Masque Dram. Wks. (1874) 1 1 A 
great maintainer Of our great-grand -father's virtue— hospi- 
tality. 1749 Fielding Tom Jones in. iii, The maintainers 
of all the different Sects in the world. 1781 Johnson Life 
Cave Wks. IV. 529 A tenacious maintainer, though not a 
clamorous demander of his right. 1824 Miss Mitford Vil- 
lage Ser. 1. 66 She a school-mistress, a keeper of silence, 
a maintainer of discipline ! 1840 Trtrlwall Greece lix. VII. 
321 Polysperchon. .appears as the maintainer of the rights 
of Hercules. 1875 Jowett Plato (ed. 2) III. 124 The main- 
tainer of justice, .is aiming at strengthening the man. 

h. In bad sense : One who fosters or supports 
(wrong-doing, sedition, false quarrels, etc.). 

1393 Langl. P. Pi. C. iv. 288 Mede ys euennore a meyn- 
teuour of gyle. 14x3 Pilgr. Sozole (Caxton 1483) in. iv. 53 
Ye laweours and maynteners of wrong, c 1420 Lydg. As- 
sembly of Gods 677 Meyntenours of* querelles, horryble 
lyers. 1502 Arnolde Chron. (181 1) 90 Mayn tener of quarels 
..or other comon mysdoers. 1545 Krinklow Comptaynt 
19b, Thei be maynteyners of discord for their priuate hikers 
sake. 1567 Satir. Poems Reform, iv. 88 Fostararis of falset 
. . Mantenaris of murther. 1575-85 Abp. Sandys Senu. iv. 
74 All breeders and maintainers of sedition. 

c. Something which maintains or preserves. 

1574 Newton Health Mag. 23 Breade and Wyne, two of the 
cheefest mainteiners of mans life. 1655 Molfet & Bennet 
Health's Improv. (1746) 374 Outward Heat draweth out 
their inward Moisture, which should be the Maintainer and 
Food of their Heat natural. 1696 Tbyon Misc. i. 3 The 
Volatile Spirit . . is the Essential Life of every thing, and is 
the maintainer of its Colour. 

2. One who upholds or supports in speech or 
argument, one who contends for the truth or 
validity of (a doctrine, assertion, tenet, etc.). 

1560 Daus tr. Sleidaues Comiu. 82 The maynteners of 
that doctrine, are nother called nor hearde. 1561 T. Nor- 
ton Calvin's Inst. m. 306 This opinion, .hath had greate 
mainteiners. 1691 Wood Ath. Oxon. I. 349 He was..aprm- 
cipal maintainer of Protestancy. 1738 Wakburton Div. 
Legal. I. 404 The Maintainers of the Immateriality of the 
Divine Substance were likewise divided into two Parties. 
1754 Edwards E'reed. IVillw. xii. 275 Epicurus, .maintained 
no such Doctrine of Necessity, but was the greatest Main- 
tainer of Contingence. 1845 Jebb Gen. Law in Encycl. 
Melrop. (1847) NL 702/1 To quiet the violent contest of two 
honest maintainers of contrary opinions. 1868 M. Pattison 
Academ. Org. v. 154 The conservative maintainers of the 
4 status in quo ' ought to have been called upon to justify. . 
what had actually taken place. 

+ 3. One who gives aid, countenance, or support 
to another ; a defender and helper. Obs. 

c 1330 R. Brunne Chron. Wace (Rolls) 3222 Now bou 
comest to reue vs our [socour], pat scholdest ben oure mayn- 
tenour. c 1.6,00 Laud Troy Bk. 17056 For now lesen thei 
her mayntenoure And alle the gode that thei owe. c 1440 
Promp. Parv. 320/2 Mayntenowre, ma?iutcntor, defensor, 
supportator, faulor. 1535 Coyerdale Ezek. xxx. 6 The 
maynteyners of the londe of Egipte shal fall. 1578 Chr. 
Prayers in Priv. Prayers (1851) 504 Thou, Lord, art my 
maintainer, and the holder up of my head. 1686 Goad 
Cetest. Bodies 1. ix. 28 Seeing he acts by dependance on 
Him, as allthe Rest do, we must compare None of them 
to their Maintainer. 

tb. In bad sense: One who aids and abets another 
in wrong-doing or error. Obs. 

c 1330 R. Brunne Chron. (1S10) 255 Edward bei cald & 
teld, j>at he was mayntenoure, pe robbed he all held, as a 
resceyuour. c 1380 Wyclif Set. Wks. III. 318 Alle resset- 
tours and meynteneris of siche [sc. thieves] wityngly ben 
cursed, c 1440 Jacob's Well 59 Heretykes . . & alle here 
mayntenourys or fauourerys. 1495 Act 11 Hen. VII y c. 10 
§ a The mayntenours of him or theym so mysdoing. 1560 
Daus tr. Sleidaues Comm. 456 b, The counsel! of Calcedonie 

deposed Dioscorides the maynteyner of Eutyches from his 
Byshoprike. 1566-7 Reg. Privy Council Scot. I. 497 Ane 
mantenar of wickit and brokin men. 1570 Act 13 Etiz. c. 2 
§ 2 All.. Aydors, Comforters, or Maynteyners of anye the 
said. .Offendors. 1588 A. KiNGtr. Cauisius Catech. 141 Main- 
tenurs and patrons of euil doars. 1614 Raleigh Hist. World 
11. (1634) 467 The Conspirators had neither any mighty 
partakers in their fact, nor strong maintainers of their per- 
sons. 1660 R. Coke Power $ Sub/. 233 The aiders, main- 
tainers and concealers, who shall not within twenty daies.. 
disclose the same to some Justice of Peace. 

4. La%v. One who unlawfully supports a suit in 
which he is not concerned. Cf. Maintenance 6. 

1399 Langl. Rich. Rcdctes 11. 78 That no manere meyn- 
tcnour shulde merkis here, Ne haue lordis leuere the lawe 
to apeire. 1503 Wi7 rg Hen. VII, c. 13 Punishment of the 
Maintainers and Embracers of the Jurors. 1531-2 Act 23 
lieu. VIII, c. 3 Vnlawfull maintenours einbrasours and 
Jurours. 1875 Stubbs Const. Hist. (1896) III. xxi. 550 The 
maintainers of false causes, whether they were barons or 
lawyers, became very early the object of severe legislation. 
1898 Encycl. Lazus Eng. ted. Renton) VIII. 74 The main- 
tainor must have some special interest other than that of the 
public at large. 

5. One who provides (a person) with the requi- 
sites of life ; j one who keeps a mistress. 

1632 Massingeh City Madam iv. ii, Be assur'd first Of a 
new maintainer e're you cashire the old one. 1650 Bulwek 
Authropomet. 199 The Clergie, who are the chief main- 
tainers of (Janimedes. 1692 Washington tr. Miitoii's 
Def. Pop. iii. Wks. 1851 VIII. 76 Plato would not have.. 
the People [called] Servants, but Maintainers of their Magi- 
strates, because they give Meat, Drink, and Wages to their 
Kings themselves. 1870 Echo 12 Nov., Every thief his 
own maintainer, every prisoner his own reformer. 

f 6. ? A mine-owner. Obs. 

1747 Hooson Miner's Diet. V iij, I could wi.-,h that some 
of the Cross Carping Maintainers might try the difference 
of these two Airs. 

7. Watch-making. An apparatus for keeping the 
movement of a clock or watch from being inter- 
rupted during the process of winding. 

1884 F. J. Britten Watch § Clock///. 167 In some of 
Arnold's watches is a continuous maintainer. 

Maintaining, vbl. sb. [im; 1 .-] 

1. The action ol the verb Maintain ; mainten- 
ance, support, etc. 

c 1330 R. Brunne Chron. (1810) 100 porgh Anselm may[n]- 
tenyng was be contek ent. c 1380 Wyclif Set. Wks. III. 
322 In alle pis fals meynteuyng bei holden wib \>c fend 
a^enst God. 1395 Purvey Rcmonstr t i//ce (lB^i) 87 Vnworthi 
to haue ony benefice othir mayntenynge in the rewme. 
1490-91 in Swayne San/m Church-w. Ace. (1896) 37 To the 
maynteynyngeof the light before the rode, x.\iji'. yi, oh. 1592 
Greene Art Connycatch. in. 2 Except they applied them- 
selues to such honest trades, .as might witnesse their main- 
taining was by true and honest meancs. 1643 Milton 
Divorce viii. Wks. 1851 IV, 21 To the strict maintaining of 
a generall and religious command. 1794 S. Williams Ver- 
mont 232 They were at all times ready, .to contribute their 
full proportion towards the maintaining the present just war. 
1890 ' K. Boldrewood ' Col. Reformer (1891) 107 The reach- 
ing and maintaining of an independent pastoral position. 

f2. Bearing, demeanour, behaviour. Obs. 

c 1477 Caxton Jason 5 The broder of kyng Eson.. there 
beyng present could not holde ne kepe his mayntening. 1483 
— G. de ia Tour Prol., A fayr wyff . . whiche had know- 
leche of alle honoure, alle good, and fayre mayntenyng. 1530 
Palsgr. 241/2 Mayntenyng, port. 

3. attrib.'. maintaining power, in a watch or 
clock, the power which keeps the motion continuous 
(cf. Maintainer 7); so maintaining wheel — 
going-zvheel (Knight Diet. Meek. Suppl. 1884). 

1766 A. Gumming Clock <y Watch Work 138 Care is to be 
taken to acquire in all watches as great a maintaining 
power as circumstances can admit. 1825 J. Nicholson 
Operat. Mechanic 519 The swing- wheel, .is constantly urged 
forward by the maintaining power, which is supplied by a 
small weight. 1884 F. J. Britten Watch <y Clock;//. 123 
Another feature of Huyghens' clock is the maintaining 

t Maintainment. Obs. rare. [f. Maintain 
v. + -mem 1 .] Maintenance. 

c 1485 Dighy Myst. (1882) v. 708 Therfor thei be expedient 
to these meny of maynte[n]nient. 1543 Plnttfpton Con: 
tCamden) 244 Sir Christopher Bird, person, who honestly 
did kepe the cure under the forsaid late person, and the 
maintenment of God service. 

Maintenance (m^-ntenans). ■ Forms: 4-5 
meyn-, meintenaunce, -ance, meyntynaunce, 
menteynaunce, 4-6 mayntenaunce, -ance, 5 
mayntenanse, mayntnaunce, mantenans, 5-6 
tenans, -tennance,-tennence,mantei(g; nance, 
6-7 mantenance, 6-8 maintainance, 4- main- 
tenance, [a. F. maintenance, f. maintenir: see 
Maintain p, and -ance. Cf. Pr. manteuensa,Sp. 
manteneneia, Pg. mantenca, It. manlc/ienza.] 

1 1. Bearing, deportment, demeanour, behaviour. 

c 1369 Chaucer Dethe Blaunche 834 She had so stedfaste 
countenaunce, So noble porte and meyntenaunce. 1430-40 
Lydg. Bochas viii. (1494) D v b, Where there be summe that 
wrongly it werrey, Holde therageyne by frowarde mayn- 
te[n]aunce. 1579 Spenser Sheph. Cat. Sept. 169 For all their 
craft is in their countenaunce, They bene so graue and full 
of mayntenaunce. 1596 Shaks. i Hen. IV, v. iv. 22, I saw 
him hold Lord Percy at the point, With lustier maintenance 
then I did looke for Of such an vngrowne Warriour. 

2. The action of upholding or keeping in being (a 
cause, right, state of things, government, etc.) ; the 
state or fact of being upheld or sustained; f that 
which upholds, means of sustentation. 


141J PUrr. Smlt (Caxtoo itiV iv. xxxiL it Hatha of 
.Julie be - 

the the lift kaadK. 
Home liyaUte L Wkw 105/1 For tW mniMntmmct of tteyr 

MK fcm tll, iu0 Siamctt EnfLutd u L 25 To apply and in- 


d*eaing forward ofthe 
true c/.MMiy n »ek, i$4*-« (Mar. ■ /& CV*v, Prmyer f Commu- 
nion, The womUnutact of Godde* (roe religion and venue. 
1570 l/omi/at n. Agst. Pelellion rv. (1640J 302 .So hatha frao- 
udc Religion need of Mich furious maintenance* a* is kebcl- 
lion. i&a Lvlv Euphues <Arb,j m idknesee U . . ye sole 
Matnunstmcc of yonmtil aifoctton. 199s SrcKtex Teares 0/ 
Muu$ 338 Ho every where they role and tyrannize, For 
their usurped kingdom** maintenaunce, 1661 Addr t fr. 
//rhtone \n Lend. Gaz. No. 1029/7 Whatever we can do for 
and toward* the Support, f'rewer vaiion, and maintainancc 
«/ the ju%t Rights and Prerogative of Vour Majesty. 1*71 
Emu Phibt, Eng. '/>mgue \ M Where there u a central 
literature, there u a cwtillt provi*ion for the maintenance 
of uniformity even though word* are changing their muk. 

3. The action of keeping in effective condition, in 
working order, in rej>air, etc. ; the keeping up of 
(a building, light, institution, body of troops, etc.; 
by the supply of funds or 'needful provision; the 
slate or fact of being so kejrt up ; means or pro- 
vision for keeping up. 

« 1400 FoKTUcee /4/w, 4 Lint. Man, vt (tevji) rzo It U 

>rie that the kyngc be alway riche, wich may not \m 

wUbowl he haue revenue* suAcianl for the yerely mayn- 

ai lit* estate, 1481 90 Howard llouteh. Pki. 

149 Vat the mayntenaiuc of the laaapa . . spent 

xiiij. riuartei of oyle iijaf. oh. 1546 Mem. Hipon (Sur- 

••' 111 1 Certeti Undei bcloagynge .. to the Mayne- 

tenaunce of diver* and syndrye Chauntriez in the Mine 

Churche, 15*7 Hj.mi\o ' >»ttn. Hollnshed III. 1 537/1 

That which wa. doone . , nude an excellent rode or har- 

h foi the time itcontinued,and had maintenance. 161 1 

Hi»i.u 7'ratul. /'re/. pa Again*! Church-maintenance and 

allowance ,ri ( a* the Embaaaador* and mei ienger» 

•-f ihe great King '/ King* should \>k furnished. i6i6Si;hh™ 

& Ma* km. Country /arm 10 Vour House. .will be. .of 

ce, pr< eruation, and lafetie, if you en- 

uiron it round about with water. 1665 Bumyan Holy < itit 

. Having thun shewed us this City. .he now comes to 

hhew 1. hei Pre 1 ion arid Maintenance! wherewith she 

j 1 < pi in bafety, lif«-, peace ."''l comfort 1775 Buskr 

1 ana/, Attar, wl III. 100 Secondly, that they liad acted 

Ityully and laudably in their grant* of money, and their 

maintenance of troop*. 1844 II. II. Wilson llrit, India 

111. 407 A luril.'i .' n|iji- -.tiaiion wan f>uh»c«iucntly author- 

i'-l, in urdet Uj enwre the maintenance of the contirv- 

it hoTke, which the Goekwar wait bound l»y treaty to 

p up I <r the service of the British Government. 1861 

M. Pa 1 1 1 -.on /:*>. 1 t'f.'^t) I. 47 'I he maintenance ami repair 

of the nurtlieru gate, Buhop >gatc, was kMigned to them. 

I 4. The carrying on (of a war) by furnishing 
supplies. 06s, 

1496 7 .-It/ 17 //en. If/, <. is! 6 The scid xv***. .»halh« 
. levyed hi id poled far muyntenance uf the same Wcrre. 
1543 4 Act 15 /////. II l/ t c. la Inektimahle cottci cliarges 
1 peno 1 . for the inaiutcnaunce of his warres* 

i*6. The action of giving aid, countenance, or 
support to (a person in what he does). Obs, 

13,. K. B, A Itit , /'. II. iM 1'or marrynf of maryages & 
mayntnaunce of schrtwaz. 1377 Lancl. /'. /'/. II. v. 251 
I. 'iii' .u,.v run. I'*rdei» for loin: of h< r itiayntttiuiuncei 
. 14*5 l:n,\ < ••>!■/. Int. m Al OUTC ' im my , . hath I-brogbl 

vnkeu f-ilt vp-on vr,, thai the harmc wi- h lie had no power 
to don vs liym-i>elf, throgh belpe of ham a: mayntenaunca, 
1 Hi betti j myght brynge to curl. 159a Gikknk Up*/. 
( ourtier K, Sildome was there any pleat put In btfori that 
• patarl vi luat breeebst, for bui maintaynanci inuentcd 
strangs controutrslts. «i6oo Momtoohkbii Mite, /'oetns 
xxv. 14 And I ».all l*e thy taruand, 111 hik bort l'u merit thy 
mj Hn • , il I iu;iy. 

6. Thi action of wrongfully aiding and a (jetting 
litigation; spec, su. filiation of a suit or suitor 
at law by a parly who has no interest in the 

I' lnii; , or who acts from any improper motive. 

(< 1. Maintain v. 2d.) 

I M*i-a Nolls ■■/ I'm It. I. ,>: j (/ilvoillcenquerreconirnt u 
la mayntanaaaot le dlt Contt cle ptn sou Uanoir.] 1389 in 
BugtUildl 1 1$7 ft) M |''-i hhullcn niakyn no mcyntenauncc ne 
« onli'N , ,,, i, %m \ n pt kynuis right ne|>c comoun lawe, 1399 

K»iu 0/ /'ttr/t. III. ^sa/j Boom aMn.ahavi takra myen 
men by i itei sefii 'ana by mwynttnanft ftf nntrtlti- 1 14*0 

LVDO) I I WM A/)',-/ f, A«V 0gg I iuoolain, Ciwdty, I'.J.e- Mayn- 
tenaunce, Trcwjii, Ahiihion, ^ J*cty ilryhry. 11430 / ree- 
maumry f 34 Thill '<" BO im.n, No fuln inatilcn.nih he take 
hyi'i gpejh M47 A'«'/A >■/ i'artt. V. 130/1 liygn-lt: nii^lit, 
m.iyiiti -ii.uini |, BJld othri uiuluc incorirs. 1460 //■/</. 374/2 
In an action ol iiutyuttuiuiiuce. 1467 111 /wo;, (iilth (1M71.) 
100 Ult '!" atlorncrs. .truly to tijtci:iiti< ihci olln i- ,,-, tin 

laws rsqtUiith w*om meg Dtcnatim a, n 1 hafnpwtya, or oon> 

Nllyngi ther i li.uinli.' 1 to v*e t-ny fal . a< 1 yous. i',.ji 
I sMh.Miin \>Jteion (163$) 1 -7 Thai hs lhall DOt by him- 

hclfe, oi hy .11 1 y i.lli. 1, mil \| ,,iuh r, Of other tiling. 

"Imi li iii ly <1i .in 1 In- 1 he course of the Common Law. i6a8 
(.Hi (>n t.itt. iok b, Maintenance . . ilgnhleth in Law, 
■ tajtlnj in hanoi i»;iiitiy vp \>x vpnofolng of quarrola 
and m£ . to ii" dl hull. on 1 <>i hTndrani 1 of oommon 

right. 1787 BSKTHAM /V/. l'.\itrv \ii. Il8 ('hauipcrty U 

inn a partlculai modiflcatlon of this sin of Malntenanoa, 

1836 Him; flaw's AY..' Cat** Comm, /'/ens II. DJfl If the 

1 '< i. nil, uit waj not privy to the publication of the libel, he 
was a h.iM.'.rt to tbs seUon brought aaalnst the Plaintiff, 

ami in niuln t.iUii.- lo iinlrinnity I tn I'Lunhlt against the 

COStt WSJ guilty of in. uiiirii. mi <■. 1875 I'umk (,'tiius IV. 

■■■I 1] 611 I'nl' .. ill' .1 .i.'.niiiriit savoui ol Maintenance, 

in.nli- with ih. ii< .i, -11 1. 1 1 ting litigation. 1883 

A'./, 11 '/A - /'. 1 Mi. nil. ui^li v NfwilfKiitc.TllS 

action was foj inalntsnancs. 1886 /,i:v AV/., 17 Q,3J), 104 

Tin: ,n I 1 'II >'■ 1 ' 1 .11.; M to It-i o\ii il.un.1.1 . m.i isioilfd lo 

''" 1 '1. 1 1 1 'I 'Il l'\ " .' ol (hi- u'i-IVihLuiI'-. ' 111. tint < nance ' of 

1. ne N .till 1 in .01 .utioiiwlmh hn bad brotisjtM rjltrnTl the 

l>Uintiii laasSia ¥ Pollock Lmwf/Ttrta jiiuh sareni 

m in. null u. on 1 1, 01 aiding a party In RUgatloo witboutcitbvi 


interest in the scat, or lawful cause of kindred, affection, or 
charity for aiding hi—, it,. akin to malsriom prosecntion and 
other abases of legal process., . Actions for maintenance are 
in modern times rare though possible. 

7. The action of providing (a person) with the 
requisites of life ; the fact or state of being so pro- 
vided. Also, that which supports or maintains 
a person with livelihood, means of subsistence ; 
the amount provided for a person's livelihood. 

1369 in Eng. Gilds (1870) 4 He schal )eue somwhat in 
maintenance' of pe bretherhede. a 1400-50 Alexander 1179 
Kather to thole pe mavntenanoe of the Messedoyns & of 
|re meri Greku, pan paim of Persy to pay. 1540 Act 32 
l/eu. V/j/.K. 14 Ihe nauy. .is. .the maintenaunce of many 
master* mariners and Ma men. 15S1 Muixasi eb Position* 
xxxvW. iiZZj) 148 Will ye haue the multitude waxe, where 
the maintenance waines? 1591 Shaks. Two Cent. 1. iii. 68 
What maintenance be from his friends receiues, Like exhibi- 
tion thou fchalt haue from me. 159a Uabisgton Notes 
Genesis i. Wks. (1632) 6 The pride of some, who cannot abide 
to haue any.. come neere them in any circumstance of life or 
maintenance. 1600 Haklcvt Voy. (1810) III. 555 This 
Maiz i* the greatest maintenance which the Indian hath. 
1612 W00OALX Surg. Mate Wks. (1653,1 Ep. Salut. 2, I was 
forced for my maintenance to follow the practice of the cure 
of the Plague. 1645 Keatlv Dippers Dipt (1646J 133 Some 
lands, profits, and emoluments, assigned for the maintcn- 
ance of the Minislery. c 1701 Cibbkb I^ove Makes a Matt 
11. i. 22 hnough to give him Books, and a moderate Main- 
tainance. 1709 Swot Adv. Relig., They are not under a 
necessity of making learning their maintenance. 173a Law 
Serious C. viii, (ed. 2) 114 The parish allowance to such 
people, K very seldom a comfortable maintenance. 1818 
Ckcise Digest (ed. 1) VI. 117 In case he should have any 
children by her, to provide for their maintenance. 1840 
Macaulav Ess. t C live (1887) 560 The civil servants were 
clearly entitled to a maintenance out of the revenue. 1863 
Mamv HowiTT /'. /''renter's Greece II. xxi. 297 The Greek 
convent houses are chiefly houses of maintenance for poor 
men and women. 

b. .Separate maintenance : support given by a 
husband to a wife when the parties are separated. 

1722 Jm. Foe CoL Jack it^o) 211 She demanded a sepa- 
rate maintenance. 1777 Sheridan Sck, Stand. 1. i, She has 
l>cen the cause of six matches being broken off,.. nine aepa> 
rate maintenances, and two divorces. 

8. The act of supporting or upholding in speech 
or argument; assertion of the truth or validity of 
(an opinion! plea, tenet). 

1533 Mowk /hf'cll. Salem Wks. poo/a For herein see I 
none other shyft for this good man, but for the maintenance 
of his matter to .say, that in the common law [etc.}. 1560 
Daus tr. Slfittanc's Comtn. 22 b, The J)uke .. aunswereth, 
that it was never his intent \<> defende Luthers doctrine by 
his maintenaunce. 156a Child- Marriages 195 This depo- 
nent did colourably declare (for the nuuntenaunca of his 
matter) that he had sundry witnesses. 1691' L. H\ ale) A cc.Neio 
Invent. 20, What lias been severally offered and asserted. . 
in Maintenance of their different Conceptions touching the 
Kvil now enquired into. 1875 H. K. Revnolds in Ex- 
positor I. 308 He could never have apjjealcd, as he did, to 
the authority of I'aul in maintenance of his own peculiar 

9. Cap (or + hat) of maintenance : a kind of hat 
<ir cap formerly worn as a symbol of official dignity 
or high rank, or carried before a sovereign or a 
high dignitary in processions. 

'Ihe sense of maintenance here is obscure. Cf. the apt), 
equivalent tap 0/ estate, cap of dignity (see Cai- sl>. 4 0. *n 
ihe earliest example {c 1485) the hat 0/ main tenant e is worn 
by I lie men 1 bets of the Holbonj Ouest. Aflei ward* the cap 
of maintenance i.i mentioned by contemporaries as having 
been ^iven by the 1'ope thrice to Henry VII and once to 
Henry VIII ; in 1S51 it is referred to as one of the insignia 
of a prince. In the 17th c. and later it appears chiefly as 
borne, together with the sword, before the Lord Mayor, and 
before the Sovereign at his coronation. A kind of cap, with 
two points like horns behind, Iwrne in the arms of certain 
families either as a charge or in the place of a wreath, is de- 
scribed by heralds as a ' cap of maintenance ' : cf. quot. 1700. 

( 1485 Digfy Myst. (1882) v. 727 {Stage direct.) Here en- 
Irithe v). lorours in a sute gownyde with hoodes a-bowte 
her ncclkesj, hattcs of mayntenaunce ther-v|H>nc. 1489 
WllOI hi si. iv Chron. (187O I. a A capp of ntayntenance 
brouaht from Home to the Kinge. 1551 Kuihnson tr. Marc's 
Utop. 11. (1895) 333-4 Nor the prince hymselfe is not knowen 
from the other. . oy a crown or diademe or cappe of main- 
ten. nun e. 1577-87 Holinsiiku Chron. III. 1122,, 1 They 
bad two caps of maintenance likewise borne before them : 
whereof thfl aarls of Arnndell baVS the one, and the earle of 
Shrewcsburie the oilier. 1614 K.Tailok /log hath lost Pearl 
in. E3D. As if a females fauour could not beobteyn'd by any, 
hut he that weares the Cap of maintenance. 162a J. Taylor 
(Watt? P.) I civ Merry Wherry- Ferry I'oy. Wks. (i(>jo) il. 
1 3/2 A Sword, a Cap of maintenance, a ftface . . Are borne 
borers the Maior, and Aldermen. 163a Massinghr City 
Madam iv. i, I see Lord Mayor written on his forehead; 

The Cap of Maintenance and ClUs Sword Horn up in stats 
befcfl him. 1639 Mavnk City Match I, iii, Think, man, how 
it may In lime.. raise thee 'I o the sword and cap of inain- 

I chain e. 1656 in Jewitt & Hope Corporation Plate (1895) I. 

1>. Ixxviit, [Cromwell granted to Salisbury that the Sword- 
Kitrer should bear a sword and) Wears a Cap of Mayntenance 
before the Maior of ihe said Citie for the tyme being. 1698 
Kkvik Ace, P. India a /'. is8 A high Red Velvet Cap, 
plaited at Top like .1 Cap of Maintenance. 1700 CoNCaSVI 

II \iv of World 111. -wiii, l bey |a pair of horns] may prove 
.1 1 KB of iiiaintenance to you still. 171* Mandkvillk Fab. 
Pees (17251 1. 177 If my lord mayor had nothing to defend 
himself but his great t wo-handed swoid, the huge cap of 
iii.tinleiiance. and bis gilded mace. 1736 Dkakk Eboracum 
1. \i. -'j 3 The SwOrd bsarsi hatha hat of maintenance, wliich 
he wears only on Clnistmas day,, .and on the high tlays of 

• Iriiuiity. 1808 Scon Mann. iv. vii, His cap of inaiiiten- 

auce was graced With the p I heron's plum*. 1875 Sunns 

Con if /list. HI. xx. 414 It became the rule for a duke 
iu Ih; cieaud by lire iiitding on of the swoid, the bestowal 


of a golden sod, and the imposition of a cap of maintenance 
and urdet of gold. [Under Edw. Ill ; but the document 
cited has per impositionem cappx^ 

tb. jocularly ^with allusion to sense 7). Obs. 

1597 \st Pt. Return fr. Pamass. u I 389 Take us with 
thee^for wee muste provide us a poore capp of mantenance. 

T Maintenant, adv. Obs. Forms: 4 meign- 
tenaunt, 5 meyn-. mayntenauiit(e, 6 mantey- 
nent. maintenaunt. [a. OF. maintenant in the 
same sense 'in mod.F. = now), f. main hand + 
tenant, pr. pple. of tenir to hold.] At once, im- 

13 . .K. A lis. 530a That on Iep on a lyoun, And to ground 
hymthrewadoun.Andhymastrangledmeigntenaunt. rai4oo 
Arthur 383 (TheyJ broute Arthour Mej-ntenaunt Euen by- 
fore pegyant. a 1470 TirroFT Cxsar'w. (1530)6 They dely- 
vered maynienaunte one parte and the remnaunt wyth in 
fewdayes. a 1548 Hall Chron. (1809)660 The Frenchmen . . 
alighted as though they would geve a*saut maintenant. 159a 
W in \st Pt. Symbol. { 44 C, Luerie estate is either executed 
maintenant, or executorie by limitation of vse. 1598 Child- 
Marriages 166, 2 packet es, .. which were maintenaunt.. 
deliuered to Mr. John Francis to be posted bens. 

t Maintenantly, adv. Obs. [-ly*.] =prec. 

i5a8 Si, Papers Hen. X//1, IV. 497 If thaye maye chace 
theim ons out of Scotland, ihoughe thaye . . manteynentlie 
retourne again after he be departed, yet [etc.). 1577-87 
HoLiNSHtD Chron. III. 822/1 Monsieur de la Palice, and 
monsieur de Imbrecourt . . were put to their ransomes, and 
licenced maintenance to depart vpon their word. 

\ Used with etymological allusion. 

155a Hlloet, Sell a thing before wytnesse, or by delyuer- 
yngepossession mayntenantly to the buyer . . , manciple dare. 

li Mai lite 11 on (mxht^noh;. The name of the 
Marquise de Maintenon, secretly married to 
Louis XIV in 1685; used attrib. in names of 
things arbitrarily called after her, as Maintenon 
bonnet \ c/iop, cutlet; Maintenon cross [ ■ F. main- 
tenon], a cross with a diamond at the extremity 
of each limb, worn as an ornament. 

[17x0 Swift Jrnt /<?.V/c//rtSOct.,Wehadaneckof mutton 
dressed a la Maintenon^ that the dog could not eat.] 
1805 Sporting Mag. XXV. 226 Veal cutlets, haricoed 
mutton, maintenon chops. 1836 Mark vat Three Cutters v, 
'And what else, sir?' ' Maintenon cutlets, my lord.' 1836-7 
DsCKKHS Sk. Boz, Talcs viii, Mr. Alexander Trott sat down 
to a fried sole, maintenon cutlet, Madeira, and sundries. 
1884 West. Daily Press 13 June 7/6 The popular form of 
bonnet is that called ' Maintenon *. 

MainteH0US^mt"i'nten3s),r7. Law. rare, [irreg. 
f. Mainten(ance) + -ous.] Relating to, or of the 
nature of, maintenance. 

1898 Encyct. Laws Eng. (ed. Renton) VIII. 75 A main- 
tenous agreement is- illegal and therefore void. 

t Maintenue. Obs. rare— 1 , [a. F. maintetittCy 
t maintenir to Maintain.] = Maintenance 6. 

1390 Gown Con/. III. 380 To seche and loke how that it 
is Touchende of the chevalerie, ..That of here large retenue 
The lond is ful of maintenue, Which causith that the comune 
right In fewc contrees slant upright. 

Main-top (m^n,tpp). Naut. [] 
The Top ofa mainmast; a platform just above 
the head of the lower mainmast. Often used loosely 
for main- topgallant-masthead. 

1485 Naval Ace. I/en. VII (1806) 48 Mayne toppe-. 158a 
N. LiuiLHELD tr. Castanheda's Com/. E. //id. t. xxviii. 70 b, 
The king with his owne hand did deliver it unto the Cap- 
table General), for to hestowe it in his maine toppe. 1637 
Cai'T. Smith Seaman" s Cram. x\\\. 62 The Admiral! of each 
squadron.. doth carry in their maine tops, flags of sundry 
colours. 1785 Dk Foe Voy. round World (1840) 308 The 
man at the main-lop, who was ordered to look out. 1835 
MAKRYAT fac. Eaithjf. xvii, When I was captain of the main- 
top in the I,a Minerve. 1W7 Standard 21 Sept. 5/7 The war 
vessels, .each flying the British ensign at the maintop. 

b. attrib. (sometimes *=' belonging to the main- 
topsnil ';, as main-top borvline, -man, shroud. 

i6a6 Cam. Smith Aaid. Vug. Seamen 14 The maine top 
shroudes. < i860 H. Stuart Seaman's Catech. 79 The 
duties of fore or main-topmen in their respective tops are 
much the same. 1867 Smvih Sailor's 11 ord-fk., Main-top 
Botvline, the bowline of the main-topsail. 1882 Standard 
1 Dec. 3/6 There were no maintopmen on deck. 

Main- topgallant (nu"in,t^pga"lant). Xaut. 
[See Main a. 10 and Topgallant.] Used attrib. 
in main- topgallant-mast, the mast above the 
main-topmast ; similarly in main-topgallant- mast' 
head t -sail {-yard), -yard, etc. 

i6a6 Capt. Smith Accid. Yng, Seamen 13 The maine top 
gallant sayle yeard. 1693 OUVEB in Phil. Trans. XVII. 
912 Our Main Tup-Gallant .Mast was split in pieces. 1748 
Anson's Voy. n. x. 239 One of the Captains .. carries the 
royal standard of Spain at the main-topgallant masthead. 
1760 C Johnston Chrysal (1822) II. 233 To hand the main- 
top-gallant sail in a storm at midnight. 1790 BeatSOM 
Nov. ty Mil. Mem. II. 41 1 The man on the main-top-gallanl- 
yard of the Rochester. 1876 EneycL Brit. XXI. 153/1 On 
the main-mast we have the main-course or main-sail, main-, main topgallant nail, and the main-royal. 

AX aiu -top mast (nu-'nit^'pmast, -most). jXant. 
Also 5 mane-. [See Main a. 10 and Toi'Mast.] 
The mast next above the lower mainmast. 

1495 Naval Ace. lien. I'll (1896) 269 The mane toppe 
Baaaee* i6a6 CaJT. Smith Accid. Vng. Seamen i-\ 1634 
Bai Rl POM f'r.w (Chatham SocJ 169 Upon the mainmast 
. . there is also placed, .the main top mast. 176a Falconer 
Shiptcr. in. 584 While, In the general wreck, the faithful 
stay Drags the main-topmast from its post away. 1833 M. 
Scott Tom Criueic xvi. (1859) 4:4 Her mainUpmasi was 
gOlM dfiaS by the cap. 


b. altrib. : main-top-mast-head, -staysail. 
1671 Lend. Gaz. No. 683/3, 3 English Seamen ran up to 
his Muin-top-mast-head, and took down his Pendant. 1779 
F. Hebvey Nov. Hist. II. 157 He is said to have passed 
through the Channel, with a broom at his main-top-mast 
head. 1866 Daily Tel. 6 Feb. 3/3 At eight o'clock the 
maintopmast-staysail was carried away. 

Main-topsail (m< T in|t(i-psc 7 'l, -s'l). Naut. 

[See Main a. 10.] The sail above the mainsail. 

1618 Xe;os of R anleigk (1844I 16 If the Maister. .bid heaue 
out the maine Top-saile. 1748 AnsotCs Voy. 11. v. 170 The 
weather proved squally, and we split our maintop-sail. 1884 
Par Eustace 137 Her main topsail is shivering. 

b. attrib., as main-topsail bowline, brace, hal- 
yard, rigging, sheet, lye, yard. 

i6j6 Capt. Smith Acad. Vng. Seamen 12 The maine top 
sayle yeard. Ibid. 14 The maine top sayle hallyards, . . the 
maine top sayle sheats, ..the maine top sayle braces. Ibid. 
|j The maine top sayle bowlin. 1800 Asia/. Attn. A't-c., 
Chron. 66, '1 Our maintop-sail tye was shot away. 1813 
Examiner 26 Apr. 261/2 The [American frigate] Constitu- 
tion suffered severely, ..having, .both maintopsail-yards. . 
badly shot. 1854 Mrs. Gaskell North <$• .S". xiv, Some 
sailors being aloft in the maintopsail rigging. 

Main-ward, mainward. [Main «.] 

1 1. The main body of an army. Obs. 

1563-87 Foxe .4..y M. (1596) 46/2 As well my va ward, main- 
ward, as rereward. 1581 Styward Mart. Discipl. n. 122 
The which. .are to be diuided into three battailes : the 
Voward, the Maineward, and the Rereward battaile. 1591 
Garrard's Art IVarre 184 When the fronts were wearied 
the Mainward and Rereward succeeded. 

2. The principal ward of a lock, fastened to the 

1677 Moxon Mcch. E.vcrc. No. 2. 23 The true Place of 
the Main-ward. 1688 R. Holme Armoury in. 301/2 The 
Maine ward [of a key] is that on the lower side the Hit. 
1875 Knight Diet. Mecli. 1 339/1, U is a ward-lock key. .The 
various parts are, — .1, the main-ward, or bridge-ward. 

Mainy, variant of Mkinie, company. 

Main-yard ^mJ'niyaid). A'aitl. [SeeM.ux<7. 
10.] The yard on which the mainsail is extended. 

1485 A'aral Ace. Hen. VII (1896) 37 Brasse pendaunts 
for the mayne yerdes. c 157a Gascoigne Mask Posies (1575) 
Flowers 48 His eares cut from his head, they set_ him in 
a chayre, And from a maine yard hoisted him aloft into the 
ayrc ia*7 Capt. Smith Seaman's Gram. iii. 16 Suppose 
the ship be 76. foot at the Keele, her maine yard must be 
21. yards in length, and in thicknesse but 17. inches. 1824 
J. Symmons tr. sEsc/tyltts' Again. 59 Ship against ship, with 
crashing mainyards roll'd. 1840 R. H. Dana Be/. Mast 
xvii. 46 We got a whip on the main-yard. 

b. altrib., as main-yard-arm, -rope ; main-yard 
man Naut. slang (see quot.). 

1497 Xa:al Ace. lien. VII (1896) 307, ij mayne yerde 
Ropes. 176a Falconer Shipwr. 111. 665 Some, from the 
mam-yard-arm impetuous thrown. 1867 Smyth Sailor's 
lVord4>k., Main-yard Men, those in the doctor's list. 

Maioid (m^foid). a. and sb. Zool. [f. Maia + 
-om.] A. adj. Of or pertaining to the genus 
Maia or family Maiidex or superfamily Maioidca- 
of crabs. B. sb. A maioid crab. 

1851 Dana in Amer. Jrnl. Sci. Ser. 11. XI. 425 On the 
Classification of the Maioid Crustacea or Oxyrhyncha. 
1852 — Crust. 1.48 Small antennary space, as in the Maioids. 

Hence Maioi dean a. and sb. = prec. 

185a Dana Crust. 1. 51 The Maioidean series passes down 
from the Parthenopinea. 

Maior, obs. form of Major and Mayor. 

Maioral, -alitie, obs. ff. Mayoral, -alty. 

Maioram, -ane, -on, obs. forms of Marjoram. 

Maiour, obs. form of Major and Mayor. 

Mair, northern form of More, and (Night)uare. 

Mair, Mair- : see Mayor, Mayor-. 

t Mairatour, adv. Sc. Obs. Forms : see 
Atour. [f. mair More + Atolr.] Moreover. 

1513 Douglas eEneis in. vi. 14S And mairatour, gif outhir 
wit, or fame, Or traist may be [etc.]. 155a Lyndesay 
Monarche 6155 And, mairattour, thay sail feill sic ane smell 
Surmountyng far the fleure of earthly flowris. 1596 Dal- 
kymple tr. Leslie's Hist. Scot. iv. 225 He mairattouer 
honouret christe in his Preistes. 1819 \V. Tennant Papistry 
Storm'd (1827) 77 And mairattour, .. He did dislike baith 
Pape and Deil. 

Mairch, obs. Sc. form of March sb. and v. 

II Maire (ma'ir«\ Also mairi. [Maori.] A 
name for several New Zealand trees with heavy 
close-grained wood : a. Santalum cunninghami ; 
b. Olea of various species ; c. Eugenia maire. 

1835 W. Vate Ace. X. Zealand (ed. 2) 4I Mairi— a tree of 
the Podocarpus species, growing from forty to sixty feet 
high. 1883 J. Hector Hamlbk. X. Zealand 132, 133 
1 -Morris) Maire-a small tree ten to fifteen feet high ; . . wood 
hard, close-grained, heavy.. Black maire, N.O. "Jasminex; 
also Maire-rau-nui, Olea Cunuiiighamii. 

Maire, obs. form of Mayor, More. 

Mairmaid, Mairman: see Mermaid, -man. 

Mairouer, -ir, obs. Sc. forms of Moreover. 

Mairt : see Mart. 

Mais, Maischloch, obs. ff. Mess, Mashloch. 

Maise, variant of Mease sb.z 

Maise, Maisels, obs. ff. Maize, Measles. 

t Maison. Sc. Obs. Also 6 maiaoun. [a. F. 
maison.'] A house. 

1570 Satir. Poems Reform, x. 412 With all foull vice thou 
ties defylde yair Maisoun. a 1625 Sir J. Semple Pieklooth 
f<rr Pope in Harp Renfrew. Ser. 11. (1873) 19, I can but. . 
seek my meat through many an unknown Maison. • 


Maison, obs. form of Mason. 

Maiaon-dieu : see Measondue Hist., hospital. 

|| Maisonnette (mc^z^ne't). Usually mis- 
spelt maisonette. [Fr., diminutive of maison 
house.] A small house. 

1818 Lady Morgan Autobiog. (1859) 27 The Charlevilles 
have exchanged their maisonette in Berkeley Square for 
Queensberry House. 1880 Ouida Moths I. 234 They all lived 
in a little maisonette in the park. 

Maiss, variant of Mease v. Sc, to sooihe. 
Maist, northern form of Most. 
Maister : see Master. 

Maist er el 1. Obs. 7'are — 1 . [f. maister ; 
M aster + -EiA] An imp or familiar. 

165a Gaule Magastrom. 25 Who is a consulter with farm- 
liar spirits? What? he that hath, .confariation with a petty 
Maisterell? Ibid. 179 How many magicians, .. have had 
their.. maisterels, and ministrels, their imps, and familiars. 

Maisteresse: see Mai.strice Obs., Mistress. 

Maistery, niaistir : see Mastery, Master. 

Maistre, obs. form of Master, Mastery. 

Maistres ^se, obs. form of Mistress. 

Maistri, obs. form of Mastery. 

t Maistrice. Chiefly Sc. Obs. Forms : 4-5 
mastrice, -is, mais-, maystries, -yes, -yse, 5-6 
mastres, 4-6 maistres, 5-6 maistrice. 7 mais- 
teresse. [a. OK. maist rise ;mod.F. maitrise), f. 
maitre Master. In 16—1 7th c. confused with the 
pi. of Mastery, q. v.] = Mastery in various 
senses; superiority, superior force or skill ; a deed 
of might or skill, a feat. 7o make maistrice : to 
display one's power or skill. 

a 1300 Cursor M. T4611 Quar es nu..bis prophet e. .Nil sal 
he sceu vs his maistris. 13.. A'. Aits. 5591 By maLstres, be 
werres he conquerde. 1375 IIarhour Bruce iv. 524 And 
it, that ouris said be of richt, Throu thair mastrice thai 
occupy. Ibid.w. 566 The hund did than sa gret mastris, 
That he [etc.]. a 1400 J 'is! iii of Susan 227 He was.. More 
niijti inon ben we his Maistris to Make, c 1400 Sowdone 
Hah. 3117 Lenger durste thay no maystryes make, Thai 
were so sore agaste. c 1400 Rom. Rose 4172 And eek 
amidde this purpryse Was maad a tour of grct maistryse. 
,1 1400-50 Alexander 333 J>e renkc.Gase him doune.. 
Furthe to make his maistryse and mose in his arte, c 1460 
Toioneley Myst. xxv. 232 Tell me in this tydewhat mastres 
thou makys here. . 1470 Henry Wallace x. 696 Quhat 
Sotheroun thai ourtak Contrar the Scottis com neuir mais- 
trice to male 1526 Tindalk 1 Cor. ix, 25 Every man that 
proveth mastres abstaineth from all thynges. ( 1560 A. 
Scott Poems (S.'r. S.) vi. S So hive garris sober wenien small 
Get maistrice our grit men of gud. 1680 Aubrey in Lett. 
i'.min. Persons (1S13) III. 566 Notwithstanding his great 
witt and maisteresse in rhetorique etc. he will oftentimes be 
guilty of mispelling in English. 

f Maistrie, r\ Oh. [ad. OF. maistrier, f. 
maistre Master s/k] trans. = Master v. 

c 1412 Hoccleve De Reg. Princ, 1S45 Naght is his goost 
maistried With daunger. Ibid. 4603 Of so seekly a con- 
dicioun, That it may by no cure be maistryed. 1481 Cax- 
ton Myrr. 1. v. 26 They [sc. unlearned clerks) be called 
maistres wrongfully, for vanyte mai^tryeth them. ("153a 
Du Wes Introd. Fr. in Palsgr. 950 Maistrier, to mastry. 

Maistrie, obs. form of Mastery. 

Mais try (m^i-stri). Indian. Also maistri. 
mistry. [Hindi mistrl, corruption of Pg. mestre 
master.] A master-workman, a foreman ; applied 
also to a skilled workman, e. g. a cook, a tailor. 

1798 Wellington in Owen Mrq. Weltestey's Desp. (1877) 
765 These are to be had in any number by making advances 
to the bullock owners or maistnes. 1849 E. B. Eas twick Dry 
Leaves 135 The head maistri, or builder, had discovered . . 
that some of the workmen had deserted. 1880 C. R. M^ark- Pernv. Bark 1,62'l'he usual method ofobtaining labourers 
is to employ a native maistry % who engages to enlist a fixed 
number of coolies. 

Maistry ;e,Maistur, obs.ff. Mastery,Masteb. 

Mait, Sc. form of Mate sb., a. t and v. 

Maiter, Maith, obs. ff. Matter, Maize. 

Maith, Sc. variant of Mathe, maggot. 

Mai then, Maithes: see Maythex, Maythe. 

Maitles, obs. variant of Mightless. 

I! Maitre d'liotel (niftr* d^tgl). Also 6 maistre 
d'hostell. [Fr. phrase = ' house-master '.] A head 
domestic, a major-domo, a steward or butler. 

1540 in Ellis Orig. Lett. Ser. m. III. 252 Tannagel, the 
maistre d'hostell with vij persons. 1695 Earl of Perth 
Lett. (Camden) 64 A marquise who is his maitre d'hStelle 
[Meant for a fern. !]. 1704 Addison Italy (1705)488 His 
chief Lay-Officer is the Grand Maitre d^HOtel or High 
Steward of the Houshold. 1769 Ann. Reg. 104 His royal 
highness gave to the maitre de hotel who was charged with 
it [a present] a gold snuff-box. 1849 Thackeray Pendennis 
lxxv (iriit.), Frederic Lightfoot, formerly maitre dhdtel in 
the service of Sir Francis Clavering. 

t Maitrise, »« Obs. rare~ x . [ad. F. maitristr, 
f. maitrise : see Maistrice.] trans. To make one- 
self master of, to conquer. 

1636 Brathwait Rom. Emp. 125 Hee recovered France 
newly over-run and maiti ised by the Barbarians. 

Maize (m<T»z). Forms : 6 maith, mayis, 6-S 
mais, maiz, (7 maes, maix, maijs, maze, mass, 
S maez), 7-S mayz(e, 7-8 mays, ^9 mais^e), 7- 
maize. Also 6 in mod.L. form maizium. [a. 
Sp. maiz (formerly also mahiz, mahis, mayz), a 
word of the Cuban dialect, the pronunciation of 
which is rendered by Oviedo inSp. orthography as 


maisi or majisi\ prob. identical with the Arawak 
(Guiana) marisi, and the Carib ( mdrichi, bled 
cVlnde' (Breton, Did.Caraibe,\(&$). Cf. Y.mais, 
in 16th c. mahiz (1555 in Hatz.-Darm.).] 

1. An American graminaceous plant [Zea Mays) 
or the grain produced by it ; = Indian Corn. 

a. The plant. 

1585 T. Washington tr. Nieholay's Voy. 1. xviii. 21 In 
steed of corn they sow Maith [Er. Us sement dn Maith], 
which is a kind of grosse Mill. 1613 Pirchas Pilgrimage 
VI. i. 561 The fields of Mais the great stalkes whereof 
were trodden downe. 1613 K. Harcourt Voy. to Guiana 
?S There is a kind uf great wheat, called Maix, of some 
it is called Guinea wheat. 1672 Jossflvn New Eng. 
Rarities 17 They [Racoons] feed upon Ma^s, and do 
infest our Indian Corn very much. 1674 — Voy. AV:c Pug. 
- 1 Maze, otherwise called Turkie-wheat, or rather Indian- 
wheat, because it came first from thence. 1742 CoLLIKS 
AW. iii. 6 'Tis sweet, .to. .scent the breathing maize at set- 
ting day. 1861 Tvlor Anahuac ix. 228 The Mexii ans were 
cultivating maize and tobacco when the Spaniards invaded 
the country. 

b. The grain. 

1555 Eden Decades 3 This kynde of grayne they call 
maizium. c 1565 Si>arkk Sir J. 1 1 ait-kins' 2nd I 'oy. in Hak- 
ittyt (15S9) 540 Mayis maketh good sauury bread. 1594 K. 
Ashley tr, Leys ic Roy 15 b, Throughout the western Islands 
they make bread of a kind of wheat called Mahiz, 1596 
Raleigh Discov. Gviana 3 It hath also for bread sufficient 
Mais, Cassaui. 1600 Haklcvt Voy. (1S10' III. 602 A come 
i. died Mai/, in bignesse of a pease, the eaie whereuf is much 
like to a tea-ell. <*i6*6 Bacon Med. Rew.W'ks. iS^; III. 828 
'lake of Indian mat/ half a pound. 1732 Akbl ihnot Ruies 
0/ Diet i. 250 Mays is not so ea-ily brought to Fermentation. 
1832 / 'eg. Subst. Pood 101 Maize is said to contain no gluten. 
and little, .saccharine matter. 1855 Loncf. iiia'.v. xvil. 159 
'i hey. . Beat to death poor Pau-1'uk-Keewis, Pounded him 
as maize is pounded. xZ^Ccntury Mag. Apr. S49 The first 
generations of English-Americans subsisted mainly on maize. 

2. Water maize [Sp. maiz de/a^tta^Ahe I 'ictoria 
regia, so called because of its farinaceous seeds 
(Treas. Bot. 1S66) ; Mountain maize, the genus 
Ombrophytum (Miller Plant n. 18S4). 

3. Adopted as the name of one of the coal-tar 
colours, a pale yellow resembling that i»f maize. 

1890 Thokpk Diet. Appl. them. I. 263 The sodium salt of 
azoxystilbene-disulphonic acid, .known in commerce a- ' sun 
yellow ' or ' maize '. 

4. attrib. and Comb., as maize-beer, -bread, -cob, 
•colour, -cutter, -ear, -field, -jlottr, -garden, -grain, 
-grits, -harvest, -meal, -oil, -plant, -stalk, -starch, 
•straw, -trough, -whiskey, maize-coloured, -Jed 
adjs. ; maize-husking, maize-poisoning vbl. sbs.; 
maize-bird, an American blackbird of the sub- 
family Agel&inse, esp. Agekeus phaniceus, so called 
from its fondness for maize; maize-cream, a de- 
coction or gruel of maize or maize-meal; maize- 
eater, a South American maize-bird ; maize-smut, 
a destructive fungus ({'stilago Maydis) attacking 
the maize-plant; maize-thief =wa/c^-^/';c/; maize- 
yellow, a yellow like that of maize. 

1887 Moloney Forestry IV, Afr. 450 In South America a 
kind of beer called Chica or *Maize beer is made from the 
grain. 1837SW ainson Nat. Hist. Birds II. iooTheAgelainar, 
or 'maize-birds. 1855 Kincsley li'estu: No! xxv, Baskets 
. .freighted with. .*maize-bread. 1890 O. CraWFURD Round 
Cat. Portugal 197 Now the broad fields of maize are cut 
and the *maize-cobs garnered. 1862 O'Neill Diet. Calico 
Printing, etc., * Maize colour, a low toned yellow orange. 
1861 Englishwom. Dow. Mag. III. 263/1 One skein of gold 
or *maize-coloured Russia braid. 1626 Bacon Sylva $ 49 
Indian Maiz.. must be throughly boyled, and made into a 
*Maiz-Creame, like a Barley Creame. 1855 Loncf. Hia:v. 
xni. 41 Wagemin, the thief of cornfields ! Paimosaid, who 
steals the *maize-ear 1 1894 Times iweekly ed.) 2 Feb. 89 3 
The wheat-fed pork of the North West may yet compete 
with the 'maize-fed pork of Chicago. 1771 J. R. Forster tr. 
Kalni's Traz: X. Amer. II. 77 They [birds] assemble by 
thousands in the *maize-fields, and live at discretion. 1855 
Longf. Hiaw. xni. 21 All around the happy village Stood 
the maize-fields. 1843 Ywescott Mexico U850' 1. 131 Pastry, 
for which their *maize-flour and sugar supplied ample mate- 
rials. 1899 Wfrner Capt. 0/ Locusts 263 They .. carried 
her to the grove beyond the * maize-gardens. 1880 C. R. 
Markham Perm: Bark 479 The grains (of Cuzco maize] are 
four or five times the size of ordinary *maize grains. 1901 
Oxford Times 9 Mar. 7/1 [The advertisers] have never 
used any. /maize-grits, or any other substitute for either 
malt or hops. 1828 P. Cunningham N. S. Wales (ed. 3) II. 
22, 1 chanced to stop for the night at the house of a gentle- 
man during the * maize- harvest. Ibid. 293 Their diet., 
[should] consist principally of *maize meal. 1871 Kingsley 
At Last xvi, The Red Indians looked on Mondamin, the 
*maize-plant, as a gift of a god. 189^7 A UbutVs Syst. Med. 1 1. 
801 The special characters of *maize poisoning may be due 
to some peculiarity in the chemical structure of this grain 
itself. 1896 P. A. Brice Econ. Hist. Virginia I. 167 
Except the juice sucked from the crushed fibre of the 
*maizestalk, they had no knowledge of any spirits. 1887 
Moloney Forestry IV. A/r. 450 The finer qualities of 
* Maize starch are largely used as a substitute for arrow root. 
1886 W. J. Tucker E. Europe 299 A hole in the *maize- 
straw thatched roofs served as chimney. 177a J. R. Forster 
tr. A'alm's Trav. X. Amer. I. 372 The laws of Pensylvania 
..have settled a premium of three-pence a dozen for dead 
*maize thieves. 1853 K. O. Morris Hist. Brit. Birds III. 
9 Red-winged maize-bird.. .Maize-thief. 1851 Mayne Reid 
Scalp Hunt. xiii. 98 Your horse is standing at the "maize- 
trough. 1893 Leland Mem. I. 13 'Maize- whiskey could be 
bought then for fifteen cents a gallon. 

Maizena m^zfmV. [Arbitrarily f. Maize.] 
Maize-starch prepared for use as food. Also attrib. 

1862 in Rep. Juries Exhib. 1862 (1863) m. A. 13. 1862 


Mrs. Hawthorne in A'. Hawthorne f, Wife (1885) II. 326, 
I carried to Mrs. Alcott early this morning some maizena 
blanc-mange. 01875 F. Oates Matabele Land (1889) 24 
Made into a pudding with maizena. 

Mai'zer. [f. Maize + -er l.] A maize-bird. 

1837 Swainson Nat. Hist. Birds II. 275 Subfam. Aglainx 
[i.e. Agelxinx] Maizers. 

II Maja (ma*xa). [Sp., fern, of Majo 1 .] A 
Spanish woman who dresses gaily. Also attrib. 

1831 [see Majo']. 1840 Longf. Sp. Stud. 11. i, Now bring 
me, dear Dolores, mybasquifla, My richest maja dress. 

Majerom, obs. form of Marjoram. 

Majesta rian, a. nonce-wd. [f. Majestt + 
-(man.] Used humorously for: (Her) Majesty's. 

1857C1.OUGH Poems, etc. (1869) I. us He '* to liave a deer- 
stalking party to-morrow, Lord Adolphus Fitzclarence, and 
other majestarian officers. 

t Mai estate. Obs. rare~ x * [ad. L. miijes- 
tdtem Majesty.] Majesty. 

1533 Gau Richt I' ay (1888} 3a Thir iii persons ar equal 
in power maiestate and in ewer lestyng. 

Majestatic (maedgestse'tik), a. Now rare. 

[ad. med.L. majestatic -us, f. mdjcstat- Majesty.] 
Pertaining to the majesty of God. Cf. Majestical 2. 

1659 Hammond On Ps. Ixxxv. 9 The glorious majestatick 
presence or inhabitation of God. 1695 Bp. Patrick Comm. 
Gen. iii. 8 They heard the Voice of the Lord.. .The Sound of 
the Majestatick Presence, or the Glory of the Ix>rd. a 1711 
Ken Hymns Evang. Poet. Wks. 1721 I. 14 To gain a tran- 
sient beatifick sight, Of Jesus rob'd in Majestatick Light. 
1756 Amory Buttcle {\^^o\ II, 53 We must distinguish .. 
between the essential and the majestatic presence of God. 

So : Majestatical a., in the same sense. 

a 1694 J. Scott Wks, (1718) II. 493 He placed a great 
Part of the Glory of his Majestatical Presence in the Taber- 

f Majestative, a- Obs." [ad. lateL. majes- 
tattv-Us, f. majestat- MAJESTY : see -ive.] Majestic. 

1656 in Blount Gtossogr. 

Hence i'Majestativeness. Obs.~~° 

1727 in Bailey vol. II. 

Majesterialty, Majesteryeall: see Magist-. 

Majestic (midjcstik), a. [f. Majesty + -ic] 

Possessing or characterized by majesty; of impos- 
ing dignity or grandeur, a. Of persons, their at- 
tributes, etc. 

1610 G. Fletcher Christ*s Vict. \. xvi, Bowing her self 
with a majestique air. a 1652 Bhohe Queene's Exch. 1. i. 
Wks. 1873 III. 45S Your no less prudent than Majestick 

Father With power 8: policy enrich t this Land, a 1700 
Dryden Elower % LeqfijG Hut in the midst was seen A 
lady of a more majestic mien. 1725 Db Foe Voy. round 

World (1840) 132 He was grave and majestic, and carried it 
something like a king. 1807 Chabbe Par. Keg. in. 812 His 
stride majestic and his frown severe. 1856 Froudb Hist. 
Eug. (1858) I. ii. 173 Amidst the easy freedom of his address, 
his manner remained majestic. 1866 Liddon Bamp. Lect. 
v. (1875) 225 St. John is spiritually as simple as he is intel- 
lectually majestic. 1871 R. Ellis tr. Catullus Ixxxvi. 1 
Lovely to many a man is Quintia ; shapely, majestic, Stately, 
to me. 

Comb. 1870 L'Estranck Miss Mitford I. vi. 168 A fine 
majestic-looking old woman of sixty. 

b. Of things material and immaterial. 

1601 Shaks. Jul. C. 1. ii. 130 It doth amaze me, A man of 
such a feeble temper should So get the start of the Maies- 
ticke world. 1610 — Temp. IV. 1. 118 This is a most maies- 
ticke vision. 1664 Evelyn Sytva iv. (1679) 33 No Tree what- 
soever, becoming long Walks and Avenues, comparably to 
this Majestick plant [the Elm], a 1704 T. Brown Prol. 
1st Sat. Persius Wks. ed. 1730 I. 51 Virgil's great majestick 
lines, 1741 Young A7. Th. in. iyj This Heav'n-assum'd 
majestic Robe of Earth, He deign d to wear. 1794 Mrs. 
Radcliffe Afyst. Udolpho i. The view was bounded by the 
majestic Pyrenees. 1833-6 J. H. Newman Hist. Sk. (1873) 
I. iv. i. 360 There they lAmbrosian chants] are in use still, 
in all the majestic austerity which gave them their original 
power. 1879 Geo. Eliot Theo. Such ii. 32 Clad in the ma- 
jestic folds of the himation. 

Hence + Maje'sticness, majesty. 

a 1643 Cartwright To C 'less Carlisle 24 Such a.. Lovely, 
self-arm'd, naked Majestickness. 1685 H. More ///«$/>., etc. 
263 Which is a marvellous manner of Transition .. sutable 
to the usual Majestickness of this Book of the Apocalypse. 

Majestical .rnad^e'stikal), a. Now chiefly 
poet. [Formed as prec. : see -ical.] 

1. = Majestic, a. Of persons, their attributes, 
etc. (occas. ironical). 

1589 Horsey Trav. (Hak!. Soc.) App. 295 Kynore [tread 
Kyuore=coverJ my good lord, with thy princely wisdome 
and majestyecall clemency this unwilling* faulte comytted. 
1593 NASH I Christ's T. Ded. 2 All those maiesticall wit 
fuiestalling worthies of your sexe. 1617 Moryson /tin. 11. 
99 His person and carriage was most comely, and (if I may 
use the word) t Maiesticall. 1652-62 Heylin Cosmogr. 1. 
(1682) 207 Their gate is. .very stately and majestical. 1663 
Cowley Ess., Greatness (16S8) ik If] were ever to fall in 
love again., it would be, I think, with Prettiness, rather 
than with Majestical Beauty. 1781 Justamond Priv. Life 
Leivis XV, II. 214 His entrance .. was splendid and ma- 
jestical. 1821 Byron Sardan. 11. i. 532 His marble face 
majestical Frowns. 1866 J. H. Newman Gerontius iv. 30 j 
And therefore is it, in respect of man. Those fallen ones 
show so majestical. 1876 Bancroft Hist. V. S. I. iv. ioi | 
A grave and majestical countenance. 

b. Of things material and immaterial. 

1579 Lvi.y Euphues I'Arb.) 161 What can we beholde more 
noble then the world. .? what more maiesticall to the sight, 
or more constant in substance? a 1586 Sidney A pot. Poetrie \ 
(Arb.) 65 Theyr Playes . . thrust in Clownes by head and 
shoulders, to play a part in maiesticall matters. i6ai Burton 
Anat. Mel. 1. f. 11. iv. (1651I 17 Suppose you were now \ 
brought into some. .Majestical Palace. 1651 N. Bacon 


J Disc. Govt. 11. xL (1739) 5S War is ever terrible, but if just 
and well governed, majestical. 1693 Dryden Ess., Orig. 
Satire {ed. Ker) II. 107 The first six lines of the stanza 
seem majestical and severe. 1851 Longf. Gold. Leg. v. Inn 
at Genoa 4 It is the sea,.. Silent, majestical and slow. 1867 
M. Arnold Celtic Lit. 61 An older architecture, greater, 
cunninger, more majestical. 

1 2. = Majestatic. Obs. 

1581 E. Campion in Confer, in. (1584) RIj, S. Augustine 
excludeth not by maiestical presence al bodily presence. 
1597 Hooker Eccl. Pol. v. Iv. § 6 If his Maiesticall body 
haue now any such new property. 1633 Bp. Hall Hard 
Texts, O. T. 291 It pleased the Lord to represent unto me 
a cleare signe of the majesticall presence of the Sonne of 
God, sitting on high, upon a glorious throne, a 1638 Mede 
IVks. (1672) 639 The proper place where the Majestical 
Glory is revealed, is the Heavens. 1675 Brooks Gold. Key 
I Wks. 1867 V. 526 The presence of God with his people is 
very majestical. a 1680 Charnock Attrib. 6^(1682)257 
I Heaven] Tis the Court of his Majestical presence. 

Hence t Maje -sticalness, majesty. 

1613 peel. Arriv. C. Haga at Constantinople 14 The 
Maiesticalnesse of Our Royall and Princely State. 1652 
Kirkman Clerio fy Lozia 78 This splendid greatness of a 
maid surpassed the inagesticalness of the purest French 
Lillies of King Henry the third. 1727 Bailey vol. II. 

Majestically 'mad^e-stikali), adv. [f. Ma- 
jestic, -ICAl : see -ically.] In a majestic manner ; 
with majesty, imposing dignity or grandeur. 

1596 Shaks. i Hen. IV, n. iv. 479 If thou do'st it halfe so 
grauely, so majestically [etc.]. 1670 Clarendon Contempt, 
Ps, Tracts (1727) 568 If princes would., majestically sup- 
press haughty and impetuous transgressors. 1697 Dryden 
sEneid IX. 35 Silent they move; majestically slow, Like 
ebbing Nile, or Ganges in his flow. 1725 Pope Odyss. VL 
158 He bends his way Majestically fierce, to seize his prey. 
1853 J. H. Newman Hist. Si. (1873I II. 1. iii. 126 The great 
stream of the Po . . flows majestically through its length. 
1896 Law Times C. 489/2 Inglis . . stalked majestically out 
; of Court, looking neither to the right hand nor to the left. 

t Majestify, v. Obs. rare* 1 , [f. Majesty + 
•fy.] trans. To make majestic. 

1616 Lane Cont. Sqr.s 'T. xil. (1887) 24 Vppon his helme 
a plume of white and redd maiestifyed his pace. 

Maje*stuous, a. rare. Also ?majestious. [a. 
F. majestucux, f. majeste Majesty, after volup- 
tueux VonrpTUOoa.] Majestic 

1685 Gracian's Courtiers Orac. 65 The other [employ- 
ments] are more majestuous, and as such, attract more 
veneration. 1864 Carlyle Eredk. Gi. IV. 252 That voice 
' sombre and majestious '. 

Majesty (mae'dgdsti). Forms : 4-5 magestee, 
4-6 moi-,maj- f mageste, (5 maiestee,magiste), 
5-6 magestie, -y, 5-7 maiesty, majestie, (6 
maiestye, majistye), 6-7 maiestie, (7majiste), 
6- majesty, [a. F. majesty ad. L. majestat-em, 
, majestas, f. *yn&jes- t ablant-var, o{*majos-(inajtts, 
major-em greater : see Major) + -tat- : see -TY. 
Cf. Pr« mai- t tnajestat, It. magestd, maesta', Sp. , 
majestad, Pg. magestade\ also G. majestat, Du. 

1. The dignity or greatness of a sovereign ; 
sovereign power, sovereignty. Also comr. or semi- 
concr. The person or personality of a sovereign. 

1375 Barbour Bruce 1. 431 [Edward I loquitur] Hys fadyr 
. . wes agayne my maieste. c 1400 Destr. Troy 2632 A ! no- 
bill kyng & nomekowthe ! .. Let mene to your maiesty be 
mynde of my tale, c 1460 Fortescue Afrs. <$• Lim. Men. vii. 
(1885) 125 He [sc. the king] woll .. hie also horses off grete 
price . . and do other suche nobell and grete costes, as bi- 
Mtith is roiall mageste. 1489 Caxton Eaytes of A. I. vi. 13 
The subget fereth to offende the mageste of his souerayn 
lorde. 1513 Ld. Berners Eroiss. I. OCzliii 362 By our 
ryall mage.sty and segnory, we commaunde you [etc.]. 1528 
Roy Rede me, etc. (Arb.l 29 Fye apon his maieste and 
renowne Clayminge on erthe to be in Christis stead. 1595 
Shaks. John ii. i. 480 Why answer not the double Maiesties, 
This friendly treatie of our threat tied Towne. 1606 — Ant. j 
<$• CI. 111. iii. 2 Good Maiestie : Herod of Iury dare not looke 
vpon you. 1726-31 Tindal Kaphas Hist. Eug. (174$) II, | 
xvii. 126 She was a sovereign queen and would do nothing 
prejudicial to Royal Majesty. 178a Wolcot in J. J. Rogers ! 
Opie fy Works (1878) 22 The King came in after, with a 
skip; (not a very proper pace I think for Majesty). 1849 
Macaulay Hist. Eng. iv. I. 508 A man who was daily seen 
at the palace, and who was known to have free access to 
majesty. 1883 Earl Rosf.bery Sp. at Edinh. 21 July, The 
buried paraphernalia of dead majesty. 

b. spec. The greatness and glory of God. (The 
earliest use in Eng.) 

a 1300 Sarmun lvi. in E. E. P. (1862) 7 Bobe god and man 
in mageste be hei} king aboue vs alle. a 1340 Hampole 
Psalter xx. 5 He sail appere In mageste. la 1366 Chaucer 
Rom. Rose 1339 God that sit in magestee. 1390 Gower 
Conf. I. 195 hihe mageste, Which sest the point of every 
trowthe. 1470-85 Malory Arthur xvii. xxi. 721 To see the . 
blessid Trynyte. .and the mageste of oure lord Ihesu Cmt 
1526 Pilgr. Perf tW. de W. 1531) 18 b, He y' wyll serche j 
the secrete Maiestye of God by natural! reason. 1611 Bible I 
Heh. viii. 1. 1629 Milton Christ's Nativ. ii, That far- 
beaming blaze of Majesty. 1695 Br. Patrick Comnt, Gen. iii. 8 
The Voice of the Ix>rd. . . The Sound of the Divine Majesty's 
approach, a 1729 S. Clarke Serm, Ixxxiii.Wks. 1738 I. 517 
The Supereminent Glory and Majesty of God. 1881 Bible ■ 
(R. V.) Luke ix. 43 And they were all astonished at the 
majesty [Gr. ney aAei( > r *l TI » Tindale, etc. mighty power] of 
God. 1892 Westcott Gospel of Life Pref. 22 The incompre- 
hensible majesty of God and His infinite love. 

c. transf. andy£§\ 

1567 Gude $■ Godlie B. (S. T. S.) 78 Christ come full humill 

and full low, Us to exalt in Afniestie. 1596 Dalrymple ; 

tr. Leslies Hist. Scot. x. 382 To contemne the Maiestie, ' 

diminise the authorise of the Kirk. 1663 Charleton Chor, , 


f Gigant. 13 So great devotion and reverence toward the 
majesty of Truth. 1668 Culpepper & Cole Barthol. Anat. 
it. vi. 106 It were contrary to the Majesty of the principal 
Part, to be moved by another whether it will or no. 1712 
Addison Sp*ct. No. 327 p 14 The natural Majesty of Adam. 
1863 Woolner My Beautiful Lady 135 The worth and 
majesty of England's name. 

d. Rom, Hist. Used to render the equivalent 
L. majestas in the sense : The sovereign power and 
dignity of the Roman people, esp. considered with 
reference to offences against it. (Cf. Lese-majesty.) 

1565 Cooper Thesaurus, Actio maiestatis, an action for 
the breakyng of the honour and maiestie of any great or 
heade officer. 1581 Savile Tacitus, Hist. 1. Ixxvii. (1591) 
43 Crime of Majesty and treason. 1862 Merivale Rom. 
Emp. xliv. (1865) V. 248 Under the empire the law of ma- 
jesty was the legal protection thrown round the person of 
the chief of the state. 

2. Preceded by a possessive, your, his, her, the 
king's, the queen's; sometimes with a qualifying 
epithet, as {most) sacred, gracious, f royal. Used 
as an honorific title in speaking to or of a king, 
queen, emperor, or empress. In this use Your 
Majesty is a respectful substitute for the pronoun 
you, and His, I/er Majesty (abbreviated H. M.) 
may be either prefixed to such designations as the 
A'ing, the Queen, King Edward VII, etc., or 
substituted for them ; so, in modern use, Their 
Majesties, when more than one royal person is 
meant. Also, with distinguishing epithet : His, 
Her Imperial Majesty (abbreviated H. I. M.), said 
of an emperor or empress ; His Britannic Majesty 
(abbreviated H. B.M.), the King of Great Britain 
(and Ireland) ; His Catholic Majesty, the King of 
Spain ; His Most Christian Majesty (Hist.), the 
King of France ; in jocular language, His Satanic 
Majesty, the Devil, Satan. 

This use, common to all the Rom. langs., and from them 
adopted into all the living Teut. langs., descends from the 
Latin of the later Roman empire {tna, vestra majestas). 
In England it occurs, in its Latin form, from the 12th c, 
though examples of the vernacular form are not met with 
before the 15th c. It was not until the 17th c. that your 
majesty entirely superseded the other customary forms of 
address to the sovereign. Henry VI 1 1 and Queen Elizabeth 
were often addressed as' Your Grace ' and ' Your Highness*, 
and the latter alternates with ' Your Majesty * in the dedica- 
tion of the Bible of 161 1 to James I. 

The English syntax of this word (as of the other abstract 
nouns similarly employed as titles, e.g. highness, lordship, 
grace, excellency) is somewhat inconsistent. Although 
Your Majesty, like His. Her Majesty, requires the follow- 
ing verb to be in the 3rd person sing, to agree with the sb., 
this principle of concord is not applied to the pronouns, as 
in Fr. and some other langs. The neuter pronouns it, its, 
which, cannot be used with reference to a foregoing {Your, 
His, Her) Majesty ; either the titular phrase must be re- 
peated, or the pronoun must be the same as if the simple 
furm (' you ', or ' the king ', ' the queen ') had been used 
instead of the periphrastic form, 

I1171 Addr. Kings Clerks to Hen. II in Mat. Hist. T. 
Becket (1885) VII. 471 Noverit vestra Majestas, qnod (etc.).] 
*433 Rolls ofParlt. IV. 444/2 Plese it to your Rial Mageste. 
1536 in Speed Hht. Gt. Brit, (1632) 1025 The Kings most 
roiall Magestj-. 1585 Whitgii-t in Fuller Ch. Hist. ix. vi. 
§ 24 To the Queens most excellent Majesty. May it please 
your Majesty to be advertised that notwithstanding the 
charge of late given by your Highness to the lower House 
of Parliament fete.]. 1596 SpENSER.S7<z/<r Irel, (Globe) 661/1 
The great good which shall growe to her Majestie, should 
. . readely drawe on her Highnes to the undertaking of the 
enterprise. 1624 in Arch&ologia XLVIII. 211 Given by 
the King's Ma ,iu one Bonner. 1660 Blount {title) 
Boscobe! or the History of Hi' Sacred Majesties most 
miraculous preservation after the Battle of Worcester. 1678 
Bunyan Pilgr. 1, 143 One of his Majesties Judges. 1761 
Cruoen Cone. Bib. Ded. to King, 1 doubt not but your 
Majesty will pardon my forbearing to enter upon your 
valuable personal accomplishments. £1777 Bcrke Addr. 
to A'ing Wks. IX. 183 Your Majesty was touched with a 
sense of so great a disaster. 1804 M. Cutler in Life, Jrnts. 
^ Corr. (1888) III. 171 This morning, paid the high homage 
of my respects to his Democratic Majesty, the President. 
1881 Jas. Grant Cameron tans I. ii. 23 Before summoning 
his sable majesty. 1884 G. Fleming (Julia Fletcher) Ves- 
tjfi* I. iv. 131 His Majesty, King Humbert, will hold a 
fraud review of his troops. 1888 Maj-lkson" Mem. {ed. 2) 

I. 295 His Majesty the King of Hawaii. 

f3. The external magnificence befitting a sove- 
reign. Obs. 

1481 Caxton Godfrey xxxix. 77 Themperour satte in his 
mageste, and the barons aboute hym. 1667 Milton P. L. 

II. 266 Heav'ns all-ruling Sire. .with the Majesty of dark- 
ness round Covers his Throne. 

4. Kingly or queenly dignity of look, bearing, 
or appearance ; impressive stateliness of aspect or 

1531 Elvotl7w.ii. ii.The fountaine of all excellent maners 
is Maiestie, which.. is proprelie a beautie or comelynesse in 
his countenance^ langage and gesture apt to his dignite, and 
accomodate to time, place, and company. 1540 Coverdale, 
etc. Erasm, Par. 2 Cor. 58 A weake bodye, wherin there is 
no maiestye. 1603 Knolles Hist. Turks (1621) 1161 AVith 
a faire countenance, and a majestie full of mildnesse. 1667 
Milton P. L. xi. 232, I descne. .One of the heav'nly Host, 
and by his Gate .. some great Potentate .. such Majestie 
Invests him coming. 1710 Steele Toiler No. 115 P 1 
[Nicolini] commanded the Attention of the Audience with 
the Majesty of his Appearance. 1836 Kingsley Lett. (1878) 
I. 34 His looks were majesty, and his tongue justice. 1848 
Dickens Dombey xxx, Edith was there in all her majesty 
pi brow and figure. 




b. trans/. Of natural objects, buildings, etc. 

1555 Kdf.n Decades To Rdr. (Arb.) 50 The contemplation 
of goddes workes & maiestie of nature. 1563 Cooper The- 
saurus s.v. Maiestas, the maiestie and goodly sight of a 
place. 1570-6 Lambardk Peramb. Kent (1826) 281 A shrine, 
of golde and of great Maiestie. 1667 MiLTOH P. L. IV. 607 
The Moot) Rising in clouded Majestic 182a BvKOM Heaven 
■V Earth 1. iii, Your rugged majesty <>f rocks And toppling 
trees. 1830 J. G. Strutt Sylva Brit. 6 The funereal majesty 
of the cedar or the yew. 1879 TsNKINSON Guide Eng. Lakes 
(ed. 6) 159 At the foot of Skiddaw, which stands forth in all 
its majesty. 

e. sarcastically. 

1588 Greene Pandosto (1607) 21 The goodman seeing his 
wife in her maiestie, with her mace in her hand, thought it 
was time to bowe for fear of blowes. 

5. Impressive stateliness of character, expre