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THIS half-volume, containing the words from the beginning of S to the end of Sh, includes '$^31 MaiV'''; > <, 
words, 3,470 Combinations explained under these, and 4,192 Subordinate entries ; in all 17,093. The' 
combinations, illustrated by quotations but not requiring explanation, number 3.551 more, making a totaY'bf' -, ( 

20,644. Of the Main words, 1,671 are marked t as obsolete, and 477 are marked |j as alien or not fully 0/ ^,.j, 

The half-volume may be divided naturally into two portions, which differ markedly with regard to the 
etymological character of the words included. The words from 5 to Sgraffito form a fairly typical specimen 
of the composition of the English vocabulary ; all its linguistic sources are copiously represented, and probably 
in something like their average proportions. The words of classical and French origin, taken together, 
outnumber all the rest, and (notwithstanding the greater average length of the articles on native words) occupy 
at least as much space. When we turn to the words with initial SH (which is practically a distinct letter 
from S) we find that classical and French derivatives are all but entirely wanting (the few instances being due 
to exceptional circumstances), and adoptions from Scandinavian are also absent. Although there are a 
considerable number of words adopted from various other languages, or of obscure origin, the Sh division of 
the vocabulary is essentially of Old English etymology. It would not be possible to find elsewhere in the 
Dictionary an equal number of consecutive pages in which the proportion of native words is at all nearly 
so high. 

The article on the verb set is, it will be observed, by far the longest in the Dictionary. This is due in 
part to the multitude of senses and idiomatic uses of the simple verb, and in part to the abundance of its fixed 
combinations with adverbs (as set in, set out, set np], which in languages of more synthetic structure are repre- 
sented by compound verbs. There are twenty-two of these combinations, each of them virtually a separate 
word, which has undergone an extensive sense-development of its own ; set up (to quote the extreme case) has 
forty-four distinct senses, several of which have subdivisions. The other articles are not of extraordinary 
length, but many of them (e. g. shape sb. and vb., sheet sb. 1 and sb. 2 , shoot vb., show sb. and vb.) exhibit very 
noteworthy changes and ramifications of the meaning of words. The quotations for words like science, 
scientific, and the many derivatives of the Latin sentire (from sensate to sentimentally} contain much illustra- 
tion of the history of English and European thought. The article on the verb shall has cost a great deal 
of labour, as the collected material was very inadequate, and had to be largely supplemented by special 
research. Imperfect as the article must necessarily be, it is hoped that it will be of service not only in 
throwing light on the process by which the modern use of the auxiliary has been developed, but also as a 
guide to the precise interpretation of many passages in earlier writers. 

The whole of the S material collected up to that time was sub-edited in 1881-2 by the late Mr. P. W. Jacob. 
The portion down to Sancy was re-subedited, and the new material incorporated, by Mr. J. Brown, M.A., 
Kendal, in 1902-5, and that from Sand to Shy was similarly re-subedited by the late Mr. J. Bartlett, B.A., in 

The proofs have been regularly read, and many valuable additions and corrections suggested, .by the 
Rev. Canon Fowler, D.D., Durham, the Rev. W. B. R. Wilson, B.A., Dollar, and latterly by Mr. W. W. 
Jenkinson (who has also rendered much help in the verification of quotations at the British Museum), and 
Mr. Logan Pearsall Smith, M.A. 

Of the many friends who rendered valuable assistance and advice in the treatment of the earlier words in 
S, several are no longer living. Dr. Furnivall and Professor Skeat, whose constant help has been acknowledged 
in the preface to every volume of the Dictionary, lived to see the publication of some of the sections of this 
half-volume. Other helpers who have been removed by death since the issue of S began are Mr. A. Caland, 
Wageningen, Holland ; Mr. J. Platt Jr. ; and Professors Morfill and Robinson Ellis, Oxford. Among those 
still living to whom thanks are due for information on particular points are : Professors Bullock, Clifton, Elliott, 
Firth, Goudy, Love, Margoliouth, Napier, and Sir Walter Parratt, D.Mus., Oxford; Dr. Ingram Bywater ; 
Mr. J. E. Bridges, Lecturer in Burmese, and Lieut.-Col. Ranking, Lecturer in Persian, Oxford ; Bodley's 
Librarian: Dr. A. E. Cowley, Bodleian Library; Don M. de Z. Wickremasinghe, M.A., Indian Institute, 

* The following figures show the comparative scale of this work and some other Dictionaries : 

Johnson. 'Encyclopedic' 'Century' Diet. Funk's ' Standard ' 

and Suppl. d Su PP'- < ed - ' S 95>. 

S-Sh. Words recorded 1589 9034 10,500 10,429 -'0,644 

Words illustrated by quotations 1228 2708 3260 814 '5,760 

Number of quotations 4910 4111 935 1180 94.497 

In the corresponding portion of Richardson the number of quotations is 3932. 


Oxford ; Dr. R. L. Poole, Keeper of the Archives, Oxford ; the Secretary and the Controller of the Clarendon 
Press ; the Rev. A. H. Johnson, M.A., All Souls College ; Mr. C. Burrage, B.Litt. ; Captain C. S. Harris, 
Oxford ; Dr. R. F. A. Hoernle, Oxford ; Sir Frederick Pollock, Bart. ; the Right Hon. Viscount Dillon ; 
Mr. W. H. St. John Hope, F.S.A. ; Mr. Edward Greenly; Sir Thomas Hunter, Edinburgh; Mr. J. Maitland 
Anderson, M.A., University Library, St. Andrews ; Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, London ; Mr. John 
Hodgkin ; Professor T. N. Toller, Manchester: Mr. Albert Matthews and Mr. C. W. Ernst, of Boston, U.S.A. 
Frequent help has been rendered, in the treatment of military terms, by Major J. H. Leslie ; in that of nautical 
terms, by Sir J. K. Laughton and Mr. L. G. Carr Laughton ; and in the illustration of legal and historical 
terms, by Mr. R. J. Whitwell, B.Litt. 

The assistants engaged on this half-volume have been Mr. Walter Worrall, B.A., Mr. W. J. Lewis, 
Mr. H. J. Bayliss, Mr. G. R. Carline, Mr. Charlton Walker, B.A., Miss E. S. Bradley, and (in the early part) 
Mr. James Dallas. Several extensive portions of the work were specially prepared by Mr. C. T. Onions, M. A., 
who has now been placed in editorial charge of a separate part of the Dictionary, beginning with Sit. 

OXFORD, February 1914. 



Sabbatical i;. j. Earlier example : 1590. ]'">"!' Right Reckoning of 
Years 2 These Sabbaticall yeares. 

Sabbatine a. Earlier example : 1674 BBEVIXT Saul tf Sam. xiii. 
281 Sabbatine bull. 

Sagamite. Earlier example : 1698 llcnnepin's Contn. A'civ Discav. 
Amcr. xxviii. 106 Sagamite, or Pap made of Indian Corn. 

Salient a. 3. The source of this use is Aristotle. Hist. Anim. vi. iii. 
TOVTO oe TO arjueiov TnjSa Kal KtvtiTai uiaxip eptyvxvv, ' this point [repre- 
senting the heart in the egg] leaps and moves as alive.' 

Saliva. Earlier instance (in anglicized form) : c 1 400 Pe/y Jeb 40 
in 26 Pol. Poems 122 Thow woldest suffer nener more Me to swolowe 
my salyne ? 

Salsitnde. Earlier occurrence : 1623 COCKKUAM I, SalcituJc, brine 
Ikjuor that is salt. Ibid. II, Brine, salsitude. 

Saltation. Earlier occurrence: 1623 COCKKRAM i, Saltation, danc- 

Samclotli. Earlier occurrence : a 1450 Glossary (MS. Harl. 1002), 
Hoc perzoma, a samcloth. 

Sanable a. Earlier occurrence : 1623 COCKERAJI I, Sanable, which 
may be healed. 

Sang-uine a. 5. Earlier instance of sanguine stone : 1486 Bk. St. 
Albans, Her. a iii, The .v. stone is calde a Loys, a sanquine stone or 
sinamer hit is calde in armys. Also ellipt. as sb. : Ibid., Aloys is calde 
sinamer or sanquine in armys. 

Sarrasin. Earlier example: 1621 LODGE Summary Du Bartas I. 
135 That graine, which we call Snrazin Wheate, or Turky Wheate. 

Saucer 4. Earlier example: 13 . . SetiynSag, (W.) 2784 \Yith eghen 
that war ful bright and clere, And brade, ilkone, als a sawsere. 

Sanciate v. Earlier example : 1644 HAMMOND Of Conscience 27 
Any such act of willfull sinne . . is a naturall meanes . . of sauciating 
and wounding the soule. 

Scsevity. Earlier occurrence : 1623 COCKERAM, Scxaitie, vnlucki- 

Scale sb" 3. Earlier example : c 1450 ME. Med. Bk. (Heinrich) 
208 J>e scales of notes ant ryndes. 

Scarlet sb. 43. For quot. 01683 substitute the following: ci6io 
BEAUM. & FL. Philaster v. i. (1622) 70 Doe the Lords bow, and the 
regarded scarlets, Kisse their gnmd gols, and cry we are your ser- 
uants ? 

Scarlet a. 4. Earlier example of scarlet vjhore: 1 590 SPENSEK F. Q. 
i. viii. 29 Forthwith he gaue in charge vnto his Squire That scarlot whore 
to keepen carefully. 

Scart sb.l In list of Forms dele ' 9 scrath (? error) ' and read ' See 
also SCRATH '. 

Schiller. The Ger. word has been nsed by English entomologists in 
the literal sense: 1835 J. DUNCAN Beetles 87 The elegant tribe of 
Cetonidfe, . . are generally of a fine green, often accompanied with a 
delicate schiller or play of colour. 

Scholiastic. Pronunciation: For ' skotrlisestik ' read ' skJulife'slik '. 

School rf.l 19. Additional example of school-butter : 1618 FLETCHEU 

Loyal Subj. v. iv, Am. lie was vvhipt like a top, I never saw a whore 
so lac'd : Court schoole-butter ? Is this their diet ? 

Screaling. Earlier example : 1594 BLUNDEVIL Exercises IV. (1597) 
270, Descr. of P. Plaudits his Map, This Countrey is inhabited of 
Dwarfes called in Latine 1'iginei, being in height 4 foote as those be of 
Groynland, which are called Screlings \_printed Serelings, edd. 1622,1637 

Scnddle z>.- Earlier example : 1577 GRANGE Golden Aphrod. G iv, 
The Goddesses. .skuddelyng and sekyng to defende themselues. 

Sea-swallow 3. Delete quot. 1902 (where the word denotes a kind 
of swallow or swift). 

Seed sb. 5 a. Earlier example : 1620 Observ. Making Fit Rooms 
Silkworms 5 The Silk-wormes commingof ten ounces of seed . .must [etc.]. 

Seeker i b. The date and authorship of the first quotation seem to 
be highly questionable. The passage quoted from Pagitt 1645 appears 
to contain the earliest known example of the use of the word as the 
designation of a sect, though the opinion there described was held by the 
three brothers Legate (c 1600), whose followers were called Legatine- 
Arians. (See C. Burrage, The Early English Dissenters, 1912, 1. 214-6, 
259-61, and App. A.) 

Sentimentalize v. \. Earlier example : 1764 Let. to IV. C. 5 Aug., 
Orig. Lett. (1788) 14. In the mean time we will philosophize and 
sentimentalize ; the last woid is a bright invention of the moment in 
which it was written, for yours or Dr. Johnson's service. 

Sepal. The etymology should be as follows: [ad. Y.sepale, mod.L. 
sepalum (N. J. de Necker, Phytolog ie fhilosophtque, 1790, p. 55, and 
Corollariitm ad Philosophiam botanicam Linnici, 1790, p. 18). Necker 
derives the word from Gr. aicem) covering ; as he refused to acknowledge 
the distinction between the cnlyx and the corolla (using the term feri- 
fynanda to comprise both), sfpale (sepalum) in his use denotes the petals 
as well as what are now called ' sepals'.] 

Servetist. Earlier example : 1621 LODGE Summary Du Bartas I. 
9 The ancient and moderne Diuines, who haue disputed against the 
Arians, and Seruetists. 

Shiner I b. The word in the quotation is perhaps a misprint for 
shiver (pulley). 

-ship. At end of first paragraph delete ' and perhaps . . . region '. 
The alleged OE. landsceap is due to a misreading : see Napier Contrib. 
OE. Lexicogr. (1906) 41. 

Shirley. For ' Obs. or spurious' read ' Obs.' The bird, a South 
American tanager, was named by G. Edwards (Glean. Nat. Hist., 1764, 
III. 276) from Shirley, the family name of Earl Ferrers, to whom the 
specimen described belonged. 

Shittle a. The form shuttle survives dial. ; see SHUTTLE a., where 
additional quotations are given. 

Shoe sb. 6 c. The following examples of shoe-thong should have 
been given : fiooo Ags, Gosp. John i. 27 Ne com ic wyro'e )>s;t ic 
unbinde his sceo-Jnvang. CI20O ORMIN 10387 }>att he ne wass nohht 
god inoh Cristess shojnvang tunnbindenn. c 1200 Trin. Coll. Horn. 137 
Ac ich nam noht ne foro'eu wuro'e ]>at ich un-cnuttc his sho )>uong. 


S(es), the nineteenth letter of the English and 
other modern alphabets, and the eighteenth of 
the ancient Roman alphabet, derives its form 
(through the f and S, j of early Latin and Greek 
inscriptions) from the Phoenician W (Hebrew ffi 
shiti), which represented avoiceless sibilant : in some 
of the Semitic langs. (s), in others (J). (Each of 
these phonetic symbols is intended to represent a 
class of sounds the articnlatory positions of which 
vary considerably ; the difference between the two 
classes is acoustically very recognizable, but the 
nature of the essential difference in formation is 
still obscure.) In ancient Greek and Latin the 
value of the letter is believed to have been always (s). 
In late L. s between vowels was in most instances 
pronounced (z), a sound which was not separately 
represented in the Latin alphabet. Hence when 
the Roman letters were adopted in OE., the letter 
S was used to represent both the unaltered Ger- 
manic (s), and the (z) which had been developed 
from that sound in certain positions. 

In OE. s was pronounced (s) initially and finally, 
and medially when it was either contiguous with a 
voiceless consonant or began the second element of 
a compound ; medially between voiced sounds it was 
pronounced (z). The southern dialect had in ME., 
and possibly in late OE., the peculiarity of voicing 
the initial s (in native words) as well as the initial 
/and/. This phonetic habit extended to Kent as 
late as 1340, as is shown by spellings like zenne 
(OE. synn, sin) in the Ayenbite of Inwyt ; it is now 
confined to the south-western dialects. 

In mod. English the general rule is that s is pro- 
nounced (s) at the beginning of a word or of the 
second element of a compound, and when doubled 
or in contact with a voiceless consonant. Between 
vowels, and when phonetically final, a single s is 
mostly (z). But there are many anomalies and uncer- 
tainties, especially in classical derivatives: cf.,e.g., 
a/>surii(&bsv'^A), observe (bz-); with regard tosome 
words usage is divided, as in absolve (sebs-, sebz-), 
and the words in -ive, e. g. effusive, evasive. Even 
ss is in some words sounded (z), as in dissolve 
(against dissent, dissect, etc.) , dessert, possess. 
The phonetic combinations (sy), (zy), when rapidly 
pronounced, are very similar in acoustic effect to 
the simple consonants (J), (3), the position of the 
tongue for these being intermediate between the 
positions for (s) or (z) and (y). Hence in some 
words where earlier Eng. had (sy) or (zy), written 
either as s (before diphthongal u) or as si, the modern 
language has (J) or (3), so that the letter has 
acquired these two new values. Examples are sure, 
sugar, censure, mission (rni'Jan), Asia (e''Ja), trea- 
sure (-ijiu, -331), evasion (-^an). In some varieties 
of vulgar speech this tendency is carried much 
further, as in the pronunciations (J)> (pr/jj/'m) 
for sue, presume. 

S is silent in a few words adopted from Old French, 
as in aisle, isle (hence also pseudo-etymologically 
in island) ; in the Law French mesne, demesne, a 
silent s was inserted by false analogy. 

1. The letter and its sound. 

c 1000 ^Et.FRlc Gram. ii. (Z.) 6 Seinivocales syndon seofan : 
f, I, m, , r, s, x. c 1460 Pol. Ret. $ L. Poems 2 An S. for 
Salisbury, without any avision. 1709 STEELE Taller No. 77 
P i Some [lispers] never uttered the letter H ; and others 
had as mortal an Aversion for S. 1842 Gentl. Mag. May 
480/2 The letter S was the device of Henry of Lancaster. 

2. Trie shape of the letter ; an object having this 

1426 LYDG. De Guil. Pilgr. 17352 Every .s. y-crokyd is, 
lyche a crose highe in the top. 1614 U. JONSON Earth. Fair 
II. ii, I doe water the ground in knots, as I goe like a great 
Garden-pot, you may follow me by the S. S."- I make. 1688 
R. HOLME Armoury m. xvi. (Roxb.) 58/1 The seuerall parts 
of a Viol. ..The S'es of the belly or round holes. 1804 
Outing (U.S.) XXIII. 407/1 Make an S of wire, sharpened 
at one end. 1898 HAWEIS Old Violins 77 One '/' is a shade 
lower than the other, a practice so common with Strad . . 
that it must have been intentional. iSqi)Blackw. Mag. 331/2 
Round the great S the river made She battled her blind way. 

b. Collar of S, S's, SS., or Esses: see COLLAR 
sb. 3 c. 

C. attrib. and Comb., as S-necked, -shaped adjs. ; 
S-atrve, -hook, -perforation, -piece. 
1839 Civil Eng. $ Arch. Jra!. II. 139/1 He is compelled 


to connect by a *S curve. 1844 Ibid. VII. 152/1 An *S hook 
of iron must be fitted into the eye of the valve. 1896 Royal 
Nat. Hist. V. 89 The foregoing assemblage of *S-necked or 
Cryptodiran tortoises. 1851 D. WILSON Prehist. Ann. (1863) 
I. n. iv. 391 Produce the appearance of an *S or Ogee per- 
foration. 1891 KIPLING Light that Failed viii, Uncouth 
brick and zinc mysteries supported by iron stanchions and 
clamped by*S-pieces. 1837 *\y.vx Richardson's FaiinaBor.- 
Amer. iv. 8 The third becoming a broken or *S-shaped band. 

3. Used like the other letters of the alphabet to 
denote serial order ; applied e. g. to the nineteenth 
(or more usually the eighteenth, either I or J being 
omitted) group or section in classification, to the 
eighteenth sheet of a book or quire of a MS., etc. 

4. Abbreviations, a. S. = various proper names, 
as Samuel, Sarah, etc. ; = Saint ; so SS. = Saints ; 
t = Sir (prefixed to the name of a knight or a priest); 
= Society (L. societal), as in F.R.S., Fellow of the 
Royal Society, P".S.A.,Fellowof the Society of Anti- 
quaries, S.P.G., Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, etc.; Mas. ^=Solo; Chem. = Suiphur; Anat. 
wa&Zool. = sacral (vertebra); Her. (also l,c.) = Sable; 
= snow (in ship's log-book). S. B. = smooth bore 
(gun). S. M. = Silver Medallist (in shooting com- 
petition). S.S. = Steam ship. 

a 1400 IVyclif's Bible IV. 690 S. Lucie virgyn. 1535 JOVE 
Apol. Tindale (Arb.) 4 His felowe called Hijpinus pastour 
of .s. nicholas parisshe in Hambourg. 1549 LATIMER 6th 
Serin, bef. Ediv. VI (Arb.) 166, I am goynge to S. Tomas 
of Acres to the sermon. 1591 HARINGTON Orl. Fnr., Apol. 
Poctrie P vij b, If S. Philip Sidney had counted this a fault. 
1628 SIR J. CAMPBELL in Thanes of Cavidor (Spalding 
Cl.) 271, I rest, your loueing father S. J. Campbell of 
Calder. 1648 HERRICK Hesfer. 172 (title), To his Valen- 
tine, on S. Valentines day. 1724 Explic. Foreign Words 
Mus. 66 The letter 5 is used as an Abbreviation of the 
Word Solo. 1828-40 BERRY Encycl. Herald. I, S. This let- 
ter, .signifies sable, or black. 1885 Daily News 12 May 5/1 
The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, familiarly 
known as the S. P. G. 1899 Ibid. 21 July n/i Who.. was 
to have the honour of figuring in future records, with the 
letters ' S. M.' attached to his name. 1903 SIR M. G. GERARD 
Leaves fr. Diaries iv. 104 In 1870 our armament was still 
the old i2-pr. S. B. gun and 24-pr. howitzer. 

b. S. = South; also S.E., SE., South-east, etc. 
Also t S.S. = South Sea (Company). 

1708 Land. Gaz. No. 4418/3 The Wind was, this Morning 
. .at 10, at S. and S. S. E. 1720 DE FOE Capt. Singleton 
xvi. (1840) 273 After that it blew..S. W. by S. then S. W. by 
W. 1768 Ann. Reg. 178 Transferring so/, new S.S. annui- 
ties,. .at the S. S. house, as if it had been his own. 1840 
MARRYAT Olla I'odr. III. 10 [The wind] is S.W. and by 
W. J W. 1884 H. A. MOKIARTY in Encycl. Brit. XVII. 
277/1 A point of destination bore W. S. W. 10 miles ; a cur- 
rent ran S. E. by S. 4 miles an hour. 

C. s. = L. solidus and so used for shilling(s ; 
f = SCILICET; = second (of time). 

1387 E. E. Wills (1882) i Also y be-quethe genet my 
dowter xl. s. a 1430 MYRC Festial Ixxiv. 300 Ther was a 
man on a time |?at lant to anothur man iiii s of money to an 
certeyn day. 1540 PALSGR. Acclastus Prol. B iij b, Suche 
as opteyne vyctory (.s. in some great enterpryse). a 1548 
HAI.L Chron., Hen. VIII 241 b, A Subsedy, of twoo .s. of 
landes. 1579 E. K. Gloss. Spenser s Sheph. Cat. July 33 
Lurdanes s. Lord Danes. 1664 PEPYS Diary 4 July, My 
wife.. have lain out 255. upon a pair of pendantes for her 
eares. 170* DE FOE Shortest Way TV. Dissenters 21 To 
talk of 55. a Month for not coming to the Sacrament, and is. 
per Week for not coming to Church, this is such a way of 
converting People as never was known. 1848 THACKERAY 
Van. Fair xxxviii, The best coals at s. per chaldron. 1884 
H. A. MORIARTY in Encycl. Brit. XVII. 274/1 The chrono- 
meter showed 9 h 43 m 15^5 as a mean. 1884 F. J. BRITTEN 
Watch tf Clockm. 24 It \sc. a watch] is found to have 
lost 8s. 

'S, a euphemistic shortening of God's in certain 
oaths (now Oks. or arch.} ; written continuously 
with the following word, as in 'SBLOOD, 'SDEATH, 
'SFAX, 'SLIFB, etc. 

a', a colloquial shortening of sal, northern dialect 
form of SHALL v. when occurring in unstressed 
positions. Written continuously with the preceding 
noun or pronoun, usually in the incorrect form 'a. 

'S, representing a shortened pronunciation of vari- 
ous monosyllables when unstressed. (Written con- 
tinuously with the preceding word.) 

1. = is : see BE v. Now only colloq. and/ce/. 
1584 LYLY Sappho m. ii. 75 Whats he so swaggers in the 

Van? O ! thats a rortng Englishman. 1611 BEAUM. & FL. 
Philaster \. i, But Tie suppress him, he's a factious spirit. 
1699 DAMPIER Voy. (1729) II. i. 19 In some Places there's 
very strong Clay. 1741 RICHARDSON Pamela II. 356 The 
Devil's in't if we are not agreed in so clear a case. 1821 
BYRON Sardan. in. i. 401 Again the love-fit's on him. 

2. = has : see HAVE v. colloq. 

a 1845 HOOD Parental Ode 38 He's got a knife ! 

8. = Us pron. Now dial. exc. in let's = let us 

1588 SHAKS. L. L. L. v. it. 228 If you desire to dance, let's 
hold more chat. 1634 MILTON Cotnus 599 But com let's on. 
1662 COKAINE Trag. Ovid v. v, Let us go home, send for a 
Priest of Hymens, And presently each Couple on's be mar- 
ried. 1741 RICHARDSON Pamela II. 300 Hut come, I must 
love him ! Let's find him out. 1893 CROCKETT Stickit 
Minister 100 What'M ye gie's? 

4. = His floss, fron., q.v. Ots. exc. dial. 

5. = As. Sc. and north, dial. 

1718 RAMSAY Christ's Kirk in. 49 I've done my best. .As 
well's I may. 1786 BURNS To a Hag-gis i, A grace As lang's 
my arm. 1861 QUINN Heather Lintie (1863) 85 Let us cra*ck 
the news As soon's we greet. 

-S, suffix, forming adverbs, was originally -es, 
identical with the suffix of the genitive singular of 
many neuter and masculine sbs. and adjs. Several 
of the adverbs in -es that existed in OE. are genitives 
either of sbs. (neut. or masc.) as daeges by day, nides 
NEEDS, pances voluntarily, or of neuter adjs., as 
siSes truly ; on the analogy of these, -es was added, 
with adv. -forming function, to feminine nouns, as 
in nihtes by night, endebyrdes in order. OE. had 
also advs. compounded of to prep, and a genitive 
governed by it. as to-gegnes (see TO-GAINS), t6- 
middes (see TO-MIDS) ; side by side with these 
there existed parallel and synonymous advs. like 
on-gegn AGAIN, on-middan AMID, in which the dat. 
or accus. was governed by a prep. Hence there 
arose in early ME. mixed forms such as ajeines, 
amiddes ; and the frequent coexistence of the two 
forms of the same adv., one with and the other 
without s, led to the addition of s to many advs. as 
a sign of their function. In some instances the 
extended form prevailed, as in eftsoons; in others 
it survived only in dialects, as in oftens,gaylies (Sc.). 
See also the articles -LING 1 *, -LI(N)GS, -WARD, 


In once, twice, thrice, hence, since, etc., the suffix is written 
thedialectal onst (see ONCE), the original -es, -s has become -st. 

Sa, obs. f. SEE v., SOE sb. ; obs. or dial. f. So. 

Sa', obs. var. of SAVE v. in Cod sa' me and similar 

1604 DEKKER Honest Wh. A 4, Yet so god sa mee shees 
mine owne sister. Ibid. G 3 b, Thats all so god sa me, I 
thirst after. 1668 SHADWELL Sullen Lovers IV. 61 As Gad 
shall sa'me, she is a very ingenious Woman. 1819 SCOTT 
Ivanhoe xxxiv, Friend Isaac, will you pleasure us in this 
matter, and our day shall be truly kept, so God sa' me? 

Sa. Her. Abbreviation of SABLE sb.'* 

1780 EDMONDSON Heraldry I. Anns Abbies etc., Augus- 
tine's [St.] Monastery, Canterbury. Sa. a cross ar. 1828-40 
BERRY Encycl. Herald. II, Abberbury. .or, a fesse embattled 
sa. 1871 BURKE Peerage, etc. 195/2 Sa.,a naked man, ppr. 

Saa(e, Saae(ke, obs. ff. SOE, SAKE. 

Saad(e, obs. forms of SAD ; pa. t. of SAT v., q.v. 

Saaf(e, saaff, obs. ff. SAFE and SAVE prep. 

Saage, Saake, obs. f. SAGE a., SACK sb. 

Saald, obs. pa. t. of SELL v. 

Saale, Saand, obs. ff. SALE sb., SAND sb. 

Saap(pe, obs. forms of SAP sb. 

Saar, Saara, obs. forms of SORE adv., SAHARA. 

Saarce, -eyn, obs. forms of SEAKCE, -CING. 

Saat(e, obs. forms of pa. t. of SIT v. 

t Sab. Her. Obs. Abbreviation of SABLE sb. z 

1660 M. CARTER Honor rediv. 249 Bernards Inne Beareth 
party per pale indented Ermin and Sab. a Cheveron Gul. 

Sab, obs. form of SAHIB. 

Sabadilla (sa:badi-la). [a. Sp. cebadilla, dim. 
of cebada barley.] = CEVADILLA. Also attrib. 

1812 J. SMYTH Pract. of Customs (1821) 208 Sabadilla seed, 
Indian Caustic Barley, very useful in Medicine. 1836 
J. M. GULLY Magendie^s Fomntl. (ed. 2) 71 Boil the seeds 
of the sabadilla with alcohol. 1876 DUHRING Dis. Skin 
596 Powdered sabadilla . . may be sprinkled throughout the 
hair with good result. 

Hence Sabadi-llia, SaTjadi'Uine, Chem. , an alka- 
loid obtained from sabadilla seeds. 

1836 J. M. GOLLY Magendie's Formul. (ed. 2) 70 M. Couerbe 
. . has severally named them [i. e. the principles in sabadilla] 
sabadllline, veratrin [etc.]. 1857 MILLER Elem. Chem. (1892) 
1 1 1. 503 Three other poisonous bases, sabadillia, colchinia,and 
jervia, are found, along with veratria,in the Veratnun attuin. 
1887 A. M. BROWN Anim. Alkaloids 29 Anemonine, pelti- 
erine, sabadilline. 

Sabaean, Sabean (s&bf'an), a. and sb. [f. L. 
Sabx-tts, Gr. 'Saf3ai-os (f. Saba, Sdtia, Arabic Lw 
Saba' = Heb. ioc Sh e ba, the ancient name of the 



people of Yemen; by Gr. and Roman writers 
imagined to be the name of the capital city) + -AN. 
In one passage (Isa. xlv. 14) the Eng. Bible, following the 
LXX and the Vulgate, uses Sabeans for the quite different 
tribal name C'NID S'baim. Another instance of this is in 
Ezek. xxiii. 42, but the marginal reading in 161 1 is drunkards, 
which the Revised Version (1884) adopts in the text.] 

A. adj. Of or belonging to the ancient popula- 
tion of Yemen in Arabia. In poetic use, often with 
allusion to the ancient renown of the spices brought 
from Yemen. 

a 1586 SIDNEY Ps. XLV. iv, The fragrant nches of Sabean 
erove, Mirrh, Aloes, Cassia. 1623 MASSINGER Bondman iv. 
lii, Whole Hecatombes or Sabzan Gums. 1698 FRYER A cc. 
E. India f, P. 115 Two skins of Sabaean Asses. 1700 DRY- 
DEN Cinyras ff Myrrha 323 Sabajan Fields afford her need- 
ful Rest. 1830 TENNYSON Adeline v, Dripping with Sabzan 
spice On thy pillow. 1883 I. TAYLOR Alphabet I. 345 1 he 
Himyaritic or Sabean Alphabet. 

B. sb. One of the ancient inhabitants of Yemen. 

them to the Sabeans, to a people farre off. 

Sabeean, erroneous form of SABIAN. 

Sabahdaur, variant of SUBAIUR. 

Sabaism (?'WlU'm). Also 8-9 Zabaism, 9 
Sabeism,Sabiism,Sabism,Tsabaism, Sabeeism. 
[f. Heb. N3S (aba host (after the presumed etymo- 
logy of SABIAN) + -ISM. Cf. F. sabtisme, sabaisme, 
sabismc.~\ The worship of ' the host of heaven ' ; 
star-worship. Also sometimes used for SAHIANISM 
in its various historical applications. 

sisted in the ophilatreia, or worship of the serpent. 1839 
YEOWELL Anc. Brit. Ch. xiii. (1847) 148 The worship of the 
lestial bodies, or Sabaism, as it is termed. 1841 Penny 
ct.XX. 295/2 The religious books of Tsabaism were written 



inSyriac. 1859 ). M. ARNOLD Ishmael 36 The more corrupt 

form of superstition, which in a measure co-existed with 

Sabeism. 1878 A. FORNANDER Polynesian Race I. 36 

Glimpses of Cushite Zabaism. 

Sabalo (sae-balo). U.S. [a. Sp. sdbalo shad.] 
The tarpon, Megalops ailaniicus, 

In recent U. S. Diets. 

II Sabaoth (sarbciiTnb). Also 6 sabbaoth. [L. 
Sabaoth (Vulg.), a. Gr. Sa0aw9 (LXX. and New 
Testament), a. Heb. m33 fbaoth pi. of N3S faba 
army.] A Hebrew word (lit. 'armies', 'hosts'), 
retained untranslated in the English New Testa- 
ment (as in the original Greek and in the Vulgate) 
and the Te De^lm, in the designation The Lord of 
Sabaoth, for which in the original Old Testament 
passages the English versions have the rendering 
' The Lord of Hosts'. 

The Gr. and L. forms being indeclinable, and therefore 
not easily recognizable as genitives, a frequent early form 
in Eng. was The Lord Sabaoth. 

am$ Prose Psalter, Te Deum 6 Holy! holy! holy! 
Lord God Sabaoth. 1398 TREVISA Earth, De P. R. ix. 
xxviii. (1495) 364 On the saterdaye in Albis . . in the gospell 
we ben taughte to traueylle in the vyneyerde of our lorde 
Sabaoth. 1535 COVERDALF. Rom. ix. 29 The Lorde of Sab- 
baoth [1611 Sabaoth]. Jas. v. 4 The cryes of them which 
haue reped, are entred in to the eares of the Lorde Sabaoth 
[1611 the Lord of Sabaoth]. 

H Confused with sabbath. (See also SABBATH 0.) 

1596 SPENSER F. Q. vn. viii. 2 But thence-forth all shall 
rest eternally With Him that is the God of Sabaoth hight : 
1 that great Saboath God, grant me that Sabaoths 

Sabarcane, variant of SABBACANE. 

Sabat(e, -tille, obs. ff. SABBATH ; SAPODILLA. 

I Sa batine. Obs. In quots. sab(b)atyne. 
[a. Pr. sabatina, dim. of sabata : see SABATON and 
-INE.] A kind of buskin. 

(-1460 in Archxologia XVII. 295 First ye must set on 
sabatynes and tye them upon the shoo, c 1538 Ibid. XLIII. 
248 A payr of sabbatynes ; and a payre of syndalls. 

Sabatine, obs. variant of SABBATINE. 

t Sabaton. Obs. Also 4-5 sabatoun, 5 sabat- 
ton, 9 sabbaton. [a. Pr. sabatd (mod. Pr. sabatoun 
shoe), augmentative of sabata F. savate, Sp. 
zapata boot (also zapato shoe), Pg. sapata, It. cia- 
batta shoe. Cf. med.L. sabbatum. 

The ultimate origin of the Rom. word is obscure. It 
exists in Arabic (sabbat, fabbat, etc., Dozy II. 626), in 
Berber (sappat, ibid.), and in Basque (zapata), but is prob. 
in all these a loan-word from Spanish.] 

A broad-toed armed foot-covering worn by war- 
riors in armour. 

c 1330 R. BRUNNE Chron. \Vace (Rolls) 10026 Hym self 
was armed fynly wel Wyb sabatons [Wace cauces de fer\, 
Si spores, & iaumbers of stel. 13.. Gaw. <$ Gr. Knt. 574 
penne set bay be sabatounz vpon be segge fotez. c 1420 
? LYDG. Assembly of Gods 34(1 Gauntlettes on hyr handys, 
& sabatounson hyr fete, c 1450 J. METHAM H'ks. (E.E.T.S.) 
36 This forsayd knyght Blak sabatouns weryd. 1485 Mate- 
rials Reign Hen. VII (Rolls) II. 21 For making of a paire 
of sabatons of clothe of golde mi s. 1543 GRAFTON Contn. 
Harding 594 The hernayes . . was all ouer gylte frome the 
heade peece to the sabaMons. 1869 BOUTEI.L Arms ff Arm. 
x. (1874) 206 At the commencement of the i6th century, the 
pointed sollerets were succeeded by broad sabbatons, cut 
off square or rounded at the toes. 

I! Sabbat (saba). In 7-8 sabat. [Fr.; a special | 
application of sabbat SABBATH.] A ' witches' sab- 
bath* ; see SABBATH 3. Also attrib., and/,?-. 

1652 J. WRIGHT tr. Camus' Nat. Paradox vn. 153 In this 
Desart corner, which.. seemeth onely fit for a Sabat or , 
Assembly of Sorcerers. 1658 tr. Bergerac's Satyr. Char. 
xiii. 54 As to the sabat-voyages, this is my beliefe ; they 
noint themselves with some somniferous oyles, and as while 
they wake they easily fancy to be carried astride upon a 
brobme through the chimny, into a Hall, where is feasting, 
dancing, and where they kisse the Goate's brich. 1763 H. ' 
WALPOLE Let. to Montagu 15 Aug., My youthfullity, which 
bears me out even at a sabat. I dined last week at Lady 
Blandford's, with her, the old Denbigh, the old Litchfield, 
and Methuselah knows who. 1861 LYTTON Str. Story xxvi, 
I could have fancied myself at a witch's sabbat. 1893 LELAND 
Mem. I. 75 The book was a perfect Sabbat of deviltry and 
dramatic horrors. 

Sabbatarian (s;ebate->'nan), a. and sb. [a. L. 
sabbatari-us ;Sp. sabatario, Pg. sabbatario), f. 
sabbatum SABBATH : see -AKIAN.] A. adj. fa. Of 
or pertaining to the Sabbath or its observance. Obs. 
b. Having relation to the tenets of the Sabbatarians. 

a 1631 DONNE in Select. (1840) 105 A Sabbatarian righteous- 
ness is no righteousness. 1654 H. L'ESTRANGE Chas. I 
(1655) 129 The rigour and strictnesse of Sabbatarian Minis- 
ters, in denying People recreations on the Sunday. 1668 
WELLS (title) The Practical Sabbatarian or Sabbath Holi- 
ness crowned with Superlative Happiness. 1733 NF.AL//M/. 
Purit. II. 250 These Divines, instead of softening some 
excesses in Bradbourne's Sabbatarian strictness, ran into 
the contrary extreme. 1796 MORSE Amer. Gcog. I. 436 
These are called Sabbatarian, or Seventh day Baptists. 1837 
WHEWF.LL Hist. Induct. Sd. (1857) I. 224 With references 
to Jewish Sabbatarian notions. 1859 MILL Liberty 161 I 
Another important example of illegitimate interference with 
the rightful liberty of the individual, .is Sabbatarian legisla- 
tion. 1863 A. BLOMFIELD Mem. Bf. Rlomfield I. vi. 154 
He entertained rather strict, or what would now be called 
' Sabbatarian ' notions. 
B. sb. 

1. A Jewish observer of the (Saturday) Sabbath. 
1613 PURCHAS Pilgrimage (1614) 149 The word Masbothm, 

Scaliger saith, signifieth Sabbatists or Sabbatarians, be- 
cause they professe_d to haue learned the obseruation of the 
Sabbath from Christ, and therein differed from the other 
lewes. a 1641 Bp. MOUNTAGU Acts A> Man. (1642) 454 These 
Esseni were yet further, more, and most rigid Sabbatarians, 
beyond all other sects and schismes amongst the Jewes. 
1830 D'ISRAELI Chas. /, III. xv. 330 Sabbatarians, became 
a term of reproach for the Jews with the Polytheists. 

2. A Christian who regards the Lord's Day as a 
Sabbath, deducing its obligation from the Fourth 
Commandment. Also, and more commonly, one 
whose opinion and practice with regard to Sunday 
observance are unusually strict. 

1620 J. DYKE Counter-poyson 15 He is none of your pre- 
cise Sabbatarians. 1656 HEYI.IN Extraneus Vapulans 110 
We are now come unto the business of the Lords day, in 
which our Author sheweth himself a stiffe Sabbatarian. 1718 
HICKES & NELSON J. Ktttltmttt in. xxiv. 237, I don't know 
whether you are a Strict Sabbatarian. 1864 EASTWICK 
3 Years in Persia I. 4, I am not a Sabbatarian, I showed 
it by travelling on Sunday. 

3. A member of a Christian sect founded towards 
the close of the sixteenth century, the members of 
which maintained that the Sabbath should be 
observed on the seventh and not on the first day of 
the week ; a Seventh-day Baptist. Cf. SABBATABY 

1645 V*c,\r? Heresiogr. (1647) Bj.The Sabbatarians affirme 
the old Jewish Sabbath to be kept, and not the Lords day. 
1710 STEELE & ADDISON Tatler No. 257 F 12 Pra>Adamites, 
Sabbatarians, Cameronians, Muggletonians..and the like. 
1820 Trait. Cosmo III 445 Robert Dogs, a coal-man in 
London, was the first founder of the sect of Sabbatarians. 

Sabbatarianism (ssebateo'rianiz'm). [f. prec. 
+ -ISM.] Sabbatarian principles or practice. 

1673-4 BP. WARD Case ofjoram 34 [Laws] against Pro- 

Shanation of the Lord's Day (I do not mean tending to 
udaism or Sabbatarianism). 1876 Gl.ADSTONE<7/ra.(i879) 
I. 360 The rather judaical Sabbatarianism of Scotland., 
was simply a form of Protestant tradition. 1894 MAX 
O'RELL y. Bull ff Co. 54 Narrow Sabbatarianism is neither 
Protestant nor Christian : it is.a Jewish institution. 

t Sa'bbatary, . and sb. Obs. Also 6-7 sab- 
batharie. [ad. L. sabbatarius, f. sabbatum SAB- 
BATH : see -ART. Cf. F. sabbataire.] 

A. adj. Pertaining to the Sabbath. 

1613 PURCHAS Pilgrimage (1614) 204 They are of opinion, 
that themselues haue a superfluous Sabbatharie soule, which 
on that day is plentifully sent in to them, to inlarge their 
heart. 1635 HEVLIN Sabbath u. (1636) To Rdr., This 
sabbatarie soule, may be a Pythagoricall neTejuJn/xtui"?. 
1641 H. L'ESTRANGE Goifs Sabbath Pref., Had they left 
us no other demonstrations of their excellency that way 
then their Sabbatary Tracts, they should never have attained 
so high a repute amongst us. 1674 JEAKE Arith. (1696) 663 
Seven . . is sometime called the Sacred and Quiet, or Sabba- 
tory [sic] Number. 

B. sl>. A Christian who observes the Jewish 
(seventh-day) Sabbath. 

1506 BELL Surv. Popery i. in. v. 112 The sabbatharies 
contend with tothe and nail. 1621 Three Quest. Ans^v. 
cone. $tk Command,,,. 3 The Sabbatharies, which hereto- 
fore would haue vs Christians obserue the lewes Sabbath. 

Sabbath (sarbab). Forms: a. i, 3-5 sabat, 
(3 pi. sabaz), 3 sabadt, 4 sabath, -aat, 4-5 
sabate, 4-6 sab(b)ot, 4-7 saboth, 5 sabott(e, 
sabbate, -atte, -ott, 5-6 sabote. 5-7 sabboth, 6 
sabett. -att, -otto, othe, Sc, sabbuth. 6- sab- 


bath ; /3. (erran., by confusion with SABAOTH) 4-8 
sabaoth, 6 sabaothe, sabbaoth. See also SAB- 
BAT, [ad. L. sabbatum (partly through OF. sabbat, 
sabat, mod.F. sabbat = Pr. sabbat, Sp. sabado, Pg. 
sabado, It. sabbato], Gr. aa&Ba-rov, ad. Heb. me 
shabbath, f. root rue shabath to rest. Cf. Goth. 
sabbatus, -o, MDn. sabaet, sabbet, sabbot, Dn.andG. 

The Sp., Pg., and It. forms are the ordinary names in 
those langs. for Saturday; but Pr. used dis-sapte (:-L. 
dils sabbatfl in that sense. A popular Latin nasalized form 
*sambatum (of oriental origin) appears in F. samedi k-'sam- 
batl dies), OHG. sambazfac (mod. G. samstag) Saturday. 

The confusion with SABAOTH was not peculiar to England ; 
it occurs in MHG. and in med. Latin. 

The word is now very often written (like the names of the 
days of the week and of festivals) with initial capital.) 
1. a. In the original use : The seventh day of the 
week (Saturday) considered as the day of religious 
rest enjoined on the Israelites by the fourth (or in 
medieval reckoning the third) commandment of 
the Decalogue. Phrases, to keep, break the Sabbath. 
The word was never in England, as in some continental 
countries, a vernacular synonym for Saturday, though Eng- 
lish writers of med.Latin used dies Sabbati as frequently 
as dies Saturni. 

a. cfjSft Liiidisf. Gosp. Matt. Capitula Lectionum 87 
From efernes sabates [L. a vespere sabbati]. c 1*30 Hali 
Meid. 17 Low, godd him seolf sei3 burh be prophete : ' beo 
be nabbed from ham forcoruen flesches lustes, & haldeo 
mine sabaz'. 13.. Cursor M. 11987 (Cott.) And o lame o 
baa lakes selue wit handes made he sparus tuelue, Apon 
bair sabadt bus he did. 1340 Ayenb. 7 pe bridde heste is 
tellich : ' Loke bet bou hahji bane day of be sabat (Zeter- 
day) '. . . pis word, zeterday, bet be iurie clepet> sabat, is ase 
moche wor(i ase reste. . . And ine be stede of be sabat . . zet 
holi cherche bane sonday to loky ine be newe la?e. c 1380 
WYCLIF Serm. Sel. Wks. I. 41 And Jesus spake to wyse men 
of be lawe, and to Pharisees where it were leveful to hele in be 
Sabot. 1381 Acts \. 12 Thanne the! turneden a?en to 
Jerusalem, fro the hil that is clepid Olyuete, the which is 
bisydis Jerusalem, hauynge the iurney of a saboth. 1431- 
50 tr. lligden (Rolls) IV. 267 Oure Savioure Criste was borne the nyjhte of the holy Sabotte [orig. sancti Sabbati}. 
1596 SHAKS. Merch. V. iv. i. 36 By our holy Sabbath haue I 
sworne To haue the due and forfeit of my bond. 1640 JER. 
TAYLOR Gt. E.remp. n. Disc. ix. 119 The Primitive Church 
kept both the Sabbath and the Lords day. 17*7-4' CHAM- 
BERS Cycl. s.v. Week, The Days of the Week were denomi- 
nated by the Jews, from the order of their succession from 
the sabbath. 1871 R. W. DALE Commamim. iv. 106 The 
Christian Sunday and the Jewish Sabbath are absolutely 
different institutions. 

ft. 13. . Cursor M. 11987 (Giitt.) Apon bar sabaoth bus he 
did. (-1520 NISBET N. Test, in Scots (S.T.S.) I. ii [Jesus] 
Healith the ydropysie vponn the sabaothe. c 1610 H'omen 
Saints 171 Of the lewes, hating Circumcision, yet with 
them keeping their Sabaoth. 1638 PHILLIPS, Sabaoth,. .a 
celebration of the seventh day of the week. 

b. Since the Reformation, often applied to ' the 
Lord's day ', i. e. the first clay of the week (Sunday) 
observed by Christians in commemoration of the 
resurrection of Christ. This use was originally 
connected with the opinion that the sabbatic law 
of the Decalogue remains in force under the 
Christian dispensation, the date of the ' Sabbath' 
having by Divine appointment been changed from 
Saturday to Sunday ; but it occasionally appears 
in writers who did not hold this view. In Scot- 
land it is still very common. (Phrases as in I a.) 
The notion that the Lord's day is a ' Christian Sabbath ', 
or, more commonly (as in quot. 1340 under a) a substitute 
for the Sabbath, occurs in theological writings from the 
4th c. onwards, but was not popularly current before the 
Reformation. In English, Sabbath as a synonym for ' Sun- 
day' did not become common till the i7th century. 
|c 1440: see SABBATH-DAY.] 

o. 1509 BARCLAY Ship a/Fools (1874) II. 175 Amonge the 
whiche preceptis this was one The sabbot to Worshyp and 
sanctyfy alway The seuenth day of the weke called the son- 
day. 1594 SHAKS. Rich. Ill, in. ii. 113 Hast.. .Come the 
next Sabboth, and I will content you. Priest, lie wait 
vpon your Lordship. 1607 HIERON ll'ks. I. 150 Thou art 
laboured with from sabboth to sabboth. .that thou maist be 
prepared for Christ. 1654 TRAPP Com,,,. *.*". .Introd 
The first day of the week., which is now the Christian Sab- 
both. 1717 Wodram Corr. (1843) II. 237 Mr. John Adam- 
son Sabbath was fortnight, intruded on the ministry. 1809 
SYD. SMITH Sern,. I. 74 Prayer should be offered up emi- 
nently and emphatically.. on the Sabbath. 1863 HAW. 
THORNE Our Old Home II. 100 Severe and sunless remem- 
brances of the Sabbaths of childhood. 1888 Ch. Ttmcs 

and the Prayer-book of the Church of England. 

B 1583 STUBBES Anat. Aha. i. Pref. (1879) n lo the 
nraphanation of the Lord his sabaoth. 1591 SYLVESTER Da 
Bartas I ii. 940 Common Blaspheming of God s Name in 
Oaths Usuall profaning of his Sabbaoths. 1611 ELSING 
Debates Ho. Lords (Camden) 3 The Bill for Sabaoth. 

c. gen. Applied occas. to the day of the week 
set apart for rest or worship by any religious body, 
e. jr. to the Friday as observed by Mohammedans. 

1613 PURCHAS Pilgrimage (1614) Table, Sabath..of Sara- 
cens on Friday. . ; of Peguans on Monday. 1704 J. PITTS 
Ace. Mohammetans 42 Friday is their Sabbath, or Gema- 

d. Applied to the sabbatical year of the Israelites. 
1382 WYCLIF Lev. xxv. 4 The seuenthe forsothe Jeer of the 

loond shal be the saboth of the restynge of the Lord. [So 
in later versions.] 



bath-season reigns. 1617 HIEKON Wks. II. 365 John.. neg- 
lected not the spirituall part of the *sabbath-seruice, though 

hee was restrained from the outward. 1855 LONGF. My Lost 
Youth w The early loves Comeback with a "sabbath sound. 
1625 BACON Ess., Truth (Arb.) 500 His *Sabbath Worke, 
euer since, is the Illumination of his Spirit. 

Sabbathaisni (sxbab^'iz'm). [f. Sabbatkai j r 
-ISM.] The doctrines of Sabbathai Zebi (Heb. 
Shabb thai f e bl), a false Messiah born at Smyrna 

A. D. 1626. 

1882-3 Schaff's Encycl. Relig. Knowl. II. 1129 Two 
Polish rabbis, who travelled extensively to propagate Sab- 

Sabbath.arian(sae'baJ>e^Tian). Hist. [f. SAB- 
BATAKIAX sb. 3. b. A member of the religious 
sect founded by Joanna Southcott in 1801-14. 

1719 OZELL tr. Misson's Mem, $ Observ. 235 These Sab- 
batharians are so call'd because they will not remove the 
Day of Rest from Saturday to Sunday. 1882-3 Schaff's 
Encycl. Relig. Knawl. III. 2089 Sabbatharians or New 
Israelites,.. a religious sect founded by Joanna Southcott. 

Sabbatharie, -y, variant forms of SABBATABY. 

Sa bbath-day. Forms ; (see SABBATH). 

1. = SABBATH i a. 

a. 1300-1400 Cursor M. 17355 (Laud) After that sabot-day 
was gon Thedir come they euery-chon. 1:1380 WYCLIF 
Wks. (1880) 58 He helid a sik man vpon >e sabaat day. 
1432-50 tr. Higden (Rolls) IV, 327 Whiche peple keped theire 
Sabbatte day [orig. Sabbatitm\ and hade hyt in so grete 
veneracion, that thei wolde not ordeyne meyte bat day. 
1534 MORE Treat* Passion Wks. 1308/1 So do . . their sabbot 
dayes begynne in the euenyngj and endure to the cuenynge 

2. tramj. andy%-. A time or period of rest ; a 
cessation from labour, trouble, pain and the like. 

a. 1591 SYLVESTKR Du Bartas i. vii. 446 He would, this 
Sabbath should a figure be Of the blest Sabbath of Eternity. 
1611 BIBLE Heb. iv. g There remaineth therefore a rest j 
[marg. keeping of a Sabbath] to the people of God. 1681 
DRY DEN A vs. <y Achit. 913 He. .safe enjoys the Sabbath of j 
his Toils. 1737 POPE Hor. Ep. i, L 3 Why will you break 
the Sabbath of my days ? 1795 SOUTHEY Pauper's Funeral . 
8 Yes, I will weep ; but not that thou art come To the cold ! 
sabbath of the silent tomb. 1854 NEALE Hymn, t OA 1 what ' 
the joy ', Those endless Sabbaths the blessed ones see. 1860 
TVNDALL Glac. i. ii. 20 It was Sunday, and the scene was : 
itself a Sabbath, with no sound to disturb its perfect rest. 

/3. 1398 TREVISA Barth. De P. R. ix. xxviii. (1495) 364 
Whan we come to the Sabaoth of endles rest thenne we 1 
shall haue joye. 1598 SYLVESTER Du Bartas 11. ii. iv. 
CWK:/Mi32Th'eternallsacredSabbaoth, i6ioG. FLETCHER 
Chrises Viet. i. vi, To keep an everlasting Sabbaoths rest. 

3. A midnight meeting of demons, sorcerers and 
witches, presided over by the Devil, supposed in 
mediaeval times to have been held annually as an 
orgy or festival. Often more explicitly witches' 
sabbath. Also SABBAT. 

a. i66oF. ISRooKKtr.LefiAinc's 7Vviz>. 312 Divers Sorcerers 
. . have confessed that in their Sabbaths, . . they feed on such 
fare. 1735 POPE Ep. Lady 239 As Hags hold Sabbaths, less i 
for joy than spite, So these their merry, miserable Night. 
1860 J. A. HESSEY Hampton Lect.^gg Here malignant spirits 
have held their sabbath or hellish revelries. 1883 Harper s , 
filag. 831/2 It might have been . .a veritable Witches' Sabbath. ' 

ft. 1857 15. TAYLOR North. Trav. xi. 115 It would be far I 
more picturesque to describe a sabaoth of Lapland witches , 
than a prayer-meeting of shouting converts. 

4. attrib. and Comb. : simple attrib., as Sabbath . 
devotioitt dress, evening, morning, music, rite, ' 
season, service, sound, work', Sabbath-like adj.; 
objective and objective genitive, as Sabbath- breach 
(rare 1 ), -breaker ; -breaking sb. and adj., -keeper, : 
-keeping sb. and adj. Also f Sabbath-ceased a., \ 
discontinued during the Sabbath; Sabbath-school, 
(a) SUNDAY-SCHOOL; (b} a Jewish school held on 
the Saturday for giving religious instruction to 

1784 COWPER Task iv. 653 To show at home By lewdness, 
idleness, and *sabbath-breach, The great proficiency he 
made abroad. 1607 HIERON Wks. I. 234 It cutteth the 
*sabboth-breaker, to heare his prophanenesse still cried out 
vpon. 1758 Gentl. Mag. VIII. 658/2 The excellent Laws 
against Tippling Houses, Tipplers, Sab bath -Breakers, &c. 
1853 CARD. WISEMAN Ess. I. 636 They tax Papists .. with 
being habitual Sabbath-breakers. 1651 Petition in Proc. 
Part. No. 85. 1304 Acts past against Blasphemies, prophan 
cursing and swearing, *Sabbatn breaking, &c. 1714 MAN- 
DEVILLE Fab. Bees (1733) I. 92 In the commission of the 
peace, . . he becomes . . the . . constant plague to sabbath -break- 
ing butchers. 1769 BLACKSTONE Comm. IV. 63 Profanation 
of the lord's day, or sabbath -break ing. 1593 NASHE Christ* $ 
T. 30 Theyr vnrespited, and not so much as * Saboth- ceased 
blood-shed. 1613 ZOUCH Dove To Rdr. E6b, Poetry.. in 
which diuers haue shewed their thoughts not vnfit for solemne, 
yea *Sabaoth deuotions. 1815 J. WILSON Poemsll. 94 Smiling 
in their *Sabbath-dress. i8ao SOUTHEY Wesley II. 87 Having 
. .spent a *sabbath evening at an inn. 1854 NEALE Hymn, 
* Oh, what the joy ', There dawns no Sabbath, no Sabbath 
is o'er ; These * Sabbath -keepers have one, and no more. 
1897 MARY KINGSLEY W. Africa 403 His rigid *Sabbath- 
keeping. 1824 Miss MITFOKD Village Ser. i. 28 A *sabbath- 
like pause of work and play, rare on a work-day. 1878 B. 
HAHTE Man on Beach 74 An almost Sabbath-hke stillness 
prevailed. 1863 GEO. ELIOT in Cross Life (1885) II. 355 
Your letter was a welcome addition to our sunshine this 
v Sabbath morning. 1807 WORDSW. White Doe vii, 1761 
When the bells of Rylstone played Their *sabbath music 
*God us ayde" 1 . 1784- COWPER Task i. 746 Till *sabbath- 
rites Have dwindled into unrespected forms. 1845 R. W. 
HAMILTON Pop. Educ. vi. (ed. 2) 133 The *Sabbath school 
generally supplies the sanctuary with its most intelligent 
hearers. 1864 SKEAT UhlamCs Poems 14 Nature's *Sab- 

folowynge. 1562 COOPER Ausiu. Def, Truth ix. 75 By 
necessitie of their enemies constreined they [sc. the jews] 
..fought on the Sabboth day. c 1610 Women Saints 156 
He.. with the lewes kept the Saboth day, ..yet refused 
Circumcision. 1709 J. JOHNSON Clergy m. Vade M. n. 104 
Christians must not Judaize and rest on the Sabbath-clay ; 
but work on that very day ; and give the preference to the 
Lord's day. 1726 J. HENLEY Prim. Liturgy 10 Feasts, are 
all Lords-days, all Sabbath-days, or Saturdays [etc.]. 

b. Sabbath day's journey: the distance (2,000 
amnioth or 'ells' = 1225 yards) which (according 
to Rabbinical prescription in the time of Christ) was 
the utmost limit of permitted travel on the Sabbath. 
1526 TINUALE Acts i. 12 Mount olivete which is neye to 
Jerusalem . . conteynynge a saboth dayes iorney. 1628 EARLE 
Microcosm.^ S/u'e Precise Hypocr. (Arb.) 63 Her oftest (Jo.s- 
sipings are Sabaoth-dayes iourneyes. 

2. = SAKBATH i b. 

The first two quots. may perhaps not be rightly placed 
here, as it was the common view that the commandment ' to 
keep holy the Sabbath-day', in its Christian interpretation, 
related to the festivals of the Church in general, and not to 
Sunday only or eminently. 

1440 Gesta Rom, x. 30 (Harl. MS.) Hope we hit is our 
lurd ihesu crist, fce which hath ordeyned for lawe, bat ech 
man shold kepe be saboth day. 1513 BRADSHAW St. Wcr- 
burge n. 879 A woman which brake the commaundement 
Of god and holy churche hye sabbot-day dyd violate Vn- 
kiufully wurkynge. 1575 LANEHAM Let. (1871)12 Onsunday: 
the forenoon occupied (az for the Sabot day) in quiet and 
vacation from woork, & in diuine seruis. 1605 Vestry Bks. 
(Surtees) 284 There shall be no meetinge as concerning any 
business about upon the Sabbath day. 1651 .SY. Andrews % 
Nfiucastle-on'Tyne Par. Reg. in ..V. <y . 8th Ser. I. 223 
Robard Fen wick, .which was drowned in the Bares myll 
dam wher he went to swim on the Saboth day. 1715 DE FOE 
l*'am. Instruct. \. iii. (1841) I. 63 As soon as they come home 
next Sabbath-day from the sermon. 1810 WORDSW. Prose 
Wks. (1876) II. 33 The sensations of pious cheerfulness, 
which attend the celebration of the sabbath-day in rural 
places. 1830-2 CAKLETON Traits Irish Peasantry (1860) I, 
146 {Priest) On the Sabbath day too, without my leave ! 

3. = SABBATH i c. 

1704 J. PITTS Ace. Mohammetans 42 The Hattech^ i.e. a 
Priest which is above the maw tit, officiates on their Sab- 

4. gen. A Sabbath, day of sacred rest. 

J 755 POPK/V<?/. Sat. 12 Noplace is sacred, not the Church 
Is free; Ev'n Sunday shines no Sabbath-day to me. 

Sabbathine (sorbabain), a. [f. SABBATH + 
-INK 1 .] Affecting or pertaining to the Sabbath. 

1830 T. M'CRIE Mem. Sir A. Agneiu viii. (1852) 194 The 
Sabbathine rules enjoin the Sons of Abraham to prepare for 
the Feast, by laying in a stock of provisions the day before. 

Sabbathize (ste'bft]aiz\ v. [Altered form of 
SABBATIZK after SABBATH.] intr. To observe or 
keep a Sabbath or period of rest. 

1609 BIBLE (Douay) i Esdras i. 58 The land quietly kept 
her sabbathes, a] the time of her desolation she sabbathixed 
in the application of seventie yeares. 1621 AINSWOBTH 
Annot. Pentat. Gen. ii. 2 Rested : or Sabbathised, that is, 
kept Sabbath. 1633 W. STRUTHER True Happiness 75 This 
dwelling in God is our spiritual sabbathizing, the type of the 
eternal!. 1705 HICKERINGILL Priest-cr. \, Wks. 1716 III. 
52 The Solemn League and Covenant. .Mr. Knox did. .bring 
into Scotland, where it is rampant to this day, and more 
rigid than the Inquisition in Spain, with the additional 
BigotUm of Sabbathising. 

Sabbathless (sce-bables), a. [f. SABBATH + 

-LESS.] Observing no Sabbath. 

1605 BACON Adv. Learn, n. xxiii. 46 This incessant and 
Sabbathlesse pursute of a mans fortune leaueth not tribute 
which we owe to God of our time, a 1656 HALES Gold. 
Ran. (1688) 178 Prayer itself is Sabbathless, and admits no 
rest, no intermission at all. 1820 LAMB Sonn, t ' Who Jlrst 
invented work\ Sabbathless Satan ! he who his unglad 
Task^ever plies. 1888 Pall Mall G. 31 Oct. 2/2 In 1885 
Austria-Hungary in response to the bitter cry of Sabbath- 
less toilers enacted a stringent Sunday law. 

Sabbathly (sse'bapli), a. [f, SABBATH + -LY *.] 
Recurring every Sabbath. 

1822 GALT Sir A. Wylie HI. xvii. 139 It was a Sabbathly 
theme of regret. 

Sa'bbathly, adv. [f. SABBATH + -LY 2 .] 

1. Every Sabbath ; Sabbath by Sabbath. Sc. 
1627 in Cramond Ann. ^0^^(1893) II. 34 Their absenceis 

fra the Kirk Sabbothlie at the direction of the bailyies and 
elderis. 1671 Rec. Presbyt. Inverness 29 Mar. (S. H. S. 
1896) 9 They were refreshed very much by him Sabbathly. 
1820 Blackw. Mag. VII. 467 As the Rev. Mr. F . .Sab- 
bathly says, in the peroration of his sermons. 

2. In a manner befitting the Sabbath. 

1891 C. JAMES Rom. Rigmarole no The Squire was Sab- 
bathly solemn and imposing. 

Sabbatian (sKb^'Jian), sbl [f. Sabbati-its (see 
below) -i- -AN.] A member of a sect founded by 
Sabbatius (originally a convert from Judaism), who 
seceded from the Novatianists before 380, having 
adopted Quartodeciman views. 

1708-22 BINGHAH Orig. Eccles. xx. iii. 5 The Marcianists 
. . kept the Sabbath also a fast. So did also the Sabbatians, 
Lampetians [etc.). 1727-41 CHAMBERS Cyc/.s.v., The Sabba- 
lians are recorded by ecclesiastical historians, as having a 
great abhorrence of the left-hand. 1882-3 Schaff^s Encycl. 
Rt'lig. Knffwl. III. 2090 By his followers, the Sabbatians, he 
was nonored as a martyr. 

Sabbatian (ssebt'i-fian), a. and sb2 [f. *Sad- 
batius (mod.L. form of Shabbethai : see SABBATH- 
AISM) + -AN.] A. adj. Pertaining to Sabbathaism. 

1892 tr. Gr&tzsHist, Jews V. 151 The Sabbatian mystics. 
B. si). A believer in Sabbathaism. 

1892 tr. Gratis Hist. JewsV. 159 At Venice, .a quarrel 
broke out between the Sabbatians and their opponents. 

Hence Sabba-tianism = SABBATHAISM. 

1892 tr. Grdtzs Hist. Jews V. Index, Sabbatianism, re- 
vival of, v. 219. 1898 ZAXGWILL Dreamers Ghetto vi. 205 
Sabbatianism did not play much part in my early life. 

Sabbatic (sseboe'tik^a.and.^. [ad. V.sabbatique 
( ^ Sp. sabdtico, Pg., It. sabbatico], ad. med.L. *sab- 
batiius, a. Gr. aafi&artKos, f. ffa&QaT-ov SABBATH : 
see -ic.] A. adj. Of or pertaining to the Sabbath ; 
resembling or appropriate to the Sabbath. Sab- 
batic year = sabbatical year (SABBATICALS. 2 a). 

1649 JKK. TAYLOR Gt. Exemp. n. Disc, ix. 119 Strict and 
necessary rest.. was one great part of the Sabbatick rite>. 
1650 Vind. Hammonds Ad dr. 16. 6 The servant to 
be set free from that servitude, .in the seventh, or sabbatick 
year. 1660 JEK. TAYLOR Duct. Dubit. II. ii. rule vi. 46 
They kept their first Sabbatick rest upon the very day in 
which their redemption was completed. (21711 KEN PrC' 
/(*>'a//Z'i- Poet. Wks. 1721 IV. 30 Sabbatick Dawn, a Priest 
of old, By sound of Trumpet told. 1737 WHISTON Josephus, 
War vii. v. i They call it the sabbatick river. 1861 LMVIN 
Jerusalem 87 Provisions in the little garrison from the effect 
of the sabbatic year, began to run short. 1882 J. PARKER 
Apost. Life I. 99 Grant Sabbatic peace to every soul. 

fB. sb. A sabbatic year. Obs. 

1650 Vina. Hammonds Addr. 16. 6 The Jubilee, which 
is the great Sabbatick (made up of seven time,-, seven). 

Sabbatical (s&bcc'tikal), a. Also 8 sabbathi- 
cal. [f. mod.L. *sabbatic-its (see prec.) + -AL.] 

1. Pertaining to or appropriate to the Sabbath. 

1645 City Alarum 20 The formerly mentioned are but 
our working dayes abuses, now followes our seventh and Sab- 
baticall errour, wherein we seeme to rest. 1799 COKKV Sat. 
I.ond. (1803) 94 The Curate Is so far from being prepared fur 
his sabbatical avocation, that he is engaged during the week 
in some worldly pursuit. 1849 H. MILLER Footpr. Creat. 
xv. (1874) 295 It seems, besides, to throw light on the pro- 
minence of the Sabbatical command. 1877 MRS. OLII-HAST 
Carita II. xxxi. 291 This, too, was a kind of solemn sab- 
batical exercise. 1892 A. BIRRELL Res Judic. ii. 38 A sab- 
batical calm results from the contemplation of his labours. 

b. Sabbatical river: an imaginary river cele- 
brated in Jewish legend, which was said to observe 
the Sabbath. Similarly Sabbatical pool; see quot. 

The legend of the ' sabbatical river * existed in two dis- 
crepant forms : cf. quots. 1671 (after Josephus) and 1849. 

1613 PI'RCHAS Pilgrimage (1614) 519 This was the issue of 
their Pilgrimage to the Sabbatical! streams:, which they 
supposed to finde in this Persian Gulfe. 1649 JKK. TAYLOR 
(.it. J'.xemp. in. xiv. 51 The sabbaticall pool in judea, which 
was dry six dayes, but gushed out in a full stream upon the 
sabbath, 1671: STILLINGFL. Serm. viii. (1673,1 1 5 I '1'he famous 
Sabbatical River .. which for 6. days bear's all before it-. : 
the admirable nature of that River is, that it keeps the 
Sabbath and rests all that day. 1849 LONGF. Kawanagh 
xi. (1857) 221 And must my life, then, be always like the 
Sabbatical river of the Jews, flowing in full stream only on 
the seventh day? 

c. Of the nature of a Sabbath or period of rest. 
1836 SIR H. TAYLOR Statesman xi. 79 It were to be wished 

that he should set apart from business, not only a Mtbbatical 
day in each week, but if it be possible a sabbatical hour in 
each day ! 

2. a. Sabbatical year', the seventh year, pre- 
scribed by the Mosaic law to be observed as a 
* Sabbath ' in which the land was to remain 
untilled and all debtors and Israelitish slaves were 
to be released. Also allusively. 

1635-56 COWLEY Davideis \\. Note 8 From hence con- 
tracts, and the account of Sabbatical years and Jubilees 
bare date. 1705 HICKERINGILL Priest-cr. i. Wks. 1716 III. 
24 Neither Seventh Days.. nor Sabbath Days, nor Sab- 
bathical Years.. is now any more obligatory to us. 1828 
E. IRVING Last Days p. viii, May it prove unto us as a sab- 
batical year of rest ! 

b. Sabbatical millenary , millennium \ the last 
of the seven thousands of years which (on the analogy 
of the seven days of the creation) were supposed to 
form the destined term of the world's existence. 

1646 SIR T. BROWNE Pseud. Ep. vi. i. 278 He conceaveth 
the Elemental! frame shall end in the seventh or Sabbaticall 
millenary. 1814 J. CHRISTIE Ess. Early Idol, n The sup- 
posed continuance of this earth as many thousand years, 
the last thousand of which, it was reported, would be a 
Sabbatical Millenium. 

Hence Sabba'tically adv. , Sabba'ticalness. 

1727 BAILEY vol. II., Sabbaticahtess, the Being of the 
Nature or Quality of a Sabbath. 1847 DISRAELI Taticrett 
n. xv, He sabbaticallyabstainsfromthe debate or the rubber. 

Sabbatine (sarbatsin), a. Hist. [ad. med.L. 
sabbatin-us (and Sp. sabaliiio), f. sabbat-itm SAB- 
BATH, Saturday.] a. Sabbatine preacher : one ap- 
pointed to preach on Saturdays, b. Sabbatine bull: 
a bull of Pope John XXII, proclaiming, as a re- 
ward for the wearing of the scapular, a plenary 
indulgence available on the first Saturday after the 
death of him who gains it. So Sabbatine indul- 

Mt. Carmcl 15 That the so celebrated name of the Sabba- 
tine Bull might not be forgotten. 1886 Month Dec. 473 The 
second of these privileges, .is. .the Sabbatine Indulgence. 
It isaplenary. .Indulgence, .available on the first Saturday 
after the death of him who gains it, releasing him then and 
there from Purgatory and admitting him straightway to the 
joys of Heaven. 

Sabbatism (sarbatu'm). rare. [ad. late L. 
sabbatistnuS) Gr. <7a0/3aTi<T/*ys, n. of action f. aa- 



keep the Sabbath.f. adP0ar-ov SABBATH: 
see -ISM.] 

1 A sabbatical rest : in allusions to Heb. iv. 9. 

1581 N. T. (Rhem.) Heb. iv. 9 Therefore there is left a 
iabbatisme [Vulg. sabbath,,, Gr <r,,x -Wye. 

day of rest, now in the dayes ot the uospel, ainerem in 
the seventh day of rest. 1886 S. Cox Expositions 1 1 . xxvn. 
376 This Divine sahbatism, this pure eternal rest. 

2. The formal observance of the Sabbath. 

1611 BROUGHTON Require of Agreement 13 In the lubilee 
the Maiestie of God will be a remission, and redemption, 
and ending of Sabbatisme to Israeli, a. 1711 KEN Prepara- Poet. Wks. 1721 IV. 29 Sabbatism. To a Seventh 
Day God Jews restraint, For Joy, Rest, Praise ordain d. 
1879 FARRAR.W. fauHiBB 3 ) 117 Sabbatism had been ele- 
vated above faith and purity. 

Hence Sabbati'smal a., characterized by holy rest. 

1881 J. C. BURNS in /. Brace's Serin. Biog. 102 Very 
peaceful, Sabbatismal, these years were. 

Sabbatist (sarbatist). [f. L. sabbat-wn SAB- 

1857 BADEN POWELL CAr. without Judaism 161 Some 
Sabbatists..keep holy the seventh day of the week. 1863 
J GILL tr. Bovet's Banislied Count xxi. 222 The Sabbatists 
observed the Seventh day of the week instead of the first. 

Sabbatization (siBbSteiz-fan). [f. next + 

-ATION.] The action of sabbatizing : a. Observ- 
ance of the Sabbath, Sabbath-keeping, b. The 
conversion (of Sunday) into a Sabbath. 
1644 LAUD Trout, ff Tryal xxxv. (1695) 345 Jf* ^* < ! n 
ho stand so strictly upon the Morality of the Sabbath, do 

1882 Ch. Times n Aug. 544 The Sabbatization of Sunday 
came in comparatively late. 

Sabbatize (sarbatsiz), v. Also SABBATHBB. 

[ad. L. sadbatiz-are, ad. Gr. mPParlftur, f. o-d0- 
Parov SABBATH : see -IZE. Cf. F. sabbatiser.~\ 

1. intr. To keep the Sabbath; to observe a speci- 
fied day as a day of rest. 

1608 WILLET Hexapla Exod. 247 They are also com- 
manded to keepe the Sabbaths rest, to Sabbatize. a 1716 
BLACKALL Wks. (1723) I. 214 We do not so Sabbatise as we 
should do, if we give only one Day of the Week to God, 
and the other six Days to the Devil. 1881 BLACKIE Lay 
Serin, ii. 105 A Samaritan . . made it a point .. in whatever 
attitude the first moment of the day had found him, in that 
position to remain..: if sitting, then to Sabbatise in the 
sitting attitude. 

b. Jig. To enjoy or undergo a period of rest 
analogous to a Sabbath. 

1382 WVCLIF i Esdras i. 58 Al the time of ther forsaking 
he [i. e. the land] sabatisede, in the apliyng of seuenti jer. 
1596 BELL Sun. Popery i. HI. v. 109 Although the mind re- 
generate do sabbatize in the Lord. 1625 GILL Sacr. Philos. 
II. 140 But if there were no incarnation . . neither our under- 

all his Dolours sabbatiz'd. 

2. trans. To observe or keep as a Sabbath ; to 
assimilate to a Sabbath. 

1609 BIBLE (Douay) Lev. xxv. 2 Thou shall sabbatize the 
sabbath to the Lord. 1880 \V. Smith's Diet. Chr. Antiq. 


t3. To give sabbatical rest to. Obs. rare 1 . 

1701 BEVERLEY A foe. Quest. 8 For the Type is Sacrifice 
Honourably Sabbatiz'd, and at Rest in the Antitype, Our 
Lord Jesus Christ, our great Sacrifice Sabbatizing All Sacri- 
fice by the sacrifice of Himself. 

Hence Sa-bbatizing vbl. sb. Also Sa'bbatizer, 
in quot. one who observes the Jewish Sabbath. 

1613 PURCHAS Pilgrimage (1614) 122 The Jewes on their 
Sabbaths, .did vse. .to drink somwhat more largely (a Sab- 
batising too much, by too many Christians imitated). 1683 
HICKES Case Inf. Bapt. 61 Let the Adversaries of Infant- 
Baptism consider. -Whether rejecting of it-.they^ do^not 

. - 

teach others, especially Atheists, pure Deists, and Sabba- 
tizers..a w 
tives Poet. 

, , 

tizers..a way to deny all the rest. 31711 KEN Prepara- 
tives Poet. Wks. 1721 IV. 20 Wear Jesus Yoke, ..1'wil 
prove a Sabbatising to your Mind. 1742 J. GLAS Lord's 

Supper ii, (1883) 76 Our sabbatizing, or resting from our owr 
works on the first day of the week is a sign of the truth o: 
the promise of entering into his rest. 1855 People's Sunday 
5, I shall, therefore, further show the complete absence o: 
scripture authority for the doctrines of our Sabbatizing 

Sabbaton, -tyne : see SABATON, SABATINE. 

|| Sabbe-ka. Antiq. rare- 1 . [Biblical Aramaic 
ND3ic or W2D sablfka.} An ancient musical instru- 
ment mentioned in the Book of Daniel ; in the 
English Bible erroneously called SACKBUT, q. v. 

1844 WIIITTIER Ezekiel ix, They listen, as in Babel's 
throng The Chaldeans to the dancer's song, Or wild sab- 
beka's nightly play. 

II Sabdariffa (saebdari-E). [mod.L. ; in Lobe 
Plantarum Hist. (1576) 375 ; of obscure origin.], 
An East Indian rose-mallow, Hibiscus Sabdariffi 
(Linnseus 1759)1 cultivated for its acidulous calyxes 

1866 Treas. Bat. 1002/2 Sabdariffa. Hibiscus Sabdariffa 
called Red Sorrel in the West and Rozelle in the Eas 
Indies, where it is used in tarts, jellies and salads, and t( 
form a cooling drink. 

Sabe : see SAVEY. 

Sabean, Sabeism : see SABEAN, SABAISM. 

Sabel, obs. form of SABLE. 

t Sabeline, sb. Obs. Also 3 sablyne, 7 sabel- 
ine. [a. Of.sabeKiie (i 2th c. in Godef.),ad. med.L. 
abelina (pellis), sable (fur), i. sabellum SABLE rf. 1 
Cf. ZIBELINE.] The fur of the sable. 

a 1200 Moral Ode 364 (Egerton MS.) Ne seal ber beo fou ne 
grei ne cunig ne ermine ne ocquerne ne martres cheole ne 
>euer ne sabeline [c 1275 "fesus MS. sablyne]. ? 1700 Cruel 
Mother in Child Ballads (1882) I. 221/2 We neither wore 
he silks nor the sabelline. 1876 PLANCHE Cyd. Costume 
I. 439 Sable, sabelline, the skin of an animal of the weasel 
or marten kind. 

Sabeline : see SABELLINE a. 1 

I] Sabella (sabe-la). Zool. [mod.L. (Gmelin 
Linnseus Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1788), perh. f. sabu- 
lum sand.] A tubicolons annelid of the family 

a 1851 DALYELL Powers Creator (1853) II. 175 Different 
species or varieties of the Sabella are found on the shores 
and in the seas of Scotland. Ibid., Sabella ah'eolaria. 
The Honeycomb Sabella. 1851 MEDLOCK tr. Schoedler's 
Bk. Nature n. 530 There are besides, the Sabellas, or pencil, 
fan, and comb-worms (Sabella). 1863 WOOD Illiistr. Nat. 
Hist. III. 699 We now come to another pretty tube-inhabiting 
annelid, which is called Sabella, because it lives in the sand 
and forms its tube of that substance. Several species of 
Sabella are found on the British coasts, the most common of 
which is the Shore Sabella (Sabella ahieolaria). 

Sabellian (sabe-lian), al and sbl Theol. [ad. 
eccl. L. Sabeltian-tis, f. Sabelli-us (see B) : see -AN.] 

A. adj. Pertaining to the Sabellians (see B) or 
their doctrine. 

1577 HANMER AM. Eccl. Hist. vn. v. 126 Of the Sabellian 
eresie...The Sabellian heretickes. i72oWATERLAND.V/^ 
Semi. 4 Under the Sabellian Interpretation I include all 
that belongs to Men of Sabellian Principles. 1848 R. I. 
WILBERFORCE Doctr. Incarnation ix. 259 The Sabellian 
theory is, that there exists no real diversity of Persons in the 
Ever-Blessed Trinity. 

B. sb. One who accepts the view of Sabellius 
(an African heresiarch of the third century) that 
the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are merely differ- 
ent aspects or modes of manifestation of one Divine 
person. Cf. MODALIST. 

1402 Pol. Poems (Rolls) II. 92 He is callid an heretike 
that heresies sowith, as Arrians, Wyclyfanes, Sabellyanes, 
and other. 1556 CLEMENT in Strype Eccl. Mem. III. App. 
Ixi. 214 From all Arians, Eutichians, Manichians, Sabel- 
lians.. and all other heretikes. 1685 RYCAUT tr. Plutina's 
Lives Popes 52 The Sabellians .. asserted that the Father, 
Son, and holy Ghost were but one Person. 1702 ECHARD 
Eccl Hist. (1710)619 Tho 1 those who then held this opinion 
were call'd Sabellians, yet the heresie itself was more ancient 
than Sabellius. 1850 ROBERTSON Serm. Ser. in. iv. (1872) 45 
Sabellians, or worshippers of one person under three differ- 
ent manifestations. 

Sabellian (sabe-lian), a.2 and jiM Hist. [f. L. 
Sabell-us + -IAN.] a. adj. Pertaining to a group 
of related peoples who inhabited certain parts of 
ancient Italy, comprising the Sabines, Samnites, 
Campanians, and others, b. sb. A person belong- 
ing to any of these peoples. 

In Latin poetry SatelH is commonly used as a synonym 
of Sablni. The use of Sabellian by modern writers is 
somewhat arbitrary. 

1601 HOLLAND Pliny I. 64 Of Samnites, whom the Greekes 
called Sabellians and Saunites, The Colonie Bouianum, the 
old. 1841 W. SPALUING Italy f, It. Isl. I. 277 The territory 
of those Sabellian tribes (sc. the Sabines, Marsians, Pelig- 
nians, Vestinians, and Samnites], which are here classed 
together, includes the central heights and valleys of the 
Apennines. 1880 Encycl. Brit. XIII. 445/2 Oscan is. .a use- 
ful term to designate the nation or group of tribes composed 
of the Samnites, together with their descendants or offshoots, 
the Campanians, Lucanians, and Bruttians. The name 
Sabellians, used by the Roman poets, has been employed 
by some modern writers in much the same signification. 

Sabellianism (sabe-lianiz'm). [f. SABELLIAN 
a.l and sb. 1 + -ISM.] The doctrinal conception of 
the Trinity as held by the followers of Sabellius ; 
belief in the Sabellian doctrine of the Trinity. 

1668 H. MORE Div. Dial. Schol. (1713) 549 Sabellianism, 
which allows the Consubstantiality or Coequality in the 
Trinity. 1852 ROBERTSON Serin. Ser. iv. xi. (1876) 104 A 
heresy known by the name of Sabellianism or Modal 
Trinity. 1907 ILLINGWORTH Doctr. Trin. vii. 127 To avoid 
Tritheism on the one hand,, .and Sabellianism on the other. 

Sabellianize (sabe-lianaiz), v. [f. SABELLIAN 
+ -IZE.] intr. To adopt Sabellian views. 

1833-40 J. H. NEWMAN Church of Fathers (1842) 171 We 
have bid farewell to contentious deviations of doctrine, . . 
neither Sabellianizing nor Arianising. 1833 A rians v. 
i. (1876) 356 Not only did he [Athanasius] reluctantly aban- 
don his associate, the unfortunate Marcellus, on his Sabel- 
lianizing but [etc.]. 

Sabellic (sabe-lik), a. [f. L. Satellus SABEL- 
LIAN a. 2 + -ic.] Pertaining to the language or the 
nationality of the Sabellians. 

1880 Encycl. Brit. XIII. 126/1 The Sabellic inscriptions. 
1902 GILES in Encycl. Brit. XXXIII. 898/2 The Sabellic 
alphabet, . . found in a few inscriptions. 

Sabellid(sabe-Ud),a.andrf. Zool. [f. SABELLA 

+ -ID.] A. adj. Pertaining to or connected with 
the family Sabellidie, of which the genus Sabella is 
the type. 

1900 Nature 6 Dec. 140/1 A paper, .on the sabellid worms 
collectively designated as Polycna;tes. 


B. sb. An individual of the family Sabellidx. 

1893 Jrnl. Mar. Zool. Nov. 13 On the method of disper- 
sion and fertilization of ova in some sabellids. 1896 BENHAM 
in Camb. Nat. Hist. II. 286 The beautiful branchial crowns 
of various Sabellids. 

Sabelline (sabe-lain), al Also (in Diets.) 
sabeliue. [ad. med.L. sabelllmis, f. sabellum 
SABLE rf. 1 ] Of the colour of sable fur. 

1888 Lougm. Mag. July 297 Bird and beast must assume 
alike the uniform grey sabelline tint of external nature. 

Sabelline (sabe-lain), a.2 Zool. [f. SABELIA 
+ -INE !.] Pertaining to the genus Sabella or to 
the family Sabellidx (Cent. Diet. 1891). 

Sabelline, variant of SABELINE Obs. 

Satellite (sffibe-lait). Zool. [f. SABELLA + -ITE!.] 
A fossil sabella, or some similar worm (Cent. Diet. 

Sabelloid (sabe'loid), a. and sb. Zool. [f. 
SABELLA + -DID.] a. adj. Of or resembling the 
annelidan Sabellids, (Cent. Diet. 1891). b. sb. One 
of the Sabellidx (ibid.). 

Saber, obs. or U.S. form of SABRE. 

Sabiail (s^'-bian), sb. and a. Also 7-8 Zabian, 
7-8 Sabean, 8 Zabsean, Tsabsean, 8-9 Sabssan, 
Tsabian. [f. Arab. iL, cabt + -AN. 

According to Noldeke, the word represents the pr. pple. 
of the Aramaic MX fbaC. to baptize (the 1 being changed 
into N as is usual in the Mandeean and cognate dialects). 
In the actual form in which the word occurs in Arabic, it 
has the appearance of being derived from the same root as 
the Hebrew NIX (.aba host (see SABAOTH) ; hence, as certain 
sects claiming the name of Sabians were alleged to be wor- 
shippers of the stars, the name was (already by Maimoni' 
des in the i2th c.) interpreted as referring to ' the host of 
heaven \] 
A. sb. 

1. An adherent of a religious sect mentioned in 
three passages of the Koran (ii. 40, v. 73, xxii. 17), 
and by later Arabian writers. 

In the Koran the Sabians are classed with Moslems, Jews, 
and Christians, as believers in the true God. On account 
of the toleration extended by Moslems to them, the name 
of Sabians was, some centuries after Mohammed, assumed 
not only by the Gnostic half-Christian Mandxans (whose 
religion is perhaps akin to that of the true Sabians), but 
also by certain actual polytheists. The statement of some 
Arabic writers is that the Sabians were professedly Christian, 
but secretly worshippers of the stars. (Cf. SABAISM.) 

1661 BOYLE Style of Script. (1675) 35 For want of knowing 
the Religion of the antient Zabians. ..Of those Zabusts..! 
find a deep and general silence in Classick Authors. 1797 
Encycl. Brit. (ed. 3) X. 462/1 The fourth [. apartment of 
hell] named al Sair, [Mohammedans assign] to the Sabians. 
1841 Penny Cyd. XX. 295/2 That the unity of the Deity 
was however still acknowledged in the religious system of 
the Tsabians is manifest from the way in which this religion 
is spoken of in the Koran. 
b. Used for MAND/EAN (see quot. 1883). 
1797 Encycl. Brit. (ed. 3) X. 458/2 The Sabians have 
several books which they attribute to some of the antedilu- 
vian prophets. 1883 K. KESSLER iliid. (ed. 9) XV. 467/2 
note, In their dealings with members of other communions 
the designation they [i.e. the Mandzans] take is Sabians. 

2. In erroneous use : A worshipper of ' the host 
of heaven ' ; a star-worshipper. 

1716 PRIDEAUX O. $ N. Test. Connected i. HI. (1718) I- HO 
The remainder of this sect still subsists in the east under 
the same name of Sabians. .. That which hath given them 
the greatest credit among the people of the east is, that the 
best of their astronomers have been of tins sect . . t or the 

ntfUtUfVflf 23 July H3/ j *MMWf v*m>.^"-""** 
Warburton.. agree that Cain.. and his descendants were 
Saba:ans. Abraham and Moses were Sabaians till Jehovah 
revealed himself to them. 

B. adj. Pertaining to the Sabians (in the vari- 
ous applications of the name : see A). 

1796 MORSE Amer. Geog. II. 571 The Sabean Christians 
haveTin their religion, a mixture of Judaism and Mahometan- 
ism. 1859 J. M. ARNOLD Ishmael 35 In a Sabian Almanac 
it is stated : ' They fast in it seven days . . in honour of the 
great Lord, the Sun, the Lord of all Good. 1886 Encycl. 
Brit XXI. 128/1 It is quite inappropriate to call star-wor- 
shippers in general Sabians or Zabians or to speak of a 
distinct Sabian religion, as older writers do. 

Sabianism (s<?''bianizm). Also 9 sabseamsm. 
[f. prec. + -ISM.] The religion of the Sabians; 
chiefly in erroneous use, worship of ' the host of 
heaven', star-worship. Cf. SABAISM. 

1788 GIBBON Decl. * F. V. 1. 104 Sabianism was diffused 
over \sia by the science of the Chaldaeans and the arms of 
the Assyrians. .816 G. S. FABER Orig. Pagan Idol. I. 31 Astro- 
latry or Sabianism ; that is to say, the worship of the Sun, 
the Moon, and the Host of Heaven. 1871 PROCTOR Light 
Set 333 Sabseanism, or star-worship. 

Sabicu (ssbikz?). A timber tree, Lysiloma 
Sabicu, native of Cuba, the wood of which is 
greatly valued for its hardness and durability ; the 
wood of this tree. Also attrib. 

1866 Treas. Bot. 704/1 The valuable hard timber known 
as Sabicii, Savacu or Savico wood. laid., Sabicu timber is 
imported.. from Cuba. 1875 Encycl. Brit. I. 68/2 Acacia 
fornwsa supplies the valuable Cuba timber called sabicu. 
1879 Man. Artillery Exerc. 588 A number of 5-m. sabicu 
shifting rollers. 

Sabiism : see SABAISM. 

Sabill, obs. f. SABLE. Sabin(e, var. ff. SAVIN. 


Sabiue (sarbain), a. and sb. Hist. [ad. L. 

Sabm-us adj. and sb.] A. adj. Of or pertaining 
to the Sabines : see B. 

1697 DRYDEN sEneiii VHI. 842 Sabine dames. 1756 C. 
SMART tr. Horace, Sat. i. ix. (1826) II. 75 An old Sabine 
sorceress. 1841 W. SPALDING Italy * It. 1st. I. 220 The 

..valley of the Hernici .. separates the Sabine heights 
from the group of mountains anciently inhabited by the 
Volscians. 1908 O. CRAWFORD in igM Cent. Jan. 69 Liquor 
that Horace drank and sang of on his Sabine farm. 

B. sb. One of a race of ancient Italy who in- 
habited the central region of the Apennines. 

1387 TREVISA Higden (Rolls) III. 61 Tacius kyng of 
Sabyns was i-slawe by assent of Romulus. 1333 BELLENDEN 
Livy i. iv. (S.T. S.) I. 29 Ane huge nowmer of Sabinis with 
J>are wyiffis, barnis, & servandis. 1601 HOLLAND Pliny I. 
65 The Sabines. -dwell hard by the Veline lakes. 1783 W. 
GORDON tr. Livy's Rom. Hist. (1823) I. xxxviii. 70 The 
Sabines fled to the Mountains. 1841 W. SPALDING Italy 
ff ft. Isl. I. 46 The Sabines, as it is. -conjectured, had a 
settlement covering the Capitoline and Quirinal Hills. 

b. trails/, in allusion to the proverb Sabini 
quod volunt somniant, ' the Sabines dream what 
they will ' (Festus). 

1610 HOLLAND Catticien's Brit. 542 Grimsby, which our 
Sabins, or conceited persons dreaming what they list, and 
following their owne fansies, will have to be so called of 
one Grime a merchant. 

Sabino (sabrno). [app. altered form of Sp. 
sabina SAVIN.] a. The bald or deciduous cypress, 
Taxodium distichum ( Treas. Bot., Suppl., 1 874). b. 
The Mexican swamp cypress, Taxodium miicrona- 
tum (Webster Suppl., 1902). c. The wood of a 
speciesof7a/wiz(Encycl.Brit. XIX. 532/2,1885). 

Sabir : see SAMBUB. 

Sable (s^i-b'l), jvU Forms: a. 4 sabylle, 
5 sabulle, 5-6 sabill, 5-7 sabel, 6 sabil(le, 7 
sabell, 4- sable. 0. 7 cebal. [a. OF. sable, 
saible sable fur, also qa&si-ad/. in martre sable 
(' sable marten ') as the name of the animal and 
its fur, med.L. sabelunt, sabellum sable fur, Icel. 
safal, safali sable (the animal), sable-fur, Du. 
sabel sable-fur. The OF. word was prob. adopted 
from Slavonic : cf. Russian co6(Mb, Polish, Czech 
sobol (whence G. sobel. Da., Sw. sol/el), Lith. saba- 
las, Hung, czoboly, the sable. See also ZIBELLINE, 
which represents a Romanic derivative from the 
same Slavonic word. 

The rare ijth c. form cebal is of obscure origin ; it may 
possibly be a shortening of one of the Rom. forms cited s.v. 


1. A small carnivorous quadruped, Mustela zibel- 
lina, nearly allied to the martens, and native of the 
arctic and sub-arctic regions of Europe and Asia. 
Also Russian, Siberian sable. In ME. the animal 
and its fur are called also martrix sable, martryn 
sable, after OF. martre sable. 

The American sable, Mustela Americana, native of the 
arctic and sub-arctic regions of North America, is now 
regarded as a geographical variety of the Old World species. 
The red or Tatar sabU is the Siberian mink, Putorius 

1423 JAS. I Kingis Q. civil, The bugill, draware by his 
hornis grete ; The martrik sable, the foyn3ee, and mony mo. 
1463-4 Rolls ofParlt. V. 504/2 That noo Knyght. .nor noo 
Wyf of eny such Knyght . . were eny manere Cloth of Gold 
..oreny Furreof Sables. 1585 T. WASHINGTON Ir. Nicholas's 
Voy. II. xxiii. 62 Furres of martirs, Zebelins, Sables, ..and I 
other fine skins. 1668 CHARLETON Onontast. 19 Mustela 
Zibellina, . . the Cebal, or Sable. 17x9 DE FOE Crusoe \ 
(1840) II. xvi. 326 They. .catch sables and foxes. 1877 
COUES Fur Anittt. iii. 95 The Sable is principally trapped 
during the colder months. 

b. Painting. A pencil made of the sable's hair 
(Cent. Diet. 1891). 

2. The skin or fur of the sable. 

14.. LYDG. Life Our Lady (MS. Bodl. 75, fo!. 72 b) Ne 
martres sable [Caxton and other texts Ne martyrn ne 
sabyl]..Was noon founde in her garment. 1508 .4 or. Ld. 
High. Treas. Scot. IV. 20 Item, put in the samyn [goun] 
sevin score of mertrikis of the Kingis and pairt of sabilles. 
1553 EDEN Treat. Newe Ind. (Arb.) 20 The riche furres 

lied Zibellini, which we call Sables. 1638 SIR T. HERBERT 
rav. (ed. 2) 180 Raw silks, exchang'a for sal ' 
LADY M. W. MONTAGU Let. to Ctess Mar 30 

Trav. (ed. 2) 180 Raw silks, exchang'a for sables. 1717 
LADY M. W. MONTAGU Let. to Ctess Mar 30 Jan., This 
lady was in a gown.. lined and faced with sables. 1835 

Court Mag. VI. p. vi/2 When we say furs, we should rather 
say fur, for sable is the only one adopted by ladies of high 
fashion. 1893 F. F. MOORE Gray Eye or So III. 211 Mrs. 
Mowbray's set of sables had cost, .seven hundred guineas, i 

3. A superior quality of Russian iron, so called ; 
from being originally stamped with a sable. 

1815 J. SMITH Panorama Sci. $ Art I. 12 That kind [of I 
iron] called old sable. 1839 URE Diet. Arts 462 Those 
[files] made from the Russian iron, known by the name of 
old sable, called from its mark CCND, are excellent. 

4. attrib. and Comb. a. simple attrib., as sable- \ 
skin ; (made of the hairs of the sable) sable-brush, 
-pencil; (used for taking the sable) sable-trap ; (made 
of the fur of sable ^ sable-coat, muff, tippet. Also ] 
objective, as sable-hunter. 

1873 E. SPON Worltskap Receipts Ser. I. 2/1 Chinese white 
. .may be applied with a fine *sable-brush. 1753 HANWAY , 
Tra-v. (1762) I. in. i. 228 It is common to see a great man : 
sit in his *sable-coat in the height of summer. 1719 DE FOE 
Crusoe (1840) II. xvi. 335 They were the 'sable-hunters of i 
Siberia. 1784 KINO Coot's yd Voy. vi. ii. III. 220, I had | 

a present . . of a handsome * sable muff. 1811 Self Instructor 
518 The latter kind are called *sable pencils. 1719 DE FOE 
Crusoe (1840) II. xv. 316, I was curious to see the 'sable- 
skins. 1882 H. LANSDELL Through Siberia I. 208 A good 
sable skin fetches from 501. to^io. 1686 Lond. Gaz. No. 
2202/4 Lost.., a *Sable Typpet. 1784 J. BELKNAP in B. 
Papers (1877) II. 188 We saw. .abundance of 'sable-traps, 
and one bear-trap, 

b. Sable-mouse [ = Ger. zobelniaTis'] = LEMMING. 

1699 SIR P. RYCAUT in Phil. Trans. XXI. no In the 
Year 1697, these Sable-Mice were first observ'd. 1700 W. 
KING Transactioneer 81 Sable-Mice . . are so fierce and 
angry that if a stick be held out at them, they will bite it. 

Sable (sii'b'l), sb; 1 - and a. Also 4-5 sabyll(e, 
5-6 sabill. [a. F. sable sable (as heraldic term : 
in Godef. cited only from I5th c.), whence Sp., Pg. 
sable, MDu., Du. sabel. The identity of the word 
with SABLE sbl is commonly assumed, though 
some difficulty is presented by the fact that the fur 
of the sable, as now known, is not black but brown. 

Some have conjectured that it may have been customary 
to dye sable-fur black (as is now often done with sealskin), 
perh. in order to heighten its contrast with ermine, with 
which it was often worn. 

The development by which the heraldic term has become 
a general (poetical or rhetorical) synonym for ' black ' is 
peculiar to English.] 
A. sb. 

1. Her. Black, as one of the heraldic colours ; in 
engraving represented by horizontal and vertical 
lines crossing each other. Abbreviated .S, Sa.,^Sa&. 

'35* Wyimere ft ll'astoure 157 The thirde banere one bent 
as of blee whitte With sexe gaieys I see of sable with inn. 
711400 Ifarte Arth. 771 His hede and hys hals ware.. 
Oundyde of azure, .. Hys feete ware floreschede alle in fyne 
sabylle. 1470-83 MALORY Arthur xn. vi. 601 A shelde alle 
of Sabel. 1489 CAXTON Faytes of A. IV. xvii. 280 That 
other colour is blak that men calle in armoyrie sable. 1562 
LEIGH Armorie (1597) 87 b, These [Ogresses] are Pellets of 
guns, and are neuer of other colour, then Sable. 1611 COTGR. , 
Sable,., the colour sables, or blacke, in Blason. 1864 BOUTELL 
Her. Hist. <y Pop. xv. 175 Changing the tincture of the field 
of his shield from sable to azure. 

2. The colour black ; black clothing, also, esp. 
as a symbol of mourning, poet, and rhetorical. 

1374 CHAUCER Compl. Mars 284 Now haue ye cause to 
clothe yow in sable. 1390 GOWER Con/. III. 372 A Peire of 
Bedes blak as Sable Sche tok and heng my necke aboute. 
c 1470 Gol. AT Gam. 20 Thair baneris schane with the sone, 
of siluer and sabill. 1508 DUNBAR Gold. Targe 126 Thare 
was Pluto . . I n cloke of grene, his court usit no sable. 1602 
SHAKS. Ham. i. ii. 242 Ham. His Beard was grisly ? No. 
Hor. It was, as I haue scene it in his life, A Sable Siluer'd. 
1718 POPE Dune. ii. 262 The King of dykes ! than whom 
no sluice of mud With deeper sable blots the silver flood. 
1855 LONGF. Hiaw. viu. 38 Painted was he with his war- 
paints,. .Spots of brown and spots of sable, 
fb. Blackness, darkness. Obs. 

1503 DUNBAR Thistle $ Rose 56 The purpour sone,. .Doing 
all sable fro the hevynnis chace. 1774 tr. Helvctins' Child 
of Nature II. 336 The sable of death was spread upon his 
face. 1781 COWPER Cottversat. 872 Let no man charge me 
that I mean To clothe in sable every social scene. 

3. //. Mourning garments ; a suit of black worn 
as an emblem of grief, poet, or rhetorical. 

i6oa SHAKS, Ham. in. ii. 138 Nay then let the Diuel weare 
blacke, for He haue a suite of Sables. 1676 OTWAY Don 
Carlos V. i, You'll find her all in rueful Sables clad. 1795 
WOLCOT (P. Pindar) Pindariana Wks. 1812 IV. 164 Her 

floomy sables change to pink and gold. 1848 THACKERAY 
r ati. Fair Ivii, Her little boy sate by her side in pompous 
new sables. 1867 'OuiDA' C. Castlemaine (1879) ^ The 
sables she wore were not solely for the dead Earl. 


1653 tr. Coin. Hist. Franciou i, i Already had the Night 
worn out neare half her Sables, a 1708 BEVERIDCE Priv. 
Th. i. 101 This Hatred.. puts on the mournful Sables of 
Grief and Sorrow. 1746 HERVEY Medil. (1818) 162 Then 
the earth, disrobed of all her gay attire, must sit in sables, 
like a disconsolate widow. 1882 MRS, OLIPHANT Lit. Hist. 
Eng, I. 58 Thus Cowper kept on his sables, his melancholy 
countenance [etc.]. 

4. A book-name of several species of pyralid 
moths, esp, of the genera Botys and Ennychia. 

1832 RENNIE Conspect. ButterJJ. $ J\f. 149 The Wavy- 
barred Sable (Ennychia anguinalis). Ibid. The Silver- 
barred Sable (E. cingulata). 

5. In full sable antelope. A large stout-horned 
antelope, Hippotragus (ALgocerus} niger, native of 
South and East Africa, the male of which is of a 
deep black colour. 

1850 R. G. GUMMING Hunter's Life S. Afr. (1002) 95/1 An 
old buck of the sable antelope, the rarest and most beautiful 
animal in South Africa. 1895 J. G. MILLAIS Breath fr. 
Veldt (1899) 294, 1 saw the head and horns of a grand sable, 
looking straight at me. 1900 GROGAN & SHARP Cape to 
Cairo v. 49, I saw two grand bull sable browsing. 

6. C0w^.,parasynthetic and instrumental, as sable- 
bordered^ -cinctured, -coloured, -hooded, -lettered, 
-robed, -spotted, -staled, -suited, -vested, visaged &&}&. 

a 1758 RAMSAY Death R. Alexander \, Thou *sable- 
border'd sheet begone ! 1744 AKENSIDE Pleas. Imag. m. 97 
Learning's garb, With formal band, and *sable-cmctur d 
gown. 1588 SHAKS. L. L. L. i. i. 233 It is besieged with 
'sable coloured melancholic. 1596 R. L[INCHE] D fella (\%n) 
75 Night puts on her mistie sable-coloured vayle. 1770 
W. HODSON Ded. Temple Solomon 13 The dreary Realms Of 
*sable-hooded Night. 1810 SCOTT Lady of L. m. vi, In 
vain, the learning of the age Unclasp'd the *sable-letter'd ! 
page. 1599 T. M[OUFET] Silkwormes 54 Like "sable-robed 
Ants. 1857 RUSKIN Pol. Econ. Art ii. (1868) 104 Walled 
towers .. *sable-spotted with cannon -courses. 1629 MILTON 


Hymn Nativity xxiv, The *sable-stoled Sorcerers bear his 
worship! Ark. 1590 GREENE Orl. Fur. (1599) Gsb, Phoebus, 
put out thy *sable suted wreathe. 1667 MILTON P. L. n. 962 
With him Enthron'd Sat *Sable-vested Night. 1608 Merry 
Demi of Edmonton Prol. 24 The silent *sable visagde night. 
B. adj. In 6-7 also sables. 

1. Her. Of a black colour ; black, 

1470-85 MALORY .4 rM7/r v. ix. 176 The knyght bare in his 
sheld thre gryffons of gold in sable charbuncle. 1610 HOL- 
LAND Camdetis Brit. 193 In a shield sables, they beare for 
their armes six Swallowes argent. 1875 FORTNUM Maiolica 
ix. 79 Paly gules and or, on a fess argent a dog in the act 
of bounding sable. 

2, gen. Black. Chiefly poet, and rhetorical, a. 
Of material objects, persons, animals, etc. Now, 
as applied to negroes, slightly jocular, 

1485-1509 in Grose Antiq. Rep. (1809) IV. 408 The margent 
sylver and the notis sabill. 1508 DUNBAR Tua Mariit 
Wemen 447 According to my sable weid I mon haif sad 
maneris. 1589 GREENE Menaphon (Arb. 81) He apparailed 
himselfe in armour, colour sables, as mourning for his 
Mistres. 1595 R. JOHNSON 7 Champions (1608) 72 The walles 
[were] behung with sable mourning cloth. 1655 FULLER Ch. 
Hist. ii. iii. 29 This Year the English have cause to write 
with Sable letters in their Almanack,, .that [etc.]. (11700 
DKVDEN Theodore fy Honoria 272 Last came the Fellon on 
the Sable Steed. 1769 SIR W. JONES Palace Fortune 
Poems (1777)22 His few gray locks a sable fillet bound. 1815 
Ann. Reg., Chron. 63 The ceremonies were performed by 
a sable archbishop. 1822 SOUTHEY I' is. Judgm. \\\\. Poet. 
Wks. 1838 X. 232 He of the sable mail, the hero of Cressy. 
1890 'R. BOLDREWOOD' Miner's Right (1899) 56/1 When the 
middle passage is safely passed and the death-scared sable 
crowd 'sold and delivered '. 

b. Of sky, sea, land, night, and the like. 
1500-20 DUNBAR Poems xlvi. 2 Aurora did vpspring, With 

cristall ene chasing the cluddis sable, c 1586 C'TESS PEM- 
BROKE /V cxxxix. vi, Doe thou thy best, O secret night, In 
sable vaile to cover me. 1615 BRATHWAIT Strappado (1878) 
15 Whose storie, Shall. .shew it selfe . . more bright, Then 
chast Latona on the sablest night. 1633 P. FLETCHER Purple 
Isl.\\i. xxxii, So when the South (dipping his sablest wings 
In humid Ocean) sweeps. .Th 1 aire, earth, and seas. 1634 
MILTON Counts 221 ^Vas I deceived, or did a sable cloud 
Turn forth her silver lining on the night ? 1735 SOMERVILLE 
Chase n. 415 The Night Wrapt in her sable^ Veil forbids 
the Chace. 1810 SCOTT Lady of L. it, xxxiv, As flashes 
flame through sable smoke. 1853 C. BRONTE Villette vi, 
Down the sable flood we glided. 

c. Of agencies personified. 

1726 POPE Odyss. xx. 308 Your future thought let sable 
Fate employ. 1749 SMOLLETT Regicide iv. ii, Ha ! Did'bt 
thou say, revenge? Hail, sable pow'r. 

d. Of dark-coloured liquids, rare* 

1791 COWPER Iliad iv. 58 Quick flowed a sable current 
from the wound. Ibid. xxt. 200 The other as it flew Grazed 
his right elbow : sprang the sable blood. 1808 SCOTT 
Marm.\\. Introd. 13 They. .Caroused in seas of sable beer. 

f3. Mournful. Obs. 

1603 CHETTI.E Eng. Mourn. Gann. D 3, Nor doth the 
siluer longed Melicert, Drop from his honied muse one sable 
teare. 1613 R. CAWDREY Table Alph, (ed. 3), Sable,.. 
mournefull. 1708 Repl. to Swift's Bickerstaff detected S.'s 
Wks. i7ss I I.i. 167 A long sable elegy. 1780 COWPER Lett. 
6 Apr., Such a sable state of mind as I labour under. 

t Sa'ble, sb$ Obs. Also 7 zable, 7-8 sabel ; 
and see SHABLE. [Prob. a. Du. or early mod.Ger. 
sabel (later Ger. sabel} : see SABRE.] - SABRE sb. 

1617 J. TAYLOR (Water P.) Fight at Sea Wks. (1630) in. 
34/1 Some with Sabels, which we call Fauchiois.. and some 
with Half pikes. 1652 J. WRIGHT tr. Camus 1 Nat, Paradox 
in. 50 Stanislas, .came with his Sable in his Hand. 1674 
Phil. Trans. IX. 184 They use Musquets, Bows and Arrows, 
Zables, Javelins ; and for their Trumpets they employ great 
Elefants-teeth. 1682 Lond. Gaz. No. 1765/1 The Moneys., 
has on one side a Hand with a naked Sable in it. 1706 
PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey), Sable, or Sabre. 

Sable (s^'b'l), sb.^ [ad. Pg. sceoel.\ An Indian 
fish; = HILSA. Usually sable-fish. 

1810 T. WILLIAMSON East India Vade M. II. 154 The 
hilsah, (or sable fish,) which seems to be mid-way between 
a mackarel and a salmon, . .is, perhaps, the richest fish with 
whichany cook is acquainted. 1846 J. T. THOMPSON Hindu 
Diet., ///ttA..the Hilsa or Sable. 1883 F. DAY Indian 
Fish 34 (Fish. Exhib. Publ.) An anadromous shad termed 
'Pulla' in the Indus,. .'Sable-fish ' by the Madrassees,. . 
fand] ' Hilsa' or ' ilisha' in Bengal. 

Sable (s^-b'l), v. Chiefly poet. [f. SABLE a.] 
trans. To blacken or darken. Also, to clothe in 
' sables '. Now rare. 

1610 G. FLETCHER Christ's Tri. i. xxxvi, And sabled all 
in blacke the shadie skie. 1640 FULLER Joseph's Coat, 
David's Sin xxxii. (1867) 213 Sepian juice did sink Into his 
spongy paperj sabling o'er 1'he same. 1786 POPE Odyss. xx. 
103 Airy terrors sable evVy dream. 1800 MOORE Anacreon 
lix, Sabled by the solar beam, Now the fiery clusters teem. 
1890 Temple Bar Sept. 14 She is probably no longer sob- 
bing and sabled. 

Hence Sa'bled///. a., clad in black. 
1804 Something Odd II. 88 The sabled gentleman fancies 
himself struck with the sublimities of Miss Gervaise. 

tSableize (s^-b'lpiz), v. Obs. rare- 1 , [f. 
SABLE a. + -IZE.] trans. To make black. 

1611 DAVIES Sco. Folly, etc. 237 Some Chroniclers that 
write of Kingdomes States Do so absurdly sableize my 
White With Maskes and Enterludes by Day and Night. 

Sableness (s^'b'lnes). [f. SABLE a. + -NESS.] 
Blackness ; f mournful ness, gloom. 

1607 Schol. Disc.agst, Antichr. i. Hi. 128 This was a signe 
of some sablenes, of some saddnes. 1839 Prater's Mag. 
XX. 63 The funereal sableness of the far-stretching forests, 
1884 G. P. LATHROP True xi. 117 The sable driver subsided 
completely into the depths of his sableness. 




tSabliere'. Arch. 06s. [a. F. sabliire, of 
obscure origin.] 'A piece of wood as long as a 
beam but not so thick ' (Phillips 1696). 

t Sabliere -. 06s. [a. K. saiaen sand-pit, f. 

sable sand : L. sabulum.~\ A sand-pit or gravel-pit. 

1706 in PHILLIPS. 

Safely (s^i-bli), adv. [f. SABLE a. + -LY 2.] 
Darkly, blackly. 

1831 Fraser's Mag. III. 336 The sably snowy swan. 1887 
MRS. C. READE Maid o' .Mill II. xxxviii. 285 A funeral 
train streams sably down Ewshot Hill. 

Sablyne, variant of SABELINE Obs. 

II Sabot ^sabfl). [F. sabot (OF. in isthc. cabot, 
mod.Picard cliabof) prob. related in some way to 
savate shoe, Pr. sabata : see SABATON.] 

1. A wooden shoe made of a single piece of wood 
shaped and hollowed out to fit the foot. 

1607 R. C[AREW] tr. Estienne's World of Wonders 209 
Woodden shoes properly called sabots. 1673 C. HATTON in 
H. Corr. (Camden) 118 A sabot having a great bracelet of 
beades passed through > heel. 1765 H. WALPOLE Let. to 
y. Chute 3 Oct., Two fellows were sweeping it [sc. the Dau- 

Shin's bedchamber] and dancing about in sabots to rub the 
oor. 1793 A. YOUNG Traz'. France 18 The ploughmen., 
have neither sabots nor feet to their stockings. 1846 CHURCH 
Misc. Writ. (1891) I. 92 Captains in the imperial armies., 
resumed their sabots and baggy breeches. 1888 Miss BRAD- 
DON Fatal Three i. iv, Two boys in blouses and sabots. 

attrib. 1800 WEEMS Washington viii. (1877) 62 The Sabot 
or wooden shoed nation, the French. 

b. A kind of shoe having a thick wooden sole 
and ' uppers ' of coarse leather. 

1840 BARHAM Ingol. Leg. Ser. i. Bagman's Dog, He'd a 
1 dreadnought ' coat, and heavy sabots With thick wooden 
soles turn'd up at the toes. 1879 BEERBOHM Patagonia iii. 
43 [He] would now and then wear a pair of sabots made 
with the skill of the hind legs of the guanacho. 

2. Mil. a. A wooden disc attached to a spherical 
projectile by means of a copper rivet for the pur- 
pose of keeping it evenly in place in the bore of 
the piece when discharged, b. A metal cup fixed 
by means of metal straps to a conical projectile, 
to cause it to ' take ' the rifling of the gun. 

1855 NORTON in Mech. Mag. LXII. 88 Expanding self- 
cleansing sabot for rifle-shot. 1859 F. A. GRIFFITHS Artitt. 
Man. (ed. 8) 86 The ' bottoms ' or ' sabots ' of all naval shells 
are hollowed out. Ibid. 97 Wooden Bottoms, or Sabots. 
1860 TENSENT Story Guns (1864) 209 The shot, unprotected 
by a sabot, may have shifted its place. 1866 Cornk. M_ag. 
Sept. 355 An egg-shaped bullet, its base embedded in a 
papier mache sabot. 1868 Rep. to Govt. U. S. Munitions 
of War 63 The fulminate which is put in a card-board sabot 
next the charge. 

3. Meek. The iron shoe or point of a pile (Knight 
Diet. Mech. Snppl., 1884) ; an iron shoe used to 
protect the end of a file for working metal {Cent. 
Diet. 1891); a cutting armature at the end of a 
tubular boring-rod. 

1884 Public Opinion 3 Oct. 432 The system of sinking 
shafts . . by means of hollow iron tubes with cutting sabots. 

4. A brace connected with the pedal of a harp 
and used for shortening the string. 

1891 in Century Diet. 

Hence Sa'boted ppl. a., shod with sabots. 

1862 SIMEON in Mactn. Mag. Mar. 421 The bloused and 
saboted driver. 1885 PMMallG.vl, Aug. 11/2 Colonies of 
greasy, sabotted Frenchmen. 1905 Daily Chron. 27 Mar. 
4/5 His blue-bloused and sabotted gardeners. 

tSabras. Obs. Also 3 sabraz, 5 saberas, 
saberaee. [? a. Pr. saboralz, pa. pple. of saboras 
to season.] A decoction or infusion. 

<r 1225 Ancr. R. 36^ pe on uorgeS al bet he luued of metes 
& of drunches, & drinkeS bitter sabraz uorto akoueren his 
heale. c 1440 Promp.Pa.rv. 440/1 Sabrace, sabracia. 4:1480 
Sloattc yl/.V. 73, If. 211 Tak thi lether and basche it wel jn 
this sabras. Ibid., That that saberas be wel drunken up in 
to the lether. Ibid., Poure thi sabrace al aboven the lether. 

Sabre (s l 'bai),st>. Also 8 sabir. 9- f/.S.a&bar. 
[a. F. sabre (i7th c.), an unexplained alteration of 
sable (Oudin 1640: cf. Sp. sable} a. G. sabel (now 
sabet), whence SABLL sb.' 1 - The ultimate source is 
prob. to be sought in some Oriental language ; forms 
with initial (J) are found in Hungarian szdblya, 
(whence perh. It. sciabla, SUABLE) and Polish 
szabla ; the Russian cafi.lil may be from German.] 

1. A cavalry sword having a curved blade spe- 
cially adapted for cutting. 

1680 OTWAY Orphan n.iii. 514 With my good Sabir drawn 
..I. .clove the Rebel to the Chine. 1697 LonJ. Gas. No. 
3291/1 The Chief Officers, .came with their Sabres in their 
Hands. 1791 MRS. RADCLIFFE Rom. Forest xii, He re- 
ceived himself the stroke of a sabre on his head. 1845 
DARWIN Voy. Nat. iii. (1879) 41 My companions were well 
armed with pistols and sabres. 1880 GUNTER That French- 
man x, Several pairs of foils, and sabers. 
b. Put for : Military force. 

1851 GALLENGA Italy 91 The Milanese were long since 
under the rule of the sabre. 

2. A cavalry 'unit'; a soldier armed with a sabre. 
1829 NAPIER Putins. War (1878) II. 484 General total,.. 

56,239 sabres and bayonets in the field. 1895 SIR E. WOOD 
Cavalry in Waterloo Camp. v. 120 Somerset's Heavy 
Brigade : . .Total paper strength 1,220 sabres. 

3. An implement used for removing scum from 
the surface of molten glass. 

1832 G. R. PORTER Porcelain /, Cf. 202 Removing with a 
broad copper sabre any scum that may have formed on the 

surface of the glass. 1839 URE Diet. Arts 590 The bucket 
is skimmed by means of a copper tool called a sabre. 

4. attrib. and Comb., as sabre-cut, -shaped adjs. ; 
sabre-bayonet, a weapon which can be used 
either as a sabre or a bayonet ; sabre-bill, a South 
American dendrocolaptine bird of the genus Xipho- 
rhynchus ; sabre-out, (a) a blow with a sabre ; 
(6) a cut or scar left by the stroke of a sabre; 
sabre-fish, U.S., the cutlass-fish, Trichiums lep- 
turus; sabre-wing, a humming-bird of the genus 
Campy 'loptcrus (and related genera). 

1863 T. E. C. Battlefields of the South I. 252 Many more 
were destroyed with the *sabre-bayonet when our men 
closed in upon them. 1859-62 SIR J. RICHARDSON, etc. Mns. 
Nat. Hist. 319 The Brazilian *Sabre-bill (Xiphorkynchiis 
procnrvns). c 1820 S. ROGERS Italy (1839) 216 On his wan 
cheek a "*sabre-cut. 1828 Miss MITFORD Village Ser. in. 49 
Against Justice and Constable, treadmill and stocks, the 
sabre-cut was a protection. 1883 STEVENSON Treas. Isl. n. 
vii, The captain.. with his. .sabre-cut cheek. 1863 Chatiib. 
Encycl. V. 192/2 The Silvery Hair-tail . . is called *Sabre-fish 
in Cuba. 1888 GOODE Atner. Fishes 255 The Cutlass-fish . . 
is known.. on the coast of Texas as 'Sabre-fish'. 1796 
Encycl. Brit. (ed. 3) III. 442/2 [Of a part of a plant.) 'Sabre- 
shaped. 1841 Penny Cycl. XXI. 423/1 The rostrum [of 
Rhynchocinets\ . . is very large, sabre-shaped, and dentilated 
on both edges. 1893 A. H. COOKE Molluscs (Camb. Nat. 
Hist. III.) 236 Laterals simple, sabre-shaped. 1861 GOULD 
Hnmining-B. II. pi. 43 Campyloptents pampa, Wedge- 
tailed "Sabre-wing. 1893 NEWTON Diet. Birds 446 The 
group known as ' Sabre-wings '. 

b. Sabre-toothed lion or tiger, a large extinct 
feline mammal of the genus MACHAIRODUS, with 
long sabre-shaped upper canines. Also sabre- 
tooth a. and sb. 

1849 Todifs Cycl.Anat. IV. 909/2 The great extinct sabre- 
tootbed tiger. 1880 DAWKINS Early Man Britain iii. 57 
The great sabre-toothed lion, Machairodns. 1896 KIPLING 
Seven Seas, Ung iii, He.. pictured the sabre-tooth tiger 
dragging a man to his lair. Ibid, v, Hath he. .followed the 
Sabre-tooth home ? 

Sabre (s^i-bsa), T. [f. SABBE sb. Cf. F. sabrer.] 
traits. To strike, cut, or wound with a sabre. 

1790 BUKKE Fr. Rev. Wks. V. 399 And now you send 
troops to sabre and to bayonet us into a submission to fear 
and force. 1845 DISRAELI Sybil VI. xii, The people were 
fired on and sabred. 1875 CLERV Min. Tact. x. (1877) 123 
Ponsonby's cavalry .. sabred the gunners and stabbed the 

absol. 1865 CARLYLE Fndk. Gt. xvm. xiii. (1872) VIII. 
50 The Seidlitz cavalry went sabring till, for very fatigue, 
they gave it up. 

Hence Sa'brer [cf. F. iairtur], one who cuts 
down with a sabre. 

1831 GEN. P. THOMPSON Exerc. (1842) I. 416 When men 
and women were massacred at Manchester, .did they dream 
it was love for the sabrers, that produced an after com- 
pliance with their mandates? 

Sabre, obs. f. SAMBUR, Indian elk. 

Sabred (s^'-bsid), a. [f. SABRE sb. + -ED 2 .] 
Furnished or armed with a sabre. 

1760-72 H. BROOKE Fool of Quality (1792) IV. 162 An 
arrangement of sabred Hussars with their fierce-looking 
mustachoes. 1866 Daily Tel. 16 Jan. 7/4 There were the 
Guardsmen, whiskered, mustachio'd, padded, epauletted, 
sabred. 1883 E. F. KNIGHT Cruise Falcon (1887) 61 A 
gentleman most gorgeously uniformed and sabred. 

Sabretache (savbaitaj). Also sabretasoh(e, 
-tash. [a. F. sabretache, ad. G. siibeltasche, f. 
sabel sabre, SABLE sb2 + tasc/ie pocket.] A leather 
satchel suspended on the left side by long straps 
from the sword-belt of a cavalry officer. 

A MS. letter of 1812 has the word in the corrupt form 
zappadash. The Diets, incorrectly give (s^'ha-ita/). 

1812 Sporting Mag. XXXIX. 167 A pouch belt and a 
sabre-tache. 1841 LEVER C. O'Malley xv, As strapping a 
fellow as ever carried a sabretasch. 1858 SIR E. CvsTA/rrt. 
Wars p. viii, The Volume has been so managed that it may 
not be too much for the pocket, or the sabretash. 1858 CAR- 
LYLE Fredk. Gt. vii. i. (1872) II. 237 He is withal a kind 
of soldier.. a man of many sabre-tashes. 1901 Scotsman 
7 Nov. 5/8 The King has been graciously pleased to approve 
the abolition of the sabfe tache. 

II Sabreur (sabrdr). [Fr. ; agent-n., f. sabrerio 
SABRE.] One who fights with a sabre ; usually 
applied to a cavalry soldier distinguished rather 
for bravery than for skill in war. 

1845 W. H. MAXWELL Hints to Soldier 77 The humbler 
but no less gallant sabreur of New Ross. 1854 BADHAM 
Halicitt. 418 Our expert sabreur rushes to the conflict, and, 
carefully avoiding the sweep of his opponent's tremendous 
tail, soon effects his purpose, by stabbing the luckless levia- 
than at all points. 

Sabuline (sarbiwlain), a. [f. L. sabul-um sand : 
see -IXB -.] = SABULOUS. In recent Diets. 

Sabull, obs. form of SABLE. 

Sabulose (soe'biKlJus), a. [ad. L. sabulosus : 
see SABULOUS and -OSE.] 

1. Hot. (See quot.) 

1866 Treas. Bot. 1003/1 Sabulose, growing in sandy places. 

2. - SABULOUS. In mod. Diets. 

t SabulO'sity. Obs. [ad. L. type * sabulositat- 
em : see next and -ITY.] Sandiness. 

1721 in BAILEY; and in later Diets. 

SabnlOUS (sae'bi5bs), a. [ad. L. sabulos-us, f. 
sabul-um sand : see -ous.j Sandy ; consisting of or 
abounding in sand ; arenaceous. 

1632 LITHGOW Trav.dqaKl 226 The austierc conspicuosity 
of the sabulous and stony Desarts. 1670 R. WITTIE in Phil. 

Trans^. V. 1076 Water,. strained from all sabulous mixture. 
1793 SMEATON Edystone L. 193 The quantity and species 
of sabulous matter that entered into the texture of the lime- 
stone. 1822 G. WOODLEY Sully Isl. n. iii. 289 This part of 
the Island . . appears rather to have gained from the sea by 
these sabulous accumulations. 1881 Academy i Oct. 252 
The author [E. W. White] is terribly fond of long words. 
To him. .plains are sabulous, .parrots are psittacs. 

b. Med. Applied to a granular secretion, esp. 
in the urinary organs. 

1670 W. SIMPSON Hydrol. Ess. 137 The one Water layes 
a stony Foundation for a Fabrick of Sabulous diseases. 1694 
SALMON Bate's Dispens. (1713) 170/2 It. .dissolves any tar- 
tarous or sabulous Coagulation in the Reins or Ureters. 1836- 
41 BRANDE Chem. (ed. 5) 1389 Sabulous depositions in the 
urine are of various characters. 1881 Trans. Obstetric Soc. 
Land. XXVII. 39 Sabulous matter, mixed with mucus. 

C. Anal., applied to the acervulus cerebri, or 
gritty substance of the pineal body of the brain 
(Cent. Diet. 1891). 

Hence Sa'bulousness, the state or quality of 
being sabulous. 1727 in BAILEY vol. II. 

II Saburra (sabzrra). Mcd. [L. saburra sand, 
cogn. w. sabtilum : see prec.] Foul granular 
matter deposited in the body, esp. in the stomach. 

1710 T. FULLER Pharm. Extemp. 316 This Medicament., 
extirpates the Saburra.. out of the whole Body. 1772 D. 
MACBRIDE Physic II. 93 The terms Cacochylia and Saburra 
are used to denote the general accumulation of offensive 
matters in the alimentary canal. 1822-34 Good's Study 
Med. (ed. 4* 1. 644 The slaty or purplish and granular saburra 
thrown up from the stomach. 

Hence Sabtvrral a. [cf. L. saburrnlis consisting 
of sand], of or belonging to saburra. 

1822-34 Goods Study Med.(<t&. 4) I. 714 An inflammatory 
fever passing into a saburral fever. 1876 BARTHOLOW Mat. 
Med. (1879) 150 The saburral state of the mucous membrane. 

t Sabu'rrate, v. Obs. rare", [f. ppl. stem 
of L. sabtirrdre, f. saburra : see SABUBBA.] To 
ballast a ship. 1623 in COCKERAM. 1658 in PHILLIPS. 

Saburration.(saebKij3n). Afed. [ad.mod.L. 
saturration-ein (l6th c.), n. of action f. L. sabur- 
rare (in mod.L. sense to treat with sand) : see 
prec.] The application of heated sand to the 
body; sand-bathing, arenation. 

3763 A. SUTHERLAND Attempts AHC. Med. Doctr. 1.48 
Saburration was a species of Bathing in antient use. The 
body was buried in sand and exposed to the sun. 1849 
PEREIRA Elem. Mat. Med. (ed. 3) I. 16. 1860 R. FOWLER 
Med. V^ocab., Saburration, the application of hot sand en- 
closed in a bag or bladder to a part of the body. 

Sabylle, obs. form of SABLE. 

Sac 1 . Old Eng. Law. Forms: I saca, 3 
sacha, sache, 3, 6 sak, 2, 4, 7 sake, 5, 7 sack, (5 
saca, saoke), 7- sac. [repr. OE. saca, accns. and 
genit. pi. of sacu str. fern., dispute, case at law, 
litigation, crime (see SAKE), as occurring in the 
nth c. phrases saca and s6cne habban (gifan*) 'to 
have (give) sac and soke ', saca ami sdcne ivyrSe, 
i worthy of sac and soke '. 

As both words occur in Scandinavian (Olcel. S0k,s6kn}, it 
is not unlikely that the alliterative formula may be of Danish 
origin, though it has not actually been found in Scandina- 
vian law-books.] 

Properly only in sac and soc (or soke}, a modern- 
ized form of the expression (see above) used in 
charters from the reign of Cnnt onward to denote 
certain lights of jurisdiction which by custom 
belonged to the lord of a manor, and which were 
specified (along with others) as included in the 
grant of a manor by the crown. 

1020-12.. [see INFANGTHIEF]. 1086 Domesday-bit. 280 b/i 
Si tainus habens sacam et socam forisfecerit terrain suam. 
[Ibid, in many other passages.] 1290 Rolls of Parlt. 1. 15/1 
Teneant predictas villas.., cum Sacha & Socha, Thol & 
Them [etc.]. 1387 TREVISA Higden (Rolls) II. 95 Sake : (a 
Frensche, court justice forfet ou achesoun). 4:1460 Oseney 
Refr. 9 [tr. charter of Hen. I c 1 130] Sake and soc, tol and 
teme, and infangenethefe. Ibid. 10 [explanation cf terms] 
Sacke ys pleys and amendys of mysdoynges^of your men in 
your courte, for sacke in Englysh is chesou in frensh, . .and 
sacke also is a forfete. 1641 Termes de la Ley 244 The 
priviledge called Sake is for a man to have the amercia- 
ments of his tenants in his owne Court, a 1657 [see IN- 
FANGTHIEF]. 1874 STUBBS Const. Hist. I. v. 47 There 
existed.. side by side with the hundreds and wapentakes, 
large franchises or liberties in which the jurisdiction.. was 
vested in private hands. The particular rights thus exer- 
cised were termed sac and soc. 

Sac * (ssek). [a. F. sac or ad. L. saccus (see SACK 
rf. 1 ) in mod.L. applications.] 

1. Biol. Any natural bag-like cavity with its 
membranous covering in an animal or vegetable 
organism, a. in animal bodies. Laryngeal sacs 
[mod.L. sacculi laryngis'], membranous pouches 
connected with the larynx, for the reception of air. 

1741 MONRO Anal. Nerves (ed. 3) 77 The Lacteal Sac. .is 
contracted into a slender . . Pipe. 1780 Lachrymal sac [see 
LACHRYMAL a. 2]. 1796 MORSE ^Amtr. Geog. I. 205 The 
castor used in medicine is found in sacs formed behind the 
kidneys [in the beaver). 1844 STEPHENS Bit. Farm II. 725 
A small spot is discernible upon the yolk, composed of a 
membraneous sac containing fluid matter in which the em- 
bryo of the future chick swims. 1851 RICHARDSON Geol. viii. 
224 In the sea-star, the stomach is a capacious sac. 1854 
BUSHNAN in Orr's Circ. Sci., Org. Nat. I. 143 In the 
monkeys of the old continent there are also laryngeal sacs. 
1875 HoUGHTON5'. Brit. Ins. 140 The female beetle makes 


a pear-shaped flexible bag of silk, in which she encloses 
her eggs ; the sac is attached to some water weed. 1888 
ROLLESTON & JACKSON Anim. Life 55 The air-sacs appended 
to certain bronchi are nine in number. 1897 Syd. Sac. Lex. 
s.v., Foetal^ gestation jar,.. the sac in which an embryo is 
enclosed in cases of extra-uterine pregnancy. 
b. in plants. 

1830 LINDLEV Nat. Syst. Bot. 173 The embryo has no kind 
of vascular connexion with the sac that contains it. 1879 
LUBBOCK Set. Lect. \. 5 Utricularia, an aquatic species [of 
Venus's .Fly-trap Dionxa Mu$cifula\ bears a number of 
utricles or sacs. 

2. Path. A pouch formed by the morbid dilata- 
tion of a part, the membranous envelope of a 
hernia, cyst, tumour, etc. 

[Cf. hernialbag 1736 s.v. HERNIAL a.} 

i8o Med. Jrnl. VIII. 40 In consequence of the distension 
. ,a sac or pouch is usually formed, in which the food lodges. 
1804 ABERNETHY Snrg. Obs. 210 It [the blood] could be 
entirely expressed from the aneurismal sac. 1899 Allbutt's 
Syst. Med. VII. 243 The same change follows the repeated 
tappings of the sacs. 

^T 3. Used occas. for : A bag. 

1869 LUBBOCK Prehist. Times xi. 339 [Among the Hotten- 
tots] milk is kept in leathern sacs. 

4. Comb.) as sac-bearing^ -like adjs. 

1888 Cath. Househ. 30 June 13 Sac-bearing spiders. 1849 
Sk. Nat. /fist.. Mammalia III. 186 The hood or sac-like 
appendage of the head. 

Sac : see SACK. 

Sac-a-lait. U. S. Also sacalai,sacola (Cent. 
Diet.}. [Fr. : lit. ( milk bag ' ; pern, an etymolo- 
gizing perversion of some Indian word.] A name 
locally applied to certain fishes of the genera 
Pomoxys and Funduhis. 

1884 GOODE Nat, Hist. Aquatic Anim. 407 The Crappie 
Pomoxys annularis. .is commonly called ..' Sac-;i-lait ' . .in 
the Lower Mississippi. Ibid. 466 Fundulus grandis^ is 
known at Pensacola by the name of ' Sac-a-lait \ 

Sacande, obs. pres. pple. of SHAKE v. 
Sacar, -ing, obs. ff. SAKER^, SACKING. 
Sacatra (sce-katra). local U. S. [Of obscure 
origin ; given in Littre as French.] (See quot.) 

1859 BARTLETT Diet, Amer. t Sacatra, the name given in 
Louisiana to the offspring of a griffe and a negress. 1894 
GOULD Diet. Mcd.,Sacatra^3. person of seven-eighths black 
and one-eighth white blood. 

Sacbut, obs. form of SACKBUT. 

II SaCCade ' s sakad). [Fr.] A jerk or jerky move- 
ment (in various specific applications). 

1727-41 CHAMBERS Cycl. t Saccadc, in the manage, a jerk 
or violent check which the rider gives his horse, by drawing 
both the reins very suddenly. 1876 STAINER & BARRETT 
Diet. Mus. Terms, Saccade (Fr.), strong pressure of a violin 
bow against the strings, which by forcing them to a level 
enables the player to produce three or four notes simul- 
taneously. 1897 Syd. Soc. Lex. t Saccade^ the involuntary 
jerking movement in the act of swallowing. 

Saccage, Saccaring: see SACKAGE, SACKING. 
Saccate (sae-k^t), a. [ad. med.L. saccatus t f. 
saccus SAC 2 ; see -ATE 2 .] 

1. Bot. Dilated into the form of a sac. 

1830 LINDLEV Nat. Syst. Bot. 19 The constant tendency 
of the outer series to become saccate at the base, which is 
not uncommon in the calyx of Cruciferae. 1861 BENTLEY 
Man. Bot. 237 In the Snapdragon, .the lower part of the tube 
of the corolla becomes dilated on one side, and forms a 
little bag or sac, it is then termed saccate vt gibbous. 1874 
COOKE Fungi 76 In Perisporiacei. .the asci are saccate. 

2. ENCYSTED. So also Sa coated a. 

1846 SMART Suppl., Saccatcd, having the water (from 
dropsy) encysted. 1860 MAYNE^.r/>(?j. Lex. s.v.Saccatus. 
1889 WAGSTAFFE May tie's Med. foe., Saccate, encysted, or 
contained in a membranous bag : saccated. 

Saccawinkee : see SAKAWINKI. 
tSacchara'ceous,'/. Obs. rare- 1 , [f. med.L. 

sacchar-um sugar -t- -ACEOUS.] Containing sugar. 

1689 G. HARVEY Curing Dis. by Expect, vi. 42 In the 
Stomach the Rheum, .converts, .any such Saccharaceous 
Medicine, into a corroding Acid. 

Saccharate (sse-kar/t), sb. Ghent, [f. SAC- 
CHAR-IC + -ATE 1 .] A salt of saccharic acid. 

1815 A nti. Philos. V. 265 The objection that the saccharate 
analyzed might contain some other body besides sugar. 
1897 Allbutt's Syst. Med. II. 948 Schobert recommended 
saccharate of lime as an antidote to phenol poisoning. 

Sa'CCharate, a. rare" , [f. med. L. sacchar- 
itm sugar + -ATE ^.J = next. 

1860 in MAYNE Expos. Lex. 1866 in Treas. Bot. 
Saccharated (sce-kard'ted), a. [f. med.L. sac- 

char-um sugar + -ATE 3 + -ED 1.] Containing or 
made with sugar ; sweetened. 

1784 CULLEN tr. Bergmatfs Phys. $ Chem. Ess. I. 319 
Saccharated Magnesia. 1791 PEARSON in Phil. Trans, 
LXXXI. 323 The saccharated soda immediately occasioned 
a slight precipitation. 1866 AITKF.N Pract. Med. II. 61 For 
..children the saccharated carbonate of iron is a most 
valuable preparation. 

Saccharic (sakce-rik), t a. Chem. [f. med.L. sac- 
char-um sugar + -1C. Cf. F. saccharique^ Saccharic 
acid', (a] a dibasic acid formed by the action of nitric 
acid on dextrose; oxalhydric acid; (/>) a mono- 
basic acid forming crystalline salts prepared by the 
action of bases on glucoses. Saccharic ether, an 
ether obtained from saccharic acid. 

1800 Med, Jrnl. IV. 185 By a chemical analysis, those 
crystals were found to consist of saccharic acid. 1838 R. D. 
THOMSON in Brit. Ann. for 1839. 347 Saccharic Acid. .was 

first noticed by Scheele as being obtained from the action 
of acids upon mucous bodies, or sugar. 1866 ROSCOE Elcm, 
Chem, 325 Lactose, when oxidized, yields miicic, saccharic, 
tartaric, and oxalic acids. 1868 WATTS Diet. Chem. V. 143 
Saccharic ethers. 

Saccharide (scc'karsid, -id). Chem. [f. med. 
L. sacchar-um sugar + -IDE.] a. 'An ether formed 
by the combination of saccharose with an acid 
radical* (Syd. Soc. Lex. 1897). b. A compound 
of sugar with a base. 

1857 MILLER Elem. Chem. (1862) III, 78 A peculiar body 
to which he [Gelis] gives the name of saccharide. i86a 
WATTS tr. Gmelitfs Handbk. Chem. XV. 316 By heating 
dextro-glucose with (organic) acids, compounds are formed 
. . which belong to the class of Saccharide s. 

Sacchariferous (ssekari-ferss), a. [f. med. L. 
sacchar-um sugar + ~fer bearing + -ous.] Yielding 
or containing sugar. 

1757 T. BIRCH Hist. R. Soc. IV. 380 Mr. Hopke said, that 
there were several sacchariferous trees mentioned by Piso 
and some other writers. 1799 Nicholson's Jrnl. Ill, 337 
The Russian bear's-breech from Kamtschatka..has long 
been known among the sacchariferous plants. 1906 Pall 
Mall G. 19 Mar. 4/1 Fermentation will set in after a time 
in almost any sacchariferous liquid. 

Saccharification (s&k&rifik/tjan). [Noun 
of action f. next.] The natural process by which 
starch and gum become converted into sugar. 

1839 URE Diet. A rts 456 The vinous fermentation precedes 
the saccharification. 1883 R. HALDANF. Workshop Receipts 
Ser. n. 12/2 Three principal methods of effecting the sac- 
charilication were in use. 

Saccharify ^sakx-rifsi, sse-karifai), v. [f. med. 
L. sacchar-um sugar + -(I)FY.] trans. To convert 
(starch) into sugar. 

1839 URE Diet. Afls 400 The best heat for saccharifying 
starch. 1897 Allbutt's Syst. Med. IV. 273 The fluid may. . 
saccharify starch and digest albumin and fibrin. 

Hence Saccharifying vbl. sb. i^in quot. attrib.}. 
Also Saccharifier (see quot.). 

1839 URF, Diet. Arts 456 This saccharifying process ad- 
vances much quicker. 1884 KNIGHT Diet. Mech. Suppl., 
Saccharifies, an apparatus for treating grain and potatoes 
by steam under high pressure, for converting the starch into 
sugar previous to the alcoholic fermentation. 

Saccharimeter (asekiri-mftw). [a. F. sac- 

eharimetrt) f. Gr. ffaK\api ( = <ra/fx a P OI/ ) sugar + 
ptrpov measure : see -METER. 

This form, taken from Fr. , has been generally retained by 
English writers because the name SACCHARO METER had been 
appropriated to a different instrument.] 

A form of polariscope, an instrument for testing 
sugars by polarized light. 

1874 tr. Lommets Light 349 The Saccharimeter of Soleil 
has the previously described double plate between the two 
Nicol's prisms. 1883 R. HAI.DANE Workshop Receipts Ser. 
n. 316/2 A polarising sacchari meter. 

Saccharimetry (saikari-metri). [ad. F. sac- 
charimctrie \ cf. prec. and -METBY.] = SACCHABO- 

1851 /'*. K nappes Chem. Technol. III. 434. 1858 WATTS in 
Graham s Elem. Chem. (ed. 2) 1 1. 469. 1880 Nature XXL 
357 Prof. Landolt's experience in saccharimetry. 

Hence Saccharime*tric,-me'tricala., pertaining 
to saccharimetry. 

1851 /'. Knapp's Chem. Technol. III. 435 The first sac- 
charimetrical test was proposed by Barreswill, in the year 
1844. 1876 Jrnl. Chem. Soc. II. 215 Influence of the Aspara- 
gine contained in the Sugar Liquors from Beets and Canes 
on the Saccharimetric Determination. 

Saccharin (sse'karin). Chem. [f. med. L. sac- 
char-um or Gr.ffa/cx a PV} ffOKX a p( l ) sugar + -IN.] 

1. The anhydride of saccharic acid. (Discovered 
and named byPeligot 1880.) 

1880 Jrnl. Chem. Soc. Abstr. 232 Saccharin is not a sugar; 
it does not ferment ; it has not a sweet taste. 

2. An intensely sweet substance obtained from 
coal tar, used in minute quantities for sweetening 
the food or drink of persons to whom sugar is in- 
jurious. In non-technical use commonly saccharine 

1885 Jrnl. Soc. Chem. fnd. 608/1 The inventors [sc. FahU 
berg and List] name the new substance ' Saccharine ', 
although it is not related to the class of sugars, but is a 
derivative of benzoic acid. The scientific name of the sub- 
stance is benzoylsulphimide. 1887 Brit. Med. Jrnl. 8 Jan. 
93/2 Saccharine is not at present procurable. 

Saccharine (sce'karain, -in) ,a. andj. [Formed 
as prec. -r -INK. Cf. F. saccharin.] A. adj. 

1. Of, pertaining to or of the nature of sugar ; 
characteristic of sugar ; sugary. 

1674 BLOUNT Glossogr. (ed. 4), Saccharine, belonging to 
Sugar, sweet like Sugar. 1685 BOYLE Effects of Mot. iv. 31 
The lump [of sugar] consisted of very numerous saccharine 
corpuscles. 1731 AKBVT^HNOT A /intents m. (1735) 53 Manna, 
which is an essential saccharine Salt, sweating from the 
Leaves of most Plants. 1757 A. COOPER Distiller i. i. (1760) 
6 The.. Saccharine Sweetness of the Malt. 1841-4 EMER- 
SON Ess., Circles Wks. (Bohn) I. 132, I am gladdened by 
seeing the predominance of the saccharine principle through- 
out vegetable nature. 1879 GEO. ELIOT Theo. Such xiii, 
Bovis had never said inwardly that he would take a large 
allowance of sugar, and. .he was naturally disgusted at the 
saccharine excesses of Avis. 1880 BARING-GOULD Mehalah 
viii, She precipitated herself against a treacle barrel and 
upset it. A gush of black saccharine matter spread over 
the floor. 

b. Saccharine fermentation = SACCHAKIFICATION. 
1801 W. NICHOLSON tr. Fonrcroy's Syn, Tables Chem. xi, 


The saccharine fermentation. I first described under this 
name the spontaneous formation of sugar in vegetable mat- 
ters left to themselves. 1839 URE Diet. Arts 456 The sac- 
charine fermentation, in which starch and gum are changed 
into sugar. 

2. Composed chiefly of sugar; of a plant, con- 
taining a large proportion of sugar ; also, of urine, 
containing sugar in excess of what is normal. 

Saccharine diabetes^ diabetes characterized by excess of 
saccharine matter in the urine. 

1710 T. FULLER Pharm. Extern/*. 109 A Saccharine 
Draught, a 1793 G. WHITE Sel&ome. Observ, Veget. (1875) 
359 All the maples have saccharine juices. 1845 HUDD Dis. 
Liver 257 Albuminous urine and saccharine urine. 1874 
GARROD & BAXTER Mat. Med. (1880) 27 This salt has con- 
siderable power in checking the formation of sugar in sac- 
charine diabetes. 1889 BARNARD Noted Breweries I. 16 In 
the mashing process the starch of the malt is converted into 
a saccharine liquid, called wort. 

f3. Chem. Saccharine acid ': oxalic acid. Obs. 

1784 CULLEN tr. Bergman s Phys. $ Chem. Ess. I. 311 The 
residuum consisted of crystalli/ed saccharine acid. 1802 T. 
THOMSON Chem. II. 103 At first, however, it was called the 
acid of sugar, or the saccharine acid. 

4. Resembling sugar, a. Ceo/. Of rocks : Gran- 
ular in texture = SACCHAUOID a. 

1833 [see SACCHAROID]. 1854 HOOKER Himal. Jrnh. \. 
xvii. 406 Beds of saccharine quartz. 1858 GEIKIE Hist. 
Boulder y\\. 242 Where they pass through limestone, they 
sometimes convert it into a white saccharine marble. 

b. Bot. Covered with shining grains like those 
of sugar (Cent. Diet. 1891). 

5. fig. Chiefly in playful or sarcastic use : Sweet. 
1841-4 EMERSON Ess.^ Prudence Wks. (Bohn) I. 95 The 

abundant flow of this saccharine element of pleasure in 
every suburb. 1858 O. W. HOLMES Ant. Brcakf-t. (1865) 
31 You will be saccharine enough in a few years. 1863 Ln. 
W. P. LENNOX Biog. Remin. I. 179 A saccharine smile 
beamed upon the royal countenances. 1872 M. Cou.iss 
Two Plunges I. v. 98 Those sweet, soft, saccharine sylphs. 
1890 Spectator i Feb. 169/2 Too saccharine, is our short 
judgment on these poems. 

B. sb. Saccharine matter, sugar. 

1841 CATLIN N. Amer. Ind. (1844) II. Iviii. 226 They live. . 
without saccharine and without salt. 1856 OLMSTED Slave 
Sfates 670 Chemical analysis proves that a large amount of 
saccharine is still wasted. 

Hence Sa-ccuarineish a., somewhat saccharine. 
Sacchari'nity, sweetness. 

1857 Taii's Mag. XXIV. 6/2 Swedish turnips, .being of 
a saccharineish and sugarish taste. 1868 HELPS Reahnah 
xii. (1876) 313 The polite stranger assiduously presents the 
fallacious palliative of the consequential saccharinity. 1888 
Nature XXXVIII. 573/1 A streaky distribution of brine 
and water or of syrup and water, in which portion* of 
greatest and least salinity or saccharinity are within half a 
millimetre of one another. 

Saccharine : see SACCHABIN 2. 
Saccharinic (srekari-nik), a. Chem. [f. SAC- 

1881 Jrnl. Chem. Soc. Abstr. 149 Saccharin . . is the 

Saccliarite (sse-karsit). Min. [Named by 
E. F. Glocker in 1845 (G. saccharit}, from its re- 
semblance to sugar : f. Gr. <ratfx a p( ( j <7aKx<*p-ov 
sugar + -ITE.] A granular, massive mineral, at first 
referred to andesite, but now considered a mixture. 

1859 PAGE Handbk. Geol. Terms, Saec&arttt..U found 
in veins in serpentine, in the chrysoprase mines, near 
Frankenstein in Silesia. 1862 DANA Min. 175 Saccharjte 
resembles a granular feldspar, of a white or greenish-white 

Sa ccharize, v. rare~ l . [Formed as prec. + 
-IZE.] intr. To undergo saccharine fermentation. 

1764 GRAINGER Sugar Cane i. 179 Poor tastes the liquor ; 
cpction long demands, And highest temper 'ere it saccha- 
rize. Note t It is hoped the reader will pardon the introduc- 
tion of the verb saccharize. 

Hence Sacchariza'tion, the conversion (of starch) 
into sugar. 1902 in Cassetfs Encycl. Diet. Suppl. 

Saccharo- (iwkfiw), comb, form of Gr. aaic- 
Xapo-v sugar, forming compounds (usually written 
with hyphen) with the sense ( partly saccharine and 
partly (something else) ' ; ' containing sugar and 
(something else) . 

1839 URE Z?*V/. Artsyj Mashing is the operation by which 
the wort is extracted, .from the malt, and whereby a sac- 
charo-mucilaginous extract is made from it. I Ind. 401 The 
saccharo-starchy matter. 1842 R. KANE Elem. Chem. (1849) 
818 Saccharo-humine and saccharo-humic acid. 1889 Na* 
ture XXXIX. 433 Saccharocolloids. 1896 Allbutt's Syst. 
Med. I. 407 Saccharo-farinaceous elements. 

Saccharoid (sarkaroid), a. and sb. [f. Gr. 
<ra*xap-o" sugar + -OID.] 

A. adj. Geol. Having a granular texture resem- 
bling that of loaf-sugar. 

1833 LYELI, Princ.Geol. III. n Saccharoid gypsum. Ibid. 
79 Saccharoid, Saccharine. When a stone has a texture re- 
sembling that of loaf-sugar. 1833-4 J- PHILLIPS in Encycl. 
Metrop. (1845) VI. 560/1 Its frequent high state of granular 
or saccharoid crystallization. 1865 BRISTOW tr. Fignier's 
World bef. Deluge ii. 72 Limestone becomes granular and 
saccharoid it is changed into marble. 

B. sb. Chem. a. (See quot. 1868.) b. A sac- 
charine substance. 

1868 WATTS Diet. Chem., Saccharoid, a name given by 
Kane to a sweetish substance, probably identical with orcin, 
produced by the decomposition of Hceren's pseudo-erythrin 


(etbyltc orsellinate). 1882 Atheiicntm 2 Dec. 738/2 Non- 
nitrogenous food (stearoids and saccharoids). (saekaroi-dal), a. [Formed as 
prec. + -AL.] = SACCHABOID a. 

1838 W. F. AINSWORTH Kes. Assyria, etc. 26 The chalk is 
indurated, compact, granular, or saccharoidal, at the foot of 
Taurus. 1851 TH. Ross tr. H-umboldfs Trav. I. xi. 391 
We find also saccharoidal limestone in gneiss of the most 
ancient formation. 1863 DANA Man. Geol. 383 ' Ferrugin- 
ous ' brown and red, coarse, friable sandstone, in some 
parts white and ( saccharoidal '. 

Saccharometer (sjekaiym;'tsi). [f. Gr. cra/c- 
Xapo-v sugar + -METER. Cf. SACCHABIMETER.] 

1. A form of hydrometer for estimating the 
amount of sugar in a solution by specific gravity ; 
used esp. in brewing to ascertain the amount of 
saccharine or fermentable matter in wort. 

1784 J. RICHARDSON (title) Statistical Estimates of the 
Materials of Brewing, showing the use of the Saccharo- 
meter. 1836-41 BRANDE Chetn. (ed. 5) 1257 An instrument 
not quite correctly called a saccharometer, since it is influ- 
enced by all the contents of the wort, and not by the sugar 
only. 1880 Act 43 # 44 yict. c. 24 21 The gravity of the 
wort or wash.. can be ascertained by the prescribed sac- 

2. Used for SACCHARIMETEB. rare. 

1866 HERSCHEL Fain. Lect. Sci. (1871) 39-2 An elegant in- 
strument called the saccharometer, by which the quantity 
of sugar contained in a given solution is ascertained by 
simple inspection of the tint. 

Saccharometry (scekarfrmetri). [Formed as 
prec. + -HETKY.] The process of determining the 
quantity of sugar in a solution. 

1871 Jrnl. Bot. IX. 253 A paper on Saccharometry, giving 
the results of the determination of sugar in . . sugar-beet. 

II Saccharomyces (sa::kar<)m3i'S/z). Also 
anglicized -rayce. [mod.L., f. Gr. aa.Kx<ifo-v 
sugar + /jLVKt]* mushroom.] A genus of ascomyce- 
tous fungi, including the yeast-fungi ; a fungus of 
this genus, esp. the yeast-plant. Also attrib. 

1873 B. STEWART Conser-j. Force vii. 185 The. .yeast-plant 
(saccharomyce). ityqEncycl, Brit. IX. 96/1 We then place 
the flask in a chamber kept at the particular temperature 
which is most favourable to the development of ' saccharo- 
myces '. The saccharomyces-cells . . will multiply at a 
greater rate than the foreign cells. 1882 VINES tr. Sacks' 
Bot. 249 The genus Saccharomyces, which causes the al- 
coholic fermentation in saccharine fluids, consists of sepa- 
rate cells of an ellipsoidal form with smooth and thin walls. 

Sacoliaron (sae'karpn). Also -one. Chem. 
[f. Gr. caKyjup-ov sugar : see -ON.] 

1. A white crystalline substance obtained by the 
oxidation of saccharin ; the lactone of saccharonic 
acid. 1897 in Syd. Soc. Lex. 

2. An oily liquid obtained by the reduction of 
saccharin. In recent Diets. 

Saccharonic (sekar()-nik), a. Chem. [f. SAC- 
CHARON + -1C.] Of, pertaining to or derived from 
saccharon. Saccharonic acid, an acid formed by 
oxidation of saccharin by means of nitric acid. 

1894 in MUIR & MORLEY Watts' Diet. Chem. IV. 421/1. 

Saccharose (see- karoos). Chem. [f. Gr. aaxxap- 
ov sugar + -OSE.] Any one of the group of sugars 
having the common formula C 12 H 2 .j O u . 

1876 tr. Schutzenbtrger 's Ferment. 32 Saccharose or cane 
sugar is changed, when hydrated, into two isomeric mole- 
cules. 1887 Encycl. Brit. XXII. 623/1 'Sugar' is now a 
collective term for two chemical genera named saccharoses 
(all Ca HK Oi and glucoses (all Cs H 1 2 O 6 >. 

Saccharous (sae'karas), a. rare. [f. med.L. 
sacchar-um sugar -t- -ous.] Saccharine, sugary. 

1896 Lancet 21 Mar. 787/2 The crisp and saccharous 
tartlet. 1897 in Syd. Soc. Lex. 

Saccharnm (sce-karm). [a. med.L. saccharum 
SUGAK.] An invert sugar prepared from cane 
sugar, nsed chiefly in brewing. 

1839 URE Diet. Arts 397 In which mixture there is about 
one twelfth part of solid saccharum. 1885 Act 48^- 49 Viet. 
c. 51 7 Saccharum, glucose, or other saccharine substance. 

SaccharnmiC (sRjkan<-mik),<z. Chem. [app. 
f. med.L. sacchar-um sugar + HUMIC a., a syno- 
nym of ulmic.'] Derived from or containing 
sugar and ulmic acid. Saccharumic acid, an 
acid formed by the action of baryta on dextrose. 

[1842 : see SACCHARO-^KOT/C.] 1873 in Watts' Diet. Chem. 
2nd Suppl. 

Saceiie, obs. form of SACK. 

t Sacchola'Ctate. Chem. Obs. Alsosaooo-, 
salt of saccholactic acid. 

1807 J. MURRAY Syst. Chem. IV. 755 Index, Saccho-lac- 
tates. 1815 A nn. Philos. V. 268 Saccolactate of lead. 1816 
HENRY Elem. Chem. II. 417 A genus of salts which are 
called saccholactates or saclactates. 

t Sacchola'ctic, a. Chem. Obs. Also SAC- 
LACTIC, [a. F. saccholactiqtte, f. saccho- contracted 
for SACCHABO- + L. lact-, lac milk : see LACTIC a.] 
Saccholactic acid, mucic acid (prepared from sugar 
of milk). 

1790 KERB tr. Lavoisier's Elem. Chem. 281 The saccho- 
lactic acid d^covered by Scheele. 1816 HENRY Elem. Chem. 
II. 191 Saccholactic or mucic acid. 

t Sa-ccholate. Chem. Obs. Also saoeholat, 
erron. saocolate. [a. F. saccholat, f. sacchoKactiaiie} : 


1790 KERR tr. Lavoisier's Elem. Chem. 280 Saccholat of 
lime. 1802 PYF, Neiu Chew, Nomcncl. 32 Saccholates. 
1807 T. THOMSON Clum. (ed. 3) II. 302 The compounds 
which it forms with earths, alkalies, and metallic oxides, are 
denominated saccolatcs. 1815 A nn. Philos. V. 270 Saccolate 
of ammonia. 1819 KRANDE Chem. 438 Saccholales. 

Sacchulmic(ssek*lmik),fl. Chem. [f. med.L. 
sacch(aruni) sugar + ULM(IN) -f -ic.] Sacchulmic 
acid: an acid obtained by treating sacchulmin with 
alkaline solutions. 

1842 [see SACCHULMIN]. 1858 Fownes' Chem. (ed. 7) 354 
Ulmic acid, the sacchulmic acid of Liebig, dissolves freely. 
1894 in MUIR & MORLEY Watts' Diet. Chem. 

Saccliulmill (srekzvlmin). Chem. Also -ine. 
[f. med.L. sacch(anini} sugar + ULMIN.] A brown 
substance obtained in the decomposition of sugar 
by dilute acids. 

1842 R. KANE Elem. Chem. (1849)817 When sugar is acted 
upon by a very dilute acid.. two brown substances are 
formed... For these bodies the names sacchuhmne and sac- 
chitlmic acid may be retained. 1858 Foiunes" 1 Cheat, (ed. 7) 
354 By long-continued boiling with water, sacchulmic acid 
is converted into sacchulmin. 

Sacciferous (sreksi-feras), a. Anat. t Zool. and 
Bot. [f. L. sacc-us SAC 2 + fer bearing + -ous.] 
Bearing a sac. 

1880 in WEBSTER Suppl. [Bot.]. 

Sacciform (sarksiffXim), a. [ad. mod.L. sacci- 
form-is^ f. sacc-us SAC S : see -FOKM.] Having the 
form of a sac or pouch ; sac-shaped. 

1836 Penny Cycl. V. 311/1 The sacciform branchise of the 
Asctdiae. 1861 HULME tr. Mogmn-Tandon n. vii. ix. 372 
Another animal becomes developed, which has the form of 
a locomotive sac. These young sacciform larva;.. continue 
to live for a certain time. 1890 HUMPHRY Old Age 149 The 
calibre of the ducts .. becomes increased and their terminal 
parts, or acini, become dilated and sacciform. 

Saccilie (sse'ksin), a. rare~*. [f. L. satr-tts sac 
+ -INE ^.] Composed of sacs or air-cells. 

1853 KANE Grinnell Exp. xl. (1856) 366 The saccine vege- 
tation of the confervas. 

li Saccolabium (sa'k01^-bi#m). [mod.L., f. 
sacco- (assumed combining form of sacc-us SAC 2) 
+ L. labium lip.] A genus of plants (N.O. Orchi- 
dacea) ; also a plant of this genus. 

1850 in OGILVIE. 1882 Garden 30 Dec. 584/1 The Sac* 
colabiums are also there in great numbers. 

Sac CO Oil (sak/rn). Fencing. ? Obs. exc. Hist. 
Also 8 segoon. [Oral adoption of F. seconde 

. . 

1708 in Ashton Soc. Life Q. Anne I. 135 [There were the 
lively Gauls . . ] ready to wound every Pillar with their Canes, 
as they passM by, either in Ters, Cart, or Saccoon. 1761 
COLMAN Jealous \Vife iv, We'll go through the whole exer- 
cise : carte, tierce, and segoon, Captain ! 1889 DOYLE Micah 
Clarke 72 Inquarte, tierce, or saccoon, the same holds good. 

Saccular (S3e-ki??laj),a. [f. SACCUL-DS + -AR.] 
Of the nature of or resembling a sac. 

1861 J. R. GREENE Man. Anim. Kingd.> Ccelent. 48 The 
generative products are lodged in saccular processes. 1870 
ROLLESTON A nim. Life Introd. 34 A heart of saccular shape. 
1880 J. W. LEGG Biie 346 The ducts may show uniform or 
saccular dilatations. 

t Saccula'riau. Obs. [f. late L. sacculdri-us 
(f. saccul-us dim. of saccus bag) + -AN.] One of 
a class of jugglers mentioned in the Digest. 

1652 GAULE Magastrotn. 362 They were also called Sac- 
cularians ; because, .they would charm and convey the 
money out of others purses into their owne. 

Sacculate (sarkiwl^t), a. [f. SACCUL-US + 
-ATE ^.] = next. 

1870 ROLLESTON Anim. Life 138 The sacculate character 
of the digestive tract. 

Sacculated (sae'ki/^Uited),^. [Formed as prec. 
+ -ED !.] Composed of or divided into saccules. 

1835-6 'J'odtfs Cycl, Anat. I. 220/2 The circumference of 
each of these vessels is distended into three sacculated 
pouches. 1853 MARKHAM tr. Skoticfs Auscult. 70 Patients in 
whom the pleuritic fluid existed in a sacculated form. 1879 
WRIGHT Anim. Life jo In the kangaroos the whole extent 
of the stomach is sacculated. 1897 A llbutt's Syst. Med. IV. 
435 In some cases [of pyonephrosis] the kidney becomes 
completely sacculated. 

Sacculatidn (ssekittU'-Jan). [f. SACCUL-US + 
-ATION.] The formation of or division into sac- 
cules ; an instance of this. 

1869 E. A. PARKES Pract. Hygiene (ed. 3) 509 Distention 
and sacculation of the colon. 1898 Allbnt?& Syst. Med. V. 
70 A sacculation of a small bronchus is fatally exposed to 
an accumulation of secretion during periods of catarrh. 

Saccule (see-kiwi). [Anglicized form of SAC- 
CULUS.] A small sac, cyst, or bag ; esp. the smaller 
of the two vesicles or sacs in the membranous 
vestibule of the internal ear. 

1836-9 Tod&s Cycl. Anat. II. 537/1 The component parts 
of the membraneous labyrinth [of the ear] are: i. The 
common sinus. 2. The membraneous ampullae.. .3. The 
saccule. 1880 BASTIAN Brain iv. 76 In close relation with 
the pedal ganglia or ganglion, there are two minute sac- 
cules to which an auditory function is usually ascribed. 
1888 ROLLESTON & JACKSON Anim. Life 464 It developes 
within a sac, which then bursts, disclosing a large arm with 
peculiar suckers, and a terminal saccule. 

t Sa'CCUlet. Obs. rare ~ *. [f. L. saccul-us + 
-ET.] = SACCULUS i. 

1694 WESTMACOTT Script. Herb. 4 Dry Almond-Cakes.. 
are used by some Barbers.. in Sweet-waters,. .Sacculets 
and Beautifying Medicines. 


II SaCCHlina (sa.-kibrna). Zool. [mod.L., f. 
sacatl-us'. see SACCULUS.] A genus of degenerate 
cirripeds parasitic on crabs; an animal of this 


1876 BenederfsAnim. Parasites 59 The most singular.. 
of all these cirrhipedes, are the Gallae, which appear under 
the tail of crabs or the abdomen of paguri,and which zoolo- 
gists designate under the names Peltogaster or Sacculina. 
Ibid. 60 A curious opinion.. is that the Peltogaster of the 
Pagurus has become a Sacculina on the crab; the host 
having been transformed, its acolyte has done the same 
thing under the same influence. 1883 H. DRUMMOND Nat. 
Law in Spir. W. (1884) 341 This simple organism is known 
to the naturalist as a Sacculina. 

Sacculine (s?e'ki/?toin), a. [ad. mod.L. sac- 
cttlinus, f. saccttl-us little bag : see SACCDLUS and 
-INK.] Of or belonging to the genus SACCULINA. 

1883 H. DRUMMOND Nat. Law in Spir. W. 344 But in- 
stead of rising to its opportunities, the sacculine Nauplius, 
having reached a certain point turned back. 

II Sacculus (sse-kiz/lps) . PI. sacculi(sre-ki7n3i). 
[L. ; dim. of saccus SAC 2.] 

+ 1. A small bag containing medicaments (see 
quot. 1693). Obs. 

1621 BURTON Anat. Mel. H. iv. i. v, Sacculi or little bagges 
of hearbs,. .and the like applied to the head. 1661 LOVELL 
Hist. Anim. fy Min. 163 Applied with mints and southern- 
wood In a sacculus it helps, .paines. 1693 tr. Blancard*s 
Phys, Diet. (ed. z\ Sacculi Medicinales, several Simples, 
according to the Nature of the Disease, compounded and 
beaten together, and tied up in little Bags, to be applied to 
the part affected. 

2. Anat., Biol. A small sac ; a pouch-like dilata- 
tion of an organ. 

1748 Phil. Trans. XLV. 528 A large Sacculus, formed out 
of the very Coats of the Intestines. 1857 M' LLER Elem. 
Cheat. (1862) III. 514 The oils appear to exist ready formed 
in the plant, being enclosed in little sacculi. 1859 HUXLEY 
Oceanic Hydrozoa 70 Sacculi without involucra, and end- 
ing in a single filament. 1877 Anat. Inv. Anim. iii. 141 
In the Calycophoridx . . complex organs . . terminate each 
lateral branch of a tentacle. Each consists of an elongated 
sacculus, terminated by two filamentous appendages. 1897 
Allbutt's Syst. Med. III. 972 Often a thin lay^r of muscle 
is spread over the whole surface of a sacculus. 

Sace, obs. Sc. form of CEASE v. 

1572 Satir. Poems Reform, xxxi. 207 God will haue his 
will, but mair, Fulfillit or he sace. 

Sace, obs. form of SAUCE, SEABCE. 
II Sacellum (sase-l#m). PI. sacella (sase-la) 
[L., dim. of sacr-um shrine, neut. of sacer holy.] 

1. Ecd. Arch. (See quot. 1842.) 

1806 J. DALLAWAV Obs. Eng. Archit. 119 In that church 
[Winchester Cathedral] is an unrivalled series of sepulchral 
sacella. 1842 GWILT Archit. Gloss., Sacellum.. .In old 
church architecture, the term signifies a monumental chapel 
within a church, also a small chapel in a village, a 1845 
BARHAM Ingol. Leg. Ser. in. Ld. Thoulouse, The sounds 
that were heard To proceed now and then from the father's 
sacellum. 1881 W. STEPHENS Diocese Chichester 167 note, 
A very beautiful sacellum, with an altar in it, on the south 
side of the nave. 

2. Roman Antiq. A small, roofless temple con- 
secrated to some deity. Also, see quot. 1842. 

1852 GELL Pompeia.nct I. iv. 49 The Pantheon, .may be. . 
considered as a place of feasting, .under the protection of 
some deity, who, from his more elevated sacellum, was sup- 
posed to .. patronize the banquet. 1843 GWILT Archit. 
Gloss., s. v. Sacellum, Small sacella, too, were used among 
the Egyptians, attached frequently to the larger temples. 
1848 LYTTON //#>/</ 1. i, A small sacellum, or fane to Bacchus. 

Sa'Cerdoce. rare 1 , [a. F. sacerdoce, ad. L. 
sacerdotium : see SACEBDOCY.] = SACEBDOCY. 

1829 [J. R. BEST] Pers. $ Lit. Mem. 378 In this connec- 
tion, or alliance., of the sacerdoce and empire, the Church 
..becomes itself secularized, 

Sacerdocy (sae'<Jusi). [ad. L. sacerdotium 
priestly office, f. sacerdot-, sacerdos priest: see 
SACERDOTAL a.] a. The sacerdotal character, 
spirit, or system, b. A priestly function or office. 

1657-83 EVELYN Hist. Relig. (1850) II. 21 And so it con- 
tinued till the Levitical sacerdocy was fixed and confined 
to Aaron and his posterity. 1843 C, WORDSWORTH Theofh. 
Angl. (1850) 167 Let him [sc. the Bishop] make restitution 
. . lest under pretext of sacerdocy the pride of power should 
creep in. 1844 R. M. BF.VERLEV Ch. Eng. Exam. (ed. 2) 
101 He held true and real Levitical sacerdocy to be a con- 
stituent part of the clerical character. 1851 Ecclesiologist 
XII. 274 The sacerdocy of the whole machine being an 
emanation from the vagaries of a Presbyterian preacher. 
1877 MRS. CHAPMAN Hi. Martineau's Aiitobiog. III. 78 
Literature remained ever to her a Sacerdocy. 

|| Sace*rdos. Obs. [See SACERDOTAL.] The Latin 
word for * priest ' ; in quot. used as a plural. 

c 1590 GREENE Fr. Bacon vii. 121 No, no, out with your 
blades, and hamper these lades, . . And teach these Sacerdos, 
that the Bocardos. .are meet for themselues. 

Sacerdcrtage. jocular, [f. L. sacerddt- (see 
next) with allusion to dotage. Cf. anecdotage^\ 
a. Derisively nsed for : The sacerdotal order, or 
the partisans of sacerdotalism, b. Sacerdotalism 
as characteristic of a religion in its ' dotage *. 

1859 LONCSTAFFE in Arch&ol, JEliana IV. n (art.} The 
Hereditary Sacerdotage of Hexham. 18^5 W. CORY Lett. 
fy Jrnls. (1897) 382 Your representatives will have a sharper 
strife with the Sacerdotage. 1884 A. LANG Custom fy Myth 
(1885) 27 A people fallen early into its Sacerdotage and 
priestly second childhood. 

Sacerdotal (sresaid^u-tal), a. and sb. Also 
7 erron. -ial. fa. F. sacerdotal^ ad. L. sacerdotal-is , 


sacerdot-, saccrdos, f. sacri-, safer holy, sacred i 
(ncut. pi. sacra sacrifices) + do- ablaut -var. of ifa- , 
in dare to give. The etymological sense of the sb. 
is thus ' one who offers sacrifices '.] 
A. adj. 

1. Of or belonging to the priests or priesthood ; 
of or pertaining to a priest ; befitting or character- 
istic of a priest ; priestly. 

c 1400 MAUNDEV. (1839) vi. 66 That Cytee [sc. Ebron] was 
also Sacerdotalle, that is to seyne, seyntuarie, of the Tribe 
of Juda. c 1450 Mirnur Saluacionn 1181 Encense is obla- 
cionne ;e wote is sacerdotale. 1547 />'&. .Matr/ianiitcs c vj b, 
The .C vi. byshop was a woman. . . I would wit than if shee 
were chosen ViaSpiritus owicft'...ltwil whereby cam the 
sacerdotall Carecte, & many other thynges whydie for this 

her the Sacerdotial ornaments. 1737 WATEKLAND Rev. 
Doctr. Eucharist v. Wks. 1823 VII. 93 The ancient fathers 
are still more particular in expounding the sacerdotal con- 
secration, and the Divine sanctification consequent there- | 
upon. 1739CIBBER Afol. (1756) I. no. \cholerick sacerdotal : 
insolence. 1821 BYRON Sardiin. n. i, That's a sacerdotal I 
thought, And not a soldier's. 1838 PKESCOTT Ferd. fy Is. 
(1846) I. Introd. 10 Priests, .arrayed in their sacerdotal j 
robes, not unfrequently led tiie armies to battle. 1849 MAC- j 
AULAY Hist. Eng. iii. I. 326 Thus the sacerdotal office lost ] 
its attraction for the higher classes. 1874 GREEN S/urt Hist. 
viii. 3. 488 They had none of the sacerdotal independence 
which Rome had at any rate preserved. 

Comb. 1845 S. AUSTEN Rankt's Hist. Rcf. II. 7 The de- 
structive forces .. which this sacerdotal- military state had ! 
certainly not been able to neutralise or destroy. 
b. Holding the office of a priest. 

1681-6 J. SCOTT Chr. Life (1747) III. 223 He is a Sacer- 
dotal King, i. c. a King that holds his Regal Power in the 
right and vertue of his Priestly intercession. 1870 DISRAELI 
Lolhnirxivi, His Lordship was a sacerdotal orator of repute. > 

2. Now often used as the epithet of doctrines 
that assert the existence in the Christian church of 
an order of priests charged with sacrificial functions i 
and invested with supernatural powers transmitted 
to them in ordination. 

1871 MORLEY Crt't. Misf. Ser. i. Carlylc 11878) 173 It led 
to the sacramental and sacerdotal developments of Angli- 
canism. a 1884 M. PATTISON Mem. (1885) 166 High sacer- 
dotal doctrines were openly proclaimed. 

fB. sb. [Cf. med.L. sacerdvla/e.'] Priestly ; 

a 1640 J. BALL AHKO. Canne l. (1642) 133 Since they made ; 
their new office or sacerdotall, thus they make their cate- | 

Hence Sacerdo'tally adv., fSacerdo-talness. 
Also f Sacerdota'lity, priestly character. 

1668 H. MORE Dh>. Dial. v. xi. (1713) 447 Phihth.. .That 
is also a farther Intimation of their Sacerdotality. 1727 
BAILEY vol. II, Sacerdotalness, Priestliness, or Likeness to 
a Priest. 1836 E. HOWARD A'. Reefer ii, He has most sacer- 
dotally put down all the jollity. 1864 Reader III. 671/3 
Why does not some scientific man, clothing himself for the 
moment sacerdotally. ., heave back the charges. 

Sacerdotalism (sjes3jd<?u-taliz'm). [f. SACER- 
DOTAL a. + -ISM.] 

1. The sacerdotal spirit or system; the principles 
or practice of the priesthood. Chiefly in unfavour- i 
able sense : Pursuit of the interests of the priestly \ 
order in opposition to those of the laity; undue 
assumption of authority on the part of the priest- 

1847-54 WEBSTER, Sacerdotalism, the spirit of the priest- 
hood. 1860 H. B. WILSON in Ess. $ Rev. 150 A self-satisfied 
sacerdotalism, .might succeed in keeping peace within the 
walls of emptied churches. 1869 Pall Mall G. 7 Jan. 4 
A people so imbued with detestation of sacerdotalism or 
priestly assumption of power as are the English. 1877 FROUUE 
Short Stud. u883) IV. i. xi. 128 In the eyes of Europe, the 
cause in which Becket fell was the cause of sacerdotalism. 
1880 L. OLIPHANT Gilead xvii. 494 The influence for evil of 
the rival sacerdotalisms as they exist in Turkey. 

2. The assertion of the existence in the Christian 
church of a sacerdotal order or priesthood having 
sacrificial functions and invested with supernatural 

1856 R. A. VAUGHAN Mystics (1860) I. 237 These sermons 
of Tauler assert so audaciously against sacerdotalism, the 
true priesthood of every Christian man. 1881 Ch. $}. Rev. 
XII. 434 Sacerdotalism, i.e. the belief in certain individuals 
ordained in a certain way being the exclusive instrument, in 
the Uivine covenant, of sacramental graces. 1905 C//. Times 
22 Sept. 337/3 True sacerdotalism is all one with true 

Sacerdotalist (srcsaadJu-talist). [f. SACER- 
DOTAL a. + -1ST.] One who advocates or defends 

1865 Pall Mall G. 29 Sept. 10/2 The sacerdotalists are 
rievously mistaken if they take all this for the proof of a 
tent belief in sacramental theories. 1874 H. R. RKVNOLDS 
John Baft. v. i. 298 The awful emphasis laid by the sacer- 
dotalist on the efficacy of that ordinance [sc. baptism]. 1896 
Bp. STUBBS I'isit. Charges (1904) 304 The advocate of re- 
ligious education, the opponent of divorce and simony, the 
maintainer of the sanctity of Sunday, are all alike sacer- 

Sacerdotalize (srcsaidoo-tabiz), v. [f. SACER- 
DOTAL a. + -IZK.] trans. To make subservient to 
sacerdotalism. Hence Sacerdo'talized ///. a., 
Sacerdo'talizing vbl. sb. 

1865 Pall Mall G. 20 Sept. :o/2 As to the sacerdotalizing 



of the English poor by any such means as these [etc.]. 1883 
MAINE Early Laiu ii. 26 The existing very imperfectly 
sacerdotal ised customary law of the Hindus in the Punjab. 
1899 Sp. in Times ii May 15/1 The policy of the Kishops 
seemed to he to sacerdotali/e the Church and substitute 
their own authority for that of the law. 

t Sacerdote. nonce-wd. In 7 sacerdott. [ad. 
L. sncerdot-em^\ A priest. 

1685 in Maidment Bk. Sc. Pas'jnils (1868) 285, I swear on 
word of Sacerdott. 

f Sacerdotical, a. Ohs. rare 1 , [f. L. sacenlot- 
em -r -ICAL.] =- SACERDOTAL. 

1641 J. TRAPPK Theol. Theol. 69 As in the Xe\v, the Gospels 
arc regalL.thc Epistles more SacerdoticaU. 

Sacha, obs. iorm of SAC '. 

II Sacliamaker. Obs. Also 8 sacka-maker. 
[app. a derivative or a corruption of sachauia 

1682 Pennsylv. Archives 1.47 Indyan Sachamakers. 1683 
PENN Wks. (1782) IV. 311 Another made a speech to the 
Indians, in the name of all the Sachamakers or kings. 1701 
C. WOLLEY Jrnl.Nciv K0r(i86o) 54 They have the greatest 
Sachim or Sacka-maker, i.e. King. 
Sache, obs. form ot SAC *, SACK $h 
Sachel, -ell, -elle, obs. forms of SATCHEU 
Sachem (s^i'tjem, sartfcm). Also 7 sachama, 
sachema, sachim, 9 saqueni. [a. Xarragansett 
sacJiem = Delaware sa&irria, Micmac sakumow, 
Penobscot sagamo [whence SAGAMOKK).] 

1. The supreme head or chief of some American 
Indian tribes. 

The alleged distinction between sacJion and sagamore 
(quot. a. 1817) appears to be erroneous. 

1622 ft t' lat. Plantation Plymouth, AVry Eng. 49 They 
brought vs to their Sachim or Gouernour. 1677 \V. Hun- 
BAKU Narrative 5 Miantotnmoh the chief Sachem or Lord 
of the Narhagansets. 1683 PENN Wks. (1782) IV. 310 Their 
government is by kings, which they call sachama. 1685 R. 
UURTON Eng. Emp. America 117 Sachema. 1710 Lri IHKI.L 
Brief Rel. (1857) VI. 571 Four Indian sachems, or kings of 
the 5 Indian nations, lately arrived here, n 1817 T, DWIGHT 
Trav. New Eng., etc. (1821) I. 119 Their principal chiefs 
were called Sachems ; their subordinate ones. Sagamores. 
1858 LUNGF. Rf.Stattdish i. 52 Let them come, it they like, be 
it sagamore, sachem, or pow-wow. 1865 LKVKK Litttrcll of 
Arran xiii, He was a great Saquem, delivering the lawn of 
his tribe. 

2. jocularly applied to a prominent member of a 
society, etc.; a 'chief. 

1773 J. ADAMS li'ks. (1854) IX. 335 It is whispered that 
the Sachem has it in contemplation to go home soon. [Note. 
Adams refers to some one prominent in Mass, politics.] 

3. (7. S. Politics. One of a body of twelve high 
officials in the Tammany Society of New York. 
Grand sachem^ the head of this body. 

1890 Nation 20 Mar. 236/1 The tribulations of Tammany's 
former Grand Sachem, the Sheriff. 1890 Boston (Mass.) 
Jrnl. 23 Apr. 2/3 Among the Sachems unanimously re- 
elected by Tammany Hall are [etc.]. 

Hence Sa chemclom, Sa chemship, the position 
or * realm ' of a sachem ; Sa cheniic ., of or per- 
taining to a sachem. 

1765 T. HUTCHIXSON Hist. Alass. I. v. 459 Two cantons 
or sachemdoms of the cape Indians. 1771 SMOLLETT //////. 
Cl. 26 Oct., A little traffic he drove in peltry during his 
sachemship among the Mlaiuis. -71817 * DWIGHT Trav. 
New Eng. t etc. (1821) II. 18 Alexander, the eldest son of 
Massa^oit, died.. and left the Sachemdom to Philip. 1876 
BANCROFT Hist. U. S. II. xxxvi. 395 The forests beyond the 
Sace, New Hampshire, and the country as far as Salem, 
constituted the sachemship of Penacook. 1885 Riverside 
Nat. Hist. (1888) VI. 163 The sachemic office was hereditary. 

Sachemore, obs. form of SAGAMORE. 

Sachet (sajg). [Fr. sachet (from I2th c, ; in 
ONK. saquet: see SAGKET),dini. of sac: L. saccits 
bag, SACK sbl Cf. It. sacchetto.~\ 

1 1. A small bag, a wallet. Obs. rare. 

1483 CAXTON Gold. Leg. 224/2 He. .etc. .twyes a day of 
the same loof and alwaye on the morn he fond it hool in his 
sachet. 1487 Bk. Gd. Manners i. xvii. (W. deW. 1515) 
E v b,In stede of a celyer he [jr. Diogenes] had but a lytell 

2. A small perfumed bag or satchel. 

1838 Times 3 July 5/6 The * letter of felicitation ' for- 
warded by the Sultan to her Majesty on the occasion of her 
coronation, .was put in an envelope.. and the whole en- 
closed in a crimson cloth sachet or bag, some what resembling 
a lady's small reticule. 1880 DISRAELI Endym. xxi, You 
will not perhaps be able to find your pocket-handkerchiefs 
at first. They are in this sachet. 

3. A dry perfume madeupmto a packet for placing 
among articles of clothing, etc. (see quot. 1892). 

1855 PIESSE Perfumery vii. 145 Besides the sachets men- 
tioned there are many other substances applied as dry per- 
fumes, such as scented wadding. 1856 Athcnxiim 18 Oct. 
1268 He is scented like a sachet. 1892 G. W. ASKINSON 
Perfumes xvi. 208 Expensive sachets are sold in silk bags. 
. .Cheap sachets are sold in envelopes or in round boxes. 

attrih. 1855 PIESSE Perfumery vii. 137 Sachet Powders. 

Sacheverell (satjewerel). 1Qbs.vtU*S. Also 
-si. [Said to have been named by the inventor on 
account of the popularity of Dr. Sacheverell : see 
next.] (See quots.) 

1769 FRANKLIN Lett. Wks. 1840 VI. 325 This is seen in 
narrow stove chimneys, when a sacheverell or blower is 
used. 1785 GROSE Diet. Vulg. Tongue, Sachewrel, the 
iron door, or blower to the mouth of a stove, from a divine 
of that name, who made himself famous for blowing the 
coals of dissention, the latter end of the reign of Queen Ann. 

SacheverelliteC^uJe-vcrcUit). [t 


(see below) + -ITE.] One who adopted the ex- 
treme High Church and Tory views of Dr. Henry 
Sacheverell, an English clergyman whose condem- 
nation for 'seditious libel' in 1/09 excited great 
popular indignation. Also attrib. or adj. 

1710 C/iuse which you Please 4 A Sacheverellite swears to 
Her Majesty only as Queen de Facto. Ibid. 7 The Sach- 
everellite Clergy have long groan 'd under this their Sub- 
jection to the State. 

Saciate, Sacietie, -ty, obs. ff. SATIATE, SATIETY. 

Sack (soek), j^. 1 Forms: i sacc, ssecc, 3-4 
sac, seck(e, (3 sec, 6 north, seik), 3-6 sakke, 
3-7 sacke, 4-5 sak, sekke, 4-6 sek, (5 sac, cek, 
sache, sake, saccke, Sf. secke, 7 St\ seck\ 
5- sack. [OL. sacc masc., ad. L. sacc-its bag, sack, 
sackcloth (K. sac, from i i-l 2th c., Pr. sac. Sp., Pg. 
saco t It. sacco}) a. Or. craKftos, ad. Heb. , ? Phoenician) 
pir sag = Jewish Aramaic pr saq, t*pr saqqa, Syriac 
-Qfrt saq, \,.D saijd, Assyrian saqqit. The word 
appears in most of the Tent, langs. : Goth, sakkits 
sackcloth is prob. from Greek, but in the other 
langs. the proximate source is Latin: MDu. sak 
(l)u. zafy, OIIG. sai'j sac/i, ace. pi. secchi(M.\l(\. 
sac, mod.G, sack bag), OX. sekk-r sack (Sw. siM t 
Da. j-&vC-\ TheON. and some of the OHG. forms, 
and pcrh. the OK. stctc (confined to the sense ' sack- 
cloth') indicate a prehistoric type *sakki-z: cf. 
med.L. ' saccia, aaKKos ' in a Lat.-Gr. glossary. 

The word ib fuund also as Irish and Gatrl. sac, Welsh sach, 
Hungarian zs<i, Russian caKT> sak') Polish, Czech, Ser- 
bian, Albanian $afc, which are all directly or indirectly from 
the Latin or Greek.] 

I. 1. A large bag oblong in shape and open at 
one end, usually made of coarse flax or hemp, used 
for the storing and conveyance of corn, Hour, fruit, 
potatoes, wood, coal, etc. 

c 1000 /ELFRIC Gen. xlii. 25 He. .bead his be^num }>;<, t hij 
fyldon hira saccas mid h waste. < 1250 Gen. fy A'.v. 2223 Quan 
men So seckes dor un-bond, And in 3e curen ftu a^tes fond. 
ei 1300 Cursor Jlf. 5090 Your .seckes sal i fil o gift, c 1385 
CHAUCER L. G. W. 195 (Diti0\ Sakkes ful of gold. (.1440 
Pi'owp. Paw. 64/1 Cek, or Cckclothe, or poke, sacats. 
14. . Tretyce in W. of Henli'ys Husb. (iHgo) 50 To kepc be 
curne J-at falithe when it is put into be sekkis. a 1529 
SKKLTON Bk. 3 Foles Wks. 1843 I. 200 Pecunyous fuoles, 
that . . wt-ddeth these olde wyddred women, whych hath 
.sackes full of nobles. 1573 TUSSER Husb. (1878) 176 Good 
huswifes be mending and peecing their .saukes. 1753 Scots 
J/rti r . Aug. 421/2 Five men in sacks run for a guinea. 1840 
HOOD Up the Rhine 222 What do you think, Margaret, of 
having your head caught in a baker's sack, hot from the 
oven [as a cure for a ' blight in the eyes ']. 1864 TKSNYSON 
En.Ard. 63 The younger people. ., With bag and sack and 
basket.., Went nutting. 

b. \Vith reference to the punishment of drown- 
ing in a sack. The sack', the punishment (awarded 
in ancient Rome to a parricide) of being sewn in a 
sack and drowned. 

c 1375 Sc. Leg. Saints iii. (Andreas) 211 J>e Iuge..gert 
bynd be gounge man rath, and put hym in a sek to mere. 
c 1386 CHAUCER Merck. T. 956 And if I do that lakke Do 
strepe me and put me in a sakke And in the nexte ryuer do 
me drenche. 1500-20 DUNBAH Poems xlii. 87 Gud Fame wes 
drownit in a sek. 1538 ELYOT Diet. Add. s. v. Cnlens, 1678 
K. L'EsTKANGBtSVjWdt'f Mo r., Clemency (1696) 441 Caligula, 
in five years condemn'd more People to the Sack, then ever 
were before him. 1820 SCOTT Monast. x, Didst thou think 
me fool enough to wait till thou hadst betrayed me to the 
sack and the fork ! 
C. transf. andyf^. 

a 1300 Sartmm in E. E. P. (1862) 2 pi felle wib-oute nis 
hot a sakke. 1426 LYDG. De Guil. Pilgr. 12791 Ther Sak, 
ther wombe, (I vndertake,) Off hem ther goddys they do 
make. 1559 Mirr. Mag. t Edw. 7K, vi, A man is but a 
sacke of stercory. 1581 SIDNEY Apol. Poctrie (Arb.J 45 
Although perchance the sack of his owne faults, lye so be- 
hinde hys back. [Cf. SACKET, quot. 1549.] 

fd. (See quots.) Cf. WOOLSACK. Obs. 

1539 Act 31 Hen. I'llI, c. 10 8 Suche of them as shall 
happen to be under the saide degree of a Baron, shall sitt . . 
at the uppermost parte of the sakkes in the middes of the 
saide Parliament Chamber. 1577 HARRISON England n. 
viii. (1877) i. 174 In the middest [of the House of Lords]., 
lie certeine sackes stuffed with wooll or haire, whereon the 
judges of the realme, the master of the rols, and secietaiies 
of estate doo sit. 

fe. Sack and seam : pack-horse traffic. Obs* 
1631 in A 7 . Riding Rec. (1885) III. n. 312 [Two yeomen 

presented for stopping up the King's highway for] sacke and 
seame. 1829 UKOCKETT N. C. Words (ed. ^t},Sack-and-seam- 
road^ a horse road properly a pack-horse road over moors. 

2. A sack with its contents ; also the amount 
usually contained in a sack ; hence taken as a unit 
of measure or weight for corn, flour, fruit, wool, 
coal, etc. 

1314-15 Rolls of Parlt. I. 313/1, LI saks & x peres de 
leine. 1427-8 Rec. St. Mary at Hill 69 For iij sak lyme to 
be same mason, .vj d. 1479 in Eng. Gilds (1870) 425 That 
they bryng their sakkes of juste mesure. 1494 Act ii 
Hen. VII, c. 4 2 lie it also enacted that ther be but only 
. .xiiij Ib. to the stone of Wolle and xxj stone to the sakke. 
1565 Reg. Privy Council Scot, I. 334 The conservatour sail 
haif. .of euer ilk sek of gudis twa sturis. 1609 SKENE Reg. 
J/o/, Dav. II 44 There salbe ane maister of the Tione, 
quha sail receaue fra the King, ane pennie for ilk seek of 
woll fquhilk conteines twentie foure stanes). 1687 A. LOVELL 
tr. Tktvtxof* Trav. i. 229 Having taken out of her ten sacks 
of Carobs, they.. let her go. 1704 Land. Post 14-17 Apr. 


2/1 Last Week 6 Sacks of Cocoa-Nuts were seiz'd by 
a Custom-house Officer, being brought up to Town for so 
many sacks of Beans. 1846 J. BAXTER Lihr. Pract. Agric. 
{ed. 4) II, 443 Of corresponding Prices per Load, Quarter, 
Sack, and Bushel. 1859 TENNYSON Enid 263 An ancient 
churl,.. Went sweating underneath a sack of corn. _ 1872 
RAYMOND Statist. Mines ty Mining 143, 90 pounds is the 
weight taken per sack of interior ores. 

3. Proverbs and proverbial phrases, f To buy a 
cat in the sack [cf. F. achettr chat en sac Cotgr.] : 
to buy an article without first inspecting it. To 
bring, carry (more} sacks to the mill', see MILL sd. 1 
I b. f To cover oneself with a wet sack [ = F. 
se coitvrirtfun sac monilU^ i6th c.] : to make vain 

^1380 WVCLIF SeL Wks. III. 422 To bye a catte in Jx> 
sakke is bot litel charge. 1546 J. HEYWOOD/V<w.(l867) 47, 
I promise you an olde sacke axeth much patchyng. 1579 
TOMSON Calvin's Serin. Tim, 340/2 Therefore the Papists 
couer them selues with a wet sack, when they say [etc.]. 
a 1651 CALDERWOOD Hist. Kirk (1843) II. 404 Where they 
alledge we sould have beene occasioun to caus our sonne 
follow his father hastilie, they cover themselves theranent 
with a wett seek. 

b. in various similative phrases. 

1426 LVDG. De Guil. Pilgr. 5127 Swych wer foul & blake 
of synt Lych to a colyers sn.k. c 1440 Jacob* s Well 263 J>ou 
faryst as a saccke wyth-oute botome, f>ere may no-thyng 
abyde (r-iii. 1470-85 MALORY Arthur x. xv. 437 Kyng 
Marke. .tumbled adoune out of his sadel to the erthe as 
a sak. 1886 HALL CAINE Son of Hagar 11. xvi, Tom was 
drawn wet as a sack to the opposite bank. 

4. slang. To give (a person) the sack: to dismiss 
from employment or office ; transf. to discard, turn 
off (a lover). So To get the sack : to receive one's 

The phrase has been current in Fr. from the lythc. : cf. *On 
luy a donnf son sac, bee hath his pasport giuen him (said 
of a seruant whom his master hath put away) ' (Cotgr.). Cf. 
Du. iemand den zak geven^ to give one the sack (already in 
MDu.), den zak krijgen^ to get the sack. 

1825 C. M. WESTMACOIT Eng. Spy I. 178 You munna split 
on me, or I shall get the zack for telling on ye. 1837 DICKKNS 
Fickw. xx, I wonder what old Fogg 'ud say, if he knew it. 
I should get the sack, I s'pose eh ? 1840 THACKKRAY 
Shabby Genteel Story v, The short way would have been, .to 
have requested him immediately to quit the house; or, as 
Mr. Gann said, ' to give him the sack at once '. 1902 KESANT 
Five Yrs? Tryst 12 Frivolity and even lightness of con- 
versation were sure to be followed by the sack. 

f II. 5. Sackcloth, esp. as the material of 
penitential or mourning garments. Also, a piece 
or a garment of sackcloth. Ohs. 

CV1QQ &LVRIC Saints 1 Lives I. 538 Hearas^aofbaereflora 
and of Jam wacan saecce he he lange on-uppan dreorig waes 
sittende. cizoo Trin. Coll. Horn. 139 [John the Baptist chose] 
stiue here to shurte and gretsac to curt le. ? a 1366 CHAUCER 
Rom. Rose 457 Slie [sc. Poverty] nadde on but a streit old 
sak. 1382 WVCLIF Dan. ix. 3 To preye and byseche in fast- 
yngis, sac, and a^he. 1422 tr. Secreta Secret.^ Priv. Priv. 
198 This kynge Ezechie. .hym clothid in a sake, he Put 
hym-Selfe to Penaunce. 1483 CAXTOX Gold. Leg. 231 b/2 His 
bedde was alle enuymnned with asshes and hayre and with 
a sacke. 1535 COVERDALE zEsdrasxvi.z Gyrde youre selues 
with clothes of sack & hayre. 1589 NASHE Martins Months 
Mind H i, Away with silke, for I will mourne in sack, Mar- 
tin is dead. 1594 GREENE & LODGE Looking-gl. (1598) 
H 3 b, Lords, ..see it straight proclaim'd, That man and 
beast. . For fortie daies in sacke and ashes fast, r 1620 Z. 
BOYD Z ion's Flowers (1855) 35 For Silks I will with rugged 
Sack be clad. 

f6. Some kind of material for ladies' dresses: 
= SACKING sb.% 2. Obs. 

1595 Ace. Bk. IV. Wray in Antiquary XXXII. 317, j 
pece stro coler seek, xxvij. ; and viij yeardes checker seck- 
ynge, vj.?. viijrf.. .Ite' j pece ashe coler seckynge, xxjs. 
III. attrib. and Comb. 

7. a. simple attrib., as sack-band, -barrow, -hoist, 
-weight ; D. objective, as sack-bearer, -maker, 
-making; in names of mechanical contrivances, as 
sack-emptier, -holder -, -lifter c. similative, as 
sack-formed, -shaped ncljs. ; sack-like adj. and adv. 

c 1460 Toivneley Afyst. xii. 167 Hold ye my mare. . Whylst 
L.lawse the *sek band. 1638 PENKKTHMAN Artack. Hj, 
For Salt, Yeast, Candle, and Sack-bands 2ft. 1850 OGILVIE, 
* Sack barrow. 1565 COOPER Thesaurus, Saccarius, a 
*sackebearer. 1835-6 Todd's Cycl. Anat. I. 693/2 It is by 
a *sack-formed process of the mantle tilled with this yel- 
lowish matter that the peduncle is first formed. 1884 KNIGHT 
Diet. Meek. Suppl., *Sack Emptier. 1875 Ibid., *Sack- 
hoist, an adaptation of the wheel and axle to form a con- 
tinuous hoist for sacks. 1880 J. W. HILL Guide Agric. 
Implements 468 Combined *Sack Holder and Barrow. Ibid. 
469 This Machine is an efficient *Sack Lifter, Loader, 
Unloader, and Shooter. 1826 KIRBY & SP. Entomol. III. 
xxxi. 257 The "sack-like cases in which the larva resides. 
1898 G. MEREDITH Odes /<>. Hist. 71 Sack-like droop bronze 
pears. 1780 \Vestm. Mag. VIII. Suppl. 730/2 'Sack and 
sacking-maker. 1885 Manch. Exam. 10 Jan. 5/1 A young 
woman named Mary Dawson, sackmaker.. was found guilty 
of a robbery from the person. 1839 SOWERBY ConchoLAfan* 
21 The head.. is placed above a *sack-shaped body 1420 
KolhofParlt. IV. 359/2 The *sak weyght is sold forxn Mare. 

8. Special comb. : sack-bag (see quot.) ; sack 
coal, screened coal for delivery in sacks ; f sack 
custom, a toll on sacks of wool ; sack-doodling 
///. a.,quasi-an-^. [ c f. G. dudelsack bagpipe], that 
plays on the bagpipes ; sack-filter, a form of filter 
used in sugar-refining (Knight Diet. Mech. 1875) ; 
t sack gown Sc,, a sackcloth garment worn by an 
offender when doing public penance; sack-pants 


U.S., loosely fittingtrousers; sack pipe ? U.S. [after 
G . sackpfeife\,& bagpipe (Cent. Diet.} ; sack race, a 
race in which each competitor is enveloped in a sack, 
the mouth of which is secured round his neck ; so 
sack racing, running', also sack-racer-, sack-sailed 
a. (nonce-word), having sails made of sackcloth ; 
sack-shoot, an inclined plane or trough for de- 
livering sacks to a lower level ; sack-tackle, tackle 
for hoisting sacks ; sack tree (see quot. 1866). 

1885 WARREN & CLEVERLY IV and. ' Beetle* 10 The "sack- 
bag, a sort of canvas bolster, an ever-ready receptacle for 
items forgotten in packing. 1898 IVestm, Gaz. 9 June 1/3 
*Sack coal. .has. .been kept up to is. id. a cwt. a 1513 
KABYAN Chron. vn. 595 Y l al straungers y l carved any wolles 
out of this londe, shuld pay xliii. s. Hii. d. for a *sakke cus- 
tome. 1824 SCOTT Rcdgauntlet let. xi, Stop though, thou 
*sack-doudling son of a whore ! 1693 in G. Lorimer 
Leaves fr. Bk. West Kirke vi. (1885) 51 [In September 1693 
Wm, MacMorran, a cobbler, confessed to a grave breach of 
morals. He was appointed to] buy ane *sack goun to stand 
inatthekirkdoor..onSabbathnext. 1856 Y*.\v,v.Arct.Expl. 
II. x, 98 An extra jumper and x sack-pants for sleeping. 1884 
Harpers /!/<(?. Jan. 303/1 The champion *sack-racer of the 
world. 1801 STRUTT Sports $ Past. iv. iii. 277 *Sack Run- 
ning, that is, men tied up in sacks, every part of them being 
enclosed except their heads. 1882 CHR. ROSSETTI Ballad 
of Boding Poems (1904) 56/2 The 'sack-sailed boat. 1902 
M'estni. Gaz. 5 May 7/3 A *sack-shoot at the north side of 
the warehouse. 1825 J. NICHOLSON Operat. Mechanic 140 
A granary., with., bins., to contain the different sorts of 
grain which is raised up by the *sack-tackle. 1849 BALFOUR 
Man. Bot. Index, *Sack-tree. 1866 Treas. Bot., Lej>u> 
randra., the Sack-tree of Western India, a tree., now., 
called Antiaris saccidora. . .It is a gigantic tree, .having a 
strong tough fibrous inner bark.. of which the natives,. 
make capital sacks. 

Sack (soek), j. 2 Forms : 6 sak, 6-7 sac, sacke, 
6- sack. [a. F. sac (in phr. mettre a sac], ad. It. 
sacco (= Sp. saco, Pg. saque], of doubtful origin. 

By some scholars it is regarded as identical with sacco 
bag, SACK $b.*, or as a verbal noun from the derivative verb 
sttcctire to put in a bag, with reference to the putting up of 
plunder into bags or sacks. Tins is possible, but evidence 
is wanting.] 

The action of SACK ?>. 2 ; sackage, plundering ; esp. 
in phr. to put to sack, \toput to or unto the sack(obs.}. 

1549 Compl.Scot. xiv. 114 Thai gat entres vitht in the 
tonne, and pat it to sac. 1567 TURBKRV. Disprayse of 
Women in Epitaphes, etc. 61 b, Helen that to vtter sack, 
both Greece and Troie brought. 1577-87 HOLINSHED Hist. 
Scot. 246/1 The said earle of March., comming to the said 
towne, tooke it, slue all the Englishmen found within it, put 
their goods to the sacke, and after set the towne on tire. 
1581 STYWARD Mart. Discipl. n. 141 Graunt not license to 
thy souldiers to put all to sacke. 1598 BARRET Theor. Warres 
\. \\. ii Licence graunted to fall vnto the sacke and spoile. 
1610 HE ALKY St. Aug. Citie of God in. xxviii. 147 Many 
also of the noblest citties and townes were put vnto the 
sacke. c 1645 Ho WELL Lett. vi. 75 Before the Sac of Troy, 
'twas said and sung up and down the streets. 1777 WAT SON 
Philip II (1793) II. xin. 136 He despaired to reduee so 
strong a place by sack and storm. 1808 SCOTT Mann. iv. 
xxxii, Or.. call The burghers forth to watch and ward, 
'Gainst southern sack and fires to guard. 1849 MACAULAY 
Hist. Eng. v. I. 614 Those inhabitants who had favoured 
the insurrection expected sack and massacre. 1873 SYMONDS 
Grk. Poets \\\. 191 The storm.. was a punishment for their 
impiety and pride during a sack of Troy. 1893 F, ADAMS 
New Egypt 40 But Memphis was gone, having suffered a 
hundred sacks and dilapidations. 
b. transf* andy?^. 

a 1586 SIDNEY Arcadia in. (1622) 353 Alas sorrow, now 
thou hast the full sacke of my conquered spirits. 1590 
GRF.KNE Nenertoo late Wks. (Grosart) VIII. 105 Hast thou 
had the spoile of my virginitie, and now wouldest thou haue 
the sacke of my substaunce ? 
C. Plundered goods, rare. 

1859 TENNYSON /?/</ 694 He found the sacl: and plunder 
of our house All scatter'd thro* the houses of the town. 

Sack (soek), sb$ Obs. exc. Hist. Forms: a. 6 
north, wyn seake, Sc. wyne seek, vyne sekk ; 
0. 6 seck(e; 7. 6 sakke, 6-7 sacke, 6- sack. 
[Early i6th c. wyne seek, ad. F. vin see, 'dry 
wine'. Cf. G. sekt> earlier (i;th c.) sek t Du. sek. 

Vin sec is given by Sherwood 1632 (but not by Cotgrave 
1611-32) as the Fr. equivalent of 'sacke'. According to 
Littre", vin sec meant only 'dry wine' in the current Kng. 
sense, i. e. wine ' free from sweetness and fruity flavour ' ; 
there appears to be no ground for the assumption made in 
Grimm's Dentsches Worterhuch^ s.v. Sekt (and in earlier 
German dictionaries from the iyth c. onwards), that it at 
some time meant 'wine from dried or partially dried grapes'. 
Some difficulty therefore arises from the fact that sack in 
English, as well as sekt in German, was often described as 
a sweet wine (so already in our earliest quot.), though Shak- 
spere's mention of 'sack and sugar' shows that it was not 
always such even in the i6th c. It is possible that before 
the recorded history of the name begins it had already been 
extended from the 'dry* wines of acertain class to the whole 
class, and had afterwards come to be applied esp. to those 
wines of the class which were originally excluded. Hut 
evidence's wanting. The Sp. *vino seco, It. *vino secco, 
usually cited by etymologists, appear not to be recognized 
by the lexicographers of the respective lanjjs. 

The form sack is not a normal development from the 
original seek. It may perhaps be explained by the fact that 
in the i6th c. seek was a provincial form of SACKi^. 1 ; per- 
sons who were accustomed to regard * seek ' as a mispro- 
nunciation of sack may have applied the supposed correction 
to the name of the wine. It is not, in the present state of 
the evidence, probable that there was ever any confusion 
with the OF. vin de sac (' Saccatnm, vin de buffet, vin de 
sac 1 , in a gloss quoted by Godefr.), OHG. saciutn (written 
saicwitt), MDu. saciwjti t which according to early explana- 


tions meant a beverage made by steeping the lees of wine in 
water, and then straining through a bag.] 

1. A general name for a class of white wines 
formerly imported from Spain and the Canaries. 

a. 1536-7 Durham Acc.Rotls(Surtees) 691 Et in vino Clareto 
et ie Wyn seake. 1547 SALESBURY Welsh Dict.^ Seek win, 
sccke. 1558 Aberdeen Reg. (1844) I. 311 Ane bot of wyne 
seek, a 1578 LINDESAY (Pitscottie) Chron. Scot. (S.T. S.) 
II. 320 Burdeous vyne gave v schilling the pynt and vyne 
sekk vij schilling. 

0i Y* I53 1 - 2 Act 23 Hen, VIII, c. 7 3 It is further enacted 
. .that noMalmeseisRomeneis Sakkes nor other swete Wynes 
..shalbe rateiled aboue .xij.d. the galon. 1542 BOORDE 
Dyetary x. (1870) 255 Also these hote wynes, as malmesye, 
wyne course, wyne greke, romanysk, romny, seek [etc.].. be 
not good to drynke with meate. 1555-6 Rec. St. Mary at 
Hill 403 Item, payde in Claret wyne, sacke and sugar., 
iij s. xj d. 1592 GREENE Canny Catch, n. Wks. (Grosart) 
X. 93 Haue with you for a pottle of burnt Secke. 1596 
SHAKS. i Hen. /F(Qo. 1598) n. iv. 516 If sacke and sugar 
be a fault, God helpe the wicked. 1601 Tivel. N. n. 
iii. 206 lie go burne some Sacke. 1607 DEKKF.R & WEBSTER 
Northw. Hoe i. B i, Come weele ha some muld Sack. i6zo 
[see canary ivine; CANARY sl>. 7]. 1622 R. HAWKINS Voy. S, 
Sea xliii. 103 Since the Spanish Sacks haue beene common 

gall; your strong Sacks are of the Hands of the Canaries, 
and of Malligo. 1663 DRYDEN Wild Gallant i. i, My 
liusiness is to drink my Morning's-draught in sack with 
you. 1686 [see MALAGA]. 1769 MRS. RAFFALD Eng. House- 
kpr. (1778) 165 Grate sugar round your dish, and serve them 
up with sack for sauce. 1771 MRS. HAYWOOD New Present 
227 The racy taste of Canary, now commonly called Sack. 

b. With qualifying word, chiefly with words in- 
dicating the place of production or exportation, as 
Canary ; Malaga^ Palm [= Palma], Sherris or 
Sherry [= Xeres : see SHERRY] sack. 

1597 SHAKS. 2 Hen. IV (Qo. 1600) iv. iii. 104 A good 
sherris sacke hath a two fold operation in it. 1625 HART 
Anat. Ur. i. v. 45 A cup of good sherry Sacke, Malago, or 
Canary. 1632 Canarysack [see CANARY^. 7]. ci66o New 
Mad Tom 51 in Roxb. Ballads II. 261 A cup of old Ma- 
laga Sack. 1680 MORDEN Geog. Rect. t Spain (1685) 176 
Hence come our Sherry-Sacks. 1735-7 BERKELEY Querist 
151 Men of nice palates have been imposed on,, .by mead 
for palm sack. 1756 \<o\,i Diet. Trade s.v. Canary island s^ 
Palma.. is remarkable for its produce of wine, called palm- 
sack, or Canary. 

C. The following passage is often alluded to as 
a proverbial type of flagrant disproportion, esp. 
where there is an absurd excess of what is unsub- 
stantial or unimportant over what is solid. 

1596 SHAKS. i Hen. IV (Qo. 1598) n. iv. 592 O monstrous ! 
but one halfepeniworth of bread to this intolerable deale of 

2. altrib. and Comb. : a. simple attrib., as sack- 
pot ; b. objective, as sack-guzzler ; c. instru- 
mental, as sack-sopped^}. ; d. spec, in the names 
of beverages, etc., made with sack, as sack-cream, 
-mead, -posset, -whey. Also SACK-BUTT. 

1665 R. MAY Accomplisht Cook (ed. 2) 283 To make a 
*Sack Cream. 1767 Mrs. Glasses Cookery 361 Sack cream 
like butter. 1823 HENTHAM Mem. .$ Corr. Wks. 1843 X. 536 
Then came.. the ultra-servile *sack- guzzler, Southey. 1769 
MRS. RAFFALD Eng, Housekpr. (1778) 331 To make *Sack 
Mead. To every gallon of water pour four pounds of honey, 
boil it . . , then put it in your cask, and to thirteen gallons of 
the above liquor, add a quart of brandy or sack. 1599 1'. 
JONSON Cynthia's Rev. \\. iv, Shee composes a *sack posset 
well. 1747 MRS. GLASSE Cookery 80 To make an Excellent 
Sack-Posset. Beat fifteen Eggs..; then put three quarters 
of a Pound of White Sugar into a Pint of Canary [etc.]. 
1851 THACKERAY Eng. Hunt, v, His genius had been nursed 
on sack posset, and not on dishes of tea. 1857 J. MARRY AT 
Pottery .J- Porcelain (ed. 2) 143 Of the *sack-pots one at 
Strawberry Hill was dated 1647. 1593 G. HARVEY Lett, 
fy Sonn. Wks. (Grosart) II. 345 Thy Clarret spirite, And 
*sack-sopt miseries of thy Confutations. 1736 Gentt. Mag. 
VI. 619/2 Drink plentifully of small, warm *Sack-\Vhey. 

Sack (sa.>k), sb^ Also 7, 9 sac, 8- sacque. 
[Cf. G./ranzosisc/ier sack (Grimm), Du. zak, both 
applied in the iSth c. to a French fashion of gown 
then worn by ladies. This, with Pepys' spelling 
(quot. 1668-9), would seem to indicate adoption 
from F, sac, but the Fr. lexicographers do not recog- 
nize the word in this sense. 

It is possible that both the senses below, or sense 2 only, 
may have originated as transferred uses of SACK so. 1 To 
place them under that word would however be inconvenient, 
on account of the marked divergence of application, and the 
fact that the pseudo-Fr. spelling sacqtte is still frequent in 
both senses. 

Sense 2 is given by M. Heyne (in Grimm} as a modern 
tailors' use of G. sack (also sackpnletot ' sack ' overcoat) ; 
but this may possibly be from English. 

In the following quot. sackts may denote some article of 
clothing, but its sense is obscure, and it is not certain that it 
is English : 

1390-1 Earl Dertys Exf. (Camden) 112 Et eiusdem 
pipours et thrumpours pro vj. sackes de fostyon ex precepto 
domini, Ixs.] 

1. A loose kind of gown worn by ladies. ? Obs. 
Also, from the 1 8th c., an appendage of silk attached 
to the shoulders of such a dress, and forming a train 
(see quot. 1882). 

1599 PEELE Sir Clyowon xv, But there's Frumpton's wench 
in the frieze sack \orig. ed. scake], it will do thee good to see 
Whatcanvosing is at the milking-time between her and me. 
1601 B. JONSON Poetasters. \, This straight- bodied citty attire 
(I can tell you) will stirre a Courtiers blood, more, then the 
finest loose Sackes the Ladies vse to be put hi. 1634 SIR T, 




HERBERT Trav. 109 The women [of Macassar, or the 
Celebes], .weare a large long cawle or sack, like net-worke, 
which as a garment hides them wholy. 1668-9 PEPYS />/Vzr>' 
2 Mar., My wife this day put on first her French gown, called 
a Sac. 1748 H. WALPOLE Let. to Cottway 27 June, The Prince 
himself, .leading Madame 1'Anibassadrice de Venise in a 

freen sack with a straw hat. 1762 GOLDSM. Cit. ll r . Ixxvii, 
can assure you, my Lady Trail! has had a sacque from this 
piece this very morning. vj^Lond. Mag. July 343/1 Flowing 
loosely down her back Draw with art the graceful sack. 1782 
MME. D'AKBLAY Diary % Dec., I can't bear a sacque. a 1845 
BARHAM Ingot. Leg. Ser. in. Wedding Day^ The flowered 
silk sacques, which they wore on their backs. 1852 THACK- 
ERAY Esmond \\, xv, How am I to go trapesing to Kensing- 
ton in my yellow satin sack before all the fine company? 
1882 CAULFEILD & SAWARD Diet. Needlework, Sac (Sack or 
Sac$ue\ an old term, still in use, denoting a superfluous, 
but decorative, piece of a dress material fastened to the 
shoulders at the back of the gown in wide, loose plaits, and 
descending to the ground, of such a length as to form a 
train. The gown itself is always complete without this 

attrib. 1770 CHATTERTON Let. 8 July, Wks. 1803 III. 444 
Direct for me at Mrs. Angel's, Sack-maker, Brooke Street, 
Holborn. 1896 Daily News 25 June 6/6 The last two, being 
children, were attired in pretty old-fashioned sacque frocks. 

2. A loose-fitting coat the back of which is not 
shaped to the figure, but hangs more or less 
straight from the shoulders. Also attrib. 

1847 LONGF. in Life (1891) II, go In fair weather he wears 
a brown linen sack. 1883 D. C. MURRAY Hearts I. $$ H<J 
wore a velvet sacque to paint in. 1883 C. F. WOOI.SON For 
the Major v, Miss Honoria disapproved of the rector be- 
cause he occasionally wore a sack-coat. 1883 HOWKU.S 
Woman's Reason II. xxi. 204 The two women laughed 
together, and began to pull up their sacks, which had 
dropped from their shoulders into their chairs behind them. 
1892 Daily News 3 May 2/4 The sack- back coat is now 
rapidly finding its way to the lower social strata. 1896 Ibid. 
19 Mar. 6/5 Sacque jackets divide the honours with capes. 
1903 \Vestin. Gaz. 18 June 4/2 The sac bolero, .gives size 
to the slender and veils that of the stout. 

Sack (ssek), v. 1 [f. SACK sb.1 : cf. L. saccare to 
strain through a bag (med.L. also to put into a 
bag), MDu. sacken (Du zakken), G. sackcn to put 
into a bag.] 

1. trans. To put into a sack; to pack or store 
(goods) in sacks. Also with tip. 

^1386 CHAUCER Reeve's T. 150 Whan the Mele is sakked 
and ybounde. ^1430 Pilgr. LyfManhode in. xl.(i869) 156, 
I sakke as michel sum time as tweyne or thre poore men 
mihten wel ft lie here sakkes with. 1510-20 Everyman (Greg) 
396 In chestes I am locked so fast, Also sacked in bagges. 
a I7io BETTERTON (J .), Now . , The grist is sack'd, and every 
sack well bound. 1773 R. GRAVES Spir. Quixote (1783) I. 
206 The Tinker, however, sacked up his budget, and his 
companion her bundle. 1844 STEPHENS Bk. Farm II. 
505 The pickled wheat is then sacked up and carried to the 
field in carts. 1845 Jrnl. K. Agric. Soc. VI. n. 321 It 
threshes, cleans, and finally sacks the grain. 188* Rep. to 
Ho.Repr. Prec. Met. U.S. 321 The ore. .is being sacked for 
shipment. 1891 ATKINSON Moorland Par. 65 The com 
would be threshed, dressed, and sacked, nobody knew how. 
b. To put (a person) in a sack to be drowned. 

1425 Rolls of Parlt. IV. 208/2 Ye said Erie lete sakke 
hym forthwith, and drounyd him in Thamyse. 1530 P.-U.SGR. 
696/2 He shall nat be hanged, but he shall be sacked and 
throwen in to Seyne. 1823 BYRON Juan vi. civ, A foolish 
or imprudent act Would., have., ended in his being, .sack'd, 
And thrown into the sea. 1836 WILLIS Summer Cruise in 
Medit. xliii. (1852) 257 A Turkish woman was sacked and 
thrown into the Bosphorus this morning. 
C. Sporting. To * bag* .game). 

1838 COL. HAWKER Dimry\fry$ II. 140 Shot 29 geese and 
sacked every bird. 

f 2. To heap up in or as in a sack. Obs. 

'599 ^PEELE Sir Clyom. xv, He, whose heart more hard 
than flint Hath sack'd on me such hugy heaps of ceaseless 
sorrows here. 1612 T. JAMES Jesuits' Downf.z-z It was an 
old state principle of Machiavell, to packe and sack vp 
sackes of money to. .binde mens tongues therewith. 

3. colloq. To * pocket '. 

1807 E. S. BARRETT Rising Sun I. 59 AH complained that 
he sacked the receipts, without letting them touch one 
farthing. 1830 GALT Lawrie T. n. ii. (1849) 47 To sack a 
reasonable profit. 1836 W. IRVING >l,r/0riV* 1. 213 The money 
advanced had already been sacked and spent. 1888 CHURCH- 
WARD Blacklnrding 210 We sold the oil to one of the mer- 
chants, and sacked the dollars. 

4. To put into a case or sack-like covering, rare. 
1880 L. WALLACE Ben-Hur iv. xiii. 253 At the corners 

they placed pillows.. sacked in cloth blue and crimson. 

5. slang, a. To *give the sack' to; to dismiss or 
discharge (a person) from his employment or office. 
Chiefly passive. 

1841 in Cat/i. News 3 June (1899) 15/5 He said he had just 
come from Glasgow, and had been sacked '. 1865 Daily 
Tel. 3 Nov. 2/1 If. .the solicitor by whom he was employed, 
had made up his books, he (the plaintiff) would have been 
' sacked six months ago '. 1890 ' R. BOLDREWOOD ' Col. 
Reformer (1891) 363 The committee ought to be sacked. 
b. To beat in a contest. (Cf. SACK v. 2 } 

1820-3 CARLETON Traits^ Irish Peasantry (1864) I. 275 

E. FITZGERALD Lett. (1889) I. 71 F. Tennyson says that 
he and a party of Englishmen fought a cricket match with 
the crew of the Bellerophon . . and sacked the sailors by 
90 runs, 1846 in Brasenose Ale 80 The pluckiest crew on 
Isis stream.. Is the one that has sacked the Christ Church 
Boat, And distanced all the rest. 

6. Lumber-trade. See quot. 1860 s.v. SACKING 
vbL sb.l 

1860 [see SACKING r-<V. s?: 1 i]. 1893 Scri&ucr'sMag. June 
715/1 And thus, wading and 'sacking' logs, the rear crew 
works.. from daylight to dark. 

7. intr. To bulge or 'bag'. 

1799 [implied in SACKING i'hl. sb. 1 i]. 

Sack (s0ek), v$ Also 6 Sc. sact. [f. SACK sb* 
Cf. Pr., Sp., Pg. soijitear, It. saccheggiare."\ 

1. trans. To give over (a city, town, etc.) to 
plunder by the soldiery of a victorious army; to 
strip (a person or place) of possessions or goods; 
to plunder, despoil. 

a 1547 SURREY ce/ttdtj/fv. Wks. 1815 1. 76 The plenteous 
houses sackt ; the owners end with shame Their sparkled 
goods, a 1548 HAM. Chron. ^ I fen. l~ 45 The toune was 
sacked to the greate gayne of the Kngl^hemen. 1563 
\ViN^i;r I'iiicent. Lirin.'Yo Marie (,). Scottis, Wks. (S.T.S. I 
II. 5 That al the enimeis thairof..suld nocht niak ihamc be 
force and plane violente to sact it, or onyways subdew it. 
1567 Safir. J^oenis Reform, v. 52 Spair not to gif thaine all 
ane syse, Quhome /e beleif the King did sact. 1574 tr. 
Mart&rafs Apocalips 44 He wil be sacked of all his goods 
or he throwen into prison. 1634 HMVWOOD Maidenh, Lost 
i. Wks. 1874 I. in We sack't the Citty after nine Monelhs 
siege. 1807 J. BARLOW Colitmh. m. 13 They sack the 
temples, the gay fields deface. 1840 UICKKNS Karn. Rttdge 
Ixxi, People, .are flying from the town which is sacked from 
end to end. 1855 MACAULAY Hist. Eug. \i\. IV. 295 From 
Bow to Hyde Park .. there was no parish in which some 
quiet dwelling had not been sacked by burglars. 1879 
GREEN Read. Eng. Hist. xvii. 83 The monastery was 
sacked by the Danes. 

b. said of an inanimate agent. 

1571 Satir. Poems Reform, xxy. 119 Gif fyre may J>air 
buildings sacke, Or bullat beat (mini do\vne. 1817 SHKLI.KV 
/if.-'. Islam vn. xxxviii, When I woke, the flood Whose 
banded waves that crystal cave had sacked Was ebbing 
round me. 

f2. To take as plunder or spoil. Obs. rare~ } . 

1590 tr. /'. Uba.ldino"s Disc. cone. Span. /was. 21 The 
Englishmen departed,, .hatting sacked 22000. duckets of 
gold, ..and 14. coffers of mooueables. 

fig' I S9 GREENE Never too late n. Wks. (Grosart) VIII. 
155 Thou seekest not only to sacke mine honour, but to 
suck my bloud. 

Sack, obs. form of SAC 1. 

Sackage (sre-ked^), sb. Now rare. Also 6-7 
saccage. [a. F. saccage^ according to Hatz.-Darm. 
a verbal noun f. saccage)". see SACKAGE z'.] 

1. The action, or an act, of sacking (a city, etc.). 

1577-87 HOLINSHED Chron. III. 1097/1 For the defense 
and safegard of this citie from spoile and saccnge. 1583 
BABINGTON Cominandm. (1590) 226 In sackages of Cities. 
1601 HOLLAND Pliny I. xv. xviii. 443 Howbeit Cato survived 
not the rasing and saccage of Carthage, for he died the 
yeare immediatly following this resolution. 1654 tr. Mar- 
tini s Cent/. China 190 The sackage endured from the 24. 
of November till the 5. of December. 1755 T. H. CROKER 
Orl. fur, xxxni. xli, Ravenna is in sackage laid. 1808 
SOUTHEY Chron. Cid 386 Some among us, says he, in this 
city, count from the sackage of the Jews. 1875 TENNYSON 
Q. friary n. ii, To guard and keep you whole and safe from 
all The spoil and sackage aim VI at by these rebels. 

-j-2. liooty, plunder. Qbs.rare~^. 

1609 HOLLAND Amm. Marcell. xxiv. viii. 251 When the 
saccage therefore was divided and dealt,. . himself e tooke 
for his share a dumbe boy. 

t Sa*ckage, sa ccage, v. Obs. [a. F. sac- 
eager, prob. ad. It. sa cheggiare, f, sacco SACK $b'*\ 
trans. To put to sack ; to plunder. 

1585 T. WASHINGTON tr. Nicholas's Voy. i. vii. 5 b, Their 

intent was to..haue good means to saccage vs. Ibid, xii. 

! 13 b, The houses, .hauing been twise saccaged [orig, deux 

I fois saccagees\ and spoyled by the Spaniardes. 1628 Pri-v. 

Mem. Sir K. Digby (1828) 28 Before they went out of it 

they saccaged the town. 1662 J. BARGRAVE Pope Alex. l^If 

(1867) 94 They, .set upon the barch [1 read bank] where the 

money was, and sackaged all. 1687 A. LOVELL tr. There- 

not's Trav. i. 6 It.. having been .. saccaged and ruined by 

a Roman Army. 

Hence f Sa'ccaginff vbl. sb., t Sa'ceagement. 

1585 T. WASHINGTON tr. Nicholays I'oy. u. xiii. 48 b, The 
saccaging. .continued 3. daies. Ibid. iv. xxxvi. 160 The 
mine, saccagement, & desolation of their countrey. 1654 
tr. Martini's Conq. China 90 After the saccaging and burn- 
ing of so many Provinces. 

Sackalever (srekaU-va). Also sacoleva. [ad. 
It. saccaleva. Cf. F. sacolfrue] A small lateen- 
rigged sailing vessel used in the Levant. 

1819 T. HOPE Anastasius (1820) 1. xii. 223 Meaning my- 
self to go by land as far as Gallipoli, where the sacoleva 
was to ballast. 1878 TRELAWNV Shelley (1887) 83 A Turkish 

Sackbut (sK'kbwt). Forms : 6-7 sagbut, -bot, 
6 sagbout, saggebut, 7 sagbutt, 6-7 shagbot(e, 
(6 shakbott, shagbush, 7 -but), 6 sackbot, 7 
-butt, sacke-but, 7 sacbutt, 8-9 sacbut. 7- sack- 
but, [a. F. saquebute, earlier saqitebotttc, -botte> 
etc. ; not found as the name of a musical instru- 
ment earlier than the latter half of the i.sth c., but 
presumably identical with ONF. saquebonte, ex- 
plained in the I4th c. as a lance furnished with ' an 
iron hook for pulling men off their horses ' (' un 
gran de fer pour les garchons saquier jus de leurs 
quevaulz'). In the modern Norman dialect the 
word means a squirt. The first element is clearly 
ONF. saquier (= Sp., Pg. sacar} to pull, draw 
(which accounts for all the senses of the compound) ; 
the etymology of the second element is obscure ; 
some scholars connect it with bouter to push. 

The Sp. sacalmchc (cf. the i6th c. Kng. form shagbtti>hc\ 
snckbut, also tube used as a pump, and the Pg. sacalntcha, 
/', with the same meanings, appear to be corrupt adop- 
tions of the Fr. word. The Pg. word is identical in form 
with a word meaning a hook for drawing the wad from a 
gun, regularly f. saca-r to draw + ^wc/z<i:, buxa^ wad. Pos- 
sibly the Fr. word may, when adopted into Pg., have under- 
gone assimilation to the native word and then passed in the 
altered form into Sp. ; but evidence is wanting.] 

1. An obsolete musical instrument ; a bass trum- 
pet with a slide like that of a trombone for alter- 
ing the pitch. 

The word is to most readers known only from its occur- 
rence in Dan. iii, where it is a mistranslation of Aramaic 
sabfrkci, which the LXX and Vulgate render (doubtlo-, 
correctly) by Or. traff.ftvKtj, L. saml'ftca, the name of a 
stringed instrument (see SAMBIXA). Coverdale 1535 (for 
what reason is not clear) renders the word by shawmcs, 
thus taking it to denote a wind instrument ; the Geneva 
translators, accepting this view, seem to have chosen the 
rendering ' sackbut ' on account of its resemblance in sound 
to the Aramaic word. In this they have been followed by 
the ' Authorized ' (161 1) and ' Revised ' (1885) VerMons. 

1533 ELYOT Cast. Heltke(tvycH 51 The entrayles, .be exer- 
cised by blowy ng, eytber by constraint, or playeng on 
>haulmes, or sackljottes. 1536 WKIOTHESLKY Chron. (Cam- 
den) I. 44 And slialmes, sagbuttes, and dromeslawes playing 
also in barges going before him. 1560 BIBLE (Genev.) Dan. 
iii. 5 The cornet, trumpet, harpe. sackebut, psalteries, dul- 
cimer, and all instruments of musicke. 1577-87 HOLINSHKD 
Chron. III. 930/2 In which barge were shalmes,, 
and diverse other instruments. 1638 BI/RTON Anat. JA7. 
ii. ii. in. (ed. 5) 249 As he that playes upon a Sagbut by 
pulling it up and downe alters bis tones and tunes. 1674 
PLAYFOHH Skill i\!us. Pref. 3 The sound of a Sackbut or 
Trumpet, should s,kip from Concord to Concord, 1675 
SMADWELL Psyche \. Wks. 1720 II. 16 Voices, Flagellets, 
Violins, Cornets, Sackbuts, Hautboys; al! joyn in Chorus. 
1797 SOUTHKY Tri. Woman 108 And .shrill were heard the 
flute, The cornet, sackbut, dulcimer, and lute. 1808 Scovi 
Mann. iv. x\.\i, And sackbut deep, and psaltery. 1862 
I.ONGF. ll'ayside Inn Prel. 213 In vision or in trance He 
heard the solemn sackbut play. 

|" b. A player on the sackbut. Obs. 

1539 Rutland MSS. (1905) IV. 293 To Doctre LetA 
shawmes and shagboshes that playt before my Lorde of 
Solfolke, \\\s. iiij</. 1540 in Vicary's Anat. (1888) App. xii. 
241 Item, for Pilligrine, sagbut, wages, xls. 1647 HAWAKIJ 
Ct'ffti'it 7i't'T r . 25 Six Sackbuts : Fee Ic pdce, 24. 6. 8. 

"i 2. Roman Antiq. Used to render L. sambma : 
see SAMBUCA 2. rare-*. 

1756 HAMPTON Polybius (1773) III. 131 These vessels., 
carried to the walls certain machines called Sackbuts. 

Hence f Sa'ckbuter, a player on the sackbut. 

1503 in Cal. Doc. rcl. Scotl. (1888) 347 [Warrant, -to delivcr 
. .a banner. . to. .the K.'s five trumpetters, and also to 
Johannes and Edward], shakbotters. 

t Sa-ck-butt. Obs. [f. SACK sb.t + BUTT sW\ 
A butt of sack. 

1600 HEYWOOU 2nd Pt. Rdiv. fV, Wks. 1874 I. 93 Will no 
man thrust the staue into a sack-but? 1623 MARKHAM 
Kng. Hoitseu'. ii. 149 The depth of euery Sack-Butt is thu 
foure pricks next to the puncheon. 1657 TRAIT Comm. 
Kzra ix. 6 Kut he is past grace that is past shame, and 
can blush no more then a sackbut. 

Punningly. 1623-4 MIDDLETON 8: ROWLEY Sp. Gipsy n. i, 
Al.. .You must not look to have your Dinner serv'd in with 
Trumpets. Cor. No, no, Sackbuts shall serve us. 1623 
FLETCHER Rule a H'ife v. v, I' th' celler..He will make 
dainty musick among the sack-butts. 

Sackcloth (sark|klf>]>). Forms: 4sekk-clathe. 
sekklath, 5 sekclath, -cloth, cekclothe, sak 
clothe, 6sack(e)clotri(e,sacclothe,sack-cloath, 
6- sackcloth, [f. SACK j.i + CLOTH.] 

1. A coarse textile fabric (now of flax or hemp) 
used chiefly in the making of bags or sacks and 
for the wrapping up of bales, etc. ; sacking. 

1373-4 Durham Ace. Rolls (Surtees) 578 In Sekklath 
empt. in villa et in patria, xxvjs. uijcf. 1 1420 ?LVDG. As- 
scwbly of Gods 290 Ceres, the goddesse, in a garment Of 
sak clothe . . Embrowderyd with sheues & sykelys bent. 1423 
JAS. I Kingis Q. cix, Als like 56 bene, as. .sek-cloth is vnto 
fyne cremesye. c 1440 Protnp. Parv. 64/1 Cek, or cek- 
clothe, or poke, sac ens. 1484-5 Durham Ace. Rolls (Sur- 
tees) 415 Sol. pro ix uln. de Sekclath pro altaribus ecclesia:, 
iji. \\\d. 1548 THOMAS Ital. Diet. (1567), Canauaccio^ can- 
uasse or sackeclothe. 1623 MARKHAM Cheap Husb. \. iv. 
(ed. 3) 50 Cloath him temperately, as with a single cloth, 
of canuase or sacke-cloth. 1896 Daily News 21 Apr. 6/4 
The latest novelty in dress materials is sackcloth.. - t lt is 
common hemp sacking,, .but let no one imagine for a single 
moment that it is cheap. The open canvas ground is in- 
tended to be lined with the richest, .silks and satins, and 
itself forms a groundwork for elaborate embroideries. 

b. As the material of mourning or penitential 
garb; also (in contrast with * purple' or * gold ') 
as the coarsest possible clothing, indicative of ex- 
treme poverty or humility. / sackcloth and ashes 
(Biblical): clothed in sackcloth and having ashes 
sprinkled on the head as a sign of lamentation or 
abject penitence. fAlso with a (cf. SACK sbl 5). 

The penitential ' sackcloth ' of the Bible (Heb. saq> Gr. 
ouKKoO was a dark-coloured fabric of goats' or camels' hair. 

13.. St. Alexius 191 in Horstm. Altengl. Leg. (1881) 178 
All hir bodi scho made bare & did apon hir a sekk-clathe. 
1526 TINDALE Matt. xi. 21 They had repented longe agon 
in sack cloth and asshes. 1535 COVERDALE Ps. xxxiv. 13 
When they were sick, I put on a sack cloth. *553 EDEN 
Treat. Neive Ind. (Arb.) 5 He whiche cloteth {sic} an ape in 
purple, & a king in sacke-cloth. 1575 GASCOIGNE Flowers 
Wks, 51, I was in sack-cloth I, now am I clad in gold, 
And weare such robes, as I myselfe take plesure to behold. 
1590 SPENSER F. Q. i. iii. 14 And to augment her painefull 
penaunce more, . . shee . . next her wrinkled skin rough sacke* 



cloth wore. 1649 JER. TAYLOH Gi. Excinp. I. Disc. iv. 128 
S. Lewis King of France wore sack-cloth every day unless 
sicknesse hindred. 1726 AYLIKKE Parergau 47 And being 
clad in Sackcloth, he was to lie on the Ground, and. .implore 
Uod's Mercy. 1788 GIBBON Ded. % F. xlviii. V. 55 While he 
groaned and prayed in sackcloth and ashes, his brother . . 
smiled at his remorse. 1829 LYTTON Devertit-v Iv. v, I should 
have gone into a convent and worn sackcloth, a 1839 PRAED 
f Mills (1864) II. 356 The low and great, Who in their sack- 
cloth or their purple, creep lieneath the summit of the 
viewless steep. 1885 ' H. CONWAY ' fain. Affair xxvi, He 
knew that for all that had befallen she was mourning in 
mental sackcloth and ashes. 

t c. //. [See CLOTHES.] Garments of sackcloth. 

1594 GREENE & LODGE Loakmg-gl. d 598) H 4, He sits him 

down in sack-cloathes, his hands and eyes reared to heauen. 

d. attrib. and Comb., as sackcloth-bag, -garb, 
-mourner, -prophecy, etc. ; sackcloth-clad adj. 

1679 C. NESSE Antichrist 127 The sackcloth-prophecy of 
the witnesses, lliiil. 221 A sackcloth-mourner. Iliiil. 229 
Italy it self had several sackcloth-witnesses. Ibid. 232 That 

iil, It's ill-leaping now-a-day: 

a sackcloth-bag. 1855 MILMAN Lat. Chr. xiv. viii. (1864) 
IX. 287 The sackcloth-clad bare-foot friar. 

f 2. A material for ladies' dresses. Cf. SACK jfl.l 0. 

1571 in Feuillerat Revels Q. Elh. (1908) 136 Sackclothe 
stripte with sylver. [1896: see I.] 

Hence Sa'ckclothed a. rare, clad in sackcloth. 

1641 lir. HALL Mischief 'Faction Rein. Wks. (1660) 69 To 
be joviall when God calls to mourning,, .to glitter when he 
would have us sackcloth'd and squalid, he hates it to the 
death. 1829 I. TAYLOR Enthiis. ix. 250 A healthy; force of 
mind utterly incompatible with.. the petty solicitudes of 
sackclothed abstinence. 

Sacked (.sa.-kt),*. <<;- K'(/.[f.SACK.r*.* + -ED-.] 
Wearing a sack. 

1847 DISKAKLI Tattered \\. xiv. Gentlemen in wigs, and 
ladies powdered, patched and sacked. 

Sacked (srckt), ///. a. [f. SACK z-. a + -KI>I.] 
That has been given up to sack; plundered, 

I593SHAKS. Lucr. 1740 Who like a late sack't Ilandvastlie 
slti'jd Bare and vnpeopled. 1632 LITHGOW Trap. v. 200 
Semblable to that sacked Lacedemon in Sparta. 1697 DRY- 
DEN .''Eneid IX. 350 Two large Goblets, .which, when old 
Priam reign'd, My conquering Sire at sack VI Arisba gain'd. 
1864 LOWELL Fireside Trav. 239 An old woman . . who 
looked as sacked and ruinous ns everything around her. 

Sacked Friar : see SACK-FKI AH. 

t Sa'cken, a. Obs. rare. [f. SACK sli. 1 + -EN *.] 
Made of sackcloth. Sacken gown, sark, weed 
sack gown : see SACK sb\ S. 

13. . 6\ Rug. Leg. (MS. Bodl. 779) in Archiv Stint, ticrt. 
Spr. LXXXII. 334/47 pat was a sakken curtil & a pilche 
also & a blak froccke per-vppon. 1710 Krit. Apollo III. 
No. 20. 2/2 Sacken bottom'd Beds. 1779 D. GRAHAM 
Jocky <y Maggy's Courtship Writ. 1883 II. 20 And wha 
can bide the shame, whan every body looks to them, wi' 
their sacken sarks or gowns on them. 1780 W. FORBF.S 
Dominic 6 In case they wear the sacken-weed For fornica- 
tion. Ibid. 13 He'll get the dud an' sacken gown. 

Sacker(sivkaj). [f. SACKz/. 2 + -EI.] Onewho 
sacks or plunders. 

1589 RIDER Bibl. Schol., A sacker, populator, director. 
1824 J. SYMMONS tr. ^Eschylns' Again. 71 O sacker of Troy 
town divine ! 1907 A. LANG///.^. Scot. IV. xiv. 360 He made 
no effort to discourage the sackers of Shawfield's house. 

Sacker, variant of SAKEB. 

Sacket (sarket). Also 5 sakett, 6 sakket, 9 
sackit. [a. OK. saquel, dim. of sac SACK s6.^ ; cf. 

1. A bag. Obs. exc. dial. 

c 1440 Alphabet of Tales 307 A grete sakett full of mony 
in his hand. 1520 M. NISBET A''. T.Scots Luke x. 4 Tharfor 
will ye nocht bere a sacket [Wycl. sachel], nouthir scrippe, 
nouthir schonne. 1549 Cotnpl. Scot. xvi. 138 Euerye man of 
this varld baris tua sakkettis vitht hym [viz., one before him 
containing his neighbour's faults, the other behind contain- 
ing his own ; see Phaedrus Fab. iv. x]. 1632 LITHGOW 
Trav. x. 449 My Linnen, Letters, and Sacket was lying in 
my hosiery. 1741 Coinpl. Fani..Piece I. i. 34 Fill with this 
Powder a little square Bag or Sacket of Sarsenet. 1834 SMART 
Rhymes 102 (E. D. D.) It was a weel-filled weighty sacket. 

2. dial, as a term of reproach or abuse : see 
E. D. D. (Cf. G. sack in similar use.) 

1868 R. M. FEUGUSSON I'illage Poet (1897) 155 Ye needna 
craw, ye sneerin'sackit. 1889 BARRIE IVindfnv in Thrttms 
xxi, ' If he ever comes back, the sacket (rascal) ', T*nowhead 
said to Jess, ' we'll show 'im the door gey quick '. 

Sa'ck-friar. Also Sacked Friar. [SACK jiM 5. 
Cf. MDu. sacbroedttr, G. sackbriulcr, OF. frere ail 
sat:] A member of a mendicant order of the ijth 
and early I4th c., called ' Fratres de Pcenitentia 
Jesu Christi ' or ' de Saccis ' (also Saccati, Saccity, 
Saecini, Sacd), who were clothed in sackcloth. 

c 1400 Rom. Rose 7462 So been Augustins and Cordileres, 
. -and eek Sakked Freres. 1553 in Arch&oloria (1775) III. 
131 It. rec'. of theyrs of Christopher Cornwall, for ferme of 



1623-4 MIDDLETOS & ROWLEY i>. Gipsy \. v, This liltle ape 
Sets money by the sack-full. 1633 HOI.CKOIT I'rocofius, 
irt'ffi. tt'ars iv. 127 The Kneiny fortified the breach with 
sack-fuls of Sand. 1718 K. FHAMITON in T. Evans Life 
(1876) 149 A sackfull of canting books. 1734 SWIFT Dra- 
pier's Lett. Wks. 1 755V. n. 150 Wood, .goes about with his 
jack-fulls of dross, odiously misrepresenting his prince's 
countenance. 1882 Harper's Mag. July 200 They had 
there found a number of broken mummies and a large heap 
of papyri. Of these last they offered him a sackful. 

t Sa'ctful, a. Obs. rare 1 , [f. SACK s/>.2 + 
-FUL.] Given to plundering. 

ci6n CHACMAN Hindu. 601 Now will I sing the sackful! 
troopes Pelasgiau Argos held. 

Sacking (src-kirj), -M. rf.i [f. SACK z-.i + -use 1 .] 

1. The action of SACK z;. 1 , in various senses. 

1568 GKAFTON Chron. II. 362 The businesse that there was 
in chargyng and ladyng of shippes with haye, sackyng of 
IJisket [etc.]. 1799 G. SMITH Lal<oratory\. 6 To prevent the 
sacking of the paper. 1860 Harper s Mag. XX. 452 An- 
other frequent and laborious part of the drive is sacking.. . 
When the logs have been lodged upon the shore, .three or 
four men seize each log with their cant-dogs and abso- 
lutely lift or drag it along the mud and sand a considerable 
distance. 1887 RAYMOND Statist. Mines <$ Mining 98 Sack- 
ing, 41 sacks per ton, 20 days' labor, at 3. 

j- 2. caul. The occupation of a prostitute. Obs. 

1591 GKI;I-:NI: Disc. Comaage (1592) Cib, Sacking law, 
lecherie. Ibid. C 2, In sacking Law The Kawd if it be a 
woman [is called] a Pandar. 1592 Disput. Ded. A 2, The 
hacking and CTOsbyting lawes, which strumpets l>ttt. 
A 4 b, Why Nan, are you growne so stiffe, to thincke . . that 
your sacking can gaine as much as our foysting? 

Sacking (sarkirj), rbl. sl>.- [f. SACK i>.2 + 
-INI: '.] The action of plundering (a city, etc.). 

here in England. 1867 C. F. R. PALMER Life P. T. Ifmuard 
53 The Order of Sacked Friars was put down in 1307. 

Sackful Csarkful), sb. [I.SACK stl + -PUL.] As 
much as would fill a sack ; hence, hyperbolically, 
a great quantity, large amount. 

1484 CAXTON Fables of ^Esaf v. v, I haue a sak ful of 
scyences and wyles. a. 1610 FOTHERBY Atlicom. u. viii. 4 
(1622) 287 Not. .by the sackfull, but by the whole Barnefull. 

xlix. 192 Yet for all that he could not keep the cabbins from 
sucking. 1783 JUSTAMOSD tr. Raynal's Hist. Indies IV. 184 
The sacking of Panama in 1670 by John Morgan the 
Knglish pirate. 1837 W. IKVING Caft. Bonneville I. 223 
Sackings, burnings, plunderings, scalpings. 

Sacking (sjE'kirj), sb.% Also 6 seokjmge. [f. 
SACK sd. 1 + -ING 1. 

OK. had szccing of equivalent formation, occurring with 
the sense ' bed ' (Vulg. gratatutn) in Mark vi. 55.) 

1. A closely woven material of Jlax, jute, hemp, 
or similar material, used chiefly in the making of 
sacks, bags, etc. Also, a piece of such material. 

1707 LD. RAOV in Hearne Collect. 14 Sept. (O.H.S.) II. 42 
His Horses stand with. .Sackings instead of Cloaths. 1753 
HANWAY Trav. (1762) I. vn. Ixxxviii. 406 Sacking of dif- 
ferent qualities for bags . . is . . exported. 1810 Hull Imfrov, 
Act 62 Such sack shall be made of linen called Sacking. 
1833 HT. MARTINEAU Cinnamon f, Pearls v, If his dress 
lias always been sacking, his ignorant choice will be of 
sacking still. 1844 G. DODU Textile Mannf. v. 168 The 
flax fabrics woven in Ireland are chiefly fine and coarse 
linens, canvas, sacking, and damask, a 1849 POE Murders 
in Rue Morgue Wks. 1805 -III. 70 They were both then 
lying on the sacking of the bedstead. 1881 Daily News 
23 Aug. 3/6 There is less doing in ropes, .and sackings. 

f2. A material for ladies' dresses. (Cf. SACK 
j/j.l 6, SACKCLOTH 2.) Obs. rare. 

1589 Ace. Ek. W. Wrny in Antiquary XXXII. 79, iii 
yeards& ad. striped seckynge, iii.xjir 1 . 1595 [see SACK si.' 6]. 

3. attrib. and Comb., as sacking-cloth, goods, 
maker ; parasynthetic, as sacking-bottomed adj. 

1707 Rec. ISanin Court of Stiteliill (S.H.S.) 158 To pay 
,.iosh. 8d...for 8 ells of sacking-cloth, c 1710 in Ashton 
Soc. Life Q. Anne I. v. 75 New sacking bottom'd Uedsteads 
at in. a piece. 1780 tt'tstm. Mag. Suppl. 730/1 James 
Allen, ..Wantage, Berks, sacking-maker. _ 1797 Indenture 
Doneaster (MS.', George Needham, sacking-manufacturer. 
1881 WHITEHEAD Hops 61 The hops are picked into bins, 
long, light, wooden frames, with sacking bottoms. 1886 
Daily News 15 Sept. 2/4 Canvas, and sacking goods meet 
with a fair sale at firm prices. 1895 MRS. B. M. CHOKER 
l-'Mage Tabs (1896) 185 He was.. put in leg-irons, and a 
convict sacking-coat. 

Saekit, variant of SACKET dial. 

Sackless (sarkles), a. Forms : 1-2 sacl6as, 
2 sacctes, saelese, 3 sac(o)les, sakelease, 4-6 
8a(o)kles, 4-5 sa(c)keles, (4 saklas, 5 saklaoe), 
6 saikles(s(e, sackelesse, 6-7 sakelesse, sack- 
lesse, 8 saiokless, j-sakeless, 8- sackless. [Late 
OE. sacltas (see SAC! and -LESS) ; perh. after ON. 
saklauss (Sw. sakliis, Ua. sagles). Cf. MDu. sakeloos. 

OE. saclfas occurs as adv. in the sense ' without cause ' 
(gratis, Vulg.) in the Lindisfarne Gospels, John XV. 25. Cf. 
ON. saklatist adv. in the same sense.) 

fl. Secure from accusation or from dispute; un- 
challenged, unmolested. Obs. 

1:950 Lindisf. Cosp. Matt, xxviii. 14 And sif Sis xeheied 
bi5 from oen groefa we je-trewaS him & sac-leaso i\vih we 
<$edoe3 [Vulg. et securos vos facietnus}. a 1067 Charter of 
Kadweard in Kemble Cod. Dipl. IV. 199 Ich keSe eu Sat 
Alfred hauet yseld Gise biscop his land at Hlytton sacleas 
and clsne. a 1122 O. E. Chron. an. 1106, Eadgar a^eling 
|>e litle jer. .was je faren. .j^one let se cyng sy&San sacleas 
faran. c 1250 Gen. q E.r. 916 Oc al oat euere fel him to, 
Sac-les he let hin welden it so. 1513 DOUGLAS SEneis xn. 
x. 13 Turnus. .behaldis the cite, Sakles of batale, fre of all 
sic striffe. 1819 SCOTT Ivanhoc xxxiii, Theow and Esne art 
thou no longer, . . Folkfree and Sacless art thou in town and 
from town, in the forest as in the field. 

2. Not guilty, innocent. Const, of. Now arch. 
a 1000 Laws Etliclrcd in. c. 3 (Schmid), Swerian. .|>aH his 

nellan liienne sacleasan man forsecgan ne nainne sacne for- 

helan. cnoo OKMIN Dcd. 202 He jafThiBs ajhenn lif..To 


bolemi do=l>b o rode t re sacclaes wibbutenn wrihhle. a 1300 
Cursor M. 24^0 And sco vnsoght sacclesosin. a 1352 Mi NOT 
Poems (Hall) 11. 3 pare slogh 56 many sakles, als it was sene. 
1 1450 Miroitr Saluacioun 1286 And niarye son be t hay in 
slayne saklest y l cure was manne. 1535 STEWART Cron. 
Scot. (Rolls) I. 73 Saikles he wes, tha wist weill, of sic thing. 
1599 NASHK Lenten Stnffe 35 There was. .a deale of whin- 
yards drawne about him, and many sacklesse wights, .run 
through the tender weambs. 1632 LITHGOW Trav. in. 122 
Curst be the hands, that sakelesse Troianes slay, 1670 
Deposit. York Castle (Surtees) 177 As for the bewitchinge 
of any of his children, shee is sacklesse. 1725 RAMSAY 
Gentle Sheph. v. iii, They'd smoor the sakeless orphan in 
her bed. 1831 Blackiv. Mag. XXX. 386 That you are 
sackless of this murder who shall testify? 1882 Miss YONGF. 
Unktiown to Hist. I. n Poor Lady she is, in all sooth, if 
sackless : poorer still if guilty. 1897 W. UEATTY Secret ar 
viii. 62 My father would be sackless of all intent to make 
his market out of the misfortunes of his queen. 

ahsol. a 1225 A ncr. A'. 68 pe treowe is misleued, & te sake- 
lease ofte bilowen, uorwone of witnesse. 13.. E.E.Allit.P. 
\\. 716 Schal synful & saklez suffer al on payne. 14. . Go$p. 
Nicod. (Galba) 950 5 e chilcler of irraell, listens me, bat has 
bis sakles slayne. c 1560 A. SCOTT Poems (S.T.S.J xxvi. 46 
Thay sklander saikles, & thay suspectit. 

b. St\ and north, dial. Innocent of wrong intent, 
guileless, simple ; also, of a thing, harmless. Hence, 
in disparaging sense, feeble-minded ; lacking energy, 
dispirited. (Cf. INNOCENT a. 3, ^b.) 

a 1600 MONTGOMEKIE Sonit. H, ji 1 thoght thou [the 
nightingale] sees not, sillie, saikles thing ! The piercing 
pykis brods at thy bony breist. 1804 R. COUPER I'octry I. 
228 111 fated I)u !. .December's snaw, Fell saicklcss at thy 
side. 1847 E. BRONTE W tit her ing Heights xxii, 'It looks 
melancholy, does it not, Ellen ? ' ' Yes,' I observed, ' about 
as starved and sackless as you your cheeks are bloodless.' 
1862 [C.C. ROBINSON] Leeds Dial. Gloss, s.v., A poor sackless 
feal \= fool]. 1872 J. HARTLEY Yorksh* Ditties Ser. i. 81 him if he knows who's writing that is? An' 
he'll luk at it as sackless as if he didn't know it wor his own. 

f 3. Of an accusation or penalty : Having no just 
cause ; brought against or inflicted on an innocent 
person. Obs. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 4625 pi saccles scam wel it is kyd. c 1470 
HENRY Wallace vr. 215 The saklace slauchter off" hir, blith 
and brycht. 1513 DOUGLAS sEneis vi. vii. 14 Wrangusly 

fut to deid for cryme saikles. 1525 St. Papers lien. A'///, 
V. 418, I denunce. .all. .the committaris of the said saikles 
murthuris. 1572 Satir. Poems Reform, xxxii. 2 Quhat 
murther & oppressioun, Quhat saikless slauchter. 

Hence ( Sa'cklessly adv., innocently, without 
just cause. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 11563 And vtewit man! barntem Did he 
sacclesli o lijf. 1483 Cath. AngL 316 2 Saklenly, /#- 
i'Uiler. 1525 St. Papers Hen. VIII* IV. 417 How our 
Soverane Lordis trew saiklcslie part murdrist, 
part slane. 1535 STEWART Cron. Scot. (Rolls) III. 201 
Wallace. .Quhilk saiklihlie of ony gilt or cryme,. .sufferit hes 
the deid. a 1578 LINUESAY (Pitscottie) Chron. Scot. (S.T.S.) 
II. 211 He was bruited behind his back sack 1 is lie. 1626-7 
in Sel. &V,(WodroW Soc.) I. 352 Because of my carriage 
towards her, who suffered sakelessly for his cause. 

Sacklet (ice'kltt). rare. [f. vS.vcK sb.^ + -LET.] 

A little sack. 

ting just disclosed the uppermost of the blood-cells, but 
nothing of the sacklets that contained the honey. 

Sacky (s^'ki), a. [f. SACK sb.^ + -Y.J Of a gar- 
ment: Hanging more or less loosely from the 
shoulders; not fitted to the waist. 

1891 C. JAMES Rom. Rigmarole 51 A sacky frock-coat. 
1906 Daily Chron. 25 Apr. 8/4 In the., dust coat the 
straighter and more sacky cuts will still predominate. 

t Saclactic (sttklorktik), a. Chem. Obs. Also 
sac^c)hlactic. = SACCHOLACTIC. So fSacla-ctate 


1794 G. ADAMS Nat. <$ Exp. Philos. I. App. (Amer. ed.) 
542 The saclactic and the lactic acids. 1802 Pvic Neiv 
Chem. Nomencl. 32 Sach-lactic radical. 1826 Saclactate 
[see SACCHOLACTATE]. 1897 Syd. Soc. Lex., Sacchlactati^ 
Sacchlactzc acid. x 

Sacola, variant form of SAC-A-LAIT. U.S. 

Sacoleva : see SACKALEVER. 

Sacque : see SACK sb Sacra, pi. of SACRUM. 

Sacrad (s^ -krrcd), adv. [f. SACR-UM + -AD : see 
DEXTRAU] Term proposed by Barclay for : To- 
wards the sacrum, or the lower part of the body. 

1803 BARCLAY New Anat. Nomencl. 166 Sacrad will sig- 
nify towards the sacral aspect. 1808 Muscular Motions 
315 If rotatory motions were to be admitted immediately 
sacrad and atlantad of the atlas. 1814 WlSHART tr. Scares 
Treat. Hernia \. 25 A little lower than [note Sacrad of] the 
ring it is attached to the spine. 

Sacrafice, -ies, -ise, obs. forms of SACRIFICE. 

Sacraire, variant of SACRARY Obs. 

Sacrait, obs. Sc. form of SECUET. 

Sacral (^'*kral), o. 1 Anat. [ad. mod.L. sacrdl- 
is. f. SACR-UM: SCC-AL.] Pertaining to the sacrum. 

1767 GOOCH Treat. Wounds I. 423 Pain in the groins, 
pubes and sacral region. 1827 ABERNETHY Surg. Wks. I. 
in Disease had taken place in the bone, .and had affected 
the sacral nerves. 1872 MIVART Elcm.Anat. 27 Five or six 
sacral vertebra; coalesce to form the sacrum. 

b. Used by Barclay for : Belonging to the lower 
part of the body. (Cf. SACRAD.) 

1803 BARCLAY New Anat. Nomencl. 120 Instead of the 
words Superior and Inferior, I would therefore propose 
Atlanial and Sacral. 1808 Musmlar Motions p. xx, 
An aspect ..towards the region where the sacrum is situated 
lis] sacral. 1814 WisiiART tr. Scares Trfat, Hernia. \, 20 




The superior one [i.e. portion of the external oblique] is 
larger than the inferior {note Sacral] portion. 
c. quasi -j^. = sacral vertebra, 

1854 OWKN Skel. <y Teeth in Orr's Circ. Set., Org, Nat. 
I. 200 In the. .iguana the pleurapophyses of the first caudal 
incline backwards as much as those of the second sacral do 
forwards. 1890 COUES Ornith. ii. iv. 208 These sacrals 
proper are at or near the middle of the whole sacral mass. 

Sacral (s^-kral), a,* Anthropology, [f. L. 
sacr-tim sacred tiling, rite, etc. (neut. sing, of sacer 
sacred) + -AL. Cf. G. sacral.] Of or pertaining to 
sacred rites and observances. 

1882 A. J. EVANS in Archieologia'X.lsVlll. 77 A sacrificial 
knife, the use of which was possibly not unconnected with 
the sacral functions of these Naronese Seviri. 1899 I . S. KI-:ID 
in Classical Rev. July 312/1 They found it, not in the living 
language, . . but in sacral or legal formula: alone, 1901 A. J . 
EVANS in Jrtit. Hellen. Stud. XXI. 181 Sacral Gateways or 
Portal Shrines. 1901 F. W. MAITLAND in Sac. Eng. allustr. 
ed.) I. 415 The arms, .possibly, .have been in use for this 
sacral purpose [sc. trial by battle]. 

Sacralege, obs. form of SACRILEGE. 

II Sacralgia (s^kne-Ulsia). Path. [mod.L., f. 
SACK-UM + Gr. aA-y-oy pain.] Pain in the sacrum. 

1891 in Century Diet. 

Sacrament (sarkrament), sb. Forms : 3-6 
sacrement, (//. 2 sacramens, 3 sacra-, sacre- 
menz, 4sacremens), 4 sakermente, 5 sacramen, 
sacriment, sakyr-, sacurraent, 5-6 sacramente, 
2- sacrament, [a. K. sacrement (i 2th c. in Hatz.- 
Uarm.), ad. L. sacrament inn (whence the Fr. popu- 
lar form serment oath), f. sacrare to consecrate, 
set apart religiously, to secure by a religious sanc- 
tion, f. sacr-j sacer holy, dedicated, set apart: see 

In accordance with the functions of the suffix -mtntunt 
(see -MENT), the etymological sense of L. sacrament nut 
would be either (i) a result of consecration, or (2) a 
means of consecrating, dedicating, or securing by a reli- 
gious sanction. The latter of these notions is that which 
seems to be present in the classical uses of the word : 

(1) the military oath, oath or solemn engagement in genera! ; 

(2) the caution-money deposited by the parties to a lawsuit ; 
hence (3) a civil suit or process. In Christian Latin from 
the 3rd century the word was the accepted rendering of Gr. 
puwnfpw MYSTERY *. This use is evidently not based on 
either of the specific applications above mentioned, but is 
the result of a recourse to the etymological meaning. In 
early Christian language sacramentum and the synonymous 
HvaTijpiov were applied indiscriminately to any ritual 
observance of the Church, or to any spiritually symbolic 
act or object ; but they were also often applied in an eminent 
sense to the two most important observances, baptism and 
the Lord's Supper or Eucharist. For the later history of 
the use, see below in sense i.] 

1. Ecd, Used as the common name for certain 
solemn ceremonies or religious acts belonging to 
the institutions of the Christian church. 

The English use before the Reformation adopts the enu- 
meration of seven sacraments (believed to have been first 
formulated by Peter Lombard in the i2th c. ; the same list 
is recognized in the Eastern Church): viz., Baptism, Con- 
firmation, the Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Order, 
Matrimony. As late as the i^th c., however, there were 
still traces in English of the wider application of the word 
formerly current ; while the seven sacraments were viewed 
as eminently entitled to the name, it could be applied in a 
more general sense to certain other rites (see quot. c 1315). 
From the i6th c., Protestants generally have recognized 
two sacraments only, viz. baptism and the Lord's Supper. 

The formal definition of sacrament depends on the answer 
to the question what is the distinctive feature common to 
the seven or to the two ' sacraments ', on account of which 
they form a separate class from all other observances. Those 
who accept the number seven, and many of those who admit 
only two sacraments, say that the sacraments differ from 
other rites in being channels by which supernatural grace 
is imparted, liy those Protestants who deny that baptism 
and the Lord's Supper in themselves convey supernatural 
grace, the specific difference of the ' sacraments ' from other 
observances is regarded as consisting in their paramount 
obligation as having been expressly commanded by Christ 
Himself, and in the special spiritual benefits obtainable by 
their faithful use. 

By some of the English Puritans and Nonconformists, the 
word was avoided as being associated with opinions re- 
garded by them as superstitious ; the usual term applied by 
them to baptism and the Lord's Supper was ordinance. 

c 1175 Lamb. Horn. 51 \>e halie sacramens ^>e me sacrtS in 
alesnesse of alia sunfulle. a 1225 Ancr. R. 268 Al )?et holi 
chirche redeS ant singeS, ant alle hire sacramenz strencSeS 
ou gostliche. a 1300 Cursor M. 12894 A ! Ion.. nan was 
worthier Jan bou Hand to lai on suete iesu, To giue him 
hat hali sacrament, c 1315 SHOKEHAM i. 183 Al hit bej> 
cherche sacremens pet tokened holi bynges, As hali water, 
and haly bred, Li}t, and beiryngynges To leste ; And of alle 
o|>er sacremens pes seuene bej> be greste. 1340 Ayenb. 14 
pe /-eve sacremens pet byeji ine holy cherche. c 1386 CHAUCKR 
Merck. T. 75 Mariage is a fut greet sacrement. c 1460 
Wisdom 1115 in Macro Plays 72 Ande now ye be reformyde 
by be sakyrment of penaunce. (71440 Alphabet of Tales 
186 He tuke his sacramentis of holy kurk and dyed. 1460 
Rolls of Par It. V. 37^/2 Ity the sacrament of matrymonie. 
c 1475 Marl. Contin. Higden (Rolls) VIII. 491 A pestilence 
..folowede soone after at Cantebrigge, causynge moche 
peple to dye as sodenly as madde men whhowte the sacra- 
mentes of the churche. 1509 FISHER Hen. /'//, ^Vks. (i87_6) 
273 The true byleue that he had in god, in his chirche & in 
the sacramenles therof, whiche he receyued all with mer- 
uaylous deuocion, namely in the sacrament of penaunce, the 
sacrament of the auter, & the sacrament of anelynge. 1604 
Bk. Com. Prayer, Catechism^ Q. What meanest thou by 
this word Sacramentl A. I mean an outward and visible 
sign of mi inward and spiritual grace given unto us [etc.]. 

1647 CLAKF.NDON Hist. Rcb. i. _ 198 [They suffered] the 
Sacraments themselves to be administered where the people 
had most mind to receive them. 1657 Pcnit. Conf. iv. 49 
The Sacrament of Penance will supply all other defects. 
1864 J. H. NEWMAN ^4/fo/. 416 The fact of a parishioner dying 
without the Sacraments through his fault is terrible to him. 
b. /;/ sacrament \ sacramcntally. rare. 

1628 R. Field, Ofilte Church in. App. 205 The crucified 
body of Christ thy sonne, which is here present in mystery, 
and sacrament. 

2. spec, (with the}. The Lord's -Supper, Eucharist 
or Holy Communion. Often called the sacra- 
ment of the altar, the Blessed Sacrament, and (esp. 
formerly) the Holy Sacrament. Phr. To receive, 
take the sacrament, to communicate. 

a 1223 Ancr. R, 268 Al be deofies strenc5e melteS Jinruh 
be grace of (>e holi sacrament,, .bet ;e iseoft ase ofte ;i>e |>e 
preo>t me^eS & sacre3 bet meidenes bearn, Jesu. 1303 
R, IJKi'NNE Handl. Synne 10198 pe folk >at to ^e pre->te 
went For to receyue \>e. sacrament, a 1340 HAM POLE Psalter 
vi. i Comunynge of sacrament of be autere. lypAyenb. i\ 
pe sacrement of be wyefde. 1387 TRKVISA H igdcn (Rolls) 
V. 231 He ordeynede . . f>at pe grayel and be offer t or ie 
schulde be i-seide to fore \>c sacrement [otig. ante sacrijl- 
ciunt\. c 1440 A Iphabct of Tales 339 He bad a glide frcnd, 
a preste, Jjat .said a nies for hym and o fired }?e sacrament 
for hym. 1500-20 DUN BAR Poems ix. 86 Anis in ilie :jeir to 
tak the sacrament. 1509 FISHER Hen. VII, Wks. 11876) 273 
The sacrament of the auter he receyued at inyd-lent, & 
agayne vpun eester day. 1534 MOKE Treat. Passion Wks. 
I 337- 2 Onelye this blessed sacrament is called and knowne 
by ihe name of sacrament alone. 1610 R. FIKLD Of t/u- 
Clutrclt App. 104 bks. I. 34 The true presence ofChrists body 
& bloud in the blessed Sacrament. 1647 CLARENDON H 1st. 
Reb. i. 199 The obliging all persons to come up to tho^e 
rails to receive the Sacrament. 1712 AKBUTHNOT John Bull 
in. viii, They never had a quiet night's rest, for getting up 
in the morning to early sacraments. 1804 SOUTMKV in Ann. 
Rev. II. 202 They received the sacrament weekly. 1835 
ALISON Hist. Enrobe (1847) IV. 136 A courageous priest . . 
at the haxard of his life, often administered to her the 

b. The consecrated elements, esp. the bread or 

a 1223 Ancr. R. 68 Ut of chirche burle ne holde }e none 
tale mid nono moniie, nuh bereS wurSschipe berto, uor be 
holi sacrament bet 50 iseod her burh. 1395 PURVEY Rcinonstr. 
(1851) 40 The sacrament of the auteer, which is whight and 
round, visible and palpable. 1419 in S. Hentley Excerpt. 
Hist. (1831)30 The box or vessell in the whiche the precious 
sacrement is in. 1548-9 (Mar.) Bk. Com. Prayer, Com- 
munion, Without any eleuacion, or shewing the Sacrament 
to the people. 1645 EVELYN Diary 26 Mar., The Sacrament 
being this day expos'd, and the reliques of the Holy Crosse. 
1660 F. BROOKE tr. Le Blanks Trav. 216 The people never 
behold the blessed Sacrament, but they bow their face to 
the ground. 

C. To take or receive the sacrament (to do some- 
thing, or upon a matter) : to receive Holy Com- 
munion as a confirmation of one's word. 

1591 SHAKS. i Hen. VI, iv. ii. 28 Ten thousand French 
haue tane the Sacrament, To ryue their dangerous Artillei ie 
Vpon no Christian soule but English Talbot. 1594 - - 
Rich, III, r. iv. 208. 1601 Al?s Well iv. iii. 156 
He take the Sacrament on't. 1681 Trial S. Colledge 65 
Mr. Lun. \ will take the Sacrament upon it, what I say 
is true. 1691 LUTTKELL Brief Rel. (1857) II. 191 The Irish 
under col. Clifford had took the sacrament to fight it out 
to the last man. 1749 FIELDING Tom Jones n. vi, Notwith- 
standing the positiveness of Mrs Partridge, who would have 
taken the sacrament upon the matter, there is a possibility 
that the schoolmaster was entirely innocent. Ibid. xvn. iv. 
1876 TENNYSON Harold iv. i, Harold. Morcar and Edwin, 
will ye upon path, Help us against the Norman? Morcar. 
With good will ; Yea, take the Sacrament upon it, king. 
f d. used in oaths. Obs. 

1500-20 DUNBAR Poems xxxlv. 41 Ane fleschour swoir be 
the sacrament, And be Chrystis blud maist innocent, Nevir 
fatter flesch saw man with E. 1573 New Custom ). ii, 
Sacrament of God, who hath hearde suche a knaue? 1575 
Gamm. Gurton i. iii. 27 Gogs sacrament, I would she had 
lost tharte out of her bellie ! 

3. In widened application : a. Something likened 
to the recognized sacraments, as having a sacred 
character or function ; a sacred seal set upon some 
part of man's life ; the pledge of a covenant be- 
tween God and man. 

rti34o HA.MPOLE Psalter xvii. i pis psalme contens pe 
sacrament of all chosen men. 1399 GOWKR Praise of Peace 
30; The pes is as it were a sacrement Tofore the god. 1563 
Homilies n. Common Prayer fy Sac ram. 146 b, And so was 
circumcision a sacrament, whiche preached vnto the out- 
warde senses the inwarde cuttyng away of the forcskyn of 
the harte, and sealed and made sure in the hartes of the 
circumcised, the promise of god. 1613 PURCHAS Pilgrimage 
(1614) 42 Hereunto the Lord addeth the Rainbow, a new 
Sacrament, to scale his mercifull Couenant with the earth, 
not to drowne the same anymore. 1679 CBOWKB^M&A 
Statesman iv. 65 Nature gives man a Sacrament In Ins 
own blood, never to huit a woman. 1841 EMERSON Lect., 
Man the Reformer \v^ (Bohn) II. 243 Economy is a high, 
humane office, a sacrament, when its aim is grand. 1899 
W. R. INGE C/ir. Myst. vii. 258 To the true mystic, life 
itself is a sacrament. 

b. A type, token, sign, or symbol. Const, tf. 

Derived from the accepted definition of a sacrament as a 

' sign of grace '. Quot. 1660 exhibits an attempt to assign to 

the word a general sense in which the specific applications 

are included. 

iS34 MORE Treat. Passion Wks. 1331/1 For they make 
theym wene, that.. it is none other but a bare sacrament 
onelye, that is to wytte a token, a figure, a sygne or memo- 
riall of his bodye and hys bloude crucified and shed. 1563 
Homilies u. Repair. Ch. 85 The Temple.. was a figure, a 
Sacrament, or a signification of Christe. 1660 JER. TAYLOH 

Worthy Communicant i. 3. 61 When Jonathan shot his 
arrows beyond the boys, lie then by a sacrament sent salva- 
tion unto David. 1875 E. WHITE Life in Christ \\. xx\ ii. 
(1876) 486 This second death is never set forth as a sacrament 
of immortality. 1904 A. R. WIUIHAM Epist. Consolations 
vii. 87 Doubtless also those mysterious contents of the inner 
sancluary. .were copies of heavenly realities..; signs and 
sacraments they have Leen of God's mercy and j usticc. 
c. A mystery; something secret or having a 
secret meaning. [After L. saframenlitm , used by 
Tertullian and in the Old Latin and Vulgate Bibles 
as a rendering of /tuffTT/pto/',] 

1382 Wye LI F Dan. ii. 30 This sacrament, or hid trewtlie 
[Vulg. sacramcntuni hoc}. i Tim. iii. 16 And opynly it 
is a greet sacrament of pile. 1388 Rev. i. 20 The sacra- 
ment [1382 mysterie, or priuytee] of the seuene s,tciri-. 
c 1400 tr. Sea eta Secret.^ (/c:-. Lordsh. 51 God. .make cleer 
Joure vnderstondynge to pcrsayue be sacrament of ^is science. 
a 1600 HOOKER l-'rag. on Sttcrawt-tits in Eccl. P<<1. (i:----.) 
II. 550 In a word Sacraments arc God'.s secrets, discovered 
to none but his own people. 1607 TUI-SELI. l-'vur-f. Beasts 
Ep. Ded. A 4 b, Seeing (Joel liath vsed them as Sacraments 
or Mysteries to containe his will. 1867 MANNING in Ess, 
Rclig. $ Lit. II. 362 All the words of Scripture are so many 
sacraments (or mysteries). 

4. An oath or solemn engagement, esp. one which 
is ratified by a rite. (Chiefly as a Latinism.) 

1387-8 T. USK Test. Love i. vi. iSkeat) 1. 165 This..haue 
I saide for no liarmc, ne malyce of tho persones, but oncly 
for trouth of my sacrement in my leigcauncc. c 1400 Datr. 
Troy 703 Here I aske you hertely ^nt ye may het heit-, 
With a solemne sacrement on bis sure gode, All be forward 
to fulfille, t>at_ye first nutcle. 1430-40 LYIJG. Bochas viu. 
xv[i], 1 1494) D iv, He dyd vaiye 1'rom his promyse made by 
>;icremente. 1461 Rolls cf Tarlt. V. 483/1 Andtofore theym 
make ooth and Sacrament convenient, to be true and louly 
Subgettes. 1596 SIT.NSI-.K /. i^. v. i. 25 This doubtfull cau><j?, 
jiglit Can h;irdly but by Sacrament be tnde, Or el>e by 
ordele, or by bloodily fi^lit. 1611 11. JONSON Catiline i, I. 
Wks. (1616) 693 Nothing wants, then. IJnt that we take a 
solemne sacrament. To strengthen our designe. 1646 SIR T. 
BROWNE Pseud, hp. \. vii. 25 Nor are the deepest sacra- 
ments or desperate imprecations of any force to perswade 
where reason only, and necessary mediums must induce. 
1752 YoUNG Brothers \\, i, Those whom I swore, before 
they parted hence, In dreadful sacraments of wine and 
blood, To bring back such reports, ns hhou'd destroy him. 
1801 ELIZ. HELMK St. Marg. Cave (1819) I. 78 An infant at 
whose baptism she [as sponsor] had taken a sacrament to 
sustain and instruct in the manner she was able. 1832 
Blackw. J/iiiT. XXXII. 6oy 1'ound by no sacrament of 
military obedience to the state. 1890 R. UKIDGKS Shorter 
Poems 1.7 Have not the young flowers been con tent, Plucked 
ere their buds could blow, To seal our sacrament? 

5. Roman Law. The sacramcntum or pledge 
which each of the pai tics deposited or became: 
bound for before beginning a suit. 

1880 MUIRHEAD Gains iv. 12 The procedure in those 
leg is actiones was in one or other of five modes, by sacra- 
ment, by petition for a judge [etc.]. 1886 in Encycl. Brit. 
XX. 682/1 He required sureties from the parties for the 
eventual payment by him who was unsuccessful of the sacra- 
ment lie had offered to stake. 

Q. attrib. (sense 2), as sacrament-wine ; "f sacra- 
ment-box, a pyx ; '[ sacrament-cloth, a cloth or 
veil for covering the pyx ; f sacrament-house, a 
tabernacle; sacrament-money, the alms collected 
at Holy Communion, formerly used as a fund for 
poor-relief; Sacrament Sunday, the Sunday on 
which the Lord's Supper is celebrated (in Scot- 
land formerly only once or twice a year). 

c 1440 A iphabet of Talcs 112 On }'e morn sho went vnto 
J>e preste, and askid of hym how many hostis war in J>e 
*sacrament-box in ^e kurk. 1335-6 Rcc. St. Mary at Hill 
369 Item, ffor dressy ng of ij *sacrament Clothes. 1853 ROCK 
Ch. of Fathers IV. xii. 206 Over the cup itself was cast the 
Sacrament cloth, or piece of thin, cloud-like muslin, pannus 
nebulatus. 1551 Inscr. in Deskford Old Ch., Banjffs.^ This 
present loueable vark of *sacrament hous maid, .the yeir of 
god 1551. 1716 Rules Disposal Sacrament- Money 3 In the 
appropriating all * Sacrament Money to the Poor only, .they 
have the concurrent Sense of the whole Church of England 
..for above an 100 Years after the Reformation. 1860 
MRS. W. P. BYRNE Undercurrents II. 77 note, That fund 
known as the ' Sacrament money ' is a relic of this venerable 
custom. 1796 C. SIMEON in Carus Life vi. (1847) 121 
Sunday, 26th. *Sacrament Sunday at Moulin. 1897 '!AN 
MACLAKEN ' Dr. of Old School \. 37 Black he wore once a year, 
on Sacrament Sunday, and, if possible, at a funeral. 1698 
in i^t/i Rep. Hist. Jl/SS. Comm. App. HI. 141 Theres a dis- 
covery of a designe to have poysoned his Majesty in the 
*sacrament wine on Christmas day. 

SacraJUentCsifkrament),^. rare. [ 
sacrament-dre to bind by an oath, f. sacrament tun 
SACRAMENT sb. Cf. Sp., Pg. $acramentar^\ 

1. trans. To bind by an oath or solemn engage- 
ment. Const, to or f to do, also against. 

Frequent in Sydney Smith. 

1621-31 LAUD Serm. (1847) 55 When desperate men have 
sacramented themselves to destroy, God can prevent and 
deliver. 1804 SYD. SMITH Serm. II. 218 A nation of free 
men, sacramented together. 183$ EMERSON in Corr. Carlylt 
i$- E. (1883) I. iii. 34 A friend of mine and of yours remarked, 
. . ' that people were not here as in England sacramented to 
organized schools of opinion, but were a far more convert- 
ible audience'. 1860 Cond. Life vii. 160 All those who 
are . . by many an oath of the heart, sacramented to you. 

2. To make sacred, consecrate. 

1829 SouTHEvin^. Rev. XLI. 212 Thejprincewas assured, 
also,., that, .his name was sacramented in the hearts of the 
people. [Literal rendering from Pg.J 1844 N. Brit. Rev. I. 
128 Chivalry might well be engaged in the service of religion, 
for religion sacramented profession. 

Sacramental (sjekrame-ntal), a. and st>. [a. 


F. sacramental (now sacranientel} or ad. late L. 
sacranienlal-is, f. sacramtnt-um : see SACRAMENT 
and -AL.] A. adj. 

I. Pertaining to, or of the nature of, a sacrament 
of the Church. 

c 1400 LOVE Bonaz-ent. Mirr. (1908) 302 In this goslly 
mete and sacramentale commemoracioun of oure lord Jesu. 
1451 CAI'GKAVE Life St. A ug. (E. E. T. S.) 25 In be time of 
baptising, whan \K principal sacramental wordes wer said. 
1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531 > 15 Penaunce, bothe sacra- 
mentall, whiche is secrete, and also solemne or open pen- 
aunce. 1532 MORE Confut. Tindale Wks. 384/1 What 
meaneth he other then that.. we bee borne agame by the 
sacramentall water and the sacramentall worde? 1597 
HOOKER Eccl. Pol. v. Iviii. 2 To make complete the out- 
ward substance of a sacrament, there is required an outward 
forme, which forme sacramentall elements receiue from 
sacramentall words. 1643 MILTON Divorce Pref., \Vks. 
1851 IV. 16 Afterwards it was brought so Sacramentall, 
that no adultery or desertion could dissolve it. 1737 WATER- 
LAND Rev. Doctr. Eucharist v. 136 But as there is a Sacra- | 
mental Feeding and a Spiritual Feeding ; and as the , 
Spiritual is the nobler of the two [etc.]. 1899 W. K. INGE 
Chr. Myst. vii. 255 There are three requisites, .for the 
validity of a sacramental act. 

b. Iransf. with reference to non-Christian reli- 
gious rites. 

1851 D. WILSON Arclizol. Scot. i. v. 102 The petty perse- 
cutions with which the natives sought to revenge the de- 
struction of their sacramental stone. 1886 Encycl. Brit. 
XXI. 137/2 Mystic sacrifices of this sacramental type pre- 
vailed also among the heathen Semites. 
C. fig. 

1874 GEO. ELIOT Coll. Breakf. P. 582 The sacramental 
rites of fellowship In common woe. 1877 DOUDKN Stud. 
Lit. (1890) 246 The little action of laying her head upon 
her father's knee was endowed with sacramental efiicacy. 

d. spec. Pertaining to the sacrament of the Lord's 

1552 Bk. Com. Prayer, Communion, The Sacramentall 
bread or wyne. 1635 QUARLES Emtl. v. x. (1718) 285 Daily 
fed With sacred wine, and sacramental bread. 1704 NELSON 
J'cst. /*, Fasts iii. II. (1739) 472 It was their Office to deliver 
the Sacramental Elements.. to the People. 1827111 Hag- 
Xr.rd's Eccl. Rep. II. 32 Any the smallest portion of the 
sacramental alms collected at Queen Square Chapel within 
my parish. 1855 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. xviii. IV. 181 The 
laws which instituted the Sacramental Test were passed 
without the smallest difficulty. 1862 H. MARKYAT I 'car in 
Sweden II. 274 Sacramental safe of Gotland marble. 1863 
Chambers' Bk. Days I. 732/1 A person came to my father 
(a clergyman) and asked him for a ' sacramental shilling^' 
i. e. one out of the alms collected at the Holy Communion, 
to be made into a ring and worn as a cure for epilepsy. 

e. Of religious doctrine and the like i Based 
upon the sacraments ; characterized by insistence 
upon the importance of the sacraments. 

1871 [see SACERDOTAL a. 2]. 1879 R. T. SMITH Basil Gt. 
x. 116 There is no doubt that he held sacramental doctrine. 
1898 ILLINGWORTH Div. Immanence vi. 142 The religion 
of the Incarnation . . was essentially and fundamentally 

f. Applied, in Scotland, to communicants. 

1818 CHALMERS in Hanna Mem. (1850) II. 198, I cannot 
leave Glasgow till Tuesday, .owing to my having to meet 
a few more sacramental people on Monday. 

2. Of the nature of, relating to, or expressed by 
an outward sign or symbol (see SACRAMENT 3 b). 

1534 MORE Treat. Passion Wks. 1334/2 The verye naturall 
bodye and bloude of Christ in the forme of breade and wyne, 
be bothe sacramentall sygnes, because they sygnifye and 
also sacramental thinges because they be sygnified. 1605 
BACON Adv. Learn. II. xi. 3 That Ceremonies, Characters, 
and Charmes doe worke, not by any Tacite or Sacramentall 
contract with euill spirits, but [etc.]. 1653 J tRt TAYLOR 
Serin, for Year, Winter xii. 155 Though I cannot think that 
Nature was so sacramentall, as to point out the holy and 
mysterious Trinity by the triangle of the heart. 1664 H. 
MORE Myst. Iniq. 221 Their whole Camp was but one living 
andniovingSacramentallniageof Christand his Body. 1845 
S. AUSTIN Ranke's Hist. Ref. III. 307 Eck explained the 
sacrifice as merely a sacramental sign, in remembrance of 
that which was orlered up on the cross. 1874 STUBBS Const. 
Hist. I. vii. 167 In a further stage the land becomes the 
sacramental tie of all public relations. 

3. Of an oath, obligation, etc. : Peculiarly sacred ; 
ratified by a religious sanction. 

In quots. 1460 and 1644 the reference maybe loan oath con- 
firmed by the taking of the sacrament (see SACRAMENT 2 c). 

1460 CAPGRAVE Chron. (Rolls) 250 In this Parlement the 
lordes desired of the Kyng to make his sacramental oth 
byfore the puple. 1644 K-CnAS. I in Rushw. Hist. Coll. III. 

II. 753 That holy Religion which, when We receiv'd the 
Crown and Scepter of this Kingdom, We took a most solemn 
Sacramental Oath to profess and protect. 1697 EVELYN 
Nninism. iii. 78 Contrary to the most Sacramental Obliga- 
tions. 1863 GEO. ELIOT Romola xxyii, The fulfilment of 
her father's lifelong ambition about this library was a sacra- 
mental obligation for Romola. 

f b. ' Sworn ' ; pledged as if by an oath. Obs. 

i665GLANVlLLZte/! Van. Dogm. 79 Depriving themselves 
. .of their Liberty in Philosophy by a sacramental adherence 
to an Heathen Authority. 

c. ? Bound by a soldier's oath (with secondary 
allusion to sense i). poet, nonce-use. 

1784 COWPER Task n. 349 He.. trains, by ev'ry rule Of 
holy discipline, to glorious war, The sacramental host of 
God's elect ! 

4. Roman Law. Belonging to an action in which 
a sacramentum or pledge was deposited by each of 
the parties beforehand. 

1861 MAINE Anc. Law iii. 48 The alien. .could not sue 
by the Sacramental Action. 1886 MUIRHEAD in Encycl. 
Brit. XX. 683/1 Forfeiture of the sacramental cattle, sheep 


or money that would follow a verdict that an oath had 
been unjust. 

5. jocular. Of a form of speech : Sacred to the 
occasion, ' consecrated '. 

1896 Daily NC-MS 26 Feb. 3/3 With regard to the wager 
of a guinea the right hon. gentleman had not the presence 
of mind at the time to utter the sacramental word ' done '. 
1898 Times 29 Oct. 11/4 As Lord Rosebery remarked last 
ni"ht in coyly introducing the sacramental quotation, many 
things besides Waterloo have been won in the playing-fields 
of Eton. 

B. st. 

1. Eccl. A rite, ceremony, or observance analo- 
gous to a sacrament, but not reckoned among the 
sacraments ; e.g. the use of holy water and of holy 
oil, the sign of the cross. 

1529 Petition of Commons in Froude Hist. Eng. (1856) I. 
194 To exact and take of your humble servants divers sums 
of money for the sacraments and sacramentals of Holy 
Church. 1536 CROMWELL in Merriman Life fy Lett. (1902) 
11.27 That the sacramentes and sacramentalles be duely 
and reuerently ministred in their parishes. 1654 J EH, TAYLOR 
Real Pres. 77 The Eucharist it self was in the external and 
ritual part, an imitation of a custome and a sacramental 
already in use among the Jews. ^1662 HEYLIN Land 
Intiod. (1668) 10 Marriage, Orders, Confirmation, and the 
Visitation (though not the Extream Unction) of the Sick 
being retained under the name of Sacramentals. 1850 S. 
WILUKRFORCH in Life (1886! II. ii. 65 Craving after confes- 
sion and absolution, &c. as sacramentals. 1892 Month Nov. 
440 Sacramentals are certain outward signs and usages in- 
stituted by the Church, which are the occasion of grace and 
blessing to those who piously use them. 

f 2. Occas. used for : Something which pertains 
to a sacrament ; a constituent part of a sacrament. 

1619 W. SCLATER Exp. i Tliess. \. 6 (1630) 52 Conies it 
\sc. sitting at Holy Communion] vnder the Mandate, Hoc 
facile"! then is it amongst the Sacramentals of the Supper. 
For (hoc facite ) comprizeth not Circumstantials, but Sacra- 
mentals. 1633 T. MORTON Discharge 80, 81 That which 
wee are taught of him here, is, that these words Cup, and 
Testament, although they be Sacramentalls, yet are they 
not to be called The Sacramentals. 

Sacramentalism (sa:krame-ntaliz'm). [f. 

1861 GOLDW. SMITH Led. Mod. Hist. Pref. 4 Sacerdotal- 
ism, sacramentalism [etc.]. 1881 FROUDE Short Stud. IV. 
1 86 The revival of sacramentalism .. found a voice in Keble. 

Sacramentalist (ssekraine-utalist). rare. [f. 


1840 tr. Lfriucnbcrg's Persecut. Lutheran Ch. in Prussia, 
In this sense I am.. a Lutheran, and herein I separate my- 
self from all sects, whether Papists, Sacramentalists, Ana- 
baptists, or others. 

2. One who holds ' high ' doctrine in regard to 
the sacraments. 

1880 SHORTHOUSE J. fnglcsant v, [Hobbes loq.} We, doubt- 
less, and not they, are the true sacramentalists, that is, the 
seekers for the hidden and the Divine truth. It is for this 
reason that I take the Sacrament in the English Church. 

Sacramentality (sa^kramentx-Hti). [-in.] 

Sacramental character. 

1660 JLR. TAYLOR Duct. Dubit. 11. iii. Rule 9 31 He 
therefore tnat takes this [the wine] away, takes away the 
very Sacramentality of the mystery. 1843 NEALE & WEBB 
Symbolism Ch. Introd. Ess. 26 Sacramentality is that cha- 
racteristic which so strikingly distinguishes ancient eccle- 
siastical architecture from our own. 1887 C. W. WOOD 
Marriage 31 The Sacramentality of the contract depends 
solely on two facts. 

Sacramentally (steikraine-ntali), adv. [f. 

1. In a sacramental manner ; after the manner of 
a sacrament. 

e 1380 WYCLIF Sel. Wks. II. 170 pis oost is breed in his 
kynde, as ben ober oostes unsacrid, and sacramentaliche 
Goddis bodi. c 1422 HOCCLEVK Learn to die 25 How a man 
sacramentally Receyue me shal wel and worthyly. 1533 
MORE Anrui, Poysoned Bk. Wks. 1065/2 Thys is ment..of 
theym that receyue the sacrament, not onelye sacrament- 
allye, but also effectually. 1609 DOWNAM Chr. Liberty 15 
You haue been.. by baptisme sacramentally vnited to the 
body of Christ. 1736 CHANDLER Hist. Persec. 191 The 
Counsellor must absolve him sacramentally. 1884 A. R. 
PENNINGTON Il 7 iclif\m. 253 When it has come to be sacra- 
mentally the body of Christ, it is still bread substantially. 

f 2. By way of oath or solemn obligation. 06s. 

1599 NASHE Lenten S tujfe 34 In generous reguerdonment 
whereof he sacramentally obliged himselfe, that [etc.]. 1654 
1 PALAEMON' Friendship 26 Did not the satisfying ofCurins 
his Lust cost him the lives of his dearest and Sacrumentally- 
combined Partners? 

Sacrame'ntalness. rare. [-NESS.] The 

quality of being sacramental (see the adj.). 

1633 D. R[OGERS] Treat. Sacram. I. 66 Pollute not.. the 
Sacramentalnesse and Symbolicalnesse of the things of God 
by your unsutablenesse. 1664 H. MORE Myst. Iniq. 222 
The Sacrameutalness of the Jewish Church in reference to 
the Christian. 

Sacramentarian (ssekramentea'rian), a. and 
sb. [f. mod.L. sacramenldri-us SACRAMENTAHY + 
-AN.] A. adj. 

1. Hist. Relating to the views held by the 'Sacra- 
mentarians' in regard to the Eucharist (see B. i). 

1640 lip. HALL Chr. Modcr. n. viii. 53 As for the Sacra- 
mentarian quarrels, Lord, how bitter have theybeene. 1674 
HICKMAN Hist. Quinquart. (ed. 2) 50 The Sacramentarian 
Controversie. 1837-9 HALLAM Hist. Lit. n. i. 24 He 
boasts that Luther predicted the deaths of Zwingle, Carlo- 
stadt, and CEcolampadius as the punishment of their sacra- 
mentarian hypothesis. 1845 J. H. NEWMAN Ess. Dcvclopm, 


287 Ernest! seems to consider the [Syrian] school, in modern 
language, Sacramentarian. 

2. gen. Relating to the sacraments (or to ' high ' 
doctrine in regard to them). 

1865 LI-XKV Ration. I. 287 Among the Protestants the same 
tendency is displayed with equal force in the rapid destruc- 
tion of what is termed the Sacramentarian principle. 1878 
HAVNE Purit. Rev. iii. 85 He [Laud] does not seem to have 
gone much upon Sacramentarian symbolism. 

B. st>. 

1. Hist. A name given by Luther to those Pro- 
testant theologians (esp. Zwingli and CEcolampa- 
dius) who maintained that it is merely in a ' sacra- 
mental' ormetaphorical sense (/ sacramentaliter sive 
^TtuvviiiKw ', Zwingli) that the bread and wine of 
the Eucharist are called the body and blood of 
Christ. Hence used in the 1 6th c. (by opponents) 
as a general name for all deniers of the doctrine 
of the Real Presence. 

1535 in Froude Hist. Eng, (1856) II. ix. 403 The ana- 
baptists and sacramentarians. 1537 in Ellis Orig. Lett. Ser. 
III. 111. 128 That the Kyng his Hyghtnes and Cownsell to 
be become Sacramentarians. 1624 BEDELL Lett. ii. 47 The 
vehement speeches of Luther and some of his followers 
against those whom they call the Sacramentarians. 1782 
PHIESTLEY Corrupt. Chr. II. IX. 194 Cranmer, whilst he 
was a Lutheran, consented to the burning of John Lambert 
and Ann Askew..; and when he was a Sacramentarian he 
was the cause of the death of Joan Bocher, an Arian. 1903 
Corner. Mod. Hist. II. x. 333 Zwingli. .made this Sacra- 
ment purely symbolical.. .In this he was followed by the 
later Sacramentarians. 

2. Hist. A nickname given to the early Methodists 
at Oxford. (See quot. 1733.) 

J 733 Oxf. Methodists 7 The young Gentlemen, .thought 
it requisite to Communicate as often as they had Oppor- 
tunity; which at Oxford is once a Week; and hence their 
lll-willers gave them the Name of Sacramentarians. 1797 
Encycl. Brit. (ed. 3) XI. 623/2 To the name of Methodists 
two others were quickly added, viz. those of Sacramen- 
tarians and the Godly club. 

3. One who holds ' high ' doctrine as to the 

1651 BIGGS AVw Disp. p 214 The transubstantial migration 
of the grapy juice of the papall Sacramentarians. 1870 
SPURGEON Treas. Dav. Ps. 1. 10 Ye Ritualists, ye Sacra- 

Sacrameiita riaiiism. [f. prec. + -IS.M.] 
' High ' doctrine in regard to the sacraments (ct. 
prec. B. 3). 

1882 Athenxnm 9 Sept. 335/1 The advance of sacerdotal- 
ism and sacramentarianism. 1903^"?. GeorgeVi. 191 The 
Broad-Church Sacramentarianism of Mr. Shorthouse. 


Sacrame'iitarist. rare 



1828 PISEY Hist. Enq. I. 16 An edict of 1534.. which di- 
rected the immediate expulsion of Anabaptists and Sacra- 
mentarists from Bremen. 

Sacramentary (soekrame'ntari), a. and sb. 
Now rare. Also 6 -arie, Sc. -aire. [ad. med. 
and mod.L. sacramenlari-us (= F. sacramenlaire ; 
as sb. = G. sacramentirer, sacramenter, both used 
by Luther), f. L. sacramentuni : see SACRAMENT 
and -ARY.] 

A. adj. Pertaining to the sacraments of the 
Church ; a. Hist. = SACRAMENTARIAN A. i. Of a 
person : Holding Sacramentarian views. 

1563 HAKDING A nsiu. to Jewel v. vi. (1564) 98 Berengarius 
first beganne openly to sowe the wicked sede of the sacra- 
mentane heresie. 1600 J. HAMILTON Facile Traict. 327 
Thir sacramentaire Ministers, to hyde this trew worscheping 
of God be sacrifice . . hes mutilat this passage. 1830 COLERIDGE 
Tablf-t. 20 May, Arnauld, and the other learned Romanists, 
aie irresistible against the low Sacramentary doctrine. 

b. Relating to ' high ' doctrine in regard to the 

1561 T. NORTON Calvin's Inst. iv. 149 These Sacra- 
meutarie doctors [orig. les Pap isles, quant a lenr nombrc 
,te sett Sacremens}. 1884 G. SMITH Short Hist. Chr. Mis- 
sions n. vi. 74 All missionary effort which did not proceed 
on sacerdotal and sacramentary lines. 

c. gen. 

1594 NASHE Unfort. Trap. L i. He hire them that make 
their wafers or sacramentary gods, to minge them after the 
same sort. 1641 T. EDWARDS Keas. agst. Independ. Ep. 
Ded 2 The controversie of that age was concerning the 
Sacrament of the LordsSupper, beinggenerallystiled Bellum. 
Sacramentarium, and the Saciamentary Controversie. 1647 
TRAPP Comm. Gal. v. 26 It was this vice [i.e. vainglory] 
that bred the Sacramentary war that is not yet ended. 1837 
Penny Cycl. VII. 196/2 The question as to the sacramentary 
efficacy which has been sometimes attributed to the rite [of 

B. sb. 

1. flisl. = SACRAMENTARIAN B. i. 

1538 CROMWELL in Merriman Life f, Lett. (1902) II. 148 
Certain persones denyeng the holy sacrament of Christes 
blessed body and blud of suche opinion as commonly they 
calle Sacramentaries. 1631 C. CARTWRIGHT Cert. Relig. i. 
86 The Divisions that are between old and new Sacra- 
mentaries. 1732 NEAL Hist. Purit. I. 29 The king began 
to discover his zeal against the Sacramentaries (as those 
were called who denied the corporal presence of Christ in 
the Eucharist). 1858 FROUDE Hist. Eng. III. xv. 339 A few 
years later, a sacramentary had ceased to be a criminal. 

f 2. One who holds ' high ' doctrine as to the 
sacraments. Obs.rare- 1 . 

1595 HUBBOCKE Apol. Infants Unbapt. 30 Zwinglius.. 
calleth them Sacramentaries who attribute so much grace 
to the sacrament, so much vertue to Baptisme of it selfe. 


3. [med.L. sacrdntentariuml\ An early form of 
office-book in the Western Church, containing the 
rites and prayers belongingtotheseveralsacraments. 

1624 USSHER Answ. Jesuit Irel. 200 Such is the prayer.. 
inGnmoldushisSacramentarie, x68sSTiLLiNGFL.C>?-;^. Brit. 
iv. 230 The Sacramentary of Gregory. 1832 W. PALMER Orig. 
Liturg. I. 308 The Sacramentary comprised the collects and 
the canon or prayers that never varied. 1844 LINGARD 
Anglo-Sax. Ch. (1858) I. vii. 293 note. The blessing. .may 
be found in most sacramentaries. 

t Sacramentated, ///. a. Obs. rare- 1 , [f. 
med.L. sacrament at -us (f. sacramentum SACRA- 
MENT) + -ED.] Made into a sacrament, received 
in the sacrament. 

1651 Ho WELL Venice 183 Impious Priests., who ev'ry day 
receave the Sacramentated Redeemer, peradventure more 
unworthily then Judas. 

Sacr am enter, rare. Also 6 -our. [f. SACRA- 
MENT sb. + -ER 1 . In sense 2 after G. sacramentcr 

fl. ? One who is frequent in attendance at the 
sacrament. Obs. 

1536 in W. A. J. Archbold Somerset. Rellg. Ho. (1892) 63 
Dociour Tregonwell sertefying cornyshemen to be very 
good subjectes and sacramentours. 


1845 S. AUSTIN Rankcs Hist. Kef. III. 187 They too ex- 
horted the council to have nothing to do with the 'Sacra- 

t Sacramenting, ppl. a. nonce-wd. [-1x02.] 
?That celebrates the Mass. 

1687 R. WJS\*KSB& Brief Hist. Times i. 15 The short- 
English of the Device, was, to make as Arrant, a Juglini;, 
sacramenting Rascal of me, (saving the Then Kings Evi* 
dences) as ever Renounc'd God upon the Holy Altar. 

Sa'cramentism. rare ~ *. [f. SACRAMENT sb. 


1840 GLADSTONE Ch. Princ. 187 It is not any blind sacra- 
mentism..that she would inculcate. 

tSa'cramentize, v. Obs. rare- 1 , [f. SACRA- 
MENT sb. + -IZE,] intr. To administer the sacra- 
ments. Hence Sacramentizing vl>!. sb. or///. # 

1655 FULLER Ch. flist. xi. v. 65 Ministers.. lawfully or- 
dained. .both to Preach and Sacramentize. Ibid, vii. 19 
That the Governing part should be in the hands of the 
Bishops; the Teaching and Sacramentizing in the Pres- 

t Sacramently, adv. Ols. rare. [f. SACRA- 
MENT sb. + -LY*.] Sacramentally. 

In quot. 1624 perh. a misprint for Sacramentally, 

c 1425 Orolog. Sapient, vi. in Anglia X. 369/8 He is.. after 
be manhede sacramently to me presente. Ibid. 377/28 pere 
beb summe patte in this horde receyue me sacramently. 
1624 DARCIE Birth of Heresies xxi. 86 All sacred signes or- 
dained by God in the Israelitish Church, though they really 
and sacramently represented that which was by them 
figured . .yet did [etc.]. 

Sacranal(sakre'rial),a:. Ornith. [f.SACRARl- 
i'M * + -AL.] Of, pertaining to, or connected with 
the sacrarium of birds. 1890 COUES Ornith. ii. iv. 211. 

I! Sacrarium l (sakre-rim). PI. sacraria 
(-ria). [L. sacrarium, f. sacr-, sacer sacred, holy : 
see -ARIUM.] 

1. Roman Antiq. Any place in which sacred 
objects were deposited and kept ; the adytum of a 
temple ; also, a small apartment in a house where 
the images of the penates were kept. 

' In the time of the emperors, the name sacrarium was 
sometimes applied to a place in which a statue of an emperor 
was erected ' {Smith's Diet. Grk. fy Rom. Antiq,, 1842, s,v.). 

a 1746 HOLDSWORTH Rem. Virgil (1768) 291 The Lituus 
and 1'rabea of Romulus and the Ancilia were kept in the 
Sacrarium of the Salii. 1842 GWILT Archit. 253 In more 
magnificent houses there were the sacrarium, the venereum, 
the spha;risterium [etc.]. 

b. gen. A repository for what is sacred. In 

1890 J. MARTINEAU Seat Author. Relig. in. ii. 300 If 
either Church or Scripture could be constituted a sacrarinm 
for secluding all that is simply divine. 

2. Eccl. a. That part of a church immediately 
surrounding the altar or communion table; also 
called the sanctuary. 

[1708-22 J. HINGHAM Orig. Eccles. vni. vi. 2 The Latins 
called it [sc. the chancel] sacrarium, 'the sanctuary': as 
in the first Council of Bracara, which forbids laymen to 
come into the sanctuary to communicate.J 1727 Ace. Cere- 
monies Coronations 31 In the midst of the Area or Sacrarium 
before the Altar. 1846 Ecdesiologist Apr. 134 By the sacra- ' 
rium we mean the part of the church immediately set apart I 
for the celebration of the highest mysteries, into which 
..none but the clergy would ever, under ordinary circum- j 
stances, be allowed to enter: the part, in short, which in 
a common English church is within the altar-rails. 1887 
/W/ Mall G. 16 Nov. 5/4 The tablet . . instead of being j 
within the sacrarium, will be at the entrance to the chancel. 

attrib. 1848 B. WEBB Cont. Ecclesiol. 173 There are 
sacrarium-rails, no screen. 

b. In Roman Catholic tise = PISCINA 2. 

1848 Ecdesiologist Gee. 157 note, Sacrarium In the present 
Roman ritual means exclusively the piscina. 1853 ROCK 
Ch. of Fathers IV. xii. 167 The piscina, or sacrarium. 

(i Sacra-rium -. Ornith. [mod.L., f. SACR-UM 
+ -ARIUM.] (See quot.) 

1890 COUES Ornith. \\. iv. 209 Such is the general character 
of a bird's complex sacrarium, as I name the whole mass of 
bones that are ankylosed together. 

t Sacrary. Obs. Also 4-7 sacrarie, 5 sacraire, 


-ayre, sacrear, sacrarye. [a. OF. sacraire, -eire t 
sacrarie, ad, L. sacrarium (see SACRARU'M 1 ) ; cf. 
Sp. sagrdrio. It. sacrario."} 

1. gen. A place where sacred objects are kept ; a 
sacred building or apartment ; a temple, shrine, 

1382 \VYCLIF i Cor. ix. 13 The! that wtrchen in the sacrarie, 
that is, a place where hooly thingis ben kept, eten tho 
thingis that ben of the sacrarie. 1412-20 LYDG. Chron. 
Troy it. 3823 pei token al bat cam to her honde, . . Reliques 
sacrid, be holy eke vessels. . . oute of be sacrarie. 1490 
CAXTON Eneydos xv. 59 This Varbas . . had . . made an hondred 
temples wythin his royalme, wyth an hondred othre sacra- 
ryes, in whiche he had consecrated the fyre brennyng with- 
out ceasse. 4:1557 ABP. PARKF.R Ps. Ixxviii. 226 Hys sacrary, 
which once in Sylo stoode. 1620 J. KING Sertn. 24 Aftir. 27 
The dilapidation of any of Gods Oratories and Sacraries, 
his Heauens vpon earth, goeth to his heart like swords. 1652 
GAVLE Magastrom, 256 The sacrary of Serapis, in Alexan- 
dria, was burnt, 

b. fig> 

13.. Minor Poems fr. 1'emon MS. xxiii. 425 Hell bou 
holy sacrarie, Vr askynges euer heryng [Aue secrctarimn 
c.\-andlcionis\. 14.. LYDG. Life Our Lady Ixxvii. (14841 
I vb, God chase thy wombe for his tabernacle And halowed 
it so clene in euery coost To make hit sacrarye for his owen 
ghoost. 1615 T. ADAMS Myst. Bedlam i. (1634) 12 The 
purified heart is Gods Sacrary, his Sanctuary, his House, 
his Heauen. 1668 M. CASAUBON Credulity (1670) 135 A 
more venerable, .man. .who would open all sacraries and 
fountains of Truth, should appear upon earth. 1676 XF.KD- 
HAM Pacquct Adv. 50 That draws a Reverence to the 
Throne itself; which should be religiously fenced about, 
not only as the Sacrary of Royalty, but as the Sanctuary 
also of other Princes. 

2. spec. In a Christian church: r= SACRARIUM 2 a. 
1387 TRF.VISA Higden iRolls) VI. 155 P.y schewynge of 

God he fonge [read fonde] a greet deel of be cros in Seynt 
Peter tiis sacrarie. 14.. AVw. in Wr.-Wiilcker 721/1 I/i>c 
sacrarium, a sacrear, 1482 Monk of Evcshnin xiii. (Ark) 
35 Abowte the sacrarye of the same auter y knowe wele y 
left my selfe. 1560 BECON Catech. v. Wks. I. 455 b, The 
ashes to be reposed in the sacrary among the other reliques. 
1727 Ace. Ceremonies in Coronations 22 The Bishops to their 
Seats on the North side of the Area or Sacrary. 

t Sacrate, a. (ppl. n.} Ofa. Also 6 sacrat. 
[ad. L. sacrat-ns* pa. pple. of L. sacrd-re : see next.] 
Consecrated, dedicated to God or a divinity; hal- 
lowed, sacred. 

I 43*-5 tr. Higden (Rolls) VI. 401 Seynte Edburga, a 
virgyn sacrate to God. 1513 BKADSHAW St. Werhurge i. 
2783 She.. cast her sacrat fle from the traytour. 
1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 264 Hauyng no reference 
to that moost blessed eyes, nor to y* heuenly visage 8: 
sacrate mouth, a 1533 l,n. BF.RNERS Gold. Bk. M. Aurel. 
(1546) Ggj, Thou doest complayne. .of the sacrate senate. 
1544 Exhort. Prater A iij b, The holy and sacrate cuppe 
of the precious and blessed blood, which was shedde for vs 
vppon the crosse. a 1572 KNOX Hist. Kef. Wks. 1846 I. 
301 BeCftlU we wold attempt nothing without the knowledge 
of the sacrate authoritie,. .it was concluded, that, .we should 
attempt the favouris. .of the Quein then Regent, to a godly 

t Sacrate, v. Obs. rare. [f. L. sacrat ~, ppl. 
stem of sacrare : see SACRE v.j trans. To con- 
secrate, dedicate. 

1653 WATERHOUSE Apol. Learning 51 His mind. .called 
on him to write his memorial on the Marble of some Monu- 
ment sacrated to Learning. 1660 Arms q-Ar/n.82 Some 
are allowed what others are not, because they are of more 
conspicuity then others are, and therefore sacrated and 
separate from vulgar familiarities. 1755 AMORV Mem. (1769) 
I. 72 By the most dreadful prophanation, she [sc. Rome] 
sacrates her temples to Satan. 

t Sacra'tion. Obs. rare. [ad. L. sacration-em t 
n. of action f. sacrare : see prec.] Consecration. 

1627-77 FELTHAM Resolves n. xxxvi. 233 Why then should 
it not as well from this, be auoided as from the other find 
a Sacration? 1628 W. SCLATER Three Serin. (1629) 18 The 
worst mens speeches and actions receiue a kinde of sacration 
by their recording in holy writ. 

[Sacratyle, -til, erron. form of SERRATILE. 

1541 R. COPLAND Guydorfs Quest. Chimrg. D ij b, And 
other [bones] ben sacratyles (1579 G. BAKRMpwff Quest. 
nb, sacratils] or sawe wyse, as the skull of the heade.j 

Sacrayre, variant of SACRARY Obs. 

t Sa cre : sb. Obs. [a. OF. sacre, of twofold 
formation i (i) in sense i, ad. L. sacrum, orig. 
neut. of sacer adj., sacred ; (2) in sense 2, a verbal 
noun from sacre-r to consecrate (see SACRE v.\~\ 

1. A religious observance or festival ; pi. rites of 

rtiwc Chaucer's Drente 2135 Which tent was church 
perochiall Ordaint was in especiall For the feast and for 
the sacre Where archbishop, and archdiacre Song ful out 
the seruise. 1542 UDALL Erasm. Apoph. 59 b, She custom- 
ably resorted to all places, where any solemnitee of sacres 
or martes was. Ibid. 340 b, The sacres of Ceres. 1548 
Erasm. Par. Luke \. 17 The ministring of the sacres and 
holy rites in the temple, 

2. Consecration, a. The coronation of a sovereign. 
b. The festival of Corpus Christi. rare. 

1584 [CARD. ALLEN] Dcf. Eng. Cath. 51 They [sc. the 
bishops] doubted also lest she [sc. Elizabeth] would refuse 
in the verie time of her sacre, the solemne diuine ceremonie 
of vnction (accustomed in the consecration of al Christian 
princes). 1653 URQUHART Rabelais it. xxii, The next day 
was the great festival of Corpus Christi called the Sacre. 

t Sa'Cre, a. Ofo. rare. [ad. L. sacr-, sacer.'] 

1513 MORE Rich. ///fi883) 60 The sacre magesty of rx 
prince, a 1548 HALL Chron.^ Hen. I'll I igq There dvd. 


swere That they woulde obey the sacre & holy counsels, & 
woulde follow the Decrees of the Fathers. 1577-87 HOLIN- 

. SHFD Chron. III. 524/2 The.. decrees and constitutions of 
the sacre and holie church. 

t Sa'Cre, v. Obs. Forms : Inf. 3-7 sacre, (3 
sacri, 5 sacryn, sakyre, sakor). Pa. t. and pa. 
pple. 3-4 sacrede, 3-5 sacrid, 4 sakred, (Sc.) sa- 
cryt, 4-5(*SV.)sacrite, 5 sacride, sakird,sakyrd(e, 
sakeret, sacryed, (Sc.) sacrit, 5-6 sacryd, 6 (<&.) 
sacreit, 3-7 sacred; also pa. pple. 3 i-sacret, 
3-5 i-sacred, 4 y-sacred(e, 5 y-, i-sacryd. [n. F. 

I sacre-r ( 1 2th c. in Hatz.-Darm.), = Pr.,Pg. sagrar, It. 

j sacrare) sagrare, ad.L. sacrare^.sacr-,sacers&\&.] 

1. trans, a. To consecrate ^the elements, or the 
body and blood of Christ) in the Mass. 

aitt$Ancr. R. 268 Ase ofte ase l>e preost messefl Si sacreS 

bet meidenes beam, Jesu. 1297 R. GLOUC. (Rolls) 7209 Vor 

I prusles mid vnclene honden. ..sacriejj godes fless & is blod. 

, 1340 Ayenb. 235 pet bodi of our lorde lesu crist bet Je 

! prestes sacre }> and onderuongeb^ and betake^ obren. 1387 

TREVISA Higden (Rolls) VIII. 9 Anon bey brou^te an obley 

J>at was i-sacred. (71485 Digby Myst. in. 2068, I sakor be 

body of ower lord lesu cryst. 

ai'sol. i225 A tier. K. 34 Efter |>e messecos, hwon be 

preost sacre^, J>er uor^heS al bene world, 8: ber beoS al vt 

of bodi. c 1400 Af>ol. Loll. 30 It semib hem to preche, it 

j is profit to bles, it is congrew to sacre. c 1460 Play&acrant. 

363 He hath oftyn sacred as yt ys skylle. 

b. To celebrate (the Eucharist). 

a 1240 Lofsongv& Cott. How. 207 (>e holi sacrement. .bet 

, 3e preost sacreS. c 1450 St. Cuthbcrt (Surtees) 7038 To 

' sacre be haly sacrement. 1535 STEWART Cron. Scf>t. (Rolls) 

! 11.424 King Druskene with nislordisilkone Into the tempifl 

present at the mes, Solempnitlie quhen it sacreit than wes. 

C. To sacrifice. rare~ l . 

c 1250 C,en. <$ Ex. 612 \Vi5-uten lie seuend clene der 3e he 
sacrede on an aucter. Ibid. 938 Dre der he toe, ilc 5re ^er 
hold, And .sacrede god on an wold. 
d. ? To worship, rare ' 1 . 

1390 GowRRdwyC III. 243 Hire god Moloch that with en- 
cen^e He sacreth, and doth reverence In such a wise as sche 
him bad, 

2. To consecrate (a king, bishop, etc.) to office. 
Const, with compl. object (in#ass. t subject) ; also 
to (an office), to, into ^bishop;. 

c 1290 Beket 301 in .V. Eng. Leg. 1.115 P at dai of be Trinite 

Ijischop i-sacret he was And onder-feng bis dignete. 1297 

R. GLOUC. (Rolls) 10719, & maister Richard J;e grant in is 

stede was ido & wende uorb to ronie to sacri him ber to. 

^11375 Joseph Ariin. 300 sacrede him to Bisschop 

wipboto his hondes. c 1420 Chron. V'iiod. 1586 To sacre 

hurre abbas of be abbay of \Vynchestre. a 1450 MYRC 

J-'t'Stial 12 And sakeret hym by>chuppe. ci$y>.\t. Cuth- 

\ hert {Surtees) 6404 Aftir warde, at ^orke cite, Sakird so- 

l lemply was he Oi archebischop theodere. 1504 LADV MAK- 

I CARET tr. De Imitatione iv. v. 267 Heholde nowe thou aite 

; made a preste and sacreyd to doo his holye mysterye. a 1548 

[ HALL Chron., Hen, /K g b, Henry Plan tag enet,. was at 

Westminster with great solemnitee and royal pompe, sacred, 

j enoynted and crouned King by the name of Kyng Henry 

the fourth. 1606 G. W[OODCOCKE] tr. Justin^ Epit. Em p. 

LI 5 b, Rodolph the second, eldest son of Maximilian, was 

sacred Emperour in the yeare 1577. 1631 WEEVER Anc. 

Funeral M on. 251 Petrpnuis was sacred to tins Kcclesias- 

ticall dignitie by Archbishop Honorius. (71648 Li>. HF.R- 

BKRT Hen. K///(i683) 53 This Prince was Sacred (to use 

the French term) at Reymes 25 of January, 1515. 

b. Said of the vessel used in anointing. rare~ l . 
1644 EVELYN Diary 6 June, The Holy Ampoule, the same 

with that which sacres their Kings at Rhemes, this being 
the one which anoynted Hen. IV. 

c. To unite in the sacrament of marriage ; to 
celebrate (a marriage). 

c 1425 Bnit 365 And bere the Bischop of Worcestre wedded 
it sacred ham to-gedir, as holy churche it wolde. Ibid. 368 
pere was this lady weddid and sacryd to be King of Den- 
mark with moche solempnite. 4:1440 e jacob"s Well 53 And 
3if it [an unlawful marriage] be sacryd, J?er owyth be lawe 
to be made a deuorce. 1485 CAXTON Ckas. Gt. 198 And the 
bysshop sacred and blessed them. 

3. To hallow, bless, sanctify, make holy. 

c 1380 WVCLIF Wks. (1880) 480 5if freris founden word is to 
i sacre be armes of a prest. <r 1394 P. PI. Crede 186 Seyntes 

y-sacred opon erbe. 1530 TINDALE Anw. More Wks. (1573) 
1 253/1 The bishop sacreth the one [oyle] as well as the other. 
! 1545 RAYNOLD Byrth Mankynde Prol. C j, To sacre, halow, 

yea and with theyr holye poeticall spir^-te to breath ouer 

this booke. 1601 HOLLAND Pliny x. vi. I. 274 They vsually 
! lay three egs, whereof they take one of them to sacre and 
| blesse i'as it were) the other eggs and the nest, and then 
! soon after they cast it away, 1621 BP. MOUNTAGU Diatribes 
| 251 To thinke, that God had sacred that Number [tenjabove 

all other. 1617-77 FELTHAM Resolves n. lix. 283 Prayer 

does sacre all our Actions. 

4. To dedicate (a person) to a deity ; chiefly 

13. . E. E. Allit. P. B. 1139 For when a sawele is sailed 
& sakred to dryjtyn, He holly haldes hit his. c 1450 God- 
stow Rfg. 49 With hys two dowhters there I-sacryd to god. 
1621 HP. MOUNTAGU Diatribse 514 A yeerely Feast was 
there kept in honour of Diana, whereat all the young maides 
in the Conn trey aboue fiue yeeres old, and vnder ten, were 
sacred, and dedicated vnto Diana. 01641 Acts <y Mon. 
(1642) 204 He promiseth forgivenesse of sins by washings, 
and in this sort, as yet he sacreth men to Wittnes, where he 
signeth his soldiers in the forehead. 

b. To dedicate (something) to (a particular per- 
son, a deity, or some special purposeX 

c 1477 CAXTON Jason 84 b, Whan Jason . . had sacred his shyp 
unto the Goddesse Pallas and to the goddesse of the see. 1513 
DOUGLAS ASneis vi. i. 160 And, O thow blissit woman, onto 
the Wise walit men [I] sail dedicat and sacre. 1587 A. DAV 
Da$hnis fy Chloe (1890) 9 Diners flutes, .which the auncient 


Shepheards had often tofore-time sacred vnto the Nimphes 
for their greatest offrings. 1591 SYLVESTER Du Bartas \. v. 
558 Herewith solemn vowes I sacre Unto thy glory. .My 
Heart and Art, my Voyse, Hand, Harp, and all. 1608 Ibid. 
11 iv. Sclusme Ded. 12 This Tract 1 sacre unto Sackvil's 
Name. 1620 CAPT. SMITH Neiv Trials Ep. Ded., How 
euer you please to dispose of him, that humbly sacreth him- 
selfe and best abilities to his Countries good. 

c. To make (a class of thing, as a tribe of 
animals, etc.) sacred to a deity. 

1633 I!r. MALI. Occas. Medit. 65 The ancients have 
sacicd this Bird [the owl] to wisdome. 

5. To take a solemn oath, rare 1 . 

c 1380 Sir Femmb. 1405 ' }e ', said he, ' |>at wil y do, do 
say me now by wille*. ' pat wil y no}t ', qua|j sche bo, ' til 
bou me han sakred tille'. pan Olyuer huld vp his hant; 
trewely for to holde By his power bat couenant. 

0. nonce-use. To cremate as a religious act. 

1665 SIR T. HERBERT Trav. (1677) 46 Their Junerals are 
of the old stamp, .sacring the Corps to Ashes in a holy fire. 

Sacre: see SACRY, SAKKR, S.VKKE. 

Sacr6 (sakr<-), v. [f. F. sacn', lit. ' sacred ', used 
ellift. as an oath.] intr. To utter the French 
exclamation ' sacre '. 

1837 CARLYLE Fr. Kri: I. v. iv. 248 Vengeful Gardes 
Fiancaises, sacrfing, with knit brows, start out on him. 
1856 WHYTE MELVILLE Kate Co-.: x.viii, The Frenchman 
iMirm^, and fumed, and stormed. 

Sacrear, variant of SACKAKY Obs. 

Sacred (s/i'kred), a. and s6. Forms : see SACRE 
T'. [f. SACRE v. + -En 1 . 

The original ppl. notion has(as the pronunciation indicates) 
disappeared from the use of the word, which is now nearly 
synonymous with the L. sneer. A similar change of mean- 
ing has taken place in the corresponding Romanic forms, V. 
sa^n 1 ^ which prob. influenced the English use), Sp., Pg. 
stift-ai/c. ] 
A. adj. 

t 1. Of the Eucharistic elements : Consecrated. 
c 1380 \VvcLir Wks. (1880) 465 But nou in be reume of 
englund stryuen manye of be sacrid oost. c 1450 Mankind 
383 in Plays 15 By cokkys body sakyrde, I haue 
such a peyn in my arme. Ibid. 605 For Cokkes body sa- 
kyrde, make space ! 

2. (^Followed by to.) a. Consecrated to ; esteemed 
especially dear or acceptable to a deity. 

13. . K.Alis. 6777 That on [tree] to the Bonne. .That othir 
..Is sakret [.l/.V. Land sacrified] in the inone venue. 
c 1407 LYDG. Keson <t Sens. 4408 Two tren . . The ton 
y-.sacryd to the mone, The tother halwed to Phebus. c 1430 
Min. Poems (Percy Soc.) 214 '1'his fowle is sacred uiuo 
Jupiter. 1719 Free-thinker No. 116 i The First of May 
has been, and will be Sacred to Love in all polite Nations. 
1788 LKMPRIERK Classical Diet. (1792) s. v. Jnfitfi; The 
oak is sacred to him because he first taught mankind to 
live upon acorns. 1874 DEUTSCH Rein. 439 The dove sacred 
to Venus. 

b. Dedicated, set apart, exclusively appropriated 
to some person or some special purpose. 

1667 MILTON P. L. in. 208 To destruction sacred and 
devote. Ibid. ix. 924 Had it bin onely coveting to Eye 
That sacred Fruit, sacred to abstinence. 1721 in Collect. 
F.pitap/ts(i&o2] 10 Sacred to the memory of Samuel Butler. 
1729 BUTLER Sertri. Wks. 1874 II. 79 The sacrifice being 
over, he retires alone to a solitude sacred to these occasions. 
1784 COWPER Task vi. 571 Scenes Sacred to neatness and 
repose. 1811 PINKERTON Mod. CM.?., Egypt (abr. ed. 3) 
756 The papyrus, sacred to literature. 1821 SHELLEY Epi. 
psych. 492 A pleasure-house Made sacred to his sister and 
nis spouse. 1842 GWILT Arc/lit. 245 The parts[of a Roman 
house] which were sacred to the use of the family were the 
peristyle [etc.]. 

J. Of tilings, places, of persons and their offices, 
etc. : Set apart for or dedicated to some religious 
purpose, and hence entitled to veneration or reli- 
gious respect ; made holy by association with a god 
or other object of worship ; consecrated, hallowed. 
1412-20 LYDG. Ckron. Troy u. 3822 Reliques sacrid, be 
holy eke vessels. 1590 SPENSER F. Q. II. xii. 37 Said then 
the Palmer; ' Lo ! where does appeare The sacred soile 
where all our perills grow '. 1611 SHAKS. Wint. T. n. i. 183, 
1 haue dispatch'd. .To sacred Delphos, to Appollo's Temple, 
Cleomenes and Dion. 1678 CUDWORTH Intell. Syst. \. iv. 
510 Some pools have been made sacred for their immense 
profundity and opacity, a 1704 T. BROWN I.omi. f, Lacedein. 
Oracles Wks. 1709 III. in. 147 Their [the Jewish Priests'] 
sacred Garments were of Linnen. 1744 AKENSIDE Ode, On 
Leaving Holland 36, I trace the village and the sacred 
spire. 1819 SCOTT Ivanhoe xxxiv, Thou art. .one of those 
disorderly men, who, taking on them the sacred character 
without due cause, profane the holy rites. 1820 SHELLEY 
Hymn. .Merc. Ixxxviii, By sacred Styx a mighty oath to 
swear. 1839 THIRLWALI. Greece VI. 77 A circular building- 
called the Philippeuin, . . within the sacred precincts in which 
the Olympic games were celebrated. 1857 WILKINSON 
Egypt Time oj " Pkaraohs 9 The sacred boats of the dead. 
1883 H. VULE in Encycl. Brit. XV. 330/2 Thus the Bo-tree 
(or pippal), so sacred among the Buddhists of Ceylon, is 
still cherished near mosques. 1883 J. H. MIDDI.ETON ibid. 
XIX. 607/2 The other [vase), from Cyprus, has the Assyrian 
sacred tree, with similar guardian animals. 

b. Sacred book, writing, etc. : one of those in 
which the laws and teachings of a religion are 
embodied. Sacreii history : the history contained 
in the Bible. Sacred number : a number (esp. seven) 
to which is attributed a peculiar depth of signifi- 
canceinreligioussymbolism. Sacred poetry: poetry 
concerned with religious themes. Sacred music : 
music which accompanies sacred words or which 
has a certain solemn character of its own. Sacred 
concert : a concert of sacred music. 


1593 SHAKS. 2 Hen. VI, I. iii. 61 His Weapons [are] holy 
Sawes of sacred Writ. <i 1604 HANMER Chron. Irel. (1633) 
59 Who for the space of certaine yeeres, brought him up in 
sacred letters. 1629 MiLTONCVjr/rfi N'ativ. iii, Say Heav'nly 
Muse, shall not thy sacred vein Afford a present to the In- 

Hope 449 The 

in the fetters of an unknown tongue. 1784 Task vi. 634 
Ten thousand sit Patiently present at a sacred song. 1843 
Fn.ycl. iMetrop, IX. Sub-introd. 73 Sacred History is that 
narrative of events, commencing from the creation of the 
world, which is recorded in the Bible, and is so called, 
because it is assumed to be written under divine superin- 
tendence, and is evidently associated with the being, per- 
fections, and plans of Deity. 1853 (title) Catalogue of the 
Library of the Sacred Harmonic Society. 21854 H. REED 
Lect. Eng. Lit. vi. (1878) 211 The relation in which sacred 
poetry stands to revealed teaching and Holy Writ. 1877 
MONIER WILLIAMS Hinduism i. 13 India . . has only one 
sacred language and only one sacred literature, accepted 
and revered by alt adherents of Hinduism alike. 

c. rarely of a deity : Venerable, holy. 

1697 DRYDEN Vjrg. Georg. in. 461 Now, sacred Pales, in 
a lofty Strain I sing the Rural Honours of thy Reign. 

d. Applied as a specific defining adj. to various 
animals and plants that are or have been considered 
sacred to certain deities. 

1783 LATHAM Synopsis Birds I. II. 526 Sacred Cuckow. . . 
Inhabits Malabar, where the natives hold it sacred. 1790 
J. WHITE Jrnl. I'oy. N. S. M'alcs 193 We this day shot 
the Sacred Kings-Fisher. 1840 tr. Cnm'fr's Anim. Kingd. 
243 The Sacred Ibis (/. retigiffta). 1866 Treat. Bot. 
1 20/2 Bamboo, sacred, of the Chinese, Nandina dotnestica. 
Ibid. 781/2 Neliinibiuin spcciosum, the Sacred Lotus. 1870 
NICHOLSON Alan. Zool. Ixxxiii. (1875) 657 The Sacred 
Monkey of the Hindoos ( entellns^. 1877 
J. GIBSON in Encycl. Brit. VI. 131/2 The Sacred Beetle 
of F.gypt, Ateucliiis sneer. 1879 C. P. JOHNSON iHd. IX. 
154/2 The Sacied Fig, Pippul, or Bo, Fictts religiosa. 

4. transf. a.nAftg. Regarded with or entitled to 
respect or reverence similar to that which attaches 
to holy things. 

1560 DAUS tr. Sleidane's Comm. 247 In so sacred a senate 
[sc. the Council of Trent l orig. in tain augusto con-'entn]. 
1591 SHAKS. i If en. VI, iv. i. 40 He.. Doth but vsurpe the 
Sacred name of Knight, Prophaning this most Honourable 
Order. 1596 Taut. Shr. i. i. 181 Sacred and sweet was 
all I saw in her. a 1645 WALLER At Pens-hurst n. 26 Goe 
boye and caive this passion on the barke Of yonder tree, 
which stands the sacred marke Of noble Sidneys birth. 
i6s6Cowt.EY Misc., On DeatlioJ ' Crashaw 2 Poet and Saint ! 
to thee alone are giv'n The two most sacred Names of 
Earth and Heav'n. 1712 STEEI.E Spcct. No. 456 p 3 There 
is something sacred in Misery to great and good Minds. 
1754 GKAY Progr. Poesy 94 Ope the sacred source of sympa- 
thetic Tears. '1813 SHELLEY Q. Mab IV. 108 Ere he can lisp 
his mother's sacred name. 1842 BROWNING K. Viet. *t K. 
Chas. ist Yr. n, Ay, call this parting death ! The sacreder 
your memory becomes. 1853 C. BRONTE Villette xxi, To 
a feather-brained school-girl nothing is sacred. 1863 HAW- 
THORNE Our Old Home II. 114 But the most sacred objects 
of all [at Greenwich Hospital] are two of Nelson's coats, 
under separate glass cases. 1878 R. W. DALE Lect. Preach. 
ix. 292 To you America must be sacred as well as Judea. 

b. esp. as an epithet of royalty. Now chiefly 
Hist, or arch. ; formerly often in the phrase His 
(lier, your) most Sacreii Majesty. 

1500 SHAKS. Com. Err. v. i. 133 lustice most sacred Duke 
against the Abbesse. 1399 Hen. V, I. ii. 7 God and his 
Angels guard your sacred Throne, And make you long be- 
come it. 1634 FORD Perk. Warbeck in. iv, Sacred King, 
Be deafe to his knowne malice ! 1639 MRQ. OF HAMILTON 


Romans. 1879 FROUDE desarv. 48 The persons of Satin- 
ninus and Glaucia were doubly sacred, for one was tribune 
and the other prjetor. 

C. \\itiifroni : Protected by some sanction_/"/w 
injury or incursion. 

1788 GIBBON Decl. <y F. xl. IV. 63 No place was safe or 
sacred from their depredations. 1843 STEPHEN Comm. 
Laws Eng. (1874) II. 479 He is himself sacred from punish- 
ment of every description. 1847 TENNYSON Princess n. 152 
Lapt In the arms of leisure, sacred from the blight Of ancient 
influence and scorn. 

d. fig. Devoted to some purpose, not to be lightly 
intruded upon or handled. 

1867 BAKER Nile Tribnt. i. 15 Thus I had a supply when 
every water-skin was empty, and on the last day I divided 
my sacred stock amongst the men. 

6. Accursed. [After L. safer ; freq. translating or 
in allusion to Virgil's auri sacra fames (sEn. HI. 
57).] Now rare, 

1588 SHAKS. Tit. A. n.i. 120 Our Empresse with her sacred 
wit To villainie and vengance consecrate. 1596 SPENSER/". Q. 
v. xii. i O sacred hunger of ambitious mindes. 1600 DEKKER 
Fortnnatns Wks. 1873 1.95 If through golds sacred hunger 
thou dost pine. 1613 G. SANDYS Trav. 122 Hither the 
sacred thirst of gaine..allureth the aduenturous merchant. 
1700 DBYDBHCoatf/ferftM For sacred hunger of my Gold 
I die. 1728-46 THOMSON Spring 124 A feeble race ! yet oft 
The sacred sons of vengeance ; on whose course Corrosive 
famine waits, and kills the year. 1864 BURTON Scot Abr. 
II. i. 62 Smitten with a sacred rage for topography. 

7. Special collocations, t Sacred artery (see 
quot.). Sacred axe, a mark on Chinese porcelain, 
supposed to designate warriors. Sacred band, 
Gr. Hist., a body consisting of 300 young nobles, 
who formed part of the permanent military force of 
Thebes from B. c. 379. Sacred bark [Sp. cAscara 
sagradd\, the bark of Rhamnus Pnrshianus of 
California, used as a tonic aperient. Sacred col- 
lege (see COLLEGE so. i ). f Sacred elixir -- sacred 
tincture, t Sacred Empire, the Holy Koman 
Empire. Sacred flre [L. safer ignis, see HOLY 
FIRE], erysipelas. Sacred malady [L. sacer 
mar/ills'], epilepsy (Syd. Soc. Lex. 1897). Sacred 
month, place (see quots.). t Sacred tincture 
[=mod.L. tinctiira sacra: see Chambers Cycl. 
Snpp. (1753) s.v. Aloes], a preparation of rhubarb 
and aloes!^ f Sacred vein [L. vena sacra] (see 
quot.). Sacred War (see WAR). 

1656 BLOUNT Glossogr. s.v. Artery, * 'Sacred Artery, a 
branch of the great Arteries descendent branch, goes to the 
Marrow which is in the Os Sacrum. i866LnAi'FKRS Marks 
Pottery fif Porcelain (ed. 2) 389 The *sacred axe ; a [Chinese] 
mark found on green porcelain. 1868 J. MARRYAT Pottery 
ff Porcelain ix. (ed. 3) 274 The sacred axe is assigned to 

their sacred load. 1726 SWIFT Gulliver I. vii, That his 
sacred Majesty, and the Council, who are your Judges, 
were [etc.]. 1737 Acts Gen. Assembly Georgia (1881) 127 
We therefore pray your most Sacred Majesty that it may 
be Enacted. 

c. in sarcastic use. 

1820 SHELLEY CEilipns i. 5 And these most sacred nether 
promontories Lie satisfied with layers of fat. Ibid. II. 
i. 107 That her most sacred Majesty should be Invited to 
attend the feast of Famine. 1863 M. ARNOLD Ess. Crit. 
Pref. 17 To obtain from Mr. Bentham's executors a sacred 
bone of his great, dissected Master. 

5. Secured by religious sentiment, reverence, 
sense of justice, or the like, against violation, in- 
fringement, or encroachment. 

1530 PALSGR. 696/2 Touch it nat. it is sacred, a 1348 HALL 
Ckron., Edw. K 8 b, Syth that tyme, was neuer so vn- 
deuoute a kynge that euer enterprised that sacred priuilege 
to violate. 1603 SHAKS. Meas. for M. iv. iii. 149, I am 
combined by a sacred Vow. 1667 SOUTH Serin. (1697) II. 
29 The sacredest Bonds which the Conscience of Man can 
be bound with. 1682 SIR T. BROWNE Ckr. Mor. in. 19 
Let thy Oaths be sacred. 1781 COWPER Charity 28 The 
rights of man were sacred in his view. 1793 KamXtSfrm, 
(1811) 187 Maintaining what in the new vocabulary of 
modern democracy is named the sacred right of insurrec- 
tion, 1849 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. vi. II. 139 He assured 
them that their property would be held sacred. 1855 Ibid. 
xii. III. 210 Strong desires and resentments which he mis- 
took for sacred duties. 

transf. 1697 DRYDEN Virg. Gears?, iv. 280 No buzzing 
Sounds disturb their Golden Sleep, Tis sacred Silence all. 
b. Of a person (hence of his office) : Having a 
religiously secured immunity from violence or 
attachment ; sacrosanct, inviolable. 

1565 COOPER Thesaurus, Sacrosanctapotestas, the sacred 
and vnuiolable power of the Tribunes. 1618 Bot.TON Florus 
l. v. (1636) 14 The Augurship became sacred among the 

1797 Encycl. Brit. (ed. 3) XVT. 591/1 'Sacred Elixir. 1811 
A. T. THOMSON Loml. Uisp. (1818) 660 Tincture of Rhubarb 
and Aloes ; formerly, Sacred Elixir. _ 1617 MORYSON /tin. 
I. 284 It was decreed. .that hereafter in the *sacred Empire 
the under written pieces of money should be coyned. 1693 
KmHianne's Hist. Monast. Ord. xiv. 127 In the year 1089 
. . the *Sacred Fire . . , having spread it self into several parts 
of Europe. 1872 W. N. MOLESWORTH Hist. Kng. II. 361 
Among the other expedients that had been suggested in 
this convention [of Chartist delegates, 1838] was that of 
observing what was called a ' "sacred month ', during which 
the working classes throughout the whole kingdom were to 
abstain from every kind of labour, in the hope of compel- 
ling the governing classes to concede the charter. 1727-52 
CHAMBERS Cycl.s.\., In the civil law, *sacred place chiefly 
denotes that, where a person deceased has been interred. 
1797 Encycl. Brit. (ed. 3) XIV. 393/1 Aloetic wine, or 
*sacred tincture. 1636 BLOUNT Glossogr. s.v. Vein, "Sacred 
vein (vena sacra) the second branch of the flank veine run- 
ning to the Os sacntm, and thence getting this name. 

t B. sb. pi. [after L. sacra neut. pi.] Obs. 
1. Sacred rites or solemnities. 

1624 HEYWOOD Gunaik. 26 Her Sacreds and Festivalls 
were called Angeronalia. 1665 J . WEBB Stone-Heng (1725) 
60 They might, .also behold whatever Sacreds were solemn- 
ized within the Court of their great Jupiter Capitolmus. 

These Sacreds were 

sacreds than any one had ever informed us. 1749 P/ 
Trans. XLVI. 216 The Romans became extremely fond of 
the Mithriac Sacreds. 

2. Things consecrated or offered in sacrifice to 

the gods. 

1608 TOPSELL Serpents 24 This snake the holy dishes.. 
Did hast to touch, like as it would the sacreds last. 1624 
HEYWOOD Gunaik. I. 47 The sacreds that were made to 
these, were by such as having escaped any dangerous 
desease, or pestilent sicknesse, had bin spared by the fates. 

3. Sacred utensils or vessels. 

1665 J. WEBB Stone-Heng (1725) 219 The Heads of Bulls 

have been found in and about our Antiquity, together 

with other Sacreds peculiarly appertaining to the Ministra- 

tion of Their Idolatrous Rites. 1669 GALE Crt. Gentiles 1. 1. 

.\. 56 Hieroglyphic Leters, i. e. Leters engraven in sacreds. 

Sacredly (s/ 1 -kredli), adv. [-LY 2.] 

1. With religious or strict care; inviolably; with 
rigid attention to the truth. 

1561 T. NORTON Calrin's fast. I. viii. (1634) 26 The 
originall booke [of the Law] itselfe was appointed to be 
sacredly kept in the Temple, a 1677 HALE Prim. Orig. 
Man. n. i. 130 Authors.. kept sacredly and inviolably in 
certain Archives. 1706 HEARNF. Collect. 14 Jan. (O.H.S.) I. 


163 Observing these Oaths, .sacredly. 1871 MACDUFF Mem. 
Patntos ix. 112 The sealing further implied that its con- 
tents were sacredly locked and concealed from public gaze. 

2. In a sacred or religious manner. 

1694 POMFRET On Death Q. Mary 137 Next mighty Pan, 
was her illustrious Lord, His high Vicegerent, sacredly 
ador'd. 1884 Chr. Commw. 20 Mar. 535/2 [Paul's] only 
offering was the sum total of his Gentile converts, whom 
he sacredly and joyfully offered unto God, 

Sacredness (s^'-krednes). [-NESS.] The con- 
dition or quality of being sacred (see the adj.). 

1681-6 J. SCOTT Chr. Life n. vii. Wks. 1698 I. 416 When 
we consider how he is secluded by the infinite Sacredness of 
his own Majesty from all immediate converse and inter- 
course with us. 1689 Coasiil. Success, ff Alleg. 33 The 
Sacredness of an Oath makes it a strong Tie to bind us. 
1797 MRS. RADCLIFFE Italian xvi, Ellena immediately ad- 
mitted the Sacredness of the promise which she had formerly 
given. 1836 FROUDE Hist. Eng. (1858) I. iv. 349 Such wan 
the mystical sacredness which clung about the ordained 
clergy. 1868 J. S. MILL in Morn. Star 13 Mar., The sacred- 
ness of property is connected, in my mind, with feelings of 
the greatest respect. 1885 Law Times LXXX. 1 1 i/i When 
the rule was first invented there was a sort of reason for it, 
as a certain sacredness attached to real estate. 

Sacrefice, -fis(e, -fy, obs. ff. SACRIFICE, -FV. 

Sacreit : see SACBE v. and SECRET a. 

Sacrelage, -leger, -legie, obs. ff. SACRILEGE, 

Sacreng, Saeret, obs. ff. SACKING, SAKEKET. 

Sacri, sacrid : see SACRE v. 

t Sacri'COlist. 06s.~ [f. L. sacricol-a sacri- 
ficer (formed as next + col-ire to tend, worship) + 
-IST.] (See quot.) 

17*7 BAILEY vol. II, Sacricolist, a devout Worshipper. 

t Sacri'ferOUS, a. Obs. rarer- , [f. L. sacrifer, 
f. sacri-, sacer sacred (sacra neut. pi., sacrifices) + 
-fur: see -FEROUS.] (See quot.) 

1656 BLOUNT Glossagr., Sacriferoits, that bears holy things. 

t Sacrifi'able, a. Obs. rare. [a. F. sacrifiable, 
i. sacrifier: see SACRIFY v.] = SACRIFICABLE. 

1603 FLORIO Montaigne I. xxix, For these wretched sacri. 
fiable people, .all ful of glee, singing, and dancing with the 
rest, they present themselves to the slaughter, 
t Sacri'fic, a. 1 Obs. rare~. [ad. L. sacrijictts, 
(. sacri-, sacer sacred (sacra neut. pi., sacrifices) + 
-fie us : see -FIC.] = SACRIFICAL. 
1727 BAILEY vol. II, Sacri/ic& t used in Sacrifices. 
Sacri'fie, a.- Anat. rare. [f. mod.L. SACR-UM 
+ -FIC.] ' Entering into the composition of the 
sacrum : as, a sacrific vertebra ' (Cent. Diet. 1891). 
t Sacri'ficable, a. Obs. rare- 1 , [f. L. sacri- 
ficare to sacrifice, f. sacrific-us SACRIFIC a. : see 
-ABLE.] Capable of being offered as a sacrifice. 

1646 SIR T. BROWNE Pseud. Ep. v. xiv. (1658) 310 Yet might 
it [Jephthah's vow] be restrained in the sence, for whatso- 
ever was sacrifkable, and justly subject to lawfull immolation. 
t Sacri'fical, a. Obs. [ad. L. sacrificalis, f. 
sacrific-us SACRIFIC: see -AL.] Pertaining to or 
employed in sacrifice. 

1608 PANKE Fal of Batel & The blessed chalice of the 
aultar.,hath the verie sacrifical blood in it that was shed 
vpon the Crosse. 1686 WAKE Expos. Doctr. Ck, Eng. 65 
When we examine the first Institution of this holy Com- 
munion, we cannot perceive either in the words or action of 
our Blessed Saviour, any Sacrifical Act or Expression. 1756 
WATSON in Phil. Trans. XL1X. 502 A priestess of Bacchus, 
which in one hand holds the sacrifical knife. 1796 BURKE 
Regie. Peace iii. Wks. 1802 IV. 510 The sacrifical ministers 
(who were a sort of intruders in the worship of the new 

Sacrificant (sakri-fikant). rare. [ad. L. sacri- 
ficant-em, pr. pple. of sacrificare : see SACBIFI' v.] 
One who offers up as a sacrifice. 

1665 J. WEBB Stone.Heng (1725) 103 The Sacrificants 
might, .behold both the Altar and Signum. 1885 J. FITZ- 
GERALD tr. Schnitzels Fetichism vi. 7 The sacrificant takes 
away the flesh of the victim. 

Sacrifica'tion. rare~ l . [y.&.'L.sacri/iciition- 
em, n. of action of sacrificare : see SACRIFY z.] 
The action of making a sacrificial offering. 

1694 MOTTEUX Rabelais v. (1737) 232 And to kind Nature 
make Sacrification. 

Sacrificator (siE'krifikt'ltai). rare. [a.L. sacri- 
ficator, agent-n. f. sacrificare : see SACKIFY v. Cf. 
F. sacrificateur.] One who sacrifices. AXsofig. 
71548 tr. yirefs Expos. XI f Art. Chr. Faith Ej b, He is 
called Christe bycause of the same oyntment, by the whyche 
he hathe ordeyned hym prophete, kynge, and sacrificatour. 
1646 SIR T. BROWNE Pseittl. Ep. v. xiv. 255 It is not pro- 
bable the Priests., would have permitted it, and that not 
onely in regard of the subject or sacrifice it selfe, but also 
the sacrificator. 1818 BENTHAM Ch. Eng., Cli. Eng. Catech. 
Exam. 361 The Noble Reformer, in the character of Arch- 
Sacrificator. 1859 All Year Round No. 28. 30 Here was 
evidentlya grand Sacrificator, and an unexceptionable Altar. 
So t Sa-criflcatory a., sacrificing, belonging to 
sacrifice. -\ Sa crificature, the office or function 
of sacrificing. 

1581 J. BELL HatUon's Anew. Osor. 344 Heseeth no mar- 
kette of pardons, sacrificatory masses. 1593 NASHE 
Christ's T. 22 The sky-perfuming prayers, & profuse sacrifi- 
catory expences of ful-hand oblationers. 1612 W. SCLATER 
Minister's Portion 9 A second sort [of tithes] which wee 
may call sacrificatory. 1699 BL'RNET 39 Art. vii. (1700) 99 
Those Sacrificatory Phrases that they use in speaking of 
the Messiah. 1779 HORNE Disc. (1799) I. 107 Such were the 
ritual observances regarding sacriticature. a 1812 McL-F.AN 



Comm. Het>. x. (1847) II. So The sacrifice of Christ's body 
once offered has for ever abrogated the whole of the Mosaic 
sacrificature. 1827 G. S. FABEK Orig. Expiat. Sacr. 64 
This grossly-corrupt mode of sacrificature is alluded to and 
justly castigated by Solomon. 

Sacrifice (snrkrifsis), sb. Forms : 3-5 sacrj- 
fise, sacrefice, -fise, 4 sacrifijs, -fles, -fys(e, 
sacrefis, -fyse, saker-, sacerfyse, sacrafies, 
-fyse, 4-5 sacrafice, 4-6 sacrifls, 5 sacrafise, 
sacryfyce, sacurfyce, 5-6 sacrifyce,6 sacryfice, 
4- sacrifice, [a. F. sacrifice (i2th c. in Hatz.- 
Darm.; = Pr. sacrifici^ Sp., Pg. sacrifido, It. sagri- 
JiziOj ad. L. safrijicitim^ f. sacrific-us SACKIFIC al\ 

1. Primarily, the slaughter of an animal (often 
including the subsequent consumption of it by fire) 
as an offering to God or a deity. Hence, in wider 
sense, the surrender to God or a deity, for the pur- 
pose of propitiation or homage, of some object of 
possession. Also applied fg. to the offering of 
prayer, thanksgiving, penitence, submission, or the 
like. Phrases, *f to do, make sacrifice \ also, t to 
put in sacrifice, to devote as a sacrificial victim. 

In the primary use, a 'sacrifice' implies an 'altar' on 
which the victim is placed. Hence the figurative uses are 
often associated with references to a metaphorical altar. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 1064 And for his offrand was Rightwys, 
Godd lok to quen [read queme] his sacrifijs. Ibid. 3142 
Hot now es he asked,. .Til godd til make of sacrifise. c 1300 
St. Margarete 92 And wende to his false godes, to do sac- 
rifise. 1340 Ayenb. 187 per byeb manie men. .makej> sacre- 
fices 11.131 to god. 1390 GOWER Conf. III. 250 He let do 
make a riche feste With a sollempne Sacrifise In Phebus 
temple, a 1450 MYRC Festial 205 Then sawe Maudelen 
mony pepyll comyng towart b e tempyll and J>e lorde of fait 
contre, fortohauedon ofryng and sacrefise to hor mawmetys. 
1471 CAXTON Recuyell (Sommerj I. 304 By this edicte.. 

iewes to theyr sacrifices, c 1595 CAPT. \VVATT R. Dudley s 
I'oy. Ii 7 , Ind. (Hakl, Soc.>42 Wee did daiUeaborde make sac- 
rifice to God, in great devotion calling upon Him in hartie 
prayer for them. 1687 A. LOVELL tr. Tkevenofs Trav. in. 
65 Their Sacrifices are never bloody. 1727-41 CHAMBERS 
Cycl. s.v., Divines divide Sacrifices into bloody, such as 
those of the old law; and bloodless, such as those of the 
new law. 1774 PENNANT Tour Scot, in 1772, 181 An altar 
for sacrifices to the immortal gods. 1876 J. P. NOKRIS 
Rndim. Theol. \\. i. 147 Sin cannot be undone without Suf- 
fering; and we find Sacrifice instituted to give continual 
expression to it. 

t b. A slaying as for a sacrifice, Obs. rare~ l . 
1585 T. WASHINGTON tr. Nicholay^s Voy. \. xxi. 27 b, A 
cruel sacryfice vppon the person of lohn Chabas. 

2. That which is offered in sacrifice ; a victim 
immolated on the altar ; anything (material or im- 
material) offered to God or a deity as an act of 
propitiation or homage. 

c 1250 Kent. Serm. in O. E. Misc. 27 Stor |>et me offrede 
wylem be J?o ialde laghe to here godes sacrefise. a 1325 
Prose Psalter \. 18 [li. 17] Trubled gost is sacrifice to God. 
13.. E. E. Allit. P. B. 507 Noe..heuened vp an auter 
& halted hit fay re, is: sette a sakerfyse ^er-on of vch a, 
ser kynde. c 1380 WYCLIF Set. ll'ks. III. 517 pere sacri- 
fises shulden not be ^oven to him, but taken fro him, ..and 
anojttr trewe man.-shulde be ordeyned to resceyve siche 
sacrifices, c 1400 Destr. Tray 12137 ^^y maydynhed I 
merk to myghtifull goddis : Accepte hit as sacrifise, & my 
saute to ! 1436 SIR G. HAVE Law Arms (S. T. S.) 32 
Tribulacioun is worthy sacrifice. 1594 MARLOWE & NASHE 
Dido iv. ii, Come seruants, come bring forth the Sacrifize, 
That I may pacific that gloomy loue, Whose emptie Altars 
haue enlarg'd our illes. 1606 G. W[OODCOCKE] Hist. Ivstine 
xi. 46 Before any saile departed from the shore, he slue 
sacrifices, making his prayer for victory by battell. 1613 
SHAKS. Hen. l/I/f, n. i. 77 Make of your Prayers one sweet 
Sacrifice. 1678 DRVDEN All for Lovei. i, Does the mute 
sacrifice upbraid the priest? 1710 PRIDEAUX Orig. Tithes 
ii. 81 The Skins of the Sacrifices .. were to be given to the 
Priests. 1807 ROBINSON Archxol. Gr&ca, in. iv. 213 Only 
the larger sacrifices, as oxen, were thus adorned. 1845 
MAURICE Mor. fy Met. P kilos, in Encycl. Metrop. II. 556/1 
Those daily sacrifices which each man brought to the door 
of the tabernacle. 

3. Theol. The offering by Christ of Himself to the 
Father as a propitiatory victim in his voluntary im- 
molation upon the cross ; the Crucifixion in its 
sacrificial character. 

c 1375 Sf. Leg. Saints xiii. (Marcus) 72 J>e sacrifice t>at 
he mad for man one J>e rud-tre. a 1450 MYRC Festial 
261 For a calfe ^at was offerd yn sacurfyce yn f>e old 
law for synne, yn tokenyng bat Cryst schuld come, fcat 
schuld be offurt yn sacryfyce for synne of J pepull yn be 
auter of be 1560 DAUS tr. Sleidane^s Comm. 313 b, 
Ther be in al ii -sacrifices of christ, the one, blody upon the 
j crosse, thother, wherin. . he himself offred up unto his father, 
his body and blud. 1681-6 J. SCOTT Chr. Life (1747) I". 
463 In consideration of Christ's Death and Sacrifice, he 
would freeiy forgive all penitent and believing Sinners their 
personal Obligation to eternal Punishment, a 1769 RICCAL- 
TOUN Notes Galat. Wks. 1772 III. 127 A Sacrifice there was, 
and still is, the way God in his wisdom chose to condemn and 

1861 W. THOMSON in Aids to Faith ytii. 337 The sacrifice of 
the death of Christ is a proof of Divine love, and of Divine 

b. Applied to the Eucharistic celebration : (a) 
in accordance with the view that regards it as a 
propitiatory offering of the body and blood of 
Christ, in perpetuation of the sacrifice offered by 


Him in His crucifixion ; () in Protestant use, 
with reference to its character as an offering of 
thanksgiving (cf. sense i). 

1504 LADY MARGARET tr. De Imitations iv. i. 262 For if 
the sacryfyce of this holy sacrament were done onely but in 
one place and but of one preest in all the worlde, with howe 
great desyre wene ye the people wolde go to that plase and 
to that preest to here the godly mysteryes done of hym. 
1548 RIDLEY Answ. Queries touching Mass iii, The Repre- 
sentation and Commemoration of Christ's Death and Pas- 
sion, said and done in the Mass, is called the Sacrifice, 
Oblation or Immolation of Christ. 1560 DAUS tr. Sleidanc s 
Comm. 44 He exhortcth the people to flee from the accus- 
tomed sacrifices of the masse. 1704 NELSON Fest. -V Fasts 
IT. ix. (1739) 579 The Christian Sacrifice wherein Bread and 
Wine are offered. 1884 Cath. Diet. (1897) 814/1 In the sac- 
rifice of the Mass, 'the immutatio',as the Fathers technically 
call the sacrificial act, is not the destruction but the produc- 
tion of the victim. 1899 B. J. K 10039 Art. (1901) II. n. xxxi. 
245 Nor does it (Art. xxxi. 2) condemn the sacrifice of the 
Mass but the sacrifices of Masses. 1901 GORE Body of Christ 
iii. 201 Only by communion can we in any effective sense 
share the eucharistic sacrifice. 

4. The destruction or surrender of something 
valued or desired for the sake of something having, 
or regarded as having, a higher or a more pressing 
claim ; the loss entailed by devotion to some other 
interest ; also, the thing so devoted or surrendered. 

1592 SHAKS. Row. ff Jnl. y. iii. 304 As rich shall Romeo 
by his Lady ly, Poore sacrifices to our enmity. 1601 in 
Moryson Itin. \\. (1617) 151 The lively affections you lieare 
to her person (for which you desire to bee made a Sacrifice). 
1651 HOBHKS Leriath. n. xxviii. 166 The benefit which a 
Soveraign bestoweth on a Subject, for fear of some power. . 
are not properly Rewards.. but are rather Sacrifices, which 
the Soveraign. .makes. 1742 GRAY Eton viii. To bitter 
Scorn a sacrifice. 1841 W. SPAI.DING Italyfy It. I si. III. 86 
An eager sacrifice of means to an end. 1849 MACAU LAY 
Hist. Eng. x. II. 647 Clarendon saw that he was not likely 
to gain anything by the sacrifice of his principles. 1868 
FKKKMAN Norm. Conq. (1877) II. x. 474 One more ecclesias- 
tical appointment must, at some slight sacrifice of chrono- 
logical order, be recorded. 

b. A victim; one sacrificed to the will of another; 
also, a person or thing that falls into the power of 
an enemy or a destructive agency. Now rare. 

1697 tr. C'tess D'Aunoy's Trav. (1706) 60 They are caused 
to make Vows, when 'tis often the Father or Mother, or 
some near Relation, who pronounce them for them, whilst 
the little Sacrifice disports herself with Sugar-plums, and 
lets them dress her how they will. 1732 NEAL Hist. Purit. 
I. 25 The two greatest sacrifices were John Fisher bishop of 
Rochester, and Sir Thomas More. 1779 Minor No. i 
(1787) I. 5, I was prevented from falling a sacrifice to that 
languid inactivity which a depression of spirits never fails 
to produce. 1821 John Bull 15 Apr. 143/3 'I ne organ fell 
a sacrifice to the devouring element. 1827 ROBERTS \-~oy. 
Centr. Avier. 95 On one occasion an acquaintance had., 
nearly fallen a sacrifice to one of these animals. 

5. A loss incurred in selling something below its 
value for the sake of getting rid of it. Hence 
(nonce-use), an article sold * at a sacrifice'. 

1844 DICKENS Chimes ii. (1845) 53 Its patterns were 
Last Year's and going at a sacrifice. 1849 THACKERAY 
Pendennis Ixi, He bought a green shawl for Mrs. Bolton, 
and a yellow one for Fanny ; the most brilliant ' sacrifices ' 
of a Regent Street haberdasher's window. 

6. attrib. and Comb, y v& sacrifice-maker \ sacrifice 
allowance (see quot.) ; sacrifice hit Baseball 
(see quot.) ; sacrifice market, a market in which 
goods are sold below cost price, a ' dumping 
ground'; sacri flee -offerer, one who immolates 
himself (said of Christ) ; sacrifice price, a price 
entailing loss on the seller. 

1891 Labour Commission Gloss., ^Sacrifice Allowance, a 
weekly sum paid by workmen's unions to those men who 
are discharged from work because they take an active part 
in their organisation or are too weak to make the average. 
These latter are called sacrificed men. 1896 KNOWLES & 
MORTON Baseball Gloss., * Sacrifice-hit. When the bats- 
man purposely makes a hit upon which he is retired, but 
which advances a base-runner. ?x54& tr. VireCs Expos. 
xii Art. Chr. Faith Eiv, He is the true.. prophete and the 
Soueraygne 'sacrifice maker, whyche was figured by the 
kynges, and prophetes of Israeli. iV8& Pall Mall G. 13 Jan. 
2/1 Americans., would make this a 'sacrifice-market at first, 
simply to kill all our manufacturers, a 1560 BECON Chr. 
A'wMVks. II. 153 Ourmediatour,oursatissfyeror *sacrifyce 
offecer [? read offerer]. 1888 Pall Mall G. 12 June 11/2 A 
'clearance sale ', m fact, at * *sacrifice prices '. 

Sacrifice (sse-krifais), v. Forms: see the sb. ; 
also 3 sacrefize, 7 sacrifize. [f. SACRIFICE sb.] 

1. trans. To offer as a sacrifice ; to make an 
offering or sacrifice of. Const, to. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 3262 For quas luue he wild not warn 
To sacrifise his auen barn, a 1425 Ibid. 3201 (Trin.) pe sheep 
he sacrifised & brent. 1471 CAXTON Kecvyelt (Sommer) 
I. 308 The egypciens cryed vnto hercules sacrefice sacrefice 
hym, whan hercules cam in to the temple he sacrefised hym. 
1555 EDEN Decades 158 When hee had fyrst sacrificed them 
tohisZemes. 01631 Y)Q-A^V, Paradoxes (1652) 68 Though he 
sacrifize Hecatombs. 1646 SIR T. BROWNE Pseud. Ep. v. 
viii. 246 The Picture of ..Abraham sacrificing his son. 1697 
DAMPISH Voy. (1699) 485 If they Sacrifice their Enemies it 
is not "necessary they should Eat them too. 1875 JOWETT 
Plato (ed. 2) V. 94 There are nations in which mankind 
still sacrifice their fellow men. 

f b. nonce-uses. To slay or burn in the manner 
of a sacrifice ; to burn in a sacrifice. 

1602 in Moryson Itin. u. (1617) 238, I . . tooke Ocanes 
brother prisoner. .(whom I sacrificed in the place) and so 



passed by. 1634 SIR T. HERBERT Trav. 39 They sacrifice 
him [a dead man] to ashes, in costly perfumes. 

2. intr. To offer up a sacrifice. 

c 1290 S, Eng. Leg. I. 69/43 Anoure ore godes, ich rede, 
a-non and heom sacrefise. 1377 LANGL. P. PI. B. xii. 118 
Saul, for he sacrifised, sorwe hym be-tydde. a. 1400-50 
Alexander 1082 pare lengis him lefe be kynge & logis all a 
neuen, And sacrifycebar efsones to many sere godis. 1484 
CAXTON Fables of jfcsop v. x, I . . toke on me for to sacry- 
fyce and to synge before the goddes. 1628 J. HUME Jeeves 
Deliv. i. 10 Ihey were wont to immolate and sacrifice vnto 
their heathenish Gods. 1784 COWPER Task \. 411 An idol, 
at whose shrine Who oft'nest sacrifice are favour'd least. 
1818 SHELLEY Homer's Castor fy P. 13 The sailors . . sacri- 
fice with snow-white lambs. 

b. Eccl. To celebrate the Eucharist. 

1661 tr. Erasm.Life Colet in C.'s Serin. 74 Whereas it is 
the custome in England for Priests to consecrate the host, 
and receive it almost every day, he was content to sacrifice 
on Sundays and Holi-days, or some few days beside. 

3. trans. To surrender or give up (something) 
for the attainment of some higher advantage or 
dearer object. Const, to. 

1706 PHILLIPS (ed Kersey), To Sacrifice, .. to quit or leave 
a Thing upon some Consideration. 1710 SWIFT Jrnl. to 

Stella 23 Sept., Deuce take Lady S : and if I know 

D y, he is a rawboned-faced fellow.. ; she sacrifices two 

thousand pounds a year, and keeps only six hundred. 1720 
OZELL Vertot's Rom. Kep. I. v. 298 The first Obligation 
which a Roman lay under .. was to sacrifice his Life in De- 
fence of the Public Liberty. 1837 KEIGHTLEY//W/. Eng. I. 
416 Henry [VI II].. was never known to sacrifice an inclina- 
tion to the interest or happiness of another. 1875 JOWETT 
Plato (ed. 2) V. 126 Everything seems to have been sacrificed 
to a false notion of equality. 1879 HARLAN Eyesight vii. 97 
Generally, the only men who can be persuaded to wear pro- 
tecting glasses are those who have already sacrificed one eye 
to their objections. 

b. To permit injury or ruin to the interests of (a 
person) for the sake of some desired object. Also 
reft. Const, to. 

1751 JOHNSON Rambler No. 145 F 13 Instead of sacrificing 
each other to malice and contempt. 1838 THIUL\\ ALL drcccc 
xviii. III. 49 Pericles.. was charged \vilh sacrificing the 
Samians to private feelings. 1849 MACAUI. \v Hist. Ettg, 
vii. II. 222 Could it then be doubted that, if the Churchmen 
would even now comply with his wishes, he would willingly 
sacrifice the Puritans ? 1870 MOZLEY Unir. Serin, iv. (1876) 
88 How will persons sacrifice themselves to their objects ! 
1873 BLACK Pr. Thule xviii, He is too much an artist to 
sacrifice himself to his clothes. 1891 KIPLING Light that 
Failed vii, It isn't got at by sacrificing other people, 
must sacrifice yourself. 

t Sacrificeable, a. Obs. Also 5 saorefysable. 
FICABLE.] Proper to be sacrificed. 

1483 CAXTON Gold. Leg. 333/2 The oxe is a moralle beest 
..and it is a best sacrefysable. 1603 HOLLAND Plutarch's 
Mor. 1299 If they {sc. kineand oxen] have but one haire 
blacke or white, they be not Sacrificeable. 

Sacrificed s src-krifaist),///. a. [f. SACRIFICE 

V. + -ED 1.] 

f 1. Made sacred ; sanctified. Obs. 

1504 LADY MARGARET tr. He Imitationc iv. i. 261 All 
cristen people . . kysses the sacryfyced bones [orig. sacra 
ossa\ of sayntes, wrapped in clothes of Sylkeand Golde. 

2. Offered as a sacrifice. 

1597 HOOKER Eccl. Pol. v. Ixvii. 7 What merit force 
or vertue soeuer there is in his sacrificed body & bloud. 
16*6 BACON Syh'a 400 It is reported by one of the 
Ancients, of credit, that a Sacrificed Beast hath lowed, 
after the Heart hath been severed. 1681-6 J. SCOTT Chr. 
Li/e(ijtf) III. 184 This Address is performed by the pre- 
senting his sacrificed Body to the Father in Heaven. 1715 
LEONI Palladia's Archil. (1742) II. 77 The Entrails of sac- 
rificed Beasts. 1768 S. BF.NTLEY River Dove 14 Still yearly, 
to popular Rage, A sacrific'd Bull is the Sport. 

3. Given up or abandoned for the sake of others. 
1884 M. ARNOLD in Pall MallG. i Dec. 6/2 Those classes 

which, in comparison with the great possessing and trading 
classes who may be called the fortunate classes may be 
called the sacrificed classes. 1891 [see SACRIFICE sb. 6). 

Sacrificer (sje-krifoisai). [f. SACRIFICE v. 

+ -ERl.j 

1. One who offers up a sacrifice. 

1563 WINJET Four Scoir Thre Quest. 25 Wks. (S.T.S.) 
I. 90 Quhy teche ze..that the wordis of sanctificatioun of 
the sacrament of our Lordis booty and bluid ar nocht to be 
pronounceit to the end, that thair suld be ony transubstan- 
tiatioun thairby, or be the intent of the sacrificear [Erfinb 
.l/.V. sacrifiar]? 1597 Cert. Prayers in Liturg. So-!: O. 
khz. (Parker Soc.) 672 We.. live and die the sacrifices of 
our souls for such obtained favour. 1643 MILTON Divorce 
Pref. (1644) 2 A famous man in Israel could not but oblige 

- , - - ,' , "' juuj- \ji \jiuiat WlUVIl IS 

the one onlySacrifice for sins. 1884 WHITON in Chr. World 
4 Sept. 663/2 Paul boldly inlimates, that if Chrisl is the 
only sacrificer and sufferer for humanity, then something 
slacking in the saving work of the Saviour. 
spec. A sacrificial priest. 


sacrificer advanced, leading a Hebrew boy, . . whom he laid 
on the altar. 

Hence tSa-criflcership, the office of a sacrificer. 

1562 T. NORTON Calvin's hist. Table of Matters s.v. 
Orders, Of Priesthode or sacrificership. 

Sacrificial (.SEekrifi- Jal), a. [f. L. sacrifici-um + 
-AL. Cf. the older SACRIFICAL ; also i6th c. F. 

1. Pertaining to or connected with sacrifice. 

1607 SHAKS. Timon i. i. 81 Raine Sacrificiall whisperings in 
his eare. 1656 BLOUNT Glossogr., Sacrificial (sacrificialis} 
of or belonging to a Sacrifice, Offering, or Oblation. 1737 
WATERLAND Rev. Doctr. Encliarist i. 53 This Observa- 
tion will be of use, when we come to consider the Eucharist 
in its Sacrificial View. 1799 GILPIN Serin. Country Con- 
grcgat^etc. III. xxxviii. (R.), The law may be explained 
as an institution.. threatening judgment on every trans- 
gression ; at the same time, accepting, in mercy, certain 
sacrificial atonements. 1856 EMERSON Eng. Traits, Stone- 
htnge Wks. (Bohn) II. 123 The sacrificial stone, as it is 
called, is the only one in all these blocks, that can resist 
the action of fire. 1864 MAX MiJLLER Chips (1867) I. 104 
Innumerable sacrificial utensils. Ibid, no All this would 
he-embodied in the sacrificial formulas known in later times 
principally by the name of Ya^oish. 

b. Sacrificial mound: a prehistoric mound built 
by the natives of certain parts of America and 
containing a hearth or altar, on which are found 
relics exhibiting traces of the action of fire. 

1862 D. WILSON Preh. Man I. xii. 370 The name of sacri- 
ficial mounds has been conferred on a class of ancient monu- 
ments., peculiar to the New World. 

2. Self-sacrificing, nonce-use. 

1890 ' R. BOLDREWOOD' Col. Reformer (1891) 160 'That's 
all very well', said the sacrificial parent, 'but five or six 
hours are not so easy to dispose of at sixty odd '. 

3. Coinnt. Involving ' sacrifice ' or loss to the 

1895 Daily Xcu>s 24 Dec. 6/2 Jewelled trimmings, .will be 
sold at much reduced prices during next week's sacrificial 
sales. 1902 Daily Chron. 19 June 7/2 The first Monday in 
July, the traditional date for the opening of the summer 
sales, when ladies demand sacrificial prices. 

Hence Sacrifrcialness. rare~". 

1727 BAILEY vol. II, Sacrificialness, the being of the 
Nature of a Sacrifice. 

Sacrificing (sae-k-rifoisirj), vbl. sb. [f. SACRI- 
FICE v. + -INO i.J The action of the verb SACRIFICE. 

1601 in Moryson I/in. n. (1617) 152 The uttermost of our 
endeuours and seruices, euen to the sacrificing of our Hues. 
a 1639 W. WHATELEY Prototypes I. iv. (1640) 32 Sacrificing 
was a profession of their owne guiltinesse. 1727-41 CHAM- 
BERS Cycl. s.v. Sacrifice, The manner of sacrificing among 
the ancient Hebrews, is amply described in the books of 
Moses. 1742 J. GLAS Treat. Lord's Supp. HI. iv. (1883) 114 
The apostle sets forth Christ's death as the truth of the 
sacrificing of the passover. 
b. at/ n't. 

c 1586 C'TESS PEMBROKE Ps. LXV. i, Thou my sinns. . Dost 
turne to smoake of sacrificing flame. 1604 E. G[RIMSTONE] 
D'Acosta's Hist. Indies v. xxx. 426 They presenlly tooke 
the sacrificing rasors, the which they washed and clensed 
from the blood of men. 1631 WEEVER Anc. Funeral Mon. 
618 Two sacrificing dishes of smooth and pollished red 
earth. 1672 R. VF.EL New Court-Songs 35 My winged 
Feet, each Sacrificing day, Lead me to gaze upon her, more 
than pray. 1709 HEARNE Collect. 2 Dec. (O. H. S.) II. 319 
Roman sacrificing Axes. 

Sacrificing (saj'krifsisin.), ppl. a. [f. SACRIFICE 
v. + -ING -'.] That offers sacrifice ; that makes 

1826 T. COLEMAN Indulgences, etc. Order Mt. Carinel 61 
' He. .for another Memento of the sacrificing priest, grants, 

to the souls in Purgatory, rest and peace in the kingdom of 
i glory. 1848 R. I. WILBERFORCE Doctr. Incarnation xii. 

i (1852) 293 He [the High Priest] was the type of Him who 

stretched out His sacrificing arms upon the Cross. 

Hence Sa'crificingrly adv. 

iSoi CHESTER Love's Marl., Dialogue (New Shaks. Soc.) 
128 And in a manner sacrificingly, Burne both our bodies 
to reuiue one name. 

t Sacrificul e. Obs. Jmmorously pedantic, [a. 
F. sacrificule (Rabelais), ad. L. sacrificalus an 
extension of sacrifcus SACRIFIC a.] A priest. 

The misapprehension in quot. 1604 is found also in a Fr. 
glossary to Rabelais. 

1604 R. CAWIIREY Table A If h., Sacrificule, a little offer- 
ing. 1653 UKQI-HART Rabelais n. vi, I mumble off little 

parcels of some missick precation of our sacrificuls. 

t Sacrifi culist. Obs. [f. L. sacrifintl-us (see 
prec.) + -IST.] A sacrificing priest. 

1652 GAI/LE Magastrom. 309 This, said the soothsaying 
sacrificuhsls.presagedviclorylotheBccotians. Ibid. 352,365. 

t Sacrificy. Obs. rare. In 6 sacrifloie. [ad. 
! L. sacrififiuin.] = SACRIFICE sb. 

cisii ist Eng. Bk. Amer. (Arb.) Introd. 36/1, I [am] 
: preste after the outshewyng of sacrificie of the auters. 

tSa-crifier. Obs. [f. SACRIFY v. + -EiiV] A 
sacrificing priest. 

1382 WYCLIF/MT. xix. 3 Thei shul aske . . ther deuel cle- 
peres and ther deuel sacrifieres [Vulg. ariolos\. 1547 Bk. of 
MarcAauiitesevb, The Pharisiens, sacrifiers, Scribes, and 
docters. 1553 BALK Kwrcjwi 7 Baals.. sorcerousesacrifiers. 
1503 [see SACRIFICER i]. 

t Sa-crifV, z<. Obs. [a. OF. sacrifi-er(i*i'hc), 
ad. L. sacrificare, f. sacrijic-us : see SACRIFIC.] 

1. trans. To offer as a sacrifice. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 10389 pam hale )>an sacrified he, And 
delt bam siben al thre. 1390 GOWF.R Conf. III. 336 And 
forth unto the temple he com.., Hise yiftes forto sacrifie. 
1484 CAXTON Fables of Avian xxvii, Thow shall be lake. . 


1590 SPENSER F.Q. II. xii. 49 A mightie 
if it had to him been 

and shall be sacryfyed to theyre goddes. 1388 A. KING tr. 
Canisius' Catech. in Cath. Tractates (S. T. S.) 181 Mel- 
chizedec sacrifeit breid and wyne in figure of ihe bodie and 
bloud of our lord. 1590 SPENSER F 
mazer bowle of wine was set As 

re/1. 1490 CAXTON Eneydos xxiv. 87 Alwayes she doubted 
her self in noo wyse, lhat her suster wolde. .sacryfye hir 
self with funerailles mortalle, by fyre horrible. 

2. intr. To offer sacrifice. 

a 1323 Prose Psalter liii[i]. 6 Y shal sacrifye to be wyb 
gode wylle. c 1375 Sc. Leg. Saints v. (Johannes) 295 pa . . 
to be tempil of dyane drew hym rudly, ore bai fane, for to 
strenje hym to sacrify. 1382 WYCLIF Exod. x. n Go }e 
oonly men, and sacryfye to Ihe Lord. 1:1425 WYNTOUN 
Cron.\\\. i. 120 He sulde. .Deuolly to God sacryfy. 1555 
W. WATREMAN Fardle Facions I. v. 52 That Ihere might be 
none occasion of filthinesse, when they shold ministre or 

3. trans. To offer sacrifice to. 

1474 CAXTON Chessc in. v. (1883) 124 As he sacrefyed his 
goddes he receyuyd lettres from the senate of rome. 1491 
Vitas Pair. (W. de W. 1495) I. Iv. in [He] was to a temple of ydolatrye . . for to adoure and 
sacrefye the ydolles. 

4. notice-use. To consecrate. 

1819 W. TENNANT Papistry Storm'd (1827) 167 Whan the 
great Kirk was sacrify'd. 
Hence t Sa'crifying vbl. sb. 

13. . A'. Alls, 272 (Bodl. MS.) To goddes I made sacrifye- 
ynge. c 1374 CHAUCER Boeth. iv. met. vii. 114 (Camb. M.S.) 
The sory preest yeuilh in sacryfyinge the wrechched kutt- 
ynge of ihrote of the doublet. 

Sacrilege (.ss-krileda), rf.l Forms: 3-4sacri- 
lage, 4 sacre-, saorylage, sacrilegge, 4-6 sacry- 
lege, 5 sacrilag, 6 sacrileage, Sc. saoralege, 6-7 
saoriledge, -lidge, 7 saorileg, 3- sacrilege, [a. 
OF. sacrilege (izth c. in Hatz.-Darm. ; mod.F. 
sacrilege) = Sp., Pg., It sacri.legio, ad. L. sacri- 
legimn, f. saoi/eg-ns one who steals sacred things 
or commits sacrilege, f. sacri-, sacer sacred + -leg-, 
iegere to gather, after the phrase sacrum or sacra 
legere to purloin sacred objects, tocommit sacrilege.] 
1. The crime or sin of stealing or misappropriat- 
ing what is consecrated to God's service. In eccle- 
siastical use, extended to include any kind of out- 
rage on consecrated persons or things, and the 
violation of any obligation having a sacramental 
character, or recognized as under the special pro- 
tection of the Church. Also, an instance of this 

In medieval writings the classification of 'sacrilege' as 
a branch of avarice, which is based on the primary meaning 
of the lerm, is somewhat inconsistently combined with an 
enumeration of the varieties of sacrilege implying the wider 
sense explained above. Cf., e. g. Ayenbite pp. 40-41 
Chaucer's Parson's Tale P 727-9. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 27840 O couaitise. .cums. .sacrilege, lo 
reue orsleleOf halud thing. Ibid. 27946. 1303 R. BRUNNE 
liandl. Synne 8608 pey bal haue cherches broke, And stole 
bo bynges bal were ber-ynne, ' Sacrylage ' men calle bat 
synne. 1382 WYCUF 2 Mace. iv. 39 Many sacrilegis don 
in the lemple. c 1440 Jacob's Well 160 An-ober is sacri- 
lege, bal is, brekyng of be sacramenl of holy cherche. 1526 
1'ilgr. Per/. (W. de W. 1531) 18 Some.. for Iheyr pryde 
and sacrilege, god suffrelh oftentymes to make an ende lyke 
as a beest. 1632 SANDERSON Serin. 381 The stinke of their 
divelish sacriledge in robbing Ihe Church. 1649 HOWELL 
Pre-em. Parl. 9 Rufus (who came to such a disaslrous end, 
as lo be shol lo dealh in lieu of a Buck for his sacriledges). 
1734 Ir. Kollin'i Anc. Hist. xix. ( t 82 7 ) VIII. 326 After this 
adding sacrilege lo profanalion he carried away the altar of 
incense. 1827 SOUTHEY Hist. Penins. War II. 239 In con- 
sideration of the sacrileges which the enemy commitled. . 
they were enlisling the peasantry. 1838 ARNOLD Hist. 
Rome (1846) I. xxi. 457 An unscrupulous sacrilege, which 
appropriated the very offerings lo the Gods, so made, lo his 
own individual uses. 1875 MANNING Mission H. Ghost ix. 
235 The very books that are used in the worship of God 
are Sacred. The man who steals them is guilty of sacrilege. 
b. spec, in popular use as a name for robbery 
from a church or other place of worship. 

The lerm is nol technically used in Eng. Law, though 
formerly special penallies were imposed for Ihe offence. 
From ihe iylh c. a robbery from a church has been regarded 
legally as a ' larceny ' or a ' burglary ' according lo the 

1820 John Bull 17 Dec. 8/2 Norwich. Sacrilege is now 
very common, Ihe churches of Carbrook and Eaton were 
broken inlo ; out of the former the thieves stole all the plate, 
communion cloth and surplice. Mod. nclvspafer, Sacrilege 
at Middleton. 

2. transf. and_/fy. The profanation of anything 
held sacred. 

1390 GOWER Conf. II. 371 The cause why that he so doth 
Is forto stele an herle or luo, . . And as I seide it hier above, 
Al is that Sacrilege of love. 1529 MORE Dyaloge iv. Wks. 
267/1 That it is as Luther sayth, greal sinne and sacrilege 
lo go about lo please god by good woorkes, and not by 
onely fayth. ? 1548 Ir. Virefs Expos. XII Art. Chr. fait It 
B j b, That were a greate blasphemie & sacrilege lo haue 
suche an opinion of God as lo Ihink lhal [elc.J. 1623 
FLETCHF.R Rule a Wife v. i, 'Tis sacrilege lo violale a u ed- 
lock, You rob Iwo Temples. 121678 MARVF.LL Upon Apple- 
ton House, 'T'were Sacrilege a man lo admil To holy things, 
for heaven fit. 1858 FROUDE Hist. Eng. xix. IV. 193 To kill 
a herald was, by the law of arms, sacrilege. 1874 MICKLE- 
THWAITE Mod. Par. Churches 204 Almost every stone. . is a 
historical monument, which it would be sacrilege lo remove 
or destroy. 

t Sacrilege, sb. 2 Obs. [ad. L. sacrileg-us: see 
SACRILEGE so}] One who is guilty of sacrilege. 
1491 CAXTON Vitas Pair. (W. do W. 1495) i. xl. 61 b/2 Vf 




ony Uefaylled there that hadde not ben atte theyr taste 
seruyce, They were reputed and holden as Sacryleges. 1556 
OLDE Antichrist 74 '1 hey bewray be theues 
and sacrileges. 1585 T. WASHINGTON tr. Nickolay's Voy. iv. 
xxxiii. 155 He was aswel condemned to death, as if he had 
bin a murtherer, or sacriledge. 

Sacrilege (sarkriled;;), v. rare. [f. SACRILEGE 
j/'.] trans. To commit sacrilege upon. Hence 
f Sa-crileging///. a. 

1554 LATIMER in Strype Eccl. Mem. (1822) III. n. 293 
Wherfor stande from the aulter you sacrileginge (I shulde 
have said you sacrificing^) preistes. 1578 FLOKIO \st Fruitcs 
73 The ende of warre is this,, .churches are profani/ated 
and sacrileged. 1778 //*W. Eliza #'rt'jVI.ioLordHuniIey 
will not be tempted to sacrilege the temple to storm a con- 
vent. 1866 J. B. ROSE tr. Ovid^s Met. 92 Thou didst rend 
Pentheus, and him thy rites who sacrileged Lycurgus. 

Sacrileger ^sarkriled^ei). arch. Also4sacre- 
legir, sacrilegeer, 5 sacrilegier, 6 sacre-, sacry- 
leger, sacriledger, -leager. [f. SACRILEGE sbl 
or v. + -ER*.] One who commits sacrilege. 

f 1380 WYCHF ScL Wks. III. 273 Curseden [read curseder] 
sactelegires ban bodily beves bat breken chirchis and stelen 
chalicis, vestementis, or nevere so moche gold out of hem. 
1395 PURVKY Remonstr. (1851) 49 A sacrilegeer, that is, a 
theef of holi thingis. ? (21500 in Becon Reliq. Rome (1563) 
'^53 Al sacrilegiers, y l is to say, al y* wrongfulliche doen 
away any thing halowed. 0:1500 in Arnolde Chron. (1811) 
175 All sacrelegers whiche goodes of chirchis perteyning. . 
aweye taken. 1614 RALKIGH Hist. World iv. i. 4 II. 162 
[They] for refusall were exposed as Sacrilegers, and accursed 
to all their Neighbour-Nations. 1642 Bi i . MORTON Pre- 
sent M. of Schismatic 25 Thou Sacrileger art as iii as the 
Idolater is. 1838 G. S. FABER Inquiry 444 These impostors, 
sacrilegers, and idolaters, ought.. to be removed from their 
degree. 1883 Cornh. Mag. Apr. 453 The adulterer and the 

Sacrilegious (ssekrih'dgas), a. [f. L. sacri- 
legi-um SACRILEGE sb^ + -ous.] 

1. Committing sacrilege ; guilty of sacrilege. 
1582 N. T. (Rhein.) Acts xix. 37 These men being neither 

sacrilegious nor blaspheming your Goddess, c 1586 C'TESS 
PEMBROKE Ps. LXXIV. iii, Lord,.. This sacrilegious seed 
Roote quickly out. 1610 HOLLAND Cantden's Brit. (1637) 
102 He might without processe of condemnation be killed 
as a sacrilegious person. 1696 DE LA PRYME Diary (Sur- 
tees) 319 The wicked sacrilegous, non-conformists. 1791 
MRS. RADCLIFFE Rout. Forest ii, Reproving the sacrilegious 
mortal who thus dared to disturb their holy precincts. 1854 
MILMAN Lat. Chr. iv. viii. (1864) II. 422 His conduct, .con- 
trasted, .with that of the sacrilegious Iconoclast Leo. 1864 
BRYCE Holy Rant. Emf. xix. (1875) 341 Leave the church 
lands in the grasp of sacrilegious spoilers. 

absol. 1682 NORRIS Hicrodes 8 The Offerings which they 
hang up in the Temple, serve only to enrich the Sacrilegious. 

2. Involving sacrilege. 

1621 BURTON Anat. Mel. i. ii. I. i. (1624) 35 The like 
happened to Brennus-.vpon such a sacrilegious occasion. 
1673-4 Kp - WARD Case of Joram i The Sacrilegious and 
Bloody Martyrdom of our late most Excellent Sovereign. 
1736 BOLINGBROKE Patriot. (1749) ii A most sacrilegious 
breach of trust. 1844 THIRLWALL Greece VIII. Ixiv. 275 He 
. .repeated his sacrilegious devastations in the sanctuary of 
Apollo. 1867 FREEMAN Norm. Cony. (1877) V. xxiv. 380 
The practices introduced by Flambard . . were deemed to be 

Hence Sacrile'griously<7^z'.,Sacrile i giousness. 

1609 BP. W. BARLOW Atisw. Nameless Cath, 355 Then is 
he Sacrilegiously false. 1727 Philip Qnarll (1816)66 Those 
villians had most sacrilegiously rifled and ransacked his 
habitation. 1727 BAILEY vol. II, Sacrilegiousness. 1848 
LYTTON Harold i. i, In the center of which had been sacri- 
legiously placed an altar to Thor. 

Sacrilegist (sxkrilJ-dgist). [f. SACRILEGE sbl 
+ -IST.] One addicted to or guilty of sacrilege. 

1621 BP. MOUNTAGU Diatribx 102 To the third Generation, 
neuer yet did prosper, nor euer shall, the Sacrilegist. 1683 
O. U. Parish Ch. no Conventicles 6 He doth.. charge us., 
with being Sacrilegists, worse than the worst of Con- 
venticlers. 1866 ANNIE H ARYVOOD tr. E.dt Pressense s ^t'sns 
Christ i. iii. 98 A sacrilegist never hesitating to elevate his 
creatures to the priesthood. 1898 WATTS-DUSTON Aylwin 
(1900) 109/1 Secrecy is the first thing for us sacrilegists to 

t Sacrilegy. Obs. Forms : 4-5 sacri-, sacry-, 
sacrelegi(e, -legy(e, 6 sacralagie. [ad. L. sacri- 
fegi/tffi.'] = SACRILEGE j.l 

13.. Ipotis 251 (Vernon MS.) in Horstm. Alttngl. Leg. 
{1881)344 In sacrilegye he sungede sore. cijBoWYCLiF \Vks, 
(1880) 132 Whateucre bou haldestto be..ouersymple liflode 
& streit clobing . . is befte, raueyne & sacrelegie. 1387 TRK VISA 
Higden (Rolls) HI. 463 }if ?e desptseb God wytyngly, banne 
5e beet> i-hplde in pe synne of sacrelegy. c 1449 PECOCK 
Repr. in. xix. 409 It is raueyn, it is sacrilegi \sacrilegiutn 
est}, that is to seie thefte of holi good. 1539 RASTELL 
Pastyme, Hist. Pap. (1811) 40 Banished for sacralagie. 

Sacring (stfi'krirj), Now only literary. 
Also 3-6 sacringe, 4 sakryng, -ring, 4-6 sa- 
cryng(e, sakeryng(e, 5 sacryn, sacreng, saker- 
ing(e, saycrying, sac(c)aring, $c. sacryne. [f. 
SACRE v. + -ING i.] 

1. The consecration of the eucharistic elements in 
the service of the mass. Sometimes more fully, the 
sacring of (the) mass. 

1197 R. GLOUC. (Rolls) 6818 Ri;t atte sacringe he stod as 
be lowe In be churche at westmunstre. 13. .Coer de L, 222 
And whene the belle began to ryng The preest scholde 
make the sakeryng, Out of the kyrke sche wclde away. 
c 1375 Lay Folks Mass Bk. (MS. B) 400 pen tyme is nere 
of sakring, A litel belle men oyse to ryng. 4:1380 WVCLIF 
Scrm. Sel. Wks. I. 137 Bitwene be sacringe of be masse 
and be bridde Agnus Dei. c 1451 AGNES PASTON in P. Lett. 
I. 217 And on Friday after sakeryng, one come fro cherch 
warde, and schofTe doune all that was thereon. 1482 CAX- 

TON Trevisas Higden iv. xxxii. 222 b, The grayel and the 
offretory bholde be sayde to fore the sacrynge [.1/.V.V. sacre- 
ment; L. sacrificium\. 1550 CRANMKK Defence 101 What 
made tlie people to runne. .from altar to altar, and from 
sakeryng (as they called it) to sakeryng V a 1571 JtwEL On 
'1'hess. ni. 5-10 (15941 90 It is a small matter to looke vp 
and holde vp thy handes at the sacring. 1584 R. Scor- 
Discov. Witchcr. xy. x.xvii. (1886) 376 Words, .written in 
the canon, or rather in the saccaring of 1626 Scogitfs 
ytsts(! 1680) 12 By and by the Bells were tolled for sacring, 
and Scogin hied him to Church lustily and merry. 1871 
ROSSETTI Pofiiis, tr. Vtllotfs Mo the r's Service to our Lady 
ii, Oh help me, lest in vain for me should pass. .The blessed 
Host and sacring of the Mass. 

f b. coney. Used for : The consecrated elements. 

i 1290 .V, Etig. Lt'g. I. 358/105 Muchc folk bare was in 
R ome bat in guode bi-Ieue nere Ne bi-lieneden noti^t bat be 
sacringe ore louerdes licame were. 1448 M. PASTON in 
/'. Lett, I. 72 [The Parson of Oxened] being at im-^e in 
one Parossh Chitche, evynat levacion of tlie sakeryng. 

2. The ordination and consecration of persons to 
certain offices, as those of bishop, king, queen, etc. 

1297 R. GLOUC. (Rolls) 2318 Ac him sulf him crounede 
made him king so His sacrifice was lute \vorj? & nabek-s it 
was ydo. 0380 WYCLIF Wks. ^SSo) 393 pe clerkis ban 
many giete & smale perquisitiuys,. .as. .for halowynge of 
chapels,, & for sacrynge of ordres, & fulle many mo. c 1450 
Merlin vi. 105 We wolde that his sacringe and coronation 
be respite to Penticoste. 1496 Dircs <y /*<*/. (W. de W.i 
vn. .\viii. 305/1 Vf tlie otTycer of y" bysshop axe of custome 
ony gyft. .in sacrynge of bysshopes..yf they y l sholde be. . 
sacred gyuetheymsuchegyftes. .is itsymonye. 167* TEMPLE 
/?W M Go~'t. Wks. 1731 I. 98 The Sacring of the Kings of 
France ('as Loysel says) is the Sign of their Soveraign Priest- 
hood, as well as Kingdom. 1814 SOUTHEY Roderick xvm. 107 
For acclamation and for sacring now One form must serve. 
1902 Q. AYf. July 356 The fulled development of the service 
for the sacring of the French Kings is contained in the 
Coronation Book of Charles V. 

f 3. gen. The action of consecrating. Obs. 

1610 W, FOLKINGHAM Art of Survey Ep. Ded. 2, I will 
screw-vp this Key with the prostrate sacring of my selfe 
. . at the Shrine of your gracious Clemencie. 1613 PURCHAS 
Pilgrimage \\. viii. 136 Elias Leuita describeth the fur me of 
sacring or hallowing their Teraphim in this sort, 

4. Comb, as sacring time, SACKING-BELL. 

1482 CAXTON Trevisas Higden viii- xix. 414 The lyeu- 
tenaunt. .forth with commanded that euery man shold 
kepe his wepen in his bond sacryng tyme and other. 1577-87 
HoLiNsiitin Chron. III. 946/2 U'hose that, .held not vp their 
hands at the sacring time. 1594 T. BEDINGTIELD tr. M<i- 
chiai'elii's Florentine Hist. (1595) 198 The time of the 
execution should be at the sacring time of Masse. 

t Sa cring, a. Obs, rare* Also 6 St. sacrand. 
[f. SACRE v. + -ING ^.] In senses of the vb. 
In quot. 1508 used for the vbl. sb. attrib. : see next. 
1508 DUNBAR Flyting 160 And quhen thow heiris ane 
use cry in the glennis, Thow thinkis it swetar than sacrand 
ell of sound. 1644 BULWER Chirol. 138 Because it hath a 
sacring and sanctifying signe. 

Sacriug-beil. [SACKING vbl. sb.} 

1. A small bell rung at the elevation of the host. 

1395 E. E. Wills (1882) 5, I bequetbe a chales and a pax- 
bred, ..and a sacrynge belie. 1449 CImrckiv. Ace. Y at ton 
(Somerset Rec. Soc.) 90 For a rop for the sacryng bell, iiii d . 
1502 Ace. Ld, High Treas. Scot. (1900) II. 343 Item, fur 
tua small sacryne bellis, t.ine at ane cremar. 1584 R. SCOT 
Discov. Witchcr. v. iii. (.1886) 76 He heard a little saccaring 
bell ring to the elevation of a morrowe masse. 1846 R. HART 
Ecci. Rec. 225 The sacring bell, which was rung at the 
elevation of the host. 1884 Sunday at Home Feb. 102/2 
No latticed confessional no sacring bell. 

If 2. In post-Reformation times, sometimes ap- 
plied to a small bell rung to summon parishioners 
to morning prayers, or to mark the point in the 
Communion Service at which the people should go 
up to communicate. 

1598 PRAYTON Heroic Ep. ffi. 71 Who would not rise to 
ring the .Mornings Knell, When thy sweet Lips might be 
the sacring Bell? 1641 I. H. Petit, agst. Pocklington 2 
He hath caused a Bell to be hung up in ms Chancell, called 
a Sacring Bell, which the Clarke always rings at the going 
up to second Service. 1766 ENTICK London, IV. 75 A lan- 
tern, which, .incloses the sacring-bell, to call the parishioners 
to prayers. 

Sa'Cripant. rare* [a. F. Sacripant, ad. It. 
Sacripante, a character in Boiardo's Orlando inna- 
morato.'] A boastful pretender to valour. 

1830 W. TAYLOR Hist. Surr. Germ. Poetry II. 320 He is 
surprised by a nymph.. who is at length seized by the 
supervening Itifal, a Sacripant of knighthood. 

Sacrist (s^'krist). Also 7 sachriste. [a. OF. 
sacriste ( = It. sacrista), ad. L. sacrista, f. saccr 
sacred (sacra neut. pi. sacred objects) + -ista : 
see -IST.] An official charged with the custody 
of the sacred vessels, relics, vestments, etc., of a 
religious house or a church. 

In t English cathedrals the ' sacrist ' (sometimes called 
"sacristan ') Is always in orders, often a minor canon. 

1577-87 HOLINSHED Ckron. III. 1241/2 Frier Combe, a 
sacrist of that house of Westminster. 1635 PAGITT Chris- 
tianogr. in. (1636) 103 Two Sacrists, carrying two silver 
Lanthorns. 1656-61 [See SACRISTAN i]. 1665 S. BING 
in- Ellis Orig. Lett. Ser. n. IV. 23 It b said the Sacrist 
[of St. Paul s] is out of town, -and there will be no Com- 
munion as customarily. 1x1670 SPALDINC Troub. C/uis.I 
(HannatyneCl.) I. m To the which committee, .was sum- 
moned . . the principall of the King's Colledge of Old Aber- 
dein, the four regents, canonist, doctor of medicine, civilist, 
sacrUt, and cantor. lyafi AYLIFFE Parergon 216 A Sacrist 
or Treasurer which are not Dignitaries in the Church of 
Common Ri^ht, but only by Custom. 1883 Daily News iq 
Sept. i/i [Died.] Mr. \V. Sanders, for many years Sacrist 
and Librarian of Westminster Abbey. 


Sacristan (sre-kristan). Also 4-5 -ane, 7 -on. 
See aUo SEXTON, [ad. med.L. sacristanus (whence 
mod.K. sctfristaiit), f. sacrista SACIUST : see -AN. 

OF. had the semi-popular forms segrestain, etc., whence 
Kng. SEXTON.] 

1. a. The SEXTON of a parish church. Obs. or 
arch. b. ^ SACUIST. 

c 1375 Sc. Leg. Saints xvii. (Martha) 245 Quhene I mad 
me bowne bat holy body to lay done, & to be sacristane to 
kepe gafe, qnhene je raysit me fra slepe. 1483 Cath. Angl. 
315/1 A Sacribtane, sacrista, edilis. 1563 Reg. Privy 
Council Scot. I. 246 And als the Sacristanis, beand Vicaris 
of the said paroche kirk, wer in use.. to mak and upbald 
tlie glassin windoes of the said kirk. 1608 Vestry Bks. (Sur- 
tees) 213 Item : that the Sacristun shall not presume to 
breake an ye grave in the church without the consent of the 
Churchwardins. 1656-61 HLOUST Glossogr.^ Sacri^t or 
Sacristan, a Sexten or Vestry-Keeper in a Church, or 
Religious house. 1763 Di-;i. PJNO Span. DLt., fcscolano, 
the sacristan, .that has charge of the vestments and holy 
vessels of the church. 1800 COLERIDGE Christabel n. 8 The 
sacristan, Who duly pulls tlie heavy bell, Five and forty 
beads must tt-1! Between each stroke. 1854 J. I >. H. DALE 
SacrtstatCs Man. Pref. ioT!ie Pope's Sacristan is a Uibhop. 
1870 DICKKNS E. Drood i, The Sacristan locks the iron- 
barred gates that divide the sanctuary from the chancel. 

2. In a nunnery, a sister charged with a function 
corresponding to that of sacrist. Cf. SACUISTIXK. 

c 1440 Alphabet of Talcs 319 Sho was sacristan of be kurk 
and sho had grete deuocion vnto our I.aclic. 1896 tr. Iluys- 
, marts En Route vii. cj2 A sacristan-sister, tall and pale and 
rather bent, entered like a shadow. 

Hence Sa cristane'ss ncnce-wd. = SACRISTIXE. 

1866 Cornh. I\Fat^. XIV. 440 The sacristaness was going 
through the corridor, .on her way to ring the bell for matins. 

t Sacristanry. Obs. [f. SACRISTAX + -RY. 
i Cf. OF. sc^restaincrie SEXTONRY.] = SACKISTY. 
1483 Ca(/i. Angl. 315/1 A Sacristanry, sacristarimn. 

II Sacristine (sae'kristfn). [F. sacristine^ 
altered form of sacristaine fem. of sacrislain 
SACRISTAN.] A female sacristan. 

1832 MOOKK in J/t7. (1854) VI. 286 Rogers, .told a story 
of a young girl who had been sacristine. .in a convent. 

Sacristy (scfkristi). [a. F. sacristie, a, med.L. 
S(tcristia t f. saerista SACRIST.] The repository in 
a church in which are kept the vestments, the 
sacred vessels and other valuable property. 

11630 WADSWORTH Further 1 Otserv, Pilgr, 6 Betweene 
this house and the high Altar stands the Sacristia, within 
which is the Custodia of the holy Eucharist (as they call 
it). 1644 EVELYN Diary 8 Nov., Through this we went 
into the Sacristia, where . . one of the Order preach <!.] 1656 
BLOL-NT Glossogr. a 1668 L \SSKI.S Voy. Italy (1698) II. 93 
In the Sacristy of this church I saw the chains in which 
St. Peter was fettered. 1845 S. AUSTIN Rank^s Hist. Kef. 
III. 630 The Liibekers took the confiscated church trea- 
sures out of the sacristies. 1846 Ecclcsiologist Jan. 5 Sa- 
cristies, or, as they are more usually called now, Vestries. 
///(/. 6 The proper situation of a Sacristy is on the north 
side of the chancel, towards its eastern part. 

Sacrit(e, ohs. Sc. pa. t. and pple. of SACRE v. 

Sacro- 1 (sce'kn?, s^'kro), assumed as combining 
form of L. safer sacred, in various nonce-words, as 
sacro -pictorial ., relating to sacred portraiture; 
sacro-secular a., partly sacred and partly secular; 
sacro-seric a. (jocular), sacred and silken. 

1849 [K. H. DIGBV] Compituin II. 357 All which form a 
code of *sacropictorial law. 16.. DOROTHY OSBOKNE Lett, 
to Sir /K. Temple (1888) 18 The Priory is a low-built *sacro- 
secular edifice. 1772 NUGENT tr. Hist. Ft: Gerund \\. 372 
The *sacro-seric vestments which adorn the priest in the 
celebration of the sacrifice of the mass. 

Sacro-- (s^i'kra), Anat.) used as combining 
form of L. (ps'} sacrum SACRUM, prefixed (usually 
with hyphen) to various adjs,, forming compounds 
with the sense ( pertaining jointly to the sacrum and 
(some other part indicated by the second element) *, 
as in sacro-caudal) -coccygeal, -coccygcan, -costal^ 
-cotyloidj -totytoidean, -femoral, -iliac, -inguinal^ 
-ischiac, -isckiadic t -ischiatic, -lumbal, -lumbar, 
-pcctineal) perinea?, -pubic, -rectal, -sciatic, -spinal, 
-verlebt al adjs. Also sacro-rne'diau a. , the epithet 
of the artery running along the median line of 
the sacrum (Cent. Diet. 1891). 

1831 R. KNOX Cioqnefs Atiat. 193 * Sacro-coccygeal Arti- 
culation. Ibid., Anterior Sacro-coccygeal Ligament. 1875 
SIR W. TUKNER in Encycl. Brit. I. 822/1 At the time of 
birth the sacro-coccygeal part of the spine is concave for- 
wards. 1840 E. WILSON Anat. Vade M. (1842) no The 
posterior *sacro-coccygean ligament. 1890 COUES Ornith. 
n. iv. 211 These ' sacral ribs * or *sacrocostals are further- 

lumbar area. 1831 R. KNOX Cloquefs Anat, 193 Irregular 
fibres placed before the *sacro-iliac articulation. 1886 J. M. 
DUNCAN Dis, Women (ed. 3) 438 Rheum of a sacro-iliac 
joint. 1899 Allbnifs Syst. Med. VI. 865 *Sacro-inguinal 
or i2th dorsal area. 1790 R. BLAND in Med. Commun. II. 
437 Where the *sacro-ischiatic ligaments cross. 1870 ROL- 
LESTON Anint. Life 18 The sacroischiatlc notch of anthro- 
potomy. 1859 TodfCsCych Anat. V. 207/1 The bones com- 
posing the *sacro- lumbar articulations. 1876 GROSS Dis. 
Bladder 20 The pain shoots along.. to the sacrolumbar 
region. 1899 Allbutt's Syst. Med. VI. 454 The *sacro- 
perineal region. 1841 RAMSBOTHAM Obstet. Med. 23 The 
antero-posterior, *sacro-publc, or conjugate [diameter], 1753 
CHAMBERS Cycl. Supp., ^Sacro-sciatic ligaments. . .The small 
*sacro-sciatic, or internal sciatic ligament. 178* A. MONRO 
Anat. Bones, Nerves, etc. 146 Two strong ligaments which 
are extended to the os isdtiunt; and are therefore called 



sacro-sciatic. 1893 A. S. ECCLES Sciatica 55 The cause of 
obstinate sacro-sciatic tenderness. 1831 K. KNOX Cloqitct's 
Anat. 193 *Sacro-vertebral Ligament. 1872 MIVART Eftta, 
A nat. 57 The sacrp-vertebral angle is generally replaced by 
almost a straight line. 

Sacrosanct (sse-kr^sseijkt, s/i*kr<7-). Also 7 
-sainct, -sant, sackersaint. [ad. L. sacrosancttis^ 
properly two words, sacro abl. of sacrum sacred 
rite (neut, of safer sacred) and sanctus pa. pple. of 
sancire to render holy or inviolable. Cf. F. sacro- 
saintj earlier -sainct ^whence some i7thc. Kng. 
forms), Sp., Pg. sacrosanto, It. sacro-, sagrosanto.'] 
Of persons and things, esp. obligations, laws, etc. : 
Secured by a religious sanction from violation, 
infringement, or encroachment ; inviolable, sacred. 

1601 HOLLAND Pliny I. 178 Armed as he was with his sa- 
crosanct and inuiolable authorise. 1603 Plutarch's 
Mor. 1332 Which [Isles] he found to have very few inhabit- 
ants, and those all were by the Britaines, held for sacro- 
sainct and inviolable. 1637 HEVLIN Ans-w. Burton^ 80 
Perhaps you thinke, because Mass. Prinne is of a factious 
Tribunitian spirit, he must be Sacrosanct and uncontrolable. 
1659 H. L 1 ESTRANGE Alliance Div. Off. 291 What con- 
federacy can be imagined more noble, more sacrosant, than 
that between Man and \Vife? 1787 JEFFERSON Writ. (1859) 
II. 331 Let them establish your fundamental rights by a 
sacrosanct declaration. 1871 MORLEY Crit. A Use. Ser. i. 
270 Truth, which alone of words is essentially divine and 
sacrosanct. 1891 C. E. NORTON Dante's Purgat. xxix. 184 
O Virgins sacrosanct. 1895 SAI.A Life fy Adv. II. Ivi. 327 
Beyond this sacrosanct city the railway was only available 
for about fifty miles. 

transf. 1880 World 16 June, When the persons of hares 
and rabbits have ceased to be sacrosanct, what guarantee 
of inviolability is there for the grouse? 

Hence t Sacro sanctified, t Sacrosanctious 
adjs. SACROSANCT; Sacrosanctness = next. 

1621 QUARLES Argalus <y /'. (1678) 57 Where plighted 
faith, and Sacro-sanctious vow Hath given possession, dis- 
possess not thou. a 1693 Urquharfs Rabelais in. H. 28 
'1 he Sacro sanctified Domicile of your Celestial Brain. 1876 
CARTWRiGHTy<MtuVj 206 The Pontifical utterances of which 
the dogmatic Sacrosanctness is open to no doubt. 

Sacrosanctity (se^kn?-, s^krosae'rjkiili). [f. 
SACROSANCT a., after sanctity.] The condition of 
being sacrosanct ; inviolability; sacredness. 

1650 H. MORE Observ. in Enthus. 7V/., etc. (1656) 9^ His 
bold entitling of his own writings to the Sacrosanctity of 
Mysteries. 1831 H. COLERIDGE in Blackw. Mag. XXIX. 
521 Protected bythe sacro-sanctity of an Ambassador. 1900 
E. LUMMIS Speaker's Chair 34 All they did was to wrap 
themselves in their Sacrosanctity, and ' curse for their tithes *. 

Sacrosant, obs. form of SACROSANCT. 

Sacrum (s^-krftn). Anat. PI. sacrums, 
sacra. [Subst. use of neut. sing, of L. safer 
sacred : see os sacrum s.v. Os.] A composite, 
symmetrical, triangular bone which articulates 
laterally with the ilia, forming the dorsal wall of 
the pelvis and resulting from the ankylosis of two 
or more vertebrae between the lumbar and coccy- 
geal regions of the spinal column. 

1753 CHAMBERS Cycl. Supp. s.v. Sacro-sciatic, The false 
transverse apophysesof the sacrum, ijyy ASJUUXKTHY Sitrr. 
5" Physiol. Ess, in. 137 The medulla spinalis, or a sub- 
stance of an apparently similar nature, was continued into 
the sacrum. 1845 TODD & BOWMAN Phys. Anat. I. 140 The 
spinal column, in man,.. rests upon the sacrum. 1881 
Trans. Obstet. Soc. Lorut.X\ll. 74 There are [in a double- 
headed human monster] two well-developed sacra, placed 
side by side. 1886 J. M. DUNCAN Dis. Women (ed. 3) 438 
A clergyman's wife was thrown out of a little pony phaeton, 
and fell on her sacrum. 1890 COUES Ornith. n. iii. 138 The 
numerous anchylosed.. vertebrae compose the sacrum. 

t Sa'Cry. Obs. Forms; 4 sacre, sakare, sacry. 
[ME. sacre-) app. due to a confusion of SECREE (the 
secret of the Mass*) with F. sacrf pa. pple. of 
sacrer : see SACRE v.] The consecration of the 
Mass ; = SACRIXG vbL sb. i. 

1303 R. BRUNNK HandL Synne 7297 Here ;yt a messe, Al 

--- i --r i ~. -._,.. i,*,uj j n jm.. .j.. mnr* iicffi. 

(Vernon MS.) in Archw Stud. ncu. SJir. LVII. 282 [He 
said] Ihesu was not |rat oble bat was raised atte sacre. 
1463 Bury Wills (Camden) 29 To do the chymes goo at y 
sacry of the messe of Jhii. 

b. attrib. Saory bell - SACRING-BELL. 
c 1430 LYDG. Miu. Poems (Percy Soc.) 255 Than gon to 
chirche or heare the sacry belle, c 1460 rronip Pan' 
(Winch.) 388 Sacrybelle, tintinabnlum. 

Sacryt, obs. Sc. pa. t. and pple. of SACHE v, 

Sact, obs. Sc. form of SACK v$ 

Sad (saed), a. and adv. Forms: 1-3 seed, 3 
sat5, sead, sed, 5-7 sade, 4 saad, zed, 4-5 said, 
4-6 sadd(e, 3- sad. [Com. Teut. : OE. seed = 
OS. sail, MDu. sat (Du. sat), OHG., MHG. sat 
(mod.G. salt), ON. saS-r (rare: superseded by 
saJd-r, pa. pple. of the derived verb sebja to sati- 
ate), Goth. saj>-s (pi. sadai) :-OTeut. *sacto- full, 
satiated :-\VIndogermanic *s3to- in *n-sito-s, Gr. 
a-aros insatiate (cf. L. sat, satis enough, satur 
satisfied, full, Olrish sathech satiated) ; the word is 
a pa. pple. with suffix -t6- from the root *sa- to 
satisfy; cf. Gr. &fr, v (;.-*s3-<{am), enough. A 
parallel form from the strong grade of the root 
(with unaccented suffix) is Goth, so), (:-pre-Teut. 
*sato-m) satisfaction, whence gascjyan to satisfy.] 


A. adj. 

I. Of persons and immaterial things, 
f 1. Having had one's fill ; satisfied ; sated, weary 
or tired (of something). Const, of (in OE. genitive} 
or infinitive. 

1000 Riddles vi. (Gr.), Ic com anhaja iserne wund,.. 
beadoweorca sa;d, ec^um werig. ciooo Ags. Ps. (Th.) 
Ixxvii. 29 SwiSe a:tan, and sade \vurdan. c 1200 7'rin. Coll. 
How. 75 Ich nam noht $tet sad of mine sinnes, and forbi ne 
mai ich hie noht forlete. c 1205 LAY. 9345 Claudien be ka:i- 
sere Sa5 wes of bon compe. a 1240 Ureisun 30 in Cott. Horn. 
193 Vor heo neuer ne beo5 sead bi ueir to iseonne. a 1250 
Owl $ Night. 452 (Jesus MS.) Ich..skente In niyd myne 
songe Ac nobeles nouht ouer longej Hwenne ich iseo bat 
men beob glade, Ich nelle bat hi beon to sade. a 1300 Cur- 
sor HI. 23436 pof bat I* 011 euer apon him se, Of him sadd 
[Edinb. said] sal bou neuer be. a 1310 in Wright Lyric P. 
vii. 29 For selden y am sad that semly forte se. c 1386 
CHAUCER Can. Yeoin. Prol.ff T. 324 Yet of that Art they 
kati nat wexen sadde fibr vn-to hem it is a bitter sweete. 

1387 TKEVISA Higden (Rolls) I. 9 Now men be^ al sad [orig. 
inodernorunt saturitattun}. c 1407 LYDG. Reson <s- Sens. 
1265 Al our lyf. .Ys but a maner exile here, Of which he 
ought[e] to be sad. a 1450 Le Mortc A rth. 716 To serve 
hym was there no man sad. 

f2. Settled, firmly established in purpose or con- 
dition; steadfast, firm, constant. Obs. 

c 1315 SIIOKEHAM vn. 298 So fcat hyt was god and sad, Al 
bys world, bat was ymad Of hym (:at can. 1340 Ayenb. 83 
Nou ne is ary^t ne ys..zed and stable uor to 
uol^y. c 1350 St. John 349 in Horstm. Altengl. Leg. (1881) 
38 When saynt John herd, .how sad trowth in bam was set 
[etc.]. 1350 Will. raUrne 1371 Alsaxoyne was set wib wel 
sadde lawes. ^1374 CHAUCER AW('/ 
Ther may no man dowte that ther nis som blysfulnesse bat 
is sad [L. solidain\ stydefast and parfyt. fi^75 Sc. Leg. 
Saints ,\lii. (Agatha) 36 As quincyane persawing had bat 
scho wes of wil sa sad. 1382 WVCLIF 2 Pet. i. 19 We ban 
a sadder [V'ulg. jlrmioreui] word of the prophet. 1141* 
HOCCLEVE De Reg. Princ. 4784 Ther may no prince in his 
estate endure, Ne ther-yn any while stande sad, Uut he be 
loued. ^1450 St. Citthbcrt (Surtees) 234 Sho sail be to be 
a sadde frende. c 1450 Godstow^ Reg. 64 pat her graunt 
shold be sure & sad, she strengtbid hit with her seele. 1493 
Fcstivall (W. de W. 1515) 75 b, Be ye stable & sadde in the 
fayth. 1553 BECON Reliqites of Rome (1563) 175!), All 
christen people that will be saued, must haue sad beliefe in 
the holy Sacrament. 1590 SPENSER F. Q. in. xi. 45 More 
eath to number with bow many eyes High heven beholdes 
sad lovers nightly theeveryes. 1667 MILTON P. L. vi. 541 
Settl'd in his face I see Sad resolution and secure. 

f3. Strong; capable of resisting ; valiant. Obs. 

1382 WYCLIF Row. xv. i Forsothe we saddere [Vulg. nos 
Jirntiorcs\ owen for tosusteyne. . the of syke men, 

1388 J'.zck. xxxiv. 16 Y schal make sad that that was sijk. 
''.a 1400 Morte Art/i. 3289 The secunde sir.. Was sekerare 
to my sighte, and saddare in armes. c 1400 MAUNDEV. 
(1839) x i v - J S9 And it [the diamond] maketh a man more 
strong and more sad ajenst his Enemyes. c 1400 Destr. 
Troy 1277 pan pollux full pertly aprochet in hast With 
seuyn hundrithe sad men assemblit hym with, ffrochit into 
be frount & a fray made. ^1475 Partenay 4876 Noble 
Ktiightes ten, Stronge, liable, and light, men sad and myghty. 

f4. Orderly and regular in life; of trustworthy 
character and judgement ; grave, serious. Often 
coupled with wise or discreet. Obs. 

c 1375 Sc. Leg. Saints xxvi. (Nydiolas) 175 In thewis sad- 
dare bane wes he ere. c 1386 CHAUCER A/a of Law's T, 
37 In Surrye whilom dwelte a compaignye Of chapmen 
riche and therto sadde and trewe. 1429 Rolls of Par It. 
IV. 338/2 Ye Kyng shall, .come to sadder yeres of discre- 
tion. 1440 in Glew Hist. M'alsall (1856) 106 One of the 
sadest and weldesposed Prest of Saynt John's Gylde. c 1450 
Godstmu Rfg, 98 He shold behote, afore good men and 
sadde in Wycombe, openly. 1486 Act 3 Hen. VII, C- 4 
Twelve sad and discreet Persons, of the Cheque Roll of the 
King's honourable Houshold. 1490 CAXTOS Eneydos xxix. 
113 Sadde of bebauoure, and of symple contenaunce. 1551 
ROBINSON tr. Mote's Viop. \\. vii. (1895) 225 A sad and an 
honest matrone [orig. grauis et honcsta matrona]. 1562 in 
W. H. Turner Select. Rec. ttt/&rrf(i8So) 292 The..wyseste 
Bayllifls and other sadd and discreate cytezens. 1579 
NORTHBROOKE Dicing(\^^ 167 What woman nowe-a-dayes 
(that is sadde and wyse) will be knowne to haue skill of 
dauncing, &c.? 1605 BACON Adv. Learn, n. xxiii. 5 Of 
this wisedome it seemeth some of the auncient Romanes in 
the saddest and wisest times were professors. 1632 LITHGOW 
Tnw, n. 71 The solid, and sad man, is not troubled with 
the floods and ebbes of Fortune. 1665 POWELL in Wood 
Life (O. H. S.) II. 48 An old donation of the College to a 
sad priest that preaches on that day. 

tb. Of looks, appearance: Dignified, grave, 
serious. Obs. 

CX3SO Will. Pakme 228 Of lere ne of lykame lik him nas 
none, ne of so sad a semblant bat euer he say wi(? ei;yen. 
13.. E. E. Allit.P. A. 887, & be alder-men so sadde of chere, 
Her songe bay songen neuer J>e les. -1369 CHAUCER Dethc 
Blatuiche 860 And whiche eyen my lady had, Debonayre, 
good, glad, and sad. c 1400 Rom. Rose 4627 She, demurely 
sad of chere. 

f C. Profoundly or solidly learned (in\ Obs. 

c 1400 Destr. Troy 1485 A philosoffer, . .In be Syense full 
sad of be seuyn Artes. 1523 Act 14 % 15 lien. K///, c. 5 
Those persons that be profounde, sad, & Discrete, groundly 
lerned, and depely studied in Phisicke. 

d. Of thought, consideration : Mature, serious. 
Obs. exc. arch, in the phrase in sad earnest^ which 
as now used belongs rather to sense 5. 

1485 Surtees Misc. (1888)43 The said Maire, after sad and 
mature examinacion of the said recordes. .decreed [etc.]. 
c 1500 Three Kings' Sons 24 And so, aftir sad deliberacion, 
he answerd the messengere yn this maner. 1540 Act 32 
Hen. yiff, c. 42 The said Maistres or Governours..aftre 
their sadd discretions,, .shall [etc.]. 1637 RUTHERFORD Lett. 
(1862) I. xcix. 253, I w*. I c<|. begin to be a Christian in sad 
earnest. 1643 J. M. Soveraigne Salve 38 At least they may 


deigne this last motive the honour of a deep and ^ad thought 
or two. 1649 BP. HALL Confirm, (1651) 73 They are ex- 
ceeding weighty and worthy of sad consideration. 1771 
SMOLLETT Humph, Cl. 5 May, An attack that made me shed 
tears in sad earnest. 

5. Of persons, their feelings or dispositions : 
Sorrowful, mournful, 

? a 1366 CHAUCER Rom. Rose 211 She was cleped Avarice. 
. . Ful sad and caytif [orig. megre et chetive] was she. c 1450 
HOLLAND Howlat 187 Ay sorowfull and sad at evin song 
and houris. c 1470 HENRY Wallace iv. 188 Malancoly he 
was of complexioun,. .Soroufull, sadde, ay dreidfull but 
plesance. 1526 Piigr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 87 Consyder- 
yng some persones to be iocunde and mery, some sadde and 
heuy. 11548 HALL Chrcn., Hen. Vll 56 This Ambassade 
was sent. .to visite & comforte the kyng, beyng sorowful & 
sad for the death of so good a quene & spouse, a 1553 
UDALL Royster D. in. iii. (Arb.) 43 But why speake ye so 
faintly, or why are ye so sad? R. Royster. Thou knowest 
the prouerbe, bycause I can not be had, 1611 BIBLE Gen. 
xl. 6 And Joseph came in vnto them in the morning, and 
looked vpon them, and behold, they were sad. 1667 MILTON 
" P. L. x. 18 Th 1 Angelic Guards ascended, mute and sad 
For Man. 1678 BuNYAN/^iV^-r.i. 196, 1 was very sad, I think 
sader than at any one time in my life. 1725 POPE Odyss. 
ix. 72 With sails outspread we fly th'unequal strife, Sad for 
their loss, but joyful of our life. 1754 GRAY Poesy 77 The 
sad Nine in Greece's evil hour. 1860 TYNDALL Glac. i. xii. 
88, I felt a little sad at the thought, a 1878 P'CESS ALICE 
Mem. (1884) 63, 1 ought not to make you sadder, when you 
are sad enough already. 

absol. 1588 A. KING tr. Catiisiits" Catech., Cert. Dtt-ont 
Prayers 39 The hop and comforter of all sad, haue mercie 
on me. 1784 COWPEK Tiroc. 665 Behold that figure, neat, 
though plainly clad ; His sprightly mingled with a shade of 

b. Phrase. (Possibly suggested by the older 
association of sad and wise : see 4.) 

1798 COLEKIDGE Anc. Mar. vii. ad fin., A sadder and a 
wiser man He rose the morrow morn. 1814 SCOTT Wnv. 
I.xlii, 'A sadder and a wiser man 1 , he felt [etc.]. 1877 
MRS. FORRESTER ftlignon I. 175 When he takes his way 
homewards, he is a sadder and a wiser man. 

c. Of looks, tones, gestures, costume, etc. : 
Expressive of sorrow. 

c 1386 CHAUCER KntSs T. 2127 With a sad visage he siked 
stille. (11400-50 Alexander 5052 With sare sighingis & 
sadd for sake of his wirdis. 1508 DUNBAR Tita Ulariit 
linemen 447 According to my sable weid I mon haif sad 
maneris, Or thai will se all the sutb. 1535 COVERDALE 
Matt. vi. 16 When ye fast, be not sad [1611 of a sad coun- 
tenance] as y ypocrytes are. 1634 MILTON Comtis 235 
Where the love-lorn Nightingale Nightly to thee her sad 
Song mourneth well. 1660 F. BROOKE tr. Le Blanc's Trtiv. 
221 A sad pale countenance. 1671 MILTON P. R, i. 43 Them 
amidst With looks agast and sad he thus bespake. 1792 
S. ROGERS Pleas. Man. i. 320 His sad inquiring eye. 1819 
SCOTT Ivanhoe xxxvi, Two halberdiers, clad in black,, .and 
others, in the same sad livery. 1848 THACKERAY Van. Fair 
xii, Poor little Amelia, with rather a sad wistful face. 

d. Of times, places, actions, etc. : Characterized 
by sorrow, sorrowful. 

13.. E. E. Allit. P. B. 525 Ne be swetnesse of somer, ne 
be sadde wynter. 1617 MORYSON I tin. \. 243 We passed 
a sad night in this place, and never had more need of Job 
his patience then heere. 1662 J. DAVIES tr. Mandelslo's 
Trav. 252 This was the saddest night we had in all our 
Voyage. 1667 MILTON P. L. xi. 478 Immediately a place 
Before his eyes appeard, sad, noysom, dark, A Lazar-house it 
seemd. 1722 DE t OE Relig. Courtsh, \. i. (1840) 10 'Tis a sad 
life, for a woman to have no help from her husband in thing:, 
that are good. 1881 LADY HERBERT Edith 201 His was one 
of the saddest lots I have ever known in life. 1888 LOWELL 
Heartsease fy Rne 149 It gives me a sad pleasure to re- 
member that I was encouraged in this project by my friend 
the late Arthur Hugh dough. 

fe. Morose, dismal-looking. Obs. 

1593 SHAKS. Rich. If, v. v. 70 And how com'st thou 
hither? Where no man euer comes, but that sad dogge 
That brings me food, to make misfortune Hue? 

f. Causing sorrow ; distressing, calamitous , 
lamentable. In early use partly fig. of sense 7, 
* heavy '. 

CI375 Sc. Leg. Saints xii. (Mathias) i8g, & [of] bat sad 
ded>e ranowne Sowne rane throw al ^e towne. 1567 Gude 
fy Godlie B. (S. T. S.) 33 Him will he scurge with plagues 
sad and sair. 1637 B. JONSON Sad Sheph. i, ii, A sadder 
chance hath given allay Both to the Mirth and Music of 
this day. 1654 FULLER Two Serut. 8 It is not improbable 
that this Psalm [xi] might be composed on the sad murther 
of the Priests by Saul. 1667 MILTON P. L. i. 135 With sad 
overthrow and foul defeat. 1688 PENTON Guard. Instruct. 

be of no manner of use. 1793 COWI-ER To Alary 33 Par- 
takers of thy sad decline, Thy hands their little force resign. 
1823 BYRON Jitan xin. ix, Of all tales 'tis the saddest and 
more sad Because it makes us smile. 1859 TENNYSON Gniner. 
492 How sad it were for Arthur, should he live To sit once 
more within his lonely hall ! 

6. Deplorably bad ; chiefly as an intensive 
qualifying terms of depreciation or censure. Often 
jocular. Sad dog : cf. DOG sb. 3 b, and 5 e above. 

1694 ECHARD PiautMsGo* I am the saddest shiftless crea- 
ture upon earth. 1697 DAMPIER V'oy. (1699) 30 His French 
Sea-men were the saddest creatures that I was ever among ; 
for tho we had bad weather that required many hands aloft, 
yet the biggest part of them never stirr'd out of their Ham- 
mocks, but to eat or ease themselves. 1706 FARQUHAR 
Recruit. Officer in. ii, Sil. You are an ignorant, pretend- 
ing, impudent Coxcomb. Braz. Ay, ay, a sad Dog. ^1710 
CELIA FIENNES Diary (1888) 71 A sad ppore tbatch'd place. 
' 1727 GAY Beg-g. Op. i. viii, Our Polly is a sad slut. 1748 
j SMOLLETT Rod. Rand, xvi, I suppose you think me a sad 
1 dog, ..and I do confess that appearances are against me. 
\ 1771 MRS. HAYWOOD Neiu Present 252 Red brick should not 


be used [for scouring fire-irons] for it makes sad work. 1819 
SfOLLXvPtftrBtUsrdvi.xtl, All Peter did on this occasion 
Was, writing some sad stuff in prose. 1819 BYRON Juan n. 
cxxvii, Heaven knows what cash he got or blood he spilt, 
A sad old fellow was he, if you please. 1835 J. MACDONALD 
in Tweedie Life iii. (1849) 249, I am a sad coward. 1836-7 
DICKENS Sk. Boz, Char act, vii, The sad-dog sort of feeling 
came strongly upon John Dounce. 1893 Daily News 
25 Jan. 5/3 Unpolished granite. .is a sad harbourer of soot 
and dust. 

II. In various physical senses. 

7. Of material objects, f a. Solid, dense, com- 
pact; massive, heavy. Obs. [So early mod.G. satl.] 

13. . K, Alis. 5587 Two grete y mages.. of golde sad. 4:1330 
R. BRUNNE Citron. (1810) 198 With iren nayles sad . . his fete 
was schod. 1340 HAMPOLE /V. Consc. 3189 pe mast veniel 
syns sal bar bryn langly, Als wodde brinnes, bat es sadde 
and hevy. c 1350 Will. Palcrne 1072 No streng^e him wib- 
stod of sad stonen walles. 1388 WYCLIF E.vod. xxxviii. 7 
Forsothe thilke auter was not sad [Vulg. solhiiiin\ but 
holowe. (.1440 PromJ>. Parv. 440/1 Sad, or hard, solid/ts. 
1450 Cot 1 . Myst. xxtv. (Shaks. Soc.) 236 In feyth it is an 
holy ston, Ryth sad of weyth and hevy of peys. 1513 
DOUGLAS /Entis xi. xi. 47 The schaft was sad and sound, 
and weill ybaik. 1587 HAKHISON England in, i. (1878) n. 2 
The flesh of bills.. is of sadder substance and therefore 
much heauier as it lieth in the scale. 1611 COTGR., Fournttige 
de taulpe, hcauie or sad cheese. 1625 LISLE Du Bartas> 
Noe 29 This kind of timber, .growes so sad and hard that 
it cannot rot. 6-1638 STKAKFORD in Browning Life 11891) 
219 To those that, .tell you. .1 am but as a feather, I shall 
be found sadder than lead. 1641 BEST J-'ann. Bks. (Surtees) 
147 Short barley-strawe . .is the best for stoppinge of holes 
..because it is sadder, and not soe subjeckt to blowe out 
with everie blast of winde, as other light and dry strawe is. 
fig. c 1400 Kent. Rose 6907 For sadde burdens that men taken 
Make folkes shuldres aken. (1400 Apol. Loll. 45 \Vo worb 
aow bat tijen mynt, aneis, & comyn, & ilke herbe, & leuen 
f>e sadder bings of be lawe, dome, feib, & mercy, c 1485 
Digby Myst* (1882) iv. 1328 The wordes of Andrewe beyn 
sadd & ponderose. i6ix BEAUM. 8: Fi_ Knt. Burn. Pestle 
iv. i, Damsel right faire, 1 am on many sad adventures 
bound, That call me forth into the wildernesse. 

fb. Solid as opposed to liquid. Obs. 

c 1380 WYCLIF Serm. Sel. Wks. II. 259 per mete was ber 
bileve bat bei hadden of sadde bingis, and Jrer drynke was 
ber bileve bat bei hadden of moist bingis. 1382 lleb. v. 
13 To whom is nede of my Ik, and not sad mete [Vulg. solido 

fc. Firmly fixed. Ohs. exc. dial. 

1338 R. BRUNNE Chron. (1810) 305 St[r]ength suld non haf 
had, to perte bam borgh oute, So wer |?ei set sad with 
poyntes rounde aboute. a 1375 Joseph A rim. 258 penne he 
seos Ihesu cri^t in a sad Roode. 1382 WYCLIF 2 Tim. ii. 
19 But the had foundement ^^g.firmum fundauientnm} 
of God stondith. a 1400 Leg. Rood (1871) 137 Beo a staf 
stondeb sad, Whon 36 fongen flesch in godes nous, pat staf 
is Cristes Crouche. 

d. Of soil : Stiff, heavy. ? Obs. exc. dial. 
1340-70 Alex. $ Dind. 912 For to sowe & to sette in be 

sad erthe. (.1420 Pallad. OH Husb. \\. 173 Vynes preueth 
best yf they Be sette anoon aftir the spade or plough, Er 
then the lond be woxen sadde or tough. 1600 SURFLF.T 
Country Farm v. xviii. 702 Nauets and turneps delight in 
a light and fine mould, and not in a churlish and sad 
ground. 1707 MORTIMER Husb. (1721) I. 66 Chalky Lands 
are naturally cold and sad. 1712 J. MORTON Nat. Hist. 
Northampt. 44 The Clay-land, .is the toughest, or most 
tenacious, and the most dense of all our Soils ; upon this 
Account, on the Thrapston Side, they call it Sad-land. 
1889 iV. W, Line. Gloss, s.v., Land is sad when the frosts 
of winter have not mellowed it. 

e. Of bread, pastry, etc. : That has not ' risen * 
properly; heavy. Now dial. 

1688 R. HOLME Armoury in. 317/1 Bakers Terms in their 
Art. ..Sad, heavy, close Bread. 1747-96 MRS. GLASSE 
Cookery xiii. 191 It makes the crust sad, and is a great 
hazard of the pie running. 1824-9 LANDOR I mag. Conv, 
Wks. 1846 _I. 82 Let him place the accessaries on the table 
lest what is insipid and clammy, and (as housewives with 
great propriety call it) sad, grow into duller accretion and 
inerter viscidity the more I masticate it. 1889 SKRINE /!/;. 
E. Thring $\ Of what meagre straw and doughy brick was 
our weekly batch ! It was what bakers call 'sad '. 

t f. Of a number of persons or things : Forming 
a compact body. Obs. 

a 1400-50 Alexander -2^1^ pe multitude ware to me meruaile 
to reken, pat sammed was on aibir side many sadd thousand. 
Ibid. 5559 pai sett in a sadd sowme & sailid his kni^tis. 
c 1430 Chev. A ssignc 1 19 Of sadde leues of be wode wrowjte 
he hem wedes. 

8. Of colour : Dark, deep. In later use, influ- 
enced by sense 5 : Not cheer ful -looking ; neutral- 
tinted, dull, sober. 

The Ger. salt and MDu. sat (Du. zat) have the sense 
' dark ' or ' deep ' as applied to colours, as a direct develop- 
ment from the primary sense ' full ' (see sense i above). 

c 1412 HOCCLEVE De Keg. Princ. 695 And where be my 
gounes of scarlet, Sanguyn, murreye, & blewes sadde & 
lighte. t; 1425 Cast. Persev. (Stage direction) in Macro Plays 
76 |?e iiij dowteris schul be clad in mentelys ;. .Trewthe in 
sad grene, & Pes al in blake. c 1483 CAXTON Dialogues 
14/38 Yelow, reed, Sad blew [Fr. entrepcrs\, morreey. a 1539 
in Archa>olt>gia'X.\ J \ll. 53 Noo more to use rede stomachers 
but other sadder colers in the same. 1578 HUNNIS Hyvef. 
Httnnye xxxvii 92 Colours lyght and sad. 1600 SURFLET 
Country Farm vi. xxii. 802 Russet wines: In the number 
wherof, are contained the red wines, or sad, and light red. 
1609 C. BUTLER Fern. Mon. (1634) 105 The second Summer, 
this light yellow is changed to a sad. 1658 ROWLAND tr. 
Moufet s Theat. Ins. 936 Long and slender shanks of a very 
sad black colour. 1686 PLOT Staffordsh. 201 First of a dark 
greenish colour, growing sadder by degrees as the plant 
decays, till it approaches a black. 1799 G. SMITH Laboratory 
II. 311 Dubbing, of the down of a sad grey cat. 1836 .5*7/1'- 
woods of Canada 241 The leaves are of a sad green, sharply 
notched, and divided in three lobes. 1855 BKIMLEY Ess., 


Tennyson 99 Sad greys and browns. 1867 O. W. HOLMES 
Guard. Angel iii, She had always, .been dressed in sad 
colors. 1883 STEVENSON Trcas. I$l. xiii, The general 
colouring was uniform and sad. 

fb. Dark-coloured, sober-coloured. Obs. 
1560 BECON Catech. \\. Wks. I. 536 If they be olde women 
and maryed : not lyght apparell, but sad raiment pleaseth 
a godly husband. 1590 SPENSER F. Q. i. xii. 5 Arayd in 
antique robes downe to the grownd, And sad habiliments. 
1668 PEPYS Diary 24 Aug., My wife is upon hanging the 
long chamber, .with the sad stuff that was in the best cham- 
ber. 1711 Loud. Gaz. No. 4919/4 A Man. .between 20 and 
30 years of Age, pale Visage and sad Hair. 

f 9. Of sleep: Sound, deep. Obs. 

a 1350 St. Nicholas 329 in Horstm. Altengl. Leg. (1881) 15 
Sodanly he fell on full sad slepe. 1377 LANGL. /'. PI. B. v. 4 
Panne waked I of my wynkynge and wo was with-alle, pat 
I ne hadde sleped sadder and ysei^en more, r 1400 Destr. 
Troy 679 Medea. .Persauyt. .pat all sad were on slepe. 
c 1450 Mankind 585 in Macro Plays 22 $e may here hym 
snore ; he ys sade a-slepe. 1485 CAXTON St. Wcncfr. 20, 
I couerd my hede and fylle in to a sadde slepe. 

1 10. Of blows : Heavy, delivered with vigour. 

[So early mod.G. satt.\ 

. c *3S& Will. Paler ne 2775 He. .set hire a sail strok so sore 
in be necke, bat sche top ouer tail tombled ouer behacches. 
c 1400 Destr, Troy 1263 One can pet with hym kenely, .. 
And set hym a sad dynt. 1470-85 MALORY Arthur y.\. iv. 
576 And there they dasshed to gyders many sadde strokes. 
1503 HAWES Examp. Virt. xi. xix, But I my swerd in my 
hand had Strykynge at hym with strokes sad. a 1578 
LINDESAY (Pitscottie) Chron. Scot. (S. T.S.) I. 222 The 
strain pe of M r Patrickis was so sade wpoun his brotheris 

tb. Of a fire: Violent. Obs. 

<:i42o Chron. Vilod, 1911 Hurre thou^t bat hurre chaufere 
. . Was set ouer a feure bothe gret & sadde, 
f C. Of rain : Heavy. Obs. 

1638 SIR T. HERBERT Trav. (ed. 2) 30 Heaven it self at 
that instant weeping so abundantly, that I never saw a 
sadder raine and of lesse continuance, c 1645 H DWELL Lett. 
(1650) I. 184 In a sad shower of rain. 

III. 11. Comb, in many adjs., chiefly para- 
synthetic, as sad-avised (quasi-a;r//. after BLACK - 
A-viB&Tfyt-cotffuredj-tpfedi-faced, -hearted, -nalured, 
-paced, -seeming, -tuned ', -voiced; sad-cake dial. 
and U.S., an unleavened cako. 

1878 BESANT & RICEA/OM& Tkcleina III. 124 She did not 
writhe as she walked ; she was not *sad-avised. 1889 
J. NICHOLSON Folk S6. E. } 'orksh. 79 *Sad keeaks and dip 
form a favourite breakfast. 1660 BLOUNT Boscobel n. (1680) 
27 His Majesty, .cloathed in a short Juppa of *sad coloured 
cloath. 1818 SCOTT ////. Midi, iv, A decent suit of sad- 
coloured clothes. 1599 SHAKS. Hen. K, i. ii. 202 The *sad- 
ey'd lustice with Ins surly humme. 1588 Tit. A. \. 
iii. 67 You *sad facde men, people and sons of Rome. 
1593 3 Hen. yi, n. v. 123 *Sad -hearted-men, much ouer- 
gone with Care, a 1568 ASCHAM Sc/tolem. i. (Arb.) 36 This 
*sadde natured, and hard witted child. 1599 MAKSTON 
6V. Villanie i. Proem., Stay his quick iocund skips, and 
force him runne A *sad pas't course, a 1633 AUSTIN Medit. 
(1635) I 3 1 So all is Joy againe ; till this "Sad-seeming 
Tyxungi come. 1597 SHAKS. Lover's Compl. 4 And downe 
I laid to list the *sad tun'd tale. 1844 MRS. BROWNING 
Wine of Cyprus vi, I am *sad-voiced as the turtle Which 
Anacreon used to feed. 
B. adv. Obs. exc. poet. 

1 1. Firmly, strongly, fixedly. Obs. 

c 1380 Sir Ferumb. 353 Loke bat bou be armed sad & hele 
by bare scolle. 11400 Dcslr. Troy 2078 He bat set is full 
sad on a soile euyn,. . Hym bar not hede to be hurt with no 
hegh falle. c 1440 Pallad. on Husv. VH. 59 Nowe potage 
ware in askes mynge, 8: kepe In oil barelles or salt tubbis 
done ; Saad cleyed wel, they saaf beth leyd to slepe. c 1473 
Pa)tenay 3859 Adieu, my suete loue prented in hert sad 1 

f2. Heavily, with force. Obs. 

la 1400 Arthur 605 pey fowjt euer sore & sadde; Men 
nyst ho be betere hadde. 1420 Avow. Arth. xxv, He 
stroke him sadde and sore. 1629 Z. BOYD Balme ofGilead 
41 (J am -) The longer the strouke be in comming it commeth 
down the sadder. 11743 RKU-H Misc. Poems (1747) 4 Up 
flew her hand to souse the cowren lad, But ah, I thought it 
fell not down owr sad. 

f3. Steadfastly. Obs. 

c 1440 Partotupe 1863 These covenauntis to holde surely 
and sadde. a 1450 MVRC lastr. Par. Priests 260 Teche 
hem alle to leue sadde, pat hyt bat ys in be awter made, 
Hyt ys verre goddes blode. 

f4. Seriously, soberly, discreetly. Obs. 

14.. /f<nv Gd. W)fe taught Dan. 198 in Q. Klis. Acad. 
(1869) 50 And bus thl frendes wylle be glade pat thou dispos 
be wyslye and sade. 

to. Thoroughly, truly, certainly. Obs. 

c 1380 WVCLIF Strm. Sel. Wks. I. 56 Maistcr, bei seiden, 
\ve witen wel bat bou art sad trewe. r 1400 Destr. Troy 
3605 In sorowmay besene whois sad wise, ciqj$Parlenay 
874 Ful wel thay sad knew it the fayry was. Ibid. 950 
Merueles, . . I se ful sad ; Neuer humain ey saw to it egal ! 

6. Sorrowfully. 

1667 MILTON f. L. iv. 28 Sometimes towards Eden.. his 
grievd look he fixes sad. 1819 KEATS Lamia n. 49 Why 
will you plead yourself so sad forlorn ? 
b. Comb. = sadly-. 

1593 SHAKS. Lucr. 1590 Which when her sad beholding 
husband saw. 1613 W. BROWNE Brit. Past. n. iv, Their 
sad-sweet glance. 

Sad (seed), v. Forms: see the adj. [f. SAD a. Cf. 
SADE t/.] 

1. trans. To make solid, firm, or stiff; lo com- 
press. Obs. exc. dial. Cf. SADDEN v. i. 

1381 WVCLIF Acts iii. 7 And anoon the groundis and 
plauntis of him ben saddid to gidere [Vulg. consolidate 
stint}. 1398 TRF.VISA Barth. De P. R. vil. Iviii. (1495) 272 
The matere is thycked and sadded and not obedyente to 
dygestyon. 14.. Tretyce in Walter vf Henley's //iist.(i$go) 


47 Sowe your wyntur corne tymely so b' your lande may be 
sadid & your corne rotyd afore b 1 grete wyntur com. i 1440 
Promf. Parv. 440/1 Saddyn, or make sadde, solido, con- 
solido. 1496 Dives q I'anf. (W. de W.) vi. xxi. 268/2 The 
fende by suffraunce of god may sadde the ayer and make 
hym a bodye of the ayer. 1807 HOGG Mtn. Bard, Sandy 
Tod in Sandy.. Then the hay, sae rowed an' saddit, 
Xowzled up that nane might ken. 

f2. To make steadfast, establish, confirm (iii}. 

1377 LANGL. /'. PI. U. x. 242 Austyn be olde here-of he 
made bokes, And hym-self ordeyned to sadde vs in bileue. 
c 1425 Orolag. Sapient, i. in A nglia X. 333/2 pe sowle bat 
is not ;it fullye saddete and stablete in be moste parfyle 
degre of loue. c 1450 tr. De Iniifatione in. 1. 120 My mynde 
is saddid [orig. soltdala est] in god, & groundid in Crist. 

1 3. To darken (a colour). Obs. 

lyft Art of Limning 4 Two parts azure and one of cereuse 
and sadded with the same azure or with blacke incke. 1634 
J. B[ATE] Myst. Nat. 124 Yon may alay your Orpment 
with chalke, and sadde it with browne of Spain [etc.]. 

t 4. To make sorrowful ; to sadden. Obs. 

1602 MARSTON Antonio's Rev. iv. iii, May it not sad your 
thoughts. 1643 PKYNNE Son. Ptmvr Parl. i. led. 2) 24 The 
Lords hearing of these proceedings were much sadded. 
1692 Ctn't. Grace Conditional 73 The Hearts of your Friends 
[are] exceedingly sadded. 1810 The Age : A Poem 3 When 
nature's visage sads the sight. 

t b. To make dull or gloomy. Obs. 

1610 G. FLETCHER C/irist's Viet. i. ix, As when a vapour 
. . ^uis the smiling orient of the springing day. 
t C. inlr. To sad it : to talk in a sad manner. 

1663 KiLLiGKtn 1'arson's Wcdd. II. v. 95 While you sad 
it thus to one. 

Sad, obs. form of SAID, SHED. 

Sadaiceus, obs. pi. of SADDUCEE. 

t Sa-dded, ///. a. Obs. [f. SAD v. + -ED 1.] In 
senses of the verb: a. Solidified; compacted. 
b. Confirmed, strengthened, c. Saddened, made 

i 1520 NISBET -V. 7'. in Scots, Ram. xv. i Hot we saddit 
men aw tosustene the febilnes of seek men, and nocht plei^e 
to our self. 1610 G. FLETCHER Christ's Tri. \. xxxviii, The 
sadded aire hung all in cheerlesse blat:ke. 1654-66 EAKI. 
PKUKKY Part/ten. (1676) 693 The sadded Soldiers marched 
in the (irst Ranks. 1680 LACY I'rol. to 'Love Lost in the 
Dark ', Which keeps our sadded Hearts in deep suspense. 

Saddeli, -ly, obs. forms of SADLY. 
Sadden (sard'n), v. [f. SAD a. + -EX.] 

1. trans. To make solid, firm, or stiff ; tocompress, 
render cohesive ; to press or beat down into a com- 
pact mass. Now dial. 

1600 G. PLAT in Worlidge Syst. Agric. (1669) 44 Also the 
roots of the Corn will spread better. .if the ground be 
saddned a little in the bottom of every hole. 1641 lilisi 
J-'aritt. fifcs. (Surtees) 77 Hee woulde have the water sattle 
away, and the grownd somewhat saddened. 1649 BLITHI. 
Eng. Iinprol'. xvii. 102 For your Lime after it is once 
Slacked, and Melted, it is of a very cold Nature ; for it 
will sadden your Land exceedingly. 1688 R. HOLME Ar- 
moury in. 73/1 Treading it [sc. Hay] is to sadden it down 
either in the Mow or Rick, &c. 1707 MORTIMER Husb. 
(1721) I. 94 If Marie sadden Land, or make it stiff or 
binding, you must dung it well. 1813 T. BATCHELOR Gen. 
1'iew Agric. BcdJ. 342 (E. D. D.), The soil below will, in- 
stead of being brought up, be trampled and saddened. 
t b. inlr. To become stiff or solid. Obs. 

1641 BEST Farm. Bks. (Surtees) 77 If there bee any winds 
aloft without raine, the grownd will sadden and the fields 
waxe dry. 1764 Museum Rust. I. xcii. 407 After which 
the ground began to sadden. 1764 ELIZA MOXON Eng. 
HOIISCTV. (ed. 9) 117 Then take them off the fire and let 
them stand a little to sadden. 

2. trans. To render sad or sorrowful; to depress in 
spirits. Also, to give a sad appearance to. 

1628 FELTHAM Resolves n. [i.] Iviii. 166 He smarts, and 
pines, and sadneth his incumbred soule. 1717 POPE Eloisa 
to Abelard 167 Her gloomy presence saddens all the scene. 
1797 MRS. RADCLIFI-E Italian i, With a heart saddened by 
disappointment. 1824 W. IRVING T. Trav. I. 28 Its beauty 
was saddened by care and anxiety. 1863 GEO. ELIOT Ro- 
tnola xx, Her round face much paled and saddened since he 
had parted from it. 1884 Graf hie 4 Oct. 358/2 It saddens 
me to enter a Government bureau at the present day. 
b. inlr. To become sad or gloomy. 

1718 POPE Iliad xiv. 558 Troy sadden'd at the View. 
1727-46 THOMSON Summer 979 And Mecca saddens at the 
long delay. 1731 SMOLLETT Per. Pic. xviii, Her countenance 
saddened in a moment. 1818 KEATS What the Thrush 
said 12 He who saddens At thought of idleness cannot be 
idle. 1859 FITZGERALD tr. Owarxxxix, Better be merry with 
the fruitful Grape Than sadden after none, or bitter, Fruit. 
fig. '795 COLERIDGE Aeolian Harp 7 And watch the clouds, 
that late were rich with light, Slow saddening round. 

3. Dyeing and Calico-printing. To tone down 
(colours) by the application of certain chemicals. 

1791 HAMILTON Berthollcfs DycingU. n. in. v. 196 These 
substances however saddened the crimson colour and gave 
it less lustre than alum. 1866 Chamb. Encycl. VIII. 414/2 
Saiiiiening, a peculiar method of applying certain mordants 
in dyeing and printing cloths, so as lo give duller shades to 
the colours employed. 1873 E. SPON Workshop Receipts 
Ser. i. 30/2 Winch 30 minutes, and lift for saddening. 1874 
SIR W. CROOKES Handbk. Dyeing f, Calico-print. 53 For 
saddening oliveSj drabs, clarets, &c., [sc. copperas] has 
been generally discarded in favour of a nitrate of iron. 

Saddened (sae-d'nd),///. a. 
Made sad. 

[f. SADDEN v. + 

1700 DRVDEN [Had i. 768 The Limping Smith observ'd the 
sadden'd Feast. 1842 MANNING Serin, xi. (1848) I. 146 
There is something peculiarly touching in the saddened tone 
of these few words. 1874 LISLE CARR Jud. Gwynne I. ii. 47 
A bright flush swept over her.. rather saddened face. 1879 
FARRAK St. Paul (1883) 58 The Resurrection of Christ had 
scattered every cloud from their saddened souls. 

Saddening (sx'd'nin), ppl. a. [-ING '*.] 

1 1. That saddens or renders stiff. Obs. 

1653 BLITHE Bug. Improv. Inipr. 135 In. .working it [lime] ! 
into the Land, .it seems Sappeares to be Coldest, and most 
sadning of Land of any Soyl whatsoever. 

2. Causing sadness. 

1742 COLLINS Oriental Ed. iv. 24 And shrieks and sorrows 
load the saddening wind. 1804 J. GEAHAMK Sabbatk 705 
He never longs to read the saddening tale Of endless wars. 
1856 FROUDE Hist. E"f. (1858) 1 1. vii. 190 The circumstances j 
under which this session opened were.. grave and sadden- I 
ing. 1884 Chr. Commw. 23 Oct. 21/3 It is saddening to . 
hear that the Sunderland engineers have been on strike for ; 
60 weeks. 

Saddil, obs. form of SADDLE. 

t Sa'dding, -M. sb. Obs. [f. SAD v. + -ING i.] 
The action of making sad. 

1643 \V. GREENHILL Axe at Root 35 Those Nations are 
remisse in Justice : besides the sadding of those are innocent, 
they abound in Delinquents and dangers. _ 1645 RtTTHER- 
FORD Tryal ff Tri. l-'aith xxiv. 277 There is a sadding of 
the spirit, . .which is forbidden. 

t Sa'dding, ///. a. Obs. [f. SAD v. + -IXG 2 .] 

a. That makes sad. b. Becoming sad. 

1630 BAXTER Saints' R. iv. vi. 7 (1654) 154 Are these 
such sadding and madding thoughts ? a 1839 GALT Demon 
Destiny v. (1840) 34 Alas ! my son, the sadding matron cried. 

Saddish, (sardij), a. [f. SAD a. + -ISH.] Some- 
what sad ^see the adj.). Also Comb. 

1647 W- t'KOWNE Pole*, ll. 265 Our Heroe..put offaswell 
all his saddish Ornaments, as his triumphant. 1686 Loud. 
Caz. No. 2192/4 A saddish coloured stuff Sute. 1848 J._H. 
NEWMAN Loss fy Gain 336 His companion, .in a hesitating, 
saddish voice, said that he was an Englishman. 

Saddle (sord'l), si/. Forms : I sadol, 3 -6 
sadel, 4-6 sadill, j-6 sadell, sadil, 5 saddill, 
sadille, -yl, -yll(e, -elle, -ul, 5, 9 Sf. saidle, 5-7 
sadle, 6- saddle. [Com. Teut. : OE. sadol, -ul 
masc. MDu. sudel (mod.Du. zaJel, :aai), OHG. 
satal, -til (MUG. said, mod.G. satlel], ON. SfSull 
(Sw., Da. sadel) : OTeut. *saitulo-z. 

Possibly adopted in OTeut. from some other Indogermanic 
language, and if '/> perh. a derivative of the root *sod; ablaut- 
var. of *sed- (see SIT r.), whence the synonymous L. sella 
(:-* scdla}, OS1. sedlo (Russian C r t^,'IO s'edlo, Pol. siodlo). 
No known language, however, has a corresponding deriva- 
tive from the o grade of the root.] 

1. 1. A seat for a rider to be used on the back 
of a horse or other animal ; esp., a concave seat of 
leather having side flaps and fitted with girths and 
stirrups. Also an analogous kind of seat for use 
on a cycle. 

J'~or tlic saddle, for riding purposes. In the saddle, on 
horseback. To lost; one's satidle, to become unhorsed. 

Beowulf '1038 (Gr.) Eahta mearas . . }>ara anum stod sadol 
. . baet wa:s luldesetl heahcynin^es. c 1205 LAV. 6473 /Kt his 
sadele an a;x. c 1250 Gen. <y Ex. 3949 Vp-on hise asse his 
sadel he dede. c 1330 A rtk . $ Men. 3871 (Kolbing) Mani 
in sadles held hem stille, & mani al so of hors felle. c 1385 
CHAUCER L. G. W. 1199 Vpon a thikke palfrey paper white 
With sadel rede..Sitte Dido. 1484 CAJJJON Chivalry 65 
Lyke as by the sadyl a knyght is sure upon his hors. 1596 
SHAKS. i Hen. IV, n. i. 6, 1 prethee Tom, beate Cuts Saddle, 
put a few Flockes in the point. 1640 tr. I'erilere^s Rom. of 
ROIII. 1 1 1. 182 [They] let lly. .with such a force, that they had 
almost lost their saddles. 1650 FULLEK Pisgah iv. v. 31. 91 
Yea, such was his persevering beauty (fair in the Cradle and 
Saddle too) that it lasted unto his old-age. 1672 PETTY 
Pol. Anat. (1691) 56 The 16,000 Families have for the Coach 
and Saddle near 40 M. Horses, a 1745 SWIFT Direct. 
Servants, Groom, Contrive that the Saddle may pinch the 
Beast in his Withers. 1837 W. IRVING Capt. Honneville I. 
113 Taking a couple of horses, one for the saddle, and the 
other as a pack-horse. 1859 TENNYSON Elaine 96 Sir King, 
mine ancient wound is hardly whole, And lets me from the 
saddle. 1887 BURY & HILLIER Cycling (Badm. Libr.) 340 A 
suitable saddle is a necessity for the comfort of the cyclist. 
fig. 163 R. Johnson's Kingd. fy Commw. 42 Nothing 
awes a great River so much as a bridge ;. .a bridge is the 
saddle to ride the Sea-horse. 

b. With qualifying word indicating a particular 
kind of saddle ; esp. great sadtlle, a saddle for the 
' great horse' (see HORSE sb. 21). 

Y at kunting, pad, portmanteau, rimtiing, war saddle, etc. 
see the first element. Also PACKSADDLE, SIDE-SADDLE. 

1508 Ace. Ld. Higli Treas. Scotl. IV. 119 Item, for v 
French sadilles to giff away; ilk sadill xxviijj. 1581 
Will of Wylteshire, iSomerset Ho.), Scottissh sadell. 1598 
FLORIO, Scrignuto tiaso, a camoset, a flat-nose, a nose 
like a scotch-saddle. 1607 MARKHAM Cavelarice vi. ix. 49 
[margin] The great horse saddle. Ibid. 50 Next vnto this 
saddle is the Morocco saddle.., and these two Saddles for 
seruice in the warres, are.. sufficient. 1644 EVELYN Diary 
i Apr., The designe is admirable, some keeping neere an 
hundred brave horses, all managed to y> greate saddle. 1663 
SIR T. HERBERT Trait. (1677) 3'4 Saddles, .high and close, 
like our great Saddle. 1688 R. HOLME Armoury in. 345/1 
A liurford Saddle, hath the Seat plain, and the Skirts plain 
and streight. 1701 P. WARWICK A/em. CAas. f, 66 He rid 
the great horse very well ; and on the little saddle he was 
..a laborious hunter, or field-man. 

t c. Saddle curule [nonce-use, tr. L. sella ctiru- 
lis\, the curule chair. 

?533. BELLENDEN Livy i. iii. (S.T.S.) I. 47 He cled him 
with riche & nail abiljementis, |>at he was wourthy to sett 
in be sadill curall. Ibid. 25, 181. 

2. Figurative phrases, a. In the saddle, in a 
position of active management and guidance of 
affairs, in office ; also, in readiness for work. Simi- 
larly to get into the saddle. To cast out of saddle . to 
deprive of office or position. 


1660 PEWS Diary 3 Mar., He told me he feared there was 
new design hatching, as if Monk had a mind to get into 
the saddle, 1675 tr. Mackitwellts Prince vii. (Rtldg. 1883) 
52 Such as by the favour of fortune, .have got into the 
saddle. 1738 NEAL Hist. Pitrit. IV. 225 The Presbyterians 
being now again in the saddle. 1819 SCOTT 1%'ajifwe xxv, 
I have known when my bare word would have cast the best 
man-at-arms among ye out of saddle and out of service. 
1879 iqtk Cent. 668 All the states of Italy accepted the new 
Pope ; and Rodrigo Borgia, once in the saddle, was not a 
man to be easily dislodged. 1881 R. G. WHITE Eng. With- 
out <$ Within, xiv. 323 The phrase ' in the saddle ' as an 
expression of readiness for work, is a peculiarly English 
phrase. 1891 S. C SCRIVENER Our Fields # Cities 28 Other- 
wise the happy-go-lucky, .system of production could not 
keep itself in the saddle to any durable extent. 

b. t To be beside the saddle : to be beside the 
mark. (Cf. CUSHION sb. 10 b.) f To put or set 
beside the saddle : to put * out of the running ', to 
defeat the plans or ruin the career of. (Cf. CUSHION 
sb. 10 c.) f70 sit beside the saddle : ?to abandon 
oneself to despair. 

1568 GKAFTON Ckron. 11.873 The French king. .fearing 
least when he had almost runne his race, King Henry would 
put him beside hys sadell, whome he did halfe suspect to be 
a back friend of hys. 1579-80 NORTH Plntarch^ Tiberius 
fy Caius (1656) 693 If he could obtain it \sc. the Consulship], 
he was fully bent to set Caius beside the saddle, a 1590 
GREENE Metcunorph. Wks. (Grosart) IX. 8x Well, howso- 
euer it be, Lucidor shall be mine, hee shall haue my heart, 
and I his, or else I will sit beside the saddle. 1644 VICARS 
God in Mount (1844) 19 As that no power either of Prince 
or Parliament, shall ever be able to set us, hereafter, beside 
the saddle. 1664 J. WEBB St0rie-fftiU[(i%2$) 36 This Doctor 
is besides the Saddle, what is now in Use is not our Enquiry. 

c. (/ will) cither win the saddle or lose the horse 
(or vice versa) : said by one engaging in an adven- 
ture of which the issue will be either highly profit- 
able or ruinous. Hence in various similar phrases. 

1579 W. WILKINSON Confut. Fam. Love 62 b, He hath 
both ieoperded the horse, and lost the saddle. 1594 NASHI-; 
Unfort. Trav. Wks. 1883-4 ^ ; - 1 3 I Whatsoever two resolute 
men will goe to dice for it, and win the bridle or lose the 
saddle. 1596 SPENSEK F. Q. iv. v. 22 But Blandamour.. 
litle prays'd his labours evill speed, That for to winne the 
saddle lost the steed. 1603 BRETON Packet Mad Lett. 7 
But my state being so downe the winde. .1 wil.. thrust rny 
selfe into some place of seruice in the warres, where I will 
either winne the Horse, or lose the Saddle. 1678 CUOWOKTII 
Inteli. Syst. i. v. 42. 894 They.. resolve either to 'win the 
saddle or loose the Horse '. 

d. r fo lay or set the saddle upon the right horse 
(and similar phrases) : to lay the blame on the 
right person. 

1635 in Sainsbury Cat. of Court J\Hn. E, I. Co. (1907) 15 
[Resolving how they might] sett the saddle upon the right 
horse. 1652 COLLINCES Ctnttatjbr Prof. (1653) ii. C i, You 
have laid the saddle upon the wrong Horse, a 1653 GOUGE 
Comin. Hebr. xi. 37 To remove this scandal, the apostle 
setteth the saddle on the right Horse, and sheweth, that 
[etc.J. 1690 WOOD Life 25 July (O.H.S.) III. 336 E. G. 
with child, layd on the tapster, who said that ' set the saddle 
on the right horse '. 1727 DE FOE Syst. Magic \. iii. (1840) 

myself, and put the saddle upon the right horse ! 1839 
HOOD Tale of a Trumpet xlviii, And the cat at last escapes 
from the bag And the saddle is placed on the proper nag. 
e. To put (one) to every corner of or to all the 
seats of (one's) saddle ; to compel to try every ex- 
pedient. .Sif. 

1825 SCOTT in Lockhart Life (i 837) V I. 24, 1 have the dregs 
of Abbotsford House to pay for. .so I must look for some 
months to be put to every corner of my saddle. 18*5 JAM IB- 
SON Diet. s.v., To put one to a" the scats o' the Saddle^ to 
nonplus, to gravel one, S. 

I. In proverbial similative phrases. 

1566 KNOX Hist. Kef. Wks. (1846) I. 242 Als seimlye a 

sight., as to putt a sadill upoun the backofaneunrewlykow. 

: 1663 Aron+bimn. 88 But for this pretence of pulling down 

i Antichrist, it is a saddle that will fit any back. 1677 W. 

i HUGHES Man of Sin \\. xii. 215 That becometh him as 

i handsomely (according to our Proverb) as A saddle doth 

a Cowes back. 

3. That part of the harness of a shaft-horse which 
takes the bearing of the shafts (see quot. 1851); a 

: cart- or gig-saddle. 

[1377; see cartsaddle vb., CART sb. 6. 1425 Voc. in 
; Wnght-Wulcker 66^/^ffocdorsilolluin, cartsadylle.] 1794 
, [see HOUSING sb.- 2 b]. 1837 MARRY AT Olla Podr. xxxvi, 
I The shaft horse neither felt his saddle nor his belly-band. 
1851 H. STEPHENS Bk. of the Farm (ed. 2) I. 430 The 
shaft-horse requires bridle, collar, haims, saddle, and breech- 
ing, to be fully equipped. .. The saddle as saddle and 
breeching together are commonly called U placed on the 
| horse's back immediately behind the shoulder. i8s6'STONt:- 
HESGE ' Brit. Rural Sports m. in. iv. 543/1 The supporting 
and backing part [of gig harness] consists of the Pad or 
Saddle. . .This has two rings for the reins, called theTerrets, 
i and a Hook for the bearing rein. 1875 [see PAD sb. 3 2 b]. 
1882 J. PHILIPSON Harness 25 The pad is sometimes used 
instead of a saddle for single harness. 

II. Something resembling a saddle in shape or 

4. Physical Geogr. t Mining, etc. a. A depression 
in a hill or line of hills. [So G. sattel.] b. A long 

i elevation of land with sloping sides ; a ridge, esp. 
one connecting two hills ; also, a similar formation 
of ice or snow. 

1555 EDEN Decades 350 A lowe longe lande, and a longe 
poynt, with a saddle throwgh the myddeste of it. 1697 
DAMHER Voy. (1699) 267 A very high Hill, .with a Saddle 


or bending on the top. 1779 FORREST Voy. New Guinea 
159 [We) discerned other land, bearing from N. W. to 
W. N. W. forming in saddles and hummocs. 1833 M. SCOTT 
To>n Cringle xix, There was a long narrow saddle or ridge 
of limestone about five hundred feet high. 1839 MURCHISQN 
Silur. Syst. i. 134 The carboniferous strata are thrown into 
partial saddles and curvatures. 1860 TVNUALL Glac. i. xvi. 
108 The- .glacier. .being terminated by a saddle which 
stretches across from mountain to mountain. 1862 MEKI- 
VALE Row. J'~.inp. (1865) V. xl. 23 The Palatine is connected 
with the Esquihne by the low rxlge or saddle of the Velia. 
1871 L. STEPHEN Playgr. itr. (1894) 130 We stepped at 
last on to the little saddle of snow. 1876 GREEN Phys.Geol. 
* 3- 347 When the beds have been bent into the form of 
arches these are called Anticlinals or Saddles. 

6. In mechanical uses. a. Naut. A block of wood, 
hollowed out above and below, fastened to a spar 
to take the bearing of another spar attached to it. 

1512-13 Ace, Ld. High Treas. Scot, IV. 463 Item, .for 
viij greit treis to mak the sadillis to the greit schip and 
Margret . . xlviij s. 1769 FALCONER Diet. Marine (1780.1, 
Saddle, a small . . wooden block,. . nailed on the lower yard- 
arms, to retain the studding-sail booms in a firm and steady 
position. 1882 NARES Seamanship (ed. 6) 178 To get the 
heel of the boom, .down in the saddle. 

b. Bridge-constriiction. (a] A block on the top 
of a pier to carry the suspension cables, (d) A 
frame used in the construction of a pontoon-bridge 
(see quot. 1853). 

1831 J. HOLLAND Manuf. Metal I. 108 On the extreme 
height of the suspension piers are placed the cast iron blocks 
or saddles. 1853 SIR H. DOUGLAS Milit. Bridges (ed. 3) 30 
The Saddle [of a pontoon bridge] is a frame of fir timber, 
which is placed centrally over the axis of a pontoon.. and 
serves to receive the ends of the balks. 1868 Daily Tel. 
14 Apr., A fresh pontoon was brought alongside, fresh 
saddles were lashed to it, another length of balks.. was 
dropped into the saddle. 1876 Encycl. Brit. IV. 301/2 
Suspension Bridges. The chains where they pass over the 
piers rest on saddles. 

c. A * seat ' or support on which a gun is placed 
for bouching. 

1862 F. A. GRIFFITHS A r til. Man. (ed. 9) 190 Saddle [for 
Armstrong gun], with Tightening Screws. 1875 in KNIGHT 
Diet. Meek. 

d. (See quot. 1888.) 

1888 Lockivood's Diet. Mech. Engiti* s. v., The seatings or 
supports which carry horizontal cylindrical boilers.. are 
called saddles. 1899 Daily News p Mar. 5/3 The saddles 
that held the six thirty-ton boilers in place broke. 

e. Telegraphy. A bracket to support the wire 
on the top of a pole or ridge. 

1867 R. S. CULLEY Praci. Telegr. (ed. 2) 122 The saddle 
or bracket must be fixed with screws. 1885 ibid. (ed. B) 
148 At the top of the pole a galvanised iron roof is fixed, 
and over it a cast-iron saddle, into which the insulator bolt 
fits. 1884 Law Times Rep. LI. 161/2 The attachments to 
buildings were made . . by means of standards or ridge 
saddles attached to the roofs. 

f. Railways. (? U.S.} (a) The bearing resting on 
the journal of an axle in the axle-box, (b} A chair 
for a rail. 1875 in KNIGHT Diet. Mech. 459, 2011. 

g. In various machines : The base of a slide rest, 
drilling head, etc., which slides along its support. 

1869 W. J. M. RANKINE Cyct. Mach. $ Hand-Tools Plate 
H 8 The self-acting motion for the saddles is arranged as 
follows. 1869 Eng. Mech. 24 Dec. 355/1 The saddle (which 
carries the wood) is drawn to the hand-wheel end of the 
machine. 1879 CasselCs Techn. Educ. IV. 264/2 The lower 
part of the slide-rest is termed the 'saddle'. 1888 Lock' 
wood's Diet. Mech. Engin. t Saddle t the base of a slide resU 
..Similarly, the sliding plate which carries the drill spindle 
and gear wheels of a radial drill. 

h. (a) A saddle-shaped electrical conductor. () 
A concave pad to be applied to a limb that is to 
be electrified. 

1838 FARADAY Exper. Researclies (1844) II. 5 A plate of 
copper.. was bent into a saddle shape,.. a jacket of sheet 
caoutchouc was put over the saddle. 1849 NOAD Electricity 
(ed. 3) 492 If, then, we wish to administer direct shocks to 
I a paralytic limb, say the leg, we apply a sponge director or 
saddle.. to the hip. 

i. In various applications : see quots. 

1750 BLANCKLEY Nav. Expositor^ Saddles are used by 
Ihe Smiths to turn Thimbles hollow on. 1835 LOUDON 
Encyct. Arch. 492 To pebble-pave the byres.. with proper 
cribstone and saddle (the former partitions off the crib ; 
and the latter the gutter behind). 1856 MOKTON Cycl. 
Agric.) Provincialisms^ Saddle, (Fife', that part of stall 
between manger and grip. 1873 E. SPON Workshop Re- 
ceipts Ser. i. 61/2 [Varnish making.] A saddle, which is 
a sheet of plate-iron, or tin, 12 in. broad, and turned up 
ii in. at each side.. to prevent the spilling of the varnish 
during the time of taking, .out. 1875 T. SEATON Fret Cut- 
ting 76 There are two very efficient aids to the saw.. .The 
first is the bench saddle. ..It b a piece of wood with reverse 
shoulders ; the under shoulder nooks against the side of 
the bench,., the upper shoulder catches any piece of wood 
laid against it for sawing. 1884 W. S. B. MCLAREN Spin- 
ning 250 Saddles, the steel bars in a gill box on which the 
fallers travel. 1887 Archit. Publ. Soc.Dict.^ Saddle, a term 
used in Suffolk for a thin piece of wood fixed on the floor 
between the jambs of a door and under it. 

6. Cookery. In full saddle of mutton. A e joint ' 
of mutton, venison, etc., consisting of the two loins 
and conjoining vertebra;. 

1747 MRS. GLASSE Cookery $ The Saddle of Mutton (which 
is the two Lpin.s). Ibid. 24 To French a Hind Saddle of 
Mutton. It is the two Rumps. 1789 MRS. PIOZZI t )onrn. 
France II. 338 A saddle of mutton, or more properly a 
chine. 1806 PIKE Sources Mississ. (1810) 75 Hams and 
saddles of venison. 1844 H. STEPHENS Bk. of the Farm II. 
99 When cut double, forming the chine or saddle. 1859 
All Year Round No. 29. 57 Nowhere can thu equal of a 


Sussex haunch or saddle he obtained. 1890 L. C. D'Ovi.R i 
Notclies p. ix, They took merely the skins and ' saddle ' of 
the antelope they killed. 

7. Applied to certain parts of animals, a. A I 
natural saddle-like marking on the back of the ,: 
Harp Seal. Cf. SADDLE-BACK sb. 4 c. 

1784 PENNANT Arctic ZooL I. 165 The Newfoundland i 
Seal-hunters call it the Harp, or Heart Seal, and name the I 
marks on the sides the saddle. 1884 GOODE, etc. Nat. 
Hist. Aqttatic Anim. 62. 

b. Conchol. f (a, A saddle-oyster (see 10) ; () 
see quot. 1851. 

1815 S. BROOKES Introd. Conchol. 156 Saddle, Anomia 
Sella. 1851 WOODWARD Mollusca 78 The shell.. is an ex- 
tremely elongated cone, ..divided into cells or chambers by 
a series of partitions (septa). . . When they are folded, the ele- 
vations are called ' saddles '. 1894 Geol. Mag. Oct. 436 Shell 
(cast)discoidal, with somewhat inflated whorls;.. outer saddle 
only partly known. 
C. (See quot.) 

1872 L. WRIGHT Poultry xvii. 205 Saddle, the posterior 
part of the back, reaching to the tail, in a cock, answering ; 
to the cushion in a hen; often, however, applied to both 
sexes, cushion being more restricted to a great development, 
as in Cochins, while 'saddle 'may be applied to any breed. 

8. Bot. A ridge separating the fovea and foveola 
in the leaves of Isoetes. 

1882 VINES tr. Sachs' Bot. 475 Above the fovea and sepa- 
rated from it by the ' saddle', lies a smaller depression. 

III. attrib. and Comb. 

0. Simple attrib., as saddle-flap >-girt t -girth, -horn 
(HORN to. 2 1 b), -lap, -lashing, -naif, t-// (PANEL 
sb.l i \ -place, -pommel, -soap, -spring -strap, 
-stuffings-tack, -withers ; saddle-like adj. ; with the 
sense * used for riding ', as saddle-ass, -colt, 'horse, 
mare, -ox, pony ; with the meaning ' saddle-shaped 1 , 
as saddle flange, key ; in the names of affections 
incident to the use of the saddle, as saddle-bruise^ 
raw, soreness ; also appositivc, as (sense 5 a) saddle- 
crutch, (sense 4) -glacier, (sense $g)-picce ; objective, 
as soiidle-maker, -making. 

1657 J. WATTS yind. Ch. Eng. 112 God once opened the 
mouth of Balaams *Saddle-asse. 1709 Lond. Gaz. No. 4523/4 
He had. .a white Spot on his Back, that came by a "Saddle- 
bruise. 1707 MORTIMKR Hnsb. (1721) I. 208 The first Year 
'Saddle-Colts should only be walked. 1867 SMYTH Sailors 
Word-bk. s. v. Saddles, We have a *saddle-crutch for the 
main or driver boom on the taffarel. 1888 Lockivood"s 
Diet, Mech. Engin., ^Saddle Flange, a curved flange hol- 
lowed out to fit a boiler, a pipe, or other cylindrical vessel. 
1844 H. STEPHENS Bk. of the Farm II. 219 The *saddle- 
flaps should be sponged clean of mud. 1813 J. C. Hon- 
HOUSE Journey (ed. 2) 712 We.. found the stream as high 
as the *saddle-girts. 1813 SCOTT Rokeby \\. xxxiii, And, 
bursting in the headlong sway, The faithless "saddle- 
girths gave way. 1884 Pall Mall G. 10 June n/i The 
summit of the [Kangla] pass., is crowned by a noble 
*saddle glacier. 1890 L. C. D'OVLE Notches 73, I.. threw 
the rein of his horse up over the *saddle-horn. 1661 GERBIER 
Principles 32 To accustome the Neapolitan great *Saddle- 
Horse to raise their Neck. 1867 TROLLOPE Chron. Bar set 
I. xxvii. 238 He hired a saddle-horse, .and started after 
breakfast. 1888 Lock-wood's Diet. Mech. Engin., *Saddle 
Key, a key whose inner face is hollowed to fit its shaft. 
1803 Scott's Minstrelsy III, 266 He louted owr his *saddle 
lap, To kiss her ere they part. 1812 A. CUNNINGHAM 
Tradit. Tales, Last Ld. of Helvellyn(.\%fy} 217 My fathers 
have fought to the saddle-laps in English blood for the men 
of the house of Maxwell, c 1860 H. STUART Seaman* s 
Catech. i The muzzle and *saddle lashings of guns. 1784 
J. KING CooWs I'oy. III. vi. iii. 238 On each side of this 
break the land is quite low ; beyond the opening rises a 
remarkable "saddle-like hill. ( 1500 Melitsine 43 Ray- 
mondyn sent for a *Sadlemaker, to whom he said : ' ^Iy muste cutte this hyde in fourme of a thonge'. 
1886 Encycl. Brit. XXI. 142/1 The saddle-maker has to 
consider the ease and comfort of both horse and rider. Ibid., 
*Saddle-making and the cutting and sewing of bridles. 
1707 Lond. Gaz. No. 4312/3 Lost.., a bay *Saddle Mare. , 
1875 KNIGHT Diet. Mech., * Saddle-nail,^, short nail having i 
a large, smooth head, used in making saddles. 1824 W. J. 
BUHCHELL Trav. S. Africa Index, s.v. Oxen, *Saddle Oxen: i 
their rate of travelling. 1465-6 Durh. Ace. Rolls (Surtees) | 
90 Pro ij *Sadillpanell empt. pro le ffissheman, ij s. iiij d. 
1725 BRADLEY Fam. Diet. s. v. Saddle, Some stuff their \ 
Saddle-Pannels with well dry'd Moss. 1825 J. NICHOLSON 
Operat. Mechanic 322 When the screw is turned round, the | 
'saddle-piece will slide uniformly along the triangular bar. 
1890 SLINGO & BROOKER Elcctr. Engin. xvii. 600 The chan- | 
nelling [for underground cables] consists of blocks of bitu- i 

ruinous concrete made in six-foot lengths and jointed by | 
a saddle-piece of the same material. 1707 MORTIMER Hush. \ 
(1721) I. 209 Whoever, .takes not off his [horse's] Saddle 

'till he is cold, and then rubs the *Saddle-place well. 
1593 MARKHAM Horsemanship BSD, Casting the raynes 
thereof ouer the *Saddle pomell. 1900 H. SUTCLIFI K 
Shameless Wayne y.yC\\ . (1905) 308 His return blow, .grazing ' 
the Lean Man's saddle-pummel as it fell. 1887 ANSTEY in 
Macm. Mag. Feb. 261/2 My riding was interrupted for a ' 
while. Brutus was discovered, .to have a *saddle-ra\v. 1889 
Field 7 Dec. LXXIV. 793/2 The *saddle soap made by , 

Messrs. B . 1907 Daily Chron. i Mar. 7/5 *Saddle ] 

soreness is provoked if every stroke of the pedals extends , 
the leg to the utmost. 1887 BUHY & HILLIF.R Cycling \ 
(Badm. Libr.) 340 The combined *sad die-springs recently \ 
introduced. 1753 CHAMBERS CycL Supp., *Saddlt'-strnps '. 
..are used to hold the girths fast to the saddle. 1890 
1 R. BOLDREWOOD ' Col. Reformer (1891) 193 Cut a straight 
sapling while we rouse out the saddle-straps for a splice. 
1871 KINGSLEY At Last xiii, We saw the husk carded out 
. .for..*saddle-stufnng. 1821 Blacfav. Mag. IX. 132 Hogg 
should purchase a pennyworth of *saddle-tacks, and.. nail ! 
the ears of the Gude Grey Catte to his stable-door. 17*5 
BRADLEY Fam. Diet. s.v. Saddle, The 'Saddle- Withers 
should be low. 


1O. Special comb., as saddle-band Sc., ?the 
band of a pedlar's pack ; saddle-bar, (a) Glazing, 
each of the small horizontal iron bars (fitting over 
the upright stanchions) to which the lead panels are 
secured; (f>) Saddlery (see quot. 1875); saddle- 
billed a., an epithet applied to the stork Ephippio- 
rhynchus senegalensis, from the recurved shape of 
its bill ; f saddle bitten a., galled with a saddle ; 
saddle-blanket U.S., a small blanket used, folded, 
as a saddle-cloth ; saddle boiler, a boiler of con- 
cave form for use with heating apparatus ; saddle- 
bracket, (a) a receptacle for a saddle when not in 
use ; (b) Telegr. 5 e above ; saddle carp (see 
quot.) ; saddle-carpenter, one who makes the 
frames or trees of saddles ; saddle-case, f (a) the 
housing of a saddle (o/>s.) ; (6) a travelling case for 
a saddle ; f saddle-charge, ? a saddle load ; 
saddle clip (see quot.) ; f saddle drum, ? a small 
drum carried on the saddle ; saddle-eaves //., 
jocularly used for the side of a saddle; saddle- 
fast ., firmly seated in the saddle; saddle- 
gall, a sore produced on the back of a horse by 
the chafing of the saddle ; saddle-galled a., chafed 
with the saddle ; affected with saddle-gall ; saddle- 
grafting (see quot.) ; t saddle-hill, a saddle- 
back hill ; saddle-house, t (a) a saddle-cloth 
(ois.) ; (A) a building in which saddlery is kept ; 
saddle-iron .?<., a stirrup ; saddle-joint, (a}Mec/i. 

see quot. 1875); (k) Building (see quot. 1901); 
(c) Anal, (see quot. 1897); saddle leaf L". S., 
the saddle-tree, or American tulip-tree (Cent. 
Diet. 1891); saddle-leather, the leather compos- 
ing a saddle ; also, leather specially prepared 
for saddle-making ; saddle-mat, a mat used in the i 
Western U. S. as a saddle-cloth ; saddle-nose, 
(a) a flat or snub-nose ; (/>'] see quot. 1 897 ; 
saddle-nosed a., having a saddle-nose; also, of a 
bird ' having a soft nasal membrane saddled on the 
bill' {Cent. Diet.}; saddle-oyster, a name given j 
to certain anomioid bivalves, the shape of which 
resembles that of a saddle ; saddle-pin, the pin 
of a cycle saddle which fits into a socket on the 
cycle frame ; saddle pistol, a holster pistol ; 
saddle-plate, the bent plate which forms the 
arch of the furnace in steam boilers of the locomo- 
tive type (Cent. Diet.") ; saddle-quern (see quot.); 
saddle-rack = saddle-bracket (a) ; saddle-rail, : 
-reed (see quots.) ; f saddle-rings, circular marks 
on the back of a horse caused by the abrasion 
of the saddle; saddle-roof, a saddleback roof; 
saddle-room, a room in which saddlery is kept 
when not in use ; saddle-rug, a saddle-cloth made 
of carpeting (Cent. Diet.}; saddle sealing, hunt- 
ing and catching the saddleback seal; saddle seat 
dial., a horse for riding purposes; saddle-shaped 
a. , resembling a saddle in shape ; Geol., anticlinal ; 
saddle-shell = saddle-oyster ; saddle-sick a., Sc., 
indisposed through riding; f saddle side, the con- j 
cave lower side (of the liver) ; saddle-skirts pi., 
the lowermost parts of a saddle ; also, the part 
of a horse's flanks covered by these ; saddle- 
sore a., chafed with the saddle ; f saddle-speck, 
a mark caused by the abrasion of the saddle ; 
saddle spot = prec. ; hence saddle-spotted a. ; ' 
saddle-stead poet,, the place of the saddle ; , 
saddle-stone, (a) Arch., thestone forming the angle 
at the summit of the coping of a gable ; (b) ' an i 
old name for a variety of stone containing saddle- 
shaped depressions' (Cent. Diet.) ; saddle-stool 

= saddle-bracket (a) ; saddle-tank (see qnot. 

1871) ; also attrib. as saddle-tank engine (see 
quot. 1888); t saddle tore (see quot.); saddle 
wire Telegr., the wire running along the tops of 
telegraph posts. Also SADDLE BACK, -BAG, -BOW, 


a 1604 in Row Hist. Kirk (1842) 463 It [sc. the ministrie] 
will die in thy hand Therefor the backe shall beare the 
*sadle-band. 1815 J. NICHOLSON Ofierat. Mechanic 638 
Frames [in lead-work] intended to receive these lights are 
made with bars across, to which the lights are fastened., 
called *saddle-bars. 1874 MICKLETHUAITF. Mod. Par. 
Churches 293 It is now most common to place the saddle- 
bars outside the glass. 1875 KNIGHT Diet. Mcch., Saddle-bar, 
the side-bar, side-plate, or spring-bar of a saddle-tree, one on 
each side connecting the pommel and cantle. 1877 Nature 
17 May 54/1 The additions to the Zoological Society's 
Gardens, .include, .a *Saddle-billed Stork. 1592 GREENE 
Cimny Catch, n. Wks.(Grosart)X. 80 He. .made him spotted 
in the backe, as if he had been "saddle bitten. 1885 I!. 
HARTF. Maruja vi, His quick eye was attracted by a 
saddle-blanket. 1881 Encycl. Brit. XII. 228/2 The 'saddle 
boiler is very efficient in form, steady and sure in its work- 
ing. 1885 Basaar 30 Mar. 1254/2 Wanted, saddle boiler heat small greenhouse. 1844 H. STKPHENS Bk. of the 
I'arin I. 190 The riding-horse-stable should have *saddle- 
brackets. 1876 PRF.ECE & SIVF.WRICHT Telegraphy 210 If 
a wire is to be run along the top of the pole, brackets. . 
named saddle-brackets, or simply saddles, are. .used. 1888 


G. B. GOODH Aiiie^'. Fishes 416 When there is a row of large 
scales down the hack it [sc. the King Carp] is called the 
' *SaddIe Carp'. (11720 W. GIBSON Diet of Horses viii. 
(ed. 3) 125 A Country where there is perhaps the most 
expert *Saddle-C'arpenters and Saddlers in the World. 
1753 CHAMHERS Cycl. Supp., * Saddle-case. See the article 
Housing. 1895 Army $ Navy Co-op. Sac. Price List 497 
Tin-lined Saddle Cases for Ladles' Saddles, a 1500 Lat. 
fy Eng. Voc. in Wr.-Wiilcker 609/35 Sannta, a *Sadyl- 
charge. 1884 KNIGHT Diet. Mech. Suppl., *Saddlc Clip, a 
clip which straddles the spring and axle. 1617 PURCHAS 
Pilgrimage (ed. 3) 593 "Saddle drummes of gold set with 
stones, vsed in Hawking. 1663 BUTLER Hudibras i. i. 412 
Hut after many strains and heaves, He got up to the *saddle- 
eaves. 1805 SCOTT Last Minstr. in. vi, Still sate the war- 
rior *saddle-fast. 1726 Diet. Rust. (ed. 3), ^Saddle-gall. 
1831 YOUATT Horse 169 For saddle galls there is no better 

LOUDON Encycl. Card. 2032 *Saddle.grafting is performed 
by first cutting the top of the stock into a wedge-like form, 
and then splitting up the end of the scion. ; it is then 
placed on the wedge, embracing it on each side. 1773 
Cook's \st Voy, n. vii. in Haiukes'vortJts I'oy. III. 419 
There "is,, .very near the shore, a remarkable *saddle-hi!I. 
1431-2 Ditrh. Ace. Rolls (Surtees) 231 Et in j novahakney- 
sadyll et j nova *Sadyllehouse. 1799 Hull Advertiser 
12 Oct. i/i A very excellent Mansion House with conch 
house, saddle house and stabling. 1870 E. PEACOCK RalJ 
Skirl. III. 101 The Squire sought out Bob in the saddle- 
house. i82 GAI.T Gilhaize \. 3 His father having a profit- 
able traffic in *saddle-irons and bridle-rings among the gal- 
lants of the court. 1875 KNIGHT Diet. Mech., "Saddle-joint, 
a form of joint for sheet-metal.. .One portion overlaps and 
straddles the vertical edge of the next. 1897 Syd. Soc. Le.\- ., 
Saddle-joint^ a joint in which the articulating bony surfaces 
are convex in one direction and concave in the other. 1901 
K. STURGIS Diet. Arc/tit, s.v. Joint, Saddle Joint. In a 
weathered course of masonry, ..a joint formed between 
two adjoining .stone.s whose ends are cut higher than the 
surface of the weathering between. These projections at 
the ends are usually sloped or rounded away from the joint as to shed water from the mortar. 1832 TF.NNVSON 
Lady of Shaiott m. iii, Thlck-jewell'd shone the *saddl<-- 
leather. 1883 Century Mat;: Aug. 523/1 Mats, called 
' cocas', .. are much sought after by California ranchmen 
as *saddle-ni;it>. 1626 BACON Syh'a 27 The Raising 
gently of the Bridge of the Nose [of an infant], doth preuctu 
the Deformity of a ^Saddle Nose. 1897 Syd. Soc. Lex., 
Sad<tfe-npsc, a nose the bridge of which has sunk, in con- 
sequence of necrosis of the nasal bones. 1598-9 HAKLUVT 
I ~oy. I. 101 His wife, .had cut and pared her nose betweene 
the eyes, that she might seeme to be more flat and *saddle- 
nosed. 1742 C. JARVIS Quix. I. in. ii. 86 An Asturian wench, 
broad- faced, fiat-headed, and saddle-nosed. 1856 Woo nw A HI > 
Mollusca 256 P[laci(jia\ sclla, called, from its shape, the 
'^addle-oyster', is remarkably striated. 1896 ll'estni. Caz. 
28 Apr. 5/2 He carried the despatches in the *sadd!e-pin of his 
bicycle. 1881 GREENER Gun 376 The Double-grip ^Saddle 
Pistol. Side-lever action Saddle Pistol. 1872 J. P^VANS Aitc. 
Stone Impl, x. 226 The name of *saddle-quern has been given 
to this form of grinding apparatus [sc. a bed-stone slightly 
hollowed on its upper surface and a large oval pebble for 
a muller]. 1890 A. T. FISHER ThrongJi the Stable xii. 
03 *Saddle-racks are usually fixed to the walls of a sad- 
dle-room. 1875 KNIGHT Diet. Mech., * Saddle-rail, a 
railway rail which has flanges straddling a longitudinal 
and continuous sleeper. Ibid., *Saddle-reed, small reeds 
used in the place of cord to form the edges of gig- 
saddle sides. 1694 Land. Gaz. No. 3017/4 Stolen ..a 
brown bay Mare with a bald Face, ^Saddle-rings [etc.]. 
1875 KNIGHT Diet. Mech., *Saddle-roof, a double gabled 
roof. 1883 B'hatn Weekly Post 18 Aug. 8/6 He procured 
a loaded gun from the *sad die-room. 1888 Encycl. Brit. 
XXIV. 527/1 The majority of the vessels, after prosecuting 
the ' "saddle ' sealing at Newfoundland or Greenland, pro- 
ceed direct to Disco. 1895 ' HUGH HAI.IBURTON ' Dunbarjo 
Farmers that hed a *saddle seat,. . Keep nae beast noo but 
cats an 1 mice. 18^3-4 J. PHILLIPS Geol. in Encycl. Mctrop. 
(1845) VI. 594/2 Ihe limestone is uplifted into a *saddle- 
shaped or anticlinal ridge. 1870 ROLLESTON Anini. Life 17 
Being concave from side to side and therefore saddle- shaped. 
1900 B. D. JACKSON Gloss. Hot. Terms, Saddle-shaped, 
applied to such valves of Diatoms as those of Coscinodiscns. 
1863 J. G. WOOD Xat. Hist. III. 419 *Saddle-shell, Anomia 
ephippiutn. 1823 GALT Entail vii, Weel do I ken what it 
is to be *saddle-sick mysel'. 1844 MRS. CARLYLE Let. j July, 
New Lett. & Mem. 1903 I. 140 The gjrls were dreadfully 
saddle-sick. For me, my old habit of riding, I suppose, had 
saved me. 1615 CROOKE Body of Man i The inward face 
of the Liuer which is the lower, is. . hollow, vnequall, and is 
called the Sintus or ^saddle side, that it may giue way to 
thestomacke strutting, .with plenty of meat. 1610 MARK HAM 
Maister-p. n. xliv. 286 Of Wennes or Knobs growing about 
the * saddle skirts, a 1656 USSHER^MW. vi. (1658) 153 Pharna- 
bazus. .rid his horse into the very sea, up to his saddle-skirts. 
ft 1725 THORESBY/J/Vzryf 1830) J. 295 We missed the deepest of 
the Wash . .though we rode to the saddle-skirts for a consider- 
able way. 1907 Daily Chron. 22 Oct. 8/4 Nicholas *saddle- 
sore by this time, and the mare too weary to shy. 1685 Lond. 
Gaz. No. 2062/4 Lost a black Coach Slare.., hath a small 
> Saddle-speck. 1668 Ibid. No. 272/4 A Baye Mare, no 
white, save some ^Saddle spots. 1676 Ibid, No. 1098 '4 
Stolen.., a large brown bay Coach Gelding, ..^saddle- 
spotted. 1876 MORRIS Sigurd n. 133 And his war-gear 
clanged and tinkled as he leapt to the *saddle-stead. 1843 
Civil Eng. $ Arch. Jrnl. VI. 320/1 Modern gables too are 
generally awkwardly terminated at the eaves by..*saddle 
stones. 1856 'STONEHENGE' Brit. Rural Sports 583/2 
Hooks and *saddle-stools, or brackets, for the saddles or 
harness. 1871 Young Gentleman s Ann. Dec. 28 Other 
engines of this class [sc. tank-engines], however, carry their 
water in a tank (called a *saddle-tank) which rests on the 
top of the boiler. 1888 Lockivood's Diet. Mech. Engin., 
Saddle Tank Engine ^ a locomotive engine in which the 
water tank envelops the top and sides of the boiler. 1681 
COLVIL Whigs 1 Supplic. (1741) 13 A Pistol, .at either "Saddle 
tore. Note. Saddle tore, Saddle />VH. 1876 PREECE & 
SIVEWRJGHT Telegraphy 253 The most important circuit is 
generally worked upon the "saddle wire. 


Saddle (sard'l), v. Forms: I sadolian, sade- 
lian, 3-6 sadel, (6 -ell), 4-5 sadyl(l, (5 -yUe), 
4-7 sadle, (5 sadulle, sadil, 6 -ill), 6- saddle. 
[OE. sadolian, f. sadol SADDLE si>. ; cf. MLG. 
sadtln, MDu. sadden, Du. zadelen, OHG. satalon 
(MHG. satelen, mod.G. satteln), ON. soSla (Sw. 
sad/a, Da. sadle}.'] 

1 trans. To put a riding-saddle upon (a horse or 
other animal) ; also to saddle up. Also al'sol. 

ciooo /ELFRIC Gram, xxviii. (Z.) 165 Sterna.. K sadelige 
hors. c 1205 LAV. 13512 Fortiger hahte his swemes sadell 
his blonken i 3 oo K. Horn 763 (Cambr MS ) Horn 
sadelede his stede. c 1320 Sir Beues r^ (MS. A.) > Beues 
let sadlen is ronsi. .388 WVCLIF . Kings xli, 13 And 
seide to hise sones, Sadie 3 e an asse to me. And wbanne 
thei hadden sadlid, he stiede, and jede after the man of God 
CI420 Sir Amadace (Camden) xxviu, Quen Sir Amadace 
hade etun, To sadulle his horse was nojte forjetun. 1485 
A' ,,tlond Papers (Camden) 4 A spare coursar lad in hand 
sadletwith a saddell of estate. 1587 rujBKRV. Trag. J. i 
iv. 69 b He sadled vp his horse, and roade in post awa>. 
,637 J WILLIAMS Holy Table 206 What needs the Write, 
saddk up his Horse. 176. GRAY Odin 2 Uprose the king . 
And saddled strait his coal-black steed. 1839-55 W. R\ ING 
Wolfert's Roost 47, I almost determined.. to. .saddle mj 
horse, and ride off. 1901 Daily Chron. 27 Aug. 5/5, I 'hen 
asked him to saddle-up my horse while I was dressing. 
t-b. intr. or absol. To inure a colt to the saddle. I 

1656 Markham's Perfect Horseman 19 When to Saddle. 
C. To saddle and bridle fig. , to subject to control. 

1864 LOWELL Fireside Trar. 133 The cover [of the kettle] 
was chattering with the escaping steam, which had thus 
vainly begged of all men to be saddled and bridled, til 
James Watt one day happened to overhear it. 

1 2. trans. To ride, bestride (an animal). Also 

Iransf. Obs. 

1550 BALE Eng. Votaries n. 18 b, Take that benefyce to 
you (sayth he to the priest) but saddle nomore the nonne. j 
1585 JAS. I Ess. Poesie (Arb.) 68 Vpon Alhallow ene, | 
Ouhen our gude nichtbors rydis..Some sadland a sho ape, 
..Some hotcheand on a hemp stalk. 1598 R. DALLINGTON 
Meth Trav. X 2 b, No maruell then, the bridle being left 
ii. their owne [French wives'] hands, though sometimes they 
be saddled, and their husbands know not. 1713 PETIVER | 
in Phil. Trans. XXVIII. 184 Its lower Leaves are ike the 
Garden Poppy, which higher saddle or ride the Stalk. 

3. intr. To get into the saddle. In Colonial use 
to saddle up. 

,835 BL-RNES Trar. Bokhara (ed. 2) II. 198 We dressed 
ourselves.. and saddled at three P.M. 1849 E. E. NAPIER 
Excurs. S. Africa II. 12 Another term of Colonial import 
is that of 'saddling-up', and 'off-saddling . 1863 W. C. 
BALDWIN Afr. Hunting ii. 33 We saddled and went in pur- 
suit. 1865 KINGSLEY Herew. I. i. 61 Ay. every churl who 
owns a manor, must needs arm and saddle and levy war. 
1890 'R. BOLDREWOOD' Col. Reformer (1891) 206 Bothwell, i 
myself, and the six troopers, saddled up and departed. 

4. trans. To charge or load with (a burden); now 
only jig. to load with (something ) as a burden. 

1693 DRYDF.N Persius v. 207 The Slaves thy Baggage pack, 
Each saddled with his Burden on his Back. 1728 VANBRUGH 
& CIBBER Prov. Husl>. I, His Estate.. was left him saddled 
with two Joyntures, and two weighty Mortgages upon it. 
1731 BAILEY vol. II. s.v., To saddle,.. to embarrass, as to 
saddle a Cause. 1767 A. YOUNG Farmer's Lett, to People 
162 But Mr. Justice.. saddles the parish with whatever 
burthen he thinks proper. 1775 SHERIDAN Duenna. I. iv, 
I'll saddle him with this scrape. 1837 LOCKHAKT Scott 
(1839) III. ix. 295 The earnest wish of Scott and Ballantyne 
to saddle the publisher of the new poem with part of their 
old 'quire stock'. 1858 SURTEES Ask Mamma xliv. 196 
The chances then, are, that he is saddled with a sort of old 
man of the sea. 1874 L. STEPHEN Hours in Library (1892) 
I. iv. 157 We are perhaps inclined to saddle Scott uncon- 
sciously with the sins of a later generation. 1895 La-M 
Times Rep. LXXII1. 691/1 Otherwise a testator would be 
able to saddle people with duties of an onerous description. 
b. ? To secure/or (a burdensome task), rare- 1 . 
1826 SCOTT Jrnl. 25 Oct., Sotheby.. endeavoured to saddle 
me for a review of his polyglot Virgil. 

5. To put (a burden) upon (another's back). 
1808 COBBETT Pol. Reg. XIV. 547 The men. .who, if they 

serve us but for a few years, are saddled upon our devoted 
ass-like hacks for life. 1812 Sporting Mag. XL. 153, \ 
should not wonder if that Bully Mitchell saddles this 

risoning upon me. 1820 L. J. JENNINGS in Croker Papers 
vi. 158 The whole of the Bergami family had .. been 
saddled upon the Princess. 1881 BESANT & RICE Cliapl. 
Fleet III. 248, I found her only too eager to marry anyone 
upon whom she could saddle her debts. 

6. a. Masonry. To work i,a joint) so as to form 
a ' saddle ' projecting above the horizontal surface 
of the stones joined, b. Carpentry. To join or 
fit together by HALTING. 

1823 P. NICHOLSON Pratt. Build. 311 A process by work- 
men called saddling the joints. 1897 Westm. Gaz. 3 Sept. 
2/1 These consist of one log laid upon another, saddled in 
at the corners. 

7. To bend downwards in the middle. 

1803 Sporting Mag. XXI. 327 Saddling _the cards.. is 
bending the sixes, sevens, eights, and nines, in the middle 
longways. 1880 Standard 10 Dec., Walls are cracked and 
roofs 'saddled' in every direction. 

8. (See quot.) 

1731 BAILEY vol. II. s. v., To saddle, furnish, as to 
saddle a spit. 

t 9. Comb. : Saddle-goose, a nickname for a 
fool; saddle-nag, a stable-boy, groom. Obs. 

1526 SKELTON Magnyf. 1834 Sym Sadylgose was my syer, 
and Dawcocke my dame. 1646 J. HALL Poems 7 Who 
would employ his Sadle-nagg to come And hold a trencher 
in the Dining-roome? 


Saddleback (sse'd'lbsek), sl>. and a. [f. SADDLE 
sl>. + BACK id.] A. **. 

1. f a. Archery. A saddle-backed feather. On. 
b 'A saddle-backed hill. (Cf. SADDLE-BACKED a. i.) 

1545 ASCHAM Toxoph. II. (Arb.) 133 The swyne backed 
fashion., gathereth more ayer than the -addle backed, and 
therefore the saddle backe is surer for daunger of wether. 
1869 E. A. PARKES Pract. Hygiene (ed. 3) 289 A saddleback 
iltuuall; healthy, .so are positions near the top of a slope. 
1007 Gentl. Mag. Mar. 247 A regular saddleback of grey 
Silurian blocks the wayfarers path. 

f 2. A back (of an animal) having a depression 
in the middle of it. 06s. 

1625 PuRCHAS/Vfcr/wMii. 1694 Certame beasts., much like 
unto a Deere, hauing a Saddle-backe like unto a Camell. 

3. Arch. A roof of a tower, having a gable at i 
two opposite sides connected by a ridge-roof; a | 
packsaddle roof. 

1840 FREEMAN Archil. 238 The gabled tower.. does not 
seem to occur j but we meet with the form usually called 
a saddle-back. 1861 HERESF. HOPE Eng. Catkedr. igt/t C. 
243 The due and moderate use of the gabled tower of the 
German style. .may be adopted,. .so too may the saddle- 
back. 1893 C. HODGES in Reliquary Jan. 15 The finish pi 
the tower was what is generally known as a saddle-back, 
a form common in Normandy, but rare in England. 

4. A name of various birds and fishes, a. 1 he 
Grey or Hooded Crow, Corvus comix ; also called 
saddleback crow. b. The adult of either of the 
Mack-backed Gulls, J.anis tuariiiiinmd L.Jnscus; 
also saddleback gull. c. The male of the Green- 
land or Harp Seal ^Phoca granlandicd) when three 
years old ; in full saddleback seal. d. The Crea- 
dion carunculatus, a bird of New Zealand, e. A 
variety of the goose (see quot. 1885). f. A kind 
of oyster (see quot. 1876). 

1847 COL. HAWKER Diary (1893) II. 27? A huge saddle- 
back gull. 1856 KANE Ant. Exfl. 1. ii. 22 Hie valued 
furs of the saddle-back seal. 1864 ATKINSON Prov. Names 
Birds. Saddleback Crow.. Hooded Crow. CormaCOftUX. 
Ilnd, Saddle-back, Saddleback Gull.. Great Blackbacked 
Gull. LOTUS marimu. 1868 W. BL'LLER Ess. Ormthol. in 
Trans. N. Z. Inst. I. 5 (Morris) The Saddle-back (Crucial 
carunculatus) of the North is represented in the South by 
C Cinereus, a closely allied species. 1873 Daily ffma 
21 Aug., The decrease of the gulls would be attended with 
certain loss to fishermen who were often directed and piloted 
to the shoaU by the keen-eyed saddle-back. 1871 Coup 
KeyN Amcr Birds 312 Great Black-backed Gull. Saddle- 
back 1876 Weale's Diet. Terms, Saddle-backs, in fishery, 
a name given to a bastard kind of oyster by the fishers; 
they are considered unfit for human food. 1885 hncycl. 
lirit XIX. 647/1 The common variety [of the goose] fre- 
quently marked with dark feathers on the back, and hence 
termed 'saddlebacks'. 1895 P. H. EMERSON Birds etc. of 
Norf. Broad/and xlix. 140 A useful bird is the handsome 
hut sluggish 'saddle-hack' [i.e. the grey crow). 1896 
LYDF.KKER Brit. Mammals 136 It is not till the third year 
that the males (then called ' Saddle-backs ') assume the 
characteristic dark harp-shaped markings. 

6. a. Coal-mining (see quot.). b. Geol. An anti- 
clinal (Cassell's Encycl. Diet. 1887). 

1883 GRESLF.Y Coal-mining Terms, Saddleback, a depres- 
sion or valley in strata. 
B. adj. 

1. = SADDLE-BACKED a., in various senses. 

1677 Land. Gaz. No. 1257/4 Stolen or strayed .., one dapple 
gray Gelding, .a little saddle-back. 1696 Ibid. No. 3202/4 
A brown Mare, . . Saddle Hack, well risen on the Crest. 1862 
EcclesMogist XXIII. 252 Gabled or saddle-back towers. 
1876 Encycl. Brit. IV. 472/1 [Coping] sloping to both sides 
from the middle. .is technically termed saddle-back coping. 
1897 Daily News 3 May 7/3 The Greek troops occupied . .a 
saddleback hill. 1904 ll-'estui. Gaz. 2 Sept. 4 / 1 A high saddle- 
back peak. 1906 Edin. Rev. Jan. 114 A plain, .building. . 
with two low gable or ' saddle-back ' roofs. 

2. Saditleback crow, gull, seal: see A. 4. 

3. Mech. (.See quot.) 

1844 Civil Engin. ff A nit. Jrnl. V 1 1 . 236/2 At the bottom 
of the hopper there is a number of angular or ' saddle back 
bars', placed transversely .. ; the 'saddle back bars will 
have the effect of dividing the ores. 1888 Lockvrood s 
Diet. Mich. Kngin., Saddle Back Rail, or Barlow A ail, a 
rail whose sides curve rapidly outwards and downwards. 

4. Geol. (.See quot.) 

1854 PAGF. Introd. Textbk. Geol. 31 When strata dip in 
opposite directions from a ridge or line of elevation. .the 
axis is termed anticlinal or saddleback. 

5. Path. (Cf. saddle-nose, SADDLE sb. 10.) 

1897 A UlmtCs Syst. Med. IV. 686 As a result of cicatricial 
contraction of the connective-tissue, .the so-called saddle- 
back ' nose may be formed. 

6. 1'ut for ' horse-back '. Also advb. 

1890 'ZACK' On Trial xiv. 124 If 'tworn't that I can trust 
'ee saddle-back..! shuld hold you had done the mare a 
mischief. 1904 Westm. Ga=. 29 Feb. 1/3 His love of saddle- 
hack exercise. 

Saddle-backed (sard'lbrekt), a. 

1. Having the back, upper surface, or edge curved 
like a saddle; having a concavely curved outline, 
spec, in Archery (see quot. 1545). 

1545 ASCHAM Toxoph. n. (Arb.) 129 Fourthly in coulmg 
or sheryng [the feather of a shaft], . .whether somewhat 
swyne backed (I must vse shoters wordes) or sadle backed, 
whether rounde, or square shorne ? 1599 HAKLUVT I'oy. II. 
II 126 It is a hillsadlebacked..: and. .we saw a row of hils 
sadlebacked also. 1601 HoLLAND/Y/>yI.238They[dolphms] 
:ked. Ibid. 492 The Walnut tree wood soone 

are saddle-backed. Ibid. 49^. .. 

bendeth, and is saddle-backt as it lieth. 
Philistia. \. 235 A saddle-backed hill. 
2. Of a horse : see quot. 1831. 

1884 (J. ALLEN 


1675 Land. Gaz. No. 067/4 Strayed or stolen.., a bright 
Bay Gelding,, .a little Saddle-back'd. 1753 CHAMBERS Cycl. 
Supp. 1831 YOUATT Horse 166 Some horses have a very 
considerable hollow behind the withers. They are said to 
be saddle-backed. 1895 Westm. Gaz. 29 July 2/3 A thorough- 
bred Arab . . should be . . very slightly saddle-backed. 1 o be 
' saddle-backed ' is to have a depression where the saddle 
would naturally come. 

3. Arch. a. Of coping: see quot. 1842. b. O 
a tower: Having a SADDLEBACK. 

1842 GWILT Archit. s.v. Coping, Coping thicker in the 
middle than at the edges is called saddle-backed coping. 
1870 F. R. WILSON Ch. Lindisf. 23 A small straight saddle- 
backed tower. . 

4. An epithet applied to birds having saddle-like 
markings on the back, as saddle-backed crow, the 
Grey Crow, Corvus comix. 

1838 HOLLOW AY Provinc., Saddle-backcdcrmv, the Royston, 
or sea-crow so called from its mixture of black and grey 
feathers. Sussex. 1894 R. B. SHARPE Birds Gt. Brit. 1. 
12 The Hooded, or Saddle-backed Crows. 1895 J. O. MIL- 
LAIS Breath from I'eldl vii. 142 Here also are a big flock 
of saddle-backed Jabiru storks (Mycteria seuegalensisl. 


1. A bag carried at the saddle ; esp. one of a pair 
laid across the back of a horse, behind the saddle. 

1796 MORSE Amer. Geog. I. 542 Manufactures of leather 
..holsters, saddle-bags [etc.]. 1841 LANE Arab. Nts. I. 43 
He put his hand into his saddle-bag, and eat a morsel of 
bread and a date which were among his provisions. 1856 
STANLEY Sinai $ Pal. i. (1858) 67 The great saddle bags 
act like sails to the camels. 1857 HUGHES Tom Brown I. i, 
A visit . .which the Squire made on his horse with a pair of 
saddle-bags containing his wardrobe. 

2. altrib. Used to designate a fine quality ot car- 
peting, made in sizes and designs imitating the 
saddle-bags carried in the East by camels ; now 
chiefly employed as a covering for cheap classes 
of dining-room furniture. 

1882 Daily Ncivs 30 May 5/7 Settees and easy-chairs up- 
holstered in what is known as the Persian saddle-bag pat- 
tern. 1000 Fi o. WARDEN Plain Miss Cray 80 Ihere was 
1 ..a saddle-bag couch and two big easy-chairs. 1903 
McNEILL Egregious English 125 A saddle-bag suite. 

Sa'ddle-bOW. Now arch, or poet. [Bow rf. 1 
Cf. OHG. satilpogo (MHG. satelboge, mod.G. sattel- 
\ liogen).'} The arched front part of a saddle-tree or 

of a saddle. 

ciKAgs. Voc. inWr..WuIckern/i7Ca^//,sadulbosa. 
a 1250 Prov. Alfred 229 in O. E. Misc. 116 If bu hauest 
scoiewe, ne seye' bu hit nouht ban arewe, seye hit bine sadel- 
bowe [a 1275 seit bin sadilbowe] ar.d ryd be singinde forb. 
cino ArtS. * Merl. 8148 (Kolbing) Wawam him jane a 
dent of howe & cleued him to be sadel bowe. 1470-85 
M ALORY A rtluir ix. xvi, And the lady of the lake took vp her 
heed and henge it vp by the heyre of her sadel bowe. 1592 
SHAKS. yen. fr Ad. 14 Vouchsafe, thou wonder, to alight 
thy steed, And rein his proud head to the saddle-bow. 1658 
tr. Porta's Nat. Magick xiv. 314 We use to hang up 1 ur- 
kies alive by the bills, at the sadle-bow, when we ride. 
1757 BURKE Abridgm. Eng. Hist. Wks. X. 4" The beast 
..plunged, and threw his rider violently on the saddle-bow. 
1805 SCOTT Last Minstr. i. v, Steeds. .Barbd with frontlet 
of steel I trow, And with Jedwood-axe at saddlebow. 1879 
' OUIDA ' Cecil Castlemaine's Gage 7 He lifted his hat, and 
bowed down to his saddle-bow as he passed her. 

Saddle-cloth. Forms: see SADDLEand CLOTH; 
also 5 sadylclow. A cloth placed on a horse's 
back beneath the saddle ; fin early use = foot-cloth, 


u8i- Hmi'ard Househ. Bks. (Roxb.) 222 Item,, .paled., 
for ii yerdes and di. and. di. qrter of blak cloth, for a sadyl- 
clow for my Lord. is3 FITZHERB. Hast 142 Spere, 
! male, hode, halter, sadelclothe, spores 1683 Lend. Gaz. 
No. 1786/4 A bay Mare, with . . a black Saddle, and a 
green Saddle-Cloth. 1776 BOSWEI.L Johnson II. 349, 1 oh- 
served them [at Lichfield] making some saddle-cloths. 1818 
SCOTT Hrt. Midi, v, The Laird . . has had his running foot- 
man here.. to see when the broidered saddle-cloth for his 
sorrel horse will be ready. 1845 FORD Handbk Spain I. 31 
There is no bed like the saddle-cloth. 1867 S. W. BAKER 
Nile Trio. Abyssinia v. in We were requested to mount 
two superb white hygeens, with saddle-cloths of blue Per- 
sian sheep-skins. , - 

Saddled (soe-d'ld),///.a. [f. SADDLE v. + -ED!.] 

1. Furnished with a saddle. 

1002 in Kemble Cod. Diplom. VI. 147 Ic S<=ann ininum 
hlafoide. .feower hors twa gesadelod and twa unjesadelode. 
,890 Daily Hews 15 Feb. 2/5 A saddled horse was seen in 
a field without a rider. . 

2. As the epithet of fishes, insects, etc., having 
saddle-like markings. 

,805 SHAW Zeol. IV. 467 Saddled Sparus. Sparus Ephip- 
pium Ibid. 59S Saddled Mackrel Scomber Equula. 
,880 SWINTON Insect Variety 162 The common Saddled 
Leaf-cricket of the Vine (Ephippigera vitium) has especially 
thick cup-shaped elytra. 

SaddleleSS (sse'd^les), a. [f. SADDLE sl>. + 
-LESS.] Without a saddle; esp. of a horse, not 
furnished with a saddle. Also rarely of a rider : 
t (thrown) out of the saddle. 

id Sir Beues 253-8 (MS. C.) The erle, amonge them all 
To the grounde he ys falle And ys sadulles. c 1480 LAXTON 
tonnes of Aymon 268 But he had no sadel upon his horse. 

Whan Reynawd sawe brayforde sadeles, he called to 
oger & sayd [etc.], a 1500 Prophecy in Bernard, de cura 

ci fam (F E T. S.) 18 The Egyll and be antelope.. And 
Sadilles horse. 1886 G. GISSING Isabel Clarendon I. 11. 33 
She had learned her riding on a saddleless colt. 

Saddler (sje-dlai). Forms: 4-5 sadelere, 5 
sadelj>r, 5-8 sadler, (5 sedler, sadlare), 5 




sadyllar, -yl(l)er, 5-6 Sc. sadillar, 6 sadiller, 
Sc. saiddlair, saidlar, 7- saddler, [f. SADDLED. 
4- -ER 1. Cf. MLG. sade/er, tedder, MDu. saddare, 
saellaer, OIIG. satilari (MHG. sateler t mod.G. 

1. One who makes or deals in saddles or saddlery. 
1389 in Kng. Gilds (1870) 42 Yese ordenaunce of fraternyte 

of Sadeleres and Sporyeres. 1:1400 Destr. Troy 1585 Sad* 
lers, souters, Semsteris fyn. c 1500 Melusine 43 Ray- 
niondyn sent for a Sadlemaker, to whom he said : * 
muste cutte this hyde in four me of a thonge.'. .The Sedler 
dide cutte it. c 1515 Cocke LordVs B. 5 Here is saunder 
sadeler of froge strete corner. 1590 SHAKS. Com. Err. \. ii. 
56 Oh sixe pence that I had.. To pay the Sadler for my 
Mistris crupper. 1651 HOUSES Lwiath. \\\, xlii. 315 One 
Power may be subordinate to another, as the art of a Sadler, 
to the art of a Rider, a 1745 SWIFT Direct- Servant s^ 
Groom, Come home by the Street Door with the same 
liridle. .dangling in your Hand, as if you came from the 
Sadler's. 183* LYTTON Eugene Aram n. vi. 98 * How long 
have you had this whip? ' said Walter to the saddler. 1887 
UURY HILLIER Cycling (Badm. Libr.) 166 Some of the 
cycling saddlers do not see that their iron-workers cut the 
threads far enough up the screw. 1904 Daily Chron, 
7 Oct. 9/7 Situation] wanted by first-class brown saddler. 

2. Mil. An official who has charge of the saddlery 
in a cavalry regiment. Also saddler corporal, 

1865 H. M. HOZIER Eqitipm. Cavalry 30 Organisation. . 
of the Household Cavalry.. .Composition of a Regiment of 
Life Guards or Horse Guards. ..Non-commissioned Officers 
and Privates.. .Armourer Corporal, Saddler Corporal [etc.]. 
Ibid. 51 Cavalry of the Line.. .Composition of a Regiment 
of Cavalry. .. Second Class Staff Serjeants: Armourer- 
serjeant, Saddler-serjeant [etc.]. Ibid. 152 Promotion to the 
superior grade of saddler-serjeant will be open to saddlers. 

3. A saddle-horse, colloq. U. S. 

1888 Boston (Mass.) JrnL 16 June i/i Another auction 
sale of choice family horses (including matched pairs and 
saddlers). 1893 Columbus (Ohio) Dispatch Apr. o A 
thoroughbred filly, which. .bids fair to make a fine saddler. 

4. The Saddleback Seal : see SADDLEBACK 4 c, 

1873 M. CARROLL Seal <y Herring Fish. Newfound?, in 
Goode Nat. Hist, Aquatic Anim. (1884)62 The reason why 
they are called Harp Seals, or ' Saddlers', is, [etc.J. 

5. aft rib. 

c 1449 PECOCK Kefir, r. x. 40 Whanne that a point or a 
treuthe. .of sadeler craft is aflermed. 1483 Cat ft. Angl.-$i$ 
A Sadyller schoppe, sellarium. 1567 Keg. Privy Council 
Scot. I. 584 Ane craftisman of the saidlar craft. 

Saddlery (sce-dbri). [f. prec. + -Y : see -EBY.] 

1. The art or occupation of a saddler. 

c 1449 PECOCK A' efir. i. x. 49 Euen as sadelarie and talarie 
been ij. dyuerse facultees and kunnyngis. 1871 YEATS 
Techn. Hist. Comm. 296 A new impulse was given to sad- 
dlery by the introduction of coaches. 

2. collect. Articles made or sold by a saddler; 
saddles and other articles pertaining to the equip- 
ment of a horse, esp. of one used for riding. 

1796 MORSE Atner. Geog. I. 258 Harness and saddlery of 
all kinds. 1833 Reg. Instr. Cavalry i. 77 The saddlery 
should be.. examined. 1874 R. TYRWHITT Sketch. Club 156 
Modern boots and saddlery are utterly intractable in a 
picture. 1887 BURY & HILLIER Cycling(\\a.Am. Libr.) 340 A 
great many firms have made a speciality of cycling saddlery. 

3. A place where saddles and other equipment 
for riding-horses are made or kept when not in use. 

1841 ORDKRSON Creoleana vi. 60 Premises, .occupied as., 
a saddlery. 1885 Field 4 Apr. 430/1 A room for drying, 
saddlery, &c. 

Sa ddle-tree. 

1. The framework which forms the foundation of 
a saddle. 

1411 Nottingham Rec. II. 86, j. sadeltre. 1483 Act i 
Ric, ///, c. 12 2 No Merchant Stranger., shall bring 
into this Realm . . Saddles, Saddle-trees, Horse-harness 
[etc.]. 1536-7 Ditrh. Ace. Rolls (Surtees) 697 Cum frenis, 
stirropleders, sadletreys, et ceteris illis pertinentibus. 1607 
MARKHAM Cavalarice vi. ix. 54 The greatest goodness in 
saddles consisteth in the saddle tree. 1714 Fr. Bk, Rates 81 
Saddle-Trees per 100 Weight, oo 10. 178* COWPER 'jfohn 
Gilpin 49 For saddle-tree scarce reached had he, His jour- 
ney to begin. 1877 W. MATTHEWS Ethn. fy Phil. Hidatsa 
Ind. 19 They now make saddle-trees in somewhat the same 
way as we do. 

Comb. 1619 MS. Canterb. Marr. Licences, John Worstter 
of Challocke, saddle tree maker. 17*3 Lond. Gas. No. 6171/7 
Joshua Tipping.., Saddle tree- maker. 1865 H. M. HOSIER 
Eanipm. Cavalry 1 52 Saddlers' and saddletree makers* tools. 

2. = Saddle-rack : see SADDLE sb. 10. 

1864 R. KERR Gentlem. House 294 A row of saddle-trees 
from 6 to 8 feet from the floor, with hooks and brackets for 
the bridles, girths, and stirrups under them. 

3. The North American tulip tree, Liriodendron 

1866 Treat, Rot, 688/1 The leaves [of Liriodendron] large, 
. . four-lobed and somewhat like a saddle in shape ; hence 
the tree is sometimes spoken of as the Saddle-tree. 

Saddling (sae-dlirj), vbl. sb. [f. SADDLE v. + 
-ING i.] The action of the vb. SADDLE. 

1483 Cath t Angl. 315/2 A Sadyllinge, sellatura. 
b. esp. The action of putting on the saddle and 
other equipment of a racehorse preparatory to a 
race ; also attrib. as saddling bell, paddock. 

1844 J. T, HEWLETT Parsons fy W. xxi, That is the sad- 
dling-bell. 1890 Daily News n Sept. 3/4 No horse could 
possibly have looked better.. in the saddling paddock. 

t Sa'ddling, sb. Obs. rare - *. [f. SADDLE sb. 
+ -ING.] = SADDLE sb. 4. 

1697 DAMPIER Voy. (1720) 1. 112 The Land is low, making 
a saddling between 2 small Hills. 

Sadducaic (scedi/7k*i-ik\ a. [f. Or. 2a55ou- 
Vou VIII. 

Kafos (see SADDUCEE), after PHARISAIC.] Pertaining 
to or characteristic of the Sadducees. 

1840 MILMAN Hist. Christianity \. vii. I. 293 The Sad- 
ducaic party. 1883 J. M. WILSON Theory of Inspir. 30 It 
is as wrong, .to have tiie Sadducaic pride of scepticism as the 
Pharisaic pride of religion. 

t Sadduca icalv*. Obs. rare-'-. Also7Sadu- 
saicall. [Formed as prec. : see -ICAL.] = prec. 

1601 DEACON & WALKER Spirits <y Divels n, I alowe not 
your pestiferous opinions, lumping so pat with the Parepa- 
tetlcall and Sadusaicall sort. 1702 ECHARD Eccl. Hist. 
(1710) 121 Herod's guilty conscience, notwithstanding his 
Sadducaical principles, made him. .suspect that it was John 
himself risen from the dead. 

Sadducean, Sadducsean (ssediwsran), a. 

and sb. Also 6 Saducian, Saduceean, 6-7 Sadu- 
cean. [f. late L. Saddiicte-its SADDUCEE + -AN.] 
A. adj. Of, belonging to, or resembling the 

1593 NASH a Chris? s T. 58 What are these Atheists but 
Saducajan sectaries that deny the resurrection? 1681 H. 
MORE Exp. Dan. ii. 26 This dull Sadducean Age. 1681 
GLANVILL Sadducisinns \\. (1726) 455 There is a latent 
Atheism at the root of the Saducean Principle. 1840 MIL- 
MAN Hist. Christianity \\. \. I. 392 The unpopular Sadducean 
party. 1861 GOI.DW. SMITH Irish Hist. 61 It is not sur- 
prising to find Pharisaical fanaticism. Jinked with Saddu- 
cean depravity and worldliness. z88o Encycl. Brit. XIII. 
425/1 The Sadduoean aristocracy. 

fB. sb. SADDUCEE (in both senses). Obs. 

1547 Bk. ofRTarchauntcst\\}i Full simply faining a lowting 
countenance selling them selfe as the Essians, Saducians, or 
Phnrisians dyd. 1597 J. PAYNE Royal Exch. 8 Saduceans 
of this age. 1678 CUUWOHTH InttlL Syst. 6 The Sadduceans, 
among the Jews, have been noted for the same. 

Sadducee (sse'dWfejf). Forms: //. I sad(d)u- 
c6as, 3-4 Saduceus, 3-5 Saduceis, 4 Sadaiceus, 
4-5 Saducees, 4-7 Saduces, 6-8 Sadduces; 
(also 4 Saducey repr. I,. SaddutKi} ; sing. 6- 
Sadducee. [ad. late L. Saddfittens, a. late Gr. 
2a55ou/cafoj, f. late Heb. "pns 1 Qaddftql^ app. f. the 
personal name (faddiiq (LXX 2a55ou/:, Ezek. xl. 
46), in Masoretic vocalization (^dddq (LXX 2a5w/f, 
2 Sam. viii. 17, etc. ; English Iiible Zadok). 

The prevailing modern view is that the Zadok referred to 
is the high-priest of David's time, from whom the priesthood 
of the Captivity and later periods claimed to be descended. 
The late Jewish notion of a post-exilian Zadok (fac/i/wr/ 1 , 
the founder of the sect, is now regarded as baseless; the 
hypothesis that the word is directly derived from faadtg t 
righteous, is philologically untenable.] 

1. A member of one of the three ( sects * (the others 
being the Pharisees and Essenes) into which the 
Jews were divided in the time of Christ. Accord- 
ing to the New Testament and Josephus, they 
denied the resurrection of the dead, the existence of 
angels and spirits, and the obligation of the un- 
written law alleged by the Pharisees to have been 
handed down by tradition from Moses. 

In origin the Sadducees seem to have been not so much a 
theological or philosophical sect or school, as a political 
party composed of the nobility, i.e. the members and con- 
nexions of the high-priestly family. 

C97S Kushiif. Gosp. Matt. xvi. i, & eodun to him fariseas 
& sadduceas. a 1300 Cursor Af. 19123 pa saduceis \Fairf. 
sadaiceus, G&tt. saduceus, Triti. saduces]. .For f>e vprising 
ner wald wede. ^1380 WYCLIF Serui, Sel. Wks. II. 36 per 
weren in Crist is tyme, Essey, Saducey, and Pharisey. 138* 
Acts xxiil 8 Saducees [1388 Saduceis, 1534 TINDALE 
Saduces, 1557 (Geneva) Sadduces, is8a(Rheims) Sadducees]. 
1591 SYLVESTER Tri, Faith \\, xxxiv, In foremost rank, heer 
goe the Sadduces, That doe deny Angels and Resurrection. 
1635 HEYWOOD Hierarch. I. 3 The Atheist, Sadduce, and 
Manumetan. 1717-41 CHAMBERS Cycl. t Satteiuces, or Sad- 
ducees. 1879 KARRAR Christ (1881) 471 This wretched, 
dissolute Idumaean Sadducee. 

2. A person of Sadducean disposition; a material- 
ist, a denier of the resurrection. Also as adj. 

1680 BAXTKR Ansiu. Stillingfl. xxxiv. 58 Hobbists, Infidels, 
Atheists, Sadduces. 1857 BAGEHOT Lit. Stud. (1870) II. 282 
The world is Sadducee itself; it cannot be anything else 
..without ceasing to be the world. 

Sadducee-iC, a, rare~ } 

1875 LE FANU Willing to Die xxxi, That smiling Sad- 
duceeic world without a home. .that, .accepts, .satire and 
pleasure in lieu of the affections. 

Saddnceeism (wdlwtftia'm). Also 7 Sad- 
duceisme, 9 Sadducseism. Also SADDUCISM. 
[f. SADDUCEE + -ISM. Cf. F. Saduc<*isme?\ 

1. The doctrine or tenets of the Sadducees. 

1845 KITTO Cycl. Bil'l. Lit. s.v. Sadducee, Sadduceeism. 
1886 Encycl. Brit. XXI. 142/1 The common view that 
Sadduca;ism was essentially a philosophico- religious school 
is due partly to Josephus. 1891 DRIVER Introd. Lit.Q 7*. 
(1802) 446 An absence of national feeling and religious 
enthusiasm, in which the author (of Ecclesiastes] seems to 
be a forerunner of the later Sadduceeism. 

2. The character and spirit of the Sadducees ; 
materialistic unbelief; denial of immortality. 

1661 BAXTER Mor. Prognost. I. xvii. 4 When they incline 
to Rrutishness or Sadduceisme. i849THACKERAY/Vf/^f.s 
Ixiili], And on this and on other matters he thought he 
would compromise with his conscience, and that Sadduceeism 

1888 ULACK / Far Lochaber viii, Your friends.. are not 
so tolerant and Sadduceeist as some of us up here. 

t Saddudam (see'ditf siz'm). Obs. Also 7 Sad- 
ducisme, Saducism. [ad. mod.L. Sadducismus, 
either irreg. f. late L. Sadducseus, or f. the per- 
sonal name Sadduc : see SADDUCEE and -ISM.] 
--= SADDUCEEISM i and 2. 

I( S35 HKYWOOD Hierarch. \. 3 Atheisme and Sadducisme 

\ [f. SADDUCEE + -ic.] 

GLANVILL Saddttcisnms n. 309 The I )jscourse may prove a^ 
useful for reclaiming men from Saducism. 1778'!'. HARTI.KY 
J'ref. Stvcdeniwrg's Heaven ft //. (1851) 21 A general dis- 
belief of all things supernatural has. . introduced Sadducism 
amongst us, to the denying of all spiritual visions and 
apparitions of angels as things incredible. 

Sadducize fsre-ditfsaiz), v. rare. [Formed as 
prec. + -IZE.] intr. To hold the doctrines of the 
Sadducees. Hence Sadducizing///. a. 

1707 ATTERRURY I'hid. Doctr. Bennet's Funeral Sunn, 31 
Sadducizing Christians, I suppose they were, who said there 
was no Resurrection, neither Angel or Spirit, Acts 23. 8. 
1854 .MILMAN Lnt. Chr. iv. viii. (1864) II. 402 His whole 
conduct seemed tinged with akind of Sadducising Judaism. 

Sade (s^d), v. Forms: i sadian, 5 aadde, fy 
seed)^ 4- sade. [OE. sadian = MLG., MDu.Jaafcw, 
Du. (ver\zaden, OHG. saton (MHG. sateri); 
^"Ger. *sadojan> f. *sado- SAD a.} 

fl. intr. To become satiated or weary. Obs. 

c888 K. /ELFRFD Boeth. xxxix. 4 Me (?inc5 eac ba?t J*u 
sadi^ehwxthwu^uniinges,^ be Syncen toeelenge baslangan 
spell. ' 1325 Song of Yesterday 4 in E. E. )', (1862) 133 
Whon men beo^ nturiest at heor mele With mete and drink 
to maken hem gladu With worschipe and with worldlicbe 
wcle |>ei Ijene so sette bei conne not sade. 14.. f'ety Job 
179 in 26 Pol. Poems 126 Although I can of synne nat sade, 
Yet Parce michi t doming, r 1422 HocCLBVE Afin. Poi'is 
xxiv. 175 Of the lake of good he felte no greef, Al whyles 
Jat the ryng he with him hndde ; But faylynge it his frend- 
shipe gan sadde. 

2. trans. To glut, satiate; to make weary (of). 
Obs. exc. dial, (see E. I). D.). 

c 1000 Ags. Ps. (Th.) cxlvii. 3 He. .be jesadade, mid by 
selestan bwajte cynnes holde lynde. 1440 in Wars Eng. in 
l-'rance (1864) II. 455 He was so sadcled of the worre. 1611 
COTGR., Assonvir,..\.o cloy, glut, sade. Ibid.^ Ressasici\ 
to fill, glut, sade, satiate, satisfie. 1764 Coles' Lat. Diet, 
(ed. 17), To sade (cloy), satio. 

Sade, obs. form of SAD a. and SAID///, a. 

Sadel 1, Sadely, obs. ff. SADDLE, SADLY. 

t Sa'dful, a. Obs. rare 1 , [f. SAD a. + -FUL.] 

1658 MERITON Love <$ IVar iv. ii. Hivb, The service of 
a sadfull humour. 

Sa'd-iron. [f. SAD a. or v.] A smoothing iron, 
properly a solid flat-iron, in contradistinction to a 
1 box-iron '. 

1832 IJADBAGE Econ. Klamif, xvii. (ed. 3^ 153 Sad-irons and 
other castings. 1833 J. HOLLANO Alawtf. Metal II. 253 
Dealers commonly distinguish these useful implements by 
the terms 'sad-iron', ' box-iron ' and 'Italian-iron'. 1899 
Daily News 30 Oct. 2/7 Sadirons IDS. per ton [dearer]. 

Sadism (sa'dizm). [ad. F. sadisme, f. the name 
of the Count (usually called * Marquis') ^Q Sade 
(1740-1814; infamous for his crimes and the 
character of his writings) : see -ISM.] A form of 
sexual perversion marked by a love of cruelty. 

1888 Pall Mall G. 10 Sept. 4/2. 1897 Lancet 13 Nov. 
1263/2 Crimes committed by people afflicted with what is 
technically known as 'sadism*. 

So Sa'dist, ' an individual affected with sadism ' 
(Syd. Soc. Lex. 1897) ; Sadls'tic a., * related to 
sadism* (Dunglison Diet. Med. Sci. 1893). 

1897 Lancet 13 Nov. 1263/2 Several recent tragedies having 
probably had their origin in sadistic impulses. 

Sadler, obs. form of SADDLER. 

Sadly ;s2e'dli),#</z>. Forms : 4 sadd(e)li, sad- 
lyk.say dly, 4-5 saddely, sadli, sadliche, -lyche, 
4, 6 sadely, 6 sadlich, sadlie, -ye, 4 sadly. 
Also 4 compar. sadloker. [f. SAD a. -t- -LY ^.] 

fl. Heavily. Obs. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 22478 pe sterns wit f>air leman leuen 
Ful saddli fall sal bai dun fra heuen. c 1400 Roivlandtf O. 
1313 So sadly one his scholdire it [the blow] felle. The 
knyghte by-gane to knele. ci435 Torr. Portugal 1625 
Glad pluckys there he toke, Set sadly and sare. a 1568 
h'nt. Cnrtesy 77 In swoune [she] fell downe hym upon, So 
sadly that the Knyght awoke, a 1578 LINDESAV (Pitscottie) 
Chron. Scot. (S.T.S.) I. 222 Mr. Patrick Lindsay.. strampit 
sadlie on his brotheris foott to gar him wnderstand that [etc.]. 
1633 HP. HALL Occas. Medit. cxxxvi. 335 An empty cart 
runs lightly away : but if it be soundly laden, it goes sadly. 

f 2. Firmly, tightly, closely. Obs. 

T^o~"mAlex.^ Dind. 1135 ^ere his burnus he bad bulden 
of marbre A piler sadliche i-picht or he passe wolde. 1375 
BARBOUR Bruce xin. 374 Knyt ?ow als sadly as she may. 

:>ly Sadduceeism of the 'Saturday 
Review ' is not in the spirit of the Sermon on the Mount. 

So Sa-dduceeist [-IST], in iruot. adj., sceptical, 

partyes therof faste and sadly togyder. ^1440 York Myst. 
viii. 102 pus sail I iune it with a gynn, And sadly sette it 
with symonde fyne. 1470-85 MALORY Arthur xvin. xxiii. 
768 And whan we haue delyuerd hem, lete vs thre hold vs 
sadly to gyders. 

1 3. Solidly, fully ; (to drink) deeply ; (to sleep) 
soundly, heavily. Obs. 

13 . . E. E. A Hit. P. C. 442, & her he swowed & slept sadly 



al nyst. 1361 LAXGL. P. PI. A. v. 4 penne Wakede I of my 
wink me was wo with alle pat I nedde sadloker I-slept and 
I-se 3 e more, c '380 WYCLIF Set. Wks. I. n pis fillyng is 
not voide but sadly replenchid. c 1386 CHAUCER Man of 
La-M's T. 645 This Messager drank sadly ale and wyn. 
+ 4. Resolutely, vigorously, hardily. Obs. 
<r itSO Will. Palerne 2751 Whan be ludes where nei} lond 
he itped ouer borde, sadli in al here si^t for bei him sew 
schold. 1375 BARBOUR Bruce xm. 494 In Cambuskynneth 
the kyngis vittale He tuk, and sadly gert assa e Schir 
Wiljame of Herth, and him slew, c 1400 Song Roland 763 
They went to sadly, And set ther dyntis. 1470 HENR 
Wallace n. 84 The Perseys stwart sadly till him socht. 1471 
CAXTON Reatyell (Sommer) I. 269 The two champions 
approchid eche other and smote to gyder so sadly and sore 
that the place redounded of her strokes, c 1475 Sqr. lowe 
Degre 646 The stewarde at hym full sadly fought. 
^5. Steadfastly, firmly, fixedly, unchangingly, 
c 1340 HAMPOLE Prose Tr. 14 Whene be mynde es_ stablede 
sadely with-owttene and vagacyone in Godd. 
c 1380 WYCLIF Wks. (1880) 199 pat alle brennynge charite 
be so sadly rotyd in vs. c 1380 Lay Folks Cutech. (Lamb. 
MS.) 957 Loke bou withstande sadly be furst begynnynge 
of be temptacoun of pe fend. ,71386 CHAUCER Pars. 7.124 
Fro that tyme that he loueth sadly oure lord Ihesu Crist [etc.], j 
J493 Festivall (\V. de W. 1515) 48 Sadly beleue the fader is 
full god almyghly. c '53 Crt. of Lave 877 Emprent my 
speche in your memorial Sadly. 1622 13ACON Hen. ftl 133 , 
But the King finding that he did sadly, and constantly (with- . 
out hesitation or varying, . . ) stand to that that hee had said. 
1 6. Steadily, quietly, without excitement. Obs. 
c 1330 R. BRUNNE Citron, tt'ace (Rolls) 13544 P e bataillea 
neyghed ney & ney, Sadly passing, and softely. c 1391 
CHAUCER Astral. \\. 29 Tak thanne thyn Astrolabie with 
bothe handes sadly & slely. c 1430 I'ilgr. LyJ Manho.le 
i. cvi. (1869) 56 Wel j tell-; thee that sureliche and sadliche 
thou miht go. 

f 7. Seriously ; in earnest ; gravely, soberly. Otis. 
c ,350 ll'ill. P.tlerne 557 What }if I saide him sadly bat 
i sek were, & told him al treuly be entecches of myn euele? j 
c '357 '>'<- / '<'i' Saints iv. (Jaco/'iis) 176 Til hym ban sancte 
lames prechit, and crystis law sa sadly techit. c 1386 
CHAUCER Kkipman's T. 76 This Marchant vp ariseth, And 
on hise nedes sadly hym auyseth. c 1440 1 'ark Myst. xxxii. 
62 Saie me sadly be soth. 1489 CAXTON I'aytes of A. I. xv. 
.;j Mesurably and sadly demened. a 1548 HALL Chran., 
j Ic-n. I 'Iff, I. 69 Thei daunsed with Ladies sadly, and com- 
muned not with the ladies after the fashion of Maskers, 
but behaved themselves sadly. 1570 JEWEL D.'f. Apol. n. 
(1571) 161 This booke..was readde sadly vnto the people, 
and had in reuerence. 1599 SHAKS. Muck Ado n. iii. 229 
This can be no tricke, the conference was sadly borne. 
1611 CHAPMAN Widm'es T. in. L (1612) F 4 b, Bvit doe you 
brother sadly intend the pursuite of this triall ? 1634 MIL- 
TON Camus 509 To tell thee sadly Shepherd, without 
blame, Or our neglect, we lost her as we came. 1642 JER. 
TAYLOR Episc. xxxi, But this to them that consider 
things sadly, is true or false according as any man list. 
1777 M. MORGASN Ess. Dram. Ckar. Falstajf 122 As a 
caution to the audience not to take too sadly what was in- 
tended only. .' as an argument for a week '. 
8. Sorrowfully, mournfully. 

c 1350 Will. Palerne 539 Sadly sikand & sore for sorwe 
atte here herte. c 1450 HOLLAND Hoivlat 42, I herd ane 
petuoss appele, with ane mane, Solpit in sorowe, that 

sadly couth say [etc.]. 1535 COVERDAI.E Gen. xl. 7 Why I irum neai, iiieie u - i^.n.u..., . ,u^, ""i~- -/-t 
lokeyesosadly todaye' [So ifiu.J 1630 SHAKS. Sonu. \ COWPER 'Jast\. 464 Ihy clime., disposes much .All hearts to 
viii. i Musick to heare, why hear'st thou musick sadly? ' sadness. 1847 TENNYSON Princess \i\. 14 Sadness on the 
1627 MAY Lucan i. 583 Sadlyer barke Scyllaes doggs ; soul of Ida fell, 
then they were wont, c 1665 MRS. HUTCHINSON Mem. Col. 
Hutchiitson (1846) 13 He died in the month of May, 1630, 
sadly bewailed. 1697 DKYDEN I'irg. Gcorg. iv. 505 Near his 
Paternal Stream he sadly stands, With down-cast Eyes, 
wet Cheeks, and folded Hands. 1856 KANE Arct. Expl. II. 
x. 107 He speaks sadly.. of the fortunes of the winter. 
1884 W. C. SMITH Kildrostan 43 There at the head of a 
late filled grave Sadly a youth and a maiden stood. 

Comb. 1697 DRYDEN SEneid x. 1167 A sadly pleasing 
Thought. 1816 WORDSW. Oitei&is, 44 To.. utter England's 
name with sadly-plausive voice. 

t b. With regret ; reluctantly. Obs. 
1611 BEAUM. & FL. Philaster v, v, I must request of you 
One fauour, and will sadly be denyed. 
9. In a manner to cause sadness ; lamentably, 
grievously, deplorably, badly. 

1658 Wlwle Ditty Man Sund. iii. 7. 29 That have pro- 
voked so great a Majesty, who is able so sadly to revenge 
himself upon you. 1731-8 SWIFT Pol. Conversat. 202 Mr. 
Neverout we wanted you sadly. 1753 H. WALPOLE Let. to 
Mann 27 Mar., Drawings, .which 1 am sure will charm 
you, though none of them are quite well engraved, and 
some sadly. 1782 COWI-EK Friendsll. 87 Authors . .Are sadly 
prone to quarrel. 1782 Miss BURNEY Cecilia in. viii, O, he 
is so ill ! indeed I am sadly, sadly afraid he will never be 
well again ! 1819 BYRON Juan 11. Ixxx, Who had already 
perish'd, suffering madly For having used their appetites 
so sadly. 1857 RUSKIN Arrows ofChace (1880) I. 47, I have 
written you a sadly long letter, but I could not manage to 
get it shorter. 1863 W. C. BALDWIN Afr. Hunting\\\\. 340 
The flies torment us sadly. 1868 FREEMAN Norm. Cong. 
II. ix. 391 The poor girl was sadly buffeted by the indig- 
nant saint. 1879 HUXLEY Hume x. 196 Metaphysicians, as 
a rule, are sadly deficient in the sense of humour. 
1 1O. Sombrely, in dark colours. Obs. 
1607 B. JONSON Entertainm. Theobalds Wks. 1616 I. 887 
A gloomie obscure place, hung all with black silkes, and in 
it only one light, which the Genius of the house held, sadly 

11. Used predicatively: In bad health, ill, 
' poorly '. Now dial. 


+ 1. Firmness, hardness, solidity. Obs. 

n<# TREVISA Earth. De P. R. m. xvii, The fyf>e is sad- 
new and biknesse of b<= hinge bat is sen [L. soliditas swe 
densitas reimsx\ c 1400 LaiifrancsCirurg.cjo pou schalt 
knowe by reednes & sadnesse of fleisch bat is wibinne be 
festre al aboute. c 1420 Paltad. on Husb. VI. 152 When hit 
[cheese] is wel confounned to sadnesse. c 1485 Cat/I. A ngl. 
515 i A Sadnes, ulidatntH, soliditas. 1577-87 HARBISON 
England II. xxii. 212/2 If you respect the sadnes therof, it 
doth proue in the end to be verie hollow tc not able to hold 
out water. Ibid. 214/1 Which moulds wanting their due 
sadnesse are now turned into moorie plots. 

f 2. Seriousness, soberness, staidness ; gravity of 
rhind or demeanour. Obs. 

< 1315 SHORF.HAM 7 Sacrum. 1428 For jeres Ne make)> so 
nau}t bane prest aid, Ac sadnesse of maneres. c 1386 
CHAUCER Merch. T. 347 Another slant so in the peples 
grace ffor hire sadnesse, and hirebenygnytee. 1431 CAPGRAYE 
Life St. Aug. (E. E.T. S.) 20 A bold on whech bei vsed to 
nleye certeyn games to refresch with b= sadnesse of her 
study. 1495 N. Riding Rec. (N. S.) I. 127 We^trustyng in 
youre poilicie, sadness, wisdome, and discrecion. c 1515 
Cockt Lorclles IS. 13 They banysshed prayer, peas, and 
sadnes ; And toke with them myrthe, sporte, and gladnes. 
'593 SHAKS. 3 Hen. VI, m. ii- 77 Hut mightie Lord, this 
merry inclination Accords not with the sadnesse of my suit. 
1611 SPEED Hist. Gt. Brit. ix. xix. (1632) 928 Other persons 
of approued sadnesse, prudence, pollicy and experience. 

ft). Phr. In sadness, in good or sober sadness: 
in earnest, not joking. Obs. 

1544 ASCHAM To.ropli. i. (Arb.) 102 But in good sadnesse 
Toxophile thus you se. 01553 UDALL Roister D. iv. in. 
(Arb.) 61, I haue nought to them, nor they to me in sad- 
nesse. 1593 NASHE Strange Newcs Wks. (Grosart) II. 245 
Thou hast borrowed aboue twenty phrases and epithltes 
from mee, which in sober sadnesse thou makst vse of as thy 
owne. ci6io MiDDLETON.etc. Widow V. i. 228 Pray, in sad- 
ness, say, what is the gentleman ? 1696 S. SEWALL Diary 
13 Oct. (1878) I. 435 Seem'd to be in good sober sadness. 1705 
VANHRUGH Confederacy in. ii, In serious sadness. 1708 MRS. 
CENTLIVRE Busy Body i. i, In sober sadness she cannot 
abide 'em. 

t 3. Dignity, importance. Obs. 

1494 FAUYAN Citron, vi. clix. 149 The sayd Lewys.. 
causyd them to vse and were browne, and sad colours, 
accordynge to theyr honours and sadnes. 

t 4. Steadfastness, constancy ; firmness of faith. 

'377 I.ASCI.. r. PI. B. vn. 150 Catoun and canonistres 
conseilleth vs to leue To sette sadnesse in songewarie, for 
spmfnia ne cares. 1382 WYCLIF Coloss. ii. 5 The sadnesse 
of that }oure bileue that is in Crist. 2 I'd. iii. 17 Lest 
}e . . falle awey fro }oure owne sadnesse [Vulg. a propria 
firmitatc\. 1426 LVDG. De Guil. Pilgr. 11177 But J'i"' ne 
hadde fleet off led, In gret sadnesse to endure, a 1529 
SKKLTON Dyuers Balettys iii. 17 Saphyre of sadnes, en- 
uayned wyth indy blew. 

5. Sorrowfulness, mournfulness. 


1500-20 DUNBAR Poems xxiii. 13 Seik to solace qu 
sadnes the assailis. 1588 SHAKS. L. L. L. i. ii. 7 How canst 
thou part sadnesse and melancholy my tender luuenall? 
1611 BniLF. Eccl. vii. 3 By the sadnesse of the countenance 
the heart is made better. 1667 MILTON P. L. x. 23 Dim 
i sadness did not spare That time Celestial visages. 1707 
I FI.OYER Physic. Pulse-WatcU 409 In a malignant Fever 
j from Heat, there is a Delirium, Fluxes, Sadness. 1784 

_ idly 

walk.go and lie down".' 'iSgsTlRs. H. ARD . 
v. n. 395 Mrs. Fountain 's nobbut sadly, I unnerstan. 

Sadness (sardnts). [-XF.SS.] The condition or 
quality of being sad. 

b. A condition of sorrowfulness. 
1602 SHAKS. Ham. n. ii. 147 [He] Fell into a Sadnesse. 
a 1631 DOSNE Scrm. xlv. 450 To blow away and scatter 
these sadnesses with a false, an illusory, and a sinfull com- 
fort. 1737 L. CLARKE Hist. Bible (1740) II. v. 96 After this 
he thunders out woes and sadnesses against their impieties. 
1818 BYRON Juan i. Ixxii, She look'd a sadness sweeter 
I than her smile. 

C. Gloomy appearance. 

1849 RUSKIN Sep. Lamps iii. xii. 76 The architect not 
being able to secure always the same depth or decision of 
I shadow, nor to add to its sadness by colour, 
t Sa'dore. Ol>s. (See qnot.) 
1681 GREW Musieuui App. 386 Sadore, or Bitter Wood. 
| It hath a brownish Barque. 

Sa'd-tree. [f. SAD a. (sense 5); transl. of 
mod. L. arbor tristis. ] The Night Jasmine of India, 
i Nyctanthes Arbor-tristis. (Earlier called MELAN- 
] CHOLY tree.) 

1866 Treas. Bat. s.v. Nyctanthes, During the day it loses 
its brightness, whence its specific name Arbor tristis or 
Sad-tree. (In recent Diets.] 

Saduce(e, -ean, etc. : see SADDUCEE, -EAN, etc. 

Sadue, obs. form of SHADOW. 

Sadusaicall : see SADDUCAICAL. 

Sae : see SAW, SAVE, SAY, SEA, SEE, So, SOE. 

Ssecular : see SECULAK. 

Saefte, Sael, obs. ff. SAFETY, SEAL v. 

Saer, obs. form of SAWYER, SEAR. 

Saf, obs. form of SAFE, SAVE. 

Safare, obs. Sc. form of SAVIOUR. 

Safe (srf), sb. Also 5, 7 save. [Originally 
save, f. SAVE v. ; later assimilated to SAFE a.'] 

1. A receptacle for the safe storage of articles : 
esp. a. A ventilated chest or cupboard for pro- 
tecting provisions from insects and other noxious 
animals ; a meat-safe (see MEAT sl>. 6). 

r 1440 Promp. Parv. 10/1 Almery of mete kepynge, or a 
saue for mete, cibntttm. 1611 COTGR., Chasiere, . . the great, 
or grated Saue hung by a pulley, to the top of a Dayrie- 
house, or Store-house ; and seruing to keepe cheese, white- 
meates, and other belly-timber in. 1688 R. HOLME Armoury 
in. xiv. (Roxb.) 17/2 The Arke or Safe, is a kind of little 
house made of wood and couered with haire cloth, and so 


by two rings hung in the midle of a Rome, thereby to secure 
all things put therein from the cruelty of devouring Rats, 
mice (etc.). 1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey', Safe, a sort of 
Cup-board to keep Victuals, contrived with Holes to let in 
the Air. 1881 11. W. RICHAKDSON in Gd. Words XXII. 
51/2 It is good practice, whenever the air of the safe is close 
and tainted, to have it fumigated wiih antiseptic gas. 

b. A fire-proof and burglar-proof receptacle for 
plate, money, deeds, and other valuables. Usually 
made of steel and iron, with one or more doors 
secured by elaborate locks. 

1838 BETHUNE Sc. Peasant's Fireside 70 A penknife. .and 
a letter .. were found lying near the safe, as if they had been 
lost by the robber. 1830 CHUBB Locks ft Keys 17 The 
bank may be entered, the misnamed safe, or strong room, 
be entered. 1874 MICKLETHWAITE Mod. Par. Churcltes 164 
An iron fire-proof safe must be built into the wall. 
2. Saddlery. ' A piece of leather placed under 
a buckle, to prevent it from chafing ' (Knight Diet. 
Mech. 1875). 

Hence Safed///. a., provided with a safe. 
1881 Blackw. Mag. CXXIX. 176 A solidly furnished 
though dismal apartment, duly safed and grated. 

Safe (s?f), a. Forms : 3-6 sauf, 1,3-4 sauve), 
4-6 saufe, 5 saauf, 5-6 sauf(e ; 3-5 saf, 4-5 
saf(e, 4-6 saaf, (5 saafe, saaff) ; 4-6 saulf, 
salve, 5-7 salf(e, 6-7 salffe, saulfe; 5-7 Sc. 
saiff, 6 saif, saiv, sayfe, sailf, 6-7 saife, 7 
saiffe; 3-5 (6-7 -SVr.) save, 4- safe. [ME. sauf, 
saf, a. F. sauf (fern. sattve)*=t. salv-s,sal-s, Sp., 
Pg., It. salvo : L. salvus uninjured, entire, healthy 
The L. word corresponds in root and suffix, though prob. 
not in ablaut-grade, to Gr. bAos (Ionic ouAoO whole. Skr. 
sarva all, whole :-Indogermanic *sofa'0-. The root occurs 
also in Irish shin healthy, and in OL. sollus whole, Welsh 
holl all, whole \-*solno-. 

With regard to the phonology in Eng. cf. sage (the plant) 
from F. saugc, mi. gag? (gauge) from OW. gauge. 

The forms with v in ME. usually represent either the 
plural or the definite inflexion of the adj. From the ijth to 
the i;th c. save sometimes occurs (latterly only Sc.), in most 
instances prob. as a mere graphical alteration of safe.} 

I. Free from hurt or damage ; unharmed. 
1. Unhurt, uninjured, unharmed ; having been 
preserved from or escaped some real or appre- 
hended danger. Chiefly (now only) with quasi- 
advb. force after verbs of coming, going,bringing,etc. 
1297 R. GLOUC. (Rolls) 6895 ?if hire vet beb banne sauf 
\viboute wemminge. a 1300 Cursor Al. 11546 pal ferd al 
j sauf in to bair kyth. 1340 Aycnb. 36 pet hi habbe, huct cas 
! yualle, hire catel sauf. c 1386 CHAUCER Can. Yeom. T. 397 
Somtyme his good is drenched in the see, And somtynl 
comth it sauf un-to the londe. c 1450 Merlin xxvii. 559 
That ye sholde yeve hyin trewys saf to come and saf to go 
. .be-twene this and yole. 1471 CAXTON AVc>rtf (Sommer) 

I. 217 Ye shall retorne saulf fro this entrepryse. 1513 
DOUGLAS SEneis x. i. 104 Suffyr that 5yng Ascanyus mot 
be Salf [v.r, sauft] fra al! wapynnis[L. nli armis incolumem\ 
and of perrell fre. 1538 STARKEY England I. ii. 67 As gud 
marynerys. .bryng theyr schype saue out of tempestys into 
the sure port. 1600 in lotft Rep. Hist. MSS. Coniiii. App. 
v. 458 To retowrn saulfe without any molestacion. a 1674 
CLARENDON Hist. Keb. xv. 57 As if the principal art re- 
quisite in the captain of a ship had been to be sure to come 
home safe again. 1737 C. PITT in J. Duncombe Lett. (1773) 

II. 98 The papers came safe to hand. 1760-72 H. BROOKE 
Fool o/Qual. (1809) III. 83 As the Moors are excellent 

, swimmers, I suppose most of them got safe. 1785 COWPF.R 
1 Let to Lady Hesketh Wks. 1836 V. 198 My desk.. is safe 
arrived. 1799 T. HOLCROFT Mem. (1816) III. 229 [In a stiff 
breeze a sailor swore that] he could not keep his hair safe 
on his head. 1831 Society 1. 209 He always insists on seeing 
us safe across the Downs. 1902 WLSTER Virginian xix, 
Your, .man brought us out. .safe and dry. 

b. Often in phr. safe nnd sound. Occas. \sotintl 
and safe ; also safe and sure, f s<*f' a ' !(l sicker, 
t quit and safe. [K. sain et sauf; L. sanus et sal- 
vus, salvtis sanus, salvus et sospes, etc.] Also 
f safe and soon, t soon and safe. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 7867 Sauf and sond ai mot bou be To all 
be folk es vnder be. c i-gptt'ill. Palerne 2816 pe[ were 

i (1495) 667 Deed bodyes ben kepte sauf and sounde whan 
theybenbawmj-dwylhconfeccyonsofmirra. c 1440 Promp. 
Parv 440/2 Saaf, and sekyr, sahrus. 1450 MYRC Festial 
17 And soo he ?ede sonde and saf hys way. c 1489 CAXTON 
Soutus ofAymon i. 29, I shall lete you goo quyte & sauf. 
,585 T. WASHINGTON tr. Nicholay's I'oy. n. ix. 42 b, [He] 
was by a Dolphin brought safe and sound to the porte. 
1610 HOLI AND Camden'sBrit. (1637) 635 Goeanium. .,keep- 

j j :. .~ rme j 

.* liv, I leave Don Juan for the present, safe Not sound, 
poor fellow, but severely wounded. 1847 GROTF. Greece n. 
f (1862) IV. 353 He would again replace him safe and 
sound ' in the fortification. 

C. To be, arrive, etc. , safe (or safe nnd sound) : 
often merely a colloq. or epistolary formula for ' to 
be duly arrived ', ' to be at one's destination ', etc. 

1710 SWIFT Jrnl. to Stella 9 Sept., I send this only to tell 
that I am safe in London. 1882 SALA Amer. Kfi'is. n. (1885 
25 I was safe and sound in the Brevoort coach. 1887 
Century Mag. Dec. 197/2, I promised to bring you both to 
lunch, safe and sound. 

yd. (To come) to safe hand: confusedly used lor 
' to come safe to hand '. Obs. 

c 1645 HOWEI.L Lett. (1655) III. xviii. 27 Your last of the 
fourth current came to safe hand. 


f2. In sound health, well, 'whole'; usually 
healed, cured, restored to health. Also safe and 
sound ; also const, of. Obs. 

c 1190 S. Eng. Leg. 458/51 J>e Quen a-non ^oru^h is bone 
deliuered was of childe, In guod 1 if, and hire child al-so.. 
po the king i-say^e Queue sauf, and j?at child al-so. ^1300 
Cursor M. 8170 Thorn J>e, he said, sal bis mcsele lie sauf 
and sund of al vn-hele. c 1350 Will. PaL-rne 868 He was 
al sauf & sound of alle his sor greues. 1382 WYCLIF Lnke 
xviii. 42 Thi feith hath maad thee saaf [Vulg. te salvnm 
fecit}. 1400 Sccreta Secret.^ Gov. Lordsh. 92 He bat 
drynkys it, with be sauour beroff he shall fele hele, and he 
shal be sauf of catarre, of Malencoly. .and of many ober 
syknes. 1450 St. Cutlibert (Surtees) 3661 f*e .seke man 
with his hand he blisse; Fra he him touched safe he was. 
1486 Bk. St. Albans c vj b, Put som in the Roofe of her 
mowth and she shall be saafe. 1526 TISDALE Luke viii. 48 
Thy fayth hath made the safe. 

t3. Theol. [After L. salvus in the Vulgate.] 
Delivered from sin or condemnation, saved ; in a 
state of salvation, spiritually 'whole'. Obs. 

a 1300 Cursor Af. 19967 All to be sauf o sin and scam, bat 
wald tru in his hali nam. a 1300-1400 Ibid. 10867 (Gott.) 
His folk all saf \Cott. sauedj fan sal he make, And bring 
baim vte of sinne and wrake. 1340 HAMTOLK f'r, Consc. 
2959 Hot yhit has the saul mare drede t>an, Til [>e dome be 
gyven and it may .se Whether it sal dampned or saufe be. 
1382 WYCLIF Acts \\\. 31 Hileue thou in to the Lord Jliesu 
and thon schalt be .saf [Vulg. safous eris ; Gr. o-oj^iJo-Tjl. 
1399 LANGL. Rich. Rcdclcs Prol. 81 As my soule be salt 
ffrom synne at myn ende. t 1440 HVI.TON S:ala Ferf. (\V. 
de W. 1494' I. xli, Some by sorowe. .some by prechyng & 
techyng. .shal be saaf & come to blisse. 1562 WINWT CVr/, 
Tractates Wks. (S.T.S.) I. 81 God makis ws saufT be the 
la war of regeneratioun [Tit. iii. 5]. 

1 4. Mentally or morally sound or sane. Obs. 

The phr. with (a) safe conscience was suggested by L. 
sah'a const if fi fid (cf. 5 below). 

1390 GOWER Conf, II. 32, I mai wel with sauf conscience 
Excuse me of necgligence Towardes love in alle wise. 
1492 In god mynde and saf memorye [see MKMORY 2 b]. 
1549 J-ATiMEH \st Serin, bef. Ediv. /'/ Dj, The whicli 
treasure, if it be not sufficientej he maye lawfully and 
wyth a salue conscience, take taxis of hys subiectes. 1560 
DAUS tr. SkidanJs Comm. 6 b, To revoke his sentence 
already taught and defended, he cannot with a safe con- 
science [orig. cum bona conscientia\. 1567 in F. J. J'aigent 
Crotidal Rec. (1891) 172 Any personne. .beinge of the full 
age of twenty and one yeares, of saulf memorie. 1577 
NOKTHBROOKE Dicing (1843) 9 l t'ewe men or women come 
from playes, and resortes of men, with safe and chaste 
inindcs. 1601 SHAKS. Jul. C. \. i. 14 A Trade Sir, that 
I hope I may vs_e with a safe Conscience. 1604 Oth. iv. 
i. 280 Are his wits safe? Is he not light of UraineV 1611 
Cymb. iv. ii. 131 No single soule Can we set eye on : but 
in all safe reason He must haue some Attendants. 

t 5. Used in a construction corresponding to the 
L. ablative absolute (e.g. salvdjide. salvo jure; so 
K. satifvotre respect) with the sense : Keeping . . 
safe or intact, without hurt or prejudice to . . , with- 
out loss of . . , making reservation of . ., with due 
respect to ... Obs. (See also safe, SAVE //-#.) 

c 1290 5". Eng. Leg. 120/488 Trewenesse we be sworen ase 
ri^t was, and eorjrelich honour al-so, Sauue ore ordre and 
ore ri^te, bote bat was out i-do. 1297 R. Gt.ouc. (Rolls) 
1242, & jjat he vor is neueu wolde, vorto abatie strif, Do 
hey amen dement, sauue lume & lif. c 1374 CHAUCER Troylns 
ii. 480 But elles wol I fonde, Myn honour sauf, plese him 
fro day to day. 1423 JAS. I Kingis Q. cxliii, Hir worschip 
sauf. 1470 HENUY Wallace xi. 1208 Tharfor till him U no 
comparisoun, As off a man, sauff reuerence off the croun. 
(.'1483 CAXTON Dialogues 17 Nan ft-ray^ sauue le fostre 
grace, I shall not, sauf your grace, c 1500 Melitsittc 3 Saaf 
theire juggement. 

II. Free from danger ; secure. 

6. Not exposed to danger; not liable to be 
harmed or lost; secure. 

1387 TREVISA Higden (Rolls) II. 227 pey bulde hem smale 
cootes and cabans..bat hire lyf my^te be |>e more saaf. 
1:1400 Laud Troy Bk. (E.E.T.S.) 18201 Off no-thing were 
thei a-dredde ; Thei wende thei hadde ben sane & sure. 
ci44o Pallad. on Hush. xn. 363 And wrie hem that noon 
ayer vppon hem shyne, So beth they sauf. 1447-8 Shilling' 
ford's Lett. (Camden) 88 To bryng yn stuf for the werre. . 
iher to be kept stronge saf and sure. 1590 SHAKS. Com. Err. 
i. ii. 105, I greatly feare my monie is not safe. 1596 
Turn. Shr. v. ii. 151 Whilst thou ly'st warme at home, 
secure and safe. 1591 SPENSEK Dap/in, xx, Safe then and 
safest were my sillie sheepe, Ne fear'd the Wolfe. 1849 
MACAULAV Hist. Kng. v. I. 662 No second witness could be 
found.. .Cornish thought himself safe. Ibid. vii. II. 190 
Apprehensions that the interests of the Anglican Church 
might not be safe under the rule of a man bred among Dutch 
Presbyterians. 1853 Mus. STOWE Uncle Tom^s C. vii. 43 
No, no, Harry darling ! mother can't eat till you are safe ! 

quasi-o<&'. 1860 Bohn's Handbk. Git/tics, Billiards 572 
Either decline the chance altogether, and lay the balls safe, 
or make that stroke which seems most sure and easy, 
b. Const. from, \of{= secure against). 

1390 GOWER Conf. III. 153 That he mesure in his expence 
So kepe, that of indigence He mai be sauf. c 1440 Pallad. 
on f/iisl'. i. 973 Al the lond that thou hast goon aboute ffro 
dpudis wicke is szzf[B<xft. JlfS.sane). Ibid. 982 Thy seedis 
with cucumber rotis grounde Let stepe, and saaf of euery 
mys they are. 1535 COVERDALE Job xxi. 9 Their houses are 
safe from all feare. 1577 B. GOOGE Heresboch's Hnsb. \. 
('5^6) 33 Yf they be steeped in Capons blood, they wyll be 
safe from all hurtful weedes. 1697 DRVDEN sEneid\\\. 1065 
Where then he liv'd obscure, but safe from Jove. 1801 
Med. yrnl. V. 403 That a person once infected with the 
small-pox is safe from having it a second time. 1866 G. 
MACDONALD Ann. Q. Neighb. v. (1878) 66, I did not feel safe 
from him till I was once more in my study. 1891 HELEN B. 
HARRIS Apol. Aristidcs ii. 14 The hermits.. petitioned him 
to build them a house where they might be safe from the 
incursions of the Arabs. 


7. Of a place or thing : Affording security or im- ! 
munity ; not exposing to danger; not likely to 
cause harm or injury. 

1390 GOWER Conf. I. 165 Neptunus..kept hire in so sauf 
a place Fro Polipheme and his manace, That he. , Ne niihte 
atteigne hir conipaigtiie. 1590 SHAKS. Coin. Err, i. ii. 78 
Answer me, In what safe place you haue bestow'd niymonie. 
1603 OWKN Pembrokeshire (1891) 1 1 1 A good and salfe roade 
for shippinge. 1666 Act 18 <y 19 Chas. //, c. 8 g 5 The build- 
ing with liricke is not onely more comely and durable but 
nlsoe more safe against future perills of Fire. 1680 LADV 
R. RfssKLL Lett. I. in. n The lesuits' Powder is. .held 
most safe to be taken by the best doctors. 1697 DKYDKN I 
l'irg.C?corg.\\.fx& A Station safe fur Ships, when Tempests | 
roar. 1789 \V. UUCHAN Dow. i\lcd. (1790) 129 All kinds of < 
linen and bedding, when not frequently used, become damp. 
How then is it possible that beds, which are not slept in \ 
above Uvo or three times a year, .should be safe? 1861 FLOR. 
NIGHTINGALE Nursing 14 The safest atmosphere of all for 
a patient is a good fire and an open window. 1866 YOUNG 
Fires st) Staircases, to be fireproof, or at least safe under 
the ordinary circumstances of fire. 1870 DICKENS E. I) rood 
viii, That part of the world is at a safe distance. 

8. Used transf. in the compounds SAFK-CONTKXT, 
SAFEGUARD, q.v. ; hence with sbs. of similar mean- | 
ing, as safe convoy, custody (cf. L. tula custodia}^ ' 
\ stowage \ also SAFE KEEPING, SAFE WARD. 

1536 CKOMWELI. in Merriman Life % Lett. (1902) II. 9 To 
kepe ttie same Offeley in your salve custodye. 1547 in 
I ' itary's Anat. (iSSS) A pp. in. i. 129 Which Ittirc-s were 
forwyth Delyuered ouer to the sauffe Custody of Master 
Chamberleyn. a 1605 MOXTGOMERIE Misc. Poems xlix. 22 
Than grant thou vs.. Thy saiv sure conduct [cf. OF. s<il/ 
ct st!ur conduit]. 1611 SHAKS. Cymb. i. vi. 192 And I am 
something curious, being strange, To haue them in safe 
stowage. 1634 MILTON' Counts 8r, I shoot from Heav'n to 
give him safe convoy. 1649 CKOMWELL Let. 24 Nov. in 
Carlyle App. C. No. 14, I have by this liearer returned 
a Safe-convoy, as you desire, for what Commissioners you 
think fit to send out to me. 1651 HOBUKS Lcviatkan \\. 
xxviii. 164 The safe custody of a man accused. 1766 ULACK- 
STONE Couini. II. 505 His only business being to keep the 
goods in his safe custody. 

fb. Safe pledge (see quot.). Ohs. 

1684 Co^vel's Intcrpr. (ed. Mauley), Safe pledge, Safe us 
fU'giuS) is a Surety given for a Man's Appearance against 
a day assigned, Brae ton lib. 4. cap. 2. nuin, 2. where it is 
aKo called certus filegius, 

9. Of an action, procedure, undertaking, plan, 
etc. : Free from risk, not involving danger or mis- 
hap, guaranteed against failure. Sometimes = free 
from risk of error, as in it is saje to say . . . 

1590 SPK.NSER F. Q. in. xi. 23 Therefore, Sir knight, Aread 
what course of you is safest dempt. 1605 SHAKS. Macb. n. 
iii. 148 Our safest way Is to auoid the ayine. 1624 MIDDLI;- 
ios Came at Chess \\. i. 21 What haue you there? Bl. Bs. 
A Note (Sir) of State-Policie, And one exceeding safe one. 
1651 HOUBKS Leviathan n. xxvii. 151 It is safer to erre on 
that hand, than on the other. 1721 DE FOE Metn. Carali-jr 
(1840) 43 'Tis never safe to despise an enemy. 1728 SWIFF 
C.harac. J\Irs. Johnson Wks. 1824 IX. 286 Perhaps she was 
sometimes too severe, which is a safe and pardonable 
error. 1751 JOHNSON Rambler No. 173 P n It is always 
safer to err in favour of others than of ourselves. 1790 
COWPER Odyss. xxiit. 150 To me the safest counsel and the 
best. 1810 SCOTT Lady of L. n. xxxvi, Far up the lake 
'twere safest land. 1854 J. U. \MiGlX* L{ft- Agent s I'adt- 
titccnin 53 If an assurance company lias obtained 1000 
policies, it is statistically safe. 1863 W. PHILLIPS Sfi. xi. 254 
This is Choate, who made it safe to murder. 1893 Law 
Times XCIV. 454/1 It is safe to say that propositions of 
this kind will not figure upon the Statute-book yet awhile, 
f b. In stronger sense : Conducive to safety. Qbs. 

1625 I!ACON Ess., Seditions (Arb.) 407 An Embleme, no 
doubt, to shew, how safe it is for Monarchs, to make sure 
of the good Will of Common People. 

c. Thr. On the safe side = with a margin of 
security against error. 

1847 MARRYAT Childr. N. Forest xi, Be on the safe side, 
and do not trust him too far. 1858 Merc. Afar. Mag. V. 
84 They should rather, err on the safe side. 1893 SIK R. 
BALL Story of Sun 307 For the sake of being on the safe 
bide, I have taken the lowest value. 

d. applied transf. to the agent. 

1874 HEATH Croquet- Player 53 Remember lhat the dead 
ball is not so safe a helper as your partner. 1884 Liverpool 
Merc. 18 Feb. 5/2 One is perfectly safe in saying that the 
position of the defendants has relatively improved. 

10. Secured, kept in custody; unable to escape. 
Hence, not likely to come out, intervene, or do 
hurt ; placed beyond the power of doing harm, not 
at present dangerous. 

?ci6oo Distr. Emperor \. \. in Bullen Old PL (1884) III. 
200 What, madam? is he salve asleepe? Mostsoundlye, Sir. 
1605 SHAKS. Macb. \\\. iv. 25 But Banquo's safe? Mnr. 
I, my good Lord : safe in a ditch he bides. 1610 Temp. 
in. i. 21 My Father Is hard at study ; pray now rest your 
selfe, Hee's safe for these three houres. 1613 Hen. I'll I, 
v. iii. 97 Receiue him, And see him safe i 1 th' Tower. 1618 
BOLTON Florus in. x. (1636) 204 Csesar was at this time 
absent out of Gal!ia;..and so the wayes cloyed up, they 
presumed hee was fast and safe enough. 1667 MILTON P. L. 
ix. 815 And other care perhaps May have diverted from 
continual watch Our great For bidder, safe with all his Spies 
About him. 1678 R. L/ESTRANGE Seneca^s Mor.+ Epist. ' 
v. (1696) 490 When the Snake is Frozen, 'tis safe. 18.. : 
Nursery Rhymt\ ' Three children sliding on the ice," 1 Ye ! 
parents that have children dear, ..If you would have them 
safe abroad, Pray keep them safe at home. 

Prav. 1573 TUSSER Hmb. (1878) 173 Drie sunne. drie 1 
winde, Safe binde, safe finde. {Cf. FAST ydz\ 2, quot. 1596.} I 

11. a. Sure in procedure ; not liable to fail, mis- ; 
lead, or disappoint expectation ; trustworthy, b, ; 
Cautious, keeping to ' the safe side '. 


1604 SHAKS. Oth. \\. iii. 205 My blood begins my safer 
Guides to rule. 1667 MILTON P. L. xi. 372 Ascend, I follow 
tiiee, safe Guide, the path Thou lead'st me. 1678 CuowOKTH 
Intcll. Syst. i. iii. g 37. 24 (1820) I. 367 That safe and sure- 
footed interpreter, Alex. Aphrodisius. 1887 A. BIRRLLL 
Obiter Dicta Ser. n. 46 As a master of style and diction, 
Milton is as safe as Virgil. 1894 Daily News 3 May 5/3 
The first [hymnal] is described by Canon Twells as being 
generally acceptable to high churches, the second to low 
churches, and the third to intermediate, 'sometimes called 
hafc churches \ 

12. a. "With of: Sure to obtain, 'i Qbs. 

1667 Pici'Ys Diary 23 Aug., I find most people pleaded 
with their being at ease, and .safe of a peace. i8oz SOLTHKY 
La Cab a, 3 Here I stand, Safe of my purpose now ! 1846 
THACKERAY Let. 9 Feb. (MS.), What I meant by ' Safe ' is 
the best word to be applied to a play I think safe of a real 
agreeable of course I don't know how permanent success. 
b. To be safe, followed by inf. or } const, for, is 
predicated of a person or thing to express the cer- 
tainty of the fact or event involved in the predica- 

Hence used attrib. in colloquial phrases like ' He ib a safe 
first ' = he is safe to take a first class. 

1790 GROSE Prov. Gloss, (ed. z) Suppl., ' He is .safe enough 
for being hanged.' Cuinb. 1852 SMKL-LLY L. Arnndcl .\.\vii. 
204 Society had better shut up shop at once, for it's safe 
to be 'uprooted from its very foundations'. 1860 Wnvit 
MKI.VILLE Mkt. llarb. 107 He'll win it, as safe as safe! 
1865 F. OAKKLEY Hist. Notes 46 If.. you had happened to 
enter any common-room in Oxford .. you would have been 
safe to hear some ten or twenty voices eloquent on the 
subject of Tract 90. 1874 WHYTE MELVILLE Uncle John 
viii. I. 225 The foreign horse was safe to win the Two 
Thousand. 1882 B. M, CROKEK Proper Pride i. vii. 137, ' I 
am sure a man never sent it,' said Helen. ' I'm sorry to >ay 
it of my own sex, but it's safe to be a woman'. 1894 ' J. S. 
WINTER' Red Coats 50 You know the Colonel is as safe a- 
houses to come round after church parade. 

t C. ? Certain, established as fact, not to be 
called in question. 

1788 PRII.SI -I.KY Lat. Hist. i. i. 14 For want of acquaint- 
ance with history, we are apt to pronounce a priori many 
things to be impossible, which in fact really exist, and are 
very safe. 

t 13. quasi-j<. In safe (OF. en sauf} : in a safe 
place, in safety. With safe: with safety, safely. 
Ohs. rare. 

^^430 Pilgr. Lyf Manhodc I. xvii. (1869) 13 pe official 
turned him, and bar with him be oynemente:-, and pulte 
hem in saaf. 1569 PRI-:STON Cambist's E 3 b, If I with safe 
may graunt this deed, I will it not 

14. Special collocations. Safe deposit (orig. 
L". S.}, a place in which valuables are stored ; also 
attrib. Safe edge, (a) a smooth edi^e of a file ; 
hence safe-edge, -edged adjs. ; (b) Photog): (see 
quot. 1891). f Safe lamp, lantern, light, a safety- 
lamp. Safe load, a load which leaves a required 
margin of security against causing breakage or 
injury to a structure (cf. SAFETY 6), 

1783 J. HUNTINGTON in Sparks Corr. Amcr. Rev. (1853) 
iv. 27 West Point.. may be made a *safe deposit where 
every military article maybe kept in good order and repair. 
1880 \V. NEWTON Scrm. Boys <y Girls (1881) 338, I went 
down into the vaults of one of our great safe-deposit build- 
ings. 1886 Encycl. Brit. XXI. 145/1 The public safes or 
safe -de posits erected in most of the great cities of America 
and in London. 1846 HOLTZAPFFEL Turning etc. II. 821 
Some files have one or more edges that are left uncut, and 
these are known as *safe-edges, because such tdges are nut 
liable to act upon those parti of the work against which 
they are allowed to rub,.. The safe-edge file is principally 
required in making a set-off, or shoulder [etc.]. 1884 K J. 
EKITTKN IVatch $ Clockm. 230 *Safe Kdged File. 1891 
Anthonys Photogr, Hull. IV. 66 The negative to be printed 
from, should have an opaque border, called a safe edge, about 
a quarter of an inch wide made around it. 1815 DAVY Let. 
30 Oct. in Paris Life 11831) II. 82, I trust the *Safe lamp 
will answer all the objects of the collier. 1815 in Phil. 
Trans. CVI. 12 The first *safe lantern that I had constructed, 
was made of tin-plate, and the light emitted through four 
glass plates in the sides. 1816 Ibid. 23, I have already 
had the honor of communicating to the Royal Society an 
account of a*safe light 1868 HuMBER.5Vm/wj in Girders 67 
Breaking and *Safe Loads for Bridges, Girders, etc. 1008 
Daily Tel. 30 Jan. 15/4 This particular chain was certified being capable of standing a strain of three tons, so 
that its ' safe ' load was i J ton. 

15. Comb., as t safe-bestowing^ f -maker, 
t -making (where ' safe * is objective) ; safe-borne^ 
-marching, -moored, -sequestered ppl. adjs. (where 
' safe ' is quasi-adv.). 

1575 in Feuillerat Revels Q. Eliz. (1908) 254 Putting in 
order and *safebestowinge of the garmentes. 1896 KIPLING 
Seven Seas 38 Average fifteen hunder souls *safe-borne fra' 
port to Port. 1643 TRAPP Comm. Gen. xlix. 10 Others 
render Sniloh^ Tratiqitillator, Salvator^ The *Safe- maker, 
The Peace-maker. 1579 W. WILKINSON Confut.Fam. Love 
13 Their ministration is the *safemaking ministration. 1755 
J. N. SCOTT Ess. Transl. Homer's Wks. 3 * Safe- march ing 
through the Camp. 1831 CABLYLE Sart. Res. in. xii, *Safe- 
moored in some stillest obscurity. 1725 POPE Odyss. v. 561 
Some smooth ascent, or *safe-sequester'd bay. 

f b. In verbal phrase used subst. : see quot. Obs. 

c 1640 J. SMYTH Lives Berkeley* (1883) I. 96 He hath letters 
of safe come, safe goe, and safe staye for five dayes. 

H Vouch , . safe^ safe vouch : see VOUCHSAFE. 

t Safe, v. Obs. rare. [f. SAFE a.] trans. To 
render safe or secure. Also, to conduct safely out of. 

i6oa MARSTON Ant. $ Mel. iv. Hjb, Deare Lord, what 
means this rage, when lacking vse : Scarce safes your life, 
will you in armour rise ? 1606 SHAKS. A tit. -V Cl. i. iii. 55 
My more particular, And that which most with you should 



safe my going, Is Fuluias death, ^bid. iv. vi. 26 Best you 
saft the bringer Out of the hoast. c 1611 CHAPMAN lliail 
v. 112 Thus he brau'd, and yet his violent shaft Strooke 
short with all his violence, Tydides life was saft. Ibid. vn. 
285 At which we will erect Wals, and a raueling, that may 
safe, our fleet and vs protect. 

Safe-Conduct (&L Ti fknid#kt), sb. Forms : see 
SAFE a. and CONDUCT s6. 1 [a. F. sauf-comiuit 
(>3th c.), f. sauf SAFE a. + conduit CONDUCT^. 
Cf. Sp., Pg. salvocondutOj It. salvocondotto^ med.L. 
salvits condiutus.] 

1. The privilege, granted by a sovereign or other 
competent authority, of being protected from arrest 
or molestation while making a particular journey 
or travelling within a certain region. Phrases, in 
or with safe-conduct^ under or upon (a] safe-conduct. 

x97 R. GLOUC. (Rolls) 10226 To \inde him gode borewes, 
& sauf condut al so. c 1335 Coer de L. 3617 Ye schole gon 
in saff coundyte ; No man schal do ye despyte. 1338 R. 
BRUNNK Chron. (1810) 260 In stede of messengeres, saue 
condite vs gyue, porgh |>i lond to go in (?m auowrie, pat 
non vi robbti ne sio, for fn curteysie. 1390 GOWER Conf, II. 
160 For he anon hem wolde assaile..His sauf conduit bot 
if thei hadden. 1412-20 LYDG. Troy Bk. i. 935 For bei of 
pryde, with-outen any leue Or safcondyte, ban be stronde 
y-take. 1433 Rolls Parlt. IV. 475/1 Letters of save condut. 
c 1450 Merlin 82 Thei hadde saf condite to returne to Tui- 
tagel. 1456 SIR G. HAVE Law Anns t,S. T. S.) 93 Gif a man 
be tane presonare apon ane otheris saufcondyt. 1470-85 
MALOKV Arthur vin. xxxii. 322 Thenne the Barons sente 
for syr Tristram vnder a sauf couduyte. a 1548 HALL 
Citron., lien. VII! 34 Then the capitayne sent woorde that 
with saufeconduyte he would come and speke with the 
kynges counsayll. 1549 Compl. Scot, xiii. 107 Nor scotlis 
men til entir on inglis grond vitht out the kyng of ingland 
saue conduct. 1568 GRAKTON Chron. II. 254 Grauuting to 
all cummers out of every Counirie safe cpnduyte to come 
and gu. 1577-87 HARRISON England n. ii. (1877) i. 53 To 
be short, upon safe-conduct, the bishop commeth to the 
king's presence, a 1578 LINDESAY (Fitscottie) Chron. Scot. 
(S. T. S.) I. 83 The Earle gat saif cundit to come throw 
Ingland. 1677 Govt. Venice ^238 Sixtus V, and Clement VI 1 1, 
granted Safe-conduct to the Maranes, to remain, and traffick 
in the Town of Ancona, without being molested or disturbed 
by the Inquisitors. 1840 DICKENS Ham. Ritdge 1.x xi, The 
task of conveying one female in safety through such scenes 
as we must encounter . . is enough. . . If you accept the service 
I tender.. she *hall be instantly placed in safe conduct. 
1879 KKOUDE Cxsar iv. 35 He had come over under a safe 
conduct, and he was not detained. 1887 RIUKR HAGGAKD 
yess x.\i, A pass . . giving you and Miss Jess Croft a safe con- 
duct to Mooifontcm. 

2. A document by which this privilege is con- 

[1392 Earl Derby* s Expcd. (Camd.) 179/32 Pro scriptura 
et sigillacione vnius saueconducti Ducis de Stulpez.] ^1404 
SKVUMORE Let. 5 July in Ellis Qrig. Lett. Ser. n. I. 20 And 
ther y was and spake with hym [Owen Gfendower] upon 
truys, and prayed of a saufconduyt under his seal to send 
home my wif and hir moder and thaire mayne. 1473 Ace. 
Ld. High Treas. Scot. (1877) I. 67 Traistand at the said 
Inglisman had na saulf conduct, and thareftir he schew 
a conduct. 1523 SKKLTOM Garl. Laurel 503 Some shewid 
his salfecundight, some shewid his charter. 1620 SIR R. 
NAUHTOM in Fortescne Papers (Camden) 115 And humbly 
praies his Majesties signature to this safe conduct here 
inclosed. 1766 BLACKSTONE Coinnt, \\. 401 Such goods as 
are brought into this country by an alien enemy, .without 
a safe-conduct or passport. 1849 MACAULAY Hist. Eng, x. 
II. 576 Feversham was asked for his safe conduct. He had 
none. 1875 STUUCS Const. Hist. II. xiv. 122 The safe con- 
duct granted them on their departure is dated on the 27th 
of July. 

3. The action of conducting or convoying in 
safety ; safe convoy. 

1338 R. BRUNNE Ckron. (1810) 80 He praied bam of alle 
ping. .To haf saf condite, vnto fe New Kastelle. & Hugh 
did as he hight, led t>am sauely welle. 1529 HouscJwld Bk. 
Hen. VIII in Trevelyan Papers (Camden) 152 For the 
costes of him and such other with him, as attended upon 
the s.ilve conduct of the said moneye. 1577 E. HOGAN in 
Hakluyfs b'oy, (1589) 156 For my safe conduite to the 
Court he had sent foure captaines. 1652 NI-IEUHAM tr. Sel- 
den"s Mare Cl. 481 And give them such safe Conduct and 
Convoie, as they shall reasonably require. 

1416 LYDG. De Gull. Pilgr. 112 Vn-to synnerys, that deye 
raoenUunt, To yive pardon off hys benynge graunt, (The) 
Wych ys to hem, vn-to ther refut, Proteccyon and true 
sauff-conduit, Hem to save, that thay be nat lorn. 1526 
Pilgr. Per/. (W. de \V. 153;) 5 b, In heuynesse, feblenes i 
and trouble of ennemyes, it is our conforte, our strengthe, I 
saueconducle and peace. 1551 T. WILSOS Logike (1580) j 
A 3 b, This worke maie not at the first enteraunce, haue the j 
saufe conducte and protection of your most noble roiall 
Maiestie. 1574 HELLOWKS Guaiiira's Fain. Ep. 267 lieing 
as we are fallen into the most grievous sinnes, we do live ' 
and go so contented, as though we had received of God j 
a safeconduit to be saved. 1615 tr. Gonsalvio's Sp. Inqnis. 
146 God vnder his mighty protection, and by his owne safe* I 
conduct, brought that holy burthen thither. 1871 LOWELL 
Wks. (1850) IV. 102 A great controlling reason in whose 
safe-conduct we trust implicitly. 

t Safe-conduct, v. 06s. [f. prec. sb.] trans. 
To, convoy, or conduct safely. 

In verse stressed safe-co'tuitict as well as safe-condu'ct. 

1564 JENKINSON in Hakluyts J-Vj/. (1599) 1, 34 6 That he 
would. .giue me. .men to safeconduct me vnto the sayd ' 
Sophy. 1567 UBANT Hor. Ep. i. vii. D iij, If he maye be | 
."ply., and w< r! cum -9 thv grace. 1590 MARLOWE I 
/ j * * >iWHrl. i. ii, Bearing his priuie signet and his 
hand To safe conduct vs thorow Africa, a ioo (!) HOOKER 

iT' ?"r "' ? " He irul<:<:d was able to Safe-Conduct 
a Iheefe from the Crosse to Paradise. 1600 FAIRFAX Tasto 
vi. xin. 96 This Sword (I trust) shall well safeconduct mee. 
1639 AISSWOKTH Pentateuch Contents 2 This Second Hooke 


of Moses sheweth the bringing out of Israel . . the safe- 
conducting of them in the Wildernesse. 

Safe-guard ^-fgaad), sb. For forms see SAFE 
a. and GUAKD sb. See also SAGGAR, SAGGAHD. 
[ME. savegarde (sanf-, safe-, etc.), a. F. sauve- 
garde (i3tn c. in Hatz.-Darm.), f. sauve fern, of 
sauf SAFE + garde GUARD sb. Cf. It., Sp. salva- 
guardia, Pg. salvaguarda, med.L. salvagardia.} 

1. Protection, safety. Now ran or Obs. (see b). 

1421 Rolls of Parlt. IV, 159/2 The pore Soudeors .. have 
truly served the sauf garde of the forsaid Town, c 1470 
HENRY Wallace iv. 652 SaifTgarde he gat wndir a bowand 
tre. 1513 MORE Rich. Ill (1641) 450 King Richard, as the 
fame went, might have escaped and gotten safegard by 
flying, a 1548 HALL Chron., Hen. IV 8 b, Besechyng the 
Duke to grant to him the safegarde of his lyfe. 1555 EDEN 
Decades 6 To the which they rlye for safegarde if any man 
resorte vnto them. 1572 Reg, Privy Council Scot. Ser. i. II. 
132 That na men..tak uppun thame the saulfgaird and 
proteciioun of ony knawin inymeis or convoy, .to thame. . 
ony gudis. 1598 BAKCKLEY I-'clic. Man u. (1603) 89 Pre- 
ferring the savegard of his people before hisowne life. 1632 
LITHGOW Trav. in. 83 A place of safeguard, called com- 
monly the Monastery of refuge. 1634 SIR T. HERBERT Trav. 
200 The women [of Sumatra] are for courage, Amazonian, 
and of such account with their tyrannique Lords, that the 
safeguard of their bodies are committed sometimes to their 
care. 1736 AINSWORTH Lat. Diet. s. v. Attribute^ He attri- 
buteth to me the safe guard of the whole empire. 

b. For (the] safeguard of \ now arch.), f to (the) 
safeguard of, f in safeguard of: for the defence or 
protection of, in order to the safety of. Formerly 
ireq. in phr./iv safeguard of one" s life. 

[1347 Rolls of Parlt. \ I. 194/1 Pur salve garde de la pees.] 
1433 Ibid. IV. 445/1 To walle,..and fortefie, youre seid 
Towne and Havyn, sufficiently ..for the saufgarde of alle 
Marchaundises and other Goodes thedir comynge. 1440 in 
Slew Hist, ll'alsall (1856) 107 For the more suertye and 
saufgard of the tresour and euydence of that Gylde. 1467 
in Eng. Gilds (1870) 398 For savegarde of the kynges cite, 
c 1500 Mt'ltisitie 17 And there the lady Pressyne stablysshed 
a strong geaunt to the sauegarde of the tresoure. 1519 
Mem. Ripon (Surtees) I. 315 For savegard of my lyf and for 
savegard of my body. 1536 in W. H. Turner Select. Rec. 
Oxford (1880) 139 For safeguard of his life he was fayne to 
leape from ye bridge. 1538 BALE T/ire Lawes 2039 To 
sauegarde of the iust & symiers ponnyshment. 1571-2 in 
Swayne Saruiri Churchw. Ace. (181,61 285 Boxes for the 
belles ropes to run in for savegard of the ropes. 1585 T. 
WASHINGTON tr. Xicholay's I'oy. n. x. 43b, The streit of 
Hellespont, for the safegard wherof there are 2. strong 
castles. 1594 SHAKS. Rich. ///, v. iii. 259 If you do fight 
in safegard of your wiues. 1620 J. WILKINSON Coroners fy 
Sheriffs 13 A. flyetli as much as he can for safeguard of his 
life. 1x1625 SIK H. FINCH Law (1636) 39 Torase ones house 
on fire, in safegard of the neighbours houses. 1669 MRS. 
AI.ICIC THORNTON Autobiog. (Surtees) 18 But the king, being 
constrained for the saveguard of his owne life, passed that 
fatall bill. I 7*7 THRELKELD Stirpes Hibcrnicxrttf. 23 He 
was for the Safeguard of his Life compelled in his Age, to 
fly into High Germany. 1848 ARNOULD Mar. Itisur. i, via. I. 
197 [Form of policy], To make every exertion in their power 
' for the defence, safeguard, and recovery ' of the property. 
fc. In safeguard, in safety or security. Oos. 

c 1440 Unit i E. E. T. S.) 468 Forto kepe the towne in sauf- 
garde from oure enemys. 1472-3 Rolls cf Parlt, VI. 5/2 
The seid somines of money, .to be put m sauf gard. 1553 
EDEN Treat. Ncive hid, (Arb.} 30 Fortresses where his men 
might lye in safegarde. 1611 BIBLE i Saw. xxii. 23 With 
me thou shall bee in safegard. 1642 J. M[ARSH] Argt* 
cone. Militia 4 The King ought to provide that his Subjects 
have their passage throughout the Realme by all high 
wayes in safeguard. 

f d. Custody or safe-keeping. Obs, 

15*8 ROY Rede me (Arb.) 112 They put men in sochc 
savegarde That with in a whyle afterwarde They be sure 
to go no forther. 1817 SIH F. BUKDETT in Parl. Debates 1693 
The safeguard of the prisoners had originally belonged, to 
the sheriff. 

2. Protection or security afforded by a specified 
person (or thing). Phr. in or under (the] safe- 
guard of. Now rare or Obs. 

1456 SIR G. HAVE Law Anns (S. T. S.) 238 Thay ar all 
in the protectipun and salvegarde of the pape. 1484 CAX- 
TON sEsop ii. ii, (1889) 34 Wno that, .submytteth hym self 
vnder the saue gard or protection of the euylle. c 1490 
Ponton Lett, III. 366 Our Lord.. have you in His blissid 
saufegard. 1561 T. NORTON Cah'hCs Inst. n. 136 Whome 
he.. had receiued into his sauegard, custodie, and protec- 
tion. 1600 HOLLAND Livy : xxxi.xxvii. 789 To commit them- 
selves under the protection and savegard of the Romanes. 
1633 LITHGOW Trav. in. 84, I detained my selfe vnder safe- 
guard of the Cloyster. 1657 IVhoU Duty of Matt v. 14 
(1660) 117 [We] therefore should tremble to venture on the 

Crils either of day or night without his safeguard. 1732 
IDIARD Set/ws II. vn, 125 Under the safeguard of the 
colony of their nation. 

fr b. 70 stand upon one's safeguard: to stand on 
the defensive, to defend one's self. Obs. 

1609 Br. W. BARLOW Atisw, Nameless Cath. 236 If any 
Prince were euer forced to stand vpon his safe-guard, and 
fence himselfe with Lawes. 

"\"3. Guarantee of safety or safe passage given by 
a person in authority; safe-conduct. On safeguard^ 
on the strength of such guarantee. Obs. 

ci374 CHAUCER Troilus iv. m (139) And whan Priam 
his saue garde sente Thembassadours to troie streught 
wente. c 1420 ? LYDG. Assembly of Gods 1 18 For where as 
I my sauegard grauntyd, Ay in that cost he comonly 
hauntyd. 1433 Rolls of Parlt. IV. 475/2 Letters of save 
conduct and save gard. 1526 in iot/t Rep. Hist. MSS. 
Camm. App. v. 402 If anny man. .will convey him oute of 


wordes, Viuat Varro vir docttssinins. 1594 WEST wd 
Pt. Symbol. 45 For the ease, savegard, and passage of the 
inhabitantsof thesaid townes, villages [etc.]. i594l\. ASHLEY 
tr. Lays U Roy 81 Crassus. .was slaine as he parlied on safe- 
guard. 1607 SHAKS. Cor. m. i. 9 On safegard he came to me. 
tb. Laiv, (See quot.) Qbs. 

1670 BLOUNT Law )icf, t Safe-guard. See Salva-guardia. 
Safaa Gnardia, is a Protection given by the King to a 
stranger, fearing the violence of some of his Subjects, for 
seeking His Right by course of Law. 

4. A permit for safe passage: = SAFE-CONDUCT 2. 
Also,aguard orescort granted forthesame purpose. 

1633 T. STAFFORD Pac. Hib. \. xi. 72 Whereupon second 
Letters together with a safe guard were dispatched unto 
him. 1642 Laws of War A rmy Earl Essex A 4 b, Whoso- 
ever shall presume to violate a Save-guard, shall die without 
mercy, a 1674 CLARENDON //iV/. A' < 199 So a trumpet 
was sent to the earl of Essex for a safe guard or pass to those 
two lords. 1687 T. BROWN Saints in 6^*?arWks. 1730 1. 79 
Without a farthing of money in your pockets, guides to con- 
duct you or safeguards to protect you. 1688 Loud. Gaz. 
No. 2380/3 They.. have need, for themselves and 100 Per- 
sons, of Passports and Safeguards to be sent from your 
Army. 1860 WOOUBY Introd, Internal. Law 147 (1875) 
183 Passports and safeguards, or safe- conducts, are letters 
of protection, with or without an escort, by which the 
person of an enemy is rendered inviolable. 1861 W. H, 
RUSSELL in Times 6 June, I am obliged to see all that can 
be seen of the South at once, and then, armed with such 
safeguards as I can procure, to make an effort to recover 
my communications. 

5. A warrant granted by a military commander 
to protect a place from pillage. Also, a guard or 
detachment of soldiers sent to protect the place. 

1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey), Safe-Guard^ In Military Af- 
fairs, a Protection given by a Prince or his General, to 
some of the Enemy's Country, to be secur'd from being 
ravag'd by his Men or quartering them; also Soldiers left 
in such Places for that Purpose. 1707 Loud. Gaz. No, 
4377/2 The Princess was there, and had .. Safe-guards 
granted her for the Protection of the Place. 

f6. A picket or outpost of soldiers. Obs. 

1677 Lond. Gaz. No. 1238/4 The Mareschal d'Humieres 
has called in all his Safe-guards, and caused the Bridges on 
the Canal to be taken up. 1707 LLTTRELL liri-'f Ret. (1857) 
VI. 195 Vendosm has called in all the safeguards round 
his camp. 

7. gen. Something that offers security from dan- 
ger; a defence, protection. Now chiefly in im- 
material applications : e. g. a legal proviso or a 
stipulation serving to prevent some encroachment ; 
a course of action, a habit or sentiment, tending to 
protect the subject against some temptation ; or 
the like. (The chief current sense.) 

1471 RIPLEY Comp. Alc/t. t Ep. to Edw. IV in Ashm. 
(1652) 109 O Honorable Lord,.. The savegard of England, 
& maynteyner of right. 1513 MORE Rich. ///, Wks. 47 
That sacred Sainctuary, that hath bene the safegarde of so 
many a good mannes life, 1523 FITZHERU. Husb. 18 This 
maner of foldynge . . shall be a greate sauegarde to the shepe 
for rottynge. 1573 G. HAKVEY Letter-bit. (Camden) 32 
Whitch saiing I.. do now recount a soverain save gard 
against all incumbrancis. 1584 R. NORMAN {title) The safe- 
gard of Sailers, or great Rutter. 1610 HOLLAND Camden s 
Brit. (1637) 701 [York] a singular safeguard and ornament 
both, to all the North parts. 1634 SIR T. HERBERT Trav. 88 
Hisowne valour was his safeguard. 1776 GIBBON Decl.fyF. 
xii. (1782) I. 393 Their poverty indeed became an additional 
safeguard to their innocence. 1849 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. 
i. I. 43 No new safeguards for public liberty were devised. 
1868 FREEMAN Norm. Cong. (1877) II. ix. 425 There was a 
still further reason for placing some special safeguard on 
that border. 1874 L. STEPHEN Hours in Library (1892) I. 
vii. 251 Admirable skill of expression is. .no real safeguard 
against logical blunders. 1891 Law Times XC. 419/2 The 
old reticence of the Bench was a grand safeguard of its 

f 8. An outer skirt or petticoat worn by women 
to protect their dress when riding. (See alsoquot. 
1706.) Also SAGGABD i. Obs. 

1585 HIGINS yitnius* Nomencl. 167 Limus, ..a kind of 
aray or attire reaching from the nauill downe to the feete, 
by this description like a womans safegard, or a bakers. 
1588 in Nichols Frogr. Q. AV/z. ( (i82?) III. 3 A safegard 
with a jhup or gaskyn coate of faire cullored satten. 1590 
Lane. Wills (Chatham Soc.) II. 23 My cloak e and save- 
garde. 1608 Merry Devil of Edmonton \. i. (Stage Direct.), 
The gentlewomen in cloakes and safeguardes. 1611 Mip- 
DLETON & DEKKER Roaring Girl n. I. Di, Enter Mol in 
a freese lerkin and a blacke sauegard. 1706 PHILLIPS (ed. 
Kersey) s.v., There is also a kind of Dust-gown, or upper 
Garment worn by Women, commonly called a Safe-Gitard\ 
also a coloured Stuff-Apron, and a sort of Swathing-Band 
for a young Child. 1789 Append. Chron. in Ann. Reg. 264 
Habited in loose white gowns, with nankeen safeguards. 
b. Similarly attrib. (see quot.). 

1822 Blacfav. M^g- XII. 69 With a safe-guard handker- 
chief, enveloping her turban. 

f 9. Alleged term for a ' company ' of porters. 

1486 Bk. St. Albattsf-vih A Safegarde of Porteris. 

10. A name for various technical contrivances for 
ensuring safety. 

1818 Sporting Mag. III. 83 Purdey's Patent Safeguard, 
to prevent the accidental discharge of guns. 1875 KNIGHT 
Diet, itfech.) Safeguard \. a. A ; ail-guard at a switch or 
crossing, b. A contrivance attached to a locomotive for 
throwing stones and other obstructions off the track. 

11. A name for the monitor lizards of America. 
[After F. sanvegarde ; for the origin of the appellation cf. 

MONITOR sb. 5. Shaw Zool. III. 215 (1802) gives the equiva- 
lent Sp. salvaguarda as the South American name.] 

1831 CRATGIE Anal. 160 The American safeguard. 1841 
Penny C yd. XX. 469-70. 1847-9 Todd^sCycL Anat. IV. 
288/1 Sa'fe-ijuards (Tejus). 


Safeguard (s^-fgajd), v. [f. prec. sb. Cf. 

F. sauvegarder, which Littre and Hatz.-Darra, call 
a * neoloyisme '.] trans. To keep secure from 
danger or attack ; to guard, protect, defend. Now 
chiefly with immaterial obj. (e.g. interests, rights). 

1494 FABYAN Chron, u. xxix. 21 Brenne..was fayne to 
Sauegard hymselfe by flyght. 1501 Surtees Misc. (1888) 51 
Suche thyng as may safegard hym y l is born in England 
that he shall not be suspect for a Skott. 1561 Godly Q. 
Hester (1873) 17 The Queue muste sauegarde all the hole 
prouince. 1594 R. ASHLEY tr. Lays le Roy in b, Building 
in their countries fortresses thereby to safegard the traficke 
of the East. 1616 SURFL. & MARKH. Country Farm 64 
Heat doth safegard and thicken the MUke. 1617 HIKKON 
H'ks. (1619-20) II. 393 The walls of Jericho could not save- 
gard it from the invasion of Joshua. 1619 W. SCLATER 
Exp. i T/tess. (1630) 551 By auoiding ill shewes, we safe- 
gard our fame, 1634 SIR T. HKKBEKT Traz>. 169 The coast 
is safeguarded from sand and stealth by a defensive wall. 
1675 BKOOKS Gold. Key Wks. 1867 V. 489 This angel se- 
cured and safeguarded them all the way through the wil- 
derness. 1865 I'imes 23 Jan. 9/5, I am very thankful that 
their [my decisions 1 ] correctness is safeguarded. 1887 Stan- 
dard 13 May 5/3 A compromise calculated to safeguard 
French interests. 1889 Edin. Rev. Oct. 329 Nor could the 
troops be safeguarded against a surprise. 

f b. To send or conduct in safety. Obs. 

1606 G. W[OODCOCKE] Hist, Justine xv. 63 b, Demetrius 
. .safegarded home into Egipt, Leuticke Ptolomies son, and 
Menelaus his brother ransomelesse. 1634 SIR T. HERBERT 
Trav. 31 With his Army to safegard him to the Kings 

Hence Sa'fegnarding 1 vbl. sb. and///, a. Also 

a 1513 FABYAN Chron, vii. 429 Wherfore m safe-gardynge 
of hym selfe, he fled with a small companye to warde Walys. 
1534 MOKE Comf.agst, Trib. it. x. (1553! G v b, My strength 
and my prayse is our Lorde, he hathe bene my safegarder. 
1621 USSHER Serin. 5 The Watchmen .. who were ap- 
poynted for the safegarding of the Church. 1658 OWEN 
Temptation viii. 152 We are arrived then to the summe of 
this safeguarding Duty. 1862 J.SEVERN in Atlantic Monthly 
LX1X. 636 The French troops, .have been ordered to con- 
centrate here at once, for the safeguarding of the Eternal 

Safe-hold, [f. HOLD sb.* : cf. stronghold.] A 
place of safety from attack. 

1793 ANNA SEWARD Left. (1811) III. 332 That misleading 
entbu.siasin which led her.. far from the safe-holds of her 
native country.^ 1828-40 TYTLER Hist. Scot. (1864) II. 304 
The chamberlain, .commenced the war by.. securing the 
strong tower of Blacater. . . To this safehold the queen . . now 
resolved to retire. 1843 BROWNING Ret. Druses in. Poems 
(1905) 238/1 From this safehold of mine Where but ten 
thousand Druses seek my life. 

Safe-keeper, rare- 1 , [cf. next.] A protector. 

1561 T. NORTON Calvin 's Inst. i. Pref. 2 b, She assuredly 
trusteth that he is her safekeper and defender. 

Safe-keeping, vbl. sb. The action of keeping 
safe; protection, preservation ; custody. 

143* Rolls of Parlt. IV. 390/1 For the safe kepyng of the 
See. 1587 in Feuillerat Revels Q. Eliz. (1908) 378 The 

BARBOUR Bruce m. 359 The qtieyn..sawn1y come to the 
castell. 1418 E, E. Wills (1882) 44 And also that it be put 
in a bagge, & asselid, and safly kepid. c 1440 Generydcs 
6456 Ye shall savely come and savely goo. 1456 SIR G. 
HAVE Law^Arms (S. T;S.) 178 How suld thai be callit 
sauf condytis, bot gif thai condyte thair maisteris saufly 
and surely? 15*9 CROMWELL Will in Merriman Life fy 
Lett. (1002) I. 58 All the which parcelles of plate and 
houseold stuf I will shalbe savelye kept tothuse of mysaide 
Soonne Gregorye. a 1533 LD. BERNERS Huon xxi. 58 They 
aryuyd sauelyat the port of Jaffe. 1613 SHAKS. Hen. VIII^ 
v. i. 70 God safely quit her of her Burthen. 1635 HAKEWILL 
ApoL v-vi. 116 Ihe earth being safely delivered from that 
inundation. 1765 WARBURTON in /K. <J- ffurefs Lett. (1809) 
365, I hope this will find you safely returned. 1853 Miss 
YONGE Heir of Redclyffe xliii, They were safely at home 
again the same evening. 1859 CLOUGH Poems, etc. (1869) 

I. 239 Your article . . came safely to hand. 1868 THIRLWALL 
Lett. (1881) II. 169, 1 send the Contemporary Review by this 
post. Pray let me know that it has reached you safely. 1891 
Law Times XC. 461/2 She was in the train, lawfully. ., and 
therefore a duty was cast upon the company of carrying her 

2. In a manner free from danger or hazard ; 
securely, without risk. 

1297 R. GLOUC. (Rolls) I. 347 (Harl. MS.) 5e mowe sauflyche 
bet holy byng as he dude auonge. a 1300 Cursor M. 686 
Be-tuix J wolues lai J>e schepe, Sauueli [Go'tt. saufli, 
Fairf. sauelyj moght bai samen slepe. 1390 GOWER Conf. 

II. 248 And thanne he may saufliche ynowh His Oxen 
yoke into the plowh. 1400 Reivtand fy tV 1362 Ther- 

safe-keeping. 1884 Manch. Exam, i Dec. 5/1 He was 
willing to pay for the safe-keeping of his wife m Dr, W.'s 

Safely (st'i'fli), adv. Forms : 3-4 sauveli, 3-5 
saveliche, 4-5 -lich, -lych(e, -like, (compar. 
saveloker, -lokr), 4-5 salvely, 4-6 savely, (5-6 
-lye, 6 -lie) ; 3-5 saufli, 4-5 saufliche, -lych(e, 
-like, sauffly, sawf(f )ly, 4-6 saufly, 6 saulfly(e, 
saulfely; 3-6 safly, 4-5 safliche, saff(e)ly, 
salfly, 6 saf(f )eli, Sc. saifly, 5- safely, [f. SAFE 
a. + -LY 2.] I n a safe manner. 

1. Without harm or injury occasioned or received. 
Often with verbs of coming, going, keeping^ and the 
like, where the adj. might be used (see SAFE a. i). 


mychte no wapen his tnedys ryfe, So Savely was he 
dighte. 1597 HOOKER Eat. Pol. v. Ixvii. 12 Are we 
not hereby, .admonished which wee may safeliest cleaue 
vnto? 1697 DRYUEN l>'irg. Ceorg. in. 837 Nor safely cou'd 
they shear the fleecy Store. 1751 JOHNSON Rambler No. 
162 f 4 No man can safely do that by others, which might 
be done by himself. 1849 MACAULAY /-list. Eiig. vii. 1 1. 205 
He could not safely venture to outrage all his Protestant 
subjects at once. 1884 Afanch. Exam. 29 May 4/7 The 
demand for advances will exceed . . the sum which the State 
can safely or conveniently lend. 
b. \\ithoutriskofeiror. 

c '350 Will. Palerne 3051 But saufly bis may [i] seye & 
be sobe proue. c 1386 CHAUCER Frankl. T. 33 For o thin.qe, 
sires, saufly dar I seie. 1390 GOWER Conf. I. 308 Hot I dar 
saufly make an oth, Mi ladi was me nevere loth. 1573 
T. CARTWRIGHT Reply to Whitgift's AHSIV. 17 Howe can 
we doe safelyer then to follow the Apostles customes? 1647 
GREAVES Roman Foot 103 Therefore wee may the safelier 
give credit to them. 1710 AUDISON Tatlcr No. 250 P i, I can 
safely say, I acted according to the best of my Understand- 
ing. 1825 COLERIDGE Aids Rejl. (1848) I. 26 Such a one 
isafcliest spoken of by the neuter pronoun). 1875 T. \V. 
HIGGINSON Hist. U. S. xxxii. 328 We can safely assume 
something more than this. 

1 3. In safe confinement or custody. 06s. 

c 1420 Knit 429 All his prisoneris weren.. brought into the 
Toure of London, to kepe hem there-ynne saufly. 1505 
Mem. Hen. I-' 1 1 (Rolls) 268 That he shuld resayve and 
savely kepe the said rebell. 1601 SIIAKS. Alts H'eil IV. i. 
104 He keepe him darke and safely lockt. 1611 lilULE Acts 
xvi. 23 Charging the laylour to keepe them safely. 

t 4. With confidence or assurance. Ol>s. 

1609 BIULE (Douay) 2 Kings xvi. Comm., King David 
was here abused by false information : to which he ought 
not so safely to have geven credite. 1674 CAM WON Art of 
Descant 58 Doing that safely and resolutely which others 
attempt timorously and uncertainly. 

Safeness (s?-fnes). [-NESS.] The quality or 
state of being safe (in various senses). 

" "375 Cursor .If. 18742 (Fairf.) petober[man] vs come fra 
heyuen toure pat bro^t us sauenes & socoure. c 1440 
I'romp. Pail'. 440/2 Saafnesse, or salvacyon, salvacio. 
IS3OPALSGR. 265/2 Safenesse, jaw?^ f . 1607 MARKHAMGiZvzA 
i. (1617) 69 Besides the safenesse and no danger in the cure. 
1610 HOLLAND Camden's Brit. (1637) 651 Neither is this 
Haven famous for the secure safeness thereof. 1639 FULLER 
Holy War in. xiii. (1640) 130 The nearnesse of the way is 
to be measured not by the shortnesse but the safenesse of it. 
1685 BAXTER Parafhr. N. T. 2 Tim. ii. 3 The Life of a 
Minister or Bishop is not a Life of Ease, and Idleness, and 
Safeness. 1688 SOUTH Serin, xii. (1697) I. 546 If a Man 
should forbear his Food,., till he had Science and Certainty 
of the Safeness of what he was going about, he must 
starve, and die Disputing. 1889 Spectator 28 Dec., He 
must be, first of all, a man of sure judgment, or the public 
will not trust him long, they discerning the quality we call 
'safeness ' clearly enough. 

Safer, obs. form of SAVIOUR, SAVOUR. 

Safer Sc. = so far adv. : see So. 

Safer(e, Saferay, obs. ff. SAPPHIRE, SAVORY. 

Saferen, -erne, -ero(u)n, obs. ff. SAFFRON. 

Safety (st'-fti). Forms : 3-4 sauvete, savte, 
4-5 savetee, sawete, savite, -yte, 4-6 savete, 5 
salvetee, 6 savity, salvetie ; 4-5 safte(_e, 
sawfte, (5 saefte), 4-6 saufte, 5 .5V. saifte, 6 
safitie, safetye, saulftie, saulfty(e, saufftye, 
sauftie, salf(e)ty, Sc. saiftie, 6-7 safetie, saftie, 
7 safty, 6- safety, [a. F. sauvet4{\ ith c. salvetet), 
ad. med.L. salvilat-etn, f, salv-us SAFK. Cf. Pr. 
salvetat, sanbetat t Sp. salvedad.] 

.Scanned by Spenser (and in Shaks. Ham. i. iii. 21 Qq.) as 
a trisyllable. 

1. The state of being safe ; exemption from hurt 
or injury ; freedom from danger. Phr. in safety. 

Committee of Safety : a body of 23 members appointed in 
Oct. 1659 by the parliamentary army to conduct the govern- 
ment_of Kngland during the interregnum following the 
practical deposition of Richard Cromwell. 

13. . E. E. A/lit. P. I!. 489 pat was be syngne of sauyte 
bat sende hem oure lorde. 1375 BARBOUR Bruce ill. 183 
And he eftyr his mengje raid ; And in-till saufte thaim led. 
c X 3^ Si* Fentmb. 3410 pay bub in sauete. c 1450 Merlin 
xvii. 272 The lorde of palerne. .shall lede the pray to saftee. 
1539 BIBLE (Great) Ps. iv. 8 For it is thou Lorde onely, 
that makest me dwell in safetye. 1590 SPENSER F. O. u. 
xii. 17 Here now behoueth vs well to auyse, And of our 
safetie good heede to take. 1611 BIBLE Prov. xi. 14 In the 
multitude of counselors there is safetie. 1617 MORYSON 
/tin. I. 243 Merchants, passengers and drivers of loaded 
Camels, keeping together for safety against theeves. 1651 
HOBBES Leviatk. II. xvii. 87 In those things which concerne 
the Common Peace and Safetie. 1639 WHITELOCKE 

duty.. not to hazard the safety of the Community. 
C. J. A_N 


OERSSON Lake Ngami 9, 1 arrived late in the evening 
at our hotel, where they nad begun to entertain some doubt 
of my safety. 1860 TYNDALL Glac. \. vii. 48 The least pre- 
sence of mind would be sufficient to place him in safety. 
Proverb. There is safety in numbers. 

fb. Salvation (of the soul). Obs. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 13093 Yee ask him if he be bat gom pat 
for man sauuete suld com. c 1375 Sc. Leg. Saints xxii. 
(Laurentius) 376 Lord Ihesu, bat dengnit before oure sawfte 
to mane be. c 1400 Rom. Rose 6869 For her soules savetee. 
1675 M. CLIFFORD Hum. Reason 32 Those whose Ignorance 
in these matters has been invincible, they left to the hands 
of God, without declaring a definitive Opinion either of 
their safety or perdition. 

fc. With (the} safety of ': without damage to, 
preserving . , unhurt. Obs. 

1619 in Eng. $ Germ, (Camden) 10 The King my master 


piofesseth he could neither with the saftie of his honor or 
conscience leave them to be consumed by the sword. 1633 
MARMION Antiynaty HI. i. (16411 E 4 b, I am. .a kindc of 
lawlesse Justicer, . .that will kill any man with my safety 
1640 SHIRLEY St. Patrick m. ii, That I with safetie of thy 
sence, Emeria, Might visit thee. 

t d. Sometimes //. ^ the safety of more than one 
person. (In quot. 1605 ? = occasions of safety.) 

1605 SHAKS. Afacb. iv. iii. 30 Let not my lealousies be 
your Dishonors, But mine owne Safeties. 16.. C tuny Chase 
I. IPercy MS.), God prosper long our noble king, our lifTes 
and saftyes all ! 1686 PLOT Stajfordsh. 439 To attend his 
or their own safeties, every one at his pel ill. a 1774 GOLDS.M. 
tr. Scarron's Com. Rom. (1775) II. 55 But still a more pre- 
dominant regard to their safeties, obliged him to spend all 
his time in spurring, .his own and his mistress's beast. 1814 
SCOTT Lit. of Isles in. xxviii, To Allan's eyes was harder 
task, The weary watch their safeties ask. 

fe. 1'hr. To be safety = \.o be safe (for). Obs. 

1596 Si'KSSER State Irel. Wks. (Globe) 623/1 The Irish 

were not ameanable to lawe, soe as it was not safetye for 

the townesmen togoe to them foorth to demaund theyrdelt. 

tf. A deliverance or rescue from peril. Obs. rare. 

1657 HEYLIN Eccl. Vind. u. i. 10. in Noah.. offered unto 

God the sacrifice of thanksgiving . . for so miraculous a safety. 

g. Billiards. See quot. 1884. Also attrib. 

1873 BLNNKTT Milliards 386 It is, of course, a matter of 

judgment, when to play for a score, and when to play fur 

safety. _ 1884 \V. COOK Billiards 12 When a player, instead 

of playing to score, plays to leave some position in which 

his opponent will be unable to score in his next stroke, he 

is said to play for safety. 1897 H'cstm. Caz. 18 Feb. 9/1 

By some judicious safety- play [he] succeeded in reaching 

his points without allowing his opponent to improve his 


t 2. Close custody or confinement. Obs. 
1338 K. BRUNNE Citron. (1810) 236 pe mayden Edward 
tpke, als he was fulle curteys, In saufte did hir loke. 1592 
SHAKS. Rom. ff Jul. v. iii. 183 Hold him in safety, till the 
Prince come hither. 1595 John IV. ii. 158 Away with 
him ! imprison him ;. . Deliuer him to safety. 

1 3. A means or instrument of safety ; a protec- 
tion, safeguard. Obs. 

''"375 Sc. Leg. Saints xxviii. (Margaret) 362 For bis 
payne bat done is to me be saufte of my saule sal be. 1399 
Rolls of Parlt. III. 451/2 Syche Juggement. .os inyght be 
savete and seurtee. .to the Kynges hegh Estate. 1470-85 
MALORY Arthur xni. viii. 623 'He that suffred vpon the 
crosse..he be vnto yow good ccnduyte and saufte. 1577 
B. GOOGE tlercsbafh's Husb. i. (1586) 12 Beside, the parget, 
ting or seeling, is a good safetie against fyre. Ici&a in 
Rye Cramer p. Ixii, The said Peere . . will . . in tyme be made 
a very competent harborough or safetie to the Coast men., 
and a sound safetie to the Towne. 1689-90 TE.MTLE Pop. 
Discontents Wks. 1731 I. 260 The first Safety of Princes and 
States, lies in avoiding all Councils or Designs of Innova- 
tion in Ancient and Established Forms and Laws. 1713 
STEELE Englishm. No. 52. 334 Political Fear and Aversion generally the Safety of a People. 1793 S.MEATON Etiy- 
stone L. 332 Two lights, .not only of great benefit, but an 
absolute safety to all navigatois on that coast. 

f4. Used in active sense: The action of saving. 
a. Sc. Protection. Under safety of, under pro- 
tection of. for the safety of, in order to save or 
avert. Obs. 

1465 in Exch. Rolls Kcotl. VII. 321 note, For saufte of his 
lyffe. CI470 HENRV Wallact\\\. 038 To saiff his lyff thre jer 
he duelt in But ;. .Wndir saifte offjamys than lord Stewart. 
1504 in Cliarlers, etc. Edinb. 11871! 188 For recovering, 

sauftie of the inconvenient and danger quhilk. .wes lyke to 
follow, enterit ane servand of his awm in Ingland. 
f b. Saving (of money). Otis, rare ~ *. 

1540 LATIMER ind Serm. lief. Edw. 17, D iij, But I feare 
one thynge, and it is : lest for a salfetyof a lytle money, you 
wyll put in chauntrye Pryestes, to saue theyr petitions. 

6. The quality of being unlikely to cause or occa- 
sion hurt or injury; freedom from dangerousness; 
safeness. With safety, without occasioning danger 
or risk. 

1717 LADY M. W. MONTAGU f.el. la Miss S. CAlsuvll 
i Apr., I am very well satisfied of the safely of the experi- 
ment. 1806 Med. Jml. XV. 386 If these incisions into the 
abdomen can be made with safety. 1816 BUDDLE Let. 

4/3, 1 nave tound It necessary never to go out shooting with 
a miscellaneous lot of ' young men from town ', until I have 
had a report . . as to their safety in the field. 
b. Sureness, steadiness. ? ttonce-ttse. 
1841 Miss MITFORD in L'Estrange Life (1870) III. viii. 
1 19, I am, and always have been, a very active person . . with 
great fearlessness and safety of foot and limb. 

6. Engineering, fac/or or coefficient of safety : 
see quots. (Cf. safe load, SAFE a. 14.) 

1858 RANKINE Alan. Affl. Mechanics 247. 274 Factors 
of Safety are of three kinds. 1868 HUMBER Strains in 
Girders 56 Coefficients of Safety are numbers representing 
the proportions of the ultimate strength of materials to the 
strains that can safely be brought upon them. 1891 ANGLIN 
Design Structures 17 The ratio of the ultimate strength to 
the working strength is termed the factor of safety of the 

7. Patent Safety (Cab): the original HANSOM CAB, 
which was furnished with a contrivance to prevent 
an upset if the cab tilted up or down. 

1851 Frasers fTag. XLIII. 308/2 Hansom's Patent Safety. 
1864 F. W. ROBINSON Mattic II. 25 Dodging the policeman 
behind a Patent Safety. 1882 Builder 8 July 44/1 The 
'Patent Safety Cab'. 


8. In full safety-bolt. A contrivance for locking 
the trigger of a gun, so as to prevent accidental 
discharge. Also, a gun fitted with this contrivance. 
1881 GKEENER Gun 332 The safety is, fixed upon strap of 
break-off. Ibid. 344 A safety bolt is fixed to this gun, 
which bolts the scears to the triggers. 1884 St. James's 
Gaz. 25 Aug. 6/2 The old safety-bolts, .were never very 
general favourites. 1892 GREENER Breech' Loader 36 A 
safety,, .which bolts the triggers effectually. 

0. In full safety bicycle. The type of bicycle now 
in use, differing from the old * Ordinary * in the 
lower position of the saddle, whereby greater 
safety is afforded to the rider. 

Some of the earlier 'safeties' had a geared front driving- 
wheel still much larger than the trailing-wheel. In the pre- 
sent form the driving wheel is behind, and the two wheels 
are equal in diameter. 

1877 Bicycle jfrnl. 4 May 16 Advt., The 'Challenge' 
Bicycle, and the 'Safety' Bicycle. 1884 GKJHFIN Bicycles 
ofYr. 82 The Devon Safety Roadster... One of the oldest 
and simplest of safety bicycles. 1885 Field 31 Jan. 121/3 
Advt., The Club Safety has been constructed so as to con- 
tain all the merits of existing ' Safeties '. 
1O. attrib. Used very freely since c 1800 as a 
specific designation for contrivances for ensuring 
safety, or for implements, machines, etc., constructed 
with a view to safety in use ; as safety arch, bell, 
belt) buoy, car, cartridge, gun^ hook, ktel^ lintel^ lock, 
plug, raily rein, etc. ; safety bicycle (see sense 9) ; 
fsafety boat, a life-boat; safety bolt (see sense 
8) ; safety cab (see sense 7) ; safety cage, (a) the 
wire guard of a safety lamp ; (/>_, a miner's cage 
fitted with apparatus to prevent its falling if the ; 
rope breaks; safety car (see quota.}; safety dis- 
tance, the distance which suffices to ensure safety; I 
safety fuse, a fuse which can be ignited at a safe j 
distance from the charge; safety lamp, a miner's j 
lamp the flame of which is so protected that it will i 
not ignite fire-damp (the kind best known is that J 
invented by Sir II. Davy) ; also called t safe lamp j 
(see SAFE a. 14) and f safety lantern; safety 
match, one which ignites only when rubbed on a : 
prepared surface ; safety tube, a tube specially 
contrived to furnish outlet or inlet for gases, etc. 

1850 ()GiLViK,*Safety-ar<, /*, a discharging arch. 1875 KNIGHT i 
Diet. Mech. 2015-18 *Sa/ety-be<im t &c. 1875 Encycl. Brit. 
1 1 1. 539 '2 *Safety bell on swinging coil (fastened to shutters ' 
ordoors>. 1858 SlMMOHDS .?&/. Trade, * safety-belt,* Safety- \ 
buoy, a swimming belt or buoy, intended as a protection | 
from drowning. 1830 Hr. MARTIKKAU Hist. Peace (1877) 
III. iv. xiv. 155 Lionel Lukin, the inventor of the ^safety- ; 
boat. 1839 URE Diet. Arts 1079 This lamp gives so little : 
li-ht as to tempt rash men to remove its *safety.cage. 1867 
\V. \V. SMYTH Coal ^ Coal-mining 172 A number of inven- ; 
lions, to which the name of safety-cage, in French para- 
chute, has been applied. 1840 TANNER Canals <V Rail 
Roads U.S : 258 * Safety car, a machine which follows or 
precedes rail-road cars in their passage of inclined planes, 
and prevents their descent in case of accident to the ma- 
chinery, or otherwise. 1881 RAV.MONU Mining Gloss., Safety- 
car. See Barney. 1881 GRKENKRC?//;* 505 "Safety cartridges. 
1838 MARY HOWIIT Birds <y Fl., House-Sparrow iv, He 
knows the * safety-distance to an inch, 1906 IVestiit. Ga^. 
5 -May 3/1 Two motor-omnibuses require 46ft. of street 
with a safety distance of 18 ft. between each of the two 
omnibuses. 1839 DE LA BECHE Rep.Geol. Cornwall, e\.c.xv. j 
575 Accidents, however, are frequent. .notwithstanding the 
invention of the *safety-fuse. 1884 St. James's Gaz. 25 Au?. 
6/2 *Safety-guns. .have now been brought to a high pitch 
of perfection. 1875 R. F. MARTIN tr. Havn-s" Winding 
Mach. 95 Good *safety hooks will hold up the cage, but 
they allow the rope to be hurt. 1874 THEARLE Naval 
A re/tit. 53 The late Mr. Lang introduced what were term-d 
' ^safety keels ' and are now known as ' thick garboards '. 
1816 WALDIK Let. 25 Mar. in Paris Life Davy (1831) II. no i 
The great and important discover^ of your *Safety-la-np , 
for exploring mines charged with inflammable gas. 1815 , 
DAVY in Phil. Trans. CVl. 14 The second "safety lantern ' 
that I have had made is upon the same principle as the first. 
1850 OGILVIE, * Safety-lintel, a name given to the wooden 
lintel which is placed behind a stone lintel, in the aperture 
of a door or window. 1863 AUKL in Lond. etc. P kilos. Mag. 
Nov. 357 Varieties, .of so-called ' *safety matches'. i865 
BRANDE & Cox Diet. Sei. etc. s.v. Lucifers, Such matches, 
as not being affected by accidental friction, and as being 
free from poison, are called safety matches. 1828 Lights 

1841 BRANOE Clam. (ed. 5)480 The escape of any uncondensed 
gas [should be] provided for by a 'safety-tube. 


1. A pin for fastening clothing, bent back on 
itself so as to form a spring, and with a guard or 
sheath to cover the point and prevent its accidental 
unfastening. In Arclissalogy, a fibula or brooch 
made on the same principle. 

1857 Prov. Patent Specif. No. 134 Imp'ts in safety pins. 
t88o DAWKINS E,irly Man 388 The peculiar brooch made 
of twisted wire, of the ' safety pin ' kind, so abundant in the 
htruskan tombs of Uologna. i88> A. J. EVANS in A rcte- 
alagM XLVIII. 100 As an example of a Roman safety-pin 
IhKjioula, so far as 1 am aware, is altogether unique. 

2. A pin used for fastening, locking, or securing 
some part of a machine. 

1878 N. Amcr. Ka>. CXXVII. 387 Some say that the 
Russians had neglected to take out the safety-pins, thus 
tnvng the torpedoes as it were on half-cock. 1884 F. J. 


BRITTEN H-'atck fy Clockin. 143 The object of the safety-pin 
is to prevent the wheel being unlocked except when the 
impulse pin is in the notch of the lever. 1884 KNIUHT Diet. 
Mech. Suppl., Safety Pin, a temporary pin in a percussion 
fuse, to prevent the plunger from striking accidentally 
against the percussion powder. 1896 U'cstm. Gaz. 9 June 
4/4 Lifting the cotter, or safety pin, which locked the bolt. 


1. A valve in a steam-boiler which automatically 
opens to permit steam to escape when the pressure 
is becoming dangerous. Also, a similar valve 
opening inwards, to admit air when a partial 
vacuum has been formed. 

1815 .1. SMITH Panorama Sci. $ Art II. 134 The safety- 
valve.. is loaded so that the steam escapes when it is 
stronger than the engine requires. 1832 BABBAGK Econ. 
Manuf. ii. (ed. 3) 26 The boiler of a steam engine some- 
times bursts even during the escape of steam through the 

trans/. 1830 LYKU, Prt'nc. Geol. I. 371 The volcanos in 
different parts of this island are observed, .to be in activity 
by turns, one vent often serving for a time as a safety-valve 
to the rest. 1876 C. I>. WARNER ll'int. Nile i. 22 The vol- 
canic islands which serve as chimneys and safety-valves to 
this part of the world. 

2. _/?". An opening or channel for* letting ofl" steam', 
giving vent to excitement, getting rid of a danger- 
ous excess of energy, or the like. 

1818 LA nv MORGAN Autolnog. (1859) 172 Our hereditary 
nobility have safety-valves in their rank, and in the offices 
of which they are the inheritors in church and state. 1825 
HONK Every -day JKk. I. 1344 As a sort of ' safety valve',., 
recourse is had. .to the flinging about of. .cabbage stalks. 
1835 MAKKYAT Olla Podr. xix, I am convinced that they 
\sc. public lotteries] were beneficial, acting as safety-valves 
to the gambling spirit of the nation. 1861 M. ARNOLD P?p. 
Kdnc. France 183 What a safety-valve to the high pressure 
of a compulsory system is here ! 1878 STUBBS Const. Hist. 
III. xviii. 276 Commercial activity, .was. .a safety-valve for 
energies shut out of their proper sphere. 

t Safe ward. Obs. [WARD si.] Safe-guard, 
safe -keeping. 

1398 TKEVISA Barth. De /'. K.\. viii. (Tollem. MS.), The 
ye litldes. . reulen and hilen and gouerne fc>e yen in saue 
warde [L. tuta custodia}. 1414 in I* roc. Privy Council 
(1834) II. 142 That, .the sauf warde of alle youre [? realm] 
be wel and suftissantly purveied. t 1420 Avoiv. Artfi. xxx, 
Inne saue-ward that byurde bryjte I'o Carlele to bringe. 
1474 CAXTON Chesse in. vi. (1883) 129 To putte hyt in seure 
and sauf warde and kepynge. 

Safewr, obs. form of SAPPHIRE. 

Saff.e, obs. forms of SAFE, SAVE. 

Saffage, obs. form of SAVAGE a. 

SafFer(e, obs. forms of SAPPHIRE, ZAFFRE. 

Saffern, -eron, obs. and dial, forms of SAFFRON. 

Saffi, variant of SAPHIE, amulet. 

Saffian (soe'fian). Forms: 6 saphian, -ion, 
8- saffian, [a. Russ. ca(J>bHm>, corruptly a. Rou- 
manian saffian, a. Turkish (Persian) uUxi** 
sa\tiyan. Cf. tier, saffian.] A leather made from 
goatskins or sheepskins tanned with sumach and 
dyed in bright colours. Also saffian leather, 

1591 G. FLETCHER Rtisse Coimmv. xix. 74 Whither the 
Russe marchants trade for raw silks, , syndon, saphion, skins, 
and other commodities. Ibid, xxviii. 114 His buskins.. are 
made of a Persian leather called Saphian. 1796 MORSK 
Atner. Geog. II. 460 The skins of these sheep, and skins of 
goats, are used in making Saffian and Morocco leather. 
1834-6 P. BARLOW in Encycl. Metrop. (1845) VIII. 551/2 
A valuable Saffian or dyed Maroquin leather, almost equal 
to that of Turkey, is prepared at Astracan and m other 
parts of Asiatic Russia. 1882 J. PATON in Encycl. Brit. 
XIV. 388/1 The Germans distinguish between saffian and 
morocco, including under the former term leather tanned 
with sumach, and dyed bright colours without previous 
stuffing with fats. . . Saffians are, according to this classifica- 
tion, the leathers principally used for bindings and fancy 

Safflor(e, obs. forms of SAFFLOWER. 

Safflorite (sarflorait). Min. [a. G. safflorit 
0835)1 f- safflor SAFFLOWER: see -ITE 1 .} An 
orthorhombic arsenide of cobalt and iron. 

1852 BROOKE & MILLER Phillips* Introd. Min. 146. 1862 
DANA Min. 263. 

Safflower (sx'ikuw). Forms: a. 6 corruptly 
samfleure, -floure ; 0. 7 saf(f )lore, (erron. sal- 
fore), S saf(f)lor; 7. 7 safflowr, saflower, 
8 saff-flower, 8- safflower; 8. 8-9 safflow. 
[a. Du. saffloer(s = G. safflor, a. OF. saffleur, 
";, a. early It. saffiore, also asfiore, trs/rofe, , 

' ', etc. (Yule). The ultimate source is obscure : 
the Arabic Ju. e-uffur is prob. a foreign word 
assimilated to Ju>\ acfar yellow. 

The form has been influenced by association with the | 
words saffron (F. snfran) and Jlowcr (\\..ftorc, ^.fleitr}\ | 
although safflower is a wholly different plant from saffron, i 
the former was often used as a substitute for the latter in \ 
medicine, whence the name bastard saffron.] 

1. The dried j>etals of the Carthamus tinctorius 
(see 2), also the (red) dye produced from these 
petals. Used in the preparation of rouge. 

a. 1*83 L. M[ASCALL] tr. Rk. Dyeing 2O Vee shall take one 
pound of samfleure and let it soke halfe a day [etc.). /bitt. t ' 


y. 166. PETTY Hist, Dycing in Sprat HUt. Roy. Soc. 

(1667)208 This Mather ..dyeth on Cloth a colour the nearest 

to our Bow-dye,.. the like whereof Safflowr doth in Silk. 

1799 G. SMITH Laboratory I. 385 Then take the safflower 

out of the bag. 1836-41 BKANDE Chem. (ed. 5) 1113 Safflower 

contains two colouring matters, a yellow and a red. 1877 

! O'NEILL in Encycl. Brit. VII. 571/2 Specimens of mummy 

i cloth of a reddish colour appeared to have been dyed with 


2. The thistle-like plant Carthamus tinctorius, 
, extensively cultivated in Southern Europe, Kgypt, 

, India, and China for the dye obtained from its 

flowers (see i); the seeds yield an oil used for lamps. 

|8. 1762 tr. Bustling's Syst. Geeg, V. 536 Woad, saflor, or 

1 wild-saffron, and garden -fruits. 

y. 1682 S. WILSON Ace. Carolina 18 Sumack growes in 
great abundance naturally, so undoubtedly would Woad, 
Madder and Sa- Flower, if planted. 1756 Contpl. Body 
Husb. 535 Saff-flower, or Carthamus, is culthated for the 

I sake of its flower, as the Saffron i.s. 1900 Jrnl. Soc. Dyers 

| XVI. 6 Other Philippine dye plants.. are the sibucao, or 

, sapan wood, the ben, or safflower [etc.]. 

S. 1707 MORTIMER Husb. 1^1 In Oxfordshire, about Norton 
and Asnton, grows a sort of herb that they call Safllow or 
Bastard Saffron, which the Dyers use for the dying of 

, Scarlet. 1885 STALLYBRASS tr. Hekris Wand. Plants <$ 
Anim.zoi The Safflow or Zaffer..a kind of thistle native to 
the Kast Indies. 

3. attrib. 

1812 J. SMYTH Pract. of 'Customs (1821) 204 The Seeds of 
the Safflower Plant. 1857 E. BALFOUK Cycl. India 1631 
Safflower Oil. Ibid., Safflower Seed. 

llSaffo. rare- 1 . PI. saffl. [It. <a catchpole, a 
sergeant 1 (Florio, 1598).] A bailiff. 

1605 B. JONSON I'olpone nr. viii. (1607) H4 V r olj>. Hearke, 
who's there ? I heare some footing, Officers, the Saffi, Come 
to apprehend vs ! 

t Saffora. Obs. rare. Also saphora. [Of un- 
known origin.] = BARILLA 2. 

a 1618 Rates Marchandizes D 2, Barilia or Saphora, to 
make glasse. Ibid. KS, Saffora to make Glasse. 

SafForn^e, obs. forms of SAFFRON. 
Saffrauon (sorfran^n). Also 8 saffranoune. 
j [App. a var. of F. safranum with the same meaning, 
a. med.L. safranum SAFFROX.] SAFFLOWER i. 
1731 Gentl. Mag. I. 451 As the Jacol^.. bound from 
Alexandria with Hides, Coffee, Saffranon, &c. to Leghorn 
lay off Monte Christo, the Saffranon smothering in the 
Hold, on opening the Hatches the Flames burst out. 1743 
, R. POCOCKE Egypt i. iv. 39 An export of coffee, senna, 
saffranounes for dying, flax [etc.]. 1834 M'CULLOCH Diet. 
I Contttt. (ed. 2) 1001 The flowers, .are sometimes sold under 
; the name of saffranon. 

SafFre, variant of ZAFFHE. 

iSa'ffred, a, ? Anglo-Irish. Obs. In 5 saf- 
fyrred, 6 saufred. [f. SAFFB(OJT) + -ED -.] - 

1466 Anc. Ctil. Rec. Dublin (1889) 326 Ne woman.. use 
to werre saffyrred smokes ne saffyrred kewryches, 158* 
STANYHi'RST^iw^wi. (Arb.) 38 The roabe pretiouse colored 
lyke saufred Achantus \croceo Acantho\. Ibid. 40 With 
roabs of saffrod [?</ saffred] Acanthus. 

Saffrene, variant of SAFRENE. 

Saffron (sae-fran), sb. and a. Forms: a. 3 saf- 
fran, 4-5 saflroun, aaf(f}run. 4-6 safron, 5 saf- 
frorm, safroun,-ryn, 6saphron, saffrane.-rone, 
saffroune, 7 safran, 5- saffron ; /3. 5 safforn, 6 
saf^f )orne, -erne ; 7. 5 saferen, saferoun, sai- 
pheron, sapheron(e, saferou, safifyronj 5-6 saf- 
feron. [a. F. safran (i2thc. in Hatz.-Darm.), 
whence also MLG. safferan, MDu. saffraen (Du. 
saffraaif)) MHG. saffrdn (mod.G. safran). The 
ultimate source is Arab. ^\jj zac-fanm (adopted 

employ to colour tlieir eatables yellow. 

unchanged in Turkish, Persian, and Hindustani) ; 
also Jewish Aramaic wnen zaC.p 6 ratta). The 
Arabic word with prefixed definite article, a;- 
zaefaran, is represented by Sp. azafran, Pg. afa- 
frao ; the word without this prefix gives rise to It. 
zafferanQ) zaffrone, Pr. safran^ sap-a. Cat. safrd, . 
safran, med.L. safratiti/u, med.Gr. a<pd?, mod.Gr. 
vatffpavi) Russian iuu()>paH]. 

The origin of Arab. zaG-faran is unknown ; it is not con- 
nected with fa/ra 1 fern, of a$far yellow. The Turkish 
synonym ^afnln (Zenker ; given in Kedh, -Wells only as au 
incorrect pronunciation) may however be derived from this 
adj., and may be the source of some of the European forms.] 

A. sb. 

1. An orange-red product consisting of the dried 
stigmas of Crocus sativus (see 2)t Now used 
chiefly for colouring confectionery, liquors, etc., 
and for flavouring ; formerly extensively used in 
medicine as a cordial and sudorific. 
Hay saffron, cuke saffron: see quot. 1849. 
<i200 Trin. Coll. lloin. 163 Hire winpel wit ooer maked 
geleu mid saffran. a 1350 St. Stephen 318 in Horstin. 
Altcngl : Leg. (1881) 32 The ferth [panier]..ful of safron 
semyd it right. ^ySilS CHAUCER SirThopas 10 His heer, 
his herd was lyk saffroun. t: 1450 Two Cookery-oks, 70 Cast 
thereto Sapheron and salt, c 1460 PlaySacram. 177 Peper 
and saffyron and spycis smale. 1572 in Feuillerat Revels 
Q. Elis. (1908) 176 Cloves and saferne. 1582 N. LICIIEHELD 
tr. CastankedasCon,}. E. Ind. 91 A bason of silver to wa^i 
liis hands in, full of Saforne. 1611 SHAK& Wint. T. iv. iii. 
48, I must haue Saffron to colour the Warden Pies. 1685 
TEMPLE ss. t Health Wks. 1731 I. 284 Saffron is of all 
others the safest and most simple Cordial. 1718 PRIOR 
Pleasure 460 Saffron and myrrh are on his garment;, .shed. 
1808 Med. Jrnl. XIX. u3 Syrup of saffron, a sufficient 


quantity to form an electuary. 1840 PEREIRA Elew. Mat. 
Med. n. 674, 4,320 flowers are required to yield one ounce 
of saffron. 1849 BAI.FOUR Man. Bot. 1068 These stigmata 
are either dried in the loose state, forming Hay Saffron, or 
compressed into masses, constituting Cake Saffron. 1860 
TRISTRAM Gt. Sahara vii. 119 Saffron. .is a grateful addi- 
tion to fried, boiled, or stewed. 

Prov. phrase. 1778 T. HurCHiNSON Diary it Jan., Called 
on tiliss whcf is as yellow as saffron with the jaundice. 
b. Indian saffron : turmeric. 

17*7-41 CHAMBKUS Cyct. s. v. Turmeric, The Indians use 
it to dye their rice, and other foods, of a yellow colour; 
whence some call it Indian saffron. 1874 Treas. Bot. Suppl., 
Saffron i Indian, the roots of various species of Curcuma. 

2. The Autumnal Crocus, Crocus salivus, which 
produces saffron. 

(1425 Voc. in Wr.-Wiilcker 645/18 [Nowina herbarum] 
Hie crocus, safurroun. 1551 TURNER Herbal i. L iij b, Col- 
chtcon..bryngeth furthea whytishe floure lyke vntosafforne 
in the ende of autumne. 1578 LYTE Dodoens n. Iv. 216 
Saffron., groweth plentifully also in some places of England 
and Irelande. 1669 EVELYN Kal. Hort., Aug. (ed. 3) 23 Note, 
that English Saffron may be suffered to stand for increase 
to the third or fourth year. 1776 WITHERING Brit. Plants 
(1796) II. 68 Crocus officinal is satt~'us.. .Common or au- 
tumnal Saffron. 1782 J. SCOTT Poet. Jl'&s. 113 Cantabrian 
hills the purple saffron show. 

b. Bastard SafTron =SAFFLOWER 2; called also 
American, Dyer's, fMock Saffron. Meadow or 
Wild Saffron, Colchicitm aiititmnale. Spring Saf- 
fron, *f* Saflron of the Spring, Crocus vemt/s. 
African or f Cape Saffron, Lypcria crocea. 

1548 TURNER Names ofllerbes 29 called., in 
englishe Uastarde saffron or in ocke -saffron. Ibid.) Chol- 
chicuni.. . It maye be called in englishe, wylde saffron. 1578 
LYTE Dodoens \. xxii. 34 The seede of Bastarde Saffron . . 
is hoate. 1597 GERAKDE Herbal i. Ixxxi. 126 In English 
spring time Saffrons, and vernall Saffrons. 1599 Cata- 
logits B2 Crocus vermts^.. Saffron of the spring. 1598 
SYLVESTER Da Bartas u. i. in. furies 178 Colchis' banefull 
Lilly, (With us Wilde-Saffron). 1664 EVELYN Kal. Hort. 
Nov. 79 Flowers in Prime.. .Anecnonies, Meadow Saffron 
(etc.]. (1711 PETIVF.R Gazophyl. vi. Iviii, Cape Saffron with 
a knotty stalk. 1776 WITHKHING Brit. Plants (1796) II. 69 
Spring Saffron, or Crocus. 1866 Trcus. Bot. 1004/2 Saffron, 
African, Lypcria crocea. 

3. The orange-yellow colour of saffron (sense i). 
1382 WYCLIF Lam. iv. 5 That weren nurshid in faire clois 

of saffroun [Vulg. qni nntriebantur in croceis}. 1601 SHAKS. 
All's Well iv. v. 2 Your sonne was misled with a snipt 
tafiata fellow there, whose villanous saffron wold haue made 
all the vnbak'd and dowy youth of a nation in his colour. 
1712 ADDISON Spect. No. 265 ? 9 Aurora.. is robed in 
Saffron. 1798 LANDOR Gebir n. 212 Go early, ere the glad- 
some Hours Strew saffron in the path of rising Morn. 1895 
YEATS Wand. U sheen Poems 35 When the sun once more 
in saffron stept. 

4. Old Chem. ~ CROCUS 3. 

1681 tr. Baton's Myst. Pkysuk Introd. 54 Draw off the 
Menstruum, till the Saffron of the Gold remain almost dry. 
1704 J. HAKRIS Lex. Tcchn. I, Saffron of Steel, or Mars. 
See Crocus Martis. Ibid.^ Crocus Afartis Astrin^ens^ 
Binding Saffron of Steel. i77-4i CHAMBERS Cycl. s. v., 
Saffron is also a name given to several chymical prepara- 
tions, from the resemblance of their colour to that of the 
vegetable Saffron, but more usually called Croci. Such 
are Saffron of Venus, . . Saffron of Mars. . . Saffron of Gold, 
1758 RKID tr. Macquer's Chym. \. 368 Saffron of Mars. 
1842 FRANCIS Diet. Arts, Saffron of Antimony. Sesqui- 
sulphuret of antimony. 

5. Short for saffron butterfly, moth : see B. b. 
1829 J. F. STEPHF.NS Catal. Brit. Insects II. 171 Lozo* 

tatniti croc f ana., the Saffron. 1832 J. RENMIE Conspect. 
Bntterft. $ M. i The Clouded Saffron (Colias Eansa* 

6. attrib. and Comb. a. simple attrib., as saffron 
bulb, colour, head, -kiln, ointment , yelloio (adj.,. 

1398 TREVISA Bartk. De P. R. xvn. xli. (1495) 626 Croco- 
magma is callyd the superflnyte of spycery : of the whyche 
saffron oynement is made. Ibid. xix. xvi. 873 Saffron colour 
dieth and coloureth humours and lycours more thanne 
cytryne. c 1440 Paltaii. on Hnsb. in. 545 Now saffron 
bulbes beth lo sette or sowe. 1725 BRADLEY Fam, Diet. 
s.v., Saffron-kiln, a Kiln to dry Saffron with, 1728 DOUGLAS 
in /'////. Trans. XXXV. 572 To take up the Saffron Heads. 
1832 J. KKNNIE Conspect. Butter/I, fy M. 2 Wings.. above 
deep saffron yellow. 

b. objective, as saffron-gatherer; parasynthetic, 
as saffron-colon red, -hiteJ adjs. 

1548 ELYOT Dict. t Crocotularius, a dyer of "saffron co- 
loured garmentes, a 1586 SIDNEY /I mbfteMi. 11622) 207 But 
(as the 1'oets say) Hymen had not there his saffron coloured 
coat. 1828 STARK Elent. Nat. Hist. II. 51 Aperture white, 
and throat saffron-coloured. 1856 DEL.AMER /Y. Card. (1861) 
42 The "saffron-gatherers in the field. 1513 DOUGLAS AZneis 
vi. iii. 97 With 'saffron hewit frute. 

C. Special combinations: tsaflfrou-bag, ?a bag 
in which saffron is kept; cf. 5; saffron cake, 
(aj a cake flavoured with saffron ; () (see quot. 
1867, ^> cake saffron in sense i) ; saffron cordial, 
a cordial made with marigold-flowers, nutmeg and 
saffron ; saffron crocus, the Crocus sativits (see 
a); f saffron cut a., the designation of a kind 
of tobacco ; f saffron noble, ?a safTron-cake made 
in imitation of the coin ; f saffron sauce, ? sauce 
flavoured with saffron; saffron-tea, * an infusion of 
the flowers of Carthamits tinctoria [SAFFJ.OWEB 2], 
used as a diuretic in febrile disorders' (Syd. Soc. 
Lex. 1897); saffron-thistle = SAFFLOWEB 2 (Cent. 
Diet. 1891); f saffron-tree, the American hack- 
berry,CV//V crassifolia ; saffron wood (see quot.). 

1508 DUNBAR Fly ting 171 Thy skolderit skin, hewd lyk 


ane *saffrone bag. 1540 BARNES Wks. (1573) Life 6, I haue 
beene slaundered to preache that our lady was but a Saffron 
bagge. 1747 MRS. GLASSF, Cookery 139 To make a fine 
Seed or *Saffron Cake. 1867 TRISTRAM Nat. Hist. Bible w 
These [stigmas of the saffron crocus] are pressed into small 
tablets before drying, when they form the saffron cake of 
the bazaars of the East. 1892 ' Q.' (QuiLLBR-CoUCH] Three 
S/ifys v. 87 A slice o' saffern-cake, crowder, to stay ye. Don't 
say no. 1728 E. SMITH Compl. Houseiv. 229 The *Saffron 
Cordial. 1857 HKNFREY Bot. 588 The *Saffron Crocus, 
C. sativns. 1766 W. GORDON Gen. Counting-ho. 324, 10 
hhds *saffron cut tobacco. 1393 DF.E Diary (.Camden) 45, 
I gave him a *saflfron noble in ernest for a drinkpeny. 
71480 HENRVSON Test. Cress. 421 The swete meitis servit 
in plalttis clene, With *saipheron sals of an gude sessoun. 
1716 Peth-eriana I. 276 *Saffron-tree, Celtis Amer. fol. Cltri 
subtus aureo frtictu rubro. 1862 Chavib. Encycl. III. 801/1 
The timber of El&otiendron croccuut, called *Saffron-wood 
at the Cape of Good Hope, is much used there in building 
and cabinet-making. 

B. adj. Resembling saffron in colour. In early 
use al^o, f Coloured with saffron. 

1567 MAPLET Cr. Forest 35 Cammomill.. there is three 
kindes hereof. One which hath a Saffron flower. 1590 
SHAKS. Com. Err. iv. iv. 64 Did this Companion with the 
saffron face Reuell and feast it at my house to day. 1596 
SPENSER State Irel. \Vks. (Globe) 622/1 [The law] which 
putteth away saffron shirtes and smockes. 1632 MILTON 
L' Allegro 126 There let Hymen oft appear In Saffron robe. 
1697 DRVDEN SEneid iv. 840 Aurora now had left lier 
Saffron Bed. 1716 GAY Triria u. 384 Nor lazy Jaundice 
dulls your Saffron Eye. 1871 R. EI.I.IS Catullus Ixviii. 136 
Array'd in bright broidery, saffron of hue. 1873 BLACK 7V. 
Thitle xxvii, The clear saffron glory of the western sky. 

b. Special collocations : saffron butterfly, 
moth, collectors' names for certain lepidoptera 
having yellow wings ; t saffron pear, a variety of 
winter pear; saffron plum, a West Indian and 
mainland sapotaceous tree {Bumtlia ntncatct) 
having a yellow fruit. 

1704 PKTIVEK (iazophyl. it. xiv, Papilio crocens, apicilus 
nigricantibus. . . The *Saffron Butterfly. 1829 J. F. STEPHENS 
Cat at. Brit. Insects II. 3 Colitis Editsa. .. Clouded yellow 
or Saffron B. 1664 EVELYN Kal. Hori. Oct. 76 Lumbart- 
pear, Russet-pear, "Saffron-pear. i9B4S\RGZWRff.f'0rfsfs 
A 7 . Attier. (ioth Census IX.) 103 Huinelia ciineata. . .Ants' 
Wood. Downward Plum. * Saffron Plum. 

c. Comb.) as saffron~frw'ted t '-mantled^robed^]?>. 

1558 PKAER JEneid\\. Pivb, Hut saffronfrutid \orig. 207 
croceofetn] bows the stubbes therof doth ouerspreede. 1791 
COWPER Iliad VIM. i The saffron-mantled morning [*IIwy 
KpOKOTren-Aof]. 1842-63 I, WILLIAMS Baptistery II. xxviii. 
(1874) 141 Saffron-rob'd descending Charity. 

Saffron (sre'fran), v. rare. Also 5 saferon, 
safroun, [f. SAFFRON sb. Cf. F. safraner. med.L. 
saffrandrtj It. zafferanare t Sp. azafranar.] trans. 
a. To season with saffron. *f Also_/fif. b. To dye 
with saffron ; also, to give a saffron-yellow colour to. 

c 1386 CHAUCER Pard. T. 17 And in Latyn I speke a wordes 
fewe, To saffron \MS. Bodl. 686 saferon] with my predica- 
cion. c 1430 Two Cookery-bks. 32 Safroun It vvel. Ibid. 49 
Safrcun bin cofynn a-boue. 1593 DRAYTON Idea, Bgleffn, 
(1870) 6 The lothlie morpheu saffroned the place. 1622 
T. STOUGHTON Chr. Sacrif. xii. 166 In Ireland, .they saffron 
all their wearing linnen. 1833 Blacku'. Mag. XXXIV. 
540 She saffrons the hills, and azures the mountains, to 
delight him. 

Saffroned (see frand), a. Forms: 4 saffrunde, 
5 saffrond, 6 safe rued, 6-7 safrond, 6- saf- 
froned, [f. SAFFRON sb. or v. + -ED. Cf. F. 
safranel\ Coloured with saffron, or having the 
colour of saffron ; also, flavoured with saffron. 

1303 R. BRUNNE Handl. Synne 3445 Wymples, kerchyues, 
sanrundebetyde[orig. Lesgytnpeitsansisnfronez\. (11400-50 
Alexander 4600 jour women has. .no gay gere to glyffe in 
3our e}en, Silke of Sipris, ne say ne saffrond kellis. 1559 
W. CdPQHGflAH Cosmogr. Glasse 173 Their shirtes, and 
smokes are saffroned. 1585 T. WASHINGTON tr. Nicholay's 
Voy, iv. xxix. 149 b, On their head is a yelow Tulbant 
safrond. 1587 MASCALI. Govt. Cattle^ Sheep (1627) TOO The 
yellow sheepe be in Asia, the which they call red Saferned 
sheepe. 1621 I*. JO.VSON Gipsies Mctam. (1641) 51 Give 
us . . Ribands, bells, and Safrond lynnen . 1881 Q. Rev. Oct. 
516, I saw seven hundred dishes served.. .Everything in 
them was saffroned and peppered. 1903 Kin. ING 5 Nations 
22 In the saffroned bridesails scenting all the seas. 

t Sa-ffronish, a. 06s. [ + -ISH.] = next. 

1530 PALSGR. 323/1 Safronnysshe of the coloure of safrone, 
saffronncnx. 1562 TURNER Baths 7 Thre colours one 
saffronish, another rede, and the thyrde grene. 1699 
EVELYN Aceiaria 44 Underneath of a pale saffronish hue. 

Saffrony (siwfrani), a. rare. [f. SAFFRON sb. + 
Y.] Of a colour somewhat resembling saffron. 

1630 LORD Haitians 9 This woman was of complexion 
yealowish or Saffrony. 1688 R. HOLME Armoury n. 39/2 
1'he Agate is of a Saffrony or pale yellow colour. 1725 
BRADLEY Fain. Dict.s.v. Jaundice, The Yellow Jaundice 
is of a Saffrony, or Lemon Colour. 1838 GKANVILI.K Spas 
Germ. 378 The cheeks, formerly tallowish and saffrony, 
became ruddy. 

Saffyr, Saffyron, obs. ff. SAPPHIRE, SAFFRON. 

Safir, Safitie, obs. forms of SAPPHIRE, SAFETY. 

Saflor, Sa-flower, obs. forms of SAFFLOWEH. 

Safour, obs. form of SAPPHIRE. 

Safranin (ssrfranin). Chem. Also -ine. [f. 
F. so/ran SAFFRON sb. + -IN 1 .] a. The yellow 
colouring matter of saffron, b. A coal-tar colour 
which dyes yellowish-red. 

1868 WATTS Diet. Chttn. V. 145 Safranin or Saffron- 
yellow, .a colouring matter obtained, though not in the 
pure state, from saffron. 1875 Ibid, and Suppl. io63.S'/r- 
nine. .a red dye prepared commercially., by treating aniline 


i with nitrous acid [etc.], 1885 GOODAI.R Physiol. Bot. 380 
An alcoholic solution of saframn. 1897 A llbutfs Syst. Med. 
III. 215 Solution of safranine. 

Safranophile (sse-fran^fil), a. [Formed as 
prec. -f -PHILE.] l Having an affinity for, or stain- 

I ing readily with, safranin ' (Syd. Soc. Lex. 1897). 

1890 in BILLINGS Nat. Med. Diet. 

Safrene (sse'fnh). Chem, Alsosaffrene. [ad. 
I G. safren (Grimaux and Ruotte 1869), f. (sas)sa- 
I fr(as}\ see SASSAFRAS and -ENE.] (See quot. 1897.) 
1872 WATTS Diet. Chem. Suppl. 1014 The hydrocarbon, 
, snfrene, has the composition C'^H". 1897 Syd. Soc. Lex.) 
1 Safrene.. .A volatile compound obtained by the fractional 
1 distillation of sassafras oil. 

Safrol (ssrfr^l). Chem. [See prec. and -OL.] 
(See quot. 1897.) 

1872 WATTS Diet. Chem. Suppl. 1014 Safrol is insoluble in 
water. 1897 Syd. Soc. Le.i;, Safrol. . .The stearuptene of 
sassafras-oil. .. It is used therapeutically in neuralgic affec- 
tions ; and is used also as a perfume for soaps. 

Safron, -oun, -un, -yn, obs. ff. SAFFRON. 

Saft, obs. f. saved (see SAVE .), SHAFT ; Sc. var. 
SOFT. Safur, -yr(e, obs. forms of SAPPHIRE. 

Sag (srcg 1 , sbJ- Now dial. Also 6-7 sagge. 
[var. of SEG, SEDGE.] = SEDGE, 

1531 I-ett. % Pap. Hen. VIII, V. 184 Payment to James 
Hole for sagge. Ibid. 186 Paide to James Hole, of Collam, 
for saggde for the brykmakrs. .for savyng of the hrykkes. 
Paide to Mychell Bynde for reede for the snide brykniakei s. 
1598 IM.ORIO, Sermenti . . flags, sags, or reeds growing by the 
water side. i6;i T. UARKKK Art of Angling (165-$) 9 Lea\ r e 
about a yard, either to tye a bunch of sags or a bladder to 
boy up the Fish. 1688 R. HOI.MK Armoury iv. iv. (Koxb.) 
299/1 A Pond or pitt of water surrounded with Reeds and 
Sagges Vert. 1893 P. H. EMERSON Kng. Lagoons 118 They 
say eels are hid up this weather, .but these weren't.. . I think 
they must have worked out of the sags (hovers). 

b. attrib. and Comb. , as sag-bed j -bottomed ', 

-seated; t sag-spear, ?a 'spear' or stalk of sedge. 

1672 W. HUGHES Amer. Phys. 28 Like those Sag-beds 

which grow many together in some, .boggy places in Kng- 

: land. 1688 R. HOLME Armoury \\\ \. (Roxb.) 310/2 On 

a crowne three sagge-speares in Triangle O. tyed together 

with a Rubin G. the ends extended. 1735 SOMKRVILI.K 

Chase iv. 396 Ah ! on that yielding Sag-bed, see, once more 

j His Seal I view. ity/oGtoncesiersh. Gloss. } Sag-seatfdchair t 

; a rush-bottomed chair. 1893 S. E. Wore. Class. App.,Sags t 

rushes, used for the seats of chairs, such chairs being called 

'sag-bottomed chairs'. 

Sag (saeg), $b? [f. SAG &.] The action of sagging. 

1. Naut. Movement or tendency to leeward. 
1580 BURROCGH in Haklnyfs l-'oy. (1599) I. 436 It is very 

\ necessary that you doe note at the ende of euery fours 
I glasses, what way the shippe hath made,.. and ho\ve her 
; way hath bene through the water, considering withall for 
the sagge of the sea to leewards, accordingly as you shall 
, finde it growen. 1882 Daily Tel. 2 Sept. (Cassell), Shoving 
' through it very slowly, with a surprising sag to leeward. 

2. In a rope, wire, etc. supported at two points : 
The dip below the horizontal line, due to its weight; 

: the perpendicular distance from its lowest point 

to the straight line between the points of support. 

1861 Ann. Reg. 73 The 'sag ' or droop of the cable from 

j a straight line is 12 feet. 1889 PREECK & MAIKR Telephone 
136 A consideration which is of the highest importance for 

i telephonic networks of wire is the length of the sag, or dip, 
of the wires between two supports. 1892 C. T. DENT Jlfflnn- 
taitwering iv. 104 The rope.. should stretch from one waist- 

i loop to the next without any sag at all. 

3. A sinking or subsidence ; qnasi-tfMfcr, a place 
, where the surface has subsided, a depression. 

1872 C. KING Mountain Sierra Nev. viii. 167 A gray 
i canopy of cloud which stretched from wall to wall, hanging 
: down here and there in deep blue sags. 1874 RAYMOND 
i Statist. Mines <$ Mining 324 To cross with pipes a ' sag ' in 
i the divide 280 feet deep and.. eight miles wide from one 
! crest to the other. 1888 'PAIL CASHING' Blacksmith fj 
r'oe I. ii. 61 There was a deep sag in the seat, which, how- 
: ever, added to the comfort of sitting in it. 1893 C. LAP- 
WORTH in Proc. Geoff. Soc. 689 Where the great continental 
sag sinks below the ocean level. 

4. Comm. A decline in price. 

1891 Daily News 4 Mar. 2/2 In the American market 
! there is a slight but general ' sag '. 

t Sag, a. Obs. rare. [f. SAG t'.] Hanging or 
sagging down. Also in Comb, sag-bellied. 

'{a 1550 Sehole-ho. Women 472 in Hazl. E, /'. /'. IV. 123 
Put me two bones in a bag. .; That doon.holde it some what 
sag, Shake it also, that it may wag. 1648 HKRRICK Hesper.^ 
Oberon's Feast 27 Then. .He. .eates the sagge And well 
bestrutted Bees sweet bagge. 1651 OGILBV sEsop (16651 
208 An old Sag-bellied Toad. 

Sag (sccg), v. Inflected sagged, sagging. 
Forms : 5-7 sagge, (6 sacke), 9 sagg, 6- sag ; 8-9 
dial. seg(g (see E.D.D.). [First recorded in the 
I5thc.; the meaning (as well as the 1 6th c. form sackt) 
appears to point to connexion of some kind with 
mod.Du. zakken, MLG. sacken, Sw. sacka, Norw. 
| dial, sakka to subside, settle down (also sakk sub- 
sidence), Da. sakke to lag behind (the Du. and Sw. 
words have also the nautical sense below). With 
sense 3 cf. Norw. dial, sagga ' to walk heavily and 
slowly, as from weariness' (Ross), for which other 
dialects have sigga, sttgga. 

The Du., LG., and Sw. forms appear to admit of no 
etymological explanation as native words ; on the other 
hand the Norw. dial, sakka may be related to s*kka (ON. 
s#kfa>a\ to SINK. It seems possible that the word is origin- 
ally WScandinavian, and has passed (?as a nautical tenn) 
into Sw., Du., \-( > , and (perh. through LG.) into English. 


On this hypothesis the representation of the continental | 
Teut. i/fc by gg would be an instance of the common un- j 
certainty in the phonetic appreciation of foreign sounds. It 
is uncertain whether the Norw. dial, sagga abovementioned , 
is related to the other words, and whether its resemblance 
in sense to the Eng. word is more than a coincidence.] 

1. intr. To sink or subside gradually, by weight 
or pressure. 

c 1425 Cast. Persev. 1294 in Macro Plays 116 Mankynne 
is soylyd & saggyd in synne ! c 1440 Promp. Pan. 440/2 
1599 A. M. ir.Gatel/iouer's Bit. I'hysicki 96/1 Quilte the 
bagge least the herbes sacke the one vppon the other. 1601 
HOLLAND Pliny I. 492 The Cherrie tree wood is firme and 
fast ; the Elme and the Ash are tough ; howbeit, they will 
soone settle downward and sag, being charged with an_y 

nj biay ii iuiu i ii is 13 >_n-"j i<- ik'- f - - ... ,.. 

sagging downewards. 1881 DARWIN t-'cg. Mould iv. 215 We 
see in these three sections, .that the old pavements have 
sunk or sagged considerably. 1889 Natures Dec. 103 1 he 
crust of the earth must have sagged foot by foot as addi- 
tional feet of burdens were laid upon it. 

b. Of a part of the body (oocas. of a person) : i o 
droop ; to sink or hang down loosely. 

luiPilfr. Per/. (W. de W. 1531) 304 b.Thy blessed body, 
whiche synkynge downe, sagged it honge by y crosse. 
1561-83 FOXE A. fr M. n'4/ 1 At last his feruour began to 
grow cold and faint, & his handes sagjed downward. 
a 1565 SIR T. CHALLONER tr. Botth. \. metr. l. 12 in Q.Ela. 
Englishing App. 150 Myskynne do sagg inwrinklesslacke, 
my (Baggy lymbes do tremble. ij7 GOLDING Ovif* M'*- 
xi (1593) 263 Appollo could not suffer well his foolish eares 
to keepe Their human shape, but drew them wide, and 
made them long and deepe. And fild them full of whitish 
heares, and made them downe to sagge. 159 NASHE /. 
PeiiiUsse B 4 b, Cheeks that sag like a womans dugs ouer 
his chin-bone, a 1600 DELONEY TluiiiasofReadiiig(T&-2i\T$ 
It is, sir, your ill-favoured great nose, that hangs sagging 
so lothsomely to your lips. 1816 W. TAYLOR in Monthly 

tired and cross, and sat sleepy and sagging on his father's 
knee. 1902 Wtstm. Gaz. 5 June 2/1 The head slowly 
sagged down on to the cushions. 

C. 'To hang down on one side' (Phillips, ed. 
Kersey 1706). Of a garment : To hang unevenly, 
to slip out of position. Now chiefly dial, and U. S. 
Hence occas. of a person : fTo wear ' sagging ' 
clothes, to be dressed untidily. 

1592 NASHE P. Penilesse A 26, Sir Rowland Russet- 
coat, their dad, goes sagging euery day in his round gas- 
coynes of white cotton, it hath much a do.. to keepe his 
vnthrift elbowes in reparations. Ibid. \ 3, A paire of trunke 
slops, sagging down like a Shoomaker's wallet. 1600 SURFLET 
Country Farm I. viii. 32 If the croisant or bodie of the 
moone hang sagging. 1611 COTGR., Glacer, . .to flesh-bast; 
or stitch downe the lyning of a garment thereby to keepe it 
from sagging. 1624 Bp. HALL True Peace-maker Wks. 
(1625) 541 The girdle of whose equity sags downe on that 
side, where the purse hangs. 1703 T. N. City ff C. Pur. 
chaser 29 To prevent a Door from sagging, or sinking at 
the fore corner. 1854 Miss BAKER Northampt. Gloss. II. 
193 A load of hay or corn that is badly put on the waggon, 
leaning on one side, and, as it is termed, top-heavy, is said to_ 
sag. 1877 A". If. Line. Gloss. s.v., Rebecca's made my_ Sunda* 
goun sag sorely. 1878 Masque Poets 156 His coat is green 
and sags. 1883 MRS. ROLLINS New Eng. Bygones 190 It 
[the bridge] sags to one side. 1885 Harper's Mag. May 
867/r The. .gates sag apart. 1903 J. Fox jun. Little Shcj-h. 
Killed. Come 345 The gate sagged on its hinges. 

d. To bend or curve downwards in the middle, 
from its own weight or superincumbent pressure. 
Said, e. g., of a rope supported at two points, of a 
beam, plank, etc. Naut. opposed to HOG v. 1 

'777 W. HUTCHINSON Pract. Seamanship 13 And that 
their bottoms not only hog upwards, but sag (or curve) 
downwards, to dangerous and fatal degrees. 1819 RAIN- 
BIRD Agric. Suffolk (1849) 298 (E. D. D.). 1842 GWILT 
Archil. 2031 The beam by its own gravity, .would have 
a tendency to sag or bend in the middle. Ibid., When the 
rafters are of such length that they would be liable of them- 
selves to sag down, supports ua are introduced at the points 
where such failures would occur. 1859 WHITTIER Proph. 
Sam. Seivall 102 Great beams sag from the ceiling low. 
1883 R. HALDANE Workshop Rcc. Ser. n. 290/1 The rod 
will lose its straightness, first sagging ill the middle, then 
dropping. 1886 K.S. MORSE Jap. Homes i. 27 One., comes to 
wonder why the whole ceiling does not sag. 

transf. 1888 HENLEY Bk. Verses 152 The sky saggs low with 
convoluted cloud. 

e. To bulge (out} ; to belly in. Chiefly dial. 


C. Comm. To decline in price. Also with down, 

ciway, off. 

1887 [see SAGGING///, a.]. 1891 Daily News n May 3/5 
Wheat . . further sagged down owing to the increase in 
amount on passage. 1903 Westm. Gnz. 29 Aug. 7/1 With 
lack of support the market has sagged away, and closes 
some 271. dil. below last week's values. 1905 Ibid, i June 
o/i There are appreciable advances on the share figures of 
three months agoon those investments which sagged through 
last year's bad balance-sheets. 

3. To drag oneself along wearily or feebly. Also 
U.S. (see quot. :88o). 

1573 TWYNE /Eneid x. E ej b, Encounter them at land 
Whitest fearful they come forth, and their first steps do sag 
in sand. 1612 DRAYTON Poly-olb. xvi. 219 This said, the 
aged Steed sagd sadly on alone. 1880 Webster's Suppl., 

bulged , _ 

Captains Courageous 108 The other half come up sagging 

full o' big uns. 
2. To decline to a lower level, through lack of 

strength or effort. Chiefly fig. (Common in U. S.) 
1508 FISHER Seven Penit. Ps. xxxviii. Wks. (1876) 88 Yf 

the helpe of his grace be not redy at all seasons we must 

nedes sagge bowe. 1605 SHAKS. Macb. v. iii. 10 The 

minde 1 sway by, and the heart 1 beare. Shall neuer sagge 
with doubt, nor shake with feare. 1891 Harper's Mug. 
Sept. 644/1 Is she sagging towards Realism or rising to- 
wards Idealism? i9OaGtLDERSLEEVEinj4r. JrnLPhilol. 
XXIII. 137 Professor Lawton..says that Parmenides sags 
in his flight. 

b. dial. 'To decline in health; to begin to show 
signs of old age ' (E.D.D.). 

1784 CUI.LUM Hist. Hawsted iii. 173 He begins to sag. 
To decline in his health. 1893 ZINCKE Wkersteadif>\ For 
anything to be over-poised, or metaphorically to decline in 
health, is to ' sag '. 

the horse sagged slower at every stride. 

4. Naut. Of a ship or boat : To drift, be carried 
out of the intended course. Chiefly in the phrase 
To sag to leeward. 

1633 T. JAMES Voy. 93 [In tacking] we did sagge upon 
the maine rand of Ice. 1769 [see SAGGING vol. sb.\ 1794 
Rigging ff Seamanship II. 256* To Sag to leeward, to 
make considerable lee-way. 1849 Blackw. Mag. LXVI. 
726 The want of actual headway making the Indiaman sag 
dead away to leeward. 1856 KANE Arct. Ej:pl. II. xxix. 
287 McGary hung upon his oar, and the boat, slowly but 
noiselessly sagging ahead. 1892 KIPLING Harrack-r. Bal/atls 
206 We're sagging south on the Long Trail. 

fb. transf. To drift, deviate insensibly (into, 

front). Obs. 

1639 FULLER Holy ll'ar iv. xix. (1640) 2o2We?ee elective 
States in Christendome, though bound with the straitest 
laws, often sagge aside into schismes and factions. 1655 
Cli. Hist. IX. v. 2 Yet such [spheres] as are excentricall 
can never observe equall distance in their motion, but will 
sagg aside to grind, and grate one the other, a 1661 
'Worthies (1662) II. Lcmd. 224 No Hospital is tyed with better 
or stricter laws, that it may not Sagg from the intention of 
the Founder. 

5. trans, in causative senses, t a. [* rom sense 
4.] Of a current at sea : To cause to ' sag ' or 
drift ; to carry out of the intended course. Obs. 

1628 DIGBY Voy. MeJit. (Camden) 77 The current sagged 
me into the bay deeper towardes the eastward. 1635 / 'oy. 
faxt ft James to North West (Hakl. Soc.) 191 After he 
was loos'd he was sagged into the Bay. 

b. [From sense I d.] To cause to bend down- 
wards in the middle. 

1755 JOHNSON, To Sag, v. a. To load ; to burthen. 1777 
W HUTCHINSON Pratt. Seamanship 13 Their bottoms were 
thus sagged down by the cargoes. Ibid., Sagged down- 
wards six inches by her cargo. 1869 SIR E. J. REED Ship- 
build, v. 93 The ultimate measures of the strengths ol tin 
ships to resist a strain tending to hog or sag, or break them 
across is as 5 : 4. 1892 C. LAPWORTH in Proc. Geogr. Soc. 
689 The surface of this American arch is sagged downwards 
in the middle into a central depression which lies between 
two long marginal plateaux. 1902 Westm. Gaz. 5 July 8/3 
The vessel will first be ' sagged ' by being hung by the head 
and the stern only from two platforms, one at each end. 
Sag, variant of SEG (castrated bull). 
II Saga T (sa'ga). [OX. and Icel. saga wk. fern. 
(Sw. saga} narrative, story, history ; corresp. (exc. 
in declension) to OE.sagu str. fern.: see SAWM] 
1. Any of the narrative compositions in prose 
that were written in Iceland or Norway during 
the middle ages ; in English use often applied spec. 
to those which embody the traditional history of 
Icelandic families or of the kings of Norway. 

1709 HICKES in Pefyf Diary (1870) VI. 201 The histories 
of the old Northern nations, which commonly have the 
title of Saga, which signifies a narration of History. 1777 
ROBERTSON Hist. Amer. (1783) I. 326 The credit of this 
story rests, as far as I know, on the authority of the Saga, 
or Chronicle of King Olaus. .published by Permskiold at 
Stockholm A. D. 1697. 1805 SCOTT Last Mmstr. vi. xxn, 
Many a Saga's rhyme uncouth. 1897 W. P-.K.ER Epic f, 
Romance 66 The Icelandic Sagas the prose histories of the 
fortunes of the great Icelandic houses. 

b. transf. A narrative having the (real or sup- 
posed) characteristics of the Icelandic sagas; a 
story of heroic achievement or marvellonsadventure. 
1857 LONGF. Discov. North Cape viii, For the old seafaring 
men Came to me now and then, With their sagas of the 
seas. 1862 H. MARRYAT Year in Sweden II. 6; With this 
last visit terminates my saga of Gripsholm. 1891 KIPLING 
Lig/it that Failed v, Dick delivered himself of the saga of 
his own doings. 

U 2. In incorrect uses (partly as the equivalent of 
the cognate Ger. sage): A story, popularly be- 
lieved to be matter of fact, which has been deve- 
loped by gradual accretions in the course of ages, 
and has been handed down by oral tradition ; his- 
torical or heroic legend, as distinguished both from 
authentic history and from intentional fiction. 

1864 KINGSLEY Rom. ff Tent. \. (1875) I, I shall begin., 
with a saga. 1869 TOZER High!. Turkey 1 1. 265 The Popu- 
lar Tale is thus, .distinguished from., the Myth, or Saga. 
1873 Miss R. H. BUSK Sagas fr. Far East 242 While dis- 
playing the usual exaggerations common to the Sagas of all 
nations, these Indian Sagas have one leading peculiarity. 
1883 KENNEDY tr. Ten Brink's E. Eng. Lit. 150 The Sagas 
of Guy of Warwick and Bevis of Hampton. 
3. Comb., as saga-writer ; saga-man, a narrator 
of sagas, also the hero of a saga [ ON. Sfgu-maSr], 
1823 CRABB Techno/. Diet., Saga-man (Archzeol.), a tale- 
teller, or secret accuser. 1853 KINGSLEY Hypatiaxx\x t \ovi 


are the hero ! you are the Sagaman ! We are not worthy. 
1866 Reader 3 Mar. 221/3 AH the skalds and sagamen of 
any note were Icelanders. 1866 BARING-GOULD Myths Mid. 
Ages Ser. i. 113 An arrow, .penetrated the windpipe of the 
king, and it is supposed to have sped, observes the Saga 
writer, from the bow of Hemingr. 

HSaga2(i*"ga\ [I~*jP0 A witch. 

1583 Leg. fip.St.Androiswz Thair Saga slew ane saikles 
beast. 1834 LYTTON Pompeii in. x, 'Patience presumed the 
witch,. .' My mother was herself a saga '. 

|| Saga, pi. of SAGUM. 

Sagacious (<Wf)i a - V- L - * a / Sf -" 

(whence K. sagace), sagax, i. the root "sag- (.= 
OTeut.**J4-, SEEK v.)m sagire to discern acutely.] 
fl. Acute in perception, esp. by the sense of 
smell. Const, of. Obs. 

1607 TOPSELL Four-/, Beasts Ep. Ded. A 5, The Bees 
seeke out their King if he loose himselfe, and by a most saga- 
cious smelling-sence, neuer cease till he be found out. 1630 
BLOUNT Glossogr., Sagacious,, .quick of scent, taste or sight. 
1667 MILTON P. L. x. 281 So sented the grim Feature, and 
upturn'd His Nostril wide into the murkie Air, Sagacious 
of his Quarry from so farr. 1700 DRYDEN Cock ff frox 751 
With Might and Main they chas'd the murd'rous Fox,.. 
Nor wanted Horns t' inspire sagacious Hounds. 1731 POPE 
Ess. Man i. 214 And hound sagacious on the tainted green. 
2. Gifted with acuteness of mental discernment ; 
having special aptitude for the discovery of truth ; 
penetrating and judicious in the estimation of char- 
acter and motives, and in the devising of means for 
the accomplishment of ends ; shrewd. 

1650 BI-LWER Anthrapomet. 145 It would seem a wonder 
if sagacious Nature should faulter only in the forming of 
that part. 1682 SIR T. BROWNE Chr. Mar. i. 6 Irue 
Charity is sagacious, and will find out hints for beneficence. 
1704 R\Y Creation I. (ed. 4) 95 The Study and Endeavours 
of the most sagacious Naturalists. 175* C. LUCAS Ess. 
Waters III. 125 Our very sagacious author found them in 
this condition. 1781 COWPER Conrcrsat. 742 The world 
grown old, her deep discernment shows, Claps spectacles on 
her sagacious nose. 1794 S. WILLIAMS Vermont 136 He 
appeared to the greatest advantage, sagacious in distin- 
euishing and observing. 1849 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. vu. 
II. 194 He had been urged by an adviser less sagacious and 
more impetuous than himself, to try a bolder course. 1863 
UEO. ELIOT Komola xix, Bardi was entirely under the as- 
cendency of his sagacious and practical friend. 

b. Of observations, sayings, actions, etc. : 
Resulting from or exhibiting acuteness of mental 
discernment ; characterized by sagacity. 

1831 BREWSTER Newton ix. 108 Hence he concluded that 
diamond ' isan unctuous substance coagulated ', T a sagacious 
prediction, which has been verified in the discoveries of 
modern chemistry. 1856 KANE Arct. E.vpl. II. xv. 161 
The Esquimaux examines the track with sagacious care. 
1857 MILLER Elem. Chem. (1862) III. 438 This sagacious 
conjecture has since leen fully verified by the discoveries of 
Wurtz and Hermann. 1876 BLACKIE Lang. f, Lit. Sc. 
High!, ii. 87 In Homer himself,., we find not a few of those 
sagacious, curt sentences, into which men unacquainted 
with books are fond of compressing their experience of 
human life. 

3. Of animals: Intelligent. 

1750 GOLDSM. Bee No. 4 Of all the solitary insects I have 
ever remarked, the spider is the most sagacious. 1819 
KEATS Eve. St. Agnes xli, The wakeful bloodhound rose, 
and shook his hide, But his sagacious eye an inmate owns. 

Hence Saga'ciously adv., Saga'ciousness. 

11V11VV. *wo" r w*~ -^ D 

1678 CUDWORTH Intel!. Syst. i. i. 28. 33 Wherefore they 
aeaciously apprehended, that there must needs be [etc.]. 
'ibid. iv. 14. 250 Where this Love is not only called .TOAD- 
unTij, of much-counsel or sagaciousness,..but also . jrpta- 
JjJraTO? 17 KEN Edmund Poet. Wks. 1721 II. 102 
But Edmund.. Sagaciously the Pageantry suspects. 1818 
HALLAM Mid. Ages (1872) I. 64 But his measures had been 
so sagaciously taken, that except through that perverseness 
of fortune, . . he could hardly fail of success. 1884 J. HAW- 
THORNE A. Malmaison iii, It is always a delicate matter to 
fathom the depth of a medical man's sagaciousness. 

Sagacity (sagse-slti). [ad. F. sagaati, ad. L. 
sagacitat-cm, f. sagac-em SAGACIOUS a. : see -1TV.] 
The quality of being sagacious, 
f 1. Acute sense of smell. Obs. 
1607 TOPSELL Four-f. Beasts 151 marg., What smelling 
or salacity in Dogs is. Ibid. 45- This Beast is not onely 
enemy to the crocodile and Aspe, but also to their Egges, 
rhich she hunteth out by the sagacity of her nose. 1677 

if smell. 1798 

ENNANT li'76 All thisgenus are remarkable 

for iheir voracity and their sagacity of nostril. 

2 Acuteness of mental discernment ; aptitude for 
investigation or discovery ; keenness and soundness 
of judgement in the estimation of persons and con- 
ditions, and in the adaptation of means to ends ; 
penetration, shrewdness. 

i8 HALL Chron., Hen. VII isb, Both for age and 
prudeiit sagacitie, fatherly, a wyse & a grave personage, 
which for renuyng of the olde amilie, were commanded 
[etc 1 1604 R. CAWDREY Table A iph., Sagacttie, sharpnes 
of wit; witnesse. 1647 CLAHENDON Hist. Reb. i. 24 As 
he had a wonderful! Sagacity in such Reflections, a thou- 
sand Difficulties and Dangers occurred to him. 1693 J. 
EDWARDS Author. O. $ N. Test. ,8. Men of skill and sa- 
gacity do sometimes forelel futurities 1743 EMERSON 
Fluxions .07 These are the general Rules but after all, 
many things must be left to the Sagacity and Invention of 
the Artist. 1791 MRS. RADCLIFEE Rom. Forest x, She was 
somewhat surprised at Peter's sagacity.. .844 DICKENS 
Mart. Chuz. xxxviii. Relying on your advice as a man ol 
great sagacity in money matters. 1849 MACAULAY Hist. 




ii. I. 182 He discerns the signs of the times with a sagacity 
which to the multitude appears miraculous. 1864 rUMEY 
Led. Daniel (1876) 160 It was beyond human sagacity. .to 
predict the Roman Empire. 

b. //. Sagacious observations. 

1866 CARLYLK Remin. (1881) I. 103 His native sagacities., 
made him the most delightful of companions. 1891 Specta- 
tor 13 June 829/1 Who. .is always pressing her homely 
sagacities on the imagination of the young. 

3. Of animals: Exceptional intelligence; skill in 
the adaptation of means to ends. 

1555 EDEN Decades 189 Are there many of such sagacitie 
and industrye as the lyke is not seene in beastes of greater 
quantitie. 1646 SIK 1. BROWNE Pseud. P.p. m.iv. 112 Why 
they placed this invention upon the Bever.. might be the 
sagacitie and wisedome of that animall. 1715 DE FOE Voy* 
round World (1840)337 Black cattle., by a natural sagacity, 
apprehensive of being 

icing swept away with the flood. 
4 The sagacity of some insects. 


GOLDSM. Bee No. 4 The sagacity of some insects. 1837 
W. IRVING Capt. Bonneville II. 134 He had heard much 
of the sagacity of the beaver in cutting down trees. 

Sagamit6 (saga-mit<r'). Also 8 shaggamitie, 
sagaraitty, sagamite, 9 sagamity. [a. F. saga- 
mitt (Sagard, 1632), repr. Cree Indian kisaviiteiij^ 
hot drink of any kind.] a. A kind of gruel or 
porridge made from coarse hominy, f b. (See 
quot. 1748.) 

1748 H. ELLIS Voy. Hudson's Bay 188 The broth offish, 
which they call shaggamitie. 1763 tr. Father Charlevoix* 
Ace. Voy. Canada 279 (Stanf.) The women come for several 
days and pour Sagamitty on the place. 1796 Hist. Ned 
Evans II. 103 But they were all refreshed with as much 
Indian corn pounded and stewed with bear's grease as they 
could eat, which they call sagamity. 1807 G. HERIOT Tra-u, 
586 Sagamite, pudding made of Indian corn. 1829 H. MUR- 
RAY A*. Amer. I, vii. 375 The dishes were Sagamity or boiled 
Indian Corn. 

Sagamore (s?e-gamor). Also 7 sagamos, sago- 
mo, sagomore, saggamore, segamore, sagamor, 
7-8 sagamo, 8 sachemore. [a. Penobscot saga- 
mo: see SACHEM.] = SACHEM i. 

1613 PURCHAS Pilgrimage (1614) 750 He obserued a feast 
made by Anadabijon the great Sagamo, in his Cabin. Ibid. 
756 When a Sagamos dieth, they blacke themselues. 1624 
CAPT. SMITH Virginia \\. 240 The Massachusets call . . their 
kings there abouts Sachems : the Penobscotes.. their kings 
Sagomos. 1649 LKCHFORD Plain Dealer (1867) 115 They 
are governed by sachems, kings, and sag^amores, petie 
lords. 1675 Land. Gaz. No. 1017/1 King Philip the Indian 
Segamore of those parts, had raised about six hundred Men 
in Arms. 1751 C. GIST Jrnls. (1893) 72 This Beaver is the 
Sachemore or Chief of the Delawares. 1826 J. F. COOPER 
Mohicans xxx,Uncas, . .the wisest Sagamore of the Indians ! 
1865 PARKMAN Champlain iv. (1875) 246 But the vision of 
the centenarian sagamore put them all to shame. 

transf. 1882 DOWDEN in Academy 30 Dec. 464/1 But 
readers on this side of the Atlantic cannot be supposed to 
owe allegiance to every local sagamore of learning or Puri- 
tan pow-wow of the old colonial days. 

f b. Sagamore's head : ? some American tree, 

1741 P. COLI.INSON in Mem. Bartram (1849) 148 The 
butter-nut, .with the Medlar and Sagamore's head. 

Hence f Sa-gramoreship. 

1674 JOSSELYN Voy. New Eng. 123 The three Kingdoms 
or Sagamoreships of the Mattachusets were very populous, 
having under them seven Dukedoms or petti-Sagamoreships. 

II Sagan ^sri-gan). Jewish Antiq. Also9segan. 
[Late (Talmudic) use of Heb. JJD sagan or se'gen 
(found only in pi. pgdmtti\ t Jewish Aram. s e gan, 
a. Assyrian shaknu prefect (of conquered city or pro- 
vince). In the Bible the word denotes only a civil 
governor.] The deputy of the Jewish high-priest ; 
the second highest functionary of the Temple. 

In Biblical times this official seems to have been called 
' second priest ' (Heb. kdhen hammishne^} : see Jer. 1 i i. 24. 

1625 T. GODWIN Moses fy Aaron i. (1641) 18 The High 
Priest and his Sagan, resembled our Bishop and his Suf- 
fragan. 1681 DRYDEN Abs. ty Achit. 866 With him the 
Sagan of Jerusalem, Of hospitable soul and noble stem. 
1877 C. GEIKIF. Christ Ix. (1879) 737 The ancient hierarchy 
as consisting of the high priest ; his deputy, or Sagan : two 
suffragans of the Sagans, [etc.J. 1904 Jewish Encycl.\\. 
390/2 Every high priest had a ' mishneh ' (a second) called 
the Segan, or ' memunneh ', to stand at Itis right. 

t Sagapen e. Obs. Also 6 ? sagape. [Angli- 
cized form of next.] = SAGAPENUM ; also the 
plant producing sagapenum. 

1548 TURNER Names of Hcrbts 37 Ferula. ..It maye be 
named in englishe herbe Sagapene or Fenel gyante. 1570 
LKVINS Manip, 26/37 Herbe-sagape [rimes ape, grape^ etc.], 
ferula. 1601 HOLLAND Pliny II. 67 As for our Sacopenium 
here in Italy, it dirTereth altogether from that which grows 
beyond sea. For the outlandish kind, .is called Sagapen. 
1611 COTGR., Ferule^ . .the hearbe Ferula, Sagapene, Fennell 
Giant. 1651 J. F[REAKE] Agrippas Occ. Philos. 86 The 
root of the reedy Hearb Sagapen. 171* tr. Pomet's Hist. 
Drugs I. 190 Chuse your Sagapen in fine Tears, clear and 
transparent, of a strong smell. 

II Sagapenum (scegaprnznn). [Late L. saga- 
penum, -on, a. Gr. ffayairrjvov a plant (prob. Ferula 
persica}\ also the gum obtained from it.] A gum- 
resin, the concrete juice of Ferula persica, formerly 
used as an antispasmodic and emmenagogue, or 
externally. Also gum sagapenum. 

1579 LANGHAM Card. Health (1633) 573 Sagapenum or 
Serapinum. .is a precious gumme, the best shineth through 
darke in colour yelow without and white within. 1616 
BUI.LOKAR Eng. Expos,, Sagapenum, the sappe or Gum of 
a plant growing in Media.. vsed in Physicke against diuers 
cold diseases. 1718 QuiNcvGww//. Di$p. 125 Sagapemim.. 
is likewise the Tear or Gum of a Tree. 1815 KAUFFMAH 
Diet. Merchandize Gum sagapenum. 1851-0 HOOKKR in 


Man. Sci. E>iq. 424 Compared with assafcetida and galba- 
num, sagapenum is a rare and costly drug. 

Sagar, obs. form of CIGAU and SAKER i. 

Sagaret, obs. form of SAKEEET. 

II Sagaris (sse-garis). Antiq. Also anglicized 
8 sagar. [Gr. crdyapis, from some Eastern lan- 
guage.] A single-edged battle-axe used by Scythians, 
Persians, Amazons, etc. 

1623 BINGHAM Xenophon 69 A weapon called Sagaris, 
such as the Amazons beare. 1776 J. BRYANT Mythol. III. 
140 Their chief arms were, .battleaxes, and sagars. 1860 
RAWLISSON Hist, Herodotus IV. 65 The Saca;.. carried the 
bnttleaxe, or sagaris. 

Sagarston, obs. form of SEXTON. 

fSagate, a. Her. Obs.~ l [ad. L. type *saga- 
tiis, f. sag-um mantle.] Clothed in a mantle. 

1688 R. HOLME Armoury \\: viii. (Roxb.) 328/2 A Head- 
peece.. Argent. .Mantled with a Rockett, or Sagate Gules, 
lyniied with white. 

Sagat;e, -gates, obs. northern var. ff. SOGATE(S. 

Sagathy ,src*gabi). Obs. exc. Hist. Also 8 
sagathea, saggathe, sagathee, 8-9 segathy, 9 
sagathoy, -thay. [In Fr. sagatis (Boiste 1840; 
not in Littre or Hatz.-Darm.), Sp. sagatt; of un- 
known origin. ] A woollen stuff ^see quot. 1 7 2 7-4 1 ), 

1707 Postman 15 Nov. in Ash ton Soc. Life KeignQ. Anne 
(1882) I. 151 Broad Cloaths, Camblet, Druggits and Sa- 
gathys. 1709 Female TatlerNv. 9/1 Any Camlets, Drugets, 
or Sagathies. 1710 STEELE Tatler No. 270 P 4 Making a 
Panegyrick on Pieces of Sagathy or Scotch-Plod. 1727-41 
CHAMBERS Cycl., Sagnt/tce,..a. slight woollen stuff; being 
a kind of serge, or ratteen ; sometimes mixed with a little 
silk. 1745 De Foe^s Eng. Tradesman xxvi. (1841) I. 261 
Norwich buys. .serges and segathies from Devon and 
Somersetshire, 1804 Monthly -Mag, 418 Not more than 
three persons are engaged in making, .serges, duroys, sa- 
^othoys and dimities. 1810 J. T. in Rtsdon S Sitrv. Devon 
I n trod. Remarks 25 Segathies, druggets, coatings, beavers, 
. .found a market in Spain. 1882 J. ASHTON Soc. Life Reign. 
Q. Anne I. 151 They \sc. clothes] were made of drugget 
and sagathay, camlet, but the majority of men wore cloth. 
1884 BESANT Dorothy Forster ii, He., went about dressed 
in grey sagathy and woollen stockings. 
b. attrib. or adj. Made of sagathy. 

1711 Lond. Gaz. No. 4901/4 A brown-colour'd Sagathea 
Wastcoat and Breeches. 171* Ibid* No. 5058/4 A Led- 
coloured Saggathe Coat and Wastecoat. 1889 DOYLE Micnh 
Clarke ii. 14 Beneath my sagathy stuff jacket. 

Sagay, variant of ZAGAIE. 

Sagbo(u)t, -but(t, obs. forms of SACKBUT. 

Sage (s^'d^), sbl Forms : 4-6 sauge, 4-5 
sawge, salge, (5 sauoge), 6 saulge, sayge, 5- 
sage. [ME. sange t a. F. sauge (ijth c. in Littre) : 
L. salvia (whence late OE. saluie, ME. SAVE sb.}. 
Cf. Pr., Sp., It. salvia, Pg. salva ; also MLG. salvie, 
selve, Du. saHe t OHG. salbeia^ salveia fern. (mod.G. 
salbei masc.). For the phonology in Eng. cf, 

1. A plant of the genus Salvia^ N.O. Labiatte ; 
esp. S. officinalis t an aromatic culinary herb. 
Hence, the leaves of this plant used in Cookery. 

Sage, much esteemed formerly as a medicinal herb, is not 
now included in the British Pharmacopeia, but in domestic 
medicine is still used in the preparation of sage-tea (see 50). 

a 1310 in \Vright Lyric P. (Percy Soc.) 26 He is blosme 
opon bleo brihtest under bis, With celydoyne ant sauge, as 
thou thi self sys. 1390 GOWF.R Conf. III. 131 Salge is his 
herbe appourtenant Aboven al the remenant. c 1420 Liber 
Cocontm (1862) u Do f>er to sage and persely Joyng. 1533 
ELYOT Cast. Helthe n. xvL (1541) 29 Sauge. It healeth, 
and sommewhat byndeth. 1578 LYTE Dodoens n. Ixxvii. 
250 There be two sortesof Sage, the one is small and franke, 
and the other is great. The great Sage is of three sortes, 
that is to say, greene, white, and redde. 1584 COGAN Haven 
Health xi. 33 Sage is vsed commonly in sawces, as to stuffe 
veale, porke, resting pigges, and that for good cause. 1590 
Si'ENSKR Muiopotmos 187 The wholesome saulge, and la- 
vender still gray. 16x0 FLETCIIKR Faithf, Sheph. \\. ii, 
These for frenzy be A speedy and a soueraigne remedie. 
The bitter Wormewood, Sage and Marigold. "7^4 GAY 
Sheph. Week n. 13 Marbled with Sage the hardening Cheese 
she press'd. 1766 [ANSTEY] Bath Guide n. (1807) 77 But 
what's the sage without the goose? 1881 Encycl. Brit. 
XII. 289/2 Sage, Salt'ia officinalis^ a hardy evergreen 
undershrub, belonging to the labiates, of which there are 
two varieties, the green-leaved and the red-leaved. 

2. Cookery, f a. A force-meat, * pottage ', or 
sauce in which sage is the chief ingredient. Sage 
yf arced) sage stuffing. Also qnasi-a^r*. in partly 
anglicized names of culinary preparations containing 
sage, i& fritter sage, sauce sage. Obs. 

tc 1390 Forme ofCitry (1780) 23 Pygges in sawse Sawge. 
Ibid. 72 Sawge yfarced. ("1430 Tu>oCookery-bk$. 28 Sauge. 
Take Gyngere, Galyngale, Clowys, & grynde in a morter ; 
J>an take an handfulle of Sawge, & do per-to [etc.]. Ibid* 
41 Sauoge. Take Pigis fete clene y-pekyd ; bantak Freysshe 
bro^e of Beff, & draw mylke of Almaundys, & ^e Piggys 
^er-in ; ben mence Sawge [etc.], c 1450 Ibid. 72 Pigge or 
chiken in Sauge, c 1460 J. RUSSELL Bk. Nurture 501 
Frutur sawge. 

b. Sage and onions : a stuffing chiefly composed 
of those ingredients, used for goose, duck, pork, 
etc. Also sage-and-onion stuffing. 

1747 MBS. GLASSE Cookery 4 Some love the Knuckle (of 
pork] stuffed with Onions and Sage shred small. 1824 New 
Syst. Cookery 113 Ducks roasted. Stuff one with sage and 
onion, ..crums, .. and pepper and salt. 189. Encycl. Prnct. 
Cookery (ed. Garrett) s.v., Sage-and-Onion Stuffing. 

3. In the names of plants of other genera. Ben- 

gal sage, Meriandrabengalensis (Treas.Bot.i806). 
Bitter, f garlick, t mountain or wood sage, 

Teucrium Scorodonia. Black sage, (a) Cordia 
cylindrostachya ; (b) in California, Trichosttma 
lanatum (Cent. Diet. 1891). French sage, 
rhlomis fruticosa. f Jerusalem sage, also t sage 
of Jerusalem or f Bethlehem, (a) Pulmo- 
naria officinalis; (b) Phlomis fruticosa. Seaside 
sage, C rot on balsamiferum (Treas. ttot.). fRock 
sage, a species viSideritis, "White sage, in U. S. f 
a woolly chenopodiaceous plant used as a febri- 
fuge, Eurotia fanata; also applied to other plants 
of the same order, Kochia prostrata and /??^#&?;-//rt 
polystachya (Cent. Diet.). "Wild sage, (a\ = bitter 
sage\ (b) see quot. 1866. 

111387 Sinon. Barthol. (Anecd. Oxon.) 10/2 Ambrosia, 
wild sauge. 1548 TURNER Names of Herbs (1881) 18 liacchar 
or Uaccaris is the herbe (as I thynke) that we call in english 
Sage of Hierusalem. 156* Rock sage [see IKONWORT]. 1578 
LYTE Dodoens i. Ixxxv. 125 Sage of Jerusalem hath rough, 
hearie, and large, browne greene leaues, sprinckled with 
diuers white spots. 1597 GEHARDK Herbal 11. ccv. 5^5 Wood 
Sage, or Garlicke Sage. Ibid, ccliii. 625 Of French Sage, 
or woodie Mullein,. .They are called of the learned men of 
our time V'erbasca sylucstria...\n English it is generally 
called French Sage, we may call it Sage Mullein. Ibid. 
cclxxv. 663 Pulmonaria. ..'&*$& of Jerusalem, Cowslip of 
Jerusalem, Sage of Bethlem. 1731 MILU-:R Card. Diet,, 
Scordiutn,..W\\d Sage, vulgo. 1741 Compl. Fam.-Piece 
n. iii. 374 Several other. .Shrubs, .are now in Flower, as 
the several sorts of Jerusalem Sage. 1864 GKISKBACH Flora 
IV. Ind. Isl. 787 Hlack sage : Cordia cylindrostachya. 1865 
GOSSE Land fy Sea (1874) 15 The wood germander, or bitter 
sage. 1866 Treas. Bot. s.v., Wild Sage, a name in the Cape 
Culony for Tarchonanthus camphoratus, 

4. ? = Sage-brush (see 5 b). 

1807 P. GASS "Jrnl. 127 A kind of wild sage or hyssop, as 
high as a man's head,.. grows in these bottoms. 1837 W. 
IKYING Capt. Bonneville II. 206 The country, hereabout,., 
producing very little grass, but a considerable quantity of 
sage or wormwood. 1851 MAVNE REID Scalp Hunt, .xxvi, 
A desert country, here and there covered with wild sage 
and mezquite. 187* C. KING Mountain. Sierra Nev. xiii. 
265 Desert too gentle and overspread with sage to be terrible. 

6. attrib. and Comb. : simple attrib., as sage 
colour, juice, leaf, oil, root\ also in the names of 
preparations flavoured or medicated with sage, as 
sage ale, bread, drink, gargle, ivine\ instrumental, 
as sage-covered adj. ; similative, as sage-leaved &<\\. ; 
parasynthetic, as sage-coloured adj. 

1584 COGAN Haven Health xl. 33 Much after the same 
manner [as the making of sage wine] is made "Sage ale. 
1597 GERARDE Herbal ii. cclii. 624 Sage ale, being brewed 
as it shoulde be, with Sage, Scabious, lietonie, Spikenard, 
Squinanth, and Fennell seedes. 1668 R. SHARROCK Let. to 
Boyle 7 Apr., B.'s Wks. 1744 V. 4, I have known *sage 
bread do much good in drying up watry humours. 1596 
Ace. Bk. W. Wray in Antiquary XXXII. 79 Sould him of 
the leight *sayge culler q' & d. ll'id. % iij yeardes of leight 
*sayge cullerd fustian. 1851 MAVNE REID Scalp Hunt, xlii, 
We passed over *sage-covered plains. 1747 MRS. GLASSE 
Cookery 121 *Sage Drink. 189. Enfycl.C0ektry(ii,Gtofte\. l t) I 
"Sage gargle. 1755 WESLEY Prim. Physic cxx. 73 Hoarse- 
ness.. .Takea Spoonful of "Sage-juice Morning and Evening. 
14. . Med. MS. in Anglia XIX. 78 Take a *sa wge-leef and 
wryte t>eron. 1661 J. CHILDRKY Brit. Baconica 5 They 
have a slate of three sorts, blew, sage-leaf-coloured, and 
gray. 1747 WESLEY Prim. Phys. (1762) 88 Apply boiled 
Sage leaves hot. 1884 BROWNING Ferishtah Prol., Sage-leaf 
is bitter-pungent so's a quince. 1822 Hortus Angliciis II. 
13 C. Satvifolius. *Sage-leaved Cistus. 1825 Greenhouse 
Comp. I. 95 Phlomis Lych>tites.,..\ sage-leaved whitish 
rugose plant. 1888 W. T. BRANNT Treat. Anim. fy Veget. 
Fats 539 *Sage oil, oleum salvife^ obtained by distillation 
from the leaves of the sage. 14. . Stockholm Med, MS. n. 
867 In Anglia XVIII, 328 Rwe is eke a souereyn bote. To 
settynabowtyna *sawge-rote. 1579 LANGHAM Card. Health 
(1633) 575 Vse it as *Sage wine to consume flegme. 

b. Special Comb. : sage-apple, a gall-apple 
formed on a species of sage, Salvia pomif era, eaten 
as a fruit in Crete ; sage-brush, -bush, a collec- 
tive name applied to various species of Artemisia , 
esp. A. tridentata\ also attrib. ; sage-cheese, a 
kind of cheese which is flavoured and mottled by 
mixing a decoction of sage-leaves with the cheese- 
curd; sage grass, U.S. sage-brush\ sage-green, 
a shade of dull greyish green resembling that of the 
foliage of the sage plant Salvia officinalis ; hence 
sage-greeny a. t of the colour of sage-green ; f sage 
mullein = French sage (see 3 above) ; sage rose, 
f(rt) a plant of the genus Cistus (obs.) ; (b} a shrub, 
Tiirnera ulmifolia, found in the W. Indies and S. 
America ; sage tea, an infusion of sage-leaves, used 
as a stomachic and slight stimulant ; sage tree, 
(a) Phlomis fruticosa', (b} see quot. 1884; sage- 
willow, a dwarf grey American willow, Saft'x 
tristis ; sage wood = sagebrush, 

183* Vfg. Subst. Food yz\ ^'Sage-apples. 187* COUES Key 
N. Amer. Birds 233 Confined to the sterile plains and "sage- 
brush (Artemisia) tracts of Western U. S. 1888 BRYCE 
Amer. Commw. II. n. xlviL 217 A desert, .whose lower 
grounds were covered with that growth of alkaline plants 
which the Americans call sage-brush. 1807 P. GASS Jrnl. 
204 The *sage bushes.. grow in great abundance on some 
parts of these plains. 1874 Treas. Bot. Suppl. s.v., Sage- 
bush, Artemisia tritientata. 1714 GAY Sheph. Week n. 16 
Hut Marian now.. Nor yellow Butter nor *Sage Cheese 
prepares. 1852 DICKENS Bleak Ho. xii, It [the sea] js 
habitually hard upon Sir Leicester, whose countenance it 



greenly mottles in the manner of sage-cheese. 1893 Scribner's 
Mag. June 801/2 To inhale the odor of. .pungent aromatic 
things in the tall ' "Sage grass '. 1825 J. NICHOLSON Operat. 
Mechanic 642 *Sage-green, pea, and sea-greens. 1884 G. 
ALLEN Phitistia 1. 49 Three afternoon dresses, the grey, . . the 
*sage-greeny aesthetic one, and the peacock-blue. 1562 TUR- 
NER Herbalu. 161 Thewildeone[Verbascum]. .maybecalled 
in Englishe *Sage mullen. 1597 GRRARDE Herbal Table, 
*Sage rose and his kinds, looke Cistus. 1864 GRISEBACH 
Flora JF. Ind. 1st. 787 Sage-rose : Turnera idinifolia. 1705 
HICKERINGILL Priest-cr. n. vi. 62 As for *Sage^Tea, it being 
an English Drink, . , I care not if they Drink it without the 
assistance of Mr. Say-Grace. 1824 LOUDON Encycl. Card. 
(ed. 2) 4141 The decoction called sage-tea is usually made 
from one variety, the small-jeaved green, or sage of virtue. 
1741 CoiiipL Fam,-Piect\\. iii, There are several other Trees 
. .in Flower, as. . Phlomis or *Sage Trees. 1753 CHAMBERS 
Cycl. Supp. App. S.V., Sage of Jerusalem, or Sage-tree. 1884 
W. MILLER Plant-it., Sage-tree, Brush-land, of Australia. 
Psyckytria. daphnoides. 1860 WORCESTER (citing G. B. 
Emerson), *Sage-willow,..i'a/;> tristis, called also dwarf 

C. In the names of animals and birds found 
chiefly in the sage-brush districts of N. America, 
as sage cook, grouse, the largest grouse found in 
America, Centrocerctis europhasianus ; sage hare -= 
sage rabbit ; sage hen, the female of the sage 
grouse; sage rabbit, a small \vK,Lcpusartemisia\ 
sage sparrow, each of the two fringilline birds 
Ampkispiza bilineata and A. belli; sage thrasher, 
the mountain mocking bird, Oreoscoptes montanus. 
1859 S. F. BAIRD Catal. N. Amcr. Bin/s (Smithsonian 
Misc. Coll.) 462 Centrocercus nrophaslanus S\v. *Sage Cock. 
1884 COUES Key N. Amcr. Birds (ed. 2^ 580 \Sage Grouse. 
1861 G. F. BERKELEY Sportsm. W. Prairies ii. 23 There 
is a certain bird of the grouse species, .called the ' *sage 
hen'. 1859 S. F. BAIRD Mammals N. Artier. 602 Lepns 
Artemisia, Bach man. "Sage Rabbit. 1879 GOODE etc. 
Catal. Anim. Resources U.S. 20 Lepns sylvaticns Bach., 
var. Nuttalli. Sage Rabbit. 1884 COUES Key N. Amer. 
Birds (ed. 2) 375 Xtt^u/&a..*Sage Sparrows. Ibid. 249 
*Sage Thrasher. 

Sage (sfid,?), a. and st.* Also 6 saage, Sc. 
saig(e, sauge. [a. F. sage adj. and sb. (nth c. 
in Hatz.-Darm. ; OF. had also saige, savie) : Com. 
Kom.safi io (Pr. satge-s,sabi-s, Sp., Pg. sabio, It.sagfio, 
savio :-popularL.*ja//'j (cf. L. nesapius ignorant) 
f. sap-Sre to be wise (pr. pple. sapiens wise).] 
A. adj. Now only literary. 

1. Of a person: Wise, discreet, judicious. In ME. 
often the sage (following a proper name). In 
modern use in narrowed applications : Practically 
wise, rendered prudent or judicious by experience. 

1297 R. GLOOC. (Rolls) 4069 Nou it worb iended bat Sibile 
be sage sede biuore. 13.. E. E. Allit. P. B. 1576 As be 
sage sathrapas bat sorsory coube. 1362 LANGL. P. PI. A. 
XI. 257 For salampn be sage bat sapience made. 1390 GOWF.R 
Con/. II. 383 This.. Is that Sibille of whom ye wite, That 
alle men yjt clepen sage, c 1460 ASHBY Dicta Philos. 1222 " 
To speke litil, is knowen a man sage. 1490 CAXTON Eneydos 
Hit. 148 Retourne agayn towarde eneas and make peas wyth 
hym yf ye be sage, a 1533 LD. BERNERS Htton Ixxxvi. 274 
There is no clerke lyuynge so sage that can put it in wryt- 
ynee. 1545 ASCHAM Toxofh. (Arb.) 45 The best learned 
and sagest men in this Rea[tne..both loue shoting and vse 

scharpe, sauge [z'.r. saig], and sinceir. 1594 SHAKS. Rich. Ill, 
in. vii. 227 Cousin of Buckingham, and sage graue men, 
Since you will [etc.]. 1397 2 Hen. IV, iv. v. 121 All you 
sage Counsailors, hence. 31625 SIR H. FINCH Law (1636) 
481 The Chancellor, and Treasurer, taking to them the 
Justices, and other such sage persons, as they thinke fit 
a 1687 WALLER Maid's Trag. v. Wks. (1729) 348 Can you 
expect, that she should be so sa?e To rule her blood, and 

llr-d V ,---' - - ...*.,. v .n uj, jwaiug iclluclcu 

sager) Will back their own opinions with a wager. W/V. 
xxxv, No wonder such accomplishments should turn A 

little like mirth. 1868 MILMAN St. Paul's xm. 34^ But 
sager Juxon.. withdrew from the proud but perilous office 
1872 MAURICE Frierutsh. Bks. i. (1874) 12 If I thought of 
him (sc. Bacon], even as the sagest of book-makers and not 
as a human being. 

b. Of advice, conduct, etc. : Characterized by 
profound wisdom ; based on sound judgement. 

i53'ELYOTCOT/.in.jcxii.(i534)ai8b, Roboaz. .comtempned 
the sage counsayle of auncyente men, and imbraced the 

tr. SI..P,erre I .^tud. Nat. (1799) II. 380 The infinitely sage 
plans of Nature. 1875 JOWETT Plato (ed. 2) III. 176 He 
gives sage counsels about the nursing of children. 

c. Of the countenance, bearing, etc. : Exhibiting 
sageness or profound wisdom. In mod. use com- 
monly somewhat ironical 

"'. ["> Mi 5 s Oldbuck re-entered, with a 

2. In phraseological combinations after Fr. use 
fa. Sage fool (also in Fr. form fol sage) : a jester 
or court fool 06s. b. Sage Jomon ^also in AF. 
form ^ sage feme} : a midwife, rare. 


1377 LAKGL. P. PL B. xm. 423 5e lordes and ladycs..J?at 
fedetn foles sages, flatereres and lyeres. Ibid. 444 A fol sage 
syttynge at the hey? table. ? 1:1475 in Q. Eliz. A cad. 77 
There was A grete lorde bat had A Sage fole, the whyche 
he lovyd Marvaylous well. 1672 [H. STUBBE] Rosemary q 
Bayes"2. Baptisme'tis thought may be admmistred by a sage 
feme. 1833 DISRAELI Cont. Flew. in. xix, A sage woman 
of great reputation was at our house, 

f3. Grave, dignified, solemn. Obs. 
1564 Brief Exam. C iij b, I woulde haue the Ministers of 
Churches to vse sage vesture. 1592 NASHE P. Penilesse 
A iij, He wore.. a garnish of night-caps, which a sage 
butten cap.. oner spread very orderly. 1602 SHAKS. Ham. 
v, i. 260 We should prophane the seruice of the dead, To 
sing sage Requiem, and such rest to her As to peace-parted 
Soules. 1632 MILTON Penseroso 117 And if ought els great 
Hards beside In sage and solemn tunes have sung, Of Tur- 
neys and of Trophies hung. 1644 Judgin. Bucer Wks. 
1851 IV. 301 In a point of sagest moment. 
B. sb. 

1. A man of profound wisdom ; esp. one of those 
persons of ancient history or legend who were 
traditionally famous as the wisest of mankind ; 
hence, one whose exceptional wisdom entitles him 
to a degree of veneration like that which was 
accorded to these. In early use sometimes with 
weaker sense, a wise man. 

The ' seven sages of Greece ' were Thales, Solon, Peri- 
ander, Cleobulus, Chilon, Bias, and Pittacus, to each of 
whom some wise maxim is attributed by ancient writers. 
The ' seven sages of Rome * are the personages of a romance, 
r (\-\ ......1 :._ ...i_- i. i* _ i . _i ^ T? * 

13 . . Seuyn, Sag. (W.) 4, I sal yow tel, . . Of the seuen sages 
of Rome. 1399 LANG u Rich. Redeles in. 7 Me thynkyth, 
Sauynge souereynes and sages avise, t>at J>e moste myscheff 
..Is denied \>e dede y-do a}eins kynde. c 1440 Gene rydes 
88 This old fader. .Of vij Saugys callid the wysest That was 
in Rome. 1547-64 BAULDWIN Mor. Philos. (Palfr.) i There 
were besides these sophistes, another kinde called sapientes, 
or sages, as was Thales, Solon [etc.]. 1577 tr. Kullingers 
Decades ii. x. (1592) 223 Musonius, Hierocles, and other 
auncient sages. 1642 tr. Perkins Prof. Bk. xi. 739. 323 
Master Littleton who was an honorable sage of the Law. 
1667 MILTON P. L. xn. 362 A Starr, .proclaims him com, 
And guides the Eastern Sages, whoenquire His place. 1735 
THOMSON Liberty n. 222 The great Athenian Sage, And 
Father of Philosophy [sc. Socrates]. 1862 STANLEY Jew. 
Ch. (1877) I. xvlii. 337 He was. .but as one of the old chiefs 
of the bygone age half warrior, half sage. 
b. In playful or ironic use. 

1751 JOHNSON Rambler No. 120 F 2 He called for help 
upon the sages of physick. 1822 W. IRVING Braceb. Hall 
xxvi. 238 In vain did the sages of the village interfere. 1893 
Times 8 May 9/3 They have cited.. some of the mustiest 
sages of the law in confirmation of this view. 

2. Comb* : simple attrib., as sage-like adj. ; ob- 
jective, as sage-inspiring adj. ; instrumental, as 
sage-exalted, -instructed adjs. 

1728-46 THOMSON Spring 209 The dissolving clouds., to 
the sage-instructed eye unfold The various twine of light, 
1735 Liberty \\. 197 The Sage-exalted Chief [Xenophon]. 
1745 T. WARTON Pleas. Melancholy ^256 Tho' thro 1 the bliss- 
ful scenes Ilissus roll His sage-inspiring flood. 1879 R. H. 
DOUGLAS Confucianism iii. 72 He alone, possessing all the 
sage-like qualities, shows himself, .fitted to exercise rule. 

Sage, obs. f. SEDGE ; var. SEG Obs. 

i Saged, a. Obs. nonce-wd. [f. SAGE $b2 + 
-ED 1 .] Uefitting a sage; characterized by wisdom. 

1563 B. GOOGE Eglogs i. (Arb.) 31 And many a saged sawe 
lies hyd within thine aged brest. Ibid. 32. 

Sageer : see SAKIA. 

Sagely (s^i-dgli), a. rare~ l . [i. SAGE s&.2 + 
-LY Jj Belonging to or befitting a sage. 

1867 LEGGE Confucius iv. 54 His gorgeous but unsub- 
stantial pictures of sagely perfection. 

Sagely (sfi'dsli), adv. Alsossagilly. [f.SAGE 
a. + -LY ^.] In a sage manner. 

a 1400-50 Alexander 3359 So bus a kyng to consatle haue 
a clere hert, To se at syttis him to se & sagely to wirke. 
^1475 Partenay 5315 Sagilly hym ruled to intelligens. 1523 
LD. BERNERS Froiss. I. vu. 5 The kyng. .demaunding right 
swetely of her astate and besynesse. And she answered him 
ryght sagely. 1590 SPENSER F. Q. i. i. 29 Sober he seemde, 


explained, very sagely, how right it was. 1872 BloRtxv 
Voltaire (1886) n If he adroitly or sagely preserved his 

II Sagene * (sa'sjen). Also 8 sajen, 9 sachine, 
sashen, sashine, sajene, sazhen. [Russian 
caiKCHb.] A measure of length used in Russia, 
equal to seven English feet. 

173? Phil. Trans. XL. 29 Wersts, divided each into 500 
Sagenes, and each Sagene supposed to be exactly seven Feet 
English. 1858 SIMMONDS Diet. Tradt^ Sachine, Sas/tefi, 
other names for the sagene,a Russian linear-measure. 1896 
REDWOOD Petroleum I. 285 Boring, at 75 roubles per sagene 
(i sagene = about 7 feet) for the first 100 sagenes [etc.]. 

Sagene a (sadgrn). rare. [ad. L. sagena, a. Gr. 
cm-yi^j/.] A fishing-net. In quots. transf. andyTf., 
a network (of railways, etc.). 

1846 RUSKIN Mod. Paint. II. in. i. i. 5 At this time, when 
thejron roads are tearing up the surface of Europe,, .when 
their great sagene is drawing and twitching the ancient 
frame and strength of England together. 1871 M. COLLINS 
Mrq. % Merch. II. i. 14 Fortunate folk who live beyond the 
grasping reticulation of the great railway sagene. 

Sageness (s^'-d^nes). [f. SAGE a. + -NESS.] 
The quality of being sage; profound wisdom. 


1509 WATSON Ship of Fools xxxiv. (1517) Hvij, He is a 
foole without sagenesse. 1540-1 ELVOT Image Goz'. xiv. 
(1541) 24 A man.. whom for his great witte and sagenes in 
apparance, the Emperour had in syngular faupur. 1654 
GAVTON/Y^OJ. Notes iv.v. 196 The sagenesse, civility, thrift, 
abstinence, and such like personated parts and customes 
at home, will be all laid aside. 1755 JOHNSON. Sageness^ 
gravity, prudence. 1814 COLERIDGE Let. to J. Kenyan 
(1895) 640 Public prudence and practical sageness. 1907 
Q. Rev. Oct. 365 If we [sc. Confucians] could renounce our 
sageness and discard our wisdom it would be better for the 
people a hundredfold. 

Sagenite (sadgrnait). Mm. [XamedbyH.B. 
de Saussure, 1796 : f. Gr. aayrjvij net + -ITE.] A 
variety of rutile in which slender crystals are inter- 
laced, forming a network. 

1802 THOMSON Syst. Chem. IV. 120, 

Hence Sageni tic a. , of or belonging to sagenite 
(Cassell's Encycl. Diet.}. 

t Sa-geously, adv. Obs. rare- 1 , [f. SAGE a. 
+ -ous -f -LY -.] Sagely. 

c 1500 Mehisine xxxvi. 259 Whan the knight herd her 
speke so sageously [Fr. sagement\. 

Sagerston, obs. form of SEXTON. 

Sageship (s^-dsjjip). rare. [f. SAGE sb* + 
-SHIP.] The personality of a sage ; the quality of 
being a sage. 

^1832 BENTHAH Deontol. iii. (1834) I. 40 Men, who by 
whatever name they called their own sageships, were called 
by others wisest of men. 1887 F. H. BALFOUK Leaves fr. 
Chinese Scrafbook no (title) Confucius on Sageship. 

t SagCSS. Obs. In 5 sagesse. [a. F. sagessc, f. 
sage SAGE #.] Sageness, profound wisdom. 

1474 CAXTON C/iesse in. v. (1883) 119 Yf he haue not sagesse 
and wvsedom in hym self of dyuerce wrytynges. c 1475 
Partenay 6224, I hold it no gret wisdome ne sagesse To 
ouermoche suffre sorew and paine. 1676 GLANVILL Ess. vi. 
1 3 Thus the Sagess, and grandeur of the Prince of Darkness 
need not be brought in question on this Occasion. 

Sagewar, obs. form of SAGWIBE. 

Sagey, sagy (s^-d.^i), a. rare. [f. SAGE sbl 

+ -Y.J Of, pertaining to or of the nature of sage. 

1747 POSTON Pratler I. 134 The sagy wholsome Herb of 
Wisdom is more stable.. than the rosy fading Flower of 
Beauty. 1871 MRS. WHITNEY Real Folks iii, How sagey 
and doughnutty, and good it always smelt. 

Sagg, variant of SAG. 

Saggamore, obs. form of SAGAMORE. 

Saggar (sargai) , SCggar (se-gai), sb. Forms : 
[7 shrager], 8-9 saggar, seggar, 9 sagger (sag- 
gard), segger, sagre. [Prob. a contraction of 

This explanation is supported by the existence of the 
form SEGGARD for safeguard as the name of an article 
of dress. The earliest recorded form, shrager (quot. 1686 
below), seems to be a corruption due to etymological associa- 
tion with G. schragen to prop up ; perhaps it may have been 
invented by the German workmen employed in the Stafford- 
shire potteries.] 

1. A protecting case of baked fire-proof clay in 
which the finer ceramic wares are enclosed while 
baking in the kiln ; = SAGGARD 2. 

[1686 PLOT Staffordsh. iii. 123 If they be leaded hollow- 
wares, they do not expose them to the naked fire, but put 
them in shragers, that is, in course metall'd pots, made of 
marie (not clay).] 1768 WEDGWOOD Let. 6 Nov. in Life 
(1866) II. 83, I shall.. put some men into them to make 
Saggars, prepare Clay, build ovens, &c. 1781 Encycl. Brit. 
(ed. 2) IX. 6420 note^ The cases are called by English pot- 
ters, seggars. 1807 T. THOMSON Chem. (ed. 3) II. 493 Cylin- 
drical earthen vessels, formed of pounded fire-bricks and clay, 
called seggars. 1847 HALLIWELL, Saggard t the rough vessel 
in which all crockery, fine or coarse, is placed when taken 
to the oven for firing. 1879 Miss J. J. YOUNG Ceram. Art 
77 The Japanese do not make any extensive use of seggars. 
b. attrib. and Comb. t &$ saggar-maker \ saggar- 
bung, a pile of saggars; saggar-house, the room 
where the articles to be baked are put into the 

1828 rotter's Art n. 184 The *saggar bung Or column. 
1853 URE Diet. Arts II. 454 When ready it is carried to 
the ' *sagger-house'..and here it is placed in the 'saggers'. 
1825 J. NICHOLSON Operat. Mechanic 468 The *sagger- 
maker is expected to know [etc.]. 

2. The clay of which ( saggars ' are made. Also 

1839 UKE Diet. Arts 1020 Space appointed as a depot for 
the sagger fire-clay. 1842 BRANDE Diet. Sci. etc., Sagger. 
1843 Civil Eng. <| Arch. Jrnl. VI. 350/1 The sagger clay 
from the Staffordshire pottery was also a fire clay. 1851 
GREENWELL Coal-trade Terms Northttmb. (J- Durh. 45 
Sagre Clay. Fire-clay; a soft argillaceous shale. 

Saggar (sse'ga-i), v. Also sagger, [f. SAGGAII 
sb.] trans. To place in or upon a saggar. 

1839 URE Diet, Arts 1023 When.. any piece, a soup plate 
for example, is to be saggered. 

t Sa'ggard. Obs. rare 1 . [? f. SAG v. + -ARD.] 
? One who * sags ' or hangs helplessly. 

c 1440 York Myst. xxxvi. 82 pou saggard [Christ on the 
Cross], >i selffe gan bou saie. 

Saggard, variant of SAGGAR. 

Saggathe, var. SAGATHY. Sagge, var. SAG. 

Saggebut, obs. form of SACKBUT. 

Sagged (scegd),///. <z. rare. [f. SAGZ. +-ED 1 .] 

That has sunk in the middle ; hanging loose. 

1647 R. STAPVLTON Juvenal 185 Sagg'd cheeks, wherein 
such wrinkles are descry'd, As.. we see scratch! in an old 
she-ape. 1893 'Q ' (QuiLLER-CoucH) Delect. Duchy 235 A 
sagged and lichen-covered roof. 


Sagging (sargirj), vbl. sb. [f. SAG v. + -ING 1.] 
The action of the verb SAG in various senses. 

ci^tiProinp. Pnrv. 440/2 Saggynge, orsatlynge, bassacio, 
basscttvra. 1769 FALCONER Diet. Marine (1780', Sagging 
to leeward, the movement by which a ship makes a consider- 
able lee-way, or is driven far to leeward of the course 
whereon she apparently sails. It is generally expressed of 
heavy-sailing vessels. 1797 Encycl. Brit. (ed. 3) XVII. 
420/1 Practical observations on the hogging and sagging of 
ships. 1868 Rep. if. S. Commissioner A gric. (1860) 252 The 
stakes also prevent the sagging of pleached or obliquely laid 
saplings. 1898 F. DAVIS Silckester 14 The sagging of some 
of the tesselated pavements. 

Sagging (sse-girj),///. a. [f. SAG v. + -ING *.] 
That sags (in various senses of the verb). 

1599 NASHE Lenten Stuffe 37 A sagging paire of cheeks 
Hke a sows paps that giues suck. 1650 KUI.WKK Anthro- 
fomct. 178 Ihis goodly saggine; Dugs, a Pap fashion. 1859 
R. F. BURTON Cenlr. Afr. in Jrnl. Geog. Sac. XXIX. 32 
The Raz de maree, or rollers, that hurling sagging sea, so 

tendency. 1897 KIPLING Captains Courageous 107 The long, 
sagging line may twitch a boat under in a flash. 

fSa-ggish, a. rare- 1 , [f. sagSoav.l + -ISH 1 .] 
? Somewhat moist and decayed. 

. '595 SOUTHWELL loo Medit. (1873) 373 A S a little spark 
is wont to be quenched by casting wet and saggish wood 
upon it. 

Saggy (sargi), m.l Obs. exc. dial. [f. SAG s6.l 
+ -Y.J Sedgy, reedy. 

1609 HEYWOOD Brit. Troy xv. xxviii. 391 Fear gave my 
bodywinges. In a deepe Saggy couert I obscure me. 1881 
Lcicestersh. Gloss. 

Saggy (sae-gi), a.- dial. [f. SAG v. + -y.] Apt 

to ' sag (see quots.). 

1853 KANE Grinncll Exp. xlii. (1856) 391 The observatory 
of Sir James Ross at Leopold Island was moist and saggy. 
1854 Miss BAKER Northampt. Gloss. II. 193 That gate 
wants knocking up at the hinges, it hangs so saggy. 1862 
C. C. ROBINSON Dial. Leeds s. v. Sag, 'A saggy body,' a 
very stout person, whose flesh appears to hang. 1881 
Lcicestersh. Gloss., Saggy, adj. said of anything drawn or 
bent down by weight. 

Sagh(e, saj, obs. forms of SAW. 

Saght(e, -il, etc. , var. ff. SAUGHT, -LE, etc. 

tSaginary. Obs. rare. [ad. L. sagtitari-um, 
{. sagina : see next.] A place where animals are 

1657 TRAPP Comm. Ps. xvii. 14 The rich Glutton (who 
thought this life to be his saginary or boares-frank). 

Sagiuate (sse-djineit), v. rare. [(.L.saglnat-, 
ppl. stem of saginare, f. sagina, process or means 
of fattening.] traits. To fatten (animals). Also 
fig. Hence Sa-ginated />/>/. a. 

1623 COCKERAM, Sagittate, to fatten a beast. Sitfinatiou, 
the fattening thereof. 1633 T. ADAMS Exp. 2 Peter ii. 22 
At last when they are saginated and franked, their turn 
comes to bleed. 1650 tr. Cauaia's Ang. Peace 45 The 
odious rejoycings of the unjust are saginated with the 
tears of the miserable. 1657 TOMLINSON Renou"s Disp. 

. ^ .. . 

[French] Emperor.. has saginated the priesthood, and has 
winked at the miraculous apparitions that winked at him. 

pagination (sjedjin* i-Jsn). rare. [ad. L. sagi- 
ndlion-em, n. of action f. saginare : see prec.] The 
action of fattening animals for food. 

1607 TOPSELL Four-/. Beasts 81 After their labour which 
bringeth leannesse, they vse to put them [. oxen) by for 
.sagination, or. .for feeding. 1613 [see prec.]. 1812 lilackw. 
Mag. XII. 12 There are very many persons whose intellect 
will not submit to this priestly sagination. 1833 Eraser's 
Mag. VIII. 484 We see the greedy porker before us in all 
the glories of sagination. 

Sagirstane, obs. form of SEXTON. 

tSagit. Obs. rare- 1 . [Anglicized form of 
SAGITTA.] The sagittal suture. 

CI55O H. LLOYD Treas. HeaWt xii. Evij, On the fore- 
parte of the head by the ioynte Sagit. 

II Sagitta (sadji-ta). [L., lit. an arrow.] 

1. Astr. A northern constellation lying between 
Hercules and Delphinus: = ARROW sb. 4. 

1704 in J. HARRIS Lex. Techn. 1. [And in mod. Diets.] 

2. Geom. a. The versed sine of an arc : = ARKOW 
sd. 6. 

[1594: see ARROW so.6.) 1704 in J. HARRIS Lex. Teclui.l. 
1716 LEONI AltcrtCs Archil. I. 9/2 The. .Line, .from the 
middle Point of the Chord up to the Arch, leaving equal 
Angles on each Side, is calfd the Sagitta. 1853 SIR H. 
DOUGLAS Milit. Bridges (ed. 3) 32 The sagitta, or versed 
sine, of the curvature being about one fifth of the side of 
the triangle. 

fb. In extended sense : The abscissa of a curve. 
Obs. rare - . 1727-41 in CHAMBERS Cycl. 

3. Arch. The key-stone of an arch. 

1703 R. NEVE Builder's Diet. (1736). 1823 P. NICHOLSON 
Pract. Build. 592. 1849-50 WEALE Diet. Terms. 

4. The middle horizontal stroke in the Greek 
letter c. [App. an application of sense a.] 

1864 ELLICOTT Pastoral Ep. (ed. 3) 103 The thickened 
extremity of the sagitta of t. 1881 Dublin Rev. VI. 134 The 
disputed line is really the sagitta of an epsilon. 

0. Anat. 'The sagittal suture ' (Cent. Diet. 1891). 

6. Zm>l, a. One of the otoliths of a fish's ear. 

1888 ROLLESTON & JACKSON Anim. Life 86 There are [in 
the ear of the perch] generally two large otoliths, a sagitta 


in the sacculus, an asteriscus in the recessus cochleae. 1897 
PARKER & HASWELL Text-bk. Zool. II. 199. 

b. One of the components of certain sponge- 

\ifnl*c * c*>*a mint 

v-tdul u U1B UlUiUl A 1IC Srt^Ul.l IS 

origin of the cladome to the chord. 

Sagittal (sadji'lal), a. [ad. mod.L. sagittalis, 
f. L. sagilla arrow: see -AL. Cf. F. sagittal.'] 

1. Anat. a. Sagittal suture (t addition, \ com- 
missure] : 'the median antero-posterior suture be- 
tween the two parietal bones on the vertex of the 
skull' (Syd. Soc. Lex. 1891). 

1541 R. COPLAND Gnydon's Quest. Chimrg. Fij, There 
coinmeth .ix. [muscles to the tongue] that brede of the addy- 
cyotl called sagitall of the bone named Lapheoides. 1597 
A. M. tr. Giullememfs Fr. Ckirurg. 40 b/2 The sagittal 
suture, where she ioyneth her self with the Coronalle suture. 
1653 URQUHART Rabelais I. xliv, The sagittal commissure or 
dart-like se.iine which distinguisheth the right side of the 
head from the left. 1882 WILDER & G.KE/lnat. TM final. 183 
In Human Anatomy the sagittal suture is confined to the 
articulation of the two parietals with eacb other, the two 
frontals uniting so early that they are considered as a 
single bone. 

b. Pertaining to the sagittal suture ; pertaining 
to or lying in 'the median longitudinal antero- 
posterior plane of the body, or to any plane paral- 
lel with this' (Syd. Soc. Lex. 1891). 

1831 R. KNOX Clot/net's Anat. 57 Four Edges. The upper 
or sagittal (r/iargo sagittalis) is the longest. 1854 OWEN 
Sfccl. .( Teeth in Orr's Circ. Sci., Org. A'at. I. 250 The 
sagittal and occipital crests. 

2. Pertaining to an arrow ; resembling an arrow 
or an arrow-head in shape, rare. 

1656 KLOUNT Glossogr., Sagittal. . ; Also belonging to an 
Arrow. 1772 PENNANT Genera of Birds (1781) 16 Hoopoe. 
.^.Tongue, short, sagittal. 1785 Arctic Zool. II. 207 
Feathers of the thighs long, white, crossed with sagittal 
bars of yellow. 1886 R. F. BURTON Arab. Nts. (abr. ed.) I. 
148 Sagittal shots from eyelids Sagittarius threw. 1887 
SOLLAS in Encycl. Brit. XXII. 416/2 (Fig. 13) [Forms of 
sponge-spicules] /;, sagittal triod. 

Hence Sagi'ttally adv., Anat., 'in the direction 
of the sagittal plane' (CasseWs Suppl. 1902). 

1895 in Funk's Standard Diet. 

\ Sagittar. Obs. rare. Forms : 4 sagittaire, 
7 sagittar. [a. F'. sagittaire (i2th. c. in Hatz.- 
Parm.), ad. L. Sagittarius.] = SAGITTAHIl'S I. 

1390 GOWER Conf.lll. 123 The Sagittaire. Itid. 127 Libra 
..and Sagittaire. 1604-22 [see SAGITTARY A. 2b]. 1634 
T. CAREW Catum Brit. Wks. (1824) 160 The centaure the 
horn'd goatfish capricorne, The snake-head gorgon, and 
fierce sagittar. 

Sagittarius (srcdjjiteVriws). [L. Sagittarius 
archer : see SAGITTAHY. Cf. F. sagittaire.'} 

1. Astr. (With capital S.) The zodiacal con- 
stellation of the Archer ; hence, the ninth sign of 
the zodiac, which the sun enters about 22 Nov. 

1390 GOWER Conf. III. 123 The nynthe Signe. .Is cleped 
Sagittarius. 1398 TREVISA Bartli. De P. R. in. x. ^495) 313. 
1591 PERCIVALLJ>>. Diet., Sagittario, the signe Sagittarius. 
1727-41 CHAMBERS Cycl. s.v., The constellation Sagittarius. 
1868 LOCKYER Giiillemin's Heavens (ed. 3)382 The bifurca- 
tion continues through the Wolf, the Altar, the Scorpion, 
and Sagittarius, as far as the Serpent. 

b. The mythic Centaur who was fabled to have 
been transformed into this constellation. 

1590 GREENE Orl. Fur. (1599) E 4 b, As though that Sagi- 
tarius in his pride, Could take braue Laeda from stoule 

2. Her. A bearing representing a centaur (or 
perh. in early use a horseman) with a drawn bow. 

1619 R. BROOKE Catal. Kings, etc. f jb, It is said, that 
King Stephen entring this Realme, the signe being in Sagit- 
tarius, and obtayning great victory by the helpe of his 
Archers, assumed the Sagitarius for his Arms. 1707 SAND- 
tOKoGetieal.Hist.^marg. (1893) 101 
In addition to these [supporters] may be enumerated.. the 
Sagittarius, or Centaur. 

Sagittary (sardsitari), sb. and a. [ad. L. Sagit- 
tarius adj., pertaining to arrows, as sb. an archer ; 
f. sagitta arrow. Cf. F. sagittaire.'] A. s6. 

fl. Astr. = SAGITTARIUS i. Obs. 

1413 Pilgr. Savile (Caxton 1483) v. xi. 102 The sonne 
entred the sygne of Sagitary that is the Archer, a 1547 COP- 
LAND Hye Way to Spyttel Hous 89 Scorpio, pisces or sagyt- 
tary. 1641 Witt's Recr. X8b, If thou wouldst please the 
lasse that thou dost marry The signe must ever be in Sagit- 
tary. 1683 TRYON Way to Health xxi. (1697) 445 Being 
under the Dominion of Jupiter and Mercury, in the Sign 
Sagitary. 1788 GIBBON Decl. q F. xliii. IV. 322 While the 
sun was in Capricorn, another comet appeared to follow in 
the Sagitary. 

2. A centaur ; spec, the centaur who according 
to mediaeval romance fought in the Trojan army, 
against the Greeks. 

1509 HAWES Past. Pleas, xi. (Percy Soc.) 40 Unto the 
Sagittary They feyne the Centures to be of lykenesse, As 
halfe man and halfe horse truely. 1589 GREENE Tullies 
Love To Rdr., Chiron the Sagitarie was but a fained con- 
ceipt. 1606 SHAKS. Tr. /j- Cr. v. v. 14 The dreadfull Sagit. 
tary Appauls our numbers. 1638 SIR T. HERBERT Trav. 
(ed. 2) 158 The Castle is. .defended by a troop of leane fac't, 

fairy And slew a terror called the sagittary. 


U b. ? As the name of an inn. 

For the disproof of C. Knight's conjecture that this was 
a name for the Arsenal at Venice, see the note on the pas- 
sage in H. H. Furness Variorum Shakspere. 

Cf. ' Centaur ' as the sign of an imaginary inn at Ephesus 
in Comedy of Errors i. ii. 9, 

1604 SHAKS. Oth. I. i. 159 Lead to the Sagitary [ist Qo., 
1622 sagittar] the raised Search. Ibid. I. iii. 115. 

3. A representation of a centaur or of a mounted 
archer ; spec, in Her. SAGITTARIUS 2. 

1610 GUILLI.M Heraldry I. i. (1660) 5 The Persians [bare] 
! an Archer or Sagitary stamped on their Coynes. 1849 FHEK- 
I MAN Archit. 250 The sagittary, or mounted archer, the 
badge of King Stephen, is not unfrequently met with. 

T 4. A daric, because the figure of an archer was 
stamped on one side. Obs. rare. 

Cf. Sir T. Herbert Trav. (ed. 2, 1638) 230, referring to 
Plutarch Agcsilans. 

1665 SIR T HERBERT Trav. (1677! 243 Timagoras. .bad 
, received a bribe often thousand Dariques or Sagittaries. 

6. An archer. 

1832-4 DEQijixcKYCarra;-jWks. 1859 X. 175 The impeiial 
sagittary [Commodus], . . whose hand was so steady and 
whose^eye so true, that he was never known to miss. 1863 
Pilgrimage over Prairies I. 275 Seeing how certain was 
my fate, remaining where I was, I darted towards the bank, 
to engage the fell sagittary at close quarters. 
fB. adj. Pertaining to arrows. Obs. 

a 1682 SIR T. BROWNE Tracts i. (1683) 82 With such dif- 
ferences of Reeds, Vallatory, Sagittary, Scriptory, and 
others they might be furnished in Judaea. 

Sagittate (see-djiwt), a. Bot. and Zool. [ad. 
mod.L. sagiltatus, f. L. sagitta arrow : see -ATE 2.] 
Shaped like an arrow-head. 

1760 J. LEE Introd. Bot. in. v. (1776) 191 Sagittate, Arrow- 
shaped ; when they [sc. leaves] are triangular, hollowed at 
the Ilase, and furnished with Angles at the lower Part. 
1785 MARTYN Rousseau's Bot. xxiii. (1794) 324 [Woad has] 
the stem. leaves sagittate or shaped like the head of an 
arrow. 1826 KIRBY & Sp. F.ntomol. IV. 262 Sagittate... 
AiTow-shaped. Triangular, hollowed out at the base with 
posterior angles. 1840 SWAINSON Malacol. 390 Shell very 
much compressed, . . sagittate. 1864 OKAY in Reader 30 Apr. 
559/2 The linear or elongated and sagittate anthers, and 
petals with long canaliculate claws. 1872 COUES Key N. 
Afner. Birds 195 With sagittate dusky marks on the sides. 

Sagittated (sre-dgitfited), a. Bot. and Zool. 
[f. prec. -r -EI>!.] = prec. 

1752 J. HILL Hist. Anim. 403 The tongue [of Cuculus] is 
entire and of a sagittated figure. 1753 CHAMBERS Cycl. 
Supp. s.v. Leaf. 1802 SHAW Zool. III. 11. 526 Sagittated 
Snake. . .Brown Snake, with whitish sagittated dorsal spots 
edged with black, 1835-6 OWKN in Todd's Cycl. Anat. I. 
524/2 In the Sagittated Calamary this important cartilage 
consists of three portions. 

Sagitta'to-, used as comb, form of SAGITTATE. 

1806 GALPINE Brit. Bot. 328 Stipuhe sagittato-cordate. 

tSagittelle. Obs. rare- 1 . Also sagytelle. 
[ad. med.L. sagittilla, dim. of L. sagilta arrow.] 
Some plant. Also attrib. 

(1400 Lanfranc's Cirurg. 91 With be leeues of sagittel 
[v.r. sagytelle, orig. L, sagittetlx}. Ibid., Fille it [the ulcer] 
ful of drie leeues of sagittelle & leie a sagittel-leef aboue. 

SagittiferOUS (sssdgiti'feras), a. [f. L. sagit- 
tifer, f. sagitta arrow : see -FERGUS.] (See quots.) 

1656 BLOUNT Glossogr., Sagittiferons, that bears or weares 
Arrowes. 1858 MAYNE Expos. Lex., Sagittiferus,..Bot., 
Conchol. Applied to a plant, one of the petals of which 
is like an arrow, as the Pleurothallis sagittifera, and to a 
shell having arrow-like spots, as the Trochus sagittiferus \ 

Sagittiform (sasdji-tif^m), a. rare. [ad. L. 
type sagittiformjs, f. sagitta arrow : see -FORM.] 
Having the shape of an arrow or arrow-head. 

1893 in Funk's Standard Diet. 1900 B. D. JACKSON Gloss. 
Bot. Terms, Sagittiform,.. arrow-shaped. 1904 WISDLE 
Rein. Prchist. Age Eng. ii. 19 It is true that Sagittiform 
chips are common enough in some parts of the country. 

t Sagittipotent, a. Obs. rare ~ . [ad. L. 
sagittipotent-em, f. sagitta arrow + potent-em 
POTENT .] ' That can do much by shooting with 
Arrows, a cunning Archer' (Blount Glossogr. 1656). 

Sagitto-, used as combining form of SAGITTATE. 

1852 DANA Crust, n. 1299 Spiculum sagitto-capitate. 

Sagittocyst (sse-djltAut). Zool. [irreg. f. I,. 
sagitta arrow -f CYST j*.] A structure occurring in 
the ectoderm of turbellarian worms (see quot.). 

1888 ROLLESTON & JACKSON Anim. Life 667 note. Still 
more rare are the structures known as sagittocysts, i. e. 
capsules similar to those of the nematocysts, but inclosing a 
needle-like rod, which is expelled on irritation of the animal. 

SagO (sfi'go). Forms : 6-7 sagu, (7 zago, 
1 erron. sagous), 7-8 sagow, 8 sagoe, -oo, sego, 

seago, 7- sago. [a. Malay ^L, saga. Cf. F. 
sagou, Sp. sagii, Pg. sagu, ~agu, It. sagii, G. sago.] 

1. The tree from which sago (see 2) is obtained. 
1555 EDEN Decades 229 In all the llandes of Molucca is 

founde cloues, ginger, breade of the roote of Sagu, ryse, 

foates [etc.]. 1783 JUSTAMOND tr. RaynaFs Hist. Indies 
. 143 Beside the cocoa tree, the Moluccas produce a singular 
kind of palm, which is called sago. 1820 CRAWFURD Hist. 
Ind. Archipelago I. 385 The sago, like other palms, is pro- 
pagated from the seed or fruit. 

2. A species of starch prepared from the ' pith ' 
of the trunks of several palms and cycads, esp. 
Mctroxylon Isevis and M. Rttmphii, chiefly used as 
an article of food. 

French S., common arrowroot (Syd. Sac. Lex. 1897). 



Japan S., the sago prepared from various species of Cycas. 
PearlS., Portlands. : see the epithets. 

c 1580 Sir F. Drake's Voy. in Hakluyt u6oo) III. 740 We 
recemed of them meale, which they call Sagu, made of the 
tops of certaine trees, .whereof they make ceruine cakes. 
Ibid. 742 Certaine wordes of the natural! language of laua. 
..Sagu, bread of the Countrey. 1619 W. PHILLIP U.Schou- 
ten's Wonder/. I'oy. 75 Wee bartered for a great deale of 
Sagow and some Ryce, for Linnen, Beades [etc.], 1688 
BRA.MSTON Aulol'iog. 381 She tasted and tryed all waters,., 
and all the opiats, asses milk, and zago, to prevent con- 
sumption, but yet was wasted to the lowest degree. 1727 
A. HAMILTON New Ace. E. Ind. II. xl. 94 The inland People 
subsist mostly on Sagow. 1747 MRS. GLASSE Cookery 
120 To boil Sago. 1755 Centl. Mag. XXV. 431 He 
allows chicken broth, Salop, seago, milk-pottage, for break- 
fast 1806 A. HUNTER Culina (ed. 3) 95 Have ready two 
ounces of sago sufficiently boiled. 1840 PEREIRA Elein. 
Mat. Jleil.ii. 700 This fecula (Japan sago) is quite unknown 
to me ; and I doubt whether it ever reaches this country. 
1849 BALTOUR Man. Bat. 1048 From the steins of Cycas 
revoluta and eircinalis, a kind of Sago is made. 1861 
BKNTLEY Man, But, 684 Caryota ureas. . . From the trunks 
of the old trees a kind of Sago is obtained in Assam. 1884 
MARY HARRISON Skilful Cook 167 Simmer the sago in the 
milk until it thickens. 

b. A prepared food made by boiling sago in 
water or milk, etc. ? Obs. 

1769 MRS. RAFFALD Eng. Hoiisekpr. (1778) 309 The chief 
ingredients in gruels, sagos, and wheys. 

Jig, 1769 [E. THOMPSON] Trinculo's Trip 40 Yes your 
pap poetick sago, Quite a soporifick pill. 

3. attrib. and Comb. : as sago f -bread, -cake, 
-jtour, -gruel, milk, -pudding, -starch ; sago-like 
adj.; sago-grain, Iransf. a granule on the eyelid 
in granular ophthalmia ; sago-palm (tree) = sense 
i ; sago-spleen, amyloid degeneration of the Mal- 
pighian corpuscles of the spleen, resembling boiled 
sago ; sago-tree = sense I . 

B6z O'NEILL Diet. Calico Printing 188 Other kinds of 
:archy substances in occasional use for printing, .as. .*sago 

of these 'sago grains' remained unknown until the year 

strong soup. 1879 St. George's Hasp. Rep. IX. 159 The 
solitary glands of the intestine were swelled and "sago-like. 
1827 New Syst. Cookery 287 ' Sago, Rice, . . or Macaroni M ilks. 
1769 W. STORK in J. Barlram Jrnl. (Florida) (ed. 3) p. v, 
Cy(.as CirciHatis...*Sago Palm-tree. In Java, and the 
warmest parts of the East-Indies. 1820 CRAWFURD Hist. [nd. 
Archipelago 1. 383 The Sago Palm (Metroiylon sagu). 1863 
TYLOR Early Hist. Man. vii. 178 The art of extracting sago 
from their native sago-palms. 1747 MRS. GLASSK Cookery 
106 A *Sagoe Pudding. 1764 ELIZA MoxoN Eng. Hous&v. 

with in two forms one in which the disease is limited to 
the Malpighian corpuscles (' *Sago Spleen '), and the other 
(etc.]. 1681 GKEW Mnsxtttii iv. ili. 377 The *Sagous-Tree ; 
which those that inhabit the Molucca Islands, eat instead 
of Bread. 1777 MILLER Sumatra in Phil. Trans. LXVIII. 
162 The houses, .are. .thatched with the leaves of the sago- 
tree. 1840 PEREIRA Elem. Mat. Med. ll. 700 Cycas revo. 
luta, or the Japan Sago tree. 

Sagoill (sagoi'n). Forms : 7-9 sagouin, (8 
sangwyn), 9 (in Diets.) saguin, 7- sagoin. [a. 
F. sagouin, \sagoin, a. Pg. saguim, a. Guarani 
sagui, fagui (= Tnpi sahy : see SAI l), whence by 
misreading the synonym CAGUI.] A small South 
American monkey, esp. one of the genus Callithrix. 

1607 TOPSELL Four-/. Beasts 18 This figure of the Sagoin, 
1 receiued of.. a very learned Apothecary of Antwerpe. 
1613 PURCHAS Pilgrimage (1614) 838 A kind of Monkey 
called Sagouin. 1704 Nietthofs East Indies in ChurchilFi 
Voy. \\. 362 Those [monkeys] called sangwyns. 1774 
GOLDSM. Nat. Hist. (1776) IV. 235 Those [monkeys] with 
muscular holding tails, are called Sapajous ; those with 
feeble, useless tails, are called Sagoins. 1840 Curler's A nint. 
Kingd. 62 The Masked Sagouin (Callithrix personatu, 
Geof.), the Widow Sagouin (C. lugens, Humb.). 1851 TH. 
Ross tr. Humboldt's Trav. I. viii. 279 They never play like 
the young sagoins. 

+ Sa'gOiize, r. 06s. rare 1 , [f. SAGO + -IZE.] 
trans. To put on a regimen of sago as diet. 

1847 Tales Mag. XIV. 794 The excellence of the test 
may recommend a course of 'sagoizing 1 to all those guardians 
who are never done with tests and testing. 

8agomo(re, obs. forms of SAGAJIOBE. 

Sagoone.var. SACCOON ( = SECONDS, in Fencing}. 

Sagow, obs. form of SAGO. 

Sagre, dial, form of SAGGAB; obs. f. SAKEB 1. 

tSagree. Obs. rare- 1 . pConnected with SHA- 
GREENJ The Picked Dogfish, Squalus acanthias. 

75 J. HILL Hist. Anim. 300 The Sagree.. .This is fre- 
quent in the Mediterranean. .. Willughby and Ray call it 
Cateus acanthias sire spinax fuseus, the brown, prickly 
Hound-fish. 1753 CHAMBERS Cyd. Supp. App. 

Sagu, obs. form of SAGO. 

II Saguaro (sagwa-ro). Also saguara, suwar- 
row. [? Mexican.] The giant cactus, Cereus 
gtganteus, of Arizona and Mexico. Saguaro wood- 

. - 

pecker, the Pitahaya woodpecker (Centurus urofy- 
fiafli) usually nesting in the giant cactus. 


1883 Harper's Mag. Mar. 502/2 We made haste.. to cut ' 
down an example of the. .saguaras, the organ-cactus. 1884 
SARGENT Rep. Forests N. Amer. tioth Census IX.) 90 Cc- , 
rens figanteus. ..Suwarrow. Saguaro. 1884 COUES Key 
N. Amer. Birds (ed. 2) 488 Saguaro Woodpecker. 

Saguin, Saguire : see SAGOIN, SAGWIRK. 

II Saguni (st'l'gi'm). Roman Antiq. PI. saga. 
[L. ; also sagus, = late Gr. ira-yos : said to be of I 
Gaulish origin.] A Roman military cloak ; also, 
a woollen cloak worn by the ancient Gauls, Ger- 
mans, and Spaniards. 

1706 PniLLips{ed. Kersey), Sagum, a sort of Woollen Coat 
or Cassock for Soldiers, which the Greeks and Romans us'd, 
and was peculiar to the Gauls. 1800 J. DALLAWAY A need. 
Arts Eng. 399 A statue of Colonel Codrington. .in a Roman 
military Saguin. 1851-9 PRICHARD in Man. Sci. Eng. 261 
The Germans [were known] by their saga or military cas- 
socks. 1879 FARRAR St. Paul (1883) 701 The scarlet saguin 
of the Procurator. 

|| Sagwire (tas-gwaia). Forms : 7 sagewar, 8 
saguire, 9 sagueir, 9- sagwire. [app. ad. Pg. i 
sagueiro, f. saga SAGO. Cf. F. sagmier.] The 
Gomuti palm, Amiga saccharifcra, of the Indian 
Archipelago. Also, the toddy or palm-wine ob- 
tained from this tree. 

1681 GREW Musxiim iv. iii. 377 A Sagewar-Tree ; whose 
Flower being cut, renders a Juyce like Wine. 1792 T. 
FORREST I'oy. MerguiT*, lY.) The natives drink much of 
a liquor called saguire, drawn from the palm-tree. 1820 
CRAWFURD Hist. Ind. Archipelago I. 397 One of the most 
useful and abundant of all the palms is the Saguire or Go- 
muti (Borassus gomutus). 1869 A. R. WALLACE Malay 
Archipelago 1.362 His palm-trees supplied him all the year 
round with * sagueir', which takes the place of beer. 

Sagy, variant of SAGEY. 

Sajel : see SOWEL Obs. Sail, obs. pa. t. of SEE. 

Sa-ha. Also 7 sa-haw. [? Var. of SO-HO.] A 
cry used in coursing. 

1605 SYLVESTER Du Bartas It. iii. IV. Captains 410 With 
shrill Sa-haw, here-here ho, herc-again, The Warren rings. 
1885 Stit. Rev. 21 Feb. 235/2 We are nearly across the field 
when the cry of ' Sa ha ' tells us that some one has seen a 
hare in her form. 

Sahab, obs. form of SAHIB. 

t Sahagun. Obs. rare '. f ? From Sahagun, 
a city in Castile.] ? A sword made at Sahagun. 

a 1668 DAVENANT Man's the Master iv. (1669) 57 Suppose 
that with a Sahagun, or with a Rapier of Toledo, 1 were 
pierc'd like a Cullender. 

Sahara (saha-ra). Also 7 Sarra, 8-9 Zaara, 
9 Saara, Sahra. [a. Arab. \jsf fahrd desert.] 
The great desert of Libya or northern Africa. 
(With capital S as proper name.) 

1613 PURCHAS Pilgrimage (1614) 556 Lybia, he calleth 
Sarra, for so the Arabians call a desert. 1615 BEDWELU 
A rat. Truiig., Sahara. The stonie countrey, the sands : 
the same almost that Sarra is. 1728 MORGAN A Igiers 1 1. 
iii. 246 He withdrew among his Arab Confederates in the 
Sahara, or Desart. 1812 BRACKENRIDGE l-'iems Louisiana 
(1814) 28 Having some resemblance to the Stepps of Tar- 
tar y, or the Saara's of Africa. 

b. trans/, andyf,^. A desert, wilderness. 

i86a 'SHIRLEY' [J. Skelton) Nugx Crit. i. 4 During this 
autumnal season,.. the city is a desert, a Sahara. 1865 
DICKENS Mut. Fr. i. iv, Between Battle Bridge and that 
part of the Holloway district in which he dwelt, was a tract 
of suburban Sahara. 1893 Lit. Worlds Nov. 332/1 In the 
Sahara of contemporary verse there are sometimes.. oases 
full of beauties and surprises. 

Hence Sana-ran, Saha'rian, Saha'ric adjs. 

1849 M. ARNOLD Consolation, viii, Saharan sand-winds 
Sear'd his keen eyeballs. 1860 All Year Round No. 76. 
606 We were to have one of the hottest days^of a Saharan 
summer. xSga LOUNSBURY Stud. Chaucer i.\\. 216 As well 
might one hope to squeeze rain from a Saharic sand-cloud. 
1897 Edin. Kcv. Jan. 129 The Saharian district. 

Sahe, obs. form of SAW. 

II Sahib (sa'ib). Also 7 sab, sahab, 8-9 saib, 
9saheb, saheeb. [Urdu, use of Arab. i_*L 
(afrit, orig. ' friend '.] A respectful title used by 
the natives of India in addressing an Englishman 
or other European ( = 'Sir'); also, in native use, 
an Englishman, a European. Also affixed as a 
title (equivalent to 'Mr.' prefixed) to the name or 
office of a European. (See also MEM-SAHIB.) 

1696 OVINGTON Voy. Suratt 326 Thus the distracted Hus- 
band.. often in his Indian English confest, English fashion, 
sab, best fashion have, one Wife best for one Husband. 
1698 FRYER Ace. E. India $ P. 417 To which the subtle 
Heathen replied, 'Sahab (i.e.) Sir, why will you do more 
than the Creator ever meant?' 1796 ELIZA HAMILTON Lett. 
Hindoo Rajali (1811) I. 43 This Saib, .purposed returning 
with me. 1811 MRS. SHERWOOD Henry fy Bearer 25, 1 used 
to be so pleased when anybody bowed to me, and said 
' Sahib '. 1822 Fifteen Yrs. in India Gloss., Saheeb. 1831 
in Kef. Sel. Coinm. Salt Brit. India (1836) App. 34 If a bird 
flies, saheb shoots it. 1834 Baboo II. li. 28 (Stanf.) These 
English Sahebs are white-skinned white-livered lepers. 1859 
LANG Wand. India 323 'They are strangers to me, Sahib , 
said the khansamah, ..' but their bearers say that they are 
Lord Sahibs '. 1891 KIPLING & BALESTIER Naitlahka (1892) 
i 201 The lady sahtb kissed me on both cheeks. 

So Sa-hiba h [Arab, (ahitia"], mistress, lady. 

1849 E. B. EASTWICK Dry Leaves 88 What calamity is 
this that the Madam Sahebah is so fond of ! 1903 Smart 
Set IX. 114/2 Oh, dear Sahiba, the gods are very wise and 
terrible ! 

Sahidic (sahi-dik), a. [f. Arab. J^auj sas-id, 
with article as-sae.iJ, lit. 'the Fortunate", a name 


for Upper Egypt + -ic. ] Belonging to the dialect 
of Coptic spoken in Thebes and Upper Egypt, in 
which a version of the Bible is extant. Also quasi- 
s6., the Sahidic language, or the Sahidic version of 
the Bible. 

1830 TATTAM Egypt. Gram. 14 Sahidic words which 
change their termination to form the plural. Ibid. 49 Num- 
bers are usually expressed in Sahidic by words. 1808 J. A. 
ROBINSON in Expositor Apr. 257 Both forms of this Version 
the Bohairic (or Memphitic) and the Sahidic (orThebaic) 
take the verb in the passive sense. 

Salllite (sa'lsit). Alin. Also salite. [a. G. 
salilit, named in 1800, f. Sahla (Sata) in Sweden : 
see -HE.] A variety of pyroxene. 

1807 AIKIN Diet. Chcin. $ Min. II. 279. 1836 T. THOM- 
SON .]//., Geol., etc. I. 190 The fifth and sixth minerals 
[analysed above] are sahlites ; so named because they occur 
in the lead mine of Sahla in Sweden. 1878 LAWRENCE tr. 
Cotta's Rocks Class. 16 A_ sahlite, termed malakolite, is 
found sepaiately imbedded in granular limestone. 
Saht(e, sahut, etc. : see SAUGHT Obs., etc. 
II Sai 1 (sai). [a. Brazilian sahy, (ahy; in Fr. 
sat. Cf. SAIMIRI, SAGOIN.] A South American 
monkey, Simia capucina L. 

1774 GOLDSM. Nat. Hist. (1776) IV. 236 The Sai. .is some- 
what larger than the Sajou. .. It is also called the Bewailer. 
1859 WOOD Illitstr. Nat, Hist. I. 92 The Weeper Monkey 
or Sai. 

II Sai - (sai). A bird, Caireba cyanea, inhabiting 
tropical America. 

1869-73 T. R. JONES CasseU's Bk. Birds III. 3 The voice 
of the Sai is only capable of producing a gentle twitter. 
Sai, obs. form oi SAY ; obs. pa. t. of SEE. 
Saiblillg (s^'blirj). Also ssebling. [a. Upper 
German dial, saibling = salbling, salblingltie char.] 
The European char, Salvelinus alpinus, introduced 
into N. America. 

1884 GOODE, etc. Nat. Hist. Aquatic Anim. 503 The Saib- 
ling, which through the courtesy of the German Govern- 
ment is now being introduced into the United States, is the 
European Char in its highest state of perfection. 1896 Roy. 
Nat. Hist. V. 501 The sibling (Salmo salvclinits) of the 
mountain-lakes of Bavaria and Austria. 

II Saic (st~'ik). Forms : 7 saich, saioque, 8 
shyke, 7-8 saique, 7-9 saio, saiek. [a. F. sa'i- 
que, ad. Turkish U>li s/iaifd.] A kind of sailing 
vessel common in the Levant (see quot. 1769". 

1667 Lond. Gaz. No. 119/2 Two large Saichs laden with 
Horses, were taken by some of our Vessels in their passage 
from Napoli di Romania to Canea. 1686 tr. Churdin's 
Trav. Persia 64 The Saic lay at an Anchor. 1687 A. 
LOVELL tr. Thevenofs Trav. l. 73 They build Saiques, and 
other Merchants Vessels pretty well. 1704 J. PITTS Ace. 
Mohaiiinu'tatis 63 There are many of the Turks Merchant- 
Men, navigated by Greeks, which are called by the name of 
Shykes, somewhat like our English Ketches, of Two or 
Three Hundred Tun. 1715 Connu. Jrnls. 45/1 The Fish- 
ing-Ships and Saicks employed at Newfoundland. 1769 
FALCONER Diet. Marine (1780), Saic, a sort of Grecian 
ketch, which has no top-gallant-sail or mizen-top-sail. 1813 
BYRON Corsair n. iv, From Scalanovo's port to Scio's isle, 
The Saick was bound. 1834 [MOHIER) Ayeslia III. 31 The 
bark, .which was called a saique, was square-rigged. 
Saice, variant of SYCE. 
Saickless, obs. form of SACKLESS. 
Said (sed), ppl. a. Forms : see the vb. [Pa. 
pple. of SAY v.] 

1. Named or mentioned before. (Also abovesaiJ, 
aforesaid qq. v.) 

a 1300 Cursor M. 14978 (Cott.) Son bar went disciplis tua 
Vnto be said {Go'tl. bis said] castel. c 1375 Sc. Leg. Saints xi. 
(Symon f, Judas) 16 pe sad king agabarus (L. prxdictus rex 
Abgarus}, 1435 Contract Fotheringhay Ch. (1841) 20 At 
my seide Lord's cost. 1457-8 Anc. Cal. Rec. Dublin (1880) 
297 Aftyr the sayd terme to ber the saydyn v. s. 1486 B*. 
St. Albans biijb, Lay thessaid hede and the necke ther- 
uppon. 1548-9 (Mar.) Bk. Com. Prayer, Collect St. Mat. 
thcw} To iolowe thy sayed sonne Jesus Christ. 1568 GRAH- 
TON Chron. II. 251 The King of England gaue the sayde 
Castell to the sayde Erie. 1716 Land. Gaz. No. 5450/4 
The Administratrixes of the said Wilson, do hereby give 
Notices. 1868 T. H. KEY Philol. Ess. 282 The said chapter 
begins with an admirable extract from a work of Dugajd 
Stewart's. 1885 Law Times Rep. LIII. 51/2 The said 
chimney belonged to the said brewery. 

absol. 1648 GAGE West Ind. 186 Some English or Holland 
ships was abroad at sea.. and the said were sometimes 
lurking about the Islands of St. John, 
t b. With inflected pi. Obs. 
Continued in Sc. until the i?th c. 

1448 in Willis & Clark Cambridge (1886) II. 8 The Felowes 
of the seid college . . and Thomas Sturgeon of the seides town 
and shire carpenter. 1527 Lane. Wills (Chetham Soc.) I. 25 
Tenants of the saidis landis. 1581 HAMILTON Cert. Ortli. 
f, Cath. Conclus. Ded. 3 And yair ye saidis ministers and ve 
being assemblit. 1609 SKENE Reg. Maj., forme f races 
125 The olliciar . . may sell and assigne the saides landes. 
f2. Spoken, uttered. In phr. (old) said saw. 
1530, c 1570, 1828 [see OLD D. i c.]. a 1553 UDALL Royster 
D. i. i. (Arb.) n Therefore an other sayd sawe doth men 
aduise, That they be together both mery and wise. 1581 
J. BELL Haddon's AHSTJJ. Osor. 202 b, According to the old 
sayd saw Quite agaynst the heare. 1659 HOWELL (titlf) 
Proverbs, or Old Sayed Sawes & Adages. 
f 3. quasi-J^. Something said or spoken, name-use. 
1578 FLORIO \st Fruites 18 b, So say I also. But from 
the said vnto the deed there is a great throw. 

Said, obs. f. SAD, SIDE. Sale, obs. f. SAY. 
Sale, obs. pa. t. and pa. pple. of SEE. 
Saif, obs. Sc. form of SAFE, SAVE. 




Saifare, saiffer, obs. Sc. forms of SAVEB. 

Saif(e, saiff(e, obs. Sc. forms of SAFE. 

Saiffer, obs. form of SAPPHIRE. 

Saifte, -tie, obs. Sc. forms of SAFETY. 

a (s/'-ga, sai-ga). [a. Russ. caflra. Cf. F. 
A kind of antelope (Saiga tartarica} of 
the steppes of Russia. Also saiga-antelope. 

1801 SHAW Zool. II. 11. 339 The Saiga, or Scythian Ante. 
lope. Ibid. 340 The Saigas are of a migratory disposition. 
1896 LYDEKKER Brit, Mammals 305 The Saiga Antelope. 

Saige, obs. f. SIEGE. Saih, obs. pa. t. of SEE. 

Saik, obs. Sc. form of SAKE. 

Saikles(se, obs. Sc. forms of SACKLESS. 

Saikyr, obs. Sc. form of SAKEB (cannon). 

Sail (s<?'l), si. 1 Forms : i aejel, segl, 3 seeil(e, 
3-4 seil, 3-5 seile, seyle, 3-7 sayle, 3-8 saile, 4 
seille, seyll(e, 4-5 seyl, 4-7sayl, 4-8 sale, 5 oeyle, 
seylle, 5-6 saiU(e, sayll(e, 6 sal, saule, 4- sail. 
[Com. Teut.: OE.Ag()/neut. (and masc.), corresp. 
to OS. segel (MLG. segel, MDu. zeghel, seil, Du. 
seit), OHG. segal, segil (MHG., mod.G. segel}, 
ON. segl (Sw. segel, Da. seil) :-OTeut. *seglo m . 

The ulterior origin is obscure. No certainly equivalent 
form U known outside Teut., and the only known root of 
the form *seg- (: Indogermanic *segh~) has only the senses 
4 to hold, have, conquer ', which do not satisfactorily account 
for the meaning of the word. Some scholars refer the word 
to the root *stk- (Teut. *seh-\ to cut, taking it to mean a 
piece of cloth cut to shape.] 

1. One of the shaped pieces of canvas or other 
strong textile material fastened to the masts, spars 
or stays of a vessel, so as to catch the wind and cause 
it to move through the water. Also occas. a similar 
apparatus for propelling a wind-driven carriage. 

c888 K. ALFRED Boeth. xli. 3 Hset fealdan bzet sejl & 
eac hwilum lecjan |>one msest. a 900 OE. Martyrol. 
4 Mar. 34 FeraS nu swa swa eowre sejlas sendon jeseted. 
c 1105 LAV. 1 101 Heo raerden heora mastes heo wunden up 
seiles. c 1290 Bcket 1803 in S, Eng. Leg, I. 158 In be 
schipes seile an hei? : bis holi man let do Ane Croiz, Jiat 
Man fer isai?. 1297^ R. GLOUC, (Rolls) 2828 Hor seiles hii 
spredef? in be se & hider hii comep iwis, a 1300 Cursor M. 
4829 pair sa 'l I**' sett . U P fair scipp. 1373 BARBOUK 
Bruce xvi. 692 Thai rasit salys but abaid. c 1386 CHAUCER 
Miller's T. 346, 1 vndertake with-outen Mast and seyl Yet 
shal I sauen hire and thee and me. 1387 TREVISA Higden 
(Rolls) IV. 183 Schippes . . \vi[> seilles and wi|? oores. 1390 
GOWER Conf,\\. 258 Thei gon withinne schipes bord, Ihe 
Sail goth up, and forth thei strauhte. ^1440 [see 5]. 
1470 HENRY Wallace ix. 53 The seymen than . . Thair 
ynys kest, and waytyt well the tyd ; Leyt salys fall, 


xxxiv. 127 ney mae o ae vp e ancres o ae 
their saylles. 1506 A cc. Ld. High Treas. Scot. III. : 
Item.. for jcxiiij elne cammes to the schip callit the M 
greit for hir sales. .summa \li. xjs. viiijrf. 1530 PALS 

and has thar cours ynom. c 1489 CAXTON Blanckardyn. 
xxxiv. 127 They made to take vp the ancres & to hale vp 

: Mer- 
__ ----------------- ----- ._, .___,_, 1530 PALSGR. 

268/2 Seyle of a shyppe, uoille. 1533 Ace. Ld, High Treas. 
Scot. VI. 165 For xij elnis canves to mend hir saulis. 1568 
GRAFTON Chron, II. 242 He drew vp the sayles and came 
with a quarter winde to haue the vauntage of the sonne. 
1611 BIBLE Isa. xxxiti. 23 Thy tacklings are loosed.. they 
could not spread the saile. 1667 MILTON P, L. m. 439 The 
barren plames Of Sericana, where Chineses drive With 
Sails and Wind thir canie Waggons light. 1669 STUKMY 
Mariners Mag. i. 17 Now the Sail is furled, and you have 
the Ship in all ner low Sails, c 1764 GRAY Triumphs Owen 
15 The Norman sails afar Catch the winds. 1850 TENNYSON 
In Mem. cxv, The flocks are whiter down the vale, And 
milkier every milky sail On winding stream or distant sea. 
c 1860 H. STUART Seaman's Catech, 20 What is meant by 
small sails? Topgallant sails and royals, topmast, topgallant, 
and lower studding sails. Ibid., What are meant by storm 
sails ? Fore storm staysail and trysail, main staysail and 
trysail, and mizen trysail. 

fig a '533 LD. BERNERS Gold. Bk. M. Anrel. (1537) N n ij, 
They lacke the reyne of knowlege, & the sayles of wise- 
dome, & the ankers of experience, a 1568 ASCHAM Scholttn, 
u. (Arb.) 151 Where Tullie doth set vp his saile of eloquence. 
1599 SHAKS. Hen. y t i. ii. 274 But tell the Dolphin, I will 
keepe my State, Be like a King, and shew my Sayle of 
Greatnesse, When I do rowse me in my Throne of France. 
b. transf. Applied to the wing of a bird. poet. 
Also techn. in Falconry, the wing of a hawk. 

1590 SPENSER F.Q. i. xi. 18 He, [a dragon] cutting way 
With his broad sayles, about him soared round. 1592 
NASHE /*. Penilesse c j b, To clippe the winges of a high 
towring Faulcon, who., was wont., to looke with an amiable 
eye vpon her gray breast, and her speckled side sayles. 
1678 PHILLIPS (ed. 4), Satis, in Faulconry are the Wings of 
a Hawk. 1810 SCOTT Lady of L. in. iii, The mountain 
eagle. .Spread her dark sails on the wind. 

C. transf. Applied to something that is spread 
out like a sail, or that catches the wind. 

1616 T. SCOT Philomytkie (ed. 2) D 2, The Pehen drest 
her selfe and spred her taile, The Turkyhen aduanc'd her 
spotted saile. 1697 DRYDEN Virg. Georg. i. 246 The Fan 
of Bacchus, with the flying Sail. 1824 Miss FERRIER Inker. 
Ixxiii, The drooping capes, arms, sails, and tails of his cloak 
were all in commotion. 

2. Sails collectively. Alsoy^f. Often in phrases 
to carry, cross, crowd, hoist, lower, make, set, shorten , 
strike (etc.) sail* for which see also those verbs. 

c 1385 CHAUCER L. G. W. 654 (Cleopatra} Fleth ek the queen, 
withal hire porpere sayl. c 1435 Torr. Portugal '1426, 1 rede 
we take down sayle & rowe. a 1548 HALL Chron. , Edw. IIS 
209 The kynges shyp was good with sayle. 1567 FENTON 
Trag. Disc. v. (1898) I. 232 It ought to have sufficed to 
nave revoked, and made hym cross saile, from the pursute 
of so bad an adventure. 1806 A. DUNCAN Nelson 65 The 
Admiral . . carried all sail. 1831 SCOTT Ct. Robt. ii, Every way 
qualified to bear me through the cross currents of the court 

by main pull of oar and press of sail. 1853 M. ARNOLD 
Scholar Gypsy xxv, [He] snatched his rudder, and shook 
out more sail. 1893 LELAND Mem. I. 155 Our captain was 
a handsome, dissipated, and ' loud ' young man, with rather 
more sail than ballast, but good-natured and obliging, 
f b. transf. See quot. Obs. 

1759 STILLINGFL. tr. Riberg's Econ. Nat.) note in Misc. 
Tracts (1762) 45 As 1 have, .weighed several kinds of birds, 
i shall here subjoyn a table.. with the proportions of the 
weight to the sail. N.B. By sail i mean the extent of the 
wings and tail. 

3. Phrases (senses I and 2). t & To bear sail-, 
said lit. of a ship ; hence fig* to be exalted, to be 
prosperous, also to bear a great, high or lofty sail. 
To bear (a) loiv sail, to be of low sail-, to demean 
oneself humbly; to live at a modest rate; to cut 
down expenses (see BEAU v^\ 3 b.). To live at a 
low sail: to live humbly. To pull down one's sail 
or sails : to moderate one's ambitions or one's scale 
of expenditure, Obs. 

a 1300 [see BEAR v. 1 sb]. 1390 GOWER Con/. I. 65 Bot 
whanne he berth lowest the Seil, Thanne is he swiftest to 
beguile The womman. <? 1548 HALL Citron., Hen. l'1 140 
Whiche maie by pinchyng and bearyng a lowe saile, Waxe 
riche and be set at libertie. 1548 UDALL Etasni. Par. Prtf. 
18, I was utterly mynded to pulle downe my sayles againe. 
1549 LATI.MER 2nd Serin, bef. Ediv, /-"/ To Rdr. (Arb.) 51 
Pul downe thy sayle. 1573 TUSSER Hush. (1878) 211 Then 
waies I saught, by wisdome taught, To beare low saile, least 
stock should quaile. 1587 HARRISON England n. v. in 
Holinshed\. 164/1 How diuerse of them also coueting to 
beare an high saile doo insinuate themselues with yoong 

fsnllemen and noble men newlie come to their lands. 1587 
LICMING Concl. Hotinshed\\\. 1592/1 If the helpe of such 
as are furnished with varietie of knowledge,., had beene as 
forward to aduance this worke, . . as some of low saile, willing 
to laieout their poore talent, have affoorded what furtherance 
they were able [etc.], 1601 B. JONSON 2'. Man in Hum. 
(Qo. i) i. i, Moderate your expences {now at first) As you may 
keepe the same proportion still. Beare a low saile. 1602 
2nd Pt. Return fr. Parnass. iv. iii. 1941 Schollers must 
frame to liue at a low sayle. 1610 HEALEY St. Aug. Citie 
of God (1620) 731 If learning had many such friends as he, 
it would beare an higher sayle then it doth. 1665 MANLEV 
Grotins' Low C. Warms 211 They drew in their Mooned 
and crescent Squadrons into the LSody of the Fleet, and 
that one might not go before another, bore less Sayl. 1733 
O.vf. Methodists 6 Be not high-minded; but fear... Bear 
no more Sail than is necessary. 

fb. To come to sail: to set out on a sailing 
voyage ; = SAIL v. 3. ? Also (earlier) in the same 
sense, to go Q\fere to (the) sail. (Cf. SAIL $62) 

c 1350 Will. Palerne 2731 pe werwolf waited wi}tly which 
schip was Barest, to fare forp at J?at flod & fond on sone hat 
was gayly greyt to go to be seile, & feibliche frau^t ful of 
fine wines. Ibid. 2745 And faire at f>e fulle flod bei ferden 
to saile. 1633 T. JAMES Voy. 5 Wee came to Sayle. 1712 
W. ROGERS voy. 3 About twelve we fir'd a Gun, and all 
came to sail. 1743 BULKELEY & CUMMINS Voy, S. Seas 6 
At Eight weigh'd, and came to Sail. 

C. Full sail: a sail (or sails collectively) filled 
or distended by the wind ; the condition of a ship 
with sails so filled. At, f with full sail(s [^= L. 
pleno veto, plenis ve/ts, F. a pleines voiles] : (sail- 
ing) with a strong favourable wind, at full speed ; 
fig. making rapid and unresisted progress; so also 
full sail as advb. phrase. In mod. use, in full sail 
is applied to describe the condition of a ship with 
all sails set. 

a I 533 L D - BERNERS Huon Ix. 208 Yonder comyth a shyppe 
with full sayle. 1560 DAUS tr. Steidant's Conim. 134 b, 
Sathan. .shall make towardes us with full sayle [orig. //<:& 
velis], 1564^ GRINDAL Serm. FcrdinandifsD], Thedoctrine 
of purgatone and praying for the dead hath gone with full 
saile. c 1600 SHAKS. Sonn. Ixxxvi, Was it the proud full 
saile of his great verse. 1618 BOLTON Floras Ded. (1636) 2 
To increase in the full saile of fortune. 1648 GAGE West 
Ind. xxi. 201 So the two ships, .sailed away con Viento en 
Pofa, with full Sail. 1653 H. MORK Antid. Ath. m. xiv. 7 
Faith and Desire ought to be full-sail to make such Voyages 
prosperous. 1699 DAMPJER Voy. II. in. 39 Constant. .Land- 
winds, by which the Wherry-men run with full sail, both to 
. .and back again. 1715 Lond. Gaz. No. 5357/2 The Danish 
Fleet having the Wind came full sail up with the Swedes. 
1758 GOLDSM. Mem. Prot. (1895) II. 274 Smith went full 
Sail to reconnoitre the Enemy. 1818 SCOTT Hrt. Midi, ix, 
Her father.. often took an opportunity of going full-sail into 
controversial subjects. 1848 A. & H. MAYHEW Greatest 

Merc. Marine Mag. V. 208 The vessel was at full sail. 
a 1859 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. xxiii. V. 12 The Protestant 
wind, before which the Dutch armament had run full sail 

.) Full sai/s t the sails well set, and filled by the 
wind. 1887 BOWSN J&neidi. 400 Thy vessels. -the haven 
have entered, or bend Now full sail for its mouth. 

trans/. 1671 MILTON P.R. iv. 582 So Satan fell and strait 
a fiery Globe Of Angels on full sail of wing flew nigh. 
d. Under sail : having the sails set. 

1:893 K. ALFRED Ores. i. L 21 pxt \>m\. scip wses ealne 
wefc yrnende under sejle. 1508 KENNEDIE Flyting w. 
Dunbar 457 Quhen that the schip was saynit, et vndir 
&aile [etc. J. 1588 SHAKS. L. L. L. v. u. 549 The ship is 
vnder saile, and here she corns amain. 1690 LEYBOURN 
Curs. Mat/i. 454 Suppose.. you see a Ship.. under Sail, 
making towards the Land. 1748 Anson"s Voy. it. iv, 162 
In the afternoon [we] got under sail. 1836 M ARKYAT Jf&irA. 
Easy xiii, About ten miles distant, followed by the Harpy, 
under all sail. 1857 C. GRIBBLE in Merc. Marine Mag. (1858) 

V. i Weighed anchor . . , under all sail. 1867 SMYTH Sailor's 
Word-bk.^ Under sail, the state of a ship when she is in 
motion from the action of wind on her sails. 

4. a. In collective sing, (also formerly fin plural), 
chiefly with numeral : (So many) sailing-vessels, 

1436 Rolls of Parlt. IV, 501/1 A Navey. .to ye noumbre of 
xii .score Sailles. 1458 Past on Lett. I. 428 Ther were xxviij" 
sayle of Spaynyards on the se. 1480 CAXTON Chron. Eng. 
ccxliv. (1482) 296 The kyng prdeyned his nauye of shippes 
in the hauen of Southampton in to the nombreofcccxxsailles. 
1568 GRAFTON Chron. II, 237 The Frenchmen were .xiij. 
sayles great and small. 1590 Disc. Sfi. Fleet inv. Eti. 4 
The whole nauie was at this present about 90. saile of all 
sorts. 1395 SHAKS. John in. iv. 2 So by a roaring Tempest 
on the^ flood A whole Arniado of conuicted saile Is scattered 
and dis-ioyn'd from fellowship. 1633 T. STAFFORD Pac. 
Hib. n. viit (1821) 325 Of their fine and fourtie Saile of 
ships, seventeene saile onely are fitted for men of warre. 
1649 W. GRAY Suru. Newcastle 19 The Shipping which 
comes into this River for Coales, there being sometimes 
three hundred Sayles of Ships. 1743 BULKELEY & CUMMINS 
Voy^.^S. Seas 3 We were informed of ten Sail of Ships 
Cruising off and on, to the Westward. 1831 &RBWSTER 
Optics xxvi. 258 He saw from the mast-head eighteen sail 
of ships. 1863 H. Cox Instil, in. viii. 717 The Royal navy 
comprised in all twenty-seven sail. 

b. A ship or other vessel, esp. as descried by 
its sails. Sait ho ! l the exclamation used when a 
strange ship is first discerned at sea' (Adm. Smyth). 

1517 TORKINGTON Pilgr. (1884) 12 The Duke [Doge of 
Venice], .went in ther Archa triumphal!, which ys in mancr 
of a sayle of a straange facion. 1556 W. TOWRSON in Hak- 
luyt / 'oy. (1589) 99 We spyed a saile comming towardes vs, 
and as soone as wee spyed him we. .manned out our Skiffe. 
After the saile had espyed vs, he kept about. 1627 CAIT. 
SMITH SeetmatPs Gram. xiii. 59 A saile, how beares she or 
stands shee, to wind-ward or lee-ward, set him by the Corn- 
passe. 1634 SIR T. HERBERT Trav. n Our Admiral! de- 
scried a Saile, and immediately made towards her. 1669 
STURM Y Manner's Mag. i. ii. 18 A Sail, a Sail. Where? 
Fair by us. 1726 SWIFT Gttlliz't'r i. viii, I descried a Sail 
steering to the South-East. 1813 BYRON Corsair i. ii, Gaze 
where some distant sail a speck supplies, With all the thirst- 
ing eye of Enterprise. 1840 R. H. DANA B?f. Mast ii, Her 
decks were filled with passengers who had come up at the 
cry of 'Sail ho ! ' 

5. An apparatus (consisting formerly of a sheet 
of canvas stretched on a frame, now usually of an 
arrangement of boards) attached to each of the 
arms of a windmill for the purpose of presenting a 
surface to be acted on by the wind. Also (wind- 
mill) sails collectively,surface presented by the sails. 

4:1440 Promp. Parv. 65/1 Ceyle of a schyppe, or mylle, 
velum, carbastts. 1589 R. HARVEY Plain Perc. (1590) 3 The 
clacke of thy mill is. .noisome.., thou hast wind at will to 
thy sniles. 1688 R. HOLME Armoury nr. 340/2 The parts 
of a Wind-Mill... The Sail or Wind end. AZ7poB.. Diet. 
Cant. Crew, Sails t Hawk's Wings; also Windmill-wings. 
1759 SMEATON in Phil. Trans. LI. 161 The velocity of the 
extremities of Dutch sails,. .are considerably quicker than 
the velocity of the wind. 1825 J. NICHOLSON Operat. Me- 
chanic 122 Into these arms are mortised several small cross- 
bars, and to them are fastened two, three, or four, long bars, that the bars intersect each other, and form a kind of 
lattice work, on which a cloth is spread to receive the action 
of wind. These are called the sails. 1845 Encycl. Metrop. 
VIII. 131/2 There are usually four states in which it can 
be set accoiding to the velocity of the wind.. which are 
termed full sail, quarter reef t sword point ^ and dagger 
Point. 1868 Chantb, Encycl. X. 218/1 The amount of sail 
that a windmill can carry with advantage is limited, a 1887 
JEFFERIES Field <J- Hedgerow (1889) 86 One day pussy was 
ingeniously examining the machinery [of a windmill], when 
the wind suddenly rose, the sails revolved, and she was 
ground up. 1888 Encycl. Brit. XXIV. 599/2 American 
windmiltLtftkn sails consist of narrow boards or slats 
arranged radially. 

6. Zool. a. The large dorsal fin of the sail-fish. 
b. One of the two large tentacles of the Nautilus, 
formerly believed to be used as sails. 

1817 SHELLEY Rev. Islam vii, xxvi, A Nautilus upon the 
fountain played, Spreading his azure sail. 1822 RAFFLES 
Let. 30 Nov. in Lady Raffles Mem. (1830) 526 The only 
amusing discovery which we have recently made is that of 
a sailing fish, . . I have sent a set of the sails home. 1840 
Penny Cycl. XVII. 210/2 The first two arms (of the Argo- 
naut] are more robust than the others, and should be so, be- 
cause they serve as masts to support the sails, which, spread 
out, act before the wind as such. 1860 Chtimb, Encycl. I- 
390/1 The descriptions, .of argonauts, .employing t-jx of 
their tentacula as oars, and spreading out two. .as sails to 
. catch the breeze, are now regarded as entirely fabulous. 

7. S. Africa. A tarpaulin or canvas sheet for 
covering a wagon. 

1850 R. G. CUMMING Hunter's Life S. Afr. (ed. 2) I. 220, 
I covered my waggon with new sails. 1891 OLIVE SCHREINER 
African Farm n. xii, He drew the sails down before and 
behind, and the wagon rolled away slowly. 

8. Naut. and Mining. A funnel-shaped bag or 
orifice on the deck of a vessel or on the ground 
over mine-galleries, for the purpose of ventilation. 

1874 J. H. COLLINS Metal Mining (1875) 117 In Cornwall 
. . the writer has seen a zinc rain-water pipe . . with a miner's 
jacket extended by wires at the top for a 'cap-head' or 
4 sail '. 1875 in KNIGHT Diet. Meek, 

9. Obvious combinations, a. simple attrib., as 
sail canvas, drill, pulley, f -rope, sewing-machine, 
-spread ; b. objective, as sail-carrying, furler t 
-keeper, looser, -making, sewer, sewing, trimmer] 
also sail-bearing, 'filling adjs. ; o. instrumental, as 
sail-assisted, -dotted, -propelled ; d, similative, as 
sail-broad^ -stretched adjs. 


1593 NASHE Uttfort. Trav. (1594) G 2 b, As the Estrich 
hath a sharps goad orpricke wherewith he spurreth himselfe 

.... r '1894 Outing (U. S.) XXIV. 21/1 To g: 

bility [in a canoe] for sail-carrying. 1898 KIPLING in Morn, 
fast 9 Nov. s/i The little strip of 'sail-dotted blue. 1886 
Pali Mail G. 17 Sept. n/i While at 'sail drill an ordinary 
seaman, .fell., on to the upper deck. 1887 MORRIS Ottyss. xi. 
8 A goodly breeze *sail-fillmg. c 1860 H. STUART Seaman s 

will go aloft at the order ' bend sails '. 1797 Encycl. Brit. 

ngs and "saile pullies. cixos LAV. 17395 
5e mote uaste heom wriSen mid strongen "seil-rapen. c 1475 
Pict. Voc. in Wr.-Willcker 805/7 Hie nidens, . . a seyllerope. 
1513 Ace. Ld. High Trcas. Scot. IV. 471 Item, to iij "saill 
sewaiis for iij wolkis wagis, 1884 KNTGHT Diet. Mech. 
Suppl. , *SailSewine? Machine, a large-si/ed sewing machine 
with extensive table for sewing widths of duck to form sails. 
1886 Encycl. Brit. XXI. 823/2 In determining what 'sail- 
spread can be safely given to a ship. 1623 MASSIXGER 
Bondman i. iii, O're our heads with "sayle stretch'd wings, 
Destruction houers. ciSioAo.M. PATTON in igthCi'nt. Nov. 
(1899) 724 0fc, "Sail trimmers'were immediately sent to clear 
the sail. 

1O. Special Comb. : sail-arm, (a) one of the 
radiating beams to which the sails of a windmill 
are attached ; a ' whip * ; (<5) one of the tentacles 
of a nautilus which bear the 'sails'; sail-axle, 
the axle on which the sails of a windmill revolve ; 
sail-boat (?rare), a sailing-boat; fsail-bond, 
(? error for -bonef) = BONNET sb? (cf. quot. 1483 
there) ; sail-burton (see quot.) ; sail-duck [a. 
Du. teildoek] - DUCK rf.3 i ; f sail-fan, a species of 
fan used in winnowing corn ; sail-fluke, the whiff, 
Rhombus megasloma ; sail-hook, a small hook for 
holding the seams of a sail while it is being sewn ; 
sail-hoop, one of the wooden rings by which fore 
and aft sails are secured to masts and stays (Knight 
Diet. Mech. 1875); sail-house, a house where 
sails are stored ; sail-lizard (see quot.) ; sail-loft 
(see quot. 1769) ; sail-maker, one whose business 
it is to make, repair, or alter sails ; spec., on board 
ship, a sailor (in the U. S. navy, a warrant officer) 
whose duty it is to take charge of and keep in 
repair all sails, awnings, etc. ; sail-needle, a large 
needle used in sewing canvas ; sail-room, a room 
(in a ship) for storing sails ; sail-shell, a name 
for the nautilus ; sail-ship, a sailing-vessel ; sail- 
swelled a., having filled sails; sail thread, 
twine, thread or twine used in sewing sails ; f sail 
wand, one of the rods forming the framework 
of a windmill sail; sail- winged a., poet, [after L. 
vclivolus}, (a) of ships, having sails that serve as 
wings ; (b) traits/, as an epithet of the sea ; (c) 
having wings like sails. 

1760 J. FERGUSON Led. (1764) 52 The same velocity that 
it would move if put upon the "sail-arms. 1840 Penny Cycl. 
XVII. 210/2 In fact, the series of suckers of the sail-arms, 
when the membrane of the sails is wrapped about the shell, 
is placed exactly over the keel of it in such a manner 
that [etc.]. 1868 Chamb. Encycl. X. 218/1 A whip or radius 
of from 33 to 40 feet in length, firmly fastened at right 
angles to the "sail-axle. 111835 MRS. HE.MANS in H. F. 
Chorlcy Mem. (1837) II. 17 Neither steam-packet nor "sail- 
boat was attainable. 1888 F. M. CRAWFORD With Im- 
mortals II. 129 The happiest moments of my life ? I think 
they were spent in a sail-boat, c 1475 Pict. Voc. in Wr.- 
Wiilcker 805/8 Hec supera, -cris, a 'seyllebonde. 1867 
SMYTH Sailor's Word-bk., 'Sail burton, a purchase extend- 
ing from topmast-head to deck, for sending sails aloft ready 
for bending. 1795 Scots Mag: LVII. 610/1 "Sail-duck 
manufacturer. i8iz J. SMVTH Pract. ofCustotns(\foi) 145 
Sail Duck. 1707 MORTIMEK Husk. 112 Four Men with 
either the Wicker or "Sail-fan. 1882 TENISON-WOODS Fish 
<V fisheries N. S. Wales 190 'Sail-fluke. 1886 R. C. LESLIE 
Sea-painter's Log x. 104 ft is said.. the sail-fluke gets its 
name from a habit of. .lifting its tail out of water like a sail, 
running before the wind into shallow water. 1794 Ripping 
* Seamanship I. 88 "Sail-hook. 1886 Encycl. Brit. XXI. 
'55/1 The tools, .of asailmaker are. .fids,, .sail-hook, bobbin 
for twine, and sundry small articles. 1884 St. James's Gaz. 
22 Feb. 7/1 It is apparently the inside of a "sail-house at a 
fishing-port. 1885 Standard Nat. Hist. (1888) III. 413 The 

sail-lizard, Histiiiriis amboinensis, so called from the enor- 
mous perpendicular development surmounting its tail. 1769 
IALCONER Did. Marine n. (1780), Voilerie, a "sail-loft, or 
place where sails are constructed. 1891 Leeds Mercury 
9 Oct. 4/4 Dr. Hurst.. traced the history of Methodism in 
America from the first meeting held in a sail-loft in New 
o 'u' 7 - 76 to the P r Kn' day. 1596 SHAKS. Tarn. Shr. 
v. i. 80 He is a "saile-maker in Bergano. 1773 Cook's ist Voy. 
in. xii. in Hawkesmorth's Voy. III.722Every individual had 
been sick except the sail maker. 1497 Naval Ace. Hen. VII 
(1896) 297 'Sayle Nedylles price the c xij*. 1769 FALCONER 
Diet. Marine Uu ij b, Sail-needles, or bolt-rope needles. 
1851 H. MELVILLE Whale xxii, The sail-needles are in the 
green locker. 1805 Shifrvright's Vade-.M. 126 "Sail-Rooms 
are built between decks upon the orlop or lower deck to 
contain the spare sails. 1905 A. R. WALLACE My Life I. 


FULLER At Home <y Abr. (1860) 438 It went into the mail- 
bag of some *sail-ship, instead of steamer. i6ooTouRNEUR 
Transf. Metam. In, As "sail-swel'd barks are droue by 
wind. 1513 Ace. Ld. High Treas. Scot. IV. 471 Item, for 
xliiij li *saill threid. .xlviijs. 1486 Naval Ace. Hen. I'll 
(1896) 13, vj skaynes of ''Saile Twyne. 1497 Ibid. 185, 
c weyght seyle twyne xxxiij* iiij d . c 1860 H. STUART Sea- 
mati's Catech. 52 Sails are sewn with sail twine. 1342-3 
Durham Ace. Rolls (Surtees) 543 In_*Saylwandis emp. et 
aliis reparac. factis in molend. de Hesilden xxinj s. c 1586 
C'TESS PEMBROKE Ps. civ. xi, There the *saile-winged shipps 
on waves doe glide. 1641 MILTON Ch. Govt, \\. Wks. 1851 
III. 180 They should make it their Knightly adventure to. . 
vanquish this mighty saile wing'd monster. 1855 SINGLETON 
/ 'irgil I. 236 Gazing down Upon the sail-winged ocean. 
Sail (s^l), sb.- [f. SAIL vl] 

1. An act of sailing ; a voyage or excursion in a 
sailing vessel. 

1604 SHAKS. Oth. v. n. 268 Heere is my butt And verie Sea- 
mark e of my vtmost Saile. a. 1619 FOTHKRBY Atheom, i. ii. 
-2 (1622) 12 Where in the Lawes broad Sea, with wind and 
tyde, Ther's happier saile, then any where beside. 1663 
GERBIER Counsel 109 Six weeks sail from England. 1748 
Anson s I'oy. \\. vi. 195 We made an easy sail for the bay. 
1807-8 SVD. SMITH riytley\s Lett. Wks. 1859 II. 163/2 The 
nearest of these harbours is not two days' sail from the 
southern coast of Ireland. 1853 W. IRVING in Life $ Lett. 
(1864) IV. 157 We went byway of the lakes, and had a 
magnificent sail (if I may use the word) down Lake Cham- 
plain in a steamer to Plattsburg. 1859 JEPHSON Brittany 
xii. 212 We had a delightful sail among the numerous islets. 
1868 G. DUFF Pol. Snrr. 99 Hiogo and Kobe, .are situated 
upon two bays of the inland sea, about 365 miles 1 sail from 
Yokohama. 1884 Times (weekly ed.) 29 Aug. 14/1 The day 
was beautiful and the sail was delightful. 

b. tratisf. (Sc. and Irish.} A ride in a vehicle of 
any kind. 

1830 GALT Laivrie T. vi. viil, I thought it my duty to 
take a sail in our wagon with Mr. Herbert, 1902 Bally- 
itiena Observer QL. D. D.), Wull ye gie me a sail in the kert ? 

c. To takt $ail\ to embark. 

1904 Wtstm. Gaz. 10 May S/i He took sail in the capacity 
of a cabin-boy in a vessel bound for New Orleans. 

2. 1 nonce-itses. A number sailing : a. of ships; 
b. of water-birds. 

1608 SHAKS. Per. i. iv. 61 Wee haue descryed vpon our 
neighbouring shore, a portlie saile of ships make hitherward. 
1727 SWIFT Country Post Wks. 1755 III. i. 175 Yesterday 
a large sail of ducks passed by here. 

3. Sailing qualities; speed in sailing. 

I n many contexts hardly to be distinguished from SAIL so.1 
1602 MANSEL True Rep. Service 9 The GalHes being., 
quicker of saile then they. 1615 G. SANDYS Trav. 87 A ship 
of better defence then saile. 1622 R. HAWKINS Voy. S. Sea 
li. 122 Being of better saile then we, and the night comimng 
on, we lost sight of her. a 1642 SIR W. .MONSOS Naval 
Tracts i. (1704.) 179/2 Finding his Ship but ill of Sail. 1643 
Dcclar. Commons, Rcb. Irel. 51 [He] could not take her 
[the ship], because she fled away, and was more swift in sayle 
then he. 1667 MILTON /'. L. vi. 534 Back with speediest 
Sail Zophiel, of Cherubim the swiftest wing, Came flying. 

4. Comb, f sail-star = LODESTAH ; f sail-atone 
[= Du. zeilsteen] ~ LOADSTONE. 

c 1511 \st Eng. Bk. Amcr. (Arb.) Introd. 28/1 That men 
the northe sayle sterre or pollumarticiim, or the waghen 
called, no more may be seen. 1595 DUNCAN App. Eiym. 
(E. D. S.), Magnes, the adamant, the saile-stone. 1683 
PETTUS FletaMin. i. (1686) 320 The Magnet is also called 
the Sail stone, for the Sailors look upon it as their Chief 


pat he may nou;t saile swift li as he wold. 1375 BARBOUR 
Bruce xx. 322 A lang way furthwarde salyt he. ^1386 
CHAUCER Prioress* Prol. 2 Now Ipnge moote thou saiIle*Dy 
the cost. Sire gentil maister gentil Maryneer ! 1387 TRE- 
yisA Higdcn (Rolls) VI, 163 Egbertus |?e monk..hadde 

150 MA 

,^- 3 Arch. Obs. [app. f. SAIL v.% (sense 3). 
Cf. the synonymous F. saillie^ f. saillir to project.] 
Amount of projection from a surface. Also Comb. 
sail-over = OVEBSAIL sb. 

1611 COTGRAVE, s.v. Couronne^ The Corona, crowne, or 
member of greatest sayle, in a Cornish. 1660 H. BLOOME 
Archit. A, Projectura^ the sayle of every moulding. 1812 
P. NICHOLSON Mech,Exerc. 267 Sail over, is the overhanging 
of oneor more courses [of bricks] beyond the naked of the wall. 

Sail (srl) f sb dial. [? repr. OE. *sxgei var. of 
sdgol staff: see SOWEL.] (See quot.) 

1813 DAVIS Agric. Wilts in ArchseoL Rev. (1888) Mar., 
Sails, . . upright rods of hurdles used for sheep folding. 1893 
MRS. A. KENNARU Diog. Sandals vi. 90 There are ten 
' sails ' to each ' wattle hurdle '. 

Sail (s^l), f.l Forms: i sislan, sesl(i)an, 3 
sseilien, seili(en, sayli, 3-4 seily, seile, 4 seylle, 
seille, 4-6 sale, (5 ceylyn, seylyn), 5 sayll(e, 
6 saill, 4-7 sayl(e, 3-7 saile, 6-7 sail. [OE. 
siglan, segl(i]an corresponds to MDu. zegkefon t 
zeilen (mod.Du. zeileti)^ MHG. sigelen^ segelen 
(mod.G. segeln], ON. sigla (S\v. scgla, Da. seile] : 
OTeut. type *segljan, f. *seglo m SAIL sd.l 

The Teut. vb. was adopted in OF. as sigler to sail (whence 
siglc a sail) ; an altered form of the same word is believed 
to exist in later OF. singler^ niod.F. cinglcr to sail (in a 
specified direction), whence Sp. singlar, Pg. singlar t \ 
I. Intransitive uses. 

1. Of persons: To travel on water in a vessel 
propelled by the action of the wind upon sails ; 
now often in extended sense, to travel on water in 
a vessel propelled by any means other than oars ; 
to navigate a vessel in a specified direction. 

893 K. ALFRED Oros. i. i. 14*lde 5a east be 
lande. Ibid. iv. x. 10 pa he hamweard sejlde. c 1205 LAV. 
20889 And swa heo scullen wracchen. .sxilien [c 1275 sayli] 
ouer sz. Ibid. 38797 Reo comen Sexisce men seilen to londe. 
c 1320 Sir Tnstr. 1013 pai seylden in to J>e wide WiJ> her 
schippes tvo. 1338 R. BRUNNK Chron. (1810) 236 Now ^ei 
saile and rowe to Wales to Leulyns. 13. . Cursor M. 24833 
(Gott.) Forth bai sailed [MS. Cott. floted] on bat flode, for 
all to will be wind bairn stode. 1 1350 W'HL Pnlerne 2673 

watyr, velifico. ^1470 HENRY Wallace x. 797 Thai saylyt 
furth by part of Ingland schor. 1470-85 MALOKY Arthur 
x. Ixi. 517 Thenne sir palomydes sailed euen longes humber 
to the costes of the see. 1471 CAXTON Recttyell (.Sonimer) 

I. 139 He sayled and rowed vnto the cyte. 1530 PALSGR. 
696/2, I loue nat to sayle by see, but when I can nat chose. 
1565 Reg.^Privy Council Scot. I. 333 That nane saill in 
niarchandice without he be honestlie abelyeit lyk ane mar- 
chand. 1585 1'. WASHINGTON tr. Nicholay^s oy. \. ii. 2 b, 
We sayled along. .towardesthe..capeDecreo. 1590 SHAKS. 
Com. Err. i. i. 63 A league from Epidamium had we saild. 
a 1691 BOYLE Hist. Air (1692) 201 An observing man, that 
had sailed to and fro between Europe and the East Indies, 
1712 ADDISON Spect. No. 489 P i A troubled Ocean, to a 
Man who sails upon it, is, I think, the biggest Object that 
he can see in Motion. 1798 COLERIDGE Anc. Mar. v. xix, 
Till noon we quietly sailed on, Yet never a breeze did 
breathe. 1830 TENNYSON Sea-2''airies i Slow sail'd the 
weary mariners. 1836 W. IK\\^G Astoria I. 41 [They] sail 
down that river to its supposed exit near the straits of An- 
nian. 1860 G. BENNETT Gatherings Naturalist Austral. 
425 We sailed, .one day 191 miles, another 225 miles. 

fig. CI374 CHAUCER Troy Ins i. 606 Loue..Wi}> dessespeir 
so sorwfully me offendeth pat streght vn-to f>e deth myn 
herte saileth. 1551 HADDON Exhort. Repent, in Furniv. 
Ballads fr. MSS. I. 324 But .Iv. yere after, it [the plague] 
sayled into Flaunders. 1623 A. TAYLOR in Farr S. P. 
Jas. I (1847) 20 3 ' spent my dayes in sorrow for thy good, 
I sayl'd to th 1 cradle in teares, to the graue in blood. 

b. spec. To make excursions in, or to manage, a 
sailing-boat ; to practise the sport of yachting. 

1898 Daily News 30 Aug. 4/5 She is devoted to sports and 
outdoor exercises.. .She boats and sails. 

C. In figurative context. Chiefly in proverbial 
phrases : f To sail all in one ship^ to ' row in the 
same boat*, to belong to one party or class; f to 
sail on another board (see BOAKD sb. 15); to sail 
near (or close to} the wind, to come very near to 
transgression of a law or a received moral principle. 
1589 R. HARVEY PI. Perc. (1590) 7 You be all of one 
Church, saile all in one ship. 1608 D. T[UVIL] Ess. Pol. fy 
Mor. 123 They will alwaies saile by the Carde and Com- 
passe of their own mind. 1823 BYRON Juan ix. xxvi, My 
words, at least, are more sincere and hearty Than if I sought 
to sail before the wind. 1865 H. KINGSLEY Hillyars # B. 
iv, A certain kind of young English gentleman, who has 
sailed too close to the wind at home, and who comes to the 
colony to be whitewashed. 1883 \V. E. NORRIS Thirlby 
Hall viii, With regard to Turf transactions again, he may 
sail very near the wind indeed, and be pardoned. 

f d. quasi-r^/?. Obs. 

1640 tr. Verdere's Rom. oj Rom. in. xxviii. 116 Away 
they sayled them, as they hoped with a prosperous wind. 

2. Of a ship or other vessel : To move or travel 
on water by means of sails, or (in modern use) by 
means of steam or any other mechanical agency. 

c 1205 LAY. 25525 per comen seilien sone jeond ba sat wide 
scipes uniuo^e. c 1350 Will. Paler ne 567, I sayle now in |>e 
see as schip boute mast, boute anker or ore. 1375 BARBOUR 
Bruce xix. 193 Marchand-schippis that saland war Fra 
Scotland to Flandriss with war. 1384 CHAUCER //. Fame 

II. 395 And behelde. .shippis seyllynge in the see. 1400 
MAUNUEV. (1839) xxx. 305 It rennethe in so grete Wawes, 
that no Schipp may not rowe ne seyle azenes it. 1500-20 
DUNDAR AwwbcJCXvfil. 29 Where many a barge doth saile, 
and row with are. 1530 PALSGR. 696/2, I sayle, as a shyppe 
doth in the see whan she is under sayle, yV single. ..Some 
shyppe wyll sayle as faste with a syde wynde as some wyll 
with a full wynde. 1535 COVER DALE l&a. xxxiii. 21 In that 
place, .shal nether GaTlye rowe, ner greate shippe sale. 1606 
SHAKS. Tr. <$ Cr. n. iii. 277 (Qo.) Light boates saile swift, 
though greater hulkes draw deepe. 1687 A. LOVELL tr. 
Theiwtofs Ttav. 1. 1 10 These Saiques . . carry great Cargoes 
of Goods, but they sail not fast, unless they be before the 
Wind, or rather they sail no otherwise, for they cannot go 
upon a Wind. 1734 POPE Ess. Man iv. 385 Say, shall my 
little bark attendant sail, Pursue the triumph, and partake 
the gale? 1785 J. PHILLIPS Treat. Inland Navig. 34 The 
vessels.. are built so as to sail either end foremost, by re- 
moving the rudder. 1797 Encycl. Brit. (ed. 3) XVII. 376/2 
It would be an easy matter to determine the form of a ship 
intended to sail by means of oars. 1828 J. H. MOORE Pract. 
Xavig. (ed. 20) 60 A ship from the Lizard, in lat. 49 58' N. 
sails S. W. by W. 488 miles. Required the latitude she is in. 
1886 GLADDEN Applied Chr. \. 3 Steamships sail from every 
shore with the contributions of all the continents to the 
world's trade. 

3. To begin a journey by water; to set sail, start 
on a voyage ; to leave the port or the place of 
anchorage. Said both of a vessel and of the persons 
on board. 

burton 2 His costis in Medilburgh bydand quliill the schip 
sallit. 1611 BIBLE Acts xxi. 2 And finding a ship sailing 

ouer vnto Phenicea, wee went abroad, and set foorth. 1777 
Cook's -2nd Voy, i. L I. 5 On the isth, at six o'clock in the 
morning, I sailed from Plymouth Sound. 1802 in W. Selwyn 
L.O.IV Nisi Prias (1817) II. 932, I think the captain will sail 
to-morrow. 1847 C. BRONTE J. Eyre xxxlv, I have taken my 
betth in an East Indiaman which sails on the twentieth of 
June. 1874 WHYTE MELVILLE Uncle John xiii, A friend 
of mine. .met with an accident the very night before the 
steamer sailed. 1891 Law Times XCI. 2/2 The deceased .. 
wrote a letter.. in which he stated that he ought to have 
made his will before sailing. 


f b. Conjugated with to be. Obs. 
1633 Fife Witch Trial\\-\ Statist. Ace. Scotl. (1796) XVII I. 
App. 656 Her husband being newly sailed, she craved some 
money of her. 1764 GOLDSM. Hist. Eng. in Lett. (1772) II. 
84 The fleet of the prince was already sailed. 1776 T. 
HUTCHINSON Diary 20 Jan. II. 8 He says six of the seven 
Regiments at Corke were embarked, and he concludes the 
whole have been sailed some days. 1786 Mas. A. M. BEN- 
NETT Jiivenite Indiscretions V. in Sir James.. was sailed 
for India on an appointment from government. 1787 JKF- 
FEKSON Writ. (1859) H- 2 8i Should the packet be sailed, I 
will pray you to send my letter by the first of the vessels 
which you mention. 

4. transf. To glide on the surface of water or 
through the air, either by the impulsion of wind 
or without any visible effort, 

1377 LANGL. P. PI. B. xvnr. 304 And now I se where a 
soule cometh hiderward seyllynge With glorie & with grete 
li^te. 1592 SHAKS. Rom. $ Jut, n. ii. 32 A winged messenger 
of heauen. . When he bestrides the lazie puffing Cloudes, 
And sailes vpon the bosome of the ayre. 1667 MILTON P. L. 
v. 268 Down thither prone in flight He speeds, and. .Sailes 
between worlds and worlds, with steddie wing. 1697 DRYDKN 
Virg, Georg. i. 529 Swans that sail along the Silver Flood. 
1754 GRAY Poesy 116 Sailing with supreme dominion Thro' 
the azure deep of air. 1804 SCOTT Bards Incant. 34 Mute 
are ye all ? No murmurs strange Upon the midnight bree/e 
sail by. 1820 BYROS Mar. Fal. iv. i. 74 The high moon sails 
upon her beauteous way. 1849 M. ARNOLD Forsaken Mer~ 
man 43 Where great whales come sailing by, Sail and sail, 
with unshut eye, Round the world for ever and aye? 1849 
THACKERAY Pendennis Ixiii, When a man, under pecuniary 
difficulties,, .dives out of sight, as it were, from the flock 
of birds in which he is accustomed to sail. 1865 MATHIAS 
Sport in Himalayas 16, I shot an immense eagle.. as he 
was sailing in fancied security over my head. 1884 Manch. 
Exam. 19 Feb. 5/4 The flowing clouds.. sail over the scene 
of the hay harvest in the Welsh meadow. 1884 Pall filall G. 
12 Aug. 4/1 As for blackcock, .the wary old birds. .sail in 
the open over the moor a hundred yards out of shot. 

b. Of a vehicle : To move smoothly and without 
apparent propelling force. 

1902 C. N. & A. M. WILLIAMSON Lightning Conductor^ 
The car.. looked so handsome as it sailed up to the hotel 
door that my pride in it came back. 

5. Of persons, in various transferred senses. 
fa. slang. To saunter, go casually. Obs. 

a 1700 B. E. Diet. Cant. Crew s.v., How yon Sail about ? 
How VQ.VI Santer about? 1700 T. BROWN Amnsem. Ser. <y 
Com. vni. 121 From thence I sailed into a Presbyterian 
Meeting near Covent-Garden. 

b. To move or go in a stately or dignified man- 
ner, suggestive of the movement of a ship under 
sail. (Chiefly of women.) Ahooccas. of an animal. 

1841 MOTLEY Corr. (1889) I. iv. 84 Stately dailies de la cour 
would sail into the room and sail out again with their long 
trains sweeping after them. 1847 C. BRONTE J. Eyre vii, 
Then all the great people sailed in state from the room. 
1859 G. MEREDITH R. Fevertl xxxviii, A rumour spread 
that reached Mrs. Doria's ears. She rushed to Adrian first. 
; .She sailed down upon Richard. 1860-1 THACKERAY Lovel 
iii. no Lady B. sailed in.,, arrayed in ribbons of scarlet. 
1883 RIDER HAGGARD K. Solomons Mines iv, A troop of 
tall giraffes, who galloped, or rather sailed off, with their 
strange gait. 

c. To sail in (slang): to proceed boldly to action. 
1889 Harper's Mag. Mar. 561/1 A man must dismiss all 

thoughts of . .common-sense when it comes to masquerade 
dresses, and just sail in and make an unmitigated fool of 
himself. 1891 Morn. Advertiser 30 Mar. (Farmer), John 
Harvey called William Tillman a liar 1 50 times, . . and offered 
to lick him 104 times. At the io4th William, .thrashed 
John. The verdict of the jury was that William ought to 
have sailed in an hour and a half earlier. 1894 FISKE 
Holiday Stories (1900) 164 Til tell you the whole affair, if 
you care to listen to it.' ' Sail right in, Colonel,' cried the 

II. Transitive senses. 

6. Of persons, also of a vessel : To sail over or 
upon, to navigate (the sea, a river, etc.). Now 
somewhat arch. 

1382 WYCLIF Ecclus. xliii. 26 Who seilen the see [Vulg. 
gui navigant mare', 1388 The that seilen in the see). ^1500 
Priests of Peebles 204 Then brocht he wol, and wyselie 
couth it wey ; And efter that sone saylit he the sey. a 1555 
LVNDESAY Tragedy 104 Quhowbeit his grace Had salit the 
sey. 1560 ROLLAND Crt. Venus Prol. 146 [To sum] Ingyne 
hes geuin to saill the see. 1604 E. G[RIMSTONE] D'Acostas 
Hist. Indies H. vi. 92 The river of Amazons, .which our 
Spaniards sailed in their discoveries. 1608 SHAKS. Per. iv. 
iv. 2 Thus time we waste, & long leagues make short, Saile 
seas in Cockles, haue and wish but fort, a 1700 DRYDEN 
Ovid's Met. xir. 9 A thousand Ships were man d to sail the 
Sea. 1708 J. PHILIPS Cyder \. 459 Now turn thine Eye to view 
Alcinous' Groves, ..from whence, Sailing the Spaces of the 
boundless Deep, To Ariconium pretious Fruits arriv'd. 1725 
POPE Odyss. v. 354 Far on the left those radiant fires to 
keep The Nymph directed, as he salfd the deep. 1840 
LONGF. Wreck of Hesperus 2 It was the schooner Hesperus 
That sailed the wintry sea. 

fb. To visit (a region) by sailing; to sail along 
(a coast). Obs. 

rt 1548 HALL Chron.) Hen. F/(i55o) 88 This lusty Capitain 
saylyng al the cost of Susseix and Kent, durst not once 
take lande, til he arriued in the dounes. 1594 R. ASHLEY 
tr. Lays le Roy 123 b, In ancient times the North was sailed 
by the commandement of Avgvstvs. 

7. With cognate object : *f To perform (a voyage, 
etc.) by sailing (obs.\ Also To sail through , out: 
to continue (a sailing-match, race), to the end. 

^1386 CHAUCER Frankl. T. 123 Where as she many a 
shlpe and barge seigh Seillynge hir cours. 1726 SMELVOCKK 
Yoy. round World Pref. 5 Such as may never have an 
occasion or inclination to sail such long Voyages. 1886 
Field 4 Sept. 364/2 The match [for yachts] could not be 


sailed through before the close time, 6.30. 1899 Daily News 
29 Sept. 3/2 The uninjured vessel shall sail out the race. 
b. To * sail * or glide through (the air). 

1725 PovEOtfyss. 1. 126 Sublime she sails Th' aerial space, 
and mounts the winged gales. 1765 BEATTIE To Churchill 
34 He soars Pindaric heights, and sails the waste of Heaven. 
1899 Daily Nc'ivszd June 8/3 The buzzard, .is a fine-looking 
figure, as on broad wings he slowly sails the sky. 

8. To navigate (a ship or other vessel). 
t 1566 Act 8 Elie, in Haklnyfs I'oy. (1599) I. 371 But onely 
in English ships and sailed for the most part with English 
Mariners. 1675 Land. Cm. No. 1024/1 She had on board 
about 80 or go Negroes, and was sailed by Greeks. 1848 
J. F. COOPER Capt. Spike III. 207 The Poughkeepsie was 
admirably sailed and handled. 1888 LOWELL Heartsease <$ 
Rue 177 He's a Rip van Winkle skipper,, .who sails his 
bedevilled old clipper In the wind's eye, straight as a bee. 
a 1890 R. W. CHURCH Oxford Movement iii. (1891) 35 He 
[R. H. Froude] loved the sea ; he liked to sail his own boat. 
1908 Westm. Gaz. 28 Mar. 3/1 We were rowed and sailed 
by an amusing.. ex-sailor. 

b. To put (a toy boat) on the water and direct 
its course. 

1863 HAWTHORNE Our Old Home I. 270 Schoolboys sail 
little boats on the river or play at marbles. 

f9. To cause to sail, carry away sailing. Obs. 

16.. Balow in Lanchaafs Let. (1871) p. clxxi, Till from 
myne eyes a sea sail flow, To saile my soule from mortall 
woe To that immortall mirtall shore. 

f 10. With adv. To sail down ; to bring (an 
object) below the horizon by sailing away from it. 

1847 A. M. GILLIAM Trav. Mexico 276 We at once deter- 
mined to sit up all night, to watch that the steersman would 
not sail the light down. We were induced to do so for. .the 
night previous. .he saw a light-house,. .and steered from 
the object. 

fll. To provide with sails. Obs. 

1600 HAKLUYT I'oy. III. 862 It is ordeined that the shippes 
liaue double sailes, that is, that they bee thorowly sayled, 
and all newe sayles [etc.], 

t Sail, v. 2 Obs. Forms : 4 sail, sayly, 4-5 
saile, sayle, 4-6 saill^e, sale, saylle. See also 
SAILYIE v. (Sc.) [Aphctic form of ASSAIL v.~\ 

1. trans. ASSAIL v. in various senses. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 9654 Ne he mai scap, ga quar he ga, J?at 
him ne sailles ai his fa. Ibid. 24846 pe see bam sailed on 
ilk side. 13. . Guy Warw. (A.) 4134 When be dragon seye 
com Gij pe lyoun he forlett, & gan him sayly. ^1375 Sc. 
Leg. Saints xxxii. (Instin) 395 pane, tholaud god, byre be 
can saile with felone feuere gret trawale. a 1400-50 
Alexander 5559 pai sett in a sadd sowme & sailid his 
knifes. 1460 T&wncley Myst. xx. 506 The feynd ful fast 
salys you, In wan-hope to gar you fall. 1535 STEWART Cron. 
Scot. (Rolls) I. 342 That cruel! cald lies saillit him so soir. 

2. absol. quasi-/?///'. To make an assault. 

1:1330 R. BRUNNE Chron. IVace (Rolls) 4364 When alle 
were set in ylka bataille, & schept . . whilk of bam suld 
formast saile. c 1400 A* om. Rose 7338 Than was ther nought, 
but 'Every man Now to assaut, that sailen can'. 1470 
HENRY Wallace xi. 414 ' Falowis',he said, 'agayn all at this 
place Thai will nocht saill '. 

Hence f Sal-ling vbl. sb.% 

13.. K. Alis. 7392 Aither gan so areche, With 'saylyng, 
and with smytyng. c 1330 Artk. fy Merl. 8257 In be first 
of bat seylinge pai slowen michel heben genge. 1426 LYDG, 
De Guil. Pilgr. 24206, I [Sekenesse] overthrowe hir \sc. 
H el the] ageyn, ..And, ne were that medicyne Ys cause that 
she doth releve, My sayllyng shold hir often greve. 

t Sail, z'- 3 Obs. Forms : 3-4 sayle, 4 saile, 
saille, sailly ; also (sense 3) 7 sailie. [a. OF. sail- 
lir to dance, also as in mod.Fr. to issue forth, sally, 
to project = Pr. satir, salhir to dance, issue forth, 
Sp. salir^ Pg. sahir to go out, It. salire to ascend : 
L. salire (pres. ind. sa/io) to leap. Cf. SALLY z>. 2 ] 

1. intr. To dance. 

1297 R. GLOUC. (Rolls) 5633 Vor be deuel com biuore him 
& hoppede & lou & saylede & pleyde & made ioye ynou. 
1377 LANGL. P. PL B. xin. 233, I can..noyther sailly ne 
saute, ne synge with be gyterne. 

2. To issue forth, sally. 

1583 STOCKER Civ. Warres Lowe C, in. 93 The Souldiers 
of the Towne, sayling out, chased the Enemy. 

3. Arch. To project from a surface. To sail 
over = OVEBSAIL v. 

1563 SHUTK ^rfA/V. Civ b, The Proiectures be like vnto 
their neightes but that Corona, doth sayle ouer twise his 
height. 1664 EVELYN tr. Frearfs Archit. 138 That part of 
Corona which sallies over. 

Sail, variant of SEAL ; obs. form of SALE. 
Bailable (si^lab'l), a. Now rare or 0/>s. [f. 
SAIL v. 1 + -ABLE.] 

1. Of a ship, etc. : That can be sailed or navi- 
gated ; that is in a condition to sail. 

1655 Mug. WORCESTER Cent. Inv. 16 How to make a 
Sea-castle or Fortification Cannon-proof, .yet sailable at 
pleasure. 1698 LANGFORD in Phil. Trans. XX. 410 If a Man 
keeps his Ship sailable. 

2. Of the sea, a river, etc. : That can be sailed 
on, navigable. 

1555 W. WATREMAN Fardle Facions n. ix. 196 The Ger- 
rites.. dwell vpon the floude Boristhenes, about the place 
wher it becometh first saileable. 1611 COTGK., Navigable^ 
nauigable, sailable, passable by shipping. 1698 FRYER Ace. 
E. India ff P. 56 The River which is Sailable round to 

Sailage (s^-led*,), sb. [f. SAIL sbl + -AGE.] 
1. The speed of a ship under sail. ? Obs. 
1632 LITHGOW Trav. v. 181 Pirats..gaue vs diuers assaults 
to their owne disaduantages J our saylage being swifter. 


2. The sails of a ship collectively. Also transf. 

1889 Pall Mall G. 20 June 3/1 The machinery will.. 
enable the vessel to go to sea without any sailage. 1904 
Harper's Mag. May 907/1 The filaments that buoy her 
[the spider] up and give sailage surface to the wind. 

Sailcloth (s^'lklfty). [f. SAIL j.i + CLOTH sb.] 

f 1. A piece of cloth forming or designed to form 
part of a sail of a vessel or a windmill. Obs. 

c 1205 LAY. 4549 Sulkenewesbatseil-cla2<5. 1351-2 Durham 
Ace. Rolls (Surtees) 553 Et in Saylclathis empt. pro molend. 
de Fery, 5$. 1455-6 Ibid, 191 In reparacionibus factis circa 
molend. ventriticum de Hemmgb. viz. in newe sayl clas, 
i^s.-jd. i56aBuLLEYN5^. Simples(i5-]$2j The sayle clot hes, 
the shroudes,. .can not be made without it [Hempe], 1598 
HAKLUYT Yoy. I. 163 Whatsoeuer sale-clothes are.. to bee 
transported out of England into Prussia by the English mar- 
chants., whether they be whole cloathes or halfe cloalhes, 
they must containe both their endes. 1888 Encyci. Brit. 
XXIV. 599/1 Sometimes the sails [of a windmill] consisted 
of a sail-cloth spread on a framework. 

2. Canvas or other textile material such as is 
used for sails. 

1615 THOMAS Lai. Diet., LittfgtHus t ,,& maker of sale 
cloathes and other necessaries of linnen. 1626 CAPT. SMITH 
Accid. Yng. Seamen (Arb.J 7^0 The Boteswaine is to haue 
the charge of all the Cordage, . .sailes,,. saile-cloth [etc.]. 
1691 T. HfALt:] Ace. Ne~v Indent. 118 Sail-death, Cables, 
and all other sorts of Cordage. 1753 HANVVAV Trav* (1762) 
I. in. xxv. 1 08 Sail-cloth he made of cotton. 

attrih. 1806 Gazetteer Scotl. (ed. 2) 3 The sail-cloth manu- 
facture produced nearly as much. 1812 Examiner 31 Aug. 
553/2 Sail-cloth-manufacturer. 1899 Atlantic ftlontkly Aug. 
197/1 There 1 hung up my sailcloth cap. 

b. A piece of this material used as a covering. 

1778 [W. MARSHALL] Minutes Agric. 27 July an. 1774, The 
Sail-cloth saved the flat stack surprisingly. 1796 MORSE 
Amer. Geog. II. 411 Protected from the sun by sail-cloths, 
hung across from the opposite houses. 1804 A ntia Swartfs 
Lett. (1811) VI. 203 The shelving roof is also painted green, 
the floor a mosaic sale-cloth. 

3. A similar material used for ladies' dresses. 
1902 Daily Chron. 24 May 3/3 Optimists are-ordermg 

linen dresses now, and sail cloth is in request, a coarse flax 
fabric that is serviceable and smart. 

Sailed (s^Id), a. [f. SAIL sbl -f -ED2. 
but cf. OE. gesegled ppl. a. in ^esegled scip Sal. & Sat. 
(Gr.) 325.3 

Of a vessel : Fitted with sails. Chiefly in para- 

c 1611 CHAPMAN 7/fVu/ XIX. 335 Prostrated, in most extreme 
ill fare, He lies before his high-sail'd fleet, for his dead 
friend. .71628 F. GREVIL Sidney (1652) 221 Her Fleet 
could hardly be over sailed, or under ballasted. 1725 DE 
FOE I'oy. round World (i%4Q) 100 A great heavy boat which 
seemed to have been a large ships longboat, built into a 
kind of yacht, but ill masted, and sailed heavily. 1832 
TENNYSON Eleanore iv, How may full-sail'd verse express, 
..The full-flowing harmony Of thy swan-like stateliness? 
1892 Black <y White 25 June 805/2 Sailed boats lay to be 
loaded. 1900 ll'estm. Gaz. 16 Aug. 3/2 White-sailed yachts. 

Sailer (st'Hai). Also 6 salar, saler, sayler. 
[f. SAIL v.i + -ER l. Cf. G. segler sailor, sailer, 
>u. zeiler^ Sw. seglare. Da. setter, 

See SAILOR, a variant spelling of this word, now restricted 
to a specific application and regarded as a distinct word.] 

1, One who sails. Now rare. 

a 1400-50 Alexander 4359 We ere na sailers on be see to 
sell ne to byi. '1400 Destr. Troy 4589 All softe was the 
see to sailers berin. 1513 DOUGLAS &neis \. iii. 43 On the 
huge deip quhen [ w/iecn, few] salaris did appear [Virg. 
adparent rari nantes in gurgite vasto]. 

fb. = SAILOR i. Obs. 

15. . Sir A . Barton in Surtees Misc. (1888)64 The best salers 
in Christentie ! 1585!'. WASHINGTON tr. Nicholay's Voy. n. i. 
31 b, Cape S. Ange, very dangerous for saylers. 1603 CAMDEN 
Rein, i Furnished with shipping and Saylers. 

fc. The Nautilus; = SAILOR 3 a. Obs. 

1668 CHARLETON Onomast. 178 Nautilus . ,\b& Nautilus, 
or Sailer. 17x3 PETIVER Aquat. Anim. Amboiny Tab. x, 
Nautilus tennis fy qf&6wM**GraBt brittle Sayler. 

2. A ship or vessel with reference to her powers 
of sailing. 

1582 N. LICHEFIELD tr. Castanhedcfs Cong. E. Ind. \. 
xlix. 106 For that theyr ships were great saylers. 1624 
CAPT. SMITH Virginia v. 185 A small Barke, but an excel- 
lent sailer. 17*5 DE FOE I'oy. round World, (1840) 69 A 
very strong tight ship, and a pretty good sailer. 1820 
SCORESBY Ace. Arctic Reg. II. 338 The fastest sailers lead 
the way. 1891 J. WINSOH Columbus xix. 438 His excuse 
was that his principal caravel was a poor sailer. 
b. A sailing vessel. 

1871 R. ELLIS Catullus Ixiv. 11 That first sailer of all [i.e. 
Argo] burst ever on Amphitrite. 1883 Chamb. Jml. 35 A 
Steamer costs much more than a Sailer. io_o8 igM Cent. 
Aug. 235 Wooden sailers were superseded by iron creatures 
of the engineer. 

Sailf, obs. Sc. form of SAFE. 

Sai'l-fisli. A name applied to various fishes 
having a large dorsal fin : in the British Isles to the 
Basking shark, Selachus maximus ; in the U, S. to 
species of Histiophorus, Xiphias, and Carpiodes. 

1591 SYLVESTER Du Bartas i. v. 381 marg.. The sayle- 
Fish. 1808 KOKSYTH Beauties Scotl. V. 356 The sail-fish, 
or, as it is called by the Scottish fishermen, the basking 
shark, frequently appears here [Northern Sea] in May or 
June. [1860 G. BENNETT Gatherings Naturalist Austral. 
24 Histtophorits, called, .by the Dutch Zeyl*fis.k, or ' Sail- 
fish ', because it is said that it raises the dorsal fin like a fan 
and employs it as a sail.] 1879 GOODE, etc. Catal. Anim. 
Resources U.S. 39 Histiophorns americanus.. .Sail-fish. 
1882 TEN i SON-WOODS Fish $ Fisheries N. S. Waifs 190 
Sail-fish. Carpiodes. N. America. 


tSarlfol. Obs. rare. [f. SAIL rf.l 
Enough of wind to fill the sails. 

1650 W. BROUGH Sacr. Princ. (1659) 486 Some points of 
wind mayserve to make the way, every ship hath not sail-ful. 

Sailie, var. SAIL v.3 Obs., to project. 

Sailing (s/i-lin), vbl. rf.i [f. SAIL v.i + -ING '.] 

1. The action of travelling on water in a ship or 
other vessel which is propelled by means of sails ; 
the action or method of directing the course of 
such a vessel. In modern use also in wider ap- 
plication : the action of travelling in or of direct- 
ing the course of a ship or vessel of any kind. 

For circular, globular, oblique, parallel sailing, see those 
words. Great circle sailing, see CIRCLE sb. 2 b. See also 

9oo tr. Bxda's Hist. v. i. (Cambr. Univ. MS.), Swa reSe 
stormas coman baet we [ne] mid seglinge _ne mid rownesse 
[L. neque "veto netjue remigio\ owiht fremian mihte. c 133 
R. BRUNNK Chron. (1810) 70 He had redy sailyng. 1387 
TKKVISA Higden (Rolls) IV. 175 pe Roniayns..hadde no 
siker seillynge wib oute ober socour. c 1400 Destr. Troy 
3678 Hor sister to sese, with sailyng bai wend. 1440 
Promp. Pan'. 65/1 Ceylynge, velificacio. 1540 Act 32 


b. In compounds designating vessels propelled 
by sails, as sailing-barge, -boat, -ship, -vessel, -yacht ; 
also sailing-car, -carriage, -chariot, -waggon. 

These combinations admit of being regarded as colloca- 
tions of SAILING///. .* Cf. however rtnving-boat. 

1632 LITHGOW 7 *rav. i. 37 After three dayes sayling..we 
arriued at. .Venice, a 1649 DRUMM. OF HAUTH. Fain. Kf>. 
Wks. (1711) 146 Of all pastimes and exercises I like sail- 
ing worst. 1671 \V. PERWICH Despatches (1903) 136 This 
may not turne to their account, for want of ships and 
cheap sailing. 1704 J. HARRIS Lex. Techn. I, M creator's 
Sailing, is the Art of finding on a Plane trie Motion of 
a Ship upon any assign'd Course. 1748 ^4xu0tt\t Voy. in. 
ix. 391 Provision for their subsistence, during their sailing 
down the river. 1769 FALCONER Diet. Marine (1780) s. v., 
Sailing also implies a particular mode of navigation,. . 
regulated by the laws of trigonometry. 1834 Nat. Philos,, 
Navig. n. iv. 21 (Usef. Knowl. Soc.) This method is called 
middle latitude sailing. 1908 Westm. Gaz. 13 Aug. 5/2 
The four cutters made a splendid start over a course of 
forty-six miles, which will provide a test on all points of 

b. In particularized use : A voyage. 
1535 COVERDALE Actsxxvii. io, I se that this saylinge wyl 
be with hurte and moch dammage. 1665 MANLEY Cretins' 
Low C. IVarres 413 The Frost again approaching, will not 
suffer any Sailings. 

2. Progression, speed or style of progression, of a 
ship or other vessel (originally, of a sailing-vessel). 

a 1687 PETTY Treat. Nav. Philos. 127 How Top-sails 
[etc.], .may be fitted to promote or hinder the Sailing upon 
occasion. 1721 PERRY Daggenh. Breach 115 Ships, more 
especially such as are sharp and built for Sailing. 1797 
Eticycl. Brit. (ed. 3) XVII. 377/2 These are very important 
circumstances, and would contribute much to improve the 
sailing of such vessels. 1836 W. IRVING Astoria III. 135 
A vessel, .remarkable for her fast sailing. 

3. Departure (of a ship) from port. 

1748 Ansott's l'oy.\\, xi, 253 The time fixed by the Viceroy 
for her sailing. 1785 T. HUTCHINSON, jun. m jf\ f/.'s Diary 
9 June II. 418 Hearing there is a vessel upon sailing for 
America [etc.]. 1855 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. xv. III. 60 1 
A fleet of transports was awaiting the signal for sailing. 
1887 Daily Neu's 14 Dec. 2/6 London sailings.. .Dec. 13. 
Tenedos. s, Dunkirk ; Cormorant, s, Boulogne [etc.]. 

4. Comb. a. Simple attrib., as in sailing day, 
instructions^ match. Also f sailing clolh sail- 
ing ware \ sailing-ice (see quot. 1820); sailing- 
line, the line on a vessel's hull which marks the 
level of the water when she is ballasted and rigged 
for sailing, but not laden or armed; sailing- 
master, an officer charged with the navigation 
of a vessel (in British use chiefly with reference to 
yachts ; in the U. S. navy, a commissioned officer, 
usually a lieutenant, appointed to direct the naviga- 
tion of a ship of war) ; sailing orders, the direc- 
tions given to the captain of a vessel with regard 
to time of departure, destination, etc.; sailing 
thwart, the thwart at or through which the mast 
of a sailing-boat is stepped ; sailing ton, the ( ton * 
used in measuring the capacity of sailing vessels; 
t sailing ware, ? cloth suitable for wear at sea. 

X 593 in 3 r <t Rep. Hist. flfSS. Comm. 7/1 'Sailing cloths 
[made in Somerset]. 1879 Yachtmans HolidayfiQ Next 
morning promised a poor ^sailing day. 1890' R. BOLDREWOOD' 
Col. Reformer (1891) 179 When the sailing day comes. .Jack 
must get on board. 1820 SCORESBY Ace. Arctic Reg. I. 229 
Open ice, or *sailing-ice, is where the pieces are so separate 
as to admit of a ship sailing conveniently among them. 1748 
Anson's Voy, i. ii. 15 He delivered them their fighting and 
"sailing instructions, a 1687 PETTY 7'rtat. Naval Philos. \ 25 
Our second Water-line . . I call the *sailing-line, as the first was 
called the launching-Hne. 1836 MARRY AT Three Cittt. i, He on board as 'sailing-master of the yacht. 1871 W. 
COLLINS Miss or Mrs. ? ii, On one side there were the 
sleeping-berths of the sailing master and his mate. 1890 
' R. DOUttWOOD 1 Col. Reformer (1891) 130 Ernest caught 
the sound of some reference to a "sailing match. 1692 
LUTTRELL Brief RtL (1857) II. 545 This day another ex- 
press was sent to the Downes with "sailing orders. 1748 
SMOLLETT Rod. Rand, xxvii, About this time, Captain 
Jakurn, having received sailing orders, came on board. 
1886 Ittustr. Lond. News 6 Feb. 142/1 You [sc. a governess] 

Id me what were your sailing orders from Mrs. Meeburn. 
c 1860 H. STUART Seaman's Cateck. 7 The man on the lee 
side of the "sailing thwart gathers the sail forward. 1898 

758/2 Another contrivance for being carried without draught, 
is by means of a sailing chariot or boat fixed on four wheels. 
1883 S. C. HALL Retrospect II. 302 [They] would be forced 
to cross the channel in a sailing-packet. 1884 KNIGHT Diet. 
Meek.) Supply Sailing Car, a car.. rigged with sail. .used 
on the railroads on the plains, by telegraph repair parties. 
..Sailing chariots were tried in Holland.. more than two 
hundred years since. 1884 Pall Mall G. 16 Oct. 2/1 There 
are still no fewer than 15,000 sailing ships registered jn 
Great Britain. 1886 C. E. PASCOE London of To-day x\\i\. 
(ed. 3) 176 The Thames sailing-barge match is also an event 
to be noticed. 1891 Labour Commission Gloss, s.v. Steam, 
A steam trawler is a fishing vessel, .propelled by means of 
steam power, in centra-distinction to a sailing trawler which 
is propelled by sails only. 
t Sailing, vbL &* : see under SAIL -v.^ 
Sailing (s^-lirj), vbl. $b$ Arch. [f. SAIL 7>.3 
+ -ING 1 .] The condition or fact of projecting 
from a surface; projection. 

1563 SHUTE Archit. B iv b, The proiecture, or saylling out 
or hanging ouer of the foote of the pillor. 1664 EVELYN tr. 
I' rear? $ Archit. it. i. 92 The Modul upon which afterward 
I regulate all the Members as well for their height as sail- 
ings over and projectures of their Profiles. 1718 CHAMBERS 
Cycl. s. v. Projectnre^ These the Greeks call Ecphorae t .. 
the French Sailles,o\\T Workmen frequently Sailings over. 
1842 in GWILT Arc/lit. Gloss. 

Sailing (s^-lin), ///. a. 1 [f. SAIL v. 1 + -ING 2.] 

1. That travels on water by means of sails. (Cf. 
SAILING vbl. sl>. 4 b.) 

1590 SPENSER F. Q. \. \. 8 The sayling Pine ; the Cedar 
proud and tall. 1709 Brit. Apollo II. No. 43. 2/1 To Per- 
sons in a Sailing Ship the Shoar seems to be in motion. 
1855 MACAULAY Hist. ng. xx. IV. 415 A swift sailing 
vessel was instantly despatched to warn Rooke of his danger. 
b. In names of animals. 

1781 PENNANT Hist. Quadrupeds II. 417 Sailing Squirrel. 
1803 SHAW Zoo I. IV. n. 224 Sailing Coryphene. 

2. Spreading out like a full sail. 

13.. Gaw. <$ Gr. Knt. 865 Ryche robes.. pat sete on hym 
semly, wyth saylande skyrtez. 1617 FLETCHER I'alentinian 
n. vi, His fame and family have growne together, And 
spied together like to sayling Cedars, Over the Roman 

Sailing (sHuj). ///. 0.2 Arch. [f. SAIL v.% 
+ -ING 2 . Cf. F. sailfant.] Projecting. Sailing 
course : a projecting course in (usually) the upper 
part of a light-house or other tower-like building. 

37 A 

Sailing courses 

1857 Skyring's Builders' Prices (ed. 47) 73 Sailing coi 
are generally measured in with the work, in which case 
take the length by the width, three or six inches, as it may 
appear quarter brick sailing. 

Saill(e, obs. forms of SAIL. 

Sailless (s^-liles), a. [f. SAIL sbl + -LESS.] 
Having no sails, a. Of a boat, rigging, etc. 

n 1618 SYLVESTER Mem. Mortal, xxv, But, Beauty, Grace- 
lesse, is a Saile-lesse Bark. 1837 Frasers Mag. XVI. 165 
Oarless and sailless sped we. 1895 MARC. STOKES Three 
Months in Forests France 230 The phantom ship, sail-less, 
rudderless, and unmanned. 

b. Of the sea : Destitute of ships, vessels, etc. 


1827 POLLOK Course T. in. (1869) 80 What nights he spent, 
Of tideless, waveless, sailless, shoreless woe ! 1858 LONGF. 
M. Standish m. 37 The disk of the ocean, Sailless, sombre, 
and cold. 1859 WHITTIER Double-headed Snake 15 On the 
desolate shore of a sailless sea. 

t Sai'llie. Arch. Obs. [a. K. saillie, f. saillir 
to project : see SAIL v. s Cf. SAIL st>.3, SALLY s//. 1 ] 
A projecting member. 

1664 EVELYN tr. Frearfs Archit. 124 Beneath the Pro- 
jectures of the Stylobata Cornices and other Saillies. 

Saillour: see SAILOUB Obs. Sailly, var. 

SAIL o.^ 

Sailor (s^Hai). Also 7 saylor. [-A." altered 
spelling of SAILER, prob. assimilated to tailor, in 
order to distinguish the designation of a regular 
calling from the unspecialized agent-noun. The 
differentiation, however, does not appear in our 
early examples, and was not fully established 
before the igth c.] 

1. One who is professionally occupied with navi- 
gation ; a seaman, mariner. Also, in narrower 
sense, applied (like ' seaman ') to a member of a 
ship's company below the rank of officer. 

[13. ., >S8& 1605 : see SAILER i b.] a 1641 SIR W. MON- 
SON Naval Tracts i. (1704) 214, 500 Men at Sea, where- 
of 340 Mariners, 40 Gunners, 120 Sailors. 1697 DRYDEN 
I'irg. Gtorg. i. 296 Nor must the Ploughman less observe 
the Skies.. Than Saylors homeward bent. 1706 E. WARD 
Wooden World Diss. (1708) 94 Let us e'en turn about, and 
view honest Jack the Sailor. 1769 FALCONER Diet. Marine 
n. (1780; Yy3b, It is. .the office of the commissaire general 
to keep a list of the. .sailors, able and ordinary. 1784 
COWTER Task i. 541 She would sit and weep At what a 
sailor suffers. 1801 Med. Jrnl. V. 354 Nor has a single 
soldier or sailor been prevented from doing his ordinary 
duty. 1852 TENNYSON Ode Death Wellington 86 Thine 
island loves thee well, thou famous man, The greatest sailor 


since the world began. 1857 BUCKLE Civiliz. I. vii. 344 The 
credulity of sailors is notorious. 

transf, 1847 EMERSON The Humble Bee 15 Sailor of the 

b. To be a good sailor [= F. lire ban marin\ : 
to be exempt from sea-sickness. 

1833 DISRAELI Cant. Fleming in. xvi, We were excellent 
sailors, and bore the voyage without inconvenience. 1870 
Miss BRIDGMAN Rob. Lynne II. vi. 142 He wished people 
who were bad sailors would not travel, a 1895 LD. C. E. 
PAGET Autobiog. iii. (1896) 70 He pleaded that he was a 
wretched sailor. 

f- 2. Said of a ship ; = SAILER 2. 06s. 

a 1642 SIR W. MONSON Naval Tracts v. (1704) 492/2, 
io or 12 Ships, choice Sailors. 1710 Land. Gaz. No. 4643/4 
The Ship Triton, . .being the best of Sailors,, .is to be sold. 
1775 ROMANS Florida App. 62 She was a heavy schooner of 
about 70 tons, and a dull sailor. 

3. As a name for various animals and plants. 
+ a. Used as a vernacular rendering of NAUTILUS. 

[1668, 1713 : see SAILER 2 c.] 1776 [see PEARLY a. 2 b]. 
1815 S. BROOKES Introd. Conchol. 156 Paper Nautilus, Paper 
Sailor, Argonanta Argo. Ibid., Great Sailor, Nautilus 

b. dial, A kind of beetle, Cantharis fitsca ; 
' a child's name for any Telephorns of a bluish 
colour ' (Casselfs Eticycl. Diet. 1887). 

1854 Miss BAKER Northampt, Gloss., Sailor, . .Cantharis 
/usca. 1863 WOOD lllustr. Nat. Hist. III. 472 The Tele. 

phoridEE. .represented in England by the well known beetles, 
popularly called from their red or bluish colours, Soldiers 
and Sailors. 

C. = sailor-fish (see 5 b). 

1860 G. BENNETT Gatherings Naturalist A ustral. 24 The 
Ilistiophori, or ' Sailors ', diner, however, from the Tftrap. 
ttiri by the greater comparative height of the dorsal fin. 

d. West Indian. (See quot.) 

1883 A. J. ADDERLEY Fisheries Bahamas 7 (Fish. Exhib. 
Publ.) At certain times of the year myriads of small fish, 
known as * sailors ', arrive at the field and stir up the muddy 
bottom to such an extent that not a single sponge can be seen. 

e. Blue sailors : the flowers of the wild chicory. 
1902 Outing (U. S.) June 272/2 The wild chicory, or blue 

sailors (Cichorittm intybns}. 

4. Short for sailor hat. 

1898 Wt'stm. Gaz. 5 May 3/2, I have tried in many shops 
to get a quite round sailor. 1903 Ibid. 2 July 4/2 Big hats 
very round in shape need not be avoided, nor Breton sailors. 

5. attrib. and Comb. : a. simple attrib., as in 
sailor fashion, mind, phrase, soul; sailor-like adj. ; 
appositive (quasi-a<^'.) ( 'that is a sailor', as in 
sailor-boy, jfisherman, -lad, -poet ; ' consisting of 
sailors', as in sailor-train; similative, as sailor- 
looking adj. 

1855 KINGSLEY Heroes, Perseus i. 4 Halcyone.. loved a 
*sailor-boy [Ceyx] and married him. 1903 C. E. OSBORNE 
Fr. Dolling vii, The sailor boys from the St. Vincent. 1848 
J. F. COOPER Caft. Sfike III. 160 Captain Mull was slow to 
yield his confidence, but when he did bestow it, he bestowed 
it "sailor-fashion, or with all his heart. 1883 GOODE Fish. 
Indnst. U. S. 26 (Fish. Exhib. Publ.) The 20,000 or more 
men who may properly be designated the ' "sailor fishermen ' 
of the United States. 1842 TENNYSON ' Break, break ' ii, 
O well for the "sailor lad, That he sings in his boat on the 
bay ! 1808 LAMB Ulysses in Mrs. Leicester's School (1885) 
121 With such *sailor>like sayings and mutinous arguments 
. . they [etc.J. 1890 ' R. BOLDREWOOD ' Col. Rt/ormtr (1801) 

168 Paul, with a couple of "sailor-looking men, was down 
at the jetty. 1894 GUNTF.R Kings Stockbroker i. 7 Won- 
dering in his "sailor mind what the deuce the whole affair 
means. 1812 SIR R. WILSON Priv. Diary i June (1862) I. 
69 VVe are now entering the Archipelago, or, according to the 
"sailor phrase, the Arches. 1856 KANE Arct. Expl. II. xvi. 

169 Every bag was, in sailor-phrase, roped and becketed. 
1877 TKNNYSON Sir J. Franklin 2 Thou, Heroic "sailor-soul, 
Art passing on thine happier voyage now. 1725 POPE 
Oiiyss. n. 441 Now descends the "sailor train. 

b. Special combinations : sailor-fish = SAIL- 
FISH ; sailor hat, a hat such as is worn by sailors ; 
hence applied to a form of hat (with flat brim of 
even breadth all round) worn by women, and to a 
different form (with turned-up brim) worn by chil- 
dren ; sailor-man, in uneducated and jocular use 
= sense i; also occas. an adult sailor; sailor-plant 
U. S., the strawberry-geranium, Saxifraga sarment- 
osa (Cent. Diet. 1891); sailor-shape, the shape 
worn by sailors, the shape of a sailor hat (also 
attrib. as adj.} ; so sailor-shaped a. 

39 A parcel of "sailor men and boys got round me. 
KIPLING Departm. Ditties, etc. (1899) 61 'Twas Fultah 
Fisher's boarding-house, Where sailor-men reside. 1897 
Daily Neivs 24 Sept. 6/6 Some of the new felt hats are 
quite "sailor-shape. 1904 Daily Chron. 23 Aug. 8/2 The 
new French sailor shape of chapeau. 1902 M.A.f. 29 Mar. 
327/1 There were many of the large, round, and 'sailor- 
shaped collars now so much worn. 

C. Possessive combinations : sailor's Bible U.S. 
slang, Bowditch's Navigator (Cent. Diet. 1891); 
sailor's choice U.S., a name given locally to 
various American fishes ; sailors' home (see qvtot. 
1867); sailor's knot, any of the kinds of knot 
(KNOT sb.^ i) used by sailors; also, a kind of 
knot used in tying a neck-tie; sailor's pocket, 
purse U.S., the egg case of a skate or oviparous 
shark (in recent U.S. Diets.): sailor's waiter 
Naut, slang (see quot.). 


c 1860 HOLBROOK in Goode,etc. Nat. I fist. Aquatic Anim, 
(1884) 399 The '^Sailor's Choice' makes its appearance in 
our waters about the month of April and continues with us 
until November. 1879 GOODE, etc. Catal. Anim. Resources 
U. S. 46 Lagodon rhomboides. . . Sailor's Choice. 1882 
JORDAN & GILBERT Synopsis Fishes N. Amer. 551 Poma- 
dasys fulvomacttlatus.. .Sailor's Choice; Hog-rish. 1888 
GOODE Amer. Fishes 80 Diabasis chromis the 'Sailor's 
Choice '. 1840 R. H. DANA Bef. Mast 144 The establish- 
ment of "Sailors' Homes. 1867 SMYTH Sailor's Word-bk.^ 
Sailors* home, a house built by subscription, for the ac- 
commodation of seamen on moderate terms. 1882 Encycl. 
Brit. XIV. 128/1 *Sailor? knots. 1840 R. H. DANA Bef. 
Mast iii, The crew call him [the second mate] the '*sailpr's 
waiter ', as he has to furnish them with spunyarn, marline, 
and all other stuffs that they need. 

Sailoress (s^-lares). [f. SAILOR + -ESS.] A 
female sailor. 

1890 Yacht Racing Cal. 159/2 The introduction of sailor- 
esses on board racing yachts, 1894 Yachting (liadm. Libr.) 
I. 236 Solent sailoresses. 

Sailoring (s^-brin), [f. SAILOR -I- -ING*.] 
The work of a sailor. 

1864 C. GEIKIE Life in Woods i. (1874) 2 He had found the 
romance of sailoring [etc.]. 1886 STEVENSON Kidnapped 'xi, 
If ye miss that, ye must be as feckless at the sailoring as 
I have found ye at the fighting. 

Sailorizing (siM'larsizirj), vbl. sh. colloq. [f. 
SAILOR + -IZE -* -ING 1 .] The pursuits or work of 

1876 DAVIS Polaris Exp. xi. 254 You will find them busy 
on various branches of work, such as shoemaking, patching, 
whittling out., miniature ships, and, in fact, sailorizing of all 
sorts. 1880 CLARK RUSSELL Sailor's Sweeth. (1881) I. iv. 
1 18 With a high barometer and a harbour always under 
your lee, sailorizing can't fail to be enjoyable. 1898 F. T. 
BULLEN Cruise ' Cachalot ' 209 Many of the crew were quite 
unable to do any sailorizing, as we term work in sails and 

attrib. 1882 T. G. BOWLES Flotsam $ Jetsam xi, Trans- 
lated it into sailorizing language. 

Sailorless (s^-lailes),**. [f. SAILOR + -LESS.] 
Without sailors. 

1816 BYKON Darkness 75 Ships sailorless lay rotting on the 
sea. 1834 GALT Rothelan III. vi. i. 6 The seams of the 
sailorless ships yawned to the sun. 

Sailorly (s^i'bjli), a. [f. SAILOR + -LY*.] Be- 
fitting a sailor; having the characteristics of a sailor. 

1865 MRS. WHITNEY Gayworthys xxiv, Great asking of 
questions; brief sailorly answers. 1883 STEVENSON Treas, 
Isl. i. ii, He was not sailorly. 

tSailour. Obs. rare" 1 , [a. OF. saillcor^ f. 
saillir to dance : see SAIL z>.3] A dancer. 

71x366 CHAUCER Rom. Rose 770 Ther was many a tim- 
bestere, And saylours \_MS. Glasgow saillouris], that I dar 
wel swere Couthe hir craft ful parfitly. 

t Sai'lrife, a. Obs. In 6 sailrif. [f. SAIL sbj- 

+ KIFE a.] Abounding in sails. 

1513 DOCGLAS /Eneis I. v. 3 Quhen Iupiter,frome his hich 
spheir, adoun Blent on the sailrif seis [L. velivolum mare}. 

Sails (s^'lz). Naut. slang, [pi. of SAIL s&. l t 
used as sing.] A name for a ship's sailmaker. 

1864 Hotten's Slang Diet.) Sails, the sail-maker on board 
ship. 1867 SMYTH Sailor s IVord-bk., Sail-maker, a quali- 
fied person who (with his mates) is employed on board ship 
in making, repairing or altering the sails; whence he usu- 
ally derives the familiar sobriquet of sails. 

Sailsman (sJHsman). [f. saiFs, genitive of 
SAIL sbl + MAN j^. 1 ] A sailor; also one who 
manages a sailing-boat. 

( 1601 K.EYMOR Observ. Dutch Fishing (1664) 7 The Sails- 
men and the Marriners. .there cannot be less then 200. 1890 
W. G. BLACK in Pall Mall G. 9 Sept. 1/3 They [the fisher- 
folk] live, in the main, by acting as ferrymen to steamers. . 
and as pleasure sailsmen, 

t Sai'lworthy, n. Obs. rare. [f. SAIL sb.^ + 
WORTHY.] Of weather: Admitting of the use of 

c 1595 CAPT. WYATT R. Dudley's Voy. W- fnd. (Hakl. Soc. ) 
36 Yt blew soe much all the daie that it neither was saile- 
worthy, nor coulde they possiblie use theire owers. 1633 
T. JAMES Voy* 34 It began to blow a storme not sayle- 

t Sai'ly, c. Obs. [f. SAIL j3.l + -T.] Having 
the appearance of a sail or sails. 

1605 DRAYTON Man in Moonc 103 His saily Wings. 1613 
Poly-olb, x. 66 From Thrace when hee her tooke, And in 
his say lie plumes the trembling Virgin shooke. 

Sailyard (s^'lyiud). Forms: see SAIL and 
YARD. [f. SAIL sb + YARD sd.~] 

1. Naut. One of the yards or spars on which the 
sails are spread. 

c 725 Corpus Gloss. 588 A ntemna^ seghterd. c 1050 Suppl. 
JE (fries Gloss, in Wr.-Wiilcker 182/3 Cornua, ba twejen 
endas baere se^ljyrde. 1293111 gthKep. Hist. MSS. Comm, 
App. i. 258 Et in vno masto et vna seylyarde emptis pro 
eadem Galya. 1400 MAUNDEV, (1839) xxvii. 271 Of the 
Mastes and the Seylle 3 c rdes. c 1440 Prontp. Parv. 65/1 
Ceyl yerde, antenna. 1533 EDEN Treat. Newe Ind. (Arb.) 
13 To be hanged on the sayle yarde of the shyp. 1625 K. 
LONG tr. Barclay's Argenis iv. xv. 289 They began to run 
whither the wind's violence drave them, leaving some sayles 
to the sayle-yard. 1725 POPE Odyss. v. 325 With crossing 
sail-yards dancing in the wind. 1834 WRANGH AM //*/: 
ii Distant were sail and sail-yard thrown. 

1 2. One of the radiating beams bearing the sails 
of a windmill. Obs. 

1351-2 Durham Ace. Rolls (Surtees) 553 In uno Saylyerde 
empt. pro molendino de Hesilden, iij s. viij d. c 1380 Ibid* 
181 In uno Saleyerd einpto pro eodem (molendino), iij s. 
c 1419 Ibid. 616 vestura de lez Saylyerdez 



molendini ventritici de Fery. 1426 LYDG. De Gnil. Pilgr. 
5426 The seyl yerdys off the melle, Wych tournede abouten 
offte, Wer clad in cloth that was not soffte. 1523 FITZHEKB. 
Surv. 39 b, The mylner shall neyle vp the bordes make his 
shafte and the sayle yardes vpholde. 

f 3. Ent. = ANTENNA. Obs. 

1658 ROWLAND tr. Monfet's Theat. Ins. 1125 The sailyards 
and the nippers are of a watry red colour. 

t Sai'lyie, sail3(i)e, sb. Sc. Obs. [Aphetic 
var. assail^e, ASSAIL sb.] Hostile attack, assault. 

c 1470 HENRY Wallace xi. 18 Still saxte dayis at sar sail^e 
thai baid. Fortrace, and werk..Thai brak, and brynt, and 
put to confusipun. 1533 STEWART Cron. Scot. II. 13 The 
Romanes. .maid ane sail^e baith be se and land. Ibid.) In- 
strumentis. .That neidful war to mak sail^ie or salt. 1550 
LYNDSAY Sq. Meldrum 952 Now, vailje quod vatlje, Upon 
the Ladle tliow mak ane sail}e. 1819 TENNANT Papistry 
S'/07vV(i827) 169 Their hands wagg'd wapons a 1 kinkinds; 
And sic varietie o' graith, Gather't for sailzie and for skaith. 
Ibid. 204 Dissim'lar men, but sim'lar minds, In formidable 
sailyie,- Cam whurrin' in. 

tSarlyie, sarl3(i)e, v. Sc. Obs. [Aphetic 

var. assail 'je ASSAIL v. See SAIL v.~~\ a. trans. 
To assault, make a hostile attack upon. b. intr. 
To make an attempt 

(71470 HENRY Wallace v. 992, I wald sail;e. .Lowmaban 
hous, 1533 UELLENDEN Livy n. vi. (S. T. S.) I. 151 And 
Jjocht my aventure was first, euery ane of bame sail sail^e 
as bai best may. 1819 W. TENNAST Papistry Storm"d (1827) 
22 He and the clerk.. shall no be laithTo raise the mob, . 
And sailzie kirk wi' weir and wraith. 

Saim, dial, and obs. form of SEAM (lard). 

II Saimiri(saiml<>-ri). Also 8samiri(9inDicts. 
saimari, saimir). [Brazilian Pg. saimirim^ a. 
Tupi $ahy miri little monkey ($ahy SAI 1 + miri 
little).] A small South American squirrel-monkey 
of the genus Chrysothrix (formerly Saimiris). 

1774 GOLDSM. Nat. Hist. (1776) IV. 236 The fifth and last 
of the sapajou kind, or monkies that hold by the tail, is the 
Samirl, or Aurora ; which is the smallest and the most 
beautiful of all. 1780 SMELLIE Bufibtfs Nat. [fist. (1791) 
VIII. 109 The saimiri is commonly known by the name of 
the golden, orange, or yellow sapajou. 1863 HUXLEY Atari's 
Place Nat. ii. 97 The Saimiri (Chrysothri.f). 

Sain (st 7i n), v. Now arch, and dial* Forms; 
i sesnian,s6nian, seesnian, 2 seinian,4-5 seyne, 
4-6 sayn(e, 8-9 sein, 3-7 saine, 3-9 sane, 3- 
saiu ; fa. t. 4-5 saynned; pa. ppl. 8 saint. [OK. 
segnian =OS. segrwn($L'D\i.schenert t T)\}..xegenn\ 
OHG. segandn (MHG. segenen, mod.G. scgnen 
to bless), ON. signa to sign with the cross, bless 
(Sw, signa, Da. signe to bless) ; ad. L. signare to 
sign (in eccl. use to sign with the cross), f. sign-tint 
SIGN st>., whence OE. segn sign, banner, MLG. 
segen, MDn. zeghen sign of the cross, blessing (Du. 
zegen blessing), OHG. segan sign of the cross 
(MUG., mod.G. segen blessing).] 

1. trans* To make the sign of the cross on (a 
thing or person) in token of consecration or bless- 
ing ; or for the purpose of exorcizing a demon, 
warding orTthe evil influences of witches, poison, etc. 

17900 tr. Baeda's Hist. v. v. 2 (1890) 396 pa sang he 
orationes ofer hiene & hiene seblxtsade & gessegnade [L. 
dixit orationem^ ac benedixit eum]. c 1000 JLFRIC Saints' 
Liz>es\\\. 114 pa stodsehaelend ..and mid hishal^umhandum 
husel senode. c 1175 Lamb. Horn. 127 We sculen ure for- 
heafod..mid bere halie rode tacne seinian. ^1375 Sc. Leg. 
Saints xxvii. (MacJior) 599 With J>at be cop in hand tuk 
he, & sanyt It dewotly. 1x1400 St. John Evang, 228 in 
Horstmann AltengLLeg. (1881) 471 Pou..saynede be coppe 
[of poison] swetely and suppede it on syne ; Thow hade no 
harme. 1508 KENNEDY Fiyting-w. Dunbar^yj Quhen that 
the schip was saynit, et vndir saile, Foul brow in holl thow 
preposit for to pas. 1575-6 Durham Dcpos. (Surtees) 272 
Then the said Umphray saynd the said.Thomas and corssed 
hym, and spyttyd, and said, ' Away, devill ', many tymes. 
1701 J. BRAND Descr. Orkney^ Zetl,^ etc. (1703) 62 Espe- 
cially on Hallow-Even, they use to sein or sign their Boats 
and put a Cross of Tar upon them... Their Houses also 
some use then to sein. 1802 SCOTT Minstr. Scot. Bord. II. 
179 no te, Many of the vulgar account it extremely dangerous 
to touch any thing which they may happen to find without 
saining- (blessing) it, the snares of the enemy being noto- 
rious and well attested. 1887 W. STOKES tr. Tripartite 
Life St. Patrick 37 Patrick sained [Irish senais} the earth 
and it swallowed up the wizard. Ibid, in Patrick sained 
their hands, and their hands grew stiff. 
b. rcfl. To cross (oneself). 

agoa tr. Baeda's Hist. iv. xxv. 5 (1890) 348, & ba him 
Sebsed & hine gesegnode mid Cristes rode tacne. a 1300 
Cursor M. 7986 He. .Bitaght him bar. togodd at kepe, And 
sanid him and fel on-slepe. c \yj$Sc.Leg. Saints\.(Peirns) 
521 Sanct petir sowne come in hy, and sanyt hym with be 
Rycht hand. 1377 LANGL. P. PI. B. v. 456 panne sat 
sleuthe vp and seyned hym swithe [v.r. to A.v. 229 seynide 
hyme faste], And made avowe to-fore god for his foule sleuthe. 
7/11400 Morte Art/t. 966 Thow saynned the vnsekyrly to 
seke to bese mountez. c H$Q Merlin iv. 66 And she lifte vp 
hir hande, and hir sayned [printed fayned], and seide, 'A 
mercy god ! * 1508 DUNBAR Tua Mariit Wemen 444, I 
sane me as I war ane sanct. 1588 A. KING tr. Canisius* 
Catech., Confession 15 Needful alsua is it. .to saine ws aft, 
putting beffoir our eyes Christ lesus crucifide. 1728 RAM- 
SAV Monk <y Miller's Wife 159 Bess sain'd herself, cry'd 
' Lord, be here ! ' 1768 Ross Helenore (1789) 65 She frae 
the ill o't sain'd her o'er and o'er. 1788 SHIRREFS Poems 
(1790) 332 She'd raise her hands, and sain hersel', And think 
you on the road to Hell. 1828 J. RUDDIMAN Tales $ Sk. 62 
I sained mysel' thrice this morning before I had seen the 
face o' man. 

t C. intr. for refl* Obs. rare. 


c 1440 Alphabet of Talcs ^ pan bis monke saynyd for mer- 
veil & said, *sur, whi say ye so?' 1571 Satir. Poems Re- 
/brm.xxvui. 24 And with that word I went sum thing abak, 
And bad say on, and, with God saif me, sanit. 

2. trans. To bless. 

a 1300 E. E. Psalter Ixii. 5 Swa sal I saine be in life mine. 
13.. /". E. A Hit. P. B. 746 Now sayned be bou sauiour. 
a 1400 Sir Perc. 287 So Criste mote me sayne. c 1400 Laud 
Troy Bk. 6080 And with his goddis he hem sayned, And 
bad hem gon In here name, c 1460 Townelcy Myst. vi. 106 
And thou [Jacob] shal full well saynyd be. 1500-20 DUNBAR 
Poems xiii. 41 Sum sanis the Sait, and sum thaim cursis. 
1616 T. SCOTT Philotnythie (ed. 2) B i, Against wise vigi- 
lant Statists, who like lanus, Looke both waies squint, and 
both waies guard and sane vs. 1721 KELLY Sc. Prov. 120 
God sain your Eye, Man. Spoken when you commend a 
Thing without ble.-sing it. ijSoArc/iieO Cawjield x\x\\\. 
in Child Ballads (1889) III. 488/2 For the man had needs 
to be well saint That comes thro the hands o Dicky Ha. 1818 
SCOTT Hrt. Midi, xxix, God sain us. 1824 BVRON Juan- 
xvi. Beware I bcivare vi, Heaven sain him! fair or foul. 
1848 KINGSLEY Sainfs Trag. ii. vi, Mary sain us ! 1898 
N. MUNRO John Splendid ii. 19 Blow, present, God sain 
Mackay's soul ! 

b. esp. in conjunction with save. 

c 1460 Twnclcy Rlyst. iv. 107 So now god the saif and 
sayne ! 1710 RUDDIMAN Gloss, to Douglas s.v. Sane, Hence 
Scot. Bor. the expression, God safe you and sane you. 
a 1839 PHAED Poems (1864) I. 146 Mary, Mother, sain and 
save! 1842 BROWNING / a Gondola Poems 1863 I. 210 
They trail me, these three godless knaves, Past every church 
that sains and saves. 1894 CROCKETT Raiders xl. 336 Guid 
save us an' sain us ! I like not this day. 

He. npp. associated by some mod. writers with 
L. sanare to heal (see SANE z.). 

1832 J. H. NEWMAN Sonn.^ l They do but grope* in Lvra 
Afiost. (1836) 47 As if such shapes and moods, which come 
and go, Had aught of Truth or Life in their poor show, To 
sway or judge, and skill to sain or wound. 1896 A. K. 
HOUSMAN Shropshire Lad xiv, There flowers no balm to 
sain him. 

3. trans. To secure by prayer or enchantment 
from evil influence. Cf. ULESS v.1 3. 

1670 RAY Prov. 293 Saine (bless) you weill fra the Devil 
and the Lairds bairns. 1721 KELLY Sc. Prov. 288 Sain your 
self from the Dee'l and the Laird's Bairns. 1768 Ross 
Helenore 6 The jizzen-bed wi' ran tree leaves was sain'd. 
1848 KINGSLEY Sainfs Trag. n. viii. While angels. . Will 
sain us from the roaming adversary With scent of Paradi^-e. 

Hence f Sained /;>/. a. ; Sarning vbl. sb. 

1508 Dt'NBAR Tit a Mariit \Venicn 102 Than ma na sanyne 
me save fra that auld Sathane. 1593 NAPIER Plain Disco?'. 
Rev. St. John 58 Beside their daylie crossings with th<-ir 
right hande on their fore-heads, which they cal sailing. 1888 
EDMONSTON & SAXBY Home Naturalist 214 Jaimie instantly 
turned back, for he knew that they had power at such timts, 
and the saining might be neglected. 

Sain, obs. f. SAINT, SAW., SEE^., SEINE (net). 

Sainctify, Sainctuary, obs. ff. SANCT-. 

Saind, Sc. var. SAND sb. (message, etc.). 

Saine, obs. f. SAY v., SEE ^., SEINE (net). 

Sainfayle, obs. form of SANSFAIL. 

Sainfoill (st^'nfoin). Forms: 7 S. Foyne, 
Saint-, St. Foine, sainct-foin, santfine, -foyne, 
7-8 St. Foyne, 8 St. Foin, sainfoine, 6- saint- 
foin, 7- sanfoin, 8- sainfoin, [a. F. sainfoin^ 
also \saintfoin (i6thc.), app. Lsain health-giving, 
wholesome + foin hay. 

The identification of the first syllable with saint holy, was 
common in Fr. in the i6th c., and in Eng. in the i7th c. 
Cf. holy hay (see HOLY 5 b), G. heiligheu, and Pg. sanfcno.} 

A low-growing perennial herb, Onobrychis sativa 
(formerly Hedysarum Onobrychis\ much grown as 
a forage plant. Also, locally, lucerne {Medicago 

1626 A. SPEED Adam out of E. xiv. (1659) 108 A Gentle- 
man, .hath this yeer about thirty acres of S. Foyne. 1653 
BLITHE Eng. Ifitfirov.Intpr.xxvii. 187 St. Foyn is a French 
Grass much sowed there, upon their barren, dry, hasky 
Lands, and sometimes in our Gardens hath a kind of it been 
much sowed, called the French Honysuckel. 1669 WOK- 
LIDGE Syst. Agric. 27 This St. Foyn, or Holy-hay, bath in 
several places of England, obtained the preferrence above 
Clover-grass, for that it. .is so great an improvement on our 
barren Lands. vj&Dict. Husb. 1 1. s.v., Saintfoin, or Holy- 
Hay, a sort of Grass otherwise cal I'd Medick- Fodder, 
Spanish Trefoil, and Snail or Horned Clover-grass. 1792 
A. YOUNG Trav. France I. 152 Large quantities of sainfoin, 
which he used for fattening oxen. 1844 H. STEPHENS Bk. 
Farm II. 554 It is possible to cultivate both lucern and 
saintfoin as a one or more years' crop of grass in rota- 
tion with corn crops instead of red clover. 1857 KINGSLEY 
7Vw V. Ago III. 133 Pink saintfoin. 1886 C. SCOTT 
Sheep- farming 50 For early spring feed and summer 
fattening,, .sanfoin, mustard, and lucern, will be found 

attrib. 1676 Lond. Gaz. No. 1073/4 Pure Trefoile and Sant- 
fine Seed. 1733 TULL Horse-Jioeing Husb. xiv. 195 Cut off 
the St. Foin Heads an Handful deep. 1764 Museum Rust. 
I. 465 Saintfoin hay is excellent food for horses. 1792 A. 
YOUNG Trav. France I. 357 A considerable portion of these 
calcareous districts should be thrown into sainfoin courses. 
1805 R. W. DICKSON Pract. Agric. I. 350 Old saintfoin lays. 
190* CORNISH Nat. on Thames 174 The crimson of stray 
sainfoin clusters. 

Saing fayle, variant of SANSFAIL. 
fSainse, Saynsure, obs. ff. CENSE z-. 1 and 

1565 CALFHILL Answ. Treat. Cross ii. 530, We haue 
sainsed thy saincts, we haue ., honored thy Crosse. Ibid.^ 
The sweete perfume of prayer shuld haue arisen from the 
saynsure of your heart to me. 


Saint (sf 'nt ; unstressed s&t, snt), a. and rf. I 
Forms: a. 2-6 seint, 3-6 seinte, seynt(e, j 
sainte, 4-5 saynt, (2 zeinte, 3 sseinte, 5 seyntte, ; 
6 seeynt, sayent), 4- saint, ft. (prefixed to a 
name beginning with a cons.) 3-4 sein, 4 san, 
sen, 4-6 sayn, 5 sayne, sain, syn. 7. 3-5 sant, 
4-6 sent, (3 sante, sente, 4 santt, sande, sont, 
5 synt, scent, 6 sentt(e), 8-9 Sf. saunt. 5. 
(chiefly Sc.) 4-8 sanct (6 -e), 5 senct, 5-6 saynet, 
seynct, 6-7 sainct. [a. OF. saint, seint, fern. 
sainte, seinte (sancte, saente, sente), later sainct, 
as prefix occas. saen, sain, mod.F. saint = Pr. 
sanct, sant, It., Sp., Pg. santo (before a cons. Pr., 
It., Sp. san, Pg. sad) :-L. sanctus, properly pa. 
pple. of sanclre to enact, ratify, devote, conse- 
crate (cf. SANCTION). 

The Latin word was adopted in most of the Germanic 
langs. ; the variants with vowel other than a are due, partly 
to loss of stress in the prefixed position, partly to tr. i 
influence: OE. sanct, OFris. sankt, sunkt, sant, sent, salt, 
(prefixed) sancte, sente etc., MDu. (chiefly as prefix) sanct, 
sant(e,sent(e, sint(e, smile, sonte, Du. sint, dial, stint, sunt, 
silnt. Flemish amt, MHG. (prefixed) sancte, sant(e, sent(e, 
mod.G. (prefixed) Sanft, sankt, Da. sankt., Sw. sankt(e-. 
The forms sauynt, sauyn (printed sanynt, sanyn) in tn 
Aycniilc are difficult to account for.] 

A. adj. = HOLY, in various special applications. 

1. Prefixed to the name of a canonized person (see 

B. 2), also to the names of the archangels : now 

felt to be the sb. used appositively. Commonly 

abbreviated S. or St. (see below). 

[In OE. sanctus and sancte (orig. the L. vocative) were 
used for the masc. and sancla for the fern.] 

The possessive of names preceded by ' Saint ' is often used 
ellipt. in names of churches, as Si. Paul's, St. l\tcrs. 
Hence various names of towns, villages, etc., as St. Altians, 
St. Andrews, St. Bees; also the anglicized forms of some 
foreign place-names, as f St. Outer's (= F. St.-Oiner). 

a. c 1175 Lamb. Horn. 49 Seint gregori. c 1200 Trill. Coll. 
Horn. 9 Ure louerd sainte pow.el. c 1250 Kent. Serm. in O. 
K. .Misc. 26 Ure lauedi seinte Marie. 1297 R. GLOUC. (Rolls) 
8423 pis bataile ido was A seinte peteres eue. 1340 Aflat. 
233 Ase zayb saint austin. 1386 CHAUCER Prat. 173 The 
reule of seint Manre or of seint Beneit. 1452 Cat. Anc. AVr. 
Dublin (1889! 277 The feste of Seynte Michell the Archangle. 
< 1510 MORE Picas Wks. 9/2 Which is as trew as the gospell 
of seint John. 1590 THYNNE Animadv. (1875) 57 Seinte 
Hughe Bishoppe of Lincolne. 1828 SCOTT F. M. Perth v, 
The rites due to good Saint Valentine. 

p. c 1200 Trin. Call. Haul. 71 pe godspelle be sein lucas 
makede. (11300 Cursor M. 16762+10 pe swerd of sorow 
was at hir hert, AIs sayde san symeon. a 1330 Otuel 1585 
Bi sein geme. 1389 in Eng. Gilds (1870) 54 Ye Sunday after 
ye Natiuite ol sen Jon clay, baptist, c 1400 Rule St. Benet 
(Prose) 42 Sain Benet leris vs in bis sentence, how we sal 
chese vre abbesse. a 1470 Gregory's Chron. in Hist. Coll. 
Cit. Loud. (Camden) 168 Syr 1'hylyppe Dymmoke, that 
rode in the halle i-armyde clene as Syn Jorge. 1538 
STARK EY England i. i. 20 Aftur the mynd of Sayn Poule. 

y. <r 1230 Hall Meid. 7 As sente pawel seiS, Alle binge 
turned be gode to god. a 1300 Cursor M. 154 And hit sal 
be reddynn banne 6 luachim and of sant tanne [Fairf. seynt 
anne]. Ibid. 469 Sent micheal . . Rais a-gain him for to fight. 
c 1375 Ibid. 12863 (I-'airf.) Sande lohn nerehand him stode. 
14. . in Rep. Hist. ItfSS. Comm. (1907) IV. 24 Synt Petyrys 
mynyster of Exeter. 1557 in Shropsh. Parish Documents 
( r 93) 58 I E ' Re'd of thomas browne for sentmari day rent ii s . 
S. 1375 BARBOUR Bruce v. 336 The folk.. Held to Sanct 
Brydis kirk thar way. c 1470 HENRY Wallace i. 282 Quha 
sperd, scho said to Sanct Margret thai socht. c 1510 MORE 
Picas Wks. 12/2 And remember these wprdes of Sainct 

t Abbreviations : S. and St.,//. SS. and Sts. 

In the i8th and igth c. 'St.' is the form usually em- 
ployed; but since about 1830 ' S. 1 has been favoured by 
ecclesiologists. In place-names, and in family names derived 
from these, only' St. 1 is used. 

[c 1122 O. E. Chron. (Laud MS.) an. 963 To Eli*, baer S. 
^E5eldri6 lift, c 1154 Ibid. an. 1132 On S 1 Petres mes;e dei.J 
a 1400 Wyclifs Bible IV. 693 Fynding of S. Steuen martir. 
1535 COVERDALE Bible, The gospell of S. Mathew...The 
epistles of S. Paul. 1611 BIBLE Transl. Prcf. T 8 S. Chry- 
sostome that liued in S. Hieromes time. 1638 SIR T. HER- 
BERT Trav. (ed. 2) 33 St. Francis Shyvier the Navarrean 
Jesuit. 1711 SHAFTESB. Charac. (1737) I. 344 The storys 
of their giants, their dragons, and St. George's. 1850 J. H. 
NEWMAN Serin. Var. Occas. xii. (1857) 263 Those early Re- 
ligious, of which St. Benedict is the typical representative. 
1852 (title) The Homilies of S. John Chrysostom..on the 
Gospel of St. Matthew. 1877 J. D. CHAMBERS Div. Worship 
177 The Octave of S. Stephen. 

2. transf. f a. of heathen deities, etc. Obs. 

c 1375 Cursor M. 7458 (Fairf.), I sulde him sla be seint 
Mahoun. c 1400 Rom. Rose 5953 By my modir seint Venus. 
Ibid. 6781 My modsr denied him, Seynt Amour. 1588 
SHAKS. L. L. L. IV. iii. 366 Saint Cupid then, and Souldiers 
to the field. 

b. allusively or ironically. Obs. in gen. use. 

St. Monday : see MONDAY 2. St. Lvbbock's day : a 
jocular name for any of the bank holidays instituted by Sir 
John Lubbock's Act, 1871 : see BANK HOLIDAY. 

1362 LANGL. P. PI. A. v. 40 }e bat secheb seynt lame and 

jeintes at Roome, Secheb Seint Treube for he may sauen ow 


yy "" /! 

f 3. Prefixed to various common nouns (in col- 
locations taken over from Latin and French), esp. 
Charity, Cross, Spirit, Trinity. Obs. 

Sometimes abbreviated as in i. 

In dedications of churches there occur St. Cross, St. J-aitH, 
St. Saviour, St. Sepulchre. 

a 1300 Cursor Af. 21463 Bl sant drlghtm Ml thine be wers 
part es mine. 1377 LANGL. P. PL B. xn. 104 Al-boughmen 
made bokes, god was be maistre, And seynt spirit be saum- 
plarye c 1386 CHAUCER Knt.'s T. 863 But sle me first for 
seinte charitee. c 1386 Sompn. T. 116 Chideth him weel, 
for seinte Trinitee. c 1440 Gcnerydes 4282 He. .askyd almes 
for seynt charite. 1470-85 MALORY Arthur x. i. 413 By seynt 
crosse said syre Vwayne he is a stronge knyght. 1553 

Ham. IV. v. 58 By gis, , _. 

for shame. 1631 WEEVER Anc. Funeral Man. 722 Ihe 
Altar, .was that which was first built to Saint seruice. 1710 
Land. Caz. No. 4688/1 The Annual Procession.. in Honour 
of the Saint Sudario [i. e. ii Santa Sudario]. 
4. Attributive and possessive collocntionsof proper 
names with the prefix ' Saint' (St.) in sense I. 

a. Many plants, animals, and other objects have 
been named after saints of the calendar. For these 
appellations see the saints' names in their alpha- 
betical places or the sbs. qualified by them. 

b. Many diseases have been named after saints 

c. Many objects are called after a place-name or 
surname beginning with 'Saint' ('St.'); the fol- 

lowing are some of the more important 

St. Bernard (dog), in full Great St. Bernard dog, a 
dog of a breed kept by the monks of the Hospice of the 
Great St. Bernard (a dangerous pass in the Alps between 
Switzerland and Italy) for the rescue of travellers m dis- 
tress. St. Domingo cuckoo, etc., species of cuckoo.etc., 
found in San Domingo. St. Domingo fever, yellow 
fever. St. Germain pear,afine dessertpear. St.Gobam 
glass, a fine kind of plate glass manufactured at St. Gobain 
m France. St Helena tea (see quots.). St. Johnston's 
riband tippet,.SV.,ahalterorhangman'srope. (St.Jolws- 
ton = Perth.) St. Kilda cold (see quot.). St. Leger, the 
name of a horse-race for three-year-olds run at Doncaster : 
instituted by Colonel St. Leger in 1776. St. Louis group, 
a section of the mountain limestone of North America, well 
developed in states bordering on the upper Mississippi. St. 

quality of orange, t St. Omer'S (corruptly St. Thomas) 
worsted, a kind of worsted manufactured at St. Diner's. 

1839 SIR'!', n. LAUDER in C. H. Smith Dogs (1840) II. 142 
My *St. Bernard dog, Bass. 1877 Encycl. Brit. VII. 327/2 
The Great St. Bernard Dog of the present day is a power- 
ful animal, as large as a mastiff. 1884 Harper's Mag. Aug. 
464/1 A big St. Bernard. 1782 LATHAM Gen. Synopsis 
Birds I. n. 541 *St. Domingo Cuckow. Ibid. I. in St. 
Domingo Falcon. 1793 SMELLIE tr. Buffon's Nat. Hist. 
Birds VIII. 231 The St. Domingo Chesnut . . Colymbns 
Dominicus, Linn. 1822-34 Good's Study Mcd. (ed. 4) I. 644 
From the depredations it has committed in the West Indies 
and on the American Coast, it has been called the *St. Do- 
mingo, .fever. 1693 EVELYN De LaQuint. Compl.Gard. 
I. 93 This *St. Germain-pear, otherwise called the Unknown 
Pear of the Fare, has a very tender Pulp. 1858 O. W. 
HOLMES Aut. Breakf.-t. iv. (1859) 77 Milton was a Saint- 
Germain with a graft of the roseate Early-Catherine. . . 
Russet-skinned old Chaucer was an Easter-Beurre. 1870 
SAU2AY Marvels of Glass-making t)i note, According to M. 
Peligot the "St. Gobain glass is composed of, Silica 73-0, 
Lime 15-5, Soda 11-5. 1875 MF.I.LISS St. Helena 239 
Frankenia portulacxfotta, Spreng. .. Beatsonia portulai x- 

, . .. 

folia, Roxb. ; *St. Helena Tea. . . I find no record of the 
plant having been ever used as a substitute for tea. 1897 
Syd. Soc. Lex., St. Helena tea, a kind of tea made 
in the island of St. Helena by infusing the leaves of the 
plant Beatsonia portulacifolia. 1638 H. ADAMSON Muse's 
\ Threnodie (1774) 119 Hence of *St. Johnston's ribbanc 
| came the word. 1816 SCOTT Old Mart, vii, To be sen 
I to Heaven wi' a Saint Johnstone's tippit about my hause 
1897 Syd. Soc. Lex., "St. Kilda cold... Pi variety of In 
fluenza occurring in the Hebrides, believed to be brough 
by strangers from ships touching at the islands. 1778 ii 
I Baitys Racing Reg. (1845) I. 470/1 *St. Leger's Stakes o 
j 25 gs. each. 1825 C. M. WESTMACOTT "..$)>> (1907) I. 327 
I This is the settling day for all bets made upon the great 

jg day for all bets made upon 

Doncaster St. Leger. 1863 DANA Man. GeoL 307 The *St, 
Louis limestone (250 feet thick), overlaid by ferruginous 
sandstone (200 feet). 1879 Encycl. Brit. X. 35/ 2 St. Louis 
group. Limestones with shale, in places 250 feet. 1840 
PEREIRA Elem. Mat. Med. \\. 992 *SL Lucia Bark. 185^ 
MORFIT Tanning $ Currying (1853) 94 St. Lucia Bark^. 
is said to be suitable for tanning, c 1830 *St. Michael's 
oranges [see ORANGE sb* i]. 1892 Daily News 22 Dec. 3/1 
It may be that some day sweet St. Michaels may pouf in 
upon us again. 1530 PALSGR. 269/1 *Seynt Homer's wor- 
stedde, demy ostade. 1552 Inv. Church Goods (Surtees) 
II. 61 A cope of read Saint Thomas worsted. 
B. sb. A holy person. 

1. One of the blessed dead in Heaven. Usually//. 

[a 1000 CzdmotCs Satan 355 pser habbaS englas eadijne 
dream, sanctas : * 

, . 

13.. Cursor M. 10402 (Gutt.) Felauschip..Of saintes [ 
halus] hye in heuen bliss. 138. WYCLIF Sel. Wks. III. 467 
A thowsand bowsandis bene moo seintis in heven ben we 
kanonysen in bo Calender. ^1420 Prymer (1895) 7 (Te 
Dfum) Make hem to be rewardid wib seyntis in endeles blis. 


592 Ardm of Feversham I. i. 329 To Hue With God and 
nis elected saints in heauen. 1657 JEK. TAYLOR Ftaurmi 
Serm. Sir G. Dalstone, The consummation and perfection 
of the saints' felicity shall be at the resurrection of the dead. 
781 COWPER Truth. 150 She, half an angel in her own ac- 
count Doubts not hereafter with the saints to mount. 1851 
G ROKISON Hymn, ' Three in One', With the Saints here- 
after we Hope to bear the palm. 1864 Br. W. How Hymn, 
<"or all Thy Saints who from their labours rest. 1875 MAN- 
NING Mission Holy Ghost vii. 191 A multitude who have not 
wen canonised on earth, though they are saints in heaven. 
2. Eccl. One of those persons who are formally 
recognized by the Church as having by their ex- 
ceptional holiness of life attained an exalted station 
m heaven, and as being entitled in an eminent 
degree to the veneration of the faithful ; a canonized 
person. In Pre-Reformation use, the term implies 
that the persons so designated may be lawfully 
addressed in prayer for their intercession with God, 
and that miracles have been wrought through their 
aid after death, t To seek, visit a saint : to pay 
one's devotions at his shrine. (Cf. HALLOW s6.* 2.) 
[ciooo ./ELFRIC in Sweet A.-S. Reader (1894) 85 God 
jeswutelode bat he halij sanct WKS swa |>a;t heofonhc leoht 
of ban seteld astreht stod up to heofonum. c 1122 O. . 
C/iron. iLaud MS.) an. 979, He was on life eorohc cing, he 
is nu zefter deaSe heofonlic sanct. ] 

n 1300 Cursor M. 28604 To godd i mere! cri . . And all 
seyntes of heuen sere, a 1310 in Wright Lyric P. xxxiv. 96 
Preye we alle to cure levedy, Ant to the sontes that woneth 
hire by. CI374 CHAUCER Troylus n. 69 (118) In a cave To 
bidde, and rede on holy seyntes lyves. c 1420.4 nturso/A rth. 
xvii, I salle garre seke sayntes for thi sake. 1426 LVDC. De 
Guil. Pilgr. 6287 Forseyntys wych that suffredeso, I wot ryht 
\vel that they be go To paradys. 1500-20 DUNBAR Poems xxv. 
65 We pray to all the Sanctis of hevin, That ar aboif the 
sterris sevin. 1588 A. KING tr. Canisius' Catech. in Cat/i. 
Tractates (S. T. S.) 206 This praesent Kalendar quhairin is 
comprehend!! the Sanctes and martyres vith the tyme of 
thair death or suffering. 1614 Br. HALL No Peace _-.i'ith 
Rome 21 Neither will we only glorifie God in his Saints., 
but wee will magnifie the Saints.. for their excellent graces. 
1726 Bovs Expos. 39 Art. 146 Pardons or Indulgences, which 
are promis'd to those that visit such a Saint or Chapel. 
1756-7 tr. Keyslers Trav. (1760) III. 44 The castle of St. 
ElniOjOrSt. Eramo, so called from a church dedicated to that 
saint. 1847 YEOWELL Anc. Brit. CA. xii. 134 A considerable 
number of churches are called after the names of the primi- 
tive saints of our island. 1862 BURTON Bk. Hunter iv. 323 
Technically, to make a saint, there should be an act of 
pontifical jurisdiction. 

Proverb. 1550 BALE Eng. Votaries n. 105 b, T hese adages 
myght than haue bene founde true, suche saynt, suche 
shryne, suche bere, suche bottell. 

b. A representation or image of a saint. 

1563 Homilies u. Agst. Images in. Qqiij, Such a creple 
came and saluted this saint of Oke. 1679 Roxb. Ball. (1885) 
V. 594 And who, to furnish his own want, Can sei/e Gold 
Cross, or Silver Saint. 1817 LADY MORGAN France \. (1818) 
I. 92 Fruit in wax-work, and saints in or mouln. 1849 
JAMES Woodman xv, Far readier to worship a gold angel 
than a painted saint. 1893 BATES Eng. Rclig. Drama 27 
As if the chiselled, painted saint himself. . stepped down . . 
from marble niche. 

c. trans/. Applied e.g. to persons who are the 
objects of posthumous reverence in non-Christian 
religions, f Also rarely to heathen deities, etc. 

13.. K. Alls. 6763 Thou schalt fynde trowes two : Seyntes 
and holy they buth bo. c 1400 Destr. Troy 2000 All the 
buernes in the bote, . . Besoght vnto sainttes & to sere goddes. 
Ibid. 12071 pe sayntis of hell Were wode in hor werkis for 
wreke of Achilles. 1601 HOLLAND Pliny I. 4 Others..are 
punished by the saints whom they adore, and the holy 
ceremonies which they obserue. 1626 METHOLD in Purchas 
Pilgrimage 999 One Saint they haue . . whom they expresse 
by a plaine round stone. 1876 A. J. EVANS Through Bosnia 
viii. 342 There are many gay kiosques rising over the graves 
of Moslem saints. 

3. In biblical use, one of God's chosen people ; in 
the New Testament, one of the elect under the New 
Covenant ; a member of the Christian church ; a Chris- 
tian. Hence used by some religious bodies as their 
own designation.e.g. by some puritanical sects in the 
16-1 7th c., and by the Mormons (see LATTER-DAY). 
1382 WYCLIF i Cor. i. 2 To the halowid in Crist Ihesu, 
clepid seyntis. 1526 TINDALE Acts ix. 32 As Petei walked 
throughoute all quarters, he cam to the saincts which dwelt 
at lydda. 1367 Gmle * C' dlie B - < s .- T - s -> I0 3 God ' for 
thy grace Ceis not to send thy Sanctis sune support. 1597 
HOOKFH Eccl. Pol. v. Ivi. 123 The fellowship of his Saincts 
in this present world. 1610 B. JONSON Alch. if. v, A 
seruant of the exil'd Brethren, That deale with widdowes 
and with orphanes goods And make a iust account vnto 
the Saints : A Deacon. 1626 Staple of N. in. ii. ,125 
Ha' you in your prophane Shop, any Newes O the 
Saints at Amsterdam ? 1658 COWLEY Cutter Colman St. 
in i What preaching, and houling, and fasting, and eating 
among the Saints! 1704 NELSON_ Fat. <$ Fadtxxxtv. 
(1739) 4 T 9 In the beginning of Christianity, the word Saint 
was applied to all Believers. 1710 [H. BEDFORD] Vind. 
CA. Eng. 170 We seem to have forgot the Saints Reign 
from 41 to 60. 1782 C. SIMEON in Carus Life (1847) 28 
Now he scruples keeping a horse, that the money may 
help the saints of Christ. 1786 BURNS Sc. Drink ynl, 
Godly meetings o' the saunts, By thee inspir'd. 1847 l EO- 
WELL Anc. Brit. CA. iii. 31 It is not. .improbable, .that St. 
Paul should have become acquainted with some of these 
captives, by means of some of the Saints in Casar's house- 
hold 1863 DICKENS Uncomm. Trait, xx, The Preface, 
dated Manchester, 1840, ran thus : ' The Saints in this 
country have been very desirous for a Hymn Book adapted 
to their faith and worship '. 1886 Whitaker's Aim. 204 Re- 
ligious Sects. . . Saints, 

b. In biblical use applied to angels. 
1382 WYCLIF Dent, xxxiii. 2 The Lord..aperide fro the 




MI of Pharan, and with hym thousand!* of seyntis. 1611 
BIBLE Jude 14 The Lord comnieth with ten thousands of 
his Saints. 1667 MILTON /-*. L. vi. 46 Gabriel . .lead forth my 
armied Saints. 

4. A person of extraordinary holiness of life. 
Sometimes ironically, A person making an outward 
profession of piety. 

1563 FOXE A, fy M. 1258/2 Boner. Well mayster Countrol- 
ler, I am no sainct. Ibid. 1374/2 Surely you would moue 
a Saint with your impertinent reasons. 1596 SHAKS. Tarn. 
Shr. in. ii. 28 For such an iniurie would vexe a very saint. 
1625 BACON ss. t Suspicion, What would Men haue? Doe 
they thinke, those they employ and deale with, are Saints? 
1677 W, HUGHES Alan of Sin it. v. 99 We have read of 
Canniballs that devour the flesh of Men. Tush ! They are 
Saints to Papists. Fpr : They devour their God ! 1732 POPE 
Ep. Cobhatn 246 Odious ! in woollen ! 'twould a Saint pro- 
voke. 1749 CHESTERF. Lett. ccix. (1792) II. 301, I have 
sometimes known Saints really religious. 1884 Harpers 
Mag. Jan. 296/1 Were you a saint at college ? 1884 H. A. 
JONES (title) Saints and Sinners, a 1887 H, W. BEECH KR 
Prov. Plymouth Pulpit 178 It will not do to be saints at 
meeting and sinners everywhere else. 
b. Proverb. 

1500-30 DUNBAR Poems xlvi. 35 Of guns sanctis growis 
auld feyndis but fable. 1552 LATIMER jtkSerm, on Lord* s 
Prayer (1562) H4b, The old prouerb yong saints, old 
deuils. 1616 S. PRICE Ephesus It 'arning 73 That Prouerb 
inuented by the Diuell that young Saints proue old Diuels. 
1655 FUI.LEU Serin, iv. 4 David began to be good betimes, 
a young Saint, and yet crossed that pestilent Proverb, was 
no old devill. 1694 MOTTEUX Rabelais \\. Ixiv. 254. 

5. A nickname for : a. A member of a religious 
association at Cambridge (seequots.). Now Hist. 

1793 Act. Proc. agst. IV. Frend 107, 1 shewed them [sc_. two 
letters] to some of my friends, as instances of the gratitude 
of the saints. 1803 Gradns adCantabr. u6Saitits, a set of 
men who have great pretensions to particular sanctity of 
mannersand zeal for orthodoxy. 1882 MRS. OLII P HANT.*V. 
Hist. Eng. III. 38 [Dean Milner] was at the head of the 
party vulgarly called the Saints, the preachers of world- 
renunciation and self-denial. Another leader of this party 
. .was Charles Simeon. 

b. One of the party which promoted the agita- 
tion in England against slavery. Now Hist. 

1830 N. S- WHEATOM Jrnl. 281 The friends of negro 
emancipation, .are already (1823-4) honoured with the nick- 
name of ' Saints '. 1832 MAKRYAT N. Forster xv, ' But do 
you think that this is likely to occur ? ' 'I do, most cer- 
tainly, if those who govern continue to listen to the insidious 
advice of the party denominated 'Saints*. 1880 S. WAL- 
POLE Hist. Eng. III. xili, 196 The West Indians were 
furious with Stanley for doing so much ; the * Saints ' were 
annoyed with him for doing so little. 

6. attrib. and Comb.^ as saint '-author, -martyr ', 
^protect nee ; saint-beseeming^ -eyed, -faced, -holy, 
-pleasing, -seeming adjs. ; saint-maker, -making, 
server, -worship, worshipper', saint's day, a day 
set apart by the Church for observing the memory 
of a saint ; f saint's head stone, a name for a 
kind of limestone. 

1711 SHAFIESB. Ckarac. (1737) I. 165 A * saint-author of 

HAWTHORN Visit Babylon 61 Some usurious and *saint-faced 
Quakers, a 1617 BAYNE On Eph. (1658) 7 Such beleevers 
..who will not l>e accounted * Saint-holy. 1604 HIERON 
Answ. to Popislt Ryme B 2, Who made the Pope a *Saint- 
muker? 1760-72 H. BROOKE FoolofQual. (1809) III. 19 A 
man who was called the saint-maker.. married five shrews 
in succession, and made Grizels of every one of them. 1802 
RANKEN Hist. France II. ii. 2. 186 The church of Rome, 
desirous of engrossing this power of * saint -making. i8a6 
W. E. ANDREWS Exam. Fox's Cal. Prot. Saints 473 Fox 
being in want of a "saint-martyr, thought proper to canonize 
a self-destroyer. 1601 WKEVEK Mirr. Mart. B 7 b, Thy 
sweete *saint- pleasing songs forgotten. 1711 SHAFTESB. 
Charac. (1737) I. 273 The ladys..were the *saint-pro- 
ttctrices to whom the champions chiefly paid their vows. 
a 1450 MYKC l-'cstial 267 pogh we halowen but few *sayntes- 
daycs, }et we ben full neclygent yn oure seruyce. 1736 
AvLtFirE Parergon 473, I cannot find.. that we can trace 
what we call the Saints -Days higher than the eighth or ninth 
Century. 1847 C. BRONTE J. Eyre xxi, Eliza was gone to 
attend a saint's-day service at the New Church. 1863 HAW- 
THORNE Our Old Home II. 100 On a Sunday or Saint's day. 
a 1641 Br. MOUNTAGU Acts -y Mon. (1642) 395 Their *saint- 
seeming t sanctity. 1563 MAN Musculus' Commonpl. 293 As 
the *Sainct seruers [L. cnltores diiwnim} doe in our dayes. 
1763 Museum Rust. I. Ixxxv. 379 There is frequently found 
in the clay very hard lyas, or *saints-head stones. 1601 

rship. 1882-3 ^chaff^s Encycl. Rclig. 

2098 The abuses of saint- worship. 1615 BYFIELD Expos. Col. 
1. 19 (1628) 127 Sancti-colists, Pharisesand * Saint- worshippers. 
1648 GAGE West hid. 174 All that were there present, as well 
Saint-worshippers, as indeed that Idols worshippers. 

Saint (s^'nt), v. Forms : see SAINT sb. ; also 
3 pa. pple. isonted. [f. SAINT sb.] 

1. pass. To be or become a saint in Heaven. 
Obs. or arch. 

ti 122$ Ancr. R. 350 {>eo pilegnmes Jt goS touward 
heouene, heo go3 forte beon isonted. 1603 SHAKS. Meas.for 
At. i. iv. 34, 1 hold you as a thing en-skied^ and sainted. 1854 
LONGF. Birds of Passage, Prometheus iv, Only those are 
crowned and sainted Who with grief have been acquainted. 

2. trans. To call (a person) a saint, give the 
name of ' saint * to ; to reckon among the saints ; 
spec, to enroll among the number of saints formally 
recognized by the Church; to canonize. 

^375 HARBOUR Bruce xvn. 875 This thorn as, That on 
this vis maid niartir was, Wes sanctit and myraclis did. 
JS53 BECON Reliqnes of Rome (1563) 180 He [sc. Pope John 
XXII] sainted also Thomas of Aquinethe blackefrier. 1601 
WEEVEH Mirr. Mart. F 3, He praisd, adornd, and for a 
martyr sainted, Whilst I (Rome's scoffe) my rites of buriall 
wanted. 1622 DKAVTON Poly-olb. xxiv. 960 There other 
holy Kings were likewise, who confess 'd, Which those most 
zealous times have sainted. 1628 EARLE Microcosm., S/u-c 
Hypocrite (Arb.) 63 Shee doubts of the Virgin Marie's 
Saluation,and dare not Saint her. 1690 MORRIS Beatitudes 
(1692) 135 The most generous and brave Spirits, those whom 
Paganism has Deify'd, and Christianity has Sainted. 1705 
AUOISON Italy^ Sienna 391 A Shooe-Maker that has been 
Beatify'd, tho 1 never Sainted. 1830 COLERIDGE Table-t. 
4 June, [Jeremy] Taylor, .saints every trumpery monk and 
friar, down to the very latest canonizations by modern popes. 
1842 TKNNYSON St. Simeon Stylitcs 152 They shout, ' lie- 
hold a saint ! ' And lower voices saint me from above. 1906 
Westnt. Gaz. 19 June 5/1 The sandy shores of River Nid, 
where Holy Olafs bones were laid to rest before he had 
been sainted. 

tb./-. (Also **&/.) Obs. 

1597 ^ p - HALL Sat. i. vii, Sure will he saint her in bis 
Catendere, a 1625 FLETCHER Hum. Lieut, m. iii, If fortune 
dare play the Slut againe, I'll never more Saint her. 1632 
UKOME Novella iv. J, Lovers shall saint thee ; and this day 
shall be For ever callemlerd to Love and thee. 1727-46 
THOMSON Summer 1481 Alfred, .whose hallow'd name the 
virtuessaint. 1728 POI-E Dune. n. 357 Prompt or to guard or 
stab, to saint or damn. 

#. To cause to be regarded, or to appear, as 
a saint ; to represent as a saint, rare. 

1609 DANIEL Civ. IVars i. Hii, And in the vnconceiuing 
vulgar sort, Such an impression uf his good ties gaue As 
Sainted him. 1649 MILTON Eikon. Pref. IJ 3, Though the 
Picture sett in Front would Martyr him and Saint him to 
befoole the people. 1701 Baxters ParapJir. N. T. Postscr., 
However holy Salvian excuse them, and the Life of Kobe- 
line saint them, the generality of Christian Writers disown 
them. 1853 J. HAMILTON Lives Bunyan, etc. 176 He fell 
upon a time when the Church of England contained many 
men whose genius and piety would have immortalized and 
sainted them in an earlier age. 

absol. 1887 BROWNING Parleyings^ Bernard de Mandei'illc 
iij Brave sins which saint when shriven. 

f 4. To ascribe holy virtues or a sacred character 
to. Obs. 

1653 FKENCH Yorksh. Sf>a xvii. 119 Whether thi.s Well 
was Sainted from its real vertues, or onely supposed vertues. 
1655 FULLER Cii. Hist. n. iv. 22 After-Ages.. overacted 
their part in shrining, suinting and adoring his Relicks. 
1657 RKBVB God^s Pleaqo It is an easie matter, .to professe 
the Gospell, to Saint a fancied cause. 

*t* to. To name (something) after a saint. rare*' 1 . 

1706 BAYNAKD Cold Baths in Floyer Hist. Cold Bathing 
\\. 319 A. .Well, Sainted with the Name of Anne. 

5. intr. To act or live as a saint ; to live a saintly 
life ; to play the saint. In later use chiefly with it, 

c 1460 Towneley Myst. xiii. 209 Mak.. .1 must haue reuer- 
ence ; why, who be ich ?. . Bot, mak, lyst ye saynt ? I trow 
that ye lang. 1530 PALSGR. 697/1, 1 praye God I saynte 
than. IS7 1 Satir. Poems Reform, xxviii. 204 Nane 1 ac- 
cuse, I come not heir to Sant. c 1585 Fat re Em HI. 1280 
Let Mistress nice go saint it where she list. 1599 SHAKS., 
etc. Pass. Pilgr. 342 Thinke women still to striue with men, 
To sinne and neuer for to Saint. 1619 W. SCLATER Exf. i 
Thess. (1630) 183 What need to Saint it in youth? time 
enough to repent in age. 1735 POTE Ep. Lady 15 Whether 
the Charmer sinner it, or saint it. 1737 RAMSAY Prov. 
(1750) 76 Neither sae sinfu' as to sink, nor sae haly as to 
saunt. 1880 A. I. RITCHIE Ch. Baldred 26 He sainted it 
and sinnered it in turns. 

Saint, variant of CENT 2 , SEYNT. 

f Sai-ntage. Obs. nonce-wd. [f. SAINT sb. after 
homage.'] Honour (done) as to a saint. 

1657 J. WATTS yind. Ch. Eng. 85 \Vhen he is before them 
they must do their Homage, and their saintage unto him. 

Saint-bell : see SANCTUS BELL. 

Saintdom (s^'ntdam). [f. SAINT sb. +-DOM.] 
a. The condition or status of a saint, b. Saints 

1842 TENNYSON St. Simeon Stylites 6, 1 will not cease to 
grasp the hope I hold Of Saintdom. 1862 M. NAPIEU Life 
of I isct. Dundee II. 82 Nor until that great man, Wodrow, 
arose, was the Saintdom of Scotland properly recorded. 
1887 E.JOHNSON Antigua Alater 202 Patience. .is a car- 
dinal virtue of Jewish saintdom. 

Sainted (s^nted), ///.. Also 6 sancted. [f. 
SAINT v. + -ED 1 .] 

1. Enrolled among the saints ; canonized ; that 
is a saint in Heaven. 

1631 WEEVER Anc. Funeral Mon.y>\ These Sainted Arch- 
bishops, a 1633 AUSTIN Mcdit. (1635) 224 Some others he 
[sc. the Pope] nath let in for Sainted Martyrs, of whom 
some . . beleeve, that they were rather executed Traitors. 
1717 POPE Eloisa 312 Love's victim then, tho' now a sainted 
maid. 1845 LONGF. Norman Baron x, The lightning 
showed the sainted Figures on the casement painted. 1855 
MACAULAY Hist. Ettf-.xx. IV. 397 Lewis[XIVJ.. instituted 
..a new military order of knighthood, and placed it under 
the protection of his own sainted ancestor [St. Louis]. 

2. Of sanctified or holy life or character. 

1605 SHAKS. Macb. iv. iii. 109 Thy Royall Father Was a most 
Sainted-King. 1760-72 H. \$RQQKit.Foolo/Qual.(i%Q<)) III. 
15^ I.. pray for a blissful issue to the union of the sainted 
pair. 1810 SCOTT Lady of L. \\. viii, The eve thy sainted 
mother died. 1826 DISRAELI Wiv. Grey iv. iv, His virtuous 
and sainted wife. 1867 FREEMAN Norm. Conq. I. v. 302 
The former home of sainted princesses. 

3. Such as belongs to or befits a saint; sacred, 

1598 Mucedorus EpiL 21 Case vicious Diuels vnder sancted 
Rochets. 1601 SHAKS. All's Well HI. iv. 7 Bare-foot plod 

I the cold ground vpon With sainted vow my faults to haue 
amended. 1634 MILTON Coinus n Amongst the enthron'd 
gods on Sainted seats. 1652 FRENXH Yorksh. Spa xvii. 123 
Let not any one judge me to be a Catholick by this my appro- 
bation of thi.s Sainted Well. 1760 SMOLLETT Contn. Hist. 
Eng. I. 10 Bolingbroke.. resided at Battersea, where he was 
visited like a sainted shrine by all the distinguished votaries 
of wit. 1817 MOOKE Lalla A*., Paratiise -y Peri 351 And, 
like a glory, the broad sun Hangs over sainted Lebanon. 
1848 THACKERAY Van. Fair 1, She rocked him in her arms, 
and wept silently over him in a sainted agony of tears. 

Hence f Sarntedly adv., in a saintly manner. 

c 1789 TERRY in T. Campbell Life oj Mrs. Siddons (1834) 
II. vi. 149 So saintedly beauteous is the sickness and the 
grief of Katharine. 

Saint-errant, ironical. ? Obs* [Modelled on 
KNIGHT-KBRANT.] A saint who travelled in quest 
of spiritual adventures. 

1674 JOSSKLVN Voy, New Eng. 156 Rhode-Island a Har- 
bour for the Shunamiti.sli I'rcthren, as the Saints Errant- 
thc Quakers.. Sic. 1688 H. WHARTON Enthits. Ch. of Rom,: 
24 At last he [sc, Ignatius Loyola] resolved to become Saint- 
Errant. Ibid. 33 Don Quixot fancied that all Kn'ight- 
Errants went to Heaven, or at least to Purgatory; and 
surely Saint-Errants deserved to be placed in a higher de- 
gree. 1839-40 W. IRVING Wolferfs^ R. 316 The fate of 
these saints-errant had hitherto remained a mybtery. 

Hence Saint-errantry, the character, practice, 
or spirit of a saint-errant. 

1688 H. WHARTON I'.nthus. Ch. of Rome 24 Saint-Errantry 
was a much easier, and more certain way than Knight- 
Errantry. 1711 SHAFTESB. Charac. I. 20 If something 
of this militant Religion, something of this Soul-rescuing 
Spirit, and Saint-Errantry prevails still. 1760 STERNE^WH. 
(1764) I. 30 If we can so order it, as not to be led out of th 
\\ay, by the variety of prospects, edifices, and ruins which 
solicit us, it would be a nonsensical piece of saint-errantary 
tu shut our eyus. 1826 Souim:v Vind.Eccl. Angl. 173 The 
system of Saint-Errantry.. forms as conspicuous a part of 
hi.stoiy in this age, as Knight-Errantry in the succeeding 

Saintess (sJi-ntc-s). [f. SAINT sb. + -ESS.] 
A female saint. 

1449 in Nicliols Ilhtstr. Manners Ant. Times 132, Y be- 
seclie al the glorious ieyntes and seyntesses in heaven [etc.]. 
1509 KISHER Funeral Serm. C*tess Richm. Wks. (1876) 306 
The moost blessyd company of sayntes and sayntesses. 
1625 JACKSON Creed v. xxviii. i Saints are not pur inune- 
diate intercessors, but some Saintesse may make immediate 
intercession. 1737 Gentl. Mag. VII. 287/2 This Maid of 
Orleans, whom divers French Historians picture out as a 
Saintess. 1865 FREEMAN in W. R. W. Stephens Life -y 
Lett. (1895) I. 334, I made a speech likening her to all thr 
crowned saintesses in ecclesiastical history. 

Sainthood (s<7i-nthud). [f. SAINT sb. + -HOOD.] 
The condition, status, or dignity of a saint j also, 
saints collectively. 

1550 BALE Eng. Votaries ii. 85 b, Coupfynge it with the 
degre of hys sayntwode. 1753 World No. 8. 45 The supreme 
honour of monkish saint hood. 1818 SCOTT Hrt. Midi, viii, 
He felt no call to any expedition which might endanger the 
reign of the military sainthood. 1879 FARRAR Sf. Paul II. 
554 The glorious prophecy of Christian sainthood. 

t Sai'liting 1 , vbL sb. Obs. [-ING *.] Enrol- 
ment among the number of the saints ; canonization. 

1363-83 FOXE A. ,5- M. 225/2 The saincting of Thomas 
Becket. 1630 W. T. Jnstifict Relig. now Prof. i.v. 62 
Saints of the Popes Cannonizing and saynting. 1631 WKEVER 
Anc. Funeral Mon. 298 Theodore succeeded Deodat, as in 
seat, so in Sainting. a 1668 DAVENANT EJ>it. to Mrs. K. 
Cross 22 A Land, where many . . themselves as Saints 
esteem ; Yet Sainting after Death prophaness deem. 

attrib. 1604 HIERON Attsiv. to Popish Ryme E 2, Thou 
ask'st who them canonized. .? You say the Pope. I aske 
againe, Wilt thou that sainting power maintaine? 

Saintish (s^'-ntij), a. [f. SAINT sb. + -ISH.] 
Saint-like. (Chiefly contemptuous.) 

i$z9 MORE Dyaloge iv. Wks. 284/1 Seme he neuer so 
saintish with any new construccion of Christes holygospell. 
1576 GASCOIGNE Stecle Gl. Epil.,They be no diuels (I trowj 
which seme so saintish. 1612 T. TAYLOR Connn. Titus iii. 
3 (1619) 618 The afiectation of a Saintish puritie. 1814 
Sporting Mag. XLIII. 375 He could not bear people to be 
so damned saintish. 1840 HOOK in New Monthly Mag. LX. 
285 Don't think I am getting sainlish. 

i Sai'litism. O6s. rare 1 , [f. SAINT sb. + 
ISM.] The principles or practice of a Puritan 
' Saint ' (see SAINT sb. 3). 

1691 WOOD At/i. O-ron. I. 829/1 The pains he took in 
converting him to Godliness, /. e . to canting Puritanism and 

Saintite, -y, obs. forms of SANCTITY. 

Sai'ntless, a. rare. [f. SAINT sb. + -LESS.] 

*f 1. That is no saint. Obs. 

a 1603 T. CARTWRIGHT Confut. Rhem. N. T. (1618) 544 
That Saintlesse Saint and sinfull Souldicr of the Pope, 
Thomas Becket. 

2. That has no patron saint. 

1892 Daily AVms i Jan. 5/5 The saint less parish church. 

Saintlike, ft. [See -LIKE.] Resembling a 
saint or that of a saint ; of saintly life, character, etc. 

c 1580 JEFFERIE Bugbears iv. v. in Archw Stud. neu. Sfr, 
XCIX. 40 WhosoSaintelikeasshe? 1651 HOWELL Venice 
70 This Prince, as he was one of the stoutest, so was he the 
Saint-likest man of all the Dukes, a 1711 KEN Prepara- 
tives Poet. Wks. 1721 IV. 113 That I, May Saint-like live, 
Saint-like to die ! 1809 Miss MITFORD in L'Estrange Life 
(1870) I. 75 The saintlike meekness and resignation of Lady 
Jane [Grey]. 1830 TENNYSON Poems 32 And women smile 
with saintlike glances Like thine own mother's. 

Saintliness (s^'ntlines). [f. SAINTLY + -NESS.] 
The condition or quality of being saintly. 
1837 HOWITT Rttr. Life vi. ii. (1862) 418 The pageantry of 



processions and the merry saintliness of festivals. 1880 
R. W. DALE Evang. Revival 268 The inner life of saint- 
liness in all churches has a common root. 

Samtling (s<>i-ntrin). [f. SAINT sb. + -LING.] 
A little or petty saint. (Usually contemptuous.) 

1622 BOYS Wks. (1630) 780 For either they worship his 
saints as himselfe, or else their owne saintlings and not his 
saints. 1751 LAVINGTON Enthus. Meth. # Papists\\\. (1754) 
180 All the Glory, which Popish and other Saintlings pro- 
pose by afflicting the Body. 1829 LANDOR Itnag. Conv., 
Mahomet ff Sergius Wks. 1853 ' 443/ 2 '1'he blindest and 
tenderest young saintling that ever was whelped. 1854 
MRS. OLIPHANT M. Hepburn I. 118 In niches and smaller 
shrines apart, a host of little saintlings keep their place. 

Saintly (s^-ntli), a. [f. SAINT sb. + -LY '.] 
Of, belonging to, or befitting a saint or saints ; of 
great holiness or sanctity ; sainted. 

1660 R. COKE Power fy Sufij. 43 The Saintly King Edward 
Confessor. 1665-6 PEPYS Diary 17 Jan., The same weake 
silly lady as ever, asking such saintly questions. 1781 
COWPEK Truth 105 Which is the saintlier worthy of the 
two? 1819 KEATS Eve of St. Agnes v, Wing'd St. Agnes' 
saintly care. 1847 DE QUINCEY Sf. Mil. Nun Wks. 1854 III. 
53 Solitary Arab's tent, rising with saintly signals of peace, 
in the dreadful desert. 1868 MILMAN St. Ptaiti xi. 274 
There might., be found Farrers and Bernard Gilpins, of 
most saintly lives. 

t Sai'ntly, adv. Obs. [-LV 2 .] Ilolily. 

1532 MOKE Confut. Tindale Wks, 720/2 Babble he neuer 
so sayntely. 1653 LD, VAUX tr. Godeaus St. Paul 209 Doe 
not think your helves so saintly disposed, as is requisite. 

Sainto'logy. [f. SAINT sb. + -OLOGY.] lla- 
giology. So Sainto'logist, a hagiologist. 

1848 Klackiv. Mag. LXIII. 184 Do you know that we 
have historical painters for modern saintology. 1885 BEVK- 
KrucE Cnlross <y Titiliallan I. ii. 65 The later saintologists 
had a rage for burying all their great saints together. 1892 
Public Opinion (N.Y.) 5 Nov., The angelology and the 
saintology of orthodoxy. 

tSai'ntrel. Obs. [a. OF. sainterel, dim. of 
saint. Cf. SANTREL.] A saintling. 

c 1440 Protnp. Pan>. 451/2 Seyntrelle, sanctillus^sanctilla t 

Saints-, saint's bell : see SANCITS BELL. 
Saintship (s^-ntjip). [f. SAINT sb. + -SHIP.] 

1. The condition or status of a canonized saint. 
1631 HEVLIN St. George 206 From thence to prove St. 

George's Saintship. 1639 FULLER Holy War \\\. xxii. 150 
After his [sc. Dominic's] death, Pope Honorius for his good 
service bestowed a Saintship on him. 1700 Os BORN Let. in 
Maundrell Journ. ^erus. (1707) T 4b, His Body being found 
soentire wouldhave entitled him to Saintship. 1818 BENTH AM 
Ck. Eng. 35 Saint Dunstan,.. whose Saintship consisted in 
pulling the unclean spirit by the nose. 1866 ROGERS Agric, 
$ Prices I.vii. 138 The veneration for Bucket's memory, 
acknowledged by his elevation to the honour of saintship. 

2. The condition of being a saint or saintly 
person ; saintliness of life or character. 

1613 PURCHAS Pilgrimage 328 These must be belieued for 
this Saint-ship, although they lie neuer so shamefully, a 1675 
GI.ANVILL Ess. P kilos. $ l\t'tit*. vn. (1676) 31 Each Sect con- 
fin'd the Church, Saintship, and Godliness to it self. 1732 
POPE Ep. Bathurst 349 The Dev'l was piqu'd such saintship 
to behold. 1812 BYRON Ch. Har. \. xi, Whose, .eyes.. Might 
shake the saintship of an anchorite. 1859 GEO. ELIOT A. 
Rede ii, He had felt sure that her face would be mantled 
with the smile of conscious saintship. 1871 LOWELL Pope 
Wks. 1890 IV. ii From the compulsory saintship. .of the 
Puritans men rushed., to the opposite cant of sensuality. 

3. \Yith possessive pron. prefixed, used as a kind 
of title. Often ironical. 

1606 WARNER Alb. Eng. xv. xcviii. 389 Their Saintships 
are as capable thereof as sinfull men. 1668 H. MORE Div. 
Dial. iv. xxvii. 151 Where he did his Devotions to his Saint- 
ship with prayer and fasting in most humble manner. 1717 
DE FOE Mem. Ch. Scot. 15 They pulled St. Giles out of his 
Throne,.. threw his Saintship into the Dirt. 1850 I*. CROOK 
War of Hats % Beside his saintship stands the holy nun, who 
broke her vows. 1893 A. WALTERS Lotos Eater in Capri vii. 
149, I feel bound to throw what light I can upon his saint- 
ship's rather obscure personality. 

Saint-SiniOXlian (s^=nt-, s^ntisimJu-nian), a. 
and sb. Also St.- [f. Saint-Simon (see below) + 
-IAN.] a. adj. Belonging to or characteristic of 
the socialistic system propounded by the Comte de 
Saint-Simon (1760-1825), who advocated state 
control of all property and a distribution of the 
produce according to individual vocation and 
capacity, b. An advocate of this system. Also 
Saint-Simonist, -Simonite (sai'm^nist, -ait) in 
the same sense. Hence Saint-Simo'iiianism, -Si'- 
monism, advocacy of or adherence to this system. 

1831 Monthly Repos. Mar. 189 The exposition of the Saint 
Simonian faith or doctrine. Ibid. Apr. 279 The St. Simonite 
faith. Ibid. Feb. 82 The French sect of Saint Simonites 
and the 'New Christianity ' of its Founder. 1832 John 
Bull 6 Feb. 46/3 Massacre of old men and women 
in the Midi Abbe Chatel and Saint Simonists. 1841 
MARY HENNKLL in C. _Bray Philos. Necess. II. 610 St. Si- 
monianismand Fourierism. Ibid. 562 The completion of the 
St. Simonian doctrine is to be found in the future full 
development of the religious sentiment which it contemplates. 
Ibid. 555 ote,The St. Simonians complain that Guizot in 
reviewing the course of history has borrowed the ideas of 
their master. 1848 MILL Pol. Econ. u. i. 4 (1865) I. 264 
I he two elaborate _ forms of non-communistic Socialism 
known as_St. Simonismand Fourierism. 1863 FAWCETT Pol. 
Eccn. u. i. 122 St. Simonism, even if it alleviated poverty 
would introduce greater evils. 

t Saintuaire. Obs. Also 4 sa(y)ntuare, 
seyntwar(e, Sc. sanctwar, 5 sayntware. [a. 
OF. saintuaire, santuaire, semi-pop, ad. late I.. 
sanctudrium (see SANCTUARY).] Sanctuary 


111300 Cursor M. 688 And ilk waand (>at |>ai t>ere 
bare He sperd wit-in ber santuare [Go'tt., Trin. seyntwar(e]. 
Ibiti. 8274 pat hali arke |t>ai bare A-bule, wit all (>air san- 
tuare. c 1375 Sc. Lfff. Saints vii. (Jacobus Minor} 65 He of 
be apostohsall In-to be sanctwar can ga. 1390 GOWER Con/. 
1. 14 The libraire Wnich longeth to the Saintuaire. 0:1400- 
50 Alexander 1567 Of be saynt-ware many sere thingis. 

Saintuary, obs. form of SANCTUARY. 

t Sainty. Obs. rare \ In 6 seynty. ? A 
mock-affectionate formation on SAINT sb. 

a 1529 SKELTON E. Ruimiiyngtfi-i There was a pryckeme- 
denty, Sat lyke a seynty, And began to paynty, As thoughe 
she would faynty. 

Saip, Sc. var. SOAP. Saipheron, obs. f. SAFFRON. 
Sair, Sc. var. SAVOUR, SERVE v., SORE. 
Saircenett, obs. form of SARSENET. 
Sals : see SAY and SEE v. ; var. SYCE. 
Saise, Saisen, etc., obs. ff. SEIZE v ., SEISIN. 
Saisin, variant of SASIN, Indian antelope. 
t Saisiie. Oil. rare. Also sasne. [a. OF. 
Saisne :-L. Saxonem SAXON.] = SAXON. 

c nsoAFerlin .\ii. 176 Thei were in grete affray, and with- 
oute couns>-ile of the saisnes, that all day rode thourgh the 
londe. Ibid. 172 We haue herde the trouthe that the sasnes 
of the kyn of Aungier, of Saxoyne, be entred in-to oure 
londes and in-to oure heritages. 

Sait, obs. Sc. f.SEAT sb., SET///, a. ; obs. pa. t. 
of SIT v. 

Saite (s^'|3it), s/i. and a. [ad. L. SaitS-s sb. 
and adj., a. Gr. 2a(Ti;s, f. Sai's, Sais : see -ITE.] 
a. sb. An inhabitant of Sais. b. culj. = SAITIC a. 

1678 CUDWORTH Intel!. Syst. 342 jnarg.^ Theopompus 
affirmeth the Athenians to have been a Colony of the Saites. 
Ibid. 479. 1860 Cluuiil'. Encycl. VIII. 432/1 Many fine 
statues of basalt of the 26th or Saite dynasty. 

Saithe (s.?'j>). Sc. Forms : 7 sheath, 7-9 
seath, 8 seeth, 8-9 saith, seth, 9 se(e)the, 
seythe, 9- saithe. [a. ON. seid-r (Edda Gl.), 
mod. Norw. seid, sei, Icel.sei'S, seifft fry of codfish. 
Cf. Gael, saigh, saighcan (saoidhean, saoithean}, 
the coal-fish ; Irish saoidhean (^Dinneen) the young 
of any fish, esp. of the codfish or coal-fish.] The 
mature coal-fish. Also attrib. 

1632 LITHGOW Trav. x. 500 Ling, Turbet and Seaths. 
Ci68o in Sfacfurlanc's Ceogr. Collect. (S.H.S.) III. 248 It 
is called Shetland, because in old time, there were many 
Sheath-fish caught about its Coast. 1710 SIBBALD Hist. 
S'l/i' <$ Kinross 52 Asellns Niger, the Cole-fish of the 
North of England; our Fishers call it a Colman's-Seeth. 
1792 Statist. Ace. Scotl. iy. 79 The fish commonly taken 
on this coast, are cod,, .whitings, saiths or cuddies. 1793 
Ibid. VII. 397 The tenants have from their landlords.. a 
halfpenny for a seth (colefish). 1836 YARRKLL Brit. Fishes 

/_n _\T1 A -L _ cv. _i_l_ -I J- .\- - r^-ln-U :.. II ] 

(1841) 1 1. 251 Among the Scotch islands the Coalfish is called 
Sillock,.. Settle, Sey, and Grey Lord. 1863 JOHNS Home 
Walks 1 14 Shoals of small fish, principally Sethe and Lythe. 

1873 BLACK Pr. 'J*hule xxvii, He proposed he should go 
ashore and buy a few lines with which they might fish for 
young saithe or lythe over the side of the yacht. 1892 
ficntlc-.i'. Ilk. Sfort I. 67 The process of making a saithe-fly 
is very simple. 1895 A thcn&utn 14 Sept, 349/2 The angler 
may easily make a large catch either of mackerel or of 
pollack, seythe or herrings. 

Saitic (s^'iHik), a. [ad. L. Saitic-us, a. Gr. 
ScuriKos, f. 2ai-n;s : see SAITE and -1C.] Of or 
pertaining to Sais, the ancient capital of Lower 
Egypt. Saitic dynasties : the 26th and four follow- 
ing dynasties of the kings of Egypt. Hence Saitic 
period, (irf, etc. 

1678 CUDWORTH Intell. Syst. 506 That excellent Monu- 
ment of Egyptian Antiquity, the Saitick Inscription often 
mentioned, I am all that Was, Is, and Shall be. 1826-7 
G. C. RENOUARD in Encycl. Metrop. (1845) XVIII. 411/2 
The third [mouth of the Nile], called the Saitic. 1836 G. 
HIGGINS (title} Anacalypsis, an attempt to draw aside the 
veil of the Saitic Isis ; or, an inquiry into the origin of 
languages, nations, and religions. 1884 A.MHLIA B. EDWARDS 
in Encycl. Brit. XVII. 21/2 The Saitic period (Dynasties 
xxvi. to xxx.) is distinguished by the minute finish and 
artistic beauty of its sculptured sarcophagi. 

Saitt, obs. Sc. f. SEAT sb. obs. pa. t. of SIT v. 

Saiv, obs. Sc. form of SAFE. 

Saixe, variant of SAX (a slater's tool). 

Sajene, variant of SAGENE. 

II Sajou (sa.^/i 1 )' [F r -> shortened from sajouassti 
(Buffon), a. Tupi saiiiassu, f. sat (sahy, fahy) 
monkey (see SAI) + -itassu augmentative suffix.] 
One of various small South American monkeys, 
varieties of Sapajous, and Capuchin monkeys. 

1774 GOI.DSM. Nat. Hist. III. 236 The third [of the 
sapajous] is the Sajou ; distinguished from the rest of the 
sapajous by its yellowish, flesh-coloured face. 1855 W. S. 
DALLAS in Orr's Circ. Sei., Zool. II. 503 The White-throated 
Sajou (Cebits hypoleucos}. 

Sak, obs. form of SAC 1, SACK sb^, sb2 

Sakawinki (soekawi-rjki). Also 8-9 saooa- 
winkee, 9 sakka winkee. [Corruptly a. Du. 
sagwijntje, dim. of sagwijn : see SAGOIN.] A 
South American monkey, the White-headed Saki, 
2Hthecia pithecia or capillamentosa. 

1769 E. BANCROFT Guiana 135 The Saccawinkee is the 
smallest of the Ape tribe in Guiana. 1796 STEDMAN Surinam 
II. xvi. 13 So very delicate is the Saccawinkee, and so 
sensible of the cold, that scarcely one of them is brought 
to Europe alive.. .The Dutch call them the shagarinUe, 
from their being chagrined at the smallest trifle. 1845 


Encycl. Melrop. XXIII. 396/1 Pithccia CapUlameatoitu, 
Spix ;.. Native of French Guiana, where it is called the 
Sakka Winkee, and also of Brazil. 1903 DES VOKUX Colonial 
Service I. 90 One or two sakawinki or marmoset monkeys. 
Sake (s<7'k), s6. Forms : I sacu, 2- sake ; also 
4-5 sak(k, (4 saao, sack, 5 saacke, 6 saoke), 
4-6 Sc. saik, sayk, (5 saike, salk. 6 saek, 
sayck). [OE. sacu str. fern. = OFris. sake, seke 
affair, thing, sake, OS. saka lawsuit, enmity, guilt, 
thing (MLG., MDu. sake lawsuit, affair, cause, 
reason, guilt, Du. zaak lawsuit, cause, sake, thing), 
OHG. sahha cause, sake, thing (MHG. sach(e, 
mod.G. sache thing, affair), ON. spk crime, accusa- 
tion, action at law, cause, sake (Sw. sak, Da. sag 
in the same senses ; also, influenced by Ger., thing) 
: OTeut. "saka, related to the str. vb. *sat-, re- 

E resented by OE. sacan to quarrel, fight, claim at 
LW, accuse, OS. sakan to accuse, OHG. sahhan 
to strive, quarrel, rebuke. From the same root 
are OE. SSK(C (i*sakja), Goth. sakjS (\*sakjori), 
strife. An ablaut-variant of OTeut. *sak- is 
probably the *sok- represented by SEEK v., q.v. for 
the cognates outside Teutonic. 

The only use surviving in mod.Eng. ('for the sake of) 
has not been found in OE., and was prob. adopted from ON. 
It existed, however, in OHG. and OFris., and there is a 
possibility that it may have been in OE., though not evi- 
denced in the literature. It seems to have arisen from the 
use of the sb. to denote a litigant's cause or case (see i b). 
Cf. L. causa.} 

f I. As an independent substantive. Obs. 

1. Contention, strife, dispute ; in OE. also, a 
contention at law; a suit, cause, action. 

Beowulj '154 Grendel wan hwile wio" HroSgar, hetenicSas 
wse . . singale Scece. a 1000 L aivs of Hlothhxre ty Eadric 8 
Jif man oberne sace tihte. c iooo^LFRlcC.xiii. 7 WearS. . 
sacu betwux Abrames hyrdemannum and Lothes. c 1175 
Lamb. Horn. 95 He ne remde ne of bitere speche nes, ne he 
sake ne asterde. c 1205 LAY. 26290 And Eec-modliche hine 
beden bat he wi5 Romleode sumrne sake arerde. a 1250 
Owl $ Night. 1160 Ober bu bodest cheste an sake. < 1320 
Sir Beues (A.) 3510 So bai atonede wib oute sake. 

2. A charge or accusation (of guilt) ; a ground 
of accusation. Without sake, without good reason 
( = L. sine causa). 

ci2oo ORMIN 10211 Her he forrbfed te cnihhtess ec . . 
To sekenn sakess o be folk, To rippenn hemm & rarfenn. 
a 1300 E. . Psalter iii. 7 Alle to me witherwendand 
With-outen sake or any skil [Vulg. omnes adversaries tnihi 
sine cansa\ 1x1300 Cursor M. 27483 If bou man gas bin 
offrand to mak, And bi brober naf gain bi sak. ^1300 
Harrow. Hell 37 (Digby MS.) Hi nomen me wibouten 
sake, Bounden min honden to mi bake, c 1375 -ft. Leg. 
Saints ii. (Paulus) 167 Nero, mesure bi gret foly, and sla 
na man fore-owt sake, a 1400 Pistil! of Susan 204 We schul 
presenten bis pleint,. .And sei sadliche be sob, rigt as we 
haue sene, O Sake. 

3. Guilt, sin; a fault, offence, crime. Often 
coupled with sin. 

Betrumi/ 2W2 Da wses synn and sacu Sweona and ,?eata, 
. .wroht $ema:ne. a I0 oo I'hccnix 54 (Gr.) Nis 3cer on 3am 
londe. .synn ne sacu. < izoo ORMIN 1127 pa lakess mihhtenn 
clennsenn hemm Off sakess & off sinness. a 1300 Cursor Af. 
11553 For he moght find nan wit sak, On be sakles he snld 
ta wrake. Ibid. 29022 Fasting flemes flexsli sakes. 13.. 
E. E. Allit. P. A. 800 fat gloryous gyltlez bat mon con 
quelle, With-outen any sake of felonye. 1400 A. DAVY 
Dreams 90 And so shilde fro synne & sake ! a 1400-50 
Alexander 3213 pat sloje so baire souerayne bat neuire 
sake hadd. 

b. Without sake, without guilt, fault, or blame 
(both as adj. and as adv. phrase). Hence transf, 
= without physical blemish. 

a 1250 Owl ff Night. 1430 Heo mai hire guld at-wende 
arihte weie fmrh chirche-bende, an mai efte habbe to make 
hire leof-mon wi^-ute sake, a 1272 Litve Ron 62 in O. E. 
Misc. 95 Him waxeb bouhtes monye and fele hw he hit 
may witen wib-vten sake, a 1300 Cursor M. 4043 He 
[Joseph] was fair, wit-outen sake. Ibid. 6067 And siben sal 
ilk bus in-take A clene he lambe, wit-vten sake, c 1375 Sc. 
Leg. Saints xxiv. (Alexis)^ pat noble wyf anna,..treuly 
to god seruit ay in be tempil, nycht & day, foure schore of 
Jere, forout sak. 

4. nonce-use. Regard or consideration for some 
one. [After_/fo- the sake of in sense 5.] 

1590 SPENSER F. Q. i. v. 12 Tho mov'd with wrath, and 
shame, and Ladies sake. 

II. Phr. For the sake </(also f for sake of}; 
for (one's, a thing's) sake. 

In the latter of these forms, the word which precedes sake 
is a possessive (noun or pronoun) ; but down to the middle 
of the iQth c. the 'j of the possessive of common or abstract 
nouns was very commonly omitted (doubtless owing to the 
difficulty of pronouncing the two sibilants in succession), 
and from the i7th to the early ioth c. the two sbs. were 
often connected by a hyphen, as if forming an attributive 
compound. The omission of the 's is now obsolete, but it 
is still not uncommon to write for conscience sake, for good- 
ness sake, for righteousness sake, etc.. without the_ apo- 
strophe which is ordinarily used to mark the possessive of 
words ending in a sibilant. 

The paragraphs marked 3 contain illustrations of the 
omission of the V ; some of the early examples there placed 
must be explained by the fact that the sbs. occurring in 
them (e.g. soul] had originally no s in the genitive. 

5. Out of consideration for ; on account of one's 
interest in, or regard for (a person) ; on (a person's) 

a 1225 Leg. Kath. 98 For hare sake ane dale ha etheold 
of hire eaklrene god. a 1250 Owl $ Night. 1589 pat gode 


wif. .al for hire louerdes sake haue|> dales kare & nijtes 
wake, a 1300 K. Horn 1454 pis tur he let make Al for bine 
sake. 1375 BARBOUR Bruce vn. 244 Sclio said, 'all that 
traualand ere, For saik of ane, ar velcom here '. c 1375 Sc'. 
Leg. Saints ii. (Panlus) 596 Fore I hafe schawit hym quhat 
he mone thole for be sayk of me. 1530 TINDALE Gen. xviii. 
31, I will not distroy them for twenties sake. Ibid. 32, 
I will not destroy them for .x. sake. 1590 SHAKS. Mids. 
N. u. ii. 103 And run through fire I will for thy sweet sake. 
1595 J- KiNG(?wtff Day Serin, in On Jonas (1618) 703 Hee 
spareth our countrie for his anotnteds sake. 1784 CowPKR 
Taskvi. 637 Content to hear. -Messiah's eulogy for Handel's 
sake ! 1875 JOWETT Plato (ed. 2) I. 277 For my own sake 
as well as for yours, I will do my very best. 1884 J. PAYN 
Some Lit. Recoil. 6 When it became necessary for him to 
exert himself for the sake of his family. 

Q. 1338 R. BRUNNE Chron. (1810) 135, & busquathe he his 
bing, for his soule sake. Ibid. 292 For be coinon sake. 
1390 GOWER Conf. II. 229 For Thetis his moder sake. 
a 1400-50 Alexander 1813 And for ^aire souerayne sake 
bam send to \>e galawis. c 1420 Avow, Arth, xvii, This 
socur thou hase send me, For thi Sune sake ! c 1450 
Mirour Saluncioun 4087 Crist descendid to helle fro the 
heven for mankynde sake. 

fb. Occas. with unfavourable notion: On ac- 
count of enmity to ; because of the guilt of. Obs. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 162 Herode kyng wit wogh For crist 
sak pe childer slogh. ciyj^St. Andreas 96 in Horstrn. 
Altengl. Leg. (1881) 5/1 Or els I sail for bi god sake Ger 
hang be right on swilk a tre Als bou sais suld so honorde be. 
1530 TINDALE Gen. iii. 17 Cursed be the erth for thy sake. 

c. When the preceding genitive is pi., the pi. 
sakes is often used. 

1530 TINDALE Gen. xvni. 26, I will spare all the place for 
their sakes. 1567 Gude $ Godlie Ball. (S. T. S.) 181 All the 
exempillis of the Law Ar writtin..For our saikis. 1588 
SHAKS. L. L. L. v. ii. 765 For your faire sakes haue we 
neglected time. 1596 Tain, Shrew v. ii. 15 For both our 
sakes I would that word were true. 1716 ADDISON Free- 
holder No. Q P 14 We desire you will put yourself to no 
farther Trouble for our sakes. 1864 TENNYSON En. Ard. 505 
'Then for God's sake ', heanswer'd, ' both oursakes, So you 
will wed me, let it be at once '. 

6. Out of regard or consideration for (a thing) ; 
on account of, because of (something regarded in 
the light of an end, aim, purpose, etc.) ; often = out 
of desire for, in order lo attain, etc. 

rt 1225 Ancr. R. 4 Ye schullen..wel witen be inre [riwle] 
& be uttre vor hire sake. 1390 GOWER Conf. II. 217 For 
lucre and nought for loves sake. 1393 LANGL. P. PL C. v. 
99 For consciences sake. 1593 Q. ELIZ. Boeth. v. pr. iv. 
no For argumentes sake, mark what wold follow. 1643 
BURROUGHES Exf. Hoseo. vu. (1652) 281 Men in their 
prosperity are not regarded for any thing in themselves, but 
for their prosperities sake, for their moneys sake, for their 
cloaths sake. 1691 WOOD Ath. Oxon. 11.689 This year., 
one Fabian Philipps. .was a Student and Sojournour in the 
University for the sake of the Bodleian Library. 1693 
Humours Town 56 One that drinks for drink's sake. 1711 
ADDISON Spect. No. 35 F 10 He pursues no Point either of 
Morality or Instruction, but is Ludicrous only for the sake 
of being so. a 1770 JORTIN Serm. (1771) I. i. 10 It is doing 
mischief for mischiefs sake. 1790 PALEY Horx Paul. Wks. 
1825 III. 132 The business for the sake of which the jour- 
ney was undertaken. 1816 KIRBY & SP. Entomol. (1818) I. 
ix. 289 The icteric oriole is kept by the Americans in their 
houses for the sake of clearing them of insects. 1875 
JOWETT Plato (ed. 2) III. 63 Flattering of rich men for the 
sake of a dinner. 1875 T. W. HIGCINSON Hist. U. S. ix. 66 
There was no persecution for opinion's sake. 

ft, .''(1500 Chester PI. ii. 274 Adam, husband, I red 
we take thes figg-leaves for shame sake. 1535 COVER- 
DALE Matt. xiv. 9 Neuertheles for y e ooth sake {Mark 
vi. 26 for the oothes sake]. 1571 DIGGES Pnntom. in. 
xi. R iv, 1 shall for breuitie sake set foorth one onely 
rule generall. 1594 HOOKER Eccl. Pol. Pref. i. i To 
suffer all things, for that worke sake which we couet to 
performe. 1605 BACON Adv. Learn, i. vii. 16 It was 
mooued by some after supper, for entertainement sake. 
1621 Hi*. MOUNTAGU Diatriby 404 We are pitied, for fashion- 
sake of many, relieved of none. 1731 in Swift's Lett. (1766) 
II. 127 To flatter a man, from whom you can get nothing,. . 
is doing mischief for mischief - sake. 1754 RICHARDSON 
Grandisott (1810) IV. xiv. in For sex-sake, for example- 
sake, Lucy, let it not be known. 1784 COWPER Let. to 
Unwin Wks. 1836 V. 57, I am writing in the greenhouse for 
retirement sake. 1815 Edin, Rev. XXV. 398 Imagery or 
mere declamation, that is, speaking for speaking-sake. 1833 
Tracts for Times No. 10. 3 It is our duty to reverence 
them for their office-sake. 1853 J. H. NEWMAN Lecf. Turks 
\. (1854) 13, I shall call. .the populations.. Tartars, for con- 
venience-sake. 1865 SWINBURNE Chastelard iv. i, For sweet 

f b. Because of, by reason of, through ; in return 
or requital for. Obs. rare. 

1340-70 Alex, ff Dind. 283 But say bou nouht, sire king, 
for sake of euuie (>at me were lo|> of our Hf ludus to teche. 
a 1400-50 Alexander 2022 And for be sake of bi sede (?ou 
sent w' bi lettre, Loo, here a purse full of pepire my powere 
to ken. c 1400 Laud Troy Bk. 8902 Some of hem her deth 
schal take, Er it be ny}t, for that wounde sake. 1622 MABBE 
tr. Alemati's Guzman d'Alf. i. 158 Fearing lest for my 
sinnes-sake..I might be taken in some trap. 

C. For one's name^s) sake, out of regard for 
one's name; also for name sake. 

This has been suggested as the origin of NAMESAKE, q.v. 

15*6 TINDALE Acts ix. 16, I wyll shewe hym ho we grett 
thynges he must suffer for my names sake. 1599 Warn. 
Faire Worn, n. 915, I love you for your name-sake. 1638 
BRATHWAiT^'arttaicw Jrnl. m. (1818)97 Thence to Har- 
rington, be it spoken ! For name-sake I gave a token To a 
beggar. 1685 BAXTER Parafhr. N. T. Matt. xix. 29 All., 
that lose and forsake any thing here, for my Name-sake. 

7. In exclamatory phrases of adjuration, as for 
GoiC s sake, for goodness 1 sake. 

For further illustration see GOODNESS 5, GOD sb. n, MERCY 
sir, 4, PITY sb. 2 c. 


a 1300 Cursor M. 4800 And i yow pray, for drightin sak 
\Gott. for goddes sake], c 1386 CHAUCER Sonipn. T. 24 Now 
spede vow hastily for cristes sake, a 1333 Lu. BKKNEKS 
Huon fxxxviii. 279 For goddes sake aduyse you well that 
ye come not there. 1535 COVERDALE Ps. vi. 4 Oh saue me, 
for thy mercies sake. 1879 HOWKLLS L, Aroostook xvi, 
Hold on, for Heaven's sake! 1885 ' F. ANSTEV ' Tinted 
Venus 32 ' For goodness' sake, say something ', he cried 

f 8. With a pronominal adj. in place of the pos- 
sessive. For that sake, for the sake of that, on 
that account, for that reason. For any sake, in 
any case, at all events. For many sakes, out of 
consideration for many things. Obs. 

Quot. 1879 appears to be an unauthorized extension of 
this use. 

13. . S. Eng. Leg. {MS. Bodl. 779) in Archiv Stud. neu. 
Spr. LXXX1I. 321/512 A frere hadde I-trespased & for bat 
ilke sake a discipiyne he cholde habbe. c 1350 Will. 
Palcrne 2019 per- fore for sobe gret sorwe sche made, & swor 
for bat sake to sulTur alle peynes. a 1425 Cursor M. 3771 
(Trin.) She sent him soone into aram To hir brober bat het 
laban pere to soiourne for bat sake Til his bropber wrafjbe 
wolde slake. 1597 SHAKS. Lovers Conipl. 322 Aye me I fell, 
and yet do question make, What 1 should doe againe for 
such a sake. 1754 RICHARDSON Grandison (18101 IV. xlii. 
317 He shall, for many sakes, find it very difficult to pro- 
voke me. 1824 Miss FERRIBR Inker, xv, For any sake let 
us have one night of peace and rest. 1879 L. S. BKVINGTON 
Key-notes 133 Men are aglow to live for some great sake, 
Or die, if need be. 

9. Phr. *|- For sakers} sake : () euphemistically 
= 'for God's sake', in adjurations; (b} for the 
sake of some person understood ; (c ) for its own 
sake. Obs. Also, For old sake 1 s sake-, for the sake 
of old friendship. 

1665 R. HOWARD Four Plays, Committee m. 101 Run 
after him, and save the poor Fellow for Sakes sake. 1690 
DKVDF.N Amphitryon n. i, Meaning some Body, that for 
sake-sake shall be nameless. 1728-9 MRS. DELANY Life <5* 
Corr. (1861) I. 191 Cupid knows he is only civil to me for 
sake's sake. 1742 RICHARDSON Pamela III. 86 But ala^, 
Madam, he was not so well pleased with my Virtue, for 
Sake's sake, as Lady Betty thinks he was. 1857 HUGHES 
Tom Brown I. iii, Tve a been long minded to do't for old 
sake's sake. 1863 KINGSLF.Y Water-Bab, v. 216 Yet for old 
sake's sake she is still, dears, The prettiest doll in the 
world. 1886 STEVENSON Dr. Jekyll 17, I continue to take 
an interest in him for old sake's sake as they say. 

10. Sakes alive! and simply Sakes!: a vulgar 
exclamation expressing surprise, dial, and U.S. 

1846 MRS. KIRK LAND Wcst.Clearings ^ 'Law sakes alive !* 
was the reply, ' I ain't no how '. 1860 BA.RTLETT Diet. Atner. 
(ed. 3) s.v., ' La sakes ! ' * massy sakes ! ' ' sakes alive ! ' are 
very common exclamations among the venerable matrons of 
the interior parts of the country. The first two expressions 
are evidently corruptions of ' for the Lord's sake ! ' ' for 
mercy's sake ! ' 1883 llarf>er*s Mag. Dec. 91/2 Good sakes 
alive '.what harm? 1896 J. DE BOYS in Pall Mall Alag. 
Apr. 548 Clever ! Sakes ! You call hint clever ! 

Sake, v. Aphetic form of FORSAKE. 

a \yxiCnrsorM. 17183 And sua ursinnes for to sake \Gott. 
to forsake], c 1400 Rule St. Benet (Verse) 592 Trewcharite 
so for to sake. 6*420 Metr. St. Kath, (Halliw.) n For 
sche sakyth owre lay ! 

Sake, obs. form of SAC i, SACK sb.i, SHAKE. 

II Sake (s^'ke). Forms : 7 saque, 8 sakki, 9 
saki, sake, wake. [Japanese sake^\ A Japanese 
fermented liquor made from rice. (Hence used 
by the Japanese as a name for alcoholic liquors 

1687 A. LOVELL tr. Thevenofs Trav. in. 112 Their ordi- 
nary drink is a kind of Beer (which they call Saque) made 
of Rice. 1797 Encycl. Brit. (ed. 3) IX. 71/1 Sakki, or rice- 
beer, is clear as wine, and of an agreeable taste : taken in 
quantity, it intoxicates for a few moments, and causes head- 
ach. 1878 Miss T.J.YouHaCcntm&Xr^ 170 Saki, or Sake, 
is the chief alcoholic drink of Japan, and is made from rice. 
1901 HOLLAND Mowint 315 Oblige me with a glass of whisky 

attrib. 1884 GORDON in Mission. Herald (IJoston) 310/2 
(Stanf.) A little beyond lives a young sake brewer. 1885 
E. GREEY Bakitf 's Captive Love i. (1904) 12 Raising the sake- 
bottle from the hot-water vessel. Ibid, iii. 26 Acquaintances 
recently made in the sake-shops. 

tSaked, a. Obs. [f. SAKE sb. + -ED 2.] Guilty. 

a 1300 Cursor AT. 1223 Vnseli caym bat ai was saked [Gott. 
bat was forsakid]. Ibid. 27471 And if he wat and warnis 
noght O ded es he saked if it be wroght. 

Sakeen, variant of SKEEN (Himalayan Ibex). 

Sakelease, -les(a: see SACKLESS. 

Saker 1 (s^-kai). Forms: 5 sagre, 6 sagar, 
5-9 sacre, 6- saker. [a. F. sacre, ad. Sp., Pg. 
sacrOj It. sagro t prob. a. Arab. JL> $aqr. 

In form the Sp., Pg. and It. word coincides with the adj. 
repr. L. sacer SACRED; it has in consequence been sup- 
posed to mean * sacred falcon ' (cf. mod. scientific Latin 
Falco sacer), and Diez ingeniously conjectured that the 
designation was suggested by a confusion between Gr. 
ie'jjof falcon and ipds sacred.] 

A large lanner falcon {Falco sacer] used in 
falconry, esp. the female, which is larger than the 
male, the latter being distinguished as sakeret. 

'A related falcon of western North America, Falco polya- 
grns or F. tnexicanns t is known as the A merican saker ' 
(Cent. Diet. 1891). 

11400 MAUNDEV. (Roxb.) xxv. 117 Laneres, sagres [(1839) 
xxii. 338 reads Sacres], sperhawkes. 1486 Bk. St. Albans 
d iv, There is a Sacre and a Sacret. And theis be for a 
knyght. 1530 LD. KERNERS Arth. Lyt. Bryi. (1814) 327 
Some behelde the tournes and tournynges of the sakers and 
gerfawcons. 1580 HOLLVBAND Treas. Fr. Tong^ Vn Sacrct t 


the tiercelet of a Saker. 1606 BRETON Sidney's Ourania 
H i b, The princely Sagar and the Sagaret. 1623 MIDDLE- 
TON & ROWLEY Span. Gipsy n. i. 102 Let these proud sakers 
and gerfalcons fly. 1668 CHAKI.ETON Onomast. 65 Falco 
Sacer. .the Saker, or British Falcon. 1755 SMOLLETT Quix. 
(1803) IV. 87 As a saker or jerfaulcon darts down upon a 
heron. 1873 TRISTRAM Moab xii. 226 The Saker (Falco 
sneer) is much prized here, and is well known as distinct 
from the peregrine and the lanner. 1888 Daily News 
25 Aug. 3/4 A fine Asiatic hawk (a Saker). 

Saker- (s^-ksi). Now Hist, or arch. Also 
(6 sakir, Sc. saikyr), 6-7 sacre, (sakar, 7 sacar, 
9 erron. saeker). [a. F. sacre (= It. sagro\ a 
transferred use of sacre SAKER 1. (Cf. falconet, 
iimsket,~}\ An old form of cannon smaller than 
a demi-culverin, formerly much employed in sieges 
and on ships. 

1521 LD. DACRES in Archxologia, XVII. 205 First of grete 
peces, a Saker, Two Faucons, viij small Serpentyns. 1546 
Si. Papers Hen. /'///, XI. 145 M'. Seymour,.. beyng 
chased furst by that knave cuwerd Hurley, and put in gret 
dawnger with the shot of a sacre. 1549 Coinfl. Scot, vi. 41 
Mak reddy ^our cannons, .. saikyrs, half saikyrs, and half 
falcuns. 1556 J.HEY WOOD SpiderfyF. Hi. 23 Potgoons, sakirs, 
cannons, double anddemie. 1624 CAI'T. SMITH Virginia \. 
197 He found small hope to recouer any thing, S.'iue a Cable 
and an Anchor, and too good Sacars. 1652-62 HEYLIN 
Cos filler, in, (1682) 226 Culverin, Sakar, Minion, and oilier 
the like Ordnance of Brass. 1713 DKRHAM Pkys. Theol, i. 
iv. 28 According to my own Observations made with one of 
Her Majesties [Qu. Anne] Sakers, . .a Bullet, .flies fete.]. 
1881 1'ALGKAVii Visions of Eng. 135 Shooting from musket 
and saker a scornful death-tongue of flame. 1881 GKKKNKK 
Gun 21 Four sizes of cannon, .called respectively, cannons, 
culverins, sackers and falconets. 
b. attrib. as saker shot t etc. 

1547 Acts Privy Coutici/ (i&go) II. 133 Sacre* wheles shod 
and unshod, three payr. c 1556 ToWRSON in Ilaktuyfs 
Voy. (1599) II. n. 38 The 14 day we came within Saker- 
shot of the cnstle. c 1595 GAIT. WVATT A'. Dudley's Voy. 
If. Ind. (Hakl. Soc.) 60 With a fayre saker shott they 
strake the verie blade of his Icadinge staff into mauie peeces. 
1666 in lot /i A'ty*. /fist. MSS. Comm. App. v. 8 Captain 
John Bartlett. .returneing into his Majesties store 40 saker 
shott, being six poundes weight. 1669 STUKMY Mariner's 
Mag. v. xii. 65 A Saker-borc i'iece of Iron, a 1690 Krsuw. 
Hist. Coll. in. II. 281 [1643] A Demi-Culverin, Four small 
Drakes in one Carriage, a Sacre-Cut (see CUT $b? 30 a]. 

t Saker :; . 06s. rare 1 . [App. of Fr. origin: 
cf. * sacqiterelle^ a dock for a horses tayle ' (Cotjjr.) ; 
also saquarelle 1553 in Godefr.] DOCK sb.% 2 a. 

1607 MARKUAM Carjal. v. (1617) 31 This done you shall 
buckle on his breast plate, and his crooper, . .then you shall 
lace on his saktrr or docke. 

Sakeret (sJi-karet). Obs. or arch. Forms : 5 
sacrette, 5-7 sacret, 6 sagaret, 7 sakret, sa- 
caret, sakaret, 8- sakeret. [a. F. sacre/, dim. 
of sacre SAKER t.] The male of the ' saker '. 

1*1400 MAUNUEV. (1839) xxii. 238 Faukons gentyls, Lan- 
yeres, Sacres, Sacrettes. 1486 Sacret, 1606 sagaret [see 
SAKER 1 ]. 1610 W. FOLKINGHAM Art oj Survey iv. iii. 83 
Hawlkes : as the Falcon,.. Saker, Sakret, Marline. 1655 
VfALTQtt Angler i. (1661) 13 Of the first kind [sc. long-winged 
hawks], there be chiefly in use amongst us.. the Saker and 
Sacaret. 1688 R. HOLME Armoury u. 236/1 A Sacret or 
Sakaret is the male of a Saker or Sacre. 1721 BAILEY 
Sa&t:ref, the Male of a Saker Hawk. And in later Diets. 

Sakeret, obs. var. pa. t. and pa. pple. of SACIIE v. 

Sakerfyse, obs. form of SACRIFICE. 

Sakering(e, -yng(e, obs. forms of SACKING. 

Sakett, obs. form of SACKET. 

t Sa'kful, a. Obs. [OE. sacfull, f. sacu SAKE 

+ full -FtL.] a. Contentious, quarrelsome, b. 
Guilty, criminal. 

c 1000 /ELFRIC De octo mtiis in Lamb. Horn. 301 Se seofo- 
ba un^eaw is baet se cristena mann beo sacfull [c 1175 Ibid. 
113 sacful]. rt 1300 Cursor M, 26678 Bot bal na be samen 
partenar Sekand til an sakful dede. 

Saki (sa-kij. [a. F. saki (Buffbn), app. incor- 
rectly a. Tupi fahy : see SAL] A South Ameri- 
can monkey of the family Cebidse,, of either of the 
two genera Pithecia or Brachyurus\ also with 
various defining names. 

1774 GOLDSM. Nat. Hist. (1776) IV. 236 Of the sagoins 
with feeble tails, there are six kinds. The first and the 
largest, is the Saki. 1780 SMELLIE Buffon* s Nat. Hist. 
(1791) VIII. 201 The saki, which is commonly called the 
fox-tailed monkey,.. is the largest of the sagoins. 1896 
H. O. FORBES Hand-bk. Primates I. 183 The hairy Saki. 
Pithecia monachus. Ibid. 185 The white-headed saki. 
Pithecia pithecia. 1898 Daily News 22 Aug. 5/1 An in- 
teresting South American Saki monkey known as Pithecia 

Saki, variant of SAKE". 

II Sakia (sa-kia). Forms : 7 saki, 8 sakiah, 9 
sakie, sackiyeh, sageer, sakhyia, sak(i)yeh, 
sakieh, sakia. [Arab. i*sL* sdqiya h , fern. pr. pple. 
of saga to irrigate. In North Africa the q is pro- 
nounced (g), whence the fonn&gytfr.] A machine 
for drawing water for irrigation, consisting of a 
large vertical wheel to which a number of earthen 
pots are attached, and to which motion is imparted 
by a horizontal wheel turned by oxen or asses. 

1687 A. LOVKLI. tr. Tkevenot's Trav. i. 139 Eight Sakis 
turned all by Oxen, that discharge Water into a great 
Bason. 1796 MORSE Atner. Geog. II. 603 (Stanf.) One of 
the ways in which the water is generally raised is by the 
Sakiah, or Persian wheel. 183* Veg. Subst. Food 21 The 
Nubian cultivators,. employ sakies, or water-wheels, for the 
purpose of irrigating the fields during the summer. 1836 



LANE Mod. Egypt. (1848) II. 16^ Another machine, .almost 
the only one used for the irrigation of gardens in Egypt, is 
the 'sakiyeh'. 1844 KITTO Phys. Hist. Palestine vii. 295 
The Sackiyeh,. .which is usually in all places called 'the 
Persian Wheel '. 1866 BAKER Albert N'Yanza II. 37 Saat 
. .works away with his spoon like a Sageer (water wheel),. . 
the soup disappearing like water in the desert. 1873 LE- 
LAND Egypt. Sketch-Bk. 50 A sakhyia or water-wheel, 
turned by oxen or donkeys. 1885 C. G. W. LOCK Workshop 
Receipts Ser. iv. 93/1 In Egypt, under the name of sakia, 
this machine is in common use. 

attrib. 1873 W. Couv Lett. <[ Jrnls. (1897) 324 The two 
characteristic sounds are the sakyeh creak, and the chatter- 
ing of villagers at sunset. 

Sakin, variant of SKEEN (Himalayan Ibex). 

Sakir, obs. form of SAKER 2 and SACRE v. 

Sakke, obs. form of SACK si>. 1 , s/>.* 

Sakket, Sakki, obs. ff. SACKET, SAKE. 

Saklace, -las, -lea, obs. ff. SACKLESS. 

Sakor, variant of SACRE v. 

t Sa'kre. Obs, rare. Also sacre, sakar. [Of 
obscure origin.] Some kind of sea-going vessel. 

1546 St. Papers Hen. VIII, XI. 255 He toke occasion to 
aske me. .whethur I wolde goo to Callayes or Boulloigne_by 
land, orelles in the gallyes with hym, or in the sakre which 
was taken by the gallyes, the which the King his masters 
pleasour was should be delyveryd agayne. Ibid., [The 
writer replied] neither seyeng that I wold receave the saied 
sacre, nor that I wold refuse her. 1590 NASH Pasquirs 
Apol. 64, Penrie..was built but for a Flie-boate, to_take 
and leaue, when the skyrmish is too hole for him to tame, he 
may sette vp his sayles and runne away...Tantara, tantara, 
is he fled indeede 1 let me sende a Sakar after him. 

Sakred, obs. var. pa. t. and pa. pple. of SACRE v. 

Sakret, variant of SAKERET. 

Sakring, -ryng, obs. forms of SACRINC. 

Sakyre, obs. variant of SACRE v. 

II Sal l (SEC!). Chem., Alch., and Pharm. [L. 
(masc. and neut.) = salt.] 

1 1. = SALT sbl (in various senses). Obs, 

<. 1386 CHAUCER Can. Ycoin. Prol. ff T. 257 Sal tartre, 
A!k;ily, and sal preparat. 1460-70 Bk. Quintessence 12 Sal 
oonum preparate. a 1626 MEVERELL in Baconiana Physiol. 
(1670) 117, I can truly and boldly aflirm, that there are no 
such principles as Sal, Sulphur, and Mercury, which can be 
separated from any perfect Metals. 1674 JEAKE Aritli. 
(1696) 662 All Sublunary Bodies consist of the three principal 
Substances, Sal, Sulphur, and Mercury. 

2. With qualifying word : f sal anatron = AN A- 
TRON ; sal attinear = ALTINCAR ; t sal lambrot, 
corrupt form of sal ALEMBROTH ; f sal marine 
[med.L. sal martinis'], common salt (see MARINE 
a. i b) ; sal mirabile (-is) [mod.L., ' wonderful 
salt ',sonamed by Glauber], Glauber'ssalts, sulphate 
of soda ; sal soda, t sode [med.L. sal soda;], cry- 
stallized sodium carbonate ; "f" sal-tartre [med.L. 
sol tartari], salt of tartar. See also sal ALEMBROTH, 

1775 ASH, * Satanatron, Anatron, a kind of native salt. 1471 
RIPLEY Comp. Alch. Adm. v. in Ashm. (1652) 190 *Sal At- 
tinckarr. 1678 PHILLIPS (ed. 4), *Sal Lambrot, or Sale- 
brot. 1670 \V. SIMPSON flydrol. Ess. 7 They.. become 
determined into a saline Body ; in one place into Allom, in 
another in *Sal-marine. 1875 Ures Diet. Arts III. 739 
Sal marine is common salt (chloride of sodium). 1719 
QUINCY Compl. Disp. 33 Glauber's *Sal Mirabilis, which is 
made of common Salt and Vitriol. 1879 Encycl. Brit. X. 
675 Glauber's Salt,.. formerly known as 'sal mirabile Glau- 
ber! 1 . 1471 RIPLEY Coinp. Alch. Adm. v. in Ashm. (1652) 
190 Sal Peter, "sal Sode, of these beware. 1884 A. WATT 
Soap-making 93 The dried sal-soda is produced by passing 
currents of hot air through the crystals until they fall into 
a powder. 1890 Anthony's Photogr. Bull. III. 129 Sal 
soda gives detail and bromide gives contrast, c 1386 *Sal 
tartre [see i above]. 1471 RIPLEY Coinp. Alch. Adm. v. in 
Ashm. (1652) 190 Sal Tarter, sal Comyn, sal Geme most 
clere. 1610 B. JONSON Alch. i. iii, I, I know, you'haue 
arsnike, Vitriol, sal-tartre, argaile, alkaly, Cinoper. 1683 
PETTUS Fleta Min. n. 121 Sal Tartar, 
t b. Short for SAL VOLATILE. Obs. 
1703 ROWE Ulyss. Epil., Your Sal, and Harts-horn Drops. 
Sal 2 (sal). Also saul. [Hindi sal^ Skr. sala.'] 
A valuable timber tree of India, Shorea nbusta 
yielding the resin dammar. Also attrib. 

1789 SAUNDERS in Phil. Trans. LXXIX. 80 Saul timber, 
bamboo, and plantains. 1800 Suppl. Chron. in Asiat.Ann. 
Reg. 131/2 The forest, thro 1 which we passed, consisted of 
saul trees, setsaul, bamboos. 1866 Chamb. Encycl. VIII. 435/2 
Great sal forests exist along the southern base of the Hima- 
laya Mountains. 1873 Miss R. H. BUSK Sagas fr. Far 
East 331 His death.. took place under a Shala-grove, or 
grove of sal-trees. 1875 BEDFORD Sailors Pocket Bk. ix. 
(ed. 2) 336 The Teak and Saul of India. 1901 Harper's 
Mag. CII. 775/2 The gate was of solid sal-wood. 
Sal, obs. f. SAIL ; obs. north, f. SHALL, SOUL. 
II Sala ! (sa-la). [It., Sp., Pg. sala : see SALLE.] 
A hall or large apartment ; spec, a dining-hall. 

1611 CORYAT Crudities 205 Hee had entred with his whole 

troupe of men into the Sala where the Duke sat. a 1668 

LASSELS I'oy. Italy (1670) n. 54 Passing from hence through 

the Stain again, I was led into the great room hard by. 1774 

WSAXALL Tour North. Europe iii. (1776) 26 The grand sala 

dining-room (of the palace of Rosenbourg]. 1851 MAYNE 

REID Scalp Hunt, v,,, [In Mexico] The ball room was a 

long oblong sala, with a 'banquette' running all round it. 

11 Sala 2 (sa-la). [Hindi, Skr. sa/a house.] An 

Indian rest-house or inn. 

1871 ALABASTER Wheel of Law 265 We find two Salas or 


travellers' rest-houses. 1890 H. S. HALLETT 1000 Miles 257 
Passing through the village we put up at the sala. or rest- 
house, which is situated on the banks of the Meh Wung. 

Salaam (sala'm), sb. Also 7 salame, sallaui, 
salema, salora, selame, 7-8 selam, 7-9 salam, 
8 schalam, 8-9 salem. [Arab. *X** salam 

(hence in Pers. and Urdu) = Heb. C'for shdloni 
peace.] The Oriental salutation (as)salam (e-alai- 
kuni , Peace (be upon you). Hence applied to 
a ceremonious obeisance with which this salutation 
is accompanied, consisting (in India) of a low 
bowing of the head and body with the palm of 
the right hand placed on the forehead. 

1613 PURCHAS Pilgrimage (161$) 546 He. .presenteth him- 
selfe to the people to receive their Salames or good morrow. 
1634 SIR T. HERBERT Trai'. 113 Some of the bridematds 
came out unto us, and after a Sallam or Congee began a 
Morisko. 1687 A. LOVELL tr. Thevenot's Trai'. 1. 152 When 
they give one another the Selam, after the Prayer of Kousch- 
louk. 1779 FORREST Voy. N. Guinea 214 Tuan Hadjee 
got up, and, without making the ordinary selam, went 
abruptly out of the hall. 1800 SnppL Chron. in Asiat.Ann, 
Reg, 152/2 On being informed that I was a Hrahman, he 
made me some very respectful salems. 1835 WILLIS Peticit- 
lings II. xlvii. 65 We were received with a profusion of 
Salaams by the sultan's perfumer. 1837 Madras 
(1843) "4 Good morning, sar : great chief, salam ! 1849 
K. E. NAPIER Kxcurs. S. Africa I. 287 After a long chat, 
I made my salaam, and went to inspect a most conspicuous 
object on a neighbouring height. 1867 'OuiDA 1 Under 
Two Flags II. viii. 213 The Moor rose instantly, with pro- 
found salaams, before her. 1892 KIPLING & BALESTIER 
Naniahka 181 ' Salaam, Tarvin Sahib 1 , he murmured. 

b. transf. Respectful compliments. 

1786 HAN. MORE Let. to Lady Middleman 14 June, Pray 
present my proper salams (is that spelt right?) to Mrs. Bou- 
verie. 1899 KIPLING Stalky 267 Rutton Singh sends his 
best salaams. 

c. attrib, and Comb.) as salaam-like adj. ; 
salaam convulsion, -spasm, a form of convul- 
sion incident to children and characterized by 
nodding of the head. 

1850 R. G. CAMMING Hunter's Life S. Afr. xvii. II. 9 A 
'salaam-like 1 movement of his trunk. 1850 Lancet I. 485 
Ecla)npsia nutaiis of Mr. Newnham, or the 'salaam con- 
vulsion' of Sir Charles Clarke. 1886 HiuK's llandbk. Med. 
Set. II. 287 Wry-neck, writer's cramp, spinal trepidation, 
salaam spasm. 

Salaam (sala-m), v. [f. prec.] 

1. trans. To make a salaam to; to salute with 
a salaam ; to offer salutations to. 

1693 T. SMITH Obs. Constantinople in Coll. Cur. Trai', 
II. 71 They, .take it ill to be salam'd or .saluted by them. 
1718 PCKLEV Saracens II. 182 Obeidollah appearing, Mus- 
lim did not Salam or salute him. 1837 Madras 
(1843) in Two rows of his own servants and ours, salamin^ 
him at every step. 1892 KIPI.ING & BALKSTIKR Naulahka 
199 He [sc. an ape] used to salaam me in the mornings like 
Luchman Rao, the prime minister. 

2. intr. To make a salaam or obeisance. 

1698 FRYER Ace. E. India ff P. 18 H being their Custom 
only to Salam, giving a bow with their Hands across their 
Breasts. 1824 Edin. Rev. XLI. 41 They salaamed to me 
with an air that said [etc.]. 1827 D. JOHNSON Ind. Field 
Sports 139 He fell on the ground salamitig (the most sub- 
missive obeisance). 1853 Miss YONUE Cameos I. xxix. 249 
Putting their hands to their brow, and salaaming down to 
the ground. 1879 MRS. A. E. JAMES Ind. Hoitseh. Managem. 
49 When he comes into the room he salaams profoundly. 

Hence Salaa'ming vbl. sb. and ppL a. 

1816 'Quiz 1 Grand Master it. 45 note^ Salaming is the 
mode of salutation in India. 1879 MRS. A. E. JAMES Ind. 
Househ. Manageut. 43 Hordes of respectfully salaaming 
natives from all parts of India. 

Salacious ,sal<? Ip J3s), a. [f. L. salad-, salax, 
f, root of salire to leap : see -lous.] 

1. Lustful, lecherous ; sexually wanton. 

1661 FELTHAM Lett, in Resolves^ etc. x. 74 If you remember 
how you have seen the salacious and devouring Sparrow beat 
out the harmless Marten from his nest. 1675 EVELYN Terra 
(1729) 25 Pigeons, Poultry and other Salacious Corn-fed 
Birds, a 1704 T. BROWN Satire agsf. Woman Wks. 1730 I. 
55 Let every man thou seest give new desires And not one 
quench the rank salacious fires. 1774 GOLDSM. Nat. /list. 
(1862) I. v. 427 Animals of the hare kind.. are remarkably 
salacious. 1822-34 Good's Study Med. {ed. 4) II. 484 A 
disorder of the spinal marrow incident to persons of a sala- 
cious disposition. 1865 Sat. Rev 28 Jan. 101 The perusal 
of the amatory diaries and salacious confession of incipient 
guilt. 1897 Allbntt^s Syst. Med. II. 992 Its [i. e. arsenic's] 
more immediate effect on the system is to make the people 
lively, combative and salacious, 

2. Tending to provoke lust. rare. 

1645 HOWELL Lett. II. xxvii, Which makes fi*h more 
salacious commonly than flesh. 1697 DRYDEN Virg. Georg. 
in. 199 Feed him with Herbs.. Of generous Warmth, and 
of salacious kind. 1775 Siemens Sent. Journ. IV. 219 (Con- 
sequence} It is well known., that turtle is very salacious food. 

Hence Sala-ciously adv., Sala-cicmsness. 

1727 BAILEY vol. II, Salaciousness^ Salacity, Lechery, 
Lustfulness. 1755 JOHNSON, Salaciously, lecherously ; lust- 
fully. 1812 W. TAYLOR in Monthly Rev. LXVIII. 509 His 
frequent salaciousness is an aroma, disgusting to the pure 
and corruptive of the temperate taste. 1875 H. C. WOOD 
Therap. (1879) 564 Small doses do cause evident salacious- 
ness and irritation of the genital organs. 

Salacity (salae-sTti). [ad. L. salacltat-em^ f. 
sa/ac-j salax (see SALACIOUS). Cf. F. salacite.] 
The quality or condition of being salacious ; lust- 
fulness, lecherousness, sexual wantonness. 

ET Hexapla. Gcn.^Z The salacitie and wanton- 


nes of their nation. 1621 UUKTON Altai. Met. n. ii. i. ii. 317 
Sparrows, which are. .short liued because of their salacity. 
1675 EVELYN Terra (1729) 6 Some Earths appear to be totally 
barren, and some though not altogether so unfruitful, yet 
wanting Salacity to conceive. 1769 E. BANCROFT Guiana. 
385 Lepers are notorious for their salacity and longevity. 
1822-34 Good's Study iMed. (ed. 4) II. 485 Morbid salacity 
is no uncommon cause of madness. 1884 World m Aug. 9/2 
The Oxford fellow whose conversation . . was traversed by a 
vein of salacity. 1903 Sat. Rev. 4 Apr. 428/1 A reading 
of this book inspires us with a fear lest French salacity is 
to be paraded in the English tongue. 

Salad (sa."lad). Forms : a. 5 selad. 5-7 salade, 
6-7 sallade, 7-9 sallad, 7- salad ; 4. 6 sal- 
(l)ett(e, -otte, -ite, 6-7 salat, 6-9 (now dial, or 
arch.} sallet, 7 sallat(e. [a. OF. salade (i4th c.), 
a. Pr. salada Olt. salata, Pg. salada (cf. It. in- 
salala, Sp. ensalada} : popular l-..*salala, f. *salare 
(It., med.L. salare, Pr., Sp., Pg. sa/ar, F. safer) 
to salt, f. L. set/salt. 

The Romanic word has been generally taken into the 
Germanic langs. : Du. salade (salact in Kilian, also sl<i 
from "sfarie), late MHG. salat (G. salat), Sw., Da. salat; 

also Russ. eajian>] 

1. A cold dish of herbs or vegetables (e. g. lettuce, 
endive), usually uncooked and chopped up or 
sliced, to which is often added sliced hard-boiled 
egg, cold meat, fish, etc., the whole being seasoned 
with salt, pepper, oil, and vinegar. 

For an earlier wider use see quot. 1688 in j3. and cf. quot. 
1687 s. v. SALAUING. 

a. 1481-90 Howard Househ. Bks. (Roxb.) 398 Item, for 
erbes for a selad j. d. 1533 ELYOT Cast. Heltfte (1539) 4 1 
Yonge men . . shell eate . . salades of cold herbes. 1578 LYTE 
Dodofns 125 '1 his much vsed in meates and 
Salades with egges. 1601 HOLLAND Pliny II. 37 If you 
would make a delicate sallad of Cucumbers, boile them first, 
then pill from them their rind, serue them vp with oile, 
vinegre, and honey. 1699 DAMPIER Voy. II. i. 72 Purslain 
. . tis very sweet, and makes a good Salad for a hot Country. 
1712 ARBUTHNOT John Bull \. xvi, She turned away one 
servant for putting too much oil in her sallad. 1726 SWIFT 
j Gulliver iv. ii, Wholesome herbs, which I boiled, and eat 
as sallads with my bread. 1846 FORD Gatherings front 
Sfaiu (1906) 147 The salad is the glory of every French 
dinner and the disgrace of most in England. iSssDELAMEK 
Kitch. Card. (1861) 107 The most approved autumnal salads 
are those mainly composed of endive. 

|3. < 1390 Forme of Cury (1780) 41 Salat. Take persel, 
sawge,garlec [etc.]..\vaische hem clene. .and myng hem wel 
with rawe oile, lay on vyneger and salt, and serue it forth. 
1550 J. COKE Eti. fy Fr. Heralds 30 (1877) 64 Oyle olyve 
\v hiche was brought out of Espayne, very good for salettes. 
1597 HOOKER Eccl. Pol. v. Ixxvi. 8 A Sallet of greene herbes. 
1629 PARKINSON Paratiis. 468 Asparagus .. whose young 
shootes. .being boyled, are eaten with a little vinegar and 
butter, as a Sallet of great delight. l6o PEHYS Diary 
14 May, A sallet and two or three bones of mutton were 
provided for a matter of ten of us. 1688 R. HOLME A rtiwury 
in. 84/2 Sallet, is either Sweet Herbs, or Pickled Fruits, or 
Cucumbers, Samphire, Elder-Buds, Broom-Buds, &c. eaten 
with Roasted Meats. 1707 Cnrios. in Hltsb. <V Card. 173 
Samphire . . is very good in Sallets. 1716 AUDISON Free- 
holder No. 30 P 5 Pudding, which, it must be confess 'd, is 
not so elegant a Dish as Frog and Sallet. 1908 A. MOVES 
Drake vi, Sallets mixed with sugar and cinnamon. 

b. fig. and allusively, as a type of something 
mixed (f or savoury). 

1601 SHAKS. AlCs Well iv. v. 18 She was the sweete 
Margerom of the sallet, or ralher the hearbe of grace. 1602 
Itain. n. ii. 462, I remember one said, there was no 
Sallets in the lines, to make the matter sauoury. a 1635 
CORBET Her Bar. (1647) 487 The Puritan, the Anabaptist, 
'. I'.rownist, Like a grand sallet. 1774 GOLDSM. Retal. n Our 
Garrick's a salad,~for in him we see Oil, vinegar, sugar, and 
saltness agree. 1831 GEN. P. THOMPSON Exerc. (1842) I. 
373 How the united robbers, after a sallad of murder and 
J'e Dennis, of conflagrations and general fasts, succeeded in 
dividing Poland. 1856 F. SAUNDERS (till*) Salad for the 
Social. 1893 Nation ,lN.Y.) LVII. 133/1 Close at hand the 
building is an entertaining salad of styles. 

2. Any vegetable or herb used in a raw state as 
an article of food, esp. in the kind of dish described 
in i ; = salad-herb. See also CORN-SALAD. 

c 1460 J. RUSSELL Bk. Nurture 97 Beware of saladis, grcne 
metis, and of frutes rawe. a 1500 f'lowtr ff Leaf\\x, They 
yede about gadring Plesaunt salades, which they made hem 
! ete. 1577 B. GOOGE HeresbacKs Husb. n. (1586) 52 b, And 
j your Potte hearbes and Sallets in another place. i6zl 
BL-RTON Anal. Mel. I. ii. n. i. 91 That all rawe hearbs and 
i sallets breed Melancholy blood, except Buglosse and Lettice. 
1643 SIR T. BROWNE Relig. Sled. II. i, I could digest a 
Sallad gathered in a Church-yard, as well as in a Garden. 
1673 KAY Journ. Lmu C. 395 They are very temperate in 
their diet, eating a great deal of sallet and but little flesh. 
1784 COWPER Task vi. 304 To pick A cheap but wholesome 
sallad from the brook. 1870 DICKENS /;". .Drood iii, The 
Cloisterham children grow small salad in the dust of abbots 
and abbesses, and make dirt-pies of nuns and friars. 1887 
MOLONEY Forestry \V. Afr. 273 Watercress (Nasturtium 
officinale . .). The well-known salad. 

b. spec. (dial, and U. S.) Lettuce. 
1838 Philadelphia Ledger July (Bartlett), Salad goes to 
head by the middle of May, on Vancouver's Island. 1860 
Darlingtoi^ s Ainer. Weeds, etc. 205 Those forms known as 
Curled and Head Salad. 1877 Holderness Gloss., Sallit.. 
the lettuce plant before preparation for the table. 

fc. in proverbial or allusive use, esp. in to pick 
a salad, (a) to be engaged in some trivial occupa- 
tion, () to make a selection (out of). Obs. 

1520 WHITINTON I'ulg. 2 He that laboreth nolhyng holy, 
but catcheth a patche of euery thyng, is mete to pycke a 
salet. 1550 BALE Eitg. Votaries n. 5 b > Angisus. .byshopp 
of Metis, vsurpynge the hygh stewardshypp of Jraunce, at 


layser made the kynge to go pyke a salett. 1568 in Strype 
Ann. Ref. (1709) I. Hi. 525 As for your new Doctors, it is 
good to pick a Sallet out of them, now and then. 1590 
GREENE Never too late Wks. (Grosart) VIII. 102 If not, like 
an vnthankefull Hackney-man shee meant to tourne him 
into the bare leas, and set him as a tyrde iade to picke a 
sallet. 1601 SHAKS. All's Well iv. v. 15 Twas a good Lady. 
Wee may picke a thousand sallets ere wee light on such 
another hearbe. 1603 DBKKER Batchelors Banquet Wks. 
(Grosart) I. 176, I would haue turnd the queaneout of doors 
to picke a Sallet. 

3. attrib.) as salad-bowl^ -cream, -dish, -dressing, \ 
-plate, -root, -spoon ; salad burnet, the common 
burnet, 2*oterium Sanguisorba ; f salad clover, 
Melilotus c&rulea\ salad days, days of youthful ; 
inexperience; salad furniture (see FURNITUKE 
6 b); salad-herb ? Obs., = sense ?; salad rocket, 
Eruca sativa (Miller Plant-n. 1884); fsaladsor- j 
rel, ? Oxalis Acetosella. Also SALAD-OIL. 

1837 BARHAM Ingol. Leg. Ser. r. Spectre of Tafpington, \ 
Curled like a head of celery in a *salad-bowl. 1854 S. 


in his work may want. 1867 BLOXAM Ghent. 580 Salad oil, 
or sweet oil (olive oil), is obtained by crushing olives. 1874 
GAKROD & BAXTER Mat. filed. 302 The oil, Oleum Olivx, \ 
called also Salad oil, is of a pale straw colour. 

Salal (sce-lal). Also sallal. [Chinook Jargon ! 
sallal{ Chinook kl-ku>u-skd-/a).'] An evergreen 
shrub (Gaultheria Shalloii) of California and j 
Oregon, bearing sweet edible berries. 

1838 PARKER Expl. Tour (1846) 221 The salalberry is a 
sweet and pleasant fruit of a dark purple color, oblong, and 
about the size of a grape. 1866 Treas. Bot. I. 522/2 The 
Shallon or Salal of the north-west coast of America. 1886 
Good Words 73 Great woods of Douglas fir cover the whole ; 
region [of Vancouver Island], with a lovely undergrowth of ! 
arbutus, sallal, an evergreen shrub, and small maples. 

Salamander (scelamcc'ndai), sb. Also 4-5 
salamandre ; 5-7 in L. form. [a. F. salamandre \ 
(i2th c.), ad. L. salamandra* a. Or. ffa.\afidv5pa. , 
Cf. MHG., mod.G. salamander,] 

1. a. A lizard-like animal supposed to live in, or 
lo be able to endure, fire. Now only allusive. 

THOMSON Wild Fl. m.(i86i) 236 The Poterium sangnisorba, i 3 De atHe to endure, nre. ISow only allusive. 
..derives its English name of "salad-burnet from its being v&flAyeno. 167 J>e salamandre bet leue> ine ^euere. ^1430 

used as a salad. 1562 TURNER Herbal n. 42, I know no LVDG. jfrftr. Poems (Percy Soc.) 170 And salamandra most 

used as a salad. 1562 TURNER Herbal n. 42, I know no 
Englishe name for it [sc. Lotus urbana\ : howbeit, it may be 
named. .gartlin claueror four clauer, or *sallat clauer. 1858 
SIMMONDS Diet. Trade, * Salad-cream, a prepared dressing | 
for salads. 1606 SHAKS. Ant. $ Cl. i. v. 73 My "Sallad dayes, , 
When I wasgreenein iudgement,cold in blood. 1863 Cornh. \ 
Mag. May 554 Being in want of a horse at the time it was in 
my salad days, reader I looked through the advertisements i 
in The Times, and noticed one which at any rate promised i 
well. 1882 PEBODV Eng. Journalism xii. 83 All the news- | 
papers that flourished in the green and sallet days of the 
Press have been replaced by more adventurous rivals. 1688 
R. HOLME Armoury (Roxb. Club) II. 4/1 A *sallett dish. 
1710 SWIFT Jrnl. to Stella 26 Oct., And so you only want 
somesalad-dishes,and plates. 1836-9 DICKENS .S& Bi)2,Scenes 
xviii, An unrivalled compounder of *salad-dressing. 1538-48 
ELVOT Dzcf., Acetarinin,. .a gardeine, where *salet herbes 
dogrowe. 1588 YctvHouseh. Phil. Wks. (1901)243 An other 
garden full of all sorts of sallet hearbes. 1629 PARKINSON 
Farad. 468 Asparagus is a principall and delectable Sallet 
herbe. .boyled. 1767 ABERCROMBIE Ev. Man his own Card. 
(1803) 665/2 Sallad Herbs'... the principal., are lettuce, en- 

1611 COTGR. s.v. Salette, Petite salette, Pettie Sorrell, *sallet 
Sorrell. 1858 SIMMONDS Diet. Trade, ^Salad-spoon^ a 
wooden, ivory, or other spoon, for mixing and serving salad. 

Salade, var. form of SALLET, helmet. 

Saladine (ste-ladin), sb. 1 Also 5 salendyne, 
5-6 -andyue, 6 saledyne, -endinne, 9 salladin. 
Obs. and dial. Variant of CELANDINE. 

ci43o, 1486 [see CELANDINE i a]. 1530 PALSGR. 265/1 
Salandyne../&x/. 1550 LLOYD Treas. Health H6 
Let the rote of Saledyne stampte sethe in wyne. 1573 Art 
of Limning 2 The yellow milke of green salendine. 1626 
BACON Sylva 639 Saladine hath a yellow Milk, which hath 
..much Acrimony. 1878 Cumbld. Gloss., Salladin, the 
plant celandine, ChcUdonium majus. 1886 Cheshire Gloss., 

t Saladine, sb:- Obs. ? = CELIDONY 2. 

c 1430 LYDG. Min. Poems (Percy Soc.) 223 Wythe dya- 
mandes fulle derelydyghte, Ryche saladynez sette on every 

Saladine, . (sb.S). Hist. [ad. med.L. sala- 
dinus (in decintse saladinx}, f. Saladin^ the name 
of the Sultan of Egypt and Syria (1137-93).] 
Saladine tax (also absol.) ; a tax, consisting of 
the tenth of a man's income, first imposed in 1188 | 
on England and France for the support of the ; 
crusade against Saladin (see above). 

Modern writers substitute the proper name used attrib. or 

1728 CHAMBERS Cycl. s.v., The Saladine-Tax was thus laid ; 
That every Person who did not enter himself a Croise, was 
obliged to pay a Tenth of his yearly Revenue. 1751 Ibid., 
The Carthusians, Bernardines,and some other religious, were 
exempted from the Saladine. 

[1833 Encycl. Anter. XI. 172/2 The Saladin Tenth. 1837 
Penny Cycl. VIII. 185/2 Saladin's tithe. 1874 STUBBS 
Const. Hist. \. xiii. (1897) 597 The Saladin lithe.J 

SaladingCsae'ladirj). Forms: see SALAD; also 
7 salletine, 8 salatine. [f. SALAD + -ING 1 .] ! 
Herbs and vegetables used for salad. 

1664 EVELYN Kal. Hort. (1729) 190 Sow Chervil, Lettuce, 
Radish, and other. .Salletings. /bid. 216 Fill your vacant 

. - 236, 3 . 

high and copped, viz., oranges, lemmons, olives, samphire, &c. 
1709 E. WARD tr. Cervantes p. v, Several Cart Loads of | 
Endive, Celery, Celician, Lettice, and Tarragon, were sent ( 
into the Kitchen to accommodate the Table with raw : 
Salatine. 1771 SIR J. BANKS Jrnl. (1896) 442 Garden stuff | 
and salletting. 1851 l?ham $ Midi. Gardeners' Mag. May 
69 Continue to make sowings.. of Peas, Beans, Turnips... 
every fortnight, with small salading every week. 1884 
Public Opinion 5 Sept. 301/1 The small saladings which 
make an intermittent appearance at the table. 

b. attrib.'. fsalading-burnet, salad-bumet. 
1766 Museum Rust. VI. 27, I spoke of it as the garden 
pot-herb, and sallading burnet. 

Salad-oil, Olive oil of superior quality, such 
as is used in dressing salads. 

1558-9 Witt of T. Hynde (Somerset Ho.), Layde out., for 
sallett oyle. 1582 HESTER Seer. Phiorav. in. xvii. 31 Take 
sweete Sallette Oile twentie pounde. 1620 VENNER Via 
Recta vi. 99 Oyle Oliue, which we commonly call Sallet 
Oyle. 1683 MOXON Meek. Exerc. t Printing II. 74 Paste, 
Sallad-Oyl, and such accidental Requisites as the Press-man 

felly dothe manace. 1481 CAXTON Myrr. n. vi. 74 This ; 
Salemandre bcrith wulle, of whiche is made cloth and i 
gyrdles that may not brenne in the fyre. (Cf. salamanders \ 
wool in 6.] 1590 GREENE Roy. Exch, Wks. (Grosart) VII. 
230 The Poets . . seeing Louers scorched with affection, liken- i 
eth them to Salamanders, a 1591 H. SMITH Serin. (1637) ; 
9 Like the Salamander, that is ever in the fire and never 
consumed. 1616 R. C. Cert. Poems in Times' Whistle^ etc. 
(1871) 119 Yet he can live noe more without desire, Then can : 
the salamandra without fire. 1634 Sw T. HERBERT Traz 1 . i 
20 The Aery Camelion and fiery Salamander are frequent ' 
there [sc, in Madagascar]. 1681 r LAVBL Mcth. Grace xxvii. 
464 Sin like a Salamander can live to eternity in the fire of t 
God's wrath. 1688 R. HOLME Armoury n. 205/1, I have j 
some of the hair, or down of the Salamander, which I have ' 
several times put in the Fire, and made it red hot, and after j 
taken it out, which being cold, yet remained perfect wool. 
[Cf. 1481 above.] 1711 HEAKNE Collect. (O.H.S.J III. 129 
He had 2 Salamanders, which lived 2 hours in a great Fire. 
1864 KINGSLEY Rom. <y Tent. iv. 131 That he will henceforth 
[in the island of Volcano] follow the example of a sala- 
mander, which always lives in fire. 

b. Any tailed amphibian of the urodclous family 
SalamandrideBj or some closely allied family. 

The land salamanders form the typical genus Salaman- 
dra ; the water salamanders are the newts or tritons. 

1611 COTGR., Salmandre d'cau, the water Salamander; 
black-backed, red-bellied, and full of yellow spots. 1668 
CHARLETON Onomast. 26 Lacerta Salamandra aquatica^ 
the water Salamander. (71711 PETIVER Gazophyl. vi. Iviii, 
Small Cape Salamander.. .It squeaks like a Rat. 1753 
CHAMBERS Cycl. Suj>p., The salamandra aquatica^ or water 
salamander. . .The salamandra terrestris, or land salaman- ' 
tier. 1834 MCMURTRIE Cnvicrs Anim. Kingd. 187 Aquatic ' 
Salamanders always retain the vertically compressed tail. ' 
1835 KIKBY Hab. .$ Inst. Anim. II. xxii. 421 The other I 
[sc. Menopoma], .has been called by American writers the 
giant salamander. 1870 GILLMORE tr. l''iguier's Reptiles <y 
Birds 30 The Black Salamander (Triton alpcstris) has no 
spots. 1896 tr. Boas' Text-bk. Zool. 405 The Japanese Giant 
Salamander (Cryptobranchits iaponicus). 

C. A figure of the mythical salamander used as 
an emblem. 

1688 R. HOLME Armoury n. 205/1 He beareth Argent, 
a Salamander in flames. i78oEDMONnsoN Heraldry \ I. Gloss. 
1823 CRAUB Tcchnol. Dict. t Salamander (Met;), an emblem 
of constancy, is represented in flames. 1834 L. RITCHIE 
Wand, by Seine 138 The last cavalier, .belongs to the suite 
of the King of France, which is seen by the royal sala- 
mander on his back. 1841 G. A. POOLE Struct. <$ Decor. 
Churches 9/2 A salamander also appears on this font [in 
Winchester Cathedral], allusion to the words which 
St. John spake of our blessed Lord [Matt. Hi. nj. i 

2. transf. and fg. applied to persons, etc. with 
reference to sense I a. a. gen. 

1596 SHAKS. i Hen. IV> in. iii. 53, I haue maintain'd that 
Salamander [=fiery-red face] of yours with fire, any time this 
two and thirtie yeeres. 1600 S. NICHOLSON Acolastus (1876) 
45, 1 sate too hot, yet still I did desire, To Hue a Salamander 
in the fire. 1666 SPURSTOWE Spir. C/iym. 103 At a far 
cheaper rate they might have been Saints in Heaven than 
Salamanders in Hell. 1670 H ROOKS Wks. (1867) VI. 441 
God's people are true salamanders, that live best in the 
furnace of afflictions. 1854 Househ. Words VIII. 159/1 
She is a salamander in temper.. for all her innocent name. 
1888 F. HUME Mme. Midas i. iv, Madame Midas was a 
perfect salamander for heat. 

b. A spirit supposed to live in fire. 

See Paracelsus De Nymphis, Sylfhis^ Pygmm$^ et Sala- 
jiiandris, etc., Wks. 1658 II. 388 seqq. 

1657 PIN-NELL Philos. Ref. 27 To the Fire or the Firma- 
ment doe belong the Vulcanals, Pennats, Salamanders. 1712 
POI-E Rape Lock t To Mrs. Arabella Fermor, According 
to these Gentlemen [sc. the Rosicrucians], the four Ele- 
ments are inhabited by Spirits, which they call Sylphs, 
Gnomes^ Nymphs, and Salamanders. 1712-14 Ibid. \. 60 
The Sprites of fiery Termagants in Flame Mount up, and 
take a Salamander's name. 1821 SCOTT Kenil-w. xxxiii. 
Like salamanders executing a frolic dance in the region ot I 
the Sylphs. 1871 B. TAYLOR Faust (1875) II. i. iv. 55 A 
prince I seemed o'er many a salamander. 

( C. A woman who (ostensibly) lives chastely in 
the midst of temptations. Obs. 

1711 ADDISON Sped. No. 198 r i There is a Species of 
Women, whom I shall distinguish by the Name of Salaman- 
ders. Now a Salamander is a kind of Heroine in Chastity, 
that treads upon Fire [etc.]. 1771 Generous t/usb. or Hist. 
Lord Lelius 37 The real beauty and avowed virtue of those 
lovely salamanders. 

d. A soldier who exposes himself to fire in battle. 

1705 SWIFT Descr. of Salamander 22 Wks. 1751 VII. 79 
Call my Lord Quits] a Salamander. [1807 SIR R. WILSON 


Jml. 15 May in Lift (1862) II. vii. 217 As I know that 
Buonaparte exposes himself as little as possible; not amongst 
his other vanities believing that he is a salamander, c 1849 in 
Spectator 21 May (1904) 810/2 Paddy Cough's a cross betwixt 
A bulldog and a salamander.] 1897 Daily News 20 Apr. 8/4 
In battles a man who feared nre was of no use, and Mr. Gee 
was the soundest Salamander he had ever known, 
e. slang. A fire-eating juggler. 

(Cf. quot. s.v. SALAMANDERSHIP.) 

1859 HOTTEN Slang Diet.) Salamanders, street acrobats 
and jugglers who eat fire. 1886 P.ESANT Childr. Gibeon \. vi, 
We ain't a show. Lotty ain't a clown ; I ain't a jumping- 
horse ; Liz ain't a salamander. 

3. Applied to various articles used in fire or cap- 
able of withstanding great heat. fa. Asbestos. (Cf. 
salamander-stone \ also F. salamandre pier reused} 

1668 CHARLKTON Onomast. 254 Amianthus, .alias Asbesti- 
nits Lafis. .Salnmandra. .the Salamandre, or incombus- 
tible stone, and Salamanders wool. 01700 IJ. l^.Dict.Cant. 
Crew, Salamander, a Stone (lately) found in Pensylvania 
full of Cotton, which will not consume in the Fire. 

b. An iron or poker used red-hot for lighting 
a pipe, igniting gunpowder, etc. : see quots. 

1698 W. KING tr. Sorbiew's Journ. Land. 27 Multitudes 
had little Tin Kettles in their Houses, with Small-coal 
kindled, to light their Pipes withal ; though in some places 
they use Candles, in others Salamanders, a 1700 K K. 
Diet. Cant. Crew, Salamander, . . a red-hot Iron to light 
Tobacco with. 1846 A. YOUNG Naut. Diet., Salamander, 
a piece of metal with a handle attached, which is heated for 
the purpose of firing guns. 1847 HALI.IWELL, Salamander^ 
a large poker. 1868 G. MACDONALD R. Falconer I. xv. 196 
Peggy appeared with a .salamander that is a huge poker, 
ending not in a point, but a red-hot ace of spades. 1898 
United Service Mag. Mar. 621 The salamander an iron 
kept red hot in the galley for firing the salutes. 

C. Metallurgy. * A mass of solidified material 
in a furnace hearth * (Raymond) ; called also dear, 
horse t and sow. 

[1866 Jrnl. Franklin Inst. 3rd Ser. LI I. 128 The matte 
melting (rohschmelzenjof the StefansHQttedoes . . not produce 
any secretions of metallic iron, feisensauen, salamander).] 
1871 [see HORSE sb. 12], 1877 RAYMOND Statist. Mines fy 
Mining $$$ To throw away in mattes, slags, and salaman- 
ders the iron it [sc. hematite] contains. 

d. Cookery. A circular iron plate which is heated 
and placed over a pudding or other dish to brown it. 

1769 MRS.RAFFALD Eng. Housckpr. (1778) 253 Hold a hot 
salamander over it till it is verybro\vn. 1804 FAKLEY Lond. 
Art Cookery 192 Lay in the fritters, strew a little sugar 
over them, and glaze them over with a red-hot salamander. 
1818 MOORE Fudge Fain. Paris viii. 84 Their chrono- 
meter spits their intense Salamanders their ovens their 
pots, that can soften old ganders. 1843 ELIZA ACTON Mod. 
Cookery vii. 169 This is done with a salamander, as it is 
called. ..A kitchen shovel is sometimes substituted for it. 

e. (See quots.) 

1875 U re's Diet. Arts III. 1059 The milk of wax, thus 
prepared, may be spread with a smooth brush upon the sur- 
face of a painting, allowed to dry, and then fused bypassing 
a hot iron (salamander) over its surface. 1875 KNIGHT 
Diet. Meek., Salamander^ a term sometimes applied to a 
fire-proof safe. 1893 Funk's Standard Diet., Salamander, 
. .a metal drum or box for containing hot coals, etc., used 
in drying plaster. 

4. local U. S. A pouched rat or gopher, esp. 
G corny s pinetis. 

1859 S. F. BAIRD Mammals N. Amer. 371 The species [of 
Geomys] are termed 'gophers' in the west, but in Georgia 
and Florida they are almost universally called ' salaman- 
ders '. Ibid. -^oGeotnys pinetis,.. Salamander. 

5. A form of drinking a toast common among 
German students. 

The full expression Is einew eincn salamander rciben 
(cf. first quot. below). 

1868 Daily News 12 Aug., [One of the ceremonies] is 
called ' rubbing a salamander '. Every student fills his glass the brim, and at the command of the toastmaster rubs 
it on the table, while the latter counts three. 1891 Times 
12 May 9/3 The German emperor when he responded to the 
' thundering salamander ' in which the Bonn students drank 
his health. 

6. attrib. and Comb., as salamander-gat hering, 
-like adj. and adv. ; f salaman der('s) blood (see 
quots.) ; salamander -cloth, an incombustible 
cloth made from asbestos; t salamander-fly, a 
kind of fire-fly ; salamander's hair [cf. G. sala- 
manderhaar}, a kind of asbestos (see quot.) ; sala- 
mander safe L'.S.j a fire-proof safe; fsalamander 
stone = AMIANTHUS i ; salamander-stove U. S., 
a small portable stove for heating rooms ; f sala- 
mander('s) wool, asbestos (cf. quots. 1481 and 
1688 in i). 

1694 SALMON Bate's Dispens. 57/2 This Spirit, from its 
coming forth in red Vapours, is by some Authors called, 
The "Salamanders Blood. I?M J. HARRIS Lex. Techn. I, 
Salamanders Blood, is a foolish Term that the Chy mists 
give to the red Vapours, which in Distillation of Spirit of 
Nitre, towards the latter end, do fill the Receiver with red 
Clouds. 1841 Penny Cycl. XX. 337/1 The *salamander-cloth 
sent by the Tartar king to the Roman pontiff. 1668 CHARLETON 

mander-gathering down ^Etna. 1728 WOODWARD Fossils 14 
English Talc, of which the coarser Sort iscall'd Plaister, or 
Parget, the finer, Spaad, Earth-Flu, or ^Salamander's Hair. 
1593 NASHE Christ's T. Wks. iGrosart) IV. 68 On the 
*Sa!amander-like Jerusalem, haue I cast the coole water of 
myTeares. 1718 Entertainer No. 32. 219 A Person, .that 
Salamander like feeds in the Fire of Contention. 1798 C. 
DIBDIN Song, ( The Anchorsmiths\ While, Salamander- 
like, the pond'rous anchor lies. 1885 Stand. Nat. Hist. 




(i888) III. 308 Salamander-like animals with four well-de- 
veloped but short limbs. 1858 SIMMONDS Diet. Trade % *Sala- 
mander-safeS) an American name for patent fire-proof iron 
safes. 1859 BAKTLBTT Diet, A iner, s. v. Safe^ They are now 
generally made fireproof; and some of these are called 
'salamander safes'. 1583 GREENE Matnillia Wks. (Grosart) 
II. 61 The *Salamander stone, once set on fire, can neuer be 
quenched. 1590 Never too late Ibid. VIII. 22 Their 
eyes are like Salamander stones, that tier at the sight of 
euery flame. 185* HAWTHORNE Blithedale Rom. v. (1885) 
42 She has been stifled with the heat of a 'salamander- 
stove. 1892 Dally News g Aug. 5/4 Artificial heat was 
furnished by one hundred small salamander stoves. 1626 
BACON Sylva 774 *Salamanders Wooll ; Being a Kinde 
of Mineral!, which whiteneth also in the Burning, and con- 
sumeth not. a 1633 AUSTIN Medit. (1635) 152 A Garment 
of Salamander- wooll. 1646 SIR T. BROWNE Pseud. Ep. in. 
xiv. 139 Incombustible napkins and textures which endure 
the fire, whose materialls are call'd by the name of Sala- 
manders wooll. 1668 [see 3 a]. 

b. passing into adj. SALAMANDRINE a. i. 

1711 ADDISON Spcct. No. 198 f 3 As for this part of the 
fair sex who are not of the salamander kind, I would . . 
advise them. .to avoid.. what religion calls Temptations. 
1742 YOUNG Nt. Th. ix. 1356 And is Lorenzo's salamander- 
heart Cold and untouch'd, amid these sacred fires? 1814 
SIR R. WILSON Friv. Diary II. 302, I would rather. .have 
gone through the same proportion of fire, as I have more 
salamander than dolphin properties. 

Hence Salamandershap (cf. SALAMANDER sb. 

1787 Microcosm No. 21 p u This illustrious Phaenomenon 
of Salamandcrsliip and Virtue [sc. Mr. Powel, the Fire- 

Salamander, v. rare. [f. prec. sb.] a. inir. 
To live amidst fire, like the salamander, b. trans. 
To submit to great heat. 

1857 Ckamb. Jrnl. VII. 25 In one apartment, .dwells a 
maker of lucifer-matches, salamandering in fire and brim- 
stone. 1904 Blackw. Mag. Dec. 782/1 His [sc. the Arab 
peasant's] garments must be salamandered and his carcass 
must be baked. 

Salamandrian (soelamae-ndr.ian), a. and si. 
[I. L. salamamira SALAMANDEB -t- -IAN.] A. adj. 

1. Resembling (that of) a salamander. 

1600 W. WATSON Decacordon (1602) 2 The Jesuits were 
the first beginners thereof [of scandal], and haue continued 
on this Salamandrian smoake of vaporous heats. 1647 
OWEN Death of Death Wks. 1852 X. 155 It is not.. any 
Salamandrian Complexion that was the motive to this un- 

2. Belonging to the genus Salamandra. 

1850 Fraser's Mag. XLI. 656 A salamandrian larva. 
1888 G. ALLEN in Good Words 232 A few other salaman- 
drian creatures. 

B. sb. A salamandrian batrachian. 

1850 Fraser's Mag.'ULl. 656 A great fossil salamandrian. 

Salamandrid (stelamse-ndrid). [ad. mod.L. 
SalamanJridee, i. salamandra SALAMANDER : see 
-ID.] A salamander of the family Salamandridie. 

1863 DANA Man. Geol. 545 Salamandrids. Species with- 
out gills or gill-openings in the adult state. 

Salamandriform (sEelamce-ndrifpjm), a. [f. 
L. salamandra SALAMANDER : see -FORM.] Re- 
sembling or having the form of a salamander. 

1869 Wm\.vslntrod.Classif.Anim.\. 112 The Labyrinth- 
odonta. The body is Salamandriform, with relatively weak 
limbs, and a long tail. 1877 LE CONTE Elem. Geol. in. 
(1879) 390. 

Salamandrine (sslamse-ndrin), a. and sb. 
[f. L. salamandra SALAMANDER + -INE l.] A. adj. 

1. Resembling or characteristic of the salamander 
in being able to resist fire, or live in it. 

1711 ADDISON Stect. No. 281 T 13 A certain Salamandrine 
Quality, that made it capable of living in the midst of Fire 
and Flame. 01849 POE Hawthorne Wks. 1865 III. 190 
' It becometh not a divine ', saith Lord Coke, ' to be of a 
fiery and Salamandrine spirit '. 1870 Illustr. Land. News 
29 Oct. 446 They led their Salamandrine dance over the 
glazed delft plaques vis-a-vis to the leaping flames. 1886 
A. SIMSON Trap, in Ecuador xiv . 184 There was a hot fire and 
the necessity of carrying on culinary operations in its imme- 
diate vicinity, which tended to call our Salamandrine quali- 
ties into requisition. 

2. Zool. Of or pertaining to the Salamandrinx. 
1865 COPE in Nat. Hist. Rev. Jan. 104 The representatives 

of these [types] in the Pateotropical region do not exhibit 
such decided Salamandrine tendencies. 1870 HUXLEY Lay 
Serin, xii. 287 Fashioning flank and limb into due Sala- 
mandrine proportions. 1888 ROLLESTON & JACKSON Anim. 
Life 408 The Salamandrine Amblystoma mexicanum. 

B. sb. 1. = SALAMANDER 2 b. 
1797 W.TAYLOR in Monthly Rev. XXII. 507 The charms 
of Amenoe, a Salamandrine. 1846 Blackw. Mag. LX. 226 
Every horrible legend of demon, ghost, goule, gnome, sala- 
mandrine, and fireking. 1885 BATTF.RSBV BM Islands 15 
Ihen perhaps the elves, and the fairies and the beautiful 
salamandrines will come back to us. 

2. = SALAMANDER i b. 

1891 in Century Diet. 

Salamandroid (sEelamse-ndroid), a. and sb. 
[ad. mod.L. salamandroides, -oldens, f. salamandra 
SALAMANDER: see -DID.] A. adj. Resembling a 
salamander, Salamandriform. 

1854 OWEN in Orr's Circ. Set., Ore: Nat. I. 104 Sala- 
mandroid fishes 1877 LE CONTE Elem. Geol. (1879) 493 
A Salamandroid Amphibian, .four feet long. 

B. sb. A urodele of the genus Salamandra or 
allied genera. 

TY 86 ? P**J^f*5 Ceol- 344 Salamandroids, or Balrachia 
uroaela. it^a NICHOLSON Palxont. 349 The skeleton of a 
balamandroid of large size. 

a,- rare" 1 . \i. ^.salamandra 
SALAMANDER + -ous.] Living as it were in fire ; 
fiery, hot, passionate. 

1711 G. GARY Phys. Phyl. 29 My Salamandrous Spirit.. 
my /Ktnous burning Humours. 

So Salama'ndry a. 

1610 BOYS Exf>os. Dom. Epist. $ &u^. Wks. (1629) 76 If a 
Salamandry spirit should traduce that godly labour, as the 
silenced Ministers haue wronged our Communion liooke. 

!l Salame (sala-mf). H. salami. [It.,repr. pop. 
L. *salamen, f. salare to salt.] A kind of sausage. 

1852 PFEIFFER Joum. Iceland \g White bread and sa- 
lami ! 1858 MAVNE Expos. Le.r. t Salami. 1907 Westm. 
Gaz. 19 Oct. 6/2 We must lunch on bread, cheese, and 

Sal-ammoniac (scelam0>rnirck). Forms : see 
AMMONIAC; also 5, 7 sal alraoniack, 6 Sc. sal 
aramoiiiakle, salmoniakill, 7 Sal Armeniac, 
salhormoniacke. See also SALMTAC. [See AM- 
MONIAC A. i.] Ammonium chloride. 

r 1325 Chron. Eng. 184 Salgemme and salpetre, Salarmo- 
niac ther ys eke. 1390 GOWER Conf. II. 84 And the spirit 
which is secounde In Sal Armoniak is found. 1477 NORTON 
Ord. Alck. Jii. in Ashm. (1652) 41 Or whether I shall sal 
Almoniack take? 1507-8 Ace. Ld. High Treas. Scot. IV. 
104, ij pund sal aramomakle \sic\ r<T</aramomakle]. 1540 
Ibid, VII. 357 Quik silver, aqua vite, salmoniakill. 1601 
HOLLAND Pliny II. 351 The white of an egg incorporat 
with salhormoniacke finely puluerized. 1670 EACHARD Cant. 
Clergy 55 To which Aqua-fortis if you put a fifth part of 
Sal-Almoniack, and set them in a gentle heat, it makes 
Aqua-Regia. 1686 PLOT Stafford sh, iv. 150 Equal quanti- 
ties of spirit of Sal Armeniac and spirit of Wine mixt. 1718 
QUINCY L'otn/>l. Disp. 33 Sal Armoniac very elegantly 
imitates the IJranches of a Tree. 1786 tr. Beckford's Vatkek 
87 The camels, which had been left unmolested to make sal 
ammoniac. 1863 Fmunes' Chem, {ed. 9) 294 Sal-ammoniac 
. .is now largely manufactured from the ammoniacal liquid 
of the gas-works. 

Hence t Sal-ammoni'acal ., pertaining to sal- 

1760 BROWN Compl. Fanner n. 63 Urine by Glauber is 
reckoned to be of a destructive.. nature to vegetables, be- 
cause of the sal- ar mon iacal quality that is in it. 

Salamon, variant of SALOMON. 

Salampo(o)re, -pora, variant ff. of SALEMPORE. 

Salamstone (salarmiSttfun). Min. [ad. G. 
salamstein (Werner).] A blue variety of sapphire 
from Ceylon. 

1816 JAMESON Min. (ed. 2) I. 32 Werner has formed a new 
subspecies of spinel, under the name Salamstone, which is 
the Indian name of that mineral. 1839 URE Diet. A rts, etc. 
743 Salamstone is a variety which consists of small trans- 
parent crystals, .of pale reddish and bluish colours. 

Salangane^ae-lang^n). Zool. AlsoSsaligan, 
9 salagaue. [ad. F. salangane or mod.L. salan- 
gana, sc. avis, f. safamga t name of the bird in 
Luzon.] One of the birds of the genus Collocalia, 
which make edible nests ; an esculent swallow. 

1793 SMELLIE tr. Biiffoiis Nat. Hist. Birds VI. 577 No- 
thing better shews that the Salangane has remained long 
unknown, than the different names bestowed on it. 1796 
MORSE Amer. Geog. II. 589 The nest of the bird sallgan 
affords that dissolving jelly. 1869-73 T. R. JONES Cassetfs 
Bk. Birds\\. 119 The Salangane usually builds in such deep 
and dark cavities that [etc.]. 1 Obs. [Inconectlyfor*<&/)r&a, 

f. L. SaliariS) f. Salii (see SALIAN *).] = SALIAN*. 

1598 GuiiNEWEY Tacitus^ Ann. n. xix. (1622) 60 A Salarian 
verse [orig. Saliaricarmine\ which Mars Priests were wont 
to sing. [Hence in 1656 BLOUNT Glossogr.\ 

f Sala-rian, a? Obs. [f. L. sa/arz-us (f. 

+ -AN.] Pertaining to salt. 1656 BLOUNT Glossogr, 

\ Sala'riate, v. Ot>s. [f. L, salari-um SALARY 
+ -ATE 3.] trans. To pay a salary to ; to supply 
the salary of. Hence Sala'riated///. a. } salaried. 

1656 J. HARRINGTON Oceana (1658) 202 The Senat of 
the f '.can in Athens, because it was but annual, was mo- 
derately salariated. 1673 PETTV Pol. Anat. (1691) 37 Sal- 
lariated Masters of Chancery, a 1687 Pol. Arith. (1690) 
49 About 72,ooo/, at the medium of \l per Man, would 
Salariate the whole number of twenty four thousand. 

Salaried (see-land), ///. a. [f. SALARY sb. or 
v. + -ED.] 

1. Having or receiving a salary. 

1600 O. E. Repl. Libel i. i. 36 Most of them are his 
salaried schollers, or agents. 1818 SOUTHEY in Q. Rev. 
XIX. 96 A regular inspection of the school by the salaried 
overseer. 1858 MAX MULLER Chips (1880) III. i. 36 To be- 
come a salaried class of servants of the crown. 1894 
J. KNIGHT D. Garrick iv. 59 He appeared as a salaried 
actor at Drury Lane. 

2. Having a salary attached to it. 

1836 LANDOR Pericles <$ Aspasia cxiv. Wks. 1853 II. 399/1 
The other offices that are salaried are the lower. 1872 
MIXTO Kng. Prose Lit. 11. x. 610 The poorly-salaried Chair 
of Civil History. 

Salary (sae-lari), sb. Forms: a. 4salerie,4-6 
-arye, 4, ~ sallery, 4-8 salarie, 5 saleri, selarie, 
-ar6, celarie, -ye, 5-7 sallarie, 5-8 -ary, 6 
sellary, 7 sallerey, 8 -erie, 5- salary; ft. 5 
sala(i)re, 6 -air. [a. AF. salarie = OF. salaire^ 
It. salario, Sp., Pg. salario, ad.L. salarium, orig. 
money allowed to Roman soldiers for the purchase 
of salt, hence, their pay ; subst. use of neut. sing. 
of salarius pertaining to salt, f. sal salt.] 

1. Fixed payment made periodically to a person 
as compensation for regular work : now usually 

restricted to payments made for non-manual or 

non-mechanical work (as opposed to wages}. 

From c 1300 to c 1520 commonly applied to the stipend of 
a priest, esp. a chantry priest. 

a. 1377 LANGL. P. PI. B. xiv. 142 Ri^t as a seruaunt taketh 
his salarye bifore & sitth wolde clayme more, a 1400 Solo- 
iiwn*s Bk. Wisdom 40 in Adam Davj; etc. 83 Chese )>e a 
witty hyne & loue hym with al \>\ mi^th ; Of his Salerie 
wtyholde bou noujth. 1428 in E. E. Wills (1882) So And 
to a prest for to singe for me and all cristin soulis, com- 
petent saleri for an hole here. 1483-5 Rec. St. Mary at 
Hill 121 Payde to the preste, Syr lohn plommer, for hys 
celarie for ij yer, xiij li vj s viij d. 1516 Test. Ebor. (Surtees) 
VI. 2, I will that a descritt and an honest preste have sellary 
to syng for my soull. 1585 T. WASHINGTON tr. Nicholay*s 
Voy. in. xii. 93 Phisitions..for their salarie haue euery one 
of them tenneaspres a day. 1602 WARNER Alb. Eng. Epit. 
(1612) 360 For competent viande and sallarie to vndergoe 
the defence of the Realme. 1651 HOISBES Leviath. n. 
xxviii. 166 Reward, is either of Gift, or by Contract. When 
by Contract, it is called Salary, and Wages. 1659 D. PELL 
Inipr. Sea 69 Are not some so taken up with the ..gilded 
Cabbins, Lanthorns, and great Salaries which they have, 
that they minde little else? 1677 Seasonable Argt. Grand 
Juries 3 Sir Humphry Winch, Baronet, hath from the Court 
SQC/. per annum Sallery. 1718 LADY M. W. MONTAGU 
Lett, to Otess of Bristol 10 Apr., The slaves.. have no 
wages ; but. .clothes to a higher value than our salaries to 
any ordinary servant. 1776 ADAM SMITH W. N. v. i. n. 
II. 324 Fixed salaries were appointed to the judges. 1848 
MILL Pol. Econ. \. iv. 2 (1876) 36 That large portion of 
the productive capital of a country which is employed in 
paying the wages and salaries of labourers. 1868 Chamb. 
Encycl. X. 37/1 A manager of a bank or railway even an 
overseer or a clerk in a manufactory, is said to draw a 
salary. 1879 Print. Trades Jrnl. xxix. 43 The salary of 
the Prime Alinister is j 5,000 per annum. 

. 1433 LYDG. St. Edmund \. 934 The laborer neded no 
stuff to borwe For his salaire abood nat til the morwe. 
1456 SIR G. H\w Law Arms (. T. S.) 144 Supposthe ;ere 
be nocht all past, or bot begonnyn, his [sic] sail have his full 
feis and salare. 1563-7 Been AN AN Reform. St. Andros 
Wks. (S. T. S.) 16 The salair of the rectour. 

1 2. Reward or remuneration for services rendered ; 
fee, honorarium. Obs. 

<ri44o Gesta Rom. xxiv. 88 (Harl. MS.), But if bou pay 
now, I shal holde thi wif to wed, tyll tyme that I be paied 
fully my salary, c 1477 CAXTON Jason 1 19 Shal I haue none 
other salaire ne none other gwerdpn^for all my merites? 
1602 SHAKS. Ham. \\\. Hi. 79 Oh this is hyrc and Sallery, 
not Reuenge. 1622 MALYNES Anc. Law-Merck. 390 Their 
Exchanges are made vpon this imaginarie ducat of three 
hundreth seuentie and fiue Maluedies, to be payed in Banke, 
with fiue vpon the thousand, which is the sallarie of the 
Banker. 1641 Ternies de la Ley 245 Salarie. .signifies a 
recompence or consideration given unto any man for his 
paines bestowed upon another mans businesse. 1643 SIR 
T. BROWNE Rclig. fried. \\, g^When I doe him [sc. my 
patient] no good, me thinkes it is scarce honest gnine, 
though I confesse 'tis but the worthy salary of our well-in- 
tended endeavours. 

fb. gen. Reward, recompense. Obs. 

1484 CAXTON Fables of Page vii, Alle the sallary or pay- 
ment of them that mokken other is for to be mocqued at 
the last, a 16x9 FOTHERUY Atheom. n. viii. i (1622)279 
Felicltie, which is the salarie and reward of Vertue, is giuen 
vs of God. 1684 Contempl. St. Man i. vi. (1699) 67 This is 
the Sallery which the Goods of the Earth bestow on those 
who serve them. 1686 tr. Chardins Trav. Persia 406 You 
that have repented and are become good People, receive 
your Salary entring there for ever. 

3. attrib. : salary grab, an opprobrious term 
for the act of the U. S. Congress of 1873 by which 
the salaries of congressmen were increased. 

1879 A. JOHNSTON Hist. Amer. Politics (1884) 220 The 
Act.. was commonly known as the Salary Grab. 

tSa'lary,^. 1 Obs. rare. [?f. SALE ^.! + -ART.] 
Open to sale, venal, SALEABLE. 

1593 NASHE Chrisfs T. (1613) 157 Can it be so many 
brothel-houses, of salary sensuality, and six-penny whore- 
dome,, .should be set vp and maintained? 1596 Saffron 
Waldenlv Rdr., Wks. (Grosart) III. 27 He [sc. Tetzel] 
that . . first stird vp Luther, pronouncing from the Pope free 
salarie indulgence to anie man. 

t Sa'lary, a.- Obs. [ad. L. salari-its, f. sal salt : 
see -AKY.] Saline. 

1646 SIR T. BROWNE Pseud. Ep. vi. xii. 338 From such salary 
irradiations may those wondrous varieties arise, which are 
observable in . . Peacocks feathers. 

Salary (soe-lari), v. [Chiefly f. SALARY sb. 
In early use a. F. salarier (i5th c.).] trans. To 
recompense, reward; to pay for something done 
{Obs. or arck.) ; to pay a regular salary to. 

c 1477 CAXTON Jason 128 How.. shall I be salaryed of 
suche payement in the recompensacion of the saluacion 
of your lyf? 1637 J. WILLIAMS Holy Table 46, I am not 
salaried to defend the Writer of the Letter. 1659 HEYLIN 
Exam. Hist. i. 210 They, .salared some Lectures in such 
Market Towns where the people had commonly lesse to do. 
1814 D'ISRAELI Quarrels Auth. I. 218 He [sc. Cibber] knew 
he was no poet, yet he would string wretched rhimes, even 
when not salaried for them. 1837 HT. MARTINEAU Soc. 
Amer. II. 290 The seven Judges of the Supreme Court are 
salaried with the same moderation as other members of the 
federal government. 1865 LECKY Ration. II. 375 For the 
great majority of nations agriculture is the single source of 
wealth; all manufactures are ultimately salaried by it. 1872 
LIDDON Elem. Relig. \\. 69 The good man.. is often un- 
happy, while vice is not unfrequently salaried and crowned 
with rewards. 1893 G. TBAVERS Mona Maclean III. 198 
The Chinese system salary the doctor and stop his pay 
when you get ill. 

Salband(sa-lbrcnd). Geol. Also 9 salebande, 
sahlbaud. \G,.salband selvage, earlier sahlband 


(from i6th c.), alteration of selb-ende 'self-end' 
(cf. selvage = 'self-edge').] A thin crust or 
coating of mineral, etc. 

iSn PINKERTON Petral. I. 594 note, The amber is found 
between two salbands of lignite. 1839 URE Diet. Arts 316 
These are often found upon both sides of the vein, so as to 
form cheeks or salebandes. 1879 RUTLEY Stud. Rocks xi. 
199 The tachylytes occur mostly as salbands or thin crusts 
at the sides or margins of basalt dykes. 

Salband : see SALE sb.'* 

Salbe, freq. spelling in ME. and early mod.Eng. 
of shall be : see SHALL v. 

Salcepareille, obs. form of SARSAPARILLA. 

Salcer, Salcery, obs. ff. SAUCER, SAUCERY. 

tSald, v. Obs. [ad. It. saldare] trans. To 
balance (an account, etc.). 

1588 J. MELLIS Briefe Instr. E vij b, To salde them after- 
wardes in the Leager, ye shall make gaines and damages, 
of all these parcels, and the expences in their places Credi- 
tors. Ibid. Fj b, In salding of the same accompt. 

Sald(e, obs. pa. t. of SELL v. 

tSale, sbJ- Obs. Forms: i ssel, sal-, 4-7 sale, 

5 sail, saile, 5-6 saill, say 11. [OE. see! (pi. sa/u) 
str. n., = OHG., MHG. sal (G. saal) :-OTeut. 
*saloz-, orig. an -es, -os stem (cf. OE. sahr). 
Romanic adoptions of the Teut. word are F. saile, 
Pr,, It., Sp. sala : see SALE sb* and SALLE. 

The form *$aliz- of the OTeut. stem is represented by OE. 
set, self hall (appearing as the second element in LEVESEL), 
OS. self, PHG. sali, self, ON. salr, which have become 
masculine /stems.] 

A hall or spacions chamber ; a king's or noble's 
lodging, palace, castle ; occas. a tent. 

In ME. alliterative poetry in sate is a frequent tag. 

Btowulf 2075 (Gr.) Gaast yrre cwom, eatol aefengrom 
user neosan, 3aer we jesunde ssel weardodon. a xooo Riddles 
liii. 2 (Gr.) Ic seah rsepingas in razeed fergan under hrof 
sales hearde twe^en. a 1300 A". Horn 1187 (Cambr. MS.), 
Wyn for to schenche, After mete in sale, c 1330 Amis fy 
Amil. 444 And worthliest in ich a wede, And semliest in 
sale, a 1400-5 Alexander 502 [>e king was sett in his sale 
with septer in hand. Ibid. 4016 pan sett he sales vp of silke 

6 sacrifece makis. c 1420 Liber C acorn m (1862) 10 Kele 
hit with a Htelle ale, And set hit downe to serve in sale, 
r 1470 Got. ff Caw. 1150 The seymly souerane of the sail. 
1470-85 MALORY Arthur xvn. xvi. 713 Ryghte soo as they 

you to be. 


14. . in Tundale's Vis. (1843) 158 A mey hym harbered yn 
hur hall, Scho socourd hym sotht[l)y yn hur sale. 

Sale (s^'l), rf.2 Also 5 saale, sayll, 5-6 
saill, 7 saile, 7-8 sail, [late OE. sala, prob. a. 
ON. sala wk. fern. (ON. had also sal neut.) = 
OHG. sala, MHG. sale, sal str. fern., f. root sal- 
of *saljan to SELL.] 

1. The action or an act of selling or making over 
to another for a price ; the exchange of a com- 
modity for money or other valuable consideration. 
Also, with qualification : (Ready, slow, etc.) dis- 
posal of goods for money ; opportunity of selling. 

Bill of sale: see BILL sb? 10. Bargain and sale (Law) : 
see BARGAIN sir. 6. 

Suffl. Mlfric's Gloss, in Wr.-Wiilcker 180 Dis- 

37 Better chepe sal ye selle f>an J>e men of J>e werld dose, 
frat god may be payde of yure sale. 1411 E. E. Wills 
(1882) 19 p> forseyd sale of my londes and tenementes. 
a 1450 MYEC Ftstial 79 When he [sc. ludas Skaryot] segh 
|>at Crist was demed to be deth by hys sale, c 1475 Rtiu/ 
Coifyar 245 Thow sail haue for thy Fewaill, For my sake, 
the better saill. 1553 EDEN Treat. Nettie hut. (Arb.) 26 In 
the cytie of Panchi there is great sale of silke. 1582 N. 
LICHEFIELD tr. Castanheda's Cong. E. Ind. I. xlii. 97 He was 
told what ill sales he shoulde finde there of such Merchaun- 
dize as he had brought. 1593 SHAKS. z Hen. K/, i. iii. 138 
Thy sale of Offices and Townes in France. i6n BIBLE 
Lev. xxv. 50 The price of his sale shalbe according vnto the 
number of yeeres. 1706 E. WARD Wooden World Diss. 
To Rdr. (1708) Avb, rermit it, .to hang in View at. .some 
such eminent Place of Sale. 1727 GAY Begg. Op. \. vi, They 
are of sure sale from our warehouse at Redrin among the 
seamen. 1786 Chatnb. Cycl. I. Pref. 4 The extensive sail of 
this edition. 1836 W. IRVING Astoria III. 231 The terms 
of sale were lowered by him to the standard fixed by Mr. 
Stuart. 1837 CHANMXG Ad Jr. Temperance 32 After these 
remarks, it will follow, that we should discourage the sale of 
ardent spirits. 

b. spec. A patting up of goods to be sold pub- 
licly ; a public auction. See also PORT-SALE. 

1673 TEMPLE Misc. (1680) 136 Both those that won the j 
Plate, and those whicb are thus sold, ought immediately to 
be marked so as they may never return a second time, either 
to the Race or to the Sale. 1700 [see CANDLE sb. 5 d]. 1718 
Free-thinker No. 108 P i On Thursday next.. will begin 
another Publick Sale by Inch of Candle. 1753 Nrua, Boys, 
News I (Oxf. Jrnl.) n Apr., On Saturday, the i4th Instant, 
..will be held at the Town-Hall in thisCity.a Sale of great 
Part of the Goods.. belonging to the.. Old Interest of this 
County. 1867 TROLLOPE Chron. Barset II. Ixiii. 205 He 
should pull down the bills advertising the sale of his effects. 
1888 ANNIE S. SWAN Doris Cheyne viii. 128 An auction sale 
. .for behoof of the creditors of Robert Cheyne. 

C. A special disposal of shop goods at rates 
lower than those usually charged in order to get 
rid of them rapidly, e. g. at the end of a ' season '. 


| 1888 Daily News 10 Jan., The low prices at the stock- 
taking sales. 1894 Westm. Gaz. n Jan. 3/2 Wait till you 
see my pretty new sale-frock. 1900 Ibid, 4 Jan. 3/2 Sale-time, 

1 when everything at the shops, from a collar to a costume, is 
reduced to low prices. 

2. Phrases, a. To sale =-- 'for sale' (see 2 e). 
Now only in to pnt up to sale, formerly f to set to 
sale (often Jig. ; in quot. 1576 app. to abandon), 
expose, etc. to sale. 

1380 WVCLIF Wks. (1880) 393 Welle nijalle her blessyngis 
ben sett to sale and to prise. 1390 GOWER Con/. 1 1. 297 The 
Ston he profreth to the sale, a 1400 Octouian 1909 And 
chepede me that chyld to sale, For syxty florencys all be 
tale. 1543-4 Act 35 //,!. VIII, c. 8 Such persons as brew 

Whereby they have set to sale for money Christ himselfe. 
1642 MILTON Apol. Smect. 7 A strong presumption that 
his modesty set there to sale in the frontispice, is not much 
addicted to blush. 1649 Eikon, viii. 66 She pawn'd 
and set to saile the Crown-Jewels. 1660 F. BROOKE tr. 
Le Blanc's Trav. 15 Fair piazza's,.. where the Merchants 
. .expose to sale their drugs. 1670 DRYDF.N Cong. Granada 
v. ii, My price ! Why, king, you do not think you deal 
With one who sets his services to sale? 1760-71 H. BROOKE 
Fool ofQual. (1809) III. 58 Those who set themselves, their 
trusts, and their country, to sale. 1810 Act 50 Geo. ///, 
c. 41 6 Every Hawker, Pedlar, Petty Chapman,, .carrying 
to sell, or exposing to Sale, any Goods. 1838 PRESCOTT 
Ferd. % Is. n. xxv. III. 494 The most considerable offices 
in church and state were put up to sale, 

fb. To make sale (of); to sell. Obs. 

c 1430 Pilgr. Lyf Manhode iv. ix. (1869) 180 Which if men 
made of you saale, mihte no man livinge overbigge yow. 
1463 in Bury Wills (Camden) 26, I wille. .the Sexteyn of 
Bury and the Priour of Dusgylde . . make a sale of myn seid 
hefd place. 1552 HULOET, Make sale of vyle thynges and 
trifles, agitor. 1557 W. TOWKSON in Hakluyt Voy. (1589) 
114 When God should sende vs to any place where we might 
make sale. 1616 R. C. Times Whistle iv. 1441 Thou 
make sale of it to whom thou list. 

c. To set on (or fa) sa&^'to set to sale' 
(see 2 a) ; (to be] on or f upon sale = ( for sale * 
(see 2 e). 

1546 J. HEYWOOD Prov. (1867) 63 Here is a tale, For 
honestie, meete to set the diuell on sale. 1556 OLDE Anti- 
christ 72 They bestowe not only benefices, .but also seta 
sale, .the holy sacred gyftes of the holy Goost. 1634 Doc n. 
inents agst. Prynne (Camden) 59 How those bookes have 
been dispersed by them upon sale or otherwise. 1793 
COWPER Let. to Lady Hesketh 30 June, If it is out of print, 
it is no longer upon sale. 1835 SOUTHEY Cowper's \Vks. I. 
Pref. 6 A book which has been upon sale ever since it was 
published, twelve years ago. 1901 Times 16 Dec. 8/6 The 
Times is on Sale for 3d. per Copy at all railway bookstalls 
in England and Wales. 

fd. Of sale: that is to be sold; vendible, venal. 
1588 SHAKS. L. L. L. iv. iii. 240 To things of sale, a sellers 
praise belongs. 1605 BACON Adv. Learn, n. x. 8 (1891) 
141 As to the confections of sale which are in the shops. 
1608 SHAKS. Per. iv. vi. 84 The house you dwell in proclaims 
you to be a creature of sale. 

e. For sale : used adjectively, = intended to be 
sold ; used advb., = with a view to selling. 

1611 SHAKS. Cymb. i. iv. 92 The other is not a thing for 
sale. 1686 PLOT Stnjffordsh. iii. 28. 124 Then they draw 
them [sc. pots] for Sale, which is chiefly to the poor Crate- 
men. 1808 Times 24^ Feb., Feathers and Quills for Sale. 
1815 SCOTT Guy M.\\\ t They., sometimes had good pointers 
for sale. 1863 HAWTHORNE Our Old Home I. 257 We went 
into a bookseller's shop to inquire if he had any description 
of Boston for sale. 

f. Sale and (or) return : see quot. 1838. 

1793 T. PEAKE Cases Nisi Prins 56 Two questions were 
made, first on the sale and return. Ibid, marg., If goods 
are delivered on the terms of sale or return. 1838 BELL 
Diet. Law Scot., Sale and return is a contract, by which 
goods are delivered by a wholesale dealer to a retailer, to 
be paid for at a certain rate, if sold again by the retailer ; 
and if not sold, to be returned to the vendor. 1897 [see 
RETURN sb. 15}. 

3. attrib. and Comb. % as sale-factor, -market, 
price j -room, f -shop; sale-block, a block on which 
slaves are exposed for sale ; sale-boat, a boat that 
conveys fish from the fishing ground to market ; 
f saleman [cf. OHG. salaman, MHG. sal(e}man], 
SALESMAN ; sale note U, S. (see quot.) ; fsale- 
piece, ?the sample that attracts purchasers (in 
quots.y?^-.); sale ring, the ring of buyers formed 
round an auctioneer at a sale ; f sale-worth, 
-worthy adjs. t saleable, 

1887 J. C. HARRIS Free 7<w,etc. (1888) 54 The prisoner was 
made to stand on the *sale-block so that all might have a 
fair view of him. 1840 R. BREMNER Excurs. in Denmark^ 
etc. II. 389 They [fish] are recaptured at dawn to be again 
imprisoned on the *sale-boats. 1770 LANGHORNE Plutarch 
(1879) II. 829/2 Nor would he trust to the common customs 
of *sale -factors, auctioneers [etc.]. 1642 T. HILL Trade of 
Truth 34 Christians should be Chapmen to buy, rather than 
*Salemen to sell. 1883 MOLONEV W. African Fisheries 22 
(Fish. Exhib. Publ.) The *sale-market is large and wide 
enough. 1856 BOUVIER Law Diet., *Saie note, a memoran- 
dum given by a broker to a seller or buyer of goods, stating 
the fact that certain goods have been sold by him on account 
of a person called the seller to another person called the 
buyer. 1621 EuRTOxAnat.Met. in. ii. n.ii. (1651) 463 Sweet 
breath, white and even teeth, which sbme call the *sale-piece. ' 
1650 Bi'LWER Anthropomet. 135 White teeth being so justly 
accounted a precious and natural beauty, that they are hence 
called the Sale-piece. 1793 NEMNICH Comptoit-Lex.^Eng. 
s.v., On the *Sale price, zum Verkanfspreise, 1901 Essex 
Herald 9 Apr. 4/8 The whole of this choice herd came 


| into the *sale ring. 1813 Examiner 10 May 297/1 Public 
, *Sale-rooms. 1858 CARLYLE Fredk. Gt. iv. vi. I. 446 The 
1 learned babble of the Sale-room. 1902 Daily Chron. 25 
Oct. 3/7 These curious sale-room methods. 1789 WOLCOIT 
(P. Pindar) Emit. Hor. \. xii. 31 Who soon shall keep 
a *saleshop for good places. 1795 J. AIKIN Manchester 233 
A sale shop for most articles. 1481 in Foster Par. Ch. 
Whaplodc (1889) 94 The said trees. .when thei shall be felled such tyme as thei be *saleworth. c 1440 Promp. Pan 1 . 
441/1 *Sale worthy, vendibilis. 1547 Bk. Marchauntes c vj, 
I would wit., if her marchantdyse were sale worthy. 

b. Comb, with sales-, modelled on SALESMAN, 
SALESWOMAN, e. g. sales-gentleman, -lady, -master. 
Also with the plural, sales-book, a book or record 
of sales; sales-room = sale-room (see above) ; 
f sales-work = sale-work (see 4 a). 
t 1771 EncycL Brit. I. 619/1 The Sales-book. This book too 
is chiefly used by factors; and into it is posted, from the 
Waste-book, the particular sales of every consigned cargo. 
1775 ASH, Saleswork) work done for sales, work slightly per- 
formed. 1809 R. LANGFOKD Introd. Trade 76 The manner 
', that a Sales-book is ruled. 1883 Century Mag, XXVI. 610/2 
j The. .ranks of seamstresses and 'sales-ladies 1 . 1890 Farmer s 
j Gaz. 4 Jan. 1/3 1'he salesmasters and dealers. 1891 Century 
' Diet., Salesroom, same as sale-room. 

4. attrib. passing into adj. a. That is made to 
be sold ; that may be purchased (hot being needed 
for home use) ; hence, ready-made (as opposed to 
; home-made} \ of inferior quality; e.g. sale bread ', 
' cloth, door, gimlet, ram, ware, work (also attrib.). 
Also, connected with or producing things sold or in- 
tended for sale, e.g. sale gardener, kiln, pond. ?Now 
applied only to animals bred or fattened for sale. 

1455 Rolls o/Parlt. V. 304/1 The Subsidie and Awenage 
; of sale Clothes, in the Counte of Wiltes. 1505 in io//i Rep. 
Hist. MSS. Comm. App. v. 392 That there be no sale bread 
..mad in towne, but by ffre men. 1600 J. PORY tr, Leo's 
Africa n. 69 In old time there were almost an hundreth 
shops of sale-bookes. 1600 SHAKS. A. Y. L. in. v. 43, I see 
no more in you then in the ordinary Of Natures sale-worke? 
1601 DENT Pathiu. Heaven (1603) 35 God hath not given such 
gifts unto men to the end they should make sale- ware of them. 
1671 CLARENDON Dial, Tracts (1727) 314 They would find 
ample recompense in the first growth of their children, un- 
impaired by any ill qualities of sale-milk. 1679 SHADWELL 
True Widow Kpil,, Our Poet therefore Sale-work Habits 
makes. 1691 J. GIBSON in Archseologia XII. 191 Darby, at 
Hoxton, . . is master of several curious greens that other 
sale-gardeners want. 1778 [W. MARSHALL] Minutes Agric. 
20 Feb. an. 1777, A middling field-load of wheat will yield a 
sale-load of straw, of 1296 Ib. 1805 R. W. DICKSON Pract. 
Agric. I, 396 Most of the farmers here burn lime for them- 
selves, .and think they have it much cheaper than it could 
be got from a sale kiln. 1815 S. PARKES C/iem. Ess. I. 300 
In the end they [sc. ash-pit doors] will be found to be more 
economical than any ready-make sale-doors. 1828 P. CUN- 
NINGHAM N. S. Wales (ed. 3) II. 166 The common English 
sale gimlets are either soon broken at the point by our 
woods, or else the handle becomes loose. 1886 C. SCOTT 
Sheep-farming 151 The sale ewe lambs. Ibid, 157 These 
sale rams are injured, and in many cases rendered useless 
by overfeeding. 1895 Funk's Standard Diet., Sale-pond, 
. .a pond devoted to fishes kept for sale. 

t b. That may be had for payment ; venal, 
mercenary. (Cf. SALARY a.*) Oos 

1591 SYLVESTER Du Bar tax i. iii. 936 Sale-tongu'd Lawyers, 
wresting Eloquence, Excuse rich Wrong, and cast poore 
Innocence. 1602 DEKKER Honest ly'h. i. vi, Belike then 
shee's some sale curtizan. 1609 HOLLAND Amm.Marcell. 293 
A multitude thronged together of vendible or sale souldiors. 
1650 MILTON Eikon. \. 12 Nothing troubl'd or offended at 
the working upward of thir Sale-venom thereupon. 

t Sale, J*. 3 Obs. Also 6 saile, sayle. [North- 
ern form of SOLE sb. (OE. jrf/). The form saile 
may represent directly the cognate ON. set/.} A 
rope for tying up cattle. Also attrib. f saleband. 
ci299 Durham Ace. Rolls (Surtees) 496 In tractubus, 
cordis, salband (etc.), 28^. IK/. 1434-5 Ibid- 232 Redyls, 
6 hoxes bowes, 7 salys, ferrura bourn et plowshon. 1599 
Mem. St. Giles's Durham (Surtees) 27 Paid for a saile to the 
bull,j(/. 1668 /&&7J Forasayle and band to ty the Bull in. 
t Sale, sb* Obs. [a. or ad. OF. sale (see SALLE) 
or It. sala : cf. SALE s6.i] A hall. 

1632 LITHGOW Trav. ix. 401 This great Cell or Hall, is a 
yard deepe of blackish Water..: Hauing more than halfe 
way entered in this Sale [etc.}. (71648 LD. HERBERT 
Hen. VIII (1683) 233 The next day, obtained Audience of 
the King ; Who in a great Sale (or Hall) sate on his 

Sale, v. rare- 1 , [f. SALE sb?] intr. To sell. 
1809 GIFFORD in Mem. F. Hodgson (1878) I. 115 Lord 
Byron's poem sales well I understand. 

Sale : see SAIL, SEAL, SOUL. 

Sale ability (s?ilabi-liti). Also salability. 
[f. next : see -BILITY.] Saleableness. 

1797 COLERIDGE in Sothefys Catal. Bks. $ MSS. 30 Nov. 
(1891) 5880 much for the priceableness of the volume now 
for the saleability. 1818 MOORED/**;;/. (1856) VIII. 248 Sale- 
ability is the thing with the booksellers. 1881 JEVONS in 
Content^. Rev. Mar., To throw taxation off land on to per- 
sonalty . . is to increase the value of English land ; but to 
restrict its salability or letting is to diminish its value. 
1885 Times 9 Oct. 9/2 The saleability of Church property. 

Saleable (s^-Iab'l), a. Also (6 salehable), 
6- salable, [f. SALE sb. 2 + -ABLE.] 

1. Capable of being sold ; fit for sale; command- 
ing an easy or ready sale. 

1530 PALSCR. 323/1 Saleable, vendible. 1539 TAVERNER 
Erasw. Prov. (1552) 42 Wyne that is saleable and good 
nedeth no bushe. 1615 G. SANDYS Trav. 66 That which in 
England is not saleable, doth passe here amongst them for 
most excellent, a 1661 FULLER worthies, London (1662) 11. 219 



His book, .had been more salable, if more conformed to our | 
modern language. 1763 Museum Xnst. I. 27 Being at a loss I 
what to do with my crop, which was not saleable in my 
neighbourhood. 1845 STEPHEN Comm. Laws Eng. (1874) 
II. 621 note, Certain offices in the Queen's Bench and , 
Common Pleas were saleable by the chief justices of those 
Courts respectively till the year 1825. 1871 M. COLLINS 
Mrq. ff Merck. I. vi. 189 A horse saleable at three hundred 
guineas. 1881 Times 29 Jan. n Grenada Cocoa is more 
readily salable than other qualities. 1886 C. SCOTT Sate/- , 
fanning 144 After, .the saleable lambs and draft ewes have 
been disposed of. 

Rcpl. Hara'it serueth wel, to make the mater more 
salehable in the sight of the simple, so [etc.], 
fb. On sale, for sale. Obs. rare- 1 . 

1599 SANDYS Europe Spec. (1632) 115 They were content 
to let it be translated . ., as also some number of Copies to be 
saleable a while at the beginning. 

c. Said of the price which an article will fetch. 

1778 Chron. in Ann. Res;. 186 Divers goods to the saleable 
value of 172^. 1881 H. GEORGE Progr. ft Pov. VH. iii. 327 
If the land belong to the people, why. .should the people 
pay its salable value for their own? 

2. Venal, mercenary. Now rare or Obs. 

'579 FENTON Gnicciard. xm. (rsgg) 624 The corruptions of 
men salable, would not he sufficient to transport the Empire 
from the Germaine nation to the house of France. 1598 
SYLVESTER Du Bartas II. ii. III. Colonies 633 We finde the 
Alman in his fight courageous, But salable. 1650 FULLER 
J'isfaA II. viii. 172 Saint Paul eloquently defended his inno- 
cence, against the salable tongue of Tertullus. 1798 MRS. 
INCHBAI.D Lovers' Vows v. i, Tell him, my honour has never 
been saleable. 

Sa leableness. [f. prec. + -NESS.] The con- 
dition of being saleable; fitness for sale. 

1727 BAILEY vol. II. 1754 T. SECKER in Nichols lllustr. 
Lit. Hist. (1818) III. 492 You might probably give him a 
better notion of the value, that is, the saleableness of the 
work. 1807 SOLTHF.Y Lett. (1856) II. 6 My own judgement 
of the saleableness of books. 1894 Times 25 July 10/1 The 
intrinsic saleableness of his novel. 

Saleably (s^-labli), adv. [Formed as prec. + 
-LY 2.] In a saleable manner. 

1755 JOHNSON, Saleably. 1898 Times 13 Apr., Every con- 
stituent. .is. .used up, and used up saleably. 

Sale'brity. rare~. [ad. late L. salebritas, 

f. salebra roughness.] = SALEBROSITY. 

1656 BLOUNT Glossogr. 1731 BAILEY vol. II. 

Salebrosity (sceUbr^-siti). [ad. L. *salebro- 
sitCis, f. salebros-us SALEBKOUS.] Ruggedness, un- 
evenness. Alsoyff. 

1638 R. BAILLIE Lett, f,- Jrnls. (1841) 1.140 His Grace here 
wiselie brought the Doctor off salebrosities, whence all his 
witts could not have delivered him with his credit. 1661 
FEI.THAM Resolves, Upon Eccles. 378 Yet is not this without 
its Thornes and salebrosity. 

t Salebrot = sal ALEMBROTH. Obs. 

1678 PHILLIPS, Sal Lambrot or Salebrot. 

Salebrous (sce'Ubras), a. [ad. late L. sale- 
brostis, f. salebra roughness: see -OUS.] Rough, 
rugged. Also/-. 

1633 Battle of Lntzen 30 The entrie of his Raigne. .was 
thornyandsallebrous. 1641 OUGHTRED in Rigaud Corr. Set. ' 
Men (1841) I. co Others of my profession.. refuse to tread 
these salebrous and uneasy paths. ifiSi COTTON Wond. 
Peak 54 We now again proceed Thorough a Vale that's 
salebrous indeed. 

Hence t Sa'lebrousness. 1727 BAILEY vol. II. 

Salempore (sse'lgmpooj). Also 6 sarampura, 
7 salampora, 7-9 salam-, 8 sallampoore, 8-9 
-pore. [= F. salempouri ( 1 8th c.), Du. salamforij 
(i7thc.): of unascertained origin. Cf. palampore .] 
' A blue cotton cloth formerly made at Nellore in 
India, and largely exported to the West Indies, 
where it was the usual slave cloth ' (Knight Diet. 

1598 W. PHILLIP tr. Linschoten \. i. 28/1 Thislinnen . . is called 
Sarampuras, Cassas, Comsas, BeatiHias, Satopassas, and a 
thousande such like names. 1614 in W. Foster Lett. E. 
India Co. (1897) II. 32 Salampora, being a broad white cloth. 
1680 Notts ff Extr. Gmit. Rec. Fort SI. George in. (1873) 
16 (Y.) Salampores, Blew, at 14 Pagodas per corge. 1703 
Land. Gaz. No. 3933/4 The Cargo of the Star of the East, 
consisting of Long Cloth, Sallampoores, Betelles [etc. ]. 1809 
R. LANGFORD Introd. Trade 74, 8 Bales, each containing 60 
Pieces Sallampores blue. 1834 M. SCOTT Cruise Midge 
iii. (1842) 40 Wide white petticoat trowsers-.made of some 
strong cotton stuff of the same fabric as the India salam- 
pore. _ 1863 W. C. BALDWIN Afr. Hunting i. 21 Paid them 
on arrival with brass wire and blue salempore, or calico. 

t Salen. Obs. [Cf. mod.L. salena kind of fish 
found in Lake Como (Benedictus Jovius a 1544).] 
1513 Bk. Kertiynge in Babies Bk. (1868) 280 Grene fysshe, 
pyke, lampraye, salens, porpas rosted. 

f Sal eni'xum. Client. Olts. Also -on. [mod.L. 
(Paracelsus) : see SAL. The second word is the 
nent. of L. enixus, app. in the sense ' that has given 
birth' (scil. to the acid).] Crude potassium sul- 
phate, produced in the manufacture of nitric acid. 

[1797 Encycl. Rrit. (ed. 3) VI. 673 The sal enixurn of Para- 
celsus is the caput mortuum of spirits of nitre with oil of 
vitriol, or what remains in the retort after the distillation of 
this spirit.) 1827 FARADAY Cliem. Manip. xiii. 298 Sal- 
Enixum is an acid sulphate of potash. 1875 Ure's Diet. 

r i 73 **"* 

Salep (sarlgp). See also SALOOP. [= F. 
salep, Sp. salep, Pg. salefo, a. Turkish JjL, salep, 


a. Arabic (_Juo thaf-lcb (pronounced in some parts 
sas-lcb], taken to be a shortening of yJ^tiJI ^ob. 
khasyu 'th-thatlab orchis (lit. 'fox's testicles' ; cf. 
the Eng. name ' dogstones '.)] A nutritive meal, 
starch, or jelly made from the dried tubers of 
various orchidaceous plants, chiefly those of the 
genus Orchis ; formerly also used as a drug. 
"1736 BAILEY Househ. Diet. 519 Put an ounce of Salop or 
salep, into a quart of water. 1771 MRS. HAYWOOD New 
Present 43 To boil Salep. Take of the powder of salep a 
large teaspoonful [etc.]. 1837 M. DONOVAN Doui. Econ. II. 
365 The root [of Orchis mascu/a] being washed, baked, and 
ground to powder, is salep. 1854 S. THOMSON Wild VI. in. 
(1861) 295 Salep is used in the preparation of a mucilaginous 
jelly like arrow-root. 1858 CARPENTER Veg. Pays. 677 A 
nutritive substance termed Salep, somewhat resembling 
Arrow-root or Sago. 1861 [see SALOOP i). 

attrib. 1768 MOULT in Phil. Trans. LIX. 3 The jelly of 
Salep-powder is clear and transparent. 1841 Penny Cycl. 
XX. 345/2 One part of salep-powder with forty-eight parts of 
water boiled or heated forms a thick mucilage. 1868 WATTS 
Diet. Chcm. V. 147 Salep-mucilage. 

t Sa'ler. Obs. Also 4 salure, 5 salere, sal- 
Iyer, 5-6 seler. See also SALT-CELLAR, [a. OF. 
sal'J)iere fern., mod.F. saliere ( = Pr. salicra, 
saliira, It. saliera), also OF. salier masc. : L. 
saliiriam, -urn, properly adj. ' pertaining to salt' ; 
cf. SALARY sb.'} A salt-cellar. 

13. . Coer de L. 1099 The saler on the table stood. 13. . 
Caw. ff Gr. h'nt. 886 Sanap, & salure, & syluer-in sponez. 
1439 in Archzol. XXI. 36, ij Salers of gold, whereof y< 
oon ys a man and y l other a woman, holdyng y salers in her 
hondes. c 1475 Batees Bk. (1868) 7 The sake also louche 
nat in his salere Withe nokyns mete, c 1500 For to sen'e_a 
Lord ibid. 368 The boteler or panter shall sette the seler in 
the myddys of the tabull accordyng to the place where the 
principall soverain shalle sette, and sette his brede iuste 
couched unto the salte-seler. 

Saleratus (saebr,?'-tos). U.S. Also salserat- 
us. [a. mod.L. sal aeratus ' aerated salt '.] An im- 
pure bicarbonate of potash containing more carbon 
dioxide than pearl-ash does, much used as an in- 
gredient in baking-powders. Now also applied to 
sodium bicarbonate used for the same purpose. 

1846 WORCESTER (citing ADAMS), Saleratus, a sort of re- 
fined pearl-ash. 1854 MRS. STOWE Sunny Memories xx. II. 
19 Hot biscuits, hot corn-cakes, and other compounds got up 
with the acrid poison of saleratus. 1880 Ife-.u Virginians ii. I. 
64 Bread made with carbonate of soda, saleratus, or any 
other kind of baking-powdtr. 1883 B. HARTE Carqnincz 
Woods iv. 98 Without extra trouble kneaded flour, water 
and saleratus need not be essentially heavy. 

attrib. T$6'j['Mt.5.\VHnKe.\}SiiiiimerinL.Goldlhwaitc>s 
Life 71 They think it is only saleratus cakes and maple 
molasses. 1884 Harper's Mag. Jan. 297/1 Salaeratus bread, 
heavy pastry, and fried meat do not form the best diet. 

fSalerue. Obs. Anglicized f. L. Salernum, 
It. Salerno, the name of an Italian maritime town 
near Naples, used attrib. = SALERNITAN a. 

1598 Bp. HALL Sat. iv. iv, Tho neuer haue I Saleme rimes 
profest To be some Ladies trencher-criticke guest. 1607 
Englishman's Docter (1830) 125 The Salerne Schoole doth 
by these lines impart, All health to England's king. 1635 
SWAN Spec. M. (1643) 240 The Salern school makes this de- 
mand, Cur tnoriatur homo cui Salvia crescit in horto? 

Salernitail (sala'jnitanX a. and sb. [ad. L. 
Salernitdn-us, f. Salernum (see prec.).] a. adj. Of 
or pertaining to Salerno or the medical school which 
formerly flourished there, b. sb. A nativeor inhabi- 
tant of Salerno; a physician of the Salernitan school. 

The reference in quots. 1621, 1826 is to the following lines 
of the poem Regimen Saiiitatis Salernitanum, 'Si tibi 
deficiant medici, medici tibi fiant Haic tria, mens beta, 
requies, moderata diaeta.' 

1608 TOPSELI. Serpents n. 190 Some have called.. a toade 
the brother of the Salernitans, & the Lizard the brother of 
the Lombards. 1621 BURTON Altai. Mel. n. ii. vi. iv. 375 
This is one of the three Salernitan Doctors, Doctor Merri- 
man, D. Diet, and D. Quiet. 1826 C. M. WESTMACOTT Eng. 
Spy (1907) II. 57 Mirth is the principal of the three Saler- 
nitan doctors. i878ViLLARl Machiaiielli 1.^254 A great 
admixture of the Neapolitan and Salemitan dialects. 

Salesman (sti-lzmsen). Also 6 salys-man; 
and see sale-man, SALE sl>. z 3. [f. sale's, genit. of 
SALE sb.'* + MANJ/'.I Cf. crnftsiait,tradesman."\ A 
man whose businessitis to sell goods or conductsales. 

The following are specific applications: a. One who sells 
goods or produce for another, e. g. one who acts as middleman 
between the grazier or the killer of cattle and the butcher, 
t b. One who sells ready-made clothing. (Cf. SALE sb. 2 4 a.) 
C. U. S. A commercial traveller (Century Diet.). 

1523 FITZHERB. Hnsb. 134 It is not conuenient that the 

<y tjrffi jj. xtvi , ii. ii me ouiys-inan is me wm e one uumc 
teache. 1697 Lond. Gaz. No. 3341/8 Tho. Middleton late of 
West-Smithheld, London, Salesman, deceased, a 1700 B. E. 
Diet. Cant. Crew, Sales-men, brokers who sell Cattel for the 
Gra2iers to the Butchers, before, and at the Beast-Market ; 
also Sellers of ready-made Cloaths. 1717 PRIOR Alma I. 
166 This looks, friend Dick, as Nature had But exercis'd 
the Salesman's Trade : As if She haply had sat down, And 
cut out Cloaths for all the Town. 1717 SWIFT Prol. toGay's 
Three Hours after Marriage 25 Poets make Characters, as 
Salesmen Clothes. 1758 JOHNSON Idler No. 28 P 3 Miss 
Mohair, the daughter of a salesman. 1777 HOWARD Prisons 
Eng. 183 A generous Benefactor (a salesman in Smithfield) 
often sends the Prisoners beef and bread. 1831 YOUATT 
Horse 47 He [sc. Eclipse] was.. sold at his death to Mr. 
Wildman, a sheep salesman, for seventy-five guineas. 1851 


MAYHEW Land. Labour I. 378/2 Should the salesman \l. e. 
a pedlar] succeed with the mistress, he carries out his pra- 
nuse to the maid by presenting her with a cap ribbon, or a 
cheap neckerchief. 1851 Meat-salesman [see MEAT so. 5]. 

1851 Dead salesman [DEAD si'.' 6]. 1883 COTTON in Lam 
Tin:es Kef. XLIX. 723/1 The defendants have let all these 
stalls to salesmen. 1885 Lam Rep. 14 Q. B. Div. 248 Sales- 
men had brought their carts with fruit or vegetables to 
Spitalfields Market on the market days. 1891 Ibid, Weekly 
Notes 80/1 A farmer in Northamptonshire sent certain meat 
to a salesman in the Central Meat market. .for sale. 

b. t Salesman's dog: a tout. 

a 1700 B. E. Diet. Cant. Crew, Salesman* s-dog, the same 
as Barker. 

Hence Salesmanship, the condition or character 
of being a (good) salesman. 

1880 BLACKMORE Mary Anerley II. ix. 162 He made a 
good stroke of salesmanship. 1887 Old Mans Favour I. 
ii. i. 202 The art-pottery stall, under the attractive sales- 
manship of Canon Elwyn. 

Saleswoman (s<?''lzwu:man). A woman who 
sells goods (e. g. in a shop). 

1704 Lond. Gaz. No. 4025/4 Ann Scadding, of the Parish 
of St. Buttolp Aldgate, Saleswoman. 1880 Libr. Univ. 
tCnmvl. (U. S.) VIII. 800 In 1790 [she] went to Paris, where 
she was a saleswoman in a linen shop. 1887 Old Man's 
Favour I. n. i. 204 The stall was well-furnished, the sales- 
woman was pretty and animated. 

Salew, Salewt: see SALUE, SALUTE. 

Salews, obs. pi. SALUTE sb.'* 

t Salfay. Obs. Also 5 safye, 6 Sc. salfer (?). 
[Origin unknown, but prob. ultimately connected 
with L. salmis SAFE.] The reward paid to the 
finder and restorer of lost goods. 

c 1440 Alphabet of Tales 434 Bod be riche man, when he 
had be sakett agayn, wolde not pay be salfay. Ibid., Be- 
cauce he wold nott hafe gyffen be pure man a hondreth 
talentis to safye, as he promysid he sulde do. 1551-2 Reg. 
Prhy Council Scot. I. 123 All sik gudis stollm or reft, 
lauchfullie Convict, salbe restorit and redressit with the 
thre dowbillis and salfer. 

Salf(e, salffe, obs. ff. SAFE, SALVE, SAVE. 

Salfe, obs. form of SAUGH, willow. 

Salfleme : see SAUCEFLEME. 

Salft, Salfty, obs. forms of SALVE rf.i, SAFETY. 

Salge, obs. form of SAGE. 

Sal-gem (src-l^e-m). Now rare or Obs. Also 
4-9 gemme, 5-8 -geme, 7 gemm; and in L. 
form. [ad. med.L. sal gemma or gemmtK, lit. ' gem- 
like salt". Cf. F. sel gemme.'] Native chloride 
of sodium; rock-salt. 

c 1325 [see SAL-AMMONIAC]. -1450 M. E.Mcd. Bk. (Hein- 
rich) 99 Poudres of sal gemme. 1471 RIPLEY Comp. Alch. 
Adm. v. in Ashm. (1652) 190 Sal Tarter, sal Comyn, sal Geme 
most clere. c 1550 LLOYD Treas. Health E iv, Make pouder 
of Roses suger and salgem. 1646 SIR T. BROWNE Pseud. 
Ep. vi. xii. 336 No other salt that I know will strike the 
colour with galles ; neither Alom, Sal-gemme, Nitre, nor 
Armoniack. 1718 QUINCY Coiufl. Disp.g That which is 
termed fossile Salt, or Sal Gemma. 1836 T. THOMSON HI in. 
Geol., etc. I. ico Rock salt, sal-gemme, muriate of soda. 

1852 TH. Ross tr. HumboldCs Trav. I. i. 8 The interior of 
Spain forms a vast plain, .. covered with secondary forma- 
tions, grit-stone, gypsum, salgem. 1867 BLOXAM Chcm. 262 
Perfectly pure specimens [of rock-salt] . . are styled sal gem. 

Salgh(e, obs. forms of SALLOW, willow. 

Salian 1 (s/'-lian), a. and s/>. [f. L. Sali-us 
(usually sb. pi. Salii, lit. ' leapers, dancers ', f. satire 
to leap) + -AN.] a. adj. Of or pertaining to the 
Salii or priests of Mars in ancient Rome. b. sb. 
One of the Salii. 

1653 R. SANDERS Physiogn. 22 Numa Pompilius also in- 
stituted 12 Salian Priests in the honour of Mars. 1781 
GIBBON Dec!, ff F. xxviii. (1787) III. 71 The confraternities 
of the Salians, the Lupercals, &c. practised such rites, as 
might extort a smile of contempt from every reasonable 
man. 1857 H. SPENCER in Westm. Rev. Apr. 462 Among 
the Romans, too, there were sacred dances : the Salian and 
Lupercalian being named as of that kind. 1871 FARRAR 
Wit*. Hist. iii. 107 The catacomb triumphed over the 
Grecian temple ; the cross of shame over the wine-cup and 
the Salian banquet. 

Salian ^ (sfHian), a. and sb. [f. late L. Sali-i, 
the Salian Franks + -AN.] a. adj. Of or belong- 
ing to a tribe of Franks who inhabited a region 
near the Zuyder Zee, and to whom the ancestors 
of the Merovingian dynasty belonged. (Cf. SALTC.) 
b. sb. A Salian Frank. 

1614 SELDEN Titles Hon. n. i. 175 The old Franks which 
were Teutonique, and calld also Salians. 01727 NEWTON 
Obs. Prof A. Daniel i. v. (1733) 43 By the access of these 
Gauls, and of the foreign Franks also,, .the Salian kingdom 
soon grew very great. 1830 GRATTAN Hist. Netherlands 

was said, though improperly, to depend on a law of the 
Salian Franks, hence called the Salic law. 1879 Encycl. 
Brit. IX. 529/2 There is in the Salian law no trace of a 
primitive nobility. 

tSa'liaunce. Obs. [f. ,ra/aa/, SALIENT : see 
-ANCE. Cf. salience.'] An assault, or sally. 

1590 SPENSER F. Q. n. i. 29 Now mote I weet,..why with 
so fierce saliaunce, did at earst me meet. 

Salic (soe-lik, s*i-lik), a. Also 6 salioque, 6-7 
-like, 7 sallick, 7-8 saliok, 6-9 salique. [ad. F. 
salique or med.L. Salicus, f. Salii (see SALIAN 2 ).] 

1. Salic law : in early use, and still in popular 
language, the alleged fundamental law of the French 


monarchy, by which females were excluded froir 
succession to the crown ; hence gen. a law excluding 
females from dynastic succession. In this sense 
still often spelt Salique and pronounced (salf'k). 

The ancient text which under the name of the ' Salic law 
was adduced in favour of the succession of Philip V in 1316 
and afterwards used to combat the claims of Edward III o 
England (and his successors) to the French crown, was 
really a quotation from the Lex Salica (see sense 2) ; the 
words however (cap. lix. 5 of modern editions) have no 
reference to succession to the crown, but merely state thai 
a woman can have no portion of the inheritance of ' Sali 
land ' {terra Salica} \ the precise meaning of this term i 
disputed, and in the earliest form of the code the wore 
' Salic ' is omitted. 

a 1548 HALL Citron.^ Hen. ^(1550) 4 b, The lawe Salicque 
was only fayned and invented to put your noble progenitours 
and you [Hen. V.] from your lawfull right and true inheri- 
taunce. For ttiey say that Pharamond made the lawe for 
the land Salicque, which the glose calleth Fraunce. 1595 
SMAKS. Hen. l^, i. ii. 39. Ibid. QI They would hold vp this 
Salique Law, To barre your Highnesse clayming from the 
Female. 1674 Oi. f^Crt.ofRomc 29 In despite of the Sallick 
Law, [they] endeavour that the I nfanta . . should succeed unto 
the Crown. 1837 [seeSALiAN 2 ]. 1842 W. IRVING Life fy Lett. 
(1866) III. 233 By long usage, the Salique law of France. . 
had become naturalized in Spain. 1847 TENNYSON Princess 
n. 117 She fulmined out her scorn of laws Salique. 

trattsf. 1663 COWLEY Verses fy Ess. (1669) 2 Orinda does 
in that too raign, Does Man behind her in proud Triumph 
draw, And Cancel great Apollo's Salick Law. 1773 HAN. 
MORE Search Happ. ii. 139, I scorn'd the salique law of 
pedant schools, Which chain our genius down by tasteless 
rules. 1870 HUXLEY Lay Serm, ii. 29 Nature's old salique 
law will not be repealed. 

2. In the original sense of L. Salictts: Pertaining 
to the Salian Franks. Chiefly in Salic law or 
code (L. Lex Salica) t a Frankish law-book, written 
in Latin, and extant in five successively enlarged 
recensions of Merovingian and Carolingian date. 

1781 GIBBON Decl. <$ F. xxxviii. (1787) III. 583 Before 
the election of the Merovingian kings, the most powerful 
tribe, or nation, of the Franks, appointed four venerable 
chieftains to compose the Salic laws. Ibid. 594 Besides 
these royal and beneficiary estates, a large proportion had 
been assigned, in the division of Gaul, of allodial and Salic 
lands. 1879 Encycl. Brit. X. 476/1 The Salic code.. shows 
us the Salian king as in all respects the centre of his state. 

Hence Sa'licly (saliquely) adv.^ with reference 
to the Salic law. 

1784 H. WALPOLE Lett, to Ctess Ossory (1848) II. 207 
Numerous as were the sons of Edward III., only Thomas, 
Duke of Gloucester, continued the masculine line, and 1 can- 
not (upon memory alone) affirm that. If he did, the Duke of 
Buckingham beheaded by Henry VIII., had saliqitely 
speaking the best title to the Crown. 

Salicaceous (sselik^-Jas), a. Bot. [f. mod.L. 
salicace-u$ t f. L. salic- t salix willow : see -ACEOUS.J 
Belonging to the N. O. Salicacedz^ which consists of 
two genera, Salix (willow) and Populus (poplar). 

1846 in SMART Suppl. 

Salicet (sse'Hset). [a. G. salicet (1703 in 
Zedler), f. L. salic-, salix willow + -ET. For the 
suffix cf. dulcet sb.] = SALICIONAL. 

1852 SEIDEL Organ 104 Salicional, or 'salicet '. .is one of 
the finest organ registers. 1876 HILES Catec/i. Organ ix, 
(1878) 66 Salicet in the Pedal is a soft 16 feet register. 

Salioify, erron. form of SILICIFY. 

Salicin (sse'lisin). Also -ine. [ad. F. salicine 
(Leroux), f. L. salic-, salix willow : see -IK *.] 
A bitter crystalline principle obtained from willow- 
bark, much used medicinally. 

1830 Philos. Mag. VIII. 304 Salicine, burnt with oxide of 
copper in a proper apparatus, yielded a gas entirely absorb- 
able by potash. 1840 Ibid. XVI. 210 Salicin is now. .em- 
ployed in medicine as a substitute for quinine. 1879 St. 
George's Hosp. Rep. IX. 230 The power of salicin and sali- 
cylic acid in counteracting the rheumatic poison. 

attrib. 1887 Athenaeum 26 Mar. 421/1 Salicine crystals. 

Salicional (sali'Janal). Also erron. salcional, 
salicinal. [a. G. saliz-, salicional (iSth c.), f. 
salic-t salix willow, with obscure suffix. Cf. SALI- 
CET.] An organ stop of a soft reedy tone resem- 
bling that of a willow pipe. 

1843 Meek. Mag. XXXIX. 6 The plan has long been used 
in Germany for the Salcional, 1881 BROADHOUSE Mns. 
Acoustics 171 Pipes which are conically narrowed at the 
top, such as the salicional and the gems horn. 1884 Bo- 
SANQUET in Encycl. Brit. XVII. 833/1 The salicional, sal- 
cional, or salicet. 1897 F. E. ROBERTSON Organ-building 
117 If there be any shade of difference between these stops, 
it is that the Salicional should be beautifully soft and stringy, 
yet not without fulness, the Dulciana quite and a little less 
reedy, and the Vox Angelica the thinnest of all. 

Salicyl (sec'lisil). Chem. Also -yle,-ile, -ule. 
[ad. F. salicyle^ f. L. salic~ y -salix willow : see -YL.] 
The diatomic radical of salicylic acid. 

1840 Turners Elem. Chem. (ed, 6) HI. 852 Under the 
name of hydruret of salicule, a peculiar acid was made known 
by Piria, who discovered it as a product of the decomposi- 
tion of salicine. 1857 MILLER Elem. Chem. (1862) III. 409 
Hydride of salicyl. 1876 HARLEV RoylJs Mat. Med. 415 
Gently heated with sulphuric acid and bichromate of potash, 
it [sc. salicin] . . is converted into fragrant oil of meadow sweet 
or hydride of salicyle. 

attrib, 1843 T. GRAHAM Elem. Chem. 871 Salicyl Series of 
Compounds. 1837 MILLER Elem. Chem. (1862) III. 409 
The salicyl group. 1869 ROSCOE Elem. Chem. xxxix. 388 
Salicyl Aldehyde, CvHsp^ 1888 FAGGE & PVE-SMITH Princ. 
Med. (ed. 2} I. 205 Salicyl compounds, invaluable as they 
are in rheumatic fever. 


Hence Salicyla-mic a., derived from salicyl and 
ammonia ; Salicylamide, a compound formed 
when oil of gualtheria is dissolved in a solution of 
ammonia ; Sa'licylide, the anhydride of salicylic 
acid ; S alley limide, a yellow crystalline powder 
produced by the action of heat on salicylamic 
acid ; Sa'licylite, a salt formed by the action of 
salicylol on oxides and hydrates of metals ; Sa'li- 
cylol, a colourless or reddish oil intermediate in 
composition between salicylic acid and salicylic 
aldehyde ; also, extended to include a class of 
bodies of this type in which part of the hydrogen 
is replaced by a metal ; Salicyltvrate, a salt of 
salicyluric acid ; f Salicylirret, a compound of 
salicyl with a metal ; Salicyltrric acid, an acid 
derived from the urine evacuated after the admini- 
stration of salicylic acid. 

1840 Turner's Elem. Client, (ed. 6) in. 855 Saliculimide. 
Ibid. % Saliculite of Ammonia. 1842 T. GRAHAM Elan. Chan. 
872 In thesalicylites, the atom of hydrogen of the formula 
of salicylous acid is replaced by a metal. Ibid. 873 Solu- 
tions of alkalies and acids act upon salicylimide, . . as they do 
upon amides. 1845 W. GREGORY Outl. Ghent, n. 345 Sali- 
cyluret of ammonium, .is formed when concentrated ammonia 
is poured upon hydruret of salicyle. 1857 MILLER Elan. 
Chan. (1862) III. 544 It [sc. benzamic acid] is isomeric with 
anthranilic acid and with salicylamide. Ibid. 567 Loth 
salicylide and salicylic anhydride are rapidly converted into 
ordinary salicylic acid. Ibid.^ The solutions of salicyluric 
acid give a violet colour with persalts of iron. i863/'t>7ctV 
Chein. (ed. 9) 557 Salicylite of copper is a green insoluble 
powder. 1868 WATTS Diet. Chcin. V. 150 Salicylamic-acid^ 
. .this compound is produced by the action of ammonia on 
methylsalicylic or ethylsalicylic acid. Ibid. 167 Salicylol, . . 
Salicylous Hydride. Hydnc Salicylite. Salicylous acid. 
Ibid. 172 Salicylurates. The acid decomposes carbonates. 
Its salts crystallise easily. 1869 J&O&CQE JStetrt. Cfarm. xxxix. 
389 Sodium Salicilol. im Encycl. Brit, XXI. 212/2 Salicin 
is eliminated from the system partly in the form of salicylic 
and salicyluric acids, and partly as saligenin. 

Salicylate (iftliiil/t), sb. Chem. [f. SALI- 
CYLIC + -ATE 1 .] A salt of salicylic acid. 

1842 T. GRAHAM Elcm. Chein. 874 Salicylate of silver is 
an insoluble white precipitate, anhydrous. 1857 MILLER 
Elem. Client. (1862) III. 180 The oil of winter green is a 
Salicylate of methyl. 1878 BKISTOWE Theory $ Pract. Mcd. 
(ed. 2) 900 By far the most, .efficacious treatment of acute 
rheumatism is that by salicylic acid or salicylate of soda. 

attrib. 1897 Allbntt's Syst. Med. Ill, 13 The salicylate 
treatment pushed too freely. 

Salicylate (sali'sil^t), v. [f. next + -ATE 3.] 

trans. To mix or impregnate with salicylic acid. 

1880 Times 28 Dec. 7/6 By salicylating the drinking-water 
of the beasts by the addition of two tablespoonfuls of the 
acid dissolved in hot water. 1883 MARTINDALE & WESTCOTT 
Extra Pharniacop. 71 Salicylated Camphor. 1886 Lancet 
2 Oct. 638/1 The salicylated beer of Paris. 

Salicylic (sxlisi-lik), a. Chem. Earlier sali- 
culic. [f. SALICYL + -ic.] 

1. Chem. Belonging to a group of benzene deriva- 
tives obtainable from salicin ; esp. in salicylic acid, 
a white crystalline substance, prepared commer- 
cially from sodium phenol, and much used as an 
antiseptic and in the treatment of rheumatism. 

1840 Turner 's Elem. Chem. (ed. 6) in. 857 Saliculic Acid. 
Discovered by Piria. 1842 T. GRAHAM Elem. Chein. 874 j 
The salicylic acid is liberated by adding an excess of hydro- ! 
chloric acid. 1857 MILLER Elem. Chem. (1862) III. 560 I 
Salicylic Series. 1869 K.OSCOE Elem. Chem. xxxix. 388 Sali- 
cylic group. The members of this group are closely con- 
nected with the benzyl and benzoyl series. 1881 Athenaeum 
4 June 754 The use of salicylic acid as a disinfectant. 

2. Therapeutics, Made from, impregnated with, 
or involving the use of, salicylic acid. 

1876 Trans. Clinical Soc. IX. 10 On the eleventh day the 
salicylic ointment was employed. 1880 MACCORMAC Anti- 
seft.Snrg; 215 The inguinal regions, .should be well padded 
with salicylic wool. 1897 Allbntt's Syst, Med. III. 57 As a 
rule such articular pains yield rapidly to salicylic treatment. 

Salicylism(sarlisiliz'rn). [f. SALICYLIC + -ISM.] 
A toxic condition produced by the administration 
of salicylic acid or salicylates. 

1889 Lancet 19 Jan. 114/2 If patients bleed at all as a , 
result of salicylism, they should do so from their gums. 

Salicylize (sarlisitoiz), v. [f. SALICYLIC + ! 
-IZE.] To treat with salicylic acid in order to 
prevent fermentation. Hence Sa'licylized ppl. a. \ 

1881 Nature 12 May 48/1 It is estimated that 5,000,000 > 
lectolitres of wine were salicylised in France in 1880. 1881 
Athenxum 4 June 754/2 The daily use of salicylized food 
or drink does not. .injure the health. 

Salicylous (salrsibs), a. Chem. Earlier salic- 
ulous. [f. SALICYL + -ous. Cf, F. salicyleux^ 
Salicylous acid', an oily liquid obtained by distilla- 
tion of salicin with sulphuric acid and bichromate 
of potash ; salicyl aldehyde. 

1840 Turner's Elem. Client, (ed. 6) m. 854 Saliculous acid ; 
combines with metallic oxides to form the saliculites. 1842 
[\ GRAHAM Eletn. Chem. 735 Oil of spiraea, or salicylous 
acid. 1876 HARLF.Y Mat. Med. (ed. 6) 415 Salicylous acid j 

.differing from salicylic acid by an atom less of oxygen. 

Salie, variant of SAULIE Sc. 
Salience (s^i'liens). [f. SALIENT: see -ENCE.] \ 
1. The quality of leaping or springing up. rare. \ 
1836 L. HUNT in New Monthly Mag. XLVII. 479 What 
fresh, clean, and youthful salience in the lynx ! 1840 ( 
Seer r. 6 The suddenness and salience of all that is lively, j 
sprouting, and new. 


2. The fact, quality, or condition of being salient 
or projecting beyond the general outline or surface. 
Also of immaterial things. 

1849 LYTTON Caxtons x. i, No wonder that thou seemest have a great cavity where thy brain should have the 
bumppf 'conscientiousness* in full salience ! 1877 SVMONDS 
Retiaiss. It. t Fine Arls III. vi. 299 His character does not 
emerge with any salience from the meagre notices we have 
received concerning him. a 1878 SIR G. SCOTT Lect.Archit. 
(1879) I. 149 These subsidiary shafts may be. .subordinated 
one to another, both in size and salience. 1884 Conteinp. 
Rev. July 142 There is not the same unity of composition 
or salience of coluur. 

3. A salient or projecting feature, part, or object. 

1837 C. LOFFT Self-formation I. 144 To people who would 
merely lounge along, side by side, these saliences are sorely 
annoying, they are abominable things. 1890 C. H. MOORK 
Gothic A re hit. ix. 299 Saliences are indicated convention- 
ally [in illumination] by paling the colour. 1894 R. ELLIS 
Phacdrus 26 An imitator reproduces the saliences of his 
model. 1908 Westm. Gaz. 7 May 2/1 The Badakshan dis- 
trict. . forms a salience, running deeply into Russian territory. 

Saliency (s^Hiensi). [f. SALIENT: see -ENCY.] 
fl. Leaping or jumping. Obs. 
1664 POWER Exp. Philos. i. 25 It [sc. the ant] trips so 
nimbly away without any saliency or leaping. 

2. = SALIENCE 2. 

I ^34 J- S. MACAULAY Field Fort if. vi. i. 114 In order 
to give as great a saliency as possible to these lunettes. 
1841 HOR. SMITH Moneyed Man III. viii. 208 The great 
attenuation of the face.. gave a singular saliency to the 
features. 1863 LYTTON Caxtoniana II. 275 Its merits are 
not to be sought in the saliency of any predominating ex- 
cellence. i88z C. D. WAKNEK Washington In'ing vi. 118 
A man, . . whose . . strong patriotism did not need the saliency 
of ignorant partisanship. 

3. = SALIENCE 3. 

1831 Examiner ffifa They should be replete with saliencies, 
and. .poke quaint peculiarities at the spectator. 1887 Har- 
fcr's Mag. July 266 Their little chronology, .stepped briskly 
over the centuries solely on the names of kings and san- 
guinary saliencies. 

Salient (st 7 -lient), a. and sb. Also 6 saliaunte, 
7 salliaut, 7-9 saliant, S saillaut. [ad. L. salient- 
em, pres. pple. of satire to leap. The form has 
been freq. assimilated wholly or partly to F. sail- 
lant (from the same source),] A. adj. 

1. Leaping, jumping; esp. of animals, saltatorial. 

Used by Sydney Smith app. for 'dancing ' : cf. SALTANT. 

1646 SIR T. BROWNE Pseud. Ep, v, iii. 237 Salient animalls, 
and such as move by leaping. 1655 FULLER Ch. Hist. x. ii. 
53 Behold a straw besprinkled with some drops of his 
blood ..leaped up on this Wilkinson [etc.]. .when this straw 
salient leaped lirst up into Wilkinson's lap [etc.]. 1803 
SHAW Zool. IV. 167 Salient Elenny. Ibid. 585 Salient 
Mackrel. 1826 SVD. SMITH JKX.-.J. (1859) II. 89/1 With ten 
or a dozen stars and an Oonalaska chief, and followed by 
all vicious and salient London, Mrs. Clotworthy takes the 
field. 1848 MAUNDER Treas.Nat.Hist.'&a^ Salient, moving 
by leaps, as frogs. 

b. Of water : Jetting forth ; leaping upwards. 

1669 BOYLE Conin. New Exp. iy. 17 We could take notice 
of the Lines describ'd by the Salient water, as the ejacula- 
tion of that Liquor grew still fainter and fainter. 1728 POPE 
Dnnc. n. 162 Who best can send on high The salient spout, 
far-streaming to the sky. 1830 TENNYSON Adeline iii, Do 
beating hearts of salient springs Keep measure with thine 
own? iSga LD. LYTTON A". Poppy n. 289 Nor any better 
could that Dragon sage Hinder the sources of the salient 
springs From listening. 

jfig. 1796 BURKE Let. Noble Ld. Wks. VIII. 46 He had in 
himself a salient, living spring, of generous and manly action. 

C. Of the pulse : Beating strongly, poet. 
a 1791 BLACKLOCK Ode written when sick 15 The salient 
pulse of health gives o'er. 

d. Math. Salient point (see quot.). 
1845 Encycl. Metrop. II. 122 The points of curves which 
have been called shooting or saliant points, when the func- 
tion T- becomes discontinuous by changing suddenly of 


2. Her. Having the hind legs in the sinister base 
and the fore paws elevated near together in the 
dexter chief, as if in the act of leaping. 

1562 LEGH Armoric 78 He beareth Argent, a Lion sali- 
aunte,. .this lifteth up hys right pawe to the right corner of 
the Kscocheon, and the Rampande, lifteth up his left pawe 
to the same corner. 1605 CAMDEN Rem. (1637) 227 A demy 
Tiamme salient Argent. 1718 A. NISBET Ess. Armories 
Index Terms, Salient, when any Beast is erected Bend- 
ways. 1864 BOUTELL Her. Hist. <$ Pop. xx. (ed. 3) 334 A 
pegasus salient. 

trans/. 1740 Gent 1. Mag. X. 460/1 [A little cur] salient 
on her nether feet, Extorts your very fav'rite bit. 

3. Salient point [= F. point saillant, mod.L. 
punctum saliens~\ : in old medical use, the heart as 
it first appears in an embryo (cf. quot. 1706); 
hence, the first beginning of life or motion ; the 
starting-point of anything. Obs. or arch. 

1672 SIR T. BROWNE Let. Friend 5 His end was not 
unlike his beginning, when the salient point scarce affords 
a sensible motion. [1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey), Punctitm 
S aliens > a little Speck or Cloud that appears in a Brood- 
egg, and seems to leap before the Chicken begins to be 
hatch'd.J 1712 BLACKMORE Creation vi. 337 The Salient 
Point, so first is calPd the Heart. 1769 Junins Lett. (1820) 
154 That was the salient point from which all the mischiefs 
. .of the present reign took life. 1822 GQQU Study Med. II. 
7 The heart is the salient point of the circulation. 1837 
CARLYLE Fr. Rev. II. i. v, What a progress, since the first 
salient-point of the Breton Committee ! 1869 GOULBURN 
Purs. Holiness iv. 39 What is the salient point, the spring, 
of a virtue 9 



b. Similarly, f salient motion. 
1660 INGELO Bentiv. f, Ur. n. (1682) 119 The earthly bud 
of young Life first appears in a salient Motion. 
4. Of an angle: Pointing outward, as an ordinary 
angle of a polygon (opposed to re-entrant) ; chiefly 
in Fortif., ' formed by two lines of works meeting 
and pointing towards the country' (Voyle), i.e. 
away from the centre of the fortification. So 
salient point, etc. 

1687 J. RICHARDS Jrnl. Siege ofBnda 19 We Piercd the 
Wall of the Lower Town looking into St. Paul s Valley, and 
carrv'd on a 3 d Angle Salliant. 1702 Milit. Diet. s.v. bon- 
net,'. Work consisting of two Faces, which make an Angle 
Saillant in the Nature of a small Ravelin. 1739 LAHEI.YE 
Short Ace. Piers Westm. Bridge 79 Each Point, or bahant 
Angle of each of the Piers. 1812 WELLINGTON in Gurw. 
Desp (1837) IX. 12 When the attack upon the salient angle . 
. succeeded. 1816 R. JAMESON Char. Min. (ed. 2) 170 In 
ordinary crystals, the faces adjacent toeach other always form 
salient, and never re-entering angles. 1838 / etuiy <~ycl. A. 
,75/2 We obtain about 360 yards for the distance between 
the salient points Fand E of the two bastions. 1876 VOYLE 
& STEVENSON Milit. Diet., Salient Order of battle, an 
order of battle, the front of the army being formed on a 
salient or outward angle. 

5. a. Of material things: Standing above or 
beyond the general surface or outline ; jutting out ; 
prominent among a number of objects. 

1789 E. DARWIN Bat. Card. I. 32 He. .Crowns with high 
Calpe Europe's saliant strand. 1834 McMuRTRIE Cuvurs 
Anim. Kingd. 268 The hinge always furnished with salient 
and well-marked teeth. 1844 KlNGLAKE Eothen vi. 93 1 
town is on a salient point. 1854 BADHAM Halicnt. 451 
Large salient eyes. 1859 GULLICK & TIMBS Paint. 201 T he 
salient parts of the body and limbs should always be seen | 
through the drapery. 1878 Bosw. SMITH Carthage 229 I he 
salient physical features of the spot. 1881 MIVART Cat 480 
The Mastoid is never salient. 

b. Of immaterial things, qualities, etc. : Stand- I 
ing out from the rest ; prominent, conspicuous. 
Often in phr. salient point (cf. 3). 

1840 CARLYLE Heroes iii. 177 The great salient points are 
admirably seized. 1846 GROTE Greece I. xx. II. 87 His per- 
sonal ascendancy, .is the salient feature in the picture. 1862 
STANLEY Jew. Ch. (1877) I. viii. 153 Some few salient points ! 
emerge full of eternal significance. 1873 SYMONDS Grit. 
Poets xii. 401 In the midst of our activity we have so little 
that is salient or characteristic in our life. 1874 GREEN 
Short Hist. vii. 7. 421 No salient peculiarity seems to 
have left its trace on the memory of his contemporaries. 
B. sb. Fortif. A salient angle or part of a work. 
i8z8 J. M. SPEARMAN Brit. Gunner, (ed. 2) 209 If lunettes 
are constructed beyond the saliants of the bastions and 
ravelins. 1868 KINGLAKE Crimea (1877) III. l. 216 I wo 
sides of a triangle whereof the salients pointed straight to 
the front. 1897 GEN. H. PORTER Campaigning milk Grant 
in Century Mag. June 210 The fort was an enclosed work, 
and formed a salient upon the enemy's line. 
Hence Sa'liently adv., in a salient manner. 
1847-54 in WEBSTER. 1868 E. EDWARDS Ralegh I. Introd. 
30 His name stands out saliently in several events which 
serve to mark epochs . . in English history. 1870 Contemp. 
Rev. XVI. 159 They stand saliently in the van of civilization. 

Saliewe, variant of SALUE. 

Saliferous (salHeras), a. [f. L. sal, sail- salt 
+ -FERGUS, pern, after F. salifere. (Cf. Kirwan's 
saliniferous.)} Containing a large proportion of 
salt : said chiefly of strata. 

Formerly used Geol. to define the Upper Trias. 

1828-32 WEBSTER (citing EATON). 1833 LYELL Princ. Geol. 
III. 332 A saliferous red marl. 1833-4 J- PHILLIPS Geol. in 
Encycl. Metrop. (1845) VI. 612/2 Saliferous System of Europe. 
1846 M c CuLLOCH Ace. Brit. Empire 1. 65 The name s ali/er- 
ous has sometimes been given to this group [sc. the new red 
sandstone series]. 1847 H. MILLER first Impr. x. 181 The 
saliferous district of Cordova. 1879 G. GLADSTONE in Gas- 
sell's Techn. Educ.lV. 315/1 The water in percolating through 
the saliferous strata will dissolve out the salt. 

Salifiable (meVSAJUft), a. Chem. [a. F. 
salifiable, f. salifier to SALIFY.] Capable of com- 
bining with an acid to form a salt. 

1790 KERR tr. Lavoisier's Elem. Chem. 150 Acids may. . 
be considered as truesalifying principles, and the substances 
with which they unite to form neutral salts may be called 
salifiable bases. 1836 BRANDE Chem. (ed. 4) 321 The sali- 
fiable oxides. 1882 Nature XXVI. 102 Under the proper 
conditions of temperature, moisture, supply of oxygen, and 
presence of salifiable base. 

t Sali ficate, a. Obs. [ad. mod.L. salificat-us, 
pa. pple. of salificare to SALIFY.] Turned into a salt. 

1657 G. STARKEY Helmont's Vina. 314 A very small por- 
tion of the Oyl will be turned into a resinous gumme, dis- 
tinct from that which is salificate. 


posed of saligenine and sugar. 1863 Fowues" Chem. (ed. 9) 
558 Saligenin forms colourless, nacreous scales, freely soluble 
in water, alcohol, and ether. 

So Sali'genol, Sall'ffenyl (see quots.). 

1886 Encycl. Brit. XXI. 212/2 It [sc. salicin] may be split 
up by digestion with emulsin or saliva into salicylic alcohol 
(saligenol, CvHsOz) and glucose. 1897 &"* s ' oc - Lat. t Sab- 
genyl, the hypothetical radical of Sahgenm. 
' Saligot (sarligpt). Also 7-8 salligot. [a. OF. 
saligot] The water-chestmit, Trapa iiatans. 
' ' 

Salification (sa^lifik^-Jan). [ad. mod.L. sa- 
lificatidn-em, f. salificare to SALIFY.] Conversion 
into a salt ; the action or condition of being salified. 

1684 tr. Bonet's Merc. Contpit. xix. 765/1 The liquor being 
nitrated and evapourated the salts run into crystals. Such 
kind of salification succeeds well [etc.], 1828-32 in WEBSTER, 
and in recent Diets. 

Salify (sje'lifai), v. Chem. Now rare. [ad. 
F. salifier, ad. mod.L. salificare, f. L. sal, sali- 
salt: see -FY.] intr. To form a salt. 

1790 [see SALIFIABLE}. 

Saligenin (seeli-d^Onin). Chem. Also 9 -ine. 
[a. F. taHgbwu, f. sa/i(cine) SALICIN : see -GEN 
and -IN 1.] A substance obtained in the decom- 
position of salicin by dilute acid. 

i8$2 W. GREGORY Org. Client, (ed. 3) 147 Salicine U com- 

Uuiuhart (quot. 1653) uses ' sallig'ots ' to render F. tribars 
(said to mean ' ragouts of tripe ), evidently because ot Cot- 
grave's ' Tribule, the water Caltrop, Saligot '. 

1578 LYTE Dodoens iv. Ixxii. sssTheophrastand Dioscondes 
haue described two kindes of Tribulus, the one of the lande . . . 
The other of the water, called Saligot. 1597 GERARDE //>&!/ 
M cclxxxiv. 677 The leaues of Saligot be gmen against all 
inflammations. 1653 URQUHART Rabelais n. xxxi, Gallant 
salligots with garlick [orig. beaux tribars anx ails]. 1666 
J. DAVIES Hist. Caribby Isles 56 The Potatoe is a root 
much like the Saligots growing in Gardens, which are called 
Topinambous, or Jerusalem Artichokes. 1736 BAILEY Houscli. 
Diet. 517 Salligot, or Water Caltrop. 1866 TrtOS. Bat. 

Salimeter (rfllinftai). [f. L. sal, salt- salt + 
-METER.] An instrument for determining the amount 
of salt in a solution. 

1866 ATKINSON tr. Ganot's Physics 109. 

|| Salina (sabi'na). [a. Sp. salina : L. salina. 
only in pi. saltnx (sc. fodlnse), fern, of *salinits 
SALINE.] A salt lake, pond, well, spring, or marsh ; 
a salt-pan, salt-works. 

1697 DAMPIER Voy. (1699) 265 A dry Salina or Salt-pond. 
1748 BROWNRICG Art Making Salt 16 Salinas of the same 
kind have been taken notice of by travellers, in many other 
parts of the world. 1829 W. IRVING Cony. Granada U. 
Ixxxviii. 312 El Zagal relinquished his right to one half ot 
the salinas, or saltpits, of Maleha. 1879 BEERBOHM fata- 
gonia v. 76 We rode past a long chain of saunas, which 
glittered and sparkled whilely in the sun. 

Salination (sselinl\fn). rare~'. [ad. L. 

ty]>e *saliinllia : see SALINE and -ATION.] Salting. 
"1705 GREENHILL Embalming 59 It is not improbable the 
Egyptians might have been accustom'd to wash the Body 
with the same Pickle they us'd in the Salination. 

|| Saliiia'tor. rare. [L. sallnaior, f. salina: 
see SALINA and -ATOK.] A salter. 

1705 I'hil. Trans. XXV. 2107 A Dissector or Anatomist; 
a Salinator or Salter. 1854 BADHAM Halicnt. 67 note, 1 he 
salt of Rome is at present monopolized by one or two 
salinalors, who farm it from Government. 

Saline (s^'bin, sabi'n), a. and st. [ad. L. 
*sallmis, f. sal salt : see -INE I. Cf. F. salin, km. 
-ine (i 7th c.), Sp., Pg., It. salint.} A. adj. 

1. t Composed of salt (ofc.) ; of the nature of 
salt ; having salt as a preponderating constituent. 

uc reckoned all tnose tnat arecaicineu ur UUMH in me * n*.. 
1802 PLAYFAIR lllustr. Hutton. Theory ifn The water would 
gain admission to the saline strata. 1832 DE LA BECHE Geol. 
Man. (ed. 2) 21 The saline contents of sea- water. 1878 
HUXLEY fhysiogr. 124 The river contains less saline matter. 

b. Of natural waters, springs, lakes, etc. : Im- 
pregnated with salt or salts. 

1805 W. SAUNDEKS Min. Waters 230 A valuable property 
which this water possesses in common with the other bitter 
saline waters. 1826 KIRBY & SP. Entomol. xlix. IV. 499 
Brackish waters and saline marshes. 1862 MERIVALE Rom. 
Emp. liii. VII. 240 note 2, Mehadia, long celebrated for its 
saline baths. 1872 JENKINSON Guide Eng. Lakes (1879) 265 
Medicinal springs, saline and sulphurous. 
U c. loosely used for SALT a. 1 2. 

1812 CRABBE Tales vii. 21 With bacon, mass saline, where 
never lean Beneath the brown and bristly rind was seen. 

3. Like that of salt ; like salt ; salty. 

1651 BIGGS New Disp. P 144 The acid saline vitriolated 
qualities of wine, vineger or juice of Limons. 1732 ARBUTH. 
NOT Rules of Diet in Aliments, etc. 270 By this saline 
Quality, the Juices of Shell-Fish, .are diuretick. 1774 J. 
BRYANT Mythol. I. 33 The fountain at Selinus in Sicily was 
of bitter saline taste. 1857 G. Bird's Urin. Deposits (ed. 5.) 
78 The . . saline taste of nitre. 1873 DARWIN InutttV. PI. vm. 
178 The solution was sufficiently strong to taste saline. 

4. Of or pertaining to chemical salts ; of the 
nature of a salt. 

1771 Encycl. Brit. II. 70/1 The chemists have not yet 
been able to produce a saline substance by combining earth 
and water together. 1790 KERR tr. Lavoisier's Elem. Chem. 
167 There is reason to believe that many of these supposable 
saline combinations [z':z. neutral salts] are not capable of 
being formed. 1839 URE Diet. Arts 1085 A few have rashly 
offered to cut the knot, by excluding from the saline family, 
chloride of sodium, the patriarch of the whole. 1863 Fmonef 
Client, (ed. 9) 269 The great resemblance in propernes be- 
tween the two classes of saline compounds, the haloid and 
oxy-salts. 1881 WILLIAMSON in Nature No. 618. 414 W^en 
a constitution, similar to that attributed to salts, was ima- 
gined for other compounds not saline in their character. 

5. Of medicines: Consisting of or based upon 
salts of the alkaline metals or magnesium. 

1789 W. BUCHAN Dom. Med. (1790) 681 Saline Mixture. 
Dissolve a drachm of the salt of tartar in four ounces of 
boiling water. 1802 Med. Jrnl. VIII. 32 The use of saline 

..i ;.-.., *ft>WC HOICTVIU/F TltrnwH. Prnft. /I'ffff. 2JI Saline 


6. Of plants, f animals : Growing in or inhabiting 
salt plains or marshes. 

1802 SHAW Zool. III. 119 Saline Frog. Rana Salsa... It 
is an inhabitant of salt marshes in some parts of Germany. 
1866 Chamb. Encycl. VIII. 441/1 Saline Plants are those 
which require for their healthy and vigorous growth a con- 
siderable supply of chloride of sodium., and other salts. 
B. sb. 

1. = SALINA. 

c 1450 Godstow Keg. 669 One salyne that is called a salte 
pitte. 1533 BELLENDEN Lny l. xiv. (S.T.S.) I. 79 He biggit 
als In t>e mouth of tyber be ciete callit hostia, And mony 
Salynis war edifyt about be samyn. 1589 M.PHILLIPS in 
Hakluyt Voy. 568 We came to the North side of the riuer of 
Panuco, where the Spanyards haue certaine Salines. 1748 
BROWNRIGG Art Making Salt isThe learned Doctor Shaw 
hath given us the most accurate description of several of 
these salines in the kingdom of Algiers. 1808 ASHE />?'. 
III. 3 It [sc. Salt River] received its name from the number 
of salines on its banks which impregnate its waters. 1888 
Harpers Mag. Apr. 739 Its highest ridges do not rise more 
than the height of a man above the salines on either side. 

2. (See quots.) 

1662 MERRETT tr. Nerfs Art of Glass cxvn. 173 Saline of 
the Levant. 1674 BLOUNT Glossogr. (ed. 4), Saline of the 
Levant, is a salt extracted from the froth of the Sea, coagu- 
lated through the extreme heat of the Countrey. 1850 
OGILVIE, Sa//,.. potash before it is calcined. 1860 WOR- 
CESTER (citing LOUDON), Saline, a dry saline, reddish sub- 
stance, obtained from the ashes of potato leaves, etc. 1895 
Funk's Standard Diet., Saliit, the residue obtained from 
the evaporation or calcination of vinasse. 

3. A saline purge (see A. 5). 

1875 B. MEADOWS din. Obsen: 71 Acids and alkalies, 
quinine and colchicum, rhubarb and salines, all kinds _of 
remedies were useless. 1883 THO.MSON & STEELE Diet. 
Domestic Med. ff Surf. (ed. 17) 520/1 Pyretic saline. 1899 
Allbntfs Syst. Med. VIII. 656 Free purgation with salines 
will often, as in eczema, alleviate the itching. 

Salineness. rare. [-NESS.] Salinity. 

1674 R. GODFREY Inj. t, At. Physic 59 It having, .lost its 
salineness, and its vitality. 1757 tr. Henckel's Pyritol. 357 
A vitriolic salineness. 

t Saliner. Ot>s. [a. OF. salinier, ad. late L. 
salindrius, f. L. salina SALINA.] A salt-maker. 

1543 St. Papers Hen. VIII (1849) IX. 260 The saliners do 
gyve out of hande 15000 muys of salt to be delivred [etc.]. 

Saliniferous (saelini-feras), a. rare, [irreg. f. 
L. *salin-ns SALINE + -FERGUS.] Saliferous. 

1799 KIRWAN Geol. ss. 389 The saliniferous hill Konigs- 
horn in Westphalia, consists of marly limestone. 

Saliniform (sali-nif^m), a. [irreg. f. L. *sa- 
lln-us SALINE + -FORM.] Having the form of salt. 

1799 KIRWAN Geol. Ess. 399 Most metals, .are found in 
four states, native, sulphurated, calciform, or salimform. 

Salinitrous (sEC'linsitras), a. [f. L. sal, soli- 
salt -r NITUE -t- -ous. Cf. SALITHOSE, -ous.] Per- 
taining to or containing nitre. 

1731 BAILEY vol. II, Salinitrous, compounded with salt 
or salt-petre. 1901 Westm. Gas. 5 Oct. 7/2 The salmltrous 

Salinity (sali-mti). [f. SALINE + -ITY. Cf. 
F. saliniti.] The quality of being saline ; saltness. 

1658 R. FRANCK North. Mem. (1694) 181 The Salinity of 
the Ocean. 1869 Sci. Opinion 14 Apr. 445/2 We want in- 
formation . . as to the degree of salinity . . of the water at 
different levels. 1883 Chamb. Jrnl. 332 Deeper down [in 
the Dead Sea] the salinity amounts to saturation. 

Salino- (sabi-no), used as combining form of 
SALINE, in the sense ' consisting of salt (and ...)', 
as salino-sulphureous, -terrene, terreous adjs. 

1674 Phil. Trans. IX. 69 An Acid Salino-sulphureous 
steam, a 1691 BOYLE Hist. A ir (1692) 4QSalino-sulphureous 
spirits. 1744 PARSONS in Phil. Trans. XLIII. iguole, The 
salino-sulphureous Particles of the Blood. 1800 tr. l-a- 
rrangc's Client. I. 357 We are not acquainted with the 
action of salinoterreous matters on arsenic. 1828-32 WEB- 
STER, Salino-terrene, denoting a compound of salt and earth. 

Salinometer (sseluvrattai). [f. SALINE + 
-(O)METER.] An apparatus or instrument for 
ascertaining the salinity of water, esf. one for in- 
dicating the density of brine in marine boilers. 

rtiiMech. Mag. XL, 34 Mr. J. Scott Russell's Salinometer. 

1876 Catal. Set App. S. Kens. 97- '884 KNIGHT Diet. 
Meclt. Suppl., Salinometer 1 an instrument for testing the 
strength of a brine or salt pickle. 

t Sali-nous, a. Olts. [f. L. *sallnus SALINE + 
-ous.] Saline, salty. 

1646 SIR T. BROWNE Pseud. Ep. n. i. 50 Saiinous spirits, 
concretive juyces, and causes circumjacent. 1669 W. SIMP- 
SON Hydrol. Chyin. 327 Spaws of different sorts, as; vitriolme, 
aluminous, nitrous, saiinous. 1687 A. LOVELL tr. Thevenot s 
Traa. n. 119 Rain-water,, .incorporating with that Saiinous 
Earth, produces a Salt, that works out of the Surface of it. 

Salipyrin (seiilipaio-rin). [f. SALI(CYLIC) + 
(ANTI)PYHIN.] Salicylate of antipyrin. 

1892 A. H. ALLEN Comm. Org. Anal. (ed. z) III. n. 37 Sa. 
licyiate of antipyrine has been employed with favourable 
results in medicine under the name of ' salipyrin '. 

Saliretin (saelin -tin). Chem. [ 
(Piria), f. SALI(CIN) + Or. ^rivr, RESIN.] A re- 
sinous substance obtained by the action of dilute 
acids on saligenin. 

1840 Turner's Elem. Chem. (ed. 6) in. 861 The white 
precipitate obtained, when salicine is boiled in dilute muria- 
tic or sulphuric acid is saliretine. 1853 Phartncic. Jrtil. 
XIII. 88 Saliretin is isomeric with hydruret of benzoyle. 

Salit, variant pa. t. SALUE v. 06s. 

Salite, variant of SAHLITE. 




Salited, ///. a. ?O6s. [f. ~L.salit-us t pa. pple. 
of saln't to salt + -El> *.] Impregnated with salt. 

1784 CULLEN tr. Bergman's Phys. fy Client, Ess. I. 443 
Sauted magnesia dissolves in spirit of wine. 1796 KIRWAN 
Elgin. Mitt. (ed. 2) II. 438 Salited Arsenic may also be pre- 
cipitated in its Metallic form by Zinc. 

t Sali'tion. Obs. [ad. late L. salition-em t n. 
of action f. salire to leap.] Leaping. 

a i68a SIR T. BROWNE Bks, \Vks- 1835 IV. 393 
What kind of motion natation or swimming is,.. whether 
not compounded of a kind of salition, and volation. 

S a lit re (see'litai). [a. Sp. salitre saltpetre : 
see SAL-NITKE.] Sodium nitrate. 

1884 Boston (Mass.) Jrnl. 9 Nov. 4/2 The Committee of 
the Combination of Salitre Elaborators. 1895 Funk's 
Standard Diet.) Saliter t soda niter. 

Salitrose (sge'litr?s), a. [ad. Sp. salitroso, f. 
salitre (see prec.).] Containing saltpetre. 

1845 FORD Hamibk. Spain n. 559 Roads.. clouded in a 
salitrose dust. 1848 Blackiv. Mag. LXIII. 726 The Bayou 
Salade especially, owing to the salitrose nature of the soil 
and springs, is the favourite resort. 

So Salitrous (sse'litrss) a. 

i897GADO\v In North. Spain 77 A spring of salitrous water. 

tSa'liture. Obs. rare. [ad. late L. salitura* 
f, salire to salt (see SALITED).] Salting, pickling. 

1657 TOMLINSOS Renous Disp. 87 As Saliture and l-'arture 
rather seem to appertain to a Cooks [shupj. 1657 Physical 
Diet., Salttnre, the art of salting or seasoning any meats. 

Saliva (sabi-va). [a. L. saliva.'] Spittle ; the 
mixed secretion of the salivary glands and of the 
mucous glands of the mouth, a colourless liquid, 
having normally an alkaline reaction, which mixes 
with the food in mastication. 

1676 WISEMAN Chirurg. Treat, iv. vii. 333 Not meeting 
with that disturbance from the .SW/m as in the former work. 
1748 tr. I'cgetins' Distemp. Horses 172 He will.. pour out 
a great deal of Saliva, and his Gums will swell. 1847-9 
Todd's Cycl. Anat. IV. i. 415/2 The presence of food in the 
mouth caused a rapid flow of saliva. 1877 FOSTLK Physiol. 
u. 1. 158 Saliva contains but few solids. 

trans/. 1818 KIRUY & Sf.Etttomol. xxi. (ed. 2)11. 247 The 
carrion-beetles, .defile us.. with brown fetid saliva. 

attrib. 1826 KIRBV & SP. Entomol. xl. IV. i ro The usual 
saliva- reservoirs. Ibid, xti. 125 The most usual number of 
the saliva-secretors is two. 1875 KNIGHT Diet. Mech.,Saliva- 
puinp (Dentistry), a device to remove the saliva from the 
mouth during dental operations. 

Saliva! (saloi-val), a. and sb. Now rare. [ad. 
mod.L. saltval'iS) f. L. saliva : see prec. and -AL. 
Cf. OK. saliva!.'] A. adj. = SALIVARY. 

1646 SIR T. BROWNE Pseud. Ep. in. xvi. (1686) 116 Salival 
conduits and passages. 1662 H. STUB at: Ind. Nectar \\\. 34 
That salival ferment in the mouth which inchoates diges- 
tion. 1713 DERHAM Phys.-Theol. iv. xi. 195 To afford that 
noble digestive salival Liquor to be mixed with the Food 
in Mastication. 1740 Phil. Trans. XLI. 441 The Vessels 
called salival Ducts by Coschivitzius. 1826 KIKBY & SP. 
Entomol. xli. IV. 124 He suspects that they may be salival 
vessels. 1881 CLARK RUSSELL Ocean Free-Lance I. iii. 81 
The salival froth dropping from the jaws of a bloodhound. 
f B. sb. pL The salivary glands. Obs. 

1676 WISEMAN Ckirurg. Treat, iv. viii. 334 Ranula is a 
soft Swelling possessing those Salivalls under the Tongue. 

Salivan (sabi-van), a. rare- 1 , [f. SALIVA + 
-AN.] = SALIVARY 2. 

1882 Proc. Zool, Soc. 14 Nov. 632 The. .salivan secretion. 

Sail van t (sse'livant), a. and sb. [ad. L. salt- 
vant-ent) pres. pple. of salivary f. saliva SALIVA. 
Cf. F. saiivant.\ a. adj. Promoting salivation ; 
sialagogic. b. sb. A sialagogue. 

1646 WORCESTER tciting Caldwell), Salivant^ ., a pro- 
moting salivation. 1857 DUNGLISON Diet. Mcd. 

t Saliva rious, a. Obs.~* [f. L. salivan-tts 
SALIVARY + -ous.] (See quot.) 

1656 BLOUNT Glossogr., Satii'iirt'oits, clammy and thick 
like spettle. 

Salivary (ssrlivari), a. [ad. L. salivdri-ttsj 
f. saliva : see SALIVA and -AKY.] 

1. Secreting or conveying saliva. 

The salivary glands in man are the parotid, submaxillary, 
and sublingual. 

1709 Brit. Apollo II. No. 37, 2/1 The Salivary Glands. 
1793 BEDDOKS Consumption 142 Some persons whose skin 
is no sooner touched with quicksilver ointment than it is 
felt in the salivary glands. 1851 WOODWARD Mollmca 30 
The encephalous mollusks are always furnished with well- 
developed salivary glands. 1852 /'rastr's JAi^r. XLVI. 
162 That, .mutton, .moved my salivary apparatus. 1880 
GUXTHBB Fishes 124 Salivary glands.. are aosent in fishes. 

2. Consisting of saliva, 

1841 T. R. JONES Anim. Klngd. 562 The auxiliary secre- 
tions subservient to digestion . . arc the Salivary, the Hepatic, 
and the Pancreatic. 1880 M. MACKENZIE Dis. Throat y 
Nose \. 116 The salivary secretion cannot be swallowed. 

3. Pertaining to or existing in the saliva or sali- 
vary glands. 

1807 S. COOPER First Lines Surg. n. v. 228 A salivary 
fistula is an opening on the cheek, from which saliva 
escapes. 1846 G. E. DAY tr. Simon's Anim. Ghent. II. 473 
In man salivary calculi are of rare occurrence, but the forma- 
tion of tartar on the teeth is continually observed. 1872 T. 
BKYANT Pract. Surg. 457 In salivary fistula, the salivary 
duct must find a natural outlet before its unnatural orifice 
can be expected to close. 

tSa-livate, a. Obs. rar*-\ [f. SALIVA + -ATE *.] 

1710 T. FULLER Pharm. Ex temp. 181 It \sc. the gargle] 

. . helps . . the laxity of the salivate Glands, 

Salivate (sarliv^'t). v. [f. L. sallvat-, ppl. 
stem of L. saliva re, f. saliva SALIVA.] 

1. trans. To produce an unusual secretion of 
saliva in (a person), generally by the use of mercury ; 
to produce ptyalism in. 

1669 Phil. Trans, IV. 1050, I designe to salivate her, in 
hopes to correct that vitious ferment. 1720 BECKET ibid. 
XXXI. 109 Any Proof, .that Persons had been Salivated 
in their Leprosy. 1827 J. W. CHOKER in C. Papers 7 Aug. 
(1884) I. 380 He gave Mr. Qanning] so much [mercury] 
that he actually salivated him. 1879 KIIORY Princ. Mcd. 4 
Quinine salivates a few. 

absol. i7o8J. KEILL^W////. Secretion 63 Why does Mercury 
salivate, or Nitre force Urine? 1845 P. H. LATHAM /.:/. 
Ctin. Mtd. I. xiii. 266 Even within this lime mercury must 
be made to salivate, if mercury is made to cure. 

2. intr. a. To secrete or discharge saliva, b. 
To secrete saliva in excess under the influence of 

1681 tr. Willis* Ron. Med. Wks. Vocab., Salivate t to spit. 
1706 PHILLITS (ed. Kersey), To Salivate, to gather or make 
Spittle. 1725 HUXHAM in Phil Trans. XXXIII. 381 Two 
adult Persons, .. who neither salivated, nor purged, except 
when some lenient Cntharticks were given them. 1737 
BRACKEN Farriery Impr. (1749) 152 Horses easilier salivate 
than Men. 1829 SIR R. CHRIS i ISDN Treat. Poisons xiii. 
(1832) 369 She immediately began to complain of soreness 
of the mouth, salivated profusely, and even put on the ex- 
pression of countenance of a salival Ing person. 1832 Blackiu. 
Mag. XXXI. 843 He [sc. an American] salivates for some 
threescore years,.. and is gathered to bib fathers, to spit no 

Hence Salivating vbl. sb. and///, a. 

1657 G. STARKEY Hclmonfs I'tnd. 101 As the Devil Is 
fabled not able to hide tiis cloven foot, so Mercury will .still 
be betraying its. .salivating quality. 16^6 Wist: M AN Chirurg. 
Treat., Lnes Ven. 8 The methods of .Salivating are divers, 
hut all by Mercury. 1694 SALMON Bates Dispcns. 51 ?/ 2 
It is more gentle than Turpethum Mi tie rale, or any other 
salivating Precipitate. 1728 CHAMBERS Cycl. s.v. Salivation, 
A . . French Physician, M. Chicoyneau, . .has lately done some 
Discredit to the Practice of Salivating. 1829 (.->ee 2 above]. 

Salivation (sseliv#'jan). [a. K salivation or 
its source late L. salivdtio^ n. of action f. salivan to 
SALIVATE.] Secretion or discharge of saliva : 
esp. the production of an excessive flow of saliva 
by administering mercury. 

1598 T. BASTARD Chrestoleros (1880) 10 Phisition Minis 
talkes of saliuation. 1686 WOOD Lift (O. H. S.) III. 202 
Whore houses increase, surgeons have work, and great 
salivation used. 1733 CHEYNK Eng. Malady n. ii. 4 (1734) 
127 Salivation by the internal Exhibition of Mercurials 
only, seldom succeeds. 1764 REID Inquiry vi. 17 [He] 
having been blind for some years of a gutta sercna, was 
restored to sight by salivation. 1801 Med. Jrnl, V. 570 
Salivation, a symptom that is often remarked at the period 
of teething. 1843 R. J. GRAVES Syst. Clin. Med. xvi. 192 
His mouth was still sore in consequence of severe mercurial 
salivation. 1877 ROBERTS Handbk. Med. (ed. 3) I. 157 
Caution must be exercised in the administration of narcotics, 
should there be much bronchial catarrh or salivation. 
b. with a and //. Now Obs. or rare. 

1700 T. BROWN Aumsem. Ser. $ Com. viii. Wks. 1709 III. 
74 As if they were all clapt, and under a Salivation for the 
cure on'L 1746 H. WALPOLE Let. to Mann 25 Apr., Lord 
Elchowas in a salivation. 1760 C. JOHNSTON Chrysal (1822) 
III. 310 She had lost her hair and teeth in a salivation ! 1831 
J. DAVIES A/a//. Mat. Med. 23 An old woman, .was affected 
with a considerable salivation every time she made use of 

t C. concr. Saliva or an excretion resembling it. 

1601 HOLLAND Pliny II. 413 The noysome saliuation or 
spittle of the Aspis called Ptyas. 167? PLOT Oxjbrdsh, 107 
Engendered from the salivation and slime of snakes. 

t Salivative, a. Obs. [f. L. salivat-, ppl. stem 
otsatMrt to SALIVATE + -IVE.] Causing a flow 
of saliva ; salivant. 

16570. STARKEY Helmonfs Vittd. To Rdr., I have.. re- 
jected all Mercurial and Antimonial Medicaments, whether 
Vomitive, Purgative or Salivative. 

Salivat or. rare 1 , [f. SALIVATE v. : see 
-ATOB.] One who uses sialagogues. 

1834 Good's Study Med. (ed. 4) I. 661 The salivators. .have 
not been more successful than other practitioners. 

Saliva tory, a. rare. [f. late L. saliviit- 
(see SALIVATE v.} + -OBY.] = SALIVARY. 

1699 Ph il. Trans. XXI. 241 Salivatory glands. 

t Salrvous, a. Obs. [ad. L. saltvostts or F. 
salivcitx, f. saliva SALIVA : see -ous.] 

1. Pertaining to saliva ; of the nature of saliva. 
1567 MAPLET 6V, Forest 62 This last being kept awhile in 

the mouth dryeth vp the tongue and saliuous humor. 1658 
SIR T. BROWNE Card. Cyrus iiL 150 After a fuller mastica- 
tion, and salivous mixture. 1661 LOVELL Hist. Anim. A> 
Min. 285 Their [sc. snails'] salivous mucus which they vomit 
out when pricked. 1676 WISEMAN C/tirurg: Treat, iv. vii. 
333 An Elongation of the Vvnla through the abundance of 
salivous Humour flowing upon it. 

2. Using spittle (in baptism). 

1813 MOORE Post-bag iv. 67 Let no one tell us To free 
such sad salivous fellows No no the man baptized with 
spittle Hath no truth in him. 

Sail, obs. form of SOUL, and SHALL v. 

Sallad(e, obs. forms of SALAD, SALLET. 

II Salle (sal). See also SALK sd.3 [Fr. ; of Teut. 
origin : cf. SALE st>. 1 ] 

1. A hall, room. rare. (Only with reference to 
foreign countries.) 

1819 BYRON ?/. 31 Dec., in Moore Life (1839) 432/1 Music, 
dancing, and play, all in the same salle. 1853 C. BROME 
Villettt xx, A knowledge not merely confined to its open 

streets, but penetrating to all its galleries, salles, and 

2. In Fr. combinations. Salle-a-raauger (sala- 
man), a dining-hall, dining room. Salle d'at- 
tente [saldatant), a waiting-room (at a station). 

1762 STERNE Let. 14 Aug., The house consists of a good 
siillc a manger above stairs [etc.]. 1862 THACKERAY Philip 
II. ix. 201 At a pretty early hour the various occupants of 
the crib at the Rue Poussin used to appear in the dinjy 
Httle salle-a-manger, and partake of the breakfast there 

frovided. 1879 FKOUDK in Frasers Mag. Nov. XX. 624 
t was a large barely furnished apartment like the s<illc 
d'attenfe at the Northern Railway Station at Paris. 1882 
SALA Awcr. Kez-is. (1883) I. vii. in Without any crowding 
..we passed from the salU d* at tent e to the platform. 1887 
RUSKIN Przeteritu II. 172 James Forbes and his wife were 
with us in the otherwise un tenanted Siitfe-a- manger. 

Sallee-iuail (sse'l/niKn^. Also Sally-man, 
[f. bailee, the name of a Moroccan seaport formerly 
of piratical repute.] 

1. A Moorish pirate-ship. Obs. cxc. Hist. So 
also Sallee rover. 

1637 J. DL-NTON Jml. Sally Fleet Ep. Ded., Being sent 
out Master and Pilote in a Sallyman of warre, with twenty- 
one M cores and five Flemish rennagadoes, unto the coast 
of England to take Christians. 1686 J. DCNTOS Lett. fr. 
New-Eng. (1867) 29 One of the Seamen having descry'd to 
the S.W. a ship which he took for a Sally-Man. Ibid. 30 
This Supposed Sally-Rover prov'd nothing else but a Vir- 
ginia Merchant-Man. 1698 T. FKOGER I'oy. 2 On tlie gth 
we had a Mght of another Vessel, ..bhe ^eem'd to be a Sally- 
man, and might carry about 30 pieces of cannon. 1734 
E.\ tracts Rtc. Convent, liurghs Scotl. (1885) V. 593 A ship- 
master in Uoncss and his crew who were taken by a Salc<j 
Rover and are now at Al.^eirs. 1754 Jackson's O.r/. JrnL 
24 Aug., A Sallee man, which cruizes from Cape Kon to the 
I.-le of Ualeta. 1760 C. JOHNSTON Chrysal II. ,\ii. 235 A 
Sallee rover gave chace to our ship. 

2. A marine hydrozoan, Velellatntlgaris. 

It floats on the sea with its vertical cre^t acting as a sail. 

1756 P. BROWSE Jamaica 387 The Sally Man. This in- 
sect is more firm and opake than either of the foregoing. 
1860 (. KENNEIT Gatherings Naturalist Austral. 54 Vel- 
Icia Urnbosa^ or Sallyman, is abundant. 1863 WOOD Illnstr. 
Nat. Hist. III. 739 A remarkable creature called by the 
popular name of. Malice Man, sometimes corrupted in nautical 
fashion into tallyman, 

Sallender (sai'lendai). Now only //. Forms : 
6-7 selander, 7sellander, selleuder, sallander, 
8 solander ; 8 selenders, 8-9 sallenders. [Ot 
obscure origin : in F. solandre (1664 in Ilatz.- 
Darm.).] A dry scab affecting the hock of a horse. 

1523 FITZHEKU. Husb. 95 A selander is in the bendyngc 
of the legge behynde. 1607 MARKMAM Caval. vii. (1617! 79 
A Mallander is u drie scabbe \pon tlie bought of the fore 
k-g : and the Sellanders vpon the hinder. 1639 T. UE OKAY 
Ccmpl. Horsem. 6 No way subject to main-e, mallender, 
selleuder. 1685 Loud. Gaz. No. 2092/4 Stolen.., a large 
strong grey Gelding, . . hath a small Sallandtr. 1725 BKAULKY 
Fam. Diet. \\. s. v. Malcndcrs, Others alledge, that what 
cures the Scratches will cure both the Malenders and Selen- 
ders. 1831 YOUATT Horse 273 In the inside of the hock. . 
there is sometimes a scurfy eruption called mallenders in 
the fore leg, and sallenders in the hind leg. 1884 Sat. Kit: 
5 July 27/2 It is a breach of a warranty of soundness if the 
warranted horse suffers from,, sallenders. 

Sallendine, obs. form of CELANDINE. 

Sailer, obs. f. SOLLAK Alin,, platform. 

Sallery, obs. form of CELERY, SALARY. 

Sallet tsse-ltit), Salade (sala'd). Antiq. Forms : 
5-8 sallot, 5-6 salett(e, salet (also 8-9 an/t.^, 
Sc. sellat, -et, (5 salectte, salate), 6 sallett(e, 
(-att), 6-7 sallatfe, 7 sallad(e, 5-7, 9 ar<k. 
salad(e. [a, F. salade, ad. Sp. cclada or It. c 
believed to represent lu.avlata (sc. cassis 
(a helmet) ornamented with engraving. Cf. MDu. 
saladcy sallade> salla. 

The L. adj. has not been found in this elliptical use. Cf. 
'loricx galeaeque aeneu;, ca;latae opere Corinthio' (Cicero).] 

1. In mediteval armour, a light globular head- 
piece, either with or without a vizor, and without 
a crest, the lower part curving outwards behind. 

c 1440 /f^ r . Conq, Irel. iv. n (MS. Raw],), Ham-Selfe wel 
wepenyd with haubergeons, and bryght Salletis and sheldys. 
1465 MARC. PASTON in P. Lett. II. 189 Imprimis, a peyr 
brygandyrs, a salet, a boresper (etc.]. 1480 CAXTON Chron. 
Eng. cclv. (1482) 331 He tuke syr vmfreys salade and liU 
brigantyns. .and also his gylt spores and arayd hym lyke a 
lord. ^'537 '1 hersytcs 55, I wolde have a sailet to were on 
my hed, \Vhiche under my chyn with a thonge red Bucketed 
shall be. 1585 T. WASHINGTON tr. Nicholay's I'oy. jv. 
.\.\ viii. 146 b, On their heads [they] hadde sallets of leather. 
1593 SHAKS. 2 Hen. Vf t iv. x. 9 I\lany a time but for a Sallet, 
my braine-pan had bene cleft with a brown Bill. 1594 R. 
ASHLKY tr. Loys fe Roy ii3b, The men that were heauily 
armed had a salade, which couered their head, and came 
downe as far as their shoulders, a 1600 Floddait F. ii. 
(1664) 12 Some of a share can shortly make A sallate for to 
save his pate. 1786 GROSE Ane, Armour n The Salade, 
Salet, or Celale. Father Daniel defines a Salet to be a sort 
oflight casque, without a crest, sometimes having a visor, 
and being sometimes without one. 18*4 MEYKICK Ant. 
Armour III. Gloss., Sa/ff,..a. light head piece sometimes 
worn by the cavalry, but generally by the infantry and 
archers. It.. was generally a steel cap greatly resembling 
the mon'an. 1844 JAMKS Agituourt II. v. 109 He caused 
his archers to put on the cuirasses and salades. 1888 
STEVENSON Block Arrow 4 Armed with sword and spear, 
a steel salet on his head, a leather jack upon his body. 
b. jocularly referred to as a measure for wine. 

1600 Htvwpou ist Pt. Edw. /K(i6i3) C i, Make a pro- 
clamation.. That.. Sacke be sold by the Sallet. 




to. transf. Headpiece, head, nonce-use. 

1652 C. B. STAPYLTON Herodian 56 When Wine was got 
into his drunken Sallat. 

f 2. Some kind of iron vessel. Obs. 

1472-3 Rolls ofParlt. VI. 51/2 With fyere brought with 
theym in a Salette thider. 1507-8 .-I or. Ld. High Treas. 
Scot. IV. 101 Item, for ane sellat to mak gwn powdir vij s. 
1582 HESTER Seer. Phiorav. m. cxvi. 141 Sette the same 
potte in a Sallette of Iron, and lute them close together. 

Hence f Sa'letted a., wearing a sallet. 

1453 Coventry Leet Bk. (E. E. T. S.) 282 An hundred of 
goode-men. . with bowes & arowes, Jakked& saletted. 1461 
J. PASTON in P. Lett. II. 36 The peple was jakkyd and 
saletted, and riottously disposed. 

Sallet, Sallfe, obs. forms of SALAD, SALVE. 

tSa'lliable, a. Obs. rare-' 1 , [f. SALLY v.- \- 
-ABLE.] Suitable for making a sally. 

1598 BARRET Theor. Warres iv. i. 98 It is alwayes impor- 
tant for him to know the wayes. .most salliable for the soul- 
diers. .out of the campe. 

Sallibube, obs. variant of SILLABUB. 
t Sallier l . Obs.-* In 5 salyare. [f. SALLY 
z. 1 + -ER !.] A dancer. 
r 1440 Pmntf, Pan 1 . 441/1 Salyare, saltatot\ saltatrix, 

Sallier- (sae'Iisi). rare. [f. SALLY ZJ.--H -Eit 1 .] 
One who takes part in a sally. 

1685 TKAVKSTIN Siege Nwhcttsel 10 The Salliers were 
obliged, without anymore effect, to retire. 1848 Amn Trag. 
Wold n. x. Poet. Wks. 39 Dunley with a party of salliers is 
fighting outside one of the open gates. 

Sallow (sarbu), sb. Forms: a. I sealh, (seal, 
salh, salch) ; /3. 4-5 salwe, (4 salew, salugh), 
5-6 salgh^e, salow\e, (5 salwhe, 6 sallowe, 
sallo, 7 salloo), 4- sallow; -y. [i sails-], 3 selihe, 
salyhe, 5-6 saly, 6 salye, 6, 9 salley, 7- sally. 
(See also E. D. D., and tlie forms placed under 
SAUGH.) [OE. sealh (Anglian sal/i) : prehistoric 
*$alho-z masc. ; cogn. w. OHG. salaha wk. fern. 
(MHG. sa//ie, mod.G. in comb, salweide) : 
*salkdn- ; ON", selja wk. fem. (Sw. salj t siilg, Da. 
selje] : *salhjon- ; cognates outside Teut. arc I,. 
salic- t salix, Gr. iA&rty, Irish saileach^ Welsh helyg 
(collect.). The Fr. saule is an adoption from Teut. 

The OE. nom. sing, is directly represented by the dialectal 
SAUGH. The ft and Y forms above descend from the late 
Anglian flexional form safe-, salig-, where the g is intro- 
duced on the analogy of those sb.s. in which final h is a 
euphonic modification of.?. The form SEAL appears partly 
to represent the normal flexional form of the stem in OE., 
as in seales genit. sing., sealas pi., and partly to be adopted 
from ON. selja.} 

1. A plant of the genus Salix, a willow; chiefly, 
in narrower sense, as distinguished from * osier ' 
and ( willow', applied to several species of Salix 
of a low-growing or shrubby habit : see quot. 
1866. Also, one of the shoots of a willow. 

n. a 700 Epinal Gloss. 892 Salix, salch. a 800 Erfurt 
Gloss. 1767 Salix t salh. c 1000 Sax. Leechd. II. 18 Wi3 
heafod ece ^enim sealh & ele. 

ft' "377"^ Durham Ace. Rolls (Surtees) 131 In posicione 
de Sallowys juxta ripam de Wer, xxd. c 1386 CHAUCER 

l Materialls. 1810 W. H. MARSHALL Rev. Board Agric. t 
\ W. Departni. 275 The softer woods, such as ash, sallies, 
i alder, are regularly cut from twelve to fourteen years' 

growth. 1835 J. ^yJLSo^^ Bwg. Blind 212 The old harp.. 

the front of which is white sally, the back of fir. 

3. A collectors* name for certain moths the larvce 
! of which feed on the sallow or willow; esp. a moth 

of the genus Xantkia. 

1829 J. F. STEPHENS Syst. Catal. Brit. /us. ir. 98. 1832 
J. RESSIE Consptct. Butterfl. % M. 85. i88oO. S. WILSON 
La}-'X Brit. Lcpidopt. 270. 
b. ? -- sally -jly (see 4 b). 

1902 Webster's Diet., SuppL, Sally ^ a stone fly. 

4. altrib. as sallow (or sally} bttsh, charcoal, land, 
pole, stake, switch, tree, twig t willow, wood. 

1883 Eng. Illustr. Mag. Nov. 69/2 A few low *sallow bushes. 
1615 MARKHAM Eng. Honsew. 81 Take of "Sallow Charcole 
vj. ounces. 1907 Gentl. Afag. July 38 Down by the river we 
have the Sallens, or *Sally lands. 1898 B'ham Daily Post 
26 Mar. (E. D.D.), ' White and black "Sally poles ' for sale. 
c 1440 Pallad. on Hush. xn. 139 And put a *saly stake in hit. 
1802 H. MARTIN Helen of Glenross I. 55 A *sally switch. 
1503 AKNOLDE Citron. (1811) iSS Take. , half soo myche of 
coles of *i>alow or of wylow tree. 1850 K. H. DIGBY Com- 
pituni III. 206 A brook that winds through bending sally 
trees. 1440 Pallad. on Husb. iv. 18 And softe a *saly 
twigge aboute hym plie. 1776-96 WITHERING Brit. Plants 
(ed. 3) 1 1. 54 "Sallow Willow. Salix cap n 'a... ,This is perhaps 
the most common of all our willows, c 1790 IMISON Sc/t. Art 
II. 17 Charcoal is to be chosen of * sallow wood. 

b. Special comb. : sally-fly, some kind of stone 

ily; sallow kitten, a moth (see quot.); sallow 

i moth, a moth of the genus Xanthia (CasselVs 

I Diet.) ; sally picker Anglo-Irish, a name for the 

: Chiffchaff, Sed^e "Warbler and Willow Warbler; 

sallow thorn, a plant of the genus Hippophae; 

. sallow fwithe, withy [ G. sulweide\ = sense i. 

1787 BKST Angling (ed. 2) 114 1'he Yellow "Sally Fly. 

Comes on about the twentieth of May.. .It is a four winged 

i fly ; as it swims down the water its wings lie flat on its 

( back. 1880 O. S. WILSON Larvy Brit. Lepidopt. 189 Dicra- 

nnrafurcula, Linn. The "Sallow Kitten. 1885 SWAINSON 

i Pro-vine. Names Birds 25, 26, 28 "Sally picker (Ireland). 

1847 W, K. STEELE Field Bot. 157 Hippophae. L. 

Wife's Prol.bss Who so that buyldeth his huus al of salwes 
. .fsworthyto been hanged on thegalwes! 1388 WvcLiK/-t7'. 
x.xiii. 40 And }e schulen take to 5ou..salewis [1382 withies] 
of the rennynge streem. c 1450 LVDG. & BURGH Secrees 2014 
AfTtir, ovir a ryveer rennyng, To be set Arrayed to thyn 
estat, With salwys, wyllwys Envyronnd preperat. 1555 EDEN 
Decades 38 Elmes, wyllowes, and salowes. 1583 L. M[ASCALL] 
tr. Bk. Dyeing 76 Take cole of a willo or sallo. 1697 DRYDEN 
Virg. Georg. \\. 573 Sallows and Reeds, on Banks of Rivers 
born. 1725 T. THOMAS in Portland Pap. (Hist. MSS. 
Comm.) VI. 131 There is a small shrub growing over the 
greatest part of it ['the Carr', near Carlisle] which they 
call soft sallows. 1782 J. SCOTT Poet, \Vks. 96 And lofty 
sallows their sweet bloom display. 1818 SHELLEY /V. 
Wks. (1880) III. 18 We sit with Plato by old IHssus. .among 
the sweet scent of flowering sallow. 1859 TENNYSON Mer- 
lin fy V. 223 A robe. .In colour like the satin-shining palm 
On sallows in the windy gleams of March. 1866 Treas. Bot., 
Sallow^ a name for Salix cinerea, S. Caprca, and the allied 
species, which are not flexible like the osier, but furnish the 
bestcharcoalforgunpowder. 1907 Gentl. Mag.J\\\y 38 The 
yellow sallows, locally sallys, which the cottage children call 
palms, flame in gold. 

y. c 1000 Ags. Ps. (Th.) xxxvi. 2 On sali^[um] we sarige, 
swiSe ^elome, ure organan up-ahengan. a 1300 E. E. Psalter 
cxxxvi. 2 In selihes [v.r. salyhes, wilthes] in mide ofe ite 
Our prganes henge we yhite. 1483 Caf/t. Angl. 317/1 Salghe 
for Saly A.), salix. 1664 EVELYN Sytoa xix. 39 Of the 
Withy, Sally, Ozier, and Willow. Ibid. 40 We have 1 three 
sorts of . Sallys amongst us : The vulgar, .and the hopping 
Sallys . . : And a third kind . .having the twigs reddish. 1694 
WESTMACOT Script. Herb. 222 Sallies grow the faster, if 
planted within the reach of the Water. 1750 W. ELLIS Mod. 
Hnsbandm. IV. n. 41 (E.D.S.). 1881 W. Wore. Gloss., Sal- 
lie!) willow-boughs. 

2. The wood of the sallow tree. 

ft. ( 1400 Lanfranc's Cirurg. 118 If be heed be smyte 
wib a list drie staf as of salow. 1646 SIR T. BROWNE Pseud. 
Ep. ii. v. 83 Smal-coale. .is made of Sallow, Willow, Alder, 
Hasell, and the like. 1658 Hydriot. iii. 44 Sallow . . makes 
more Ashes then Oake. 1843 HOLTZAPFFEL Turning, etc. I. 
I0 i all . ow ("SWf* caprea\is white, with a pale-red cast, like 
red deal, but without the veins. 1882 Athenxum 26 Aug. 
271/2 A Sussex a flat basket.. of flakes of sallow 
braced with ash. 

y. 1546 Yorks. Chantry Surv. (Surtees) I. 113 Ther is a 
wood..conteynyng..xx acres of okes, asshes, salyes and 
other woodes. 1582 in W. H. Turner Select. Rec. Oxford 

thorn. 1657 THORSLEY tr. Longns* Daphnis fy Chloe 68 The 
Goats gnaw'd the green "Sallow With in pieces. 1893 
Wiltsh. Gloss., *Sally-"uithyi a willow. 
Sallow(sx'lt'u),rt. Forms: i salo, 4-6 salowe, 
(5 salloh, salwhe, 6 sallowe, 7 salow), 6- sal- 
low. [OE. j{Z/o=MDu. salii) salitwe discoloured, 
dirty (Du.fctz/ww), OHG. ja/0,W7/- dark-coloured 
(MHG. salj salw- t mod.Ger. dial. sa/) t Icel. s'ol-r 
yellow : OTeut. *salwo-, whence F. sale, It. salavo 
dirty. Cf. Russian coaoiiOft^/f^ycream-coloured.] 
Of the skin or complexion: Having a sickly yellow 
or brownish yellow colour. 

a 1000 Riddles Ixxx. n (Gr.) Good is min wise & ic \sc. 
?a horn] sylfa salo. la 1366 CHAUCER ROM. Rose 355 Ful 
salowe was waxen hir colour, c 1400 Rotti. Rose 7392 That 
false traltouresse untrewe Was lyk that salowe hors of hewe, 
That in the Apocalips is shewed, c 1430 Pilgr, Lyf Alait- 
hode i. Ixix. (1869) 41 Al blac thei bicomen and salwh,. .and 
elded, c 1440 Proinp. Parv. 441 Salwhe of colowre (/*. sa- 
lowe), croceus. 1330 PALSGR. 323/1 Salowe yolowe coloured 
as ones skynne is for sycknesse, jaunastre. 1533 ELYOT 
Cast. Helthe (1541) 13 Colour of inward causes... Of in- 
equalytie of humoures, wherof doo procede, blacke, salowe, 
or white onely. Red, Blacke, Salowe, do betoken domynion 
of heate. . . Salowe, choler citrine. 1592 SHAKS. Rom. $ Jul. 
ii. iii. 70 What a deale of brine Hath washt thy sallow 
cheekes for Rosaline ! 1613 R. CAWDREY Table Alph. (ed.3>, 
SaloW) white. 1656 EARL. MONM. tr. Boccalini^ Pol. Tortc/t- 
stone (1674) 256 [She] is of so sallow a complexion, that she 
shadows upon the Moor. 1744 ARMSTRONG Preserv. Health 
iv-48 Hence. .The Lover's paleness ; and the sallow hue Of 
] Envy, a 1745 SWIFT Panegyric on Deiiti Wks. 1751 X. 170 
I Pale Dropsy with a sallow Face. 1794 S. WILLIAMS Ver- 
\ mont 194 They were of a sallow or brownish complexion. 
1813 BYRON Corsair i. viii, That man. .Whose name appals 
1 ..And tints each swarthy cheek with sallower hue. 1856 
, BRYANT Death. Schiller iii, The sallow Tartar. 1877 BLACK 
j Green Past, xxx, The eldest daughter was rather pretty 
] but sallow and unhealthy. 

b. transf. and of things personified. 
1746 COLLINS Ode Evening 45 While sallow Autumn fills 
j thy lap with leaves. 1784 COWPER Task \. 438 He.. who, 
imprisoned long.. and a prey To sallow sickness,. .Escapes 
i at last to liberty and light. 1827 CARLYLE Misc. (1857) I. 
I 50 They are believers ; but their faith is no sallow plant of 
; darkness. 1844 MRS. BROWNING Drama of E. vile Poems 
I 1850 I. 72 Pining to a sallow idiocy. 

C. Comb. 

1551 T. WILSON 4g&t(tjfo) 52 b, A man maie be high 
coloured, or "sallowe coloured, and yet not blacke. 1633 
j FOKD JLove's Sacr. iv. i, The sallow-coloured brat Of some 
I vnlanded banckrupt. 1598 SYLVESTER Du Bartas \\. ii. iv. 
i Columnes 148 That *saflow-fac't, sad, stooping Nymph. 
1 1877 BLACK Green Past, v, A tall, thin, sallow-faced man. 
1893 ZANGWILL Childr. Ghetto 100 A "sallow-looking, close- 
cropped Pole. 1853 KANE Grmnell E*p. xxxiii. (1856) 292 
The "sallow-visageu party. 

Sallow (sEE-ltfi), v. [f. SALLOW a.] tram. To 
1 make sallow. 

1831 T. L. PEACOCK Crotchet Castle \, Her quondam lover, 
whose physiognomy the intense anxieties . . had left blighted, 
sallowed, and crow's- footed. 1861 Du CHAILLU Equat. Afr. 
xviii. 325 The whole complexion is sallowed. 1868 LOWELL 
Under the Willows 41 July, .sallows the crispy fields. 

tSallOWie. Obs. rare"- 1 . Perh. a dial, form 
of sallow-withe ; see SALLOW sb. 4 b. 

1610 G. FLETCHER Christ's Tri. \. ii, Bees that tlie About 
i the laughing bloostns of sallowie. 

Sallowish (sarlooif ), a. [f. SALLOW a. + -ISH.] 

Somewhat sallow in hue. 

1754 RICHARDSON Grandison (1781) III. v. 32 Her com- 
plexion, sallowish, streaked with red. Ibid. VII. xxxiv. 158 
He. .has. .a complexion a sallowish brown. 1865 DICKENS 
Jlfui'. Fr. i. xi, A youngish sallowish gentleman in spectacles. 
1889 Macm. Mag. Apr. 410/2 'Twas now of a cold, sallowish 

Sallowness (we-l^n6i). [f. SALLOW a. + 

-NESS.] The state of being sallow. 

1722 BP. DOWNES in Nicolson Ep. Corr. 546 It. .has cast 
such a sallowness (if there is such a word) on his countenance, 
that [etc.]. 1797-1805 S. & HT. LEE Canterb. T. IV. 13 He 
was still pale, even to sallowness. i&yyAllbntt'sSyst.Med. 
VI. 595 A little yellowness of the conjunctiva and sallowness 
of the skin. 

Sallowy (src-bui), a. 
Abounding in sallows or wil 
1840 LOUISA S. COSTELLO Summer amongst Bocages II. 

[f. SALLOW sb. + -T.] 

Many a glancing plash and sallowy isle. 

Sally (sse'li),^- 1 P\>rms: 6sale,saley, (salew), 
sallie, 7-8 salley, 8 sailly, 7- sally, [a. F. saillie 
issuing forth, outrush, outbreak (hence ' sally ' of 
wit, etc.), projection, prominence (also in OF. 
leap), f. saillir\ see SAIL ^.3, SALLY z/.i 

Parallel formations on the etymologically equivalent vb. 
in the other Rom. langs. are Sp. $ali(ia t Pg. sa/tida t saida t 
exit, sortie, It. salita ascent.] 
I. An issuing forth. 

1. A sudden rush (ou) from a besieged place 
upon the enemy; a sortie; esp. in the phrase to 
make a sally. 

1560 DAUS tr. Sleidands Conim. 414 b, The French men 
that wer besieged make many sales oute. 1617 MORYSON 
Itin. ir. 141 That night the Spaniards made a salley dis- 
tnrbe our Campe. 1648 Hamilton Papers (Camden) 170 
Poyer making lately a salley out of Pembrooke Castle, and 
those from Tenby . . assisting him, they haue utterly defeated 
the besiedgers. 1682 Bus VAN Holy War (1905) 380 The 
Captains.. of the Town of Mansoul agreed, and resolved 
upon a time to make a fialley out upon the camp of Diabolus. 
1786 W. THOMSON Watsons Philip III (1839) 375 A garrison 
..which is able to resist assaults. .and often to make suc- 
cessful sallies. 1803 WELLINGTON in Gurw. Desp. (1837) II. 
396 He there remained . . without throwing away his ammuni- 
tion excepting when he could do it with effect in judicious 
sallies. 1850 GROTE Greece n. Ivii. (1862) V. 119 A well- 
timed sally.. dispersed the Leontine land-force. 

y?;.'. 1630 R. Johnson's Kined. fy Commw. 26 Courage, 
is able . . with a sudden assault to surprise . . the enemie. 
ludgement hath its scouts ever abroad, to prevent such like 
sallies and cavalcadoes, that he be not taken sleeper. 1641 
FULLER Holy fy Prof. St. n. vii. 73 As for the. .Oriental! 
languages he rather makes sallies and incursions into them, 
then any solemn sitting down before them. 1844 EMERSON 
Lect. Neiv Eng. Ref. Wks. (Bonn) I. 263 It is handsomer to 
remain in the establishment,, .and conduct that in the best 
manner, than to make a sally against evil by some single 

t b. A place whence a sally may be made ; a 
sally-port. Obs. 

154* St. Papers Hen. K/// t IX. 149 Of this Abbey they 
have made a bulwerk. and a plat forme above, and a salew 
unto the same out of the cytadell. 1590 SIR R. WILLIAMS 
Brief Disc. War 50 Euerie Bulwarks ought to haue two 
sallies, one for horse and foote, the other a little secret 
sallie. 1598 BARRET Theor. Warres Gloss. 252 Sallie. .is also 
a secret issue for the souldiers to passe out of a wall, bul- 
warke, or fort. 

2. A going forth, setting out, excursion, expedi- 
tion (of one or more persons). 

1657 How ELL Londinop. 49 We will now make a salley 
put of Algate. 1697 DRYDEN Virg. Ded.,A Lark, melodious 
in her mounting, and continuing her Song till she alights: 
Still preparing for a higher flight at her next sally. 1743 
FIELDING Wedding-day \\. iv, Doth this early sally of yours 
proceed from having been in bed early..? 1851 CARLYLE 
Sterling \\. iv, Here, .is notice of his return from the first of 
these sallies into England. 
b. transf. andy^". 

1650 EARL MONM. tr. Senaulfs Man. bee. Guilty 50 She 
[the soul] makes out salleys which cause men to believe that 
though she be fastened to the body, yet she is not a Prisoner. 
1723 DE KOE Aloll i> landers (1840) 208, I made my second 
sally into the world. 1753 JOHNSON Adventurer 107 ^3 At 
our first sally into the intellectual world, we all march 
together. 1836 EMERSON Nature^ Prospects Wks. (Bonn) 
II. 172 Is not prayer also a study of truth a sally of the 
soul into the unfound infinite? 1849 W. IRVING Goldsmith 
iii. 49 [He] made his second sally forth into the world. 1855 
TENNYSON Brook 24, I make a sudden sally. 

3. A sudden start into activity. 

1605 DMtvELPhilotas \.CJwrus i How well were we within 
the narrow bounds Of. .Macedon, Before our kings inlardgd 
them with our wounds And made these salies of ambition. 
1665 GLANVILL De/. Van. Dogm. To T. Albinus, For what 
ever heat attends the first sallies of young Inventions, Time 
..cools these delights. 1703 COLLIER Play- 
home 15 [They would] make us believe the Storm was 
nothing but an Eruption of Epicurus's Atoms, a Spring-Tide 
of Matter and Motion, and a blind Salley of Chance. 1737 
WHISTON Josephus^ Hht. Jew. Wan. Pref. 7 What places 
the Jews assaulted .. in the first sallies of the war. 1807 
WORDSW. Ode on Intimat. Immort. 89 Behold the Child.. 
See, where 'mid work of his own hand he lies, Fretted by 
sallies of his mother's kisses. 1860 EMERSON Cond. Life> 
Wealth Wks. (Bohn) II, 358 Nature goes by rule, not by 
sallies and saltations. 

4. A breaking forth from restraint ; an outburst 
or transport (<?/"passion, delight, or other emotion) ; 
a flash (of \\it~) ; a flight (of fancy). 


x6.. STILLINGFL. (J.), These passages were intended for 
sallies of wit ; but whence comes all this rage of wit ? 1710 
STKELE Tatlertio. 172 F4 She is apt to fall into little Sallies 
of Passion. 1727 SWIFT & POPE Misc. I. Pref. 10 We have 
written some Things which we may wish never to have 
thought on. Some Sallies of Levity ought to be imputed to 
Youth. 1752 HUME Ess. fy Treat. (1777) II. 225 It is diffi- 
cult to abstain from some sally of panegyric. 1775 T. 
SHEKIDAN Art Reading 292 When she [fancy], .acknow- 
ledges no superior, her vigorous and wild sallies, .are., 
vain and fruitless. 1794 MRS. PIOZZI Synon. II. 10 That 
s-udden burst of confident self-sufEciency, by the vigorous 
sailly of which virtue herself maybe sometimes confounded. 
1838 THIKLWALL Greece xi. II. 40 Sufficient guards against 
the sallies of democratical extravagance. 1838 PRESCOTT 
Ferd. <$ Is, n. xviii. III. 313 He was.. sometimes hurried., 
into a sally of passion. 1841-4 EMERSON Ess., Friendship 
Wks. (Bohn) I. 87 It [friendship! keeps company with the 
sallies of wit and the trances of religion. 1875 MANNING 
Mission HolyGhostvm.'zib Sudden sallies and impetuosities 
of temper. 

tb. Outlet, 'vent'. Obs. rare. 

1799 C. WINTER in Jay Mem. (1843) 19 While Mr. White- 
field was giving full sally to his soul, and.. inviting sinners 
to the Saviour. 

6. A sudden departure from the bounds of custom, 
prudence, or propriety ; an audacious or adven- 
turous proceeding, an escapade. Now rare. 

a 1639 WOTTON Parallel Essex fy Buckhin. (1641) 3 At his 
returne all was cleerc, and this excursion was esteemed but 
a Sally of youth, a 17^15 BURNET Own Time i. viii. (1897) 
I. 386, I made at this time a sally that may be mentioned, 
since it had some relation to public affairs. 17*3 WATER- 
LAND Wks. (1823) III. 261 It might be on account of some 
of these uncautious sallies of Origen, that he was forced to 
purge himself to Pope Fabian : . . after which . . he . . kept 
closer to the language of the Church. 1768 TUCKER Lt. Nat. 
I. n. xxi. 56 We find people very brisk and active in seasons 
of joy, breaking out continually into wanton and extra- 
vagant sallies, 1871 MERIVALE Rom. Emp. V. xliii. 219 
But the sally [ed. i 1856 V. no reads enterprise] of an 
obscure slave was far less formidable than the intrigues of 
illustrious nobles. 

6. A sprightly or audacious utterance or literary 
composition; now usually, a brilliant remark, a 

1756-82 J. WARTON Ess. Pope (ed. 4) II. viii. 34 We must 
not try the charming sallies of Ariosto by the rigid rules of 
Aristotle. 1779-^1 JOHNSO_N L. P., Shenstone Wks. IV. 219 
His poems consist of elegies, odes and ballads, humorous 
sallies and moral pieces. 1790 BURKE Fr. Rev. 98 After 
this sally of the preacher of the Old Jewry, which, .agrees 
perfectly with the spirit and letter of the rapture of 1648. 
1791 BOSWELL Johnson an. 1765, Voltaire, in revenge, made 
an attack upon Johnson, in one of his numerous literary 
sallies. 1879 G. MEREDITH Egoist xiii, The sprightly sallies 
of the two won attention like a fencing match. 

II. 7. A leaping movement. Ohs. exc. Naut. 
(see quot. 1867) and dial. 

1589 PUTTENHAM Eng. Poesie n. x. (Arb.) 98 As the Dorien 
because his falls, sallyes, and compasse be diuers from those 
of the Phrigien. 1718 STEELE Fish-pool 178 On every sally 
of the boat, the water in the Well must shift its place. 1867 
SMYTH Sailor's IVord-bk., Sally t ..& sudden heave or set. 
1887 DONALDSON Jawieson's Diet. Suppl. 2\oSally t . .a rush 
or dash ; a swing from side to side, rocking ; a continuous 
rising and falling,.. the swinging or bounding motion of a 
ship at sea. 

III. 8. a. Arch. A deviation from the aline- 
ment of a surface ; a projection, prominence, b. 
Carpentry (see quot. 1842). 

1665-6 Phil. Trans. I. 73 This Authour did first conceive, 
that they were not shadows but some Sallies or Promin- 
encies in that Belt. 1739 IsABELYES/torf Ace. Piers Westtn. 
Bridge 69 The Sally, or Projection of a. .Cornish. 1757 
ROBERTSON in Phil. Trans. L. 292 Add to this the sally of 
the head, the weight of the forecastle [etc.]. 1842 GWILT 
Archit. Gloss., Sally, a projecture. The end of a piece of 
timber cut with an interior angle formed by two planes '. 
across the fibres. 1879 CasulFs Techn. Educ. I. 396 The 
1 sally \ or point given^ to the end of each part to resist 

face of a house or wall. 

Sally (sce-li), sb$ Bell-ringing. Also 9 sallie. 
[Pcrh. an application of SALLY sb.l 7.] 

1. The first movement of a bell when * set ' for 
ringing; a'handstroke', as distinguished from the 
re verse movement of 'backstroke'; also,the position 
of a bell when it is rung up to a ' set* position. 
? Now local. 

1668 F. STEDMAN Tintinnalogia (1671) 54 Whole-pulls, is 
to Ring two Rounds in one change.. so that every time you 
pull down the bells at Sally, you make a new change. Ibid. 
134 But sometimes the fault of the stroke [i. . when longer 
on one side than the other] is in the Sally. 1677 Cam* 
panologia 26 The falling of the bells from a Sett-pull must 
gradually be done, by checking them only at Sally, until the 
low compass renders the Sally useless. 1688 R. HOLME 
Armoury in. 463/2 The several wayes of Ringing Bells. 
i. Is the Under Sal ley, that is when the Bells are raised but 
Frame high, so as the Clapper strikes on both sides of the 
Bell. 2. Is the Hand Salley, when they are rung almost up, 
and one hand is put to the Rope to raise it. 1702 J. D. & 
C.M.Campanalogia hnpr. n The first Step.. is to learn 
perfectly to set a Bell,, .and to have it so much at his Com- 
mand, as that he may be able to cut it down, either at hand 
(being the Sally) or back Stroke. Ibid. 13 He must likewise 
be careful, when they lie under Sally, (for so 'tis term'd) to 
keep his Bell at so constant a Pull, as not to pull harder one 
time than another. 1871 ELLACOMBE Ch. Bells Dn>on 13 
note, The half-wheel action is distinguished by the name of 
the dead-rope pull, there being no sally. Ibia.> Bells ofCh. 
x. 551 It was at this time that the bells were altered from 


the dead-rope pull to the sally. 1897 F. T. JANE Lordship 
vi. 66 The tuftin being worn, she hurt a man's hands a good 
deal on the sally, and had mainly to be rung on the back- 

2. The woolly 'grip 1 for the hands near the 
lower end of a bell-rope, composed of tufts of 
wool woven into the rope. 

1809 T. BATCHELOR Anal. Eng. Lang. 142 Sally, the 
serving, or pluffy part of a bell rope. 1869 TROYTI-: Change 
Ringing i. 2 The ' hand stroke ' blow will be the one oa 
which he pulls the ' sallie ', or tufting on the rope. 1871 T, 
HARDY Desperate Remedies Kpil., Bright red ' sallies ' of 
woollen texture, .glowed on the ropes. 

3. Comb.: sally beam (see quot. 1872); sally 
hole, a hole through which the bell-rope passes ; 
sally-pin, -pulley, -wheel (see quots.). 

1872 -V. <$ Q. 4th Ser. IX. 186/2 The "sally-beam is a beam 
..through which the bell-rope is passed to steady it. 1901 
H. E. BULWBR Gloss. Techn. Terms Bells 5 Sally-beams, 
light wooden cross beams . . with guide pieces attached 
through which the bell-ropes pass. 1851 C. ROGERS ['Tom 
Treddlehoyle') Baimsla h'oatfs Ann. (E. D. D.), He wor 
drawn up hit bell an knocked his heead ai^ain t' *sally-hoil. 
1879 TKOYTE in Grove Diet. Mus. I. 210/2 When the rope 
has been pulled enough to bring the fillet or ' *sallie-pin ' 
down to the nearest point to the ground pulley that it can 
reach. 1901 H. E. BULWER Gloss. Techn. Terms Bells 4 
Sally-pin, & rzo\ inserted between the 'shrouds 1 over the 
rope to assist the purchase of the latter, when the ' fillet- 
hole' is placed near the top of the * wheel '. I bid., Pnllcy, 
a sheave of hard wood on the lower part of the frame which 
guides the rope to the wheel. In some localities it is called 
. .' *sally-pulley ',. .' *sally-wheel '. 

t Sa'lly, v. 1 Obs. rare. Forms : 5 aalyyn, 6 
saly, 7 sally, [irreg. ad. F. saillir: see SAILZ/. :! ] 

1. intr. To leap, bound, dance. 

c 1440 Promp. Pan>. 441/1 Salyyn, salio (P. salto\ 1543 
BECON f tweet, agst. Swearing- 54 Herode also made a pro- 
myse to the doughter of Herodias, whan she daunced & 
salyed so plesantly before hym. 

2. trans. Of a horse : To leap (a mare). 

a 1693 Urq Khar? s Rabelais in. xxxvi. 300 They use to ring 
Mares. . , to keep them from being sallied by Stoned Horses. 

Hence f Sa'llying vbl. sb., dancing. 

c 1440 Promp. Parr. 441/1 Salyynge, saltacio. 

Sally (sarli), f. 2 Forms : 6 salee, salie, saly, 
7- sally, [f. SALLY j/;. 1 , which first appears at 
the same time. The sense of the vb. may have 
been influenced by association with its ulterior 
source, F. saillir \ see SAIL ^.3] 

1. intr. Of a warlike force : To issue suddenly 
from a place of defence or retreat in order to make 
an attack ; spec, of a besieged force, to make a 
sortie. Also to sally out. 

1560 DAUS tr.Sletdaiie'sComm, 430 Duke Henry, .hauinge 
lost, .many of his men what tyme the Marques saleed out, 
and fought. 1590 SIR R. WILLIAMS Brief Disc. War 51 
Hauing an easie entrie into the ditch, the defendants dare 
not sally. Ibid.^-2. Alledging..that the defendants may the 
better saly out. 1615 CHAPMAN Odyss. xxiv. 375 And now, 
all girt in armes; the Ports, set wide, They sallied forth. 
1617 MOKYSON I tin. n. 200 The happy repulse of the 
Spaniards sallying upon our Cannon. 1769 ROBERTSON 
Chas. V t iv. Wks. 1813 V. 367 Leyva, with his garrison, 
sallied out and attacked the rear of the French. 1777 W. 
HEATH in Sparks C0rr. Atner. A* ^'.(1853) I. 338 The enemy 
had sallied, early one morning, and surprised one of our out- 
guards. 1865 LIVINGSTONE Zambesi xix. 382 A nest of lake 
?lrates who sallied out by night to kill and plunder. i88z 
OWETT Thncyd. I. 172 The Mitylenaeans with their whole 
force sallied out against the Athenian camp. 

jftg"- 1 <SS I N. BACON Disc. Govt. Eng. n. xxvi. (1739) 114 
Like a good Soldier, whilst his strength is full, he sallies 
upon the people*s liberties. 

2. Of a person or party of persons : To set out 
boldly, to go forth (from a place of abode) ; to set 
out on a journey or expedition. Const, forth^ 
off, out. 

1590 SPENSER F. Q. n. vi. 38 Where gladsome Guyon 
sailed forth to land. i66a EVELYN Chalcogr. 41 To return 
now into Italy from whence we first sallied. 1710-11 SWIFT 
Jrnl. to Stella 19 Feb., Where Sir Andrew Fountain dined 
too, who has just began to sally out, and has shipt..his 
nurses back to the country. 176* FOOTE Lyar \. Wks. 1799 
1. 282 But let us sally. 1766 COWPER Let. 20 Oct., Wks. 
(1876) 23 After tea we sally forth to walk in good earnest. 
1786 JEFFERSON Writ. (1859) U- 9 Vessels may enter and 
sally with every wind. 1837 W. IRVING Capt.Bonnevillt: I. 
52 These frontier settlers form parties.. and prepare for a 
bee hunt. Having provided themselves with a waggon., 
they sally off, armed with their rifles. 1840 DICKENS Barn. 
Rndge i, [He] had risen and was adjusting his riding-cloak 
preparatory to sallying abroad. 1845 DARWIN Voy.Nat. vi. 
(1879) 112 In the morning we all sallied forth to hunt. 1888 
W. S. CAINE Round the World i. 2 We settled down in our 
comfortable cabins.. and then sallied forth for a tour of 
inspection round the ship. 

transf. andyf^. iSao W. IRVING Sketch Bk. I. 178 He.. 
takes pen in hand.. and sallies forth into the fairy land of 
poetry. 1871 PALGRAVE Lyr. Poems 87 Where the tall trees 
crowd round and sally Down the slope sides. 

fb. To sally cuti to make a digression in 
speech. Obs. 

1660 Trial Regie. 51 And we have, with a great deal of 
Patience, suffered you to sally out. Ibid. 55 My Lords, 
this ought not to come from the Bar to the Bench ; if you 
sally out thus about your Conscience. 1661 BOYLE .SYj'/i- of 
Script. (1675) 58 Sometimes the Prophets, in the midst of the 
Mention of particular Mercies,, .bally out into Pathetical 
Excursions relating to the Messias. 

3. Of things : To issue forth ; esp. to issue sud- 
denly, break out, burst or leap forth. 


1660 F. BROOKE tr. Le Blanc's Trav. 237 A little Moun- 
tain, whence there sallies a stream of water that turns three 
Mills. 1670 COTTON Espernon ped., It may very well., 
pass amongst good natur'd men, with other things, that every 
day sally from the Press. 1715 POPK Odyss. xi. 646 Fierce 
in his look his ardent valour glow'd, Flush'd in his cheek, 
or sally'd in his blood. 1785 Ki;n> Intell. Powers \\. vii. 265 
It is not at all likely that the soul sallies out of the body. 
1791 COWPER Iliady.i. 326 While yet his warm blood sallied 
from the wound. 1847 EMERSON Poems, Merlin i, When 
the God's will sallies free. 

Hence Sa'llying (also attrib.) and ppl. a. 

1560 DAUS tr. Sleidane's Cotnm. 401 b, To leave behynde 
my hacke no fortified place, out of the whiche any force or 
saleinge out is to be feared. 1590 SIR R. WILLIAMS Brie/ 
Disc, ll'ar 53 The salytng of the asseged. 1727-46 THOMSON 
Summer 473 Delicious. .As to the hunud hart the sallying 
spring. 1838 THIRLU ALL Greece xxvi. 111.424 A sallying 
place for marauding inroads. 1839 THACKERAY Major 
Gahagan iii, I found our sallying parly. 

Sally (sarli), v.'<\ [f. SALLY s/>.~] trans. To 
bring (a bell) to the position of ' sally '. 

I 73S SoMKKViLi.E Chase n. 250 Hark ! now again the 
Chorus fills. As Bells Sally'd awhile at once their Peal 

Sallyer, variant of SALKR Obs. 

Sally Lunn .sse-li l-n). [See quot. 1827.] 
A kind of tea-cake (see quot. 1892). 

1798 Centl. Mug. LXVIII. n. 931/2 A certain sort of hot 
rolls, now, or not lone; ago, in vogue at Bath, were gratefully 
and emphatically styled 'Sally Lunns'. 1824 CARLVI.K 
Early Lett. (ibS6) II. 289 Robinson Rives me cotTee and 
Sally Lunns. 1827 HONK Erery-day Bk. II. 1561 The bun 
..called the Sally Lunn, originated with a young woman of 
that name in Bath, about thirty years ago. She first cried 
them. . .Dalmer, a respectable baker and musician, noticed 
her, bought her business, and made a song.. in behalf of 
Sally Lunn. 1845 DICKKNS Chimes iv, It's a sort of night 
that's meant for muffins. Likewise crumpets. Also Sally 
Lunns. 1849 THACKERAY Pendennis xxiii, A meal of green 
tea, scandal, hot Sally-Lunn Cakes, and a little novel-read- 
ing. 1892 Encycl. Cookery (ed. Garrett) II. 361/1 Sully 
Lunns. These are sweet light teacakes.. .Sally Lunns 
should be cut open, well buttered, and served very hot. 

b. Sally Lunn pudding, a kind of pudding 
made with a Sally Lunn cake. 

1892 Encycl. Cookery (ed. Garrett) 361/2. 

Sally-man, Sally rover : see SALLEE-MAX 
Sallyport, [f. SALLY s&. 1 + POUT j/'.3] 

1. 1'ortif. An opening in a fortified place for the 
passage of troops when making a sally ; sometimes 
used for 'postern'. Also transf. ana^/ujf'. 

1649 G. DANIEL Trinarch., Hen. ffcccxii, Soe lyes the 
Worme, safe in her trecble hedge And eats the Purple 
Garden, ere wee find Her Sally-Ports. 1651 CLEVELAND 
Poems 3 My slippery soul had quit the fort, But that she 
stopt the Salley-port. 1688 J. S. Fortification 69 Little 
Ports are made in the middle of the Cour tains, .called Sally- 
Ports. 1694 CONGRF.VE Double- Dealer iv. v, Were you pro- 
vided for an Escape? Hold, Madam, you have no more 
holes to your Kurrough, I'll stand between you and this 
Sally-Port. 1704 Lond. Caz No. 4008/2 The rest made 
their Escape out of a Sally-Port. 1802 C. JAMES Milit. 
Diet., Sally-ports, or postern-gates, .are those underground 
passages, which lead from the inner to the outward works. 
1819 SCOTT li'anhoe xxx, In the outwork was a sallyport 
corresponding to the postern of the castle. 1859 F. A. 
GRIFFITHS Artil. Man. (1862) 261 The Sallyports are open- 
ings cut in the glacis. . .They are used in making sallies from 
the covered way. 

attrib. 1799 WELLINGTON in Gurw. Desp. (1837) I. 36 
Tippoo Sultaun's body was discovered in the sallyport 

2. (See quot. 1867.) 

1753 CHAMBERS Cycl. Supp., Sally-port, in a fire ship, is 
a great opening in her side., for the men to escape by, when 
they have.. fired their train. 1769 FALCONER Diet. Marine 
(i 780) s. v. Fire-ship. 1867 SMYTH Sailors Word-Mi. , Sally- 
port,.^ large port on each quarter of a fire-ship, out of 
which the officers and crew make their escape into the boats. 
..Also, the entering port of a three-decker. 

3. A landing-place at Portsmouth set apart for 
the use of men-of-war's boats (Adm. Smyth). 

1833 MARRYAT P. Simple iv, The porter wheeled my chest 
down to the Sally Port. 1836 Midsh, Easy xi, After 
which hour the sally-port is only opened by special per- 

Salm, obs. form of PSALM. 

Salmagundi (sxdmagtrndi). Forms: 7-8 sal- 
magondi, -S salamongundy, (sallad-magundy, 
Solomon Gundy, salmi-, salmogundy, salma- 
gunda), 8-9 salmagundy, 7- salmagundi, [a. 
1-. salmigondh (in the i6th c. salmiguondin, sal- 
jfiingondtn\ of obscure origin.] 

1. Cookery. A dish composed of chopped meat, 
anchovies, eggs, onions with oil and condiments. 

1674 BLOUNT Glossogr. (ed. 4), Salmagundi (Hal.), a dish of 
meat made of cold Turky and other ingredients. 1709 W. 
KING Cookery ix, Delighting in hodge-podge, gallimaufries, 
forced meats, jussels, and salmagundies. 1710 P. LAMB 
Royal Cookery 118 To make Sallad-Magundy. 1751 SMOL- 
LETT Per. Pic. I. xxxviii. 287 A barrel of excellent herrings 
for salmagundy, which he knew to be his favourite dish. 
1764 ELIZ. MOXON Eng. I/oitsevv. (ed. 9) 103 To make Solo- 
mon Gundy to eat in Lent. 1893 Encycl. Pract. Cookery 
(ed. Garrett), Salmagundi. 

attrib. 1892 Encycl. Pract. Cookery (ed. Garrett), Salma- 
gundi Salad. 

2. transf. and_/fj. 

1761 T. TWINING in Recreat. <V Stud. (1882) 18 After 
all this sahnagondis of quotation, can you bear another 
slice of Aristotle? 1764 KOOTE Patron n. Wks. 1799 I. 
340 By your account, I must be an absolute olio, a per- 

ferme of my fyshynges in Yarom I give her ij salmons 
yerely. 1596 DALRVMPLE tr. Leslie's Hist. Scot. I. (S.T.S.) 
100 Thay saw the Scottis eit rawe Salmonte, new drawen 


feet salamongundy of charms. 1777 COLMAN Prose on 
Sev Occas. (1787) III. 218 Unbuttoned cits. .Throw down 
fish, flesh, fowl, pastry, custard, jelly, And make a Salma- 
gundy of their belly. 1781 H. WALTOLE Let. to C less 


Rev J jan*. 34 A kind of Salmagundi ofTaw, literature, joke, 
and blunder. 1887 SAINTSBURY Hist. Elizab. Lit. (1894) 274 
The DeviCs Law Case, .despite fine passages, [is] a mere 
' salmagundi '. 1894 Sat. Rev. 26 May 539/1 The House of 
Commons, .was chiefly busy with the Estimates, on which 
the usual Salmagundi of subjects was served up. 
Salme, -ede, obs. forms of PSALM, PSALMODY. 
Salmi (sse'lmi). Also 8 salmy. [a. F. salmi, 
according to Hatz.-Darm. shortened from salmi- 
gondis: see SALMAGUNDI. Cf., however, SALOMENE.] 
' A ragout of partly roasted game, stewed with 
sauce, wine, bread, and condiments ' (Garrett's j 
Encycl. Cookery 1892). 

1759 W. VERBAL Cookery 132 (Stanf.) Salmis des becasses. 
Salmy of woodcocks. 1823 MOORE Fables 7 Truffles, salmis, 
toasted cheese. 1824 BVRON Juan xv. Ixxi, The salmi, the , 
consomme, the puree. 1847 DISRAELI Tattered n. xv, Tan- j 
credwas going to eive them a fish dinner, .cutlets of salmon, 
salmis of carp. 1887 L.OLIPHANT Episodes (1888) 150 Salmi 
of wild duck [India]. 

attrit. 1892 Encycl. Cookery (ed. Garrett) s.v. Sauces, ' 
Salmi Sauce. 

Salmiac (sarlmia-k). Min. Also 8 seelmiak. 
[a. G. salmiak, contraction of L. sal aaimoniacu in .] 
Native sal-ammoniac. 

1799 W. TOOKE Vino Russian Emp. I. 198 Large lumps 
of sulphur and salmiak. 1888 Encycl. Brit. XVI. 384, art. 
Mineralogy, Salmiac. ..A sublimate on active volcanoes. 
Salmody, obs. form or PSALMODY. 
Salmon (see-man), sbl and a. Forms : 4-5 
samoun, -own(e, (5 samoon, samwn, sawmon, 
sawmun), 4-6 samon, 7 sammon, 8 Sc. saw- 
mont, 9 Sc. saumon ; 4 salmoun, 4-7 Sc. sal- 
mond(e, 5 salmone, (6 saulmon, salmont, 7 
sallmon), 4- salmon, [a. AF. samoun, saitmoun, 
salmun (OF. and mod.F. saumon) : L. salmon- 
em, salmo (Pliny) ; the spelling with / is from the 
Latin form. 

Cf. Pr. salmo, Sp. salmon, Pg. salmao. It. salmone, ser- 
mone. The Latin word is prob. a derivative of the root 
of sallre to leap.] 

1. A large fish belonging to the genus Salmo, 
family Salmonidx, esp. Salmo salar, comprising 
the largest fish of this family, which when mature 
are characterized by having red flesh, and a silvery 
skin marked with large black and red spots ; highly 
prized as an article of food. 

In mod. use the collective sing, takes the place of the pi. ; 
salmons being used only in scientific language to denote 
different species, or, rarely, individual specimens. 

13.. A". Alls. 5446 (Laud MS.) And of perches, & of sal- 
mouns, Token & eten grete foysouns. 13.. Coerde L. 3515 
Fysch, flesch, salmoun, and cungyr. 1375 BARBOUR Bruce 
n. 576 He wrocht Gynnys, to tak geddis & salmonys. 1387 
TREVISA Higden (Rolls) I. 407 They eteb hole samoun alway. 
Ibid. II. 13 pere is grete plente of small fische, of samon, 
and of elys. a 1400 in Eng. Gilds (1870) 354 Euerych cart 
comynge in-to towne wi^ samown. 1426 LVDG. De Guil. 
Pilgr. 15365 Swettere than samoun. c 1460 J. RUSSELL 
Bk. Nurture 823 Sewes on fishe dayes..The baly of be 
fresche samon. 1515 Test. Ebor. (Surtees) V. 67 Of my 

f f f , ** \r T _' - tf 1 

out of the flude. 1604 SHAKS. Oth. n. i. 156 She that in 
wisedome neuer was so fraile, To change the Cods-head 
for the Salmons taile. 1655 WALTON Angler i. vii. (1661) 134 
The Salmon is accounted the King of fresh-water-Fish. 
1787 BURNS Tain Samson's Elegy vi, Now safe the stately 
Sawmont sail. 1819 SCOTT Let. to Dk. Bucclench 15 Apr. 
in Lockhart, Where I lie, as my old grieve Tom Purdie 
said last night,. .' like a haulded saumon'. 1837 DICKENS 
Pickw. viii, ' It wasn't the wine,' murmured Mr. Snodgrass, 
in a broken voice. ' It was the salmon '. 1859 DARWIN 
Orig. Spec. iv. (1873) 69 Male salmons have been observed 
fighting all day long. 1882 DAY Brit. Fis/iesl. Introd. 71 The 
so-termed land-locked salmon, .might prove invaluable to 
upper riparian proprietors. Ibid. II. 87 The 'blue poll' 
and ' blue cock of the Fowey in Cornwall, . .are sold in 
Billingsgate as ' Cornish salmon '. 1886 Encycl. Brit. XXI. 
222/1 In North America there occurs one Salmonoid. .viz., 
Salmo salar, var. sebago, L. . .This form is called variously 
the Landlocked Salmon or the Schoodic Salmon. Ibid. 
225/1 A salmon newly arrived in fresh water from the sea 
is called a clean salmon, on account of its bright, well-fed 

b. Applied to fishes belonging to other genera 
of the same family ; esp., a fish of any of the 
species of the genus Oncorhynchns , called the 
Pacific salmon. 

1884 GOODE, etc. Nat. H ist. Aquatic A nim. 468 According 
to the latest system.. the first [group] for which the name 
Salmo is retained includes the Atlantic Salmon, and the 
black-spotted species of the west [etc.]. .. In this same group 
are included the Quinnat, or California Salmon, and its 
allies. . .These have been placed in the genus Oncorhynchus. 
1888 Amcr. Fishes 480 The Pacific Salmon.. .The Eng- 
lish-speaking people call it [Oncorhynckus gorbuscha\ gene- 
rally the 'Hump-back Salmon', and often the 'Dog Sal- 
mon . . .This is one of the smallest Salmons. Ibid. 482 The 
Blue-back is the most graceful of the Salmons. 1888 W. S. 
CAINE Round the World viii. 122 The Pacific salmon 
takes no bait or fly in fresh water, but may be taken readily 
in salt water. 

C. Applied to fishes resembling a salmon, but 


not belonging to the Salmonidse. (a) In U.S., 
the SQUETEAGUE ; also the pike-perch (see PIKE 
sb.* 3). (b) In Australia and New Zealand, 
Arripis salar. 

1798 D. COLLINS Ace. N. S. Wales I. 136 A fish, named 
by us, from its shape only, the salmon. 1880 GUNTHER 
Fishes 393 Arripis salar, South Australia. Three species 
are known, from the coasts of Southern Australia and New 
Zealand. They are named by the colonists Salmon or 
Trout. 1884 Century Mag. Apr. 908/1 The pike-perch 
becomes a ' salmon ' in the Susquehanna, Ohio, and Missis- 
sippi rivers. 1884 GOODE, etc. Nat. Hist. Aquatic Aniin. 
365 [The Spotted Squeteague] is usually known on the 
Southern coast as the ' Salmon ' or ' Spotted Trout '. 

f d. Phrase. To seek for a salmon's nest. (Cf. 

1589 If ay any Work 30 Where hast ti bene, why man, cha 
bin a seeking for a Samons nest. 

2. The name of a kind of potato with red ' flesh '. 
1845 Morn. Chron. 22 Nov. 5/2 The salmons are c"n- 

sidered a good potato for the chalky soil ; they are what in 
some parts are called red kidneys. Ibid. 5/3 Salmon potatoes. 

3. Short for salmon colour (see 4 c). 

1892 Card. Chron. 27 Aug. 245/1 Hollyhocks, ranging in j 
colour from pure white through yellows to salmons, pinks 
[etc.]. 1892 EMILY LAWLESS Crania I. 87 The horizon was 
tinged with faint salmon. 

4. allrib.^mA Comb, a. simple attrib., as salmoti 
farm, fishery, hatchery, heck (HECK sb. 1 2), hutch 

(HUTCH sb. 3 a), kettle (KETTLE 2 a), leister, 
t lumber-pie, f/if, raiun (Sc.), river, roe, spear, 
stream ; in names applied (chiefly locally) to a 
young salmon indicating the different stages of its 
growth, as salmon-fry, wort (sb.'-'') , peal '(sb. 2 ), pink, 
smelt, sprint ; in the names of appliances used in 
angling for salmon, as salmon bait, fly, line, reel, 
rod, tackle, winch. Also salmon-like adj. 

1883 Fisheries Exhib. Catal. 51 "Salmon baits. 1868 
PEAKD Water-farm. \. 10 The.. construction of a ''Salmon- 
farm. 1762 Ann. Reg. II. 53/1 A gentleman who resides at 
llerwick, near the great "salmon-fishery. 1888 \V. S. CAINE 
Round the World viii. 121 A fresh development of the 
salmon fishery has sprung up. 1704-6 Diet. Rust. S.V. 
Fishing-fly, "Salmon Flies. 1741 Coinpl. Fain.-Piece II. ii. 
341 "Salmon-fry are taken with a fine Hair-line. 1886 Encycl. 
Brit. XXI. 224/2 note, The first important series of experi- 
ments., was made at the "salmon-hatchery of Stormontfield. 
1868 Law Kef. Q. B. Div. III. 289 In this side-stream., 
the said "salmon-hutch or hutches are situated. 1773 J. S. 
Ep. to R. Fergiisson 48 I'se tak ye up Tweed's bonny side 
. . And shaw you there the fisher's pride, A *sa'mon kettle. 
a 1625 JAS. I in Spottiswood Hist. Cli. Scot. (1677) vn. 529 [A 
longing he had to see the place of his breeding,] a "Salmon- 
like instinct [so he was pleased to call it]. 1850 ' EPHEMERA' 
/>'. Salmon 16 "Salmon-lines. 1834 "Salmon lister [see 
LEISTER]. 1881 J. GRANT Camcronians I. iv. 52 In the hall 
hung, .salmon-listers, whips [etc.], i66sR. MAY Accomplisht 
Cook (ed. 2) Index, "Salmon lumber pie. 1893 T. WATSON 
Confess. Poacher 168 There were go trout, 37 "salmon-mort, 
and 2 salmon. 1533-4 "Salmon peal [see PEAL sb.'*]. 1661 
RABISHA Cookery Dissected 127 To bake a "Salmon Pie to 
be eaten hot. 1747 in MRS. GLASSE Cookery 115. 1805 J. 
DUNCUMB Agric. Heref. 16 The spawn.. are in some parts 
termed salmon-fry or "salmon-pinks. 1841 T. SOUTH Fly 
Fishers Handl'k. ii. 13 "Salmon Reel Lines. i%&$ Fisheries 
Exhib. Catal. 51 Salmon Reels. 1753 CHAMBERS Cycl. 
Supp. s.v. Salmon, The richest "salmon river in France. 
1841 T. SOUTH Fly Fisher's Itandbk. iii. 40 The "salmon- 
rod should consist of four parts. 1824 SCOTT Redgauntlet 
let. vi, The water being in such a rare trim for the "saumon 
raun, he couldna help taking a cast. 1832 Ibid, note, The 
bait made of "salmon row salted and preserved. 1867 F. 
FRANCIS Angling vii. (1880) 265 The only things I resolutely 
bar.. are salmon-roe and wasp-grub. 1700 J. CHETHAM 
Angler's Vade Mecum (ed-3) no "Salmon Smelts. 1551 
"Salmon spear [see LEISTER]. 1602 CAREW Cornwall 31 An 
instrument somewhat like the Sammon-speare. 1790 GROSE 
I'rovinc. Gloss. Suppl., *Salmon-sprint, a young salmon. 
North. 1847 T. T. STODDART A ngler's Cotnpan. xv. 284 Let 
the angler take his place at the head of the cast or "salmon 
stream. 1883 Fisheries Exhib. Catal. 51 "Salmon Winches. 
b. objective, as salmon-breeding, -fisher, -rear- 
ing, spearer, spearing; instrumental, as salmon- 
haunted adj. 

1866 Chambers's Encycl. VIII. 447/2 "Salmon-breeding 
ponds, a 1678 MARVELL Poems, Appleton Ho., And now 

the "salmon-fishers moist Their leathern boats beg_m to 

XXI. 226A - 

News 29 June 6/3 The fly-fishers and "salmon spearers. 
1879 DOWUEN Southey vi. 144 The guests went "salmon- 
spearing on the Tweed. 

o. Special combinations : t salmon bellows. 
? the sound or air bladder of a salmon ; salmon 
belly (U.S.}, the belly of a salmon prepared for 
food by pickling ; salmon berry (U. S.~), a name 
for certain species of Rubus, esp. R. Nutkanus 
the white flowering raspberry ; salmon oast (see 
CAST sb. 5 b, c) ; salmon coble, a boat used in 
salmon fishing ; salmon-colour (see quots.) ; sal- 
mon fishing, (a] the catching of salmon ; (/') a 
place where salmon may be caught ; a salmon- 
fishery ; salmon flounder (see quot.) ; salmon 
killer (f/.S.), a stickleback, Gasterosteiis aculeatus, 
destructive to salmon fry and spawn (Cent. Diet. 
1891) ; salmon ladder, a fish ladder for salmon; 
also, transf. ' a contrivance used in the chemical 
treatment of sewage ' (Cent. Diet.) ; salmon leap, 


see LEAP sb. 2 b ; salmon louse, ' a parasitic 
crustacean, Caligus piscimis, which adheres to the 
gills of salmon ' ( Cent. Diet.} ; salmon pass = 
salmon ladder; salmon pipe, ' an engine to catch 
Salmon' (Cowel Interpr. 1607) ; salmon pit, pool 
(see quots.) ; salmon-scurf, a dial, name for the 
salmon trout ; salmon stair = salmon ladder; sal- 
mon steak, a fried slice of salmon ; salmon-tithe, 
a tithe payable in salmon ; salmon twine, linen 
or cotton twine used in the manufacture of salmon- 
nets (Cent. Diet.} ; salmon weir, a weir for the 
taking of salmon (!l>id.}. 

c 1460 J. RUSSELL Bk. Nurture 719 Musclade or menows, 
with J>e "Samoun bellows. 1883 GOODE Fish. Indiistr. U.S. 
(Fish. Exhib. Lit. 1884 V.) 32 Pickled "salmon-belly is a 
favourite delicacy of the region. 1868 Rep. V. S. Cntnmis- 
sionerAgric,(i%fxi\ i78The*salmon-berry. .(R-ttbus chamae- 
morus). 1875 W. M C !LWRAITH Guide Wigtownshire 20 In 
the vicinity of Penninghame House are some excellent 
"salmon-casts. 1883 Fisheries Exhib. Catal. 51 Salmon 
Casts, plaited gut [etc.]. 1787 BURNS A nldFarmer's Salut. 
Mare vii, Tho' now ye dow but hoy te and hoble, An' wintle 
like a "saumont-coble. 1842 D. R. HAY Nomencl. Colours 
(1846) 42 "Salmon colour is the name usually given to such 
tints as those produced by the attenuation of orange. 1860 
WORCESTER, Salmon-color, a golden-orange tinge. 1588 Rot. 
Scacc. Reg. Scot. XXI. 336 The fewmaill of the "salmound 
fisching upoun the water of Connan. 1607 NORDEN Sun: 
Dial. 67 The like of a Salmon fishing, wherin the Lord 
lost two parts in three. 1808 FORSVTH Beauties Scot!. V. 
153 A salmon-fishing of some value. 1833 J. RENNIE Alph. 
A ngling 45 The finest salmon-fishing is in mild weather. 1815 
J. ARBUTHNOT Hist. Ace. Peterhead j8 (Jam.) Pleuronectes 
Flcssus, Flounder, vulgarly called Fresh-water Flenk, *Sal- 
mon Flounder. 1867 Land. Rev. 22 June 696/1 One great 
obstacle to the erection of "Salmon-ladders. 1387 TREVISA 
Higden (Rolls) 1. 369 Also in Irlond beeb bre "samoun lepes. 
c 1730 BURT Lett. N. Scott. (1818) I. 236 The Salmon leap 
(which is asteepslope composed of large loose stones). 1867-99 
"Salmon-pass [see PASS sb. 1 3 h]. 1533 Act 25 Hen. VIII, c. 7 
No maner of persone .. shall .. take . . in fludgate, "salmon pipe 

to which the Salmon resort that are called "Salmon Pits. 
1866 Mass. Rep. 32 (Cent. Diet. s.v. Pool 1 ) "Salmon-pools, 
eddies where the salmon collect. 1846 BROCKETT A'. C. Wds. 
(ed. 3), Scurf, or *Salmon-scnrf, salmon trout. Tees, Wear, 
&c. 1875 KNIGHT Diet. Meek., * Salmon-stair. 1902 Bu- 
CHAN II 'alchcr by Threshold 6, I had'breakfasted . . on eggs 
and "salmon-steaks. 1828 SCOTT F. M. Perth xxx, He 
hath had frequent disputes with them about the "salmon- . 

B. adj. [The sb. used attrib. : cf. A 3.] Of 
the colour of the flesh of salmon ; a kind of orange- 
pink. Also Comb. ,as salmon-pink, -red, -rose. 

1786 ABERCROMBIE Card. Assist. 234 Radishes .. both of 
the common short top and salmon kinds. [Cf. quot. 1824 
s.v. SALMON-COLOURED.] 1876 Miss BRADDON y. Haggard's 
Dau. xi, A . . room painted white and salmon. 1882 Garden 
i Apr. 223/2 Large blossoms, .of a beautiful, deep, salmon- 
pink colour. Ibid. 29 Apr. 299/3 Carnations . . Conqueror, 
salmon-rose. 1885 BLACK White Heather iii, Just over 
them was a line of gleaming salmon-red. 1895 A llbiitfs 
Syst. Med. VIII. 558 The patches^n such parts may then 
assume a salmon tinge. Ikid. 573 The colour of the base has 
more of a salmon hue when fresh. 1901 J. Black's Illustr. 
Carp, ff Build., Home Handier. 38 A good salmon tint is 
produced by adding to the dissolved whiting a little of the 
same [Venetian] red. 

t Salmon, rf. 2 Cant. Obs. Also 6-8 Salomon, 
7 saloman, 8-9 salamon, 8 solomon. [Of ob- 
scure origin : cf. SAM sb.'] In oaths or assevera- 
tions, as By (the} salmon, so help me salmon. 

Harman's interpretation (quot. 1567) may be correct ; it is 
doubtful whether any of the subsequent writers quoted 
really knew the word in actual use. 

a 1550 COPLAND Hye Way to Spyttel Hous 1050 in Hazl. 
/;. p. p. IV. 69 Cyarum by salmon and thou shalt pek my 
jere. 1367 HARMAN Caveat 83 Salomon, a alter_or masse. 
1611 MIDDLE-TON & DEKKER Roaring Girle v. i. K 4 My 
doxy I haue, by the Salomon a doxy, that carries a kitchm 
mort in her slat at her backe. 1641 BROME Jto. Crew ii. 
(1659) F 4 b, By Salmon, I think my Mort is in drink. 
a 1700 B. E. Diet. Cant. Crew, Salmon, c. the Beggers 
Sacrament or Oath. Solomon, c. the Mass. 1815 SCOTT 
Guy M. xxxiv, She swore by the salmon. 1834 H. AINS- 
WORTH Rookivood ill. v, You must repeat the Salamon , or 
oath of our creed. Ibid., So may help me, Salaraon ! 
Salmon, variant of SAMMEN dial. 
Sa-lmon-co loured, a. = SALMON a. 

1776-96 WITHERING Brit. Plants (ed. 3) IV. 170 Gills 
salmon-coloured. 1807-8 W. IRVING Salmag. (1824) 361, 
- - -' J M-clothes. 

I have .sported a pair of salmon-coloured small 
1824 LOUDON Encycl. Card. 3756 Radishes 
Scarlet, or salmon-colored, and its subva 
DICKENS Dombey xviii, Salmon-colored worsted drawers. 

Salmonet (sse-manet). Also 6 samonett. 
SALMON sl>. 1 + -ET.] A samlet. 

1576 in J. Noake Worcestersh. Relics (1877) 62 That noe 
maner of persons, .use ne occupy anie manner of takynge 
of trowte or trowte samon or samonetts within the said 
streame. 1800 LADY HUNTER in Jrnl. SirM. H. (1894) 154 
A John Dory and some Salmonets. 1850 in OGILVIE. 

Salmonic (s;elmfnik), a. Chem. [f. SALMON 
s ji + -ic.] Salmonic add (see quot.). 

1868 WATTS Diet. Chem., Salmonic acid, a reddish fatty 
acid, existing, according to Fr^my and Valenciennes.., in 
the reddish muscles of various species of salmon. 

Salmonid (sse-lmcJnid). rare. Also -ide. [ad. 
mod.L. Salmonid-x pi., f. L. salmon- SALMON sbl: 
see -ID.] A fish of the family Salmon/da: 


1868 Rep. U. S. Commissioner Agric. (1869) 329 The 
creature.. looking, .more like a spiritual polliwog than a 
real salmonide. 1882 A. NICOI.S Acclim. Salmonidx at 
Antipodes 83 The presence of migratory salmomds in their 
rivers. 1888 Daily News 19 May 7/3 Highly satisfactory 
results have attended salmonide culture this season. 

Salmoniform (soelm^'nifpjm), a. [f. SALMON 
sb. 1 + -(I)FOBM.] = SALMONOID. 

1891 in Century Diet, (citing HUXLEY). 

Salmonize (sre'monsiz), v. [f. SALMON sd. 1 + 
-IZE.J trans. To make (a river) fit for salmon. 

1886 Longm, Mag. VII. 293 Much is talked about 'sal- 
monising ' the Thames. 

Sal in on oid (ssel'm^hoid), a. and sb. [f. SALMON 
$l\ + -OID.] A. adj. Of or belonging to the 
family Salmonidse ; resembling a fish of this family. 

1850 in OGILVIE. 1865 Athenxnm No. 1948. 279': Sal- 
monoid fishes. 1883 Pall Mall G. 12 May Suppl., An ex- 
tensive collection of salmonidae and sal monoid fishes, 
B. sb. A fish of the family Salmonidfe. 

1842 in BRANDE Diet. Set., etc. 1867 (title) Reports on the 
Natural History and Habits of Salmonoids in the Tweed. 
1883 G. ALLEN in Knowledge 23 Mar. 175 There is one little 
peculiarity common to all the sahnonoids the graylings 
and gwyniads as well as the trout and charr. 

t Sa-linonsows. Obs. [ad. AF. salmonceux 
pi. (1389-90 Acti$ AYr. //. st. i c. 19), dim. of 
salmon. Cf. HERONSEW.] Salmon-fry. 

1607 COWEL Interpr., Salmon sewse seemeth to be the 
young fry of Salmon. 1706 in PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey). 


1. A fish of the species Sal mo tnttta, resembling 
the salmon, found in rivers of northern Europe. 

1421 Rolls of Parlt. IV. 132/1 Frie de Samon-Troiight. 
1540 Rutland MSS, (1905) IV. 302 A great salmon trowtte. 
1668 CHARLF.TON O no mast. 155 Trntta Salmoneta . . a 
Salmon-Trout. 1756-7 tr. Keysle>*$ Trav. (1760) 1. 17 There 
is also a kind of salmon-trouts called Gangfische, 1884 
Sat. Rev, 12 July 61/1 Jim, the black cook boy.. caught 
a twenty-pound salmon-trout with bait. 

2. In -U. S. and N. S. \T. applied to other fishes 
(see quots.). 

1882 J. E. TENISON-WOODS Fish N. S. W. 35 Arripis 
salar, in the adult state the salmon of the Australian 
fishermen, and their salmon trout is the young. 1884 GOODE, 
etc. Nat, Hist. Aquatic Anitn. 468 According to the latest 
system, .the second group [of the old genus Saltno] includes 
the Chars, or Red-spotted Trout, and the gray-spotted 
species known as Salmon Trout, or Lake Trout. These are 
assigned to the genus Salvetinus, Ibid. 474 The Steel- 
head SalmoGairdneri. Large individuals are often called 
' Salmon Trout '. 

t Sal-nitre. Obs. [ad. med.L. sal nitrl ' salt 
of nitre ' : see SAL and NITRE. Cf. It. salnitro, Pr. 

salnilre\ also Sp., Pg. salitre (whence SALITRE), 
G. salniter, salifcr.'] Saltpetre. 

1416 in Essex Rev. (1907) XVI. 159 Sal niter. 1601 HOL- 
LAND Pliny II. 420, 1 may not put off the treatise concerning 
lift nature of Salnitre, approching so neer as it doth to the 
nature of salt. 1610 MAKKHAMyi/as.Vr/. u. cxlv. 447 Adde 
to it of Sal-niter an ounce. 1683 SALMON Doron Med. i. 
320 Subliming it with Sal Niter. 

Hence f Salni'tral'tz., of the nature of saltpetre. 

1683^ TRYON \VaytoHealth\\. (1697) 104 Until the Sun 
and Ccelestial Influences have endu'd it [sc. earth] with a 
Salnitral Vertue. 

Salod, var. pa. t. of SALUE v. Obs. 

Salol (sEC'lpl). Chem. [f. SAL(ICYL) + -OL.] 
A white, crystalline, aromatic powder, prepared 
from salicylic and carbolic acids, used as an anti- 
pyretic and antiseptic. Also in Comb. 

1887 Athenxnm 19 Feb. 260/1 Salol is said to have a most 
powerful effect in cases of rheumatism. 1897 Trans. Ame>; 
Pedtatric Soc. IX. 129 Salol-coated permanganate pills. 

Saloiuene. Obs. Also 5 salome, -mere. 
[Of obscure origin : cf. It. SALAME; also K. salmis 
(see SALMI), which agrees closely in sense.] (See 

c 1430 Two Cookery-bks. 21 Salomene. Takegode Wyne, 
an . . pouder, & Brede y-ground, an sugre . . ; }>an take Trow tys, 
Rochys, Perchys, ober Carpys, . . an . .roste hem. .; banhewc 
hem in gobettys :. .fry hem in oyle a lytil, J>en caste in ^e 
brwet ; . . take Maces, Clowes [etc.] . . an cast a-boue, & serue 
forth. Ibid. 33 Capoun in Salome. Ibid. 35 Soupes of 
Sal o mere. 

Salometer (sselp'mAw). [f. L. sal salt or 
sal-urn brine + -(O)METER.! = SALINOMETEB. 

1860 MAURY Phys. Geoff. Sea (Low) ii. 102 The salometer 
confirms it. 

Salomonic (ssetomp'nik), a. [f. L. Salonwn 
Solomon. Cf. SOLOMONIC.] Of or pertaining to 
Solomon. So Salomo'niana. 

1873 Speaker's Comment. Bible IV. 667/2 Those who have 
denied its Salomonic authorship. Ibid. 15/1 The description 
of the Divine Wisdom, Proverbs viii, in which the Salomo- i 
nian theory culminated. 1881 W. R. SMITH Old Test. Jewish \ 
Ch. v. 122 The collection of Salomonic proverbs formed by 
the scholars in the service of King Hezekiah. Ibid. 403. 

I] Salon (salon). Also 8 sallon. [Kr. : see I 

1. a. A large and lofty apartment serving as 
one of the principal reception rooms in a palace 
or other great house, b. A room, more or less 
elegantly furnished, used for the reception of guests; ' 
a drawing-room. 

Now only with reference to France or other continental 
countries. Cf. SALOON i. 


1715 LEONI Palladia s Archit. (1742) I. 52 Great Halis or 
Sallons for Feasting. 1717 BERKELEY Tour in Italy Wks. 
1871 IV. 523 It [the palace of the Barberini in Rome] hath 
many noble chambers and salons, a 1721 SHEFFIELD fl)k. 
Buckhm.) U'ks. (1723) II. 276, I rise. .about seven a-clock 
. .to walk in the garden ; or, if rainy, in a Salon filled with 
pictures. 1728 CHAMBERS Cycl., Salon, or Saloon,, .a very 
lofty, spacious Hall, vaulted at Top, and sometimes com- 
prehending two Stories, or Ranges, of Windows... Em- 
bassadors, and other Great Visitors, are usually received in 
the Salon. 1758 H. WALPOLE/.^/. to Chute 22 Aug., I have 
seen the plan of their hall, .and both their eating-room and 
salon are to be stucco, with pictures. 1834 H. GREVILLE 
Diary 23 Oct. , Finding Barras had not come home he 
established himself with a book in the salon until he should 
return. 1881 Q. Rev. Oct. 505 The principal salon had a 
dome, which, turning day and night imitated the move- 
ments of the terrestrial bodies. 

2. spec. The reception-room of n Parisian lady of 
fashion; hence, a reunion of notabilities at the house 
of such a lady; also, a similar gathering in other 

1810 F. JEFFREY in Edin. Rei>. XV. 485 When she 
[Mile, de Lespinasse] is visibly within a few weeks of her 
end., she still has her salon filled twice a day with company. 
18530. C. F ELTON in Longfellow* s Life (ityi) II. 253 There 
is not a salon in Paris which is not proud to welcome him. 
1888 BKYCE Amer. COMMW. III. cv. 508 One hears of 
attempts made to establish political ' salons ' in Washington. 
1888 MRS. H.VtAHDJt.Jitsmerffxvil, 225 Famous in London 
society fur her relationship, her audacity, and the salon, which 
..she managed to collect round her. 

3. The Salon \ the annual exhibition at Paris of 
painting, sculpture, etc. by living artists. 

Originally held in one of the ' salons ' of the Louvre. 

1875 T. G. APPLKTON in Longfelloiv's Life (1891) III. 252 
The Salon is open. 1908 Athenxum 15 Aug. 191/2 He 
received a medal at the Salon of 1864. .; two of his pictures 
were in this year's Salon. 

Saloon '^sal/7'n^. Also 8 salloon. [a. F. 
salon ( = Sp. salofij Pg. safflo), ad. It. salone t 
augm. of sala hall : see SALE 2 .] 

1. = SALON i a. b. = SALON i b. Now U. S. 

1728 [see SALON]. 1748 RICHARDSON Clarissa (1811) III. 
352 What Mr. Lovelace saw of the house (which was the 
saloon and two parlours) was perfectly elegant. 1753 HAN- 
WAY Trav. (1762) I. vii. xciii. 427 They were then lining the 
grand salloon with silesia marble. 1760 H. WALPOLR Let. 
to Montagu 19 July, Ditchley. .is a good house, well fur- 
nished, has good portraits, a wretched saloon [etc.]. 1784 
Cow PER Task i. 414 Strange ! there should be found, Who, 
self-imprison'd in their proud saloons, Renounce the odours 
of the open field. 1810 E. D. CLARKE Trar. Russia (1839) 
21/1 The coup d'ctil upon entering the grand saloon is incon- 
ceivable.. .The company consisted of nearly two thousand 
persons. 1823 P. NICHOLSON Pract. Build. 438 Saloons are 
frequently raised the whole height of the building. 1828 
J. F. COOPER Notions of Amer. I. 261 A young American.. 
is just as happy in the saloon, as she was a few years before 
in the nursery. 1841 Penny Cycl. XX. 365 Saloon signifies, 
in its stricter architectural meaning, a room.., not only the 
principal room as to spaciousness, but loftiness also... At 
present however.. the name of saloon is indiscriminately or 
ostentatiously bestowed on any unusually large room. 1842 
Literary Gaz. 3 Sept. 612/1 Neither was she received 
altogether in the saloon, as she was of too humble a grade 
to mix with gentry and nobility. 1860 MAKSH Eng. Lang. 
xiii. 291 In all grades of society, from the wigwam to the 
saloon. Ibid. xx. 440 The aim of a numerous class of popular 
writers is., to make books, .speak the dialect of the saloon. 
1907 Connoisseur XIX. 139/2 [Eaton Hall] The saloon., 
forms part of the hall.. .Divided by pillars alone from the 
entrance hall, the two form one large room. 

2 = SALON 2. Now rare. 

1810 F. JEFFREY in Edin. Rev. XV. 461 It is to this, .that 
the French are indebted for the superiority of their polite 
assemblies. Their saloons are better filled than ours. 1820 
SHELLEY Lett. Pr. Wks. 1880 IV. 163, I find saloons and 
compliments too great bores. 1838 EMKRSON Addr.^ Lit. 
Ethics Wks. (Bohn) II. 214 How mean to go blazing, a 
gaudy butterfly, in fashionable or political saloons. 1881 
STANLEY Chr. Instit-ut. (1882) 297 Materials of conversation 
at the dinner tables of London or the saloons of Paris. 

3. A large apartment or hall, esp. in a hotel or 
other place of public resort, adapted for assemblies, 
entertainments, exhibitions, etc.; also, rarely, any 
unusually large apartment. 

1747 General Advertiser 12 May, Mr. Rose and others 
will play in the Great Room, and in the Salioon in the 
Gardens. 1761 Ann, Reg. 126 In digging near the Latin- 
gate, two subterraneous saloons have also been discovered, 
in which were found four tombs. 1837 DICKENS Picktv. 
xxxvi, The great pump-room is a spacious saloon, orna- 
mented with Corinthian pillars. 1858 HAWTHORNE Fr. <$ 
//. Note-bits. (1872) I. ii The Restaurant des Echelles..has 
a handsomely furnished saloon. 1886 Guide Exhib. Gal- 
leries Brit. A/us. 40 In this saloon are two Table-cases con- 
taining tablets of baked and unbaked clay from Babylonia. 

4. a. A large cabin in a passenger- boat for the 
common use of passengers in general or for those 
paying first-class fares. 

1842 DICKENS in Forster 7X1872) I. 271 One man lost 
fourteen pounds at vingt-un in the saloon yesterday. 1888 
W. S. CAINE Round the World x. 147 The saloon accommo- 
dates just sixteen persons to table. 1900 H. LAWSON Over 
Sliprails 113, 1 should have gone over steerage with nothing 
. .and come back saloon with a pile. 

b. In full saloon car or carriage : A railway 
carriage without compartments, furnished more or 
less luxuriously as a drawing-room or for a specific 
purpose, as dining* sleeping saloon. Also (U.S.) ' the 
main room of a compartment-car or a small sub- 
division of a sleeping-car ' (Funk's Sfattt/at 


'855 D. K. CLARK Railway Machinery 275/1 Saloon 
carriages may. .be planned variously. ..The business public 
appear generally to prefer the ordinary partitioned carriage. 
1886 St. James's Gaz. 16 Oct. 6/2 He stepped lightly from 
the saloon-car. 1891 Harper's Mag. LXXXlI. 581/1 The 
car at the head of the New York and Chicago Limited was 
divided . . ; the two small apartments 'amidships 1 , so to speak, 
were arranged, one as a bath room, and the other as a barber- 
shop; and then came the more spacious saloon reserved for 
the smokers. 1899 ll'estw. Gaz. 19 Sept. 6/2 In the rear of 
the express was . . the saloon in which the distinguished 
travellers were making their journey.. .They travelled, .to 
Aberdeen in an ordinary sleeping saloon. 

5. An apartment to which the public may resort 
for a specified purpose, as billiard, boxing, dancing, 
shaving saloon, etc. 

185* C. J. TAI.ROT ftlcliora Ser. i. 166 In London., we 
went to places of entertainment, and low dancing saloons. 
1874 }\M\Kf?v Soc. Life Greece viii. 241 We bear of no hells, 
or low music halls, or low dancing saloons [at Athens]. 

6. U.S. A place where intoxicating liquors are 
sold and consumed ; a drinking bar. 

1884 N. y. Herald^ Oct. 6/3 [Two men] demanded drinks 

in the .saloon of , Myrtle avenue, Brooklyn. 1888 \V. >. 

CAINE Round the World vii, 106 Here [at Rogers Pass, 
Canada] is a collection of wooden shanties, used as liquor- 
saloons, music and dancing-houses. 1892 J. RAI I J H in 
Harper's 3lag. LXXX1V. 716/2 The fee for a permit to 
maintain a saloon or hotel bar in cities of more than ioo,coo 
population is $1000. 1893 LELAND Mem. I. 282 A railK-r 
first-class saloon, bar, and restaurant on Broadway. 

7. attrib. and Comb. : a. simple attrib., as saloon- 
bar, licence, passengers t steward, etc.; b. special 
comb., as saloon car, carriage (see 40) ; saloon 
deck, a deck for the use of saloon passengers ; 
saloon-keeper C'. S. r one who keeps a drinking 
saloon; saloon pistol, rifle, light firearms for 
firing at short range ; saloon smasher L'. S. slang, 
one who practises or advocates the practice of the 
wrecking of drinking saloons as a protest against 
the liquor traffic ; so also saloon smashing. 

1888 W. S. CAINE Round the World i. 3 The 'saloon-deck 
presents the usual aspect. Ladies are grouped about in 
pleasant corners in easy deck-chairs. 1879 G. CAMPBELL 
lUtick fy H'hite 242 The publicans, or *saloon-keepers, as 
they are called in America. 1892 ). RALI-H in Harper's 
A lag- LXXXI V. 7 1 2/1 The "saloon licence system is another 
village development. 1879 FROUDK in f'raser's Mag. Nov. 
625 The *saloon passengers were taken next. 1899 KIPLING 
Stalky 65 Rabbit-shooting with "saloon-pistols. 1881 
GREENER Gun 368 "Saloon rifles.. are small, smooth-bore 
guns, ..firing a bulleted breech-cap.. .Pistols, .are also made 
on the same principle. In all saloon rifles and pistols the 
propellant is fulminating powder contained in a small copper 
case. 1901 U'estni. Cac. 10 Dec. 9/2 The notorious *siloon 
smasher. 1905 Daily Chr on, n July 5/7 '*Saloon-smashing' 
methods of reform by wrecking with dynamite buildings in 
which liquor selling was carried on. 

Saloon, obs. variant of SHALLOOX. 

Saloonist (salw-nist). U.S. [f. SALOON + -IST.] 
a. A saloon-keeper, b. One who upholds the 
system of drinking saloons. 

1882 Chicago Advance $ Aug. 495 Just think of a saloonist 
coming into court expecting to justify.. his 'business* by 
exhibiting his ' license * as a contract by the people to let 
him sell liquor. 188. Pop. Sci. Monthly XXX. 16 (Cent. 
Diet.) Any persistent effort to enforce the Sunday laws 
against the saloon is met by the saloonist with the counter- 
effort to enforce the laws against legitimate business. 

SaloOp (sal/7'p). Also 8 salob, salup, 8-9 
saloup, salop. [Altered form of SALEP.] 

1. = SALEP. 

^ >7ia MRS. CESTLIVRE Perplexed Lovers v. i, Salup, what 
is that Salup? I have often seen this Fellow sauntering 
about Streets, and cou'd not imagine what he sold. 1719 
D'URFEV Pills (1872) VI. 125 Here's Salop brought from 
foreign Parts. 17*7 A. HAMILTON Ace. E. Indies 1. 125 They 
[in Sind] have a Fruit, .called Salob... They dry it hard. . 
and being beaten to a Powder, they dress it as Tea and 
Coffee are, and take it with powdered Sugar-candy. 1718 
[see 2]. 1747 MRS. GLASSE Cookery 120 To boil Salup. It 
is a hard Stone ground to Powder, and generally sold for 
one Shilling an Ounce. 17153 CHAMBERS Cycl. Snjf. t Orchis- 
root, in the materia medica, is otherwise named salep, vulgarly 
called saloop. 1756 P. BROWNE Jamaica 325 The Jamaica 
Salop... It maybe used with great propriety as a stomachic. 
1766 Ann. Reg. 112 This powder is no other than that of 
sago or China salop. 1804 CHARLOTTE SMITH Conversation $ t 
etc. I. 04 The roots.. of the orchis of which saloop is made. 
1826 HENHY Elent, Chem. II. x. 266 Salop or Saloop is the 
farina obtained from several species of Orchis, especially the 
O. Mascnla. 1851 MAYHEW Lend. Labour I. 8 Saloop 
(spelt also 'salep and 'salop') was prepared, as a powder, 
from the root of the Orchis tnascitla. 1861 BENTLEV Man, 
Bot. 667 Enhphia vera, and E. carn^csfris.The tuber- 
cular roots of these species are used in India in the pre- 
paration of the nutritious substance known by the names of 
Salep, Salop, and Saloop. 

2. A hot drink consisting of an infusion of pow- 
dered salep or (later) of sassafras, with milk and 
sugar, formerly sold in the streets of London in 
the night and early morning. 

17*8 E. SMITH Compl. Honsew. 149 To make Salop. Take . . 
Water, and let it boil. .; then put in a quarter of an ounce 
of Salop finely powdered, and let it boil . . ; drink It m China 
Cups as Chocolate, c 1759 Roxb. Ball. (1890) VII. 58 Here's 
fine saloop, both hot and good. 1803 Censor i Dec. 135, I 
was taking my pot of snloop, (for I am not so extravagant as 
to drink coffee). i8u LAMB Elia Ser. i. Praise Chimneysn>., 
There is a composition, the groundwork of which I have 
understood to be. .sassafras. This wood boiled down to a 
kind of tea, and tempered with an infusion of milk and sugar, saloop. 1840 PEREIRA Elan. Mat. Med, 799 Sassafras 


tea, flavoured with milk and sugar, is sold, .under the name 
of saloop. 1851 MAYHEW Land. Labour I. 183 The vending 
of tea and coffee, in the stree