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Full text of "A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles: Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by the Philological Society"

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DICTIONARY 
/ 



ICAL PRI 



ix. PART ii. sp- 













A NEW 



NARY 



HISTORICAL PRIN/CIPLES 

/ 
/ 



VOLUME IX. PART II S/T-TH 
, 




ENGLISH DICTI 










- 






OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRKS: 

LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YORK 

TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPE TOWN BOMBAY 

HUMPHREY MJLFORD 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



COLLEGE OF 

TH r .^IFIC 

NOV 1 9 
LIBRARY 







/ 



A NEW 

ENGLISH DICTIONARY 

ON HISTORICAL PRINCIPLES: 



FOUNDED MAINLY ON /THE MATERIALS COLLECTED BY 






Societ 



EDITED BY 



SIR JAMES A. H. MURRAY, 
HENRY BRADLEY, W. A. CRAIGI-E, C.T.ONI 

TOLUME IX. PART II. SU-TH. 



SF-SZ. 






BY C. T. ONIONS, 

MA. I.ONU. ; HON. M.A. OXON. 



T-TH. 



BY SIR JAMES MURRAY, 



^^~*=^ 

ACADEMIES OF VIF.XNA. BERLIN, I FSA, A, AM, FLANDERS, THE AMER.CAN ACAHBMV OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, THE AMER.CAN 
HILOSOPHICAL SOCIITV. AND UE MAATSCHAPPY DFK XEDEKLAXUSCHE LETTEKKUNDE TE I.EVDEN. 



OXFORD: 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS. 

1919. 

[All rights reserved.} 










OXFORD 

PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON TRESS 

BY FREDERICK HAM. 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



TUP 

19. 

LK 












- 



PREFACE TO S U S Z. 



THIS the concluding portion of the letter S con" 
under these, and 2417 Subordinate entries; in all 8312. 



rises 4935 Main words, 960 Combinations explained^ 
The Obvious Combinations, illustrated by quotations <^, 



but not requiring specific definition, number 1094 morejmaking a total of 9406. Of the Main words, 1133 are 
marked f as obsolete, and 208 are marked || as alien orrnot fully naturalized.* 

The Germanic element in this portion of the/English vocabulary amounts to somewhat less than 
a quarter. It includes such, suck, summer (the season)) sun, sunder, sundry, sup (to sip), together with all but 
a few of the words with initial sw, which occupy about two-thirds of the whole space covered by the Germanic 
clement. Among the more important j-f-words belonging to the ordinary written and spoken language are 
swaddle, swain, swallow, swamp, swarm, swarthy, fiuat/i, swathe, sway, swear, sweat, sweep, siveet, sioell, 
swelter, swerve, swift, swill, swim, swindle, swine, siting, swinge, swirl, switch, swoon, swoop, sword; but there 
are many now obsolete, dialectal, technical, or otherwise restricted in use, which equal or surpass these in 
lexicographical interest or difficulty : such are the/six words swab, the seven nouns sivad, the three nouns 
swale, swalper, swanimote, the five words swarf, the seven words sivarth, swarve, the seven words swash, the 
three nouns swash and swatch, swats, sweal, sweb, sweddle, sweek, sweer, swelt, swerk, sweven. the six words 
swig, swilk, swimble, swiine, swingle, swipe, sivipper, swire. swith, swithe, swithen, swither, swive, swote, 
swound, swow. 

In the Latin and Greek clement of the vocabulary the most striking feature is the number and importance 
of the prefixes that have required more or less lengthy treatment; these are sub- (with its variants SH-, sue-, 
suf-, sum-, sup-, sur-, sus-}, super-, supra-, sur-, syn- (with its variants sy-, syl-, sym-, sys-). The great 
majority of the words from Latin, Greek, and French are compounds of one or other of these prefixes, and the 
list of them includes many of common literary and colloquial currency, and many of considerable rank in 
the terminology of the arts and the sciences. 

India has supplied an unusually large proportion ot words : subah, subahdar, subashi, subjee, sudder, 
Sudra, sundri, sungar, sunn, sunnud, sunnyasee, snpari, surnai, surpeach, surwan, sus//, sutra. suttee, snttoo, 
swadeshi, swami, swastika. 

A few articles may be singled out as being especially conspicuous for their etymological interest : subdue, 
sugar and sugar-candy, surd (in mathematics), surly, sway, swerve, swindle, sycophant, syllabus, syphilis, and 
the Paracelsiau sylph and synovia. Special interest attaches to the facts of the history of syllabus. 

. The original collection of material for Su-Ss was subedited by Mr. P. W. Jacob in 1883 ; since then 
a large body of additional quotations had been amassed before the regular staff started work upon it at the 
beginning of 1914. The proofs have been read by the Misses Edith and E. P. Thompson, Lansdown, Bath, 
Mr. G. F. Friediichsen, M A. (a former member of the late Sir James Murray s staff), and the Rev. Canon J. T. 
Fowler ; their annotations have contributed in many instances to the accuracy or completeness of the treat 
ment. Constant assistance in verification at the British Museum has been given by Mr. \V. W. Jenkinson, 
and on several occasions Mr. E. J. Thomas, of the University Library, Cambridge, a former member of the 
Dictionary staff, has rendered similar service. 

On many technical points recourse has been had to experts, who have generously placed their knowledge 
and their time at the service of the Dictionary. Among these the following have furnished special informa 
tion : the late Prof. A. S. Napier, Mr. W. H. Stevenson, and Mr. K. Sisam, on the early history of some 
native words ; Prof. D. S. Margoliouth and Dr. A. E. Cowley on questions of Semitic etymology ; Dr. James 
Morison on the languages and lore of India; Mr. C. C. J. Webb on several philosophical terms; the 

* The following figures show the comparative scale of this work and some other Dictionaries: 

Words recorded 841 3775 ."5099 9406 

Words illustrated by quotations 711 M"3 I ^" Sn8 

Number of quotations "54 /i^i 373 J 4"- 10 - 2 

In the corresponding portion of Richardson s Dictionary the number of quotations is 



. 



PREFACE TO SU SZ. 

late Rev. Dr. H. M. Bannister, the Rev. Fr. Frere, the Rev. Dr. B. J. Kidd, on the language of the Church ; 
Prof. E. B. Elliott, Mr. A. E. Jolliffe, and Mr. C. Leudesdorf, on mathematical terms ; and Dr. F. D. Chattaway 
on chemical words. 

The progress of this portion of the Dictionary has been retarded by the withdrawal in succession of 
several members of the staff, and, in the second half of the year I9i8,of the editor, for war service of different 
kinds. The assistants to whom has fallen the chief share in the preparation of Sa-Sz are Mr. A. T. 
Maling, M.A., and Mr. F. J. Sweatman, M.A., and the Misses Elsie M. R. and Rosfrith N. R. Murray, all 
members of the late Sir James Murray s staff. Others who were engaged upon it for longer or shorter periods 
arc Mr. J. W. Birt, Mr. P. I*. J. Dadley, Mr. W. J. Fortune, Mr. H. R. Simpson, Mr. F. A. Yockney, and 
the late Mr. James Dallas. 

C. T. ONIONS. 

Ox i OKD, /n/ic, i (j 1 9. 



The statistics for the whole of the letter S, which extends to 2408 pages (the first 8co of which are in 
Volume VIII), are for convenience given here : 

Main Subordinate Special Obvious Total No. No. of 

words. words. Combinations. Combinations. of Words. Quotations, 

27,929 i,.i4 793 2 11.426 57.428 298,006 



, ,. . 

The 27,929 Main words are distinguished approximately as follows: 

Current. Obsolete. Alien. T 



Total. 
21.362 5487 1080 27,929 



The comparative scale of this work and of certain other Dictionaries is shown as follows 

J h " so "- Encyclopedic . Century Die,. Here. 

Words recorded 4344 22,577 2 8,34 2 57,4 2o> 

\Yords illustrated by quotations 3587 7688 8706 47,837 

Number of illustrative quotations MiS S 2,146 24,100 298,006 

In the corresponding portion of Richardson s Dictionary the number of quotations is 12,516. 



KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION. 



g as in } 

h ... ho\ 

i ... run iron), teener (tc-riar i. 

J ... her (haj), father ( 

s ... see (si), cess (ses). 

w ... wen (wen). 

hw ... when (hwen). 

y ... .yes (yes). 



ORDINARY. 

a as in Fr. A \a mode (a la mod ), 
ai ... aye =yes (a\\ Isaiah (aizai a). 
c ... man (msen). 
u ... pass (pas), chant (tjunt). 
au ... load (laud), now (nau). 
... ct (kt), son (son). 
e ... yet (yet), ten (ten), 
e ... survey sb. (st>ive), Fr. attach^ (ataje). 
S ... Fr. chef ( J f). 
s ... ever (evaj), natz on (ne -Jan). 
ai ... /, eye, (ai), bind (baind). 
) ... Fr. eau de vie (o d? v"). 
i ... sit (sit), nystz c (mistik). 
i ... Psyche (sai-kz ), react (re,as-kt). 
o ... achor (e koj), morality (morae liti). 

ozl (oil), bo.y (boi). 

hero (hl ro), zoology (zoiolod^i). 

what (hwgt), watch (wgtj). 

got (g?t), soft (S(*ft). 

Ger. Koln (koln). 

Fr. pea (po). 

fall (ful), book (buk). 

daration (diure -Jan). 

unto (vntu), frz^gality (fr-). 

Matthew (mae-|iia), virtwe (va jtitt). 

Ger. Mailer (mii-ler). 

Fr. dane (dan). 
V-^ce I- , e0, o- , v 



I. CONSONANTS. 

1), d, f, k, 1, in, n. |i, t. v, i kti C iJ.Lir uaiitl values. 
as in //an (fin), ba/// (ba)>). 



3 ... //Sen (Sen), baMe 

J ... J/iO P (J ? p), du/j ,dij). 

tj ... c/;op (tjpp), di/c/j (ditj). 

.^ ... vi. on (vi-^an), de/euner (depo 

d.^ ... judge (d,5d3). 

ij ... si;yi^ (si-ijin), thiwk (I iijk). 

ijg ... fiw^tr (fingaj). 

II. VOWELS. 

LOHG. 

a as in alms V am7.;, bar (baj). 



" ... crl (kzJal), fur (fi>i). 

c (e)... there (8ei), feat, pare (pc-u\ 

e.e )... re/ n, ram (re n), the_y (fiei). 

/ ... Fr. faz re (f/r 1 ;. 

a ... fir (fai), fern (fam), earth (a.i)> 



i (I )... b/er (bij), clear (klloj). 

... th/ef (KO, see (sf). 

u ^6<>)... """, bore (bo->.i\ glory (gloj ri). 

o(ou)... so, soro V SOT), sol (sol). 

... .wa/k fwjk ;, wart (wgjt). 

... short (J^t , thorn (Jyjn). 

... Fr. coer (kor). 

" ... Ger. Gothe (gote), Fr. je/2ne (jon). 

(&).. poor (pii-u), moorish (mu-rij). 

i, u... pre (piucj), lare (l uj). 

" ... too moons (t m;7nz). 

i/7, ... few (fill), lute (l t). 

... Ger. grn (grn), Fr. jas (3/5). 



-FOREIGN.) 
n a-i in French nasal, environ ^anvj roh). 
1 s ... It. suui^vVo ^sera U o . 
n ... It. ai^worc (s;n>"o re . 

: v Ger. arA (ax), Sc. lix-/i (lox, Iox w ). 

\ ! ... (jer. i< : i\ v , Sc. ni,7;t jie\ v i . 

7 ... (Jer. sa;rn ya- /L,! . 

7" ... Ger. le^n, re^nen (V Y en, ri?"y n4n). 



OliSCURE. 

a .15 in ami.i\i amf la). 

A ... accept (sekse pt), maniac (m^ Tiiik). 



" ... datm di ril lpm). 

c ... moment jnou ment), several (se veral). 

... separate (adj. , (se-patft). 

e ... added (x ded), estate (este 1 !). 



... vanity (vse niti). 

... remain r/"ine ; n , believe (bi"l*v). 

... theory (t>rori). 



as in able (e~ib l), eaten (7t n)= voice-glide. 

* i> the o in soft, of medial or doubtful length. 



a . 

8 
g 



.. violet (vai c/let), parody (pae rali). 

.. athority ({foTiti). 

.. connect (kjftie kt), amazon (;u maz^ 



iu, u verdure (vaudiui), measure 
... altogether (jltrfgc Saj). 
ill ... circalar (s 



I Only in foreign (or earlier English) words. 



In the ETYMOLOGY, 

OE. e, o, representing an earlier a, are distinguished as {. , Jiaving the phonetic value of ( and />, or o, above) ; as in i>tde from andi (OHG. atlii, 

Goth. andci-s^ t monn from maim, (>i from an. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS, SIGNS, &c. 



a. [iu Etymol.j ... 
a ^as a 1300) 
a,, adj.) adj 
<ibsol. t absol. 
abst 


= adoption of, adopted Loin. 




genitive, 
general, -ly. 
general signification, 
in Geology, 
in Geometry. 
Gothic ( - Mceso-Gothic). 
Greek, 
in Grammar. 
Hebrew. 
in Heraldry, 
with herbalists, 
in Horticulture. 
Imperative, 
impersonal, 
imperfect. 
Indicative. 
indefinite. 
Infinitive, 
influenced, 
interjection. 
intransitive. 
Italian. 
Johnson (quotation from), 
in TamiesoH] Scottish Diet. 
Joirell (quoted from). 
Latin. 
Latham s edn. of Todd s 
language. [Johnson. 
Low German, 
literal, -ly. 
Lithuanian. 
Septuagint. 
Malay, 
masculine, 
in Mathematics. 
Middle English, 
iu Medicine, 
medieval Latin. " 
in Mechanics. 
in Metaphysics. 
Middle High German, 
midland (dialect), 
in military usage, 
in Mineralogy, 
modern, 
in Music. 
Nares (quoted from). 
noun of action, 
noun of agent, 
in Natural History, 
in nautical language, 
neuter. 
Northern French. 
Natuial Order, 
nominative, 
northern (dialect). 
New Testament. 
in Numismatics, 
object, 
obsolete, 
occasional, -ly. 
Old English ( = Anglo- 
Saxon). 
Old French. 
Old Frisian. 
Old High Geiman. 
Old Irish. 
Old Norse (Old Icelandic). 
Old Northern French, 
in Optics, 
in Ornithologv. 
Old Saxon. 
Old Slavonic. 
Old Testament. 
Original Teutonic, 
original, -ly. 
in Palieontology. 
passive or past participle. 
passive, -ly. 
* 


pa. t 


; = past tense. 




Path 


. ... - in Pathology, 


^ adjective. 
= absolutely. 
= abstract. 
accusative. 




peih. . 


... = perhaps. 


Ceo! 


Pers 


... = Persian. 




ptrS 


= person, -al. 




Goth 


pf. 


= perfect. 


ad. [iu Etvmol." 1 ... 
adv., adv 


Gr 


Pg. 


Portuguese. 






Philol. .... 


in Philology. 


- adverbial, -h. 
Anglo-French. 
= in Anatomy. 
-- in Antiquities. 
- aphetic, aphetized. 
apparently. 


Heb 


phonel 


phonetic, -allv. 


AF., AFr 


Ha-. 


phr. 


... = phrase. 




Herb. 


Phren 


= in Phrenology. 




Hurt 


Phys. 


= hi Physiologv. 


aphet 




pi.,-//. .... 


=- plural. 




poet. 


= poetic. 


\rab 




pop 


... = popular, -Iv. 


Anh 


= in Architecture. 
- archaic. 
= in Archaeology. 
= association. 
in Astronomy. 
= in Astrology. 
attributive, -ly. 
before. 
^= in Biology. 
-= Bohemian, 
in Botany, 
in Building. 
= tirca, about. 
century. 
- Catalan. 
catachrestically. 
- confer, compare 
in Chemistry. 
- classical Latin. 
= cognate with. 
= collective, -ly. 
--- colloquially. 
combined, -ing. 
Combinations. 
= in commercial usage. 
compound, composition. 
complement. 


imt. -= 


///. a., ppl. 
pple 


adj = participial adjective. 
= participle. 




indcl. 


Anhxol. 


inf. 


Pr 


... - Provencal. 


lull 


prec 


- preceding (word 01 article,. 


Aslr. 
Astral. 


tut 


pref. 


= prefix. 




prep 


= preposition. 


attrib 


It. 


pres 


present. 


bet 


J., (J.) - 


Prim, i i "- 
priv 


= Primary signification, 

- privative. 


mot. 

Boh 


(lam ) 


(lod ~] 


prob 


.... probably. 


Hot. 




frail. 


pronoun. 


Build. 


(L.) (in quotations] 
lang 


pronunc 


... pronunciation. 


c (as c 1300) 
c. (as ijth c. N 
Cat. 


prop. ...:... 
Pros 


= properly. 
... = in Prosody. 


LG 


lit - 


pr. pple 


. = present participle. 




1 ith 


Psych 


in Psychology. 


Cl ., cf. 


LXX 


q.v 


. , . . = quod vide, which see. 


CJum. 


Mai 


(R.) 


... - in Richardson s Diet. 


cl. L. 


masc. .rarely m.) = 
Math 


R. C. Ch. 

refash 


. = Roman Catholic Church. 




= refashioned, -ing. 


collect 


ME. 


re/I., roll. . 
reg 


= reflexive. 
= regular. 




Med. . 
med.l.. 
Mech 




repr 


- representative, representing. 


Comb. 


Klut 


... - in Rhetoric. 




Metaph. = 
MUG 


Rom. 


- Romanic, Romance. 


cump 

com pi. 


sb. , il> 


substantive. 




Sc 


= Scotch. 




Mil 


sc 


. . = scilicet, understand or supply. 


cotttr, . . . 


= concretely. 
- conjunction. 
- consonant. 
= Construction, cunstrued 
with. 


Mill. 


sing. 


. -= singular. 






Skr 


.. Sanskrit. 




Mus 


Slav 


. Slavonic. 


Const., Const. ... 
Cryst 


(N ) 


Sp 


Spanish. 






= spelling. 




spa 


= specifically. 


(DO 
Da 


= in Davies (Supp. Eng 
Glossary). 
- Danish. 
= dative. 
definite. 
= derivative, -atioa 
= dialect, -al. 
Dictionary. 
= diminutive. 
= Dutch. 
in ecclesiastical usage. 
= elliptical, -ly. 






subject, subjunctive. 




suitor J. cl. . 


subordinate clause. 


neul. ranty . 
NK. NFr 
NO 


subseq 


= subsequently. 


dal 


subst 


substantively. 


def 


suff. 


suffix. 






superl 


= superlativ e. 






Surg. 


= in Surgery. 


Diet. 


\ T 


Sw 


= Swedish. 






s.w 


= south western (dialect). 


Du 




T. (T.) .... 


= in Todd s Johnson. 


Eccl 




ttchn 


technical, -ly. 


ellipt 


j., j.. . ... 


Theol. 


in Theology. 




OE 


tr 


translation of. 




= English. 
in Entomology. 
= erroneous, -ly. 
= especially. 


OF Oi i = 


trans 


= transitive. 


Ent 


tram/ . . 


transferred sense. 




OFris = 


Trig. 


... in Trigonometr\ . 




OHG ~~ 


Typog 


. . . . = in Typography. 




Qlr = 


ult 


= ultimate, -ly. 




= euphemistically. 
= except. 
formed on. 

= form of. 
= feminine. 
= figurative, -ly. 
= French. 
frequently. 
- Frisian. 
= German. 


ON = 


unkn 


= unknown. 




O\F. = 


U.S 


= United States. 


i. [in Ktymol.] ... 

i. (in subordinate 


Opt - 


v vb 


.. - verb. 


Oniitk = 


v. sir., or w = verb strong, or weak. 
viil. sb = verbal substantive. 


OS = 


Jem. (rarely f.) ... 


OS1 


var 


... = variant of. 


O. T = 


wd 


... = word. 


fe::::::::::::: 


OTeut = 


WGer. 


= West Germanic. 


freq 


ong - 
Palseont 


\vs 


= West Saxon. 


G., Ger 


pa. pple = 


(Y.) 


... in Col. Yule s Glossary. 


Gael 


= Gaelic. P - 






i 
Before a word or sense, 
t - obsolete. 
|[ = not naturalized. 
In the quotations. 
* sometimes points out the word illustrated. 


In the list of Forms, 
i = before noo. 
2 = 12th c. (noo to 1200). 
3 - 13th c. (1200 to 1300). 
5-7 = 1 5th to 1 7th century. (See General Explan 
ations, Vol. I, p. xx.) 


In the Etymol. 
* indicates a word or form not actually found, but 
of which the existence is inferred. 
: = extant representative, or regular phonetic 
descendant of. 



The piintiny of a word in SMALL CAPITALS indicates that further information will be found under the word so referred to. 



Su, dial. f. SHE ; obs. f. SUE. Sua, obs. f. So. 
Suabian : see SWABIAN. 

Suability ^siabi*liti). L T .S. [f. next : see 
-JTY.] Liability to be sued. 

1798 in Dallas Amer, Law II. 470 Suability and suable 
are words not in common use, but they concisely and cor 
rectly convey the idea annexed to them. 1833 in Calhoun 
Wks. (1874) II. 302 The Senator cited the suability of the 
states as an evidence of their want of sovereignty. 

Suable (si*<-ab l), a. Now chiefly U.S. [f. 
SDK v. + -ABLE.] Capable of being sued, liable to 
be sued ; legally subject to civil process. 

a 1623 SWINBURNE Treat. Spousals (1686) 120 The Parties 
contracting Spousals or Matrimony, under any such Con 
ditions, are neither bound, nor suable, until the Condition 
be extant. 1693 Mod. Rep. XII. Case 93. 45 He cannot 
plead in bar ne ungues executor^, .because he allows him 
self to be suable. 1810 J. MARSHALL Const. Ofin. (1839) 137 
A state which violated its own contract was suable in the 
courts of the United States. 1875 POSTE Gains \\. 282 A 
trustee is only suable for the simple amount of the subject 
of trust. 

b. Capable of being sued for. 

1726 AYLIFFE Parergon 343 Legacies out of Lands are 
properly suable in Chancery. 

t Stta da. Obs. [L. Suada, fern, of suadus per 
suasive, f. root swdd- (see SUAVE). Cf. G. suada, 
suade (colloq.) gift of the gab.] The Roman god 
dess of persuasion; hence = persuasiveness, per 
suasive eloquence. 

159* HARVEY Four Lett. Wks. (Grosart) I. 242 How faine 
would I see..Suadas hoony-bees in you rehiu d. 1593 
Pierces Super. Ibid. II. 276 Euen the filed Suada of Isocra- 
tes, wanted the voyce of a Siren, or the sound of an Eccho. 
i6zi S. WARD Happiness of Practice 18 Inisistable is the 
Suada of a good life, aboue a faire profession. 

Suade (sw^id), v. Now rare or dial. Also 6 
swad(e, 9 swade. [Partly ad, L. sjtddere, f. root 
swad- (see SUAVE) ; partly by aphceresis from PEE- 
SUADE. Cf. obs. F. suader.] = PERSUADE in various 
senses. Hence t Suading///. a. (in ill-suading], 

1531 CRANMER in Strype Mem. App. i. (1694) 3 He swadeth 
that with such goodly eloquence, .that he were lyke to per 
suade many. 1548 BODRUGAN Epit. 248 There be dmerse 
whiche. .swade the vnion of Scotlande vnto youre highnes. 
1550 HOOPKR Serm. Jonas iv. 69 b, These comfortable pro 
mises, which the deuil auenturth to swad vs vnto. 1^57 
GRIMALDE in Tottets Misc. (Arb.) 101 Flee then ylswading 
pleasures baits vntreew. 1589 Mar-Martin A 3 Thilke way 
& trood whilke th HI dost swade, is steepe & also tickle. 
1889 A r . IV. Line. Gloss.) Swade. 1801 Proving ofGcnnad 
121 So he. .Agreed to work for her who suaded him. 

t Sua dible, a. Obs. rare~ l . [ad. late L. sua* 
dibiliS) f. sttadere : see prcc. and -IBLE.] That 
may be easily persuaded ; =-- SUASIBLE. 

1383 WYCLIF James iii. 17 Wisdom that is fro aboue first 
..it ischaast, aftirward pesible, mylde, suadible. 

II Suseda (siwrda). [mod.L. (Forskal 1775).] 
A plant of the genus Suseda (N.O. Chenopodiacegg}, 
which comprises herbaceous or shrubby plants 
growing on the sea-shore or in saline districts. 

1901 Spectator 16 Oct. 607/2 The three sea lavenders and 
suada, which grows into bushes near Blakeney. 

Suagat, north, form of SO-GATE. 

Suage, obs. form of SEWAGE; variant of SWAGE. 

Suaif, obs. Sc. form of SUAVE a. 

Suakin (swa kin). Also Suakim. The name 
of a port on the Red Sea used as the distinctive 
epithet of a variety of gum arable exported thence. 

1874 FLUCKIGF.R & HANBURY Pharntacogr. 210 Suakin 
Gum, Talca or Talha Gum . . is remarkable for its brittleness. 
1886 Buck s Handbk. Med. Sci. III. 409- 

Suan-pan, variant of SWANPAN, Chinese abacus. 

Suant, sb. ? Obs. Also 7, 9 sewant. [? Var. of 
SEWIN*.] App. a name for certain fiat fish; see quots. 

a 1609 DENNIS Secrets of Angling \\. xxviii. (1613) C 7 b, 
To take the Sewant, yea, the Flounder sweet. Ibid. xlit. 
D 2 The Suant swift, that is not set by least. 1615 MARK- 
HAM Pleas. Princ. vi. (1635) 32 The Flounder, and Sewant 
are greedy biters, yet very crafty. 1847 HALLIWELL Diet. 
Savant, the plaice. Northumb. 

Suant (si/rant), a. Now dial Forms: 5 
auante, suaunt, 6-9 sewant, 8 souant, 9 suent, 
8- suant. [a. AF. sua(u)nt, OF. suiant, sivant, 
pr. pple. of sivrt (mod. F. suivre} to follow 
: L. *sequcre for sequi.] 

fl. Following, ensuing. Obs. (Cf. SUING.) 

i4a YONGE tr. Secr.Seir. xxxvii. 195 Now will I retourn 
to that place, .in this sam maner suante. 

f 2, ? Agreeing, suitable. Obs. 

1418-20 J. PACE Siege of Rouen in Hist. Coll. Cit. Lond. 
(Camden) 34 Kyngys, nerrowdys, and pursefauntys, In cotya 
of armys suauntys [v.rr. amy untis, arryauntis]. 

VOL. IX. 



3. Working or proceeding regularly, evenly, 
smoothly, or easily ; even, smooth, regular. Also 
advb. SUANTLY. 

For other dial, meanings ( placid, equable , pleasing, 
agreeable , demure, grave ) see Eng. Dial, Diet. 

1547, etc. [implied in SUAXTLY], 1605 R. CARLW in Lett. 
Lit. M~en (Camden) 100 By observing our wittie and sewant 
[printed servant] manner of deducing [words from Latin 
and French], a 1722 LISLE Httsb. (1757) 149 The middle- 
ripe barley . .ripened altogether, and looked white and very 
suant [inarg. kindly, flourishing]. 1787 GROSE Prov. Gloss., 
Zaant, regularly sowed. The wheat must be zown zuant. 
1796 W. H. MARSHALL Rur.Econ. W. Eng. \. 330 Sonant: 
fair, even, regular (a hackneyed word). 1854 &$ Q- Ser. i. 
X. 420 A fisherman s line is said to run through his hand 
suant [/rmfcrf auartl when he feels no inequality or rough 
ness, but it is equally soft and flexible throughout. 1854 
THORKAU Walden (1908)28 Yet the Middlesex Cattle Show 
goes off here with eclat annually, as if all the joints of the 
agricultural machine were suent. 1899 BARiHG-GouLD Bk. 
West II. xvi. 252 Peter and his wife did not get on very 
suant together. 

Strantly, adv. Now dial, [f. prec. + -LY 2 .] 
Regularly, evenly, uniformly, smoothly. 

The form se^vant/y of quot. 1592-3 was entered in Kersey s 
ed. of Phillips World of Words (1706) as sevantly with def. 
well, honestly 1 . Some mod. diets, have copied this and 
have further invented a form scvant adj. 

1547 RECORDE Judic. Uryne i8b, Not suantly and uni 
formly joyned together. 1592-3 Act 35 Eliz. c. 10 i That 
eche sorte of the saide Ker.syes or Dozen* shalbe sewantly 
woven throughout. 1865 JENNINGS Obs. Dial. W. Eng. 73 
Suently, evenly, smoothly, plainly. 

Suarrow, variant of SAOCARI. 

1842 Penny Cycl. XXIII. 184/2 Suarrow-nut (Caryocar}. 

Suasible (swi*sib l), a. rare. [ad. L. *sttasi- 
biliSj f. suas-j ppl. stem of suaetere to SUADE : see 
-IBLE; cf. It. suasibile.~\ Capable of being per 
suaded ; that is easily persuaded. (Cf. SUADIBLE.) 

1582 N. T. (Rhem.) James iii. 17 Peaceable, modest, sua 
sible [TINDALE easy to be entreated ; W\cl. ist vers. sau- 
dible, 2nd vers. able to be counseilid], 1636 B LOU NT Glos- 
sogr. 1832 Eraser s Mag. VI. 487 The want of mental 
strength rendering them so peculiarly suasible, that they 
possess no powers of resistance. 1851 I. TAYLOR Wesley 
113 Throughout the Inspired Writings, men are dealt with 
by their Maker, [as] suasible, accountable, and free. 

Suasion (sw^-gan). Also 4 suasioun, 5 -yon, 
6-7 swasion. [ad.L. suasio, -ottem, n. of action f. 
s^tdder to SUADE. Cf. obs. F. suasion (I4th c.).] 

1. The act or fact of exhorting or urging; per 
suasion. 

c 1374 CHAUCER Boeth. n. pr. i. (1868) 30 Com nowe furjje 
J>erfore J-e suasioun of swetnesse Rethoryen. 1432-50 tr. 
Higden (Rolls) VII. 93 Seynte Elphegus was made bischop 
of Wynchestre, thro the suasion off blissede Andrewe, ap- 
perynge to seynte Dunstan. 1528 MORE Dyaloge i. Wks. 
157/1 Thei had ones at the subtill suasion of the deuill, 
broken the thirde comaundement. 1641 PRYNNE Antipathic 
p O perfidious, ungrateful! counsell and swasion of this pre 
late. 1660 SOUTH Serm. (1727) IV. 34 It cannot be subdued 
by meer Suasion. 1710 WATTS in Reli(j. Juv. (1789) 169 To 
address the ear With conquering suasion, or reproof severe. 
1844 KINGLAKE Eothen xxviii, Men governed by reasons 
and suasion of speech. 1867 SMILES Ilnguenots Eng. v. 
(1880) 74 Conformity by force, if not by suasion. 

b. Moral suasion : persuasion exerted or acting 
through and upon the moral nature or sense. 

1642 D. ROGERS Naaman 13 A cause of morall swasion to 
apprehend the truth. 1700 C. NESSE Ant id. Armin. (1827) 
112 Moral suasion will neuer prove effectual to open the 
heart of man. 1861 Sat. Rev. 14 Dec. 596 [They] might.. 
have found fitting occupation for their powers of moral 
suasion in the endeavour to avert a struggle far more fero 
cious. iSSsDiLKE in Leeds Merc. 15 Dec. 5/3. Who thought 
that moral suasion needed to be aided by legislation. 
o. transf. 

1856 MASSOX Ess. I>iog. <$ Crit. 430 The occult suasion of 
the rhyme, a 1861 CLOUCH Mari Magno 383 The sinking 
stars their suasions urge for sleep. 1875 GLADSTONE Glean. 
VI. ii. 109 Introducing the Roman or Papal religion.. under 
. . the silent but steady suasion of its ceremonial. 

2. An instance of this. 

(-1407 LVDG. Reson % Sens. 1994 With many mighty Ar- 
gument, Tatteyne to ther entencion, By many strong sua 
sion. 1450 CAPGRAVK Life St. Gilbert 95 Ne ^retyng of 
J>e iuges, ne fay re suasiones of ofc>ir. cisSS HARPSFIELD 
Dtvorce Hen. VI 1 1 (Camden) 91 It is untrue that the state 
of the said 18 chapter standeth wholly upon dehortations 
but rather upon suasions and exhortations. 1642 D. ROGERS 
Naaman 149 Away with thy morality and morall swasions, 
bring them to the Spirit of Christ. 1663 HEATH Flagellant 
7 Growing insolent and uncorrigible from those results and 
swasions within him. 1865 CARLYLE Frcdk. Gt. xix. v. 
(1872) V. 500 Suasions from Montalembert. 

Suasive (sw^-siv), a. and sb. Also 7 swasive. 
[ad. L. *sttasivtts i f. sttas- : see SDASIBLE; cf. obs. 
F. snasif, It., Sp. suasivo.~\ 

A. adj. Having or exercizing the power of per- 



suading or urging ; consisting in or tending to 
suasion ; occas. const, of, exhorting or urging to. 

1601 WEEVER Mirr. Mart. A 3 b. Deliuer but in swa.sive 
eloquence Both of my life and death the veritie. 1660 
WATERHOUSE Arms fy Arm. 28 The puissant people of 
Rome, whose practice may be thought most swasive with 
this.. military Age. 1662 SOUTH Serin. (1697) I. 62 Tho its 
command over them was but suasive, and political, yet it 
had the force of coaction. 1790 COWI-FR Odyss. x. 206 Anil 
in wing d accents suasive thus began. 1871 EARLF. Philol. 
E-ngl. Tongue 313 The genial and suasive satire of the 
Biglow Papers. 1888 I 1 . E. HOLLAND in ftlacm.Mag. Sept. 
359/1 These presents bore Latin inscriptions, suasive of 
eating and drinking. 1897 TROTTER John Nicholson 18 
Thanks to the suasive influence of British gold. 

B. sb. A sunsive speech, motive, or influence. 

1670 Phil. Trans. V. 1092, I shall not doubt but this Con 
sideration will have the force of a great swasive. 1855 H. 
ROGERS Ess. (1874) II. vii. 335 By proper importunity, by 
flattering suasives. 1877 Smith $ W ace s Diet. Chr, Biog. 
I. 476/2 Bribes, and tempting offers.. were the suasives 
employed to induce the Armenian* to renounce their faith. 
b. //. Used to render the title Suasoriac of one 
of the works of Seneca the rhetorician. 

1856 MERIVALE Rom, Ewj>. xli. IV. 565 [Seneca] divides 
into the two classes of Suasives and Controversies the sub 
jects of their scholastic exercises. 

Sua sively, adv. [f. prcc. + -I.V 2 .] In a suasive 
manner; so as to persuade. 

1837 CARLYLE Fr. Rez . i. in.ii, Let a true tale, ofliis Ma 
jesty s, .wretched pecuniary impossibilities, be suasively 
told them. 1871 HARDY Desper. Rt-medits xi, You must 
remember , she added, more suasively, that Miss Graye 
has a perfect right to do what she likes. 1 

So Sua siveness. 

1727 BAILEY vol. II. 1885 Honnlet. Rrc. June 481 The 
leading examples of the early style [of preaching] . . charac 
terized by much unction and suasiveness. 

t SuaSQ rian, a. Obs. rar~ v . [f. L. snasdri-ws 
(see next) + -AN.] = SUASORY a. 

1646 J. TEMPLE Irish Reb. Pref. 7 The true Suasorian 
causes (if I may so tearm them) which enduced the Irish to 
lay the plot. 

Suasory (s\\v sari), a. and sb. Now rare. 
Also 7 awas-, [ad. L. snasori-us, f. sitas-, ppl. 
stem: see SUASIBLE and -ORY. Cf. obs. F. suasoire.] 
A. adj. Tending to persuade ; persuasive. 

1576 FI.RMINC Panopl. Epist. Aj, Of Epistles, some be 
demonstratiue, some suasorie. 1645 PACITT Heresiogr.(i^) 
124 The most noble kinde of working, a mans conversion. . 
is performed by swasory motives or advice. 1690 C. NESSE 
Hist, fy Myst. O. <V N. Test. I. 316 Using other suasory 
arguments. 1826 H. N. COLERIDGE Six Months \V. Ind. 
(1832) 145 A singularly eloquent preacher in the pathetic 
and suasory style. 1853 WHEWEI.L Grotius II. 378 Some 
are justificatory or justifying, some suasory or impelling. 

f B. sb. = SUASIVE sb. 

1625 Debates Ho. Commons (Camden) 158 Drawing his 
swasorie from the answear in religion. 1654 GAVTON Pleas. 
Notes iv. i. 171 The Curate, .had the happinesse to. .have 
the advantage of her eare to convey his Consolatories, Sua- 
series,, .and the like fragments of his profession. 

b. (See SUASIVE sb. b.) 

(11656 USSHER Ann. (1658) 694 The first Suasory of M. 
Seneca. 

Hence Sua-soriness rarer- . 

1727 BAILEY vol. II, Suasoriness, aptness to persuade. 

Suave (sw^v, swav),a. (fawft/.) Also 6suafe, 
swave, Sc. suaif, swaif. [a. F. suave (i 6th cent.), 
a ( learned formation which took the place of the 
popular OF. soef, sue/ (sitaif} : L. sutwis sweet, 
agreeable .*swadwisj f. swad- (see SWEET a.).] 

1. Pleasing or agreeable to the senses or the 
mind ; sweet. 



Plutarch ix. 3 The suafes thing I 
1694 MOTTEL x Rabelais v. Epist. 251 These Times, .aherate 
thesuavest Pulchritude. 1849 C. BRONTE Shirley x.wi. To 
whom the husky oat-cake was from custom suave as manna. 
1859 Miss Mi; LOCK Life for a Life xvii.To break the suave 
harmony of things. 1878 H. S. WILSON Alpine Ascents iii. 
99 The suaver white hoods of snow summits. 

t 2. Gracious, kindly. Also advb. Sc. Obs. 

1501 DOUGLAS Pal. lion, in. ii, Thir musis gudelie and 
suaue. c 1550 HOLLAND Crt. Venus \\. 76 The nine Musis 
sweit and sw.iuc. <^$6o A. SCOTT Poems (S. T. S.) i. 914 
Resaif swaif, and haif ingraif it heir. Ibid, xxxvi. 73 Sweit 
Lord, to Syon be suave. 

3. Of persons, their manner : Blandly polite or 
urbane; soothingly agreeable. (Cf. SUAVITY 4.) 

18470. BRONTE Jane Eyre*\v t He. .showed a solid enough 
mass of intellectual organs, but an abrupt deficiency where 
the suave sign of benevolence should have risen. 1853 
Villette xxi, The rare passion of the constitutionally suave, 
and serene, is not a pleasant spectacle. 1853 LVTTON My 
Nwel in. xxvi, A slight disturbance of his ordinary suave 



SUAVELY. 

and well-bred equanimity. 1863 GEO. ELIOT Romola xxxi, 
Doubtless the suave secretary had his own ends to serve. 
1898 J. A. OWEN Hawaii iii. 55 Oahumi was quite capti 
vated by the plausible, suave manners of the ingratiating 
southern chief. 

Comb. 1894 MAX O RELL J. Bull $ Co. 30 These suave- 
looking people, far away in the Pacific Ocean. 

Suavely (sw^-vli), adv. [f. SUAVE a. + -LY -.] 

1. In a suave manner ; with suavity. 

1862 THORMBURY Turner I. 317 Mr. Judkins suavely j 
waves his glass. 1873 BLACK Pr. T/iule xxii, Oh, there is j 
no use getting into an anger , said Mackenzie, suavely, igoz i 
HICHENS Londoners 38 So glad to find you at home, dear 
Mrs. Verulam , the Duchess said suavely. 

2. Agreeably, sweetly, gently. 

1883 SYMONDS Ital. Byways vi. 103 Low hills to right and 
left; suavely modelled heights in the far distance. 1887 
ANNE ELLIOT Old J/rtV Favour I. n. i. 204 Mrs. Ham 
mond s voice.. fell suavely on her ear. 

So Sua veness, suavity. 

1905 W. E. B. Du Bois Souls Blk. Folk iii. 58 We cannot 
settle this problem by diplomacy and suaveness. 

Suaveolent (iw#*vf"#lent), a. rare. [ad. L. 

sudvcolens, -entem^ f. suave advb. neut. of suavis 
SUAVE + o/ens, olent-> pr. pple. of olere to smell.] 
Sweet-smelling, sweet-scented. 

1657 TOMLINSOK Renou"s Disp. 85 Medicaments are made 
more odoriferous and suaveolent. i8i9[H. BUSK] Banquet 
n. 544 Suaveolent, the viands valets bear. 1900 B. D.JACK 
SON Gloss. Bot. Terms 257. 

So f Suave-olence, fragrance. 

1657 TOMLINSON Renoits Disp. 201 Accomodated to con 
ciliate suaveolence to the skin or body. 

f Suaviate, v. Obs. rare, [f, L. suavidt-, ppl. 
stem of sutiviari, f. sttaviutn, altered f. sdvium ; 
kiss, by assimilation to suavis sweet.] trans. To 
kiss. So t Suavia tion, kissing. 

1643 TRAPP Comm. Gen. xlvi. 29 What joy there will be, 
to see them and suaviate them, for whose sake, hushed his 
most pretious blood. 1656 BLOUNT Glossogr., Su at at ion 
[sic], an amorous kissing. 1658 PHILLIPS, Suaviation. 

Suavify (swse f vifai),, rare~. [ad. L. sudvi- 
fii-dre, f. suavis SUAVE : see-rv.] trans. To make 
affable (\Vebster 1847). 

Suaviloquence (swivH$twens). rare. [ad. 
L. sudviloquentia^i.sudviloquens^i. suavi-s SUAVE 
+ loquens, pres. pple. of loqui to speak.] Pleasing 
or agreeable speech or manner of speaking. So 
Suavi loquent, Suavilo quious (in Diets.) adjs. t 
of sweet speech ; Suavi loquy [L. suavi/oijuium], 
suaviloquence. 

a 1649 in N. <$ Q. Ser. i. X. 357 *SuaviIoquence, sweetnes 
of language. 1805 T. HOLCROFT Bryan Perdue II. 18 
Pray, .Madam, are you acquainted with the word suavilo 
quence ? 1860 HERVEY Rhet. Convers. 16 Even though you 
can deliver h with great suaviloquence. 1656 BLOUHT 
Glossogr., *Suamlotjuent. 1659 (title), A collection of Au 
thentique Arguments, swaviloquent Speeches, and prudent 
Reasons. 1658 PHILLIPS, *Suaviloquy ) a sweet, or pleasant 
manner of speaking. 

f Sua-vious, a. Obs. rare- 1 , [f. L. suavi-s 
(see SUAVE) + -OU8.] Pleasing, agreeable. 

1669 \VORLIDGE.S>J/. Agric, 211 Not a few, of our most 
suavious and delectable Rural Seats. 

t Sua vitude. Obs. rare. Also 6 savitude. 
[ad. L. suavitudo, f. suavis : see SUAVE and -TUDE,] 
Sweetness, gentleness. 

1512 Ilelyas in Thorns Prose Rom. (1828) III. 35 He 
thanked God greatly of his divine savitude. c 1550 ROLLAND 
Crt. Venus m. 727 Plenist with sport, and sueit suauitude. 

Suavity (swse viti). Also 5 suavitee, 6 -ite t j 
-yte, 6-7 -itie. [ad. L. sudvitds (partly through I 
F. suavttJ), f. suavis : see SUAVE and -ITY.] 

) 1. Sweetness or agreeableness to the senses ; ; 
esp. sweetness (of taste), fragrance (of odour). Obs. \ 

c 1450 Mirour Saluacioun (1888) 144 There, is alle suavitee j 
delitable to touching. 1513 BRADSHAW St. Werburge i. , 
3372 Suche a suauite and fragrant odoure Ascended from i 
the corps. Ibid. \\. 1907 O redolent rose repleit with suauite. j 
1646 SIR T. BKOWNE Pseud. Ep.\\\. vii. 351 Rachel, .desired \ 
them [sc. mandrakes] for rarity, pulchritude or suavity. 1658 
R. WHITE tr. Digby s Powd. Symp. (1660) 51 The smell of 
beans, -is a smell that hath a suavity with it. 1661 BOYLE , 
Style Script. 253 Of both their Suavities [vtz.of God s word 
and of honey], Experience gives much Adventageouser No- , 
tions than Descriptions can. 

fb. Sweetness (of sound, harmony, expression). I 

1614 J. DAVIES Commend. Poems (1878) 10/1 Musickes | 
haters haue no Forme, or Soule ; For, had they Soules pro- ! 
duc t in Harmony, They would he rauisht with her Suauity, 
c 1645 HOWELL Lett. (1655) II. Iviii. 78 Touching her [sc. 
the Greek tongue s] degeneration from her primitive suavity 
and elegance. 1678 Cuo WORTH Inteil. Syst. i. iv. 296 Plato 
does, .very much commend the Orphick Hymns, for their 
Suavity and Deliciou^ness. a iSai V. KNOX Ess. cv. Wks. 
1824 I. 517, I know not whether the curiosafelicitas ..may 
not be said to consist in delicacy of sentiment and suavity 
of expression. 

2. Pleasurableness, agreeableness ; //. delights, 
amenities. Now only as coloured by sense 4. 

1594 NASHE Terrors Nt. Wks. (Grosart) III. 268 One., 
who in the midst of his paine falls delighted asleepe, and in 
that suauitie of slumber surrenders the ghost. 1619 HALES 
Gold. Rent. it. (16731 65 The suavity of their Doctrine in the 
word Peace and Good things. 1656 EARL MONM. tr. Bocca- 
linrs Advts. fr. Parnass. il. lix. (1674) 211 To taste the 
sweet of Government, the suavity of Command. 1669 GALE 
Crt. Gentiles i. in. i. 18 The delights or suavities, which 
attend the teachings of Poesie. 1823 J. BADCOCK Dom. 

Amusem. 63 The common suavities of social life. 1860 



O. W. HOLMES Prof. Breakf.-t. vi, The elegances and sua- 
vities of life. 

f b. A state of sweet calm in the soul when 
specially favoured by God ; //. feelings of spiritual 
sweetness or delight. Obs. 

[c 1610 Women Saints 55 Her bodie yielding a most fra 
grant odour, .a greate token of her ghostlie suauitie.] a 1617 
BAYNE Chr. Lett. (1620) L 8, 1 thanke God in Christ, susten. 
tation I haue,.. but suauities spirituall I taste not any. 
1648 BOYLE Motives Love of God (1659) 52 The unimagin 
able suavity, that the fixing of ones Love on God, is able 
to blesse the Soul with. 1671 WOODHEAD St. Teresa \, xv. 
93 That, which the Soul is to do. .is only to rest with suavity, 
and without noyse. a 1680 GLANVILL Some Disc. \. (1681) 
55 The conceit of our special dear ness to God., that goes 
no further than to some suavities, and pleasant fancies 
within our selves. 

f 3. Graciousness ; sweetness of manner or treat 
ment. Obs. 

1508 FISHER 7 Penit. Ps. Wks. (1876) 248 Suauis dominus 
imiuersis.. In euery thynge that god dooth is suauyte. 1642 
H. MORE Song of Soul iv. Oracle (1647) 297 Mild-smiling 
Cupid s there, With lively looks and amorous suavitie. 
a 1649 in N. <y Q. Ser. i. X. 357 Suavitie, or sweetnes of car 
riage, is a wynning quality. 

4. The quality or condition of being suave in 
manner or outward behaviour; bland agreeableness 
or urbanity. 

1815 W. H. IRELAND Scribbleomania 252 Histories, .which 
uniformly tend to inculcate suavity of manners. 1818 SCOTT 
Br. Lamm, xxix, Lucy, my love, she added, with that 
singular combination of suavity of tone and pointed energy 
which we have already noticed. 1848 DICKENS Dombey 
xxix, 1 hese words, delivered with a cutting suavity. 1878 
BLACK Green Past, iii, Sometimes a flash of vehement en 
thusiasm., would break through that suavity of manner 
which some considered to be just a trifle too supercilious. 
b. pi. Suave actions. 

1832 MRS. STOWE Uncle Tarn s C. yiii, Cajoled by the 
attentions of an electioneering politician with more ease 
than Aunt Chloe was won over by Master Sam s suavities. 

Suay, obs. Sc. form of So adv. 
Sub (sb), sb. [Short for various subst. com 
pounds of SUB-.] 

1. = SUBORDINATE. 

Quot. 1696 may belong to 4; quot. 1708 is of uncertain 
meaning. 

1696 PHILLIPS (ed. 5), Ordinary, . .the Bishop of the Dio- 
cesses Sub [ed. 1706 Deputy] at Sessions and Assizes. 1708 
Brit. Apollo No. 74. 2/2 Thou hast neither good humour, 
Policy, nor Common Civility to make a Sub dance atten 
dance after you like any indifferent Querist. 

1840 H. SPENCER in Autobiogr. (1904) I. xii. 173, I go. .to 
complete sundry works which the Subs have left undone. 
1846 MRS. GORE Engl.Char. (1852) in He is never. .tyran 
nical with his subs, like most great potentates. 1899 Mary 
Kingsleys \Y. Afr. Studies App. i. 546 Had the late Mr. 
Consul Hewett had the fiftieth part of the ability in dealing 
with the natives his sub and successor, .showed. 

b. For various titles of subordinate officials, as 
sub-editor^ sub-engineer, sub-lieutenant ^ sub-rector, 
sub-warden. 

1837 Civil Engirt. <$ Arch. JniL I. 43/1 The sub, or resi 
dent engineer. 1859 Eclectic Rev. Ser. vi. V. 253 The News 
paper day and night. By a Quondam Sub*. 1863 P. 
BARRY Dockyard Econ. Pref. vi, The Editor lives in an atmo 
sphere of care. His assistant, or sub, begins the day at nine 
o clock at night. 1872 A MERION <?rfrf Echoes Oxf. 38 
Fear no more the snarl of the sub., Thou art past that 
tyrant s stroke. 1873 LELAND Egypt. Sketch-bk. 44 The 
two great men who tilled our carriage were a couple of 
Levantine railroad subs. 1898 KIPLING Fleet in Being ii, 
The Sub wipes the cinders out of his left eye and says 
something. 

2. = SUBALTERN sb. 2. 

1756 WASHINGTON Writ. (1889) I. 293 Leaving Garrisons 
in them from 15 to 30 men under command of a sub or 
Trusty Sergeant. 1812 Sporting Mag. XXXIX. 245 A Sub 1 
of Dragoons. 1865 LEVER Luttrell xxxvi. 262 Some hard- 
up Sub who can t pay his mess debts. 

3. = SUBSALT. rare. 

1807 T. THOMSON Chem. (ed. 3) II. 519 Besides the triple 
salts and the subs and the supers. 

4. = SUBSTITUTE; U.S. esp. of substitute printers. 
1830 GALT La-wrie Todd iv. iv, The agent . .proposed that 

I should become sub for him there. 1875 KNIGHT Diet. 
Mech. 2433/2 Sub (Well-boring), a short name for substitute. 
A short section of rod for connecting tools or bars of dif 
ferent sizes. 1895 Funk s Stand. Dict. y Sub-list, a list of 
the subs or substitute printers who are allowed to supply 
the places of regular compositors. \tofiBootle TimesiBJan. 
3/2 North End were short of two of their regular players, . . 
but managed to find good subs in Davies and Reed. 1896 
Indianapolis Typogr. Jrnl. 16 Nov. 407 Every one of these 
subs is working part of the time. 

5. = SUBJECT. Common in U.S. 

1838 BECKET Farad. Lost 8 (F. & H.) No longer was he 
heard to sing, Like loyal subs, God Save the King. 1 1885 
N. y. Merc. May (in \fax^ Passing English)^ The Mercury 
will be pleased to hear from Mrs. Williams on this sub, 

6. = SUBSCRIBER (rare}, SUBSCRIPTION. 

1838 HOOD Clubs 62 Indeed my daughters both declare 
Their Beaux shall not be subs. To White s, or Blacks. 
1903 FARMER & HENLEY Slang, Su&..($) a subscription. 
1912 Daily News 12 Nov. 6 He lets the party have an 
annual * sub. . . of , 10,000. 

7. = SUBSIST (inoney} . money in advance on 
account of wages due at the end of a certain period. 
Also/z. f an advance of money, local. 

Cf. Cornish dial, sist (money). 

1866 Min. Evid. Totnts Bribery Comm. 72/2, I do not 
think there was much money flying about before that, my 
bills were not paid ; I was rather anxious about having my 
sub. Ibid. t Tell us the name of any voter who asked you 



SUB. 

about the sub. z88i Placard at Bitry (Lancs.)> Wanted 
navvies, to work on the above Railway, good wages paid, 
and sub on the works daily. 1893 Labour Comm. Gloss. 
No. 9 Snb, money paid to workmen at the Scotch blast 
furnaces on account, as there exists a monthly pay-day. 
1897 BARRERE & LELAND Diet. Slang s.v., To do a sub is 
to borrow money.. (Anglo-Indian). 1901 Scotsman 12 Apr. 
9/5 Provided the men started to-morrow, each would receive 
a sub of,i on Saturday. 

Sub (sfb), v. Hence subbing vbl. sb. [Short 
for various verbal compounds of SUB-; or f. SUB j.] 

fl. = sub-plough vb. (see SUB- 3 c). Obs. 

1778 [W. MARSHALL] Minutes Agric. 16 Aug. 1775, Nothing 
can equal sub-plowing, for clearing the surface from running 
weeds ;. .the second subbing was eight or nine inches deep. 
Ibid. 20 Oct., It was subbed by two oxen. 

2. To work as a printer s substitute. 

1879 University Mag. Nov. 589 At Cincinnati where he 
[Edison], . subbed for the night men whenever he could 
obtain the privilege. 

3. To pay or receive ( sub ) ; occas. to pay (a 
workman) sub . Also absol. (See quots.) 

1886 H. CUNLIFFE Gloss. Rochdale- witk-Rossendale^ Sub, 
to pay a portion of wages before all are due. 1891 Pall 
MallGaz. 19 Nov. 612 During the month there has been 
a more than usual amount of subbing . 189* Labour 
Comm. Gloss. No. 9 Some pieces of cloth cannot be finished 
in one week, therefore a weaver must either do without 
wages or sub. 1900 N. fy Q. Ser. ix. VI. 354/1, I want you 
to go at once to London, .. All right; but I shall want to 
be subbed. 1901 Ibid. VII. 356/2 It was my daily duty to 
keep time and to sub for some hundreds of men engaged 
on extensive railway, .works in England. 

4. = SUB-EDIT. 

c 1890 F. Wilsons Fate 84 When Wilson, in subbing* 
his cupy, cut out all the u s from favour , honour *, and 
so forth, there was a debating society of two. 1909 Fabian 
News XX. 76/1 A certain amount of margin and space be 
tween the lines for any l subbing * that may be required. 

Sub, obs. Sc. form of SIB. 

II Sub (sb). The Latin prep, sub (with the 
ablative) * under 1 , enters into a few legal and other 
phrases, now or formerly in common use, the chief 
of which are given below. 

1. sub camino (?). 

1734 SHORT Nat. Hist. Min. Waters 132 He posts off to 
one of the obscure Universities in Holland or t ranee, gets 
dubbed Doctor with a sub Camino Degree in Physick. 

2. snb dio, under the open sky, in the open air. 
1611 CORYAT Crudities 28 He walked not sub dio, that is, 

vnder the open aire as the rest did. 1673 RAY Journ. Low 
C. 403 At Aleppo.. they set their beds upon the roofs of 
their houses, and sleep sub Dio, in the open air. 1704 SWIFT 
/ . Tub ii, Attended the Levee sub dio. 1775 G. WHITE 
Selborne, To Barrington 2 Oct., The sturdy savages [sc. 
gipsies] seem to pride themselves, .in living sub dio the 
wUole year round. 1880 SHORTHOUSE John Inglesant xviii, 
I would always, .be sub dio if it were possible. 

3. sub forma pauperis = in forma pauperis 

(see || IN 4). 

1593 Soliman fy Pers. i. iv. 89 Crie the chayne for me Su& 
forma pauperis, for money goes very low with me at this 
time. 1616 R. C. Times Whistle 1492 Poor Codrus is 
Constraind to sue sub forma pauperis. 1654 WHITLOCK 
Zootomia 127 Should a Patient be bound to give all his 
Advisers a Fee, He must quickly be removed.. to the Hos- 
pital, there to bee sick sub forma pauperis, 

4. sub hasta, lit. * under a spear [see SPEAR 
sb. 3 b], i. e. by auction (cf. SUBHASTATJON). 

1689 EVELYN Let. to Pepys 12 Aug., The humour of ex- 
posing books sub hasta is become so epidemical. 

5. sub Jove fritfido, under the chilly sky, in the 
open air. 

1818 SCOTT Br. Lamm, i, A peripatetic brother of the 

irmd 



6. sub judice, lit. * under a judge ; under the 
consideration of a judge or court ; undecided, not 
yet settled, still under consideration. 

1613 J. CHAMBERLAIN in Crt. fy Times Jas. I (1848) 1. 279 
Lord Hay is like . .to be made an earl, but whether English 
or Scottish is yet sub judice. 1681 STAIR Inst. Law Scot. 
i. xvi. 334 The Relict did also claim a Terce out of that 
same one Tenement, which is yet sub judice. 1778 GEN. C. 
LEE in Mem. (1792) 426 Lingering in suspence, whilst his 
fame and fortune are sub judice. a 1817 T. DWIGHT Trao. 



continued "sub judice from that time to i638. 1897 Daily 
Neius 10 Dec. 8/3 He said the matter was being considered 
by the Committee, and therefore was sub judice. 

7. sub lite, in dispute. 

1892 Nation 8 Dec. 438/3 Mr. Petrie s dates are still, 
witb good reason, sub lite. 

8. sub modo, under certain conditions, with a 
qualification, within limits. 

a 1623 SWINBURNE Treat. Spoiesals (1686) 139 If a Man 
and a Woman contract Matrimony Sub modo. 1726 AYLIFFE 
Parergon 336 That this Paragium or Legacy descends to 
her Executors like other Legacies bequeath d purely and 
sub modo. 1765-8 EKSKINE Inst. Law Scot. in. i. 8 Obliga 
tions granted sub W<?..are not.. suspended until perform 
ance by the creditors in them. 1807 Edin. Rev. July 352 
The opinion.. might be held sub modo, with perfect im- 
punity. 1843-56 BOUVIER Law Diet. (ed. 6) s.v. t A legacy 
m;iy be given sub modo, that is, subject to a condition or 
qualification. 

9. subpede siffilli (see quot. 1843-56). 

a 1676 HALE Hist. Placit. Cor. (1736) I. 171 Certificates, 
which are usually pleaded subpede sigilli. 1843-56 BOUVIER 



SUB-. 



SUB-. 



Law Diet. (ed. 6) II. 554/2 Sub pede sigilli, under the foot 
of the seal ; under seal. 

10. sub plnxnbo, under lead , i.e. under the 
Pope s seal. 

1521 I. CLERK in Ellis Orig. Lett. Ser. III. I. 314 The bull 
of the Kyngs title was made up sub plumbo bifore the Popis 
deth. I53S Lett. Suppr. Monast. (Camdenl 58 The pope. . 
gave hym licens to fcepe an hore, and hath goode writyng 
s Jtb plumbo to discharge his conscience. 

11. sub poena, under a penalty of. 

1^66 in Ar^hteologia (1887) L. i. 52 Sub pena of a jd. to the 
Chirch to be payd. 

12. sub rosa [see ROSE sb. 7], under the rose , 
in secret, secretly. 

1654 GAYTON Pleas. Notes in. v. 93 What ever thou and 
the foule pusse did doe (sub Rosa as they say). 1772 J. 
ADAMS Diary 20 Dec. Wks. 1850 II. 305 This however, sub 
rosa, because the Doctor passes for a master of composition. 
a 1834 COLERIDGE (in Dixon Diet. Idiom. Phr.\ I wonder 
some of you lawyers (sub rosa, of course) have not quoted 
the pithy line of Mandeville. 1844 N. P. WILLIS Lady Jane 
II. Ixxvii, Had he a friend sub rosal No, sir ! Fie, sir ! 

13. sub sigillo [see SEAL sl>2 2 b], under the 
seal (of confession) ; in confidence, in secret. 

1623 J. MKAD in Crt. t, Times Jas. 7(1848) II. 406 The 
forenamed Mr. Elliot told, sub sigillo, some suspicious pas 
sages. 1673 DRYDEN A/arr. A la Matte n. 19, I may tel! 
you, as my friend, sub sigillo, &c. this is that very numerical 
Lady, with whom I am in love. 1777 H. WAI. POLE Let. to 
H. S. Conway 5 Oct., Remember, one tells one s creed only 
to one s confessor, that is sub sigillo. 

14. sub silentio, in silence, without remark 
being made, without notice being taken. 

1617-8 y CHAMBERLAIN in Crt. ft Times Jas. I (1848) II. 
62 All things shut up sub silentio. 1760 GILBERT Cases in 
Law fy Equity 267 These are better than many precedents 
in the office, which have passed sub silentio without being 
litigated. 1843-56 UOL-VIEH Law Diet. (ed. 6) II. 555/2 
Sometimes passing a thing sub silentio is evidence of con 
sent. 1863 KEBLK Life Bp. Wilson xvi. 511 The Bishop 
would probably have passed over Mr. Quayle s second 
communication sub silentio as he had done the former. 

15. sub voce, under the word (so-and-so) ; abbre 
viated s. v. 

Sub- (sob, sab) prefix, repr. L. sub- the prep. 
sub under, close to, up to, towards, used in composi 
tion (cf. UNDEK-) with the various meanings detailed 
below. (The related Skr. Ufa-, Gr. two- have 
a similar range of meaning.) 

The b of L. sub- remained unchanged when it 
preceded a radical beginning with s, t, or v; before 
m and r it was frequently assimilated (see e. g. 
SUMMON, SURROGATE), and before c,f,g, and / it 
was almost invariablyassimilated(see e.g. SUCCEED, 
SUFFER, SUGGEST, SUPPOSE). Variation is illus 
trated by L.sub/usc usSnBFVSO beside L. suffuscus, 
subrogatus SUBROGATE beside surrogatus SURUO- 
GA.TE. A by-form subs- (cf. ABS-) was normally 
reduced to sits- in certain compounds with words 
having initial c, p, t, e. g. suscipfre, suspendlre, 
sustinere (see SUSCEPTION, SUSPEND, SUSTAIN); 
and before sp- the prefix becomes su-, as in suspi- 
clre, suspicio, suspirare (see SUSPECT, SUSPICION, 
SUSPIRE). 

The original force of the prefix is either entirely 
lost sight of or to a great extent obscured in many 
words derived immediately or ultimately from old 
Latin compounds, such as subject, suborn, sub 
scription, subserve, subsist, substance. (Where the 
prefix occurs in an assimilated form and is conse 
quently disguised, as in succeed, suffer, suppose, an 
analysis of the compound does not readily suggest 
itself.) As a living prefix in English it bears a full 
meaning of its own and is freely employed in the 
majority of the senses denned below. Appropriate 
originally to composition with words of Latin origin 
it has become capable of being prefixed to words 
of native English or any other origin. This exten 
sion took place as early as the ijth c., but the 
beginnings of the wide use of which it is now 
capable date from the latter half of the i8th c., to 
which a large number of the earliest examples of 
scientific terms belong. 

The more important and permanent compounds, 
whether general or technical, are entered in this 
Dictionary as main words ; in the present article 
are treated such compounds of a general character 
as have not a permanent status in the language and 
scientific terms the meaning of which may (for the 
most part) be gathered from the meaning of the 
prefix and that of the radical element. 

In Romanic, sub- was replaced by subtus- as a living pre 
fix ; e, g. sitbleriire was ousted by *subtuslerdre, whence 
OF. sou:., sonsleiier, mod. F. soulcvcr. (Cf. SOUTH- ! .) 
But sub- appears in OF. (i) from the i2th cent, in learned 
adopt tons of old Latin compounds, e.g. snbornerto SUBORN, 
substance, subversion, (2) from tlie i4th cent, (with variant 
sonb-) in forms substituted for older compounds with sou?.-, 
sous- : e. g. subtnayeur (cf. S >ubzmaire) sub-mayor, sub- 
prieur (cf. sonsprieur) SUBPRIOR, (AF.) snbtnxour sub. 
taxer, subvicaire sub-vicar (see 6 below) ; soubmctre for 
sousmett-e to SruMiT. 

Pronunciation. The prefix bears the main stress 



(i) in the following words derived from compounds 
of the old Latin stock, viz. sicbject (sb.), subscript, 
su bstance, su burb; su baltern, su bdolous, subju 
gate, su blimate, subsequent, subsidize, su bsidy, 
su bstantive, su bslitnte, su btrahend; also in stcb- 
marine ; (2) in words in which there is an implicit 
contrast with the simple word, e. g. sti barch, su-b- 
class, su bflavour, su bgenus, su b-office, swbsection, 
su bsoil. (As with other prefixes that express con 
trast, the principal stress is always on sub- when 
the contrast is explicit, as deacon anil strbdeacon, 
to let or stfblct, epithelial and su befithelial tissue.) 
The prefix is stressless and the quality of its vowel 
is consequently reduced in subdu ce, subdue , subjec 
tive, subjoi n, siibju nctive, subli ine, subme rge, 
submi l, subordinate, subreption, subscribe, sub- 
se rve, subsi de, subsidiary, subsist, substantial, 
substra lum, subsirme, subte ml, subtract, subu r- 
ban,subve - ne, subve rt, and their derivatives. In other 
cases the prefix bears a stress varying from a light 
secondary to a stress even with that of the second 
element of the compound (the vowel being conse 
quently unobscured), as in suba cid, su bcla-vian, 
su bdea n, su-bope rcular, subterm ncan. In com 
pounds belonging to branch II, even stress tends 
to prevail. 

I. Under, underneath, below, at the bottom (of). 

1. Forming adjs. in which sub- is in prepositional 
relation to the sb. implied in the second element, 
as in L. subaquiincus - that is sub aqua under 
water, SUBAQUANEOUS, subdialis = that is sub dio, 
SUBDIAL, subteri-aneus = that is sub terra, SUB 
TERRANEAN, -EOl S. 

a. Compounds of a general character (mainly 
nonce-wds.) and miscellaneous scientific terms. 

Subarbo real, lying under a forest of trees. 
Suba stral, situated beneath the stars, mundane, 
terrestrial. Subca mbrian Geol., lying beneath 
the Cambrian formation. Su bcarboni ferons 
Geol., designating the mountain-Jimestone forma 
tion of the carboniferous series or that lying beneath 
the millstone grit, lower carboniferous, f Sub- 
co nsnlary, being under the government of con 
suls. Subcru stal, lying under the crust of the 
earth. Bubfe rulary [see FERULAR], under school 
discipline. Snbfln vial, extending under a river. 
Snbgla cial, existing or taking place under the ice. 
Sublacu-strine, lying or deposited at the bottom 
of a lake. Submu ndaue, existing beneath the 
world. Snbni-veal, -ni vean, existing or carried 
on under the snow. Subnu bilar, situated beneath 
the clouds. Subooea nic, beneath the ocean. 
Su:bphotosphe ric, produced under the photo 
sphere. t Subre-nal, occurring beneath the kid 
neys or in the region of the loins. Subru-inan, 
underneath ruins. Subscala rian a. used as sb. 
(see qnot.). Su bsuperfi-cial, occurring below 
the surface, t Su^btegula neous [L. subtegula- 
nens, f. tegula tile], under the roof or eaves. Snb- 
ii iidane [L. uniia wave], growing beneath the 
waves. Sub-Wea lden, under the \Vealdc-n strata 
in Sussex (or similar strata elsewhere). 

1886 GUILLF.MARD Cruise of Marchcsa 1 1. 10 The explorer 
who penetrates the true primeval forest in a country such as 
Borneo finds himself at the bottom of a "subarboreal world. 
1752 WAKBI RTON Serm.Ps.cxliv. 3 He compares this*sub- 
astralccconomywiththesystems of thefixed stars. 1871 TVN - 
D\LLfraetn. Set. (1879)11. ix. 172 The riddle of the rocks has 
been reacf from *sub-cambrian depths. 1849 DANA Geol. ix. 
(1850) 485 These "sub-carboniferous beds are well developed 
in Illawarra. 1654 H. L EsTRANGE Ckas. I (1655) 53 In 
subconsulary Rome, Athens or Sparta. 1898 Geogr. Jrnl. 
Nov. 545 Volcanic outflow of *subcrustal molten matter. 
1852 SIR W. HAMILTON Discuss. 118 Having in his tender 
years been *subferulary to some other kind of schooling. 
1863 HAWTHORNE Our Old Home, Up the Thames II. 134 
Making the *subfluvial avenue [viz. the Thames tunnel] only 
a little gloomier than a sheet of upper London. 1820 W. 
SCOKESBV Acc. Arctic Reg. I. 105 Pursuing their course 
through "subglacial channels to the front of the iceberg. 
1860 TYNDAI.L Glac. I. viii. 60 Strange subglacial noises 
were sometimes heard. 1859 THIRI.WALL Rem. (1878) III. 
203 The prevailing notion of the *sublacustrine domains is, 
that they are full of countless treasures. 1832 Examiner 

1 1 5/1 Vet have we our festivals Even in these submundane 
halls. 1885 l- ield 12 Dec. 824/1 A favourite resort for these 
*sub-niveat operations is a steep bank where the heather is 
old and long. 1845 S. JUDD Margaret \. xvii, Seizing a 
shovel he.. commenced his subnivean work. 1864-5 WOOD 



.. 
Homes without Ilamis 38 In a subnivean abode. 1877 




first 



humors which annoy the body of oxen are many, the fii 
is a moist one called Mails;.. the sixt a "Subrenall, whi 
the hinder legs halle by reason of some paine in the loines. 
1881 j. P. BRISCOE Old Kotlin^hamshire 140 What is that 
sound 1 A subterranean, or subruinan voice ? i79oCowrKR 
Let. to J. Johnson 28 Feb., As to yourself, whom I know to 
be a snbscalarian, or a man that sleeps under the stairs. 



1899 Smithsonian Rep. 230 The superficial and *subsuper- 
ficial temperatures. 1656 BLOUNT Glossosr., *Snbtegula- 
neous, that is under the eaves or roofs of houses. 1878 jV. 
Amer. Rev. CXXVII. 163 This subtegulaneous solitude. 
1851 D. LASDSBOROUGH Brit. Seaivt-etts (ed. 2) ig With bright 
festoons of gayer, gentler al^ues, "Subumlane drapery. 1872 
in Kec. Sub- M caliien Exflor. (1876) 6 The thickness of the 
*Sub-Wealden strata in trance and Belgium. 

b. Anat. (Path., Surg.} and Zool. = Situated 
or occurring under or beneath (occas. behind) the 
part or organ denoted by the radical element, or 
lying on the ventral side of it or ventrally with 
respect to it ; as in (late) L. subalaris that is 
sub a/is under the wings, subocularis SCBOCULAR, 
mnd.L. sublingitalis Sl BLiNGUAL, etc. 

Compounds of this class may coincide in form with com 
pounds having a different analysis. Thus, snbabtiominal 
= under the abdomen, f. sitbaMomine + -AL, coincides with 
subttbdowinal - not quite abdominal, f. SUB- 20 d + AUDOMI- 

NAL ; SO SUBCARTILAGINOUS, SLBt.ENrKAI., SuHMLCOUS. Sllb- 

spinous. Also, such a form as SUHU.MBRKLLAR may be 
analysed as (i) sttb umbrella + -AR situated beneath 
the umbrella, or 12) f. iubumbreUfl (see f below) + -AR = 
pertaining to the subumbrella ; so SUBMEHTAL. (In i n> 
second case the resultant signification is much the same 
whichever analysis is taken.) 

In some of these compounds the implied regimen of the 
prep, is not a simple sb. but a group consoling of an adj. and 
a sb., the adj. being the element represented in the com 
pound ; e. g. subditral. 

In the following list explanations of the radical element 
have been occasionally added in brackets ; in most instances 
the meaning of thecompound is readily inferred from that of 
the prefix and of the second element. Many more words of 
this da>s are to be found in the medical diets, of Hillings, 
Dorland, and others, Syiienhain Society s Lex., Ailbutt s 
Syst. Meti., Buck s Hamitk. Mcif. .W., etc. 

Subabdo tninal ( situated or occurring under, 
below, or beneath the abdomen^, subacro mial, 
suba-lar, suba nal, subaponeuro tic, sitbaslnrgaloul, 
subauri iiilar (an auricle), subcx cal, subca - i<arint 
(the calcarine fissure), subca psular, mbcercbe llar, 
subcolla teral (the collateral fissure of the brain), 
su bconjuiuti-val (the conjunctiva), subcoracoid, 
subcra nial (the cranium, the cranial axis), sub- 
culi cular, subde ltoid, siibde rmal, -oid, su bdia- 
phragma tic , siibdi" seal (the discal shell), subdu-ral 
(the dura mater), swbectodfrmal, -ic, su-tendoca r- 
dial, su beiuloslylai-, su bendothflial, su bepide r- 
mal,-ic,su bepitheliat,fubfa lcial(jheiabiC&n:\>Ti), 
subfascial, subfro ntal (a frontal Iobe),su6gfnitaf, 
suliglcnoid (the glenoid fossa), subglo llic (the 

flottis), subgu lar (the throat), sukkw tnal , sub- 
yoid, su bintesti-nal, subla bial, suhlo bular (a 
lobule of the liver), sublo ral, subnia mniaiy, sub- 
mandi bular, submcfstoid, submcni tigeal, stibmirs- 
cular, siibwrvian, -neural (a mam neural axis 
or nervous cord), subno dal, subcesopha geal, -an, 
subo-ral, subo-slracal (the shell, Gr. inrpanov ), sub- 
pa-llial,subpari-etal (the parietal bone, lobe, etc.), 

j subpcdu ncular, subpe lvic, sn bpericra nial, su bpe- 
rio steal, su-.bperitone al, sttbperitonco abdo minal, 

\ -pe lvic (the abdominal peritoneum, the peritoneum 
of the pelvis; applied to forms of extra-uterine 
pregnancy), subpetro sal (the petros.il bone), sub- 
phre-nic (the diaphragm), subpi-al (the pia mater), 
subpleu-ral, stibprepu tial, snbpu-bic, subpylo ric, 
subra-duhr, snbre tinal, subs, ro tal, subsphcnoi-dal, 

I subspi nal, subspi nous, siibste-rnal, substi gmatal , 
subsylvian (the Sylvinn fissure), subsyiwvial (a 
synovial membrane), subUgumc ntal, subte inporal 
(a temporal gyrus of the brain), subtfiita cular (the 
tentacles or tentacular canal), subtiape zial, sub- 
u ngual, -u nguial, sulrvaginal, sutrvrnlral. 

1840 Cuvier s Animal A" //>; 408 These branchial are 
situated.. upon the "subalxlominal appendages. 1839 Dub 
lin Jrnl. Med. Sci. XV. 260 Symmetrical "Sub acromial 
Luxations. 1834 G. BKNNETT It and. A . 6 . fK II. 45 The 
beautiful Vub-alar plumage. 1889 Q. Jrnl. Geol. Sac. XLV. 
644 The "subanal fasciole. 1868 GAY I aricose Dis. 150 The 
trunk veins, especially the "subaponeurotic. 1871 T. HKVANT 
Pract. Surf. 1061 Subastragaloid amputation. 1822 J. 
PARKINSON Outl. Oryctol. 187 "Subauricular tooth in the 
larger valve 1890 BILLINGS A al. Med. Diet, Subcxcal 
fossa pocket sometimes found in the peritoneum behind the 
cxcum. 1889 Kuck s HamiHi. Med. M. Vlll. 154 The 
replacement of lingual lobule and fusiform lobule, .by sub- 
calcarine Byre and subcollateral gyre. 1889 Lancet 20 Apr. 
787/2 The "subcapsular portion of the cortex. 1889 Buck s 
Handl k. Meii. Set. VIII. 240 The "subcerebellar veins. 
,839 47 Trdd sCycl.Anat. III. 85/1 The cellular tissue., is 
sometimes the seat of.. subconjunctival ecchymosis 1878 
T BRYANT 1 ratt. Surg. I. 308 Inflammation of me sclerotic 
or subconjunctival fnVcia. 1839 Dublin Jrnl. Med. Set. 
XV. 251 Congenital * Sul)coracoid Luxation. 1876 Qitain s 
Anal. (ed. 8) II. 738 "Subcranial, Facial, or Pharyngeal 
Plates or Arches. 1855 HYDE CLARKE Diet., Snicuticu/ar, 
under the cutkle. 1899 Allbutts Syst. Med. VI. 575 The 
whitlow is often sub-cuticular. 1851 Dublin Quart. Jrnl. 
Hied. Sci. XV. 6 The "subdeltoid bur-a. 1887 SOLUS in 
f.ncycl. Brit. XXII. 415 i These cavities are known as 
siibdermal chambers. 1845 1 ODD & BOWMAN Phys. Anat. 
I. 425 They lie either in the cutis or sub-dermoid tissue. 
1844 HOBLYN Diet. Terms Med. fed. 2) it)-}* .^lib-diaphragma 
tic, the designation of a plexus, furnished by the solar 
plexus, and distributed to the diaphragm. 1902 Prpt. Zool. 
S0c. II. 272 A *sub-discal series of internervular spots and 
dashes. 1875 W. TURNER Hum. Anal. 219 A fine space 

1-3 



SUB-. 

containing a minute quantity of limpid serum.. named the 
arachnoid cavity, or,.. the *aub.dural space. i88S Q. Jrnl< 
Micros. Sci. (N.S.) XXVIII. 381 The cutaneous muscles 
arise from the *subectodermal fibrous network. 1888 ROI.LES- 
TON & JACKSON Anim. Life 784 A *sub-ectodermic plexus 
of ganglion cells in the subumbrella. 1897 Allbntfs Syst. 
Med. II. 827 *Sub-endocardial hasmorrhages. 1893 A the* 
nxum 2 Dec. 774/1 The *subendostylar ccelom. 1875 W. 
TURNER m Encycl. Brit. I. 848/2 The endothelial cells rest 
upon a *sub-endothelial tissue. 1853 Pharmac. Jml. XIII. 
17 The *sub-epidermal cellular tissue. 1877 HUXLEY & 
MARTIN Elem. Biol. 65 The *subepidermic cells. 1873 
T. H. GREEN Introd. Pathol. 264 The "sub-epithelial con 
nective tissue. 1889 Buck s Handbk. Med. Sci. VIII. 121 
The presence of a *subfalcial sinus. 1897 Allbutfs Syst. 
Med. IV. 601 Its source, a degenerate gland, is not only 
subcutaneous, but *subfascial also, that is, under the deep 
cervical fascia. 1877 HUXLEY Anat. In-u. Anint. vi. 260 
The sternal surface presents, anteriorly, a flattened *sub- 
frontal area. 1888 ROLLESTON & JACKSON Anim. Life 785 
The membranes come to lie at the bottom of *subgemtal 
cavities or lemnia. 1872 HUMPHRY Myology 31 The palmar 
muscles take their origin from the coracolds, or *subglenoid 
part of the girdle. 1880 A. FLINT Prim: Med. 304 CEdema 
in very rare instances occurs below the vocal cords. This 
is distinguished as *subglottic oedema. 1858 W. CLARK tr. 
Van der Hoeverfs Zool. II. 249 *Subgular vocal sac. 



Quains Anat. (ed. 8) II. 740 The fourth arch, which has no 
special name, but might be called *sub-hyoid or cervical. 
1870 ROLLESTON Anim. Life 125 Vessels, .which pass round 
the intestine, .to join a *sub-intestinal vessel. 1875 BLAKE 
Zool. 196 The nasal sacs are *sublabial. 1839-47 Todtt s 
Cycl. Anat. III. 173/1 The *sublobular veins are named 
from their position at the base of the lobules. 1896 Brit. 
Birds, Their Nests <y Eggs 1. 185 The superciliary and *sub- 
loral white streaks. 1857 DUNGLISON Med. Lex. s.v., Sub- 
mammary inflammation , inflammation of theareolar tissue 
beneath the mamma. 1875 BUCKI.AND Log-Kk. 118 The 
\submandibular. .tissues. 1844 HOIJLYN Diet. Terms Med. 
(ed. 2) 293 *Sub-rnastoid) the name of a branch given off by 
the seventh pair of nerves, as it passes out from the stylo, 
mastoid foramen. 1899 Allbntfs Syst. Med. VII. 569 Some 
injury during birth, such as usually results in *submeningeal 
haemorrhage. 1855 DUSGLISON Med. Lex. t ^Subnntscittar, 
seated beneath muscles or a muscular layer. 1888 Eitcyci. 
Brit. XXIV. 679 In Lumbricns there are three longitudinal 
trunks which run from end to end of the body (i) dorsal, 
(2) supranervian, (3) *subnervian. 1878 HELL tr. Gegen- 
baurs Comp. Anatomy 279 A *subneural cavity [in insects]. 
1900 LUCAS Brit. Dragonflics 53 The ultra-nodal sector is 
found between the principal and the *sub-nodal. 1835-6 
Todtfs Cycl. Anat. I. 547/2 A second [ganglion], which is 
*suboesophageal and anterior, supplies the buccal apparatus 
1858 \V. CLARK tr. Van. der Hot-fen s Zool. II. 59 Branchiee 
open internally in a *suboesophagean tube. i8?6-9 Todd s 
Cycl. Anat. II. 393/2 The *sub-oral ganglion is particularly 
subservient to mastication. 1883 Kncycl. Brit. XVI. 675/2 
A thin plate-like *sub-ostrac.il or (so-called) dorsal carti 
lage. 1854 WOODWARD Mollusca n. 195 A *sub-pallial 
expansion on the sides of the back. 1889 Buck s Handbk. 
Med. Sci. VIII. 152 *Subparietal [gyre]. 1815 J. GORDON 
Syst. Hum. Amit. I. 211 The *sub-peduncular Lobule of 
the Cerebellum. 1864 Reader No. 103. 771/1 The acute 
*subpelvic arch. 1873 T. BRYANT Pract. Surg. 41 In the 
*subpericranial form [of contusions] the indurated base may 
organise. 1847-9 Todd s Cycl. Anat. IV. i. 713/2 In syphilis 
. .there is frequently *subperiosteal effusion of Jymph. 1835-6 
Ibid. I. 1 3/1 The *subperitoneal cellular tissue. 1896 
Nomencl. Dis. 209 Affections connected with pregnancy... 
^. *Subperitoneo-abdominal. 1857 BULLOCK tr. Cazeaux* 
Midwifery 245 * S ub -peri toneo- pel vie Pregnancy.. a species 
of extra-uterine pregnancy. 1889 Buck s Handbk, Med. Sci. 
VIII. 242 The oblique super- and *sub-petrosal sinuses. 
1897 Allbntfs Syst. Med. III. 570 By *subphrenic abscess 
is understood a collection of pus in the hollow of the dia 
hragm. 1877 tr. von Ziemssen s Cycl. Med. XII. 465 
Meshes or spaces in the tissue of the pia (*subpial space). 
i86z H. W. FULLER Dis. Lungs 173 The *sub-pleural cellu 



E 



lar tissue is injected and oedematous. 1872 T. BRYANT 
Pract. Surg. 496 From retained *sub-preputial secretion or 
from adhesion between the glans and prepuce. 1831 R. 
KNOX Cloquefs Anat, 198 *Sub-Pubic or Triangular Liga 
ment. 1866 HUXLEY Laing s Preh. Rent. Caithn. 94 The 
sub-pubic arch. 1911 Encycl. Brit. (ed. u)XVII. 166/2 The 
gastric glands, draining the stomach (these are divided into 
coronary, *sub-pyloric and retropyloric groups). 1877 HUX 
LEY Anat. hiv. Anim. v lii. 488 The *subradular membrane is 
continued into a longer or shorter sac. 1847-9 Todd s Cycl. 
Anat. IV. 1. 134/2 Thesubmucous tissue of the gall-bladder; 
the subserous of the pleura . . ; the *subretinal. 1861 
UUMSTEAD Ven. Dis. 119 The *sub-scrotal cellular tissue, 
1889 Buck s Handbk. Med. Sci.VllI. 241 The *subspfte- 
noidal sinus. 1733 tr. Winsloiu s Anat. (1756) I. 259 The 
*Sub-Spinal . . Fossa. 1878 WALSH AM Handbk. Surg. Pathol. 
153 *Subspinous [dislocation]. The head of the bone is 
displaced on to the posterior margin of the glenoid cavity. 
1831 R. KNOX Cloquet s Anat. 772 The *substernal and 
pulmonary lymphatics. 1897 Allbittt s Syst. Med. III. 785 
Dysphagia and substernal burnine. i&qfrProc.Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Diilad. 30 The marginal cell.. may have the portion 
below the stigma (*substigmatal) longer than that beyond 
(poststigmatal). 1889 Buck s Handbk. Med. Sci. VIII. 152 
Fissural connections, .of the Sylvian with the basisylvian, 
presylvian, and *subsylvian. 1835-6 Todd s Cycl. Anat. \. 
254/1 The *subsynovial cellular tissue. 1883 Encycl. Brit. 
XVI. 679/1 A pair of such spores [sc. tegumental) leading 
into *sub-tegumental spaces of considerable area. 1880 
Buck s Handbk. Med. Sci. V 1 1 1. r s^The callosal, . . precuneal, 
and "subtemporal fissures. 1877 HUXLEY A >iat. Inv.Anint. 
ix. 586 The *subtentacular and coeliac canals. 1899 All- 
butt s Syst. Med. VIII. 28 The *sub-trapezial plexus on the 



Lex. t * Subungitial, belonging to parts under the nail; as 
subunguial exostosis. 1876 tr. Wagners Gen. Pathol, 159 
Coloring matte- is.. found.. in the *sub-vaginal space. 1835 
KIRBY Hab. % fust. Anim. I. ix. 267 No *subventral. .foot. 



4 

(6} in derived advs. ; e. g. subdu rally, su-bpe- 
rio steally ; so SUBCORTICALLY. 

1897 Allbutfs Syst. Med. II. 700 Injected *subdurally the 
results were not so constant. 1898 Syd, Soc, Lex.) *Sub- 
periosteally, in a subperiosteal manner. 

C. Bot, in the same sense as b ; e. g. su barehe- 
spo rial, subhyme nial. Also SUBPETIOLAR. 

1900 B. D. JACKSON Gloss. Bot. Ternis^ * Sitbarchesporial 
Pad, Bower s term for a cushion-like group of cells below 
the archesporiuin in Lycopodium. 1874 COOKE Fungi 57 
The receptaclepropercomprehends the v sub-hymenial tissue, 
the parenchyma, and the external membrane, 1882 BEN 
NETT Text-bk, Bot. (ed. 4) 288 The ascophorous hyphac or 
subhymenial layer. 

d. Anat. In adj. compounds in Latin form, of 
the type defined in b above, designating parts of 
the body, used absol. by ellipsis of sb. (e. g. mus- 
culus muscle, membrana membrane) : e. g. SUB- 

ANCONEUS, SUBCRUKEUa, SOUMUCOSA. 

(b} Adjs. of Kng. form are similarly used, esp. 
pi. ; e. g. SUBCOSTAL, SUBOKBITAL. 

e. "With sbs. forming attrib. compounds; e.g. 
subatla ntic under the Atlantic, f3*-fl /&& SUB 
CUTANEOUS, siih-tterbary found under turf-ground. 

1875 KNIGHT Diet, Mecft. 2507/2 The *subatlantic cable 
enterprise. 1889 Microcosm Dec., His *subcuticle injections. 
1900 Pop. Sci. Monthly Feb. 440 There would necessarily 
be a *submountain mass. 1895 IVestm. Gaz. 7 Sept. 4/4 
The whole of the ^sub-river section of the line. 1846 OWEN 
Brit. Fossil M^ammals 512 The *sub-turbary shell-marl in 
various localities in Ireland. 1893 Times 24 June 7/6 The 
[latest] ships are practically the same with regard to the 
sub-water structure. 

f. With sbs. forming sbs. designating a part, 
organ, or substance lying under the part denoted 
by the radical element; e.g. SUBCOSTA, subence - 
phalon, sttbhytnt nium, SUBMENTUM, subplace nta, 
sub-ra diiiS) subte sia (see quots.), SUBUHBRELLA. 

1890 HILLINGS Nat. Med, Diet.) *Subencephalon % Krause s 
name for combined medulla oblongata, pons Varolii, and cor- 



> JACKSON Gloss. Bot. Terms, Sub- 



pora quadngemina. 1900 JACKSON Gloss. Bot. 
hy menial Layer or *Sut-/tymt niutn, Hypothecium. 1855 
DUXGLISON Med. Lex., * Sub placenta^ decidua membrana. 
1897 PARKER & HASWELL Zool. I. 129 Half way between 
any ad-radius and the adjacent per- or inter-radius, a radius 
of the fourth order, or *sub-radius. 1816 P. KEITH Syst. 
Physiol. Bot. II. 374 The *Sul>testa t which is the inner 
coat of the seed and lies immediately under the testa. 

g. Forming vbs., in L. sitbhastare = hastse subi- 
cere (see SUBHASTATIOX), snbjugare to SUBJUGATE. 

2. With adverbial force ( = underneath, below, 
down, low, lower), prefixed to adjs., vbs., and 
pples. (and, less freq., sbs.), as in L. sub&rdtus 
having copper underneath, subjacent underlying, 
SUBJACENT, subscriber* to write underneath, write 
down, SUBSCRIBE, suhsidere to sit down, SUBSIDE, 
substernere to strew or spread underneath, subten- 
dre to stretch under, SUBTEND, late L. subcavare 
to hollow out underneath; e.g. subad/a cent, -re - 
pent adjs. ; stibsera ted t -cornea* led, -contai ned t 
-de ntedy -twi ned pples. ; subca vate, -irrigate vbs. 
Su blinea tion, underlining. Subpunctua tion, 
marking letters or words with dots underneath, 
f Subirmbragfe z>., to overshadow, f Subunda - 
tion, the action of waves underneath. (Formations 
of this class are uncommon.) 

1723 QUINCV Lex. Physico-Mcd. (ed. 2) 2 The superior 
Parts of the *subadjacent Os Metacarpi, 1771 Phil* 
Trans. LXII. 60 A *suberated.. denarius of the Plaetorian 
family. 1799 W. TOOKE View Russ. Emp, I. 115 A piece 
of mountain, . .entirely bare of soil, ..in conjunction with 
that mineral \viz. talc] *subcavating the trapp-stone. a 1734 
NORTH EXCIM. nt. vi, (1740) 430 To do it with Address, 
and *subconcealed Artifice. 1768 CHESELDEN Anat. Hum. 
Body 133 For the better understanding of the *sub con- 
tained parts. 1836 SMART Dict.^ *Subdented, indented 
beneath. 1898 I. C. RUSSELL River Develo^m. 246 If a 
name were desired for this minor feature of the drainage of 
certain regions, it might be termed *subimposed. 1903 
Set. Amer. Supfil. 17 Jan. 22616/3 Where the subsoil trans 
mits water freely, irrigation ditches may *subirrigate large 
tracts of country without rendering them marshy. 1651 
A. BOATE in Ussher s Lett, (1686) 564 He hath made use of 
. .*Sublineation in lieu of Asterisks. 1908 Times 14 Mar. 
14/1 The following whip.. was marked with the sublinea- 
tion of a thick black line. 1908 H. HALL Stud. Eng. Off. 
Hist. Doc, 384 Confession of a blunder by the process of 
*subpunctuatlon must have been particularly distasteful to 
a mediaeval scribe. 1650 BULWER Anthropomet. ii. 53 
That they [hairs] should imbibe the afflux of *subrepent 
humours. 1908 Daily Ckron. 25 July 1/4 A push-button 
*subtwined in a bower of red roses. 1581 Satir. Poems 
Reform, xliii. 82 Xerxes, quhose . . schippis *subumbragit 
all the seyis on breid. 155* HULOET s. v. Banckes, Banckes 
defensyue againste *subundation called Seabanckes. 

b. Hence = in or into subjection, as in subdfre 
to bring under, subdue, subicfre to SUBJECT. 

3. Prefixed to sbs. with adjectival force (partly 
on the analogy of L. sublamina under-plate, sub~ 
strdmen litter) = lying, existing, occurring below 
or underneath, under-, (hence, by implication) 
underground ; e. g. sub-armour , -trousers^ -vest 
ment \ sub crust , -cur rent, -deposit, -flush^ -mind\ 
sub-note -, -text ; sub-crossing, -population^ -railway ; 
in designations of architectural features, indicating 
a secondary member, feature, chamber, etc. placed 
under one of the same kind, e.g. sub-basement, 



SUB-. 

-cellar, -hall, -member, -pier-arch, -plinth, -shaft, 
-silly -store-room, tower \ so sub-$Jielf, subtrenck 
(whence subtrenched adj.). Also SUB* ARCH, etc. 
(Stress even, or on the prefix.) 

1860 HEWITT Anc. Armour II. 132 The Hauberk of chain- 
mail is worn . . not . . as the principal defence . . but as a *sub- 
armour. 1904 Westm. Gaz. 26 Apr. 5/1 Underneath, in the 
basement and *sub- basement, were many thousands of 

gdlons of wines and spirits. 1894 Outing XXIV. 379/2 
entlemen, I see I didn t examine your *sub-cellar. 1864 
Athenxnm 22 Oct. 530/3 If it be not found convenient to 
have *sub-crossings, surely light iron bridges would answer 
the purpose. 1886 Ibid. 4 Sept. 297/3 The intervening zone, 
or *sub-crust, which we should probably regard as being,, 
in a state of hydro-thermal plasticity. 1902 Westm. Gaz. 
i4Oct.3/2The *sub-cunent of American life, a 1828 SCHOOL- 
CRAFT (Webster), *Subdeposit. a 1846 LYELL (Wore.). 1899 
Atlantic Monthly LXXXI1I. 759/1 A certain *subflush of 
overripe color beneath the dusky skin. 1887 Diet. Archit,, 
*Sno-/tall t the place in the lower story under the hall or chief 
entrance, which last was usually on the first floor. 1875 
BRASH Eccl. Archit. Irel. 133 These arches have each a 
chamfered *Sub-member. 1856 EMERSON Eng, Traits, Lit. 
Wks. (Bohn) II. 112 They exert every variety of talent on 
a lower ground, and may be said to live and act in a *sub- 
mind. 1824 DIBDIN Libr. COHI&. 699 The *sub-note will 
shew that he possessed a few of his choicer works. 1835 K. 
WILLIS Archit. Mid. Ages vii. 94 Sometimes the *sub-pier- 
arch rests on a pilaster instead of a half shaft. 1836 PARKER 
Gloss. Archit. I. 61 A second or *sub-plinth under the 
Norman base. 1890 Daily News 19 June 5/7 A sort of 
*sub-population of elfin people, who live under the Treppe. 
1845 J. WILLIAMS (title), *Sub-Rai!ways in London. 1835 
R. WILLIS Archit. Mid. Ages iv. 34 *Sub-shafts sustain 
arches of which the upper side is united to the soffit of the 
next arch or wall. 1889 Anthony s Photogr. Bull. II. 415 
Ten inches below the *sub-shelf is a sink. 1833 LOUDON 
Encycl. Archit, 867 The oak gate-posts are kept firm in 
their places, by the underground braces, to the *subsills. 
1889 Scribner^sMag. Aug. 216/1 Distributionsare made daily 
among the *substore-rooms. 1726 J. LOWE Lat. Gram, ix, 
The Fundamental rules in Text ; the Less-necessary sub 
joined in *Subtext. 1884 Content^. Rev. July 104 A still 
better effect.. was gained by placing an octagonal super- 
tower, or lantern , on a square *sub-tower. 1669 STAYNRED 
Fortif. 7 EFGH is the *Subtrench. Ibid.^ Section of a 
Fort with a. .Counterscarp ; also *Subtrenched. 1890 Co- 
lumbus (Ohio) Disf. n July, Four inches of white canvass 
*subtrousers was exposed between his pantaloons, spring- 
bottoms and shoe-tops. iSoz COLERIDGE Lett. (1895) 394 
The diaper *subvestment of the young jacobin. 

b. Anat, (a) Designating the lowest or basal 
part of the organ denoted by the second element 
(cf. med.L. subjuga lowest part of a yoke) ; e. g. 
subcutiSj surface, subfacies t subilium. 

1879 tr. Haeckets Evol. Man (1905) 648 The corium is 
much thicker than the epidermis. In its deeper strata (the 
*subcutis) there are clusters of fat-cells. 1826 KIRBY & SP. 
Entomol. III. 366 *Subfacies (the *Subface). The lower 
surface or underside of the head. 1898 Syd. Soc. Lex, t 
*SubiliuM t the lowest portion of the ilium. 

(b} Designating a part concealed or encroached 
upon ; e. g. subfissurc, subgyre. 

1889 Buck s Handbk. Med. Sci. VIII. 160 Superfissures 
and *subfissures. These terms are employed herein to 
designate the fissures which result from the formation of 
supergyres and *subgyres. 1903 Atiter. Anthropologist 
(!*/. S.) V. 623 The occipital fissure, .shows a number of well- 
marked subgyres in its depths. 1898 Syd. Soc. Lex. t *Sub. 
gyrtts, a gyrus that is encroached on or covered. 

c. Agric* Short for subsoil-. 

1778 [W. MARSHALL] Minutes Agric. 16 Aug. 1775, Put 
old Nimrod to the *sub-plow. 1778 Ibid. , Nothing can equal 
*sub-plowing for clearing the surface from running weeds. 
Ibid., Observ. 97 After the Beans were drawn, the Soil was 
subplowed. 1866 C. W. HOSKYNS Occas. Essays in The 
well-known results of drainage and *subpulve ration. 1856 
MORTON Encycl. Agric. II. 647/2 Subsoil ploughs.. are 
merely stirrers of the under soil, and might more properly 
be termed *sub-pulverizers. 

4. Mus. With adj. force combining with sbs. to 
form terms designating : (a) an interval of so much 
below a given note ; e. g. subdiapente, subdiates- 
saron ; (b} a note or an organ-stop an octave below 
that denoted by the original sb. ; e. g. SUBOCTAVE, 
subcontra octave ; sub-bass ^ -bourdon, -diapason ; 
cf. COXTKA- 4 ; (c) a note lying the same distance 
below the tonic as the note designated by the 
radical sb. is above it; e.g. SUBDOMINANT, SUB- 
MEDIANT. (Cf. 13.) 

1852 J. J. SEIDEL Organ 25 The organ at St. Elizabeth s at 
Breslau . . contains a sub-diapason. 1869 Enel. Meek. 31 Dec. 
385/3 Sub-bass is a 32 ft. tone stop. 1878 STAINER & BAR 
RETT Diet. MHS.) Subdiapente, Subdominant, the fifth below 
or the fourth above any key note. 1879 Organ Voicing 18 



155 Sub-bourdon.. is a rare manual stop_ of 32ft. 1883 
GROVE Diet. Mut. III. 747/2 A Canon in Subdiapente 
was a canon in which tlie answer was a fifth below the lead. 
Similarly Subdiates-^aron is a fourth below. 1901 TITCH- 
ENER Exper. Psychol. I. 32 Subcontra octave. 

II. Subordinate, subsidiary, secondary; sub- 
ordinately, subsidiarily, secondarily. 

5. Having a subordinate or inferior position ; of 
inferior or minor importance or size ; subsidiary ; 
secondary. 

a. of persons ; as in late L. subadjuva assistant, 
stibheres next or second heir ; e. g. sub-advocatc t 
deity, -god, -hero, -substitute, etc. 



SUB-. 

1645 MILTON Colast. Wks. 1851 IV. 351 The Laws of Eng- 

land, wherofyou have intruded to bee an opiniastrous *Sub- 
advocate. 1641 Ck. Gtn>. I. vi, These two main reasons 
of the prelates ..are the very wonibe for a new *subanti- 
christ to breed in. 1818 BENTHAM Ch. En^., Catech. Exam, 
161 This newly commissioned Antichrist with his three Sub- 
Antichrists, a 1700 B. E. Diet. Cant. Crew, * Sub-bean, 
or Demibeau, a wou d- be-fine, a 1639 T. G[OFFE] Careless 
S/teph. i. i. It awes Not mortalls only; but makes other 
powers *Sub-Deities to thine. 1820 T. MITCHELL Com. 
Aristoph. I. 44 Some of the epithets applied to this sub- 
deity [Phales]. 1809 W. IRVING Knickerb. in. ii, Five 
schepens, who officiated as scrubs, *subdevils, or bottle- 
holders to the burger-meesters. 1680 SHADWKLL Woman- 
Capt. i, Scarce any one is such a Fool, but he has a *sub- 
Fool that he can laugh at. 1679 DKYDICN Limberhiim v, 
Happily arriv d, i faiih, my old "Sub-fornicator. 1726 DB 
FOE Hist Dwil n. i. 203 [Satan] had his "Sub-Gods, who 
under his several Dispositions receiv d the Homage of 
Mankind. 1846 LADY EASTLAKE Jrnls, (1895) I. i 9 Sir 
E. L. Bulwer..a man. .reminding me of some of the "sub- 
heroes in his own books. 1649 WODENOTE Hermes Theol. 
68 Saucy "Sub Jacks possessed of the preferments of tiie 
Learned and Ancient. 1697 J. DENNIS Plot $ no Plot v, 
They are my *Sub-pimps, and pick up a penny under me. 
1899 SPENCER & GILLEN Tribes Centr. Austral, title-p., 
Special magistrate and *sub-protector of the aborigines, 
Alice Springs, South Australia. 1817 BENTHAM Part. Re 
form Introd. 170 Dependance on an essentially insatiable 
.shark with his "sub-sharks. 1788 HOLCROI T Baron Trenck 
(1886) II. vi. 99 The substitute of Kempf was Fraucn- 
berger, who. .appointed one Krebs as a sub-substitute. 
1818 BENTHAM Ck. Eng. Introd. 17 Another body of di 
vinity..^ co-operate wuh the Catechism, and act under 
it, in the character of a sub-substitute to every thing 
that came from Jesus, a 1734 NOKTH Life Ld. 



&c. as some, .do terme them, c 1675 DRYDKN Prcf. to Notes 
Empr. Morocco Wks. 1808 XV. 404 His king, his two 
empresses, his villain, and his *sub-villain, nay his hero, 
have all a certain natural cast of the father. 1840 MACAULAY 
Ess., Clive (1854) 535/1 The villain or sub-villain of the 
story. 1692 SOUTH S<?r/rr. (1697) I. 204 The Repairer of 
a decayed Intellect, and a "Sub-worker to Grace, in freeing 
it from some of the inconveniences of Original Sin. 

b. of material objects ; e.g. sub-affluent , -con- 
stellation^ -piston^ -totem, etc. 

873 tr - Jules Verne s Meridiana v, [The Kuruman] in 
creased by the waters of a "sub-affluent, the Moschoria. 1744 
Phil. Trans. XLIII. May 14 The cardinal and *subcardinal 
Points of the Compass. 18*7 G. HICCINS Celtic Druids 59 
One of the very first "subcasts from the Asiatic hive. 1646 
SIR T. BROWNE Pseud. Ep. v. xix. 262 If thereby be meant 
the Pleiades, or "subconstellation upon the back of Taurus. 
1834-47 J- S. MACAULAY Field Fort if. (1851) 297 Keep their 



Internat. Exhib. II. xxxi. 20 The following *sub-master 
keys. 1895 Outing XXVI. 55/2 The serried ranks of sub- 
pagodas in this strange, holy city. 1900 Hiscox Horseless 
Vehicles 66 When the ports in the *sub-piston close. 1879 
G. PRESCOTT Sp. Telephone 434 M. Gaudoin also utilizes 
these different "subproducts in the manufacture of his car 
bons. 1859 R. F. BURTON in Jml. Geogr. Soc. XXIX. 125 
i An extensive view of *subrange and hill-spur. 1883 
Howirr in Smithsonian Rep. 818 A larger or smaller group 
of what^ I have called "subtotems, but which might be 
appropriately termed pseudo-totems. 

c. of something immaterial, a quality, state, etc. ; 
e. g. sub -cause t -flavour^ -idea^ -question^ etc. 

1898 Engineer ing Mag. XVI. 38 In all there are 149 *sub- 
accounts, under 24 general voucher titles. 1818 BENTHAM 
Ck. Eng., Caiech. Exam* 3-51 In the principal article, they 
are stated as residing in the neighbourhood ; whereas, in 
the *sub-articles, no statement to that effect is contained. 
1825 COLKKIOGR Aids Kefl, (1848) I. 184 The cause of this, 
and of all its lamentable effects and "sub-causes, a 1631 
DONNE Ser/tt. xxxiv. (1640) 338 This part hath also two 
branches.. in the first branch, there will bee two twiggs, 
two *sub-conside rations. 1892 Pi eld 18 June 942/1 [In 
whist] the *sub-echo is the showing of three trumps when 
a partner has led and called for them. This is accomplished 
by echoing in the usual manner. 1895 Daily Nevus 30 Nov. 
6/3 Their manifest "sub- flavour of earnestness. 1878 GROSART 
G. Daniel s Poems I. 217 Antike = ancient, with the sub- 
idea of grotesque ness. 1855 BROWNING Men ff Women II. 
17 Sage provisos, sub-intents, and saving-clauses. 1888 Pall 
Mall Gaz. 31 July 3/2 Whether the author is to be suspected 
of a satiric sub-intention. 1781 St. Trials XI. 220/2 Upon 
this he makes many limitations; upon all of which he 
adds., this "sublimitation. 1840-1 DE QUINCE v Style Wks. 
1862 X. 191 Where, .the limitations and the sublimitations, 
descend, seriatim, by a vast scale of dependencies. 1891 
SCRIVFNRR Fields <V Cities 150 Both these scourges [scrofula 
and dyspepsia], with the groups of families cf "sub-maladies 
which grow in their wake. 1883 Harper s Mag. Jan. 179/2 
Some subtle sub-meaning [is] also conveyed. 1770 Ltxn- 
OMBE Hist. Printing 234 Prefaces, Introductions* Annota 
tions, .all which "sub-parts of a Work were formerly, .put in 
Italic. 1879 ROBY Lot. Gram. \\. 8Such a secondary predi 
cate might. .be called a *subpredicate. It is often called an 
apposition. 1899 F. J. MATIIEH Chaucer s Prol. p. xlii, The 
most serious passages of his poetry are seldom without a 
"sub-quality of humor. 1675 TULLY Let. to Baxter 27 There 
remaines yet one small "sub-question. 1619 R. JONES Recant. 
Serm. in Pktmx(iii&) II. 493 The reason of this Conjecture 
is [etc.] . . The "sub-reason is [etc.]. 1856 E M ERSON Eng. Traits, 



al Report < 

of ^sub-reports. 1885 Law Times Rep. (N. S.) LIII. 566/2 
I f there was any doubt . . it is entirely removed by the appro- 
priate language used in sub-rule 30. i8oa-is BENTHAM 
Ration. Jndic, Evid. (1827) II. 150 These were mentioned 
as so many sub-securities for correctness and completeness. 
1890 Acotiemy XXXVII. 218/1 A "subsensal ion of how, in 
R ossctti s weird phrase, bis death was growing up from his j 




i birth . 1888 Spectator 30 June oio/a There is a *sub-story 
dealing mainly with the amours of a disreputable young 
woman. 1881 Smithsonian Reft. 203 Turning to the several 
"subsystems it appears that although it is possible that the 
orbits of the satellites of Mars, Jupiter [etc.], 

d. of actions; e. g. sub-appearance, -quarrel. 
1820 LAMB Eha i. Christ s Hosp., You never met the one 
by chance in the street without a wonder, which was quickly 
dissipated by the almost immediate *subappearance of the 
other. 1574 tr. Josselirt s Life 70 Abp. Pref. to Rdr. D 2b, 
A petye brawle and *subquarell betwen Yorke and duresme. 
1799 S. TURNER Hist. Anglo-Saxons I. i. viii. 112 Amid 
this complexity of rebellion and "sub-rebellion. 1825 LAMB 
Elia n. Stage Illusion^ The skilful actor, by a sort of *sub- 
| reference, rather than direct appeal to us, disarms the cha- 
racter of a great deal of its odiousness. i88a F. ANSI i:v 
Vice I crsd iv, His cheeks were creased with a dimpling 
*subsmile. 1879 HOWELLS Lady ofAroostook (1883) II. 158 
With a knowing little look at Lydia, which included a "sub- 
wink for her husband. 

6. \\ ith names of officials or persons occupying 
positions of authority, forming titles designating 
one immediately subordinate to the chief official, 
as in L. subcentitrio (var. of succenlurio centurion s 
lieutenant, late L. subdoctor assistant teacher, sub- 
scribenddritis assistant secretary, eccI.L. subdia- 
conus SUBDEACOX, med.L. subbaUivus SUB-BAILIFF, 
sttbbedellus under-beadle, submagistcr SL IJMASTKR, 
subprior SUBPKIOR, sitbsecrctarius under-secretary ; 
e. g. sub-abbot^ -captain, -king, -vicar -, etc. 

1767 BURN Eccles. Law (ed. 2) IV. 456 tnarg., "Subabbat 
and subpripr. 1818 UENTHAM Ch. E>t. QI His Right Reve- 
rend Coadjutors and Reverend Sub-adjutois. 1729 Fox ION 
tr. BurnetsApp, St. Dead v& He commemorates their De 
liverance out of Egypt,.. Moses being the "Sub-admini 
strator, with mighty Miracles and Prodigies. 1726 Av:.n-i K 
Parergon 68 They ought not to execute these Precepts by 
simple Messengers or "Sub- Beadles. 1716 M.DAVii-:sWMc-v. 
firit. II. 182 Schelstrat the Pope s "Subbibliothecarian. 1884 
I Cyclist 13 Feb. 242/1 The captain and "sub-captain.. repre- 
! sent the club on the N T . C. U. 1519 Church. Ace. St. Giles , 
\ Reading 3 Of the *Snbchamberer of the Monastery] of 
Redyng. 1688 HOLME ^r/wwrym.iii. 49/2 Officers., belong 
ing to the Earl of Chester... Vice Chamberlain, or "Sub 
Chamberlain. 1858 GLADSTONE Homer III. n The subor- 
dination of the *sub-ciiief to his local sovereign. 1710 ). 
CHAMBERLAVNF. M. Brit. .Votitia n. 689 Mr. John Dundass, 
first Clerk of the Assembly. ..NicolSpence^Sub-Clerk. 1837 
CAKLYLE Fr. Rev. in. n. ii, Amid head-clerks and sub-clerks. 
1688 Land. Gaz. No. 2331/3 One of the King s Family :-,ha]l 
succeed to the Bishoprick, as having been already designed 
by the Chapter for their *Sub-Coai!jutor. 1691 T. H[ALE] 
Account N&v Invent, p. cv, *Sub-Conservaiors for the 
River of Thames. 1670 COTTON Esfernon \. n. 96 I o im 
portune the "Sub-Consul to conclude the Treaty. 1642-3 
Canterb. Marr. Licences^ Thomas Graunt, clerk, "subcurate 
of S. Mary s in Dover. 1580 in Picton L"pool Mimic. AY<r. 
(1883) I. 63 The same customer and "sub-customer shall 
yield and give their several accompts. 1672 Ibid. 284 Wil 
liam Galley Sub-customer. 1737 E. CHAMBKRLAVNE Angl. 
Notitiau. 117 Sub-director [of Ordnance]. 1896 HILPKECHT 
Recent Res. Bible Lands 87 Halil P.ey, sub-director of the 



IrishBards 83 This instrument was used, .to assemble 




F. PHILLIPS Reg: Necess. 522 By fraud and collusion betwixt 
him and the said *Sub-Kscheator. 1796 CHARLOTTE SMITH ! 
Marchmont IV. 433 Every fee, which the "sub-executors of 
our. .laws are suffered to extort. 1809 W. TAYLOR in Rob- 
berd Mem. (1843) II. 277 Charon and his *subferrymen. 
1883 Harper s flfag. Jan. 206/2 These Maine men are likely 
to become foremen, or *sub-forcmen. 1774 MRS. DELANY 
Life ffCorr. Ser. n. (1861) 11.70 Miss Goldsworthy is made \ 
*sub-governess to the young Royals at St. James s. 1876 
E. JEN-KINS Queen s Head 4 The head waiter, and a lot of 
"sub-head- waiters. IM^TUVSLTAHCMI^A Wattali(\ Sf&) i 
232 The *sub-inspector of police. 1684 BAXTER Par. Con- 
grtg 38 [The Bishop] to be the *subintercessor, or the \ 
mouth of the Church in publick prayer. 1823 BENTHAM 
Not Paul & The Sub-kins of the Jews, AgrTppa. 1848 
LYTTON Harold in. iii, The lesser sub-kings of Wales. 1837 
W. IRVING Capt. Bonnevilte I. 179 Mr. Walker, one of the 
*subleaders, who had gone with a band of twenty hunters, i 
172* HEARHE Collect. (O. H. S.) VII. 385 The Fees being., j 
is. to the Head Librarian, 3*. 6.V. to the *Sublibrarian, & 
is. 6d. to the Janitor. 1800 SOUTHEY Lett. (1856) I. 134 The ! 
sub-librarian is an intelligent man. 1733-4 MRS. DELANY | 
Let, to Mrs. A. Granvillc 2 Mar., In what character is 
Miss Beal to go with the Orange family? A "sub-maid, 
I guess. 1883 blanch. Exam. 30 Oct. 5/2 Being *sub- 
manager for the last twenty-one years, a 1774 TIXKER I,t. 
Nat. (18^4) II. 207 In order to gain favour with these in- . 
ferior ministers or *sub-mediators. 1673 BAXTER Let. in 
Answ. Dodiuell 82 Doth U follow that your Church Mon 
arch can over-see them all himself without any sub-over- j 
seers? 1685 Paraphr. N. T. John x. 3 To the Messiah 
God will open the door, and to "Sub-Pastors, they that by 
office are door-keepers to the Church, must open it. 1700 
in Cath. Rec. Soc. Publ. (1909) VII. 69 The Pastor Tegers, 
and sub Pastor of St. Amand. 1617 MORVSON /tin. \. 210 
The Patron.. made a solemne Oration to the *sub-Patron i 
and the Marriners. 1671 E. CHAMBERLAYNK Angl. Xoiitia 
n. 2?8 Upon this Grand Office depends One hundred eighty j 
two Deputy Post- Masters.. and *Suh Post-Masters in their 
Branches. 1896 Hansard s Parl. Debates 18 Feb. 546/2 I 
A number of messengers.. employed by Sub-Postmasters. | 
1721 AMHERST Terrae Ml. No. 22. 112 Mr. Holt of Maudlin 
college, *sub-proctor at that time. 1688 HOLME Armoury 
lit. iv. 181/2 The *Sub- Provincial, is to act the same things.* 
as the Provincial. 1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey), *Su6.Reaaer t j 
an Under Reader in one of the Inns of Court, who reads ; 
the Text of the Law the Reader is to Discourse upon. 1605 
Answ. Supposed Disttrv. Romish Dectr. 20 They..opnly 



SUB-. 

moued the greatest *Subregents in England to take armes 
against her. a 1711 KEN Preparatives Poet. Wks. III. 13 
JNeglect to thy Sub-regent s Throne Affronts thy own. 1673 
BAXTER Let. in Answ. DodwellZ* Doth it follow that your 
Church Monarch can. .rule them without any Sub-rulers? 
I 1860 W. L. COLLINS Luck of Ladysntede x, It was the "sub- 
sacn&t approaching in the discharge of some of his duties 
1843 CAKLYLE Past fy Pr. \\. vi, Our Lord Abbot.. made 
him *Sub>acristan. 1642 Docq. Lett. Patent (1837) 326 The 
ffice of *Sul)isearcher w" : in the Porte of London. i63z 
B. JoNSON Magit. Lady Dram. Pers., Mr. Bias, A Vi-poli- 
tique, or "Sub-secretary. 1678 Trial ofColeinan 42 A Sub- 
Secretary, that did write very many things for him. 1826 
Scorr Diary 16 Nov. in Lockkart, Five Cabinet Ministers 
..with sub-secretaries by the bushel. 1745 Season. A dr. 
; Prot. 37 No Person shall be capable of acting as "Subsherriff 
..who shall not have been a Protestant for five Years im 
mediately before such his acting. 1737 J. CHAMBEKLAVNE 
M. Brit.Notitia n. 80 The Chief Oliice..Head Sorter.. 
Sub-Sorters. 1876 GLADSTONE Homeric Synchr. 124 Under 
the supremacy of Troy and of Priam, Anchist-s their king. 
seems to have been a *sub SOvereign. a 1715 HL-KNLT Oiim 
, lime (1766) I. 315 He had been his subtutor and had fol- 
lowed him in nil his exile. 1744 T. BIRCJH R. Boyle 6j Mr. 
lallents. .had been, .sub-tutor to ^evt-ral sons of the earl of 
Suffolk, 1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey 1 , *Snb-t tear, an Uudcr- 
Vicar. 1600 W, WATSON Decacordon (1602) 105 Maister 
George Black well the new Aruhpriest of England : nay, the 
*Sub-uiceroy rather of all the Isles of Albion. 

(h) in derived adjs.; e.g. subsecretarial pertaining 
to a sub-secretary. 

1898 B. GREGORY oif& Lights 499 From his sub-secretarial 
desk he spoke on a case. 

b. In the designation of corresponding offices or 
functions; e. g. sub-administration^ -couimissary- 
s> ii/>) -inspectorship, etc. 

1710 STKKLK Tatkr No. 103 F 3 The "Sub- Administration 
of Stage AiTairs. 1748 in Temple & Sheldon Hist, .\orth* 
./W/rf(i875) 273, I will.. throw up my *sub- commissary ship. 
1876 SMILES Sc. Nat. xiil 268 The ^ubcuratorship could 
not be obtained. 1884 Century Mag. XXVI II. 134 One 
"sub-inspectorship of factories. 1839 J. ROGERS Xff/;>a/0/r, 
x - 3- 2 53 We read nothing in Holy Scripture about the 
*submediation or the under-mediators. 1887 Daily A ett j 
i Mar. 6/2 All the smaller *sub-postmasterbhips still con 
tinue to be in the gift of the Treasury. 1591 Acts Prhy 
Council (ityK,} XXI. 105 The fee of the "Subproctorship for 
one whole yeare. 1881 Atkenxinn 15 Jan. 95/3 A sub- 
professoriate of twenty readers. 1764 Scott s Bailey, *Sub. 
l-icarshipi the omce^j^ under vicar. 

7. Compoundedwlth ^bs., to express division into 



a. of ma^l ^ ;s: e ^- sub-areolet a divi 
sion of an^l mkavity one of the smallci 
cavities into^l ^Hvity is divided, sub-folium 
a small or sec^H^olium ; etc. 

1853 DANA Crusf. 1. 192 From each lateral segment a small 
I *subareolet is separated anteriorly. 1899 Allbuti s Syst. 
filed. VII. 647 The cavity of the cranium is divided into 
two *subcavities by the tentorium cerebclli. 1847-9 T odd s 
Cycl. A nut. IV. i. 99/1 The cells. .containing no *sub-ct-Ks 
in their interiors. 1875 BRASH Ecd. Archit. Irel. 92 The 
chancel has a deep recess or "sub-chancel at the ea-.t end 
1889 Buck s Handbk. Med. Set. VI II. 127 The exact number 
and form of the cerebellar folia and subfoiia at birth. 1883 
Pall Mall Gaz. 25 Sept. 10/1 What he might call *:,ub- 
houses, or a house within a house. 1641 MILTON Animadr. 
Wks. 1851 III. 226 An individuall cannot branch itselfe 
into *subindividuals. 1885 WATSON & BURBURV Math. Tltf. 
Electr. I. 2j7 The motions of the submolecules. 1898 
Syd. Soc. Lex., *Si(bnncleu$, any one of the subdivisions 
into which a group of nerve-cells is divided by the passage 
through it of intersecting bundles. 1880 C. & F. DARWIN 
AfffPtm. PI. 223 The peduncle.. bears three or four *sub- 
peduncles. 1836-9 TodtCsCycL. Anat. II. 910/1 The pro- 
thorax.. is composed of four "sub- segments. 

b. of a body or assembly of people, as in SUB 
COMMITTEE, or of a division of animals or plants, 
as in SUBGENUS ; e.g. sub-bund a division of a 
band, stib-breed & breed of animals constituting a 
marked division of a principal breed. 

1808 PIKE Sources Mississ. (1810) i. App. 60 A young man, 
Wyaganage, has recently taken .. lead in all the councils 
and affairs of state of this "sub-band. 1859 DARWIN Orig. 
Spec. iv. (1878) 87 The *sub breeds of the tumbler pigeon. 
1896 Daily AVrcj 7 Apr. 3/3 The east "sub-brigade, .sup 
ported by the west sub-brigade. 1894 Editc. Rev. VII. 278 
Every one of the "sub-conferences claims for its group of 
subjects an educational value equal to that of every other. 
1908 Wetttn. Gaz. 8 Aug. a/i One Council, with "sub- 
councils corresponding roughly to the postal areas. 1877 
LK CONTK Elem. Geol. (1879) 160 The fauna and flora of the 
United States are divided, .into three "sub-fauna: and "sub- 
florae. 1833 CHALMERS in M,-m. (1851) III. 381 The dis 
cussions otthe separate or "sub-meetings. 1860 MILL Refr. 
Gov. (1865) 115/2 Besides the controlling Council, or local 
"sub-Parliament, locai business hat its executive department. 
1888 Encycl. Brit. XXIII. 473/1 Each of these phratries is 
subdivided into two *subphratr|es ; and these subphratries 
are subdivided into an indefinite number of totem clans. 
i888/<V</.XXIV.8io/i Themain branchings [of a genealogi 
cal tree) were termed phyla , their branchings "subphyla*. 
1846 GROTK Greece n, ii. II. 324 Twelve "sub-races, out of 
the number which made up entire Hellas. 1894 W. WALKER 
Hist. Congreg. Ch. 299 With the two Edwardean divines.. 
Emmons andDwight, the New Divinity may be said to 
have divided into two *subschools. 1824 SOUTHEV Sir T. 
Mort (1831) I. 362 Every Sect and every Sub-sect has its 
in;r.,M/ine. 1868 GLADSTONE Juv. Mundi iv. 112 A "sub- 
sept of the Achaians. 1798 in Nicolas Disp. (1845) III. 49 
He divided his force into three "Sub-squadrons. i88a A. 
MACKAKLANE Consanguinity 15 Each lineal ancestor forms 
a stock and his family breaks up into "sub-stocks, 1879 
in Willis & Clark Cambridge (1886) III. 226 The "sub- 
Syndicate are of opinion that it would be undesirable. 1670 
Rtc, Prtshyt. Inverness (1896) 2 To remitte the same 



SUB-. 

\K. names] . .with the Moderator to the Bishop* to y fors* i 
*Subsynode. 1885 A ttun&itiit 28 Feb. 279/1 If the squadron 
is preferable to the troop as a *sub-unit. 

(6) in derived adjs. ; e. g. stibphratric pertaining | 
to a stibphratry. 

1887 J. G. FKAZER Totemism p. viii, *Subphratric and 
Phratric Totems. 1896 W. MACKAY Rec. Presoyt. Inverness 
45 Among the "subsynodical refers read to-day. 

C. of a region or an interval of time, as in SUB- 
DISTRICT ; e. g. sub-age a division of an age. 

1878 LOCKYER Stargazin* 2 The Telescopic age. .divides 
itself naturally into some three or four *suh-ages of extreme 
importance. 1826 KIRBY & Sp. Entom. IV. 485 [Latreillt] 
proposes further to divide his climates into *subclimates, by 
means of certain meridian lines. 1867 G. F. CHAMBERS 
Astron. (1877) 23 The interval ii.iU being divided into two 
unequal "sub-intervals of 4.77 and 6.34*. 1898 Jriti. Sch. 
Ceog. (U. S.) Oct. 286 The "sub province known as the 
Great Plains. 1852 GROTE Greece n. Ixxii. IX. 290 Each 
satrapy was divided into *sub-satrapies or districts. 1909 
Daily Chron. 20 June 4/6 Cleveland,, .stands with Holder- 
ness, Hallamshire, and Richmondshire as a *suh-shlre of 
Yorkshire. 

d. of a branch leading from or into the mam 
body, or a subordinate section of a business or sys 
tem of affairs ; = branch- ; e.g. sub-bureau a bureau 
depending on the principal bureau, sub-cash a deposit 
of cash at a branch, sub-office a branch office. 

1896 Pop. Sci. Monthly Feb. 572 The bureau will be aided 
. .by "sub-bureaus. 1705 DE FOE Consohdator Wks. 1840 
IX. 354 They brought all their running cash into one bank, 
and settled a "sub-cash, depending upon the grand bank, 
in every province of the kingdom. 1909 Install. Neu S III. 
29/1 Where wood casing is desired to be us-d for the "sub- 
cncuits. 1892 Daily News 16 Sept. 5/4 A portion of the 
*sub-creek referred to, now being converted into a peaceful 
fishpond. 1804 Eiiin. Rev. V. 16 The other [college] is to 
consist of "sub-departments, one in each county. 1897 
MARY KINGSLEY If. Africa 139 Stopping at little villages 
to land passengers or at little "sub-factories to discharge 
cargo. 1844 H. STEPHENS Bk. Farm I. 564 Where "sub- 
mains are employed in particular hollows, the ground com 
prehending the drainage belonging to each hollow should 
be distinctly marked off from the rest. Ibid., A sub-mam 
drain should be made along the lowest part of the hollow. 
1907 Nature LXXVI. 554/2 The "submeter system is free 
from the objection of first cost to a great extent. 1876 
PREECE & SIVEWRIGHT Telfgr. 264 Kvery "sub-office on a 
circuit is called by the head oflice at the hour of commencing 
work. 1881 Chicago Times 17 June, Regarding the forma 
tion of a pool, the report ..recommends three "sub-pools. 
1901 Daily C/iron. 27 Dec. 3/4 The Hammersmith "sub- 
post-office. 1862 H. SPENCEK First Priuc. n. xiv. I 113 
(1875) 324 The once independent sub-sciences of Electricity, 
Magnetism, and Light. i8Sl N. DAVIS Carthage 34 "Sub- 
sewers, and other .. unsightly objects. 1891 Advance 
(Chicago) 12 Mar., "Substations at convenient distances for 
the issuance of rations. 1901 Scotsman 2 Mar. 12/5 Con 
tinuous current distribution from sub-stations. 1855 LEIF- 
CHILD Corn-Mall 89 Divided lengthwise into other "sub- veins. 
8. With advb. force, combined with adjs. and 
vbs. = in a subordinate or secondary manner or 
capacity, by subsidiary means. 

1812 COLERIDGE in Lit. Rem. (1836) I. 366 The real value 
of melody in a language is considerable as *subadditive. 
17.8 M. DAVIFS Athcn. Brit. II. 368 His Monarchic Dei 
is directed against the Heathens for subjoyning^ and "sub- 
adoring several essentially subdistinguish d Deities. 1901 
Daily News 20 Feb. 6/5 1 he Assiut dam will be subsidiary 
to that at Assuan, inasmuch as it is.. to be used "sub-con 
junctively to that at Assuan. 1860 O. W. HOLMKS Prof. 
Breakf-t.u, The "subcreative centre , as my. .friend has 
..called man. 1890 Academy 4 Jan. 7/3 Its anonymous 
author has "sub-entitled this book A New Story by an Old 
Hand . 1897-8 Amer. Jrnl. Psych. IX. 580 Pronunciation 
of an adjective, .seems to "subexcite association tracts re 
presenting substantives. 1871 EARLE Philol. Engl. Tongue 
464 The pronoun / . . has .. a sort of reflected or borrowed 
presentiveness ; what may be called a*sub-presentive power. 
1818-9 BENTHAM Ojfic. Aft. Maxim., On Militia (1830) 4 
The united wisdom and eloquence of the ruling one and the 
"sub-ruling few. 

9. (a) On the analogy of SUBDIVIDE and SUB 
DIVISION, sub- is used to denote a further division 
or distinction; e.g. sub-classify, sub-decimate; sub- 
articulation; (b) on the analogy of SUBCONTRACT 
s!>. and v., SUBINFEUD.VTIO.V, SUBLET, to denote a 
second or further action or process of the same 
kind as that denoted by the radical; e.g. sub- 
colonize to colonize from a colony, sub-infer to 
draw as a further inference, sub-rent to rent from 
one who himself rents ; sub-ciillure a culture of 
bacteria derived from a previous culture, sub-deri 
vative a derivative of a derivative, sub-fraction a 
fraction of a fraction ; sub-purchaser one who pur 
chases from a previous purchaser, sub-reformist 
one who carries out a further reform, sub-vacattee 
one who is vaccinated with lymph from a vaccinated 
person ; sub-secession a secession from a body that 
has seceded. 

1867 in Farrar Ess. Lib. Educ. 330 To imitate the copious 
ness and "subarticulation of Cicero s periods. 1894 in 371H- 
Kef. Colttmt. Inst. Deaftt Dumidbq&g We are required 
to have "subclassifications by which we may know the., 
specialized work to which it devotes itself. 1897 Daily 
News 16 Mar. 2/2 Abolition of sub.classification is recom 
mended. 1909 Daily Chron. 3 June 3/3 If you "sub-classify 
55,000 Germans into men, women and children. 1820 Q. 
Kev. XXI II. 73 A dependency upon that colony, from which 
it was "sub-colonized. 1704 J. MACMILLAN True Karr. in 
H. M. B. Reid Camer. Apost. (1896) 236 They draw a "sub- 
consequence, which is this, that it was contrar the protest 



6 

and agreement. 1664 POWER Exp. Philos. Pref. 12 Ail 
the fixed lights of Heaven are generally concluded to be 
pure Fire, and so consequently fluid also, and then *sub- 
consequentially in motion also. 1896 Allbutfs Syst. Med. 
I. 719 Large colonies [of bacteria] on "sub-cultivation will 
frequently appear as small ones. 1899 1 hid. VII. 550 Growth 
..in "subcultures may be recognisable within four hours. 
1736 BAILEY (folio) Pref., To *Subdecimate..\.v divide into 
tenths.. as 10 Thousand into Hundredths. 1845 JOWETT 
Let. to B. C. Brodie 28 Mar., [Rome] has defined, and *sub- 
defined, and deduced, and subdeduced. 1856 R. A. 
VAU CHAN Mystics (1860) I. vi. vi. 209 Every definition and 
*subdefinition would be open to some doubt. 1884 Law 
Rep. 13 Q. B. Div. 466 Long leaseholds, which he had 
mortgaged by *sub-demise. 1880 ll cstni. # Chelsea News 
2 Oct. Advt., A shop and Dwelling House, .held for a term 
of 99 years, and *subdemised at ^Bo per annum. 1614 
RALEIGH Hist. World i. 142 For these *subderiu;itions [of the 
Turks] it were infinite to examine them. 1834 H. N. COLE 
RIDGE Grk. Poets (ed. 2) 9 The modern derivative will, at 
some stage or other of us history, have been treated as an 
original substantive word, .and associations connected only 
with its primary modern senses will have given birth to*sub- 
derivatives from it. ai66i FULLER Worthies^ Wiltshire 
(1662) in. 150 Succeeding Princes, following this patern, have 
"sub-diminished their coin ever since. 18*3 BEXTHAM Not 
Paul 371 The name and person of his own *sub-discip!e 
Apollos. 1643 J. M. Sffv. Salve 26 To let in a deluge of 
forrein forces and so yet further *subdistract the remnant. 
i66a PETTY Taxes 13 How many retailers are needful to 
make the subdistributions into every village of this nation. 
a 1676 HALE Prim. Orig. Man. 11. iv. (1677) 57 And possibly 
these variously *subdiversified according to the phantasy of 
the Artificer. 1863 READE Hard Cash III. 74 What on 
earth was left for poor Dr. Wolf to do? Could he *sub- 
embezzle a Highlander s breeks? 1652 Ohsew. touching 
Forms Gtwt. 38 Constrained to epitomize, and *subepitomize 
themselves so long till at last they crumble away into the 
atomes of Monarchic. 1666 Lond. Caz. No. 42/2 The 
Farmers of his Majesties Revenue of the Hearth-Duty, in 
tending to *Sub-Farm several Counties. i764Gm!iON Misc. 
Wks. 11814) HI- 224 The lands were perhaps subfarmed by 
individuals. 1658 in Dont. State Papers 321 For seizure 
made by the *sub-farmers. 1612 W. COLSON Gen. Tres., Art 
A rit/i. A aa b/2 *Subfract!on, or fraction of fraction, as j of 4- 
1817 COLEBROOKE Algebra, etc. 14 Assimilation of sub- 
fractions, or making uniform the fraction of a fraction. 
1857 HUCKLE Civiliz. I. ix. 568 The great lords having 
granted lands on condition of fealty and other services to 
certain persons, these last *subgranted them. \%&$Laiu Rep. 
28 Chanc. Div. 121 An agreement of sub-guarantee by 
which the signatories guaranteed the signatories of the 
original guarantee against loss. 1889 W. KVE Cramer 32 
The*subholding created by Richard de Berningham. a 1656 
BP. HALL Rent. Wks. (1660) 409 From the force then of this 
relation it is easily Nubinfered that it is not lawful for 
Christian Churches, .to forsake the communion of each other. 
1905 British Medical Journal 27 May 1141 The injection in 
small amounts will not serve to infect the *subinoculated 
animal. 1902 Daily C /iron. 26 Nov. 6/6 The final *sub-Iod^er 
was squeezed out upon the landing for his sleeping-place. 
1884 Law Times 29 Nov. 80/1 The mortgagees in fee of an 
hotel * sub-mortgaged to their bankers in 1879. 1883 Law 
Times Rep. (N.S.) XLIX. 556/1 The defendants last added 
are sub-mortgagees of the trustee. 1872 E. W. ROBERTSON 
Hist. Ess. 242 The client of that age was apparently a "sub- 
occupier of public land under his Patronus. iB66 Law Reft. 
i Q. B. Cases 589 On his seeking to get the pawn back from an 
insolvent *sub-pawnee. Ibid., If the pawnee may repledge 
the pawn, the *sub-pledgee may do the same, and so on ad 
infinitum. 1755 Gentt. Mag. XXV. 354 They have suc 
cessively come into the hands of many *sub- proprietors. 1853 
HYDE CLARKE Diet., * Sub-purchaser. 1643 SIR T. BROWNE 
Relig. Med. i. 54 The Church of Rome condemneth us, 
wee likewise them, the *Sub-reformists and Sectaries sen- 
tence the Doctrine of our Church as damnable [etc.]. 1826 
BELL Comm. Laws Scot. i. 67 Possession of the *subrents. 
1902 R. BAGOT Donna Diana ii. 13 An apartment he had 
*sub-rented from a wealthy American widow. 1897 Advance 
(Chicago) 24 June 813/1, $500 of income from sub-rental. 
1849 HOOKER Himal. Jrnls. (1854) I. xvii. 388 Through 
the medium of several *sub. renting classes. >88o BURTON 
Reign Q* Anne I. ii. 66 "Sub-secessions from the successive 
seceding bodies. 1680 ALLEN Peace fy Unity Pref, 80 These 
seperationsand*sub-seperatipns. i&wDaity Tribune CN. V.) 
5 July, In not all of the cities is administration *sub-sold 
to confederated crime and to blackmailed business. 1895 



.897 MARY KIKGSLEV W. Africa 393 
traders have very risky lives of it. 1900 Century Mag. 
LIX. 493/2 The minister of the interior.. whose touches 
thrill by devolution and *subtransmission throughout the 
mighty system. 1897 Allbutfs Syst. Mrd. II, 592 All the 
*sub-vaccinees of the vaccinifer (who himself subsequently 
suffered from erysipelas) did not suffer from erysipelas. 1873 
RoutledgJs YoungGentl. Mag. 85 *Sub- variation on White s 
thirteenth move. 

10. Math. Compounded with adjs. expressing 
ratio, sub~ denotes a ratio the opposite of that 
expressed by the radical element, as in L. subdupltis 
SUBDUPLE, subtriplus SUBTKIPLE, late L. snbmul- 
tiplus SUBMULTIPLE ; e. g. subdecuple = denoting 
the ratio i : 10, "\subdouble - SUBDUFLK, t sitlt- 
nwitripa rtient ~ \ : 9, i.e. 8 : 75, subsesquiter- 
tial -3:4, subsuperparticular^ etc. Analogously, 
inSuBDUPLiCATE, etc. the prefix is employed to 
express the ratio of the square (etc.) roots of 
quantities ; but these compounds have been some 
times erron. used for subduple^ etc. (cf. quot. 1657 
below). 

This use is modelled (in late L.) on that of Gr. {FJTO-, as in 
uTrofiin-Aao-tov, late L. snbduplus. Ratios of this kind were 
called un-oAoyoi, the opposite irpoAoycx, iuro- app. expressing 
the notion of proportion of lesser inequality . (Another 
arithmetical use of the Greek and Latin prefixes is unre- 



SUB-, 

presented in Eng. ; viz. that exemplified in UITOTPITO?, L. 
snbtei-tiiis, lit. * a third less , i. e. denoting a ratio 2/s : l 
L e. 2 : 3.) 

1570 BILLINGSLEY Euclid 128 Comparing the lesse quan- 
titie to the greater, it \sc, proportion] is called submultiplex, 
subsuperparticular, subsuperparticnt, submultiplex super- 
particular, and submultiplex superpartient. 1648 WILKINS 
Matli. Magic I. vii. 47 As one of these under Pulleys doth 
abate halfe of that heavinesse which the weight hath in it 
self, and cause the power to be in a sub-duple proportion 
unto it, so two of them doe abate halfe of that which remains, 
and cause a subquadruple proportion betwixt the weight 
and the power; three of them a subsextuple, four a sub- 
octuple. Ibid. 50 If unto this lower Pulley there were 
added another, then the power would be unto the weight 
in a subquintuple proportion. If a third, a subseptuple. 
1652 URQUHART Jewel 288 Jt would bear the analogy.. of 
a subnovitripartient eights ; that is to say, . . the whole being 
the Dividend, and my Nomenclature the Divisor, the quo 
tient would be nine, with a fraction of three eights ; or yet 
more clearly, as the Proportion of 72. to 675. 1653 H. MORE 
A ntid.A th. I. vi. 4(1712.110 The Notion of Sub-double, which 
accrued to that Lead which had half cut away. 1657 HOBBES 
vJijKrrfGfWM.Wks. i845VII.375ltisbutsubquad[r]uplicate, 
as you call it, or the quarter of it, as I call it. 1674 JEAKE 
Arith. (1696) 209 As the Series of the Numbers from the 
Units place are continued in a decuple proportion, .so their 
value decreaseth in a subdecuple proportion, a 1696 SCAR- 
BURGH Euclid (1705) 181 The proportion is Subsuperparti 
cular, and named Subsesquialteral, which is thus noted 2 /s- 
/*/W.,Subsupeipartient, as 5 to 8, or 5/ x is subsupertriquintal : 
and 10 to 1 4, or 1 o/ 14 isSuhsuperbiquintal. 1709-29 V. MANDEY 
Syst. Math., Arith. 37 Proportion Subduple, Subtriple, Sub- 
sesquialter, Subsuperbipartient. 1728 CHAMBERS CjfCf, s. v. 
Ratio, 3 to 2 is in a Sesquiafterate Ratio; 2 to 3 in a Sub- 
sesquialterate. 1732 h. ROBINSON Aiiim. Oecon. 267 The 
simple and subquadruplicate Ratios of these Lengths. 1795 
T. MAURICE Himiostan (1820) I. I. ii. 75 The length of 
human life is diminished.. in a subdecuple ratio. 

III. Next below ; near or close (to) ; subsequent 
(to). (As a living prefix sub- is restricted in this 
sense to prepositional uses : the advb. use is seen 
in SUBSEQUENT.) 

11. Near to (a particular region or point), as 
in L. suburbdnus SUBURBAN ; e. g. SUB-BASAL, 
SDBDOBSAL, SUB-LITTORAL, SUBMABGINAL. 

Such words are often capable of another analysis (see 20 d). 

12. Gcog. and Ccol. a. Lying about the base of 
or subjacent to mountains designated by the second 
element, hence, of less height than mountains of 
similar height to these, characteristic of regions of 
such altitude, as L. subalflnus SUBALPINE ; e. g. 
sub-Andean, -Andine, SUBAPEXNIKE, sub-Etnean, 
sub- Himalayan. Hence in the name of a district, 
e. g. Sub-Hi>nalaya(s. 

1875 Encycl. Brit. 1 1 1. 744 The fourth and last Subregion 
of South America, .may be most fitly named the "Suban- 
dean. 1885 Linn. Soc. Jrnl., Hat. XXII.6 A*subandine as 
well as an andine zone. 1833 LYELL Pnnc. Ceol. 1 1 1. 76 The 
marine sub-Etnean beds. 1850 ANSTED F.lem. Geol., Min., 
etc. 358 The formations composing the Sewalik hills, which 
have sometimes been called the *Sub-HimaIayans. 1851 
Jrnl. R. Geog.Soc. XXI. 59 The Siwalik or sub-Himalayan 
range. 1851 MANTELL Petrifactions v. I. 413 Bones of 
mammalia from the "Sub-Himalayas. 1883 Proc. R. Geog. 
Soc. V. 617 The tertiaries of the Sub-Himalaya. 

b. Denoting a region or zone adjacent to or on 
the borders of that designated by the second 
element ; e. g. subantarclic, -frigid, -torrid. 

1875 Encycl. Brit. III. 745 Sphenisciiix, a family limited 
to the Antarctic or "Subantarctic Ocean. 1909 (title) The 
Subantarctic islands of New Zealand. 1880 DANA Man. 
C,eol. (ed. 3) 609 The corresponding zones in latitude.. are 
i. Equatorial, LaL o-i5...6. Subarctic, 58-66. 1895 
Forum June 468 There was once a widespread delusion in 
the sub-arid belt.. that rainfall follows the plough. 1852 
DANA Crust. \\. 1472 Its southern portion, .appears to per 
tain. .to the Subfrigid [Region]. 1896 Yearbk. U. S. Deft. 
Aerie. 63r The *subhumid region. 1852 HENFREY Veget. 
Eur. 103 The regions which may be distinguished on the 
West side of the Scandinavian Alps are : i. The Maritime 
region; 2. The *Subsylvatic region; 3. The Subalpine 
region ; and 4. The Alpine region. 1852 DANA Crust, n. 
1510 The genus Porcellana has but two-thirds as many 
species in the temperate as in the torrid zone. Yet the *sub- 
teniperate region contains but one less than the "subtorrid. 

13. A/us. Designating a note next to or next 
below some principal note, as in med.L. subprinci- 
palis SUBPBIKCIPAL ; e. g. SUBTONIC. (Cf. 4.) 

14. Combined with adjs. with the sense of lower 
condition or degree (or size) than that denoted 
by the original adj. ; e. g. stib-angelical, -divine, 
-judicial, -maximal, -miliary, -regal. Also (U.S.) 
in adjs. expressing an inferior educational status, 
as sub-fresh (also -freshman), -primary. 

This sense tends to blend with 10. 

1652 BENLOWES Tiuofk. Pref., Man.. is of all Creatures 
*sub-angelical the Almighties Masterpiece. 1608 HIEROH 
Defence n. 83 These.. maye be called conformable to the 
Canonicall or "suboannonical. 1610 DONNE Pseudo-martyr 
185 Nor know we whether they will pleade Diuine Law, 
that is, places of Scripture, or *Sub diuine Law, which is in 
terpretation of Fathers. 1652 Bp. HALL Invis. World I. 2 



;ity College. 1896 Living Jofics Cytl. (N. Y.) II. 
264 Classical, scientific and mechanical *sub-freshmanclasses. 



in the Cit; 



1808 BENTHAM .V<r. Reform 67 All other persons who bear 
any part in the cause : Judge, sub-judicial officers, parlies. 
1872 SWINBURNE Under Microscope 79 Ah, my lord. . , says 
the jackal to the lion, . observe howall other living creatures 
belong but to some *sub-leonine class . 1890 W. JAMES Pntu. 



SUB-. 

Psychol. 1. 235 "Submaximal nerve-irritations. 1880 A. FLINT 
Princ. Med. 194 The ultimate "submiliary granula coalesce to 
make. .nodules. 1896 AllbutCs Syst. Med. I. 560 The body 
can resist the action of submmimal doses of living bacteria. 
1890 Syd, Soc. Lejc., Sttbminimal stimulus, a stimulus 
which is not strong enough to produce any obvious effect. 
1898 Advance (Chicago) 17 Feb. 206/2 The institution has 
never had a sub-preparatory department, as several of the 
young colleges have. 1895 Proc. t$th Conv. Instr. Dtaf 
293 In sub primary work there is surely an interesting field 
for the constructive talent. 1810 LAMB Let. to T. Manning 
2 Jan., The ordinary titles of *sub-retjal dignity. 1878 
H. M. STANLEY Dark Cant. I. xv. 390 His sub-regal court. 
1907 Nature LXXVI. 146/1 "Subthermal baths, given at 
temperatures below blood heat. 

15. ZooL In names of divisions of animals re 
garded as having only imperfectly developed the 
characteristics denoted by the word to which sub- 
is prefixed, as Subgrallatores, Submytilacea, Sub- 
nngulata. English derivatives have been occas. 
formed ; z.g.snbostracean, a mollusk of the family 
Subostracea ; sub plantigrade, of or resembling tlie 
group Sitbplantigrada, not quite plantigrade. 

1836 Penny Cycl. V. 313/2 [De Blainvilie] allows that these 
last ought to form a distinct genus of the family of *Sub- 
.ostraceans. 1883 Encycl. Brit. XV. 434 The greater number 
of the Carnivora. .may be called *subplantigrade , often 
when at rest applying the whole of the sole to the ground. 

16. In craniometry, forming adjs. designating a 
type of skull having an index next below that of 
the type denoted by the second element ; e. g. 
subbrachycephalicj ~ous (hence -cephaly}^ subdo- 
lichocephalic, -ous (hence -cephalism}. 

These terms are based on Broca s classification, who used 
the L. forms (masc. pi.) subbrachycephali^ -doiichocephali. 

1863-4 THURNAM tn Mem. Anthropol. Soc. I. 461 With 
M. Uroca, it is desirable to admit a sub-dolichocephalic 
and a *sub-brachycephalic class [of skulls]. Ibid. 510 Only 
about half [the skulls) are brachyccphalous or * 3 ub-brachy- 
Cephalous. 1878 BAKTLEY tr. Tofiinard s Antlirop. \\. xii. 
499 Low stature, woolly hair, black skin, and *sub-brachy- 
ceplialy. 1895 Smithsonian Rep. \. 515 His cephalic index 
falls down to *subdolichocephalism. 1896 KKANE Ethnol. 
xii. 321 The shape of the head. .is.. here and there mes.ui- 
cephalous and even *sub-dolichocephalous. 1890 BILLINGS 
Nat. Med. Diet., *Sub-mesatiiephatic t having a cephalic 
index of 75 or 76. 1890 H. ELLIS Criminal in. 52 Out of 
thirty criminals eight presented brains and skulls of a., 
capacity only found in "submicrocephalic subjects. 1863-4 
THURNAM in Mem. Anthropol. Soc. L 473 All these crania : 
are very dolichocephalous. The first . . is a remarkable speci- j 
men of synostosis. ..The form is *sub-scaphocepha!ic. 

17. In the names of certain sectaries, = after, 
consequent upon, the opposite of SUPRA- (q.v.); 

e.g. SUBLAPSARIAN, SUBMORTUARIAN. 

18. In designations of periods immediately 
* below or posterior to a particular period, as in 

SUBAPOSTOUC. 

1910 Encycl. Brit. (ed. ii) XII. 59 The following stages 
in the glaciation of North America : . . The Aftonian ( ist in- j 
terglacial). The *sub-Aftonian or Jerseyan (ist glacial 1 . 
1902 Encycl. Brit. XXXI. 57 [Bugelkanne] is found every 
where in the area, made of various local clays, and it long j 
survived into the Geometric or *sub-Mycenaean period. 

IV. Incomplete(ly), imperfect(ly), partial(ly). 

* with adverbial meaning. 

19. Prefixed to adjs. or pples. of a general 
character, as in L. subabsurdus somewhat absurd, 
subobscums SUBOBSCURE ; e.g. subanahgous some 
what similar, subaitdible imperfectly, slightly, or 
barely audible. (The precise force of sub- may vary 
contextually from * only slightly to * not quite, 
all but .) 

1870 LOWELL Study Wind. 291 A thimbleful of,.*subaci- 
dulous Hock. 1767 Phil. Trans. LVII. 417 Little seeds j 
*subanalogous, or somewhat resembling those we find in 
the fructification of the Fucus s. 1839 LEVER Harry Lor- 
rfyuervi, The faint "sub-audible ejaculation of Father Luke, j 
when he was recovered enough to speak. 1884 A. LANG 
Custom fy Myth 236 A "sub-barbaric society say that of ! 
Zululand. 1668 H. MORE Div. Dial. i. xxxvii. I. 160 This 
"subderisorious mirth. 1812-34 Goo.fs Study Med. (ed. 4) 
J. 330 The mixture "sub-diluted for bathing, a 1734 NORTH 
Life Ld. KP r North (1742) 228 The Spaniards have pecu- ! 
liar Councils, call d Juntos,, .which prevents such *sub- ; 
emergent Councils as these [sc. English cabinet councils], i 
184* LOUDON Suburban Hort. 17 *Sub-evergreen herbaceous ! 
plants are: CEnothera biennis and several other species, ; 
Pentstemon, Chelone, Asters. 1854 BADHAM Halieut. 180 
Others, *subgregarious in their taste, swim about in small 
detached parties. 1903 GEIKIE Tcxt-bk. Geol. (ed. 4) I. 18 I 
The coronal atmosphere . . consists mainly of *subincan* | 
descent hydrogen, \3fafSpectator 31 Dec. 1508 The sky ! 
is still "subluminous. 1892 ZANGWILL Bow Myst. 87 A I 
curious, sub-mocking smile. 1807 Spirit Ptibl. Jrnls. \ 
XI. 84, I swam with *subnatant tadpoles, I frisked with 
volatile newts. 1866 ODLING Anim. Chem. 154, I now add 
to the free iodine some *suboxidised substance. 1650 MIL 
TON Tenure of Kings 59 Not prelatical, or of this late fac 
tion "subprelatical. 1817 KIRBV & SP. Entomol. (1818) II. 
277 A *subputrescent stalk of Angelica. 1618 HALES in 
Gold. Kern. u. (1673) 23 That Jutrwnia, that "subrustick 
shamefastncss of many men. 1865 Pall Mall Gaz. 1 1 Nov. 
9 It might be imagined that the advertisement conveyed a 
*subsarcastic touch. 1876 Nature XIV. 50^/2 The "Sub- 
Semitic languages of Africa. 1877 SWINBURNE Note on C. 
Bronte \\ Its supeihuman or *subsimious absurdity. 1881 
WESTCOTT & HORT Grk, N. T. II. 230 What may be called 
1 *subsingular readings which have only secondary support, 
1786 / //;/. Trans. LXXVI. 319 Both of them immersed m 
"subtepid water. 01734 NORTH Exam. in. vii. (1740) 549 
This put abundance of People of "subvirile Tempers, into 
a Twitter. 1610 VENNU l r ia Recta viii. 164 A *Subvulgar 



t Diet U as it were a meane betweene the Accurate, and 
1 Vulgar. 

(0} Such compounds are occas. used subst. 
1635 PERSON Varieties \\. 63 Whether that thing engendred 
bee a Star, or any other celestiall vertue, whereunto this 
*subdelicient striveth to attaine. 1633 KAHL MANCH. Al 
Mondo (1636) 86 There be certaine *subsapients so worldly 
| wise, as they thinke all other men insipients. 
20. In technical use, chiefly Nat. Hist. 
A small proportion only of the more commonly used com 
pounds are illustrated here. 

a. \Vith adjs. of colour, as in L. sitbalbidits 
somewhat white, whitish, sitblividus somewhat 

livid, sttbm gcr blackish, subviridis greenish, late 

or mod.L. subcitnnus SUBCITRINE, subpallidus 

: (for suppallidus] palish, subnlfus (for ntrruftis] 

j reddish ; e.g. subalbid, -luteoiis^ -pale, -red, -virid. 

c 53 Juiiic. Urines 11. viii. 33 b, Vryne pale or *subpale. 
Ibid. x. 37 Rudy vryne is moyst like fync golde, and *sub- 
rufe goldysshe. Ibid. xi. 39 mnrg , Rede or "subrede vryne. 
li id. xii. 41 Vryne Rubicunde or *Subrubicunde. Ibid. 
j xiii. 42 Afore y l vryu were Kubie or "subrubie. 1590 
I BARROUGH Mtth. Phystck \\. viii. (1596) 84 If his spittle 
..be yealow and *subpale. 1656 BLOUXT Glossogr.^ *Sni>- 
albid^ somewhat white. 1637 TOMLINSON Reno it s Di$f>. 300 
Seseh hutii lignous..*subrubeous . surcles. Ibid. 610 A 
*subrufe ponderous Powder. 1661 LOVELL Hist. Anim. ^ 
Min. 2i2Tethyia. If red is edible, the pale and Sublmeous 
are bitterish. 1694 SALMON Bate s Disf. (1713) 217 2 Of a 
*subvirid or greenish blue Colour. Ibid. 3-59 i A *Subrubid 
or Livor coloured soft Calx. 1742 / ////. I rans. XLII. 125 
A large tough *subrubicund Polypus. 1777 T. PEHCIVAL. 
Ess. I. 192 The portion with cantharides. .neither assumed 
a *sublivid, nor an ash colour. 1800 SHAW Gen. Zeal. I. 490 
Dtdelphis Obesitlti,. .""Subierrngiiiuus Opossum. 1802 Ibid, 
III. 397 Coluber Nasicornis^ . . *Su!)Olivaceo-flave.sccTit 
Snake. 1803 /<W. IV. 556 Hoiacentrus Bengalensis, . . "Sub. 
fulvous Holocenlrus. 1804 Ibid. V. 282 Riija Pastnta-a,.. 
*Sul*oIiv;i..eous Ray. 1809 Ibid. VII. 272 -Wr/.r Cassia,.. 
"Suliluteoiis Owl. 1815 SiKi HEs s in Shaw s Gen. Zosl. IX. 
84 Ufa "subrufouschesmit. 1817 // /(/. X. 626 "Subtestaceous 
Warbler, spotted with brown. 1846 DANA Zooph. (1848) 66.f 
Colour *subminiace jus. 1847 Proc. Bentt. A at. Club II. v. 
242 Elytra.. of a dark "sub-xneous green. Ibid. 248 The 
margin often *sub-piceous. 1852 DANA Crust. I. 395 The legs 
are "subochreous. 1887 W*. PHILLIPS Brit. Discoinycetes 13 
Margin, ."subcinnamumeuus. 1898 Syd. SPC. Lex. t Sub- 
Jlavous ligitnient, short ligaments of yellow elastic tissue 
connecting the lamina of the vertebra:. 1900 ll cstm. Gaz. 
29 June 2/1 Her complexion ^sub-olive. 

b. With adjs. denoting surface texture, contour, 
or marking, substance, consistency, composition, 
taste, odour, as in L. subdcer somewhat acrid, 
subaddus SUBACID, subdiirns somewhat hard, siib- 
satsus saltish, mod.L. sitblanatus somewhat woolly; 
e.g. wboetrb) -acrid % -coriaceous, -\-dure, -granular, 
-ate, -ated, -ose, -hornblendic, -membranous, -stony , 
-villose, -villoits. 

1638 RAWLEY tr. Bacons Life fy Death (1650) 40 It must 
be ordered, .that the Juyce of the Body, bee somewhat hard, 
and that it be fatty, or *subroscide. i6s7To.\iLissoN Renous 
Disf>, 259 Its sapour is very sweet, *subamare, austere and 
somewhat aromatical. Ibid. 382 [Dates] are.. soft, but car- 
nous, *subdure within, 1676 GKEW Anat, Plants (1682) 
246 Spirit of Nitre is a "subalkali/ate Spirit. Ibid. 247 Spit it 
of Salt is a *subalkaline Acid. 1694 SALMON Bate s Di$p t 
(1713) 248/2 These Tinctures are hot and dry, substringent. 
1694 Phil. Trans. XVIII. 15 A "subsaline and somewhat 
austere Scrum. 1699 EVELYN Acetaria (1729) 129 Its pin- 
guid. *subdulcid, and agreeable Nature. 1702 Phil. Trans. 
XXIII. 1165 Alga Marina is *Subacrid and Sweet. Ibid, 
1171 The Roots are sweet and *subacerbe. 1756 P. BROWNE 
Jamaica 75 Its fibres are always rigid and "subdiaphane. 



SUB-. 

66 Slender subossilied rings. 1895 J. W. POWELL Physiogr. 
Processes in Nat. Geog. Monogr. I. i The interior of the 
earth is in a *subfluid condition, 

C. With adjs. expressing shape, conformation, 
or physical habit, as in mod.L. stibn qualis SUB- 



1760 J. Ltv./ntroti. Bvt. ill. iv. (1765) \foSar>nentose\ when 
they are Repent and *bubnude. 1777 PENNANT Brit. Zool. 
IV. 3 A *sub-cordated body. 1777 S. ROBSON Brit. Flora 
117 Leaves ovato-oblong, *subpilose. Ibid. 131 Branches 



*subvillose. 1781 Phil. Trans. LXXX. 375 A spissid sub- 
pellucid liquid. 1785 MARIYN Rousseau s Bot. xxvi. (1794) 
38? The stem is "subherbaceous. 1787 tr. Linnsus ham. 
Plants 494 Legume rhombed, turgid, "subvillous. Ibid. 547 
Pappus sessile, *subplumy. Ibid. 584 Seeds . . *submem- 
branous, inverse-hearted. Ibid. 683 Berry "substriated. 179* 
WITHERING Z>V/../4rrii;ri,v.(ed. 2) HI. 226 Tremelln Nostoc. 
. .*Sub-gelatinous. 1817 KIRBY& Sr. Entomol. (1818)11.418 
Both, .have the material which diffuses their light included 
in a hollow "subtransparent projection of the head. Ibtd. 
(1843) II. 44 Their abdomen swollen into an immense "sub- 
diaphanous sphere filled by a kind of honey. 1822 J. PARKIN. 
SON Outl. Oryctol. 193 The operculum is small, elliptical, 
and "subosseous. Ibid. 201 V oluta digitaltna : decus 
sated, "subgranular. 1824 R. K. GREVILLB Scot. Cryptog. 
Flora II. pi. no The surface covered with a minute "sub- 
pulverulent substance. 1826 KIRUY& SP. Entomol. III. 338 
An internal "subniembranaceous tooth or process. i8a8 
STARK Elem. Nat. Hist. II. 420 Axis slender, horny, or 
*sub-stonyin the centre. 1829 LOUDON Encycl. Plants(iZ^) 
15 Leaves, ."sub-coriaceous. H>id. 591 Leaves subcordate 
ses^le seirate subvillous. Ibid. 1023 *Substriate or ru 
gose. 1833 HOOKER in Smith s En^. J< lora V. i. 46 Leaves 
"subopauue. 1833-4 J P HILI - IPS (icol. in Encycl. Metrof. 
(1845) VI. 562/2 An irregular., bed.. of serpentine, .exhibits 
. .a "sublaminated structure. 1839 DE LA BKCHE Rff. Geol. 
Cornwall^ etc. iii. 64 The latter with a "sub-schistose struc 
ture. 1839 G. ROBERTS Dict.Geol.^*Sub lai>tellar.., ex 
tremely thin, like a sheet of paper. 1842 PKRCIVAI. Rep. 
Geol. Connect. 32 A dark grey *sub-porphyritic, *sub-horn- 
btendic rock. 1846 DANA Zooph. (1848) 451 Branchlets.. 
subterete and proliferous. Ibid. 590 Base "subgranulous. 
1847 Proc. Benv. Nat. Club II. v. 236 Body slightly pube 
scent or "subglabrous. 1847 W. E. STBKLE field Bot. 201 
Bracts small, "sub-foliaceous. 1849 DANA Geol. xvii. (1850) 
632 Hypersihene.. having a peaily or "submetallic lustre. 
1870 HOOKER Stud. Flora 196 Fruit compressed, obovale, 
*subhispid. 1871 W. A. LKIGHTON Lichen-flora 27 Apo- 
thecia lecanorine or "sub-biatorine. 1880 GUNTHER Fishes 



EQUAL, subamptexicaulis slightly amplexicaul, sub- 
obdlsus somewhat obtuse, subrtpandus somewliat 
repand, sttbsessilis SUBSESSILE ; e. g. sub-acumi 
nate, -arborescent^ -cordate^ -atcd^ -hooked, -lunate^ 
-rcpand) -simple. 

1752 J. HILL Hist. Anint. 131 The "sublong and trans 
versely radiated Buccinum. 1756 P. BKOWNK Jamaica 101 
The "subarborescent Poly podium with a large lulled fuliace. 
?775 J. JENKIHSON Linmeus^ Brit, Plants 148 The silicula 
is subcordate. Ibid. 163 Crowfoot Cranesbill with twoflowtrb 
on each peduncle, 4 subpeltaied. 1777 S. ROBSON Brit. Flora 
71 Leaves reniform, *subpeltate. Ibut. 124 Leaves sub- 
hastate. Ibid. 138 Clusters *subimbricate. Ibid. 145 Petals 
*sublanceolate. Ibid. 159 Leaves lineari-lanceolate, *>ub- 
serrate. Ibid. 170 Peduncles uniflorous. subcorymbose. Il i.l. 
188 Leaves ovate, obtuse, "subcrenale. It-id. -2^-2 Female-; 
"subj-iedunculate. Ibid. 290 Leafits ovate, *Mibciliate. Ibid. 
296 Leaves. . lanceolate, *sublaciniate. Ibid. 304 Stem almost 
simple, "subventricose. 1785 MARTVN Roi. span s Bot. .\xiii. 
(1794! 32 1 The stem-leaves oblong and ."M-ibbinuous. ///,/. 446 
Balm of Ciilead Fir h;is the leaves subemarginate. 1787 tr. 
Linnaeus Fain. /Va/Ji8oCor[olla]. Uin ver>>al not uniform, 
*subradiate. Ibid. 188 Petals five, end nick -in flee ted, *<ub- 
unequal. Ibid. 282 Germ wedge -for in, angular, "subpedicel d. 
Ii-:d. 534 Cor[olla]. Compound *subinibricated. Ibid. 761 
Seeds . . flat inward*, *subconvex outwardly. Ibid, 763 
Villotis-murex d without, with *subrevolute margins, c 1789 
Encycl. Brit. (1797) III. 447 2 The floiets \subpedicellaud, 
or standing on very ^ioit flower-stalks. 1800 SHAW Gen. Zfol. 
1.264 *Sub-auriculated dusky Seal. 1802 Ib.d lll-s^ Ilie 
tail abruptly subacuminate, 1809 Ibid. VII. 313 ">ub- 
criiiated ferruginous Shi ike. 1815 SIEIMU-.NS in Shaw s, Gen. 
Zoi l. IX. 92 Tail wedge-shaped itli "sublimate ferruginous 
fasciae. 1817 Ibid. X. 381 Subcre&ted Fljcaicher. 1819 
lii 



oi . . 92 ai wege-sape ti suimate errugnous 
fasciae. 1817 Ibid. X. 381 Subcre&ted Fljcaicher. 1819 
liid. XI. =,19 Beak. .the apex subtruncate. 1819 (J. SA- 
MOUELLK Entomol. Coinpend. 93 Hands externally suiter- 
rated. 1821 S. GRAY Brit. Wanfs II. 3 Lcailets -nb- 
auricled at the base. i8zz \\ . P C. BARTON Flora N. Amcr. 
II. 71 Corolla sub-canip.mulate, five-lobed. 1822 J. J AR- 
KINSON Outl. Oryctol. ^ Subpediculated masses. Ibid 56 
With thkk lamellee windingly plaited, *subcristated. Ibid. 
74 Granulated and subdentated ?,tria;. Ibid. 131 1 he mouth 
"subreniform, with five pruminent lips. Ibid. 223 Pecten 
disfors : *^ubinequivalved. Ibid. 224 fiicatula tubifera : 
*sul>irregular. 1823 K. K. GIUAILLE Scot. Cryptog. Flora 
I. pi. 46 Plants some w! i at crustaceous or subst ipitate. 
i8z6 KIRIIV & SP. Entomol. III. 170 The Libellulina Mac- 
Leay (whose metamorphosis that gentleman has denomina. 
ted subsemicomplete, a term warranted by their losing in 
their perfect state the mask before described). Ibid. 319 In 
Scotia. ,&c., . .the antenna; are. .in the females con volute or 
"subspiral. Ibid. 427 [The labial palpi] being most fre 
quently filiform or *subciavate. 1816 CROUCH La:n,irck s 
Conclwl, 15 Shell transverse, *subequivalve, inequilateral. 
Ibid. iS Shell *stibtransverse. Ibid. 19 Shell, . sublobate at 
the base. Ibid. 20 Shell inequivalve, . .the superior margin 
rounded, *subplicate. 1829 LOUDON Encycl. Wants (i336j 7 
Leaves ovate acute *sub-repand. Ibid. 17 Peduncle axillary 
*subracemose. Ibid. 701 Leaves subamplexicaul. 1833 
, HOOKER in Smith s Eng.FloraV. 1. 107 The mouth truncated 
i subciliated. Ibid. 108 Stem . . *subsimple. 1839-47 Todd s 
. Cycl. Anat. III. 376/2 The coracoid..is a strong, "subcorn- 
pressed, *subclongate bone, 1842 rcnny L ycl. XXII. 53/1 
1 Shell. . painted with . .transverse,*subfasctcuiated lines. 1846 
1 DANA Zooph. (1848) 461 Uranchlets Nubdigitiform. Ibid. 527 
\ Branches, ."subdilatate at apex. 1847 W. K. STEELK Field 
i Bot. ii Heads subumbellate. 1847 / >*<*" Berjv. Nat. Club 
II. v. 240 Posterior tarsi wit Ii the first and last joints "subelon- 
gated. 1849 fbi f- v ii- 371 With two cur ved subpedicled claws. 
1849 DANA Geol. App. i. (1850) 702 "Sub alate above, sub. 
orbiculate behind. 1851 Crust. \\. 703 The exterior plates 
of the abdomen have a triangular *subobtuse termination. 
1853 ROVLK Mat. Med. 641 Leaves solitary. Hat, *subpecti- 
nate. 1854 HOOKER Himal. Jrnls. I. iii. 86 1 he larger, white 
flowered, *sub-arboraceousspeciesprevailed. 1856 W.CLARK 
tr. yan der fforvens Zaol, I. 728 Shell . . furnished with small 
auricula, "subgaping at theside. 1858 Ibid, II. 390 Upper 
mandible with lip subhooked. 1863 J. G. BAKEK N. 
Yorksh. 195 A native of Italy and Provence, which has 
been noted in a *subspontaneous state about the Yore. 1870 
HOOKKK Stuff. Flora 224 Camp?^ulac(r2e. .filaments free or 
*subconnate. Ibid. 301 Corolla J in., subcampanulate. 
Ibid. 348 Shrubby, 1-5 ft., rarely *-.u!>arboreous (10-20 ft.). 
1887 W. PiiiLLii S Brit. Dtscomycftcs 145 Mouth subcon. 
nivent. i&$Syd.Soc. LfX.^SMin>ertniforni, shaped some 
what like a worm. 

d. With adjs. denoting position, as in SUBCEN- 
TRAL, Si iiLATEHAL ; e.g. sub-ascending^ -erect) -in 
ternal, -opposite, -terminal. 

1787 tr. Linnaeus Fain. Plants 501 Coi[olla] papiliona 
ceous... Keel lanced, "subascending. Ibid. 761 Petals four 
. . subopposite to the calyx-divisions. 1822 J. PARKINSON 
Outl. Oryttol. 208 Cancellated by transverse keels and 
subobllque vertical stride. 1826 CROUCH Lamarck s Con~ 
chol. 18 Ligament marginal, subinternnl. 1826 KIRBV & 
SP. Entomol. III. 376 The "Subinterno-medial Nervure. 
Ibid., The "Subexterno-inedial Nervure. A nervure that. . 
intervenes between the extcrno-iiifdi.il and interno-medial. 
Ibid. 383 Postfurca...A process of the Endosternum, ter 
minating in three sub-horizontal acute branches, resem 
bling.. the letter Y- 1828 STARK Elem. A r /. Hist. II. 149 
Peduncles of the eyes short and thick, and the eyes "sub- 
terminal. 1829 LOUDON Encycl. Plants (1836) 269 Leaves 
about 12 "sub erect. 183* LINDLKV Introd, Bot. 94 If the 
angle formed by the divergence is between IO D and 20, the 
vein may be said to be nearly parallel (subfarallela). Index, 
*Subparallel. 1833 HOOKKR in Smith s Eng. Flora V. t. 24 
Leaves, ."subsecund rigid canaliculate. 1851 DANA Crust. 
n. 1184 Seta;.. on the two "subultimate joints all shorter 
than the joints. 1856 WOODWARD Mo^ usca 207 Peristome 
thin, . .nucleus sub-external. 1870 HOOKKR .Stud. Flora 47 4 
tranches all "subradical or o. 1880 (ANTHER Fishes 473 
Cleft of the moutb vertical or sub-vertical. 1843 Florist s 



STTB-. 

Jrtil. (1846) IV. 53 The plant has a rambling, *subscandent 
habit. 1901 Jrnl. Sch. Gcog. Nov. 329/3 The channel walls 
are usually "sub-parallel and nearly straight. 

e. With atljs. designating geometrical forms, as in 
mod.L. subcylindricus somewhat or approximately 
cylindrical, subtriangularis SUBTRIANGULAB ; e. g. 
subconic(al,-fyiindric(al, -pentagonal ( = five-sided, 
but not forming a regular pentagon), -oblong, 
-spherical, -spheroidal, 

1752 J. HILL Hist. Anint. 91 The oblong Amphitrite . . 
is of a "subcylindric figure. 1786 Phil. Trans. LXXVI. 
166 A.. Helix of a "subconical form. 1787 tr. Linnams 
Fain. Plants 255 Anthers *suboblong. Ibid. 469 Berry 
subglobular, "subconic. 1792 WITHERING Bot. Arrangem. 
(ed. 2) III. 164 Thickly set with very small "sub-sphasroidal 
Tubercles. 1798 Phil. Trans. LXXXVIII. 440 He derives 
this variety, which he calls *subpyramidal, from a decrease 
of three rows of molecules, at the angles of the base of the 
two pyramids of the primitive rhomboid. 1804 SHAW Gen. 



8 

This "subcachinnating method of dissipating his spleen. 
1806 G. Adams Nat. f, E.rf. Pliilos. (Philad.) I. App. 549 
Sulphat of Ammonia "Subdeliquesces. Ibid. 550 Borax 



SUBACT. 



more or less thickened. 1819 SAMOUEI.LK Entomol. Com- 
petui. 83 The fourth [abdomen joint] "subquadrate. IHd., 
Shell "subcircular. 1822 J. PARKINSON Ontl. Oryctol. 56 
A[lcyoniniu} trigonum. Carnous, cellular, *subtrigonal. 
Ibid. 80 The stars "subpentagonal. Ibid. 116 Echinus ra- 
pestris. "Subelliptical. Ibid. 221 Pinna snbquadrivalvis.. 
"subtetragonal. Ibid. 228 Terebrattila alata : "subtrigo- 



ration. 1849-52 Todd sCycl. Atiat.iV. 1402/1 Some slight 
*subinflammatory condition which varicose veins readily 
take on. 1853 MARKHAM Skoda s Anscult. 284 The crepita 
ting rale becomes *sub-crepitant, announcing the presence 
of oedema. Ibid. 122 No distinctive line can be drawn 
between crepitating, "sub-crepitating, and mucous rales. 
1896 Allbutt sSyst. tiled. I. 561 Beginning with minute "sub- . 
lethal doses of fully virulent poisons. 1897 /&V. II. 175 This 
*sub-pyaemic condition seems invariably to have supervened, t 
Ibid. 427 In some cases a "subicteric tinge is observed. Ibid. 
1 137 A *subtympaniticoreven a Skodaic note maybe elicited. 
Ibid. HI. 678 The whole tumour, .is uniformly dull, unless 
on deep percussion, when a "subresonant note is elicited. 
Ibid. 894 A "sub-hepatic abscess due to disease of an appen 
dix attached to an undescended caecum. 1898 Ibid. V. 20 
An habitually "subpyrexial temperature. Ibid. 527 A sub- 
febrile temperature. 1899 Ibid. VII. 679 A form of subacute 
or *subchronic ophthalmoplegia. 

h. Forming advs. corresponding to adjs. of any 
of the above classes, as in SUBACCTELY. 

1833 HOOKER in Smith s Eng. Flora V. i. 79 Leaves.. 
*subtrifariously imbricated. 1846 DANA Zooph. (1848) 683 
Branchlets often *subreticulate!y coalescing. 1859 Crust. 
1. 167 Hand externally "sub-seriately small tuberculate, 1863 
J. G. BAKER N, Yorksh. 194 A species which. .grows *sub- 
spontaneously in one or two places. 1870 HOOKER Stud. 
Flora 115 Potentillafruticosa. . leaves "subdigitately-pinnate. I 
Ibid. 222 Stem rigid leafy "subcorymbosely branched. 1871 
W. A. LEIGHTON Lichen-flora 12 "Subtransversely arranged 
in little heaps. 1888 Q. Jrnl, Ceo/. Sac. XLIV. 150 The 
fallen masses weathering *subspherically. 

2L With vbs., as in L. subaccusart to accuse 
somewhat, subirasci to be somewhat angry ; e. g. 
sub-blush,-cacliinnate, -deliquesce, -effloresce ,-irasft, 
-understand; t subinnuale to hint gently; f sub- 
murmurate, to murmur gently or quietly. 

1767 STERNE Tr. Shandy IX. xviii, Raising up her eyes, 
sub-blushing, as she did it. 182: Black-*. Mag. XII. 67 




P; 

Th 



26 Shell oblong, *subparallelipipedal. Ilnd. 32 Spire very 
short, *sub-cpnoidal. 1838 Penny Cycl. XII. 269/1 Body. . 
Subprismatic. 1847 Proc. Se>-w. .\"at. Club II. v. 250 
Thorax., elongate, "sub-parallelo-grammic. 1852 DANA 
Crust. I. 193 Carapax broad "subrhombic. 1870 HOOKER 
Stud. Flora 163 Umbels when in flower *subhemispheric. ; 
1877 HUXLEY Anat. Inv. Anim. vi. 272 A *subquadrate 
labrum overhangs the mouth. 1880 GUNTHER Fishes 38 The 
prEeoperculum, a "sub-semicircular bone. 1887 W. PHILLIPS 
Brit. Discomycetes 301 A single layer of *subcubical cells, 
f. With adjs. denoting a numerical arrangement 
or conformation, as in mod.L. subhifdus, subtri- 
fidus imperfectly bifid, trifid, subuniflorus having 
one or two flowers only or most commonly one ; 
e.g. subbijid,-bipinnate, -triJid(-^-fid}, -triquetrous. 
1777 S. ROBSON Brit. Flora 238 Stem *subtriquetrous.. 
spike distich, involucrum monophyllous. Ibid. 284 Leaves 
subbipinnate. Ibid. 287 Leaves "subtripinnate. 1816 
Edwards Bot. Reg. II. 130 b, Terminal lobe largest and 
subtrilobate. 1821 W. P. C. BARTON Flora N.Amer. I. 10 
Calix "sub-bilabiate. Ibid. 55 Folioles ovate, . . *sub-trilobed. 
1822 J. PARKINSON Ontl. Oryctol. 126 The ambulacral lines 
"subbiporous. Ibid. 179 One short "subbifid cardinal tooth. < 
Ibid. 215 The forepart beaked, *subbiangu!ated. 1829 Lou. 
DON Encycl. Plants 11836) 5 Nect[ary] wavy *sub.3.fid. Ibid. 
25 (Leaves] rugose "sub 3-lobed. Ilnd. 679 Leaves villous 
*sub-bipinnatind at base. 1836 Penny Cycl. V. 312/2 Valves 
*sub-bilobated by the depression or emargination. 1852 
DANA Crust, n. 769 The specimen, .has all the three anterior 
pairs of legs "subdidactyle. 1857 T. MOORE Handbk. Brit. 
Ferns (ed. 3) 48 Pinna;, ."sub-unilateral. 1870 HOOKER | 
Stud. Flora 114 Fragaria elatior.. flowers "sub-i-sexual. , 
Ibid. 208 Leaves broad, *sub-2-pinnatifid. Ibid. 364 Peri 
anth irregular, *sub-2-labiate. Ilnd. 379 Leaves alternate 
*subbifarious or secund. Ibid. 469 Capsules *sub-2-seriate 
on the segments. 1876 HAKLEY Royle sMat. Mtd. 376 Ovary 
*sub-trilocular. 

g. Med., as in SUBACDTE ; e. g. subchronic not 
entirely chronic, more chronic than acute ; sub- ; 
crepitant, -crepitating, -resonant, -tympanitic ; sub- I 
febrile, -pyrexial. 

1834 J. FORBES Laenncc s Dis. Chest (ed. 4) 77 There is 
only perceptible a very slight dull whistling.. .This variety 
of tne phenomenon may be denominated "subsibilant respi- 



vi. 31 "Submurmurating my horarie precules. 1716 M. 
DAVIES Athen. Brit. III. 77 Their Master Blondel surven. 
ing, and *subunderstanding it. 
"* with adjectival meaning. 

22. \\ ith sbs. denoting action or condition, in 
the sense partial, incomplete, slight ; as in late 
L. subdefectio slight failure ; e. g. sub-animation, 
-saturation Med. often = less than the normal, 
mild, gentle ; e. g. sub-delirium, -purgation ; also 
occas. with sbs. denoting material objects, e. g. 
sub- country, sub-relief. 

1906 Daily Nevis 23 Feb. 7 His speech had something of 
the "sub-animation which marks his later style. 1908 Wtstm. 
Gaz. 13 May 12/1 The London "sub-country. 1898 Syd. Soc. 
Le.r., ~Snicrepilation, the noise of subcrepitant rales. 1635 
PF.RSON Varieties n. 63 Albeit the Heaven, Fire, and Ayre 
move in a circular motion, yet they move not all alike,., the 
Ayre as neerest to the Earth, is slower than the other two. 
By this "subdeficiency then, the Ayre..seemes but to goe 
about from Occident to Orient of its own proper motion. 
1834 J. FORBES Laennec s Dis. C/ust 235 With "sub- 
delirium and other signs of cerebral congestion. 1818 Art 
Pres. Feel x. If such men cannot be dignified with a full 
diploma.. it would be well if some species of "sub-gradua- 
tion could be adopted. 1634 Bp. HALL Contempt., N, T 
iv. Martha ?, Mary, The just blame of this bold "sub- 
incusation ; Lord, dost thou not care? 1855 DUNGLISON 
Med. Lex., *Subinflammation, a mild degree of inflamma 
tion, so slight as hardly to deserve the name inflammation. . . 
Lymphatic engorgements, scrofula, herpes, and cancer he 
[Broussais] considered subinflammations. 1664 H. MORE 



to us, the spectators, . . that he was not half such a coward as 
we took him for. 1872 T. G. THOMAS Dis. Women (ed. 3) 
47 The enfeebled woman is more liable to *subinvolution 
[of the uterus], passive congestion, and displacements, after 
delivery, than the strong. 1753 Chambers Cycl. Suppl., 
Sul purgation, subpurgatio, a word used by some writers to 
express a gentle purgation. 1894 Archxologia LV. 28 
"Sub-relief is_the name I propose to give to that kind of 

:8o6 
h 
897 



sculpture which is by some called Egyptian relief. 180 
G. Adams Nat. t, E.ip. Philos. (Philad.) I. App. 531 Wit 
the termination OHS, when there is a *sub-saturation. 189. 
Alltulfs S} st. Mtd. III. 177 The solvent relation of the 



~**, 

Mag. LI. 264 By acts of daily selWenial and much *sur> 
sustentation of body. 1817 KIRBY & Sp. Entomol. (1818) II. 
424 The. .*sub.transparency of the adjoining crust. 

23. Chem. In names of compounds sub- indicates 
that the ingredient of the compound denoted by 
the term to which it is prefixed is in a relatively 
small proportion, or is less than in the normal 
compounds of that name ; e. g. subacetate an acetate 
in which there are fewer equivalents of the acid 
radical than in the normal acetate, a basic acetate. 

[1839 UKxDici. Arts 1085 The neutral state of salts is 
commonly indicated by their solutions not changing the 
coloursof litmus, violets, or red cabbage; the sub-stateof salts, 
by their turning the violet and cabbage green ; and the 
super-state of salts, by their changing the purple of litmus, 
violets, and cabbage, red.] 

1797 /V/,7. 7V ? ,u.LXXXVIII.23*Subcarbonate of potash 
being dropped into the solution. Ibid. 24 The fourth portion 
being boiled with 4 grains of *sub.phosphate of lime. 1801 
Ibid. XCI. 197 note, A "subcarburet of potash. Ibid. 236 
A real carbonate of "suboxide of copper. 1802 Ibid. XCI I. 
159 * note, It is. .calomel, plus an insoluble *subnitrate of 



*sub-acetite. 1819 BRANDE Man. Chem. 427 An insoluble 
"subacetate of copper. 1819 J. G. CHILDREN Client, Anal, 
311 Asplution of a "suburate. 1826 HENRY Elem. Chem. I. 
646 This liquid Dr. Davy calls "sub-silicated, fluoric acid . 
Ibid. II. 289 The *sub-tannate contains ij time as much 



Ibid. 329 "Sub-borate of soda (borax). 1805 




subacetate of lead with crenic acid. 1854 Jrnl, Client. Soc. 
VII. 26 "Subplatino-tersulphocyanide of mercury. 1857 
MILLER Elem. Chem., Org. x. r. 585 *Svbcynnide of copper, 
Cu 3 Cy. 1859 MAVNE Ejcpts. Lex. 1221/1 *Subsulphurous 
acid, Le., containing less than sulphurous but more than 
hj|posulphurous acid. 1871 Jrnl. Chem, Soc. XXIV. 999 
"bubfluoride of silicon. 1892 Phologr. Ann. II. 229 A 
latent image of "sub-bromide of silver. iXttAlllmtttSytt. 
Med. VIII. 516 Ammoniated mercury, .is chiefly employed; 
but "subchloride (calomel) has a very similar action. 

"V. 24. Secretly, covertly, as in L. subaudire | 
to SUBAUD, subintrodfuere to SoBlNTKODUCE, 
subornare to SUBORN ; e. g. SCBAID. 

VI. 25. From below, np, (hence) away, as in 
L. subducere to draw np or away, SUBDUCE, SOB- 
DUCT, subsist}re to stand up, SUBSIST, subverttre to 
turn up, overturn, SUBVERT. 

This is the etymol. sense of the prefix in SUCCOUR, SUFFER, 
SUGGEST, SUSCEPTION, SUSPICION, SUSPIRE, SUSTAIN. 

b. Hence sub- implies taking up so as to in 
clude, as in SCBSUME ; so in the nonce- wd. subin- 
cliide vb., whence subinclusively adv. 

1818 G. S. FABER Horx Mosaicx II. 137 The Law, which 



eluded with the males. 1851 Many Mansions 14 Thus 
again, subinclusively, the Official Dress of the High-Priest 
respected, m Us arrangement, the System of the World. 

V H. 26. In place of another, as in L. subdSre to 
put in place of another (see SUBDITITIOUS), substi- 
Infre to SUBSTITUTE ; e. g. f sub-elect to choose to 
, fill another s place. 

1600 1 HOLLAND Lay xxxix. xxxix. 1049 The. .assembly 
. for^ubelectiiigof a Pretour in the place of the deceased. 

Vill. 27. In addition, by way of or as an 
addition, on the analogy of L. subjungere to SUB- 
! JOlif, subnectlre to SUBNECT ; e. g. subinsert vb. 

1621 BRATHWAIT Nat. Embassie 144 Therefore haue I 
subinserted this Satyre [viz. a i3th at the end of a set of 12], 
U 28. Detached from the sb. to which it belongs 
it is used quasi-adj. in co-ordination with adjs. or 
attrib. sbs. qualifying the same sb. 

1840 I. BL-EL Farmer s Camp. 45 Trench ploughing mixes 
the sub with the surface soil. 1891 Fall Mall Caz. 4 Dec. 
6/3 The central, sub, and executive committees have been 
appointed. 

1i 29. Repeated (in senses of branch II) to denote 
further subordination or subdivision. 

1651 C. CARTWRIGHT Cert. Relig. i. 41 The many Religions 
which are lately sprung up, and the sub, sub, sub-divisions 
underthem. 1811-31 BENTHAM Logic App. Wks. 1843 VIII. 
289 Divisions, sub-divisions, and sub-subdivisions. 1868 
SPENCER Princ. Psycho/. (1870) 1 . 266 A particular feeling of 
redness associates itself irresistibly, .with the sub-class of 
visual feelings, wilh the sub-sub-class of reds. 1902 Daily 
Citron. 29 Apr. 3 5 Under sub-contracts or sub-sub-contracts. 
1905 Macm. Mag. Dec. 126 This was divided, re-divided, sub- 
divided, and sub-sub-divided in every conceivable sort of way. 
Subacid (sbse-sid), a. and sb. [ad. L. subaci- 
dus : see SUB- 20 b and ACID. Cf. It., Sp. subacido.] 
A. adj. 1. Somewhat or moderately acid. 
1669 W. SIMPSON Hydro/. Chym. 328 It weeps forth a sub- 
acid liquor in great abundance. 1676 GREW Annt. I lnnts 
Lect. ii. (1682) 244 Mercury, with Oyl of Vitriol, will not 
stir, nor with Oyl of Sulphur. But with Spirit of Nitre 
presently boyls up. Hence Mercury is a Subacid Metal. 
1725 Bradley s Fain. Diet. s.v. Sallet, The sub-acid Orange, 
sharpens the Appetite. 1732 ARIIUTHNOT Rules of Diet in 
Aliments, etc. (1736) 254 All Fruits which contain a sub- 
acid essential salt. i83_6 LANDOR Per. ff Asp. Wks. 1846 II. 
385 He enjoys a little wine after dinner, preferring the lighter 
and subacid. 1891 SCRIVENER Fieltts 4- Cities 150 The food 
of the human being cannot be suitable unless varied by 
sub-acid substances of some kind. 

b. Chem. Containing less than .he normal pro 
portion of acid. 

1855 J. SCOFFERS in Orr s Circ. Sci., Elem. Chem. 38 
With regard to neutral and superacid, or subacid, salts. 

2. Of character, temper, speech, etc. : Somewhat 
I acid or tart; verging on acidity or tartness. 

1765 STERNE Tr. Shandy\l\\. xxvi, From a little stib- 

| acid kind of drollish impatience in his nature, he would 

never submit to it. 1811 SYD. SMITH Wks. (1867) I. 205 

A stern subacid Dissenter. 1829 SCOTT Antig. Advert. F 7 

An excellent temper, with a slight degree of subacid humour. 

1876 W. CLARK RUSSELL Is he the Man? II. 203 A hard, 

i subacid expression.. modified the character of her beauty. 

1888 MRS. H. WARD Robt. Elsmere 428 Rose., was always 

ready to make him the target of a sub-acid raillery. 

B. sb. 1. Subacid quality or flavour, subacidity. 
1838 TICKNOR Life, Lett, q- Jrnls. II. viii. 145 Rogers., 
talked in his quiet way.., showing sometimes a little sub- 
acid. 1840 HOOD Up Rhine 198 You will perceive a little 
sub-acid in Markham s statement. 1884 Harper s Mag. 
July 241/1 The subacid of the strawberry. 
2. A snbacid substance. 

1828-32 WEBSTER, Subacid, a substance moderately acid. 
1891 SCRIVENER Fields t Cities 150 Sub-acids in their most 
convenient form cannot be put into a pill box. 

Hence Subaci dity, the quality or condition of 
being subacid ; also, something slightly acid. 

1833 CARLYLE Misc. Ess., Diderot (1888) V. 38 There is 
a certain sardonic subacidity in Pere Hoop. 1886 Law 
Jrnl. 16 Jan. 37/2 The subacidity which gives special fla 
vour to his style. 

t Subact, pa.pple. and///, a. Obs. [ad. L. sub- 
acl-us, pa. pple. of subiglre, f. sub- SUB- 2, 25 + 
aglre to bring.] Subdued, reduced ; brought under 
control or discipline ; brought under cultivation. 

432-50 tr. Higden (Rolls) I. 287 At the laste Fraunce was 
subacte to lulius Cesar, and occupyede by Romanes. Ibid. 
II. 103 The Danes other put to fli^hte other subacte. c 1440 
Pallad. on Husb. iv. 499 In Nouember Marche her 
braunchis sette In donged lond, subact. a 1661 HOLYDAY 
Juvenal (1673) n The masculine ^nd subact judgement of 
Juvenal. 1694 MOTTEUX Rabelais\. xxii. 103 A subact and 
sedate Intellection, associated with diligent and congruous 
Study. 1729 W. REEVE Serm. 353 The yoke of Christ is a 
reasonable service to a man of subact judgment. 

t Suba Ct, v. Obs. [f. L. subact-, pa. ppl. stem 
of subigtre (see prec. ).] 

1. trans. To work np, as in cultivating the ground, 
kneading, the process of digestion, or the like. 

1614 JACKSON Creed in. in. vii. i That faith could not 
take roote in them, vnlesse first wrought and subacted by 
extraordinary signes and wonders. 1615 CROOKE Body of 
Man 4\i He thinketh, that the blood is carried. .into the 
right ventricle of the Heart. .,and is there boyled attenuated 
and subacted. 1626 BACON Sylva 27 Tangible Bodies 
haue no pleasure in the Consort of Aire, but endeauour 
to subact it into a more Dense Body. 1658 tr. f orta s 
Nat. Magic iv. xii. 137 He subacts the Barn-flores with 
Lees of Oyl, that Mice may not eat his Corn. 1697 EVELYN 
Nuinismala To Rdr., Some Corners, and little Wasts, not 



SUBACTION. 



9 



SUBALTERN. 



altogether subacted. 1822 GOOD Study Med. I. 10 Being 
softened or otherwise partially affected, instead of being 
entirely subacted, and reduced to chyme or chyle. 

2. To bring into subjection ; to subject, subdue. 

1645 BP. HALL Rein. Discontentm. 19 The meek spirit is 
..so throughly subacted, that he takes his load from God., 
upon his knees, a 1680 T. GOODWIN Life Wks. 1703 V. i. 
p. xi, I lay bound as it were Hand and Foot, subacted under 
the Pressure of the Guilt of Wrath, 

Hence f Suba cted ///. a. ; f Suba cter, one 
who works up substances. 

1657 TOMLINSON Renou"s Disfi. 615 Anoint the hands of 
the subacter. .with Oyl. 1670 EVELYN Sylva (ed. 3) To 
Rdr. a, Persons of right Noble and subacted Principles. 
a 1706 Hist. Relig. (1850) II. 375 A meek and subacted 
Christian. 1822 Goon Study Med. IV. 272 The absorbents 
which drink up the subacted food from the alvine canal. 

t Suba ction. Ohs. [ad. L. subactionem^ n. 
of action f. sulact-^subig^re (see SUBACT /#.///.).] 

1. The action of working up, reducing, or knead 
ing. 

1626 BACON Sylva 838 There are of Concoction two 
Periods; The one Assimilation, or Absolute Conuersion 
and Subaction; The other Maturation. 1657 TOMI.INSON 
Renou s Disp. 122 Now Unguents are made one while by the 
fire,, .another while onely by long subaction. 1676 Phil. 
Trans. II. 771 In order to the subaction and detrusion of 
the aliments. 1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey), S*ubaction^.. 
Among Apothecaries, it is us d for the working or sofi ning 
of Plaisters. 1822 GOOD Study fifed. I. 324 The smaller 
ruminating animals, whose food, from the complexity of the 
organ, lies for a long time quiescent in a state of subaction. 

2. Subjection, subdual. rare~. 

1656 BLOOMT(r&uiyr. (citing Bacon ; cf.quot. i626above]. 
Sub a cute (sz7baki*t), a. [SuB- 20.] Some 
what or moderately acute. 

a. Of an angle. 

1752 J. HILL Hist. Anim. 220 The pupil is.. protended on 
the anterior part into a subacute angle. ^ 

b. Zool. and Bot. 

1822 J. PARKINSON Outl. Oryctol. 222 Plagio$toma..sul- 
catct : ovate, lower part subacute. 1829 LoUDON Encycl, 
Plants (1836) 441 Sepals and petals subacute. 1872 OLIVER 
Elem. Bot. 307 Involucre. .of. .subacute, equal bracts. 

C. Med. Between acute and chronic. 

1833 Cycl. Pract. Med. II, 731/2 The fever.. symptoms 
. .are. .rather of a sub-acute than highly inflammatory cha 
racter. 1878 HABERSHON Dis. Abdomen (ed. 3) 8 Mucous 
patches and gummata, which may be mistaken for abscesses 
or subacute glossitis. 

d. gen. 

1861 Sat. Rev. 27 July 90 When a civil servant s mind has 
reached the stage of subacute discontent. 1896 MRS. CAF- 
FYN Quaker Grandmother 139 The sub-acute passion of 
Harry Tryng blazed out in a few broken sentences. 

So Subacu tely <&&., with or in a subacute form. 

1852 DANA Crust, n. 1194 Cephalothorax subacutely ros 
trate. 1872 H. A. NICHOLSON Palsont. 326 Fins sub- 
acutely lobate. 

Subaerial, a. [SuB- i a. ,Cf. F. subojrien.] 

Chiefly Geol. and Phys, Geog. Taking place, 
existing, operating, or formed in the open air or 
on the earth s surface, as opposed to subaqueous, 
submarine^ subterranean. 

1833 LVKI.L Princ. Geol. III. 177 We think that we shall 
not strain analogy too far if we suppose the same laws to 
govern the subaqueous and subaerial phenomena. 1841 
TRIMMER Pract. Geol. 172 Many subaerial volcanos have 
ejected trachyte and basaltic lava. 1852 DANA Crust, i. 5 
Insects are essentially sub-aerial species. 1872 W. S. Sv- 
MONDS Rec. Rocks \\. 155 Vast masses of strata have been 
removed by subaerial denudation. 1880 DAWKINS Early 
Man in Brit. vii. 208 The rarity of sub-aerial refuse-heaps 
compared with those in caves and under rocks. 

Hence Subae-rlally adv. ; Subae rialist, one 
who holds the view that a certain formation is 
subaerial ; also attrib. 

1870 Contetnp. Rev. XV. 625 It must have accumulated, 
subaerially, upon the surface of a soil covered by a forest 
of cryptogamous plants. 1887 Athenaeum 24 Sept. 410/3 In 
1865 the battle of the Uniformitarians and Cataclysm- 
ists , Sub-acrialists and Marinists , was still raging. 
////., The most extreme., sub-aerialist views. 

Sub-a gent. [SuB- 6.] A subordinate agent; 
the agent of an agent, (spec, in U.S. Law,} 

1843-56 BOUVIER Laiv Diet. (ed. 6} II. 552/2 A sub-agent 
is generally invested with the same rights, and incurs the 
same liabilities in regard to his immediate employers, as if 
he were the sole and real principal 1863 H. Cox Instit. 
\. viii. 122 The candidate is responsible not only for his own 
acts, but for those of his agents, and for those of sub-agents 
appointed by them. 1881 Instr. Census Clerks (1885) 84 
Persons working and dealing in various mineral substances. 
Sub-order i. Miners. ..Underground Agent, Sub-Agent. 

Hence Sub-agency, the position, condition, or 
residence of a sub-agent. 

1845 R. \V. HAMILTON Pofi. Editc. iv. fed. 2) 64 The anti- 
christian usurpation, .puts forth an unwonted vigour... An 
active . . sub-agency is stalking through the land. 1900 2oth 
Ref. U.S. Geol. Surv. iv. PI. 44 Subagency of Southern 
Utes at Navajo Springs. 

t Suba gitate, v. Obs. [f. L. subagiiat-, pa. 
ppl. stem of subagitare, var. of subigitare^ f. sub- 
SUB- 24 + agitart to AGITATE.] itttr. To have 
sexual intercourse. So f Snba gltatory a., per 
taining to sexual intercourse. 

1637 HBVWOOD Pleas. Dial. ii. 113 Can they walke? Or 
do they sleepe? Pom. They do... Nay more than that, 
sometimes suoagitate After their kinde, a 1693 Urquharfs 
Rabelais in. xii. 96 This grand subagitatory Achievement. 

t Subagita tion. Obs. rare. [ad. L. sub- 
agitatio, -onem, n. of action f. subagitare (see prec. ).] 
VOL. IX. 



, f. W-o SUBAH 



1. Carnal knowledge. 

1658 PHILLIPS. 1675 J. SMITH Chr. Relig. Appeal \. vii. 
56 That he might, by those Subagitations of their Wives, 
bolt out the secrets of their Husbands. 

2. Used for SUBACTION (sense i). 

1653 R. G. tr. Bacon s Hist. Winds* etc. 366 ^Vuh us by 
the subagitation [orig. sul actwne] and concoction of the 
Celestials, every tangible thing is not only not condensed to 
the height, but is also mixed with some spirit. 

II Subah (s/?ba). Anglo-Indian. Also soubah, 
soobah, suba. [Urdu = Arab. *tye fftba 1 .] 

1. A province of the Mogul empire. 

1753 HANWAY Tray. (1762) II. xiv. v. 362 Mahommed 
khan, was. .dispatched, .to demand, .four provinces [.\~otf, 
These the Indians call soubahs.] 1796 MORSE Amer. Gcog. 
II. 532 The names of the Soubahs, or Vice-royalties were 
Allahabad [etc.]. 1806 T MAURICK hid. Antiq. I. 134 So 
accurate an account of the geography of the Indian Subahs. 
1858 BEVERIDGF. Hist. India I. 141 [AkberV] administrative 
divisions of the empire into provinces or subahs. 

2. = SUBAHDAR. 

753 ORME Hist. Fragm. (1805) 400 A Nabob, although 
appointed by a Subah, ought to have his commission con 
firmed by the King. 1788 BURKE Sj>, agst. II 7 . /tastings 
Wks. XIII, 96 There was not a captain of a band of ragged 
topasses that looked for any thing less than the deposition 
of soubahs. 1884 Encycl. Brit. XVII. 343/2 The revenue, 
when collected by the various subas, is transmitted under 
an escort to the Government treasury. 

II Suballdar (sbada .tV Anglo-Indian. Also 
7-9 subidar, S sabahadaur, 9 sou-, soo-, suba- 
dar, etc. [Urdu .Ijtu t0 $uha h da 
+ Pers. lO dar possessor, master.] 

1. A governor of a snbah or province. Also, * a 
local commandant or chief officer (Y.). 

1698 J. FRYER Ace. E. hid. ,* P. 77 The Subidar of this 
Town being a Person of Quality. 1796 MORSE Anttr. />< . 
II. 532 Twelve grand divisions, and earh was committed 
to the government of a Soobadar or Viceroy. 1858 J. H. 
NORTON Topics 18 The chief of Secundra Rao. .has. .pro 
claimed himself Subadar, or governor, for the King of Delhi, 
of all the country between these towns and Allahabad. 
1881 Encycl. Brit. XII. 796/1 The title of subahdar, or 
viceroy, gradually dropped into desuetude, as the paramount 
power was shaken off. 

2. The chief native officer of a company of 
sepoys. 

1747 (MS. in India Office) in Yule & Burnell Holson- 
Jobson s. v., That . .in a day or two they shall despatch an 
other Subidar with 129 more Sepoys to our assistance. 1788 
Gentl. Mag. LVIII. 63/i A second flag, with a Sabahadaur 
and two Havildars, was sent in. 1841 Penny Cycl. XXI. 
256/2 From 1748 to 1766 the sepoys were in separate com 
panies of 100 each, commanded by suhadars, or native 
captains, though under the superintendence of Europeans. 
1890 KIPLING Departm. Ditties (ed. 4) 79 And there s Su 
badar Prag Tewarri Who tells how the work was done. 

b. attrib. : subahdar-major, the native com 
mandant of a regiment of sepoys. 

1819 in Engl. Hist. Rev, (1913) Apr. 269 A brevet pay of 
25 rupees per month is annexed to the Commission of Su- 
badar-Major. 1849 EABTWICK Dry Leaves 80 The regiment 
shewed stronger excitement on this occasion of the arrest 
of their Subedar Major. 1857 Autobiog. L.utfiillah vi, 
185 A Subahdar Major pensioner. 

Subahdary (sbftd*rz). Anglo-Indian. Also 
8 su-, soubadary, -ee, -darc\e)y, 9 soobah-. 
[Urdu \fy***.y* ^iiht^ddn % f. prec.] = next. 



1764 State Papers in Ann. Reg. 190 We engage to reinstate 
the Nabob., in the subadarrey of. .Bengal. 1800 Asiatic 
Ann. Reg. IV. 9/1 A firman, vesting Hyder with the su- 
bahdary of Sera. 1817 JAS. MILL Brit. India I. ui. iv. 599 
He was appointed to the regency or subahdarry of Deccan. 

Subahship (sw-bajlp). [f. SUBAH + -SHIP.] The 
office or status of governor of a subah or province ; 
also, the territory governed, -= SUBAH i. 

*753 ORME Hist. Fragnt. (1805) 399 The Nabobs of Con- 
danore, Cudapah,.. the Kings of Tritchinopoly, Mysore, 
Tanjore, are subject to this Subahship. 1798 PENNANT Hin- 
doostan II. 251 About Rhotas, and in the soubahships of 
Bengal and Orixa. 1897 G. SMITH 12 hid. Statesmen 296 
CHve thought it necessary tn obtain from Shah Aalum a 
blank firman for the Soobahship of the Deccan. 

t Subai d, v. rare. [f. SUB- 24 + Amz>.] trans. 
To give secret aid to. Hence Subai ding///. a. 

1597 DANIEL Civ. It arsvi. i, That tumultuous rout, Whom 

close sub-ayding power, and good successe, Had made vn- 

wisely proud. 1609 Ibid. VIM. xlvii, To hold that Kingdome, 

from subayding such Who else could not subsist. 1630 

! R. N. tr. Camdcn s Hist, Eliz. Introd. 5 For that hee [the 

French Kins] had subayded the Scots [orig. Scotis tntst tita 

\ .siibnii$erat\ against the English. 

; Sub- almoner. Also7-a(l)mnor. [Sirn- 6.] 
A subordinate almoner, one of the officials of the 
Royal Almonry. 

1647 HAWARD Crtnvti Rev. 31 Gentleman Amner: Fee, 
ii. 8. \.ob. Sub-amner : Fee 6. 16. \o.ob. 1710 J.CHAM- 
[ DERLAVNE Jlf. Brit. Notitia 106 One of the King s Chaplains, 
i deputed by the Lord Almoner to be his Sub-Almoner. 1773 
Gentl. Mag. XLIII. 200 The R,-v. Mr. Kayc, Sub-almoner 
to his Majesty, preached at the Chapel Royal. 1886 Encycl. 
Krit. XXI. 37/1 The officers of the almonry, namely, the 
hereditary grand almoner, the lord high almoner, the sub- 
almoner, the groom of the almonry, and the secretary to the 
lord high almoner. 

fi. 1654 CLEVELAND Char. Dium. Maker \ A Diurnal 
Maker is the Sub-Almner of History. 

Suba Ipiue, a. (sl>.} [ad. L. sitbalpinus : see 
SOB- 12 aud ALPINE. Cf. F. subatyin.] 



1. Belonging to regions lying about the foot of 
the Alps. 

1656 BLOUNT Clossogr.^ Subalpinc > under the Alps. 1829 
ML-RCHISON in P kilos. Mag. V. 402 The tertiary or subalpine 
deposits, which to the west of the lirenta are ^o much traversed 
by basaltic and trap rocks. 1833 LYKLI. Prlnc. Geol. III. 
45 The fossil .shells, .of many ofthe Subalpine formations, 
on the northern limits of the plain of the ro. 1842 W. C. 
TAYLOR Anc. Hist. xiii. i (ed. 3* 365 Subalpine Italy re- 
ceived the name of Gaul from the Gallic hordes that settled 
in the northern and western districts. 1907 A. I.AN<; Hist. 
Scot. IV. xvi. 412 A miserable little sub-Alpine inn. 
b. sb. An inhabitant of such regions, rare. 

1838 G. S. FAHFR Inquiry A,-]-) Native I iedmontise Sub- 
alpines. Ibid. 503 The .Subalpines or Vallensus. 

2. Partly alpine in diameter or formation; per 
taining to or characteristic ot elevations next below 
that called alpiiie ; belonging to the higher slopes of 
mountains (of an altitude oi about 4,000 to 5,500 
feet). 

1833 HOOKTR in Smith s F.ng. I-L ra\. \. 71 Trees and 
rocks, in .stony and >ubalpinc countries. 1839 IH: LA HKI.HK 
Rep, Cigol. Cornwall, etc. i. 3 The hills and <_lifTs bordering 
the IJiistol Channel. . forming a coast remarkable for its 
general elevatinn and the sub-alpine character of some of 
its valleys. 1858 IRVINK I>r;t, Plants 78 The alpine and 
sub-alpine plants, 1870 HOOKKK Stud. Fiora 242 Wet sub- 
alpint: limestone rocks of \ ork and I hirham. 1886 J ^icra 
Brit. India V. 57 Subalpine and Alpine Himalaya. 

Subaltern sfbalu-m, .-/^<rlU.m , a. and sb. 
Also 6-7 -erne. [ad. late L. sit/xi/tcrmta ^I oethius, 
in sense i b) : seeSris- III and ALTEK.V. Cf.F.sud* 
altcrne ^from I5th c.), It., Sp., Pg. sithaltcrno. 

Johnson 1755 has stt baltern, whnJi is now the prevailing 
stressing in England, and, for the logical scnsr, i.. I .S. 
The stressing snba ltern fir.it appears recorded in Jlailc-y s 
(folio) Diet, of 1730.] 

A. adj. 1 1. Succeeding in turn. Obs. rare. 

1604 R. CAWDRRV Table Ai/>h., Su/ alterne, .succeeding, 
following by course and order. 1698 KKYKK Ace. K. India, 
fy P. 363 Therefore Gcxl framed the first Intelligence, and 
that mediating the first Heaven, and so in their .-uLaltern 
order to the Tenth. 1762 MILLS Sy*i. I ract. Hush. \. 469 
The main stem, advancing higher and higher, left behind 
the subaltern blossom of a lower joint. 

b. Logic. Subaltern genus (ot species] \ a genus 
that is at the same time a species of a higher genus. 

1654 2. COKK Logick 21 Subaltern Genus is, that is suc 
cessive and by turn, that is when it is genus of them con 
tained under it, and species of that which is above it. 1692 
RAY Disc. it. iv. 11732) 149 A distinct subaltern Genus. 1735 
\V.\ITS Legi,; i. iii. $ 3 This ,-ort of universal Ideas, which 
may either be conslder d as a Genus or i -Species, is call d 
Subaltern. 1826 WHATELV Lcgic i. ii. 5 (1827) 65 Iron- 
ore is a subaltern species or genus, being both the genus of 
magnet, and a species of mineral. 1864 BOURN Logic iv. 
72 The intermediate Concepts are the Subaltern Genera or 
Species. 

2. Of inferior status, quality, or importance, a. 
Of a person or body of persons : Subordinate, 
inferior. Now rare. 

1581 LAMBARDE Kit-en, i. v. 26 From the King. .ought to 
flow all auctoritie to the infenour and subalterne lustices. 
1597 SKENR DC I erb. Sign. s. v. Homagnun^ Sum are maist 
chiefe and principal!, sik as the King...Uther over-lordes 
are infei iour and subalterne. 1598 DALLINGTOS Meth. Trai . 
Q2b, To this Parliament, they appeale from all other sub- 
alterne Courts throughout the Real me. 1622 MALYNES Anc. 
Law-Merck. 472 The ludges for tcrme of life, and officers 
subalterne changing from yeare to yeare. 695 BLACKMORK 
rr. Arth. vi. 681 Inferiour, subaltern Divinities. 1728 
CHAMBERS Cycl. s. v., The Subaltern Persons in an Epic 
Poem. 1734 tr. Rollins Anc. Hist. (1827) I. 127 All such 
subaltern actors as played between the acts. 1809 MAI KIN 
Gil Bias vjn. xiii. (Rtklg.) 309 Some subaltern attendants 
about the king s person. 1814 SCOTT li av. Ii, He had been 
long employed as a subaltern agent and spy by those in the 
confidence of the Chevalier. 1875 GLADSTONE GUan. (1879) 
VI, 189 A case in which the statute prescribed a major 
amount of observance, but the subaltern or executive au 
thority was content with a minor amount. 

Const, to. 1597 Extx. Al>erd. Rtg. (1848) II. 154 Na 
maister. .(except of the sang school), bot .sic as sal be sub 
alterne to the maister of the grammer school. 1609 OVKR- 
Bt RV Observ. France (1626) 17 The ; i hath eucry Towne and 
Fortresse particular Gouernours, which are not subalterne 
to that ofthe Prouince. 1699 BURSKT jp Art. i. 18 Others 
holding a vast number of Goas, either all equal or subaltern 
to one another. 1728 CHAMBERS Cycl. s. v., The Patriarchs 
. .had several Wives. . ; but there were several subaltern to 
the principal Wife. 

b. Hence, of rank, power, authority, action: 
Of or pertaining to a subordinate or inferior. 

1581 MULCASTER Positions xxxv. (1888) 126 Whereto much 
distraction is, and subalterne professions be made seuerall 
heads. 1601 J. WHF.ELER Treat. Contm. 25 A Deputie, and 
certaine discreet persons, .who. . haue subalterne power to 
exercise Merchants law. 1601 R. CARKW Cornwall 85 b, 
Neither can the parish Constables well brooke the same, 
because it submitteth them to a subalterne cutnmaund. 17*6 
Sun T Gullirtr \\. vi. 205 They nave a subaltern court paid 
to them by persons of the best rank. 1817 LADY MORGAN 
France \. (iSiSt I. 18 Gallantly fighting his way through 
every subaltern degree of his profession. 1822 SCOTT Nigel 
x, Protect the poor against subaltern oppression. 1868 
GLADSTONE JUT. Munai xi. 416 Sometimes the sovereignty 
was local, or subaltern. 

C. Of immaterial things. (In recent use (f.S.) 

1644 DICBY -\at. Hodics xxiii. 204 Which [motion] when 
it is once in act, hath, .many other subalterne motions ouer 
which it presideth. 1654 H. L ESTBANGE Chat. / (1655) 196 
The vanity of that Faith, which is founded upon causes sub 
altern. 1750 JOHNSON K ambler No. 72 pa You have shown 
yourself not ignorant of the value of those subaltern endow 
ments. 1776 BUKNEY Hist. Mus. (1789) I. i. 61 These modes 



SUBALTERN. 

had other subaltern modes that were dependent on them, t 
1839 HAI.LAM Lit, Enr, in. iv. 55 All causes of wealth, 
except those he has enumerated, Serra holds to be subaltern 
or temporary. 1866 WHIFFLE Char. <$ Char. Men 22 The 
power and working intelligence of the subaltern natures it [ 
uses. 1893 in J. H. Barrows World? s Part. Relig. I. 256 . 
Not a subaltern science to dogmatic theology. 
fd. Of material things. Obs. 

1733 tr. Winslouo s Anat. 1756) I. 302 The Composition 
of the Fibres of this Muscle, and its division into several 
subaltern Muscles. 

3. Subaltern officer : an officer in the army of 
junior rank, i.e. below that of captain. Hence 
subaltern rank, etc. 

1688 Lond. GHZ. No. 2396/3 Count Strom.. was.. Shot 
dead, .and two or three Subalterne Officers wounded. 1702 
Miiit. Diet. (1704) s. v. Officer, Subalt^rn.Qfficers. The 
Lieutenant, Ensigns, and Cornets of Horse, Foot, and 
Dragoons, are so call d. a. 1721 PRIOK Dial. Dead (1907) 
208 Had not I equally my Captains, and Subaltern Officers? 
1807 Med. yrtil, XVII. 222 The cries of the soldier were 
heard by the subaltern officer. 1811 Regul. fy Orders Army 
248 The Subaltern Officer^, Non-Commissioned Officers, 
and Men. are to be divided into Watches. 1859 W. COLLINS 
Q. of Hearts iv, Have you any ears left for small items of 
private intelligence from insignificant subaltern officers? 

4. Of a vassal : Holding of one who is himself 
a vassal. Hence of a feu or right. 

1681 STAIR /;;,(/. Law Scot. i. xiii. 252 The Vassals of the 
King, who only might grant subaltern Infeftments of their 
Ward Lands. Ibid. xxi. 420 If the major part be not 
alienate, Subaltern Infeudations. . infer not recognition, 
when these rights are disjunct im of parts of the Fee. Ibid. 
424. Seing all other Rights fall in consequentially as was 
found in Subaltern-rights, tn the said case. Ibid.^z^ Omitted 
not onlyby the immediat Vassal, but byall subaltern Vassals. 
1723 Bibl, Litwiria No. vi. 17 Reliefs, Fines, Duties upon 
the several subaltern Manors. 1765-8 ERSKISE Inst. Latv 
Scat. \\, vii. 8 Subaltern mfeftments soon recovered force 
after the statute of Robert which abolished them. 1838 
W. BELL Diet. Law Scot. 88 Suppose A to hold of the 
Crown blench, and that he subfeus his lands to B, to be 
held in feu. ..A s right is termed a public one; B s a base 
or subaltern right. 

5. Logic. Of a proposition: Particular^ in rela 
tion to a universal of the same quality. 

Subaltern opposition : opposition between a universal and 
a particular of the same quality. (Cf. SUBALTERNANT, SUB- 

ALTERNATE.) 

1656 tr. H abbes EIei. Philos. \. iii. 30 Subaltern, are 
Universal and Particular Propositions of the same Quality; 
as, Every Man is a Living Creature, Some Man is a Living 
Creature. 1725 WATTS Logic n. ii. 3 Both particular 
and universal Propositions which agree in Quality but not 
In Quantity are call d Subaltern. 1860 ABP. THOMSON Laws 
Th, 84. 151 Subaltern opposition is between any pair of 
affirmative or negative judgments, when the one has fewer 
terms distributed, that is, taken entire, than the other. 1864 
BOWEX Logic vi. 162, I can immediately infer the truth of 
its Subaltern Opposite. 
B. sfi. 

1. A person (t or thing) of inferior rank or status ; 
a subordinate ; occas. t a subaltern genus; fa sub 
ordinate character in a book. 

1605 CAMDF.N Rrm. (1623) 4 When all Christianity in the 
Counsell of Constance was diuided into Nations, Anglicana 
Natio was one of the principall and no subalterne. a 1619 
FOTHERBV Atheoin. ii. iii. 3 (1622) 219 The subalternes, 
are both, in their diuers relations; Genera, to their in- ; 
feriors; and Species, to their superiors, a 1628 F. GREVIL i 
Life of Sidney _ (1652) 14 They, .both encourage, and shad- 
dow the conspiracies of ambitious subalternes to their false 
endes. 1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey), Subalterns^ inferiour 
Judges, or Officers. 1765 H. WALPOLE Otranto (1886) 10 
The art of the author is very observable in the conduct of 
the subalterns. 1787 CHARLOTTE SMITH Rom. Real Life 
II. 133 If the subalterns of the law once seize on trie 



10 

1857 Eraser s Mag. LVI. 172 The Indian officer has to 
serve a long subalternhood. 1861 Cornh. blag. Jan. 74 
James Outram soon obtained the grand reward of efficiency 
in regimental subalternship, the adjutancy of a corps. 

t Subaltern, v. Obs. rare. [ad. med.L. sub- 
alternare^ f. subalternns (see prec.). Cfc OF. 
r^ trans. To subordinate. 



, .332 The ge 

ogist reports the surveys of his subalterns. 1885 MRS. ALEX- 
ANDER At Bay v, The chef de la s ft ret/ and his subaltern. 

2. A subaltern officer in the army. 

1690 Lond. Gaz. No. 2616/3 T e Marquis de St. George,., 
with his Lieutenant-Colonel, Major, 10 Captains, and 25 
Subalternes are arrived here. 1760 Cant, fy Adv. OJf. Army 
77 A Subaltern will find it extremely difficult to live upon 
his Pay, and support the Appearance of a Gentleman. 1796 
MORSE Amer.Gt og. I. 431 The respective companies choose 
their captain, and subalterns. z8iz Gen. Regul. Army 37 
No Officer shall be promoted to the Rank of Captain, until 
he has been Three Years a Subaltern. 1846 BROWNING 
Litria \\\. 4 How could subalterns like myself expect Leisure 
or leave to occupy the field? 

attrib. 1898 .MERHIMAN Roden s Corner x, Major White 
had, in his subaltern days, been despatched from Gibraltar 
on a business quest into the interior of Spain. 

b. subaltern s butter, the fruit of Persea gra- 
tissima = AVOCADO, called also midshipman s 
butter; subaltern s luncheon (see quot. 1904). 

1829 MAKRYAT Fr. Mildntay xviii, Abbogada pears (better 
known by the name of subaltern s butter). 1904,4. GRIFFITHS 
50 Yrs. rublic Serv. 50 The traditional Subaltern s lun 
cheon a glass of water and a pull at the waist belt . 

3. Logic. A subaltern proposition. 

1826 WHATELY Logic n. ii. 3, ist. the two universals 
(A and K) are called contraries to each other ; ad. the two 
particular, (I and O) subcontraries ; 3d. A and I, or E and 
O, subalterns; 4th. A and O, or E and I, contradictories. 
S6id. t Subalterns differ in quantity alone; Contraries, and 
also Subcontraries, in quality alone. 1870 JEVONS Elem. 
Logic ix. 78 Of subalterns, the particular is true if the uni 
versal be true. 

Hence Strbalternhood, ship, the status or 
period of service of a subaltern. 



(1400 Pilgr. Sowle (Caxton) I. xxx. (1859) 34 Al other 
worldly lawes ben. .subalterned to gods lawe. 

t Subalte-rnal, a. (**.) Obs. [a. OF. subal- 
ternal (i5th c.) or its source med.L. *snbaUernaHs, 
f. stibattermts SUBALTERN : see -AL.] 

1. Subordinate, inferior. Const, to. 

c 1400 Filgr. Sowlf (Caxton) i. xxx. (1859) 33 Alle other 
l.i wes ordeyned of man be not subalternal for to serue the 
l.iwe of oure lord. 1588 FRAUNCE Lau iers Logike \. ii. 10 b, 
It were against, .all arte to jumpe abruptly from the highest 
and most generall to the lowest and most speciall, without 
passing by the subalternal. 1607 TOPSELL four-/. Beasts 
714 Sundry Beastes haue not onely their diuisions, but sub- 
deuisions, into subalternal kinds. 1625 DARCIE Annales a 4, 
Those subalternal Deities who, for putting themselues in 
lupiters bedde, were, .metamorphosed into strange shapes. 
1628 R. HEATH Discov. Jesuit s Coll. (Camden) 29 They 
ncknowledg subjection to a foren power, and have setled 
a government amongst themselves subalternal therunto. 
b. sb. A subordinate. 

1673 MARVELL Kek. Transp. it. 227, 1 am not at all doubt- 
ful but that he [the Supreme Magistrate] may punish any 
such transgression in his Subalternals and Substitutes. 

2. Succeeding in turn, alternating. 

1588 J. HARVEY Disc. Probl. 23 There should euery 7000 
yeere, insue a certaine subalternall time.of peaceable calme- 
nes, and transitory rest. 1657 Penit. ConJ v. 72 [74] Where 
the disease is sin, the remedy confession and prayer; the 
Physicians and Patients subalternal. 

Sub alternant (sz>bolt5-inant). Logic. (More 
fieq. in L. form.) [ad. mQd.L.su&a/fernanSf-ant-j 

pr. pple. of subalternare SUBALTERN v."\ See quots. 

1826 WHATELY Logic Index (1827) 347 Subaltern oppo 
sition, is between a Universal and a Particular of the same 
Quality. Of these, the Universal is the SubaJternant, and 
the Particular the Subalternate. 1867 ATWATER Logic 109 
Jneach pair of these the Universal is called the Subalternans, 
the Particular the Subalternate. 

Subalternate (suboH^-in^, a. (sb.} [ad. 
late L. subalterndtus (subalternatnm genus in 
Boe thins), pa. pple.oisuba^ernarei see SUBALTERN 
v. and -ATE 2 .] A. adj. 

1 1. Subordinate, inferior. Also const, to : Sub 
ordinate or subservient to. Obs. 

1432-50 tr. /figden (Rolls) III.X23.iiij. principalle realmes, 
..x. other realmes, Subalternate to theyme. 1595 in i2ik 
Rep. Hist. MSS. Comnt. App. ix. 173 What ministers 
of state and subalternat governors, as counsaile and magis 
trals. 1611 in loth Rep. Hist. MSS. Comnt. App. i. 546 
In putting so muche difference between an absolute king 
and a Subalternate Queen. 1638 BAKER tr. Balzac s Lett. 
(vol. II) 79 As though the present time, were but Subalternate 
to the future. 1670 CLARKE Nat. Hist. Nitre 51 Medicine 
being a Subalternate Art to Philosophy. 1686 SPENCE tr. 
Varillas House of Medicis 15 The Enditement was drawn 
up by the Subalternate Judges. 1701 NORRIS Ideal World 
i. ii. 104 So only the Subalternate sciences suppose their 
objects, as taking them from the superior science wherein 
they are proved. 1704 Phil, Trans. XXV. 1702 An account 
of the several kinds of Subalternate Species of Plants. 1874 
in Manning Ess. Relig. fy Lit. 111.317 Theology is a science 
Subalternate to Revelation. 

f 12. Successive, succeeding by turns. Obs. 

1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey), Subaltern or Subalternatt^ 
that succeeds by turns. 

f b. Logic* SUBALTERN a. i b. 

1658 E. PHILLIPS Afyst. Love (1685) 285 The Subalternate 
genus, as also the Subalternate species, is that which is the 
species of this, but the genus of that. 

3. [A new formation from SUB- 20 d and ALTER 
NATE a.] Nat* Hist. Alternate, but with a tendency 
to become opposite. 

1829 LOUDON Encycl. Plants 571 Leaves pinnat[ifid] : seg- 
m[ents] stalked Subalternate. 1846 DAN A Zooph. (1848) 655 
Polyps few and at distant intervals on the branches, sub- 
alternate. 1851 MANTF.LL Petrifactions iii. 5. 309 The sub- 
alternate arrangement and reversed position of the upper 
and lower series of teeth. 

B. sh. Logic. A particular proposition. 

1826, 1867 [see SUBALTKRNANT]. 

Hence f Siibalte rnately adv., subordinately, 
successively. 

1606 B. BARNES Foure Bks. Offices 19 Subalternately re- 
specting the purse. 1727 BAILEY (vol. 11), Subaltern aidy^ .. 
successively. 

Suba lternating, ///. a. [f. * Subalternate 
vb. (cf. prec.) + -ING 2/| Succeeding by turns (1855 
in Ogilvie Suppl.). 

Subalternation (sp-boUain^-Jan). [ad. med. 
L. suhalternatio, -onem, n. ol action f. subalternare : 
see SUBALTERNATE.] 

f 1. Subordination. Obs. 

1597 HOOKER Eccl. Pol. v. Ixxiii. (1617) 397 Whereunto it 
was not possible they could concurre, vnlesse there were sub- 
alternation betweene them, which Subalternation is naturally 
grounded vpon inequalitie. 

t 2. Succession by turn. Obs t 

1616 BULLOKAK Rng. Expos.) Sitbalternatiotii A succeed 
ing by course. 1627 DONNE Serin, xliv. (1640) 441 That use 
of Subalternation in the service of God, of that, which we 
have called Antiphones, and Responsaries. 

3. Logic. The relation between a universal and a 
particular of the same quality ; the opposition which 



SUBAQUATIC. 

exists between propositions alike in quality but 

differing in quantity ; also, ( an immediate inference 
from a universal to a particular under it (Cent. 
Dict.\ 

1650 ELDERFIELD Civ. Right Tythes 35 It may be. .need 
ful to consider her [the law s] several species, or indeed not 
so much their contradiction, as Subalternation. 1677 GALE 
Crt. Gentiles Proem. 8 The Relate Affections of a Proposi 
tion are Conversion, Equipollence, Subahernation, and 
Opposition. 1697 tr. Bitrgersdicius his Logic i. xxxii. 127 
By Subalternation we express our Meaning when we would 
signifie that one Enunciation is subordinated to another, 
and does necessarily follow from it. 1813-21 BENT HAM Onto, 
logy Wks. 1843 VIII. 203 Subalternalion, viz. logical sub- 
alternation, opposition, and connexion, or the relation be- 
tween cause and effect. 1864 BOWEN Logic vi. 155 But of 
these less perfect expressions some may more properly be 
regarded as inferences by Subalternation. 1867 ATWATER 
Logic 116 This is U, and by Subalternation will give I also. 

Subalternity (sz?bolt5uniti). [f. SUBALTERN 
+ -ITY. Cf. F. swaltermM.] Subordinate position. 

1620 T. GRANGER Dh>. Logike 178 Which respecteth not 
suppartitions, anatomical diuisions, or subalternities of 
members. 1773 H. WALPOLE Let. to Mann 4 Nov., I am 
sure I have none of the symptoms but the age and the sub 
alternity. 1831 SOUTHF.V in Q. Rev. XLV. 443 Christianity, 
they say, has raised the sex from servitude, but has con 
demned them to subalteinity. 1850 tr. Mazzinfs Royalty 
fy Reftubl, Pref. 8 Redeeming by brilliant peisonal qualities 
the vice of subalternity, to which his position condemned him. 

Subalternize (s bItainaiz), v. rare. [ad. 
F. subalUniiser i f. suballerne : see SUBAI.TEKK a. 
and -IZE.] trans. To subordinate. 

1905 igth Cent. July 24 France was subaltern ised, domes- 
ticated everywhere; she suffered her greatest interests to 
be subordinated to those of an alien Power. 

t Subalternly, a. Sc. Law. Obs. [f. SUBAL 
TERN a. + -LY 2 .] By subinfeuclation. 

1681 STAIR Inst. Law Scot, i. xiii. 263 If the Lands.. be 
Disponed. .by the Vassal to others Subalternly Infeft. 

Subanco neal, a. Anat. [See SUB- i b and 
next.] Situated beneath the anconeus. 

1891 Cent. Diet. 1898 Syd. Soc. Lex, 

II Subanconeus (s^bsenk^nr^s). Anat. Also 
-aeus. [mod.L. (sc. musculus}, f. sub- SUE- i d + 
ancon = Gr. dyiewv elbow.] A small muscle arising 
from the triceps and humerus above the elbow- 
joint and inserted in the posterior ligament of the 
elbow. Hence Sirbancone ous a. 

1848 Quain s Anat. (ed. 5) I. 330 On removing the triceps 
from the lower part of the humerus, some muscular fibres 
will be found connected with the capsule of the elbow-joint. 
Two slips extending from the bone above the fossa for the 
olecranon to the capsule have been described as distinct 
from the triceps, under the namesub-anconaeus. 1887 Stick s 
Handbk. Med. Sci. V. 45 Subanconeous [muscle]. This 
consists of a few muscular fibres. 

Suba ngular, a. [ad. mod.L. subangnlaris : 
see SUB- 20 c and ANGULAR,] Somewhat or slightly 
angular ; having a blunt angle. 

1777 PENNANT Brit. Zool. IV. 51 Ast[erias] with five rays 
depressed ; broad at the base ; sub-angular. 1849 DANA 
Geol. App. i. (1850) 685 Mesial fold large and subangular. 
1873 GKIKIE Gt. Ice Age xvi. 202 Sprinkled with loose an 
gular and subangular stones. 1894 Geol. Mag. Oct. 434 
Each tubercle gives rise to three, .subangular ribs. 

So Suba ngled, -a*n?ulate ,d adjs. 

1819 SAMOUELLE Entomol. Contend. 423 Geometra..stri- 
gilata. The subangled Wave. 1822 J. PARKINSON Oittl. 
Oryctol. 207 Turreted, with subangulated keels. Ibid. 210 
Whirls round, but subangulate. 

Subapennine (s^bse penain),^. (sb^} Geol. Also 
-appeni^n)ine. [SuB- 12.] Applied to a series of 
strata of Pliocene age, such as are characteristic of 
the formation of the flanks of the Apennines in 
Italy ; belonging to or characteristic of these strata. 

1822 Edin. Rev. XXXVII. 50 Subappennine alluvial soils. 
1833 LVELL Princ. Geol. III. no Throughout a great part 
of Italy, where the marls and sands ot the Subapennine 
hills are elevated to considerable heights. 1851 RICHARDSON 
Geol. viii. 248 The Subapennine beds of Piedmont. 1861 
P. P. CARPENTER in Rep. Smithsonian Instit. 1860, 159 The 
Subappenine tertiaries of Piedmont. 

b. sb. pi. The geological series bearing this 
name ; a low range of hills skirting the slopes of 
the Apennines in Italy. 

1830 LVELL rrinc. Geol. I. 137 note t The newest tertiary 
strata of the age of the Subapennines. 1833 Ibid. III. 155 
Brocchi, the first Italian geologist who described this newer 
group in detail, gave it the name of the Subapennines. 

Suba pical, a. Nat. Hist. [SuB- i b, c, n.] 
lieneath or near the apex ; nearly apical. 

1846 DANA Zooplu (1848) 445 The subapical calicles be- 
coming very small. 1870 HOOKER Stud. Flora 78 Carpels 
hairy with an eglandular subapical pit. 1913 Oxf. Unit 1 . 
Gaz. 4 June 955 The orange subapical bar to the fore wing. 

Su oapOStO lic, a. [SuB- 1 8.] Belonging to or 
characteristic of the period in the history of the 
Church immediately following that of the apostles. 

1880 Encycl. Brit. XI. 854/2 The history of the apostolic 
and subapostolic ages. 1881 WESTCOTT & HORT Grk. N. T. 
II. 296 Stray relics surviving from the apostolic or sub- 
apostolic age. 

t Subaqua g neous,rt. Obs. rare . [f.lateI*JM&* 
aqudneus (SuB- i a, aqua water) + -ous.] = next, i. 

1656 BLOUNT Glossogr. 

Subaq.ua tic, [Cf. F. subaquatique,] 

1. [SuB- 1 a.] = SUBAQUEOUS I. Also, pertaining 
to plants growing under water. 



SUBAQUEOUS. 



11 



SUBBRACHIAN. 



1789 E. DARWIN BoL Card. II. 146 nott t The subaquatic 
leaves of this plant.. are cut into fine divisions. 1800 
PkytoL 76 The roots of. . water-plants, which might . . hecome 
articles of subaquatic agriculture. \%*&Blackw. Mag. XXIV. 
316 Subaquatic paths for crossing the Nile. 1849 Sk. Nat, 
Hist,, Mammalia. III. in Tearing up the strong -ft bred 
vegetables from their subaquatic bed by means of its tusks. 
1874 COUES Birds jV. W. 1 1 Ability to progress under water 
. . by a sort of subaquatic flying and scrambling. 

2. [Sue- 20 c.] Zool. and /to/. Partly aquatic. 

1844 H. STEPHENS Bk. Farm I. 483 Subaquatic plants, 
such as rushes. 1880 A. R. WALLACE I si. Life H. xiii. 268 
The large number of allied forms [sc. tortoises] which have 
aquatic or sub-aquatic habits. 1889 Danvinism 29 A 
large sub-aquatic dock. 



Subaqueous (szrfv -kwfts), a. [f. L. type 

*$iibaqtieii$ : see SUB- I a. Cf. It. subaqueo.] 

1. Existing, formed, or constructed under water. 
1677 PLOT Oxfordsh. 28 Terrestrial and subaqueous Plants. 

rtijn KEN Edmund Poet. Wks. II. 26 As if sub-aqueous 
Fires.. Had boil d the Waves. 1774 PENNANT Tour Scot. in. 
r 77 z t 33 I n some places are vast subaqueous precipices. 1776 
Brit. Zool. I. 345 For the purpose of plunging into their 
subaqueous winter quarters. 1829 LANDOR I mag. Conv. 
Wks. 1853 I. 573/1 That dark colour which subaqueous 
weeds are often of. 1855 KINGSLEY IVestiu. Ho! xxxii, 
Tarn David, one of those strange subaqueous pebble-dykes. 
1862 TOUNSEND Man. Dates s. v. Submarine telegraph^ In 
1848 successful subaqueous telegraphs were laid across the 
Rhine. 1903 MYERS Hum. Pers. I. 77 There is a rush up 
wards as of a subaqueous spring. 

b. Performed or taking place under water ; 
adapted for use under water. 

1774 A. CAMPBELL Lexiphanes (ed. 4) 25, I risqued a sub 
aqueous voyage. 1839 United Service Jriil. June 189 Sub 
terraneous or subaqueous explosions. 1847 BARHAM Ingol. 
Leg. Ser. i. Grey Dolphin^ As though the River god and 
Neptune were amusing themselves with a game of sub 
aqueous battledore. 1875 KNIGHT Diet. Aleck., Sub-aqueous 
Helmet^ a diver s head-dress, supplied with air by pump 
from above. 

C, jocular. That constructs works under water. 

1844 THACKERAY Contrib. to Punch Wks. 1898 VI. 83 It 
weds the tunnel of the subaqueous lirunel with the mystic 
edifice of Cheops. 

2. Below the sea-level, nonce-use. 

1724 RAMSAY Health 397 Ye Dutch. .You scarce dare 
sleep in your subaqueous bowers. 

3. Reflected as if in depths of water. 

1798 W. MAYOR British Tourists V. 260 The shelving 
hills, .with their subaqueous images were of a faint grape- 
like hue. 1843 WORDSW. Prose Wks. (1876) III. 167 These 
specks of snow reflected in the lake, and so transferred, as 
it were, to the subaqueous sky. 

So Suba-quean a. rare 1 . 

178* W. STEVENSON Hymn to Deify 19 Subaquean mon 
sters multiform in size. 

Subara chnoid, a. (sb.} Anat. and Path. 
[Sus- i b.] Situated or taking place beneath the 
arachnoid membrane. Also sb. t the subarachnoid 
space (between the arachnoid membrane and the 
pia mater). 

i839-47 Tcdd s Cycl. Anat. III. 641/2 In apoplexy the 
blood escapes from the ventricle into the sub-arachnoid 
space. Ibid. 673/2 The subarachnoid fluid. 1843 R- J- 
GRAVES Syst. Clin. Med, ix. 97 Kxtensive thickening of the 
membranes of the brain, with subarachnoid effusion. 1893 
W. R. COWERS Man. Dis. Nerv. Syst. (ed. 2) II. 390 Sub- 
arachnoid haemorrhage. 1896 Alibutt s Syst. Med. I. 189 
The perlvascular lymphatic sheaths and subarachnoid are 
filled with fatty products. 1903 HUGHES & KEITH Mart, 
Pracf. Bot. HI. 305 To this subarachnoid tissue is given the 
name of Pia mater. 

So Su barachnoi dal, -oi dean adjs. 

1844 HOBLYN Diet. Terms Med. (ed. 2) 293 Sufr-arachnot* 
dean fluid) an abundant serous secretion, situated between 
the arachnoid and the pia mater. Sub-arachno idean sface t 
the space between the arachnoid and the spinal cord. 1871 
W. A. HAMMOND Dis. Nerv. Syst. 51 Sub-arachnoidean 
effusion. 1876 tr. I Vaguer s Gen. Pathot. 229 Thesub-arach. 
noidal connective-tissue bands and meshes. 

Subarbis, obs. pi. SUBURB. 

Sub -arch. Archit. [Sufi- 3, 5b.] A sub 
sidiary or secondary arch; one of two or more 
arches grouped in a larger arch ; the lowest 
member in an arch of two or more orders . 

1833 R- WILLIS Archit. Mid. Ages vii. 91 The square body 
of the pier sustains the pier arches, while its lateral half 
shafts are appropriated to the sub-arches. 1849 PARKER 
Introd* Gothic Archit, iii, 133 Three or more lancet-lights 
under one arch, the points of the sub-arches touching the 
enclosing arch. 1879 Casselfs Techn. Educ. III. 40 The 
first of the three orders, or sub-arch . 

Subarctic, a. (*.) [Sus- lab.] Nearly 
arctic ; somewhat south of the arctic circle or 
regions ; belonging to such a region. Also sb. pl. t 
subarctic regions. 

1854 H. MILLER Sch. fy ScJiw. (1858) 460 When sub-arctic 
molluscs lived in her [sc. Scotland s] sounds and bays. 1875 
CROLL Clint. $ Time xv. 236 As the ice began to accumu 
late during the cold periods in subarctic and temperate 
regions. 1894 STEVENSON Across the Plains vi. 204 It was 
still broad day in our subarctic latitude [in Caithness]. 1898 
J. W. TYRRELL (title) Across the Sub-Arctics of Canada. 

Suba rcuate, a. Nat. Hist. [SUB- 20 c.] 
Somewhat arcuate or bowed. 

1819 SAMOUELLE Entomol. Compend. 87 Thumb subarcuate. 
1846 DANA Zooph. (1848) 471 Branches .. subarcuate. 

Suba-rcuated, a. 

1. [Sufi- 20 c.] Nat. Sftst. = prec. 

1777 PENNANT Brit. Zool. IV. 71 Sofen Pellucidus..sub. 
arcuated and sub-oval. 



2. [f. next.] Archit. Having two or more sub 
ordinate arches under a main arch. 

1881 PARKER ABC Gothic Archit. 195 The mullions are 
carried up to the architrave, and the side lights only are 
sub-arcuated. 1886 WILLIS & CLARK Cambridge \. 582 Each 
of the three main divisions of the window is sub-arcuated. 

Su barcua tion. Archit. [Sun- 2.] The con 
struction of two or more subordinate arches under 
a main arch ; the system of arches so constructed. 

1845 J. INGRAM in Builder 111.465/2 The principle of sub- 
arcuation ; that is the mode of constructing two inferior 
and subordinate arches under the third or main arch, a 1878 
SIK G. SCOTT Lect. Archit. (1879) II. 112 The round pillar 
ba> lateral shafts to carry the sub-arcuation, 

II Subarmale (s0baim-lt*). [L., neut. of sub- 
armaliS) f. sub- SUB- i a. + arma AKMS : see -AL. 
Cf. F. subarmale. ] A coarse coat worn to protect 
the body from the pressure of the cuirass. 

18*5 FOSBROKE Encycl. Antiq. I. 784 The gambeson or 
wambais, or subarmale. 1849 fj AS. GKAST] Mem. KirkaLiy 
x. 07 The constable received a bullet through his steel 
cuisses and subarmale. 

Subarrhation (si?bar# Jan), Also -arration. 
[ad. med.L. subarr(h}dtio t -onetn, n. of action f. 
subarr(h}arc, f. sub- SUB- T g + arr\/i a pledge.] 
An ancient form of betrothal in which pledges in the 
form of money, rings, etc. were bestowed by the 
man upon the woman. 

a 1623 SWINBURNE Treat, Sgousals (i6S6) 207 Fora-much 
as Subarration, that is the giving and receiving of a King, 
is a Sign of all others, most usual in SpousaU and -Matri 
monial Contracts. 1710 WHEATLV fik. Com, i rayerx. 5. 
1839 PALMER Orig. Liturg. II. 211 Subarrhation. 

II Subashi ^sba-Ji>. Forms: 6 subbassi, 6-7 
subassi, 7 subashie,-sha, subbashaw,-bassawe, 
-bass a, sou-bashi, sous-basha, 8 sous-bachi, 
9 soo-bashee, subasche, subashi. [Turkish 
if*\)f* snbdshi and ^\^ m ^o fftbiis/iT, f. yt> pit 
water + (_fl>>, bash head, chief. ^Some of the Eng. 
forms indicate an attempt to analyse the word as 
SUB- 6 + BASHAW.)] A Turkish official in com 
mand of a district or village ; a police magistrate 
under the timariot system (Redhouse). 

1599 HAKLUYT I oy. II. r. 106 V u Suba>.si, & the Mcniwe, 
with the Padre guardian. Ibid, 292 The Adinirall. . ap- 
pointeth the Subbassas. 1613 PURCHAS Pilgrimage (1614) 
302 The Cadi and Subassi, if they finde any shops open, or 
any body eating in the day, set him on an Asse backwards. 
1615 SANDYS Trav. 63 The Subashie is as the Constable of 
a Citie, both to search out and punish offences. 1632 LTTH- 
GOW Trav. iv. 136 In this Prison, are Bassawes, and Sub- 
bassawes imprisoned. 1687 Sous-basha [see Sous-]. 1688 
Lond. Gaz. No. 2336/5 The Sub-Bassa of this City. 1718 
OZELL tr. Tournefort s Voy. II. 279, I promis d them to pay 
the Tax for them, if the Sous-Bachi shou d demand it. 1819 
T. HOPE Anast. (1820) II. 377 A Tchawoosh. .summoned 
me before the Soo-bashee. 1823-4 Encycl. J\fetrop. (1845) 
XV. 509 A Jeri-bashi (Captain), Jeri-sureji (Corporah, and 
Subashi (Sergeant).. who have particular lauds assigned to 
them on which they are obliged to reside. 1847 M RS - A. 
K.KRK tr. Rankcs Hist. Servia 1 1 5 In the villages, Subasches 
appeared as executors of the judicial and magisterial power. 

Subastri/ngent, a. and sb* [SUB- 20 b.] 

A. adj. Somewhat astringent. 

1694 SALMON Bate s Dispens. (1713) 99/2 The Spirit of 
Mint,..stomachick, cephnlick,. .and subastritigent. 1719 
QUINCY Lex. Physico-Med. (1722) 40 A soft, healing, sub- 
astringent Balsamick. 1788 Phil. Trans. LXXX. 280 It 
had a slight saline, sub-astringent taste. 1887 MOLONEY 
Forestry II- . Afr. 304 The plant yields a sub-astringent gum. 

B. sb. A sub-astringent substance. 

1756 P. BROWNE Jamaica 208 All the plants of this tribe 
are mild subastr in gents and vulneraries. 

Su b-atom. Chem. [Si B- 7.] A constituent 
part of an atom. 

1880 CLE.MINSHAW IVurtJ Atomic Theory 51 A primordial 
matter, the sub-atoms of which were grouped in different 
numbers to form the chemical atoms of hydrogen and the 
various simple bodies. 1904 A. J. BALFOUU Reft. Xew Th. 
Matter g There are those, .who think that the elementary 
atom of the chemist . . is but a connected system of monads 
or sub-atoms. 

Hence Snbato znic \i. 

1903 Edin. Rev. Oct. 385 Sub-atomic physics. 1905 
Athen&um 27 May 66 1 Experiments have been made with 
sub-atomic particles from one or other of these sources. 

Sub and (sb9*d), v. Gram. rare. [ad. late L. 
subaudire (tr. Gr. vvaxovtiv , f. sub- SOB- .24 + 
audirc to hear.] trans. To supply mentally or 
understand* (a word or words) to complete the 
sense or the construction. 1864 in WEBSTER. 

Subaudition (stfb^di Jan). [ad. L. subaudi- 
tio t -onem* n. of action f, subaudire (see prec.). Cf. 
K. subaudition^ 

t L Hearing a little. Obs. rare . 

1658 PHILLIPS. 

2. Chiefly Gram. The act of mentally supplying 
something that is not expressed; something that is 
mentally supplied or understood ; implied or under 
stood meaning. 

1798 TOOKE Purify n. (1805) 17 If it must have a name, it 
should rather be called subaudition than abstraction. 
Ibid. 121 Bond Band Bound however spelled, and with 
whatever subaudition applied, is still one and the same 
word. 1839 Neiv Monthly Jf<ig. LVI. 455 There is a sub 
audition of so many Jfs. 1859 TRENCH Study of Words 
\ (ed. 9) in. 87 Policeman 1 has no evil subaudition. 1859 



THACKERAY yirgin.]\x, Taking the business- part for granted, 
and leaving it as it were for subaudition. 1905 Sat. Ktv. 
ii Mar. 311 A glorified subaudition of social compact lay 
also behind the Tudor despotism. 

II Bubaudltm? (srbgdai-t&i). [L. =Mt is under 
stood , 3rd pers. sing, prt-s. inch pus-;, of subaudire 
to SUBAUJX] = prec. 2. Phr. In a subanditnr : by 
implication. 

1803 BEDooiis Hygeia xr. 95 It will not pass like a sub- 
andititr in grammar. 1880 (. ontfuip. AVr. Feb. - 56 Our 
fiction. -is as much occupied, though in a subauditur, with 
the skeleton in the cupboard uf it.uly life as [ei<..]. 1885 
J. MAKTINK.U; Types Lth. Th. I. i. ii. (1886) 313 You cannut 
tack on the word mode-, i in mediately to substance with 
out a subauditur of attribute. 

Suba-xillary, a. (*&. [Sun- i b, c.] 

1. Zool. Situated beneath the axilla; ( rnith. ^ 
AXILLARY, b. sb. pi. Axillaiy feathers or \\in^- 
covcrts {Ct tif. Ditt.}. 

1769 BANCROFT GWaa 3-4 Together \\-ith an ini!,.- 
and tumefaction of the lymphatic Mihaxilhir) ^l.nui-. 1776 
PKSNAST /inf. Zool. II. 421 I he subaxillary feathers [of 
the eared grebe]. 

2. Bot. Jkneath the axil or the angle made by a 
branch with the stem or a leaf with the bi;ii:ch. 

a 1802 E. iMkiviN vWcWur iS^o ^2). 1857 A. (_JKAV First 
/.ess. Dot. (i66) 232. 

t Sub-bailiff, -baily. Obs. [a. Al . OK 

>itf> n ^lillif, -balij^i. sont/i- <;i!y s. v. Sm-jn-- = 
med.L. su/>/>aI/ivits : see Suu- 6 and li.vii.iFi .] An 
under- bail iff. 

14.. Custi H:s of Maiton in Surict:s .M/ sc. fi; y j) 51 The 
Balyffes or Subbalj fk-.s of (-u saiil llm g.i.:<-. 1456 < 
Lett A Xr. (iQoS) 293 To take siitttc uf tht-ire MiJitjaiLif and 
otficers. [bid. 322 Ihu subbuyll> and Constable. 1757 in 
Picton L focl MIMIC. Rev. (iSS6) II. 149 Ihe election of 
sub-bailiffs. 

Hence t Subbailiwick, the oflice or jurisdiction 
of an under-bailiff. 

1452 C<n>. Ld t Bk. (1908) 274 ^ t; shall not set eny of >our 
subbayliwikkes to eny certeyn fum. 

Subbarbes, -ardes, obs. \\. Suuriiu. 
Sub-ba Sal,^. [SUB- i b, i J.] .^ituntul near or 

below the base of a part or or:;au. AUoj^., a sub- 
basal plate l ii)il?s Standard J>ict. 1^9^ . 

1848 /V ( v. /.V7c. Aa. . Club II. vi. -76 Xu-t.iU Mib-hasiil. 
1870 HOOKER StiuL // > <i 172 ( -jriiu^ sanguinea. .lateral 
nerves subba^al. 1902 />-, c. Zooi. Soc. I. 48 I he ba^al aiea 
of these win.iz^ irruraltd with pc.ul-grey indicating two 
\a^ue -ubl asal bands. 

Sub-base. 

1. [Sun ?,.J a. Archit. Tlie lowest part of a 
base which is divided horizontally. 

1826 I>KirroN E.vctcr >,i A charge of 5/. 6s. &t/. foi four 
Columns, with base>, sub-bases, and capitals. 1851 I l (.IN 
Chancel ScrYgtts 29 [ Ihe scretn] of S. Mark (\ 
open above the huba.se [.>.< ]. 

b. Abase placed under the bottom of a machine or 
other apparatus to raise it higher from the ground. 
1904 EL\ir. A i7 . 24 >-L-pi. 409 Tiie whole turbine. .being 
mounted on a sub-ba;.e. 

2. [Sun- 5 b.J A secondary base. 

1903 S<.iiuc<) Oct. 47 1. Mr. Pe;iiy. .will, .after establi-hini; 
a sub-base there, force his way northward to the northern 
shore of Grant Land. 

SubbaslUOllt. Sc. Obs. [a. i)V.s0H{> ,sit/ - 
bassemt n(\\\Qi\.V. soithasscincnt , app. f. soubasse."\ 
Thi- valance (of a bul . 

1539 Inv. Ki>y. ll atdritt c (18151 45 I ">- ur grete beddis viz. 
anc of grene. .with ane Mibi-asniuiit of grenu velvet t. 

Subber(rje)s, oi s. I i. pi. of Sum KU. 

Subbing : see SUB v. 

t Sub-bois. Obs. [AK subbois - Law-Latin 
sitbbostus, f. sub- SUB- $ + d0scus wood. (Mod.K. 
has sous-1/ois ; cf. south bois s. v. SOUTH- 2.)] 
= UM>EBWOOD. 

1677 N. Cox Gentl. Recreat. (ed. 2) 15 Of Sub-! 
for Urowse and Food of the Game, and for Shelter and De 
fence ; as Maples, &c. Some fur Urowse and Defem 
Bircb, Sallow, Willow. 1706 [see nuth-bvis s. v. Sotiii- : |. 
1708 Les Tcrmes delaLey^K) Syfoa cantMa..i& also called 
Subboys or Coppice Wood. 

Subborn, obs. form of SUBORN. 

t Subbosco. Obs. Also subosco. [f. SUB- $ + 
It. bosco wood.] A jocular word for : 1 he hair 
that grows upon the lower part of the face. 

1579 G. HARVEY L<-tt<:r-i>k. (Camden) 61 The clippings of 
your thrishonorable BVttKbyoM anil subboscoes. 1654 
GAYTON Fleas, Notes n. iii. 42 The boscos, and iiibuscos 
(I mean,) the dulapes and the jawy part of the face. 

Subbl a chial, a. [ad. mod.L. subbrachi(Mis\ 
see SUB- i b and HBACHIAL.] 

1. Ichth. Situated under or near the pectoral fins ; 
(of a fish) having the ventral fins so situated. 

1836 Partingtons Brit. Cycl. Nat. Hist. 1 1. 556/2 Ctnioidx. 
. .A family of soft-tinned fishes with sub-brachial fm>. 1840 
Cut iers Anitn. Kingd. 324 Ec/ittuis. This genus, like 
Pleuronectes, might form a distinct family of Sub-brathiul 
Malacopterygii. 

2. Under the pectoral muscles. 
1898 ^ytt. Soc. Lex. 

3. Beneath the brachium (in cerebral anatomy). 
1913 DORI AND .!/(-/. Diet. (ed. 7). 

Subbra chian, a. and sb. Ichlh. [As prec. + 
-AN.] A. adj. = prec. I. B. sb. A stibbrachiatc 
fish; one of the Stibbtathiatt (formerly -a/a). 

1841 HRANDC /?(<;/. 6 tr., etc. 1183 SuMrac/tiaMs, the name 

2-2 



SUB-BRANCH. 

of the order of Malacopterygious fishes comprising those 
which have the ventral fins situated either immediately be- 
neath and between, or a little in front or behind the pectoral 
fins, a 1843 in EncycL Metrop. (1845) VII. 203/2 The Fish 
is designated Jugular or Subbrachian when the ventral fins 
are immediately beneath the pectoral and connected with 
their girdle, as the Cod. 

So Subbra chiate [mod.L. subbrachiatus\* 
1859 MAYNE Expos. L?x. t Snbbrachiatits, . . subbrachiate. 
Su b-branch., sb. [Sus- 7.] A subdivision 
of a branch (in any sense). 

1859 DARWIN Orig. Spec. iv. 124 In our diagram, this is 
indicated by the broken lines, beneath the capital letters, 
converging in sub-branches downwards towards a single 
point. 1875 JEVONS Money xx. 258 The National Bank of 
Ireland has about 114 branches and sub-branches. 
So Su b-brauch z>., Sivb-branched///. a, 
1676 GREW Anat. Plants Lect, iv. (1682) 266 Sprigs made 
up of four chief Branches standing crosswise, and those 
subbranched. 1857 DARWIN in Life ,5- Lett. (1887) II. 125 
Species.. always seem to branch and sub-branch like a tree 
from a common trunk. 

Su b-brigadieT. [SUB- 6. Cf. F. sous-briga- 
dier*\ Formerly, an officer in the Horse Guards 
with the rank of a cornet. 

1684 E. CHAMBERLAYNE Angl. Nolitia (ed. 15) i. 200 Sub- 
Corporals, or Sub-Brigadiers. \T$Gcntl. Mag. VIII. 109/2 
Mr Rastall, Eldest Sub-brigadier of the first Troop of 
Horse-guards, in room of Capt. Prew deed. 1802 JAMES 
Milit. Diet. 1852 BURN Xaval fy Milit. Diet, (1863), i"- 
brigadier, (second corporal of cavalry). 

Su bcartila ginous, a. 

1. [SuB- 20 b.J Somewhat, partly, or incom 
pletely cartilaginous. 

154* COPLAND Guydon s Quest. Cyrurg. E iv, The sub- 
cart ylagy nous [substance of the nose ; orig. L./ary cart Hag j- 
tiosa] is dowble one outwarde that maketh the typ of the noae 
and the other inwarde deuydcth the nosethyrlles. 1787 tr. 
Linmeus Finn. Plants 487 The Fruit is a tongue pedicel d, 
slender, subcartilaginous. 1833-6 Todtfs Cycl. Anat. I. 
37/1 Body ..gelatinous, supported by an internal, solid, 
subcartilaginous body. 1887 W. PHILLIPS Brit.Discomycetes 
42 Pe/izx.. differs, .from Bulgaria; by not being.. subcar 
tilaginous. 

2. [SuB- i b.] Lying beneath the cartilage ; 
hypochondrial. 

1775 ASH, SubcartilagenoitS) lying under the gristles. 
So Subcartilagl-neous a. rare" , [late L. sub- 
cartilaginous] = sense 2 above. 
1727 BAILEY (vol. \\),Sul cartilagincot{s,uu<lvc the Gristles. 

Subcau dal, a. (sb.} [SUB- i b, n, 20 d.] 
Situated under or near the tail ; not quite or almost 
caudal, b. sb. A subcaudal part ; esp. a snbcaudal 
plate in a serpent. 

1777 PENNANT Brit. Zool. IV. 16 The sub-caudal fins. 1841 
Penny Cycl. XIX. 404 2 All serpents which have abdominal 
scuta and subcaudal scales. 1877 COUES Fur-Bearing Aniin. 
i. 1 6 In the Badgers, .a particular subcaudal pouch, .which 
produces a peculiar liquid. 1899 Proc.Zool* Soc. 671 The 
anterior subcaudalb are purplish grey. 

Subcele Stial, a. and sb. [SuB- i a. Cf. 
OF. souscelestc. ] A. adj. Situated or existing 
beneath or below the heavens ; rare in literal sense ; 
chieMy transf. Terrestrial, mundane, sublunary. 

1561 EDEN Arte Namg. \. v. 7 b, The Emperial heauen, 
conteyneth three.. ///VrfirM/aj, . .the fyrste. .called super- 
celestiall. ..The second is called CeIestiall...The thyrde 
called Subcelestiall, conteyneth Virtutes, Archangels and 
Angels. 1627 HAKEWILL Apol. (1630) 45 All subcelestiall 
bodies, .consist of matter and forme. 1661 GLANVILL Van, 
Dogiit. 4 The most refined glories of subccelestial excellen 
cies are but more faint resemblances of these. 1678 CUD- 
WORTH Inttll. Syst. i, iv. 32. 497 The Dii Consente$ t were 
understood by Apuleius neither to be Celestial nor Sub- 
celestial Bodies, but a certain higher Nature perceptible 
only to our Minds. 1741-70 ELIZ. CAKTER Lett. (1808) 35 
Whether Mrs. Montagu may not be delighting herself with 
a tour through the coal mines, and have lost all remembrance 
of her subcelestial friends. 19x1 WKBSTER, Subcelestial^.. 
Astron.) exactly beneath the zenith. 
B. sb. A subcelestial being. 

1652 BENLOWES Tluoph. Pref., Sub-coelestials, or Sublu- 
naries have their Assignment in the lowest Portion of the 
Universe. 1708 H. DODWELL Expl. Dial. Justin 61 Speak- 
ing of the Difference between the Ccelestials and Subcceles- 
tials, he makes their Life to be a Death to us, and our Life 
to be a Death to them. 

t Snbce llarer. Obs. [f. SUB- 6 + CELLARER, 

after med.L. subccll(er}arius > or obs.F. soitbscel- 
lerier. Cf. ME. sowcelerere s. v. Sous-, sowthselerer 
s. v. SOUTH- 2.] An under-cellarer in a convent. 

c 1475 Pict. yoc. in Wr.-Wulcker 780/23 Hie subselarius^ 
a subselerer. c 170* in Cath. Kec. Soc. Publ. IX. 374 She 
was impluyed-.assubcellerere; M of Novices, Conseler, 
and ward-robe. 

Subce utral, a. 

1. [SuB- 11, 20 d.] Nearly or not quite central; 
near or close to the centre. 

1822 J. PARKINSON Out/. Oryctol. 124 The mouth beneath, 
subcentral. 1836 Penny Cycl. V. 313/2 Fissure of adhesion 
in the lower valve subcentral. 1870 HOOKER Stud. Flora 
461 Asplenium Trichomanes. .midrib subcentral. 

2. [SuB- i a.] Being under the centre. 
1828-32 in WEBSTER. 

3. [SuB- i b.] Anat. Beneath the central sulcus 
of the brain; beneath the centrum of a vertebra. 

1882 Qnaln s Elent. Anat. (ed. 9) I. 23 The precentral or 
subcentral parts or hypapophyses. 1890 BILLINGS Nat. fifed. 
Diet., Subcentral arch, haemal arch. 1901 Ainer. Antkro. 
fologist (N.S.) III. 461 The bubceiitral t>ulci of Eberstaller. 



12 

Hence Svtbce 1 utrally adv., under or near the centre 
or centrum. Also Snbce -ntrical a. = t above. 

1824 Du Bois Lamarck s Arrangem. 302 The interior [of 
the Orthocera] is divided into many cells, transversely sepa 
rated by septa, which are traversed by a subcentrical syphon. 
1870 ROLLESTON Anim. Life 12 Several of the anterior., 
vertebra?, have low hypapophysial ridges developed sub- 
centrally. 1871 H. A. NICHOLSON Palxont. 173 A pair of 
large compound eyes placed marginally or subcentrally. 

t Subee-rnicle. Obs. rare. [ad. late L. subcerni- 
culuin : see SDB- 5 b and CEBNICLE.] ? A small sieve. 

1657 TOMLINSON Rcntiu s Disp. 484 Sieves made of Horses 
hairs.. called seraceous subcirnicles. 

Subcesive, obs. variant of SUBSECIVE. 

Su-bcha-nter. [f. SUB- 6 + CHANTER. Cf.OF. 
sou^bjChantre, F. sous-chantre."] A precentor s 
deputy, succentor; now, a vicar choral or lay-clerk 
of a cathedral, who assists in chanting the litany. 

The title is retained in York and Lichfield cathedrals. 

1515 in W. Fraser Sutherland Bk. (1892) III. 60 Schir 
William Nory, subchantour of Murray. 1546 Yks. Cliantry 
Snrv. (Surtees) II. 438 Denis Heckylton, subchaunter there. 
a 1578 LINDESAY (Pitscottie) Chron.SfOt. I. 200 The . . chanter 
and subchanter witht all kynd of wther offieceis pertaining 
to ane colledge. 1637 GILLESPIE Eng. Pop. Cerctn. m. viii. 
161 Deanes, Vice-Deans,. . Sub-deacons,. -Chantours, Sub- 
chantours. 1703 II. MARTIN Deter. W. /si. Scot. 362 A Sub- 
Chanter, who was bound to play on the Organs each Lords 
Day, and Festivals. 1823 (title) Expository Discourses, by 
the late Rev. Win. Richardson, Subchanter of York Cathe 
dral. 1876 J. GRANT Burgh Sell. Scat. \. 19 There are four 
principal persons in that cathedral [sc. Sarum], namely, the 
dean, chanter, chancellor, treasurer, besides a subdean and 
subchanter. 1898 Daily AVrus i Apr. 7/6 Sub-chanter and 
priest vicar of Lichfield Cathedral, 

transf. a 1618 J. DAVIES Wittes Pilgr. (1878) 32/2 That 
Holy, Holy, Holy, which They crie That are Sub-chaunters 
of Heau ns Hermony. 

Hence f Subcha-ntership, f Snbcha ntress. 

14. . Rule Syon Moiiast. xiii. in Collectanea Topogr. III. 
(1836) 31 The chauntres and sub-chauntresses, the sexteyne 
and undersexteyne. 1546 Ykt. Chantry Sum. (Surtees) 
II. 439 For his subchauntershipe, ij 5 . 

Strbcharge. [Sus- 5 b, c.] 

1 1. A second dish or course. Alsoyf^. Sc. Obs. 

c 1480 HENRYSON Mar. Fab. n. ( Town ty C. Mouse) xviii, 
Till eik thair cheir ane subcharge furth scho brocht, Ane 
plait of grottis [etc.]. Ibid, xxvii, The subcharge of thy 
seruice is hot sair. 1513 DOUGLAS jfcneid xiii. ix. 118 All 
ar expert, eftir new manage, On the first nycht quhat suld 
be the subcharge. 

2. .Subordinate charge. 

1900 Century .lAsf. Feb. 503/2, I have seen M. Clemen- 
ceau as storm-fiend-in-chief, and M. Clovis Hugues in sub- 
charge of the Cave of the Winds. 

Subchela. [f. SUB- 22 + CHELA, i.] A form of 
chela characteristic of certain crustaceans, in which 
the terminal segment is bent back upon the next. 

Subchelate, . a. [SUB- 20 c.] Imperfectly 
chelate. b. [f. prec.] Having a subchela. 

1852 DANA Crust. II. 802 Four anterior legs subchelate. 
1877 HUXLEY Anat. /fir. Aniin. vi. 272 Corycxns has.. 
subchelate antennae, and a rudimentary abdomen. 1893 
STEBBING Crmt. 45 The limb is.. said to be subchelate, the 
claw being in that case partial. 

Subche-liform, a. [SDB- 20 c.] = prec. a. 

1835-6 Toad s Cycl. Anat. I. 762/1 In the first instance 
these instruments are denominated subcheliform claws, in 
the second chelae simply, or cheliform claws. 1856 W. 
CLARKE Van dcr Hocven s Zool. I. 649 First and second 
pairs of feet terminated by a large moveable hook, sub 
cheliform. 

Subchet, i error for SUBCHARGE. 

1500-20 DUNBAR Poems Ixvii. 19 Of quhais subchettis [v.r. 
surcharge] sour is the sals. 

t Subciueri tious, a. Obs. [f. L. siibcinerl- 
cius, var. siiccinericius : see SUB- and CINEHITIOUS.] 

1. [SuB- i a.] Baked under ashes. rare~. 

1656 BLOUNT Glossogr. 

2. [SuB- 20 a.] Somewhat ash-coloured, greyish. 
Hence Subcineri tiously adv. 

1657 TOMLINSON Renou s Disp. 353 Subcineritiously yirid. 
Ibid. 672 Balm flows from a.. Tree.. of a subcineritious 
colour. 1670 H. STUBBE Plus Ultra 130 A subcineritious 
or dirty-coloured putrilage. 

II Subci uguluin. [med.L. ; see SUB- 3.] A 
broad belt or girdle worn beneath another. 

1834 MEYRICK Ant. Armour Gloss., Subcingulunt, when 
one belt was worn below another it was thus called. 1849 
ROCK Ch. Fathers I. v. 492 Besides the girdle, our Anglo- 
Saxon bishops were girt with the sub-cingulum or broad belt. 

Subcisive, obs. variant of SUBSECIVE. 

t Snbcitrine, a. Obs. [ad. mod.L. subci- 
Innus : see SUB- 20 a and CITRINE a.] Of a some 
what yellow or greenish-yellow colour. 

c 53o Jiidic. Urines I. iii. 6 b, Theyr vryne is faynt of 
colour, as subcitrine or jelowysshe. 1572 J. JONES Bathes 
Ayde in. 26 b, Chaffie, or subcitrine coloure. 1637 BRIAN 
Pisse-grophet (1679) 85 Taking the Urinal out of the case, 
(perceiving it to be of a subcitrine or pale colour). 1702 
Phil. Trans. XXIII. 1281 Of subcitrin colour. 

Subclass (s-bklas). [Sus- 7 b. Cf, F. scus- 
classe.~\ A subdivision of a class; Nat. Hist, a 
group of orders ranking next to a class. 

1819 G. SAMOUELLE Entomol. Compend. 77 Dr. Leach 
considered the Malacostraca and Entomostraca as sub- 
classes. 1857 A. GRAY First Less. Bot. (1866) 177 Series, 
Class, Subclass, Order, or Family, Suborder, Tribe, Sub- 
tribe, Genus, Subgenus or Section, Species, Variety. 1880 
GUNTHER Fishes 65 The lowermost sub-class of fishes, which 
comprises one form only, the Lancelet. 1882 VINES tr. 



SUBCOLLECTOR. 

^f*f "" * Dividing this class of structures into two 
sub-classes, hairs and emergences. 

attritt. 1869 DK. ARGYLE Primeval Man H. 62 One of 
C-uvier s sub-class divisions. 

So Su-bclass v. irons., to place in a subclass. 

1894-3 >btk Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethiwl. 72 The 
motive must be subclassed as sortilegic. 

II Subcla-via. Anat. [mod.L. subclavia (sc. 
artiria artery), fern, of subclavius (see below).] 
The subclavian artery. 

1733 tr. Winslmu sAnat. (1756) II. 10 The Trachealis.. 
runs up from the Subclavia, in a winding Course. 1771 
Encycl. Brit. 1.227/1 The Carotid arteries . . arise near each 
other,. .the left immediately, the right most commonly from 
the trunk of the subclavia on the same side. 

t Subcla-vial, a. and sb. Anat. Obs. [ad. 
mod.L. subclavidlis, f. SUBCLAVIUS.] = next. 

1066 J. SMITH Old Age (1676) 236 The subclavial branch 
of the Vena. Cava. 1670 Phil, Trans. V. 2078 Part of the 
Chyle is by the Ductits Tlioracicus conveyed into the Sub- 
clavials, and so into the Cistern of the Breasts. 1674 Ibid. 
IX. 115 Whether through his dnctus all the Chyle passeth 
to the subclavial vessel. 

Subclavian (scbkl^ vian), a. and sb. Anat. 
[f. mod.L. subclavi-us (see below) + -AN. F. has 
sousclavier (from i6th c.).] A. adj. 

1. Lying or extending under the clavicle. 

SuiaaoSut artery, the principal artery of the rex 



irst rib till it joins the internal jugular vein. 
1681 tr. IVillii Rem. Med. IVks. Vocab., Subclavian 

vessels ; the vessels that belong to the little ribs of the 

breast. 1688 HOLME Armoury n. xvii. 423/1 The right 

Subclavian Arterie. 1703 Phil. Trans. XXIII. uSSThat 

part cf the Axillary-Arteries, by some called the Subclavian 

Arteries. 1705 Ibid. XXV. 2010, I found the same Tumor 
comprehending the intercostals, Deltoides, Subclavian, and 

Subscapulary Muscles. 1770 FORDYCE in Monthly Rev. 310 

The thoracic duct ..commonly terminates in the left sub 
clavian vein. 1808 BARCLAY A/use. Motions 239 The dif 
ference of manner in which the carotid and subclavian 
arteries, on the two sides, arise from the aorta. 1834 J. 

FORBES Laennec s Dis. Chest (ed. 4) 19 Subclavian region. 
This includes merely the portion of the chest covered by 
the clavicle. 1887 CONAN DOYLE Study in Scarlet r. i, I 
was struck on the shoulder by a Jezail bullet, which shattered 
the bone and grazed the subclavian artery. 

b. Pertaining to the subclavian artery, vein, or 
muscle, as subclavian groove, etc. (see quots.). 

1646 SIR T. BROWNE Pseud. Ep. iv. iv. 188 The Liver, 
which though it be seated on the right side, yet by the sub 
clavian division doth equidistantly communicate its activity 
unto either arme. 1870 ROLLESTON Anim. Life 15 The 
right arteria innominata is seen to divide into its common 
carotid and subclavian trunks. 1890 BILLINGS Nat. filed. 
Diet., Subclavian glands^ lymphatic glands under the arch 
of the right subclavian artery. Subclavian groove, i. That 
in which the subclavian artery lies on upper surface of first 
rib. 2. That into which the subclavius muscle is inserted 
on under surface of clavicle. 

2. [As if f. L. sub under + clavis key.] (See quot) 
rare . 

1656 BLOUNT Glossogr., Subclavian, pertaining to that 
which is under lock and key. 

B. sb. A subclavian vessel, nerve, or muscle. 

1719 QUINCY Lex. Physico-Med. (1722) 241 The Vein 
\Vcna Pneutonica\ opens into the Subclavian. 1771 Eti- 
cyel. Brit. I. 226/2 The subclavian on each side terminates 
at the upper edge of the first rib. 1888 ROLLESTON & 
JACKSON Anim. Life 365 The sub-clavians and carotid? 
arise from the aortic arch in various ways. 

Subclayi Cular, a. Anat. and Surg. [ad. 
mod.L. subdaviculdris : see SUB- I b and CLAVI- 
CULAU.] Situated, occurring, or performed below 
or beneath the clavicle. 

1656 BLOUNT Glossogr. s. v. Vein, S ubelavicular vein, one 
of the two maine ascendant branches of the hollow veine, 
divided into six parts. 1853 MARKHAM Skoda s Auseult. So 
Weak bronchophony heard in the interscapular and sub- 
clavicular regions. 1872 BRYANT Pract. Surg. 218 The 
subclavicular operation, 1878 WALSHAM Handbk. Surg. 
Pathol.i^i Dislocation of the humerus. . . The head of the 
bone may be displaced . . Forwards and inwards beneath the 
clavicle (subclavicular). 

Subclavio- (sobkltfi-vio), used as combining 
form of next, as in Subcla vio-a xillary, pertain 
ing to the subclavian and axillary arteries. 

1815 J. GORDON Syst. Hum. Anat. I. 69 The Subclavio. 
Jugular Veins. 1880 BARWELL Aneurism 38 A subclavio- 
axillary aneurism. 

II Subclavius (sobkl^i vics). Anat. [mod.L. 
subclavius (sc. musculus, {. sub- SUB- I b + clavis 
key (cf. CLAVICLE! etym.).] In full subclavius 
muscle : A small muscle extending from the first 
rib to the clavicle. 

1704 J. HARRIS Lex. Techn. I, Subclavius, is a Muscle of 
the Thorax. 1733 tr. Winslvw s Anat. (1756) I. 288 The 
Subclavius. .is a proper Depressor of the Clayicula. 1831 
KNOX Cloguet s Anat. 31 Its anterior extremity [sc. of the 
first rib] . . sometimes affords insertion above to the sub-clavius 
muscle. 1835-6 Todtfs Cycl, Anat. I. 360/1 The thickened 
edge of the fascia which covers the subclavius. 

Subcolle ctor. [Sus- 6. OF. soub(s}cotttc- 
teur, Sp. subcoleclor] A deputy or assistant col 
lector. 

1558-9 Act t Eliz. c. 21 22 No.. Commissioner, shalbe 
named or assigned to any Collector or Subcollector or pre 
senter of the said Subsidie. 1687 Land. Gaz. No. 2306/4 
The Sub-Collector of the Tenths of the said Diocess due to 
His Majesty. 1758 J. BLAKE Mar. Syst. 29 The collector, 



SUBCOMMISSION. 



13 



SUBCOSTAL. 



or sub-collector, of the customs. 1837 Lett.fr. Madras 
(1843193 A Mr. Macdonald, thesub-cpllector. XQOZGAIRUNEK 
Engl.Ch.itoth c. i. 12 Polydore Vergil wasa native of Urbino, 
sent to England by Alexander VI. as sub-collector to Adrian. 
Subcommi ssion. [Cf. F. sons-commission.] 

1. [SuB- 5 c.] An uader-commission. 

1629 Reg. Privy Council Scot. Ser. n. III. 21 The com- 
missioners. .have ordained sub-coin missiouns to be granted 
to some selected persouns. 1648 HEYLIN Retat. # Ob$tm. i. 
119 Skippon. .authorized the said Commissioned Apprentices. 
to grant Sub-commissions again to other Apprentices under 
them. 

2. [SUB- 7 b.] A division of a commission. 
1882 Macm. Mag. XLVI. 253 The President.. and the 

Minister ..name commissions, these name sub-commissions, 
and so we go on from day to day. 

Subcommrssioiier. [SUB- 6,] An assis 
tant or subordinate commissioner. 

1629 5V. Acts Ckas. I (1870) V. 190/2 The commissioners 
and subconimisiioners alreadie appointed. 1696 <?//</. Gaz. 
No. 3183/3 The Association of the Sub-Commissioners for 
Prizes, of the Port of Dover and its Districts. 1697 /Vt .c 
renal Laws 14 Offences against this Act. -to be determined 
by the Chief Commissioners., then by the Stibcommissioners. 
1846 WC^LLQCH Ace. Brit. Empire (1854) 1 1. 289 The valua 
tion was devolved on commissioners and sub-commissioners. 

Subcommi t, v. rare. [SUB- 8.] 

1. trans. To commit (something entrusted to one) 
to another. 

1818 RANKEN Hist. France V. v. ii. 286 He subcommittee! 
the publication of this dispensation, .to the friars of the 
Dominican order. 

2. To refer to a sub-committee. 

172. WOUROW Corr. (1843) II. 582 At night the Instruc 
tions met, and we had a fast before us, which was sub- 
committed. 

Subcommittee. [SUB- yb.] A committee 
iormed from and acting under a main committee ; 
a part of a committee appointed for special purposes. 

1610 in Crt. $ Times Jas. I (1848) 1.113 This day a sub 
committee is appointed to consider [etc.], i6zi EL.SING 
Debates Ho. Lords (Cainden) 98 Referred to the Sub-comil- 
tees of the prfviledgea. 1666 PKI-VS Diary 5 Oct., The -Sub- 
committee have made their report to the- Grand Committee. 
1790 UURKK />-. A fz . 4 IJy acting as a sort of sub-committee 
in England for extending the principles of the National As 
sembly. 1823 JEFFEKSON Writ. (1830) IV. 376 The com 
mittee of five met; no such thing as a sub-committee was 
proposed. 1898 *MERRIMAN* Koden s Corner vii. 69 The 
meeting of the lady committees of the bazaar and ball sub 
committees. 



ubconscious (ttfclynjas), a. [SUB- 19.] 

1. Psych, a. Partially or imperfectly conscious; 
belonging to a class of phenomena resembling those 
of consciousness but not clearly perceived or recog 
nized, b. Belonging to that portion of the mental 
field the processes of which arc outside the range 
of attention. 

1832-4 DE OUINCEV Cxsars Wks. 1862 IX. 137 note^ The 
Emperor Hadrian had taken one solitary step .. in the 
elevation of human nature; and not.. without some sub- 
conscious influence received directly or indirectly from 
Christianity, a 1841 Pope Wks. 1858 IX. 42 How much 
grander and more faithful to that great theme [Christianity] 
were the subconscious perceptions of his heart than tlie 
explicit commentaries of his understanding. 1886 MYEKS 
Phantasms of Living II. 285 There exist sub-conscious ami 
unconscious operations of many kinds ; both organic, as 
secretion, circulation, c.,..and also mental, as the recall of 
names, the development of ideas, &c. 1886 Encycl, />>//. 
XX. 48/1 Subconscious presentations may tell on conscious 
life, .although lacking either the differences of intensity or 
the individual distinctness requisite to make them definite 
features. 1899 Allbntfs Syst. Mcd. VIII. 151 To cultivate 
the highest powers of the body and mind Is to strengthen 
self-control and that subconscious inhibition which govern 
us in our habits of life. 

absol. with the. 1886 Encycl. Brit. XX. 48/1 We cannot 
fix the limit at which the subconscious becomes the abso 
lutely unconscious. 
C. transf. 

1833 Min. 8th Nat. Council Congr. Ch. U. S. 54 This 
spirit that has always existed in the sub-conscious life of the 
Church is now rising into the light of consciousness. 1899 
Daily News 7 Jan. 6/4 A sketch of himself, .has a subcon 
scious humour one would not have suspected. 

2. Partly or imperfectly aware. 

1864 HAWTHORNE Stftimius (1883) 352 He was subcon 
scious that he was trying a bold experiment. 1879 LEWES 
Probl, Lif^ <fr Mind Ser. in. i. vii. 104 While obeying the 
prevailing impulse we are conscious and sub-conscious of 
simultaneous solicitations indifferent directions. 

Subco nsciously, adv. [f. prec. + -LY 2.] In 
a subconscious manner ; with imperfect or feeble 
consciousness; in the region of subconsciousness. 

1823 DE QUINCEY Language Wks. 1858 IX. 78 Whilst the 
finest models of style exist, and sub-consciously operate 
effectively as sources of delight, the conscious valuation of 
style is least perfectly developed. 1895 Times 17 Oct. 3/2 
You do not feel as if you had had enough, but you are sub 
consciously aware of having had too many. 1903 MVKKS 
//;//. Ptrs. I. 378 Some of the associative consequents of 
the writing on the other [fragment of stone] were sub-con 
sciously involved. 

Subco nsciousness. [f. as prec. + -NKSS.] 
1. Partial or imperfect consciousness; a state of 

consciousness in which perception is indistinct ; 

that part of the mental field which is on the border 

of consciousness. 
1879 I.rwis/W7. Ufctf .Mind Ser. in. !. v. 88 There all 

Ihc processes are blended, integrated, and in certain relative 



intensities become states of Consciousness ; in lesser inten 
sities, states of Subconiciousness. 1886 Encycl, Brit. XX. 
47 The hypothesis of unconscious mental modifications, as it 
has been unfortunately termed, the hypothesis of subcon- 
sciousness, as we may style it to avoid this contradiction in 
terms. 1904 Brit. Med. Jrril. 17 Sept. 692 He probably 
projects into the mental life of others what is present in his 
own subconsciousness. 

2. A condition of imperfectly realizing or being 
aware ^"something. 

1881 Nation (N.Y.) XXXII. 290 Brady s consciousness or 
subconsciousness of the shortness and uncertainty of his own 
tenure. 1896 F. M. CRAWFORD Corleotie xxxiii, He drove 
away the sub-consciousness that the thing was not yet done. 

Sub-co nstable. Now ffist. [Sri*- 6.] An 
under-constable, esp. in the Royal Irish Constabu 
lary (see quots. 1814, 1883"). 

1512 Act 4 Hen. F///,c. i<j 6 Preceptesto the Constables 
Hedbouro,>hcs Thirdbouroghes Subconstables. 1558-9 Act 
i Elis. c.zi $ 16. 1814 ActjjGcs. III, c. i/i 6 To ap 
point, for the Aid and Support of any such Chief Ma^i.s- 
t rates, . .a Clerk, and al^oa Chief Constable, andany Number 
of Sub Constables, not exceeding Fifty in the whole. 1839 
Penny Cycl. XIII. 25 2 The police, .in 1836, consisted of.. 
155 chief constables of the first ami 59 of tha second class; 
1232 constables; 6233 subconstables. 1883 Act 46 I ict. 
\ c. 14 12 After the first day of October one thousand ei-^ht 
j hundred and eighty-three the sub-inspectors, constables, 
acting constables, and sub-constables of the Royal Irish 
Constabulary, shall respectively be styled district inspeutuis, 
sergeants, acting sergeants, and constables. 1886 KKUI IIY 

Sk. R. /. C. \. 7 Sub-Constable 1) was a scion of a 

family that were ruined chiefly by horse-racing, 1907 tt estm. 
irtu. 4 July 1/2 Sir Thomas Kehlin. .served . .as sub-con 
stable and constable in the ranks of the Royal Irish Con- 
stabulary. 

Su bco iltineilt. [Sun- 5 b.] A land mass 
of great extent, but smaller than those generally 
called continents ; a large section of a continent 
having a certain geographical or political inde 
pendence ; in recent use, spec. South Africa. 

1863 HUXLKY Mans PlaiC Sat. in. 154 From centra! Asia 
eastward to the Pacific islands and subcontinents on the one 
hand, and to Ainerii-a on the other. 1901 Scotsman 16 Oct. 

j n/i In South Africa. .the inhabitants of the sub-continent. 
1911 United Ewf>ire June 389 Rhodesia might have seemed 

, the Never-never-land of the sub-continent, a Cinderella 
amoiit; South African States. 

Subcontinental, a. 

1. [Sun- J a.] Situated or occurring under a 
continent. 

1900 SOLLAS in Xature LXII. 487/1 The sub-continental 
excess of temperature. 

2. [Sun- 19.] Partly continental. 

1897 Pop. Sci. Monthly L. 329 The occurrence of what are 
stated to be subcontinental or terrigenous deposits. 

t Subcqnti-nuative, a. Gram. obs. [ad. late 
L. subcontiniiatlv-ns i^in conjunct iones subconfi nud- 
tivs?) : see SUB- 8 and CONTINUATIVE. Cf. Gr. 
napaavvaiTTiKos applied to conjunctions used to 
introduce clauses implying a fact.] (See quots.) 

I 53 PALSGR. 148 Some [conjunctions] besubcontinuatyves 
whiche serve to contynue a mater whan, .began, or to bcgyn 
a mater at the first, as/oz r antdnt ..si..codncn. .encore. 
Ibid.) I have.. called one of the vii modes, .thesubjunctyve 

| mode or subcontinuatyve mode. 1798 TOOKK Pitrley(f.&. 2) 
i. viL in We shall get rid of that farrago of useless distinc 
tions into Conjunctive^ Adjnndi- t , Disjunctive^ Sit Mis* 

: jitnctiz C t . . Continnatiz 1 ?) Subcontinuative. 

Sub-contrnued, a. Med. [SUB- 20 g.] Of 

! a fever: Almost continuous, remittent. 

1836 J. M. GI-LLV Magendic sForniuL (ed. 2) 60 Twenty- 
seven sub-continued, and eight remittent fevers. \\ ere cured. 
1898 P. MANSON Trop. Diseases xxxvi. 543 Fever of an 
irregular, intermitting, or even of a sub-continued type. 

So S\ib-coiiti nual a. 

1890 BILLINGS Nat. Med. Diet,, Snbcontinual fcv cr, 
malarial fever. 

Subcontract, sb. [SuB- 9.] A contract, or 
! one of several contracts, for carrying out a previous 
; contract or a part of it. 

1817 SELWYN Law Nisi Pn tis (ed. 4) IV. 1037 If the 
defendant was not liable, the plaintiff might be obliged to 
sue all the parties who had subcontracts before he could 
obtain redress. 1885 Law Rep. 15 O. B. Div. 87 The con- 
, tract with th plaintiff was to enable him to fulfil a sub 
contract with his customer. 

attrib. 1887 Pall Mall Gaz. 25 Nov. n Making it a con- 

1 dition of all Government clothing contracts that they must 

not be worked out under the sweating or sub-contract system. 

Subcontract, v. [Suit- 9.] 

f 1. pass. To be betrothed for the second time. 
i6o5$HAKs. Lfarv. iii. 86 Tis she is sub -con traded to 
this Lord. 

2. intr. To make a subcontract. 

1842 BURN Naval fy Milit. Diet. (1863) s.v. Sous t Sotis~ 
trailer^ to sub-contract. 1889 Lancet 9 Mar. 498 He.. 
hands over what he cannot do himself to others, with whom 
he subcontracts. 

3. trans. To make a subcontract for. 

1898 ll t-stw, Gaz. 26 Aug. 7/2 As to the food arrangements, 
they were not worked from London, but sub-contracted by 
people in the locality. 

Hence Subcontracted///, a., Subcontracting 
z>6/. sb. ; Sub-contra ctor, one who enters into a 
subcontract. 

1842 Civil En fin. fy A rch. Jrnl. V. 85/2 The sub-contractor 
. . had to . . lay down the temporary road. 1900 / 1 estm. Gaz. 
22 Oct. 8/i Direct employment and no sub-contracting. 
190* Daily Chron. 29 Apr. 3/4 The conditions under which 
the subcontracted work b carried out. 



Su bcontrari ety. Logic, [f. next : see 
CONTRARIETY.] The relation existing between 
subcontrary propositions. 

1697 tr. Bvrgtrsaicivs his Logic i. xxxiii, Subcontrariety 
Is between two Particulars; Opposition Indefinite between 
two Infinites. 1864 EUWEN Logic \i. IDJ It was conveiiit-nt 
for Logicians to consider the relations of Subalternation and 
Sub-Contrariety. 

Subcp ntrary, a. and sb. [ad. late L. sttb- 
contrdriitSj as a term of loi;ic trail si. late Gr. 
virevavTios : see SUB- 19 and CONTRARY a. Cf. OF. 
Mibcontraire) F. sous-contraire^\ 

A. adj. 1. Somewhat or partially contrary. 
1603 HOLLAND Plittarclt s Mor. 1038 The other [number] 

which surmounteth, and is surmounted by the same part of 
their extremities, is named tlyficnantia^ that is tu say, sub- 
contrary. 1697 J- ScKciKAN r Solid P kilos, 314 Finding his, 
Discourse in oilier Places Sub-contrary to what 1 took to be 
his Thoughts. 1897 HI.ACKMOKE / <t>vV/x.\i\, A conclusion 
n L directly counter, but sub-contrary, .to the view which 
her liusbaiid had ventured to form. 

2. Logic, a. Applied to paiticular propositions 
(or the relation of opposition between them) agree 
ing in quantity but differing in *juality. 

1656 tr. llof bcs 1 EL HI. Philos. i. iii. 31 subcontrary, are 
_Particular Propositions of different Quality ; as Some Man 
is learned, Some Man is nut learned. 1826 \\ n.\ TLI.Y Lt\^i<. 
(i3-. 7) Index 347 Subcontrary opposition is ln-twLcn tw-j 
particulars, the affirmative and the rif^ative. 1870 JKVONS 
J llcin. Logic ix. 78 Of subcontrary propositions, one only 
can be false, and both may be tine. 

b. * Applied to the relation between two attri 
butes which co-exist in the same substance, yet in 
such a way that the more there is ot one, the less 
there is of the other* (Webster 1864,. 

3. Geom. a. Applied to the relative position of 
two similar triangles having a common angle at 
the vertex and their bases not parallel, so that the 
basal angles are equal but on contrary sides. Also 
in a generalized sense see <[tiut. 1842 . 

1704 J. HARRIS Lc.\~, /t. in. I, Subcontrary Position^ (in 
Geometry). 1842 Penny C\:l. XX I II. 185/1 When a figure 
or solid is symmetrical, so that equal lines or pdy^ons <_an 
be drawn on two different sides, thobe equal lines or poly 
gons may be called subcontrary. 

b. Applied to any circular section of a quadric 
cone in relation to the base or to another circular 
section not parallel to it. 

1706 W. JoNts^j "* Palmar. .Ifa/Ju scos ^54 If cut Parallel, 
or Subcontrary to the Ua>e, the Section will be a Cuxlt- 
i84z Penny Cy d. XXI II . 1 85 i The generating circle A 1 1C I > 
has a subcontrary circle EBFI >, made by taking the line KK 
subcontrary to AC. 1877 Encyt.L Brit. VI. - 83 i If a C Jiie 
be cut by a plane which docs not pass through the veiux, 
and which is neither parallel to the base nor tu ihe pl.uie uf 
a bubcontrary section. 

B. sb. 1. Logic. A subcontrary proposition. 
1697 tr. Bnrgersdjiiits his Logic I. xxxiii, Suhcontraries 

arc, some man is just, somt: man is not just. ..Contraries, 
the negation added or taken away, contradict iubcontranes. 
1725 WATTS Logic u. ii. 3 If two particular propositions 
differ in quality, they are subcou trades. 1826 [see SUBALIEKN 
sb. 3], 1864 BOWEN Logic vi. 164 Sub-Contraries can be 
called opposites only in a qualified and technical sense. 

2. Geotn. A subeontrary section of a eone. 

1849 Penny Cycl. XXIII. 185/1 In a right cone every 
section has its subcontrary, except only the circle which 
generates the cone, and its parallels. 

Hence Subco "ntrarily adv. (see quot.). 

1728 CHAMBERS Cycl. s. v. Sitbcotitrary, If the scalenous 
Cone BVD be so cut by the Plane CA, as that the Angle at 
C ~ D; the Cone is then said to be cut Subcontrarily to its 
Base BA. 

SubcoTtical, a. [SuB- i a.] 

1. Lying, situated, or formed under the bark of 
a tree ; (of insects ) living or feeding under bark. 

1815 KIRBV & Si . Kntotnol, (1818) I. 212 Wood-lice, ear 
wigs, spiders, field- bugs, and similar subcortical insects. 
i8 LINDLEY Introd. Bot.-2\$ T - facilitate the descent of the 
subcortical fibres of the growing buds. 1851 MAHTKLL/V/n- 
factions i. 43 These are not produced by the attachment of 
petioles, but are sub-cortical protuberances. 1866 RYE Brit. 
Beetles 89 Omalium /Aiw..is, perhaps, as good a type 
of a subcortical insect as could be seen. 

2. Situated under or pertaining to the region under- 
lying (a} the cortex of a sponge, () the cortex of 
the brain. 

1887 Encycl. Brit. XXII. 415 The roots of the incurrent 
sinuses form widely open spaces immediately beneath the 
cortex and are the rudiments of subcortical crypts. 1899 
Alll utt s Syst. Affa .Vl. 810 Supra-nuclear paralysis (includ 
ing thecortical and subcortical varieties). Ibid. VII. 422 The 
lesion was an essentially subcortical one. 

Hence Subco -rtically adv., with reference to the 
region underlying the cortex. 

1871 W. A. LEIGHTON Lichen-flora 150 The sub-cortically 
al bo- maculate t hall us. 

|| Subcosta (s^bkjrsta). Entom. [Su B- i f.] 
The subcostal vein of the wing of some insects ; 
the vein just behind the costa. 

1861 H. HAGES Synopsis Nturoptera. N. Amer. 343. 

SubcO Stal, a. and st>. [ad. mod.L. sub- 
costdlis : see SUB- I b and COSTAL.] 

A. adj. \.Anat. Situated below a rib or beneath 
the ribs ; lying on the under side of a rib, as a 
groove for an artery. 

1872 Hi MPHKY Myology ig The under or sub-costal parts 
of the broad pelvic shield. 1876 Quain s Eltm. Artat. (ed, 8) 



SUBCBTTREAL. 

I. 28 The inferior border [of a rib] presents on its inner 
aspect the subcostal groove. 1882 Ibid. (ed. 9) I. 30 The 
subcostal angle into the centre of which the ensiform process 
projects. 1890 BILLINGS Nat. Med. Diet.) Sub-costal angle^ 
that formed by margins of costal cartilages at lower aperture 
of thorax. 1910 Encycl. Brit. (ed. 11} II. 667 Below the 
last rib a subcostal artery runs. 

2. Entom. Situated behind or near the costal 
vein or nervure of an insect s wing. 

1826 KIRBY & SP. Entomol. III. 376 Neune Subcostales 
(the Subcostal Nervures). Nervures springing from the 
under-side of the post-costal nervure, or from each other. 

B. sb. A subcostal muscle (usually in L. form 
subcostalis} ; a subcostal artery, vein, or nervure. 

[1733 tr, Wiiulovft Anat. (1756) I. 319 The Sub-Costales 
having the superior Extremities of their Fibres much more 
distant from the Vertebral Articulation of the Ribs, than 
the lower Extremities.] 

Subcrure al, a. Anat. Also -aeal. [f. next.] 

Situated under the crureus ; pertaining to the sub- 
crureus. So Subcrure an a. 

1839-47 Todd s Cycl. Anat. III. 49/1 We have known 
inflammation of the synovial membrane of the knee to have 
been the result of a wound of the subcrurasal bursa. 1859 
MAYXE Expos. ., Subcrurxus^ ..subcrurean. 

I Subcrureus (sybkrnarr^s). Also -seus. 
Anat. [mod.L. (sc. muscu!u$\ f. sud- Sl B- i d + 
crfireus \i. crtis, crur- legV] (See quot. 1848.) 

1848 Quain s Anat. (ed. 5) I. 388 Subcrureiis. Under this 
name is described a small band of muscular fibres, which ex 
tends from the anterior surface of the femur to the upper part 
of the synovial membrane of the knee-joint. 1887 Buck s 
Handik. Med. Sci. V. 45 The subcrureus muscle found in 
the lower limb beneath the quadriceps extensor. 

Subcutaneous (B0bki*rt n&s), a. [f. late L. 
subcutdncuS) f. sub- SUB- I b + cults skin + -dncus : 
see -KOUS. Cf. It. subcutaneo ; K. sousctitant.] 

1. Lying or situated under the skin. 

1656 BLOCNT Glossogr,^ Subcutaneous^ between the skin 
and the flesh. 1698 A. DE LA PRYMK Diary (Surtees) 180 
A kind of a dropsy, or a gathering together of a subcutanious 
water. 1744 Phil. Trans. XLIII. 117 It is very probable, 
that none of the subcutaneous Juices are opaque. 1831 
KNOX Cloquet*s Anat, 141 The subcutaneous cellular tissue 
is traversed by large veins. 1835-6 Todd s Cycl. Anat. I. 
466 note, In general the anomalous artery is the radial, and 
is subcutaneous in its course. 1872 BRYANT Pract. Surg. 
12 The healing of subcutaneous wounds. 

2. Living under the skin. 

1664 POWER Exf>. P kilos. \. 22 This almost invisible sub 
cutaneous Inhabitant. 1815 KIRBY & SP. Entomol. iv. 
(1818) I. 86 It does not appear, -that the species, .are. .sub 
cutaneous. 1849 Proc. Bfrzu. Nat. Club Il.vii. 361 The larva 
is subcutaneous in the leaves of the common Chickweed. 

3. Of operations, etc. : Performed or taking 
place under the skin ; characterized by application 
of a remedy beneath the skin ; hence, of instruments 
by which such operations are performed or reme 
dies administered ; hypodermic. 

1651 BIGGS N ew Disp. r 241 A subcutaneous expurgation, 
should be sent out by the high way and sink of all sordid 
excrements. i868GAKROD Mat. J\fcd. (ed. 3) 381 The method 
of introducing medicine into the system by subcutaneous 
injection has gained much ground of late. 1875 KNIGHT Diet. 
Mech., Subcutaneous Syringe^ an instrument for Injecting 
medicinal solutions beneath the skin. 1899 Allbutt s Syst. 
Med. VIII. 935 The subcutaneous administration of anti 
toxic serum. 

Hence Subcuta neously adv., under the skin, 
hypodermically ; Snbcnta neousuess. 

1727 BAILEY (\Q\.\\\Subcutaneousness, the lying under the 
Skin. 1873 H. C. WOOD Therap. (1879) 231 When the drug 
Is given subcutaneously. 1885 KLEIN Micro-Org. 46 Saliva 
of the healthy dog and of man inoculated subcutaneously 
into rabbits sometimes produces death. 

Subdane, -dayn, obs. forms of SUDDEN. 

Subdeacon (szrbdz kan). EccL Forms : a. 4 
sude;a)kne, 4-5 sodekene, 5 -en, -on, -un, -yn. 
0. 4-6 subdekin, -yn, -decon, (also 8) -diacon, 
etc, (see DEACON s&.}, 5- subdeacon. (See also 
southdeacon s. v. SOUTH- 2.) [ a . AF., OF. sou- 
diakeiie, snbdiacne t f. sou(s}-, sub- (see SUB- 6) + 
diaene DEACON sb,, after eccl. L. sttbdidconus^ which 
was modelled on eccl. Gr. VTroSta/coi/os.] 

1. The name of an order of ministers in the 
Christian church next below that of deacon. 

The duty of subdeacons is to assist in the celebration of 
the Eucharist by preparing the sacred vessels and (in the 
Western Church) by reading the epistle. In the East the 
subdiaconate ranks as one of the minor, in the West as one 
of the major orders ; it does not exist in the Church of 
England. 

a. c 1315 SHOREHAM i. 1779 Sudeakne mey be y wedded 
naujt. c 1400 Apol, Loll. 39 pe clerkis of bi jurisdiccoun, 
l>at are wij> in >e ordre of sodeken, or a boue. c 1450 God- 
stow Reg. 471 lames Vercellence, the popis sodekon. 1483 
Cath. Angl. 371/1 A Sudekyn, snbdiaconns, 

P. 1303 R. BRUNNE Handl. Synne 1051 Jyf J?ou..art 

i clerk, hast be los Of subdekene, or dekene by name. 
7 TREVISA Higdtn (Rolls) V. 359 Oon Arator, a subdecon 
Rome. 1460 CAPGRAVE Chron. (Rolls) 74 He that schuld 
be mad a bischop schuld first be a benet, . . and than a colet ; 
and than subdiacone, diacone, and prest. 1555 WATREMAN 
Fardle Facions ir. xii. 281 The Subdeacon mighte take the 
ofFring, and handle the Chalice, and the Patine. 1561 T. NOR 
TON Calvin s Inst. iv. iv. 22 b, As for Subdeacons, it ts likely 
that at the beginnyng they were ioyned to the Deacons, 
that they should vse their seruice about the poore. 1615 
WADSWORTH in Bedell Lett. 12 The Councels require the 
ordines minor es of Subdeacon and the rest, to goe before 
Priesthood. 1635 PAGITT Christianogr, i, iii. (1636) 106 The 



o?Ro 



14 

Priests, Deacons, and Subdeacons of the Easterne Church. 
1737 CHALLONER Cath. Ckr, Instr. (1753) 154 From the 
minor Orders they are promoted to the Order of Sub-deacon, 
which is the first of those that are called Holy. 1859 NEW. 
MAN6Vr/. Var.Occas. (1881)254 At the age of twenty-four, 
. .he was ordained sub-deacon. 1877 J. P. CHAMBERS Dtv. 
Worship 326 It was always the proper office of the Sub- 
deacon to read the Epistle. 

fb. Applied to an order below the levites, the 
Nethinim of Ezra ii. 70. Obs. 

1382 WYCLIF i Esdras ii. 70 The prestus and the Leuitus 
of the puple..and sodeknys [Vulg. Nathin&i], 1546 LANG- 
LEY tr. Pol. Verg. de Invent, iv. iii. 72 The ministers, whiche 
dyd make redye the sacrifice,, .at the commaundement of 
the Leuites, these we may cal subdeacons. 

2. The cleric (orig. one in subdeacon s orders) 
or lay clerk who acts as assistant next below the 
deacon at a solemn celebration of the Eucharist ; 
the epistoler 1 . 

1440 Eugl. Ch. Furnit. (1866) 181 One whole vestment for 
Priest Deacon and Subdeacon. 1483 CAXTOS Gold. Leg. 
133/3 A preest a deken & a subdeken all reuested goyng 
to thaulter as for to saye masse. 1520 Market Harboroiigh 
Rcc. (1890) 215 To the parych clerke beynge subdeken iij*. 
c 1618 MORYSOH Itin. iv. (1903) 439 When the Pope 
. .sings Masse himselfe, with one Cardmall seruing him as 
Deacon, and another as subdeacon. 1701 in Cath. Rec. 
Soc. Publ. VII. ior And his Daecon, Subdiacon & Aco- 
lythe were his 3 sons, brothers to y Nonne. 1851 PI/GIN 
Chancel Screens 26 The Epistle and Gospel were sung by 
the deacon and sub-deacon, from marble desks enriched 
with carvings. 1865 Director him A nglicanum (ed. 2) 2 note* 
The Epistoler or Subdeacon, if the ancient Sarum and 
modern Roman Rule be followed, should wear no stole at all. 
t b. The vestment ^viz. a tunicle) worn by the 
subdeacon at the Eucharist. Obs. 

1521 in Strype Sftnv s Sum. (1754) I. 514/1, I wold that 
a Subdeacon of whyte Damask, be made. 1553 Rcc. St. 
Mary at ////<? (1904) 52 A preist & a subdeaken of blew 
bodkin. 1560 in Trans. Essex Archsot. Soc. (1863) II. 2.15, 
j vestement. .of red velvet, w th a decon & subdecon. 

Hence Subdea conate, f-dea conhood, f-dea - 
conry, -dea conship SUBDIACOXATE. 



SUBDISJUNCTIVE. 



1554 T. MARTIN Marr. Priests O ij (T.i, Ye come to be pro 
moted here to the holye order of subdeaconrie. 1587 T. 
Norton s tr. Calvin s Inst. iv. xix. 494 b marg. y The order 



of Sub-deaconrie and the trifling vse thereof. 1615 WADS- 
WORTH in Ledell Lett. 13 Subdeaconship [is giuen] by the 
deliuerie of the Patena alone, and of the Chalice emptie. 
1728 CHAMBERS Cycl. s. v. Su&, Tis disputed among the 
Romanists, whether the Sub-deaconhood be a Sacrament or 
not. 1853 ROCK Ch. Fathers III. n. 50 The next step took 
the acolyte to the sub-deaconship. 1878 STUBBS Const. 
Hist. 1 1 1. xix. 370 For the sub-deaconate and higher grades 
a knowledge of the New Testament . . was requisite. 

Sllb dea 11 (s bd/"n). Forms : a. 4 soudene, 
4-5 sodene, sud(d)ene, 6 sedeane. 0. 5-7 
subdeane, 6 -de(i)ne. 7 -dean. [a. AF. *sodean t 
*sndenc t *mbdene = OF. sottQdeien (mod. sotis- 
doyeii], soubdean, f. sou(s)-, sub- (see SUB- 6) + 
deien DEAN 1, after med.L. sttbdecanus. Cf. soutk- 
dene s.v. SOUTH- 2 .] An official immediately below 
a dean in rank, and acting us his deputy. 

a. 1362 LANGL. P. PI. A. n. 150 Alle Denes and Sodenes 
[v.rr. southdenis, sudenes; B. n. 172 MS. C. subdeanes]. 
1483 Cath. Angl. 371/1 A Svdene, Subdecanus. a 1529 
SKELTON P. Spar owe 552 Hut for the egle doth flye Hyest 
in the skye, He shall be the sedeane, The quere to demeane. 

. 14. . [see a quot. 1362], 1506 Dunfermline Reg. (Ban- 
natyne Club) 375 Subdene of our souerane lordis chapelt 
at 1578 LINDESAY (Pitscottie) Chron. Scot. (S.T.S.) I. 200 
The archedeine. .and subdeine. .witht all kynd of wther 
offieceis pertaining to ane colledge. 1643 PRYNNK Rome s 
Master-Peece 29 Dr. Theodor Price, Subdean of West- 
minster. 1670 G. H. Hist. Cardinals i. in. 75 The Deans, 
and Sub-Deans of the Popes Chapel. 17x5 HEARNE MS. 
Diaries LVIII. If. 68b, D . Terry, the Subdean of X* 
Church. 1876 [see SUBCHANTER]. 

Hence Subdea nery, the office, position, or resi 
dence of a subdean. 

1579 Reg. Privy Council Scot. Ser. i. III. 130 Maister 
Andrew Polwart. .hes obtenit a presentatioun to himself of 
the said subdenerie. 1786 J. BACON Liber Regis 1102 Sub- 
deanry [of York], founded anno 1229. 1813 Corresp. W. 
Foivler (1907) 257 She came to the Subdeanery to see me. 
1824 G. CHALMERS Caledonia III. 680 The subdeanry of 
Glasgow was taxed -z6l. 13$. +d, 

Subdeca nal, a. rare. [f. med.L. sitbdecamts 
SUEDEAN + -AL.] Of or pertaining to a subdean 
or subdeanery. 

1846 MCCULLOCH Ace. Brit. Empire (1854) II. 186 There 
are also Peculiars of various descriptions in most dioceses, 
. . royal, archiepiscopal, episcopal, decanal, sub-d tcanal, 
prebendal, rectorial, and vicarial. 

!! Subdelega do. [Sp. : see SUB- 6 and DELE 
GATE sb.~\ An official in Spanish South America : 
see quot. 1845. 

1845 Encycl. Metrop. XXIII. 78 These two classes of 
functionaries [viz. Commandants and Administrators] are 
under the immediate control of a Subdclegaiio^ or Lieu 
tenant of the Government, who has the chief command of 
all the country of the Missions [in Paraguay]. 1853 KING 
STON Manco i, In the house of a sub-delegado. 

Subdelegate (-A), sb. [f. SUB- 6 + DELE 
GATE, after AF., OF. subdelegat, med.L. sttbdele- 
gdtus\ cf. OF. sousdelegat, F. sotis-djlegue.] One 
who represents, or is deputy for, a delegate. 

c 1550 ROLLAND Crt. Venus \. 215 Sa that thow mak me 
thy subdelegat. 1592 Sc. Acts Jos. J-Y, (1814) III. 557/2 
The said m r of the mettalHs. .and his sub-delegattis- .to be 
appointit be him. 1668 Loud. Gaz. No. 251/3 The Sub- 
dcligate from the Marquiss Castel Rodrigo on the behalf of 



-, 309 What then have they: 

suppression of aides and subdelegates. 1904 POLLARD 
Cranmer xii. 350 The subdelegates court was opened in 
the Church of St. Mary. 

Subdelegate C-**t), v. [f. SUB- 8, 9 + DELE 
GATE v. after F. tubd&fuir or med.L. subdelegdre.] 
trans, f To appoint (a person) to act as a sub- 
delegate ; to transmit (power) to a subdelegate. 

1611 COTGR., Subdeleguer, to subdelegate, substitute, ap 
point another vnder him. a 1670 HACKET Cent. Serin. 354 
All power and royalty is subdelegated from the Pope to 
other princes. 1891 Spectator 21 Feb., The ruler, .delegates 
his power, which is again sub-delegated. 

So f Subdelegate pa. pple. and///. #., Subdele- 
g-ated///. a. 

1614 SELDEN Titles Hon. 252 Judges of mean note sub 
delegat by inferior Counts. 1706 PHILLIPS fed. Kersey), 
Siib-Dtlegate t or Judge Sub-Delegate t a Judge appointed 
under another; a Deputy. 1709 Lond. Gaz. No. 4517/3 
The Subdelegate Ministers of the Imperial Commission. 
1726 furumfartrftm 310 A sub-delegated Judge, to whom 
only some part of the mesne Process in a Cause is committed 
in the second Place by a delegated Judge. 

Subdelega tiou. [f. prec. Cf. F. subdtlt- 
gatioit.} The action of subdelegating. 

1611 COTGR., Subdelegat ion^ a subdelegation, or substitu 
tion. 1684 Lond. Gaz. No. 1955/2 His Imperial Majesty s 
Subdelegation to his Commissioners here. 17^2 CARTE 
Hist. F.ng. III. 681 Upon producing the commissions on 
both sides, exceptions were made by the English to the 
form of subdelegation. 1824 SOUTHEY Sir T. More (1831) 

I. 105 Superintendence.. is capable of being exercised, .by 
delegation and subdelegation. 

Su bdenoniina tion. [Su;- 7 b.] A sub 
ordinate denomination, category, class, or division. 

1630 DELAMAIN Grammeiogia a 2 b, What denomination 
you give unto any of the figures, the next great division is 
the next subdenomination. 1763 C. JOHNSTON Reverie II. 
267 The mortgage affected only a very small part of his 
estate,, .a particular subdenomination only, .being named in 
the deeds. iSoz-iz BENTHAM Ration. Judic. Evid. (1827) 

II. 291 Applying to suits of the same denomination. .plans 
of collection altogether different, according as this or that 
arbitrarily allotted sub-denomination happens to have given 
to them. 1896 Daily Neius 26 Feb., The table gives you their 
sub-denominations, from an analysis of the census returns. 

Subdia COnal, ^. [ad. med.L. stibdidconalis, 
f. subdideonus SUBDEACON.] Of a subdeacon. 

1849 ROCK Ch. Fathers I. 390 The subdiaconal tunicle. 

Subdia COnate. [ad. med.L. subdiaconatus, 
f. subdidcomis SUBDEACON ; cf. F. sous-diaconat.\ 
The office or rank of subdeacon. 

1725 tr. Dupin s Eccl. Hist, ijlh C. I. v. 178 The Manner 
of conferring the Subdiaconate. 1847 MASKELL Mon. Kit. 

III. p. civ, These minor orders, and I now include the sub 
diaconate, were not of divine institution. 1867 H. C. LEA 
Stict-rd. Celib. iii. (1884) 54 The restriction on matrimony 
has never at any time extended below the subdiaconate. 

t Sub dial, a. Obs. rare. [ad. L. subdialis, f. 
sub- SUB- i a + di(v)uin sky ; cf. sub dio s. v. jj SUB.] 
Being in the open air, or under the open sky. 

1647 N- BACON Disc. Gov. Eng. i.iv. (1739) 10 The Athenian 
Hehastick or Subdial Court. 1656 BLOUNT Glossogr., Sub 
dial, abroad in the Air, without the house, all open. 

Subdi alect. [SUB- 7.] A subordinate dia 
lect ; a division of a dialect. 

1642 HOWELI, For. Trav. (Arb.) 48 The French have three 
dialects the Wallon..the Provensall, (whereof the Gascon 
is a subdialect) and the speech of Languedoc. c 1645 
Lett. (1650) I. 377 Yet hath she divers subdialects, as the 
Western and Northern English, but her chiefest is the 
Scotick. 1845 Proc. Philol. Soc. II. 171 With respect to 
the languages of Southern India not related to Sanscrit, the 
Tamul, of which the others are only sub-dialects, presents 
no direct analogy. 1862 LATHAM Channel 1st . m. xix. 439 
A sub-dialect of the Jersey. 1875 WHITNEY Life LaJig. xii. 
245 The variety of sub-dialects, especially of the Lesghian, 
is very great. 

t Subdicho tomize, v. Obs. [Sus- 9.] trans. 
To subdivide. 

1651 BIGGS New Disp. F 235 Subdichotoniise it by the 
severe incision knife of rational! argumentations. 
So f Subdicho tomy, subdivision. 

1644 MILTON Areop. Wks. 1851 IV. 445 Many subdicho- 
tomies of petty schisms. 

Subdicko tomous, . [SUB- 20 f.] Some 
what divided or branched. Hence Snbdicho - 
tomously adv. 

1777 S. ROBSON Brit. Flora 305 Stem shrubby, subdicho- 
tomous. 1821 J. PARKINSON Outl. Oryttol. 91 A jointed arm 
dividing subdichotomously. 1880 SAVILLE KENT Infusoria 
I. 360 Contour of polythecium subdichotomous. 

SubdisjU nctive, a. and sb. Logic and Gram. 
[ad. mod.L. subdisjitniti Vus, = Gr. vnoStafavftTticos : 
see SUB- 19 + DISJUNCTIVE.] A. atij. Partly dis 
junctive (see quots.). B. sb. A subdisjunctive pro 
position or word. 

1656 STANLEY Hist. Philos. vtir. (1687) 441 Contraries are 
either disjunctive or subdisjunctive... Subdisjunctive, are 
of two kinds, either in whole, betwixt Universals,..or in 
part, betwixt particulars. . . Of subdisjunctives in whole, both 
cannot be true, both may be false ; both cannot be affirma 
tive, both cannot be negative. Of subdisjunctives in part, 
both may be true, because they are taken in part. 1751 
HARRIS Hermes 258 note* The Latins had a peculiar Particle 
for this occasion, which they called Subdisjnnctiva t a Sub- 
disjunctive ; and that was Sive. 1818 STODDAKT in Encycl. 
Metrop. (1845) I. 162/2 Priscian distinguishes the subdis 
junctive from the disjunctive. . . In English we use the con 
junction or indifferently as a disjunctive or subdisjunctive 



STJBDISTICH. 



15 



SUBDIVISION. 



that is, we say. Alexander or Paris , whether Alexander and 
Paris he two different persons, or only two different names 
for the same person. 1865 LIDDEI.L& SCOTT Gr. Lex, ($&.$), 
VTo5iaVKTt6s. .as Gramm. word, subdisjunctive. 

So Subdisjn nction rare~. 

1869 LIDDELL & SCOTT Gr. Lex. (ed. 6), viroSia^evfis, sub- ; 
disjunction. 

Subdi stich, a. [SuB- 20 e.] Consisting of . 
almost two rows. So Subdi stichoas a. 

1777 S. ROBSON Brit. Flora 259 Spike compound, sub- 
distich. 1805-16 R. JAMESON Char. Min. 211 A Crystal is ] 
said to be..Subdistic (subdistique), when among the facets 
which are disposed in the same rowaround each base, there 
are two surmounted by a new facet, which is as it were . . 
the rudiment of a second row. 1846 DANA Zooph. (1848) 650 
Polyps subdistichous. 

Subdisti nction. [In sense i, ad. late L. 
subdistitxtio (- Gr. vwoaTtyw}, f. suhdistinguere 
(= Gr. vnoaTtfrtv) to put a comma or one of the 
lesser stops: cf. SUB- 22. In senses 2 and 3, f. 
SUB- 5 c and 7 b + DISTINCTION.] 

fl. A comma or semicolon. Oh. 

1636 B. JONSON EngL Grant, n. ix, A Sub-distinction is 
ameane breathing,, .and is marked thus (;). 1825 FOSBROKK 
Encycl. Anliq. 460 A small pause or lubdistinctlOD. 

2. A subordinate distinction. 

1665 WALTON Life ft/ Hooker (1670) K 5 By needless dis 
tinctions and sub-distinctions, to amuse his Hearers. 1727 
Narr. Proc. Synods Presbyt. Irel. iii Here, now, between 
Parties, .there s a Party-Subdistinction made. 1847-8 IH: 
QUINCEV Protestantism^^. 1858 VIII. 154 Ten thousand 
evasions, distinctions, and subdistinctions. 1878 F. HARRI 
SON in If or in. Rev. Nov. 689 He disregarded the important 
subdistinction of the nature of the sanction and the kind of 
command. 

f 3. A subdivision, subspecies. Obs. 

1725 Bradley 1 s Fat. Diet. s. v, Bo/tee-Tea, As the Bohee 
and Green include all other Sub-distinctions, we shall have 
regard to no other. 1748 J. HILL Hist. Fossils 651 The 
Sfiatagi is a very comprehensive term, taking in most of 
the others as subdistinctions. 

t Subdisti-nguisli,^. Obs. [Sun- 9. Cf. It. 

suddistingnere, p.subdistinguir. \ trans. To dis 
tinguish into subordinate kinds, classes, species, etc. 
1620 E. BLOUNT IforzSitbs. 218 But for more ease. .all 
these particulars may be subdistinguished diuersly. 1633 
T, ADAMS Exp. 2 Peter \. 16. 299 There are some sub-dis 
tinguished branches, which we referre to their owne places. 
1766 Complete Farmer s. v. Surveying 7 K b/2 These three 
sorts of triangles may, according to the length and pro 
portion of their sides, be sub-distinguished into seven. 1780 
TWINING Aristotle s Treat. Poetry (1812) II. 186 The dif 
ferent parts of this long Episode were, again, subdistin- 
uished by other titles. 

Sirb-di strict. [SuB- 7 c.] A division or 
subdivision of a district. Also attrib. 

1816 BENTHAM Offic. Apt. Maximized^ Extr. Const. Code 
(1830) 7 The Judicatory will be the immediate Judicatory 
of the sub-district in which the metropolis of the state is 
situated. 1871 Parl. Papers, Ace. % Papers XXXIX. 459 
Statement of the Divisions of the Country into Military 
Districts and Sub-Districts, showing the Numbers of Regular 
and Auxiliary Forces in each. 1876 VOYLE & STEVENSON 
Afiiit. Diet., Brigade Depot, the head-quarters of a sub- 
district of the army. Under the new localisation of the 
British army, the military districts of Great Britain and 
Ireland^ are divided into 12 districts, which are sub-divided 
into 70 infantry and 12 artillery sub-districts, and 2 cavalry 
districts. 1882 Rep. Ho. Repr. Prtc. Met. U. S. 268 Pine 
Grove district, .now generally regarded as a mining camp 
or subdistrict of the Tiger. 1909 Westm. Gaz. i Mar. 2/2 
District boards and sub-district boards. 

t Subdit, a. and sb. Chiefly Sc. Obs. Also 5 
-dyt(e, 5-6 -dite, -diet, 6 -det. [ad. L, subditits 
subject (in med.L. as sb. subject, vassal), pa. pple. 
of subdZre to bring under, subdue, f. sub- Sen- 2 b -* 
&re to put, Cf. It. suddito, Sp., Pg. jwUftb.] 

A. adj. Subject. Const, to. 

c 1400 LOVE Botiarent. AJirr. (1908) 45 So that he my^te 
Jcnowe the noumbre of regiouns, of citees, and of the heuedes 
lon^ynge to hem that weren subdyte to the Emperour of 
Rome. 1436 Libel Engl. Policy in Pol. Poems (Rolls) II. 
197 For hym selfe and viij. kynges mo Subdlte to hym. 
1456 SIR G. HAVE Law Arms (S.T.S.) i8o[It] is nocht wele 
sittand that a grete lord suld be . . subdyt till a symple knycht. 
c 1513 DOUGLAS Let. Wolsey in Poet. IVks. (1874) I. p. cvi, 
He is subdite to the King in France. 

B. sb. A subject. 

375 &" L f & Saints xvi. (Magdalena} 772 In \>&t land, 
til he lefit, [he] duelt, & with his subditis sa vele delt. 
1450 in Charters <yf. Edin. (1871) 70 Till all and sundry our 
lieges and subdictis. 1507 Ibid. 191 Oure officiaris, liegis,and 
subdictis. 1536 |!FLLF.NDKN Cron. Scot. (1821) I. 186 For 
administration!! of justice to his subdittis. 1555 WATREMAN 
FardU Facions I. v. 59 The kinges vsing suche an equitie, 
. .towarde their subdites. 1506 DALRVMPI.E tr. Leslie s Hist. 
Scot, I, 222 Kugenie the thrid..was meruellous clement 
toward his subdites. 

t Subditi tious, a. Obs. rare. [f. L. sub- 
dititius (-ia us^, f. snbdit-, pa. ppl. stem of sttbdZre 
(see prec.).] 

1. Placed underneath ; used as a suppository. 
1657 TOMLINSON Kenan s Disp. 182 These subdititious 

medicaments conduce much to the execution of small 
wormes. Ibid. 672 Laurel-berries, .expressed, .into a sub 
dititious vessel. 

2. .Surreptitiously or fraudulently substituted, 
suppositions. 

[1625 : implied in Subdititiously below.] 1656 BLOUNT 
Gtestogr. t SuMttit/flus,ihat is not properly ones whose it is 
fei.cned to be, that is put or laid in the place or room of 
another. 1668 WILKIHS Real Char. n. i. 31 Stead, as 



substitute, subdititious serve for, succedaneous, Deputy, 
Surrogate, Vicar, Delegate [etc.]. 

Hence t Subditi tiously atfv., by surreptitious 
substitution. 

1625 PURCHAS Pilgrims it. 1375 That the Vizier deter 
mined to place subdit[it]iously in the roome of the Prince 
his owne Sonne. 

Subdivi dable, rare. [f. SUBDIVIDE v. + 
-ABLE.] Capable of being subdivided. 

1670 PETTUS Fodinae Reg. 21 Those Shares subdividable 
into half and quarter parts. 



Subdivide, sb. [f. SUB- 5b + DiviDE sb. 2.] 
A subordinate division between rivers and their 
branches. 

1902 W. M. DAVIS Elem. Phys. Gcogr. 243 When a plain 
or plateau, .is well dissected numerous. .subdivides are de 
veloped between the smaller rivers and their branches. 

Subdivide (swbdivsi-d), v. [ad. late L. sub- 
dlvidtre : see SUB- 9 and DIVIDK v. Cf. It. $ud~ 
diviJcre, Sp., Pg. $ubdii>idir\ also Y.subdiviser^\ 

1. trans. To divide x a part of .T divided whole ; 
to divide again after a first division. (Sometimes 
used loosely for divided] ji t { l~ in passive. 

a. in material sense. 

1432-50 tr. Iligden (Rolls) VI. 361 This kyii^e divided alle 
his provcntesinto Sj. partes t oon parte whereof he subdivided 
ageyne into tlire partes. 1483 CAXTON Cato 3 The second 
partye which is in uerse Is subdyuyded in to foure partyes. 
1626 BACON Syh-a 104 If you diuide the Tones equally, 
the Eight is but Seueu whole and equal! Notes; And if 
you Subdiuide that into Halfe Notes, (as it is in the Stops 
of a Lute), it inaketh the Number of thirteene. 1646 SIR 
T. BROWNE Pseud. Ep. 184 Below the cubit it divideth into 
two parts,. .Is at the fingers subdivided into three branches. 
1758 J. DALRYMPLE Ess. Feudal Property (ed. 2) n The 
r/olkland was divided and .subdivided into Counties, Try- 
things,.. and Hundreds. 1764 HARMER OI>sa-v. ii. 12. 68 
Speaking of tlie tents of the Arabs, the Journal says, They 
are subdivided into three apartments, 1823 I.INGARD Hist. 
E tg. VI. 32 The army formed in two grand divisions, each 
of which was subdivided into a battle and two wings. 1870 
Snt. Rev. 2 Apr., That all tenants should be allowed to 
subdivide their holdings amongst their relatives. 1870 K. R. 
WILSON Ck. Lindisf. 23 They sub-divided their parish into 
five chapelries, 

b. in immaterial sense. 

a 1586 SIDNEY ApoL Poetry (Arb.) 28 These [sc. poets] be 
subdiuided into sundry more special! denominations. The 
most notable bee the Heroick, Lirick [etc.]. 1641 Tennes 
de la Ley 77 Some had that charge as incident to their 
offices. . : some others had it simply as of it solfe. , .And both 
these sorts are againe subdivided by M. Lambert. ^1645 
HOWELL Lett. (1650) I. 97 They were the first that subdi 
vided the four cardinal winds to thirty two. a 1768 STERNE 
Serin. )>>-/<:,& (1773) IV. 151 Mankind led to dispose of these 
attributes inherent in the Godhead, and divide and subdi 
vide them again amongst deities. 1813 J. THOMSON Led. 
InJJain. 502 Attempts have.. been made to subdivide the 
phenomena of mortification. 1868 KOCF.RS Pol. Econ. ii. 
(1876) 16 The use of machinery tends still further to sub- 
divide labour. 1887 BENTLEY Ufan. Kot. (ed. 5) 405 The 
Classes are also divided into Sub-classes, Series, Cohorts, 
or Alliances.. in the same manner as the orders, genera, and 
species are subdivided. 
C. refl. 

1709 Royal Proclam. 27 Jan., The Commissioners, .shall 
subdivide themselves, ..so as three, at Icn^t, may be ap 
pointed for the Service of each Division. 1791 PAINE 
Rights of Man (ed. 4) 21 The original hereditary despotism 
resident in the person of the King, divides and subdivides 
itself into a thousand shapes and forms. 
d. absol. 

1880 [see SUBDIVIDES], 

2. tnfr. To break up into subdivisions. 

1597-8 BACON Ess. t Faction (Arb.) 78 When one of the 
Factions is extinguished, the remaining subdiuideth. 1682 
BUNVAN Holy /Kar(i9os) 293 They marched, they counter 
marched, they opened to the right and left, they divided, 
and subdivided. 1769 Phil. Trans. LIX. 200 From this 
part upwards those vessels divide and sub-divide. 1831 
K. KNOX Cloquefs Anat, 33 These lamin.i: subdivide into 
radiated fibrils. 1871 TYNDALL Fragw. Set. (1879) II. 243 
Every string sub-divides, yielding not one note, but a dozen. 
*t" b. Used loosely of two persons forming sepa 
rate factions. Obs. itottfc-usf. 

x6*; BACON Ess,, Faction (Arb.) 80 When Brutus and 
Cassms were ouerthrowne, then soone after Antonius and 
Octauianus brake and Subdiuided. 

Hence Subdlvi ded///. a. 

^1676 HALKF. A ft/cut 111(1677) 98 One of the subdivided 
party, that finds it self weakest. 1777 S. ROBSON Brit. Flora 
154 Stem subdivided. 1796 WITHERING Brit. Plants (ed. 3) 
II.I4I Panicles with subdivided branches. i%4$ Encycl. Me* 
trof>. IV. 785 The first semi-oscillation will be performed as 
a whole, the next as a subdivided string. 1855 Orr s Circ. 
Sc/. t Inorg. Nat. 98 The middle oolite is almost as varied 
and subdivided as the Icwer. 

t Subdi vident. Obs. [f. SUBDIVIDE, after 
dividtnt.} That which subdivides. 

1581 Mr I.CASTER Positions xxxix. (1888)197 All the people 
which be in our countrie be either gentlemen or of the com 
monalty. The common is deuided into marchauntes and 
manuaries generally, what partition soeuer is the subdiui- 
dent. 

Subdivi der. [f. SuBDivrDE -t- -ER i.] One 

who subdivides ; spec, one who carves out an 
estate ; one who settles on a portion of an estate. 

1880 Daily AV:w 20 Dec. 5/6 To those who had already 
subdivided he offered new mountain farms, leaving the sub- 
dividers to decide who should remain and who should re 
move. 1885 SEEBOHM Brit. Birds III. 252 When Nature s 
natural divisions are interfered with, the subdivider is obliged 
to fall back upon specific characters to diagnose his genera. 



1888 Ohio Staff Jrnl, (Columbus) 2 Mar., (City property] 
for sale at original subdivides prices. 1889 ffMCJnu. Mag. 
Oct. 527/1 It would thus seem to be absolutely necessary, 
in order that the crofter may enjoy a reasonable chance of 
retaining his holding, to free him from the incubus of the 
subdivider or squatter. 

Subdividing*, vbl. sb. [-IM; l.] Subdivision. 

1651 IJAXTKR Inf. ijafit. 149 What dividing, and subdivid 
ing, and subdividing again ! 

Subdividing, ///. a. [-ix2.] That sub 
divides. 

1809 Phil. Trans. XCIX. 126 A little instrument which I 
denominate a subdividing sector. 1872 SVMONDS Rcc. Rocks 
yi. 200 In the neighbourhood of Presttign the subdividing 
limestone is no longer seen. 

Hence Subdivi-dingly adv., in subdivisions. 

1842 UK QIMSCFV / *> Dracles Wks. 1858 VIII. 101 
What was the essential machinery by which the Oracles 
moved? I shall inquire sulxlividinqly. 

t Subdividual, //. Obs. [f. SUBDIVIDE v. 
after dividual ?\ Involving subdivision. 

1716 M. DAVIES Athcn. /!>-;t. III. 55 To declare. . nt-u 
Articles of Faith in Popery and Arianism as suU:i\ iihial 
Worship and individual Adoration. 

Subdivisible, a- [f. SUMDIVTM: :-. afti r 
divisible. Cf. F. subdivisible, It. smUiv.isibik] 
Capable of being subdivided. 

1841 PennyCycl. XIX. 312 2 Into how many parts >oe\rr 
a line ma> p be divided, each part is a length, still subdivisible 
for ever. 1848 Prater s .l/.^*. XXXVIII. 51 1 he lands 
became divisible and sub-divisible. 

Subdivision >^bdivi-.^on . [ad. late J,. sul- 
dlvisio, -dncni, n.ol action f. subdivTs-j subdividfos m 
SUHDIVIUK. Cf. K., Sp. subdivision ^\.\.sitddivisione^\ 

1. The act or process of subdividing, or fact M 
being subdivided. 

1599 11. JONSON CyntJiias Rc- .\\. iii, To come to your., 
courtiers face, tis of three sorts, according to our subdiulsion 
of a courtier, elementarie, practique, and theorique. 1621 
MALVNES Anc. La v-Merc/i. 360 The Denomination, Divi 
sion and Subdivision of the moneys of all Countrcys is most 
necessarie for Merchants. 1651 Hnoi;i s 1.,-ritith, \\. xxiv. 
128 There were twelve Tribes, making them thirteen l>y 
subdivision of the Tribe of Joseph. 1776 ADAM SMITH // . ..V. 
i. i. (1869) I. 12 This subdivision of employment in philo 
sophy, as well as in every other business, improves dexterity, 
and saves time. 1845 Encycl, Mctri>f>. \\ . Soj The aliquot 
subdivision of a vibrating string. 1855 BAIN .SVj. tr^ \ hit. 
I. ii. 15 (1864) 43 The Cerebral Nerves are divided into 
nine pairs, some of these being consi-Vn-d a^ admitting of 
farther subdivision. 1855 MACAI/LAY ///>/. l- .iig. xx. 1\ . 190 
The increase of wealth had produced its natural cflVt, the 
subdivision of labour. 1889 WFLCM Na~ a! Archit, 113 
Watertight Subdivision of Ships. 
b. An instance of this. 

a 1577 SIR T. SMITH Cotnin:i>. Eng. i. iii. (1584) 3 Of these 
maner of rulin^es by one, by the fewer part [etc. ].. they 
which haue more methodically, .written vpon them, doe 
make a subdiuision. 1634 R. H. Salerne s Regiw. Pref.. 
The third Ranke. .admits a Subdivision into Better and 
Worse, Wise and Foolish, Learned and Ignorant. 1776 
ADAM SMITH IV. N. i. xj. (1869) I. 175 The nature of their 
business admits of the utmost subdivisions of labour. 1861 
BROUGHAM Rrit. Const, xix. 313 Too minute a subdivision of 
business tends to contract the minds of those who perform it. 

2. One of the parts into which a whole is sub 
divided ; part of a part ; a section resulting from a 
further division; Nat. Hist, a subordinate division 
of a group. 

1553 T. WILSON Rhct. (1580) 113 Of these three partes of 
Philosophic, I might make other three subdiuisions, and 
largely set them out. 1643 SIR T. BROWNE Rflig. Med. i. 
52 Methinks amongst those many subdivisions of hell, 
there might have bin one Limbo left for these. 1646 
Pseud. Ep. 54 Chrystall. .is.. reduced by some unto that 
subdivision which comprehendeth gemmes. 1662 STILLINGFL. 
Orig. Sacrx i. ii. 6 The Gnosticks and the several! subdi 
visions of them. 1777 S. RoRSON-5r/V. Flora 14 The petiole 
. .subdivided, having two leafits on each subdivision. Ibid, 
37 Orders are the subdivisions of Classes. 1815 SVD. SMITH 
Whs. (1859) II. 197/2 A small subdivision of the clergy of 
the North Riding of Yorkshire. 1841 GWILT/J ////. 2848. 
778 The subdivisions, apartments, or portions whereof a 
building consists. 1850 ANSTFD Jt rni.GeoI , Min,, etc. 371 
The deposits of the Secondary epoch . . may . . be divided into 
four principal groups, each of which again presents well 
marked subdivisions. 1874 STUBRS Const. Hist. L ii. 16 
Their armies were arranged according to the contingents 
which represented the tribal sub-divisions. 

b. Afilit. The half of a division (in first quot, 
the rear half). Also at various times, the half of a 
company; in the artillery, a gun with its waggons 
(now called SUBSECTION). 

1625 MAKKHAM Svuldt frs Accid. 28 Whensoever this 
Bodie. .(which containeth but ten persons in fyle) shall be 
devided in the midst betweene the Middlemen, then the 
last fiue Rankes to the Reareward are called by the name 
of Subdevision. 170* J //// /. i)ict. (1704) s.v., Subdi- isiflns, 
are the lesser parcels, into which a Regiment is divided in 
marching, being half the greater divisions. 1717 H. BLAND 
Afilit. Discipl. v.6o When a Battalion is divided into three 
equal Parts or Divisions, each Division is then called a 
Grand-Division. Sub- Divisions are formed by dividing each 
Grand-Division into three, four or five equal Parts. 1796 
Instr. ffKtg. Car>a/ry( 1813) 923 Subdivisions, Right Wheel! 
i8oa C.jAMKsJ///// 1 . Dr et.s v., A company divided forms two 
subdivisions. 1858 BF.VKRID<;E Hist. India III. ix. !v. 635 
The British force began to advance along the trunk road 
in a column of sub-divisions. 1876 VOYLE &. STEVES ^os 
Afilit. Diet., Sub-division, in artillery, a gun with its wagon. 

1889 Standing Ordfrs Royal Rfgitn. Art ill. 41 Four-gun 
Batteries will oe divided into two Sections Right and J>eft 
of 2 Sub-Divisions each. 1913 Times 14 May 6/2 A bearer 
sub-division R.A.M.C. 



SUBDIVISIONAL. 

Subdivrsional, a. [f. prec. + -AL.] Of the 

nature of subdivision ; pertaining to subdivision, or 
a subdivision ; consisting of a subdivision. 

1656 in Petty Down Survey (1851) 90 In making of pro- 
vinciall lots, subdivisionall lotts must follow, soe far as they 
could be practized, to promote the settlement of the army. 
834 J- P. SMITH Script, fy Geol. Set. (1839) 60 Particular 
formations, one, two, or more in a system or subdivisional 
group. 1847 GROTE Greece \\. xxii. III. 463 The Italians or 
Itali.., the Morgetes, and the Chaones, all of them names 
of tribes either cognate or subdivisional. _ 1864 Athcnmtm 
No. 1920. 215/2 Subdivisional multiplications and produc 
tion by budding. 1898 Daily News 24 Jan. 3/4 The station 
is a subdivisional one for the K Division. 

t Subdivi sionate, v. Obs. noncc-wd. [f. 
SUBDIVISION + -ATE ^.] trans. To subdivide. 

1578 SMDSKY U anstead Play in Arcadia, etc. (1605) 574 
Secundum their dignitie, which must also be subdiuisionaied 
into three equall species. 

Subdivi sive, a. [f. L. subdlvis-, pa. ppl. 
stem of sitbdividtrt to SUBDIVIDE + -IVE.] Result 
ing from subdivision. 

1838 SIR W. HAMILTON Logic xxv. (1860) II. 23 When a 
whole is divided into its parts, these pans may.. be them 
selves still connected multiplicities; and if these are again 
divided, there results a subdivision (siebdirisio),, the several 
parts of which are called the subdivisive members (inemhra 
sit l>d i id i Jitia ) . 

SubdolOUS (so bdtflos), a. Xow rare. [ad. 
late L,. siibdolosus or f. its source sitbdohis, f. swb- 
Sru- iq + di>/its cunning.] Crafty, cunning, sly. 

1588 A. KING tr. Cant sins Catech. R iij. The subdolous 
crafteand deceate of Satan. \f>y](j\\.lx. ?>?\KEng:.Po/>. Cerem. 
Ep. A 2 b, The subdolous Machiavellian. 171677 BARROW 
Serin. Wks. 1687 I. 65 Illusive simulations and subdolous 
artifices. 1828 D lSRABU C/ias. /, I. 269 The King was 
tioubled, lest this subdolous and eloquent man should shake 
hi-i resolution. 1843 SYU. SMITH Lett. Amcr. Debts i, The 
subdolous press of America contends that the English.. 
would act with their own debt in the same manner. 1880 
W. CORY Mfld. Rngl. Hist. \. 102 Xor has any maxim so sub 
dolous as this been devised to abridge the freedom of Britons. 

Hence Sivbdolously adv., Su bdolousness. 

1635 PERSON Varieties i. 28 Take heed of the subdolous- 
nesse of their proposition, which is not universally true. 
1643 B AKKR Ckron. (1653) 554 See the subdplousnesse of this 
man. 1681 EVELYN Let. to Pepys 6 Dec. in Diary fy Corr. 
(1852) III. 260, I neither would, nor honestly could, conceal 
..how subdolously they dealt. 1824 Blackw. Mag. XVI. 
345 Whisky .. mixed subdolously with burnt brown sugar. 
1862 T. A. TROLLOPE Marietta xxii, Nanni had subdolously 
stretched out his hand sideways, .to administer a squeeze to 
a rosy little hand that timidly stole out half-way to meet his. 

Subdo minant,^. A/us. [SUB- 4. Cf.~F.sous- 

domiiiante.] The note next below the dominant of 
a scale ; the fourth note in ascending and tjie fifth 
in descending a scale. Also attrib. 

1793 Encycl. Brit. (1797) XII. 502/1 The chord of the 
sub-dominant. Ibid. 548/2 These three sounds, the tonic, 
the tonic dominant, and the sub-dominant, contain in their 
chords all the notes which enter into the scale of the mode. 
1835 Court Mag. VI. 26/1 She might if she pleased break 
through that eternal descent by two semitones from the 
dominant to the sub-dominant. 1863 ATKINSON GanoCs 
Physics 207 (1866) 162 The tonic, dominant, and sub-domi 
nant chords. Ibid. 163 The dominant and sub-dominant 
bear major triads. 

Subdo minaiit, a. [Srs- 14.] Less than 
dominant, not quite dominant. ,See quots.) 

1826 KIRBY & SP. Entotnol. xlix. IV. 493 We may take 
Scolia for an example of a subdominant group beginning 
more southward. 171909 Buck s Med. Handbk. III. 260 
(Cent. Diet Supp.) Those disturbances which are dominant 
become focal in consciousness, or the mind is fully conscious 
of such. Those that are sub-dominant bring about marginal 
or sub-conscious psychical states. 

Subdo rsal, a. and (s6.). [Cf. F. sotis -dorsal.] 

A. adj. 1. [SuB- i a.] Pertaining to the part 
situated at the bottom of the back (* . e. the poste 
riors), nonce-use. 

1800 in Spirit Pnbl. Jrnls. IV. 36 The vigorous posts 
which sustain the enormous subdorsal promontory of Lord 
G. Ibid. 371 He has ordered the dimensions of the sub- 
dorsal basis of each of the new scholars to be taken. 

2. Zool. [SuB- ii, 20 d.] Somewhat or almost 
dorsal ; situated near the back. 

1835-6 Todd sCycl. Anat. I. 522/1 Fins advanced,.. dis 
tant and subdorsal. 1852 DANA Crust, i. 53 The feet of the 
two posterior pairs [of legs] are short and subdorsal. 

B. sb. A subdorsal iin. 

1856 PAGF.Af/v. Tcxt-bk. Geol. xiii. 230 The dorsals differ, 
ing from the sub-dorsals, and these again from the pectorals. 

Hence Subdo rsally adv., in a subdorsal posi 
tion. 

1902 Proc. Zool. Soc. II. 304 On 3rd. somite a pair of 
black eye spots surrounded by a white iris, subdorsally. 

Subduable (sbdi/7-ab l), a. rare. [f. SUBDUE 
v. + -ABLE.] That may be subdued. 

1611 COTGR., Surmontable^ ..subduable. 1662 H. MORE 
Phil. Writ. Pref. gen. (1712) p. x, A natural touch of Enthu 
siasm., such as, I thank God, was ever governable enough, 
and have found at length perfectly subduable. 1839 J. ROGERS 
Antifapopr. xii. 5. 277 If the love of sin be hardly sub 
duable by the fear of hell. 1844 MRS. BROWNING Drama 
of Exile 1321 Who talks here. .Of hate subduable to pity? 

Subdual (s#bdi-al). [f. SUBDUE v. + -AL.] 
1. The act of subduing or state of being subdued ; 
subjection. 

1675 BURTHOGGE Causa Dei 227 The Cast igation and sub 
dual of the affections. 1741-65 WARBURTON Div. Legat. v. 
iv. Wks. 1788 III. 139 Mahomet s work was not like Moses s, 



16 

the subdual of a small tract of Country. 1864 PUSEY Ltct. 
Daniel ii. (1866) 79 Permanent subdual distinguished the 
Roman Empire. Other Empires swept over like a tornado. 
i88z H. S. HOLLAND Logic $ Ltfe(iBSs) 45 We are shut out 
from understanding thissubdual which is belief. 1904/2 re heeol. 
jfcliajta XXV. n. 147 Their subdual lasted several years. 

2. A becoming subdued or moderate, rare. 

1884 J. TAIT Mind in Matter 72 In autumn, with the sub 
dual of heat, there is annuallv> in Canada, a transformation 
of nature. 

t Subdu CC, v. Ob$. [ad. L. subdnccre^ f. sub- 
SUB- 25 +duccre to lead, bring.] 

1. trans. To take away, withdraw (lit. and _/?.) 
1626 BP. HALL Contempt.^ O. T. xx. iv, Else, had the chyld 

beene secretly subduced, and missed by his bloodie grand 
mother. 1632 Hard Texts Matt, xxviii. 20 Howsoever 
my bodily presence shall be subduced from you. 1664 OWEN 
Vind. Aniinadv. xvi. 422 No small part of the Territories 
of many Princes is subduced from under their power, a 1761 
LAW Comf. Weary Pilgrim (1809) 55 They wanted not to 
have. . their covetousness and sensuality to be subduced by 
a new nature from heaven derived into them. 

b. To withdraw from allegiance; = SEDUCED, i. 
a 1578 LINDESAY Chron. Scot. (S. T. S.) II. 297 [He] had 

subducit withhisgould the men of weir thatkeipit thecastell. 

c. rejl, (occas. intr^] To withdraw oneself or 
itself/) ww a place or society, from allegiance, etc. ; 
to &eca.pe/r0m ; to secede. 

1542 BECON Pathu . Prayer ii. B vj b, It shalbe expedient 
for such as intende to exercyse prayer, .to subduce & con- 
iiaye them selues from the company of the worldely people 
into some secrete .. place. 1610 HP. HALL Apol. Browmsts 
7 You have separated from this Church.. : If Christ 
haue taken away his word and Spirit [from it], you have 
justly subduced. 1636 T. GOODWIN Child of Light (1643) 
112 A man can no way avoid his suggestions, nor subduce 
himself from them, a 1656 HP. HALL Specialities Life Kem. 
\Vks. (1660) 21, I subduced myself speedily from their pre 
sence, a 1660 HAMMOND 79 Serin, xiv. Wks. 1684 IV. 658 
For never was the earth so peevish, as to. .subduce it self 
from its [sc. the sun s] rayes. 

2. To subtract, as a mathematical operation. 

1571 DIGGES Pantom, i. xviii. F b, Subduce the first dis 
tance from the third. 1588 A. KING tr, Canisius* Catcch. 
h vij, Thane subduce ye haill frome ye nombre of ye dayes 
of yat moneth. a 1676 HALF, Prim. Orig. Man. 106 If out 
of that supposed infinite multitude of antecedent Genera 
tion, we should by the Operation of the Understanding sub 
duce Ten. 

3. To bring, lead into. rare. 

1609 TOCRNF.UR Funeral Poem Sir F. Vcre 278 Offences 
done against his owne estate.. have oftentimes Subduc d the 
malefactors for those crimes Into the hands of justice. 

Hence t Subdu-cing vbl. sb., withdrawal. 

1633 BP. HALL Hard Texts Neh. vi. n By weake sub- 
ducing of my selfe, and hiding my head in the Temple. 
a 1660 HAMMOND ip Serin, xi. Wks. 1684 IV. 636 A cowardly, 
pusillanimous subducing of ones self. 

t Sub due end. Afatft Ol>s. rare. [ad. L. S2(f>- 
dticenduS) gerundive of subducSre (sec prec.).] = 
SUBTRAHEND. 

1706 \V. JOXF.S Syn. Palmar. Matheseos 16 If the Subdu- 
cend be taken from the Minuend, there rests the Remainder. 

fSubducion. Obs.rarer~\ [?f. SUBDUE + -cion 
= -TJON.] ? Reduction to order. v.Cf. SUBDUE i e.) 

1455 RwuofParit.V.aty/i The conservation of the pease, 
and subducion of theym that entende to the breche therof. 

Subduct (s^bd/rkt), v . Now rare. [f. L. sttb- 
ditct-, pa. ppl. stem of siibduc?re to SUBDUCE.] 

1. trans. To take away from its place or position, 
withdraw from use, consideration, influence, etc. 

a. with physical obj. 

1652-62 HEVLIM Cosmogr, in. (1673) 61/1 The three Pales- 
tines, .being subducted from the power of the see of Antioch. 
1657 J- WATTS Scribe^ Pharisee, etc. 205 One of the Ele 
ments is subducted from the people, and the other is adored 
by them. 1665-6 Phil. Trans. I. 382 For one determinate 
space of time it exhibits its lucid part to the Earth, for an 
other, subducts it. 1715 M. DAVIES A then. Brit. i. 141, 
I had but a bare sight of that Pamphlet, it being presently 
subducted from the Publick Perusal, a 179* HORNE ss t 
$ Th. Wks. 1818 I. 363 The Chinese physicians never pre 
scribe bleeding. , ; saying, that, if the pot boil too fast, it 
is better to subduct the fuel, than lade out the water. 1837 
BARHAM Ingot. Leg. Ser. i. Spectre ofTappington^ He re 
placed the single button [on his breeches] he had just sub 
ducted. 1844 H. ROGERS Ess. (1860) III. 119 All such as 
are inconsistent in their statements.. are to be subducted 
from his catalogue. 

b. with immaterial obj. 

1614 JACKSON Creed in. in. vi. 151 Vet must all excesse 
in spirituall graces.. be subducted from that prerogatiue 
which wee that are Christs messengers, haue in respect of 
Aarons successors. 1660 HF.YLIN Hist. Quinqnart. To 
Rdr., Nor have I purposely concealed or subducted any 
thing considerable which may seem to make for the advan 
tage of the opposite party. 1754 EDWARDS Freed. Will. \. 
ii. (1762) 12 As having its Influence added to other Things, 
or subducted from them. 1840 G. DARLEY Wks. Beaum. \ 
Fl. Introd., Subducting the devilish feature, it were well 
perhaps, if all Englishmen, .resembled this portrait. 1843 



vi. 156 When the effects of all known causes are estimated 
with exactness, and subducted. 
C. reft. 

1655 OWEN Vind. Evang. xxiii. 486 Sinne (which is the 
Creature s subducting its selfe from under the Dominion of 
God). 1668 Expos. 130th Ps. 76 From his providential 
presence he could never subduct himself. 

2. To take away (a quantity) from, t out f 
another ; to subtract, deduct. 



SUBDUE. 

i$7 DIGGES Pantom. iv. v. V iij, Your greater semidia- 
meter, whiche subducted from youre former diuisor leaueth 
the semidimetient of the intrinsicall circle. 1649 ROBERTS 
Clavis Bibl. Introd. iii. 59 If out of the number of years . . 
you subduct the years of the Oppressours of Israel under 
their Judges. 1674 MOXON Tutor Astron. ii. (ed. 3) 70, 
200 Years.. which subducted out of 1000 leaves 800 Years. 
1716 B. CHURCH Hist. Philips War (1867) II. 85 William 
robes., was order d to keep a just accompt of what each 
Indian had so that it might be subducted out of their wages 
at their return home. 1855 BRKWSTER Newton I. iii. 42 
Subducting the diameter of the hole from the length and 
breadth of the image, there remains 13 inches in the length 
and 2 3 /8 inches in the breadth. 1881 Nature XXIII. 558 
When we . . subduct the vapour pressure from the barometric 
height. 

aosof. 1646 Recorders Gr. Artes no Therefore seeing 9 
in the quotient, multiply, and subduct as before. 1662 HIB- 
BERT Body Div. n. 86 They adde, they multiply ; never 
subduct, never divide. 1706 W. JONES Syn. Palmar. Ma- 
theseos 14 According to their respective Value, take one of 
the next Denomination, out of which Subduct. 

|*b. intr. To take something away from. Obs. 

1667 MILTON P. L. vm, 536 Nature.. from my side sub 
ducting, took perhaps More then enough. 1669 W. SIMPSON 
Hydrol. Ckym. n. 124 The Spaw. .helps the refining of the 
vessels.. and so subducts from the Disease by hindring the 
affluent cause. 1798 W. MAVOR Brit. Tourists V. 193 Its 
neglected and languishing state still farther subducts from 
its picturesque effect. 

3. To take away or remove surreptitiously or 
fraudulently. Also absol. 

1758 JOHNSON Idler No. 95 F n Purchased with money 
subducted from the shop. 1760 C. JOHNSTON Chrysal (1822) 
I. 200 By subducting largely from the sums confided to 
him. 1824 LANDOR I mag. Conv. Wks. 1853 I. 53/1 If he 
had., brought down a brace out of a covey, instead of sub 
ducting them from the platter. 

4. To draw up, lift. 

1837 BARHAM Ingol. Leg. Ser. i. Spectre of Tappington^ 
Subducting his coat-tails one under each arm [etc.]. 1869 
WAT BRADWOOD The O. I . H. xxxi, Jemmy subducted his 
coat-tails, and sat him down. 

Sub duct ion (spbdo kfan). Now rare. [ad. 
L. subdnctioi -anew, n. of action f. subductre to 
SUBDUCE.] The action of subducting. 

1. Withdrawal, removal. 

a 1620 J. DYKE Sel. Serm. (1640) 79 A quenching of fire by 
subduction of fuell. 1625 J. ROBINSON Observ. Div. fy Mor. 
Iv. 282 Unto whom . . thought and care, in one night brought 
grey hayr, by subduction of nourishment. 1630 BP. HALL 
Occas. Medit. 66. (1634) T 45 Oh that we were not more 
capable of distrust, then thine omnipotent hand is of weari- 
nesse and subduction. vjy^Hist. Lit. I. 449 Fearing the 
Subduction of the King s Bounty, which had hitherto sup 
ported it. 1839 Blackw. Mag. XLVI. 542 The withdrawal 
of a patriot from Parliament, .is the subduction of parlia- 
mentary force. 1854 BUCKNILL Unsoundn. Mind 25 Terms 
signifying deprivation or subduction. 

fb. Surreptitious or secret withdrawal. Obs. 

0.1646 J. GREGORY Posthuiua (1649) 88 The Corruption 
proceeded not by subduction from the Hebrew, but the ac 
cession to the Greek Scripture. 17*1 BAILEY, SnMncti0n t 
a taking privately from. 

2. Subtraction, deduction. 

*579 DIGGES Stratiot. i. xv. 25 Subduction is the taking 
of the one Fraction from the other. 1608 BP. HALL Epist. 
i. vi. 284, I haue noted foure ranks of commonly-named 
Miracles: from which, if you make a lust subduction, how 
few of our wonders shall remaine either to beleefe or ad- 
miration ! 1664 EVELYN Pomona Pref. 4 Brought thither 
without charge, or extraordinary subductions. 1706 W. 
JONES Syn. Palmar. Matheseos 16 Addition and Subduc 
tion, serve Reciprocally to prove each other. 1734 BERKE- 
LEY Analyst 5 Wks. 1871 III. 260 By the continual addi 
tion or subduction of infinitely small quantities. 1856 MAS- 
SON Ess. Biog. $ Crit. 109 The property remaining.. after 
the subduction of his own share as the eldest son. 

j-3. A drawing down or away (see quot, 1612) ; 
the evacuation (^excrement). (= Gr. viraycayrj.) 

1612 WOODALL Surf. Mate Wks. (1653) 274 Subduction is 



do 

VENNEX Via. Recta vii. in They i 

and helpe the subduction of excrements. 1688 HOLMK 

Armoury in. xii. 446/2. 

4. The action of subduing or fact of being sub 
dued ; subdual, subjection. (Const, to?) 

1670 G. H. Hist. Cardinals \. i. 11 Contriving, if not th 



II. 33 The.. celebrated fair, who boasts the subduction of 
whole regiments by the power of her charms. 1824 (1. 
CHALMERS Caledonia III. 82 Edward assembled a large 
army., for the subduction of Dumfries-shire, ibid. 472 The 
ruling clergy, .brought on the subduction of the kingdom. 

f 5. A reckoning or account (1656 Blount). 

tSubdu Ctive, a. Obs. rare-*, [f. L. subduct- 
(see SUBDUCT) + -IVE.] That is to be subtracted. 

1798 HUTTON Course Math. 1. 170 That, .changes its nature 
from a subductive quantity to an additive one. 

t Subductory, a. Obs. rare- 1 , [f. L. subduct- 
(see prec.) + -oitv.] Laxative. (Cf. SUBDUCTION 3.) 

1620 VENNER Via Recta iv. 79 Why are Oysters vsually 
eaten a little before meale?..By reason of their stibductory 
qualitie, concerning the bellie. 

t Subdue, sb. Obs. Also 5 subdeue. [f. next.] 
Subdual, subjugation, conquest. 

c 1465 Pol. Rel. ff L. Poems (1903) 5 Wherefor, prince. ., 
Remembere be Subdeue of bi Regaly, Of Englonde, frawnce, 
& spayn trewely. 148* Rolls o/ParH. VI. 223/1 In defens 
of this youre seid Reame, and subdue of youre Enemyes. 
a 1392 GKEESE & LODGE Looking Glasse (1598) A 4 b, The 
worlds subdue. 



SUBDUE. 

Subdue (s#bdi*J-), v. Forms: a. 4 so-, 8U- 
dewe, so-, suduwe, sodeuwe. 0. 5 subd(e)we, 
5-6 -dew, 5-6 -dieu, 6 -deu, 5-subdue. [Of diffi 
cult etymology. ME. sodewe, subcteuie, -due, repre 
sents formally AF. *soduer, *sti(t.ducr= OF. so(u)- 
duire, su(d)duire , etc. (used with the meanings of j 
L. sedOcfre) to deceive, seduce = Olt. soddurre 
. L. subduclre to draw up or away, withdraw, 
remove by stealth, purge, evacuate, calculate (see 
SUBDUCE, SUBDUCT). Neither L. subducfre nor OF. 
souduire is recorded in the sense of subdue , so 
that it is to be presumed that the AF. form took 
over the sense from L. sttbdfre, the pa. pple. of 
which is represented in Eng. by SUBDIT from c 1 375. 

There is no clear connexion in form or sense with the AF. 
subdttz of Edw. Ill stat. ii. c. 17, ann. 1353; the meaning is 
app. attached or arrested 1 , not subdued . The 151!) c. 
AF. subduer (Littleton lust., ed. 1516, A vij b) was prob. 
modelled on the current Eng. form.] 

1. trans. To conquer (an army, an enemy, a 
country or its inhabitants) in fight and bring them 
into subjection. 

1387 TREVISA Higdett (Rolls) III. 19 [He] wente and 
sodewed Siria. Ibid. 443 panne he stood wi> [MS. (3 sudu- 
web, MS. y sodeuwe}*] the peple bat woneb at be foot of pe 
hille mont Caucasus, c 1420 ?LYDG. Assembly of Gods 1651 
Fooles..Wenyng to subdew, with her oon hande, That ys 
ouer mekyll for all an hoole lande. f 1460 FORTESCUE Alts. 
>t Lim. Man. xvi. (1885) 150 Is hyghnes shalbe myghty, 
and off poiar to subdue his ennemyes. 1486 in Surtees Misc. : 
(1890) 54, I subdewid Fraunce. 1533 COVERDAI.E Zech. ix. 
15 They shall consume and deuoure, and subdue them with 
slynge stones. 1553 EDEN Treat. Ntr.ve liid. (Arb.) 21 How 
the Portugales subdued Malaccha, shalbe said hereafter. 
1503 SHAKS. 3 Hen. VI, m. iii. 82 lohn of Gaunt, Which did 
subdue the greatest part of Spaine. 1653 HOLCROFT Pro- , 
cofius. Goth. Wars 14 Since God hath given us Victory, 
and the glory of subduing a City. 1667 MILTON P. L. xi. 
687 To overcome in Baud, and subdue Nations. 1788 
GIBBON Decl. ? F. xlvii. IV. 582 The Samaritans were ] 
finally subdued by the regular forces of the East : twenty 
thousand were slain. 1841 ELPHINSTONE Hist. India I. 397 , 
They even assert that the same kings subdued Tibet on the 
east, and Cambdja.. on the west. 1879 FROUDE Cxsar xix. 
330 He [sc. Oesar] wished to hand over his conquests to his 
successor not only subdued but reconciled to subjection. 

t b. Const, to, unto, under the conqueror or 
his rule. 06s. 

1398 TREVISA Earth, de P. R. vi. xix. (Tollem. MS.), 
Whan y hadde sudewed all be worlde to my lordschipe. 
c 1410 > LYDC. Assembly of Gods 584 Owre gret rebell May 
we then soone euer to vs subdew. c 1460 FORTESCUE Abs. . 
*r Lim. Man. ii. (1885) MI Whan Nembroth..made and 
incorperate the first realme, and subdued it to hymself bi 
tyrannye. 1549 Compl. Scot. xi. 90 }pur aid enemes hes 
mtendit to. . subdieu }ou to there dominione. 1590 SPENSER 
F.Q.n. x. 13 Thus Rrute this Realme vntohisrulesubdewd. 
1651 HOBBKS Leviath. n. xvii. S3 When a man. .by Warre 
subdueth his enemies to his will. 

t o. To overcome or overpower (a person) by 
physical strength or violence. Obs. 

1590 SPENSER F. Q. I. iv. 5I Rest a while Till morrow 
next, that I the Elfe subdew. [bid. n. v. 26 Full many 
doughtie knights he .. Had..subdewde in equal! frayes. 
1593 SHAKS. 2 Hen. VI, in. ii. 173 As one that graspt And 
tugg d for Life, and was by strength subdude. 1604 Oih. 
i. li. 81 If he do resist Subdue him, at his perill. 
d. transf. and^/ff. 

1611 Bible Dan. li. 40 Forasmuch as yron breaketh in 
pieces and subdueth all things. 1697 DRVDEN Virg. Gtorg. 
I. 228 Burrs and Brambles. .th unhappy Field subdue. 
Ibid. iv. 247 Subdu d in Fire the stubborn Mettal lyes. 
1799 COWPER Castaway 47 By toil subdued, he drank The 
stifling wave. 1883 R. BRIDGES Prometheus 761 The broad 
ways That bridge the rivers and subdue the mountains. 
1 8. To reduce to order or obedience. Obs. 

1481 Cov. Lett Bk. 493 To subdue such personez as here 
late offended ; diuerse of which personez be nowe late 
indy ted of ryott & trasspas [etc.], 

2. To bring (a person) into mental, moral, or 
spiritual subjection ; to get the upper hand of by 
intimidation, persuasion, etc. ; to obtain control of j 
the conduct, life, or thoughts of; to render (a ! 
person or animal) submissive ; to prevail over, get 
the better of. Const, to (that which exercises con 
trol, the control exercised). 

1509 HAWES Past. Pitas, xxxiv. xii, He [tc. Cupid] is 
aduenturous To subdue mine enemies, to me contrarious. t 
1535 COVERDALE Wisd, xviii. 22 He ouercame not the 
multitude with bodely power, .but with the worde he sub 
dued him that vexed him. 1538 STARKEY England i. L 12 
Ther ys no best so strong.. but to man by wysdom he ys j 
subduyd. 1551 ABP. HAMILTON Catcc/t. (1884) 48 Thai ar j 
nocht subdewlt to the rychteousness. 1560 DAUS tr. Slei- 
dane s Comm. 405 The Prynces..by a certen feare and ! 
terrour subdued. 1588 SHAKS. I..L.L.\. ii. 187 His [Love s] 
disgrace is to be called Boy, but his glorie is to subdue men. \ 
1610 Temp. i. ii. 489 This mans threats, To whom I am 
subdude, are but light to me. a 1721 PRIOR Dial. Dead \ 
(1907) 219 Swords Conquer some, but Words subdue all men. 
1817 IAS. MILL Brit. India II. iv. iv. 156 Pigot, with a 
hardihood which subdued them,, .declared that, .he would 
furnish no money. 1833 HT. MARTINEAU Brooke Farm vi. 
80 This recollection awakened others which subdued me 
completely. 1853 NEWMAN Hist. Sk. (1876) 1. 1. i. 31 He was 
subdued by the influence of religion. 1855 TENNYSON Brook 
113 Claspt hands and that petitionary grace Of sweet seven 
teen subdued me ere she spoke. 

atsal. 1781 COWPER Retirem. 266 God has form d thee 
with a wiser view, Not to be led in chains, but to subdue. 
1837 CARLYLE Fr, Rev. 1. 1. ii, And so. .did this [growth] of 
VOL. IX. 



17 

Royally, .spring up j and grow mysteriously, subduing and 
assimilating. 

reft. 1513 DOUGLAS sEneis xm. i. 37 The catall, quhilkis 
favorit langeyr The beist ourcummyn as thar cheif and heyr, 
Now thame subdewis vndir his ward in hy Quhilk has the 
ovirhand. 1833 TENNYSON Dream Fair Women 1L\, Itcom- 
forts me in this one thought to dwell, That I subdued me to 
my father s will. 1870 DICKENS Edwin Droodu, I must sub 
due myself to my vocation. 

b. With a person s body, soul, mind, actions, 
etc. as obj. 

c 1520 NISBET N. T., Rom. ii. 15 marg., The fleische nother 
is nor cann be subdewit tharto. 1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. 
de W. 1531) 148 b, We must.. subdue all our inordynate 
thoughtes. 1548 Act 2 #t 3 Edw. VI c. 19 i Due and 
godlye abstynence ys a meane . . to subdue mens Bodies to 
their Soule and Spirite. 1591 SHAKS. i Hen. F/, l. ii. 109 
My heart and hands thou hast at once subdu d. 1603 
Meas. for ^1. iv. ii. 84 He doth with holie abstinence sub 
due That in himselfe, which he spurres on his powre To 
qualifie in others. 1667 MILTON P. L. VIM. 584 If aught., 
were worthy to subdue The Soule of Man. 1769 Juniits 
Lett. xxxv. 167 Uefore you subdue their hearts, you must 
gain a noble victory over your own. 1791 MKS. RAncLiFKi-: 
Rom. Forest ii, Having subdued his own feelings, he resolved 
not to yield to those of his wife. 1817 SHELLEY J\cv. Islam 
Ded. xi, A prophecy Is whispered, to subdue my fondest 
fears. 1849 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. iv. I. 469 Those emotions 
were soon subdued by a stronger feeling. 1863 GKO. ELIOT 
Ramola xx. She herself wished to subdue certain importu 
nate memories. 
O. transf. 

c 1449 PECOCK Rtpr. l. xiv. 73 It mi;te seme that God wolde 
not subdewe or submitte. .and sende him [sc. Holy Scrip, 
ture] to resoun, for to be interpretid. 1535 COVERDALE Phil. 
iii. 21 Acordinge to y 8 workynge wherby he is able to sub 
due all thinges vnto himselfe. 1781 COWI-ER Ketirem. 416 
Wild without art, or artfully subdu d, Nature in ev ry form 
inspires delight. 

t d. To achieve, attain (a purpose). Obs. rare. 
1590 SPENSER F. Q. n. ix. 9 Perhaps my succour.. Mote 
stead you much your purpose to subdew. 

t e. To bring to a low state, reduce. Obs. 
1605 SHAKS. Lear in. iv. 72 Nothing could haue subdu d 
Nature To such a lownesse, but his vnkind Daughters. 
1606 Ant. tf Cl. iv. xiv. 74 His face subdu de To penetra- 
tiue shame. 

3. To bring (land) under cultivation. 

535 COVERDALE Gen. i. 28 Growe, and multiplie, and fyll 
the earth, and subdue it. 1628 MAY Yirg. Gcorg. i. 6 Nor 
is t unwholesome to subdue the Land 1 y often exercise. 
1677 W. HUBBARD Narrative 63 To engross more Land 
into their hands then they were able to subdue. 1794 
S. WILLIAMS Vermont 307 Their lands, which they had., 
subdued by extreme labour. 1829 Ii. HALL Trav. .\~. Am?r. 
I. 86 In proportion as the soil is brought into cultivation, or 
subdued, to use the local phrase. 1867 RUSKIN Time tf Tide 
xxv. 176 Set. .to subduing wild and unhealthy land. 

4. In medical use : To reduce, allay. ? Obs. 
1615 G. SANDYS Trav. 134 The iuyce of Cedars: which 

by the extreme, .siccatiue faculty, .subdued the cause of 
interior corruption. 1732 ARBUTHSOT Rules of Diet in 
A liments etc. (1736) 262 Cresses, Radishes, Horse-Radishes, 
; . subdue Acidity. 1804 ABERNETHY Surg. Obs. 176 The 
inflammation of the brain was now subdued. 1809 Med. 
Jrnl. XXI. 52 Although the hysteric affections were still 
very troublesome, she could now completely subdue them 
by the use of pills. 1829 COOPER Good s Study Med. II. 515 
The inflammation is to be subdued by blood-letting. 

6. To reduce the intensity, force, or vividness of 
(sound, colour, light) ; to make less prominent or 
salient. (Cf. SUBDUED 2.) 

1800 HT. LEE Cantcrt. T. (ed. 2) III. 139 A circular 
pavilion.. Where both light and heat were subdued by 
shades. 1815 SHELLEY Alastor 165 With voice stifled in 
tremulous sobs Subdued by its own pathos. 1843 RUSKIN 
KM. Paint. (1851) I. n. i. vii. 21 The warm colours of 
distance, even the most glowing, are subdued by the air. 
1845 Antiq. r Arc/tit. Year Bk. 319 Unable to subdue pro 
perly jhe red, blue, and gold of the niched hood mould. 
1856 KANE Arctic Exfl. I. ix. 102 Distance is very decep 
tive upon the ice, subduing its salient features. 

Subdued (sbdi-d), ///. a. [f. prec. + -ED!.] 
1. Reduced to subjection, subjugated, overcome. 
Also absol. 

1604 SHAKS. Oth. v. ii. 348 One, whose subdu d Eyes,.. 
Drops teares as fast as the Arabian Trees Their Medicin- 
able gumme. 1615 G. SANDYS Trav. 48 Strengthened both 
against forraine invasions and revolts of the subdued. 1660 
MILTON Dr. Griffith s Sertn. Wks. 1851 V. 397 [It] will in 
all probability subject the Subduers lo the Subdu d. 181: 



CRABBK Tales xviii. 68 She had a mild, subdued, expiring 
look. 1837 CARLYLE Fr. Rev. m. iv. v, Lyons contains in it 
subdued Jacobins ; dominant Girondms. 1890 R. BOLDKE- 
WOOp Col. Reformer (1891) 202 A subdued, bronzed, 
resolved -look ing man. 

2. Reduced in intensity, strength, force, or vivid 
ness ; moderated ; toned down. 

1822 [implied in SUBDUEDNESS]. 1835 LYTTON Rienzi\\. i, 
Censers of gold . . steamed with the odours of Araby, yet so 
subdued as not to deaden the healthier scent of flowers. 1847 
C. BRONTE Jane Eyre viii, My language was more subdued 
than it generally was when it developed that sad theme. Ibid. 
xiv, The subdued chat of Adele. 1849 RUSKIN Seven Lamps 
in. 17. 83 Many of the noblest forms are of subdued curva 
ture, 1861 FLOR. NIGHTINGALE Nursing 59 There are acute 
cases (particularly a few eye cases..), where a subdued light 
is necessary- 1877 HUXLEY Pkysiogr. 203 The effects of sub- 
terranean heat in the locality may still manifest themselves 
in a subdued form. 1912 Times IQ Dec. 20/3 (Stock Ex 
change), There was a more subduea tone. 

Hence Subdne dly adv. t with subdued sound, 
light, colour, etc. ; Subdue dness, the condition 
of being subdued. 



SUB-EDIT. 

1822 COLERIDGE Lett. (1895) 718 In his freest.. passages 
there is a subduedness, a self-checking timidity in his 
colouring. 1852 ROBERTSON AVrw/.Ser. iv.xxxix. (1863)294 
Meekness and subduedness before God. 1858 G. GILFILLAN 
Life Sir T. Wyatt W. s Poet. Wks. p. xv, Homely natural 
feeling of the poetical and the subduedly sensuous. 1891 

i KIPLING Light that Failed xiii, Maisie was crying more 

1 subduedly. 

Subdue meut. rare. [f. SUBDUE v. + -MENT.] 
The action of subduing ; subdual. 
A word not used, nor worthy to be used (J.). 
1606 SHAKS. Tr. $ Cr. iv. v. 187, 1 haue seen thee. .scorning 
forfeits and subduments. a 1619 DANIEL Coll. Hist. Eng. 
(1626) 81 Hee sent a solemne Ambassage to Pope Adrian, 
I to craue leaue for the subdument of that Country. 1807 
G. CHALMERS Caledonia I. 11. vii. 325 Anglo-Saxon, .on the 
subduement of the Romanized Uttadini, succeeded to the 
British tongue. 1860 FORSTER Gr. Remonstr. 89 That sub- 
; duement of the Roman Catholic power on the continent. 

Subduer (s#bdiS*ai). [f. SUBDUE v. + -EK i.] 
: A person who or a thing which subdues, in the 
I various senses of the verb. 

c 1510 BARCLAY Mirr. Gd. Manners (1570) D iv, Thus were 
! they . . by death subduers of their owne corps carnall. 1596 
i DALRYMPLE tr. Leslie s Hist. Scot. I. 73 The aid Romania, 
subdueris of the Warlde. 1611 SPKED Theat. Gt. Brit. 39/2 
Ostorius. .Subduer of great Caractacus. 1732 ARBUTHNOT 
Rules of Diet in Aliments (1736) 253 Figs are great sub 
duers of Acrimony. 1747 RICHARDSON Clarissa (1811) II. 
ii. 15 \\ith some of the sex, insolent controul is a more em- 
[ cacious subduer than kindness or concession. 1790 HCKKK 
i Fr t Rev. 322 Bj; the laws of nature the occupant and sub- 
I duer of the soil is the true proprietor. 1860 (Ji-o. EI.IOT Mill 
I on Fl. i. v, It is a wonderful subduer, this need of love. 1860 
; PUSEY Min. Proph. 191 Such was He, the Subduer of all 
i which exalted itself. 1900 DK. ARGYLL Autobiogr. (1906) II. 
j 85 The subduer of a fierce enemy and the saviour 01 India. 

Subduing, vbl. sb. [f. SUBDUE v. + -ING i.] 
The action of SUBDUE v. ; subdual, subjugation. 

1482 J. KAY tr. Caoursiu s Siege of Rhodes (1870) F i 
The subduynge and oppressyn^e of the..cytee of Con- 
stantynople. 1532 MORE Confut. Tindale \Vk>. 371 The 
subduyng of y e flesh and taming of bodily lustes. 1535 
COVERDALE i Mace. xiv. 34 What so euer was mete for 
the subduynge of the aducrsaries. 1655 HUME in Nicholas 
Papers (Cainden) III. 213 A combination made between 
France and Cromwell for the subduing of all the Spanish 
provinces of the Low Countries. 1690 CHILD Disc. Trade 
fi6^8)Pref. p. xv, The subduing [= abatementjof interest u ill 
bring in multitudes of traders. 1788 Encycl. Brit. (1797) I. 
276/2 None of them [sc. harrows] are sufficient to prepare for 
the seed any ground that requires subduing. 1875 Encycl. 
Brit. I. 335/1 For the more speedy subduing of a rough 
uncultured surface. 

Subduing, ///. a. [f. as prec. + -ING 2.] That 
subdues ; tending to subdue. 

1608 D. T[UVILL] Ess. Pol. $ Mor. 66 b, To polish and 
fashion out his then rough-hewen fortune, with the edge of 
his^ subduing sword. 1816 J. SCOTT I is. Paris 118 A stimu- 
lating melange of what is most heating, intoxicating, and 
subduing. 1842 MANNING Semi. xvi. (1848) I. 228 Not be- 
cause they are under any subduing dominion of indwelling 
sin. 1891 CON* AN DOYLE Adv. Sherlock Holmes ii, There 
was something depressing and subduing in the sudden gloom. 

Hence Subdn ingly adv., so as to subdue. 
1833 New Monthly Mag. XXXVII. 301 What goes more 
subduingly to the heart than the author s poem to his sick 
child? 1880 MEREDITH Tragic Com. xvjit, A hand that she 
had taken and twisted in her woman s hand subduingly ! 

Subduple (sbdi p l, szrbdiwp l), a. Math. 

I [ad. late L. subduplus : see SUB- 10 and DUPLE a.] 

I That is half of a quantity or number; denoting a 

* proportion of one to two ; (of a ratio) of which 

the antecedent is half the consequent. 

1609 DOWLAND Ornith. Microl. 63 Euery Proportion is. . 
taken away by the comming of his contrary proportion. . . As 
by the comming of a subduple, a dupla is taken away, and 
so of others. 1648 [see SUB- 10]. 1706 W. JONES Syn. 
Palmar. Matheseos 55 The Ratio of 3 to 6 is 3/6 J or sub- 
duple. 1715 tr. Gregory s Astron. (1726) 1 1. 841 The number 
will be about subduple in a Jovial Year. 1728 CHAMBKRS 
Cycl. s. v. Subnormal, The Subnormal PR is Subdcple the 
Parameter. 1740 Phil. Trans. XL 1. 426 Let us take.. Two 
Points at Pleasure, the Point A in the Circumference of the 
Equator, and the Point C in the Circumference of a subduple 
parallel Circle. 

Subdu plicate, a. Math. [Sus- jo.] 
1. Of a ratio or proportion : Being that of the 
square roots of the quantities ; thus, 2 : 3 is the 
subduplicate ratio of 4 : 9. 

1656 tr. Hobbes* Elem. Philos. 121 A Proportion is said to 
be Divided, when between two quantities are interposed 
one or more Means in continual Proportion, and then the 
Proportion of the first to the second is said to be Subdupli 
cate of that of the first to the third, and Subtriplicate of 
that of the fust to the fourth. 1670 BOYLE Usef. Ex}. 
Nat. Philos. n. iii. 15 The times are in Subduplicate Pro 
portion to the length* of the Pendulums. 1674 PKTTY Disc. 
Duj>l. Prop. 21 The First Instance, Wherein Duplicate, and 
Sub-duplicate Ratio or Proportion is considerable, Is In the 
i Velocities of two equal and like Ships ; which Velocities.. 
are the square Roots of the Powers which either drive or 
i draw them. 1706 W. JONES Syn. Palmar. Matheseos 288 
; The Times in which a Body runs thro those Planes, shall be 
; in a Subduplicate Ratio of their Altitudes. 1798 HUTTON 
! Course Math, II. 358 The bodies descend by nearly uniform 
1 velocities, which are directly in the subduplicate ratio of 
the diameters. 

H 2. = SUBDUPLE. (A misuse.) 
1656 HOBBES Six Lessons Wks. 1845 VII. 277 It is the 
same fault when men call half a quantity subduplicate. 
TSS JOHNSON, Suoduplicate,.. containing one part of two. 
Sub-6 dit, v. [Back-formation f. next.] trans. 
To edit (a paper, periodical, etc.) under, to prepare 

3 



SUB-EDITOR. 

(copy) for, the supervision of a chief editor. Henct | 
Sub-e diting vbl. sb. 

1862 THACKERAY Philip xlii, I can tell you there is a great , 
art in sub-editing a paper. 1880 Trans. Philol. Soc. 130 . 
Several Americans have offered to undertake sub-editing 
{for the Oxford English Dictionary ]. 1883 Ibid. Abstract 
p. iv, S t . .partly arranged and sub-edited by Mr. C. Gray, i 

Sub-6 ditor. [Sufi- 6.] A subordinate editor ; I 
one who sub-edits. 

1837 CARLYLE Fr. Rev. ir. i. iii t Clerk Tallien, he also is j 
Income sub-editor ; shall become able-editor. 1883 BLACK 
Shandon Bells xxx, I daresay I should, .be the sub-editor , 
of the Cork Chronicle. 

Hence Sub-e ditorsliip, the position of sub-editor. 

1855 HYDE CLARKE Diet. 383. 1862 THACKERAY Philip 
xxx, He had her vote for the sub-editorship. 

Su b-edito-rial, a. [f. SUB-EDITOR + -IAL.] ; 
Pertaining to a sub-editor or sub-editorship. 

1837 CARLYLE Fr. Rev. \\. i. iv, While Tallien worked 
sedentary at the sub-editorial desk. 1850 THACKERAY Pen- 
dennis xxxiv, In a masterly manner he had pointed out 
what should be the sub-editorial arrangements of the paper. 
1905 A thenseum 30 Sept. 437/2 The dry data were, .set out 
skilfully enough in sub-editorial fashion. 

Sirb-e lenient. [Sun- 5.] A subordinate or i 
secpndary element. 

1846 POE N. P. Willis Wks. 1864 III. 31 In addition to i 
the element of novelty, there is introduced the sub-element 
of unexpectedness. 1882-3 ScJiaff s Encycl. Rclig. Knowl. 
II. 1396 The good element.. is God; and his personality 
comprises five spiritual and five material sub-elements. 

Sub-eleme ntary, a. [SUB- 14.] Less than 

elementary, not quite elementary. 

1626 DONNE Serm. Ixxx. (1640) 823 In the Elements them 
selves, of which all sub-elementary things are composed. 
"1835 MAcCuLLOCH Attributes (\%yj) II. 417 Disintegrated 
into those modes of elementary or subelementary matter 
whence it was first constructed. 

Sube qual, a. [ad. mod.L. sub&qualis . see 
SUB- 20 c and EQUAL.] 

1. Nat. Hist. Nearly equal. 

1787 tr. Linnaeus* Fam. Plants 195 Florets all fertile. 
Proper one with petals five, heart-inflected, subequal. 1828 
STAKK Elan. Nat. Hist. II. 199 Eyes subequal. 1880 Hirx- 
LEY in Times 25 Dec. 4/1 The earliest known equine animal 
possesses four complete sub-equal digits on the fore foot. 
1897 GUNTHER in Mary Kingsley*s lt f . Africa 704 Teeth 
small, subequal, with brown pointed tips. 

2. Related as several numbers of which no one is 
as large as the sum of the rest. In mod. Diets, 

Hence Sube qually adv. ; Subequa lity, the 
condition of being subequal. 

1870 HOOKER Stud. Flora 200 Fruit glabrous, subequally i 
ribbed all round. 1873 MIVART Elem. Anat. 172 In the ] 
number of these bones [metacarpals] and their sub-equality of 
development man agrees with many Vertebrates above Fishes, i 

I! Suber (siw bai). Bot. (Chem.} [L. = cork, 
cork-oak.] The bark or periderm of the cork- i 
tree; cork. Also, a vegetable principle found in this. 

1800 HENRY Epit. Chem. (1808) 293 Suber, this name is 
used to denote common cork wood. 1819 J. G. CHILDREN 
Chem. Anal. 298 Suber.. is light, soft and elastic, burns i 
with a bright flame and yields ammonia by distillation. 
1826 HENRY Elem. Chem. II. 313 Of Suber and its Acid. 

Hence Sabera mic a, denominating the acid 
produced by the dry distillation of ammonium ! 
suberate. Subera mide, the white crystalline ! 
compound formed by the action of aqueous am- . 
monia on suberate of methyl or by heating suberic | 
acid with phosphorus trichloride. Su-berane, a j 
liquid hydrocarbon (see quots.); hence Subera nic 
a. Snbera-nilate, a salt of Suberani lio acid, 
the acid remaining after suberanilide has been pre- I 
cipitated from a solution of fused suberic acid, 
aniline, and alcohol; so Subera nilide. 

1859 WATTS tr. Gmelins Handbk. Chem. XIII. 221 *Su- 
beramicAcid. C 18 NH 1S O ; . O&Jr*LCktm.Soc.lXX.\V. 
i. 125 *Suberamide melts at 216. 1894 Ibid. LXVI. i. 265 
The purified suberene (or heptamethylene, *suberane ) boils 
at 1 1 7-1 1 7 5 under 743 mm. pressure, 1911 Encycl. Brit. 
(ed. n) XXII. 32/2 Cyclo-heptane (suberane), CyHu, ob- I 
tained by the reduction of suberyl iodide. Ibid. 33/1 Cyclo- 
heptane carboxyltc acid i*suberanic acid), CvHisCC^H. 1859 ; 
WATTS tr. Gmelins Handbk. Chem. XIII. 222 * Suberanilate \ 
of Ammonium. The acid dissolves easily in hot ammonia, I 
and the salt is deposited in small granular crystals. //>/</., ! 
*Suberanilic acid yields aniline when fused with potash. | 
1857 MILLER Elem. Chem., Org. iv. 2. 257 Dianilides... 
*Suberanilide 2 (Ci 2 H 5 ), H 2 N 2 , Ci 6 H !2 O 4 . 

Suberate (si/7 berit). Chem. [ad. F. suhtrate \ 
(Lagrange 1797) : see SUBER and -ATE!.] A salt 
of suberic acid. 

1800 tr. Lagrange s Chem. II. 297. i9o6 G. Adam s Nat. 
% Exp. Phiios. (Philad.) I. App. 547 Suberats. 1809 J. 
MURRAY Syst. Chem. (ed. 2) IV. 353 Suberate of potassa, 
formed by adding suberic acid to carbonate of potassa. 
1862 MILLER Elem. Chcm n Org. (ed. 2) xiv. i. 888 Suberate 
of ethyl. 

Suberb, obs. form of SUBURB. 
Suberch. = SUBBOSCO. 

1592 GREENE Upst. Courtier 15 4 Whether hee will haue 
his crates cut low like a Juniper bush, or his suberches 
I? read suboschos] taken awaye with a Rasor. 

Subereous (siwbi^rfcs), a. [f. late L. silb- 
ereus: see SUBER and -ECUS.] Suberous, suberose. 

i826KiRBY& SP. Entomol. xlvi. IV. 258 Substance.. Sube 
reous. . .A soft elastic substance somewhat resembling cork. 
1900 B. D. JACKSON Gloss. Bot. Terms 258/1. 



18 

Suberic (siwbe rik), a. Chem. Also 8 -ique. 
[ad. F. subtriqtu (Lagrange 1797): see SUBER and 
ic.] Of or pertaining to cork. Suberic acid^ a 
white crystalline dibasic acid prepared by the action 
of nitric acid on cork, paper, linen rags, fatty acids, 
and other bodies. Also suberic anhydride , ether, etc. 

1799 Monthly Rev. XXX. 17 He was able to produce an acid 
nearly similar to the suberique, by digesting the nitrous acid 
on charcoal. 1806 G. Adam s Nat. % Exp. Phiios. (Philad.) I. 
App. 562 Suberic [acid]. 1837 R. D. THOMSON in Brit. 
Ann. 355 Suberic ether. 1879 WATTS Diet. Chem. VI. 1040 
Suberic aldehyde, .is formed, together with suberic acid and 
palmitoxylic acid, by the action of fuming nitric acid on 
palmitolic acid. 1894 Jrnl. Chem. Soc. LXVI. i. 499 Suberic 
anhydride, .is prepared by boiling suberic acid with acetic 
chloride. 

Suberi ferous, [f. SUBER + - V I)FEROUS.] 
Producing cork or subcrin. In mod. Diets. 

Suberification (sibe:rinkv j3n). Bot. [f. 
SUBER + -(I)FICATION.] = SUBERIZATION. 

1885 GOODALE Physiol. Bot. 34 The principal modifica 
tions of the cell- wall are the following :. .(3) Culinization (or 
Suberification). 

Suberiform (sibe-riff"jm;, a. [f. SUBER + 
-(I)FOKM.] Resembling cork, corky. 

1841 Penny Cycl. XX. 423/2 The mass is composed of one 
(suberiform) substance. 1847-9 TotUFsCycl* Anat. IV. 19/1 
Polypes distributed over the surface of a common mass, 
which is . . composed of a suberiform substance supported by 
calcareous aciculi. 

Suberin (si/?berin). Chem. Also -ine. [ad. 
F. sube rine (Chevreul): see SUBER and -IN *.] The 
cellular tissue which remains after cork has been 
exhausted by various solvents. 

1830 LiNDi.EY Nat. Syst. Bot. 97 Cork, .contains a peculiar 
principle called Suberin. 1885 GOODALE Physiol, Bot. 38 
The substance which imparts the repellent character to the 
cell-wall is known as cutin ; when restricted to cork it is 
called suberin. 

Hence Sirberinate Chem.) a salt of Suberi nic 
acidj an acid obtained indirectly from suberin. 

1891 Jrnl. Chem. Soc. LX. 466 Suberinic acid, CiyHaoOs, 
when gently warmed, forms a liquid miscible with alcohol, 
ether, and chloroform. Ibid. t Potassium suberinate is soluble 
in water and alcohol, but not in ether. 

Suberize (siz/ beraiz), v. Bot. [f. SDBER + 
-I/E.] pass. To be converted into cork-tissue by 
the formation of suberin. Hence Suberiza tion. 

i88z VINES tr. Sack s Bot. 95 The suberisation of the 
newly-formed cells. 1884 BOWER & SCOTT De Bary s 
Phaner. in Often the wall is suberised all round and 
throughout its whole thickness. Ibid. 112 The totally su 
berised layers often separate in the section-cutting. 1885 
GOODALE Physiol. Bot. 75 The walls of older cork-cells are 
cutinized or suberized throughout. 

Subero- (su7 ber0), combining form of SITBER in 
names of chemical compounds containing or ob 
tained from suberic acid. 

1839 R. D. THOMSON in Brit. Ann. 354 Subero-pyroxylic 
ether. 1894 Mum & MORLEY Watts* Diet. Chem. IV. 524/1 
Snberocarboxylic acid^ Hexane tricarboxylic acid. Ibid. t 
Suberomalic acid, Oxy-suberic acid. 



n). Chem. fy.d. 
(Boussingault) : see SUBER and -ONE.] An aromatic 
oil, formed by the distillation of suberic acid with 
lime, 

1843 Chem. Gaz. III. 56. 1881 Jrnl. Chem. Soc. XXXIX. 
540 Suberone readily combines with hydrocyanic acid. 

Hence Subero nyl, -ylene (see quots.). 

1890 Jrnl. Chem. Soc. LVIII. 11. 728 Suberone. .is easily 
reduced to the corresponding alcohol, CrHis.OH, by the 
action of sodium in presence of alcohol. This suberonyl 
alcohol Is a colourless, somewhat viscid liquid. Ibid.^ Su 
beronyl iodide, when treated with alcoholic potash, yields 
suberonylene, CyHia. 

Suberose l (siw ber^us), a. Bot. [ad. mod.L. 
silberosus : see SUBER + -OSE *.] Having the appear 
ance of cork ; corky in form or texture. 

1845-50 MRS. LINCOLN Led. Bot. App. v. 204 Suberose^ 
corky. 1846 DANA Zooph. (1848) 609 Suberose, of varying 
form. 1887 W. PHILLIPS Brit. Discomycetes 378 Disc.. en 
circled by a dehiscent, . .distinct, suberose, friable ring. 

Suberose 2 (sjwb/rwn s), a. Bot. rare~. [ad. 
mod.L. sttberdsus : see SUB- 5o c and EROSE.-] 
Somewhat erose. 1828-32 in WEBSTER. 

SuberOUS (siw beras), a. Bot. [f. SUBER or ad. 
mod.L. suberosus SUBEKOSE 1 : see -COS.] Corky ; 
= SUBEROSE 1. 

1679 EVELYN Syh>a (ed. 3) 29 That, .the sap should be so 
green on the indented leaves, . .so Suberous in the Bark (for 
even the Cork-tree is but a courser Oak). 1776 J. LEE fntroei. 
Bot. Explan. Terms 379 Su&erosus, suberous, the outward 
Bark soft, but elastic like Cork. 1849 BALFOUR Man. Bot. 
85 In some trees it [sc. the epiphloeum] consists of numerous 
layers, forming the substance called cork..; hence the 
name suberous, or corky layer, which is given to it. 1884 
BOWER SCOTT De Bary s Phaner. 550 Two forms of the 
superficial formationof cork maybe distinguished . . : namely, 
suberous crusts and suberous integuments. 

Subero xime. Chem. An oxime of suberyl. 

1894 [see SUBERYLAMINE]. 

Suberyl (si beril). Chem. [ad. F. subtryle 
(Boussingault): see SUBER and -TL.] Thediatomic 
radicle of suberic acid; Also attrib. 

1853 W. GREGORY Handbk. Org. Chem. 245 It is probable 
that there exists a radical suberyle CsHeO^Su. 1872 
WATTS Index to Gmelin s Handbk, Chem.^ Suberyl Hy 
dride. 1874 Jrnl. Chem. Soc, XXVII. 935 On distilling 



SUBFEUDATORY. 

suberic acid with lime he (sc. Boussingault] got a liquid 
boiling at 186, which he called hydride of suberyl. 
Hence Suberylamine, Su*toerylene, Suberyllc 
a. (see qnots.). 

1894 Jrnl.Chem.Soc. LXVI. i. 160 Suberylamine, C 7 Hi 3 . 
NHa, may be obtained from suberoxnne by reduction either 
with sodium in alcoholic solution or with sodium amalgam 
in alkaline aqueous solution. Ibid., A monhydric alcohol, 
CyHis.OH, which the author calls suberylic alcohol or 
suberol. Ibid. 266 Suberylene, C7Hi2, is obtained when a 
mixture of equal volumes of suberylic iodide and alcohol is 
added to strong alcoholic potash. 

tSubeth. Obs. [a. med.L. subet(1i), ad. 
Arabic c^W* subdt somnus in capita apparens , 
lethargy, f. sabata to rest (cf. SABBATH). Cf. obs. 
F. subet."\ Unhealthy or morbid sleep. 

Subeth Avicennee was an old name for coma. 

1398 TREVISA Earth. De P. R. v. iii. (1495) 107 Whan he 
slepith it happith him to haue Subeth, that is false reste. 
c 1550 LLOYD Treat. Health Y 7 Of the payne in the heade 
called subeth. 1626 MIDDLETON Anything for Quiet Life 
n. iv, Subject to Subeth, unkindly sleeps, which have bred 
opilattons In your brain. 

t Subethal, . Obs. rare. [ad. obs. F. sub- 
ethal t f. snbeth : see prec. For the etymol. sense 
cf. carotid, which is ult. f. Gr. xapovv to plunge into 
heavy sleep.] The carotid (artery). 

1541 COPLAND G-uydon s Quest. Cyrurg. F iij. The greate 
veynes & arteres that are led by the furculles in stying vp- 
warde y e sydes of the necke to the superyour partyes, 
whiche be called Guy degi, and popleticis, depe & suberall 
\reati subetall ; orig. siibethalles}, Thyncysyon of the 
whiche be very peryllous. 

Su bfa ctor. [Sus- 6.] A subordinate factor. 

1705 tr. Bosnian s Guinea vii. 94 When a Chief-Factor or 
Factor observes that his Sub-Factor or Ware-house Keeper 
are enclined to Extravagance. 1753 Stewart s Trial 159 
He did, . . for some time, employ the now pannel, as his sub- 
factor, in levying the rents of Ardshiel. 1818 SCOTT Hrt. 
Midi, xlj, By going forward a little farther, they would meet 
one of his Grace s subfactors. 1872 YEATS Growth Comm. 
348 Sub-factors ascended the rivers. 

Su-bfa mily. Nat. Hist, [Sus- 7 b.] A 
primary subdivision of a family. 

833 Penny Cycl. \. 19/1 He denominates these subfamilies, 
cyprinoi des, siluro ides, salmonoides, clupeoides, and luci- 
oides respectively. 1868 Rep. U.S. Comm. Agric. (1869) 87 
The sub-family Melolonthida? feed exclusively on vegetable 
matter. 1870 ROLLESTON Anita. Life 26 The congeneric 
subfamilies, under either great family of the Rasores and 
Columbidae respectively. 

Subferabylle, early var. of SUFFERABLE. 

1483 Cath. Angl. 371/1 Subferabylle, tolleraoilis, 

Subfeu (svbfift), $b. Sc. Law. [f. SUB- 9 (b) -t- 
FEU sb. : cf. next.] A feu or fief granted by a 
vassal to a subvassal. 

1681 STAIR Inst. Laiv Scot. i. xxi. 420 AH Sub-feues of 
Ward-lands, holden of Subjects without the Superiours con 
sent, are declared null and void. 1758 J. DALRYMPLE Ess. 
feudal Property (ed. 2) 84 As in subfeus at first, the original 
vassal remained still liable for the services. 1826 BELL 
Comm. Laws Scot. (ed. 5) I. 29 If the condition be farther 
guarded with irritant and resolutive clauses, it seems that 
the subfeu may be challenged even before the necessity for 
a new entry with the superior arises. 1874 Act 37 $ 38 
Viet. C. 94 4 Nothing herein contained shall be held to 
validate any subfeu in cases where subinfeudation has been 
effectually prohibited. 

b. attrib. : subfeu-duty (c.t. fen-duty, FEU sb. 3). 

18*6 BELL Comm. Laws Scot. (ed. 5) I. 25 Nothing more 
is demandable than the subfeu-duty. 

Subfeu (sbfiw*), v. Sc. Law. [f. SUB- 9 (b} + 
FEU v. \ cf. med.L. subfeoddre.~\ Of a vassal : To 
grant (lands) in feu to a subvassal ; tosubinfeudate. 
Also absol. 

1754 ERSKINE Princ. Sc. Law (1809) 137 The vassal who 
thus subfeus, is called the subvassaPs immediate superior. 
>7$8 J- DALRYMPLE Ess. Feudal Property (ed. 2) 88 In soc- 
cage fiefs the vassals subfeued their lands, .to hold of them 
selves. 1826 BELL Comm. Laws Scot. (ed. 5) I. 24 Property 
subfeued as building ground in a city. Ibid. 29 When the 
prohibition to subfeu is effectually created as a real burden 
on the right of the vassal. 1876 Encycl. Brit. IV. 63/3 
Every burgess held direct of the Crown. It was, therefore, 
impossible to subfeu the burgh lands. 

Hence Subfeiring vbl. sb. 

1758 J. DALRYMPLE Ess. Feudal Property (ed. 2) 84 One 
thing which very much facilitated the progress of alienation, 
was the practice of subfeuing. 1826 BELL Cotnm. Laws 
Scot. (ed. 5) I. 29 In the New Town of Edinburgh, grants 
are generally made with a condition against subfeuing. 

Subfeudation (spbfid? -fan). [f. SUB- 94- 
FEUDATION, after SUBFEU so. ] The action or 
practice of granting subfeus ; subinfeudation. 

1681 STAIR Inst. Law Scot. i. xxi. 419 It is much debated 
..whether by Sub-feudation, Recognition be incurred, or 
whether it be comprehended under alienation. 1835 Tom- 
liris Law Diet. s. v. Tenure, Very early they became here 
ditary, and that as soon as they did so, they led to the prac 
tice of sub-feudation. 1839 Penny CycL XIV. 105/1 Owing 
to the extensive system of subfeudadon, or subtenure [in 
North Italy]. 

Subfeudatory (sbfi??-dat3ri). [f. SUB- 9 (b) + 
FEUDATORY, after prec. C med.L. stibfeudd- 
tdrius. ] One who holds a fief from a feudatory. 

1839 Penny Cycl. XIV. 105/1 The political system of most 
towns of North Italy in the tenth and eleventh centuries 
consisted of the nobles, feudatories, and subfeudatories. 
c 1850 BROUGHAM (Ogilvie, 1882), The smaller proprietors or 
feudatories of the prince, had. . proportionably few inferior 
vassals, or sub-feudatories. 



STJBFIEF. 

Subfief (sirbfif ), sb. [f. SUB- 9 + FIEF sb. 
Cf. F. sous-fief.] A fief which is held of an inter 
mediary instead of the original feoff or ; spec, in 
Germany, a minor state, holding of a more impor 
tant state instead of directly of the German crown. 

1845 S. AUSTIN Ranke s Hist. Re/. III. 515 He consented 
that Duke Ulrich should take possession of Wiirtenberg as 
a sub-fief of Austria. 1901 IVestm. Gaz. 31 Jan. 3/1 In the 
German Empire the title of* Lord is connected mostly with 
subfiefs such as Riigen. 

So Subfle-f v. [cf. obs. F. soubsfiefver, Cotgr.] 
trans. t to grant as a subfief. 

1903 E. MAcCuLLocH Guernsey Folk Lore fa In process of 
time they \sc. lands] came to be sub-fieffed by their possessors. 

SubfO SSil, a. [f. SUB- 20 + FOSSIL 0.] Partly 
fossilized. 

1832 DK LA BECHE Geol. Man. (ed. 2) 161 A bed containing 
sub-fossil shells. 1851 WOODWARD Mollnsca 130 Struthio- 
laria :.. Australia and New Zealand, where alone it occurs 
sub-fossil. 1856 PAGE Adv. Text-bk. Geol. ix. 171 When 
petrifaction has not taken place, and the organism is merely 
embedded in superficial clays and gravels, the term sub- 
fossil is that more properly applied. 1880 A. R. WALLACE 
Isl. Life ii. xix. 389 A small sub-fossil hippopotamus. 

So Subfo ssil sd., a partly fossilized substance. 

1873 GKIKIE Gt. Ice Age App. 516 Sub-fossils. 

t Subfumiga tion. Obs. = SUFFUMTGATIOX. 

1390 GOWER Conf. III. 45 With Nigromance he wole 
assaile To make his incantacioun With hot subfumigacioun. 
14.. Chaucer s H. Fame 1264 (Thynne), That vsen exorsi- 
sacions And eke subfumygacions. 1562 BULLEIN Buhvarke^ 
Bk. Simples 26 The smoke of theim [marigold flowers] to 
bee made in a close subfumigacion. 1579 LANGHAM Garden 
Health i To stop fluxes, vse subfumigations thereof [acacia]. 

Subfusc, -fusk (sbf0-ski, a. and sb. [ad. L. 
sttd/uscus, var. visuffitscits : see SUB- 20 a + FUSK.] 
Of dusky, dull, or sombre hue. 

a 1763 SHENSTOSE Economy in. 26 O er whose quiescent 
walls Arachne s unmolested care has drawn Curtains sub- 
fusk. 1770 J. CLUBBE Misc. Tracts I. 4 Their subfusk com 
plexions were probably acquired by greasy unguents and 
fuliginous mixtures dried in by the sun. 1853 C. BEDE * 
Verdant Green \. v, [University] statutes which required 
him. .to wear garments only of a black or subfusk hue. 
1887 W. BEATTY-KINGSTON Mus. V Mann. II. 321 The sur 
face. .is become subfusk in hue with sheer feverish dryness. 
1895 Pall Mall Gaz. 16 Dec. n/i The subfusc marbling of 
the convolvulus hawk [moth]. 

fig. 1893 E. GOSSE Questions at Issue 150 To overdash 
their canvases with the subfusc hues of sentiment. 1900 
At/tenxum 28 July 116/1 Such Philistines, .provide a suit- 
able and sub-fusk background for the real figures in the 
Italian family group. 

b. (a] absol. with (he ; (b} assd. Subfusc colour. 

1710 STEELE & ADDISON Tatter No. 260 F 5 The Portu 
guese s Complexion was a little upon the Subfusk. i88a 
Blackiv. Mag. Aug. 234^ The Apotheker had not deigned to 
alter or add to his ordinary suit of professional subfusk . 
1914 Ibid. Jan. 109/2 They give us drabs and subfuscs in 
stead of the glowing colours of life. 

Subfuscous (stfbfzvskas), a. rare. [f. L. sub- 
fuscus (see prec.) -H-OUS,] = prec. 

1760 Phil. Trans. LI I. 95 A paler yellow, . .a few reddish 
and subfuscous spots. 1815 STEPHENS in Shaw s Gen. Zool. 
IX. i. 122 Cuckow with a.. subfuscous body. 1904 Sttt. Rev. 
30 Jan. 140 Apart from the intellectual ravage, they should 
be restrained from blackening the sub-foscous. 

Subgeneric (sz?bd^ene*rik), a. [f. SUBGEKUS 
after generic. Cf. F. sous-gMrique.] Of or per 
taining to a subgenus ; having the characteristics 
of, constituting, or typifying a subgenus. 

1836 Partingtons Brit. Cycl., Nat. Hist. II. 564/2 The 
trivial name of the common gade, Mustela^ has been taken 
for the sub-generic name by many. 1852 DANA Crust, n. 
1506 The form.. is exceedingly various, and if adopted as 
subgeneric, the subdivisions will become very numerous. 

Hence Subg-ene rical a. (in mod.Dicts.); Sub- 
gene rically adv., so as to form a subgenus. 

1851 MANTELL Petrifactions \. 2. 42 Plants belonging to 
the same family as the Lepidodendra, but supposed to be 
generically or sub generically, distinct. 

Sn bge nus. PI. su-bge nera. [f. SUB- 7 b + 
GENUS. Cf. ^.sous-genre (Cuvier).] A subordinate 
genus ; a subdivision of a genus of higher rank than 
a species. 

1813 PRICHARD Phys. Hist. Man in. 8 3. no The family of 
Mustelae are distinguished by Cuvier into four departments 
or sub-genera. Ibid, in An American animal of the sub- 
genus Mephitis. 1849 BALFOUR Man. Bot. 708 Occasion- 
ally, a subgenus is formed by grouping certain species, 
which agree more nearly with each other in some important 
particulars than the other species of the genus. 1857 t see 
SUBCLASS]! 1885 Encycl. Brit. XVIII. 733/1 The well- 
known Gold and Silver Pheasants, .each the type of a dis 
tinct section or sub-genus. 

Subget, obs. form of SUBJECT. 

Subglo bose, a. [ad. mod.L. subglobosus : 
see SUB- 20 c.] Somewhat or almost globose ; 
almost spherical in shape. 

175* SIR J. HILL Hist. Anit*. 200 The roundish or 
subglobose ones [sc. species of centronia], called by Klein 
and some others Cidares. 1773 J. JKNKINSON Linnaeus* 
Brit. Wants 67 The fruit is a subglobose capsule. 1826 
KIRBV & SP. Entomol. 111.697 Supported, .by triangular, 
conical, or subglobose props. 1871 OLIVER Elem. Bot. 308 
Male flowers in pendulous, pedunculate, subglobose, silky 
catkins. 1879 E. P. WRIGHT Anim. Life 52 In..Micro- 
rhynchus, the head is short and sub-globose. 

So Subglobo so- f comb, form of SUBGI.OBOSE. 
1887 W. PHILLIPS Brit. Discomycetes 258 Cups scattered, 
sessile, subgloboso -hemispherical. 



19 

SubglO bular, a. [Sus- 20 c.] Somewhat or 
almost globular. So Subglo bulose a. (in Diets.). 

1787 tr. Ltnnyits Fam. Plants 195 Stigma s subglobular. 
i8ia New Bot. Card. I, 41 The pistillum is a subglobular 
germ. 1897 Allbntt s Syst. Med. III. 564 Circumscribed 
globular or subglobular tumours. 

Su bgo vernor. [SUB- 6.] An official next 
below a governor in rank. 

Formerly the title of officials in royal and noble house 
holds, and in the South Sea and other companies. 

1683 BAXTER Dying Thoughts 132 As now I am under 
the government of his Officers on Earth, I look for ever to 
be under subgovernours in Heaven. 1698 LUTTRELI, Brief 
Rel. (1857) IV. 433 George Sayer, esq. a member of parlia 
ment, is made sub-governor to the duke of Gloucester. 1702 
Lond. Gaz. No. 3772, 4 The Royal African Company of 
England have appointed the Election of a Governour, bub- 
Governor, and Deputy-Governor; on Tuesday the 1310 
Instant. 1721 Act 7 Geo. I c. 2. i The many Frauds., 
which were committed by the late Sub-Governor, Deputy- 
Governor, and Directors of the said [South-Sea] Company. 
1725 DE FOE Voy. round World (1840) 282 The sub-govtrnor 
and viceroy of New Spain. 1753 j. CHAMBERLAYNE M. 
Brit. Notitia \\. 257 His Royal Highness the Prince of 
Wales s Officers and Servants. Governor . . Preceptor . . Sub- 
Governor. .Sub-Preceptor. 1822 Edin. Rev. XXXVII. 5 
Stone, the subgovernor and confident of the Duke of 
Newcastle. 1849 GROTE Greece n. xxxviii. V. 2 (Darius] 
directed the various satraps and sub-governors throughout 
all Asia to provide troops. 

b. Similarly subgovernor general. 

1784 J. KING Cook s 3rd Voy. v. vi, The Sub-governor 
General, who was at this time making a tour through all 
the provinces of the Governor General of Jakutsk. 

Su-bgrOUp. [SuB- ;b.] A subordinate group ; 
a subdivision of a group. (Chiefly Nat. Hist. } 

1845 DARWIN Voy. Nat. xvii. 379 One species of the sub 
group Cactornis. 1859 Orig. Spec. iv. 126 Small and 
broken groups and sub-groups will finally tend to disappear. 
1899 Allbutt s Syst. Med. viii. 772 The first three classes 
might be included in one group Alopecia neurolica, with 
sub-groups universalis, localis, and circumscripta. 

b. J\Iath. A series of operations forming part of 
a larger group. 

1888 MOKRICE ir. Klein" s Lect. Ikosakedron 6 The simplest 
sub-group.. is always that which arises from the repetitions 
of an individual operation, 1892 F. N. COLE tr. Netto s 
Tk. Sitbstit, 41 No two of these o subgroups have any 
element in common. 

Subhastation (srbhsest^-fsn). Obs. exc. Hist. 
[ad. L. subhastatiO) -onem^ n. of action f. subhas- 
tdre^ f. sub hastd under the spear (see || SUB 4 and 
SUB- i g), from the Roman practice of setting up a 
spear where an auction was to be held. Cf. F. 
subhastation^ It. subastazione, Sp. subastacion.] 
A public sale by auction. 

1600 HOLLAND Livy xxxix. xliv. 1052 The Censors by 
proclamation commaunded those to avoid farre from the 
subhastation, who had disanulled the former leases and 
bargains. 1625 DONNE .Serin. (1626) 20 For that blasphemy 
then was David sold, under a dangerous sub-hastation. 1686 
BUHNET Trav. i. 10 The way of selling Estates, which is 
likewise practised in Switzerland, and is called Subhastation. 

Su b-hea d. [Sus- 5, 6.] 

1. An official next in rank to the head (of a 
college, etc.). 

1588 in Ellis Orig. Lett. Ser. i. III. 27 The Hedds and ; 
Sub-Hedds of the said Colleges and Halls. 

2. One of the subordinate divisions into which a 
main division of a subject is broken up. 

1673 O. WALKER Educ. xi. 146, I have.. chosen to follow 
Matteo Pellegrini, who reduceth all Predicates that can be 
applied to a subject., to twelve heads... I shall speak in , 
order, shewing what sub-heads every place containetn. 1825 
J. NICHOLSON Ofier. Mech. 532 For further information on , 
this head the reader is referred to the sub-head Plastering. \ 
1884 JfancA. Exam. 6 Dec. 5/4 A question which occupies 
about thirty lines of print, and is divided Into thirteen sub 
heads. 1891 TUCK LEY Under the Queen 268 Making every 
head and every sub-head [of a sermon] stand out in bold 
relief. 

3. A subordinate heading or title in a book, 
chapter, article, etc. 

1875 SOUTHWARD Diet. Tyfiogr. 130 When an article or 
chapter is divided into several parts, the headings to those 
parts are set in smaller type than the full head, and are 
called Sub-heads. 1903 McNsn.t Egreg. Engl. 98 It is 
essential . . that the episode should be reported with a sepa 
rate sub-head and great circumstance in the Parliamentary 
report. 1914 Temperance (Wales) Bill(tt. C. 72) Cl. 3 (c) 
Sub-heads (A), (>, and (/") of subsection (2). 

So Su-bheading = SUBHEAD 2, 3. 

1889 WHEATLEY H<nu to Catal. Libr. 197 In an index the 
headings will of course be in alphabet, and the sub-headings 
may be so also. 1902 Daily Chron. 10 Feb. 3/3 Each occur 
rence being ticketed in the margin with a funny little inset 
sub-heading. 1904 B*it. Afed. jrnl, 17 Dec. 1645 A chapter 
is devoted to this subject [of polysomatous terata] under the 
sub-headings of uniovular twins [etc.]. 

Sub-hu man, a. [Sun- 14, 19.] 

1. Not quite human, less than human ; occas. 
almost or all but human. 

*793 J- WILLIAMS Calm Exam. 88 Perhaps the slumbers 
ot Lord Thurlow are never broken by the . . interposition of 
thought; if they are not, the man is extra or sub-human. 
1894 Pep. Set. Monthly XLIV. 514 The mental operaiions 
of my subhuman dog^. 1901 Eng. Hist. Rev. July 425 To 
imagine not only a king who is almost super-human in his 
self-will, but also a clergy and a nation which are sub 
human in their self-abasement. 

2. Belonging to or characteristic of the part of 
creation that is below the human race. 

1837 BKDDOES Let. in Poems (1851) p, ci, What my thoughts 



SUBINPEITD. 

..may be regarding things human, sub-human, and super 
human. 1877 SWINBURNE Note C. Bronte 90 The typical 
specimen which then emitted in one spasm of sub-human 
spite at once the snarl and the stench proper to its place 
and kind. 1894 H. DRUMMOND Ascent of Man 28 He turns 
his back upon Nature sub-human Nature, that is. 

t Subhirmerate, v. Obs. rare. [f. SUB- 25 
f L. (h\umerus shoulder + -ATE^.] trans. To take 
up on the shoulders ; to shoulder. 

1628 FELTHAM Resolves n. Ixxxii. 233 Nothing surer tyes 
a friend, then freely to subhumerate the burthen which was 
his. 1649 BULWEB Pathoniyot. n. i. ge To bend their power 
to subhumerate. .the burden imposed upon them. 1656 
BLOI/XT Glossogr. 

II Subiculum (siwbrku/lmn). [mod. L. (Link), 
dim. f. subic-, stem of late L. sublets (pi.) supports, 
f. subicere to throw or place under (see SUBJECT).] 

1. Bot. In certain fungi, the modified tissue of 
the host bearing the perithecia. 

1836 BICRKKLKY in Smith s Engl. Flora V. n. 370 Spots 
variegated with yellow and brown, snbiculum rathtr thick. 
1875 COOKK BERKELEY Fungi 15 We have Pezi?<e with 
a Subiculum in the section Tapesia, 1887 \V. PHILLIPS Brit. 
Discomycetes 226 Seated at first on a delicate white subi- 
culum, which disappears as the plant advances to maturity. 

2. Anat. The uncinate gyrus. 
Subidar, ohs. var. SUHAHDAR. 

f Subigate, v. Obs. [irreg. f. L. subigere (f. 
sub- Sun- 25 + agtre to bring) + -ATE 3.] tram. To 
knead or work up. 

1657 TOMLINSON Kenan s Disp. 172 Stir them together.. 
that the whole masse may be subigated. 

Subimago (sbim g0). Entom. [SUB- 22.] 
In Ephemendx, the stage immediately preceding 
the imago, before the final pellicle has been cast; 
the insect at this stage. Also called pseiidimago 
(see PSEUDO- 2). 

1861 H. HAGEN Synopsis Nt-uroptcra N. Amer. 343 Sithi- 
tnago, a state of Ephemera, 8:c., wherein the wings, &c., 
are covered with a membrane, which is cast off when it 
becomes an Imago. 1864 Intt ll. Ohs. No. 33. 148 The im 
mature sub imago of the May-fly. 1889 CHOLMONDEI.EY- 
PENNF.LL Fishing 376 They avoid the subimago, and keep 
on feeding on the nymph. 1897 Daily AVrcj 27 July 8/1 
The sober-tinted Iron Blue Dun again, is the imperfect form, 
or sub-imago, of the Jenny Spinner. 

Hence Subima ginal a,, belonging to or charac 
teristic of the subimago. 

1878 Encycl. Brit. VIII. 458/1 The cast sub-imaginal skins 
of ihe-e insects. 

Subinci sion. [SuB- 2.] The cutting of an 
opening into the urethra on the under side of the 
penis : a practice prevalent among some savage 
tribes. So Snbincrse v. trans., to perform sub- 
incision upon. 

1899 SPKNCER & GILLEN Nat ire Trills Central Australia. 
263 The rite of sub-incision . .has frequently been alluded 
to by Curr and other writer.-- under the name of the terrible 
rite . 1904 North. Tribes Central Australia xi. 354 It 
was decided by the old men that, towards the close of these 
[ceremonies] three young men should be subincised. 

Sub-incomplete, hntom. [SUB- 20 c.] 

Designating a metamorphosis in which the active 
larva and pupa resemble the imago. 

1838 Penny Cyci. XII. 494/1 Incomplete Pups are those 
without alary appendages. . .Sub-incomplete Pupae are those 
which possess rudiments of wings. 

Subi ndicate, v. [f. pa. ppl. stem of late L. 
$ubindicare\ sec SUB- 21 nnd INDICATE p.] trans. 
To indicate indirectly ; to hint. So Subiiidica - 
tion, a slight indication or token, Subindi cative 
a.j indirectly indicative or suggestive. (All Obs. 
or arch?) 

1655-87 H. MORE App. Antid. (1712) aoo Rather obscure 
sub-indications of the necessary Existence of a Clod. 1659 
I rumor t. Soul n. x. 222 This Spirit of the World h:is 
Faculties that work.. fatally or naturally, as several Ga- 
maieu s we meet withall in Nati seem somewhat obscurely 
to sub-indicate, a 1677 BARROW Serin, (1686) III. 513 They 
served to the subindication and thadowing of heavenly 
things. 1681 H. MORE Expos. Dan. \\. 233 It is an hint and 
a sufficiently certain though something obscure subindica- 
tion. iSaa LAMB Elia \. Old Actors, With that sort of 
subindicative token of respect which one is apt to demon 
strate towards a venerable stranger. 

Silbindu ce, v. rare or Obs. [Partly ad. late 
L. subindficfrc, partly f. SUB- 24 + INDUCE,] 

1. trans. To insinuate, suggest indirectly. 

1640 SIR E. DERINC Sp. Relig. 23 Nov. 14 Our Innovators 
by this artifice do alter our setled Doctrines ; Nay they do 
subinduce points repugnant and contrariant. 

2. To induce by indirect or underhand means. 

a 1623 HUCK Rich. ///, in. (1646) 60 His wife.. had made 
her subtill perswasions of stronger tye, and subinduced him 
to the Lancastrian side. 

3. To bring about (a thing) as a result of or in 
succession to another. 

1855 BROWNING Epist. 79 A case of mania subinduced 
By epilepsy. 



. . , 

A . . would have the seigniory of lands of which B and others 
had been subinfeoffed. 

Subinfen-d, v. [SOB- 9 (*).] 
1. tram. To grant (estates) by subinfeudation; in 
qnot. absol. 

i8>8 J. HUNTKK Man s Lift Sir T. Mori Pref. p. xl, The 

8-3 



SUBINFEUDATION. 



20 



SUBJECT. 



two great houses of Newmarch and FitzwilKam held Barn- 
borough. Both subinfeuded. 

2. To give (a person) possession of estates by 
subinfeudation. 

1839 STONEHOUSE Isle of Axkolme 291 The Abbot of New- 
burgh was subinfeuded of a small manor in this parish. 

So Subi nfeudate (occas. -en-) z/. trans, = SuB- 
INFEUD i ; alsoy?^. 

1839 KEIGHTLEY Hist. Eng. I. 130 A vassal of the crown 
, .might subenfeudate his lands, and have vassals bound to 
himself as he was to his superior lord. 1897 MAITLAND 
Domesday Bk. ff Beyond 100 Justice, we may say, was 
already being subinfeudated. 

Su binfeuda-tion. Feudal Law. [ad. F. 
t subinfeudalion (Cotgr.) or med.L. *subinfeuddtio\ 
see SUB- 9 {b} and INFEUDATION. Cf. F. sous-infeu- 
dation (i6th c.).] 

1. The granting of-Iands by a feudatory to an in 
ferior to be held of himself, on the same terms as 
he held them of his superior ; the relation or tenure 
so established. 

In England this practice was abolished in 1290 by the 
statute Quia Emptores, but in Scotland the principle of 
subinfeudaiion still survives, and is carried out to an un 
limited degree. 

1730 M. WRIGHT IntroeL Law Tenures 156 tiote t Subin 
feudation (by which a new inferior Feud was carved out of 
the old, the old one still subsisting). 1766 BLACKSTONE Comm. 
II. 91 The superior lords observed, that by this method of 
subinfeudation they lost all their feodal profits, of wardships, 
marriages, and escheats, which fell into the hands of these 
mesne or middle lords. Ibid. 136 The widow is immediate 
tenant to the heir, by a kind of subinfeudation or under- 
tenancy. i86z BUCKLE vl//.w. IVks. (1872) 1.35^ Subinfeuda 
tion, so general in France, was checked by Magna Charta. 
1876 BANCROFT Hist. U. S. I. vii. 182 To the proprietary was 
given the power of creating manors and courts baron, and of 
establishing a colonial aristocracy on the system of sub-in- 
feudation. 1880 PHEAR Aryan I illage vi. 154 This system 
of sub- in feudal ion . . prevails universally throughout Bengal. 

2. An instance of this; also, an estate or rief 
created by this process. 

1766 BLACKSTONE Comm. II. 257 In subinfeudations, or 
alienations of lands by a vasal to be holden as of himself. 
1773 Archasologia II. 306 These land-holders of the first 
class, or barons, had a power of making subinfeudations of 
their land. 1838 AUSTIN Jurispr. (1879) II. 879 The statute 
Quia Emptores 18 Edw. i prevented any new subinfeuda 
tions. 1870 LOWER Hist. Sussex I, 265 The manor is a 
sub-infeudation of Washington. 

trans/. 1840 New Monthly Mag. LIX. 161 What sub- 
infeudations of parentheses, what accumulations of para 
graph upon paragraph. 

So Subinfeu datory, a sub-vassal holding by 
subinfeudation. 

1886 Encycl. Brit. XX. 298/2 At the time of the Conquest 
the manor was granted to Walter d Eincourt, and in the 
i2th century it was divided among the three daughters of 
his su bin feudatory Paganus. 

t SubrngreSS. Obs. rare. [Sue- 2.] The dis 
appearance of a star or planet behind another in 
Decollation. 

1669 Phil. Trans. IV. 1109 If diligent heed be given to 
the times of the sub-ingress and emersion of the Star, and 
with what Spots on the Moons face it keeps in a right line. 

i Subing re ssion. Obs. [Sus- 24.] Subtle 
or unobserved entrance. 

1653 H. MoRK^/zW. Ath. ii. ii. 9 (1712) 45 This forcible 
endeavour of the subingression of the air is not from the 
pressure of the ambient Air. 1660 BOYLE New Exp. Phys. 
Mech. iii. 44 The pressure of the ambient Air is strengthened 
upon the accession of the Air suck d put ; which, to make 
it self room, forces the neighboring Air to a violent-subin- 
gression of its parts. 1674 Obs. Saltn. Sea 8 That in the 
drawing up of the Vessel through the Salt water, .the taste 
may have been alter d by the subingression of Salt water. 

Subi Utellect, v. rare. [f. late L. subintel- 
lect-, pa. ppl. stem of subintelltg&re (see SUBINTEL- 
LIGITUR).] trans. Tosupply in thought, understand. 

1811-31 BENTHAM Logic App. Wks. 1843 VIII. 283/2 The 
termination cs, as designative of an adjective, of which the 
substantive is subintellected, is preferred. 

Su biiltellec tioii. [ad. late L. subintellectio^ 
-onem, n. of action f. subintel legtre (see prec.).] 
The action of supplying in thought ; subaudition. 

1624 H. MASON New Art of Lying iv. 69 We may._.con- 
ceale the truth, or speake an vntruth, so as by subintel- 
lection, or a mentall reseruation, wee make vp the matter. 
1808 T. F. MIDDLETON Grk. Article (1833) 25 The subintel- 
lection of the Participle of Existence as a Copula between 
the Article and its Predicate. 

Subinte lligence. rare. [f. SUB- 24 + IN 
TELLIGENCE after prec. or next.] An implication. 

1630 BP. HALL Occas. Medit. 100 (1634) 162 These, thy 
promises of outward favours are never but with a subintel- 
Figence of a condition, of our capablenesse. 

So Subintelligfe-ntial a., implying something 
beyond what is expressed. 

1887 BROWNING Parley ings 115 So tells a touch Of subm- 
telligential nod and wink Turning foes friends. 

II Subintelligitur (s^binteli dgit&i). [L., 
3rd pers. sing. pres. indie, pass, of subintellige re 
(var. of -intdlegfye)) f. sub- SUB- 24 + intettegtre 
(see INTELLECT).] An unexpressed or implied 
addition to a statement, etc. (Cf. SUBAUDITUK.) 

1649 BLITHE Engl. Improver Ititflr. (1652) 174 Unless you 
please to take that for a Discovery which is by a Subintel 
ligitur. 1681 T. FLATMAN Heraclitns Ridens No. 3 (1713) 
I. 13 You must, First, know that Wt and Ours, is to be 
construed with a SubinteUigitur. 01734 NORTH Exam. \, 



ii. 8 (1740) 35 He took Sanctuary for Protection of Liberty 
and Life: Against what ? The Tyranny of the then English 
Government. That s }\\& Subintelligitur. 1817 COLERIDGE 
Biog. Lit. xii. (1907) I. 181 [The imagination] supplies, by 
a sort of subinteliigitur^ the one central power. 1886 JOWETT 
in Life $ Lett. (1897) II. 313 We pray to God as a Person, 
a larger self; but there must always be a subintelligitur 
that He is not a Person. 

Subintraut (sobi-ntrant), a. (s&.) Path* [ad. 
L. subintr ant-em, pr. pple. of subintrare to steal 
into, f. sub- SUB- 24 + intrdre to ENTER. Cf. F. 
subintranty It. subentrante.] Of fevers : Having 
paroxysms so rapidly that before one is over 
another begins ; also said of the paroxysms, b. sb. 
A subintrant fever. 

1684 tr. Bonefs Merc. Commit, vi. 231 In a subintrant 
(that is, when one fit comes before the other is off). 1747 
tr. Astruc s Fevers 102 A subintrant tertian. 1886 Land. 
Med. Rec. 15 Oct. 463/1 The hysterical attacks at this 
juncture were constant, sometimes subintrant. T&yjAllbutCs 
Syst. Med. II. 317 A remittent of the double tertian type, 
or double tertian with subintrant paroxysms. 1899 Ibid. 
VIII. 467 The fever, .may be confined only to the eruptive 
period, and be ephemeral, remittent, subintrant [&c.]. 

Su biiitrodu ce, v. [ad. L. subintrSductre : 

see SUB- 24 and INTRODUCE.] trans. To introduce 
in a secret or subtle manner. Chiefly in///, a. 

In quot. 1886 with reference to the inuliercs subintro* 
ductx (Gr. trvi eiWicToi , called also extranez, whom clerics 
were forbidden by the canons of various councils to have in 
their houses. 

1664 JKR. TAYLOR Dissuas. Popery i. 6 (1688) 44 To say 
that the first practise and institution is necessary to be 
followed, is called Heretical : to refuse the later subintro- 
duc d custom incurrs the sentence of Excommunication. 
1844 GLADSTONE Glean. (1879) III. 16 The mode, in which 
the expression of it is subintroduced, seems to denote a re 
pression of his own full meaning. 1886 CONDER Syrian 
Stone-Lore viii. (1896) 278 The practice of allowing sub- 
introduced sisters to live in the houses of the celibates. 

So f Su^Mntrodu ct v. in same sense ; f Su b- 
introdu ction, surreptitious introduction. 

1620 BP. HA LI* Hon. Marr. Clergie ii. iv, The Canon 
alledged against the subintroductionof (Mulieres extranese} 
strange Women into the houses of Clergy-men, a 1641 BP. 
MOUNTAGU Acts fy Man. (1642) ii The onely true God,., 
no supposed, ..subintroducted God or Gods. 

Sub in Variant (s^binvea "riant). Math. [f. 
SUB- 22 + INVARIANT^.] =SEMINVABIANT. Hence 
Subiuva riaiitive a. 

1882 Amer. Jrnl. Math. V. 79 Any rational integer func 
tion of one or more subinvariants is itself one. Ibid. 81 note t 
Eventually I am inclined to substitute the word binariant 
for subinvariants. and to speak of simple, double, treble or 
multiple binariants. Ibid. 80 It must be capable of being 
satisfied by subinvariantive values of X\ Y\. 

t Subitane, a. Obs. [ad. L. subitaneus (eee 
next). Cf. OF. subitain,] Sudden ; rash. 

1633 PRYNNE Histrip-nt. i. 701 The prejudicate erro- 
nious inconsiderate private and subitane Opinions of all 
ignorant novices. 1645 Martins Echo in Prynne s Fresh 
Doctor, 23 His midnight dreames, his distracted subitane 
apprehensions. 1648 PRYNNE Plea for Lords A ij b, These 
subitane indigested Collections. 

b. sb. pi 

1645 MILTON Ou Wks. 1851 IV. 344 It will bee. .best 
for the reputation of him who in his Subitanes hath thus 
censur d, to recall his sentence. 

Subitaiieous (s0biti n/3s), a. Now rare. [f. 
L. subitan-eus sudden (f. subitus SUBITE) + -ous.] 
Sudden, hasty, unexpected ; hastily produced or 
constructed. 

1651 BIGGS New Disp. P 196 The argument of curing by 
the subitaneous precipitancy of cold. 1686 GOAD Celest. 
Bodies ii. vii. 248 Some are Subitaneous, the Product of 
24 Hours. 1751 Chambers* Cycl. s. v. Bridge^ The Romans 
had also a sort of subitaneous bridges made by the soldiers, 
of boats [etc.]. 1760-7211. Juanff Ulloas Voy. (ed. 3) 1.213 
This almost subitaneous death of a person in the flower of 
his age. 1778 Nat. Hist, in Ann. Reg. 111/2 The rain 
waters, the subterraneous cavities, the absorptions, and 
sometimes more subitaneous agents, have made great ruins. 
1822 T. TAYLOR Apuleius 304 He never either grieves or 
rejoices, nor wills, nor is averse to any thing subitaneous. 
1892 DICK DONOVAN In Grip of Law 246 The subitaneous 
clanging of a heavy bell. 

Hence f Subita neousness. 

1727 BAILEY (vol. II), Snbitaneousness, . .Suddenness. 

t Subitany, a. Obs. [Formed as prec., after 
momentany^ = SUBITANEOUS. 

1603 HOLLAND Plutarch" s Mor. 8 To suffer yoong boies 
to make subitanie and inconsiderate orations, a 1656 HALES 
Gold. Rent. i. (1673) 200 This which I now have commented 
is very subitany, and I confused. 

t Subitary, a. Obs. rare. [ad. L. subitarius y 
f. subitus : see next and -ART.] Suddenly or hastily 
done, made, etc, 

1600 HOLLAND Lfvy in. iv. 90 The Colonie Antium, were 
commaunded to send unto Quintius, subitarie souldiers. 
Ibid. XL. xxvi. 1077. 1661 BLOUNT Glossogr. (ed. 2). 

t Subite, a. Obs. Also 5 subytte. [a. OF. 
su&tt, fern, stt&ife, or ad. L. subitus* pa. pple. of 
subirt to come or go stealthily, f. sub- SUB- 24 + Ire 
to go. Cf. It., Sp., Pg. si{bito.~\ Sudden, hasty. 

1483 CAXTON Cato B vj, Thou oughtest to refrayne thyn 
yre, not onely the yre subdayn and subytte [etc.]. 1597 
A. M. tr. Guillemeau s Fr. Chirurg. 51/3 All subite permu 
tations are vnto our bodyes very preiudicialle. a 1722 SIR 
J. LAUDER Decis. Suppl. 282 In phlebotomy or other manual 
operations, the acts are subite or transient. 



1! Subito (s-b* t0). adv. Mus. [It. : cf. prec.] 
Quickly ; usually in phr. volti subito^ turn quickly. 

1724 Short Exilic. For. Wds. in. Mus. Bks. 1801 BUSBY 
Diet. Mus. 

tSubitous,a. Obs. [f. L. subitus (see SUBITK) 
+ -OUS.] Sudden. 

1637 W. MORICE Cosita quasi Koifij 341 We find con 
version .. under the notion of such things as are not onely 
subitous but instantaneous. 1665 G. HARVEY Advice agst. 
Plague^ 3 An universal Lassitude, or Subitous soreness of 
all one s Limbs. 

Subjacency sobd^-sensi). [f. next: see 
-ENCY.J The state or condition of being subjacent. 

In mod. Diets. 

Subjacent (scbd^-sent), a. [ad. L. subja 
cent em, pr. pple. of subjacere, f. sub- SUB- 2 +jacere 
to lie. Cf. F. subjacent. ] 

1. Situated underneath or below; underlying. 

a. in general use. 

1609 J. DAVIES Holy Roode (1878) 13/2 Such Sight a 
squemish stomacke ouerturnes, But comforts mine, with 
Matter subiacent. 1611 COTCR., Snbiacent^ subjacent; 
vnder-lying. 1660 BOYLE Neiu Exp, Phys. Mech. i. 34 Not 
the incumbent Atmosphere, but onely the subjacent Air in 
the brass Cylinder. 1682 PIERS Descr. W. Meathdyjo) 
29 The subjacent liquor in the glass. 1754 Phil. Trans. 
XLIX. 144 Whatever part of this vapour begins to. .sub- 
side first, will carry down with it part of the subjacent 
vapour. 1875 CROLI. Clim. $ Time x. 172 The whole of 
the surface-film, being chilled at the same time, sinks through 
the subjacent water. 

b. Anat. and Bot. of nerves, bones, tissues, etc. 
(Const, to.) 

1597 A. M. tr. Gnillemcaits Fr, Chirurg. 10/3 The fore* 
sayed subiacent orsubiectede membrane. 1758 Phil. Trans. 

\ LI. 176 The ramifications of the subjacent blood-vessels. 
1787 tr. Linnaeus Fam. Plants 479 There are two concave 
impressions from the back, prominent underneath, which 
compress the subjacent wings. 1813 J. THOMSON Lect. 
Inflow. 2 The skin and subjacent cellular membrane. 1881 

i IVfiVART Cat 15 If the muscles be cut away, we come sooner 
or later to subjacent bones. 1896 Allbutt s Syst. Med. I. 
238 Parts subjacent to cutaneous surfaces. 

0. GeoL of strata, rocks, deposits, etc. 

1695 WOODWARD Nat. Hist. Earth in. (1723) 137 The 
subjacent Strata. 1856 STANLEY Sinai $ Pal. \. (1858) 6/2 
This red colour I ascertained to be caused by_ the subjacent 
red sandstone. 1873 GEIKIE Gt. Ice Age ii. 5 Subjacent 
and intercalated beds. 1883 Law Rep. 10 Q. B. Div. 562 
A piece of land was granted with a reservation of the whole 
of the subjacent minerals to the superior, 

d. transf. and fig. Forming the basis or sub 
stratum. (Cf. SUBJECT a. n, SUBJECTED i b.) 

a 1677 BARROW Serin. Wks. 1686 II. v. 74 The advantage 
of chusingone sutableto the subjacent matter and occasion. 
1846 TRENCH Mirac. i. (1862) 118 The Lord.. might have 
created, with no subjacent material, the wine with which 
He cheered these guests. 1880 Academy 14 Aug. 118/2 
Anyone who will carefully compare the agreements and 
differences in Latin renderings, irrespective of the subjacent 
Greek text. 

2. Lying or situated at a lower level, at or near 
the base (e.g. of a mountain). 

1650 EARL MONM. tr. Senaulfs Man bee. Guilty 305 They 
built Citadels on the tops of mountains, to discover the 
subjacent Countreys. a 1700 EVELYN Diary 4 Oct. 1641, 
Perceiving all the subjacent country, at so small aborizontal 
i distance, to repercuss such a light as I could hardly look 
I against. 1760 DERRICK Lett. (1767) I. 79 The rivers that 
, water the subjacent plains. 1774 PENNANT Tour Scotl. in 
\ J?72> 3 2 7 Over the subjacent vales and lochs. 1837 LOCK- 
1 HART Scott (1839) X. 84 Before the subjacent and surround 
ing lake and morass were drained. 1889 STEVENSON Edin 
burgh 22 The smoke of the Old Town blowing abroad over 
the subjacent country. 

3. Taking place underneath or below, rare. 
1862 WRAXALL tr. ffupo s Les Miserables iv. r. v. II. 293 

The sign of a vast subjacent conflagration. 1898 P. MAN- 
SON Trap, Diseases xviii. 296 The superjacent mucous 
membrane sloughing or disintegrating in consequence of 
the subjacent destruction of its nutrient vessels. 

Hence Snbja cently adv., in a subjacent manner. 

1882 G. MACDONALD Castle Warlock x, A new era in Ms 
life, ., the thought of which had been subjacently present in 
his dreams. 

Subject (sc bdgekt), sb. Forms: a. 4-5 
sogett(e, sugett(e, 4-6 soget, sug(g)et, 4 //. 
sugges, 5 sogete, sugete, seget (?), sewgyet, 
soiet, suiet, sogect, sugeot. 0. 4 subgit, soub- 
git, 4-5 subgett(e, 4-6 sublet, 5 subgyt, -gite, 
soubget, //. subies, -jais, -gees, 5-6 subget, 
-giet. 7. 4-7 subieet, 5 -giect, 5-6 -iecte, 6 
-geot, -yeot, -iectt, subeot, St. pi. subjeokis, 7- 
subject. [a. OF. suget, soget (i2th c.), sougiet, 
sub/it, subg(i]et, etc. (isthc.), subject (15-1 7th c.), 
also soubject, suject, mod.F. sujet (from 15th c.), 
repr. various stages of adoption of L. subject-us 
masc., snbject-um neut., subst. uses of pa. pple. of 
subictre (see next). Cf. Prov. subjet-z, suget-z, It. 
soggetto, suggelto, and sub(b)ietto, Sp. sugeto, Pg. 
j sujeito. The completely latinized spelling of the 
Eng. word became established in the i6th c.] 

1. 1. One who is under the dominion of a 
monarch or reigning prince ; one who owes alle 
giance to a government or ruling power, is subject 
to its laws, and enjoys its protection. 



650 



SUBJECT. 



21 



SUBJECT. 



PECOCK Repr. in. vi. 315 The! were sugettis to the Em- 
perour of Rome, c 1485 Digby Myst. (1882) in. 500, I wol 
a-wye sovereyns; and soiettes I dys-deyne. 1574 in Matt I. 
Club Misc. I. in Ane Irew sugget to the Kingis Majestie. 

. 1399 COWER In Praise of Peace 165 Crist is the heved 
and we ben membres alle, Als wel the subgit as the sove 
reign, c 1400 tr. Seer, Seer., Gov. Lordsh. 51 Kynges.. 
large to subgitz. 1503 HAWES Examp. I irt. i. 14 Be to 
thv kynge euer true subgete. 

1538 STARKEY England i. iii. 82 The commyns agayne 
i nobullys, and subyectys agayn they[r] rularys. a 1568 

.SCHAM Scholem. i. (Arb.) 36 A quiel subiecl lo his Prince. 
1593 SHAKS. 2 Hen. F/, iv. ix. 6 Was neuer Subiect long d 
to be a King, As I do long and wish to be a Subiect. a 1633 
G. HERBERT Jacula. Prudentum (1651) 62 For the same 
man to be an heretick and a good subject, is incompossible. 
1649 [see LIBERTY fA 2]. a 1687 PETTY Pol. Aritk. (1690) 
75, I suppose that the King of England hath about Ten 
Millions of Subjects. 1765 BLACKSTONE Comm. 1. 122 Every 
wanton and causeless restraint of the will of the subject, .is 
a degree of tyranny. 1849 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. iii. I. 308 
These three Dukes were supposed to be three of the very 
richest subjects in England. 1858 FROUDE Hist. Eng. IV. 
xviii. 48 She had taught her son to suspect and dread the 
worthiest subject that he possessed. 

(b) qualified by a possessive or equivalent phrase ; also 
subject of the crown, 

a. 1380 WYCLIF Set. IVks. III. 28 Her regalte and her 
dignyte, by be whiche bei schulen. .rulen hemsilf and her 
so^etis. c 1412 HOCCLEVE De Reg. Princ. 2212 Kynges of 
hir s>eetz ben obeyed. 1483 Ccly Papers (Camden) 137 To 
wryte unto the Kynges good grace that he wyll be faver- 
abull unto hys sewgyettes. 1515 in Douglas 1 Poet. IVks. 
(1874) I. p. xxvii, The best belowyt prince and moosl dred 
with lowffof his Lorddis and sugettis. 

0. 1374 CHAUCER Boetk. in. pr. viii. (1868) So Yif bou 
desiryst power bou shall by awahes of bi subgitz anoyously 
be cast vndir many periles. ?a 1400 Morte Arth. 2314 Twa 
senatours we are, thi subgettez of Rome. 1415 in Ellis 
Orig. Lett. Ser. n. I. 48, I Richard York }owre humble 
subgyt and very lege man. 1456 SIR G. HAVE Law Arms 
(S. T. S.) 297 Alsmony princis with thair subjais. 1483 Act 
/ Rick ///, c, i i The King s Subgiettis. 1524 in Buc- 
cleuck MSS. (Hist. MSS. Comm.) I. 220 Our officers, minis- 
tres, and subgiettes. 

y. c 1400 MAUNDEV. (Roxb.) xi. 41 He commaunded 
strailely lil all his subiectes, bat bai schuld lale me see all 
be placez. 1525 MORE Hist. Rich. Ill, Wks. 69 i She 
said also y 1 it was not princely to mary hys owne subiect. 
1560 DAUS tr. Sltiaaufs Comm. 283 b, The other William 
Gelluse was a subject of the Lantgraves. 1595 SHAKS. John 
n. i. 204 lohn. You men of Angiers,and my louing subiects. 
Fra. You louing men of Anglers, Arthurs subiects. 1638 
BAKER tr. Balzac s Lett. (vol. II) 14 Our Prince will put no 
yoke upon the consciences of his Subjects. 1733 SWIFT (title) 
A serious and useful Scheme to make an Hospital for In 
curables ; of universal Benefit to all his Majesty s Subjects. 
1765 BLACKSTONE Comm. I. 263 The king has.. the pre 
rogative of. .granting place or precedence to any of his 
subjects. 1827 HALLAM Const. Hist. (1842) II. 505 No 
subjects of the crown in Ireland enjoyed such influence, 
at this time, as the earls of Kildare. 1875 JOWETT Plato 
(ed. 2) IV. 504 The., kings of our own day very much re 
semble iheir subjects in education and breeding. 

(c) flfaspecified country or state; also, subject of the realm. 
ou 1436 in Ref>. Hist. MSS. Comm. Var. Coll. IV. 199 

To Us and to alle cure sugectis of the same [reame]. 

Y. a, 1578 LINDESAY (Pitscottie) Chron. Scot. (S.T.S.) I. 16 
To bring all ihe subjecttis of this realme lo peace and rest. 
1686 tr. Chardins Trav. Persia 52 There was not any one 
Subjeci of ihe Republick who was a Knight of Malta. 
1713 STEELE Englishm. No. 3. 15 When I say an English 
man, I mean every true Subject of Her Majesty s Realms. 
1747 State Trials (1813) XVIII. 859 By naturalizing or em- 

loying a subject of Great Britain. 1912 Times 19 Oct. 5/1 
ubjecis of the Slav States throughout the Olloman Empire. 

(d) with adj. of nationality. 

1810 BENTHAM Packing (1821) 253 Though a very obscure 
and insignificant person, I have the honour to be a British 
subject. 1886 FROUDE Oceana 98 Their Monro doctrine, 
prohibiting European nalions from settling on their side of 
the Atlantic, except as American subjects. 

f b. collect, sing. The subjects of a realm. ? Also 
trans/, in quot. 1608. (Only Shaks.) Obs. 

1602 SHAKS. Ham. i. ii. 33 In that the Leuies..are all 
made Out of his subiect. 1603 Meas. for M. in. ii. 145 
The greater file of the subiect held the Duke to be wise. 
1608 Per. ii. i. 53 How from the finny subject of the sea 
These fishers tell the infirmities of men. 

1 2. One who is bound to a superior by an 
obligation to pay allegiance, service, or tribute ; 
spec, a feudal inferior or tenant ; a vassal, retainer ; 
a dependant, subordinate ; an inferior. Obs. 

a. ^1315 SHOREHAM Poems iv. 276 Ho hys bat neuer ne 
kedde wo} In boste to hys sugges? c 1383 in Engl. Hist. 
Re* . (1911) Oct. 748Seculer lordis owen. .to treete retesonabli 
& charitabli here tenauntis & sogetis. a 1400 Minor Poems 
fr. Vernon MS. 546/368 Haue mesure to ^i soget. a 1400- 
50 Wars Alex. 2682 As soiet serued haue I bat sire many 
sere wyntir. c 1450 Merlin i. 6 Youre suster is elder than 
ye, and so she wolde alwey holde yow as her sogect. 

ft. c 1386 CHAUCER Sompn. T. 282 With-Inne thyn hous 
ne be thou no leoun, To thy subgitz do noon oppressioun. 
1420 in Ellis Orig. Lett. Ser. in. I. 68 Hys heires, vassalles, 
and subgees a 1475 ASHBY Active Policy 898 Saint petur 
saithe bat soubgettes shold be Buxom to lhar lorde. c 1489 
CAXTON Sonnes of Aymon \. 25 Thou knowesi well that 
thou arte his man, vaysall, and subgette. a 1533 BERNERS 
Huon xlii. 142 Thoutobemysubgett, and to pay me trybute. 

V- ci43oLYDG.j>ft*K./><vwf (MS.Harl. 2251 fol.sb),Ayenst 
thy feiawe no quarele thow contryve: With thy subiect to 
stryve it were shame, c 1450 Godstmv Reg. i Alle Jordes 
bat..forbedith her subiecles )>at ben acursed to go out of be 
church. 1530 PALSGR. 278/1 Subjecte or holder of house or 
lande, uatsal. c 1530 Pol. Rtl. ^ L. Poems (1903) 60 Selle 
no parte of thyne heritage vnto thy bettyr, hut for lesse 
pryce selle yt lo thy subiecte. 1593 SHAKS. Rick. //, v. ii. 
39 To Bullingbrooke, are we sworne Subiects now. 1681 
[see SUBFEU]. (1718 CHAMBERS Cycl. s.v., Anciently, the 



Lords call d, abusively, those who held Lands or Fees of 
them, orow d them any Homage, Subjects.] 

( b. One who owes allegiance or obedience to 
a spiritual superior. Obs. 

(-1380 WYCLIF Sel. Wks. III. 355 pat jjif he \sc. the pope] 
hadde siche power, he shulde assoile alle hise .sugetis t ro 
peyne and fro trespas. 1425 Rolls of Parlt. IV. 306/1 Ye 
said Lordes Spirituell hath promitted..to calle yere sub- 
get tes to residence, c 1450 CAPGRAVE Life St. Gilbert vii, 
He chase on of his subiectis whom he knewe be be Holy 
Goost bat he schuld succede in his office aftir his deth. 
1513 BRADSHAW .57. Werbtirge i. 3360 Her systers, and sub- 
iettes, a religious couent. 155* ABP. HAMILTON Catech. 
(1884) 3 Al baith prelates subjeckis. 

fc. One who is under the spiritual oversight or 
charge of a parish priest ; one of a * curate s 
parishioners. Obs. 

c 1340 HAMPOLE/VIM* Treat. 24 Vnto thes men itt lon^uh 
. .to vsene werkis of mercy, .in helpe and sustinaunce of hem 
silfe and of hir sugettis. 1380 WYCLIF Wks. (1880) 73 
Sugetis taken ensauinple at here curatis. 1449 PECOCK 
Rt pr. n. xii. 219 A curat mai not, .alwey rynge at the eeris 
of hise suggettis. c 1450 Lay Folks Mass BK, 68 God gyf 
bame grace so well for to teche bare sugettis ilke cm-el in 
his degre. [1509 Ibid. 75.] 

3. A person (rarely, a thing) that is in the control 
or under the dominion of another; one who owes 
obedience to another. 

a. 13.. Seuyn Sag. fW.) 458 Kes me, leman, and lone 
me, And I thi soget wil i-be. a 1340 HAMPOI.E / salter ii. 
10 pai ere be sugetis til be deuel. ^1430 Hymns Virgin 
(1867) 63 Make him bi suget, to bee to swere pat he schal 
not discure bi name, c 1440 York Myst. iv. 16 All other 
creatours also there-tyll Your suggettes shall ihey bee. 
c 1450 Mirk s Fcstial 25 And soo schowe hvm seruant and 
soget to hym, and knewlech bys schyld[=childj for hys God. 

0. -1374 CHAUCER Troy Ins n. 828 O loue to whom I haue 
and shal Ben humble subgit. 

y. -1440 Jacob s Well xxxiii. 214 Resoun sufferyth his 
wylf, bat is, his subiecte coueytise, to spedyn in causes of 
falsnesse in ryche men. 1588 Kvu Hoitsek. / /til. Wks. 
(1901) 254 By Nature woman was made mans subiect. 1590 
SHAKS. Coin. Err. it. i. ip. The beasts, the fishes, and the 
winged fowles Are their males subiects. 1671 MILTON 
Samson 886 Nor was I their subject, Nor under their pro 
tection but my own. 1812 CKABBE Tales v. 201 Beauties 
are tyrants, and if they can reign, They have no feeling for 
their subject s pain. 1865 R. W. DALE Jew. Temple xxiv. 
270 Every member of the human race is a subject of the Lord 
Jesus. 

b. transf. 

c 1520 NISBET N. T. Prol. (S. T. S.) I. 3 Thai were all in 
bondage and sugettis of syn. 1623 BACON Ess., Anger 
(Arb.) 565 Anger is certainly a kinde of Basenesse : As it 
appeares well, in the Weaknesse of those Subiects, in whom 
it reignes. a 1721 PRIOR / icar of Bray <y Sir T. Moor Wks. 
1907 II. 248 My knowledge in Divine and Human Law gave 
me to understand I was born a Subject to both, 1818 
Brathiuait s Bamabee s Jrnl. Introd.67 It is of the essence 
of fashion to descend in the subjects of its dominion. 

4. Law. a. A thing over which a right is exer 
cised. 

1765-8 ERSKINE fast. Laws Scot. ir. x. 32. 351 As or 
chards produce no fruits that are the subjects either of par 
sonage or vicarage tithes. 1875 DIGBY Real Prop. i. App. 
(1876) 266 By the subject of a right is meant the thing., 
over which the right is exercised. My house, horse, or watch 
is the subject of my right of property. 1873 [see SUABLE]. 
b. Sc. A piece of property. 

1754 ERSKINE Princ. Sc. Law n. L i (1757) I. 105 The 
things or subjects to which persons have right, are the second 
object of law. The right of enjoying and disposing of a 
subject at one s pleasure is called property. Ibid. in. viii. 
32 II. 376 Full inventory of all his predecessor s heritable 
subjects. 1819 J. MARSHALL Const. Opin. (1839) r 54 Tne 
distinction between property and other subjects to which 
the power of taxation is applicable. 1864 N. Brit. Adver 
tiser 21 May, Subjects in Nelson and Kent Streets to be 
exposed to sale by public rotip. 1903 Dundee Advertiser 
22 Dec. 5 Those holding subjects of that kind. 
C. Considered as the object of an agreement. 

1838 W. BELL Diet. Law Scot. 581 Where the subject of 
the lease is rendered unfit for the purposes for which it was 
let, overblown with sand, inundated [etc.]. 

II. Senses derived ultimately (through L. sub- 
jecfitm} from Aristotle s use of rb vnoKfifj.vov in 
the threefold sense of (i) material out of which 
things are made, (2) subject of attributes, (3) sub 
ject of predicates. 

t 5. The substance of which a thing consists or 
from which it is made. Obs. 

<: 1374 CHAUCER Boetk. v. pr. i. (1868) 150 pei casten as a 
manere of foundement of subgit material {de materiali sub- 
jecto] bat is to seyn of the nature of alle resoun. 1398 THE- 
VISA Barth. De P. R. in. xxi. (1495) 68 Yf the wytt of 
gropyng b all loste the subget of alle the beest [orig. subiec- 
tum totius tmimatis} is destroyed. 1590 MARLOWE 2nd Pt. 
Tambttrl.v. iii. U557. 4561] A my... Your soul giues essence 
to our wretched subiects, Whose matter is incorporeal \sic\ 
in your flesh... Tarn. Bui sons, ihis subiect not offeree 
enough, To hold the fiery spirit it containes. 1651 FRENCH 
Distill, v. 109 Thus do these attractive vertues mutually act 
upon each others subject. 1669 WORLIDGE .!>;/. Agric. (1681) 
9 That Universal Subject, or Sf>iritus Mundi^ out of which 
they are formed. 1775 HARRIS Philos. Arrangem. Wks. 
(1841) 267 Every thing generated or made. .is generated or 
made out of something else ; and this something else is called 
its subject or matter. 

6. Philos. The substance in which accidents or 
attributes inhere. Subject of inhesion or f inhe 
rence : see these sbs. 

c 1380 WYCLIF Wks. (1880) 19 5if J>ei seyn, written and 
techen openly Jat \>e sacrament of |>e autcr fat men seen 
bitwen pe prestis hondU is accident i wij>-outen suget. 1398 



TREVISA Barth. De P. R. xix. cxvi. (1495) 920 As whan 
tweyne accidentes ben in one substaunce and subiecte: 
as colour and sauour. c 1400 in Apol. Loll. (Camden) p. vii, 
That thesacrid oost is. .accident withoutenony subject. 1551 
T. WILSON Logic C ij, Wee se heate in other thynges to 
be separated from the Subiecte. 1609 Bible (Douay) Gen. i. 
16 comm.) Ancient Doctors judged it possible, that accidents 
may remaine without their subject. 1614 SKLDEN Titles 
Hon. 126 It hath been questioned, which is the more both 
elegant and honorable, .whether to say Serenissime Prin~ 
ceps a te peto, or A Serenitate Vcstra feto. And some haue 
thought the first forme the best, because in that the Acci 
dents and Subiects are together exprest. 1616 BULLOKAR 
Eng. Exp. s. v., The body is the subiect in which is health, 
pr sickenesse, and the minde the subiect that receiueih into 
it vertues or vices. 1678 GALE Crt. Gentiles iv. in. 5 Albeit 
sin be. .a mere privation, yet it requires some positive, rual 
natural Being for its subject. 1728 CHAMBERS Cycl. s. v., 
Two Contraries can never sub-Ut in the same Subject. 1762 
KAMES Elt-m. Crit. (18331 487 The same thing, in different 
respects, has different names; with respect to qualities of 
all sorts, it is termed a subject. 1836-7 SIR W. HAMILTON 
Aletapti, viii. (1859) 1. 137 That which manifests its qualities, 
in other words, that in which the appearing causes inhere, 
that to which they belong, is called their subject^ or sub- 
stance, or substratum. Ibid. ix. 158 The general meaning 
of the word subject in its philosophical application, viz. 
the unknown basis of phenomenal or manifested existence. 
1858 WHEWELL Hist. Sci. Ideas I. 35 The mind is the 
subject in which ideas inhere. 

t b. A thing having real independent existence. 
1603 SHAKS. Afeas.for.V.v. 1,458 Thoughts are no subiects j 
Intents, but meerely thoughts. 

7. Logic, a. That which has attributes ; the thing 
about which a judgement is made. 

1551 T. WILSON Logic M ij b, As touchyng wordes 
knitte, ye maie vnderstand. that they are ioyned outwardly 
to the Subiect, and geue a name vnto him, according as 
they are. 1697 tr. Burgersdii ins his Logic i. xix. 72 A Sub 
ject is that to which something is adjoyn d besides its Ka- 
sence. And an Adjunct that which is adjoyn d to something 
besides its Essence. 1838 [F. HAYVVOOD] tr. Kanfs Crit. 
Pure Reason Introd. iv. 10 Extending judgments. .add a 
predicate to the conception of the subject. 1843 MILL Logic 
i. ii. 5 IJy a subject is here meant any thing which pos 
sesses attributes. 1864 BOWEN Logic \. 5 The Concept., 
brings together many objects into one Thought or many 
attributes into one subject. 1883 F. H. BRADLEY Princ. 
Logic 14 We shall see that the subject is in the end no idea 
but always reality. 

b. The term or part of a proposition of which 
the predicate is affirmed or denied. 

Earlier treatises on logic use the L. subjectum. 

1620 T. GRANGER Div. Logike 178 The proposition hath 
two parts, the Subiect, and Predicate. 169? tr. Bnrgtrs~ 
didus his Logic \. xxvii. 109 Simple enunciation consisteth 
of a subject and a predicate. 1796 Nttsck s l- te-v Kanfs 
Princ. 128 Collections of properties, which in a judgment 
are made the predicates of a subject. 1843 MILL Logic i, i. 
2 The subject is the name denoting the person or thins 
which something is affirmed or denied of. 1870 JEVONS 
Elent, Logic\ \\. 62 Itis.. usual to call the firs* term of a pro 
position the subject, since it denotes the underlying matter. 

8. Gram. The member or part of a sentence 
denoting that concerning which something is pre 
dicated ij.e. of which a statement is made, a ques 
tion asked, or a desire expressed^ ; a word or 
group of words setting forth that which is spoken 
about and constituting the * nominative to a finite 
verb. 

In the accus. and infin. construction the accus. is the 
subject of the infin. 

a 1638 [see PREDICATE sb. 2]. 1733 J. CLARKE Grant. Lat. 
Tongue 63 note. The Nominative (Jase to a Verb, .is called 
by Grammarians the Subject of the Verb. 1751 J. H(AKRIS] 
Hermes \\. \. 230 In English these are distinguished by 
their Position, the Subject standing first, the Predicate last. 
1874 BAIN Contp. Higher Eng. Gram. (1877) p. xxiii, Infi 
nitive (logical subject) anticipated by* it , tlnV.&c. (formal 
subject) comes after the predicate. Ibid. 299 Cases where 
the grammatical subject is a neuter pronoun it \ this 
standing as a provisional anticipation of the real subject or 
fact predicated about. 1888 STRONG tr. Paul s Princ. Hist. 
Lang. 112 We have to distinguish between the psychological 
and the grammatical subject or predicate. 

9. Modern Philos. More fully conscious or think 
ing subject : The mind, as the * subject in which 
ideas inhere ; that to which all mental representa 
tions or operations are attributed; the thinking or 
cognizing agent ; the self or ego. (Correlative to 
OBJECT sb. 6.) 

The tendency in modern philosophy after Descartes to 
make the mind s consciousness of itself the starting point of 
enquiry led to the use of subjectum for the mind or ego 
considered as the subject of all knowledge, and since Kant 
this has become the general philosophical use of the word 
(with its derivatives sulycctivCi etc.). 

[The following quots, illustrate a transitional use: 

1682 RUST Disc. Truth xviii, Thus have we spoken con 
cerning the truth of things, or Truth in the Object : It follows 
that we speak concerning Truth in the power, or faculty, 
which we call Truth in the Subject. 1697 NORRIS Ace. 
Reason^ Faith \. (1724) 19, 1 consider . . that the most general 
distribution of Reason is into that of the Object and that of 
the Subject ; or, to word it more intelligibly, though perhaps 
not altogether so Scholastically, into that of the Thing, and 
that of the Understanding.] 

1796 Nitsch s View Kant s Princ. 72 In every knowledge, 
perception, &c., there is something which refers to an object, 
and something which refers to the knowing or perceiving 
subject. 1817 COLFRIDGR fffflf. Lit. xii. (1907) 1. 184 A spirit 
is. .an absolute subject for which all, itself included, may 
become an object. 1829 Edin. Rev. I* 196 note. The think 
ing subject, the Ego. 1838 [F. HAYWOOD) tr. Kant s Crit. 
Pure Reason 293 The thinking subject is the object of Psy 
chology. 1851 M ANSEL Proleg. Log. i. 7 Every stale of 



SUBJECT. 

consciousness necessarily implies two elements at least; a 
conscious subject, and an object of which he is conscious, 
1886 Encycl. Brit. XX. 397 1 The conception of a mind or 
conscious subject is to be found implicitly or explicitly in all 
psychological writers whatever, 

III. 10. The subject-matter of an art or science. 
1541 COPLAND Guydon s Quest. Cyrurg. B iij, Euery worke- 
man is bounde to knowe the subiect of his worke in whiche 
he worketh. 1563 FULKE Meteors I Whether we maye 
borowe y name of meteoron to comprehende the whole 
subiect of oure woorke. 1656 tr. Hoobes Elem. Philos. I. i. 
7 The Subject of Philosophy, or the matter it treats of, is 
every Body of which we can conceive any generation. 1728 



Art or science. . : i nus ine nnnmu *->uuy un uuuj<--i. ^ 
Medicine. 1875 JOWETT Plata (ed. 2) I. 4 All sciences have 
a subject, number is the subject of arithmetic. 1888 STRONG 
tr. Paul s Princ. Hist, Lang. I marg., Subject of the Science 
of Language. 

11. A thing affording matter for action of a speci 
fied kind ; a ground, motive, or cause. 

In some quots. a Gallicism. 

1586 Let. to Earle of Leicester 6 The very ground and 
onely subject, whereupon such daungerous practises and 
complots had been founded. 1651 tr. Dc-las-Coveras Dan 
Fcnise 115 Fenise asked him what subject he had to attempt 
against his life. 1651 LOVF.DAV tr. Calfrenede s Cassandra 
r. 15, I have my selfe as much or more subject to hate life 
than you. 1655 tr. Sorefs Com. Hist. Francion x. 10, I have 
subject enough to be angry with you. 1756 MRS. CALDER- 
WOOD in Coltness Collect. (Maitland Club) 129 That had 
anybody been inclined to laugh, they might have had a good 
subject. 1831 SCOTT Cast. Dang, ix, Which had never given 
the English government the least subject of complaint. 1843 
Penny Cycl. XXV11. 512/1 In such circumstances subjects 
of accusation are not long wanting. 1893 OMAN Dark Ages 
xx, We might perhaps have learnt that Charles also gave 
subjects for offence. 
b. Const, for. 

1598 SHAKS. Merry W. 11. i. 3 What, haue scap d Loue- 
letters in the holly-day-time of my beauty, and am I now 
a subiect for them? 1616 Marlowe s Faustus Wks. (1910) 
222 Let them come in, They are good subiect for a merri 
ment. 1780 Mirror No. 83 The great subject for wit and 
ludicrous representation arises from men s having a thorough 
knowledge of what is the fashionable standard of manners. 
1816 J. WILSON City of Plague in. iv, I am no subject for 
your mirth. 

O. That which can be drawn upon or utilized, 
means of doing something, rare. 

1751 HUME Ess. $ Treat. (1817) I. 263 Where they {sc. in 
dulgences] . . entrench upon no virtue, but leave ample subject 
whence to provide for friends, family, [etc.]. 

12. That which is or may be acted or operated 
upon ; a person or thing towards which action or 
influence is directed, or that is the recipient of some 
treatment. 

1392 SHAKS. Rom. % Jul. in. v. 212 Alacke, alacke, that 
heauen should practise stratagems Vpon so soft a subiect 
as my selfe. 1606 Tr. fy Cr. II. ii. 160 There s, .none so 
Noble, Whose life were ill bestow d, or death vnfam d, 
Where Helen is the subiect. ifiii TOURNEUR Ath. Trag. 
v. i, Nor could the first Man, being but the passiue Subiect 
not The Actiue Mouer, be the Maker of Himselfe. 1733 
Miss COLLIER Art Torment. \. i. (1811) 37 All the pleasure 
of tormenting is lost, as soon as your subject is become in 
sensible to your strokes. 1764 REID Inquiry i. i In the 
noblest arts, the mind is also the subject upon which we 
operate. 1777 PRIESTLEY Matter ff Sf. (1782) I. Pref. 33 
Power cannot mean anything without a subject. 1852 MRS. 
STOWE Uncle Tom s C. xx, She approached her new subject 
very much as a person might be supposed to approach a 
black spider. 1898 MORTIMER Cath. Faith Practice I. 
140 The subject of Baptism is any human being, whether an 
adult or an infant. 

b. Const, of v. specified action or activity. 
1591 SHAKS. i Hen. VI, iv. vi. 49 To be Shames scorne, 
and subiect of Mischance. 1605 Macb. in. iii. 8 And 
neere approches The subiect of our Watch. 1634 SIR T. 
HERBERT Tray. 117 [The Turks] haue made this Citie, a 
subiect of their bloudy cruelty. 1696 WHISTON Th. Earth 
87 Not the vast Universe, but the Earth alone, with its 
dependencies, are the proper subject of the Six Days 
Creation. 1711 STEELE Sfect. No. 53 T 2 The Triumph 
of Daphne over her Sister Letitia has been the Subject of 
Conversation at Several Tea-Tables. 1796 ELIZA HAMILTON 
Lett. Hindoo Rajah (1811! I. 204 The many subjects of 
wonder with which a stranger is surrounded. 1823 SCOTT 
Quentin D. xix, The huge wains, which transported to and 
fro the subjects of export and import. 1831 Cast. Dang, 
vi. The most bold and fierce subjects of chase in the island 
of Britain. 1847 HELPS Friends in C. I. v. 73 Proficiency 
in any one subject of human endeavour. 1855 BAIN Senses 
ft Int. II. ii. 45. 537, I may here refer to what is a common 
subject of remark. 1883 GILMOUR Mongols xvii. 207 Such., 
difficulties, .are welcomed rather as subjects of debate than 
felt to be barriers to the acceptance of Christianity. 

f C. One who or a thing which is subject to some 
thing injurious. Obs. 

1592 MARLOWE Mass. Paris 222 [They will] rather seeke 
to scourge their enemies, Than be themselues base subiects 
to the whip. 1597 SHAKS. 2 Hen. IV, I. iii. 61 Who..leaues 
his part-created Cost [viz. a half-built house] A naked subiect 
to the Weeping Clouds. 

d. An object with which a person s occupation 
or business is concerned or on which he exercises 
his craft ; f (one s) business ; that which is operated 
upon manually or mechanically. 

[1541 COPLAND Guydon s Quest. Cyrurg. B iij, Yf it so be 
that the subiecte of the Cyrurgyen be the body of men- 
kynde.] 1766 W. GORDON Gen. Counting-he. 102 Waste- 
book, containing an Inventory of my Subject. 1828 STEUART 
Planter s Guide (ed. 2) 267 The above Machine . . is capable 
of removing subjects of from eighteen to about eight-and. 
twenty feet high. 1837 KEITH Bat. Lex. 22 The bark... In 



22 

young subjects it is of a flexible and leathery texture. 1887 
Pall Mall Gaz. 6 July 2/2 You must consider the capital 
we have to sink in our subjects [sc. of a menagerie] when 
you calculate our expenses. 

e. A body used lor anatomical examination or 
demonstration; a dead body intended for or under 
going dissection. 

\TioPhil. Trans. XXVII. 71 In our Subject the Hairs 
are every where pretty long. 1729 Ibid. XXXVI. 167 This 
Subject., had her Lungs full of small Tubercles. 1775 Tna 
Patriot IX. 330 The gentleman of the house [a surgeon] 
declared he had a very good subject above in the garret. 
1829 SCOTT jfrnl. II. 219 The total and severe exclusion of 
foreign supplies raises the price of the subjects . 1870 H. 
LONSDALE Root. Knox 54 The supply of subjects was so 
inadequate, that the surgeons apprentices, .determined 
upon the., step of procuring them from the graveyards, 

f. A person who presents himself for or under 
goes medical or surgical treatment ; hence, one 
who is affected with some disease. 

A good (bad) subject : a patient who has (has not) good 
prospects of improvement or recovery. 

1822-34 Good s Study Med. (ed. 4) III. 485 The subject 
was forty-five years of age, and had evinced a slight rha. 
chitic tendency from infancy. 1849 CUPPLES Green Hand 
xv, I asked if there wasn t any chance [of the captain s 
recovery]. Oh, the captain, you mean? said he, don t 
think there is he s a bad subject! 1859 Toda"s Cycl. 
Anat. V. 178/2 Two of the subjects died after severe instru 
mental labour. 1898 H. BROWN Secret Gd. Health 91 
Smoking helps the subject to rest. 1898 Alltutt s Syst. 
Med. V. 276 A broad line of dilated venules is often seen in 
emphysematous subjects. 1905 ROLLESTON Dis. Liver 260 
Patients with cirrhosis are.. far from good subjects, 

g. Psychical Research. A person upon whom an 
experiment is made. 

1883 Proc. Sac. Psych. Research 18 July 251 A specific 
influence or effluence, passing from the operator to the 
subject . 1886 GURNEV, etc. Phantasms of Living \. 16 
The subject s hand seemed to obey the other person s will 
with almost the same directness as that person s own hand 
would have done. . . 

h. A person under the influence of religious 
enthusiasm, rare. 

1820 SOUTHEY Wesley I. 417 Subjects began to cry out, 
and sink down in the meeting. 

i. With epithet : A person in respect of his 
conduct or character, rare. 

Cf. F. tnaitvais sujet. 

1848 DICKKNS Dombey xxxix, Unable, .to satisfy his mind 
whether Mr. Toots was the mild subject he appeared to be. 

13. In a specialized sense: That which forms 
or is chosen as the matter of thought, considera 
tion, or inquiry ; a topic, theme. 

The human subject : man, regarded as a matter for study 
or observation. 

1586 B. YOUNG Guazzo s Civ. Cam. iv. 208 Now that Lorde 
Hercules hathe geuen occasion to talke of this subiecte. 
1667 Decay Chr. Piety 346 Here he would have us.. fix our 
thoughts and studies: Nor need we fear that they are too 
dry a subject for our contemplation, a 1700 EVELYN Diary 
13 June 1683, We shew d him divers experiments on the 
magnet, on which subject the Society were upon. 1729 
BUTLER Serin. Wks. 1874 II. 51 Justice must be_done to 
every part of a subject when we are considering it. 1780 
Mirror No. 89 As for politics, it was a subject far beyond 



SUBJECT. 

Book was writ of late call d Teirachordon ; . . The Subject 
new. 1667 P. L. IX. 25 Since first this Subject for 
Heroic Song Pleas d me long choosing. 1780 Mirror No. 85 
A poem maybe possessed of very considerable merit,.. 
though, from its subject, its length, or the manner in which 
it is written, it may not be suited to the Mirror. 1835 T. 
MITCHELL Acharn. Aristofh. 365 note, All of them subjects 
dramatized by Euripides. 1844 WHEWELL Let. to J.^G. 
Marshall 29 Jan., The subject of my lectures is the diffi. 
culties of constructing a system of morals. 1903 A. B. 
DAVIDSON Old Test. Prophecy ix. 136 The developments of 
heathenism form the subject of Daniel. 

b. The person of whom a biography is written. 
1741 MIDDLETON Cicero I. Pref. p. xv, They [sc. writers of 
particular lives] are apt to be partial and prejudiced in favor 
of their subject. 1791 BOSWEI.L Johnson Adv. ist ed., The 
delay of its publication must be imputed.. to the extraordi 
nary zeal which has been shewn . . to supply me with ad 
ditional information concerning its illustrious subject. 1885 
Pall Mall Gaz. 18 Feb. 5/2 We think we like the book best 
because of the view it gives of the subject s character. 

15. An object, a figure or group of figures, a 
scene, an incident, etc., chosen by an artist for 
representation. 

1614 in Archacologia XL1I. 360 Another, .picture of the 
same subject. 1695 DRYDEN tr. Dufresnay s A rt Paint, ii 
The next thing is to make choice of a Subject beautifull 
and noble, c 1790 IMISON Sch. Arts II. 55 The subject to 
be painted should be situated in such a manner that the 
light may fall with every advantage on the face. 1859 ?.iEVE 
Brittany 13, I was looking round the little knot of soldiers 
for a subject. 1872 RUSKIN Eagle s Nest 163 You must 
always draw for the sake of your subject never for the 
sake of your picture. 1893 J. A. HODGES Elem. Photogr. 
112 If the subject is so shaky as to render it impossible to 
take the portrait without its [sc. a headrest s] aid. 

b. In decorative art, a representation of human 
figures or animals, an action or incident. 

1828 DUPPA Trav. Italy, etc. 14 Ten compartments filled 
with subjects from the Old Testament. 1867 Paris Exhib.. 
Rep. Artisans Soc. Arts 27 A pair of vases painted all 
round with subjects after Watteau. 

16. Mus. The theme or principal phrase of a 
composition or movement ; in a fugue, the ex 
position, dux, or proposition. 

1753 Chambers Cycl. Suppl. s.v. Sogetto, Contrafunta 
sopra il sogetto, a counterpoint above the subject, is that 
of which the subject is the bass. 1801 BUSBY Diet. Mus., 
Subject, the theme or text of any movement. 1883 ROCKSTRO 
in Grove s Diet. Mus. III. 747/2 The earliest known form 
of Subject is the Ecclesiastical Cantus firmus. 1898 G. B. 
SHAW Perf \Vagnerite sin classical music there are, as the 
analytical programs tell us, first subjects and second subjects, 
free fantasias, recapitulations, and codas. 

f 17. That upon which something stands; a base. 
Obs. 



MiTFORDin L Estrange:y<r(i87o)II.xi. 247 History never 
will sell so well as more familiar and smaller subjects. 1837 
DISRAELI Venetia ll. i, Her father had become a forbidden 
subject. 1872 MORLRY Voltaire (1886) 9/9 He always paid 
religion respect enough to treat it as the most important of 
all subjects. 1874 CARPENTER Mental Phys. i. ii. (1879) 70 
The phenomena presented by the Human subject. 1902 
VIOLET JACOB Shttp-Stealers yiii, The Pig-driver seated 
himself beside him and plunged immediately into his subject. 

b. With appositional phr. formed with of and 
expressing the nature of the subject. 

1724 SWIFT Drafter s Lett. Wks. 1841 II. 34/1 In examin 
ing what I have already written, .upon the subject of 
Mr. Wood. 1733 Prts. St. Popery 21 The late exceptions 
of a certain Lincolnshire minister on the subject of infalli 
bility. 1765 Museum Rust. IV. 294 The subject of grasses 
is very nice. 1816 SCOTT Old Mart, xxxviii, After quoting 
Delrio, and Burthoog, and De L Ancre, on the subject of 
apparitions. 1839 FR. A. KE.MBLE Resid. Georgia (1863) 35 
The indifference of our former manager upon the subject of 
the accommodation for the sick. 

c. On one s subject ( = F. sur son sujet) : con 
cerning one. (A Gallicism.) 

1747 CHESTERF. Lett, cxviii, Two letters, which I have 
lately seen from Lausanne, upon your subject. 1775 W. 
MASON Life of Gray (ed. 2) 3 To make it necessary I should 
enlarge upon his subject. 

d. An object of study in relation to its use for 
pedagogic or examining purposes ; a particular 
department of art or science in which one is in 
structed or examined. 

1843 Penny Cycl. XXVI. 29/1 An examination for honours 
in each subject is held subsequently. 1887 Whitaker s A Im. 
540 If an officer only pass in the subjects necessary for a 
subaltern. 1913 Kef. fill Ann. Mtg. Hist. Assoc. 8 Every 
man who teaches a subject well and with real enthusiasm. 

14. The theme of a literary composition ; what 
a book, poem, etc. is about. 

a 1586 SIDNEY Ps. civ. i, Make, O my soule, the subject 
of thy songe, Th eternall Lord. 1596 WARNER Alb. Eng. 
x Ix. (1602) 266 Though stately be the subiect, and too 
slender be our Arte. 1638 BAKER tr. Balzac s Lett. (vol. II) 
72, I did not think to have gone so far; it is the subject 
that hath carried me away. <. 1645 MILTON Sonx. xl, A 



. 

1592 R. D. Hyfnerotomachia 12 The Pajgma base or sub 
iect for this metaline machine to stand vpon, was of one 
solyde peece of marble. 

IV. 18. attrib. and Comb., as (sense 8) subject 
noun, (also 7 b) part, (sense 14, chiefly with refer 
ence to cataloguing books according to their sub 
jects) subject catalogue, index, list, reference; sub 
ject-monger, one whoexploitshissubjects; subject 
picture, a genre painting. 

1889 WHEATLEY HO-.V to Catal. Libr. 232 If he wants to 
find a manuscript upon a particular subject, he can look at 
the subject catalogue. 1899 QUINN Libr. Catal. 71 The 



Science [etc. 1 . 1630 LENNARD tr. Charron s U- isd. in. iii. 
12 (1670) 363 A Prince must carefully preserve himse|f. . 
from resembling, by over-great and excessive imposition, 



the subject-monger. 1862 E. ADAMS Elem. Eng. Lang. 
(1870) 158 When the "subject noun is accompanied by 
qualifying or explanatory words, it is said to be enlarged. 
1628 T. SPENCER Logick 21 The first substance, or "subiect 
part of every sentence. Ibid. 255 The antecedent, or sub 
iect part of the conclusion. 1862 THORNBURY Turner^ I. 257 
His first "subject picture was Fishermen at Sea , 1796. 



eluded in the general alphabet. 
Subject (szvbjekt), a. Forms : a. 4 sug v g)ette, 
sougit, sujet, 4-5 suget(t, sogett(e, 4-6 soget, 
5 sugget, soiet. /3. 4 soubgit, subiet, 4-5 
subgit, 5 subgyt, -gett, subiette, subyett, 5-6 
subgette, 4-6 subget. 7. 4-6 subiect, 5 sub- 
yect, -iecht, 5-6 iecte, 6 -geote, -jecte, 6- 
subjeot. [a. OF. suget, subject ( 1 2th c. ), sog(i)et, 
sougit, subg(f]et (I3th c.), mod.F. sujet (from 
i6th c.), repr. L. subject-us, pa. pple. oi subiclre, 
subjicfre, f. sub- SUB- 3 + jacere to throw, cast. 

Examples like the following are freq. in ME., where the 
word should prob. be construed as inflected adj., though 
formally indistinguishable from pi. sb. : 

c 1350 Will. Palfrne 463 Min eijen sorly aren sogettes to 
serue min hert & buxum ben to his bidding. 1382 WYCLIF 
i Cor. xv. 27 Whanne he seith, alle thingis ben sugetis to 
him. c 1386 CHAUCF.R Pars. T. P 634 Seint Paul seith O ye 
wommen, be ye subgetes to youre lipusbondes. 1456 SIR G. 
HAYE Law Arms (S.T.S.) 106 Thai realmes be nocht sub- 
jectes to the empire.] 

I. 1. That is under the dominion or rule of a 
sovereign, or a conquering or ruling power ; owing 
allegiance or obedience to a sovereign ruler or 
state, a temporal or spiritual lord, or other superior. 



SUBJECT. 



SUBJECT. 



(a) in predicative position. 

a. 1330 R. BnuNNEC/fr0. Wace (Rolls) 14842 pe Englys 
were nought of o wyl O kyng ouer t>em to set, Ne for to be 
til on suget. c 1380 WVCLIF Wks. (1880) 44 And freris bat 
ben soget owen to benke bat for god bei ban forsaken here 
owen willes. 1387 TREVISA Higden (Rolls) II. 59 Al West 
Saxon was soget to hym. Ibid. 123 To bat see is sugett 
Barokschire, YViltschire, and Dorsett. c 1450 Mirk s Festial 
22 All be world was suget to be Emperour of Rome. 

0. 1390 GOWER Conf. I. 26 Therwhiles that the Monarchic 
Of al the world in that partie To Babiloyne was soubglt. 
c 1425 Engl. Cong. Irel. 26 per was noght of be lond-folke 
bat all nas subyett to hym. 1456 SIR G. HAVE Law Arms 
(S.T.S.) 218 Here speris the doctour, quhethir the king of 
Ingland be suget to the Emperour.., I ansuere . . that thai 
ar nocht subget to the Empire. 1471 CAXTON Recnycll 
(Sommer) 509 Pannonye was subgette vnto kyng pryant. 
c 1511 ist Engl. Bk. Amer. (Arb.) Introd. p. xxxiv/a All these 
be subgette to the great kynge of Israhel. 

y. c 1386 CHAUCER Clerk s T. 426 To been subiect, & been 
in seruage To the bat born art of a smal village, c 1400 
Destr. Troy 5507 Dukes full doughty.. pat subiect were 
sothely to be same Perses. 1515 BARCLAY Eg?ogcs\v. (1570) 
Civ, What time a knight is subiect toaknaue. 1600 J. PORY 
tr. Leo s Africa, vi. 265 All round about are subiect vnto the 
King of Tunis. 1662 J. DAVIES tr. Olearius* Voy. Ambass. 
36 The Island was subject to the King of Denmark. 1842 
W, C. TAYLOR Anc, Hist, xviii. (ed. 3) 573 The empire of 
India became subject to that of Persia. 1863 MARY HOWITT 
tr. Brewer s Greece I. vi. 161 The freest of all the states of 
the earth became subject to a despot. 

() in attributive position. (Sometimes hyphened 
as if subject were regarded as the sb, used altrib.) 

Subject superior: see SUPERIOR sb. 

1581 A. HALL Iliad i. n Many a subiect towne of his. 
a 1586 SIR P. SIDNEY Arccuiia (1912) 246 He was not borne 
to live a subject-life, each action of his bearing in it Majestic. 
1504^ Selimus 8cK> iMalone Soc.), As if tVere lawfull for a 
subiect prince To rise in Armes gainst his soueraigne. 1595 
SHAKS. Jokn iv. ii. 171 O, let me haue no subiect enemies. 
1690 LOCKE Hum. Und, iv. iii. 20 The Subject part of 
Mankind . . might . . with Egyptian Bondage expect Egyptian 
Darkness. 1781 GIBBON DfCt, fy F. II. 5 note, The names of 
his subject-nations. 1793 S. ROGERS Pleas. Mem. i. 180 As 
studious Prospero s mysterious spell Drew every subject- 
spirit to his cell. i8oj PINKERTON Mod. Geog. I. 309 Russia 
in Europe, . . Poland has been devoured ; Denmark and 
Sweden may be considered as subject-allies. aiSsgMACAULAY 
Hist, Eng, xxv. V. 296 The Court which had dared to treat 
England as a subject province. 1871 MORLEY Carlyle in 
Crit. Misc. 197 The relations between.. governing race and 
subject race. 

b. to a law, a jurisdiction. 

1387 TREVISA Higden (Rolls) II. 391 Firste he sente 
messagers and heet his enemyes be soget to his lawe. c 1450 
LOVELICH Grail xltv. 25 And bat to ^oure lawe no more 
soiet bat B e be> but Only to the lawe Of Cristyente. 1490 
CAXTON Kneydos viii. 34 Alle subgette and obeyssaunt vnto 
the lawes of her seygnorye. 1580 Rot. Scacc. Reg* Scot. 
XXI. 548 Alexander is nocht subject to the jurisdiction!! of 
the saidis commissaris. 1690 LOCKE Govt. u. viii, To make 
him subject to the Laws of any Government. 

2. transf. and fig. In a state of subjection or 
dependence ; under the control, rule, or influence 
of something; subordinate. 
(a) in predicative position. 

a. (11340 HAMPOLE Psalter xxxvi, 6 Be suget till lord, 
and pray hym. 1340 Pr. Consc. 1055 pe mare world. . 
suld be til man suggette, For to serve man. 1350 Will. 
Palerne 473 My sijt is soj;et to my hert. c 1380 WYCLIF 
Serm. Set. Wks. I. 45 t?ei wolden bat al bis world were 
suget unto b er sect. 1383 Luke ii. 51 He cam doun with 
hem. .and was suget to hem. c 1430 Hymns Virgin (1867) 
71 Deeb is sugett to god to bende. c 1530 Crt. Love 1131 
Us leffer were with Venus byden still, . . and soget been Unto 
thise women. 

ft. c 1374 CHAUCER Troylus 1.231 He. .waxsodeynly most 
subget vn to loue. ^1375 Sc. Leg. Stifntsxv ni. (Egipciant) 
34 His flesche sa dayntyt he had, ba to b e saule subiet he 
It mad. 1407 LYDG. Reson <V Sens. 6133 For crafte ys 
subget yn-to kynde. 1474 CAXTON Chesse n. iii. (1883) 37 
A man is subgett vnto money may not be lord therof. 

7. ci4oo Destr. Troy 1846 As subiecte vnto syn. 1508 
FISHER 7 Penit. Ps. Wks. (1876) 48 The woman is subgecte 
to the man. 1538 STARKEY England i. i. 12 [Man] lord of 
al other bestys and creaturys, applying them al vnto hys 
vse, for al be vnto hym subiecte. a 1715 BURNET Oitm Time 
i. (1724) I. 46 The military power ought always to be subject 
to the civil. 1733 WATKRLAND -2nd Vind, Christ s Dt z>. 38 
Christ, since his Incarnation, has been subject to the Father. 
1841 HELPS Ess. Pratt. Wisd. (1875) 5 Imagination, if it be 
subject to reason, is its slave of the lamp . 1847 YEOWELL 
Anc. Brit. Ch. iii. 24 Parts of Britain, inaccessible to the 
Romans, but subject to Christ. 1864 TKSSVSOM Ayhner s 
Field 71 Edith, whose pensive beauty, perfect else, But sub 
ject to the season or the mood. 
() in attributive position. 

1817 [TENNYSON] foetus Two Bra. (1893) 32 A subject worl^ 
I lost for thee, For thou wert all my world to me. 1837 
CARLYLE Fr. Rev. I. iv. iv, Upholstery , aided by the subject 
fine-arts, has done its best. 1873 JOWETT Plato (ed. 2) III. 
56 The virtue of temperance is the friendship of the ruling 
and the subject-principle. 

b. to the power, law, command, etc. of another. 
c 1386 CHAUCER Pars. T. r 1045 Alwey a man shal putten 

his wyl to be subget to the wille of god. c 1400 tr. Seer. 
Secr.> Gffv. Lordsk. 55 pat he ys subgyt to be hegh myght 
of god. c 1450 tr. De Iinitatione \\. xii. 58 pe worlde & be 
flesshe shul be made suget to bi comaundement. 1590 
SPENSER F. Q. m. vi. 40 All that Hues, is subiect to that 
law. 1736 BUTLER Anal. i. v. Wks. 1874 I. 96 These affec 
tions are naturally . . subject to the government of the moral 
principle. 1819 SCOTT Ivanhoe xxiv, Thou art the captive 
of my bow and spear subject to my will by the laws of all 
nations. 1876 BLACK Madcap Violet xv, He would no 
longer be subject to the caprice of any woman. 

c. Under obligation, bound to. rare. 



1585 T. WASHINGTON tr. NicJiolay s Voy. HI. vij. So b, 
[They] are not subiect as the other are to watch or ward, nor 
goe vnto the Sarail. 1788 PRIESTLY Lect. Hist. Ixiii. v. 504 
He knows that if ever he be subject to pay, he will be pro- 
portionably able to do it. 

t d. occas. uses : of a domestic animal ; of a 
subordinate member of a series. Obs. 

1633 T. ADAMS Exp. 2 Peter ii. 4 The first subject beast 
he [sc, a lion] met withall was an Asse. 1711 SHAFTKSB. 
Charac. III. 284 Had the Author of our Subject-Treatises 
consider d thorowly of these literate Affairs. 

f 3. To make, bring subject : to bring into sub 
jection or submission ; to subdue, subjugate. Obs. 

1382 WYCLIF i Cor. xv. 26 He hath maad suget alle thingis 
vndir his feet. 1387 TREVISA Higden (Rolls) I. 277 Franci . . 
made alle be lond spgett, (from Sicambria anon to be Ryne. 
c 1440 Gesta Rent. Iii. 232 Now he is takyn, & made soget to 
his Enmyes, & bou art free. 1500-20 DuHBAK / wmr Ixxxiv. 
44 Suppois my sensualltie Subiect to syn hes maid my saull 
ofsyss. 1561 ! . NORTON Calvin s Inst. 1. 17 No man could then 
gessethat there should be any such Cyrus, .that should bring 
subiect so mightie a monarchic vnder his dominion. 1587 
HoLntSOKD ffist.Sc0t. 258/1 Not ceassingtill he had brought 
the Welshmen subiect at his pleasure. 1643 BURROUGHES 
Exp. ist 3 ch. Host o. iv. 294 Conscience, .is here mad*-- 
subject to low and vile things. 

t 4. Submissive ; obedient. Obs. 

1390 GOWER Conf. III. 52 His w if was such as sche be 
scholde, His poeple was to him sou^it. c 1400 Apol. Loll. 
42 To be mek and suget, and seruiciable, obedient and 
buxum to ilk man. 474 CAXTON Chesse it. v. (1883) 61 The 
peple. .ryse agayn theyr lord and wole not be subget. 1508 
DllNHAK Tua Marti t IVemcn 327 Quhen I him saw subiect, 
and sett at myn bydding. 1601 R. JOHNSON* Kingd. \ 
Commw. (1603) 164 The Moscovite [hath] more subjectes and 
more subject ; the Polonian better soldiers and more 
couragious. 

tb. transf. Easily managed. Obs. rare. 

1619 Times Storehouse 690 [Rings] are.. so subiect and 
light, that they may be worne on the least finger of the hand. 
II. (Const, to.} 6. Exposed or open to ; prone to 
or liable to suffer from something damaging, dele 
terious, or disadvantageous. 

c 1374 CHAUCER Boeih. m. pr. ii. (1868) 67 It nedib nat to 
seie f>at blisfulnesse be angutssous ne dreri ne subgit to 
greuances ne to sorwes [orig. dolor ibus molestihque subjec- 
tam\. 1388 WYCLIF Eccles. iii. 20 Alle thingis ben suget to 
vanyte [orig. cuncta subjacent vanitati]. c 1450 Myrr. our 
Ladye 191 He that was vndedly was made subget todethe. 
1560 DAI S tr. Sleidane s Comm. 421 Therfore is he subjecte 
[orig. objectum} unto great perilles and daungers. 1671 
MILTON P. R, n. 471 Subject himself to Anarchy within. 
i68a DKVDEN MacFl. i All humane things are subject to 
decay, a 1700 EVELYN Diary 24 Mar. 1672, Lord ! what 
miseries are mortal men subject to. i748HiLL///Vj*. Fossils 
346 It is of a very impure, irregular, and somewhat coarse 
texture, but not subject to spots or clouds. 1760 R. BROUN 
Compl. Farmer n. 28 These lands are very subject to worms. 
1849 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. vii. II. 233 The disabilities to 
which the Roman Catholics were subject. 1911 SELBIE 
Konconf. xii. 225 Here and there. . Nonconformists will still 
often be subject to certain social disadvantages. 

b. Exposed to violent treatment, damaging 
weather, or the like. 

1490 CAXTON Eneydos i. ii To that other she gyueth to 
be subgette to the face of the ryght blody swerde. 1585 
T. WASHINGTON tr. Nicholay s Voy. iv. xxin. 139 The citye 
..is Very subiect vnto windes & Earthquakes. 1604 K. 
G[RIMSTONE] tr. D"Acostci s Hist. Indies n. x. 103 This 
Region is very moist and subiect to raine. 1615 G. SANDYS 
Trav. 48 The Sultans themselves have bene sometimes 
subject to their insolencies. 1631 GOUGE Gtufs Arrows 
m. 6. 192 Gods true Church is subject to assaults in this 
world. 1716 IsKowAH erti s Archit. I. 7 The Isleof Lemnos 
..being very subject to Lightning. 1768 J. BYRON Narr. 
Wager (1778) 229 It is much too high built for a country so 
subject to earthquakes. 1833 HT. MARTINEAU TaleofTyne 
vi, Naval seamen are . . made subject to violence. 1853 
NEWMAN Hist. ..(1876) 1. 1. ii. 6^ The sands of the adjacent 
deserts, .are subject to violent agitation from the action of 
the wind. 

C. Liable (o disease. 

1577 GOOGE tr. HeresbacKs Husb. 28 The stalke [of rye] 
..his eare hanging downewardes, and therefore more sub 
iect to blasting. 1600 J. PORY tr. Leo s Africa viii. 299 
Some of the Egyptians are subiect vnto dangerous rheumes 
and feuers. 1663 GKRBiKRCf unsel3$ The hording otherwayes 
is much subject to rott. 1756 C. LUCAS Ess. waters I. 207 
The more compound the water . . the more subject will 
the patients be to fevers. 1863 N. Brit. Rev. May 375 The 
leaf and chaff of the cereals are subject to a disease called 
rust. 1879 FROUDEO-jar xxviii. 483 He became subject to 
epileptic fits. 

6. Liable to the incidence or recurrence of an 
action, process, or state. 

1559 W. CUNNINGHAM Cosmogr. Glassegj That the super- 
celestiall bodies are subiect to alteration. 1577 St. Aug. 
Manual O vj b, Thou art not disseuered by places, nor 
altered by tymes, nor subiect vnto to & fro. 1598 SHAKS. 
Merry lv. in. v. 117 A man of my Kidney, .that am as subiect 
to heate as butter. 16*3 B. JONSON Staple of Newt n. 
Interm. 33 Is there nothing to be call d Infanta, but what is 
subiect to exception? 1710 ADDISON Taller No. 192 F 5 A 
kind of good Nature, that is not subject to any Change of 
Health. 177* PRIESTLEY Inst. Relig. (17821 I. Ded. 2 We 
are subject to successive impressions. 1817 JAS. MILL Brit. 
India II. v. ix. 715 The parties were rendered subject to 
personal examination upon oath. 1833 BREWSTRH Nat. 
Magic v. 120 The nose . is more subject to change of per 
spective than any of the other features. 1855 FORBES Gram. 
Hind. Lang. 100 Accompanied by an adjective or pronoun 
subject to inflection. 1879 in CassflFs Teckn. Educ. IV. 
96/1 He discovered that plants were subject to a regular 
sleep at night like animals. 

b. Rook-trade, (tllipt.} Subject to discount. 

1906 Daily Tel. ia Oct. 10 What in the trade are known as 



subject-books .. books that is to say which are subject to 
discount. 

1 7. Having a tendency, prone or disposed, to an 
action, or to do something. Obs. 

c 1590 MoNT<;OMEKiE SoHH. xxv. 5 Syn I am subject som- 
tyme to be seik. 1595 SHAKS. Jokn in. i. 14 A widdow, 
husbandles, subiect to feares. 1397 2 lien. IV t m. ii. 
325 How subiect wee old men are to this vice of Lyinj;? 
a 1625 BOYS ll- ks. (1630) 751 Toll-gatherers, as being sub 
ject to many foule extortions and oppressions. 1643111 AY/. 
Hist. MSS. Comm. Var. Coll. IV. 286 Nert any bowses or 
other materialls which are subiect to take fyer. 1666-7 
PEPYS Diary 20 Feb., How mean a thing a king is, how 
subject to fall. 1683 Moxox McJi. Exere.> Printing xxiv. 
? ii The Inck would be subject to run off. 1721 UKADLKY 
Fkilos. Ace. ll ks. \at. 95 The smaller Kinds of Animals, 
and such as are subject to be destroyed, encrea^e more 
plentifully. 1759 R. I ROWN Comp. Farmer 52 Some young 
sows, .are subject to eat their pigs. 1793 SMEATON Edystsm 
L. 170 Any thing being in the way.. would be subject 
to hitch upon the stone. 

j* 8. That may be brought under the operation 
of a faculty or sense. Obs. 

1591 HARINGTON Orl. Fur. Pref., The holy scriptures.. 
are.. not subiect to euerie weake capacitie. 1610 SHAKS. 
Temp. i. ii. 301 Be subiect to no sight but thine, and mine. 
1611 TOUKNEUR At/i. Trag. \u.\, I feele a substance warme, 
Subiect to the Capacilie of sense. 1620 T. IIKANGKR Di~ . 
Logike 41 The formes of artificial! things are subiect to our 
sence. 1667 DAVENANT & DKYDKN Tempest v. iii. (1674)80 
They are Spirits, with which the Air abounds . . but that tln- y 
are not subject To poor feeble mortal Eyes. 1668 CITPEITKR 
& COLE Barthol, Ana!, i. xxii. 55 Scrotum or Scortum, 
hanging out like a purse or bag, and subject to the touch. 

9. Dependent upon a certain correcting or 
modifying condition ; conditional upon ; resting 
upon the assumption of. Freq. advb., condition 
ally upon, with the assumption of. 

183* HT. MARTINKAU Ireland v. 77 She wrote to her 
husband s dictation, subject to the suggestions of liis com 
panions. 1844 DISRAKLI Coningsby ix. vii, Subject to an 
ample annuity to Villtbecque, she bequeathed the whole of 
her fortune to the husband of Edith. 1883 La~v Times 
10 Nov. 21/2 All other business should be transacted by 
single judges subject to appeal. 1890 Law Times Rep, 
LXIII. 734/1 His power to intitule criminal proceedings is 
subject to the conditions imposed by sect. 2 of that Act 

III. 10. Lying in the neighbourhood below a 
certain level, as that of a spectator ; subjacent. 
Obs. or arch. 

I 43 2 "5 tr. Higden (Rolls) I. 143 The region Hircany 
hathe on the este parte to hit the see of Ca,spy,..on the 
weste Hiberia, beenge subiecte to Caucasus. 1585 T. WASH 
INGTON tr. Nicftolay s I oy. i. xvi. 17 This Iiourg..is enu ironed 
with great hilles, vnto which of all sides it is subject. 1590 
SPENSER F. Q. I. xi. 19 Long he them bore aboue the subiect 
plaine. Ibid. in. vii. 4 A little valley, subiect to the same. 
1695 BLACKMORE Pr. Artk. vi. 14 They.. all around the 
Subject Ocean vie w d. 1795 SOUTHEY Joan of Arc\. (1853) 
52 As o er the subject tandskip round I gazed. 1815 
AGRESTIS* Feudal Hall xxii, The Baron s iron reign 
O erawed, for leagues, the subject plain. 

f-b. Lying immediately below, underlying. Obs. 

1578 BANISTER Hist. Man iv. 56 The viij Muscles uf 
Abdomen, .are propugnacles, and defences to the subiect 
partes. 1667 Phil. Trans. II. 497, I suppose, several sub 
ject Earths, Currents and Winds do vary it [phosphorescence 
of the sea]. 

t c. Laid open so as to be evident. Obs. rare. 

1556 R. ROBINSON tr. A fore s Utopia S iv, So finely set 
furth..and so euidently subiect to the eye. 

1 11. Forming the substratum or substance. 
Chiefly in matter subject =^ SUBJECT-MATTER. Obs. 

c 1374 [see MATTER sb. 1 6], 1586 T. B. La Primand. Fr. 
Actifi. 1. 162 Aristotle saith, that nature in one respect is said 
to be the first and chiefe matter subject of every thing that 
hath being. Ibid. 441 Looke out some matter subject, apt, 
and fit to recreate our spirits withall. Ibid. 28 [see MATTKR 
so. 1 9]. 1600 J. POKY tr. Leo s Africa n. 70 H an ing made 
sufficient digression, let us resume the matter subject where 
we left. 1609 [see MATTER sb\ 6]. 1744 H.BROOKE Love ft 
Vanity 156 And let her form be what you will, I am the 
subject essence still 

Subject (scbd^e kt), v. Forms: 4 auget(t)e, 
soget;t)o, sochete ; 4-7 subiect^e, 6 Sc. subgek, 
pa. t. and pph. subie( v c)kit, 6- subject, [ad. 
OF. subjecter^ -gtcter, -getter^ or L. subjcctarc, 
frequent, f. sub(j}ic/re t subject- (see prec.) ; cf. It. 
soggettare, suggettare, Sp. sujetar, sitbjetar, Pg. 
$ujeitar. Some of the early Eng. forms are assi 
milated to the a-forms of the sb. and adj.] 

1. trans. To make (persons, a nation or country) 
subject to a conquering or sovereign power; to 
bring into subjection to a superior ; to subjugate. 
Also reft. Obs. or arch. 

138* WYCLIF a Chron, xxviii. 10 (MS. Douce 370) The 
sonisof luda and of Jerusalem jee wiln subjecten to v>u 
seruauntis and hond wymmen. 1387 TREVISA Higden 
(Rolls) VII. IOQ pe forseide Harolde, kyng of Norway., 
subjectid unto hym Denmark, c 1460 in Maitl. Club Misc. 
III. (1855) 38 Efter that theRomams subjectit the Britones. 
1530 PALSCR. 742/1 They be nowe subjected totheemperour. 
>S65 Keg. Privy Council Scot. I. 362 Doand that in thame 
lyis to subject the haill stait of the commoun weill. 1601 
R. JOHNSOS Kingd. <f- Commw. (1603) 162 Some of them 
haue subjected themselues to this crowne. 1651 HOBBES 
Le^ iathan n. xix. 95 Men. .consequently may subject them 
selves, if they think good, to a Monarch. 1667 MILTON P. L. 
xii. 93 God in Judgement just Subjects him from without 
to violent Lords. "734 tr. Rollin s Anc. Hist. (1827) I. 
Pref. i The Medes and Persians who were themselves sub 
jected by the Macedonians. 



SUBJECT. 

b. to the rnle, government, power, or service of 
a superior. 

1552 ABP. HAMILTON Catech. (1884) 3 All subjeckit to the 
service of ane lord. 1556 LAUDF.R Tractate of Kyngis 362 
How thay suld Instruct thare floke That ar subiectit to thare 
;oke. a 1661 FULLER Worthies, Derbyshire (1662) i. 233 A 
meek, .man, much beloved of such who were subjected to his 
jurisdiction. 1693 DRYDEN Last Parting of Hector <y 
Androm. 125, I see thee, in that fatal Hour, Subjected to 
the Victor s cruel Pow r. a 1700 EVELYN Diary Sept. 1646, 
Should the Swisse..he subjected to the rule of France or 
Spaine. 1835 THlKl.WAU.Crvii. I. 272 Phalces subjected 
Sicyon to the Dorian sway. 1839 KEIGHTLEY Hist. Eng. 
II. 42 Subjecting them to an unheard of tyranny. 1853 
NEWMAN Hist. Sk. (1876) I. i. ii. 71 The service to which 
they were subjected was no matter of choice. 

2. To render submissive or dependent; to bring 
into a state of subordination or submission. 



24 





be biddingis of be apostil. 1500-20 DUNBAR Poems Ixx. 20 
Thy vengeance seiss on us to syn subjectit. 1568 LAUDER 
Godlic Tractate 341 Least tha alwayis with Sin suld be sub- 
ieckit. a 1590 in Montgomery s Poems Suppl. (S. T. S.) 199 
pai sleichtis sell neuir subgek me. 1603 Pay ofStueuy in 
Simpson Sch. S/iais. (1878) I. 227, I will not subject my 
desire herein And wait upon his leisure. 1614 RALEIGH 
Hist. World u. 217 Altogether feminine, and subiected to 
ease and delicacie. 1643 BUKROUGHES Exp. ist 3 cli. Hosca. 
ii. 39 If be subject that to his own base ends. 1654 BRAMHALL 
Just yind. ii. 9 They have subjected Oecumenical Councels 
..to the Jurisdiction of the Papal Court. 1734 tr. Rollin s j 
Anc. Hist. (1827) I. Pref. 51 In order the better to subject 
the minds of the people. 1744 SWIFT Three Serm. i. Jo I 
This Doctrine of subjecting ourselves to one another. 1827 
SCOTT Surg. Dait. i, He . . was unwilling to subject himself \ 
to that which was exacted in polite society. 

alisol. 1667 MILTON P. L. vni. 607 Vet these subject not. 
1692 DRYDEN St. Euremonfs Ess. 342 [Religion] compells 
and doth not subject enough. 

(b. To overawe, prevail upon. Obs. rare. 
1605 Play ofStucley in Simpson Sch. S/iaks. (1878) I. 214 i 
To be threatened and subjected by him. 1670 WALTON 
Lives I. 29 Sir Robert put on as suddain a resolution, to 
subject Mr. Donne to be his Companion in that lourney. 
f o. To masier, overpower (one s desires). Obs. 
1620 VEXNER P ia Recta vii. 114 Such as respect their 
health, and can subiect their appetite. 1660 R. COKE Justice 
yind. 15 Subjecting all their passions and affections, 
f 3. inlr. To be or become subject, submit to. Obs. 
1400 Apol. Loll. 76 New law techib bat no prest nor 
clerk ow to soget to no seculer lord. 1624 BEDELL Lett. v. 
90 Shee kils with the epirituall sword, those that subiect 
not to her. 1644 HUNTON I ind. Treat. Man. iv. 20 He is 
unresistible, and to be subjected to actively in lawfull things. 
1720 WODROW Corr. (1843) II. 477 His Majesty s govern 
ment, which they most heartily pray for, and subject to in 
all things they possibly can. 

f4. trans. To place under something or in a lower 
position ; to make subjacent to. Chiefly pass. Obs. 
1578 BANISTER Hist. Man v. 69 The rest of his way is 
subiected vnder Vena caua. 1594 R. CAREW Huttrte s 
Exam. Wits (1616) 116 Spaine is not so cold as the places 
subiected to the Pole, a 1676 HALE Prim. Orig. Man. II. j 
vii. (1677) 190 The like Volcans. .happen sometimes in the 
Land subjected to the Sea. 1807 J. BARLOW Columb. I. 194 
O er the proud Pyrenees it looks sublime, Subjects the Alps, 
and levels Europe s clime. 

fb. To place (the neck) under a yoke. Const. 
to. (Only in fig. context.) Obs. 

c 1585 Fnire Em I. 89 A number such as we subject Their 
gentle necks unto their stubborn yoke Of drudging labour. 
1641 J. JACKSON True Evang. T. ii. 120 To subject their 
necks to the yoak of Christ, 

f o. To lay before a person s eyes. Const, to. Obs. 
1715-*) POPE Ep. Addison 33 In one short view subjected 
to our eye Gods, Emp rors, Heroes, Sages, Beauties, lie. 
1776 Trial of Nundocomar 106/2 It would be highly im 
proper that their books should be. .subjected to curious and 
impertinent eyes. 

f d. To lay open, expose (physically). Obs. 
1793 SMEATON Edystone L. 196 The work will always be 
dry, or subjected only to the rain. 

5. To lay open or expose to the incidence, 
occurrence, or infliction of, render liable to, some 
thing, t Also occas. to render susceptible to, pre 
dispose to. 

1549 Compl. Scot. xx. 171 Euerye thing is subieckit to the 
proces of thetyme. 1600 SHAKS. A. Y. L. n. iii. 36, I rather 
will subiect me to the malice Of a diuerted blood, and bloudie 
brother. 1611 Bible Transl. Pref. p 2 As oft as we do ;my 
thing of note or consequence, we subiect our selues to euery 
ones censure, a 1700 EVELYN Diary 12 Aug. 16^1, It stands 
upon Contribution land, which subjects the environs to the 
Spanish incursions. 1701 SWIFT Contests Nobles y Comm. 
Wks. 1755 II. I. 42 One folly, infirmity, or vice, to which a 
single man is subjected. 1758 J. DALRYMPLE Ess. Feudal 
Property (ed. 2) 91 Clauses, subjecting the whole to forfeiture, 
in case the prohibition was infringed. 1770 LUCKOMBE//W/. 
Printing 350 Having too much wooll in them, .will subject 
them to soon hardening. 1792 BURKE Corr. (1844) I v - 3 " 
would only subject the people to a renewal of the former 
outrages. 1830 D ISRAELI Chas. /, III. 72 A mind thus 
deeply busied.. was necessarily subjected to its peculiar 
infirmities. 1845 MACCULLOCH Taxation i. iv. (1852) no 
Is all that is upon the farm.. subjected to taxation? 1861 
M. PATTISON Ess. (1889) I. 47 A blow or an abusive ex 
pression subjected the offender to a fine. 

t 6. pass. To be attributed to, inhere in a subject 
(SUBJECT sb. 6). Obs. 

1606 B. JONSON MOSJ., Hyienxi Wks. (1616) 911 It is a 
noble and iust aduantage, that the things subiected to vn- 
derstanding haue of those which are obiected to sense. 



our Mediator were subjected in his human nature. 1664 JER. 
TAYLOR Diss-uas. Popery n. Introd. B 2 b, I hope I. S. does 
not suppose it [sc. infallibility] subjected in every single Chris 
tian man or woman. 1690 MORRIS Beatitudes (1694) 1. 92 : 
For such and such Venues as subjected in Man. 

7. Logic. To make the subject of a proposition. 
(Cf. SUBJECTION ii.) 

1628 T. SPENCER Logick 129 How they be predicated, and 
how subiected. 1723 WATTS Logic m. ii. 3 A fourth Figure 
wherein the middle Term is predicated in the major Pro 
position, and subjected in the minor. 

8. To bring under the operation of an agent, 
agency, or process ; to submit to certain treatment ; j 
to cause to undergo or experience something. 

1794R. J.SULIVAN F;VwAVit\I.59Thepolarpartsbeingsub- 
jected to a colder medium, would be more compressed. 1801 
Encycl. Brit. Suppl. II. 357/2 One knows not how to sub- ] 
ject to the laws of our perceptions that which is absolutely 
independent of them. 1838 THOMSON Chem. Org. Bodies 274 J 
The alcohol is then to be separated by subjecting the matter I 
to strong pressure in cloth. 1842 LOUDON Suburban Hart. 94 , 
This branch of garden management., has been subjected to I 
scientific inquiry. 1835 BAIN Senses f, Int. III. ii. 8 (1864) 471 
Subject the same persons to an extremely faint exhalation ot 
the same substance. 1870 MAX MULLER Sci.Relig. (1873) 125 < 
When people began to subject the principal historical reli 
gions to a critical analysis. 1907 J. H. PATTERSON Man- 
Eaters of Tsavo xix. 208 Just after this caravan had moved 
on we were subjected to some torrential rain-storms. 

Hence Subjecting rbl. sb. and///, a. 

1760 WOOLMAN Jrnl. vii. (1840) 83 The Spring of the 
Ministry was often low; and, through the subjecting Power 
of Truth, we were kept low with it. 1761 HUME Hist. Eng. 
I. ix. 185 The ambition of Henry had.. been moved.. to 
attempt the subjecting of Ireland. 1881 FAIRBAIRN Studies 
Life Christ xvi. 302 The subject often suffers less than the 
subjecting people. 1912 Engl. Rev. Jan. 295 Science is a 
subjecting of the mind to things, Art is a subjecting of 
things to the mind. 

t Subject, pa.pple. Obs. [ad. L. subject-us, pa. 
pple. oisubiclre (see SUBJECT a.).] Subjected. 

1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 211 [He] hath subiect 
all thynges to hym, & put them vnder his fete. 1533 GAU 
Richt Vay 50 S. Paul vritis in the first chaip_tur to the 



Ephesians, God hes subiect al thing onder his feit. 

Subjectable, -ible (rifcdge-kt&b l, -ib l), a. 
rare. [f. SUBJECT v. + -ABLE, -IBLE. Cf. late L. 
subjectibilis (Vulgate).] That maybe subjected to. 

1802-12 BENTHAM Ration. Judic. Evid. (1827) III. 446 
Under the assurance of his not being Subjectable to eventual 
punishment. 1808 Sc. Reform 14 Not subjectible to 
counter-interrogation. 1831 Jer. Taylor s Wks. IV. 277 
It was propounded to these fathers confessors as a thing 
not Subjectable to their penitential judicature. 

Hence Snbjectabi Uty, -ibi lity. In recent Diets. 

t Subjectary. Obs. rare. [f. SUBJECT + -AHY*.] 
One who is subject to another. 

1485 Digl y Myst. m. 752 He hathe made me clene and 
delectary, the wyche was to synne a subiectary. 

t Subjectate, i>. Obs. rare. [f. SUBJECT sb, 
+ -ATE .] pass. To be inherent in. 

1677 GALE Crt. Gentiles IV. 484 There is no moral evil, 
which is not founded and subjectated in some natural good. 

Subjectdom (sc-bdjektdsm). rare, [f. SUB 
JECT so. H- -DOM.] The state or condition of being 
a subject. 

1877 ROLLESTON in Greenwell Brit. Barrows 698 No clue 
to its nationality, except in the political sense of subjectdom, 
therefore is available. 

Subjected (sobd 3 e-kted), ppl. a. [f. L. sub- 
ject-us (see SUBJECT a.) or SUBJECT v. + -ED !.] 

1. Placed or set underneath ; underlying, sub 
jacent. Obs. or arch. 

1597 A. M. tr. GiiiUemetufs Fr. Chirurg. 10/3 The fore, 
sayed subiacent or subiectede membrane. 1667 MILTON 
P. L. Xll. 640 The hastning Angel.. Led them direct, and 
down the Cliff as fast To the subjected Plaine. 1673 HALE 
Ess. Fluid Bodies 5 The Gravitation or non-Gravitation of 
Fluids upon subjected Bodies. 1678 H. VAUGHAN Thalia 
Rerliv., Retirement 225 Where he might view the boundless 
skie, . . Subjected hills, trees, meads, and flowers. 1718 PRIOR 
Solomon I. 432 Where . . Ascends my Soul ? what sees She 
White and Great Amidst subjected Seas? 1820 WIFFEN 
Aonian Hours (ed. 2) 8 The stockdove s plaintive wail Wins 
to the curious ear o er the subjected vale. 

t b. Subjected matter = SUBJECT-MATTER. Obs. 

1697 tr. Burgersdicius Logic I. viii. 26 Creation is nothing 
else but the producing of something out of nothing ; that is, 
out of no Subjected Matter. 

2. Reduced to a state of subjection; under the 
dominion or authority of another. Hence, sub 
missive, obedient. 

a 1586 SIDNEY A rcadia \. xix. (1012) 123 With all subjected 
humblenes. 1595 SHAKS. John 1. 1. 264 Needs must you lay 
your heart at his dispose, Subiected tribute to commanding 
loue. 1690 LOCKE Hum. Unit. iv. xix. 6 He is certainly 
the most subjected, the most enslaved, who is so in his Under 
standing. 1719 DE FOE Crusoe n. (Globe) 386 All the five were 
, most willing, ..subjected Creatures, rather like Slaves than 
Wives. 1763 J. BROWN Poetry f, Mas. 193 The Patrician 
Ladies, who lately had reveled amidst the Spoils of a sub- 
jected World. 1815 J. CORMACK Abol. Fern. Infanticide 
Guzerat ii. 34 That a subsidiary and subjected tribe should 
have cherished such extravagant notions of their own supe 
riority. 1876 RUSKIN Fors Clav. VI. 88 To comply in all 
sweet and subjected ways with the wishes and habits of their 
parents. 1907 Trans. Devon Assoc. 48 The Welsh British 
had themselves absorbed a subjected race. 
Hence Subje-ctedly adv., Subje ctedness. 



SUBJECTION. 

1681 R. FLEMING Fulfilling Script. HI. Hi. (1726) 377 To 
dig in the town ditches, with a sweet subjectedness of spirit, 
1839 New Monthly Mag. LV. 44 Licking his face, and sub- 
jectedly, as if in token of homage. 1885 MEREDITH Diana. 
xxxviii, Notwithstanding her subjectedness to the nerves. 

Su bjecteSS. name-word, [f. SUBJECT sb. + 
-ESS l.j A female subject. 

1772 NUGENT Hist. Fr. Gerund I. 145 It being a plain 
case that men only ought to be called subjects, and women 
subjectesses. 

Subjectible : see SUBJECTABLE a. 
Subjectify (scbd^e-ktifai),!/. [f. SUBJECT sb. 
+ -IFY.] trans. To identify with or absorb in the 
subject ; to make subjective. 

1868 Contemp. Rev. VIII. 617 The oriental mind. .sub 
jectifies the individuality, or, to frame a word for the occa 
sion, inwards it. 1895 Thinker VII. 342 Destructive 
tendencies in human nature which subjectify themselves in 
the individual. 1900 S_ANTAYANA Poetry ft Relig. 248 To 
subjectify the universe is not to improve it. 

Hence Snbje-ctifying ///. a., viewing thir 
subjectively; Subjectifica tion, the action ii 
making or being made subjective. 

1882 TRAILL Sterne xi. 170 The Uncle Toby of the sub- 
jectifying sentimentalist, surveying his character through 
the false medium of his own hypertrophied sensibilities, 
1800 tr. PJl eiderer* s Dcuel. Theol. ii. iv. 186 The idealistic 
subjectification of the idea of God on the lines of Feuer. 
bach. 1908 HMerl Jrnl. Oct. 214 It would, .be far more 
accurate to treat sensations as the subjectification of qualities 
than to treat qualities as the hypostases of sensations. 

Subjectlle (sobdje-ktsil), a. and sb. rare. [f. 
SUBJECT sb. + -HE.] Of material : Adapted to 
receive a subject or picture, b. sb. A material 
on which a painting or engraving is made. 

1859 GULLICK & TIMBS Painting 126 The metal . .served 
as a subjectile to the opaque painting. Ibid., The materials, 
or subjectiles, upon which paintings have been executed. 
1881 Oracles 5 Nov. 294 The previous modes of printing in 
which the ink is contained in incisions.. or upon reliefs., 
and transferred thence to the paper or other subjectile 
material by pressure. 

Subjection (scbd.^e-kjsn). Also 4-5 -ieceioun, 
-one, 4-6 -ieocion, 4-7 -ieotion, 5-6 -iectione, 
-geeoion, -gection, -yon, 5-7 -iectioun, (4 
subieccoun, 5 -coyoun, -iounne, -iecctioun, 
-ione, -ieetyon, supjeotion, 6 -ieocyon). [a. 
: OF. subjection (i2th c.), in mod.F. only in Rhet. 
sense, sujition (i 7th c.) in other senses, ad. L. sub- 
jectio, -onem, n. of action f. sul>ictre(seeSUBJECT:a.). 
, Cf. Pr. subjection, It. soggezione, saggezione, and 
subbiezione, Sp. sujecion, in Rhet. sense subjecion, 
Pg. sujeifao, sulyeifao.] 

1 1. The act, state, or fact of exercising lordship 
or control ; dominion, domination, control. Obs. 

ciyjs Sc. Leg. Saints vii, (Jacobus) 485 Dee bare bam 
leware wes ay, ^ane fore to thol subieccione of hyme bat 
segyt ban bar towne. c 1400 Apol. Loll.*,*) pof bu desire to 
be prest, or be befor to hem bat bu coueitist. .ouer proudly 
in coueiting subieccoun of hem. 1596 SPENSER State Irel, 
Wks. (Globe) 650/1 They should all rise generally into 
rebellion, and cast away the English subjection. 1667 MIL- 
TON P. L, x. 153 Lovely to attract Thy Love, not thy Sub 
jection. 

b. Phr. In, into, f/<J, f/0, Blinder subjec 
tion : in, into, under the dominion or control of a 
superior power. Now felt as belonging to 2. 

1340 HAMPOLE Pr. Consc. 4064 Swa bat it be put til des- 
truccion Thurgh bam bat first was in subieccion. c 1386 
CHAUCER Monk s T. 476 He.. This wyde world hadde in 
subieccioun. 1390 GOWER Co/if. I. 26 Of Babiloine al that 
Empire.. [he] Put under in subjeccioun. 1430 LYDG. Mitt. 
Poems (Percy Soc.) 90 Of Assurye to rekne the kynges alle, 
Whiche had that lond under subjeccioune. 1513 BRAD- 
SHAW St. Werburge I. 1544 Lowly submyttynge her vnder 
subieccyon. 1535 COVERDALE Ps. viii. 6 Thou hast put all 
thinges in subieccion vnder his fete. 1592 Soliwan $ Pers. 
in. i. 148 Till thou hast brought Rhodes in subiection. 1601 
SHAKS. All s Welt i. i. 6 To whom I am now in Ward, 
euermore in subiection. 1667 MILTON P, L. ix. 1128 Both 
in subjection now To sensual Appetite, a 1715 BURNET 
Own Time I. (1724) I. 46 They [sc. the military force] will 
ever keep the Parliament in subjection to them. 1758 J . 
DALRYMPLE Ess. Feudal Property (ed. 2) 3 The modern 
European colonies are kept in subjection . . to their native 
country. 1853 NEWMAN Hist. Si. (1876) I. i. ii. 91 The 
Caliph . . was in subjection to a family of the old Persian race. 
1862 SIR B. BRODIE Psyc/ial. Ing. II. ii. 62 A well-regulated 
imagination, which is kept in subjection to the judgment. 

c. with possessive pron. or phr. denoting the 
superior power or authority. Obs. or arch. 

1340 HAMPOLE Pr. Consc. 4070 Fra bat tyme sal na land 
ne centre In subieccion of Rome langer be. 1390 GOWER 
Conf. III. 180 He. .Which hath in his subjeccion Tho men 

whiche in possession Ben riche of gold, c 1400 MAUNDEV. 
(Roxb.) vi. 20 Ober rewmes bat er vnder his subieccion. 
c 1407 LYDG. Reson & Sens. 5281 He kan make hem to lowte 
Vn-to his subieccion. -1460 OseneyReg. no This, .graunt 
I made for A chaunterye . . free and quietly fro the subieccion 
of the modur church, c 1489 CAXTON Sonnes of Aymon xix. 

i 408 Whan he sawe that he was. .in the subgectyon of Rey- 
nawde..he was sore an angred. c 1500 Melusine ij Al the 
Countre therabout he held vnder his subgection. 1530 
PALSOR. 355 Whiche dyd submytte a great parte of Grece 
in their subjection. 1568 GRAFTON Chron. II. 885 To sub 
mit themselues to the subiection and grieuous yoke of the 
French king. 1584-5 Act 27 Eliz. c. 2. 4 Any Parson 
under her Majesties Subjection or Obedience. 1632 LITH- 
GOW Trav. in. 78 [The Cretans] would rather .. render to 

1 the Turke, then to Hue vnder the subection of Venice. 1652 
J. WRIGHT tr. Camus Nat. Paradox i. 3 The Castellians 
are those who have Lands, Citties, Burroughs, Villages and 



y 



SUBJECTION. 

Seignories under their subjection. 1800 Asiatic Ann. Reg, 
I a. 25/1 In reducing under his subjection the whole of the 
districts in which the best cinnamon is produced. 

2. The act or fact of being subjected, as under a 
monarch or other sovereign or superior power ; the 
state of being subject to, or under the dominion of, 
another; hence gen., subordination. 

1398 TREVISA Bartk. De P. R. vi. xviii. (1495) 203 As the 
name seruaunt is a name of subieccion so the name lord is 
a name of soueraynte. c 1470 Col, <y Gaw. 441 Sauand my 
senyeoury fra subiectioun, And my lordscip vn-latnyt. 
1563 WINJET tr. Vincent. Lirin. Wks. (S.T.S ) II. 5 The 
subiectioun of the Israelitis amangis the Gentilis. 1596 
SPENSER State /re/. Wks. (Globe) 612/2 That generall 
subjection of the land, wherof we formerly spake. 1611 
SPEP;D Theat. Gt. Brit. i. xii. 23/2 [Bristol] because 
it is an entire County of it selfe, it denies subiection 
vnto either [Somersetshire and Glocestershire]. 1620 T. 
GRANGER Div. Logike 248 In regard of their conuenience, 
and subjection to the whole, they make no disjunction or 
opposition. 1641 SMECTYMNUUS Vind. Answ. vii. 98 Now 
we read no where of the subjection of one Bishop and his 
charge to an other. 1651 HOBBKS Leviathan i. viii. 39 Our 
obedience, and subjection to God Almighty. 1662 SOUTH 
Scrm. Gen. i. 27 (1697) I. 67 The Will.. was subordinate., 
to the Understanding.. as a Queen to her King ; who both 
acknowledges a Subjection; and yetretainsa Majesty. 1814 
WORHSW. Excttrs. ill. 268 By philosophic discipline prepared 
For calm subjection to acknowledged law. 1869 J. S. MILL 
(title) The subjection of women. 1872 YEATS Growth Coinm. 
58 The patriotic spirit, .lost its force in a common subjec 
tion to Rome. 

f3. Submission; obedience; homage. Obs. 

1382 WVCUF i Tim. ii. ii A womman lernein silence, with 
al subieccioun. 1387 TREVISA Higden (Rolls) II. 115 }>e 
bisshop of Meneuia was i-sacred of |>e bisshoppes of Wales 
..and made non professioun no^er subjection to non o^er 
chirche. 1387-8 T. USK Test. Love \. ii. (Skeat) 1. 10 A 
maner of ferdnesse crepeth in his herte, not for harmc, but 
of goodly subjeccion. 1419 in Ellis Orig. Lett, Ser. 11. I. 65 
We ^oure humble liges and servitours, with all subjection 
and humilitee. 1426 LYDG. De Guil. Pilgr. 1031 The body 
to the soule obeye In euery maner skylful weye, And bern 
to hym subieccion. 1460 C \VGR\VV. Chron. (Rollsi Ded. i To 
my Sovereyn Lord Edward . .a pore Frere. .sendith prayer, 
obediens, suhjeccion. 1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 
96 b, Good religyon and subieccyonsorereprouethconiempte 
for his suggestyon. 1671 MILTON Samson 1405 Masters 
commands come with a power resistless To such as owe 
them absolute subjection, a 1674 CLARENDON Surv. Levia- 
tkan (1676) 91 To withdraw their subjection. 

4. The action of making subject or bringing under 
a dominion or control ; subjugation, rare. 

1597 HOOKER Eccl. Pol. v. xlix. 104 The subiection of the 
b jdy to the will is by naturall necessitie, the subiection of 
the will vnto God voluntarie. a 1676 HALE (}.), After the 
conquest of the kingdom and subjection of the rebels. 
1849-50 ALISON Hist, Kur. VII. xlii. 43. 125 The ronquest 
of Kurope, or at least the subjection of all its governments 
to his control. 

f 5. The condition of a subject, and the obliga 
tions pertaining to it. Obs. 



1599 SHAKS. Hen. V t iv. i. 153 The King., who to disobey, 
were against all proportion of subiection. i6n Cynib. 
iv. iii. 19, I dare be bound hee s true, and shall performe 
All parts of his subiection loyally, a 1635 NAUNTON Fragm. 
Reg. in FA0Mr(i7O7)Lxoi The Duke of Northumberland 
. . rose as high as subjection could permit, or sovereignty 
endure. 

t b. concr. Subjects collectively. Obs. 

1502 Ord. Crysten Men (W. de W.) v. iii. LL ij, The sub- 
geccyon ayenst theyr prelates, the chyldren agayne the 
fader and moder. 1646 SIH T. BROWNE Pseud. Ep. 302 
How p >pulous the land from whence they came was, may 
be collected .. from their ability in commanding so mighty 
subjections. 

6. Legal or contractual obligation or liability. 

c 1450 Godstow Reg. 342 With-out any subieccion as any 
of that same hold ought, sauf only the forsaide xij. d vnto 
the workes of the forsaid chirch yerely. 1456 SIR G. HAVE 
Laiv Arms (S.T.S.) 192 [If] a man suld. .defend his frende 
in his presence injurit, sa is he nocht bounde to na subjec- 
tjoun of law t ha r fore. 1760 T. HUTCHINSON Hist. Mass. 
ii. (1765* 251 They distinguished civil subjection, into 
necessary and voluntary. 1769 BLACKSTONE Comm. IV. ii. 
38 The obligation of civil subjection, whereby the inferior is 
constrained by the superior to act contrary to what his own 
reason and inclination would suggest. 1843-56 BOUVIER 
Law Diet. (ed. 6) II. 553/2 Subjection, the obligation of.. 
persons to act at the discretion, or according to the judgment 
and will of others. 

f7- The condition of being under some necessity 
or obligation ; a duty or task; an * infliction . Obs. 

1581 PETTIE Guazzo s Civ. Conv. i. (1586) 3, I feele it a 
great trauell-.toobserue such circumstances, as the oualitie 
of the persons, and mine owne honor require: which is 
nothing else but paine and subiection. 1658 EVELYN fr. 
Card, (1675) 261 Tis too great a subjection to gather their 
blossoms. 1659 Let, to Boyle 9 Aug., The many sub 
jection^, which I cannot support, of conversing with me 
chanical capricious persons. 1685 Mrs. Godolphin (1888) 
183, I tell you she looked at it [si: being obliged to play at 
cards] as a Calamity and subjection insupportable. 1719 
LONDON & WISE Complete GarcCne r 31 3 The only Subjection 
we are obliged to in such Grounds, is, first, to weed much. 

t 8. The condition of being subject, exposed, or 
liable to \ liability. 06s, 

1593 MUNDY De/. Contraries 39 They are free from sub 
iection to eie medicines, which they haue need to practise, 
that are subject to the eyes inflamation. 1628 T. SFF.NCKR 
L^gick 128 His subjection to death; as a qualitie of his 
being. 1758 J. DALKYMPLB Ess. Feudal Property (ed. 2) 154 
In respect of subjection to forfeiture. 

f 9. Khet. An answer subjoined by a speaker to 
c, question that he has just asked; the figure in- 
VOL. IX. 



25 

volving this ; hence, a subjoined or additional 
statement, corollary. Obs. 

1608 J. KING Serin. 5 Nov. 13 For what hath the righteous 
done ? The subiection or answere implied must needs be, 
nihil, iust nothing. 165* URQUHART Jetvcl [278 The refuta- 
live Schemes of Anticipation and Subjection, 1659 LEAK 
Watenvks. Pref. 3 If we should build upon this Rule of 
Archimedes, That the Superficies of the Water is Spherical 
..there will follow a Subjection that we must hold in the 
Demonstrations; viz. That the Superficies of the Water is 
Circular. 1753 Chambers Cycl. Suppl., Subjection . . is used 
for a brief answer to a preceding interrogation. 

f 10. A putting under or placing before, rare. 

1615 T. ADAMS Leaven 100 The most simple ; who better 
vnderstand a spiritual doctrine, by the reall subiection of 
some thing familiar to their senses. 

1L Logic. The act of supplying a subject to a 
predicate. In mod. Diets. 

*I 12. Misused for SUGGESTION. (Cf.SuujF.STioN.) 

c 1386 CHAUCER Pars. T. p 351 The firste thing is thilke 
flessmy concupisence, and after that comth the subieccion 
\_v.rr. suggestion (e] of the deuel. a 1450 Knt. de la Tour 
(1868) 77 The kingc, tborughe her false subieccion, putte 
loseph into stronge prison. 

Subjectional (scbd^e-kjanan, a. rare. [f. prec. 
4- -AL.] Involving or based upon subjection. 

a 1617 BAVNE Diocesan s Try all (1621) 18 By vertuc of 
their subjectionall subordination. 1846 RCSKIN Mod. Paint. 
II. in. i. vi. 3 There is the Unity of different and sep.tr.itc 
things subjected to one and the same influence, which may 

be called Subjectional Unity. 

Su-bjectist. rare. One versed or skilled in 
the subjective philosophy , = SuuECTiviaT. 

a 1860 Eclectic Rei: (cited in Worcester). 

Subjective (sobd^e-ktiv), a. (st>.) [ad. late I.. 
siibjcctivus, i. subjcctus, -u/ti SUIJJECT sb. So F. 
subjectify It. sobiettivoj etc., G. suhjektiv.~\ 

1 1. Pertaining or relating to one who is sub 
ject; belonging to or characteristic of a political 
subject; hence, submissive, obedient. Obs. 

c 1450 tr. De Imitations l.xiv. 16 If Jwu leene more to Jnri 
ovne reson ^an to be subjectiue vertu of Ihesu crist, it wol 
be late or l>ou be a man illuminate, for god wol haue us 
parfitly suget to him. 1595 in Shaks. Cent. Praise 16 For 
thousands vowes to them subjective dutie. 1606 J. DAVIKS 
Sel^Sec. Hitsb. (1616) F 6 Who honor d him. .And no sub- 
iectiue dutje did forget. 1648 SVMMONS Vind, 3311 Neither is 
the King,, .of so subjective a nature as to submit Ins affairs 
wholly lo his wife s guidance, a 1683 OWEN Pesih. Serin. 
Wks, 1851 IX. 97 Subjective perfection, in respect of the 
person, obeying, is his .sincerity and freedom from guile. 
1706 DF. FOE Jure Divino XL 246 The great Subjective 
Article concurs, To make him all Mens King as well as ours. 

2. Pertaining to the subject as to that in which 
attributes inhere ; inherent; hence, pertaining to 
the essence or reality of a thing ; real, essential. 

1641 O. SEDGWICK Eng. Preset-: . 34 Many prayings and 
fastings,, .and other duings have found no acceptation with 
God, nor wrought any subjective alterations in persons. 
1647 JKR. TAYLOR Lib. Profit. 133 That this confession [of 
St. Peter] was the objective foundalionof Faith, and Christ 
and his Apostles the subjective, Christ principally, and 
S. Peter instrumen tally. 1675 BURTIKX;GE Causa Dei 395 
All how Barbarous .. soever, have, .a Light within them, arid 
a Light without them, Subjective and Objective Liglit. 1844 
GLADSTONE Glean. (18791 V. 81 Nothing seems more plain 
than that her (theChurchof England s] subjective materials 
are after all too solid . . to permit . . the serious apprehension 
of any such contingency. 1882 FAKRAR Early Chr. I. 320 An 
illustration of ihe method whereby the subjective righteous 
ness of God can become the objective righteousness (or juti- 
fication) of man. 

3. Relating to the thinking subject, proceeding 
from or taking place within the subject ; having 
its source in the mind ; (in the widest sense) 
belonging to the conscious life. (Correlative to 
OBJECTIVE a. 2 b.) 

1707 OLDFIELD Ess. hnpr. Reason n. xix, Objective cer 
tainty, or that of the thing, as really it is in itself, .a Sub- 
jectlve certainty of it in the infinite Mind. 17*5 WATTS 
Logic n. ii. 8 Objective certainty, is when the proposition 
is certainly true in itself; and subjective, when we are 
certain of the truth of it. The one is in things, the other is 
in our minds. 1796 Nitsch s f- t ew Kant s Princ. 224 We 
are certain that every point in the circumference of a circle 
is at an equal distance from the centre ; for we have suffi 
cient objective and subjective reasons to this truth. 1798 
W. TAYLOR in Monthly Rev. XXV. 585 Were we endeavour 
ing to characterize this work, in the dialect peculiar to Pro 
fessor Kant, we should observe, that its intensive like its ex- 
tensive, magnitude is small : . . its subjective is as slight as its 
objective worth. 1801 Encycl. Brit. Suppl. II. 356/1 The 
motives to consider a proposition as true, are either objec 
tive, i. e. taken from an external object,. .or.. subjective, 
i. e. they exist only in the mind of him who judges. 1804-6 
SYD. SMITH Mar. Philos. (1850) 54 His subjective elements, 
and his pure cognition. 1830 Blackw. flfag. XXVII. 10 
Knowledge subjective is knowledge of objects in their rela 
tion to, and as they affect the mind knowing. 183* AUSTIN 
Jurisfr. (1879) II. 737 In the Kantian language subjective 
existences are either parcel of the understanding, or ideas 
which the understanding knows by itself alone. 1838 F. 
HAYWOOD \i.KanCsCrit. Pure Reason 651 Without a sub. 
jective property, nothing would be present lothebein^ who 
perceives by intuition. 1864 BOWEN Logic xiii. 423 It 
appears to disprove.. Kant s counter assertion that space is 
wholly subjective. 1877 E. CAIRO Philos. Kant n. iii. 241 
Subjective ideas, ideas that have no root in actual expert 
ence, but only in the constitution of the faculties of percep 
tion. i88a Encycl. Brit. XIV. 785/1 What is the ground of 
unity in things known, and in what way does thought unite 
the detached attributes of things into a subjective whole? 
1883 Ibid. XVI. 91/2 The idea of truth or knowledge as 



SUBJECTIVE. 

that which is at once objective and subjective, as the unity 
of things with the mind that knows them. 

b. Special collocations. 

Svbjectivt idealism: see IDEALISM i. Subject ire method: 
the method of investigation which starts from conceptions 
and rt priori assumptions, from which deductions are made. 
Subjective selection : the function of selection by or through 
consciousness. 

1867 LKWKS Hist. Philos. (ed. 3) I. Proleg. p. xxxiii, The 
Subjective Method which moulds realities on its conceptions, 
endeavouring to discern the order of Things, nut by step by 
step adjustments of the order of ideas to it, but by the 
anticipatory rush of Thought, the direction of which is 
determined by Thoughts and not controlled by Objects. 
1877, 1887 [see IDEALISM i]. 1886 Kncycl. Brit. XX. 73 2 
Subjective selection, i. e. . .the association of particular 
movements with particular sensations through the mediation 
of feeling. 1911 Encycl. Brit. (ed. n) XIV. 281/1 The 
doctrine which represents the subject itself and its state and 
judgments as the single immediate datum < f consciousness, 
and all else, .as having a merely problematic existence, .is 
sometimes known as subjective or incomplete idealism. 

4. Pertaining or peculiar to an individual subject 
or bis mental operations; depending upon one s 
individuality or idiosyncrasy ; personal, individual. 

a 1767 I.I! Mi ON Serin. ( iS^ol 77 Tl.tr i.- is an internal sub 
jective discovery of C, hi is t m.ale i:;, and unto ti-c M ul, that 
Ii ,< : s !,i;;i by the Huly <.>h"--t. 1796 Xit^ctCs l i<tu f\ an: s 
Prhtc. i ,5 When any tiling dft<-rmines our will which is 
founded upon the sul>i _-aiv<_- qualification of the individual, 
it is merely agreeable, though it may nut IK- lad. 1818 
HAI.LAM Alid. Ages (1872) I. 112 Sismondi never fully 
learned to judge men according to a subjective standard, 
that is, their own notions uf right and wiong, 1858 O. W. 
HOLMKS .-IK. . Break/. -t. xi, The ingenu< i. P ;uier will under 
stand that this was an internal, personal, private, subjective 
diorama. (11871 GROTE Eth. i-r.i^m. ii. (1676 42 This 
sentiment is. .a subjective sentiment that is, each individual 
experience.-, it in a dcyree and manner peculiar to himself. 

b. Art and Literature, Expressing, bringing 
into prominence, or deriving its materials mainly 
from, the individuality of the artist or author. 

1840 K. FnzGKRALD Lett. dSS^ I. 56 Knuugh uf what is 
now generally called the Mii>jt:cti\e style ul writing. 1846 
Ibid. 161 The whole subjective scheme (damn the word !j of 
the poems I did not like. 1853 THOMSON Laws 1 h. ed. 3) 
25 note, A subjective tendency in a poet or thinker would 
be a preponderating inclination to represent the moods and 
states of his own mind. 1867 HKAM.K iS. Cox i } ict. Sci >>. v., 
Rubens and Rembrandt were subjective painters. 1871 
H. TAYLOR Ftiust ;.iS;si I. ^jS I he subj Ctut; character ot 
the early scenes in l aust is, clearly indicated. 

C. Tending to lay stress on one s o\\n feelings or 
opinions ; given to brooding over one s mental 
states ; excessively introspective or reflective. 

1842 KINGSLEV Lett. (1878) I. 88 Some minds are too sub 
jective. . they may devote themselves too much to the- sub 
ject of self and mankind. 1856 R. A. VAI I;HAN Mystics 
(1860) I. 207 A comparatively small measure uf the subjective 
excess which we would call my.sticism. 1871 MOM i Y 
Vauvcnargves in Crii. Misc. Ser. i. (1878) 25 A musing, 
subjective method of delineation. 

d. Existing in the mind only, without anything 
real to correspond to it ; illusory, fanciful. 

1869 HADIMN Apsst. Succ. Ch. Erig. v. 107 A myth, . .all 
in a moment received as a real liistoiy in the actual world, 
while in truth it hail been a merely .subjective fancy. 1870 
MOZI.EY Univ Senn. iii. (1877; 69 This philosophy allrws 
us.. to take pleasure in a .subjective immortality which is 
practically posthumous reputation. 

e. Physiol. and Path. Due to internal causes and 
discoverable by oneself alone : said of sensations, 
symptoms, etc. 

Subjective colours -. the complementary colours of after 
images arising from looking fixedly at coloured objects, 

1855 DUNGLISON Mcd. Lex. s. y. Sensation. Subjective 
sensations, such as originate centrically, or in the encepha- 
lon,- as tinnitus aurium. i86oTvNOALLOV<ur. 37 Thi- ^reen 
belonged to the class of subjective colours, or colours pro 
duced by contrast. . .The eye received the impression of 
green, but the colour was nut external to the eye. 1876 
Trans. Clinical Soc. IX. 97 The boomings in the ear and 
the subjective buzz. 1881 A af*-rc No. 616. 359 All the 
combinational tones other than iht-se of mistimed unisons 
must really arise in the ear itself and be subjective in 
character. 1899 Allbittfs Syst. Med. VI. 123 The subjective 
feelings of the patient must not be overlooked. 

t5. Subjective part (scholastic L. fars subjtc- 
two) : a part of which the corresponding whole is 
predicated. Obs. 

1728 CHAMBERS Cycl. s. v. Part, A Subjective or Potential 
Part, is the same with a Logical one, viz. that contain d in 
some universal Whole, not in Act, but only in Power; as 
Man and Horse are in Animal ; Peter and Paul in Man. 

6. Gram. a. Constituting, or having the function 
of, the subject of a sentence. 

1862 E. AHAMS Etern. Km*. Lang. 456 When a subjective 
sentence Ls placed after the verb, 

b. Having the character of the subject of a 
sentence as expressing the doer of an action ; e.g. 
subjective genitive. 

1864 ]. MANNING Ing. Poss. Augment 19 Subjective or 
active form (nominative). Ibid. 63 The confounding of sub- 
jective with objective genitives. 1873 (see PREPOSITIVE! v). 
1880 E. A. ABBOTT I ia Latina 221 Genitives may be divided 
into large classes, those in which the Gen. can be readily 
replaced (i.) by a Subject ; (ii.) by an Object. The former 
are called Subjective; the latter, Objective. 

7. Of the subjects treated, subject-, rare. 

1881 Times 6 Jan. n/i The first addition to the evidence 
is a subjective index. 

8. absol. with the: That which is subjective; 
rarely sb. a subjective fact or thing. 



SUBJECTIVELY. 

1817 COLERIDGE Biog. Lit. xii. (1007) I. 174 During the 
act of knowledge itself, the objective and subjective are so 
instantly united, that we cannot determine to which of the 
two the priority belongs. 1830 in Lit. Rem. (1838) III. 
i The Ipseity..; the relatively subjective, whose attribute 
is, the Holy One. 1853 SIR W. HAMILTON Discuss. 5 note t 
Psychology is nothing more than a determination of the 
Subjective and the Objective, in themselves. 1884 Chr. 
Comm. 20 Mar. 536/2 The real sweets of life, .belong to the 
internals and subjectives of existence. 1894 CALDERWOOD 
Vocab. Philos. 321 In the wider sense, the subjective 
includes the whole of the self-conscious life. 1897 tr; Fichte s 
Sci. Ethics 88 In cognition, an objective (the thing) is 
changed into a subjective, a representation. 

Subjectively (sobd^e ktivli), adv. [f. prec. 

+ -LY.-] 

fl. In subjection; as a subject or subjects; 
submissively. Obs. rare. 

1579 W. WILKINSON Confnt. Fani. Love 38 He willeth 
them to stand subiectiuely obedient to the Loue. 1678 
R. BARCLAY A/>ol. Quakers ii. n. 48 The Spirit doth now 
lead and influence the Saints, but.. only subjectively, or in 
a blind manner. 

t 2. In a subject, as in that in which attributes 
inhere ; with regard to the subject of inhesion ; 
inherently. Obs. 

1615 CROOKE Body of Man 695 Hence doth arise another 
especiall difference betwixt a Sound and the oblects of other 
Senses, for these doe inhere in the sensible thinges actually 
and subiectiuely, both before, in, and after Sensation. 1626 
YATES Ibis ad Caesarem i. 26 Damnation is neither from 
God originally, nor in God subjectively. 1656 JEANES Fuln. 
Christ 195 The fulnesse in the text [Col. 1. 19! regarded him 
subjectively, and inmnsecally,asrt<#/w^/mv//7//, dwel 
ling, and inhering in him. 1697 NoRRisAcc. Reason fy Faith 
i. (1724) 21 Come we now to the Consideration of Reason, 
as tis taken Subjectively. 1698 NORRIS Pract. Disc. (1722) 
IV. 167 By the Love of God we should, .apprehend either 
that Love whereby a Man Loves God, taking the Term 
(God) Objectively, or that Love whereby he is beloved of 
him, taking the same Term Subjectively. 

t 3. In its (specific) nature ; in itself. Obs. 

1621 MOUNTAGU Diatribze 302 First-fruits and Tithes were 
of the same extent subiectiuely; or if there were excesse 
vpon eyther side, it was in First-fruits, a 1641 Acts fy 
Man. (1642) 86 All the Propheticall blessings by Jacob, .con 
cerning his sons, are not all of one nature ..either subjec 
tively for the matter, or objectively for the Persons and 
their Posterity. 1675 BURTHOGGE Causa Dei 42 Though 
Infernal Punishments be all of them Perpetual, and conse 
quently Infinite protensively and in duration, yet that 
Intrinsically and Subjectively they are but Finite. 1697 
BOLD Reply to Mr. Edwards $ ReJJ. 45 That the Enquiry . . 
was not concerning Christian Faith considered subjectively, 
but objectively. 

4. In relation to the thinking subject ; by a sub 
jective process ; with reference to the mind or to 
mental representation ; in the mind, in thought. 

1796 Nitsch s View Kanfs Princ. 222 To be of opinion, 
means, to take something for true, but from reasons that are 
neither subjectively nor objectively sufficient. 1803 Edin. 
Rev. I. 262 Man is known to himself by consciousness. All 
other beings he knows only subjectively. 1825 COLKRIDGE 
Aids Rffl. (1848) I. 138 An idea conceived as subsisting m 
an object becomes a law: and a law contemplated subjectively 
in a mind is an idea. 1855 {.Miss COBBE] Ess. Intuitive Mor. 
85 When our idea of the Divine Holiness is subjectively true 
that U to say, when it is the very highest which our minds 
. .can apprehend. 1865 J. H. STIRLING Secret of Hegel I. 127 
Kant conceived these relations [categories] subjectively, or 
from the point of view of our thought. 1880 E. WHITE CV?-/. 
Reiig. Pref. 8, I have readily, fallen into the popular usagu [of 
Certainty and Certitude J, which regards them as interchange 
able expressions todenote subjectively the state of mind only. 

5. With reference to the individual mind or 
the personal character, mental attitude, feelings, etc.; 
in Art, etc., in such a manner as to express the 
personality or idiosyncrasies of an artist or writer. 

^1841 TRENCH Parables ix. (1877) 186 The penny is very 
different to the different receivers ; objectively the same, sub 
jectively it is very different ; it is in fact to every one exactly 
what he will make it. 1859 GULLICK & TIMBS Painting $\ 
A work of Art may be said to be subjectively treated when 
it is characterized more by the peculiar aesthetic or idiosyn 
cratic development of the artist himself. 

6. Gram. In the subjective relation ; as a sub 
jective genitive. 

1864 J. MANNING /?. Pass. Augment 20 The genitive of 
the Anglo-Saxon personal pronoun .. may be used.. sub 
jectively and objectively. 

Subjectiveness (s^bd^e-ktivnes). [Formedas 
prec. + -NESS.] The quality or condition of being 
subjective, subjectivity. 

1855 HYDE CLARKE Diet., Snbjectiveness. 1880 LE CONTE 
Light 13 In smell, there is an equal commingling of sub- 
jectiveness and objectiveness. 

Subjectivism (0bdxe > kthic m). [f. SUB 
JECTIVE + -ISM. Cf. F. subjectivisme.] 

1. The philosophical theory according to which 
all our knowledge is merely subjective and rela 
tive, and which denies the possibility of objective 
knowledge. 

1857 W, FLEMING Vocab. Philos. 492 Subjectivism is 
the doctrine of Kant, that all human knowledge is merely 
relative ; or rather that we cannot prove it to be absolute. 
1872 tr. Uebenve^s Hist. Philos. I. 72 Protagoras the Indi 
vidualist, Gorgias the Nihilist, Hippias the Polymathist, and 
Prodicus the Moralist.. were followed by a younger genera 
tion of Sophists, who perverted the philosophical principle 
of subjectivism more and more, till it ended in mere frivolity. 
1884 D. HUNTER Rcuss s Hist. Canon xviii. 388 The 
eighteenth century, .which gave birth to a subjectivism so 
boundless as to end in denying the reality of the world. 



26 

2. The subjective method (see SUBJECTIVE 3 b). 

1882 T. DAVIDSON tr. Rosmini s Phil. Syst. p. xxvi, The 
subjectivism of Descartes and Malebranche. 

3, A theory or method based exclusively on 
subjective facts. 

1865 GROTE Plato II. 361 He cannot be content. .to be a 
measure for himself and for those whom his arguments may 
satisfy. This would be to proclaim what some German critics 
denounce as Subjectivism. 1899 S. L. WILSON TJieol. Mod. 
Lit. 420 1 n this strongly marked tendency to psychic analysis 
and searching subjectivism, Meredith is the true child of his 
time. 1900 Pilot 2^ June 515/1 This would, .eliminate the 
danger of subjectivism, and secure that the points empha 
sized should not be merely personal or of local . . importance. 
1905 J. ORR Probl. Old Test. v. (1906) 119 These methods 
seem to us eaten through with an arbitrary subjectivism 
which vitiates their application at every point. 

b. An ethical theory which conceives the aim of 
morality to be based upon, or to consist in, the 
attainment of states of feeling. 

1897 tr. Kutye s Introd. P kilos, in The aim of morality 
is for subjectivism the production of a subjective state, 
that of pleasure or happiness (hedonism and eudaemonism). 
1909 Edin. Rev. Oct. 350 So far from weakening religious 
beliefs of an enlightened kind, ethical subjectivism in no 
way affects the question of their veracity. 

Subj activist (szJbd^e-ktivist). [f. prec. : see 
-I3T.] One who believes in or advocates subjecti 
vism. Also attrib. = next. 

1874 tr - Uet envegs Hist. Philos. II. 65 This interpreta 
tion, which would make of Spinoza a Subjectivist. 1883 
F. E. ABBOT Sd. Theism Introd. ii. 43 The subjectivist 
definition of knowledge. Ibid. 44 The utter indifference of 
subjectivists to their own innumerable self-contradictions. 
1911 Encycl. Brit. VI. 850/2 The subjectivist principle that 
forms the starting-point of Berkley. 

Hence Subjectivi*stic a. 

1886 KDERSHEIM Life Jesus I. 208 note, True religion is 
ever objectivistic, sensuous subjectivistic. 1897 tr. KulpJs 
Introd. Philos. 227 Subjectivistic ethics, following psycho 
logy, has taken two different forms, those of hedonism and 
euda;monism. 

Subjectivity (sobd^ektrviti). [f. SUBJECTIVE 
+ -ITY. So mocLL. subjectivitaS) G. s^lbjectivitdt^ 
F. subjectivite.] 

1. Consciousness of one s perceived states. 

1821 COLERIDGE in Black^v. Mag, X. 249 In the object, we 
infer our own existence and subjectivity. I874SAYCE Compar. 
Philol. vii. 287 The idea of life, and therefore of subjectivity, 
is put out of sight. 1883 J. MARTINEAU Types Eth. Th. I. i. 
xi. 8. 211 They forbid us to appropriate to our own sub 
jectivity the intelligent acts of which we are conscious. 
b. A conscious being. 

1830 COLERIDGE in Lit. Rent. (1838) III. i The Identity. 
The absolute subjectivity, whose only attribute is the Good. 
1840 W.H. MILL Apflic. Panth. Princ. \. 103 Individuals 
stand as the subjectivities that realize the substantial of 
the Idea. 

2. The quality or condition of viewing things 
exclusively through the medium of one s own mind 
or individuality ; the condition of being dominated 
by or absorbed in one s personal feelings, thoughts, 
concerns, etc. ; hence, individuality, personality. 

[1812 SOUTH EY Omniana I. 220 The nature of Bulls, which 
will be found always to contain in them a confusion of (what 
the Schoolmen would have called) Objectively and Sub 
jectively, in plain English, Ihe impression of a thing as it 
exists in itself and extrmsically, with the idea which the mind 
abstracts from the impression.] 1837 HARE Guesses (1859) 97 
Often, .the plural we is., a help to those who cannot get quit 
of their subjectivity, or write about objects objectively. 1844 
W. G. WARD Ideal Chr. Ch. (ed. 2) 79 The vast increase of 
what is called subjectivity ; the very much greater portion 
of man s life and interest which is occupied in observation 
of his own thoughts, feelings, and actions. 1871 R. H. 
HUTTON Ess. I. 248 Subjectivity , as it is called, clouds 
the eyes; we want to know how far our own individual 
deficiencies, and sins, and impulses, colour our vision. 1880 
Scribner s Mag. XX. 117 [Poe s] studies of character were 
not made from observation, but from acquaintance with 
himself; and this subjectivity, or egoism, crippled his in 
vention. 1886 PATF.R Ess. fr. Guardian i. n This pioneer 
of an everybody s literature had his subjectivities. 

b. That quality of literary or graphic art which 
depends on the expression of the personality or 
individuality of the artist ; the individuality of an 
artist as expressed in his work. 

1830 COLERIDGE Table T. 12 May, A subjectivity of the 
poet, as of Milton, who is himself before himself in every 
thing he writes. 1882-3 Schaff*s Encycl. Rclig. Knowl. 1 1. 
953/2 Characteristics of Hebrew.. poetry : i. Subjectivity. 
The Hebrew poet deals only with what concerns him 
personally. 1889 SIR E. ARNOLD Seas fy Lands iv. (1895) 49 
1 Fidelis 1 (Agnes Maude Machar), who is frequently called 
the first of Dominion poetesses, excels in a graceful sub 
jectivity. 

3. = SUBJECTIVISM i. 

1839 HALLAM Lit. Eur, iv. iii. 55 His [Malebranche s] 
philosophy, .is subjectivity leading objectivity in chains. 
1876 FAIRBAIRN in Contemp. Rev. June 133 Feuerbach.. 
developed the Hegelian subjectivity into the negation of 
objective reality. 

4. The quality or condition of resting upon sub 
jective facts or mental representation ; the cha 
racter of existing in the mind only. 

1877 E. CAIRO Philos. Kant \\. iv. 262 The mere subjecti 
vity of sensation. 1884 F. TEMPLE Relat. Rclig. % Sci. v. 
(1885) 132 The pure subjectivity of Religion.. is no more 
proved by this argument than the pure subjectivity of 
Science. 1888 Mind Oct. 596 Belief in the subjectivity of 
time, space and other forms of thought inevitably involves 



SUBJECT-MATTER. 

Agnosticism; belief in their objectivity in no way implies 
the rejection of Idealism. 



Subjectivize (s^bdse-ktivsiz), v. [f. SUB 
JECTIVE +-IZE.] trans. To make subjective. Hence 
Subje-ctivized///. a., Subje-ctivizing vbl. st>. 



truth. 1868 J. H. STIRLING tr. Schwegler s Hist. Philos, 
336 Converting into objectivity, the subjectivized theoretical 
matter (truth). 1890-1 J. ORR Chr. View Gad v. (1893) 2I 
This weakening down and subjectivising of the idea of guilt. 

Subjecti VO- (sbdgektai-vo), comb, form of 
SUBJECTIVE = subjective and . . ., subjectively. 

1846 SIR W. HAMILTON Rail s Wks. Note D. 845/2 The 
first of these [qualities of Body] I would denominate the 
class of Primary, or Objective, Qualities ; the second, the 
class of Secundo- Primary, or Subjective-Objective Qualities. 
1868 J. H. STIRLING tr. Schwegler s Hist. Philos. 276 A 
loosely connected intertexture of old subjective-idealistic 
views, and of new objective-idealistic ones. Ibid. 384 The 
cognized object .. if itself mental, is subjective-objective. 

Su bjectless, a. [f. SUBJECT si>. + -LESS.] 

1. Having no subject of interest. 

1803 JANE PORTER Thaiideits (Warne) 101 Sick of his 
subjectless and dragging conversation. 1889 Universal Rev. 
15 Feb. 249 The subjectless dulness of modern design. 

2. With no subjects to rule. 

1840 CARLYLE Heroes vi. 370 The subjects without King 
can do nothing ; the subjectless King can do something. 

3. Of a proposition, sentence, verb : Having no 
subject. 

1874 Supernal. Relifr. II. n. vi. 51 With nothing more 
definite than a subjectless <$>r\tjl to indicate who is referred 
to. 1875 M. ARNOLD God t, Bible v. 269 It is not true that 
the author, .wields the subjectless he says in the random 
manner alleged. 1902 tr. Brcntano s Ktunvl. Right $ H rong 
App. 115 Miklosich expressed the view that the finite verb 
of subjectless propositions always stands in the third person 
of the singular. 

Subject-like, a. or adv. rare. [-LIKE.] Like 
a subject ; submissive(ly). 

1553 in Kempe Losely MSS. (1836) 140 Being in his house., 
in perfecte quyettnes, good order, obedyence, and subjecte- 
lyke. 

t Su bjectly, a. Obs. rare. [f. SUBJECT si. + 
-LY .] Obedient, submissive. 



a 1603 T. CARTWRIGHT Confnt. Rhem. N. T. (1618 
Our quiet and subiectly behauiour. 

Su bject-matter. ^Earlier matter subject-, see 
SUBJECT a. 7 ; cf. F. matiere sujette, from c 1500.) 
[= SUBJECT a. + MATTER sb.l ; tr. late L. subjecta 
materia (Boethius), which represents Gr. % viro- 
xtifttvij v\rj (Aristotle).] 

I. (Cf. vTTOKftfjtfvij v\rj in Arist. Physics B i.) 
1. The matter operated upon in an art, a process, 

etc. ; the matter out of which a thing is formed. 

\c 1374, 1586 matter subject : see MATTER sb. 1 6.] a 1542 
WYATT J Penit. Ps. L 58 Thy infynite mercye wantenedesit 
muste Subiect matter for hys operatyon. 1626 BACON Syh>a 
343 The Excluding of the Aire ; And . . the Exposing to the 
A ire. . worke the same Effect, according to the Nature of the 
Subiect Matter. 1662 EVELYN Sculpt ura 6 Chalcography. . 
an Art which takes away all that is superfluous of the Subject 
matter, reducingit to that Forme or Body, which wasdisign d 
in the Idea of the Artist. 1662 HIBBEKT Body Dtv. n.io6The 
infinite Creator . . when he made him [sc. man] implyed by the 
subject-matter out of which she was made, manssoveraignty 
over her [sc. woman]. 1676 ALLEN Addr. Nonconf. 101 The 
whole body of a Nation who are baptized into the Universal 
Church.. are in that respect subject matter of a Church. 
1867 Eng. Leader 15 June 326 In every process whatever., 
the subject- matter, the hypostase, is not two instants in the 
same state. 

^2. The ground, basis, or source ^/"something. Obs. 

1600 HOLLAND Livy \. 28 Let us therefore cherish.. the 
subject matter of so great a publicke and private ornament 
\materiem ingentis publice privatitnque decoris.] a 1683 
OWEN Disc. Holy Spirit i. vi. (1693) 88 That God abideth 
in us and we in him is the subject matter of our Assurance. 

II. (Cf. vTTOKftptvi] vkrj in Arist. Eth. Nic. I. 
iii, vii.) 

3. Material for discourse or expression in lan 
guage ; facts or ideas as constituting material for 
speech or written composition, occas. for artistic 
representation; = MATTER sbJ- 9. 

[1586 matter subject : see MATTER sbJ- 9.] 1702 W. J. tr. 
Bruyn s Voy. Levant v. 12 The Rocks of Scylla and Charyb- 
dis, which afforded so much subject Matter to the ancient 
Poets. 1759 DILWORTH Pope 1 16 Subject-matter for his satyri- 
cal muse, he never wanted. 1854 tr. Hettne r s A thens $ 
Pelop. 89 The Persian wars, which.. supplied subject-matter 
for the frieze of the Temple of Nike Apteros. 1875 M. ARNOLD 
Ess. Crit. i. (ed. 3) 43 The subject-matter which literary 
criticism should most seek. 1893 G. MOORE Mod. Painting 
22 What . . has this painter invented, what new subject matter 
has he introduced into art ? 

4. The subject or theme of a written or spoken 
composition; MATTER sbl 10. 

1598 R. BERNARD tr. Terence, Andria Prol., [Menander s 
AndriaandPerinthia] albeit they differ little in the subject 
matter: yet notwithstanding they are vnlike in composition. 
1649 ROBERTS Clavis Bibl. Introd. iii. 43 A summary Re 
capitulation., of the chief aime and subject-matter of every 
book. 1698 M. LISTER Journ. Paris (1609) 107 [A catalogue] 
is disposed according to the Subject Matter of the Books, 
as the Bibles and Expositors, Historians, Philosophers, &c. 
1751 LABELVE Westm. Br. 105 The Number of Plates proper 
to illustrate the Subject-matter of each Volume. 2844 KING- 
LAKE Eothen iil (1847) 36 The subject matters are slowly, aud 
patiently enumerated, without disclosing the purpose of the 



SUBJECT-OBJECT. 



27 



SUBJUGATION. 



speaker until he reaches the end of his sentence. 1877 J. D. 
CHAMBERS Div. Worship 377 The subject matter being 
proper for the Sermon. 

5. The substance of a book, treatise, speech, or 
the like, as distinguished from \\\t form or style ; 
= MATTER sb.^ 11. 

1633 PRVNNR ist Ft. Histrio-m. in. i. 65 The Stile, and 
subiect Matter of most Comical!, and Tbeatricall Enter- 
ludes. 1752 EARL ORRERY Rem. Swift 181 The subject. 
matter of these pamphlets may perhaps be little worth your 
consideration; but their style will always command your 
attention. 1837 LOCK HART Scott IV. v. 153 Both as to 
subject-matter and style and method, remote a Scxvolx 
studiis. 1872 MINTO Engl. Prose Lit. Introd. 23 Had 
Campbell not been needlessly anxious to isolate the style 
from the subject matter. 1873 Stud. Handbk. Univ. Oxford 
103 Candidates are expected to be able to translate the Greek 
text, and to answer questions on the subject-matter. 

6. That with which thought, deliberation, or dis 
cussion, a contract, undertaking, project, or the like 
is concerned ; that which is treated of or dealt with. 

1657 CROMWELL Sp. 21 Apr., In considering and debating 
of those things that were the subject-matter of debate and 
consideration. 1660 CLARKNDOM Kss. Tracts (1727) 176 Let 
the law prescribe what it will, and the Kins command what 
he will, their obedience to either is not the subject-matter 
of this vow. 1692 LUTTRELL Brief Rel. (1857) II. 647 The 
lords intend to have another conference with the commons 
on the subject matter of the last. 1740 in Hanway Trav. 
(1762) 1. 1. viii. 33 We communicated to them captain elton s 
project, and have received their opinion.. on the subject- 
matter thereof. 1826 BENTHAM Humphrey s Prop. Code in 
Wtstm. Rev. (1826) VI. 466 If the subject-matter be a 
fractional right, as a right of mine- working,.. mention it 
accordingly. If subject-matters more than one are included 
in the deed, mention them accordingly. 1850 NEWMAN 
Diffic. Anglicans i. x. (1891) I. 304 A series of victories over 
human nature, which is the subject-matter of her [the 
Church s] operations. 1865 MOZLEY Afirac. v. 135 The 
individual uses the totally distinct principles of faith and 
reason according to the subject-matter before him. 1875 
MANNING Mission Holy Ghost xii. 330 There is a difference 
between the subject-matter of prudence and the subject- 
matter of counsel. 1875 DIGBY Real Prop. viii. (1876) 344 
That a witness who had any interest in the Subject-matter 
of his testimony was therefore not a credible witness at all. 
1884 tr. Lotzc s Mctaph. 532 Those defects of memory that 
occur with regard to a certain definite subject-matter of our 
ideas; e. g. the forgetting of proper names. 

b. That with which a science, law, etc. deals ; 
the body of facts or ideas with which a study is 
concerned; = MATTER j.l 12. 

1660 JER. TAYLOR Duct. Dnhit. in. vL rule iii. 3 Some 
laws have in them a natural rectitude or usefulnesse in order 
to moral ends, by reason of the subject matter of the law. 
1765 ULACKSTONE Comm . Introd . 60 As to the subject matter, 
words are always to be understood as having a regard 
thereto. 1818 HAZLITT Engl. Poets i. (1870) i In treating 
of poetry, I shall speak first of the subject-matter of it. 1864 
BOWEN Logic xiii. 440 The subject-matter of calculations 
in the Theory of Probabilities is quantity of belief. 1874 
SAYCE Compar. Philol. i. 52 Articulate speech itself, the 
subject-matter of philology. 1895 Educat. Rev. Sept. 117 
Those studies whose subject-matter is the direct product of 
intelligence. 

C. Law. The matter in dispute. 

1843-56 BOUVIKR Law Diet. (ed. 6) II. 553/3 Subject- 
matter^ the cause, the object, the thing in dispute. 1849 
COBDEN Speeches 19 Each should be bound to submit the 
subject-matter of dispute to arbitration. 1888 Weekly Notes 
22 Dec. 246/2 Because the parties had agreed to divide the 
subject matter of the litigation amongst themselves in a 
manner not in accordance with their actual title. 

Subject-Object. Philos. A subjective object; 
the immediate object of cognition presented to the 
mind as distinguished from the real object ; applied 
by Fichte to the ego. 

1821 COLERIDGE in Btackw, Mag. X. 949/1 The subject 
witnesses to itself that it is a mind, i.e. a subject-object, or 
subject that becomes an object to itself. 1836-7 SIR W. 
HAMILTON Metaplt, xxiii. (1859) II. 69 The immediate 
object, or object known in this act, should be called the 
subjective object^ or subject-object^ in contradistinction to 
the mediate or unknown object, which might be discrimi 
nated as the object-object. 1847 LEWES Hist. Philos. (1867) 
II. 485 The thought is necessarily and universally subject- 
object, matter is necessarily, and to us universally object- 
subject. 1897 tr. Fichte $ Set. Ethics 47 This whole Ego, in 
so far as it is neither subject nor object, but subject-object, 
has, in itself, a tendency to absolute self- activity. 

Hence Su bject-objectl vity, a being that is sub 
ject and object, conscious being. 

1848 W. SMITH Fichte s Pop. Wks. I. 440, I am subject 
and object : and this subject-objcct.ivity^ this return of 
knowledge upon itself, is what I mean by the term I , 

t Subjectory, a. Obs. [f. SUBJECT sb. + -OBT.] 
? Inherent. 

1614 W. B. Philos. Banquet fed. a) Pref. 3 There aresub- 
iectory and pertinent peremptorie infirmities besides there- 
vnto (sc. the eye] belonging ingendred, by Rheum cs [etc.]. 

Strbj ectship. [f. SUBJECT sb. + -SHIP,] The 
condition or status of a 



es of British 



condition or status of a subject. 

i84 Reading July 94 The rights and privileges 
subjcctshin. 1876 I!ATHO\TK Deef Things of Gad vi. 
The moral nature of man is the fact out of which both his 
sonship and his subjectship spring. 

II Subjee (sobd, ? r). Also subdsohi, (erron.) 
aubjsh. [ad. Urdu (j*~i sabsT greenness, verdure, 
etc., bhang, f. sain, a. Pers. sebz green.] The leaves 
and seed capsules of Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) 
used for making bhang also, a drink made from 
an infusion of bhang. 



1836 Penny Cycl. VI. 239/2 The drug obtained from hemp 
is called bang, or haschish, or cherris: gangika, or grm^a, 
kinnab, subjah, majah, are other names for it. 1855 OUNGLI- 
SON Med. Lex., Ban&ue t ,,Sitbjee, 1880 KncycL Brit. XI. 
648/2 Bkangj the Hindustani siddhiai sabzi. .is powdered 
and infused in cold water, yielding a turbid drink, subdschi. 
1887 BESTLEY Man.Bot. (ed. 5! 665 Bhang^ Suiyc,ox -Suffice, 
the larger leaves and fruits without the stalks. 

Subjeation, refashioned form of SUGGESTION. 
Cf. SUBJECTION IT 12. 

X 55fi J- HEYWOOD Spider fy Flic xcii. 186 Serch their sub- 
iestions: how they niaie agree: To be graunted, with 
honorable honeste. 1596 J. MELVILI, Z)/n;;y (Wodrow Sue.) 
379 His prejudical dispositioun. .conceavit against us he the 
maist subtill and importune subjestioun of craftie serpentes. 

Subjicible (szJbdarsib l), a. rare. [f. L. sub- 
jicfrt, to SUBJECT + -IBLE.] 

f 1. Capable of being subjected to (dominion, con 
trol, etc.). (Only Jer. Taylor.) Ol s. 

1638 JI-:K. TAYLOR St rm. Gunpowder Treason 50 A thin- 
not suhjicible to their penitentiall judicature. 1649 ( ? 
Exemp. Disc. ii. 6 Ilefore the susception of It be was not 
a person subjicible to a command. 1660 Duct. Dubit. 
in. i. rule 5 2 Actions.. are subjicible to laws. 

2. Logic* Capable of being made the subject of 
a predicate. Hence Snbjicibility. In mod. Diets. 

Subjoin (szjbd-jorn), v. Also 6 subion(n)e, 7 
subjoyn(e. [In early use Sc.: ad. obs. F. subjoindre 
(i5th-i6th c.), ad. L, subjungcre : see Suii- 27 and 
JOIN v.] 

1. trans. To add at the end of a spoken or 
written statement, argument, or discourse ; some 
times, to add (a note) at the bottom of a page. 

a. \\ith words denoting the form or contents of 
the addition as obj. 

1573 TYRIE Rcfut. in Cath. Tract. 10/28, I will pass to the 
mater, first proponand my lettre, thaireftcr his ansuer . .hist 
of all I s.ill subione the refutatioun. 1588 A. KING tr. 
CanisiHS 1 Catfc i. h iiij, I haiflf subionned thais twa tables 
following. i656Jr:ANi:s Mixt. Schol. Dh>. 3 Having re 
moved one feare..he subjoynes a command of an opposite 
fear. 1669 GAI.R Crt. Gentiles I. v. 27 To the,se wt sub- 
joyned the ancient Navigations of the Phcnicians. 1683 
MOXON Afcc/t, E.rerc., Printing i, In the same L!ook there 
are these written Notes subjoyned. 1727 Col. Rcc. Pennsylv. 
III. 283 The several Persons whose names are subjoyned. 
1785 Cowi ER Let. 5 Jan., According to your request I sub 
join my Epitaph on Dr. Johnson. 1801 Alcd. Jrnl. V. 290 
\Ve shall subjoin, verbatim, an outline of the plan of such 
an institution. 1815 Scribbltomania 248, I will, .subjoin 
the opinion of a very clever departed writer. 1835 THIRN- 
WALL Greece \\. I. 187 He subjoins, as a reason, the com 
paratively late age of Homer and Hesiod. 1846 J. IUxi ER 
Libr. Pract. Agric. (ed. 4) II. p. lix, \Ve subjoin from a 
catalogue a list of prices. 1879 LUBBOCK Addr. Pol, <$ Educ. 
iii. 59, I subjoin the answers. 

D. with quoted words or reported statement as 
obj. ; f occas. almost = REJOIN v. 

1646 SIR. T. BKOWNE Pseud. Ep. 217 Bodin explaining 
that of Seneca, Septimus guisque anttus xtati sigiuim 
imprinrit) subjoynes, hoc de ittaribus dictum oportuit 
[etc.]. 1665 MAXLEY Cretins Low C. Wars 725 Subjoyn- 
ing at last, that they were and would be safe against the 
punishments of that cruel Edict. 1670 G. H. Hist. Cardinals 
i. i. 20, I subjoyn d, I do not wonder. 1784 tr. Beckford s 
Vathek 154 We have here then, subjoined Carat his, a 
girl both 01 courage and science. 1853 C. BRONTE \~illettc 
xviii, *She does several things very well. (Flirtation 
amongst the number subjoined I, in thought.) 1862 GOUL- 
BURN Pfrs. Retig. H. i. 205 Work out your own salvation , 
writes the Apostle, with fear and trembling ;. .but then he 
immediately subjoins, for it is God that worketh in you. 

2. To place in immediate sequence or juxtaposi 
tion ; to add as a concomitant or related element. 

1668 WILKINS Real Char. 371 They [vowels] may be both 
preposed and subjoyned to themselves and to one another. 
1701 NOKRIS Ideal World i. ii. 123, I have subjoined a 
minor to his major. 1716 [see sub odore t SUB- 8]. 1751 
HARRIS Hermes n. iv. 283 The Accusative is that Case, 
which to an efficient Nominative and a Verb of Action 
subjoins either the Effect or the Passive Subject. 1803 K. 
HALL Sentiments Pres. Crisis 9 The New Testament sub 
joins to the duty of fearing God, that of honouring the king. 
1835 T. MITCHELL Acham. Aristopk. 669 note t A single 
Ilacchius appears to be subjoined to six anapttsts* 1856 
M. C. CLARKE tr. Berlioz* Instrumentation 3 When Monte- 
verde attempted to subjoin the chord of the seventh on the 
dominant without preparation. 

1 3. In occas. transf. uses : To attach in a sub 
ordinate position; to lie underneath and next to; 
to add as part of a treatment. Obs. 

1631 LITHGOW Trav. vin. 369 [Fez] may rather second 
Grand Caire, than subioyne It selfe to Constantinople. 1703 
T. N. City 9f C. Purch. 26 The.. last Fillet, which subjoyns 
the under side of the upper Thorus. 1706 E. WARD II oodcn 
World Diss. (1708) 101 There s no bringing him to his true 
Temperament again, but by subjoining the Bilboes. 

f 4. To add to, strengthen, reinforce; to subscribe 
to, second (an opinion). Obs. 1 vulgar. 

1810 Splendid Follies I. 158 ( Upon my word, sir replied 
Seraphina, heartily subjoining his laugh. Ibid. III. 65 I m 
sorry to subjoin your opinion,. .by observing that gallantry 
is too often the only characteristic of a soldier, ll-id. i<;s 
Report whispers that she means to subjoin her income with 
the widow s pittance. 

Hence Subjoined ^v#/. a. 

i8ia G. CHALMERS Dem. Econ. Gt. Brit. 442 Let well 
intentioned men mark the subjoined detail of the real 
value of the imports, and exports of Ireland. 1857 MILLER 
Elettt. Chettt., Org. L 18 The subjoined precautions are 
requisite. 1870 L ESTKANGK Life of Miss Mitford I. v. 125 
A mother s resentment at anything which could endanger 
her daughter s success is exhibited in the subjoined letter. 



1879 Encycl. Brit. X. 224/1 The subjoined table gives the 
results of temperature observations at widely separated 
localities. 

Subjoinder (s^bdgorndai). rare*, [t. Suu- 
JOi.v after rejoinder.] A remark subjoined to 
another. 

1831 LAMB Klia \\. Ellistpniana, I was hi.- 
And you have the presumption to decide upon the t.otc of 
the town ? * I don t know that, Sir, but I will never >tund to 
be hissed, was the subjoindtr of young Confidence. 

Subjngable (szrbdg/Jgab l), a. rare, [f. L. 
I subjitgare to Sriui tiATK + -ABLE.] That may be 
subdued or brought under cultivation. 

1886 Science VII. 232 An abundance of good readily sub- 
ju.^able land, awaiting the .suttlcr. 

Subjllgal (szjbdg/T-gal}, <? rare. [ad. late L. 
siibjitgal-is, f. sith- SUB- I +jttgum yoke : see -AL.] 

fl. Under a yoke* or dominion. Obs. 

c 1485 Digt y Mysf. d>82) in. 7, 1 am suvercn of al sovcrcns 
subjugal On-to myn empcre. 

f2. Mus. ?PIn-al. Obs. 

1609 D.JWI.ANH C>)-ni:h. Micro!. Sp The Sonc> o( Autliirii- 
ticall Touts must 1-t- timtil deepe, of the suljiugall Tones 
hiqb, of the nt_-utrall, meanly. 

3. Accustomed to the yoke: of a beast ol Ki.rdcn. 

1896 1 ^. ] . Kvruis A nun. Synii . Reel. Archit. 274 I.o. u ith 
what _ enormous ears This subjugal son appears, Most 
egregious ass. 

4. Anat. [f. SUB- i b + Juc.AL.] Under the juj^al 

bone. In mud. Diets. 

Su bjugate, pa. pple. and sb. [ad. L. sub- 
jit^at-its, pa. pple. of sith/Hgt-irc see next .] 
A. pa. pple. Subjugated. Obs. or arch. 
1432-50 tr. ///-</. (R.iIKi 1. 347 For cause the peple off 
Englonde saycti the Gurmunde to Kane subju 

gate Irlurni". 1447 JIoKrNHAM Scyniys (.KD.vh.l 91 To his 

empere Manyacuntre be had subjugate. 1530 PALSGI .743/1 
For al their hye myi;de they be nrw subiiuriie. 1535 
STEWARTC?V, Scat. I. .14- \ utu the KomanU Mibjun.^at [st, ] 
to be. 1596 LdiL>. ///, in. ii. lie-like, you then de- ; 
success, And think your Country will lie .subjugate. 1611 
STEED Thcat. Gt. Brit. 75/1 Till it was firsl inaiic ^nl.-iu^att; 
to the Inuasion of the 1 lanes. 1616 R. C. Times ll hist/e 
3495 Mans sence captivd e, his reason submenu-. 1631 T. 
POWELL Tom of All Trades (ifyb) 147 The Lord M;uur..to 
whose commandement they be immediately subjugate. 1901 
Westm. Gas. 18 Jan. 2/1 The spirit of revolt not subjugate 
but gone underground. 

f B. sb. A subject Obs. 

773 J- Kn.ss/-v,i.- r/ ( / 1 /V 1.7 ii (MS.) The dupe.. The servile 
subjucate of S. a. in ! 

Subjugate s^bdytf^t), v. [f. L. siibjnga/-) 
pa. ]>pl. stem of subjugare t f. sub- Suit- i + 
jttgttm yoke. (Cf. SUB.IUGK.)] 

1. /rans. To bring under the yoke or into sub 
jection ; to reduce to the condition of a subject 
country or people. 

1432-50 tT.Jiigifcn (Rolls) II. 37 That ylcofWi^lite, whom 
Vespasian sendc fi oni Claudius did subjugate. 1530 PALSGR. 
742/1, I subjugat, I bring under yoke or obeysaunce. 1654 
COKAINE Dieuica iv. 283 Ar.sinoe won, all is won, and the 
kingdome subjugated. 1718 PKIOK Solomon n. 1840 fav rite 
Virgin, that hast warm d the Breast, Whose sov reign 
Dictates subjugate the East ! 1845 I~-ncy>. I. Mctrrf. II. 736/1 
The special commissions given to the children of Israel to 
subjugate the land of Canaan. 1853 NEWMAN Hist. Sk. I. 
l. ii. 74 They neither subjugated the inhabitants of their 
new country. .nor were subjugated by them. 1865 H. 
PHILLIPS Amtr. PapcrCurr. II. 96 The English, .avowed 
their intention of making America a desert if they could not 
subjugate it. 

absoi. 1855 MILMAN Lat. Christ, ix. vii. (1864) V. 361 
This inauspicious attempt to subjugate rather than win. 

2. transf. and Jig. To bring into bondage or 
under complete control ; to make subservient or 
submissive. 

1589 [ NASHE] Almond for Farrat 10 Hewil necdeshaue 
subjects, before he can subjugate his affections. 1606 G. 
W[OOL>COCKE] Hist. Imtine xxxvi. 114 There wns no 
soueraigne of Macedon able to subiugatc their fealty by his 
dominion. 1611 UEAI M & FL. Fcvr Plays, Tri. Hen. i, 
His soul hath subjugated Mariius sn;l. 1667 liovi.K Orit;. 
Formes fy Qnal. (ed. 2) 298 To evince that the same Ingre 
dient for instance, of Sulphur, is not as much subjugated by 
the Form of the intire Body, as that of the purgative portion 
of Rhubarb, by the Form of that Drugg. 1791 BOSWELL 
Johnson (1816) I. 394 Nor can history or poetry exhibit more 
than pleasure triumphing over virtue, or virtue subjugating 
pleasure. 1841 D IsRAi r.i Amen. Lit, (1867) 650 Aristotle 
. .had subjugated the minds of generation after gent-ration. 
1863 GKO. ELIOT Romola xxiii, His love and hi> haired 
were of that passionate fervour which subjugates all the rest 
of the being. 1870 YEATS Nat. Hist. Contnt, 99 The camel, 
an animal so early subjugated to the use of man. 1884 F. 
TEMPLE Rclat. Rclig. <y Set. iv. (1885) 118 Many species of 
animals perish as man fills and subjugates the globe. 

1 3. To place as if under a yoke. Obs. rare. 

1660 F. BROOKE tr. Lc Wane s Trav. 190 This Prince hath 
a high veneration from hb people, who subjugate their 
shoulders for his support [yu i/s le portent svr fours csfaults.] 

Hence Su bjugated, Sirbjugating/y>/. adjs. 

1656 EARL MONM. to.BofcalintsAd-vts.fr. P amass. \. xxi. 
(1674) aa [They] took publick revenge for subjugated liberty. 
Ibid. \\. Ixxx. 232 The subjugated people may in time 
of Peace recover. 1783 Miss Hi RNEV Cecilia vm. v, That 
noble and manly labour, which.. disentangles them from 
such subjugating snares. 187* YEATS Growth Comm. 34 The 
revenue was derived from tribute paid by subjugated races. 

Subjugation (svbd^uge^n). [ad. late L. 
subjugatio, -otitm, n. of action f. subjugdre to 
SUBJUGATE. Cf. F. subjugation^ 

1. The action of subjugating or condition of being 

4-a 



SUBJUGATOR. 



28 



SUB-LEASE. 



subjugated ; the bringing of a country or nation 
under the yoke of a conquering power. 

1658 PHILLIPS, a 1676 HALE Prim. Orig. Man. 11. iv. 160 
This was the condition of Greece the Learned Part of the 
World after their subjugation by the Turks. axSo6 HORS- 
LEY Serm, viii. (1812) I. 143 The subjugation of nations, by 
the prosecution of this war. 1823 SCOTT Talistn. vii, The 
English fighting for the subjugation of Scotland, and the 
Scottish, .for the defence of their independence. 1883 
H. WAGE Gospel fy Witn, iv. 74 The craving of the Jews for 
their temporal deliverance from subjugation to a heathen 
power. 1910 Encycl. Brit. (ed. n) VI. 965/1 There is sub 
jugation , says Rivier. ., when a war is terminated by the 
complete defeat of one of the belligerents, so that all his 
territory is taken, .and he ceases, .to exist as a state. 

2. transf. and Jig. Intellectual or moral subjec 
tion ; reduction to a state of subserviency or sub 
mission; occas. the action of subduing (the soil). 

1785 PALEY Mar. Philos. vi. ii. 406 The almost universal 
subjugation of strength to weakness. 1849 RUSKIN Seven 
Lamps vii. 2. 184 Obedience is, indeed, founded on a 
kind of freedom, else it would become mere subjugation. 
1856 KANE Arctic Expl. II. App. 305 The. .exertions of 
Df- J. J. Hayes.. kept the scurvy in complete subjugation. 
1858 B. TAYLOR Xorthem Trav. 307 The subjugation of 
virgin soil.. is a serious work. 1871 MORLF.Y Carlyle in 
Crit. Misc. 224 The essence of morality is the subjugation 
of nature in obedience to social needs. 



. 

Subjugator (Sfrbdstfgftax). [ad. late L. sub 
jugator, a^ent-n. f. subjugdre to SUBJUGATE.] One 
who subjugates ; a subduer, conqueror. 

a 1834 COLERIDGE (Wore.). 1858 GLADSTONE Homer I. 
452 ^ ne subjugators of some race in prior occupancy of the 
soil. 1875 POSTK Gains i. (ed. 2) 62 Paulus Aemilius, the 
subjugator of Epirus. 

t SubjU ge, v. Obs. Also 5 -iugue. [ad. F. 
subjuguer or L. subjugdre to SUBJUGATE.] trans. 
To subjugate. Also Subju ging vbl. sb. 

1471 CAXTON /?#cyf//(Sommer) 367 They late yow wete 
that they haue good right tosubiugue yow. 1474 Chesse 
ill. v. (1883) 124 A knyghtof rome..that had newly conqnerid 
and subiuged the yle of Corsika. 1592 WYRLEY Arnwrie 
26 Such people by plains feate of Armes subjuged. 1660 
A. SADLER Subj. Joy 29 Except thou..make Us bow, And 
yield our Necks, to thy Subjuging too. 

Subjunction (stfbd^-rjkpm). Now rare. [ad. 
late L. subjunctio, -onem, n. of action f. subjungZre 
to SUBJOIN.] The action of subjoining a state 
ment, etc. ; the condition of being subjoined, 
annexed, or closely attached. 

1633 T. ADAMS Exp. 2 Peter iii. 18. 1591 Paul could not 
speake of this mercie without the subjunction of glorie. 
"733 J- CLAKKE Gram. Lat. Tongue 155 In Dependence 
upon, or in Subjunction to some other Verb. 1783 ULAIR 
Lect. y\. I. 218 The subjunction of Dolabella s character is 
foreign to the main object. 1869 WKS^ELY Diet. Engl. fy 
Germ, it. Bcifiignng addition, subjunction. 

Subjunctive (s^bd.^z?-nktiv), a. and sb. [ad. 
L. subfunctiv-us, f. subjunct-, pa. ppl. stem of sub- 
junglre to SUBJOIN. Cf. F. subjonctif^ It. sub- 
iuntivo, Sp. subjuntivo ; also It. soggiuntivo!\ 
A. adj. 

1. Gram. That is subjoined or dependent. 

L. sutyunctiyns is a translation of Gr. VTOTUKTIATO?, which 
as a grammatical term was used variously with the meaning 
subjoined : see below. 

fa. Subjunctive article (Gr.apOpov vnoraKTtKov} , 
the relative os- 77 o, as opposed to the * prepositive 
article * o f) TO ; hence subjunctive pronoun , adverb 
= relative pronoun, adverb. Subjunctive vowel 
(L. "vocalis SUbjunetivO) Gr. fytavriev VITOTO.K TIKOV}, 
the second vowel of a diphthong. Subjunctive 
proposition^ a subordinate clause. Obs. 

1583 subjunctive article [see PREPOSITIVE]. 1603 HOLLAND 
Plutarch s Mor. 1355 This particle or Conjunction Et, that 
is to say, If, and.. what Subjunctive proposition soever 
following after it. 1700 A. LANE Key Art Lett. (1705! 10 
E Subjunctive is written at the end of a word, aftera single 
Consonant to make the single Vowel before it long. 1751 
HARRIS Hermes \. v. (1765) 79 We may with just reason.. 
call this Pronoun the Subjunctive, because it cannot . . intro 
duce an original Sentence. 1818 STODDART in Encycl. 
Metrrf, (1845) 1. 43/1 The principal subjunctive pronouns in 
English are who and which, and sometimes that. 1824 
L. MURRAY Engl. Gram. (ed. 5) I. 195 When we read the 
first chapter of Genesis, we perceive, that this subjunctive 
pronoun, as it may be called, occurs but seldom. 

b. Designating a mood (L. modus subjunctivus^ 
Gr. viroTaKTtttf) ryvJUOtt) the forms of which are 
employed to denote an action or a state as con 
ceived <^and not as a fact) and therefore used to 
express a wish, command, exhortation, or a con 
tingent, hypothetical, or prospective event. (The 
mood is used in both principal and subordinate 
clauses ; cf., however, CONJUNCTIVE a. 3 c.) Also, 
belonging to this mood, e.g. subjunctive present 
or present subjunctive. 

So named because it was regarded as specially appropriate 
to subjoined or subordinate clauses. 

1530 PALSGR. 84 Thesubj unctive mode whiche they ever use 
folowyng an other verbe, and addyng this worde que before 
hym. 1612 BRINSLKY Posing Pts. (1669) 31 Why isit called 
the Subjunctive ^Mood? A. Because it dependeth upon 
some other Verb in the same sentence, either going before, 
or coming after it. 1669 MILTON Acced. Gram. 17 There 
be four Moods, which express the manner of doing ; the 
Indicative, the Imperative, the Potential or Subjunctive, 
and the Infinitive. 1751 HARRIS Hermes i. viii. (1765) 143 
This Mode, as often as it is in this manner subjoined, is 



called by Grammarians not the Potential, but the Sub 
junctive. 1839 T. MITCHELL Frogs Aristopk, 589 note, 
Examples of a subjunctive interrogative in the present tense 
..are not wanting in the Greek writings. 1853 MAX MULLER 
Chips 11880) I. iii. 79 No subjunctive mood existed in the 
common Sanskrit. 1861 PALEY sEschylus ed. 2) Pcrs.^im 
To combine an aorist subjunctive with a future indicative. 
C. Characteristic of what is expressed by the 
subjunctive mood j contingent, hypothetical. 

1837 G. PHILLIPS Syriac Gram, in The tenses, .in many 
cases express a potential, subjunctive, or hypothetical sense. 
1866 R. CHAMBERS Ess. Ser. n. 214 One of the subjunctive 
heroes of literature and science. 1893 Hansard s Pftrl, 
Debates Ser. HI. VIII. 1589 To make a subjunctive or con- 
tingent apology. 

1 2. In general sense : Additional to. Obs. rare. 

a 1670 HACKET Abp. Williams \. 87 A few things more, 
subjunctive to the former, were thought meet to be Castiga* 
ted in Preachers at that time. 

f3. (See quot.) Obs. rarr~. 

> 1656 BLOUNT Glossogr.^ Subjunctive^ that under-sets, or 
joyns underneath. 

B. sb. Gram, 

1. The subjunctive mood ; a form of a verb belong 
ing to the subjunctive mood. 

1622 J. W. tr. OndMs Sp. Gram. 4 Coger . .maketh in the 
Optatiue and Subiunctiue C6ja. 1728 CHAMBERS Cycl. s.v. 
Alcod, Men might have invented a particular Inflection... 
But they han t done it; and in lieu thereof, make use of 
the Subjunctive, 1835 T. MITCHELL Acharn. Aristopk, 
253 nofe l The subjunctive thus used without ac has an in 
terrogative and future signification. 1860 G. P. MARSH 
Lect. Engl. Lang. xiv. 317 The subjunctive is evidently 
passing out of use, and there is good reason to suppose that 
it will soon become obsolete altogether. 1875 POSTE Gains 
I. fed. 2) 36 The edicts and interdicts of the praetor are 
couched in the subjunctive (Exhibeas, Restituas, &C.), a 
milder form of imperative. 

f 2. A relative. Obs. rare. 

:8i8 STODDAHT in Encycl. Metrpp. (1845) I. 83/2 WJiere^ 
whence, and it-hither, .serve indifferently for interrogatives 
and subjunctives. 

Hence Subju nctively adv. t in the subjunctive 
mood, as a subjunctive. 

1651 HOBBKS Leviathan i. vi. 29 Deliberation js expressed 
Subjunctively ; which is a speech proper to signifie supposi 
tions. 1871 Public School Lat. Gram. 67. 167 Examples of 
the Conjunctive Mood used Subjunctively accidit ut 
fiegrotent. 

Su bki ngdom. [Sus- 7 b.] One of the pri 
mary groups into which the animal and vegetable 
kingdoms are divided. 

1825 W. S. MACLEAY Annulosa Javan. 5 If we.. descend 
from the consideration of the kingdom Anhnnlia to the 
department or sub-kingdom Annulosa. 1851 CARPENTER 
Man. Phys. (ed. 2) 131 These Red Corpuscles can scarcely 
be said to exist in the blood of Invertebrated animals, 
and their proportion in the blood of Vertebrata varies 
considerably in the several groups of that sub-kingdom. 
1870 H. A. NICHOLSON Alan, Zool. (1875) 16 The six types 
or plans of structure, upon one or other of which all known 
animals have been constructed, are technically called sub- 
kingdoms , and are known by the names Protozoa, Ccelen- 
terata, Annuloida, Annulosa, Mollusca, and Vertebrata. 
1877 DAWSON Orig. World x. 213 The three Cuvierian sub- 
kingdoms of the Radiata, Articulata, and Mollusca. 1900 
B. D. JACKSON Gloss. Bot.^ Terms, Subkingdom, the main 
division of a kingdom, a primary botanic division, as Phane 
rogams and Cryptogams. 

t Sublabe. Obs. rare~ l . [ad. L. sublabiutn 
(recorded only as a plant-name), f. sub- SUB- 3 + 
labium lip.] The underlip. 

1577 GRANGE Golden Aphrod. E iv, Mundifiyng their 
beardes, cristalling their teeth, correcting their haires, cut 
ting their sublabes. 

Sublapsarian (scblsepseVrian), sb. and a. 
Theol. [f. mod.L. sublapsarius, f. sub- SUB- 17 
+ lapsus fall, LAPSE : see -IAN. Cf. F. siiblapsaire.] 

A. sb. = INFRALAPSARIAN A, q. v. 

1656 JER. TAYLOR Deus Justificatits 33 The Sublapsa- 
rians say, That God made it by his decree necessary, that 
all wee who were born of Adam should be born guilty of 
Originall Sin. a 1660 HAMMOND Hell Torm. (1665) 67 They 
which deny all irrespective decree of Reprobation or Przete. 
rition against Supralapsarians and Sublapsarians. 1765 
MACLAINE tr. Mosheims Eccl. Hist. Cent. xvn. n. ii. 12 
The Reformed church was immediately divided into Uni- 
versalists, Semi-universalists, Supralapsarians, and Sub- 
lapsarians. 1851 R. S. HAWKER in Life $ Lett. (1905) ay 
His little girl is a Sub-lapsarian. 1894 SIMKINSON Laud i. 
13 The Puritan chiefs, divided into two hostile camps of 
sublapsarians and Supralapsarians, argued interminably the 
question^ whether the Divine decrees of rigid election or 
reprobation dated from before or after the fall of Adam. 

B. adj. = INFRALAPSABIAN B. 

a 1660 HAMMOND Pact/. Disc. 14 The Decree of Reproba 
tion according to the Sublapsarian Doctrine, being nothing 
else but a meer preterition or non-election of some persons 
whom God left, as he found. (11751 DODDRIDGE Z/. (176^) 
460 The Supralapsarian and Sublapsarian schemes agree in 
asserting the doctrine of predestination, but with this differ 
ence. ,.1765 MACLAINE tr. Mosheim s Eccl. Hist. Cent xvn. 
n. n. ii. 10 The Sublapsarian doctors. 1885 Encycl. Brit. 
XIX. 671/1 The canons of Dort.. are favourable to the sub- 
lapsarian view. 

Hence Sublapsa rianism, the doctrine of the 
snblapsarians. So f Subla psary a. = SUBLAP- 
SAUIAN B. 

17*8 CHAMBERS Cyc?., Sublafsary t in Theology ; or Infra- 
lapsary ; a Term applied to such as hold, that God having 
foreseen the Fall of Adam, and in consequence thereof, the 
Loss of Mankind ; resolved to give a Grace sufficient to 
Salvation to some, and to refuse it to others. 1865 1 all 



MallGaz. 20 Oct. ii Predestinarianism, Supra-Iapsarjamsm, 
Sublapsarianism. with all their \aripus minor variations. 
1875 SPURGRON Lect. Stud. Ser. i. 78 The great problems of 
sublapsarianism and supralapsarianism. 

t Subla te, pa.pple. Obs. rarf~ l . [ad. L. sub- 
Idt-us (see next).] Removed. 

1694 MOTTEUX Rabelais v. 249 Then All arise, the Tables 
are sublate. 

Sublate (sbl^-t), v. [f. L. sublat-, f. sttb~ 
SUB- 25 + lot- (for *tlat-\ pa. ppl. stem Qitolltre to 
take away.] 

\ 1. trans. To remove, take away. Obs. 

a 1548 HALL Chron., Hen. VI /, i b, The aucthores of y* 
mischiefe [were] sublated and plucked awaye, 1601 B. JON- 
SON Ev. Ulan in H unt, (Qo. i) n. iii, This brasse varnish being 
washt off, and three or foure other tricks sublated. 1657 
HAWKE Killing is M, 46 Tiberius, .was sublated by poison. 

2. Logic. To deny, contradict, disaffirm : opposed 
to POSIT 2. 

1838 SIR W. HAMILTON Logic xvii. (1866) I. 331 When of 
two opposite predicates the one is posited or affirmed, the 
other is sublated or denied. 1864 BOWEN Logic vi. 16^ As 
both cannot be false, if I sublate one, the other is posited. 
1867 ATWATER Logic iBo Whether, in the Subsumption,the 
Disjunct Members are properly sublated. 

3. Hegelian Philos. (rendering G. aufheben^ used 
by Hegel as having the opposite meanings of 
destroy and preserve ) : see quots. 1865. 

1865 J. H. STIRLING Secret of Hegel I. 354 Nothing passes 
over into Being, but Being equally sublates itself, is a 
passing over into Nothing, Ceasing- to-be. They sublate 
not themselves mutually, not the one the other externally; 
but each sublates itself in itself, and is in its own self the 
contrary of itself. Ibid. 357 A thing is sublated, resolved, 
only so far as it has gone into unity with its opposite. 1868 
tr. Schweglers Hist. Philos. 401 The speculative of 
Hegel is also clear ; it is what explanatorily sublates all 
things into the unity of God ; or, in general, that is specu 
lative, that sublates a many into one (or vice versa). A 
speculative philosophy, consequently, must be a chain of 
mutually sublating counterparts. 1877 K. CAIRO Philos. Kant 
H. x. 427 The material world exists only in so far as it goes 
into itself, or sublates its own self-externality. 1910 J. ORR 
in Expositor Apr. 367 High metaphysical theories, like 
Hegel s, which make sin.. a moment of negation to be 
afterwards sublated in a higher unity. 

Subla ted, ppL a. [f. L. sublatus (see prec.) 
+ -EDI.] 

f 1. Exalted, excited. Obs. 

1647 LILLY Chr. Astral, xliv. 277 Their disease shall pro 
ceed from.. high and sublated Pulses, keeping no order. 

2. Hegelian Philos. (See SUBLATE v. 3.) 

1868 J. H. STIRLING tr. Schivegler s Hist. Philos. 264 The 
non-ego has position only in the ego, in consciousness : the 
ego, consequently, is not sublated oy the non-ego; after all 
the sublated ego is not sublated. 

Sublateral (sblas-teral\ a. [f. SUB- ii + 
L. /afus t later- side + -AL.] Almost lateral ; situated 
near the side. 

1823 J. PARKINSON Outl. Oryctol. 188 The beaks sublateral, 
lying on the shorter side. 1870 HOOKER Stud. Flora 318 
Radicle basal or sublateral. 1873 DARWIN Insectw. PI. x. 
251 There are tentacles on the disc. .near the extremities 
of the sublateral bundles. 

Sublatiou (sobl^ Jan). [ad. L. sublatio, 
-onem, n. of action f. sublat- (see SUBLATE .).] 

f" 1. The middle part of a liquid that has thrown 
its sediment. Obs. 

1533 ELYOT Cast. Helth (1541) 88 b, If lyke thynges be 
sene in the myddell of the urynall, they be called sublations. 
1590 BARROUGH Meth. Phisick iv. vii. (1596) 233 Their vrine 
hath by and by a white cloude, or a laudable sublation in 
the middes. 

2. The act of taking away, removal. 

1626 J. YATES Ibis ad Cxsaretn \. 18 The subversion of 
Sauls Kingdome, dispersion of the lewes, rejection of the 
guests, sublation of the talents, a 1656 BP. HALL Rent. 
IVks. (1660) 188 He could not be forsaken by a sublation of 
union. 1913 DORLAND Med. Diet., Sublation, theremovai; 
detachment, or displacement of a part. 

b. Logic. (See SUBLATE v. 2.) 

1864 BOWEN Logic vii. 219 Only by the non-existence, or 
sublation, of all the others. 

c. Hegelian Philos. (See SUBLATE v. 3.) 

1865 J. H. STIRLING Secret of Hegel I. 356 Aufhebenund 
das Aufgehobene (das Ideelle), sublation and what is sub 
lated (and so only ideellement, not reellement is), this is., 
a ground-form which repeats itself everywhere and always, 
the sense of which is to be exactly apprehended and particu 
larly distinguished from Nothing. 

t 3. A lifting up, elevation. Obs. 

1653 R. G. tr. Bacon s Hist. Winds 382 Let us enquire 
whether there be any such sublation or raising made by con 
sent, or Magnetick power. 1656 BLOUNT Glossogr., Subla 
tion, a lifting up. 

Subla tive, a. [ad. L. *sublativus, f. sublat- : 
see SUBLATE #.] Annulling, negativing. 

1751 HARRIS Hermes n. ii. 253 note, The conjunction ^ 
being avatperneb?, or sublative. 

Su b-lease, sb. [f. SUB- 9 (e).] A lease granted 
by one who is a lessee or tenant, an underlease. 

1836 BELL Comm. Laws Scot. (ed. 5) I. 67 In assigning a 
sublease, intimation to the principal tenant is not sufficient. 
1838 W. BELL Diet. Law Scot. 582 Both the sublease and 
assignation are completed by possession. 1913 Times 7 Aug. 



1818-43 TYTLER Hist. Scot. (1864) I. 174 In giving leases of 
houses, .he prohibited his tenants and vassals from subleas 
ing them to any except Englishmen. 1885 Law Times 
LXXIX. 233/1 A builder erects a row of cottages on the 



SUB-LET. 

land subleased to him. 1898 TOBIAS Freed, but not Free 39 
All the convicts whom he does not work himself are sub-leased 
by him to other employers, who may desire cheap labour. 

So Sub-lessee-, one who holds or receives a sub 
lease ; Sub-le ssor, one who grants a sub-lease. 

1882 OGU.VIE, Sufi-iessee, 1884 Law Times g Feb. 259/1 
To indemnify the sublessor against breaches of all covenants 
in the head-lease. 

Su b-let, sb. [f. next.] A sub-lease. 

1906 Daily Chron. 14 Sept. 4/5 The extensive shooting 
near Kingume,. .which Lord LUford has on a sub-let. 1906 
A. B. TODD Pott. Ir ks., Autobii^r. iv. 36 My father had 
taken the place in sub-let from the late Mr. John Campbell. 

Sub-le t, v. [f. SUB- 9(0) + LETZJ. 1 ] trans. To 
let (property, a tenement) to a subtenant ; to lease 
out (work, etc.) under a subcontract ; to underlet, 
sublease. 

1766 SMOLLETT TVar . xxxix. II. 223 Mylandlord. .declared 
I should not be permitted to sub-let them to any oiber 
person. 1791 NKWTE Tour Eng. <y Scot. 124 The Chieftain 
. .lets the land, .to renters ; who sub-let it, again, in small 
parcels from year to year, to the lower class of the people. 
z86o A II Year Round No. 68. 427 This man employs the 
needlewomen, or perhaps sublets part of his contract to 
others who employ them. 1865 Q. Rev. July 31 Poulterers 
of Edinburgh and Glasgow rent ground, subletting the 
shooting, and furnishing the shops with the produce. 1871 
AMY DUTTON Streets ty Lanes i. 1 1 That house was occu 
pied by a couple named Cripps, hard, griping people, who 
sublet most of the rooms. 1890 Century Mag. June 221/1 
He s let and sublet, and every man has to make something 
out of him [the convict] each time. 

absol. 1872-4 JKFFERIES Toilers of Field (1892) 242 He 
sub-lets, or takes lodgers, and sometimes these sub-let. 

Hence Snble ttable a. t Sable tter, Sub 
letting vbl. sb. 

1869 Pall Mall Gaz. i Sept. 3 It is, of course, to be sale 
able and devisable. Is it not also to be "subletable? 1861 
MAYHEW Land. Labour II. 230 The *sub-lettors declaring 
..that the rents were raised to them. 1812 SIR J. SINCLAIR 
Syst. Hitsb. Scot. II. 108 The ^subletting of land. 1826 
BELL Comm. Laws Scot. (ed. 5) I. 77 The right, .of sublet 
ting. 1854 M c CuLLOCH Ace. Brit. Empire 1.537 The. legis 
lature passed the Subletting Act, by which the underletting 
of farms was prohibited without the landlord s consent in 
writing. 1888 Times (weekly ed.) n May 15/2 He had 
known three or foursublettings before the work reached the 
workman. 

t Subleva minous, a. Obs. [f.L. *subtevd- 
min- t -amcn^i. sublevare (see SUBLEVE).] Support 
ing, sustaining. 

1661 FELTHAM Resolves \\. ii. 177 God. .by his upholding 
and suh-levaminous Providence, .governs all. 

t Strblevate, pa. pple. Obs. [ad. L. sub- 
levatus, pa. pple, of subtevdre (see SUBLEVE).] 
Raised, exalted. 

1533 FITZHERB. Husb. (1525) 60 His hart.. alway subleuate 
& lyue vp to god in heuen. 

t Su blevate, V. Obs. [f. L. sublevat-, pa. 
ppl. stem of sublevare see next).] 

1. trans. To raise, lift up, elevate. 

1597 A. M. Guillemeau s Fr. Chirurg. 15 b/2 The grounde- 
drawer, to subleuate out of the hoale, the Trepanede bone. 
1613 JACKSON Creed IL 343 Whether God.. cannot, .by. . 
subleuating their dull capacitie by facilitie and plentie of 
externall meanes, repaire whatsoeuer the iniuries of time. 
1656 ULOUNT Glossogr., Suble^-ate^ to lift or hold up ; Also 
to help, aid, ease, lighten or lessen. 1657 Physical Diet. , 
Sul levated t carried upward, as the vapors and spirits in 
distilation, or the dew when the sun riseth, 

2. To sublimate. 

1657 TO.MLINSON Kenou s Disp. oo Which serves for dis 
tilling those things which are easily sublevated. 

t Subleva tion. Obs. [f. L. sublevatio, -fatern, 
n. of action f. sublevare (see next).] 

1. The action of raising or lifting ; elevation ; 
also, a particular point of elevation or height. 

1556 in Robinson More f s Utopia Svb, The iust latitude 
thcruf, that is to say, .. the subleuation or height of the 
pole in that region. 1658 PHILLIPS, Snblevation, a lifting 
up ; also a helping, or easing. 1708 KEILL Anim. Secret. 
179 The Remainder doubled gives 186 the Sublevation of 
the Weight Z. 

2. A rising, revolt. 

1613-18 DANIEL Coll. Hist. Eng. (1626) 32 Nothing could 
be done.. but by a generall subleuation of the people. 
1650 HOWELL (.lirafft s Rev. Naples i. 9 Although the 
Nobility was then joyn d with the people, that Sublevation 
was not very hurtfull. 1699 THMI-LK Hist. Eng. 211 The 
. .Insurrections of the Nobles in England . . were not followed 
by any general Commotion or Sublevation of the People. 

t Subleve, v. Obs. rare-*, [ad. L. sublcuare, 
f. sub- SUB- 25 + levare to raise, lift, f. levis light.] 
trans. To succour. 

1542 St. Papers Hen. I llf, IX. 188 note, He hath chef 
hope to be sublevid of somme smal reward by Your regal 
Mageste. 

Su b-lieute naut. [SUB- 6. Cf. F. sous- 
lieutenant^\ 

\. An army officer ranking next to a lieutenant ; 
formerly, an officer in certain regiments of the 
British Army, corresponding to the ensign in others. 

1701-11 Milit. 4- Sea Diet. (cd. 4} i. Sub- brigadier > Sub* 
Lieutenant^ and the like, are Under-Officers appointed for 
the Ease of those over them of the same Denomination. 
Sub- Lieutenants of Foot take their Post at the Head of the 
Pikes. 1730 BAILEY (folio), Sttb-liftttenant.&n Officer in 
Regiments of Fusileers, where there are no Ensiens. 1736 
Mutt. Hist. Pr. Eugene \ Martt>.\. in A Sub-Lieutenant 
of the Grenadiers of Geschwind. 1837 CARLYLK Fr. Rev. i. 
vii. vii, A patriotic Sublieutenant set a pistol to his car. 



29 

2. An officer in the British Navy ranking next 
below a lieutenant. Formerly called mate. 

1804 Naval Chron. XII. 510 A new Class of Officers, to 
be called Sub-Lieutenants,are to be appointed, selected from 
Midshipmen who have served their time. 1869 Times 
15 Oct., That every midshipman or sub-lieutenant, on re 
turning from his first long cruise, should pa<.s not less than 
a year in a place of naval study. 1898 KITLING 1 let t in. 
Being ii, By the time he has reached his majority a Sub- 
Lieutenant should have seen enough to scber Ulysses. 

Hence Sub-lieute 1 nancy, the position or rank 
of a sub-lieutenant. 

1837 CARLVLE Fr. Rw. n. 11, ii, To such height of Suh- 
lieulenancy has he now got promoted, from Brienne School. 
1893 F. F. MQOKE / Forbid I>anns liv, Charlie liarham 
passed a creditable examination for a sub-lieutenancy. 

t Stvbligate, v. Ol>s. [f. L. subligat-, pa. ppl. 
stem of subligare^ f. sub- Sun- 2 + ligare to bind, 
tie.] Also Subliga tion. (See quots.) 

1656 BLQVNTGf0ssogr, t SrtM/gate, founder-bind, to under, 
tye, to tye or hang at. 1658 PHILLITS, Subligation^ a bind 
ing, or tying underneath. 

Subligation, erron. form of SUPPLICATION. 

1600 Return fr. P amass. \\. i. 1249 The parish have put 
up a subligation against you. 

Sublimable (swbUrmab D, a. Now rare. [f. 
SUBLIMED. + -ABLE.] Capable of sublimation or 
of being sublimated. 

1666 HOVLE Qrig. Formes $ Qual. (1667) 120, I had sub 
divided the body of Gold into such minute particles that they 
weresublimable. a 1691 Hist. ^;> (1692) 47, I found the 
Salt it self to be sublimable. 1753 Chambers^ Cycl. Suppl. 
s. v., They say that only those things are sublimable, which 
contain a dry exhalable matter in their original construction. 
1869 PHILLIPS Vesia<. v. 152 [Ferric oxide] is not known to 
be sublimable per se. 

Hence Subli mableuess, the quality of being 
sublimable. 

1661 P.OYLE Scept. Chym. fi6Po) 391 He soon obtain d such 
another Concrete, both as to tast and smell, and easie sub- 
limablencss as common Salt Armoniack. 

f Subli-mary, a. Obs. rare- 1 , [f. L. $uhlim-is 
SUBLIME + -ABY "*.] Elevated, exalted. 

a 1652 \>>RQyiE. Fainter s Eut. ii, First to the Master of the 
feast, This health is consecrated; Tht-nce to each sublimary 
guest. 1655 M, CARTER Honor Rediv. (1660) 2 Some men 
he hath, .elevated ..with the sublimary glories of Honor, 
Nobility, and Greatness. 

Sublimate (sp blim/t), sb. [ad. L. suhllmd- 
tum, neut. pa. pple. (used subst. in med.L.) of 
subllmare to SUBLIME.] 

1. A solid product of sublimation, esp. in the 
form of a compact crystalline cake. 

11626 BACON Art. Enq. filetals (1669) 225 To enquire., 
what Metals endure Subliming; and what Hotly the Sub 
limate makes. 1694 SALMON Bute s Disj>ens. (1713) 359/2 
In the other Part of the Neck you will have a kind of grey 
Sublimate. 1726 Diet. Rust, (ed. 3), Sublimate of A rsenick^ 
is Arsenick corrected or freed from its more malignant 
Sulphurs, and rais d to the top of the Matrass by the force 
of Fire. 1778 PRYCE^//. Cormtb. 34 The sublimate of our 
white Mundick..may produce, .some of the best white 
Arsenick. 1819 tr. Btrntliiu in Ann, Philos. XIII. 405 
The sublimate was pure selenic acid. i8ao FARADAY /. t/. 
Res. No. 13. 35 A sublimate of crystals filjed the retort. 1869 
ROSCOE Eleni. Ghent. 246 Chromic chloride.. is obtained as 
a sublimate, in beautiful violet crystals. 1894 Times 15 Aug. 
12/2 The walls are nearly all covered by sublimates or dust 
that has adhered and crusted them over. 

b. fg. A refined or concentrated product. 

1683 NORRIS Idea Happin. (1684) 27 Some have.. grown 
mad with the Sublimate^ of Pleasure. 1878 LIDOON l- .l,-m. 
Rclig, iii. 92 Man s soul is not a third nature, poised between 
hi-, .spit it and his body; nor yet is it asufelimateofhls bodily 
organization. 

2. Mercury sublimate ; mercuric chloride (bi 
chloride or perchloride of mercury), a white 
crystalline powder, which acts as a violent poison. 

In early times also used for arsenic (cf. RATSBANK i>. 

1543 tr. Vigors Chirurg. Interpr.(i55o) A A a j b, Sublimate. 
Argentum sublimatum is made of Chalcantum, quycke- 
syluer, vyneger, and sal armoniake. 1594 PL ATT Jewell-h. 
I. 10 Suger is a salt, Sublimate is a salt, Saltpeter is a salt. 
1605 TIMME Quersit. i. vit 26 White sublimate and aisnic. . 
foster and hide a most burning and deadly fire. 1609 H. 
JOSSON Silent Worn. n. ii, Take a little sublimate and ROC 
out of the world, like a rat. a 1661 HOLVDAV Jta>cnaH\f>i$ 
122 Sublimate makes black the teeth ; Cerusse makes gray 
\-\\f. hair. 1789 W. BUCHAN Dom. Med. (1790) 513 To those 
whose stomach cannot bear the solution, the sublimate may 
be given in form of pill. 184* BORROW Bible in Spain xvi, 
I have more than once escaped.. having the wine I drank 
spiced with sublimate. 1899 Allbutt s Syst. Med. VIII. 
605 A tar bath, with 15 gr. of sublimate added. 
Af- l6 33 *i. HERBERT Temple, Ck. Milit. 1^2 Nay he 
became a poet, and would serve His pills of sublimate in 
that conserve. 1896 tr. l/uysinans En Route iii. 77 To 
cleanse it with the disinfectant of prayer and the sublimate 
of Sacraments. 

b. Now usually corrosive sublimate, formerly 
-\sublimate corrosive. 

1685 BOYLE Satitbr. Air 64 Though Corrosive Sublimate 
be so mischievous a Mineral Composition, that a few ^r.iins 
may kill a man. 1703 Phil. Trans. XXIII. 1325 Sublimate 
Corrosive. 1842 MACAULAY Ess., Fredh. Gt. (1851) II. 600 
Pills of corrosive sublimate. 187$ GABROD & BAXTER Mat. 
Med. 103 Calomel is apt to contain a trace of corrosive sub 
limate. 

o. Sweet sublimate, blue sublimate (see quots.). 

1713 Bradley* s Family Diet. s,v., Sweet Sublimate is a 
Corrosive Sublimate, whose Points have been qualify d by 
some Preparation. 17*8 CHAMBERS Cycl. s.v., Sweet Sub- 



SUBLIMATE. 

Innate, is the same with Corrosive, only temper d and 
sweeten d by the Addition of Mcrcuritts Mulcts. 1753 Ibid. 
Suppl. s. v., Bine Sublimate, a preparation of mercury with 
some other ingredients, yielding a fine blue for painting. 

d. atirib. : => containing or impregnated \\ith 
corrosive sublimate, as sublimate bath, gauze , lotion^ 
solution, water. 

J 753 J- HARTLET Gentl. Farriery xxv. 226 Touch with a 
caustic, or wash with the sublimate water. 1843 R. J. 
GRAVES Syst. Clin. Med. xxvii. 339 During the year 1827 
the venereal patients took . . 302 sublimate baths. Ibid. Cor 
rosive sublimate baths. 1895 Arnold <y Sons Cat a I. Sttrg. 
Instr. 726 Sublimate Gauze. IbftAllbittt" s S)st,Med. V\\\. 
870 The parts were then disinfected with sublimate lotion. 

3. Mineral. The deposit formed on charcoal or 
in a glnss tube, when certain minerals are heated 
and subjected to the blowpipe. 

1842 PARNF.LL Cheat. Anal. (1845) 262 Metals. Produce a 
sublimate on charcoal antimony; arsenic [etc.]. . .Give no 
sublimate on charcoal mercury ; osmium. 

t Strblimate, /a. ///*. and ///. a. Obs. Also 
5 -lymate, 6 -lemmat, 5, 7 -limat. [ad. L. subli- 
matitSj pa. pple. of subllmare to SUBLIME.] 

A. pa. pple. 1. Raised, elevated, exalted. 

1460 CATCHAVE Chrcn. (RolU) 93 This man with sedicious 
knytis was sublimat in the empire. 1492 KVMVN Poems \\. 
1 \\-\Arch. Stud. neit.Sflr. LXXXIX. 175 () spuwseof Criste 
inmaculate, Aboue alle aunguMis subKmate. 1603 HARSNET 
Fop. Impost, in According as they are imprnued, subli 
mate, and aduaunced by the authority of holy church of 
Rome. i6ia DRAVTON Foly-vllt. Notes 15 Some of them 
were sublimat farre above earthly conceit. 1646 SALTMARSH 
Some Drops ii. 95 This is Perfection and Prelacy sublimate. 

2. Sublimated, distilled. 

1471 RIPI.HY Cotnp. Alch. in. .\iv. in Ashm. (1652) 142 Thy 
Water mu->t be seven tynn.-^, Sublyrnate. 

B. ppl, a. 1. JMercnyy sublimate (occas. subli 
mate mercury) : ~ SUBLIMATED. 2. 

1562 HCLLKIN Bulwarks, /> . Simples 74 With this Quicke- 
siluer and Sal Armoniake, is made Mnrcuiie -.ubleniniat. 
1610 I!. JONSON AUh. n. i, Mercury sublimate, Thatkeepes 
the whitenesse, hardnesse, and the biting. 1697 HKADKICH 
Arcana Fhitos. 118 Sublimate Mercury. 1770 i hil. Trans. 
LX. 187 A composition of sublimate mercury, .. will prevent 
insects, .from destroying the plumage. 1799 G. SMITH 
Laboratory 1.98 Ground and mixed with sublimate mercury. 

2. Refined, purified ; elevated, sublime. 

i6o7R.C[\RE\\]tr./-:sticfine sIl vr! l / f >flt <> t<fcrs,p. Ded., 
Others (of a more refined and sublimate temper) can sauour 
nothing but that which exceeds the vulgar capacitie. Ibid. 
136 A most sublimate subtiltie. 1613 PURCHAS Pilgrimage 
(1614) 366 Offering her selfe more sublimate and pure, in the 
sacred name. .of Religion. 1648 J. HICAUMONT Fsyche x. 
Ixv, So sublimate and so refining was That Fire, that all the 
Gold it turn d to Dross. 1661 GLANVILL Van. Dogm. 124 
The corporeal Machine, which even on the most sublimate 
In tellectualsisdangerously influential. i676H,\[.K Contempt, 
Ii. Alfttit. Lord s Pr. 2 The most Exaut Sublimate Wits 
inscribed their Altar, To the Unknwn God. 1720 WKLHJN 
Si<J/L>; Son of God I.x. 231 A Love Sublimateand Refined. 

Sublimate (rblimit), v. Also 7 -at. [f. L. 
sub!imdt- t \)a.. ppl. stem of subllmare to SUBLIME.] 

fl. trans. To raise to high place, dignity, or 
honour. = SUBLIME v. 7. Obs. 

c 1566 Mcrie Tales of Skelton in S. s Wks. (1843) I- P- l*ii, 
He that doth humble hymselfe. .shalbe exalted, extoulled, 
..or sublimated. 1631 WEKVEH Anc. Funeral Man. 868 
Felix was.. sublimated with an Episcopal 1 Mitre. 1637 
BASTWICK Litany i. 17 Sometime, forty at once or more, are 
mounted and sublimated into the high Commission Court. 
1637 EAKL MONM. tr. MalvczzisRom. % T or q it in 214 They 
. .would sublimate themselves [orig. accrcsccrc volunt\ con- 
trary to the will of fortune. 

2. mm SUBLIME v. i. Now rare. 

1591 PERCIVALL Sp. Diet., Sublunar, to sublimate. 1631 
BRATHWAIT Whimzies^ Mctalt-man 62 Elevate that tri- 
pode j sublimate that pipkin ; elixate your antiuionie. 
1651 WITTIE tr. Primroses t*op. Err. iv. iii. 221 Honey 
thrice sublimated. 1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey). 1858 SIM- 
MONDS nut. Trade 365 Suf>Hntatt-,..\.o rai>e volatile sub 
stances by heat, and again condense them in a solid form. 
b. gen. To act upon (a substance) so as to 
produce a refined product. Often in fig. context. 

1601 DOLMAN La Primaud. Fr. Acad. in. xc. 401 A 
maruellouskindeof naturall chitnislrie..so to sublimate that 
which of it selfe is poison. 1638 JACKSON Creed ix. xxiv. 
169 None., would accuse an Alchimist . . for wasting., 
copper, lead, or brasse, if hee could, .sublimate them into 
pure gold. 1660 BRETT Threnodia 12 Tis thymick heat in s 
bluud doth swim, T wil sublimate lerrestr al him And so 
make of a Duke a Cherubim. 1711 SHAKTKSB. Charac. (1737) 
I. 134 Tlie original plain principles of humanity, .have, by a 
sort of spiritual chymists, been so sublimated, as to become 
the highest corrosives. 1747 HERVEV Medit. II. 30 Decem 
ber s cold collects the gross Materials, which are sublimated 
by the refining Warmth of May. 17506. HUGHES Barbados 
32 The heat of the Sun. .is so intense .. that it sublimates 
their juices, salts, and spirits to a far greater degree of per 
fection. 17^79 JOHNSON L. /*., Milton (1868) 71 The heat of 
Milton s mind may be said to sublimate his learning. 

1 3. To extract by or as by sublimation ; = SUB 
LIME v. 2. Chieflyyfc. Obs. 

1614 T. ADAMS Physic Heav. Wks. (1629) 290 You that 
haue put so faire for the Philosophers stone, that you haue 
endeuoured to sublimate it out of poore mens bones, ground 
to powder by your oppressions. i6a6 J. YATES Ibis ad 
Cxsarem n. 33 Words aenigmaticall, sublimated in the 
furnace of his owne braine. 1644 MILTON Areop. 9 It will 
be a harder alchymy then Lullius ever knew, to sublimat any 
good use out of such an invention. 

b. pass, and intr. To be produced as the result 
of sublimation. 

1681 J. COLLINS Salt 4- Fish, 127 This Salt was formerly 
found sublimated upon the superficies of the burnt Sands 



SUBLIMATED. 



30 



SUBLIME. 



of that Country. 1799 G. SMITH Laboratory I. 327 The 
phosphorus, which in the receiver is sublimated of a yellow 
ish colour. 1800 tr. Lagrange s Cfiem. I. 429 Towards the 
end of the operation, a little sulphur is sublimated. 1866 
LAWRENCE tr. Cottas Rocks Classified 74 Sulphur, .sub 
limates in matrass. 1872 J, YEATS Techn. Hist. Contni. 321 
Reducing the ore to powder, and afterwards by roasting it 
till the sulphur was sublimated. 1897 Allbutt s Syst. Med. 
II. 884 The chief part of this [morphia] literally burned and 
not sublimated at all. 

4. To exalt or elevate to a high or higher state ; 
= SUBLIME v. 4 c. 

"599 B. JONSON Cynthia s Rev. (1616) I. iii, Knowing my 
selfe an essence so sublimated, and reiin d by_ trauell. 1600 
W. WATSON Decacordon^ (1602) 97 A man in whose very 
countenance was pourtraid out a map of political) gouern- 
ment. ., sublimated with a reuerend maiestie in his lookes. 
1614 JACKSON Creed \\\. iv. v. 8 This absolute submission 
of their consciences . . sublimates them from refined Heathen- 
ismeor Gentilisme todiabolisme. 1673 Lady s Calling r. 32 
This is it which sublimates and spiritualizes humanity. 
1682 Land. Gaz. No. 1711/4 Sedition and Rebellion, sub 
limated to the heighth, and as the very Extract of Disorder 
and Anarchy. 1781 HAVLEY Tri, Temper v. 288 Here grief 
and joy so suddenly unite, That anguish serves to sublimate 
delight. 1869 LECKY Euro p. Mor. II. 295 Moral ideas in a 
thousand forms have been sublimated, enlarged and changed. 
1884 AUG. J. E. WILSON Vashti x, Forced to lose faith in 
her.. capacity to sublimate her erring nature. 
b. ironical. 

1822 in W. Cobbett Rur. Rides 1.89 The unnatural work 
ing of the paper-system has sublimated him out of his 
senses. 

5. To transmute into something higher, nobler, 
more sublime or refined ; = SUBLIME v. 5. 

x6z4 [SCOTT] Vox Regis To Rdr. p. iv, It expresseth 
strength to haue words sublimated into works. 1672 STERRY 
Serin. (1710) II. 275 Holiness exalts and sublimates a Man 
into Spirit. 1676 HALE Contempl. n. 63 The Heart becomes 
..the very sink. .of all the Impure desires of the Flesh, 
where they are., sublimated into Impurities, more exquisite 
[etc.]. .71708 BEVERIDCE Priv. Th. i. (1730) 159 By sub- 
Hmatins good Thoughts into good Affections. 1858 FROUDE 
Hist. Eng. IV. xviii. 59 Their understandings were too 
direct to sublimate absurdities into mysteries. 1884 Con* 
temp. Rev. Feb. 262 Sublimating into an ideal sentiment 
what, .had been little more than an animal appetite. 

b. intr. for pass. = SUBLIME v. 5 b. 

1852 BRIMLEY Ess, (1858) 266 If Miss Rebecca Sharpe had 
really been.. a matchless beauty,.. she might have subli 
mated into a Beatrix Esmond. 

6. To refine away into something unreal or non 
existent; to reduce to unreality. 

1836-7 SIR W. HAMILTON Metaph. xxlii. (1859) H- 79 The 
materialist may now derive the subject from the object, the 
idealist derive the object from the subject, the absolutist 
sublimate both into indifference. 1867 Rlorn. Star 29, Jan., 
We are too much given to sublimate official responsibility 
until it becomes impalpable to ordinary senses. 1869 LECKY 
Europ. Mor. I. 342 While he. .sublimated the popular 
worship into a harmless symbolism. 1910 W. S. PALMER 
Diary Modernist 264 A spiritual body is for him sublimated 
out of reality. 

Hence Strblimating vhl. sb. and///, a. 

x6n CoTGR. t SuMiiatiort t a sublimating, raising, or lifting 
vp. 1612 W. PARKES Curtaine-Dr. 41 O this body of ours 
. .what time doe wee bestow in the garnishment of the same 
(and especially our woemen). . in Pomatumstoc their skinnes, 
in Fucusses for their faces, by sublimatinge, and mercury. 
1840 POE Balloon Hoax Wks. 1865 I. 97, I can conceive 
nothing more sublimating than the strange peril and novelty 
of an adventure such as this. 

Sublimated (sp-blim^ted), ///. a. [f. prec. 

+ -EDVJ 

1. Produced by sublimation. 

1605 TIMME Quersit. ii. v. 125 Then shal yee see the sub 
limated matter cleauing to the sides of the glasses. 1631 
Celestina i. 16 Shee made sublimated Mercury. 1800 tr. 
Lagrange s Chem, I. 180 Half a part of sublimated sulphur. 
1816 J. SMITH Panorama Sci. $ Art II. 296 Sublimated 
metallic oxides. 

f b. Mixed or compounded with corrosive sub 
limate (or arsenic). Obs. 



1611 COTGR., Snblimt. .sublimated, or mixed with Arsen- 
icke. 1631 MASSINGER Believe as You List n. i, A subli 
mated pill of mercuric. 

2. Jig, a. Of persons and immaterial things : 
Exalted, elevated; raised to a high degree of 
purity or excellence ; lofty, sublime. 

1599 SANDYS St. Relig. (1605) H 2 b, Of a more refined & 
sublimated temper, then that their country conceits can 
satlsfie. 1612 IJRAYTON Poly-olb. iv. 266 In words, whose 
weight best sute a sublimated straine. 1654 OWEN Saints 1 
Perseii. vii. 171 These latter, more refined, sublimated 
mercuriall wits. 1708 Brit. Apollo No. 105. i/i The Refin d, 
the Sublimated precepts of the Gospel, a 1763 SHENSTONE 
Economy i. 122 Ye tow ring minds ! ye sublimated souls ! 
1812 JEFFERSON Writ. (1830) IV. 176 A sublimated imparti 
ality, at which the world will laugh. 1823 LAMB City Faux 
in E liana (1867) 19 Swallowing the dregs of Loyola for the 
very quintessence of sublimated reason. 1876 Miss BRADDON 
HaggarcTs Dau. xiii, Is this love, or only a sublimated 
friendship? 1901 R. GARNETT Ess. iii. 84 Poetry is neither 
exalted utility nor sublimated intellect, 
f b. Puffed up, haughty. Obs, 

1634 SIR T. HERBERT Trav. 130 The Kings of Pegu [etc.] 
are so sublimated, that when an Ambassadour comes before 
them, they must doe it creeping. 

C. Condensed, concentrated, rare. 

1884 HarpeSs Mag. Sept. 557/2 Paris is France, and 
Trouville a sublimated Pans. 

3. Of physical things : Purified, refined, rarefied. 
rare. 

a 1676 HALE Prim. Orig. Man. iv. ii. 297 The /Ether, 



which is but a purer sublimated Air. 1860 MAURY Phys. 
Geog. i. 9 The sublimated air, diffusing itself by its mobility. 
1862 Miss BRADDON Lady And ley xix, A sublimated meat 
that could scarcely have grown upon any mundane sheep. 
Sublimation (srblim^Kan). Also 4-5 -acion, 
5 -ly m-, -acioun, -acyon. [a. F. sublimation (from 
I4th c.), or ad, late L. suhlimdtio, -onem, n. of 
action f. subllmare to SUBLIME. Cf. It. subliina- 
zione, Sp. sublimation^ Pg. sublima$ao^\ 

1. The chemical action or process of subliming or 
converting a solid substance by means of heat into 
vapour, which resolidifies on cooling. 

1390 GOWER Conf. II. 86 He mot. .kepe in his entencion 
The point of sublimacion. c 1400 Lanfranc s Cirurg. 351 
This is be maner of sublimacioun, loke bou haue a strong 
vessel maad of glas bat it mowedurein befier[etc.]. 1460-70 
Bk. Quinte Essence 4 pe quint essencia berof is naturaly 
incorruptible he which }e schal drawe out by sublymacioun. 
1594 PLAT Jewell-ho. in. 89 Distillations, calcinations, and 
sublimations. 1605 TIMME Quersit. i. vii. 28 The common 
armoniac.Jn the forme of most white and salt meale, may 
be carried up into the cloudes by sublimation. 1657 Physical 
Diet,, Sublimation, is a chymical operation, when the ele 
vated matter in distillation, being carried to the highest part 
of the helm, and finding no passage forth, sticks to the sides 
thereof. 1719 QUINCY Phys. Diet. (1722) 414 The Sublima 
tion of Camphire, Benzoin, and Arsenick. 1816 J. SMITH 
Panorama Sci. fy Art II. 302 Sublimation is to dry matters, 
what distillation is to humid ones. 1867 BLOXAM Chem. 114 
These crystals are moderately heated in an iron pan to de 
prive them of tar, and are finally purified by sublimation. 
1880 STORY-MASKELYNE in Nature XXI. 204 It is possible 
..that the condition for its [viz. carbon s) sublimation in 
the form of crystals . . is one involving a combination of high 
temperature and high pressure. 

attrib. 1896 Jrnl Chem. Soc. LXX. n. 635 Sublimation 
Temperatures in the Cathode-Light Vacuum. Ibid. 636 
The sublimation tension of iodine at various temperatures, 

b. Geol, Applied to a (supposed) analogous 
process by which minerals are thrown up in a state 
of vapour from the interior of the earth and 
deposited nearer its surface. 

1829 Phil. Mag. Mar. 174 The conjecture, that galena m 
these veins has been in some instances supplied by sublima 
tion from below. 1879 Encycl. Brit. X. 260/2. 

attrib. 1881 RAYMOND Mining Gloss., Sublimation- 
theory^ the theory that a vein was filled first with metallic 
vapors. 1894 FOSTER Ore $ Stone Mining 17 One great 
objection to the universal acceptance of the sublimation 
theory is that many of the minerals found in lodes would be 
decomposed at high temperatures. 1902 WEBSTER Sufpl. t 
Sublimation vein^ . . a vein formed by condensation of 
material from the condition of vapor. 

c. (The condition of) being in the form of 
vapour as the result of sublimation. 

1808 Mcd, yntl. XIX, 12 Lead, .taken in a state of sublima 
tion into the lungs. 1856 PACK Adv. Text-bk. Geol. xvi. 304 
Products which issue in a state of sublimation from the 
craters of active volcanoes. 

2. A solid substance deposited as the result of 
the cooling of vapour arising from sublimation or 
a similar process. 

1646 SIR T. BROWNE Psend. Ef>. \\. iv. 82 A fat and 
unctuous sublimation in the earth concreted and fixed by 
salt and nitrous spirits. 1652 BENLOWES Theoph. xm. 
xxxvi, From pretious Limbeck sacred Loves distill Such 
Sublimations, as do fill Mindes with amazed Raptures of 
their Chimick Skill. 1867 J. HOGG Microsc, i. iii. 214 Dr. 
Guy brought under the notice of microscopists a plan for 
preserving metallic sublimations. 1869 PHILLIPS l- esitv. v. 
152 Fenic chloride (muriate of iron) is found among the sub 
limations of Vesuvius. 1892 Daily News 3 Sept. 6/5 A 
magnificent lava-grotto all coated with beautiful sulphuric 
sublimations. 

f3. = SOBLATION J. Obs. 

1547 RECORDE Urinal Phys. (1651) 16 If it [sc. sediment] 
be so light, that it swim in the middle region of the urine, 
then is it called the sublimation or swim. 1625 HART Anat. 
Urines i. iii. 34 The urine in this disease was.. variable and 
inconstant in the swimme and sublimation. 

1 4. Elevation to higli rank. Obs. 

c 1440 Alphabet of Tales 234 A hertelie ioy-.bat he tuke 
when he hard tell of \>e sublimacion of his fadur. 

5. Elevation to a higher state or plane of exist 
ence ; transmutation into something higher, purer, 
or more sublime. 

1615 JACKSON Creed iv. m. viii. 5 By the assistance of 
that grace whose infusion alone must worke the sublimation. 
a 1652 J. SMITH Sel. Disc. vn. iv. (1821) 334 That perfection 
of which they speak. .was nothing else but a mere sublima 
tion of their own natural powers and principles. 1764 REID 
Inquiry vii. 206 The new system by a kind of metaphysical 
sublimation converted all the qualities of matter into sensa 
tions. 1824 JEFFERSON Writ. (1830) IV. 387 Every indi 
vidual of my^ associates will look, .to the sublimation of its 
[the University s] character. 1866 F. HARPER Peace through 
Truth 299 This supernatural sublimation of man s nature. 
b. An elated or ecstatic state of mind. 

x8i6T. L. PEACOCK Headlong Hall v, That enthusiastic 
sublimation which is the source of greatness and energy. 
1884 Harpers Mag. LXIX. 469 The world has long sought 
an antidote to seasickness. . . It is sublimation. 1891 HARDY 
Tess xliii, Tess s unassisted power of dreaming . . being 
enough for her sublimation at present, she declined except 
the merest sip. 

6. The result of such elevation or transmutation ; 
the purest or most concentrated product (of} ; the 
highest stage or point (of}\ a height (of). 

1691 d Emiliane s Frauds Rom. Monks (ed. 3) 287 That 
they may authorize their neat Thoughts and high Sublima 
tions of Wit. a 1693 SOUTH Serin. (1727) II. 199 It is (as it 
were) the very Quintessence and Sublimation of Vice, by 
which (as in the Spirit of Liquors) the Malignity of many 



Actions is contracted into a little Compass. 1828 DE 
QUINCEY Rhet. Wks. 1862 X. 39 The last sublimation of 
dialectical subtlety. 1831 D. E. WILLIAMS Life Sir T. 
Lawrence II. 37 The truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, must be the sublimation aspired to. 1856 
Miss MULOCK John Halifax xi, His demeanour., was the 
sublimation of all manly courtesy. 1863 Miss BRADDON 
Eleanor s Viet, xxiv, A woman s love is the sublimation of 
..selfishness. 1874 HARDY Far fr. Madding OffwrfxI.That 
acme and sublimation of all dismal sounds, the bark of 
a fox. 

t Su blimator. Obs. rare-*, [f. SUBLIMATE 
v. : see -ATOR.] A thing which sublimates. 

1752 Phil. Trans. XLVIL 549 The atmosphere of the 
earth is a more powerful sublimator than those of our 
chemists. 

t Sublimatory, sb. Obs. [ad. rned.L. subll- 
fndtonii7ii t neut. ot subltmatoriits (see next). Cf. 
F. sublimatoire,~\ A vessel used for sublimation, 
a subliming-pot. 

c 1386 CHAUCER Can. Yeom. T. Preamb. 74 Oure..descen- 
sories, Violes, crosletz, and sublymatories, Cucurbites, and 
Alambikes eek. 1584 R. SCOT Discav. Witchcr. xiy. L 295. 
1605 TIMME Quersit. n. v. 125 Smal long lymbeckesin forme 
of a sublimatorie. 1662 R. MATHEW Unl. Alch. 177 Grind 
them wel together, put them into a Sublimatory of good 
glass. 1694 SALMON Bate s Disfens. (1713) 484/2 The 
Volatile Sal-Armoniack is only the Volatile parts sublimed 
alone.. the Acid.. remaining behind at bottom of the Subli 
matory. 

t Sublimatory, a. Obs. [ad. med.L. sublt- 
matorittS) f. sublimat- : see SUBLIMATE and -OKY 2 .] 

1. Suitable for subliming. 

1605 TIMME Quersit. n. v. 125 Thou shall increase the 
fire, .until. .the fire bee made sublimatorie. 

2. Used in sublimation. 

1650 ASHMOLE Ckym. Coll. 66 Take the pregnant Earth, 
and put it into a Sublimatory vessell luted and well s-hut 
up. 1666 BOYLE Ong. Formes $ Qual. (1667) 240 Though 
these [sulphur, mercury, and vermilion] will rise together in 
Sublimatory Vessels. 

I! Sublinia tuni. Obs. [neut. of L. subliniatus : 
see SUBLIMATE a.] Corrosive sublimate. 

1577 FRAMPTOS Joyful News 18 In the salt Fleume, he 
shall put with a Feather, a little of the water of Sublimatum. 
1590 GREENE Never too late Wks. (Grosart) VIII. 16 Some 
sores cannot be cured but by Sublimatum. 1611 [see SUB- 
LIMY]. 

Sublime (scblsrm), a. and sb. [ad.L. sublimis, 
prob. f. sub up \.o + ltmen lintel. Cf. F., It., Sp., 
Pg. sublime.] A. adj. 

1. Set or raised aloft, high up. arch. 
(a} in predicative use. 

1604 R. CAWDREV Table Alph.^ Sublime^ set on high, lift 
vp. 1638 SIR T. HERBERT Trav. (ed. 2) 33 The element 
grew dreadful!,, .the sea sublime and wrathfull. 1667 MIL 
TON P. Z-.vi. 771 Hee on the wings of Cherub rode sublime 
On the Crystallin Skie. 1697 DRYDEN Virg. Georg. i. 331 
Two Poles turn round the Globe... The first sublime in 
Heav n, the last is whirl d Below the Regions of the nether 
World. 1725 POPE Odyss. v. 212 Build the rising ship, 
Sublime to bear thee o er the gloomy deep. 1784 COWPER 
Task i. 203 Cawing rooks, and Kites that swim sublime In 
still repeated circles. 1842 TENNYSON Vision of Sin 103 To 
fly sublime Thro the courts, the camps, the schools. 

fig, 1646 SIR T. BROWNE Psend. Ep. iv. i, Not. .to gape, 
or look upward with the eye, but to have his thoughts 
sublime. 1786 BURNS To J. S**** iv, My fancy yerket up 
sublime Wi hasty summon. 

(b} In attrib. use; tcontextnally = highest, top. 

1612 WOODALL Surg. Mate (1639) 274 Sublimation is when 
that which is extracted is driven to the sublime part of the 
vessell. 1638 SIR T. HERBERT Trav. (ed. 2) 183 The sub- 
lime height did not disanimate us, as did the danger of 
descending. 1695 PRIOR Ode to King xi, Let Thy sublime 
Meridian Course For Mary s setting Rays attone. 1784 
COWPER Task in. 157 Travel nature up To the sharp peak 
of her sublimest height. 1873 BROWNING RedCott. Nt.-cap 
239 A sublime spring from the balustrade About the tower. 

b. Of the arms : Uplifted, upraised. 

1754 GRAY Progr. Poesy 38 With arms sublime, that float 
upon the air. 

c. Of flight ; only in fig. context with implica 
tion of senses 4-7. 

1684 BURNET tr. More s Utopia Pref. A 4 We were begin 
ning to lly into a sublime pitch, of a strong but false Rheto- 
rick. 1838 EMERSON Addr. Wks. (Bonn) II. 193 In the 
sublimest flights of the soul, rectitude is never surmounted. 

d. Anal. Of muscles: Lying near the surface, 
superficial. Also applied to the branch of anatomy 
treating of superficial muscles. 

1855 DUNGLISON Med. Lex. 1891 Century Diet. s.v., The 
sublime flexor of the fingers (the flexor sublimis, a muscle). 

2. Of buildings, etc. : Rising to a great height, 
lofty, towering, arch. 

1635 HEYWOOD Hierarchy vm. 532 Thunders at the sub 
limest buildings aime. 1657 BILLINGSLY Brachy-Martyrel. 
xxviii. 102 He d rost her quick, and after throw her down 
From the sublimest tower in the town. 1799 in Spirit I ubl. 
Jrnls. III. 322 Sublime their artless locks they wear. 1817 
MOORE Lalla Rookh 209 Those towers sublime, That seem d 
above the grasp of Time. 

3. Of lofty bearing or aspect ; in a bad sense, 
haughty, proud. Chiefly /a?/. 

1596 SPENSER F. Q. v. viii. 30 The proud Souldan with 
presumpteous cheare, And countenance sublime and inso 
lent, a 1639 WOTTON in Relig. (1651) 171 His Limbs rather 
sturdy then dainty: Sublime and almost Tumorous in His 
Looks and Gestures. 1667 MILTON P. L. iv. 300 His fair 
large Front and Eye sublime declar d Absolute rule. Ibid* 
xi. 236 Not terrible,.. nor sociably mild,.. But solemn and 
sublime. 1759 JOHNSON Rasselas xxxix, He was sublime 
without haughtiness, courteous without formality. 1844 



SUBLIME. 



31 



SUBLIME. 



MRS. BROWNING Vis. Poets c, There, Shakespeare, on whose 
forehead climb The crowns o 1 the world. Oh, eyes sublime, 
With tears and laughters for all time ! 
f b. Exalted in feeling, elated. Obs., 

1667 MILTON P. L. x. 556 Sublime with expectation. 1671 
Samson 1660 While thir hearts were jocund and sublime, 
Drunk with Idolatry, drunk with Wine. 

4. Of ideas, truths, subjects, etc. : Belonging to 
the highest regions of thought, reality, or human 
activity, f Also occas. said of the thinker. 

1634 MILTON Comus 785 Thou hast nor Eare, nor Soul to 
apprehend The sublime notion, and high mystery. 1647 
H. MORE Song of Soul r. To Rdr. C 2 The contemplation 
of these things is very sublime and subtile. 1674 PLAY- 
FORD Skill Mus, (ed. 7) Pref. A 4 b, This tart] of Musick is 
the most sublime and excellent for its wonderful! Effects 
and Inventions, a 1721 KEILL Maupertius* Diss. (1734) u 
Let us leave it to sublimer Philosophers to search into the 
Cause of this Tendency. 1724 A. COLLINS Gr. Chr. Relig. 
233 They despised the literal sense of the Old testament, 
and employed their invention to find out sublime senses 
thereof. 1781 COWPER Conversat. 548 What are ages and 
the lapse of time, Match d against truths, as lasting as sub 
lime ? 1819 KEATS Fa/ 1 Hyperion i. 173 Whether his labours 
be sublime or low. 1848 MARIOTTI Italy II. Hi. 82 The 
sublimest theories of divine doctrine. 1849 MACAULAY Hist. 
Eng. iii. I. 412 The most sublime departments of natural 
philosophy. <* 1853 ROBERTSON Lect. (1858) 254 England s 
sublimer battle cry of Duty . 

f b. Of geometry : see quots. Obs. 

1728 CHAMBERS Cycl. s. v. Geometry, The Higher, or 
Sublimer Geometry is that employ d in the consideration of 
Curve Lines, Conic Sections, and Bodies form d thereof. 

1842 PennyCycl, XXIII. 186/1 The term sublime geometry 
was technical, meaning the higher parts of geometry, in 
which the infinitesimal calculus or something equivalent 
was employed. 

6. Of persons, their attributes, feelings, actions : 
Standing high above others by reason of nobility 
or grandeur of n.iture or character; of high intel 
lectual, moral, or spiritual level. Passing into a 
term of high commendation : Supreme, perfect. 

1643 BURROUGHES Exp. ist 3 ch. Hosca vii. 385 Others are 
of more sublime spirits naturally, as if they were borne for 
great things. 1663 S. PATRICK Parab, Pilgrim (1687) 218 
Nor is there any delight so noble and sublime, so pure and 
refined. <xi7i5 BURNET Own Time (1724) I. 215 He. .was 
a very perfect friend, and a most sublime Christian. 1794 
MRS. RADCLIFFE Myst. Udolplio xv, Emily s eyes filled with 
tears of admiration and sublime devotion. 1821 SHELLEY 
A tonais v, Others more sublime. .Have sunk, extinct in 
their refulgent prime. 1838 LONGF. Lt. Stars ix, Thou shalt 
know., how sublime a thing itisTosufferand bestrong. 1842 
Penny Cytr/.XXIII. 188/2 Lear, who appeals to the heavens, 
* for they are old like him, is sublime, from the very inten 
sity of his sufferings and his passions. Lady Macbeth is 
sublime from the intensity of her will. 185* TENNYSON Ode 
Death Wellington 34 And, as the greatest only are, In his 
simplicity sublime. 1872 GEO. ELIOT in Cross Life (1886) 
III. 159 Mr. Lewes makes a martyr of himself in writing 
all my notes and business letters. Is not that being a sub 
lime husband? 

b. colloq. with ironical force. 

Mod. He has a sublime sense of his own importance. 
This is a sublime piece of impertinence. 

6. Of language, style, or a writer : Expressing 
lofty ideas in a grand and elevated manner. 

1586 A. DAY Engl. Secretorie I. (1595) 10 We do find 
three sorts [sc. of the style of epistles] . . to haue bene gene 
rally commended. Sublime, the highest and stateliest 
maner, and loftiest deliuerance of any thing that may be, 
expressing the heroicall and mighty actions of Kings [etc.]. 
1690 TEMPLE Ess. n. Poetry 19 It must be confessed, that 
Homer was. .the vastest, the sublimest, and the most won 
derful Genius, a 1718 PRIQK Better Answer vii, As He was 
a Poet sublimer than Me. 1728 CHAMBERS Cycl. s.v., The 
sublime Style necessarily requires big and magnificent 
Words ; but the Sublime may be found in a single Thought, 
a single Figure, a single Turn of Words. 1756 WARTON 
Ess. Pope I. 18 Every excellence, more peculiarly appro 
priated to the sublimer ode. 1782 V. KNOX Ess. xv. (1819) 
I. 89 The Bible, the Iliad, and Shakspeare s works, are 
allowed to be thesublimest books that the world can exhibit. 
1817 COLERIDGE Biogr. Lit* xvi. (1907) II. 22 The sublime 
Dante. 1839 DE QUINCEY Milton Wks. 1857 VII. 319 
Whether he can cite any other book than the Paradise 
Lost , as continuously sublime, or sublime even by its pre 
vailing character. 

7. Of things in nature and art : Affecting the 
mind with a sense of overwhelming grandeur or 
irresistible power ; calculated to inspire awe, deep 
reverence, or lofty emotion, by reason of its beauty, 
vastness, or grandeur. 

(1x700 EVELYN Diary 12 Nov. 1644, Just before this 
portico stands a very sublime and stately Corinthian columne. 
iTfia KAMES Elem.Crit. iv. (1833) no Great and elevated 
objects considered with relation to the emotions produced 
by them, are termed grand ayd sublime. 1806 Gazetteer 
Scot. (ed. 2) 292 This fall of water.. is indeed awful and 
sublime, but has too much of the terrible in its appearance. 

1843 Penny Cycl. XXIII. 186/2 The stars are sublime, ye 
there is no terror in the emotion they excite. 1878 SMILES 
Robt. Dick vii. 78 After the cultivated fields, come the 
moors quiet, solitary, and sublime. 

8. Of rank, status : Very high, exalted, arch. 
170* EVELYN Let. to Pepys 20 Jan., Persons of the 

sublimest rank and office, a 1718 PRIOR Ode to Queen xix, 
Those Heights, where William s Virtue might have staid... 
the Props and Steps were made, Sublimer yet to raise his 
Queen s Renown. 1769 GRAY Installat. Ode 25 Meek 
Newton s self bends from his state sublime. 

b. As an honorific title of the Sultan or other 
potentates ; also transf. of their actions. Cf. Sub- 
time Porte (see PORTE), and SUBLIMITY 2 d. 



1820 BYRON yuan v. cxliv, Your slave brings tidings*. 
Which your sublime attention may be worth. x8ai SHELLEY 
Hellas 123 Your Sublime Highness Is strangely moved. 
1855 MILMAN Lat. Chr. vir. iii. (1864) IV. 113 Gregory 
assumed the lofty tone of arbiter and commanded them to . . 
await his sublime award. 

c. Refined : now used in trade names to desig 
nate the finest quality. 

1694 SALMON Bate s Dispens. (1713) 299/2 It.. will do that 
..which others more esteemed sublime Medicines will not 
do. 1884 Health Exhih. Catal. 62/2 Jeyes Sublime Dis 
infectant Toilet Soaps. 1897 Daily .V<mr i Oct. 7/7 A bottle 
upon which was a label Sublime Salad Oil*. 

f 9. Mcd. Of respiration : Oi the highest degree. 

1656 RIDGLEY Pract. Pkysick 224 Difficulty of breath is 
greater then in a Pluresy, which Hippocrates calleth sub 
lime. 1668 CULPKITKR & COLE Barthol.Anat. \\. iii. 92 The 
former Respiration Galen terms gentle or small, ..the other 
strong,, .a third sublime where the Diaphragma, intercostal 
. . muscles, and muscles of the Chest do act all together. 

B. sb. 

1. Now always with the : That which is sublime; 
the sublime part, character, property, or feature of. 
f Formerly with a and //. and occas. without 
article, chiefly in contexts where SUBLIMITY would 
now be used. 

a. in discourse or writing. 

1679 SHADWKLI. True Widow i. 6 What is your opinion of 
the Play?. .There are a great many sublimes that are very 
Poetical. 1704 SWIFT T. Tub Pref. 22 Whatever Word or 
Sentence is printed in a different Character, shall be judged 
to contain something extraordinary either of Wit or Sub 
lime. 1727 WAKUUKTON Tracts (178^) 115 With what a 
Sublime might that Flash of Lightning have I>een brought 
in. 1746 FUANLIS tr. Hor.) Art of Poetry 561 Since 
I can write the true Sublime. 1749 FIKLDINO Tom Jones 
Contents iv. H, A short hint of what we can do in the Mib- 
lime, and a description of Miss Sophia Wotern. 1762 
GIBBON Misc. ll &s. (1814) V. 277 That sublime which results 
from the choice and general disposition of a subject. 1785 
COWPER /,<-/. to y. AVic/ow 10 Dec., The sublime of Homer 
in the hands uf Pope becomes bloated and tumid, and his 
description tawdry. 1847 T KNNYSOS Princess iv. 565 Feign 
ing pique at what she call d The raillery, or grotesque, or 
false sublime. 

b. in nature and art. 

1727 POPE, etc. Art of Sinking iv, The Sublime of Nature 
is the Sky, the Sun, Moon, Stars, &c. 1753 HOGARTH 
Anal, Beauty x. 51 What I think the sublime in form, so 
remarkably display d in the human body. 1784 R. HAGE 
Barham Downs II. 320 The awful, the sublime of this 
reverend pile. 1820 W. IRVING Sketch Bk. I. 5 Never need 
an American look beyond his own country for the sublime 
and beautiful of natural scenery. 1842 Penny Cycl. XXIII. 
188/1 The material sublime or the sublime of nature. 

C. in human conduct, life, feeling, etc. 

"74.9 WAHBURTON Let. to Hurd 13 June, His gravity and 
sublime of sentiment. KTSfiBuRKE&w&^&awl. i. vii. (1759) 
58 Whatever is fitted in any sort to excite the ideas of pain, 
and danger, that is to say, whatever is in any sort terrible, . . 
is a source of the sublime. 1789 BURNS To Dr. Blacklock ix, 
To make a happy fire-side clime To weans and wife, That s the 
true pathos and sublime Of human life. 1789 A. HAMILTON 
Wks . ( 1886) VII. 39 This was one of those strokes that 
denote superior genius, and constitute the sublime of war. 
1804-6 SVD. SMITH Mor. P kilos. (1850) 234 To harbour no 
mean thought in the midst of abject poverty, but., to found 
a spirit of modest independence upon the consciousness of 
having always acted well ; this is a sublime. 1847 PRES- 
COTT Peru (1850) II. 351 This was heroic, and wanted only 
a nobler motive for its object to constitute the true moral 
sublime. 1871 SMILES Charac. v. (1876) 134 The patriot 
who fights an always-losing battle the martyr who goes to 
death amidst the triumphant shouts of his enemies.. are 
examples of the moral sublime. 

2. With the: The highest degree or point, 
summit, or acme of. Now rare. 

1813 BYRON Let. to Miss Milbanke 26 Sept. Wks. 1809 
III. 403 The moral of Christianity is perfectly beautiful and 
the very sublime of virtue. 1817 Beppo Ixxiii, The sub 
lime Of mediocrity, the furious tame. 1818 yuan i. cli, 
With that sublime of rascals your attorney. 1838 DE 
QUINCEY Skaks. Wks. 1890 IV. 61 This is the very sublime 
of folly, beyond which human dotage cannot advance. 

Sublime (sbtorm), v. [a. OF. sublimer, ad. 
L. sublimdrc 9 f. sublimis SUBLIME a."\ 

1. trans. To subject (a substance) to the action 
of heat in a vessel so as to convert it into vapour, 
which is carried off and on cooling is deposited in 
a solid form. 

c 1386 CHAUCER Can, Yeom. T. Preamb. 5 1 The care and wo 
That we hadden in oure matires sublymyng. 1460-70 Bk. 
Quinte Essence 4 By contynuel ascendynge and dcscendynge, 
by the which it is sublymed to so myche hi^nes of glorifica- 
cioun. Ibid. 8 Take Mercuric |>at is sublymed with vitriol, 
& comen salt, & sal armoniac ,7. or .10. tymes sublymed. 
1558 WARDE tr. Alexis 1 Sccr. 102 b, To sublime Quicke 
Syluer, that is to saye, to make common sublyme. 1610 
B. JONSON^/C^. u. v , How doe you sublime him [mercury]? 
Fac. \\ ith the calce of cgge-shels, White marble, talck. 
1697 HEADRICH Arcana Philos. 27 Put the Mixture into a 
Subhmatory ; from which sublime it ten or twelve times. 
1730 CHAMBERLAVNE Relig. Philos. II. xviii. 9 Even a 
Metal.. may be sublimed and mix d with the Air by the 
Heat of Fire. 1774 J. HILL Theophr.(cA. 2) 235 Our factitious 
Cinnabar, made only by subliming Mercury and Sulphur 
together. 1837 FARADAY Chem. Manip. x. (1842) 262 It is 
easy to sublime and crystallize such bodies as camphor, 
iodine, naphthaline. 1869 KOSCOE Rlem. Chem. 214 Am 
monium Chloride. .is obtained. .by subliming a mixture of 
the commercial sulphate of ammonium with common salt. 

absol. 1471 RIPLKY Ctnnp.Abh, vni. i. in Ashtn. (1652) 171 
We Sublyme not lyke as they do. 1506 FORMAN Diary 
(HalliwJaS The 27 of April! in subliming, my pot and glasse 
brok, and all my labour was lost pro lapide. 1610 B. JON- 



SON Alch. II. v, Can you sublime, and dulcefie? 1678 R. 
RUSSELL tr. Geber it. i. iv. x. 108 This he well knows who 
hath sublimed in short Sublimatories. 

2. trans. To cause to be given off by sublima 
tion or an analogous process (e.g. volcanic heat) ; to 
carry over as vapour, which resolidifies on cooling ; 
to extract by or as by sublimation. 

1460-70 Bk. Quinte Essence 5 pe purete of be quinte es- 
sencie schal be sublynwd aboue. 1471 RIPLKV Comp Alch. 
vin. ii. in Ashm. (1652) 171 Som do Mercury from Viniall 
and Salt sublyme. 1605 TIMMK Quersit. \. xvi. 83 (llasse 
may be made of antimonie and of lead, .by subliming flowers 
out of theni. 1640 I 1 . CAREW Poems (1651) 156 No more 
than Chimists can sublime True Gold. 1674 GKKW Anat. 
/% (168.3) 246 The saline Principle is altogether volatile, and 
sublimed away by the fire. 1791 E. DARWIN Bot. Uard. \, 94 
note, This ponderous earth has been found.. in a granite in 
Switzerland, and may have thus been sublimed from im 
mense depths by great heat. i^JCiKWAN Elem. A/in. (ed. 2) 



I. 419 Sulphur has been sublimed from it. 1827 FAKADA 
Chen:. Manip. xxiv. (1842)613 Put a portion of calomel int<_ 
a Florence Mask, and sublime it into the upper part by 
placing the bottom in sand. 1833 BREWSTKR ,\at. Magic 
xii. 299 We may yet study the lava which they have melted, 
and the products which they have sublimed. 1869 PHILLIPS 
Vesui>. iv. 107 Chloride of lead was among the substances 
sublimed. 

3. intr. (foccas. re/l.} a. To undergo this process ; 
to pass from the solid to the gaseous state without 
liquefaction. 

1622 MALYNES Anc. Laiv-Merch, 274 There remnineth a 
Paste. .called the Almond Paste, which by a Hmbecku re- 
ceiuing fire, causeth the Quickesiluer to subleme [sic]. 1651 
FRENCH Distill, vi. i^j It will presently .sublime in a silver 
fume, into the recipient. 1682 K. DICJUV Chym. Seer. i6 
You shall see a little [Sal armoniac] sublime up to the- dis 
covered place of the Retort. 1683 PKITUS 1 leta Min. i. .)j 
Tne Brimstone, .dpth roast away, and the Arsnick dulh 
sublime it self with a .strong beat. 1797 / ////. J r.ms. 
LXXXVII. 368 The acid will not sublime from it, but is 
decomposed by heat. 1823 FARADAY E.\-p. Res. Nu. 10. - 
It will.. sublime from one part of the bottle to the other in 
the manner of camphor. 1841 EKANDE Man. Chem. (ed. 5) 
458 At higher temperatures it again liquifies, and at about 
600 it boils, and sublimes in the form of an orange-coloured 
vapour. 1908 Athcnxum 28 Mar. 390/1 All the non- 
valent elements, .should sublime, or pass from the solid 
into the gaseous state without liquefaction. 

b. To be deposited in a solid form from vapour 
produced by sublimation. 

1682 K. DIGHY Chym. Seer. 169 It will sublime with it in 
very red flowers. 1799 G. SMITH Laboratory I. 370 When 
the benjamin is heated the flowers will sublime." 1825 J. 
NICHOLSON Oper. Mech. 760 The arsenic sublimes, .and ad 
heres to the upper part uf the vc:-sel. 1856 MIU.KK liletn. 
Chem., Inorg. xvii. i. 1016 Calomel sublimes in quadri 
lateral prisms. 

4. trans. To raise to an elevated sphere or 
exalted state ; to exalt or elevate to a high degree 
of purity or excellence ; to make (esp. morally or 

sublime. 



lastingly happy, shall never make them weary. 1649 JKR. 
TAYLOR Gt. Exetnp. n.8 [Jesus] hallowed marriage.. having 
new sublim d it by making it a Sacramental] representment 
of the union of Christ and. .the Church, a 1711 KEN Psyche 
Poet. Wks. IV. 253 As bless d Elijah pray d his Servants 
Eye Might be sublim d the Angels to descry. 1719 SAVAGE 
Wanderer\. 521 No true benevolence his thought sublimes. 
1765 GOLDSM. "ss., Metaphor Wks. (Globe) 331/1 A judi 
cious use of metaphors wonderfully raises, sublimes, and 
adorns oratory or elocution. 1814 SOUTHEY Roderick \\\. 
398 Call it not Revenge ! thus sanctified and thus sublimed, 
Tis duty, tis devotion. 1819 BYRON Juan \\. clxxx, The 
blest sherbet, sublimed with snow. 1858 MFKIVALK Rom. 
Emp. liv. (1865) VI. 415 It sublimed every aspiration after 
the Good, .by pronouncing it the instinct of divinity within 
us. i86 M. ARNOLD Pop. Educ. France 146 Morality 
but dignified, but sublimed by being taught in connection 
with religious sentiment. 1873 PATER Renaissance 176 The 
aspiring element, by force and spring of which Greek reli 
gion sublimes itself. 1880 HAR... 1 rutnpet-Major \\\iii, 
IBob s countenance was sublimed by his recent interview, 
like that of a priest just come from the penetralia of the 
temple. 

b. above, beyond, or higher than a certain stale or 
standard. 

ai6ig FOTHERBY Atheom. n. ix. 2 (1622) 206 The very 
end of Geometric is nothing else, but onely to sublime mens 
mindes aboue their senses, . .to the contemplation of Gods 
aeternall Nature. 1651 JKR. TAYLOR Clervs Domini v. 7. 
31 Who can make it (ministerially I mean) and consecrate 
or sublime it from common., bread, but a consecrate, .person? 
1657 G. STARKEY Hehnont s I itui. 15 (The Philosopher s] 
employment being sublimed a degree higher lhan Art, is 
ranked among the Liberal Sciences. iSso HAZMTT Lect. 
Dram. Lit. 57 A personification of the pride of will and 
eagerness of curiosity, sublimed beyond the reach of fear 
and remorse. 1866 WIIIPPLE Char. 4- Charac. Me*, i 
A soul sublimed by an idea above the region of vanity and 
conceit. 1871 ALABASTER Wheel of Law 18 The existence 
of a God sublimed above all human qualities. 

C. into a state or to a degree of purity, etc. 

1643 J. M.Sov. Salve 35 That confirmation in grace by 
which free will is transfigured and sublimed into a state 
divine. 1651 JER. TAYLOR Ciertts Domini iii. 11 An ordi 
nary gift cannot sublime an ordinary person to a supernal urall 
imployment. 1774 PFNNANT Tour Scot. in 777*, 5 Numbers 
of the discontented noblesse., resorted there, ..sublimed the 
race into that degree of valour (etc. J. 1859 W. ANDERSON 
Disc. (1860) 55 1 he death of Matthew Henry s two children 
was designed to sublime his piety into that excellence which 
it attained. 

fd. To purify (Jrom). Qbs. 



SUBLIMED. 

_ 1630 LORD Banians 52 The soule was impure .. therefore 
it was needfull it should bee sublimed from this corruption. 
i654WHiTLocicZ00*0J/fza 406 Would we could lighten some 
nobler principles that might sublime us from these Kello- 
lacean Principles. 

fe. With material obj. Obs. 

1654 JF.R. TAYLOR K eat Fres.gS It is made Sacramental 
and Eucharist ical, and so it is sublimed to become the body 
of Christ. 1667 MILTON P. L. v. 483 Flours and thir fruit 
Mans nourishment, by gradual scale sublim d To vital Spirits 
aspire. 1740 CBVfm Kigtmt* 35 That spiritual Substance 
was analogous to Matter infinitely rarefied, refin d or sub 
lim d. 1772-84 Cook s ^rd Voy. (1790) IV. 1254 The vines 
here being highly sublimed by the warmth of the sun and 
the dryness of the soil. 

5. To transmute into something higher, nobler, 
or more excellent, 

1693 DRYDEN tr. Dnfresnoy s Art Paint. 7 Art being 
strengthned by the knowledge of tilings, may. .be subHm d 
into a pure Genius. 1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey) s.v., To Sub 
lime one s Flesh into a Soul. 1768 TIXKKR Lt. Nat. (1834) 
II. 229 Our clay-built tabernacles sublimed into fit taber 
nacles of the Holy Ghost. 1790 P-URKE />. Rev. Wks. V. 
331 He, the ojcunomist,. .subliming himself into an airy 
metaphysician. 1847 MILLER J- irst Ivipr. Eng. xviii. (1857) 
315 Those fictions of the classic mythology which the greater 
Greek and Roman writers have sublimed into poetry. 1855 
MACAULAY Hist. Eng. xii. III. 193 His very selfishness 
therefore is sublimed into public spirit. 1864 LOWELL Fire- 
side Trav. 36 F., whom whiskey sublimed into a poet. 

b. intr. To become elevated, be transmuted into 
something higher. 

1669 \V. SIMPSON Hydrol. Chym. 76 The blood, .begins to 
sublime or distil into more pure refined spirits, a 1711 KKN 
Sion Poet. Wks. IV. 381, I feel my Faith subliming into 
Sight. 1874 SEARS Fourth Gospel 172 This new faith sub 
liming into knowledge. 

6. trans. To raise up or aloft, cause to ascend. 

1632 MASSINGER City Madam in. iii, I am sublim d ! 
grosse earth Supports me not. I walk on ayr ! n65o 
DENHAM Of Old Age in. (1669) 34 Nor can thy head (not 
helpt) it self sublime. 1788 MME. D ARBI.AY Diary IV. vn. 
344 With arms yet more sublimed, he. .advanced, in silence 
and dumb heroics. 1845 BAILEY Festns (ed. 2} 241 Thoughts 
rise from our souls, as from the sea The clouds sublimed in 
Heaven. 

b. To cause (vapour, etc.) to ascend, ns by the 
action of the sun s heat. 

1633 FOSBROKE Chr. Race 10 As clouds. .being elevated 
and sublimed towards the upper region of the aire, are 
rarefied. 1655 VAUGHAN Euphrates 51 When the centrall 
Sun sublimes the Vapours, a 1691 BOYLE Hist. Air (16^2) 
186 There were great Store of Pieces of Brimstone, which 
are guessed to be sublimed up from the internal Parts of 
the Hill. 1705 J. PHILIPS Blenheim 8 As when two adverse 
Winds, Sublim d from dewy Vapours, in mid Sky Engage 
with horrid Shock. 1871 C. KINGSLEY At Last vi, Toe 
malarious fog hung motionless. ., waiting for the first blaze 
of sunrise to sublime it and its invisible poisons into the 
upper air. 

f c. To cause (the juices of a plant, etc.) to rise, 
and thereby rarefy and purify them. Obs. 

1645 Ho WELL Left. n. liv. (1892) 450 Wine itself is but 
Water sublim d, being nothing else but that moisture and 
sap which is caus*d..by rain. .drawn up to the branches 
and berries by the virtual attractive beat of the Sun. 1655 
VAUGHAN Euphrates 46 There is a way made for the sperme 
to ascend more freely, which subliming upwards is attracted 
and intercepted by the vegetable Kingdom, whose imediat 
aliment it is. 1711 BLACKMORE Creation n, 234 Th austere 
and ponderous Juices they sublime. 

t 7. To exalt (a person), raise to a high office or 
degree. Obs. 

1557 NORTH Gueuara s DiallPr. (1619) 706/1 Mardocheous 
[was] placed in his roome, and greatly sublimed and exalted. 
1610 B. JONSON Alch, i. i, Haue I. .Sublim d thee, and 
exalted thee, and fix d thee I the third region, call d our 
state of grace? 1638 MAYNE Lncian (1664) 212/3 Gloriously 
crown d . .and sublimed, like one drest for a triumph. 

Sublimed (soblai-md), ppl. a. Also 4 sub- 
lymed, 5 sublimyd. [f. SUBLIME z>. + -ED 1 .] 

1. That has undergone the chemical process of 
sublimation ; produced by sublimation ; = SUB 
LIMATE a. i. 

Sublivud mercury: mercury sublimate. Sublimed arsenic^ 
sulphur: flowers of arsenic, of sulphur. 

c 1386 CHAUCER Can. Yeom, T. Preamb. 55 Oure Orpy- 
ment and sublymed Mercuric. 0x425 tr. Arderne s Treat. 
Fistula^ etc. 83 Arsenic sublimed is of white colour. 1584 
R. SCOT Discov. Witchcr. xiv. i. 295 Orpiment, sublimed 
Mercuric, iron squames, Mercuric crude. 1593 G. HARVEY 
Pierce" & Super. Wks. (Grosart) II. 147 Mercuric sublimed, 
is somewhat a coy, and stout fellow. 1658 ROWLAND tr. 
Moufet s Theat. Ins. 926 Corrosives, .(as Mercury sublimed, 
Vitriol, Orpiment, &c.). 1807 T. THOMSON Chem. (ed. 3) 
II. 26 It has no other smell than that of sublimed sulphur. 
xBn A. T. THOMSON Land. Dhp. (1818) 535 Separate the 
sublimed matter from the scoria;. 1842 PARNELL Chem. 
Anal. (1845) 26 Sublimed carbonate of ammonia, which isa 
sesquicarbonate. 1874 GARROD & BAXTER Mat. Med. 300 
Collecting the sublimed acid by means of a cylinder of stiff 
paper inverted over the vessel. 

b. transf. Refined. (Cf. SUBLIME a. 8 c.) 

1905 Brit. Med. Jrnl. 25 Feb. 414 Using the very best 
sublimed olive oil. 

t 2. fig. a. Elevated, exalted, sublime ; b. Puri 
fied, refined. Obs. 

1600 W. WATSON Decacordon (1602) 334 Exhalated smokes 
of sparkling, hole, inflamed, dispersed, sublimed aspires. 
1610 DONNE Pseudo-martyr 30 Shall the persons of any 
men. .be thought to be of so sublimed, and spirituall a na 
ture, that [etc.j. 1610 B. JONSON Alch. n. ii, Where I spie 
A wealthy citizen, or rich lawyer, Haue a sublim d pure 
wife, a 1667 JER. TAYLOR Serm. for Year (1678) 355 The 
sobueties of a graver or sublimed person. 1739 [BovsEj 



Deity 151 Unmix d his nature, and sublim d his pow rs. 
1823 LAMB Guy Faux in Elian a (1867) 20 Erostratus must 
have invented a more sublimed malice than the burning of 
one temple. 

t C. High and mighty. Obs. 

16x1 SPEED Hist. Gt. Brit. ix. viii. 39 In his sublimed 
Reply, hee snebs the King. 

Sublimely (s^blsi mli), adv. [f. SUBLIME a. 
+ -LY 2.] 

1 1. Aloft ; highly ; at or to a height. Obs. 

a 1599 ROU.OCK Passion xli. (1616) 404 When thus way by 
checking, Hee hath beaten downe the imaginations.. and 
cogitations that sublimely rose out of the minde. 1648 
BOYLE Motives Love of God 14. 89 His soveraign Tran- 
quillity is so sublimely plac d, that tis above the reach of 
all Disquieting Impressions. 

2. With sublimity of form, thought, expression, 
style ; in a lofty or exalted manner. Also ironical. 

1693 CONCREVE in Dry den" s Juvenal (1697) 294 Verse so 
sublimely good, no Voice can wrong. 1700 Lucius Brit., 
Death Dry d t -n SS His Works are all sublimely (".real. 1735 
POPE Prol. Sat. 187 Whose fustian s so sublimely bad, It is 
not Poetry, but prose run mad. 1816 T. L. PEACOCK Head- 
long Hall vii, The sublimely romantic pass of Aberglaslynn. 
1859 GEO. ELIOT Adam Bede xvii, There are. . few sublimely 
beautiful women. 1884 Macm. Mag. Oct. 443/1 Of this 
difficulty our Saxon-loving friends., are sublimely uncon 
scious. 

Sublimeness (s#bUtamfe). [f. as prec. + 
-NESS.] The condition or quality of being sublime ; 
sublimity. 

1660 tr. Amyraldtts* Treat, cone. Relig. i. v. 76 A matter 
of most divine sublimeness. 1683 CAVE Ecclesiastici 335 
Neither does, .the sublimeness of his Argument make his 
discourse obscure. 1734 Burners Own Time Life II. 675 
M r. Nairn was . . remarkable for . . Strength of Reasoning and 
Sublimeness of Thought. 1854 WISEMAN Eabiola n. xxxii. 
343, I cannot see any way in which the sublimeness of the 
act could have been enhanced. 

Sublimer (szfblai-mai). rare. [f. SUBLIME v. 
+ -EB l.] One who or a thing which sublimes. 

a 1615 DONNK Ess. (1651) 68 That late Italian Distiller and 
Sublimer of old definitions. 

Sublimification (s^bli mifik^i-fon). [f. SUB 
LIME v. + -(I)FICATION.] The act or fact of making 
or being made sublime. 

1791 W, GILPIN Forest Scenery 1. 252 The poet has great ad 
vantages over the painter, in the process of sublim[ifjication, 
if the term may be allowed. 1868 Pall Mall Gaz. 22 Aug. 
6 Mrs. Borradaile emerged from her baths in a state of sub- 
limification which we should have thought would have made 
her marriage certain. 

So Snbii mified///. a., rendered sublime. 

1878 Erasers Mag. XVII. 576 A sort of sublimified Bcr- 
quin. 

Subliminal (s#blrminan, a. Psych, [f. SUB- 
i a + L. limin-j Kmen threshold + -AL : coined to 
represent Herbart s unter dcr Schwelle sc. ties 
Bewusstseins under the threshold of consciousness 
(Psyckol. als Wissenschaftlfa^ i. 47).] Below the 
threshold (see THRESHOLD 2 c, Lnour) of sensation 
or consciousness : said of states supposed to exist 
but not strong enough to be recognized. Also, 
pertaining to * the subliminal self . 

1886 WARD In Encycl. Brit. XX. 48/1 Even if there were 
no facts to warrant this conception of a subliminal presenta 
tion of impressions and ideas. 1892 Illustr. Land. News 
8 Oct. 451/1 A pen, that strange conductor between the self 
he knows and the subliminal self 1 which is often flashing 
its surprises on him. 1892 MYERS In Proc. Soc. Psychical 
Res. Feb. 306 The subliminal memory includes an unknown 
category of impressions which the supraliminal conscious 
ness, .must cognise, if at all, in the shape of messages from 
the subliminal consciousness. 1903 PODMORE Mod. Spirit, 
ualism II. 31 The extraordinary outburst of subliminal or 
automatic activity. 

b. absol. That which is subliminal ; the sub 
liminal self. 

1901 W. JAMES in Proc. Soc. Psychical Res. May 18 Of 
the Subliminal, he [Myers] would say, we can give no ultra- 
simple account 1903 MYERS Hum. Pers. I. ii. 347 Scenes 
..which Sally as a subliminal noticed. 

Subliming (swbUrmirj), vbl. sb. [f. SUBLIME 
v. + -ING *.] The action of the verb SUBLIME. 
1. = SUBLIMATION i. 

1471 RIPLEY Comp.Alch. vm. ii. in Ashm. (1652) 171 Such 
Sublymyng accordyth never adele To our entent. 1584 R. 
SCOT Discov. Witchcr. xiv. i. 294 Their subliming, amalga- 
ming, engluting. 1656 RIDGLEY Pract. Phystck 248 Tartars 
use the thin part of Milk separated by subliming, to make 
themselves drunk. 1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey), Snbliming- 
Pots t the Vessels that serve for the Subliming of any Mixt 
Bodies. 1886 GUILLEMARD Cruise of Marchesa I. 23 The 
camphor, on subliming, is collected and packed in barrels. 

t 2. Exaltation. Obs. rare. 

1641 SIR E. DERING Sp. on Rfliff. E ij b, This too elate 
subliming of one can not stand without a too mean demis 
sion of many other. 

3. attrib., as subliming dome (DOME sb. 5 d) t 
-glass, -potj vessel. 

1673 BOYLE Ess. Effluviums m. 13 The Subliming-glass. 
1682 K. DIGBY Chym. Secrets n. 208 A Glass head upon 
your last Subliming-pot. 1719 QUINCY Lex. P/tysico-Med. 
(1722) 13 Aludels are subliming Pots used in Chymistry. 
c 1789 Encycl. Brit. (1797) IV. 446/1 The mouth of the sub 
liming vessel. 1827 FARADAY Chem. Manifi. xvi. (1842) 411 
The bent tube being of such diameter as freely to pass over 
the subliming tube. 1881 GREENER Gun 309 The vapour.. 
passes into the subliming dome, and is immediately pre 
cipitated into, .flower of sulphur. 

Subliming (s#btoi-mirj), ///. a. [f. as prec. 



SUBLIMITY. 

+ -ING.2] That sublimes, a. That causes chemical 
sublimation. b. Undergoing sublimation. c. 
Rising, mounting, d. Elevating, exalting. 

a. a 1631 DONNE Valedict. of Bk. 13 To all whom loves 
subliming fire invades. 1836 BRANDE Man. Chem, (ed. 4) 
13 The mixture, .is to be put into an aludel..and exposed 
to a subliming heat. 

b. 1758 Elaboratory laid often 57 The sand should be 
removed from the retorts containing the subliming mailer. 

c. 1666 [see SUBLINGUAL i], 

d- 1.794 COLERIDGE Relig. Musings 107 His most holy 
name is Love. Truth of subliming import ! 1823 MOORE 
Rhymes on Roadvn. 72 Mingling earth s luxurious grace 
With Heaven s subliming thoughts. 

Sublimish (dfbUrmlJ), a. rare. [f. SUBLIME 
a. +-ISH *.] Somewhat sublime. 

1865 CARLYLE Fredk. Gt, xvi. vi. (1872) VI. 199 A man of 
some whims. .but really honest, though rather subiimish in 
his interior. 

Sublimity (sblrmiti). [ad. L. suhllmitas t 
-tiitem^ f. sublimis SUBLIME : see -JTY. Cf. F. sub- 
limite, etc.] The state or quality of being sublime. 

fl. High or lofty position, height. Obs. 

1563 Homilies u. Agst. Peril Idol. n. H h iv, When Images 
are placed in Temples, and set in honorable sublimitie, and 
begin once to be worshipped. 1601 HOLLAND Pliny n. xvi. 
I. n The other cause of their [sc. the planets] sublimities is, 
for that [etc.]. 1665 SIR T. HERBERT Trav. (1677) 192 The 
subtility of the air and the sublimity of those Hills, which 
he says surpass the Alps. 1688 HOLME Armoury m. iii. 
137/2 Geometrical Terms for their Plots, Figures, [etc.]. 
Sublimities, the heights or highness of things. 

t 2. High dignity of office, vocation, or the like. 

1594 HOOKER Eccl. Pol. i. iv. 56 Being held with adrmra- 
tion of their own sublimitie and honor, a 1656 USSHKR 
Power of Princes i. (1661) 43 The Regal sublimity is consti 
tuted by God. a 1700 EVFLYN Diary 12 June 1650, He 
magnified the sublimity of the calling. 1727 NEWTON 
Chionol. Aiitended \\. (1728) 226 Jupiter upon an Eagle to 
signify the sublimity of his dominion. 
ft). A highly placed person. Obs. 

1610 BOYS Exp. Domin. Ej>. * Gosp. Wks. (1629) 163 
Soueraigne Sublimities on earth are Gods among men. 
t C. A high or dignified status. Obs. 

1643 PKVNNE Sov. Power Par I. 1.41 If we be profitable 
servants, why doe we envy the eternall paines of our Lord 
for our temporall sublimities or Prerogatives? 

d. The status of one whose title is Sublime ; 
used with poss. pron. as a title of honour ; in 
recent use chiefly applied to the Sultan of Turkey 
or to the Sublime Porte. 

So med.L. sublimitas. 

553 1"- WILSON Rhet. (1580) 165, I beyng a Scholasticall 
panion, obtestate your sublimitie, to extoll niyne infirmitie. 
1589^ [?NASHE] Almond for Parr at Ded. i Which if your 
sublimitie accept in good part,.. I am yours. 1820 BYRON 
Jnan iv. xci, In the Dardanelles, Waiting for his Sublimity s 
firman. 1892 Sat, Rev. 22 Oct. 466/1 Its Sublimity was 
unable to perceive any violation of the Treaty of Berlin. 

3. Loftiness or grandeur of nature, character, 
conduct, or action ; high excellence. 

1526 Pilgr. Per/. (W. de W. 1531), 208 b, The length, the 
brede, the deepnes, and the sublirnite or hye excellence of 
thecrosse of Chryst. [See Eph. iii. 18, Vulg.]. 1597 HOOKER 
Eccl. Pol. v. Ixvii. 181 Those things, which, for height and 
sublimitie of matter . . wee are not able to reach vnto. 1614 
RALEIGH Hist. Worldi. L n In respect of Gods incompre- 
hensible sublimitie, and puritie. 1655 M. CARTER Honor 
Rediv. (1660) 17 [Painting] hath bten for its sublimity 
reckoned . . among the liber all Sciences. 1756-7 tr. Keysler s 
Trav. (1760) 1.343 That, for truth and sublimity of doctrine, 
no book or system in the whole world came up to the holy 
scriptures. i8iz BUCKMINSTER Serm. (1827) 36 Is there 
any thing to be learned . . from the sublimity of the character, 
which is so much a subject of taste? 1851 MAHIOTTI Italy 
29 In 1846, France had not reached the acme of republican 
sublimity. 1870 MOZLEY Univ. Senn. iii. (1876) 67 In the 
Christian doctrine of a future stale, .the real belief in the 
doctrine goes together with.. the moral sublimity of the 
state. 187* L. STEPHEN Hours in Libr. (1892) I. v. 192 The 
genuine old Puritan spirit ceases to be picturesque only 
because of its sublimity. 

b An instance of this; a sublime thing or being. 

1642 MILTON Apol. Sweet. 17 Knowledge and vertue, with 
such abstracted sublimities as these, a 1715 BURNET Oivn 
Time (1766) I. 86 They, .seemed to carry their devotions to 
a greater sublimity than others did. Jbid. 189 He loved to 
talk of great sublimities in religion. 1818 BYRON Ch. Har. 
iv. liv, The particle of those sublimities Which have relapsed 
to chaos. 1829 I. TAYLOR Enthus. ii. (1867) 27 Those false 
sublimities of an enthusiastic pietism. 1837 CARLYLE Fr. 
Rev. n. i. x, When such exhibition could appear a propriety, 
next door to a sublimity. 

4. Loftiness of conception, sentiment, language, 
style, or treatment. 

1624 GATAKER Transubst. 103 That subtilty and sublimitie 
of wit, that Jerome commandeth in Ephremsworkes. 1676 
HOBBES Iliad Pref. (1686) 5 The Sublimity of a Poet, which 
is that Poetical Fury which the Readers for the most j-art 
call for. 1685 BAXTER Paraphr. N. T. i Cor. ii. 6 Sub 
limity and accurateness of Speech. 1781 COWPER Table-T. 
644 In him. .Sublimity and Attic taste, combin d. 1790 
PAI.KY Hory Paul. \. 7 Bursts of rapture and of unparalleled 
sublimity. 1841 W. SPALDING Italy I. 158 Polycletus,..a 
fellow-pupil of Phidias,, .did not reach the sublimity of his 
rival in the representation of divinity. 1896 DK. ARGYLL 
Phifos. Belief -2&Q It is impossible to deny the sublimity of 
this conception. 

5. That quality in external objects which awakens 
feelings of awe, reverence, lofty emotion, a sense 
of power, or the like. 

1779 JOHNSON L. P., Cowley (1868) 9 Sublimity is produced 
by aggregation, and littleness by dispersion. 1787 POL- 
WHELE #/. Orator HI. 512 His Voice Commanding .. stern 



SUBLIMIZE. 

His Aspect and terrific. .Sublimity his every Nod Attended. 
1849 RUSKIN Seven Lamps iii. g. 72 This expedient of 
continued series forms the sublimity of arcades and aisles. 
1876 Miss BRADDON Haggard s Dau. x, Earth s loveliness 
or heaven s sublimity. 

b. A sublime feature ; a sublime expanse. 
1819 in Corr. Lady Lyttelton (1912) 214 The sublimities 
of the Alps, a 1853 ROBERTSON Lect, i. (1858) 19 His 
character had been moulded by the sublimities of the forms of 
the outward nature, a 1869 LOWELL RJwecus 157 The sky, 
With all its bright sublimity of stars. 

6. The state of emotion produced by the per 
ception or contemplation of the sublime. 

1739 HUME Hititi, Nat. II. 282 Any great elevation of 
place communicates a kind of pride or sublimity of imagina 
tion, c 1791 Kncycl. Brit. (1797) VIII. 107/2 The emotions 
of grandeur and sublimity are nearly allied. 1887 A. BAIN 
On Teaching Rngl. vi. 100 The Emotion termed Sublimity 
is connected with vastness of Power. 

7. A high degree or standard, a height ; with 
the, the highest degree, height, summit, acme. 

1637 EARL MONM. tr. MalvezzCs Romulus fy Tarqnin 
241 Bounding upon madnesse, it [sc. Melancholy] brings men 
to a sublimity, out of which one cannot passe, a 1667 ] ER. 
TAYLOR (Ogilvie 1882), The sublimity of wisdom is to do 
those things living, which are to be desired when dying. 
1812 COLEKIDGE Friend (1818) III. 34 There belong to it 
sublimities of virtues which all may attain, and which no 
man can transcend. 1823 LAMB Guy Faux in "//* (1867) 
20, I must make more haste; I shall not else climb the 
sublimity of this impiety. Ibid. 21 Such a .sublimity of 
malice. 1883 tr. Stcpniak"s Undergr, Russia Introd. 42 He 
combines in himself the two sublimities of human grandeur : 
the martyr and the hero. 

f b. A supreme or extreme phrase. Obs. 

1651 N. BACON Disc. Gov. Eng. \\. viii. (1739) 47 A qualified 
Legiance, without those sublimities of absolute, indefinite, 
immutable, &c. 

Hence Subli mityship, as a mock title. 

1838 LYTTON What will He do i. xvii, Her Serene Sub- 
Hmityship, Lady Selina Vipont. 

Sublimize (so blimgiz, s^blai-maiz), v. [f. 
SUBLIME a. + -IZE. Cf. F. sublimiser. } trans. To 
make sublime; to elevate, exalt, or refine. 

1813 Hervcy^s Medit. Mem. Author p. xvi, She thought 
herself so completely sublimized as to stand in no need of 
religious instruction. 1841 HOB. SMITH Motieyed Alan II. 
yiii. 247 Solemn music and rich odours . . sublimized devotion 
into ecstasy. 1880 QuiDA* MotJis i, Baptiste sublimised 
and apotheosised by niello buttons, old lace, and genius. 

Hence Sublimized ppl. a., elevated, exalted ; 
refined in quality. 

1849 Benares Mag. July II. 204 He declares.. that the 
sublimized humanity of Feuerbach is almost as monstrous 
as Deity itself. 1896 Daily News 21 Apr. 6/4 It would seldom 
occur to anyone to recognise an affinity between the sack 
coverings to be seen on huge bales at warehouses and the 
sublimi.sed fabric as applied to the bodices of ladies dresses. 

tSublimy, a. and sb. Obs. Also 6 sublime, 
-yme. [ad. F. sublimt sublimate, pa. pple. of sub- 
limer to SUBLIME.] A. adj. Mercury sublimy^ : 
corrosive sublimate. B. sb. Mercury or arsenic 
sublimate. 

1545 Rates ojfCustome house a Ij b, Argente subline [sic} the 
c. h. xxxiii. s. iiii. d. Ibid, b vnj, Mercury subline the pounde 
xii.d. 1558 W. WARDE tr. Alexis* Seer. 102 b, To sublime 
Quicke Syluer, that is to saye, to make common sublyme, 
1580 HOLLYBAND Trtas. Fr. Tong., Dux sublim^ sublimie, 
a kinde of poison. 1611 COTGB., Sublim^ Sublimatum, or 
Sublirme, Arsenick, Ratsbane. 1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey). 

Sublrnear, a. 

1. [SuB- 20 c.] Nearly linear (Bot. and Zool. : 
see LINEAR a. 4 b). 

1777 S. ROBSON Brit. Flora 89 Leaves sublinear. 1852 
DANA Crust, it. 887 The hand of the first pair of legs is 
sublinear. 1888 Amer. Nat. XXII. 1017 Suture sublinear 
above and slightly channeled below. 

2. [S0B- i a.] Placed below a written or printed 
line. 

Cf. Sttblineatton s.v. SUB- a. 

1868 VISCT. STRANGFORD Sel. (1860) II. 254 The strange 
hooks or sub-linear commas by which the Poles denote cer 
tain nasal sounds in their language. 1909 Bible in World 
Aug. 239/2 There are two chief systems of punctuation 
known,sublinearandsuperlinear. Ibid, t All ordinary Hebrew 
manuscripts are vocalised or pointed with the sublinear 
vowel signs. 

|| Sublingua (sobU rjgwa). Zool, [mod.L. : 
see SUB- i f and LINGUA. 

(In medical L., sublingua was formerly used for uvula .)] 
In some animals, e.g. lemurs, a process con 
sisting of a fold of mucous membrane under the 
tongue. 

1878 BELL te.Gegcnbaur^sComp.Anat. 553 InmanyProsimii 
and Chiroptera, as also in the platyrrhine Apes, there is a 
process below the tongue which is sometimes double ; this 
is the so-called sublingua. 1896 tr. Boas Text Bk. Zool. 
487 nafe, On each side of the ventral surface of the tongue, 
there is a fold . . ; it is termed the * sub-lingua , and attains its 
highest development in the Prosimii. 

Sublingual (sz?bH-ngwal), a. (s&.) [ad. mod.L. 
sublingitalts : see SUB- i a, b and LINGUAL. Cfc 
F. sublingual (from i6th c.), etc.] A. adj. 

1 1. Mcd. Of a pill, etc. : That is placed under 
the tongue to be sucked. Obs. 
t66x LOVELL Hist. Anim. <$ Min. 515 SubHnguale troches. 

1666 G. HARVEY Morbus Anpl. (1672) 114 Those subliming 
humours ought.. to be intercepted .. by sublingual Pills. 
2. Anat. Situated under the tongue or on the 

under-side of the tongue. Also, belonging to the 

sublingna. 
VOL. IX. 



Sullingual gland, the smallest salivary gland situated 
between the tongue on either side of the floor of the mouth. 
So s. artery, supplying thes. gland, side of the tongue, etc. ; 
s. cyst, due to obstruction of the s. gland, etc., = RANULA ; 
s. fossa, which lodges the s. gland. S. nerve = HYPOGLOSSAL 
nerve. 

1694 Pkil. Trans. XVIII. 229 [The use of] the Muscitlus 
Mylokyoideus . . in Compressing its subjacent sublingual 
Glands. 1720 Ibid. XXXI. 7 The Buccal, Labial, internal 
Maxillar,and sublingual Glands,areof ayellowColour. 1831 
R. KNOX Cloquefs Anat. 653 The Sublingual Artery, which 
is sometimes a division of the submental. 1836-9 Todd s 
Cycl. Anat. II. 214/1 A depression (sublingual fossa} for the 
reception of the sublingual gland. 1872 BKYANT Pract. 
Surg. 256 mar*. t Sebaceous sublingual cysts. 1875 Encycl. 
Brit. II. 165/1 In that genus \!iylobates\ we first meet with 
a sub-lingual process (which becomes much larger in the 
lower apes). 1890 BILLINGS Nat. Med. Diet., Sublingual 
caruncle, the papilla at which Wharton s duct opens, behind 
lowtr incisor teeth. 

B. sb. A sublingual gland, artery, etc. 

1720 Phil. Trans. XXXI. 7 They are as distinct from the 
Buccal, as the Sublinguals are from the internal Maxillars. 
1840 G. V. ELLIS Anat. 182 One or two of them [A;, arteries] 
perforate the mylo-hyoid muscle, to anastomose with the 
sublingual. 

tSubli-tion. Obs. rare* , [ad. L. *subli- 
tiOj -onetn, n. of action f. sublintre, siiblit-^ f. sub- 
SUB- 2 +/in?re to smear.] (See quot.) 

1656 BLOUNT Glossogr., Sublition, the ground colour, 
wherein the perfect colour is laid; it is called Grasing. 

Subli ttoral, a- [Sus- u.] Lying near the 
sea-shore orjust below the shore-line or littoral zone. 

1846 SMART Suppl. 1849 Sk. Nat. Hist., Mammalia IV. 
180 The sublittoral formation in which they had been ori 
ginally deposited. 1849 DARWIN in HerschelJ/rt*. Sci. Eng. 
177 Our observations . . on the alluvial and sub-littoral deposits 
of these latitudes. 1897 Geogr. Jrnl. Aug. 133, I should 
estimate that round the Pacific there are at least ten sub- 
littoral districts where earthquake-frequency may be about 
half that of Japan. 

Sublunar (sbli/7-niu),a. and sb. [ad. mod.L. 
Sublundr-is (cf. late Or. uirocrcAifi o?, vJToafhTjvios} : 
see SUB- i a and LUNAR. Cf. F. sublimaire, etc.] 
A. adj. SUBLUNARY A. Now rare. 

1610 GUILLIM Heraldry IIL iv. (1611) 94 Those ccelestiall 
creatures. .being void of this corrupt mixture which is 
found in all creatures sublunar. 1667 MILTON P. L. iv. 777 
Now had night measur d with her shaddowie Cone Half 
way up Hill this vast Sublunar Vault. 1708 Brit. Apollo 
No. 85. 3/1 That all Sublunar Joys duration want. 1817 
SHELLEY Rev. Islam v. i, The City s moonlit spires and 
myriad lamps, Like stars in a sublunar sky did glow, a 1857 
D. JERROLD John Applejokn iv, To expire covered over with 
wounds was the only really desirable way of going out of 
this sublunar world. 

t B. Sb. = SUBLUNAEY B. Obs. 

1613 CAMPION Relat. Roy. Entert. Descr., View these 
heau n borne Starres, Who by stealth are become Sublunars. 
1684 GADBURY (title) Cardines Cceli : or, an appeal to., 
observers of sublunars and their vicissitudes. 1686 GOAD 
Celest. Bodies n. iii. 180 The moon could claim no interest 
upon her Vicinity to us Sublunars. 

Subluna-riau, a. rare. [Formed as SUBLUN 
ARY + -AN.] Existing or operating beneath the 
moon s surface. 

1880 PROCTOR Rough Ways 108 The reinforcement of their 
action by the effects due to sublunarian energies. 1881 
Poetry Astron. vi. 231 Sublunarian forces. 

Sublu-narinesa. rare- , [f. next + -NESS.] 

1727 BAILEY (vol. II), Sttblunariness, the being under the 
Moon. 

Sublunary (so bl wnari, swbliw nari), a. (j.) 
[f. mod.L. suolundris : cf. LUNARY.] A. adj. 

.1 Existing or situated beneath the moon ; lying 
between the orbit of the moon and that of the earth ; 
hence, subject to the moon s influence. 

1613 PURCHAS Pilgrimage (1614) 512 PatrUius doth not 
onely auerre this, but that the Sea is as a sublunarie Planet. 
i6ax BURTON Anat. Mel. I. ii. i. ii. (1638) 46 Of these sub 
lunary Devils.. Psellus makes six kindes, fiery, acriall, 
terrestrial!, watery, and subterranean Devils, a 1649 CRA- 
SHAW Carmen Deo Nostro Poems (1904) 283 Starrs much 
too fair and pure to wait upon The false smiles of a sub 
lunary sun. 1692 RAY Disc. (1732) 302 The sublunary 
Aereal Heavens. 1757 YOUNG Last Dayi. 81 Ye sublunary 
worlds, awake, awake 1 1848 MRS. JAMESON Sacr. <y Leg. 
Art (1850) 168 The Four Doctors are in the centre of what 
may be called the sublunary part of the picture. 1850 S. 
DOBELL Roman i, Oh that bright realm of sublunary heaven. 
fb. Inferior, subordinate (to}. Obs. 

1616 DONNE Serni. (Prov. xxii. ii) III. 337 Endymion loved 
the Moon. The sphear of our loves is sublunary, upon things 
naturally inferior to our selves. 1631 BRATHWAIT Wkintzits, 
Metall-man 60 The arch-artist In this mineral! is the alchy- 
mist; for the rest are all sublunarie unto him, hee only 
mercuric sublimate unto them. 

2. Of or belonging to this world; earthly, 
terrestrial. 

1502 GREENE Groat s Wit Ep. Ded., A witte that runnes 
in this sublunarie maze and takes but Nature for its original. 
1615 W. LAWSON Country Housew. Garden (1626) 24 Euery 
thing sublunary is cursed for mans sake. 163* B. JONSON 
Magn. Lady in. i, From all the points o the Compasse, 
(That s all the parts of the sublunary Globe). 1650 J. HALL 
Paradoxes 38 The uncertainty of all sublunary things. 
(11676 HALE Prim.Orig. Man. 83 Sublunary Bodies. .are 
..subject to alteration and corruption. 1713 SWIFT Apollo 
Outwitted Wks. 1755 III. n. 109 Strolmg Gods, whose 
usual trade is.. To pick up sublunary ladies. i?8a COWPER 
Let. to Jos. /////Nov., My eyes are, in general, better than I 
remember them to have been since I first opened them upon 
this sublunary stage. 1815 SCOTT Guy M. xlvi, The house 
keeper, .usually waylaid him on his return, to remind him 



StlBMAHINE. 

of his sublunary wants. 1841 BKEWSTER Martyrs Sci. v. 
(1856)83 Like all sublunary blessings it was of short duration. 
1873 BURTON Hist. Scot. VI. Ixv. 3 For this too we may find 
a motive cause among sublunary human influences. 

1 3. Characteristic of this world and its affairs ; 
mundane ; material, gross ; temporal, ephemeral. 

1639 HABINGTON Castara n. (Arb.) 92 Tis no dull Sublun 
ary flame Burnes in her heart and mine. 1643 MILTON 
Divorce i. ix. Wks. 1851 IV. 46 To remedy a .sublunary and 
bestiall burning, which frugall diet without mariage would 
easily chast n. 1648 Bp. HALL Breathings Devout Soul 
3 Can ye hope to finde rest in any of these sublunary con 
tentments? 174* YOUNG Nt. Th. \\. 206 And toil we still 
for sublunary pay ? 1759 JOHNSON Rasselas xlvi, He began 
gradually to delight in sublunary pleasures. 1814 SCOTT 
Wav. xi, The Baron was exalted by wine, wrath, and scorn, 
above all sublunary considerations. 

f B. sb. A sublunary thing or creature; chiefly 
pi. Obs. 

1641 R. HARRIS Abners Fnnerall 8 We may say of all 
these Sublunaries, what Salomon saith of one particular; 
They are not. 1671 J. WEBSTER Metallogr. xii. 178 The 
mercurial part of it [sc. gold].. cannot be changed.. by no 
sublunary except its compeer. 1720 Humourist Ded. p. xxiv, 

B o] publish to us Sublunaries.. all the Secrets of your 
onours Privy-Council. 1748 RICHARDSON Clarissa (1811) 

III. 310 Something extraordinary was to be done to keep 
her with us sublunaries. 

Subluxation ( sbl k s^i Jan ). Path . [ad. 
mod.L. subluxdtio, -owm : see SUB- 22 and LUXA 
TION. Cf. F. sublitxation, etc.] A partial disloca 
tion, a sprain. 

1688 HOLME Annoitry ii. xvii. 448/2 Sitblaxation [sic], a 
dislocation, or putting out of joynt. 1846 MILLER Pract. 
Snrg. xxiii. 321 Subluxation forwards is by no means an 
uncommon result of falls on the palm. 1878 tr. von 
Zit-mssett s Cycl. Med. XIV. 122 In the shoulder-joint an 
atonic subluxation often occurs, especially in children. 
1893 W. R. GOWERS Man. Dis. Nerv. Syst. (ed. 2) II. 415 
The persistent strong flexion may even lead to Subluxation. 

So Sublu xate z>., to dislocate slightly, sprain. 

1893 W. R. GOWERS Man, Dis. Nerv. Syst. (ed. 2) II. 415 
The ringers are. .over-extended at the middle joint, which 
may be subluxated. 

Subiua*rgiiial| & (^.) [Sus- ii.] Situated 
near the margin of a body or organ ; (of cells in 
the wing of a hymenopterous insect) lying behind 
the marginal cell. 

1829 LOUDON Encycl Plants (1836) 877 Sori.. marginal or 
submarginal. 1846 DANA Zooph. (1848) 142 Tentacles., 
submarginal. 1861 H. HAGEN Syn. Neuroptera N. Amer. 
343 Stibrnnrginal, just behind the margin. 1872 H. A. 
NICHOLSON Palseont. 107 Most commonly the anus is mar 
ginal, or is sub-marginal. 

b. sb. A submarginal cell. 

1896 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 30 There are but two 
submarginal cells;.. The so-called second submarginal is 
morphologically the third, the true second of genera with 
three submarginals being absent. 

Subma rginate, Nat. Hist. [Sue- 20 b.] 
Imperfectly or nearly marginate ; bordered with a 
mark slightly distant from the edge. So Snb- 
ma rginated, Subxna rgined. 

1856 W. CLARK Van der Hoevcris Zool. I. 155 Echino- 
lampas. . . Disc *submarginate forwards. i7SaJ- HILL Hist. 
Anim. 51 The brownish brassy Duprestis, with a *submar- 
ginated thorax. 1822 J. PARKINSON Outl. Oryctol, 202 Lip 
submarginated. 1787 tr. Linnsus" Fam. Plants 551 Tana- 
cetum...Seedssolitary,oblong. Pappus *submargined. 1819 
G. SAMOUELLE Entomol. Compend. 86 Shell submargined 
behind. 

Submarine (s bmar/n, in the adj. also s*?b- 
man-n), a. and sb. [Sus- i a.] A. adj. 

1. Existing or lying under the surface of the sea. 

1668 WILKINS Real Char. H. iii. 62 A sub-marine Plant. 
1670 BOVLE Tracts, Submarine Regions i. 3 By the Appella 
tion of Submarine Regions tis not to be supposed that the 
places so called are below the Bottom of the Sea, but only 
below the surface of it. 1796 WITHERING Brit. Plants (ed. 3) 

IV. 87 This Fucus is found on submarine rocks at very low 
water. 1833 LYELL Princ. Ceo? III. 24. A vast submarine 



198 Submarine volcanoes occasionally give rise to new land. 

2. Operating or operated, constructed or laid, 
intended for nse under the surface of the sea. 

Submarine boat, a boat so designed that it can be sub- 
merged, and propelled when under water, used chiefly for 
carrying and discharging torpedoes. Submarine vtim, a 
charge of explosives, moored at or beneath the surface of 
the sea, intended by its explosion on impact to put a hostile 
vessel out of action immediately. 

1648 WILKINS Math. Magick n. v. 178 Concerning the 
possibility of framing an Ark for submarine Navigations. 
Ibid. 182 These submarine Navigators will want the usuall 
advantages of winds and tides for motion. 1784 COWPER 
Task iv. 85 Submarine exploits. 1840 Mech. Mag. 19 Sept. 
330 Spithead has been.. a scene of diversified exertion in 
submarine work. 1855 Lardner s Mas. Sci. <$ Art III. 159 
It is proposed to connect Orfordness. .with the Hague, by 
seven separate submarine cables. 1860 PRESCOTT Electr. 
Telegr. 179 The wires of a submarine telegraph. 1860 
MAURY Phys. Geog. ii. 30 Currents, for the most part, and 
for great distances, are submarine. 1861 Jrnl. Chem. Soc. 
XIV. 193 Applying the magneto- electric current to the 
ignition of submarine charges. 1867 SMYTH Sailor s Word, 
i>k. 664 Submarine Thermometer, an instrument for trying 
the temperature of the sea at different depths. 1875 KNIGHT 
Diet. Mech.. Submarine Boat,*, vessel constructed to navi 
gate beneath the surface of the water. 1889 [see SUBMKRS- 
IBLE a.]. 1900 igth Cent. May 722 Why it [sc. the naval pro 
gramme] does not contain. .any provision for submarine or 
submersible boats. 

5 



SUBMABSHAL. 

B. sb. 

1. A submarine creature ; f a submarine plant, 
coral, etc. 

1703 Phil. Trans. XXIII. 1419 A Description of some 
Coralls, and other curious Submarines. 1756 J. HILL Brit. 
Herbal 533 Grassy Alga . . is the only submarine which has 
a regular root. 1839 HOOD Sub-marine 68 With open d 
mouth and open d eyes, Up rose the Sub-marine. 

2. A submarine mine. 

1886 Pall Mall Gaz. 28 July 6/2 Suppose you lay down 
submarines to help the defence ; without a flotilla, how are 
you going to stop the enemy from taking them up or de 
stroying them at night? 

3. A submarine boat : see A 2. 

1899 Westm. Gaz. 2 Feb. 7/1 The submarine was no longer 
there. She was hidden from our fire and from our view. 
1900 Daily Mail $ May 4/3 The submarine has been adopted 
by the French navy as a means of gaining control of the 
Channel. 

Hence Submarine v. trans., to attack with a 
submarine ; Submari nist, an advocate of sub 
marine boats. 

1900 igth Cent. May 722 The confident statements of the 
French submarinists. 1914 Land f; Water 19 Sept. 17* 
Having been submarined and beached. 

Su-bina-1-sh.al. Obs. exc. Hist. [SuB-6.] A 
deputy or nnder-marshal ; an official in the mar- 
shalsea acting as the knight-marshal s deputy. 

1594 CROMPTON Jurisd. 104 Lopinion del Court fuit, que 
le Submarshal fuit deins le case del dit estat. 1607 COWELL 
Interpr., SttbmarsliaU,..\=, an officer in the Marshalsea. 
1711 Lend. Go*. No. 4797/1 The Count de Denhof, Sub- 
Marshal of Lithuania, hopes to succeed him. 

Su bmaster. [Sus- 6. Cf. med.L. sub- 

magister, F. sous-mattre, formerly ^soubs-maistre. ] 
A subordinate, deputy, or assistant master. 

14.. Norn, in Wr.-Wiilcker 681/18 Hicinslrmtor, a sub- 
mastyr. 1517 in Arclixologia LXI. 82 Sir Adam late sub- 
maister of the seid College. 1850 CHUBB Locks $ Keys 15 
With keys for the master, sub-master, and warders. 

II Submaxilla (sabmaeksHa). [mod.L. : see 
SUB- 3 and MAXILLA.] The lower jaw or jaw-bone. 

Subma xillary, a. (si>.~) [f. mod.L. submaxil- 
Idris : see SUB- I b and MAXILLAKT.] 

1. Situated beneath the inferior maxilla. 
Submaxillary gland, a salivary gland situated on either 

side below the lower jaw ; hence, pertaining to this gland, 
esp. of parts connected therewith, as s. artery, duct, fossa, 
ganglion, "vein. Also as sb. (ellipt. for s. artery, etc.). 

1787 Med. Comm. II. 369 The submaxillary glands were 
swollen. 1831 R. Ksox Cloqitefs Anat. 73 An oblong 
superficial cavity, in which the submaxillary gland is placed. 
1831 YOUATT Horse 120 The submaxillary artery, a branch 
of the jugular and the parotid duct. 1834 Cattle 
335 The sub-maxillary vein returning the blood from the 
tongue, the mouth, and the face generally. 1836-9 Todd s 
Cycl. Anat. II. 214/1 A large depression (the submaxillary 
fossa) for the reception of the submaxillary gland. 1837 
QUAIN Elem. Anat. (ed. 4) 812 The submaxillary ganglion, 
..rests upon the gland just named [sc. the submaxillary). 
1871 DARWIN Desc. Man II. xii. 29 During the season of 
love, a musky odour is emitted by the submaxillary glands 
of the crocodile. 

2. [f. prec.] Pertaining to the submaxilla. 

1884 COUES N. Amer. Birds 98 On the under jaw, maxil 
lary or submaxillary line. 

Subme dial, a. 

L [Sea- n, 20 d.1 Near the middle or median 
line ; almost mediaL 

1849 DANA Geol. App. L. (1850) 726 Beaks submedial 

2. Geol. [SUB- i a.] Lying below the middle 
group of rocks. 

1855 OGILVIE Suppl., Submedial,.. a term synonymous 
with transition, and applied to the lower secondary rocks, 
which bear a close resemblance to some of the_primary 
rocks. 1855 J. PHILLIPS Man. Geol. 157 Scar limestone 
(submedial group). 

So Subme dian a., nearer behind a median part. 

1851 MANTELL Petrifactions iii. 5. 293 The flattened 
angular spaces, and the sub-median trochanter. 185* DANA 
Crust, n. 843 One tooth anterior, one submedian, and one 
posterior. 1861 H. HAGEN Synopsis Neuroptera N. Amer. 
^CSubmcdian nerve, the longitudinal large nerve just 
behind the median. 

Subme diant. Mas. [Sus- 4 (<:).] The sixth 
note of a scale, lying midway between the sub- 
dominant and the upper tonic. Also attrib. 

1806 CALCOTT Mits. Gram. n. v. 135 The submediant.. 
varies also according to the Mode. 1889 PROUT Harmony 
L 16 We.. call this sixth note the Submediant, or lower 
mediant. Ibid. xii. 131 The submediant chord in the minor 
key. 1891 Counterpoint (ed. 2) 56 The submediant triad. 

Subme ntal, <z. Anat. [Sus-i b, MENTAL a. 2 ] 
Situated beneath the chin or under the edge of the 
lower jaw ; chiefly in submental artery, vein. Also, 
pertaining to the submentum. 

1831 R. KNOX Cloquets Anat. 653 The Sublingual Artery, 
which is sometimes a division of the submental. 1849^52 
Todd s Cycl. Anat. IV. 1404/2 The submental vein, which 
arises in the sublingual gland. 1874 COUES Birds N. W. 617 
Submental space partially feathered. 1883 Encycl. Brit. 
XV. 348/2 The submental gland of the Chevrotains. 

II Submentum (sobme-ntom). Entom. [mod. 
L. ; see SUB- I f.] The basal part of the labium. 

1877 HUXLEY Anat. Inv. Anitn. vii. 403 The submentum 
is not directly articulated with the cranial skeleton. 1888 
ROLLESTON & JACKSON Anim. Life 141 The labium. .con 
sists (i) of a large basal sub-mentum. .(2) a uimtma; (3) of 
two three-jointed palpi. ,(4) a ~ 



84 

Submerge (spbmSud^), v. [ad. L. submer- 
g$r) var. Qisummcrgire : see SOB- 2 and MERGE. 
Cf. .subnierger^..sommergere y Sp., Pg. sutnergir.] 

1. /OH. To be covered with water ; to be sunk 
under water. 

1606 SHAKS, Ant. <$ Cl. n. v. 94 So halfe my Egypt were 
submerg d and made A Cesterne for scal d Snakes. 1688 
LUTTRELL Brief Rel. (1857) I. 453 That the island of Ma- 
dera s..had been destroyed by an earthquake and sub- 
merg d in the sea. 1794 R. J. SULIVAN View Nat. II. 430 
Those lost people, whom we have supposed to have been 
submerged, when the present face of things was drawn into 
existence. 1833 LVELL Princ. Geol. III. 116 Tracts that 
may be submerged or variously altered in depth. 1853 KAN K 
Grinnetl Exp. xxxix. (1856) 359 The white whale. . whistled, 
while submerged and swimming under our brig. 1877 HUX 
LEY Physiogr, 212 The remains of a vast forest. .now sub 
merged to a depth of perhaps twenty or thirty feet below 
high-water. 1880 DAWKISS Early Man in Brit. \, i He 
tells of continents submerged, and of ocean bottoms lifted 
up to become mountains. 

Jig. a 1625 BEAUM. & FL. Love s Cure v. Hi, Many of his 
chief Gentry, .spoyld, lost, and submerged in the impious 
inundation and torrent of their still-growing malice. 1856 
VAUGHAN Mystics (i%6e>) I. 98 The miserable monks. .whose 
minds submerged in the * mare tenebrosum of the cloister, 
[etc.]. 1903 MYERS Hum. Pers. I. p. xxi, Faculty, which 
is kept thus submerged, not by its own weakness, but by the 
constitution of man s personality. 

2. traits. To cause to sink or plunge into water; 
to place under water. 

1611 COTGR. , Submerge?, to submerge ; to plunge or sinke 
vnder, whtrken or ouerwhelme by, . . the water. 1726 BAILEY, 
To Submerge^ to bend a Thing very low, to drown or dip. 
1817 KIRBY & SP. Entomol. (1818) II. 212 Experimentalists 
may . . , without danger, submerge a hive of bees, when they 
want to examine them particularly. 1870 YEATS Nat. Hist. 
Comtn. 91 The shallow and tideless Baltic has scarcely a 
sounding that could submerge St. Paul s Cathedral. 

fig- i85S BAIN Senses < Int. ii. ii. 19 (1864) 144 The 
magnitude of the sensation is attested by its power to sub 
merge a great many irritations. 1907 FORSYTH Posit. 
Preaching iv. 124 Our demands must never be submerged 
by our sympathies. 

3. intr. To sink or plunge under water; to 
undergo submersion. Now rare. 

1652 KIRKMAN Clerio $ Lozia 123 A Cork sometimes 
elevateth it self, and then submergeth under the water. 1808 
Gentl. Mag. LXXVIII. 670/2 Some say, they [sc. swallows] 
submerge in ponds. 18*3 J. BADCOCK Dom. Amnsem. 208 
The ascending wires (where they submerge), .should be 
flattish at the sides. 1863 LD. LYTTON RingofAmash I. 
48 He submerged, and we lost sight of him. 

Jig. 1837 CAKLYLE Fr. Rev. 11. in. iv, Plot after plot; 
emerging and submerging, like ignes fatui in foul weather. 
Ibid. in. ii. v, This Question of the Trial.. emerged and 
submerged among the infinite of questions and embroilments. 

Hence Subme rging vbl. sb. and///, a. 

i88z CROMMELIN Brown-Eyes viii, Alluvial deposit left 
there ages ago by the submerging waters. 1888 SCHAFP 
Hist. Chr. Ck. t Mod. Ckr. 219 Faith is the submerging of 
the old man, and the emerging of the new man. 1902 Daily 
Chr on. 5 Apr. 7/6 The submerging was accomplished in 6 sec. 

Submerged (sobmaudsd),///. a. [f. prec. + 
-ED 1 .] Sunk under water; covered or overflowed 
with water, inundated ; Bot. growing entirely under 
water. 

1799 KIRWAN Geol. Ess. 81 The crash and ruin of the sub. 
merged continent. 1839 MURCHISON Silur. Syst, 503 One 
of these submerged forests is occasionally seen on the shore 



eygi 

merged leaves). 1884 BOWER & SCOTT De Bary s Phaner. 
56 Hair-structures, .under all states of adaptation, even in 
submerged species. 

b. fig. ; esp. in submerged tenth, that part of the 
population which is permanently in poverty and 
misery. (Contrasted with upper ten.) 

1837 CARLYLE Fr. Rev. I. v. iv, Happily, in place of the 
submerged Twenty-six, the Electoral Club is gathering. 
1890 BOOTH In Darkest Eng. i. ii. 22 We have an army of 
nearly two millions belonging to the submerged classes. 
Ibid. 23 This Submerged Tenth is it, then, beyond the 
reach of the nine-tenths in the midst of whom they live? 

alsol. 1897 Daily News 31 Mar. 8/3 Those who seek to 
ameliorate the conditions of the submerged. 1903 Westm. 
Gas. 18 Feb. 10/1 A.. leader of hosts of submerged from 
the Egypt of slumdom. 

Subrne-rgement. [f. SUBMERGE z>. + -MENT.] 

Submersion. 

1856 OLMSTED Slave States 524 When free from the social 
submergement and weight of disgrace which disabled them 
in England. 1884 Daily News 16 Sept. 5/7 With its inces 
sant vibration and its state of almost continuous submerge 
ment, it is miserably uncomfortable for the crew. 

Submergence (s^bmaudgens). [f. SUBMERGE 
+ -ENCE.] The condition of being submerged or 
covered with water (also Ceo/., with glacier ice) ; 
the state of being flooded or inundated. 

1833 LYELL Princ. Geol. II. 305 The proofs of submerg 
ence, during some part of the tertiary period,. .are of a 
most unequivocal character. 1851 RICHARDSON Geol. ii. 21 
The submergence of land by earthquakes. 1873 W. S. SY- 
MONDS Rec. Rocks ix. 310 After the glacial submergence. 
1875 DARWIN Insectiv. Pi. iii. 52 A submergence for forty 
seven hours had not killed the protoplasm. 

b. fig. t e.g. a being plunged in thought; the 
* swamping of one thing by another ; a sinking 
out of sight or into obscurity. 

1873 F. W. ROBINSON Bridge of Glass in. ix, The voice 
was so low, and the maiden s submergence so deep, that 
the grief -stricken figure did not move to the inquiry. 1898 



SUBMINISTER. 

Ckr. Herald (N.Y.) 27 Apr. 368/4 An idea that death isthe 
submergence of everything pleasant by everything doleful, 
1903 MYERS Hum. Pers. I. p. \x\iii, If the elements of 
emergence increase, and the elements of submergence di 
minish, the permeability of the psychical diaphragm may 
mean genius instead of hysteria. 

Subine rgible, a. rare. [f. SUBMERGE + 
-IBLE.] = SUBMERSIBLE. 

1870 Daily News 18 Oct., To build a high-sided ship sub- 
mergible in action. 

So Submergibi lity. 

1802-12 BENTHAM Ration. Judic. Evid. (1827) 1. 130 Par- 
taking in respect of submergibility of the nature of a ferry 
boat. 

Submerse (sffbm5us), v. rare. [f. L. su&- 
mers-j pa. ppl. stem of stibmergere to SUBMERGE. 
Cf. next.] trans. To submerge, drown. 

1837 Fraser^s Mag. XVI. 344 [They] quietly submerse 
their memories in the waters of Lethe. 1905 Daily Chron. 
15 June 6/7 The moving of the submersing lever from a 
perpendicular to a horizontal position. 

Submersed (stfbmaust), pa. pple. and ///. <z. 
[f. L. submersus, pa. pple. of sitbmergtre to ScB- 
MEUGE + -ED !.] Submerged ; covered with water, 
lying or growing under water. Now chiefly Bot. 

a. pa. pple. 

1727 BAILEY (vol. l\),Subiersed, plunged under Water, &c. 
17^6 J. LEE Introd. Bot. Explan. Terms 382 Sub:i2>-$ii?i; t 
submersed, sunk under the Surface of the Water, c 1789 
Encycl. Brit. (1797) III. 444/2 A simple Leaf, .may be Sub 
mersed, hid under the face of water. 1796 Phil. Trans. 
LXXXVI. 503 The fructification of the Chara being equally 
submersed. 1822 J. FLINT Lett. Amer, 214 A humane 
society for the resuscitation of persons submersed in water. 
1836 MACGILLIVRAY Trav. Humboldt i. 23 A chain of moun 
tains that has been broken up and submersed. 

b. ppl. a. 

1796 Phil. Trans. LXXXVI. 501, I do not hesitate to 
consider these grains of the submersed alga? to be.. their 
effective seeds. 1807 SOUTHEY Espriellas Lett. II. 282 
Submersed forests. 1836 MACGILLIVRAY Trav. Humboldt 
vi. 80 The islets of Coche and Cubagua are supposed to be 
remnants of the submersed land. 1847 W. E. STEELE Field 
Bot, 36 Submersed leaves multifid. 1866 Treas. Bot. 999/1 
A submersed aquatic belonging to the order yuncaginacese. 
1868 Maidmenfs Scott. Ball. I. 29 The submersed eccle 
siastic was William de Perisbi. 

Submersible (s#bm5 jsib l), a. and sb. [f. L. 
siibmers-, pa. ppl. stem of siibmerge re to SUB 
MERGE, prob. after F. submersible. Cf. mod.L. 
stibmersibilis and INSUBMERSIBLE (1865).] 

A. adj. That may be submerged, covered with, 
plunged into, or made to remain under water; esf. 
of a boat (see quot. 1889). 

1866 Pall Mall Gaz. 10 July 5 A German named Flack 
has invented a submersible vessel, to be used in laying tor. 
pedoes for the defence of harbours. 1889 SLEEMAN Tor- 
pedoes (ed. 2} 288 Torpedo boats which . . are capable of being 
propelled at considerable depths below the surface of the 
water are usually termed submarine torpedo boats ; as 
however this is not the normal state of these vessels, they 
should rather be designated as submersible torpedo boats. 
1892 Athenaeum 16 July 101/1 The place [Notre Dame de 
Londres] derives its name from Ondra, which in the local 
dialect signifies a humid or submersible country. 

B. sb. A submersible boat. 

1900 Daily Ckron. 8 Dec. 7 (Cass. Suppl.) The better type 
[of submarine boats] known as * submersibles . 1901 Edin. 
Rev. Apr. 343 Already in France the submarine is being 
displaced by the submersible. 

Submersion (s#bm5Mjan). [ad. L. submersio, 
-onem, n. of action f. submergfre, ~mers- to SUB 
MERGE. Cf. F. submersion. It. sommersione, Sp. 
sumersion, etc.] The action of submerging or 
condition of being submerged j plunging into, sink 
ing under, or flooding with water; occas. drowning. 

i6ix COTGR., Submersion, a submersion, plunging, sink, 
mg. 1653 RAMESEY Astral. Restored 309 Many shipwracks 
and submersions of ships. 169* RAY Disc. (1732) 242 The 
Submersion of the vast Island of Atlantis. 1781 COWPER 
Retirem. 584 All had long suppos d him dead, By cold sub 
mersion, razor, rope, or lead. 1793 tr. B-uffon s Hist. Birds 
VI. 471 The submersion of Swallows appears by no means 
ascertained. 1823 J. BADCOCK Dom. Amnsem. 196 Haifa 
pound of alum to every pint of water, which may be deemed 
necessary for the entire submersion of the article to be 
heated. 1856 STANLEY Sinai $ Pal. ii. (1858) 144 Preserved 
by the salt with which a long submersion in those strange 
waters has impregnated them. 1910 Encycl. Brit. (ed. ii) 
III. 365 The earliest literary notices of baptism are far from 
conclusive in favour of submersion. 

Su b-mi : nister, sb. Now rare or Obs. [f. 
SUB- 6 -f- MINISTER sb. Cf. med.L. subminister 9 
F. sous-ministre, formerly ^ soubministre.] A sub 
ordinate or deputy minister. 

1565 HARDING Answ. Jewel 98 [Calvin s] disciple and 
subminister Theodore Beza. 1687 SETTLE Reft. Drydun 
55 Why may not we suppose Subministers of the Fates to 
write their actions, some under Clarks to the Committee of 
Destinies? c 1800 R. CUMBERLAND John de Lancaster 
(1809) III. 200 The name of the sub-minister was now an 
nounced to Major Wilson. 1820 RANKEN Hist. France 
VIII. i. 2.58 Tellier and Servien, subministers of Mazarin. 
1823 BENTHAM Not Paul 371 As to Apollos, if so it was, 
that, . . in the mind of our spiritual monarch, any such senti 
ment as jealousy, in regard to this sub-minister had place. 

Subminister (s^bmrnistai), v. Now rare. 
[ad. L. subministrdre (var. summ-) : see SOB- 8 
and MINISTER v. Cf. F, subministrer.] 

1. trans. To supply or furnish (sometimes in a 
secret manner). 



SUBMINISTRANT. 



35 



SUBMISSIVELY. 



1601 R. JOHNSON Kingd. fy Commw. (1603) 262 Hauing 
subministred continuall supplies both of men and money, 
to their neighbors in flanders. 1669 GALE Crt. Gentiles 
I. in. iv. 56 A soil very fruitful, which subministered these 
fruits, of its own accord, 1676 HALE Prim. Orig. Man. 
Ii. iv. 154 Even the inferior Animals have subministred 
unto Man the invention, .of many things both Natural and 
Artificial and Medicinal. 1792 SIBLY Occult Sci. I. 56 As 
nothing can be produced, unless matter be subministered. 
1857 Truths Cath. Relig. (ed. 4) II. 109 The blessed Virgin, 
subministering to him her flesh in the accomplishment, .of 
the incarnation. 

t 2. intr. To minister to (lit. and fig.). Obs. 

1611 COTGR., Soubministrer* to subminister vnto. a 1679 
HOUSES Rltt t. ii. xviii. 76 They have wherewithal to sub- 
minister to their Lust. 1693 L ESTRANGE Fables xxxviii. 
38 Our Passions, .are Good Servants, but Bad Masters, and 
Subminister to the Best, and Worst of Purposes, at once. 

Hence Submi nistering///. a. 

^11676 HALE Prim. On ff. Man. iv. iv. 327 The. .accom 
modation of Faculties with subministring Faculties, and 
Organs subservient. 

t Submvnistrant, a, Obs, rare. [ad. med.L. 
subministrans, -ant-, pres. pple. of subministrdre 
(see prec.),] Subordinate. 

a 1626 BACON Cert. Consid. Ch. Eng. Wks. 1778 III. 159 
That which is most principal, .to be left undone, for the at 
tending of that which is subservient andsubmimstrant [etc.]. 

t Submi iiistrate, ^. [f. L. subministrdt-, 

pa. ppl. stem of subministrdre to SUBMINISTEK.] 
trans* To supply, furnish, 

1665 G. HARVEY Advice agst. Plague 15 Nothing sub- 
tninistrates apter matter to be converted into pestilent 
Seminaries than peoples steams and breaths. 1678 GALE 
Crt. Gentiles iv. in. 34 By permitting tentations, offering 
objects, subministrating occasions. 

t Subministra-tion. Obs. [ad. late L. 
subministrdtiO) -onem, n. of action f. subministrdre 
to SUBMINISTER. Cf. OF. sottb-, subministration 
(Cotgr.).] The action of subministering ; minister 
ing support ; provision, supply. 

1582 N. T. (Rhem.) Eph. iv. 16 The whole body being 
..knit together by al juncture of subministration. Ibid. 
Phil. i. 19 By your praier and the subministration of the 
Spirit of Jesus Christ. 1606 J. KING Serm. Sept. 39 
Nourishment and raiment, and the subministration of ne 
cessary things. 1623 BP. HALL Gt. impostor Wks. (1634) 
462 The subministration of Vitall spirits, to the maintenance 
of the whole frame. 1678 GALE Crt. Gentiles iv. in. 57 Sub- 
ministration of occasions* 

So fSubmi nistrator, one who provides or sup 
plies. 

1611 COTGR., Subministrateur^ a submimstrator. 1625 
tr. Camde i s Hist, Eliz. \, 81 Some Marchants, which., 
became subministrntors to the enemies of Christianity. 

t Snbmise, * Obs. (Chiefly Caxton.) Also 
-myse. [app. f. OF. soubmis^ var. of $ou(z}mis, 
pa. pple. of sou(z]metre (: L. *$ubtusmittre} to 
submit.] trans. = SUBMIT 4, 5. 

1471 CAXTON Recuyell (Sommer) 255 Loue in this nyght 
submysed and constrayned them to loue eche other with 
oute spekyng. 1483 Gold. Leg. 216/3 She submysed her 
body to delyte. 1491 Vitas Pair. (W. de W. 1495) n. 
290 They haue submysed alle theyr wyll to the wyll of 
theyr soueraynes. 1503 Ord. Crysten Men (W. de W. 1506) 
iv. xxi. T viij b, The doubte, vnto the whiche the lenner 
[=lender] is submysed. 

Subniiss (swbmi s), a. Also 6-7 -is, -isse. 
[ad. L. submissuS) pa. pple. of submitttre to SUB 
MIT. Cf. SUMMISS.J 

1. = SUBMISSIVE. (Const, to.} Obs. exc. arch. 

a. Of persons. 

1570 FOXE A. fy M. I, 311/2 Neither was the kyng now 
and Archb. so submisse : but [etc.]. 1580 LYLY Euphues 
(Arb.) 475 Be not too imperious ouer hir..nor too submisse. 
1600 HEYWOOD and Pt. Ed u. IV } \\. ii. (1613) P 4 b, Was 
neuer Done, or Turtle more submisse, Then I will be vnto 
your chastisement. 1612 Bp. HALL Contentpl.^ O. T. in. iii. 
207 To execute rigour vpon a submisse offender is more 
mercilesse then iust. 1615 MOUNTAGU Af>f>. C&sar no It 
were to be wished, that such transported spirits were taught 
to be more submisse and sparing in their talk. 1667 MILTON 
P. L,, viii, 316 With aw In adoration at his feet I fell Sub- 
miss. 1708 J. PHILIPS Cyder i. 12 To foreign yoke submiss. 
1735 SOMERVILLE Chace ii. iiz Huntsman, lead on 1 behind 
the clust ring Pack Submiss attend. 1813 SCOTT Rokely 
in. xxi, Submiss he answer d. 1862 CARLYLE Fredk. Gt. 
xn. iv. III. 213 To such of the Canons as he came upon, 
his Majesty was most polite ; they most submiss. 1875 
A. DE VERE Mary Tudor in. iii, Sir, you presume. Your 
station Is our confessional. There, as a daughter, I stand 
submiss. 

absol. 1742 SHENSTONE Schoobmstr. xvii, To thwart the 
proud, and the submiss to raise. 

b. Of actions, feelings, demeanour, etc. 

a 1586 SIDNEY Arcadia (1622) 337 They would not equall 
them with those who were alreadie humbled, till they sub 
mitted in a more submisse manner, 1588 GREENE Pandosto 
(1607) A3 b, Pandosto. .entertained the Kings.. & Noble 
men with such submisse curtesie. x6u BACON Hen. VI 1 1 
190 King lames mollified by the Bishops submisse and elo 
quent Letters. 1659 HAMMOND On Ps. xcv. 6 Even the 
submissest and lowlyest gestures. 1702 C. MATHER Magn. 
Chr. Introd. C3/2 A Simple, Submiss Humble Style. 1817 
COLERIDGE Biog. Lit. i. (1882) 5 The great works of past 
ages, .in respect to which his faculties must remain passive 
and submiss, 1848 LYTTON Harold m. ii, Godwin prays 
with all submiss and earnest prayer. 1904 M. HEWLETT 
Queen s Quair I. xi, Every testimony of the submiss heart 
given him by my lady. 

C. fig. Of material things. 

1637 MARMION Cupid fr Psyche i. L 113 With her rosie feet 
insulting ore The submisse waves, a Dolphin sbe bestrides. 



1868 GEO. ELIOT Sp. Gipsy w. 206 The loadstone draws, 
Acts like a will to make the iron submiss. 

f d. Of buildings : ? Unpretentious. Obs. 

1638 SIR T. HERBERT Trav. (ed. z) 88 The buildings are 
generally submisse and low. 1664 J. WEBB Stone-Heng 
(1725) 40 Pylasters. .ought not. .to be of such stately Height 
as Pillars, but far more humble and submiss. 

j- e. With prefixed too forming snbst, phr. Obs. 

1606 WARNER Alb. Eng. xvi. ci. 399 And rather than in 
haughtiness did fault in too-submis. 

1 2. Of the voice, speech : Low, uttered in an 
undertone, subdued. Obs. 

1604 E. G[RIMSTONE] D Acvsta s Hist. Indies v. xxx. 425 
They said with a low and submisse voyce, Sir [etc.]. 121638 
MEDE IVks, (1672) 844 That submiss reading in Churches 
sine cantn, which we use now. 1666 J, SMITH Old Age nS 
As Age enfeebleth a man the grindings are weaker, and the 
several voices of them more submiss. 1787 tr. Klopstock s 
Messiahiv. 182 Judas, then with submiss Voice said, Is it I ? 

Submi Ssible, a. rare. [f. L. submiss-, pa. 
ppl. stem, of siibmittfre to SUBMIT + -IBLE.] Capable 
of being submitted. 

1837 LOCKHART Scott IV. i. 22, I . . wish I could tell how 
[he], .translated [it] into any dialect submissible to Black- 
wood s apprehension. 

Submission (s^bmi Jan), Also 5 -myssion, 
-mycion, -miasioun, 6 -myssyon. [ad. OF. 
^submission or its source L. submissio, -oneni 
(var. sunini-}, n. of action f. submittPre to SUBMIT. 
Cf. F. soumission^ It. sommessiow, etc. (see SUM- 
MISSION).] 

1. Law. Agreement to abide by a decision or to 
obey an authority ; reference to the decision or 
judgement of a (third) party ; in recent use 

the referring of a matter to arbitration ; in Sc. 
a contract by which parties agree to submit dis 
puted matters to arbitration ; also, the document 
embodying such a contract. 

1411 Rolls of Parlt. III. 650/2 The forsaid Archebisshop, 
and Chamberleyn. .by force of the submission that the said 
Robert in hem hath maad, haven ordeyned [etc.], c 1450 
Godstmv Reg. 367 Next to this folowyth the Submyssion of 
the abbot and couent of Oseney to abide the ordeynyng. 
1580 Reg. Privy Council Scot. Ser. i. III. 278 The submis- 
sioun maid and aggreit upoun..anent materis questionabill 
betuix thame. 1587 Sc. Acts Jets. VI (1814) HI. 472/1 
Submissioun of the contraversie beuix the erle of angus and 
lord flemyng. 1628 Sc. Acts Chas. I (1870) V. 189 The 
Submission made be the Lords of Erectiones Titulers Tacks- 
men and Gen trie Heretors of Lands To His Majestic anent 
their Superiorities and Temds &c. 1697-8 Act q Will. Ill \ 
c. 15 2 Where the Rule is made for Submission to such I 
Arbitration or Umpirage. 1765-8 ERSKINE/WJ/. Law Scot. I 
iv. iii. 29 Where the day within which the arbiters arc to 
decide is left blank in the submission. 1854 Act if fy 18 Viet. 
c. 125 17 Every Agreement or Submission to Arbitration 
by Consent, .maybe made a Rule of any One of the Superior 
Courts of Law. 1875 Encycl. Brit. II. 312/2 A verbal sub- 
mission . . cannot be made a rule of court. 

b. In wider use, the act of submitting a matter 
to a person for decision or consideration. 

1911 Concise Oxf. Diet. s. v., The submission of the signa 
ture to an expert. 1914 Times 12 June 8/2 Amending Bill 
Drafted. Date of Submission to the Lords. 

2. The condition of being submissive, yielding, 
or deferential ; submissive or deferential conduct, 
attitude, or bearing ; deference ; f occas. humilia 
tion, abasement, arch. 

c 1449 PKCOCK Repr. n. x. 207 More deuocloun, and Iou5er 
submissioun the! my^ten not neither couthen araie forto 
bisette vpon Crist him silf. 1539 TONSTALL Scrm. Palm 
Sunday (1823) 17 The bowynge down of eueryknee, isment 
the submyssyon of all creatures to theyr maker. 1560 DAUS 
tr. Sleidane s Comm. 10 Luther, .writeth to the Bishop of 
Rome letters full of submission. Ibid. 273 Moste humbly 
and with great submission. 1591 SHAKS. i Hen. VI, n. ii. 52 
Tell her, I returne great thankes, And in submission will 
attend on her. 1643 BAKER Ckron, (1653) 234 A Son of such 
submission. 1647 CLARENDON Hist. Reb. i, no He had 
not that, .submission and reverence for the Queen as might 
have been expected. 1667 MILTON P. L. iv. 310 Subjection 
..by her..Yeilded with coy submission, modest pride, And 
sweet reluctant amorous delay. 17*0 SWIFT Fates of Clergy 
men Wks. 1755 II. ii. 23 This sort of discretion is usually 
attended with, .servile flattery and submission. 1855 MIL- 
MAN Lai. Christ, ix. II. xiii. IV. 357 They met, Frederick 
with dignified submission, the Pope with the calm majesty 
of age and position. 

b. //. Acts of deference or homage ; demon 
strations of submissiveness. arch. 

1617 MORYSON I tin. n. 20 He failed not to mingle secretly 
the greatest Counsels of mischiefe with his humblest sub 
missions. 1662 J. DAVIES tr. Oleariuf Voy.Amb. 317 The 
Submissions, wherewith they express themselves in their 
Complements, a 1715 BURNET Own Time in. (1724) I. 522 
He had really the submissions of a child to me. 1753 I 
RICHARDSON GrandisonV .x\i. 254 To what submissions has j 
your generous repentance subjected you. 1824-9 LANDOR 
I mag. Con-j. Wks. 1846 I. 8 Those graceful submissions 
which afford us a legitimate pride when we render them to 
the worthy. 

f o. Phr. with (gnat} submission : subject to 
correction. Also subst. Obs. 

1667 SIB T. HERBERT Trav. (1677) 31 Leaving every one 
to his own credulity, I shall only (but with submission) give 
my present apprehension of this Abassin Emperor. 17^10 
PALMER Proverbs 189 Two or three If you ll give me Leave s; 
as many Spare Me s, with Submission s and I humbly Con- 
ceive s. a 1721 PRIOR Turtle fy Sparrow 126 With great 
Submission I pronounce, That People Die no more than 
Once. 1753 CIBBF.R Lives Poets I. 18 With great submission 
to his judgment, we think [etc.]. 1802-12 BENTHAM Ration 



Judic. Evid, (1827) III. 644 With submission, suppositions 
of a contrary tendency might be raised in any number. 

3. The action of submitting to an authority, a 
conquering or ruling power ; the act of yielding 
to the claims of another, or surrendering to his will 
or government ; the condition of having submitted; 
also, an instance of this. 

1482 Cov. Leet Bk. 512 That }?e seid Laurence shulde 
make his .submission to such Meires as he had offended. 
1575 GASCOIGNE Glasse Govt. Wks. 1910 II. 20 When the 
people of Israeli provoked him at sundry times, he did yet 
at every submission stay his hand from punishment. 1584-5 
Act 27 Eliz. c. 2. 13 All such. .Submissions as shall be 
made by force ofthis Act., shall be certified in to the Chancerie. 
1617 MORYSON I tin. u. 19 A submission of the Rebels. Ibid. 
279 Hee..made a most humble submission in writing. 1621 
BACON in Jrnl. Ho. Lords III. 85/1 My humble Suit to 
your Lordships is, That my penitent Submission may be my 
Sentence, and the Loss of the Seal my Punishment. 1651 
HOBBKS Leviath. ii. xx. 105 To save his own life.. by sub 
mission to the enemy, 1729 BUTLER Senn. Wks. 1874 II. 
203 Religion consists in submission and resignation to the 
divine will. 1831 SCOTT Ct. Rob. xxvi, By whose interven 
tion you might have brought his empire to submission. 
1833-5 NEWMAN Hist. Sk. (1876) II. i. viii. 150 The pursuit 
of gain may be an act of submission to the will of parents. 
1874 GREEN Short Hist. vu. 2. 356 Mary was resolved to 
bring about a submission to Rome. 1878 Encycl. Brit. 
VIII. 334/2 The Act of Submission on the part of the clergy 
subordinated all ecclesiastical legislation within the kingdom 
to the royal will. 
b. transf. 

1781 COWPER Charity 158 All other sorrows virtue may 
endure, And find submission more than half a cure;.. But 
slav ry ! 1790 Mother s Pict. 44, I learn d at last sub 
mission to my lot. 1829 SCOTT Anne ofG. xxiv, He recom 
mends to us submission to our hapless fate. 

t 4. Used for : Admission, confession. (Shaks.) 

1592 SHAKS. Rom. $ "Jnl. in. i. 76 O calme, dishonourable, 
vile .submission. 1598 Merry W. iv. iv. n Be not as ex 
treme in submission, as in offence. 

5. at t rib. : submission bond (see sense i), an 
arbitration bond. 

1791 KYD Law of Awards 231 The party in whose favour 
the award was made, having no advantage from the sub 
mission being made _a rule of court, brought a common 
action on the submission-bond. 

t Submi ssioner. Obs. rare- 1 , [f. SUBMIS 
SION + -ER !.] One who makes his submission. 

T 593 NASHE Christ s T. (1613) 75 The Princes of the lewes 
(which Titus as submissioners and succour-suers had received 
to mercy). 

Submissionist (s^bmi-Janist). [f. SUBMIS 
SION + -1ST.] One who advocates submission ; spec. 
in Spanish and U.S. history. 

i8z8 Lights fy Shades^ I. 209 Mr, Popjoy alluding to the 
submissionists at Cadiz. 1861 O. W. HOLMES in Corr. 
Motley (1889) I. 360 The Hunker or Submissionist, or what 
ever you choose to call the wretch who would sacrifice 
everything and beg the South s pardon for offending it. 
1906 Contemp. Rev. July 118 Those organs which carried 
on a violent campaign against the submission is ts. 

Submissive (szSbmi siv), a. [ad. L. *sub- 
missivuSj f. subtntss-j pa. ppl. stem of submitters 
to SUBMIT. Cf. It. sommessivo^ 

1. Of persons, their actions, words, attributes, 
etc. : Disposed or inclined to submit ; yielding to 
power or authority ; marked by submission or 
humble and ready obedience. 

a 1586 SIDNEY Arcadia in. (1598) 335 With the most sub- 
missiue maner his behauiour could yeeld. 1588 SHAKS. 
L. L. L. iv. i. 92 Submissiue fall his princely feete before. 
1596 Tarn. Shr. Ind. i. 53 A lowe submissiue reuerence. 
1640 "QmmAntifodtsii.il ii, He bring him on submissive 
knees. 1670 PETTUS Fodinx Reg. 34 It might be added 
with a submissive Confidence, that [etc.]. 1743 WKSLEY 
//) /;/, O for a heart , An heart resign d, submissive, 
meek. 1781 GIBBON Decl. r F. xxxvi. (1788) II. 326 His 
applications for peace became each hour more submissive. 
1831 SCOTT Ct. Rob, xxv, With pious and submissive 
prayers, the Countess closed tb-iL eventful evening. 1841 
DISRAELI Amen. Lit. (1867) 59 Feeble sovereigns and a sub 
missive people could not advance into national greatness. 
1868 FREEMAN Norm. Cong. (1877) II. App. 620 To repre 
sent Godwine as a model of submissive loyalty towards 
Eadward. 

b. Const, to. 

1686 tr. Chartiin s Trav. Persia 238 This Prince is not., 
so submissive to his Orders, as the other Viceroys. 1757 
WILKIE Epigoniad itt. 56 His manly voice my horses will 
obey, And move submissive to his firmer sway. 1869 FREE 
MAN Norm. Cong. (1875) III. xii. 134 As little submissive 
to lawful authority as his forefather. 1007 ferney Mem. I. 
458 Advising bis quarrelsome sister .. to be submissive to her 
husband. 

C. fig. Of material things. 

miPuOB 2nd Hymn Callim. 6 The sever d Bars Sub. 
missive clink against their brazen Portals. 

f 2. a. SUBMISS 2. Obs. rare. 

a 165* J. SMITH Stl, Disc. vi. vii. (1821)253 Inquiring with 
a submissive voice, as if he had been at his private prayers, 
Shall I do so, or so ? 

f b. Restrained. Obs. rare. 

753 HANWAY Trav. (1762) II. i. xii. 62 If we consider 
what is due to health,.. to moderate passions, submissive 
appetites. 

Submrssively, adv. [f, prec. + -LY 2.] in 
a submissive manner, with submission. 

1590 MARLOWK Jew of Malta [iv.J 1790 Write not so 
submissiuely, but threatning him. X687DRVDEN HindffP. 
n. 509 The whole hierarchy, with heads hung down, Sub 
missively declin d the pondrous proffer d crown. 1746 
HERVEY Refl. Flower Garden (18x8) 146 Under the heaviest 

5-3 



SUBMISSIVENESS. 

tribulations most submissively patient. 1838 DICKENS Nick. 
Nick, xiv, Perhaps you are right, uncle, 1 replied Mrs. Ken- 
wigs submissively. 1860 TYNDALL Glac. i. xx n. 153 He 
approached me submissively, . .and declared his willingness 
to go on. 

Submi ssiveness. [f. as prec. + -NESS.] The 
quality or condition of being submissive. 

1611 SPEED Hist. Gt. Brit. ix. xix. 714 We seeke rather 
by violence to extort, then by submissiuenes to beg his 
pardon. 1679 DRYDEN Trail, fy Cress. Pref. b2, With all 
the submissiveness he can practice, & all the calmness of 
a reasonable man. 1818 HALLAM Mid. Ages (ifyz] I. 125 
The pope s knowledge of the personal submissiveness to 
ecclesiastical power. 1863 KINGLAKE Crimea (ed. 3) II. xji. 
185 They approached him respectfully, but without submis 
siveness. 1890 F. W. ROBINSON Very strange Fam. 74 In all 
submissiveness [he]owned ho wdeplorably wrong he had been. 

Submissly (sobmi-sli), adv. arch. [f. SUB- 
MISS + -LY -.] With submission, submissively. 

1595 in Birch Mem. Q. Eliz. (1754) I- 237, I beseech you 
most submissly, to use your excellent insight [etc.]. x6n 
Bible Ecclus. xxix. 5 For his neighbours money he will 
speake submissely. 1650 JER. TAYLOR Holy Living ii. 4. 
104 Humility consists not in.. going softly and submissely. 
1739 G. OGLE Gualtk. fy Gris. 104 Then chuse the Good ! 
The 111 submlsly bear, a 1851 MOIR Castle of Time xx, 
The heathen.. submissly owns His trust in Him who bled 
on Calvary 1 

Subiui ssiiess. arch. [f. as prec. + -NESS.] 
Submissiveness, submission. 

1621 BTRTON Anat. Mel. i. ii. in. xv, With all submissenes 
[I] prostrate my self to your censure and service. 1649 
MILTON Eikon. xi. 104 Whether it were his envy, not to be 
over-bounteous, or that the submissness of our asking stirr d 
up in him a certain pleasure of denying. 1664 BUTLER 
ffud. n. iii. 493 Whachum advanc d with all submissness, 
T accost em, but much more, their bus ness. 

Submit (spbmi tj, v. Also 4-6 -mytte, (4 
pa. t. -mytte, 5 pa. pple. -mytt), 5 -mett, 5-6 
-myt, 5-7 -mitte, 6-7 -mitt. [ad. L. submttt /re, 
var. of sumniittere. (see SUMMIT z.), f. sub- SUB- 2 
+ mitt$rc to send, put; cf. OF. soub-, sub metre ^ 
later var. of sousnietre (see SrjB- p. 3/1 ?wte), 
mod.F. soume(tre> and Pr. sob-, sotemetre, It. som* 
mettere beside sottomettere^ Sp. someter^ Pg. sub- 
metter,] 

I, 1. refl. and intr. To place oneself under the 
control of a person in authority or power; to 
become subject, surrender oneself, or yield to a 
person or his rule, etc. 

f a. Const, under ; refl. only. Obs. 

c 1374 CHAUCER Boeth. n. pr. v. (Camb. MS.), Syn ye demen 
J>at tho fowlest thingesben yowre goodys, thannesubmitten 
[v.r. summytten] ye and putten yowre selven vndyr the 
fowleste thinges by yowre estimacion. 1471 CAXTON Recuyell 
(Sommer) 603/22 .Sayng that they wold not submytte hem so 
many noble men vnder the strengthe of one man. 1535 
COVERDALE Gen. xvi. 9 Returne to thy mastresse agayne, 
and submitte thyself vnder hir hande. 1574 tr. Bale s Pag. 
Popes Ep. Ded. *d iv b, Although they were more in number, 
..yet woulde submitte them selues vnder their power, as 
though they were the inferiours. 1601 R. JOHNSON Kingd. 
<5- Commiv. (1603) 109 They were enforced to submitte 
themselues vnder the protection of the Florentines. 

b. Const, to (f unto) a person, his government, 
rule, will, etc. 

(a) refl. c 1386 CHAUCER Melib. F 854 We submytten vs 
to the excellence and benignitee of youre gracious lordshipe. 
1411 Rolls of Parlt. III. 650/1 On whom, and to his orde- 
nance, the forsaid Lord the Roos and Robert hadden sub 
mytted hem! 1490 CAXTON Eneydos xxii. 80 After that this 
dydo had vtterly submytted & dedicate her-self to eneas. 
1526 TINDALE Eph. v. 22 Wemen submit youre selves vnto 
youre awne husbandes, as vnto the lorde. 1535 COVERDALE 
i Chron. xxix [xxx]. 24 All kynge Dauids children sub 
mytted themselues vnto kynge Salomon. 1651 HOBBES Le- 
viathatt it. xvii. 83 When a man maketh his children, to 
submit themselves.. to his government. 1686 tr. Chardin s 
Trav. Persia 149 He did not come and submit himself to 
him. 1859 GEO. ELIOT Adam Bede Hi, We must submit 
ourselves entirely to the Divine Will. 1909 OXENHAM Great 
heart Gillian xxvii, Submit yourself quietly to the law. 

(6) intr. ^1460 SIR R. Ros La Belle Dame 234, I am 
hoole submytt to your seruise. 1608 SHAKS. Per. ii. iv. 39 
Your noble selfe . . Wee thus submit vnto. 1651 in Crom- 
wellian Union (1902) 4 Several Troops of the Tories that 
are submitting to the Parliament. 1667 MILTON / . L. x. 
196 To thy Husbands will Thine shall submit. 1745 BUTLER 
Serin. Wks. 1874 II. 284 Children.. are.. habituated.. to 
submit to those who are placed over them. 1855 MACAULAY 
Hist. Eng. xii. III. 152 After the flight of James, those troops 
submitted to the Prince of Orange, 1877 FROUDE Short 
Stud. (1883) IV. i. iii. 34 He despatched a legate.. to tell 
Becket that he must. .submit to the king s pleasure, 

C. Without const. : To yield, surrender, be sub 
missive. 

(a) refl. c 1440 Parlonope 4621 (Univ. Coll. MS.), Myne 
heede ys naked, and I Submytte me. 1526 TINDALE Matt. 
xviii. 4 Whosoever.. shall submit him silfe. 1568 GRAFTON 
Chron. II. 659 [They] came humbly and submitted them 
selues. 1595 SHAKS. John \\. i. 159 Submit thee boy. 1638 
BAKER tr. Balzac s Lett. (voL II.) 13 The persecutors of 
those who submit themselves. 

(b) intr. 1575 GASCOIGNE Keneliuorth Wks. 1910 II. 93 
Even gates and all. .submitte and seeke yoursheelde. 1593 
SHAKS. Rich. //, in. iii. 143 What must the King doe 
now: must he submit? 1667 MILTON P. L. i. 108 Courage 
never to submit or 3 ield. 1792 ALMON Anecd. W. Pitt III. 
xliv. 198 A Prince of the House of Savoy had his property 
seized by him: the injured Prince would not submit. 1852 
MRS. STOWE Uncle Touts C. xviii. 175 Miss Marie , as 
Dinah always called her young mistress, ..found it easier 
to submit than contend. 1871 FREEMAN Norm. Cong. (1876) 



36 

IV. 164 That the greater part of the shire submitted easily 
after the fall of the Capital. 

2. To surrender oneself to judgement, criticism, 
correction, a condition, treatment, etc. ; to consent 
to undergo or abide by a condition, etc. 

(a) refl. c 1430 LYDG. Min. Poems (E. E. T. S.) I. 62, 1 me 
submytte to alle that schall now heer This symple processe 
of my translacyoun. c 1430 Stans Puer ad Mensam 99 
{Lamb. MS.), I submitte me to correccioun wuhoute ony 
debate. 1471 CAXTON Kecuyell (Sommer) 367/2 That ye 
submette yow vnto theyr obeyssance. 1565 ALLEN Def. 
Pnrg. To Rdr. 6 b, I humbly submit my selfe to the Judge 
ment of suche oure masters in faithe and religion, [etc.]. 
1577-87 HOLINSHED Chron. III. 2/2 To submit themselues 
to bondage. 1594 KYD Cornelia iv. i. 160 Shall we then.. 
Submit vs to vnurged slauene ? 1607 SHAKS. Cor. in. iii. 
44 If you submit you to the peoples voices. 1617 MORYSON 
I tin. I. 122, I submitted my selfe to these conditions. 1621 
BACON in Jrnl. Ho. Lords III. 84/2 [I] submit myself 
wholly to your Piety and Grace. 1629 Sc. Acts Chas. I 
(1870) V. 197 The saids persouns..did submttt thaine selffes 
to ws and ar bound to stand and abyde at our determina- 
tionn. 1667 MILTON P. L. ix. 919 Submitting to whatseemd 
remediless. 17.. WHITE (T.), Christian people submit them 
selves to conformable observance of the.. constitutions of 
their spiritual rulers. 1819 SCOTT Leg. Montrose viii, May 
Heaven , he said, . . judge between our motives . . . Amen , 
said Montrose; to that tribunal we all submit us . 1913 
Times n Aug. 3/1 The majority of cases would voluntarily 
submit themselves to treatment. 

(/>) iiitr. 1628 FELTHAM Resolves n. v. n A man that sub 
mits to reuerent Order. 1686 tr. Chardins Coronat. Soly- 
inan 1 10 To which reasons of his sister the Prince submitted. 
a 1700 EVELYN Diary 2 Aug. 1665, That the meanes to 
obtaine remission of punishment was not to repine at it, but 
humbly submit to it. 1711 ADDISON Sficct. No. 115 F i 
Bodily Labour., which a Man submits to for his Livelihood. 
1758 J. DALRYMPLE Ess. Feudal Property (ed. 2) 48 Perhaps 
the nobles more easily submitted to the uncertainty of relief. 
1781 COWPER Expost. 633 Prove it if better, 1 submit and 
bow, 1802 MAR. EDGEWORTH Moral T. (1816) I. 212, I must 
know my crime, before I submit to punishment. 1837 CAR- 
LYLE-/ >. Rev. i. ill, ii, Healing measures.. such as. .all men 
must, with more or less reluctance, submit to. 1874 MOZLEY 
Univ. Serin, ix. (1877) 200 To submit to trials for our 
own discipline. 

trans/. 1658 SIR T. BROWNE Hydriot. ii. (1736) 21 That 
Metal soon submitteth unto Rust and Dissolution. 

f b. Const, to with inf. or gerund : To yield so 
far as to do so-and-so, consent to ; occas. to con 
descend to, Obs. 

(a) refl. c 1380 WYCLIF Sel. Wks. 111.457 pei submytten 
hem to be correctid. 1444 Cov. Leet Bk. 203 Submittyng 
themselfTe with due submission to abyde the rule of the 
maiour. a 1533 BERNERS Huon Ixxxi. 246, I submyt my 
selfe to receyue suche dethe that ye & you re barons can 
deuyse. 1549 COVERDALE, etc. Erasm. Par. Gal. vi. 4, 5 
If he submitte him selfe to restore him againe. 

() intr. c 1386 CHAUCER Man Law s Prol. Introd. 35 Ye 
been submytted thurgh youre free assent To stonden in this 
cas at my luggement. 1667 MILTON P. L. xu. 191 This 
River-dragon tam d at length submits To let his sojourners 
depart. 1697 C. LESLIE Snake in Grass (ed. 2) 224 They, 
at last, submitted, to have these words left out. 1794 MRS. 
RADCLIFFE Myst. Udolpho xxviii, She submitted to humble 
herself to Montoni. 18x8 CRUISE Z?;-<r.r/ (ed. 2) II. 158 Where 
the mortgagee submits to be redeemed. 1852 THACKERAY 
Esmond in. vii, I.. affected gladness when he came, sub 
mitted to hear when he was by me. 

f 3. refl. To subject or expose oneself to danger, 
etc. Obs. 

1471 CAXTON Recttyell (Sommer) 217/14 Your champion 
that for your loue submytteth hym self vnto the peryll of 
deth. a 1586 SIDNEY Arcadia in. xiv. (1912) 435 The dayly 
dangers Amphialus did submit himselfe into. 1601 SHAKS. 
Jnl.C. i. iii. 47, 1 haue walk d about the streets, Submitting 
me vnto the perillous Night. 

II. 4. trans. To bring under a certain control, 
government, or rule; to make subject, cause to 
yield to a person; to cause (a thing) to be subor 
dinated to another. Now rare. 

In the first quot. a literalism of translation. 

ci374 CHAUCER Boelh. i. pr. iv. (1868) 19 What open con- 
fessioun of felonie haddeeuer iugis so accordaunt in cruelte 
bat p^er errour of mans witte or ellys condicioun of fortune 
pat is vncerteyne to al mortal folk ne submyttede summe of 
hem? 1422 YosGEtr. Seer. Seer. xv\\. 146 If ^ou wilt submyt 
or vndreset al thyngis to the. c 1449 PECOCK Repr. i. xiv. 
73 It mi3te seme that God wolde not.. submitte.. and sende 
mm[z73. Holy Scripture] to resoun. 1530 PALSGR. 355 Whiche 
dyd submytte a great parte of Grece in their subjection. 
1558 T. WATSON Seven Sacr. 43 b, We submitte our reason to 
our fayth. 1590 C. S. Right Relief. 23 God . . hath submitted 
all things vnder his feete. 1644 [H. PARKER] Jus Populi 28 
Happy is that King which anticipates his subjects in sub 
mitting his own titles. 1850 TENNYSON In Mem. cxiv, Sub 
mitting all things to desire. 1863 GEO. ELIOT Romolfi 
xxxii, She was determined never to submit her mind to his 
judgment on this question. 

5. To subject to a certain condition or treat 
ment. Now rare. 

c 1450 Gods tow Reg, 507 The said Andrew bounde and 
submytted the same mese, with the pertynentis..to the 
distreynyng of the forsaid abbesse. 1490 CAXTON Eneydos 
Prol. 4, I submytte my sayd boke to theyr correctyon. 1528 
MORE Dyaloge iv. Wks. 273/2 To submytte. .the rebellion 
of theyr reason to the obedyence of faith. 1614 RALEIGH 
Hist. Worldv. iii. 15. 516 To submit learned Propositions, 
vnto the workemanship..of base handicrafts men. 1668 
DRYDEN Dram. Poesy Ess. (ed. Ker) I. 56 Whether we 
ought not to submit our stage to the exactness of our next 
neighbours. 1758 J. DALRYMPLE Ess. Feudal Property 
{ed. 2) 214 That system, .submitted its peculiar forms to the 
dispatch and ease required in the extended.. dealings of 
mankind. 1861 M. PATTISON Ess. (i88g) I. 47 The inmates 
of the Steelyard were submitted to an almost monastic dis 
cipline. 



SUBMITTED. 

b. To subject to an operation or process. 

1815 J. SMITH Panorama Sci. $ Art II. 449 Till Sir H. 
Davy . . submitted the earths to the same powerful means of 
analysis. 1837 GORING & PRITCHARU Microgr. 211 When 
submitted to the action of polarized light. 1857 MILLER 
E/ent. C/ieni,, Org. i. 42 When alcohol is submitted to dis 
tillation. i88$Sat.Rev.2i Feb. 235/2 Preparing their young 
horses for the wild rush of the hunting-field by submitting 
them to the milder yet stimulating excitement of coursing. 

6. To bring under a person s view, notice, or con 
sideration ; to refer to the decision or judgement of 
a person Mo bring up or presenter criticism, 
consideration, or approval. 

1560 DAUS tr. Sleidane s Comm. 31 b, To submitte his 
writynges to the knowledge of the Emperour. 1587 Sc. 



..Submitted be foirsaid Complant. .before J>e secreet Coun- 
sell. 1651 HOBBES Leviathan. I. xv. 78 They that are at 
controversie, submit their Right to the judgement of an 
Arbitrator, a 1721 PRIOR Prol. Delias Play 28 Dare to be 
true, submit the rest to Heaven. 1784 Cow PER Task iv. 98 
It [sc. the globe] turns submitted to my view, turns round 
With all its generations. 1856 FROUDE Hist. Eng. (1858) II. 
vi. 113 To prepare the measures which were to be submitted 
to Parliament by the government. 1860 TYNDALI, Glac. n. 
xxvii. 384 It is indeed a grand experiment which Nature 
here submits to our inspection. 1891 igtk Cent. Dec. 855 
To submit a copy of his journal to the police before its pub 
lication could be sanctioned, 1905 Act 5 Edw. VII, c. 17 
5 In order that such proceedings may be submitted for the 
sanction of Parliament. 
with clause. 

1749 FIELDING Tom Jones Ded., How far I have suc 
ceeded . . I shall submit to the candid reader. 

b. Without const. ; in Sf. Law, to refer to 
arbitration. 

1799 J. ROBERTSON Agric. Perth 374 An account of the 
quantity of corn shipped at this port, .is submitted as de 
serving notice. 1838 W. BELL Diet. Law Scot. s. v. Arbi* 
tration> An order on the parties, .mutually to discharge 
each other of the matter submitted. 1855 BAIN Senses <$ Int. 
in. i. 38 (1864) 378 On this question the following remarks 
are submitted. 1879 TOURGEE Foots Err. xxv. 150 The 
conventions had. .submitted constitutions which had been 
ratified by vote of the people. 1888 BRYCE Amer. Commiv. 
xvi. I. 226 The officials of the government cannot submit bills. 

c. absol. or intr. ; in Sc. Law, to make a * sub 
mission *. 

1765-8 ERSKINE Inst. Laiv Scot. rv. Hi. 35 Decrees- 
arbitral, as their force arises from the express compact of 
the parties submitting . . could not be set aside. 1897 Daily 
News 4 Mar. 6/4 The latest Saturday outsiders may sub 
mit will be the Saturday in next week. 

7. To put forward as a contention or proposi 
tion ; to urge or represent with deference (that . . .). 
Now freq. in legal parlance. 

1818 CRUISE Digest (ed. 2) III. 226 He humbly presumed 
to submit toHis Majesty, that, before any act was done [etc.]. 
1863 MITCHELL Sev. Stor. My Farm 243 We submit that it 
looks a little yellow. 1875 E. \VHITE Life in Christ iv. 
xxiv. (1878) 361 There is, 1 submit, no possibility of escape 
from the force of this argument. 1907 Standard 19 Jan. 
4/4 Counsel, in concluding his speech, submitted that the 
plaintiff was entitled to recover damages. 

HI. 8. trans. To let or lay down, lower, sink, 
lay low ; to place (one s neck) under the yoke or 
the axe. To submit the fasces (see FASCES 2). ? Obs. 

(i6n CHAPMAN Iliad xm. 384 His shrunke knees, sub 
mitted him to death. Ibid. xx. 295 My lance, submitted 
[eyxos fj.fv rofie Ktireu eiri xOovos], a 1634 RANDOLPH Poems 
(1638) 82 Rome did submit her Fasces. 1667 MILTON P. L. 
v. 784 Will ye submit your necks, and chuse to bend The 
supple knee? 1725 POPE Odyss. xi. 205 Since in the dust 
proud Troy submits her tow Vs. 1757 [see NECK sb. 1 3 b]. 
1807 ROBT. WILSON in Life (1862) II. 145, I will now submit 
my head to the block if [etc.] 

t b. To put (the female) to the male. Obs. 

1697 DRYDEN Virg. Georg. in. 104 Submit thy Females to 
the lusty Sire. 

f o. refl. To become low or lower. Obs. 

16163 DRYDEN To Ld. Chanc. 139 Sometimes the Hill sub 
mits itself a while In small Descents. 

fd. To lower the standard of. Obs. 

1556 R. ROBINSON tr. More s Utopia To Rdr. A ij b, To 
the meanesse of whose learninge I thoughte it my part to 
submit, .my stile. 

Subnuttal (s&bmrtal). rare. [f. SUBMIT + 
-AL.] The act of submitting. 

1888 Amer. Nat. Mar. 262 The Report.. having been., 
called for at an unusually early date, as explained in the 
letter of subrmttal. 

t Snbmi ttance. Obs. [f. as prec. + -ANCE.] 

Submission. 

1605 Answer Dtscov. Romish Doctr. Ep. Ded. 5 That., 
which your colleged Princes.. doe offer to the so many 
yeares disobedient Netherlander, vpon their temporall 
submittance. 1640 FULLER, etc. Abel Redi-v^ Philpot (1651) 
223 Couragious Philpot.. would not once allow The least 
Submittance to erromous powers. 1650 R. HOLLINGWORTH 
Exerc. Usurped Powers 18 There js a bar yet behind.. to 
keep back such a submittance to the Usurper. 

Submitted (scbmrted),///. a. [f. as prec.+ 

ED 1.] 

1. Reduced to submission ; that has surrendered 
to authority ; subjugated. 
In mod. use prob. after F. sonmis. 

1606 CHAPMAN Gentl. Usher iv. iii. 58, 1 . . Easde with well 
gouerning my submitted payne. 1660 DRYDEN Astrsea 
Redux 249 Proud her returning Prince to entertain With 
the submitted Fasces of the Main. 1837 CARLYLE Fr. Rev, 
IL in. iv, The wild submitted Titan. 1868 Daily News 



SUBMITTER. 

7 Sept., The Turks.. outraged some hapless families of 
submitted peasants. 1900 Westw. Gaz. 17 Aug. 6, i All 
foodstuffs, forage, and horses, whether in possession of sub 
mitted Boers or otherwise. 

f 2. Laid or put down. Obs. 

c 1611 CHAPMAN Iliad xix. 258 The bristled throat Of the 
submitted sacrifice with ruthless steel he cut. 

t 3. =-- SUBMISS a. 2. Obs. 

1806 R. CUMBERLAND Mem. (1807) I. 396 He had spoken 
in a low and submitted voice. 

4. Presented for judgement. 

1897 IVestm, Gaz. 26 Mar. 2/1 They must have judged 
the submitted works at the rate of more than two thousand 
a day. 

Submi tter. [f. SUBMIT + -ER 1 .] One who 
submits. 

1607 HIERON Wks. I. 384 Dorcas, .a submitter of her selfe 
to the ordinance of God. 1635 D. DICKSON fract. Wks. 
(1845) I. 25 Submitters turn in to Him acknowledging that 
they are dust and ashes. 1654 WHITLOCK Zootomia 118 
The sick (but confident) submitters of themselves to this 
Empyrlcks cast of the Dye. 1782 J. BROWN Nat. $ Re 
vealed Relig. i. i. 25 The submitters, no doubt, insisted on 
the best terms, for their obedience, which they could obtain. ! 
1840 Taifs Afaff-.Vll.63 The. .trimmers, and submitters 
to expediency. 

b. Sc. Law. One who makes a submission . 

1628 Sc. Acts C/tas. I (1870) V. 191/2 This present Sub 
mission shall be no wayes prejudicial to whatsoever action 
of Warrandice competent to the saids Persones Submitters 
or any of them against their Authors. 1765-6 ERSKINE 
Inst. Law Scot. iv. iii. 32 If the submitters limit the 
power of the arbiters to any fixed day. 1804 W. M. Mori- 
son^s Decis. Crt. Session XVII. 6900 According to the uni 
versal order taken by the submitters concerning kirklands. 

t Subinittie. Obs. [f. SUBMIT + -ie = EE (cf. 
l6th-i7th c. committu\ The use of the suffix 
appears to be arbitrary.] One who has submitted. ! 

1611 SPEED Hist. Gt. Brit. ix. viii. 9 To receme peaceably ; 
all Submitties. 1617 MORYSON I tin. it. 154 Touching these 
submitties while they were in rebellion, he did spoile waste 
and kill many of them. 

Submitting 1 , vbL sb. [-INO!.] The action 
of the vb. SUBMIT ; submission. 

c 1460 Oscnsy Reg. 49 Of b" which debates, .be parties., 
haue i-putte bem-selfe in submittyng and ordinaunce of the 
bisshop of lincoln. a 1653 GOUGE Comm. Heb. xi. 18 This 
could not be without Isaac s voluntary submitting of him 
self. 1675 SHEFFIELD (Dk. liuckhm.) Ess. Satire 240 A life 
. .Spent in base Injury, and low submitting. 1723 WATER- 
LAND -znd Vind. ChrisCs Dtp. 62 The submitting to This 
Office is a great Instance of the Son s Condescension. 

Submi tting, ppl. a. [-ING 2 .] That submits 
pr makes a submission. 

1791 KYD Law of Awards 238 Accounts, .passed between 
both the submitting parties. 1805 ALEX. WILSON Poems fy 
Lit. Prose (ityb) II. 127 Butler s iron-hearted crew Doomed 
to the flames the weak submitting few. 1878 J. DAVIDSON 
Invtrurit 51 Families the heads of which were able.. to 
stand apart from the submitting majority. 

Hence Submi- ttingly adv., submissively. 

1815 R. P. WARD Tremaine I. xxxvii. 300 *True , said 
Georgina, submittingly. 

tSubruonish, v. Obs. rare- 1 . [ SUB- 21 
+ MONISH, after next.] To reprove gently. 

i6ai T. GRANGER Eccles. 56 Delights, .which either by 
the wisedome of mv minde, or by the submonishing inclina 
tions of my senses I perceiued to affoord accesse of ioyfull 
contentment. 

t Subnioni tion. Obs. [ad. L. *submonitio t 
~oiutn t n. of action f. subtnonere (var. summ-} ; see 
SUB- 2 1 and MONITION. Cf. OF. submonidon.] A 
gentle admonition, suggestion. 

156* WINJET Last Blast^ Ane Submonitioun to the Redar. 
1621 T. GRANGER Eccles. 29 He should haue obeyed the 
submonitions of his owne conscience. 1650 KLDERFIELD 
Civ. Risrht Tythes 342 Under this very solemn protestation, 
submomtion, and concluding asseveration. 

Snbmo-ntane, a. 

1. [SOB- i a.] Passing under, or existing below, 
mountains. 

1819 Blackw. RJag. VI. 150 He sails along, .till the shallop 
is driven into a cavern in the etherial cliffs of Caucasus . 
It is scarcely to be expected that his submontane voyage 
should be very distinctly described. 1859 W. M. THOMSON 
Land ff Bk. n. xvii. I. 377 The dark stairway. .was a sub 
terranean, or, rather, submontane path to the great fountain 
of Banias. 

2. [SuB- 12 a.] Lying about the foot of moun 
tains ; belonging to the foot-hills of a range; also, 
belonging to the lower slopes of mountains. 

1830 LINDLEY Nat. Syst. Bot. 287 Their principal station 
is on the sub-montane region between 1200 and 3600 feet of 
elevation. 1880 Libr. uniz . Knowl. VII. 161 The fertile 
submontane plains of Sialkot 1888 Encycl. Brit. XXIV. 
610/2 The submontane district around the town of Tokay. 
1913 />Yi*cw. Mag. Apr. 448/1 Hardy sub-montane savages 
armed with. .deadly war-tools. 

So f Snbmouta neous a. = i above. 

i68a WHELER Jonm. Greece \\. 465 These Subterraneous, 
or rather Submontaneous Passages of the Water, may.. be 
reckoned amongst the greatest Wonders of the World. 

Su bmortua rian. Thai. rare. [f. SUB- 17 
+ L. mortuus dead (for f/tors, mort- death) -f- 
-arian ; cf. SUBLAPSARIAN.] One who holds that 
a man s election to salvation or reprobation does 
not take place till after his death. 

1700 C. NESSE Antid. Armin. (1827) 70 The Arrmnians,. 
may be called submortuarians for their holding no full 
election till men die. 



37 

f Submove, 06s. rare, [ad. L. submovcrc 
(var. summ-}, f. .r- SUB- 25 + movere to MOVE.] 
trans. To remove. 

1542 BECON Pathw. Prayer xxix. M vij, Y* al Ante- 
christes, Papistes [etc.], .submoued & put asyde, true 
Euangelystes. .niaye reygne among vs vmuersallye. 

[| Subnvucosa (sz>bmik(Jii sa). Anat. [mod.L., 
fern. (sc. membrana) of submucosus : see next.] 
The layer of areolar tissue lying beneath a mucous 
membrane; the submucons layer. 

1885 KLKIN Micro-Org. 88 The submucosa of the inflamed 
Peyer s glands of the small intestine. 

So Snbmuco-sal a., = SOBHUOOUS 3 a (1913 
Dorland Illustr. Med. Diet.). 

SublllU COUS, a. [ad. mod.L. submucosus^\ 

1. Path. [Sun- 20.] Somewhat mucous ; partly 
consisting of or attended by mucus ; of an indis 
tinctly mucous character. 

1684 tr. Boners Merc. Contpit. I. 34 If both the Part be 
pained, and the Flesh be submucous [orig. (ten Rhyne) si 
shmtl dolorosus sit locus et caro submucosa\. 1904 Apple- 
ton s Med. Diet. s.v. Rale, Snbcrepitant r., Submucous r. t 
a fine moist, bubbling sound, heard in inspiration or expira 
tion or both. 

2. [SuB- I b.] a. Anat. Situated beneath the 
mucous membrane; pertaining to the snbmucosa. 

1835-6 Todays Cycl. Anat. I. 180/2 The submucous tissue 
in the vicinity of the anus is very loose. 1847-9 Ibid. IV. 
i. 134/2 The submucous tissue of the gall-bladder. 1881 
MivARTd^ 27 The mucous membrane is connected with 
the subjacent parts by submucous areolar tissue. 1902 
HUGHES & KEITH Man. Pract. Anat. in. 137 The sub- 
mucous tissue of the lip. 

b. Path, and Snrg. Occurring or introduced 
under the mucous membrane ; affecting the sub 
mucosa. 

1873 tr. -von Zietnssen s Cycl. Med. X. 232 The submucous 
fibroid, growing inward Into the cavity of the uterus. 1876 
Ibid. IV. 96 Submucous injections. 1879 St. George s Hasp. 
Rep. IX. 31 Submucous abscesses the size of a bean in the 
wall of the stomach. 1897 Allfatt s Syst. Med. III. 962 
Submucous haemorrhages, leading to ulceration. 

SubmU ltiple, a. and sb. [ad. late L. sub- 
multiplus : see SUB- 10 and MULTIPLE.] 

A. adj. Of a ratio : In which the antecedent is 
an aliquot part of the consequent : the converse of 
multiple. Of a number, etc. : That is an aliquot 
part of another. Now rare or Obs. 

a 1696 SCARBURGH Euclid (1705) i8o, 12 compared to 4 is 
Multiple Proportion, and named triple : And 4 to 12 is Sub- 
multiple Proportion, and named Subtriple. 1704 J. HARRIS 
Lex. Techn. I t Submultiple Number, or Quantity, is thut 
which is contained in another Number, a certain Number 
of Times exactly. 1728 CHAMBERS Cycl. s. v., The Ratio 
of 3 to 21 is Submultiple. 1739 in Rigaud Corr. Sci. Men 
(1841) I. 355 The sine of in A (or Submultiple part of the 
anomaly of the eccentric). 

B. si). A submultiple or aliquot part (of). 

1758 Phil. Trans. L. 765 note, These arcs [are] the corre 
sponding submultiples of those above. 1857 M IU - ER Elem. 
Chem. t Org. xiv. i. 773 Equivalent quantities of different 
salts when in solution occupy either the same volume, or 
volumes which are simple multiples or submultiples of 
each other. 1859 PARKINSON Optics (1866) 244 If the angle 
of a hollow cone. .be any sub-multiple of iSo. 1871 C. 
DAVIES Metric Syst. n. 40 [A] system of numbers where 
the multiples and submultiples are formed from a single 
unit. 1880 E. J. REED Japan I. 326 Its [the yen s} decimal 
submultiples being the sen (or cent) and the rin. 

So f Submnltl-plicate a. = A. above. 

1656 tr. tlobbes* Elem. f Pkilos. (1839) 364 The proportion 
of the altitudes decreasing to that of the ordmate lines 
decreasing, being multiplicate according to any number in 
the deficient figure, is submultiplicate according to the 
same number in its complement. 

Subua scent, a. [ad. L. m&nesetns, -entem, 
pr. pple. of subnasct . see SOB- 2 and NASCENT.] 
Growing underneath or up from beneath. AlsoySJf. 

1673 EVELYN Terra 93 The Vine.. imparts.. such a bitter. 
ness to the Mould, as kills Lettuce, and other subnascent 
Plants, a 1706 Syfoa in. i. (1908) II. 5 Where their 
branches may freely spread.. without dripping and annoy 
ing the subnascent crop. 1707 /*////. Trans. XXV. 2422 The 
Royal Oak.. overspreading Subnascent Trees and young 
Suckers. 1853 WHEWELL Grotiits III. 3 With reference to 
causes subnascent, that is, growing up during the progress 
of the war. 1900 B. D._JACKSON Gloss. Bot. Terms, Suona- 
scent. ., growing or arising from below some object. 

t Subne Ct, v. 06s. [ad. L. subntctfre^ f. sub 
SUB- a, 27 +necttre to bind.] 

1. trans. To subjoin. Also absol. 

c 1583 J. HOOKER Descr. Exeter in Holinshed III. 1027/1, 
I thought it good to .subnect herevnto the description of the 
said church. 1586 Hist. Iret. ibid. II. 123/1 Of cuerie 
of these houses, .we will breeflie subnect and declare parti- 
cularlie in order as followeth. 1642 JACKSON Bk. Consc. 21 
Let us here subnect two examples. 1677 GALE Crt. Gentiles 
iv. 354 Beatitude is the supreme end of al rational Appeti- 
tion : therefore what men desire, they do, if they_ can, as 
Aristotle subnectes. 1704 HUSSKV (title) A Warning from 
the Winds. . . To which is Subnected a Laborious Exercita- 
tion upon Eph. a. a. 

2. To fasten underneath, rare. 

1710 POPE Let. to Crotmvell 30 Dec., I was just going to 
say of his buttons; but I think Tupiterwore none (however 
I won t be positive.. but his robe might be subnected with 
a Fibula). 

Hence Subne ctod ppl. a. 

1654 VILVAIN Enchir. Epigr. Pref. x, I hav published . . two 
subnected Essais explicated in quarto. 



SUBOCULAB. 

tSubne X, v. Obs. [f. L. snbnex-* pa. ppl. 
stem of subnecttre (see prec.).] = prec. I. 

1603 HOLLAND Plutarch s Mar. 1067 He subnexeth as 
touching evill things, these words. 1644 HUNTON 1 ind. 
Trent. Men. v. 43, I had an intent to have subnexed other 
I Arguments to make good those Assertions. 

Sirbnormal, sb. Geom. [ad. mod.L. subnor- 

i mails (sc. linea line) : see SUB- i and NORMAL.] 

That part of the axis of abscissas which is inter- 

, cepted between the ordinate and the normal at 

, any point of the curve. 

1710 J. HARRIS Lex. Techn. II. s.v., This Subnormal in the 
Common or Apollonian Parabola, is a Determinate In 
variable Quantity; for tis always tqu.il to half the Para- 
meter of the Axis. 1715 in Riband Cw-r. Set. Men (1841) 
II. 421 liecause the curve A I is given, it^ subnormal GlJ \vill 
be given. 1842 FRANCIS Diet. Arts s.v., In all curves the 
subnormal is the third proportional to the stibuuigeni ;md 
the ordinate. 1885 EAGLKS Constr.Gi Oitt. I* lane C litres 6j 
The focus / is found by drawing the normal at any point 
D, bisecting the sub-normal NG and setting off AF-^ A"(/. 
Subnormal, a. [Sus- 14.] Less than normal, 
below the normal. Chiefly A/t d. 

1890 HILLINGS Nat. Med. Diet., Su! normal, less than 
usual. 1897 Month Sept. 329 All subnormal or supernormal 
phenomena of the soul. 1897 Allbntfs Syst. Med. III. 728 
The temperature [in colic) is usually rather subnormal* 

Hence Subnorma-lity, the condition of being 
subnormal. 

1890 Lamei ii Jan. 105/1 Muscle soreness, and subnor- 
mahty of temperature on the fourth day. 

Subnotation (spbnootei fa}. [ad. L. sub- 
notatio, -Cmcm^ n. of action, i. $itbnctare\ see 
SUB- 2 and NOTATION*.] = RESCRIPT 2. 

1843-56 BOUVIER Law Diet. (ed. 6) II. 554/1 Sufoiota- 
iioiis. , . 1 he answers of the prince to questions which had 
been put to him respecting some obscure or doubtful point 
of law. 

Su biiotoclicvrdal, a. 

1. [Srs- 20 b.] Somewhat of the nature of a 
notochord. 

1872 H. A. NICHOLSON Palxont. 334 The vertebral column 
is sometimes composed of distinct vertebra;, sometimes car 
tilaginous or sub-notochordal. 1875 \l\.\v.iZool. 202 Kndo- 
skeluton cartilaginous, subnotochordal. 

2. [SuB- I b.] Situated beneath the notochord. 

1888 ROLLESTON & JACKSON Anim. Life 334 After the 
formation of the notochord a small sub-notochordal rod of 
cells is developed. 1909 J. W. JKNKINSON Ex per. Embryol. 
134 Underneath the notochord is the subnotochordal rod. 

t SubobSGU re, a. Obs. [ad. L. sulwbscums : 
see SUB- 20 and OBSCURE.] Somewhat obscure. 

1626 DONNH Serm. Ixxvii. (1640) 786 In those sub-obscure 
times, S. Augustine might be excusable [etc.]. 1619 H. 
BURTON Truth s Tri. 219 Such vmbratilous and sub-obscure 
termes. 

Hence t Snbobscu rely adv^ somewhat ob 
scurely. 

a 1615 DONNE Ess. (1651) 97 As these men were instru 
ments of this work of God, so their names did sub-obscurely 
foresignifie it. 1624 Devot. (ed. 2) 207 The booke of 
Nature, where though subobscurely,.thou hast expressed 
thine own Image. 

Subocci pital, a. [ad. mod.L. subocclpitdlis : 
see SUB- i bT] 

1. Situated under the occiput or below the occi- 
! pital bone. 

Suboccipital nerve, the first cervical nerve. *$". triangle 
(see quot. 1911). 

1733 tr. li inslmv s Anat. (1756) II. 75 The Sub-Occipital 
Nerves. 1835-6 ToddsCycl. Anat. 1.367/1 A.. depression, 
called the suboccipital fossa, or cervical fossa. 1877 HUXLKV 
& MARTIN Elem, Biol. 192 There is no suhoccipital nerve 
in the Frog. 1890 BILLINGS Nat. Med. Dict. t Suboccipital 
angle, that between lines drawn from auricular point to 
inion and opisthion. 1911 Encycl. Brit. (ed. n) XIX. 53/2 
When the superficial muscles and complexus are removed 
from the back of the neck, the sub-occipital triangle is seen 
beneath the occipital bone. 

2. Situated on the under surface of the occipital 
lobe of the brain. 

1889 BUCKS Handbk. Med. Sci. VIII. 152/2 Inconstant 
Fissures . . Adoccipital . . Suboccipital. 

Subocci pito-, [see SUB- i b and OCCIPITO-], 
as in Subocci pito-bregma tic appertaining to the 
region extending from the occiput to the bregma. 

1857 BULLOCK tr. Cazeaux Midwifery 220 The sub-occi- 
pito-uregmatic [diameter] extends from the middle of the 
space between the foramen magnum and the occipital pro- 
tul*rance. 

Subo-ctave. 

fl. [SuB- 10.] An eighth part. Obs. rare. 
1705 ARBUTHNOT Coins, etc. (1727)81 Our Gallon, which., 
has the Pint for its Suboctave. 

2. A/us. [SuB- 4 ().] The octave below a 
! given note. Also attrib. in suboctavc coupUr. 

1659 C. SIMPSON Division-Violist \. ^ With the Lowest 

i String put down a Note, to make it a Sub*Octave thereunto. 

1876 STAINER & BARRETT Diet. Mus. TVrwj, Sufoctart, 

a coupler in the organ which pulls down keys one octave 

below those which are struck. 1884 Encycl. Brit. XVII. 

834/2 The choir to great sub-octave coupler was used chiefly 

as a substitute for a double on the great organ. 

Subocular (sbfrkilai), a. (sb.} [ad. L. 
suboculdris : see SUB- i band OCULAR. Cf. F. sub~ 
oculaire. ] Situated below or under the eyes. 

18*6 KIRBY & SP. Entomol. xlvi. IV. 315 [Stemmata] Sub- 
ocular... When placed in the space below the eyes. 1835-6 
7W<f i Cycl. Anat. I. 307/2 In the Woodpeckers it [sc. the 
nasal gland] is found in the sub-ocular air-cell. 1884 COUES 



SUBODOEATE. 

N. Anter. Birds 152 The curved subocular or maxillo-pala- 
tine bar. 

b. sb. A subocular scale. 

1897 GUNTHER in Mary Kingslty s W. Africa 607 Two 
rows of minute suboculars. 

SubO dorate, v. rare. [f. L. subodorat-, pa. 
ppl. stem of suboddrari, f. sub- SUB- 21 + odordrl (f. 
odor ODOUR). Cf. It. subodorare^ F. subodorer] 
trans. To smell or scent out. 

1606 WOTTON Lett. (1907) I. 354 This having been sub- 
odorated in Rome, they have there newly proposed [etc.], 
1837 Eraser s Mag. XVI. 660 Heyne, who, though no 
wizard, had subodorated the truth. 

Su-b-O fficer. [f. SUB- 6 + OFFICER. Cf. F. 
sous-officier.] A subordinate officer. 

a 1618 SYLVESTER Maiden s Blush 1353 Let him have 
pow r.. underneath him to subordinate Sub-Officers. 1822 
SYD. SMITH Wks. (1859) I. 358/2 The governor and sub. 
officers of the prison. 1837 CARLYLE Fr. Rev. \\. \. ii, 
Sub-officers, soldiers, and sailors in mutiny. 1845 JAMES 
Smuggler xxx, A sub-officer of the Customs. 1913 Daily 
Graphic 24 Mar. 6/1 A sub-officer of the Fire Brigade. 

Subopercle (s0b*?p5uk l). rare. [ad. mod.L. 
subopereulum. Cf. OPERCLE.] = SUBOPERCCLUM. 

1891 Century Diet. 1908 Smithsonian Misc. Coll. V. 16 
Subopercle very broad. 

Subope-rcular, a. (s&.) Ichth. [f. next + 
-AR 1 .] Designating a bone in the lower part of 
the operculum of a fish ; pertaining to the sub 
opereulum, 

1854 OWEN m^Orr s Circ. Set., Org. Nat. I. 178 {The 
operculum] consists of four bones j the one articulated to 
the tympanic pedicle is called preopercular ,. .the other 
three are, counting downwards, the opercular , . . the sub- 
opercular , . . the mteropercular . 1897 GUNTHER in Mary 
Kingsley s IV. Africa 699 Subopercular armature strong. 

il Stt DOperCldum (wb0pa-jW#l#m). [mod.L., 
f. sub- SUB- 2 b (a) + OPERCULUM.] 

1. Ichth. The bone situated below the operculum 
in the gill-cover of a fish. 

1834 M C MURTRIE Cnviers Anim. Kingd. 191 A sort of 
lid, composed of three bony pieces, the operculum, the sub- 
[o]perculum, and the interoperculum. 1878 BELL tr. Gegen- 
baurs Comp. Anat. 455 Behind the preoperculum is the 
subopereulum. 1888 ROLLESTON & JACKSON Anim. Life 93. 

2. Anat. The part of an occipital orbital gyre 
which overlies the insula of Reil. 

1889 Buck s Handbk. Med. Sci. VIII. 160/2 The insula. . 
becomes a subgyre, while the operculum, preoperculum, 
subopereulum, and postoperculum are supergyres. 

Hence Su boperculiform a., of the form of a 
suboperculum. 

1852 DANA Crust, i. 569 The outer maxillipeds are sub- 
operculiform. 

Suborbixular, a. Nat. Hist. [Sus- 20 c.] 

Almost orbicular, nearly circular. 

1753 Chambers Cycl. Suppl. s,v. Leaf, Lunulated Leaf, 
one in form of a crescent : it is a suborbicular leaf hollowed 
at the base. 1822 J. PARKINSON Outl. Oryctol. zoo A sub- 
orbicular, depressed body. 1887 W. PHILLIPS Brit. Dis- 
comycetes 386 Stictis Pitnctiformis... Gregarious, minute, 
immersed, urceolate, suborbicular. 

Comb. 1870 HOOKER Stud. Flora 335 Populus tremula, 
leaves . . of branches suborbicular-ovate sinuate-serrate. 

So Suborbi culate, -ated adjs. 

1775 J. JENKINSON Linnxus 1 Brit. PI. 151 The silicula is 
erect, suborbiculated, compressed. 1825 MACLEAY Annul, 
Javanica 13 The thorax neither suborbiculate [n]or entire. 
1847 /Voc. Berw. Nat. Club II. v. 235 Head suborbiculate 
or subquadrate. 

Subo rbital, a. and sb. [SrjB- i b.] 

A. adj. Situated below or under the orbit of 
the eye ; infraorbital. 

1822-76000 Study Med. (1829) IV. 315 The sub-orbital 
branch of the fifth pair [of nerves], 1854 LATHAM Native 
Races Ituss. Emp. 28 The skin brown or brunette, and the 
suborbital portion of the face flattened. 1871 DARWIN Disc. 
Man II. xviii. 280 The so-called tear-sacks or suborbital 
pits. 1883 Encycl. Brit. XV. 348/2 The suborbital gland 
or crumen of Antelopes and Deer. 

B. sb. A suborbital structure ; a suborbital bone, 
cartilage, nerve, etc. 

1834 M C MURTRIE Cumer*s Anim. Kingd. 192 The true 
Perches have the preoperculum dentated. . .Sometimes the 
sub-orbital and the humeral are slightly dentated. 1897 
GUNTHER in Mary Kingsleys lf^. Africa 709 The first sub- 
orbital is narrow, much narrower than the second and third, 
which nearly entirely cover the cheek. 

So Subo rbitar, -OTbitary [mod.L. suborbitd- 
rtus] adjs. and sbs, 

1828 STARK Elem.Nat. Hist. I. 485 Preoperculi and *sub 
orbitars dentated on their margin, a 1843 in Encycl. Metrop. 

f_O .-\ \T1 t /_ T*U_ C..1 t:__ 1 -f f-*~. _____ n 




..... - . 

Canal of the inferior Portion of the Orbit. xSaS STARK 
Elem. Nat. Hist. J. 464 Suborbitaries dentated. 

t Snbordarn, v. Obs. [f. SUB- + OBDAIN, 
partly after med.L. subordindre to SDBOBDINATB.] 

1. [SuB- 26.] trans. To appoint in place of 
another. 

1600 HOLLAND Livy xxxi. 1. 804 In his place M. Acilius 
Glabrio was subordained [L. suffectus]. Ibid. XLl.xxi. 1109 
Augures were subordained [L. sitffecti sunt], 

2. [Sus- 8.] To appoint to a subordinate posi 
tion. 

1601 J. DAVIES Mirum in modum (1878) 24/2 That Powre 
omnipotent, That Nature subordain d, chiefe Gouernour, 
Of fading Creatures. 1601 DOLMAN La. Primattd. Fr. 



38 

Acad. (1618) in. 661 The first cause, through vertue whereof, 
the rest subordained vnder it do work. 

3. To make subordinate or subject. 

a 1617 BAYNE On Eph. (1643) 274 These may be subor- 
deyned one to another. 1633 D. R[OGERS] 7"reai. Sacr. \. 
16 The Covenant of obedience is subordeined to the cove 
nant of grace. 

4. To promulgate (an order) by a subordinate 
authority. 

1654 EARL MONM. tr. Bentivoglio s Wars Flanders 154 
No Order could issue forth from him, which was not to be 
subordained by the Councel of State, 

Su* border. 

1. [Si T B-7b.] Zoo!.&nd.Bot. A subdivision of an 
order ; a group next below an order in a classi 
fication of animals or plants. 

1826 KIRBV & SP. Entomol. IV. 391 If a subclass end in 
ata^BL. suborder might end in ita\ a section in ana, a sub 
section in ena. 1840 Clatter s A nim. Kingd. 411 The order 
contains two families, or rather sub-orders,.. Brachyura 
(short tailed) and Macroura or Macrura (long tailed). 1861 
I ENTLEV Man. Bot. 398 While all the above genera belong 
to the order Composite, they are at the same time placed 
in three different sub-orders. Thus the sub-order Cicho- 
racese includes the Chicory, Dandelion, Sowthistle, and 
Lettuce [etc.] 1898 Guide^ Mammalia Brit. Mus. n Man, 
Apes, and Monkeys constitute the suborder Anthropoid ea. 
b. transf. 

1864 W. T. Fox Skin Dis. 42 Under the head of pustule, 
is a suborder, furunculi, to include anthrax, boils, and 
pustula maligna. 

2. [SuB- 5 b.] Arch. A secondary or subordinate 
( order in a structure of arches. 

4 xSgoC. H.MooRE^M:c^rc/V.vi.236ThehoHowwhich 
is given to the soffit of the sub-order of the pier arcade in 
the nave of Malmesbury Abbey. 

Hence Subo-rdered a. y (of an arch) placed as a 
suborder. 

1898 A rcteo/. Jrnl. Ser. n. V. 348 The subordered arch 
perhaps did not appear much, .before the eleventh century. 

t SubO rdering. [SuB- S.] Subordination. 

1654 Z. COKE Logick 85 A perfect division also is either 
of The whole subordering [or] The Co-ordered. 

Subordinacy (sob^udinasi). [f. SUBORDINATE 
a. : see -ACY.] The state of being subordinate ; 
subordination. 

1627 SPEED England xxviii. 5 In acknowledgement of 
subordinacie in that part of absolute power. 1673 TEMPLE 
Ess. Irel. in Misc. (1680) 102 This subordinacy \ed. 1709 
subordinancy] in the Government, and emulation of parties. 
1711 SHAFTESB. Charac. (1737) II. n. 98 To have.. Self- 
Affections too strong, or beyond their degree of subordinacy 
to the kindly and natural. 1820 T. L. PEACOCK Misc. Wks. 
1875 III. 337 The subordinacy of the ornamental to the 
useful. 1891 Temple Bar Feb. 252 Her comparative sub- 
erdinacy. 1893 Advance (Chicago) 9 Mar., Lifted out of 
subordinacy into supremacy. 

Subo rdinal, a. [f. mod.L. subordo, -ordin- 
(see SUB- 7 b, ORDER sb.} + -AL.] Of, pertaining 
to, or of the rank of, a suborder. 

1870 ROLLESTOX A nim. Life p. Ixxxii, Thetwosubordinal 
names above given. 1872 OLIVER Elan, Bot. ii. 183 Upon i 
these characters, derived from the face of the seed, sub- j 
ordinal divisions have been based. 1904 (A Rev. Oct. 469 ] 
Africa has now no. .peculiar ordinal or subordinal groups : 
of mammals of its own. 

t Subtrrdinance. Obs. [f. SUBORDINATE a., : 
app. after predominate (for predominant) and pre 
dominance.] Subordination. 

1642 H. MORE Song of Soul i. n. xii, We clearly see (As 
well as -that pendent subordinance) The nearly couching of 
each realtie. 

So f Subo rdinancy. 

1709 [see SUBORDINACY, guot. 1673]. 1768 in Channels 
Let. 52 Government, .implies subordinancy and subjection. 

t Subo-rdinant, a. Obs. [Alteration of SUB 
ORDINATE by confusion with predomitiant] Sub 
ordinate. 

1697 J. SERGEANT Solid P kilos. 458 Each of the Subordi- 
nant Sciences deduces Conclusions about its Proper Object. 

Subo-rdinary, sb. Her. [f. SUB- S + ORDI- 
NARY $b.~\ A charge of frequent occurrence but | 
considered as of less importance than an ordinary ; 
a subordinate ordinary. 

1791 Encycl. Brit. (1797) VIII. 445/2 All charges are i 
distinguished by the names of honorable ordinaries, sub- i 
ordinaries, and common charges. 1843 BRANDS Diet. Sci. 
etc, 1183/2 According ^to some writers.. an ordinary, when 
it comprises less than one fifth of the whole shield, is termed 
a subordinary. 1880 Encycl. Brit. XI. 694/1 Very many 
both of these [ordinariesjand of the subordinaries. .are very 
frequent constituents in mouldings in the Norman style of 
architecture. 

t Subo-rdinary, a. Obs. rare. [Alteration of 
SUBORDINATE by confusion with ordinary.] Sub 
ordinate. 

1788 D. GILSON Serin, xii. 356 Let Women know their 
sphere ; . , Their rank is an . .honourable one but it is a sub- 
ordinary. 

Subordinate (s#bpMdin#), a. and sb, [ad. 
med.L. subordindtus , pa. pple. of subordindre to 
SUBORDINATE. Cf. It. subordinate, Sp. and Pg. 
subordinado ; also F. subordonne.] A. adj. 

1. Of a person or body of persons : Belonging 
to an inferior rank, grade, class, or order, and 
hence dependent upon the authority or power of 
another. Const, to. 

1607 CHAPMAN Bussy d*Ambois in. i, Shew me a great 
man.. That rules so much more than his suffering King, 



SUBOBDINATE. 

That he makes kings of his subordinate slaues. 1624 FISHER 
in F. White Repl. Fisher 337 To make Saints Mediators 
subordinate vnto, and dependent of Christ, is to encrease 
his glorie. a 1626 BACON Consid. Warre iu. Spaing Misc. 
(1629) 43 Two Generals, .assisted with Subordinate Com- 
mandera, of great Experience. 1669 GALE Crt. Gentiles i. 
1. 1. 2 Neither is it possible to conceive, that a finite subor 
dinate Being should be independent, or eternal 1693 STAIR 
Inst. Law Scot. (ed. 2) iv. xxxix. 14 This defence extends 
to all Judges Supream and Subordinat. 1760-3 GOLDSM. 
Cit. W. c, The subordinate officer must receive the com 
mands of his superior. 1827 SCOTT Surg-. Dan. xiv An act 
of deference.. paid by inferior and subordinate princes to 
the patrons whom they depend upon. 1863 H. Cox Instit. 
I. x. 238 Elizabeth and her advisers attempted to render 
Parliament subordinate to the Privy Council. 1871 FREE 
MAN Norm. Conq. IV. 73 Besides these two great Viceroys, 
we also know the names of some of the subordinate captains 
who held commands under them. 

b. Of power, position, command, employment. 
1456 SIR G. HAVE Bk. Knight hood\1\i$. (S. T. S.) II. i Sa 
suld knychtis have dominacioun and seigneurye subordinate 
of the princis and lordis behalve. 1608 J. KING Serin. 
24 Mar. 6 Nor by way of Lieutenantship, deputation, sub 
ordinate prefecture whatsoever, but as a King over subiects. 
1622 CALLIS Slat. Sewers (1647) 231 An Ordinance is a sub 
ordinate direction, proceeding out of a more general power. 
1681 STAIR Inst. Law Scot. i. xiii. 276 The Jurisdiction 
of all Barrens, .was.. subordinat to the Sheriffs, a 1700 
EVELYN Diary 6 Feb. 1670, The lawfulnesse, decentnesse. 
and necessitie, of subordinate degrees and ranks of men and 
servants. 1765 MACLAINE tr. Mosheint s Eccl. Hist. Cent. 
iv. i. v. 10 [The Son] the instrument by whose subordinate 
operation the Almighty Father formed the universe. i86a 
G. C. LEWIS Let. to Earl Stanhope 26 Apr., In his subor- 
dinate official position. 1874 STUBBS Const. Hist. I. iv. 68 
His power is. .not subordinate, 

C. Of things having an inferior rank in a series 
or gradation. 

1456 SIR G. HAVE Law Arms (S. T. S.) 76 The hevynnis, 
be thair instrumentis subordinatis, send is thair. .influencis 
in the materis that thir erdly thingis ar compound of. 1610 
GUILLIM Heraldrie n. vi. (1611) 58 A couple-close is a sub 
ordinate charge deriued from a Cheuron. 1651 HOBBES 
Leviathan ii.xxii. 115 Others [A;. systems] are.. Subordinate 
to some Soveraign Power. 1691 RAY Creation i, (1692) 8 
Of both which kinds [of insects] there are many subordinate 
Genera. 1728 CHAMBERS Cycl. s.v. Subordination, In the 
Sciences, Trigonometry is subordinate to Geometry ; and 
in the Virtues, Abstinence and Chastity are subordinate to 
Temperance. 1807 Med. Jrnl. XVII. 575 It was to that 
branch of it which bears the name of Therapeutics, that all 
the others were to have been subordinate. 1864 BOWKN 
Logic iv. 87 The other [Concept], having less Extension, 
or denoting fewer Individuals, is called Inferior, Lower, 
Narrower or Subordinate. 

2. Of things, material and immaterial : Depen 
dent upon or subservient to the chief or principal 
thing. Chiefly in technical use. 

1588 FRAUNCE Lawiers Logike i. iv. 25 b, Subordinate is 
that which is not for it selfe desired, but referred to the 
chief end. 1597 HOOKER Eccl. Pol. v. Ixii. (1611) 328 No 
circumstance but a subordinate efficient cause. i6zi BUR 
TON Anat, Mel. i. ii. in. ii, Although this Phantasie of ours 
be a subordinate faculty to reason. 1625 N. CARPENTER 
Geogr. Delin, n. ix. (1635) 147 Subordinate causes can pro 
duce no other then subordinate effects. 1697 tr. Burgers- 
dtcius Logic i. xviii. 69 A Subordinate End is that which is 
referred to some farther End. 1730 M. WRIGHT Introd. 
Law Tenures 159 note t The many subordinate Tenures and 
Manors subsisting at this Day. 1765 BLACKSTONE Comin. 
I. Introd. 98 As to Ireland, that is still a distinct kingdom; 
though a dependent, subordinate kingdom. 1818 STODDART 
in Encycl. Metrop. (1845) I. 18/2 Various aggregations of 
sentences in which the subordinate assertions are assumed 
by the mind in the manner already shown. 1844 Proc. 
Philol. Soc. I. 226 When a subordinate clause acts the part 
of object to a verb. 1857 J. W. GIBBS Philol. Studies 117 
The more ancient languages had participials, where the 
more modern have subordinate clauses. 

3. Of inferior importance ; not principal or pre 
dominant ; secondary, minor. 

ai66i FULLER Worthies^ Northampton. (1662) n. 288 Not 
to speak of his moral qualifications, and subordinate abilities. 
1752 HUME Ess. <y Treat. (1777) 1.236 Instances, where the 
subordinate movement is converted into the predominant. ^ 
1786 JEFFERSON Writ. (1859) II. 26 My expectations from it 
were of a subordinate nature only. x8o8 SYD. SMITH Wks. 
(1859) 1. 121/2 A very great proportion of all the curacies in 
England are filled with men to whom the emolument is a 
matter of subordinate importance. 1855 PRESCOTT Philip //, 
I. iv. I. 57 His haughty spirit could not be pleased by the 
subordinate part which he was compelled to play._ 1887 
Diet. Archit. s. v. Snb Arch, Subarcuation, that is, the 
mode of constructing two inferior and subordinate arches 
under the third or main arch. 1898 SWEET New Engl. 
Gram. ir. 29 If a full word becomes subordinate in meaning, 
it can take weaker stress. 

f4. In subjection ; submissive. Obs. 

1594 in Cath. Rec. Soc. Publ. V. 266 My direction was in 
all thinges to be subordinate to him y [ should be Superior 
here of our Societye. 1784 COWPER Task n. 716 The mind 
was well inform d, the passions held Subordinate. 

f 5. In physical senses : a. Placed underneath. 

1648 WILKINS Math. Magick i. vii._5i These Pulleys may 
be multiplyed according- to sundry different situations, not 
onely when they are subordinate,.. but also when they are 
placed collaterally. 

b. Geol. Underlying ; subjacent. 

1833 LYELL Princ. Geol. III. 170 Consisting. .partly of 
clay and sand, with subordinate beds of lignite. 1854 
MURCHISON Siluria ii. 31 Containing the best roofing slates 
in the world, and subordinate courses of greywacke grit. 

t 6. advb. Subordinate to : in subordination or 
subjection to. Obs. 

1642 Lane. Tracts Civil War (Chetham Soc.) 73 We owe 
(subordinate to GodJ a great deal to Sir lohn Seaton. 1737 



SUBORDINATE. 

Gcntl. Mag. VII. 277 To inform and guide the People by it 
[sc. church authority], subordinate to holy Scripture. 1807 
Meal. Jrnl. XVII. 396 Subordinate to this will be given 
biographical notices of Authors. 
B. S6. 

1. A subordinate person ; one in a position of 
subordination; one who is under the control or 
orders of a superior. 

1640 G. SANDYS Christ s Passion 46 And so deny That 
Princes by Subordinates should die. 1667 MILTON P. L. v. 
668 Satan.. his next subordinate Awak mng. 1790 BUKKE 
Fr. Rev. 218 What the jurisdiction of bishops over their 
subordinates is to be. 1856^. Brit. Rcz . XXVI. 185 All 
the heads of departments, civil and military, with a large 
proportion of their subordinates. 1898 H. S. MERRIMAN 
Roiien s Corner x. 100 Ready to prompt or assist, as be 
hoved a merely mechanical subordinate. 

2. A subordinate thing, matter, etc. 

1839 Penny Cycl. XIII. 176/1 (A"a0,The subordinates of 
modality are possibility, existence, and necessity. 1846 
G. S. FABKK Lett. Tructar. Scccss. 248 Though there may 
be occasional disagreement in subordinates, there i.s a very 
singular and a very striking agreement in primaries. 

Subordinate (sSbpudiwt), v. [f. late L. 

subordinal-, pa. ppl. stem of subordinare, f. sub- 
SUB- 2 +ordititire to order, ORDAIN. Cf. It. sub 
ordinare, Sp., Pg. subordinar; F. subordonner.~\ 

1. trans. To bring into a subordinate position ; 
to render subordinate, dependent, or subservient ; 
Const, to. Also \occas. (without to] to bring into 
subjection. Now rare with personal obj. 

1507 HOOKER Eccl. Pol. v. Ixxvi. (1617) 409 That what hee 
worketh, might.. be effected by. .instruments duely subor 
dinated vnto the power of his owne Spirit, a 1600 Disc. 
Jitstif. 30 Things, .subordinated vnto Christ, by Christ 
himselfe. 1611 SPEED Hist. Gt. Brit. ix. xii. 154 Subordi 
nating the Maior and Citizens to his gpuernement. 1700 
RVCAUT Hist. Turks III. 194 Under him six Agas were 
subordinated, a 1716 SOUTH Serin. Eph. iv. 10(1744) VII. 
23 The stars fight in their courses under his banner, and 
subordinate their powers to the dictates of his will. 1840 
CARLYLE Heroes vi. (1841) 316 He to whose will our wills 
are to be subordinated. 1867 AUGUSTA WILSON Vashti 
xxviii, One whose every scheme shall be subordinated to 
your wishes, your happiness. 1889 Spectator 9 Nov. 632/2 
They [the people of the U. S.] have subordinated their na 
tional aspirations to a detestable and narrow. minded race 
prejudice. 1898 SWEET New Engl. Gram. n. 33 The stress 
of the verb is often subordinated to that of its modifier. 

2. To place in a lower order, rank, etc. ; to make 
secondary or consider as of less importance or 
value. Const, to. 

i6j4"WoTTON Elent. Archit. H. 107 As I haue before sub 
ordinated Picture, and Sculpture to Architecture, as their 
Mistresse. 1647 H. MORE Poems 308 That Kestrell kind Of 
bastard scholars that subordinate The precious choice in- 
duements of the mind To wealth. 1678 CUDWOKTH Infill. 
Sysf. I. iv. 596 Their Intention in thus Subordinating the 
Hypostases of their Trinity, was [etc.]. 1823 COLERIDGE 
A ids Re/I. (1848) I. 22 The teacher, who subordinates pru 
dence to virtue, cannot be supposed to dispense with virtue. 
1871 LOWELL Milton Wks. 1890 IV. 84 There is an intoler 
able egotism which subordinates the sun to the watch in its 
own fob. 1876 GRANT Bitrgh. Sch. Scot. it. xiii. 377 In the 
burgh Schools in which music . . was not subordinated to the 
other subjects of instruction. 

8. Archit. To arrange (arches) in orders . 

a 1878 G. SCOTT Led. Archit. (1879) I. 224 This suggested 
the system of sub-ordinating the rims, or recessing them. 

Hence SubOTdinated ppl. a. 

1751 Chambers Cycl. s. v. Affection, Affections : according 
to Aristotle, ..are either subordinating, or subordinated. 
1809 Westm. Gaz. 29 Dec. 2/1 So vast was his system of 
subordinated labour, so numerous the army of pupils who 
worked under his controlling eye. 

Snbo rdinately, adv. [f. SUBORDINATE a. 
+ -LIT 2.] In a subordinate, inferior, or dependent 
manner, degree, or position. 

a 1633 AUSTIN Medit. (1635) 248 These [Angels] are held, to 
have, .the mooving (subordmately) of things beneath them. 
a 1667 COWLBY Ess., OfAgric. Wks. (1006) 400 Because he 
prayed for wisdom in the first place, he added all things 
else which were subordinate!^ to be desir d. a 1708 BEVE- 
RIDGK Thes. Theol. (1710) II. 378 Exerting the utmost of 
our power in doing good subordinate^ for our own safety, 
ultimately for GooVs glory. 1857 J. W. GIBBS Philol. Studies 
116 I he same thought., may oftentimes be expressed either 
co-ordinately or subordinately. a 1890 LIDDON Pusey(i&)T,) 
II. 19 Between the canonical books and those subordinately 
inspired works [etc.]. 

SubO rdinateness. rare. [-NESS.] The 

quality or state of being subordinate ; subordination. 
1634 BP. Hnu.Contcmfl.,ff. T. iv. v. 126 The subordinate- 
nesse of the creature doth not take away from the right.. 
of the first mover, a 1706 EVELYN Hist. Relig. (1850) I. 51 
Who knows not that.. the subordinateness of the parts of 
Nature is not more astonishing than the subordinateness of 
thought and affections in the soul? 1871 MOZLEY Univ. 
Serm. v. (1877) 112 That freedom from all subordinateness 
to an authority above them. 

Subo rdinating, vtl. 16. [-INQ!.] Placing 
in a subordinate position. 

a 1600 HOOKER Eccl. Pol. vn. xv. (1662) 43 The subordi 
nating of inferiors to discharge some part of the same 
[office]. 

Subo rdinating, ppl. a. [-ING 2] That sub 
ordinates; involving subordination. Subordinat 
ing conjunction (Gram.), one that serves to join 
a subordinate to a principal clause. 

1751 [see SUBORDINATED tpl. a.\. 1850 GROTS Greece \\. 
Ixiv. VIII. 281 Constant subordinating control. 1857 J. W. 
Gis Pkilal. Studitt 116 The subordinative or subordinat- 



39 

ing proposition. 1875 WHITNEY Life Lang. xii. 241 Rela 
tives and subordinating conjunctions are wanting. 

Subordination (wtofidin^jan), [ad. lateL. 
subordination -one/ft, n. of action f. subordinare to 
SUBORDINATE. Cf, F. subordination (i7th c.), It. 
subordit?azione t etc.] 

1. The arrangement of persons or things in a 
series of successively dependent ranks or degrees, 
f Also, an instance of this, a graded series of indi 
viduals or orders of beings. Now rare or Qbs. 

1616 BULLOKAR Engl, Expos. t Subordination^^ appoint 
ing or placing of one thing vnder another. 1646 H. LAW- 
RENCK Commun. Angels 23 In this subordination, AngclU \ 
come next to have an influence upon rationall creatures. 1672 
GALI-; Crt. Gentiles i. 1. i. (ed. 2) 2 Doth not Aristotle, .prove, j 
that in Subordination of Causes there cannot be a progresse 
into infinit[ud]e? 1684 H. MORE^WJ?* , 33 As if true Chris- ! 
tianity took away all subordination of Ranks and Degrees , 
in the world. 1750 JOHNSON RauiblerTSo.c) p8 The endless 
subordination of animal life. 7}8J. DALRYMPLE fcss.Feiuitil \ 
Prop. (ed. 2} 200 The subordination of superior and vassal ; 
having soon ceased to be strict, a 1804 liiuiN Serin. III. 
xiv. 39 God hath bestowed., different talents on different 
men:. .this subordination, .pervades all the works of God, 
1837 WHEWELL Hist. Induct. Sci. III. 347 By arranging 
them [sc, animals] according to a subordination unknown 
to Aristotle himself. 1864 BOWEN Logic iv. 89 The Rela 
tions., arising from the higher or lower position of a Con 
cept in the series or hierarchy to which it belongs, are all 
denominated Relations of Subordination. 

j* b. The dependence of one part upon another 
in a piece of mechanism. Obs. rare. 

1751 JOHNSON Rambler No. 126 r 7 One bar was secured 
by another with such intricacy of subordination that he 
was himself not always able to disengage them in the proper 
method. 

fc. A rank in a graded series. Obs. 

a 1672 WILKINS Nat. Reliff. n. iv. (1675) 333 Those several 
degrees and subordinations required to the order of the 
Universe. 1709 SWIFT Adv. Relig. Wks. 1755 II. i. 104 
Persons, who in their several subordinations would be 
obliged to follow the examples of their superiors. 1712 
STEF.LE Spsct. No. 438 F 4 All the different Species and 
Subordinations of the Angry. 1751 JOHNSON Rambler 
No. 166 P 5 An insolent leveller,, .eager, .to confound the 
subordinations of society. 

2. The condition of being subordinate, inferior, 
or dependent ; subjection, subservience. 

1651 HOBBES Leviathan in. xiii. 315 From the Subordina 
tion of a Government, cannot be inferred the Subjection of 
the Governor. 1710 STEELF, Tatler No. 69 p i If we take 
too great an Idea of the Eminence of our Superiors, or 
Subordination of our Inferiors. 1715 M. DAVIF.S A then. 
Brit. I. 127 By making use of that dangerous Term, Sub 
ordination, in explaining the eternal Filiation of the Divinity 
of our Saviour. 1788 GIBBON Decl. fy F. liii. V. 507 Their 
independent spirit disdained the yoke of subordination. 
1855 BREWSTER Neivton II. xxii. 284 It might have been 
expected that a man of high principle would have kept in 
subordination his feelings as a rival. 1897 C. GORE in 
Wcstm. Gaz, 1 3 Apr. 6/2 That., was no servile relationship, 
for subordination did not involve inferiority. 1910 Encycl. 
2?r/V. (ed. n) XIII. 317/2 Without explaining the reason for 
the superior honour of the Saltire or for the subordination 
of the Quarter. 

IT Under subordination : under control. 

1769 GOLDSM. Hist. Rome (1786) I. 373 The forces on the 
side of Marius were the most numerous, but those of Sylla 
better united and more under subordination. 1802 MARIAN 
MOORE Lascelles III. 190 Those whose actions are under 
the subordination of propriety. 

b. Const, to. Phr. in (^with) subordination to. 

ai6oo HOOKER Eccl. Pol. VIH. iv. 6 (1648) 190 That 
Civill Authority is from God, but not immediately through 
Christ, nor with any subordination to God. 1687 DRVDEN 
Hind fy P. u. 371 Nor can a council national decide, But 
with subordination to her Guide. 1766 BLACKSTONE Comni. 
II. 252 Escheat .. operates in subordination to this more 
antient and superior law of forfeiture. 1868 MILMAN St. 
Paul s xvii. 400 Porticos, large enough for effect, yet in 
humble subordination to the vast fabric which they enclose. 
1884 tr. Lotze 1 * Logic 91 The ground of all inferences is the 
subordination of the particular to the universal. 1884 Law 
Reg. 14 Q. B. Div. 266 The local board.. can only exercise 
their rights in subordination to the market rights, 
fc. Subordinate agency. Obs. rare. 

a 1676 HALE Prim. Orig. Man. 332 The like determina 
tion of the same Will was sufficient to form Man out of the 
Dust of the ground, without taking in a subordination or 
instrumentality of Angels. 

d. Gram, The dependence of one clause upon 
another. 

1857 ! w - GIBBS PAiM. Studies 115 When two proposi 
tions . . are so united into a single thought or sentiment, that 
one proposition.. forms the complement of the other pro 
position, the former proposition is said to be subordinate 
to the latter, and this kind of union is called subordination. 
1892 L. KELLNER Engl. Syntax 54 The first step towards 
the development of grammatical subordination was the use 
of a pronoun or a demonstrative adverb connecting the two 
sentences. 

3. The condition of being subservient to some 
end, object, or need. 

1673 STILLINGFL. Serm, i. iv. 67 All this it doth by way of 
subordination to the great end of it, which is the promoting 
mens eternal happiness. 1790 BEWICK Hist. Quadr. ai 
A striking example of this subordination to the interests of 
mankind. 1839 Penny Cycl. XIII. 177/1 (Kant\ The har- 
monious co-ordination of all things and their subordination 
to a general end. 1862 SPENCER First Princ. i. i. 5a (1875) 
9 A certain subordination of individual actions to social 
requirements. 

4. The condition of being duly submissive to 
authority or discipline ; submission or subjection 



SUBORN. 

to the rale of a superior officer or the government 
of a higher power. 

1736 BUTLER Anal. i. v. 122 The Subordination to which 
they [children] are accustomed in domestic life. 1760 Cant. 
$ Adv. Off. Army^ Subordination must be preserved m the 
Army. 1760-2 GOLDSM. Cit. W. xlii, Capable of behaving 
with just subordination to our superiors. 1838 PRESCOTT 
Ferd. fy Is. n. viii. ^1854) II. 120 They were without sub 
ordination, patience, industry, or any of the regular habits 
demanded for success in sucli an enterprise. 1857 R-L SKIX 
Pol. Econ. Art 9 There has been wilfulness when there 
should have been subordination. 

5. Archit. The act or fact of forming arches into 
* orders . 

a 1878 G. SCOTT Lcct. A re hit. (1879) II. 75 The sub-ordina 
tion of arches, by means of which, instead of going square 
through the thickness of a wall, they recede in orders or arched 
rims, each narrower than that above it. 1910 Encycl. Brit. 
(ed. nj II. 402/1 The subordination of arches (arches built 
in rings, or orders, recessed one within the other). 

16. Misused for SUBORNATION. 

1640 Br. MALI. I- pisc, 11. xi. 138 Charge him with corrup 
tion, and subordination. 1643 UAKER Chron.^ Hen. VI (1653) 
273 Unlawful proceedings are used by subordination of 
witnesses, embracery of jurors. 1694 S. Bethel s Pro cid. 
Cod 76 The Subordination of Perjury. 

Subordinatioiiisni (sApidinfi JbnJz in). 

T/ieol. [f. prcc. + -ISM.] The doctrine that the 
second and third persons of the Trinity are inferior, 
in order or in essence, to the first person. Hence 
Subordina tionist, one who maintains this doc 
trine; also attrib. or as adj. 

1843 Penny Cycl. XXV. 243/1 The Father was regarded 
as the only supreme Clod, and as superior to the other 
persons of the Irinity, which is the doctrine called ^ubsrdi- 
nationism. 1880 Encycl. l-rit. XI. 854 i Hippolvtus de 
fended what is known as subordinationism against tl.e patii- 
passianism of the bishops. 1882 CAVE ii BASKS ti. Demur s 
Chr. Doctr. 204 The Subordinationist modification of the 
Ebionite tendency, ll-id. 208 Every form i f Monarchianism, 
the Sabellian form as well as the Subordinationist. 

P G. Subordinatianisnnts (an erron. formation after Nirt a- 
tianisniuS) etc.), used by Corner, DOllinger, etc, isicpiL-- 
sented in Kngl. translations by suoordinatianism ; .similiiily 
Subardinatianer by sttbordinatianist^ and suborriinatian- 
isch by subordination, 

1862 tr. Darners Hist, Dtvel. Person of Christ i. II. 58 
The efforts made to exclude subordinatian elements from 
the conception of the Son. Ibid. 74 An Arian Subordina- 
tianism was.. foreign to his mind. 1876 A. PLV.MMKK tr. 
Dollinger s Hippol. \ Callistus iv. 191 note, The Subordi- 
natianists of Alexandria. 

Subo rdiiiative, a. rare. [f. SUBORDINATE 
v. + -IVE.] Tending to subordinate, involving sub 
ordination. 

1642 FULLER Ansiv. Feme 3 England is not a simply 
subordinative, and absolute, but a Coordinative, and mi.xt 
Monarchy. 

b. Gram. Containing a subordinate clause or 
clauses. 

1857 I. W. GIBBS Philol. Studies 116 The subordinative 
proposition is not to be regarded as a composition of al 
ready existing parts to a whole, but as a development from 
the Dimple proposition. 

Suborn (szJbpjn), v. Also 6 subourne, Sc* 
auburn, 6-7 subborn, suborne. [ad. L. su&- 
orndrgj f. sub- SUB- 24 + omdre to equip, etc. Cf. 
F. suborner (i3th c.), It. sitdornare, Sp. sobornar, 
Pg. subornar.] 

1. trans. To bribe, induce, or procure (a person) 
by underhand or unlawful means to commit a mis 
deed. Usually const, to do a thing; also -\to an 
act, "^against a person or thing ; when used absoL 
often = to draw away from allegiance, corrupt the 
loyalty of. 

1534 Act 26 Hen. VII t* c. 4 i Kynsfolkes to suche offen- 
dours have resorted to the same Jurours, and have suborned 
them to aquyte dy vers murderers. 1555 EDEN Decades (Arb.) 
7i This Katherine.. being subor*v-d therto eyther by the 
lunge or his brothers promises. 1584 R. SCOT Discov. 
Witchcr. n. ii. 17 There must be Mibborned some craftie 
spie. 1590 SHAKS. Com. JCrr. iv. iv. 85 Thou hast subborn d 
the Goldsmith to arrest mee. 1654 tr. Scudtry s Curia Pol. 
121 Seeing that Amu rath hath invaded the Kingdom of his 
Allie, surprized his Townes, suborned his Subjects. 1663 
S. PATRICK Parab. Pilgrim xxxvii. (1687) 491 He that hath 
thought there is a gain in friendship beside it self; may well 
be suborn d against the same by the . . offers of a greater gain. 
1783 W. THOMSON Watsons Philip III, v. 376 Different 
persons were suborned to cut off the duke by assassination. 
1793 A. MURPHY Tacitus (1811) I. p. xxxv, Freedmen were 
suborned against their patrons. 1852 THACKERAY Esmond 
in. xiii, Had she not .. suborned servants, dismissed others, 
so that she might communicate with him? 1863 KINCLAKK 
Crimea. I. 232 The President.. saw that the man could be 
suborned. He admitted him into the plot, [etc.]. 1911 Act 
i <$ 2 Geo. K, c. 6 7 Every person who. attempts to. .sub 
orn another person to commit an offence against this Act. 
fig- $o4 T. WRIGHT Passions \\. i. 49 Vehement passions. . 
undermine the Judgement, and suborne it to give sentence 
in favour of them. 1645 MILTON Tetrach. Introd., Wks. 
1851 IV. 140 It U not reason.. that.. suborns the common 
credence of men to yeeld so easily. 

2. spec. To bribe or unlawfully procure (a person) 
to make accusations or give evidence ; to induce /<? 
give false testimony or to commit perjury. Also, 
to procure (evidence) by such unlawful means. 
(Cf. SUBORNATION 2 b). 

*$57 ^ 7 1 - (Geneva) Acts vi. n Then they suborned men, 
which sayd, We haue heard him speake blasphemous wordes. 
1565 COOPER TfasaurHs s, v. Submitto, To suborne or 



SUBORNATE. 

priuily to sende accusers to appeache one. Ibid. t Subijcere 
testes, to subourne false witnesses. 1603 SHAKS. Aleas.for 
M. v. i. 106 Y u knowst not what thou speak st, Or else thou 
art suborn d against his honor In hatefull practise. 1639 
SALTMARSHE Policy 198 Wicked men suborne false witnesses 
when they are convicted, a 1680 BUTLER Rent, (1759) I. 303 
Upon single Perjuries suborned by themselves they con 
demned Men unheard. 1711 ADDISON Spect. No. 171 r 9 
A Witness, suborn d by some of Mariamne s Enemies, who 
accused her to the King of a Design to poison him. 1736 
FIELDING Pasquin i. i. 9, I would as soon suborn an Evi 
dence at an Assize, as a Vote at an Election. 1777 SHERIDAN 
Sell, Scandal v. iii, I am so confounded, to find that Lady 
Sneerwell could be guilty of suborning Mr. Snake in this 
manner, to impose on us all. 1785 REID Intell. Powers \. 
ii. 46 If it can be shown that he is suborned,, .his testimony 
loses all its credit. 1864 KINGSLEY Rom. $ Tent. v. (1875) 
131 The Gothic courtiers, .suborned branded scoundrels to 
swear away his life. 1874 GREEN Short Hist. ix. 5. 645 
The arrest of Shaftesbury on a charge of suborning false 
witnesses to the Plot. 1877 CONDER Basis Faith viii. 353 
It is a kind of evidence which cannot be suborned. 

b. To procure the performance or execution of 
(a thing) by bribery or other corrupt means. 

1817 JAS. MILL Brit. Imtia II. v. viii. 670 The letters 
which were written in the name of the Nabob, ..were in 
fact suborned by the Governor-General. 1858 J. MAR- 
TINEAU Stud. Christ. 84 The public murder which they 
have privately suborned. 

1 3. To prepare, provide, or procure, esp. in a 
secret, stealthy, or underhand manner. Obs. 

1540-1 ELYOT /; Gov. 93 [89] Where they be not therto 
sufficient, they wyll suborne some false quarrell to make a 
commotion. 1579-80 NORTH Plutarch^ Lncnllus (1595) 565 
He beganne..to suborne the bands called Fimbrians, and 
to stirre them vp against Lucullus. 1615 CHAPMAN Odyss. 
x. 422 In a golden boule She then subornd a potion. 1667 
MILTON P. L. ix. 361 Since Reason not impossibly may 
meet Some specious object by the Foe subornd. 1676 
DRYDEN State Innoc. v. i, And those who, by Despair, 
suborn their Death. 1700 Cymon fy Ifift. 552 Then 
entring unexpected will we seize Our destin d Prey,.. And 
hast ning to the Seas suborn our Flight, a 1721 PRIOR Truth 
% Falseh. 33 Wks. 1907 II. 132 The Fraudful Dame, .. False 
sighs suborns, and artful tears. 

f4. To furnish, equip, adorn. Obs. 

1596 SPENSER State Ird. Wks. (Globe) 641/1 Evill thinges 
being decked and suborned with the gay attyre of goodly 
woordes. 1605 BACON Adv. Learn, n. xx.3 Not to write at 
leasure that which men may read at leasure, but reaJly to 
instruct and suborne action and active live. 

f 5. To give support to, aid, assist. Obs. 

1368 GRAFTON Chron. II. 610 This Capteine [Jack Cade] 
not only suborned by teachers, but also enforced by priuie 
Scholemaisters, assembled together a great company of tall 
personages, c 1611 CHAPMAN Iliad viii. 114 Let their bright- 
nesse glase the skies, that night may not suborne The 
Greekes escape. 

f 6. To introduce or bring to one s aid with a 
sinister motive. Obs. 

a 1619 FOTHERBY Atheom. i. ix. i (1622) 59 He [sc. 
Euripides] suborned, in his Tragcedie, the person of Sisyphus, 
to expresse all his vngodlinesse. 1649 MILTON Eikon, xxvi. 
210 Nor is he onely content to suborne Divine Justice in 
his censure of what is past, but he assumes the person of 
Christ himself to prognosticate . . what he wishes would come. 
1677 Let. in J. Smith Mem. \Vool t etc. (1757) I. lix. 215 
Some Western Clothiers finding, so early, and upon other 
Reasons than are now suborned, that Trade decaying. 

1 7. [SuB- 26.] To commission (another) in 
one s place. Obs. rare. 

1560 DAUS tr. Sleidane s Comm. 335 After they vnderstode, 
that it was not possible for them to go vnto a! places, whiche 
had nede of remedy, of necessitie they suborned others 
[orig. necessario suwmisisse olios}, 

Hence Suborrning vbl. sb. and///, a. 

1578 WHETSTONE 2nd Pt. Promos <$ Cass. n. iv, Against 
Vsurie, brybrie, and barrating, Suborning, extorcion, and 
boulstring. 1594 NASHE Unfort. Trav. L 2b, Other super- 
uising espialls to plie, follow, and spurre forward those 
suborning incensers. 1611 COTGR., Subornation^ a suborna 
tion, or suborning. 1705 STANHOPE Faraphr. 1. 72 The bribed 
Soldiers, and suborning Scribes, who by false Reports en 
deavoured to.. destroy the Credit of that Resurrection. 

t Subornate, pa. pple. and ///. a. Obs. [ad. 
L. subornatttS) pa. pple. of suborndre to SUBOEN.] 
Suborned. 

1430-1 Rolls of Parlt. IV. 375/2 Certeyns subornatz proves 
and persones of hir assent and covyne. 143250 tr. Higden 
(Rolls) III. 63 lulius Proculus, subornate by the Romanes, 
seide Romulus to haue apperede to hym. 1533 BELLENDEN 
Livy i. xvi. (S.T.S.) I. 91 pe sonnys of Ancus (qubllkis has 
subornate J>ir lymmaris to sla be king). 1560 Maitl. Club 
Misc. III. 225 Sche saw Jonet Watsone subornate and se- 
ducit be Williame and then repellet. 1590 BARROW & 
GREENWOOD in Confer. 33 Your subornate witnesses, 
b. adj. ? Underhand, false. 

a 1548 HALL Ckron. t Hen. VI^ 169 The cloked gentlenes, 
and subornate fashion of the duke of Yorke. 

t Subornate, v, Obs. [f. L. subornat-, pa. ppl. 
stem of siiborndre to SUBORN.] = SUBORN. 

1537 Instit. Christen man A 7 Subornatynge fals wyt- 
nesse. a 1548 HALL Ckron., Edw. IV. (1550)40 The Frenche 
Kyng.. caused a varlet to be subornated, in a cote armure 
of Fraunce. 1553 BREKDE Q. Curtius x. 6 He did subornate 
certain lewde persons, .to bring in false accusations against 
him. 

Subornation (sob^n^-fan). Also 6 -acion, 
subborn-, 7 subernation. [ad. L. suborndtio, 
~onem, n. of action f. suborndre to SUBORN. Cf. 
F. subornation, It. subomazione^ etc.] 

1. The act of inducing or procuring a person to 
commit an evil action, by bribery, corruption, or 



40 

the like ; an instance of this. Also, f underhand 
action. 

a 1548 HALL Chron., If en. PY/, 47 b, He by his crafty 
subornacions had persuaded diuerse..to beleue..that he 
was the same verey person. 1579-80 NORTH Plutarch, 
Solon (1595) 99 Those that were compassed.. by suborna 
tion at length to do a thing against their will. 1601 R. 
JOHNSON Kingd. <$ Commw. u63J 225 By the subernation 
of the viceroy of Algier he was murdred in his tent by 
certain Turks. 1670 G. H. Hist. Cardinals in. in. 304 
Without Bribery, or Subornation, he had attain d to the 
dignity of the Purple, a 1715 BURNET Own Time (^24) I. 
510 He protested, .that he knew of no subornation in all 
that matter. 1842 DE QUINCEY Cicero Wks. 1857 VII. 187 
The sort of chicanery attending his subornation of managers 
in the Leibnitz controversy. 1853 GROTE Greece n. Ixxxvi. 
XI. 291 By the hands of assassins and the treacherous 
subornation of his mother Eurydike. 

2. The act of procuring a person to give false 
evidence. Also, an instance of this. 

1528 MORE Dyaloge in. Wks. 211/2 For fere of suborna- 
cion & false instruction of witnes.se. 1590 GREENE Never 
too late (1600) 82 Hee hath produced this younge man by 
a sinister subornation to periure himselfe. 1659 Gentl. 
Calling 420 If a witness prove a better pennyworth than 
the Judge, subornation shall do the business. 1748 SMOL- 
LKTT Rod. Random xxxi. (1760) I. 241 cJiaptfr-heading^ 
I discover a subornation against me, by means of a quarrel 
between two of the evidences. 1792 BUKKE Corr. (1844) IV. 
74 A perjury as bloody as that of Gates and Bedlow; a 
subornation as audacious. 1847 JAMES Convict xli, This is 
something like a subornation of witnesses. 

b. Subornation of perjury : the act of procuring 
a witness on oath to commit perjury. 

1588 FRAUNCE Lawiers Log-ike i. xix. 67 If any of them 
[i.e. jurors] bee discredited by Law as by attainder in con 
spiracy, .subornation of perjury, or such like. 1678 MAR- 
VELL Growth Popery Wks. (Grosart) IV. 333 For suborna 
tion of perjury, tending to the defamation of his Majesty. 
2765-8 EHSKINE Inst. Laws Scot. iv. iv. 75 Subornation 
of perjury consists in tampering with those who are to 
swear in judgement, by soliciting or directing them how 
they are to depose, without regard to truth. 1797 Jacob s 
Law Diet. (ed. 10) s. v. Perjury, If the person incited to 
take such oath do not actually take it, the person by whom 
he was so incited is not guilty of subornation. 1911 Act 
i fy 2 Geo. K, c. 6 8 Any offence punishable as perjury or 
as subornation of perjury. 

transf. 1858 MERIVALE Rom. Emp. liv. (1865) VI. 405 
A cheap subornation of flattery. 

f c. A statement corruptly obtained. Obs. rare. 

1737 WHISTON Josephus, Antiq. vn. viii. 4 The King 
perceived that this pretended story was a subornation de 
rived from Joab, and was of his contrivance. 

1 3. The action of bringing a person to one s 
assistance or support. Obs. 

1600 W. CORNWALLIS Ess. ii. xlvi. Mm 4 b, Her [sc. Virtue s] 
counsels shall bee held so sincere, as they shall be accepted 
without the subornation of the nimph Egeria. 

Subo rnative, a. rare. [See SCBOBN v. and 
-ATIVJS.] Pertaining to subornation. 

1802-12 BENTHAM Ration. Jndic. Evid. (1827) I. 388 Any 
work. .done.. in the subornative line, for the purpose of 
giving existence to the lie. 

Suborned (stfb^und), ///. a. [f. SUBORN v. + 
-ED 1 .] In senses of the verb SUBORN; obtained 
by corrupt means ; f supposititious, counterfeit. 

1589 WARNER Alb. Eng. vi. xxx. (1602) 149 She baer d so 
sweete a face, As from the sternest Godhood might extort 
suborned grace. 1594 NASHE Unfort. Trav. E 3b, Because 
I was his suborned Lorde and master. 1598 DANIEL Civ. 
Wars v. Ixxx, Suborned lustice. 1610 CARLETON Jurisd. 
72 The Fathers. . reiecting this suborned and supposititious 
Canon. 1631 WEEVER Anc. Funeral Mon. 15 Suborned 
counterfeit hired mourners. 1676 MARVELL Gen. Cojtncils 
Wks. (Grosart) IV. 94 By suborned witnesses, stirring up 
the rabble. 1860 ELLICOTT Life Our Lord vii. 335 To., 
investigate the many suborned witnesses. 1860 FORSTER 
Gr. Remonstr. 105 Impositions by prerogative, .were backed 
by suborned and scandalous decisions in the courts. 

Subornee (stftyunf ). [f. as prec. + -BE !.] One 
who is suborned. 

1894 Law Times XCVII. 384/1 Hireling subornees of 
perjury. 

Suborner 

One who suborns. 

1593 NASHE Christ s T. Wks. (Grosart) IV. 163 Ambition 
& Auarice his suborner. 1602 FULBECKE ist Pt. Parall. 
64 Suborners., which do minister occasion to the informer. 
1629 T. ADAMS Rage Oppress. Wks. 607 Man is the maine 
suborner of mischiefe to his owne kind. 1632 BP. HALL 
Hard Texts Acts v. 3 Thou.. hast drawne in the holy 
Ghost as a suborner, and abetter of thy wickednesse. 1769 
BLACKSTONE Comm, IV. x. 137 The statute 5 Elu. e.g.. in 
flicts, .a fine of 40^. on the suborner. 1817 COLERIDGE Biog. 
Lit. (1907) II. 214 His employer and suborner. 1823 BEN 
THAM Not Paul 251 Were they not. .so many suborners of 
this same perjury? 1840 DICKENS Old C. Stop Ixii, You 
perjurer, you suborner of evidence. 1874 MOTLEY John of 
Barneveld II. 440 The conspirator and suborner of murder. 

Subosco : see SUBBOSCO. 

Subo-val, a. [SUB- 20 c. Cf. F. sufova/e.] 
Somewhat or almost oval. 

1752 J. HILL Hist. Anim. 9 The Macrocercus, with a sub- 
oval depressed body. 1777 S. ROBSON Brit. Flora 167 
Corollul^ of the radius suboval. 1817 STEPHENS in Shaw s 
Gen. Zool. X. n. 564 Nostrils suboval and depressed. 1858 
LEWES Sta-side Studies n. ii. 147 Minute suboval micro 
scopic capsules. 

Subo vate, a. [ad. mod.L. sttbovatus : see 
SUB- 20 c.] Somewhat or almost ovate. 

1752 J. HILL Hist. Anim. 98 [90] The Triton, with a sub- 
ovate body. i8ia New Bot, Card, 1. 55 The pericarpium is 



[f. SUBORN . + -ER 1 .] 



SUBPOENA. 

asubovate, three-celled capsule. 1874 LUBBOCK Orig. fy 
Ins. i. 18 Hexapod antenniferous larvae, with a subovate 
body. 

So tSubo-vateda.,= SUBOVATE a. ; Subo-void 

a., somewhat or almost ovoid. 

1776 PENNANT Brit. Zool. II. 469 Nostrils. .Small, sub- 
ovated. 1828 STARK Elem. Nat. hist. II. 289 Head sub- 
ovoid. 1870 HOOKER Stud. Flora 121 Rosa spinosissima.. 
fruit subovoid. 

t Subpand. Sc. Obs. [f. SOB- 3 + PAKD (OF. 
pand, var. of fan skirt).] A valance. 

1578 Iny. Roy. Wardrobe (1815) 210 Ane auld bed of blak 
dames with the ruif and pandes and twa subpandis. 

Subpe ctoral, a. [SUB- i a, b.] 

1. Zool., etc. Situated beneath the breast or 
pectus. 

1834 M^MURTRIE Gurnet s Anim. Kingd. 155 The sub- 
pectoral rays. 1871 T. BRYANT Pract. Surg. 154 The sub- 
pectoral glands. 

2. Emanating from the depths of the chest. 

1871 MEREDITH Harry Richmond xlvi, A muffled rattle 
of subpectoral thunder discharged at her in quick, heated 
snaps. 

Subpeda-neous a., = SUPPEDANEOUS. 

1656 BLOUNT Glossogr., Snbfedaneons, belonging to a foot 
stool, or any thing under foot. 

Subpe-dital, = SUPPEMTAL, a shoe. 

1526 A C. niery talys 3 b, Set me .ii. tryangyls & .ii. semy 
cercles vppon my subpedytals. 

Subpe-ditate v., - SUPPEDITATE z>.,to subdue. 

1538 St. Papers Hen. VIII (r8 34 ) III. 78 The said Lord 
Deputie. .hathe subpeditate..Murghe Obrene. 

t Subpe-nal, a. Obs. rare- 1 , [f. L. sub pa-nd 
+ -AL ; cf. || SUB n, SUBPOENA, and PENAL.] Sub 
ject to penalties. 

1659 GAUDEN Tears Ch. 483 These meetings of Ministers 
must be authoritative, not arbitrary, not precarious, but 
subpenall. 

Snbpe tiolar, a. Bot. [Sus- 1 c.] Situated 
under the petiole, as the buds of the plane-tree. 
1891 Century Diet. 

Subpe tiolate, a. Bot. [mod.L. subpetiolatus 
(sense I), d.f.subpetiott^ 

1. [SuB- 20 c.] Somewhat petiolate ; having a 
very short petiole. 

1847 W. E. STEELE Field Bot. 25 Leaves, .sub-petiolate. 

2. = SUBPETIOLAK. 

1900 B. D. JACKSON Gloss. Bot. Terms. 

Subpe tiole. Bot. [SuB- 5 b.] A partial or 
secondary petiole, a petiolule. 

1880 C. F. DARWIN Movtm. Pi xii. 558 Each petiole, 
sub-petiole, and leaflet. 

Subpe tioled, a. Bot. [Sus- 20 c.] = SDB- 

PETIOLATE I. 

1800 Asiatic Ann. Reg. 269/1 Leaves.. sub-petioled. 
Subplant v., = SUPPLANT v. 

1382 WYCLIF Gen. xxvii. 36 He forsothe hath subplauntid 
me. 1472 MARG. PASTON Let. to J. Paston 19 Nov., Mad 
to Subplant you. 1603 OWEN Pembrokeshire iii. (1892) 35 
The Normans haveinge subdued and subplanted the Saxon 
Kinges. 

II Subpoena (ssbprna,spf-na),j*. Law. Forms: 
5-6 suppena, 5-7 subpena, 6 supenea, 6 sub- 
pene, 7 sowpinee, 8 supoena, 6- subpoena. 
[law-L., = L.subpcend undera penalty (cf. || SUB 1 1), 
being the first words of the writ.] 

1. A writ issued by chancery commanding the 
presence of a defendant to answer the matter 
alleged against him. Also writ of subpoena. 

1422-61 in Cal, Proc. CAanc. Q. Eliz. (1827) I. Introd. 19 
Graunte to the seid suppliant a writ sub pena direct to the 
seid Thomas. 1482 Rolls of Parlt. VI. 208/1 To graunte 
as many Writts of Sub pena out of the Court of Chauncerie. 
a 1517 in Scrope Castle Combe (1852) 294 A suppena brought 
agaynse me by hys false surmyse. 1543 tr. Act /j Hen. Vf t 
c. 4 For asmoche as dyuers persons haue before this tyme 
ben greatly greued by wryttes of sub pena. 1623 in New 
Shaks. Soc. Trans. (1885) 499 His Ma 1 " most gracious 
writt of Subpcena directed to the said James Baskervile.. 
and also to Susann Baskervile.. comaunding them. .to., 
appeare . . in his Ma tie8 high court of Chauncery. 1768 BLACK- 
STONE Comm. III. xxvii. 443 Upon common bills, as soon 
as they are filed, process of subpoena is taken out ; which 
is a writ commanding the defendant to appear and answer 
to the bill, on pain of ioo/. 1818 CRUISE Digest (ed. 2) I. 392. 
1875 DIGBY Real Prop. vi. (1876)286. 

2. A writ issued from a court of justice command 
ing the presence of a witness under a penalty for 
failure. 

1467 R. CALLE Let. to Sir J. Paston 3 Apr., He woll not 
come withoute he have a suppena. c 1550 Wytt of Deuill 
(? 1825) B 4 b, A Bouget too put their Sup penas in, to cracke 
the poore men with all in the countrey. a 1617 OVERBURY 
Characters, Country Gentl. Wks. (1856) 64 Nothing under 
a sub pcena can draw him to London. 1673 \nCanterbiiry 
PressliSSj ) 26 Jan. 7/3 For a sowpinee For thewiteneses 030. 
1746 FRANCIS tr. Hor., Sat. i. ii. 13 By subpoenas dragg d 
from home. 1818 SCOTT Hrt. Midi, xix, The worthy magis 
trate . . had caused the ordinary citation, or sul poena, of the 
Scottish criminal court, to be served upon her. 1837 DICKENS 
Pickw. xxxi, It s only a subpoena in Bardell and Pickwick. 
b. attrib. in subpoena office. 

1688 HOLME Armoury in. 
the High Court of Chancer 



1688 HOLME Armoury in. iii. 63/1 Officers belonging to 
"~ _h Court of Chancery... The Clerk of the Subpena 
Office. 1797 Jacob s Law Diet. (ed. 10) s. v., The proper 



clerks of the Subpcena Office, 

9.J& 

1593 Tea-Troths N. Y. Gift (1876) 36 What a cheape 
subpena is this to drawe an answere from the conscience. 
1635 SHIRLEY Lady Picas, i. (1637) B 2 b, To which appeare, 



SUBPCENA. 

As to the Court of Pleasure, all your gallants, And Ladies 
thither bound by a SubpenaOf Venus. 1649 W. M. Wand, 
Jew (1857) 48 Shee serves me still with Subpoena upon 
Subpcena to answer to the I nter Calories of her cruelty. 1906 
Hibbert Jrnl. Jan. 265 That authority . .is necessarily open 
to the challenge of criticism, liable to a subpoena before the 
higher bar of reason. 

II SubpOB na, v. Law. Also 7 subpoene. [f. 
prec.] trans. To serve with a writ of subpoena ; to 
summon as a witness in a court of justice. (Chiefly . 
in pa. pple.) 

1640 in Rushw. Hist. Coll. (1692) in. I. 81 One Walker, and i 
Cadwallader Powel, . .subpcened to be made Defendants in a ! 
Third Information put into the High Court of Star-Cham- | 
her. 1693 Humours Town 6 My Cousin, here, and I, being 
subpcena d up for Witnesses. 1710 P. BLAIR Misc. Observ. 
(1718) 66 The Physicians and Surgeons (being subpenad as 
Evidences against him*. 1755 Gentl. Mag. XXV. 329 The 
witnesses subpoena *d by the crown amounted to above 100, 
1858 LYTTOS What "will He do 1 vn. vii, He would not even 
subpoena any of his old friends as to his general character. 
1875 Miss BR ADDON Strange World xi, Elgood and his 
daughter were both subpoenaed for the adjourned inquest. 
1884 Harper s Mag. June 57/1 Other merchants may be 
subpoenaed to act as mercantile experts at the examination. 

trans/. 1755 CHESTERF. in World No. 151 r i, I was lately 
subpoenaed, by a card, to a general assembly. 

Subpolar, a. [Cf. Sp. subpolar] 

1. [San- 12 b.] Adjacent to the poles or polar sea. 
1826 KIRBY & SP. Entomol. xlix. IV. 485 Beginning at 84 

N. L. he [sc. Latreille] has seven Arctic ones, which he names 
polar, subpolar, superior, intermediate, supratropical, tropi 
cal, and equatorial. 

2. [Sun- i a.] Beneath the pole of the heavens. 
1876 C. H. DAVIS Polaris Exp. iv. 96 The latitude of the 

southern entrance of Repulse Harbor, determined, .by a 
meridian subpolar observation. 1883 PROCTOR Gt. Pyramid 
lii. 154 The subpolar meridional passage of [Alpha Draconis], 

Subpouelle, variant of SUPPOWAIL, to support. 

14. . MS. Cantab. Ff. i. 6. fol. 123 Trustyng tc Ihu. .Tho 
send hys grace to subpouelle & ComfFort Tho all that ys 
wyth wrong repourL 

Su*b-prece ptor. 06s. exc. Hist. [SUB- 6.] 

An assistant preceptor or instructor. Hence Su b- 
precepto rial a. 

1698 LUTTRELL Brief RcL (1857) IV. 406 The bishop of 
Salisbury, his preceptor, i2OOj per ann. ; and Dr. Willis, 
his subpreceptor, 400^. 1755 [*ee SUBGOVKRSOR]. 1827 
Gentl. Mag. XCVII. n. 6 He had.. been Sub-preceptor to 
his present Majesty, then Prince of Wales, and to the Duke 
of York. 1847 MEDWIN Shelley II. 221 Sub-preceptor to 
the Princess Charlotte. Ibid., To relieve him from his sub- 
preceptorial duties. 

Su-b-pre feet. [Sun- 6. Cf. F. sous-frtfet] 

An assistant or deputy prefect ; spec, an adminis 
trative official of a department of France imme 
diately subordinate to the prefect ; the adminis 
trator of a province of Peru. 

1845 W. K. KELLY tr. Blanc s Hist. Ten Yrs. \\. 175 The 
prefects, the sub-prefects, and the mayors. 1852 SHARPE 
Hist, Egypt xxi, Every deputy tax-gatherer, Every prefect| 
every sub-prefect. 1880 C. R. MARKHAM Perm. . Bark 125 
The Sub-prefect, Don Pablo Pimentel. 1899 KIPLING 
Stalky 137 We aren t even sub-prefects. 

Hence Su bprefecto rlal a. [cf. F. sous-prtfec- 
toral\ pertaining to a subprefect or subprefecture ; 
Subprefe cture [cf. F. sous-prefecture^ the office 
or position of a subprefect, a division of a prefec 
ture. 

1837 Penny Cycl. IX. 105/2 (Daubs) The department is 
divided into four arrondissemens or sub-prefectures. 1870 
lllustr. Lond. N~civs 29 Oct. 438 Making of the five Roman 
provinces one only, with five sub- prefectures. 1879 STEVES- 
SON Trav. Donkey 183 The subprefectorial map was fetched 
from the subprefecture itself. 

Subpreas, obs. variant of SUPPRESS v. 

1536 in Archbold Somerset Relig. Houses (1892) 56 To 
help me to the gifte of the priorie of ffynshed..yn case it 
be subpressed. 1542 BOORDE Dyetary ix. (1870) 250 That 
the lyuer, whiche is the fyre vnder the potte, is subpressed. 
1637 PRYNNE Docum. (1877) 89 The clarke of the peace s 
deposition.. which the judges had subprest as scandalous. 

Strbpri ncipal, sb. 

f 1. Mus. [med.L. subprincipdlis, used to render 
Gr. irapvTtaTij (sc. xP&4 string) : see SUB- 13.] = 
PAHHYPATH. Obs. 

1603 HOLLAND Plutarch s Mor. Explan. Wds., Parkypate 
hypatt$n t . .Subprincipall of principals. . .C, FA, UT. Parky. 
Pate Mestin, . . Subprincipall of meanes : . . F, FA, UT. 

2. [Sue- 6.] A vice-principal of a university, etc. 
iw Sc. Acts Jos. l I (1816) IV. 154/1 pe principal! sub- 

prm 1 rcgentis and remanent memberis of J>e said college. 
1615 Reg. Mag. Si$. Scat. 543/1 Mr Pat. Guthrie sub- 
principall of the said col ledge. 1755 E. CHAMBERI.AYNE 
Angl. Notitia n. 16 Eight Masters of Arts, of which, the 
first was Sub- Principal. 

3. Archit. [Sun- 5 b.] (See quot.) 

1849 GWILT Archit. Gloss., Sub-principals, the same as 
auxiliary rafters or principal braces. 

4. [SuB- 13.] An open diapason sub-bass. 

1876 STAINER & BARRETT Diet. Mus. Terms, Subfrincipal, 
an organ stop consisting of open pipes, of 32 ft. pitch on the 
pedals, and of 16 ft. pitch on the manuals. 

t Su bprincipal, a. [SuB- II.] (See quot.) 

1601 DOLMAN La PrfmauA Fr. Acad. in. li. 236 Eight 
other windes, called sub-principall [orig. souzprincipaux\, 
and which compound their names of their two next col- 
laterail windes,.. to wit, North -northeast. North -north west. 

Strbpri Or. [a. OK. subprieur (i4th c.), med. 
L. subprior, var. of supprior SUFPBIOR : see SUB- 
6 and PRIOR sb. Cf. ME. sousprior s. v. Sons-, 
VOL. IX. 



priour of the said hospital of sainte John of Jerusalem. 

41 PKV X Xf.Antipat/tie 33 Hubert being dead the M unices 

of Canterbury, .elected Reginald their Sub-prior, for his 



41 

and mod.F. souspricur (from 1310 c.).] A prior s 
assistant and deputy, 

1340 Ayenb. 67 pe abbottes and be priours and hire officials 
ase subprior and be of>re. c 1440 Prouip. Parv, 482/1 Sub- 
priowre, subprior. 1540 Act 32 Hen. K///, c. 24 8 Sub- 
priou: 
1641 

ofCa . _ 

Succe^sour. 1767 BURN Eccles. Law (ed. 2) IV. 456 In 
every priory, next under the prior was the sub-prior, who 
assisted the prior whilst present, and acted in his stead 
when absent. 1868 MOKRIS Earthly Par. (1890) 51/1 An 
old reverend man The sub-prior. 

So Su bpri-oress. 

c 1660 in J. Morris Troubles Cath. Forefathers (1872) 
Ser. i. vi. 257 For Subpriores* she appointed Sister Anne 
Tremaine. c 1789 in Cath. I\ec. Soc. Pitbl. IX. 308 She 
fulfilled several important offices in the Community such as 
Subprioress, Mistress of Novices, and Cellerere. 

Subputa tion, variant of SUPI-CTATION, 

1905 J- B. BUKY St. Patrick App. 382 It is to be noted that 

in the Liber Armachanus two divergent subputations of 

Patrick s age are found. 

Subramo se, a. Dot. and Zool. [ad. mod.L. 
subrdmosus ; see Sl B- 20 c.] Slightly ramose; 
having few branches; having a slight tendency to 
branch. 

c. 1789 Encycl. Brit. (1707) III. 444/2 Subranmse, having 
only a few lateral branches. i8z2 J. PARKINSON Outl. 
Oryctol. 42 Subramose tubes, everywhere niuricnted with 
acute tubercles. 1856 W. CLARK V,in der Jl^-en s Zool. 
I. 75 Polypary papyraceous, subramose. 

trans/, 1826 KIKIJY & SP. Entomol, xxviii. III. 12 In the 
Supplement to the first volume, he has distributed the / 
vertebrata in a double subramose series. 

So Subra nious a. 

1760 J. LEK Introd. Bot. (1794) 382 Sttbramosns, sub- 
ramous, having few lateral Branches. 

Subra tional, a. 

1. [Sl B- 14.] Below what is rational, less than 
rational. 

1865 Daily 7W. 27 Nov. 2/3 The readiness, .of a Tory, 
even of the sub-rational species, to entertain the question 
of Reform. 1896 Expositor s^.. 214 [Man is] incomparable 
with birds and four-footed beasts , and., with the entire sub- 
rational universe. 

2. [Sun- 19.] Math. (See quot.) 

1874-5 CAYLEY Math. Papers (1896) IX. 315 note, The 
expression subrational includes irrational, but it is more 
extensive; if Y, X are rational functions, the same or dif 
ferent, of y, x respectively, and Y is determined as a function 
of x by an equation of the form Y = X, then y is a sub- 
rational function of x. 

Su brector. [SUB- 6.] An official imme 
diately below a rector in rank, and acting as his 
depnty. 

16x9 WADSWORTH Pilgr. vi. 55 The Sub-Rector and two 
of his schollers. 1678 WALTON Life Sanderson 28 b, In the 
year 1613. he was chosen Sub-rector of the Colledge. 1691 
Case of Exeter Coll. 27 Differences arising betwixt the 
Rector and the Scholars, if not determined within twenty 
days by the Sub-Rector, the Dean, and three of the Maxitni 
Seniores [etc.]. 

Su bre gion. [SuB- 7 c.] A division or sub 
division of a region, esp. of a geographical region, 
with reference to the distribution of animals. 

1864 A. R. WALLACE in Proc. Zool. Soc. 373 Confining our 
attention now to the Australian region only, we may divide 
it into three subregions Australia, the Pacific Islands, and 
the Austro-Malayan groupeach of which has a distinctive 
character. i869Scr-ATER Ibid. 125 The true Australian sub- 
region (Subregio australis), comprising continental Aus 
tralia, with, perhaps, the exception of the northern promon 
tory of Cape York. 1882 MINCHIN Unipl. Kinemat. 194 
That portion of the space bounded by the contour DEF 
which is not included in any of the sub-regions A, B, C. 

Hence Snbre*gioual a., of or pertaining to a 
subregion. 

1875 Encycl. Brit. III. 74,7 "tare., Their [sc. the Gala- 
pagosj Subregional assignation doubtful. 

Subre-gular, a. [SuB- 19, 20.] 

1. Zool. and Bot. Almost regular. 

1822 J. PARKINSON Outl. Oryctol. 191 An unequal valved, 
subregular bivalve. 1870 HOOKER Stud. Flora 260 Corolla 
short subregular. 

2. Math. (See quot.) 

1886 CAYLEV Math. Papers (1897) XII. 444 An integral 
may be a regular integral, or it may be what Thome calls 
a normal elementary integral : the theory of these integrals 
(which I would rather call subregular integrals) requires., 
further examination. 

Subreption (Jfarpfan). [ad. L. subreptio, 
-onertiy n. of action f. subripZre (var. sitrr-}, i. sub- 
SOB- 24 + rapfre to snatch. Cf. F. subreption^ Sp. 
subreption, Pg. sitbrepcdo and see SUHREPTION.] 

1. a. Eccl. Law. The suppression of the truth or 
concealment of facts with a view to obtaining a 
faculty, dispensation, etc. (Opposed to obreption.} 

1600 W. WATSON Decacordon (1602) 343 [The bulls] were 
procured either merily by subreption, or., false informa 
tion. 1644 HP. HALL Modest Ojfer (1660) 9 Lest there 
should be any subreption in this Sacred business, it is 
Ordered, that these Ordinations should be no other than 
solemn. 1706 tr. Dnpin s Eccl. Hist, tbtk C. II. m. xx. 361 
Having a Power of enquiring into all Subreptions, Obrep- 
tions, or defects of Intention. 1718 CHAM BERS Cycl. s. v., Sub 
reption differs from Obreption, in that Obreption is a false 
Expression of the Quality of a Thing or Fact, &c. And Sub 
reption, a want of Expression. 1761 CHALLONKRin E. Burton 
Life (1909) II. xxiv. 26 Purely in consideration of your 
request (tho I apprehended he had obtained it bysubreption) 
I consenteJ to give him those faculties. 1876 tr. Hergen- 



SUBROGATE. 

rSther sCath. Ch. $ Ck>; State II. 160 His rescript. .may 
have been obtained . . by obreption . . and by subreption. 1894 
Month Mar. 391 If in a petition for a di>pensation. .it is 
the truth that is suppressed, .there is said to be subreption. 
b. Sc. Law. The act ol obtaining gifts ot escheat 
by suppression of the truth. 

1752 McUouALL/*/. Laws Scot. II. ur. HI. i. 259 All rights 
of escheats, .are granted by signatures or gifts from the 
crown, which may be stopt at their pacing the seals, those 
being checks against subreption or obreption, /. e. their being 
obtained by concealing the truth, or expressing a falshood. 
1838 W. IJKLL Diet, Law Scot., Subreption, the obtaining 
gift.;; of escheat, itc. by concealing the truth. 

O. A fallacious or deceptive representation; an 
inference derived from such a misrepresentation. 

1865 J. H. STIRLING Sir W. Hamilton "47 Hamilton has 
long been aware of the inconveniences of sense. What are 
called its subreptions, it-, mistake-.-,, blunders, errors [etc.]. 
1877 WISCHLLL Reconal. .W. .V Relig* ix. 259 This form of 
expression is inexact, and opens the way to logical subrep 
tions and other fallacious procedure-.. 1892 Imitpdntient 
(N. Y.) 21 July, This remark about climbing from a lower 
estate to a higher , is one of those neat little subreptions 
which >cntimental recruits employ to deceive themselves. 
1906 Hitbcrt Jrnl. July 793 Theie Is a subreption also in 
the use of the term thought * ; it truly refers to thought as 
a psychological process, but is taken a^ if it referred to 
thought a^ a metaphysical f,i<_t. 

t 2. Sudden or unforeseen attack, as of temptation. 

1632 SAXDF.RSON Scrtn. (1674) II. 18 Miscairying through 
his own negligence, incogitancy, or other subreption. 1634 
Two Serin, ii. (1635) 64 Strength of temptation, sway of 
pa^ion, ur other distemper or subreption incident to humane 
frailty. 1640 Serin. (1674) II. 144 \Ve.. break with him 
oftentimes through humane frailty and subreption, a 1658 
FARINDON Serin. (1672} II. 603 To sin by ignorance or sub 
reption, to feel those sudden motions and perturbations, those 
ictus aniui!, tho^e Midden b.ows and surprisals of the mind. 

Subreptitious (^bici.ti-Jjs , a. [l. L. sub- 
refth ius^ -itiiis i, subreft-, pa. ppl. stem of sitb- 
nptre) : see prec. and-nious 1 . Cf. OF. sit&np- 
tice, Sp., 1 g. $ttb)-epticio^\ a. Laiv. Obtained by 
subreption, b. Clandestine, SURREPTITIOUS. 

1610 DONNE Pseudo-martyr 23 Whether that pretended 
Commandement from the Kmperour were not subreptitious. 
a 1635 \AUNTON Fragnt. Reg. (1641) 29 That he was a sub 
reptitious Child of the Blood Roy all. 1659 OSBOHN Afisi. To 
Rdr., The emendation of a subreptitious Copy, a 1660 Con- 
temp. Hist, Irel, (Ir. Archaeol. Soc.) I. 100 The lord Dig i; by 
alleadged against him that his comUsion was subreptitious. 
1728 CHAMBERS Cycl, s. v , Papal 13 nils and Signatures are 
Null and Subreptitious, when the true State of the Benefice 
. .and other necessary Matters, are not justly signified to the 
Pope. 1752 M c DouALL Inst. Laws Scot. II. 38 To prevent 
sub-reptitious grants. 1819 [H. BUSK] Banquet u. 533 The 
subreptitious theft. 

Hence Subrepti tiously adv., by subreption. 

i6n COTGR., Sitbreptivenient, subrepticiously. 1890 ! . K, 
BRIDGETT Blunders <y Forgt-ries 18 That perhaps the rescript 
of which the Vicar of Mundeham boasted was obtained obrep- 
titiously or subreptltiously. 

Subreptive (sbre*ptiv), a. [ad. late L. sub- 
reptivus, f. stibrept-, pa. ppl. stem ol subripSre. Cf. 
OK. subreptif^ Surreptitious; spec, in Kantian 
Philos. (see quot. 1877). 

1611 COTGR., Subreptif, subreptiue. 1877 E. CAIRO Philos. 
Kant i. 151 Many conceptions , he [Kant] >ay.s, arise in 
our minds from some obscure suggestion of experience, and 
are developed, .without any clear consciousness of the ex. 
perience that suggests or the reason that developes them. 
These conceptions, .may be called sitbreptive . 

Subresin (szrbre zin). Ghent. (Not in use.) 
[f. St B- 3 + RESIN, after F. sous-resine.] That 
part of a resin which dissolves in boiling alcohol, 
and is deposited as the alcohol cools. 

1838 T. THOMSON Chem, Org. Bodies 543. 

f Subri de, v. Obs. rare~. [ad. L. subridere 
(var. surr-\ f. suo-SvB- 21 + rttfcre to laugh.] To 
smile. So Subri dent a., smiling. 

16*3 COCKERAM i, Subride^ to smile. 1897 Athenxum 
6 Mar. 305/2 With some subrideut joy. 

f Subrige, v. Obs. [ad. L subrigtrc (surr-} 9 
by-form of surgpre to SURGE.] trans. To raise up. 

16*3 COCKERAM n, To Lift up by little and little, subrige. 

f Subri-guous ( a. Obs. [f. L. subriguus,i. 
sub- SUB- 2 + riguus t related to rigart to water.] 
(See quot.) 

1656 BI.OUNT Glossogr., Subriguous, moist, wet, and watcr- 
ish underneath, 

Subrision (s^bri-^sn). rare. [ad. L. *subrisio, 
-onem, n. of action f. subrid?re to SUBSIDE.] The 
or an act of smiling. 

1658 PHILLIPS, Subrision, a smiting. 1798 in Spirit Publ. 
Jrnls. (1799) II. 149 With an amiable subrision of counte- 
1 nance. 1860 J. H. STIRLING Crit. Ess., Macaulay (1868) 133 
In the act of enjoying a gentle subrision. 

So Subri sive, Subri-sory adjs., smiling, 
! playful. 

1860 J. H. STIRLING Crit. Ess., Macattlay (1868) 133 The 

following sentences .. if allowed to be subrisory. 1867 Pall 

1 Mall Go*. 5 Jan. i This. . slight glimmer of subrisive irony. 

1886 G. ALLEN Darwin i. 9 This half-hearted and somewhat 

subrisive denial. 

t Subrogate, pa. pple. Obs. [ad.L. subrogdtus 
(var. surrogatus SURROGATE), pa. pple. of subro- 
gdre (see next).] Put in the place of another. 

M3*-5 tr - Higden (Rolls) III. 257 The x. men create were 
ammovede, and tribunes.. were subrogate. Ibid., Harl. 
Contln. VIII. 440 Other laymen were subrogate in the 
places of theyme. 15*6 in Househ. Ord, (1790) 146 Able, 

6 



SUBBOGATE. 

meete, honest, and sufficient persons, to be subrogate and 
put in their roomes and places. 

Subrogate fsK-brtot), v. [f. L. subrogat-, 
pa. ppl. stem, of L. subrogare (var. surr-), i. sub- 
SUB- 26 \- rogare to ask, offer for election.] 

f 1. trans. To elect or appoint in the place of 
another ; to substitute in an office. Obs. 

1538 ELYOT Diet., Subrogo, to substitute or subrogate, to 
make a deputie in an office. 1538 STARKEY Englana ^(1878) 
169 Our parlyament schold haue much to dow, yf, when so 
euer lakkyd any conseylar, hyt schold be callyd to subro- 
gate other, a 1617 P. BAVNE Diocesan s Tryall (1621) 38 
They were but subrogated to doe those supposed episcopall 
duties a while, a 1677 BARROW Pope s Suprem. (1680) 129 
If he had ever been Bishop, he could not. .subrogate an 
other, either to preside with him, or to succeed him ; 1701 
W WOTTON Hist. Rome 391 The new secondary Consuls 
were.. subrogated in the place of him and of Aoyentus. 
1728 CHAMBERS Cycl. s. v. Subrogation, The new Magistrates 
were also Subrogated in the Place of the old ones. 

2. To substitute (a thing) for another ; const, in 
stead of, into the place of, occas. to. Now rare. 

a 1548 HALLC/!>W;., Hen. /^//(i55o) 2 b, Diuerse of the 
actes . . were adnulled . . & other more expedient for the 
vtilitie of the commen wealth were subrogated and con- , 
eluded. 1624 DARCIE Birth, of Heresies xii. 52 The Amict . 
was subrogated in stead of the lewish Ephod. 1651 JF.R. \ 
TAYLOR Holy Dying iv. 8 (1719) 168 The Christian Day is 
to be subrogated into the place of The Jews Day. 1657 TOM- 
LINSON Renou s Disp, 627 In stead of Opobalsamum, which 
is most rare, subrogate Oyl of Cloves. <zi677 BARROW 
Serm. Wks. 1716 II. 288 The lives of beasts .. could [not] 
fitly be subrogated in stead of mens souls. 1892 A. E. LEE | 
Hist. Columbus II. 435 Prompt to subrogate every party 
obligation to the higher one of maintaining.. the national i 
compact. 

3. Law. To put (a person) in the place of, 
or substitute (him) for, another in respect of a 
right or claim ; to cause to succeed tathe rights of 
another: see SUBROGATION 2. 

i8i8CoLEBROOKE Obligations 176 When a bill of exchange 
is paid for the honour of any of the parties; the payer is 
thereby subrogated to the rights of the holder of the bill. 
1866 MACLACHLAN Arnould s Marine Insur. in. vi. II. 869 
The abandonment, although its effect is to subrogate the 
underwriters in the place of the assured, yet only does this 
to the extent of the insurance. i88z Act 45 ^ 46 Viet. c. 61 
68 The payer for honour is subrogated for, and succeeds to 
both the rights and duties of, the holder as regards the party 
for whose honour he pays. 1883 Law Rep. ii Q. B. Div. 
383 The insurer is entitled to be subrogated into those rights 
of the assured which [etc.]. 
Hence Su-brogated///. a. 

1639 Du VKRGF.R tr. Camus Admir. Events 187 She con- 
ferres thereof with Isidorus her subrogated Gardian. 

Subrogation (srbrifgfl Jan). [ad. L. subrogd- 
tio, -onem, n. of action f. subrogare to SUBROGATE. 
Cf. F. subrogation, Sp. subrogation, Pg. subrogafao 
and see SURKOGATION.] 
fl. Substitution. Obs. 

1418-20 LYDG. Chron. Troy iv. 334 [He] seide it was noon 
eleccioun, But a maner subrogacioun, Be-cause hymsilfe in 
be parlement At be chesyng was nat bere present. 1611 
COTGR., Subrogation, a subrogation, substitution, deputa 
tion. 1648 OWEN Death of Death m. x. 164 In the under 
going of death there was a subrogation of his person in the 
room and stead of ours. 1681 BAXTER Ansu<. Dodivcll _iig 
To alter Gods Universal_ Laws by abrogation, subrogation, 
suspension, or dispensation. 

2. Law. The substitution of one party for an 
other as a creditor; the process by which a 
person who pays a debt for which another is liable 
succeeds to the rights of the creditor to whom he 
pays it ; the right of such succession. 

1710 J. HARRIS Lex. Techn. II, Subrogation in the Civil 
Law, is putting another Person into the Place and Right 
of him, that in any case, is the proper Creditor. 1818 COLE- 
BROOKE Obligations 120 A surety, paying a debt without 
requiring subrogation or cession of the creditor s rights, has 
thereby extinguished the debt. 1866 MACLACHLAN A mould s 
Marine Insur. m. vi. II. 875 The bottomry lender, who had 
become his creditor by the effect of this entire subrogation. 
1910 Encycl. Brit. (ed. ii) XIV. 679/2 The payment of a 
partial loss gives the underwriter a similar subrogation but 
only in so far as the insured has been indemnified in accord 
ance with law by such payment for the loss. 

t Subroge, v. Obs. rarer- 1 , [ad. F. subroger, 
ad. L. subrogare to SUBROGATE.] = SUBROGATEP. I. 
1600 HOLLAND I.ivy XLI. xviii. 1107 The other Consul., 
subroged in the place of the deceassed. 

Sub rosa: see || SUB 12. 

Subrottt nd, a. [ad. mod.L. subrotundus: 
see SUB- 20 c.] Somewhat or almost rotund, 
roundish. 

1753 Chambers* Cycl. Suppl. s. v. Lcafj Subrotund Leaf, 
that approaching to the figure of the orbicular leaf, but de 
parting from it, either in being too long, or too broad, or 
prominent. 1852 DANA Crust. I. 167 Two anterior teeth 
Subrotund. 1861 BENTLEY Ulan. Bot. 167 When a leaf is 
perfectly round, it is orbicular. ., a figure which is scarcely 
or ever found, but when it approaches to orbicular, as in 
Pyrola rotundifolia, it is Subrotund or rounded. 

So Subrotu-ndate, -rotrrndous adjs., in the 
same sense ; Subrotu ndo-, combining form of 
SUBROTUND. 

1775 J. JENKINSON Linnxus Brit. PI. 144 The dissepi- 
mentum is transverse, containing subrotundo-oblong seeds. 
1775 ASH, Subrotundous, approaching to roundness. 1847 
Proc. Benu. Nat. Club II. 240 Thorax quadrate, oblong, 
or sub-rotundate. 



42 

Subrcm lld, a. [Sue- 20 d.] Subrotund. 

c 1789 Encycl. /> <. (1797) III. 442/2 The figure of Simili. 
tudes is either.. Reniform, kidney-shaped, subround [etc.], 
1863 Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. III. XII. 263 Acantlwcystis 
turfacea. . . Globular, subround, of a green colour, loricated. 

f Subsa-lient, a. Obs. rare- 1 , [ad. L. *sub- 
saliens, -entem (for sitbsiliens) : see SUB- 25 and 
SALIENT.] Moving by leaps, spasmodic. 

1716 M. DAVIES Athen. Brit. II. 145 Our rough and sub- 
salient or subsulting Style ol our uncouth Phraseological 

Subsalt (szrbsfilt), sb. Chem. (Not in use.) [f. 
SUB- 23 + SALT so. 1 Cf. F. sous-sel.~\ A basic salt. 

1806 G. Adams Nat. q- Exp. Philos. (Philad.) I. App. 547 
Some [salts] are formed by an excess of their baseband hence 
termed sub-salts. 1849 D. CAMPBELL Inorg. Chem. 5 Salts 
with less acid than base, are named basic salts, or subsalts, 
and are distinguished according to the proportion of base 
to acid; as bibasic subsalts, or tribasic subsalts. 1857 
MILLER Elem. Chem., Org. x. 595 Ferridcyanide of potas 
sium, .gives.. with subsalts of mercury a brownish red. 

f Subsalt, v. Obs. rare~. [ad. mod.L. sub- 
saltdre, frequent, of subsilire (seeSuBSULT).] intr. 
To jump up 

1623 COCKERAM II, To lumpe, siibsalt. 

Subsaltatory (subsarltatari), a. rare- 1 , [f. 
SUB- 2 1 + SALTATORY.] Characterized by a slight 
dancing motion. 

1860 Illustr. Loud. News n Feb. 139/2 Undulatory, hori 
zontal, vertical, and Subsaltatory motions. 

t Subsa-nnate, v. Obs. [f. late L. subsannat-, 
pa. ppl. stem of subsannare, f. sub- SOB- 21+ sauna 
mocking grimace.] trans. To deride, mock. Hence 
tSubsanna tion, mockery, derision ; fSu bsanna- 
tor, a mocker ; f Snbsa-nne v., = SUBSANNATE. 

1656 BLOUNT Glossogr., *Subsannate, to scorn or mock 
with bending the Brows, or snuffing up the nose. 1620 J. 
KING Serm. 24 Mar. 8 In scoffe and "subsannation of some 
Idoll-god. 1664 H. MORE Myst. Inia. 231 Idolatry is as 
absolute a subsannation and vilification of God as malice 
could invent. 1517 H. WATSON Ship of Fools xli. K iiij, 
Of "subsannatoures, calomnyatours and detractoures. a 1619 
FOTHERBY Atlieom. Pref. (1622) Bjb, Who (like Sannioes) 
subsanne all things, but onely their owne follies. 

Subscapular (sbskarpirflai), a. [ad. mod.L. 
subscapularis : see next. Cf. F. sous-scapulaire."] 
a. Anat. Situated below, or on the under surface of, 
the scapula. 

Subscapular artery, the largest branch of the axillary 
artery ; also, a branch of the suprascapular and the pos 
terior scapular arteries. Suliscapular fossa, the concave 
ventral surface of the scapula. Sutscapvlar muscle = SvB- 
SCAPULARIS. 

1831 R. KNOX tr. Clotjuefs Anat. 124 Behind the sub- 
scapular fossa. Ibid. 685 The Sub-Scapular Artery . . is of 
considerable size. 1837 QUAIN Elem. Anat. (ed. 4) 350 In 
relation with the subscapular muscle and the axillary vessels. 
Ibid. 772 The sub-scapular nerves, .are usually three in 
number. 1881 MIVART Cat 278 Another subscapular nerve 
is formed by the junction of very slender branches from the 
6th and 7th cervical nerves. 1890 BILLINGS Nat. Med. 
Diet., Subscapular glands, lymphatic glands along sub- 
scapular artery. 

b. Path. Occurring under the scapula. 

ityjAIlfaiflSyft.JIfea, IV. 445 Subscapular haemorrhage 
may result either from direct traumatism or indirect strain. 

II Subscapularis (s bsksepUfle ria). Anat. 
[mod.L. : see SUB- i d and SCAPULAE.] In full 
subscapularis muscle : A muscle originating in the 
venter of the scapula and inserted in the lesser 
tuberosity of the humerus. 

1704 J. HARRIS Lex. Tec/in. I, Subscapularis, or Immer- 
sus, is a Muscle of the Arm, so named from its Situation. 
1733 tr - Winslow s Anat. (1756) I. 293 The Subscapularis 
hinders the Head of the Os Humeri from being luxated 
forward. 1831 R. KNOX tr. Cloquefs Anat. 124 Fascicuh 
of the sub-scapularis muscle. Ibid., Anteriorly, where it is 
rounded, it furnishes points of insertion to the sub-scapularis. 
187* HUMPHRY Alyology 36 The few fibres of the subscapu 
laris constitute the only appearance of muscle upon the., 
concave under surface of the coracoids and scapula. 1881 
MIVART Cat 89 The subscapular fossa, .affords attachment 
to the subscapularis muscle. 

Subscapulary (sbskse - pilari), a. Anat. 
rare. [f. mod.L. subscapttlaris : see SUB- I b and 

SCAPULARY.] = SOBSCAPULAR. 

1705 Phil. Trans. XXV. 2oro, I found the same Tumor 
comprehending the intercostals, Deltoides, Subclavian, and 
Subscapulary Muscles. 1855 DUNGLISON Med. Lex. 824 
The Subscapulary fossa. 1898 in Syd. Soc. Lex. 

Subscapulo- (sbsk;r;-pi7<10), used as com 
bining form of SUBSCAPULARIS, as in subsca-pulo- 
-capsula-ris, -hyoi deus muscle (see quots.). 

1831 YOUATT Horse 119 The subscapulo hyoideus, from 
under the shoulder-blade, to the body of the os hyoides. 
1873 Quain s Elem. Anat.\z&. 8) I. 203 A small additional 
muscle, .passing from the surface of the subscapularis over 
the capsular ligament, . . the subscapulo-capsularisal Wenzel 

Subscribable (stfbskrei-bab l), a. [f. SUB 
SCRIBE v. + -ABLE.] Capable of being subscribed. 

1824 COLERIDGE Aids Reft. (1848) I. 310 A Church.. is 
known to have worded certain passages for the purpose of 
rendering them Subscribable by both A and Z. 

Subscribe (sobskrsi-b), v. Also 6 -ybe. [ad. 
L. subscriltlre, f. sub- SUB- 2 + scrlbtre to write. 
Cf. SUBSCRIVE. 

From L. subscrlbere are also It. soscrivcre, Sp. su(b)scr!bir, 
Pg. subscriber; from L. type subtusscrlbere, OF. souz- 



SUBSCRIBE. 

escrire, soubscrirc, mod.F. souscrire, Pr. sotzescrtvre, It. 
sottoscriiiere,} 

1. trans. To write (one s name or mark) on, 
orig. at the bottom of, a document, esp. as a 
witness or consenting party ; to sign (one s name) to. 
Now rare. 

1425 Rolls of Parlt. IV. 297/2 In witnesse of whicbe ting, 
. .my said Lord of Glouc hath subscribed his name with his 
owne hand. H. Gloucestr . c 1510 MORE Picus Wks. 3/2 
Which questions. . not a few famous doctours . . had anproned 
. . and subscribed their names vndre them. 1511 in Ellis Orig. 
Lett. Ser. n. (1827) I. 182 That every gentilman answerer 
doo subscribe his name to the Articles. 1601 CHESTER 
Love s Mart, title-p., Seuerall moderne Writers, whose names 
are subscribed to their Seuerall workes. 1643 Decl. Com 
mons Reb. Irel. 49 The marke of Christopher Hassall is 
subscribed. 1676 Office Clerk of Assize B vi), Then must the 
Clerk of Assize direct the Cryer to call the Witnesses as 
they be subscribed to the Indictment. 1766 BLACKSTONE 
Comm. II. 377 They must all subscribe their names as wit 
nesses. 1797 MRS. RADCLIFFE Italian xvii, Vivaldi was 
ordered to subscribe his name and quality to the depositions. 
1816 SCOTT Old Mart, xxxvi, Subscribe your name in the 
record. [1891 Daily News 9 Feb. 5/5 Could a signature be 
said to be sub-scribed when, strictly speaking, it was supra- 
scribed ?] 

b. To write, set down, or inscribe below or at 
the conclusion of something. Now rare. 

1579 DIGGES Stratiot. i. iii. 3 Beginne your collection from 
the right hand to the lefte..&what Digit resulteth, sub 
scribe. 1611 CORVAT Crudities 56 A goodly statue.. with 
an honourable Elogium subscribed vnderneath the same. 
1657 J. WATTS Scribe, Pharisee, etc. in. 101, 1 shall take my 
leave, and subscribe a friendly farewel to you._ 1709-29 



subscribed in capitals. 1860 ALB. SMITH Med. Stud. (1861) 
72 In the space left for the degree of attention which the 
student has shown, it is better that he subscribes nothing 
at all than an indifferent report. 1866 MASSON tr. Winers 
Gram. N. T. 59 In the earlier editions of the N.T. the Iota 
subscribed was too frequently introduced. 

to. To put (a person) down for so much. Oft, 

rare. 

1593 SHAKS. Rich. II, I. iv. 50 Blanke.charters, Whereto 
when they shall know what men are rich, They shall sub 
scribe them for large summes of Gold. 

2. With compl. : a. reft. To put oneself down 
as so-and-so, at the foot of a letter or other docu 
ment. Now rare. 

1678 R. RUSSELL tr. Geber Transl. Pref. 4, I here conclude 
subscribing myself.. your real Friend. 1711 STEELK Sped, 
No. 27 F 7, I am almost asham d to Subscribe my self Yours, 
T D 1780 Mirror No. Si A lady who subscribed herself 
S. M. c 1820 in Corr. J. Sinclair (1831) 1 1- 400 Allow me 
to. .subscribe myself, .your obedient, humble servant, J. R. 
Brancaleoni. 1827 SCOTT Chron. Canongate Introd., I beg 
leave to subscribe myself his obliged humble servant, Walter 
Scott. 1828 DARVILL Race Horse I. Ded., He who has the 
honour to subscribe himself,. .Your most obliged And very 
humble Servant, R. Darvill. 

|- b. trans. To write (one) down so-and-so. 
Obs. rare. 

1599 SHAKS. Much Ado v. ii. 59 Claudio vndergoes my 
challenge, and either I must shortly heare from him, or I 
will subscribe him a coward. 

3. To sign one s name to ; to signify assent or 
adhesion to, by signing one s name; to attest by 
signing. (Cf. SUBSCRIPTION 5.) 

Formerly often to subscribe with one s (nun) hand, to te 
subscribed with a name or names. 

1440 Patent Roll 18 Hen. VI, m, To thentente that these 
articles.. should show of more record my true acquitail, I 
have subscribid them of my own hand. 1451 Rolls of Parlt, 
V. 218/1 That the seide Letters Patentes so subscribed with 
the names, be enrolled, c 1520 SKELTON Magnyf. 1685 With 
his hande I made hym to suscrybe A byll of recorde for an 
annuall rent. 1579 w - WILKINSON Confut. Fam. Love 
Brief Descr. iv, Their doctrine subscribed with his owne 
hand is this. 1651 N. BACON Disc. Gov. Eng. n. i. (1739) 6 
He causeth the Judges to subscribe this Order, and so it 
becomes Law in repute. i66z Act 14 Clias. II, c. 4 6 
Every .person in Holy Orders, .shall.. subscribe the De 
claration, .following scilicet. 1781 GIBBON Decl. * F. xix. 
(1787) II. 128 The emperor was persuaded to subscribe the 
condemnation of.. Callus. 1818 CRUISE Digest (ed. 2) VI. 
60 He subscribed the will as a witness in the same room. 
1843 GLADSTONE Clean. (1879) V. 38 On behalf of truth, we 
subscribe the protest against these preposterous impositions. 
1849 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. ii. I. 171 Not content with requir 
ing him to conform to their worship, and to subscribe their 
Covenant. 1888 Q. Rev. CLXVII. 209 At Oxford the 
matriculator subscribed the Thirty-nine Articles. 



with his own sign manual. 

b. pass, (a) With a name or description : 1 o be 
signed so-and-so. Now rare. 

1640 in Rushw. Hist. Coll. (1692) m. I- 114 Fourteen 
Letters subscribed, W. Cant. 17*5 L d - G"- N - A 6 349/i 
A Letter subscribed W. Baker. 1780 Mirror No. 84 A letter 
subscribed Censor. 

j- (b} pass. To be furnished with an inscription 

beneath. Obs. rare. 

1688 HOLME Armoury in. ii. 33/2 An Escochion .. sub 
scribed, Moneta Nova Ordin. Frisisc. 

^ 4. To give one s assent or adhesion to ; to 
countenance, support, favour, sanction, concur in. 

1560 DAUS tr. Sleidane s Comm. 12 Manyc do subscribe, 
andmyghtye nations maynteine the cause. 1574"- M ar- 
lorat s Apoc. 15 They agree to the opinion of other men, 
and subscribe their sayings. 1603 SHAKS. Rleas. for M. n. 



SUBSCRIBE. 

iv. 89 Admit no other way to saue his life (As I subscribe 
not that, nor any other, But in the losse of question). 1606 
Tr. <fr Cr. ii. HL 156 Aia...Doe you not thinke, he 
thinkes himselfea better man then I am? Ag. No question. 
Aiax. Will you subscribe his thought, and say he is ? 1781 
GIBBON Decl. <y F. xxxvi. (1787) III. 494 Orestes, .chose 
rather to encounter the rage of an armed multitude, than to 
subscribe the ruin of an innocent people. 

*{ 5. To sign away, yield up. Obs. rare. 

1605 SHAKS. Lear \. \\. 24 (Qo.) The King gone to night, 
subscribd [/st Fo. Prescrib d] his power, confined to exhi 
bition, all this donne. 

6. intr. To write one s signature ; esp. to put 
one s signature to in token of assent, approval, or 
testimony ; to sign one s name as a witness, etc. 
Also in indirect pass. 

1535 COVERDAI.E Isa. xliv. 5 The thirde shal subscrybe 
with his honde vnto y 9 Lorde. 1360 DAUS tr. Sleidane s 
Comm. 140 This was the effect therof whereunto subscribed 
sixe and twenty Cardinalles. 1571 Act 13 Eliz. c, 12 4 
None, .shalbe admitted to thorder of Deacon or Ministerie, 
unles he shall fyrst subscribe to the saide Artycles. 159 . 
Sir T. More tv. ii. 74 [1235] His maiestie hath sent by me 
these articles.. to be subscribed to. 1606 SHAKS. Ant. <y Cl. 
IV. v. 14 Write to him, (I will subscribe) gentle adieu s, and 
greetings. 1611 Bible Transl. Pref. p ii They could not with 
good conscience subscribe to the Communion booke. 1691 
WOOD Ath. Oxon. 1.104 In 1546 he proceeded in Divinity, 
having about that time subscribed to the 34 Articles, a 1722 
FOUNTAINHALL Deris. (1759) I. 12 Unless there be two 
Notaries, and . . he gave them command to subscribe for him. 
17*4 SWIFT Drapiers Lett. Wks. 1755 V. n. 101 Many of 
those who subscribed against me. 1909 Engl. Hist. Rev. 
Apr. 242 Ralgnolds conformed, but in a vigorous .. letter to 
Bancroft refused to subscribe. 
fb. With compl. Obs. rare. 

1641 MILTON Ch. Govt. n. Fj ; Perceaving. .that he who 
would take Orders must subscribe slave, and take an oath 
withall. 

7. To give one s assent to a statement, opinion, 
proposal, scheme, or the like ; to express one s 
agreement, concurrence, or acquiescence. 

1549 CHALONER Erasnt. Praise Folly Cj, If ye all doo 
subscribe to this opinion. 1588 SHAKS. Tit. A. iv. ii. 130 
Aduise thee Aaron, what is to be done, And we will all sub 
scribe to thy aduUe. 1614 RALKIGH Hist. World \\. 362 
The Thracians againe subscribe to none of these reports. 
1643511* T. BROWNE Relig. A fed. 11. 3. 143 The Foundations 
of Religion are already established, and the principles of 
Salvation subscribed unto by all. 1675 BAXTER Ccith. Theol. 
11. i. 121 What Jesuite or Arminian will not subscribe to this ? 
Who doubteth of it? 1699 BENTLEY Phal. 67 Clement s 
Computation is subscribed to.. by Cyril. 1710 POCK Let, 
20 .July, I do not expect you shou d subscribe to my private 
notions. 1765 Museum Rust. IV. 121 If they do not implicitly 
subscribe to his condemnation of other botanists. 1771 SMOL 
LETT Humphry Cl. (1815) 250 She enters into her scheme of 
economy ..and . .subscribes implicitly to her system ofde- 
votion. 1823 SCOTT Quentin D. Introd., I am contented to 
subscribe to the opinion of the best qualified judge of our 
time. 1877 GLADSTONE Glean. (1879) U- 2 7 That com 
parison . . ts not stated . . in a manner to which I can subscribe. 
1878 H. M. STANLEY Dark Cont. II. xi. 315 They readily 
subscribed to all the requirements of friendship. 

b. To agree or be a party to a course of action 
or condition of things ; to give approval, sanction, 
or countenance to\ also octets, to consent or engage 
to ; to agree that . . . Now rare or Obs. 

1566 in Ellis Orig. Lett. Ser. i. II. 217 The Quene..wyll 
that all men that ar frends to an ye of those that were previe 
to David deathe shall subscribe to pursue them. . . Some have 
subscribed, other have refused, a 1570 in Feuillerat Revels 
Q. Eliz, (1008) 407 He having ben required . .to consent and 
subscribe to thaccomptes and reckoninges of the Revelles. 
1596 LODGE ll its Miserie 68 The nobility amongst the lewes 
. . would subscribe to no election or superioritie. 1597 BEARD 
Theatre God s Judgem. (1612) 401 Acertaine Cardinall com 
mitted daily Adulter ie with a mans wife, that winked and as 
it were subscribed vnto it. a 1604 HAMMER Chron. //. (16^33) 
32 They . . yeelded to subscribe, that . . they would not receive 
any Scot into their dominions. 1667 MILTON P.L.xi. 182 So 
spake, so wish d much humbl d Eve, but Fate Subscrib d not. 
1783 W. GORDON tr. Livys Rom. Hist. \\. xlv. (1809) 172 That 
the enemy should pass unpunished they could by no means 
subscribe to. 1815 HAZLITT Spirit of Age 173 The reverend 
divine might submit to the obligation, but he has no occa 
sion to subscribe to the jest. 1844 LINGARD A nglo-Saxon Ch. 
I. iii. 141 Shall.. I., tamely subscribe to my own degradation? 

8. To give one s adhesion or allegiance, make 
one s submission to another ; gen. to submit, yield, 
give in. Now rare or Obs. 

1590 GREENE Never too late (1600) 87 That he whom loue 
anderrour did betray, Subscribes to thee [i.e. Reason]. 1591 
Troub. Rajgnc K. John (1611) 58 Subscribe not Hubert, 
giue not Gods part away. ct6oo SHAKS. Sonn. cvii, Death 
to me subscribes ; Since spight of him lie Hue in this poore 
rime. 1606 Tr. $ Cr. iv. v. 105 Hector in his blaze of 
wrath subscribes To tender objects. 1631 QUARLES Samson 
5 i Wks. (Grosart) II. 144/2 Passion replies, That feareand 
filiall duty Mu<i serve affection, and subscribe to beauty. 
rti6sa BROME City Wit iv. i, As for Corantoes,..! speakc it 
not swelltngly, but I subscribe to no man. 1:1665 MRS, 
HUTCHINSON Mem. Col. /fcteUSmM (1846) 69, I cannot sub 
scribe to those who entitle that king to the honour of the 
reformation. 1851 HUSSEY Papal Power it 76 Anatolius 
required the Illyrian Bishops to subscribe to him, that is. 
profess canonical obedience. 

t b. To submit or subject oneself to law or rule ; 
to conform or defer to a person s will, etc. Obs. 

1596 SHAKS. Tarn. Skr. t. i. 81 Sir, to your pleasure humbly 
I subscribe. 1621 T. WILLIAMSON tr. Goulart s Wi$e l^itit- 
lard 1 19 To subscribe and snbmit himaelfe to all his Statutes 
and Lawcs. 1642 J. M[ARSH) Argt. cone. Militia 10 The 
will of the King ought to subscribe to the Law. 1760-72 
H. BROOKE Foolo/QuaL (1809) II. 134, I would make a.. 



43 

narration to my child of all that had passed, but., would 
wholly subscribe to her pleasure. 

f o. To admit one s inferiority or error, confess 
oneself in the wrong. Qbs. rare. 

1591 SHAKS. i Hen. VI, \\, iv. 44 If I haue fewest, I sub 
scribe in silence. 1593 2 I fen. VI, in. i. 38 Which feare, 
if better Reasons can supplant, I will subscribe, and say I 
wrong d the Duke. 

9. Const, to : a. To admit or concede the forcej 
validity, or truth of. Now rare or Obs. 

1591 SHAKS. TVM Gent. v. iv. 145, 1 . .Plead a new state in 
thy vn-riual d merit, To which I thus subscribe. 1753 
RICHARDSON Grandison I. xx, One to whose superior merit, 
and to whose good fortune, I can subscribe. 1771 GOLDSM. 
Hist, fcng. I. Pref. p. vi, I must warmly subscribe to the 
learning. .of Mr. Hume s history. 1838 LYTTON Alice i. xii, 
They have confided to me all the reasons of your departure 
and I cannot but subscribe to their justice. 

*F b. To make acknowledgement or admission of. 

1601 SHAKS. Alts Well v. iii. 96 When I had subscrib d 
To mine owne fortune, and inform d her fully. 

f 10. To make an undertaking for, vouch or 
answerer a person. Obs. 

1599 SHAKS. Much Ado i. i. 41 He..challen:j d Cupid at 
the Flight: and my Vnckles foole reading the Challenge, 
subscrib d for Cupid. 1601 AlTs Well in. vi. 89, 1 know 
th art valiant, And to the possibility of thy souldiership, Will 
subscribe for thee. 

11. trans. To promise over one s signature to pay 
(a sum of money) for shares in an undertaking, >r 
to or towards a particular object ; to undertake to 
contribute (money) in support of any object. Also, 
to take up (shares); =-subscrihe for (see 12). 

1640 Act 16 Chas. /, c. 37 i Diverse great summit of 
money have beene subscribed some part whereof is already 
paid in. a. 1700 EVKLYM Diary 27 Nov. 1657, The stock 
resolv d on was 8oo,oooA I tooke the oath at the K. Iiulia 
House, subscribing 500^. Ibid. 7 July 1664, 1 subscribed to Sir 
Arthur SUngsby s lottery a desperate debt owing me long 
since. 176* T. MORTIMER Ev. Manoum Broker (<cA.$ i7iThe 
sum each subscriber has subscribed. 1792 ALMON Anted* 
W. Pitt I. vii. 165 Pitt never subscribed one shilling into 
the funds. T&iA Ann. Reg. ,, Chron. 117/2 Nearly 40,000,000^. 
was subscribed [for the new French loan]. 1863 FAWCETT 
Pol. Econ. i. iv. 42 Indian railways have been constructed 
by loans subscribed almost entirely in England. 1871 A nn. 
Reg., Ckron. 113 The large sum of io,ooo/. was subscribed 
at once. 1891 STUTFIELD Rules Stock Exch. 121 Vendors 
or contractors shares issued as paid up are not subscribed: . 

Ei2 World 7 May 698/2 Over 300,000 was subscribed in 
tnada for ordinary shares. 
b. transf. To contribute. 

1902 Daily Ckron. 28 June 9/2 The English team were 
engaged in an up-hill task against the Colonials, who., 
subscribed the heavy score of 402. 

12. absol. or intr. To undertake to contribute 
money too. fund, to a society, party, etc. 

1641 in Rushw. Hist. Coll, (1692) in, I. 564 The Names of 
such Members of the Commons House of Parliament that 
Subscribed, .for the speedy Reducing of the Rebels. 1701 
EVELYN Diary 14 July, I subscrib d towards rebuilding Oak- 
wood Chapel. 1780 T. MORTIMER Elem. Comm. 386 To give 
them a fresh contributive faculty to subscribe to new loans 
1781 COWPKR Charity 467 Extravagance and av rice shall 
subscribe. 1793 in Atktnmvm(i&%T] 5 Nov. 604/3 Will you 
have \.\\^yournaldejacobins i I ll subscribe on your answer. 
1837 DICKENS Pickw. vii, I subscribe to the club here. 1848 
THACKERAY Van. Fair xlv, He.. subscribed handsomely to 
the county charities. 1856 HURLSTONE & GORDON Exch. 
Rep. XI. 715 Certain persons had subscribed to a steeple 
chase, to be run in the neighbourhood of Henley. 1876 
L. CARROLL Hunting the Snark v. xxii, In charity-meet 
ings it stands at the door, And collects though it does not 
subscribe. 

b. To subscribe for: to put one s name down as 
a purchaser of shares, a periodical, newspaper, or 
book, etc. 

1711 SWIFT Jrnl. to Stella 21 Sept., The maids of honour 
. .are teazing others to subscribe for the book. 1749 J. WOOD 
Descr. BatA(cd. 2) II. 445, 1 am well satisfied as many fifty 
Pound Tickets .. would have been Subscribed for. 1829 
LIPSCOMB Buckingham Prospectus, Subscribers are.. re 
quested to transmit their names, .through Messrs. Long 
man and Co.. ., by whom the respective Parts will be issued 
in the order subscribed for. 1890 SPRIGGE Metk, Publ. 19 
When the libraries have subscribed for their copies 1891 
STUTFIELD Rules Stock Exch, 106 The loan maybe sub 
scribed for in amounts of ,100. 

13. Book trade, fa. trans. To issue (a book) to 
subscribers. Obs. 

1701 Adut. in De Royaumont s Hist. O. *r N. Test., The 
Book will be Subscribed at one Pound in Quires. One Half 
down the other for Delivery, a 7th book gratis. 

b. Of a bookseller : To agree beforehand to take 
(a certain number of copies of a book) ; also sub 
scribe for. Also occas. intr t Of a book : To be 
taken by the trade. 

1867 SPEDDING Publ. ty Authors 37, I suppose that copies 
which are subscribed for at the trade-sales are really sold 
to the subscribers at that rate of discount. 1873 CURWEN 
Hist. Booksellers 428 Of Mr. Disraeli s Lothair 1500 
copies were at first subscribed. 1887 Athenxitm 25 June 
833/1 The London trade have subscribed for 10,000 
copies, which is said to be the large-it number ever sub 
scribed for a six-shilling novel. 1888 J. S. WINTER Con/. 
Publisher xii. 87 Dayley s book Memory came out. On 
the whole, it subscribed very well. 

c. Of a publisher: To offer (a book) to the trade. 
1910 Encycl. Brit. (ed. 1 1) IV. 234/2 At one of these estab 
lishments over 1,000,000 books are kept in stock. It is here 
that the publisher calls first on showing or subscribing a 
new book, a critical process, for by the number thus subscribed 
the fate of a book is sometimes determined. 1913 Early 



SUBSCRIBING. 

/{/fc Mk. Rutherford 83 My occupation now [185 . ] was to 
write Chapman s letters, . .and, moat disagreeable, tu sub 
scribe his publications, that is to say, to call on booksellers 
and ask how many copies they would take. 

1J A sense to publish by subscription , given by some 
Diets., but is not recognized by the trade. 

Subscribed (s^bskrai-bd), ppl. a. [f. prec. 
+ -ED i.] Contributed to a fund. 

1841 THACKERAY Gt. lioggarty Diain. vi, The subscribed 
and bona fide capital is five millions sterling. 

Subscriber (s#bskrarbai). [f. SUBSCRIBE?/. 

+ -ER 1 .] 

1. One who subscribes, or affixes his signature/ ;?, 
a letter or document, articles of religion, etc. 

For spec, use in the hUtory of Irish Presbyterianism, cf. 

NON-SUBSCRIDER I (b). 

1599. 1650 [see NON-SUBSCRIBER i]. 1651 J. DRKW {title} 

The Northern Subscribers plea vindicated from the ex 
ceptions laid against it by the non .subscribing Ministers of 
Lancashire and Cheshire, c 1688 in (Jntcli Ci ll Car. I. ^3^ 
The Petition being finished, all the subscribers .. went over 
to Whitehall to deliver it to the Kiui;. 1^1700 EVKLYN 
Diary 16 June 1687, It was reported the subscribers [to an 
Address] were above 1000. 1717 WODROW Corr. 11843) II. 
3^5 The subscribers of that choice and invitatiuii of a 
minister. 1789 MADISON in Sparks Corr. Amcr. AYr. (it>53> 
IV. 294 The letter was written by the first subscriber of it. 
1886 Law Rep. 31 Chanc. L>iv. 223 A minority of the .sub 
scribers of the memorandum of association. 1912 Stusit; 
J\*otiLtif ix. 163 When.. an attempt was made to obtain the 
assent of those present to a declaration of belief in the 
Doctrines of the Trinity and of the Divinity of our Lord, 
the company at once divided into subscribers and non- 
subscribers. 

b. transf. One who assents. 

1851 TUACKKKAY l-2n^l. I/:ii. v. (1853) 222 It war, a- un- 
ilouiitin^ subscribers to this moral law, that Fielding wrote 
ami M . g.irth painted, 

2. One who subscribes to a specified object or 
institution, the funds of a company, etc. , for shares, 
a book, etc. 

1697 DRV DEN /Eneid Ded. ejb, Some of my Subscribers 
prewso clamorous, that I coird no lonyei defen the Publica 
tion, 1721 SWII-T South Sen Wks. 1755 111. it. 134 Lauh 
poor subscriber to the sea sinks down at once. 1727 /( hat 
passed in Lond. Ibid. r. 179 Mr Whiston held his lecture.. 
to an audience of fourteen worthy citizens, his subscribers 
and constant hearers. 1776 ADAM SMITH II 7 . A , v. i. in. 
art. i, Provided the subscribers were erected into a new 
East India company. 1780 T. MOKTIMICK Elem.Comm. 362 
The original proprietors, or subscribers to the fund which 
formed the capital of the Bank of England. 1806 Mai. 
Jrnl. XV. 359 By giving to a one guinea subscriber a privi 
lege equal to that which is enjoyed by a three guinea sub 
scriber. 1854 Poultry Chron. II. Pref., Our principal duty 
is to thank all our supporters, whether Subscribers, Adver 
tisers, or Contributors. 1856 SIONI HI st;i litit. Rural 
Sports i. in. viii. 203 The Draw should be conducted on the 
following plan : first, the money for each st.ike should be 
paid to the secretary by the subscribers. 1873 CURWEN 
Hist. Booksellers 425 In 1841-, Mr. Mudie commenced his 
system of lending out one exchangeable volume lo subscribers 
at the rate of a guinea per annum. 1898 FRASKR- MACKINTOSH 
Minor Septs Clan Chattan Pref. p. vi, My best acknow 
ledgments are due. .to Mr John Mai.kay, the publisher, for 
the really handsome manner in which the book has been 
issued to subscribers. 

b. tramf. A contributor, nonce-use. 

1773 GOLUSM. Stocps to Cony, iv, I was in for a list of 
blunders, and could not help making you a subscriber. 

O. * N. Y. Stock Exch. Formerly, a speculator 
who, being a nonmcmbcr, was allowed on the 
floor of the Exchange outside of a certain rail 
(Webster 1911). 

Hence Subscri bership. 

1828 Lancet 26 July 539/2, 1 am now perfectly unconnected 
with its proprietorship, editorship, contributorship, sub- 
scribership, and readership ! 

Subscribing (s^bskrai birj), vll. sb. [f. SUB- 
SCKIBK v. +-T.NT; i.] The action of the verb SUB 
SCRIBE, subscription. 

1602 Archpriest Control . (CaniUen) II. 7 [Not] any sub 
scribing of names to any thing we should make answere 
to. 1655 Nicholas Papers (Camden) II. igi Since the sub- 
scribeing of this, I am informed y* it is very doubtfull 
whether Deuchry bee in Abeifoile or no, 1710 [BEDFORD] 
Wind. Ch. Eng. 121 Some Alterations were to be made to 
the Articles between their first Subscribing anil their last 
Voting. 1751 WARBURTON Note Pope s Wks. IV. 166 The sub 
scribing for a Hook, which does honour to one s Age and 
Country. 176* T. MORTIMER Ev. Man own Broker (ed. 5) 
172 The first deposit. .is made on or about the time of sub 
scribing. 1845 SrocQUELER flandhk. Brit. India (1854) 285 
The subscribing to a few regulations. 1855 Poultry Chron. 
15 Aug. 555 The subscriptions shall be considered due at 
the time of subscribing. 1856 ELLIS & BLACKBURN Casts 
Queen s Bench IV. 454 But neither docs the statute appoint 
where the will shall be subscribed by the attesting witnesses ; 
and therefore a subscribing in any part may be sufficient. 

attrib, 1711 ADDISON Sffct. No. 271 f a The subscribing 
Part at the End of them [*:. Letters). 1912 SHAYLOR Fnscin. 
Bks. 220 It is to the subscribing department that publi-h-ji-, 
look for a tone and impetus to be given to a new book. 

Subscribing fsftbdcrai big , ///. a. [f. SUB 
SCRIBE v. + -ING ^.] That subscribes, attests or 
assents to a document, etc. 

[1651 implied in non-subscribing: see SUBSCRIBER T.] 
1808 W. WILSON Hist. Di*s. Ch. I. 165 The unceremonious 
manner in which he treats Mr. Reynolds, and his subscribing 
brethren 1855 in Ellis & Blackburn Casts Quetrt s Benck 
(1856) IV. 453 The execution of the will by the testator and 
by the other two subscribing witnesses. 1867 SPEDDING 
Publ. *r Authors 4^0 For 5 copies sold to a subscribing 
bookseller, he receives 85^. 1872 YEATS Growth Comm. 

6-2 



SUBSCRIPT. 

zii Each of the subscribing cities \vh. to the Dutch East 
India Co.] was represented by a college or chamber. 1903 
FAIRBAIRN in Contemp. Rev. Jan. 6 A subscribing.. is not 
the only conservative church. 

Subscript (urbikript), si. and a. [ad. L. 
suliscript-us, -a, -urn, pa. pple. of subscribere to 
write underneath, SUBSCRIBE.] A. sb. 

L That which is written underneath; a writing at 
the bottom or end of a document, etc. ; a signature. 

(11704 T. BROWN Ef. to C. Diva Wks. 1711 IV. 179 By 
the Subscript, you ll quickly guess The Occasion of this odd 
Address. 1713 BENTLEY Freethinking 37 But be they 
Postscripts or Subscripts; your Translators neither made 
them, nor recommended them for Scripture. 1815 Monthly 
Mag. XXXIX 307/2 The subscript, concerning which your 
correspondent.. enquires. 1892 Bltickw. Ma?. Sept. 393 
Monsieur Daudet hints that his captivating headline had 
not a little to do with the sale of its subscript. 

2. A subscript letter or symbol. 

1901 Mod, Lang. Notes June 323/1 Any of the accented 
letters, superscripts, subscripts and symbols found in the 
type-founder s catalogs. 

B. adj. Written underneath ; chiefly in iota 
subscript (see IOTA i), the small i written under 
neath in a, 77, tf. 

1871 WORDSWORTH Gk. Primer 6 The Dative Singular 
always ends in i, which, however, is generally subscript. 
1877 RAYMOND Statist. Mines tf Mining 437 The subscript 
iv denoting that A is taken with reference to water. 1881 
WESTCOTT& HORTO/O. N. T. Introd. 410 Analogy is dis 
tinctly in favour of allowing the Iota subscript. 1900 if. $ Q. 
Ser. ix. VI. 485/2 The subscript cedilla is really a little z. 

Subscription (s^bskri-pjan). [ad. L. su6- 
sfriptio, -oncm, n. of action f. subscript-, subscri 
bers to SUBSCRIBE. Cf. OF. sub-, soubscripcion, 
mod.F. souscription, (Pr. solzesfriptio], It. soscri- 
zione, Sp. subscription, Pg. subscripcao. ] 

1. A piece of writing at the end of a document, 
e.g. the concluding clause or formula of a letter 
with the writer s signature, the colophon of a book, 
etc., the note appended to the epistles in the New 
Testament, etc. 

c 1450 LYDG..SVmM6590ffhis pistil abreef Subcrypcyoun, 
Set lowly vndir. 1342-3 -Jet 34 & 35 Hen. VI [I, c. i 6 
Wherunto the same printers shalbe bounde to put the super- 
scripcion^and subscripcion in this forme, That is to saie : 
by the King and his Clergye, with addicion in the ende of 
the printers name .. and yere of the printing of the same. 1586 
A. DAY Engl. Secntorie I. (1625) 1 2 The manner of Salutation, 
the order of taking leave or farewell, the Subscription, and 
the outward direction. lS99V.JossovEzi.Afan out of Hum. 
in. vii, How s this? Yours, if his owne?.. Belike this is some 
new kinde of subscription the gallants use. 1642 JER. TAYLOR 
J{.pisc. (1647) 80 The subscription to the first Epistle to 
Timothy. 1727 W. MATHER Yng. Man s Camp. 104 Sub. 
scriptions for Letters. To the King; or To his most Excel 
lent Majesty;. .To the Queen, or, To the Queen s most 
Excellent Majesty. 1748 RICHARDSON Clarissa VII. 197 
She dictated the farewel part, without hesitation ; and when 
she came to the blessing and subscription, she took the pen, 
and.. wrote the conclusion. 1790 PALEY Horae raid. xv. 
378 The subscription of the first epistle to the Corinthians 
states that it was written from Philippi. 1816 SINGER Hist. 
Cards 170 Fust and Schoeffer, in the subscriptions to the 
books printed by them, lay no claim to the invention, .of 
the art. 1882-3 Schajfs Encycl. Rclig. Knowl. I. 102/1 
The subscription [to the additions to Esllier}..iet<x to the 
whole book. 

f b. Something written or inscribed underneath, 
e.g. a number written under another, an inscription 
or title underneath. Obs. 

1631 WEEVER Anc. Funeral Man. 772 These portraitures 
..with the subscription follo_wing. .71682 SIR T. BROWNE 
Tracts (1683) 206 A large Picture, .with this Subscription. 
1709-29 V. MANDEY Syst. Math., Aritk. 68 Multiply the 
whole Subscription by the Quotient. 1814 Gentl. Mag. 
July 51 The .. representation of a goat giving suck to the 
whelp of a wolf, with a subscription, which has been thus 
rendered. 

2. A signature, signed name. 

In Sc. sign (or iigtte) and subscription manual was 
formerly freq. 

1483 Sc. Acts (1875) XII. 32/1 Lettrez of securite vndir 
bar Sells & suhscripcions manualis. 1547 J. HARRISON 
ExJtort. Scottes 226 The scales & subscriptions be so many, 
so auncient, and so faire, as cannot lightelie be counterfaicte. 
1577 HANMEB Anc. Eccl. Hist. VI. xlii. 118 Other epistles 
of Cyprian in the Romaine tongue with the subscription of 
diuerse other byshops. 1640 Sc. Acts Chas. I (1870) V. 268 
W ch wordis he shall subscrybe with his signe and subscrip- 
tione manuell. 1690 in Nairne Peerage E-uid. (1874) 27 
Before thir witnesses to the subscriptions of the saids Mar. 
queis and Marchiones of Atholl. a 1700 EVELYN Diary 
29 Oct. 1662, The syngraphs and original subscriptions of 
divers Eastern Patriarchs. 1807 CRABBE Par, Reg, IL 284 
All the blurr d subscriptions in my book. 1831 SCOTT Ct. 
Rob. vii ; Our sacred subscription is duly marked with the 
fitting tinge of green and purple. 1888 Law Times Rep. 
(N._S.) L1X. 3/2 A probative deed, which they attested by 
their subscriptions. 

3. A signed declaration or statement ; Rom.Anlij., 
a rescript signed by the emperor. Obs. exc. Hist. 

599 Q Euz. in Moryson /tin. (1617) n. 40 Though you 
think the allowance of that Counsell, whose subscriptions 
are your Ecchoes, should . . satisfie us. 1609 H OLLAND A mix. 
Mat-cell, xv. vi. 42 This Athanasius. .was by commande. 
ment from the Emperour warned by his subscription to 
depose from his sacerdotall See. 1647 CLARENDON Hist. 
Rep. II. 115 A Letter from the King, and a subscription 
from the Lords Commissioners. 1661 MARVELL Corr. Wks. 
(Grosart) II. 71 The way of maintenance layd out in your 
Act is directly opposed by a Subscription sent up to 
Colonell Gilby and my selfe. 1666 in Extr. St. Papers 



44 

rel. /V/VwfcSer. in. (1912) 259, 1 have sent you here inclosed 
a subscription which 1 have taken vnder his hand. 1773 
BURKE Sf>. Relief Prot. Diss. Wks. X. 33 There was no 
subscription, to which they were to set their hands. 1851 
HUSSEY Papal Pmver ii. 80 It was argued, that they had 
no subscription from the Pope, nor ecclesiastical authority, 
to back them. 1864 POMEROY Munic. Law 41 An Annota 
tion or Subscription was written to a private person, in 
answer to questions of a merely private application. 

4. The action or an act of affixing a signature ; 
the signing of one s name or of a document. 

1402 EARL OF HUNTLY in Thanes of Cawdor (Spalding 
Club) 156 Writ in at Lochcanmor under our signet, and with 
the subscriptioune of our hand. 1562 SANDYS in Strype Ann. 
Ref> (1735) I- 339 Every Bishop by the Subscription of his 
hand, promiseth, that he shall not.. Alienate any of his 
Manors. 1592 Sc. Acts Jas. VI (1814) III. 586/1 Con 
cerning subscriptioun of the signatures of the new infeft- 
mentis of temporalities. 1689 Col, Rec. Pennsylr. I. 268 
Vpon his subscription [he] was admitted to take his place in 
y e Councill. 1761 HUME Hist. Eng. (1806) IV. 127 The people 
..flocked to the subscription of this covenant. 1765-8 
ERSKISE Inst, Law Scot, in. ii. 8 A subscription by a 
cross or mark. 1825 SCOTT Betrothed xvii, The subscription 
of the contract of marriage had . . been just concluded. 1885 
Law Rep, i.j Q. B. Div. 715 The making and subscription 
of an oath in the House of Commons. 1912 Signatures 
Jnil. Bk, Roy, Sec. Pref., The subscription of these signa 
tures. 

5. A declaration of one s assent to articles of 
religion, or some formal declaration of principles, 
etc. by signing one s name; spec, in the Church of 
England, assent to the Thirty-nine Articles. 

1588 Marprel. Epist. (Arb.) 3 Any other of the holy league 
of subscription, a 1620 J. DYKE Right Receiving (1640) 
8 Now that we have once said we are the Lords, and have 
subscribed to it, let us.. have a care to say, we will be the 
Lords, and to stand to and make good our subscription. 
1654 BRAMHAU. Just I ind. vi. (1661) 155 We do indeed 
require subscription to our Articles. 1655 FULLER C/t. Hist. 
ix. 72 The persecuted Church of English in Frankford.. 
demanded subscription to their discipline of every man. 
1721 [A. A. SYKKS] (title) The case of subscription to the 
39 Articles considered. 1782 PRIESTLEY Corrupt. Chr. I. 
I. 141 Application made to parliament, .for relief in the 
business of subscription. 1868 M. PATTISON Acadent. Org, 
\. 23 The Cambridge Act. .abolished all subscription for 
degrees, a 1890 LIDDOM Pnsey (1893) I. 148 A check upon 
insurrectionary thought, such as is exerted by subscriptions 
to Confessions of Faith. 

t 6. Assent, approval. Also, an instance of this. 

1580 G. HARVEY Let. to Spenser in S. s Wks. (1912) 630/1 
You shal neuer haue my subscription or consent. .to make 
your Carpenter our Carpenter. 1613 PURCHAS Pilgrimage 
(1614) 827 For the excellencie of the Tobacco there found, 
he should happily haue the smokie subscriptions of many 
Humorists. 1620 VENNER Via Recta. (1650) 68 To their 
opinion. .1 see no reason why I should yeeld my subscrip 
tion, c 1650 BRADFORD Plymouth Plant. (1856) 5 The more 
y 8 light of y s gospell grew, y more y"? urged their sub 
scriptions to these corruptions. 

t b. Submission, allegiance. Obs. rare. 

1605 SHAKS. Lear in. ii. 18, I neuer gaue you Klngdome, 
call d you Children ; You owe me no subscription. 

7. The action or an act of subscribing money 
to a fund or for stock ; the raising of a sum of 
money for a certain object by collecting contribu 
tions from a number of people ; f a scheme for 
raising money in this way. Also, an undertaking 
or agreement to subscribe so much. 

1647 MAY Hist. Part. n. vi. 122 The Treasurers appointed 
to receive the Moneys come in upon the Subscriptions for 
Ireland. ci66$ MRS. HUTCHINSON Mem. Col. Hutchinson 
(1885) II. 22 They hired him with a subscription of losses, 
for which they gave him public credit double to what he 
really had lost. 0:1693 POLLEXFEN Disc. Trade (1697) 105 
Without New Subscriptions there can be no way of coming 
into this Trade under this Charter, but by Buying Shares of 
the present Adventures, a 1700 EVELYN Diary 9 Aug. 1682, 
The Academy which Monsieur Faubert did hope to procure 
to be built by subscription of worthy gentlemen and noble 
men. 1740 GIBBER Apol. (1756) I. 142 Many people of 
quality came into a voluntary subscription of twenty.. 
guineas a-piece, for erecting a theatre. 1747 SHERLOCK in 
iot& Rep. Hist. MSS. Count. App. i. 299, I hear nothing 
from London of any moment, except the great Subscription 
for raising money next year. 1748 Winter Even. Conv. Club 
of yews, etc. in N. $ Q. Ser. v. V. 413/1 By stock-jobbers 
he means dose dat be not able to comply vit dare subscrip 
tions. 1762 T. MORTIMER Ev. Man own Broker (ed. 5) 21 
They will scarce better themselves by any new subscrip- 
tion._ 1771 SMOLLETT Humphry Cl. (1815) 193 There is a 
public ball _by subscription every night. 1818 SCOTT Hrt. 
Midi, xxvii, A certain hackney, which he.. and another 
honest shopkeeper, combined to maintain byjoint subscrip 
tion. 1837 CARLYLE Fr. Rev. I. v. i, There has been erected, 
apparently by subscription, a kind of Wooden Tent. 1889 
W. C. ANDERSON Diet. Law 986 (Cent. Diet.), Where an 
advance has been made., by others in consequence of a sub 
scription, before notice given of a withdrawal, the subscrip- I 
tion becomes obligatory. 1912 World 7 May 698/2, 100,000 
cumulative 7 per cent, preference shares will be offered for 
subscription. 

8. A contribution of money for a specified object ; 
spec, the fixed sum promised or required as a 
periodical contribution by a member of a society, 
etc. to its funds, or for the purchase of a periodical j 
publication, or in payment for a book published 

* by subscription (see 9), 

Subscription and donation (to a charitable fund, a society, 
or the like) are usually contrasted, the former beinga recur 
rent, the latter a single, contribution. 

1679 in Willis & Clark Cambridge (1886) II. 367 Had not 
some of pur benefactours been very slow in paying their 
subscriptions. 1710 J. CHAMBBRLAYNE M, Brit. Notitia \\. 



SUBSCRIPTION. 

624 The Dean and Chapter have been no less bountiful, and 
the Clergy of the City are not backward in their Subscrip. 
lions. 1729 T. COOKE Talcs, etc. 120 A Genius form d like 
mine will soar at all, And boldly follow where Subscriptions 
call, a 1763 W. KING Pol. t, Lit. Anecd. (1819) 183 Being 
applied to.. for a charitable subscription. 1804 Kled Jrnl 
XII. M That John Drew. .and Tilden Sampson. .be re 
quested to receive subscriptions for the use of the institution 
1854 Poultry Chron. II. 126 Subscriptions and donations 
to l>e paid to the secretary. 1886 C. E. PASCOE Land of 
Fo-day xxxm. (ed. 3) 300 The subscription to Almack s was 
ten guineas. 1912 Nature 26 Dec. 468/1 The temporary 
address of the society is the Natural History Museum, 
Cromwell Road, S.W. Ihere is no subscription. 

b. A sum of money subscribed by several 
parties ; a fund : formerly spec, in Stock Exchange 
language. Now U.S. in phr. to make or take up 

\ a subscription, to make a collection. 

1730 CHENY List Horse-Matches 145 On the 23d Day of 

j June the 120 Guineas Subscription Money (and which Sub 
scription is now expir d) were run for at Richmond by fiveYear 
olds. 1756 J. Cox Narr. Thief-takers 15 A gentleman in the 
Commission of the Peace in that Neighbourhood, and the 
Treasurer of that Subscription, foot-note, A Reward of 20!. 
for the taking of Thieves injl ottenham Division. 1762 T. 



Change Alley phrase for the last loan or subscription. 1855 
Poultry Chron. II. 530 A subscription is opened to present 
1 Mr. T. B. Wright, of Birmingham, with [etc.]. 1856 J. 
RICHARDSON Recoil. 1. iii. 53 The parochial authorities . .set 
on foot a subscription for the purchase of a piece of plate. 
1865 H. PHILLIP! Amer. Paper Curr. II. 168 To relieve 
the army a subscription was taken up by the ladies of Phila 
delphia. ^ 1897 Daily News 22 Apr. 6/3 [American sailor 
loq.J Let s make a subscription. 

t c. spec. A share in a commercial undertaking 
i or a loan. Also collect, sing. Obs. 

1727 SWIFT Circumcis. E. Curll Wks. 1735 III. i. 166 Sir 
Gideon Lopez tempted him with forty pound subscription in 
Rain s bubble. 1728 CHAMBERS CycL, Subscription, in the 
English Commerce, is used for the Share or Interest, par. 
licular Persons take in a public Stock, or a Trading Com 
pany, by writing their Names, and the Shares they require, 
in the Register thereof, a 1744 POPE Imit. Horace I. vii. 
65 South-sea Subscriptions take who please. 1762 T. MORTI- 
WKR Ev. Man own Broker (ed. 5) 106, 1 would farther recom 
mend to you, by no means to lend your subscription, at the 
time of the coming out of the receipts :. .for they [the Bears] 
borrow your Scrip to make good their illegal, .bargains. 

9. Book-trade, a. A method of bringing out a 
book, by winch the publisher or author undertakes 
to supply copies of the book at a certain rate to 
those who agree to take copies before publication. 
Freq. in phr. by subscription. 

1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey), Subscription for a Book, is 
when the Undertakers propose Advantages to those that take 
a certain Number of Copies at a set Price {Bailey 1730 adds: 
and lay down Part of the Money, before the Impression is 
finish dj. 1715 (Advt.) Proposals for Printing by Subscrip 
tion a new Edition of Marcus Tullius Cicero, by Thomas 
Hearne. 1728 CHAMBERS CycL s. v., Walton s Polyglot Bible, 
which is the first Book ever printed by Way of Subscription. 
1771 SMOLLETT Humphry Cl. (1815) 151 The Scotchman gives 
lectures on the pronunciation of the English language, which 
he is now publishing by subscription. 1791 BOSWELL Johnson 
(1831) I. 222 In 1766 she published, by subscription, a 
quarto volume of miscellanies. 1807 DE LOLME Const. Eng. 
Advert, p. ii, In defect of encouragement from great men (and 
even from booksellers), I had recourse to a subscription. 1873 
CURWEN Hist. Booksellers 25 He waited four years before 
he ventured to publish, and then only by the safe method 
of subscription. 1890 SPRIGGE Meth. Publ. 81 The system 
of publishing suggested by that firm.. was that of sub 
scription . 

b. (a) The taking up of a book by the trade ; 
(b) The offering of a book to the trade. 

1895 Bookselling June 163 Where the trade subscription 
may be.. expected to cover the cost of the first edition. 
1912 SHAYLOR Fascin. Bks. 145 Each new book when 
ready for publishing is brought to these establishments for 
1 subscription that is, to ascertain how many copies will 
be bought. 

C. U.S. The house-to-house sale of books by 
canvassers. Freq. attrib. 

1880 Publisher s Weekly (U.S.) 24 Apr. 425 There has 
been a great deal of grumbling in the retail trade . . that so 
many good books have been taken out of its hands and put 
into those of subscription agents . Many writers, such as 
Mark Twain, confine themselves, in fact, to subscription 
publishing. Ibid. 22 May 516 The important trade question 
of the ownership of subscription orders. 1897 G. H. P. & 
J. B. PfursAM] Attth. ff Pull. (ed. 7) 51 Books sold by sub 
scription (that is, through canvassers). 

10. attrib. and Comb., as (sense 8) subscription- 
money, -purse, -share ; subscription-hunting ppl. 
adj. ; subscription book, (a) a book containing 
the names of subscribers to any object (with the 
amounts of their subscriptions) ; (b) f/.S. Book- 
trade, a book sold from house to house by can 
vassers ; subscription list, a list of subscribers 
names (with the amounts of their subscriptions) ; 
so t subscription-paper, f -roll ; subscription 
price, (a) the price at which a book is offered before 
publication to those who promise to take copies,being 
usually lower than the price at which any unsub 
scribed copies will be sold on or after publication ; 
(*) the price at which a periodical publication is 
supplied to those who promise to take so many 
numbers ; f subscription receipt (cf. SCRIP J*. 4 ), 



SUBSCRIPTION. 

a receipt for a share or shares taken up in a loan 
or commercial undertaking ; subscription room, 
a room (e. g. belonging to a club, an exchange) 
which is open to subscribers only ; t subscription- 
society, a union of workmen to which each con 
tributes a subscription. (See also 9 c.) 

iyxt AMHKRST Terrsc Fil. No. 12 (1726) I. 65 Subscription* 
books (by them call d matriculation-books) were open d, and 
most of the nobility and gentry subscribed their sons and 
their wards into them. 1771 SMOLLETT Humphry Cl. (1815) 
64, I consulted the subscription-book; and, perceiving the 
names of several old friends, began to consider the group 
with more attention. 1784 New BathGuide 65 Each Master 
has a ball in the winter and spring seasons, and subscription- 
books are also laid down at the Rooms, that all the com 
pany may have an opportunity of shewing those gentlemen 
marks of their respect. 1819 EGAN Walks through Bath 97 
Ladies and gentlemen disposed to become members, are 
requested to have their names entered in the society s sub 
scription-book. 1880 Publishers Weekly (U.S.) 24 Apr. 425 
(heading) The trade and subscription books. 1897 Boston 
(Mass.) yr/.i6 Jan. 7/8 The Trustees of the Fenway Garden 
(Boston, Mass.]. .have decided to keep the subscription- 
books open for the present. 1898 SHAW Perf, IVasfnerite 
134 Energetic *subscription-huntmg ladies. 1843-56 BOUVIKK 
La-M Diet. (ed. 6) II. 555/1 * Subscription list, the names of 
persons who have agreed to take a newspaper, magazine or 
other publication, placed upon paper, is a subscription list. 
1880 Publisher s Weekly (U.S.) 22 May 516 That he be en- 
joined and restrained, .from interfering with the subscrip 
tion-lists of said publications, and from attempting to dis 
charge any subscriber from his subscription thereto. 1887 
Spectator 6 Aug. 1057/2 His name figured little in sub 
scription-lists, rt 1674 CLARENDON///^. Keb. ix. 27 (an. 1645) 
The Letter Money and ""Subscription Money being almost 
exhausted. 1715 MS. in Urry Chaucer s tt ks. (B. Mus.), 
Books to be Delivered to the Subscribers Compl c in Quires 
on paym* of their Subscription Money. 1730 [see sense 8b], 
1774 FOOTB Cozeners I. Wks. 1799 II. 146 My expences in 
..subscription-money to most of the clubs and coteries. 
1780 New Bath Guide 26 The subscription to the dress-balls 
is one guinea to each room for the season, or as long as the 
subscription-money lasts. 1779 Mirror No, 2 r 4 The sub 
scription-paper hung up fronting the door. 1886 Perf. Bk. 

early application is needed to secure a copy. 1891 Academy 
21 Feb. 185/2 The new publication, .will be published 
monthly at a subscription price of eight rupees per annum, 
including postage. 1811 Sporting Mag. XXXVIII. 221 
The *subscription-purse of a hunting club. 1763 ! , MORTI 
MER Ev. Man own Broker (ed. 5) 17^2 The *subscription 
receipts thus paid in full, are called in the Alley, Heavy. 
Horse. 1780 Elem, Comm. 396 If the second or third 
purchasers in the course of circulation at market, are holders 
of the subscription receipts at the time of a payment, a 1676 
HALE Life P. Atticus (1677) 142 They thought. .that his 
Name should be the first in the *Subscription-Roll. 1812 
COLERIDGE Friend (1818) III. 171 The innocent amusement 
..deserving of all praise as a preventive substitute for the 
stall, the kennel, and the *subscription-room. 1914 Daily 
Tel. 3 Aug. 5/1 The subscript ion-room of the Corn Exchange 
will, .be open for the convenience of members. 1856 Ann. 
Reg., Chron* 52/2 The expenses of erecting the theatre 
are said to have amounted to 150,000 /. ; of which.. 50,000 /. 
[was] raised by *subsci iption-shares of 500 /. each. 1769 
Ibid. i34[Spitaifields] handkerchief-weavers.. entered intoa 
subscription of six. pence on every loom, to support their 
cause against the masters, one of whom . . insisted . . that his 
men should not belong to the *subscription-society. 

b. in adj. use with the sense supported by sub 
scription, maintained or provided by, open to, 
subscribers , as subscription ball, charity school \ 
club, concert, cricket-match, dance, house ^ library t 
masquerade, music, night ^ school. 

1704 tr. Motiere s (title) Monsieur de Pourceaugnac... 
Acted at the Subscription Musick at the Theatre Royal. 
1708 New View Lona. II. 762 A Subscription School for 50 
Girls. 1749 H. WALPOLE Lett. (1846) II. 268 A subscription 
masquerade. 1753 Scott Mag. XV. 36/2 Sums laid out in., 
subscription. con erts. 1779 C TESS UPPER OSSORY in Jesse 
Selwyti fy Contemp. (184^) IV, 176 A subscription ball is on 
foot, one hundred subscribers at twelve guineas each. 1808 
SCOTT in Lockhart (1837) I. 37 A respectable subscription 
library. 1819 EGAN Walks through Bath 35 The Sub 
scription-House, .at York-Buildings. Ibid. 162 The Cres 
cent- Fields,.. with the addition of some charming subscrip 
tion grounds. 8*6 J. COOK Fox-hunting 149 A manager 
of a subscription pack. 1851 H. COLERIDGE Ess. I. 305 Suck 
ling of infants will be exploded, as unproductive labour. 
Pap will be made by contract m subscription soup-kettles. 
1859 Miss MULOCK Life fora Life xi, Charteris is opera- 
mad... Every subscript ion- night, there he is, wedged in the 
crowd. 1886 C. E. PASCOE Lond. of To-day vi, Subscrip 
tion dances, under the patronage of a long list of names. 

Hence (nonce-words) Subscri ptionist, one who 
begs for subscriptions; Snbscri ptionless a., 
without subscriptions. 

1853 N. HAWTHORNE Engl. Note.bks. (1870) I. 59 I wish 
. . I had given the poor family ten shillings, and denied it to 
a begging subscriptionist, who has just fleeced me to that 
amount. 1897 Westm. Caz. 9 Mar. 2/2 By depriving the 
school, already subscript! on less, of this aid grant. 

Subscriptive (sbskri-ptiv), a. rare. [f. L. 
subscript-^ pa. ppl. stem of subscribtre to SCB- 

SCBIBE + -IVE.] 

1. Pertaining to the subscription * of a letter. 
1748 RICHARDSON Clarissa VII. 107, I have endeavoured 

to imitate the subscriptive part [of the letter]. 

2. Pertaining to the subscribing of money. 

1897 liffstm. Go*. 10 Mar. a/a Is it to be the population 
of a parish ? or its subscriptive capacity? 

tSubscrrve,* . Sc. Obs. [ad. OF. soubscriv-^ 
pr. stem of soubscrire, raod.F. souscrire (see SUB 
SCRIBE). Cf. describe, inter ive t $crivc^ ^SUBSCRIBE. 



45 

a. trans. 

c 1470 HARDING Chron. cm. vi, As Flores sayth and doeth 
it so subscrive. 1476 Exch. Rolls Scot. VIII. 344 note, 
Writtin and subscrivit at Edinburgh. 1535 STEWART Cron. 
Scot. II, 440 Peax tha maid, and band With letteris braid 
subscriuit with thair hand, a 1578 LINDESAV (Pitscottie) 
Chron. Scot. (S.T.S.) I. 286 He..tuike the pen in his hand 
and subscrywit the electioun. 1585 Sc. Acts fas. 1 7 I (1814) 
III. 377 Euerie writtair subscriue his name on be bak of 
signato 1 " or lettre as allowit be him. a 1649 DKIMM. OF 
HAWTH. Posth. Poems (S.T.S.) II. 219 That our Confession 
is indeed Not the Apostolick Creed, Which of Negations we 
contrive, Which Turk and Jew may both subscrive. 1689 
Sc. Acts (1875) XII. 48/2 To report what should be over- 
tured be the Duke in wryting subscryved be the Duke. 
1726 in Nairne Peerage Evid. (1874) 35, I have already 
granted and subscrived bonds of provisione to and in favours 
of my own children. 

b. intr. 

1490 Munint. tit Melros (Bannatyne Club) 600 To thir my 
present lettres obl[i]gaitour I have alfixit my seill & sub. 
scryffyt with my awin hand. 1567 Satt r. Poems Reform, 
in. 129 O ;e that to our Kirk hes done subscriue. 1596 in 
T. Morris Provosts of Metkvcn (1875) 88 With our h;:ndis 
on the pen led be the notaris vnderwrittin. ., becaus we can 
nocht subscriue. 1640-1 Kirkcudhr. War-Comtn. ATirt, Bk. 
(1855)^61 As for these that hes naither subscryvit nor will 
cum in, but stands owt, they are to be fyned. 1717 in 
Nairne Peerage l- .vid. (1874) 146 In the hands of me nottar 
publick subscriveing after the form.. of the said heritable 
bond of provisione. 

c. pass. To be engaged in a compact. 

1583 Leg. /?/. St. Androis 536 Contempneris of our autho- 
ritie, Subscryvit aganist our Maiestie. 

Hence Subscri ved ///. a., Subscribing vhl. 
sb.,pp!.a.\ Subscriber, = SUBSCRIBER. 

1562 .tfaitf. Club Misc. (1843) III. 291 Bye ye quhilk 
testimonial! ye said M r Thomas allcgis hym injurit be ye 
subscriuaris yarof. 1564 In Scoff. Antitj. (1901) Oct. Si The 
ge\v ing and subscryving of the said infeftment. [1621,1638: 
implied in Non-subscrii<er^ see NON-SUBSCRIBER i]. 1651 
Ctildwt li Papers (Maitland Club) I. 119 Item ikburMt be 
the tenents. .con forme to the collectors subscryvit compt. 
1681 Sc. Acts Chas. If (1820) VIII. 243 None but subscryv 
ing witnesses shall be probative in Executions of Messingers. 
1696 Ibid., Will. (1823) X. 63 The Subscriveing of Bonds. 

tSirbsecaiit. Math. Obs. rare, [f. SUB- i + 
SECANT B 2 b.] That part of the axis of abscissas 
of a curve which is intercepted between a secant 
and the ordinate. 

1816 ir. Lacroix* Diff. # Int. Calc. 655 Its subtangent P T 
must consequently be less than one of the subsecants. 

Subsecive (so-bs/siv), a. Now Obs. or rare. 
Also 7 subcisive, subcesive, subsicive. [ad. 
L. subsecTvziS) less correct f. stibsidvus, also (by 
transposition) -cesivus, -astvus (cf. SUCCISIVE) cut 
off and left remaining, f. sub- SUB- 25 +secdre to 
cut (cf. SECTION).] Remaining over, spare: chiefly 
in subsecive hours. 

1613 JACKSON Creed \. To Rdr. 3, The principal subiect 
of my subcisiuc or vacant houres. a 1640 W. FF.NNER Wilful 
fmfien. Ep, Ded., I had thought to have sent it to my Lord 
of Warwicke for his subcisive bowers. 1652 NEDHAM Do< 
minium Man s in Selden s Mare Clausum (1663) 128 The 
subcesive or remanent part onely is left out unassigned. 
1833 SOUTHEV Let. to J. W. Warter 20 June, Next year it 
will become my chief object in those subsecive hours, for 
which I can find no English word. 

t Subse ct, -v. Obs. [f. SUB- 9 + L. sect-, pa. 

ppl. stem of secure to cut.] trans. To subdivide. 

1654 VILVAIN Enckir. Epigr, in. xcv. 70 The 7 Parts or 

Portions of the Earth, as som lat Authors now State or 
subsect them. 1654 GATAKER Disc. Apol. 93 You of the 
Calvinistical Sect, a Sect dissected, subjected, and resected. 

Sn-bsection. [f. SUB- 7 + SECTION.] A divi 
sion of a section. 

ifiaz BURTON (.title) The Anatomy of Melancholy,, .in 
Three Maine Partitions, with their seuerall Sections, Mem- 
bers, and Svbsections. Ibid. \. i. n. ix, In the precedent 
Subsections, I haue anatomised those inferiour Faculties of 
the Soule. 1841 DE QUINCEV Style Wks. 1859 XI. 228 
Others who bring anoccasional acuteness . .to this or that sub 
section of their duty. 1863 C. C. BLAKE in jml. Anthropol. 
Spc. (1865) III. i. 5 A valuable.. paper was read in subsec 
tion D [of the British Association], by Dr. Embleton. 1879 
Encycl. Brit. X. 242/1 The behaviour of the lava as it issues 
and flows down the volcanic cones will be described in the 
next sub-section. 1885 Act 48-5-40 Viet. c. 70 8 Sub 
section one of section fifteen of the Sea Fisheries Act, 1883. 
b. Nat. Hist. A subordinate division of a sec 
tion or group. 

i8a6 KIRBV & SP. Entomol. III. 414 In this subsection the 

Diptera^ Libellnlina and Afantidx will find their place. 

1826 [see SUBORDER i]. 1840 Cuvier s Anint. Kitigd. 415 

Latreille divides this section [sc. Trigona] into sub-sections. 

o. Milit. (See qnot.) 

XQIO Encycl. t Brit. (ed. 11) II. 600/1 Each section [of a 
battery], .consists of two sub-sections, each comprising one 
gun and its wagons, men and horses. 

Hence Su-bsectioned, divided into subsections. 

1820 KEATS Caf> <$ Bells xi, With special strictures on the 
horrid crime, (Section d and subsection d with learning 
sage). 

t Subsecute, v. Obs. rare. [f. L. subsecut-, 
pa. ppl. stem of/AMywf(tee SUBSEQUENT).] trans. 
To follow up, pursue. 

a 1548 HALL Ckron., Rich, ///, 46 b, Yf by any possibilitie 
he could be subsecuted and overtaken. 1560 STOCKER tr. 
Diod. Sic. ii. xix. 70/2 Aristone. .subsecuted and chased 
him through the countrey of Basalcie. 

t Subse cutive, a. Obs. rarer , [f. as prec. 
+ -IVE ; cf. F, subsjcutif.] Subsequent. 



SUBSEQUENT. 

x6n COTGR.J Subsetutif, subsecutiue. 

II Subsella (sSbse-la). [mod.L., f. sub- SUB- 3 
+ sella a seat, after next.] ^ SUBSELLIUM 2. 

1849 F.cclcsiol. IX. 156 Seats placed stall- wise, with desks 
before them and subsellae beneath. 1861 NEALK Notes 
Dalmatia 1 1 7 On each side of the Choir are sixteen stalls, 
. .with subsellae. 

II Subsellium (sbse-lu>m). Pi. subse-llia 

(-se-lia). [L., f. sub- SUB- 3 + sella seat.] 

1. Rom. Antiq. A seat in an amphitheatre. 
(11701 MAUNDKKLL Jonrn. Jems. (1721) 16 Vaults which 

run under the Sub>ellia all round the Theatre. 

2. Church Archil. = MISKRICOHP 2 c. 

1806 J. DALLAVVAY Kngl. Archil . n3 The application of 
the ancient carved substillm to the prc.it: nt reading-desks is 
a new idea. 1886 WILLIS & CLARK Cambridge 1. 47 Thy 
stalls and subseltia.. belong in style to the period of their 
construction, 

Strb semitone. J///J. [ad. med.L. sttbscmito- 
ninm : see SMI- 13.] The leading note of a scale. 

c 1800 I!usiiY / /i 1 /. Mus. t Sub-Setmtone t the name by which 
theorists distinguish th-i sharp seventh, or sensible, of any 
key. 1876 STAIM K ^ \\\\ KEIT Diet. Mus. Terms. 

Subse HSlble, a. [SiB- i a.] Kelow or 
deeper than tlie range of the senses. 

1863 TYNDAI.L //cat ii. 3^ We can only reach the roots of 
natural phenomena by laying duwn, intelli.-Ltu.ally, a sub- 
sensible soil out of which such phenomena >prin^. 1871 - 
fragm. Sci. (1879) II. xv. 387 That sub^ensible world into 
which all natural phenomena strike their roots. 

So Subse usual, -se nsuous adjs. 

1886 Honiilct. Rfr. July 73 The dark, bubsensual flow of 
a soul abandoned to vice. 1892 AGNES M. CLKKKI; >*!///. Stud. 
II oiucr viii. 212 In some unexplained suhsensual way. 
a 1834 COLKRIDGE Xvtcs ff Lcct. (1849) I. 164 Nationality in 
each individual, <jHoa<i his couniry, i> etjual to the sen-e of 
individuality qu^iid himself; but him.seli as *subsensuous, 
and central. 1898 HOKTON Connnandin. Jesus xvi. 290 In 
that subsensuous contact of spirit with spirit. 

Subsequence v sy-b>/k\vcn- . [f. SrBsj-;yri-;vr : 
see -ENCKJ 

1. That which is subsequent ; a subsequent event ; 
the sequel. 

?i5oo Chester PI. i. 187 Yow shall well wyt the Sub 
sequence, this Daunce will turne to tetne and traye. 1592 
WI:ST ist Pt. Symbol. 52 Let us enter into consideration 
of the subsequence or sequele thereof. 1610 H KALKV Si. 
Aug. Citic (/Win. xxx. 150 Without any more stirre or other 
subsequence of war. Ibid. v. ix. 209 What auailes the sub 
sequence ? 16^7 HEYWOOD Dcs^ r. ^>f~-c a/^n of .Vtvw 34 A-. 
they comply in the premisses, . .they differ not all in the 
subsequence. 1827 (. S. FABER Sacr. Cal. Propfacy (i44> 
III. 331 The predicted millennium with its concomitants 
and subsequences. 

2. The condition or fact of being subsequent. 
1668 WILKINS Real Char. i. iv. i. 14 With such an order 

of precedence and subsequence as their natures will bear. 
1701 GKKVV C^sinol. Sacra, n. iii. 43 By which Faculty 
[sc. reminiscence], we are also able, to take notice of the 
Order of Precedence and Subsequence, in which they arc 
past. 1846 TKI:NCH Mirac. No. 5 (1862) 159 The Scripture 
teaches the absolute .subordination of evil to good, and it^ 
subsequence of order. 1854 THACKERAY Nevjcomcs xxviii, 
An affair which appeared m due subsequence in the news 
papers. 1884 BROWNING Ferishtah^ Bean-Strife 70 Joy, 
sorrow, by precedence, subsequence Kither on each, make 
fusion. 

t Su bsequeiicy. Obs. rare. [f. SUBSEQUENT : 
see -ENCV.] The fact or condition of following. 

*75 GKEKNHILL Embalming 336 The Heliotrope s subse- 
quency to the Course of the Sun. 

Subsequent (sirbsiTcwfittt), a. and sb. [a. K. 
subsequent (i4th c. in Littre), or ad. L. subsequens t 
-entem, pr. pple. of su&sequi, f. sttb- SUB- III + 
sequj to follow.] 
A. adj. 

1. Following in order or succession ; coming or 
placed after, esp. immediately after. 

a 1460 J. MKTHAM Wks. (E.E.T ? ) 157/1. I rede in elde 
volummys this niatere subsequent. 1599 A. M. tr. Gabcl- 
houer s Bk. Pkysicke 346/1 Then appl> c theron the whytes of 
Egges..and then applye theron this subsequente playster. 
1606 SHAKS. Tr. fy Cr. \. iii. 344 Such Indexes, although 
small prickes To their subsequent Volumes. 1660 BARROW 
uc/idPref. (1714) p. ij, The six precedent and the two subse 
quent [Books], 1745 in toth Re$. Hist. MSS. Comm. 

i.. 

1814 

SCOTT Wav. ii, But more of this in a subsequent chapter. 
1833 J. RENNIB A Iph. Angl. 21 We shall see in a subsequent 
page the principle upon which this is founded. 

absol. i6 NASHE Saffron- Walden To Rdr. Wks. 1905 
III. 22/31 The subsequent or bindermost of the paire. 

2. Following or succeeding in time ; existing or 
occurring after, esp. immediately after, something 
expressed or implied ; coming or happening later. 

t TJu subsequent (year, etc.), the (year, etc.) subsequent^ 
the year, etc. next following. 

Condition subsequent : see CONDITION sb, a. 

1503-4 Act 19 Hen. VII, c. 37 6 To begyn and ends tbeyr 
accompt..in the yere subsequent for the yere precedent. 
1651 G. W. tr. CouieCs fnst. 107 As if one gives any thing 
with such an intention that it shall be the Donees when a 
subsequent thing is performed. 1663 Prrry Taxes iv. 28 
The envy which precedent missions of English [in Ireland] 
have against the subsequent. 1681 STAIR Inst. Law Scot. 
n. xxviu 137 No Son of a subsequent Branch could be 
entered. 1761-71 H. WALPOLE yertue s Anted. Paint. 
(1786) V. 129 His other plates I will repeat briefly, as I shall 
those of subsequent engravers. 1800 COLQUHOUN Comm. 
Thames xi. 300 It was found needful to explain and amend 



SUBSEQUENTIAL. 

this Charter by many others Subsequent. 1855 MACAULAY 
Hut. Eng. xvii. IV. 56 The day from which all his subse 
quent years took their colour. 1860 TYNDALL Glac. i. iii. 23 
My subsequent destination was Vienna. 1905 R. BAGOT 
Passport xx.vvi, Concetta delivered the letter, and another 
subsequent one. 

b. Const, to. (Also advb. subsequently to. 
Cf. previous, etc.) 

1647 CLARENDON Hist. Rcb. n. 12 The ill Consequences 
of it, or the Actions which were subsequent to it. a 1745 
SWIFT Sffrtic Renlarkson Barrier Treaty Wks. 1841 I. 430/1 
This prodigious article is introduced as subsequent to the 
treaty of Munster. 1806 Med. Jrnl. XV. 141, I have not 
heard of any death but one shortly subsequent to cow-pox 
inoculation. 1822 HEBER Wks. Jer. Taylor (1828) I. p. xl, 
Subsequent to the suppression .. he was. .at large. 1871 
SMILES Cliarac. ii. (1876) 39 It was long subsequent to the 
death of both his parents. 1911 War Dcpt. Provis. Subsidy 
Scheme i Lorries must have been built subsequent to ist 
January, 191 r. 

C. Forming a sequel to. (rare.) 

1779 JOHNSON L. P., Pope (1868) 408 He had planned a 
work, which he considered as subsequent to his Essay on 
Wan . 

d. Phys. Geog. (See quots. ) 

(1862 JUKES in Q. Jrnl. Geol. Sue. XVIII. 400 That the 
Literal valleys are the first formed, .while the longitudinal 
valleys are of subsequent origin, gradually produced by 
atmospheric action on the softer and more easily eroded 
beds that strike along the chains.] 1895 W. M. DAVIS in 
Gcagr. Jrnl. (R.G.S.) V. 131 The peculiarity of subsequent 
streams is.. that they run along the strike of weak strata; 
while consequent streams run down the dip, crossing 
harder and softer strata alike. 1898 I, C. RUSSELL River 
Dc-celopm. vii. 185 Streams originate, the directions of which 
are regulated by the hardness and solubility of the rocks. 
Such streams appear subsequently to the main topographic 
features in their environment, and are termed subsequent 
streams, 

e. Geol. - INTRUSIVE a. 2 6. 

i883 TEALL Brit. Petrngr. 449. 

t B. sb. A peison or thing that follows or comes 
after another. Obs. 

1603 FI-OKIO Mmitaignt H. xii. 294 Deeming all other 
apprentiships a> subsequents and ofsuperarogation in regard 
of that [orig. csthnant tout autrc apprciithsage sitiseciili/ 
<l celuy-la A- s>:perniiincrairc\. 1623 lip. HALL Serin Rc- 
cdijicd Cliapcll Earle of Exceter Wks. (16^4) 484 This con 
ceit . . is quite dissonant from the context, both in regard of the 
precedents, and subsequents. n 1676 HALE Prim. Orig. Matt. 
n. vii. 179 It hath a most excellent congruity with the subse 
quents of the Holy History. 1685 Coron. Jas. // (Hroadside), 
So Handsome that all other Ladies, Her Subsequents seem d 
but her Shaddows. 1824 L. MURRAY Engl. Grain, (ed. 5) I. 
241 As the relative pronoun, when used interrogatively, 
refers to the subsequent word or phrase containing the 
answer to the question, that word or phrase may properly 
be termed the subsequent to the interrogative. 

t b. These subsequents : the persons or things 
mentioned immediately afterwards. Obs. 

1612 STURTEVANT Mctallica 57 These subsequents are most 
necessarie, as namely ; loyners, Carpenters, Smithes, Uricke- 
layers, Masons. 1637-50 Row Hiit. Kirk (Wodrow Soc.) 15 
These subsequents .. to be obserued in this Realme concern 
ing Doctrine. 

Subsequential (sz>bsz"kwe-nfal), a. [f. SUB 
SEQUENT alter consequential."] Subsequent. 

1670 W. P[ENN] Case Lid. Consc. 29 No Temporary Sub- 
sequential Law whatever, to our Fundamental Rights,., 
can invalid so essential a part of the Government. 1802-12 
BENTHAM tf<x/w. Judic. Evid. (1827) II. 582 Whether in 
their original character of advocates or in their subsequentia! 
. . character of judges. 1829 Justice fy Cod. Petit. 190 In 
another, say a Subsequential judicatory, to which . . the 
inquiry is.. transferred. 1879 STEVENSON Across tlu Plains 
(1892) 9 It seems to fit some Subsequential, evening epoch of 
the world. 

Hence Subseque ntially adv., subsequently. 

1829 BENTHAM Justice ft Cod. Petit. 127 Subsequentially 
applied instruments. 

Subsequently (so-bs/kwentli), adv. [f. SUB 
SEQUENT a. + -LY -.] At a subsequent or later time. 
Const, to. 

1611 COTGR., Sui scctitivemcnt, subsequently. 1657 CROM 
WELL Sf. 21 Apr. (Carlyle), If any shall be subsequently 
named, after the Other House is sat. 1685 SOUTH Sena. 
Prov. xvi. 33 (1697) I. 337 They are forced to comply subse 
quently, and to strike in with things as they fall out. 1794 
R. J. SULIVAN View Nat. II. 64 From the same cause, the 
natural character of nations may arise, however subse 
quently moulded. 1845 DARWIN Voy. Nat. viii. 174 In North 
America, .the large quadrupeds lived subsequently to that 
period. 1863 LYELL Antiq. Man 2 The remains of living 
beings which have peopled the district at more than one era 
may have subsequently been mingled in such caverns. 1891 
La Times XCI. 1/2 Cases where a man becomes a soldier 
subsequently to the making of the order. 

llSubserOSa (sb5iro -sa). Anat. [mod.L. 
(sc. metnbrana) : see SUB- i d and cf. next.] Sub- 
serous tissue. 

1890 BILLINGS .Vat. Med. Diet. 1901 JrnL Exper. Med. 

2Q NOV. 35. 

Subserons (sobs!-ras), a. Anat. and Path. 
[f. SUB- + SEKOUS.] 

1. [SUB- i b.] a. Anat. Situated or occurring 
beneath a serous membrane, as subserous tissue, b. 
Path. Affecting the subserous tissue. 

1833 Cyci Pract. Med. II. 73 ,/i Us bloodvessels and those 
of the sub-serous cellular tissue are deeply injected. 1872 
T. G. THOMAS Dis. Women (ed. 3) 276 Neoplasms, whether 
they be submucous, subserous or mural, keep up a constant 
nervous irritation. 1875 tr. von Zieimsen s Cycl. Med. X. 
230 The subserous fibroid [of the uterus). 1904 Brit. Med. 
Jrnl. 10 Sept. 597 The great numbers of cells which are 



46 

found wandering far and wide in the submuco^a, the muscu 
lature, and the subseruus tissue. 

2. [Si B- 20 b.] Somewhat serous. In mod. Diets. 

tSubse rvant. Obs. rare- . [Sus- 5 a.] An 
inferior servant, under-servant. 

1661 K. W. Conf. C/iarac., Detracting Empirick (1860) 
64 A poor apothecaries subservant, whose work is to look 
to the stills, and sweep the shop, 

Subserve (swbsauv), v. [ad. L. subservtre^ i. 
sub- SUB- 8 +servtre to SERVE z/. 1 ] 

1. intr. To be subservient to. 

a 1619 FOTHERBY Atlu-om. ii. i. 8 (1622) 186 Arts be 
longing to all these; and yet all of them subseruing vnto 
the Art of Riding. 1646 H. LAWRENCE Conimnn. Angels 10 
All creatures shall subserve to that composition of which 
God is a part. 1677 GALE Crt. Gentiles in. 9 The manner 
of our disquisitions.. is irregular. . .When we. .make that 
subservient which should be ultimate, and that ultimate 
which should subserve. 1759 MARTIN Nat, Hist. II. 317 
It subserves, .to the Trade of this Place. 1822 L. HUNT 
Indicator No. 25 (1822) I. 193 Merely subserving to the 
worst taste of the times. 1860 WKSTCOTT Introd. Study 
Gosp. v. 263 The historical framework of their writings 
subserved to a doctrinal development. 

2. trans. To be instrumental in furthering or 
a.isiating (a purpose, object, action, function, or 
condition); to promote or assist by supplying an 
instrument or means. 

1677 GALE Crt. Gentiles iv. 439 Is there not a world of 
men, which, .subserve the Glorie of their Maker? 1685 
BAXTER Parnphr. .Y. T. Matt. vi. 9 1 hat thou wilt.. cause 
us to subserve thy Providence by our wise and diligent 
labours. 1687 Loud. Gaz. No. 2250/3 The free Exercise 
of Religion, .will . .most truly subserve the Interest of Your 
Majesties Power. 1741 WATTS hnprov. Mind i. xvii. (iSoi) 
135 [The memory] u^es all those parts, .which subserve our 
sensations. 1786 tr. BcckforcCs I atktk 7 Even insensible 
matter shewed a forwardness to subserve his designs. 1815 
KIRBY & SP. Entomol. x. (1816) I. 305 It might subserve 
the double purpose of ridding us of a nuisance, and relieving 
the public pressure. 1833-6 NEWMAN Hist. Sk. (1876) I. 
iv. v. 417 The cause of Protestantism, .the Catholic Fathers 
certainly do not subserve. 1854 OWEN in Orr s Circ. Scz. t 
Org. Nat. I. 197 The ribs, .subserve locomotion. 1896 
A llbutfs Syst. Med. I. 109 The peripheral nervous system 
subserves sensation alone. 

b. To be instrumental in furthering the purpose, 
interest, or function of (a person or thing), rare. 

2661 BAXTER Last \Vk. Believer (1682) 62 Christ will not 
take it ill . . to have his Ministers subserve him in so excellent 
a work. 1669 GALE Crt. Gentiles \. i. 5 You see how the 



to protect and otherwise subserve the organs of the senses. 

1 3. a. intr. To act in a subordinate position. 
Obs. rare. 

1671 MII.TON Samson 57 Not made to rule, But to sub 
serve where wisdom bears command. 

fb. trans. To serve under, be subordinate to. 
Obs. rare. 

1769 E. BANCROFT Guiana 3i9The husband takesasecond 
[wife]., who lives and subserves the former in all domestic 
employments. 

4. reji. To avail oneself of. rare. 

121834 COLERIDGK Onmiana Lit. Rem. 1836 I, 373, I not 
merely subserve myself of them, but I employ them. 

Subserviate (s#bsaMvi*it), v. [irreg. f. SUB- 
SEKVIENT + -ATE 3.] trans. To make subservient or 
subordinate. 

1893 CRONWRIGHT-SCH REINER \uarre\\ySettlem. S.Africa 
(1900) 90 They would selfishly and foolishly subserviate the 
interests of the whole Colony to their own benighted wishes. 
1906 CHURCHILL Coniston n. iii, The time would come when 
the railroads, .would exterminate the boss, or at least sub- 
servlate him. 

Subservience (stfbssuviens). [f. SUBSER 
VIENT : see -ENCE.] 

1. The condition or quality of being serviceable, 
as a means to an end. 

a 1676 HALE Prim. Orig. Man. i All this accommodation 
..and mutual subservience of the things in Nature. 1677 
GALE Crt. Gentiles iv. 450 To order al means and affaires 
in subservience to his end and designe. 1793 BURKE Obs. 
Conduct Minority Wks. 1842 I. 614 It was in subservience 
to the general plan of disabling us from taking any steps 
against France. 1805 K.NOX & JEBB Corr. I. 224 All events 
on this earth are regulated and directed, in subservience to 
the interests of that spiritual.. kingdom of the Messiah. 
1884 F. TEMPLE Rclat. Relig. $ Set. iv. (1885) 119 We should 
trace the beneficent effects of pain and pleasure in their 
subservience to the purification of life. 

fb. pi. 

a 1693 Urqitharfs Rabelais in. 1. 402 The uses and sub 
serviences they were fit for. 1801 PALEY Nat. Tlu oi. xii, 
The plan is attended, through all its varieties and deflections, 
by subserviences to special occasions and utilities. 

2. A condition of subordination or subjection to 
another. Now rare exc. as implied in 3. 

1701 G. STANHOPE Pious Breathings v. xvii, (1720) 348 
Grant that my sensual Affections may always continue m 
subservience to my reasonable mind, a 1704 T. BROWN 
Praise of Wealth, Wks. 1730 I. 86 A change of power to 
subservience is a proof of folly. 1836 THIRLWALL Greece 
XXL (1839) III. 173 They had secured the subservience of 
the whole island. 1902 W. BRIGHT Age of Fathers (1903) 
I. xv. 288 The sermon.. asserted the absolute subservience 1 
of the Son to the Father. 

3. Subservient behaviour, attitude, or conduct ; 
servile subordination, submissiveness, obsequious 
ness. 

1819 SCOTT Ivanhoc xxiv, She could not indeed imitate 



SUBSEBVIENT. 

his excess of subservience, because she was a stranger to 
the meanness of mind. .by which it was dictated. 1849 
GROTE Greece n. xxxviii. V. 23 A young Persian monarch, 
corrupted by universal subservience around him. 1873 
HAMERTON Intell. Life ix. iii. 314 Johnson.. is grander in 
his neglect of fashion than Goldsmith in his ruinous sub 
servience. 1902 MATHIESON Pol. % Relig. I. x. 323 His 
subservience to the King.. was due in part to the extreme 
weakness of his position. 
Subserviency (s^bsSuviensi). [f. next : see 

-ENCY.] 

1. = SUBSERVIENCE i. 

1651 BAXTER Inf. Bapt. 277 All things being.. by him 
given out to the world, in subserviency to the ends of his 
design. 1662 STILLINGFL. Orig. Sacrae n. iv. 5 This 
Institution of them in the Schools of the Prophets was of 
great subserviency. 1732 BERKELEY Alcifhr. in. 9 The 
Beauty of Dress depends on its subserviency to certain 
Ends and Uses. 1748 HARTLEY Observ. Man ii. i. 3. 10 
When we contemplate . . the manifest Adaptations and Sub 
serviencies of all these Things to each other. 1830 LYEI.L 
Princ. Geol. I. 479 The subserviency of our planet to the 
support of terrestrial as well as aquatic species. 1862 HOOK 
Lives Abps. II. 124 Persons, whom he intended to bring 
to a subserviency to his objects. 

2. = SUBSERVIENCE 2. Now rare exc. as im 
plied in 3. 

1653 H. MORE Conjcct. Cabbal. (1713) 15 It is reasonable 
the worser should be in sub>erviency to the better, a 1665 
J. GOODWIN Being filled with the Sp. (1867) 147 That sub 
serviency which, .seems to be attributed to the Holy Ghost. 
1723 SWIFT Argts. agst. Bps. Wks. 1761 III. 263 Lords and 
squires who.. murmur at the payment of rent as a sub 
serviency they were not born to. 1896 DK. ARGYLL Philos. 
Belief % The subserviency of structure to function, and the 
priority in time of structural growth. 

3. = SUBSERVIENCE 3. 

(11768 SECKER Serttt. (1770) III. viii. 178 The obstructing 
of useful Measures by Opposition, forwarding bad ones by 
Subserviency. 1815 W. H. IRELAND Scribbleomania 57 
note, Any stricture on the score of subserviency in style 
or composition. 1852 MRS. STOWE Uncle Toms C. xxxix, 
That cringing subserviency which is one of the most baleful 
effects of slavery. 1878 LECKY Eng. in i8th Cent. I. i. 8 
In no country have State trials been conducted with.. a 
more scandalous subserviency to the Crown. 

Subservient (sdbsauvient), a. (sb.*) [ad.L. 
subserviens, -entail^ pr. pple. of subservtre to 
SUBSERVE.] A. adj. 

1. Being of use or service as an instrument or 
means ; serving as a means to further an end, 
object, or purpose ; serviceable. Const, to a person 
or thing, a design, condition, process. 

1632 TATHAM Love crowns the end \. Dram. Wks. (1878) 
19 If these eyes be my own, I fondly trust They may be more 
subservient to me. 1651 BAXTER Inf. Bapt. 144 If they do 
preach any wholsom Doctrine, it is usually but subservient to 
their great Design. 1656 RIDGLEY Pratt- Physick 55 The 
spirits, .subservient to the imagination in the Brain. 1690 
LOCKE Hum. Und. n. ix. 7 Ideas, which we may. .suppose 
may be introduced into the Minds of Children in the Womb, 
subservient to the necessity of their Life., there. 1729 BUTLER 
Serm. Wks. 1874 II. 150 Every particular affection.. is sub 
servient to self-love. 1781 GIBBON /Vt:/. <y F. xviii. (1787) II. 
99 The arts of fraud were made subservient to the designs of 
cruelty. 1873 SYMONDS Grk. Poets vii. 189 The drama 
renders all arts subservient to the one end of action. 1879 
HARLAN Eyesight ii. 18 All the other structures of the eye 
may be considered subservient to this one [the retina], 
t b. Const, to with inf. or a prep, with gerund. 

1668 DRYDEN Dram. Poesy Wks. 1725 I. 43 They dwell 
on him and his concernments, while the rest of the Persons 
are only subservient to set him off. 1714 R. FIDDES Pract. 
Disc. n. 145 Persons who are subservient in this respect 
towards promoting the honour of God. 1710 YOUNG Rffvetige 
in. i, This is a good subservient artifice, To aid the nobler 
workings of my brain. 1755 SMOLLETT Quix. (1803) II. 23 
In making you subservient in facilitating our success. 
fc. without construction. Obs. 

1650 BULWER Anthropomet. 173 They are not in the 
number of them that perform an action, but of those that 
are subservient. 1661 J. FELL Hammond 112 Scarce ever 
reading any thing which he did not make subservient in one 
kinde or other. 1701 GREW Cosntol. Sacra n. i. 36 While 
we are awake, we feel none of those Motions, which are 
continually made, in the disposal of the Corporeal Princi 
ples Subservient herein. 

2. Acting or serving in a subordinate capacity ; 
subordinate, subject. Const, to. 

a. of persons. 

1647 CLARENDON Hist. Reb. i. 140 That the Queen might 
have solely that Power, and he only be Subservient to her. 
1667 Decay Chr. Piety ii. r 13 Can we think he will be 
patient thus to be made subservient to his enemy? 1711 
G. HICKES Two Treat. Chr. Priesth. (1847) II. 79 The 
deacons as subservient inferior ministers. 1721 PRIOR 
Predcst. 63 Wks. 1907 II. 347 Is God subservient to his own 
Decree? 1873 HAMERTON Intell. Life vii. vi. 258 Women 
are by nature far more subservient to custom than we are. 
1880 VERNON LEE Italy in. i. 73 They wanted the singer 
to remain subservient to the composer. 

b. of things. 

1641 MILTON Ch. Govt. iii. Wks. 1851 III. 109 Copies out 
from the borrow d manuscript of a subservient scrowl. 1656 
TUCKER Rep. in Misc. Scott. Burgh Rec. Soc. 19 The towne 
is a mercat towne, but subservient and belonging, .to the 
towne of Lynlithquo. 1687 DRYDEN Hind 4- P. i. 88 
Superiour faculties are set aside, Shall their subservient 
organs be my guide ? 1709 POPE Ess. Crit. 263 Most Critics, 
fond of some subservient art, Still made the Whole depend 
upon a Part. 1864 PUSEY Lect. Daniel ii. 88 Antiochus 
Epiphanes . . directed against God what was to be subservient 
to God. 1870 DISRAELI Lothair xii, Assuming that religion 
was true.. then religion should be the principal occupation 
of man, to which all other pursuits should be subservient. 



SUBSERVIENTLY. 



47 



SUBSIDENCE. 



c. Law. (Cf. SERVIENT and SERVITUDE 7.) 

1681 STAIR Inst. Law Scot. i. xvi. 327 Personal Servitudes 
are, whereby the property of one is subservient to the person 
of another. 1681 [see SERVITUDE j\ 1884 Laiv Rep. 25 
Chanc. Div. 580 The mortgagees ofC, D,and E- .acquiesced 
in those blocks being made subservient to the adjoining 
block B. 

3. Of persons, their actions, etc, : Slavishly sub 
missive ; truckling, obsequious. 

1794 MRS. RADCLIFFE Myst. Udolpho xlviii, Emily was.. 
disgusted by the subservient manners of many persons, 
who [etc.]. 1819 SCOTT Ivanhoe xxi, The foreigner came 
here poor, beggarly, cringing, and subservient. 1839 JAMES 
Louis A"/K, IV. 251 He contrived to ally this subservient 
flattery to a degree of intemperate vehemence towards Louis. 
1874 GREEN Short Hist. viii. 2 (1882) 472 The lawyers had 
been subservient beyond all other classes to the Crown. 
B. sb. A subservient person or thing, rare. 

1867 D. PAGE Man 143 The primitive notion that this 
earth was the centre of the universe, and the sun, moon, and 
stars, formed merely to be its subservients. 1898 MEREDITH 
Odes Fr. Hist. 35 The fair subservient of Imperial Fact. 

Subserviently (sz>bs5-rvientH), adv. [f. prec. 

+ -LY 2 .] In a subservient manner. 

1678 CUDWORTH Intell. Syst. 221 The worst of all Evils 
made.. to contribute subserviently to the Good and Per 
fection of the Whole. 1795 Ann. Reg., Hist. 18 They acted 
subserviently to all its designs. 1823 W. SCORESBV Jrnl. 
p. xv, Discovery was an object, therefore, that could only 
be pursued subserviently to this. 1885 Maiich. Exam. 
26 Aug. 5/4 Unless it \sc. the Government] complies sub 
serviently with the Nationalist demands. 

So Snbse rvientness rare~ (1/27 Bailey 
Vol. II). 

Subserving (s#bs5uvirj),///.<z. [f. SUBSERVE 
v. + -ING ^.] That subserves ; subservient. 

1621 BURTON Anat. Mel. i. i. 11. ii, Ligaments, are they 
that tye the Bones together, and other parts to the Bones, 
with their subseruing tendons, 1893 Advance (Chicago) 
2 Nov., Combine, .against the ring and its boss and its 
subserving tool that now fills the Mayor s chair. [1895 
W. H. HUDSON Spencer s Philos. 124 In non-gregarious 
creatures, the only conflict is between self- subserving and 
race-subserving activities.] 

Subsesquialteral, etc. : see SUB- 10. 

Subsessile (sbse-sil), a. ZooL and Bot. [ad. 
mod.L. sitbsessilis : see SUB- 20 c.] Not truly 
sessile ; almost sessile. 

1760 J. LEE Introd. Bot. in. iv. (1765) 174 Verticillns^ 
Whorl, expresses a Number of Flowers that are subsessile. 
1777 S. ROBSON Brit. Flora 104 Snow Saxifrage. Leaves 
obovate, crenate, suhsessile. 1856 W. CLARK I an der 
Hoevetfs Zool. I. 374 Abdomen subsessile,conico-acuminate. 

Su bset, sb* 1 [f. SUBSET v.] An act of sub- 
setting or subletting. 

a 1722, 1763-8 [see SUBSETTING below]. 

Su-bset, j.2 [f. SUB- 5 c + SET s6*\ A sub 
ordinate set. 

1902 Encyct. Brit. XXIX, 121/1 It may be possible to 
divide the set into a number of subsets, no two of which con- 
tain a common object. 

Subset (swbse-t), v. Sc. [f. SUB- 9 (b) + SET 
v.~\ trans. To underlet, sublet. 

1681 STAIR Inst. Laiv Scot. \. xiii. 253 As the half may be 
sub-sett, so any other right less then the value of the half, 
is sustained as an Infeftment of warrandice. 1752 Scots 
Mag. Nov. 551/2 A small farm.., which he had subset at 
about 61. Sterling/*^- annum. 1801 Farmer s Mag. Nov. 381 
A missive of tack, . . which made no mention of assignees, , . 
was.. found, neither capable of being assigned, nor subset. 
1806 SCOTT Fam. Lett. (1894) I. 35, I have subset the whole 
of the sheep farm. 1838 W. BELL Diet. Law Scot. 582 To 
assign or subset a lease of the ordinary endurance of nine 
teen years. 

b. absol. or intr. 

1801 Farmers Mag. Nov. 379 A tack of lands does not 
imply a power, either to assign, or even to subset. 1838 
W. BELL Diet. Law Scot. 582 In such leases.. an express 
authority to assign or subset must be given. 

Hence Subse tting vbt. sb.\ Sub se t table a., 
capable of being subset. 

01722 FOUNTAINHALL Decis. I. 454 The axiom against 
sub-setting is only against an assignment... But a sub-set 
is lawful, and was so found 12 March 1686. lyes-SERSKiNE 
Inst. La-w Scot. n. vi. 33 (1773) 265 It remains a doubt, 
whether the power of subletting is implied in the nature of 
a tack, without a special clause. Ibid.) By a subset the 
principal tacksman is not changed. 1801 Farmer s Mag. 
Nov. 379 All tacks, likewise, that are to subsist for a great 
length of time, are also assignable, as well as subsettable. 

t Su bsettle. Obs. [f. SUBSET v. + -LE, -EL; 
cf. underset tie.] An under-tenant; = UNDERSETTLE. 

*583 in J. Guest Rotherham (1879) 361 Andrew Robinson 
sub setell for a horse on the comon contrary to our custome 6d. 

Subseyd, variant of SUBSIDE sb. 

Subshrub(s0 bfrb). Hort. [f.SuB- 3 + SHKUB 
j*. 1 , to render mod. L. suffnttex(pct SUFFRUTICOSE). 
Cf. the earlier undcrshrub.] An undershrub, or 
very small shrub. 

1851 G LENNY Handbk. Fl. Card, n The double-flowered 
varieties.. may be.. treated as perennial sub-shrubs. 

So Su bshrubby a. t resembling a subshrub, 
suffruticose. 

1843 Florist s Jml. (1846) IV. 140 It is a dwarf and com 
pact-growing plant, apparently of an evergreen herbaceous 
or subshrubby habit. 1851 GLENNV Handbk. Fl. Gard. 67 
Mathiola incana, the queen stock, is a sub-shrubby kind. 
1856 UtLAMER FL Gard. 107 The terms sub-shrubby plants 
and suffruticose trees have been invented, to designate 
those individuals which occupy intermediate posilions in 
the long series of the vegetable kingdom. 



f Subsidary, a. Obs. Erron. f. SUBSIDIARY. 

1628 H. BURTON Israel s Fast Bed. p. v, Who doe more 
hinder or prejudice the King in his necessarie and Royall 
Subsidarie Supplyes, then such Factours ? 1688 HOLME 
Armoury in. iv. 195/2 Suffragan or Subsidary Bishops. 

t Subsidate, v. Obs. rare- 1 , [irreg. f. L. sub- 
sidtre to SUBSIDE.] intr. To sink in. 

1653 R. SANDERS Ihysiogn. 173 The eyes, being humble, 
subsidate. 

So Subsida tion, a depression. 

1838 Frawr s Mag. XVII. 24 The protuberances or sub- 
sidations of the cranium. 

t Subside, sb. Obs. Also-sede, -seyd, -syde. 
[a. F. subside, ad. L. subsidium SUBSIDY.] = SUB 
SIDY. 

c \\epBrutu. 329 He axed-.agrete subsedeto begrauntcd 
to hem, for defendyngof hem and of hisrearne. 1474 Rental 
Bk. Cupar~ Angus (1879) I. 215 The byschoppis subseyd at 
his fyrst entre. igoz ARNOLDK Chron. (i3nj 193 The Rate 
of the Kyngis Custum and Subside of Marchaundises re- 
gistred in the Escheker. 1542 Yatton Churchw. Ace, (Som. 
Rec. Soc.) 156 Payd for the Kyngs subsyde xiij s. iiij d. 
1553 Rec. St. Mary at Hill (1904) 54 Aqvittaunce. .for the 
Subsede of the Church for the Svmma of iij Ii vj s. 

Subside (s#bsai*d), v. [ad. L. subsidcre^ i. 
sub- SUB- 2 +sid/re to sit down.] 

1. intr. To sink down, fall to the bottom, pre 
cipitate. Also with down. 

1681 tr. Willis Rem. Med. Wks. Vocab., Subside, to sink 
down, or fall to the bottom. 1696 WHISTON / /:. Earth in. 
(1722) 278 Their Shells were buried among the other Bodies 
or Masses which subsided down. 1721 Kit \DLKY Philos. 
Ace. Wks. Nat. 9 Bodies of no more weight than Shells, ur 
Teeth of Fishes, would subside themselves down to tiie 
bottom. 1765 Aluseum Rust. IV. 98 Chalk laid on clay will, 
we know, subside. 1857 MILI.KR Elem. Chew., Org. (1862) 
ii. i. 80 The precipitate is allowed to subside. 1877 Hux- 
LKY Physiogr. 133 The gravel is the first to fall; then ths 
sand subsides, and finally the mud settles down. 

2. To sink to a low or lower level, esp. of liquids 
or soil sinking to the normal level ; (of valleys) to 
form a depression ; (of a swelling or something 
inflated) to be reduced so as to become flat. 

1706 PHILLIPS (ed. Kersey) s. v.. The Streams Subside from 
their Banks. 1729 T. COOKE Tales^ etc. 46 Where shady 
Mountains rise, and Vales subside. 1731 ARBUTHNOT Ali~ 
ntents \\. H. (1735) 28 Small Air-Bladders. .capable to be in 
flated by the Admission of Air, and to subside at the Expul 
sion of it. 1765 A. DICKSON Treat. Agric. (ed. 2) 151 When 
the earth hath fully subsided, and become firm and solid 
[etc.]. 1796 MORSE Amer. Geog. I. 609 The mountains 
converge into a single ridge, which.. subsides into plain 
country. 1816 J. SMITH Panorama Sci. <y Art II. 76 On 
pouring a quantity of water into one limb, the water will 
rise in the other, and when left undisturbed, will subside at 
an equal height in both. 1817 SHELLEY Rev. Islam vii. 
xxvii,The Eagle. .The eager plumes subsided on his throat, 
1844 H. STEPHENS Bk. Farm I. 513 A little [earth] is left 
elevated immediately over the drain, to subside to the usual 
level of the ground. 1863 \JVWJLAntiq.Ma>t 34 The waters 
of the Nile had subsided. 1885 La:v Rep. 10 Prob. Div. 87 
A small blister, which subsided in a day or two. 

b. Of a mass of earth, etc. : To fall or give 
way as the result of dynamic disturbance, etc. 

1773 Cook s \ oy, n. xiv. (1842) I. 320 A large tract of 
country, of which it was part, subsided by some convulsion 
of nature. 1840 LYELL Princ. Geol. in. xvi. (ed. 6) III. 345 
Buildings which have at different times subsided beneath 
the level of the sea. 1879 A. R. Wallace s Australasia \. 
ii The bottom of the ocean is itself even now subsiding 
more and more. 1884 Pall MallGaz. 29 July 5/1 We sus 
pect that when the great basin of Taupo comes to be ex 
plored by the sounding lead, an extinct volcano, crater and 
all, will be found subsided in its midst. 

c. Of persons : To sink down into or on to a 
chair, etc. 



sat giggling. 

3. Of the sea, wind, storm : To sink to rest, 
abate. 

a 1721 PRIOR Tale from Boccace 55 Wks. 1907 II. 343 Not 
Waves and winds Subside more sudden. 1740 PITT JStltid 
vii. 9 The Sea subsiding, and the Tempests o er. 1839 
THIRLWALL Greece xlix. VI. 168 The wind had already sub 
sided. 1878 BROWNING La, Saisias 54 Beneath where, .soft 
the tree-top swell subsides. 

4. Of strong feeling, excitement, clamour, and 
the like : To cease from agitation, fall info a state 
of quiet or of less violence or activity. 

a 1700 EVELYN Diary Sept. 1644, Our desire of revenge 
had by this time subsided. 1772 TOPLADY in R. Palmer fik, 
Praise (1866) 436 Soon shall our doubts and fears Subside 
at His control. 1778 BURNEY Evelina xx.xiii. (1791) I. 177 
Her anger now subsiding into grief. 1783 CRABBE Village 
it. 183 Cease then that grief, and let those tears subside. | 
1824 SCOTT St. Rattan s iv, The clamour which attends the 
removal of dinner from a public room had subsided. 1855 
Poultry Chron. III. 170 Buying and selling fowls has sub 
sided from an excitement to a natural business transaction. 
1863 GEO. ELIOT Romola xxix, They parted with softening^ 
dropping voices, subsiding into silence. 1802 F. ANSTEY 
Voces Pop. Ser. n. 156 The hubbub gradually subsides. 

b. Of a condition: To die down, pass away, 
wear off. Of an action : To be discontinued. 

1751 CHKSTERF. Lett, cclviii, Your fencing likewise, .may 
subside for the summer. 1761 T. MORTIMER Ev. Man Own 
broker (ed. 5) 20 The probability of the premium (given on 
any Stock) totally subsiding. 1780 in Lett. Earl Malmes- 
bury (1870) I. 460, I shall go when the novelty is a little 
Mibsided. 1813 SHKI.LEY >. Mah in. 60 Too soon The 
slumber of intemperance subsides. 



5. Of persons : To fall into an inactive or less 
active or efficient state. 

1728 YOUNG Love of Fame vn. 196 His swelling soul sub 
sides to native peace. 1847 MRS. GORE Castles in Air xix 
I am not sure but I would rather live in the King s Uench 
..than subside into a country Squire. 1865 DICKENS Mttt. 
Fr. in, xv, That was well done!" panted Bella, slackening 
in the next street, and subsiding into a walk. 1885 Manch. 
Exam. 22 June 5/3 After a very promising career., he has 
subsided into a quiet and indifferent attitude. 

b. To cease from activity ; esp. to lapse into 
silence. 

1871 Cincinnati Comm. Apr, (Schele de Vere American* 
isms 6$ &) Thereupon the doughty General subsided, but it 
would be a great mistake to suppose that he will remain 
silent. 1880 Daily .Vcius i July. 13eing told he must keep 
quiet or be arrested he subsided. 

6. To be merged in ; to pass info. rare. 

1781 SIMES Mitit. Guide (ed. 3)4 Politeness should exceed 
authority, and the Officer subside in the gentleman. 1862 
STANLEY Jew. C/i. I. xii. 267 The old life was., never entirely 
to subside into the new. 

t 7. trans. To cause to sink in. Obs. rare. 

1650 BULVVER Anthropomet. 75 The roots of that promi 
nence which subsides the apple of the eye. 

Subsided (s-tSbsai dt-d;, ///. a. [f. prec. + 
-ED .] In senses of the verb : Sunk ; precipitated; 
quieted. 

1733 TULL Horseshoeing Husb. xiii. 163 The Earth -inkiiv;; 
away from the Roots, leaves the bottom of the Stalk higher 
than the subsided Ground, 1753 RICHARDSON C.randison 
VI. ix, When the contents are too much for me, I lay them 
down; and resume them, as my subsided joy will allow. 
1758 E laboratory laid open 63 Let the clear water be then 
poured back, into the first yes;*!, with great care not to dis 
turb the subsided powder. 1839 UHK Di.t. Arts 1274 The 
muriate of copper is to be decanted from the >ub.-,ideil 
gypsum. 1844 H, STEPHENS /> . i ann I. 504 All the >.ods 
just fill up the subsided drain. 1851 Corf. Lady Lytte tton 
(1912) 410, I . . woke with a pleasant subsided feeling. 

Subsidence ^siJbsardcns, szrbskl&is). [ad. L. 
sitbsidcntia sediment, f. subshtire to SUBSIDE : see 
-ENCE. Cf. It. .itssidenza sediment.] 

1. A sediment, precipitate, r Obs. 

1646 SIR T. linowNE Pseud, Ep.gz A Chalky earth, which 
..steeped in water, affoordeth a cream.. on the top, and a 
grosse subsidence at the bottome. 1650 VAUGHAN Anthro- 
posophia 15 The Karth was an impure, Sulphureous subsi 
dence, otCaput mortitnm of the Creation. 1847 CLARKK in 
Jrnl. R. Agric. Soc. VIII. i. 109 The soil of the whole is 
the subsidence of a muddy water. 1890 GOULD Nfiv Med. 
Diet. , Subsidence ^..\fi pharmacy, the sediment falling from 
a liquid. 

2. The settling (of solid or heavy things) to the 
bottom, formation of sediment, precipitation. 

1656 BLOUNT Glossogr.^ Subsidence^ a resting or selling in 
the bottom. 1696 WHISTON Th. Earth m. (1722) 278 The 
same Law, , was also observ d in the subsidence of the Shells 
of Fishes. 1765 Museum Rust. IV. 98 What I have written 
on the subsidence of chalk, and the simple method of re 
covering that almost-lost manure. 1799 Monthly Rev. XXX. 
150 A force of subsidence, the natural consequence of 
gravity,. .has produced similar effects. 1800 HENRY Kpit. 
C/u-ui. (1808) 125 Separate the liquid part by filtration or 
by subsidence. 1857 MILLER Elem. Ckew. t Org. (1862) iv. 
i. 259 The clear oil is afterwards agitated. ., again clarified 
by subsidence [etc.], 

3. The sinking (of liquids) to a normal or lower 
level ; also, a fall in the level of ground. 

1660 HOVLE Contin. New Exper. xix. 62 The Quick-silver 
that before stood at 29 inches, .would fall so low as to rest 
at 9 or 10 inches, (for once I measur d the Subsidence be- 
neath its former Elevation). 1837 SVD. SMITH Wks. (1850) 
641 One of those Shem-Ham-and-Japhet buggies made 
on Mount Ararat soon after the subsidence of the waters. 
1839 G. BIRD Nat. Philos. 104 The subsidence of mercury 
in the barometer, as we ascend mountains., affords valuable 
data for calculating their vertical height. 1863 HAWTHORNE 
Our Old Home (1879) 104 The country.. is a succession of 
the gentlest swells and subsidences. 1865 LIVINGSTONS 
Zambesi xxi. 429 Snags.. left in th- Channel on ihe sudden 
subsidence of the water. 

b. A fall in rhythm or accent. 

1824 LANDOR I mag. Com ., At&chines ft Phocion Wks. 
1853 I. 26/2 Concentrated are his arguments, . .easy the 
swell and subsidence of his periods, his dialect purely attic. 
1851 HAWTHORNE Ho. Sev. Gables x, He delighted in the 
swell and subsidence of the rhythm, and the happily-recur 
ring rhyme. 

4. A sinking into inactivity or quiescence. 

a. of feelings, of a disturbance, of the attacks 
of a disease, etc. 

1754 WATIBURTON Scmt. 27 Oct., Wks. 1788 V. 519 The 
mind.. being, by the subdual or subsidence of the more 
violent passions, now become attentive to, and sensible of, 
the soft and gentle impressions cf tranquillity. 1847 DICKENS 
Haunted Man \\-7o A decided subsidence of her animosity. 
1864 LOWELL Fireside Trav. 256 So these people burst out 
. .into a noise and fury.. .And the subsidence is as sudden. 
1890 GOULD New Med. Diet., S*U&C* t ..m pathology, 
the gradual cessation and disappearance of an attack of 
disease. 

b. Of physical phenomena or actions. 

1731 ARBUTHNOT Aliments 11. ii. (17^5) 29 The alternate 
Motion of those Air-Bladders, whose Surfaces are by turns 
freed from mutual Contact, and by a sudden Subsidence 
meet again by ihe ingress and egress of the Air. 18. . Edin. 
Rev. (Seager), Subsidence of waves. 1860 TVNDALL Glac. 
i. 81 The subsidence of this action [throbbing] was always 
the signal for further advance. 1864 \JOnrWLLf9rgtUf Trav. 
292 We awaited her subsidence as that of a shower. 1879 
CasstlCs Tecktt. Ednc. I. 215 A second, .fermentation takes 
place..; its subsidence diminishes the bulk of the wine. 



SUBSIDENCY 

c. Sinking into decline or decay. 
1856 MERIVALE Rom. Emp. xxxiii. (1865) IV. 67 It was 
about the period of the Gracchi that this subsidence of the 
old aristocracy of birth began first to be remarked. 

5. (orig. GeoL) A gradual lowering or settling 
down of a portion of the earth due to dynamic 
causes, mining operations, or the like. 

iSoz PLAYFAIR Illustr. Hut ton. Tk. 449 Though a local 
subsidence, or settling of the ground, could hardly account 
for this change,, .yet a subsidence that has extended to a 
great tract, .will agree very well with the appearances. 
1854 ML RCHISON Siluria vi. 131 The rock is., subject to 
slides or subsidences. 1856 PAGE Adv. Text-bk. Geol. ii. 39 
Subsidences occasioned by earthquake and volcanic con 
vulsions. 1912 Standard 2Q Sept. 6/4 Streets and buildings 
. .are being damaged by subsidences due to disused under 
ground workings. 

transf, 1861 Morning Post 27 Nov., They reached the 
door, but found it fixed by the subsidence of the walls. 

6. attrib.) applied to vessels in which liquids 
are put in order to precipitate their suspended 
solid matter, as subsidence reservoir, vat. 

1858 SIMMONDS Diet. Trade t Subsidence-vat , a dyer s 
settling-vat. 1892 Pall Mall Gaz. 9 Sept. 2/1 All the com 
panies supplying river water.. have subsidence reservoirs, 
Into which the water is first turned for the purpose of allow 
ing such of the suspended solid matter as will to settle. 

Subsidency (subsardfinsi, sybsidensi). Now 
rare. [ad. L. subsldentia : see prec.] = prec. 

1655-87 H. MORE App. Antid. (1712) 215 Bodies. .in a 
confused agitation may very likely go together, as we see 
done, .in the subsidency of this dreggish part of the World, 
the Earth, a 1661 FULLER Worthies, Surrey (1662) in. 79 
Those who judiciously impute the sudden subsidency of the 
Earth in the interstice aforesaid to some underground hoi- 
lowness. 1691 RAY Creation \\. (1704) 261 So as to cause 
a Subsidency of the Lungs by lessening the cavity there. 
1779 Phil. Trans. LXIX. 597 A strong and regular current 
in a river is the best of all means, .for preventing the forma, 
tion of banks in the bed by the subsidency of mud, &c. 
1811 PINKBRTON Petral. II. 416 Throughout all the space 
many fissures appeared and subsidencies of the ground. 
J 845 S. JLDU Margaret \\. Hi, In the subsidencyand depar 
ture of love, the moral system is revolutionized. 

Subsident (scbsai-d&it, sirbsident), a. rare. 
[ad. L. sulsidens, -entem, pr. pple. of sttbsu&re to 
SriitiinE.] Precipitating. 

1889 PENXELL Fishing 415 By subsequent treatment of the 
precipitated and sub udent metals. 

t Subside real, a. 06s. rare- 1 . [Sufi- i a.] 
Subcelestial, sublunary. 

1636 in Ann. Dubrensia (1877)57 This subs ideriall rundle. 

t Subsi dial, a. Obs. rare~ l . [f. SUBSIDY sb. 
+ -AL.] = SUBSIDIARY a. 3 c. 

1798 PKNNANT Hindovstan II. 13 A subsidlal ally of the 
English, who receive from its monarch the annual sum of 
,160,000. 

Subsidiarily (sbsi-diarili), a<iv. [f. next + 
-LT 2 .] In a subsidiary manner or position ; sub- 
ordinately, secondarily, (occas. const, to.} 

1603 FtOKioJfbn/ajgWL xxxii, At firstsightheaddresseth 
himselfe to this meane, which they never embrace but sub 
sidiarily. 1625 Docum, Impeach. Dk. Buckhw. (Camden 
Soc.) 209 Three onely should speak, subsidiarily one to an 
other. 1694 FALLK Jersey iv. 112 This Court was first 
brought in Subsidiarily, when Causes grew too numerous 
for Cat el. 1818 H. T. COLE BROOKE Obligations 141 He is 
not bound subsidiarily for the remainder, in the event of in- 
solvency of his coheirs. 1852 BROWNING Shelley s Lett. 
Introd. Ess. (1881) 7 Subsidiarily to the human interest of 
his work. 1897 MAITLAND Domesday Bk. $ Beyond 148 
The hundred being but subsidiarily liable. 

Subsidiary (svbsrdiari), a. and sb. [ad. L. 
subsididnus, f. subsidium : see SUBSIDIUM. Cf. 
F. sabsidiaire, It. sussidiario, Sp., Pg. subsidiario.] 

L Serving to help, assist, or supplement; fur 
nishing assistance or supplementary supplies ; 
auxiliary, tributary, supplementary. (Chiefly of 
things,) 

1543 JOVE G. y. confuteth Winch. Art.fol. ij, lustified by 
thonelye faith in him, and by nothing els as by any sub- 
sydiary attainment ..vnto this full iustificacion in christe. 
1613 R. C. Table Alpli., Subsidiarie^ that is giuen or set 
to aide another. 1615 CROOKE Body of Man 74 A bloud- 
like vapor which returneth into the yeines, and so becom. 
meth for want of better, a subsidiarie nourishment of the 
partes. 1627 DONNE Serin, xliv. (1640) 442 In these sub 
sidiary gods, these occasional gods, there could be no Om 
nipotence, no Almightinesse. 1688 HOLME Armoury m. iii. 
64/1 A Suffragan Bishop, or Subsidiary Bishop. 1731 ARBUTH- 
NOT Aliments vi. viii. (1735) 235 Howsoever they [sc. bitter 
Substances] may be acceptable to some one Part, that is.. 
that they are a sort of subsidiary Gall. 1776 ADAM SMITH 
W. N. v. iii. II. 545 [A sinking fund] is a subsidiary fund 
always at hand to be mortgaged in aid of any other doubtful 
fund. 1805-17 R. JAMESON CJtar. Min. 159 The decrements 
on these last faces are considered as subsidiary, to favour 
the action of the principal decrement. 1832 BREWSTER Nat. 
Magic v ; (i833) 1 10 The inflammation . . of the ignited gas will 
be sustained by these four subsidiary flames. 1864 BOWEN 
Logic v\. 150 Concerning the nature of the objects delivered 
by the Subsidiary Faculties. 1872 YEATS Techn. Hist. 
Comm. 211 We must mention the development of printing 
and the subsidiary art of paper-making. 1903 Daily Chron. 
26 Oct. 3/s Bishop Subsidiary of Caerleon. 
b. Const, to. 

1663 WATERHOUSE Comm. Fortescite** De Land. Legum 
Anglise 398 The Commoners of England being landed, are 
so subsidiary to their Princes and Laws In all kindes of aide 
and duty. 1679 EVELYN Sylva (ed. 3) To Rdr. A 3 An 
infinity of solitary, and loose Experiments subsidiary to it. 
a 1740 WATERLAND En$, cone. Inf. Cotnnmn. v, As soon as 
Baptism became impaired, the Use of the Eucharist ought 



48 

to come in as subsidiary, or supplemental to it. 1836 KEBLE 
Serm, yiii. (1848) 200 A system of tradition, subsidiary to 
the Scriptures, might yet exist in the commonwealth or city 
of God. 1856 FROUDE Hist. Eng. (1858) I. v. 380 This was 
his first object, to which every other was subsidiary. 1868 
M. PATTISON Academ. Org. v. 122 The College is subsidiary 
to the University. 1875 GLADSTONE Glean. VI. xxxix. 130 No 
ritual is too much, provided it is subsidiary to the inner 
work of worship. 

c. Technical uses. 

Subsidiary cells (Bot.): certain epidermal cells which are 
less thickened or situated lower than the guard-cells which 
they surround. Subsidiary coin : coins of the lower de 
nominations; U.S. silver coinage of lower denomination 
than the dollar. Subsidiary goal ( Polo) : see quot. 1899. 
Subsidiary quantity or mnw? (Math.) : see quot. 1842. 

1842 Penny Cycl. XXIII. 196 Subsidiary. A quantity or 
symbol is so called when it is not essentially a part of a 
problem, but is introduced to help in the solution. The 
term is particularly applied to angles, since the trigono 
metrical tables give a great power over their management, 
which causes their frequent introduction. 1863 FAWCETT 
Pol. Econ. HI. xv. (1876) 480 Our copper and silver money 
are to be regarded as subsidiary coinage. 1884 BOWER & 
SCOTT De Bary s Phaner. 45 The superficial stomata first 
developed are surrounded by several partitioned zones of 
subsidiary cells. 1899 J. M. Brown s Polo 377 (Badm. 
Libr.), A subsidiary goal is obtained in the same way as 
a true goal, except that to score a subsidiary goal the ball 
must pass between the subsidiary goal mark and the goal 
post which is nearest to it. Subsidiary goals are to be 
measured n feet from each goal-post on the outride. 

d. Of a stream : Tributary. Similarly of a 
valley. 

1834 PRINGLE Afr. Sk. vii. 246 We slept one night at 
the mouth of a subsidiary dell. 1837 CARI.YLE Fr.Ren. m. 
ii. i, All manner of subsidiary streams and brooks of bitter- 



plateau on the south is divided by a subsidiary valley of 
much the same character, down which the small River Vesle 
flows to the main stream. 

2. With the notion of helping or supplementing 
weakened or obscured: Subordinate, secondary. 

1831 CARLYLE Sart. Res. (1858) 171 The others are only sub 
sidiary species, or slight varieties. 1867 J. HOGG Microsc. i.iL 
68 When any system of waves meets with an obstacle, subsi 
diary systems of undulation will be formed. 1875 WHITNEY 
Life Lang ix. 166 Its legion of subsidiary dialectic forms. 
1883 R. H. SCOTT Elem. Meteorot. 380 Lesser eddies are found 
on the outskirts of the original depression. ..At times these 
latter* secondary , subsidiary , or satellite depressions, as 
they are called, develop greater energy than their primaries. 

3. f a. Consisting of a subsidy or subsidies. 
1608 WILLET Hexapla Exod. Ded. i That honourable 

assemblie hath, .presented to your Maiestie a subsidiarie 
beneuolence. 1637 SALTONSTALL Eusebius Constantine 7 
The most royall Kmperour after their departure, summoned 
those againe that had sent in their Subsidiary money. 
i64oCuLPEPFER in Rushw. Hist. Coll. (1602) I. 34 As soon 
as the House was setled, a Subsidiary Aid and Supply was 
propounded. 

b. Depending on a subsidy or subsidies: in sub 
sidiary treaty (cf. SUBSIDY 3 b, 4). 

1755 H. WALPOLE Lett. (1840) III. 158 All the world re 
volted against subsidiary treaties. 1902 Encycl. Brit. (ed. 
10) XXIX. 453/2 Lord Wellesley introduced that system of 
subsidiary treaties which has played so important a part in 
the expansion of British dominion. 

C. Maintained or retained by subsidies. 

1802 C. JAMES Milit. Dict. % Subsidiary Troops, troops of 
one nation assisting those of another for a given sum or sub 
sidy. 1864 DURTON Scot. Abr. I. iii. 134 Both the British 
countries were in some measure subsidiary and protected 
states. 
B. sb. 

fl. The levy of a subsidy. Obs. rare~ l . 

1593 GREENE Upst. Courtier (1871) 4 Their fathers were 
not above three pounds in the Kings books at a Subsidiary. 

2. A subsidiary thing ; something which furnishes 
assistance or additional supplies ; an aid, auxiliary. 
Now rare. 

1603 FLORIO Montaigne ii. xii. 255 These considerations 
ought to be applied and employed to our beleefe, but as 
Subsidiaries, a 1660 HAMMOND Serm. (Phil. iv. 13) Wks. 
1684 IV. 573 Which deceitful consideration drew on Pelagius 
himself, that was first only for nature, at last to take in one 
after another, five Subsidiaries more. 1697 EVELYN Nwnis. 
matavyi. 251 I mages of the Gods and Goddesses, with other 
Subsidiaries. 01706 Mem. (1819) II. 206, I. .shall not be 
able to do it with any satisfaction, unless y r LOP favour me with 
the com unication of the subsidiaries in y r cabinet. 1796 BUR- 
NEY Mem. Metastasio I. 327 If, in despight of so many sub 
sidiaries, you should be of a different opinion. 1808 HAN. 
MORE C&lebs xxiii, As to the lectures.. they may be doubt 
less made very useful subsidiaries to instruction. 1824 L. 
MURRAY Engl. Gram. (ed. 5) I. 64 All other sorts of words 
must be regarded as subsidiaries. 

b. An assistant. 

1807 ROBINSON Archseol. Grggca i. xiii. 58 The number of 
senators was again augmented. . .To these fifty a similar 
number of subsidiaries was added. 1881 Blackw. Ma%. 
Apr. 507 The building is occupied by three priests and a few 
subsidiaries. 

c. Technical uses : (a} Mus. A theme of inferior 
importance, subordinate to the first or second 
subject, (b] Stock Exch. A subsidiary company. 
(c) Polo. A subsidiary goal. 

1883 Grove s Diet. Mus, s.v., In some cases a Subsidiary 
acquires so much importance in the working out as to rank 
as a third subject. 1898 Wesim. Gaz. 22 Mar. 8/2 The whole 
question of the value of Randfontein lies. .in the way its 
numerous subsidiaries turn out. 1901 Ibid. 14 Jan. 9/1 The 
shares of the Corporation, which then stood at is. if*/., now 



SUBSIDIZE. 

stand at 6rf.,and it wants its shareholders to take the shares 
of these subsidiaries and provide more hard cash. 1903 Daily 
Chron. 27 _[an. 5/6 Three goals two subsidiaries to six goals 
two subsidiaries. 

t 3. A subsidized state. Obs. 

1756 Monitor No. 30. I. 275 The immense treasure paid 
for those subsidiaries, which by their treaties are engaged to 
cover Hanover, at the sole expence of Great Britain. 

Subsiding ^bsai dirj), vbl. sb. [f. SUBSIDE 
v. +-I.XG i.] = SUBSIDENCE. 

1672 BOYLE New Exper. Flame $ Air 13 The subsiding 

, of the Mercury, a 1676 HALE/>. Orig. Man \\. vii. IQO 

Strabo.. attributes those great Floods and Inundations to 

i the elevation and subsiding of the Moles terrestris. 1741 

MONRO Anat. Bones {ed. 3) 17 A regular alternate Elevation 

and subsiding, or an apparent Pulsation. 1823 J. BADCOCK 

DOM. Amusem. 151 Mixing a small quantity of alum with 

the water accelerates the subsiding of the starch. 

attnb. _ (cf. SUBSIDENCE 6.) 1892 Pall Mall Gaz. g Sept. 
! 1/3 Subsiding beds were provided so that the fluid portion of 
the river was alone supplied to the consumers. 

Subsiding ,sbs3rdin),///. a. [f. SUBSIDE v. 
+ -IXG2.] Tnat subsides, in various senses of the 
verb. 

1646 SIR T. BROWNE Pseud. Ep. 68 The subsiding powder 
dryed, retaines some magneticall vertue. 1694 SALMON 
Bate s Dispens. (1713) 353/1 Edulcorate the sub-siding 
Pouder, by many affusions ot fair Water. 1700 DKYDEN 
Iliad i. 711 With Terror trembled Heav ns subsiding Hill. 
1769 E. BANCROFT Guiana 279 The liquor is decanted from 
the subsiding bread, and drank. 1779 Mirror No. 66 
Specifying, .the subsiding state of her affections towards 
them. 1839 DARWIN Voy. Nat. xxii. 561 That class of 
widely-encircling reefs, which indicate a subsiding land. 
1889 Ln. LVTTUN Let. to W. Ward 25 Sept., The after effects 
of its subsiding eddies. 

i, Subsidium (sbsi-dim). PI. subsi-dia. 
[L. : see SUBSIDY.] A help, aid, subsidy. 

1640 in Rushw. Hist. Coll. (1692) I. 50 It was reasonable 
that in Subsidium they should contribute some help to their 
Neighbours, a 1676 HALE Prim. Orig. Man. 170 If left to 
it self without the continued Subsidium and Influence of 
the Divine Providence. 1729 SWIFT Let. to Bolingbroke 
31 Oct., Because I cannot be a great Lord, I would acquire 
what is a kind of subsidium. 1817 T. L. PEACOCK Melin- 
court II. 182 They have at all times a little more than they 
actually need, a subsidium for age or sickness. 1878 M. 
PAITISON in Encycl. Brit.\\ll. 517/2 Even if Erasmus had 
at his disposal the MSS. subsidia for forming a text. 

Subsidize (szrbsidoiz), v. [f. SUBSIDY + -IZE.] 

1. trans, a. To make a payment for the purpose 
ofsecuringtheservices of (mercenary oralien troops). 

1795 SEWARD Anccd. (1796) III. 382 Lord Chatham was 
obliged to call in to its aid the mercenary troops of other 
Nations: these, .he subsidised with a liberal, .hand. 1803 
WELLINGTON in Gurw. Desp. (1835) II. 223 The latter has 
agreed to subsidize one company of artillery and two bat 
talions of native infantry. 1838 PRESCOTT Ferd. fy Is. n. xiv, 

He obtained a small supply of men from his Italian allies, 
and subsidized a corps of 8000 Swiss. 1878 LECKV Eng . in 

\ iSth Cent. \. iii. 350 An army of about 44000 Swedes, Danes, 
and Hessians was subsidised. 

b. To furnish (a country, nation, princes) with 

i a subsidy for the purpose of securing their assistance 

j or their neutrality in war. 

a 1797 H. WALPOLE Mem. Reign Geo. Ill (1845) I. vii. 105 

i Little Princes are subsidized, when not worthy of reciproca 
tion. 1805 Spirit Pub/. Jrnls. IX. i, I have sought relief 
in hearing the censure of Administration for subsidizing the 
Continent. 1860 L. HARCOURT Diaries G. Rose I. 66 To 
subsidize one power against another. 

2. transf. a. To secure the services of by pay 
ment or bribery. 

1815 W. H. IRELAND ScribbUomania 26 note. Deigning to 
subsidize a venal pen in order to throw a gloss over the 
flagrant dereliction. 1871 Daily News 6 Nov., It was.. to 
abstain, .from subsidising the press. 1899 KIPLING Stalky 
66 The three.. stood to attention. .in full view of all the 
visitors, to whom fags, subsidised for that end, pointed them, 
out as victims of Prout s tyranny. 

fig. 1862 F. HALL Hindu Philos. Syst. 122 In its opera 
tions, it [sc. the soul] subsidizes all the sense-organs, 

b. To furnish funds for (a scheme or course of 
action), rare. 

1858 FROUDE Hist. Eng. III. xvi. 431 Like so many of the 
northern abbots, he might have been hoarding a fund to 
subsidize insurrection. 

c. To support by grants of money : now esp. of 
the government or some central authority contri 
buting to the upkeep of an institution, etc. 

1828 SOUTHEY in Q. Kev. XXXVIII. 592 For the British 
Government to pay the Roman Catholic clergy would be to 
subsidize the Court of Rome against itself. 1871 Pall Mall 
Gaz. 2$ Aug. 10 M. Thiers unhappy stroke of financial 
ingenuity actually subsidizes the detested Teuton. 1876 
J. GRANT Burgh Sch. Scot. n. iii. 129 In several places, we 
find the councils actually subsidizing adventure schools. 
1885 Manch. Exam. 17 Feb. 5/2 The schools.. have been 
subsidised by grants from the county magistrates. 1911 
War Dept. Provis. Subsidy Scheme j The full terms under 
which the War Department will subsidize vehicles. 

Hence Subsidized, Subsidizing vbl. sb. and 
///. a, ; Subsidiza tion, Su bsidizer. 

1817 COLERIDGE Biog. Lit. (1907) 1. 142 The abandonment 
of the subsidizing policy, so far at least as neither to goad or 
bribe the continental courts into war. 1870 W. R. GREG 
Pol. Probl, 29 The encpuragers and subsidi^ers of all other 
states through their crises of despondency and destitution. 
1872 Daily News 25 Mar., Every country has its subsidized 
lines of steamers, which carry mails to all parts of the world. 
1881 Athenxum 27 Aug. 274/1 The subsidizing of political 
benefit societies by well-to-do Conservatives. 1884 Pall 
Mall Gaz. 27 May 5/2 He., put an extinguisher upon all 
hopes of a conference with the subsidizing nations, or the 



SUBSIDTJOUS. 

introduction of a countervailing tariff. 1007 Daily Chron. \ 
i Jan- 5/5 1 he statement as to Mr. Schiff s subsidisation of 
the alleged Galveston scheme is inaccurate. 1908 A thtnxum 
31 Oct. 545/3 It was about to cease as a subsidized publi- , 
cation of the French Government. 

t Subsi duOUS, a, 06s. rare- 1 , [irreg. f. L. | 
sttbsidium SUBSIDY sb. or F. subside SUBSIDE sb. : 
see -UOU9.] Assisting, subsidiary. 

1490 CAXTON Eneydos xix. 71/29 V e subsiduous [orig. F. 
subcide} modre that hath made the to be norysshed. .wyth 
the mylke of the tygres of Yrcanye, 

Subsidy (so bsidi), sb. Also 4-7 subsidie, 5 
-sidee, -sydye, 5-6 -sidye, 5-7 -sedye, 6 sub- 
sedy, -sydy, -sidey, -sidwe(?). [a. AF. sub 
sidie = OF. (and AF.) subside, ad. L. subsidium. 
Cf. Pr. subsidi, It. sussidio, Sp., Pg. sitbsidio.] 

1. Help, aid, assistance. Also with a and //. 
Obs. or arch. 

1387 TREV.SA Higdtn (Rolls) III. 469 Everych [element 
of the body] schulde . . seve us special helpe and subsidie by 
his owne dispensacioun. 1432-50 tr. ///<&/ (Rolls) II. i2g 
A thowmbe in the ry^hte foote of Pyrrhus kynge, the tow- 
chenge of whom ^afe subsidy ageyne venom. 1491 RYMAN 
Poems Ixxxi. 3 in Arc/iiv Stud, neu. S#r. LXX.XIX. 250 
Petir and Paule and seintis alle,.For subsidie to you we 
calle. ? 1533 FRITH (title) An other boke against Rastel 
named the subsedye or bulwark to his fyrst boke. 1553 
LATJMER Serin* Lord s Prayer vii. (1562) 53 [45] To cry vnto 
god. -for a subsidie against this. .enemy. 1557 PAVNELL 
Barclays Jttenrth, 52 On the right winge..he ordeyned 
as it were a forward enforced with a threfold subsidie or 
socour. 1639 FULLER Holy War iv. viii. 180 liefore he 
began his voyage he craved a subsidie of prayers from the 
Monks of S. Albanes. 1675 ALSOP Anti-Sozzo iii. 2. 203 
It s a very Ruful cause that needs such Subsidies to main 
tain it. 1830 SIR \V. HAMILTON Discuss. (1853) 63 Dr. Drown 
. .rejects as un philosophical, those hyperphysical subsidies. 

2. Eng t Hist. A pecuniary aid granted by par 
liament to the sovereign to meet special needs. 

In the i4th and isth centuries the term (occurring, in the 
AF. form subside, in 1340 Rolls Parlt. II. 112/2, 117/1, 
1353 27 Kdw, HI stat. i. c. 4, 1383 5 Rich. If stat. ii. c. 3) 
was applied mainly to the taxes on cloth, wool, leather, and 
skins, and the duties of tonnage and poundage. In Tudor 
times it was applied pre-eminently to a tax of 4*. in the pound 
on lands and 2s. &d. in the pound on movables. Its applica 
tion to tonnage and poundage was continued in acts of 
parliament until 1707 Act 6 A nne c. 48. In 1698 an increased 
percentage of duty charged upon certain articles was known 
as the New Subsidy. 

Tlie term has been extended by legal and historical writers 
to the aids derived from the tenth, the fifteenth, and other 
sources. The old lawyers, e. g. Coke, term the duties on 
wool, skins, and leather, perpetual subsidies, the others 
being classed as temporary . 

t Book of subsidy* = subsidy-book fsee 4). 

c 1380 WYCLIF Wks. (1880) 103 Whanne be kvng & lordis 
axeden of grete prelatis subsidies & dymes for here temper- 
altes. 1422 [see TONNAGE^, i]. 1429 Rolls of Parlt. IV. 173/2 
The forsaid pouere Commens. .graunton to oure said Lord 
the Kyng.. a subsidie of xxxiiis. ini d.. .of every sak weight 
of Wolle, and of every ccxl. of Wolle felle. 1425 Ibid. 
289/3 With outeanysubsidee payngfor the samefsc. Wool]. 
c 1460 FORTESCUB Abs. <$ Lim. Jifen. vi. (1885) 122 The 
kynge hath therfore l subsidie off pondage and tonnage. 
1544 Churchw. Ace. St. Giles, Reading fed. Nash) 70 To 
the kynges collectors for the subsidie ix* iiij*. c 1550 Disc. 
Common Weal Enz. (1893) 55 Which.. myght releue them 
\sc. breeders of wool) of theire subsidwes. 1571 Acts Priiy 
Council VIII. 29 The assessing and taxing of the first 
payment of the Subsedye graunted by the Layetie at the 
lait Parliament. 1581 LAMBARDE Eiren. it. ii. (1588) 109 
Such as have their names regUtred in the Booke of Sub 
sidie. 1593 SHAKS. 2 Hen. I//, iv. vii. 25 He that made 
vs pay one and twenty Fifteenes, and one shilling to the 
pound, the last Subsidie. 1603-4 Act i Jos, /, c, 33 2 
Except and foreprised out of ibis Graunt of Subsidie Sc. of 
Poundage, All ma tier of Woollen Cloth made or wrought. 
1604 rrjclnm. in Rates of tfarchandizcs (c 1610) 5 Quecne 
Mary, .did . .assesse vpon Clothes carried out of this Realme 
by way of Marchandize, a certaine rate for the Custome and 
Subsidie of them. 1647 CLARENDON Hist. Reb. i. 8 There 
was a mention. .of granting five Subsidies, a proportion., 
scarce ever before heard of in Parliament. 1660 Act 12 
Chat. II, C. 4 A Subsidy granted to the King of Tonnage 
and Poundage and other sumines of Money payable upon 
Merchandize Exported and Imported, a 1700 EVKLYN /?/<*>-.> 
ii May 1671, The subsidie now given by Parliament to 
his Majesty. 17*5 Lotnt. Gaz. No. 6366/2 All Goods., 
which shall have remained in His Majesty s Warehouse for 
Security of the Duties Twelve Months, the Subsidies and 
Duties not paid. 1718 CHAMBERS Cycl. s. y., In the List of 
English Duties, or Impositions, aredivers Kinds of Subsidies : 
Old Subsidy, Additional Imposiiiontothe old Subsidy. New 
Subsidy, tliird Subsidy; Two-thirds Subsidy. 1845 MCuL- 
LOCH Taxation \\. vi. (1852) 235 The new subsidy, granted 
in the reigri of William III, was an addition of 5 per cent. 
to the duties on most imported commodities. 1874 GREEN 
Short Hist, vii. $ 5 (1882) 395 The perils of her reign drove 
her [ Elizabeth] at rare intervals to the demand of a subsidy. 
1876 FKKKMAN AW/*. Cong. V. xxiii. 181 In those days a 
subsidy took the form of a feudal grant. 

b. trans/. A pecuniary aid exacted by a prince, 
lord, etc. 

a 1450 Knt. de la Tour (1868) 89 That auene. .dede mani 
aduersiteez to the pepUIe, by tailez and subsidiez. 1489 
CAXTON Faytes of A. in. v. 176 Hys subgettes of ryht are 
holden to sette a subsydye upon them self. 1560 DAUS tr. 
Sleidani s Comm. 41 b, A subsidie is to be gathered in all 
count re is of the Empyre for the Turkishe warrc. 1603 

HOLLAND Plutarch s Afar. 403 Certaine paiments and su 
sidies which he would have to be levied of his subjects. 

1609 SKENK Reg. Maj. n. Ixxiii, Of helps and subsidies 
asked be the Lord fra his men... As quben his sonne and 

heire is to be made knicht, or quhen he is to glue his eldest 

dochter in manage. 1781 GIBBON Deel. ty F. xxxi. (1787) 

111.225 He stipulated an annual subsidy of corn and money. 

VOL. IX. 



49 

1862 STANLEY Jew. Ch. I. xv. 347 From the treasury of the 
sanctuary. .they granted him a subsidy. 

3. A grant or contribution of money, a. gen. 

1421 Cov. Leet Bk. 36 The maiour to gyve a subsydye of 



money to the wardens of yche warde. c 1450 Godstow Reg, 
394/7 And whan she wold entir religion, the forsaid hugh 
shold yeve to the same xx. marke into subsidie. 1560 DAUS 



tr. Sleidane s Comm. 286 He shall geve to his children as 
a subsidie an hondreth thousand crounes, 1711 STEELE 
Spect. No. 53 P 10 Your Mention of a Subsidy for a Prince 
in Misfortune. 1862 THACKERAY Philip xvi, Out of small 
earnings [he] managed to transmit no small comforts and 
subsidies to old parents living somewhere in Munster. 

b. A sum of money paid by one country to an 
other for the promotion of war or the preservation 
of neutrality, 

t Treaty of subsidy, a subsidiary treaty. 

1668 TEMPLE Let. to Sir O. Bridgman 27 Jan., Wks. 1720 
II. 56 The hopes we must give him of obtaining Subsidies 
from Spain, which might countervail what they might lose 
from France. 1737 Gentl. Mag. VII. 705/2 This Court, .has 
push d with so much Ardour the Treaties of Subsidy with 
Sweden and Denmark, as that they are both very far nd- 
vanc d. 1832 tr. SismondFs Ital. Rep. xv. 324 Maximilian 
had never money enough to carry on the war without the 
subsidies of his allies. 1870 STANHOPE Hist. Eng. xii. 420 
He proposed to contribute by monthly subsidies to the 
prosecution of the war against Philip if Philip persevered. 

c. Financial aid furnished by a state or a public 
corporation in furtherance of an undertaking or 
the upkeep of a thing. 

1867 SMYTH Sailor"s U ord-bk.^ Subsidy.. & sum allowed 
for the conveyance of mails. 1881 H. FAWCETT Free Trade 
*t Pfot. (ed. 4) 38 The special object of assisting through 
postal subsidies the American shipping trade. 1882 D. A. 
WELLS Merck. <1far. 141 It seems clear. .that subsidies as 
a means of restoring American shipping cannot be made the 
policy of the United States. 1912 li- ar Dept. Subsidy 
Scheme i Only those lorries which comply in every par 
ticular with the terms of this specification, .will be eligible 
for the grant of full subsidy. 

*-./& 

a 1631 DONNE Valed. Bk. 42 Poems 1912 I. 31 Woman 
kinds, Who though from heart, and eyes, They exact great 
subsidies, Forsake him who on them relies. 7^1639 T. 
CAREW Poems (1651) 25 Universal! losses may command 
A subsidie from every private eye, 

4. attrib.) as subsidy act, fee ; f subsidy book, a 
book kept for recording the names of those liable 
to pay subsidy ; f subsidy citizen, = subsidy man ; 
f subsidy man, a person liable to pay subsidy ; 
hence, a man of means or substance ; t subsidy 
money, money derived from a subsidy ; subsidy 
roll, = subsidy book t subsidy treaty, a sub 
sidiary treaty, b. Applied to vehicles subsidized 
by the War Office in peace time while in their 
owners hands and liable to be called upon at the 
outbreak of war ; as subsidy lorry , machine. 

1910 Encvcl. Brit. (ed. 11) XI. 86 Uniform rates of duty 
were fixed in England by the "Subsidy Act of 1660. 1575 
LANEHAM Let. (1871) 35 Bear with me, though perchauns 
I place not thoz Gentlmen. . after theyr estate/: for I am 
neyther good heraud of armez, nor yet kno hoow they are 
set in the *Subsydy bookez. 1594 LYLV Mother Romoie n. 



the subsidy-book, and is not luxurious after acquaintance. 
1663 MABVELL Corr. Wks. (Grosart) II. 93 The old way of 
rating in the subsidy- books, 1607 MIDDLKTON Michaelmas 
Term in. iv, If we procure you two substantial "subsidy 
citizens to bail you. 1911 War Dept. Pravis. Subsidy 
Scheme 2 A proportion of the initial *subsidyfee. 1913 Ley- 
land Motors Ltd., Standard War Office *Subsid y lurry .. War 
Office "Subsidy machines. 1591 PERC\v\L.LSfi.Dict.,Cana>tia, 
subsidie men, Chassis tributanontm. 1597-8 Act 39 Eli*. 
c. 3 f i Power substanciall Howsholders there beinge Sub 
sidy men, or for wante of Subsidy men fower other substan 
ciall Howseholders. 1618 Archd. Essex ff Colch. Dtpos. 
Rule foL 50 (MS.) He is worth (his debts beinge paid) a 
hundreth pounds, but is no subsidie man. 1616 DONNE 
Serm. Ixvit (1640) 680, I will be a Subsidy man so far, so 
far pay Gods debts, as to celebrate with condigne praise the 
goodnesse of that man. a. 1676 HALE Prim. Orig. Man. 
II. x. 237 If we should .. compare the numbers of Trained 
Souldiers then and now, the number of Subsidy-men then 
and now, they will easily give us an Account of a very great 
Increase and Multiplication of People. 1595 in toth Rtp. 
Hist. MSS. Comm. App. v. 455 The subsidey money 
groweing to the said towne. 1615-9 in Rushw, Hist. Coil. 
(1659) I. 188 Whether these Eight Snips lent to the French 
King. .were not paid with the Subsidy-money? 1886 En- 
cycl. Brit. XX. 313/1 The subsidy rolls record the fifteenth* 
and tenths, &c., granted by parliament to the crown. 1747 
Gentl. Mag. XVII. 408 They continue to talk of the speedy 
march of a powerful body of troops 10 the assistance of the 
allies, in pursuance of a "subsidy-treaty. 1763 in loth Rep. 
Hist. MSS. Comm. App. i. 348 We did not renew last year 
the Subsidy Treaty with the King of Prussia. 

Hence Su baidy v. (only in Carlyle), to subsidize. 

1837 CAHLVLK Fr. Rtr. in. vn. iii, Austria hesitates ; finally 
refuses, being subsidied by Pitt. 1858 Fredk, Gt. in. xx. 
I. 372 The English, .fought and subsidied from side to side 
of Kurope. 

t Subsi gn, v. 06s. [ad. L. subsignare, f. sub- 
SUB- 2 + ngndre to SIGN. Cf. OF. soubsigncr 
(i3th c.), mod.F. soussigner (i6th c.)-] 

1* trans. To sign one s name under, subscribe, 
attest witn one s signature or mark. Also, to 
subscribe (one s name). 

1579 FENTON Guicciard. \. 10 He promised.. by a writing 
subsigned with his OWDC hand, that [etcj. 1589 HAKLUVT 



SUBSIST. 

Voy. 418 A letter of the Sophie.. subsigned with the hands 
both of the Sophie and his Secretarie. i6osCAMUEN Rein. 93 
Neyther have they scene, .any deede.. before the Conquest, 
but subsigned with crosses and single names. 1688 in Gutch 
Coll. Cur. II. 363 His Majesty intended.. to require them 
to subsigne the Examinations. 1700 T. MADOX Formulare 
Anglic. (1702) p. xxvi, The Usage in This Kingdom was. ., 
to Ratify their Charters by Subsigning their Names with 
Holy Crosses. 

b. pass. To be signed so-and-so. 

1583 STOCKER Civ. Warres L<nt>e C. n. 66 b, This sentence 
was pronounced the 4 of June 1568. And subsigned, Duke 
de Alua. 1687 N. JOHNSTON Assnr. Abby Lands 189 Dated 
at Rome. .. Subsigned Beltradus. 1700 T. MAUOX J^ orniu- 
lare Anglic. (1702) p. xxvii, A Charter of K. Eadmund. .is 
subsigned, Ego Eadmundus [etc.]. 

c. pass. To have a certain inscription under 
neath. 

1573 BOSSEWBLL X?vtt0r& III. 25 b, H. Hathe to hys Create, 
a Verme hariante propre, subsigned about the tayle with a 
scrowe containing thys Apothcgme. Est inclyta k irtits. 

2. absol. or intr. To append one s signature ; 
(with clause) to testify thai ... In quots.y?^. 

1581 MULCASIEK Positions iii. (1888) 10 Till iudgement 
haue subsigned, and circunstance sealed. " 1586 SIUSKV 
Ps. 1. ii, The lieav ns subsigncii with their handes, I hat 
God injustice eminentlie raignes. 

3. trans. To sign away. 

1605 SIR C. CORNWALLIS in \Vinwood Afent. (1725^ II. 75 
His owne Treasurie was exhausted, his Rents.. susigned 
[sic] for the most parte for the Payment of Money borrowed. 

t Subsiglia ti.011. Obs. [ad. late L,.snl>$igna- 
tio, -dnetti, n. of action f. subsignare to StJBSION.] 
Signature ; affixing a seal. AlsoyT^". 

1590 SwiNuuRNi: Test. 17 The presence of vij. witnesses,. . 
their subscription, their subsignation. 1612 SHEL.TUN Quix. 
i. iv. iv. (1620) 328 This is as good as subsignntiun of your 
hands- writing. 1656 [? J. SERGEANT] tr. T. Whites i oipat. 
Inst. App. 339 To fortify the Institutions I would recom 
mend to Thee, with a subsignation of Theology [orig. 7 hto- 
logix chirographo}. 1700 ! . l.\\Doy.J 0r)itu tare Anglic. (1702) 
p. xxvii, No great Stress can be laid upon the words of 
Subbignation to K. Edwy s Charter. 17*6 AYLIFFE jPawyffu 
482 The Subsignation or putting a Man s Mark or Signet. 

tSubsi gned, ///. a. Obs. [Rendering K. 
soussignd, pa. pple. of soitssigiier to sign under 
neath.] Undersigned. 

1565 in R. G. Marsden Sel. Pleas Crt. Adinir. (1897) II. 
56 We subsigned assurers acknowledge and confesse to 
have asseured and doo assure to Pieter de Moucheron. 

Subsist (scbsi-st), sb. [Shortening of SUB 
SISTENCE.] Payment of wages on account ; = SUB 
sb. 7. 

i8s<i LEIFCHILD Cornwall 146 There is a custom of ad- 
vanning money to the miners called subsist, that they may 
live until the value of their two months earnings is deter 
mined. 1886 j. BARPOWMAN Sc. Mining Trrttis 65. 

b. attrib., in subsist money, <= SUBSISTENCE 
MONEY i ; subsist week, a week for which subsist 
money is paid. 

1835 in N. ff Q. Ser. IX. (1900) VI. 246, 2 Agree to pay.. 
Subsist Money each and every fortnight in such sums as 
may be agreeable to the Parties. 1843 C lViV Eiigin. ff Arch. 
Jrnt. VI. 22/2 In the preceding account, no notice is taken 
of truck system, tommy shops.. or subsist money. Ibid., 
The cuttings are measured generally every fortnight, the 
intervening time being subsist weeks, when the pay is on 
account. 

Subsist (s&bsi st), v. [ad. L. subsisttre to 
stand still, stand firm, cease, be adequate to, sup 
port, f. sub- SUB- 25 + sistfre to stand (see SIST v.). 
Cf. F. subsister, It. sossistere, sussistere, Sp., Pg. 
swbsistir.] 

I. 1. intr. To have an existence as a reality ; to 
exist as a substance or entity. (Cf. SUBSISTENCE I.) 

1549 Xr. Coin. Prayer, Qntcungue vult t Perfecte God, 
and perfecte man: of a resonable soule, and humayne fleshe 
subsisting. 1678 CUDWORTH Intell. S)st. i. iv. 409 Those 
Ideas, which Plato sometimes contends to be Substances, 
and to subsist alone by themsel **. i6oa BENTLEY Boyle 
Lect. vi. 197 Matter abstractly consider d cannot have sub* 
sisted eternally. 1701 NOKRIS Idcai H arid i. iii. 145 That 
God is being itself subsisting by itself. 1847 EMERSON 
Poems 18 The young deities discussed .. What subsisteth, 
and what seems. 1874 GFO. ELIOT Call. Sreak/.-f. 370 
Define your Good .. Next, how it may subsist without the 
111 Which seems its only outline. 

2. To have its being or existence in a certain 
manner, form, or state, or by a certain condition. 
Obs. or arch. 

1594 HOOKER Kcrl.PoI. I. ii. 2 In which essential! vnitie 
of God a Trinitie personall neuerthelesse subsi.stelh. 1614 
RALEIGH Hist. World v i. 4. 331 The one \sc. cavalry] 
subsisting, by being at large ; the other \ic. infantry], by 
MILTON Comus 686 The unexempt 
,1 frailly must subsist. 1649 



close imbattailin. 1634 MILTC 
condition By which all morta 



of instants . . subsisting only by a flux of Moments. 1731 
POPE Ess. Mart I. 169 All subsists by elemental stnfe; And 
Passions are the elements of Life. 1784 COWPER Teak I. 
367 By ceaseless action all that is subsists. 

3. fa- Philos. To exist in a substance or in 
accidents. Obs. 

1599 SIR J. DAVIES Nosct Tttfsum n. in. viii, If she were 
but the bodies accident, And her sole being did in it subsist, 
As white in snow. 1*78 GALE Crt. Cinliles iv. in. 5 The 
wise Creator.. has. .so constituted al moral Beings, both 
Virtues and Vices, as that they cannot subsist but in some- 
thine natural. 1690 LOCKE Hum. Und. n. xxiii. $ i Not 
imagining how these simple Ideas can subsist by themselves, 



SUBSIST. 

we accustom our selves, to suppose some Substratum, 
wherein they do subsist. 1686 SOUTH Serm. Isa. v. 20 (1727) 
II. 345 When they [sc. qualities] come to subsist in Particu 
lars, and to be cloathed, and attended with several Accidents. 
iSai COLERIDGE in Blackw. Mag. X. 219/2 The disciple of 
Malbranche, or of Berkeley, [affirms] that the objective 
subsists wholly and solely in the universal subject God. 

b. gen. To consist, lie, or reside in some speci 
fied thing, circumstance, fact, etc. 

1633 G. HERBERT Temple, Sacrifice Ivii, Your safetie in 
my sicknesse doth subsist. 1661 }. DAVIES tr. Mandelslo s 
Trav. 278 It subsists only in the opinion wherewith most 
sea-men are prepossessed, that, certainly there is an Island 
in those parts. 1707 FOUNTAINHALL Decis. (1759) II. 385 
It [sc. a collegium] can subsist and continue in one. 173* 
POPE Ess. Man iv. 38 The Universal Cause. .makes what 
Happiness we justly call Subsist not in the good of one, but 
all. 1741 WARBURTON Div. Legat. II. u. 371 For the one 
God being the supreme Magistrate, it [sc. theocracy] sub 
sisted in the Worship of that God alone. 1784 COWPER 
Tiroc. 390 His wealth, fame, honours, all that I intend, 
Subsist and centre in one point a friend ! 1882 COUES 
Biogcn (1884) 60 If there be no chemical or physical differ 
ence [between a live amoeba and a dead one], in what does 
the great difference subsist ? 

t C. To consist of. Obs. rare. 

1631 BRATHWAIT Whimzies, Pedler 139 Would you have 
a true survey of his family and number them by the pole? 
you shall finde them subsist of three heads: himselfe, his 
truck, and her misset. 

4. To preserve its existence or continue to exist ; 
to remain in existence, use, or force. 

c 1600 SHAKS. Sonn. cxxii. 6 So long as braine and heart 
Haue facultie by nature to subsist. i66z STILLINGFL. Orig. 
Sacrse in. i. i The souls of men are capable of subsisting 
after death, a 1715 BURNET Own Time in. (1724) I. 517 All 



It. ivu, xnc cquivucauty. . win not SUDSISI in a translation. 
1746 HERVEY Medit. (1818) 9 The exercises of gratitude sub 
sisted in paradise. 1752 tr. Rameaus Treat. Music 115 As 
soon_ as a Discord can be prepared, the Syncope no longer 
subsists. 17^62 T. MORTIMER Ev. Ulan own Broker (ed. 5) 59 
The extensive scene of Jobbing, which has subsisted during 
the present war. 1794 S. WILLIAMS Vermont 161 The murders 
of the inquisition subsisted for centuries. 181 1 JANE AUSTEN 
Sense $ Sensid. xlv, His regard for her .. has subsisted through 
all the knowledge of dear Marianne s unhappy prepossession 
for that worthless young man ! 1813 PRICHARD Phys. 
Hist. J\Ian vi. 6. 311 The custom of eating their prisoners 
of war still subsists in the central parts of the island of 
Celebes. 1876 GLADSTONE Homeric Synchr. 189 He found 
that tradition subsisting among them. 1911 Act i < 2 
Geo. V, c. 46 3 The term for which copyright shall sub 
sist shall . . be the life of the author and a period of fifty 
years after his death. 

b. of physical things. Now rare. 

1621 T. WILLIAMSON tr. Goularfs Wise Vieillard 2 Adam 
and all his posteritie had subsisted and continued long vpon 
earth. 1740 CHESTERF. Let. xciii, Which charter subsists to 
this day, and is called Magna Charta. 1772 WESLEY Jrnl. 
I Feb. (1827) III. 439 Only the old chapel subsists. 1774 
GOLDSM. Nat. Hist. (1862) I. vi. 30 Where men and animals 
have long subsisted. 1819 SHELLEY Lett. Pr. Wks. 1888 II. 
285 The central arch.. yet subsists. 1903 MYERS Hum. 
Pers. I. 244 The book, of course, subsists ; it can be found in 
many libraries. 

) c. To continue in a condition or position ; to 
remain (so-and-so). Obs. 

1607 SHAKS. Cor. v. vi. 73, I am return d your Souldier : 
..still subsisting Vnder your great Command. 1633 P. 
FLETCHER Purple [si. H. xix, The wandring heat (which 
quiet ne re subsisteth). 1650 G. CAMPBELL in Thanes of 
Cawdor (Spalding Cl.) 293 Commending yow and your bed 
fellow to the Lord, I subsist your loving fremd Geo. 
Campbell. 

1 5. Of physical objects : To be or live in a certain 
place or state. Obs. 

1655 STANLEY Hist. Philos. IT. ii. (1687) 65/2 The Sea sub- 
sists upon the superficies of the Earth, which is flat. 1667 
MILTON P.L.x. 922 Forlorn of thee, Whither shall I betake 
me, where subsist ? a 1716 BLACKALL Wks. (1723) I. 97 A 
private Man may be consider d. .as a single Man subsisting 
by himself. 1813 W. TAYLOR Engl. Syn. (1856) 284 That is 
aquatile, which subsists in water. 

6. Of a condition or quality : To exist. 

1720 Col. Rec. Pennsylv. III. 362 That there should never 
any Uneasiness subsist between us. 1759 JOHNSON in Bos- 
well (1831) I. 327 You have from me all the regard that can 
possibly subsist in the heart. 1777 WATSON Philip II, x. 
(1793) I. 422 Granted upon a condition which did not yet 
subsist. 1855 PRESCOTT Philip It, n. vi. I. 205 The best 
possible understanding seems to have subsisted between 
them. 

IL +7. To make a stand, stand firm, hold out. 

1643 CROMWELL in Lett. $ Sp. (1850) I. xv. 219 Make 
them able to live and subsist, a 1662 HEYLIN Laud \. 
(1668) 162 If he cannot subsist, there is little or nothing left 
to hinder the House of Austria from being .. Master of 
Germany. 1667 MILTON P. L. ix. 359 Firm we subsist, yet 
possible to swerve. 1671 P, R. in. 19 All the world Could 
not sustain thy Prowess, or subsist In battel. 1726 CAVALLIER 
Mem. iv. 290 There I gave Ravenal necessary Instructions 
either to avoid meeting the Enemy, or to subsist, 
t b. To keep on, persevere. Obs. 

1632 LITHGOW Trav. viii. 372 He succumb d, and could 
not subsist, not beeing vsed to pedestriall trauayle. 

1 8. To stand, hold good. Obs. rare. 

1747 J. HOWE Let. to S. Thompson n Sept., If this story 
subsists, I presume orders will be given. 

t 9. To cease, stop at a certain point. Obs. 

.11637 SPOTTISWOOD Hist. Ch. Scot. vi. (1677) 403 Nor did 
their folly, or madness rather, subsist here. ci68o R. MAC. 
WARD Con/end. (1723) 41 (Jam.), Here, at this time, I shall 
subsist, since I will have occasion to speak to this matter after 
ward. Ibid. 227, I might here subsist. But.. I shall append 
..these few things. 



50 

III. 10. trans. To provide sustenance for ; to 
support or maintain with provisions or funds ; to 
maintain, support, keep : said of provisions, funds, 
etc., or of the persons dispensing them. 

a 1683 SIDNEY Disc. Gov. n. xxvi. (1704) 187 Taking from 
them all ways of subsisting their Familys. 1698 FROGER 
Voy. 158 The Free-hooters had contributed very much to 
subsist them for the first Years of the War. 1710 ADDISON 
Taller No. 119 F 2 We descry millions of species subsisted 
on a green leaf. 1725 BERKELEY Let. 16 July, When I 
accepted the Deanry it was not with any view of subsisting 
the College in Bermuda with its Income. 1725 Bradlcy s 
Fa.ni. Diet. s. v. Breeding of Milk ^ A Cow, when she., has 
not Milk enough to subsist her Calf. 1749 FIELDING Tom 
Jones xv. xi, To be subsisted at her Expence from that 
little Fortune she had independent of her Father. 1854 
Blackw. Mag. LXXVL i Cultivating just as much land 
as would subsist them. 1879 H. GEORGE Progr. <$ Pov. 
i. v. (1881) 78 We have seen that capital does not advance 
wages or subsist labourers, but that its functions are to 
assist labour. 1901 P. FOUNTAIN Deserts N. Amer. x. 235 
You can subsist them [sc. mules], .in a country where you 
could not find food for horses. 

b To maintain, provide for, provision (troops). 
Also formerly, to give pay or allowance (1802 
C. James Milit. Diet.). 

1687 T. BROWN Saints in Uproar Wks. 1730 1. 78 Explain 
to him after what manner you subsisted your cloven regi 
ment. 1704 Land, Gaz. No. 4045/3 The Charge of Subsist 
ing these Officers and Men must be very great. 1799 
HARRIS in Owen Wellesley s Desp. (1877) 120 We have a 
sufficient stock of provisions to subsist the troops. 1868 
MENDELL & CRAIGHILL tr. Jomini s Art of War iii. 77 A 
French army upon the Elbe might be subsisted from West 
phalia. 1898 MAHAN Nelson II. 241 If France. .was. .sub 
sisting an army corps upon Neapolitan territory. 

re/I. iSioG. Ro fan1u(x8ocj II. 456 Massena cannot 
long subsist himself in his position. 1841 CATLINJV. Amer. 
Ind. (1844) II. 39 The troops will be obliged to subsist 
themselves. 

11. To maintain or support oneself; to live upon 
food or money, or by a particular occupation. 

a. intr. (Alsoyfjf.) 

1646 SIR T. BROWNE Pseud. Ep. i. vii. 26 Whose argument 
is but precarious and subsists upon the charity of our 
assentments, 1647 CLARENDON Hist. Reb. i; 162 Ireland 
..reduced to that good degree of Husbandry., that it not 
only Subsisted of itself.. but really increased the Revenue 
of the Crown. 1672 in Verney Mem. (1907) II. 355, I have 
not wherewithall to subsist. 1777 SIR W. JONES Ess. i. 
Poems 189 Our European poetry has subsisted too long on 
the perpetual repetition of the same images. 1830 M. 
DONOVAN Dom. Econ. II. 291 Animals which subsist upon 
vegetables. 1865 DICKENS Mut. Fr. i. iv, Their forefathers 
had . . modestly subsisted on the Docks. 1885 Encycl. Brit. 
XIX. 255/2 From that time he subsisted by literature. 

b. refl. 

1719 DE FOE Crusoe n. (Globe) 556 He said no Pecune to 
carry him thither, or to subsist himself when he came there. 
1756 BURKE Vind.N~at.Soc. 58 The people, .began to subsist 
themselves from the publick Revenues, a 1806 HORSI.EY 
Serm. (1811) 215 An idle peasantry subsist themselves by 
theft and violence. 1841 CATLIN N. Amer. Ind. xx. (1844) 
I. 142 The horses.. subsist themselves, in winter and sum 
mer over the vast plains of prairie. 

f 12. intr. To support life, keep alive, live. Obs. 

1727 SWIFT Petit. Colliers Wks. 1755 III. i. 130 Should it 
happen, .that this city should be deprived of the sunbeams 
for several months ; how will his majesty s subjects subsist? 
775 JOHNSON Tax. <? Tyr.sqThe body may subsist, though 
less commodiously, without a limb. 1784 COWPER Task v. 
79 How find the myriads . . Due sustenance, or where subsist 
they now? 1794 S. WILLIAMS Vermont $& Several colonies 
of white people have subsisted in the torrid zone of America. 
b. Hyperbolically, with a negative expressed or 
implied. 



1756 MRS. CALDERWOOD in Coltness Collect. (Maitland 
Club) 204 Hussy could not subsist without cards. 1758 
JOHNSON Idler No. 7 p 2 It is difficult to conceive how man 



can subsist without a News-paper. 

f 13. trans, a. To carry on, keep up. Qbs. 

1633 T. STAFFORD Pac. Hib. 11, xxv. 254 The contents of 
the Letters, were to pray Aides to subsist the warre. 
f b. To keep life in. Obs. 

i6 Phil. Trans. XXIX. 493 It cannot be believed that 
a Supply, by this means obtained, can long subsist a Diver. 

Subsistence (sbsi-stens). Also 7- (now 
erron.) subsistance. [ad. late L. subsistentia, f. 
subsistens SUBSISTENT : see -ENCE. Cf. F. sub 
sistance (from 1 6th c.), It. sussistenza, Sp., Pg. 
subsistencia. The L. word represents etymologi 
cal^ Or. vir6<TTaffi$ HYPOSTASIS.] 

I. 1. Existence as a substance or entity; sub 
stantial, real, or independent existence. 
_ i43*-5o tr. Higden (Rolls) III. 221 Plato, whiche putte 
in God a cause of subsistence to be [quidtxit in Deo caitsam 
esse subsistendi^ 1603 HOLLAND Plutarch s Mor. 1032 It 
[sc. the soul] hath the subsistence and composition by har 
mony, but hannonie it is none. 1637 GILLESPIE Engl. Pop. 
Cerent, in. iv.65 An abstract is no more an abstract, if it have 
a subsistence, a, 1665 J. GOODWIN Being filled with the Sp. 
(1867) 209 The distinct manner of the subsistence of this one 
God viz., that he subsists in three, which we call persons. 
1680 BURNET Rochester (1692) 57 He believed the soul had 
a distinct subsistence, a 1711 KEN Hymns Evang. Poet. 
Wks. I. 28 A Drop, which has Subsistence when alone, Will 
loose it when into the Ocean thrown. 1736 CHANDLER Hist. 
Persec. 43 Beryllus also.. taught that our Saviour had no 
proper personal subsistence before his becoming Man. 1738 
WARBURTON Div. Legat. I. 47 This reason is a mere abstract 
Notion, which hath no real Subsistence. 1838 [F. HAYWOOD] 
tr. Kant s Crit. Pure Reason 654 Subsistence (Subsystem) 
the existence of the substance, as inherence is that of the 
accident, 



SUBSISTENCE. 

2. A thing that has substantial or real existence. 

1605 TIMME Qtursit. i. ii. 7 The soule and body of the 
world are knit together by the..aethereal spirits,.. Joyn- 
ing each part of the whole into one subsistence. 1650 
EARL MONM. tr. Senault s Mm tec. Guilty 50 When 
she IK. the soul] withdraws within her self she knows sub 
sistences, she treats with spirits. 1659 MOXON Tutor 
Astron. L (1686) i They, .concluded the parts to be Round : 
I mean, Every mtire Subsistence, as the Stars, Planets, and 
the Earth, a 1774 TUCKER Lt. Nat. (1834) II. 191 Because 
substances cannot inexist in anything, much less coexist in 
the same subject ; therefore he [sc. Plato] styled them hypo- 
stases or subsistences. 

t b. The substance of a thing. Obs. 

1605 BACON Adv. Learn, i. 27 b, The one [sc. power] ex 
pressed in making the subsistence of the mater, & the 
other [sc. wisdom] in disposing the beauty of the fourme 
1653 H. MORE Antid. Ath. Pref. 8 (1712) 5 The framing 
of Matter into the bare subsistence of an Animal. 

f3. The condition or quality of inhering or 
residing in something. Obs. 

1628 T. SPENCER Logick 50 The forme is not the difference 
it selfe : for, a forme is a subsistence in an vnitie. 1650 
HOBBES De Carfare Politico 133 The Subsistence and 
Migration of Accidents from place to place. 

4. Continued existence ; continuance. Now rare. 

1616 BULLOKAR Engl. Exp., Subsistence, the abiding or 
continuance of a thing in it owne estate. 1628 COKE On 
Lilt, 122 A thing of perpetuall subsistance and continuance. 
1642 in Rushw. Hist. Coll. (1692) in. I. 771 This time of 
urgent Necessity, which so much importeth the Safety, and 
even the very subsistance of Us and Our good People. 1649 
MILTON Eikon. xxvii. 217 This Liberty of the Subject con 
cerns himself and the subsistence of his own regal power. 
a 1687 H. MORE in Glanvill s Sadducismus (1689) 445 
Believing no subsistence of the Soul of Christ after Death. 
1729 BUTLER Serm. Wks. 1874 II. 100 It is necessary for 
the very subsistence of the world, that . . injustice,and cruelty, 
should be punished. 1769 ROBERTSON Clias. y,vn. III. 3 
This barbarous outrage committed during the subsistence 
of truce, a 1781 WATSON Philip III, in. (1793) I. 380 To 
rival the Dutch in those branches of commerce which they 
had engrossed during the subsistence of the war. 1875 
GORMAN tr. Swedenborg s Chr. Psychol. ii. 19 Subsistence 
is the plain proof of existence. Hence the well-known 
maxim, Subsistence is perpetual existence. 

f S. A state or mode of existence. Obs. 

1597 HOOKER Eccl. Pol. v. Ii. i Euery person hath his 
pwne subsistence which no other besides hath. 1627 
in Rushw. Hist. Coll. (1659) I. 499 Let us all labor to 
get the King on our side, and this may.be no hard matter, 
considering the neer subsistence between the King and 
people, a 1676 HALE Prim. Orig. Man. 299 The Watry 
Consistence, left in a circular subsistence by the subsiding 
of the Ball of Earth into the common Center of the Universe. 

f 6. T/ieol. Any of the three Persons of the 
Trinity ; = HYPOSTASIS 5. Obs. 

In late Gr. iijrd0Ta<7is was used as the equivalent of L. 
persona- ; but in the treatise Contra Eutychen et Nestorium 
iii, ascribed to Boethius, it is stated that subsistentia in this 
sense renders Gr. oviriajtri?. 

1561 T. NORTON Calvin s Inst. I. xiii. 32, I call therefore 
a Persone, a subsistence in the essence of God. itf 1 ] tr . But- 
linger ; Decades iv. iii. 624/1 We doe neither confound, nor 
yet denye or take away the three Subsistences or persons of 
the diuine essence. 1641 MILTON Reform, n. Wks. 1851 III. 68 
The third subsistence of Divine Infinitude, illumining Spirit. 
01670 SOUTH Strut. Col. ii. 2 (1727) IV. 295 One single, 
undivided Nature s casting itself into three Subsistences, 
without receding from itsown Unity. 1685 BAXTER Paraphr. 
N. T. Phil. ii. 5, 6 Christ,.. the Brightness of bis Father s 
Glory, and the express Image of his Subsistence, (or Person). 
a 1704 [see SUBSISTENT so. 3). 

II. f7. Basis, foundation ; = HYPOSTASIS 2. Obs. 
a 1631 DONNE Selections (1840)78 Let us look first to.. 

reason; for if we lose that.. there is no footing, no sub 
sistence for grace. 1678 CUDWORTH Intell. Syst. 348 What 
is God, but the very Being of all things that yet are not, and 
the Subsistence of things that are ? 

t 8. Sediment ; = HYPOSTASIS i a. Obs. 

1622 PEACHAM Compl. Gent. i. 16 The pure Oyle cannot 
mingle with the water, no more this extracted quintessence 
and Spirit of Vertue, with the dregges and subsistence of 
vnworthinesse. 

III. 9. The provision of support for animal life ; 
the furnishing of food or provender. Now rare 
exc. in means of subsistence. 

c 1645 HOWELL Lett. n. liv. (1892) 454 A Tree call d Man- 
giiais, which affords.. all things.. that belong to the sub 
sistence of man. 1655 CROMWELL Let. Nov. (1845) II. 390 
What necessary supplies, as well for comfortable subsistence 
as for your security against the Spaniard.this place may afford. 
a 1704 T. BROWN Praise Pov. Wks. 1730 1. 104 Tilling their 
own few acres of ground for the subsistence of their families. 
1767 A. YOUNG partner s Lett, to People 99 Furnishing turnips 
for the winter subsistance of the cattle. 1794 S. WILLIAMS 
Vermont 103 As the means of subsistence were destroyed, 
they removed further to the westward. 1833 HT. MARTINEAU 
Brooke Farttt in. 39, I should not wonder if you must pay 
for the subsistence of your cow this winter by extra labour. 
1867 SMILES Huguenots Eng. xiy. (1880) 244 Finding the 
door to promotion or even to subsistence closed against him. 
1884 Law Times Rep, L. 9/2 We submit that the court will 
not reduce the defendant to beggary by selling his only 
means of subsistence. 

b. The upkeep of an army ; the provision of 
supplies for troops. 

1746 Col. Rec. Pennsylv. V. 41 The providing a sufficient 
quantity of Provisions for the subsistence of the Troops 
which shall be raised here. 1793 LINDSAY (title) Extracts 
from Colonel Tempelhoffe s History of the Seven Years 
War ; his Remarks.. on the Subsistence of Armies, and On 
the March of Convoys. 1834 WELLINGTON in Stanhope 
Convert. (1888) 60, I have always taken most especial care 
of the subsistence of my troops. 

10. Means of supporting life in persons or animals; 



SUBSISTENCE MONEY. 

means of support or livelihood. (In first quot. 
traxsf.) 

1639 FULLER Holy War \. xxiv. 39 As for the brook Cedron, 
it was dried up, as having no subsistence of it self. 1687 
DRYDEN ///</. <t P. 111.245 If reduc d subsistence to implore, 
In common prudence they wou d pass your door, a 1700 
EVELYN Diary 4 Feb. 1693, France in the utmost.. poverty 
for want of corn and subsistence. 1760 T. HUTCH ISSON 
Hist. Mass. ii. (1765) 232 The country. .but just affording 
subsistence. 1833 HT. MARTINEAU lllustr. Pol. Econ. IV. 
Fr. Wines ty Pol, viii, I thought our poor helped out their 
subsistence by nettle broth and frog stew. 1854 L. RITCHIE 
Wand. Seine 183 The inhabitants, .derive their subsistance 
chiefly from fishing. 1863 H. Cox Ins-tit, in. iii. 630 It is the 
interest of the monarch that his subjects should have sub 
sistence and abundance. 

b. With a and "\pl. A living, livelihood. 

1690 CHILD Disc. Trade (1698) 62 A trading country 
affording comfortable subsistances to more families than a 
country destitute of trade. 1693 DHVI>EN Disc. Satire 
Ess. (ed. Ker) II. 38 My littlesalary ill paid, and no prospect 
of a future subsistence, c 17*0 Poi E Let. to Buckingham 
Wks. 1737 VI. i io There is yet a small subsistance left them 
[ic.rats] in the few remaining books of the Library. 1832 HT. 
MARTINEAU Hill <$ Valley viii. 127 You offered your labour 
in return for a subsistence paid out of our capital. 1865 
DICKENS Mut. Fr, i. vi, A knot of those amphibious human- 
creatures who appear to have some mysterious power of 
extracting a subsistence out of tidal water by looking at it. 
f C. Food-supply, food, provender. Obs. 

1697 DAMPIER Voy. I. 77 Their subsistence is much the 
same as in the other Islands..; they having some Goats 
[etc.]. 1774 PENNANT Tour Scot, in 1772, 278 All the sub 
sistance the poor people have besides is curds milk and fish. 
1776 ADAM SMITH W. N. i. xi. I. 286 They [sc. kinds of rude 
produce] have become worth, .a greater quantity of labour 
and subsistence. lyQ&E/tcycl. Brit. (1797) II. 756/1 The seal 
..being their principal subsistence. 

d. = SUBSISTENCE MONEY i. 

ITOJ Milit, Diet, (i 704), Subsistence* is Mony paid Weekly 
or Monthly, or otherwise to Soldiers, for them to subsist on 
till the general Pay days. 1798 R. JACKSON Hist, <$ Cure 
Fever 595 The pay of a soldier, while at home, the ration, 
on foreign service, with a small addition, or weekly stoppage 
from the subsistence, will be found equal to furnish every 
comfort .. which a sick man can require. 1867 SMYTH 
Sailor s Word-bk.1 Subsistence^ the amount to be issued to 
troops as daily pay, after making the regulated deductions 
for rations, necessaries, etc. 

11. ttitrib.) as subsistence dole ; subsistence de 
partment t/.S.j the department that has charge 
of the provision of subsistence for troops ; sub 
sistence diet, the minimum amount of food 
requisite to keep a person in health ; so subsistence 
quantity ; subsistence stores /.*$ ., stores re 
quired to keep an army in food, etc. Also SUB 
SISTENCE MONEY, 

1863 Congress. Globe App. 184/2 That there be added to 
the *subsistence department of the Army one brigadier 
general, . . who shall be Commissary General of Subsistence. 
1865 L. PLAYFAIR food of Mart 39 The urea secreted by 
a man living on a mere *subsistence diet. 1897 Daily 
News 30 Mar. 3/1, 330,000 gratuitously relieved by *sub- 
sistence doles. 1865 L. PLAYFAIR Food of Alan 26 There is 
also included in this "subsistence quantity [of food] both a 
limited amount of mental work and a full proportional of 
assimilative work. 1895 Funk s Stand. Diet., * Subsistence 
stores (U.S.), the supplies of food required for the regular 
army. 1898 Daily Nevus 30 June 5/4 Inability to bring the 
subsistence stores to the front rapidly enough. 

Subsistence money, 

1. Money paid in advance to soldiers, workmen, 
etc. to supply their needs until the regular pay-day. 
(Cf. SUBSIST sb. t SDB sb. 7.) 

1687 Royal Order 27 Nov. in Lond. Gaz. No. 2299/1 We 
do hereby .. Require every. .Officer, .to pay. .unto each 
Private Soldier . . Three Shillings per Week,, .as Subsistence- 
Money. 1743 BULKELEY & CUMMINS Voy. S. Seas 192 We 
should have a convenient House, with Firing, and eight 
Vintensa Man/tfrDaySubsistence-Money. 1798 HUTTON 
Course Math. I. 33 nott t Subsistence Money, is the money 
paid to the sold iers weekly. ..It is likewise the money 
advanced to officers till their accounts are made up. 1892 
Labour Comm. Gloss. No. 9 s.v. Money, Subsistence monty t 
a certain proportion of wages, equal to what one day s wages 
would be under the ordinary rate, i. c. t 6d* per hour, paid 
every day under the plus system* 

2. An allowance for maintenance granted under 
special circumstances (see qnots.). 

17*0 Overseers Ace. Holy Cross, Canterbury (MS.), Paid 
Mrs. Yeats A Quarters subsistance Mony. 1847 C. G. 
ADDISON Law of Contracts i. i. (1883) io A parent.. 
cannot be made liable, . . unless . . the child has become 
chargeable upon the parish, and the parish authorities sue 
for subsistence money in the mode provided by the poor 
laws. 1861 GEIKIE Forbes xiv. 518 The Professors, .had to 
take their students to the country, live in expensive hotels, 
and received no subsistence money to defray their additional 
expenditure. 1876 VOYLE & STEVENSON Milit. Dict.> Sub* 
sisttMct Money % an allowance granted for the subsistence 
of soldiers who, whilst in imprisonment in cells, or confine- 
ment in the guard-room, forfeit their daily pay. 

t Subsrstency. Obs, [ad. late L. subsis- 
tentia SUBSISTENCE.] 
L Theol, SUBSISTENCE 6, HYPOSTASIH 5. 

59 J f. yunius on Rev. L 4 This Spirit is one in person 
according to his subststencie. i6$a HENLOWES Theoph. 
Pref., One Essence, Three Subsistences. 1701 NORRIS 
Ideal World i. v. 240 The second of those three subsistences 
which the Catholic Faith teaches us to believe and adore in 
the one undivided essence of God. 

2. A thing that has a substantial existence ; = 
SUBSISTENCE 2. 

1651 BENLOWES Tktopk. Author s prayer 17 Eternal Prin- 



51 

ciple of all substances, essential Being of all Subsistences. 
1665 GLASVILL Scepsis Sci. ill. n We know as little how the 
union is dissolved, that is the chain of the so differing sub- 
sistencies that compound us, as how it first commenced. 
1768 TUCKER Lt. Nat. (1834) I. 335 Theancients, holding the 
eternity of forms and ideas, supposed them subsistences 
i inexistmg within the divine mind. 

3. = SUBSISTENCE 4. 

1628 T. SPENCER Logick 17 A first, or individual! substance, 
. maybe taken twowayes: one way, for every thing that hath 
a substance ; another way, for a compleat subsistency, in the 
nature of any species. 

4. Continued existence ; = SUBSISTENCE 5. 

1642 H. M-QKE. Song of Soul n. in. iv. 21 Nor of well-being, 
nor subsistency Of our poor souls, when they do hence de- 

I part. Can any be assur d. 1651 N. BACON Disc, Gov. Eng. 
11. xiii. (1739) 69 Maintaining thereby their subsistency by 

1 the consistence of the Members together. 1658 SIR T. 
BROWNE Hydriot. v. 28 A great part of Antiquity contented 
tbeir hopes of subsistency with a transmigration of their 
souls. i68s tr. Erastus Treat. Excomm, 40 Whenever 

\ Christ made any new Institution, he omitted nothing that 
was requisite to its being and subsistency. 
Sub sis tent (s^bsrstent), a. and sb. Now rare 

\ or Obs. [ad. L. subsistens, -ent-, pr. pple. of sub- 

\ sistfre to SUBSIST. Cf. F. sub$istant.~\ 

A. adj. 

1. Existing substantially or really ; existing of 
or by itself. 

1617 COLLINS DC/. Bp. Ely \\. viii. 294 Things essential!, 
or subsistent, not Chtmeraes onely. 1646 SIR T. BROWNE 
Pseud. Ef. i. x. 42 Those which deny there are spirits sub 
sistent without bodies, a 1688 CUDWORTH Imnntt. Mor. 
(1731) 17 The Modes of all Subsistent Beings.. are immut 
ably and necessarily what they are. 1701 NORRIS Ideal 
World i. iii. 145 Since God is very subsistent being nothing 
of the perfection of being can be wanting to him. 1911 
WEBSTER, Sul>sistentforni t Schol.^ a form capable of existing 
apart from matter. 

j2. Inherent or residing in. Obs. 

1526 Pilgr. Per/. (W. de W. 1531) 197 b, How and after 
what maner those iii persones be subsistent in one deite. 
1607 Schol. Disc. agst. Antickr. i. ii. 114 A gesture of 
prayer either explicit or implicit at the least, and mat not by 
it selfe existent, but subsistent in prayer. 1692 BENTLEY 
Serm. ii. (1724) 62 No sensible Qualities, as Light, and 
Colour, and Heat, and Sound, can be subsistent in the 
Bodies themselves absolutely consider d, without a relation 
to our Eyes, and Ears, and other Organs of Sense. 

t 3. Continuing in existence, lasting. Obs, 

1603 FLORIO Montaigne n. xii. 350 Seeing all things are sub 
ject to passe from one change to another; reason. -findes 
hir selfe deceived, as vnable to apprehend any thing sub- 
sistant and permanent. 

4. Subsisting at a specified or implied time. 

183* CARLYLE \Misc. ss. t Death of Goethe (1840) IV. 120 
Men whose Impulse had not completed its development till 
after fifteen hundred years, and might perhaps be seen still 
individually subsistent after two thousand. 1849 Black^v. 
Mag. LXV. 206 Such words must be accepted as serious 
indications of subsistent evil. 

5. Having means of subsistence, nonce-use* 

1751 H. WALPOLE Lett. (1846) II. 383 The Prince s sen-ants 
! could no longer oppose, if they meant to ^consistent. I told 
I this to Mr. Chute, who replied instantly, Pho ! he meant 
subsistent 

B. sb. 

fl. A subordinate, inferior. Obs, 
1598 BARRET Theor. Warresv.\\. 151 Hee hath subsistants 
and ministers to performe their office. 

2. A being or thing that subsists. 

1656 STANLEY Hist. Philos. viii. (1687) 433/2 The place of 
sigmficats is divided into Phantasies, and subsistents on 
phantas ie, dicibles, axioms, &c. 1694 BURTHOGGE Reason 
244 It becomes a Snppositum or Subsistent by it self. 1906 
A tfienxuin 1 7 July 204/1 These primary facts fall into three 
orders : the orders of physical and psychical existents, and 
objects of thought (such as relations, numbers, &c.), which 
may be called objective subsistents. 

f 3. Theol, = SUBSISTENCE 6. Obs, 
1671 FLAVEL Fount. Life v. ji The second person or sub- 
sUtent in the glorious Godhead, a 1705 HOWE Let. to Friend 
Wks. 1724 II. 586 To say that all Perfection is in each sub- 
sistent ; which I like better than Subsistence, as more 
expressive of the Concrete, a iSoa T. BELL View Cov. 
Wks. *r Grace (1814) 434 The Father is a person, asubsistent 
in the Godhead. 

Subsistential (ssbsiste-njal), a. [f. late L. 
subsistentia SUBSISTENCE + -AL.] Pertaining to sub 
sistence, esp. to the divine subsistence or hypostasis. 

1620 T. GRANGER Div. Logike -\\o His hypostatical], or 
subsistentiall name. 1664 BAXTER Div. Life \. vii. 50 Having 
spoken of the effects of the Attributes of Gods Essence as 
such, we must next speak of the Effects of his three great 
Attributes which somecall Subsistential, that is, his Omnipo- 
tency, Vnderstanding and Will. 1830 COLERIDGE in Lit* 
Rent. (1838) III. a The distinctities in dM/fenMM are the 
eternal ideas, the Subsistential truths. 

t Subsister, t Subaistersliip. Obs. ? Errors 
for, or jocular alterations of, SUBSIZAR, -SIZARSHIP. 

"589 [?NASHE] Almond far Parrat Wks. 1005 III. 366, I 
am to tel you how laudibly he behaued himselfe in Peter- 
house, during the time of his subsistership. 1592 CHETTLE 
Kind-harts Dr. (1841145 Vou that was wont, likeasubslster, 
in a gown of rugge, rent on the left shoulder, to sit singing 
the counter-tenor oy the cage in Southwarke. 

t Subsi stible, a. Obs. rare 1 , [f. SUBSIST v. + 
-IBLE.] Able to subsist. 

1675 G. R. tr. Le Grand s Man without Passion To Rdr., 
lit] left Posterity in doubt, whether a man could be rendred 
sociable, that was not subststible in Nature. 

Subsisting (sbsi-stin), vbl. sb. [-ING *.] 
The action of the vb. SUBSIST ; SUBSISTENCE. 



SUBSOIL. 

1597 HOOKER Eccl. Pol. v. Hi. 3 By taking only the 



doth, is. .to maintaine still a loose head of Rebellion. 1690 
LOCKE Hum. Und. n. xxiiL 3 note, Your lordship has the 
idea of subsisting by itself. 1706 Lond. Gaz. No. 4195/1 
His Majesty had received a. .Supply of Money.., for the 
paying and subsisting . . of his . . troops. 1719 DE FOR Cntscc 
! i. tGlobe) 63, I had a tolerable View of subsisting, without 
any Want as long as I liv d. 

b. attrib. in subsisting diet, = subsistence diet 
(see SUBSISTENCE ii). 

1865 L. PLAYFAIK Food of Man 8 In looking for a purely 
subsisting diet, we naturally turn to the experience of hos 
pitals having convalescent patients unable still to take extr- 
cise. 

Subsisting, ///. a. [-ING 2 .] 
1 1. Existing substantially, substantial. Obs, 
1674 OWEN Disc. Holy Spirit i. iii. 54 He [sc. the Holy 
Ghost] was represented by a subsisting Substance, 
t 2. Abiding, lasting. Obs. 

1613 WITHER Abuses Stript i. Concl., Juvenilia (1633) 112 
Shee hath no power to see The better things that more sub 
sisting bee. 1678 J. Knows Life of Faith (1824) I. vii. 138 
Not only would the faith of this help to a subsisting life but 
..to a life of joy. 

3. Existing at a specified or implied time. 

1765 BLACKSTONE Comtit, i. viii. 276 Where there is a sub 
sisting lease, of which there are twenty years .still to come. 
1794 PALEV Eviit. in. ii. (1800) II. 302 It appears in the Chris 
tian records, .as being the subsisting opinion of the age and 
country in which his ministry was exercised. 1818 CRUISE 
Digested. 2) II, 325 This not being a remainder created by 
that deed, but a conveyance of the then subsisting reversion 
or remainder expectant on the death of M. 1858 GLAUSTOSK 
Homer III. 9 Independently of sovereignties purely local., 
we find a subsisting Pelopid empire, 1859 MILL Liberty \. 
(1865) 5 The still subsisting habit of looking on the govern 
ment as representing an oppo>ite interest to the public. 

Hence t Subsi stingly adv.^ enduringly. 

a 1641 MOUNTAGU Atts $ Mon. (1642) 72 But that Fabrick, 
whereon subsisting!} doth it rely? 

Sub sizar (t^bssi-zai). Also 6 subsiser, -cer, 
6-7 -zer, 7 -cizer. [Sl B- 6.] In the University 
of Cambridge (now only at Trinity and Emmanuel 
colleges) an undergraduate (having special need of 
pecuniary assistance and formerly performing 
menial offices) ranking below a sizar. 

c 1590 GREENE Fr. Bacon n. ii, Doth not all the towne crie 
put, and say, Frier Bacons subsiser is the greatest blockhead 
in ail Oxford? a 1616 KEALM. & FL. Elder Brother i. ii, 
\Char le$i a Scholar, ioq.\ Bid my Subsiser carry my Hack 
ney to but try. 1618 D EwKS in Aittobiog. (1845) I- I0 7 At 
the same time was admitted one Thomas Manning to be my 
sub-sizar, a 1635 CORBET Poftfts (1672) 102 The King being 
gone from Trinity, They make a Scramble for Degree; 
Masters of all sorts, and all Ages, Keepers, Subcizers, 
Lackeyes, Pages. 1691 WOOD Ath. Oxon. I. 227 John 
Penry.. became a Subsizer of Peter House in Cambridge, 
about 1578. 1853 Camb. Univ. Counn. Index 157 Trinity 
College : The number of sub-sizars is unlimited ; the only 
advantage possessed by a sub-sizar is, that he pays 4/. 
instead of io/. for tuition, and that the admission fee is z/. 15$. 
instead of 5!. 1866 Stud. Guide Univ. Camb. 371 The Sub- 
sizars succeed the Sizars in order of merit, as vacancies occur. 
1884 MULLINCEK Unit . Camb.fr. 1535 to CJws. /, 339 The 
chapel clerk, the porter at the gate, ..and the steward were 
. . generally recruited from the subsizars. 1902 Stud, 
Handbk. Univ. Camb. v. 97 Subsizarships are tenable for 
one year, but each Subsizar (if he has passed the Previous 
Examination..) will be elected into a Sizarship at the end 
of his first year. 

t b. Jig. A menial, lacquey. Obs. 

6oi 2nd Pt. Return fr. Parnass. IV. ii, 1565 Which that 
one ey d subsicer of the skic, Don Phoebus empties by cali- 
ditie. 1644 CLEVELAND Char. Lond. Dium. 5 O brave 
Oliver I limes voyder, Sub-sizer to the Wormcs. 

Hence Subsi zarship, the position of a subsizar. 

[1589: see SUBSISTERSHIP.] 

1599 Brougktorf s Lett. i. 6 He pities your madnes (being 
acquainted therewith from your si }.*izership in Trinitie Col- 
ledge). 1853 Camb. Univ. Comni. Index 157. 1894 Daily 
Nczvs 14 June 7/7 The following scholarships will be 
offered :. .together with two Subsizarships (limited to pro 
perly qualified candidates in need of assistance). 1901 (see 
abovej. 

Subsoil (sy-bsoil), sb. [f. SUB- 3 + SOIL j<U] 

1. The stratum of soil lying immediately under 
the surface soil. 

1799 J. ROBERTSON Agric. Perth 287 On light land, with 
a gravelly subsoil, thirty or thirty-five bolls are accounted 
a sufficient dose. 1850 ANSTED Eletn. GYo/., Min., etc. 
1018 In most cases the subsoil is immediately, and the soil 
intermediately, derived from the decomposition of the sub 
jacent rock. 1879 JEKVKRIES Wild Life Southern Co, 44 The 
chalky subsoil coming there nearer to the surface. 1890 
Harawicke s Science Gossip XXVI. 208 Barley with very 
short roots obtains its food from the surface-soil and does not 
affect the sub-soil, whence clover with very long roots draws 
its supply. 

b. transf. and fig. 

1839 CARLYLE Chartism iii. 123 This crude subsoil is thr 
first subsoil of all true husbandry. 1852 M. PATTISON in 
Westm. Gas. (1906) 15 Feb. 2/1 It would be the beginning 
of a system by which the University would strike its roots 
freely into the subsoil of society. 1871 BROWNING Pr. Hohen- 
stiel-Schwangau 98 The subsoil of me, mould Whence spring 
my moods. 

2. attrib. and Comb, (also SUBSOIL PLOUGH). 

1831 JAS. SMITH Thorough Draining (1843) 23 For the 
purpose of breaking the subsoil furrow. 1840 BUEL Farmer s 
Comp, 103 Subsoil draining, or the drainage of waters that 
rise through the subsoil, or pass off at its outcroppings. 

7-a 



SUBSOIL. 

1851 H. STEPHENS Bk. Farm (ed. 2) II. 663/2 The subsoil- 
trencher of the Marquis of Tweeddale. 1860 O. W. HOLM ES 
Prof. Break/. t. vi, Doctors assiduous, . . undertakers solemn, 
but happy ; then the great subsoil cultivator, who plants but 
never looks for fruit in his garden. 1879 CasselCs Techn. 
Educ. 1 1. 171/2 Subsoil-trench plough. 1884 Harper s Mag. 
Apr. 761/2 This subsoil water.. is scarcely less foul than 
sewage. 

b. fig. with adj. force = penetrating deep down. 

1882 W. CORY Lett, % Jrttls. (1897) 485 German is used by 
subsoil research men. 1894 Advance (Chicago) 12 Apr., 
Deep sub-soil repentance makes strong, healthy Christians 
who will stand wash and wear. 

Subsoil (subsoil), v. [f. prec.] trans. To 
plough so as to cut into the subsoil, use a subsoil 
plough upon. 

1840 Trans. Yorkshire Agric. Soc, 47 In September, 1838, 
I subsoiled two fields often acres each. 1875 ALEX. SMITH 
New Hist. Aberd. n. 1209 A considerable extent of the old 
tilly ground has been thorough drained, but not much of it 
subsoiled. 

b. fig. or in fig. context. 

1851 THACKERAY Engl. Hum. ii. (1900) 483 He had not 
worked crop after crop from his brain, manuring hastily, 
sub-soiling indifferently. 1878 CUYLER Pointed Pape rs 13 
They subsoiled with the plough of Divine truth, which 
ripped to pieces self-righteousness and other secret sins. 

Hence Sirbsoiled ///. a., Sirbsoiling vbl. $b. 
(alsoyS^. = working below the surface, getting deep 
down); Sivbsoiler, an instrument for loosening 
the subsoil, a subsoil plough. 

1840 Trans. Yorkshire Agric. Soc. 48 One of these *sub- 
soiled fields produced 35.. bus. of wheat per acre. 1852 
C. W. HOSKYNS Talpa 23 My first field was soon accom 
plished, .deep enough, .to allow Exall and Andrews *sub- 
soiler to follow the cross-ploughing, 1868 Rep. U.S.Comm. 
Agric. (1869) 414 Land broken in October with a two-hor.se 
Brinley plow, followed by a sub-soiler. 1879 Casscll s 
Teckn. Educ. II. 171/3 The subsoil- trench plough . . consists 
in the first place of a subsoiler or coulter of iron. 1840 
Trans. Yorkshire Agric. Soc. 48, I do not attribute this 
great falling off, per acre, altogether to the parallel subsoil- 
ing. 1868 Rep. U. S. Contm. Agric. (1869) 215 The yield of 
fruit is largely increased by draining, trenching, and sub- 
soiling. 1872 in Sunday at Home (1881) Dec. 841/2 
We have participated, .in the subsoiling of English loyalty 
towards the Crown. 1888 BRYCE Amer. Comnnu. in. Ixx. 
II. 555 Bosses begin the work of subsoiling , i.e. manipu 
lating primaries and local conventions so as to secure the 
choice of such delegates . . as they desire. 

Subsoil plough, sb. 

A kind of plough with no mould-board, used in 
ploughed furrows to loosen the soil at some depth 
below the surface without turning it up. 

1831 JAS. SMITH Thorough Draining (1843) 23 The Sub 
soil Plough . . was designed . . for the purpose of opening up 
the close subsoil of the farm of Deanston. 1834 Brit. Husb. 
I. 465 In this operation, the subsoil plough. . would no doubt 
be found a valuable acquisition. 1859 ALLEN New Amer. 
Farm Bk t (1884) 104 What is beyond it should be thoroughly 
broken up by the subsoil plow. 

Hence Subsoil-plough v. trans.) to use a sub 
soil plough upon ; also Subsoil-ploughing vbl. sb., 
the use of a subsoil-plough. 

1831 JAS. SMITH Thorough Draining (1^2} *9 Thecharge 
of subsoil ploughing may be estimated at 24$. to 30$. per 

tatute acre. 1840 BUEL Fanner s Comp. 45 In subsoil 

loughing, no portion of the subsoil is brought to the surface, 

ut merely loosened, and pulverized. 1844 1 1. STEPHENS /?. 
Farm I. 659 It is cheaper to subsoil-plough land than to 
thorough-drain it. 1848 THACKERAY Bk. Snobs xxxi, I re 
member the conversations, O . . how stupid they were 1 The 
subsoil ploughing ; . . the row about the representation of the 
county [etc.], 

Subsolar (s^bs^-lai), a. [Sus- i a.] 
1 1. Exposed to the sun, Obs. rare 1 . 
1657 TOMLINSON Renoifs Disp. 44 From a subsolar place 
. .some are better or worse. 

2. Meteorol. Directly underneath the sun; having 
the sun in the zenith. 

1860 FITZROY in Merc. Marine Mag. VII. 356 It is drawn 
towards, and after the sub-solar rising part of the atmos 
phere. 1863 FITZROY Weather Bk. v. 71 The rising sub-solar 
or intertropical part of the atmosphere. 

3. Beneath the surface of the sun. rare. 

1885 AGNES M. CLERKE Pop. Hist, Astron. n. ii. 211 In 
the penumbra of spots, the glowing streams rushing up from 
the tremendous sub-solar furnace are bent sideways by the 
powerful indraught. 

tSu bsolary, a. Obs. rare 1 , [SuB- la.] 
Subcelestial, sublunary. 

1661 A, BROME Par. ist Chap. Eccles. 70 Songs 198 Things 
done upon this subsolary ball. 

t Subsortrtion. Obs. rare-*, [ad. L. sub- 
sortltio, -onetn, n. of action f. subsortiri \ see SUB- 
26 and SORTITION.] Selection by lot to fill the 
place of another. So Subsorti tiously adv. 

1654 H. L EsTRANGE Chas. I (1655) 18 There being a 
hundred and fifty sick in the S. George, the councel ordered, 
. .that every ship should take to nurse a couple of the sick, 
and subsortitiously, by lot, to supply their places with as 
many sound. 1656 BLOUNT Glossogr.^ Subsortition, a chusing 
by lots, after others have chosen, to fill up the number of 
those that before were refused. 

Su bspecies. [mod.L. ; cf. F. sous-esphe.] A 
subdivision of a species ; a more or less permanent 
variety of a species. Chiefly Nat, Hist. 

1699 DAMPIER Voy. (1703) III. 75 There are. .four sorts of 
these long-leg d Fowls.. as so many Sub-Species of the 
same Kind; viz. Crab catchers, Clocking-Hens [etc.]. 1807 
Anus Diet. Chem. fy Min. II. 13/2 Arseniat of Lead. Of 
this there are two subspecies. 1859 DARWIN Qrig, Spec. 



pl 
b 



52 

ii. 51 No clear line of demarcation has as yet been drawn 
between species and sub-species, -or, again, between 
sub-species and well-marked varieties, or between lesser 
varieties and individual differences. 1871 Desc. Man 
\. vii. I. 227 Some naturalists have lately employed the 
term * sub-species to designate forms which possess many 
of the characteristics of true species, but which hardly 
deserve so high a rank. 1880 WALLACE Isl. Life xvi. 339 
A few flowering plants which, as varieties or sub-species, are 
apparently peculiar to our islands. 1881 J. C. MORRISON in 
Encycl. Brit. (ed. 9) XII. 19/1 Verse narrative, .is.. a sub- 
species by itself. 1898 Atlantic Monthly LXXXII. 492/1 
Carolina snow-birds and mountain solitary vireos, two varie 
ties ( subspecies is the more modern word) originally de 
scribed a few years ago. 

Subspeci fic, a. Nat. Hist. [f. prec. after 
specific.} Of, pertaining to, or of the nature of a 
subspecies. 

1870 HOOKER Stud. Flora 246 Cuscuta Epithymum. .does 
not seem entitled to sub-specific rank. 1883 W. S. KENT-III 
A. J. Adderley Fisheries Bahamas 44 Three specific or sub- 
specific forms that correspond very closely with the three 
leading Mediterranean types above described. 1903 Athe 
naeum 25 Feb. 246/3 Mr. Rothschild s opinion that Gorilla 
castaneiceps of Slack was an aberration, and not entitled to 
specific or subspecific rank. 

Hence Subspeci fically adv. 

1883 Athenseum 15 Dec. 781/2 A species of paradise bird 
of the genus Drepanorms. .subspecifically different from 
D. albertisi of North-Eastern New Guinea. 1896 Brit. 
Bird^ Their Nests fit Eggs II. 60 The serin being only sub- 
specifically distinct from the canary. 

Subspi-nous, :. 

1. [SuB- 20 b.] ZooLvxABot. Somewhat spinous. 
1822 J. PARKINSON Outl. Oryctol. 45 Angulated branches, 

with subspinous and membranaceous expansions. 1870 
HOOKER Stud. Flora 287 Marrubium, White Horehound.. 
subspinous, erect or spreading. 

2. [Sue- i b.] Anat. and Path. a. Under the 
spinal column, b. Under the spine of the scapula. 

In recent Diets. 

Substage (so-bst^dj). 

1. [Si B- 7.] Gcol. A subdivision of a stage. 
1859 DARWIN Orig. Spec. ix. 297 If the specimens come 

from different sub-stages of the same [geological] formation. 
1906 CHAMBERLIN& SALISBURY Geol. III. 383 The following 
are the American stages of the glacial period now recognized 
in the interior of North America. ..The Champlain sub-stage 
(marine). The glacio-Iacustrine sub-stage. 

2. [SuB- 3.] An apparatus fixed beneath the 
ordinary stage of a compound microscope for the 
purpose of supporting mirrors and other acces 
sories. Also attrib. 

1888 RUTLEY Rock-Forming Min. 13 Generally speaking, 
a sub-stage is unnecessary. Ibid. 26 Examination by ordi 
nary Transmitted Light (or Sub-stage Illumination). 1890 
Anthony s Photogr. Bull. III. 96 A substage illuminator or 
condenser. 1896 AllbutCs Syst. Med. I. 506 Abbe"s sub- 
stage-condenser. 1902 Ross s Catal,, Swing-out Substage. 

Substain, obs. form of SUSTAIN. 

1401 Pol. Poems (Rolls) II. 108 The licnesse which that 
abidiththerinne noon substeyned substans. 1556 ROBINSON 
tr. A fore s Utopia (Arb.) 59 Them whiche. .substeyne losse 
and dammage. 

Substance (szrbstans). Also 4-6 substaunce, 
(5 sobstans, 6 supstance). [a. OF. (mod.F.) 
substance (i2th c.), ad. L. substantia^ f. substans^ 
-ant-, pr. pple. of substare to stand or be under, 
be present, f. sub- SUB- 2 + stare to stand. Cf. OF. 
sustance) Pr. sustancia^ It. sostanza, sustanza t -ia, 
Sp., Pg. su(b}$tancia. 

L. sttbstantia was adopted as the representative 
of Gr. ovaia in its various senses.] 

1. Essential nature, essence; esp, Theol., with 
regard to the being of God, the divine nature or 
essence in respect of which the three Persons of the 
Trinity are one. 

a 1300 Cursor M. 9762 An-fald godd vndelt es be, And a 
substance wit-in bir thre. a 1325 Athan. Creed 4 in Prose 
Psalter (1891) 194 Noi^er confoundand persons, ne de- 
partand be substaunce. Ibid. 29. 195 He his God, of J>e 
substaunce of b fader bitten to-fore be worldes ; & man, 
of be substaunce of be moder born in be world, c 1373 Sc, 
Leg. Saints i. (Petrus} 403 In Jns symon dwellis ay twa sub- I 
stance, bat is to wyt, of devel and man, to-gyddir knete. j 
"4So-i53< Myrr. Our Ladye 4 The glory of the blessyd \ 
endeles Trinite in onehed of substaunce and of Godhede. j 
1536 Pilgr. Per/. (W. de W. 1531) 197 The pure substaunce , 
of god in his owne nature & deite. 1585 DYER Prayse of \ 
Nothing Writ. (Grosart) 77 That substance, which we com- 
municate with Angels, being created of nothing. 1597 
HOOKER Eccl. Pol. v. Hi. 3 In Christ therefore God and 
man there is a two-folde substance, not a two-folde person, 
because one person extinguisheth an other, whereas one 
nature cannot in another become extinct, ci6io Women 
Saints 173/11 [Arius] affirming the Sonne of god to be of 
inferiour substance to his Father. 1678 CUDWORTH Intell. 
Syst. 601 That Essence or Substance of the Godhead, which 
all the Three Persons or Hypostases agree in. 1833 NEW- 
MAtiArians n. iv. (1876) 195 To protest, .against the notion 
that the substance of God is something distinct from God 
Himself. 1860 PUSEY Min. Proph. 12 God giveth us of His 
Substance, His Nature,., making us partakers of the Divine 
Nature. 1876 NORRIS Rudim. TheoL \. iv. 73 It is God s 
nature to be one in substance, manifold (that is, threefold) 
in person. 

2. Philos. A being that subsists by itself; a 
separate ordistinct thing ; hence .<?., a thing. being. 

lyyo Ayenb. 112 [Supersubstantial bread] be* K to zigge : 
bet paseband ouergeballe substances and allessepbesbe ver. 
1383 WYCLIF Gen. vii. 4, I shal reyn vpon the erthe..and I 



SUBSTANCE. 

shal do awey al substaunce the which Y made, fro the ouer- 
most of the erthe. 1551 T. WILSON Logic (1580) 33 b, A liuely 
bodie is a substaunce. Ergo t a man is a substaunce. 1509 
SIR J. DAVIES ffosce Teipsum u. iii. 10 She \sc. the soul] is a 
substance, and a perfect being. 1616 R. C. Times Whistle 
I. {1871)8 God is an Essence intellectual!, A perfect Substance 
mcorporeall. 1667 MILTON P. L. v. 408 Food alike those 
pure Intelligential substances require As doth your Rational 
bid.\\\\. 109 His Omnipotence, That to corporeal substances 
could adde Speed almost Spiritual. 1707 OLDFIELD Ess. 
Impr. Reason \\. iii, 139 Minds, which are indiscerpible, are 
thinking Substances. 1725 WATTS Logic \. ii. 2 A Sub 
stance is a being which can subsist by itself, without depen 
dence upon any other created being, 1818 STODDARTC7nz;. in 
Encycl. Metrop.(\%^} 1. 8/1 We refer allour states of being to 
a substance called self. 1843 MILL Logici. iii. 6 Substances 
are usually distinguished as Bodies or Minds. 1868 BAIN Ment. 
fy Mor, Set. App. 50 Mind being . . expressed by the one attri 
bute Thought (construed, however, as Thinking Substance , 
and . . Body . . summed up in the one attribute Extension (Ex 
tended Substance). 1876 Encycl. Brit. V. 143/1 Thequestion 
whether the material and the thinking substance are one 
does not meet us at the outset. 1910 T. CASE in Encycl. 
Brit. (ed. ii) II. 510/2 The doctrine that all things are sub 
stances which are separate individuals, stated in the Gate- 
gories, is expanded in the Metaphysics. 

b. First (primary] sitbstance, second (secondary, 
general} sitbstance : see quots. 

In scholastic L. subslantia pnma and substantia secunda, 
translating Trpwr*) ovtria. and fieuiepa oiWa (Aristotle Catee.). 

1551 T. WILSON Logic C vj, The first substance is called 
euery singuler persone or propre name. ..The second sub 
stance comprehendeth both the general worde, and the 
kinde also of euery singuler persone. 1628 T. SPENCER 
Logick 129 The second substance : consisting in the Genus 
and Species. 1697 tr. Burgersdicius Logic i. iv. 8 Sub 
stance is either First or Second. The First is a Singular 
Substance, or that which is not said of a Subject, as 
Alexander, Bucephalus. The Second.. that which is said 
of a Subject, as Man, Horse. 1843 MILL Logic i. vi. a 
The well known dogmas of substantial secundx, or general 
substances. 1876 Encycl. Brit. V. 223/1 The first category 
is subdivided into.. primary substance, which is defined to 
be., the singular thing in which properties inhere, and to 
which predicates are attached, and. .genera or species which 
can be predicated of primary substances. 1903 W. TURNER 
Hist. Philos. 133 The first substance (ov<rta irptanj) is the 
individual, which can neither exist in another nor be predi 
cated of another. Second substance is the universal, which, 
as such, does not exist in another, but may be predicated 
of another. 

3. Philos. That which underlies phenomena ; the 
permanent substratum of things ; that which 
receives modifications and is not itself a mode ; 
that in which accidents or attributes inhere. 

1398 TREVJSA Barth. de P. R. xix. cxvi. (1495) 920 Whan 
tweyne accidentes ben in one substaunce and subiecte : as 
colour and savour. 1402 in Pol. Poems (Rolls) II. 108 
Thus leeveth not of the breed but oonli the licnesse which 
that abidith therinne noon substeyned substans. 1551 
T. WILSON Logic C ij, The feare of God is an Accident, the 
soule is a Substaunce. 1606 BRVSKEJT Civ. Life 116 The sub 
stance of euery thing is so called, by reason that it is subiect 
vnto accidents ; neither can there be any accident (to which 
it is proper to be in some subiect) but it must fall into some 
substance. 1668 WILKINS Real Char. \\. i. 26 Such things 
as.. require a subject of inhesion.. are indeed nothing but 
the modes of Substance. 1690 LOCKE Hum. Und. H. xxiii. 
2 The Idea.. to which we give the general name Sub 
stance, being nothing, but the supposed.. support of those 
Qualities, .which we imagine cannot subsist, sine -re sub- 
stantc t without something to support them, 1762 KAMES 
Elem. Crit. (1774) II. App. 507 A being with respect to its 
properties or attributes is termed a subject, or substratum. 
Every substratum of visible qualities, is termed substance. 
1781 COWPER Anti-Thelyphth. 42 Substances and modes of 
ev ry kind. 1838 [F. HAYWOOD] tr. Kant s Grit. Pure 
Reason 174 The determinations of a substance, which are 
nothing else but its particular modes of existing, are termed 
accidents. 1872 MAHAFFY Kant s Crit. Phil. I. 268 Thus 
the pure Category of substance is that which can only be 
subject and not predicate. 1876 Encycl. Brit. V. 155/1 
The independent substantiality of mind and matter is with 
drawn, and they are reduced into attributes of the one 
infinite substance. 

b. in transf. and allusive uses. 

1:1374 CHAUCER Troylus ly. 1505 penk bat folye is whan 
man may chese For accident [h]is substaunce ay to lese. 
c 1386 Pard. T. 77 Thise Cookes, how they stampe, and 
streyne and grynde And turnen substaunce in-to Accident. 
1568 GRAFTON Chron. II. 570 The Capteynes there, myndyng 
not to lease the more for the lesse, nor the substance for 
the accident. 1579 G. HARVEY Let. to Spenser in S. s Wks. 
(1912) 639/2 Vertue, the onely immortall and suruiuing 
Accident amongst so manye mortall and euer-perishing 
Substaunces. 1598 DARCKLEY Felic. Man vi. 568 Euill is no 
substance nor nature, but an accident that cpmmeth to the 
substance. 1654 Z. COKE Logick 189 The causes are found 
out & put in substances, in respect of the Essence, Matter, 
and Form. 1790 BURKE Kev. France 28 Not changing the 
substance, but regulating the mode. 

c. with reference to the doctrine of the Real 
Presence in the Eucharist. 

1546 GARDINER Detect. Deuils Sophistrie 14 b, The sub 
staunce of bred, beyng conuerted into the naturall bodely 
substaunce of our sauioure {printed souioure] Christe. 1565 
HARDING Answ. Jewel 162!), In this Sacrament after con 
secration there remayneth . . onely the accidentes and shewes, 
without the substance of bread and wyne. 1597 HOOKER 
Eccl. Pol. v. Ixvii. 10 How the wordes of Christ com- 
maunding vs to eate must needes import e that as hee bath 
coupled the substance of his fleshe and the substance of 
bread together, so we together should receiue both. 1651 
C. CARTWRIGHT Cert. Relig, i. 131 It doth argue an extra 
ordinary power in Christ to give his Flesh to eat, though 
there be no turning of the substance of the Bread in the 
Sacrament into the substance of his Flesh. 



SUBSTANCE. 



53 



SUBSTANCE. 



1 4. That which underlies or supports ; a basis, 
foundation ; a ground, cause. Obs. 

1382 WYCLIF Heb. xi. i Felth is the substaunce of thingis 
to be hopid. c 1386 CHAUCER Nuns Pr. T. 37 And wel I 
woot the substance is in me If any thyng shal wel reported 
be. i wo GOWER Conf, III. 68 Nectanabus, which causeth 
al Of tins metrede the substance. Ibid. 222 Ther is nothing 
Which mai be betre aboute a king, Than conseil, which is 
the substance Of all a kinges governance. 1577 tr. Bul~ 
linger s Decades i. iv. 30 The substance or hypostasis is 
the foundation, or the vnmoueable proppe, which vpholdeth 
vs. 1595 Locrine i. i. 70 A greater care torments my verie 
bones. And makes me tremble at the thought of it, And 
in you, Lordings, doth the substance lie. 

5. The matter, subject-mntter, subject (of a study, 
discourse, written work, etc.). 

1390 GOWER Conf. I. 10 Unto the god ferst thei besoughten 
As to the substaunce of her Scole, That thei ne scholden 
noght befole Her wit upon none erthly werkes, Which were 
ayein thestat of clerkes. Ibid. II. 84 Of bodies sevene in 
special With foure spiritz joynt withal Stant the substance 
of this matiere. c 1413 HOCCLEVE De Reg. Princ. 1030 Lo, 
fadir, tolde haue I yow Je substance Of al my greef. c 1420 
?LYDG. Assembly of Gods 1601 But forthe to shewe yow 
the substaunce Of thys matyr. a 1536 Songs, Carols etc. 
(E.E.T.S.) 106, I dare not, for J>er dissplesans, Tell of bes 
maters half the substance. 1587 T. NORTON tr. Calvin s 
Inst. title-p., Notes conteyning in briefe the substance of the 
matter handled in each section. 1597 SHAKS. 2 Hen. IV, 
iv. i. 32 Vnto your Grace doe I in chiefe addresse The sub 
stance of my Speech. 1600 J, PORY tr. Leo s Africa App. 
400 Out of the relations.. of these two woorthy authors. . 
we will deriue the whole substance of our speech. 1663 
BOYLK Otcas, Refl.m.v. 44 This, if I forget not, was the sub 
stance of the Occasional Meditation, suggested to me by the 
Storm. 1875 Encyel. Brit. I. 498/2 There are two Alexandrian 
schools, distinct both chronologically and in substance. The 
one is the Alexandrian school of poetry and science, the other 
the Alexandrian school of philosophy. 

b. Contrasted with form or expression. 

1780 Mirror No. 80 Having thus done justice to the merit 
of those authors in point of substance, I proceed to shew 
their excellence in the composition and style of their pro 
ductions. 1841 MYERS Cath. Th, in. 8. 29 This influence 
we may believe to have extended sometimes to the very 
words of the Revelation, but far more often only to the 
substance of it. 1877 R. W, DALE Lect.Preach.v. 118 The 
substance of our preaching has been given to us in a Divine 
revelation. 1888 Encyel. Brit. XXIII. 249 The doctrine 
of the Trinity is. .one which, .gives expression to the self- 
evidencing^ substance of revelation, and explains and sup 
ports religious experience. 

T c. A subject-matter to be operated upon. Obs. 

1390 GOWER Conf. III. 91 The hihe pourveance Tho hadde 
under his ordinance A gret substance, a gret matiere, Of 
which he wolde.. These othre thinges make and forme. 

6. That of which a physical thing consists ; the 
material of which a body is formed and in virtue 
of which it possesses certain properties. 

1398 TREVISA Bank. De P. R. vi. xx. (Bodl. MS.), 
Mete is a substaunce bat is able to be turned into be 
substaunce of be bodie pat is ifed. 1559 W. CUNNINGHAM 
Costnogr. Glasse 43 The matter and substaunce of mans 
body. 1577 TUSSER Hnsb. (1878) 35 The soile andtheseede. . 
the lighter in substance, for profile the wurse. 1590 SIR J. 
SMYTHE Disc. Weapons 3b, Swords of conuenient length, 
forme and substance, haue been in all ages esteemed by all 
warlike Nations, c 1600 SHAKS. Sonn, xliv, i If the dull 
substance of my flesh were thought, Iniurious distance 
should not stop my way. 1613 SALKELD Treat. Angels 56 
Angels haue somt imes beene knowne locate, .although they 
did not conuert the meate . .into their owne substance. 1615 
CROOKE Body of Man 628 The substance of it is soft, loose, 
rare and like a Sponge. 1667 MILTON P. L. n. 356 What 
creatures there inhabit, of what mould, Or substance? 1668 
WILKINS Real Cliar. n. iv. 73 Stalk.. of a woody sub 
stance. .. Head or spike, .having a soft downy substance. 
1766 BLACKSTONE Comm. II. 4 It became necessary, .to 
appropriate to individuals not the immediate use only, 
but the very substance of the thing to be used. 18x9 LOUDON 
Encyel. Plants (1836) 1023 Epiphyllous scattered globular 
or subdepressed smooth pale at length black, Substance very 
corneous. 1846 LANDOR Exam. Shaks, Wks. 1846 II. 265 
Give a countryman a plough of silver and he will plough 
with it all the season, and never know its substance. 1859 
FITZGERALD Omar Ixi, Surely not in vain My Substance 
from the common Earth was la en. 

b. of incorporeal things. 

^1340 HAMPOLE Prose Treat, viii. 15 By abowndance of 
chante bat es in be substance of the saule. c 1384 CHAUCER 
H. Fame it. 260 Euery spech that ys yspoken. .In his sub 
staunce ys but aire. a 1475 G. ASHBY Dicta Pkilos. 234 A 
kynge sholde take of his ofde acquaintance, His familier ser- 
uauntes vertuous, ..of Substance, Wele disposed, trewe, not 
malicious. 159* SHAKS. Rom. ff Jut. i. iv. 99 Dreames. . Begot 
of nothing, but vainephantasie, Which isastliinofsiibstance 
as the ayre. 1667 MILTON P. L. iv. 585 Hard thou knowst 
it to exclude Spiritual substance with corporeal barr. 1668 
WILKINS RealCkar, i. i. 5 A great part of this Syriac tongue 
is for the substance of the words Chaldee, and Hebrew for 
the fashion. :68a in Verney Mem. (1907) II. 311, I.. am 
sorry that my Sonne should Be composed of such substance 
that nothing can shape Him for a Schollar. 1740 CHEVNE 
Regime* 35 That spiritual Substance was analogous to 
Matter infinitely rarefied, refin d or sublim d. i86a SPBNCKR 
First Prtnc.i. iii. 20(1875)63 When, instead of the extent 
of consciousness, we consider its substance. 

c. Fifth substance = QUINTESSENCE. 
1561 [see QUINTESSENCE ij. 

7. The matter or tissue composing an animal 
body, part, or organ. 

1398 THEVISA Bank. De P. R. v . v. (1495) g iv/i The 
humour cristallmus [of the eye].. is rounde in shape & sas- 
taunce [sic}, a 14*5 tr. Arderne s Treat. Fistula etc. 34 pe 
quitour, lerfore, bigyrme to lessen somwhat, and the bolnyng 
somwhat to cese, and )> colour and J>e subitaunce of fr skynnc 



for to turne to his ovne naturel habitude. 1548 in Vicary s 
Anat. v. (1888) 41 [CheeksJ not fat in substaunce, but 
meanely fleshly. 1667 MILTON P. L. vi, 657 Thir armor 
help d their harm, crush t in and brus d Into thir substance 
pent. 1724 BLACKMOKE Treat. Consumptions 9 An extra 
ordinary Discharge of Flegmatick Matter, . . while . . the Sub 
stance of the Lungs remains sound. 1726 A. MONRO Anat. 
Bones 31 Sinuses, large Cavities within the Substance of 
the Bones, with small Apertures. 1804 ABERNETHY Surg. 
Obs. 178 Blood was discharged mixed with detached pieces 
of the substance of the brain. 1845 KUDD Dis, Liver 347 
Irregular dilatation of the sac, so as to form additional 
pouches in the substance of the liver. 

b. The muscular tissue or fleshy part of an 
animal body. 

1695 New Light Chirurg, put out 23 Any Flesh-Wound 
where there is considerable loss of Substance. 1750 LADY 
LUXBOROUGH Let. to Shenstone 13 May, My plaisters are 
already reduced from eight or nine to two only: one over 
my eye,.. and one just above my knee, where the loss of 
substance (as they call it) makes it longer in curing. 1831 
YOUATT Horse 36 A three-fourth, or thoroughbred horse of 
sufficient substance and height. 1894 Nature s Method hi 
Evol. Life iii. 45 The nervous system becomes highly strung, 
. .and the muscles deficient in size, with a general want of 
what is known as substance . 
fc. Bot. (See quots.) Obs. 

1777 S. ROBSON Brit. Flora 15 littllafe, the substance of 
the leaf rising high above the veins, so as to appear like 
little blisters. 793 MAKTYX Lang. Bot. s.v. Suostantict % 
The substance of a vegetable consists of the Epidermis or 
Cuticle, covering the Cortex or Outer Bark. 

8. Any particular kind of corporeal matter. 

1390 GOWEK Conf. III. 89 Of man, of beste,. -Of fissch, of 
foughl, of everychon That ben of bodely substance. 1541 
COPLAND Gttyams Quest. Cyrurg. E iv, [The nose] is of 
thre substaunces, that is to wyt of substaunce flesshely, 
bony, and cartilagynous. 1644 UIGBY Xat. Bodies xiv. n, 
123 Our designe requireth more maniable substances, 
1668 WILKINS Real Ckar. \\. x. 259 Grain or some V -.<:- 
table, baked in a drier substance without any considerable 
mixture. 1774 PKNNAST Tour Scot, in 1JJ2, 169 The gills 
furnished with strainers of the substance of whalebone. 
1774 GOLDSM. Nat. /list. I. 75 This variety of substances, 
which compose the internal parts of our globe. 1801 
PALEY Nat. Theol. v. 3. 65 That sort of substance which 
we call animal substance, as flesh, bone,, .cartilage, etc. 
1816 J. SMITH Panorama Sci.fy Art II. 91 When a varnish 
of any kind is laid over a substance, to prevent it from ab 
sorbing water, some allowance should be made for such 
addition. 1837 FARADAY Chem. Ulanip. xix. (1842) 527 To 
perform the operation over a cloth or some other soft sub 
stance. 1839 LINDLEY Introd. Bot. (ed. 3) 472 Corky..; 
having the texture of the substance called cork. 1860 TYN- 
DALL Glac. ii. v. 250 Thus, from the mixture of two perfectly 
transparent substances, we obtain an opaque one. 

b. A species of matter of a definite chemical 
composition. 

1732 ARBUTHNOT Rules of Diet iv. in Aliments etc. 409 
Substances abounding with volatile oily S;ilts, 1807 Simple 
substance [see PRIMARY a. 3d], 1843 [see SIMPLE a. 13 a]. 
1856 Orr s Circ. Sci., Meek. Philos. 2 By simple substances, 
we mean those which cannot be resolved by the chemist into 
any simpler elements : thus gold, silver, and iron are simple 
substances. . . Copper,zinc, iron, and carbon are all considered 
elementary substances. 1864 Intell. Obs. No. 32. 93 A new 
substance.. to which I gave the name Santoneine. 1876 
Jrnl. Chem. Soc. I. 365 The saccharification of amylaceous 
substances. 

c. Anat. and Zool. With qualifying word or phr. 
forming specific designations. 

1815 J. GORDON Syst. Hum. Anat. I. 40 Adipose substance. 
1855 DUNGLISON Med. Lex,, White Substance of Schwann. 
1870 W. S. KENT in Ann. Nat. Hist. Mar. 217 The sarcodic 
substance lining all the interstitial cavities of the sponge. 

9. A piece or mass of a particular kind of 
mutter ; a body of a specified composition or tex- 
tui . Now rare. 

ciS95 CAPT. WYATT R. Dudley s Voy. W. Ind. (Hakl. 
Soc.) 56 In the night a subs ance of fyre resemblinge the 
shape of a fierie Dragon should fall into our sailes and theare 
remaine some quarter of an ower. 1668 WILKINS Real Char. 
n, v. 133 That [fish] which hath, .stringy substances on his 
head and back. Ibid.^ A very rough skin, with finny sub 
stances, standing out from each side like wings. Ibid. vi. 172 
Thin broad substances, standingoff from the body of the Fish. 
1681 tr. Belong New Myst. Phys. Introd. 32 Set the Water 
in a cold place, in a Glass Body, within eight Days, you 
will find acongealed Substance in the Bottom of the Vessel. 
\y*$ Bradley s Fam. Diet. s. v. White- Honey-Charge, Con 
tinue boiling till the Roots and Herbs be reduced to a Mash 
. . throwing away the gross Substance. 1716 SWIFT Gulliver 
in. !. 10, I ; . perceived a vast Opake Body between me and 
the Sun., .it appeared to be a firm Substance. 1799 HT. LEE 
Canterb. T. t Worn. T. (ed. 2) I. 351 Throwing from him, 
without examination, some hard substance that incommoded 
him, 

10. A solid or real thing, as opposed to an ap 
pearance or shadow. Also, reality. 

ISTS^FLEMING Panopl. Epist. 281 The ignoraunce of the 
world is grosse & palpable : for, touching Nature their skill 
is but superficial!, and like a shadowe destitute of sub- 
staunce. 1588 SHAKS. Tit. A. in. ii. 80 He takes faUe 
shadowes, for true substances. 1590 SPENSER / . Q. it. ix. 
2 Full liuely is the semblaunt, though the substance dead. 
1651 HOBBES Lei>iathan \\. xxxu 186 A Common-wealth, 
without Soveraign Power, is but a word, without substance. 
1667 MILTON P. L. \. 529 With high words, that bore Sem- 
blance of worth not substance, a 1700 EVELYN Diary 
27 Aug. 1667, One who kept up the forme and substance of 
things in the Nation. 1716 S. W. in Nelson s Pract. True 
Devot. (1784) p. xvi, Taught how to take the mystic Bread and 
Wine, T adore the Substance, nor neglect the Sign. 1784 
COWPER Task iv. 527 The poet s hand, Imparting substance 
to an empty shade, Itnpos d a gay delirium for a truth. 
, 1811 BYRON Sardanap. \. ii. 533 There needs too oft the show 
of war to keep The substance of sweet peace. 8j6 MARRYAT 



Japhet Ixiii, I would not lose tiie substance by running after 
shadows. 1856 MERIVALE Rom. Emp. 1. V. 580 A mere 
honorary title, and only a presage of the substance that was 
to follow. 1914 Daily Ckron. 28 July 6/3 The Auslro- 
Hungarian communique, .argues.. that Servia conceded the 
shadows and withheld the substance. 

b. Westminster School. An older pupil who is 
responsible for the proper conduct of a new boy, 
called his * shadow . 

1845 College^ Sf T. B. Life at Wcstm. 25 Oct., After my 
first week at School, I started altogether on my own account, 
my Substance then having nothing more to do with me. 
1899 W. K. R. BEDFORD Outcomes of Old Oxford 85 Every 
neophyte was consigned to the tutelage of some boy already 
in the school . . the shortcomings of the shadow, or tyro, were 
credited to the preceptor, or substance, and visited with 
penalties upon the latter. 

11. What is embodied in a statement; the meaning 
or purport of what is expressed in writing or speech ; 
what a writing or speech amounts to. 

14I5LD. SCROPE in 43rd Rep. Dt-p. Kpr. Publ. Rec. 590 Ilche 
\vorde y kan nought remembr bot for the most sobstan.s as nye 
os y kan thinke. 1415 in Ellis Orig. Lett. Ser. n. I. 47 Vf heny 
of thes persones . . woldyn contrary ye substaunce of yat i have 
wretyn at zys tyme. 1481 CAXTON Myrr. n. xxv. 1 17 Yf ye 
wyl here and wel reteyne the mater and substaunce of this 
present booke. 1501 Ord. Crysten Men (W. de W. 1506) 
i. ii. A vj b, I shall put the substaunce of the latyn afore 
sayd in englysshe. 1576 FLEMING Panopl. Epist. 17 So 
farre as I gather by the substance of your letters, a certaine 
kinde of suspicion is signified. 1597 SHAKS. -2 }lcn. f! , 
iv. i. 9, 1 hauereceiu d New-dated Letters from Northumber 
land : Their cold intent, tenure, and substance thus. 161* 
BRINSLEY Lud. Lit. xxii. (1627) 256 Learning is not so 
much seen, in setting downe the words, as the substance. 
1633 H. COGAS tr. Pinio s Trar. Ixxi.x. 321 All uf them 
together, seeming to be Merchants sons, . .>ung in verse 
with a very sweet and melodious voyce, words of this 
substance, High and mighty Lord [&c.] 1669 STUKMV 
Mariner s Mag. i. ii. 3 But to come to the Substance of 
uh.it is here intended. 1699 BKXTI.EY Phal. 233 The 
substance of the Epigram imports, that Thespis was the 
iirst contriver of Tragedy, a 1700 EVELYN Diary 5 Aug. 
1670, This is the substance of what she told me. 1794 
MRS. RADCLIHFE Myst. L dolpho xxxi, Who repeated the 
substance of what had passed between Montoni and 
herself. 1805 A. KNOX Rem, (1834) I. i, I hope.. that, if 
any thing . .appeared exceptionable, it was in manner and 
expression only, and not in the substance of my sentiments. 
1837 B NESS BUSSES in Hare Lift (1879) I. x. 461 The whole 
substance of his communications proved a state of vicious 
disorganization. 1861 G. C. LEWIS Let. to Reeve 9 Apr., 
You may rely on the substance of this story being quite 
authentic. 1867 RUSKIN Time <y Tide iii. 9 The substance 
of what I said to them was this. 

f b. The main intent or purpose. Obs. rare. 

1606 CHAPMAN Getttl. Usher iv. ii, To execute the sub 
stance of our mindes In honor d nuptialls. 

f!2. The vital part. Obs. 

c 1430 Pol. Rel. $ L. Poems (19031 233 The kingis sone , 
sche seide, isdeed, pe ioie, be substaunce of my lijfe. 1588 
SHAKS. Tit. A, i. i. 374 Deare Father, soule and substance 
of vs all. 1605 ist Pt. Jeronimo i. iii, Come, my soules 
spaniel!, my lifes ietty substance. 

13. That which gives a thing its character ; that 
which constitutes the essence of a thing ; the 
essential part, essence. 

1585 [R. BROWNE] Answ. Cartu<right 55 To be able to 
teache is not of the substance of a minister, but onely of a 
lawful minister. Ibid, 56 If a man bee not a lawfull minister, 
hee hath no essence nor substance of a mynister. 1597 
MORLEY Introd. Mits. 96 Phi. What doe you call keeping 
the substance of a note? Ma. When in breaking it, you 
sing either your first or last note in the same key wherin it 
standeth, or in his eight. 1620 T. GRANGER Div. Logike 94 
The essences, or substances of things are not here meant. 
1790 BURKE Rev. France 220 Miserable bigots. .who hate 
sects and parties different from their own, more than they 
love the substance of religion. 1856 N. Brit. Rev. XXVI. 
41 Modern thought, in its substance, is a congeries of all 
those refined theistic speculations, of all those baffled aspira 
tions, of all those deep and distracting surmises. 1869 MOZLEY 
Univ. Serm. ii. (1876) 39 It is sufficiently clear that these are 
not the substance of the character. 

b. in legal use. (Cf. SUBSTANTIAL A. 5 b.) 

1592 WEST nt Pt. Symbol, i. 22 The substance of this 
contract consisteth in the thing solJe, and in the price 
thereof. 1596 BACON Max. tf Use Com, Law i. (1630)4 
The intention is matter of substance. Ibid. xvi. 68 If a man 
bid one robbe I. S- as he goeth to Sturbridge-faire, and he 
robbe him in his house the variance seemes to be of sub 
stance, a 1613 SWINBURNE Sfousais (1686) 141 Resisting 
the Substance of Matrimony, it overthroweth the Contract. 
1843-56 BouviER Law Diet. (ed. 6) II. 555/2 Substance, 
evidence. That which is essential ; it is used in opposition 
to form. 

-f- 14. The amount, quantity, or mass (of*, thing). 

c 14*0 ? LYDG. Assembly of Gods 764 When Vertew sy the 
substaunce of hys oost, He prayed alt the comons to the 
felde hem hy. a 1500 in Rep. Hist. flfSS. Comm. Var. Coll. 
IV. 87 A vessaill called the Mighell of Brykelsey. .in the 
whiche duierse merchauntes of our Citie of London had 
goodes and merchandises to a grete value and substaunce. 
c 1500 Lancelot (S.T.S.) 1740 If., to the rich iftis of plesans, 
That thei be fair, set nocht of gret substans. 15*0 Cov. 
Leet Bk. 675 What supstance of malt was then brewede 
within the Cyte wokly by the comyn brewers, a 1548 HALL 
Ckron., Hen, V t 57 b, He found there innumerable sub 
stance of plate and money belongyng to the citizens. 1565 
Wills tr I m- N. C. (Surtees 1835) 344 Raffe Vasye..owetb 
me for all my. . muke. .the substance by estimac[i]on come 
to or will come to.. two hundrethe futhers. 1596 SHAKS. 
Merck. I , iv. i. 328 Be it so much As makes it light or heauy 
in the substance. Or the deuision of the twentieth part Of 
one poore scruple. 

tI5. The greater number or part, the majority, 
mass, or bulk of. Obs. 



SUBSTANCE. 

C1374 CHAUCER Troylus iv. 217 It moste ben and sholde. 
For substaunce of (?e parlement it wolde. 1435 Cov. Leet 
Bk. 185 That the maiour call the substance of the Crafte of 
Carpynters and sett hem to-ge^er as one felawshipe. 1462 
/. RUSSE Let. to J. Paston Sept., The substaunce of 
jentilmen and ye men of Lodyngland be assygned to be afore 
the seyd commesyoners. 1507 in Leadam Sel. Cases Star 
Chamber (Selden Soc.) 259 Robert.. hath ered great sub- 
stans of the ground of your seid besechers. 151* Act 
4 Hen. Vlll t c. i i The said Countie (s<r. Cornwall] is fhre 
score and ten myle in lenght and the substaunce therof right 
litle more than six myle in brede. 1550-3 Decays Eng. in 
S. Fish Supplic. (1871) 96 Many of them doeth kepe the 
most substaunce of theyr landes in theyr owne handes. 
i552-3^c/ 7 Edw. yfjC. 12 The Kynges Majesties Treasure 
..waasted, the greate Substaunce of the Moneyes molted 
and altered in bayse coyne. 

b. Sutn (t summary] and substance : see SUM 
slf. t SUMMARY sb. 

10. Possessions, goods, estate ; means, wealth. 
arch, (chiefly as a reminiscence of biblical lan 
guage). 

13.. Cursor M. 9538 (Gott.) Of his substance he gaf 
ilkan, And ilkan gaf he substance an. 1382 WYCLIF Prov. 
iii. 9 Honoure the Lord of thi substaunce. 1382 Luke 
xv. 13 He wastide his substaunce in lyuynge leccherously. 
c 1400 Rom. Rose 6595 Yit shulde he selle alle his 
bubstaunce And with his swynk haue sustenaunce. c 1430 
LYDG. Min. Poems (Percy Soc.) 135 Abel.. Gaff God his 
part, tethe of his substaunce. 1466 Paston Lett. Suppl. io3, 
I truste I am of that substans that, what soever caswelte 
fortunyd, yourre maistresship shuld not lese on pene of 
yourre dute. 1500-20 DUXBAR Poems Ixxxviii. 7 London, 
thou art of townes A per se. ..Of merchauntis full of sub 
staunce and myght. c 1510 SKELTON Magnyf. 1445 Take 
of his Substaunce a sure inuentory. 1535 COVERDALE Job i. 
3 His substaunce was vij. M. shepe, iij. M. camels, v. C. 
yock of oxen, v. C. she asses, and a very greate housholde. 
1535 Ps, xvii. 14 They haue children at their desyre, and 
leaue the rest of their substaunce for their babes. 1590 
SHAKS. Coin. Err. \. i. 24 Thy substance, valued at the 
highest rate, Cannot amount vnto a hundred Markes. 1634 
SIR T. HERBERT Trav. 206 They will hazard all their worth 
..and other substance, a 1700 EVELYN Diary 3 Nov. 1685, 
Innumerable persons of the greatest birth and riches leaving 
all their earthly substance. 179$ WORDSW. Guilt $ Sorrow 
xxvi, My father s substance fell into decay. 1849 MACAULAY 
Hist. Eng. ii, I. 156 A fortune raised out of the substance 
of the ruined defenders of the throne. 

f b. With a : An amount of wealth, a fortune ; 
//. riches, possessions. Obs. 

13. . [see sense 16]. 1382 WVCLIF Eccltis. xli. i Hauende 
pes m his substaunces [1388 richessis]. ijfta Acts ii. 45 
Thei selden possesciouns and substaunces. 1382 Heb. x. 34 
Knowynge }ou for to haue a betere and dwelling substaunce. 
1487 Act 3 Hen. VIl^ c. 2 Wymmen. , havyng substaunces 
somme in goodes moveable, and somme in landes and tene- 
ments. 1560 DAUS tr. Sleidanc s Comm. Pref. 5 b, Whose I 
brother for the education of youth in true Religion & learn 
ing, imploied a wonderful substaunce. 1731-9 TULL Horse- 
hoeing Husb. (1822) 154 A small substance. 
1 17. a. A supply or provision of. Obs. 
1385 CHAUCER L. G. IV. 1560 lason weddit was Vn-to 
this queen & tok of it substaunce What so hym leste onto 
his puruyaunce. ^1412 HOCCLEVE De Reg. Princ. 4909 If 
a man, in tyme of swich a nede, Of his goode ^eue yow a 
goode substaunce. 1515 in Leadam Sel. Cases Star Chamber 
(Selden Soc.) II. 79 The said Towne [was] then in better 
substaunce of goodis good ordre and rule then it is nowe. 
*535 COVERDALE Eccl. ii. 7 As for catell and shepe, I had 
more substaunce of them, then all they y l were before me. 

fb. Maintenance, subsistence. Obs. 

c 1380 WYCLIF.S>/. Wks. III. 67 Seesgendren manyefischis 

to substaunce of mankynde. 1502 Ord. Crysien Men (W. de 

W. 1506) i. iii. C ij, It is not gyuen to hym for substaunce or 

refeccyon corporell. a 1513 FABYAN Chron. vi. clxx. (1811) 

164 All thynges.. were than more wasted in glotony, and 

outrage of owners, than in substaunce and ayde of nedy men. 

f" 18. Substantial existence, substantiality. Obs. 

c 1366 CHAUCER A. B.C. 87 As j seide erst J>ou ground of 

oure substaunce Continue on us JM pitous eyen cleere. 1555 

EDEN_ Decades (.\rb.) 135 To gyue substance to priuation, 

(that is) beinge to noo beinge. 1628 [see SUBSISTENCY 3]. 

19. Substantial or solid qualities, character, etc. 

ci43o Wyclifs Bible Prol. 1.58 Symple men, that wolden 

for no good in erthe..putte awei..the leste. .title, of holi 

writ, that berith substaunce, either charge. 1559 Q. ELIZ. 

in Strype Ann. Ref. (1709) I, n. 414 Dyvers reasons which 

appeare unto me to have in them small substance. 1581 

RICH Farew. (1846) 159 Knowyng her housebande to be a 

man of no verie greate substaunce, and but slenderly stuffed 

in the hedpeece. 1858 HAWTHORNE Fr. 4- It. Note-bks. 

(1871) I. 221 Neither rulers nor people had any faith or moral 

substance. 1863 KINGLAKE Crimea (1876) I. 117 This fact 

gave great strength and substance to the pretensions of 

Russia. 

b. That which makes a material firm, solid, 
and hard-wearing. 

1833 HT. MARTINEAU Loom $ Lugger \. ii. 21 You must 
learn from the French to give your fabrics more substance, 
Mod. There s hardly any substance in this material, 

f20. The consistency of a. fluid. Obs. 

c 1450 Mirk s Festial 166/0 Take nede on watj-r, and on 
yse, and on snow ; how (?ay ben ych on dyverse in substance, 
and ?et )>ay ben but watyr, 1541 COPLAND Guy don s Quest. 
Cyrurg. R j, Whan it [sc. blood] is drawen, consydre the 
substance and the colour yf it be so as is abouesayde. 
7?9 O. SMITH Laboratory I. 207 Give it the substance of 
thin paste. 

21. In substance, a. In reality. 

1390 GowERG>/C II. 87 To receive Bothe in substance 
and in figure Of gold and selver the nature. 1667 MILTON 
P. L. xi. 7_7i Hee the future evil shall no less In apprehen 
sion then in substance feel Grievous to bear. 1785 BURKE 
Sp. Nabob ofArcot s Debts Wks. 1842 I. 339 The nabob of 
Arcot, and rajah of Tanjore, have, in truth and substance, 



54 

no more than a merely civil authority. 1793 On policy of 
Allies Wks. 1842 I. 601 We know that the monarchy did not 
survive the hierarchy, no not even in appearance, for many 
months ; in substance, not for a single hour. 

fb. In general; generally speaking. (In ME. 
poetry used, esp. by Lydgate, as a metrical tag.) 

c 1407 LYDG. Reason fy Sens. 645 In especial ther be tweyne, 
And thou mayst chesen, in substaunce, Whiche ys most to 
thy plesaunce. Ibid. 894 And fynaly, as in substaunce, Do 
as the lyst, lo, this the ende. 1426 De Gnil. Pilgr. 5881 
Yt behoueth in sentence, That the fulfyllyng in substaunce 
To the fulle haue suflfysaunce. c 1440 Generydes 1968 
Now haue I here rehersid in substaunce xv kynges, As 
shortly as I myght, With ther powre and All ther hoole 
puysaunce. 1447 Rolls o/Parlt. V. 129/2 In whos kepyng 
the Bokes, suretees and godes in substaunce holy remaigne. 
f c. In the main, for the most part. Obs. 

1475 Rolls ofParlt. VI. 151/1 The which forseid xth par t, 
and xv and x e ..been in substaunce levied and paied. 
a 1500 Bale s Chron. in Six Town Chron. (1911) 119 And 
the hertes of the cpmones in substaunce wer w l be Erie; 
And a geinst the seid priour. 

d. In essentials, substantially. 

1491 Act T Hen. K//, c. 22 Preamble, All whiche matiers 
afore rehercid is by the seid John Hayes in substaunce con- 
fessed and knowleged. 1581 in D. Digges Complete Ambass. 
(1655) 440 She used in substance the like speeches the King 
had done. 1687 A. LOVELL tr. Thevenofs Trav. n. io6The 
Religion of the Persians is in substance the same with that 
of the Turks. 1737 Gentl. Mag. VII. 662 To this it was 
replied in Substance as follows. 1821 JEFFERSON Writ. 
(1830) IV. 344, I may misre member indifferent circum 
stances^ but can be right in substance. 1857 KEBLE uc/t t 
Ador. ii. 26 Whitgift. .adds, in substance, the same account 
of it. 1908 Progr. Modernism n8 These are, in substance, 
our ideas upon the origin of religion. 

e. In effect, virtually. 

1834 H. TAYLOR Artewlde \. i. ii, Think well What you 
should say; for if it must be no In substance, you shall 
hardly find that form Which shall convey it pleasantly. 

t f- In a pure or unmixed state, in the natural 
state. (Cf. . en substance.) Obs. 

1621 BURTON Anat. Mel. i. ii. n. iii. 102 Theophrastus 
speakes of a Shepheard that could eat Hellebor in substance. 
[bid. n. i. iv. ii. 303. 

f g. ? Real, substantial. Obs. 

1649 MILTON Tenure of Kings 4 When the Common 
wealth nigh perishes for want of deeds in substance, don 
with just and faithfull expedition. 

22. Of ( . . ) substance : a. (often of good or 
great substance} Substantial, well-to-do, wealthy. 
(Cf. OF. de substance.} 

1480 Cov. Leet Bk. 435 The Comien Counceill of be Cite 
& other persones of substaunce. 1496 in Rep. Hist. MSS. 
Comm. Var. Coll. IV. 211 Suche inhabitantes of grete sub- 
stans. a 1508 DUNBAR Tua Mariit IVemen 337 That syre 
of substance. 1528 MORE Dyaloge in. xv. Wks. 235/1 A 
very honest person, & of a good substaunce. 1660 SOUTH 



BMUVQ AUU icpuiauuu. 1040 j.HAi,KtKAY \^aitiennc xxn, 
Hayes s father was reported to be a man of some substance, 
1869 BLACKMORE Lorna D. i, My father being of good sub 
stance, at least as we reckon in Exmoor. 1889 JESSOPP 
Coming of Friars ii. 70 [He] was a man of substance and 
influence. 
fb. Of immaterial things: Substantial, weighty. 

c 1400 Pilgr. Sowle (Caxton 1483) iv. xxxiii. 82 The hygher 
that he is sette in estate the more shold his wordes be of 
substaunce and moost of reputacion. a 1456 LD. CROM 
WELL in Paston Lett. III. 425 There is a greet straunge- 
nesse betwix my right trusty frend John Radcliff and you, 
withoute any matier or cause of substaunce, as I am lerned. 
1509 FISHER Funeral Serm. Ctess Richmond Wks. (1876) 
291 Tryfelous thynges that were lytell to be regarded she 
wolde let passe by, but the other that were of weyght & 
substaunce [etc.]. 

f c. Of a meal : Sumptuous. Obs. 

^1485 Digby Myst. (1882) in. 574, I haue ordeynnyd a 
dyner of substawns, My chyfffreyndes berwith to chyr. 

23. Comb.) as substance-yielding ppl. adj. 

1611 COTGR., Siibstantifigne, substantial, or substance- 
yeelding. 

Substanced (szrbstanst), pa.pple. rare. [f. 
prec. + -ED2.] 

t 1. Furnished with wealth. Obs. 

1615 CHAPMAN Odyss. iv. 119 This Pallace here, (. . furnished 
so well; And substanced with such a precious deale Of well- 
got treasure). 

2. Made into a substance, made substantial, sub 
stantiated. 

1873 WHITNEY Other Girls xxxiv. (1876) 443 If life were 



nothing but what gets phrased and substanced, the world 
might as well be rolled up and laid away again in darkness. 
1890 J. PULSFORD Loyalty to Christ I. 129 Blessed are the 
appetites which feed on God s immortality ; for His immor 



tality shall be substanced in them. 

3. Of a specified kind of substance. Chiefly in 
parasynthetic comb. 

1624 QUARLES Job Milit. x. 71 Wks. (Grosart) II. 84/1 
Your slender Maxims, and false Forgeryes, Are substanc t, 
like the dust, that flies besides me. 1753 Chambers Cycl. 
Suppl. s. v. Diamond, The stone here described is said to 
be a full substanced Brilliant. 

t Substa ncefying, ///. a. Obs. rare- 1 . ?= 

SUBSTANTIFIC. 

1605 TIMME Qnersit. in. 148 Those three substancefying 
beginnings are., found in al the things of nature. 

Substaiiceless (szrbstinsles), a. [f. SUB- 
STANCE sb. + -LESS.] Devoid of substance, unsub 
stantial. 

1816 COLERIDGE Hum. Life Poems 316 If rootless thus, 
thus substanceless thy state. 1822 W. TENNANT Thane of 



SUBSTANTIAL. 

Fife vi. 32 That conclave substanceless of gilded things. 
1858 LVTTON What will He do ? ix. i, You have made that 
life substanceless as a ghost that future barren as the 
grave 1895 MOIR in Gait s Wks. I. p. xci, The arguments 
. . might be . . too shadowy and substanceless to convey intel 
lectual satisfaction. 

t Substa-nder. Obs. [Rendering of L. sub- 
stans (see SUBSTANCE **.).] A thing that subsists. 
So Substa-nding ppl. a., subsisting. 

1662 J. CHANDLER Van Helmonfs Oriat. 144 A truly sub- 
standing or remaining Being [orlg. vere substantzs entis}. 
Ibid, 345 ine Substance of that Substander or remainer 
[ong. ejusque mbstantis substantial 

Substant (svbstant), a. and sb. rare. [ad. 
L. substans, -ant- t pr. pple. of substare (see SUB 
STANCE),] 

A. adj. 1. Substantial; subsistent. 

1660 STANLEY Hist. P kilos, ix. ii. (1687) 571/1 The Pytha 
goreans reduce all Beings, subsistent or substant, im- 
mediatly to Idsea s which truly are. 1838 J. E. READE 
Italy \. xxv, A subslant and eternal memory. 

2. Underlying. 

1883 Century Mag. XXVII. 146 Its [sc. a glacier s] sub- 
slant ice curls freely. 

t B. sb. A subsisting thing. Obs. 

597 J- PAYNE Royal Exch. 24 The substants of bodie and 
soule have nothinge commune with this spirituall mariage. 

Substantiabi lity. Error for SUBSTANTIALITY. 

1836 MARRYAT Japhet Ixii, The Quaker dress added very 
much to the substantiability of his appearance. 1839 New 
Monthly Mag. LVII. 143 The stalwart lover. .does not 
relish having his identity, and still less his substantiability, 
called in question. 

Substantial (sbstce-njal), a. (adv.} and sb. 
Forms : 4-8 substancial, (4 -ciel, 5 -cyel, 5-6 
-aunc-, -ciall(e, -cyall(e, 5-7 -tiall), 6- sub 
stantial, [ad. late L. substantiates (f. substantia 
SUBSTANCE), whence also K. substantiel (from 
1 3th c.), Pr. substantial^ Sp. substantial, It. 
sostanziale y sustanziale.] A. adj. 

1. That is, or exists as, a substance ; having a real 
existence ; subsisting by itself. 

1387-8 T. USK Test. Love n. xiii. (Skeat) !. 47 Naturel 
goodnesse of every substaunce is nothing els than his sub 
stancial being. 1488 CAXTON Chast. Goddes Chyld. 47 Eche 
thynge that is noo body if it be substancyall it is callid a 
spiryte. 1651 HOBBES Leviathan in. xxxiv. 211 Some such 
apparitions [sc. Daemons] may be reall, and substantiall ; that 
is to say, subtile Bodies, which God can form by the same 
power, by which he formed all things, a 1652 J. SMITH 
Set, Disc. iv. (1821) 71 This hypothesis, that no substantial 
and indivisible thing ever perisheth. 1678 CUDWORTH 
Intell. Syst. Pref. 4 The general ranks; of substantiall 
beings below the Deity. 1817 COLERIDGE Biog. Lit. xii. 
(1907) I. 169 The want of substantial reality in the objects 
of the senses, according to the sceptics. 

absol. 1838 [F. HAYWOOD] tr. Kant s Crit. Pure Reason 
327 That wnich.. might yet seem to bean idea of transcen 
dental reason, would be the conception of the substantial. 
1856 FERRIER Inst. Metaph. xvi. (ed. 2) 328 There is a sub 
stantial in cognition ; in other words, substance is knowable, 
and is known by us. Ibid. xvn. xvi. 348 The substantial 
in cognition (TO ov), 

2. Philos. Of, pertaining or relating to, or in 
herent in substance (esp. as opposed to accident} ; 
that is substance. Also transf. and allusively. 

1387-8 T. USK Test. Love n. vii. (SkL) 1. 147 Thilke thinges 
that we clepe power is but accident to the flesshly body ; 
and so they may not have that suretee in might, whiche 
wanteth in the substancial body. 1526 Pilgr. Per/. (W. de 
W. 1531) 153 How to ye actyue lyfe perteyneth accidentall 
ioye, but to the contemplatyue the substanciall crowne of 
glory. 1580 BLUNDEVIL" Horsemanship iv. iv. 3 Sickness., 
is knowne. .by inseparable or substantiall accidents, as by 
the shape, number, qualitie, & site of the part, or member 
diseased. 1581 FULKE in Confer, ni. (1584) U iv, But bread 
is substance : Therefore he gaue them pieces of substance, 
or substantial pieces. 1642 DENHAM Sophy v. i If happiness 
be a substantial good, Not fram d of accidents, nor subject 
to em. 1664 H. MORE Apology 498 Calvin seems to be 
affraid of the opinion of the Body being Spiritual, as im 
plying a Substantial change. 

o. Substantial form [see FORM sb. 4 a: med.L. 
substantialis forma (Joannes Scotus Erigena), Gr. 
ovatwSfs elSos (Philoponus^m/. Categ.}"}: thenature 
or distinctive character in virtue of possessing which 
a thing is what it (specifically or individually) is. 

1413 [see FORM sb. 43]. 1477 NORTON Ord. Alch. v. in Ashm. 
(1652) 63 Coagulation is noe forme substantiall. 1666 BOYLE 
Grig. Formes <$ Qual. 45 Some Engines, which, .devoid 
of Substantial Forms, must do those strange things they are 
admir d for, by vertue of those Accidents, the Shape, Size, 



a Man, is the Rational Soul ; Accidental as he is a Musician, 
Musick. ijvjCurios. Husb.fyGard. 343 Salts.. heregarded 
as the Substantial Form of Bodies. 1728 CHAMBERS Cycl, 
s. v., Substantial Forms, *. e. Forms jndependant of all 
Matter ; or Forms that are Substances themselves. 1741 
WATTS Improv. Mind n. v. (1801) 214 A student who., 
imagines certain immaterial beings, called substantial forms, 
to inhabit every herb, flower [&c.J. 1775 J. HARRIS Philos. 
Arrangements xvi. 387 note. 

4. Relating to or proceeding from the essence of 
a thing ; essential. Now rare or Obs. 

1380 WYCLIF Set. Wks. II. 285 Crist. .was of be same 
kynde bat is ech man his broker, and bis liknesse is in sub 
stancial kynde. 1509 HAWES Past. Pleas, xvni. (Percy/ Soc.) 
83 Your heart is your by substancyall lyne, It is not in my 
domynacyon. 1551 T. WILSON Logic (1580) 14 If he can 
learne firste to see the verie Nature, and, substanciall 



SUBSTANTIAL. 



55 



SUBSTANTIAL, 



propertie of euery tbyng. a 1653 H. BINNING Princ. Chr. 
Relig. Wks (1735) 30/2 Christ may be called the Truth 
indeed, the substantial Word of God, for he is the very 
Substance of the written and preached Word. 1667 MILTON 
P. L. iv. 485 To give thee being I lent Out of my side to 
thee, neerest my heart Substantial Life. 1783 PRIESTLEY 
Corrupt. Chr. 1. 1. 127 Joachim., denied that there was any 
essence, or anything that belonged in common to the three 
persons, by which, their substantial union was taken away, 
and nothing but a numerical or moral union was left. 

5. That is, constitutes, or involves an essential 
part, point, or feature ; essential, material. 

Now said chiefly of immaterial things and often blending 
with 8, 9, or 14. 

43"5o tr. Higden (Rolls) VII. 399 A decrete was made 
that the substantial! partes of that rule scholde be kepede, 
and ober thynges as superfluous to be refusede. 1467 in 
Engl. Gilds (1870) 385 It myght be ordeined a substancialle 
rule, that v. pagentes..to be holden yerly, shuld not be to 
seche. 1528 MORE Dyaloge i. Wks. 174/1 That y l church 
can not erre in any such substauncyall article as God wyll 
haue vs bounden to beleue. 1541 COPLAND Guydons Quest. 
Cyrurg. G j, Be the addicions abouesayd other bones than | 
the bone of y e sholdre?..No,..but are substancyall party 
of it. 1567-9 JEWEL Def. Appl. (1611) 327 The Substantial- 
lest points of all your Doctrine. 1588 KYD Househ. Phil. 
Wks. (1901) 269 Those compasses, .which, though they be 
diuers according to the variety of Countreys, is (notwith 
standing) no occasion of substantiall difference. 1647 
CLARENDON Hist. Reb. i. 20 The common misfortune of 
Princes, that in so substantial a part of their Happyness. . 
Themselves had never any part. 1686 GOAD Celest. Bodies 
11. viii. 273, I would not have it destitute of a Limme that 
is substantial, or one of its vital Parts. 1729 W. LAW Serious 
C, 52 Most of the employments of life are . . lawful ; and all 
those that are so, may be made a substantial part of out 
duty to God. 1818 CRUISE Digest (ed. 2) II. 188 He could 
not find any substantial distinction between that case, and 
the principal one. 1867 RUSKIN Time $ Tide viii. 35 
Under.. Divine guidance, securing them from substantial 
error. 

b. Law. Belonging to or involving essential 
right, or the merits of a matter. 

[1838 W. BELL Diet. Law Scot., Substantia.Ua, those 
parts of a deed which are essential to its validity as a formal 
instrument.] 1843-56 BouviER/.rtW Diet, s, v. Form, If the 
matter pleaded be in itself insufficient, without reference to 



wnat is tne substantial lact to be made out, ana on whom 
it lies to make it out. 1897 Bouvier*s Law Diet. s.v. Right 
to begin,. .The party who asserts the affirmative of an issue 
has the right to begin and reply, as on him is the burden of 
proof. The substantial affirmative, not the verbal, gives the 
right. 

6. Of food, a meal : Affording ample or abundant 
nourishment. (In later use the notion of solidity 
or quantity is predominant.) 

^1340 Ayenb. (1866) 113 f>e more Jiet he \sc. food] is non s- j 
smde, me zayj bet he is pe substancieler. a 1380 S. Paula 
60 in Horstm. Altengl. Leg. (1878) 4 Cumforie \>\ brayn 
beter wib sum bred And wij> sum substancial mete. 

1578 Chr. Prayers in Priv. Prayers (1851) 451 We be 
able to brook substantialer meat, because we be grown to 
further years of discretion. 16*6 SPKED Adam out of Edtn 
v. (1659) 38 Clovergrass. .renders abundance of very exqui 
site hay, very great substantial and much desired. 1634 
W. TIRWHYT tr. Balzac s Lett. (vol. I.) 115 Whitest others 
fill themselves with substantiall and most ponderous cates. 
a 1774 TUCKER Lt. Nat. (1834) II. 653 We say roast beef 
is good substantial food, but water.gruel not. 1813-7 GOOD 
Study Med. (1829) I. 210 One substantial meal of solid 
animal food daily. 18*5 T. HOOK Sayings Ser. n. Passion 
fy Princ. viii. III. 117 A good, substantial, hot luncheon. , 
1827 SCOTT Chron. Canongate iv, With something rather 
more substantial than bread and butter. 1901 VIOLET 
JACOB Sheep-Stealers xiv, Breakfast at nine, a substantial 
dinner at three, supper at eight. 

7. Of structures, etc. : Of solid material or work- ; 
manship. 

1390 GowERO/yC III. 02 Erthe.. Which.. in his forme is 
schape round, Substancial, strong, sadd and sound, c 1411 
HOCCLEVE De Reg. Princ. 5116 They made ware of a ribbe.. . j 
Which more strong is, and substancial, pan slyme of eerthe. > 
1463 Bury Wills (Camden) 39 A substanciall and a sqwar : 
dore of free stoon. 1513 Act 4 Hen. Vlfl t c. i 3 Goode ] 
and substanciall bulwarkes. .in every landyng place. 1551 
ROBINSON tr. More s Utopian. \\. (1895) ia8 A brydge.. | 
with gorgiousand substanciall archeis. 16*4 CAPT. J. SMITH I 
Virginia v. 189 Then they built no more Cabbens, but sub. | 
stantiall houses. 1662 GERBIER Principles 19 Well-riveted 
Windowes, with substantiall Locks, Bolts, and Hinges. ! 
1667 MILTON P. L. iv. 180 Some rich Burgher, whose sub 
stantial dores, Cross-barra and bolted fast, fear no assault. ! 
1707 MORTIMER Husb. (1721) I. 374 Country Houses ought ! 
to be substantial, and able to encounter all the shocks 
of the Wind. 1845 DISRAELI Sybil (1863) 129 Behind the 
substantial counter, which was an impregnable fortification. I 
1858 HAWTHORNE Fr. % It. NoteJks. II. 47 The clouds 
..looking quite as substantial as the dfetant mountains. 
1861 PARKER Introd. Gothic Archit. (ed. 2) iv. 103 Early 
Norman masonry is in general so massive and substantial 
lhat it is difficult to destroy all traces of it. 1879 STAINER 
Mus. Bible 5 Whose roof was never more substantial than 
a tent. 

Comb, !897 A. HOPE Phroso iv. (1905) 73 He held a very 
substantial-looking whip in his hand. " 

T o. Of persons, their constitution, etc. : Sturdy, 
strong, burly. Obs. 

<;i4oo Beryn 2518 Natur was more substancial, when tho I 
dayis were. Then nowe. 1533 ELYOT Cast. Htlthe (1539) 
52 b, [Vociferation] maketh the members of the body sub- 
stancial Ad stronge. 1578 WHETSTONE and Pt. Promos <fr 
Coss. iv. i. (heoding\ Gresco, a good substantiall Offycer. ! 
1603 in Moryson /tin. (1617) n. 250 Men broken, and not I 
substantiall m war. 1657 BILLINCSLV Brochv- Marty rol. xiv. i 
48 Tormentors, pray procure Substantial ler than these ; these 
are too small. 



9. Of ample or considerable amount, quantity, 
or dimensions. 

1454 Rolls of Parlt. V. 254/2 That substantiall provision 
be made in all hast. 1539 TONSTALL Serm. Palm Sund. 
(1823) 81 Yf a manne wolde offre a greatte substantiall 
suretie. c 1550 ROLLAND Crt. Venus n. 515 He thocht the 
price was ouir substanciall. 1616 in Fortescue Papers 
(Camden) 17 Although you are not capable (through your 
fulnes)of any substantiall addition from me. 1690 C. NESSE 
Hist. % Myst. O. <f- N. T. I. 138 The wealth of a man is. . 
reckoned, .by the substantial bills and bonds, &c. he is able 
to produce. 1718 MORGAN Algiers II. v. 319 Often, .one 
finds good substantial Leagues dwindling into even Lili- 
putian Furlongs. 1780 JEFFERSON Corrcsp. Wks. 1859 I. 
274 Were it possible to arm men, we would send on sub 
stantial reinforcements to you. 1897 MARY KINGSLEV iy. 
Africa 335 One of us at least would . . have made something 
substantial by the venture. 1908 Outlook 8 Aug. 178, 2 
These two substantial volumes. 

10. Based upon a solid substratum ; firmly or 
solidly established ; not easily disturbed or 
damaged ; of solid worth or value ; weighty, sound. 

a. of statement, discourse, writing. 

1430 LYDO. Minor P. (E.E.T.S.) I. 41 With Crystis 
worde substancial in sentence. 1468 Engl. Misc. (Surtees 
SocJ 19 By substanciall wrytyng undre sealez. 1547 BOORDR 
Brev. Health in Introd. Knowl. (1870) 96 In great matters 
aske substancial counsel!. 1576 FLEMING Panofl. Epist. 
151 My letters cannot make you such substanciall assur- 
aunce, of my desire touching your safetie, as it is in deede. 
a 1591 K. GKEENHAM IVks. (1599) 56 The Lord..vrgeth him 
with substantiall questions. 1602 in Moryson I tin. (1617) 
1 1. 238 We have not heard any such substantiall intelligence. 
1691 WOOD Ath. Oxon. II. 607 His. .practical, spiritual, 
substantial preaching. 1710 ADDISON fatler No. 158 p i 
This he looks upon to be sound learning, and substantial 
criticism. 1742 in totk Rep. Hist, MSS. Comm. App. i. 277 
Few words but substantial ones you will like best I suppose. 
1863 Gno. ELIOT Roniola xxxiv, His mind glanced round.. 
to see how far those words could have the force of a substan 
tial threat. 1873 EARLE Pkilol. Engl. Tongue (ed. 2) 66 
This division is substantial and useful. 

b. of reasons, causes, evidence. 

c 1513 MORE Rich. Ill Wks. 50/1 For that I se some men 
so gredye withowte any substaunciall cause. 1528 in Pocock 
Rec, Ref. (1870) I. li. 121 Very good matter and substantial 
why the said matrimony should be dissolved. 1590 SHAKS. 
Com. Err. n. ii. 105 Your reason was not substantiall. a 1687 
PETTY Pol. Arith. v. (1691) 88 Although there be. not 
naturally substantial reasons.. why there should be such 
differences. 1845 M. PATTISON Ess. (1889) I. 19 No more 
substantial evidence being producible against the bishop, the 
synod broke up. 1846 GHOTE Greece (1862) II. xvi. 394 In 
itself a substantial testimony. 1866 BARING-GOULD Cur. 
Myths Mid. Ages Ser. i. i. 23 How wanting they are in all 
substantial evidence which could make us regard the story 
in any other light than myth. 

C. of actions, conditions, results, ideas. 

1565 ALLEN Defence Purg. xvii. 282 Do yow not see here 
a trim faith and a substantiall ? 1592 NASHE P. Penilesse 
Wks. 1904 I. 164 Now trust me, a substantiall trade. 1621 
DRAYTON Poly-olb. xxiv. 240 The Christian Faith, for whose 
substantiall planting, Saint Augustine from Rome was to 
this Island sent, 1624 CAPT. T. SMITH Virginia in. xii. 94 
Ten good workemen would haue done more substantiall 
worke in a day, then ten of them in a weeke. 1696 TATE & 
BRADY Ps. cxix. 165 Secure, substantial Peace have they. 
1749 SMOLLETT Regie, v. i, Life with substantial ills enough 
is cursed. 1753 RICHARDSON Grandison V. xliii. 278 She 
has substantial notions still left, I find, of ideal Love. 
1784 COWPER Task 111.300 Foolish man. .quits. .Substantial- 
happiness for transient joy. 1812 COLERIDGE Frttut{i$i%} 
III. 60 Where he deems his interference warranted by sub 
stantial experience. 1814 Miss MITFORDUI L Estrange Life 
(1870) I. viii. 256 The substantial comforts of a good coal 
fire. 1824 L. MURRAY Engl. Gram. (ed. 5) I. 543 The sub. 
stantial enjoyments, .which result from piety and virtue. 
1867 RUSKIN Time fy Tide\\. 7 To.. complete his home 
gradually with more delicate and substantial comforts. 

f 1L Of acts, measures, etc. : Having weight, 
force, or effect ; effective, thorough. Obs* 

1461 Cov. Leet Bk. 314 The good & substanciall rule and 
guydyng that ye kepe theryn. 1485 Ibid. 523 Thobseruyng 
..such sad direccions and substanciall ordinaunces. 1523 
Act 14 <fr 15 Hen. VII f, c. 3 i The true and substanciall 
makyng of the said clothes. 1547 in Sir J. Williams Ac- 
compte (Abbotsf. Cl.) 4 That a substanciall Survey vue and 
true accompte..shalbe taken. issoCROWLEY Way to IVealth 
30 The most substanciall waye in curinge diseases is by 
puttinge awaye the causes. 1551 in Strype Eccl. Mem. 
(1721) II. u. iv. 272 That substantial Order be taken forth 
with for the pulling down all Altars. 1683 MOXON Meek. 
Exerc., Printing xxiv. p 19 There is no substantial remedy 
ing this fault, but by making a new Head. 

12. Possessing substance , property, or wealth ; 
well-to-do, wealthy ; hence, of weight or influence. 

c 1450 Brut 479 They . . ordeyned .nij. enquestes within the 
Cite, of substantiall peple. 1461 Paston Lett, II. 27 Any 
substancyall genlylman. a 1548 HALL Chron.^ Hen. yf, 
169 b, The Maire . . assembled a great numbre of substanciall 
and grave citizens. 1593 NASHE Christ s T. 37 All which 
were of the Nobles, Gentlemen, and substant latest men of 
the lewes. 1641 Pr. Rupert his Declar. 4 The Knights, 
Aldermen, and substantiall Citizens of London. 1714 FORTES- 




. 

CUE-ALAND Pref* Fortescue s Aos. $ Lim, Mon. 10 A Jury 
twelve upright and substantial Men, is by the Law, to be 




of tw 



summon d. 1771 SMOLLETT Humphry Cl. (181^) 104 The 
substantial tradesman, who was wont to pass his evenings 
at the alehouse for fourpence halfpenny, now spends: three 
shillings at the tavern. 1823 SCOTT Peveril viii, Her 
father is a substantial yeoman. 1833 Hr. MARTINKAU 
Brooke Farm viii. 94 In former times, ..the proprietor or 
occupier of thirty or forty acres was thought a substantial 
farmer. 1883 S. C. HALL Retrospect II. 276 Among our 
few fellow-passengers.. was a substantial Scottish grazier. 
fb. (tosol. with/i: Persons of influence. Ofa. 
1568 GRAFTON Chron. II. 331 The Maior of London, and 
tbe substanciall of the Citie toke counsaile together. 



13. Of real worth, reliability, or repute ; of good 
standing or status. 

<ri449 PECOCK Repr. \. xvi. 85 Substancial clerkis weel 
leerned in logik. 1562 TURNER Herbal \\. (1568) 72 Theo- 
phrast so ancient and substantiall autor. 1588 GREENE 
Pandosto (1843)45 That he might go like an honest substan 
tiall man to tell his tale. ^1687 PtrrY Pol. Arith. (1690) 
74 Another ttook written by a substantial Author. 1814 
\V. WILSON Hist. Diss. Ch. IV. 310 Mr. Sheffield was a 
sound and substantial scholar. 1837 CARLYLE Fr. Rev. \. 
i. i, Dismissal of his last substantial man. 1863 FROUDK 
Short Studies (1867) I. 228 Till it be so agreed the substantial 
intellect of the country will not throw itself into the question. 

14. Having a corporeal form ; consisting of solid 
matter; corporeal, material. Obs. or rare. 

1589 [? LVLY] Pappe w. Hatchet (1844) 361 1 came so neere, 
that I could fcele a substantiall knaue from a sprites shadowe. 
1603 SHAKS. M cos. for M. \\\. ii. 290 To draw with ydle 
Spiders strings Most ponderous and substantiall things. 
1653 H. MORE Conject. Cabbal. (1713) 184 He means no sub- 
stantiallera Hcing by Matter than what may well be called 
Metaphysical. 1818 SCOTT Br. Lamm, xxiii, Neither was 
there pressure of the grass, nor any other circumstance, to 
induce him to believe that what he had seen was real and 
substantial. 

15. Having substance ; not imaginary, unreal, or 
apparent only ; true, solid, real. 

1592 SHAKS. Rom. fy Jul. n. ii. 141 All this is but a dreame, 
Too flattering sweet to be substantiall. 1726-31 TISDAL 
Rapins Hht. /:C- ( 1 743 I H- xvii. 115 Not only by words 
..but by very substantial deeds. 1781 GIBBON Decl. <$ F. 
xvii. II. 23 The manly pride of the Romans, content with 
substantial power, had left to the vanity of the east the 
forms and ceremonies of ostentatious greatness. 1781 COW 
PER Hope 154 Hope sets the stamp of vanity on all That 
men have deem d substantial since the fall. 1798 S. & HT. 
LEE Canterb. T. II, 15 His substantial wealth vanished, 
but the shadow still remained. 1862 SIM li. BRODIE Psycho!. 
Ing. II. i. 27 We should, .not he led away from that which 
is real and substantial by the pursuit of the shadowy and 
fantastic. 

16. Belonging to the component substance or 
matter of a thing. 

1671 N. GREW Anat. PI. i. iii. (1682) 13 In all such Roots, 
the Pith is.. of the same substantial nature. 1718 PRIOR 
Solomon \. 497 Now shine these Planets with substantial 
Rays? 

b. Pertaining to the substance or tissue of the 
body or a part or organ, 

x6xi [see SUBSTANCE 23]. 1620 VESNER Via Recta viii. 189 
The radical! or substantiall moystureof the body. Hid. 192 
By reason of much resolution of the nutrimentall and sub 
stantiall moisture through the pores. 1875 [see SUBSTANTIVE 
a. 8]. 1889 Buck s Handbk. Med. Sci. VIII. 120 Transition 
from substantial to membranous parietes. 

1 17. That is really such ; thorough, real. Obs. 

1663 S. PATRICK Parab. Pilgr. xx. (1687) 207, I mean., 
that it must appear to the World, that you are a substantial 
Christian by all the acts of an Holy Life, a 1694 TILLOTSON 
Serm. liii. (1742) IV. 497 To become wise and peaceable and 
Substantial Christians. 

18. That is such in the main ; real or true for the 
most part. 

1771 Junius Lett. xliv. (1788) 256, I should be contented to 
renounce the forms of the constitution . . , if there were no other 
way to obtain substantial justice for the people. 1790 PALEY 
Horse Paul. i. 8 It establishes the substantial truth of the 
narration. 1841 MYERS Cat A. Th. in. 24. 1. 63 The question 
..here is not concerning the substantial Divinity of the 
Jewish Scripture. 1852 H. ROGERS Eel. Faith 322 They 
are certain of the substantial accuracy of their impressions. 
1855 MACAULAY Hist. Eng. xviii. IV. 150 The Tories., 
though they could not deny that there had been some hard 
cases, maintained that, on the whole, substantial justice had 
been done. 1875 JOWETT Plato (ed. 2) III. 115 He argues 
rightly for the substantial genuineness of the text, 
fB. adv. - SUBSTANTIALLY. Obs. 

1501 ARNOLDE Chron. 81 Consideryng that hys fee is com 
petent for a substanciall lerned man. 153* MORE Confut. 
Tindale Wks. 726/1 That substaunciall wel learned man 
Lyre. 1:1560 in Anglia XIII. 464 In the Latin tongue, and 
other substancial congrue languages. 
C. sb. 

1. //. The things belonging to or constituting 
the substance ; the essential parts or elements ; 
the essentials. 

1398 TREVISA Barth. De P. R. xvii. ci. (Bodl. MS.), Al |w 
substancials of be tree haue sourenes & vertu of bindtnge. 
1567 Reg. Privy Council Scot. Ser. i. I. 547 Alwayis 
kcpand all the uther substantiallis of the formar scill. 
165* GAULE Magastrom. 77 Neither doth nature prefer any 
creature for its adventitinls or accidentals, but for its sub* 
stantials or essentials. 1661 Except, agst. Liturgy 4 Those 
who in the substantiate of the Protestant Religion are of the 
same perswasions with our selves. 1681 STAIR fnst. La-M 
Scot. \. xiii. 262 The Clauses which are adjected in Infeft- 
ments, not being of the Substantial or Solemnities thereof. 
1736 AVLIFFB Parergvn 75 Altho* a Custom introduced 
against the Substantiate of an Appeal be not valid. .yet a 
Custom may be introduced against the Accidentals of an 
Appeal. 1816 J. SCOTT Vis. Paris (ed. 5) 181 In the sub- 
stantials of knowledge and conduct they are below both 
these. 1845 M. PATTISON Ess. (1889) I. 8 One who is cer 
tainly not chargeable with neglect of the substantiate of 
historical science. 1854 THOREAU Walden (1908) 41 A great 
proportion of architectural ornaments are literally hollow, 
and a September gale would strip them off, like borrowed 
plumes, without injury to the substantials. 1870 LOWELL 
Among my Bks. Ser r. (1873) 26 Though his judgement in 
substantials, like that of Johnson, is always worth having. 

f b. rarely sing. Obs. 

1618 FBLTHAM Resolves it. xlvii. 138 All this change, 
without the losse of any visible substantiall. 

2. //, Substantial or solid things. 



SUBSTANTIALISM. 



56 



SUBSTANTIATION. 



a 1653 BINNING Serm. (1845) 570 All these substantiate we 
let go, that we may get hold of some empty unedifying 
notions. 1706 MRS. M. ROBINSON Angelina I. 155 We look 
sharp after the substantiate, and leave the shadows to your 
end of the town. 1824 Miss FERRIER Inker, xxviii, Too 
busy with the substantiate of marriage, to have much time 
to bestow on the empty speculations oflove. 

3. pi. The substantial or solid parts of a meal. 

1751 R. PALTOCK /*. /f)7/f (1884) 1. 126 From day to day 
I found out something new to add to my repast, either in 
substantiate or by way of dessert. 1765 H. WALPOLX Let. 
to E. of Hertford i Apr., Instead of substantiate, there was 
nothing but a profusion of plates striped red, green, and 
yellow, gilt plate, blacks and uniforms ! 1865 J. CAMERON 
Malayan India 301 Soup and fish generally both precede 
the substantiate. ..The substantiate are invariably followed 
by curry and rice. 1886 Miss BRADDOM One Thing Needful 
v, The substantiate were all on a side-table. 

Substantialisni (sobstse njalizm). Pkilos. [f- 
prec. + -ISM.] The doctrine that there are sub 
stantial realities underlying phenomena. 

1881 W. JAMES in Princeton Rev. July 63 Agnostic sub- 
stantialism like that of Mr. Spencer. 1888 Microcosm 
(N. Y.) Dec. 3 The fundamental tenet.. of Substantialism 
maintains that besides the material substances in the general 
constitution of Nature there are also forms of immaterial 
substance. 

Substantialist (s^bstarnfalist). [ad. G. sub- 
stantialistj f. L. substantialis SUBSTANTIAL: see 

1ST.] 

1. One of a sect of Lutherans in the i6th century 
who held that original sin was not an accident in 
human nature but belonged to its substance; a 
Flacian. 

1657 GAULE Sapientia Just. 10 That Original sin is not a 
vicious accident or adjunct, but is become our very_ Nature, 
Essence, and Substance;.. so [maintain] the Flaccians, and 
Substantialists. 1847 [see FLACIAN]. 

2. One who holds a philosophical doctrine of 
substantialism. 

1797 in Monthly 3fag. (1819) XLVIII. 112 May not the 
Substantialists retort, there can be no sensations or ideas ; 
for, take away all substantial matter,.. and what will then 
have become of ideas? 1836-7 SIR W. HAMILTON Meiaph. 
xvi. (1859) I. 294 Philosophers, .are divided into Realists or 
Substantialists, and into Nihilists or Non-Substantialists. 
1888 Microcosm (N.Y.) Dec. 6 The conversational powers 
of the young substantialist [R. Rogers]. 

Substantiality (siJbstrenJiae-liti). [ad. late L. 
substantidlitas, f. substantialis SUBSTANTIAL ; cf. 
F. substantiality It. sostanzialita^\ 

1. The quality or state of being substantial ; 
existence as a substance or substratum ; substantial 
or real existence. 

1545 BALE Myst. Iniq. 34 Substancialite, deificalite, car- 
nalite corporalite. 1651 [see MAGNESIA ij. 1678 CUD- 
WORTH Intell. Syst. i, v. 863 The Grand Objection against 
this Substantiality of Souls Sensitive, as well as Rational. 
1683 PORDAGE Mystic Dir. 79 This Love s Eternal Sub 
stantiality. 1760-72 H BROOKE Fool of Qual. (1809) IV. 
44 The clothing of our spirits with the heavenly substanti 
ality of the spiritual body and blood of. .Jesus himself. 
1830 tr. Tenneman s Man. Hist. P kilos. 344 Berkely.. 
maintaining that our senses.. do not afford us any proof of 
the existence or substantiality of their objects. 1863 E. V. 
NEALE Anal. Th. <j- Nat. 45 The accidents of a substance 
while they are effects of its substantiality, determine the 
character of the substance which causes them. 1877 E. 
CAIRO Philps. Kant n. x.4i9 The ascription of independent 
substantiality to each of the different phases of intellectual 
life. 1880 GREG Across the Zodiac I. vii. 167, 1 had afforded 
much stronger evidence, if not of my own substantiality, 
yet of the real existence of a repulsive energy. 

attrib. 1897 tr. Fichte s Sci. Ethics 120 A mediating link 
between nature as mere mechanism (or the causality-rela 
tion) ; and freedom as the opposite of mechanism (or the sub 
stantiality-relation). 190* J. M. Baldwin s Diet. Philos. <$- 
Psychol.) Substantiality Theory or Substantialism^..^ 
theory that there are real substances, or distinct entities, 
underlying phenomenal facts or events. 

t b. A substantial being or thing. Obs. 

1651 BIGGS New Disp. Pref. 8 Real entities and sub 
stantialities. i66j SPARROW tr. Behmett s Rent. Wks. 43 
This very Substantiality or Corporeity., was Chris tsheavenly 
Flesh and Bloud. 

2. Soundness, genuineness ; solidity of position 
or status. 

1660 R. BuRNEYKepSiorocAoipof 19 He that is the Monarch 
is Apioros, and Aristocraticall men do but creep under his 
feet, and have better cloathes then substantiality of Rule. 
1865 M. ARNOLD Ess. Crit. x. (1875)410 The substantiality, 
soundness, and precision of M r. Long s rendering are . . con 
spicuous. 1876 GEO. ELIOT Dan, Der. xxiii, Whether she 
could not achieve substantiality for herself and know grati 
fied ambition without bondage, 

3. Solidity, firmness (of a structure). 

1790 Trans. Soc. Arts VIII. 112 The substantiality of the 
new wall. 1879 W, L. LINDSAY Mind in Lower Anim. I. 
113 Many of the lower animals build themselves dwellings 
that excel in substantiality. .the huts or hovels of men. 
1891 WINN Boating Man"s Vade-M. 52 A boat of this kind 
. . still survives, and vies in point of substantiality with many 
of more modern construction. 

4. concr. (pi.} = SUBSTANTIAL C 3. 

1813 LAMB Recoil. Chris? s Hasp. Wks. 1818 I. 289 He.. 
partook in all the mirth, and in some of the substantialities 
of the feasting. 184* Blackw. Mag. LI. 375 A ham and 
other substantialities composed our meal. 1842 J. WILSON 
Recr. Ckr. North 1. 213 If not all the delicacies, at least all 
the substantialities, of the season. 

Substantialize (afflatenfttAk), v. [f. as 
prec. 4- -TZE.] 

1. trans. To make substantial ; to give reality to. 



i82i H. REEDER Dis. Heart Pref., The diseases discrimi- \ 
nated..and their nature substantialized by actual demon- ! 
I stration of morbid changes. 1866 HOWELLS Venetian Life 
I iv. 50 That strange life, which even the stout, .little Bo- 
1 hemian musicians . . could not altogether substantialize. 
1876 L. STEPHEN Engl. Th. iSth C. I. 65 The universe.. is 
nothing but a series of abstract truths.. substantiated by : 
! their reference to God. 

2. intr. To become substantial in appearance. 
1895 Atlantic Monthly Aug. 226 They then proceed to 

substantialize by darkening in tint. 
Substantially (sztosUe-njali), adv. [f. as prec. , 

+ -LY2.] 

1. In substance ; in one s or its substantial nature i 
or existence ; as a substantial thing or being. 

1398 TREVISA Barth. De P. R. xi. i. (1495) 381 Ayere is a 

symple element substancyaly moyste and hote. 14.. tr. 1 

Honorius August. Elucid. (1909) 3 pou3 he [God] be ouer 

al wij> his myght, he is substancialy in be vndirstonding , 

heuene. 1447 BOKENHAM Seyntys (Roxb.) 82 Ye al thre 

In personys distynct substancially Arn but oo god in trinite. 

1564 T. DORMAN Proufe cert. Art. Relig. 83 b, Christes 

fleshe and bloud. .is present. . in humain substance, therefore 

i substantially. 1577 tr / Bullinger s Decades (1592) 766 [The 

I soul] doth not die with the bodie..bicause it liueth sub- 

| stantially. 1635 JACKSON Creed vni. i. 6 Being first made 

j substantially man, that hee might be for a time essentially 

and formally a servant. 1635 PAGITT Christianogr. L, iii. 

(1636) 137 The holy Ghost proceedeth from the Father by 

the Sonne, eternally, and substantially. 1667 MILTON P.L. 

in. 140 The Son of God was seen Most glorious, in him all 

his Father shon Substantially express d. 1678 GALE Crt. , 

Gentiles iv. in. g By actions modally evil, they generally 

understand such as are substantially good, yet have some 

modal accidental vitiositie. 1768 TUCKER Lt. Nat. 1. 1. i. 19 

That which discerns is numerically and substantially distinct 

from that which is discerned. 1824 SCOTT St. Ronan sKxl, 

You have the said Willie corporally and substantially in 

presence before you. 1849 ROCK Ch. Fathers I. i. 15 That 

the Mass is asacrifice in which the Body and Blood of Christ 

are truly and substantially present. 

b. Essentially, intrinsically. 

1649 JER. TAYLOR Gt. Exemp. Pref. 32 That which sub- 
stantially distinguishes Man from Man, or an Angel from 
an Angel, a 1688 CUDWORTH linmut. Mor. (1731) 65 Tho 
this Old Atomical Philosophy be most solidly and substan 
tially true. 1842 H. ROGERS Introd. Burke s IVks. 48 An 
..exaggerated representation of what was substantially 
important truth. 

c. Actually, really. 

1802 WORDSW. Misc. Sonn. n. xi, There [in the glowing 
west] stood Indian citadel, Temple of Greece, and minster 
with its tower Substantially expressed. 1805 A. KNOX/?W. 
(1834) I. 16 In no human being, surely, was every possible 
part of this picture so substantially realised. 

t 2. In a sound or solid manner ; on a firm or 
solid basis; effectively,thoroughly,properly,soundly. 

a. qualifying verbs. 

Freq. in the i6th and i7th c. in a large variety of contexts. 
1505 Facsimiles Nat. MSS. i. 101 Whiche picture they 
shall substantially note and marke in every poincte soothat 
it agree in likenesse to the veray visage of the said Quene. 
a 1513 FABVAN Citron, vi. cxlv. (i8n) 1^2 Charlis hauynge 
thus the rule & gouernaunce, rulyd it well & substancially. 
i 1521 FISHER Serm. agst. Luther Wks. (1876) 327 Our 
i souerayne lorde .. hath with his pen so substauncyally 
! foghten agaynst Marty.i luther. 1523 in R^P- Hist. MSS. 
Comm. Var. Coll. IV. 213 To serve the Citie substantially 
unto Mighelniasse with candell after irf. the li. ? a 1533 
. FRITH Dzsf>nt. Purgat. (1829) 107, I pray you see how sub- 
i stantially he answereth the argument. i$j$Arto/Limwing 
\ 3 Laye on thy syse somewhat substancially. 1574 in Vicary~$ 
\ Anat. (i888j App. iii. 155 Yt was substancyally provyd.. 
that he had verye. .dysceytfully . .behauyd him selfe. 1598 
BARRET Theor. Warres \\. i. 26 To see that the moneys 
collected . . be substantially and throughly bestowed in 
pikes, c 1610 SIR J. MELVIL Mem. (1735! 335 They durst not 
yet take such a hazardous Course, till they might lay their 
Plots more substantially. 1668 R. STEELS Hitsbandm. 
Call. iii. (1672) 22 The poor prophet that had substantially 
warned others from the devil, could not escape himself. 
1670 MILTON Hist. Eng. in. Wks. 1851 V. 99 To know., 
what good laws are wanting, and how to frame them sub 
stantially. 1687 T. BROWN Saints in Uproar Wks. 1730 I. 
74 I ll substantially thrash your jacket for you. 1696 R. 
BARCLAY (title) Baptism and the Lord s Supper; substan 
tially asserted. 

b. qualifying adjs. and advs. 

c 1449 PECOCK Repr. i. xvL 85 Substanciali leerned clerkis 
in logik. 1540-1 ELVOT Image Gov. 28 Lawiers substan. 
cially learned. 1587 GOLDING Calvin on Dent. 53 Surely 
hee were substantially well armed, a 1694 TILLOTSON Serm. 
Wks. (1714)67 Substantially Religious towards God. 1711 
y indie. Sacheverell 82 It seems he got substantially drunk. 

3. Of the construction of buildings, manufacture 
of fabrics, etc.: Solidly, strongly. 

1461 Bury Wills (Camden) 19 To make-.alle thing sewr 
that longith therto, and substancyally wrought to endure. 
1517 TORKINGTON Pilgr. (1884) 6 It ys a good Cite, And.. 
ButatandflUy Edifyed. 1523 Act 14 4- 15 Hen. VIII^ c. 3 
Worstedes . . truely and substancially made and wrought. 
1665 SIR B. G. D OuviLLY Brief Disc. 18 These are sub 
stantially, strongly, and curiosly made Casements. 1701 
Lond. Gaz. No. 3789/4 A Yacht.. well, substantially, and 
lately built. 1845 STOCQUELER Handbk. Brit. India (1854) 
393 The wall, substantially built of burnt brick. 1846 Guide 
Archit. Antig. 76 The Register, .being substantially bound 
in Russia. 1879 CassclPs Techn. Educ. IV. i/i A . . lathe . . 
well and substantially made. 

4. In all essential characters or features ; in regard 
to everything material ; in essentials ; to all intents 
and purposes ; in the main. 

1781 COWPER Hope 398 For aught I see, Your faith and 
mine substantially aarree. 1800 J. FOSTER in Life $ Corr. 
(1846) I. 135 They substantially agree with me. 1855 MAC- 
AULAY Hist. Eng; xix. IV. 287 It is. .reasonable to believe 



that his narrative is substantially true. 1856 FROUDE Hist. 
Eng. (1858) I. ii. 134 Demands, .which, though taking many 
forms, resolved themselves substantially into one. 1865 
MozunrJtftfpvcfef i.f Extraordinary Divine agency partakes 
substantially of a miraculous character. 1875 WHITNEY Life 
Lang. xii. 240 It has maintained its own institutions.. sub 
stantially unchanged from the very dawn of the historic 
period. 1881 WF.STCOTT & HORT Grk. N. T. Introd. 17 
Texts substantially free from the later corruptions. 

f 5. With substantial or ample comfort. Obs. 

1663 PEPYS Diary 18 May, By seeing how much better 
and more substantially I live than others do. 1809 PINKNEY 
Trav. France 21 They seemed.. to live very comfortably, 
not to say substantially. 

Substantialness (s^bstse-njalnes}. [f. as 
prec. + -NESS,] The condition or quality of being 
substantial ; solidity, firmness, soundness. 

1530 PALSGR. 278/1 Substancialnesse of any thyng, soliditi-. 
1548 \V. THOMAS Ital. Gram., Diet., Ejficacia, substancial. 
nesse, habilitie, or power. 1549 COVERDALE, etc. Erasm. 
Par. i Peter 8 Y l excellent good womans maners & manly 
substauntialnes of mynde. 1555 HARPSFIELD in Banner* s 
Homilies 47 Peter, for the soundnes or substancialnes of 
hys deuotion, is called the rocke of the churches. 1587 
GOLDING De Mornay x. (1617) 147 The substancialnesse of 
bones. z6z4 WOTTON Archit. 36 In degree as in substan- 
tialnesse [the Ionic is] next aboue the Dorique. 1683 CAVE 
Ecclesiastici 335 The smartness of his Wit, the gravity and 
substantialness of his Sence. 1871 Athen&um 25 Nov. 685 
Converts what is little more than nothing into something 
which has the semblance of rich, creamy substantialness. 
1891 J. WISSOR Columbus 520 The substantialness of its 
structure gave rise to rumors that he was preparing a for 
tress for ulterior aims. 

Substantiate (sybstae-njitfit), v. [f. mod.L. 
substantial-, pa. ppl. stem of substantiate, f. sub- 
stantia SUBSTANCE: see -ATE 3. Cf. It. sostanztarc , 
Sp., Pg. substanciar] 

1. trans. To give substance or substantial exis 
tence to, make real or substantial. 

1657 TRAPP Comm. Ps. xxviii. 7 Faith substantiateth things 
not yet seen. 1726 AYLIFFE Parergon 14.8 The Accidental 
of any Act, is said to be whatever advenes to the Act itself 
already substantiated. 1812 COLERIDGE Fritttd (1818) III. 
187 Substantiating appearances into facts of science. 1863 
COWDEN CLARKE Shaks. Char. iv. 107 The creative power 
of the fancy is a blessed gift in itself; but he substan 
tiates that gift who converts it into the ordinary occur 
rences of daily life. 1877 E. CAIRO Philos. Kant iii. 44 
Human thought substantiates accidents, and treats the finite 
as if it were infinite. 

2. To give solidity to, make firm, strengthen. 
1791 V. KNOX Serm. (Isa. xlvii. 8) Wks. 1824 VI. 99 He 

would sweeten and substantiate them [their enjoyments] by 
giving them a better foundation. 1827 HARE Guesses (1859) 
242 Our lighter thoughts require the graver to substantiate 
them and keep them from evaporating. 1835 I. TAYLOR 
Spir. Despot, it. 55 In this endeavour of the clergy to sub 
stantiate their honours and revenues. 1858 FROUDE Hist. 
Eng. III. 450 To pass through France.. in a manner so., 
cpnfidential as.. might contribute towards substantiating 
his relations with Francis. 

3. To give substantial form to, embody, body 
forth. 

1784 J.BARRY Lee t. Painting \\. (1848)113 The difficulties 
of execution, which must embody and substantiate this 
conception. 1791 BOSWELL Johnson an. 1752, Particular 
qualities in the person he admires, the impressions of which 
are too.. delicate to be substantiated in language. ci8ii 
FUSKLI Led. Painting iv. (1848) 448 That power which, in 
our days, substantiated humour in Sterne, comedy in Gar- 
rick. 1841 EMERSON Ess., friendship 196 As many thoughts 
in succession substantiate themselves. 

4. To demonstrate or verify by proof or evidence ; 
to make good. 

1803 MALTHUS Popul. (ed. 2) 140 In a tribe on the frontiers 
of Junapore, ..the practice of destroying female infants has 
been fully substantiated. 1808 WELLINGTON in Gurw. Desp, 
(1835) IV. 165 If the Court should wish it, it can be sub 
stantiated by evidence. 1815 KIRBV & SP. Entomol. (1816) 
I. 55 That this substantiates the charge of cruelty against 
us I altogether deny. 1884 Conttnif. Rev. Oct. 514 There 
is nothing to substantiate his integrity or competency. 

Hence Substantiating vbl. sb. and///, a. ; Sub- 
sta ntiative a., serving to substantiate ; Substan* 
tia tor, one who substantiates. 

1775 ASH, Substantiating the act of making to exist. 
1812 COLERIDGE Friend (1818) III. 264 The substantiating 
principle of all true wisdom, c 1814 in Lit. Rent. (1838) 
III. 71 The conscience is to the spirit or reason what the 
understanding is to the sense, a substan tiative power. 1853 
RUSKIN Stones Venice III. iv. 23. 183 The difference be- 
tween the substantiating and the imaginative methods of 
finish. i884/W/A/a//G az.27pct.4/i The untrimmed skirt 
..with only a few substantiating tucks round the bottom. 
1506 Comh. Mag. May 663 What value he has is that of 
the substantiator of other accounts. 

Substantiation (#*ttenJU>fMi). [f. SUB 
STANTIATE : see -ATION.] 

1. Embodiment, rare. 

1760-72 H. BROOKE Fool o/Qual. (1809) IV. 87 Her whole 
form seemed a condensing or substantiation of harmony 
and light, c 1817 FUSELI Lect. Painting x. (1848) 528 These 
works are commonly considered as the produce of the school 
of Phidias, and the substantiation of his principles. 

2. (Secquot) 



I know no better name than substantiation ; the identity of 
the thinker s own consciousness . . was confounded with, and 
substituted for, the real substance of the thing. 

3. The substitution of substance for shadow. 

1863 A. B. GROSART Small Sins (ed. 2 ) 38 What was thus 



STJBSTANTIFIC. 

shadowed out and prefigured in the Old Testament received 
..substantiation in the New Testament. 1870 LOWELL 
Study Wind. (1871) 279 This substantiation of shadows. 

4. The making good or proving a statement, etc. 

1861 GARBETT Bible fy Critics \. 3 Such arguments, could 
they be substantiated, would destroy the Christian revela 
tion at a blow. But this substantiation is found to be im 
possible. 1884 A wericanV III. 379 The fact as claimed will 
find lasting substantiation. 1886 Pall Mall Gaz. 7 Dec. 7/1 
He failed to cite a single case in substantiation of his words. 

t Substanti fic, a. Obs. [ad. obs. F. substan- 
tifiquCi ad. med.L. substaniijicus^ f. L. substantia 
SUBSTANCE : see -FIC.] Producing substance. 

1634 T. JOHNSON tr.Parey s Chirurg. in. xviii. 109 Men.. 
have need of a great quantitie of bloud for the repairing of 
so many spirits, & thesubstantificke moisture. 1653 URQU- 
HART Rabelais \. xix, The substantifick quality of the ele 
mentary complexion, which is intronihcatcd in the terres- 
treity of their quidditative nature. 

So Snbstanti flcal a., whence t Substanti fi- 
cally adv. 

1651 J. F[REAKE] Agrippa s Occ. Philos. 191 There are 
six substan tiff call qualities in the Elements, viz. Sharpness, 
Thinness, Motion, and the contrary to these. 1657 B. W. 
tr. Banderon s Expert Phisic. xvii. no Moyst meat that is 
substantifically moyst, is good for all Feavers. 

Substa iltify, v. rare. [ad. med.L. substan- 
Ufa-are^ f. L. substantia SUBSTANCE : see -FY.] 
trans. To give substance to. 

1605 TIMME Quersit. in. 143 Salt is firme, fixed, and sub- 
stantifying beginning of all things. 

t Substa-lltiotlS, a. Chiefly Se* Obs. Also 
5 substa(u)ncyous, 6 -cius, -tius (substen- 
tious), 6-8 -cious, (7 substanteioua). [a. OF. 
substantieux, = It. sostanzioso, Sp., Pg. substancioso> 
ad. med.L. substantiosus t f. substantia SUBSTANCE : 
see -ious.] 

1. Weighty, important ; solid, firm ; effective. 
1483 CAXTON Gold. Leg. 431/2 Wyth shorte and substaun- 

cyous wprdes. 1508 DUNBAR Tua Man it \Vemen 248 God 
my spreit now inspir, . . And send me sentence to say, sub- 
stantiouSj et noble. 1535 STEWART Cron. Scot. (Rolls) I. 5 
So that it be substantious of sentence. 1549 in R. Keith 
Hist. Scot. (1844) I. App. 435 The Lord Governour and 
Lordis of secret Counsall, . . hes for substantious resistance 
thairof,..offerit thameselfis reddie to defend thair awin auld 
liberties. 1597 R. BRUCE Apol. in Wodrow Life (1843) 175 
To beseech him for some substantious remeed to all these 
evils. 1607 GLADSTANES in Orig. Lett, to Jas. I (Bann. 
Cl.) I. 118 Thay find, in steid of superficiall. .mventiones, 
profitable and substantious theologie. 1640 R. BAILLIE 
Canterb. Self-Convict. 98 Of all the limbs of the masse the 
most substantious . . are . . the Offertorie, the Canon, the Com 
munion. 1832 SOUTHRY Lett. (1856) IV. 284, I am glad that 
the political papers exist now in a substantious shape. 

2. Of structures : Substantial, solid. 

1529 Aberdeen Reg. (1844) I. 127 Ane nobill and substan- 
tius brig.. completit and ended substantiuslie in alt neces 
saries. 1541 SIR J. SANDILANDS Deed in Proc. Antiq. Scot. 
(1860) III. 162 To rats ane substantious wall of rouch werk. 

3. Wealthy, well-to-do. 

1317 Ace. Ld. High Treas. Scot. V. 153 The lordis, baronis, 
and uthiris substancius men. 1532 Ibid. VI. 117 All baronis, 
frehaldaris, and substantious gentilmen, 1545 Reg. Privy 
Council Scot. I. ii It is necessar..to have with thame sub 
stantious freindis. 1560 First ff Sec. Bk. Discipl. (1621) 46 
Every fewar and substantious Gentlemans sonne. 1640 Bk. 
War Committee of Covenanters 54 Gif he be ane heritor 
or substantious soccarer {read cottarer] or yeoman. 
b. Of provision : Ample. 

1533 BELLENUEN Livy t. ix. (S.T. S.) I. 52 To mak prcn 
visioun in the maist nche and substancius maner bat J>ai 
mycht to Invaid vthir. 1561 in R. Keith Hist. Scot. (1734) 
I. ip8 That thai with thair substancious Housaldis, weill 
bodm in feir of Weir, in thair maist substancious Maner, 
meit James Commendatour of Saintandrois. 1643 in Spald- 
ing Troub.Scot. (1792) II. 101 All the fenc ible persons.. 
shall provide themselves, .warlike provision.. in the most 
substantious manner. 

4. Considerable in number or amount. 

1569 St. Papers Eftz., For. (1874) 154 [Some] substancious 
(force of footmen]. 1584 in jrd Rep. Hist. MSS, Comm. 
14/1 Accumpaneit with a substantius number of your honest 
indis. 

f Substa ntionsly, adv. Sc. Obs. [f. prec. 
+ -LY 2 .] With substantial means, support, effect. 

1 5 a 9 t see SUBSTANTIOUS 2], 1533 Ace. Ld. High Treas. 
Scot. VI. 122 Sustantiuslie accumpanyit, weill bodin, etc., 
for defence of the realm. 1537 in Pitcairn Crim. Trials I. 
251 Howbeit scho wes dotit subs tan tiouslie, 1541 in Exch. 
Rolls Scot. XVII. 719! Ane] honest mansion, . .substantiously 
biggit. 1569 Reg. Privy Council Scot. Ser. r. II. 72 Gif 
thair attemptattis be nocht substan tiouslie resistit. 1580 
JAS. I Let. in W. Maitland Hist. Edin. (1753) i. iii. 39 Sa 
suirlie and substantiouslie gairdit. 1606 Sc. Acts Jas. VI 
(1816) IV. 288 To the effect the saidis vnlauchfull meitingis 
. .may be substantiouslie suppressit. 

t Substa-ntiousness. Sc. Obs. rare. [f. as 
prec. + -NESS.] Wealth. 

1596 DALRVMPLB tr. Leslie s Hist. Scot. I. 155 He is maid 
rich w> the money of Metellan. .and w< his ample substan. 
tiousnes. 

Substantival (sobstantai-val), a. [f. SUB 
STANTIVE + -AL !.] 

1. Gram. Of, belonging to, or consisting of, a 
substantive or substantives. 

<xi83 BENTHAM Language Wks. 1843 VIII. 326/2 The 
substantival name of a quality presents the idea, in the 
character of a complete idea. 1843 Proc. Philol. Sac. I. 74 
The substantival inflexions ir, ar. iSBl Nation (N. V.) 
XXXII. 435 Nine-tenths of the New England Algonkin 
VOL. IX. 



4 

fr 



57 

proper names.. were composed of an adjectival and a sub 
stantival element, 

2. Existing substantially. 

1884 Mind IX. 128 The real is individual, self-existent, 
substantival. 

Hence Substantially adv., as a substantive. 

1873 EARLE Philol. Engl. Tongue (ed. 2) 470 The form 
none is only used substantially. iSgz EARLE & PLUMMER 
in O. E, Chron, Gloss. 373/2 Neuter used substantially. 

t Substantiate, pa- ppte- Obs. rare- 1 , [f. 
med.L. substantival-, pa. ppl. stem of substantl- 
vdre^ f. substantivus SUBSTANTIVE.] Made into or 
used as a substantive. 

(Xi>2z LILY Gram, in Colet SEditio (1537) E iij b, An 
adiectiue standinge without a substantiue, shal be put in 
the neutre gendre substantiate, as it is good. Bonwn est. 

Substantive (szrbstantiv), a. and sb. Also 4 
-if, -yf. [a. OK. substantif (from 1410. cent.), 
ad. late L. substantivus^ f. subsiantia SUBSTANCE : 
see -IVE. Cf. OF. sustentif, Pr. substantiu, It. so-, 
sustantivo, Sp. su(b}stantivo> Pg. substantivo.~] 
A. adj. 

1. a. Of persons, nations, etc. : That stands of or 
by itself ; independent, self-existent, self-sufficient. 

1:1470 HARDING Chron. cxcn. v. 7 Thus were there dukes 
fme Of newe create, and none was substantiue. c 1550 
ROLLAND Crt. Venus I. 68 Umquhile aganc serene and sub 
stantiue. 1626 BACON New Atl. (1650) 15 How sufficient 
and substantive this Land was, to maintaine it selfe without 
any ayd (at all) of the Forrainer. 1792 BURKE Pres. St. 
Aff. Wks. VII. 94 That Spain is not a substantive power: 
That she must lean on France, or on England. 1862 RAW- 
LISSON Anc. Man., Chald. vii. I. 162 As a substantive deity, 
distinct from her husband. 1872 GEO. ELIOT Middleni, 
Ixxxvi, A pity that so substantive and rare a creature should 
have been absorbed into the life of another. 1882 T. H. 
DVER Imit. Art^ 322 The chapel, .could not have been in 
the church in Cimabue s boyhood, but it may have been a 
substantive building afterwards incorporated in it. 1888 
R. L. STEVENSON in Scribners Mag, Jan. 126/2 He sees 
why I speak of the little people as of substantive inventors 
and performers. 

b. Of immaterial subjects : Having an indepen 
dent existence or status; not dependent upon, sub 
sidiary to, or referable to something else. 

1561 T. NORTON Calvin s Inst, i. xiii. 33 b, This only name 
Jehouah whiche they call vnspeakable is a substantiue name 
to expresse hys essence. 1652 L. S. People s Liberty xxii. 57 
An argument not so substantive but it will fall of it self. 
1659 FULLER Appeal Inj. Innoc. (1840) 474 This dispute is 
substantive enough to stand by itself, and too large to be 
adjected to this book. 1805 /J- Rev. III. 198 His Holland 
is still independent. His Poland has a substantive existence. 
1835 NEWMAN Par.Sertn.(^-yj) I.xxi. 3i6Wehaue no direct 
cognizance of what may be called the substantiue existence of 
the body. 1846 GROTE Greece i. xxi. (1862) I. 555 Patroclus 
has no substantive position. 1850 MERIVALE Rom. Emp. xlv. 
(1865) V. 309 A mere title . . rather than a substantive office and 
function. 1881 WESTCOTT & HORT Grk. N. T. II. 36 Similar 
deductions are required in order to avoid being misled as to 
the substantive text of their exemplars. 1806 PURCELL Man 
ning I. 425 Archdeacon Manning, shortly before the close of 
the . . meeting, proposed an Amendment, which finally took the 
form of a substantive Resolution. 1900 IVestm. Gaz. 15 Jan. 
3/1 It is a little remarkable, .that the old judge has escaped 
for so long being made the subject of a substantive Life. 

C. Of a dye: That attaches itself directly to the 
stuff, -without the necessity of using a mordant. 
Also of pigments (see quot. 1902). 

1794 BANCROFT Philos. Perm. Colours 78 The colours of 
the first class I shall denominate sitbstantii e ; using the 
term in the same sense in which it was employed by Bacon 
Lord Verulam, as denoting a thing solid by, or depending 
only upon itself. 1834-6 BARLOW in Encycl. Metrop. (1845) 
VIII. 533/1 The cloth is then immersed in a bath composed 
of a substantive colour. 1902 Encycl. Brit. XXXI. 771/1 
It is not unusual to arrange them [sc. pigments] into two 
groups, substantive and adjective. Amongst the members 
of the former group such a pigment as vermilion, where 
each particle is homogeneous, may be cited as an example. 

d. Med. (See quot. 1844.) 

1826 J. A. PARIS Treat. Diet 90 The consideration . . of the 
Materia Alimentaria necessarily embraces, not only the 
substantive agents above stated, but those which, from their 
modus opcrandi t are entitled to the distinctive appellation 
of alimentary adjectives, 1844 HORLYN Diet. Terms Med. 
(ed. 2) 294 Substantive^ a term applied by Dr. Paris to those 
medicinal agents which possess an inherent and indepen 
dent activity. 

e. Milit. Definitely appointed to the rank speci 
fied ; also of an appointment or rank. 

1883 H. B. SMITH Life Ld. Lawrence I. vii. 177 It was not 
till towards the end of the following year that the substan 
tive post became vacant. 1883 Pall Mall Gaz. 14 Sept. 5/1 
He . . became officiating Quartermaster-General . . because, 
as Lieutenant-Colonel, he could not hold the substantive 
appointment. 1898 Geogr. Jrnl. (R. G. S.) Nov. 530 When 
substantive major, he was also granted the local rank of 
lieut. -colon el. 

2. Gram. Denoting a substance ; in noun sub 
stantive (late L. nonien substantivum} : B. i. 

Nouns substantive is the correct pi. ; noun substantives 
has also been used, and occas. f nouns substantives. 

1509-1843 [see NOUN 2]. 1870 JEVONS Elent. Logic iii. 17 
No part of speech except a noun substantive. 1000 Speaker 
23 Tune 374/1 Sir is a noun substantive, masculine. 

fig. 1661 in Vtrney Mem. (1907) II. 100 To make the best 
agreement he can for the first yeare ; after which he hopes 
your sonne will be a noune substantive. 1705, 1741 [sec 
NOUN 2], 

b. Of the nature of, equivalent to or employed 
as a substantive ; substantival. 



SUBSTANTIVE. 

1668 WILKINS Real Char. iv. vi. 446 All which difficulties 
will be most clearly stated by asserting it [sc. the infinitive] 
to be a Substantive Participle. For which this reason is to 
be given ; because it hath all the signs both of a Noun Sub 
stantive and a Verb. 1824 L. MURRAY Engl. Gram. (ed. 5) 
I. 105 Some writers are of opinion, that the pronouns should 
be classed into substantive and adjective pronouns. Ibid. 
287 A substantive phrase. 1857 J. W. GIBBS Philol. Stud. 
167 Substantive clauses, expressing the subject, are placed 
at the commencement of the sentence. 1865 TYI.OK Early 
Hist. Man. iv. 62 The substantive-adjective is common 
enough in English. 

3. Gram. Expressing existence; in substantive 
verb, formerly verb substantive : the verb to be . 

Late L. verbmn su&stantivum, tr. Gr. pTj/m vrrapKTixoi . 

1559 in Strype Ann. Kef. (1709) I. n. App. ix. 434 The 
verbe substantyve cst must be taken for significat. 1620 
T. GRANGER Div. Logike 58 A verbe substantiue, or that 



The verb substantive, in conformity to the Hebrew and 
Phcenician custom, has been apparently suppressed here. 1824 

L. MURRAY Engl, Gram. (ed. 5) I. 128 The substantive verb 
followed by a verb in the infinitive mood, . .as, Ferdinand 
is to command the army . 1826 WHATELY Logic \\. i. 2 
(1850) 38 The substantive-verb is the only verb recognised 
by Logic. 1849 Proc. Philol. Soc. IV. 92 The original 
meaning of the so-called substantive verb. 1871 EAKLE 
Philol. Engl. Tongue 277, 

4. Belonging to the real substance or essential 
nature of a thing ; essential. 

1858 HAWTHORNE Fr. fy It. Note-bks. II. 81 Growing out 
of the back of the monster, without possessing any original 
or substantive share in its nature. 1858 J. MARTINEAU 
Stud. Christ. 277 As a substantive part of thvir message. 
1877 OWKN U ellt slty s Des/>. p. xxi, The British Empire in 
India was already a great fact, and a substantive portion of 
the Empire at large. 

b. Of law : Relating to or consisting of the 
rules of right administered by a court, as opposed 
to the forms of procedure (adjective Jaw). 

1786-9 KENTHAM Princ. Intern. Law Wks. 1843 II. 539 
The laws of peace would.. be the substantive laws of the 
international code : the laws of war would be the adjective 
laws of the same code. 1837 in W. Stokes A ngto-lndian Codes 
(1887) I. Gen. Introd. p. xi, I he Penal Code can not be. . explicit 
while the substantive civil la wand the law of procedure are., 
confused. 1849 MACAULAY Hist. Eisg, vi. II. 89 The substan 
tive law remained; but it remained unaccompanied by any 
formidable sanction or by any efficient system of procedure. 
1887 W. STOKES Attgt0-JndianC0a esl.Gtn. Introd. p. ix,The 
first volume deals with Substantive Law, and contains the 
Penal Code, the Succession Act, the Central Clauses Act, 
and the Acts relating respectively to Contract, Negotiable 
Instruments, Transfer of Property, Trusts, Easements and 
Specific Relief. 

5. Existing as a substance or individual thing; 
having an actual or real existence ; not imaginary 
or illusory; real. 

1830 ARNOLD Let. in Stanley Life (1844) L vi. 285 That 
our addresses should be those of substantive and tangible 
persons, not of anonymous shadows. 1850 GROVE Corr. 
Pltys. Forces (ed. 2) 25 Let us now divest the mind of the 
impression that heat is in itself anything substantive. 1867 
Sat. Rev. 8 June 735 The mythical Prester John, who really 
appears to have had a substantive original among the Mon 
gols. 1869 J. MARTINEAU Ess. 11.351 The mind predicates 
nothing except about substantive objects of thought. 

6. Having a firm or solid basis ; not slight, weak, 
or transitory. 

1809 SYD. SMITH Semi. I. 42 As much is felt for character 
as for the more gross, and substantive advantages of life. 
IbiA II. 421 This load of solid substantive guilt, c i8ao 
HAZLITT (Ogilvie 1882), Strength and magnitude are quali 
ties which impress the imagination in a powerful and sub 
stantive manner. 1847 GLADSTONE in MorleyZ.;yfc (1903) L 
ii - v - 37 I* i s a painful decision to come to,, .but the only 
substantive doubt it raises is about remaining in parliament. 
1890 JAMES Psychol. I. 243 Let us call the resting-places the 
substantive parts , and the places of flight the transitive 
parts , of the stream of thought. 

7. Having a value or effect because of numbers 
or quantity; of considerable amount or quantity. 

1821 SOUTHEY Lett. (1856) III. 229 A poem of substantive 
length (above 600 lines) divided into several sections. 1844 
H. H. WILSON Brit. Ind. HI. viii. III. 389 As he grew up 
to manhood, Munir Mohammed claimed a substantive share 
in the administration. 1850 GROTE Greece u. Iv. (1862) V. 
13 By ensuring to every lesser state a substantive vote at 
the meetings of the confederacy. 1880 Sat. Rev. 3 Apr. 
438 The work is far advanced at Newcastle, and a substan 
tive beginning has been made at Wakelield. 

8. Relating to or affecting the substance or tissue 
of an organ. 

1875 tr. von. Ziemssen s Cycl. Med, V. 346 Vesicular em- 
physema.. either occurs as an idiopathic disease, i.e. as 
substantive or substantial emphysema, or it is developed in 
connection with other affections of the pulmonary paren 
chyma. 1894 W. BATKSON Mat. Stud. Variation Introd. 
23 Variations in the actual constitution or substance of the 
parts themselves. To these Variations the name Substan 
tive will be given. 
B. sb. 

1. (for noun substantive.) The part of speech 
which is used as the name of a person or thing ; 
a noun. 

1393 LANGL. P. PL C iv. 338 As adiectif and substantyf 
vnite asken, Acordaunce in kynde. in cas and in numbre. 
i5o WHITINTON Vulg. (1527) 5 b, Whan ij substantyues or 
moo come togyder. 1575 GASCOIGNE Posies, Making of 
Verse T ivb, The Latimsts do commonly set the adiectiue 
after the Substantiue : As for example Femina fulchra. 
a 1633 AUSTIN Medit. (1635) 74 If you will but give leave 
to turne a Participle into a Substantive, 1669 Croke s Rep. 



SUBSTANTIVELY. 

ii. (ed. 2) 345 Action for these words, Thou art a Bankrupt 
knave... It was held by the Court that the words were 
scandalous, and Actionable, being two Substantives. 1748 
WESLEV in Wks. (1872) XIV. i Nouns are either Substan 
tives or Adjectives. 1843 Proc. Philol. Soc. I. 142 Berber 
substantives have a distinction of gender into masculine and 
feminine. t&jgCassetfs Tcchn. Educ. IV. 95/2 Reducing 
the name of each plant to two words, the first substantive 
designating the genus. 

fig, 1883 F. H. BRADLEY Princ. Logic i. i. 4. 4 A fact 
taken as a symbol ceases so far to be fact. . . It is no more 
a substantive, but becomes the adjective that holds of an 
other, a 1892 MANNING in Purcell Life (1896) I. 583 Mr. 
Gladstone is a substantive, and likes to be attended by 
adjectives. 

f b. Substantives and adjectives : the name of 
a game. Obs. 

1658 E. PHILLIPS Afyst. Lave Gen. Lud. (1685) 4 A De 
scription of the witty sport of Substantives and Adjectives. 
1672 MARVELL Reft. Transfi. i. 70 You would think he were 
playing at Substantives and Adjectives. 

f 2. A self- subsist ing or independent person or 
thing. Obs. 

1613 J. TAYLOR (Water P.) Laugh $be Fat Wks. (1630) 
ii. 75/1 Now here s a Substantiue stands by himselfe. 1641 
BAKKR Chron, t John 97 Now King John being a Substan- j 
live of himselfe. 1642 FULLER Holy <V Prof. St. in. vii. 168 
Countrey-houses must be Substantives, able to stand of 
themselves. 

Hence f Substantive v. Obs. trans. , to make 
into a substantive. 

1678 CUDWORTH Intell. Syst. 264 The word 5aiju6i>LOf . .is 
..an Adjective Substantiv d ; as well as TO Otiov is. 

Substantively (szrbstantivli), adv. [f. SUB 
STANTIVE a. + -LY *.] 

1. Gram. As a substantive or noun. 

1548 THOMAS Ital.Gram.^ Diet., Somma t substantiuely is the 
somme or full numbre in reckenyng. 1665 B KINSLEY. Posing 
Pts. 131 These Genitives put Substantively, Tanti t quanti. 
a 1680 GI.ANVILL Sadductsntus ii. (1681) 34 To ftaifioitov, is 
to be understood Substantively for a Person, viz. an Ev