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Fort Armstrong Centennial
iLiiHiiis mmm mnvi
Fort Armstrong Centennial Celebration
June 18th-24th, 1916
Rock Island and Moline, Illinois
and Davenport, Iowa
The Rock Island County Historical Society
and The Historical Section of the Davenport Academy of Sciences
Rock Island, 111.
E. O. Vaile, Jr.
E. O. Vaii.e, Jr.
Photo Art Engraving Co.
Rock Island, Illinois
Printing and Binding by
Fidlar 8c Chambers
Copper Axe, covered with cloth
Curved-base Stone Pipe
Handwork of the JMound Builders
Curved-base Stone Pipe
These specimens from local mounds are in the Davenport Academy of Sciences Museum
Before the White Man Came
liy lulward K. I'liliuiiii
JHEN the wliite man "discovered" America, the land
was already occupied by a red skinned race now
known in a f^eneral way as American Indians. The
first whites were pleased to call these people sav-
aLjcs, hut in reality thev had a civilization of their
own wliicli in four resjions on the two continents had reached a
remarkably high standard of culture. These four regions were
the AIississip])i and Ohio \'alleys, the home of the so-called
Mound lUiilders ; ?iIexico. of the Aztecs: Central America, of
the Mayas : and Peru, of the Incas. The region up and down
the Mississippi and Rock Rivers within fifty miles of Fort Arm-
strong contains hundreds of the earthen mounds built by these
early people. Just when they were built is difficult to say ;
more than that it was before contact with the whites. I'rom
the objects found in these mounds can be gained a good idea of
their culture, (jne of the largest collections of these objects is
found in the Museum of the Daven])ort Academy of Sciences.
The_\- belonged to the stone age, as shown 1)\- their stone axes,
flint spear heads and arrow heads, carved pipes, and many other
implements and ceremonial objects. They had developed the
art of poltery-niaking and also the making of bone and shell
articles. They wove clotli and mats. They worked in the
native copper by hammering it into form, although they did not
understand melting or hardening it. They had developed agri-
culture, hunting, and fishing. They were travelers or traders,
because in a single mound might Ije found copper from Michi-
gan, shells from the (julf of Mexico, mica from Eastern Ten-
nessee, and obsidian from the Black Hills. They had a sen,se
of the artistic, especirdb; in the use of ornament, and it seems
an appreciation of landscape as shown by their selection of
high bluff^s with a wide outlook for their groups of mounds.
l'rol)abh' a jiart of the same race were tiie Indians who still
inhabited the country when settled by the whites. The special
tribe of Indians associated with this immediate locality was the
"Sacs and h'oxes," or more ]irobably the Sauks and .Meskwakis.
The term Reynards or I'oxes was used erroneously by the
French. The two tribes were so closely allied as to be regarded
as practicalh' one tribe. They belonged to the .\lgonf|uin stock.
These Indians had come from the Green Bay region and at the
end of the eighteenth century had their large settlement at the
junction of the Rock River with the Mississijipi. This was the
tribe of Black Hawk, Keokuk, Poweshiek, and many famous
chiefs. When finally moved to the Indian Territory and Kan-
sas, part of the trilie, chiefly the Meskwakis or Foxes returned
to Iowa and now live in Tama Count\-.
Antoine Le Claire
Col. George Davenport
To the Pioneers
li\ Alice I'iciicIk "Oclciir I'liaiicf^
;X s\iieral wt- think little i.nriii<;h of the makers of our
countiy, the men ami women to whose sacrifices and
whose courage we owe our days of luxury. But
once in a while our sloth is ])rodded into attention.
P'or a little space we remember. Then we recognize
something of the innneasurahle debt which we owe to the Pio-
A hundred years ago where were our great warehouses and
factories, or the mansions and the gardens full of delicate
jileasures and beauty which are on every hill? For one moment
let us pause to salute the vanished courage and endurance and
vision which gave them to us.
Let us think of the buiklers of h'ort Armstrong and of the
men and women who dared all the perils of the wilderness to
raise their log cabins where now are busy streets and marvels
of light and transit beyond their dreams of witchcraft. For a
moment let us salute the hard hands, the keen eyes, the swift
feet, the strong hearts of the past.
Do we realize what we owe these strong, inarticulate souls?
They did their amazing work unconscious, themselves, how
greatly they wrought. In the span of a single century they
transformed a wilderness into an empire. Rome had not its
power or its wealth.
Abraham Lincoln was a type of their sinewy force. He had
their l)roa<l Init kind.ly humor, their essenti;il cleanhncss of soul
if not always of speech, their indomi;;d)le cour;ige, their dogged
patience, their breadth of vision which came from solitary
living in wide spaces, their patriotism, and their deep tender-
ness of heart.
Perhaps from, some of the itinerant preachers of the time
Lincoln learned the eloquence which should become a i>art of
our habitual thought. These men often had a rude force of
speech : sometimes they rose to heights ; often their appeal was
permeated with the noblest and simiilest diction in the W'Orld,
that of the Bible.
The life of the pioneers was bare and rugged. They had
toil, privation, danger. They died unlended in lonely forests:
they had no easement of pain in their wounds of battle or am-
bush ; there were Init meagre medicaments of herbs for the
fevers that came out of the swamp; the ghastly stories of
massacre and torture which were told at every fireside any time
might have ghastly confirmation. There were few pleasures
and those of the rudest. Vet on the whole it may be questioned
if their life was not happier than ours. It was a full life. It
had the joy of work and accomplishment. It was interesting.
If it had not the beauty of art, it had the beauty of nature to
sweeten it. And it had all the primitive happiness of family
love and conn\'ideship. It hail the throbbing excitement of
— 7 —
Earlv Moline. about 1840
Showing the Sears' mills, the first factories, and the brush dam. the first dam to be built in the Mississippi River
combat with man or nature, and the exultant tln'ill of victory.
Probably the Pioneers wasted little time or misery on analyzing
their own emotions, and less on uplifting their neighbors.
Their imagination and their invention took the practical lane of
better cultivation of their fields and better ways of travel.
When it did wander into the fields of beginning finance and
started banks antl paper money which should pay itself out of
future prosperity it went th.e usual rapid pace to misfortune.
But this is really a later story.
In time men of lineage and education came to Illinois and to
Iowa. It will be interesting to lowans to learn that Illinois
settlements had a sad reinitation, even so early as the days of
Richard Flower, who settled in .-Mbion in the first half of the
nineteenth century. A lady of Philadelphia said to him :
''Friend Flower, wilt thou take thy family to that infidel and
wicked settlement in Illinois?"
Nevertheless Flower, an Fnglish gentleman, did settle in
Illinois and prospered and was happy.
A score of names will instantly come to us, among the later
Pioneers, names still honored on both sides of the great river.
Clark, the explorer : Edwards, the first Illinois governor : Dun-
can, the far-sighted : Ford, who saved the honor of Illinois.
Locally there were the Wells. Spencer, the Case families ; Sears,
who developed the local water power: Stephens, Deere, \\'eyer-
hauser, and Denkmann, great pioneer manufacturers; Buford,
the soldier; \'an Sant. Cable, Alitchell, and many more, and
over the river the Davenport, Antoine Le Claire, who kept
faith alike with while man and red; the Cooks, Price, \'an
Tuyl, Grant, Alitchell, Allen, Burrows, Eldridge, Stibolt, Claus-
sen, Alueller, (daspell, merchants, hankers, lawyers, statesmen,
farmers, alike staunch and true of heart. Xor should we forget
the priests and the ministers of religion, the Iowa band of the
Congregationalists, the circuit riders of the Methodists, the
first Bishops of Illinois and Iowa, Kemper, Lee, Cosgrove,
alike soldiers of God whatever their banner, Father IVla-
mourgues, the intrepid Sisters of St. IMary — these are but a
few of the makers of the three cities.
And behind the leaders are the strong and silent manv who
fought without flinching, hostile man and liostile nature : and
to whose obscure heroism, resoiuTefulness, and self-sacrifice we
owe what we have today, not only a material prosperity but in
the fiber of soul which beneath our seeming softness has their
iron strain, and shall the need come will enable ns like them to
give all we have and all we are to our country.
Therefore, we, inheritors of their blood or of their works,
irratefulh' and reverentlv salute them.
— 9 —
Fort Armstrong, about 1S45
From a Daguerreot>'pe
The Story of Fort Armstrong
By On-ill S. Holt
h ) propurly coinprelieiid the liistorv of I'ort Arm-
strong and the locality in which it stoo;l, one must
go back to the time of the discovery of America to
get the sequence of events which had to do with its
building. Every maritime nation of the world en-
deavored to share in the results of the discovery of the new
Spain sought treasure, tribute from the natives, and religious
concjuest. France sought commerce and religious converts,
while colonists from other countries sought homes and escape
from persecution. Spain conquered, robbed, and destroyed the
natives ; France preached to them, lived with them, and inter-
married with them ; while the colonists, who later became
known as Americans, ruthlessly pushed the Indians before
them, taking their lands for cidtivation and permanent settle-
Following a period of discovery, conquest, colonization, and
national rivalry, came a time wdien Mexico, including Texas,
the Southwest, ami California, was dominated by Spain ; the
thirteen original colonies by England ; and Canada and Louisi-
ana by France. The territory included in the Louisiana Pur-
chase, of wdiich Iowa was a part, after its savage ownership be-
longed first to France and then to Spain. Napoleon compelled
its relinquishment to France in 1801, but wdien he proposed to
occupy it the L'nited States objected with the result that the
United States acquired it by purchase in 1803. After the war
with .Mexico another immense piece of former Spanish territory
was accjuired by the United States, which included Texas and
California and the intervening territory. liut for these acquisi-
tions the L'nited States w-ould have been bounded bv the Mis-
sissippi River on the west and we should have had a powerful
neighbor with whom to divide honors.
Hand in hand religious zeal anrl commercial ambition lead
the I'^rench priests and explorers. In the wav of the St.
LawTence and the Great Lakes, far into the interior of North
.America when it was an unknown wilderness to the rest of the
world. In 1(108, twelve years before the landing at Plymouth
Rock, Champlain planted the first French colony at Quebec.
In 1(134 Jean Nicolet, the French explorer, reached Saulte Ste.
.Marie at the outlet of Lake Superior. Eventually French
priests and explorers endeavored to connect Canada and Louisi-
ana by means of a line of forts and missions. Alarquette and
Joliet, priest and explorer, opened the way in 1673. when they
made their memorable trip from Mackinac through Green Bay
and the Fox River, over the portage, and down the Wisconsin
River to its mouth. They arrived at the Mississippi River
June 17th and must have passed the island of Rock Island a
short time after. This explorer and his com])anion priest con-
Fort Armstrong', Davenport, Rock island, and Aiolinc 1844
From a paintinfi by J. C. Wild
tinned to the mouth of the Arkansas River, and returnin,;;',
passed up the Ilhnois River and entered Lake Michigan at the
present site of Chicago. In 1681 the ilhistrious I.a Salle traced
tlie Mississippi River to its mouth, and with him oriq'inated the
idea of circumventing' tlie colonies of iMigland on the Atlantic
shore with a band of French territory, which should enable
France to possess the great river valleys of the interior and the
better part of the continent. In this ambitious purjiose they
sought opportunity for missionary work and couuiiercial ad-
vantage rather than colonization.
England entertained views similar to those of France as to
the destiny of the interior. The King of England decreed that
it should be the perpetual home of the natives and forbade his
subjects to encroach beyond the territory whose waters flowed
into the Atlantic. The colonists, however, looked with covetous
eyes on the rich agricultural lands west of the Allegheny Moun-
tains, and in spite of the King's command began to seek homes
beyond the western frontier. The rival claims of England and
France to the interior, brought on a clash between the English
colonists and the Canadian-I'rench in which the mother coun-
tries, being hereditary enemies, naturally joined. When these
conflicts finally ended the claim of France to Canada was ex-
tinguished and England succeeded to her claims in the North-
west. The conquest of Canada by England failed to settle the
controversy over the possession of the interior. The Revolu-
tionary War broke out soon after and at its termination the
English colonists became a new and independent nation, suc-
ceeding to England's original claim to the interior, while Eng-
land had succeeded to that of b'rance. The same contest con-
tinued with a new alignment of parties.
The l'"rench liad fraternized with the Indians aiul generally
were at peace with them. When luigland con(|uere(l New
b'rance the h'rench frontier-men remained as F.ritish subjects
and England succeeded to some extent to the good will of the
Indians toward the l-"rench. The .\mericans, however, being
colonists and desiring land possessions, were cordially hated
and distrusted by the natives. These facts explain to some ex-
tent the attitude of the Indians in the controversy which fol-
lowed over the possession of the valle}- of the Mississippi in
1812-1814. It was the pro-British attitude of the Indians that
called for the building of I'^ort Armstrong.
That the territorv now occupied by Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,
Michigan, and Wisconsin is a part of the Ihiited States and not
of Canada, is due largely to the enteriirise and militar\' skill of
Cicn. George Rogers Clark. Ilis success as the representa-
tive of the commonwealth of \'irginia in gaining possession of
the Illinois country, put America in a position to maintain the
( ireat Lakes as her northern boundary at the close of the next
important military event in our history, the second war with
(ireat IJritain, the War of 1812. During Clark's conquest of
the Illinois territory, which was coincident with the War of
the Revolution, Clark sent a detachment under Col. John Mont-
gomery in 1780 to sulidue the Sac and Fox Indians which re-
sulted in the burning of the Indian town of Saukenuk. This
was a local event of the Revolutionary War.
In 1805, following the Louisiana 1 'urcha.se of 1803, Zebulon
Pike, after whom Pike's Peak was named, made a tour of ex-
ploration through the west in the interest of the government.
A part of his mission was to conciliate the Indians ;md win
their allegiance from Great l!ritain. .\n interesting incident of
Alonument on Campbell's Island
Major Zachary Taylor
In command ai the Battle of Credit Island
his trip was the raisin^- of the first .\nierican flag in this part of
America, when he -s-isited the Indian town of Sankenuk, near
the mouth of Rock River. Here he found the (\a.g of England
flying. He presented the Indians with the .Stars and .Stripes,
which they consented to raise : hut th.ey refused to take down
their British flag, claiming to desire friendship with hoth
In this age of rapid transit and instantaneous communica-
tion, it taxes our imagination to realize the conditions existing
in the days when the west was the subject of controversy be-
tween the L'nited .States and Great Britain. It took bravery
an! patriotism of a high order to go hundreds of miles into the
Indian infested interior with no means of transportation, except
canoes and keel boats, with only Indian trails, and no means of
communication betwei.n distant points. Tl-ese conditions ex-
isted at the outbreak of the War of uSij, two battles of which
were fought near the island of Ivo:k Island in 1S14.
Governor William Clark, made famous by the Lewis and
Clark Expedition to the Pacific coast and a brotlnr of Gen.
George Rogers Clark, kft St. Louis in the spring of 1814 with a
military expedition for Prairie du Chien, captured that British
out-post, and built the first American fort north of Alton. L'poti
Clark's return to St. Louis an expedition was started under
the command of Capt. John Campbell to reinforce the garrison
left at Prairie du Chien. When the expedition got as far as
the mouth of Rock River, it fell in with Indians in considerable
numbers, who manifested no hostility, .\fter Campbell had
passed on up the river, a messenger from the British com-
mander in the north arrived and notified the Indians that it was
their duty as British allies to comijly with their promise to pre-
vent an\- Americans from ascending the river. Thereupon
Black Hawk and his band followed Campbell's boats, and over-
took them at an island about five miles above the island of l\(jck
Island, which, from this circumstance, has since been known as
Canipbell's Island. Finding the boats hampered by the swift
cm-rent of the ra]>ids and a high wind, one boat having been
driven ashore, the Indians attacked and defeated them, destroy-
ing one of Campbell's three boats, killing sixteen men. and
wounding others, including the commander, and compelleil their
return to St. Louis. U]ion their arrival, another and larger
expedition came up the river under command of Major Zachary
Ta}lor. who afterwards attained distinction in the Mexican
^^'ar and as President of the United States. The purpose of
this expendition, which, consisted of 334 men in nine keel-boats,
was to jHinish the Indians for their attack on Campbell's i)art\-
and to establish a fort near the Indian village, which should
keep the Indians in check, and the line of communication open
to points u|) the river. In the meantime the British had re-
captured the post at Prairie du Chien and Lieut. c;raham
had descended to the island of Rock Island with British soldiers
and several cannon, to assist the Indians in blockading the river
at that point. When Major Taylor's expedition reached the
mouth of Rock Ri\Tr it encountered a wind storm so severe as
to make it necessary for him to l;ind. He chose as a landing
place a willow island near the Io\v;l shore about two miles be-
low the island of Rock Island, and about sixty yards above
Credit Island, now known as Suburban Island. Lieut. Gra-
ham, of whose presence 31ajor Taylor was ignorant, taking-
advantage of the storm and the darkness of the following night,
removed his men and canunn across the main channel of the
ri\cr, tlirou,t;h what is now the husiiK'ss section of Davenport,
to an advanta,<;'eous point for an attack at <layH,i;lit. 'I"hc un-
expected onslaught by British regulars armed with canncm and
reinforced by 1,500 native warriors, was more than Major
Taylor was able to face, so be abandoned the purpose of his
mission, retreated as far as \\'arsaw. and built Fort Edwards
Three successive defeats in one year convinced the Americans
tliat all prospects of controlling the valley of the upper Missis-
sippi depended upon subduing these war-like natives. Con-
sequently in September, 1815, the lughtb United States In-
fantry, under command of C'ol. R. C Nicholas, was sent from
St. Louis to establish a fort on or near the island of Rock
Island. This expedition reached the mouth of the Des Moines
River in November where they were stopped by ice and re-
mained through the winter. Col. William Lawrence succeeded
to the command during the winter. The following April Brig.
Gen. Thomas A. Smith with his regiment arrived, took com-
mand, and proceeding up the river arrived at the island of Rock
Island, May 10, 1816. Gen. Smith endeavored to meet the Sac
and Fox Indians in council but they refused to attend.
There were about 11,000 Indians in the vicinity at that time.
Their principal village, Saukenuk, was on Rock River where
their council house stood. Their settlement and corn fields
covered the islands in Rock River and the point of land between
the rivers at their confluence, as well as both sides of the Mis-
sissippi River in the neighborhood of the island of Rock Island.
This was the largest Indian settlement in this part of the coun-
try- and one of the largest in North America. Their numbers
and [iro-British s\'mpathies made tlieni an important element in
the controversy over ])OSsession of the .Mississippi \'alle\. JMirt
.\rmstrong, which their presence niaile necessary, was of the
ordinary frontier tyiie, but usually striking in appearance, due
to its location on the precipitous ledge of rock, forming the
lower point of the island of Rock Island.
The name "Rock Island." which this island has borne since
it had a name, was ap])lied because of its striking contrast to
the other islands in the river which are generally alluvial with
low sloping shores. The island has been in the continuous
possession of the government of the L'nited States since the
Indians parted with it by treaty in 1804, although Col. George
Davenport and David B. Sears w'ere each allow-ed, by special
acts of Congress, to secure title to parts of it, in consideration
of services rendered to the goA'ernment. Subsequently their
holdings were appraised and taken back by the government
when it was determined to establish the Rock Island Arsenal.
Chief Black Hawk called Rock Islam 1 the most beautiful
island in the Mississippi, and white men L\-idently shared in his
opinion for its early history is a series of efforts by private in-
dividuals to get ]3ossession on every possible pretext. To
Teft'erson Davis belongs principal credit for the preservation
of the island to the L'nited States government for military pur-
poses. During the Black Hawk War he had abundant opixjr-
tunity to become familiar with it and its environment. He
thought, and many prominent men then and since agreed with
him, that the island was particularly adapted to the uses of the
government. They aijpreciated its advantageous location, its
water power possibilities, and the proximity of fuel and timber.
As an army officer, as a L'nited States Senator, and as Secre-
tary of War he championed its prcsen'ation ; and it seems the
TOPOGRAPHICAL VIEW OF ROCK ISLAND IN THE MISSISSIPPI 1319- 5CALE 4 INCHES TO A MILE.
EXTRACT FROM THE REPORT OF major m marston.of ihe sii^ infty
TO MAJOR GENL MACOMB— COMMANDING Sir MILITARY DEPARTMENT
DATED. FORT ARMSTRONG. ROCK ISLAND,
5EPT lOIi? 1619
■THIS FORT 15 ABOUT 270 FEET SQUARE WITH THREE BLOCK H0USE5, MOUNTING
THREE 6 POUNDERS. THE BARRACKS ARE WELL CONSTRUCTED OF HEWN TIMBER-.AND
ARE SUFFICIENTLY EUTENSlVE TO QUARTER THREE COMPANIES, THE MAGAZINE IS
OF 5T0NE AND WELL BUILT THE COMMANDING OFFICERS QUARTERS CONSIST OF A
CENTER TWO STORY BUILDING ZB FEET IN LENGTH. WITH WINGS OF ONE 5T0RY
15 FEET IN LENGTH. AND PIAZZAS BUILT IN FRONT AND REAR. THE FORT IS BUILT
ON THE LOWER POINT OF ROCK ISLAND. AND UPON A PERPENDICULAR BANK OF
LIMESTONE OF ABOUT 25 FT IN HEIGHT. IT COMPLETELY COMMANDS BOTH
CHANNELS OF THE RIVER THE GARRISON IS A GREAT CHECK UPON THE INDIANS
IN THIS COUNTRY AND FROM ITS CENTRAL SITUATION, IT APPEARS TO ME TO BE
A STATION OF CONSIDERABLE IMPORTANCE AN EXPRESS COULD REACH THIS IN
TEN DAYS FROM COUNCIL BLUFFS. ON THE MISSOURI. AND IN THE SAME TIME
FROM THE MOUTH OF THE RiVER 5T PETERS, AND FROM FORT DEARBORN AND IN
FIFTEEN DAYS FROM FORT HOWARD. AND FIVE FROM STLOUIS THE SOIL OF THIS
ISLAND APPEARS TO BE GOOD. AND IT CONTAINS A GOOD SUPPLY OFWOOO FOR FUEL
AND OTHER PURPOSES. THE RE IS ALSO AN EXCELLENT SPRING OF WATER ABOUT
ONE HUNDRED YARDS FROM THE GARRISON, THERE IS ABOUT FORTY ACRES OF LAND
IN THE VICINITY OF THE GARRISON CLEARED AND FIT FOR CULTIVATION.'
MANOiNG officer's Quarters
2 hosprtal & surgeon s quaj^ters
5&7- store mouses
4 48-5ALLY PORTS
TRACED FROM A PHOTOSTAT
COPY OF ORIGINAL WHICH WAS
MADE IN (819 AND 15 NOW ON
FILE IN OFFICE OF CHIEF OF
ENGINEERS, U S A.
SCALE 64 FT TO AN INCH
irony of fate that it sliould have hecn used during the Civil
War as the site of a prison for the confinement of his soldiers.
!-'ort Armstrong in shai>e was a rectangular parallelogram
with its four corners presented to the four points of the com-
pass. It measured 270 feet on each of its sides. It was pro-
tected on the north, east, and south angles by block houses, the
east one being the largest. The south one has now been re-
stored on its original location as the principal feature of this
celebration of its one hundreth anniversary. The block houses
were constructed of hewn timbers cut near the site of the fort.
They were two stories in height, the upper story being set so
that its sides came over the angle of the story below, thus pre-
senting fronts in eight directions. Each story was provided
with port holes for cannon and muskets, and their hipped
roofs were surmounted bv observatories or lookouts. The lines
between the north, east, and south block houses were occupied
bv barracks and other buildings in shed form with the high
point to the outside, so that the sloping roof could be protected
from within the enclosure. The spaces between these build-
ings and the block houses were closed by stone walls about four
feet high which were surmounted by hewn timbers placed one
ui)on the other to the height of the barracks buildings. The
other two sides of the enclosure were the precipitous shores of
the island. The west angle of the enclosure was occupied by
the headquarters building, lliis was about 20x30 feet in size,
and two stories high, flanked on each end by immense outside
stone chinmeys and outside of these were small one-story
wings. On the east and west fronts were large porches. The
one on the west, two stories high, afforded a beautiful view,
with tile liroad Mississippi in the foreground, .\side from the
building already described there were others for officers' quart-
ers and hospital purposes, also a stone powder magazine about
gxi2 feet insiile. It was sunken partly into the ground so that
the natural rock\ ledge formed its floor. A stone arched roof
covered it. In the center of the enclosure was a tall flag-staff.
Tliere were two sally ports opening on to the island to the
northeast and southeast. When the soliders arrived, the
island was covered bv a heavy growth of timber, but in the
vicinity of the fort it was all cleared away for the double pur-
pose of procuring material for the buildings and removing
shelter that might he used by the Indians in case of an attack.
With the troops that came to build the fort was Col. George
Davenport in the capacity of sustenance contractor's agent. He
built a house on the island which still stands. He became an
Indian trader and had his first trading post on the island. In
1824 Russell Farnham arrived on the scene and entered into
partnership with Col. Davenport. In 1826 they built a build-
ing on the main shore, at the present junction of 29th Street
and the C. K. I. & P. R. R. tracks as a trading post. This was
the first Iniilding on the main land and later was known as the
"House of John Barrel." In it was the first postoffice, hotel,
and stage station. Here were held the first court, first election,
and the first meeting of the county board. The settlement that
sprung up around it came to be known as Farnhamsburg, and
was the "metropolis" of the locality until the town of Stephenson
came into existence in 1835. This gave place to the city of
Rock Island in 1841. Col. Davenport continued to live on the
island of Kock Island until his mm-der on July 4, 1845. Col.
Davenport's two sons, George L. and Bailey, also passed their
lives here and reached prominence as citizens and land owners
on both sides of the Mississippi.
AiitoiiK' Le L'lairc \v:is aiKjthcr of the party that landed in
i8t6, and stayed after the fort was ahandoned to become a
hitjlily respected and pictnresque member of the community at
Davenport. He was of Frencli and Indian blood (Potta-
wattamie). He was educated in languages at the expense of
the government to serve as official Indian interpreter, in which
capacity he was employed at bort Armstrong. His home was
in Davenport, which he laid out and named for his friend the
Indian trader. A part of the city of Davenport is laid out on
a section of land which was reserved by the Indians from the
tract conveyed by the treaty of 1832. This section of land the
Indians presented to Mrs. ^Vntonie Le Claire, the granddaughter
of a .Sac chief, and the wife of their trusted friend.
In Col. Davenport's employ was a Frenchman named
Antoine Goucpie, who was the first permanent settler in this
vicinity. He was a hunter and trapper who was here when die
troops arrived, having come down the river from the neighbor-
hood of Prairie du Chien. In dress, habits, and appearance he
was an Indian, but he w;is of [lure French blood. His wife
was a full blooded Fox Indian, fat and good natured, and very
popular with the whites. Couque and his family lived on the
island on land afterwards included within the military prison
enclosure during 1863-65.
Fort Armstrong, although no l:)attle ever was fought there,
occupied a prominent place during the Indian troubles of 1831
and 1832, and was the refuge of the early settlers from their
first arrival in 1828 until the close of the lilack Hawk War. It
would retpiire far more space than is here available to write a
history of this war. The causes of the Pilack Hawk War were
the refusal of lilack Mawk and his band to recognize the
vali(lit\' of the treaty of 1804. in which refusal tliey were to
some extent justified, and the love for their homes which they
and their ancestors had occupied for more than a century and
their veneration for the burial place of their dead. To this
was adiltd resentment of the impositions by the early white
settlers, who in violation of justice and treaty obligations
crowded in upon their fields, destroyed their crops, desecrated
the graves of their dead, and took possession of their bark
houses, while thousands of unoccupied acres of other land lay
open for settlement. There were five white settlers within the
Indian town of Saukenuk. when there were but two where the
city of Rock Island now stands, but one in iMoline, and none in
Davenport : all of these settlers being on land previously oc-
cupied bv the Indians, and at a time when miles of unoccupied
territory surrounded the Indian village in every direction.
When in 1831 the Indians resented the encroachments of the
whites on their village, and P.lack Hawk resented the demoral-
ization of his young men by the sale of whiskey to them by the
whites, some friction arose. The white settlers complained to
the (Governor of Illinois and the I'nited States authorities, and
the Indians were ordered to move across the i\Iississippi, which
thev refused to do. Thereupon the Governor of Illinois en-
listed 1,600 militia who joined with the I'nited States regulars
under Gen. Gaines, from St. Louis, to drive the Indians from
their ancient home. The Indians evaded the issue of battle by
([uietlv slipping across the river in the night. Thinking the
trouble was over the militia were disbanded and the regulars
returned to Jefferson liarracks, but before doing so burned the
In 1832 I'llack Hawk anil the I'.ritish band, grieving over the
Outline of the Foundation of tlie I'.lock House on the East Angle ot 1-nu
The depression in the foreground is plainly to be seen
loss of tliL-ir ol<l hoiiK-, resenting; the trcatnuiU tlicy h;ul re-
ceived, and still seeking to evade the terms of the treaty of
1804, which they still insisted was invalid, recrossed the Mis-
sissippi River at Yellow JJanks and came hy the way of the
Indian trail to the mouth of Rock River. Xews of this move-
ment of the Indians having reache I the whites the ( lovernor of
Illinois again called out the militia, and in conjunction with
federal troops, followed them up the valley of Rock River.
After a series of battles and skirmishes, interspersed with fre-
quent efforts to surrender, to which the wliites gave no heed,
the Indians were driven to southern W isconsin where they
attempted to escape their pursuers hv crossing the Mississippi.
Then occurred the battle of Bad Axe. at which most of those
who had survived to that time were massacred without regard
to age or sex, and Black Hawk, his son, and some of the other
chiefs were captured. Black Hawk, in custody of Jefferson
Davis, was brought down to the island of Rock Island, at that
time the headquarters of Gen. W'infield Scott. Owing to a
cholera epidemic prevailing at that time he was not taken on
shore, but was sent on to Jeft'erson Barracks as a prisoner, in
the custody of Jeii'erson Davis, and from there to P'ortress
Monroe, where Davis was afterwards himself confined, and
after a trip through the principal cities of the east to show him
the strength of the American nation and to convince him of the
futilitv of opposing them, and incidentally for the amusement
of the white people, he was returned to Ruck Island, shorn of
his power as a chief, and placed in the custody of Keokuk, who
became responsible for his subsequent peaceful conduct. Chief
Keokuk had for a long time been disjxised to yield to the de-
mands of the Americans for the land which had belonged to
the Sac and Fox Indians in Illinois. The whites had great
confidence in him. He and Black Hawk had been leaders of
op[)Osing Indian factions and it was a great humiliation to
Black Hawk to have his defeat end in being subordinated to
The trouble with England ended with the Treaty of Ghent,
and the trouble with the Indians ended with the termination of
the I'.lack Hawk War, and Fort Armstrong became unneces-
sary. In 1836 the fort was evacuated and abandoned, and
thereafter allowed to fall into decay, and 1855 a part of it was
burned. The last vestige was removed when the railroad bridge
was remo\'ed to its present location. Its right of way, as well
as Fort Armstrong Avenue and the street railway tracks, pass
directly through the site of old Fort Armstrong. The island
of Rock Island, however, did not lose importance as years
passed, for during the Civil War it was occupied by a military
prison with a capacity of 12.000 prisoners, and at the close of
this war was selected as the site of the chief arsenal of the
United .States. There is every reason to believe that future
years will see its importance increase many fold.
5». 's-^C*— ■
Black Hawk's Vision
Spirit of Great Sac Chief Revisits Glimpses of tlie Moon and
Dreams of the Fighters of Yesterday
By Robert Rc.ulalc
Down the long, dim valleys that stretch away,
I dream of the fighters of yesterday.
And I see the light of tlie watch-fire's glow.
Where the rivers meet in tlieir onward llow ;
1 hear the wolf on the lonely hill.
And [he low, sweet song of the whip-poo'-will,
And out of the dark where the wigwams lie.
An arrow is flaming across the sky !
The gray owl calls with a lond tu-whoo,
I-'roni the hattered prow of a war-canoe,
1 see the gleam at the water's hrink.
Where the game came down in the night to drink.
And far along hy the wooded shore,
1 watch for the foe where he lurked of yore,
As the stars fade hea\'enward one hy one.
And the hills ujilift to the rising sun!
Down the long, dim valleys a spirit croons
The deathless song of a thousand moons,
I see the fort on tlie rocky ledge,
\\'here the cave dips under the island's etlge.
And the l)Ugle sounding the reveille
Proclaims the dawn of the white man's day!
I see the path that his skill has hlazed,
And the works the might of his arm has raised.
His cliildrcn rule where my people trod.
And their harvests spring from the blood-stained so 1,
As the trail winds on over ])laiu and steep.
Through the hallowed ground where the fighters sleej)!
What matters it now where their bones may rest —
It was knife to knife, it was breast to breast,
I hear the twang of the bended bow,
And the nniffled shot in the rocks below;
Though the scalp-lock falls from the warrior's hand.
He died for his scpiaw and his native land,
For men were the hunters and men the prev,
And l)rave were the fiahters of vestcrdav!
Rebuilt Block House, lyiO, on the Site of the South .\ugle of
Fort Armstrong Centennial Celebration
June 18th -24th, 1916
n n n
Services in :ill tlic churches of the three cities with a|)])ro]iriate seniKiiis. |iarticiilarly im Home-
coming, Peace, Preparedness, and L'hin-ch I'rogreis (hiring the last liun(hed years.
Sacred I'land Concerts in —
l^'ejervary I'ark. Davenport.
Long \'ie\v Park. Rocl< Island.
l^rospect Park, Moline.
Services in many of the churches of the three cities, the jjastors of several churches exchang-
ing pulpits and delivering the morning's sermon.
— 27 —
House of Col. George Davcnijort — Flnilt, 1831 ; restored, 1906
"This is probably the most historic house in Illinois or Iowa, and has given shelter and hospitality to more great men
than any other private residence of the United Stages."— A n/jsf ton }•
FORT ARMSTRONG DAY
Salute of one hundred guns on llie river at tlie lower end of Rock Island.
(_'elebration of the Founding of l'"ort Armstrong-, iSiO, and Dedication of the rebuilt Ijlock
House, on the lower end of the island and at the grandstand on Main Aveiuie.
l!rig.-Gen. Thomas A. Smith in command of a regiment of Rifles and the lughth I'. S. In-
fantry — the latter under the immediate command of Col. William Lawrence — landed on the island
of Rock Island May lo, 1816, 800 strong, for the purpose of establishing a fortification to protect
the line of communication, by way of the river, to the upper reaches of the Mississippi. General
Smith did not remain long, but with his Rifles proceeded up the river to P^ort Snelling, near St.
Anthony's Falls, leaving Colonel Lawrence and the Eighth Infantry to erect the fort. It was
named Fort Armstrong, in honor of the then secretary of war. The fort was in the form of a
square with its four corners presented to the four jjoints of the comi)ass. It measured 270 feet on
each of its sides. It was protected on the north, east, and south angles Ijy block houses, the east
one being the largest. The fort, though no battle was ever fouglit there, was the center of opera-
tions during the Indian wars of 183 1 and 1832. P'rom the time of the coming of the white settlers
in 1828, until the treat}- of September 21, 1832, which ended the Indian troubles, it was a place of
refuge for the pioneers. Thereafter, there being no further need for the fort, it was vacated in
1836 and permitted to fall into decay.
A replica of the block house which formerly stood on the south angle of the Fort Armstrong
enclosure has been erected upon its original site. The opening of the celebration is marked 1)\- the
unveiling of this block house upon a signal given by President Woodrow Wilson, transmitted by
wireless telephone from Washington, D. C. This ceremony is preceded by a dramatization of the
landing of the troojis under Brigadier-General Smith and Colonel Lawrence. Thev are seen com-
ing up the river in keel boats, as they did one hundred years ago. L'pon their landing the block
house is unveiled, an 1812 flag is raised, and the salute fired. This is followed bv the sounding of
whistles and the ringing of bells in the tri-cities announcing the formal opening of the Fort Arm-
strong Centennial Celebration.
First Bridge over the ^lississippi River, Built in 1856
Because of lack of room on the lower point of the Island the remainder of the dedicatory pro-
gram takes place at the grandstand, located on ^lain Avenue east of the entrance gates to the
Rock Island .\rsenal. Seats are reserved for the pioneers of Scott County, Iowa, and Rock Island
County, Illinois. The program includes addresses by Ex-Governor Sam R. \'an Sant, of Minne-
sota, himself a pioneer of this locality; Colonel George W. iSurr, commandant of the Rock Island
Arsenal ; and by representatives of the Daughters of the American Revolution.
Grand Reunion of Old Settlers of Scott County, Iowa, and Rock Island County, Illinois ;
Historical Associations and Home-Comers, with an old-fashioned basket picnic. i\Iusic, speaking,
and a general good time.
Dedication and marking of the old Arsenal lUiilding. Tier of the I'irst 1 '.ridge across the .Mis-
sissippi River, and the Davenport House.
Burning of Saukenuk.
The Indian village of Saukenuk was located on Rock River, about three miles above its con-
fluence with the Mississippi, at the western base of 151ack tiawk's Watch Tower. It is supposed to
have been established in the early part of the eighteenth century, and was the largest Indian vil-
lage in the west, and one of the largest within the present limits of the United States. Here the
famous War Cliief, Black Hawk, was born, and over its possession the Black Hawk Wars of 1831
and 1832 were fought. During the Revolutionary War Colonel George Rogers Clark, acting under
a commission from the Colony of \"irginia, instituted a campaign for the recovery of the Northwest
Territorv from the British, the territory being then claimed by that commonwealth. \\'hile cam-
paigning in the southern portion of the Illinois country he learned of the pro-British attitude of
Sac and Fox Indians and detached a command under Colonel John Montgomery, with the village
of these Indians on Rock River as its objective point, in 1780. The Indians were driven from their
village anil the village itself burned.
The presentation of this takes place in front of the grandstand. The program opens with a
Ijand concert. Following this appears a portion of the tribe of Meskwaki ( I'ox) Indians, descend-
ants of those who inhabited this locality, who present characteristic Indian dances and sports.
This is followed by the Camp-fire Girls of the tri-cities in the presentation of ceremonials and
— 31 —
Monday June 19th
songs. As darkness cluscs ovit tin.' Island the village of Sankeniik is presented with its Indian ae-
tivities. While their evening sports an<l ceremonials are at their height Colonel Montgomery's
command arrives and the hattle opens. There is a sharp conflict between the Indians and the
whites, which resnlts in the defeat of the Indians. The soldiers take possession of the village ami
hurn it. As the embers are dying away, from its rnins the figure of a prophet arises, wlio foretells
the downfall of tin- Indian befure the encrdacliment (if the whites and the idtimate establishment of
a new civilization.
Tuesday PIONEER DAY j„ne 20th
MORNING \'isils to historical sites on b(»th silks 111 the river marked li\ the Historical .Section (jf the
Davenport Academv of .Sciences and the Rock Island ('iinnl\ Historical Society. A guide is
at eacli site to give needed information.
HisriiRif Si'irrs Marked on 'ini': InwA Side
.Site of the Treaty of the lilack Hawk Purchase, 1832. Aliout where I'arnam Street would in-
tersect b'ifth Street. Marked at l-'ifth and Iowa Streets, about 450 feet west of the treaty site.
Treat)- Site House. The log house limit b\- .\ntoine Lc Claire in 1833 at the site of the Treaty
of 1832. Now stands, boarded over and remiideled. in the rear of 420 West Mflh Street, near
Claim House, liuilt l)y ( ieorge L. 1 )a\enpurt in 1833. on the first claim taken up in the lilack
1 lawk Purchase. The first frame house in Iowa. Now at 557 College Avenue.
Site of the Treaty f)f 183(1. conveying Keokuk resers'c. In Prospect Park.
Embankment leading to the lirst bridge across the .Mississippi River. C)n East River Street,
near Eederal Street.
Camp McClellan. Recruiting caniji of the (_'i\il War. .Sioux i)rison. At East River Street
anil Camp McClellan Pmilevard.
— 33 —
Tuesday June 20th
Location where grouml was broken for the construction of tlie first raih'oad liuiU beyond the
AJississippi River, at I'ifth and Rock Island Streets.
I'irst collet;e ijuildin!^- erected in Iowa. Xo. 517 West Seventli Street. Institution then called
Iowa Colle.g'e : now (iriiuull I'olleine. at GriniK-11, Iowa.
Site where John llrown purchased supplies fcir his men at Sprin;;dale. ( in allc\ 1)i'low Second
Street on the west side of Hradv Street.
.Site of house of Dr. John I'.merson, owner of 1 )red Scott, the slave: 22^ luist Second Street.
Mouse where Barclav Coppoc, John ISrown refugee, was secreted followini.; the Harper's berry
tiyht. Now VVirtel & Drebing's trunk store. 220 llrady .Street.
Excellent views of Davenport can lie secured from I'rospect I'ark-, from Riverview Terrace,
from Lookout I'ark, from I'"airmount Cemetery, and from the roof of the I'utnam ISuilding, .Main
and Second .Strt'cts.
llisToKic Si'iiis M \kK|.|) (IN' -riii.: Ifj^inois Smi';
j Site of first pcnwr dam in ,Mississi|)pi l\i\er. ( iuard House of 15th Street l'>rid,L;e, Aloline.-
tabin site of Joel Wells, Sr., the lirst settler where Moline is now located. .\t b'irst .\veiuie
<md 2 1 St Street, .Moline.
Site of .Moline's first mills and foimdry, and bihn Dcere's first plow shop. Just west of 15th
Street r.ridj.>,e, aloii;;" the river bank, .Moline.
.Site of home of Stei)luns, and his twent\ net'ro sla\'es; the onI\- sl;i\'es held in Rock Is-
land ("ounty. At \\'alker .Station in .\ Inline.
.Monument on t/ampbell's Island, e(immemor,itin.L; the b.ittle there in July, l<Si4.
Location of the house of John I'.arrel, built b\ Russell I'arnham and L'ol. ( ieorgx" Davenport in
1826, the first house on the Illinois side, the first stage station, the first hotel, the first postoffice, the
first coiu't room, the first ]il;ice of election, the first meeting ])lace of the countv board, the center of
b'arnhanisburg. the tirst \illage on the Illinois side of the ri\er. Aliout 300 feet north of intersec-
tion of I'il'tb .\\'einie and 2i)tli Street, Rock' Island.
— 35 —
Z =^ c
Tuesday June 20th
Rock Island House. I'l'opcrtx used eoiitinuously as a lit.itel site since the earh' da\s of Steph-
enson. Corner of Second Avenue and West 17th Street, Rock Island.
Old jail property and sheriff's resitlence, vvdicrc the "Banditti of the Prairie." who ninnlereil
Col. Davenport, were confined. ( )n 15th .Street, just hack of the IModern Woodmen of America
liuilding. Rock Island.
.\mos F". Cutter harn, 150 feet from the site of the ^'allows where the nuu-derers of I'ol. I)aven-
port were hanged, and into which was built the lumber of which, the tiallows were built. I )n i^tli
Street between Third and Fourth Avenue. Rock Island.
Sac corn fields showing- "s(|naw-hills" undisturbed since the Indians' last culti\ation in 1S31.
Xow covered with forest trees. Co east frt)m marker on T2th Street south of ( hippianuock Cem-
etery, Rock Island.
Remains of mound on which stood the Sac Council Lculge. Treaty of 1804 was reported here:
Keokuk was elected war-chief here in 1S12; Lieut. Zebulon I'ike brought here the first Cnited
States flag to he raised on the main land of the up]jer Mississi])pi River. Tliis was the ot^cial
headquarters of the Sac village which was burned by Col. John Montgomery in 1780 — a part of the
Revolutionary War, and wliicb was again destroyed 1)_\- fire l)y Illinois militia under llrig.-Cen.
Joseph Duncan in the 1831 campaign of the Black Hawk War; 100 yards west of the bridge over
Rock River at the Davis Power Plant.
Ruins of the Sears' mill. Im-oui this spot Gen. E. P. (iaines shelled \"andruH"'s Islaml in 1831
from the deck of the steaiuboat 'T^nterprise," to drive out lllack Hawk' ;mil his hostile Imlians. .\t
the bridge over Rock River at the Davis Power Plant.
A andrufi"s Island. Cjen. Joseph Duncan and i.Ckio mounted Illinois militia, accompanied by
Gov. John Reynolds and statT, swept the Islaml in i8,:;i in search, of hostile Indians. ( )n the site of
the cabin of Joshua \'andruff ])art of the cellar wall still riuiains. It was here that lilack Hawk,
indignant o\er the srde to his Indians of "fire-water," \isited .\lr. X'andrult and destroyed his sup-
]>1\ of \vbiskc\'. Past of .Main road across Islaml.
(jrax'e of I'.Iack Hawk's two children, and site of the caliiu where he fasted and motnned tlieir
— 37 —
Tuesday June 20th
I (katli for two years. Al Uk- extreme west end aiiil hiyliest ])oiiit of Watch Tower bluff. l-'roin
same point niav be seen the site of "Rock Island City," a purely western "boom" town of the early
The first water jiower of this vicinity ( \andruff's) and the site of the first permanent water
' power dam across the south channel of Rock River: the remnants of the state canal of 1837; the
^\ll^w Hanks trail: the .Maklen trail: where the Rock River rant;;ers and re^nlars slielled \ an-
dniff's Island in 1831 : the location of a prehistoric pottery : the location of the legend of the JM-ench
fiddler : the location of the legend of the Indian lovers' spring; the location of Lincoln's camp. All
may be seen from the ^^'atch Tower Inn.
AFTF.RXOOX (lymnastic Exhiljitiun by the Voun^- Alen's Clu-istian Associations of Davenport. Rock Island,
("■rand Entry and Maze Run. I'arallel liars.
Massed Dumb Hell Drill. Tumbling.
Relay Races. The Cn-cy Zouaves.
Elejihant Work. Wall Scaling and I-'inale.
EX'EXIXri Electric-iIly Illuminated .Xiglit .S])cclacular Pageant.
\n allegorical presentation of historical and industrial e\ents 1)_\- an electrically illuminated
pageant on. ten cars. These ])ass in review Ijefore the grandstand on Main .\venue.
C \R I. Tin; Elicht 01^ the r.U'!ii .Simi;it
There is a cave under the island of Rock Island about 150 feet in depth, the moutii of which is
now closed bv the abutment of the Government Bridge which spans the main channel of the Alis-
sissipjii River, .\ccording to Indian tradition this cave was inhabited by a white, l>inl-like spirit of
immense size. The Indians believed this to be their good, spirit and were wont to worsliip it.
^\ liile it was not often seen b\- them its oceasion;d appearance in tlie spring time pres.aged good
— 39 —
Tuesday j^ne 20th
I crops ami, intlii.' aiiUimu time, successful Inuits ;uiil an alnuxlaucc of oanic. ^Vith the establish-
lueut of the fort immediately over the cave the bin! spirit uever returned, and it was their belief
that the presence of the soldiers and their warlike activities caused it to tl\- awax'. With its de-
l)arture the tables of their fortune were turned. The harvests grew less plentiful, the qanie be-
came scarce, and in a few years their I;ind and tlieir homes were claimed by the whites.
This legend is depicted with a great white bird in the foregrciund rising in lliglu. r.eldw and
on either si<le are white swans which appear as its guardians. In the rear is seen the mciutli of
the cave from which ;in Indian fairy (pieen is emerging. She is holding her right hand ;doft and
m It are gathered ribbons which float back from the beaks of the birds. They are seen siKiring out
over the bosom of the great river in their final flight. The ear is brilliantly illuminated and is one
of the most charming of the brilliant procession.
Car 2. CoMiNc; uf tiie Wiurii Man
The first white men to visit this locality were Marquette and |oliel. who. in Alav, 1(175,
started from Mackuiac to seek the great river, rumors of which tliev had heard from the Indians!
They followed the north shore of Lake .Alichigan into Creen l'.;i\-, and ascending the I'ox River
portaged to the ^^■isconsin River. Down this they floated untilthey reached the' Mississippi River
June 17th. They proceeded down the iMississippi, passing the island of Rock Island a few days
later. They continued to the mouth of the Arkansas, where their journev southward was discon-
tnuie.l. and they retiu-ned by the way of the Illinois River and Lake Michigan. Toilet's interest in
the undertaking was mercantile, but Marquette's was that of the zealous missionarv who sought to
locate the Indian tribes resident in the great valley that the church might extend the scope of its
work and claim them as converts to its faith.
This is shown as a water scene. In the background is the lower end of the island (if Rock
Island. ( hi the water is a canoe. In the canoe is seen Joliel and Marquette, the later bearing aloft
a blazing cross. \\ ith lliem are to be seen the Imli.an v(i\ageurs. ( )n the bow of the canoe is an
old-fashioned torch in which bark- is burning.
— 41 —
Tuesday June 20th
Car 3. 'J'lnc L'(i,\ii.\i; lU'' 'nil': Flag
:i is'i'iiKic Ar. xciTi-;
rile lla.L^ is the eniljkni of political posscssidii. Wluri \-cr it is |ilantcil it si,iL;nirn.s that tlir na-
tion it re]jrL'scnts claims sovereignty and that such natimi lias assumed tn pmlect to the hesi ni its
al)ilit\' all those who declare their allegiance.
This car is purely allegorical. There is represenli'd a frontier hlock' honse. a pictnres(|tH'
li\ ing lignre representing '■Colnnihia" is raising a llag.
Car _|. ri(i\'r.i-;i.:.s
11 Is roKiiAi. x(n-|-.
I'ollowing the fnr-trader, soldier, and frcmtiersnian c.anie the t\|iical pioneer seeking to es-
tablish a new home. They were a slnrdv, self-reliant Imdv of men and women who braved the
dangers and hardships eif a frontier life to pnpare die country for the subsequent civilization
which we enjo\'.
.\ dog and farm animals are grouped aliont. .\ man with an axe stands in the \ard. In the
rear and forming' a backgrouiiil is a log cabin, illiimin.ited, with children in the dooi'wax.
- - 43 —
Tuesday June 20th
Cai; 5. .VcKICULTURli
Jl ISIIIKICAI. XOTE
.\ftrr liuildinj; shelters for himself ami the iiienibers of his faniilx', the pioneer's next move was
to elear the land anfl bring; the soil under cultivatioil. From this betjinning', as time passed, mod-
ern, scientific farming" followed. AgTicultural pursuits underlay every other form of industry and
form the foundation for all subsequent prosperit)-.
( )n the rear of this car is a tree bearing- one hundred red lights imbedded in its foliag^c typify-
ing tlie one hundred years of progress that we are now celebrating. In the foreground is a pro-
fusion of agricultural products and trailing over and among these is a vine covered with leaves and
llowers ty]ncal of nature's l.iounteous response to the agricultural efi'orts of man. Life is .idded to
the scene li\ the presence of a lady seated in the midst of this profusion.
C_'.\K 6. I.UMUiij^ — FoRiisT Riches
Sliorlh after llie first pioneer settlers arrived saw )'iills were establisheil and the native timber
was cut to meet their needs. Then the great Mississippi was called upon to play its part and from
the ])ine woods of the north lumber and logs were rafted. ( jreat mills supplanted tlie earl\ ones
and the industry grew until it became the most important industry of this locality.
The car rejiresents the householder receiving from the forest nymph the gift of "h'orest
Riches." She is made to appear coming through the ,\rch of Success from a dense wood. < 'n
either side stand the protecting Fairies of the Deejj Forest, in their garb of green bronze and bril-
liant with the I .ight of Promise.
— 47 —
Tuesday June 20th
Car 7. Manufacturing
Because of the water power on Rock River near the site of Sankcnuk and on the Mississippi
River at Mohne, manufacturing was early developed. In 1837 David 1). Sears connneneed the
construction of a power dam between the island of Rock Island and the main Illinois shore. This
formed the nucleus of a manufacturing center previous to the advent of steam.
This car shows the (ioddess of Industry, seated on her marble throne at the font of die factory-
studded Hills of Progress, presiding over the workers with her beacon light ever burning.
Car 8. Commerce
r The tri-cities were located on the Mississipin River, the commercial thoroughfare of 'the
early dav. The industrial growth, thus fostered and encouraged, was the magnet that brought the
\ first railroad that reached the Mississippi to this point. Here, also, the first railroad on Iowa ter-
ritory was l)uilt, and the two lines were connecte 1 by the first bridge to span the Mississippi River.
The growing west was thus made tributary to 'tin •; commercial center and contributed to its de-
The Queen of Commerce is depicted on a wharf as a foundation, with the boxes and barrels of
her calling as a throne, presiding over the shipping, while on the high ground at the rear the first
locomotive, the Antoine Le Claire, is seen crossing the Island. Rack of it stands the clock tower
of the Arsenal building and in the waters below is a passing river steamljoat.
Tuesday j^^^^ 20th
Car 9. Peack and Prospkklty
This oar is surmoiintwl l3y an ant^cl figure of Peace of heroic size. .Xround her winds the great
Horn of Plenty from which pours a stream of unlimited riches which the '■Oueen of Wealth." in
the foreground, with her wand turns to gol
Car 10. America
This is the Car Triumphant— the final car of the pageant. Upon the Steps of Advancement
stands the Goddess of Prosperity, mounted on the Wheel and Wings of Progress. These massive
steps are draped with the national colors as protection and inspiration. These great flags are stud-
ded with lights. Over the steps and on the backs of the great gilded lions, emblematic of Might,
are seen hovering white doves— a dove for each of the one hundred years of continual progress we
have made since the first flag flew over old Fort Armstrong.
LADIES' AND HISTORICAL DAY
Ladies' Floral i'aradc in each of the tliree cities.
Three hundred cars owned and driven by the cream of society of Davenport. Rock Island, and
jNIoline, beautifully decorated with many striking and novel effects. The route of the parade is
over the principal streets of all three cities.
Historical Pageantry at the grandstand on ]\Iain Avenue.
The Earliest Wedding
A pair of young pioneers bent on matrimony came to the trading post on the island of Ko.'k
Island searching for minister or magistrate. Neither were there. Col. George Davenport, relying
upon the authority of his commission as postmaster, married them.
The young folks come to the Davenport liome on the Island and ask to be married. .Mrs. Dav-
enport, sympathizing with them, adds a festive touch to the liride's costume and persuades Colonel
Davenport to do his best. The frontier neighbors attracterl bv the inci<knt join in a dance and
1829. Bl.mk Hawk. Jdxaii H. C\se and the Pe.vce Pu-e
Among- those who settled in the Sac village were Jonah H. Case and family. They moved
into an Indian house about where F'ifteenth Street projected would cross Nineteenth .\venue in the
city of Rock Island. The house was built of posts, and sided and roofed with the bark of trees.
They proceeded to use corn and vegetables from the cache of the absent Indians. In a few days
Black Hawk appeared and protested this invasion of his own private property. I\Ir. Case in order
to appease the indignant chief made a cash settlement with him, which pleased Black Hawk to
such an extent that he soon returned with a peace pipe. This he smoked with j\lr. Case and then
presented it to him as a token of satisfaction. From that time on they remained fast friends. This
peace pipe has been recently presented to the Rock Island County Flistorical Society b_\' Mrs. R. .\.
McEachron, granddaughter of Mr. Case.
The presentation of th.e pipe is shown in the dramatization of the incident.
— 55 —
eokuk, a Chief of the Sacs, and his Son
Black Hawk, a War Chief of the Sacs
Wednesday June 21st
183 1. Spencer's Ride
When the Sacs and Foxes became threatening in 183 1 and a general massacre of early settlers
seemed imminent, Jndge J. W. Spencer visited the scattered homes of the pioneers and warned
them of the clanger. Whereupon they fled to the |)rotection of I-'ort Armstrong.
This incident is dramatized by having Judge Spencer note a war dance of the Indians around
the camp fire and then riding from cabin to cabin giving warning of the impending danger. This
is followed by a flight of the settlers to safety.
1832. Enlistment for the Black Hawk Wai<
; historical note
I'ursnant to the call for volunteers by Gov. Reynolds, of Illinois, about 2,000 men enlisted.
Among them was Abraham Lincoln. These men were organized into companies, selected their
officers, and were sworn in. Abraham Lincoln was elected captain, the first ])osition he filled under
the government. Near the present site of Milan ;he martyred ]iresident took his first oa(h of al-
legiance to the I'nited States.
This incident is represented by the gathering of recruits at the head(|uarters of the mustering
officer. In accordance with custom the men chose their officers by those nominated taking ])osition
and their adherents falling in behind them.
1832. Treaty of the Black H.\wk Purch.vse
The prevalence of yellow fever among the troops at Fort .\rmstrong caused the treaty ending
the Second Black Llawk War to be concluded on the site of Davenport. The United States com-
missioners were Gen. Winfield Scott and Gov. John Reynolds. The In lians were represented by
numerous chiefs, among them Keokuk and Pashapaho of the .Sacs, and Poweshiek and Wapello of
the Foxes. Antoine Le Claire was interpreter. The eastern portion of Iowa was transferred and
has been called the P)lack Hawk Purchase. A square mile of land now covered by the city of Dav-
enport was reserved from transfer and was given to Mrs. Antoine Le Claire by Keokuk.
— 57 —
Poweshiek, a Chief uf the Foxes,
whose village was on the site of the city of Davenport
^^'apello, a Chief of the Foxes,
whose village was on the site of the city of Rock Island
Wednesday June 21st
The treaty grou]) is made up of commissioners, army officers from the fort, and a few wit-
nesses. In this incident is intnxhiced an occurrence of one of the many treaties of this period a
protest of squaws, who contend that llieirs is tlie ownership of the land as thev till the soil.
1841. 'J'liic Imrst Duel in Iowa
Soon after the completion of the handsome l.e Claire House in Davenport, in 1831;, this com-
munity was sought by people from the east an<l south, who rusticated, hunted on theY)rairies, and
added greatly to the social life of the infant cities. Among the grouj) of transients in 1841 were
four young men named Heg:ner, Sperry, Finch, and Ralston. They attended a dance at the Rock
Island House one evening, and Ralston and Hegner quarreled over their rivalry for the smiles of
Miss .Sophia Fisher, a Davenport belle. The result of the quarrel was a duel on the Iowa side at
sunrise, shots being exchanged at twenty paces. Dr. !'. Cregg patched up Hegner's right arm,
everybody shook hands, and principals and seconds adjourned for a drink at the Le Claire House.
The officers of the law chased all concerned in the challenge and duel out of the comnuuiity.
The ball is shown and the dispute because Miss Fislur had prdinised (he same ijance t(j both
Ralston and Hegner. The second scene portrays the duel, wherein Ralston offers to compromise,
and on refusal promises to wing his antagonist, which he did with entire jjromptness at tlie count
1845. Farewell to Col. Davenport ]!Y Indlan Imuk.n'ds
Soon after the murder of Col. (ieorge Davenport, his grave near his home on the island of
Rock Island was visited by a band of Fox Indians, who performed a strange and interesting cere-
mony of farewell, making use of a post of white cedar. This post is in the collection of the Rock
Island County Historical Society. Col. Davenport was presented b\- his Indian friends with many
slaves, these slaves being those killed in battle by the braves taking i)art in the ceremony of paint-
ing the post.
The ceremonies as depicted are in accordance with the description of the editor of the Daven-
port Gazette, Alfred Sanders, who witnessed the event.
— 59 —
Logan Ka-ka-que, Grandson of Black Hawk, 1916
Resides on the Sac Reservation in Oklahoma
Se-us-kuk, Son of Bhick Hawk
"The finest looking Indian I ever saw." — Catlin
John Brown and the UNDiiRCRouND System
John rirowii was a visitor to this comiminit) during' tlie time when the escape of sontlKrn
slaves \\'as licing aided liy tlie s\'stem known as the "rnderground Railroad."
In the scene a wagon load of colored people is being smuggled to Canada and freedom.
The closing scene of the afternoon of historical pageantry is meant to typif}- our pride in the
past of our country and our hope in its future. In the tableau appears the impersonation of Lib-
erty, her defenders, veterans of the wars in her defense, and the youth upon whom depends the
sacred trust of her perpetuity. ( )n one side of the group stands a group of the soldiers of the War
of 1812 bearing a banner inscril)e(l, "I'ort Armstrong, 1816; Safety of the Pioneer." ( )n the other
side is a group of jiresent da\' soldiers with a banner, "Rock Island Arsenal, i<)i'); Safetv of the
Special Eireworks Display, "C)ld Mexico," at Exposition Park, Rock Island.
Alary Ka -ka-quc, Great-great-granddaughter of Black Hawk
A graduate of Haskell Indian School
Jesse Ka-ka-que, Great-grandson of Black Hawk
A successful farmer on the Indian Reservation in Jackson County, Kansas
Thursday INDUSTRIAL AND FRATERNAL DAY j^ne 22d
MORNING Martial Session before the grandstand on Alain .\venue. Hatter}- 11, luwa National (inard,
and companies of Illinois National Gnard s^o through various drills and manuevers.
AFTERNOON Industrial-Fraternal Parade in all three cities.
The workers of the tri-cities, many thousand strong, march through the streets of Davenport,
Rock Island, and Moline. Practically every labor organization in the tri-cities is represented by a
large delegation. Practically every business house and manufactor}- in the vicinitv of the tri-cities
have floats, man}- of them elaborate in detail and Iniilt at mucli ex])ense. The automobile floats
parade in all three cities. Each of the 250 lodges of the three cities have invited their brother or-
ganizations for several hundred miles around. It is estimated that 5,000 visiting lodgemen, exclu-
sive of the state convention of the B. P. ( ). E. in session in Davenport, are in attendance and will
march in the ijarade.
EVENING Illuminated River Pageant — "Visit of Neptune to the Father of Waters."
The power boat clubs of Davenport, Rock Island, and Moline with their four hundred craft of
all sizes, shapes, and descriptions, ranging from the cham|)i(in, "I'gly Duckling." to the scows
used by the shell fishers, greet "Neptune" as he makes his voyage of state up the majestic Missis-
Friday YOUNG AMERICA DAY J,ne23d
.\1(')RXING Children's Parade in each city.
Thousands of children in each of the three c ties are under the charge of the school superin-
AFTERNOON Flag Drills, Field Day Sports, Folk Songs, Baby Pageant, etc., on the Island.
MOXSTER LIVING FL.\G
This flag is fornietl in front of the grandstan 1 and while in formation various choruses are
THE MILLTiXG POT
An ex])osition of all nations becoming Ameri -ans through the American spirit. These various
nations will be absorbed by the "Living Flag."
FIELD SPORTS, G.VMES. ETC.
F.X'F.NING Grand Review comjiosed of the Electrical Spectacular Pageant and the more ambitious entries
in the various parades of the week.
Saturday June 24th
.\l-'TF,RXOr)X ^lidsummer Fete of the Swedish Societies at Pro.-pect Park. Aloline.
Part of Indian Memorial Post
Placed at the grave of Col. George Davenport by a band of Fox Indians
Now in the collection of tiie Rock Island County Historical Society
— 64 —
The Fort Armstrong Centennial Association
p n D
jHE idea of celel')ratinn; the Fort Armstrong centenary
had been in mind for some months when oit Sep-
tember 3, 1915, a meeting of the Hoard of Directors
of the Rock Island County Historical Society was
held at the home of its secretary. Mr. John H. Hau-
berg, with the following members present : Airs. K. T. Ander-
son, Sherman W. Searle, William A. Meese. Joseph Pi. Uakleaf,
Judson D. Metzgar. (Jrrin S. Holt, lulwin 1!. AIcKown, and
John H. Hauberg ; and b\' s])ecial invitation. Col. George ^^'.
Hurr, C'ommandant at Rock Island .\rsenal. The one out-
stantling purpose in the minds of those present was to use this
occasion to bring to the minds of our i>e()iile tlie wialth of his-
toric interest of our own immediate vicinity. It was resolved
at this meeting that the block house which stood at the south
angle of Fort Armstrong should be restored, and that the
President of the Historical .Society, S. W. Searle, should ap-
point two men from each of the cities of Davenport, Iowa, Mo-
line and Rock Island, Illinois, who. with himself as chairman,
should prepare plans for a celebration and report back to the
Board of Directors within a month. ( )n tliis committee were
appointed Edward \-l. Putnam and Harry T-^. Downer, repre-
senting the Historical Section of the 1 )a\cn|)ort .\cademy of
Sciences ; William A. J.Ieese and Judson D. Metzgar, of Moline,
and ( )rrin .S. Holt and John H. Hauberg, of Rock Island. Their
report to the P^oard of Directors of the Rock Island County
Historical Society, as adopted, contained the following recom-
That a celebration be held the last full week of June, 1916,
on Rock Island, if permission could b.? had ; that an organization
of one hundred men be effected ; that such proposed organization
be incorporated : that one of the block houses be restored ; that
a feature be made of soldiers of the U. S. Army and of the
National Cniard of Illinois and of Iowa: that an historic
pageant be staged ; that speakers of national prominence be
secured ; that civic, fraternal, and commercial bodies be invited
to participate ; that we have parades, water ca.rnivals, and fire-
works, and that a general home-coming for the three cities be
It was necessary to have permission of the proper Cnited
States authorities to erect the block house; to hold the
celebration on the Island, and to secure L'nited States
troops. (lur communications in this behalf received in turn
the endorsements of George W. I'.urr. Lt.-Col. Ordnance
Department, Commanding: ^\"illiam Crozier, I'rig.-Gen., Chief
of Ordnance. C S. A.: W. M. Wright, .\djutant-General ;
E. H. Crowder, Judge Advocate-General: and by order
of the Secretary of War, W. C. Piennett, .Adjutant-Gen-
eral, and E. P.. Babbitt. Col. Ordnance Department, U. S. A.
Permission to build the block house and to stage the celebration
on the Island was granted, and it was understood that United
States troops in considerable force would be sent if foreign
Xow that the way was clear, the committee of one hundred
was called to attend a banquet at the Rock Island Club, where,
after a number of stirrings addresses, a petition was signed for
incorporation, not for pecuniary profit, under the laws of the
state of Illinois, and a board of twenty directors elected to take
control of the activities of "The Fort Armstrong Centennial As-
Thursday of each week, dating from January lo, 1916. has
seen a meeting of this I'.oard, augmented week after week by
the addition of members of committees. George D. Benson, of
Chicago, was engaged as director-general, and as the plans de-
veloped, the organization increased in momentum and in
promise of success.
The personnel of officers and committees, who gave of their
best that this might he the greatest celebration ever attempted
by the three cities jointly, is as follows :
Alfred C. Alueller
Joe R. Lane
C. A. Ficke
Col. Geo. W. French
W. D. Petersen
A. F. Dawson
P. T. Walsh
J. J. Richardson
E. "p. Adler
Dr. G. E. Decker
H. E. Weeks
Judge \\'m. Theophilus
Judge J. \\". Bollinger
R. H. Harned
N. D. Elv C. X. \'oss
Harry E. Downer
Edward K. Putnam
\\". T. ^^'aterman
Carl E. Schlegel
John F. Dow
J. W. Bettendorf
J. Clark Hall
Geo. M. Bechtel
I. C. Norwood
C. E. Harrison
C. W. Pinneo
S. H. Moorhead
Capt. W. A. Shirk
Judge Nathaniel French
T. H. Hass Charles Shuler
OF ONE HUNDRED
Col. Geo. W. Burr
ROCK ISLAND ARSENAL
Maj. D. M. King
Capt. A. D. Minnick
H. S. Cable
Morris S. Heagy
John G. Huntoon
F. K. Rhoads
B. D. Connelly
Chas. J. Larkin
H. H. Cleavelanil
F. C. Denkmann
S. S. Davis
C. E. Sharpe
David Sears, Sears, 111.
W. J. Spencer, .Sears. Ill
Geo. H. Richmond
E. C. Fisher
E. H. Guyer
J. T. Marron
S. W. Searle
Orrin S. Holt
John H. Hauberg
'w. S. AlcCombs
W. J. Sweeney
K. T. Anderson
W. F. Ammerman
H. W. Horst J. L. \'ernon
A. A. Buffum, Edgington, 111.
Lewis Guldenzopf, Milan, 111.
— 66 —
W 111. Butterwortli
G. A. Stephens
M. R. Carlson
O. F. Anderson
A. T. Foster
R. S. Hosford
A. G. Abraham
W. A. ]\Ieese
J. D. ;\Ietzgar
Dr. W. E. Taylor
Lowrie Bland ing
Geo. W. Mixter
C. P. Skinner
P. S. r^IcGlynn
C. S. Kerns
\V. H. Whiteside
R. S. Haney
AI. J. McEniry
J. B. Oakleaf"
Geo. W. Ross. East Moline
A. Ik Johnson, East Moline
Dr. W. R. I'reek, Cordova
E. E. Morgan
G. H. Schorbeck
R. S. Woodburn
Geo. W. McMurphy, Hillsdale
J. W. .Simonson, Port I'.yron
Dr. \\'. 11. Lvford, Port llvron
OFFICERS. i;().\RD OF DIRECTORS, AXD COMMITTEES
President — I. L'. Norwood, l^avenport.
\'ice-President— H. S. Cable. Rock Island
Vice-President — A. F. Dawson, Davcniiorl.
Secretary — J. H. Hauberg, Rock Island.
Treasurer — I. T. Marron, Rock Island.
H. E. \\'eeks
A. F. Dawson
E. K. Pntnam
I. C. Norwood
F. B. Yetter
W. J. McCullongh
R. H. Harned
I. C. Norwood
H. H. Cleaveland
H. \V. Cozad
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
G. A. Stephens
E. E. Morgan
S. S. Davis
H. S. Cable
S. W. Searle
J. T. JMarron
J. H. Hauberg
MOLINE DAVENrOKT UOCK I.SL.\ND
BLOCK HOUSE COMMITTEE
E. E. Morgan W. J. ]\lcCullough Phil .Mitchell G. A. Stephens
IIOME-COMIXG .\XD INF0RM.\TI0N COMMITTEE
M. J. Mcl'Iniry E. P. Adler H. P. Simpson E. E. Morgan
— 67 —
PAGEAXT .AMD PROGRAM COMMITTEE
H. E. Downer O. S. Holt C. P. Skinner
E. K. Putnam S. \\". Searle J. H. Haubersf
PRESS AXD PUP.I.ICITV COMMITTEE
F. D. Throop H. H. Cleaveland P. S. McGlynn
YOUXG AMERICA DAY COMMITTEE
F. L. Smart E. C. Fisher L. A. ^Mahoney
Sam T. White C. E. Sharpe A. C. Barber
Mrs. H. E. \\"eek;s Mrs. Frank Mi.xter .Mrs. G. .\. Stephens John Berwak'
Fred \\'ernentin. Jr. Tames McXamara Martin R. Carlson
PRE.MIUMS .\XD PRIZES COMMITTEE
H. E. Srharff I. J. Green M. J. Copeland
TR.\ XS rORTATIOX COM M ITTEE
Chairman at Large — J. G. Huntoon.
T. F. Halliffan \\". A. Rosenfield A. R. Ebl
G. Decker French M. E. Stricter ^^'. H. ^^"hitsitt
J. H. Schaefcr H. A. Clevenstine G. S. Fitzgibbons
IXVITA.TIOX CO.MM ITTEE
\\"m. McConochie Martin R. Carlson
n n D
Corner-stone of the Rebuilt Block House
The corner-stone of the rebuilt block house on the site of the
soutli angle of Fort .\rmstrong was laid under the auspices of
Augustana College and Theological Seminary. May lo, 1916,
this date being the centenary of the landing of Gen. T. .A..
Smith, Col. \MlIiam Lawrence, and the United States troops.
— 68 —
□ n D
June. Marquette and Joliet come down the Mississippi, 1804 Xov. 3. First Sac and Fox treaty cedes to United States
passing the island of Rock Island. territory between the [Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.
(Alxiut). French occupy Mississippi X'alley. 1803 August. Lieutenant Zebulon Pike ascends Mississippi
River, carrying the American flag and visits the Sac
FRENCH .AND iNDi.\i\ WAR Indians.
France cedes to Spain territory west of ^Mississippi war of 181 2
R^^'^''- 1814 May. General William Clark passes up the river to es-
England wins from France the territory east of Missis- tablish a fort at Prairie du Chien. Skirmish with Sac
sippi River. and Fox Indians.
REVOi.UTiON.XRY w.\K >^'4 .T"'.''' "'• I'^^ttle of Campbell's Island. Captain John
Campbell defeated bv Indians with Pritish sympathies.
A detachment of American troops under Lt.-Col. John
Montgomery destroys the Sac village of Saukenuk 1814 Sept. 5. Battle of Credit Island. Zachery Taylor, llre-
at mouth of Rock River. This was a part of the George vet Major, defeated by British and Indians.
Rogers Clark expedition that saved the Northwest to „ n .. r c 1 t- .= ,,.1.^ fi,..;,- ),„,„, „., -vr;--^,,,-;
° . .... ... 1815 Part of Sacs and roxes make tlieir lionie on Alissoun
the colonies. Illinois at this time was a count v of \'ir- „.
T, ., , , , . ,, r. 1 .• \\- ^1 r- -^ 1 181 s Sept. 8. Eighth U. S. Infantry, in command of Col. R.
Liv the treaty closmg the Rexolutionarv W ar. the L mted - ' , , , -, ^ ■ , ,• , r t^ ,
^' ■ r ' T- 1 . .1 . ■ ■. . r .1 G. Nichols, left St. Louis to establish a fort on Kock
States secures trom Lngland the territory east of the
,,-■•• -D- ' ■ Island.
Spain cedes back to France the territory west of the 'SiS Sept. 13-14. Treaties with the Missouri River Sacs and
Mississippi River. Foxes at St. Louis. Treaty of 1804 confirmed.
France sells to the United States the territory west of 1815 Expedition to build fort on Rock Island goes into winter
the Mississippi River — the Louisiana Purchase. quarters at site of Warsaw.
— 69 —
i8i6 May lo. L'nitetl States troops land on Rock Island to
establish F"ort Armstrong. Rrevet General T. A. Smith
with Rifle regiment and Eighth U. S. Infantrj- under
Lt.-Col. William Lawrence.
1818 Illinois admitted as state.
1823 First steamboat arrived.
1825 Col. (ieorge Davenport commissioned postmaster.
1826 First house built on Illinois side by Col. George Daven-
port and Russell Farnham. Afterward known as "John
1827 Ferry established between Fort Armstrong and Iowa
shore by Col. Davenport.
1828 Eight settlers arrive on Illinois side in winter.
1828 Keokuk and followers go to live on Iowa River.
nl-.ACI-; HAWK WARS
183 1 Spring. Black Hawk warns settlers to leave.
183 1 April 30. Settlers petition Governor of Illinois for pro-
tection from hostile Indians.
1831 June 20. Illinois militia and U. S. soldiers shell \'an-
druff's Island, opposite Black Hawk's Watch Tower.
1831 June 26. Saukenuk burned.
1831 June 30. Treaty at I'ort Armstrong with Black Hawk,
who agrees to remain west of the Mississippi River.
End of the first Black Hawk War.
April 6. Black Hawk and his band cross the Mississippi
River at Yellow Banks on their way to Rock River.
Aug. 24. Battle of Bad Ax and capture of Black Hawk
ends second Pilack Hawk War.
Sept. 15. Treaty with Winnebagoes at Fort Armstrong.
Sept. 21. Treaty with Sacs and Foxes on what is now
Davenport cedes eastern portion of Iowa, the "Black
Hawk Purchase," to the United States.
Antoine Le Claire built "Treaty Site" house in Daven-
First frame house built in Davenport by George L. Dav-
Dr. John Emerson, post surgeon, brings his slave. Dred
Scott, to Fort Armstrong from St. Louis.
Ferry between Illinois and Iowa shores established by
Antoine Le Claire.
Town of Stephenson founded. Settlement had earlier
been known as Farnhamsburg. Xame changed to Rock
Island in 1841.
^lay 4. Fort Armstrong evacuated. Troops removed to
Town of Davenport founded.
Sept. 28. Treatv with Sacs and Foxes at Davenport.
Sale of Keokuk reserve, on Iowa River in Southeastern
— 70 —
1837 ^^ ater power developed 1)\ D. 11. Scars between island
of Rock Island and Illinois shore.
1845 J"'.^ 4- ^o'- George Davenport mnrdered at his home
on Kock Island by the 'T.anditti of the Prairie."
184') Iowa admitted as a state.
1854 I'eb. 22. Chicago & Rock Island Railroad completed.
1854 Oct. 8. Barracks and one block honse of Fort Arm-
1855 Oct. 7. Another portion of Fort Armstrong burned.
1856 April 21. First train crosses first Mississippi bridge. '
1858 John Brown comes to Davenport. Underground rail-
1859 Alay 23. Ofificers' quarters. Fort Armstrong, destroyed
1861 .Sept. 25. Death of Antoinc Lc Claire.
1862 July 1 1. Congress makes appropriation to build national
arsenal on island of Rock Island. \\ Hrk commenced on
first arsenal building following year.
1863 Dec. 3. Arrival of the first detacliment of Confederate
prisoners confined on Rock Island. These were captured
at Lookout .Mountain. Total number during the war
was over 12,000.
1865 Present shops of Rock Island .-\rsenal planned by Gen.
T. J. Rodman.
1872 (Jet. 2. Second Mississippi bridge completed.
1895 Second bridge replaced b_\' present structure.
Black Hawk's Tomahawk
Owned by the Rock Island County Historical Society
Gen. Winfield Scott,
Commander of United Stales troops in the Black Hawk Wars,
with headquarters on the island of Rock Island
Under Many Flags
n □ □
Iowa Side Illinois Side
Before 1762. France.
1 762- 1 80 1. Spain.
Since 1803. United States.
1803-1804. "Louisiana Purchase.'"
1804-1805. Indiana Territory.
1805-1812. Louisiana Territory.
1812-1821. Missouri Territory.
1821-1834. I'norganized territory.
1832. Ceded by Sacs and Foxes.
1834-1836. Michigan Territory.
1836-1838. Wisconsin Territory.
1 838- 1 846. Iowa Territory.
Since 1846. Iowa State.
Before 1763. France.
Since 1783. United States.
1783-1788. Claimed Ijy X'irginia, Connecticut, and New
^'ork. Ceded to I-'etleral GoveruuKiit..
1788-1800. Xorthwest Territory.
1800-1809. Indiana Territory.
1S04. Ceded by Sues and Fo-ves.
i8o<>i8i8. Illinois Territory.
Since 1818. Illinois State.
The John A. Dix. Sevmth En.G:ine of the Mississippi 8z Missouri Raih-oail
Taken over the river on the ice in the winter of 1855
Commandants of Rock Island Arsenal
n □ n
MAJ. C P. KINGS BERY i863-i8fi5
GEN. THOMAS J. RODMAN 1865-1871
COL. D. W. FLAGEER 1871-1886
r( )L. THOMAS G. BAYLOR 1886-1889
COL. J. x\L WHITTEMORE 1889-1892
COL. A. R. Bl'FFINGTON 1892- 1897
CAPT. S. !•:. P.LUNT 1897-19)7
LT.-COL. F. E. H( )\\\\S 1907-191 1
LT.-COL. GEORGI'. W. lU'RR 1911
J. B. Hosteller
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA
Q 977 3393R590 0001
OFFICIAL BOOK OF THE FORT ARMSTRONG CENT