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OFFICIAL 



lfsrri|tlk aiilr |IIttsfratflr Catalogue 



OF TIIK 



L 



r^..u». GREAT EXHIBITION 



■ f 



OF THE 



WORKS OF INDUSTRY OF ALL NATIONS. 



3Bq Mjinritq 
nf tlie 




CnmmiHHinit. 



PAET IV. 
COLONIES.— FOREIGN STATES. Division I. 



LONDON: 
SPICER BROTHKRS. WHOLESALE STATIONERS; W CLOWES & bONS, PKINTKRS: 

COKTRACTORS TO THE ROYAL COMMISSION 

39 NEW BRIDGE STREET, BLACKFRIARS, AND AT THE 

EXHIBITION BUn.DINO. 

1851. 



y 



OFFICIAL 

BRITISH COLOiNIES AND DEPENDENCIES. 



8 R 



n 






OUAUTT OONInOL MMW 




I. 

R3TSSH POSSESSIONS 
!N AS3A. 

INDIA.— CEYLON. 



^ EAST INDIEa 

NoBxn Abzas, C. 83 ; D. E. 33 to 35 ; F. 33 to 36 
South Areas, J. L. M. N. 34 to 36 ; O. P. 33 to 3( 




G. IT. I. 34 to 36. 
; Q. B. 34 AND 35. 



"India, va.st in extent and diversified in surface, is remarkable as the cradle of one, at least, of the nations who 
earliest practised this art^ and cultivated the sciences which characterise civilization, and fnftn whence these 
travelled to the West, and, perhai)8, also to the East. Its present inhabitants continue to venerate sciences 
which they know only by name, and practise arts of which they know not the principles ; and this with a skill 
Dot only remarkable for the early period at which it attained perfection, but also for the manner in which it has 
remained stationary for so many ages. But when Commerce was in its infancy, or dealt only in the most pre- 
cious commodities, these arts could not have been practised unless India had contained within itself all the raw 
materials which Art could convert into useful articles or el^^t ornaments. Without cotton, the so-called 
'webs of woven air ' could have had no existence. Without numerous barks, woods, and flowers, dyeing could 
not have lieen practised, and calico-printing would probably not liave been invented. If an Indigofera had not 
Wen imiigcnous, indigo would never have derived its name from India, nor have afibrded us the proof, in the 
itripe of mummy-cloth, of the early commercial intercourse between its native country and Egypt. Neither 
would sugar liave been arranged by the Greeks with honeys, nor the Indians described as those who * bibimt 
tenera dulc*^ ah aruudine succos,' unless they had had the cane-like saccbanim as a plant of their country. 
Neither in Persia would the proverb of * giving an Indian answer,' have been considered equivalent to a cut with 
an Indian sword, milcss the Hindoos had possessed the ore which enabled them to manufacture their far-famed 
"v//: strt-l ; and gimiK)wder is likely to have been invented at an early age only in a country where * villanous 
saltjvtrt* ' is abundant. 

" IVsides these, India possesses an immense number, both of animal and of vegetable, as well as of mineral 
suV-stanws, well fitted for arts and maimfactures of every kind ; and the country has often been described as 
cai^iMe of pn>luciiig, within ita own limits, almost all the useful products of ever)' other quarter of the glol)e. 

" There api^ear only two available methods by which a manufacturer can be made acquainted with the 
tiistence of foreijoi i>roducts likely to Ik? usefid m his business ; one is, by the collection of such infonnation as 
i'» '»htainable rcsixKiting them, and arranging it according to the most prominent proi^erties of such substiuiccs. 
Wljeii tht-se are so arrauired, it is com|)aratively easy for any one to ascertain whether India, or any other 
fonitm oDuntry, contains any useful or ornamental product which might be employed instead of, and be cheaper 
tJian, tluit alrt^dy in use. 

'• But with the most simple arrangement and clearly-conveyed information the manufacturer generally would 
fwl little int<'rc*st aljout \mknown natural ])roducts and their strange names, \mless he had an opportunity of 
■^iii^ and of ]>ersonally examining them. Then a glance of his practised eye, or the slightest handling of a 
i.^\v >iilistancc, informs him whether it is likely to be of use for his purposes. The collection, therefore, of such 
"uls'aiKvs, and arrauirinii them also, as alx>ve, according to their properties, is the only method calculated at 
<»LO' to iiitorest the public and to jrive such confidence to the manufacturer as to induce him to submit them to 
tnal. Tlwir exhibition, therefore, is calculated not only to Ixj of great use to the manufacturer, but of essential 
^Kifiit to such countries as ix>8S(«3 many little-known products possesseil of valuable projicrties, and procurable 
"i UfLU' quantities at a cheap rate, if a demand could be created for them. 

'As India i»roduced the raw material and manufactured it into a costly article, gold and silver have, from 
'iif* < arliest times, been recpiired to i>urchase this combination of the gifts of nature with the creations of art ; 
lilt mechanical invention has dej^rived the Hindoos of many of the advantages of their pasition, and they have, 
ill a great measure, lost the commerce which they had themselves created, especially as some of their i)roducts 
H'TP sul.jected to discriminating duties, wliich amounted to a prohibition on import into this country. Hence 
ili^-ir lon-ipi commerce has not advanced, as might have been anticipated, from the enjoyment in many parts 
f'f l'»'.ir-continue*l peace. But fashion, which here is as fickle as the wind, is in the East as steady as their 
iiiri!!i>.ns, and has fortunately preser\'ed some of their manufactures in their pristine excellence, and which, in 
any i:»iieral c*>llection of manufactures, would enable those of India still to hold a cons])icuous place." 

TLf tnrozoing quotations, from the observations written by the author of the ])rcsent note on the first 
ir.io.UiC.-nifut, in the summer of 1849, of the Great Exhibition of 1851, indicate the nature of the contribu- 
tksjs which were likely to be obtained from India, if measures were adopted suitable to the e^Lletvt and nsA.\VK\ 
riclirt of the distant country to be explored. The Court of J)/nectors of the East lnd\a ('o\A\paiiy vf«A owe ol 



858 EAST INDIES. [Colonies aki> 

the earliest, if not the very first, of the public Ixxiies of this country applied to, to supix)rt the Exhibition of 
the Works of Industry of all Nations. Messrs. Cole and Fuller, in their Reix)rt to His Koyal Highness Prince 
Albert, stated that " The Chairman (the late Sir A. Galloway) cordially entered into the projjosal, as well as 
Mr. Melvill, Mr. Peacock, and other officers of the India House, who remarked that there would be mutual 
advantaj^es of great importance both to India and this country ; to India, in calling forth new products, &c., 
and to this country in furnishing suggestions, &c., and new materials for manufactures." The Chairman 
shortly afterwards wrote : " I have the satisfaction of acquainting you, for the information of His Royal 
Highness, that the Court expressed their entire concurrence in the views which I then suggested, and that 
they will be prepared to give their cordial co-operation in carrying out the wishes of His Royal Highness, by 
obtiiinino: from India such specimens of the products and manufactures of that country as may tend to illus- 
trate its resources, and add to the interest of the Great National Exhibition, of wluch His Poyal Highness is 
the patron." 

The autlior of the present notice was desired to submit his views on the mode in which the collection should 
be made, as well as to prepare lists of the raw products and manufactured articles which it was desirable 
should Ixi sent from India. As there was no time to be lost, from the great distance of the countr>% and the 
wide expanse between its several provinces, the author employed himself in the autumn of 1849 in prei)aring 
those lists, which were sent to India by the mail of the 7th of January, 1850, when the Court called the atten- 
tion of the Indian Government to the occasion when " an opportunity will be afforded for the latent resources 
of distant provinces, and the skill of the least-known artist, to compete with the i>roduce of the most favoured 
regions, or the works of the most successful genius. 

" It is our wish, therefore, that the objects of the proposed Exhibition should be made known as generally 
as ix)ssiblc throughout India, and that our several Governments, and those of our servants whose station or 
pursuits may afford the opportunity for their so doing, should use their endeavours in order to the formation 
of such of the raw products and manufactures of India as may not only be interesting in a scientific point of 
view, but maj^also be subservient to the purposes of commerce and art. 

" With regard to raw products, we would refer you to the annexed list and accompanying observations, 
wliich have been prepared, under our directions, by Professor Royle ;* and in connexion with the subject 
generally, we would request your attention to the letter from Mr. Taylor, formerly of your medical service in 
India, and which appears to us to contain some very useful suggestions." (This referred to the productions, 
both raw and manufactured, of Dacca and the neighbouring districts.) 

This despatch and lists were published in the Government Gazettes of the three Presidencies. Translations 
of these documents were subsequently ordered to be made and printed for distribution among the natives. 
The Supreme Government, in a desimtch to the other Governments, dated the 22nd February 1850, observe, 
** That the object which the Honourable Court have in view will be most effectually obtained by entrusting to 
the supervision of the several Local Governments all the details of the arrangements which it may be 
necessary to make, such general points only being fixed by instnictions from the Supreme Government as 
may insure a certain degree of imiformity in the proceedings of the Local Governments," &c. 

" The general plan of operations which has suggested itself to the President in Council is the establishment 
of a Central Committee at the seat of Local Government, and the apjiointment of as many subordinate Com- 
mittees in different parts of each Presidency as may appear in the judgment of the Local Government to be 
called for." (Individuals of di£ferent classes of the community, natives as well as Euroi^eans, were directed to 
be placed on these Conmiittees.) 

" The subordinate Committees, as well as the Central Committees, should each be furnished with a copy of 
the Honourable Court's desjyatch and its enclosures. 

" The subordinate Committees should be instructed to prepare, with all practicable expedition, for trans- 
mission to the Central Committees, Reports similar to that furnished by Mr. Taylor in the district of Dacca, 
with lists of articles of every description which in their opinion it would be desirable to transmit to the 
Exhibition from the circle of country placed within the range of their Report. 

The lists prepared by the different Local Committees were directed to be sent to the Central Committee of 
each Presidency, to be submitted to careful revision and comparison, and to be embodied into one general list, 
to l)e transmitted to the Government of India. 

** The lists rendered to the Supreme Government will thus comprise all the articles which it is proposed to 
forward to England from the whole extent of territory situated within the limits of the four Presidencies of 
Bengal, Agra, Madras, and Bombay ; they will also show roughly the cost of procuring the articles ; and the 
Supreme Government will thus be able to form some definite judgment in regard to the expense which it will 
be necessary to incur in this imdertaking." 

But, on a reference from the Central Committee, the more elaborate articles of manufacture, requiring time 
for their preparation, were at once ordered. 

The Indian Government, moreover, authorized the remission of export duty on all articles that might lie sent 
by private individuals to the Exhibition under certificate of the General Conmiittee, also the payment of the 
insurance charge on all articles thus sent ; and, in the event of the goods being sold in England, would ** not 
desire to receive from the owners either the insurance charge or the amount of export duty remitted." 

The Government also concurred, " with the Calcutta Central Committee, in considering it advisable that it 
should be made generally known, that any premium which may be awarded to an article at the Exhibition 
will be given to the party from whom that article was procured by the Government." They also approved of 
a notification Iwinsj issued to that effect. 

The expanse of territory over which these operations were to be carried on and completed in the course of a 
few months, in order to give time for the arrival of the goods by sea round the Cape of Good Hope, extends 
from Siu2aix)re on the south to Lahore on the north, and from Assam on the east to Aden on the west. The 



* These observations and lists have been republished bj the Author in his work on the Culture and Commerce of Cotton 
in India, 1851. 



Dkpekdkxcebs.] east INDIES. 859 

energy of the Governments, and the efficiency with which the several Local and (General Committees have per- 
formed their respective tasks, are self-evident, from the extended series of objects displayed in the Indian 
compartment of the Exhibition, and which are sufficiently complete to give a good general idea of the resources 
of the country and of the habits of the people, as well as of their ingenuity, skill, and taste as manufacturers. 
The only defect is the absence of the names of many of the parties from whom the articles were purchased by 
the Government officers, as this may deprive some of them of the distinction of a reward to which the article 
may ^pear to be entitled. 

The Central Committee at Calcutta was presided over by Sir Lawrence Peel, with Dr. J. M'Cleland as 
Secretary. The following Local Committees were established within the limits of the Bengal and Agra Prc- 
odalcie8^^> 

Sinffopare The Hon. Lieut.-Colonel Butterworth, C.B., 

T. Oxley, M.D., Secretary. 

Moidmein Major A. Bogle. 

Arrakan Captain A. P. Phayre. 

Chittagong R. Torrens, Esq., C.S. 

Assam Major F. Jenkins ; Captain E. A. Kowlatt. 

Dacca R. H. Mytton, Esq., C.S. 

Moorshedabad . . . . T. Taylor, Esq., C.S. ; Lieut. T. P. Layard. 

CtUtaek F. Gouldsbury, Esq., C.S. 

Chota Nagpare . . . . J. H. Crawford, Esq., C.S. ; Lieut. Jas. Emerson. 

Patna G. Gough, Esq., C.S. ; E. Lushmgton, Esq., C.S. 

Benares £. A. Reade, Esq., C.S. 

Allahabad R. Temple, Esq., C.S. 

HohOkund H. Rdcock, Esq., C.S. 

Agra W. H. Tyler, Esq., C.S. 

Delhi Sir T. Metcalfe, Bart., C.S. 

Meerut C. Gubbins, Esq., C.S. 

A Committee was further established, under the Board of Administration, at Lahore, consisting of R. Mont- 
gomery, Esq., C.S., as President ; Major M*Gregor and Mr. H. Cojie as Members ; and Lieut. Tronson, Secretary. 
Articles (roai the Punjab generally, from Lahore, Loodianah, Puttialla, Saharrunpore, Jullundur, Kangra, 
Cashmere, and Huzara were obtained by this Committee, and sent down the Indus to Bombay, whence they 
were brought, via the Red Sea and Mediterranean, to Southampton. 

Communications were also sent by the Government of India to the different native Governments of Lucknow, 
Nepal, Gwalior, Ni^pore, Hyderabad, &c., from most of whom contributions have been received, as enumc- 
nted in the following Catalogue ; and to the Govemor-Generars Agent in Rajpootana. 

In the Bombay Presidency a Central Committee was established, with Sir W. Yardley as President, Dr. 
Henry Carter as Secretary, and Dr. Gibson as Corresponding Member. 

Local Committees were established in Scinde under the Commissioner, R. Pringle, Esq., with Captain 
Preedy as President at Kurrachee, and Sub-Committees at Hydrabad and Shikarpore. 

Aden . Captain S. B. Haines. 

Ahmeddbad aiid Kaira , C. M. Harrison, Esq. ; Assistant-Surgeon Leaward« 
Surat and Broach , < . W. C. Andrews, Esq., C.S. ; A. K. Forbes, Esq. 
Tannah and Rutnagherry . J. S. Law, Esq., C.S. ; Dr. Grierson. 
Candeish ...... A. Elphinston, Esq., C.S. 

Ahmednuggar . * . . R. Spooner, Esq., C.S. ; Captain Gaisford. 

Poona CoL Grant, B.E. ; J. H. Pearl, Esq. 

Belgaum H. W. Reeves, Esq., C.S. ; Capt. Shortrede. 

Shdapore J. D. Inverarity, Esq., C.S. ; R. Hoskins, Esq. 

Communications were also sent to His Highness Meer Ali Moorad, His Highness the Rao of Ciitch, to 
Kattj-^ar through H. Lester, Esq., to Baroda through Lieut.-Colonel Outram, and to Indore and Mahva 
senerally throui^h R. A. C. Hamilton, Esq., the Resident at Indore ; Sattara to H. B. Frere, Esq. ; Kolapore 
and Sawrit Warra, Major Jacob. From all which places contributions have been received. 

In the Madras Presidency the Central Committee was presided over by W. A. Arbuthnot, Esq., with Dr, 
Balfour as Secretary ; and Local Committees were established at the following places : — 

BeUary^ including Cuddapah and Kurnool . Brigadier-General Steel, C.B. 

Canara . ^ . . . < T. L. Blane, Esq. 

Coimbatore E. B. Thomas, Esq. 

Oanjam and Vizagapatam Walter Elliott, Esq., C.S. 

Bajahmundry^ Guntoor, and MasuUpatam . Walter Elliott, Esq., C.S. 

Madura and Tinnivally C. R. Baynes, Esq. 

Trichinopcly and Salem T.£.J. Boileau, Esq. 

Tanjore J. F. Bishop, Esq. 

Malabar H. V. Conolly, Esq. 

Travancore and Cochin Major-General Cullen. 

Mysore . The Commissioner of Mysore. 

The Central Committee of Madras express themselves particularly indebted to the exertions of the Bellary 
I/ical Committee, and to those of the following gentlemen : — J. Rhodes, Esq., Colonel Tulloch, C.B., Captain 
B. L. Ojnlvie, D. Mayew, Esq., Rev. C. F. Muzzy, and Dr. Wright. 

lit*: Pioniljny Government, in issuing a notification on the subject, dated 10th April, 1850, justly observed — 
"An equally favourable occasion is not likely again to oflfer for making Europeans acquainted ml\i isi«Yi^ o^ 



EAST INBIES- 



'^Gf^LomBs Aic© 



the prtxiuLrtioiis And luiinufacturcs of Iinlin, at prcsfnt bui littltt Unowii. Tlit* man of Rciencti, the mercbani, 
the manufacturer, and tlie artist will Ije prompted tu visit the Exhibition of 1851, not so mucb by ciirinsity as 
by interest, and each anfi all of tliem will lind their aocoimt in encoiirap^nj; a demand for such of these pro- 
diictionii ag may pn:jve to Iw valuable from their properties or likely to l>e brought into request by their inge- 
nuity or thp delicacy of their workmanship." 

The General Committ<*e of the PresidencicB of Calcutta and Bombay, as well as the Local Coinmitt-ee of 
Sing;a|x»re, prepared lists of the articles sent, arranejcd according; to the classification issued by the Scientific 
Committees appoint^id by the Hoyal Commissionors in tlie spring of the year 1850. The BomWy and Sinj*a- 
|X)re C'Ommitt<^e8 have sent with then" lists observations respecting several of the articles sent, Tlie Calcutta 
Committee print^*d their listt of which several copies were received and many have Wen distrihnled ; but, 
unluckily, a series of numbers differing fnrm those under which the artich-s were *ient have lieen emtdoyed ia 
this Catalojjue. The Madras Committee have printed the whole uf tlie Heiiorts received from their Loral Coin- 
mittecH, and a c^reat muss of vahiahle information for future use hnn thus Wen broui^ht t<^>gether. Extract* 
have occasionally Ix^en made from these several docmnents ; but the followint^ Catalogue was prepared from 
the Invoices as they arrived, and according to the thirty Classes of the Head Juries, 



Bectiok I,— raw materials A^D PRODUCE, 



Crasa 1.— Mixebal Pboducts. 

[From the pouthern port ions of India approaehing so 

near to the Equator, while its northern provuiccB am 

nearly in the latitude of the aoutheni parts of Europe^ wo 

may form piomc ideii of the gresit extent of Indian tcmtnry, 

and be prrpared to find great diversities of climate flud 

eonsequently of the prodtu'tious of every kingdom oi 

|Si*tiire» from the long -extended coasts*, wai^hed by a 

I'tropicfll oeeoD, to the top» of the ecvenil ranges of moun- 

l-liiiis, ftmong which, as among tbo»e of the world, the 

HkoAbyaa stand pre-eniimTit, whether we consider their 

extent or clevntion, their diversity of clhnate, or of pro* 

duction. 

As the ^iirm and slope of the country', tlie dineelion of 
the rivera, and the climate o[^ the different part 4^ depend 
in a great measure on the direetion and dcvution of the 
Mountain ranges, as well as thp soil on their mineralogieal 
compOBition, it i* obvions that before proceeding to tluir 
mineral contents or to other subjt'ets, we should llr&t 
obtain a |[Teiicral idea of the number and position of the 
^fevcral meuntam ranges of India, and this mav be eonve- 
ntly done by taking them, as they natiirally fonn sepa- 
rate ranges : — first the Western antl Mcvondly the Eiiiiteni 
Ghauts, which run parallel to the ^fidiibar and Corcmiandcl 
cojifitsj tliirdly, the Vindhya or Ciiilml Jione of Inihxi, 
extendi J jg aU afra^e the eontiuent of India^ from Mongldr 
ami Rttjmahl, on the Ganges, t<j the hiJly tnn-t^^ of GujEernt, 
on the West; fourthly the JlinjMlayas, wliich form the 
great north-east em Iwundary of India. — Roylk- Intro- 
tlttction to Jlimahnfan Bofantf. 

Few niinemls or ores of metals have been sent from the 
ITinudayan mountains.though these almund in iron,copper, 
and lead, 'llw mines have onlv lH?eTi worked frupcrfieitdly, 
but it is don ht fid whether they would it^pay any great 
outlay- Graphite has been found in Kcmaon, and tratva 
of lignite ill the tertiary fonnation, where the immense 
deposit of timil bones ImTe ht»en dirtcoverecL 

From the extreme eastern and western points of the 
Central xonc, that i^, from the Saone and Kane nver;* on 
one side, and from Cam hay oti the other, a great variety of 
agtttes and cornelians have btvn sent, From the chfferent 
Stotef which iiitenene between the ram Lfi eat ions of thi& 
range and tln^ great cWscrt on the nortli-west of Incha, wc 
have 0PB9 of metals and 8pecimen« of marbles, with work.* 
in stone and marhle. Mines of copper and of lead occur 
in I hese regions, and iron is abundant. The only large 
colleetion of uuiienda which has been received is from the 
Madnia Presidency, in wluch the variety of kaolins are 




particularly intereatmg. These are likely to be usetn] m 
the arts, and some of the eJirths as colours. 

The deposits of eonl stroteh across India from east to 
west, that i#, from Assam into Silhet and Bnrdwan, and 
along the eour.*e of the Kerbuddfti ba well as in the 
western district of Cutch. 

From the Tennasserim coawt, as well ■« from BomeOi 
oiidt* of tin hm Ixh^h .'^ent, as well aa si\dphuret of antimony 
from the latter, where both are verj* abimthmt.J 

1. MeialM and their Oret. 

Tnthax Ino\ ANi) Stehl CoMPAjrr, Beypore, netw 
Calicnf, Mnlahar, and at Porto Kopo^ near Cutitt^t- 
Jore^ Camatic. Office in London, 10a Kinff^x Afmn 
I'anlt Moorgaie Street — PrcKlucM^rs, Manufacturiir^, 
and Importers. 
9]ieeimens of the ores and charcoal used, viz, j — 
Magnetic oiide, from Salem and South Arcot. 
Cnt'stals of tbeimignetie on\ 
Ore as pre]>ared for the blast furnace. 
Argilhieeous iron-^tone, from South Arcot. 
Charcoal iLHcd in the man u tact ure. 
Speciinens of the pig iron from the blast funmce. 
Ine pig iron refined. 

Specimens of annealed castings made from tlu; pig, viz.: 
Cliiuu S-lCths, cast entire in link?. 
Flier used in worsted spinning, liitherto made only 

of wrought iron. 
Springs east, as the above, fmm the pig iron, and 

drawn down. Onions* patent. 
Specimens of the WTought won : — 

Bars fractimxl to show the fibre and colour. 
Specimens worked and twisted cold, to show tenaeitj 

and tleiibihty. 
The iron dravTii into wire, Nos. 7, 18, 22, 25, 30, to 

show duct.ihty and tenacity. 
Specimens in screws, horse nails, rollers, ailos, gun- 
barrels, &c. 
Tlie bar iron for steel pnrposes i— 
Bar steel. 
Cast stet^l bgot, showing its colour and erystalliia* 

tion. 
Cast-steel drawn to sizes, and fractured to show 

colour and temper. 
8[)ecimeTis of files, saws, chisels, gouges^ and platie' 

irons. 
Table knives and carvers, 
Ita/.ors, scissors, and knivea, fine cutlery. 
Sword blades. 

[From these magnetic orei^ of iron tlie **Wooti," Of 
Indian steel, ia made by the natives ; also malleable iron 
by the direct process. The ore when cleaned from the 
quartz with which it is found combined, is shown by 
analysis to eonlain 72 percent, of iron with 28 of oxygpn, 
and traces of manganese and lime without any othcf 



Depexdkxcies.] 



EAST INDIES. 



861 



admixture. The manniacture of iron in India from these 
ores by European methods was established by this Com- 
pany some years ago, and their produce has been im- 
ported to a considerable extent into this country, but 
chiefly in the sliape of pig iron hitherto. Charcoal is 
exdufiively used aa fuel in the manufacture.] 

Specimens of chrome ore from the Company's mines in 
the Salem districts. 

Samples of the chromate and bichromate of potash 
mannfijctured from this ore. 

Dr. Andrew Ure found this ore to be 80 per cent, 
richer in colouring matter than the best Baltimore ore. 

Iron ore ; cutties, or blooms of iron ; palms, or bars of 
iron ; Tuttoms, or pieces of cast steel, as it came from 
the clay crucible; oUies, or bars, drawn out from clay 
crucibles ; small bag of iron beads which ooxe out from 
the blooms in the blast furnaces ; steel made from the 
blooms in the same kind of blast furnace, and used in 
making edged tools — from Salem. — F. G. Fischer. 



R. A. C. Haicilton, Esq., Indore. 

1 Specimens of iron ore, iron, and the wood which is 
U5(ed in smelting it, from Indore. 

The following is Mr. Hamilton's account of the process, 
with a section of the furnace. 

"* The furnace (A) in which the ironstone is melted is 
excarated out of the ground, about 12 by 10 feet, and 10 
iSpet deep ; the furnace is made of clay, plastered with 
cow-dung (heaped). Double (B) bellows are fitted, air- 
tight at the bottom, worked by a. man sitting between 
them. At the bottom of the furnace is an earthen siere 
(C) through which the dirt and refuse drop. The holes 
are filled with earth at first, but this gives way as the iron 
melts and comes down ; when choked the holes are 
opened by an iron poker (D), the drops and dirt fall 
to (E). The fire ia formed of caked cow-dung (F) broken 
imall, charcoal (G) and unjien (I) kheir (J) wood. The 
wood is put on the top part, a layer (H), ironstone 
broken the size of marbles is placed about one inch in 
thii'kne^s, then a layer of cow-dung (I) and charcoal, and 
>i up to the surface, when the ironstone is piled about 18 
inches, and covered in with the wood cut into small billets. 
After four hours' incessant plying of the bellows, the furnace 
hi» attained a heat which makes the first layer of stone 
Tik'lt and the dross fall through ; the whole mass has 
bw-ome gradually heated, and as it falh», the stone on the 
toj) which i? regularly serve<l keeps falling into the fimiace. 
Ill tliii* way the furnace is plied and filled for 12 hours, 
the btUovr* going the whole time ; the furnace is now left 
to rool, and according to the season, is ready to oi)en in 
fi^'Tn 12 to 24 hours." 

Tne iron will amount to about 40 lbs. weiglit, 20 seers, 
▼hii'h at the pit, including digging the stone, fire-wood, 
and ♦Tcry charge, sells so that the profit averages one 
rupee |)er seer: the people consequently work only as 
thfir want?* require, and not regidarly. 

Nothing more b done bv this class of workmen : the iron 
L* ."Id as it comes out of the furnace, and worked up by 
another class. 

In.»n ore and iron, from Cutch. — Rao of Cutch. Manu- 
farture of iron in Cutch: — "In extracting the metal in 
Cut'h, Livers of very small pieces are disposed alternately 
»)th others of charcoal, in a rude open furnace, and 
npo-»ed to the blast of two small bellows made of sheep- 
.<kni5. The metal when fused, falls into a hole at the 
bottom of the furnace, when it is transferred to an enclosed 
fanja*^, and subjected to similar blasts untU brought to 
a white heat, when it is taken out and beaten into a bar. 
>'o flux of any kind is used." — Captain Oranfs Qeology 
of Catch, litiffc 293. 
Details ot the expenses of maimfacturing 140 lbs. of 



One cart-load of material 
^iliiicr . . • • 



Cojrlrs. 
. 2 
. 1 



Corrie*. 

Master 1^ 

Manager of charcoal . . . . | 
Director of second furnace . . . 1 1 
Three hammer-men . . . . 2| 
Two bellows-men at \ each . . .1 
Four bellows-men of f each . . .3 
A breaker of the material for each cart-load i 

Cart of charcoal 8 

Second smelting charcoal . .3 

Tax for five maunds or 140th, (a day's 

produce) 5 

Sundries for beggars, hire of bellows, &c. 2^ 
Tobacco for men \ 

Total 32 or 16f. 

" This is the cost of one day*s produce, or five maunds, 
at 40 seers a maund, one seer-weight, 40 piece-weight. 

" A cart-load of mineral, after 18 hours smelting in the 
open furnace, yields 10 maunds (280 lbs.) of pig iron, and 
that again yields 5 maunds (140 Ibe.) after 9 hours* smelt- 
ing in the closed furnace." 

Ironstone, Soane River. 

Iron ore bisulphuret embedded in stone, from Cud- 
dapah. 

Iron ores, magnetic, from Yixagapatam. 

Iron ore and two pieces iron, finom Mugraonee Mine, 
Gwalior. — Maha Rajah Rao Scindiah. 

Iron ore and two pieces iron, Dhooab Mine. 

Iron, smelted, and iron ores ; ferruginous concretions, 
from Teroo, in Assam. — Capt. Brodie. 

Iron ore and smelted iron, firom Shahabad. — Rajah of 
Eotah. 

Iron ores, from Talagaon. 

Iron ore and unwrought iron, from Hazareebagh. 

Iron, from Chota Nagpore. 

Iron ore, from Cossya Hills. Iron sand, from Assam. 

Bag of iron ore and iron, firom NepaL 

Iron, firom Banglee Mines, Bombav. 

Iron ore, from Ulwar. — Rajah of tlwar. 

Iron ore, firom newly-discovered mines in Bcerbhoom. 

Iron and steel in different stages, from Salem, &c. 

Flat iron specimens ; half-roasted iron ; Imup, crude, 
and raw iron ; and iron smelted, from Cossya Hills. 

Iron ore, from the Tennasscrim provinces. There is a 
large variety of iron ore in these provmces, some of which 
is very rich in metal, especially in the Tavoy District. 
Near the river-side, about three miles from the town of 
Tavoy, is a hill wliieh, according to the local authorities, 
appears to consist almost wholly of magnetic oxide of 
iron. Conunon iron pyrites is also verj^ abundant in the 
provinces. 

Manganese, from the Mergui District, in the Tennas- 
scrim provinces, where largo quantities exist. It is not 
made use of by natives. 

Antimony sulphuret, from Tennasserim and Madras. 

Smelted antimony, from Borneo. 

Pyrites, firom Cuddapali. 

Copper ore from Ulwar and Beerbhoom. 

Copper ore, from Bellary. 

Copper ore, from Dhumuara. 

Copper ore, firom Tennasserim and Nepal. 

Lead of superior quality, from Sookpoor. 

Lead ores and lead, from Tennasserim and Nepal. 

Lead ores, from Bhoondie and Beerbhoom. 

Lead ore, supjwsed, from Singapore. 

Tin ore, from Tennasserim and Malacca. 

Tin, from Malay Peninsula, &c. 

Tin, oxide of^ fix)m near Mergui in the province of 
Tennasserim. 

Chromate of iron, from Salem. 

Cinnabar, and in its original state. This is said to bo 
superior, as obtained from Surat, to the China vermilion, 
but none has been supplied. Orpiment, fix)m Nepal. 

Gold dust, from Singajwre and Nepal. 

Gold-washers' sand, from Assam. — Major Haimav. 

Silver box of gold-dust, villages of Kapoo and Nclam- 



862 



EAST INDIES. 



[Colonies and 



boor — from Emaad Tiilook, Calkiit, imd WjTiftad, 
MiiliiWr, 

Bell met-iU^ from Jkllary and hom Bojab of Kotsk 

Pewtofj {fom Kcpoi, 

Mqsb Bgftt«i, from Nerbuddo, Sonne, and Kane Riyctb. 

Spocwi ^ agate, &om Soaue Bi?er, Kaoet, and Net^ 
budda. 

OalceiJonji from Bomw Ritcp, 

WJlitt' ti^li% from *Siiiigiir, 

Pt^bbiea, from Sotm^ Rher. 

Amtea, &om Ahmedabiid. 

"Bioo^temm^ from Karie RtTer» Ae. 

ChiICa kiiidtKxs piebald or Hpott^sd, from Jubbalpore. 

Gm» stotuv from Belool Rtver, 

-^ — P Biueolo in Saugur. 

Lap? Uiuli^ locality unknown. 

— — ~ P Kane Birer. 

Oumijlian, from Kumiu-k. 

— f from Sonne River, 

— ? sort of gold ston4«, locality not koown* 

Camoliana and onrs, from AhmednlniL 

JanptPf and marbb^ from BtngaL 

Slringi of Jfinduek beatli j plain and diatnond^ut 
camelimi i grt^eiwitoiH' and molber-of-pearl bead» j mother- 
of-pt^ btit'kle ; hltk'k flionij i*arring drop^ ; largt! and 
•moll pieces of crvstal i o,aniolians for brtKK^kesi atoiww 
for elkip^j yoo^tone»; gowrief^; larpi and vtrukU 
wuethjftlit largi* and «mall emerald* ; mjawohai aMorted 
ttoni?fl'; fi'ro£ali« i mppbinin ; ™i*«H?yefl ; gameta ; roma- 
rook« ) falainin-stoni? j blue-iton? i lupquoiaeB. Fiirdytsed 
fium imtire lapidaritM of Calcutra. 

Agati^a, Jto. from Cambay. Tlie following accxiunt bos 
httn drawn up b\ Mr* Au^uilus 3iuiimier% tenior apothe- 
cary, Camhii^ :— 

ArHeff^ itrmi^fJki hp ike Coai&ay Xa^pifapie*.— (For wle 

to the CPntrj pa^in^ tkrvufffa Ckmbay, and aent 

to Bombay Ibr tbe Englkb, Cbleutta,' and other 

market »,) 

The wboW of tlie «eate«, bloodstonef^ and eoraeUanA are 

made i\m? of, and waited into inodeU of cannon with car- 

liftge anil apj^urtenanwA twnpkte i *lab* for lx>xe» ; »et« 

cit tariciy of $ljib»p twenty hi number, to fotm a square 

table ; envv and saueer» i ehes^men j Hower'Ta^e* j pen 

rat^k, K'tkm and letter raek ; wateb-^tand^ ; ink^tanda ; 

knife-hantlli^ ; rulers, paprr-cnftiTTj^ paper~w¥igbt«, pen- 

bol^im J *cU of nRvkUoeA t bfwfvlei* and brcioehe* of 

Tmriety i>f liatlerti» ; rtVok«l n(vdlo» : silk-wiiidei^i 5 

marbles : bmt'i^ and *birt-*lud» j seal* ; al»0 rough ^peei- 

metw ^ »tiooe haiing onie aide jicJkbed. 

J^ifkUa prf^tifd f»t fie fliatf M^irM. 
Artklcv wTvaij^t Ciif- lldna eompiw only two kinds, 
anil aK" nyhle up eiittrrly of cimK-lian— fir^/ibe oral and 
f^uMV dal ^tinte* reAmiblin|t wateli^^wabs Im^ and mull, 
nani^l uio«ii%ixtl, wi^ru ^ armkt* and drvnt omaokent* : 
ihe other raziety is the bmd* oaiiied ber^ dboU, eaeh 
w^ltev ivtniatntne fifty boadav tb^v^e ai^ all pbun, 
pali#bedL and romii^ Ta$t iinantilMV of the abore aiv 
aannnally ei|H^4vl fixim thi$ in efaeat* \^ Bombay, f^ir 
dunartbe eiteni i>f ratuatkm i> hvm 5«.VW t«> $L\OUi> 
ra|w» aimually. 

Tbe de«Tiptiji.i«# *^f itocke empkiye^l we the reicied a|;ate 
fe&m Rhaaj^^nr* ^vraelan* frvim Buttoapone. the eat**- 
«*» aiki iHtf" jef i.'-r i^'^Wtdiui t these are wi,irkif*d into We^^ 
ijpunlitM^ t^ ni;^ K^b pkin a^l (>TnaaienSetl : nq|^ 
jiiwKv, vn^kt^ «Piu3«tJs aol AeviJw^ <tiibria^:k^ ilbe 
&^^wi2,*£ T^rirty :— 

^ A^Uv^ir*— I'ey kxvia? d^o^ rsit Wad^: |^x^'7^W 
iI^hL diuiKvn^i h-ut Knbi»{ bMaad afr^ abnood-^bawd 
iiev41a«.*«i k.baa:t«^, t.^^^ ^ x»^41amv; cbawiaiW 
HV«^«b<a;^l ; ==ad--LhiIu iavit«4| %w yahwit A^tnpL^wrd <4 
llrw i^l^'oe^ , :^ia^ k:.a«^^ yhm f^^>unJ Ik;*!^ ifwd a^ a 



Armleta and wristlirta. — Moot*ft modal jah, oompoaed 
of tno ston«»j worn 04^ a wriatlet j pytnh, a wrbtlet 
comiKm?d of »ev«n round ftat stone* ; pouciue% f& wriatlet 
comp054«i of Kovarnl fliit stones j bTJootal'i, an arml^ 
of one stone out in diFerent fanciful deTieea ; tarn ghool, 
undo fttonee m ibape of kr^ flat seals. 

Rings.— RingB are made of comclian«, of Tarions d^ 
rioes^ uamtNl imgotoe, and riny j stones for aeltiiig, called 
m^Kecnia, &p^ made of eomefiiwi and the cat*s-eja. 

The articles for the Djudda and Mocha markets are 
paiDfeod up in clieflt*^ ako in hales, with the oloth% and 
exported to Bombay and Vt?raTal Euudi^r, near Pica^ 
whim<% they are tmnBhipped to their deetination, ai^ 
from tbeojoe thej find their way into Aj^abia, P«rata^ 
Scindh, and Affgbanistan, the mercbanta raJiBing large 
protit$ by the salea eff^ted. 

Mode of Mampui^itan, <ft JVws-w ly whk\ the diffkretU 
Artkltt are Wn^ttgM. 

Bead». — The following la the process of making beads ; 
—the stones are first broken into pieoea of the aiae d^ 
flired ; an iron spoke, namod KhoFK}i% U drif^m in tbt 
ground in an inclined directioin with one point upwards | 
the atonei are piafted cm thk point, ^ad chipped w^ a 
hammer made of iron till rounded j it ia thea paaaed on 
to the polij»ber» who fiie$ a number of equal ab^ in a pair 
of wooden or bamboo eLimii, and rubs tl>em on a coarae 
and hard poli^biitg^atone oalkd DboUn. They are then 
trans&md to another man, wboy aecnring' tbem in 
wooden elnma, ruba them against a ground polisblng- 
board, named pattjmar„ on wliieb is smeared a competi- 
tion of emc-Tx and lae, turning the beada round ao that 
every part of the aurfi^ee may assume a globular form and 
beoLvme polished. The 6nal polbb is given by the beada 
so prepared being put from one to serem! thousands into 
a frfoui leather bag about t feet in lengthy and from 10 to 
12 inche?f in diameter, with Siome emery dust and a very 
fine powder named warry, wbieh is the tediment of the 
comebana (I^M>«ited in the earthen dkh, partii^y filled 
with water^ during the proeeaa of drilling holes in the 
beads, wliieJi it always eolleeted and dried. The mouth of 
the bag b tied up, and a flat kather Ibong or tape La 
passed round its oentrie, and the bag ia rolled towards 
eaeh other by two men, fieated at opposite ends of a fioom^ 
from ten to fiileen davf : the k«tber bag i* kept mobtenod 
with water> Wlien the bead^ hare taken a bright poliikb, 
they are paased on to the people who bore the boica, 
wbieh ia eflWted by meana of a ^teel drill tipped with a 
»uall diamond, dujnng wbieh prooesa the ppol la fltd with 
water, drop br drop, paseed tniouf b a thm naxtow peed 
or metallic tube. 

The eut V»d# ar? passed from the rough poHsblng^ 
atone to the lapidary }x?lifbing and rulting-^te, and 
la:»t ly the holes «« drUled. 

Knife baudW». — Thew uiider|:o eiaetly tli« aamo pro^ 
oe^ a» the eut bead^ adapting the shape to my patt^rtL 

Cup* and eaueen^ and any other hollow attidea^ aro 
wTvucbt aecording to the n^uiivd external abape on the 
atetrl »{Mke, and a rougb polisb given on the nnigli poliah^ 
in^ stones : lb* cwtiIt is formed W the diaancqid^tiprped 
dnU to the depth of one-fourtb of an ineh all over tht 
«paoe until it ^xMbtt^ an boviey-^ombed snr^ce — the 
|m>mineut pboea ruvad the bele? are ibm chipped away; 
and ihi^ pA*(vsa la wpeated imtU ibe depib and fonn 
d^^^Ttd Is obtainrdL Ib^y air tbeu pnbsbed upon ptrparvd 
nH>ulJs of c<mvtf^ fen&axkie, and oifih? ume composition 
a^ tbe p>tisbii^ plates wbkb m attaeiied to the tmtiing^ 
whivL 

1 iimt^i. — The K*pe ^t the cannon is elTcetcd hx a drill 
with tw^'' diamonda to the de^Hh rvH^uired. afWrwarda it« 
others in «»i.ve»%tWl, of wojvxtiocate u»cn»«e in the 
ai.^'^K are snNstiititetl, eaif^ \avi£^ an iarreate in nmnbiT 
of diamonds i^daf^ eii^'wise, thie la^ ^Bcnelinf aa many 
» twelve diamood^L 

^khs^ Pa|vt^^iitten.— Pteper^vtisci^tK 4e-, «»T cut by 
Biear* %4 a t %^'«ihV5» *aw vt^mU of in-kiw fixed to a bgbV 
w«\^n franse^ asal the cut is M wiik 



Depexdencies. ] 



EAST INDIES. 



water. When the stone is small the saw is worked by 
one man, when large by two men. The stone to be 
operated upon is attached to a large wooden frame which 
i» itself a &sture partly in the ground. The cement con- 
sists of a coarse description of beeswax with the fine 
fibres of new cloth, by means of which the stones are 
firmly attached to the wooden framework. Sereral men 
in a row are at the same time employed cutting through 
different pieces of stone. 

Preparation of Polishing Plates or Dishes. 

The plates or dishes are made of emery (named korunge 
and samadah), a species of corundum of greyish-black 
colour, glistening lustre, and granular concretion. Its 
fine powder is obtained by trituration and lerigation: 
this, mixed with the seed-lac, forms the circidar polishing 
plates, two in number. The first, or coarse-grained, is 
made in the proportion of three puts of ground emery to 
one of lac ; the second, or finer, is made of two and a half 
pounds of finely-Ierigated emery to one seer of lac ; a 
third, or finest polishing dish, is composed of warry and 
lac in equal proportion. Warry is the sedimentary de- 
posit of cornelian in an earthen dish during the polishing 



process. A copper dish is occasionally used for very hard 
stone, such as the Ceylon and other precious stones, and a 
wooden dish, made of deal or other fine-grained wood, is 
employed for polisliing the softer description of st^ne. 

The following description of the lapidary wheel is 
copied from the " Bombay Times : " — 

"Natiye Lapidary Wheel. — The wheel consists of a 
strong wooden platform, ^6 inches by 6, and 3 inches 
thick. In this are two strong wooden uprights ; between 
these is a wooden roller, 8 inches long and 3 in diameter, 
fi^istened into ahead at the one end: this works on an iron 
spindle or axle at each end. On the one end the axle is 
screwed and fitted with a nut, by which the cutting or 
grinding wheel can be made fast. The lap-wheels cousbt 
of two circular discs or cakes of lac with ground korund, 
coarse or fine according to the work ; of a copper disc for 
polishing the very hard, and a wooden one for finishing 
the work of the softer, description of stone. These are 
spun backwards and forwards by a bow, the string of 
which passes round the roller. The lapidary sits on his 
hams, steadying the wheel with his foot, and holding on 
the stone with his left hand wliile he works the bow with 
his right." 



List of yarious Agates, Ck)BNELiANS, &c., wrought upon by the Lapidaries at Cambay. — 14/A June 1850. 



Dearripfdon of Stone. 



j9Mper^ Heliotrope^ or Bloodstone. 
— Abeautifully-variegated stone 
of greenish basis. The green with 
fia^ied streaks, or red spotted 
delineations, is named by the 
lapidary ZueUChantadur ; those 
more vari^ated with green, red, 
and yellow tints, is named Put- 
tolia. It occurs in massiye lay- 
en, is bard, with a dull fracture, 
and takes a high polish. 
Mataajfote. — Named by the lapi- 
dan- Sowa Baju. This is a beau- 
tiful species of agate, of a yery 
clear or clouded crystalline ba- 
sis. i»ith impressions of the dark- 
preen moss, or green and red- 
«iish-brown mo» delineations. 
Found in massive layers, often 
cracked in various ways. It is 
har<L and receives a fine polish. 
A^e, Common, — A mineral whose 
ba»is is calcedony, blended with 
qaartz and cornelian. The white 
or »emi-transparent is named 
Dt)ulu, and cloudy and streaked 
Jamma. It is general ly grey ish- 
Mihit<\ of different shades. It is 
pretty hard, brittle, and massive, 
and received a high polish. 
Aifnte, Kappertcauge. — This is a 
beantifui species of agate, some 
having the impression of mine- 
ralized plants delicately pre- 
served with a clear semi-trans- 
parent basis, and is named Bar- 
riah : others of variegated shades 
of colour, with landscape or other 
deli neat ioo5, named Aggeah, 
Ruttea. kc. It occurs in pebbles, 
or rollel masses, is hard, and 
receive* a high degree of polish. 
Ai^(, I'einefi. — Named by the lapi- 
darv- Durador, of different shades 
of white with dark streaks, or a 
dark gnmnd with white tlireatly 
§treak'«,assuming different forms. 
It occurs imljeddetl in clayey 
U}\\, is liard. and takes a very 
Kijirh poliiih. 
Ciot»i/«tr-rfo*a^.— Assuming its co- 
lour, as the name implies; is 
named Katiah, of a broinnish- 
earthy lML*»is, not very hard, of a 
dull fracture, and does not take 
a iii^h polLili. 



Where Procured. 



Near the village of Tun- 
karia, in the territory of 
theMoorvi Uajah,about 
12 miles north of liig- 
cote. 



Near the yillage of Tun- 
karia, in the territory 
of the Moorvi Rajah, 
and at Bood Koten, 
about 3 miles from Tun- 
karia. 



Near the village of Ma- 
hidpore, 3 miles from 
Tunkaria, in the terri- 
tory of the Rajah of 
Moorvi. 



At Kapperwauge, in the 
Kairazilla, and in the 
bed of the river Ma- 
gain, between the vil- 
lage of Amliala, and 
Named wah, about 15 
miles from Kapper- 
wauge. 



At Khanpore and adja- 
cent villages, named 
Darpeepla and Nina- 
ma, in the Ahmedabad 
zilla, near Dandookee. 



Quarried or how Procared ; 
Mie and Pormaticn. 



Found on the hills named 
Bungaud, below the hill 
under the strata of soil, 
in massive layers from 
^ lb. to 40 lbs. in weight. 



It occurs in the plain about 
2 feet under the surface 
of soil, in massive lay- 
ers, cracked, and weigh- 
ing from ^ lb. to 30 or 
40 lbs. 



It occurs in the plain, near 
the surface of soil, in 
massive blocks, the 
most perfect not ex- 
ceeding 5 lbs. ; the in- 
ferior quality and 
cracked, as high as 60 
lbs. in weight. 

It occurs on the banks 
and in the beds of 
rivers, in rolled balls of 
spheroidal reneiform, 
and amygdaloidal fig- 
ures, from k lb. to 10 
lbs. in weight. 



Found imbedded under 
the upper strata of soil, 
in pebbles of various 
shapes, not exceeding 
i lb. in weight. 



Bkmabks. 



For permission to collect the 
stone, 8 annas per maund (40 
lbs.) is paid to the liajah, and 
2 aimas per each bullock- load 
for passing through his terri- 
tory, and 4A rupees bullock- 
hire to Cambay. A bullock- 
load contains 3 maunds, on 
which a town duty of 8 annas 
is levied at Camlmy. 



Ditto 



ditto. 



Ditto 



ditto. 



At Khanpore, near Dan- It occurs on the surface, 
dookee, and at Temka- and imbedded a few feet 
ria, in the territory of under the soil, in masses 
the Moorvi Rajah. from 1 to 8 lbs. in 

weight. 



The Bhecls search for the stones 
and sell them to a Borah at 
Mandwah, from whotn the 
lapidaries purchase at from 
3 to 12 rupees per maund, 
according to quality. It is 
carted or brought on donkeys 
to Cambay. Ten maunds of 
the stone is valued at 100 ru- 
pees, on which a duty of 4^ 
rupees is charged here. 

A fee of 2 rupees per cart-load 
is paid to the Government on 
the entries, and the stones are 
carted to Cambay. The cart- 
load is 40 maunds, which pays 
a town duty of 2 rupees here. 



Brought from Tunkaria on bul- 
locks at rate of 4^ rupees per 
load, and in carts from Khan- 
pore, 15 rupees hire for cart- 
load, besides the (jovetutivewV, 
fee of 1 vuptts \K't c«itV.-\v>aA. 



OLOKHW AFD 




Crt,>si d. — X a mod Phii t tii e&at : <■ 1 c^ r 
trflri?|iiir('nt stono, rciRmbling 
gittsw \vt ttppeftrfttiicc,atKjireci"ive8 
a high iioUah. 

YnTmtiitfrt Sfow.— Nnraed by the 
lajurhiry Mimarian: of a liv<*r- 
hmw n earthy ba.«i9» with vcl low- 
ish i mores'^ iuns of shells iind 
axiiii<li<la (?), hariiif? a prtitiy 
marble appearance, but does uo^ 
recdve a piiod poli-ih. 

Lnpix Lfutfi/\ or the Azure Stone, 
— Nnmed hero Unjnhwamwi : of 
ft deep hhic eoloiir and soft 
tartJijy basis', witli sfrinklirii; of 
silver or [fold in gp«ts, Jlny 
belcnown by its beauTifuI ii^digo 
\>hw colour, it is poff, and does 
not ref^eive a higii pt*lisih, 

JH St^m*' (t >i>flidiati).— N amod here 
Kuliar further rci^cmbling glftas 
in fracture, nrtt very heavy^ «url 
tnke^ ft hi(rh polish. 

Bht Sffmf (Tt-rosa).— Afl^^nminj? 
various ^ilmdes of hlue. Thi^ is 
a compi>sitiLiiii rcaemhiing; j|?Jas». i 
soft^ and takvfn a giuwl iMj]iM]i. ( 
It resembles the truu ]>ero*in 
(turqiioiie) when high) ypoJislKHl. j 

Ct.rrji'^/ktn i? named (rharr in the 
orij2inal state. They arecloudy^ 
of vnrion** shades of browii, and 
others of ditTerent tints of yel- 
low in tho Tiatiiral state. After 
exposure to the sun oiui baking, 
these assume other tints, us 
follows: light brown become* 
wbit<¥, dhohi, pale yellow, rose 
colour, gill abi, deep ytdlow. lied 
or hdh a mixture of cloudy 
brtiwn and yellow, beromes 
white and red, named Ubluckcv : 
another shiidt.' of vellow turns 



AtTunkarioJn Ihetcrn- Owurs in masiios under 
tor)'' «if the Rajah of' the surfnre of soil, from 
1 to 20 lbs. in weight. 



At Dhokeewaira, In the 
Hunn, nl)out 60 mi1e9 
uorth of Deesa. 



Tmporte<l here from Horn- 
bay, Bnui^rht fVuni 
Persia utid Buchoria. 



ImiKir^eJ here frcnn 
bay. 



Imported here frtim Bora- 
bay. If. said tr* be pre- 
I»ired in China, 



Found in large masses on 
the hill, and dufc un lu 
large blocks at its base. 



Said tn 1h? found in round- 
M baib in UiO bed of 
rivers. 



|t occurs Of] the hi Ha at 
Bnaeondi and at Aden^ 
ia lai^e blocks. 

Brought from China in 
flat pieee?, not exceed- 
iug ^ lb* in weight. 



At Ihe bftfi^ of the bills QuarriiMl or dug up from 



Pays the some duty as the other 
Fhnirti in the RajaJi of Motu'vi'n 
territory. 

Carted to Cambaj. 



of Bow a Abbas and 
Ivajpeeplee, in the terri- 
tory of the Nnudode 
Kaiah, who is tributary 
to his lli|:;hiif»!«s thelitt- 
iokwnr. The Nnudode 
llajah farms the quar- 
TiC'* to native rnntraf*- 
turs. who pay annually 
from 2,CliKl to 2,rKX) ru- 
pees to the Rajah for 
the sole pri vi lege of col- 
lecting the stones. 



pinkish-purple^ named Nafur- 
tnani ; and hrt)wu becomes a darker shade, named Emni 
The above are rpiarried in larjire quantities, and utiderpo 
the prncesft of bakinp;; they r<MH'ive a hii;h polish, rind are 
wroujUfht into flat and roniid nerklaces, bracelets, armlets, 
stones fnr ftcnls, chessmen, innrblcs, stinis, rinp*, SkC. The 
other stones found in the neighbourhood or on the hilts, 
and snhiccted t^ci the healing pnicesa^ are nf frdlow^: — 
Morn,OT Bf»i'ftGorcv. — Aspeeiesof On the B<iwa Gore and 
onyx, or dark-eolourefl cornelian 
with xrhite veins, or a preyish- 
white j;ronnd with ilark vein?), 
ai«nminji7 various fi^j^nres, re- 
ceives a lii;ih degree of poljsli, 
and Ijs raneh priztnl in the 
Djeddee market. The true onyx, 
or sala main, is brnujrht berc by 
Mahorame^lan mcnilic^ints, in 
ready-mado etriiigB of beads. 



near the base of the hill 
in various shapes: the 
pebbk^ arc imbedded 
in a soft yellow soil, or 
in bluisb-^ey clay, of 
sixe varying from a 
t^mall pebble to 1 lb, in 
weight, and ate chiefly 
of utieveti form and 
Burfoce. 



Abbaa hills, or at their 
base, or in the bed of 
the river formed by the 
monsonti strctims be- 
tween the hi 1 1 It, 



Mora is found on or at the 
baifse of the liills, in 
pebbles not exceeding 
1 lb. in weight. 



Between the Bo'wti Gore and 
Bowa Abbas hi I Is on the plain 
are small mounds, fVoim whence 
the utone? arc quarried by the 
Uheels of the diatrirt ; theV ex- 
cavate to some depth, /orm- 
iug: ijalleries in a horiz*)ntal di* 
rection about five feet in height 
and four broad ; thev arc 
obligeil to use a tamp, amll work 
in pairs, one employed with the 
pickaxe in Ihe quarry, the 
other at the entrance, who ex- 
amines the stones by cldpping 
off a piece, retaininji the ^^ood 
and rejecting the bad on ihe 
1*1 M>t : when a larger number of 
men ore employed, the galleries 
are extended in different direc- 
tions, with air passages. The 
two men, in 8 or 10 hourSt ob- 
fniii from tO to 40 lb*,, which 
iitbroofiht in the village of Rut- 
ton pore, by the con'ra-ctor or 
his petqdc; A quantity it thus 
procured in tlte fields; altier 
which many generally dig a 
trench round n field two feet 
in depth and three in breadth. 
In this fires of goat*i* and cow 
rhing ore set tip, and the stones 
in earthen pots, in fiingle rows, 
are placerl in the trench ; the 



fire is kept up from sun«et to 
Hunrise, when the chattieft are removed and the stonei* piled away. The contractor attends to tlie heating 
process; the stones are onre o-year carted to Kemodra. and conveyed in canoes dovm the river tn Brnucl^ 
whence they are bronghl in luvita to Cambay. Each bag vf 2>y maunds pays a dutv of l^ rupees to the British 
Government at Broiicfu in adilition to the import and ex}>ort duty at Cam bay. 'l*he stones are sold to headi 
of the lapidary raajuifactories. The town import dtity is IJj rupees, 



Caf^-^V*, (7/u!*jwfW«r. — The prin- 
cipal c^ilour hs grey, presenting 
many varieties usually traiLslii- 
cenC It is hard, bean* the im- 
pressioti of a cat's or bird*s eye 
more or less perfect, is much 
esteemed, and receives a high 
degree of jKslish. 

Horcf, or Luffunfa. — A yellow 
pebble, semi-transparent, found 
scantily with tho cat"s-eye ; re- 
ceives a very fine polish, and is 
much esteemed: usually cut for 
ring-stoues. 



Found on tin? Bowatbire It *jccurs in bbiut-cilged jT!ic lobbies are *earche<l for by 



and B. Abbas hills, or at 
their base, or in the bed 
of the river farmed by 
the rains between the 
hills, which is dry in 
the month of October. 



Ditto 



ditto. 



or rolleti pieces ; the 
pt^hbles are of various 
shapes and small tfijee, 
nut exceeding 2 oz. in 
weight. 



the Bheels of the district^ and 
disposed of to the contractor at 
HnitoniK>re* who seUs them to 
the bead of the different lapi- 
dary manufactories at Cambay. 



Ditto 



ditto. 



Ditto 



ditto. 



Dependencies.] 



EAST INDIES. 



865 



DESCRIPTION OF ARTICLES. 



Amount 


Rupees. 


From 


• To 


200 


250 


70 


100 


75 


100 


35 


45 


25 


35 


40 


50 


10 


20 


35 


50 


8 


15 


3 


6 


20 


25 


8 


10 


10 


12 


20 


30 


12 


18 


3 


4 


3 


5 


1 


3 


3 


6 


3 


4 


1 


4 


4 


8 


4 


10 


1 


3 


3 


4 


, , 


1 


1 


2 


3 


6 


1 


3 



A cannon, with carriage, and timber carriage and appurtenance complete . . . each 

A cannon, with carriage, of moss or other agates, or bloodstone „ 

A set of che»-inen, of any two varieties of stone per set 

A set of variegated slabs, twenty pieces to form a small square table .... „ 

An o^*aI slab and pedestal, formmg a miniature table each 

A large cap and saucer, of agate or bloodstone „ 

A cup and saucer of small size, ditto . „ 

Slabs large, six pieces of different, or one description of stone, to form into a box • . eocn set 

Slabs, a pair, to form the top and bottom of a box, large per pair 

Slabs, a pair, to form the top and bottom, of smaller size, for snuff or other box . . „ 

A pen-rack, with ink-stand and pen-holder per set 

A watch-«tand each 

A letter or card-rack „ 

A flower-stand or vase ,. 

Knife-handles, of good description per dozen 

Butter-knife-haudles, of agate or bloodstone . • per pair 

Rulers, of agates, bloodstone, &c. each 

Paper-cutters, ditto, of sizes „ 

Paper-weights, of different sizes and patterns „ 

Rough specimens of stones, one side polished per dozen 

Stones for brooches, of different patterns each 

Bracelets, of variety of patterns per pair 

Necklaces, of ditto, ditto each set 

Crochet needles, pen-holders, and seals per pair 

Braces, studa, and coat-button studs per dozen 

9iirt studs „ 

Marbles, of different sizes „ 

Comeliaios, stamps for engraving initials or crests per pair 

Ear-drops, with tops to match „ 



Tabie prepared from the Cambay Custom-house Retubns, exhibiting the Value of the Traffic in "Wrought 
Cambay Stones, and Export Duty thereon, for two official years, 1848-49 and 1849-50, commencing in May and 
ending in April. 



1W8-40 
184I>-50 



Small 
Phckagu. 



Bundry. 
10 
18 



Large 
pMkage. 



Kena. 
3 

1 



Bamboo 
Baaket. 



Kimdin. 
13 
11 



LaTKC 
Box. 



Piitie. 

23 

6 



Bags of Cornelian 

sent in 
large Bales of Cloth. 



Bales. 

49 
98 



312 
536 



Total Value 

of Cornelian sent 

each Year. 



108,422 
94,902 



Castoms' Puty 

on the part or tlie 

British Government. 



n. A. p. 
1,3.'0 4 
1,186 4 6 



In tlie above table, the export duty levied by the Nawab 
i* not given : the amount exactly trebles that of tlic 
British tJovemment, which is calculated at one rupee and 
fi>ur annas per cent, on valiuition ; thb is independent of 
priTste fees levied by the Nawab's native officials. 

The agate and cornelian trade forms a subject of much 
mt«¥»t, but its " modus operandi" has hitherto excited 
little attention : no desire has been manifested to acquire a 
knowledge of its varied and complex process, from first 
procuring the etouos in the rough state, to the ultimate 
perfection of finish arrived at by t-he art of the lapidary at 
Cambay. This I have now attempted to describe in detail; 
and from the foregoing statement of the different agates 
and cornelians, it will be evident that though they still 
bear the name of Cambay stones, and this place has held 
the reputation for a considerable time of being famed for 
its ftone quarries, they are actually brought here in the 
rough state from different parts of Guzerat, and are only 
wrought in the lapidary workshops established here for 
upwards of a oenturv ; and although the value of the 
tiuffic liaA bet-n considerably reduced of lat« years it still 
form«, next to cloth, tlie principal article of commerce, 
Tttlding a gfxxl profit to the traders, forming a valuable 
tfiUTve of revenue to the State, and giving employment to 
R£-arIy two thousand people engaged in the manipulation 
of the artifle-* in the busy workshops, amounting in all to 
abc.ut !icventy-five large and twenty-five small shops. 

"Die traders consist of about fourteen Bannyans and 
B-jrali merchants, who purchase the wrought articles 
from the heads of the lapidary workmen, and send them 
to Bombay, Djedda, and other ports. 



The workmen or artificers form a distinct cor]iorato 
body called the ukkeckia janiut, or punchayat, and are 
designated as follows : — 100 ukkeckias, master artificers, 
or heads of establishment ; 300 gasseas or workers on 
the lapidary wheeb ; 200 dliolias or polishers on the 
rough and hard polishing-stone ; 50 i)uttyinars or po- 
lishers on the wooden frame ; 100 badars or borers, those 
employed on the drilling process — 750 in number. These 
form the punchayat, or regularly constituted trades' craft. 
Besides whicli, upwards of a thousand people are employed 
in the different shops as day-labourers in the chipi)ing 
process, cutting slabs, &c. ; they consist of men and boys 
of both Hindoo and Mahommedan faith. 

The punchayat holds the power of adding to their com- 
munity — the party so privileged, paying a fee of a hundred 
rupees for liis admission into the craft, whicli is spent in 
dinners. Each department of labour remains distinct ; 
the artizan in one branch will not interfcre with or imder- 
take the work of another branch, and each enjoys distinct 
privileges appertaining to his particular department need- 
less to notice here. 

Coal, from Hooz Mine, Arracan, and from Mergui. 

Coal, and accompanying rocks, from Singrowlee. — 
Worked by the Messrs. Ilamilton and Co. of Mirzapore. 

Coal, from Kurhurbalee. 

Coal and coke, from Assam. 

Coal, from Indurgerba and Badum,and fromCossya Hill. 

Coal, or lignite, from the Tronibow River, in Cutch. 

Coal, from Nepal and Burdwan coal mines. 

Petroleimi, from Silhet, Assam, Arrakan, Akyab, and 
Chcduba. 



866 



EAST IKBIES. 



fCoiXJKlES AKD 



DoopMlinpoinie resin in earth j hecmkusaec, varietj of 
am tier J from Miirr. 

MiiU'nLl resin (anibf r)^ from Cutoh, Thia is dtig up 
with the eoal at tlit? Tromlxjw River. 

Sftndstoiio» from Qwalior, 

Sulphur and jialtjxHix?, from Nepal. 

Sidphatp of iron, 

CarboriattJ of 8c>dtt, from Cuddnpah and Bellary, 

Ciirhoiiate of socbi, nearly pnrt", prepared from Dhoby*« 
{Wnftlif^rrnan's) earth. — Pron»&sor Key, 

Suit, from Tanjorc and Vir^igapttlniQ. 

8alt|>etrt< of Ma^nore and Errod«. Fotaah, uitrat*! ot 
or stdtpetre, from Coindiatore and Bt'tigaJ. 

Peorlnah, from Mntbras \ j»LMirla!*h |>repured from nitrt? 
and charcoal} two aorti*, tnnl from L«ihon^, 

Magnesia, carbonate of, from Et'Uiu^, Salem ^ and 
OopaloiL 

SttJt, from Nepal. 

Salt from Nowj>adah pans^froni Yi3Esig:apiitiim. 

Salt prcjdutu?d by i^oriodical iiimulatiou of acn over a 
aandj plain, coUecttid into heap* after tn ajjonilion— from 
CoomhriL'onum. 

Boot on rock fialt. 

Aliiui, and earth from whit ii it is eittraetetl, from CHdeh. 
Thia earth is chielly found mar the town of Miirr. 
Ahfjut one-sJixtli of the alum raanufjutured is used for 
home eoni»umption, and the remainder iis exported to 
Murwar, Boad>aj, Ae. 

Mode of miinufaetiiriug ahim in Cuteh : — ** The shale 
from whieh ulum is ohtaincd forma beds in the varie- 
gated niarlj and in a kind of blue claj. Long gallmes 
are tut for the purpojtc of extracting it j but :<o plentiful i^s 
the supply, tlmt no mEain* are taken to suj>porl them, and 
they generally fitll in during tlie rainy seas^on. Tlie nianntr 
ill whit^h the alum 15 preparti i» very i^imple : the enrlli h^ 
[ erpo&ed in heaps to the sun and air for alniut five montlis, 
during which it bums ftpontaneously. It is next laid out 
in httle l>t"tls., similar to Iho^^ of a field jirL'pared forirrijG^a- 
tiou, and it i^ watered by a small Htrenni for ten or llfteen 
daya, by wbieh time the aluminous matter ai^?eumula,tei^ 
into seaii*crystalLine platen. This substtance is hoiletl hi 
water for about seven hours, after wliieh, a thirtl or one- 
lialf, by weight, of potash i« added, and it \n ttgniu tKuknl 
for a few hours, according to the strength of the ley. It 
ia then poured into a large open ve^wl, where, after **ettlmg 
for some time, it i§ washed, and the hquid drawn olT, | 
leaving an impure crystalline sediment. Thia ii* once 
more bode<l, and when it arrive* at a jiroper state, which 
u Icamcil by pmeti«^, it i* pounxl into hirge earthen 
r TCBsels with small tnooths, and sunk into the ground to 
prevent their breaking. Ai^cr a tune the vessels arc dug 
out, broken to picfe*, and a lump of [jure alum extracted. 
Six or eight mensurea, by weight, of alum are produced 
from ten raeasurt^s of the subiit^ince fVimi the irriguting 
beds, and four or 6ve meisurea ofpotash." — Capi. Grand 
QeohffifofCuieh, p, 295. 

♦' One pound of alum i* manufactured at Murr for about 
If of a farthing, and transported to 13ond.>ay at an exptnise 
of about f^ of a fartliing, so that whatever alum fetches in 
the Bombay market beyond the above, amounting to 
rather more than two farthings a pound, remain* a« a 
profit to the merchant and the ,*tate. 

*' Cuteh alum sells for a considerably higher price than 
CJiina alum, 

*'A]iim andiron are only muiuSu^Ui^l in the cold 
teason, »o that dlu^tratiouA of the pfoceis of inanufacture 
could not be procured." 

Steatite blaik and white, from Arracan. 
Mnrble shd^** from BeUn ry ; bricks lUfule of white clay ; 
marble mortar, rough — from tlie Ceded District*. 



Honestone from Toongabudra River, from KumooL 

Lithogmphic stonea, from Kuniool» Juggiapcttah, and 
Datehapilly. 

Rougli and polished graphite; red and yellow ochroj 
potfltone and mica, from Bengal, 

Koonm or Corundum, from Salem and Malabar* 

Talc, from NepaL 

Yellow ochre^ from Malaix». 

Limestone, from Hooa Mine«, Arrakan* 

Kunkur, from Hoogly. 

Limeslonc, from Afintpore and Silhet. 

Kunkur aiul liraestouej from Bengal. 

Builduig stones from Cutch, These are principally^ 
calcareous. 

Pohshed stones from Cuteh, These are specimeQA 
of the different limestone format ioua in Cuteh, 

Stones of tliJJerent kinds, potter's elaya and eartl 
from Nepal, 

Marbles of Gooty, from Belhury. 

Serpentine. 

A plate of stoue-Hke jasper, three of mte^ two of 
marble ; two cups of ja£p«r agate, two of breciiated 
two pestles and mortars, and two of Jasper agatej iist 
squares of the above, three stones, and three rough blocks 
— from Jcsselmcre. 

Primitive marble; serpentine? primitive limei^toae ; 
red and yellow jasjMjr; puddingstone ; jai*per; brown 
jasper ; phvstic, yellow, and ahite-coloured clays j whit« 
kaolin earth ; eoapstone for stills ; Kaksning gamete in 
serpentine, used for making pots and jMinp ; and twa 
bottlei* of Melianet oil— from Assam. — Major Hannaj 

Pipe-Liny, ycUow oclire, and ela^, from Singapore. 

Clay, frtJin alluvial soil, froui Kirer Hooghlj, 

Limestone ; tremenheerite *, alabaster ; pc^tpolenm i 
agate, eonielian, and calcedony; Ava gem sand — from 
TennasBcrim Provincc. 

Fofisil trees, from Ncrhudda. 

Foj^Hil woods, from Assam. 

Petrifactions and petrified woods^ from Bengal and 
Mirzajjore, 

Mineral Subtt^nceg from Metdrasu 

1 White kaolin, from Ahloor, near Salenu 

2 Magncsian kaolin, from hills near TcHore, 

3 Kaolin, i>r [joreelain earth, from Bangalore, 

4 Magnesian kaolin, tVom Chingleput. 

6 Kaohn, or porcelain earth, from Cuddapah. 

6 Talcose kaohu, from Bimlipatam. 

*I Koohn, or porcelain earth, from Cliittoor. 

8 Fine white kaolin, from Travancorc. 

9 Kaolin, or porcelain earth, from DLndigal ITiUs. 
10 FeUputhie aaolin^ from Trivattxj and Chinglepiit> 
11 — IS WTiito kaolin, from Yelloro or Amee, MadrsA, 

and Chit loo r. 

1 % Kaolin, from Salem. 

lo, 16 White kaohn, from Madura and Chicacole. 

17 Kaolin, from Sftlem, 

18 MagncHJan kaolin, from B clary, 

Itt Crcaiu-colourcd kaolin, from Atoor, nc»r Salem, 
2*1 Felj*patliic kaolin, from Triputhy Hill^, 

21 Cream -eolourod kaolin, from Neilghcrries. 

22 White kaolin^ composed of decayed febjiar and 
softpstone, from Salem. 

23, 2t Dirty yellowish and silicioua kaolin, from 
Chingleput. 

(Specimens of the rock of the lull above.) 

25 Sihcious kaohn, from Little Jlount, Madras, 

26 Pmk kaolin, from Ncilgherries.^ 

27 Fawn-coloured kaolin, from Salem. 

28 Red kaolin, from Salem. 

2fJ Puce-ooloured kaolin, from Bangalore. 
30 Grwnirih yellow kaolin, from Bungalore, 
31 — 35 Shale, a true fire chiy, from BtreepennAtoOfy 
Trepasoor, Chingleput, MettopolUmii, and Cudoapoh, 
36 Roek cryj^tiu, from Tan j ore. 
37| 38 Rose nrul milk quurtx, from Ai\'ot. 
3U Smoky quail 2, from ^'uUoru, 



DEmCDKKClBS. ] 



EAST INDIES. 



80? 



4fl, 41 Common quartz and Lyalitt\ from Cldugk-pul. 
42i Amrtlijstine qimrtE, from Yisagapatam. 

43 Cotnuion thick ilbroufi AmelajTBt, from Clung- 

A0|lttti. 

44 FliDt, from TiziftnAgnim. 

4d H&gntifliie, a pure carbonate of magnesia, frt>m 
Xtmpmgodt^. 

46 BiUcious magnesite, from Triclu!ao|>oly. 

47 8oftp«tone, from Saleni. 

48 White aad pink soapstonCf from Gimjam. 
40 Otcj doapstone, or *U*atite^ from Cliitiore. 

50 Pat«tone, or lapis ulLiris, witli a pot cut of pot- 
soe, from Cuddapnlu 

51 Sulpliftttf of barj ta, or liea^^- spur, from Ivnniool. 

52 Corunduiii, fr^ni Qopaui CUeilvjwalliiiix, near 
vest of ??alem. 

SS AduliuiB, from ttear Chlngbput, 

54 Pink and white felspar, from near Arcot. 

55 Pegnitttite, from ArtMjt. 
56, 57 Zeolite* and Indianit^, from n*?ar Chiugl<?put, 

AduJariu, from nfur Artujt. 
White feL?ijjftr^ fn>m Bamlipatam. 
~ ' r, from Chinglepiit and Salem* 

' felspar, uear Arc:ot. 

i< .* of feUpar, from Naggeiy Hilla, Madras, 
indite, from Coimbatorti 

t L I * par J from Oiinglep ut . 

65 Grry feli^pHr, from Antjt. 

66 Grunidar pink felspar, from Viziflnagrum, 

67 Common granular frbpar, from Chiiigleput. 
ti'S Flnatc of hme, from Hadum. 

6i* Satin *par, from Ceded Districts. 

70 Cube spar, from near Salem. 

71 Calcareous Bpar» from Ceded Bistriet-^. 

72 Fibrous gypsum, very pure, IKim Bangalore. 

73 Fibrou* gypsum and Tarietiea of eulpliate of lime, 
from KumooL 

74 Selenite, or gloeay grpsum, from Triclunopoly, 

75 Talc and mieav from 8al«m and Tixagapatiim. 

76 Homstone, or chert, from Cuddopali. 

77 Black cliert^ from Tarfmtty. 

TS Wliite quartz (occurs in blocks of eiiormoui iixe)) 
from Chingleput. 

7i> Iroti ilint and grer nummiditc, from Chingleput* 

80 Flintv slate, from Ki.^tnah, below Eaelioi*. 

81 Pipe-dar, white, from ^eilgherrv. 

82 Grif? ball claj, from PoonaniulliH'. 
3, 84 \Miite ball clay, from CUientH)le and Huttnoor. 

Blue ball clay, from Cuddalore. 
' 86 Qm baU clay, from PoomiTnallee. 

87 Yelkwr ball ular, from Strttei*ermatoor and Kcd 
HiUa, 

88 Grey *alt glai© clay, from Stilcm. 
80 Light »pongy clay, from Chin^;lepnt . 

9U YVllow maguetian cby, from Red IliHa, Madras, 
91 Tough yellow day, from Cliiiifj;kpiit. 

Yellow nugnesian clay, from IVjnamuUce*. 
, yi Owy migncaian and tough grey clayii, from 

^ Qm and yellow clays, from Salein. 
Puc»-«!Olmired clay, from Cuddapah, 
LaTwnder-eolourtyi eliiy, from Bellary, 
B«d magnesian clay, from Red nill», Madras. 
lOQ, 101 Tough brown and dark- brown claja, from 
Madras. 

\0Z Black bituminoua clay, from Rojahfi Choultry, 
]ifadni», 

103 Bbirk ebiy, from Salem, 
lOl Black tank bed clay, from Chiugleput. 
105 Black clav (the m*atrix of the sidi>lmte of lime), 
from Monegar Oioultry, Mndni?. 

1(¥> Krf^in or hlnrk fott^n ioil (yioldfl a fine tough clay 
by- 

llw ijrK}f eiuiiv Niir, irum Ttjlaveram IliU. 
lOd Gre«D itonv ailt ^ from Strcepcrmatoof, 
110 Ovey ailt, from Cuddtipali. 



I 



k 



1 1 1 Yellow and red oeluvv clay, from Tilavenmi. 
113 Ba^tanl fin^-elay, or sluilc (eontaius gyrogomtes or _ 
fojisil ^etni;;^), from Tdnvcrain, iSlreepennatoor. 

113, 111 YcUgw and Cfmngc marl, from Cliingleput. 
115 Light r«l marl^ from iSalem. 
lift Dark red marl^ from Chinj^leput. 

117 Purpk' ninrl, fnjm the Monegnr Clioultrj-, Mathaa. « 
118, 11*> Brown nnd grey marl, from Chinijiepiit. 
I'M) Dtirk-;jn'.V mw^nesiuri marl, fmiTi Rcrl llilb, ^tiidraa. 
121 Oiveni^h- while marl, from Cluugleput and Walhi- 

jahad. 

122, 123 Greenish-yellow earth and friable Ut!mmargc^ 
from Bringalore. 

12i Indiimted lithomarge, fr^^ni Cuddalore 

125 Rock crystal, from Toomboodra, 

126 Smoky quarts, from THiijore. 

127 Agate and calt'cdony, from Rajahmundry. 
12H \Vhite (|URrtjt, from Tiljivtnmi Ililla, Madras, 
1 2m Wliife !<tonc, or ulbite, from PeUuur Riven 
1:10 llvalitc, from NelJon*. 
131 \V bite *iiiid, from Madras, 
1H2 Variety of iee spar, from iSalem, 
133, 134 Glasflj feUpar and pefrmntite, from Arcot, 
135 Green wtoiie, from Tilavcnim Hilla. 
135 Venetian talc, from SjtJeiiL 

137 Common Mlt, tmrn MAHuU[>atam. 

138 Refined salt, fi'om Ntllore. 

139 Magiu^sia, or magnetite, from Salem and Trich* 
ino[)oly. 

I KJ Epsom salt* (pa>i>aTed from the Salem magnMil%.| 
by I>r. Lima), frt>m Port Jfovo. 

141 Saltpetre, fi*om Errodc and Salam. 

142 Piu-lfied saltpetre, from Gunpowder Manufactory, 
Madras, 

143 Carbonate of potaeh, from Madraa. 

1 U Puritied carbonate of swla prepared from Dhoby't 
(Wiiifhennan'ss) earth from Maflras. 

14-5 Alum, from ViEianagnuu, 

14^ Baryta^ trom Cudda|iah. 

147 Biclu'omute of potash (prepared from cbromate of 
iron), from Port Novo. 

1 18 Prepared lime (lk>m the sheila on the beach), trom 
Madra«> 

140| 150 Qreyiah-white and yellowigh^white marbles 
(granuJaj*), from Cuddapah. 

151 Yellow marble, from Gooty HiH*. 

152 — 155 Green, pink, gr«y, and laTendor-ooloured 
marbles, from Cuddapali. 

15G— 158 Puriih^h- coloured, wax-coloured, and bluish- 
grey marbles, from Ceded Districts. 

159 Grey and ytUow marble, from Eyelcherro, near 
Cuddapali. 

im Black marble, fn:3m Tnrputty. 

161 Orcy hthographic marble, from Batehapilly. 

162 Grey hthographie marble, from Cud(bip»h. 

163, 164 Yellowish-grey hthographie marble, from Kor- 
nool and Juggiohjjct t, 

165, 166 Dolomite, or magneaian limeatone, from Tra^ 
vaneore and Rajahmundry. 

167 Caletm^ouj* liiiiestone (from the vicinity of tha 
foaiiil ehell lime), from Trichino[Hily. 

168 Porjjhyritie dolomito (occin^ ntider the yellowiah 
limestone), from Cuddapah. 

1 ti9 White and grey nodular timetttone, from Cljingle[nit, 

170 Kunkur, a \ariety of nodular hmestone, from Cud- 
dapah. 

171 Septaria, or hydraulic cement stone*, from Chin- 
glepnt. 

172 *Sht!lli*, from the beach, ^dndnu^. 

173 "VMiite gmnite, without mica, from Areot. 

174 Compact white granite or ]>egmatite ; the ^ome, 
converted artifiei»lly into kaohn by steeping in lime- 
water j from Chiugleput. 

175 — 177 Wliite gnmite, green and pink granite^ and 
lahradorite, or variegtitctl felipar, from Chingleput. 

178 Porpliyrittc pink granite, contairihtg fiuiall cryetala 
of lourmahne, from *;3erLngaputam. 



EAST INDIES. 



[COLOSIER AKt> 



179 Fleah-colourcd jij^nik% from CLmgleput. 

180 yyt?iiitc% fn»m A rout. 

181, 182 Pink gniiiite tuitl sycniU*, from Btingalore. 

183 Grey gmiute, from Cuddupulu 

184 Bright rc'd gr^iuite, from Bsuigalore, 

185 Pinkish jifrftxiite, from Bt'Marv', 

186 5tk*a rtotiLstj from Cuddti|)iilK 

187 Mica schist (ocemt! uitli plimibBgo), from Bimli- 
patarii. 

188 Porphyritic gjanite^ from (iliinglepiit. 

18'J Porphyi-y (eorapo^ed of ha^ttli ami quartz), from 
13angalort?. 

IIK) Pur]:>lijiT (composed of silieiousi liraestcmo and 
large cryetals or fL*l?]»ar) , from CiiddsiprLh. 

li>l Purphjry (composed of ailicioLis iiastOj embedding 
fpiigmeiit3 of jumper, quart jt^ and febpUT), from Allujtipilly* 

192 Porphyritic coi] glomerate, from Cuddft|>ali- 

193 Silidoua curitc", a variety of ^jruenstotir, frutn Biiu* 
galore. 

19'K 195 Greenstone, from TilnTeram Ililk andNellore. 

ltM> Ilomblendf, from Ilooiiitoor, 

1&7 Honiblfude 8dii>t, from Bangalore. 

1118 Ba:?ftitit; lionibkntk", from Aruul. 

199 Bnaalt, tVom Dimijul. 

2iK) Bbck flbly limt*stoiit\ from CiiddapalK 

iiOl Serpentine and serpt'ntine porphyry, from Banga- 
lore 

202 Spoiipv clay ironstone, fivm Red Hills. 

2tt3 8lnte for rooting or bnilding, froiTi Jvalidgee, 

204, 205, 206 Euilding sliitc ; slate, containing large 
mhm of iron pyrites; and roofing slate, from Cud- 
o&pali. 

207 Polialiiiig slatej fix>m the Ceded Districts. 

208 Sliity marble^ frfjiu the Tunibbovdra. 

209 Whetstone, from Ki&tnah Ritct. 
2X0 Grey whetstone, frora NeEore. 

211 Yellow whetstoni?, marked. No. G7, from CuTldflpali. 

212 Grey Jbnty Nlate, from Tiliiverani Hills. 

213 Grey soft aluminoua whctsitone, from Bunkrapett. 
2M Alimiiiious s^lntc, from Cuddnpah, 

216 Sand«itonp, from Soutli Arcot. 
216, 217 8andtttone or freestcme, from Nellom and Ken- 
cat taglierry. 

218 Sambitoiie, from Nell ore, 

219 Aluminoua sh^de^ yfcldei sulphate of alumina, from 
Ghinglejmt. 

220 Bands tone, embedding gyrogonitca, from Streeper- 
mutoor. 

221 Compact aluminous ttliolej from Nuttimi Hill, 
Cliingleput. 

222 Clay stone J from a b&d of marl, from Cliingleput. 

223 Dbmond bi*eeci8, from AUiunpilly. 

224 Hyacinth, from Nuttuni Hill, Chingleput. 

225, 226 Wliite and blue ftapplure*i, from Kangagnm, 
Coimbatore. 

227 Leptdolite, from Ciiddapalu 

228 CleTelaudite, or precious felspar, from Cliingleput. 

229 Cleveliihdtte, from Vi7.nga)mltnrv. 

230, 231 Emerj^ and corundum, from Gopoulchetiy 
Pollium. 

232 — 231 Rc'd, bine, and green tjoruntlum, from Slia* 
la*he-raiyn and Salem. 

235 Beryl, or aquamarinej from Kangnynm, Coiin* 
batore. 

236 Schorl, from Gopauklietty Pollium. 

237 Tourmaline, from Salem. 

238 Precious gurnet, from Condapilly. 

239 Common ganut, from Bangalore. 

240 Aiuetliyfit, from Hytlrabod* 

241 Agate, from Rajiihuiuiidry, 

242 CaCs-eye, fmni Kistnah Rirer, Rax-liore, 

24iJ, 241 Jasper poriihyrTj' imd jasper, from the Ceded 
Bistrietft. 

215 Rock ery&lal, from Xiiggcry HiEs, Madras. 
2Uj C^nnmoii oi>ttl, fnttu Kitilnah. 
2-t7 Cttlcedony, from Rajah mun dry. 
248 Comclianj from Qodavery. 




219 Onyit, from Kistnah. 

250 Bloodstone, from Saleui. 

251 Wood opwl, from ]!^Iadura. 

252 Petrosilex, or jietriBetl wood, from South Aitok. * 

253 Sandstone coloured by gold, from the Westtm 
Ghaut. 

254 — 256 Menacnvtiite^ or oiide of titanium ; oxide of 
titanium, with micaceous ore *, and variegated copper ore, 
very rich in metal, from the NeilgJierry lldla. 

257, 258 Grey and green copper ore, rich in tbe metal; 
and liver-coloured copjier* from Gnntoor. 

259 Dark red copper, from Tadali Talooh, Giiiitoor, 

260 Compact chopper- glance and gny iH>pj>tT ort% from 
Co]>|H.^r Mountain, BellaLrf* 

261 ilakehito and purple copper oiw, poor in metal, 
from Nellore. 

262 Black, green, and gr^ copper, from Kaggapatt 
Talook, Nellom. 

263 Fibrous grey manganese ore and dendritef^, from 
Alahrattfl. eountry, 

264 BLick clay, containing block oxide of manganese, 
from; Neilglierry. 

265 Uuiber, or brown oxide of manganeflf and iron, 
from Ncilghcrry. 

2t?6 Native antimony, and grey antimony ore, from 
Tinanagrum. 

267» 268 Radiated grey antimony ore, or sudphuret of 
antimony ; and galenii, or Iwid- glance, from KumooL 

269 Galena, or sut|jhuret of lead ; o<^eur» in bedu of 
limestone and i*ulphate of bar) tfl, from Cuddapab. 

270 Chromute of iron, from 8outli Areot, 

271 Cliromate of iron, from Salem, 

272 Cube- ore, or arsreuiate of iron, from Guntoor, 

273 Terrestrial native iron, liigbly magtietic, from 
Salem. 

274, 275 Common iron pyrites [ and bepatic iron ore, 
or bver pyrites^ from Cuddajjali. 

276 Coiuinon niagnetie ironstone, from Cbiiigleput. 

277 Iron sand, or artimiccous magnetic ironatone, from 
Odicut. 

278 Iron sand, frora Madras, 

279 Earthy nmgiietic ironstone, from Cliingleput, 
280, 281 Specular iron ore, or frou-glaiiee ; and 9caljr 

red iron ore, or n-d iron tooth, from Viiftgapatiim. 

282 Ocliry red ironstone, or rvd ochre, from ClJiIlgU^ 
put. 

283 Common red ironstone, from Cuddapah. 

284 RimI lia^rnatite, from Vizianagrum, 

285 Red liEcmalite, or tibrous red ironstone, from 
Cliinglepnt. 

2!S<;, 287 Compact brtnvn ironstone ; and brown hat- 
mat ite, or filirous brown ironstone, from Red HiU«| 
MadniM. 

288j 289 Compact block ironstone, from Chingleput and 
Salem. 

2; 10 Black htrmatite, from Tilaveram Hills. 

291 S^iarrj' ironstone, from Kurnool and Ciiddapalu 

292 Jaspery eliiy ironstone, from Soondoor, 

293 Common clay irtmstoiie, Ci-om Retl Hills. 
293a Laterite, from Madras, 

294 Reniform, or kidney-sbaped clav iroTistone^ from 
Red Hills, Madras. 

295 Meadow ore, or eonclioidal bog fron ore, from 
Tilaveram and ViiitgapaLinn.i 

296 A'esii'ular iron ore, from Bangalore, Chingl«pQl( 
Nellon", and Salem, 

2ll7 Vesieular iron ore, from Nortli Arcot. 
298, 299 Black band iron, frora Sondoor, Salem, and 
Chingleput. 

300 l_ron ore, from Kurnool, 

301 Pur|de oxide of iron, Cudilapah. 

302 Oetohcflral crystals of peroxide of iron, from Solan, 

303 Silvery -white kaolin, from BindipntAm. 
dfil Creafn-eolourt^l ocbi-e^ tWm Sulern. 

305 Warm gtone-ctjloured oelire, from Cl)ing)<?put. 

306 Pure stone-coloured oclire, from Bangalore. 

307 Flesli'Stone coloiuied oclirc, from Saltaii. 




DkPKJE l>EKCtBa. ] 



EAST INDIES. 



306 Hark shade of grey ochre, from Kuttuni. 

3C>!) \^ ' • ' ~>'^ or porcelain earth, fruiii iitui|Ljtilore, 

SlO r oohre, firora Xullimi lliil. 

311 I'l-j^ , -.V ochre, common in tht* bajtaar at Mii- 

812; 315 Oraiigp ochre, made from the ycUow ochre by 
tmt, and bright yellow ochre, from t^uklapah. 
SI 4 Ro^niui ochre, from Cliingleput, 
7r.' ' I !er«colourcd oclirt% from Buni^nlorc. 

^ -L"oloured oclire, from Chiiiglfput, 

U. . ...^.tii -coloured oc'hpt?, from SjUtim, 
31S Venetian red, from Madnu^. 

31:? Light red ofhre, preijared from the yellow othre, 
from Ktittum IIilL 
^iO Antwcrn reti, from GUnjam. 

S5J1, 32:2 [tioiannMl and purple oehre, from Chingleput, 
3:J3, 32 1 Raw and dark umber^ from Nedgherry, 
'' , 32<5 Kavf mid hunit sienna, fiiim Saleiiu 
Cologne browiij froni NeiljL^heri'y. 
Penmiflt* of iiiiin^iese, frum Muhratta country. 
It* PluiubajE!ft», or black lead, from Viziamigriiia. 
_. K> TroTi »and, from Bimbilipiitain. 
$31 mtramaniie, prepared from the lapis landi^ from 
Bombay. 

Alumine, coloured with madder ; lake* prppari?d 
I thr rnuujathe, or madder, from t'liingleput. 



Class XL 

CnxutCAt* JUf0 PnAEMACEuticAi. Pbocisses and 

Pkodfcts. 

[Tbcmgh the Xrnb* XisoaSly obtain credit (ov liaving 
fifim origin to chennisbry, there is every probabilily that 
the Hindof^ were acqiiainted with all the i^iib stances; uiid 
prepATfttioua which are meutioucd in tlic work of Geber, 
tbe diariieat Arabian cheumt. The chemical subetaneed 
tntilKiemled by hiro are all met with in India : some of 
tim nrnxtea by which they are deaignaied 3<^m to be deriveil 
from the nimes of tbo aamc aiib.<«tAncL's in Itidta, a.^ mt/t- 
«#«, li«iii m^iji noon, Migmfyinf^ soda t^alt. Tlie acids, 
alio, wliidi the Anib^ prejiarcM:!, the Ilmdoos haTe pro- 
rn n K-'a for makixig and still continue to make, by mclhoda 
aa aixnpU and with an apparatiid a^ rude as in the mo#t 
atiri^nt titne^. The .irabs, moreoverj liave been proved 
to hare been acquaint4xl with, aa they hare quoted from, 
tbe» moat ancient Hindoo worL^ on mechciue, in which 
tDO«t of these chemical i^ubj^tanced arc mentioned. In the 
prvamt day, however, the chemk^al products of the East 
sre ttot of a nature to bear f^vouruble comparison with 
af the We*t- Few, therdbrc, of aueh Imve been 

lit (oir irxhibition, and those only wldeh are employed 
uedieuu?; while others haTe been pr^^iared in the 
. India Comj^Muija dinpfmaary in Calcutta, with the 
reouBfie, of European auperintcndenoe : of tljesc I ho 
I of Bulphflteof magnesia are interesting, a» made 
from the magne«iLc or natural carbonate of magnenia oF 
tbe Prsunaola. The hyrlrocldoral'e of ammonia ia obtained 
jai QoaaidBnibl^ quantities from brick-kilns in wlueh animal 
itMBittn» b used a* n fuel. 

Among the modicina] aub^tanoes obtained from the 
fi^pftabitf Ungdoiu, several are afreaiJy well known in 
Kuropeu The fcnna and the coloej^iith may be noticed 03 
good in quality and coming from now {iourccn. \\ hut 
W ocimsiionly trailed India senna ia i\w growth either of 
Arabia or of tbe ea«t coaat of Africa, being Ortft im- 
poirt<<rl itito BoKibay and thence «ent to this^ country. The 
iJjpomta ceerutea and the root* of Cunw/nultM Utr* 
\ laiianMling ae belonging io the ^amv natuml 
\ the jalap and aoammony, and both uaed, as tl^ese 
an\ a* puripaliire*. The seeds of the Ijtomett eterulea are, 
fucibablr, tbe hmb^al-mt^ Qt ^ranvm mlf of the Arab*. 




They are much est^^med in Indi% as being quick and yet 
niikl in their action. The g?imboge of Oarcinh tinvtur'uiy 
collected by Dr. Hugh Cleghura, woa first discovered many 
years* ago. Dr. Ciiristison has lately »liown that both 
as a pigment and as a purgative it ia very cllective. It 
may be obtained in considerable qnanlitiea in the foresta 
of Mysore and of Malabar. 

llie chiretta {Agathotes chlrajfita)^ of the family of 
Gkmtians, vl» a bitter tonic, ia highly cutc<niunl in idl j jarts of 
the Bengal Presidency, especially in the tbrui of cold tnfu- 
f^i^jti, aa the kreat or oreyat {Justtcia panhuiata) is in tha 
iVnini^idii of India. This became oelebrated aa the baaii 
uf the Dro^e dmere» 

The oil of Cefaftms nvi(iH» was cxlnbited hy the lato 
Dr, MalcoItUBOU in the treatment of beriberi. The Hemi- 
da^iHUi is valued aa an efTicient substitute for aursupniilla. 
The CalotrapU ffiganiea^ and another sipccie?, t\ liamd- 
tomi, may bo employed as subf^titute^ for ipce^icuanlia, 
and are esteemed as altei'atives in many ekiu diijc^^cs. Of 
the animal aubatauce*, the bhstering beetle {Mt/taftriii 
civhotm) employed in India is interesting as belougiiig to 
the same genua aa that doscribed by Dioacoridea. 

Several other modicinal aubataneea, or which may he 
used as such, may be fii^und among the apicci^ and intoxi* 
eating druga, gums, reeinSi and oila, and among astrin* 
gents. Moi^t of the medicines known in India may be 
be seen iu^ 
The CoUecUon of Minet'al^ V^Pf/etable, and Animal Sub- 

iianees mtcful in MatUrine and the Artit, colUcied in the 

Bazaar« of Indit^ btf J. FofiBEB EoTLS, JI.D. See the 

hat at the end of Ckas IV* 

Spccimeua of Aconitina, obtained by twoprocesaea from 
the roots of Aconifum feroj^t imported from the Uimsdaiyas, 
are interesting, as diflicultics have been expTicneed in 
obtaining the alkali. They are exhibited by ilr. W, 
Headland, of King's College.] 

Medicikal Substances, 
From ihf Bengal Pre:siden('(f. 

Borax, refined ; Acid, nitric ; Acid, beuxoic. 

AraeniouB acid ; Realgar ; Orpiment j Mineral carbo- 
nate oF aoda; Sidphate of soda; .Snllj>eti*c ; .Sulphnle of 
copper ; Carbonate of lead j Litliarge ^ Miuium ; Cinna- 
\mr ; Corroaive aubliinale ; Magncaile ; Magneaia? aidphas ; 
HydrochlrmUe of aiunioub. 

Cuutmbi;*, Ind. ext* and tinct. ; Kux vomica; Nuxj 
vuuiiL!ii tiark^ Aconitum ferox ; ActJuitmu tincture;] 
Ca.'^tor-oil aceda ; Cjk*&iia tliituln \ Senna leaves j Gamboge ; 1 
Ipomcra ccrulea ; Clieretta; Chert4taeitructandtincturti jJ 
Culocynth ; Colocynth eitract j Catechu ; Aj»*ala?tida ; 
Cnlotropis gignntca ; Calotropia powdeitnl j Hemidesmus 
indicufl (Anantomool). 

Mylfthrifi (Meloe) trianthemie (Native bliatertly) — From 
E. I. Company"* HiwixniHary, Calcutta. 

Hill honey: Call nut^ ; Oil of cubcbs and eroton j 
Muatnrd oil ; OnvMs od ; Qurjuu oil ; Medicinal opinui ; 
Moqjhia ; M. Hydrtxhloraa et Ai-etas ; Hyoscyauii, fol. i 
Hyoaeyami eitract. et tinct ura ; Slramoiiii Bt»m. j Can- 
nabis indica ; Malkuuguee, or Celastrua nutans ; Myrica 
aapidft (bark of the) ; Aiiimtamool, or syb-?titule for 8ur:*a- 
parilla ; Momortlica, sp. j Mis^lmit^.^ hitter or Misbuiee tita, 
Coptia teeta. — E. I. Companv'a Diiri>etj.-*arY, Ctdcutta. 

Jabrang, fruit of (Xanthoxylum), uaed in medicine j 
Nux vouiicft — from Assam. 

GmeHna arborca ; Eclutes antidysonterica \ lfeniji[x'r- 
mum cordifoliuju ; Cy[M"ru» munga ; Hehcterew inora; 
Splufranthui*, sp. moondee; Cheretta (Agut botes ehe- 
rjivita); Xanthoiyh, up, Budnmga Tej-baul ; Rheimi 
emoili ; Ffftidea Mauriti^ma ? ^ Fongamia arboreu ; Swie- 
teub febrifugn *, Althea, sp. Khutmet» j Serralidas »p. 
KniTtee ; Seuiecarpus atiacHi-dium j Giirdcnia dujiicto* 



L 



EAST INBTER. 



f CoLOyiES AKO 



niin ; Fuinaritt ofliidnalia 5 AtliaiitiiTn rortlafiim i Bar* 
ringUiriiii aeuU*ii|Ljiila j Curtliu gmndillortt ; JloiiiorLlicii 
murioatn J Embeliu. robyi*tii ; LinuiTH >p. Sten^iiliu m- 
iTiujia ; A^jmiiigu* oUtdimli* j Ca^f^ia fistula j i'ununiit, ^p. 
Kuchree ; Plumbago zejiaiiica i Ck-salpiuia Bomlucella ; 
Tnbuliia iRniiginoflUB j Argemone raeiienim : Snrtittjia- 
riUa, Mib»titut* for; Atiuiitainoolj from Pahia ; Pimiea 
gmimtiaiiH, riiid of I he fmit and bark of tht* root; 
Tejnij, Bfljraj, Kaiiiraj, Uoobnij, and Matlhooraj, from 
Bliagulporu ; Yew IcuiTcs^, marked Podocarpus nami ; 
Attarua ct*lamu3, oil of C'ubebs ; ClKndnioqfirra odoratii, 
Chouimoogra^ oil of Croton; Caniphor from Borneo; 
Cubebs; Clieeni kuwub; Piper cubel>a, P4?nt from Cal- 
cutta. 

The following medicinal Biibfltanc'<e», used bj the nativc« 
of Arrakan, are eominutiieatcd with their local numcs and 
vappoced propurticfl. They ure neiirly all said lo be of 
common octnirrenee throu^liout Bengal: — 

Gimnimn, a carmiTiatiTc ; 8hutHleLtL, a powder for aorea j 
DanzagoojihroOj toiiie alterative ; Gnapoon|jtsay„ a car- 
minative; Mfthaga, tlraetie purgative; Toinigyen Kbitt, 
astringent ; Thttinaga, eannimitive and loiiic ; Tht I ycMig, 
tonie, aperient ; Tbabovfth, camiirtative j Kamanngkha, 
rcfngcnmt ; Kaiikvautiierj tonic aperient j Let-topkyt^e, 
astringent ; Nwa«heagyer, swlative ; Kokklio, tonie ape- 
rient ; llting, tonic ; Pwabet, expectorant ; nic^yenggj ee, 
wnnnpurgatiTe; Thaweng poukphyeo, eipcctoraDt ; Tcor- 
makhan, tonic; Tab wot, a carminatiToj Maor, refHgt^- 
ratit ; Oayet, refrigt^rant ; Touksha, carminative ; Oaba- 
tbttga, aperient ; Tousihouk, tonic ; KToupmyet, febrifuge ; 
Nanlooggyng, tonie npcrient j Tsengthainaiiwiiy, laxntive ; 
Pouknet, tonic and canni native; Tabatsay, fcbrdngc; 
Kanbwee, tonic; Tliatily ctgnai, laxative; Wow-ck>, fe- 
brifuge, 

Jarft medicines, a oeries of, forwarded from Singnporo. 

From Bomhaif. 

Oondee oil (Tanna). Calophyllum inopbyUiim^ oil ex- 
pres^d from the nut, u^d as a stinudant citcmallj and 
mtemally, Imjwrtetl from Somali coast* 

Kuninj od (Tanna). Pongamia glabra, oQ expressed 
from nut ; used externally a» aatimidant. 

Senna leaver. Now groT*^ in quantities in the Dekkan 
for the su|jply of Goveniment ston\^; but tio demiind 
elHcwheni>. Four consignments have been sent to England. 
The first ailbrtlcd a remittanw abcuit 2#. *M. ][K'r nnjce ; 
of the ftpcoud and tlurd tio aocountf* have yet bctMi re* 
oeived; the fourth was sent la^t month (Dee«inber 1&50), 
its price aa at prea«?nt bought from the Ryota ia 9 lbs. per 
nipi'e, being 2\d, per j>oiLndj or thoreabouta. 

From Madras. 

Cdabunda {Mot perfoHata) — from Yiugapatam* 

Gamboge— from CaDara i ditto coHectetl by Dr. Cleg- 
hom, from Madras, 

Hcmidesmusindiena; ConTolvidusturpcthum, rix>t and 
powder; Oitoria terniitea tuced and powder; Cannabis 
iudii'a {flower's tops). — Professor Key, from Madras. 

Sj:>cciraen» of Jlylabris cichorci ; Pulvia niylabris? 
ciehorci ; Tinctiir.i cannabis aativip ; Hoya virithtlora 
(Aflclepiaa voniitoria) j livinenoiiietion utile ; Soymidu 
febrifuga; Dry hark of the midlay or jungle margosa; 
Dry bark of the vapiini or morgosa tr«e ; Croton seeds, 

Kaputda od (Croton tighum) — from Yizagaputam and 
Qanjam. 

Juiticia panieidatan creyat. Specimens of aolt — from 
Keliore* 



CLAS3 TTL 
AoRicrLTriiAi. Prodfce. 
[Prom the latitude and general climate of the diiferent 
parts of India, it woidd naturally be inferred that the 
agriLudtiind prmluctj^ uni.^t ihirer very considerably in the 
widely-feparatcd provinces, and that they must certainly 
be entirely dilTerent from those of Europe, especially 
as tho natives of the country are usually stated to live 
chielly upon rioe. This u a faUacy which has no doubt 



originated from Europeanfl having ohtainl^d their principal 
iiifunnation respecting India from its eoutht^m ]>rovtucc9. 
It ivoiihl niTjt, jH'rhaip.4, l>e too nuiii'h to wiy tliiit probably 
the number of those who seldom taste rice tar exoeeda 
tho*e who live upon it. For, in fact, tlu* culture of wheal 
and barley, and of common millet, constitute the agricul* 
ture of many |>flrt4 of the country quite as mueh as rice,, 
sugar-cane, and other millets. Tliis is in consequence of 
the* seasons of cultivation being very dilTerent, one f^i of 
ibe cereal grn ins being so\*'n in autiiinn, aiidgniwn tJuring 
what const ituteii the winter of Europe, while the other 
arc sown in the midst of its simjjucr. Thus whea^ 
barley, and eomnion millet {PuMtcum mi{Mcevm)y ore sown 
in Oefohi'r and rca^ietl in March, while rice, maize, the 
great and Indian milleti^, rrrc sown on the n^^'cjc^^ion of th« 
rainy !^?aJion in June, and hiirvestt'd in September o* 
OctolxT. 

Of wheat several rarieties are grown: some of very 
fiju^ quahty, aa the soft wheat, called p^ssee, and the hard 
wheat, called yM/Za/ya, bi>th esJiibited from the Ncrbudda 
vidle^'. Samples of thc?^' eho\Mi a few yearw ago in Mark 
Lane weiv considered to be finer than any wheats in the 
market* Tlie soft wheat, which i« inof<t viduetl in this 
country, h thought less of in India, where the natives 
prefer the hanl wheat, and give a higher price for it, as 
they consider it the most nutritious. Like the liard wh^iits 
of the south of Ein*Dpc, tbi* vnriety ia u*<.^d in Intlia for 
milking a kind of vermicelli and was thought to <'Outain 
a large proportion of glutincvus matter ; but thin ditl not 
appear when the two kinds were analyzed hy Profcsaor 
E, SoUy, Wheat ia cnltivate^l as fur south as Bumi% 
from whence a brown ish-eolourcii variety has been senly^ 
and at conaidcrable clevatioua in the Himalayan Motm^i' 
tains, where some fine kind» of barley arc also growtw. 
Oats have been introduced by the English, and are pro^ 
duced of fine quality in the district, and to the northwardi 
of Patna. 

Indian com or uiaize {Zen way*), a native of the New 
World, is cultivated in smidl quantitic* all over India, but 
not as a principal crop, Ix'ing ehietly eaten in a green 
state and after the grains have bcH?n roai^ted. Tlie greal 
millet, or Durray of the Arabs, Jodr, nnd Jawaree of 
India {tSorffhum mlffare}^ occupies the place of Indian corn 
in Asia, where it ia extensively eultivated, and forms a 
principal article of diet of the nativea. The grains ara 
large, and in chemical composition come near to Indian 
com, but are apt to be attacked by tlio weevil The other 
mdJetsi, species of PauicHm^ Ac, small in si^e and hard* 
arc also mucli used as articles of diet, and might, from 
tlicu- cheapness, perhapsi, be profitably ciijortcd oa food for 
the smaller auimala in other countries. 

But, beaidea the oere&U, the iuitivc« of India ctiltivBitf 
a great variety of pulses, some of which are known ill 
Europe fl» the jx^, lentil, gram (CHe^r ari*'tin«m), Othcny 
such as varieties of Cajanus aud of Phaneolua, also yidd 
pulsea which, like the eereals, are cultivated for foo4i' 
These, being cooked with ghee or melted butter, give tbi 
natives the advantage of a mixed diet, instead of ihaf 
subsisting, as usually stated, on a single substance hke rieoi 

The different oil-seeds also oqpupy a share of thff 
fiirmers' attention : of these linseed is well known 
Euroi^c, but in India is cultivated oidy on account of tbtf 
seed-oil, and not for the flax of the pbmt. Also, mustani 
and rape, or rather other gjiecies of Sinapis, aalQowcr net 
{Carihamti* tiHctoriu^)^ castor-oil plant, pop|>y, browa 
and white til or sesamum, and black til {OnUotia olei/ero)d 
For other oil.*, see Oil Sebles jlkd MEDlcnrES. 



I 



AmoDg the tooU cultivated, yam* and efireet poUtoca 
nay be nieationed ; aUo, tunncric and gingtr, ofuooa and 
gaiiic CaiToU often jrield a large crop irith the aid of 
inig&tioii, but the cliniato U not fiiToorable for the field 
roltiav of turaipe. Hf Icms and cucumbers are ako ciil(i< 
Tsted near welU, or in the beds of riTers, as also sereral 
oC tlhp fruiU nied aa oondimentay aa oorianckr, commin, 

(A.) Cerejah. 

I>— Piasee, sohalja, jullalja, kutya, Tarietics of 
I #»<Mnii , from the VaUey of tlie Nerbudda. 

Floiir ; three quaUtiea, from natire mill«, Calcutta. 

Wheat, a dark -brown vaxietj, from Burma, 

Data (Arrna satii'a)^ from Patna. 

Bttoanil rice, and some of its itravr, from Hooghlj, 

Bioe {Oryztt saiiva), and paddj, or unshelLfd rice, from 
Ktaaon. 

Black an J red paddj (Oryta #<tii'pa), from Beilaiy. 

Varpc rice and paddj, from TraTaneore. 

Yaree NeHoo, paddy, from Calicut. 

Wild rice : — -Jimgleo dhan and Clieenia dhan, from 
NepaL 

Table rioe : — Indramayo, from Singapof^* 

Pulnt rice, a delicacy, pri»ed for ita nutritiona qualitieai 
Kwl a dark variety, from Malac<». 

Rice, and a variety of, Eetana, from Singapore. 

Bk»» varieties of :— Bansmiitti, Hunsrau Kaoe Monea, 
Bdyanjan, Sooklmnnud, RAmkojulf Teluk, Sookbundi^ 
Cajhunna^ Bhooee, Sathee, Scorah, Hcmnj, Gujnij, 
Bett«4^ .\n\mdce, Buttesee, Qamoona^ Eulma, Kama* 
lt««a, Knomoollu.% Dhow, Soonkhur, Kumem, 
, Bcorali, Kookhurrft^ Moonn?e, Buthka, Jhanoa^ 
r, Jubbedic, Jhunvan, Najor, Mahestua, Gow^ 
ne^ Tboe ar« two ■pecimenA of each, one shelled, the 
oQier unabelled ; from Pilibeet in Bohilkund. 

Bice, rarictii?* o^ from ArrakaTi. 

Rire from Ahmedabad. This i» much prized for taste 
and acvnt, and large quantities of it are annually exported 
to BarcMln, Csunbay^ and elsewhere. 

MThile, black, and glutinous red rice, from Tennasscrim, 

Great millet or durra of Arabi. — Joar of India* 

Sift^kum rmlgaee and Maceharaium^ large and small; 
g^own all orer India. 

B«?d, white, and brown Cholum or jawaree, frwn BeUary 
and other parts of India. 

IndiAii corr), varieties ot^ from Nepal and Assam, 

^ «i millet, Bajree i^PemicUUMria wpicata)^ from ludJa, 
, and Ciilch. 

nuUet (Sefnrifi iiftlwm)^ from Calcutta ; Koon< 
foonie {Famicmm iUflicum), from Bellaiy; Kungnee, from 
KefMd ; Kadi kane (Ftmu^um miliacemm)^ from Madura, 
Tinnivellv, and Ptthtmcottah ; Sauwuck, Panicum /rumen- 
ftfcnuM, m>m Ghiaeepope, Mwrut, and Nepal; KodA, 
Feupaimm Mrtt^ulahm, Stom Nepal nnd Calcutta ; Mun- 
dooft, B4gg©©(J?fett«Ji«coroea#ia),from BcUary, Mirzapore 




MMsrut^ and Ki^maon; Chooa {Amaranihm* /arima^smu)^ 
from Bombay. 



KftmaoD ; Basgeeni {AmaramiktiM Jhtmffmiaemu}i 



BagfjCfoge grain (SUvmne jp.), from Hoogly, 

GoLjfurn find Tipsea, small miUet«, produced by wild 

ftr 11 MirzBpore. 

J: — Ougul (I\*gQpymm m^orv/), frtnn. 

MMdal'Si jLQd ^«pa). 

PutMt. 

Urhnr Ite dhal, ; Blml (Cytlsu^ t^ojan), from Gwalior, 
If attftm^ Bml *rTiimT<!»lIy ; DIiol or thomvi, from Polftm- 
CTjtt * r *;.» m/Virt), from Bellar}'; Urhur 

(C» Ordvuttu; Grftiu, Cliima (Cicer 

: DhoU Chimti, ^Ttvwn all over 
tinum)^ from Calcutta. 
II , jo}t frtnri Bl'IIat)' j Mash and 

mtoU maah, growii all over India; Mash {Pkateolus 
0)y from NflpiL 




Green sram : — Hoong {PhoMealmM rddiaiMM}^ from 
Bellary and Madnis. 

Green gram : — Moong, grown all over India. 

Black gram : — Moong, Tiaricty of {Pha^olus radiaiux)^ 
from Yixagnpatam and Ganjain. 

Bhick gram^ grown all over India. 

MuskuUy {PkoMeoliu radiatvs)^ Soiui moog (Pkaa^oliu 
dureuji)^ Kii»ta moog (Ph^seoitu), Kallemoog {Pha^eotuji)^ 
Mayanco {Phateolus trilohu-t)^ from Calcutta ; Lall Goo- 
ronah {Phtueoltu triiohuM)^ from K^maon. 

Horse gram : — Cooltie {DoliekoM umJfonts\ from Bel- 
lary ; Gidiut {DoUchoM umfiofM), from K^maon and 
N^al. 

Ked gram (DolichoM cafjan^}, grown all over India. 

Bed and white gram {DitUekoM catjamg)^ from Viiaga- 
patam and Nepal ; That&pyre {DoUckot eaijan^j)^ from 
Madura, TinniveUy, and Palamcottah ; Banjcampeaakeip 
Yijuigapatam ; Bhut (Sofa kiipida)^ from K^maon. 

Pejw ; — Mutt&r (Piitum aaiitmmj^ GoU muttur (Puum 
wfUirnm viride)^ from CalcuttA and Nepal ; 3Iussooroe 
kullyc (Ervum Zeiw), Soora kissurree {iMthynu tativui)^ 
Baro Chuna ( Tlcia *a(im)y from Calcutta. 

Katjang zavah, Eatjang merah, Eatjang tjee, Eatjang 
zimgak, Eatjang batoo, pnlaet, frtmi Java* 

FriTnch bam», sem^ from NepaL 

Green peas, or piUae, Catjang ejoo ; Catjang taboo, from 
Singapore, Sumbawn, and SumatraL, 

JZoo^ amd Oil Seed*^ ^. 

Onions and onion seed* fmm Jeaaulmefi* 

Poppy aeed, from Calcutta, Pntiia, Ac. 

Lins^d, Teaee (Xcnvm mfUaiitaimmm} ; Kisto til 
{Se^amum orie»/<i/#)^from Calcuttii. 

Black til. Ham til {Ouisotia ahi/era) — from Bombay 
and Madra«. 

Castor od seeds, Bchrindu (Ricintut commvoLt). 

Mustard seeds, &c., Kala surson {Simnpis dichoioma) ; 
Shwct race surson (S. glauca) j Jhoone race (8. ramota) 
—from Calcutta. 

Salllowcr and Soorj mookhce (JTeUattihui aaiHftiJi). 

Cucumber and melon seed, from Nepal and Bikaneer. 

Oil'Cflke, from Nepal, 

Bum boo rice, from Nepal. 

Bhatwaa, Goorana, Shutya, and Mijdioyang, from 
NepaL 

Iroopoo plnakoo, from Calicut. 

(B.) Dried Fruit* and S^eds. 
[The fruits which tiru dried and preserved in India awt^ 
not numerouj». The Innmrind is the principal, and la much 
employed in making alicrbets : unripe immgos ore proaervcd 
on account of their acidity. The ber, or byer^ or jujube^ 
Ls occaaioninLlly preserrcd, and baked plantains liave been 
wilt, but have not arrived in a good state. Figs, raisins, 
dried plums and apricots, are imported from Caubul; and 
dates from the Pcrninu Gulf Tlie cocoa*nut if oonspicnoufl 
as ft seed whith is valued for its kernel. Almonds and 
pistachio uuta arc iinjwrtcd from Caubul j wuliiuta and 
hniel nuts from Cashmere and the Himalayas. The Rvd 
of TennLimlia catappa ia endled badam or almond, uud used 
as a substitute for it, as are many other oily seeds, by 
the nativea of India. The dorian fruit (Ihtrio zibethinu^) 
may be considered rather as a curioMty : it is hijLfhly 
esteemed as a fruit in the Eastern Islands, notwith- 
standing its diaagreeable odour. The preserved bel fruit 
{^EffU marm^oM) ia ralued, as a medicine, for its mild \ 
subastringcnt properties. "Wluit is called Muoka fruit i 
only the flowers dried aa they fall oQ\ Tlicy abound in i 
eharinc matter, and are eaten by the natives ; and are i 
subjectc<^l to fcmicntution, when they yield a spirit wh 
fonn& the coinniuii amick of a gn*at part of the country* 
Its flavour is compared by some to tlint of wliiakcy. TJie 
hcviU yield a valunblc od which btvumca tjolid in thia 
clinmte. See Oil SEMEi*. 



[Official IixtTaTBATBD Catalogfe,] 



3 S 



872 



EAST INDIES. 



[C0U)K1£8 ASD 



Tanmrlndft {TamnritHitut imlicft)^ from CulciiHu and 
Jitrii. 

Dried bvfr {ZUyphwt Jifjttba)^ iVom Bengal 
Muhoott fruit {Baxtiu taiijolia)^ from Moorabedi&bad. 
Cocott-nut {Cocco$ nuci/era), 
Kannri nut {Canaritim comm«H4f)^ from Java. 
Dc8»j-H kroot (AteMrifex iriloba). Tlie spceimena for- 
(rnnkd* nn* all tliat coidd be proeuiwi at me time i]n;y 
w(?re ordered ; they wrure obtained from Belgamii^ wber*?, 
in thi* l^iv!*idt'ncj, tbey cliiefljr grow. The Centml Com- 
inittot' of C«lciitt« reque«t<'d tluit this article might be sent 
I from the BoTiibny Pres^idcncy. Tbts<eftre oilled Belgamti^ 
lirr country wahmtH. The imU iire so called from their 
c\*e»iihlttnce to walnuta : the kernels ta&te like tbetn^ and 
'yield H krge portion of pure imhitahlo oil. — Bomha*^ 

(C) Subwtaneet med in the preparoHon of Drimkt, 
[Tea ia so peeulLirly a Oiine^e product a« to be »iImo«( 

^ii wjnonjmL of the count rj'. From the dijileultics at first 
enKffieiiced in producing good tens in Penang, Java, and 
Hio Janeiro, it was inferred tlutt tiie sod and climate re- 
quired for the tea plant were of so jieculiar u nature ha to 
render it dillicult, if not iiii|>OHsible, to produw good t+:^i 
nywiiere out o£ China. Tlda was no doubt owing in 

rpart to its* having bciin supposed tlrnt the plant witls one 
%vhii"h required a hot eliimite. Careful comparii!M>n of the 
iufonuationMhich was then within reneh made it probable 
that the plant or plants were natives of tempemic cli- 
nintes. The inithor of this note gave it n» liis* opinion^ m 
the year 1827, tliat the CTiinesw? tea phinl or plants might 
be Hucix,'H!* fully cultivnted in the Iliinahiyan Mountains ; 
and in an eiisay on the i^uhjeet in his *' Illu.Htrations of 
lliiualayuii Botuny," in ISSl-, ent^jred into the detada of 
fiu'tu, and hi* reasoning from them. The Indian Govern- 
ment having at this time detorminetl to attempt the eul- 
tivat ion of tea in any suitiible locahty in the&e monntmn?, 
a plant wa^i dii*eovered in A!*sam, of which the leaves were 
there nianuftietiuijd into ten, and wliich was BTipjKjsed to 
be either the tmCj or a variety of the, tei* plant of Cldiui. 
The plrtiit, however, llourifthes in a warm nioi.*t climate, 
and has mueli larger leiivea than the China plants. This 
€!ir«eoveryT however, led to the eetabliifhinent by the Indian 
Ooveniment of Ciinna for the growth of tea. CIunes<,% 
flcqiuiinted wdh tlie pro-ces?8e?T were invited into Assam 
to take charge of the manwfaeture. Sucee** having at- 
tended the measure^ the whole of tlie e^tablishmtTit wa.* 
tramiferred to the Assam Tea Company, frtnn whom some 
sampler have been reeiMved -, othurs arv exhibited in 
another part of tlie budding. Two sample* liave also 
been sent from Chinese planters who have »ettle<l in Assam. 
At the same time that the culture of the indigenous 
phint wtt^ established in Assam, tea geeda were obtained 
from China ; but rhielly from the most southern tea dis- 
trielH, from whence there is reason to believe most of the 
mannfaetureri' liaxe also eonie. The tea seedj? on their 
arrival in Cidcutta were sowti in tubs, and the plants aflter- 
wards Kent to AHsam^ a» well a» to Dr. Fahxmer, who 
planted tlieia in nurseries in K^maon and otlii^r llinndayan 
distriiHs. Tliere theee Chinese tea plants ^*w and 
Jlourisbcd even in siiuations where they were occaaiotially 
covered with isnow. They tlowen>d in the third year, and 
ripened their seed, from which time the eultmv has con- 
tinued to oncTCase. Mdbon* of seeds are iowii annually, 
so 41B now to oeeupy about 1,(X»0 acrea^ in difltrent eitua- 
tion<»^ from K^maon to the hdl tmets ne>ily acquired 
from the Seikrt., Sonie nncertainty existed at one time 
about the methods of niaking the bt'st kindn of black and 
of greea teas. 8ome who had resided at Cajdon having 



gtatA.'d that the Cljinese made either green or blaek tes 
from the same pkni ; others, that they eould not do $o 
without the aid of eoburiug matters. There is no doubt 
that there are at leaat two species of tea plant : one, csalled 
Thaa hokea by botanists, was supposed to be chiefly em- 
ployed for making blaek teas; the other, called Thea 
mridU^ wafi thought equally e#$entiat for making the 
green teas. The Cliincse tea-makers in Aesam in t^ome 
measure settled the ques-tion by making both kinds of tea 
from the same plaxit : and Jfr, Fortune, in his visits to 
the tea districts on the coast of China, ascertained that 
the plant ealled Thea riridU was that elnefly employed 
in making Wtli kbnls of t«a and their sevend varieties. 
The Thea hoh^a coidd, of eotn^, be employed for tlie 
same pmpose in disiriclA where it is indigenous, as the 
great difference depends upon the manu&cture and not 
upon the plant, llie prooesaei liaTO been fidly explained 
in Mr. BallV work on the Mauufacture of Tea in China. 
They consist, in the pwpiu^tion of hl^ck iea^ in wirefidly- 
watched and regidaled processes of tpoataneous heatings 
Of sfmoft^rmentaiiotiy of the leaves, until a certain d^;ree 
of fragrance is developed. The leaves are said to vriiker 
and ffire^ and become suit and flaccid. When the proper 
time has arrived, the leaves are rt*moved to the rooAting 
paa. After being roasted and rolkxl two or tliret^ times^ 
tJiey are dried in a i^linder of basket-work, which is 
placed over a small cliareoal fire. After the ilrying has con- 
tinued at)ont half an hour, the leaves are turned and again 
submitted to the heat for another half-hour. They ape 
then taketi out, rubbed and twiste<l, and, ader sifring 
away the small dust, again returned to the sieve and 
drying tub. The leaves now begin to assume their black 
colour. Tlie Ore \» deadened by eprinklnig some a^hes 
ovei' it. The o[>enition of rollings twisting, and sifting, is 
rejx^ted once or twice until they have become quite blaek 
in colour, well twistctJ, and perfc^ily dry and erisp. They 
arc then picked, winnowed, and further dried. 

In the manufacture of ^rven tea^ the freshly-pieked 
leaves are roasted in the kuo, or roasting-pan, at onoe, 
and at a high temix^rature ; rolled and roasted again and 
again, aaabted sometimes with n fanning o].>eratinn to 
drive off the moisture, and always with brisk agitation 
until the driing is completed. 

The great dilTerenee in the two processes consists in the 
black (ea undergoing the procesa of lennentation, or 
withering, while the lejives for the green tea are roa«t^ 
without undergoing imy previous change. The two 
sampler of green tea, the hyson and the gunjiowder, were 
prepared from the same plants as the souchong, under 
tlie superintendence of Dr. Jameson, in the Ea^t India 
Company's tea nurseries in K^maoii and the Deyra Dooo. 
The quantity of tea produced is ye»u-ly increasing. Cora* 
paratively httle has as yet been gent to tliis country, for 
it sells at very high prices on the sjtot where it is pro- 
duced ; and the inferior qualities, it is curious to ob«Mfnfe^ 
are actually carried across the Briliah frontier, and meet 
the teas of Cliina in Tibet, where the Cliineso authority 
e^ tends. 

Mr. Warrington has Cfllled atttndion to the means 
adopted for giving a facing to tea, as purehaaora were 
not satisfied with the natural dull, yellowish-green oolonr 
of tea. The tliincse, therefore, apply Prussian bluA, 
turmeric, and fibrous gjpsum to give it a bluish-green 
colour. 

ilr. W, ha? lately called attention to a new adulter^] 
tion, in which tea-du-nt is held together by gnm, and I 
with Prussian blue, turmeric, and ft liifge proportio 





DEPEXDEXCIE8.] 



EAST INDIES. 



873 



ilbrotu grpenm ; the black tea being (heed witb eartby 
graphite or Uack-lead. Bo gjeat is the adulteration tliat, 
thou^ genuine teas give only about 5 to 6 per cent, of 
1^ the li^ gunpowder yielded 34 and 45*5 per cent, of 
tsh ; scented caper 5*5, but lie flower caper 22*6 ; and 
mixtures, containing these lies, from 11 to 22*5 per cent, 
of a»h. 

Coffee ha«, like tea, begun to be cultivated in British 
India. It is chiefly grown, however, along the mountains 
of the Malabar coast, as in Wynaad, and in the Sh^ttvoy 
Hills, near Salem. Some of fine quality has also been 
sent from Chota Nagpore, and the south-west frontier of 
Bengal. We have also some cofi*ee from Assam.] 

Green, gunpowder, and black teas, from E.I. Company's 
tea plantationa in the Himalayan mountains in Kemaon 
and Deyra Doon. 

Hymm teas ; grey, black, and orange-flowered pekoe ; 
8onch<mg, Mongpo, frt>m Assam Tea Company. 

Souchong tea and orange Pekoe, from Chmese in Assam. 

Pekoe and Congou teas, grown on Government planta- 
tions, from Java. 

CoiSee, from Assam and from the South-west Frontier. 

Coflee, frt>m Calicut, and from Captain Moiris. 

Coffee {Chffea arabicd)^ fit)m Tinnivelly. 

Coffee, from Sheravoy HiUs, near Salem. 

Coffee berry, and in husk, firom Aden. 

Coffee, fr^m Java and Borneo. 

Coffee from Mr. Glasson's plantation, from Wynaad. 

(D.) Stimulating and Intoxicaiing Drugs. 

[This group includes, in the Indian collection, opium, 
hemp, tobacco, and a distilled spirit from an unusual 
Bource. Opium, as required for medical use and Euro- 
pean consumption, is produced chiefly in Asia Minor, 
and is conmionly known by the name of Turkey opium ; 
bat India produoee large quantities — a portion for its own 
kome consumption, but the great mass for export to 
ndna. The whole process of culture is displayed in a 
hrries of drawings, and all the apparatus employed in the 
ppppamtion, that is, in the collection, mixing, and drying, 
of the drug, in the opium agency at Patna, is exhibited, 
together with the opium made up into baUs, and covered 
viih the petals of the poppy stuck together with the fluid 
pirt of the opium, lliough this culture is a government 
laonopoly in the Gangetic province, it is also extensively 
euJtirated in the states of the native princes in Raj- 
podtana and Malwa, from whence several specimens liave 
bttn ietiX. Opium is produced of excellent quality in the 
Himalayas, where the tears, as collected, are simply 
fTKaed together and dried, as is the case with Turkey 
opium. 

The hemp plant {Cannabis saiiva), known in Europe 
^r yielding strong fibre for ropes and canvas, is valuable 
in the East for its intoxicating properties. The plant is 
identical with that of Europe, and is the Kinnub of the 
Arab«, whence the name Cannabis. It is also known by 
the name Husk^esk, and has a number of poetical names 
asj'igaed to it, as " cementer of friendship," " exciter of 
drtjre,'' Ac, and is supposed by some to have been the 
yepeniktit of Ilomer. The whole plant dried is employed 
fcjT smoking ; or, the leaves and capsules, without the 
kUELs rubbed to a fine powder, and mixed with conserves 
or with milk, &c., are taken to produce intoxication. A 
rtMxiou« secretion exudes from the upper parts, especially 
of t>w» fl. iwering stems, and is collected in various ways, 
ttd known by the name of Churrus. Tliis is used for 
tnr lianif purpose. It has lately been recommended as a 
rcedjcine to allay rheumatic and neuralgic pains, as well 
u to control muscular spasm. Hence, preparations of it 



have been included among the medicines sent from Cal- 
cutta. 

The spirit from an imusual soiu-ce is that which is dis- 
tilled from the flowers of the muohwa tree {Bassia latifoUa). 
These aboimd in saccharine matter. They are, therefore, 
as they fall, collected and eaten by the natives ; but, sub- 
jected to fermentation, a spirit is produced, which, being 
distilled, forms the common arrack of many parts of 
India. The flavour has been by some compared to that 
of whiskey. The tree is particularly valuable, on account 
of its seeds yielding a vegetable fat, likely to be useful 
in candle-making. See Oil Series. 

Tobacco, a plant of the New World, has come to be 
universally cultivated in Asia, as in Europe. The plant 
is grown with great care in many parts of India, espe- 
cially in rich soil near villages. But the natives totally 
neglect the curing of tobacco, upon which so much of its 
value depends in the European market, either for smoking 
or for making into cigars. This, to the natives of India, 
is of less consequence, as they mix the dried leaves of 
tobacco with coarse sugar or conserves of different kinds 
to smoke in their hookahs. Some excellent tobacco is, 
however, produced in different and very widely separated 
parts of India, as Sandoway in Arrakan, different parts 
of the Peninsida, and in Central India. It is probable 
that such tobacco as is acceptable in the European market 
might be produced in India, if equal care was bestowed 
on the growth and curing as well as on the packing of 
tobacco. — (See Illustrations of Himalayan Botany^ 
pp. 282 to 289.) But there is great consumption in the 
country itself^ both for smoking and for making cheroots, 
of which several specimens have been sent for exhibition 
from Chinsurah, in the neighbourhood of Calcutta, as well 
as from Salem and Trichinopoly.] 

Tobacco, Ishay, from Arrakan. 

Tobacco, from Gwalior, Maharajah Kao Scindia. 

Tobacco, from Malwa. 

Tobacco and cheroots {Nicotiana (abacum), from Trichi- 
nopoly, Salem, and Java. 

Cheroots of sorts, from Trichinopoly. 

Cigars, from Java. 

Cigars : imitation Manillas and Ilavannalis, common 
Cliinsurahs, imitation Havannahs, made at Chinsurah, of 
Sandoway tobacco, and of picked Bengal leaf at Chin- 
surah. 

Opium, from Gwalior — Maharajah Rao Scindia. 

Opium, country, Kano, from Assam. 

Opium, Thallawar, twenty-five, and Jhallawar three 
years old, from Raipootana. 

Opium, preparea, from Rajah of Kotali. 

Opium, complete series, exhibiting whole process of 
manufecture, from Patna. 

Opium, specimens of, from Benares. 

Opium (Government), from Khandeish. 

Opium, as taken from the field, as seed, and as pre- 
pared for exportation, from Malwa. 

Opiimi, from Nepal. 

Cheek opium. This and the two following articles form a 
com])lete series. The bhatted as prepared for exportation 
to cAiina ; the cheek or raw juice ; the poppy head, con- 
taining the seed and showing the mode of incision by 
wliich the opium juice is extracted — the three lines to- 
gether are one day's incision ; each head will show how 
many separate days it was available. — Bombay. 

Opium, from Kandeish. The specimen sent is from 
the government stores at Dhoolia, in Kandeish. 

Hemp, Gyanja (Cannabis satica), from Rajpootana; 
Bhungeera and seed, from Kemaon ; Ganja, from Calcutta; 
Cliurus and Ganja, from Nepal. 

Muohwa flowers (Bassia latifolia), and spirit distilled 
from them, from Rajpootana. 

3 B 2 



(£.) Spiee* and Condimerdt. 
[Spices are proverbially the produce of the Spice lalitnd*; 
but they fire not all ijbt^mod from these blfLnda^ and, of 
Lite years, those which were peculiar are now cultiTated 
in other BituationA. Tlie true eiunamon, for which Ceylon 
ia famed, is aUo now eultiyatod in Jura and Molocca, ss 
well aa in {larta of the western coaiit of the Indian Penin- 
fulo. What is eo caUed from A^satn b rather a kind of 
caaeia. Coena axid cassia-buds are produced on tlie Malabar 
eoiMtt. The cassia Icaroa, Malahalknm of (he amaeuta 
(Tam/tfa putrn), are used for the same purposes as baj 
leaves in Eurofie. Nutmegs urn now cultivated of eiccl- 
leJit quidity in Pciiting, whence they have been sent for 
exhibit ioii^ bi* well as firom Singapore and Tinnivelly, iii 
the Penitisulii of IndiA, The wUd nutmeg {Mtfrhtica 
hnntentitxa) in the prwluceof a diffeivnt apeeiea* Attempts 
have been made to introduce the tnie nutmegs, when 
giithertMl frotu trees (growing wild, at a lower rate of duly ; 
that IB, for the same duly wliich these wdd mitmegs are 
clmrgi*<l, though they are sory inferior, and the produce 
of a diilen-nt sjyeeiee of plant. Mace, whitrh is one of the 
OOveriiQgB of tlic nutmeg, \&, of course, obtwinable from all 
plaoes whew tlie nutmeg lb grown. Bhiek, round, and 
white pe]>]>er, the produce of <m0 plant, are, as in the 
earhest I inies, gn>%yn on the MftlabAi* coast. The capsicum, 
considered by botftuistj^ to be a nulivo of the New World, 
is eiiliiviitetl in every part of India, and universally em- 
ployetl as a concUmeut by the natives in iheir miiries : 
tluit grown in Ne^ml i^ considtTed by many to be very 
lugh l!ftvourt*(l. The Nuiall turthunoina, like pepper, are 
lotig-e*tal>li8hed products of the Malabar coast. Tlie 
large mrdamoms are produeed in I he forests along the 
foot of the Hininlfljna, though the plcint produeing them 
has not bi'cn clearly uiade out. Among the small cjir- 
mintdive*, the Pfjfvhotis ajotcattf secnis worthy of notict\ 
fri>iii tijc fiueiiej^.i of ita flflvour. It appears to hove lieen 
one of the kinds of amini of the ancieiita, and nearly 
allied to tlie Ammi eGptienm, The black seeds of Nitfefln 
4€tftvfT continue to be uwd as a condiment, as in the inoet 
ancient times, l»eing the Melanthion of the Greeks, 

UingiT, a native of Iu<lia, though extensively cultivated 
bi>tb on the plains and niouBtains of India, brings an 
iuG'rior price in the English market to tliat from the 
Wc?<it ludies, though it is there, proljably, an introduoed 
plant. If the Indian was more carefully cultivated and 
scrapedjSo as to btjcome white gin^jer, it would, no doubt , 
brmg a higher priw* ; much of that from Trayancore, as 
well &» from MaLibar, is of excellent quality. Turmeric, 
like ginger, u universally cultivated, being a common 
l*Oondimcut in curries, and likewise iiAcd as a dye. Several 
varieticiii are grown in ditFereitt |i«irts of India.] 

Ciiniamon, from the Government plantations, Java, 
and frotn Malaeea. 

Cinnamon, or Ca?hia, from Assam. 

Cinnamon, UiireluHfoee j eintiamon flowers, Dareheenec* 
ka phoul, from NepaL 

(L'lu^airi (CiHHamoinuM tdhiflontm)^ from Assam. 

Nutmegs, from Penat^g and Tinnivellv. 

Nutmegs, as pUu'ked from tree and shelled, from Singa- 
pon*. 

Nutmegs, from Sarawak, Borneo. 

AViht nutmega, unshelled aud shelled, from Cbram, 
Mohieras, 

Maee, from Singapore, Tinnivelly, Penaiig, and Sarawak, 
Borneo, 

Cloves, from Penang, Sarawak, liomeo, and Ttnnivclly. 

Cossiia leaveii, from Traraneore, 

C^itsia ieotes, Teji^t, from Nepal 



•SIMBM 



Spices, from Malacctt. 

Eound pepper (Piper m^rum)^ from 

Black pepper, from Travaneore^ StugapoNv Sumatra 
and Sarawak, Borneo. 

White j^Hopper, from Trayanoot^) Singapore, and 
Sumatra. 

Wild pepper, from Travancore. 

Long pepper, from Assam and Java. 

Peepul {Piper l&iiffum), from Bengal. 

Cayenne pepper, from Sam^vak, Bonieo. 

Bootan chiUies {Capticvm JhU^sc^n* aad Capi 
fantigmtHm)^ from Assam, 

Chillies, from Bootan. 

Small cliillies, 

Cliillie peppcTj Lai mirch, fr<om Nepal ; Tunboo, from 
B hot an, Nepal. 

Hill cardamums, Paharie ehu-hie, from NepaL 

Cardamoms, varieties of (Ehtiaria &ir<iamomufn)t fr^m 
Tnivancore. 

Cardamom a, a kind of, from Assam. 

Cardamoms {Cardamommm medmt n)^ from Bengal. 

Coriander, Dhuneea (Cktriemdrum sa(imtm)^ from 
Af sam and Nepal 

Cinnin seed, Ajwain, and other carminatives (OefiniiNMii 
lyTninnm^ Pftfckofis aJotvan^Anrthnnt xotca^Nigelln Jtaiiva)^ 
frooi Bengal and E. I. Co/s Dispensary. 

8tar ani^eetl (Ritcium anUatum)^ imported into Ctfr 
cutta from China, 

Feunugretk, Methee, from Nepal. 

Betel nids {Areca coi^eeAw), fi^m Assam. 

Betel nut, Areca nut, horn Travancore, 

Betel nuts, from Sarawak (Borneo) and Sin[ 

Mustard seed, kinds of, Race, Surson, Padsh] 
and Toree, from Nepal. 

Ginger {Zinffiber t^icituth)^ from Tmvancore. 

Ginger, Udnikh, from Nepal and Assam. 

Zingiber Cassuumar, Bunachi, from Bengal. 

Turmeric (Curvwma longa), from Assam. 

Turmeric {Curcvma longa)^ from Cuddapah. 

Turmeric, from Java. 

Turmeric, Hulfh, from Nepal 

Sort of onion, Qiappee, from Nepai 

Grarlic, Lahson, from Nepal. 

Sweet, Cashmere^ camp, and eoasoondie ehuttnie.^ ; tup 
sauce ; curry powder \ giuiya jelly j pinmpple marma* 
lade ; mango preserve | guava cheeae — fi^m Cah?utt«. 

(F.) Siarch Se-rleM, 

[The mune of this group wdl not indicot^ to the pubMo 
all the substanoea included under it, a* the term starch is 
usually applied to the preparation employed for giving 
stiffness to clothing of diflerent kinds. Tlie term is here 
employed to in f hide n number of eubstanctis, often called 
arrow-root» obtained from various parts of plants, as the 
root and tubers, stem and fruits, usually in the stat^ of 
white flour, msoluble in cold but easily dissolved in 
bailing water. For a long time the West Indian arrow- 
root {Mat*an(a arundimu^a) was considered the only good 
kind ; but a very useful kind is yielded by a si>ei'ie« of 
Can no, winch is also cultivatcil in the West India li^landf, 
and belongs to the same natund family. The MaranU 
arundinacea is now c^ullivnted near Calcutta and in olh«r 
parts of India, But large quantities of an eieellent sub- 
stitute are obtained in India from different specie* of 
Chireuma, all of which have not been clearly ascertained, 
thongh the arrow-root obtained fn^ni them has been sent 
from a variety of places. That of Travancore is known as 
a regular article of export j but it might be produced in 
large tjuantilie* from varioas parts of India. 

An arudogoua substance is the sago meal obtAined 
the !?tems of different kinds of Plioenix and of other 
trees in India, Of this, one kind has been sent from Cut- 
t4icL Tho so-DBll«d sago meid is deposited in the eellukr 



IhnoKiwpcixfl.^ 



EAST DaftES. 



67§ 



jMrt of die ifaetas of tbo sago palm {Arenga 9acchttri/hra), 
*'lhr pith of which is thu staff of life to the inhabitAnts of 
tiw HoluooB*** — {Mosbm':ffh). Sir John MaimdeviUe mja, 
** In Uwt Und g^row trees thiit bear uieal^ of which men 
mmka g^od brtad," The »Ago pidiD grows ^xtenjirelj in 
SotDfttn^ 6v)m whence the sago flour is imported into 
SiQgkpare, and then granulated into the difieront kinds of 
■Ago, In the form of sago cakes it ccmstttutes the prin- 
cipal iood of the natiroi of the Molncx^as, eepociallj during 
thor sea roiag^ Plantain meal, obtained from ihp fniit 
ufthtf plantain, or banana, may be employed for the same 
puipot i ^ though it is not so white-looking as arrow -root. 
Flavlrnvs form a large portion of the food of the negroes 
in thr West India lalands. In Guiana the meal is used 
OS a nntrittoos article of diet. 

Tho aeeds of Xelumhrium apecitmum and of Trapa bu- 
fi aw abound so much in staivh, that it may be eosQj 
mftatbeA 6om them. Both are employed aa articles of 
46tltwuBng the EUitivea of India, and may well be arranged 
m tlio iterdiier^s. 

Salep^ or« aa oommoiilj called, Sal&p mitree^ may also be 
pliiwl tint*, though the tubers ore not exactly of the 
aafciiie of atarvh, but consist of b£L4sonii, or insohible gum, 
with SQiDie soluble gum and starch. These tubers, pro- 
duced by different species of Orchids, are highly esteemed 
in India for their nutritious qualities. The be#t kinds, 
which are brought from Candahar and AlTgkanistan to the 
Hordwor tair, sell for a Teiy high price. Tlie kiiKlM pro- 
duced in India are, however, possessed of much of the 
mnm pfoperties. 

Alaog with the stareh series are also ranged the dilTer- 
cnt kinds otf Ag^r agar^ which hare been sent &om Shiga- 
poir^ and which are ^o much in request as objects of 
Ounae oonmiearce. These are Tarietics of Aft/a*^ or Wii- 
vfvds, ray mnil^r in their propertira to CiirrajReen or 
Ifiik ttOtOi and to Geylon or Jatlna moss, w liieh is eul- 
kded al Jaffiiapatam. Thej have by some betni thought 
to ht i^antical with it ; but the specimens of Cc-yIou mode, 
M Ijbeanihor's collection, do not eorre»j)ond with uU these 
iifaragar*; and it is probable, therefon?, tbut some are 
jietdsd by difEerent species of plants allied to tiie genus 
of the O^Lon mots, which is now called Plocoria can- 

*•*•] 

lmyw-root,kindsof, from Assam, Calcutta, Eutnaghen-y, 
ITii^Mitaiii, BomeOj and Java. {CMratma af^^H^tifolia 

i B l ...«■■■ . »•■) 

AfTOw-ffoat iRufnoffk^rty)^ The " Kutcherra, or root 
60D whj uf is prepared, grow<* in all t he Tillages 

m. Urn 9Ln: kun. It is used in the jaU, where the 

^osntitj maJe during the year amounts to about 18 
Daiznd*, or 504 lbs, Weit ludia arrow-root wm iritro- 
doced into tbcgardens at Rutnagherry by the collector, 
Mf, BfdtitiitOB, in 1S40 or 1841 ; it thrives exoeedingly 
vdl» bul it it not grown to any extent. The quantity of 
Ao9 [ ■^e yiul ircnn this root is about one maurul, or 28 lbs. 
ifuamlfyf) aa the native^ by whom it is cuUirsted, has 
■et f**4iTOpd a suflieient number of plants to exteud hitf 
tqt imem a, Mr. Elphinston having {given up his garden 
inl S II 46. The jail arrow -root fcUs from 4ri to nearly IJ 
«BM per B>. J whilst the We^t India arrow-root sella at 
(«HMa 4 pioe per lb., or 3 lb. per rupee. 

Jirrow-rtiot flour, firom CaUeut, 

9aga metd {F%anig), species of^ from Cuttack. 

tafl wmmo i saffo flour i so^ cokes j pith of sago palm. 
Fn atipa l £»d of natirea of Malacca, also made by them 
Momp. 

"hlikiQii, from Calcutta and Butnagherry. 

'Pp|rf'rit {MttiUfifghfrfy}^ Tapiota ws^ oh^o iritrodueed 
mAo tlw tfffdan* at this stallion bv Mr. KIpItiiiHUio in 
IM^ MUtbe total quanlsty of hma sown with slipt} of 



this plant, amounts to about three bccghas. Tliis eultivo- 
tion is carried on in a garden attached to the jnil, nnd on 
some land belonging to a native. This iudiridital p!V[>urL"«l 
about 15 maunda jearly, and 3 maunds are njade in tho 
jaU, in all 18 jniiunds or 5tHlbs. The jad ta])it)ia seUs at 
10 rupees per maund i wluJ^t that prepared by the native 
realises from 12 to 15 ru[jee8 per mauud, as W 
of it by retail sale at Boiiibaj, 

Tapioca and arrow-root flour is prepared by raspingi 
the roots down to a pulp, which is sleept^d in clear water,] 
after wliieh the llbre La separated hy the hand, the fiuoj 
Uour binng allowed to settle at the but torn *, the 6brou#| 
part or atulTis eaten by eattlf, and seema to be yery nutri- 
tioiis* The r<)ot mny be roasted and eriten as yams. The 
tlour^ prejiared as above deseribe<l, becomes puri-r in pro- 
portion to the number of time* it is wtL^hed in water, which 
has to be changed iwiii^e n day to pre v cut its souring or 
be€H:)iiiiug acid, wlueh injures the tlavoiir of the (lour. 

Of the quantity of Hour, both tapioca arnl arro\v*root^ 
one-third is conHiuncd ot the station, and the rcTTittiiiing two- 
thirds ore sent to parties rtpplying for it from Bouduiy, Tha 
native numufiMtun^r retails his ow^^ produce nt Bombay,! 
as he makes a greater gain tliau by wholc'^alc to the chemii^ta 1 
and druggiata. 1 have not heiu'd of any Rutiiagherry tapiociil 
or arrow -root being exportetl to Engknd or -any other Eu- 
ropean coimtry/' 

Flour of ^elumbium eeods {Neiumbium «pecicw»fa), 
from Cuttack. 

Salqj, Sslep inisree, obtained in Calcutta, from thfli 
nortli-wei*t of India. 

Plantain med, from Madras, 

Agar Agar. — 1st quality obtained from Malacca. A 
sort of edible ?ea-wecd, which grows on the rocks that 
HiTc covered by the tide. It is mueh iiAcd for making m 
kind of jt'llvt which is higlily i'.HtiH?nitHi both by Europeanfl 
and natives for the dcbcacy of its Havour. From Sin 
pore Committee. 

Ditto.- 2nd quality, obtained from Macassar (CGlebea)*^ 
It i» an ctliblc sea- weed, collected on the etnhuiei^ed I 
in the ueighbourhooct ol' Ma^ttJ^Har hv the Hajow La>^ut o»l 
4?eo Gipsies, for cxportntion to C hina. Ihtto. 

Ditto, — Obtaineil froni Singapore, and euUected on the 
reefs and suhiucrgcd ledgca in the vicinity of Singapore, 
and constitutes the bulk of the cargoes of the Chineisiij 
junks on their retiurn voyage. It h much used there aa 
tt size for stiffening silks and making jellies. Ditto. 

(G.) Stt^ftr Series. 
[The inareaaed growth and manufacture of sugar in 
India have often attracted attention in Europe, in order to 
ascertain whether it coidd be PU|qjlicd in n\ic\\ q mm titles 
and at sm'h prices iw to confend with slave sugar in homo , 
market?. From the larger capital which has been invented '^ 
in the manufacture of »\ignT by EuTO|>eans, and froiti the 
iiiciTascd exports of sugar from India, it wtnild appear that 
capitalists are of opinion that this can be done. But the 
great dcimnid there is in India for sugar for home con- 
aumptioo, and the rapiditj with which prices are nm up 
in the interior whenever an increased demand wciu^ from 
Euro[>e, have prevented the nuich larger exports that 
might have taken place, or the expected profits being 
realiicd on its arrival in thii* eountr). One thing is veiy i 
evident, and that is, the great improvement which hjM 
taken phicc in the manufacture of aogar bj tlie diiTcrent 
European Companies wliich have been cstablisilied in 
India, as dis*playe<l in the gpeciracus sent for exhiljition 
from Cosiiiporo and Ghinjam, from the Deccan, and from 
Shajehaiiporc. Tlie sugar- candy from Bickauecr ia inte- 
resting, because it is wnit from a dit^triet where tlie sugar 
is not produecd ; in fact, from a de;*ert-Uke country wbero i 
the BUgar-cane cannot be grown. But sugar in a raw 
state is imported from the plains, nnd oftcr being puritlcd 
and CT) stalliied is sent back again and brings a goou price, 



87(j 



EAST 1>'DIES. 



[Colonies akd 



as it is valued both by Europeans and bj natives of rank. 
These also consume a good deal of the sugar-candy of China. 

Among the sugars another very interesting feature is, 
the variety of plants from which sugar is obtained, and of 
which specimens have been sent. Though the sugar-cane 
yields by far the largest quantity, yet in some districts 
the wild-date palm (Fh<gHix gylcesirui) is the principal 
source, as in some of the districts of Bengal. In the 
Madras Presidency much sugar is obtained from the 
Palmyra palm {Borattus flaheUiformis), and in the straits 
from the gomuti or sago palm {Arenga saccharifera). 
A specimen lias also been sent of sugar obtamed from the 
I^eei^li, a plant allied to the Pandanea^ or screw pines, 
and wliich lines the shores of many parts of the Malayui 
penin.-^ula, as well as of many of the Eastern islands. The 
Bassias, wliicli have been mentioned as the sources of a 
distilled spirit, also yield sugar, though this is more 
frequently fermented than separated from the flowers in 
the form of sugar. 

Following the sugars, a very good specimen of nuinna 
horn the tamarisk is displayed, having been sent to the 
author of this note by Dr. Stocks from Scinde.] 

Loaves of sugar manufactured after European and native 
methods, from Shahjehanpore, in district of Boliilkund. 

Sus:ar {Sacchantm qfficimale), fix)m Aska, in Ghmjam. 

Suiiar from the Deccan. 

Indigenous Sugar. " Made by the simple process de- 
scribed in the ^ Transactions of the Bombay Agricultural 
Society of 1839.' Coidd be afforded at 7 to 8 rupees per 
maund of 84 lbs." — Bombay. 

Sugar from sugar factory at Cossipore. 

Sugar candy; native crystallized sugar candy; from 
Bickantvr. Raiali of Bickanecr. 

Sugar made from the juice of spathe of the Gommuti 
palm, from Java. 

Date sugar (Phcenix sylrestris), from Dacca. 

Ntvimh sugar {Xipa fhtiicans), produced in Burman 
and Malayan peninsida. 

Sugar of Muohwa flowers, or those of the butter tree 
(Basjtin bttfi/racea), from K^aon. 

Sugar, manufactured in Dutch high-pressure vacuum 
pans, and by a new process not generally known, made in 
common o|>en batterj', from Sourabaya, Java. 

Sui):tir, uianufEurtui^ in low-pressure vacuum pans, from 
Probolingo, Java. 

Yestinado, substitute for liquorice root (Abrm* preca- 
toriuiSy from Tanna. 

Tamah^k manna from Scinde. — Dr. Stocks. 



Class IT. 

Vegetable Scbstaxces Used in MAxrFACTUBES. 

[The natural products of this class are separated frt>m 
the last bcv^auso they are employed chiefly in the arts and 
manufactures, or as medicines ; yet some of them are also 
used as articles of diet — as, for instance, many of the fiitty 
oils and gum in some parts of Africa. 

Gums, SenmSf and Chim-reniu, 
In mercantile language, the word gum indicates very 
dL*<imilnr ^lil>*tance3 — that is, either a yiiiii, a resin, or a 
gum-resin. But the word gum signifies a vegetable exuda- 
tion wliicli is soluble in water, and resin one that is soluble 
in spirit, \*liile gum-resin indicates those which contain 
both \pxm and resin. Without chemical analysis, it is not 
alway« oavsy to say to which of these groups a new and 
unknoT^^Ti substance belongs. 

A? Afriai jiroduces and exports the largest quantity of 
the ijum of oonmierce, we might expect that some of it 
would reaih India with other African products from the 
East, or Somali Coast, through Aden and Arabia. Some 



fine specimens of gum have been sent from Aden, pro- 
duced probably by different species of acacia which abound 
in the arid plains of Africa. In India a good deal of 
gum is yielded by Acacia arahica, and by other species 
of the same genus. Gum is also yielded by species of 
other genera, as Fcronia, Melia, Mimusops, and a substitute 
for tragacanth by species of Cochlospermum and of Ster- 
culia. It would be extremely interesting and important, 
as showing their application to different purposes in the 
arts, to ascertain their exact composition, and the means 
by which the less pure kinds of gums might be purified. 
Some of these, though not purely such, are more useful for 
their astringent properties, as those of Butea, Bombax, 
Moringa^ and Diospyros. Among the resins, that called 
Soondroosy and by Eiut>pean merchants, ^fitim^ and 
Copal^ is imported into this country from India. It is 
the produce of Africa^ and forms one of the imports into 
Aden. The tree yielding it Is unknown. This resin has 
sometimes been thought to be the produce of Valeria 
indica ; but this yields a resin which exudes in the liquid 
state, and is known by the name of Piney varmsh. Some 
fine specimens have been sent in bottles, and are in a semi- 
fiuid state. Othera are in a dry state, and fonn a pure 
resin. A greenish-coloured resin from C<xn^, of which 
the source is unknown, also appean very pore, and 
might, like the former, be employed for making vamishes. 
The most abundant of the resins is that of the saul trHS 
Shorea rohusta, which is itself an invaluable timber tree. 
It is used for all the purposes of resin, and for paying the 
bottoms of boats in India. It is known by the names of 
Dammar, ral and dhoona. The name Dammar signifies 
resin in general, but is most fr^uently applied to the 
resin of a pine, the Dammara ansiralis, of which speci- 
mens have been sent from Malacca. Among the fragrant 
resins, the olibanum may be mentioned, which is used in 
India as incense. That produced in India is obtained 
from Bastcellia thuri/eraj while that imported from 
Africa is the produce of probably another species of 
Boswellia. Myrrh is imported from Africa^ and assa- 
fo^tida, ammoniacum, &c., from the Persian Gulf. Bdd- 
Uum, an inferior kind of myrrh, has been shown by 
Dr. Stocks to be produced by a species of Balsamodendron. 
Dr. Nicholson has dicovered it in Kattywar, and it is 
probably produced in other parts of India. Benzoin is a 
well-known product of the island of Sumatra ; but a kind 
is stated to be produced in Malabar, of which the source 
has not been ascertained. The storax sent by the Bajah 
of Kotah has probably btvn imported into India. 

The oleo-resins have not attracted that attention which 
they deserve : the kind called Chirjun, obtained from a 
species of Dipterocarpus, yields an oleo-resin vezy similar 
to balsam copaiba. 

Caoutchouc and Chiita Percka. 

Among these are some original specimens ; as the 
caoutchouc sent from Assam to Mr. Swinton, and the 
specimens collected by Capt. Tetch, wliich are very pure, 
have Uttle coloiur, and retain all their original properties. 
Xew sources of this useful substance are indicated in the 
siKxrimens from Singapore. 

The si^ecimens of gutta percha are interesting, as being 
some of the original ones sent by Dr. Montgomery to 
the India House, and from whence spci^imens were dis- 
tributwl to numerous ex])erimentalLsts. Professor Solly 
employed some of them in the analysis which he made 
on the original introduction of this substance. Theed 
are sent by Colonel Bonner, of the East India IlmiMif] 



JkrEXDExcms,^ 



EAST IXDIES, 



877 



(A.) Gum ami Jtfmn Serieg. 
CJttBi Bahon] (Aerteift nrahlcn), from Benj^l, 
Gum Arabic, from Adt-ii (importtKl fruni .Somali coast) j 

deirgfttm of .-li'wf- >. .a., from Rnjpootarifth; dumiTta 

jiq|ot4 {Acacin h ^nsiii Virttgapatam ; Biib<x»l 

tM%^ kffikur jc^OTid \_i- nieAiana)^ fro»i Bengiil- 

Gtun gaitic. Babul trw, from inlfrior of Bombar. 
Gum Gilt tie i* ft gnun pruduwd in the Concan, Giuicnit, 
tad Dckbui, frtkni the ^'otmnoii " bnbool "" or acacin am- 
llHrt^ TtTT aiimUr to grnn arabie. R*-e3i|X)rtrd uliieflj^' to 
OrvA BiitAiii : annual importation 3G<.»,WH7 \h». 
Gitm from margosa tree {lie fin azadirackta)^ firom 

' elrphantnm) '^ PagTidrt 

j«T' . i ^- I j«*gottt (Jfor/rtJ^flpp^-r/^- 

^IMTtMtf), ixxnti Vi£«i^n{>«iiau] ; Bailee gonci {SltrevUa 
OTrat), or (rpiiriiou5 tnigaiMintb. 

B|mrinuff Tragacanlh, Balec gond, the jpmi of tbe 
Stcmilm ureDs. Tlii* comt^ from tbt^ ndghlwirUood of 
Txima : it i.* all thAt tlie committee havf Iwen able to ob- 
tjuji, raid waj^ taken from a [iriviite ooUoction. It i» not 
KilJ in tbe bdxiuir of Bombay ; it has btit-n wiit, at the re* 
qu«t of thr Central Committee at Uuleuttii. 

Kutecrs, OT spuriona Trugacajith {Cockhspennitm gox* 
jpgmtfli), troai Mt'enit. 

Gunui, fiiuJi collection in botilc!»f from Sarawak^ Borneo. 

Beein of aani troc {Sfutrea rohnMta)y from Bengal jind 
BbiiriiJpore j Gug^ikm {Vatica turnbugifaia)^ from Canara 
and VtuLga|»taxD. 

Copml, doondroos — sent from Bombaj- 

It ia importAi here from the Persian and Arabian gul&, 
Hu) re-exported diiefly to Europe. 

Pinrj TBTiiish [Vaieria imiica)^ from Malabat* and 

Paier rmn of dhoop troo ( raUria iWtW), from Cannm. 
Eenn of Tcniloo, kind of ebonj {Dioiipyrwtl)^ from Bnj- 
paotaoah, 
WAm aU-DliooiiA, from Assnin. 

for i^ijing bottoms of aliipa, fi^m 



Umattha, ooatiniB: to poper umbrelks and Tandsb^ lor 
ittmt&^iav of papier mache ; Thetsee {Mtluuorrkaa 
mtMm}, DMsd M lacquer, from Arraean. 

Blirlc rarniah, from Aasam^ Beain of {Odima wodier)^ 
lima OtJkmUm vnd (rom Meerut. 
S appw i»J»|gotit (Ev^emajamboo)^ frt)m Tixagapatam, 
Ptieh of gftup tree {EmbryopteHft ^hlimjhra)^ from 
BiM^porr. 
Ihflvrnil 9ort« of dhoop, aperfdme, from Nepal, BhotAn. 
ODtaltUll* mI^ gond, liobfkQ (BoMWtlHa thnrifeta), 
fton diflta If ifpOTO. 

DlbmnJi Jimi (Oardenia ItteirJa)^ verj effective m keep- 
ii| vciipai (rom wounds, from the interior of Bombnj. 
ItocadM in amber-coloured tran»parcDt dru^iJi about the 
miteiliht «bootf« and from thence ia eoUet-ted, 

i polu ( Cahlropig ti'iga nlea ) , from V i zagapit am . 
y DsmiuAT, frtmi MolAcea, Java, and Sumatra, 
t ajkd ^Ua, gTvut rariety, from Barawak, Borneo. 
fit tnrpcntifie (Pimnir hnijifufm)^ from Oieero Poon- 
ji« hilK Dmma. Besin, from rUwar. 

I rtomx, in eiUrr box, from Bnjpootauati. 
B (Styraje henzmn)^ from Sumatra. 
, from Ihfalabar aud Canara. 
I raama, ae aaaafcetida^ ammoniaCj Ae., import ihI into 
f from the Persian Gulf, 

I Amxmmiat- is imported into Bombaj from Persia 
and chieflj re-ejported to Great jiritam. 
^flirtation, 13-2,29<; Iba. 

oj«r. Of tlii^ glim no 8c<K)imi Ima been oh- 
I wa* icul in antieipation that &i\ iiciHjunt of it 
tn focheonitng, but none ha? n*iirhftt the eommiltei*. 

Tlii^ pum iif imported from the Persian 

I BiikQi, and chiefly re-eiportetl to Tarious parts 

JUmual importation, d:dt,9tfj0 Wfs, 

, m kind of myrrh , fmni A<len. 

, from Bombay. Two kind* of this gum hnre 

ooej which is Ihiek like wax. and the 



other the common dark sort. It is found prineipaHv in 
Persia, Amfurt, Cuteh,and .Sindh, and ia t hiefly re-enx»rted 
to Calcutta and China : it U used in medicine. Ayerng^ 
anniml importation, 177,887 lbs. 

Bdellium, from Cutch. Tiiis i» r<il]ectcd in Cutch; but 
probably the grenler port imported there is from Arabiii, 
mid the Somali eoa*t of Afriea, 

Nepalapi pulu {Jairopha Curcoji) ; Merpakeilii (Antyrir 

commiphora}^ from Vixfl^apafoju and Oanjam. " 

Olibanum, fn>m Aden, from 8omrdi eooat. 

Mvrrh, Hera bole tnid By sabole. 

Drarf*in&-blood, from Aden, imp(irle<l frc*Tn Sumali cC4ist. 

lleraduecun (Bimibat/). *' The produee of a hir^^e 

ipecies of rutau, growing on the north niid north -east 

eoaAtc* of Sumatra and in *omo pnrt^ of Burnt o, and im* 

portefi in small quantities to Jlombiiy. It h either in oval 

or muud dro])8 \iTap|i€d up in tlog-leavivi, or in lari^e and 

generally more impiuv masses cf>nipowHl of #n^itller tean*. 

It i^ inteniuUy and extenmlly of a du.«ky red colour, and 

when j>owderetl it should bei-ome of o bri;;!^ i ; if it 

be black, it is worth ven' little. It is sr .nupa- 

rcnt, and ha** little or no ?mcll or t»i-itc ; \ :. .^ of the 

Intti-r ifl res»inona and astringent. Ih'Qgons'blood is fur 
preferable to that in cak(», the latter iR'iug nior^.? friable 
and le«i* eon^pflctj re^iiions*, and pure, than the former. 
Being a costly article, it is %cry apt to be adulteraliMl; mo^t 
of its alloys diasohe like gum in water, or eru*kle in the 
fire without proving iiitlammflblJe; wheretw* Ihegenuine dra- 
gons^-blood rendily mtltii and ditches flume, and L» *carcelv 
ticted on by watery liquors. It ia oflen (►onfoimded witit 
ffitin kino ; but a little obserration would ea.^ily di*e<>Ttrr tlm 
diflerenee, No imports of it took plaet^ in 1847-48 or 
48-49. In 18if>*&t), however, 58(3 Iba. were imjxtrted, and 
re-exported to Tarious places in India, 

Gamboge, It is* imported from Singapore, Chim^ luid] 
the Straits of Midiieca, aud in eliicliy re-exported to Gresgll 
Britain. Amiunl imporlation, i:t>,80t lbs. 

Cut teem umbo, or Kaltinmndoo gxim [Euph&rhin n^rei^l 
JbHa), This gum is described a* being usefid in cement* i 
ing iron with other ^ubstancedj the blade and handle of 1 
a knife for instance. 

India-rubber from Ficus daatica, collected by Captain 
Teiteli, <S^e., in A*»am. 

India rublier, Giun eaontcboue, from Lamptmg, Ba- 
matra j Manjegatu {Fictta indiea), Atti jejjota (jFVnw race-' 
mo^fl), from Vi/,agapatam ; Camboley \ Hants indica}^ 
fi^m Panlghut. 

fJuttn-percha. Some of the original sjicctmena aent by 
Dr. Montgomery to the India Llouse. 

GuttA percha {Isouandra ffuUajt from Johore^ Malay 
Peninsula. 

Gutta Imp used for birdlime {Artaeorptts)^ from Binga- 
pone. 

Macintosh & Co, Camhriilfft St. Manch^ater^ and *IZ 
Aldennattbut*/, i/Ort(i?«»^Importers, Maiiufuctm-era, 
and Patentees. 

1 — 4 Specimens of India-nibber, from Asisam.* 

5 — 7 Specimens of India-nibbcr| iu procef* of cleaning, 

in masticntetl block, and in thin cut ehtn^'ts. 

8— Id Specimens of ludia-nibber in laid alieets, in 

eolouri^, and in sohdion. 

11 Specimens of India-rubber, laid on Tarious fabrics 
as material for making waterfiroof article*. 

12 Sjiecimena of India-rnbbt-T cmbo^.'^iugs for making 
up various fancy articles. 

13 Specimens of Imlia-rubber thread for wearing into 
rarious elni*tif articles. 

14 Specimen? of India-nibber thread for ladies' knitting 
ond crochet work* 

Birdlime, bor ntttick, from A«J^im. 

Vnrieties of miv caoutchouc ond its pn'pamtious for 
Tarious manufactures, consisting of tbe wood, the eoagii- 
late^l juice, of the caoutchouc from Assam ; niw cuout- 
clioue frum A^sam, Si!iCTii>or« {Urceofo ehutica^ the 
Jintawan of the Malays), from Pam, Jauuiira, &e. 

Caoutcliouc in the' processes of bemg cleaned, eomi- 



878 



EAST rSDIES. 



[COLOKIES AXO 



r»hi 



gated bloekft, sheets imta from Itlocka, and tdso In iprvad 

Caoutchouc vidcanUwi in a sulphur biith ; sidphurized 
hy mtrhftuioal niixture; ditto rulLtanizcd; bloek* tuI- 
Odiiizt'd ; »1iDet5 vuk'anUtjd for Tarious purpoeieti. ; tiiiviid 
ditto for el&stic fubrir:* ; shceta cxjloured uiid vuleftimed ; 
boeflk>d and niodellLHl caoutchouc TulciiraiMMl ; cloth for 
iterptoof eloihing and iirticle* of Tarious fabrics ; doiible 
* «ing^le textures iiilcaimed ; «hwte cunx^rrttal^ eolourtid, 
tivcrted, and vulco-cotiverted ; dough for sprt^ading into 
iheets, »nd vamUhes prepared of caoutohouc, &c. 

Tho ppoce»9 of tffaiing cftoutchouc with Bulphur, by 
mcariH of hcat^ aiiice calLxl Yulcauizing, waj* clincovcrcd by 
r. ThoiiuiB Ilftiieock, and puti^iited hy him Novcrabpr 23, 
18-13. Th(3 rcuiirkttblc changes cfftrlcd by this trtnituicnt 
of pjirmtchaui) Art*: — lat. \U resistance to the ctlk't* of 
clinuiitic tcTiHH>raturc, neither being atiiTcTied by cold nor 
ircd hy licat. 2ij»ily, It resist* tht* dcstmctivc action 
the common aolvcntsi of caoutcliouc, merely absorbinj[T 
cm EH a Jiponge does water, but without btring dii$solTed 
atflcutial oUs. 3rtLly. Its grofitly mcreaaed and penim- 
t eluHticity, 
These valuable properties, imparted by Tulcanizing, hnre 
led to the uses oi caoutchouc, prcTioiisly vcrj' Einitcd, 
y important and exieiUiiTe apphcationa to muiiufac- 
luid engineering* 

(C.) Oil Series. 

[Thii aeoriea includca both voIalUe and/oW^v* «« "^^ *» 
BoUd oilfj, or vegetable butters and tiiUowa, as they arc also 
culled. India is rich in all the tliree group* of oil»j and 
among them are some which are Mttle known in Europe, 
thoTigb they are veil t^lculatod from their good qualities, 
abuodanct^, and cheajjne^s, to become valuable as article* 
of eoniiULTce, and from tlieir fituesa for candle and *^oap 
making. Among the Tolatile oiln are the famed alr^ 
uit^r, or olfo of rose*, and with it aome fine K>fte-i*Titer 
from Mr. Godfrey, of Obazoeponk Gra^$ oil^ often 
ovUad, tliough erroneously^ Oil of Spikenard, haa been 
ient from Mreral parts of Central India, aa well m from 
Sumatfa, under the name of Sif% or Lemon-gra^s oil. It 
is probable that they aro all produixnl by gpeetes of the 
old genus Andropoffon : thougli, without authentic speci- 
mens of the plants from each platx^, it t:* not possible to 
identify these correctly. It u* probable tlmt one of them 
is the sweet cane, or sweet calamus of Scripture. Sandal- 
wood od and the essence of Krigee or Keora (Pamdamu* 
odoraUivimut), are highly esteeinetl in the East, as well as 
that prepared from the Uptjut, or Affila and AKUa^ the 
alot»s-wood of Scripture. With all these may be enume- 
rated several essentiftl oils from the Moluccas, aa well as 
scMmts from Ohaaeqx>re. The latttn' are solirtiona of the 
•cents in the finer fixed oils. 

With these volatile oils may be noticed the camphor of 
SnmatrA, often called Barus camphor, which has been 
forwarded from Borneo, md Singapore. This kind, found 
in a solid state in small pieces within the wood of Dnfo- 
haiamops camphora^ is so highly valuetl l>y the Chineae^ aa ; 
to be bought by thera at a mtieli liigher pric43 than they 
sell their own ptirilied camphor for, though Kuropeans 
cannot perecir© th*t it is in any way iiderior. 



This is probably as suitable a plaoe oa any for noting 
the Kayu Oani, xjr Ag^in wood. Lignum aloes, mid Ca- 
1am bae wood of eommenx^, which is produce*! in Sumatra 
and Malacca, as ali*o in 8illiei, In the last^ by Aqitiiaria 
a^aUocha of Roxbiirgh, figured by the author in hL* 
** Illustrations of Himalayan Botany.*' That of Malacca 
may be produee«l by the same species j that of Siarn L* pro- 
doccil by the Afoexi/lum of Lourviro. It is higldy est<vm6d 
in Chiua and in Turkey. In the former it is reduced to a 



fine powder, mixed with a gummy sabstancei, and laid 
oxcT small slips of wood, which arc burned in their temples 
to give out a fragrant odour. 

The true Spilenard, or Nardos, compared by the Arabs 
to (he tail of an emiine, is arranged here with aloes-wood, 
aa it tilso forms a seent higldy esteemed in India and other 
Eastern countries.] 

Volcdife OiU. 

Otto or atr of ro6c« {Eoia gl4imUflora)t from Ghazee* 
pore. 

C)U or atr of ro«ea, from Bajpootana. — Eajali of Kotah* 

Bos^wafcer, by Mr. Godfrey, from GhaKccpore, 

QrajBB oil {AiidropaffO» Mtfrtini ; SiyhtttmnihuM 1 maW- 
catms: A, nahtmiu aramaticuay Royle)^ from Malwa. 

Gras.'i oil, with the graaa and seed, from which it is ex- 
tract ed, contributed by R. C. HamiJt/jn, Esq., from Malwa. 

Lemon grass or siri oil, from Sumatra, 

Oil of cloves (Oleum carjfopft^/li}^ from Madras. 

Cajaputi oil, Kayapateh, from 31 alact^^a. 

Sandal'wood oil, Chexidana tel, Sun dan a yennoi (San' 
talutn albffm)j from Man galore and Canam. 

Ketgei* oil {p{ind<inus odoraii*4timHji)f{rom HajpootanBt 

Kitichce ; Uttiir khera, green-pined screw pine, white 
flowcrefl ; lUtur khetkee, green-pinetl screw pine, yoUow 
llowcred {Fandanita od4}rati4simH^), from Kajpootana. 

Uggur, or oil of aloea-wood, from Kepaul. 

Compound od of aloea-wood, £rt>ui Rajjiootana, 

Essential oil of aloes-wood, from t3haxcepore. 

Saifron oil, from Bajah of Kotah, Rajpoot ana. 

Scents of chumpa, jasmine, &c. {Miehelia chwnpaca^ 
Jatmimttm ffrandi4orum, and J. sambav)t from a native 
perfumer at Ghaxeepore. 

Ee<*i4'ntiftl ods and scents, from the Moluccas. 

Camphor, commonly called Barus eamphor^ from 
Borneo, much e^stecmed in China, erroneously said to be 
usctl to flavour the Cliincfic camphor. 

Kayu garu, Uggur, Agik, Eagle or aloes wood, from 
iSimiatra and Malacca. 

Spikenartl, balehur and jatamansi, Nardosta^^hys jata- 
mansi, both used for making scents* Himalayas. 

Fatiy OiU. 

[These are very nuroerous in India, being employed by 
the natives both a* articles of diet, for anointing their 
bodies, and for burning in oil'lamt>a. Some of tliem aro 
cidtivated by the agricidturist, as the poppy, linseed^ 
sesamum, nuatil, or Qnisoti^, ground nut, and the dif- 
ferent kinds of mustard-like plants^ so also cmstor-oil and 
safilower. Tlw slirubby Jairopha curcfu is grown in 
hedges, Ac. Oil is also expressed from the seeds of large 
trees, as the Cocoa-nut, tlie Kiimiiij, Cliinmjeo, Neem, 
Margosa, Poontree, and many others, of which the poeu- 
liar properties arc not well known, as fitted for dillerent 
purposes, but all can bi> obtained in large quant it ica. 

But the solid oils, or vegetable butters, such as the 
cocoa-nnt in tcn3jK»rate climates, are of great interest, and 
several have been sent from India. Of these, that of the 
Basiia &«j[yrae«a, from the neighbourhood of Almora, in 
the Himalayas, has several times bei*n \\Tittrn about, but 
it occurs only in small quantitiefl ; that of the Btfsda 
i^fi/oHa, or Muohwa tn.v, lias been analysed by }kir. Hard* 
wick, who luis sent specimens of the Btume acid, which 
he obtained from this vegetable fat, which closely resem- 
bles the solid oil of another apeciea of Mastia, that is, 
i?. hnffi/otia^ which is common in the Madras, as B. laU- 
folia is Ln the Bengal, Presidency. This has already 
bei^n mentioned as secreting sugar in its flowei^ which, 
being fennenti^l, yields, In distillatiou, the common anacl[^ 
of the country. From the great abundance of both 
^eG»?«, a [ilcntifid supply of the oil might lie obtained, 
and at a cWp rate. The luUiTtt could supply then- omr^ 



DtnSDESCIES.] 



EAST INDIES. 



879 



wiots with the oil« from tho annual plants. Another 
kM oil, of which the tree ( Valeria indica) haa already 
been mentioned as yielding piney Tarnish, is still more 
nhstantial in nature, and is commonly called TCgetable 
tillow. It waa examined some years since by Professor E. 
SoUt, and it* fitness for canie-making clearly demon- 
itrateiL Though the tree is abundant, it is doubtful 
whrther the oil which is expressed from the seeds can be 
had in any considerable quantity — probably from the vrant 
of a regular demand. In addition to them, a vegetable 
Ullow has been sent in a gourd from Sarawak, in Borneo, 
md another in bamboos from Malacca, though the trees 
yielding them are not mentioned. They may be the same 
V the SiUliitgia sebifera^ wliich yields the yegetable tallow 
of China, or they may be yielded by species of Bcusia or of 
PUmandra. One of them may be the Mima hatta^ or stone 
oil, which was introduced from Borneo some years since. 
But without specimens of the plants or trees yielding 
tbe several oils, it is impossible to identify them when the 
number is so groat of trees yielding not only oils but solid 
fits. Mr. Low mentions that several species of Diptero- 
cirpu^ yield a £&tty oil, which having been sent to Eng- 
]ud, has been extensively used under the name of vege- 
table tallow and vegetable wax. The seeds of one of the 
fpet'ics, called Meneahang pinang, yield a very large pro- 
portion of oil, which, on being allowed to cool, takes the 
cona«tcnce of sperm. This has been used at Manilla in 
the manufeurturc of candles. In Borneo it is called by the 
narives indifferently " Minicik meneabang" or " Miniak 
tali^a^rauJ'* Another oO, expressed from the seed of a 
tiee called tatiow, is called ^* Miniak katiow.^* It bums 
in lamps with a bright and clear flame, and emits an 
agreeable odour. The Miniak kapayang is another oil 
held in esteem for cooking by the natives of Borneo. It 
ill yielded by the tree, called Pangmm edule by botanists. 
Mr. Low mentions, moreover, that the seeds of many of the 
fi.•n^»t tree*, as the mate or gutta percha of tho Malay 
P«rnin<ula. produce edible oils of fine qualities. He also 
peftTs to wood oil*, called " Miniak kruing^^ which are 
obtained by cutting a large hole in the tree, into whicli 
fire bring placed, the oil exudes. The wood oil, or gurjun 
of Silbet, i4 obtained in something of a similar manner 
from different species of Dipterocarpus. 

Tne sohd oils or vegetable fats sent from Bombay, under 
the name« of Kokum and of Kikuel oil, the first yielded 
bj the seeds of Oarcinia purpurea^ and the other by the 
w^U of Sahadora persica^ are remarkable for their solid 
ff.in^istence, and may probably be applicable to a variety 
of u^ul purposes. 

Thi* collection of oils is probably the largest in number, 
and at tlie same time one of the most valuable, that has 
ever been sent to this country. Tliough many have con- 
tnl»ut*?d in forming the collection, the Commissary -General 
of Madras, Captain Horsley, of Falamcattah, and T. Bishop, 
Eaj-, of Tanjore, may be mentioned as each sending 
seT«*ral varieties of oils. 

A specimen of vegetable wax is interesting. It has 
^ATii jiut from Singapore, and is said to be obtained from 
tiir- island of Billitor — yielded, i)erhaps, by one of the 
•b-jTe-rocntioned species of Dipterocarpus.] 

Un-«eed and Unseed oil, tissee tel, from Moorshedabad. 

Linseed, grown in the interior of Bombay. 

Sttanmm oil (Sesamum orienfaie), (black and wliite), 
fr^m Mc»or«hedabad. 

(Hngeiy seed {Sesamum orient aU)^ from Vizagapatam 
■Bd Ganjam. 



Tillee oil and seed (Sesamum), bom Gwahor. 
Gingely oil, Manchy noons, til ke tel, hind, nullenai, 
tamool (Sesamum orieniale)^ grown in all parts of India, 
Yizianagrum Zcmindary, Tanjore; gingely seeds, from 
Ilydrabad. 

A kind of mustard {Sinapia Unia), from Ghazeepore 
and Meerut. Mustard oil {Sinapis glauca), from Cal- 
cutta. 

Annaloo noonsD (Sinapis nigra) j Rai ke tel, hind ; Ka- 
drogoo yennai, tam, from Tanjore. 

Castor-oil seed, large and small, from Bellary. 
Castor-oil (MiciniM communis) ^ from Madura and Tinni- 
velly ; Chitta anmethum ; arindia ; chittamenachoo yen- 
nai. Cold-drawn castor-oil, arandee ka tel, from Tanjore. 
Jungle lamp oil, Adivia aumedum {Ricinus communis) ^ 
from Tanjore. Erandee; katoo aumanakoo yennai. Castor 
oil ; miniak jarah oil, from Java. 

Jatropha oiL The uses of tliis oil from the Jatropha 
curcas as a drying oil have as yet hardly been tried, but, 
it leaves a fine varnish-like pohsh on drjing. As a medi- 
cinal oil for external appUcations and external use it may 
be found valuable. The family to wliich the plant belongs 
would indicate caution in its use as regards the human 
body. The plant grows extensively over the Bombay 
Presidency. The oU coidd be supplied at about a rupee 
for seven pints. 

BhogaBhirindaoil {Jatropha curcas) ^ from Beerbhoom. 
Poppy seeds and poppy-seed oil, Gktsagcsa noonse {Pa- 
paver somniferum), from Tanjore and Calcutta. 
Oil of seed of Argemone tnexicana^ Calcutta. 
Koosum oil {Carthamus tinctorius) ; Safflower seeds 
{Cartkamus tinctorius) ; oil and seed of saul tree (Shorea 
robusta), from South-west Frontier and Bajpootana. 

Cheeronjeo berries and seeds (Chironjia sapida^ now 
Buchanama latifoiia), from Bajpootana and Moorsheda- 
bad. 

Valuse nunc (Ouizotia abgssinica), from Vizagapatam. 
Bam til (Ouizotia oleiftra)^ from Calcutta, Vizagapa- 
tam, Ganjam. 

Valisaloo oil, Valisaloo noonaj {Ouizotia oleifera), from 
Yizianagrum Zemindary, Vizagapatam, and Ganjam. 

Poonseed oil (CalophgUum)^ from Madiu^, Tinni^elly, 
and Palamcottah. 

Piunacottay oil, Pouna noono) (Calophgllum inophyl- 
lu7n)f from Tanjore. 

Oondee oil {Calophyllum inophyllum)^ Tannali. 
Oondeo oil. Expressed from the nut of the Calophyl- 
lum mophyUum. It is used as a stimulant in medicine 
exteniuUy and internally. 

Almond oil, Badum noona;, Badoomai yennai {Amyg- 
dalus communis, probably Tenninalia catappa, wliich is 
called tho almond tree in many parts of India), from 
Tanjore. 

Poonga oil, Kanuga noonte ; Kaju ka tel ; Poongar 
yennai, from Tanjore. 

Cnju apple oil, Moontha maimnerly noona? {Anacardium 
occidentale) ; Kajoo ka tel ; moonthery yennai, from Tan- 
jore. 

Ncem oil ; expressed oil from margosa berries {Melia 
azadirachta) ; Margosa seeds, fn)in Bellary. 

Ncem oil, Vapa noona) {Melia azadiracMa) ; Neem 
vappa yennai, produced all over India. 

Margoosa oil, Vaj)a noona? {Melia azadirachta) ; neem 
ka tel, vappa yennai, from Tanjore. 

Katchung oil, from grouiul nut {Arachis hypogcea), 
from Java. 

Ground nut oil. Owing to its thinness and freedom 
from rancidity, containing little stearinc, it is. Dr. Gibson 
thinks, used in some (countries for watches and other 
delicate machincrj'. As a salad oil and a cooking oil in 
India it is, from its freshness, yui)orior to olive oil. 
Quantities of it are annually sup])licd to the medifal 
stores at Bombay. It could bo supplied at five rupees 
per 28 lbs. ; without allowing profit, at two annas and ten 
pies j)er pint. 

Kumiiij oil, from Tannah. Expressed from the nut of 
Galedupa indica, now the Pongamia glabra. It is used 






880 



EAST INDIES. 



[Colonies axd 



ext*nmlly as a »tiraulrtting embrocation, and giren in- 
tenmlly to horses with culit^ spasms, 

Kamigu iiomu {Pouqatftia tftabra)^ from Tizngiipattim. 

Counfrv vvaliitit, Des^T okhroot (Ahunt^n iritoba), 
SinibokH? [Bert/erfi k*jenitjii). 

Hiitguu or HingotA (Balanites mgtfpliaca)^ oil of 
Moringa piefyqo«pernia. 

Mooneola gmin oil, Varoo samc^oo nooxuo {pQlieho^ 
hift&ntji). 

Nikc'kudelju yenaoi, from Tanjope, 

Solid OiU. 

Cocofl-nut oil (Cocog mtci/era), from Calcutta^ HAlabar^ 
Mfntiim^ Tinmvpllj, Aiid iSftrawak. 

Treble refined castor oil, fremi Mtt&sre. Sajute of Coeai- 
pon?, Dfnr CalcidU; Tonkayn iiOi>niu {Coeos nuci/efa) ; 
If are! ; Tlienga yeunai, from Mudnm. 

V«getid>k3 butter or gliee {Btutsla huitfracea)^ from K^- 
maou. 

Muohwa oil {Btwfia Infi/oHa) from Moorshedabad. 

Epie oil, Ippa noonjc (Btisfia fat if olio) Canara j Illopo 
cennni (Bwifia intifoHa)^ from Mauje^alore, 

EUoopoo oil {BiHtJtla loHgifolin) fruni Madiim and Tin- 
iiiwlly J nioopoo oiL, Ip^Mi iioona*, fxpfe^^tietl from sivds 
of Basffiti loHffifolia^ Intlia ; llloojiooyenimi, from Tunjore, 

Ve^etuble tallow, or Pinty tsdlaw, fftnii fruit of Dhon[) 
irci? {rfiieria indica}^ from Malabar, Caiuira, and Manga* 
lort\ 

Kokum oil {Qarcinia put^purt*(t). Kokum oil is ob- 
tainetl fnmi the dried fruit of t lie Gardttia purpai'ea, II 
ia a eonercte oiL It is Ui*ed as an artiekt of food ; also as 
a medioiru' externally In eruptive coni plaints, and inter- 
tially ill ttffectioiis of the boweb. It is alM> said to be 
CTportetl to England for making pomatum, as a subsitituie 
for bears" grease. 

Kikutfl oiL Tluj produf*o of the solid part of the ^eed 
0f Saioadora pernca, peeloo. The pulpy j>art of the &chxI m 
[ "Watefji but all part§ of the tree have the atnwg nmstnrd- 
hke flavour. The roots uf the tree have strong mecheiiial 
pow«?p. It is common in Palestine. It i» import e<l here 
from Gu7A»rat, and i» chiefly coD«um©d in Bombay. An- 
nual imjiortation^ 3,S43 Ibt. The tree ia supposed to be 
the mustard' !*oed tree of Scripture, 

Vcgistablc tallowr, from Malaeea, and Saruwuk, Borneo. 

Ycfetable wax, Qutta (lodoh, from Billitom 



Coorookoo oil, fron» lHadura and TinniTelly. 
Koodreti oil und KaisT^wn oil, fpf»ra Chota Na|:pore, 
Shemmandu nil^ from Palnmeottah. 
KlmtEuni {I'crHoma nnfkehmnHea /), from Bombay, 

(D.) Dj^Jt and ColonrM. 
[Tlie natiTca of India being eelebrtited for th<5 Tftpiety 
as well 03 for the brilUaney of the eolours wliieh they 
employ, tliis group tnay be expected to be rich in the 
number of raw materiaU. It b so, to a certain extent i 
but we are unable to say anything respecting many of 

' atusm^ aa their exact applications are unknown. There 
is very little doubt that a careful inveatigaliou of their 
propiTties woidd amply repay any ^eientifie dyer who 
would direct his attention to them* Some oC these dye^ 
are, no doubt, well known; as indigo, of which in* spcei- 
mens have been sent by D. Jardifie, E»q^ from Je«isore, 
•nd otheri &«m Cuddapali. One kind, *ent by Mr Fischer, 
!s interesting, a* being the produce of the leaver of a tree 
{Wfigktia tiHctoria)^ which diflkn^ entirely from the com- 
ou indigo plant {Ind^ofir^ Hi^ofia), Turmetic, saf- 

^flower, fapan, and myrobolans, ibad others, iu« well known. 
Tiw ditfcrent kinds of madder root require to be carp- 
fully diftinguisbed with respect to their propertiea—a*, for 
instance, the munject of diflVfrent parts of India. The ai 
and ttcA, a^ yielded l>y diflVrent specie* of Moritida in 
Central India, and employed in dyeing the penuanent deep 



red calico called khnrwa, which is mutih worn by water-cais 
riers, Botli these are distinct from the chatf root {Oldet^ 
(I ml in ufithpUala) of the Coromandel CoaM, Tlie tnang- 
kuda root 1ms been sent fiH)in Malacca, Java, and Celebes, 
to wliieh the old name of the chay root, Morimfa umM^ 
lata, ia applied in the lists from Singapore. The diflerenl 
lichens from the Himabytw and Scinde, the root* and 
herbs, flrwer.^ und fruity from Armkan and the Indian 
iiiknds, ti« well n^s from diilcrent part» of India, all reijuinj 
earePul investigatjon,] 

S|>wimcni* of ititligo, from Bnbacullv, in Jessore, Measrt. 
M'^Jli^ iind Co., and from Joradah factory, — Sent by 
D. Jardioe, Esq., of CaliruMa. 

Indigo {Inditftifern iincforia)^ from Hart and Simpsoir* 
factory » froiti ^ijbuthiiot's fm^toiT, and from Cuddupah 
market, from Cuddapflh nnd Madras. 

Best iiidij^o and Kotah iiidigo-setnl, from KotalL 

Indigo, and other dyes, Rao of Cutch. Indigo is chiefly 
grown for home eon gumption. 

Pala indigo {Wrighha iiacUtria)^ Mr. Fisdicr, from 
Salem, 

Gaju gum, used in dyeing, from Celebes. 

Madder^ from A*«un, CaliHitta, and Aden. 

LichcD?, from Himalayas and from Sindli, 

if augrove bark, Kabomig, yielda chocolate dye, from 
Arracan. 

Myrica bark, from Himalayas, 

Bark and wood, Ting nyet, dark pur])le dye, from Ar- 
racan. 

Sagah bork, and Samak bark, from Singapore. 

Lopisip bark, from Celebee. 

Fuqile llower^ used a* a dye in Arracan : — 

Sapan wood {CfSJtafpimn anpaa)^ from Bengal. 

Bidu wood, Bunehong ; itangkudu root ? {MoHnd^ 
umbel lata) red dyes from Celebes and Java. 

Safllower, Ka#oomba {Cartknmu^ Unvtoriuii) from A»- 
sam find Dacca, 

Ti*so flowers, Hght red dye (BniHt frQndo^a) twm. 
Tanna and BtmgaL They aru used for dying a hght red 
colour, a favourite colour for turbans. 

Annotto {Bixa m'fll<tR<%)^ from Assanu 

Hursinghar flower*, yellow dye (^^yc/aaMej arho^r tritUi\ 
Rajpootana and Cut tack, 

Ahutilou striatmn ? from jlssam. 

Haradah berry, from Mill tracts of Orissa, 

Ikfyrobolans {Termin^ia citrirm and Termi»alia irelltf 
rica), from Moorf^hedabod, Cut tack and ,lssam. 

Marking; nut {Se^mecarput anacardium), from Assam, 

Beroo, hjur of fruit of {Rotthra tinctoria)^ from Assam. 

Turmeric {(Srmma lotuja), from Assam. 

Seeds, root, and powder, prepared for colouring (Jfo- 
rinda eUrifolia), from Hajpootana. 

Boot of Mangkudu {M^riada umheUnia) fi^m Malacca, 

Sai^ftn^wood root {Coisalpinia aapanjf from Java and 
Philippine Islands. 

Oiay root (Oldenlandia uinh^Uaia)^ irvm Tinnerally, 
Falamcottah. 

Al or ach root (Jkforiiula tittctoria), from Kajpootana. 

Kutgalls, Danghy burnt ocher, and jissokat, frY>ni Assam, 
Reroo (purple dye), Thit nan weng (chocolate dye), Krit 
tcl and Thee dan (red dye), from Arracan, Kayu kadraiig 
(yellow dye), from Malacca, 

Woondy {Cal^saciam Ivnffifotinm), from. Bombay. 
Flower*! exported to Bengal for dying silk. 

Ayaraiputtfl, Saracnndraputtah, from Plalamacottah. 

Usiburgh and Ckkul beer {Jhtiu&t ea mma ^ ma)^ ydld# 
dye, from Lahore. 

[The ftame observation may be made respecting tail* 
ning eiubstanccs that we have made ntspeetini^ Ihi 
dyL*», that i«, judging frtim the reaults^ the raw matcrialt 
employcnl must be posseased of the best qualities a* 
astringents. Some of these are well knowxi as the dl^ 



DETKlfDEXCIES.] 



EAST INDIES. 



881 



hmt kinds of Myrobolans, but which are chiefly employed 
f in dyeing. The Emblic myroholans, wliich is more astrin- 
^t, is, however, the product of a very difierent tree 
{Emhlica afficinalit) from the others. Gkdl-nut8 are 
imported, by the Persian Gulf, into India frt)m the same 
i¥giiins which supply Europe. Tamarisk galls are used 
in some places wheil9 they are abundant, as is i)omegranate 
rind. The divi divi is being grown in Bengal, and pro- 
duced of excellent quality ; but a new species of Casal- 
pUua, called Tcree, from Chittagong, is found to bo useful 
for the same purposes. The bark of Acacia arabica is 
the most frequently employed in most parts of India, but 
that of Coma auriculata in the Peninsula. Several 
others require examination. The acacia is abundant in 
the forests of Scinde, as is the mangrove along the shores 
of the Indu5. Dr. Stocks has proposed the preparation 
of extracts fr^>ni these barks, as was some years since done 
by Dr. Gibson, in order to save the expense of freight for 
bulky barks, and enable them to come into the market 
with catechu, terra japoniea, and gambir, which are 
alrvady so well known and extensively employed, and 
come from as distant parts of the Indian empire. Kino 
also might be more extensively supplied, as the tree pro- 
dudzig it has been discovered in many of the forests of 
India. The kino of Bnteafrondota might be uaed for the 
nme purposes as it is possessed of similar properties.] 

Aonla berries, Emblic Myrobolans {Phifllanlhu$ em- 
hlica)^ from Rajpootana ; Marada (Terminalia eUata) ; 
Buhera, Safhed mosslee, llurrah {Terminalia bellerica), 
from Mirzapore. 

Ten* (Ca^a/pinia), A. Sconce, Esq., from Chittagong. 

Divi divi {Ceualpinia coriaria), grown in the Botanic 
Garden, Calcutta. — Dr. Falconer. 

Mangrove bark {Rhizophora MaHglesii)^ from Arracan, 
Kakbar, and Singapore. 

Babuol bark (Acacia arahica and Acacia catechu^ from 
Madra.*, Sindh, ShahjehanjKjre, Rohilkund, and Assam. 

Araraputtai, Tangwla jegota (Cassia auriculata), from 
Tiz:icapatam ; Saracondraputtai (Cassia fistula), from 
Madura and Tinnivelly. 

Jamoon bark (Eugenia jambolana), from Cuttack. 

Pi^al bark, from Cuttack. 

Saul tree bark (Shorea robusta), from South West 
Frr-ntier, and Yizagapatam. 

Gallnutji, from South-West Frontier. 

Pomegranate bark, Daruncka puckl, Dadima fcgota 
(FwMct ffrauatmm), Kemaon, Vizagapatath. 

Galb of Tamarisk, Sumrut ool Usl (Tamarix Indica), 
from Bombay and Lahore. 

Catechu extract (Acacia catechu), from Rutnagherry ; 
Kut, from ^lalabar, Moorshedabad, Cahcut. 

Kino gum, Vangay (Pterocarpus marsupium), from 
Mall bar. 

Dhak ^:um, Clioon gond (Buteafrondosa), from Raj- 
pootana. Cuttack, and Meerut. 

Moduja fugutie (Butea frondosa), from Vizagapatam. 

Oaoibir (Umcaria gambir), from Singapore. 

MocluTis (Bombaz malabaricum and Bombaz hepta- 
phfilum), from Bengal and Meerut. 

(F.) Fibrous Substances. 

. Untler the head of fibrous substances, cotton is arranged 
w.th flax and hemp. It is not, however, of the same struc- 
tirt.-a.-* thf^'^ being considered by botanists to lx» formed 
tf «v»ri^to<l celL«, while the others are formed of true 
lu:iir»>u* fibres ; but as all are applicable to tlic piirjwsos 
of wrtiving and of rope-making, it is more convenient for 
frt-ta-al purposes* to treat of them together. 

From the enormous eitennion of cotton manufacture in 
thi» country-, any increased sujiply of the raw material 
fiwn new or from old sources is a subject of paramount 



importance, and has hence for some time engaged much of 
the public attention. The Indian collection exhibits a 
very large number of siHJcimens from a great extent of ter- 
ritory'. But the cotton is of verj- different degrees of 
quality and of length of staple. Tlie indigenous cotton of 
Asia which is met with in commerce seems all to he j)ro- 
duced by varieties of one species, tlie Gossgpium indicum, 
often called G. herbaceum by botanists ; but it is truly 
herbaceous only in cold climates. Tlie cotton of this when 
compared with American species is distinguished by the 
shortness and often by the coarseness of its staple, and 
tliis, notwithstanding that the matchless muslins of Dacca, 
as well as of other districts of India, have for ages betni 
manufactured with it. This is owing partly to the care 
with which tlie cotton is selected and prepared by the 
native weavers, and partly to the delicacy of touch of the 
Hindoos, which enables them to spin a staple wlii(;h is too 
short for machinery. It is probable that some of the 
cotton grown near Dacca was of finer quahty tlian the 
rest : at all events it is known that it had one peculiarity, 
that of not swclUng in the process of bleacliing, and 
making it, therefore, suitable for the manufacture of fine 
muslins, the so-called " webs of woven air," and wlueh 
were attempted to be depreciated by being called hi this 
oountiy ** the shadow of a commodity." 

It has been mferred that moisture of climate is essential 
to the production of good cotton, lliis is no doubt the 
case, but it must be combined with a suitable soil, for some 
of the cottons from Java are as coarse as those from the 
driest parts of India. Some of the indigenous cottons of 
India are, however, of sufllcient good qimlity to be suitable 
for many of oiu* manufactures — as, for instance, the cotton 
produced in Nagporo and Berar, provinces of Central 
India ; also that of Broach, Surat, Coimbatore, and Tinni- 
velly, which are districts situated along the coasts of the 
Bombay and Matlras Presidencies. Onat complaints are, 
however, made by the manufacturer:* of this countrj-, and 
very justly, that Indian cotton is* ino!*t iVvquently sent in 
so dirty and adidterated a state as to be troublej<ome and 
expensive to work uj) ; a lower price is, therefore, given for 
it, and yet tliis price has to cover the expenses of earriago 
and freight of the dirt as well as of the cotton. Tlie cul- 
tivator complains of the low prices i)aid him for his cotton, 
though he has, in some measure, his own carclesHness to 
blame, though the defects due to liim have been greatly 
aggravated by the systematic adulteration of middlemen. 
Those practically best acquainted with the cotton districts 
of India are of opinion that the only hope of amendment 
depends ui)on the settlement among the natives of Euro- 
pean agents, or upon the appointment of Inspectors. 

Numerous attempts have been made to grow cotton 
from American seeds in India, and though it is often stated 
that the exix*riments have usually ended in failures, tliis 
is far from having been the case, for the specunens of cotton 
wliieh were grown on the exixTimentnl fanns, and have 
since then been preserved in tlie India llouse, and arc now 
exhibited, display all the qualities of good cotton. Plants 
growing in the neighbourhood of the old farms retain all 
the characteristics of good cotton ; while there is no reason 
to lx»lievc that the expenses of culture were greater in 
former times than they have proved to be in the late ex- 
IK'riments, when good prices have been paid to tlie aetual 
cidtivators, and a handsome profit has been realized on 
the sale of the cotton in this country. The exixrinients 
have failed in some districts api>arentl> from the iniMiit- 
ableness of climate ; but they have succeeded, and the cul- 
tivation is progressively increasing ui other districts, such 



882 



EAST INDIES. 



[COLOKIEB AND 



\ Candciab, Bel|j;tiiiin^ Dharwiir, Coimbutope, and Tinni- 
Telly. Ill t}i6 Itwt-meiilioiicd cliatriet it m jmrt iuukrlj 
interesting to obsenc tliat the cultivation has been taken 
up by gentlemen fi'ora Mancbe»t*5r, tbougb it ii) generally 
prtiferftblc, becsiu^e more profitable, to allow the nntiTos to 
Ciiitiviite tbe fottoii,, and to agree to purelia^e it from tliem 
when grdwn. In Candei*li, Belgaum, and Dhnrwar, tlie 
cnltdrc of Amcrrii'fLu L-otton bj the nntives of India was 
gmduflilly extending j and it wwa eipectt'd that in the «ie4isoT3 
of 1850 -51 abcjut 9,CK)0 hales of Inihan-gTow-n AnierieiiD 
• cotton would pii53 tlirough the etjilioti of iJharwtir on their 
•wny to this eountry. lids cotton can be kid clown in 
Liverpoolj all exfiensea paid, at d^d,^ and lias frequently 
Bold ftir StL and 6id. a pound. The whole of tbe detaila 
mrc given in tlie author^si work " On tlio Cidture and 
ConimerctJ of Cotton in India and el t^e where/' Iiondon, 
185L] 

Cotton. 

Cottons grown hi tbo Exiierimental Farmii of tbe East 
India Company from the year 1B18 to 1850— ^India House. 

Indigenous eDtton*t» fipom Modnis Presidentw, Dacx^a, 
Agra, Julkndur Doab. 

Knw eotton witli mxhI, and &l1:eT tbe seed has been ex- 
tracted, from Clwalior, 

Cotton tin pi eked, from Rajpootana. 

Cotton J from Brooeli, Klluindeiili, Eelgniim, ajid Bhar- 
I war. 

I Cotton^ New Orleanii. Tliia i* grown in the Belgaum 
CoUeetonite, The prteo mentioned, vix., 12 annas per 
tiuiund, ia the cntiiv cost growing, &c., and ginning. 

Cotton (eountir). This is grown in tlie Belgaiim 
Colhx^tontte. The price is 10 annas |>er rmmnd. 

The following i» a Btattjmeut of thceullivatiou of eotton 
in the Dhtirwar and Belgaum Collectoratea (or the year 
18*0-50:— 

Dharmar CoHevii^raie. 



C^>untry cotton 
Kew Orieaiifl . 



Coltiv^tlou 
la \8i9-do. 

225,685 

15,573 



Yieldinu nboat 

18,135 
1,557 



241,253 



19,692 



Bcl^aum Cuit4?otorate, 



Country cotton 
Now Orleans 



, 115,216 

3,058 



Yidding nbont 
Ciindit» of 784 lli». each 

10,000 
180 



148,274 



10.180 



Of this cotton one-quarter is kept in this country for 
nntive manufuetures, and three-quarter* exported t<» Grotit 
B ri t ain . — B ombay Eeport , 

Cotton wool, from Rno of Cuteli, This ia a BHiall ape- 

men of the Cuteh cotton, which ia grown in small quau- 
titiee for home consumption only. 

Ladom and Oopum, two indigenous cottons, Bourbon, 
and Nankeen cotton, from Salem. — G. F. Fischer, Eaq, 

Cotton pods from American seed, from Madras. 

Mexican or New Orleani* cotton from Oovemment 
Farm, cleaned by eaw gin, from Coimbatorc. — Dr. Wight. 

Oopum, or native Indian totton, cleaned hj American 
Raw gin, from Cbimbaton?,— Dr. Wight. 

Raw cotton and cottons for Bpinning yarn^, from 
' A«eam and Mouhnein. 

Raw cott-on {Goss^piam h^hat^um) from Pdembang, 
Sumjatra. 

Cotton grown as second crop on rice land, cletmed and 
um-leaned -, uphmd varir*tv, grown both m annuid and 
|>en?nnial, cleaned and unclean^ from Jutik 

Cotton, from Pimmmbuoo seedj grown at domi^^ak, in 
Borneo. 



Fishing lines of cotton, from Calicut. 
Rotxr!* mode of cotton {Qossypiutn herhwjeum)^ from 
Coini bfttore » n d Belkrj- , 

Cotton twist, from Palembang, Sumatra, Celebes, Jaya. 

(G.) Fibres. 
[Tlie production of lib res fit for wcaTiDg into clotb and 
for rope-making is hardly of leas imparlance than that of 
cotton J and India abotmds in so great a yariety of ihcm, 
as is evident even from the collection exhibited, tliat there 
ie hardly a want tliat might not be supplied from thezusc. 
It is curiouA, though India abounds in boik the hemp 
and tbe fiax phint, that neither are cnltiTated there on 
accoujit of tbt^ fibre for which they are ho much yalued in 
Europe. The flax plant may, liowever, be Been forming 
an e<lging to many fields of com, being cultivated on 
aeoount of its seed (linseed), wliich is now both exported 
and oil cipressed from it, winle the stalks are tlirown 
away, though tlax has been prepared from them of good 
qimhty at Manghyr, (tc. The hemp in the plains of India is 
cultivated solely on accoimt of its intoxicath^g pro|>ertie*(ftee 
Clnsa in* (I>.), p. 873). But in the Himalayan mountains, 
where tlie climate \» more suitable, strong ro|x* and cauvaa 
are prepared from tbe fibre, wliich the iliiBt ultiea of aeoass 
alone prevent at present from becoming extensive articles 
of eommeree. But for these Intlia possesses a vast number 
of substitutes, some of which may yet come to rival them 
in the commerce of tlie world, from the extent of their 
useful properties. It is cxirioufl that to one of these a 
name is apphed wbieh would seem to be the origiiml of 
our English wonl hemp, and wliioh is it#eif derived from 
kftufnudhenn ip. Orotofana juncea^ which in babit some* 
what ivscmbles Spanish broom, is cultivated in most 
of India for its fibre, which is used for the same 
aj* hemp, and is caEed «*» and ^u^inee in dilTerent 
of India, but, in the Madras peninsula, janapnm, 
useful substitute for hemp, but usually inferior in stren| 
to what La cflUed brown Indian hemp, the produce of 
Hllmeus cannabinut^ also called jntn in Western India, 
but Amhiftee at Bombay. Several other species of Hibiscus, 
though not extensiyelj cultivated^ are suiiilarly uj 
wi'U as others of the same natural family, ^^chyi 
cannabinfi^ or the dameha of Bengal, is similarly used j 
the species and vnrieties otjufe or pat have beeome the most 
extensive articles of ex|iort, not on account of the strength, 
but from the length, fineness, and great eheapnesa of tbo 
tibre.. It ia used for making the common kinds of linra 
and tloor-clotlis, but also, it is bcUeved, oi lute years, for 
mixing with other substancea in the manufacture of dif- 
ferent Ikbrics. The chemical means which are now adopteii 
for hnppoving the appearance of many of the*e fabric*, 
had made that of jute applicable to many purposes of 
furniture. Another group of these fibres is yielded by 
what are sometime« ealbd Hliaeeous plants, such as the 
figaye, or great aloe, a» it is sometimes called, the Yuewi, 
tha Sanseyiera, the pine-apple, and even tbe [ilflintain — of 
all of which a variety of speciraens have been sent from 
the Boutheni parts of India atid tlic islands of the Inttian 
Ocean. Some of these have already been applied t^) useful 
purposes, and sjx^eimens of the twine and rope nnule with 
[lirm ]\:i\c Ix'cn sent hy ge\'end individiuils j bui in great 
v;ir]rtv Uy Dr. Hunter, of Madras, who lias also shown 
that many of them are able 1o take a variety of eolours. 
Some tine fabrics havo ainmdy kn^m made with the flbro 
of the pine-apple, ])lantain, and SanscvMCrn : all of them 
might be employeil for muking paper. The plantain ia 
especiidly abiuidant, being growni in every Tillage on 
accomit of its fruit, and its stems are applied to no usOb 



DinvnE)rcaeB»3 



EAST INDTES. 



883 



$Ofm of the paliiiv nXm jldd fibres tuieful for rape ami 
Ail ni^g, M thtf ootr obtoittoil from the liu»k of thc^ 
iMM Duty the £joo or bUck Quintiiutt Bbre ohlaun'tl iroin 
in^ tiMyhirifam, also that of ilie Polmjrra aud of the 
dnvBiopa of Beloochittan. 

But lh0 most remarlLsble, and what will prfobal^ty 
heoatB tfa« mott useful, are the fibres of two piimla which 
fCMi formerlT placed in the gtiiiis Urtieii, or iiettlii, but 
■9 BOW referred to the uearlj allied Eoebiui'nii. Ooe 
of tltfse is particularly mteresting as hving rery closely 
ilikd to if not iileatical with the far-fauiiHl Clima grass. 
Hit* plaut has been known for many years, ns it vtss one 
of those which waa mibjected to ciperiment by the late 
Dr. Boxburgh, when publie attention iaqi? tunied, in the 
jmr 180^ to India for a enpply of Tnaterial« for canra^t^ 
«oli(m, and cordage. The author of this note observed iJi 
tbs jev IS36, with respect to this plant and Dr. Kox- 
biii^*s obacnration»— ^' It is interesting to find in the 
mmm fiuml/ with the hemp, the Vriica tena4^Umma^ or 
Ckfofc of Marsden, Mami of the Malays, a native of 
faaat ra, also of Rungpore, where it ia called Kunkhora^ 
Hid which J}r, Roxburgh found one of the strongest of all 
xht- Tenable Ghrrtt, wltieh be subjected to eiperimctit, 
Aw^n^ weti^ht, with whieh lines mxule of the ditlereirt 
itibetanoei bfvke were, AMcff-jmis ifnncijiMitn<i^ Jette of the 
Bsjmahl iDOBiitamMT», ^IS ; VHlca (etmeimmn CaUooet^ 
S4a TbastnmgwtSunn, Oo/«/ffWoy«itee>«jl60. Hemp, 
Ctm^Ua S4»l»ra, gpown in the year 1800, in the Conipauy'a 
banp hrm near Calcutta, 158, but much etronger wheu 
Unotd. Rurope hemp, however, was alwiay b found stronger 
ihm Sllllt^ though not more so than the others. Dr. 
Eotbnrjib speaks of the beauty, finenesj*, and softness of 
tl» flhrv of this plants and says lu; learut from a friend 
fcsicHit si Cboton that the grass-cloth of Cliina ia nmde 
sf ihit malmsL It is cultiTat«d in Sumatra for the fibres 
erf' its bark. The Malays use it for sewing'tlLread and 
tsoH^ and lor making fiahing*Bet«. It is as readily eulti- 
ttisd as iHs willow from etittings, grows luxuriantly in 
tks northern as in the southern parts of Iiidi»T tlirows up 
aiBMPUua shoots as e^x^n as they are cut don^ii, wliieh may 
ks doiM abvol five times a -year. Dr. Roxburgh, hovrerer, 
iMid woam diffirully in cleaning the fibres of ihii« pl»nt, 
DOCviftlHlMMiiiig his anxious desire to succeed with ilvh 
«khitiruts fOf both hemp and flax. Uriica hHer&phiflla 
It flKnthsr Indian nettle, whieh succeeds well in every i>art, 
mti ai wlar.h the hark abounds in fine white^ glossr, silk- 
Bf ttroiig ibrei (Roxburgh). The stingiutj properties of 
As tMttts tSB weQ known, but they are all exceeded by 
llv kil'ioaitkiDsd plant, as well a» by C crenulntfi and 
sfiaaCava"* — nimwiraitonf of Ifimatttifau BottiH^^ p. 33 k 
Is IIm ^ear ISll the Coiui of Directors of the Eust 
Ub Qvmftaxf imported three Imles of the Calo<?e hemp 
slnA htA ban rtdtirsted in the Botanic Gar^len at Cal- 
^ttHm bj Ihr Buchanan, who was of opiniou tlud the 
fiwl was idimtical with tlte Urtica nivta of W'illdeiiow. 
tW OiMl ordsifid one bale to be sent to Mcfi»rs. George 
Wbm^ mtJi Soos, who reported, on the 4th Fcbnmry 1812, 
■kal kvrn^ brought the Caloee plant to the «<rate of hemp 
fcr tfe use of oordage, a t!u«ad was spun of the size of 
tkMS <fNsn m tluf king's rope-yards, which bore 252 lb<«., 
ahifiAi the wvight rrquired to be borne in his Mnjesty's 
yvdi lij Euaslsn b<*tiip of the same size is only B-l* lbs. 
k knter fKm Mr. Lee, of the Society of Arts, dated lltb 
iaiv tSl6^ stateti that when the article is eleaned it is 
^v*^ suit, and free, I'nder firoper monagement, the 
Ins^ thks filaut wouhl be of more vnlue than the best 
NbIb beoip for most of the purposes for which hemp is 



used, and it may bo made so ibis fts for many uses to 
answer the purposes of tlax. 

Dr Buelianan mentions that the plant is cidfivated in 
the difttriet of Dhiagepore and Rungpore ; and m t!ie year 
1833, and again in 1836, Major (then Captain) Jenkins, ] 
tht* jtealous Superintendent of As*am, called the uttention 
of the Agrieultnral Sotnely of India to the valuable fibre 
of the Rhcea of Assam or Urtt'ca nivea ; and now we Juive 
several of the ofHeerm who nrc pl*u'<^d under Major Jenkins 
sending specimens of this BJieea from dificrent parts of 
Ansaui. 

We have seen that Dr. Roxburgh had been told that 
the grass -cloth of China was made of this material. The 
trutli of tliia statement, however, was doubted, as other 
plants have also been staled to he those employed, as tlie 
plantain, pine-a])ple, Corchonis, Sida tiliafoUa^ and even 
tlie hemp itself. The discussion having been rerired of il 
late years^ one of the educated Cliinese employed in the ten 
culture in Assam, stated that tlie nettledike phmt grow- 
ing in Assam was like that whieh afforded the material 
for making grass'clotl I in China. Tliic Agritultiu-al .Society 
of India, in the year IH i7, addressed Dr Macgowan, then 
stationed at NiiigjM>, to mxike inquiries on the subject. 
Dr. M. writes that grass-eloth is raannfueture<l from a 
plant calUnl Chu ma by tlie Chinese, and whieh he i^up- 
poses may lie a species of CannuhiM ; but Dr, Falconer 
rightly obsen^ that the descriplioti given by Dr* M. is 
entir^^-ly that of the species of JBoeAawena (formerly nrfittf), 
called B, nivfaf or (enacUsima^ by botanists, or of ii^l 
newly-allietl species. Some spt-ciniens which were sub- 
sequently recciviKl conflrme<l Dr, Falconer's opinion, that 
the CJiK ma is the same plant at; the Boehmeria niv€a oCJ 
botanints. It may be stated that the sixvimens, thougll ^ 
imperfect, of the Lliina grass-cloth plant in the Kxhibi* 
tiou closely n>s<nuhle, though they do differ a little in the 
apiK"arnnce of the bark fnini the pieces of the As«im plant 
in the Indian colletiion. It is important to state that, for 
all pnicticftl puq>0!?e<», Mr. Sangsier considers the pr^xJuco 
of tlie two plantj* as lieing identical. The Indian plant is 
found abunduntly in Assam and Oachar, in the i^luiti 
count n-, and in Ava, and in the Tennasserim provinct^**, be- 
sides in the oilier above-mentioned locahties. Ilenee there 
is an abundant supply of a very valuable material, wliich 
may shortly becimic an imiiorlant article of commeree, 
by the adoption of suitable measures for the culture of ' 
the plnnfj and for faeilitating tlie separation of its fibres. 

Allot her sp^Ties of Urtkoy the CT". As^eropAy/fl^ is hardly ' 
leas im[H>rtant, from the appearance, &oflne»i9, and strength 
of its fibre, but it is probably not so abundant. Dr. 
Wright partieularly calls attention to its fibre, as %vell as 
to tiuit of the Teremm^ or Caloiropl^ i/if/anUa, whieh 
belongs to the same natural family as the Jrier or A^i&» 
pioi it^tmciimmn of Roxburgh. Tlie whole Indian series 
wo^dd af!or\l a fruit fid sovuve for experiment and in- 
tercpting €h^enation, tending greatly U> incFL^ase our 
supply of fibre, and to develop the resources of the 
country in wliieh they are so abundantly produced.] 

Hemp^ Mawt Fine-apple, Plnntam, NtHle Fihtv^ tfe. 

Hemp, true {Canmif^h jei/iiv/), with twine and canTQi* | 
from Kc^mson and the llimahiyas genenilly. 

Flax, fboni Moiighyr. 

Fibre, hemp, aiid cordage, Dunelmi (^Etck^nomeimi 
cannnbitiG)^ contributed by Messrs. Tlioinpson, raanufao- 1 
tureni, from C^aleutla. ' 

Pkntain fibre of the Fhihppine Jfle» {Mma iextilit), 
cultivated by Dr, Koxbtirgh, near Calcutta. 

riftutttin fibrCp from Dacca, 



EAST INDIES. 



rCOLOTOES AXD 



Y:hK fj( plantain frtem (Mu$a paraditaica), from Sings- 

PUr.Vi.n nV^re (Jfitsa paradUaiea) ; plantain fibres, 
dj^l ora .'._•*?. 'STtcn^ and red : oakum, or tow, of plantain 
^tiiik'' : T>\K !>*>m fibres of plantain stems ; strong thread, 
whip AiA line plait, from plantain stems; tarred rope, 
ma/U' t>j:n pLuitain fibres. Dr. Honter, from Madras. 

¥ui-.-%\,i,'.r riorr, prepared for wearing, from A^sam. 

Pi.v.-iipj..:'? tibru and twine, frtmi Singapore. 

Plr.rf-ap:.l-.' ii'vre, from CVlebe« and Jara. 

FUi iV^m pine-appk, fiiom Calcutta. 

Fibr»:r f>{ jrine-apple (AnanoM), from. Tmrancore. 

FiSr»-> riLi'l r>akum of pine-apple, from Madras. 

S^itt^ri^ra zeyl/ntica^ Morgahee, grown in the dirisioii 
of OitticL and u»ed for bowitrings. The hemp there- 
frr^ra Ls prej^are^l by ^Taping each leaf^ when in fresh 
w;iter. witli a knife, anrl separating the fibres from the 
ve^rrtablr *:ib-*ance. The preparation admits of no other 
pro'"»-«i«. with o'*t impairing the strength of the fibre. 

Bo'-rstrin:; hemp, fibres of (Sam»triera zeylamiea), from 
Cutta/'k and Malabar. 

Fihn> an* I oakum of marool (Samseeiera zetflauica); 
fibres ot' rnan>jl, dved orange, red, maroon, and green, 
frrjin Dr. Huritfr, of Madras, and from Coimbatore. 

Ko|Kr3 and fibres of marool, from. Madras and Coimba- 

tOft*. 

Rope, ma^le of fibre of aloe {Agave amerieana), from 

CV^inibatore. 

Fibreji and oakum of large aloe, dyed orange, red, maroon, 
and (H^tTi ; Whipcord, from large aloe, from Madras. 

Fibres of the aloe; Agare. Cordage made fr*om the 
aloe, from Madura. 

Fibre of the small aloe {Agate f Tel AloeT), orange, red 
a:. 1 '•ri-nj'On. 

Ko{Kf made from the fibres of wild aloe, from Madora. 

Fihn-4 of t]ie«mall or garden aloe; Sansenera. Fibres 
made into oakum of the small or garden aloe; from 
Madra:?. 

Fibr.'- an- 1 oiikum of small species of Yucca, from 
Madm-. 

Fbx, «o fille^l, but i? the produce of Boehmerli camdi- 
^nnJt, a pL'int n«?arly allied to that yielding China gra^s, 
fir.-t arid .-♦.•i-ond quality, dressed, from Java. 

>'• ttle fibn* inTarious stages, Talli rami^from Singapore. 

P'ibn-. of Neili^herry nettle {Urtica heterophglla)^ sent 
by Dr. Wiirlit, frrjm Neilghcrries. 

C'ai'/«.-»r h»-inj> ( (.'rfica fenacwima), grown by Dr. Roi- 
bur:i;li, ni-arly Gfry years ago, near Calcutta. 

Kh'-a fibre ( I'rtica ienacujnma), fi^>m Rungjwre in dis- 
tri«-t M^y^r^h»ylab:i'l, and from Major Jenkins and other 
oiViffrrr' in A— am. 

Fibr»' of Crtica vel Boehmeria nicea f or China fin^ss, 
imjK>rt<d by Mr. \V. Sangster, of Cheapside, from A^sam. 

San, Jufe, and other Tropical Suhstilutes for Hemp and 
Flax, 

p'ibn* of Sn,\, or Crofolaria Jmncea, from Calcutta. 

Til in r*}]*'' of fibres of Janapum {Crotolaria juncea), 
from Coimbatore. 

Siilfrd and lal monty pat {Corchonu olitoriu*), from 
Runif|K>r»- in district Moor»»hedabad. 

Two other varieties of Jute, or Corchoru* oUtoriu*, from 
Beniral. 

Th< n::-ban-sliaw, Pa-tba-you-shaw, Shaw-phyoo, Xgan- 
tj^onn^^-horr^. SjH?<'imen.«» of raw materials and rope made 
then-f.-oni ; from .Ajracan. 

Shnn-nu, ee-ff\'wot-shaw, from Arracan, 

IJrown Indian hemp, Ambari and Sun {Ribheuf canna- 
linns). Dr. Gib.-ou, Bombay. 

Thirk roi)C of Palungeo {ITtbUcu* cannabinuii) from 
Coinil^aton-. , ^ , , .^ 

Kihrr of IHhiHcus »t rictus and Sabdariffa, grown by Dr. 
Il()xhuri,'li. 

An-ah iota, ;Nraranhoree lota, ^loonga lota : bright fibre 
hemp for iiiakin^' rojK', from A:«sam.— Major Hanaay, 
Bal)o() DiMii iuatli, and Lakcnuth. 

Bark string and ropes Putwa {Bauhinia racemota) from 
Blmgulporc. 



Fibre, Tongooae (Aselepias Uuacissima), from Madras. 

Fibres of biu* of Tercum {.Calotropie gigawtea), from 
3Iadras. 

Fibre of a species of TTrena? from Calcutta. 

Fibre of Farkinsonia stalks {Parkimeomia aemleaia\ 
from Madras. 

Pulas cordage {Bmtea fromdosa). Bhabooree, a grass 
rope. Chehoor, a forest tree. Patoo, or Asta cordage. 
Beerbhoom. 

Bark of Trap tree {Arloca.-pus), from Singapore. 

Thread for making cloth : Mazankoree thread ; Beah 
fibre and thread ; Pist thread ; Beha fibre ; from Assam. 

Bark of the Sasa tree ; of Boxburghia, and of Arte- 
carpus, from Assam. — Captain Beynolds and Mr. Simons. 

Coir rope from cocoa-nat husk {Coeoe nueifera)^ from 
CaUcut in Malabar. 

Ejow or Gummuti fibre. The hairy outer coTering of 
Aremga tcuvharifera, or Gummuti Palm (see Ghrifilth's 
Palms of British India), as collected from the tree. This 
fibre is much esteemed for making ropes, especiaUy cables, 
for which purpose it is peculiarly adapted from not being 
liable to injury if stowed away below when wet with salt 
water. Bit to^ separated from 'the stiff fibres. Ditto, pre- 
pared for manufacture or exportation. Ditto, prepared 
as sennit or coarse line for making rope» or cables. 

Fibres of Palmyra leaf {Bonunu Jtabellijbrmis), from 
Madras. 

Fibre of C%auuerop9 Mitchiama, from Beloochistan. — 
Dr. Stocks. 

Gogoo rope, from Cuddapah. 

Wackanoor fibres, from Trarancore. 

Bow strings of fibres, from Wynaad and Calicut. 

(Ga.) CelUlar SmUiances. 

Pith-like stem of.£i4^hynomone aspera, formerly JZatljf- 
samm lagemarium {Skola), common in wet and marshy . 
parts of India. 

Solah, from the vicinity of Calcutta. The natives make 
hats, caps, bottle and gla«s covers, life-preservers, and 
toys of it. 

Inner bark of the Himalayan bireh {Betmla hluypmHra)^ 
Himalayas. 

(U.) — Timber and Fancy Woods msedfor Comttrmciiom 
amilfur Omameni. 

A collection of 117 specimens of Indian and a few 
Ceylon woods made up into the form of books by the late 
Dr. Roxburgh. The Tamul names are written upon 
many of the sipecimeni*. Mr. Wilson Saunders has added 
greatly to the value of this coUection, and the two follow- 
ing, by having ascertained the sivcific gravity of all the 
princiital woods, and made notes on the working qualities 
of many of them. 

A collection of 51 of the principal woods, chiefly from 
the Bengal Presidency and Huualayau Mountains, in good- 
sized specimens, sent to the East India House by Drs. 
Roxburgh and Wallich. The proi>crties of the greater 
number of the princij^ Inilian woods have been detailed 
by Dr. Roxburgh, in his " Flora Indica ' and in liis " Coro- 
mandel Plants." 

Tlie following are the botanical names of the trees 
yielding these woods : — 

Quervus lapi>acia, lanccacfolia, and fenestrata. 

Castanea indica. Corj-lus hnvra? 

Taxus nucifera. Prunus puddiun. 

Juglans reii^a. Juglans ptenxvx-ea. 

Artocaqnis Chaplasha. Cedrehi toona. 

Terminaha citrina. Tenninalia chebiUa. 

Odina Wodier. Cynometra polyandra. 

Diosp\TOs racemosa. Sophora robusta. 

GmeUna arborea. Xcriuni tinotorum. 

Tetranthera nitida. Phyllanthus longifolius. 

Swietenia febrifuga. Lagerstnemia Rogina?. 

Tateria lanceirfolia. Os^nris peltata. 

Santalum album. Olea fragr.ms. 

Sfvtalia Loagan. Sc%-talia t rij uga. 

iMespilus japonica. Averrhoa Carambola. 

Acer laevigatiun. Elicagnus sjkk-. 



I 



Eogvuiir *nec. Rhoclodenilr<)ii nrborcimj. 

Hi)uuM« odonitLfisinia. CWsia ^amiih'aiu), 

&bi£opborA o<loreti»sima> AncLnicLne a]>etala, 

Dumbeyii loeknoijloii. St. Hdctm ebui)}'. 

8(JrrCiouA from a collection of 457 wootb, uf timber 
Imn mid ilirubs from the Bengal PreBiLlency «iitl Ha 
Mftem &t>ntkT, sent bv Dr Wallicli to tlie Inrlia HouiH;» 
A du|(limt4? cuUei'tion was giTen to tlie Society of Arts, 
and 18 enumenit4*ii in the Trajisactions of the Society. 
VdL XLVlIi., part iL, pp. 43S) to 47il. 1831. 

A coliection of 15 cujw, turiiwl out of ludiiiu and 
}liDiak,j«ii woocU, acnt bj Dr. Wnllieh to the Indin 
House. 

Mthmsij wood (Kamaiojnflon MmpechiaMum), grown 
m tbe ust IndiA Conipai\^''i» Botanie Ourdcn, near Cal- 
ciittA, ftiid A t^a-cadily umdt? out of it. 

A c^»Utx*tion of cubes of Tt'Jik wood, wilh their ^ociBc 
grmTitit^, froni th<f Mariue Departniout iu the Indiii House. 

A coUcction of 2G2 s^>eeilnen^, v^ith their \*eight« and 
princifttl |iro|>ertie?», from Tiniiivclly, Tiiiv}UHXjrL% Paul- 

H^b&ulf >''-'' ' <nuth Catmra, Mith Kmie from reuaug, 

hrrt^rdt ! Frith to Lieuteuunt-Colonel lioiimT, 

Military - , ''i East India House. 

S|>eeiiuru.'t oi i\w tleodar wood (Crdrtuf ifeodarft) of tlie 
HinUlsjiu^, and of the ei-i»resa {Cuprrtsvn tonifom) of the 
llimaLi^B4. J. F. Rc»vk% M.D. Thcee ari' exliibited, 
becaiuw? »o many landed proprietors hdve))knted the Imnlv 
dii«>dai' on I heir estate*, urnl it is likely to become a Tuluable 
limher tree. The cypress U lesf* I tardy. 

Teak, umrked 8 T* Ttiis apeeimen, fhjm the forest a 
of Sootida, in the Madras territories, m Bent for oompmritioii 
until the Northern or 8unit teal, which is grovra m u 
drier coiintry and a more stubborn i*f>il, Prk^^ varies, 
from 9 ntpees to 22 nipeea per 2l> cubic feet when brought 
to the coast. 

Tmk, marked N T. Tbia u the Surat tcalt jiusi m«n- 
tirm^xi : it is said to be mnch Imrtlcr and more durable 
twk than that from either Malabrtr, Lanani, or Mouhuein. 

Kao wood. This grows in the bill* nejir Km-m^boe, 
and more abundantly on the Belovut liilL* to the iiurth 
manL A round box turned out of it. Thia ]m» been 
aaeertained, by Dr, Stock*, to be n specii^s of olea or oLive, 
of which he ha* sent fip.'t'iraena to l)r> Royle. It i* used 



I 
I 



Scindf ibr 
tiarful for wd< 

Specmien^ i 
district"? - ! 

sion : — PI IV tl ! 



inbt ; Dr. ti. thinkt« il might be 



■:lv 



■ 1 ihe following trcci*, prowiug in the 
and Pihbeet, in the H^iliilound divi- 
tl i- Enibliea, Meha aziulinu'l^tu. Ce- 
drela. 8horco robuHta, two spoeimena. Mimosa scrissu. 
CalyptrantheSf sp. Dalbergui sis-^oo. AetU'ia Arahieii, 
Aevcia cutcchii. Xwuclea ec»rthfolia, !MullM*rn". Bas^a 
latifoHa. Bombax heptaphyllum* Ntiuelea pannfolin. 
WrtghtiA moUifftiiua. Plum, Gi-ewia. Rohunec? Chow- 
la««? Trteina? Gorihuin? Khunmr? 

Qrovrn i" ih^ -hutriet of Miraapore :— Bijeedar dipte- 
roovpt>^ I A»un Pentaptera glabra. Abuoos 

XAo&pjTf^- Suk*w>a Ctmocai-pus sir^. Tenuinalia 

bdEkriea, rerunmilia tnifed mooslee. Termlnalia hurmh, 
Plnrllanthus niihhca. 

bpccnnena of wood of the following treefl, growii in the 
late Dr. Carry* Botanic Gardi n at SerampoR'^ near Cal- 
CfxiMm ; — ^Eugenia [>oly|H'taLi. llohinia maerophylla. Dal- 
hfqrgiii Utifolia, Mimuj-flp* luxaudra. Ciiiehonu grti- 
f ivvtnyi, Dioapyro* ^lapota. Lliu:>pYro.i. montana.. DU* 
k&ui pentivsQna. Dalbergia ougeinenniH. C'areya upbie- 
rioA. Qmeuna arb^irea. Erythrina ovalifoliat Nageia 
PttimnjiTa. Dalbergia sp. ? 

TiiulitT, growth of the Tennasfierhn provinces: — Sa«- 
uir** wood, 8p. of Launia. Mountain erythrinA. Ster- 
culiA firlida. Mountain ebony, sptv. of IhiulLinia. Mcrgui 

Tvni •.""•■• ^f- > ''1 vt wood» DiLlt)ergia lalifolia. Tavoy 

ynii\ Kagra-ea fragrnns. Pinus 
Lai' I i. Uigaxyh>karpa, faivya arbo- 

Jruur »|jct"iimnuii v( DiONpyro^. Herelerii* minoi". 
Vilrt ArbttivA, K^H^iiea of Orywiaj BoscAvood, Thamika, 
and WUd rtandal^woiid. Jartml, I>Mgen^tra»nna Regi«a\ 
Hopes odorata. PterocarimM Wulliehii. Calophyllura. 



Nine fipeeiineris of timber from Bhagulpore, in tlte di^i- 
&ion of Patim, 

Grown iji tlw? proviace of Cliittagong^ and aupplicd by 
t"'aj>tain Marquard : — Gk»orgetiab, or DartyloeurpuB. 
Butlenah, or Conocarjuis. Kaleo bale, or Dio&pyroj* uie- 
lanorvlou. JVlebnoiylum, black ebony. Koum Koyre, 
Acacia sj>cc. CliiikrasiSi.^ ChifkniiSHia tabuhmH. 

Grown in the neigh bourho«xl of Calcutta: — Sj)ecimenji 
of Adunnnthem pavouina and Santaluui album. Wood 
and plank. 

Grown in Aasam, and aent by Major Hannay t — Top 
sopa, Ijfturus ea«i«afnw, Oooncboora* Tcrminalia, BUotn* 
Hmdoo, Ptthn Toan. ()ak, llingoree. 

Tindwrrt grown in the fore»t* of ANsam, and received, 
untk'r their local naincs^ trom Mr. j&[artin : — »Snul, Poraa, 
Caltul, Ilalta, Babul, Nahoo, Sidlock, Korai, Agar^ and 
CI mm. 

Nadosur, contributed by C^iptain Eeid. 

Timbers gi-owTi in the province of Arrakan : — Moo-tao- 
ma, Bhaman^ Partiwa, Tuwwot, Tlienganet| Kyaudei-'ct 
Teing, T^wiiiihyee ; Pyaing, two specimenB ; Therataoing, 
Pytiwa Tnlii, ThcFock, Pyanany Thekiuklo, Txiwot, 

The following specimens of woods were received from 
Mr. BkindcD, Conimi.^!*ioneroftheTennui*Kerim Provinces, 
in 1835, under the native mime** here given. Tliey re- 
niained from tlmt period to 1847, beiug twelT© yeArs, < 
expoised *o llie destructive iidhience of white anti, &Cv, 
whin, at tlic expiration of tliat time, they wen) reported 
on by the then Olliciating Sui>eriuteudenl of the Honour- 
able Company '« Botanic Garden, in October 1&47, aa 
fuilovv& :— 

TiMDEH from the PnovrNCE of AmiEEST. 

Poviii-gnytt. Uttcd for hou,se pobta aud rafters. It ia 
a kind of JujtvsoI, a good sc'rviceable wood, and woiUd do 
fer pile*, p<iKttf, and beam*. 

Twhiet-Khyei'n. lifted for house posts. A superior. j 
kind of crooked-grained Saul. 

Eng-gjeng. Also used for posta of rcligiona buHdiiigii. 
A useful wood, but subject to liplit. 

Gan-gan. A wry strong, tough, hard, erookcd-groined, 
fibrous, wd wot»d, which would do for maehinery or any 
pUPjK>»c requiring the above prLtpertics, 

ilyeng-kha. A useful wood, like BabooL ^eocirt 
arntm-a. 

Ma-thloa. U^ed for hou*e po?ts ; probiiblj' Artocarpuit 
inie^fnjolkis^ or Jack -wood. 

Bhai-bya. Ditto. Wliitc JarrooL 

Mect'gnyoo, iiruil-trw*. It i* a red-coloured, U(»eful, 
btrong, heavy wood, prtibably a speeica of MbTtoft.ft. 

Naoo. UWl {\)V houflc i)o>its ; the leaves, tlowers, and 
roota Are said to be ui?ed for medicine. It is a brown, 
substantial, »olid tvoo<l, not liable to the attackH of injects. 

Zcc-byion. Thif« is a eonqiact, close wood, hke Lager- 
fitrocmia, or white JarrooL It ia uj+ed for house posts, 
and is liable to aplit, but ia free firom the destructive influ- 
ence of iniM?cta. 

Pyeen-ma, House posts, carts, boat?, paddk\«*, oars, <te*, 
are made from this, which i» u capital wood, a kinti of 
fSaul, and would answer for all the purposes of common 
3aul. 

Kya-zoo. This is a xerj heavy wood, like Sauh 

Maza-ncng. Thi,H ii* a clofle^graiii^ wood, noirlj ttllifid 
to Teak It is used for houae poalfl, CAiia, boata, paddles, 
oars, iic,, 

La-phyun, A he4iTy, solid, lArge-^ised timber, but 
rather Uuble to injiuy from A pectuiar insect, not white 
anti3. 

Nyaung-lam Said^ of a poenliar kind, employed for 
beams*, rafter**, and boat -building- The root ia nsHxl uj 
umbrella s»tocks. 

K>"won-gaung-noaT. A close, heaii-y, compact, tough, 
yclknvinh -white wood^ of which house poats and rallera, 
<ic,, are iimdc. 

IhiU'boay. It i* a strong and mefid wood, a kind of 
Minio=ia, employed hj* house postft. 

Moma-kha. Employed for gun-stocka ; it is a reddish. 



EAST INDIES. 



[CoTxyxna J 



Boftiyli wockI^ close an J oomptiet, fit for tummg purposesi 
ttDil eietiipt from ntt-ucks of instet'ts. 

Thfl'bvioii* A uftoful timbiTi prubtiblj Etigenui. 

TJia-knwot. This wmKl Is used for ^aTiclal&ji ii ia a kindi 
of white Teak. 

Tha-bwot gyee. This is a good heavy valuable timber, 
j^omcwbnt like iron -wood. 

Th(>ng'g«n, Employed for house posts, earta, boat- 
buildings^ paddles, aiid oars. It is an eiceUeut eoiwpact 
woofl, fit for gun t^rriageM. 

Taup-flha. Employed for house posts, and would auswrr 
for eommon mrjientry, but it i** subject to aplitj the bark 
IS suppost^ to be uuMbcmal. 

Kiep-uiauj), Euiployetl for C4irt'wbeel spokes. Superior 
wood, frw? Irom attacks of insects j the tree h Mid to 
bave an ediblt? fruit. 

Yugu-theet> Tho wood ie used for carved imagesj and 
the bark uaed as soap, 

Kiei>-yo. A ht'avy, good wood, but small, luied for 
house posts and rafters. 

Thiem. Tseil as bouse posts, raft^n, and general pur- 
poses of cjiqx'ntrw 

Myaun-iijy^o, AVliite Sissoo^ used for raftprs. 

Myaup-loaut. Cedrcla, a kind of superior Toon. 

Eng. Wood use«d for boat-building, and prmluc^ oil. 
It is a stpcuig, lieavy^ usefid, grey wood, suited for beams, 
piles, and tbc like. 

Ng»-so»y. This is a soHd, very heavy, reddish wcxkJ, 
and answer* for house posts and rafters. 

Taii-labt^t, A heavy ^ wliite wooii, employed for house 
posta and other eommon puq>oses. It is not liable to 
injury from insects. 

Koup-ha. This is a light, soft wood, not subject to 
injury from inseets. It is probably Xauvlea ctidiimLty and 
is employe^cl for car^red images. 

Zeng-bywo]n. Employed far bouse posts. It is a 
useful wood, ei]ua\ to JarrcKiL 

AuHU. Ust'd for eonstnutiag tcfmples. It is a yellowisli- 
white, heavy wood. 

Yanimaudy. Used for carving imiwes and making 
drnms. It is a useful and valuable "i^ooa. 

Ban-kha. Used fur house posts, and other eommon 
puqjose**. It is a peeuHar kind of wood, colour grvw 

Six"t-*een« Used for the construction of rebgious 
houses. It is a wjd, compact, very ponderoiu?, and highly 
valuable wood, 

IVug'kliftt. Thif iff a heavy wliite wood, sohd, and 
fit for turning purposes ; used for rice-pounders, &c. 

Tba^nat. It is a kind of grey Teak. 

Kyway-tVioay, Is a strong, sohd wood ; probahly will 
prove to be a kind of Acacia. Used for house posts and 
rafters, 

Mja-ja. Hard and close- grained wood, used for 
, mftoFS J it is strong and durrtble, htkI would answer for 
hoams, &f»,, being exempt from Ibe attacks of inseots. 

Tswot-bn-lwot. This is said to bo a iruit tree; the 
wood pesemblea JarrooL 

Bijion, This is used for house posts, rafters, and the 
like puqjoses ; it is a heavy , compact, grey, close-grained 
wood* 

Theet-to. This is said to bo a fruit tree ; the wood is 
employed in bortt-huilding, making carts, &c.j it is a dark- 
brownifih grey, haitl, bea\y Avtiod. 

Oun-tbuay. A wlijte *oft wood, not svibjeet to injunr 
from insects ; il is etu ployed for common carpentry. 

Kva-uan. This is a most hard, close-grained, cbcnaceons 
wood, of dark red colour, used for bouse posts, musket- 
stoeks, and spcfur-hnndlcs. 

Than*kya. The fruit of this tree is employed for ring- 
worm. The wood if* like Said. 

Meng-ba. Used for house posts and rafters, Tlie wood 
. looks like a kiud of Saul, and would answer all the pur- 
poses of that wood. 

Theet-ya. Employed for rice-grinders, or pounders. It 
is a auptrior, eompattt, close, tougb, brown wood, fit for 
unything rtHjuiring great strength and diu-ubiUty. 

Kit-thcct-nee, Employed for house posts, boats, and 



carts. It is a heavy, hard, grey wood, rather liable to 
hijury from lu&eets. 

Na-kyeen, Employed for house post.'i and rafters. This 
is the iSundrie wootl Calcutta {Heritieta mhtor)^ where it 
is so eonnnon a^ to serve for tlrewoHod, although from its 
superior quahties for buggy-?hafts, hackery or earl axte« 
and T^ heels, and other purposes reqidriiig great strength 
and toughness, it is lughly prixed. 

Tsoay-dan. Heavy, hard, tough wood, not suhject to 
iu<4et*tt'*and, being tough and short, it is suited for wheels, 
musket-stocks, &c, 

Pft*ra-wa. A hard, red, compact wood, vrith Urge fibre, 
and fit for gun-carriages or other eiindur p»uqx>st«. It is 
exempt from attacks of insects. It is used for sjiears ami 
arrows. 

Tshon-tshny. A useful wood, but liable to attacks of 
insects, and to spht. 

Pinnai. This is said to he a fruit treej the wood afTords 
a yellow dye, and is a compu^^t, handsome, yeUow wood, 
iuitflble for common cabinet purposes. It is probably an 
.VHoi'flrpus, 

Pad-dan. Usctl for milking tlrunis und musical instm- 
mcTJi.H. It i« a kiud of rcni Sandcr^s womL 

Tahaup-yo. Used for house posts and mtisket stocks. 
It is a heavy white wood, exceedingly strong, but Hable to 
at tacks of insects. 

Toung-hien. Used in boat-building and for making 
carts. It is a strong, heavy wood, well adupte<l for 
handle?^ of tools, <ke. ; it is probably a kind of Teak. 

Kywon. A kind of Tmk wood. 

Daup-yiit. Employed for rafters ; it is a beautiful 
yellowish- white compact wood, but has a tendency to 
spht. The leaves are used lis a dye. 

Dieu-necung. Used for rice-pounders j it is a close- 
grained^ strong, compact, brown, hard wood. 

Tseet. Emph>yed as house posts and in boat-building. 
Saul of small caUbre. 

Thcet'phyiou. This is used tor fan-handles ^ it is a 
uscfid whitl- wtx>il, and would answer for common car* 
pentn ; it resembles Mimom aerU.m. 

Thub-ban. This is used for boat -building and makiiig 
cartH; it ia a kind of Teak, hut ratlicr heavier than the 
UKual kind. 

KywoU'bo, This is n.se<l for house posts, rafters, and 
oars , it is probahly a sort of Teak. 

Bep-than. Used for making liandU?a ftir spears and 
swords J it is a sniH'rior wood, and looks uke wliittf 
Jarrool. 

Lammay. Used for boiute post^; it is a red, liglst* hut 
useful timber, like Sandal- wood, and is fi-ee from attacks 
of inseets. 

Kiep-dep, ditto, a kind of Saul 

Bbyeng-tseng. Tbia is a olose-grained, com]»act, grey 
wjlhkI, fit for gcnenil ])urpofles, and seems to be exempt 
from a1 tucks of insects. 

Tshwai-lwaL Used for musket stoi'kfl and sword 
sheaths ; it is a hartl, red, crooked-grained wood, fit for 
cabinet work. 

Liep-yo, Used for making carpenters' tools ^ it is a 
xory compact and heavy, but smaU-sized timber. 

Peiig-lay-oun, Used for P[ic&r handle» r it is a inosi 
valuable wo<kI, compfict, homogeneous, and very heavy, of 
a deep brovTO colour and fine grain, having no tendency 
to split, and being exempt from attacks of inseets, 

Raung-thmoo. Used for houac posts ; it ia a kind of 
Teak, 

Thammai. A strong, handsome wood, liie .Egieena, 
or boie -WfXHj. 

nici)-ycng. Said to be a fruit tree i the trunk aflbrda 
a com pact, line- grained wood. 

Toiiug'tbn-khwrt. This L* a capital wood for any pur- , 
pose, gun-caiTiagos or gun -slocks. 

Mftlu-ka, TbiM is used for gun-stocks and carpentew* 
tools ; it is a close, compact, but small-sized wood, Ht for i 
band-spikes, wheel-Bpnkes, and the like. 

Toung-tha-byiou. U^hhI for houses posts ; it is a strong, 
red, heavy wood, a kind of JrOmosa, 



Ii(cmn>cKci£g.] 



^AST INDIES, 



t 

I 
I 



TtflluHbjiiT- Ttiifi IB used for house postj and boat^ 
b«3diiig ; it is m itrong wood, suited for aoor^&auiea imd 
«ciaiBion cttrpmtfT. 

TbflBiift-dAn. »ald to be a fruit tree ; it ia & reddish- 
bfOim, heATy wocnIj fit for machinery or other purpose 
m^umaig ^vst Atrength; it in totaUj exempt finoiu attacks 
of tBMVte, Dut Aomevrhat liabJe to flplit, 

Thm^tliAt. 0ied for §tock* of vtiriouH inatruTnents j it 
B i cipital wood, and aeems to bt^ a kind of Saul. 

Qyo, V^ed for tiotue posts, ploughs, hiuid-epikes^ ^. i 
ilk m dDse-gnioed, compact, fine wood. 

Feqg-tajp. It is a strong uscftd wood for poets and 
WBBHWii carpientry. 

T ' \^~at, Uied for spear-handles and sword-iheaths ; 
i engrained, white wood, fit for turning purposes 
aiiu I ML lure-frames; it is probabljr the same kind of 
5sac:tea wliich i« i)«ed for similar punioees in Bengal. 

Tsrkka-doun. TtuB is said to be a miit tree ; tl^ wood 
jitipnl for house poHts, rafters, and boat-buildiug ; it is 
fike Teak, but much disposed to split. 

Lseiu Used for bouse posts and raft«r». It is s most 
TsluabAs econpact wood, homogeneous and very heavy, of 
derp-brown cM)lour and fine grain, and also exempt &udi 
tttacks of insect*. 

UontbA'imk Bark used for bhie dye^ a fine-drained, 
eam|)aft, red wood, Inif liable to irplit ; it would auswer 
ift ha^ud-spikes. It resembles Mgrlu* ^imenta^, 

Pa>ngao. Uac^l for boats aud oars; it is a rompaet 
white wood* and is also in use fisr tnaiVlT^g musical iii^tru- 
tDfents, It Mvms to be Qmfilima arborfa. 

Toung-than-gyee. A hard, compact wood of dark- 
brown colour. 

Kha-boung. A itrong wood but ^mallr aa strong as 
oak. The (niit is said to be used for rubbing on buiMoes 
tokssfi off lies. 

TlTOT SPKCDTENi of TllCBEB. 

KjwoD-bo. Bsstard teak. A soft wood like ^auctea. 

Jgrwon-nia. A Tarietj of tlje above. 

rttngMli*kj«ap. Employed in boat, ship, and house 
building, Ibr carts, ke,-, it is a dose-grainod, hrasj, 
flniiic wood. 

IDowot-xtee. Used for boat, ship, and house building. 
ll s u e uis to be a kind of Cedrel^ or Toon. 

KaQng-thmoo-yoq^-say. Ditto ditto. A rough strong 
wood, tised for post* and etiqx^f rv. 

Tomsg-bliien. Ditto ditto. Light porous wood like 
Janool, used besides for doors and common or inferior 
cajpc n tjy. 

Miaap>bont. Ditto ditto. Answers as Toon wood for 
furniture and other piirpo*es. 

Tlia-bhan. Ditto ditto^ and for making canoes. 

Take|>-D«& Ditto ditto ditto. Very strongs cdoie- 
grmaiMl* bcATT, Ught-colourcd wood. 

Ka-njeog-craung-khysy^ This is Hkcwise used for 
boatf ^ip* ana house building, carts, &c. It oppeurs to 
be rrd Jarroolt yields an oil, and Is exempt &om attacks 

X^mong^pyan. IHtto ditto. Heary grey wood used 

]C»-nyoig^k^ni^ng*khyay. Ditto ditto. Strong heavy 
wood ratlksr disposod to split . It would answer for beams 
and sloppers. 

AniAD. Used fbr boat building, house posts, and plank- 
ine. A cDwIl tree. 

j[e^lryatmg*kTBy. Ditto ditto. A heavy woml nempt 
bom attacks of insects, snd mi^ht be employed tor 
door frunes and strong carpentry purposes^ 

Bpf^Iay-byecn. Ditto ditto. Sm^U tough wood, 
miglit be used for hand-spikes and apear-handlM if suiH- 
acnlly free from knots. 

Kjay*t*«v-gjri»-khy»y. Ditto ditto. A heavy compact 
dark wood like walnut, and would do for mm stocks. 

Kyay*i»aT-bftyouij. Ditto ditto. Useml for conmion 
arpen'try, tke TfrmimaHa ckebula. 

^uthivt-ya. Ditto ditto. A good wlute-ooloured 
wood| rtiugh, and fit for boat building. 



Theet-ya-noe. Used for boat building, house posts, a 
planking. Close-grained brown wood, subject to splil^ 
but would answer for hand-spikes. 

Theet -y a- py iou. Ditto ditto. Heavy strong wood^l 
probably a kind of Jsrrool. 

Pyeug-kimdo. Ditto ditto. Small-sized, close-grained, 
and hcai-y red wood, would answer for hand-spikes, and 
if the trees are large, for better purposes. 

Khamoung-nee. Ditto ditto. Heavy wood, exempt 
fTt:>m the attaeks of insects j it would answer for general 
carpeiitr}- purt»o8es. 

KImmotiiig-pyiou. Ditto ditto. Small-sized, light, but 
compact yellowish grey wood. 

Klmnway-iiee. Ditto ditto. Porous, hut rntlior h«ivy 
strong wood, not liable to injury from inpeets. 

Theet-ta-gyee. Ditto ditto. Would ixnswer for door- ^ 
frames, house poets, and common eariieiitry. It is i 
tiling hke red JarrooL 

Kengthep'guyuug-ywept. This is emnloye<] for house 
posts and planking. It is a light iDicrior wood, but 
the specimen is much eaten by insects, and hardly of any i 
us© except to show the quidity of the wood. ' 

Kengthep-PhtTvot-kyay. Employed for house posts 
autl pbtuking. It is a sound smaU-s'ised timber. 

Pee-daup> Ditto ditto. Seems to be Aencia serigsa. 

Kst^K). Ditto thtto. Strong Cedrclu-likc wood, and 
would do for the purjjoso for which Toon is employed. 

Penglay-oun. Ditto ditto. Strong, rough wood, like 
Aca^Ha tenna. 

Patseng-ngo. Ditto ditto, A very superior high- 
coloured aromatic; wcM^d, resembling Toon or maliogany. 

Eng'beng. Ditto ilitto. Useful for common fariM^nlry, 

Ngoo-l>eng. Employed for house poets and pliinking. 
Like very strong Toon wood. 

Pysmig-pyion. Ditto ditto. A yellow compact heavy 
wood. 

Kyep-ye. Ditto ditto. A kind of Teak. 

Thabyay-noe. Faod for house posts. It is a strong, 
close-grained, browniah-grey wood. 

Blmii^bliway. Ditto ditto. Like Sissoo. 

Tlmicng-ba. Used for house posts and making cotton 
cleaners. It is likered Jorrool. 

Tomig-byeng. A kind of Saul, but of red colour. 

Tliiem. A ttervict-ablo timber, and would do for the 
better sort of csrpcntry. 

Kouk-ko, Red Jarrool, employed for the bottom 
planking of bouts, See, 

Kanna-tso. A ihiit tree, having very tough, close- 
gmined wood. 

Ma-yam. An indestructible strong dark, heavy, red 
wood, especially valuable for aU purjwsea requiring those 
properties. 

Toimg-kha-ray. Bed Jarrool as before, used in boat 
building. 

l*timny. Strong, close-grained, yellow wood, like Jack. 
A rtocarifus in tptfrifoliax. 

Lieuniao (Orange). Heavy, close-grained, light-coloured 
woo<!, like that ot Terminafia htlerica^ but of small dia- 
meter. 

MaU-ka. Small- sized strong wood, suited for hand- 
spikes, 

Fat&eng-tswav. Small-siKetl strong wood, which wotdd 
do for i>ostB am5 hand*spike«. 

Tseng-byioun. Said to be a fruit tree, having compact 
grcyisli-browm wood, fit for earpentry purposes. 

Tag'tiyeiig. A uM-ful wood for furniture. The colour 
and grain are like Ttion. 

Tha-byoo. A heavy close-grained wood. 

Toung'bhaut. Employed for handles of knives and 
spears- Bough knotty wood. 

Pan4oun, Used for house posts and other building 
purposes. It is a red, elose-gnunod wood. 

Myeng-ts-bep. Ditto ditto. Strong bluish-grey wood| 
ad^pied for Imnd-spikea. 

Ncalee-byeng. Ditto ditto. Close-ffwdned, strong, 
heavy wootl, of small diameter, Bdnplcd fur hand-Kpdce^. 

Thmeng-tshout, Ditto ditto. Fit for door frames and 



[OfflCLLL iLLUflTBATED C4TMX)aXJl.] 



3T 



boat IwABia J and la a brown lieavy coarse wood of small 
diamt'ttrr. 

BIiB-ta-ka. UbcM for cominoti carponhy, like red 

JlUT(K)U 

Pcng-laj-ltaboay. Eiuploj-ed a« house posts ; n licaTj, 
but emnJil siicd, wood, fit fur liaud-Bpikoe. 

T«0a.j-dati, Usi?d for gun-stocks^ and might fLnawtT, 
like SissoHfj, for gun-eftrriapes, 

Meep-tliua-baii. A sniftll-Hized clo8e-gT'*i"«<l gT^y woodj 
emplojed as spear hiuadks, spado sbiifls, post*, &c, 

Thi^t-j8*haai. Uaed for house posts. It is a close* 
grained Teak, 

Bep4)ian. Ditto ditto, 

Bep-won» Ditto ditto. But it is an inferior tiinbi^r, 
like Mangoo wood. 

Eng-waj, Ditto ditto, Ligbt dose-grained yoHowLnh- 
wMte wogkI. 

Toung-bjiou. Ditt-o ditto, C!ofl©-grwn©d brown wood, 
subject to split, ftdm>t<?d for band-spike** 

Mya-ktiiuaim. Used for knife and spear handles. It 
19 an ebenaecous strong blnck wood, which might Ijc 
highly ueefid to cabbit^t-niakera. 

Wont hay -kbyar. A compact, etrong, yellowish- white 
wood, bnt of am all sixe. 

Zoo-lftt. Smnll compact, bonTj, jellowisb-white wood, 

Danp-jan. Used for house postal and other building 
pnrpo&cs' It is hke M^Hit* f%ment<i, and woidd serve 
far imud'Spikes. 

Yati-mn-lay. Used for bouae posts. This is a strong 
fongh white wood, like white Jarrool, bni heavier. 

Timber forwarded from Moiilmein by J. R. Coltin, 
Elsq.i Commissioner of the Province, 18-^7, tmder thtir 
native nam^, six of wliieb have since been identified by 
Dr. Falconer during bis visit to the Teak forests of the 
Tensftserim Pporinces io 1848-49 : — 

Lagflntnuma maerocarpa, Pyen^ma, commonly known 
under the name of Jarrool. 

Oireya sphcerit^ Bamboocc. 

Cyitophylliim frngransj An an, of the Nux Vomica tribe ; 
one of the hordes^ most compact, and bearicst woods 
known. 

Pyen-mn and Kazarct. ITndet4.*nmned. 

Pt*!n:>caq>u5 indica, Podauck, one of the LegtiminoBce, 
caUed Rosewood. It is a very beautiful and bard com- 
pact timber^ closely resembling the Andaman wood. 

Indik*?, Ebony. 

Anati as abore* 

HojwA odorata, Thcngon, of the Dipterocarpeto or Saul 
tribe J a Tcry strong but coara€»-gramed timber. 

Inga xjlocarpa, Pyangadean, belonging to the Acada 
tribe, commonly called the iron wood of the Arrakan 
proriincea, very hard, dense and durable. 

Pterocarpna indica. Paddock ^ as above, Rosewood of 
the Traaaserim provinces, a Tcry beautiful, bard, compact 
timber resembling ** Andaman wood," wbieh i^ occasion - 
flUj seen in the Bazaar of Calcutta. 

TacHKE Ajfu Fakct Woods fbom thb Madeas 

PfiBaiDENCT, 

[The properticB of many of the timber trees of the 
Madras Presidency hare been described in Br, Roxburgh's 
works, as quoted above, Br. Wight and J, Rohde, Esq., 
have given much valuable info mi at ion respecting many of 
tbetuubers enumerated in the following hsl* in the printcid 
Report of the Prooeediiigs of the iladras Central Com- 
mittee, but of which only a dngle copy has as yet reached 
this coimtry,] 

Narc— N«me in (3) Tfllinfs; C^) BlndM; (9) Tsmool. 
From MadroMn 

Noonah wood. 

Portia wood, 3. Genganiimi kiirra. 5. Porsnm manmi 
{JUbUttis papulnens). 

Wood iah wood. 5, Oathva manim (OdUa Wodier). 

Kroombala wood. 6. Iloombilly manun {Ferioia 
huxifoiui). 

Satin wood. 3. Billa kurra {ChlofoxjfUm Smietema), 



2. 



2. 



Atta wood, B. Authau marrnn. 

Ven t^ak. 3. Takoo knrra, II in dee, Sagwan^ 6, Ten- 
takoo marum /7Vcrf(i»<i^<ii?^jU^). 

Auflcnawooa, Pterocarpus, 

Mango wood, 3. Mamido knrra, Hindee, Am. 6, 
Maiigkiittai {Afan^fera Indica), 

Saul wood. 3. Yapa. 5. Ausscnee {SAorea rohwtiay 

Peddawk wood. 3. PtHhiawkoo kurra. 

Pala wood 3. Pala kurra. 5. Paulai marum (Jfitintt- 
iops he^candra). 

Trincomallee wood {Betfya ammoniUa). 

Eosewood. 4. Sissoo. &, Eatty or Yutty marum 
(Datherffia Sesfoidejf), 

Chittogong wood. 5. Aglay, or Sitticam marum, 
(ChieXrrassia fabularh). 

Moulnunn teak, Takoo kurra, gogwan, Taka marum 
(Tecionn grnndiji), 

Pegu wood, Jarkoo, Sagwau, Jake marum (2V/o«a 
ffrandijt). 

Malabar teak-wood^ Takoo kuna^ Saguan, Take martun 
{Teetona grandis), 

Smiboorali tmk-wood|Takookuna, Saguan, Take manim 
(Teciuna (frandU). 

Coimbatore teak-wood, Takoo kuna, Soguan, Take mir 
rum {Te€i(/»a gramiii). 

Thiml>eam teak -wood, Takoo kuna, Sageran, T&ke 
nun {Tevtona grandh), 

Angelly wood. 5. Anjellj marum. 
Model, or putvcha Ootoo wootL 
Thingam wood. 
Pengandoo wood, 
Ooroopoo wood. 

2. Rarirardoo wood, Kadirardoo kurra. 

2^ Oongoo wood. 

Autcha wood. 4. Abnooe. 5. Auteba marum (DioM- 
pyroa ghenoHer), 

2. Pccmah wood. 

Minthy wood. 

From M^ra^, 

Poplar-leaved Ilibisous, orTulip-troe,Gengaramin kurra, 
Paris knjhar (old wood), Pooraum marum {Mibu 
p&pnlneuft). 

2, Pagoda wood. 

Palmymh wood^ Thatee kuini, Tar, Paaung kutt* 
{Boratitm Jiaheliiformii) . 

Red Saunders wood, Chandonnm Chander soorkh^ 
Segapoo cbaudanmn (PterocarpUK saniaNnuM), 

Jaokwood, Palan sainoo, Pinmass, Palau marum {Bviem 
J\r(mdo»a), 

Gkiava wood, Jamakurra, 4. Jam. B, Qoaya khutai 
{Ptidimm pynjmtm). 

Palaj wood. 3. Paula kurra^ Palla, Paulai mamm 
(Mimmsopi he^candra). 

Veppaley wood^ PalaTE renoo kurra^ Boohoer kola kiwy 
Veppalay marum {Wrl^hiia antidtfitenierica). 

Eletiai wood, Raigoo kurra, Jungbe Ijeer, Yelandai 
manun (ZtiyphHs juhiha) . 

Wood-apple, Yatiga kurra, Koweet, Vella 
{Feromaeieph^iHtxtm). 

Satin wood» Bilk kurra. 4, Hill dhawrn (SvcimtemiA 
chtororjfhn)* 

From Cttdd&pak. 

ElKinj wood, Tookoe, Abnaa^ Kakatstee (I>iasp!yro9 
ehen*tAi^r), 

Bed srtunders wood, Cbendanum, Chanda 
Segapoo chendnniun {PferQcarpm tnnfafimti) . 

Ha]^go«a wood, Tepa kurra, K^eem, Ve|>um 
(Melia AModiraehta). 

Aeaeia Arabica wood, J^aUa tooma» Siah kaknr, Eafoo, 
velum (Acavia Arabica), 

Rusty Mimosa wood, Telia tooma, Eockursafaed (fit* 
riVwm, Mimosa fttrruffinf^a), 

Chindaga wood, Chindaca, SoorjstaJu Katoo vahij. 

Ash -coloured Mimo*u wood, Vellatorroo, Wi 
Vidatil {Mimosft einerea). 

Yeumaddy wood, Yeuamoddj, Eumnddee, Eumuddee. 



DBrcumxctss.] 



EAST INDIES. 



4. Neroodoe, 
Hill dawra 



t wood, YeMif Yep* aiiMcneo (Skorta robiuettt). 
wood, Xcpa, Mohe*ka jar, ycUoopm {Bojitia 

Wod, 9amB9^ Bome^ka ih«r, SemmAmm {StmUaia 

frood» Pod*. 4, PaIIas. 

WdodoogB* 4« Akola (.i^<»i»^'«Mf hexup^talum) . 

(^«Btft «^od» ReU, Amlfik^, Kuudee (Cttjf^in futHh), 

Mantiidttiii wood, Muddfe, Jungld kamcng, Maroo' 
dnm [TtTmimalia alata). 

MiidiW wood, M uddee, 4. Muddee ( TVrminalia alata) . 

Ecradapala wocxi, Kooda pida. 4 Kbemc^ kee l&kroe. 

S. Tern pc»Ui€«. 3. NuUii polhee. 4u SagliartH) kalii 
kiw. 

Bd wood, H««doo, Bd plml, Viloo mnnun (-%/^ 

2l ^alls baioofoo, Nolla boIoosoO] Barm munja {Can- 
t M wm parriflermm}. 
^lynha^ 2nd sort^ Pais raigoOj Dordhea beer, Yelaudri 

2L JflDjr. 3. Janne. 4. Janee. 

2. ICtfoodM, 2iid tort. 3. Chmiia neroodtse. 

£. Billoot or mtin wckhL 3. Bdloo. 4 

2. KoDda erookee. 3. Soooda orookee, 4. Jmigbj 

2, Muskaka jhar. 4. Mu»kc*ka iLar. 

lo^aa dininttr wood, Qoc^lani, Ghooglat, Kooii- 

BoM^miJe wood, No. 1. Pcdda ncroodoo, Burra 
■Boon, Feroo na^ (Euff^nlti jambulana) , 

Soi^^yple wood, ^u, I. Suutia uercM>doo, Paeo janiooa, 
&R»o iMga ^Ev^majamboUtnii). 

Talaii» wooo, Trloma. 4. Pbawrfu 

Jiyube wood. No, 1. Peddo raigoo, 4, Sooa hccr 
I A^iMakiL Zisyphvut JvJuiHi) * 

Hootlila^ Moothtee, Boi^hla, Moottce (StryeknoM nitx 

lljrfotkilcQ cbebulic, Kttrska, klmrunuK kodookooe 
fTumimaUm eMeimla). 
Vmk, wul» or yt^ngaaee. 3. YagH»oo« *!. Fi»di sauL 
Ifalralvood. 4. Mo\ml 
diOBfli wood. 3. Dbowar. 
SvaiR wood. 3. Swanicx) kurra, 

Frmm SUl Traets of OrUsa. 
t maajaw, or Abbf«« £bony« 
I wood. 3. Bandanum. 
£ini|Fab wood. 

dpHBMB of ebotnr, called ToomekachaTa. 3. Toome- 
^-hmm knmk 5. Kakatatee iDwtipyraf tthenast^). 
^«o wood. 3. YdEeioixthaTa kurni, 4^ Seessoo 

Dmmmer wood. 3. Googlama kuira (Vatiea), 
Fanrra^^ wood, or red wood. 3, Maha numbo. 
» wood. 3. Ooomoodoo kiura. 
3. Taddakurra. 5. Kakolatee. 
wood, Somid^ kiim. 4. Somida {Sipieiema 

wood. 3. Yegas9oe kmra, Pesli saloo. 5. 
nuB (Pierorarptut marxttpium). 
wood; a die used mostly in making gooM 

JVoM CSiddapaA, 
Bad Mnaderf wood. Cliendimimi , O inn dn aoorkli (Scfa- 
|IO«imRlaittm}. {Pterocnrpun Sania/intui.) 
^ ' wood, Ounta kunai Ktdoe) Poulcja mamm 

I ' liyilffotTlony Deva daree, D«o dliaroct, Dera tharum 

I tSmv ^itopra. 4. Warsa. 

iJKiji Piddajanee. 4. Bun^ijHntv. 

n ChiflkYnuw^ OjeckriLnei;, Seekrani. 
er«i^ko% Cho^99 gooeo, Sina noree relLam 

kiai^ Sdbno goQ^ Feroo naaaeo TcUatn, 



Black polkce, Nulla polkce. 4. Siidi polkeo. 

Wlut^ polke«, Telia |>olkc«. 4. {hiflaid polkce. 

NainetuddoojoOj Nemco lodoojoo. 4, Juiigloe abaum*! 
baloo. I 

Glomc^Tons %4pw, Mcdee, Gol laer, Attoe mamm 
{Fk'^tf glomerate). 

Popkr-leavtxl lig-tTce, Rarc-e, Peepal, Atmh {Fumg 
rdiffioMa), i 

\VUd poplar^lcared llg>tni\ Konda rarcie, Jniiglfl^ 
Pwpiil, Kttt arasin. 

CTOj>et\ Goi>BO. 4. Gopee, 

Endilie niyrobaku, Oo«Bnoa, Amlah, Toopoo nellid 
{PhtfdanihuJi Embliea) . 

Black cmblic myrobolan^ NoUa ooaarica, 8iak amUliy 
Nt-^lec kiidainboo {PhyUantkmjf EmMica). 

BuBku tlm^Ui, Btmka thoda, Baktni. 

Kudra kadnpn, Rudni CuddnpahT Roodra kurpah. 

But ctuJxipft, But too Cuddapnh, But kurjia. 

Kecmce, Kwrnoe. 4. Kbumee. 

Dujitlm, Bujitlia. 4. Bekul. 

Waved-kavcxl fig-tree, Joovee, JoTee^ Kail aluii {Fictm 
ififeciaria), 

Vangueria apinosa, Pedda tntiBga. 4. Bangann^ keela- 
kree {Vanffueria spinoxn). 

Sarapappoo, Clmra, ClieToiijtH5 kaghar sarai. 

Soonkasoola, Soonkesooloo, Suiikesar kel akree^ Yad«o 
nnnunin. 

RuAty soap nut, Xoopoodoo, Bceb, Manoe poongum 

Woody Dalbergia, Konooga^ £tmy, Pooogum {Ual^ 
ifergm arborea). 

Tliiiuilm, Tan dm, Tandra, Tanee (Termiitalm belierieah 

ElephaDt, or wood-apple, Veluga kxura, Kowcot Telm 
niarum (Feronia eUphantii»i). 

WUd wood-apple, Konda rallaga, Junglco Kowoet 
Kalix> VeUam (Feronia efephantmn). 

Narva, Narava. 4. Nawikelalireo. 

Pedda tapnaco, Pldda tapaaec. 4 Baree tapfleee. 

Bwkee, Bikee. 4, Bikkoo» 

JiTmnibfC, 3 Borti, Raigoo, Jungli} beer, Yelomdai {Jujube 
Zistfph usjujuba) . 

Piilavardnw, or Relay wood, PalaFa renoo, Doro liuoi 
kclflkruc, Yeppnllai (Writ/hUa aniidy»enterlca) . 

Aiirny, Aroe. 4. Aree. 

GtKitiiL«e, Goothce, 4. Gootlieeree. 

Corivee, Koiivee, Korvee- 

Mimcea eaxai, Jammi't', Jftumboe, VauiiQC^ Urimoaa lumi^ 

Pedda neerooddee, Pidda niTeroodeo, Burm iitvn>iKl*e. 

Clwi ring- nut tree, Clidia ginga, OiiU binjorw Ku um- 
bo re nsiroiibal, Taitan {Sliyehaiu potftforum}. 

Kiirrepakoo, Kurie pah, Kuirt^ vipin {Bfrfjera Kctm^H). 

Wilrl mango, Konda manndcej Jungle arm, Katoo 
iniiillnrum {Spomlias manffifera), 

3. Nara luninnidee. 4 Jungleo rai and Dorrako waate 
{Tetranthera imnK/petai^i). 

Poplar- leaved Hibi^pus, orTidip-tref ,Gttigftramiii kurra^ 
Paris kajhar (young wood), Poori^um marum {Hihitoim 
populneus)* 

Frofn Northern (Hrmr^. 

Goompsmawood. 3. Gooropanakurra (Orftaflt kWwt). 

Gauara wood. 2. Gtiuam kiirra. 3. Gtwiaroo kurra. 

WtMjd- apple wood, Valaga kurra, Krowoet^ Ydk ma- 
rtmi (Feronia eirphantum). 

NuDa muddi wood, NuUa niuJdi kurra, 5. Caroo 
manxHlum (Peniaptera tomfnlosa). 

Telia tnuddi wood, ToUa muddi ktirra^ Yd marooduni 
iTiiLnim {Penfaptera fflabra). 

Tangada wood, Tangadu kurra. 5. Auvarai mamm 
{OoMgia auricttlaia), 

Paya wood. 3. Paya kuiTa* 

v\ linen wood, Anneii kurra. 

Toenru wood, Tognra kurra (Morindct cUrifoUd). 

Red dye wood, 1st aorl, Viaianagrum Zemindary, 

RahI dyo wood, lind f^ort. Ditto, 

Booroogs wood, Buruga kurra (J?o;;jifix Malabaricum 
or heptapkyllum), 

3T2 



B90 



EAST IKBTES. 



r Colonies and 



Ifldugn wood, Inrlugn kiijTa, 6, Thaetlmn manim 
(^Slr^chnoit polaforum) . 

Nueltaroo woq±, Kiikkera kiura {Cordia m^xa). 

Tiibica wootl, Tolicn kurni, 

TelliiTOolraaiira wood. 3, TeHooTOolernira kurm. 

JTulLivcMjleraara wood, If uUflTeloorattni kiirrtt {Diottptfrm 
ehloroTi/lon), 

Vulture wood, Yulturc kuira (Mmota eifierea), 

Boddji wood, Bodda kurra {Fwu4 raegmota)* 

Voodftga wood- 

Lolooga wood, Loboga kurra (Pterospermum heynet), 

OiingaraDe wood, Gunganme kurra. 5. Poo raraaA 
marum ( Thegpexia papii inert). 

Agiwte wood {.Jtsch^fnomene grandiflora). 

Bimdita wood, Bundita kurra (Erythrina Indica), 

Soap-nut, or Koonkoodoo wood, Koonkoodoo kuira 
(Sapindus emarqinaitis). 

Caaioonya wood, Kuinooga luarum. 

Doduga wood. 

Cumki wood, CumbftkumL 

Gh>omoodoo wood, Goomoodoo kiirra. 

Unkoodoo wood, Unkootloo kuira- 

tJndooroo wood, Undooroo kurra* 

lecarawaee wood, lacarawsee kuntw 

01mutha wood^ Qhimtka kurra. 

From Cmmhator€, 

Black wood, 5, Irrooppoottoo m&nim {Dalberffia 
latifoHa). 

Vftngaj wood, 3. Tmm kurm ( Pterocarpm mnrmpium) . 

C^uiTj miirdah wood. 5. Kariii maroodoo uiiifiiiiii 
{TsnninnUu g^ahra), 

Badachoor, or Tlmdaaoo wood. 5. Sadaichee manim 
(Grewia iUifffotia), 

Piirrambttj woiwi 5. Farumbai marum (Prwtopis 
spi^ntjera). 

Vodu coomie wood, 5. Vadutigoorany nianim (Big- 
nonia Tt^loearpti), 

Toazittie wood, Toarathe marum ^ Capparis dip<tricata, 
(OaviMfrJMa eqwMtifolm). 

Feer cadumbej wood, Neer cadumbai monim (Nituclfa 
pnrvijlora). 

Muiija cadumbay wood. 5. Maiijiill cadiimbai marum 
^Nnuclea cordtfoUa], 

Wooitga marmn {Acacia am^ra). 
5. Caroongalj nrmrum (Aeacifj 



5, PiUa maroodoo (Termiftalitt 



Woonga wood. 5. 

Currpngallj wood, 
SHitdra), 

Piiintij wood. 3. Fotma kurra. 5. Pinnai marum 
{DUffinm pemim/ifna). 

Pillei murdoo wood* 
chebuhT). 

Ugay wood, Ooku marum (Sahadora per»iea). 

Curry rangay wood. 5. Caroo Tangei marum {Acacia 
odoraiijtxima). 

Vel vaila wood. 6, Yel Telan marum (Aeema leueopA- 
taa). 

Nuujooiida wood, 5, Nimjoonda marum {Btdamiea 
Mg^pliam), 

AUum Tildoo wood. 5. Alltmd rildoo (J*S«w Indies). 

Yellay toarattie wood, VeUaitoarat tie ( CappnHsgrandta) . 

Mttroolioga wood, Mavoolinga marum {Cratmva Max- 
Imrghii). 

Erovaloo wood, Irroovaloo marum (/wj?fl xtflocarpa). 

Corkapully wood, Ciadookapoolj maruio {Inga dttlcis). 

Ajiih wood. 5. Ajah marum {Ulmm« itdegnfoHa). 

Kalli milk hedge wood. 5. KalH {Euphorbia timcaUt)* 

Peru weK>d. 3. Pet hawk oo kurra, 6. Peroo marum 
(Aikinthiis ercrhff). 

Yelbib culley wood. 5. Yellai knJlie {Eiiphorhm nerii- 
fofm) . 

Putchalay wood. 5. Puleliabii niarum (Dalher^Ui 
pameulata). 

Beicba wood, or Date wood. 6. Eeteha marum {Phtv- 
ni.T in/lveatrh). 

Cocoa-nut wood, Golbaree kurra, Narel, Theona TOanmi 
{Oocos nuciJVra). 

Moorkoo wood. 5, Moorookoo mjarum {Ert^ihrina 
Jndica). 



marmn {dviyUa 
6. Oamoogoo 



Paroonjolv wood. 5. Parooiijoly marum {Htfmeno^ 
dwijfon tttiw]^ 

MooUoo vangaj wood, Moolloo Tanai marum (Briedelim 
^pinottd). 

Yellay naga wood- 3. Telia narecdoo kurra. 5. Yella 
naga marum {Cofwcarptt^ lafi/olio). 

Eichle wood. 5- Eicbic marum {Ficu4 i^f^). 

Nawel wood. 3. Naredon kurra. 5. Nawel manun 
(Eugenia caryaphglljfoUum). 

Woodoogoo wood. 5. Woodoogoo 
coliina). 

Acacia. Arecariiuti or Camoogoo wo<k1 
marum. 

Anny curry wood. 5. Aunaikarai marum {Odina wodier), 

Kurkutta wood, 5. Kurkutta marum {Zizyphm tfe- 
lundai). 

Yel Tangay wood. 6. Yel Tangaj marum {Acacia j^- 
ti&sa orJlejma»a), 

Yellay murdab wood, Yellai murdoo ( TemnnitUn benyi), 

Munjay parutay wood, B. Munja pavuttai {Morinda 
vUrifoHa). 

Furniture woods grown in Pinang or Prince of Wakt 
Island, j*ent by Siiigajwre Committee :—^iam wood. 
Ebony, Wild Durian. Uncertain. Angscna wood. 
Giiava wood. Kamuning. Senna Baymab or Angsena* 
Mirlimob, two kiudfl. Baloh. Balob Bunga. Root of 
Bet^biut tree. Root of Cocoanut tf^. CIotc wood. 
Root of Eboeb tree. Timbusu. Siam wood. Timbusu. 
Balob. Balob Bimgab. Ranggaa. Pinaog wood. KuMm. 
Bftloh. Ibool wood. 

Lingoa wood, or tho Amlx^a wood of commerce, firom 
C^ram in the Motuccaa. It wm Imported in conBiderabto 
quantities into Great Britain during tbaperiod in wliicb 
the Moln(3caw were British po««easiona. This wood, which 
ie Tery durable and capable of a high polish, is abuBdADt 
at Ceram, New Guinea, and throughout the Molucca Sou. 
It can be oblaincd in any quantity if the precaul 
taken of ordering it during the prcrions tTading 
The Kay u Buka of commerce is the knarled tJicr«»eeiiu* w*^ 
ttm tree. Presented by Me«sr». Almeida and %otiE^ m 
Singapore, the imjiortcrB. 

Lingoa wood, from Cenim. A circular elab, 6 feet 
7 inches in diameter. These large eireolar slabs 
obtained by taking adTantage of the spurs wbieli project 
from the boae of tae trunk, aa tho tree itself baa not suffi- 
cient diameter to fumiah eueh wide alab». They are oog^ 
flionaJly met with as hirge as 9 feet, but the usual aizei 
from 4 to 6 feet. Presented by Measre, Almeida and Sooa» 
of iSingapore, 

Khju Buka, &om the Moluccas. This wood iaobtoimsd' 
from the knotty eicre»cencea which are found on the 
jstem* of tho Lingoa tree. It is brought to Singapore by 
the Eastern traders from Ceram, Ami and New GtiineSi 
and ia sold by weight. It in much esteemied A6 a lanngr 
wood, 

Ueeful woods of the Malay Peninsula ; — Bintangor 
wood. In general use for planks, niastft, and spars ; in 
fact it holds the same position in I he Straits as the pine i 
Auu'rica. It exists in the greatest abundance at^ound 
Singapore, and is exported to the Mauritius and to Cali- 
foniia : — Kledang. Biliong. Changis, Klat. Timbusu. 
Kayu Brombong, Angsanuli. Tampinis. Tanpang. 
Kranji. Slumar. Simpoh Bukit. Krantai. Karaiming, 
SimTKjb Kyah, Mcrbow. Mctlansi Minink. Ditto, BnaJi 
Yeah. Ditto, Konit. Ditto, Kjtanahan. Ditto, Tandob. 
Bilion Wangi. Jambu-Ayer>Utan. Peragah. Eayu 
Arang. Leban. Ranggas. Bpaa-br&B, 

Glam. The glnra tree fumiahei » paper-like bark uaed 
in caulking the seams of vessels. 

Pool a i wood u*ed as floats for fifthing nets. 

Sandal wtx»d. The island of Timor is the only place 
whirh produces it in tho Archipelago iji any qtiantitr. 

Sopsn wood, from Siam and the Phibppine IsLinda. 
Funiiiihes a red dye, and is, in fisict, the logwood of the' 
An^hipelago. Exi>orted in large quantities t^ Europe. 

The growth of Singapore: — Knee timber. Mcrbow 
wood. Seventy specimens of timber. 



3L^ 0«S«i,^ 

utio^^ 



DiFumE^e^cnSB.] 



EAST TOTVUSIS. 



891 



Oaiw vittkixig stieksi fimn MaLaocsA and SumAtrftt <ui ^^^ 
^am iSbf^jma^ pr^rioui to bem^ mibjected to the prooess 
9[tmatiBig0 which gires Ihc^n their rich brown lint, 
Bitto nx fmru-tie* thereof. 

I Mid fliiTks of kindft from Cochin. 

I &c»m the jujij^les in the Ti^iinity of CalcuttJi, 
ihroiMn th© Tf nftsaerim provincea : — Siombu&a 
I gigaiitc% BttiiibuBft stncta, Bambiifta »}x*c., 
'^'' ** ,. OiUmnm ltt«ci<rulntafi, and fire other 



ToiMngt Xi3ed in making mttan chuir^, kc. 

m fip*« used bj n&tiTQs mstesd of quilk to write 
with. 
Arvndo kv^a, tived in preparing hookah snakes. 
CjpwtMi leigetum, emplojed in making mats. 
Klni»-kliB» or acmted gnaa, from Ulwar in th€ BtotCi 



rfcl^ilium ilicitoliomnni, Scttulputtee, of which the finest 
■iian OMde; gitywn in the district of Chiitagong. 

(D JfimiZMMNM ^itAito»wJ.^r«^e/4x£^ Kingdom. 
Idhme^bfli, Bth booteah^ poisons for poisoning arrows. 



bST 



iBdd aa tooth bniahes (IVopAi# a»pera)t from 



D'yailas 0BMtfynMi/«rf Soap nut, from Madnu. 
Boap mit^ Knnkude kaja, from Yizagapatam. 
JkmSOier kind of aoop nui (Mimosa ahftergmu), from 
Cklieiit «nd Hadms. 
douing nut (^St tycknos potatorum), from Ma4lras. 



f fl bfti te a tfgf HMK^ a# Food^ or in iA« preparation qf 
Food, 

rnjcifcd hump of the East Indian ox, from India, 
{J. Oarkjcnv 171 Strand.) 
Yitkk paate, two jars, from Arrakan. 
Sharks* fina (punk), from Rao of Cutch, Arrakan, Ten- 
wgrim, Mitbcos and ManiUa, used in ChinA oa an articUi 
of food. 

fB fina (Cotjch). Those are exported to Bombay 

tkm to Chin&. 
jTs Ifai* (Bombaj). What are exported from Bom- 
I kw an MtAj imported from other coimtries. 

UBigliaayjprqMired bj Mr. Scott, of the Hon. East India 
CaaipaDj'*t Dispeniary, preheated bv Dr. M^Cleland. 

Piah mAva, taingUss (ohok), from Kao of Cutch, Ten- 
mttam, Sumatra. Fish maws from Cutdi are ex]x>rtod 
lo h tu J b mj lor re-exportation to China. 

Fkk m*v9 (Bombar) . What are ciporte*! from Boin bsj 
wr cfateAj imported from other oountrie't. 

E£lile birds' nrata, 1st quaLity, from Sambawa, ea^i 
ttiw% and from Java. The iie»te of the Mirumdo e^cn- 
Imfo, eoQected chieflj in the hmcAtone caTems of the 
Sivtk ooaat of Ja^a, and the ishmd« of the eastward as far 
as ArrUy asar Xcw Quinea ; hig}ily esteemed for (heir 
Btilniious and restorative pro|>erties.— From 



bMa* neata, 2od quality, from Borneo^ 3rd 
^ttSltf^ froei Borneo and from Tenasserim. 

Iw^atng, or edible sea slug {Becke d* Mer)^ from 
Bonao. Cbllected in Urge quantities throughout the 

ITrsfan Ajcfetpelago, espectaUj among the eastern islands, 
far ikm China market.— From Singapore. 
Hie other Tarietiee are Lotonf/y BmamgJhdil^ and 
I 



Bnef, from Beerl^toom and the Coseja HiUs, 

b&steacias mmd im Medicine and in the Arts, 
Ifask, in po4 and in grains \ Nepal pods in a bamboo 

%mk^ Miibeigiii ^ and eirit* are uiuallj supplied io 



^ beetie {Mtflahrit nehorut ; Mehe triamthema). 
Ilfll% or beeUe wingi. From Dr, C. HuHhagle. 
TfitbaatW* The elyti% or beetle wings. Garlands made 
dw djiium MnsltD, as ornamented with the elytra. 



Wool^ Hairy BrUiUtf ami Whalebone^ 

Camer* wool, and eameFs hair eloth. 

Sheep's woo! (Sindli). A siimll specimen only from 
Sindh was supphed. The piece of brown wooUen cloth 
ii stated to have been made from it. 

Wool, from Rao of Cut eh. AfcK)ut a sixteenth part of 
the wool produced in Cuteh is »lai<Hl to be used for I 
consujiiption, and the rest exported to Bombay. 

Wliite and bbiek twisted and untwisted wool, from 
RiMAb of Bit'kaneer. 

Wool (Assail and Chuamas wool), frotn Bajah of Jea- 
sehnere. [ 

One roaund of sheep's wool, Bengal. 

Speeimens of shee[>'s wool and goata' down, from Ladak, 
obtained by Lieut, Stniehey, B.E, 

Wool (Bal), Jang-bal (Nakpo), black, Kighknd wool 

Yunibu (Highland), lamlia* wooL 

Kong-bal (Karpo), white, Talley wooL 

Jung-bal (Earpo), white, Highland wool 

Goata^ down ; Tibetian (Lena and Kulu), Turkish 
(Tibbit), Persittu (Kiwi mi), and Hindostanee (Pashm). 

Lena karpo (Kalc^hak), wliit4* goats' down, pieked. 

Lena nnkpo (Kalc)iak), dark goats' down, pieked. 

Tibbit Yarkhendi, goats' down from Tarkend ; Tihbit 
Kliotani, gont^* down from Khote ; Tibbit Turikni, goata' 
down froui Turfnn. — ^ Provinces of Chinese Turkey. 

Kulu, yakii' down. 

Tsos-kuL, down of the ^^tsoa" antelope^ and a ptooe of 
the animars skin. 

Wild hour, elepbimt, imd porcupine bristles. — Madras. 

SUhfrmn the SUk-wonn, and other epectet la India, 

4480 eoeoons", from Bhngidporo. 
Areah eoctjons, from Assam. 

Raw tu.4^h iiilk (Saimrma m^lUia)^ from Bhagulpore. 
Raw silk. If seers, and 1 sketn wild sdk, from Armkan. 
Mazankooree (thread) lata, and Areah kta, from A»sam. 
Raw ailk^ Areah silk^ Moongha silk, I'Z kinds, from 
Affsam. 

Coloured raw silk, from vicinity of Calcutta. 
Raw silk, from Azimgurh, Nepal, and Mya 



TiUMur (or Tu^teh), Eri, Moon^Oy and Fat Silk, 

Satumia Mvlitta (Tu*jntr)j fecda upon the Term in alia 
catappa and ZijEyi^hns iujutwu ^PS* *^^ caterpillar j 
eoooons \ silk ; oooooQi £rom whieh the moth has eaeaped j 
the moth, mnXe andibnale ; and one piece of Toasur dol^ 
made al Midnapore. 

Bombjx Bat urn ia (Moonffa)^ feeds upon the Zixyphua 
jujuba and Tenninaliii eaUppa, Eggs and eatt-rpillar j 
ooeoonB; «*ilk ; moth, mtilc and female} and one piece of 
Moonga clothj made in .Issam. 

FhiQjnDa Cynthia (En), feeds npcm the Rit.nnu9 com- 
munis. Eggs and eaterftilhir; eoooons; sdk; moth, malo 
and female ; and one piece of Eri cloth, made in Aitfiani 

Bombyi Mori (Put), fecda upon the mulbeppy, Egga 
and caterpiEor ; cocoons; Pilk j moth, malo and femtuei 
and one piece of cloth, made in A5siim. 

A specimen of the Satumia Atlas, anfl coloured drawinga 
of the Tenuinalia catappa, Zu^-phii^ jujuba, and Rioimia 
communis. The propOTty of Dr. Charles Huflbagle. 

Raw silk : — Four vaneties Grom Messrs. J. and B, 
Watson's manufacturei, 8urdah filature. Tlie ailk has 
been obtained from BongaMee or Desee worms^ which feed 
on mnll:herT7 leaves or toot plant. Four Tarieties from 
Mr. W. Maenair's manuJacturc in the Joradah filature. 
The silk has been obtained from Nistry antl Desec worms, 
feeditig on mulberry leaTOs j it is the produce of t!ie No- 
vember bund, and made from mnall yeUow cocoons. — 
Assorted in a case and contributed by B. Jsjduic^ Esq., of 
Caltutto. 

Raw silk : — ^Two Tiuietice from Rokhaldosa Mookenee'a 
manufaiture, Cossirn bazar filature. The silk has he^oa. 
obtained from Nistrj' worms, wliich feed ou mulb 
leaver. Two rarieties from Baharj Laul, Mookerj 
manufacture, Cosaim boxar filature. The silk lias 
obtoliiod from Nislry wofiau Ibedrng on mtdberry leaTea, 



092 



EAST INDIES. 



[CoiijiOEs Am> 



Two Tftrictiea from Be^amber MJttfe's manufiictiiPO, Cos- 
eim biuar iikture. Tlie silk has beeti obtained from Ben- 
gaXLev or DcftW worms^ which are bred and reanjd from 
the begmning of Qetober to the middle or close of J*o- 
Tember, and an? fed on the tender *hoot* of the mulberry 

JtUnta. One vtiriety from C, R. Jennings, E*^q/» manu- 
iMjlure, OiLhiTHwre filnturc. The silk is obteinc^d from 
BongftUfe or Bcsce worm«, which feed on mulberry pknts 
or Toot paut / the produ w and colour of the cocoons are 
generally better from mulberry grown in i»trong clay sOiL 
— Assorted in a case, and contributed by D. Jardine, Esq., 
of Calcutta. 

Unw silk :^ — Manufectured by Messri. V, and 8- M, 
Tftnlon, Soo^poor, of eight cocoona of the winy buud. — 
^From the Calcutta Hat. 

Feathers^ Doum^ J^r^ and Sl-ifu. 

Wliite and black ostrich ft-athers, from Aden. 

Miiriafoitrnvi* of feathers by the mitive*, raw featbera, 
botu), tippets, artiiiciAl flowers^ from Dr, 0. llullhagle* 

BofiAt tippets, TiL-torines, &o., from the down of the 
young Cioonia ai^la, t^olkoted at CoiemereoUy, 

Cnutea* while lecithers, from AmLbm and TenaMemn^ 

Tiik of the yak, or Boa grumueiiB. 

Ghomies, from Arrakan. 

Black tiger tkma, from Madma;, Calicut. 

Antelope »kins, from Eajah of Patteala. 

2 kopord skins, 3 tiger skins , 1 spoilt^ deer akin, 
1 white CM- tawed deer skin, 2 fawns, from Bengal, from 
G. C. Clieap, Esq, 

100 Bengal deer sldna, from Patna. 

50 buiralohidca,100go*t tkim, 50 cow bides, from Bengal 

Two squirrels and two lisarda. 

Deer «kin, otter skin, jowmakli akin, squirrel skin, 
kooteiih skin, from A«cvam — Baboo Beenanath. 

Brown bear ekin. 

2 pieces of fi&h akina, 8 apecioieiif of kjngfiaherB* akina, 
from Arrakiin, 

Bitw and tinned sking of elk, buffalo, bull, tiger, cheeta, 
wild cat, goat, sheep, deer, elqjhnoL, bibon. — Madras. 

Bon^t JTom^ Ilo<ifif I^o^jyt tf*e. 

Horn tips. Bc^er and butfalo horns, with skulls and 
without. WUtl Mylhon cow's heafl» complete. Mountain 
aheep'a head. Takin's head. Singphoo cow's bead, 
Mishmee; Sinmihoo cows* bearls, without skulk, tlmee 
pairs. — Assnm, Cnptuin Smith and IMr* W- S. Hudson. 

Two buflhlo homs.^ — Tenosserim ProTinces. 

Bulfalo and diM>r hm^f, from interior, Bhinooeroa 
homa, from Zanzibar. These are imported at Bomb^iy, 
fr<om the eastern coast of Afrieai Zanxibor, ajid the Somtdi 
oooat; they are then re-exix>ried to China for making 
cups and ornaments. The one sent ia the double horn of 
the Mhinoteroa Africaims. 

Two nielgoi horns, and rliinoccros horn. — Moulmetn, 
Tenasserim IVovint^s. 

Horns of bison, bidfulo, elk, antelope, doer (one pair). — 
Madras. 

Sdentiflc Name^ of Momt cmd Ski m from India. 

The gour (Bos [bibog] eavifrons), Hodgson j {Bof 
^oiifW#), Hamilton Smith, 

The amee {Bos [fjulalu^l arfut\ Hodgson. 

The bilrah sinhii (Cervus [^buc&rmts'] elapKoidea)^ 
Hodgson; (CertuLs dmiaitceUii), Q, Cuvier. 

The aiimber {Cervtfs [russa'] hippelapAu^), CuTier. 

The kflker, or barking doer (Cervu^us Imtmyacetu} 
va^milijf), Boddart. 

The axis [Ajm macuiata). 

The tbar {CapricomU hubalimi), Hodgson. 

The hog duer (ArU porciHUA)^ Zinnnenuan. 

The rassor, or roosh (Ovis poiit)^ Blyth. 

Flying squirrel (SattrttJi petatirijiia), PaUa, 

Tttkio (Bridorcos saj-kofa)^ Hodg^son. 

Elephants' tusks. — Tenassorira Provinoea, 

Elepliant'a tusk. — Nepal. 

miephanta* tusks, and hippopotamua* teeth, Somali 
CoMt. — Aden, 



Elephant^s tnsks. — ^Ifadra^. 
Bundle of Mcrgui tortoi*c-shell. 
Shell of the Imwk's-biH turtle, Sulu Iskndij. The 
tortoie^e-shell of commerce, from Singapore. 
Mother-of'pcari sheU, Arm Island^ and Suliu 

349 seed poarb.^Kurracheo, viA Scind and Bombav. 

These se^ pearls are from the fishing at £urnM»iee^ 
They are small and of Httle yaloe, except witk thoM wlxr 
efiteem them as a medicine, to wit, the T^^masxA and 
of the Hakeems of India. 

Pearl-oysters were not procnred at Kuiracbee befiifV 
the times of Meer Moorad .iJi Khan. They were obtained 
in this manner (Bombay Report) : — 

The oysters come up to the shore at high water. Wlicu 
^le tide fell, there thej- remaine^l, and Coohes were em- 
ployed for the oeeafiion ; who gathered them up, put 
tbcin in boata, and landed them aU at Keaunanoe Point. 
There the shells were broken, and the pearls extracted, 
under the orders of the contractors, who paid tlie Tulpono 
QoTemment a yearly sum for tlie pearl contraet ; at fintj 
only 541K> rupees per annum were paid, but after a tinM\ 
40,000 rupeea were given for the same period. Now, 
even Govenmaent eell yearly the right of sifting the 
in search of any pearls thtit may still remain. 

Fresh-water pearls, with their 8hclla.^Moorib<idabtd. 

27 Mergui pearls. 

Bundle of pearl oyater-sliella. — TeniMHtfrim. 

Sheik from Zanzibar, n'J Bombay, 

Bombay sheik (so called in India) i these are imported 
from Zanzibar in large qimtitities, and are stated to be 
exported to England, or to the Mediterranoiui fi>r 
Tlie ?j>ecimens sent are tliose of CW*i> rufa, 

Co'wTieii, ejprei, imported from the Maldire T»1fc«aM^ 
and current as money in India, 

OiU^ TalUm>^ Wax^ and Lard. 

Bengal tallow. 

Bees' -wax, 13 seers 12 chek. — Bhiigulpore. 

Bees' -wax, tliree Tarieties, from Borneo, 

The bee of the Indian Archipelago docs not make it« 
nest in hives, a^ in Europe, but suitpends it from tba* 
branch of a tree, in whidi position they may be 
forming masses of eonsidemble bulk, Certam trees be- 
come Civourites, and are eeleeterl by them, year after ft 
for many generations, althougli often disturbed by the- 
taking of their nests. These trees become private pro- 
perty among the Eastern tribes, and aro huidod down 
froiD lather to son. 

Ol«e, Ida^lass^ and CMaihie* 

Isinglass from Polyncmus plebeina, t. anpra. 
Poh^emiis plebeius ; the hah yielding Bengal iRDglMai 
from Dr. Walker. 

Fif^h^ called chuppa, yidding iainglaas^ — ^Arrftkan. 

Lac, 

Glass case, containing illustrations of the process of Ue 
manufactures. The lac insect, young. Stiek-lae,. seed' 
lae, lac dye, shell-lac, sealing-wai, shell-loc oi 
Dr. C. Huflhftgle, 

Stiek'lac, and a kind of lae^ — Cakruita. 

Seed'lac, one maund*— Bhagulpow. 

Shell -hie, of the kind called oala, and of the kind caDo(| 
chanuk. — Beerbhoom. 

Lftc from olf the Peepul-tree (Fum* rBliffiota} ; and 
the ban, or Indian Bg-tive {Ficut indiea) ; and off ths 
here, or Ziz^phm jujuha. 

Stick- lac-, on twigs of Mimosa abatergens and Ficui 
religiosa. — Malabar, xM Bombay. 

Stick lae I this is imported at Bombay, from Sindhj 
also brought from the Southern Mahratha country, and 
most parts of Western India, for re-exportation toChinft' 
and England, 

Gum-lac. — Singapore. 

Eaw lac — Ganjam, 

Stick-ko and seisd-lik:. — Bengal. 

Lae dye^ 1 mannd 10 aeers. — Bengal. 



Dkfckdkkcies. J 



EAST INDIES. 



KacsixAsrEOUS CoLi^icnoir of Mdcebal, Yeget^ble, and Akisial Sfbstancss useful in Medicine and the Arts, 
made by Dr. Rotle, in the Bazaan of the Bengal Proeidency ; with some additions from Dr. Falconer (F.), 
obtainea in Caahmere^ and others from Dr. Stocks (£[.)> prooured by him in the Bazaars of Scinde. The collection 
is interesting, as containing most of the useful products of India, besides enabling us to identify many of the 
subatanoed which were known to the Arabs as well as to the Qrceks, as the autlior has endeavoured to show in hii 
works, ^ Essay on the Antiquity of Hindoo Medicine,'* and " Illustrations of Himalayan Botany." 



Boots. 



Xo. 



SynoDTma. 



PUcM whence Obtained. 



Scientific Names, ke. 



1 

9 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

U 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

90 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

» 

SS 

34 

35 

36 

37 

3S 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

4S 

4'J 

5J 

51 

52 

53 

54 

55 

56 

57 

55 

59 
61) 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
6A 
6j 
7ij 
71 
72 
73 



AbooKlnilia 

Aboo Kanos 
Ateesbutees 



Atee9,F. 

Uzkheer 

Azkhar, SL Izkeer. 

Urkoh? Arkoree 

Urloo . . . 

Asaroon . . . 

Tugur F. substitute. 

Afeemedoon . 

Iskeei . . . 

Asgnnd . . . 

Asgnnd . . . 

Akurkura . • 

Amba huldee . 
i Umdunran . . 
' Anarrwli. 

Untelefa Sooda . 

Unteleh Souda . 

Uinbar roomee . 

Uinbar, St 

U^bar . . . 

Areei Kosmeeree. 

Aal,F. . . . 

Ayrsean,8t. 

B arah c e Kund . 

Be^ Sar, F. . 

BMareeKond . 

Bidhara. 

Burkuk Shirazee 

Bekh AtriUl. 
! Burmooloo? 

Bisfaij . . . 

Bisfaij,F. . . 

Biskhupra . . 

Bilsekund. 

BuQufsha 

Bozeodan . . 

Boehmun soorhk 

Baehmun suffed 

Buehmun suffed, F. 

Buehmun suffed, St. 

Buehmun suffed 

Bi«h . . 
j Bish . . 
i Bish, 2nd specimen 

Pukhan bed 

Peiijeroe, F. 
'■ Piu^aoona. 
i Pokhur mool 

Pecaranfpa. 
. Tal moofte . 
j Tciorbad 
' MUhmeeToeta 

Jalapa . . 

Jain}j:has 
• Juiiwar . . 

Judwar. 
I Judwar, St . 
i Junteeana . 
; Junteeana 2nd 

Chirja kund " 

C'hob Oicencc 

(liaya. 
. Chok . . 
i Honzil . . 

Khirbuk, substil 

Khus khus . 

Khuiguk,St 



;ute for 



Butui^ot 
Butui\)ot 



Bish, 2nd . . . . 
Tirayamen . . , 

Mlrchia gund . . . 

"Ree,"or"Maroee" 
Tat burunga . . . 
Tuggur . . . . 



Nagouree 
Hatrass 



I^irbisee dukhnnec . 



Sural cheep . 



Pohli . 
Kala koot 



Rusot 



Nirbisee, 2nd . 



Mooltan . 

Roum. 

Kedarkanta 

Guzerat. 

Caubul. 

Kedarkanta. 

India . . 

Scinde. 
India, Dehli 
Hills . . 

DehU, Surat 
India . . 
India . . 
Mirzapore. 
DchU . . 
Arabia . . 
Arabia. 

Umritseer . 



Cashmere? 

Caubul. 

Gunga kc kadir 
Surat. 



Caubul . 
Caubul. 
ludia . 



(Cashmere and llills 

Surat. 

Caubul. 

Surat. 

Iran. 

Scinde .... 

Bengal. 

Umritseer. 
Pesliawur. 
Himalayas . . 



Dehli, Guzerat, Um- 
ritseer. 



India 



Dehli Bazaar . 
Surat via Dehli 
Umritsecc. 



Caubul .... 
Surat via Dehli. 
Cashmere via Dehli. 
Poorub . . . 

Umritseer . . . 



Punnee 



India 



Xlkanet? 
Lithospermum ? 

Aconitum heteroj^yUom. 



Andropogon, eunfll'i hmj. 



Bignonia indlea. 

Viola sp., substitate fiir Annmi 

Europeum. 
Epithymum. 
Scilla indloa. 
PhysalSs flexuoM. 

Anthemis pyrothnmi. 
Curcuma. 



An Aconitum? 
Aconitum FeroK. 
Bistort or Snake-wood. 



Morinda citrifolU. 
Orris-root 

Acorus Calamus. 
Iledysarum tuberosum. 



Polypodii, sp. 
Trianthema pentandra. 
Viola rcpens. 

White Bahman. 
Aconitum fcrox. 



Saxifraga ligulata. 
Thalictrum. 



Curculigo orchioides. 
Convolvulus turpethum. 
Coplis Teeta. 
Convolvulus Jalapa. 
An Polypodii sp. 



Zedoary. 
Gentian. 



Smilax china. 

Orris-root sn. 
Cucumis colocynthis. 
Hellebore. 
Andropogen murioatum. 



De fEji DEN C1E8. ] 



EAST INDIES. 



«95 



KoL 



Synanjnu. 



PlacM wbeaoe Obtained. 



Sdentillc Namei, fce. 



157 
153 
159 
161) 
161 
162 
163 
lf>4 
165 
166 
167 
169 
163 
170 
171 
172 

17:j 

174 
175 
176 
177 
17S 
179 
ISO 

lei 

1512 
183 
llM 
196 
186 
1*7 
ljj8 
1?9 
190 
191 
IV2 
193 



Kibbar (bark of root). 

Kutol 

BekhKurffl . . . 

Kurroo 

Kissar Kejur . . . 

Kuseroo 

Kukora ..... 
. Banj Kukora. 
I KoonduBh .... 
I Koothee. 
. Kurkee pona kfjnr. 

Keer. 

Guj peepnl .... 

Gushoona. 
i Giloh 

Gumnaturee. 
I Gorkhe pan. 
I Loofa 

Mazrioon .... 

> Mahmiran .... 
• Mahmiran Khutid. 
Mahmiran (different). 

' Moghaa 

j Muleem 

Moosli fluffed . . • 

Moosloe (another kind). 

Moosli suffed . . . 
' Moosli siah. 
I Moosli siah Dnkhunee. 
I Moosli siah, St. 
' Bekhmhuk. 

Neergundi .... 
' Nisoth, F. 
I Nnr Kuchoor. 
I Wuj 



Dchli. 
Caubul . . 
Hills . . 
Saharunpoor 
DehU . . 
India . . 



Himalayaa 
IndU . . 



Mucdi lukri 



Sawbul 



Surat . 
Cashmere 



Himalayas. 
Gwalior. 



India 



Bach 



Dehli. 
Khorassan. 



Apium graveolens. 
Gentiana. 
An C'issus. 
C}'perus tubcrosus. 
Momordica muricata. 

Apparently, Costus. 



Pothos scandens. 
Memisperumm condifoUum. 



Atropa Mandrogam. 
Daphne i 



Ranunculus ficaia? 



Tetranthera. 



Bembax heptaphyllum. 



Acorus Calamus. 



Woods. 



\U I Baidust abnoos 

195 Bcejesar. . . 

196 Bookum. . . 

197 ! Pudmak. . . 
19S Ttjbul . . . 
190 Deodar . . . 
^ff Sundul abiuz . 

2[.*1 I Sundul ahmur . 



2L0 



Ood 
Ood 



Byuk .... 
Puttung(sappan wood). 



Sundul suffed (white 

sandal wood). 
Rukut chundoun (red 

sandal wood). 
Ood hindee . . . 
Agur (aloes wood, 

eagle wood). 



India . 
Dukhun. 

Deyrah . 
Uills . 

Dukhun 

Poorub. 

Hairas . 



Ebony. 

Caesalpinia sappan. 
Pninus Puddum. 
Xanthoxylon aromaticum. 
Pinus dcodara. 
Santalum album. 

Ptcrocarpus santalinus. 

Aloescylon Agallochum. 
Aquilaria Agallocha. 



Babks. 



2M I rkl Beer 

205 Burkuk Shlrazee . . . 

2r^ Bharungce 

207 I Bhoj puttra. 

au8 Bhumbel 

a/i ! Tejbul 

210 ! DarCheenee . . . . 

211 DarSheeshan . . . . 

212 Boo, St. 

213 Sutpeora 

2U , Tuj 

215 Sunna. 

210 (><>shk chal. 

217 Kirfae 

SIS Koorchce. 

219 Koora 

tiO Kunhar kapoflt. 

221 Kayree, St. 

222 Kherec chips, St. 
2:23 ; Lulka. 

224 i Lodh 

2:^) Musag, bark of Akhroot 

226 1 Mueda lakree . . . , 



Iklbeer 



Cinnamon 
Kuephul 

Boorans 
Saleekhee 



Walnut. 
Chandrem . 



Poorub 

Surat. 

Almora 

Himalayas . 
Himalayas . 
Poorub . 
Himalayas . 



Foot of Himalayas 
NuJijibabad . . 



Furruckabad. 
Khereo Pass . 



Himalayas . 
Almorah . 



Datisca cannabina. 

Betula Bhojputra. 

Euonymus tingcns. 
Xanthoxylon aromaticum. 
Laurus cinnamomum. 
Myrica sapida. 

Rhododendron arboreum. 
Laurus cassia ? 



Echitcs. 

Symplocos racemosa. 
Tetranthera apetala. 




FBinTS Aim S^iBS. 



Aargbjecfl. 

UbhooL 
Ootiintj . 
Vtml , . 
Usluk . 
Oojas. . 



irjmood 
Ajwmin 



Ajowftn or Wutl Tim, St, 

Ehrees 

Ukhbtiroos 



Aruz 



Ami, Birunj Pers. 
Azarakee 

Uijfln , , , . 

Aa. and St, . , • 

AaartuTflh , . « 

Dfmnjdi . , . 
Ukut mukut 

Uklccl ool mulik * 

Ummoghelaa . , 

Umliy . . . * 



Uabuj * 

Amchou, 
Unjidan . 

Indjftn . 



UitjldiLn, 2iid * 
Dtyidmi^ P. . 
SirT. McNeiirs 
Ouduiig, St. 
Oolungun^ F. 
Utijpren.. 
Aneaoon 



Aoecsaon, F. 
Atieesoon, F. 
Ancson * • 
Anoulii , 
OoateaooB 



Zirighk . . . 
Uotibcr, liubcr » 

Bijuoree neemboo 
Funis «... 



Aloo Bokbam . , 
Alu Chumra, St. . 
Arub ujwain . . 

Nan KhcHMih. 

Kuaooinba ka kucn 
E.ul'gebooii . . 



Btnini . . , . . 

Var. Bantmutti . . 
BirinJ Peahawvoc, St. 
Qimatay&D nee. 
Butismutd. 

Chanw^ul, Dh&n . , 

Koocbla , . . . 



Dana . < . . * 

Kutkuj-eDjEL Kurexyvra 

AiJspiee .... 

Keelcur 

Aonla, Emblica m.y~ 

roboImiB. 
Anabf uinchoor . « 



Dookoo. . . . 
St, Hingotcy jo pur 



Aniioed 




Hilla 

St. UmriCseer , . . 

Garileiia .... 
India . . . , . 
ladia . . , . . 
Caubut and Cashmere 
KboFMnan .... 

India 

From Dr. CbrletisoD. 



India 

IHlla and Kbadir, 
Chilkhana. 
Donb Canal . 
Doub Canal. 



India, Poonib . . 

Cashmere . . . 
Bn&iorah. 
Pohii and Caubul 
India . , , . 
Caubul .... 
Calcutta Bazaar . 



India . , . 

Bengal. 

Surat via Behli 

Arabia. 



Sabanmpore Surat, 
Aitoria in Tibet . 
Herat. 



Caubul . . 
BongaL . . 
ITmritseer* 
Caubul. 

India. 
Surat. 



Eerberis Chitra. 
Juniper berries. 

Citron, 

Tamarix dioica. 
Vitea irifolift. 
Priunua Bokbariensli. 
Acid plum. 
Ptychotis ajowan. 



Carthamui tinctorius. 
Coix indica, 

Oryxa satira. 



Str^'cbnaa nux vomica. 
Hill aprloot. 
Myrtua cotnmuub. 

Urtica. 

Civsalpmla boudn Delia. 

MeliLot. 

Allspice. 

Acacia famed ana. 

rhylianthua emblica. 

Unri^)e fruit, dried. 

Ferula aisafoBtida. 



Assafoetlda ? 
Nartbex assafistida. 
An urtloa? 



Applied to apium petroeelinom* | 
jini«ecd. 



FimplneUa myolucrata. 



Defkkdekcies.] 


EAST INDIES. 


899 


No. 




Synonynu. 


Place* whence Obtained. 


Scientific Name., &c 


455 


Ootnngun 


... 


Lucnow. 




456 


OotnnKUU. 








457 


Unteh mora 


... 




Helicteres. 


456 

459 


Oonga 

Ahlub 


. . . 


India . ! ! a . 
Surat 


Achyranthes aspera. 


460 


Ahlelig bijwara . . . 


Hnrazurd. . . . 


India 


Terminaiia 


461 


Hurra takee .... 


. • 


Dr. ChriBtiaon. 




462 


Ahlelin Kaboolee . . . 


» • » 


Caubul. 




463 


AhleliS Behera, F. . . 
Ahlelu Behra? 


. • • 




Terminalia. 


4&i 








465 


Ahlelui usfiir .... 


• • . 


India 


Terminaiia chebula. 


466 


Ahleiuj Qswnd .... 


... 


• • . 


Terminalia chebula. 


467 


Ahleluj uswud, juwa, hure 
juwa. 








468 


Oomd chulaka, F. 








469 


Oomd seeah. 








470 


BabcheeandF. . . . 


... 


... 


Psoralea coiylifolia. 


471 


Bawurchee, St 








472 


Badam Chenee .... 


• • . 


• • . 


Arachis hvpoga. 

Ocymum ? 

Egg plant. Solanmn melangena. 


473 


Badrooj 


... 




474 
475 


Badinjan 


. . . 


India 


476 


Badian Khatai . . . . 


. . • 


China 


Star anise, Illicium anlsatum. 


477 


Bartung. 








478 


Baku 


. • a 


... 


Bean, Faba vulgaris. 


479 


Bakla 


• . . 


Gardens .... 


Bean, Faba vulgaris. 


480 


Bakla,8eiii. .... 


• . 


... 


DoUchos sp. 


481 


Bakla 


Shirasee. 






482 


Sem 


• . . 


Bengal. 




483 


Bakla misree .... 


Kumlghutta . . . 




Nelumbium speciosum. 


484 


Badkoomb 


• • • 


Bengal*. *.*... 


Careya? 


485 


Balungoo 


• a . 


India 


Dracocephalum Royleanum. 


486 


Balbeej,St. 








487 


BaebhuDgar .... 


a • • 


India 


Vitex. 


488 


Buchehtirak .... 


• . . 


Bengal. 

Niujibabad . . . 




489 
490 


Birunj Kaboolee ... 

Beibarong. 

Buryana 


Baebhimng . . . 


Embelia ribes. 


491 


Khurentee . . . 




Seda. 


492 


Buzr Katoona .... 


• • • 


India, Gardens . . 


Piantago IsufghoL 


493 


Buzr,F 


Iipngol . . 


DehU. 




494 


Bisbafleh 




• • 


Mace, Myristica Moschata. 


495 


BistiUj ...... 


... 


Delhi. 




496 


Buteekh hindee . . . 


Turbooz .... 


. 


Water Melon, Cucurbite citnillus. 


497 


Buloot 


... 


... 


Quercus. 


498 


Buloot 


Shah Buloot, St . . 


... 


Quercus. 


499 


Buloot 


... 


Surat, Acorns . . 


Quercus. 


500 


Nimoorea Bukavee, St. . 


. « * 


... 


Melia Bukayun. 


501 


BiUdur. ..... 


Bhilanwa .... 


... 


Semecarpus Anacardium. 


502 


Hub Balsan, St. . . . 


... 


• 


Balsamoidendron. 


503 


Hub ool Balsan . . . 


... 


. 


Balsatnodendron Gileadense 


504 


Boon, F 


Kuhwah . . . . 


... 


Coffee, Coffea Arabica. 


505 


Buleluj 


Behera .... 


India 


Terminalia Bellcrica. 


506 


Bunj 


rjwin Khorassanee . 


Dehli 


Ilyoscyamus niger. 


507 


Benda Toree, F. . . . 


... 


Gardens, India . . 


Hibiscus. 


508 


Bindal 


. ! ! 


India 


Momordica. 


509 


Binduk 


Finduk .... 


Hills, Hazel Nut . . 


Cor^ius iacera. 


510 


Binduk hindee . . . . 


Reetha .... 


India, Soap Nut . . 


Sapindus detcrgens. 


511 


Bomaderan 


• . . 


Surat, Dehli. 




512 


Boomadur, St. ... . 


Gen madur, St. . . 


... 


An Absinthium. 


513 


Boee 


... 


Dehli. 




514 


BeejBund 


... 


Dehli. 




515 


Bel geeree 


... 


. 


^gle Marmelos. 


516 


Belgeeree, St. .... 


Pulghur, Katturo. 






517 


Bol. 








518 


Boengnn junglee . . . 


... 


Dehli 


Solanum. 


519 


Bhung Puharee, F. . . 


Hemp seed . . . 


Teree, Himalaya . . 


Cannabis sativa. 


520 


Bhenjarce 

Padul 


... 


. 


Zizyphus ? 


521 


... 


India 


Bignonia suaveolens. 


522 


LolIPaluk,F 


. . . 


. . 


Spinage. 


S23 


Paluk, F. 








524 


Phaphra,F 


... 


... 


Buckwheat 


52.1 


Papecta 


... 


St Ignatius Bean . . 


Strychnos Ignatia. 


526 


Punisphul 


... 


. . . 


Lagerstroemia ? 


527 


Pulas Papreh .... 


... 


. . . 


Butea frondosa. 


52S 


Punwar 


Chukonda .... 


... 


Cassia Tora. 


529 


Petha 




Indian Pumpkin . . 


Cucurbita Pepo. 


530 


Petha, F. 








531 


Phulwa 


... 


Almora .... 


Bassia butyracea. 


532 


Peloo 


. . . 


Hansi 


Capparis aphylla. 


5.13 


Pecaz 


... 


. . 


Onion. Allium cepa. 
Piper longum. 


S.'U 


Peepul ...... 


DarFilfil .... 


Bengal 


535 


Panir jo fotah, St 








536 


Tal mookhana .... 


. . • 


India 


Barleria longifolia. 


537 











900 



EAST INDIES. 



[COLONIBS AKE 



No. 



Syiionyiiis. 



TUmi whence Obuined. 



Seientifle Nunee, kc 



SS8 

539 
540 
541 
542 
543 
544 
545 
546 
547 
548 
549 
550 
551 
55S 
553 
554 
555 
556 
557 
558 
559 
560 
561 
563 
563 
564 
565 
566 
567 
568 
569 
570 
571 
57a 
573 
574 
575 
576 
577 
578 
579 
560 
581 
582 
583 
484 
585 
586 
587 
588 
589 
590 
591 
592 
593 
594 
595 
596 
597 
598 
599 
600 
601 
602 
603 
604 
605 
606 
607 
603 
609 
610 
611 
612 
613 
614 
615 
616 
617 
618 
619 
620 
621 



Siah Tal mokhana. 
Turboos,F. 
Tukmam. 
Taryak,8t.. . 
Peearanga . . 
Tushmecxtij 
Toonii\j . . 
Toorun] 

Toormus. . . 
Tumr . . . 
Tumr hindee . 
Tuntereeh • • 
Toreeseeah 
Toree gfaia 
Toree tulkh 
Todreesufibd . 
Todree soorkh, F. 
Todrisoorkh,St. 
Todr«eZurd . 
Toreeah, F. 
Tor,F. . 
TooOfF. 
ThyguL 
Teen. . 
Tent. . 
Jamphol 
Jamun, F. 
Jawania. 
Jnijur . 
Jasur . 

JOOB . . 
Joux ool suroo . 
Joux ool Kitah 
Jous ool Kue . 
Joux ool Kue, F. 
Joux boa . . 
Joux boa . . 
Joux roomee . 
Joux maul . • 
DhatoratuffkL 
Joux masil nximd 
Jeeapota . . 
Chah . . . 
Chimoti suffed, St 
Chaoolmoogra . 
Hasha. F. . . 
Hub ool Ban . 
Hub ool Ban. 
Hub ool Khixra 
Hub ool Zulm . 
Hub ool Sumneh 
Hub ool Ghar . 
Hub ool Koolut 
Hub ool Koolkool 
Hub ool mimullub 
Hub ool necl . 
Hirf .... 
Hoormul lahoree 
Hoormal . . 
HuMuk . . . 
Hussuk, 2nd . 
Hoolbeh . . 
Himax . . . 
Gul Himax, St 
Qui Himax, St 
Humus abiux . 
Humus ahmur • 
Kasnee . . . 
Kasnee siah 
liintch . . . 
Kakshee, St 
Khoobanee, F. . 
Hunxil, F. . . 
Khoob-baxee . 
KJnu-bcHvia, F. . 
PosI Khufbooza 
KlHnbeb, Khoob Kulan 
Khirfe* 
Rhurdtkt r««« 
Khurnoob Shamee 
Kiiumoob noobtee 
Khiroa .... 
Khiroa,F. . . . 



Chaksoo 



Choohara . • 

Marwar . . 
Kalee toree. 

Konree toree 



Bengal. 
Deyra Dhoon , 



India 
India 



Caubul, India . 



Bijra . . 
IHrehtixak 
Gaffur . . 
Ukhroot • 



Caubul. 

Surat 

India *. 
India . 



Mucnphul . 
Muenphul • 
Juephul • 



Dhatoora . . 
Kaladhatoora 



Himalayas . 
Hills . . 
ArabU. . 



Spice Islands 



Surat 
India 



Hub Zalam, St 



India 
India 
China 



Surat rid Dehli 



Himalayas Cult 
Almora . . 



HaUm 



Ispund, F. . . . 
Gokroo Dukhunee 
Gokhroo . . . 
Methee . . . 
Pulkee. . . . 



Chuna Kaboolee . 
Lai Chuna . . . 



Gehoon 
Andorain 



India 
Surat 



Frundee . 
Arundee, F. 
Kahor . . 



Carobs , 
India. 



Inside husk of Areca. 

Cassia aeacalis. 
Citron rind. 

Whit^ lupinf Liipinus albus. 
Dute^ Phoenii dactjiifeni 
TiLmarindi TainadnUus indica. 
libua pan'illoruia. 

Lnfik aentangula. 
Lu£fa pentandra. 
Chciran1iiu« cheats 
Cliei ran thus. 
Malva. 
Cheiranthus. 
Sinapis. 
Cytisus Cajan. 
Cedrcla Toona. 

Fig, Ficus Carica. 
Capparis aphylla. 

Eugenia. 
Panicum spicatum. 

Moridfcndin tira. 
Carrot, Daucus Camtik 
^VBln^u, JuglftTis rt^ia. 

Scflanutn ip. 

Poso<|uerta dumetoruni. 

Po«(*queria. 

N 1 1 ■ r 1 r -7 > ! yrtfitica moschatL 

Wild nutmeg, Myristicatomentosa. 

Zixyi^us sp. 

Datura metel. 

Substitute for Datura fiutuoaa. 

Thea viridis. 



Chrnilmoog^ odorata. 
Stit«tituic for ThsTiie. 
Melia scmpervirens. 

Pistacia terebinthus. 

Buchanania latifolia. 
i^uruf. uobiLis. 

Car(il<iflpennuni lUlicacabura. 
Rhtid. 

Ipoinepa ewrtilc*. 
l^pidftim Mitiviim. 
Peranum linnnala. 
CtufcJjtfifti^ L'Apsuraria. 
Pe(Jalium inuivJt 
Tdbuliis limuj^DoffuSL 
TrigoDcUa f^Fniigr^ctiiB. 
Rumcx uiidulatus. 



Cicer arietinum. 
Ciccr ariotinum. 
Cbioctr), Cki>riimi intybus. 

Triticum hybemum ct JEstiivum. 

Dried apricora. 
Cocumis Coloevuthisw 
MalvA rotyndift^lia. 

Ki : :-m. 

Sinapis pusiila. 

Sinspii nigra. 

Cassia. 

Kiciuus communis. 

Lactuca sativa. 



CIS?,] 



EAST INDIES. 



901 



Bs. 






— 



Synonynu* 



PticAii whffiio^ QUAinod. 



Sclmtiac Kanuf, ficc* 



^a 
6sg 

631 

634 
635 
636 

637 
6^* 
633 
610 
Ui 
612 
643 
644 
643 
64« 
617 
S4g 

6S0 

€51 

613 
6>4 
6&5 
i&6 
6&T 
65§ 

seo 

661 
6^ 
i%3 
€&l 

€65 
666 

m: 
rm 

670 
C71 

€:2 

en 

574 

6r& 

€76 
677 
67^ 
€7a 

ms 

fiM 
6-^2 
GS) 

f,*4 
6^5 

f.»7 

fM) 
ESpi 
^Jl 
CIS 
«■/! 

Sia 

r^ 

'm 

m 

>i 
:u3 



BLlmih Ebujli abinx 
Khiuh Khufih uawud 
Khm^ukf St. 

Rhulmee . . > . 

Khikf . . . . . 

Khundrocw . . • , 
Mukkee ioorkh. 

Gc»[-i^Ar diecnoe, F« 

Anjik Donah, F. . , 

0arum , , , * , 

D«ii[g abrooj * , * 
Diakhnn. ... 

Dimil .... 

DhimuttiiT . , . , 
Dik paj»rft. F. . . 
D«k ..... 

Doukoo . . « . I 

UDJIdftn , « . . I 

Dookoo, F, 
Dookoo, F. i « . 

Bindi2)A . , . . 

DandaEUkh » , « « 

Ztirt < 

Ha iQSDa, F* . - < 

Haid patrei} • « , 

Ramputtreef St . i 

Baontw .... 

Boodrachel , * - - 

Hu^fBKen , . « . 

Hc». . . . . , 

Zubeeb « « . . . 

Zebecb ool jlbbal . . 

Eobi" mor . . . < 
Zubr, another kind. 

Zueutoft , . • * , 

Saj ..... . 

Sill , 

Saurnarh, F. • . . 

^oo Haneh . . . 

Sany , . . -^ . . 

Sapiftan . . « > 

Suaiab , , . . . 

Tookhro-i-eud»bj F. , 
Tooklini'iHSudAb, F. 

J^ursiiuf . . , , , 

Suirsbn . . , . , 

SurHjari . . . , , 

Sufiirjiil . . - ■ 
Ei}L Dana. 

Saliik , , . . . 

^umak . . . . , 

Suiiiiik 

SofumLkf 2nd • 

S<rm=Ui Safaed , , . 

S«nsin . , 4 , < 
Sunniinduf pb«3l 

l^umundur phul . . 

SuEnuadur sdkh . . 
Sun ,.,,., 
SiinfC^ke-be^. 

SliElL 

Sjnjud < . . . , 

Sximfmkh . < , I 

Soolfa . . . , . 

Sum n»e^ . . . . 

^in^haim . . . . 

Stmf 

JHitirbe*, F. . - . ■ 
Sham f^oondrcPT. F. 
J^tihTuiJna kc b*cji . 
Si'h. ...... 

j5<i??jiUv«oii . . * « 

J**fmb, r , . * . ■ 

^n I. F. . . . , , 

^hakbun . . . . 

ffljakliun « • ■ I 

£»baneb dnihtGc . . 



Foat , 



Bed moti^bk 
Mukkec . 

Amalt&ft , 

Naflpal « ^ 



Imllan eom 



PcAhawnt . 

Himalayis 

Hlmalayaa. 

BoraL " 



Juntalgottii 



UnJldftD 



Cuhmerci. 
Cubmere. 

iNslbL 

■ . # 

Fruit found aloii^ with 
the leavoi. 

Faljenmcc, Picked* 

Bengal # . * . * 



Jeret . . . i . 
Given for ttavesaere. 

- . 9 
Sauwak , . * * 



Beb dana . 

Chooknndur 
Kuni;ne« « 

Toong . . 

Tit . ", '. 
Tii . . . 



Baxeeani^ . 



UrhnT 
Tor . 



India. Took 



Cakntta. 
llausi. 



Caubtd. 
KabooL, 

IkTigaU 

Quince , . 

Sabaninpore. 
Kbodlr, 

CssbmeFe . 
Drill! ". ". 

Sfllmrunpore. 

India *. ' 



Papa?er aomnifenmi. 

Alrhfpa roiea. 

8<alix jEgypdao*. 
Zea Mayit. 

€n»la fifllula. 
Cinnunoinum aromaticmn. 
PuDica gninntum. 

Funica granatnin* 

Punicum miliacctun. 

Croton Tjgljum. 
Euphorbia birta. 
ClitDfia teruatca. 
Bntcfi frandoBa, 
Ziiypbua. 
Ferula, ap. 



Ck>mposit«*. 

SoTgbum vtilgftTo. 
BertboUetiai' 



Myristl^a. 

often in a whole 

broken niac«. 
UmbcUirera?. 
Elcocarpua Ganitrus^ 
iEscbynciiQene Seeban. 



RaiBini. 

DeLpblnJuiD BtapbiHigrla. 
Legumiuoes. 

Olcft lytooo. 
Tec ton a grandls. 
Shorea rdbuita. 
Panicuixi, 



Cordla BIyxa. 
Liuta gr&vcoloiti. 



Sicuipis dicholoma. 

Cdo»lB argentoa. 
Pyrui cydonia. 

Bet*; vnlgaris* 

Ponicum italicump 

Kbtifl. 

Rhuc coridHa. 

SFeamum cirsentole, 

Borringtopia a^utangula. 



Uiblscu! cannabinni. 



Klea^nuB einjid* 
CoTOiiositft'. 
UmbpHifcnc* 
PfjrtiilJirea. 
Tmpn hiflpjnoBa. 
PJmpinL'lla anlauia. 



IljrpsratiOirra nu>riiiga» 
Mains cnni munis. 
Umbelliferit. 
Lpgumhinsrp. 
Ciiriir]kifncpiB. 
Cytisus bbulor. 
CytiiiUA I<yau. 
6fdA indica. 



ba«kot mkif 



902 



EAST INDIES. 



[Ck)LONIES A!En> 



No. 



704 
705 
706 
707 
708 
709 
710 
711 
712 
713 
7U 
715 
716 
717 
71B 
719 
720 
721 
722 
723 
724 
725 
726 
727 
728 
729 
730 
731 
732 
733 
734 
735 
736 
737 
738 
739 
740 
741 
742 
743 
744 
745 
746 
747 
748 
749 
750 
751 
752 
753 
754 
755 
756 
757 
758 
759 
760 
761 
762 
763 
764 
765 
766 
767 
768 
769 
770 
771 
772 
773 
774 
775 
776 
777 
778 
779 
780 
781 
782 
783 
784 
785 
786 
787 



Shahtnreh, St. 

Shair, F 

Shah husfur .... 

Shubit , 

Shubbonak . . . , 

Shurbuttee ..... 

Shureefa ..... 

Shookakae. 

^ulgum ..... 

Shuogund ..... 

Shouneez ..... 

Zuur Satur, St 

Sunobiir ..... 

Sundal soorkh .... 

Adiu 

Anab 

Anab ool salib .... 
Aod suleeb, F. . . . , 
Tookhm Ghafis. 
GoolGhafis .... 

Faghcreh 

Ml 

Faranj mooshk. 

Furunj mooshk, 2nd sort 

Furui\) mooshk, 3rd sort 

Fistuk , 

Gool Pista, F. . . . . 
Fiturasaliyoon, F. . . . 
Fiturasaliyoon .... 
Filfilabiuz ..... 
Filfil uflwud .... 
Foofal 

r. '^' p..kiMinMO, F. . . 
I -,H>rHindee,St 

Kakleh saghar . . . 
Kakleh Kubar . . . 

Kissah 

Kussud 

Kheera Kherah, F. 
Tukhm Badrunj, St. . 
Kirdmana. 

Kirdmana, 2nd . . 
Kiraseea .... 

Kira 

Kira,2nd, F. . . . 

Kootun 

Kootun Bagheeclic 

Kumbela .... 

Kaloophol. 

Kakuui. 

Kakuin pcshauree. 

Kakuiy, F. 

Ka Peru, St . . . 

Kalec zeeree . . . 

Kana bij, St. 

Kubab checnee . . 

Kutan 

Kutae buzoorg 
Kutuelee, F. . . . 
Kuthi Khoord . . 
Kutora. 

Kuthul 

Kuchcra, F. . . . 

Korras 

Kurufs 

Kirmulee .... 

Kir>'ia 

Karela 

Kurheey. 

Kiizecrch .... 
Kuchorie. 
Kussonndhee, F. . 

Kisteh 

Kisht bur Kisht . . 

Kusoos 

Kushoos, St. . . . 
Kulhuttec, St. 
Kulhuttee, St. . . . 
Kumazrioos. 
Kumangla. 

Kumoon .... 
Kumoon suffed . . 
Kunkoth .... 
Kunkolmirch . . . 



Synonymt. 



Juo . 
Rihan 



Urloo 



Kaloigee . . 

Chilgoza and St 
Ruckut chundun 



PisU . 
Another kind. 



Chiknee soopiarce 
Chotee elachec . 



Knkree 
Kheera. 



Kuddoo tulkh. 
Kuddoo meetha. 
Bunola . . . 



Ulsee . . . 

Kuthuelce . . 

Peeazee . . 

Dhunya . . 



Mucn phullee . . 
Ughas bcl ke becj 



Zeera seeah . 
Lungctt . . 



Flaon whenee Obtained. 



India 



Turnip . . 
Himalayas. 



Himalayas . 

Mussooree 
Cashmere . 



Peshawur from Iran. 



Agrimony . 
Himal 



imalayas . 
IndU . . 



CaubnI. 
Umritseer. 



White pepper . . 
Black pepper . 
Bengal betle nut . 



Malabar cardamoms . 
Bengal cardamoms 

Cucumber . . . . 



Sunt. 
Cherr>' 



Sdentifle Names, &e. 



Barley. 

Ocymum pilosum. 

Anethum sowa. 

Bignonia indica. 

Orymum? 

Custard apple, Anona squamosa. 

Brassia rapa. 

Nigella indica. 

Pintu <Neo£a> Gerardiana. 
AdfiDauthora puvoftltuL, 
I^rv'um hirRitum. 
Zj/,yphij3. 
Solanum nigrum. 



Cotton .... 
New Orleans cotton 



Himalayas . 



Room 

Dehli. 

Subs, for Carum carui 

India 



India 



Caubul . 



Compositie. 

Xanthoxylon. 

Radish, Kaphames sativus. 



Prangos pabularia. 

Piper nigrum. 

Piper iiipiiiD^ 
Areca CatcGhu, 
Areca. 

Elettaria cardamomum. 

Alpinia? 

Cucomis utilitisfimus. 

Cucumis sativus. 

Cucumis. 



Pruus Cerasus. 



Gossypium indicum. 
('Ossypium barbadcnse. 
Kottlera tinctoria. 



Solanum. 

Serratula anthelmintica. 

Piper Cubclm. 
Utium ufliUiissimum. 
Bolsnum indicum. 

Solanum Jocquinii. 

Artocarpus intcgrifolia. 
Cucumis ? 
Allium pomim. 
Apium graveoleus. 



White kind. 



Cueurbitacea. 

Coriandrum sativum. 

Cassia sophora. 
.Vpnil ? 

Helicteres scabra. 
Cuscuta. 
Cuscuta. 



Kunawur . . . . ' Carum nigrum. 

Cumin ! Cuminum C>*minum. 

, Dehli j Ximenia ceg^'ptiaca. 

I Dukhun. 



Depexdexcies.1 



EAST INDIES. 



903 



No. 



7&5 

78J 
790 
791 
T^rl 
7V<J 
7M 
7\ib 
796 
797 
?J8 
799 
K«0 
801 

e&2 

603 

eiM 

»lo 

806 

81)7 

80$ 

803 

810 

811 

812 

813 

814 

815 

816 

817 

818 

819 

8^i0 

K>1 

822 

82S 

8i4 

825 

826 

827 

828 

829 

830 

831 I 

Mi ! 

sa5 I 
KV) ; 

837 

8.r^ I 

«4l 

M4-2 ! 
W-'J 
>44 , 
M'l ! 

^iT : 

^4•* 
^•/0 



Kunkoi mirch . 
Kunowcheh 
Koonchee . . 
Kconchee. 
Kunotha? . . 
Kuiiotha? Buffed 
Kounchee. 
Kungnce . . 
Koda, F. . . 
Kawul gattBj F. 
Kliush Khush . 
Kimee, F. . . 
Kuhodia metha. 
Kuhodia methee 
Kucth . . . 
Kunsonla . . 
Kinro, St. 
Kinro, St. 
Gowmadur, St. 
Hubool triuneh. 
Guj peepul . . . 
Col mishkim . . 
Gundunah, F. . . 
Goondar phul, St. 
(vehoonle. 
Ghoonchee tuffed . 
Ghonchee seul. 
Lajwuntee . . . 
Lif9an ool Haml . 
Lissan ool Asafecr. 
Lows .... 
Lowz .... 
Mai kongnee . . 
Mahtib, St. Sdndee 
Mahmoodah, St. 
Mahee xabun^ 
Muttur mualmiig, F, 
Munhahy . . . 
3Iirch soohh . . 
Moomiyae, St. 
Mukoh,F. . . . 
Mukur zullee. 
Mukhareh . . . 
Miindwa . . . 
Motha . . . . 
Moong .... 
Wood. 

Narjrcel .... 
Nag kesur . 
Nag kcsur, St. . • 
Nanmga. 
NankwAh . 
\Vap<»<»mb», St. 
Nermulle€ . 
Nnog .... 
Ncemb .... 
Ward . . . . 
Wunga Tukhm, St. 
Wu^ari Muuli, St 
lUlim, F. . . . 
llcNflhf>ol 
HuUoon 
llulyoon Tookbm. 



Synonyms. 



Kiwanch 



Kuel ka kullee. 



Places whence Obtained. 



Dukhun. 
India . 
India. 



Bengal , 
Bengal < 



Sahaninponc 



Bartung. 

Badum i shcreon . . 
Badam i tulkh . . 

Gowla in Bombay, St 



Narmocslik . . . 

I'jwain 

Kala til and Kamtil . 
Goolnb 



India 
Patna. 



India 



Caubul , 
Caubul . 



Saharunpore 
Saharunporc 



AbyEsiiiia 



Scientific Names, &c. 



Carpopogou pruricns. 



liCguminosxc. 
Lqi^uminossD. 

Panicum miliaroum. 
Posimlum scrotialatum. 
Nelubium spccioftum. 
Popi)yhead. 
Mimiujoi>8 Klcngi. 

Feronia elcphantum. 



Pothas. 

Ptcrospermum. 

/inthcricum. 



Abnu precatorius. 
Mimosa. 



Amygdalus communis. 
Amygdalus communis var. omara. 
Celastrus nutans. 



Cocculus indlcus. 

Ipomsea. 

Capsicum frutescens. 

Solanum indicum ? 

Eurj'ale ferox. 
Klcusine. 
Phaseolus. 
PbascoluB. 

Cocos nuclfera. 
Mesua fcrren. 
Cassia buds. 

Ligusticum ujwain. 
Care} a arborea. 
Strychnos potat«>ium. 
(iiiizotia oliefera. 
Melia Azndiraohta. 
Koba Dama^ccua. 
Cucurbitacettf. 

Lepidium. 

Cleome pentapbylla. 

Asparagus officinalis. 



Galls. 



m 


Buz-frbunj 






Pifltachia galls. 


^::i 


Khimsub 


... 


... 


Pistacbia. 


m 


i Mahi-c. 








8.-.4 


■ Sakun, St 


• 


... 


Tamarisk. 


8>5 


Mabee Khoord. 








8.V; 


! Siimrut ool toorfa . . . 


Buree mucc . . . 


... 


Tamarisk. 


ST 


Mue. 








H5^ 


1 Sumur Kokla .... 


... 


Poorub. 




8.Ti 


1 Shuknr teeghal . . . 


... 


... 


Asclepias gigantea. 


wo 


Ufus nijjer pbul . . . 


. . 


... 


Quercus. 


Wl 




... 


Kalsec 


Khus. 


ya 


Kakra singhee. 









[Oppicial Illustbated Catalogue.] 



3 U 



904 



EAST INDIES. 



[COLOKIES AKD 



Gums, Besins, asd Gum Besiks. 



No. 



Synonjnnt. 



PbcM whence Obtained. 



Sdentifie Names, &c. 



863 
864 
865 
sum 

867 
868 
869 
870 
871 
873 
873 

874 
875 
876 
877 
878 
879 
880 
881 
88S 
883 
884 



887 



890 
891 
893 
893 
894 
895 
896 
897 
898 
899 
900 
901 
909 
903 
904 
905 
906 
907 
906 
909 



Ooshuk (ammoniacom) 
Unxeroot . . 
Bar-zud bircc^ 
Puddum ke good 
Puchdhara gond 
Toorui^jbeen 
Toon kc gond . , 
Huzeez Mukke 
Jawasheer . . 
Jiugun ko gond 
Dum ool Akhwain 

Rateeaniig . . 
Zooft ... 
Saleh ke gond • 
Sukmoonya . . 
Sukmoonya, 2nd 
Sukbeeni^ • . 
Soondroofl . . 
Soondroos, 2nd 
Sohninne ke gond 
Sirisskegond . 
Sem ke gond . 
Sembul ke gond 
Elwa . . . 
Ungoor ke gond 
Sumogh Aimba 
Ulk-ool-buttum 
Firfiyom . . 
Karen . . . 
Kirasia . . . 
Kutcera . . . 
Koondur oUbanum 
Koondur olibanum, 2nd 
Kunnee gond. 
Kumurkus . 
Koondroo . 
Khuer ke gond 
Googlee . . 
Ladan . . 
Look . . 
Moor(bol) . 
Zurdaloo 
Mustagee . 
Mookul . 
MookuU 2nd. 
Naguoroc gond. 
Nishasteh . 



Kandurooskh . 
Sarcocolla . . 
Galbanum . , 



Persian manna . 

A kind of benzoin 
Opoponax . . . 
Kunnee gond . • 
Dragon's blood . 

Coiopbony . • 
Resin .... 
Koondur . . . 
Scammony . . 



Sagapenum 
Copal . . 



Caubul • . , 
Surat Hilb 
Surat Hills 
S. E.G. Hills. 
8. B. G. . . 



Gotagond . 
Mochrus . 



Chio turpentine 
Euphorbium . 

Cberrygum 
Gond . . . 
Loban . . . 



Dhak ke gond 
Saleh ke gond 



Labdanum . . . 

Gum lac . . . 

Myrrh . . . . 

Kegond . . . 

Mastick . . . 

Googul Bdellium . 

Googul, 2nd. . . 



Caubul . 
India .... 
Surat .... 
Arabia .... 
Khera Pass . . 
Surat Arabia • 

Surat. 

Room. 

Khera .... 

Surat .... 

Surat 

Arabia .... 

Manrar. 

Africa. 

India .... 

India .... 

Deyra and Rajpore 

Inma .... 



Arabia . . 

Surat . . 

Arabia . . 
Kherce 

Surat . . 
Khera Pass 

Surat . . 
Poonub. 



India . . , 

Almora . . 

Deyra . . , 
Hills. 

Surat . . . 
Deyra, ko, 

Surat . . . 

S. B. G. Hills . 

Caubul . . . 



Hills, 

Nagora. . 
Mirzapore. 



Dorema ammoniacom. 
Peniea Sarcocolla. 
Bubon Gulbanum. 
Prunus puddum. 
Euphorbia antequomm. 
Alhaji Maurorum. 
CedreU Toona. 

Pastinaca Opoponax. 
leica resinifera. 

Drsctena Draco. Calamus Botang. 
Pterocarpus Draco. 



Boswellia serrata. 
Convolvulus Seammonia. 



Ferula persica. 



ir^ranthera Moringa. 

Mimosa Serissa. 

Bauliinia gummifera. 

Bombax heptaphylla. 

Aloa perfbUata. 

Vitis vinifera. 

Acacia vera. 

Pistacia Terebinthus Umritseer. 

Euphorbia. 

Shorea robusta. 

Prunus Cerasus. 

Bombax gessypinnm. 

Cochlospermom. 



Butea frondosa. 
Boswellia serrata. 
Acacia Catechu. 

Cistus ladanifenis. 
Coccus lacca. 
Balsam odandm. 
Prunus chooloo. 
Pistacia Icntiscus. 
Amyris agolleche. 

Alallc archea. 



MlXEBAL KlXODOM. 



21 



Abar 



Ulrec . . 
I'lree, 2nd. . 
I'bkur . . 
Uswud . . 
Uswud, 2nd. 
Ustwud suffed 
Ajur . . . 



Isfldaj . 

10 i Isfldaj, 2nd 

Ermanoe 

Barood . 

I Bokhrar . 



11 
12 

13 

14 j Biruiy 

'* ■ Birorj 

Bilor . . 

Bilor. 2nd 

Bornik . 

Bhurut . 

Pa . . 



Padzuhr . 



{Seesa ke rakh. \ 

Seesa jullahoon . ; 

(burnt lead.) 1 

Yellow tertiary . . 

Shora 

Soormee .... 

Soorma 

Soorma suffed . . . 
Purance aent ke khora 

Suffeda 

( Suffeda kash. kunee. ) 
I — kas kurce. v. S 



Peetul 



Booroh yermance 



Zuhr. mohra 



India . . 

Juepore 

Surat . . 

India . . 
Kurpaul 

Caubul . . 

caubul . . 

India . . 

Furrukabad 

Surat. 

Surat . . 

India . . 

Surat . . 

India . . 

Tanktoda . 

Dehlee . . 

Pegu . . 

Arabia . . 

Surat . . 
Dukhun 

Calcutta . 



Oxide of lead. 

IJmestone. 

Limestone. 

Nitrate of potash. 

Sulphuret of lead. 

Sulphuret of antimony. 

Calcareous spar. 

Old bricks impregnated with i 

line matter. 
White lead. 



Serpentine opaL 
Gunpowder. 
Opal, striped. 
Brass. 
Selenite. 
Quartz crystaL 
Calcareous spar. 

Green carbonate of lime. 
Fibrous alum with green aoli^iato 

of iron. 
Serpentine, t. Herbert t aoet 



0Efi3iDeKasg.J 



EAST INDIES. 



906 



y^ 



3> 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 



Fmdzuhr ruBoI 
33 Piftdxutur &ec&h 

24 I Faloonift 

H^ I Piitoouim, 2nd. 

Sti [ Fiila , . 

£8 I Pulewft , 

^ I Plndnl . 

ai I Poklmg . 
31 P«jn>« . 



I ' 



Toonmitpe turd 
Tourmul^, Ind. 
ToomiuJeef 3rd. 
Tourmulee subs 

Toumiulee sufled 
TooiTDtilee tecah 
Til Liar puthur , 
TincAl , , , 
. Tlncal, and. 
Tobfcl ... 
Tootyar . . . 

Tootja iubz 

46 I Tippus , . . 

47 . Juokb*r .... 

48 ; Choonee pi. choonya 

49 Hijr (stone) . 

50 Ilijji^iimiuQce * 

51 j H^|^<lol-b^dGed . 
&2 - Hiji'-ool-hudeed, 2Dd. 
53 ? 
W liyr-ooUiitar . . 

55 ' Hi|r-c>ol3itBr, 2od 

56 j Hyr-otil-fimftk , 

57 H^r-ool-simftk . 

58 Hnr-oul-timiUi , 
'^ Hjjr-oul »>lb . 

61 Bijr-ool-kliuttoo 

62 Hnr ool-ioahuk 

63 Hgr-ool-itiiinum 

€4 
C5 
66 
67 
fiS 
69 
TO 

:i 



I 



lltjr-ottl 
l!ijr-«ol 

Hijr-ool 
Iiijr-onl 

IIu'Iocl 

Hli.ltH.-.l 

KJiaruk 



■mnriuni, 2iid 
muktifttecfl 

-mecim, 2nd, 

nan . . 

- V ufheb 

■3 ushcl) abiuz 

> usheb ukhzur 
-I'ahodee . . 



ispat 



Khirumjee . 

I>anloor . 

])o<Nihya . 

Ihichnuj 
' I>}io«>nui>la . 

Dhetlhee 

Ku*\ra'l . 

Hu^kupoor . 

I\i<as abiuz 
. Kioas u^iviiid 
' HiicHiiikhtuj 

llowlec . 



8> 
'A) 

'A 
% 



Rociee . . 
Zubur jad . 
Zijaj .... 
Zunieekh sufTed 
Zarneckh soorkh 

Zurneokh zurd 
Ziimeekh tubkee 
Zumurood . 
Zumurood toddee 
Zinjar . 



Synnnym*. 



StiS'ed cuhr. ixiobfm 
Scab iubr, mabxa 



Sohasa . 
Sobaga tema (ally) 
Bluel tambak . . 
Neela tbolhU , . 

Goosuratce « . 



I No name 



Sung sitara 

Oonabee 
Kirmizce 



Kusoutee 



Choombuk 
Tilia koonind . 
Kaneb . . . 



Chukmak . . . 
Sung eeshum . . 
Sung ecshum sufTed 
Sung ecflbum 8ubz 
Sung yaboodans . 

Kheree loba . . 
Ispat .... 



Dana firung 



Kanga . . . . 
Secsa .... 
Tamba juUa hooa 



Kansoo 

Kancb . 

Munsul 

Ifurtal . 
Yellow . 



FUcra wbennr ObUlned. 



$r Sen tide N^cucs^ &'«. 



Zungar . 



Suitit . 

Btmarci 

Riuniaa 

SuiTit . 

Kangra 

Juepore 

Juepore 

Chtlkt 

Barat 

llatiaai 

Surat. 
SuTat, 
P^u. 
Pegu. 
Pegu. 
Siimt. 

Kassypore ♦ 
Koodurpotis 
Noodurpufd 
India \ . 
MarwftT 
Arabia. 
Guaerat, 
Surat , * 
Debtee . . 
Surat . . 
Surat . . 
Arabia . . 
Caubul . . 
Hills . . 
Surat . . 
Surat . . 
Dcblce, B. 
Dukhun 
Dukbun 
Mecca . . 
Surat . . 
Debleo, B. . 
Surat . . 
Dukhun 
Deblec, B. . 



Caubul . . . . 

Deblce (Gwalior) 

llurdwar. 

Surat . . . . 

Surat. 

Surat . . . . 

Caubul .... 

Caubul .... 

Caubul .... 

Arabia .... 



Dukhun 
Surat . 
Surat . 



Hills 



Surat . . . 

Surat . . . 

Surat . . . 

Surat . . . 

Surat . . . 
1>ukhun Poorub 

Poorub . . . 

Hills . . . 

Sui-at . . . 

Dob lee . . . 



Llthomargici, 
Dark grean serpen tin o. 
llollotrope. 
Serpeutfne. 
Green felspar, 
Bloodatone. 
Clay abtce. 
White c[ay. 
ilpel beryl ? 

Light clay coloured tiy Tfrg«t&blA 
aiatt«r. 



J f ombictide quarfi. 

IJurax. 

Droa» of copper 

SulpliaCe of copper. 



Carbonate of potash. 

Spnelle ruby. 

(;raphite. 

Ued jasper. 

Iron ore. 

Iron ore. 

Iron ore. 

Avanturinc? 

firanite porpb3'Hl!<j. 
PorphyrJ*. 
l'H^T-|jhvntic jatper. 
Milky i|uarlz. 

LiiiiL'staac (Jpstelmere limestone). 
ToucliBtooe (flinty slate). 
Tertiary limi?fltrmc v. Voyscy, used 

ill t*jmU of iwjkundra. 
Coarfto grainpl quartz, 
i^oadstonc. 



India . 
Surat . 
India 
Poonib . 
Dukbun 

Dukhun 
Dukhun 
Patna . 
Herat . 
Agra . 



Glass. 

Quartz, substit. for flints. 

WbltB C4:iiiipiict quartz. 

Whito ccriiiiivict qiimrtl. 

Ch^Icednni<^ qiuU-tt. 

Lapi!! Jiidoicui fossil spine of an 

eriiinm. 
Iron tif superior quality. 
Steel. 
Crysta Is of calcareous spar. Chal- 

L till. ay alfio glvea, 
*lnttrt2 pebble. 
Cbiy sbte. 
White agate. 

Mnlachiie : acetate of copper. 
T^qwi smoky quartz. 
I'tmchstone* 

Red jasper-, red clay-stone. 
Submuriatc of mercury. 
Tin. 
Load. 

Impure oxide of copper. 
A com[»ound ma4le nith huldee, 

soap, IScc, used in making the 

tikka. 
Bell metal. 
Impure emerald. 
Glass. 
Selcnite. 
Ued orpimcnt; red sulphuret of 

arsemc. 
Yellow orpiment 
Yellow realgar. 
Emerald. 

Emerald, or cat's eye? 
Verdigrise. 

3 U 2 



906 



EAOT mDIES. 



[Colonies and 



No. 



Synonynuu 



Placet whence Obtained. 



SeientiOc Name*, &e. 



99 
100 
101 
102 
103 

104 
105 
lOG 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
IIG 



117 

lis 

119 
120 
121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 
130 
131 
132 

ia3 

134 
135 
136 

137 
138 
139 

140 
141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 

150 
151 
152 

153 
154 
155 
156 
157 
158 
159 
160 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 



Zunjufr , 
Sar . . 
Shijree . 
Surunj , 
Sulajcct . 



Suligcct, 2nd . 
Dar shikna . . 
Soolcmanec . . 
Sung-par . . 
So ... . 
Sung saffee . . 
Sung jurahut . 
Sungjurahut, 2nd 
Sung miarec 
Sung Misrce, 2nd 
Sonailah . . 
Set khurrce 
Shudnig udsee . 



Shub yemance abius . 
Shub yemanee ahmur 
ShuT) ycmaneo ukhzur 
Shibbeh . . . 
ShiT)bch mohrik 
Shurbuttco . . 
Sumb ool far abiuz 
Shumb ool uhmur 
Shumb ool usfur 
Sabon . . . 
Tabasheer . . 
Tulk abiuz . . 
Tulk kooshteh . 
Tulk uswud 
Teen uhmur 
Teen ukhzur . 
Teen armenee . 
Teen Daghistanee 
Teen Gunjunee. 
Teen Kibnisec . 

Teen mukhtoom 
Teen usfur 
Ajooba . 



Akeek . 
A keck, 2nd 
(ihoree . 
Ghorec, 2nd 
Ghorec, 3rd. 
Ghoree, 4th. 
Firosuj . 
Firosuj, 2nd. 
Kufr ool yahood 
KuUco abiuz . 

Kullcc ahmur, 2nd. 
Kullec uswud 
Kashuree . 



Kashuree, 2nd . 
Kibrcet cha chia 
Kibrect cha chi, 2nd 
Kibrcet mooslec 
Kibroct nirmula 
Kibreet aonla sar 
Kibrcet sceah 
Kittee . . 
Kurketuk . 
Kusees . . 
K usees, 2nd 
Kusees, 3rd 
Kiilus . . 
Kulwa puthur 
Kuthuela . 
Koorund 
Khurya muttee 
Gawa 

Gopee chun dun 
Gomuoduk . 
Gao dunta . 
I-oiwurd 
Lai Buffed . 



Shungruf . . 
Foulad kooshteh 

Sundoor . . 



Soolcmanee 



Suffed soorma . 



Phitkhumi suffed . 
Phitkhumi soorukh . 
Phitkhurru subz . . 

Just 

Jus^uUc hooa . . 

Simbul khar suffed . 
Simbul khar soorukh 
Simbul khar zurd 
Lahorce .... 
Bans lochun . . . 
Ubruk suffed . . • 
Ubruk mara hova 



Geero 

Gil subz subz muftcc. 
Gil urmunee . . . 

Mooltanec muttee 



Zurd muttee . 



Si^jee muttee . 



Sax ... . 
Gundhuk . . 
Kalce gundhuk. 



Choona 



Poorub .... 
India .... 
Surat .... 
Calcutta . . . 
Hills .... 

Hills .... 
Surat. 

Surat .... 
Caubul, Mushapoor 
Surat .... 
Dehlce .... 
Dehlec .... 
Hills .... 
Caubul. • . . 
Surat .... 
Surat .... 
Hills .... 
Arabia .... 

Poorub .... 
Pcshawur . . . 
Reworee . . . 
Arabia, Poorub • 
India .... 
Caubul .... 
Caubul .... 
Caubul .... 
Caubul .... 
Lahore .... 
India, Poorub . . 
Dukhun . . . 

Sermona . . • 
Gwalior . . . 
Dchlee .... 
Arabia .... 
Surat .... 
Lahore .... 

Surat .... 
Caubul .... 
Mooltan . . 
Dukhun . . . 

Surat .... 
Surat .... 
Surat .... 



Bokhara 



Surat 

Batandur N. of Saha- 
runpore. 

Kangra . . . . 
Surat 



Dukhun. 
Dukhun 

Bullumgur 

Dehlce . . 



Hills, India 
Caubul. 
Surat . 
Benares 
Poorub 
Cashmere 
Hurdwar 
Surat . 



Rhimaa 
Surat . 



Cinnabar. 
Oxide of iron. 
Chalcedonic pebble. 
Kcd lead ; minium. 
Bitiuncn ; impure, 

slight flame. 
Coal. 



bums iRith 



Onyx. 

Fibrous alum. 

Jet 

Pot-stone ; talcaceous schist ? 

Calcareous spar. 

Alum. 

Egyptian stone ? 

^gyP^i<^ stone ? 

Smoky quartz. 

Talcaceous schist ? 

Carbonate of lime, coloured by 
carbonate of iron, with a nucleus 
of calcareous crystals. 

White alum. 

Red alum. 

Greenish alum. 

Zinc. 

Oxide of zinc. 

White chalcedony. 

White oxide of arsenic. 

Red sulphuret of arsenic. 

Yellow sulphuret of arsenic. 

Lahore soap. 

Tabasheer. 

White mica. 

Burnt mica. 

Black mica. 

Red clay, or clay slate. 

Green earth. 

Armenian bole ? lithomarge. 

Yellow clay; lithomarge. 

Whitish clay. 

Cyprus earth; S. Q. 2, 2, litho- 
marge, with muriate of soda. 

Red clay slate. 

Yellow clay slate. 

Variegated limestone, with organic 
remains. 

Cornelian. 

Common agate. 

Wliite cornelian. 

Agate. 



Turquoise. 

Asphaltum ; Jew's pitch. 
Carbonate of soda. 



Impure 

Fine-grained slate ; argillaceous 

carbonate of lime. 
Chalcedony. 
Sulphur. 
Sulphur. 
Sulphur, roll. 

A compound. 

Iron ore. 
Sapphire. 
Green vitriol. 
Sulphate of iron. 
Sulphate of iron. 
Lime. 

Amethvst ; amethystine qnnrtz. 

Corundum. 

White soapy clay. 

Cx>mpact quartz. 

White clay. 

Milky quartz. 

Serpentine? greenstone. 

Lapis lazuli. 

Topaz. 



^^fc*9i"^^^^^^^^^^^^^E5^^Ni>ms^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^t)o^l 


1^ 




S>iiofiynM. 


rUce* wbencF Obtftlned. 


Scientific N«oei,&c, 1 


176 
177 

179 


LftI goolabee « . , 
Lo^oghan . . , . 
Lucbsuaja «... 








SunU 

Caubnl 

Surat 


Corundum. 1 
Irtm ore, M 
Milky (|uarU. J 


ISO 


IjUoIoo • • » 








■ - " 


Ccmrso garneU. U 


m 


1 Mat moburet . . . 








SuraL 


Felspar, ^^M 


181 
188 

1S4 


M>tBik mimovrur . . 
Mutok stdfed . . . 
Uanuk soorkh . . . 








Sumt 

Surat , . . . . 
Surat. 


F.^^.nxi. H 


18^ 


MoordftrSung . 


, 










186 
187 


Miirksbeeiha . . . 
Hurkuz 


. Sonamukbeo . . . 


Surat ..... 


lead. ■ 
ScWat, with iron pyrites. J 


188 


Biiuhttkaonia < . « 


Nimuk munjareo 


Itidia. 


^^^H 


189 


MUl«h usirud . . . 


Kala nimuk . . . 




Black salt. ^^H 


180 

m 
in 
iss 

IM 


KmbAe 


, N i^ihast^ 


India ..... 
India ..... 
Surat .... 


Starch of wheat, ^^M 
Sal ammoniac. ^^^| 


?(oiidur .... 
Noittdiir ptmkaoee 
Hadja ..... 
Himinjce . . . « 








• . 


CoahmGre .... 
M*]M>ltaii. 


Compact quartz. ^^^^ 


IM 


Takoot Budukshatioe . 


• • . 




Surat . • , . , 


It4iby. ^^1 


~ 196 


Vakoot Ktuniinec * . 


« • • 




Surat ..... 


197 


Yakout rurd , . . 






Siurat. 


1S8 




♦ 




Burat. 


^^^1 


199 


Takoot kirmnzee . 
Takoot niibrKxi , » 


. . 




Surat - . , , , 




Sarat 


Sapphire. ^^H 
Sapphire. ^^M 


102 


Takoot nuboodf 2ad . 
Takoot 


* • « 




Surat 

Kejo, 


AimcAL KrsGBOH. ^^B 


1 

s 


tr* far ool teoK . . 
Padzuhr hu'Twaneo . 


xVukh 

Ziibr mofireb . . . 


Surat 1 

India, Surat . . . 


Unguis odoratua ; black By^antioo. 1 
Bi^&nar. M 


^d 


Busaud suffed . . . , 


MfHinfJca ke «iir , . 


Sural ..... 


Coral. ^^fl 


^^^^■6 


fiuamd sulfeil, 2Dd . . 


Bckb moor jar . 


Dukhun. 




^^^^V 


Boatud sumnl, ard . . . 


. . . 


Surat, 


^^^1 


^^^^v 


fiihaUi Moonan , , . 


• • • ( 


Surat. 


^^^H 


^^^^ff 


Hiakh Mooi^an, 2nd . . 


• • • 


Surat. 


^^^H 


^^^Ht 


Bttsnd kc kism . . , 


■ • a 


DukbuQ. 


^^^1 


V • 


Jubctn ...... 


Puucer . , , . , 


Caubul 


Cheese. ^^H 


I ^ 


Goond bedu§tar . . . 






^^H 


I ^1 


Hijroothool . , , . 


Sung. s[rl mahee . . 


Debloe. 




■ 


Doil ool hureer , . , 


. 


Poortib ..... 




■ 13 


Dbal shootier . . . . 


• 


Caubul. .... 


Chee«e of earners milk. ^^H 


m 1^ 


Roob mahcc . . . , 


MaheG ..... 


Surat 


Mirznpniw ^^^H 


■ t^ 


Zoubd ool bukr • . . 


Somuudurjhug . . 


Surat 


Cuttte^Oabbone. ^H 


■ 16 


Sboma ....... 


Blom . * . . , 


India 


Wax. ^^M 


I 17 


Suduf 


Seomp 


Stirat ..... 


^H 


V 18 


ilijrooldek . . . . 


. . • 


1 iidla. 




19 


Gfaorrea ooLjuUood . . 


Slrep ..... 


India 


^H 


m 


Kurbroba . . . . , 


. • • 


Poorub • • . . . 


^^^H 


n 


Gao loehnn . . . • 


■ ■ • 


Sumt 




28 


Geadiir soondae . , . 


Jackal's navel . 


India ..... 


Netst orMantis. ^^M 


JS 


Loloo 


Mothoo .... 


Surat 


Pearl. ^H 


94 


Loloo ...... 


• « • 


Surat. 




$ft 


Loloo zurd 


• • • 


Surat, 


l^^H 


98 


Loloo teah 


. , 


Surat. 


^^^1 


87 


Loloo leab, 2nd . . . 


. . . 


Surat, 1 


^^H 


80 


Loloo acah khan . « . 


[ Motbec pucka . . . 


Sarat. 


^^H 


89 


Loloo scab goolaba . . 


... 


Stiral. 


^M 


90 


Mcnari ...... 


Moonga .... 


. 


Cant ^H 


31 


Naic mo(>cbk b[la . . . 


. • « 


Knpol. 


^^^1 


8a j 


Mao »hootur .... 


• * • 


Arabia* 


^^^1 


33 

■ 


Kustoora 




Bengal. 


■ 


1 


same of Asim wood, and the fi-amowork and vokA nt ^^^H 


■ WiCKHOmY, 


bamboo, Tho aik« are seldom oiled or greaaed^ aod its V 


m Ccisa Y.^MaeMf^Jbr dittet use, imol^dinff Carriages. 


total coat Taricfl Irom 1/, to 2/. 10#. ■ 
An ekft, or native «trria|jt% for one liorec, made at Paf na. I 


Modd of A coin-Aorting macliini?, &om tbo Mint at 


and intended to show tlic kind of sinfjle draft veliicle urhI 1 


M«clr»% ftccordmg to Major Bniith'ii plun. 


by persons of rank in Hindoostan. The banie*f« for tbo 1 


B«inboo hacfki?^ j Imckary whtH.^U j axle and M>cltets for 


j-aTne will be fonnd mitler the bead of Manufaetiirea l!roin 1 


the woie. 


Animal Subslmiccs. Both carriage and harness have been ^^M 


H N»tiTe cart, hihckciy. Ttiis «ort of cart m iiBcd throu^K* 


fotitributtxl by Sinid Meer Liipt Ali Khan of Patna. ^^f 
Model of a carriaee for ladios, of a buUook imrria|Ere. ^^^| 


K out Lower BcngAl, tind piurtinilarlv in commercial tovnis 
Aforthe tmnrport of goodf. It b 'rvmarkablo for )t» c?x- 


and of two carts— firom Lahofo. ^^H 


■.tmordinMnf itivn||[ih, being ^]iinl to a load of fM^reml ton a. 
^^Hie wbMU m nmde of balnx)! or Acacia Ajmbica, ihi> 


Models of Maliratta oarnagci^ — from Hajah of Na^rporo. 1 
Model of state pabwikeen, made for tJie Rajrdi of Tra* 1 


axle of «aitdef«e or HraitiiTs minor, the stocks for tlie 


T ail core, hy Mt»»3r9. Simpson of MuxlruA. 1 



908 



EAST INDIES. 



[Colonies Ain> 



Country cart for bullockaj ajad bftatet complete, manu- 
fiurtured at Cliicacole. 

Model of tt rojftl cart — MouIiTiein. 

Wooden rut b' of MueUiunder Jtfath (n go^d) ; anotlicr, 
of Kumareo (a goddess) j another, of Juggiitmatt<? (a god) 
— from NepauL 

Iron liauinoe and weights : dTiamw, bisoulce, seer, tin- 
paw, and ek paw — fpcm Nepaid, 

Water cloaks for dny and night — from Nepaid. 



Class TI. — Ma»n/a<!iuriii^ Machines and ToqU. 

YarioiiB epinning-wh^jela j modeU of spbining-whcpLi^ — 
from Bengal and Lahone, 

Spvmiing- wheel for making pine-apple thread — from 
I Singapore. 

Reels for Bpinning pine-apple tliread — from SLngaporc. 

Model of a machine for twisting together silk threads, 
used in wearinff-^from Nagpore. 

Model of a hand maehine, for spinning cotton — from 

WeaTer'i loom, and implomenta for raann&eturmg 
Dacca mnalms. 

Model of a weaver's loom j weaTcr*« loom — from Bengal 
and Nagporp. 

Hand-looiki, on which the bugj» sarongs are Tnade^ with 
doth in the process of weaTing — from Celebes* 

Model of frame of hand-loom^ aa guide in setting up. 

Kand-loomi complete with frame. Shows a much higher 
ftate of art tlian the Celebes loom^ althougli the principle 
ia similar — from Pulembang, Sumatra. 

Model of a loom for making gold and silrer luce — ^from 
Moorahedabad, Bengah 

WeaTing loom from Mysore and from NepaL 

Carpet loom, with a drawing, frt)m Hoonsoor, in Mysore. 

Samples of cotton, with description of process of manu- 
[^ture^ — from Daeea. 

Charka, for deatiing cotton, and cotton-prc39, from 
I Broach* 

Cot ton-cleaning machine and eharkft, for sepamting 
Beeil— from Madura and Tinnivelly. 

Rotatory eot ton-cleaning machine — from Ountoor. 

Mahratta cotton foot roOcr, and cotton mill — from 
Mysore. 

Mill for extracting seed frora cotton-pods — fromGwalior. 

Model of a cotton gin — ^from Moulmem. Cotton 
cleaner, and variouB ehurkos for cleaning cotton — from 
jAgnu 

I Cotton Jins, No. 1 to 4, Churkaa, such as are used in 
> the division of Agra, in the north-western prodnees of 
BengaL 

No- 1 is the common native churka of the north- western 
provinoes. It i« of eilremely rough workrimnship, being 
made bj a village carpenter at a low price witliin the 
reach of the peasant, and answers its purpose tolerably 
weM y n praetiscd person may clean 16 lbs. of cotton a 
day; but 8 lb?. i» a full average for men and women 
working elcYcn hours. 

No. 2 is a native ehurka, though not exactly in common 
use, it is more exi>en*ive t han the first and oosU about 3*. ; 
but the great drawback is that the wooden roller soon 
weoTi out and ib not eaj>iily replaced, as gr^iat aociu'acy b< 
required that the spiraU in the screws fit perfectly into 
. wet other. In effectiveneBS it ib rather better than the 
' oommon roller. 

No, 8 is au attempt to remedy the inconvenience re- 
ffolliag from the rapid wear and tear of the wooden roller, 
by replacing it with a brajis one. 

No. 4 is another attempted improvement of great 
moment I in the atldition of a roller with a small longi- 
tudinal bar, with the object of gently pressing the kari)afl 
or unseeded cotton into the roDers, and tlms foetling the 
churka of itself To be elTeetaial this must revolve very 
alowly. 

Cottage saw gin, matle under tlio direction of the Com- 
""ial Association of Manchester, by Mr* Jamieson, at 



A?ht on* under- Lvne, and of which 2(X) were sent to India 
by the Court of DLreetors of the Kai^t India Company. 

C'lay model of female figtire cleaning cotton. Clay 
model of old woman winding cotton.— Both from Mr. 
Blechynd^Yn ; made at Moorahedabad, 

Printing hloeks*, as used near Calcutta. 

Implement? used in manufaetiuTe of iron, rit. : two an" 
vils^ twt> i*ledge haumierp, and a pair of pincers. 

Uti'Ortib manidactUTCTJ from llazapcebagh iron, with 
aforesaid tools. An anvil, hammer, small liaramer, plough- 
share, and smith's tongs, the production of Mintapore* 

A cane for receiving water; strainer, baler, pan, and 
beater, native implements used in cleaning gold dust. 

Iron tooU for making sUver filigree work — Cuttack. 

A drill, axe, chisel, saw, and file, as ujied bv ivory 
carvers j also a pearl piercer — ^from Moorshedabad, 

Grain and brick pounder j mortar and pestle fur iK>unding 
grain; mill for pre.Hsing sugarcane; mill for grinding wlieal 
— ^from Moorshedabad. 

Model of grindstone and pestle and mortar — from 
Lahore. 

Sugar cane mill and bruising machine- — from Mysore. 

A dalla, selinga, khoria^ and niska, for ekmning rice-^ 
from Ai»sam. 

Curn-stone, for grinding articles of fi)od, with grinder 
— ^from Qhazeepore, 

Oi!-niill and house of the miller — ^from QwaHor. Maha 
Eaja Rao Seindiah. 

Model of an indigo factory and oil-miU — Jetson?, 

A potter's- wheel, and wheel for polishing jewels and 
sharpening knives— from Moorshetlabad. 

Hones sot in sandal wood— from Bimsoe in Boondie, 

Grlndritonea of lac, with sand and corundum — ^from 
Coimbatora 

CarpenterB* and maaons' tools^ carpenter's auger — fiiMaa 
Lahore. 

A still for distilHng spirit*^ — from Moorshedabad, 

Axes, augurs, gouge, chisel, betle-nnt erackers, and 
cocoa-nut gratcra— from Singaijore. 

Nepaul tile, and wooden mould of the same. 

Nepaul bricks and wooden mould, wooden peetle and 
mortar, bamboo — from Nepaul 

Wooden machine for preparing rice and spinning; 
wooden in&lTuincnt, with wludi the seed is separated from 
cotton — fmm Nepaul. 

Khose and jana bana, for spreading rice — from Nepaul. 

Bundec, ndioosa, kokapoo, tht>o, liatha, shirki, and ko- 
katboo, ungoo kuthee, mool kuthoe, and koenthee kooi, 
forming a weaving-frame, with ita materials — from NepauL 

Wooden model of machioc for grinding sugar-cane, 
from Nejjaul ; and ftnother, used by Qorkhaa. 

Ne|>ftiil oilmnn's press, and one used by Oorkhaa. 

WockIcu mmlel of water- null, for grinthng tiom, grain, 
Jtc, and atone of the mill, from Nepaul 

W^iKJiien model of nmchine for preparing butter, from 
Nepaul 

Wooden rolling- pin, for making bread, and 
spoons, nseil in wsirming milk, from Nepaul 

Bamboo milk-pot, for keeping milk, from NepauL 

lustrmnenta for working miueai from Nepaul 

Iron and wooden instrument*, Wted If oarpentera, 
Nepaul. 

Instruments used by goldsmithi^, from Nepaul. 

Took, &c, used by leather-worktTs, from NepuuL 

Lechee, used by Phool plaf^- workers, from Nepaul, 

Tools used by eopnei^pot makers, from Nepaul. 

Toob used by blaeksmiths, from Nepaid. 

Took used by bricklayers, from Nepaul. 

Tools nseil by stone-cutters, from Nepa^il. 

Great diilitjulty has tjeeti exi>erieneeti in idemti^iiig 
many of the articles sent from Nepaid, for the kvmods 
stated hj the Cakutta Committee— first^ that the things 
were originally badly packed i and, secondly, that in coming 
doivn to Calcutta they were much injured by the rain, and 
lost their labels. 



ItowllABVCIBft,] 



EAST lyrDmn. 



900 



OlA&S Tn. — a^U Enffinrerin^, Archit^etnraff and 
Bttilduuj CoitltHvajat^*, 

Fmui wheel lor raising water, from Lahore, 
Pwfittieh model, for drawing water from a well, frooj 

llf«M at mm bridge m Boottee % modele of bridges on 

»wti RiTer, Tri*ool Gunga Ritct, Bishnomuti 

;^uti River, and of ocjmmon bridge* in NepnuL 

of a tank, of aoan dbani, and of a hou6e, from 

_ ^ of GodaTery anicut, from Madfa«. 
BraalEWBUr adapted to Madna nirf. 



I 



Cuss Tm. — Niacal ArcMieeimB^ MiiUaty Enginetfriw;, 
CM^imaMee Armt amd Asetmir^mMnU. 

(JL) Mod^lt of Tt*9eU €mpl<t^ed hf the Native* {« imri- 
gatim^ tkt Indifin Ocran and Eicers. 

If odds of ▼QiseU caH&d Buglo, Naod«cv Gungo, Eoteo, 
ntt Miicboo, frcrni Cutf'h. 

of Cut<h boats. — Thcft<? model? of boats are 
for exhibition bv IL IL the Rao of Cutch, in 
wbieb eCHmtfTf riz., at ^laudarop, they were coaatTuct45d, 
mod hare beco awit to tht* Euhibition to show the pcwu- 
Ikhtio of Dutch »hip and boat building. 

Modek of natire craft, — ModcU of natiTC craft frequm t- 
mg Bombay, and the Malabar coast. These were madu 
IB tlie dockyard at Bombay, under th«t Kiuperiulvtndi*tice of 
Onamockire S. Lnahington, Commander- in -t^Jjiuf of tbo 
ladim Kary, and Captain Flaw kins, I.N. The Arab 
^rlhj Ko, By is a private eontribiition from Captain 
Havki33^ whieb, after it has been exhibited, he wiahea to 
W phgerl at th^ disposal of the Hon. the Court of 
Diiveion, for their Mujetmi. It is considered perfixrt in 
fiei^ ifvpeol M a whole^ and as to the detail ; and the 
MekiDg of it baa been superintended by an Arab &tjni 
tki Feniui 6uL£ It is made out of the wood of the 
"OoisvaBiia," which, after burning to the water's edge, 
VIS aimk beire in deep water. For further particidars of 
this, aad deecRptioDi of the other modele, ftee the foiloviing 



1 The Snake-boat of Cochin i* a eanoe of great knigth; 
tkiy are uaed by the opulent natives and Kuropean&j as 
koala iat the oofrreyanoe and despatch of jyersona on t}ie 
l^aanMia men and backwaters, particularly on that 
btuwii Cnehm, Allipay, and Quilon, which is about HO 
maUm aouthward, and on tliat which runi^ to Pahpaet nnd 
l^ielmor, the former place being about 20, and the latter 
tibotiS &J mile;* to the northward, Tbc^> boats are from 
lO to 60 iSsct in length, without any regard to breadth or 
at I hey are worked from the sohd tree; the 
; do nt»t exceed three feet- Thoec of the Raja and 
I of elate are Tery handsomely fitted up, and carved 
h Um Oioal ftatastical manner ; they are made very iieut, 
nd rren aplendid, with paLnting* gilding, &c. Hu^ 
Wgest boats are scuUod by about 20 tuen, double bankett, 
tad when pifaaed, their velocity is surpriiiing, as much as 
■ mik in flfe minutes. These boats are peculiarly arl^pted 
to the men, for it frequently ot^curs, that in ilry 
ififTai, tbefe are aand banks perfectly dry, nearly HXl 
Tirds in hraadlh, Ofer which they moMt be clrawn, by the 
itenijiili of Uia lew men who arc in thejn ; the sinallcr 
liaeMfiQS ^""'^ ^ rowers and a cockswain. 

DMSaa nakiTea who cmn afford tlie expense, have the 
nitn aaatif fitt4Hl up with Venetian blinds on the eideii, 
Ini g a naia fljf the euacns or grass mat » substitutes!. 

i The C^amaraos of Madraa are formed of tliree 
lop of timber, tbeir length is from 20 to 2& ftH?t, and 
bnadth 2^ to 3^ jSset, aeeured together with tliree spread- 
«i aod enmt laahmga; the centre log being much the 
hiijMl, wilb a axrred snr&ee at the fore end, which tends 
tti §Mmhm opwai^ to a point. The side logs an? simi* 
hr m loisi, out amatler, having their j»ides straight^ and 
[ to the asMttn loe. 

i waU-knowa tLoata are generally navigated by two 



men, but eomettraes by one only, with the gTvatest skill ] 
and dexterity, as they think nothing of pas-sntg tliroitgb 
the iiurf at Madms, and at other parts of the twh^t, wlule 
boats of the country could not live on the waves. At 
sea they are propell^ through the water to a *hip on the 
ooost, when boads of the best construction and form would 
swamp. 

3 The yacht " Ware," or fishingboat of Bonjbay.-^This 
bo*it U the property of an officer of the Indian Kary ;* lior 
model wa* taken fr<nn a fishing-boat of Bombay, The 
keel is cuned, nud being at the fore end 2 feet below the 
level of the kod amidships, it serve* as a gripe or lee- «i 
board, and tends to make the boat weatherly. She haa [ 
comjMirarively a flat floor, a hollow entnmce. and a flharp 4 
flnt run ; her length over all 4G feet, Kntrance breadth, i 
12 ft-et, and dc[)th amidahips, 3 feet 8 inches. Her main* J 
mast is 36 feet in length, main-yard, 65 leet, niuen-maat^ 1 
22 feet, and mijsen-yard, 44) feet. SaiLa bteenj made of 1 
drill, sewn in narrow cloths. 

S}ie was built as a pleasure yaeht, but more part ieularly 
for the regatta^ for wliieh Bombay in famous, and when 
ballasted, has won many prizes. Ko biiat of Eurojiean 
form and constnictiou lias, as yet, been foimd to compete 
with her in point of ^ailing^ in motkniate weather, 

4 The Jttugtir, or Ferrv-boat of Cochin, is formed by 
placing a floor of board.*! across two boats or canoes, from 
10 lo 12 ieet fore and alt, and about 16 fet^t long. Wien 
tlieso boat* are thus formed into a r.ift, cattle and burthen- i 
some articles* are conveyed in them ncross the rivers, aa ' 
also troops, with all their foUowcit*, honn?*, bullock*, &c 
The boat* or canoca arc cut out of a solid log of timber, 
and are from 8 to 20 feet in kngth, 18 inches to 2 feet in 
breadth^ and from 12 to 18 inches in dcjjth. 

When employed sufigly, the eanoce are managed with 
raucli dexterity bv the natives, with a scull or paddle, on 
the bai'kwiiterof Cocliin ; and at the mouths of the creeks 
they are employed in great numbers in Jifthing. 

The larger sort of boats are usn^d for the conveyance of 
TUX ond tncrclmndizc on the numerous small rivers wliich 
How into tlic backwater, extending ISO miles parallel to 
the sea cou>t. 

5 The Cotton-boat of Bombay.— This description of 
boat belongs entirely to the port of Bona bay, and they 
are so called on account of their being invariublv employed \ 
in c«)nTcying cotton from the shore to the sliips bcjund'for J 
Cliina and Great Britain, loading with that artideki 
The^e are the only boats made vise of in loading and un- 1 
loading the numerous kind of outward and inward] 
cargoes of t'hip** visiting the port. They are from 25 to] 
35 feet iu length, 10 to 13 feet in brea^ith, and a| to 
4 feet in depth. Thev are verjr rudely but strongly 
btiilt, and the large* t of them will carry 15 toun of dead 
weight. They ai-e employed in bringing the produce of 
the bland of fcialsette, such as grain, grass, vegetabtt^, t'tc, 
to Bombay, also for the conveyance of troops with their 
baggage, to and from PanwclL 

The inwide of the bout i* lined with baml>t>o matting to 
protect the cargo from bilge water. They nre genei^jr j 
navigated by a crew of six lueii and a tiiidal, principally 
Mahominedans, who hve in the boat. 

On one side of the mai«t is a fire-place^ and on tbo 
opposite a cask or tank, contikining fresh water. The 
bottom is annually, or oftener, paid over wit)i a mixture 
of chuuam, or lime, and vegetable oil, which hardi^ns, 
and is a gtxHl protection against woniifl. They have one 
mast which rakes forward, and a yard of the same length 
as the boat. 

Tlie cost of one of the best of them complete is abont 
700 nijwe*. Th^ are mostly hired by the day, at a rate 
varving from two to five rupees, according to* tlieir site 
ancl season of the year. 

6 The Diiigee, or Bum-boat of Bombay, is a snmll bont, 
from 12 to 20 feet in length, & to 7 feet in breadth, and 18 
inches to 2 feet in depth ; with a raking mast, and a yard 
the same length as the boat ; they are navigated by tliree 



• Mr. J. A, Viwy*t Awistsat Indlui Naval Slom&keeper. 



11 




910 



EAST INDIES. 



[COLOKIES AKD 



) lour num, who verj frequtmtlj are ji>iiit owners of the 

3 dingoes tail rerj well, and are employed in cAfryiiig 

OB to snd from vessels in the harbour: thc^- also 

r peopto deiiroua of viAiting the Uhuid» of Etephantn, 

njah, And others in the liarbour of Boiobay. It is 

gimcmlly the practice with captains and eomnuuidien of 

ships to hire one hy the moiitli, at the rat« of 40 to 50 

J rupcv*. When so employed, they take off meat and pro- 

n* in the momiii|j: from the shore for the day's con- 

LnnptioUf lifter vrhieh they aro cTer ready to eooTcy 

ffieers to and from the »liip, cany message* and not«^ 

^•nd any other serrice n^uirwl of ibero. 

Tlie )iiring of lhes« boats is a mat adrantagcs as it not 
only dAxes tlie ahip^s boats from being knocked about, but 
the European seamen from exposure to the sun, 
i would injure their healtli, weiv the ship^s boats so 

* i»mploTed. 

7 TJw Point de Gallc Canoe is a bortt formetl from a 
siiigte tfitem of doopwood, or pine-Tarnish tree. They are 

rfroni 18 to 30 feet in length, ^m 18 inches to 2i ftvt in 

"lireadth, and from 2 to 3 feet dceiij eaLclusiTe of the waj'h- 

board, which is from ir» to 18 iri**!it^ broad, and sewL-d to 

the gunwale vrith coir yarns, with looae coir [>adding ou 

the jointa. 

These boats are fitted with a baUnoe-log nt the bamboo 
outrigger, harine mast, yarda, and sail secured together. 
Tesaels paaaing toe soutbern coaata of Ceylon are generally 
boarded by iltfiae boats ereik at the distance of 20 to 25 
milea frora shore. 

Tbey will sail at the rate of 10 miles an hour in strong 

wind^S which are generally preraleot there, and with a 

crew of fire men will enrry a rar^ of r^getablea, which 

arv great liixunes to the crew and peawmgers after a long 

I Tovcur^ from England to Boml>aT and fioigaL 

8 The BaleUea of Bombay and iSorat. The batdles 
belong principallT to the merobants of Bombaj and Snrat, 
and are decsdedly the best biiQt and better found in 

LiUtinga and stores than a?iy other description of boats of 
l^estcfn India. They are built entirely of teak-wood, 
I planked, and fiMteoed with iron nails and bolts; they 
9 m gfeat nae of siheer forward, and a regular stem, 
i nuKlowa abaft i sovne are fitted with a eabin under 
tile poo[s but the majority of them emrrj bamboo decka 
Ofer beans fitted for the p'lwpose. 

Tber are from 35 to 50 feet in length, IS to SO in 
breadth, and & to 7 feet in depth, and from 25 to 100 
' ' — 1 burthen. They are lateen ngged, baring a main and 
t mast, both raking forward, and a boom ibrwaFd, on 
I a jib is set ; the ntain*yard is a Httk longer tiion 
> extreme leqgth of the boat. They inTaridbly hare a 
•k in the topaides from the fonr part of the'poop to 
the Inff of bow, nearly lerel with the beams, for the &ei- 
lity of takwkjr in and out heary citrgo. At sea this break 
is itoi ' " " . bckmboo mala inside, and outride with soft 
mud ' ^'twt^en. Thk exdudea water, and is as 

witef-iiKni .1^ any other part of the hull. It is a remark- 
ftbb fiMSi thai one never beats of any damage done to the 
eniCO from this part, although wlien the boat is ftdly 
kmaed the break is about I foot or 18 inches abore water. 
IImbs boats import cotton from i^urat, Broec^ Cambay, 
LSnd other cottoo*growing districts to Bombay, and teak 
llunber from the northern fonestB, estensiTely used in ship- 

* Iraildiag and other purposes at Bombay. 

Hie Arab Batelk The baleika wnv the boats prtn- 
pa% used by Joneme |HTal«B of tlie Pentan OvU, who 
wefv a tt'rror to the natire jtmMwn till estermiitated hf 
the uniU-d elfcrla of the Eing^s ah^ and the Hi»oarab4 

|€3omp«ny's T ea s el s of war. 

P TbB bateUes have a retj sharp and hollow floor, a toj 
doui run« and a perfieiet wedfc-Iike salranoe^ whieh ofea 
littl* or no reaiftanee to the m^iim* Thej mt^ noted Ibr 

r tfewr &st sailing and weiaHavly qmlilan^ «» mneh so that 

ill vias found yery diOoiilt by tlie Tuanlioftiie Beynl and 
the Honourehle Osnnpatty's nary la eaptmv them, eien 
when the pirates wrre suppuscil to be mi Ite point of 
aufretiderfng, as they frvquenlly made €iff in piibBrt s«yle 



when within gun-shot of the ship, and were chased and 
pursued in rain. The Arabs assert that no vessel oould 
sail so close to the wind as the batelle, and there seems 
good ground for the assertion. 

The mode of steering the batcUe is rery singulis, aa 
may be seen in the modeL The rudder projcets sereral 
liwt below the peel of the stem-post ; to the aflerpart of 
the ruddcT is iiied the tiller, which has a curve pointing 
upwards ; the ropes ai^ led inboard by means of an out- 
rigger at tlie sid^ by whieli the lushnsman steers the bn- 
telle. They require very littldiead, as, indeed, the rudder 
b confined to a certain point by spreaders nailed on the 
stem-posts. 

The bateUes an lateen rigged, and hare three suits 
of sads made of Bahrein canvas. In cnlms they 
are propelled by sweeps. The largest sijse batelle is 
150 tons, and ncrw only used by the Arab chiefs of the 
Persian Gulf on state oocasions and visits of ceremony. 
Tliis modi^ is a private ooniribntion from Capt. Haw- 
kins, I.N., and is finally intended as a pre:«ent to the 
Monoumbie the Court of Directors for their Museum. 

10 The Arab Dow. This was another desirription of 
vessel used by the piratca of the Persian Gulf. The form 
of the dow is calculated for swiit sailing, as they have a 
sharp floor and dean entrance. There are reiy few of 
these boats now in existence, as from their size and con- 
struction tliey are ill-adapt«d for the purposes of trade, 
and since there are no pirates there now, the dow vriU 
shortly become extinct. The peculiarity of the dow con- 
sisted in a long projecting gallery at the stem. The 
pirates used to imiiel the boat* with sweeps stem fore- 
most, and board from this gallery. The largest dow ta 
about 200 tons. The bottom b paid over with a mixture 
of lime and boiled tallow, which hardens by exposunv 
and serros to keep it clean and free from the attadLS of 
bamseles and otlier marine animals. 

11 Cntch Dingee. These vessels are from SO to 50 
feet in lejifith, 15 to ^ ieet in width, and 7 to 10 feet 
deep, and rrom SO to 100 tons burthen. They have a 
eood rise of door, and a fine entrance and run, calculated 
for &st sailing t some of them are decked wboDy^ otheri 
only abaft the mixen mast and a small part fbrwanl, the 
rest being left open for the stowage of cargo, which is 
frequently stowed eonsiiderab^ above the level of the gun* 
wale, in which OMe a barricaaing of bamboo and coarse 
mats is fixed as a temporary protection : when not fully 
loaded, the materials are laid over slight wood framing 
between the beams which serre the purpose of a dedt. 

These reasds are tolerably wdl built with a mixture of 
jungle and teak wood, and 'fiMteoed with nails, which go 
through, and are tnraedon the inside of the timber. The 
stem IS vtsT high, with double poon ; the aides are per- 
forated wttn porta, and omamentea with rough earring, 
and often painted a variety of colours Tiiey beUmg 
prindpaOy to DiAch, Mandavee, Poar Bunder, and other 
sea-ports under the domiBions of the Sow of CHitch, and 
are navigated by a cirw of 12 to 20 men, and a tindal 
Their import cargo to Bombaj is s^iee (clarified butu-r, 
used extenaitviy by the nalras of India), salt fish, mus- 



tard, and pain ; mid the export cargo Is piees goods, eui- 
lery, metaJb and riceL Some of the largest go to Muscat 
and other ports in the Feniain Gnlf : they narigiite the 
sea only in fine weather, and are invnrmbly laid up in tlie 
south-west nKmsoon from June to tlie end of August. 
They atv very frequently employed by the government for 
aDasterca to and from Kurrachee 



the conveynnoe of troops and stem 

and other potts in the PrmideB^. 

IS Cntdi Ootiyah. These boat 



These boats beloog to the ports of 
CateK Mandaree, Poar Bunder, and some to Eurrachce, 
tn the newly-aequiml t eiiitmy oC Seinde, and trade 
bet w een Bombay wid thoae povta^ Ther are rery well 
bmh, wttli a sffttaire tnck, mid nmar cii them have a 



regular built siena* wi tti p ets, and handmidy carved. 

n ohb lore 



3om0 of thaai hare n Amfc fore and all, but more eom- 
BMNily they bare fimne-wwk between t]» tkeams^ to ditp 
and unship, far the fiMthty of storwace, and a bamboo 
deek. Tbey are from aO to 60 fret m kngth, 12 to«3 



Dftfl% il&XCTBS. J 



EAST TXBTKS. 



911 



I 



I 



fad in fanTodth, »nd 7 to lU feet tlet^p. They exiKJVt sftlt- 
ii^ gnin, Mid other prodiav of the port* to wtiich thty 
b«Ioii|g, They apo nnvhiTittyi bv a crew of from 15 to 20 
VBO Kid a tindid. Thi^y are liitaeii rijs:!^!^}, with a meiiii 
and miim Mil« both luast^ raking forward, to keep tli« pon- 
dvnoat jwd» clear of tho mikit in lowering and hoiiitii^* 

TIkeM bcMits fin\juently t4ike up troop?* and goTenniiunit 
•Um* to and from Kurracbiic and other neighbouring 
pwti to the Presidency, 

13 The Ct'jlon Doni i« a bn^ Te*t*el of the ark-llke 
fenn, ftbout 70 feet long, 20 feet broful, and 12 fc^'t deep, 
with a flal bottom or keel part, whit-h at the broadest 
pbap i«> 5 to 7 feet, and tAf>er« at the fore and af\«r ends 
to about 10 inehes. The fore and afl*r bodies are nearly 
■imtUr in form from »-mid«bi{>H 5 their light draught of 
wwltT ia about -4 feet, and wlien loaded about i) feet. 
Tkeae nidc^ unshapely ve^M-els tmde from Ma(ir»s and tlie 
fiowt to the i»laud of Ceylon, and many of them to the 
0idf of Mannar, aa the water \^ shoal between Ceylon 
ami tittf soutliem part of the continent. They Viave only 
ant m»*t with a luff-#ail, and arc naTigated from land to 
land and coaAtwiMj in fine weather only. 

Arvb bngalow, and patt^inar ot Conibay, fnam Bombay, 
— ^o dcAcripiion has been ^^cnt of thi» kind of ve^j«eL 

Kurrach<« bugalow, — This is the only moilel aupplieil 
fium Sindli. 

Tlie boat* of fWlndua and other craft a peculiar to Knr- 
nrbee wktc onJtTwl ; but the i^eople who were employed 
to mike tiinn did not fulfil their engogwnenta. 

JU^.^irl of a plcasurt^-bottt of a Sikh eliief, from Lahore, 

Hosvukli boat, with oars, and a imaU cutter, from 



I 
I 



k 



; of A bo*l «Dd of an oar, from Nepnul. 

Vodcli of Laitun pirate prahue ; the first eloBS osrries 
1 rr men, and thi; oecond dais a crew of about 

W ' . MiiiiUnao, 

Ati>iii ul Padi wakhan, or Bngia trading prahn. The 
Bi^- Irvdo and the Trepang {i*hi*r)' are carried on in 
tWae reaasb Cn>m Singapore, 

UMeis t4 Siunpan bonis, peculiar to Sinpfnpore ; throe 
rW«9t fir»l '"^^■^ ^ ' *''^ '"'" ■ f*'-""'} Singaport?. 

TaqiAingan '^ata. 

llcdd of a 1 1 1 aa 18 used upon the 

Qmms% Ac. 

MoM of a djiij£hy or small boat, ditto. 

||«dd of a Bunueutt coftjstin^ ressel. 

(B.) Armjtf Ordnance^ and Accoutrements. 

A fUUiii gnCTita :— Capg of rhinoeeroa hide, from tbiO 
JUoofCuloh. 

Shako t^^H-^, tt^f^d by thr' liffbt<T battalions, and black 
tarhaii, 12 ^^ytvi from Ncpaul. 

Kitm : 1^ hftttalioii*, from NepauL 

SilTvr n < TJ 01 irio K i^^y» and silver elmin 

iBed hf Ki*|*iitd non-con 1 ilk'*^rf«, frrini Nejmul. 

Ilnid-'. i ' '^ >th jtK», ., . ^1 jjieket, broad-cloih 

tn*atrrf" rrtn-eloth pantaloons, uaed by Gorkha 

Bfnsrm vhaih ba^t for carry mg sepoy^s proTiBions, from 

9fpHil c<plKii*A coat, worked with golden thready from 
Kdao^lMiah. 

Soih |«uf?!i, belt, <Lr., studded witli bnu^a naik, from 
Rajah of K«>lah. 

PoneK, belt, powder- fla»k«, Ar-, from Jeypore. 

Powd«^6aakJv and powder nod shot beli«, from Mun- 
dote. 

f^mWr-floal^ and girdle and pouches, usod bj Gorkhflfl, 
frttD Kmnl. 

M«t<luoc]ct« pirtoK &«' i — Blatchloek, with pouch»bolt, 
from Kajjili of Boondic, 

T«n> umbtr mairhlocks, with powdcr-flaeks, &e., from 
CW Refill of JeyfHin^. 

TIknie iDiivliioekpi, maniLfa<'ttuiti>d in the city of F&tna, 
mttriftmled hy B^boo Koonisr and Dynl Hin^r of l\itnn. 

ICaUlJock mnmfbetnred nt Bejnour, from NugL^ena. 



ATat-chloek nianidactured at Bejnour, from Dhainpoor 
in Roliilkund. 

Two mateliiocks, with apparatus eomplet**, from Dhole- 
pore in Rajtwxitanah, 

Mat*diloek gun, mat el dock rille nnd rest, two ri^is^ ond 
three nflo matcldoeks, from H. 11. Gooliib Sing, Lahon?, 
Mundote. 

Bfalchlock, from the Rao of Cutrh. 

MRtrhlock, with gokl mountingH, and two »mnll gold) 
chtilus, fi-oui Gwalior, from Mahji Rtijnh R^io Seindioh. J 

Gun, eompletr, in a ense, with implements, Juode after ^ 
European design id (he atatea of Nepaul. 

.Single barrel ix-reiuwion gmi ;* tiLttehloek, gold monnt^xl j 
pistol ; and s]iare pistol, tlint look, from H. II. Sfwr ,\li 
M4H>rud, Ivli>TtKK>r. Tlu'^e ttre privnte coutribiif tons from 
II. IL Meer Ali Moorad, wbieli arrivotl beni mthout d*?- 
seription, and so Inti* thnt there wjis but just time to re- 
jmek them, and send them oM'on the following ^y. It is 
to Ik» prcHumed thnt they nrt^ native manufacture, 'at leaat | 
the matchlocks. — BQmbaif H^port, 

Pistol^ from Lahore, and Rajah Qoolab Sing. 

Pair of pistols, manidaetui^xl at Agrn. The manufac- 
turers of Agra turn out pretty good weapons at compam* , 
tively low pnfH>6. 

Swords, &c. :— ^word, witli enamellefl hilt ; sword, with 
pistol and dagger aflixc*! ; swortl, from Rrtjah of Kotuh. 

Three tworaSt frotn iron of Cliota Xtigpori^ j and I wo 
ancient arwordis, from Rnjnh of Bettiali, Moorshedahad. 

fc^wonl^ firoTn the Rao of Cutch. 

Swonl, from Malwa. 

Sword, from Nnwab of Ram pore, Eohilkimd. 

Vnrious swonU, from Lahore, 

A *word ar? ui^eci 10 years ago ; a sword an uee<l now ■ an 
old Mfthnitta <iword, from Gwalior, from the Maha Rujah. 

Sword scabbards ; swords and daws. 

Bat Hoax e, from Booudie. 

llttHle-axes, from Lahore. 

Buttle-aite, manufactured from indigenous subs tsncc!^ in 
fhe dominions of the Rajah of Roondtw, Rnjpootanah 

A kind of sword, khora ; a short national sword, 
khooVree, from Nepaid. 

8wonls and sheftth*, from Acheen, Sumatra. 

Two Bwortb with gilt han<lle3, from Rajpootantih* 

Two hilts of Bwords gilt, from Touk in Rajpootanah. 

Senihi sword bltide of white stivl, inlaid witli gold ; 
Sorohi sword blade of dark ntei?l, hilt ricTdr inlaid with 
pold ; Herohi kuttar or dagger, dark stwl, irilaid with gold ; 
Bheel bows of hiiuiboo ; qui vers of bheei arrows, manu- 
Hui tired at Ser*>hi in Rajpootantdi alamos. 

A hebnet and a complete suit of utt^Hjl armouTj inlaid 
with gold^ from Bliolepxir in Rajpootamib. 

Two dagger*, with etKimcUed ehieldf^, from Seinde. 

Swtinls, mountitl with gold and belts, from Khyrpoor, 
Tlie^ie blnrlcB arc pmbably very scarce and dear. They ar« 
loadn of (he fine ringing j'teel po esln^ined in Sirid!i and 
the countries to the nortliward of it: they are temied 
Khora^fitin blade,*. Thev came among the collection from 
JL IL Mt«r Ali Jfoorad. 

Knitaroo or dagger; tabher or bHltle-axo; tahlKT of 
another kind ; ewom, spcnr, Jfec, from the Rao of Cut eh. 

Klewang, or wword, from But tin. 

Sword of native iron by pxiple of Kotti, from Borneo. 

Two diigt^ers, mtmufttctured entirely of native materials, 
from Rnjali of Boondee. 

g|ii^.|,|ji. — Shield of dofT-^kin, tran^pupeTit, with mm^ 
mt^lled bos^ie«i \ and shield with gold bosses, each boss eon- 
t«aling a pistol, from Rajnli of Kotab. 

Sliield, nianuftictured in the Rajpootana atates. 

Shield, from Lahore. 

Shield, rhinoceros tiide, from the Rno of Ciitcb. These 
nre nmnufacturetl in Cuteh i\jr the neigh botuinij eoimtries. 
T\\cy arc made out of the rliintjocros hide* brought from 
t he eastern coast of Africa. 

Rhinoc«jro9 shield, from Neimul. 

Spears, how?*, and iirrowf* : — Mahralla spenr, from 
tlwalior. 




912 



EAST INDIES, 



[ColXkKlES A3nJ 



Arrow*, speaf, and bows^ from I^liupe. 

BareQlj painted bow, arrows, and quivi^rfl, from Lahore. 

A quiTer and numeroua arrows, from Gwalior. 

Bow J quiTer with arrows ; guard againut bow-string, 
worn by the archers in left band ; small bow j kind of 
bow with iron chain instead of a atriug ; amaE epear— 
from NepBid. 

Bo\T9 and qiiiv(?r*PH, a* iiaed in the prorinee of Assam. 

KoDching, or »tilctto~dflgger» fr^m Atihwn, Sumatra. 

Sling, bow» and a bag of cLij balls, from Neprnd, 

Bow-strings of fibres, Low Country, with a bow and four 
WTows, from Calicut. 

Two war ringis, from Bajah of PattialA, 

Vmr of wTGsllers, as used in the North-west Prorinoes. 

Cutting instruments of war (Cutch). These are manu- 
&ctiircd in Cutcb, 

Chaio-armour^ head-cover, aword, dagrar, ipear (point 
and but only), embroidened sword-beltTDclt, ahield, bag 
'with pouches, and a mtitchJot^k, fmna Rajpootaoah. 

Fowling-piece with llintdock, the barrel ongraTed with 
flowers i another fowlin^g^piece j bullet-mould* for the 
aboTe ; sword inlaid with pearla, one side etc^l, the other 
iionj Bword of steel, with two blades m one, fonmug two 
Bwords ; dagger with two blades, in appearance one^ but 
when separated forms two ; knife with three blades, also 
in Mppcaraiice one ; ohoorce. — Contributions of H* H. the 
Maharajah of tlUwor. 

Chain armoiur, with heatl -cover, from Bajpootanah. 

Bet of steel annour inlaid with gold, from Dholepore in 
SajjxHitanah. 

Ilehnet and iron armlets, fr^m Owalior. 

Bm-meje shield, daggers, sword, and Urge knifc^ or 
chopper. 

Sword and three daggers ; two qiiiTorsi, each containing 
siitT arrows j kaunda, a sword with gold mounting* ; 
mateMockj with gold mounting ; bags for the mat-eldoek ; 
belt and pouches of silver for the matcldoek. — Contributed 
bj IL II, Maharajah of Jodhporc. 

The following articles arc used bj Indian atldeta; : — 
Bamboo bow, with iron chain in place of string ; wooden 
dubs of 3tssoo wood : two-lianded sword, made at Saugor, 
Central India ; shields for praetiaing sword-plaj ; fods, or 
ahani rtworda, from Marwar. 

Kuttar, or dagger, jewelled. A dagger, csontaining 
another within it, and one which opens into five bladea, 
from the Rajah of Pattiala, 

Siut of armom* ; two pieces of horse armour ; suit of 
armour, nine pieces ; two locks ; blunderbuss (8ikh) ; 
cauuon (model) ; double cannon (model) ; mortar (mo- 
del) ; howiiier j camel-gun and saddle, from Lahore. 

Hill-gun complete, from M. H. R. GooUb Sing. 

Orilnance and models: — ^Two 3- pounder braas orna- 
mented gunfl, with carriage complete, from Kumool. 

Two bra-Hs gims, lelah^ or swivel guns, aa uaed hj Halaj 
prahus. Fonvarded from Singapore, 

Models of two brass guna and carriii^ges, fixjm Mysore. 

Models of two orieutiu hnias guns. 

Yanoua models of the artilleiy of the Indian army, 
from the tbrw Presidencies. From the military storesj 
£ast India House, 

** Tent, raanufaetiLTod at the Jubulpore School of Indus- 
try. The whole of the nmterial* usecf in constnicting this 
tent have been manufactured^ and the tent it*elf has been 
bnilt by Thuga, and the sons of Thug*, who have learned 
their several tratleft in the Jubidpore Government Insti- 
tution, The fiwrt of its being throughout the work of re- 
claimed murderers, who only a few years ago subsisted on 
their fellow-men, and of their progeny, who, but for the 
kaaam-ea of a benevolent government, would assuredly 
ave followed the same tnwlcT, wiU, it is hoped, obtain for 
S AD interest which neither the materials or conatructiou 
OQiild olhisrwiAO have done" 




OlilflS IX — Agricultural and HorticHUuml Machinet and 
ImplemenU, 

Wooden modeU of two kinds of plougha and carts, from 
Bengid. 



[ie isusea 
ruahw«M|^fl 

3mgi^^^ 



Agricultural implements used in Tenasserjm Provincea ; 
— Plough, harrow, hoe, spade, sickle, mke^ antl bamboo 
stick eovcretl at one end. 

Agricultural implement s usetl in Kemaon^ North-west 
Province* : — Plougli, yoke, whip, matt4X'k, hoe, rake^ 
mu2£le, shovel, reaping-hook, chopper,. axe, and cotton- 
cleaner. 

Agrieidtural implement t* used in Ilooghly, Lower Ben- 
gal :—Ploug]i, yoke, harrow, ladder used aa a harrow, 
weeding instrument, plank on which paddy is beaten out, 
tripod stand for Ihe same, and broom for sweeping tlie 
grain. 

Model of Mahnitta plough, 

Modch) of a plough and a harrow, from Lahore. 

Model of a drill-|ilougli, from Broach. 

Flouglia of various descriptions, from N epauL 

Iron hoes, gmaa- scraper, small hoc, pickaxe, and axe lo 
cut wood, froTH NepauL 

Models of a plough, a barrow, and scarifier, to be drawn 
bv buil'aloes, from Mahioca. The*e are u^xl by the natives 
o!" Malacca* The scarifier is drawn by one or two bufi!a- 
looo, and employed in cleaning from weeds and lallung the 
ground that baa already been broken up by the plough. 

Model of a chungbol, or large hoe \ model of a sort of 
scythe j of a paddy reaper, and of a ratjui cutter ; from 
Malacca. Tine ehiuigul is in very general use among the 
Ubourers of the Straits ScttleroenU, and the sc^-the is used 
in cleaning the lallang, or coarse grass and brushu 
from lands tluit Imve hoen allowed to lie iallow, j^ 
t^ry to rc'cultivation. — AH forwarded by the Smgap 
Committee, 

Model of a rice-husking machine j of a hnsbaadman 
with ogneultural impkmentsi of two harrows and a 
plough J and of a hamnr to be drawn by buffaloes, from 
Moidnieiu. 

Models of agricultna!^ implements, carta, mills, &c. 
This is a collection from B«lgmm. They are a priTAte 
contribution from H. Baeres, Esq.t collector of B^gaum, 
who has acoompamed them by the foUowiug descrip- 
tion : — 

DcMcriptkm of Moddt of Farm Implemenhy ^^ uted ta 
the SmUkerm Mahratta Oiwutrj/. 

1 Bazaar curt, or gharree. This vehicle has been much 
im proved »ince the European <»iinps have been ostablisbed. 
They are used fen* the transport of goods frt>m station to 
station, and for carrying timber. Generally drawn by 
two bullocks* 

2 Cotton press. There is no description of the ootbon 
press. 

3 Oil mill or gbannak, used for tlie purpose of express- 
ing oil from diflerent klnd» of seeds. This mat-liine is 
drawn by one, two, or three bullocks, according to its 
sixe. The moat common size is for two, and a pair of 
hufraloea are the animals generally used. Tlie block of 
wood excavated is first set into tlie ground, and firmly 
fixed J the pole or friction shaft b then introduced, 
the i:>ortion with the small chain on it is then adjuatedri 

Jilacing the top oftlu^ friction pole into a small hole 
or the purpose. The seed for oil i* then plnced in 
hollow of the block, and when the oil begins to oow from 
it, it is dipptnl or mopped out by a small bundle of rags, 
and the oil squeezed from this into a vessel Each portion 
of this machine is numbered so a* to correspond with the 
block or prinfipal portion. 

4 Wuddars cart or gharree. These are friequontly made 
without one particle of iron in their construction, and 
drawn by two bufialoes. They are used by a peculiar 
race of people^ caUed Wuddars, who never live in houses, 
but travel from village to riBage, and find enipiovment in 
supplpng the inbabitantB with stonc^ timber, and other 
materials for l>id]cling, which they bring on these carta. 

5 Tlirashing floor or kullie. This model does not 
rightly represent the kullio, as it is simply a cin^le cleared 
on the bare soil, with a pole set up in the centre to fasten 
the bullocks to, af^ many bullocks as the ryut has ; often 
his cows and milch bufiklocs are fastened to it and used. 



Irmly 
sn3a 




I 



I 



The Muneotra nnd Akrec ai« used ui moYrng up tlie graiii 
i^ifti whusi the buUocka are moving round. 

6 Fftrm csrt or gharree, or cooutee for six or eight bul- 
ked Farm cart or gh&rree. Six, eight, tea, and Romet inn's 
ai man J aa twelre bullocks are bjirnea«ed to tbeac carts ; 
thej are uacd for all fArni purposes. The smali bundle of 

I marked with its number will fit it up for carrying 
hav, or grain in AheAf. It is Lxtked on b}' tlie 
» a« a perfect fortune to have one of these in the 
hadkj^ and thcj are luuidfid down from fiither to son as 

7 Fa<r d btdlocka. There is no description of the kind 
«f bttHocka* 

B The plough, kuntee;, or miigur. This implenient is 
hat miiVtm mad in tlie hhick soil ; and when u^ed is reallj 
of fuch filtls terrice to the land, that the time is nearlj 
ihoiwTt aw»y. It i* drawn by two buUcK^kft, the man 
ffBoenUj k0<qping his foot on the plough to keep it in the 

•oil 

9 Ctxmf'e^ OfT ballisalL iDdiun barrow or baUiaaH. 
Ihi* "in construtrtion to the coontee, but the iron 

Mb< rifLiTOwer and lighter ^ ita vae is to follow 

tba L>.-.'r^v- Lu |)lanting; drawn bv two buUocks, it lereU 
the aoii, eorFon in the seed, and, ii properlj handled, doe« 
its work T»cTf«Ttlj. 

] or drill plough, for planting riee. This 

imp. irawn by two bullocks, and the seed is plaec'd 

bj- th^ UaDd mto the cup at the top, when it posses through 
the bamboo pipes into the grouna. 

11 Coorgve for planting wheat, &c. This implement 
ii drawD by two bullockji, and fed with the grain in the 
mmm manner a« the riee eoorgee. The bttinbfX) pipt at- 
tKhed ia used in the planting of eotton or dhnll^ when a 
waatm or boy, taking it in their hauda, walkii af^er the 
e a o f g uu to which it is fastened by a rope, and pa»»e» the 
mtd through tt into the earth, Thero is often two and 
three to each odorgo^ 

12 CMm««i. 

1* TT _i ,,^ j^^ wieeder. Tliis implement is drawu 
If ' k4, and osed for stirring the 9oil among the 

lisf .. i u?a their tops are ju«t above water ; eaob 

between the rows of phuita, it tears out the 



14 Ob" CooTgee, used for planting cot- 
ton, lihrii »^»y or soil heary. Its only dif- 
knaoe irom lut^ ui n* r ixnng its stiength, and haring the 
ta^k fi9lliiir asFimdrr* 

15 Telliteocmtde. Indian weeding harrow, forjowa- 
nB» grntn* and other dij gnuna. These are ch-awn in 
fWTi by two builoekis one man to caeh ooontoe, which !ie 
fliiriie« by hiikhng the hoodie of the implement in one 
land, titiii m the other a small stiek with a fork at the 
ttd^whiob be prsaaea down on the coontee. The stalks of 
Ihr cnin V^m Ihnmgh the opening between the two irona* 

16 Teloa •oontee, or weeding harrow, for cotton. Tlu» 
■i am^M to the one used for grain, but is passed only be- 
Nnen tha rowa. 

17 Haflta fo gfi^- Tlaed in the rieo-fields, prior to 
ripntJT^ lo remore weeds and gra«fl that may be lying 
bnaean th» wmL ; drawn by buU^ks. 

IS Indkn harrow, coontee or goontee. This is a Tery 
bttpAcsnent, and were a good English ph>ugh used 
igtf ths soil would be well prepared. Tliey Jire of 
aiaea, with two, four, and sometimes »ix buMocka, 
tlie ilwa gf ^pr ff*tirfw oil the implement. 

y^ Bjle phoDeew This ia drawn orer the' land, in dry 
Wtltfr, after the soil has been ploughed or eoonticd, to 
Isaslind hreak down the inequalitiei in rice field «», &nd is 
pB9i]|]^ dnnm bj two bullocks. It is simply a pkiik to 
■bnii a t0po 11 {aBleoed by two iron rings, a man lioliling 
i ^BiH WTlnindiniljar, so aa to catch the high portion of 
soil, aoii anm it to the hoUows. 

ID (KkmiUmaa. 

21 Oant fidla. The same aa the foregoing (No. 119), 
bttt used b^' manual labour, one man drawing it along, 
wlkilat it b Md pefpendiciilar bj a seeond. 

2S Qendoni or clod-breaker. This is drawn over the 



fields to break t he elod^*, a boy or man genenUh^ sitting ^ 
standing on it to add to its weight. 

Crooto. This IS UAed after Sue boot (No. 13), and it] 
intended to bend the young plants down into the water.] 
It is dni«-n by bullocks at a good sharp pac« acitws tb 
rows of plants, and whi^ ia said to make them | 
stronger. 

23 Rttke for kidk. No deseriplion of the rake for kuUa. 

2-t Karta. There is no deseription of karta. 

25 Kudlie or pickaxe. Those in use in this part of tho | 
country are of Tery rough make, but do not diJler in namo j 
or uae. 

26 Fau Xudlie or hoe, otherwise called salkee, 

27 Sa\d and Rhaut. Saul : this is used to lay out the 
yam after being Fpun, and from which it is formed into 
hanks by folding it over the elbows. 

Rhaut or spinnkig wbeeL In this prooeaa the wo 
sits down, with one le^ extended as the figure represents, ' 
the forefinger of her right hand ii* placed in the small hole 
in the handle of the rhaut which »lie twirls round, and 
with her loft attaches the hit of eotton to the spindieL. 
drawing the hand hack aa the thread spins out» 

28 Cot)rj.m or grain hook. There is no deacription 
the coorpa. 

29 Coorpa or grass hook for cutting grass, 

30 Cooq)a for wetKling. The#e thnt» all bear the name 
eoorjMi, and only differ according to the fancy of the 
owner ; they are of the most miserable manufactuTQ, and 
generally worth « few pice. 

31 Akie. Tliere is no description of akie. 
33 Coorpa or cktining knife. Use«i in the remoral of J 

the soil from the eoonties whilst at work j a very simpli f 
and paltry in»trmnent, Enivea, howerer^ being scai^ool 
among the natives, tliis instrument is oltim made Tery I 
sharp, and kept for the purpose of cutting rope or othe^ j 
things as rtHjuired. 

ModeU of jlgricoltural Implement* and Milk used by 
the Natives of ^attara ;— 

1 A kind of barrow, used in planting sugar-eaiie plants, 
and keeping in order the fields of the sanie. 

2 Cho\rpbuiinee cooree, used in soaring BtnaR gmijii 
Bueh aa '* warroe" (a kitid of rice), kc. 

3 Plongli, uiHxl in ploughing ground. 

4 TrephuiiDee useti in sowing largo grain, such aa 
gram, kc^ like No. 2 ; is a kind of drill plough. 

6 Pair of Kolup|)ce, used in weeding grass, kc. in a 
grown fieid. 

6 A kind of liairow, used in lerelluig the ground aftar 
it b ploogbed. 

7 Regtey, used in planting tobaeoo and chilUe plants. 

8 A kind of Iuuttow, uf»etl in spreading manure m fields. 

9 Oil mill, used for extracting oil 

10 Sugar-cane mill, used for ex pressing the juice of sugar- 
cane in juice, 

11 \\luM?l, used In drawing water from wells. 



Class X, — Mujtkal InftrwmenU* 

Guitar, kettlc-dnim, sarin dah or fiddle, tomtom, trumpet, 
flute, cymbals, &c., from Moorshedabad, 

Collect ion of Musical Instrument s st*nt by Baboo Futteh 
Narayim Sing, from Uenares : — 

1 Been- 2 Tuinbooraj a kind of drum. 3 Su 
4 vSitar, 6 Pukhonjh. 6 Dhole, 8 Two dliookurs ; 1 
shandees, and a pair of jhanjh (used in concerts), 9 
Sorungee and bow, or Ilindoofttanee fiddle, 10 Sorindah 
and bow. 11 Cliikamh and bow. 12 Khunjooreo. 

Several sorts of musical instruments, from NepauL 

Kind of kettle-drum, and toogiia, from Bhotan. 

Two guitars, contributed by the Rajidi of Jodlipore. 

Musk'al instruments, model of a teigu wigu, and one 
complete, &c,, from Moulmcin, 

Dysi violins, and Kay en guitar— Borneo. 

Tsoung, or haa?p» tin box eontaining cy mbals^ model of 
a harp, patala, patma, or Burmese drum, eymbuls used in 
rcligiouB ceremonies, &c,, from Moulmein. 

%c!t of musical instrumeuts from Java, induding goi^. 



914 



EAST INDIES. 



rC<M^NT1» AND 



Class XI. — Manufactiiret,^Cotlo», 

YariiOiia pieces of plain and flguned muKlina, from I>accA. 

Tanoui pieces of pbim, bordered, flowered. And sixjtt4xi 
cmbroiderca mufiUni, &om Baboo Soorop Cliund Dobb of 
Dacca. 

Table-eloths, towek, dofiOOtee and ino*qMjto gauze^ from 
Bet'rbhooin. 

Tiible-elotlii, napldns, and towela^ from Moorsbodubad 

VariauA pieces of clotli i*mi by the Malm Kiijali of 
TT flgiyorc j aUo n few firoin the Resident, iTiaiiuftict urod in the 
dominions of His Highncsi the Mnhn litijah of Nagpopo. 
The bhie eolour in obtaineti frtim indigo ; the green firom 
indigo and the seed of the chidtom, but the dye ia not 
lattting. The Mairlet is dyed with koe^oom. The yellow 
colour i* forinwi of the flower of the liuj»sin|2pa, whieh is 
j boilM with a hide inmu'ric, and the tliread is dyed 
prerious to the weaving of tlie fabrici*. The dark red ia 
lormed of indigo and safllower. 

Pieces of towellings table-napltini, cotton cloth, diaper, 
O^pitzes, and muslins, from Lanore. 

^Pieces of eloae-wove muslin, plain and eross-barrcd, 
from Bengal. 

Oinghnmj five sorts, from Aximghur. 

Kt^paultH? eheek for making quiks, from Nepaul 

Vnrioiift eh>thH for dresses ; carpetiDg, lianLlkerchiefs j 
and different colours of cotton elotfij from Nepaul. 

White cloth, uwd by NewKra in funeral ccreioOTiiea to 
wrap up the body of the deoeaaed j and rcni cloth, used 
by Newarsi in marriages and ceremonies, from Nepaul* 

Twelve ports of " Doiwi" clolbs, Tarioiisly dosignated, 
ftnd for ditlerent ptirposea, from NepaoL 

CariTaa, for bags, Ac., and threads of different colours* 
for making cloths, from Nepanl. 

Coarse cotton cloth, worn by field-labonjers, and ex- 
ported to Cerara and New Guinea. 

Cotton clolhSi native protluee by native tnbes, Borneo, 
K. W. Conet, 

Cotton clothii RTid tapes, frssm Ci^lebct, 

Cotton I'loth, unbleached, frt>m Boutan. 

Cloth, from Sumatra. 

Several pieces of cotton clothip, weft nntive^a, warp Eng- 
lish, and native dye?, from Java. 

Cloths, presented by hi* Highness the Sultau of linga. 

Bolt of cotton canvas, Bengal. 

Naga cloth (cotton), white, black, and rod, for cororingB 
and chudderp ; (sheets,) from Assam, 

Four piwes of cloth Mahmoodees, two dhootiea, white 
turban Munch^l, ninnidnclnred in the dumiinou.<) of the 
Baj;ih of Dholepore, in tlic state of Hajpootana. 

Dorinya, Phoo!kanM>, Mwtha, fine etotha for dresiH^*, 
mnnufnetured in the State of Gwalior, and contributed by 
His I!iti;hnes9 the Maharajah Rno Scindiah, 

Doputta, Pat id, cloths worn in fieu of slmwls by ladies 
in Gwalinr, and contribut-ed by His Uiglmess the Maha- 
rajah Rao ScindLah. 

Divss pieces, called " pugrees," for turbans, manufae- 
turtfl ill Ihe dominions of, and eontHbuied by» the Bajah 
of Jesik'liucer, 

Doinittahs, dhootica, one pugree, thnv muslhis, roanu- 
fm-tureii at ChimdeiTee* The clot he are much worn by 
natives of high rank ; they are costly, and preferred to the 
finest Eurt^pean fabrics of a similar deamption. 

Piei^ of cosrse cheeked cotton, coloured j carpeting ; 
guz&er, a sort of calieo ; gandi, for dresses j chintat cover- 
Wtsj quilted coverlets J li>haf» ; doosootee, for bedding and 
tents, &jc,j from Agra. 

Garrali, a cloth manufactured at Agra, The trade in 
the»e nlotha was formerly Ycry grejit, but it Ima fallen off" 
much since the introduction of English long elolhs. The 
annual manufacture at present does not cxt.iecd 10,0(XI/. 

CaliDo, ffarrah. This cloth is mantifaetnrod tlirougbout 
the division of Agra, and ia eliicfly used by the poorer 
dasscfl ; the nnnnal consumption of it is aliorit 50,000/. 

Calico used by native hi<.lieB for i\re»»cB, Gunga, Sarce, 
and Dhootees, manufacturetl in the division of Agra. TIic 
finmiul eon sumption w estimiited nt 20,0(^3/. 



Twelve chintz coverlets, Pullongpo«h^ Furdlis, Li^bafs, 
and Doosooties, used for quilted bed -i Havers, They are 
chiefiy manufactlu^?d at Fnttc^diur and Coonooj, in the 
division of Agra, and their annual eoiisumption is esti- 
mat4sd at 10,0(XI/. 

Cotton clotljjs, from Sindh, 

Six sorts of cotton cloths j cotton elotlis for pantaloons 
imtl waistbands, from Belgauni. 

Cotton elotha, frcnn the Kao of Cuteh. 

Chintz mantle, from Khyrpoor. 

Two sorts of cotton sad-cloth,, from the Rao of Cut eh* 

Cotton fabrics from Ahmedabad, Siirat, Sindh^ Belgaum, 
Cuteli, and Khyrpoor, They are manufactured fn>nj 
cotton chiefly grown and spun in the countri*'* in wliirh 
ihey are woven. Hardly any more are made than are 
reqiured for home conHiuaption. English spun-cotton is 
much used in Sindli, Cuteh, and Snrat. 

Fieces of cotton clotli, striped and cliintJ! pattern, from 
Scinde. 

Fine punjum long-cloth, maniifaeturefi at Jugginpottah, 
in the Northern Circars, fixim Mr. Masters. 

Muslin, from Amee» 

Muslin, mojiufaotured at Oopadn, in the Northern 
Circan. 



Class ^XJJ.— WootUn Manufactures. 

Cloth shawl, worn by natives, from Rampor€\ 

Pieces of cloth, fr^m Luctnow^HiB Majesty the King 
ofOude. 

Woollen cloth, striped and chocked, kid eloth, Caah- 
more and shawl cloths, from Lahore. 

Bor of wool and piece of camel cJoth^ from SoiJide. 

8u|wrior blue cloth, from South Arcot. 

Cnmbleye, blankets, &c., from the Ceded Bisfncts» 

Blanket, half-breed merino and butt wool^ from Hoon- 
BOor in Mysore, 

Blanket, huJf-breed woof and of common countir wool, 
fiH>m Hooneoor in Mysore. 

Wool thread of shawls, frt>m Bhotan. 

Piece of Paehin woolltm cloth, from Jaomla. 

Piece of goot*8 wool, of various colours, from ShUing. 

Piece of goat's wool, of Toos, frt>m Nqiaul. 

Cloth raatle by the Kirantees in the EarJt, from Ktrant. 

Cloth of eoarser cloth from Ifepaid and Bhouhin. 

Woofien string, Hakpa with Ghoougroo, from NepauL 

Blankets of wool and Asun wool, by the Rajahs of 
Jodljpore, Jypore» and jesselmeer, from Marwar. 

Several sorts of blankets, from Bhot^n and luiehliar. 

Speeimens of articles <.>onimonly imported from Oartok 
to Bageswar, by the Jwari Bhotiyas, brought by Lieut, 
ytrm-'hey, Bengal Engineerrt, from Tibet : — 

Knahmiri PattUj of coarse shawl wool, from Kashmir 
rid Ladak. 

Coarse brown shawl, of goal*s wool, fi^m Balti. 

White shawl, of goat*i and ibei wool, from Balti or 
Kai*lmiir. 

The same, made up into a gown. Tliick woollen stuff 
in eolourtid «trii>e, from U swing. 

Wliite and coarse Nambu, for clothes. Coarso grey 
Pats; blat^k and coloured stripes, for sacks, &c^ from 
Nari Eliorsum. 

Blaek Nambu, for clothes, from Ladak- 

Limd, — Coarwj Cliina silka, from Yarkund. 

Felted cloaks, called Baranees, from Qomckpore. 



Cui83 XJU,—Silk and relwi. 

Zliip (Turk). Sikim (Ladak).-^flk from Khoten.-^ 
Lieut. Stniehey. 

Silk tlireml and twine, and pieces of silk elotha, vArioualj 
de«ignated, from Moorshcdnbud. 

Printed silk lumdkcrehiefs, twelve Tarietic*. Choppaa, 
The silk hnndkereliiefs are marh? at Bcrharapoiv, in the 
diriston of MfXjrsliedabad ; the printing done near Cal- 
cutta, Tlicy form an article of eonsideniblc export to 
Eimapo and America. 



flSpEKDESiCIEa*] 



EAST INDIES. 



915 



jcmiaknukT silk cotah», and skem9 of raw ailk. — Mcdsr^. 
[ TwddO, of So(>jfl|X>re. 

Pieeeift of ailk Imndkerchiijfs, from Moorsheflabod. 

Ti»o bundles, cHjufainmg two sfer* oI'c'>iL>luun'd eilk. 

StDMd silk, of 9ort» ; pkiii ^ilk, of sorts ; »ilk »carfa ; 
I md tilk doth ; from Lahore and Raja]i of Puttiula. 

Mk tearfe, striped silk of vanoii^ sorts and eoloiirs, 
ft&,from Lftbove. 

^ Tttrietie* of Tnssar silk eloth^ prodvircd m tlie district 
of Bliattgulpore^ in the division of Patfia. 

Tmllnl silk, doth TuMar, tnnim&^^tured in thu district 
of Boerbboom, in the division of Moorsbedobnd* 

K*w aod coloured siLks ; raw sdk nnd lluvad from the 
castor-oil worm ; Mungiih and Arioh silks ; scarfs ; waist- 
dotlw ; Mid bed-curtuius ; from Assiiim* 

I^eoes of diflr«(T«?nt coloured silk, complete iis»ortint*nt 
of T«w silk, and piece gioods. — D. Jardine, Esq,, CaU'Uttn. 

LadVs flowrereti and Tartan silk dre»* piete ; two pair 
of eilk scAifa, with flowered bordijr j from BancooraL 
disbriet, Moorshedabad. 

Bed and yeUow Kitln, — Manufa^^t ure<i in Cutch. Tlic 
XMT lEUilerial from Cluim. Thw silk is dyed in Cnteli- 

SaSka (Cutch). MaDu£icturcd chieny for Jionie ron- 
mmptian. Thi? raw mntt^rinl from CTiinn and Calcutta, 
llieiilk piece called '* Elacbo" is manufuL'tiued priiH'ipallj 
fcr erporialioa to Zanzibar. 

Silk gown pieces, from Tannic These are imitations of 
lu;lisli silka« The raw material comes from China, and 
is ^ned at Tanna. 

mlk (Sindh). Chiefly manufactured for homo consmnp- 
kbo, from raw mnt^'rinl brought from Cliiua. 

LooDgees (Sindh). Two wore brought from Kurraehee» 
lad two w«f9 expr«ssl^ ordered for the Ejddbition, and 
wet9 iiuaiii£M4iired at Tatta. 

Piece of silk, frwm Poona, This is a very curiously wortrn 
silk, bnns of two ooloura, one side red, the other green; 
it b callea ** pytonoe.'* Tha raw material ia brought from 
(Mdm or Caki^ta^ and dyed in Pocum. 

Ko. 2 are nine pattema of lilk of an infierior manu- 
^ure to that mentioned. 

SiUu (3iirat). These are manufactured in China, and 
C^ at Syivl* No mention is made of t he quan tity man u- 
ftfttired for home consumption, or for exportation. They 
ire the eonuDon patterns worn by the Parsee women lei 

Pnrple ailk, scarlet on one aide, and small patterns of 
•dlks for chooUes, from Ahmednug^ur. Theet^ an> made at 
r«*»lii- A r.Ur** (amed for the maiiufaeture of eitks. The 
Til ik« made annunlly at tliat place is stated to 

bet i -• two and a half lacs of rupees. 

** Of tlii«, ik quarter of a lac m ralue is consumed in the 
Ahmednug^tir ZiBa ; half a lac is sold at the fair of Mo- 
hBRB, in Kandiah, for transmission to Indore, Oojien, 
OhUIi, BantbiJ, 9nrst, and ot her places in liiilia ; quarter 
ef A lae gom to Berar j 10,iXK) rupee* worth to Shola- 
poor; qxuurter of a lac is made up into borders, &e., of 
flOttOD pieee goods locally consimied in the neighbomdng: 
^iit^^ls ; and the balance is said to consist of sdks dyed, 
\hA nntfniahed, which are exported from Yoola to other 
phtts for completion.*' 

•Th* raw silk oomes from China. The dyestulTs, 
OOfpl m porlion of indi^ (produce of Kandeish)^ and a 
irv ammpoctant ingrediifnts, are likewise im|>orted through 

Kaev of nbbon, from Ahmedabad. The materiald from 
lUeh these are made, and tlie red dye, are iniporte<l frum 
tht pbeos junt mentioned. Tlie value per annum of tho»c 
lUfiiihirtiiiid for Ahmedabad amomits to 20,000 rupees ; 
sf thota mamifoetured for exportation, 100,CXiO rupw^^j. 
Iksy m» mat to Baroda, Bombay, Kajpootana, Gwuhor, 
nd an pwif of Giuerat. 

Baw ailk (three spt^eimenji), from Azimghur. 

S3k mamifi ictiirca at Bangalore, 

iH to i ait cokma of silk tlut^ad^, from Cuddapah. 

Ttmmm piaeei of coloured silke, of diflereut designs 
wdnitenis^ from Nepaid. 

Imp oli«d ailk, from Bhotan. 



Pieoea of jdlow, orange, and blmk Hilk, from Kepatil. 
Sakndong silk, from Aebeen, Hmnatm. 
iSaroiigM or p4?ttieout silks, from Paleuibang and Achocni 
Sumatra. ' 

SUk elolli, fr^Hu Camboja. 
Troueeri' :?ilk, from Aehecii, Sunmtra. 
Bilk tajie, from Celebes. 



Class XIV-— Jfanw/bc/^ffft from Stthgtiiut^i for Uasr, 
Memp, ij*c. 

Two coils of Jute rojK' ; bolt of Chandemagore hemp 
canvas ; bolt of Iietnp and cotton canvas— BengJiL 

Rig^ng of Bombay hemp ; wanu and efild n^gii^ter coir 
rigging (fiit*t manuiactured in Indiu) j Jul>bulpore lieuip; 
DhjmelM?e hemp rope; and piuc-apple fljut rope — pro- 
»euted by the manufaeturers^ Mcaap*. W. H. Harton &. Co., 
of Calcutta — from Calcutta. 

Qimny or sackclotli, from pat, or Con'horug oUtoriut. 
Gunny and other cloths from plantjiin fibre, from Madras. 

Oinvtt;* from Wackanoor or Wackoo ma fibre, from 
TiiTivaueore. 

Two bundles of cotton, eanvas, and rope, from Bengal. 

Specimens of cordage from Hbres of various plants, — 
(See Fibres, Chiss lY, (F.) 

Eopea prepared from the Dhanchee^ or ^wAyaomoaa ] 
eannahwa. — Messrs. Tbompwn and Co., of Calcutta. 

Cordage from BMteafroado^a, Beerbhoom. 

Cordage from Battkima racemoaa, Bhfiugulj>ore. 

Cordage prepared from vegetablo substances by tho 
natives of the provinec of Amiean. 

Bark cloth, manufactured by the Scmangs or Oriental 
ncjLjro tri^H^^, from Ketlali, Malay Peninsula. 

Bark elath, made from the bark of the ]>aper mulberry, 
from KaUli, west coast of Celebes. 

Bark clotfi» made from Papyrus bark, from Java. 

Cloth manufactured by Arafuraa from native fibres. 



Class XY.^Mtxtd FabHuM^ including SkawU and ScarJ^f. 

Silver enwrapped, plain gilt, and flilTered turbons^ — from 
Calcutta. 

Fuie cloths for dreawa, shawls, and turbans } gold em- 
broidcreil cloths worn by IUj|HXJts, and used for turbans— 
sent by Maha Bajah Bao Sciudiah. 

Several pairs of shaota, embroidered with gold and silver, 
and gold and silk, and a turban with gold ends — from 
Bengal. 

Piece of gold cloth ] silver tinsel stamj^ed s gold edging? 
and silver ^ging, rose eolouretl — from Benares. 

Head covering worked with gold and silver tinsel ; tbe 
same, with gold dyed purjde tini*el ; the same, with sky- 
blue bobbinet spangled tin.-kl — from Bennjes. 

Gold embroidered nianufacluri*»^fironi Benares. 

Silk dress-piece, worked with gold and sUverj scarlet 
*ilk dresti' piece, worked u]) with silk in needle in imitation 
of China work — from C^idcutta. 

Embroidered Qowered silk and silk embroidered sareci^ ^ 
from Agra. 

Embroidered shawls and embroidered scarfs, from 
Dacca. 

Embroidered and net scarfed net square and Ihrcc- 
comered ; nock scarfs* j tnutiUn, einbroidered in gold and 
in sdver s net scarf, cmbroidcreil in gold for htnid - dresses j 
net [icarf, embroidered in silver — from Dae4*a, 

Gold embroidered muslin and not scarfs j net 
embroidered in silver \ Jtimdnntx^ nearfji — from Dfl«?ca, 

Ricli kincob or brocade, Ac, from Benares, exhibited tjrl 
Baboo Deo Karyan and Go]>iuauth Debcersaad, &c. 

Cas^hmere simwl, worked in gnnn, crimson, blue, and 
scarlet, and embroidered in gold and silver. — A. Emerson, 
Esq. 

Long shawls, red and green, and worked with needle j 
square cashmere shawls, from Loodianah. 

Long and other shawls, from Cashmere- 
Long phawk, white; square sluiwla, black, blue, oud 
figunxij from Maiia Eajah Goolab Sing^ of Caeluuere. 



916 



EAST IKDIES. 



fCOLONtEB AXU 



Tinsel tape, ribboii, rikI Lhread, from L«hore, 

Caps, erobmiderud with gold and peiu-lflj with otlier 
febrics, froui BeTiareB, 

Half shftwls and scarfs worlted with gold, gilver, and 
BUk, from DcUd and from Raj|XK)taiia. 

LoiJKi s^^unre, and small shawla, JST^^i blue, and black; 
woplfcea shawb, red, with iK-arls, from OMhnteFc. 

SbAwU, bloc-k, whiUt, aiid red j ehawl scarf — from Rajah 
of Pftttiahi. 

Infant's robe^ embroidered grass doth^froni Mra. 
Marshman, tJtnrampore. 

Muslin mautillfts, jiieketa, and eolLira ; pine-apple cloth 
and collara \ mtialin caps j innc-appk eloth caps ; frock 
bodiei and sleevw — embroidered; worked by natives of 
Cklcutta. 

Waistcoat dhooteiH cotton and muiiffa niiicd ; cliupciiTi 
or overall poat \ ecarfa, gold bordtjred, and ombroideped 
in gohl— from Assam. 

A pidlaj doputta, Ac,, for dresses, from Agra. 

Shawls of various colours and pattems^fixtm Btijab 
ofBhol^Kire. 

Straw-coloured, lilac, red, and crimson kineobs; red 
and white mundeels ; striped, ^reen, retl, and sai^e nxl 
lailfths ; piajinoodec; and dhotiei, with silk border — from 
Bajah of Dhole|x)re» 

Mooltan and cotton And Caalimere scarfs, frt)m Lahore 
and Ca«hmepe» 

Scar& of difTtjpent eolonre, from Maha Raja Goolab 
Bing of Cashmere. 

Scarfs, &e., from Hnz^nra, Major Abbott. 

Figured cloth, from Klijrpoor. 

Wustcoat piece ; fap pitnn^s ; tinsel ribbons ; bed 
strings J strings for the hair, from Lahore. 

Miied sQk and cotton, imitation Hnltaree silk. 

Mooltan tambour work ; Mooltan busmcihitrs. 

Borhanpore fiibric brocado, and pattern of same^ from 
In dope. 

Fabrics from Boorhan|>oor. " Ko. 1 was made to the 

cwrder of her Higlnietis the Baixee Ball^ for one of the 

I preaents to Maharajah Sindiali on his marriage. Tlie 

price charged her Highness wiia l.lXK) ruyieea (Chmidaree) -, 

but the real vulue i« 550 ru]ieefi (Cor). 

** Nob. 2 and S are also manufactured ot Boorhanpoor. 
The thread (cotton and silk and gold), of which thej are 
made, is prepared at Boorhanpoor. No mention is made 
of the places from wlucli the maieriaU originally come,"— 
Bombay Report, 

Brocades, adk and gold, from Ahmedabad. 

Fabrii? of silk and gold from Abniedahad. TJie silk 
fit>m wliich these bpoi^dca are manufact urctl comes from 
China, Bassomh, and Calcut U. The gold and silver thread 
is manufactured at Ahmeflabad. Tlie cochineal for the 
red dye from England. The quantity of Ihe^* brocades, 
manufactured for home consumption, is about 40,000 ru- 
pees^ wortli per annum. The average viilue of that ex- 
[ ported} aliout 3<>0,OtK) rupees' worth per annttm. They 
»re exported — to India, Bombay, Baroda, Poana, Ghwalior, 
Hydrahad, and Rajpootana. Out of India — to Bindh, 
Cabool, Arabin, Pcrs'ia, and Cliina. 

Square shawl from Scfh Khumr Cliund, of Atimeflabftd. 

Loongee, with gold thread border, and gold thready 
green, rod, white, and yellow j the same, red, black, and 
jdlow, from Seinde. 

Pattem green and orange silk, with gold thread ; piece of 
gt^aen silk, with gnld thn-nd— from Ahmcdmiggun 

Silk scari'frotn China produeej and raw pine-applo silk, 
chkkoxMsd, iBd worked by Mnssnlmen ^ worked muslin 
dmmsf ; boetle-wing dresses \ lace scarf— fitMn Madras*. 

Fine cottar muslin, with ijold lace border j cottar muslin, 
unwashed, mth gold lace border — ^from Trnvancore* 

Kinoob silk, from Trichtnopoly. 

Cloths woven, plain redj with ailk ; cloths woven, purple 
and bkack j cloths wov'cn, red, with laee — from Giintoor. 

Scai^, embroidered with gold thread, from Tringance 
ftnd Fabang^ Malay Peninsida. 

Silk Imndkerchiefs and shawls, from Tring&nee, Lingy, 
and Timor, 



Scarfs, cot ton J and dje«» of native growth ; raw silk 
from the continent of Asia— from SumatTti. 

JSalendongs silk^ from Achcen, Sumatra. 

Embroidered eloth, from China, and embroidered tape, 
from Cclebcti, forwarded from Singaix)re. 

Turbans and lailahs — from Tonk. 

Pieces! of silk and cotton manufacture* 

Piece of chequered cloth, sOk and cotton. 



Oi^SS XVI,— I>«/Aer, tne/tufta^ Saddfefy and MarneBS ; 
Skins ; Furs; Feathers ; and Hair. 

Embroidered elcpluint trappings in velvet, and frontal 
pieces embroidered awning in y civet, with embroidered 
cloth carpet; saildle-clot h in green velvet, and i*mbf*oi- 
dcred in gold, with head-stall to match, and rein — from 
Moorshcdabad. 

Malinitta stuldle embroidered with gold and silver 
thread, nnd accmitremcnts coniplete, as used by the Mah- 
ratta nobdity — from Maha Rajah Rao Sdiniiah. 

irorses* bits ; reins for a bridle ] saddle- cloth stall and 
crupper. 

Sad die-cloth, green and gold, with head-.*tall and 
crui>i>er, all gtudcle<l ^^ith gilt naiLs — from the Kajah of 
Kotah. 

A complete set of single hamcfis, belonghig to the 
** Ekka," or native convejanee, Ko. 1365, manufactured 
in the division of Patna. Presented by ^yud Luft Ali 
Klian. 

Saddle-cloth (floss sOk and woollen)— from Kotah. 

Mahratta leather and water-hag. 

Embroidered saddle from Khattiawar. This is one of 
the saddles used by tVie K batty* of Khidtinwar. the de- 
scendants of a trilK> of freebooters^ whose hordes were 
fiimoiiB for their endurance, and the extraordinary Icngtli 
of marches that couH be performed with them. 

One set of harness, for gig or stanhojK* ■ also two jxiir 
of Ixxtts, as sixxbncns of tlio workmanship of Calcutta 
%vorkmen. " Tlu^ harness is cut Wy of country materiaht, 
witli the cxce|>tion of the japan leather, which is English. 
The leather b of the up-country bullock liidca, tanned m 
our own tan-yiird, in the neigh l>ourliood of Calcutta, with 
the * bauble' bark, chUccI^ we believe, the * prickly mi* 
mosa ;' the platetl furniture and arms of Gi*eat Britain 
are made up on our own premise* by native artists. Ono 
pair of bo<Hs are made with French jnpan leather and 
morocco legs, and the ^ole*, t^c, of country leather ; the 
other pair of en»melli(! Iratherof our own manidiirtiuv, 
anti entirely of country materials and native workmanship." 
— Ej^iract of a feifer/ram Me.^(!trs. Janies Mont^th 4* Co.j 
dated Calmtta, 7fh March, 1S51. 

Bengalee-made horsewhips. 

Buflklo leather, nmiuifnctured for the purpose of anny 
ftceoutrementa ; Bengal cow-hide, and a calf-skin, both 
tanned with the bark of the Babool tree, dressed and 
patent enamelled, for the purposes of carriagiv, and boot 
and shoe makers ; specimens of Bengal cow-hide, similarly 
tanned with the sanu? eubstauLX?, the former dressed black, 
the two latter brown j half a builklo-hidc, tanned with 
Babool bark, suited for hooi and shoe niakert*^ and ma- 
chinery \ half a Bengal buffalo-hido, similarly tanned, and 
suited for harness and other purposes \ half a buffalo-hide, 
usetl for bclt.-i, and other purjxjfles of mnehinery j half a 
bullido-lude, dressed and blackened for the preparation of 
horse harness j Bengal cow-hide, used in the prt^paration 
of saddlery j Bengal calf-skin, drrased brown, for shoe 
and hamess-makiriig purposes ; Bengal ^lu^p-tikins, fee 
shoe and haraess-makerB' puriwses — from Mt^er*. Tkli k 
Co,, of Calcutta. 

Taimcd bison skin — from INfysore, 

Buffalo-hide, tanned and dressed hi nek j bulloek-hide, 
tanned and dres*>ed black, for shoe uppers j tanne^l aiirl 
dressed brol^^l and black, for cap«, bags, Ac. ; bullock- 
hide, tanned and dn^nsed, bidled ; Ncilghery buffklo-liida, 
bulTed — from Uoonsoor, in Mvsore. 

Dyed hides of fine colour — fcxim the Rao of Cutck, 

8»ddla| &o.f complete — frt>m Lahore. 





EAST INDIES. 



017 



I 



Ouncl's nddk, und Howe aaddlc, with tt»ppiDg8 com- 

Raw ffAtheT» I bo«»; artifidal flowers ; tipp<?(!i, mami- 
fiictured by natiTes; grey* whit*?, black, and 9wnn&dai*Ti 
botta; gwy snd white luuflft ; CommefcoUy iniifT^; tiirmutrs 
far the neck j victomies — from ComniercoU?, Bengal. 



Clau TVn.— Paper, StaHonerf, BookHndm^, JPrinlinff, 

' FifMr made from Daphne cmmahima — from Kemaon. 
It t* remarkiibte for iu flrength, and nffbrdfl better pro- 
tection a^unit dampoess thm wax cloth. 

Knnptee paper — fnnn Aiiam. 

fiiaeto of paper, ^epalee Ka^j— from Kepmd. 

BhnrtH, both coarse and fine, and of very large size^ made 
fifom the inner bark of Daphne cannnbina^ exhibited by 
Iint.-GaL %kea and by Lifut. Stnu-hey. 

Bolb of coloured puper — from Lahore. 

Pfeper, from plantain fibre, and from hu^ aloe or agaye 
— firom I>r. Hunter, of Madras. 

yine «ortd of paper — from Ahmedabad. 

" Countrr paptr," a« it is tinned, is manufactured to a 
gnat extent st Alunedabacl, and forma a oonsiderabb 
vliele of export from that city. The manuiaciurcrp admit 
that upwards of 20,000 rujK^s" wortli of paper in ATmiiaJly 
m^tsrii^ to Bombay alone, and about 16,CKX) rupees' 
worth to Baroda. There are small manafm^tun?« of 
vtnaArj paper at Kairie^ Baroda, and Sekaeer, but chielly 
from reniM? of paper and very little raw material, and 
Umvfore the utic^ does not turn out good ; wlicreaj*, at 
Ahmedsbad, paper if mamifjictured from hemp tiint from 
Kennnw. Boap from the town of Besulnuggnr, and soda 
(wkjee khor) . There are about 250 paper niill*, or pounding 
maeliiiies, worked by the feet. This m an u factory ^vea 
ODploymeiit to upwards of two thousand labourers* of all 
ifni d&ily. There was a tctt fine kind of pajwr formerly 
Bann&i'tunxl expressly for posting lettera and biOs of 
ttehange; but linee the introduction of fine letter-paper 
fifom Kororpe, thii aort of paper ie not raanufaetiunHL A 
few qttir«i can now be obtained a* Bpecimen* of the manu- 
factsre of fionner days," 

of bookbinding by a native of Tn^jhinopoly^ 
by T. K. J, Boilcan, E«q., Bombay CirUServiee. 



Clos XV 11 l.^Fahriea of different kinds, thoicn a* gpE- 
f uf Printing or Dyeing. 



Tboogh the arta of dyeing and of calico-printing hare 
hm pcaciiaed in India from the earliest times, and by 
mmt aro fnppowd even to hare originated there, no goods 
batv been »nt expreuly as superior specimens of either 
(^ one or the other art. But among the cotton, silk, 
VDoIlen, aikd mixed fi^brics exhibited ae CLuees XI. , XIL, 
HIT., and XV,, are many bcautifuUy-dyed articlce, and a 
pmk Tahciy of print* which may be admired for the taste 
nd depBiee of their patterns, Tlie early esteem in wliieh 
tbaa wapB held in £orgpe, is evidenced by the orierdal 
•■■Bi ef many of these Indian goods being applied even 
ffl the iwiatiit day to these Enghsh imitations. The art 
of dveing it atill in a rude state in India, a« far as 
tfar aM«hoda adopted are oonoemed ; yet If we look at the 
w n lts which are attained, they are not to be deepiaed eren 
by the aide of the aGamtiie dyeing of the west. But in 
the n^nngi inrfit of ooloan^ the akill with wldch a number 
Bi employed, and the taetc with which they are harmo- 
aind, whether in their oottona or their carpets, their silks 
or thar ■hawk, Sinope baa nothing to teach, but a great 
dialtokazn. 

tua XIX — Tnpewtry, inclnding CfHyrU €tnd Fktor- 
thik*^ Laee amd Embroidery, 
GaU Mihrnlitifid falT«t ctipet, with a long and two 



I 



fiquaro pillow?, fonning a sort of throne for natire princes, 
from Moorshedflbad. 

Muftnud cover or sliawl, Tcry rieldy fjold embroidered. 

Cotton cari>et8 {Satntn^et*4) of dilicpent sizes — from 
Bengal i 

Mirzapore woollen earpetes woollen and cotton mgi* 
— from Mirzapore and Goruckporc. 

Two cotton carpets — from fc?hnh Ahraed of Sassenun. 

Rupf and hookah carpets — from Moorshedabad. 

Cotton carjwts and rugs — from Bung|Tiore, cUfltrict of 
Moor?}ierinbad, arvd from Agm. 

WTiitc, coloiu^od, and i«tri|xHl blankets— from Assam. 

Embroidt^red hookah carpets — from Bengal 

Richly embroidered carjiots in gold ; gold embroidert»d 
vehet carjjct ; embroidered Tcket etirjiet — from Benarcd. 

Caahmere carpet, silk— from Lahore. 

Silk -embroidered caqiet — from Mooltan. 

Silk carpet, Citsh mere— from Lahore. 

Carpet, f ilk Cashmere — fi^m Cashmere. 

Car|>«?t, cotton — from Mooltan, Lahore, 

Carpet for silver be<l to stand on ; a large carpet. 
Cashmere; cnrj>et— fmm Maharajah Goo lab Singh. 

MtJoltan j^riiited fioor^cloth — from Mooltan. 

Woollen car|x't.*, mouTii<*d with nilk — from ICliyrpoor, ] 
These form a port of 11. IL Meer Ali Morad's contribu- 
tion^ and weri^ unaccompanied by any de^ieriptive list. 

Embroitlercd silkft fnjin Khyrjioor. Thev are sent by 
II. H, Meer Ali Morad. It is pn-sumed tfiat they wore 
embroiderc'd at Kb\Tr|K5or, on manufacturer of the same i 
riistrii't. j 

Lan^e and small broad-cloth table-covers, embroidered 1 
with silyer and gold thread ; broad-cloth table-eoTcr em- 
broidered with k*ilver tliread ; velvet chair'covcrs, embroi- 
dered with gold, from yindh. 

Tablc-eoTers, specimens of embroidery from Sindh. Tlie 
cloth is from England — the i'ilk from China. The town 
of Tat til in most fjimou?» in 8indh for this work. 

Printed cotton carpet — fn>m Ahmedabad. 

Cotton car^iet — from Ahmedabad. 

Rugs, woollen — from EUore. 

Flowered fiilk carpet — from Madras. 

Small woollen and silk carpets — from Tanjore. 

Silver lace — from Lahore. 

Broad black lace ; broad, gold, and stlTer blonde lace j 
broad and fine lace— from TniTancore. 

An mfant's robe of the finest grass doth, and em- 
broidered bv hand, by native* of Seranipore near Calcutta. 
Contribute*} bv Mrs. Mar»hraan, of Serompore. 

Jackets, collars^ caps, frocks, boddice?, and embroidered 
mantilloj*, worked by nativcH in the city of C^bults, 

CTiikun worked flowered muslin ch udders, 2 pieces, 
worked by natircB in the city of Calcutta. 

A scarlet silk dresii-pieee, worked in imitation of Cliuia 
cinbroidery. Workeil by natives in the city of Calcutta. 

Silk scarf from China produce and pine- apple fibre, chi* 
kmied (embroidered) by MusM^nmna of Madras, Contri- 
buted by Mr*. Goodsir. 

Hancuierchief of pine-apple fibre. Contributed by Mrs. 
Goodsir. 

(H) Quilted or padded, 

A quilt, Raraee, and two pillowB, Takecah. Manu- 
factured in the doniinioivs of the Maharajah of Jodhpoor, 
in the states of Rajpootflkuali. 

A quilt entirely worked by hand Contributed by the 
Rajah of Eota. 



CuLSS :KX^—ArHclet of CioiMnff, S^ 

¥\rom Bengal, — A Kaniptee dotee or male dress. Pat 
dhootce«, male dresses. Poow>ong, Pat silk, a female 
dTt?as. Ranga, Pat sooria, native substitute for trousera. 
Pat rchfls, scarf for females. Bogue pat or surah or dhoty, 
natire tronsen. Pat meekla, female drees. Pat cUiootees, 
mule drcsaee. Areah for wearing apparel. Arcnh bhar 
kossar, Areah bor kossar, ma!e and female dress, Beha 
female dress, Reha mikla female dress. Areah, coloured. 



918 



EAST IKDIEB, 



^Coi/lNlf^S AXD 



coloTired filk Clotli, red anri white. Gongiem, 

r«Hi Mid white, far women's dpc^s Miklti, coloiurcd. 

Mimrja nrcftli, cotton cloth. Mimga dhotet\ for mi?n. 

Huiiga niikln^ for fomaloft, Munga rea. Muiiga run, 

arf. Mikla or Ft.ltioont. Dhoteo, PhAkwl tartan. — 
From Gijwh«tliH>, in As&am. 

Silk Tiicglifliikliore for male drefis. Petticoat. Ifand- 
koirhivf, 

A wrapjx^r w^oni hy Iwth sexes. A dress worn by 
nobility. A wrapper clmllali for nobility, Singpo bag, 
possa, luid taetiii3. 

Euibn»idL*n'd caps. Purae worked with tinpel. 

Fan, worked in a variety of embroiderj', nitlx silTer-gilt 
hondlQ, Ked silk atrinp for irouBcrs, with f^old and 
fliiver tassels. Bky-bliie VKjbblnct smrf, worktnl with adver 
and sdk. CriiiiBon bohbinet scarf. Pair of cmnson bob- 
binet sctirveB, worked with silk. Sky-blue lk>bbin4?t scarf, 
worked with silver. Orange Ixibbinet scarf, worked with 
gold. Bbick bobbincft ^airf, worked with gold. Black 
bob bine t scarf, worked with gold and sdrcr. Square 
^icarfi whit© bobblnet adk. Orange scari^ gold and aOver, 
qtmro scarf, orange, gold and adver. Square ^carf, erim- 
'^Bon, looee crape, spangled. Green scarf. Head-covering, 
set with bit* of gluA?^ Ilead-covcring, worked with siJk^ 
Cloth boddiee dyod blue. Pair of cloth r in g*, ornamented 
with cowries, for securing the water-pot ou the bead, — 
Dilld. 

Boosnee or quilt, worked hy hand, and made of Ibatiiv 
patiun. 

Suit of a native gcntleman^e apparel, ri^.: a gold fignn'd 
niu&Un turban, acconling to the Bhoondce ahajjCj ii ^i ai^t- 
ba!id to match j a pair of kinkob drawers, and a mnaLiD 
Tcflt—the u^ual dre^s of the Rajah of Boondie. Suit of 
'adiea* apparel, riz.: a handM>me p<?tticoat, gold em- 
broidered veil and head-dress, and a bodice worked with 
Lice and tinsoL These articles form the lumd dress of 
the Kjjjtth and Ranee of Boondeo in the Raji^ootana 
Stutes, and have been contributed by the Rajah. 

Doputtaba or garments worn by ladies of Jeyporpj 
ricldy worke<l in sdver, and printed In gold. Tiirbfln&, 
called Cliuudree and Lichnijaj worked in gold, Sun;i;fa' 
" ar handkerchiefs for tying round the head ; eldntzes 
flrcssee j waisthand clotlis ; and mantles or sheets 
worn over the shoidders. — Stated of Jeypor©. 

Ghoochu? or blankets, a protection agaitiint rain. Oiuck- 
t inaha or blanket s*. Bhmtet usually spread on the floor, 
blanket with s^ilk etiging. 

Native geritlemau's apparel, vh.x two turbans, called 
Chootign.*e, made at Kotn j full-dress ttirbun ; waiatbanil, 
Bclah,. white muslin gold flowera ; piece mushn, gold 
Btannwd ; piee«? brocade kincob for drawers j mid two 
piecesi 8tri|jed mui^lin, Doreeah, for jackets. La<Lhes' 
apparel, via.— petticoat, green silk stamped with gold; 
I-diws and veil, gold bordered j red veil, flgurod; 
hoolie OT stays. Worn by the people of rank in Kotah, 

Fugrees, or turbans, of Jcsi^ehnen? wool. 

SilTCP-worked scarfs. Silk scarfs, gold-edged^ white, 
orange, and puce colour. Silk scaris, yellow and plum 
colour. Cotton st^rfa, from Lahore, 

Women^s and men's shoes. Cap and tasseL Head* 
dreisa worn by Akalisj Lahore. 

Trousers, dresses, scarfs, and shoes, from Maharajah 
Goolab Sing. 

Dress bodice, trousers, undergarment, sheet, pair of 
fthoc!?, gown, bmidle bair- strings.— Ranee Sooklian, 

Cloak, sliceta, turban, pieces ahawl stufl'^ and scarf, 
jacket, pantnloon-stringa, sets hed-strings, wooden cap, 
waist* rope, Chimiba dress^ pair sheets, and turbans. — 
Haja of Pattiala* 

PietT! Mnjtir Abbot's Huzara Soojio cloth, Loongie. 
Caps embroidered with gold and pesrk. ^Benares. 

Kareem man*s dress. Poongaa priest^s dress, upper and 
lower garments. Burmese gentleman's dress. Kareem 
!i*« dress, lower garment, and se^yrC Burmese ladies' 
of the second clonss. Upper garment of coloured 
'cotton. Kareem male and female drossea. Sondale. — 
From Moulmein. 




Crown, or tiy, as worn by the King of Oude ; without 
jewels. 

Mundil, or turban, as worn by the minister, prince, fuid 
nicinbcrs of the ro)ftl faiiuly ; from the King of Oude, 

Doputtos and other articles of dress. Puggrees, or 
turbans. Selalis, or double doputtaj. Dhoties. Kochos, 
or kummur bands. Saries. Piece of comuion ^ilk. Gold 
and eilver embroidcn^d slippers. Conunon shppers. Mar- 
hat ta chdd's turban. — From II. II. the Maharajah of 
Nagpore, 

Wearing appareL Musquito eurtains. Native ladies* 
dresse*, of white and black watered silk. Set of bcd- 
cnrtaiiis, as u*et^ by the higher classes. Embroidered 
waist- licit. CJolouPcd miLnlin turbans. 

Native dresses, Dmieya ; eroaa-stripcd, ic. Gudka 
client |jetticoat«, — From Agra. 

Beldi worked pnchchassee in [iearls. 

Bengaloe wooden sondaLs. Native-mado slippers and 
boots. 

Mahratta ehiidren*8 tnrbant, firora Nagpore. 

Native lady's bochce, richly embroid«iod. Waist-bolt, 
embroidercfl m velvet and gold, 

Shoi's for men and women. 

Waistelotbs, called Dhotee. Pettit'oats, cidled Mackelah, 
Seancsjcalied Eelia, Ornaments for turbans — from Assam. 

Ih)M Madra* FreMencg, 

Lady*8 scarf, English sluipe, from Viziana^gnira. 

Lady's pocket Imiulkercldef, of Indian produce, pine- 
apjile fibre^ from Ma<.hrns, 

Lady's scurf, English pottemj from Tiiianagmm, 

Native feinftle clothes. Boys' ima^l and silk cap* — 1 
VnEianagnmi. 

Caps (mop lab), of sorts, 6rom Calient, 

Bodices of diHerent patteros, for natives, from MadraPk 

From Bombaif, 

A dress of a Cuteh lady of rank, manulbctui^ in Cuteli, 
from the Rao of Cutch. 

A complete suit — '^Tbe dress of a native (Mahomedan) 
female of rank, which has been made up and prepared by 
her IIighn«?8 the SecundtM? Begum of BhojmL*' 

Dress of a Hindoo woman, whose husband is aliTc. 
Mann£ftctiirod at Ranee Bidnoor, iu the Dharwar Col* 
lectorate. 

Dress of a Hindoo widow, Belgaum. 

Dhoter furuspatee used bv men, Belgatun. 

Clioloes or khuns, &c. tsed for makmif spencers fof 
women whose }iuj*l»ands are aUve ; also the dress caDed 
piu-kam, resemhhng aprons, for girls under five yvmn of 
age. The raw materiul is brought from Cldna through 
Bombay, and is dyed in (he Southeoi Itlaratbu country. 
These silks are monuCaetured ahnost entirely for local 
eonsmnption. 

Silk goojees, shirts and mantle, Scindee hats and fiwis. 
These articles from Khyrfxior arc contributed by H, H. 
Mecr AM Morad, 

Choolees, or bodices, and hotly garments, from Ahmed- 
nufgup. 

Embroidery of Cuteh. These fiaur aprons hare been 
worked on Engli^li satin, with silk im|>orted from China. 

EmbroidertHl silk vests (Sm^at). — The fabric is woven 
at Sural, from China silk dyed there, and then embroidered 
and made into vests for the Parsee eliildren of the place. 

Boots and shoes (Sindh). lliese show the kmd ™ 
boots and shoes worn in Sindh and the neighbou 
countries. Tbey are from II. H. Meer All Moorad. 



frcon^ 



Class XXI,— C?i(f/ef:y and Edge TooU, 

Sdver-moim ted carving-knife and fork, in sdver-mount*^ 
Telvct «ise — ^from Triehinopoly, A. Freese, Esq. M,0,B. 

Knife — from Casliniere, 

Carvers and a set of dinner and desert knives of Indian 
steel, with buekliom handles and silver fendes, made by a 
native iron smith at Triehinopoly, exhibited by T. E. J. 
Boilcau, Esq., M.C.S. 





nrLjitn vcssei^ and wnakB in coto \sn silver filtgret!. 



Dependencies.] 



EAST INDIES. 



919 



Betel-nut cutters ; pen knives — from Benares. 

Barber*8 utensils ; a case for instruments — from Bengal. 

Knives (chhooree) — Nepaul — from China. 

Different sorts of knives used by females — from NepaiiL 

A knife ; another sort (chipee) to cut wood ; another 
knife, used by Mugar and Gkwreng tribes ; anotlier to cut 
vegetables ; another used by butchers ; razor (ustoora) — 
from Nepaul. 

Ilunting-knife, with buckhom handle, silver mounted; 
velvet case, silver mounted — from Yizianagrum. 

Firungicuttee ; Nimacha; Thagah; Hindoostangsigah ; 
Xindoovarah soora cutty ; Gooptee ; Firungicutty ; Pris- 
hentzoo ; Kygaroo ; Kyzaroo ; Bakoo ; Booranpooroe ; 
Patanee ; Bondalekhata ; Sectaramporee ; Jamdadoo ; 
Clielaneh ; Kataroo ; Pieshcubzoo ; Andamaroo — ^from 
Yizianagrum. 

Betel knife (notu kuttaree; tamool kuttarees,) knives 
used by natives of rank; kampte dooe, for cutting 
▼ood ; Abro and Naga dooe, weapons — ^from Afsam. 



Class XX 1 1. — Inm and General Hardware. 

Metal goglet used by natives of Malabar — ^from Calicut. 

Iron pans and iron spoons — ^from Chota Nagpore. 

Wire— fit)m Cuttack. 

Brass peacock lamp — fit>m Agra. 

Six vessels of brass, made at Patna. 

Vessels composed of zinc and copper — ^from Moorshc- 
dabad. 

Brass manufactures, viz : — Brass plates, cups, vessels, 
ind cooking utensils — from Agra and Mirzapore. 

Cooking utensils, consisting of copper, brass, and pewter 
pbtes, and a variety of cups, vessels, and other domestic 
articles, from Assam, Calcutta, and Moorshedabad. 

Miscellaneous collection of articles in metal, used in 
worshipping, and for domestic use — from Nepaul. 

Large and small Bidree hookahs, from Bajah of Dhole- 
pore. 

Seven specimens of bell metal — from Kotah. 

Steels for striking light, and tweezers — from Bajah of 
Jesselmere. 



Class XXIll, — Jewellery , Works in the Precious Metals. 

The Durria-i-Noor, or the Sea of Light diamond, set as 
an srmlet, with ten smaller diamonds surrounding it. 

Large pearl necklace, consisting of 224 large pearls. 

Shorter one, of 104 Urge pearls. 

Short necklace, of four very large spinello rubies. 

Pair of emerald armlets, three large stones in each. 

Carved emerald and diamond turban ornament. 

Set diamond and emerald bridle and martingale. 

Gold-mounted saddle, set with diamonds, emeralds, and 
rubies. 

Pearl robe and emerald girdle of a Sikh chief. 

Glass case, with silver filigree ornaments ; head orna- 
ments ; bracelets ; brooches ; umbrella ; elephants* hair 
bracelets; hairpins; neck chain; girdle; flower holders 
— from Cuttack. These filigree silver ornaments, which 
are only worn by Europeans, have been manufactured by 
the native silversmiths of Cuttack. They are remarkable 
for their extreme lightness, neatness of workmanship, and 
cheapness. 

EmuneUedlutchkas; Gotahhars or garlands; gold and 
stiver latcbkas ; gold and silver gothas — ^from H. M. the 
Kinf of Oada. 

Glass bracelets; beads of sUver, hollow ; small globes 
of glass, silvered inside — from Delhi. 

Buddha necklace ; ornaments worn in turbans ; gold 
and silver wire — from Bajah of Jeypore. 

Silver toys — viz.. Deer-fighting, ram-fighting, combat 
with tiger, wrestlers — from Rajah of Kola. 

Armlet engraved, iron gilt ; gold thread, from Gwalior. 

Silver golabas or rosewater bottles, embossed in gold, 
made in Calcutta. 

Silver filigree, worked uterdun, or uter holder. Cuttack 



silver filigree flower-basket. Manufactured by the native 
silversmiths of Cuttack. The holder, or the uterdun, is 
filled with cotton dipped into ottr of roses and placed on 
a table, thus difiusing fragrance througliout the room. 

Silver goojrec ; punchum and miiUs ; pair of silver 
pyjore ; mulls ; bottles, for rosewater ; silver mulls j uter 
stand ; gold ear-rings, from Calcutta. 

Gold and silver thread from Moorshedabad. 

Gold and sivcr filigree work from Dacca. 

Chain ornaments for the head ; ear-rings ; car orna- 
ments ; neck ornaments ; pendant ; armlets ; ring for the 
thumb, and nose-ring; ornaments for the fei»t; neck- 
chains of gold and silver, such as arc used by the natives 
of the North-west Provinces, and manufactured in the 
city of Delhi. 

JBangles of wliite ivory and red, and of various colours ; 
bangles worked with gold ; buffalo horn, brass-mounted 
clasp ; lac gilt and plain bangles ; bracelets gilt — from 
BengaL 

Hookah bottom in silver; cocoa-nut and silver mounted, 
manufactured in Calcutta. 

Silver flower-cases gilt ; silver filigree worked spice-box, 
from Mirzapore, by Baboo Murhut Parsramgeer. 

Diamond armlet, necklace, and ear-ring ; necklace, with 
a star and emeralds ; string of gold moorkee ; gold beads, 
armlet, and wristlet, &c., from Calcutta, and as worn by 
the better class of native ladies, and manufactured by the 
native silversmiths of Calcutta. 

Gt)ld necklaces and bracelets, made at Agra. 

Silver box, and other articles, from Kajah of TJlwar. 

Necklace of pearls, with diamonds and emeralds ; (ha- 
mond ring, bangles set with jewels; necklace of jewels 
and pearls ; necklace of pearls ; garland of pearls ; arm- 
lets ; ear-rings ; bracelets : uter bottle ; goolabdan for 
rosewater; pandan, spice-stand; plate^ — from llis High- 
ness the Rajah of Dholepore. 

Plato of silver embossed ; goolabdan partly gilt ; silver 
bottle ; drinking mug and cups ; small box, partly gilt ; 
pandan with cover ; flower-pot of silver wire ; 3 dice 
and IG gold draftsmen ; hookah ornamented with gold ; 
glass case, containing a douree or necklace of gold, with two 
pendants ; silver horse stirrups — from Rajah of Jodlipore. 

A necklace of gold, and pair of bracelets inlaid with 
painted and gilt glass in imitation of mosaic, from the 
Rinah of Pertabgurh. 

Silver plate with cover, jar and jug ; silver bottle and 
stopper, ewer, cup, and wash-hand basin — from Maha 
Rajah Goolab Sing of Cushnee. 

Ear ornaments — from Lahore. 

Jasper cups ; crystal cups ; agate cups and jugs — from 
Lahore. 

Crystal arm ornaments ; pot and cover ; jar and cover ; 
jasjxjr boxes, vase, and cup — from Lalioro. 

Tea-pot ; a^te bottle ; jasper cup ; onyx cup ; paper 
weight, crystid; jasper loaf; imitation fish, silver; silver 
covers — from Lahore. 

Pearl necklace, head ornament, bracelets, and diamond 
ring, from Rajah of Pattiala. 

Anklets, silver ; bangles, silver ; ear ornaments, armlets, 
ear-rings ; head ornament ; drinking cup ; enamelled 
silver cup — from Ranee Sookhan of Seharunpore and from 
Kangra. 

Gt)ld moher and other coins; golden necklace, with 
silver chain ; nose rings ; golden ear-rings — ^from NepauL 

Sandal-wood box, containing silver necklace and brace- 
lets ; rings worn round the ankle ; sUver armlet of Bhug^ 
watee ; Nepaul silver coins of one rupee ; of eight annas ; 
four annas ; two annas ; one anna ; half anna ; quarter 
anna ; copper coin, double pie ; copper coin, single pie ; 
copper half piece; copper coin, quarter piece — from 
Nepaid. 

Dhalee or gold necklace ; Isoobangsey necklace ; Bayet 
necklace ; Burmese ear knobs worn by men and women ; 
gold rolled ear knobs and bangles ; silver betel box and 
waterstand, with st^nd; silver spittoon; small basket 
made of silver wire, from Tenasscrim Provhices. 

Male and female car ornaments, from Assam^ such «a 



[OpFJCIAL IlLUBTBATET) Ca TALOnFF..] 



^y. 



920 



EAST INDIES. 



[Colonies and 



are worn by the Bmmese and manufactared in the Tenaa- 
serim provinces. 

Golahdan with plates, one pair (Bao of Cutch). These 
are made in Cutch, and are specimens of what is called 
the Cutch silrer-work in Bombay. 

Necklaces and bracelets, from Foona. 

Beads, from Guzerat. 

Bracelets, agates, &c. ; brooches of several kinds of 
stones ; buttons, shanked ; buttons, not shanked ; neck- 
laces ; beads ; brooches plain, of agate, bloodstone ; but- 
tons and studs, not shanked — ^from Ahmedabad. 

€K)urd snuff-boxes, mounted with gold and silver — ^from 
Scinde. 

Specimens of gdt vrire in its different stages, when under 
pre{)aration for the manufacturing of the Booihanpore 
fabrics. 

For the description of this process, see the foUowing 
paragraphs, with which a sketch was furnished by B. N. 
Hamilton, Esq., resident at Indore, before whom the 
specimens forwarded were prepared : — 

Par. 4 — No. 1 is the silver as it is turned out of the 
furnace into a mould. The silver put into the crucible 
was 62 rupees of the ordinary local currency. The crucible 
No. 1 was formed of clay taken out of the small river 
" Panderal" which runs into the " Taptee" on the western 
aide of the city of Boorhanpore. The furnace was formed 
of four common bricks laid on the earthen floor, a layer of 
charcoal placed at the bottom ; on this the crucible, which 
was covered over entirely with charcoal, fanned by a hand 
punkha, a square bit of mat of four by nine inches, to in- 
crease the heat, and were occasionally thrown into the fire 
in small quantities ; and in forty-seven minutes the silver 
was in a fluid state ready to pour into a mould, from 
which the specimen No. 1 was turned out. 

5. — No. 2 is a mould of silver beaten out and rounded, 
after which it is slightly filed, as shown, to allow the gold 
to adhere; this is simply washed in water, then weU 
rubbed with a fresh^sut lime, and then washed in lime- 
juice and water; it is then moderately warmed, after 
which the gold No. 8 is folded over it, after which the bar 
is put into the fire, warmed, and then beaten with a ham- 
mer, and becomes as shown in specimen No. 4. 

6. — Specimen No. 8 is the gold : before being put upon 
the silver bar No, 2, it is well washed with fresh lime-juice 
and water, and then boiled iii this liquor ; on being taken 
out it is warm, and easily folded on the silver bar No. 2. 

7. — This is the entire process of plating the gold : after 
this the spechnen No. 4 is placed opposite to one of the 
holes in the steel plate B (vide drawing), a small end, 
about three quarters of an inch, being left of the silver, 
on which the iron nipper (D) is fastened ; the bar then is 
drawn through the plate B, until it assumes the sizes in 
specimens No. 3, and No. 6 is the last process in the 
workshop, before it is made over to the manufiicturers. 

8. — The manufacturers have still further to reduce the 
wire, which is done in a similar maimer, only that instead 
of a windlass, two reels moving on pivots are substituted ; 
the gold thread being wound off, one then passing through 
apertures in a steel plate of very small dimensions, and 
being wound on another reel, both are worked at once by 
one man, sitting, and by his hand giving velocity to either 
as may be requisite. 

Specimen No. 7 is the gold thread on a reel, after 
having gone through the above process ; it is flattened 
with a hammer, and becomes specimen No. 8, which is 
the identical bar (No. 4), aft«r it has gone through every 
process, and is ready to be united with the sdk (specimen 
Nos. 9 and 10). This is a simple process , a spindle of 
silk, No. 9, and a spindle of gold. No. 8, are taken bv a 
man, and passed over a hook in a beam about six feet 
from the ground. Under this the man sits : he first twists 
the silk spindle by rubbing it along the calf of the leg (on 
which is a leather gaiter as a guard), and then the gold 
spindle ; when both are in full spin, he regulates the gold 
by letting it run through the fingers of the left hand 
whilst keeping up the spinning of each reel, as necessary, 
with his left, as above described. 



10. — Specimen No. 11 is the silk and gold thread as 
used in the manufacture of brocade and tissues, specimens 
of which I have already sent to you. 

11. — The cost of each specimen is annexed, and tho 
value of the skein of gold thread, ready for use, is one 
rupee ten annas, and measures 200 yards of Boorhanpore 
measure. 

12. — The cost of the labour of workmen in preparing 
these specimens was seven rupees, the profits one per 
cent., and the batta, or exchange from Boorhanpore to 
Company's rupees, 5 per cent. ; the total value or cost of 
these specimens, including workmen's labour, profit, and 
batta, was 443 rupees. 



Bufialo-hom snuff-box inlaid with metal, from Yellore. 

Gold rose chain, from Trichinopoly. 

Gk>ld ear-rings, worn bv native females, Nair caste ; gold 
necklaces, worn by females of Malabar, Chuckur Mala, 
Elka Thali, and Valia Moodhunn ; gold bangles, worn by 
males and females of Malabar, Latha Vale, and Boobum 
Vala; the same, worn by females of Malabar on the 
ankles ; small knife, with pinchbeck and gold handle — 
from CaUcut. 

Gold and silver girdles and silver spice-case, from 
Yizianaerum. 

Femiue ornaments (two sets) ; neck, ear, and nose orna- 
ments; Moodoo bangles; gold and silver inlaid Nair 
knives ; silver ornaments, &c. — from Travancore. 

Bangles ; kab ring and cockatoo chain ; finger rings ; 
seal ring — from Celebes. 

Gt>ld ornament worn by Malay women of rank as 
£Eutcning for waist-belt, from Singapore. 

Bundle of brass and pewter jewellery worn by natives 
of lower order in Bengal. 

Model in glass of the great diamond in the possession 
of the Nizam ; description by Henry Piddington, Curator, 
Museum Economic Geology, Calcutta : — 

" About twelve or fourteen years ago a large diamond 
was foimd in the Nizam's country under cireimistances of 
rather a curious nature. The model now shown is the 
model of a part only, a piece having been chipped off, 
which after passing through many hands, was purchased 
by a native banker for 70,000 rupees. 

" The larger piece, as represented by the model, is in 
the possession of his highness the Nizam, and at the time 
of discovery was exhibited to many Euroi>ean gentlemen. 

" The manner in which this diamond was originally 
found, may bo considered interesting. It was first seen 
in the hands of a native chUd, who was playing with it, 
of coiu^e ignorant of its value. On eh/ht annas being 
offered for wliat the poor people considered as a meri^ 
stone, their suspicion was excited, which led ultimately to 
the discovery of the bright stone being a real diamond." 

" The size of the stone exactly taken by callipers, from 
the leaden model, is as follows : — 

Inches. 

Length 2"48 

Greatest breadth 1*35 

Average thickness .... 092 

" I have had now exact models cut in glass from the 
leaden one exhibited at the meeting, and 1 find that 

Grains. 
Their absolute weight is . 1,164 50 
Their specific gravity . . 3 70 

" Now according to various authorities we have for the 
specific gravity of the diamond — 

Ure 3-53 

Brewster, colourless .... 3o2 

„ orange 3"55 

Jameson, 12 authorities, mean . 3*52 

Mean .... 352 
" And hence assuming oiu* model to be exact (nnd it is 
very nearly so), we have by a simple proportion not quite 
1,108 grains for the actual weight of the Nizam's 
diamond. 

'* This is equal to 277 carats of weight for the rough 




tts. 



SOFA, or KATIVE PESION AND EXECUTION. INRIA. 





jARViS 



n. 



apfiClMEN OF IWBIABT CARVDJQ, 



PEPENDESCIE8.J 



EAST INDIES. 



921 



diamond, and as the rongli stones are asnally taken to 
give but one-half of their weight when cut and polished, 
it would allow 1384 carats, or a weight between the Pitt 
(or Regent) diamond (196j carat«), and that of the Grand 
Duke of Tuscany (139 carats), for it in its present condi- 
tion ; and if we tiike it that one-eighth of what it would 
be when polished was taken off with the splinter sold to 
tlie natire, as related bj Captain Fitzgeralo, we shall then 
liare 155| carats for tna poasible waght of it, if it had 
been cut and polished entire ; which would then place it 
a« to weight b ct w e cu the Tuscan and the great Kussian 
diamond of 196 cumts, which last is well known to be an 
Indian stone.* 

** We are not infimned if this stone is considered as 
likely to be one of pure water, which can only bo ascer- 
tain^ by poKshing it, though we know that the natives 
of India, and putunilarlf of the Deccan, are too good 
judgra of diamonds to mistake a topac for one, and it is 
stated that 70^000 rupees haTe been paid for the fragment. 
It therefore certainly adds one extraordinary fact more to 
the his»tory <^ this most wonderful of the gems." 



ClabsXXIV. 

Glass : plain gobleta, mug, glass cup, tumblers, hydraulic 
tt»y, \»rge W^ialf aad pieUa pot, (rom Mirsaporo in the 
Benares diriaion. 

Glass baqgki and ^asa globes silTered inside. Delhi 



Class XXY.^Ctrawtie Mmm/aehuret. 

Jan of glaiad pottery, torn Jessore. 

Assortment of JP^gu jars^as used in the H. C.'s Dispen- 
flUT at Odcutta. 

two hrgd Pcga jart, from Houlmein. 

Specimens of gluBed potteiy, such as used in the H. C.'s 
Dijipensaij ainoe IMl, when they were first introduced 
bf the then ftflkiating bead of the department, for packing 
medicines free from add or corrosiTe properties. 

Drinking cu{M, with ooFers; tumbien, with handles; 
feaeek for sprinkling rosewater and distributing yam; 
cups ; hookah, called ever fresh ; large hookah, for placing 
on the ground; specimens of earth from which the aboTo 
are manufactured. — Manufactured at Amroha^ district of 
Uoradabad, in Bohilkund. 

Complete aasortment of natire pottery for domestic 
purposes, as used in Calcutta. 

Bread pot; dessert plate j goblet, red and white, 
worked; a <mp, with top, and saucer; mug; different 
sorttf of hookaina; flower pot ; spittoon ; rosewater pot ; 
t«a pot — bum Mtrzspore, diTision Benares. 

G hurrahs, Lookdar, manufactured at Mirzapore. 

Specinens of painted potteiy, from Kotah. 

Specimens of Bhagulpore pottery. 



Specimens of Sewan potteiy. Patna. 

Soraheea, lam ana small; metredar:*; hookahs; 
a^zumhs; goflaases; gahrees; abgurrahs; chillums; 
^urpowa — from Aximguni. 

Pieces of earthenware, from Lahore. 

Kaithen goblet paintod in gold and flowers at Hydera- 
^^. Major Moon. 

Impnnred pottoy from Madras, made by natives under 
the gupcrint<ndcpce of Dr. Ilunter. 

Pottery (Ahmedabatl, two boxes). This arrived just 
in time to he shipped, and was not examined by the Bom- 
^v Committee^ while the pottery from Ahmednuggar 
arrived too late to be shipped. 



CLJMXXVl.—I\nmUure and Upholstery. 

RtjiI bedstead, with silk and velvet covering, and velvet 
n.attn-4« for the same, from Deo Xaryn Siug of Benares. 

•TV Krih i-Koor, anoit, wdithed 800 cants, but by cuttinj? wm 
KMwej to trt ctfits. Its vmlue is perhspa two mlllioiu iterliii;. 



Bedstead of silver enamelled, with Cashmere shawl 
hangings, complete, with pillows, &c., from Malia Kajah 
Goolab Sing of Cadliuit*re. 

Ottooah, or curtains for lM?ds, and door chicks. BiUnboc - 
reed chairs. Katan moralis. Largo pahuvra and (tlier 
fans. Sittul puttee mats, verj- fine. (See also'Class XXIX.) 

Papier-mach^ inkstand with tray, from Coslimere and 
Bejnour, near Bohilkund. 

A slab of alabaster from Nincvoh formed into a table, 
by J. Pulman, at tlie India IIouso, exhibited bv Lieut.-Col. 
Sykes. 

Ivory chairs, presented by the Rajah of Vizianagrom. 

Blackwood earved couches, whole and half backed, wit -i 
springs and yellow silk damask ; blackwood chiflbnniere, 
bookcases, prie-dieu cliairs, with spring cushions and 
damask silk, large size flower stands, Imndsomo pier 
tables, and side stands; sandal- wood and ebony- wood 
work stands, with Bombay inlaid top ; work-table ; chess- 
table — from Bombay. 

Bombay furniture. The blackwood of wliich this is 
made comes from the western part of India ; the damask 
silk from England. Among the pieces will be found two 
work-stands, the tops of which are of Bombay inlaid work, 
one with aandal-wood, the other with ebony stands. 
Blackwood is yielded by Dalbergia latifoUa, 

Octagon and square marble chess-table, inlaid with 
aeatcs at Agra. The carved ebony stands by Messrs. 
Shem-ood, of Calcutta. 

A square marble chesA-l)oard paintcfl in imitation of 
inlaid work. W. II. Tyler, Esq. 

Two screens, carved in ebouv, by Moargapa Achary, a 
native carpenter of Madras, witliout any European assist- 
ance.— Exhibited by Mrs. B. Key. 

Candelabra and bookcase; work-table and tea-caddy. 
Exhibited by D. Pugh, Esq., Madras. 

Two marble couchi's and cliairs, of Bajpootana marble, 
with open lattice-worked backs aud sides. Presented by 
Rajah Anund Nath Roy of Nattore. 

A flower-stand carved in ebony. Exhibited by the Rev, 
W. Antrobus, Acton. 



Class XXTII. — Manufactures in Mineral Sulstances. 

Numerous cornelian ornaments in agate, Ac., from 
Ahnicdabnd. 

Polished variegated marble spccbnens, from j\ jmere and 
Assam. 

Lattice-work in black and white marble, from Boondce. 
Two smaller from Ulwur. 

Two lattice-work screens, carved in stone, from Mirza- 
pore. 

Sculptured figures in Rajpoot ana marble, from »Tc}-pore. 

Plates and cups of JesselmtTe brecviated and variegated 
green marbles, from the Rajah of JeBselmere. 

Stone plates and cups, pan, dish, and inkstand, from 
Monghir. 

Stone cups and trays, from Patna. 

Numerous specimens of cups, bottles, floating pwans, 
and flsh, from the Rajah of Jodhpore. 

Marble ornaments and bead?, from Boondee. 

Stone figures, from Jeypon*. 

Stone knife handles, from the Rajah of Ulwar. 

Cornelian knife handles cut by natives in Calcutta. 

Marble inlaid inkstands, card trays, paper weights, and 
paper knives, from Agra. 

Mosaics and inlaid works: — Chessboards, inlaid with 
agates. Marble painted in imitation of mosaic work. 
Marble inkstands and paper knives inlaid. Card trays. 
Paper presses. The inlaid marble work is only done at 
Agra in the north-western provinces of Bengal. 

A chessboard, and marble paper presses, painted in 
imitation of mosaic work. 

Set of ogate and cornelian chessmen, exliihitcd by Lieut.- 
Colonel Sykes. 

Screens carved in stone and Rajpootana marble by 
natives. 



EAST TKDTES. 



Ct..VBS XXVni, — Manti/actntet from Animal or Vege- 
iatite SubstaaceSf not being MTOfea, felted^ or included 
in other teeiioi*^. 

Manufacture* /rom Gutia Percka, 
Splints, from 8in|^poro: — Gutta percbil splinta, for 
Betting broken limbs, 

Manufoctnres from laiouk'houc. (Sec CTaas IT.) 

MaHufttctureg from Ivory ^ Horn, Shelly Coeoa-ntti, and 
Pith. 

Articles tnit out of irorj-, from Berbatnpope i^-Set of 
cheesnivDj carved from ilic drawings* in Lavunrtt Nine- 
Toli; Hephunts wiili umbarw, ehurjama, bowduhj gudtlw, 
uTid plain ; siimll ekpliant with umbaree j ekpluint's 
btud i lirahiiiiuj bidl nnd cow ; ciunt'l witli sadtUc- 
cdotli ; camtl, plain; tigt^r ; proet^siion of a native priuec"; 
■ttttc-brtrgej carringc called *' ckka j" rart j imtiTe tlaucc j 
puKzlcs of Twrioua eorls, and cups and bfll!--^ ; one 
hundiHHl 8ct of i*t4oiu\'tl and pLtiii lt?( ttTs ; carved boi ; 
sfl of ivorjr workmen j tbe Juggodhatree ; Jugj^enmntli 
Ciir J doorgtth ; kali ; group of priiioiierH ; t<'ii einglo 
iiguros :— water-carrier, fivo beggai-s, old Brahmin, nHli^i* 
v'um^ fi.HlicrnmUj and Slidiomcdan* A Hcraichcr j ivoij 
boi ; silk -winders -, bullock -cart j walking-stick. 

UtiniU'tH? carved ehc.^sinen. 

lukstuud ; work-boxes j two Irays and stands, with 
Hcis54jr5», knife, pen, and foUcr j twu pen (myt*, with 
knife, Rcissors, pen, and folderj a wldsk ; letter-liolLkT ; 
large »nd ^niidl pinenjiliioniii ; egg-cups; ivorv loortiir; 
BUulT-boxci* \ fan j looking-glad^ iiud case — froiu Lahore. 

Ivor^ elcnhaut ; ivoi^' horges ; ivor^ cauiclopard ; bison- 
bom luwirdj ivory images of Kiittita ^ very »mull ivory 
r It'phant J very minute ivorj' elcpbunt, from Travjiu- 

COPC. 

Slu'll of a pea containing an ixory ekpUant, from 
Cidiiot. 

Ivorj^ bnw^clcts. Tlicse, which are much m orn by tlie 
WOT1ICI1 of Cntcb and Gujcitit, are made out of ivory 
bpoiigbt fnju^ Africa. 

An ivory walking- stick with gold ring, mauufatrturcd 
ill tlie domiiiion* of If. H. the Mabarajah of Jodhpore. 

Scmtcher nnd combs of ivory. 

CVibbflge-boanl, iiuide of ivory and aiuidal-wood, mauu- 
fuctnred in CaJcutta. 

Ljuliv*' ivory flowered work-boi, an ivory' fiin^ a knife, 
and chopitticke*- — From tbo Rajuh of Ncpaid, 

An ivory chowrie, manufatturiHl in the dorniniouA of 
II. U. the Mftluirajab of Jarlbpoiv. 

An ivory chowric, mamifiicturcd iii tbe vicinity of 
B hurt poor. 

Combs, caned in ivorj-, from tlie diitrict of Bijnoiir, 
Kobilcund. 

Horn omomeuts. Thcac are made at Viziadroog, on 
the Concan coast of tbe Bombay Presidency, llorns 
polisbed. Cheroot c^ase* imd powder boxes. Pedestals 
for omamcnt#. Drinking vesAei Doga. Trays MHip[iorted 
by t igcffl and biilla, Imag© of Gurrood, a servant of the 
Hindoo god Tiabnu. 

J^et of omiiDi0iit», mttde of horn, oonsiBting of chain, 
cny»3^ girdlcj bm^kt and emringe, manufactured at 
Monghy r. 

8bell bmcclcts j cbank shell entire, cut, fliul partiiiUy 
cut ; half-ujoon saw for cutting the &bell*, and complete 
Bet of upparatus uiied by ibc hracclet- makers of Dacca. 
Exhibited by l>r. Wit^e uiid R. II. Mylton, Esq. 

CiK^oii-nut shell small elephant. 

Small pohiibed eocoti-nut snufT-b&x ; bilva-fruit snuIT- 
box. 

Pair of pith figurey^ Ri*jah ami Ranee of Tanjorc, 
carved out of the pith-like stem of ^Eschynomoue a^pera, 
from TincbbiojMly. 

Hal J*; bi^ttlc-covers; glass-corers j Hfe-pTOienrera— made 
from the pitli-like ?ttem of -1^sch>T:ioiiiane a?pi'm. 

Toys of Hedysarum lagenarium, now vEschynomonc 
aspera, Calcut ta. 

See models of temples in pitb, Clans XXX, 

A set of ebony rnnfnn. Tit-^, coiwiating of a ebmn, eroas, 



girdles, bmoelet, and carringi. A mi ditto lacquered. A 
set ditto of ebony — miule in the disiTiet of Monghvr, 

Cjirved cocoii-nut shells, silTcr mounted^ black j and 
without silver mountings black nnd brown, from Trovan* 
core. 

Manufacturer J^om Woody not beinj Farnitaret Btuket* 
iporlc, MafSf ^'e. 

Woods (mffrared at School of Arl.^, Madras. 

CuscU8-bu.«kets. These are from Poona, and are raiitle 
of tbe mot of the Androixigfin muricatiun, and oriia- 
mented %ritb tinwl, and the elytra of a specie* of beetle, 

Gourtl gnuir-lH>xes, Tlie kind used in Sindh and tbe 
eoimtrie* to the northward : they were prepared and orna- 
mented at Kurracbce, 

Flower-holder, paudan, fan, dish-cover, fan for winnow- 
ing grain, baskets, light bolder, |Teai^oc*k toy, made of 
bwnihoo reed in tbe tlivi^iion of Moon»hedabiid. 

Ba«kets> of iofts^ made of split Cahunui Totang in. 
Ciileutta, 

Baskets made at MongbjT, 

Basket oniamented with cowrios, Shc^kaa, or ropes for 
sUi^fvuding pots, &c. 

]^fri(s Miadv from the date and palm trisea, Bengal. 

Table mats made at Calcutta of Phrynitim dicho- 
tonnnn, 

f^cctul pfittee and nnisnud mat?, from Midnapore. 

Lftn?c and smidl floor mata, from Cnleutta. 

AVhite and eolonn'd mats, tW»m district of Patna. 

Cocliin iiiats of dilferent pattenis. 

Palgliat mats, of difleriMit put terns, from S<iutb Malabar. 

Straw mat ft and reed mat, Colicut. 

Katan mat, manufactured at Calcutta of CalAinus 
rotang* 

Btigis mats, Celcljes. Battan mat, Borneo (Banjar 
(Mas.sin). Mat, Borneo Prcjper — sent from »Sinspi|<<^»n". 

Mats, from Malay Peninsula (Pido Aor)^ liiihppine 
Islands, Pido Siantan (Anambas Idej, Malacca, made of 
Banknang or mat material. 

Small artii-lefl, Malacca, Bankuaug. 

Ne«t of nine baaketa, Bawiau, ditto. 

Covert!! for proviaionii, 4c., Borneo, Ban jar, Mft«sin, 
made of pilm leaf. 

Conicnl bats, from PalcTtihiiug and Singapore, 

Speeimcu of basket-work, Buvvian, 

Set of IjaskctHj Singa|>ore. 

Bamboo fans, Bawiau. 

Kopia or IVlusisulman cap, Malacca basket-work. 

A large basket, and several of straw from Calcutta. 

Wlvile and colotired mats from the th.**trict of Patna. 

Sijeeimens of plttite<l i^traw from <titto. 

A large straw basket and 7 smaller, Calcutta. 



XXIX— MlSCKLLJl^EOUB MANUFACTirBBfl, 
(A.) Soajij Co»dte», Ink^ t^'C, 

Bengal native soap. 

Marine sorip, made of eocoa-nut oil and soda. 

Marine soap, made of coeoa-out oil and flodo, from 
Calicut, 

Seabng-wax^ — retl, green, gold-coloured, yellow, and 
black, from Afadras. 

ScaUng-wax of diflerent colours in atieks, from Qimtoor. 

Seahng-wax. This Is made in tbe flout^cm MalimttA 
country at Gokak. 

StcjiVine cantUes, from Bengal — Meaert. Sainte of Cos- 
sapHL»re. 

Full-siz<Hl 0-inch and 6- inch campbomtod wax caiid 
—from Patna. 

Ked cotton for ink, and bottle of rod itik, from Mad 

Bottles of Bengal Ink. 

(B.) Artitlea for Pmonal U4tf^ m Wriilnfj-de^ks^ Work- 
ho3-e»^ tj'e., m Jrortfy Hm'n^ PorcHpiae-quifiy iSandal- 
wood. 
Ivory and sandal-wood writing-desk and euveIo[>e-co*e; 

vandal' wood box; small ivory box lined with eaudal- 



Depesdekcies.] 



EAST INDIES. 



923 



wood ; irory inkstand ; bufialo-hom and ivory writing- 
boxes, lined inside with sandal-wood; buffalo-horn crib- 
bage-board ; ivory work-box lined with sandal-wood ; por- 
capine-quill box lined with sandal- wood; ivory watch- 
stand, with work ; cornelian knife-handles ; ivoiy and 
sandal-wood cribbage-boards ; ivory card-cases with book; 
paper knives ; ivory combs ; ivory dice. Calcutta. 
Box made of cloves. Calcutta. 

Ivory backganunon-board, fluted envelope-case, and 
knittbig-box ; sandal-wood and ivory box ; porcupine- 
quill-box ; white and black elk-horn inkstands ; porcu- 
pine-quill, i^oiT, and buffalo-horn work-box ; white elk- 
bom box ; bunalo-hom box and tea-chest ; sandal- wood 
and ivoiy basket — firom Yizagapatam. 

Porcupine-quill baskets ; box made of bison-horn, con 
tabling chains made of lac, from Yizagapatam. 

Inkstand of buffalo-horn set with porcupine quills, and 
sandal-wood drawers; watch-stand of buffalo-horn and 
sandal-wood; hookah snakes with pipe-sticks; hookah 
pipes. 
Porcupine pen-holders, from Yizianagrum. 
Inkstand of carved ebony; combs of carved ivory — 
from Bijnour, in Bohilkund. 
Sandal-wood box, from Mangalore. 
Backganunon-board chessmen, manufactured at Surat. 
Carved box (Cuteh). This is a specimen of Cutch 
earring. The wood is from Africa. 

Bombay inlaid work. The ivory of which this is prin- 
ripally made is brought from Africa. 

Portfolio, netting-box, basket, needle-case, envelope- 
cue, pen-stand, paper-stand, large box, and inkstand. 

Bound box, turned. This is not lacquered, but polished; 
it is made of kao-wood. 

Wooden boxes turned, and lacquered with various 
ook>ars, chiefly at Hydrabad, in Sindh. 

Wooden combs, from Sindh. These are made of kao 
wood, a species of olive from Beloochistan. 

Sandal-wood box carved, sandal-wood box plain — made 
afcCakrutta. 

Inkstand, made of carved ebony, manufactured at 
Bijnour in the Division of Bohilkund. 
A lacquered box, made at Bareilly in Bohilkund. 
Sandal-wood box, and box made of Sissoo-wood — made 
St Nepal, and contributed by the Rajah of Nepal. 

An assortment of Burmah boxes, from the Tenasserim 
Provinces. 
Shan laoqnered boxes — Mr. W. Norria. 
Sin boxes, Sumatra Palembang — previous to undergoing 
the process of lacquering, lacquered plain, and flowered 
and completed. 
Sin boxes, of Eayu Buka — ^previous to being lacquered, 
L and lacquered and completed. 
' Writing box, Sumatra Palerabang. 

Pyramidal boxes, and small lacquered boxes, Sumatra 
Palembang. 
Lacquered water dippers, Sumatra Palembang. 
Salver or tray, Singapore, formed in the jungle by 
Malay woodmen, who bring them into town for sale as 
icon as a sufficient number is collected. Cost 5d. each. 

Salver or sweetmeat trays, Siunatra Palembang — as cut 
from the forest- tree previous to being smoothed and 
lacquered, partly lacquered, and completed. 

Covers for dishes, Borneo (interior of Banjarmassin, 
8. C.) The ornamental work closely resembles that of the 
natives of Ceram, but the shell-work is not so fine. 

Set of boxes, fitting one within the other, Borneo 
(EoU Ringin or Waringin, S. C.) 

Lid of a box, made at Ceram, in the Malacca islands. 
Thi* manufacture has recently excited a certain degree of 
tLt«r»t, from the close resemblance it bears to the oma- 
nrntal works of the North American Indians. 
Set of Ceram boxes. 

Ciear-case, from the Celebes, manu&ctured from Pan- 
daocu leaf by natives of the interior. 

Kopia, or skuU-cap, from the Celebes. Pandan leaf, 
Tom bv the Mussulman inhabitants. 

OjcM-bonO, from Pinang, inlaid with specimens of 
omamatal woods. 



Bugis Kapok, from Celebes. 

Clove model, Amboyna. Model of an orang baai, or 
state barge, made of cloves by natives of Amboyna. 
Flower-basket, made of cloves by natives of Amboyna. 
Imitation tea service, made of cloves by natives of 
Amboj-na, presented by Robert Bain, Esq. 

(C.) Imitation Fruits and Flowers, 

Artificial fruits and vegetables. These were manu- 
factured at Gokak, in the Belgaum Collectoratc, southern 
Mahratta country : they are only made to order, and do 
not form an article of export. 

1. Custard apples {Annona squamosa). 2. Pompalmose 
{Citrus decumana). 3. Jack fruits (^rfocarpiM). 4. Pine 
apples {Bromelia ananas). 5. Pomegranates (Punica 
granatum). 6. Bamphids or custard apples (large). 7. 
Citrons {Citrus medico). 8. Figs {Ficus carica). 9. 
Mangoes {Martgifera indica). 10. Plantains {Musa sa- 
pienium). 11, Oranges {Citrus aurantium). 12. Limes 
{Citrus limetta). 13. Q\m\9M {Psidium pyriferum). 14. 
Jambool {Eugenia jambolana). 15. Wood apples {Fe- 
ronia elephantum). 16. Water melons {Cucumis citrul* 
lus). 17. Sugar-cane sticks {Saccharum qfficinarum). 
18. Bere berries {Zizyphusjvjuba). 19. Tamarinds {To* 
marindus). 20. Pumpkins {Cucurbiia). 21. Snake-gourds 
{Cucumis sp.). 22. Tooraees {Cucumis sp.). 23. Seoga* 
peds. 24. Kuraslas. 25. Bhendees {Hibiscus longtfo- 
lius). 26. Cucumbers {Cucumis). 27. Brinjals {Solanum 
melongena). 28. Onions with leaves {Allium cepa). 29. 
Sweet potatoes {Batatas edulis). 80. Chillies, foreign 
(Capsicum). 31. ChiUies, country. 

Imitation fruits and flowers. — Lotus flowers, water- 
lilies, white and pink; parakai; pccchengai; ripe and 
green chillies ; padralengai ; cadju fruits ; panechakai ; 
bilimbee ; brinjals, round and long ; betel-nuts, ripe ; 
pomegranate fruits ; rose-apples ; codimibooly fruita ; 
country gooseberries; chollum bunches ; bandicays; Jack- 
fruit in miniature ; pine-apple ; mangoes ; green and ripe 
plantain ; Guava fruit ; Guava green — from Travancore. 

Lotus flower, made of sandal-wood, from Calicut. 

Imitation fruits. — Walnuts, and pieces of the kernel ; 
almonds and kernels ; dates, pistachios ; betel-nut s in their 
prepared state — from Nawab of Bampore, in Bohilkund. 

(D.) Togs, Beads, Puzzles. 

Specimens of toys in ivory, contributed by the Rajah of 
Jodhpore. 

Toys in common use in BengaL 

Merry-go-round, from Bengal. 

Toys in wood (Surat) ; but when tliey reached the com- 
mittee, were foimd to bo of so inferior a kind that they 
were re-sold. 

Malay puzzles. Two Malay puzzles in bottles. 

Strings of Brahmins' beads, made of the seeds of 
Eleocarpus ganitrus, from Bengal. 

Necklaces and bracelets. These arc made at Poona, 
and stated to bo composed of the dust of sandal-wooil 
mixed with gimi. 

Beads (Gujerath). See Class 1. 

Oanies. 
Boxes of gungalah or packs of cartls. 
Chowpan board, contributed by the Rajah of Jodhpore. 

Lac Ware. 

Lac ware. — Goblet, varnished ; largo and small pots ; a 
kind of mug. Wood ware. — Bottle pot ; largo and small 
cups ; small water-pot j pot for vermilion ; plates and 
toys — from Mirzapore. 

Lacquered toys, and lac ornaments. 

Specimens of sand with which lac grindstones are made; 
corundum stones, which, being pulverized, are used in 
making lac grindstones ; lac grindstone complete — from 
Coimbatore. 

Ornaments from dried fruits of cocoa-nut, meant to re- 
present the garlands given to visitors of distinction on 
visits to the palace, worn by ladies at a particular festival 
— from Tanjore. 



924 



EAST INDIES. 



[C0IX)KIE8 AND 



Doylejs made by the ladiee of the feadal Mahratta 
family of Anuria, reduced to dependence on their industry 
by political changes, and chiefly through the suppression 
of piracy on the western coast of India. — J. ubapman, 

Esq. 

(Q.) Fans, Umbrellas, Parasols, Chcwrees, and Walking' 
sticks. 

Fan with gold handle, khus khus*ka pnnkah, made of 
khus-khos grass (Andropogon nmrioatem), which, when 
wetted, emits a fine fragrance. — Contributed by H. H. the 
Rajah of Kota. 

Sandal-wood fans. 

Large and hand-fims of Palmyra leaf.— Bengal 

A fan from the Rajah of Pattiala. 

A large and two small fans with plated handle, from 
Calcutta. 

Fans from the states of the Rajah of Jodhpore. 

A state fan, with silver handle, frt>m Moorshedabad. 

Fan of China beads and pearls. — Bdhi 

State umbrella, with silver stick, from Moorshedabad. 
(See accompanying Plato.) 

An ornamented and gold embroidered state parasol 
with silver stick — from Moorshedabad. 

Assortment of Bengalee chattahs, used by natrres 
during rainy season. 

Soorooj mookee, a native parasol, with silver top and 
handle. Gk>ld umbrella, witn silver top and handle. — 
Contributed by the RajsJi of Dholepore. 

Assamese umbrellas, used by nobility; cane fans ; cane 
mat, for noblemen to sit on ; peacock-feather fans, used 
by natives of rank ; luggage baskets, used for carrying 
cloths. — ^Assam. 

An umbrella made of painted doth. A small umbrella. 
— rManufactured at Calcutta. 

Four bamboo walking-sticks, gold and silver mounted, 
contributed by the Rajah of Ulwar. 

A painted stick with silver top, contributed by the 
Rajah of Kissenghur. 

Walking-sticks of sorts, made at Calcutta and Cochin. 

Betel-nut sticks. 

Sandal-wood whisk, from Calicut. 

Sandal-wood and ivory chowrocs, or whisks, from the 
Rajah of Bliurtpore. 

Two chowrees, of the tail of the Yak {Bos grunniens), 
with silver handles — from the Rajah of Ulwar. 

Hookahs and Hookah Snakes, 

Cocoa-nut and lac hookahs — from Bengal 

Hookah snake with nicha ; snake-cover for the liookah, 
with a rosette to fasten to the mouth-pieoe ; hookah 
snakes, ^-ith pipe-sticks ; hookah pipe, stick, &c. 

Selim for smoking, sent from Singapore. 

Singpoo pipe for smoking opium ; box of pipes. 

Boots and Shoes, <^c. 

Shoes worked with gold and silver. 

Gold-worked shoes and sHppers, for females ; silver- 
worked slippers ; gold-worked shoes, for men and children ; 
Bengalee shoes with gold and silver ; Bengalee country 
leather; Bengalee writing red leather; Bengalee yellow ; 
biifralo-hom combs. 

Seindean boots and shoes, from H. H. Meer Ali Morad 
of Khyrpoor. 

Looking-glass and case, from the Ranee Sookhan of 
Seharunpore. 

(TI.) Fishing Tackle of all kinds. 

Nets — SekaoUes — made at Calcutta. 

Floating net, Singapore, employed in taking a smaU 
kind of herring in the neighbouring strait. The twine is 
of cotton, manufactured in Java. 

Floating net. The twine of this net is made from the 
rami fibre, Urtica nivea. (See Class IV.) 

Casting net. The thread made m Java from native 
cotton. 



Seine net. Twine of rami fibre. 
Fishing lines. Twine of rami fibre. 
Fbhing lines. Twine made of Java cotton thread, 
tanned with the frmt of the mangrove. 

Descriptiim qf Fishing in Bombag Harbour and its 
Vicimtg. 
Model of stake-net fishing, with fishing-nets used in 
Bombay. 

1 If new stakes are to be sunk, a space of 2 fathoms 
must be reserved for the passage of boats on each side of 
the compartment. Fishing in stakes is always within 
10 fiiithoms of water ; stakes are made of heddy wood in 
three or four pieces. If a ooooa-nut tree, one answers the 
purpose. In some oases a piece is added to it, if the tree 
IS a short one. A stake is sunk about 3 fiiithoms in mud ; 
it is generally 15 fathoms long, 8 of which are buried in 
the mud, 10 in water, and about 2 over the surface. On 
the occasion of sinking a stake, two boats are put together 
and anchored fore and aft, with anchors of about 2 cwt. 
each, leaving a space of about a quarter fathom between 
the two, and two cross beams are tied over the boats, in 
order that they may renudn firm and close together, and 
hold the stake between the reserved space, the lower end 
of which (the stake) is let down, tied up with large and 
heavy stones, or anchors of a hirge size. In order to sink 
it below they tie four ropes at the top of the stake, each 
of about 2 or 2^ inches ; these ropes are fastened to the 
masts of the boats with blocks, and some of the people in 
the boats (who are generally between 30 and 40) pull 
the stake down by standing over the fore parts of the 
boats, and let it into the water in a straight Ime with the 
others, through the space allotted for that puroose, when 
it is sunk in the manner above represented. This opera- 
tion is performed when there is full tide; and as the 
stake is held between the two boats, tied up with the 
ropes above aUuded to, it is driven down by the force of 
the boats, which sink also as much as the water ; so soon 
as the ropes become slack they are made fiist over and 
over. 

2 The bark of the tree (Babal bark), used in giving 
colour to the net, accompanies this bearing, and even 
number (No. 2). A new net, prior to being used, must be 
boiled in water in copper pots, with chuiiam or lime, for 
two days and two nights, and then it may bo used for 
three days, when it should be washed and coloured. All 
the nets, it may be understood, are made of twine, with 
the exception of the Wavree net, which is made of 
thread. 

3 Each net, called dole net, is 22 fathoms long, 15 
broad, and is made of the slia})e of a bag, but wide at tlio 
mouth (15 fathoms), and narrow at the end (about 2 
fathoms), meshes 8 inches wide at the mouth, and re- 
duced in proportion, so as to be lialf an inch wide at tlie 
end. On throwing it into tlie sea, the mouth on both 
sides is fastened to the stakes at the distance of 10 fathoms 
each, winch is the space reserved between the stakes. 
Each side is fastened to a ring put on the stake, the upper 
edge is held up, and the lower no sooner is tied to the 
rmg than it goes down as far as 8 fathoms, by the weight 
of a stone which is kept always tied up to the girth. A 
line across is also tied up between the two stakes, to 
which the upper edge of the net is tied just in the middle, 
in order that it may not remain loose and obstruct the 
entry of the fish. It may be stated that before throwing 
the net into the sea, its floating end is tied up and secured 
fast to prevent the escape of the fish. Each boat carries 
four or five nets, and sometimes three, but not more than 
five under any circumstances. On the occasion of fish- 
ing, when there is full tide, the mouth of tlie net is kept 
on the side of the harbour, in order that, on the tide re- 
ceding, the fish going out may enter the not, and through 
the strength of the current nm down to the end of the 
net, where all the fish join together ; and vice versd is the 
case on the occasion of the ingress of the water. On 
puUing the net, they draw the lower end up, and after 
taking it on board they open the end and draw the fish 



DeP£>'D&N'CIE8.] 



EAST INDIES. 



925 



out. The fishing operation by the stakes commences by 
the 10th of the moon, and hists until the 20th, when again 
by the 26th it reoommenoes, which List« until the 5th of 
the moon, thus the operation is carried on twice in a 
month ; each day after fishing, the net is brought home, 
washed or dipped onoe or twice in salt water, and exposed 
to air for a little while, and taken badL a^^ain for fiishing. 
During the ne^>-tide8, when the operation ceases, the 
nets are brought home, washed thoroughly in sweet water, 
coloured if necessary, and dried in the sun. Unless this 
be done, the fish would not fiiU in, but keep afar ofi*, from 
the nets having become ofiensive. The meshes are wide 
St the mouth, and narrow at the end. The fish generally 
caught are mostly bomloes and prawns, large and small 
coorrins, pomphlets, soles, shrimps, and many other sorts 
of small fish, sold in Bombay Bazaar. Each stake made 
of wood costs 40 rupees, and if ooooa-nut tree 15 rupees ; 
the former is durable, and can last about eight years, and 
the Litter three or four years only. Each dole-net costs 
40 rupees. 

4 The stakes are generally removed from the sea in the 
month of May, and fixed again in the month of October, 
because they are subject to beine broken during the 
aoath-west monsoon; but those that are fixed in the 
river, or inner harbour, are allowed to remain throughout 
the year. No implements or instruments are used, such 
Bs weapons, &c., for killing and taking the fish out of the 
net. They are generally taken out hr bamboo baskets, 
Urge and small, such as are required and suited to the 
purpose, the cost of which varies from one to two annas 
each. 

5 If in case a large fish, such as a shark or seal fish, 
enter a net, they devour small fish, and tear o£f and de- 
stroy the net. In this case it cannot be mended by 
others but those that are well versed in its making. K 
in mending a mesh is made larger or smaller than the 
usual proportion, it gives way soon again in the same 
place m>m straining. Thus the information relative to 
fishing by stakes is complete, so far as the mode generally 
observed by the fishermen of Worlee, Mahim, Dharawee, 
and Scion ; but the fishermen of Bombay, who fish in 12 
fitboms water, have their stakes 19 fathoms long ; they 
are sunk in proportion to about 3 feet in mud, 12 in 
vater, and 4 above the surfiice. Their net is 25 fathoms 
long, wide at tlie mouth 20 fathoms, on each side 10 
Citiioms, and applied in the space of 14 fathoms, which 
i« the width or space reserved between the two stakes. 
Kaeh stake is made of four pieces of wood, cost about 
6(> rupfe«, and the cost of the net is 80 rupees. Each 
boat carries two nets only; meshes at the mouth 12 inches 
vide, and at the end half an inch. 

6 In dole fishing at Bombay and Sewree they generally 
take two nets in a boat, a nakhwa, or the owner, provides 
a boat with sails, oars, ropes, &c., complete, as also the 
itaker*, together with nets, and all other implements re- 
quired for the purpose of fishing ; in fact, he bears all 
the eipenscs connected with it, and in return takes two- 
thirds of the fish obtained, the rest goes to the crew ; but 
if ("oorvin, which is a large and valuable fish, all such fish 
goes to his share, in which the crews are not allowed to 
participate. If any small fish, it is divided in three, two 
part* of it are taken Jby the owner, and one by the crew. 

7 Dole filching of Worlee, Mahim, Dharawee, and Scion 
differs somewhat from the above in respect to distribu- 
tion. They take generally four or five nets in a boat : 
an owner of a boat and net takes four sliarcs, if of a 
not only takes two shares, and each Laacar or crew one 
siiare ; all and eveir sort of fish obtained, whether large 
cr fmah, is included in this distribution, and no excep- 
Xicm made as in the case of Bombay dole. 

8 A paul net is 60 fathoms long and 2 broad. The 
fish caught in this is of several kinds — bing, pomphlets 
»hite, sea-sharks, and several other small sorts of fish, 
»irh the exception of bomloes and prawns. Each boat 
«ratain« ten or twelve men carrying nets at the rate of 
ihret: per head; meshes 5 inches. Each net costs six 
rapecsk This fxcnrsion is cttrried on from the 20th to 



the 8th of the moon, from September to Marcli, between 
15 and 25 fathoms of water outside the harbour. 

9 A pass net is 40 fathoms long and 2 broad. Eadi 
boat contains ten or twelve men, and take nets at the rate 
of three per head. Meshes 6 inches each. Net costs 
58 rupees. The fish obtained is mostly black pomphlets, 
sharks, and a few white pomphlets. The mode of throw- 
ing nets is the same as that of wagra, described in the 
10th paragraph. This fishing is carried on from the 20th 
to the 8th of the moon, during five montlis, from April to 
August, in 15 or 20 fiidioms of water out of harbour. 

10 Nets for deep-water fishing, say between 6 and 8 
fathoms, are called wagra, each 30 fathoms in length and 
2 in breadth. It is let go straight down bdow in the 
water, tied up with a buoy-rope. The fish obtained in 
tliis excursion is large [shir fish], salmon-fish, ooorvin, &e. 
The price of this net is six rupees ; the size of mesh is 7 
inch^. Th^ pull the net into the boat, and draw the fish 
out. This fishing is only during the full tide. Each boat 
takes six or seven men, and the nets are taken at the rate 
of three per head. Each net has a stick interwoven in it 
at the distance of 1^ fathoms, and at the end a stone is 
tied, in order to sink it below. On the occasion of throw- 
ing the nets into the sea they unsail the boat, and tie each 
net with the other, and throw them down altogether, by 
fastening one end to the boat. This fishing is carried on 
generally throughout the year, and obtains generally no 
other fii^ but dadah, and sometimes salmon-fish. — (Skir 
Mahi.) 

11 Arauvass, or salmon-net, is 20 fathoms long and 1^ 
broad. One boat, containing six men, takes from 20 to 
25 nets, and sails about the harbour in the river during 
moonlight nights, and the fish obtained is generally salmon- 
fish, and seldom pomphlets. Meshes 4 inches ; and the 
cost of the net is four rupees. Large canoes also proceed 
on this excursion within the river. During dark nights 
this operation is unproductive, as the fish is not then ob- 
tainable, and therefore they proceed only in moonlight 
nights. It is carried on from November to March. 

12 A peia net is 40 f&thoms long and 1^ broad, thrown 
in \ fathoms of water, and held by three men at each 
end. This excursion is daily and constantly in progress 
at the commencement of tide and ebb tide ; and the 
fish obtained is of small kind, generally mullets, prawns, 
needle-fish, and haddy-fish. Meshes \ inch ; the cost is 
50 rupees. TTiis excursion is carried on tluoughout the 
year. 

13 A weddy net is 5 f&thoms long and 2^ broad. Two 
men are employed fishing, one at each end, and one at- 
tends them with a basket, or shoulder, to pick up fish and 
put them into the basket. The cost of each net is seven 
rupees ; meshes \ of inch. This excursion is made at any 
time of the day or night. The fish caught in this, as in 
the preceding one, called peia net, and the excursion is 
carried on throughout the year. 

14 A waua fishing. In this excursion peia nets are 
used, as many as required to be laid on the space of ground 
wished to occupy for the purpose on shore, say about 
100 fathoms in length. They proceed on this excursion 
when the water is low, and the spot nearly dry, wlien 
they lay down one end of the net over the ground in a 
circuitous manner, and fix sticks about 2 fathoms long 
over it, at a certain distance from each other, and apply 
mud to that part spread on the ground, to prevent its 
floating up and set the upj^er part loose. On the tide 
being mil they go to the spot in a canoe, lift up the other 
part set loose, and fasten it to the sticks, with wliich they 
make a circuitous wall of the net all roimd on three sides 
in the water (the fourth a back), say about 1^ fathoms in 
height, to prevent the return or escape of the fish which 
has gone towards shore on the ebb tide setting in, and 
thus the fish tliat have run down are secured in the spaco 
surrounded ; and on the water being low, they catch the 
fish by hand, and put them into the baskets they carry 
about. In this excursion much fish is canglit of dif- 
ferent descriptions, and particularly when there is mud 
mullet ; but it can be effected only during «Y^v\^-\Adiei& 



92G 



EAST INDIES. 



[Colonies and 



twice in each month, say about four days during each 
spring. Cray-fish, prawns large and small, claps, needle- 
£bh, haddy-fish, &c., are obtained. 

15 A wayree net is 10 fathoms long and 1 broad. The 
fish caught in this are small mullet and haddy-fish within 
the harbour ; meshes 1 inch. They proceed m a canoe 
made of a single timber, which takes three men and eight 
or ten nets. The cost is fixe rupees per net. This fislung 
is carried on in the months of November, December, 
January, and February, during moon-Ught, on the spring- 
tide, in three or four fathoms of water. 

16 A paug net (carp-net) is of the shape of a bugle, li 
£ithoms long, and 3 feet in circumference at the mouth, 
and narrow at the end, where it is completely closed. At 
its mouth small pieces of bad plate are interwoYen at the 
distance of 2 inches, in order to make it weighty, so as to 
go deep. It is thrown in a peculiar way : a man holds it 
on his elbow, and throws it (by spreading its mouth) into 
the water, tying the end with a thin rope to the ynnst of 
his left hand; The fish obtained is wekhroo, shimgalah, 
khufibora, mullet, craid-fish, &c. ; but the quantity ob- 
tained is always small. Meshes 1 inch ; the cost of each 
net is five ruj^ees. This excursion is in about J fiithoms, 
at any time of the day or night, and continued throughout 
the year. 

17 Hook-fishing is within 3 fathoms, either in the river 
or in open sea. It is made by a line about 50 fathoms 
long. A hook, tied to a piece of twine about a foot long, 
is ^tened to the line at the distance of a fathom, and 
thus one line contains 50 hooks ; a prawn, or any other 
small fish, is applied to each hook. Two or three men 
proceed in a canoe : to one end of the line a large piece of 
wood is tied to keep the line floating, which they throw 
in the water, and fasten the other end to the boat. The 
fish obtained are generally large, and of the description 
called shimgalah, wave, wekhroo, samb, skate, and shark. 
The cost of the line, with hooks, &c., complete, is three 
rupees. This fishing is called " khauda." 

18 Dorlee, or hook-fishing, is also in 3 fathoms water, 
either in river or sea, by a line about 25 fathoms long, with 
hooks tied at the distance of about ^ fathoiu each, at the 
end of the line. Tlius one line does not contain more 
than three or four hooks : a prawn, or any other small 
fish, is applied to each hook, and the rest of the line is 
reserved for holding on, and setting loose in the sea as 
much as the fish may struggle and nm along with it. 
This line 1ms a ball of lead at one end, by the weight of 
wliich it goes immediately to the bottom. One man goes 
in a canoe on this excursion, and the fish obtained is 
shimgalah, wekhroo, dhomee, samb, and seldom small 
salmon-fish. The cost of the line, with hooks, &c., com- 
plete, is 8 annas. 

ID The mode of fishing in the adjacent salt-water inlets, 
such as Penn River, Nagotua, Pauwell, Ooruu, Carauja, 
&c., is mostly by " waua," the description of which is given 
in paragraph 14. 

20 There are no pots made for keeping the fish ; but 
the fish are generaUy put and kept in baskets made of 
bamboo ; each basket carries a weight of about 1\ maund, 
and if a larger basket, 3 maunds. Tlie fish is conveyed 
generally on the head, by women belonging to the fishermen. 
A man carries fish, if larger quantity, in two baskets on a 
sling. The baskets used are both large and small, according 
to the size and quantity of fish they may have to convey. 

21 In daldce fisliing, they make use of paul, pass, 
wagra, and rauvass nets. Those of Malum and Worley 
have a particidar way of distributing proceeds amongst 
their crews. Each man takes three nets, and all sucli nets 
as are taken in a boat are tied togetlier with each other 
and thrown into tlie sea. Any fish obtained in such three 
nets belonging to one man is taken by liim alone : liis 
comrades are not allowed to share in it. Every man has 
his special marks to his nets, by wliich they are distin- 
guished and recognised. In fact, the owner of such net as 
may eateli fisli will be benefited alone, and no otliers. 
Tlie owner of the boat is remunerated with fish, at the 
rale of 4 to a cargo of 21. 



22 With the daldee fishing of Bombay harbour the case 
is the reverse of the above. They distribute the prize 
equally amongst them all, without any exception what- 
ever, whether the nets of all be productive or not ; and 
the owner of the boat is remunerated with fish, at the rate 
of 5 to a cargo of 21 . 

23 Bomloes are dried at several places in the vicinity of 
Bombay, and cured with salt. The quantity of fish is es- 
timated to be annually as follows : — 

At Worlee, about ..... 20 lacs. 
At Mahim, Dharawee, and Scion . . 20 „ 



Class XXX. 



Fine Arts, as fab as they come within the liihts 
OF THE Exhibition. 

(A.) Sculpture and Mod^h of Fiffureg. 
Clay figures, manufSsictuped in Kishnaghur, and repre- 
senting the various castes and professions of the Hindoos, 
viz. :— -iSheristadar or head native officer of a court of 
justice ; sirdar-bearer or valet ; chaprassee or messenger ; 
bhistee or water-carrier; brojobassee or armed watchman ; 
sircar or account-keeper ; dak-runner or man who carries 
the Government mail; abdar or man who cools the 
water ; cart with bullocks ; natives of Bengal making 
sugar ; khamar or Bengal blacksmith ; bhiri-wallah or 
native shepherd ; sawyers ; prisoner ; khansamah or 
butler ; kitmutgar or table-servant ; mahter or sweeper ; 
ayah or maid-servant ; woman of Bengal carrying water ; 
Bengal fisherman; Chinaman resident in Calcutta; hookah 
bur(uur ; women cleaning rice ; Bengal shopkeeper weigh- 
ing rice ; Bengal musician playing on the trumpet ; 
Bengal weaver preparing the thread ; Bengal milkman ; 
sweetmeat baker ; Bengal conveyance for women ; wood- 
hoo bahoo or a Hindoo religious mendicant; Bengal 
musician ; massaljee or link-be&rer ; baberchee or cook ; 
durzee or tailor ; syce or groom ; dhai or nurse ; dhobie 
or washerman ; shopuriah or snake-charmer ; woman of 
Bengal spinning ; woman of Bengal cleaning cotton ; old 
Bralimin at his devotions ; pimdit or learned Hindoo ; 
Bengal netmaker ; Indian barber ; mallec or gardener ; 
husbandman ; soonar or goldsmith ; ploughing ; harrow- 
ing ; women grinding rice ; chumar or shoemaker ; mu- 
sician playing on the fiddle ; Bengal potter ; ehowkeedar 
or village watehman ; Bengal musicians playing on the 
drum and cymbals ; Bengal singer ; Bengal woman 
carrying a child ; Bengid baker ; mistree or caq>enter ; 
man preparing cotton ; coolee or Bengal porter ; dawk- 
banghy-burdar or man who carries the post-office parcels; 
fukcer or Mussuhnan rehgious mendicant ; old Bnihmin. 

Models of natives of difTerent castes. These arc nianu- 
feetured at Gokak, in the Belgaiun CoUectorate, and 
Southeni Maliratta country. They are only made to 
order, and do not form an article of export. 

Lobar or blacksmith ; pooraneeh ; Hindoo pattawallah ; 
weaver ; dliobie or washerman ; well and people washing ; 
buffaloe ; Bengal bheestee or water-carrier ; mohar ; Mus- 
mulman woman ; carpenter ; bheestee and bullock ; cot- 
ton printer ; cheeta or hunting leopard and cart ; palan- 
quin with bearers ; potter ; sepoy ; shctsundee ; byrngec 
Wychnew ; byrager sliir ; woman grinding ; byragce with 
dog; Bralimin sirdar; Mahratta sirdar; coombet* and 
bullock ; suwar or horseman ; elephant ; potter with 
wheel ; tailor or durzee ; careom ; sepoy mahrattee ; 
Bralunin ; Brahmin wife and child ; Mussidman 8C|X>y ; 
nurse with child ; banian ; jungiuu ; Moosidman ; brin- 
jaree. 

Model of a Jamma Bundi. Collector making the annual 
jambundi, Dharwar. Everj' caste in tlie Dukkim, togetluT 
with tents, trees, &c. This was made in ])laster at Poena, 
and is presented for eidiibition by Mr. Mansfield of the 
Civil Service. 

Tlie follownig is a description of it : — 

" It represents tlie encampment of a collector whilst 
moWng about on the annual tour through his district. 
His camp is pitched in a Maugoe tope or grove, at a short 



Dependencies.] 



EAST INDIES. 



927 



distance from a small Tillage. A section of the wall or 
fort surromiding the village is exhibited, in the inside of 
which are rows of houses with shops, displaying for sale 
grain, and all kinds of pettj merchandise. A river flows 
bj the outside of the fort, and on the banks of it is 
portrayed that busy scene which is so peculiar to Indian 
life — ^men and women washing cloths, laying them out to 
dry, filling their pit^hcra with water, making their ablu- 
tions, Ac A bridge is thrown across the river, leading 
direct to the door of the fort. In another part are fields 
of standing com, a crop of jowary, and of sugar-cane; 
adjoining them is a thrashing place, where the oxen are 
treading out the com, and the cultivators in a contiguous 
spot winnowing and preparing it for market ; another field 
is being ploughed and prepared for sowing. Next is a 
well with bullocks drawmg water for irrigation with the 
leathern bucket or mot'h. 

** The collector himself is seated inside the double-poled 
tent, and is supposed to be engaged in making the Jumma 
bmidy, or settlement for the current year's revenue. He is 
rarrounded by the manletdar and the other revenue officers 
of the district, with a number of Carkoons seated around. 
A large bodv of ryots is collected at the door of the tent, 
petiUoning for "soot," or remission of part of their revenue 
payments. Group of them are seated hero and there 
roimd the adjoining trees, where they are having their 
petitions written out by the coolkumees or villace account- 
ants. Besides the double-poled tent, there is a beehoba, or 
sleeping tent, and an office rowtee, and in the rear are a 
large lot of rowtees andpalls for the use of the butler, cook, 
and other servants. Tbe horses are picketed at a short 
distance oft, and near them are the camels and bidlock carts 
engaged for the transport of the tents and baggage. There 
are numerous other scenes descriptive of a camp life on 
this bustling, important occasion ; but it would occupy too 
Dodi space to describe them. There are altogether about 
300 figures of all kinds. The tents are maSe of wood, 
with a white cloth covering pasted over them. The temples, 
houses, and section of the village are also cut out of wood 
and coloured ; but all the animals and figures are of the 
Poonah plaster-work. The whole is exhibited on a large 
wooden platform nine feet square. A list of all the 
figures, with the numbers on them, denoting their posit ion 
on the platform, has been enclosed in one of the boxes. 
This will serve as a sort of kev for arranging tlie whole." 

Thirty-five figures in wood from the Bajah of Jodhpore. 

Figures of the principal sects, male and female, at 
Corhm and Travancore, exhibited by T. E. J. Boileau, E^q, 

Model of European court of justice in the provinces, 
made by a native modeller, Jessore. 

Model of a native court of justice in India. 

Model of a silk fectory, by Mr. Cockbum, of Moorshe- 
dahad. 

Model of an indigo factory. 

Messrs. Watson's model of a native oil mill. 

Model of a farm establishment. Java, vi/i Singapore. 

Model of a Burmese house of the higher class. 

Mod^ of a Burmese pagoda, gilt, with images and orna- 
ments. 

Model of a priest's house in Burma. 

Images of Burmese man and woman. 

Image of Qodomah on his earthly throne, as king of 
kings. 

Image of Godomah fisisting for four years protected by 
an enormoua serpent. 

Image of Grodomah's hist appearance on earth. 

Image of Amnondal, brother to Godomah. 

Model of the Churuk Pooja, a rohgious penance prac- 
ti»ed in Bengal. 

Stone sewala or Hindoo temple, from Mirzapore. 

Stone model of Hindoo temple, presented by Baboo 
Futty Xaryn Sing of Benares. 

Model of unfinished roygoponim or entrance to the 
pagoda at Streerungum ; model of Nagasoonim pagoda at 
C</mbQOonum, from Trichinopoly. 

Model in pith of Xultu or ahoiah plant (.Eschynomeno 
•spera), by Lieut-Colonel Bumcy. 



Two smaller figiu^s : Mr. Gandy. 

Painted wooden tray (Khyrpoor). This was sent dow:i 
among the collection of articles forwarded for the Great 
Exhibition by H. H. Meer AU Morad, and has therefore 
been transmitted. It bears a good representation of tho 
manner in which the ceiUngs oi the best houses in Sindli 
are ornamented. 

Stone intagUos : — Gunesh, Burmah, Bishen Daboe, 
Muchk, Kuchk, Barah, Nursmg, Bawon, Pursooram, Ram 
Chunder, Bulram, Boudh, Kulunke, Badha Krisheii, 
Radha of the Sun, Radha of the Moon, Ooma Musheswar, 
Inder Koomaree, Urjoon, Suhden, Bheemsen, Naravan, 
Hunooman, Indrainee, Burhmanee, Roodranee, litalia 
Luchmee, Bhugwatee, Kalce, Koomar, Munjoosrce, Duck- 
hen Kalee, Bulbhuder, Bhvrub, Kal Moorti Bhyrub, 
Mahakal, Singhnce, Bayaghumse, Guroor, Kuwondh, 
Khayah, Goursc — representing the mythology of the 
Nepaulese, exhibited by His Higlmess the Rajah of 
Nepaul. 

Enamelling. 

Enamelling (Cut(!h). This is a small knife, or dagger, 
watered hke a Khorasan blade, which it probably is, tho 
sheath only having been made in Cutch. 

EnamclUng (Sindh). This is a large knife, probably of 
Kliorasan manufacture, with sheaths enamelled in Sindh. 

Enamelling (Khyrpoor). This is another knife similar 
to the foregoing, sent among the collection from H. H. 
Meer Ali Moorad. 

Grold bangles, enamelled. These form part of the col- 
lection from H. H. Meer Ali Moorad, and were not opened. 

Enamelling (Indore). This is called " dasoostare," and 
is manufactured at Jeypore. R. C. Hamilton, Esq. 

Model of a gateway (Cutch) in silver, with toujon and 
bearers. This is a model of the gateway to the palace of 
H. H. the Rao of Cutch at Booj. It was made at Booi. 

Model of a musjed. This is a specimen of one of the 
wooden models for which Almiedabad is famous. It is tho 
property of Mr. Mansfield, of the Bombay Civil Service. 

Model of a chuburdee, or Hindoo cenotaph (Cutch). 
This is made of red wood from Africa. It is 1 foot 3\ inches 
long. Hi inches broad, nnd 10 inches high. 

Model in wood of a Hindoo tcin])le (Cutch). TliLs is 
made of sandal-wood. It is 1 foot 7 inches long, the same 
broad, and 1 foot 1\ inch high. Rao of Cutch. 

CaVigraphtf. 

Persian manuscripts, executed by the Caligrapher to 
the King of Oude. 

Tlie same, executed with the nails of the thumb and 
second finger of the right liand. 

Two specimens of caligraphy in Persian, two ditto in 
Nagrec, and one ditto in Persian (running hand), executed 
at Uhvar, in the States of Rajpootana. 

A highly-ornamented manu8crif>t, in Persian and Guze- 
ratce, containing an address of thanks to Sir Jamsetjee 
Jcejecbhoy, of Bombay, on occasion of his visiting his 
native town of Nowsaree, near Surat, and stating in detail 
the works he had constructed there at his own expense for 
gratuitous public use. The address is signed by two 
thousand persons. De]X)8ite<l (at the request of tlie com- 
mittee of native gentlemen who managed the address), by 
Jevanjee Pestonjee and Rustomjce Viccajee, Esqrs. 

Drawings representing Occupations^ CustomSy <^c. 

Drawings on talc of the servants in North-west Pro- 
vinces, and of the attendants and Indian articles employed 
in the Mahomedan ceremony of the Mohurrum, exhibited 
])y 'vlrs. Royle. 

Drawings on talc of agricultural operations, trades and 
castes, and servants, of southern part of the Peninsula of 
India, exhibited by T. Boileau, Esq. 

Book, containing pahitings, by BiUdeo. 

Water-colour drawing, by a native artist at TTlwar. 

Set of water-colour drawings, representing the process 
of the opiiuu cultivation and manufacture at Patnn. 

Another set, exhibiting the procress of the shell bracelet 
manufactiuv in Dacca. 



Depexdescies.] 



EAST INDIES. 



929 



From the Board of Adminut ration at Lahore, 

H. H. Maharajah €kx>LAB Snfo, of Cashmere. 

H. H. the Eajah of Pattialla. 

The Ra>^ee Sookhax of Sehabuitpobe. 

The Rajah of Mfndotb. 

Major Abbott, Huzarii. 

CotUriimiors in the Bombay Presidency. 

H. H. Meeb Ali Moobad of Khybpoob. 

Rao oe Cttch. 

R. N. C. Hamilton, Esq., Bengal, C. S., Indore. 

W. Mansfield, Esq., C. S. 

H. Reetes, Esq., C. S. 

Br. Stocks, Seinde. 

Dr. Gibson, Botanic (harden, Bopooree. 

Coniributora in the Madras Presidency. 

The Rajah of Tbayancobs. 

The Zamobin of Caucut. 

The Zekevdab of Vizianaobam. 

Nawab Sibuj-al-Moolk of Aubuitoabad. 

G. S. Nabbain, Edq., of Vizagapatam. 

T. L. Blane, Esq., C. S. — Gannon from KumooL 

A Fbeese, Esq., C. S. 

Datid Ptoh, Esq. 

G. F. FiscHBB, Esq., Salem. 

Dr. Wight, Coimbatore. 

Professor J. Ket, Madras. 

Captain H. S. Bubkey. 

AV. BoBiKSOK, Esq., C. S. 

Mrs. BiNNEY Key. 

Mrs. S. GooDSiB. 

Dr. HuKTZB, Madna. 

Lieut.-CoL Tulloch, Commissaiy-GcncraL 

Major-General Cullsv, Travancore. 

Major SiciTH, M. E. 

Uptain W. H. HoBSLET. 

Captain A. Obb, M. E. 

& E. MjUTRBSy Esq. 

J. Bhodbs, Escl 

Captain B. L. Ooiltie. 

D. Mayew, Esq. 

Ser. C. P. MuzsY. 

T. Bishop, Esq., Tanjore. 

Mesara. SncpsOK, of Madras. 

C<nUribuliams forwarded by the ** Singapore Comfnittee" 
from — 
QoTwsantEST of Labuak. 
H. Low, Esq. 
Sultas of LoroA. 
R. Bais, Esq. 
Messrs. Almeida, of Singapore. 

Contributions received in this Country to the Indian 
Depttrtment. 

Her Majeetj has jmcioaslj permitted the presents of 
the Kawab Nazim of Moorsliedabad, and of the Rajah of 
TraTanooTCt, to be exhibited in the Indian department. 
The former consist of an irorj howdah, with elephant trap- 
pinj^ complete, all worked in gold and silver. A throne 
or natiTe reoeption-ieat, with canopj and silver frame- 
vork to support the pillows. Two moorchals, an emblem 
of rank, and two palanqoins, one for state occasions, and 
the other without a canopj. The present of the Rajah of 
Tnrancore consists of a splendid ivory chair of state, 
vith footstool, beautifully carved and jewelled. 

His Grace the Duke of Dbtonshiee exhibits a silver 
fligree snake chain. 

Lieut -CoL Sykes exhibits in Classes XVII., XXVI., 
•nd XXVII. 

Lieut. -Col. CArLFiELD. — An Indian battle-axe. 

Major MooBE, in Oasses XX, XXIII., and XXV. 

Captain R. Stbachey, B.E., in Class XII. 

Chables Read, Esq., in Oass XXIX. — A sandal- 
wood box. 



J. F. RoYLE, M.D., in Oass IV. 

Mrs. RoYLE. — A Benares green and gold shawl and 
turban piece, in Classes XV. and XXX. 

J. Chapman, Esq., in Classes IV. and XXIX. 

Mr. J. Clabesox, in Class III. 

Mr. J. Gladding. — Pith figures, in Class XXX. 

Captain James, in Classes I., III., XX., &c. 

J. Taylob, Esq., in Class XI. — Drawings of natives 
of Dacca employed in spinning, war|)ing, &c., and in pre- 
paring cloth. 

A. A. Robeets, Esq., in Classes XV. and XX. 

T. E. J. BoiLEAU, Esq., in Classes I., XVII., 
XXL, &c. 

R. G. Pote, Esq., in Class XXX.— Translated Indian 
and American inscriptions. 

G. P. Jennee, Esq. — Picture of the mosque at 



Jolond Baonold. — Model of field-gun. 

Captain Gk)BDON. — A yataghan, from Afighanistan. 

Mr. Copland. — Kiukhob and daggers. 

Mr. Samuel. — Shells, chiefly from Singapore. 

— Cameron, Esq. — Ivorv plaited into a mat. 

P. Scott, Esq. — Silver filigree inkstand. 

Mr. Hodgson. — Tray of wools and fibrous substances. 

Colonel Griffith. — Model of great gun at Bceja- 
pore and of a gim-carriago. 

Rev. W. Antbobus, in Chiss XXVI. 

Dr. Young. — Skins and heads of Indian animals. 

Dr. Bruce. — Stufied specimen of Indian ox for the 
Ekka. 

Saffron Walden Museum. — Stufied specimen of 
elephant for tlie Howda. 

Mr. Durham. — A battle-axe, 376. Chowries from 
Arrakan. 



Observations on the Arts and Mant^factures of India, 

The preceding enumeration of the articles in the Indian 
department of the QrceeX Exhibition proves beyond doubt 
that India not only possesses a vast variety of raw mate- 
rials, but is able to work them up into articles for daUy 
use or for display on occasions of ceremonv or of festivals, 
either of a rcHgious or domestic nature^ history informs 
us that India has from the earhcst periods been distin- 
guished for the riclmcss of its natural products and for 
the elegance of its manufactured fabrics, also that an 
active 'commerce was established with Persia and Egypt, 
as well as with other northern nations, both by cara- 
vans with the aid of the " sliip of the desert," and by sea 
through the medium of the Arabs who navigated the 
Persian and Arabian gulfs. The Chinese seem onlv to 
have made pilgrimages to India as the site of many of the 
shrines of Buddha. Though the Hindoos of modem times 
in general abhor the sea, yet the Gkinges sustains its thou- 
sands of boatmen, and the coasts of Malabar and of Seinde 
produce a race of fishermen who pursue the shark for its 
fins and the polynemus for its swimming bladder, in order 
to satisfy the Cliineso demand for gelatinous matters. 
That the Hindoos early paid attention to commerce we 
have proofs in the sacred law tracts called Institutes of 
Menu, promulgated at least 800 years B.C., and in which, 
as observed by Sir WiUiara Jones, " Tliero is a curious 
passage on the legal interest of money, and the Hraited 
rate of it in dilTerent cases, with an exception in regard to 
adventures at sea, an exception which tiie sense of man- 
kind approves, and which commerce absolutely requires, 
although it was not before the reign of Cliarles I. that our 
jurisprudence fully admitted it in respect to maritime 
contracts." — Jonesy Zrd Disc, and Riff Veda. 

Not only is it curious that the natives of India shoidd 
so early have practised many of the arts and attracted the 
attention of foreign nations, but it is remarkable that they 
should have retained them tlu^ugh so long a scries of 
ages, and carried them to so high a degree of perfection as 
to comj>cte even in tlic j^resent day with the looms of 
Lancashire and the fancy works of France. The ancient 
skill of Eg^'pt we see only in the ruins of their temples or 



930 



KAST IKDIES. 



[Cdlokteb AUlf 



ill the pciiiitmg^ witliin their toiiibe. The iirts of tlic 
A>s\ri;aiiJi wen? Imrtlly bt'lk'votl in iiutil tho cliflint^^mlent 
of tlicir cities revetUed the ftkill, o( whii-li aU truecs hare 
djsappoared from the litiiids of its preftent mliabitaut$*. 
China uloiu^ Hte ludia, continues to pmctiJK.* arte which 
were not new eren in timca wliich are eonsidered ancient 
ill Eiirope. 

The early civilijiatiou of Indiaajjix^ars due to thonaturaJ 
lurtility of tb«} coiratrj and to the j^«xTDliarity of it» climate, 
whieli enable* it« inhabitiiiit* annually to obtain two har- 
Test^ olT the same fields. Thns they sow wheat,, barley, 
some pul!*es and oil «eeds, in the autumn, and leather the 
crops in the spruig of the year ; while rict% the great and 
other miUeta with uunierouji pulst^, ane sown at the aeces- 
ait)n of the niiiiy i^mw^ous in June, and reapetl at their eon- 
olur^ion in Sf^ptcjulimr. Thi§ facility in prociuriujij food 
both fur thctnsilvea and their eallle niiL^^t early have 
allbnled leisure to many, to pursue the art a wliieh we have 
to notice, a^ well a« to cultivate htei-ature, and to originate 
ftoine of the seicneea which, are not on the prestmt ootmsioQ 
to be objects of our attention, such as gninnnar, poein% 
philoaopny^ lo^c and law, geometry, arithmetic, algebra 
anrl aKf nmoniy, as well as metiiciue w\d ehemistry, as we 
have endeavoured to show in a inpanite work, the " Eftsay 
on the Antiquity of Hindoo Medirine/* 

The diet of the nativL*s of India ifl supposed to consist 
chietly of rit*e : thiis is probubly true only of Benpd ; for 
in the north-wc^^tcni province* wheat ia muth eultivatod, 
and nece**arUy csonisinncd, for it ia not exported to any 
Client. The inillcta and pulses*, m well a,H a variety *>f 
vegetables, fonn articles of diet, aa well aa milk and glice, 
or elarified butter and eontliiuenta ; and thtnigh the niitives 
are thought to abstain from the flesh of animal ji, thi»i U 
true only of particular castc*^ for niany will eat ikh, pur- 
6UC the antclo|>e, and hunt the wild toar — oJl for food, 
Tiie Mussulmans, as is well kuov^ii, abstaid from the fldh 
of the hog as well a a of the hnr>L\ but eat of the same 
unimak as Em'0|K'ans. Spirit* distilled from e^ugar or 
the juit'e of palm-trees are eitcnf*ively nsetl, i\» wcU »•* tlic 

> mvntc of the iluahwji, or Bassia latifolia, whleh, Ivcing from 
a pccidijjr s*jurec, ha« been d/liiiittcd hito the Exhibition. 
The clothing of the inhabitants miij*t ni?ce!»3^itrily l^e 

I •uited to \)\e elnnate, and for this the eotton, which is 

Liodigc^oua in their country, is adinimbly adapte<h TViey 

' were early a<.quaujited with its Ufte, for it is mentioned by 
Mann, nnd is supposed to be aUudetl to in the Big Vedn 
1300 B.C. Calieocfi* and muslina Ixnng suited to the hot 
weather and niins^ Honiething more is rtH|uired in the eoki 
weather and niiiiis, for wiiieh their stout calicocj^, pnldcfl 
with ra%v cotton, are vtell adapted. IJnt the wool of sheep, 

I of the goat of the mountains, and of the c^uiel of the 
desert, are all employed in the north- wt»*tem regions of 
lndii% and woollen tlin»da arc mentioned by Afanu. 8ili 
of Mfveml kinds we have seen is iutligeuous in other parts 
of India. 

'Hie habitat ioni of the Hindoo nooeasarily vary in 
diUcrtnt part* of the country, as the materials used dc 

I p«3nd n|Mrm it* geological formation. In wnnn and moist 
part^, the bamijoo server everj' purpo»e, with palmyra or 
other large leave*, for roofing. If we go into Hurmn, wc 
iiiiii tlie hoiWL's budt on post^ on the banks of rivers, so 
tUrtt the water flow* under thenu In the grtTut pbdn of 
the Ghinges, the huts aiv Upiuahy biult of mud or of bricks, 
ilat-roofed or thatched, and, in tlie hilly partfi, of Btone. 
In many parts the boii.se and ofliecs form a (quadrangle, 
where the doors and small windows o|K?n inward*. In 
the Hiiimlayn* we have the houses and temples built of a 
framework of Deodar or eedar wood, filled up with intones, 
and with cither flat or slntcd roofs, whieh project raiieh 
beyond the w hUj*, and cover open venrndah*. The cattle 
are shut up in the lower, and the family occupy the uppcr^ 
•torv- 

The ttppcamnee of the inhabitants of many parts of 
India U adniinibly rcprej^ented in the series of figures 
exhibitcil frtmi tliilerent juirts of Indiji. Tlie soft iind 
del t cat e-1 imbed BcngaUi^ U well rtipre^iitedl in the model* 

h^om Ki^liiiagurh, and the tall and «kmler inhabitant of 



Southern Indm in the fijfures exhibited by itr. Boilesu. 
13ut that all are not so efleniinate-Iooking may be :^ecn io 
the model of the Jummabundi, where all the cA*tej* of the 
Deklian are ahowu, as alsti in tlie wi-U^elothed inhiibitAnta 
from Eelgftura and North-west India, and of Thuga in the 
model e3Llubite<l bv Captain EejiKdda, 

In these niodeL wo abo ece the imtives occupied at 
their various tradef, afl thoee of the earpenter, sawyer, 
and bhieksmith. Som« we ftee emphtyed in plougliing, in 
grinding com, in cooking, and in washing ; men and 
women cleaning, spinning, jtreparing the tlu^ad, and 
weaving the cotton : others employed m pottery, in calico- 
printing, and working in the precious metals, 

*' Tliat the usefid arts have long been verv numerous 
among the lIinclooM,"' we have ohjM?rved on a tx>rnier occa* 
sion, is \CTy evident, for Sir William Jones says, ** That 
Kuropean* enuinemte more than 250 mechanical art^, by 
wliie!i the prodnetions of ntiture may l>e variously prepared 
for the convenience and ornament of life ; aud though the 
Sdpi Sastra (or Sanscrit eolleetion o^ treatii^est on arts 
and manufuftures) reduce^ tbeni to 64, yet A bid Fail 
had been assuretl that the Kindoa*^ reekonetl 300 art* aud 
Keienees : now^ their Hciences being comparatively few, 
we may contlude that they aiunently |>ractiin*d at legist is& 
many useftd arts aa oiUTwlvoa/* — (Jon^Sj tenth dUv,) 
Witfi res|>eet to their skill in many of the*e arts, we may 
adduce the uncitecptionable evidence of the late excellent, 
wi<iely and univeraally esteemed BiMliop Heher : " To eay 
that the Hindoos or Mussulmans are defleient in any 
esiicntial fnitureof a eivdizinl people, iP an assert ion wlueh 
I can Hs/iR'cly suppose to be made by any who have hvetl 
Willi them* Their manners are, at least, as pleasing and 
eourtet)Us a^ those of the corresponding stations of life 
among ourselves ; their housed are larger, and, according 
to their WTints and elimate, to the full as couvenient a« 
oiirs ; their architecture is, at least, as elegant. Nor i» it 
true, that in the mcchame arts they- are hifcrinr to tlw 
general run of European nations. Where they fiill short 
of us (which is ehielly in agrieidtural implements and the 
mechanics of common life), they art* not, so far o^ T liave 
understood of ltA!y and the south of France, surjMssed in 
any great degree by the p<x>ple of those countries." 

The aceoiuits whieh we have hitherto had of the tools 
and methods entployetl by the natives in the usefid arts 
Imve bt*cn brief, iind usually WTitten by those imacqiuiinted 
with the pnx'csMcs wliicli they desmbed, f^onietinies 
prompt eil by partiahty, often dicta tc<I by prejudice. The 
present aflbrdn an exccUcnt opportunity for those prac- 
tirally acquainted with the several arts in Eurt»pe to 
cuniiian^ the tools used by the iwtivos of India with the 
results of their labour, and both with the tools, textile 
fMbrics, and eimning works of the hand, in wcK>d, stone, 
lioi*n, ivory, and in the pnxious metals from other parts 
of the world. It must first, however, be observed tliat 
the toob and miwluiierf whieh are exhibited have been 
eolleeted from a vai»t extent of ttirritory, the diflerent 
parts of wdudi do uot difler more from each otlier in the 
state of the arts than somotimi^ do two ]iarts of the »imo 
di>?lrict, for in.Htiiuee, the pkins and mountains. The 
tools, if we judge by their apj-iearnnce, are, in geneml, 
rtide enough and sinq>le in con>^t ruction j but, if we judge 
of thtir fitness by the eirects wliich are produt^l, we nntst 
allow that they nre as elfctTtive a* tool* can be, and, hke 
more finished instruments, n'quire only hands capable of 
uaing them- There is little doubt thut among these are 
some wliieh have a great re*iemblance to the took repre- 
sented in the Egyptian paintings ; and some of them were 
doubtless the originals of sueh aa are now employed in 
Euroj>p. 

One thmg is vpry remarkable, and that i» the few tool* 
whieh they employ for prooeescs, for whieh, in Eiltoidc, a 
variety an? ]:trovideil. llr. Petrie, himswdf an engineer, 
has ilcacribed how they make one tool serve a variety of 
purposes. For inntnnw, a carpenter will have a chistd 
aud a plane, and a tool of a wedgc-like shape, s\\iiT\i at 
OQO oad and broad at the other, whieh they use for rarioiu 
purpoBes. ^- K they want an a^te^ they* have « liaudli»' 



* 



J 



Depesdekcies.] 



EAST INDIES. 



931 



with a hole, into which they put the abore tool, and 
make an axe of it. If thej want an adze, they turn the 
nme tool round. When they wish to drive in nails or to 
Eiake use of their chisel, th^ employ the same tool as a 
hammer. If thev wish to sput a billet of wood, they get 
two or three of these tools, and put them into the w(x>d 
as wedges, and strike them with another billet, and thus 
they manage aU their work : that tool, and the chisel and 
plane, are all they have, and they turn out very good 
work with them. He adds, that he " found them very 
teachable, and that, in a short time, almost an incredibly 
fbort time, the^ learned to make up the machines I re- 
quired," that la, saw-gins. But the number of tools 
employed are much greater in other parts of the country, 
is for instance, the ivory carvers of Moorshedabad, and 
the workers of silver filigree-work at Cuttack. But the 
daborate carving of the Bombay furniture is said to be 
eflected with a sinjgle tool, while the deUcate and beautiful 
pith temples and ^ures from Trichinopoly are made with 
only two knives. 

A hitler state of invention is displayed in the augres, 
on the plan of Archimedes* screw, in which a semi-rotatory 
motion is given by moving a cylindricalpiece rapidly up 
■nd down the sh^. This is probably a Chinese invention, 
u it seems to be best known m the southern parts. Such 
an instroment has only of late years been invented here, 
and a patent taken out for it. The natives of India make 
use of a raj efficient drill, of which one has been sent from 
Bethampore, as used by the ivory carvers. A very complete 
set of toe instruments used by the different trades in 
Nepal was sent, but many of the labels have been lost. 

The ingenuity of the natives is conspicuous in their 
imriting iron, with no other means than what they pro- 
cure on the spot where the ore is found ; for instance, they 
cut down the wood and make charcoal, and with the large 
leaves of trees they make a bellows, of which a specimen 
has been sent from Mirzapore ; but others, formed of two 
crlioders, and another with a double valve, show a higher 
ftate of invention.. 

Their ingenuity is further well shown in the skill with 
which they combine the soft resin of lac, sand, and 
powdered corundrum, so as to obtain a grindstone fit for 
iN^«hing precious stones, as well as for sharpening the 
oaidert steeL 

Their mills for pressing oil seeds and for crushing the 
vugar-cane, and for separating cotton from its seeds, all 
di^Iay ingenuity, which there is no doubt must have been 
dti^yed at very early periods ; but it is remarkable tliat 
the Realty of invention and the desire of improvement 
should for so many ages have remained stationary, for 
there is no doubt that many of the tools and macliincs 
m^ht be improved, friction diminished, and yet their sim- 
pbcitT retained. 

In Class VII. we have a few instances of the civil en- 
gineering of the natives, as shown in their contrivances for 
niang water as well as for crossing rivers. Only one 
model has been sent of a great pubUc work, that of the 
peat dam, or annicut weir, thrown across the Godavery 
river, in order to raise its water for the purpose of irriga- 
ting a laigc tract of land.* Models of the great works 
which have been constructed for the Delhi and Doab 
Canals, and are now constructing for the Great Gkmgcs 
Caoaly would have been instructive even in Europe. 

The models of the vessels which navigate the Indian 
«•» have been sufficiently described in Class VIII. It is 
not probable, though far from impossible, but that some 



*The follovinc b * statement of the chief measurements of this 
*«^ ■• deUited on the model :— 

l*«lai>«wmm Annicut aeroaa the Godavery River commenced 
>^7. iEatieme lengfth, 7,200 yards. Combined len^jth of weirs, 
MOtTanda. HcJijiit of weir, 12 fiM»t. Depth of water durinjf Hoo«U, 
i'\ leet. ETtreme diaeharjirv, 180.000,000 cubic yards per hour. 
wrtty of water to be distributed for irri^^ation, 1,000,000. Extent 
^ Wta land to be irrigated, 1 ,000,000 acre^. Length of irrigated 
taet. !«« odlea. Greatest breadth of tract, 40 miles. 

Nahiiala eonaamed up to December, 1850— Stone, 400,000 tons. 
BrirU, 4,4<W,000. Lime, 800,000 cntiic feet. 

" -s^tone, 100,000 tona. Ume, 70,000 cubic fleet. 



hints may be obtained even from them, for the improve- 
ment of ship-builcUng ; for some of the vessels which 
navigate the Cliina and Indian seas are remarkable for their 
swiftness. The first class " Sampan," from Singapore, is 
distinguished as such, while of the yacht "Wave," of 
which the model was taken from a fishing-boat of Bombay, 
it is said tliat no boat of European form and construction 
has yet been found to compete with her in point of saiUng 
in moderate weather. The batelles of the Arabs, especially 
those of the Joaseme pirates of the Persian Guli, called 
Trankey by Europeans, were, from their swift sailing, at 
one time very destructive to trade, because no vessel could 
escape them, and their weatherly quaUties jirovented 
square-rigged ships from capturing them, except in strong 
breezes. An Indian officer writes, that " The Arabs say 
their fame has now passed away, by the introduction of 
steam, previous to wnich tliere was no vessel ever built 
tliat could sail so close to the wind. The batelle always 
carries tlireo suits of sails, the larger size of very fine 
cotton canvas, made at Bahrein, wove by hand ; tliis sail 
is bent for light winds, and when the wind is too fresh to 
carry it, it is lowered, and a smaller one of coarser canvas 
bent : the third is for a fresh top-gallant breeze, but when 
it blows liard, they lower down the yard, and hoist a 
triangular sail like a jib. 

" In 1817, whilst the writer was a lieutenant of the 
Honourable Company's gun-brig * Psyche,' saiUng along 
the coast of Scinde, in company with H.M.S. *Eden,* 
Captain Loch, it had been blowing very fresh in the 
morning, when the * Eden' came up with three of the 
Joaseme batelles, when under their small sails, ,with a 
native prize-boat in tow. 

" On the * Eden' firing a gun, the pirates lowered their 
sails, on which the * Eden ' shortenea sail to topsails, and 
lowered a boat to board them — Captain Loch thinking 
the^ had lowered their sails for the purpose of being ex- 
amined ; but, on the boat sent from the * Eden ' closuig 
with them, they hoisted their large sails which they liad 
been bending, cast off* the prize which they had in tow, 
and made off*, passing between the *Eden' and the 
Honourable Company's cruizer, receiving the distant fire 
of both vessels. The ships followed in chase the whole 
day, but without success, the pirates just keeping out of 
shot witli their sweeps, and laying them in as the breeze 
freshened, by which means they gained on their pur- 
suers." 

In the collection of Anns we have a curious display of 
wliat would seem to be drawn from a museum, storing 
the productions of various ages, but which are actually the 
arms in present use in cUfferent parts of India. Thus we 
have the bows and arrows as well of Assam as of North- 
west India. Shields from both locaUties, as well as from 
Cutcli. Spears and battle-axes, two-handled swords, and 
daggers in every variety. Chain as well as sheet armour 
both for man and horse, with plumes for tlie hehnet. 
Along T^itli these we liave the match-lock, flint-gun, and 
detonating lock ; the two latter imitated from Euro{)can 
models. Guns to be carried on camels, others to bo 
mounted on liills. Models of cannon and of mortars from 
Lahore, all indicating the attention paid by the natives of 
India to arms. This is especially conspicuous in the care 
and taste with wliicli many of them, as well as the ac- 
coutrements, are oniamented. Among the curiosities may 
be mentioned the shield with four pistols coneealed in its 
centre ; complicated daggers, and one which, in striking, 
separates into five blades ; a sword which separates into 
two, and another with pearls let into the middle of its 
blade. They all indicate the skill of the armourer, some 
of whom always form a part of the regular estabhshment 
of princes in the East. But the steel of the beautifid 
Damascus blades, the twisted barrels of the match-locks, 
and the skill with which the blade of one dagger is con- 
cealed within another, are to be admired as specimens 
of the workmanship of the natives of India as cutlers and 
gimsmiths, even in the midst of the works of industry of 
all nations. 

AgricuUure is an art which must have beeu earhest 



933 



EAf^ INDIES. 



Ivniotifiecl hj tho9c^ notions who first ^rave up the tiomnde 
i'feir ft settlii, nec^snnly an ajcn*ifidfiiralj life. There is 
[ every reason to believe tliat tlit' Hindoos were among the 
rettrlic*t cirilixed nuljo?)*. Tndtvd, Ihcir mrlit^t i\'<H>rd*!, 
I the hjmns ul" the Rig Vetla^ compoM,«d pTObtiblj foiiiieen 
eenturies B.C., contain supplicutiouB for abuntlant mm 
and for tho fertility of the earth. The a^rulture of 
Ifnlia^ like its other useful arts^ Ims been umv^'wiinbly 
depreeiuted by W3me, nnd perhaps aa crroneoiijily over- 
praised by others. But tlie fanniniEt of dilferent jmrts of 
the eoimlry varies mueh ; but in nil, the ryuta pjty ^^rcat 
attention to the variety of 9oiU*jatid to the p'a its whifli are 
best suited to each. They well understand the rotation 
of erop* ; the value of n fiiUovsr, m well a« of wevding ; and 
of tnanuring, thonjijh they only oeca*ionally pnicHse it, 
and for purtieular crops, m sugfir-cane and tobaeeri ; for 
the manure of the eat tie is iinhw^ily loi^t, from the unfor- 
tunate privctitie of u.^^iiig it as fuel. 'I'he praetice of sowing 
several crt>pH together isj no doubt, detrimental to some j 
but the Indian fanner addn(H.*s as his cxruse th:it» in an 
iincwitam oHmate, it pves liim the advantage of escaping 
efttire lots j for, when one crop fails, another may be aaTcd 
by Inter rainsi. Gi-eat attention ia paid to irri^ition, 
wbieh is aa important in India as draining is in Great 
Ilritttin, and this so much *o that nothing would beiu^fk 
the country ^o mueh as facilitating, by every method, the 
raining of water m most part§ of the country for the pm'- 
poses of irrigation. 

The tools which are in use are sufficiently tiumerou.s 
but they are rude in appeal raiu^e, and aim pie m con- 
utruetion ; though, as far aa the cficcts are coniH^nietl in 
favourable seasouitf they mu»i be eonflidered etllcient j for 
the erop» art* tisually luiuriant, and the proceecU abundant. 
It i* remarkable that, in the whole of the west of India, 
fnim GuKPrnt to Mysore, a tlrill plough is employed for 
mowing the majority of crop?. This i* in the form of a 
three or four toothed han-ow, bL'hind each tooth of which 
tenninates a bamboo tube, haying its other end fixt*d in 
n central seed-cup, which has as many holes in its lower 
part aa there are tubes attached to it. Colonel Syltes has 
observed that t!iere are two kinds of drill plough ; one 
heavy, called maghnt\ usetl for ^mm (pvd^e), wheat, and 
Faf!lowei' ; the otlier ia less heavy » and called pabhur, Ufied 
for millets and the sniAOisr pulMa, on Itglvt soils. Wien 
the cultivator wiihes to sow a differerit grain in one of 
the furrows made by the teeth of the harrow, he «tops up 
one of the holes, and has a separate tube following at a 
short fliFtance beliind. A« the whole of the sowing appa- 
ratus is n*tnovcab!e at pleasure, ho can use the brxly of 
the inatriunent, witli its-* teeth, as a harrow, by laying 
aside the seetl-eup with ita tubes. Tlic whole cost of the 
instrument is about three rupee*. This drill-plough 
©eems to have been used in Ghm^rat, and probably other 
parte, from time immeiDoriaL Wo may suppose that it 
wma lued erwi in the time of jUcxftiKler,'for llieoplirastna 
desdribcH the cotton as being set in the plains, arranged in 
rt>ws, so as to look like Tines at a aistance. His in- 
formants eoidd only have seen cotton cultivated in the 
western parts of India. In EurofH% the drill-plough is 
said to liaTe been fin*t employed in Spain, towards the 
€md of the serentc^enth century. It ha* already been said, 
with reference to the tools, that **if the aimplicitv of hi.-* 
plongh neither entails upon the native fanner a ildit ion al 
In hour, nor ft more scanty harvest, nor an increased ei- 
penditure, we do not (»cc tlmt he is mueh to be pitied." 

From the number of Mtmcal Imfrtimenh which have 
b<.*en P^ent from India, it would appear that considerable 
attention mui^t there be paid to unisic, and we might 
infer that the science had inrule mme progress. It is 
treated of in one of their ancient Upnvedas, and the natives 
have been heard to say that, thoiigli Euro[x*ans excel 
them in many things, they excel iiuropeans in music, 
But we know not any European who agrees in this. 
Orme, indeed, says *' that their ideas of music, if we may 
judge IVom their practit^*, are barbafous/* Sir William 
iloiios, however, believed that *' t)io Hindoo syiitcin has 
been formed on truer principles tlian our ownj all the 



skill of the nstiy© composers la diroeted to the grwit 
object of their art, the natural expression of strong pas- 
sion*, to which, intleed, melody is often sacrificed ; though 
?<uiiic of their tunes aiv plciising, even to a European ear." 
The ettbcts which they ascribe to some of their nzw^ff, or 
ancient melodies, are quite as extraordinaiy a* those 
ascribed to Oq>lieus, or to Timothcus. Sir W. Ouseley 
says, " that a con-iideniblo ililRculty i* found in setting to 
music the rnjjg antl ratjinU^ as our system does not supply 
notes or si|jns sullicienlly expressive of the alrao^it imi>er- 
ccptihle elevations and depressions of the voi<^ in those 
melodies, of wliicli the lime w broken and irregular, 
the modulations fre^quent, and very wild." It is remark- 
able that, in the liiatories of mitsie, no notice is taken of 
that of India; though it is probable that an inve!*tig;i!Ton 
of the musical instruments at present in use hi India, 
and of their *iystem of music, would tlirow much light 
upon tliat of the Egyptiajifl, ajul of the instruments men^ 
tioTiCil in the Bible. 

linwng the instnxmeats at present in use in dilTorent 
parts of India, we ftnd some rude enough in stnicture and 
appearance, but interesting, as naturn! objects made use 
of to produce sounds j as, for instance^ boms, as blowinj^ 
instruments; and gourds, as somicbng-tM)ards to their 
stringed instruments j bamboos, as pipe^ ; and set* of 
tlicni, of thtferent sijscs^, to prtxluee diH'erenccs of sound. 

The inHtruments used by the natives of Moorshodabad 
and of Bonarcs consist of both wind and stringed instru- 
ments, and of flmms, tambourines, and cpnbals. A lon^ 
list is given of the musical instruments used by the Arabs 
tyn<\ Persians in the Introduetion to Rieliardsou's 
Dictionary, where it is observed, that ** T}ie Asiatics liavo 
a great variety of instruments ; and many of those now in 
use amongst us, though considerably improve<l, appear to 
have becTi originally of eastem Lnvention." 

The Malay mu'^ieal instruments are describe*! as being 
m numerous* that about thii'ty are required to form a fuS 
hantl, Of gamaion^^ costing about 2,0C*O rupees. Among 
these are coui^picuous those in wliich gongs, as well as 
drums, of ditforent sizes, and pieces of metal rmd of hard 
wood, of different lengths, are cmpl'^ 'luce dil*- 

ferent tunes^ when struck with suit.il' ' drum — 

sticks. 

The Manufactures of India maybe noticc<l in the order 
in which they are arranged in the Catalogue. Among 
these, cotton still takes the precedence even in IndtA, 
though it has jrreatly fallen off in importance since the 
machinery of Europe bad been able to supphmt, even in 
their own markets, the chcaji and durable [>roducts of 
Indian looms. From an examination of the cottons jjro- 
duced in the places where the manufactures have attained 
the greatest i»erfection, we do not find that it is owing lo 
any su|>eriority in the raw material, but owing to the great 
pains taken bv the native spinners and weaver^ and their 
matchless de!ica<jy of touch. Specimens of the cotton 
manufacture have been sent from Bengal, and from all 
along the Ganges up to the Juiluntlur Doab, from jUimed- 
thad and Surat on the west, and from the Circar^s on the 
south "ea«t coast, also from as far south as Tanjon\ It li 
curious that some of the places celebrated for their manu- 
facturer do not grow the cotton which they weave; for 
in!*tancc, Aximgurh, bordering on the Dude and Chun- 
deyrt^?, in the Givalior territorj'. The Circars used to 
imjiort their cotton from Central Intha. 

In the Exhibition we have numerous indicatioriB of the 
pains taken by the Hindoos in the preparalion of their 
cotton. First, several macliines, rtfUers and rhurkas, for 
seimrating the seed from the cotton ; also the bow, for 
further cleaning or tcazing thetvjlton, other apparatus for 
preparing the thread, and looms for weaving it. 

Mr. James Taylor, in the Report referred to at yukgc S&8, 
on the manufactuivs of Dacca, has eivcn much iuterfc»stin^ 
information on this subject, as well as scut a niimber of 
artides and drawings cJtplanatory of the process. Thui« 
along with the raw cotton of Dacca is exhibited "the 
primitive instrument used for cartling the tlhrea of tho 
cotton.'* This is simply the jaw-bone of the B<x>lee fish 



Depksdbkciss.] 



EAST INDIES. 



933 



(Silwrmg hoalia\ the teeth of which being fine, recurved, 
and doaelj set, act as a fine comb in remoTing minute 
particles of earthy and yegetablo matter from the cotton. 
The Hindoo spinner, with tliat incxhaut»tible i)atience 
that diaracterises her race, sits down to the laborious task 
of cleaning with this instrument the fibres of each nob of 
cotton. Hsring accomplished this, she then separates the 
wool from the seeds by means of a small iron roller, which 
is worked with the hands, backward and forward, on a 
small quantity oi the cotton seeds placed upon a flat 
board. The cotton is next bowed with a small bow of 
bamboo, btrung with a double row of catgut, muga silk, 
or the fibres of the plant&in tree twisted togetlier ; and 
having been reduced oy this instrument to a state of light 
downy fleece, ii is made up into a small cylindrical roll 
{pmm)^ which is held in the hand during the process of 
fpinning. The spinning apparatus is contained m a small 
hMket or tra^» and consists of a deUcate iron spindle 
{Utkooa\ haTing a small ball of clay attached to it, in 
order to gire it a sufficient weight in turning, and of a 
piece of hard shell, imbedded in a little clay, on which the 
point of the spindle revolves during tlie process of .spin- 
lung. ^With this instrument the Iliudoo women almost 
nv2 Aracfane's fitbled skill in spinning. The thread 
which they make with it is exquisitely fine, and doubtless 
it is to thor delicate organisation, and the sensibihty with 
which they are endowed by nature, that tlieir inimitable 
■kill in thar art is to be ascribed. The finest thread is 
nun earity in the morning, before the rising sun dissipates 
the dew on the grass ; for such is the tenuity of its fibre, 
thai it would Inneak if an attempt were made to manufac- 
ture it during a drier and wanflhr portion of the day. 
When there is no dew on the ground in the morning to 
indicate the presence of moisture in the atmosphere, the 
fpinners impart the requisite degree of humithty to the 
cotton hy making the thread over a shallow vessel of 
water. The various implements used in the preparatoir 
piu e eaw» of weaving are the reeds for winding the thread, 
the haod-wheds for warping, the sley-hook and reed, and 
the qiparatus for forming the heddles. During the pro- 
ceM cSr preparing the thr^, and before it is warped, it is 
neeped for a couple of days in fine charcoal powder soot, 
or Ump-black mixed with water, and ailer being well 
rinjied in dear water, wrung out, and dried in the shade, 
it is rubbed vrith a sizing made of parchctl rice (the husk 
of whidi has been removed by heated sand), fine lime and 



The principal varieties of plain muslins now manufac- 
tucd at Dacca m^ Mulmul Khas, Ab-ruwan, Shub-num, 
Ehssu, Jhuna, Sircar Ali, Tun-zeb, Alabullee, Nyanzook, 
Boddon Khas, Turundam, Surbutees, and Surbund — 
oamea which either denote fineness, beauty, or tran- 
mrency of texture, or refer to the origin of the manu- 
aetore of the fisbiics, or the uses to which they are 
applied as aHicles of drees. Tlie finest of all is the 
Muhnul Khas (literally muslin nmde for the special use 
of a prince or great personage). It is woven in half 
pisees meawmng 10 yards in length and 1 yanl in 
bRadth, having 1,900 threads in the warp, and weighing 
10 oDcaa (about 3} ounces avoirdupois). The finest half 
pisBi that I have seen weighed 9 siccas. The price is 
IM mpeea. Some of the other muslins are also beautiful 
pRMfavAiona of the loom, as Ab-ruwau, compared by the 
MCivea, from its clear pellucid texture, to " running 
water.** Shuh-nmn, so named from its resemblance, when 
it is wetted and spread upon the bleaching field, to the 
** evening dew" on the grass. Jhuna, a liglit, transparent 
art-like fiibric, usually made to order, and chiefiy for 
Qstivw of rank and wealth, worn by the inmates of 
wanaa and danoera, and apparently the cloth referred 
to IB the daaaics under the figurative names of Tela 
i r ^ a^^J ^■^ Fifn/wr UxHUm. All these musUns are made 
m fill! pieen of 20 yards in length by 1 in breadth, but 
^nrjing eonaaderably in the number of threads m the 
nrp, and oooaequently in their weight. 

Of figured fisbrica, as striped (Doorea), chequered 
ffkaiiiMi), and flowered (Jamdanee), there exists a 



considerable variety, both in regard to quality and pat- 
tern. The Howcretl muslin was formerly in great demand 
both in India and Kurope, and was the most exjiensive 
manufacture of the Diu-ca Urung:*. Tliere was a monop-ly 
of tlie finer fabrics for the Court of Delhi : those made for 
the Emwror Aurungzebe cost 250 rupees per piece. This 
muslin is still much admired, but it is now seldom manu- 
fectured of a quaUty of higher value than 80 ruiiees per 
piece. 

Omitting the second-rate kinds of cloth, as Sarces, 
Boonees, Baftas, Jon, Ekpattu:*, Ganichas, &c., now en- 
tirely made of Engh:«h yam, imjwrted into the district, 
and wliich coneititute the' great bulk of the Dacca cotton 
mauufactiuv, the next cmss, of wliich specimens should 
be exhibited, is tliat of fabrii's of a mixed texture of 
cotton and silk. They are designated by various names, 
as Nowbutta, Kutan, Roomee Apjoola, and Sirka ; and 
when embroidered with tlie needle, as many of them fre- 
quently are, they are callod Kuslieedu. The silk iu*ed in 
their manufai'ture is the indigenous Muga silk of Assam 
and Svlliet, but the cotton thread emi)loyed is now almost 
entirely English yam, of qualities varying from No. 30 
to 80. Tliese cloths are made exchisiVely for the Jedda 
and Bussora market, and a considerable stock is yearly 
imported in the Amb vessels that tnwle between Calcutta 
and these ports. Pilgrims, too, from the vicinity of Dacca, 
not unfipequentlv take an investment of them, which they 
dispose of at the great annual fair held at Mcena, near 
Mecca. They are used by the Arabs chiefiy for turbans 
and gOHTis. *The golden colour of the Muga silk gives to 
some of these doths a rich lustrous appearance. A few 
pieces, made of nativc-spim cotton thread, and of the best 
kind of Muga silk, would, I have no doubt, be admired in 
this country. 

Embroidery (Zur-dozee) is an art, in which the Ma- 
homodans of Dacca display a degree of skill almost equal 
to that exhibited by the Hindoos in weaving. They em- 
broider Cashmere shawls and scarfs, also muslins, and net 
fiabrics with silk, gold and silver thread. These fabrit^ 
are much esteemed in this country, and are probably still 
unrivalled by similar productions in any part of the 
world. 

Anotlier branch of needle-work allied to embroidery, 
which is carried on here, is that of flowering or orna- 
menting cloths with cotton thread (Cliikan-kavi). TIio 
dresses of Mahomedans arc irequently worked in tliis 
manner, and two descriptions of it oUled Tartor and 
Summiderludur, in which the texture of the cloth is 
broken down with the needle and converted into network, 
are held in the higliest estbiiation. 

In commissioning fine muslins from Dacca, ample time 
should be given for tlieir manufacture. The time required 
for the preparation of a piece varies from one to four 
months, according to the quahty of tlie fabric, the latter 
being the period necessary for the weaving of a half-pieco 
of Mulmul Khas. The best season for nuiking this kmd 
of muslin is during the months of May, June, July, and 
August. If several pieces of the finer kinds were to bo 
manufactured, a full year's notice wouLl bo required in 
order to procure tlie noctwsary quantity of thread. 

Cliittagong, which formerly possessed a factory sub- 
ordinate to the one at Dacca, still manufactures inferior 
fabrics of strong texture. Tlie rough towels mwle hero 
are of an exceUent qimlity ; they are stout and durable, 
and would bo found to be superior to the Ba<len towels, 
now so much used in dressing rooms in tliis country. 

Tlie Garrow, Tipperah, and Cliittagong hills produce 
a large quantity of inferior cotton, called Bhoga. It is tlio 
principal article of traffic which the hill people bring doTin 
to the plains. It is usetl in the manufacture of the in- 
ferior kinds of hummiuns, baflas, boonees, sarecs, jore, &c. ; 
also for making ropes, tapes, and the coarsest of all 
fabrics, viz., garhahs and gazeelis, which are commonly 
used for packing other cloths, and for covering dead 
bodies, for which punwse a hirge quantity of tliese is 
consiuned annually both by Hindoos and Mahometans. 

As Dacca was wrmerly famous for its muslins, so wore 



934 



EAST INDIES. 



[Colonies and 



the Nortbcm Cbncarfl for their long elotlie* The forroer 
hui sent aotne beautLftd BpcM?itiieTii} of muBlin, both pkiti, 
flgapcd, nnd embroidered with (diver. But ChaodejTce, 
far in the interior of India, in the QwnlicH- terri Lories^ hue 
aleo §etit some beaut ifuJ niiislme. These am moiiufact ured 
of cotton grown at l^'lmaiTp some himdmL milefl distant 
From the dijneM of the cUmate tlie -weaTcrs, who are 
Maliomcdann/are obhged to weATO tlu^e fino tutiHhnft in 
undeT^grouud w€ipk8bo[Mt. The fliji»ct piece of long tJbth 
bus boeii Bent bj Mr. Masters, from Jtigginpettjih, in the 
Korthdrri Gircnrt. Fino mnBlins hziTe been mmt from 
Aroee and fmmOopada, and beaut ifuU; emhmideredbectlc- 
wing dn^«4^a from MadriLB. 

Some of thc! fohrica of cotton am eitromely intttresting 
a9 Rpeeinipn»of gkiU in weaYing^ as those iii which patl^ma 
ore wovLTi tbroughoixt the pierce, and other* n? 8j>e<"iniene 
of double wearing J whenee two distmet eoloured cloths 
appear to be uoitcd togetbefj and altemiUeljr show them- 
scLveii on opposite ^idcis. 

Tlie wo0Ueii fabrics are not io Likeljto be of a iuperior 
qualitT fram a hot country, but it is iotereating Io have 
tlurm from the mountains of My soreond the plains ofKorth- 
Weatem Indlii, and al«o of the wool of the Plteep and of tlie 
hair of the camel. The tid cloth of Ca^bmcrcs la beau- 
tifully eoltf and a new fabrie called Pareerux, of ^hieh 
the ptte of on0 mir&ce ii formed of loops, ia interatting, 
but iho ahawk of Ca«hmere are eelebmhxl thranghmit ibc 
dvilijijd world, Mooir^roft inform* us that tbe wool uacd 
in the manufacture of tbc shawhi of Caelmiere is of two 
kindB. Of these ooc is ealled Fanhm ehal, and the othcir 
Aaali tooa, tlw former being obtiikied fr^rn the goats in a 
donu^tleated »tate, and the hitter from the wild goati and 
wild Bbe»ep, ite, J^Jl these ammals, an well aa the Yat and 
dog, in the elevatedt e4:»ld^ and tbr regions of Tibet, being 
fnmiiKhed with a fine dowri, or bair4ike wool, under the 
coariite csommon outer wool. Tliia ia bronght from the 
diflerent parts of Tibet to Lathikb, where it is purcbaaed 
for or by tJie Cftshjnerian«| and earned into their valley. 
Mueli of it i» white, and iold a few years ago for 4*, a 
pound I tbo tlark'Coloured is well suited for dyeing. ITie 
long hairs are pieked out, the renminder eiir(.fid]y waslied 
in riee-watcr, jvnd then liniul-fipun by women* A vtiriety 
of hands wns necessarily eiii]>lovetl ni the inanufjictitfe of 
sbawb. An artist des^igniiig the pattt^rivs might obtnin 
a Hiik- for them even in Europe, as they are bo gene- 
rally admireti and imitated. A man is etnph.\ved in 
tlelemiining the ipuditv and quaiUity of thread required 
for a jMiir of shawls, and another in arranifing the warp 
and woof (tlie former of which h geticmlly of silk) for 
the l>order. The lam hi ftrst fijed j the 'Cashnierinns 
professing to einjiloy sisty-four diUereul tiritt?. The f^bfiwl 
u earefuUy washed when the waving iswmplcted,iind the 
very finest are said to he washed in a kllier formed of 
soap UTriea. 

A Bub-eonnnittee h living been aj>pouited in Calentta to 
pejtoi-t upon fhe Pubjeet of Cashniere sliawb, Benaresi' 
broendew, and Dacca nnislin, have funiiribed a report 
whieh b* parlicularlv valuable, from Dr. Fuleoner, otie of 
the membt^R*, having U?eu fof some tuTie in CWhmere, 
aud atrqiiired infunnation whieb ia not olherwise obtain- 
able. It in thi^n^fore here publiflbed. 

*' The Suh-Commiltee appointed to report on Ca,4imere 
shawU, Bueea muj^liu!', and other articlei* of manufaeture 
thiit mny require f;ons<iderable time for their pre^iaration, 
haviti|j met and const dere<l the sxd^jeet r^-ferred to them, 
Bubuiit ihe Ibl lowing as thcLF n'jiort : — 

" 1. Ca*hmert^ shxiwl**. Tlie Nub-Comniittee an? of 
opitiion that the Cashuiere sliawl fubrie? are more likely 
limn Einy other artiele of Tntban manufju-turc to ailndt of 
pui*ee^xful eompetition with the pi-oduetiotis of the loomp 
of l<:iiroi>e, nnd that no exertion ought to be ^j>«Ted tf> i^el 
the hty^t desfription pFi>tniri>ldc. 'Tlie»H» are not n'adUy 
fiumd in the uiackel, ami if made to order, a jtair of -^haw^b 
of the ri(!lies.l pattt^ni vi ill oi-eiipy from a y&nr to eighteen 
nnmlh^ in Ihe miumfinLhire. 

"2. The arlii'k^s matle tif shawl woi>l are of infinite 
TfflHety, rongiug from cai^tets, quiUsj )*adtUc-doth», eano- 



pies, dish-coveri or napkins, to ahawla, gown<piecea, 
etBvats, turbans, ebogbae or eloak#, waiateoata, atoekingi 
and glove»» embracing ahnoflt ereiy ^i^d of &brie uaed ha 
an artiele of drt^. But the Sub-Comnaittee are not pre- 
pared to tceommeQd that all the*& fabrics should be *ent 
to the Exhibition, They leave the consideration of the 
selection to the delihemtion of the General Committee. 

*' 3. The prineipal articles of jie^hmina or ehnwl-wool 
manufaeture may be claseiBed imder the foUowing headi : — 

I. Da<»halla or long slvawla 3^ by 14 gui. 
II. KuBsaba or square t^hawhi 1 j'or 2^ gtix square. 

III. Jamewars or striped shawl pieces 3} by 1| gii3U 

IV, triwan or plain whit<» ahawl cloth. 

V. Mieeelkneoua^ such as carpets, canopies, Middle- 
doths, and variouit articles of drcsB, atodtings^ 
glove*, turbans, &c, 

** I. Bmhailm or Long Shamh, 
*' 4. Doalmllas or long shawls, invariably manufacf ure^l 
and iold in paira, are tho moet esteemed production of the 
looms of Caahmere. They tbtj greatly ac<«pding to the 
richness of the patterns, all of wMeb are distinetly named, 
and according to the colours of which the dy en profess to 
make npwanls of fifty tints, but the Sub- Committee will 
conBne themselves to the leading colours, vi^*, black, 
white, crimikons, purple, blue, green, and yellow, 

** 5, Of the finest doshallas, the prineipai varieties in 
pattern depend upon the amount of detJoration of mil ton 
or eentrc-pieee, the pulla or border^pieces being always 
richly flowered. Tho following are the leading kinds : — 

1. Khide mittou or plain field shawls* 

2. Poor mitton or fiiU-fiowered field* 

3. dwnd-dar, cliantahi-tbr, alifdu koonj bootha-tkr. 

Aeeording to omnment, being a moon or circle in the 
centre, four half moons, green sprigs on a plain ground j 
a group of flowara at the eomerv, or any combination of 
tlie«c. 

" 6. The Sub-Committee would reatriet their considera- 
tion of the colouji to eight kinds, vii. : 1. White, saila or 
safiuHl. 2. Blaek, moorhkee. 3. CVinisou, goolanar. -k 
Scarlet, kennisi. 5. Puqde, ooda. G. Blue, feroiee, 7, 
Gnrn, iingsiree. 8. Yellow, s^unl. 

^* G^, Fine long shawls with plain Hcltl^ of handsome 
pftttii-ns (klmlli niilton), an.^ pnKurable at about IjSUO 
nq>e<?* per pairj and full rtowered, ptKir mifton, at about 
1,RK) nipees*. Tnkiii^ the average of these 1,11RI ruix*^ 
as representing thc price of the third class, including 
chnnd'tkr, ehoutnluHlar, &e., oud as thc average priee uf 
the whole ; and ^uppoeing a pair of en^li of tiie abmo 
ei^ht eoloiire were onlertH^l of the three i*evenil ela?iM?s of 
pattern, wc should have twenty -four pairs of shawls, at 
1,35<> ruijei^, nniking 32, 100 ruiwci* in all. 

" 7, In framing this pad of th<? estinnite, the Sub'Com- 
mittE?e do not mean to recounncnd that the order t^hould 
be BO extensive ; they are s^imply desirous of rurni^lung to 
the tfeneml Conmiiltee the detailed grounds upon which 
Q suitable selection could be made. If the shawla were 
ordered f^inglct instea<i of in pairs, wluL'h they belieire to 
bt^praeticnble although not the custom, the estimate woidd 
lie riHJua'd to lG,2i(X» ruijci^. Fiu-lher, t1iey would suggest 
that some of the wealtluefit Trotive gentlemen about Od- 
eutla hi* whciteil to sc^nd their best pIwiwIs of diileriuit 
colours for the iniii>eelion of the General Committee *o as 
to biniplifv tlie labour of selettion. The govemnient 
toslia ktuina might also furuitih a considerable number of 
various patterns. 

" II. Knxmbas or square ShawU. 
" 8, KuEfsahaJ:^ ot JKjuare jjhawb, eallixl also Roomals, are 
of two elafl.*e«, vi^., Kaneo roomaL or loom-nmnufacturiHl, 
and Utnlec roomal, or needle- enibroiden-d shawls. In 
form they are more suitcfl to the ta^te of the Europeans 
than the long shawls, ancl are made and sold siiii^ly. Tlu'v 
nin tltfougb the tatne range of eolniir and jiatfem as tlui 
long sbawl*, and the Sub- Com nut lee frame their ]>n>v»- 
aiointl estimate ac4>ordingly< Tiie needle* worked kiut.b are 



BepeirDENciKiir} 



EAST INDIES. 



mr, 



I 

I 



I 



I 



murli cheaper thiwj the Iootn-niaiiitffi€t\iredi and the em- 
bioidenr is far superior in pattern and citvution to tin? 
•mi}« and Ahnwbi tinbroideriHl at Delhi Assuming eight 
ooloiir^ and three pat teru3 of vnch of the Knnt* rti-onial, 
«t ui arernge of 400, 300, and 5<X) rupee* each, twenty- 
Ibmr aqoAi^^ «1iawl» woidd cost 9,G00 nipeea ; and the Mune 
number of needle- worked of Umlee roonuiln, at im BTerage 
of 225, 150, to 300 rupees, would cotut 5,400 nipeea. 

** ITT, JanKwars. 
form the third great cla«s: they are 
liind«om0 striped loom- wrought fahric« of rich patt^'ms, 
df which the Frwich striped rolonred muBlin» are printed 
imitatiijn^. Tliey arc nmniifiu'liUHK^l of an infinity of pat- 
tem*, but tlie priufipiil kincb are the R<*^a-h«x>thQ or 
mall dowered, ttte KJrkhn-bc>otha or hirgc lloiivcrctl, and 
tiie J>ial<lar or netted pattt^ms. Hie most ehiboratflv 
WQfked cost BS much as 2,000 nipoe* cHch. Ten pit'cc** 
vqald inrhlfle a £iir rarielT of patt<^m§ at an average^ eay 
t^BOO ffapett each, making 6,000 ni|H.T«. 

• 10. Ulwmn, or plain shawl wool-cloth, k woven like 
pliin mualin without flower or ornament^ and ia made in 
pienpa of rarioua Wngtlis. It fonns the centre portioti or 
mitton of ahAwb, aud is u»ed for turbans and cimnnur- 
bund*. It is well adapted for kdie.^i^ drt'^^de^. Eight 

of twenty y*riia each of tin? <lijrcrent colours above 
at «ix rupew per yard, would cost 1W50 rui>t\*H, 

•• IL Another fiibric ia made which mttv be inchiilc<i 
onder tho aama head a$ Ulwnn^ called ^tuloecbdi ]iushiriinaf 
being intended to imitate £uro]>ean Imiad clot hi?. It i^ 
lonned of Ulwan, manipulated in a p>ecidi:ir manner in 
vafcer, no aa by rubbing to tcaze out the wool of the thrt^nd 
and raise it into a nap. A piece of twenty yard«, at six 
nipec«» would cost 120 rupees. 

"IS. A coarser fabric, of the wime elaea, is manufnc- 
twed m the Mill State* to the north-west of Simla, called 
PBttoo pcwhinina, which pu^si'^M?)? threat ftoftiie»B and 
vmotli — ^tn many twpocta rivalling fine broad cloth. 

"V. MUeeUaueout, 

•* IS. Hie miaoellaneou* articles of shawl- wool fabric 
»t rseoEictinirly numerous*. They may be clasHifietl — - 

"1. Artu4<« of dres»: — Choghiia Ulkbtdik^, Pai*tccii 
Shiiiiihui, or Cianmurbundfi and Loon^Bcs, made in imita- 
tion of the silk Loong«es of Mooltan Go^ih-pechj or Dnji- 
tui turban pieces. Oulioohuncb or cravats, of great 
nricty. Piatan BuTid^ or ncckerchie&* N ukaah 5llcq50sh 
Of t fisuseja . Takhum caps. Toorab. Short stockings 
(Oooldar). flowercil and Nuhramut stripes. Moseh long 
lliNJiui^s Charkiianna or Loomc rolie for women. 

•*!. Articles of furniture: — iQialin Pcslunina eaqu^ts. 
SiunMitda and Takpoeh screens and cnirtains, for doors, 
ffboovs^ and recesses. PuJuijg-po»h or quilted coverlets. 
Ihaiirfiosht dish-eoveni, and napkin**, horse fumitim\ Ac 
Ctsrar-i-asp, saddltw^lotlia, Kuz«ur-i-fll, elepliant** 
boaaiig. Sacewan or canopies, tcnt-i, kc 

* 14^ 1^ Sub-Committee have not gone into the de- 
Ms ^il' tlip |m'oe« of these mii«cvllancons articles, as they 
An act oonsi<lrr the ornuigement^ rcquwitc for procuring 
lIlM lo be of the Kime emergent c*ltarflcter as those re- 
qiiivil tor the lending dasses of the **hawl articles. With 
n^artl to the Utter, their are of opinion that no time 
^NRiid hr loist in detemuning the number and variety of 
<W aitkba rNpiin?d for the Kihihition, and in aubniit- 
1^1 m it fwei itarion to Oovernment on the suhjei't^ thai: 
the wmBt/mj measurps for procuring them may be put 
^■Mdblahr in operation. 

••Ut The Sub-Committee find, from a mraiomndnm 
tl*iwiiniisl«4 to thern by one of their mend>crs, tJitit 
lodLhah*, Tass, Budla?, and other defrriptiotist of onli- 
Wrj broaiklrs. are n-ndily procurable to nnler on two 
' Aoticc, ftt Kna«im Baxaar, and Benares, With 
lo tltsae arttcle«s therefore, it in not neeesftary Xa 
iJitf nMftirts of the local <N:>nimittt^'' at thu^e 
But tliere iii n gorgeous and very exyien^ive 
aC lifooades, manual umt with »olid gold wire 





djniwn out into fuie thr^Ml, which cannot be had without 
six or eight months' previous notice. Tliey would recom- 
incnd, therefore, that thret^ pieces^ of Kini-Kliab, and three 
of Tftsff, of the hitter description, be provided for on emer- 
gent orfler. 

** Iti. W^itb regard to Dacca muslinp, the Snb-Com- 
raittee understand, from a memorandum furnished by 
Mr. Agabeg, that the finest deKTiptions,Bueh as Midmul- 
Khas, take fully twelve months to prepare, one sicca 
weight of the thn;ad n'<|Uiring three months to \h} spun. 
Tliey woidd recommend that measures be atloptcil fur an 
iTumediate order of the fubric* of this dt^Tii>tiou. A de- 
taileul memorandum with an estimate of Ine prices are 
ap|X"iided. 

"17. Tlie procuring of the moro ordinary sorts of 
Dacm mushii may be left to the Dacca Local Committtm 
to armnge for. 

^^ 18» ilie Suh-Conimittee have confined their attention 
to tlie thrtH? cln*w>8 of fabrics itlMtve n'|K)rled on, vis,: 
Cashmere shawl tabrics, brwadc**, and Dm'ca muslins, 

«1I, Faicokib,M.D. 

*^ JOSSFU Ao^ABEO. 

*' j0UYKldS£.V MoAtatBJBX.'* 

Silk has long been known in Indhi, but is sup|X)Bed by 
some to have been brought trom Cbina^ a(* in «4)inc old 
works it is calletl cloth of China j but we know that there 
are (d«> f*eTend s|>ecies of silkwoMii, as the Tussur, Eria, 
Mfwga, and GoonH% inthgenou.H to the forests of dillercnt 
part** of India. ll»c silk of Beiigul was originally inferior 
in quality and carelessly wotuid. The Eu4*t India C^im- 
pany, in the yrair 1757, sent a Mr. Wilder to improve the 
winding of *Uk» an<l, in the year 1769, other Eum|x^ans, 
as drawers, whiders, reclers, and iiiechanics. The iilature» 
were all m Bengid, to the fiouthward of 26° of N. latitude, 
for the north-west provinc-es are much too hot and dry 
for tlie silkwonn. It is prohable that t]ie silk eultuj^ 
night ea^^dy be carried on in the valleys of the Himalaya. 
Some fine Hpecimeni* of raw (iilk have been t^vwi from Ben- 
gid, as well as fn:>m Mysore, The silk got>ds sent by 
Messrs. Jnrdine and hy Messrs. Vnrrlon have bet^i inui'h 
adminnl, as well as the Cashmere silks, for their substan- 
tial natun.' and lor their moderated tone of colouring. On 
the Bombay wide we may see tluit the raw material is im- 
port^-d from BL^lgal and fnmi China, and that tlie manu- 
tacturera have attained a high degnn^ of skill and exeel- 
lem^e. Among the*<e an- pietvs of silk which, like tho 
cottons metitioned before, are remarkable for being of dif- 
fenmt cohmrs on the two sides. Tbe?je are from Poona 
and Ahme«flnnggur. 

Both enlicocs and inu^ilins, as well as woi»llen cloths, arc 
employ e<l by the nativcj;' to embroider, and some bi^autiful 
apcciincnii in all the material*, and fnun tliirerent part« of 
India, have been sent to the Exhibition ; and wliether wo 
cTtiirnine one worked at Dneea or at Delhi, Afadras or 
Moollun, Cashmere or KliyqMJor, and whether in ^ilk, 
silver or gold, we set^ gre^d. variety and taste displayed in 
the patterns, fi»r even the mo<*t flowery or gOfgetJUJ* arc* so 
kept within bounds as to upiiear never to eieeed what ia 
apjiropriate to the purix)^* for which the article i* made. 
Tbis we see equally in (heir wort-n a* in their embroidered- 
fahries, as inueh in tlie nigs of Ellorc and the carpets of 
Mirzapore and Uonick|wre as in the shawls of Cashmere, 
and not more in the shawls than in the carpetd of tlmt 
fap-finneil valley. 

India has k>ng Ix'cn famous for its etcelj and the nBtivea 
were early acquainted with the pro«x^s of wehling iroui. 
tioldcn aniiour ia fn<|uently mentioned in the Hig Vedii, 
thivt ift 12 or 1 liM} years preceding the Christian era; 
and dilferent parts of the count rj- arc faraou-t for their 
works in copper and brass, as well as in silver and gold. 
As the natives employ the two first for the greater part of 
their cooking utensib, and tbe two hvst both for usefrd 
and oaTMunentftl purposes, there has alwuys been a grmt 
demand for these different works in metals : all are re- 
n^arkable for the goodm?*9 of tbeir nbape, whether made 
of eopi>er or brass, or of the inlaid work, e4dled Bidry. 



[OfFICLAI '[hLVHTBATFU CATilOCIFB,] 



^x 




EAST INDIES. 



[CoLONtKS AKD 



Tliew is grent dufjAnoe in the silver aeniwj irtlaid with 
mo^aJL* Itoiii CiiNhinerw lite miiw elegntif^ of fi^rm is 
I icim in the ro*»e'Wnt^'r sprinklers, or jQ;oolabB5, whieh are 
employed to e-priokle n *■***- wiiter over depnrtirig; visitors. 
Much of ttie jcwfUerv, thim|i;li rieh anvil iinndftoine, w 
j>et idinr, tuLH-iiviiH" tl>e trtste^ of the native^*, and the niode» 
of wearing it, ditfiT tkini t!u).'H* of Enropewns. A ^yvni 
vnrietv ii.* wt'U of jeweMed b<ince* havt* btvn wnt by !h^^ 
ilidut RnjidiN of Nepal and Cuslniiere, antl by tlie JUjahs 
of Itrijpootiiim and of Ciiteh. The froM and silver girdlefl 
of A^iziiitipi^inn are as in^rfect in workmanakip aa tlie gold 
chiiin of Triehino]>oly i» elegant. 

DacMNi w one of the ]dmv« iX'kbrat^'fl for ita silver filigree 
work j Cut took and Agru aro others : from all of which 
«|HH'imeniB have been utMit. The artielea usually made art* 
bmivh'ta, ear- rings, broc^eheft^ and chains j ahso gronjis 
of llr>werH, attnrtliin*, and iroall hotm for luitivea, of all 
of wliieh bt^autifid »|K*oimpn» have bceti ^nt. Mr. Taylor 
saysi^ the dewi^i best atbipted for displaying the delicate 
work of lilignv is thnt of a leaf. It should be drawn on 
Btout pttptfT, and of the exact suec of the urtiele intendtxi 
U) be voider. The npparatua u*od in the art is exetx^ltngly 
iimple, oonaistinu merely of a few snmll erueibles, a pieeo 
of baniboo for a blowyjipe, siniall bainmerw for Hatteiiing 
the wire, and set.-* of foreepsi for intertwisting it. 

The drawing of silver and gold wire, i. r, j^ilver covered 
with gold (n*ed as thread in einbroiderj), is extens*ively 
earned on at DflcnL Benares is abo eek'bmtcjd for the 
art. The prepoLrations of the (^Id-wire for the fabries of 
BoorhflJipore liii« ftht^dy been deacribed at p. 1>20. Then* 
at^ aevem Tarietiei of §ilver and gold thread (Badla) 
imifle at Dacca, aa Goolabatooro for the embroidery of 
inu>*hns and silks j QosUoo for caps and covering the 
hauillea of chowries ; SuhnaJi for tiirbanB, alippera, and 
hookah snakes ; and Boolun for ^Id lace and brocades. 
Soiue of it is drawn aa fine a^i a hair. , 

The beauty of fomv ia at ill more conapicuons in mneh 
of their lottery. Many of the fonna are those whieh 
are moat admired, as being of elassical shAiies, Sonie of 
the vases eren look almost as if they were of Etruacan 
ori^in^ There b no reason to believe that the natives 
have ever had anvtluni? but their own unerrii^ taste to 
guide tliem, whether at Bha^pore or Moraoabad, at 
Xotali^ Aalini«tdabad, or near Nagpore. 

The natives of Indb having long been acquainted with 
a number of num noctures wliieh are supposed to have 
ori^nated in Eun:>j>eT. but of which there I* no doubt that 
tmesft may be found at still eftrlier [k^mla in the East. 
Somie of tbesd aiv of a chemical nature., aa for insCanoe, 
the rrralalliuiHon of sugar and the nianufaetuiv of indigo, 
a^ well as tliat of |(unpowder, of which seveml specimens 
were scut in the powder-Ha»ks whieh aeeompamed manj 
of the lutttehlorkis for which their country even now sup- 
plies the saltpctrv for Euro|ie. Retl ink thev obtain bv 
tlie oc^tion of tt«g«nta on safllower, kc ; ancl blaek ink 
K>th by a proeess simflar to our own, and h^ Miotlier 

^- ' ■ ' ■- -rfr resembles that for printers* ink, which 

' their i^jx^r. Paper is another of the 
- whieh ha* long been known in the 
Kast. In luclm b made it%Mn a variety of tnaterials, as 
(hull i>oUon, aud of late years fvutu phuitatn Sibt^, In 
Ci.*htJtere the fibre of hemp soeois also to be eiuDloved, 
but tht\Mi|^hout tlte Hinialavas Ihff |)tilp obtainea nvm 
lbs ibm of IMmi^mt vmmm mtimm w umrsnaltj fBiployed. 
Wllk U hmf bMA baAi Urn laigo shBiN «f Nvpnl 
flMMi^ TIm maniiAMitiiiv nf Imtlicir mmui also lo haTe 
Sm hxm UTMlised, and lo Invo Vmb vmd fbr HMikltig 
thosa and flikida. TH« mc^imiii wlileli hat* bifln seiit 
an* of excellent tpiahhr » but tlK^i»e no doubl ow tlMir 
peculiar i|U(Uiti%'« to Kim))HMiu MU|iehnteiidMMi^ i§ tli» 

and that fr^uu IL^^irnKm at the lloTVilMiMil oalll* «•!»• 
bliahuu'Ut of that pUiv. \h\K VmAwiM^ Imm bi%«i W^ 
&moua for it;* ledheri ami \KMi\^i\xn , «u e\ 
d»cribc« it a* "Ht^^v^vc, sv^hd, Wiw. x^\\ v , u| 

tUis without Kur Unnvl 

of Uvu ^IW*' 




making is another art with which they are acquainted, but 
in vvliieh they have made little or no progress, ae the glaaa 
is diJH'oloiired and used only for bangles and small bottles. 
ThcM' are I he chief art ii'le?i of manufacture ; but the author 
has sueiivded m getting the gliiss- bio werw of the norlh-west 
to intike him very fair barometer and thermometer tubes 
out of broken EumiK'an gkps. 

Dyeing is a strictly ehumical art with which the Hindoos 
have l>tvn iM^ipiaintcd fwm ver%' early perior!.*, though no 
inprovemcnts appear to have been ouide in it for ages. 
TliekLConntrv' yiekla an abmtdanee and a variety of raw 
materials as we liavcttcen in the list of dyc« ; the mordajits 
which they employ an.> chietly alum and salts of iron, 
while the alkalies and ajcitls which tlicy likewise employ 
can be considered as useful only in chau^ng the shades of 
cfjloun*. Calieo-prioting ii* universally acknowledged aa 
bt-ing of Indian origin, and un art which was known to 
the EgT>ptianfl, as mentioned by Pliny, in a passage fro- 
qncntly quoted. Though the art has »o greatly advanced 
in Kurofx^, the Indian jmttems still rt^tain their own par- 
ticular beauties and please midtitudes of admirers, due no 
doubt, in a great measure, t-o the command whieh the 
natives of Inclia have of colours, and the admirable taste 
Willi which they harmonise complicated patterns. Of 
some parts of the art, as for inatanee print m^ on gold, 
wliith has been only recently practii^cd in E«iroi)c, some 
eiocllent specimens have been sent from Western India. 

Ilaring so early practified manv of these arts, it is very 
rcTuarkable that the Hindoos should for so many agea 
have remained AatiRlitxl with the progress they had made. 
Thi^ has Ixvn aserilx'd in a great measnTc to the distinction 
of «i-stc.*, and to the pohtiml condition of the ]*ef>ple. 
That they are cop«hleoi greatly improving in the diilerent 
ut^eful art*, is cedent from the works which are turned 
out of the Oovcminent magazines and arsenala, and as 
may he seen in the aeiMjutrements, and in the models of 
the* artillery frora the ditferent Presidencies. The same 
thing may be seen in the teak -shipping built at Bombay. 
The saw-gins made in India are said to do their work as 
efficiently as those of England or of A.merica. On the pre* 
sevit oeca^on we have harness as well aa btxtts from the 
Messrs. Montcith of Calcutta^ which would do cretlit to 
any shop in London or Paiis. So also the ropes made in 
imitation of those in use in Europe, as sent hy Messrs. 
Harlon and Messrs. Thompeon^ from Calcutta. The 
neatness of their work may also be serai in the model of 
the omshing-nuiehine sent by the Coinmisvary-'GeDeral 
of Madras, and the delicacy and aecurary of machinery 
made by their bauds in tlie ooii^aoirtii:^ machine of Major 
Smith. 

Tlie Hindoos are remarkable not only for the exquisite 
skill which Ih^ display in the fkbricatiou of the smaller 
work* of fancy, but for the patience and resolution which 
they ch^lay in the excavation of their rock-cut temples, 
and for the beautiful polish which ihey have given to the 
surface of the hardest rocks. Dr. Kennedy has described 
the tools with whieh the Uindoo workman performs tha»e 
works. The}' consist of a small steel tmael and of an 
iron mallet — " with such simple inatmnaents they formed, 
£i^uoneda and icwpcd the granite lock wliich forms the 
tremendoos fo itieis of Dowlatabad and excavated the 
wonderful caverns of EAatmi lor H aeems by no mMzis 
probable that the Hindoo stone^enlien vrtr worked wtth 
aiiy oClwr tools.** Hie mode in which tbey poliah kheae 
ma aai of fnmHe mn Hie «me in prtnci^ as hae alnaa^ 
bem fleeembed as beiai; practiseil by the «tone>poli^eTS 
of Ounhay. poumled eorundrum mixed with nbelted beea' 
wax beini; hk into the lioUow of a heavy block of gramte, 
wlikh k ttOfvd backwards and fervwda until the required 
pelMh ha* bcMi pvodueML Wa maj be kas •orprised, 
tlMwdbft^ with the pohah nrea to the aaialkr artklea of 
mn^ Mid PfWHiiHaii^ Sbt wkkh. ^ot ot^ the wwkmem <^ 
(SmU^ bill aW "f i\*h«,,.f^ ba^ go igg^ ^g^ ^1^ 
livtfuisWct lut* -^orthelndMuidepaKment. 

wvhaf«eiwii^b«>^ uuais &Qia Lahore of crntal 

em«» ••^J"^ w i«iiW Uam inkid with prvctoaa stonea. 
lUr^m U^««l ilalita havlnf iMtt in C^shnwre a xmB of 



!IDV!«CIfiR.] 



EAST INDIES,— CEYLON. 



mi 



I. 



! which four men coiild «iirt"ely lift. There could ' 
i no diflicultv in carving in iiiftrblc or utliei- atone, but I 
I we atumoi tb? less iKlniire tlie beautiful pnttems of the | 
ncrfc-na from Mirzapore. Such MTtxus^ twiudly of i 
b! '" 11 uMnl for surrouiidini* the toiiib.i in the i 

1 Agra find of Delhi- llie skill in eaninjcj 
., J t laved in eoft^r materials, iis* in snntlal-wood 
Dny» and abo in the bliit"k-woo<l {iJatftfnp^ la/i- 
, of which BO many specimen* may he. seen in the 
niture made at Booibaj. Thi4 Hkill b olw displayed hy 
[the ivon*-carreni of BerhAmpore^ the sliiell- workers • of 
I Dicca, and in tht* horn- work of Vizagapatmii and of 
I Tiftftdiong;, and in that of the ewtia-nut at Tiiujore, and 
liliD moire in the dehcaoj with wliieh the fij^urt^ gf the 
Irlnih And Bance of Trarancore are produced, in so soil 
|CQdjielding a muteriiil as pith. 

Tne fine art* liavc hjirrlly attained that excellence in 

f India as to n^quiTe niiieh notice, except as connectt^d with 

llw» ohjtvta within the hmitation» of the Esliibition, 

Painting: ha* nefer attained to anj excellent, though the 

aro admirable dehneat^jrs of swrime objeetsT tw of 

[ aalCDal bktory, which they can copy to a haur, without, 

, any attention to perspective. The paint ui^^« on 

[ vliich are exbibii«d are interc»tin|[ aft exhibiting 

I tod cootumes. Their seulptiur^ though employed 

fm tlie representations of their gods nnd goddcssi-e^, has 

f faaxfded in giving good views of the hiunan iB|Tiire; 

I aod Tft tHejr would seem cnptible of odecting much, for 

[ the modeb of the fljp^irea of I be yarions castca are very 

xeKfiil in the yariety of cxpnwsion which they iinjiart, 

i tbor racoeaa ia great in the earying of eomo nnimak ; 

Ibt JTtftanre., in the head of the eleplittut m ivory^ 

[ ftvra Bcrhampom ; aUo in tlw? stone figures of tlie 

I clnihant^ rhinoceros, and sacred ox. Tlicir stone, wood, 

I uitl iTtTpr carving mi^ht ereo be considered a^ i^noing 

. Pithiii this section of the fine art«, firom the Ix^outy of the 

I and the elegance of e:Rbct which is prciHLluei'^L 

_ aving on gems ha« l^ug been practiced in the En^it, 

firilh great iocoeBa, ae far ai ornamental litters arc 

efRwd. Of these there are some favourable sjx^ci- 

s» bom. tie^hi ; and from Mathra^ we hare stones eti' 

I ptndf repreeentation^ of a lighthoiL<e, and monumeuts. 

Tbt D)0«aics &oni Agra, as shown in the marble elites- 

lib inlaid with agates, as well as io ink^tandn, cnnl- 

I tnm, io^ arc farourable specimens of the art. Though 

I ik m aoaMliiuea said that this art may have been iiitro- 

into Agra fivm Italy, it is not more elegaul in 

n than die inlaid workf for which the metal- work 

^IVd * bidrTt" is conspicuous, antl tVtr which the inlaid 

fiitrr scfrice and bedBt«^ from Cashmere is so reiriark- 

•Wc. This beauty of pattern, so eoiiitpieiu^iis in the 

^ab of CasUmcrv, is also displayed with remarkable 

tel» m tbo seyerai boxes and pen-and-ink trays from 

tW«CBr p«H of India. 

An^itttttre is at least one of the fine arts in which the 
Bmcioos hare exofrlled, as their «iyle is their own^ and the 
Atu ahielt thej produce |>eculiar and striking, and this 
flallter ve rxamine the canred temples of EUora, or the 
y H | wk> of the Peninsula; of tbe«>e, the pith models are 
^ iKify FV^V 9 C ptntiy es in the Exhibition, llie mcHlek 
•tidi«» cihibtted from Benares and Mirwipore show the 
WJjbgg^ fijtm of the temples in the valley of the Giingcfi, 
Hw UM! fuiHieb of the Mii-yid or mosque and Uiiuloo 
t^ipk figpi Ahmedflbxid sliow a diffennt stylo of arclii* 

Ffm tbe le i t mrforr view which we have taken of 
IWaiii o] ' lot but allow that the natives of 

tk|«viir ' )[de means and their uxia^ (tinted 

lAvl^ ivTr pn>api'i'i v^niks which we cannot but admire, 
fim lAir ivmntlering in all the courts of the CVy i^tnJ 
hbea flidiaKl«d to llie aria of Eurojie ; an^l, if we doubt 
9m o«ii j«dgtE»eat£« we may refer to the numerous artists 

••^^jBMMi^ T f ' ■' ' 'tthoni! d^rhe itithtfenaatBrtsor 

i^it i» •iticil *^ Dacca exec'l. IhtuhtmkM of 

*MlCi«y tlVSLk '*^'^ ahelU ( I'l/tuta grttPftf LuinOi 

liMg|§1«W»«i, irM^rwa »<mir, «na •>■ a yurt* white L>i>luur. Tl)rey &tp 
-njHiM b»«« I >li>stt* fl«fa lUnsfikd mttd Houth/etn lndi«, opposite to 
Ljltf^^ Ohb Urn MaUiva bIsaiU.'' 



who mny daily Ix* seen cmploytKl in drawing anditii4ying 
the works of » jit^iple wtioin many consider na puoed 
bt-yond the y>ale of eivilistation, but among whom we may 
see the [iraeticc of many useful arts, which we sometimes 
fancy iJur own, Kn^aiute the Moors introduced thein into 
Kuro]»e ; and we may ob-wr^e, ftlso, tlie geniii» of some 
di.'icoveric* wliich we know have only rcccutly been nia- 
tunnl in Kiintjii^ though we have no mcan» of judging 
whether the idea may not, in some instances, have come 
from the East, 

Wo cannot do better than oonolude, t^erefciv, iheso 
hastily -writ ten observationa on the arts and manul^uroa 
of India, in one of the mott^nies of the Oflicial Cntalogue — 
" Say not the discoykrieb wk m:ake AJtE oub own : 

TUE GERMS CU' EVKItY ABT AUK IMPLANTED WITHIN trg, 

AND God, ora iNBTwrcroB, fbom mi>DEN &ot7BCii^ 

DBVBIOPB TltB JJkCJTLTlMS QW DfVENTIOir." 



CEYLOK 

North Abe as, I. J, 31. 

Collection of NATtTiiAL Productions and MAjmiAO- 
TUHES of the Island of Ceylon :^ 

Rock Crystal Iron and common quarts Amcthyat* 
Garnet. Cinnamon stone. liarmotome. Homblefode^ 
Hypcrsthene, Conmiou eonmdum. 

Ruby. Cluysobcryl. Zin-uu- Mica. Adularia. Com- 
ijiou fehipar. Grrewn felsiiar. All>ite. Chlorite. Pinite. 
Black Tourmaline. CBl(^Bpa^, Bitterspar. Apatite. Fluor- 
spar. Uhiai»tohte, 

Inm pmtcs ; magnetic iron pyrites. Brown iron ore. 
Spathic iron ore. Magnetic iron ore. Titaniferous iron 
ore, Irongbnee. Manganese. MoIyb<lcn glance. 

Tin ore. Arseniate of Nickel. Pbimbago. Epistilbit-e. 
Gailoliiiite. W'olfram. Crichtonite. Ihncuite. PjTocldore. 
Bimieritc. Ceylon ite. Cabook. Kaolin. 

[The geology of Ceylon is imperfectly known in detail^ 
but it appears that various porphyritic rocks and gneias 
chictly prevail, tlie Latter covering the largest area, but the 
former exhibiting many very iotereeting yariel^es. Sand* 
stone occurs to some extent, and some cakareoua rocks 
and dolomite lujve also been described. 

Tlie mineral ]>poduco of the island is somewhat varied 
and of considerable value^ and many of the minerals men- 
tioned above are of considerable interest. Of the metals, 
iron and manganese abomid, while 3cvcraj gems (cut's-cyc, 
ruby, and sapphire), plumbago, salt, and nitre, arc also 
iin|K»rtant ftouroei of profitable trade, Tlicre are several 
hernial mineral springs, *oonaidered valuable for medical 
purposes, 

Borne yarietica of predous corundum of eonsidi»rablo 
value haye been found in Ceylon, but Fcgti i* their chief 
locality. The OeyUm plumbago is soft, but muarksbly 
pure. The s^t exists in natural dei>osita, and is an im- 
|iortant source of revenue. Nitre is found in cavern?, and 
is widely distributed. Ol' the various nuucrals mentioned 
above^ Qa4oVUte contains the rare earths ytlria and 
glucina, and J'^ochhrf, the equally rare substanocs, 
oolumbium» cerium, and thoriiuu. Cabook is a redtlish 
loam, resulting from the decomposition of clay iron- 
stone.— D. T, A.] 

Obk7| The Couotesa. 
A gilt sprinkler under a glass shade, firom Ce^Iod* 

Albrecht, Greenhill, & Oo. 

Cinnamon and cinnamon od. 

Cocoa-nuts, from the isouth and We.^t Province. Rio^ 
general. Arnjw-root, from the South Province. Manibea^ 
tVom t he We.Hi and Sout li Pro vin re. Hdl |mddy, from the 
Central Province. Curugan, geuend. Muiie, firom the 



93rt 



CEYLON. 



[COT^NlKa ATO" 



f'Soutlt and Oviilral PiHsrinco. Millet and Tiiine, from tbe 
same. 

Coflee, from the Ccntml ProTince, cliieflj. Cardamom*, 
firom tlie Four Korlt'^i*^ Guile. 

Oinnamoti, from the WeMti*m Provinci?. 

Tobacco, from Jaffiiii, NepoTiibo, Taugdle. Ginger and 
Tiutmtigi fn>m t\w W<^tom Prt>viuot\ Yaitls and 5WcH.'t 
potatoes. Tntipol K^vi^^ from the C^Mitrnl Pnnim^*. 

CofH>a-nut sugar, from Battiealoa j Pidmyra sm^r, from 
Jiiff^ia ; Cams migar, from the Western Prorinee. 

Mautoca floiir, from the Wt^t and Sootti Province, 
AiTOw^rool flour, from tlio SouHiem Province. Bago, 
from the Northern Provinee, Viuegar» 

Cotton, naHvc, Bourbon and Sea Island ; from Bat- 
tiealoa and JatlYia. 
' Coir fibre, from the South and West ProTrimv- 

Gamboge and tamarinds, from the West and East Pro- 

Areea nuts, from Four Korles. 

[The areca nute mentioned are jiclded by a pnhn, and 
: aro highly esteemed by tlie natives of the East, They 
proTc a not unimportant artiele of commerc<.% and ona 
wlao ermployml, to a nTnall extent, in the arta. But they 
arc princi|Milly valued for a sort of iuebriatin|r property 
which tlicy jwieesi*, aijd whieh b jwreeived in ehewing 
them. Thoee who bet-ome addieted to diiit habit ^ whieh 
la almost utuTer^d, are passionately attadied to the uae of 
these nuts.— B, EJ 

Copiwroh, fi«ni the Ewt and West Provinee. {Cop- 
i>emh iM the dricsd kernel of the eocoa-nut, which abounds 
m the Houtb.) 

Timber, generah Clearing Nut, from the North West 
and Eaat Provinee. 

Aloe fibre, eurdamum, pbintain, and hibiscua fibre, from 
Kandj and Colombo. 

[The bark of several apecies of IHbiicwt h »o tenacious 
fts t<j yield a seniwable material for t4*xitle purj>oeca. 
For the manufacture of a eoarse kind of cordage it in eon- 
didembly employthi, and the fibre ia Ukevrise used for 
making a coarse desieription of racking. The Mihueus 
belongs to the Malvatvoua variety of plants.— R, E.] 

Ivory and biilTalo bonis, from the North and Eoat 
Province, Deer homa, from the Control! and North 
Province. 

Birfls* nests, from Pasdoom Korle. 

IToney and wai, from Bintenne. 

Hides and hoofs, from Colonibo. 

Htiflic, from the Northern ProTinoe. 

Chaj, a root, or Indian madder, fr*om the Nortbem 
Provinces. 

Jack and maldle, or halmaliUe woods, ceneniL 

Sappan wood, from the West, Southland East Provinees. 

Tiirmoric and mjroholans^ from the East Coast. 

[The turmeric of commerce is yielded by a jilont be- 
longing to the natural onler ZiftijiheracefB, ami botani- 
Cftlly called Citrcttma lonffa. It i^ largely uskvI iu the 
preparstion of Tarious condiments, and al^io for dyeing. 
It has likewise mtHlieinal ppo|>erlie3. Tlie analytical 
chemist ia accustomed to ]m^]win* slight testings for alka- 
lies by the aid of paper colon rt^d with turmeric, the change 
of coh>ur allbrding liim the in formal ion he requires. — 

Pearls, Arejso. 

Ghidka, from the Northern Province. JafFha moss, from 
CUpentyii. 

Bpoii£?ea and cowries from JaflTna and Trincomaleo. 

Salt from Chela w and Hambaulotte. 

B4»ohe de mer, from the Northern Province. 

p^eche do Mer k a radiated animal of the Holothm-ia 
tribe.] 

Oils : cocoa nut^ purified, cinnamon, clove, citron, 




lemon grass, and cajepnti, frtitn Colombo, Galle, Margoaa 
oil, from Kandj, Cmtou and castor oil»» from Colombo. 
Kekima and giugelly oils, from Kandy. Citronolla, meo- 
mil, and s|)t^rmint oils, from Galie. Mee oil, from 
Colombo. 

ModeU of carriages and palanqnina, from Colombo 

Chekoos, from f be Western Province. 

Looms; stills (medieal), from the North, North West, 
and South Provinces. 

Forgea ; smelting furnaces, frt>m the Central and South 
Provincea. 

Mmlelsof boataj gnnsj Wicapona, genera]^ Kandy, &c, 

Agrieultural toola. 

Cotton fabricj*, plain and dyed, from the Norths East, 
and South Provinces. 

Cotton fabrics, iminted, from Kandy, 

Lace, from Galle. 

Cutlerj', general. 

Gold and silver ornaments, from Kandy, Jafl\ia,GaDe,A<?. 

CrtR'kery, plam and pamted j and four toms, from 
Kandy and Mafuro, 

Matting, fmnn Kandy and Caltura, 

Coir cordage, from the Southern Provinces. Coir web- 
bing and bagging, from the Southern and Norfheni Pro- 
vinces. 

[Among the almost innmnerable uses lo which the 
coeoa-nut jjwilm, Covxa Hucijera^ haa been applietl, that of 
yieldinig a fibre for the protluction of uordage is not the 
leaat important. Tliia fibre, caUed coir^ i» obtained from 
the rind of the nut It ia manufactured, on an exteoatre 
scale, into wnlage, webbing, bagging, Ac., and x^Baeaaaa 
certain properties which practically fit it for thij* piu-poae. 
Being little acted on by water, and at the same time 
extremclv tenacious, the ri»]»© made of it is valuable for 
maritime jyurposes. Tlie fibm is UiQ coarae for any of the 
finer teittde puqjoaes. — H. E.] 

Abe bagging, from Kandy. Hibiscns bagging, and 
cordage. Sanserira bagging, from Colombo. 

[The Sttuscrira bagging is obtained from the fibre of a 
liibinceous x^'Pennial pknt, abondunt in trt>piiral Africa 
and India generally. The fibre is eitremelv tough, and 
iniwera for the manufacture of t^oarae materijiln, Kudi as 
that deacribetl. Several other plant* of the i^ame order 
are found to yield a useful fibre for textile purpO!*ea.— R.E.] 

TortoisesheU and Chank ornaments, trom Kandy, 
Matura, and Galle, Fibbing Iint*s aiid nets. 

Bnaketa and boite« j tjuilJ^ deer horn, buflalo bom, and 
straw, from Caltura and Galle. 

Kandy painted baaketa and boxes; nmbreUas; punkahs, 
from Kandy. 

Omumcntecl oIas soap, from Kandy and Mating Qalle. 

Car^ ed work, ebony, from GaUe and Caltura ; ivory, from 
Four Korles ; woikIs, frum Galle and Caltura ; stodl, from 
the Central Province* ; cocoa-nut sliells, from Galle ; and 
egg shells, Kaiixly. 

Models of Temples, from Colorabq, 



txl^P 



PiRLETT, O^IlALLOEAlf, k Co., ColmnhQ. 
Specinun\s of cinnamon, with essential oQa exi 
tberefromj with implements for cutiiog and fjeeling. 

An ebony table, inlaid with llfly difierent woods; a foir 
»pefimcn of Cingalese eabinei-work. 

Motlel of eoiit^e- works and a))i>aratus used in Ceylon. 

Model of patent stove and apparutua for curing eolfee, 
by M. Clerihew, of Rathnaigon. 

Thirty ajriecimen* of o^echeijial oils, b'om T, A, Pieria, of 
Kandy. 

Guns and rcsina from T. A. Pieri», of Kandy. 

Forty spt*citiiena of ornamental and houfio-building 
timber. 

Ebony -carved flower ti 



Dei*k of porcupine quills. 
Painted ivory f»n- handle. 
Bufialo horns mounted in adver. 





II. 

umsu PossEsssoj^s 

SN EUROPE. 



CHANNEL ISLANDS.— MEDITERRANEAN. 




For special infonnation on the general characteristics of the contributions forwarded by different places coming 
under this head, reference will be made to the commencement of each. A short prefatory notice is intended 
to furnish a sketch in outline of these, and is attached to each separate catalogue. The dependencies included 
under this head are in numerical order — the Channel Islands, Malta, and the Ionian Islands. — R. E. 



CHANNEL ISLANDS. 

NoBTH Side, I. J. 30. 

Omminiamert — Captain W. WALBAmns Childeiis, Ter- 
race House^ 8e. Melier, Jersey, and Thohas Clugas, 
jun., Eflq-Y New Orand Terrace^ Quemsey. 

The Channel Islands, which are represented in the 
Exhibition by nearly fifty exhibitors from Jersey and 
Guernsey, have supplied an interesting and character- 
istic collection of articles in the various classes. The 
geological character of this group, which belongs to the 
primary rocks exclusively, is indicated by a collection 
in Class I. of the granites and other rocks of that series 
entering into the formation of the islands. These rocks 
Me extensively quarried for building purposes, and the 
panite and syenite, particularly the latter, are highly 
ralued and possess a fine grain. Several of the streets 
of the metropolis are paved with granite from these 
islands, and monuments have been erected from some 
of the finest varieties. The islands are remarkable as 
ocQtaining no fossil remains, nor any of the derivative 
rocks properly so considered. The fertility of the soil 
is indicated by a collection of wheats grown in Jersey, 
and arranged with considerable care ; and the im- 
portant element in the adaptation of the soil to the 
Qts of the farmer — manure — ^is also shown, 
fists of the burnt and fused ashes of marine 
These plants are called by the inhabitants 
'Traic," and are collected at stated periods. They 
eontain, when burnt, a large proportion of iodine, and 
ire useful as a manure from their other saline and 
earthy ingredients. Specimens of iodine obtained from 
naic are exhibited. Specimens of silk reared in 
Gucmaey are interesting, as suggesting attention to 
in important and probably ultimately a profitable 
dirtction for the employment of capital. Knitted 
irticles of various kinds indicate the constant employ- 
ment of the peasant women of these islands. A large 
sideboard of native oak, chiefly with carving repre- 



senting the signing of Magna Charta, will receive 
notice. The natural history of the islands is repre- 
sented by a collection of specimens of conchology. The 
shell-beaches of the beautiful island of Herm form the 
source of a great variety of species, and are the resort 
of every naturalist visiting these islands. The shells 
are formed into a number of ornamented articles, of 
which some are exhibited. The natural history of 
these islands is, in many respects, as in the case 
of other insulated spots, peculiar; but it is to the 
results of industry of some of the inhabitants that 
this Catalogue chiefly refers. — R. E. 



1 White, Henbt Cajcpbell, F.G.S., Regent Road, 
Jersey. 
Geological specimens of the granites of Jersey, arranged 
by order of the local committee. Syenite frova. Mount 
Mado and La Brugne, St. John's Parish ; St. Mar/s, St. 
Breade, St. Clement, St. Aubin ; Booley Bay, Trinity ; 
and Verclut, St. Ouen ; conglomerate, St. Catharine. 

[The syenitic rocks, which are quarried chiefly at Mount 
St. Mado, in St. John's parish, Jersey, are conmiercially 
valuable. The other rocks, and particularly the con- 
glomerate from St. Catherine's Bay, are interesting only 
to the naturalist and geologist. No traces of any metals, 
with the exception of iron, have been observed in Jersey, 
and the slates of the schistose rocks have not been used 
for economical piu^wses. The peculiar rigidity and wild- 
ness of outline of the rocks of the primaiy series is 
strikingly exemplified around the coast. Fantastic rocks 
of every form appear above the waters, and the steep cliffs 
of the northern shore are frequently hollowed into chasms 
and caverns. Notwithstanding the force and velocity of 
the tidal current aroimd these islands, but little impression 
appears to be made upon them even by the roll of the 
Atlantic, the waves of wliich, when provoked by south- 
westerly winds, beat impetuously upon the coast. — R. E.] 



[Official Illustbated Catalogfe.] 



3 Z 



uo 



JERSEY AN1> GUEHNSET. 



[CCfliOmEM LTD 



2 Lb OotTTiUR, Col. Joirs, Beth Vue^ Jersey — 

Spectmenfi and notes of produce of jwmo of tb© J*^^^* 
■pproved Ynrietic^ of wlicat cultivated in Great Britain, 
I JtTj^ej, &c., arraiige^l ^'V J . Le (Joutcur, FJI.S-, M.SA*, 
Aidc-dt'-CaBip to Her Majcetj' tlio Queen, 
White winter wlieat, 

Var. No. 1. Triticum nilwmimi XlYbriduni Cmididuin 
EpulouuTn Ijcucoeix^niinm of La Ga^ca, ci- Curat or Roy aI, 
Oiirdcii?^ Madrid. 



U DnntiicCJene*), Slecgnln. 
&i imperial baih^lf to ih.^ ftcrc>. 

a. ChidhAm. 1M38,— 1« lb*, of 
flour pruduc^l £6 lb*, i oi. of en 
et-Uent Dkhit*- byvftd,. Niliure dry. 

3. EerkAhirc. 

4* Xjpwin'n Eclipse. 

&« Clntton. 

6- Whiuitigton, 1R1L— «7ltw. 
of doQV proiJ uced 37 Ibf* of good 
breadf rattier brown. K(?ep*niotit. 

7, Brown Cheviilier. 27 Ihn. 
produrof! ^ \h^ 1 1 oft. cntccUenC 
^-hit« brcmJ. 

K. (TanadM. 

f. BuTTill, from ¥Ai\ Sfwucer. 
Ifi4fi.— a7lb». of flour produccHl 
3^ lbs« white bre«d,« 



Hardcmjrf1«. 
itld Vjn»%. 

IVo-rowiwl FroliOe, 

tiy Suffolls. 

KarH Toliun. 

While Dmnttk, Lincoln. 

Old Lunmu Fnie, Uuvon, 

ItanUic, OxftMi!. 

OM Wekh 1* hite Ijpmon. 

Mullybrack, Norfolk. 

t'earl, Scolknd. 

French, 

London Siaperior. 

Ko\til Stindaid.^ 

Baltie, 18 lb». of (lloiiT pro- 

tloced HlUi», of bre»d. 
KtMitt«ii iutig. 



Winter compact r&rieties (Fr. Froments carrh; Gtr. 
JlerzeiHge Weizen). 

Tar. Ko. 2. Trit. Hib. Album Denjiun, of La Guacfl, 



C*er. MSprin^eTi Weizen). Trit^cinn ^^SatiFum Candidmn 
Eptjlunum of La Gftst*. B<?ardJe8B {Sam barber). 

S. C»pa Whit*. l»40,— »T 11b. 
Hour produced i*i lb*. whii« moist 

II. Mummy. Tomb* of th« 



CouttMir'i He(?dHn(r). See Crwiti- 
laitt. — St2 biLtbi'l* to thi!^ Rcre, 
imj,— 17 n». of fli«jr produwd 
Sa lb«. 14 ou. bread of the flnttili 
quality. 
X. i>y prowd Talftvera, Spua. 

3. Malaira. 

4. lulian. 



Kin«i of Ttieti«. Sir Gardner 
W ilkin«)n . lUiietV at Itel le V oe, 
IVoni on*? eu, acnt by M . Tupprr, 
K*Q , l§4tt.— 27ll»»- flour prodim^d 
35 lbs. br^d.^ Very light , white, 
■uperior. 

Fttj*. No, 7. BoardcKl (Fr. Blsds-trimoi* harhns; Oct. 
Bar(wrizen) . 

1. White Lily (Je«»py). See 
GrAin. t7 lb*.' ttoar prwlucud 
3**i lh«. br««d. Moi*t„ while, sU- 
pcrior, 

2. Homed Red grain, Lincoln, 
a Briti*nv. 
4, April. 

6. Arthur's Jenry fhardy, and 
producti»e oti poor aoiia). 

11, Black -jointed »»4I — SfTlbi, 
flour produced 37 Iba, of good 
bread. 

7. Old lITilte-baij WeUh. 



8. Old Rpd-hBir WeLih. 

». Rivelts. 

It), routbo, DrtitAQy, elnnipited. 
1 9 . Coetlv), , , ' eompaet. 
1«. 8p«Jii*h, 

13. Victoria, C*r»cca», 

1 4, Kuli&nka of comnK'Tue, 
la. Capeof Goctd |Jop«. 

16. Italian Red. 

17. Kiei.tkltic. 

18. Ilalv. 

19. Egyptian, 



1, Jeraey I'eail. 4Bbu4hel4to 
the acre, f a Iba. of flou r prod ueed 
14 Iba. of broftdi, whiter dry n Atur«. 
1837. 

5. OiwkaMlK Kiel. 1»36.— 
le llw of flour produced 24 Ibi. of 
breads rathcir muLtt, 

3, HiitiLnrila. 

4, Buck land Tauswint, Devon^ 

6. Sufl^olk Thickiiet. 

6. MaKtocbinoi, Italy. 

7. Hufl' Surrey. 



8^ Chili. l»*B.—tnbi. of flour 
pfodiie«d 34 Ibn. 12 oxa. brottm 
Wvy bread. Condemned, after 
weven ye«r« of trial, though .luited 
to the itormy regions of ibfl moun 
taini uf Cliili. 

». Cape of Good Hope. 
1 n. Coturion u m Campartom, La 
Oaaea. dN buahela to the Jtcre. 
S7 lbs. of floor produecNl H Iba, 
» trtM. white br«u, of a moiat n*- 
torc. 



Viir. No. 3. Elongated winter wlicat (Fr. Froments 
ahn^h; Oct. IFeizen Veriait^en). 

Trit. Hib. Candidisaimiini Epidonum of La Gaaca. 

I. DantsletJeTivy. SeeOrmijj, 
riiBh-mix49d, of coromeree. STlbi. 
of Hour produced .1&| lh«. of ex- 
cellent white breftd. 

9. Cape of Good Hope, iongreit. 

3, t'ftpe of Cwjod Hope. itno. 
— 27 Ifcw. of flour prodtftoed 37 lbs. 
I oui' of white moist bread. 

4. Haligm. 

Vaf. No. 4». Downy, or lioary wbeat (Fr. Vehmtis; Qer. 
Trit, nib. Koeleri of La Oadca» 



a. Lupo, Italy, 

6. Gnm lentil et Kmm». Thi* 
feed waa aeTen ysais iu the hands 
of the late Secretary of the Society 
of Arta. 

7. Van I>iemen't lAnd. 

8. Crim^ Tartiwy. 

9. V&r. Hij^h-mLzed, Dant»i«. 



t. Kenilih Fkjwny. See Grain, 
B. V. &3 buahels to the acre. 
18lb». flour produced 2Eh lbs, of 
Itread, ejicellent quality, 

2. Guiii{'a,No<folk. 

3. Turgidum. 

4. Imperial Buff. 

&. Tun^tall roogli chafT. 
e. Italian. 

Var. No. 5, Bed wbeata 
Math Wtheny Trit. llib. 



7. Coturiaiium Cu'nfeTtuiii of La 
Gafet. 

tt. Ited-ip^ned. 

9. aaU, IBjO— to be tried, 
1 0. Jer»ey, 20 Iba. G ou. of this 
fl.utir, and G It^, 10 om. of bran, 
pTodured 39 Ibn. I ot. of good 
Ureadi second quality. 



(Fr, Fromenti Rmtffes; Gcr, 
dlttbruni Riifiim of La Gasca. 



1. 


lit>ldeii Drt»p. See Grain. 


15. 


E«eK, 


2. 


Red Hair Welsh. 


IG, 


Prolific, 


3. 


Hattlhff Jack. 
Old Rp4 Norfolk. 


n. 


Kark* verv hardy- 


4. 


18, 


W^hite Gu'ldeu DtH'p, 


a. 


Nrw He*l Norfolk. 


1«, 


Gi(jaiiUc, 


«. 


Old Red Lammas. 


20. 


Urand RuljelU, 


7. 


Briranuia, 


21. 


Ganipact Red, 


H. 


Red LbalT DantiJc, 


22 


KieL 


t. 


niood-red Scotch. 


ti. 


C*pe €f Good Hupe. ISin, 


ID. 


Syer's. 




— lU lb*, of flour producf»d 


lU 


York bx]uare-heade<L 




2u ib«, a on. nf brown 


18. 


ropfl.^rti. 
Gokk n IViliflc. 




bread, of a dry nature. 


13, 


U 


I'ale r«d Cape. 


14. 


Red Rurrill. 







Vnr. No. 6. Spiring wlicats (Fr. Bled* de Mart IVcmoisj 



TotAl, 104 Bpecimens. 

QmparUtm amd MetuU. 
Tlie Kentifth or Jera«j Downy Wheat : — ^In 1847, on© 

quartOT, or 46Sill>«., produced 35 1| lb*, of flour, wbich 
produced 4iB2i Ibi. of bread. 

Baltie or Koatock Wlieat :— In 1847, 454 lbs, of wbeat 
produi'ml 312 lb*, of flour, which produced StJSJ U>9, of 
bread. 

Downy, 482| lbs. 

Eostoclt, S96i „ 

or 84 lb«. excess orcr tlie Rosto<*lc on one quar- 
ter ; or ezoe«ft over one acre, at 6qr«. to th« acrv^ 504 lb*, 
of bread — tbfl mpply of one person for a year. Ttie viLoeu 
over ftoitw infenor Yarieties, em to quantity of produce 
and yield of floiir, being fitr greater. 

Tliose varieties, to which cxplanfltions have been given, 
hnvo all been tried by the exhibitor at Belle Vue. 

[The a^cidtLiral pro<iuctions of Jer,*ey arc wheat, 
barley^ and oats : parsnips are grown y and potatoes for 
eiportation are extensively and increaflingly cultivated. 
For a leries of years the ]>reaent exliihitor luw been occu- 
pied in clausifying and ormnging the varieties of wheal ; 
and tlie facts devclopeii by bis cxpcriiuenta apix^ir to gfivo 
a higli degree of fertility of soil to that of Jersey over the 
j eod of other plaoes. The nnifonnly mild and genial tera* 
perature of these iabmds generally form* luidoiihtcdly a 
great element in Ihe success which attends the labotuis of 
the agriculturist, and particularly of the bortictdturust and 
florijst.— R, E.] 

3 DUNLETIB, Mrs., Belntoftf Ftn^, 

A riclily knit silk purse : worked by a hjdy 83 years of 
age. 

4 BBBLiJrD, J., O^reat Union Mood. ,^ 
A machine to stop railway carriBgefl itistantaneouBty, 

5 Le MorKE, Kexry, ISL Metier ^ Jersey — Inventor. 
Diflgrams to elucidate the method of trxBectiiig any 

angle, Thcfie diagmms arc the exhibitor s inventioo. 

[The trisection of an angle by plane geometry u a 
problem 08 impossible aa the quadraliure or rectificatioxi 
of the circle,— R. W.] 

6 CiiETAUEE, John, Ban Sired— Imenior, 
Model of a swinging beacon, for the prevention of ship* 

wrecks, by marking the wit nation of rocks. Not liable to 
bo damaged, or carried away by wstk or shipping. 

[Tito Ft;a all around these tskadt is beset with rooki 



« 




Dapsmdhncies* ] 



JEnSEY AND GUERNSEY, 



■ upon which fearful shipwrec^k» hnve tAktm platx^, otlonded 
with gnat lois of life. Beacons of rtLrioiis kinds arc 
pUe«d npcm thorn; hut these are of^^^n of little arail, in 
of the deu^ foga whieli at timei flit the* 
An exhibitor in a pmi^eding ClaM haa reconi- 
thtf adoption on looie of tliee« rocks of a light- 
» of hran^ the dome of wliich might be eouTcrted into 
m gicat bell} which might be struck during thick weather. 
— B.E.] * 

T Bl Ll OotTDSf M», Bti^d Stt'eet — Manufacturer. 

Spedmen* of artificiiil teeth, of novel coiistt- action, and 
with double hingea. 



• 8 TwLTOlM, E* D,| 1 Oxf(/rd P/^KVf, St Mark9, Jersey 
— Inventor. 
Spfipg ftfeeletoxi regulator ; will go without winding-up 
fiir SOO oaji : it« pet'uliar noTeltj eon^ista in the adapta- 
lioo of a pendulum making but one eoiu]>lete vihmtiun in 
■ tttean aoocnidsi, with detaclied e«capetueot ; its excciition 
li eoQMdend to be aupenor, firom the combination of its 



[The direction of the going of a clock without wintling 
depends pnncipaUj upon the increase of the weight em- 
ployed to more it. By the intrmiuction of aevend wlieels, 
and the employment of a proportionate power in the 
weight or apringB, the ordbmry going period maj he 
greatlT prolonged; ordinarilj, advantage ia found from 
Ibe leae ooeaaioiiAl neceaiity for winding up,^ — R. £,] 



I 



I 



9 BtrFBfc, W. H., Charing Cr0t»^ Jerte^ — Inventor. 
Defiance wind guard, for the prevention of down- 
drmugihl, or the descent of smoke in ehiinnera. The outer 
« pipes surrounding the stem are formed in a apiral dirvc- 
taoQ from the baae to the top.— Pitteiited. 

AxMythcr for the »ame purpose, adapted for any litua- 
tion, wli *^ n ►uncled by liiU^ or tall buildings. 

Boo! «M8i^ in a zinccaeie; it iiilows ventilation 

and ligLi, ,...^^^1 leakage. 



10 Ll FltrrES, Philip, SL Clmn^mt Academy— 
lurenlor. 
Orrerj, for tehool nse. This ornerr ahowA the moon's 
■Doticm round the earth, her daily variations, her poE^ition 
Bl the time of new and full moon; ako, the cause of 
edipiaB, and whether partial or total : the phaaes of llu3 
moon are indicated by cones oonatructed of pasteboard 
ftltadied to the earth and moon. 



1 1 Lk Pbutbe, Mrs. F,, Edward Piace—Vmdiicer. 
A fire-screen, worked in tspeatiy by the eilubitor. 



12 



Wbttb, Gbobge, SL Mark School, Jerwy-^ 
Proprietor, 

ClaM bos and illuatration board, to exhibit writing, &c., 
Co a elaat in a school, used as a seat and box. for books. 

Door governor : to prerent violent shutting. 

Chimnej-pota or ventilators ; to prevent ** down- 
drauglit," by hills or biuldings, luiving the ttdvftutagea 
of an open chimney-pot eomhined with a OLJvere-d one. 
** Doim*draaght" caused by adjat^nt obstructions made 
to asdat the upward draft by eontlucnce with it. — Regis* 

niununated clock : to show the hour after dark by light 
traocmiited irom a central chamber to the interior of the 
poinUiPs which, having transparent frt»nU» show luminoua 
ones on the darkened dial ; the ttgurci are ako hghted 
from the same chamber. 

Pomp and blower, for the oonveyanoe of water or air. 
3%0 gnieral arrmogement for giving motion ts by eentri- 



13 Bhohieb, HEJfBT, Netty i^ireett J<?r#<y.— Proprietor* 
Spcoimetis of Jerwy knittuig, by an old kdy ; vi*.- - 

k?; it led garment, eommonly known a#'*Guem8tiy frock," 
of wliite worsted. Pair of drawers, also knitted, of coarse 
grey wor»t4?d^ undyi?d. 

14 Bb Fati, TnoitAa, Scale Street, Jer§ty.^ 

Proprietor. 

Twelve pairs of heautiftdly knit stockings. Knitting 
peculiar to Lhe island ; fino woollen thr^d, dyed of 
dilTerent colours. 

[The feraide peaaanlry of Jersey arc seldom if ever 
without the materials necessary for this occupation. On 
the way to or from market, und nt other times, knitting 
forms their ahuost constant employment ; and the articles 
produced have a peculiar character, which renders them 
readily reixignisable.] 

1 5 Vlbeht, SrsAX2*A, SL Mttryy Jersey — Manufiicturer. 
A pair of knit stockings, the work of the exliihitor, 

ftgc>d 71 years ; the peculiar monufactuje of Jersey. 

1 MABrE, Mabt, King Street — Mantiiacturer. 

Riclily knitted silk jacket, in blue and white stripes, 
having on the hrea^t the Prince of Wales' fenther, and 
under it the words " Albert Prince de Ghille«." Knitted 
entirely by the exhibitor, who is a shocbinder; it contains 
upwards of oue niiihou stitches. 

17 SOABFE, Obobok, Bererfbrd Streei — Proprietor. 

Chaise harnesa, elegantly fitted with silver omameuts, 
and elaborately finished and eni bossed. 



18 Cabsuit, John, I>avid P/<ice— ^Manufacturer. 

A pair of scissors and a knife, so diminutive iu sise 
tlmt the two do not weigh a grain. 



19 JoUHATJP, Pbtjse, Feier -S^reef— Inventor ami 
Manufi&cturer. 
Carrloge-guti : takes readily to pieoce, and cau be mei^ 
as a rifie, a fowUng- piece, or a pistol ; cannot be dischsrirt^J 
by accident, having a secret spring ; is ctii biased and 
inlaid with gold and silver. The lotik is of a peculiar con 
s traction ; the stock is finelv csjred. 



20 Lb Feutbe, Oeohob Clbment, Edward Plaee^ 

Manufacturer. 
Cliiflonni^re, composed of oak, s portion the produce of 
the island of Jersey j the iiiflide httiiiga of satin-wood; 
the panels tapestry. There are three comt>artments, 
cabinet, secretary, and houdoir, the hitter containing a 
nest of drawers. The ebony and satin-wood tit tin g!^ are 
l>eautifully finished. The panels represent the emblems 
of Englnnti, Scotland, and Ireland in tapoetir, the work 
of the eihibitor*8 wife, divided by cftrred columns, with 
figures Burmoiuited by wrought fri«se. The back re- 
presents^ in carved work, King John signing the Magna 
Charta, The accompanying Pkte 94 represents this 
sideboard. ^__^ 

21 Stbaj>, WiMiAJi, EiU jS^reef— Maiiufactxirer. 

A piece of furniture^ applicable as a celleret or font % the 
bowl^ cut out of eohd mahogany, is finely carred, avid 
supported on three claw^feet ; the top is moviihle by ropes 
and pulleys, nuining m circular boxes forming the pilbrs 
or supports for the cTown by which it is «urm<Hioted» 
and rettting on the edge of the bowl on three worked 
lions* heads. 



22 



CoLUB WlXLlAM, Belmont Mouae^ St, Helwr^ 
Jerjwy — Prod uwr. 
Cftlotype |>ictureB from life — " French and Jd 
Mar ket *w omen ." 

[Preceding notes, in Classes of the United Kingdom 
have explained tlio use of this term ctdotype— origiually \ 

922 



t)42 



JERSEY AND GUERNSEY. 



[OOLOKIES AKD 



dcrivativo from tlio Greek. It u now generally superseded 
by Unit of Talbotype, implying the name of the inventor 
of tlic art of pliotography on paper. The peculiar bril- 
liancr^' of Uw atmosphere of these islalids, combined with 
the abundniu^c of blue light reflected from the sea, was 
fouiid by the writer to conmiunicate an almost instan- 
tttneouH imprcsHion to paper or plates. — R. E.] 

23 Sattndkhs, Gkoboe, BcUh Street, Jtfrwy— Producer. 
A inodol in ])apcr, representing Her Majesty landing 

at Victoria Pier, Jersey, 8rd September, 1846. 

[Tlio Victoria Pier at Jersey is only just approaching 
its com})lction, and has absorbed a large amoimt of time 
and money. It is protected by Elizabeth Castle on the 
nortlicm side, and covered by the guns of the fortress 
wliicli connnandfl the town. — R. E.] 

24 Simon, Miss, Elizabeth Place — Proprietor. 
Banlcot-work, in paper ; an heirloom fi?om her progeni- 
tor, Madame Maugcr, in 1728. 

25 Cluoas, TnotfAB, jun., 8 L^Ryvreuse Terrace^ 

Ouerneey — Proprietor. 
Spooimcns of granite, porphyry, and pot-stone, from the 
inbind!* of Guernsey, Ilerm, and Sark : — 

1. Pori)liyritic gneiss, from Plcinmont Cliffs. 

2. R<h1 pori)l\yritic gneiss, from the same. 
!). itliu'k hornblende, from les Teilles. 

4. Hornblende schist, from Castel au Roc. 

5. Re<l Syenite, from Roc de Guet. 
(). Grey Syenite, from Mont Cuet. 

7. Hhie Syeniti*, from the Vale quarries. 

8. Grvy Syenitt\ from the island of Herm. 

9. Porjibyrj- (black), from the island of Sark. 
10. Steatite, from the same island. 

Curved Hptvimens. 

Tht» above are us«l for building and macadamizing. 
Henn sytMiite was iiihhI for the steps of the Duke of York's 
Cobinin, in WaterUx)-place. 

[Tlie nH'kj* of Giiemst^y are princii>ally gneiss, granite, 
and syenite. Quarries of syenite? exist at Grande Roquc; 
but thiv«« syenite is not eonsidenxl equal to that of Mount 
St. Mn«U>, in Jersey. At St. Sampson's are some extensive 
quarrii's i>f gnuiite, which are worketl for paving-stones ; 
and of these considerable quantities are sent to London 
and Pi^rt snioiit h. Exix^riments made as to the eonq>arative 
dun\bibty of this gnmite and other granites, give a rcsidt 
highly favourable to its empUnTnent. It has been sue- 
tvssfuUy laiil ilown in the lieaviest thoroughfare in the 
n\etrv>pi>lis. (Juarrit^ formerly exist etl at the island of 
Hcnn, but an* nmv abandoneil. In the same island, and 
in Sark, an' scvend n\iut»s, which formerly yieldeil copper 
and sib or in ivnsiderable quantities; but these are now 
no loui^T workiHl. — R. K.] 

2t> ^r VKTTN, Pktkr, iS/. Pffers Pi>rfy Oiiernsejif — 
l^nxhuvr. 

Raw silk, the pn^Uuv of the Island of Guernsey, Unng 
the t»r>t >ani}>lo v>btainiHl bv the Guen\!»t>y Silk Givwers' 
C\>n»}»nnN. latch establishiH^ in the island. 

.ViM>»\\nH»t fivula, obtaitunl fnnu the Amm mitmlatmmy 
a plant imli^Mious to iUiernsi\v, 

[ K\|vrinuMits baNc Kvn n^^HH^t^Hlly made in Kngland 
to intnHliuv the cultun* v^f the wlkworm. The lato Mrs. 
WbubN >\as Mr\ siuxv^st'id in this art» and laUnmHl 
n\uch tv» otabhsb it in this vvuntrx : her exivrimonts 
show \\\M the inuUvrr,> of the Philippine \Hnoty» Moms 
mhliustu:(s\ is Ivst ailapttnl t\^r their fvXHl. The eultuiv 
of this iu'iivt, and the inlnnluction of thi* trw iulv* the 
Chat\ncl Islamls, wouUl \er> pn^habK Iv atteiuUnl with a 
largo siuNx^s if can^fully ^^rnoil out, Tho al«ux»t total 



absence of frost in winter is sufficient to indicate the great 
mildness of the climate. — ^R. E.] 



27 AliAond, EMAiaJBL, St. Peter^e Port, Chtemtey — 

Inventor. 
Model of a machine to determine the distance run by 
a ship, and at the same time to determine the ship's place 
on the chart. 

28 Habbis, Peter (^eoboe — ^Inventor. 

A corking machine : improved appUcation of the lever 
in driving the cork through a cone, the bottle being 
secured by another lever at the foot. 

29 MacDonald, Sophia, Woodland — ^Inventor, 

Designer, and Manufacturer. 
Tulle dress, embroidered with groum of floss silk 
flowers, copied from natural flowers. The novelty con- 
sists in the firmness given to the floss silk flowers on so 
slight a texture as tulle. 

30 DoBBEE, Habbibt, Be Beauvoir — Designer and 

Inventor. 
Table-top, ornamented with shells found in the Island of 
Herm. 

Ghroup of poultry made of shells. 

[On the western and northern shores of the island of 
Herm there exist interesting shell-beaches, which afford a 
rich study to the conchologist. It is remarkable that on 
this small island, of the entire group, is this collection of 
shells chiefly found. They are principally of a minute, 
and often almost microscopic size ; but their numbers 
are inconceivable. — ^R. E.] 

31 HuTCHiKSON, Elizabeth, Queen* s Boad — Designer, 

Inventor, and Manufacturer. 
Vases, with shell flowers. 

Octagon tabic slabs in rosewood cases, with groups and 
wn^ths of shell flowers. 



32 Sabchet, John, Tlcforia Boad — Inventor. 
Model of a macliine for welding chain cable and other 

links, the first invented; saving labour, and of im- 
portance for ship cables. 

33 Abnold, Abolphts, 11 Commercial Arcade, 

Ghuernseif — ^Manufacturer. 

Specimens illustrating the manufacture of iodine and 
iodide of potassium. 

Specimens of the fuei and alga* which grow abundantly 
on the north and west coasts of the island of Guernsey. 

Fuseil mass, i\)nsisting of the ashes of these marine 
plants, and containhig salts of sotla, potash, lime, and 
magnesia. The quantity of iodine in this material bear- 
ing a dirvct ratio to the quantity of potash contained 
themn, it is ptvsumeil to exist as io<lide of potassium. 

Iinline in the rough state, as produced in the first 
receiver ct^nnivted with the distiUatonr apparatus, and 
containing bnmiine and eldoriue in small pn>portions. 

Conmien'ial ioiline, pn^jiarwl by steam distillation, pure, 
dr}', of brilliant miHalUe apjx^rauee, andfrve from bromine. 
Ustnl in nuxlicine and the arts for dyeing. 

Crystals of iovlide of potassium, pwjxufvd from the pre- 
iXHling. 

R«.*siduary prtxluet, consisting of the ashes of the fuci 
and »lga\ after the iodine luts Nvn extracted, and con- 
taining the salts of wtash, s^xla, lime, and magnesia, 
as ehloridt>» and sidpliati>s. Used as a manure by the 
Aunners. 

[The ivlUvtioM of the fuci ai\d al^ wliioh abound in the 
ni>rthert\, ^xx*ton\» ami s^>uth-wl'«tem shorw of Guemsev, 
is ivnsvidt^rwl of gn>at imjvrtanvv by the island agrioul- 
turist. The " vraic ** is jr^thonxl at spritig tides, and 
tht* evvul is one of jHVuliar it\ten>4t» Iti vvns^uewv of the 



vds of people emplojed in cutting, carting, atid remoT- 
ing Ihe nuirtiie plants. Vraic u distingiUAhetl into the cut 
and the flostuig iorts ; ihc fonncr i«) most Jiiglilv vrthied, 
and th^ gat tiering of theni is protected by law, Bi*tweeu 
23,000 and 30,000 c-arl-loads ure coUetrt^ on tbe fibonw 
jfxwljr. The preeipitou^ soutberu coast doo* not present 
a favourable site for tbe growth or eollci'tion of thcw 
planta. In summer* time tbe iMds are often covcnsd 
with bed* of aea^wced spf«tad out to dry t it t» aftennurda 
D«edaa a fuel in winter, and the aahes, carefully eoUectod, 
ara aold toF mannrv, and ore eoniidered so esiential to 
I be aoO, that it is a proverbial expr««aion| ** if Ibere 
be no miL\ there will be no com/' Tbe fuaed maes of 
aahet oontaina Tarioua salts, and appears particularly rich 
f ID iodina— B. S.] 

34 Qoinj), Thomas — Manu&otorer. 

Salta, similar to those common]^ called "Epsom," 
produced from salt or chloride of ttodium. 

pSpsom salts consist ehcmicaDy of u ^ulphale of mag* 
neaia. The preparation exhibited ap}>car» to he E^idpliate 
Off aodft in a crystalline form, sinee it is obtained by the 
decompoaitiion of cboride of sodiiua.— R. £.] 



I 



35 DoBEKE, D., Farett Reeiory^ Ovemaeif, — Proprietor, 
Original Guernsey frock, of Ouem»ey borne knitting, in 

iVMiBtaDt nse among labourers and fijhcrmen ; worn over 

tbeahirl. 

Frock of Guernsey wool and Guernsey home knitting, 

used instead of flannel 

lyrawiits, men's and wonien*8 stockings, uightcapa, 

|4ofCB^ flshenmm and lubourera' cravats, and slipj>er» of 

niMllllii J borne knitting. 



36 I*E Bmb, N., Si, Peter^M Port, 0aer«M«y— Proprietor. 

Oxuftvavy fium saddle : local name of material " bau,*' 
tn constant use on every fimn fur riding, and for carr) Lug 
ban and panniers. Mat and foot-t^tool of *'*' lun," in 
ffffft"*"" u^^ Bullock's and hortnVs colkr of '* ban." 
CbQ of **han^' rope» used by fifthcmjien : I hid iloeti not 
harden in tbe salt water. Sbacklcs of " ban," used for 
cattle ; ihe&e do not cut the feet. *' Han," — a hank of 
the raw material, common in Guernsey j it grow» in tbe 
meadows. 

['* Han,'* or, in botanical language, (^peras ioaya*, ia 
fisiployed by the peasantry of Gu«msey for a variety of 
inurpoaes, for which hemp ia elsewhere used. The llbrL* 
has a certain degree of tenacity, and is twisted and formed 
into rop«», mats^ ke. Cuttle are oonstauily tetlusred by 
a n/jjo of this material. — R. EJ 



37 Do&ET, D., St, Mary rfe Coitro, Ouemswy — 
Proprietor. 

GtMfiiaey osier crab-pot ; to be sunk in deep water, 
baited inaidia, to catch lobstesrs, conger, &c. Osier BA\- 
haaVrt liarge osier bait-pot, intenderl for a few days' 
ooDfamptkm, left at sea to Itoep the bait aUve. BmaH 
bttit-poti &c one day's use, iowed after the boat. 

[Thtf fishery around both Goemsej and i^dr&ey is ex- 
eeOmlf and the markets are wdl supplied. Tlie conger 
«al is caught of a very lai^ size, and b mm-h euiploycil 
in the domestic cookery of the isloridi}. At Jersey an 
imfK^rtant oytter^il^iery exists, from wliicli krge quiiii- 
litiM of oysters arc sent to Southampton and to other 
pbcci.— E. £«] 



38 Guernsey home-knitting work by cottagers. 



39 QooDRiDOE, J., Jan. (of the " tliannel Ishinds 
JSxpresB'' steamer)-:— Lnrontor. 
Model of a life-boat. 



40 Vai^ft, Mn., Kins Sk^H, SL MeUer, Jsrs^-- 

Producer. 

Specimens of conehology of Jersey, collected, ela«wifti>d 
prepared^ and arranged by the exhibitor during a lueiil y- 
two years' residence in Jersey. 

[One of tlie most intereiiting members of this concho- 
logical searies h the Aumer^ or OreiUe dt mer, a shell-Ush 
which is coihy.ied abundantly at certain seasons. It is 
used in a variety of wnys for food, and the shell is pre- 
served, and exported to £iiglAnd ; it ia viduLtl fur its 
pearly iridescence, ajid is largely used at Birmingham by 
the makers of inlaid papier mai^he.^R* E.] 

Leather frame. Large knitted quilt. 

41 BsBTlUKS, Mrs., 8t. Helier^ Jeney — ManufActtu-er. 
Pur of socks, knit without glasses by the exhibitor, 

aged ninety^hree. 



42 MABQtJAKl>, P., Ekcksraitb, NQrth Pk 

liwentor uiitl ppixlucer. 
Model of a patent truss for the yards of slupa, of Mitntz 
metaL ^ ^^ 

43 Pope, Mrs., StUkei Pliu^^ St. HeUer^ Jertey^ 

Manufacturer, 
Various descriptions of confectionery in sugar, manu' 
factiireil by exhibitor, 

44 Ellis, Miss — Proprietor. 

Specimens of fine workmanahip in leather, shown in a 
jHcr'giass frame and st^nd, with brackets. 

45 DRAJtE, Francis— Inventor. 
Model of coUapsiug Ufe-boat^ 



4(> Eajtdkij., Miss, Gmemsfy — Producer. 

Two mats worked in wooL 



47 LsTAtrEyL, J. H.— ProdntiT. 
Acts of the Martyrs, in French. 

48 MaWctei^ n. L., Jer^f^if— PrcKlucer. 
Two piurs of Newfoundland liahing boots. 

41J Stafford, Mm. B. A., Gii«nw«y— Producer. 
Stand of wax fhiii. 



MEDITERRANEAN, 



MALTA. 

KOBITM AbEAA, I. J. 32. 

(CtJfTimwnofier, C. J. GnfOELi, E»q., of FaieHoy mttd i 
56 ComMll^ London.) 

Fkom MiiUiTi hm l>eeii forwarded, by ^^>^^^ thirty-four 
exhibitors, a mlkctiuu of iDtercsting objects repreaen- 
lutive of its locjil maiuifactures. The vidy aijccimena 
uf niw materiiil Hciit are ttome pieces of Maltcj^' stone, 
oilud for |iavement, and in their tmtuml wtate, and 
ftouie Hftccimena of cotton and »ilk of native pRxluction* 
In luhlitioii to these lire a few muuplcs *»f scchIh mid 
wheat. The uaukeeu cotton cloth ol Malta bos been 



944 



MALTA. 



[COLONIBB AXD 



sent % several exliibiturs. Borne elal)orate specimenfl 
of ernbruidery are also ainouir these articles. A very 
attriictivc collection is tbat of the jewellery and otlier 
artt€lefi in gold and silver fili^ee. The chaste and 
delicate apfiearance of thorn objects is extremely 
pleasing. A prominent part in the collection ia fonned 
>ty the Bt^me vnses, some of wliich exhibit skilful exe- 
evition and tasteful desijoi. The figures in wax will 
likewise attract notice. These articles are placed next 
to those of Indiaj on the North side of the Wesieni 
Nave. 



1 



ToNNA, Joseph, Sirfufa Fornix VaUettu— 
MiiTiiifftt'tiircr. 
Doublc'bftss fiddle, made of bird'a-eye miiple. 



2 Bona VI A, Cnohato, Cmral Naxara — Producer, 
Spcciniena of cotton Mtl-floths of four, five, aii, and 
seven threttda of diiToreiit lengths. 
Bpedmena of chequered cotton doth for carpctttig. 



3 ScHEiTBBi, 0., ValUtta — Mwiufactun?T» 

Cotton tissues ;— 

Pieccft of natural Malta nankeen, white, narrow, and 
wide icquarea. Piece of light colour, and dfimasked 
pquore. 



rSam 
Hankt^ 
OlHiQn. 
ten 
Baiu 
wheat. 
Sam 



4 PFLli, 0. MONTEBBUiO. 

Cotton fabrics : - — Piece of natural nankeen, plain. 
Piece of nankeen, striped with Malta raw f ilk. Piece of 
iupcrfine plain iiaukecn. 

Bam pie of common Maltese cotton. Common MitUe&e 

nkt^D cotton. Indian nankeen eotton. Sea-ialand 
OlHion. Mastodon American C4>tton. 

pie of c'Uiiiniin seed. Aniseed. Sesame seed. 

Sample of Maiieee liard wheat (called Tomnia), Soft 
wheat. 

Sample! of cotton thread, from four kinda of cotton. 
Cotton tliread, from common Maltese cotton. Maltese 
cotton. 

Sample of Maltese silk and oocoons. 

[After prolonged and patient labour the soil of Malta 
luLi been made to yield ita fmita to ttie husbandman, and 
abundant crops are obtained. Among these cotton forms 
the most imixjrtant* About four million pounds of this 
fibre are e]t|3orted yearly .—R, E,] 



5 Tula, Featilli, Sirada MereatUi, VctlMia 

— Manuikcttirer. 
Oot ton nibrics ; — 

White and red cotton blankets j figured eoimterpanes. 
An aaeortment of straw hats. 



6 Fexech, Yencexzo, Horiana — Producer. 
Specunen of Maltese bookbinding, two rohmies. 
Collection of ancient and modem eoRtimies of Malta. 



7 Grataona, MabiAj Vlaihtia- 

Bereral piocee of broad lace. 



-Producer. 



8 Natji>I, Signora Bosijja, Vaftefta — Produoer. 

Velvet bags embroidered j plain embroidered muslin 
dress ; plain embroiderod baby^s dreas. 

Toilet cover (laoe, Cbeek 'atylc) j embroidered band- 
kerchief i various apeeimens of lace. 

Various pairs of mittens. 



9 Ettetquez, Signora MiRfi, ra/i^^<»— Producer. 
Variety of block sUk mittena. 
Ilahit shirtfl) plain embr^>idcnid. 




10 ScHEMBTir, AjfTOKu, rff//ef/rt— FroduocT. 
Specimens of laee with gold thread. 
Ckjllars. Two lace coUarv. 



11 Gozo, SAI.VO DH/ — Ppodueer. 

Specimens of black silk lace. 



12 Casha, C0BTAN2A, Fa//«ij?eH^Produeer. 

Piece of laee of Greek pattern. 



13 PoLiTO, Cakonico, r7rtoriofa— Producer. 
Specimen of laoe (Greek pattern). 



14 Casiuxert, E., Valkiia — Prodaoer. 

Specimen of broad lace, with pieces for alaeraa for 
clerical dre«s. Various speetmena of lace. 



15 Velia, Paolo, & Co., ra^fcf^o— Producer. 
Specimen of lace. 



16 CAsnLi^Br, FoinmATA, ValleUa — Producer. 
Specimen of laee. 



17 GnECir, GiirsEPPDrA, Valletta — ^Produoer. 
Baby'a plain embroidered muslin dress* 



18 Lagbestizj Signora Elena Nuzzo, VaUeUa— 
Produc«?r. 
Sample of embroidery with silks : top of a pincushion. 



19 FENEcn, Aktonia — Producer, 

Paper envelopesj embroidered with silks and gold. 



20 AzzopABDi, Joseph Moore- 
Pair of mittens, with beads. 



'Producer. 



Long 



21 DncBCH, Mra.— Producer. 

Various specimens of long and short mittens, 
mittens with beatls. 

Sample of hwe, A breadth of black tulle, embroidered. 
Bkck laee. Flounct^ and breadth of broad lace. Nume- 
rous specimens of laoe. Collar and two cutTs. 

Maltese nankeen dress, embroidered with wool. MaJteiO 
nankeen girl's dross^ embroidered with silk. Two 
of Maltese nankeen. 



pieo^. 



22 The Consbbtatobio op Saic GirsEPPi— Producer. 

Knitted collars j knitted fronts of habit shirts. 

Bpecunens of knitted broad and narrow laoe ; knitted 
caps J knitted thread stockings. 



23 POBTELLI, AXTOKIO, Strada Strelia^ ValUtta — 
Producer. 
Silver filigree reticule. 



24 CbiteEN, E., Strada Form, ValUtta — 

Manufaetiux*r. 

Specimens of gold filigree work : — Bracelets; rose-chain 
bracelets. Knot brooches. ]>onble pin for hair. Kose- 
chains. Flat and rose rings, &c. 

Articles in silver fihgree : — ^Basin. Oval plates, with 
flowers, Kound plates. Card cases. Candlesticks. Tea- 
spoons. Cups. Wreath for the head. Bead braceleta. 
Large double pin. Small double pins. An arrow for tha 
liair. Bouquet-holder brooches. Stars to suspend. Knot, 
tie, and shawl brooches. Roae^chain, Ac. 



SSPKXCIBS. 



MALTA. 



Gold articles :— Qold ro«e-ehttia for wniitooat. BnMvd 
flftt Tinge. 

[The pocaliar art of the fdigroe-worker, originftting in 
Itiy, 10 CMTjed on with suecosg at Valletta, one of the 
prmctpaL towna in Malta. Tlie delicacy of thia dt'acription 
of Tork and the beauty of the articles produeed huve long 
Ifoderod it Tuluable among the aflmmn^B of jewoUory.] 



25 



Manufacturer, 



Aiticte in gold : — MalC<»e ruse-chain* Bracelets: with 
fote; cameo; coral; oriental camoOt &c. Bruochea : 
91^ baneb of flower? ; in the form of a knot ^ and with 
a row and flowers. Chain : imitation of Venice work. 
I«r|«-asMl piiu. Sracdet^ hic* pat t^ni. Pair of Imtr- 
piBf. Various pins : with coral ; mowiie work ? eamix), 
sc Shirt-atuds. Chain rings* Ei^se-ch^in rings. Small 
roM^chain necldaee, &o. 

Omamenta in «lver ;— Filigree flower- stands. Flower 
cnamenia tor the hair. lluir*pin«. Platen and smalt 
enpiu Bead hrac«let)» ; rose bracelets ; and bracelets of 
Gothic pttttem; roae-chain bnieelets. Breast-pins, nnd 
dMieUiBeiw Arrows for the hair. Large and »tjjidl 
iovm. Shawl-pins and pincui^hions. Fins for iieek- 
kwBifeA». Mon4;y*hag, and eartl c^jH^s. Bead buttons, 
finoili aixcA. Butterfly of gold and silver. Plus in the 
fbnn of ft ootrouoopiA- SmoU pini^. 



26 DAJtMiJriK, Joseph » ^ 8oys, Strada Lemntef 
Vallttta — Man ufacturer. 

Inlaid marble tttble-top, with the Eoya! arras, 4 feet 
Im^ 3 feet broad, 

Inkid tOArble table- top, with faney scroll, &r., in the 
eentiVi 3 fieet square. 

Inktd marble table- top, with EtnuosQ rase in the cen- 
tre, 2 feet 6 inches in dianjeter. 

Inlaid marble table'top, with the emblem of Cartliage 
m tlte centra, 2 feet 2 inches in diameter, 

Pieotfi of Malta stone, oiled and prepared for pavement. 
Diip-ftoiie of Malta stone. Specimens of Malta and G020 
itooe^ and aUdactlte. 

Vase, with pedestal of red Goxo marble. Wax and 
doth figureo. 

[Malta and Goao consist of etraiifled deposita, chiefly 
« enku«lj of the middle part of the tcrtniry period. They 
JiM'^nfL^ fyi deaeending order — ^1. A coral limestone, eon- 
tniiRf cmtftoccus nodules^ some of whieh ure YELnegat43d 
with jeOow and white, and used for oniamenttd work, 
mAef tlw name of Gozo marble. 2. A sandstone and 
IIm day, fixrai 100 to l&O foet thick, containing iron, 
gjpram, and sulphur, 8. Fire beds of freoi^^tone, about 
lOOiasI tlttck in all, and eliiefly cadeareous, though with 
■raeh rwTify ftdmiiture ; these are much u^ed for building 
{Mirpoiei) not cmly in ]!klalta and Go£o, bnt in till pnrti^ of 
, the lowest bed being the most aYoihible, 
at of the facihty with wbieh it in worked. 4, A 
k-white aemi-ciystalline limestone, of very eon- 
^ adenbfe bat tmasoertained thicknesa, exposed to the 
cstant of 400 feel cm the eoast of G-ozo, and much used 
lor tmilda^ parposoa where hardness is requir«>d. Some 
of ikm Talkjs of Malta and Go£0 are pk-turesque and 
iatile wh^re the blue elay (2) allows the water to bo re- 
tMXtfd, and thtii origiiLatoa springs. — D. T. A,J 



27 



Dicsaami, P. Paoi>o, Strada Scm Qvmmm^ 
FaWe^o— Oanrer. 



Ijffffr TMea, 5 ieet 2 inches in height, and 2 feet 10 
•Am lit bnadth. One of these Toses is represented in 
J column, (Fig, 1) 
1 jng^ 1 foot 6 inches in height, and 1 foot 2 inebc:» 



Pig.L 



.^/Mmmmu. 









J^ 



>>. 



fiT" 



wm\ 



Deeeave'i Stono Vams, 

in breadth. One of thi^ae Jugs is shown in the engraving, 
Fig. 2, p, 9 16. 

Very hirge jugs, vvith pedestals, 7 feet in height, and 
1 foot 11 inches in diameter- The i«.%*ompnnying Piste, 
5f», repn*»ctita one of thew jiiigs. Another is nipresented 
in the engraving in the next page. (Fig, 3.) 



28 BucBCn, Fbbulkakd, Strada Tmtro^ ValleUa 
— Carver. 

Spx^iraens of stone earrings : — 

Ceiudelabmm, 6 feet in height^^ and 2 feet 8 inches in 
bread tlu 

Large rase^ 4 feet b height, and 3 foot ^ inches in 
breatltk. 



29 SoLKB, Jamss (Foreman to Mr. G. Muiii), 
Strada Scale, Valletla — Carver. 

Specbnons of stono earrings :■ — 

Vaae with handles : size 1 foot 8 inches high, and 2 feel 
10 inches broad. 

Jug with vine-leaves onuiment : who 2 fwt 3 inehea in 
lit'iglit, 1 f<x>t 2 inches wide. Oval vase, 1 foot -linchws in 
width. Snuill basket- 



Fig. 1. 




GIBRALTAR. 

1 CnAUBUT, PlJOlRB, Gibraltar before ike Erchanffe — 
Producser. 
Bozor strops, with luuidleB of rock sloiieo* 



IONIAN ISLANDS. 
Nonrti Abjsa, L J, 30. 

Owi>'Ci to m\i\Q misapprehetision, the lonians were 
vvitliuiit kiiowludge of tliu objects and puqujrts \^i the 
Exliibitioti of 1*^51, luitil very roct'ntly. Uii willing, 
liowever^ that the name of the loDiaii Islandu should 
alone be wanting in the hst of nations on tliis great 
oocadoiJ, tho Executive Committee apjjcalcd lo an 
loQJfliL genttemaii, who h.is been mduced to collect 
tt^ethfr, by tlit! khid contribution of certain noble and 
eminc^nt indidduals, who have scrve<l Her Muje«t/ in 
those iislands, such articles in their yiossession ad mi^ht 
aerve rs Bi^K^ciniens, to a very triflinij: extent, of tbc 
products, skill, and indiistr)* ol' the lomaiia. The«e 
|"p>iucts are pnocipdly articles tielouj^ng to the 
classes of textile and omaraeutal manuiactures. The 
spocimenB of embroidery exhihitiHl are extren^ely noh 
and beautiful, and form a charactenstic contribution 
to this collection. Tlie filigree work is ^\m cxccetl- 
ingly delicate, and illnatrat^s a de|iartxnent of skill in 
the working of prccioim metals which has no repre- 
sentative in our own country. Tbe brtjochea and 
niefiallions exhibit some of the favourite devices of the 
Ionian artiats. — R. E,] 

1 WOODFOBI*, Lady, 21 Somerset Street, Fartfmm 
Squarft Lomiom — Producer. 

A Greek dreis, made in Corfu. 

A pair of silrer bracelets, made in Corfu j the one with 
the in at to " 2*irrn Aaoaon *IAIAN/' " My pressun? 
is thnt of friendship without guile ;'* the other, "'O 
*EP«N AFAnHN." *' He who feels affection" (offers it to 
you). 

A silver brooch of elegant piereed work, fonmed by a 
garland of grajies and ruie-lmve^ aurroujiding tbe 
emycDi of the ileven Iskinds. 

A broot h in silver filigree-wort| with tho head of Cor- 
cym on the one side, for C^jrfu ; the winged horse of Bel- 
lerophou on the reverse, for Zaiite. 

A Greek cap, mode at Lefehimo, a vilhige of Corfu. 

Memorial claap hi gold, made at Corfu, and of reninrk- 
able worknmnsliip ; the gold iihgree being placed on a 
plate of pohshed gold, wliieh reOeetfl It a& finoni a niiiTor, 



2 Mavuoianxi, Madame — Producer. 

A gold bracelet, made At Corfu, of filigree- work, sur- 
ronnding the emblem of the klandji. 

Two ailk handkorehieffl, of fine fabric, of Zante manu* 
faetxuie. 

An apron of muftlin, made in Corfu» with a border 
worked on linen with the needle \ somewhat similar to 
Drt^dtTi-work, but of larger &titclii on a very elegant and 
classieal pal tern » of graijef» vine- leave*, and buLlertlies. 

An upron of crochet- work, remarkable for the beauty 
of the pattern and execution, and showing that what liae 
but recently app<3ared m England as an accomplishment, 
haa been for ogei* tho common needlework of tlie Ionian 
peaaant-girla. The border is of deep Dresden -work of 
magmficent eUeet, with cniblematiei^ design;* of Uons, 
Cupidii) flowers, &c. 

[Thme aj)Ponft are the ordinary work and every-day 
of the iJeasaut-girL* of Corfu. Tbo dres» of the 
Gn-ek peasant -women, in genei-al, being of an citrsor- 
dinary rirlmees, so ihiit a iwii^ant-bride^a dress b often 
her dowry, beuig not uufrequenlly worth 400 or 600 
doliure.] 



\ 




^T/) 



SOUTH AFRICA. 



^CoiiaKlBS AND 



10 



11 



BOEAnc Gamdem, Cmpe Ton. 



MAxrmijC^ 



C^e ToKU. 



13 Claxxtcx, Ricmaxd, Cor^ 2b««. 
ScA^iephmtoa; ahBef/v-taa oil 

[ S e a -c i ephyit. Tliti ttumal if the kf^geit of the wai3^ 
inbe, and if diitiiiguifhed I7 a tuniMi pendiiloii* pr^^ 
fdiieliy in the male, cm be difiended and erected, whence 
the name applied to the qwcka bjr the fealen. The tear 
efephani {JPhnea pn^bo^eidea^ or Ofdapkara probottidea) 
if a nalire of iilancb in the Southern and Antarctic ooeana. 
It attoiM a length of thiit j feci.— S. O.] 

14 KrvHAKDT k. Co^ Cape Towm. 
gheep'f-tail oil 

[The Tarietj of the domeatic fhei^ at the Gape of Good 
Hope if cfaaneterifed bjr a tendency to an enormouf 
aocumulation of fiU in the tail, whidi would in aome eaaea 
drag upon the ground, and become ulcerated, were it not 
for the precaution of faatening to it a board on wheels, bjr 
which it if dragged along. — S. O.] 

15 Thombov, Osobos, Cape Towm, 
Sea-oow teeth. 

10 MxxsKB, F., Cope 2Vmp». 

Ox homf, polif bed, and rough. 

17 Watebmstsb, C^ Oreem Point. 

gamples of hemp (aloe). 

1 B BuLCKBtnur, J., Cape Tow. 

Karoicef . Specimenf of wild cats' and jackals* paws. 

19 Dbakb k JouKBOV, Cape Town, 
Specimens of karosses. 

[Karosses are cloaks, such as are worn by the Kafirs, 
made of tlic skins of wild animals. Tlie numbers of rare 
and beautiful quadrupeds inhabiting South Africa, render 
tliese itkiiis objects of much interest to the naturalist, as 
well as articles of intrinsic value. — E. F.] 

Ivory ; elejihantB* tusks. Three Malay hats. 

20 Haxbuuy, E., Cape Toum. 
Skins of wild animals. 



21 BKIDGE8, C, Cape Toum. 

Skins of wild animals. Kafir cliair, battle-axe, hoe, &c. 
Buffalo and other horns. Bhinooeros-hidc sticks and 
whips. Stone Ikjx, &c. 

22 Cluappini, a. & Co., Cape Toum. 

Skins of wild animals. Twelve goat skins, weigliing 
65 lbs. each. 

23 RUTHERFOOKD, IL E., Cape Toum. 
Samples of wlieat. Ostrich feathers. 

[Hie export of ostrich feathers from the Cape is of great 
iinj)ortan(x; to the colony, and the prosperity of this trade 
necessarily affects the tribes of native hunters. Conse- 
quently, those circumstances which interfere with the 
demand for feathers at home, affect ultimately the Kafir 
hunters themselves. The recent disturbances produced a 
great impression upon the trade in ostrich feathers, and 
tlio rt«ults are severely felt by the native hunters of 
these birds.—K. E.] 



2(5 Woodman, J. C, Cape Toum. 

Manufactured olive wood. 
[The olive wood of tlic CajM? is the product of true oUve- 



ifl that €i miaeed 



int^tfeexm of ai0a,b^ all dMtinet from the Olea of 

£arope. — E- F.J 

A cabinet, eolupoaed of s 
of ftinkwood, fo called OB I 
the wood when newly coL 

[The pemliar wood here alhsdrd to 
belonging to the order Lamrmeem. Ua 1 
Oreodapkme fademe, lu odoor is murermUj ikaeribeil 
as most intolerable. The aanie tree cxistB m the Cmoarj 
Uandfl, where it if known onder the nanv of TiL — ^R.£.] 

27 Thalwitxks, IL, Cape 2h«A. 
Corioaitief; bowi and anows; Boafanmi'a Uanket. 

Bark fior tannmg. 

28 Haitstbt, £. J^ Cape 2h«A. 
Bhinooeroa-hom sticks and whqta. 

[There are sercral apedes of riiinooeras in Africa ; one 
of them ranges thioa^KMit the cattnl regiooa ; two are 
peculiar to the sooth. Three African apeciea hare two 
horns, the other has only one horn. Thej are all quite 
distinct from the Asiatic species. The horn is formed out 
of an accumulation <tf metamoiphoaed hairs. — K. F.] 

Leopard-flkin. 

29 MOAG, W., Oye Tomm. 
Kafir wamcR^s head-dreaa. 



Foosi>, fi.. Cape Ihmm. 



30 

Model in day. 

30a SuTHKRLAirD, J., 17 Great Si. HeUn'e^ London, 
(Agent to Twist Niet Steam Mills, of Messrs. 
J. F. FsKDBsicssBN and T. Sutherland, jun.) 
Wheat flour, the produce of the Gape Colony. 

30b Bazlet, T., Natai. 

Three bales (^cotton, from Port NataL 

South African Productions, forwarded htf the Agri- 
cultural Society op the Cape op Gtood Hope. 

31 Reitz, Rieda, & Co.— Samples of fine wool. 

32 Breda, D. J. Tan, Hatch i?iwr.— Samples of fine 

wooL 

34 Prince, Collison, & Co. — A barrel of fine flour. 

35 VOLSTEEDT, J. P.— Prcserred fruits, viz., bitter 
oranges, green apricots, green figs, naartjes, citron, candied 
figs, candied naartjes, and oranges. 

36 Moss, N. — Cigars and kanaster tobacco. 

37 Searioht, J. — Two tins Malagas guano. 

38 SitiTUERS, J. — Tallow and soap. 

39 SCHLUSSLER, II.— Cask of salt beef. 

40 Martin, W.— Cask of salt pork. 

41 M088O, T.— A roll of sole leather. 

42 SCHMIETERLOEW, C. — A tippet made from the 
feathers of rarious Cape birds. Samples of sole leather. 
Sea-elephant oil. 

43 Missionary Station, Groenkloop. — Quince walk- 
ing-sticks, stained ; riding whip, stained ; and ohve wood 
work-box. 

44 Moravian Missionary Station at Genadbndal. 
— Double chopping knife, bread-cutting and hunting 
knives, vino cutter, pocket knives, and boschlemmer knife. 
Box composed of 30 specimens of various woods, in the 
rough and polished state ; oUvo wood box. 

45 LiNDENBERO, J., Worcester District. — Specimen of 
berry wax ; specimens of beeswax. 

[The tree which yields the " berry wax" is, in all proba- 
bility, Myrica cerifera^ the berries of which yield it abmid- 
antly. Possibly it may bo obtained from other species of 
Mifriea. Tlie trees from wliich it is obtained are found 
abundantly at the Cape of Good Hope.— R. EJ 



DVENDEKCIBS.] 



SOUTH AFRICA. 



951 



46 Babh, T. a.— Sack of wheat. 

47 DlTMBiaTOH, H., George 'District, — ^Box, containing 
fiHtj-tbi«e specimens of Cape woods, in the t>ark, rough 
and p<dishe£ Specimens of Colonial wool in the rough 



[The wool of the native breed of Cape sheep is of litUe 
Talue, and forms but an unimportant article of oommer- 
dal enterprise. That of the sheep of the Merino breed is, 
however, highly esteemed, and is annually exported to the 
value of about 25,000/.— R. E.] 



Sajcfles of various Woods indigenous to South Africa. 



Kol! V«siiMaii]«r Ns 



1 I TWttboolde wood 
t Pen (vhite) . . 
9 Inm wood (wbite) 
4 , Wnd gnnato . 



€ Ynidnco 

7 I AU»(rad) 



Ghadlowoodor ehoRy 



BhckolhFo 
WOd elder 
Wlateolhro 
Cedar . . 
Otoderboach 
Saftmnwood 



SDkbwk 



Redwood . 
wood 



Pear (hard) . . 

Ninpoe . . . 

TeUow wood • 

Qoambaah . . 

Kackbark . . 
fran wood (black) 

Alder kUp . . 

Stinkwood . . 



Makwood . 

14 I Borwpia . . 

S ! Gtmtaun . • 

ai ■ Graaatboni 

1 
37 TTTlil iliiiliiiif 

r(wldee) 



tt Wkitewood 



Sawdoat naed aa an emetic 

liy the Zoolaa. 
In waggon-work, for felloea, 

&e. 
For azlea, polea, &c., of wag- 

gona. 
Fot cabinet-makera* toola • 

For waggon polo-tanga and 

felloea. 
By caUnet-makera for chain, 

&c 
Waggon felloea and planka 

Waggon-btrilding and other 
porpoaea. 

ft eferie d eapedaUy for wag- 
gon-building. 

Fomitoie and waggon-work 

TaUe-feet and didrs . • 
Waggon-work, polea, &c . 

Coopera'-work, water-wheels, 
not being affected by water 

Waggon-tenta, thatching- 
spaza. 

Waggon-work, the bark for 



Waggon-work • • • 
F^imitnre-lega, &c, and tools 

CkrTiago-poIea, apara. The 
bark, when broken, appears 
silky. 

Waggon-work, and the bark 
for tanning. 

Furniture, tools, &c. . . 

Veneering and tools . . 
Waggon-work and tools 
Waggon-polea, axlea, &c 



Beams, planks, and building. 

Spars, rafters, &e. . . 

Felloes, the berries as food 

Waggon-poles, toola, &c. 

Waggon-work . , 

Waggon work • 

FDrnitnre, gun-atocks, wag- 

gon-w(wk • • 
Furniture, planka , 

Felloes, boat-riba, and wag- 
gon-work. 
Felloea 



Quality. 



Waggon-apars, poles, &c. , 
Beama, pbmks, &c. . , 
Furniture, planka, &c. • < 

Toola, fiimitnre, &c. . , 
Deala, beama, planka, &c. , 
Waggon-work, felloes, &c. , 
Raitea, spars, &c. . . , 



Very hard and 

tough. 
Hard and tough 

Very hard and 

tough. 
Fine-pained 

and tough. 
Soft and tough 

Hard and heavy 

Hard and tough 

Very hard and 

heavy. 
Hard and very 

tOUfffa. 

Very hard and 

tougli. 
Hard and tough 

Hard and tough 

Light, short, and 

resinous. 
Very tough and 

durable. 
Hard and cloae 

Hard . . . 

Hard and tough 

Tough and cloae 



Very tough 
Short and hard 
Hard and close 
Hard and tough 
Hard and tough 
Hard and heavy 
Soft and light . 
Soft and light . 
Short and hard 

Hard and very 

tough. 
Very hard and 

tough. 
Hard and close 

Hard and tough 

Soft and tough 

Hard, milky, 

and tough. 

Hard and tough 

Tough . . . 

Hard and tough 

Soft and light . 

Tough and aoft 

Hard and close 

Tough and hard 

Light and short- 
grained. 

Light and short- 
grained. 

Light and soft . 



Locality. 



Port Natal 

Olifkntahoek, Zixikamma . 

'K'»* kV*V^**i * nff^ T^ffVw mmax 

&c 
Eastern forests .... 

Forests throughout the 

Oape Oolony. 
Ravines throughout the 

Cape Colony. 
Ravines along the water- 



15 to 20 
20 „ 80 
10 
20 



5« 
15 „ 

6 „ 
15 „ 



Edging the wateroouraes in 

ravines. 
Moist and atony plaoea 

Rocky plaeea • . . . 

Wooda edging rivers . . 



High rocky plaeea in the 

Cedar Monntaina. 
Underneath high treea in 

the fcMosta. 
Wooda in the eastern part 

of the oolony. 

Shady spots in ravinea 
Woods in ravines . . . 



Height 
of Stem. 



Diameter. 



FeeL 



10 
20 
15 
30 
10 


15„«0 
10„25 
5„ 10 
10 „ 15 



Foresto 

Forests in the eastern dis- 
tricts. 

Forests of Nysna River and 
eastern districta. 

Ravines, sliady and moist 
places. 

Stony and moist places 
within the colony. 



Forests of George District. 

Moist places by rivulets, 

Kastem Province. 
Woods of Eastern Province 

Moist and shady places . 

Forests of Eastern Province 



Many forests .... 
Forests of Eastern District 
Stony places .... 
Forests of Eastern Province 

Woods in ravines . • . 

Forests in ravines in Eastern 

Province. 
Moist places in ravines in 

Eastern Province. 



Forests in Eaatem Province 
Woods in Eaatem Province 



15 „ 20 
10 „ 15 
6 „ 8 
10 „ 12 
13 „ 20 
10 „ 15 
20 „ 30 
10 „ 20 
5 „ 10 
5„ 10 

5„ 8 
15 „ 30 
10 „ 12 



20 „ 50 
5„ 8 
10 „ 12 



2toSft. 

2 „ 5in. 
«M4ft. 

5 „ 5in. 
2„ Sft. 
* »» ft 

Uft. 

7 in. 
2toSft. 
1 „<» 
1 „ 8 in. 
1 „»ft. 

6 to 8 in. 

1 » 8 „ 
1 „2ft. 

1 „ 9in. 
S„10„ 

2 „ 3ft. 

2to4 
1 „ 7 in. 
6 „10 
1ft. 
2to3ft. 
1 » 2 

3 „5 
1 „ 3 
1 „ 3 

1 » « 

3 to 9 in 
3 „4ft. 

2 „ 8 ,, 



2 to 5 ft. 

1 M « » 

1 „ 8 in. 



Botanical Names. 



Imbricaria obovata. 

Aaaphea (Boacia) 

undulata. 
Burehel lia capenala. 

Manglilla(Mrysine) 
melanophleoa. 

Tardaonanthua 
camphoratua. 

Cunonia capenaia. 

Celaatrua roatratna. 
CurtiaU Ikginea. 
Oleai 



Chilianthna arbo- 
reus. 



Gallitria Eeklonll. 

Trichocladua 

crinitua. 
Ooooxykm excel- 

aum. 
Mystroxylon. 

Royena lucida. 

Celaatrua. 

Rhna tomentosa. 

Diporidium arbo- 

reom. 
Gonioma Kamaasi. 

Celastrus? 

Olinia cymoaa. 



Podocarpna elon- 
gatus. 
Virgilia capensis. 

Euclea undulata. 

Royena villoaa. 

Olea undulata. 

Flectronia. 

Oreodaphne bullata 

Ekebergia capenaia. 

Sideroxylon inerme 

Hippobromus 
alatus. 

Plectronia ventosa. 

Calodendron 

capense. 
Weinmannia trifo- 

liata. 
Euclea. 

Royena. 

Podocarpua latifo- 

liua. 
Mystroxylon Kubu. 

Virgilia. 



952 



sotrrn afrtca.— western afhtca. 



[COLOKIBS AND 



48 BCKWUVLM^ J. n., it Co, — Spocimenj of medidiial 
hCTbt snd dmgi. 

49 SspFZ, H.— Impure carbonate of flod&, prepared &om 
gmma ttshes. 

50 Pass, A. Db — Samples of guano. 

51 Watebm^ykb, C— Orchilla weed. 

52 JorBKBT, J. G,— Honey. 

53 BrcHjLKAJf & Law — An elephant's tiuk, weiglimg 
103 Ibe., another weighing 97 lbs. 

54 ClarkXCI, B- — Dried fruits, tm : — Ahnonds, peaches, 
imiBiiu, apriiDotB, penre, cTtirrant«| and wahiat«. 

Samples of aea-elephant oE. 

55 Caut, J. — Speomien§ of plitmhago, FuUer^a-earth, 
&€. Box of obiter shells, of geological interest, from po- 
sition of deposit boing at the top of Grass Bidge. 

56 Gb2IO| G., & Ga — BpecameoB of iron ore. 

57 A Ubmry chair, presented to C, B. Adderley, Esq.» 
M,P., by the inlmbitant* of the Eastern prorinco of the 
colonj of the Cape of Good Hope. 

[The chair was designed bj T. Baines, and canred bj 
J»Hart, of Graham's town. The back consists of two p&nek, 
oaiTed, in wood of a lighter shade fhan the framework j each 
panieL being midcNied in scroll-work. Between the upper 
and lower dirision, and in the centre of the back of the diairj 
is a cluster of niitiT© weapons and implements ; the assagai 
and the shield of the KaUr, the bow and quiver of the wan> 
disnng Boahman, the war-aifi and plume of the Bechuana. 
On one tide are placed the arms of the British settkr, Im 
rifle» liunting-knife, and pouch i on the other side, the long 
elephant gun, the powdcp*hom and belt of the Dutch Boct. 
The upj)er panel represents a Ibreat scene. The prindpal 
group in the immediate foregroimd oonaiats of an elephimt, 
rhhaooeroB, and bufFolo^ on the left, a gnu is repn?sented 
galloping; in the di^tance^ are groups of giralfes and 
osirielieA i and abore^ the carrion yultiire appears to aoar. 
The Idwlt panel represents a South African scene. A wag- 
gon Lb about to descend llie bank of a rivulet. On a ridge, 
overlooking the drift, down which the leading oxen are 
descending, is a Kafir hut. In the mid-diBtAibCe is placed 
ft frontier homestead, with verandah and pareh; and 
tising immediately beliind it, a lofty and rugged krantz : 
mountains fill up the back-ground. The coBhion is worked 
in silk, on black velvet : it consists of a group of wild 
flowers, surroimded by a wTeath of vine-leaves and grapes. 
The lower part of the chair, below the cujihion, is sur- 
rounded by a fricRC : tlie front is carved with a wheat- 
aheaf, and a festoon of cobs of Indmn com. The aloe, a 
charaetcri^tic of Soutli African eeenerj", is grouped on one 
flidi\ with a stem of Kafir milict j and on the othcrj with 
Indian com, 

58 Watson, H., SL F^Ur'v Chamhert, ComhUl 
Pair of ]iolifihed oi horup, (with head complete,) mea- 
suring from tip to tip 8 feet 4 iiichesj and 31 inchoa in 
cireumfereuce^— from Port Natal] and stone shib, from 
Katal, moimted as a table. 

58 a Ceo it c It* 

A model of raacliineiy of H. M. S. " Doe." 



59 Wl!LL3, JoBN k Co., Eegemt Street. 

A slab of coloured marble, from the distri^'t of Natal, 
Tsiomited on a st^ud of oak grown on the estate of Lord 
Willoughby D'Ereaby j carved by tlio exhibitors. 



60 BtTSTTj C. J., 12 Fancras Latie^ London. 

Specimen of red ebony, fn>m Niitrtl, with fourteen etigine- 
tumed tlrauglitttnitm, tiiadc from part of the same. The 
wood has not been dyed, but merely oUcd and polinlied. 




Klephant^s tusks, found near Gh^am^s Town. Tlie 
heavitst weigha 331 lbs., the hght^^t 134 lb«. The 
longest is 8 feet 6 inelic* in length and 22| inches in cir- 
cumfiavDoe ai the base^ and its weight is 167 lbs. 



WESTERN AFRICA. 

Sotrru A&BiB) L* M. 82. 

Tms collection of articles is a very complete repre- 
sentation of native products and of the results of native 
industry. It is contributed, however, exclusively by 
British exhibitors interested in this colony, Tlie mw 
materials are very interesting. They in dude »iieci- 
mens of woods, among which is the celebrated African 
teak, BO extensively used for purposes of ship-buil<liiig, 
csonstruction, Ac. Specimens of cotton, grinned and 
otherwise, some of which grow spontaneously on the 
liaiiks of the Niger, Raw silk ana other textile mate- 
rials are likewise illustrated, Amoni? the articles of 
food are specimens of amiw-root, cofiee, shea butter, 
drie<l fruit, Arc. Tlie moat interesting and ext<?n»ive 
j>artof the collection consists in the textile productiuiis 
of native industry, which are extremely vnriecl, and 
exhibit much siniplo ingenuity and onianient. Tlie 
bsiskets, weajTons, and miscellaneoua personal and 
domestic fittings shown, have alsk) much interest 
Qttaclied to them in^lividually and to the circmn*' 
stances of their proiluction.— -R. E. 

1 Weston, Warwick, 73 &racwk«rch Street^ 

Lond<i n — 1 mporter , 

1 Teak timbinr or A friean oak, for sihip building, Ac, 

2 Ironstone. 3 Cotton with the seed. 

4 Cotton, cleaned, without the seed. 5 Palm oil. 

6 — 7 Bennie seed and ground nuts^ fipom wliich oil is 
extracted 

8 Arrow -root. 9 The root of arrow-root. 

10 Shea butter. 11 Ginger. 13 ColTee. 
13 Pod pepper. 14 Cayenne pepper. 

15 Gtun copoL 

16 African mats and small baakets, mad^ there from 
drie<l grans, 

17 African country cloths, niade there from tlieir own 
cotton. 

Theae productions are all from the Western Coast of 
Africa* 

2 FoBSTiB k Smith. 
Tobes, or cotton robes, from Sierra Leone. 
Pngnea, or cotton doths, from GbmbiB. 
Knife from Gambia. 
Grafls-cloth from Sierra Leone. 
Table-mata from Gamhia. 

Leather pouch containbg HS, extracts from tlw 
Koran, 

Leather pouches, worn as charms in Ghimbia. 

Aahanl^eo glass armlets, the glass obtained by melting 
European beads. 

3 BBOwy, JosKPH PiTO, Cwtjw Coaxi CaHU, 

Gold Ccww*, Wesi Africa. 
A lar^e silk-cotton horsc>cloth, manufactured at Da- 
homey, Africa; worn by the king's faTourite son, 

4 RoTHEBY, Miss, 10 Siraiford Place, London^ 
Two large wrou^ht-cotton counterpanes, manufactured 

in tiie Cape de Venl Islands. 

Tlirec silk pangs, or mantles, manufactured in the 
iNJiiud of SftH Nioolaa, Cape de Verd Islauda ; worn by 
the lodiea of the island. 



5 Teotteb, Captain Hen by Dundab, RN, 

Vftrioufl artielea of African ^iwth and manufacture, 
porehasod and cliiefly mauuioctured at Kgga^ on the right 



DsPEKpEKcres. ^ 



WESTEKK AITOCA, 



053 



bunk of the Niger; And Irrougbt to England bj t!ic 
Exliibitor. 

1 Specimen of Saniia Aduga raw silk. Tlib silk can be 
obtuncKl at Brini Caunatown, in tht* Haiibm country. 

% Bpo&mea of Samis Aduga, a« it i« monu&ctured at 
Yttnin Kama This ydlow dje is a ^pecica of arrow- 
focl, whirli griows wild in romc pbmxiB on tlie bauka of the 
Higar, and also on the con^U 

i A fpfcttnen of raw cotton, whieh grows spontaneously 
on the banks of the Niger, and is often cultivated by the 



\ of lime, a material made of bones burnt into 
'mixed with water, and dried in the stai. It is 
uad by those who spin thread for the purpose of keeping 
tbair&igRS dry. 

6 Potsoned arrowi, such as are iu«ed by the Felataha 
Dt Falaa» a* wfttt as by the people of Voruli. 

6 Specmieii of cotton thread, including white and blue. 

7 AOpta made of natire heinp, 

S Female country cloth, sucli as is made into dresses 
and worn by the higher classes: it b mtiniifa<'tiired at 
Tabotcby. The woollen yarn that is iiitcnniictl with 
the cotton is of Enrv^iean manufacture 

9 A goat oir sheep skin. 

10 Specimens of female dresses, made of country cloth: 
these an worn by the higher classes. Tlie>' are maim- 
ttdtat^d at lUoryn, Yorubo country, and at iloko, in the 
fiaoiSA eoimtry. 

11 Specimens of a iemale ^sbionable dress, made of 
country cloth, and worn by tlie higher claases, Tlie cloth is 
manufactured at Nikij or Babuh, in tlie Yoruba couiitry- 
The brown cotton is token from the silk cottou-tree, 
(a ncies oi Bom^as), Tliis immense tree grows on 
the Gold Coast, and in most other parts of the we^t coa?^t 
of Afnoa* The natives make their canoes, by bollowing it 
out and shaping it to the required sixe. The green lesTcs 
vbcQ joat on the point of budding are rery wholesome^ 
and are used aa T»tablc«. 

IS Specimens of female dresses of country cloth, manu- 
ixtiired sA Seloh, a town nine days* journey on foot from 
Jfafabap citiiiaCed on the left bank of the Niger. 

11 Specimens of a female dress, marie of count rj cloth, 
•ad gmnlly worn, after haring been dyed, by t lie higher 
dsMes af a shawl : it is manuliictunid at Yabotchy. 

14 SpecimMEis of female dresaea, made of the countiry 
doth which m manufactnred at Kilamij and in Yorubn 



15 apmrntwis of femals dresses, made of country eloth, 
I worn by wSl claatcs. It is manufaetTired in Yabotchv 

■adToroba. 

16 Spedmena of female dresses, made of country cloth, 
aad worn hw the higher classes. The red silk is to he 
pronirid only at Brini Canu: it is sohi by the Arabp, 

17 A Tariety of other country cloths, which aw made 
into drasses, and worn by diiTerent classes, Mauuliictured 
ii Toroha, Abooa, and Eggn. 

t§ ^pastofP of fuJl-sizc country cloth, used for dresses 
hf <hiWifldie classes : it it ako mndc intu coimtcq>nne». 
It ii iMBiifiKfiuid at Little Popo, in the Bight of BenjTU 
lbs pad thfi«d is of European manofacture. 

19 Female bead-bands, such as arc worn by the higher 
iod bver dasses. They are manofiM^tured at Yabotcliy 



of a fine dress head-band, as worn by 

aC the higher class of jjc*>ple, Tlic rod silk is 

lij the Arabs through the de?crt^ from Tripoli 

I euimtiy, sod amongst other towns, to Birmi 

tl Spscioieii of a female head-band, 4 h, 1 in. in lengtli. 
Re wwn eotton is taken from the silk t'otton-trco. 

tM Sptimrm of fine and bluc-glnKiil tobes, such as 
•f worn ky the higher class of naliFcs, The tobi? l^ 
^■ii m die following manner : --After the cloth has been 
WHMl^lj dyed witli indigo it i« hung up until it h» com- 
fflid|y drf i il is then spread on a wixxlen roller, and 
filibsd by hand with the shell of m toail ; this produces 
ttegftoBSb 



23 Fine plain and dyed unbk'achcd cotton t4»be, 
2<i Fine drcst* 8tTi()ed tobe, such its is worn by tho 
higlier classes. The yellow colour is dyed at Kattam 
Xarafi, a town on the left bank of the Niger, a short 
distance above its confluence with the Cliadcb. Tlie red 
silk is brought by the Arabs into theHaus^a country. 

25 Fine checked short tobe, woven with raw sdk : it 
is wuni by the liigher classes. 

26 Sj>ecimon of a fine chocked long tobe, and Haussa 
troiiscri*: it is bruided with red «ilk about the anktes, 
and is made after the Turkish fashion: it b wont by the 
higher classes. 

27 Strainer or siere, made out of slips of bamboo : it 
is maimfactimed ot Brini Canu. 

28 Small earthen cooking pot and oover, earthen dishes, 
and stands for lanips ; useft by the higher clasi^s. 

29 Cushion. The red bai«e is of Eurtijiean nmnuffic- 
tui«; the yellow skin is dyed by the natives of Kaltan 
Karafi. 

30 Strings of fancy palm-nut beads, made out of burnt 
kernels. Tlicy are worn round the waist and neek by 
rci^ptK'table females. 

31 Coloured bopkct, motle of bamboo j it is manufac- 
tured nt Biniii, or Brini^ in the Ilaussa countrv. 

32 Bji-nkft to hold proTiitiuns, rice, com, &c. 

33 Calabash bowl ■ a wooden bowl carved out of solid 
wood J and calabashes of various siicee. Te<*selj< of this 
kind are usetl for containing solid and Uquid food. All 
cohibflshes arc mode out of a species of pumpkin, wliich is 
not ethble ; it has a bitter taste, similar to that of 
quassia. It ts apphed to various purposes, and is made 
by the natives in the Bights of Benin and Dahomey. 
The Isifett aises are between 12 and 30 inches in diameter. 
They are used for conveying provisions from one place to 
another. 

3 % Specimens of wooden carved ladles or spoons. 

35 Bag used for holding com or articles ofcommercc. 

36 Netted bag, used for exposing articles of commerce 
in the market -plactis. 

37 Dahomian leather bag. 

38 Carded ivory bracelet, from Egga. 
3i^ Two mats from Kgga, brought there by Blchard 

lisnder, in 1833, 



5a 



M'WnxiAM, J. O., M.D, F.E.S. (Principal Medical 
Officer of the late Eipcdition to tbe Niger), 

1 Specimen of shea butter, made of the fiit of the 
Bassin Parkii, from Egga, on the River Niger. 

[In the travels of Mungo Park frequent mention 
made of shsa huUer^ the pi-oduct of the aheaptreo* He 
described this tree as resembling *Mhe American oak^ 
and the fruit — from the kernel of which, irst dried in tlie 
Sim, the butter is prepared, by boiling the kernel in water" 
— as lioving "sometimes tho appearance of a Spanish i 
oUve." He rmmrks of the butter, that it ha* a richer ^ 
flavour than the best butter he luvd ever tasted made of 
cow's milk, and states that the growth and preparation of 
it seeniwi to be amongst the first objects of African in- 
dustry, and formed one of the principal articlca of tho 
inland conimert^ of a large portion of the region which ho 
traversed. Specimens of the plant, and accurate drawings, 
were obtained during the Niger expedition. It is a ^npo- 
naceous tree, of Ihc genus 5fur<ia, allied to the Indian oil- 
trees iind others, the fruits of which yield, on pressure^ 
valuable oils. — E. F.] 

2 Carawocwl dye ball, from the confluence of the Niger 
and the Tehaddo. 

3 Bow and amiws, with iron barbs, from the Icari 
market, on tlu? River Niger, 

4 Fclatah spear, from Kakundrah. 

5 Small musical iustnmieut from Kakimdrah, on tho 
River Niger. 

6 Bpcf inum of cloth made at the conHueuce of the Niger 
and tho Tchadda, 




954 



WESTEBN AFRICA. 



fCOLOKTES Ain> 



7 Speeimi^ii of clutli§ Ironi EggB and Kokuitdmh, on 
the River Niger. 

8 Specimen of lioni ornamented on silk, «uch aa i» 
worn by tlie females at Ttldah, on the River Nigctr. 

9 Small leathern bottles for containing tlie galena whieb 
U used to dye the eyelids. They were brought from the 
c!onfluenee of the Niger and the Tehttddft. 

10 To1h:% eaibroidered in fnnit with needleworic, aucH 
ae 18 worn by the Midlama at Rabh^nh (Fdatab town), on 
the River Niger. 

11 Specimens of breeches m worn by the same. 
Q11)««0 articles, Noa, 10 and 11, are the property of 

Sir Jahsb Clahk, Bart.] 

12 Specimens of knitted and BmaH eearfs from Kgga, 
18 8peciineii9. of broad- brimmed straw hat, firom Kinee, 

? It»n Market, on the River Niger. 

Speeimens of ettrthenwarei from loui Market, on 
I RiTcr Niger. 

15 Spocinicns of ropea of regetnble fibre, by mean* of 
whieh tW Africans ascend the naked tninka of the palm 
trees, 

16 Sptxjimens of eaIaba»hworloiianBbip,eompreh ending 
H smc« of di»h(]^ of varioui kinde and e^Lzes, and platters, 
spoons, bottles, cups, Su\ 

17 Pipe, from the eonlluonoe of the Niger and the 
Tchadda, 

18 Staff of honouTi such as is carried before the African 
chiefs. 

18a Fetiiche from the River Congo, in the garb of a 
slave t rav eUing t lirough the wnntry . Bag m adc by one of 
the wives of Obi, the king of Eboe : RivtT Niger. Phoa- 
phate of lime from bonee, used l)y the eotton-spirmera to 
dry tiietms of th«ir fingera : at the eonilucnce of the Niger 
and tho Tchadda. 

5b JiMTEMOHf^ JOHK, Cmiom*hom« Agents London, 
Man din go cup, sword, and dagger, from the Kirer 
Gambin. 
Calabaeh and spcare, brought from the Q-ambia^ 

6 HuTTOX, W. B. & Son, 25 WatUng Sireet, 

1 Dahoroey <*!oth, or dreas ; manufaetured iit Abomey, 
capital of Dahomey, and 90 miles from the sea-coaitt ; 

L presented by the king in 1850. The whole of the material, 
r«xoept tho red gowOt spun and dyed at Ahome}^ The 
^ doth tneMuros 6 yardi of 2^ yiim«, and wa4 nitide in a 
loom 5 mchea wide. 

2 Bahomer chiefs throne and cushion j made at Abo- 
mey, ca])ital of Dahome?, and 90 ndlca from the wa-«»st j 
prt^uted bv the king of Dahomey. The stool carved out 
of a sohd bWk of wood («e«ftaw-tTw), 

3 Tii*k of the qnecn elephant. 

4 Qmm liat, made and worn by the nativea of 
DahomL?y. 

5 Po'po clotli, or tlresa j manufaetnred at Popo, on 
the OQ Coaet. Tlic whole of the material, exi^pt the red, 
grown, spun, and dyed in theeonntry^ tho elotb meaatirea 

\ 8| yards by 2 yar^, and was made in a loom 20 inches 

6 Basket, manttfectiired by the natives of Little Popo. 

7 Aahante© chiefr' eloth, or dressy loannfuotiinxi nl 
Coomosey, capital of Ash an tee, several niilea Lliatant (iii 
tlio interior) mim Cape Coast. The whole of the cotton, 
except the red, groivn, ppim, and dyed in the country ; 

J llie cloth measures 4 yarda by %\ yoma, and waa made in 
|« loom 3 iuehes wide. 

8 Oopper weights, used by the Aahantees for weighing 
^fold. cSkst in day mould. 

9 Powder and ahot belt, made of leather, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Cape Coast. 

10 Specimen of the intergrowth of two bmnehes of tlif- 
ferent trees, fr^m Cape Coast. 

11 Dagger; made at Grand Bassam. 

12 Qrass-doth i the material grown and dved by the 
natives of St. Andrew's, Ivory C-oost. The only article of 
clothing wonii hy the natives. 

13 Bt. Andrew's dnmi, made of monkey- skin. 



14 Man din go eloth, nmniifactuHxl by the Manflingoa, 
on the River Gainhia. The cotton grown, spim, and 
dyed in the ooimtry. 

15 War-tireǤ and sword, made and worn by the Man- 
dingos on the River Gandita* 

16 Fiddle^ motle and used by the Mandingos, Rirer 
Gambia. Speeimenn of iwdni fruit, kemek, and oiJL Spe- 
cimens of pahii-keniel oil, and kernel-oil soaps. Ground 
nuta, oil, and .soap. 



7 Ki^o, R. & W., RrUto!. 

Three cushions from the king of Dahomey. Two ptaeea 
of cotton elotb of the game coiuitry. 

8 FoEBEB, CommantJer F. G. (RN.) 
Two weavers' looms, cMefs stool and footstool, end ^m 

lamps, from Dahomey. 

Dress worn by the Amazons of the king of Dahomey. 
Bag nianufacturetl at Wydah. 

i> MATgoN, Captain (R.N.) 

Cap, as worn by the chiefs of Eabenda, Congo. 
Mythical instrument, with a gourd as a soimding-booi^ 

River Congo. 
Fctisches, from the country on the banks of tlie same 

river. 

1(1 MiLXER, T. Esq., Itflnnd, and also of S^n Nte-alatf 
Cape de Verd Ixlami«. 
Door-lock, as used at the Capo de Verd Islands. This 
lock y nearly the same a* that which haa been in use with 
tlie Eg^'ptians for some forty centuries. 

1 1 TOWKSEXB, G,, Esq., Exeter. 
Specimens of cloth. A market basket. Iron braeelets. 

A droaa, as worn by the native*. A drum. All from 
Abbrokuta. 

12 Beecuam, Rev. Dr. 

Hat and messenger's bog of Mandingo mamtfiMSUunOt 
from the Gamhia, 

Large Ai«hantee cloths. Pipes, from Cooroasoie. 

Brass figures, used as weights. 

Chiefs stool and laive round cushion, from Asliantee. 

Cartonche box of Daliomey manufacture. 

Two tnarket-baskets, water- pot, and market-bogs mada 
of gtuBA, from Badagry . 

Specimen of raw indigo, from Abbrokuta. 



13 TOWJ^SEKD, G., Exeter. 

Yariotis artich^ from Abberkutu, a town of &0,00il 
inhabitants, in the Yomba country. 



14 AcLA^i>» Lady. 

Two pieces of mitive cloth from Abbrokutik 

1 5 Forbes, Commander F. G. (R.N.) 
Various articles from Dahomey. 



IG SrrnERLATffD, Her Grace the Duchess of. 

Various birib, from the River Niger. 



1 7 AcKLJua>, Sir T. D. Bart., M.P. 

A sword or liatehot, from Abbrokuta. 



18 Steaitji, Major H. 

Two grass cloths from Abbrokuta, 



1 FapdTj Col, P., R.A., ?rcwiiwicA,—Proprietor. 

A koodoo, a harbe-beest, and a water-hoc (a male), 
fcilleti by Captain Fatldy, R,A., nearly %Af}0 niiliw from 
Cape ToVn, in Kflnirland. The water-boc (a mde) is the 
only »i|jecimen that has ever been brought to Europe. 



Dkpendkkcies. ] 



GOLD COAST AND ASHANTEE.—ST. HELENA. 



955 



20 Faddy, Mrs. CoL — Producer. 

Gold aresbesque scarf of Fex manufacture. 
Pair of Barbuy ladies* slippers. 
Vase of Barbary ware. 



21 HuTTOir, JjLMXB Fbedsbice, 25 WaiUnff Street — 

Importer. 
African produce : — Cotton doth, made b^ the slaves of 
the king of Dahomey, at Abomey, 90 miles m the interior 
of Afrioi. Cushion for a seat, made at the same place, 
and hj the same people. Cotton cloths made at Popoe, 
on the Slaye Cooist of Africa, and at St. Andrew's, West. 
Grass doths, for wearing round the loins. Cotton cloths, 
from the banks of the riTer Ghmibia. Baskets, from 
Popoe. The cotton of these manufactures is grown and 
spun in Africa by the natiyes ; all the dyes are native, 
except the red. 

22 Jaxibson, B., Esq., Liverpool. 

Artides from the country on the banks of the Niger and 
other parts of Western Africa : — 

1—4 Copper jug, Ac 7 Earthenware pot. 

10 — 15 CaJAbashes, with rings, and with spoon. 

18 Basket. 27—29 Three combs. 32 Bings. 

33 Tablet. 34—38 Five fims. 

39—41 Grass £m; specimens of antimony ore; and 
pepper. 

42 — 63 Two grass bags ; pein sandals ; boots ; flask ; 
brMs case, earthenware, and kid skin for antimony ; spurs ; 
tin case for papers ; leather knife ; reaping-hook ; small 
anns ; katiier wallet ; string of beads ; leather threads ; 
beads. 

65, 66 Two knives. 

67 — 69 C^dabaah handles ; leather; nuts. 

79 Spear-head. 

23 SwAirzT, A., Esq. 
Specimens of rock gold, from Ashantee. 

24 

Specimens of Dahomian doth, from Porto EIco. 



GOLD COAST AND ASHANTEE. 

A coLLBCTios of a variety of articles of native pro- 
duction, forwarded by two exhibitors, form the con- 
tribution of this district to the Exhibition. The 
miscellaneous objects thus offered to view present 
inany interesting subjects for study.— R. E. 



1 FoBSTEB & Smith, Messrs. 

Ashantee glass armlets, composed of glass obtained by 
iBHting down European beads. Cotton cloth prepared 
^th natiTe dyes. SUk cloth woven from silk threads ob- 
tained by unravelling European silk goods. Copper 
fiieww, lied as gold weights by the natives — all from 
AihsDtee. 

Weaving and spinning instruments ; cotton cloths ; 
^Id ornaments ; pottery used for cooking ; pipe heads 
•od pipe 9tem ; native leather ; grass and mixed grass and 
eotUm cloths— all from the Gold Coast. 



ST. HELENA. 

South Abba, Q. 32. 
This small but interesting island, represented by four 
nhibitors, has sent a few specimens of its products to 
the Exhibition. The Agricultural Society recently 
otabiished in the island, with a view to promote the 
cultivation of several plants which may yield a profit- 
tUe return to the farmer, has forwarded sjx^cimens of 



raw cotton, a box of alkali, and some rock salt. Coffee 
has also lately been grown on the island, and a speci- ^ 
men is sent for examination. Interest will be excited * 
by a few minerals from Longwood, the residence of 
the Emperor Napoleon. — R. B. 



1 Massaits, Sahvbl. 

Sample of coffee grown in St. Helena. 



; Agbiotjltubai. Socibty of St. Hblbna, per Capt. 

Bolton, 18 WiUon Street, Belgrave Square. 
A box of raw cotton. 

A box of alkali, made from the Salsola plant. 
A bar of rock salt. 



3 Magkus, Samitbl, 127 Fenchwreh Street, 

A bag of coffee from St. Helena. 



4 Blofeij), John Habcoubt, 4 Hemus Place, 

King's Road, Chelsea — Producer. 

Large volcanic stone taken from the vrall of the Env 
peror Napoleon's drawing-room. Piece of stucco from 
the same spot, and made with the St. Helena lime, which 
is different to the European. Presented to the exhibitor 
by Captain Mason, the present leaseholds of Longwood. 

Piece of limestone from the top of a hill by Sandy Bay. 
Lime from the kiln, at Sandy Bay. Stone imprecated 
with nitre, from the Red Stone Quany, by James Town. 
Nine specimens of rocks. 

Six petrified shells, " Bulimus," now extinct, froni a 
stratum 1,700 feet above the level of the sea, and from a 
spot a Uttle behind Longwood. Box, containing earth in 
which the above are found. Box, containing birds* bones, 
which abound in the same stratum. Also some fragile 
shells found in a stratum on a hill above the " Briars,*' 
and about 1,200 feet above the level of the sea. 

Partially petrified birds' eggs. Similar substances 
abound in the stratum, which is supposed to be the 
remains of a bed of earth, which, at a very distant date, 
was the abode of nimierous aquatic birds ; and that this 
stratum (portions of wliich are in the boxes sent) consists 
of earth saturated with, and partly consisting of, the 
debris of their eggs, feathers, dead bodies, nests, the re- 
mains of the animals on which they fed, &?. In St. Helena, 
it is considered that the white substance in the stratum 
is the pulverized remains of the shells " Bulimus.'* 

Three petrified shells ; bivalves. Four pieces of coral 
from a depth of 380 feet, but within 4 feet of the shore. 
Three pieces of cement, painted black on the surface, from 
the interior sarcophagus of Napoleon's grave. 

Piece of the willow tree, under which Napoleon was 
buried ; exhibited as a vegetable production peculiar to 
the island. 

Snuff-boxes: French polished, nmde from this tree; 
varnished, to show the wood in its plain state ; and made 
from a willow tree which Napoleon planted behind the 
Hbrary at Longwood. 

St/llelena cotton, with seeds. Coffee seeds and plums. 
Carraway branches, with seeds. One reed. Two ex- 
crescences from fir trees in the plantation at Longwood. 
Seeds of cow-grass. A capsicum. Part of the stem of a 
branch of ginger. SmaU branch and plums of the banyan 
tree. Stem and flower of the sweet-smelling geranium, 
from the Briars. Two sea-beans. 

Buds and flowers of the " red wood ;" the flowers grow 
in pairs, one white, the other crimson. The tree is in- 
digenous to St. Helena. Three small pieces of Napoleon's 
coffin, made of this wood. 

Leaves and embryo fruit of the sago pine, . Branches of 
the " gum wood " (indigenous to St. Helena) from the 
avenue at Longwood. Modem shells, various. A num- 
ber of the St. Helena Gazette, and of Saul SoUmou's 
Shipping List. 



[Official Illitstbatbd Catalogue.] 



4 A 



956 



MAURITIUS. 



MAURITIUS. 

That part of th© natural history of a ootmtry wliicb 
is in direct relation with commerce is generally the 
most imivcrsolly interesting, and the objeeta included 
in thtf» collection are thoee which appear aa its repre- 
ftcntnl ivcs in this Instance, Tbo production of raw 
Hjlk is engaging much attention in the M&uritiuii, the 
nattiml caiiabilities of the land and climat« appearing 
favourable to its proaeentioii, Bngar, ooooa*niiU, Hoe, 
and spieeSr form imiiortiLnt articles of the commerce of 
the Island J in addition to its export of ebony. Of 
sugar, a few yeara stnoe this island exported to Kni;- 
land nearly seventy million potmdi in one year. — B/E. 

1 0BEY, The OooniesH. 

Baalwitand wreath of flowers from the S&?helloii filandii, 
inade from the leayea of the palm of tlie S^bellei {Nlpa 
/Intlican*). A nest of baekcta* 

2 BiTPOifT, Eteka, Esq., Ftfri Zo«th — Piwluoer, 

A packet coiitaiitiDg seren poujidi €f white iilk, the 
produce of the island of Maiuritiuii, &0m dlkwomu rearod 

in the di>tri£t of Tamariu. 

[The quality of the silk TOU*t w>t be taken as a criterion 
of whflt Mauritiui» will producen a& the manu&ctnre It in 
itfl infancj^ and has Only Lately been eommenced. About 
300 acrei of ground have been planted in th^j coder 
districts of Maimtiua with mulbOTKj treei, wMch haTe 
rapidly grown up and are now flt for use* A company 
has bmi fonned in Mauritius by the exertions of a barnftter 
and planter tlierc, caUed the "Fflature Erenor Oentrale." 
An experienced "fileuse/' Madame Boildieu, has been 
engager! firom the neiglibouring inland of Bourbonj and ih 
now giriug inBtniction to rarious proprietors. Some t^n 
perftonj rear worms and send to the Company regular 
siippUea of coeoons, and eighty- eeren other proprietors 
hate nx-eiTed eocoonp and midbcfrj euttingt ii*om the 
Company. It ii considered that this manulactuie wiU 
flourish and increase rapidly in the inland, and form 
erentually an important branch of tra<le, tlie climate and 
the soil being [peculiarly auitable to tlie profitable rearing 



of the siBcwonn. Fttym Bonrbon it la stated thai "ilk 
waa sent to Paris of ruch fine quality as to fetch IIL 
franos per kilogrammo, or about 2L 4t. the pcnrnd.] 

3 WlBB, CkahImSS Jojut, Zomkm — In^orls; 

A hag of Mamititu aitgari the produce and mimn&c- 
tiit« of the Fliienii e«tate« obtaiiie<l direct from the snm^ 
eane erpre^^ed in a horizontal mill i tlie Juic^e elandffied 
hy iteean ; crsponited to 27 Ecaomur in common open hron 
panB ; ^tered through bage and animal charcoal i boiled 
m a Howard^s Tacuum'pnn, This siigar ie said noi to 
hare been ra-boiled, ne-madc, or refined in uiy way, but 
to be pure cane nigar, without tlie admixlmts of buUock's 
blood or any albuminous «uhBtanoe| or the employment 
of any acetate of lead* 

4 Tnm BOFAL SOCtBTT Ot ISMTUUAli Hl»TCniT OF 

MArajTnrs (Imparted by A. &fixl^ 10? 
Lcadenhall Street}. 
Cases of ttraw baslete^ rieev Hqueura, and cocoa-nut 
oil j a bag of dorca, a dial, and a eaak of oocsoft-nuta* 



5 BuMrtXEJi k Co., on behalf of Mad. S, C&Afov 
and Mdlleflp Gajtcofbt (Importfln, Meaui. S. 
Baceb k Co^ London). 

Wc^rks and ornaments in f traw, made on the SMieUei. 
Bouquets in fthell-^work j Imaketa made of leavea of the 
ooooa J vaset, dial* j ^. 

MELLOdT, M. 

Small caslu of cocoa-nut oil , Wooda found on ,the 
Si^helles. Specimens of sea oocoa-nutfi* 

A caae of cliotcc liqueura, in 12 bottles, from the manu* 
&ctoFy of M. Eug. B^richon. 



7 BxAUKB, J* B. 

A ease oontaining aamplea of Mauritius noe, grown on 
tire " Champ de Sfars," Fort Loim^ raised without any 
irrigation or other wntering. The ea^i^k containing Ihia 
iwimplc ifi made of tlic It^aTCP of the Vacona tree {Oryza 
gttiica)^ the ordinary' package of the colony for sugar. 
Tlie aoil Tery dry, and ex])0«cd to lugh and drying winds. 
Bice of this kind m satd to poei«ei»« flavour and iarmaceoua 
qtiiolity, at It^iit cr[ual to that c:s.hib)ted in Oarohna ric«>, 

A variety of ornamental basket work from the Se* 
chellea. A' Coco-rfenner. Sample of doves, Ae^ 





IV. 



fiROTSSH POSSESSIOftS 
BN AMERSCfL 



CANADA.— NEW BRUNSWICK.— NOVA BCOTIA. 
NEWFOUNDLAND. — BEEMUDAR, 
WEST INDIES.— BRITISH GUIANA.— FALKLAND ISLANDS. 




EiGBT dependencies of Great BriUdn are enumerated under this head. Of these, the most extensive collection 
of articles is that from the important possessions of this country in Canada. This collection, which is more 
particiiJarly characterised below, is rich in raw materials and products. The other dependencies named are 
repKKatdSi but by few exhibitor^ ; but the articles exhibited deserve the attention ot all interested in the 
oommeicial well-being of the countries and islands represented. — R. E. 



CANADA- 

South Assab, L. M. 31, and N. O. 81, 82. 

This vast and important territory is represented in the 
Exhibition by about two hundred and twenty exhi- 
Istore, The articles contributed by it are distributed 
among several Classes, but the raw materials prepon- 
feate ; and of these a highly-instructive series is pre- 
■ented. The efforts which have been made by the 
Gwemment at home to develop the mineral wealth of 
this colony have been amply rewarded by the success 
which has attended the explorers, and the results 
which in some measure are brought to notice in the 
Exhibition. A detailed account of the geological survey 
•nd its fruits will be found in this Catalogue. Many 
of the minerals exhibited must take an important com- 
nwcial position on their locality and means of transport 
Incoming known and developed. Among other and in 
Teality more precious metals, the discovery of gold in 
the drift of the Eastern Townships along the south- 
east fflde of the Green Mountain range will be regarded 
^th curiosity. Some fine specimens are exhibited, 
one of which weighs about a quarter of a pound. 
Cop^ier promises to be more available for direct com- 
naercial purposes, and a cake of this metal is sent for 
exhibition. In this instance the ore has been smelted 
in Canada. A still more important mineral is the 
tpKvhi iron ore, of which a most valuable and im- 
I«)rtant bed exists near the waters of the Ottawa, with 
abundant sources of water power, and ready means of 
tian^>ort. Most excellent iron is obtained from the 
bog-iron ore, wood charcoal being employed in its 
manufacture: it is comparable in its qualities with 
Swedish iron; and the stones and cast-iron work 
inade from it are less liable to crack than those made 
in this country. In addition to metalliferous minerals, 
the serpentine and steatite, plumbago, asbestos, and 
lithographic stones, promise to become valuable sources 
of oatiTe wealtii. Of these fine specimens are exhibited. 



The Canadian timber, represented by the carefully- 
arranged Trophy in the centre of the Western Main 
Avenue, is scarcely less interesting to the naturalist 
and merchant than the minerals. The excellent 
qualities of this timber for useful and ornamental 
purposes are illustrated in the specimens of furniture 
exhibited. The great futtocks for ship-building, 
yielded by the tamarisk tree, are likewise interesting. 
Timber constitutes a very prominent feature in the 
export commerce of the country ; the white and red 
pine, the black walnut, maple, cedar, beech, and 
butter-nut, are among the more important. Ainong 
other articles of vegetable origin, the canoe, made of 
the bark of the white birch, will be regarded with 
interest. This fragile vessel has in safety made a 
voyage of three thousand miles, carrying a crew of 
twenty passengers, with their provision and other 
necessaries. 

The agriculture of the country is largely represented. 
The specimens which appear in this capacity are in 
themselves without general interest, consisting of such 
articles as barrels of wheat, flour, &c. ; but regarded 
in connection with the productive resources of the 
coimtry from whence they have proceeded, they are 
not behind more pleasing objects in their value and 
attraction. The Canadian winter pastime of sleighing 
is illustrated by the elegant single and double sleighs 
sent to the Exhibition. Among the manufactures of 
another kind are specimens of dressed porpoise-skin 
and whale-skin, employed as a substitute for leather 
with advantage. In a comparatively new country like 
Canada, the manufacturing arts are still in an early 
stage of their development. At present her supplies 
of colonial produce and manufactures are derived from 
the mother-country : the specimens of domestic manu- 
facture sent over to the Exhibition show the progress 
Canada is making in those arts ; whilst the develop- 
ment of her great national resources is the first aim 
of her inhabitants. It is not, therefore, to be expected 

4 A 2 



958 



CANADA. 



[Colonies and 



that much attention can he given to arts that are yet 
in their infancy. Still the specimens sent will convey 
to the English artisan an idea of the field there is for 
the exercise of his calling. The blankets, horse-cloths, 
and grey etoffe du pay, will bear comparison with those 
of any country. 

Among other miscellaneous objects, a piano, manu- 
facture of Canadian woods, specially fitted to endure 
the changes induced by the vast change of temperature 
in this country, will be regarded with attention, as 
will also a church bell forwarded from Montreal. A 
very prominent object exhibited is a handsome fire- 
engine of great power. The alarming nature of the 
conflagrations occasionally breaking out in Montreal 
renders the possession of powerful means of extinguish- 
ing them highly necessary. This engine is capable of 
throwing two streams of water to a height of 160 feet 
each. A nmnber of native curiosities adds to the 
value of this collection. — R. E. 



1 Logan, W. E. (Director of Provincial Oeological 
Survey) — Montreal. 

Specimens of magnetic specular and bog-iron ores : — 

Ilmemte and titaniferous iron. 

Sulphurets of zinc, lead, copper, nickel, and molyb- 
denum. 

Native silver and gold. 

Bog manganese. 

Iron pyrites. 

Uran ochre. 

Cobalt bloom. 

Chromic iron. 

Dolomite and magnesite. 

Iron ochres, barytes, and other stone paints. 

Lithographic stone. 

Agate, jasper, Labradorite, and ribboned chert. 

White quartzose sandstone, for glass-making. 

Soap-stone, asbestos, plumbago. 

Phosphate of lime, gypsiun, and shell marl. 

Millstone rock, whetstones, and TripoH earth. 

Roofing slater, granite, serpentine and various qualities 
of marble and limestone. 

Peat petroleum and mineral pitch. 

[Tlie variety and importance of the minerals of Canada 
claim a more extensive notice than can usually be given. 
They have but recently become known ; and witli a view to 
promote a collection of them for the purposes of the 
Exliibition, tlic Executive Committee of the Canada 
Commission, last year, prepared a catalogue showing the 
localities of many of them ; and from this, and the various 
published reports of the progress of the Canada Geological 
Survey, wliich has now been in operation under provincial 
authority for seven years, much information may be 
obtained. The country abounds in the ores of iron, 
consisting of the magnetic and specular oxides, and the 
hydrated peroxide or bog ore. The first occurs chiefly 
in a formation consisting of gneiss interstratified with 
important bands of highly crystalline limestone, and the 
formation sweeps through the province from Lake Huron 
to Labrador, keeping, at a variable distance, north from 
the left bank of the river St. Lawrence and its lakes, 
crossing the river at the Thousand Islands only, below 
Kingston, to form a junction with a great peninsular- 
shaped area of the same, occupying a mountainous region 
in northern New York, between Lakes Champlain and 
Ontario. The ore api:)ears to He in beds rimning with 
the stratification usuaily highly inclined, and the beds 
occasionally attain a great tliickness. A bed which is 
now worked in the township of Marmora, and of the iron 
resulting from wliich samples have been sent, presents a 
breadth of 100 feet j another, the ore of which has been 



mined and smelted in Madoc, has been traced several 
miles with a breadth of 25 feet; on Myers* Lake, in 
South Sherbrooke, there is a 60-feet bed; in South Crosby, 
a bed 200 feet in width comes upon the Bideau Canal, 
where it is not £ur removed from great water-power ; and 
in Hull there is a 40-feet bed at no great distance from 
the navigable water of the river Ottawa. From all these 
localities, and others, specimens have been contributed, and 
the produce of the ore in pure metal generally ranges from 
60 to 70 per cent.; that of South Sherbrooke is 63, and of 
Hull 69 per cent. Where the mineral has been acted on 
bj the weather, it frequently breaks up with fiksility into 
grains related to the forms of the crystals of the magnetio 
iron ore, and may be easily ground and separated from 
earthy impmrities bj means of a machine in which the 
action of the magnet is made available. A portion of the 
Hull bed is in this condition ; and of this bed every &th<nn 
in length by a fathom in vertical depth, taking the breadth 
at one-half only of what it appears to be, would produce 
between 50 and 60 tons of pure metaL Wood for fuel b 
in abundance near all the localities. 

Specular iron ore appears to belong to the same geolo- 
gical formation; and a valuable and important bed of it 
occurs in the township of Macnab. It is 25 feet thick, 
and containing 58 per cent, of pure iron, the produce of 
the bed would not be under 50 tons of metal for every 
fethom forward by a fethom vertical ; but though within 
a mile of the navigable water of the Ottawa,- where 
steam-boats daily pass, and but 300 or 400 yards removed 
firom a cascade on the river Dochart, giving ample water* 
power to drive machinery, the bed has never been touched 
for available purposes. Specular iron ore occurs also on the 
north shore of Lake Huron; but it is here in a formation 
which succeeds the gneiss, consisting of quartz rock, slates, 
and trap, and is noted as belonging to part of the copper- 
bearing region of the province. 

Bog-iron ore exists in large quantities in both sections 
of the province. In Western Canada it prevails in the 
county of Norfolk, where it has been used to supply the 
wants of the Norraandale Iron- works. It occurs in many 
places in the valley of the Ottawa, and specimens of it 
have been sent from Vaudreuil, Stanbridge, Simpson, 
Eivi^re du Chene, St. Maurice, Portneuf, St. VaUier, and 
otlier parts, where in general it yields upwards of 50 per 
cent, of pure metal. That of Vaudreuil, within a short 
distance of the navigable water of the Ottawa, yields to 
analysis 76'95 per cent, of peroxide of iron, equal to 53 
per cent, of pure metal, and the deposit is represented to 
be four feet thick. At the Forges of St. Maurice, near 
Three Rivers, tliis species of ore has been used for 
upwards of half a century in the manufacture of iron. 
The cast stoves from it bear a high character through the 
country, being less Uable to crack than the imported ones; 
and specimens of the wrought iron produced there have 
been sent to the Exhibition. The quaUty of the metal, 
wood charcoal being the only fuel used, bears a compari- 
son with that of Sweden, and it is to compete with this 
tliat it is manufactured. 

The geological formation wliich abounds in magnetic 
yields also titaniferous iron, the composition of wliich, at 
St. Urbain, in Bay St. Paul, below Quebec, is— 

Oxide of titaniimi .... 48*60 
Protoxide of iron . . . . 37*06 
Peroxide of iron .... 10'42 
Magnesia 3*60 

99-68 



Dbpestdekcies. ] 



CANADA. 



959 



This TCSult is senaiblj the same as that obtained bj Bote 
for the titaniferoiis iron ore from nraense, in the Urals, to 
whieh he has given the name of Dmenite. One of the 
msstws is 90 fiset wide bj a Tisible length of 800 foet ; in 
Bome parts it consists of an admixture of ilmenite and 
nidle; and if the oonsxunption of the oompoonds of 
titanium in the arts should increase, the localities of Bay 
St. Fianl might be made to furnish an inexhaustible 
supply. Titaniftrons iron ore occurs also on the south side 
of the St. Lawrence, in what are termed the Eastern 
Townships, through which runs a continuation of the 
Green Momitains of Vermont. The prolongation of this 
itnge into Ganada is composed of rocks belonging to the 
lower Silurian age, and there presents a crystalline con- 
dition from the metamorphic action of heat^ displaying 
dJoritio and taloose slates, serpentine and other magnesian 
forms : beds of iron ore, in general more or less magnetic, 
Bie fipeqoently repeated among them by undulations; 
they prerail in the townships of St. Armand, Sutton, and 
Brome, where many occur yaiying in breadth from 2 
to 15 fiset, and in produce of pure iron from 20 to 
50 per cent. One of 46 foet width, occurring in serpen- 
tine, in the seignoiy of Bigaud Yaudreuil Beauce, is a 
mecfaamcal mixture of about two-thirds magnetic iron, 
and one>third ilmenite ; and when the ore is reduced to 
a powder these are readily separable from one another by 
means of s magnet. But in general those beds which 
ooemr in the ofakritic slate of St. Armand, Sutton, and 
Brome^ contain a yariable but much smaller proportion 
of titanic iron ; and sereral of them haye been mined, and 
tiieir ores adyantageously transported, by land distances 
of SO and 40 miles, to smelting establishments in the 
8bte of Yennont, for the manufiicture of iron. Though 
vood aboands in the district, none of the ores haye been 
tamed to smelting purposes in Canada. 

Lead ore is met with in seyeral parts of the proyinoe. 
It occurs in yeins, cutting the stratified gneiss and lime- 
itooe already mentioned, where the yeins intersect the 
cslcareous part of the formation, and in this relation it 
exists in Bedford, Bastard, and Fitzroy. In Bedford 
•ereral of these yeins, yarying in breadth from two to 
four feet, haye been tried, and small pits sunk upon them ; 
bat none of the mines are at present in operation. The 
ore occurs also in the succeeding formation, associated 
vith copper, on the Canadian shores of Lake Superior ; 
sad in Gasp^, it is met with in Indian Coye in transyerse 
, cutting a still more calcareous deposit of the upper 
age. As this rock is supposed to be the equiya- 
lent of the great lead-bearing formation of Wisconsin, 
pdena may probably be expected, where the rock is found 
in a disturbed condition in Canada, and cut by disloca- 
tioDs, thereby affording an opportunity for the occurrence 
of k)des. l%e rock presents these conditions in Guspd, 
bat it has hitherto been but little examined. With the 
exeeption of some of the specimens from Lake Superior, 
sOfer has not been found to accompany the lead ore. 

Hoe ore occurs, associated with copper and silyer, on 
Lake Superior; but the quantity met with has not yet 
been sufficient to promise a profitable return. 

Belonging to a formation which is interposed between 
the krwer Silurian rocks and the gneiss, an extensiye 
eopper region occurs in Canada. From the boundary of 
the proyinoe at Pigeon Biyer, it ranges along the northern 
sod eastern shores of Lake Superior, and the north shore 
of Lake Huron, for a distance exceeding 400 nules. On 
Spar Island, in prince's Location, a 4i-feet lode, holding 
vitreous copper in a gangue of calo-spar, barytes, and 



amethystine quartz, cuts clay slates oyerlaid by green- 
stone trap, and yields, on the ayerage, about 7 per cent, 
of pure metaL On seyeral islands of the ArchipelagOf 
which separates Neepigon Bay frx>m the main body of 
Lake Superior, natiye copper occurs ; and on St. Ignaoe 
Island, which is the largest of them, a yein of about 2 foet, 
running with the stratification, has been traced the whole 
length of the island. Fine specimens of natiye copper were 
obtained by sinking a shaft on this lode. Many of these 
specimens were beautifully crystallized; yitreous copper 
often accompanying the natiye. Natiye copper occurs also 
in Michipicoten Island ; and the formation of this island, 
and of the islands of the Neepigon archipelago, consisting 
of greenstone and amygdaloidal trap, interstratified with 
sandstone and conglomerate, is in eyery respect the same 
as that of the Cliff, and other mines on the south side of 
the lake, celebrated for the large masses of natiye copper 
which they haye produced. At liica Bay and Mamainse, 
the yitreous and yellow sulphurets, as well as the natiye 
copper, haye been obtained. On the north shore of Lake 
Huron the preyaUing description of copper ore is the 
yellow sulphuret, and the yeinstone is usually quartz. 
The preyaUing rocks of the country are greenstone trap, 
slate, and quartz rock, interstratified with one another ; 
and it is in places where the lodes cut the greenstone 
that they become most productiye, while they are least so 
in the quartz rock. Although lodes exist in seyeral parts, 
it is only those of the Bruce mines that haye been worked 
to any extent. In July, 1848, on a close examination of 
the lodes by the geological suryey, a length of 300 fisthoms, 
with a depth of 10 fiithoms and a breadth of 4 feet, gaye an 
ayerage of 6i per cent, of ayailable pure metal ; and 1,475 
tons of yein stuff on the sur&ce, as it had come frt>m the 
lode, then sampled, gaye 8 per cent. The ore has some- 
times been dressed to 23 per cent., and generally to between 
15 and 20 per cent., at whieh produces seyeral hundreds of 
tons have been sent to Boston ; and 200 tons, of 15f per 
cent., intended for Swansea, are now in Montreal. Smelt- 
ing works haye been established at the Bruce mines, and 
a cargo of tough cake copper shipped to the United States, 
one of the cakes of which has been sent to the Exhibition 
as a sample. The furnaces are of the reyerberatory de- 
scription, and the fuel used is bituminous coal, obtained 
at Cleveland, on Lake Erie. Wood abounds in the vicinity 
of the mines. 

The yellow sulphuret of copper occurs at the Wallace- 
mine location, near White Fish River, to the eastward of 
the Bruce mines, in thin strings, supposed to be leaders 
to some main lode not yet discovered ; and these are 
worthy of notice, from the feet that sulphuret of nickel 
accompanies the copper, disseminated in patches, and the 
nickeliferous part of the ore, when fi«ed from, earthy im- 
purities, is found to contain 13 per cent of pure nickel ; 
traces of cobalt accompanying the nickeL 

Copper ore occurs in the metamorphic rocks of the 
Eastern Townships in Upton, associated with silver, and in 
Ascvott with silver and gold ; but the quantity does not 
yet appear in any instance to hold out much prospect of 
a profit. Silver is associated with the native copper of 
Michipicoton and St. Ignace Islands. Native silver is 
also met with in small quantity accompanying the vitreous 
copper of Spar Island, on Prince's Location ; and there 
is present also with it a trace of gold : cobalt occurs 
with them in small quantity, in the form of cobalt bloom. 
The lode on this location can be traced from the island 
to the main shore, and it then gives larger indications of 
silver, which is occasionally met with, associated with 



960 



CANADA. 



[Colonies and 



blende, in thin leaves, following the dearage joints and 
other crevices in the calcareous spar of the gangue. A 
pocket of this description, containing about 4 cwt. of good 
ore, gave an average produce of 3^ per cent^ or 72 lbs. of 
pure silver to the ton of rock, and the oonunennal value 
of the ore in London was given ia 330/. per ton. Want 
of capital has prevented the present proprietors firom pro- 
secuting their researches ; but samples of the ore, and 
silver smelted from it, are exhibited. 

Native gold exists in the drift of the Eastern Townships, 
along the south-eastern side of the Qreen Mountain range. 
Its presence has been ascertained, bj the investigations of 
the geological survey of the province, over an area compris- 
ing between 3,000 and 4,000 square miles, vrith a breadth 
of about 40 miles, from the seignory of St. Mary on the 
Chaudi^ie to within 6 miles of the province line on the 
Kennebec road, and a length of 90 miles, from Etchemin 
Lake, in Cranboume, to the vicinity of LennoxviUe. It 
appears to be very generally disseminated in the day and 
gravel of the district, but so thin as to promise little, 
except in occasional patches, where the drift having been 
washed by the action of various streams, which have worn 
their channels in it, the metal has been concentrated, and 
remains caught by the cleavage joints and various cracks 
and crevices of the clay slates which form the country. 
The localities where small quantities have been met with are 
too numerous to be mentioned ; but selected specimens 
horn the workings of the Chaudi^re Mining Company, on 
the Touflfe des Pins, in the seignoiy of Rigaud VaudreuU 
Beauce, have been sent to the Exhibition, weighing from a 
few grains to a quarter of a pound, and smaller pieoes from 
other locaUties from the museum of the geological survey. 

The rocks and minerals in the range of the Gh*een 
Mountains, flanking this auriferous deposit, are such as 
are usually met with in other countries where gold occurs ; 
and one among the minerals is chromic iron. Beds of 
this, of 12 to 14 inches tliick, exist in serpentine, in Bolton 
and Ham, and yield 45 to 50 per cent, of oxide of chro- 
mium. Specimens of the ore are exhibited frx)m both 
localities. 

Important veins of iron pyrites occur in the seignory of 
Terbomo and that of La Norraye and Dautraye. Wad, 
or bog manganese, is met with in several parts of the 
Eastern Townships, and traces of uranium in Madoc. 

Many of the rocks and earthy minerals are worthy of 
attention as commercially valuable. A pure white dolo- 
mite, with 45 per cent, of carbonate of magnesia, exists in 
great abundance on Mazinaw Lake and hi various parts of 
the Bathurst district in Western Canada, from which 
specimens are exhibited from Burgess and Blythficld. It 
exists also in the Eastern Townships of Lower Canada ; 
but it is there associated with the more important rock 
magncsite, serving the same purposes, and containing 83 
per cent, of the carbonate of magnesia. This is found in 
large quantities in the townships of Sutton and Bolton. 
Of stone paints, barytcs occurs in large quantity in veins 
on Lake Superior, and in smaller in Bedford and 
Bathurst ; and there exists a great abimdanco of iron 
odires, giving various beautiful tints, aUied to Sienna 
brown. Of these there are contributions from five dif- 
ferent parts of the lower province. Lithographic stone, 
in beds of 1 to 2 fct^t thick, is found at Marmora, and ap- 
pears to range all the way to Rama on Lake Simcoe, a 
distance of 70 miles. Stones of all ordinary sizes might 
be obtained, but no quarry has yet been opened on the 
beds. The specimens contributed are from Marmora, 
and the largest is 2-4 by 16 inches and 3 inches thick. 



Of materials used for jewellery, agates abound on Lake 
Superior, on the islands of the Neepigon archipelago, and 
Mjchipiooten island ; a 6-feet bed of jasper oocors at Sher- 
brooke, and jasper pebbles on the shores of Lake Superior 
and in Cbsp^. Two beautiful descriptions of ornamental 
stone, which have been called perthite and peristerite by 
Br. Thompson, but appear to be species of labradorite and 
aventurine, occur in Bathurst. White quartzose sand- 
stone, fit for glass-making, exists in various parts of the 
province, and glass is manufsMrtured from it at Yaudreuil 
and St. John. Plumbago is met vrith in veins of a work- 
able size at Gienville; asbestos in abundance in Bal- 
housie ; and large beds of pure soapstone prevail in the 
Eastern Townships in Potton and Bolton. Its sectile 
and refractory nature render it well adapted for furnace 
linings, stoves, baking-stones, and other forms into which 
it is manufactured in the neighbouring states ; but 
though it is imported into Canada in various shapes, none 
of the native quarries are yet resorted to for economic 
purposes, with the exception of its *application as foot 
warmers for winter journeys. The material being a slow 
conductor, a slab of it heated, enveloped in a blanket and 
placed in the bottom of a sledge under> the feet, will en- 
sure a comfortable degree of warmth to the traveller for a 
long distance. 

The province is not deficient in mineral manures. 
Phosphate of lime occurs in large crystals, thickly dis- 
seminated in carbonate of lime, in extensive beds in 
Burgess, from, which several specimens are exhibited, 
and in Westmeath and HulL Gypsiun prevails in flat 
conical masses of acres in extent, in a formation which 
runs along the course of the Ghtmd River from Cayuga to 
Dumfries, and is mined in various places : ground at 
various mills it constitutes, a considerable article of trade 
for agricultural purposes. Large blocks are exhibited 
from four locahties in the valley of the Grand River. 
Shell marl is a very abundant pro<luction in numerous 
parts of both sections of the province. It occurs in the 
bottoms of ancient and of existing fresh- water lakes, and 
being a result from comminuted shells, is a nearly pure 
carbonate of lime. In four or five small lakes near New 
Carlisle, on the Bay Chaleiu*, it is composed of the cal- 
careous remains of microscopic testacea; and, being as fine 
and white as flour, it has been purchased by chemists for 
their purposes. 

Various rocks of the country, such as granite and 
whitish trap, and beds of silicious conglomerate in a 
formation called the Potsdam sandstone, afford native 
millstones, wliich arc in use in many parts of the pro- 
vince. A rock called the gray band, at the top of the 
lower Silurian group, gives grindstones in Esqueezing 
and other parts, and whetstones have been manufactured 
from bands of talcose slate in Madoc, Stanstead, Hat ley, 
and Shipton. TripoU earth, resulting from a sihcious 
infusorial deposit, is obtained from the seignory of La 
Norraye and Dautraye, and from the clay cliffs in the 
vicinity of Montmorency. Roofing slates have been 
quarried in Frampton, and they occur in still untouched 
groimd in Kingsey and Halifax, and in great abuntlance 
on the Riviere du Loup above its junction with the 
Chaudi^re. Good flagstones abound in the vicinity of 
Toronto and in the Eastern Townships. The chief part 
of the building stones of the province are of a calcareous 
quahty, and they liave been extensively used in the 
construction of the locks of its various sliip and barge 
canals and the best houses of the principal cities. In 
the western part of the province, what is geologically 



Dkfskdekcies. 3 



CANADA. 



961 



caDed the oomifiBrous limeetone formation, yields good 
stone at Amherst. The Niagara limestone, ronning 
horn, the great falls of that name bj the npper end 
of Lalce Ontario to Gabof s Head and the Manitoiilin 
Islands, has been extensiyely worked at Thorold for 
the purposes of the WeUand Canal, and some of the 
s^vctures of Toronto. Beneath this limestone the 
sandstone of the gray band, already mentioned, affords 
exoeDent building stone at Hamilton. To the eastward, 
the Trenton limestone yields good building material from 
Lake Simooe to Sjngston, and from Brockville to Yau- 
dreoiL The same formation is resorted to from Bytown 
to Montreal, where it has been very extensively used for 
the best edifices of the city ; and it is also arailable in 
many parts between Montreal and Quebec. A sandstone, 
whidi underlies this, geologically designated the Potsdam 
fimnation, is quarried for building purposes at Beauhar- 
nois and sereral places near the mouth of the Ottawa. 
A beautiful white granite of superior quality for building 
pazpoees, splitting into rectangular forms, is obtained in 
many parts of the Eastern Townships, south of the Qreen 
Mountains. A block of this from Stanstead is exhibited. 
Yarious useful Qualities of marble are obtained inMacnab, 
and at Oi^enville, Phillipsburgh, St. Dominique, and other 
parts; and a band of serpentine has been traced 135 miles 
Uirougfa the Eastern Townships from Potton to Cran- 
bonme^ which {nDuuses a great variety of material suit- 
ibie for ornamental architecture, but as yet no quarries 
ve opened on it. 

Peat occurs in some abundance in the flat countiy on 
the south side of the valley of the Ottawa, and in a 
■milar district on the south side of the St. Lawrence ; 
sad specimens of it from St. Dominique, having been ex- 
perimented on and analysed, show it to be a good fuel : 
HkcoatMDB — 

fixed carbon .... 2957 

Ashes 6-75 

Yolatik matter .... 63*68 

100- 
Petroleum is met with in springs in the Gkisp^ district, 
(m Silver Brook, a small tributary of the Kiver St. John, 
tnd at the month of this river ; and naphtha is collected 
on the Thames Biver at Mosa. A bituminous deposit, in 
the form of mineral pitch or mineral caoutchouc, occurs 
in Enniskillen, in a bed of about 2 feet thick, and it is 
nid to extend over several acres. Bitimiinous shale, such 
ii is used in England for the distillation of naphtha and 
oChor products of the kind, occurs in Bosanquet, Zone, 
Coflingwood, Port Daniel, and other places. 

A great number of the mineral springs of the province 
have been analysed. The chief part of those of a saline 
character contain bromine and iodine, and some of them 
have traces of baryta. A copious spring in the township 
ofCharlotteviDe, not far removed from Port Dover on 
Lake Erie, yields nearly twice the quantity of sulphuretted 
l^drogm contained in the celebrated Harrowgate water ; 
sad another near Brantford, with three more in the same 
vicinity, holds free sulphuric add. — ^W. E. Logan, JW- 
retiar of the €hological Survey of Canada.'] 



2 WiMOW, Dr. J., FeHh. 

Magnetic iron ore, from South Sherbrooke. 

Fhoiphate of Hme, from Burgess. 

Dolomite, frxnn Dalhousie. 

Serpentine, from Burgees. 

Pailiite, peristerite, and graphic granite, from Bathurst. 



3 Dickson, Mr. Sheriff A., Fackenham, 
Specular iron ore from Macnab. 

4 Mabhoba Iron Compant, Marmora. 

Pig iron, smelted at their furnace, from the magnetic 
ore of the township. 

5 Febbieb, Hon. J., Montreal. 

Bars of axe iron ; square of bar iron ; folded iron, cold ; 
twisted iron ; horse-shoe iron ; ploughshare ; pig of Mar- 
mora iron. 

Collection of minerals. Specimens, gypsum ; specimens, 
geological ; specimens, shell-marL 

6 Lanoasteb, — , VaudreuU. 
Specimens of bog-iron ore, and phosphate of iron. 

7 Pboulx, J., SL Ikistaehe. 
Specimens of bog-iron ore, from Eivi^re du Chdne. 



8 Mabcottb, T.fPortneuf. 

Specimens of bog-iron ore. 



9 MOBIN, Captam, St. ValUer. 

Specimens of bog-iron ore. 

10 MoNTBEAL Mining Company. 

Copper ore, from Bruce mines, Lake Huron, and tough 
cake copper, smelted there from the same. Native copper 
and silver, from St. Ignace Island, Lake Superior. 

11 Badoley, J. F., Montreal. 

Silver ore, from Prince's Location, Lake Superior ; and 
smelted silver from the same. 



12 CHAFDifeBE Mining Company, Quebec. 
Specimens of native gbld, from the workings of the 

Company on the Touffe des Pins, seignory of Bigaud 
Yauoreuil Beauce. 

13 Claussen, Chevalieb, London. 
Labradorite, from Labradore, &c. 



14 Habwood, Hon. — , VaudreuU. 
Specimens of black-lead from Grenville. 

1 5 BoTTDOiN & Lebbe, Voudreuil. 
Specimens of white quartzose sandstone, such as is used 

in the manufacture of glass at Yaudreuil. 

16 Seeb, L. M., St. Eustache. 
Specimens of iron ochre. 



17 La Babbe, D. G., Point du Lac. 

Specimens of iron ochre. 



18 HALii, J., Melbourne. 

Specimens of iron ochre, from Durham; and roofing 
slates, from Kingsey. 

18a Hebbebt, John W., Montreal. 

Indian dress ; a boudoir ; pianoforte. Case of type. 

[This dress is made of cloth and ribbon cut with scissors, 
and sewn on with ravellings of the same material — a very 
difficult process. The dress consists of petticoat, jacket, 
and leggings, and is the costume of the chiefs daughter of 
the Ojibbeway nation. It was entirely wrought by hand, 
in imitation of porcupine- work ; it is all of purely Indian 
design and pattern. It was made and sent for exhibition 
by Mrs. J. H. McYey, of Potton, eastern township of 
Canada, who is the daughter of Charlotte Mono-nonce 
Kata-wa-beday, late hereditaiy chief of that nation, and 
the late Charles Oake Ermatinger, Esq., of Montreal 



9G2 



CANADA. 



[CkOdOHIBB AVD 



Tho pianoforte^ of six and three-quarter ootaye, com- 
pass from C to G, Ib numiifiictored o^ woods, the growth 
and produce of Canada, under the superintendenoe of the 
exhibitor, an Englishman of twenty-three yeaxB* residenoe 
in tlie city of Montreal, by workmen who acquired the 
principal knowledge of their trade in the manufiMstoiy of 
the exhibitor, whose attention to the oonstruotion of 
pianofortes to stand the climate of Canada, was first 
caused by observing that European instruments generally 
were unsuited to the temperature. The instrument now 
exhibited, both in wood and manufacture^ is found, by 
experience, best adapted to the dimate. In forwarding 
it, the exhibitor's object is not so much with the view of 
competing with countries whose fikrilities for manu&o- 
turing pianofortes must be admitted to be rery superior to 
a new country like Canada, but to show the rapid im- 
provement of the colony, and its ci^fMbilities of manu&o- 
turing what is suited to the demands of its inhabitants; 
and also to direct the attention of European manu&oturers 
of these instruments to woods^ the growth and produce of 
Canada, suitable for such purposes. The case is made of 
free grain bUck walnut-tree, yeneered with crotch of the 
same wood ; the keys are of bass-wood, the top and bot- 
tom blocks of hard Canadian maple, sounding board of 
Canadian spruce, which the exhibitor, by experience^ is 
enabled confidently to state is stronger grained and 8iq[>e- 
rior for sound to the European wood so generally in use. 
The ornamental carvings are emblematical of Caziada.] 



19 Casok, E., 8i. Atm, Mottimartney, 

Specimens of iron ochre. 

19 a. Bahk, C, Toronio. 

Specimens of dentistry. 



20 QuiOLBT, M., Frampton, 
Specimens of slates. 

21 DUBEROEE, 0-., Murray Bay. 
Specimens of iron ochre, from Ibberville, county of 

Sagucnay. 

22 Kelly, R. W., GaspS, 
Specimens of iron oc\\re and shell marL 

23 YEOMAifs, Aba, BeUmlh, 
Specimens of shell marl. 

24 Be Lesdebniebes, P. T. C, Vaudretnt, 
Specimens of shell marL 

25 Boston, Mr. Sheriff; Montreal. 
Specimens of shell marL 

26 BoTTTiLLiEB, Dr., Se. Hyacinthe. 
Samples of peat. 

27 LooAir, J., MotUreal. 
Barrel of fall wheat. 



28 Allan, John, Lany Point. 

Three barrels of wheat. 



29 WEi&aB,W.¥.,Amelia8buryh. 

Three barrels of spring wheat. 



30 Desjabdins, p., Terrebonne. 
Three barrels of spring wheat. 

31 Laubknt, D., Varennes. 
Three bjirrels of spring wheat. 



32 DsinacaHD, Jasor, FvHU CM, 

Three barrels of spring wheot. 

83 Fboyivoxal Agbioultusal AsBOOUxicm, 
Canada Wett. 
Three bomb of fidl wheat. 



34 Gbahak, J., J^ydmey. 

Three bonels of fidl wheat. 



35 Pboyivoial Aataommnujt AsBOOUxiaSf 
Canada W&tt, 
Three barrds of fidl wheats raised by Mr. Christie, of 
Dumfries, Canada West 



36 TrmxoBiyG. 

Barrel of oats. 



87 MviB, A., JXmdkMroolw. 

Banelofoots. 



88 Watsb, B. M., Grantham. 

Bonmlofoats. 



39 Boa, Wiluax, 8t. LawrmU. 

Barrel of peas. 



40 liDCOOBS, D., TyrOonne. 

Barrel of peas. 



41 JpNBS, D., Slydney. 

Barrel of peas. 



42 La Mxbx, Madame, MantrwO. 

Barrel of beans. 



43 FiSHBB, Jakes, Mvi^e dn Prairie. 

Barrel of horse-beans. 



44 Beien, J., 8t MarHn'e. 
Barrel of yellow beans. 

45 FoirBNiEB, C, Longnetdl. 
Barrel of beans. 



46 Boa, William, St. Zawrent. 

Barrel of barley. 



47 DBBJABDiN8i P-i St. Bose. 

Barrel of buck-wheat. 



48 Simpson, J., & Co., Bowmanvitte, 

Barrel of flour. 



49 LiNOHAM, Thomas, Thnrlow. 

Two barrels of flour. 



50 Tailet, V. P., Thurlow. 

Barrel of flour. 



51 Sqitaib, B., BowmanvUle. 

Two barrels of oatme&l. 



52 Fbenholm, E., Kinysey, JE. T. 

Barrel of buckwheat flour. 



53 Canipp, F. & T., Thurlow. 

Barrel of buckwheat flour. 



54 Tbenholm, E., Kinysey, E. T. 

Barrel of Indian meal. 



DZPENBSKCDSS. 3 



CANADA. 



55 BiCHXB, A., 8t. Lawreni, 

Baird of Indian meal; ship-biBcuit; crackers; Bologna 
sausages ; Fletcher's candy ; smoked hams ; beef tongues, 
&c. 

[The agriculture of the Ganadas is greatly influenced by 
the dimate, and is necessarily of a peculiar character. 
During one-half of the year, the surface of the country is 
covered with snow and ice, and thus remains totally nn- 
productire. The fiinner is consequently constrained to 
select such plants, or yarieties of plants, for his cultivation, 
as win perfect their growth in the brief simmier of the 
country. 

When the ice departs, at abont the end of April, yegeta- 
tion commences, and proceeds with a rapidity unknown in 
our dimate. In Upper Canada the seasons are not so 
severe as in Lower Canada, or the provinces of Nova Scotia 
and New Brunswick, and the spring sets in about a 
month earlier. The soil is also of a more fertile character ; 
wheat, and indeed all the cereals, are produced in good 
quality, and in great abundance. The agricultural pro- 
duce, however, of these coloniee, is generally inferior in 
quality to that of more &voured climates, and the wheat 
being nearly all spring sown, does not command so high a 
rate in the markets.— J. W.] 



56 Shaw, A., Toronto, 

Specimens of com in the ear. 



57 LoOAK, J., JfotUreal. 

Specimens of com in the ear. 



58 DssJASDnrs, B., St. Rote. 

Barrel of flaxseed. 



59 FiSHEit, Jambb, Bivih-e du Prairie, 

Specimens of Siberian oil-seed. 



60 Ubabdkau, S., St Anne. 
Barrel of timothy seed (Phleum pratenee). 

61 M'anrrr, T., Montreal. 
Barrel of timothy seed. 

62 Jbffbies, J., Burodan, 
Specimens of red clover seed and garden seeds. 



63 SxTEPiTESD, G., Montreal, 
Various samples of garden seed. 

64 Smith, B., Stanetead, 
Bale of hops. 

65 Pkn^eb, J., Lachine, 
Bale of hops. 

66 Cbittral Comhisbion, Montreal. 

Samples of doable refined and unrefined maple sugar. 

67 Bales, Johit, York. 
Specimen of double refined maple sugar. 

68 Pabieb, Joel, Matley. 
Specimen of maple sugar. 

69 Fishsb, Abthtjb, Atcott. 
Specimen of maple sugar. 



70 Basttev, M., St. Rose. 
Specimens of flax. 

71 Gbice, R, Montreal. 
Specimens of hemp and seed. 



72 Macculloch, Dr. J., Montreal, 

A fungus from the pine-tree, used in Canada as a tonic 
bitter. It is apparently a^/yponw allied to the P. Officinalis 
of the Materia Medica. 



73 



Boll of tobacco. 



Letey, John, Montreal, 



74 EoAir, John, Ottawa, 

Plank of bird*s-eye maple {Ajcer saceharinum), 
[The curled maple, so mudi resembling satin-wood, and 
the bird's-eye maple, so well known as an ornamental 
material, is met with where the common or sugar maple 
grows, but in general more on rocky ground. Sometimes 
they occur disseminated in single trees, and sometimes in 
patches of fifty or more. They occasionally are large 
enough to yield veneers of two feet in vridth ; but the tree 
of smaller dimensions, up to 14 and 18 inches, are prefer- 
able. The large trees have often an unfigured part down 
the centre.] 

75 Beed &, Meakins, Montreal. 

Planks of birch, cheny, pine, bird's-eye and curled 
maples, and butternut. 

76 Parisault, J., St, Martin, 
Plank of chestnut. 



77 Pabibattlt, P., St. Martin, 
Planks of soft maple and beech. 

[The soft or sugar maple is not used to great extent in 
any manufacture, from being generally saved by the pro- 
prietors of the land for its yield of the material from which 
it takes its name. Hard maple is extensively used in the 
country for the manufacture of the best kinds of common 
furniture, and vrith black and red birch which are service- 
able for the same purpose, is largely exported to the 
United States for similar objects. These three woods, 
also with beech, constitute the chief domestic fuel of 
Canada. 

Beech, in addition to its use as a fuel, affords a material 
for the manu£su:ture of pyroligneous acid; and several 
establishments for its manufacture have lately been 
erected in the country. AU the species of maple, birch, 
and beech, are spread over extensive areas in all parts of 
the province, and their presence is considered an im- 
doubted mark of a good and fruitful soil. 

The butternut-tree is a sign of good dry land ; and it 
grows frequently to a height of 12 feet. It forms one of 
the beet materials for veneering in cabinet-work, for which 
it is much used, being liable to neither warp nor crack. 
When properly finished and stained, articles made of it 
can scarcely be distinguished frx>m mahogany.] 

78 Davis, J., Simcoe, Canada West, 
Plank of black walnut crotch. 



79 Heksok, J., Dawn. 

Black walnut plank. 
Indian com in the ear. 



80 Cektbal Comhissiok, Montreal, 

Ship-building crooks and futtocks. 

Planks and blocks — of birch ; red rock elm ; butternut; 
walnut and birch ; birch and pine ; bird's-eye maple ; 
white oak; black walnut and pine; iron-wood; bass-wood 
and maple ; soft and hard maple. 

Planks — of birch ; ash ; black walnut ; curled ash ; 
bass-wood ; butternut ; pine ; tamarack ; spruce ; oak, &c. 

[Tlie following description of the tree from which one 



9(A 



CANADA. 



rCounms A5D 



of tliete plankf — that of black walnut — was cut, appeared 
in a local Jjaper of the colon j : — 

** The fint plank u 6 feet long and 3 feet 3 inches wide, 
perfect in erenr respect ; the second plank is 4 feet long; 
3i feet wide. Hie length is 2 feet Icis than tliat required 
hj tlie regulations : this, howerer, was unaToidable, for 
the piow lias been cut to its present size for some time. 
Hie whole ground woik of this plank is a beautiful cuii, 
trsTcrsed in erenr direction bj large reins, which gire it a 
Tcnr splendid appearance. The third is a reneer mounted, 

4 ieet long and 13 inches wide, sawn br hand from the 
same tree. The fourth are two magnificent crotches 

5 feet long and nearlr 3 feet wide. These, I am con- 
firlent, would farounblj compare with anything of the 
kind in the world. 

'* Tlie colossal tree, the Urgett I think in this countrr, 
from which tlicse specimens were obtained, stood in the 
ralkj of the Xanticoke, in the township of Walpole. The 
incidents connected with felling it and getting it into the 
mill are interesting. It was, I beliere, in the winter of 
1847, Mr. Fisher commenced operations br constructing 
a sk/tniy for his accommodation wliile felling the trae and 
cutting it into logs. It appean almost incredible, but it 
is certainly the fact, that three men were busilr employed 
a fortnight before the ta»k was completed. The attack 
upon this giant of the wood was commenced about 
10 o'clock A.jf. by three fint-ratc axemen, who continued 
choppincf tliat day and the next day till neariy niglit. 

" I rinited the spot sliortly after : the place presented 
the apiMnrance of a small windfall, so great was tlie 
quantity of timber which tliis huge tree crushed down in 
its fall. I took the dimensions of it, and if I remember 
correctly, they were as follow: — circumference at the 
ground 37 feet ; 3 feet from the ground 28 feet : from 
this the trunk rose, tapering rery little, to the height 
of 61 fwt, when it divided into two trunkn, the one 
nf-arly G feet in (liamt-ter, the otlitT alwiit 5 fttt. TliftH? 
branclifs «trctohc<l uj) to an enormous lieiglit, n*a€;liinff 
far nlKJVo tlk? humble tnvs of the forti^t. I could Imve no 
idt-a of tlic age of this trc<', but from tlie smalliicss of the 
annual ^n>wtlis, particularly the bitter onen, wliicli were 
not distin^uisliablt', I concludod it must be rerj- old — 
jHTliAps two or thrwj thou^uul year:*, and yet it c^im-cd 
no symptoms of dec-ay ; tl u-re wa.« not cwn tlic sliijlittM 
hollow in tlie trunk. There were twenty-three log^ in the 
tree, whieli made about lO/XK) feet of tiin})er : they would 
have made a much larger (quantity ; but, on aoeount of 
the preat Biz<; of some of them, tliey had to be hewn 
down eonpideral>ly before they could be sawed." 

The woodrt of Cana(Ui arc varioiw, and some of them 
constitute ven* important articles in the eommerce of the 
count n-. Ainonj? these are wliite pine and rt'd pine. 

Tlie valley of the Ottawa is one of the groat sources of 
thcsi' t wo f»i>ecies. Tlie quant ity that comes down that river 
irt wry large. Tlie greater value of the n*<l pine enables 
iho. lumberers to bring it from gn'ater distaiiccH than the 
other, at the head of Lake Michigan; and the highest 
point on the Ottawa, at whieh it has l)een felled for eom- 
mereial iniri>o9e», i<^ CaK) miles alwve Quebec, the shipping 
port. From this distance it rtNiuires two full months to 
ernivey the timlxT to Que})ec ; and any accident creating 
dt'hiy wr)ul(l keep it through the winter on the voyage. 
Tlw' highest point from whieli white \nnv is brought is 
15() miles short of the other; and for the purposes of the 
voyage, both si)eeic8 are formed hito enormous rafis, some 
of which may have a suiHTficcs of 80,000 feet. To pass 
down rapids it is often ncecssarj- to break up the rafl into 



cribs of about 10 logs mtA ; sad to fAmake the difficulties 
of cascadea, slidei are cnostraeted in mmj parts of the 
rirer. The laryt whitgp iiii^Utai rf the Ottawm are used 

for masts, and are of safBeient iiMasiiii to gire planks of 
fire feet in breadth, five from wp. Tbe lugest plank of 
this specie* is from the Birer GamdSin, and it measures 
12 feet kmg bj S Cect wide^ sad 3 inches thick. The 
laiigett red pine-tree will gire logs of about 18 inches 
square and 40 Cect long. 

White oak is another of the important eommeirial 
woods of Canada, and the chief growth is in the western 
part of the prorinoe. It is nsed in the prorinee snd else- 
where for ship-hnilding pui pu s es ; and a fivm in which it 
is largely exported is that of stsrs for barrels and 
puncheons. One of the planks of this spedes sent to the 
Exhibition measures 96 inches in breidth. 

Black walnut is a wood afTording ornamented material 
for furniture and honse^building, and is mnch used in 
Canada and the United States. The chief growth is in 
the western part of the prorincc^ from wluch it is im- 
ported largely to the United States, and its quantity is 
inexhaustible. For omamental purposes, it is the crutch, 
at the junction of a branch with the pamt stem, that is 
used, as in other parts the grain is straight. 

Examples of the great beauty of the wood may be seen 
in the rarious artides of furniture which hare been sent 
to the Exhibition. 

The tamarisk-tree yields good material for ship-build- 
ing purposes, being particularly seniceable for knees and 
ribs : a fine specimen of a knee b exhibited in the Trophy 
in the centre of the Building. 

The bass or white-wood tree is also a mark of the best 
quahty of land, and it is to be found in abundance in 
both parts of the prorince. It is much used in the 
panels of railroad cars, carriages, and sleighs ; and for such 
purposes it is there considered preferable to mahogany. 
It is much used in the manufacture of pianos, and for the 
interi«^r of cabinet-work, as well as for various domestic 
object? in the dairy and kitchen. 

The eeihir-tree, whieh grows to great heights, yields an 
excellent material for railroad sU\T>ers, anil all purpos<^ 
where exelusi(m from the atmosphere L* required. Uniler 
ground it will last for centuries. It grows always in 
swami>y hind. 

Clicrn-wood, Hke maple and beech, is used for common 
fumitun\ 

A\1iite spruce is exclusively used for the constniction of 
dwelling-houses, and being closer in the grain, and more 
durable than most soft wooils, it is employed for plank 
roads. It forms a considerable branch of trade, and is 
largely exported both to Eiu\>pi» and the Unitetl States. 
It grows in swampy ground, and the tree sometimes attains 
a gn'at height, aiabliiig it to be usixl for masts and 
spars. 

The hickory-tree is scattcnnl through most parts of the 
province, and forms an omamental tree. The wood is 
Ycry tough and straight graintnl. It is in consequence 
much used for Imndsjnkes, the handles of axes, of gniin 
cradles, and various agrieidtural implements, and all others 
where strength is rctpiired to be combined with slightness. 
In the form of handspikes it is an article of exjwrt to 
Gn^t Britain. Samples of it may he seen in the handles 
of the agricultural implements which have been sent to the 
Exliibition.] 

81 Central Commission, Montreal. 

Si>ecimens of maple veneer. Cross of oak veneer, and 
black walnut veneer. 



PEFKin>Ky CIE8. 3 



CANADA. 



965 



^2 Bsaihebo, O. N., HamUtony Canada JTett. 
Com-wliispB and dusters. 

83 Bbaikssd, O. M., BamiUon. 
Com-bfooms. 

84 Nelson & Buttebs, Montreal, 
Corn-brooms and whisps. 



85 WiESB, W. F., AmeUatbwrgh. 

A chum. 



Sereral pails. 



Bailet, J., Sherhrooke, 



87 



A tub. 



DODD, BOBEBT S., A^. 



88 Seikiteb & M^CuLLOCH, BroohviUe, 

SerraiJ pronged bay-fiorks and mannre-forks ; scythe 
snaiths. 

89 Glabsiobd^ — y BrocktUU, 
A grain cradle. 

90 SuNirxB & M*CuLLOCH, BrookviUe. 
Grain-eradles. 

91 HuLBEBT, Samxtbl, Prestcott, 
A plough. 

92 Fleck, A., Montreal, 
A light plough* 

93 Ceitibal CoMiaBsiON, Montreal. 
A turnip cutter. 

94 Allos, J., MotdreaL 

Spedmens of dalf upper and harness leather ; tanning 
materials. 

95 McLean & CxrHHiNas, Chippewa, 
Sides of sole leather. 



96 Mttrbat, H., Montreal. 
Calf skins and sides of upper leather. 

97 TBONGATnABEA, P., Quebec. 
Specimen of moose skin. 

98 TOITKANOEAN, P. 

Specimen of tanned moose hide. 



99 Thompson, Thos., Three Rivers. 

Pair of moose horns {Alua Americana). 



100 Allon, J., Montreal. 
Tanning materials. 

101 ItoLWELL, — y Quebec. 
A duplex safety rein. 

102 Dean, B., Montreal. 
A patent leather trayelling tnmk. 

103 Bell, P. W., St. Catherine. 
An Indian saddle. 

[Used by the natives in the western country when 
fngaged in buffalo-hunting.] 

104 Wabdle, M., Montreal. 
Shoe-Usts. ,__ 

105 M*OiLLAN & Sullitan, Hamilton. 
Hunting-saddle. 



1 07 Hendebson, J., Montreal. 

Bear, wolf; and fox skin sleigh robes. These costly and 
superb articles of out-door covering or dress are worn by 
the upper classes of Canadians when travelling, during 
the wmter, in their open carriages or sleighs. 

109 Tetu, C. a, Qtuibeo. 
Dressed porpoise-skin, and whale-skin leather. 

[This is beginning to be much used in place of leather, 
for boots and shoes ; it is softer, and as durable.] 

110 Babbeatt, J., Qweft^e. 
Fishing-boots of deer-skin leather, with whalebone 

stiffeners. 



Ill Danoebfield, — , Montreal. 

Pair of ladies* shoes. 



112 Centbal CoHHissiON, lf(m/r«a/. 
Long and short Canadian boots. 

113 MoBBis, B., MontreaL 
Set of double sleigh-harness. 

[This is intended for a double sleigh, showing the style 
in which the light Canadian horses are caparisoned when 
out on a sleighing excursion.] 



114 MoBBis, James, Montreal. 

A black walnut bedstead. 



115 Patebson, G-., Dundcu. 

Blankets and assortments of cloths. 



115a Beei) & Meas:in8, Ifoii/rtfaZ. 

Chairs, sofas, chifibnni^re, and black walnut centre-table. 

[The set of six chairs are carved in the style of the 
14th century : the coverings are worked by the ladies 
of Montreal, who intend them as a present for Her 
Majesty. The sofa and chiffonni^re are in the same 
style ; the latter has the arms of the city of Montreal 
carved at the back.] 



1 1 G Laplamme, M. a., Montreal. 

Oil-cloth patterns ; floor and table oil-cloth. 



117 Ramsay & McAbthub, Montreal. 
Painted mahogany table ; imitation oak table ; marble 

table. 

118 Hammond, R., Jfow/rea^ 
A stone Qpntro-table. 

[The material forming this table is the limestone of 
Montreal. Polished in a similar manner, it is much used 
for cliimney-pieces and other ornamental parts in archi- 
tecture. It is the same stone as that of which the best 
edifices in the city are built.] 



119 Dunn, W.> Quebec. 
Embroidered chairs. 

[The seats of these chairs are embroidered in silk on 
leather.] 

120 Redhead, Thomas, Montreal. 
Black walnut office and drawing-room chairs. . 



121 Allan, Willla^m, Montreal, 

Drawing-room chair. 




IlilT.DEu' Walnut Centre iind Her Table. 



1 23 Hilton, J. k W., MQnireal, 

Walnut centre? and pier tabled^ (One of tlu^e lables is 
represented iii the above ei^gnivLng.) 

Spmig-bac'k eewiiig-chair, 

Varioua chaira,. Two tfite-k-t^6tca* 

[Tliis furniture iis raanufiuHureti of the finest bhick 
walnut which Canada produces ; it is dehcak^ly tarTtxl, 
and the seats and baokd ar^ covered with gold imd crimson 
daTimak.3 



Samples of glu<», 

125 Pke FBE EGAS T, J.j Mo MireaL 

Samplea of starch. 



RoBB, J., Mt^nfretiK 



12G 

Box of biscuits. 

127 Fi^TCK^R^ J oirs^ MonireaL 

" Maideu b&ir " symp. Raapberrj rine^r. 



134 Stewart, W., Toronio, 

Set of single alcigh Ininiess. Made of patent k-ather, 
lined throughout with red moroccOj and exhibiting a 
newlj-conatniett^d eeirodjuBthig pad. 

Barrel of ehip biscuits* 

1:1 5 FiTTs, Abba, MontreaL 

Faney biscuits. 

136 Fletchee, Johk, Monireai. 
Samples of candj. 

137 BeaKj Symon nABTtmr, Canada EomL 
Woollen counterpane j table- cloths. 



138 Dixoir, T., Toronto, 

Woollen counterpane. 



128 BETJKSDEjr k Shipton, SL miaire. 

Potato standi. 

Preserved potatoes, for ahipe' stores, especiahy adapted 
for long voyages. 



129 Paeisault, Joskfh, SL Mariift, 

Beeswax. 



130 



Samples of snuff. 



LkvTey, J*, MonireaL 



131 Lyy AM, EfEirBr, MofUrea L 

Samples of honej. 



132 



Bottled cider. 



PejOfib, J., Lachincm 



133 Gillespie & Co., MontrmL 

A barrel of vinegar^ made from wood. 



139 Gamble, W., MiUon Mills, 

Uorse blanket J pieces of carpeting j aasortment of 
blankets* ^ 

140 Babbeb, Messrs., Esqmesing. 
Samples of carpeting. 



141 FoftTiEi^MosKS, 5^. DofTMf, 

Piece of linen. 



B£Aif, SrMOKj B, 21 



142 
Tttble-cloths. 

143 WiLLETT, Messrs., Chamlfy, 

Specimen of grey cloth. 



144 McKat k Co., AW £:dinhurgJL 

Speeimens of pey cloth ; dark and brown satinette of 
various kinds j silk sash. 



1 45 HRNi>EBgoK, II., Montreal 

Embroidered table-cloth. 



146 Pattebsox, J., Duptdft^ MHU, 

Six pairs of blankets. An assort ment of woollen cloths. 



1 47 Wallace, A., Mantreai, 

Bench and moulding planes. 



DEPENDBKCIE8.3 



CANADA. 



967 



148 SqoTT & Glabsfobd^ McmtreaL 
A chopping-axe. 

149 Shaw, Samuxl, Toronto, 
Chopping-axes ; broad axess coopers* tooU; framing 

Iliads ; and hunting-axe. 

1 50 Lkavtpt, a., Dundas, 
Chopping and broad axes. 

150a Bigb, W. H., MotUreaL 
Wire-cloth. 

151 CmniBT, G. H., Toronto, 
k cooking-stoTe. 

151 A Ladd, C. p., Montreal. 

Patent balance-scales to weigh 20 cwt. ; rarioas chop- 
ping-axes. 

152 HouLAiTD k Dunn, MonlretiU 
Cut nails, assorted. 



154 MoLSON, Gso. E., Montreal. 
A church belL 

155 CHonnnr, G. H., Toronto. 
A sad-iron plate ; case of types. 

156 Cheney, G. H., Toronto. 
A parlour store. 

157 PsBBY, James, Montreal 
A copying press. 

158 Gabth, Chables, Montreal. 
A steam-boat engine-gong. 

[This gong is used by the yessels in Canada in the 
following TnanufT : — ^the gong, with apparatus, is used in 
the engine-room, and wires are placed iirom the sliding-bars 
which work the hammer, to the wheel-house paddle-boxes, 
or to any other part of the yessel : to these brass pulls are 
sttached. Thus the captain or pilot can, by giving one 
or more pulls, inform the engineer whether he wishes the 
engine started, stopped, rerersed, &c.] 

A brass double grease or oil cock, used for introducing 
pease or oil into the cylinder of steam-engines where 
nigh-pressure steam is used. 

A steam-boiler gause-cock of improved construction. 

A 1-inch water-code or valve. This water-cock is fast 
superseding all other kinds known in Canada. 

159 Cheney, G. H., Toronto. 
Copper furniture for a stove. 

160 Boyd, F. J., Montreal. 
Acut rifle gun. 

161 ASHFISLD, J., Toronto. 
A cut rifle gun. 

162 Babtram, a., Montreal. 
A model cannon, &c 



163 Ds MONTENAO, Madame, Montreal 
City arms. 

164 Tebguson, W., Montreal. 
Flexible branch-pipes. 

[Made of binds of leather fiutened together with copper 
rivets. It is much used in Montreal instead of the ordi- 
nary stiff pipe.] 

165 Clabee, Jakes, Montreal. 
ffliip-blocks, of various siases. 



166 Thbblkeld, — , Toronto. 

An assortment of whips. 



167 Wheeleb, Thomas, Toronto. 

An assortment of brushes. 



168 Hendebson, —, Qnehec. 
Coils of rope. 

169 Sfooneb, a., Montreal 
Box of twine, assorted. 



170 Dixon, Thomas, Toronto. 

Specimens of cordage. 



171 Centbal QpMMissiON, Montreal. 

A bark canoe. (This canoe is represented in the ac« 
companying Plate.) 

[This canoe, made from the bark of the white birch, is 
one of the largest class of canoes used in the north-west 
country. Previously to its being forwarded to England, 
it made a voyage in the spring of last year of upwards of 
3,000 miles, with a crew of 20 men and their stock of 
necessaries and provisions. Being exceedingly light, the 
crews are enabled to cany these canoes when it is es- 
sential to avoid the falls and rapids ; and, for months 
together, they form the homes of the hardy and daring 
voyagers during their transit to and from the Far West.] 



172 Ondaqahoft, p. 

Pair of snow-shoes ; also mocassins. 

[These snow-shoes are worn by all classes when travel- 
ling in the snow. They are used in chase of the deer and 
other game, by the Indians, and enable the hunter in his 
eager pursuit to travel over the snow at the rate of seven, 
and even occasionally at ten, miles an hour. Bacing in 
them is a favourite amusement of both Canadians and 
Indians during the winter months ; and so indispensable 
are they, that, without tliese shoes, the poorer inhabitants 
would be confined in stormy weather to their homes.] 



173 Bell, P. W., St. Cathenne. 

Indian dress, viz., coat, pair of legginp, cap, gun-case, 
knife-case, bracelet, and pair of small belts. 

[Formed of dressed deerskin, ornamented with dyed 
moose hair and beads. This dress is that of an Indian 
chief, made by a squaw of the Mohawk nation.] 



174 Hendebson, — , Montreal. 

Embroidered slippers, cigar-cases, purses, and fan. 

[Made by a tribe of the Iroquois Indians resident at 
Caughnawaya, in the neighbourhood of MontreaL] 



175 Eocheleati, Helen, Three JEUvers. 

Bark box and fan. 



176 Campbell, Major, St. Hilaire. 

Bark tray and box. 

[Made of the bark of the white birch, ornamented with 
dyed moose hair and beads.] 



177 



iNDLiNS OP LOBETTE. 



Indian curiosities. 



178 M'liEAif &WniQnT, Montreal. 

Single sleigh, with pole and shafts. This 
represented in the following cut. 



sleigh 




[This tltfigh i» drawn generally by four hor»(». Sleigh- 
ing forms tlie chit-'f and most liighly-rcliabed iiinus<*iiii?nl 
of the rkfiftHinnn during winter. To follow it all buiine^^ 
is fiupended j and certainly a morv invigorating exort-iiic 
CAQ Bcareelj be imagined. Seated in one of these light 
and elegaiit camagea, wrapped in the wannest furs, oma- 
mentod with the gayeet coloure, and tcl[npt4^d abroad by 
8 iky tliat equals tliat of Italy in brilliancy, the Canadian 
thoroughly enjoyft lumself, eTcn though the thermometer 
eoiuctimes he 30 degrees below the frocKing point* It i» 
no iincomraoQ thing t<» Boe a score or tldrty of these ftleigha 
at one time earcoring over the froien #now in the 
*• fashionable driTcs."] 

179 O'Mbaba, M^ Mtmireal 

A double sleigli. 

180 Laubik, J. J., Quehee. 

A single sleigh. A Ught carriage and wheels. 



181 Pebbt, G, 3.y Montreal 

Fipe-engino and hofie red. 

[The mechanical oonatnietion of this ilre-cngine difflre 
entirely from the engines commonly u:»cd iu England. 
Iniitead of working ** broadside," or from end to end, this 
works firom the enda. Tlio usual stroke of an EngHsh 
engine is S inches : this gives one of 16 iiLieh<!9^ wMle it 
may be worked with fewer handSp with greater fracility, and 
consequently with less fatigue to tlie tlrtnien, fi^ni 20 to 
30 of whom are required to keep it in full working play j 
but by a simple and ingeniouily contrived atuffing^tox its 
powers may be regulated according to the number of men 
employed. The present engine lifts its supj»Iy of ivater 
33 feet, playing from 60 leet of ho»e» one-ineh bore iO 
feet, and from 170 feet to 180 feet in height j or from two 
streams it will throw each 160 feet.] 

(Tlii* engine Is represented in the Plate 48.) 



182 Joseph, J. G., Toronto. 

A theodolite and stand. 



183 McPHSsaoHt J. k So^a, Montreal 

A etarionet and a eomopean. 



IBS HtooiJSB, Patbick H. 

Violin and cose, elarionet^ and piccolo piano. 




I8G Fabexs Bbotesbs, Zbroa^a. 

Tarioos specimens of tiirmng. 



106 IttWiK, J., Montreml 

Travelling trunk. 

[Indian cimo^itiea^ ina^le by the native Indianii of 
Lorette, the remains of the Henn tribe, consisting of bbek 
bcnver and E^kin tobaeeo-jxiuch, card case of ctmliboo feet^ 
an Indian stool formed of moose feet, ornamented with 
dyed irortrupine-qtiilk and moose hair.] 



244 Lkwis, E., Mellaiame. 

Two model bridges. 

301 Centbax Commission, Montrval^ 

Ornamental Htoo!, moose feet. Spring-back sofa. 
Walnut ixmtre tables, Wnlnut pick tabk\ Sj^ring-baek 
M?wing- chair,, iete-^'tHe. Cliiffonni^re. bofo. B<ickiilg» 






eliair, OrtUnary ohairs. 



diiffonni^re. bofo. 
Wooden snow-shovels* 



324 Hastn, a., MofUrtal. 

Samples of mineral water. 



KiCOLSOK, R., Montreal. 



32n 

Barrel of beef. 



329 HATT^nwm k Sair, Montreal, 

Csses of fiuic^ toi^i oommoo soaps, and candles. 

331 Adams, W, H. F., Montreal 

Elo£h dn poffa suit of clothe*. The capote lined with 
Qinada tweed, the btitton* of birti's-eye mi^le: the whole 
intended to show a full suit of Canadian hahUatCt drtusa. 
A laucy double coat, 

:i33A Stewaet, — , Toronto. 

Set of single sleigh -fmme«s, hncd with red morocco, 
mihowing a self-adjusting pad. 



334 MoEitta, R., Montreal 

Mihtory helmet. Proposed helmet of the Bangets, 
made for Sir James Alexander^ .i.D.C. ; sabre-proo^ the 
eresl being stittfed with dtxT's-hair, and a band of whale- 
bone paasing across the head : sun-prool^ and Tentilated. 
Weight 18 01. 



OoioaistOKXBS, Qa^Aae. 



339 

Straw hats. 

340 Sataos, G., & So3f, Montreal 

A silrer embossed tea-kettle, and engraved spectaelo 

case. Dessert and tea spoons. 
Silver table-spoon and fork. 



341 Legqatt, H., Montreal. 

Gold cable-chain and hook, 

A HHgrce and topaz brooch. An amethyst and a spH^ 
brooch. 



Dkpendekcibs.] 



NEW BRUNSWICK 



A snake-pin, garnet and pearL A diamond pin. Claw- 
pin, Tubj. Yarioua other pins, including topaz, ball, do^e, 
and square-head rubies. 

a46 BODISB, P., 8L Stfocinthe, 

A model locomotiye steam-engine, gong, &e.$ single 
sleigh; light carriage; carriage-wheels. 

351 DuFCAir, J., MoidreaL 

Designs for ooinaee. 
Ornamental printmg. 

353 WHXBLXSy Thomas, Toronto. 

Medallion, in gutta percha, of the Earl of Elgin, Qover- 
n(u>General of Oaoada, and the die firom which the same 
WIS struck. 

355 Abhtok, J. P., St, LawretU, 

SpecxflMns of the Cottonia plant, or wild cotton. 
[This plant grows in the greatest luxuriance OTer almost 
the entire countiy : it has been applied successfully in 
Onada to the manufacture of hats, being substituted for 
feu ; and it is generally thought, that, were it to engage 
Uie attention of the maker of English textile fabrics, he 
might use it to a profitable purpose.] 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 
South Asxa, Q. 82. 

This colony has sent a miscellaneous collection of raw 
and manufactured articles for exhibition. The timber 
trade of New Brunswick is represented by a series of 
woods; the mineral wealth by some specimens as 
yet undetermined,, and others of iron, and probably 
other metalliferous ores, in addition to grindstones and 
stones for hones. Specimens of coal and plumbago are 
also sent. The agricultural produce sent consists of 
wheat, barley, oats, beans, &c. There are also speci- 
mens of preserved food. It is to be regretted that a 
fuller amoimt of information was not supplied with 
these articles, as the capabilities of the colony might 
hare been more adequately exhibited in the Catalogue 
of its contributions. — R. E. 



1 Geey, The Dowager Lady. 

A canoe, with three figures, representing Joseph Jamar, 
the chief of the Melicite tribe of Indians, his squaw and 
her popoose, in their state costume. Sent by the Misses 
Close, two ladies who reside in the vicinity of the tribe. 

2 GiBBS, Bright, & Co., Liverpool — Producers. 
A figure-head of an Indian chief. 



3 Qoru), N., 4 Tavistock Square^ London— rlmy^rier. 
Specimens of jet coal, or asphalte, recently discovered 

on the banks of the river Feticodiac, Albert Coimty, New 
Bmnswick, and not hitherto been discovered in any other 
part of British America. This coal is said to produce gas 
of the purest colour, and in greater quantihr than any 
other coal hitherto used for the purpose. (The property 
of Edward Allison, Esq., of St. John's.) 
Limip of plumbago. 

4 MoBae, William. 
Bird*8-eye maple. 



> McKiLLOP, A. 

Bird's-eye maple. 
Curiy maple (veneer). 



CqAj maple. 



McBas, William. 



7 Haceix, Alexandkr. 
BladtWrch. 

Trasoganop stones, for razor hones. 

8 MoBae, William. 
Manganese (firom Nassau). 



9 Fbaseb, Wiluam J. 

Mineral (from Bay Cheleur). 



10 Hutchison, Bichabd. 

Iron ore. Mineral. 



11 McCuLLY, Caleb. 

Mineral (firom Tabusintac). 



12 



Blacktille. 



White bald wheat. 



13 Wysb, Johk. 
White bald wheat, 66 lbs. per busheL 

14 Blacstillb, 
White baurd wheat. 

White bald wheat, 66 lbs. per bushel. 

15 Wyse, John. 
Bed bald wheat, 67 lbs. per bushel. 



16 



White oats. 



Blacktille. 



Wybe, John. 



17 
White oats. 

18 McDbbmot, Finlay. 
Barley, 56 lbs. per bushel. 

19 Bbophy, Pateick. 
Black oats, 41 lbs. per bushel. 



20 



Broad beans. 



21 



Black runners. 



22 



White beans. 



Wyse, John. 

Seable, Michael. 
Speckled beans. 

Wyse, John. 



Two copies of Professor Johnson's "Report of 
Agricultuiil CapabiUties of New Brunswick." 
Sample of Indian com. 



the 



23 



Bay or candleberry candles. Iron ore. 
Cornelian stone. Pair of mittens. 
Candleberry wax. 

Sample of grindstone, firom the New Baudon Quarry, 
Bay Cheleur. 

24 Fbaseb, William J. 

Two canisters of preserved salmon. 
Two canbters of preserved lobsters. 
One canister of firesh cod-fish. 



24 HxTTCHisoN, Bichabd. 

Sample of peas, second growth, 1S49. 



26 Seable, Michael. 

Cabbage seed. Carrot seed. 
Parsley seed. Onion seed. 



27 POBTEB, J. 

Bushel of beans, 68 lbs. per bushel. 



970 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



[Colonies and 



28 €k)0i>7KLL0W, Alkzavdxb. 
Sample of white bold wheat. 

Chreen peM, 68 lb*, per busheL 
Bushel of white beans, 681b*. per busheL 
Box containing baj or oandleberry bush and sea-weed 
eoraL 
Sample of white bald wheat. 

29 CHAunnts, John. 
Samples of barley, wlieat, and oats. 



NOVA SCOTIA. 

South Abeas, P. 80 to 82. 

TiiK mineral wealth of Nova Scotia forma the chief 
■uliject of illustration in this collection ; and the objects 
cxliibite<l t>rovc the large extent and importance of the 
mmrctm of iron of the best kind recently made available 
in that country. Charcoal iron is produced in consi- 
derable (luantitics, and is adapted for the manufacture 
of excellent steel. In addition to the metalliferous 
minerals, several others are exhibited of interest to the 
tf«<)l()j(lHt and naturalist. The collection of stuflFed 
birds and aninialH is also interesting, and is accompanied 
bv spciinens of native manufactures of the usual 
sfinpio descrijjtion. — H. E. 



Bitumen. 



Gonu), N., 4 7\ivUiock Square, 



Acadian Ibon Mining Association. 
Iron, s(4h4, tin plates, wire, cutlery, bars of iron and 
steel |Mili«luHl, pig and oast iron. 

AttOiiiUALi), CiiARLRS Dickson, F.R.S., 15 ForUand 
iVap#— I*roprietor. 

Iron ont« fVoin thi^ province of Nova Sootia, embracing 
iimgMt«lio opt^K, K|MMuniip, HimthoMS nucftttHnis, ologistic, 
fn»»ilitrr(i(iN, liit'iiiutitoit, Ji^vdrutoH, (H>hi\'i», kc. 

I A Imiul tif foKHilifoiHuiH ipt>ii oxtoiuls nlong the edges of 
I III* Nuva HiHitiuii f«mMleUl frt>m n few miles south of 
I'inloii lo Aiiiin)>olii« : tliiM Im UHiinllv in the state of per> 
ciiuld. liHtiiHloiK^ Imllit, the nrgiUtuHHtus earlionate of iron, 
are aUn Imuui iiiterHtratitUHl with the numerous tliin 
hiiiitl* iifcdiil of thiit lUtitriet. - K. II. J 

Muii«»me*o iH^roxitle, blaek, gn\v, cnstallized, and 
aeieiilur. 

i\i|i)i(ir tuva- t'ttrbonate, oxide. 

Dai'vlod - Hiilplmte, ervstaUiztHl. 

Marlilo Hlatnarv, veintnl, &e. 

Oelm^H nnl, veliow. 

Ankerite — a ferruginous variety of limestone containing 
fipat)\ose iron ore. 

Kosjiils. 

Various building materials. 

[The iron on^s of Nova S<H>tia are of great richness and 
punty. Several of the SjHxnmens above mentioneil yield 
upwanls of 70 j>er ivnt., and art? entirt^ly free from 
Bulphiur and tUl other impurities. Tliey are, moreover, 
very abmulant, and situateil in the midst of vast native 
fon^sts, ea^vible of supplying ehari'oal to any extent, at a 
very eheap rate. The prineij»al mines are within four or 
the miles of ship navigation ; and in jaxta|H>sition with 
the ort*s an* found i*o»d, lime, marble, freestone, fine clay, 
tiudn'r, water-power, and every requisite for the mauu- 
ftti-t un* of ii\m on a lai^* Sitde. The great value of these 
oi\»s consist.'* in their bt»ing essentially of a steely nature. 
Kot iMih tUvs the in^n pnxUux* steel of first-rate eicel- 
leuiv, hut l:»ri;e quantities of steel of very superior quality 
ha>e Ihvu nuule dinvt from the ores. These mint>s have 



been opened, and a small establishment of works put in 
operation during the last year. The mode of reduction 
adopted is what is called the Catalan process, by means 
of which the ores aie directly converted into bar iron, 
with charcoal fuel] 

Specimens to iUnstrate the pnmosition, ''That the 
province of Nova Scotia is capable of supplying the whole 
British empire with steel and charcoal uron, equal to the 
best foreign articles, and at greatly reduced prices.*' All 
the enumerated articles are made from the iron and steel 
of Nova Scotia. Iron — cast and pig, grey, mottled, bar, 
rod, steel iron, horse-niul, &c, manufactured ; turned 
specimens, polished bars, tin pla^ wire, dies, &o. Steel- 
iMirs, polished, wire, &c. Manu£M;tured articlea — ^fenders, 
fire-irons, sword-blades, knives, scissors, surgical instru- 
ments, magnets, pistols, files, edge tools, razors, &c. 

Working models of a steam-engme, and of a brick- 
making machine. 

Abticlbs exhibited by the Central Committee, con- 
signed to the care of Mr. C. D. Abohibald, Portland 
Place. Agent — Mr. Maclean, Lobby, Custom-house. 
Geological prints on clay. Specimens of fr-eestone. 
Yellow and burnt ochre. Mineral paints. Coal. A 
fossil-tree. Shell, marl, and lime. Iron ore, and other 
mineral specimens. 

Samples of cod-liver oiL Chemical preparations. 
Maple-sugar in crystals ; pidveriised ; and in syrup. 
Samples of wheat grown by Indians ; and grown by the 
farmers ; weight 64 lbs. 11 oz. per bushel. 

Sample of maple-sugar. Pi^served fish. Bigby her- 
rings. 

Barley, wheat, straw, and oats. Indian com. Beef and 
ham, 90 lbs. Bacon, &c. 

Specimens of woods : Curled maple, bird*8-eye maple, 
veneered birch, grey and white oak, and lepidodendron 
stem. 
Young seal-skins. 

Specimen of hiunan bones (Indian). 
Samples of hay-seed, moose heads, and horns ; carriboo. 
Collection of botanical specimens. 

Specimens of presened animals, birds, and insects. The 
birds stuffed by Mr. Andrew Downs, of Halifax, 

Skins of wild cat (Felis cat us) ; h-nx (Felis It/nx) ; red, 
cross, black, silver, and white fox (varieties of Vuljies 
communis and Vulpes lagopus) ; American hare {Lepus 
Americanus) ; martin (Mustela mariUs) ; minx {Mu/tela 
lutreola) ; raccoon (Proct/on lofor) ; otter {Lutra rul- 
parts) ; beaver {Castor Canadensis) ; bear (IJ^rsus Ameri- 
canus) ; wolf (Canis lupus) ; weasel {Mttstela erminea) ; 
gquirrel (Sciurus) ; flying squirrel (Pteromi/s volucella) ; 
silver-grev fox, martin, musquash (Nasua socialis) ; rac- 
coon, and cat -skin sleigh robes. 
Two iron castings. 

One Indian canoe and three paddles. 
Sample of French home-spim grey, green, strijied, and 
plaid cloth. Check home-spun, phud cloth, and brown 
doth. 

Two shawls. 

Quilts, blankets, woollen hearth-rugs, &c. 
WooUen vest. Socks, assorted. Mitts, assorted. 
Pairs of fijie and coarse p^jged boots. 
Shoe- lasts. Snow-shoes with moccasins. 
Grass bonnets and hats. Down hat, mufi*, victorine, 
and culFs. 

An Indian dress, cradle, chairs, seats, mats, cigar cases, 
and other Indian work. 

Map of Nova Scotia and hand-book. Book of music. 

Piano, in case of bird's-eye maj>le. 

Soap and candles. Eel-spear and fishing- rotls. 

Iniiian fan, ivticule, hood, purse, and moccasins. 

Indian and negro bones and baskets. 

Keticules of gra^. 



Dependencies.] NEWFOUNDLAND.— BERMUDAS.— JAMAICA.— BARBADOES. 



971 



NEWFOUNDLAND. 

South Abea» Q. 32. 

The cod-liver oil trade of Newfoundland has of late 
years undergone great extension, in consequence of 
the immense consumption of this drug for pulmonary 
and strumous disorders. The unquestionable instances 
of its successful employment give probability to the 
conjecture that the manufacture will receive still 
further increase. Cod-liver oil is used also by the 
preparers of leather. The inexhaustible cod fisheries 
off this comitry form in themselves a singular and 
interesting part of its natural history. The only con- 
tributions from Newfoundland are some samples of 
cod-liver oil. — R. E. 



1 Stabb, Ewbk, lAverpool Street y London — Importer. 

Samples of cod-liver oil, purified (of much efficacy in 
palmonary complaints), firom the manufactory of W. L. 
M'Eay, St. John's, Newfoundland. 



BERMUDAS. 

South Abea, R. 32. 

The contributions of the Bermudas are placed with 
those of other colonies on the south of the Western 
Xave. The collection from this remarkable group of 
islands is extremely small, and consists only of a few 
specimens of arrow-root and palmetto plait, and sonic 
miscellaneous objects. As arrow-root and the plait of 
the palmetto leaf are of importance to the commerce 
of those islands, they will be re;:jarded with some degree 
of interest as associated with their prosperity. — R. E. 



Gbay, — . 
Specimens of arrow-root. 



Jackson, H. H. i?crmv<^— Cabinet-maker. 
Chess-board of remarkable workmanship, and exhibit- 
ing specimens of the Bermudas wood. 



Specimbns of Natubal Productions. 
Pumice-stone. 
Bermada arrow-root. 
Collection of marine productions. 
Model of Bermuda sailing-boat. 

Model of a hoop for a mast, for the boom to work in, 
instead of a " goose-neck.'* 
Specimens of Bermuda palmetto plait. 

[Arrow-root and palmetto plait form two important 
articles in the exports of this group of islands. The 
irrow-root is obtained from Maranta arundinacea, which 
is extensively cultivated in the islands, by first removing 
the gcaly portions from the roots, and then rasping the 
Utter and washing the powder. The fine powder ob- 
tained, after being properly dried, is packed in tins and 
other cases lined with paper, and exported. In 1845, it 
was estimated that 400,000 lbs. were made in these islands, 
three-fourths of which were sent to England. Bermuda 
WTow-root is one of the most esteemed varieties. The 
palmetto phut is likely to come into extensire use in this 
country, and is exhibited by several in a preceding Class.] 



JAMAICA. 

South Abea, Q. 30. 
Jamaica is directly represented by only one exhibitor. 
The contribution consists of artificial flowers in imita- 
tion of the gorgeous ])roduction8 of the Tropics. The 
material employed deserves mention. It is obtained 
from one of the Yuccas, plants which are members of 
the natural order Liliacece ; and, being of tenacious 
fibre, are occasionally used in the manufacture of 
twine, rope, &c. — R. E. 

Nash, Mrs., Parish of Manchester. 
Ten varieties of tropical flowers, made from the fibre of 
the « Yucca " or " Dagger-plant." 

BARBADOES. 

South Abea, Q. 30. 
A most complete collection of wax models has been 
sent from this island in illustration of tropical flowers, 
fruits, &c. To the naturalist, these models present a 
valuable opportunity for acquaintance of a more tan- 
gible character than is derivable from books, with the 
most valued of these productions. Among the speci- 
mens of natural produce are textile fibres, minerals, 
and medicinal substances, some of which are new and 
interesting. The sugar produced in the island is also 
represented by several specimens manufactured by 
(liiferent processes. — R. E. 

Models and Specimens of Natubai Pboductionb, 
Fbuits, Spices, &c. 

Cactus {Cereus trigonus). Dunks {Ziziphus jufuba). 
Purple peppers {Capsicum purpureum). Finger peppers 
(Capsicum purpureum). Sea-side grapes {Coccoloba uvi- 
/era). Otaheite gooseberry (Cicca disticha). Golden 
apple (Spondiaa dulcis). Pig plum (Spondias dulds). 
Water lemon (Passijfora laur§bUa). Rose apple {Passi- 
fiora laurifolia). Cliili peppers (Capsicum). Cherry 
l>epper8 (Capsicum cera^iforme). Cashew (Anacardium 
occidental). Red beU pepper (CVzpwcMwawnwum). Green 
bonnet pepper (Capsicum teiragonum). Yellow Carib 
pepper (Capsicum CaribtBum) . Mango (Mangifera indica) . 
Peach mango. Jamaica plum. Red bonnet pepper (Cap- 
sicum tetragonwn) . Star plums (Chrysophgllum mono- 
spermum). Green sugar apple (Anona squamosa). Purple 
sugar apple (Anona squcnnosa). Tamarinds. Cream- 
coloured pepi)er8. Guavas. Green bell pepper ((?ap*<Vttm 
annuum). Sapodilla (Achras sapota). Cacoa (Theobroma 
cacao). lAmea (Citrus acida) . St&r apple (Chrvsophgllum 
Cainiio). Red banana (Musa sapientum). Yellow banana 
(Musa sapientum^ Avocado pear (Persea gratissima). 
Citron (CUrus). Pomegranate. Custard apple (Anona 
reticulata). Bread-fruit (Artocarpus incisa). Sour sop 
(Anona muricatd). Green plantain (Musa paradisiaca). 
Yellow plantain (Musa paradisicu^). Papaw (Carica 
Papaya). Grape-fruit (Citrvts). Sugar-cane (Saccharum 
officinarum). 

Fibre of Spanish needles. 

Common and Gadesden pan sugar. 

Gadcsden pan sugar, from Yaucluse plantation. 

The fibre of the Agave Americana, and of the Agave 
vivipara, used in Central America for stufling hammocks. 

The " Tons les mois," and wax model of its flower. 

Barbadoes cotton. Aloes. 

Plant of Spanish needles. 

Bituminous coaL 

Selenite. Limestone. 

Nicker seeds, produced by the GKulandina Bonduac. 

[These seeds are used as a remedy for dropsical affec- 
tions, and are in great repute among the native practi- 
tioners of the island. They are sent to determine whether 
their virtue does not depend upon some alkaloidal principle. 



[Ofpicial Illustbated Catalogue.] 



4 B 



972 



BABBAT>OEJ?.— raiNIDAB. 



rCOLOXHW AWD 



The mode of admiiiiat4?ring the " borse^nicker" — the vor- 

itiUTular immo for the seeds — is to parch the k<jniel, and 

grmd it -, then to infuse it, hke cofTee^ tmd give a wine- 

. glaasfui or more two or tliree time* a-daj. It is thought 

tthat a concentrated fonn of the rcmody would be very 

^inlimbb ae a tonic or diuretic-] 

Speoimeufl of trauflpareut sugar- cane, Bourbon sugar- 
cauo. 

Blo9eioni9 of transparent and Bourbon sugar-cane. 
Pewiiiin or green *eed cotton. Tbt* vine cotton. 
Cotton frora Deinerani, Oommon Barbadoes cotton, 
Clialk. Qtmrtz. Petroliujii,or green tar. 
The bulb of the " Toua les mois. 

[** Tous lee mois" ia a variety of arrow-poot, produced 
hj A species of cannaj 



1 Eeadk, Alfrid, Director, BaiehelL 

Basket of Tegetiible*, rtx>t«, Ac,, modelled in wax, by 
Mr. and lira. Braithwaite, of BarlMidoes : — 

Oiiineu corn {Soi'tfhum rutt/nre), Fi^^eon |>eas {Cajanus 
' ^ndicu$). Tlio Sugar-bean {Fhnfteofws lunicus) . MotJDslune 
llboniivis {Lnhhih f^icocarjfu^). Plantain (Mttita Para- 
dUiaca), Ginger (Zinfjiler offfciuaff). Egg: fruit (Sola- 
tttnn ni^/oitffftifi). Arrow-root {Maranta arnndlnfU'ea). 
Indian tx3m {Zea mn^ft), Chrtstupliinc {Sechium edtth). 
Cucumber » Moonshine {CucitmU sfitivtat). Pnr|ilc egg 
plant (SolaHUm tn^hmfrfta). Cabbttfje. Timiip* Currot 
(Daucu^ iHirotft). Green Indian com (Zra /mty*). Rofist- 
ing eddoes (Arum tnaer^rrhizttm). Cucumber {CurumtJi 
saiiffU4)^ Green egg plant {Solnnum mclomjpnc). Lima 
bean (Phaseohii ptn'etiaU). Turnip {Brasjtica raptt). 
Beet-root (Beta vulgaris). Pumpkin (Ou^rbUa pepo), 
"V^Tbite yam (Drosconea ^atira). Red potato {Batatas 
edvfis). Scrat^'hing eddoea {Caladmrn escnlenlttm). Cab- 
b«ge (Bra^ica oleracea). Cftss&VA {Manikot ulilhftima). 
Yellow potato (Batata)* Bread-fruit (Artocarpus in- 
tina). Red yam (J>io*corea alata). Wliite potato 
{ Ba tafa alhn) . Madeira eddoc ( Cafaditt m sngHffrftj tin m ) . 
Squashes (Cucnrhila inelopepo). Bonna P^pptT (CttpsUmm 
angu hmi m) . Carib jiepper ( Capsicum) * Bell pepper ( Cap- 
aamtum). 



2 ElwelL, nENBT, Birmintjham and Bnrhadoes. 

Vnse of (lowers and bosket of fruit ; manufai'tuned for 
and imported by the exhibiton l^loulded in wax by 
Mr. and Miw. Henry Bmithwaite, of Barbadoe». 

Fivwer*. 
Flower fencM?, or Barbadoes pride (Ceaalpima ptthhet'- 
rima). Yellow flower fence {Cemtpinia Jloriiius lut^). 
Yellow jasmine {Jiuminum fmiifmuit), Tous les moia 
(Canna ackirras). St. Yinceut Ulac (Solatium Seafor- 
(MftHum). Murmyvi (Murrain exotica). Ajsc^iepins (Aacle- 
pitiM). Croton {Caperonia paicmkiii). Citn!>n blosnoin 
{Ciinttt rnftU*'*i). PkunbagOi atone cold (Phtmbntfo). 
Yariegated hibiscus {Hibisnt* variefjalux). Yellow ro»e 
(Rosa tided). Flesh 't'oloured oleander {Nerium cftrHeitm), 
Orange eordiii {Cordia J\tlvo aurea). Sea Island cotton 
(Gi))iMypiiim htr^tttum). Crimson ro»e {Rosa vruftita). 
Musk ochre (JJihijicug ahetinoftfJiUJn). Blue convolvulus 
(ContotvutuH major). Water lemon bloptioin {Pft^ftiftoni 
ftiunjhlia). PoTue^ranate blr>i*?oni (Punica Jlore-pl^^io). 
African lily (AmaryttU AjrtctJHttJt). Hovrtt or war 
llowcr iIIo*fa carnojta). Austrian rose (Rona hraciealn). 
Couunon oleander (N&riv^m oteander}^ Wild FreTich 
guar a (Ca^fia orcid^^nffttis). Setirlet eordia (Cvrdia aeftaf- 
Ha n a) . Poplar { Thesptna pop w tneu) . Wliit e rose ( Rojta 
atha). Queen of llowers (Ltujrrxtfomia fpffin<t), Gar- 
diiiia (Oardinia JJore-pteim). Orange jasmine {Ptumittia 
in tea) . P>ii n ted just icia ( G raptopktftttt m hortenMe) . Lig- 
num vit-te (Guaiai^m iifficituite). Variegated jasmine 
(P/umiri'ia bicotor). Sweet pea (Lathtfretfs odortitus), 
Trura|iet flower (BigHoma tinqufjf). Double red lily (Ama- 
rt/lti^jtof'e-ptfmt). Ptu^jile bignonia (Biffnonia purpHfea), 
Shell plant (Atphiaia Hutam). White jasmine (Plumietia 



filbtj). Blue vine (Clitoria ternatea). Barbadoe* cotton 
{Govxifpium Barbaden^) . Madeira lu*ath ( Mwacfiajuncea), 
Clirmgeable rose {Hibisi^us mutabitia). Rose of Sharon 
{HihlwuA flm'f-pt^no). Orange roee of Sharon {MibiMvu* 
Jtore-pletio ttitftut). Pctrea (Petrea rotubilitt), A 11a- 
nianda {AUamatul^i catfiartica), Yerbcnmii (Verhenittn), 
Bcurlet Brownia (Brownia cocci nea). Red jasmine 
{Ptnmitria rnbra). 

Fruits. 
Sugar-loaf pine-apple (Anamuta Maiiva), Yariegnted 
gnipc (Vitis vinlfera rarieffata). Barbadoes cherry 
{Matpi^jkia (jtatira). Barbmloes goow^berry (Pefrr^hia 
ocuteatfj). Common vine grape (litis viuijera), Bar- 
badoea sea-stde grape (Cocoloba Barbad^n^s). Dunk 
(Zi:ifpMs jujuhft). Water lemon (Passijlora Uinrijblia). 
Lemon {Vitrus). Common guava (Psidium pomijemm). 
Green star apple (Chrr/si^phf/tlum Jam<icffnjw). Gully, or 
hog plum (Spondiiit lutea). Tamarind (Tamarindus 
tudica), Bel] pepper (Cnpsioim amumm). Koee apple 
(Jambossa Malaccemis). Jamaica plum (Spondias m 
bin). Cocoa -pod (Tkeobromn ca<*ao). Bourbcm siigar-t 
{Saccharum Otaheitemte). Cactus pear (Ccrevs tri^on 
Purple avocado pear (Persea grtiHiaima). Red cashew 
(Anfwardium oe^dant^te). Ribbon sugar-cane (SaccAa- 
mmrulrane). Ch'm» orau^ (Citrus an rani iutn). Purple 
star plum (Chrtfs<iph^Uum moHophyrrHttm). Golden apple 
(JoLfj dttlcis). Bonnet pepj>er {Capsicum tetrtiffoimm). 
Limes {Citrtts tiitt/i). Given avocado pear (Prrsea ffra- 
iisfdma). Va^w (Carica papaya). Pomegranate (i\fj»tc(i 
granatum). Gtreeti sugiir npple (AmjiM xtptattto.'ia). Peach 
mango (Manffifkra), Plantain (AfuJta paradiniaen). 
Yellow banana (Musa §apirHi%im). Purple star apple 
(ChrjfmphifUum CforulitisiC), Custard apple (Anowt reticU" 
tufa), Almona {Termit$aiia i-alapht/a). Citron {Citm» 
rnedira). Purple sugar apple (Anoun squamoxa rubra). 
East India mango {Mangifrra indit^a), French guava 
(Psidium pifriferum). Yellow cashew {AnacardiHm ocd- 
df-ntaie). Red banana {Mttsa rosacea). Carib tapper 
(Capsicum), Mamee apple {Mammca Attwricana). Ora- 
nodilla (Passijiora quadrantjHlaris). Piimplpnoufle shad- 
tlo<-'k (Pompfcnmtse d^fcttmana). Green cocoa-nut (Cocnt 
mu-iffra), Turkey fig (Ficus pertttsa). Otaheite gooae- 
berry {Cicca distieha). Bread-fruit (Artocarptts indsa). 
Water mdou (Cucumis citruftm). Purple pepper {Cap- 
sicum nigt^m). Crape- fruit (Pompcfmos raeemosus). 
Sapaildla {Arhrus lapitiUa). Sour-»op {Anona muricata), 
Clierry pepper { Capsicum cerasi/orme). Chili pepper 
( Capsicu in co jtjtideum) . Finger pepper ( Capsicum lonffum) , 
Yellow pepper {Ctqjsicttm litteum). 



TRINIDAD. 

SOPTH Akea, K. 31. 



4 



IIabkih, Lord, Governor; Agents^ LlOtlTLr & Simox, 
V2^ FeHchureh Strret i and MewTB. Daniell, IS Wiu/- 
ittort! Street^ London^ 

Tire Trinidtid cullcctfon is one of much ralue and 
interest. It eousisls, however, tiliuost exclusively of u 
series of nutuml s|h cinicng anil f>ro«luctions. The few 
manufactim'S exliilntcd are of native workmanship; 
they comprise sieves, baKkct3, ferns, aiid snch-likc 
articles, AttentioD will, however, be drav^Ti to a mtjflel 
of an Indian hut, with its simple and priniitive fur- 
niture : the remarkable plieuomenon, the pilch li^ke, is 
represented by a variety of specimens ">f pitch ; some 
taken from vi^ centre, 8^>me from tlie shores, and some 
fR>m the earth in its vicuiity. An economical appli- 
cation of this substance in the manulacture of charcoal 
for sugar haa recently bc«n made, and may prove of 
value. Minerals, nietallifenms orea^ clays, d'c, are 
alarj sent for exhibition. Tortoise-shell and whale-oil 
represent the animal kin;j;dom products. Those of the 
vegetable kiu'^dom Arc much more numerous. Amon 



DEPE2n>BNCIES.] 



TRINIDAD. 



973 



these are spices, oils, textile materials, ap;ricultural 
prodnct^, gams and resins, drugs, and lastly, woods 
fitted for useful and for ornamental purposes. To many 
of these the attention of the naturalist, nor less that 
of the merchant, must be directed, and the ultimate 
result may prove of great benefit to the island. — H, E. 



Mjstkrajl Kingdom. 

1. Pitch, from the springs in the centre of the pitch 
kke. 

[The pitch lake of Trinidad is the most remarkable 
nahiral phenomenon of that island. It is about a mile 
and a half in circumference, and in the vicinity of voloa* 
noes emitting mud. On the shores of the lake the pitch is 
perfectly hard and cold, but towards the middle it becomes 
aofier and more fluid. The pitch has not been much used 
except for pavement, as it requires the admixture of a 
large quantity of oiL — D. T. A.] 

2. Petroleum, from springs in the Guapo Hills, near 
the pitch lake. 

3. Cellular pitch, of which the surface of the lake prin- 
cipally consists. 

4 Compact pitch, which crops out through other 
»trata in the lands around the pitch lake. 
5. Glance pitch, found in small detached masses, in the 



6. mtch turf^ from a pitch bog, in the same. 

7 and 8. Pitch, mixed with organic matter. 

9. Mineral charcoal, prepared by Mr. H. Warner, from 
Trinidad pitch ; and used as a substitute for animal char- 
oosl in the manufacture of susar ; it can be produced at 
tboot one- fifth of the price of the latter. 

10 to 14. Petroleum, mineral oil, naphtha, ammoniacal 
vuter and coke, — ^prepared from Trinidad pitch, and illus- 
tnting the process of making naphtha from pitch. 

Trinidad pitch has been used extensively, and with sue- 
oesi, as a flooring for warehouses, &c., and it is likely to 
be exported in large quantities for the manufacture of gas. 

15. Pitch seam, found between strata of sandstone. 

16. Sandstone, impregnated with mineral oils and 
naphtha. 

17 to 20. Ochres, from the Guapo Hills. 
21 and 22. Sandstone, with specular iron, from the 
Guapo Hiil«. 

23. Black sand, from the sea-ahore at Guapo. 

24. Hematite, from Ghispari island. 

25. Magnetic iron ore, from Maraccas valley. 
36. Iron pyrites, from the mud volcanoes. 

27. Lignite, from Irois. It occurs in immense quantity, 
near the surface. 

28. Coal, supposed to be anthracitic, from Manzanills. 

29. Slate, from St. Ann*s hills ; taken from the surface. 

30. Honestone, from near Tamana. 

31. Ochre, from Arima. 

32. Clay, from Arima, used for making water jugs. 

33. Earth (white), from Arima, used for white- washing 
hou<e», &c. 

34- Earth (yellow), from St. Ann's river. 

35. Earth (sulphureous), from near the pitch lake. 

[The island of Trinidad, one of the Columbian archi- 
pelago, is about 50 miles in length from north to south and 
30 miles across. A range of high ground, whose breadth 
is ftbout 10 miles, runs along the northern side of the 
island, near the sea, and rises to the height of 1,800 to 
2,100 feet, wliile on the south are extensive plains, also 
terminated by a range of hills, and at the south-west 
extremity are mud volcanoes. A subnuirine volcano exists 
ft little south of Cape de la Brea. The pitch lake (described 
in another note) occupies the highest land in the island, 
and emits a strong smell, sensible at a distance of 10 miles. 
The whole island abounds with mineral oils of various 
kinds. 



The lignite appears to be chiefly the acciunulation of 
palm-wood. The coal is referred to, but no details of it 
have been forwarded. — D. T. A.] 

Animal Kingdom. 
Tortoiseshell : the hawk*s-bill turtle is caught on all 
the coasts of Trinidad and the Gxdf of Paria ; the shell 
forms an article of export. 

[This species of hurtle, Chelonia imhrieeUa, is readily 
distinguished from all others by the circumstance of the 
plates covering the back, overlapping each other kke the 
tiles of a roof. These plates are much thicker, also, than 
those of any other species, and are more beautifidly 
clouded. They are separated from the bone by heat, and 
are afterwards flattened, smoothed, and even united by 
their edges, by pressure at various degrees of temperature. 
Even the fragments and filings are capable of being 
rendered useful by being subject to heavy pressure in 
moulds, when heated to the temperature of boiling water. 
— T. B.] 

Specimens of whale oil. 

[The whale is caught in the Gulf of Paria. It usually 
makes its appearance about January, when the fishing 
season begins, and lasts till Jime ; from 12 to 18 fish are 
caught annually, each giving from 60 to 80 barrels of oil.] 

Vegetable Kingdom. — {Oils and Fatty Sitbstanees,) 

Cocoa-nut oiL 

[A large quantity of this oil is made in the island, chiefly 
on the east coast, where, in one locality, there is an unin- 
terrupted belt of cocoa-nut trees, 14 miles in extent; they 
usually bear nuts when five years old.] 

Carap oU. 

[This oil is made from the seeds of a common indige- 
nous tree, called Carapa guianensist and is highly 
esteemed as an unguent for the hair, for applying to the 
woimds of animals, for destroying ticks and other insects 
which infest cattle, and for the cxxre of rheumatism.] 

Cocoa fat : this butter-like substance is obtained from 
the seeds of Theohroma cacaoy and is esteemed as an 
emollient. 

Spices. 

Specimens of nutmegs. 

[The nutmegs grown in Trinidad are considered to be 
equal to any from the East, as the tree thrives well in 
this climate. The annual produce per tree varies from 10 
to 15 lbs.] 

Cloves : this tree bears an abimdant crop twice in the 
year ; the produce is of good quality. 

Black pepper : the plant tludves well, and is very prolific. 

Cayenne pepper : the smaller kinds of capsicum (bird 
pepper) are very abimdant, and when dried and groimd, 
make good cayenne pepper. 

Vanilla : there are three different species of vanilla, all 
producing this highly-aromatic pod, and all indigenous to 
the colony. 

Fibres. 

Specimens of cotton. 

[This, although not cultivated for many years, readily 
suits itself to the soil and climate ; the specimen sent is 
grown from that variety called Sea Island cotton, a few 
seeds of which were imported into Trinidad, in January 
last year, from Jamaica. The quality or staple is better 
than that of many other kinds. Several persons are cul- 
tivating cotton at present as a trial crop.] 

Bromelia {Karata) : this plant is indigenous to the 
island, and, hke all the pine-apple tribe, furnishes a 
strong and soft fibre. 

4 B 2 



074 



TRINTDAD. 



rCoLOMTO AITD 



) 



Sk^iviilifl {Carit^ta or Majatfuu) t the bark of tbia tree 
fumislie:* the country people with cordage, and is strong, 

AgaTG {Jlvipara or ZrOit^ve fuj^nj^) : all the gpefiea of 
ftgaTefimmli a white, but somewhftt harsh or brittle fibre* 

AOBICrLTUBAL PRODT7CT8, 

SpecimetJB of *ug»r (MttJt€orad4>), 

[This ifl the staple product of the colony, and great 
exertiona are being made to improve iti qualitT. Mr. H. 
Warner, of thi» ishmd, has aucceeded in makin^j a white 
muscoTado sugar (by a peculiar process with mineral eliar- 
oo»l» mode from the jiitdi of Trinidad), bode<l in open 
pan; ehe iijccimcn sent ia a iample by thia procesB.] 

Specimen of rice. 

[This article ia productiTO in any part of the island, 
whether the land be liigh or low j ita cultiTation is not 
unhealthy in Trinidad, as in drier climates, where the land 
must be rendered swampy, for ita giiece9»f\il cultivntion.] 

Speeimeua ofeaaaavafttarch, 

[Thc5C are the produce of Jafropha manihof. {or bitter 
casAaTa). This plant is exteTisively cultivated. Few platita 
give »o great return for tiic amount of labour Iwstowed 
on it ; it forms the chief hread-stutf of the lower claese*. 
Caisava cake* are made from its grated roots ; the pulp i* 
placed iti a strainer (culebra), andal^erthe poisonoui* juice 
ifl expreaeed, it i^ baked on a Itot pan ; they resemble oat- 
meal cakea in ap|>caranct*. The starch is obtained from 
the smaller pariidea which pass through the st miner in 
a state of aolution ; it ia then allowed to aubi^ide, and the 
water is separated from the starch, which im dried in the 
sun. Thi^i water ia boiled down to a thick syrup : in i}w 
course of tins ojieratioii ita poiaonoua pro|>ertie* disap- 
pear, and it then forma the well- known We«t Indian 
nuoe — CaBaripe«] 

Arrow-root : the prodneo of Marania arundinacea, and 
other Bpeeiee. This plant produL'Cfi abmjda.ntly. 

Toii* les mois, or tidema : the protluce of Ca»na cce^ 

[Thia, as weJl as the former, givea a large retiim of 
ptarch. It ia said that the produce per acre, in good soil, 
ja equal to that of sugar from the sugar-cane, tiji,, from 
one to two tons per acre. Tlie starches firom both plants 
are manufactured in a abnilar munncr : the thiek lleshy 
comis arc washed and passed throvigh a eeriea of roUeri*, 
then stirred rapidly in large vats, in order to precipitate 
the starch, which ia afterwards waahed ftereral timea^ and 
dried in the sun.] 

Brazd nuta : the produce of McHhuhtiia excehti. The 
tree has been uitrodneed from South America, and ia 
qmamental and useful. 

Tonquin bean : the tree, IHpUrijc odoraia^ wa» intro* 
duced from British Guiana. 

Indian corn, or maize. 

OoSee (Modia) : tMa variety of coffee hm been intro- 
duoed some yeare, and preserve^t, in ctdtivation, its pe- 
cndiarly small round grain. 

Theobroma, cocao, or e^xroa : tliis tree ia extemurdy 
cultivated j its produce forma a large article of oxpori. 
The Boil and climate of Trinidad combine to make it very 
productive. Tlie annual export of late yeara haa been 
above 4,000,000 of pound*. 

Cocoa, or chocolate, manufactured. 

Tobacco, in the leaf, from Siparia, 

Tobacco, manufactured^ from the same place. 

Gutm and Restm. 

Q-um anime : from Arima, the produce of Hymotisea 
oourbariL 

Inoense ; the produce of TricMlia trimUntU, 



i 



Medicinal FrQductg. 
8arsaparilla i the produce of SatiiaJCj and abundant. 
Ginger. 

Tanm»ff and Dyeing MaieHaU, 
Turmeric, logwood, and fustic* 

Woodtfitr Ornamental and other Pitrpotet, 

llymcnrea courbaril, or locust : a valuable timber, and 
abundant, which grown from two to eix feet in diameter. 

Yoke: a handsome wood, analogoua i^3 mahogany, 
usually from two to three feet diameter. 

Cedrela odorata: West Indian cedar; a useful and 
oniameiital timber, from tliree to twelve feet in diameter, 

Rhopala moutaua {Agnaiapami) : a wood very durable, 
and taking a fine pohah ; growing from 18 inches to 3 
feet in diameter. 

Tapaiia : uaed for felloes of wheels, and where strength 
and toughness are required. 

Cordia (or Sepe) : a useful light wood, analogous to 
Enghflh ehii in texture, and poaaesaing a bitter principle 
ohiioiioua to inaeete ^ from one to two feet in diameter. 

Aearaa (Balfiia) i a timber much uaodi from two to 
ail feet in diameter. 

Achras (Aeoma or MoJtti^*) : like the timber of the 
whole family of Sapotacho much valued ; from two to 
four feet in diameter, 

Achroa {Zfjpotilfu or ZapodUln), 

Astrocaryimi aculeotum {Chi grtj : this, like moat of 
the [lahn tribe, funiishea good matenol for veneering. 

Acrocomia aclerocarpa {Qm gru) : a wood aimimr to 
the last. 

Carapa guianensia (or Carapa) : a ujMsfrd timber, analo- 
goii* to cedar ; from two to three feet in diameter. 

Bucidi^i bueeras {or Olivia) : a atrong uw^ful wood^ com- 
monly used for making sliinglea ; from two to four feet in 
diameter. 

Purple heart : an nhundant and tuieful timber, from two 
to four feet in diameter. 

Fustic : used for all purposes where atrength ia required, 
and as a dyewood j fr*om one to three feet in diameter. 

LecrtluA {Idat€imon or Agnata^aro) : commonly uaed 
a« ahabs for carts, &c. ; a tough wood of large size, and 
very common. 

Teeoma aerratifoha {^rey po^i^ ; Teconia {hl-aek pout) ; 
Tocoma {£tven poni). 

[These bignoniaceoiia tree* furnish hard and durable 
woods i their timber takes a fine polish, and haa a pecu- 
liar colour ; they furnish the most useful timbcre of the 
colony \ they are very abundant, and of large aiie, from 
three to four feet iii diameter.] 

Brosimum guianem* {LeU^r-wood) x the heart wood is 
the only part u*ed, and is never of any great siie. 

Creftrtmtia eujcte (or cnhbatf/t) : furnishes a timber 
applicable to the same i>ur|»o8cs, as tliat of the ash in 
Endand; it is used for Ijoat-buildiug ; is very tough; 
ancf a common tree in the woods ; about two Jbet in 
diameter. 

GeoSroya inermia (or tAngeline) ; a timber much em- 
plm'ed as navea for wheels and other purpoaes. 

Faltivia. Bob gri (or iron-n^ad). 

Mimosa julijlora ( Yoke savan) ; a hard and useful 
wood. 

Boble : a common and eicellent wood, from two to three 
feet in diameter, 

Copaifera offlcinalia {Copai) : is an ornamental and last- 
ing wood. 

Vitex capitata: thia tree ia reckoned durable timber, 
and is veiy common. 

Bois lixar<l— Guaiaeum olBciiude {Lignum fiiof) : vwy 
hard wood, about one foot in diameter. 

Makufjlctitbes, OniTijnnfTAL SsEDSj kc. 

Sieve, made of a species of Blaranta, for siMng cassara 
meal. 




Dependencies. J 



TRINroAD.— ANTIGUA.— ST. VINCENT.— BAHAMAS. 



975 



Culebra, for expressing the cassaya pulp, and extricating 
" the cassaTa starcL 

Calabashes (carred). 

Fans, for ladies. 

Fish-basket, as used bj the Indians. 

Seeds (ornamental) : seeds used for beads of different 
lands, riz., Adenanthera pavonina, Coix lachrjma, 
EiTthrina corallodendron, Ormosia dasycarpa. 

[Of the plants which furnish seeds adapted for beads, 
the Coix lachryma is a tropical grass, indigenous in the 
East Indies — introduced into the West Indies. Its seeds, 
or, more properly, firuits, are hard and stony, and have a 
beautiful pearly lustre; they are popularly known as Job*s 
Tears. The others are leguminous plants, whose seeds, 
properly so called, are remarkable for hardness and beauty. 
Erythrina coraUodendnm is a member of the kidney-bean 
group ; Adenanthera pavoninay a tree of the mimosa tribe, 
is often called ** red sandal- wood;" Ormotia dcuycarpa 
is the necklace-tree ; its seeds are of a most brilliant red 
hue, with a black eye.— E. F.] 



Model of an Indian hut, in the Tillage of Arima, 
16 miles firom the town of Port of Spain, made by Manuel 
Sorsano. 

Its contents are as follow : — 



1 Areo— Itow. 

S Fleehw— Arrows. 

3 Fooda— Fbhing Net. 

4 Taf«rai — Long calabMhes 

nttd for keeping honer, &c, 

5 Ckmbes — CkMuU made of 



6 TaralU—Cast net. 

7 Txaptebe — Uaed for prening 

Mi!nr<ane« to extract the 

8 Aoaoeleador — Fiahing-rod. 

9 Eaeoaa— Kept over fire-place 

to preeenre proviaions by 

miOKe. 
10 Hoy*— Cooking-pot. 
U Casaela— nuh. 
12 Topiaa — Stonea on fire-place. 
is Hacha-Axe. 

14 Gaavare — Basket carried on 

the back. 

15 nonilla— Indian bead. 

16 Chosa— IHrdtrap. 

17 banco — Bench. 

18 Machete— Cut laae. 

19 PUranos — Plantains. 

20 Piedra de Moler — Grinding- 

•rone for making arepac 
(Indian corn-cake). 

21 Tot u ma de M oler — Calabash 

receiving the com. 

22 Cuchillo— Knife. 

23 Meta — Washerwonuui's 

beetle. 

24 Cknaxto— Basket. 

1) Lena — Wood for fuel. 
3>1 Trojiu— Used as s Ubie. 

27 Nsia de Poao — Fish-pot tot 

deep water. 

28 Naxa de Corriente — Fuh-pol 

for strontr streams. 

29 Sebocan— Used tor extracting 

the poiaonoas juice of the 
manioc for the purpose of 
maki n g caaadas, a J nice which 
u called catara (castiripe), 
and when boiled loses its 
poisonous effect, snd makes 
s very good sauce. 

30 MolenilU>-S«izzle-stick. 

31 Yesquero— Tinder-box. 
22 Klon— Mortar. 

33 Bandola— A sort of guitar. 

34 Batea-Tub. 

35 Chirgoas — Water-jars. 

36 M spire -Baaket. 

37 Manare — Sieve. 
38G^lo-Cock. 



39 El trago^The grog. 

40 Gato— Cat. 

41 Perro— Dog. 

42 Anoto— Anoto used for cook- 

ing. 

43 Abispero — Jack Spaniard's 

nest. 

44 Comejen— Wood lice. 

45 Escova -'Broom. 

46 Garabato— Hook. 

47 Cuero de gato tigre — Tiger- 

cat's skin. 

48 Cama— l)ed. 

49 Troja del viego— Old man's 

bed. 

50 Ektera— Mat. 

51 Chinchorro — Hammock. 

52 Old Indian pascuaL 

53 Ynes — Indian woman. 

54 Canuto— Indian child. 

55 Tiramba — Used as a Jew's 

harp. 
5B Butaque— Easy chair. 

57 Arepas — Corn bread. 

58 Totiimig— Cdabashes. 

5^ <'uerode Benao— Deer-skin. 

60 Pecho de Piapoco — Tocan's 

skin. 

61 Gusreiftiare— Fan. 

62 Pais— Shovel. 

63 Cliicora — Used for digging 

holes. 

64 Pietira de Moyejon — Stone for 

grinding cutlasses, &c. 

65 Cuclisras — Spoons. 

66 Azadon— Hoe. 

67 Rayo— Grater. 

68 Tirtte, MaranU (mpedet of)— 

(outside ot the stem of). 

69 Miimure, Csrludnvica scandens 

(aerial roots of). 

70 Camuare, De!4monchns Ory- 

canthus (srandent stem of). 

71 Cerima — Pothos (species of). 

72 Msraca — Bangee or Cliac-chac 

used for dancing, accom- 
panied by the bandula or 
guitar. 

73 Chaguarama— Used as a mat 

(Azeca oleracea). 

74 Gortadera — (Scleria, species 

oO. 

75 Timiie — Manicaria saccifera 

(leafoO. 

76 Oachipo leaves — (Maranta, 

species of). 

77 Pabilo— Wai-Uper. 



[The Indians of Trinidad were of the section of Caribs 
known as Yaoi. Like other members of the Carib race, 
the pore breed is scarcely, if at all, existing now. The 
greater number of articles enumerated in the preceding 



list, as contents of an Indian hut, are of Spanish or of 
modem West Indian origin ; so are the terms applied to 
them. Of the yegetable substances exhibited, several, as 
well as several utensils, concern the cassava, or cassada, a 
valuable article of food in the West Indies. It is prepared 
from the roots of the Mamhot utilUnma, or JcUropha 
manihot, a shrub of the spurge tribe. The large roots of 
this plant are fiill of poisonous juice, but when rasped^ 
washed, and heated, the remaining substance is the nutri- 
tive cassava, and the starch is tapioca. Of other vegetables 
mentioned, the Carludovica acandent is a plant of the Pan- 
danusy or screw-pine tribe; the Deamoncut is a spiny palm ; 
the Areca oleracea is the fiunous West Indian cabbage- 
palm, of which the terminal bud furnishes a valuable and 
dehcious article of food ; the Manicaria is also a palm ; 
the Scleria is a kind of sedge ; the Pothos a plant of the 
Arwn tribe; and the various kinds of Maranta are arrow- 
root plants. The "Jack Spaniard" is a kind of wasp. — 
E. R] 

ANTIGUA. 

South Abea, Q. 80. 
Gbet, The Countess. 
Fossil wood from Antigua, sent home by Gk>yemor 
Higginson. 

ST. VINCENT. 

South Abea, Q. 80. 

One exhibitor from St. Vincent has sent contributions 
to the Exhibition. The articles forwarded consist of 
vegetable materials employed in basket-making, and 
for coarse textile purposes. — R. E. 

Bullock, Q-., St. Vincent, 

A selection of supple-jacks. 

Arooma, as it grows. Arooma prepared by the Caribs 
for making baskets. 

Mahant as it grows ; the bark being the part used. 

Mahant bark unprepared. 

Maliant bark prepared for twisting into fishing-lines. 

Lapeto in the raw state. 

Lai)eto prepared to be worked. 

Lapeto in fine and coarse lines, for fishing, being very 
strong for the purpose. 

BAHAMAS. 

South Asea, R. 31. 

Six exhibitors only appear to represent these islands at 
the Exhibition. Their contributions relate exclusively 
to the producte of the vegetable and animal kingdoms, 
and of those only a very small number are exhibited. 
The models of fruit in wax form an interesting series, 
and represent with fidelity some of the most highly- 
esteemed vegetable delicacies of western produce. 
Yucca hemp and palmetto stuff are likewise exhibited. 
The beautiful white and coloured vases of shells, 
gathered from the shores of the Bahamas, are very 
attractive objects. Specimens of West India sponge 
and timber are also found among other articles. — R. E. 



BABiHiTT, Mrs. Edwabd, ofNaataUf and 14 
Wohum Square^ London — Producer. 
Specimens of Fruits in Wax : — 

1 Bread-fruit (Artocarpus incisa), 

2 Plantain {Musa tapientium). 

3 Coco plum (Chrysohalanus icaco), 

4 Prickly pears {Cactus opuntia). 

5 Banana (lftc«a|7araelmaca). 



-MOXTSERHAT,— ST, KITT^S.— BRITIBH GUIANA, [CoLOKiBfi Ayn 



6 Cnaliew {Anamrdiam occidenfale). 

7 Sjianisli j)epp«r {CapJticttm annntim)* 

8 Stur-apple— showiug tins mUnior (Chr^i(^h^Hum 

cainii^}. 

9 Pa^pftw {Cttrica papaya). 

10 Spimisli plura (Spondias ckryitoMMtHUi^* 

1 1 OooBeberry { C^fi dklkh^s ) , 

13 Aqui. 

14 SugaJ^&ppk; (Anona sqnatmota), 

15 BnUom {Impaiim^ u^lt mff itjti^^n), 

16 Star^^ppb {Ckr^t&phifUum ti'miiM^)^ 

17 Fig ( JflKiw* carina) . 

18 Sugftr*caoje {San^hamm qfflci»armm)* 

19 Bftnaoit— flhowing the int^sriup {Muam pftradm&ca). 
30 Soiw sop {Am>tm murwata), 

S3 Custard- apple (Anana r^tkul^a)* 

S3 Chepij (Cordia eoiiococea). 

M Guavft— allowing tbe inl«riop (FxiJiiim fifrifiram). 

S5 Sapodilla — showuip tLe interiar (*it?Ar<«f jtapodilh] . 

2G Hog-plum (^p0ii^iai^fnyf^o£dl^fi4^). 

87 Breacl-firuit — ^eliowing tUo interior (^Wocarpw* in- 

2^ Mango {Manffifera imllsu). 

20 Arocatlo penr — cut ta ihow the interior {Fcrsea 

30 BanxLtiA — rid. {Musa farsdhia^a). 

Bl Fig banana {MuMa covdnea). 

32 ^apodilb {AehroM sapodUla). 



TnoiiTB02i% John Thomas, Nmm^ — Fpcuiacer, 
Specimens of Yucca hemp prepared by the eiliibitor i — 
A On(? le^f of tbo Yucca {Serrulata). 
B The biEcls betT^^eea wbieli they are packed cut from 
- the flowei^eliftffc. 

■ [This cort-like mafmoi is of use wbcro iofbaesi and 
elasticity are requirpd in betiding, or Etuflln^, or packing 
difrpircnt sorts of work; in bodica of razor-atrttpB. In Ihick 
OT thin sheets, it i« verr eonvonii^nt for puii)ot?cti where 
point B boTc to be fitted and withdrawn easilj^ such ua caBiEs 
for ffatomological purposes.] 

C Heinp prqmred from the Tu«» lea£ 

D Eope prepared from the hemp, but stained in eotiking. 

£ The eain© of the natural colour, 

Bpecimen9 of palmetto stuff:"^ 

1 L^yea of the palraetto, 

2 I'ibn? preparetf from tho li^TDf * 

3 Ropo compl<?t*?d. 



NicotUs Miiw Carolzsk, JVfljfuu— Fpoduoer. 
Crown and p<!dDst^il of shell work. 



GEJUfT, Miss, ^W*rtw— ProdueBp, 
Tvm& iDanufiiotured of the mimosa bean. 



BjiBSTEd ^ Co., ifcMj^it^ — Producers. 

OftJie of apecimens of different, varietiea of West Indian 
sponge. 

Specimens of woods, incluiling sistLa-woodj korBefleali, 
mohogai:^^ eommonlj called Madeim, horseflesh mahogany, 
oedftTj cfcb'woodf log- wood, stopper- wood, and lignum 

GbeiOj TImj Misses, 2i(U9au — Mannfactnrers^ 
An eper|fne coraposied entirely of shells, forming comu- 
Oopii&« fiUiHl with flowenji in great variety of colour and 
beauty : the whole of the shells were gatbered from the 
chores of the Baliamat^. (Comigfites^ Messrs. Danieu^ 
18 Wl^more Street ^ IjondQn^) 

A large vase, with group of flowera, composed entirely 
of pure white »hellB» 

A figure in a fancy costume, of shell-work. 

(FoFwaxded l^ QoTemor Gbcgoiy U> J* B^ Oamefron, Esq.) 



GRENADA, 

SotTTH AJIEAi R. 30, 

Tapioca and nutmegs form the only nrticlea i^pre- 
etentin^i Grenada at the Eatbibition. Tliese prove by 
no means the infjst import^mt nrticies of fixjfutrt from 
this islnnd; but one of them, nutmegii, Is intorestiug 
m being of recent intro<iuction into eultiv&tion. — R. E, 

Qbobe, HbnB¥j 12 Coleman Sireeij Lond^m — 
Importer. 
Tttpioeft : prepared from the roots of thci Cftsitaira plant, 
imd forming a liij^hly-nutritious article of food* Tlte 
plarit is eitreraely prolitic and easy of eultivotion. 

Nutmegs : introduced into the island by Mr, Kennedy, 
in 1^37. The export to the Unitt*d Kingdom amotmted 
in 1S5CI to l,400lb». 



MONTSERRAT. 

SouTU Abea, Q. 10. 

l*wo artieka only appt^r to rcpretent Monlseiral : 
these are Ijoth artiolea of footK^ — It, K, 



A box of maize or Indian oom* 
A box of MTOw-root. 



ST. KITT^a 

South AitEi, E. 30. 

This iBlancl is represented by one exhibitor, a native 
black laliourer. The eontribnifon furaished ia a liahing- 
utensil, mad© out of the iuner bark of a tre«, — R, E. 



A West Indian fish-pot, made by John Morri^ » black 
labouivr, in the Island of Bt. Clinstopher, from this Innisr 
bitrk of n tree. 

It ia usually bsitod and weighted, and then sxmk to the 
depth of eight or t^ti fathoms, A buoy marks tho ipot, 
and it remains about twelve boure in the water. 



BRITISH GUIANA 

SouTU Anii-s R- 32, 
About one hundred and siitj exhibitora appear to 
reprofk^nt this niost intereatini? t^olony. ITie contribu- 
tion b forwarded belong almost exclu^jyely to the first 
section of the cb\sftiticiition of the Exl libit jun, Thero 
are a few s|x^cTmens of native manufacturea in wotnl 
and woven work, ad the shank ^shaak, U6M?d to make a 
noise in the dunoei ; the fiin^nlur basketis used by 
Indian ivomen to carry their children in, fly-brushes, 
liaskets made of the cabKigo-palm^ fans of the eta 
palm, &c. But thc&e exhibit simply that neat but 
rude and aim pie industry which, with little or no 
eiftlwration of the mw material^ pro<luces in^plements 
and ora amenta fmm the most convenient substances 
yielded by nature. The articles in the tirst four Classes 
are extremely valuable and interesting, not only to th(i 
naturalist, but also in a coinmercial p>int of view. The 
arrow -root, starches, tapioca, coffee, cotton, sugar, and 
timlx^r, abundantly )nt*ldcd by plants in this proHfio 
colony, are well reprcHented. Several of thi* contribu- 
tions are exp<frinientiil in their tendency, and have 
been made with a view to learn the probability of the 
development of a commercial demaml for these arUclea, 
The timT>er of this colony will prolsably ultimately be* 
come valuablo in commerce. Several medicinal pro- 
ducts &te likewise ©ihibit«d* — ^R. E. 



Dependencies.] 



BRITISH GUIANA. 



977 



CAtALOOtTK of Abticles, Uw Froduce of BnirisH 
QuujiA^ a. colony on the coaflt of South Ameujca^ 
oompfiAiiig tli« oountjeB of DBMJ£BAfi^, Bebbicte, 
find EBASQtTEBO, exMblled bj Aj^exaitdisb F, 
BivowipT, 42 Leicester Squiirei London^ Agent to 
ihfi BojaI Agriculttii^ AQd CcHniDerci^ Socu^tj of 
the Obton J. 

1 WMt« sand, fifom Mount Plearant, WwrntQla Creek, 
Eirer Demermrs, 

{TMs finud hm been exported to the TJnitod Btatos of 
America, for tlie purpoee of glus-makiiig.] 

2 Red saud, from Wftrrfltilla Cnselt, Biter Dememiik 

rro^rv, T* B, 

3 White Mud, from Monte Video, Biror Berbioej 
about 300 Toileft nboT© it« estimry. 

4 Ofcak, a decom|?a»ed rock, from KiTer Bcrbicti, 
iiippo«ed to he Toluabk in the tmmiifiioiure of potter)'. 

[TEe rock* jielding %lm miit^riaia of ordinary pott^fry 
we of the granitic and poipbyritic aerii?«. Tlie agijncy of 
&bw but oontmoed deoompontUm, hj atmoaphmc gaf^ei 
liid water, c^unes the iepftF&tion of their h^ord matt^riiilst 
md thetf resolution into a Bofl friibb maaa, now often 
oUed poToelum daj. This difx.'Oiiipoaition affects the 
fdsp«' composing tli^e roek^. The rock in question k in 
iH probability » felBpatlik rock.— B. E.] 
Bbm, J. F, 
ft Oay« mnd BsssidA, from tm Artesian boiing, and 
olltaiiied at raiiouA depths, 

[Theae days and sanda were obtained at TariouB deptlia 
bom an Art«?iiin bormg. This borings 4 inc^bes in dm- 
meter and 118 feet in depth, on Pkntalion Woodlanckj 
ene tnfle tram the mouth of the Mahuica RJTer, was exe- 
*ated b<?tTT€«n 6th and 22nd October, 18^, by Mr, John 
AUt> Tiie tmt«r h delivered 18 inchea above the surface 
d the Boil, and is greatly increased in quantity by the 
flmsd of spring tide*, like all otlier Artesiiin horinp of the 
nilony. The following memorandum was taken during 
the procijs^ii of boring :— 1 to 5 feet, ^tirfkce soil j 6 feet, 
liTer of caddy j 7 t^n 9 feet, blue eluy ; 9 lo 39 feet, soft 
Biud mix^ with caddy, in wliich the augt-r tvent down by 
iti own weight -, 39 to 53 fi*et, rcjtleD wood and ticgJiSf^, or 
(brayed regetabk matter ; 53 to && feet, blidsh-grei elay^ 
«iff; 55 to 57 feet, clay, a little red and grey j 57 to 
70 feet, reddish clay j 70 to 82 feet 10 inche*, yellowij^h- 
grey eUf^ with a little sand and oclire^ Tery stifl'j 82 ft ft 
10 inches to S6 feet 8 inches, blnish-grei' clay, streaked j 
8S feet B inches to 92 feet, hliifeh*grcy t'lny, atrenkedj moro 
jflkjw. The bed of sand fmm which tin? wat-er is obtained 
vai Fieaebcd at a depth of 118 feet, and the same stratum 
wia fi^imd at a depth of 125 feet. The numlx^ps on the 
31 ^peeimens sent indicate the depth in feet at which tliey 
wait obtained. 

There are a oonsiderable number of Artesian wells in 
tlus colony % the water is not, however, pure. It eontaiii^ 
a kruie qiMntity of Ojdde of iron, held in solution by car- 
bonie a^^id. T^ds se|>arates as a yellow deposit on cipo- 
lure of tbo water to the air*— E. E.] 

Netscheb, a. D. Tatt deu Goi^. 

6 Rice, from Plantation Klein Pouderoyen, EiTer 
DpmicAT^ 

Dtr&Gi?i, T. B. 

7 Bioe^ from Mont<? Video, fiiver Berbiec, 

Tla© ooloiiy of British Guiana is eiuinently favourable 
for the cultiratiDn of rice. It is worthy of resmark, tliat 
tbive cropa can be obtained auauaU^ m this colony froin 



om iowififf^ t!ie new crop mtooning or springing up from 
the old POOtfl after each reaping.] 

HiTiCUEB, A. D, TjJf BFH Ooir, 

8 Maize, or Indian com, from Plantation Klem 
Pouderoyen, Bivcr Demerani, 

[The matze {^a i»<*y«^, Lin.) grown in British Guiana, 
commands a higlier prii« in the market than that imported 
from the United Statos of America, from which the ohiof 
supply is derived.] 

9 Meal from maiie, or Indian com, from Plantation 
Klein Pouderoyen, River Dcrnetura. 

10 Pknfaina, unripe, atieed and dried without the aid 
of Ore, from Pknt«tion Klein Pouderoyen, River 
I>emeram. 

[The plantain [Musa paradmii^ has frequently been 
suggcstod as an article of eiport. In it* ripe state, no 
uneieeptionable and sufiidcntly cbeap method of pre- 
serving it has yet been suggest^. It is sometimes so 
abundant and cheap that it might, if cut and dried in its 
green Btate, be exported with advantage. It is in tliis 
imripc Btiitc that it is so largely used by the peasantty of 
this eolony as an article of food. It l^ss always bocn 
believed to be highly nutritive | but this is scarooly justifi^^d 
by analyeies. 

Wion dried and reduced to the state of mi^, it t^nnot, 
like wlieat flour, he inanufnctured into mact^troni or vcr^ 
mieelli, or at leOAt the niaccaroni made from it falla to 
powder when put into hot water. The fresh plantain, 
however, when boiled whole, forms a dense firm mas*, 
of grater consbiteney and toughness than the potato. 
TJus mass, beaten in a mortar, constitutes the fao-foo of 
the negroes. The plantain meal c&nuot be got into thia 
state imle&Si by mixing it up -with water to form a stiff 
doiugh, and then boiling it in shapes or bound in cloths.] 

11 Plantain meal, or konkin tay, from Plantation 
Klein Pouderoyen, Biver Demerara* 

[Pkntain meal is i>repared by stripping off the husk of 
the plantain, slicing the carei and drj'ing it in the sun. 
When thoroughly dry, it is powdered and sifted. It is 
knoini among the Creoles of the eolony under the name 
of CoHquin-ia^. It has a fragrant odour, acquired in 
dning, somewhat resembling fiijsh Imy or tea. It ia 
largely employed as the food of infants*, children, and 
invaUdfl. As food for ehildrcn and convalescents, it would 
probably he mucb esteemed in Euroi>c, and it deserves a 
trial on account of its fragrance, and its being eit^cdingly 
easy of digestion. In rpq*ect of nutritivcneas, it deserves 
a pi^fercnee over all the pure starehea on account of the 
proteine compounds it contains. 

The flavour of the meal depends a good deal on the 
rapidity with wliich the slices are dried ; hence the opera- 
tion is only fitted for thy weather. Above all, the i^lau- 
tain must not be aUowe<l to approach too closely to yellow* 
ncss or riperu^as, othenvisQ it beeotnea impossible to dry 
it. The colour of the meal is injured when steel knives 
are used in husking or slicing^ but silver or nickel blades 
do not injure the colour. Were the pkntain meal to eomo 
into ujse in England, ond bear a price in any way ap- 
proaching to that of Bermuda arrow^root, it would become 
au extensive and veiy profitable export. Full-sixed and 
well-filled bmicUcs give 60 per cent, of core to 40 of husk 
and top-fltem, hut in general the core does not much 
exceed 50 per cent., and the fresh core will yield 40 pCT 
cent, of dry meal, so that from 20 to 25 per cent, of meal 
is obtained from the plantain, or 5 lbs, from an average 
bunc;;h of 25 Iba. ; and an acre of plantain walk of average 



BitrnsH - 



£CoLom«i AlffO 



10 lb»* m xije&i] 



lift modi friani PkuUtion TigiliuiPe^ East 
T. 

kulik^ iTtirmpljfia»tU>n of 
or dissipating the piLT* 
jlr priHltiiiiii<. 11 m juitw 
rr mimdiDG plziiit (Mani* 

i nnd wmIu^ und biii«>d, 
ml pTOffli ft Btttfittfjua 



hi '**^^ 

" -iji fipora tliii bifclor 

h] iiiio bntuL 

uli^Utivi4 iitfWdr 
thr va«nr of iMttl hi dt 
^^* ip«rtSet of vcnik 

iiiti#), in t^xir* 
ho foot, ^i 
* wholly iiiiHr- 

hfiOT? il is found, 11h' pr 
iiiu l)f49M tljyp d(T«ml>i'd t • • 
f iijitiiiUjV' cotidut'tfd II* Mli>wn ■— T 
Kwn u]»i niftwl, mid fJtpofcrd to tho 
il b fiilly muw thiMi hidf dry* ,%i, 
Jid ilinrlitnttx uf thtf* cnkf to to liudc ib 
till II girJIo or tioifiktai mmd ilii^ *pii^t within .. 
^* '^llod iirtitl V with Hm wwncwhit tnoiBl ibobI, ho pi^-^iowf. 
~ if1iit|{ or ruUmf bftHnf bopn craplojod. A» Aoon a* 
'soArfio mml (teSiereii (bi? Hug l« lUlod itrid the ctilto in 
ttd KEid h«ftt^1 (111 the uppoAitf' iidi^, 'Hw hc^l nhould 
CM itifficlout lo bt^jwti I hit mV«, Thii i-w^r*** tt.p*i liniillj 
— * b^ CliHWkun'- to I J IP iiiiih From tht^ drjr ewMiVi 
i C9km tni*y bi* fm'piin'*i hy n^iniiJiliiii^ it wiih a* inndi 
I Wftltr w to runUtcT) tt to thv propi^r point, mid tht«ii 
totvseSi^Ung MP »lMr>Tf*, H<!l ^«Af*'r tAtinot 1st' t-nvpht^i^l, 
nriduif CMI klMidmjl, or luiv oonnidi rnhtr ilixt^v of nn^^ 
pruiiiail bo iiwhI, 01)111 rwiKH^ thi^ wnti^r diN*^ nol innpcmiii' 
re«dU| fiiiioiiiih^ tht* *tiin'h ^H« too imioh tdli'i^'d hj llw 
b«»li oilU tho enlto kv^omi* toiiijU."— ilr. Ski^/jt M^p^H 

Bi PtTmoK, J. 
15, 15n» 1B^ BnniLiiii, i1i4ri<l witliout th(} ild tiJ" £Uv^ 
fk»tu Phyilutinii Vi|:iliiiiLH\ Etui 8(ui C\>iuit, Dcnierm, 

[Tlw bnimtiii ii j-irUlod bjr j¥W*rt taf^mivm^ Lin. ThMe 
»l>rriitH^i]ii aw? (unnt in oilier to fti«vrt«m the hki-Jihood of 
their stiitHliiig the vova^je, Mid b*^imifiK «ti »rii(jU* of 
iijHirt. Tiwy wrw jipt']mrcd in the month of Sept«?nib(T, 
1SS<L*. TIm? foliowinu isift*nn»tiori rt^w^hnu thu haiiiitia 
Cm i*\tTiifi*Hl fpiiin n jwpukr iourw % — ** Kijiht or muv 
mcwthi liWr Ihi' «U{.k(*r hu btmi ptntdi«ii| Ih^ luitiuiii 
bijgliito ficinii lU duMrtFft, iind tbi? fintit may be eoHwl<!d 
la Ube lonth or <«Uttenih tiiotith^. Wlu^ Ikr Ktock b ctit> 
lb* ^ilof which hiut ri|}<iu?d, m spr^nil U put forth, wlticb 
ilfAiii bcnrw fniit in thrtx^ month* Tlw whob Iftbmir of 
rultivation ^Viich if miuiird (or ft |^RAlAtid(ll of bttumiliv 
ie to init thi* ulnlkn Imti^ii with Uu^ rifw fruity ftiid to giv*^ 
thi? plnnl!! fi slight i>oiirisJ:tiinM\t one* or twicNp^ « in'«r bj 
digirinu ftnmd tlu* n>**tii. A npot t»f lUtl*> »ioiv than « 
thoUMud ftqvmri^ (tvX irilt font&m irotxi 3Cl to 40 bmnma 
jilmitA. A i4o«ti^ €i{ bwyamiii, pfocluard om ft tingle plant, 
c»IVcii f^otitAitiPi fmm 100 U» 180 fruit*, and wiptgbi fipou 
70 to IM) lb» But rM^loninf Ihir vir^^hl tif ft cliitt«r cmlj 
ftl 40 lb«.( !Ut*h ft pknti^lion woidd pr^iiu<9 more 1h>n 
4|000lb«. i>t niUriti^^ viilwtftucp. Ilitutboldt ealeuUtcv 
tiil «j a^ Ibft, of vfhml ftnd W tb«. <4'iM>t«l4^ ni{Utrr tli<^ 



flpaw M tlmt in wMi'h 4,000 lbs. of t^nnana* are 

grown, the produjco of banaim^ \» cxmacqtiiaitJy to thut of 

wh^ w 133 to 1, nod tliAt of potatqett ft# 44 to h The 

ImatoiA ripetlod in the? hutdiouAee of Europe hm na in&ipid 

tflflte, but yt4. thi." iiiaivea of both Ludicft, to ujjuiy miliioiw 

of whom it *uppUi*M iheir principal (ood, ml il with 

sTiilitj^ and in\> ftntUfipd with llw; noiUT*hment it afforda. 

Thi* finiit in n rtTj* fluga^ry suhitanw, and in warm 

OOHlitriM the imtive* fiml puch food not cmlj *nJiiljing for 

Ibtf momant, hut ix^niumt'ntly nutritiTc, Yei weight for 

weigh t» the' tiutritivc infttter cannot at all hv compapsd 

with thdt of whpftl, oj* ev<?n jxitato«?i*. At thi? mune tiuiiB 

ft much gntaUT nnmlnn* of indiHdmda may be supported 

upon tjii? prtxhiiv of » pk't.ie of fpound plfinlecl with hana- 

nn*, compared with a pi we of the samt- »i«e in Europe 

^iwing wheat. Humboldt e»tiniates lilts pn?poHi«ii a* 

25 to 1 ; mid be illustrates th«f fs^ct \tj remarkmg thai ft 

European oewlj arfived in the torrid lone is htrvick wUb 

muL^i as the eKir^me iinftllnesE of th« «poi« 

'ft t ion round a eabin whieb eontftins ft nuiue- 

^[1 of Indijma.'' It maj be proper }wm to notice 

^ aianei is eidtiifated in tbi» colony to a Tcry 

-d ea utj and u*ed solely m a fiiiit in it* np^ ^i^U. 

plant 1, on I bo other hand, i» eitcnsirely euitirated, 

. in its Lirijiie stnte ia the etftple and faTourite food of 

WHS Creolt; and Afric.Tn popubtion of the colony ,] 

Kbt^chbr, a. D. Tan deb Qoif, 

16 Coffoej from Plantation KJcin Poudrinoy^n, Bir^r 

Demerara. 

KjGxiTEDr, Jobs* 
ICk^ lOA Pearl colTfc, from Pkntation Nooit Oedacbt, 
Cftual Ko, I, River Dprnerara, 

Bke, J. F. 
17, Itl Coffee in t^ buAk« and in the berry, Irum 
Oeorgt^own, Dsmamt^ 

[Tlie quiiiility of ooWee, the produce of Britbb Gniana^ 
rt^iurnL-d for taialion in 1642, amounted to 1*214,010 }\m, 
Dutch. The cult i vat ion is now almost 13 tinct. Nod. 1 6a 
and IIjA art? fmm one of the few e^tal^.^ wliieh bmTe been 
nnd BiiLl eontiuue to be eidti¥at4>d sok^^Lj aa eoJlbe plant4^- 
tioiu.] 

NETSCDBE, a. D. Va5 littt Go-x. 

10 Cocoa aeed*, from Plnait^ktion Klein P^^uderojen, 
Biter JXcmattrft. 

lOvmh or isoooft {I%e&br&ma caeao, Jjin.) wm nesrer 
(MtetniTfdy ctdtitftted in this colony, although the ioil and 
olmiftte ftf« weU a^iaptod for its product ion»] 
Drtiol^ T. B. 

30 Sftouftri nut a, from RiT>er Berbiee, 

[Sttouftri nuta (PeJhw IhIottw/ojki, Anbl*, or Cayoear 
t&m^ii^imm^ Dec,) The kernel of tliis nut ii one of the 
mofit deUcioud fmitt of the nut kind known. It abounds in 
lb« fonwU on the banks of the river* of the ©olony,] 
OrrmuMJE, J. Esq. 

80« Siod^Teaael of tli» " monkey pot," from tlie Ri^er 



[TbU »eed-T««el b said to contain a laj^ number of 
ohMginous kernels*] 

Suiim, Datid, 

SI Dipneuma^ driei.1 eapides. 

S^ 13a CapiU7um% pmerrtKlin dilute ac^ic fteid. 

^ C^pakvmi^ actrre pniidple extraet4f^ by olive oil 

34 Ofcpsic\tma» ftctlve prindple extracted by Tinegar, 
ftti from plantation Kitty, East Sea Coast, Dememra. 

[Thrw oapAieuma, known in the colony under the name 
of Buciramauni peppers^ af« tbe mo«t pungent and aro 



Dependencies.] 



BRITISH GUIANA. 



979 



niAtic of the whole tribe. The seedB, which are inert, have 
been remoTed, and the dried capsules are sent in the ex- 
pectation of their being found to be a more piquant con- 
diment than the article sold under the name of Cayenne 
pepper.] 

Sttjtchbuby, J. S. 

25 Capaicoms, preserved in dilute acetic acid, from 
Georgetown, Demerars. 

DiTGaiN, T. B. 

26 Fruit of a shrub, called birambi, fix)m River Berbice, 
preserved in pickle. 

[ThiB firuit makes a delicious preserve.] 

NsTSGHSB, A. D. Van deb Gon. 

27 Limes (CUrtu lima), from Plantation Klein Pou- 
depoyen, Biver Demerara, preserved in pickle. 

Stutchbxtbt, J. S. 

28 Kasareep, the inspissated juice of the bitter cassava, 
from Georgetown, Demerara. 

[Kasareep, frx>m the Jatropha manihot, is much used as 
the basis of sauces, and is used extensively in the colony 
in the preparation of pepper-pot, &c. Dr. Shier, in the 
Report referred to, notices it as follows : — " To those who 
have never visited the tropics, it may be proper to notice 
that eoMareep is the concentrated juice of the roots of 
bitter cassava, and the basis of the West Indian dish 
pepper-pot. One of its most remarkable properties is its 
high antiseptic power, preserving any meat that may be 
boiled in it for a much longer period than can be done by 
any other cidinary process. Casareep was originally a 
Buck or Indian preparation, and has often been described 
with more or less accuracy." It is well known that some 
of the Dutch planters of this colony have, by means of the 
addition of a small quantity of casareep, from time to 
time, to varieties of animal food, been enabled to keep up, 
in daily use, the same pepper-pot for many years.] 

Bee, J. F. 

29 Kasareep, the inspissated juice of the bitter cassava, 
from Georgetown. 

De Putbon, J. 

29<i Saline ash ; in appearance similar to a black cinder. 

[Tliis ash is obtained by burning certain plants growing 
on the POcks near the Rapids, about 1,000 miles up the 
River Demerara. The salt is extracted when required by 
mixing water with the ash, and after the insoluble parts 
have subsided, pouring off the solution and using it as 
s^alt. A similar sahne ash is also said to be obtained by 
burning the Ita palm.] 

Stutchbuey, J. S. 

30 Turmeric root, from Georgetown, preserved in dilute 
acetic acid. 

[The Turmeric {Curcuma longa^ Lin.) grown in this 
colony is superior to any imported.] 

Gabnett, H. T. 

31 Arrow-root, from Plantation Horstelling, River 
Demerara. 

[The produce of Maranta arundinacea, Lin.] 

32 Starch, from the bitter cassava, from Plantation 
Herstelling, River Demerara. 

[^\^len the roots of the cassava plant are rasped and 
washed in water, a large quantity of starch granules are 
extracted from the vegetable tissue, and float in the water. 
Tlie water charged with these granules is allowed to stand, 
when the granules settle down, and the superabundant 
fluid is poured off. The starch is then collected and 
dried.— B. E.] 



Shieb, David. 

33 Starch, from the sweet cassava, fix)m Plantation 
Kitty, Fast Sea Coast, Demerara. 

[The sweet and bitter cassava merit attention as starch- 
producing plants. The sweet cassava yields 26*92, and 
the bitter 24*84 of starch per cent. They are occasionally 
grown for this piupose in the colony, and yield a large 
percentage of stux;h ; but there exists an opinion, whether 
well or ill founded, that it is liable to rot linen, and the 
preference is given here to the starch of arrow-root. Cas- 
sava grows readily in any soil, and, with good drainage, 
two crops of the sweet variety are yielded per year. It 
grows luxuriantly in the light soils of the interior, as well 
as in the stiff clay soils of the coasts. It is considered an 
excellent preparatory crop in new and stiff land, on 
account of its tendency to loosen the soiL] 

34 Starch, from the plantain, from Plantation Kitty, 
East Sea Coast, Demerara. 

35 Starch, firom Buckyam, from Plantation Kitty, East 
Sea Coast, Demerara. 

Andebson, Geobge, & Co. 

36 Yacuum-pan sugar, from Plantation Ogle, East Sea 
Coast, Demerara. 

[Tliis sugar was manufactured as follows : — The cane 
juice was clarified by Ume, and the coagulum separated by 
subsidence, by means of clay. The evaporation was con- 
ducted in the ordinary way, and finished in the vacuum 
pan. This sugar was washed by means of Innis*s process.] 

Jones, John. 
37, 38 Yacuum-pan sugar, frx>m Plantation Hope, East 
Sea Coast, Demerara. 

[The sugar No. 37 was washed by means of Innis*s 
process ; that of No. 38 was cleaned by means of Hard- 
man and Finzel's patent centrifugal machine.] 

Stutchbitby, J. S. 

39 Yacuum-pan sugar, from Plantation Emnore, East 
Sea Coast, Demerara. 

[In the manufacture of this sugar, the syrup was passed 
through animal charcoal before being put into the vacuum 
pan.] 

Laino, James. 

40 Sugar, from Plantation Friends, River Berbice, 
manufactured in Gtidsdcn and Evans's pan. 

[This sugar on being removed from the pan was put 
into cones, and, after the molasses were drained off, was 
syruped.] 

SniEB, David. 

41, 42, 43, 44 Muscovado and molasses, from the 
Colonial Laboratory, Georgetown, Demerara. 

[This muscovado (No. 41) was made according to the 
plan recommended by Dr. Shier. Lime in slight excess 
was used in clarification. The coagulum was got rid of 
by subsidence. Tlio excess of lime was neutralised, and 
the juice was concentrated on the open fire. No washing 
or syruping had recourse to. The specimen of molasses 
(No. 42) is from the muscovado sugar marked No. 41. 
The muscovado (No. 43) was made by a modification oi 
Melsen's process. No washing or syruping waa used. 
The specimen of molasses (No. 44) is from the muscovado 
sugar marked No. 43.] 

Stittchbitey, J. S. 
45 Muscovado, from Plantation Fellowship, Mahaicong, 
East Sea Coast, Demerara. 

[Manufactured by the ordinary process in use on estates 
in this colony. 



BRITISH GFIAKA. 



fCouoKmi Asm 



I 



of the above-mentioned fiti^^urs an? the produce of 

te OtAbcdtci or Tahiti cane {Saccharftm o^e'marum, liii)'}ii. 
itvs Tftiicty unirei-aEiLlj ctiltiTatod in tliis colony.] 

46 C<)|MiilMV bAkaiQ o4 (torn. Eivcr Fom<?ro<m, Eas^uisba* 
[Thei^ are *4STerftl trees in tkis eolonj auppoaed to yidd 

tlio bfllflUim, not yet botanicidlj detcpniiin?d.] 

OtTTRIBtiE, J* 

47 Gikouiohoue, fi^m Eiver Demeriim, ncitr the Falls. 
[TatCTi from tJie Intlia-rtibber ti*ee by tRppittg, and 

form^ into b&U5 by the lodiiinsf who olimb the tT©t\ and* 
as the gam ex(ule«, rub it «>n ihetr bodiei ti]l it ftsflujue* 
a ait^ietit oonsUtency to be formed into balk.] 

46 Milk firoTH tho eov-twe, firora Hirer Dememrfl. 

[The L*^w-tT*^ in qucation is the Hyft*hya (T^hernmm^i^- 
i&na niitis). It grows &eely in the dsnm forestA of tbb 
©olony* It b related that i«i exploring party having fcll«>d 
one of ihttiH tn-es nt^ar a brooks the quantity of milk djs- 
ehapg*(sd by it was so grwit, ae in the coui-ao of oa hoiir to 
nsmlctr the; water quite milky. 

It h oufif of tli£^ iiiterciitinj^ di^coraries of botaniata that 
■erez«l iraea yield a milk-like floid, ^hich ia in almost aU 
wmpeeti oompartible to that nfiorded by t!io eow, Hum- 
boldt describes, in atriking language, liia flaking hie tbirat 
by a draiigbt of uiilk from the Palo de Vaea, a cow -tree 
of South America* Trees belonging to ditTeremt gonerii 
harff been callefi hy tlda trnme. The oow-tfwj of Sooth 
ATiuertca U an arto-carpad ; other oow-treei belong to tlu? 
order of figs. Tlie milk has been analyBed, and found to 
yield a cjousiderable proportion of gelatine, a priticiple 
found in the atiiinid flidd.— -R. E.] 

BuGQiN, T. B, 
49 Gum rmji^ finom tho laimiri or loeugt ti^ from 
RiTer Borbiee, 

[TliiB glim ia obtained by digging ill the vieimty of the 
lootd of the tre«? {IftfHiemxtT ctturhn^ritf Lin.)i from wbieli 
It exudes in a yertical dir^ion in coJumna or pieen?» 
upwards of a foot hi length. It may also be obtained by 
tapping the tree^ wh^B(n in the eounso of a few days a large 
solid uiaaa iij formed. It is Bttid to he the gimi atiime of 
commerce} and is occasionally n»ed in this colony for the 
aamo purpomei a» g^m co]>aL It mny be obtained in great 
iibondanoe in varioui parts of the colony*] 

BO Karnian, from Eiver Esac<|Ucbo* 

[XJ?ed by the Indiaos for waiing tlieir net a and other 
purposea, and ia said to he the iiifpiBsated juice of a trt^ 
lulled the man or m&nnee tn?c.] 

OUTBrDGB, J. 

61 Hyawai giim or ineetiaej fejio BiTer Demenira. 

[This glim IB ¥ery frtigmnt^ fijid Kippowd to be suitable 
for pa^tdlea and similar purpoaen* It b said to bo ob- 
tained &o)n the Irica h^ptaph^lla^ AuhL] 

STrTCHBFITY, J, 3. 

52 laurel oil, from Ri?^er Ponieroouj Esaeq\iebo. 

[This o\X supposed to be obtained from Oreotfajthn^ 
opi/ferSj KecB, Is cit-cnsiively used by the natiTca in alfec- 
tiona of the joints* U i» also an admirable solvent of 
India rubber*] 

63 Crab oil, fi-om EiTier Esaoquebo* 

[Tbi» oil is obtained from the seeds of the tree yielding 
erabwood, {X^locai'^a^ canipa, Spr*| or Cctrapa jtiianen- 
tigj AubL) It ia ujed in the colony for bumingj and la 
higMy eataemed as a hatr oil.} 



DraoDT, T. B. 
54 Dari tree, teoda of the^, ftom EiTcr Berbjct*. 
[Qindle» Kte made from tbe»D ioeda, said to be equal to 
wtUL The tree abomidi throughout tbo colony.] 

&5 Sandbot tTW,. seeda of^ ftom Fkntatiou Eitty, Ea^t 
Eem Ooaat^ Demeram. 

[Ttiie wed» of Mnt& etvpUaiut^ Ltn* They ar« a drastic 
pui^gatit^«^ and oontaiii a^Terj limpid oil,] 

Koch, H, A, 

55a Fruit of the lana tree. 

[Tliis fruit is the produee of Qtmtpa Americmna, Lin., 
a tree Tcry abundant in the oolonj, and pi^ueea the 
Lana dye.] 

556 Lana dye, from the Eiver Berbico* 

[Tliia dje h the juice of the fruit of the &^mp^ Ameri' 
txtHfi^ Lin. Tlie colour i>rodueed is a bcwutifnl tilui,*h 
bbiek, Tlie Itidians use it in staining tbcir faoev uid 
iKfTSons, and the effect lasts for seTerol dap.] 

OrtniuoE, J, 
&5e Indian paint, from tha Eirer Bcmerara. 
[This pigment ii prepajnad by mMng armoito^ the nad 
vk&twi puip suiTounding the seedi of the Bi^a oreiiatu$^ 
Lin., with crab oil, the produoe of the seed of Cutapa 
gtii&m^nMs^ AubL It ia used, by th» IndiMia for ^ec^ 
r&tiiig their pemoni, and otlier purposes.] 

DtjaGisr^ T* B. 

5tt Mora trwe* hark of, from River Berbice. 

[The Mora tfj^eeUa^ a fahaew>us treei waa discoT«*ped by 
8k R. Schombitrgk. It i» one of the most maguiilcc^it 
tpiwa In the fbreata of British GKiiana. The wood k stated 
to be equal to oak of the Ijeat kind.— R. E.] 

57 Hog plum tre«ei hark o^ from River Berbice. 

[Bark of Spoadias IftUa^ Lin. ; iiaetl ^u^ a tunning lub- 
sLanoe^ and vory ahundunt,] 

SexEB, Datid* 
&8 Couridii tTvej hark of, from Flantatiou Kitty, East 
Sea Coaiit, Dememra. 

[Bark of Ametnma nitidm^ Lin. ; used as a tamihig 
iubatAuee] and estremely abundant on the lea con^.] 

STtrrCHBUBY, J* S. 

59 Ily-yam or Hai-an, £lih poison, Irom EiTf>r Deme* 
nira* 

[Stem of L&nehacarpmt nioot^ Doc. ; n^ed by the 
natirea to iutoiieato fiih for the purpose of capttmng 
tbemj 

[This fhih poison has htion deaeribed aa being employed 
in the following manner i^Thc natives beat the root with 
heary flticks till it l& reduced te sbreda lilce coaree hemp. 
Thej then inftiae it, and throw the iniiunoii orer the area 
of the river or pool selected. In about twenty niinut^M 
ereiy fish Tuvithin its inihienoe rifles to tlte sinrliu.'e, and is 
either tabm hy the hand or shot with arrows. A tolld 
cubic foot wiU, it is statetl^ poison an acre of water, and 
the ^h arc said to be atLll wholesome for human oommmp* 
tion.— R. E.] 

KocK, H. A. 

59*1 Fruit of jimaara, from Eiver Berbice. 

[This is stafcwi by the oontributor. Dr. Eoch, to be the 
finiit of A vine, fomid in the interior of the colony, and 
which he claims the mmt of having discovered to be the 
chief ingiwdient of the cekbrated Wourali poison.] 



Depexdexcies. ] 



BRITISH GUIANA. 



981 



Stutchbubt, J. S. 

60 Angostura bark, firom Birer Poraeroon, Essequebo. 
[Supposed to be obtained from Galipea cu*pariay St. 

HiL or O, officinalis, Hanc. Used as a febrifuge.] . 

61 Rhizophon raoemosa, bark of^ from East Sea Ck>ast, 
Demerara. 

[Bark of Skizophora raeemosa, Meyer ; ascertained to 
be a Tcry yaluable remedy in cases of chylous urine.] 
OUTSIDOB, J. 

62 Trysale bark, from Riyer Demerara. 
[Used as an emetic by the Indians.] 

Stutchbfbt, J. S. 

63 Qreenheart tree, bark of, from Riyer Demerara. 
[BbA of Neotamdra rodiai, Benth. Yields the alkaloid 

known as bibirine, a febrifuge.] 

DrooiN, T. B. 

64 Ch-eenheart tree, seeds o^ from Riyer Berbice. 
[Used as a tonic and febrifuge. Occasionally, in times 

<rf scarcity, thes^ seeds are grated and mixed with decayed 
waDaba (the wood of Eperuafalcata, Aubl.), and used by 
the Indians as food.] 

[The greenheart tree of Demerara will probably become 
of considerable commercial interest and yalue. In Class 2 
of the United Kingdom will be found notices of the alka- 
loid bebeerine, obtained from its bark, which promises to 
become a substitute for quinine. Its botanical name is 
Nectamdra rodicn, and it belongs to the natural order 
LauraceiB. — ^R. E.] 

Stutchbubt, J. S. 

65 Guinea pepper, or grains of Paradise, from Riyer 
Demerara. 

[Seeds of Amotnum melegueia, Roxb. These seeds are 
much superior to those imported from Africa.] 

66 Alpinea nutans, seeds of, from Riyer Demerara. 
[These seeds (Alpinia nutans^ Rose.) resemble, and in 

some respects possess, the properties of cardamoms.] 

Shier, David. 

67 Physic nuts, seeds of^ from Georgetown, Demerara. 

Manget, Mrs. 

68 Physic nuts, seeds of, from Georgetown, Demerara. 
[These physic nuts are the produce of different trees, 

but are possessed of similar emetic and purgative proper- 
ties, and are frequently used as a domestic medicine by 
the black population of the colony.] 

Arbindell, Mrs. 

69 Quassia amara, from Plantation Zeelaudia, Wake- 
naam. River Essequebo. 

[This is the produce of Quassia amara, Lin. It is 
distinct from the quassia of the shops, and is extensively 
and successfully used in the colony as a tonic and febri- 
fuge. It is very abimdant.] 

Stutchbitby, J. S. 

70 Boeiari, bush rope, from River Demerara. 

[This bush rope is plentiful in the interior of the colony, 
ind is a favourite remedy of the Indians in pectoral com- 
plaints. It is exceedingly aromatic, and forms an excel- 
lent ingredient in stomachic bitters.] 

Bljub, Daniel. 

71 Cotton, cleaned, from Plantation Batavier, Mahaica 
River. 

72 Cotton, undeaned, from Plantation Batavier, 
Mahaica River. 

[These specimens were obtained from wild or self-sown 



plants, the remains of the cotton cultivation on Plantation 
Batavier, which was abandoned about twenty-fiye yeara 
ago.] 

Netscher, a. D. Van deb Gon. 

73 Cotton, uncleaned, from Plantation Klein Pouder- 
oyen, River Demerara. 

Bee, J. F. 

74 Cotton, hard seed, cleaned, Plantation Woodlands, 
River Mahaica, Demerara. 

Hughes, P. 
74a, 74* Mexican white seed. Large and small green 
seed ; large and small kidney ; loose black seed ; all from 
Plantation Anna Regina, Essequebo. 

Bee, J. F. 

75 Cotton, loose seed, cleaned, Plantation "Woodlands, 
River Mahaica, Demerara. 

76 Cotton, loose seed, uncleaned. Plantation "Wood- 
lands, River Mahaica, Demerara. 

[The above specimens of cotton are the produce of 
Oossi/pium arbareum, Lin., and other arborescent species. 
Sir Robert Schomburgk, in his description of British 
Guiana, makes the following observations on the subject 
of the cultivation of cotton, p. 103 : — " The indigenous 
cottons are very numerous, and the Indian has generally 
a few shrubs of that useful plant around his hut. How- 
ever, I have seen the industrious Macusi cultivating it 
more extensively. The hanmiocks which the Indians 
manufacture of it are valued for their strength and dura- 
bility, and are considered superior to the European article. 
Like the staples before enumerated, cotton has been only 
cultivated by the colonists at the coast regions ; but its 
cultivation has in a great measure been abandoned, because 
our cottons, raised by free labour and in a British colony, 
were undersold by those produced by slavery in the United 
States. If, with regard to the abundance and cheapness 
of labour, British Guiana were put on the same footing as 
slave states in America, an inexliaustible supply of cotton 
of every description might be produced. There is no 
doubt that all kinds of cotton, from the best long staple 
down to the finest short staple, might be cultivated in the 
colony, as the kind which does not thrive on one soil or 
climate might be produced in another. An extent of sea- 
coast of 280 miles from the river Corentyne to the mouth 
of the Orinoko, would produce cotton vying with the best 
in the world. I doubt the opinion that the finest cotton 
will not grow at a greater distance than twenty miles from 
the sea. I have sent samples of the wild cotton from the 
interior to the colony which were admired by competent 
judges for their fine long staple and silky appearance. No 
care whatever had been bestowed upon the cultivation of 
these plants which grew at a distance of 300 or 400 miles 
from the coast. Although the growth of the plant was 
not luxuriant, it was covered abundantly with cotton of 
the most excellent quality ; indeed it would be highly 
advisable to the cotton growers at the coast to exchange 
the seeds."] 

Ross, E. C. 

76a Silk cotton, loose and in pod. 

7Gb Silk cotton, bale of, from Georgetown, Demerara. 

[Obtained from the seed vessels of the silk cotton tree 
{Bombax Ceiba, Lin.) . It has been exported to the United 
States, and used in the manufacture of hats.] 

Datison, "W. 

77 Phmtain fibre, from Plantation Vigilance, East Sea 
Coast, Demerara. 




^wsmmwBf A- D. Vajt pee Go jr. 

7S Fkntaln fibtiE*, from Pkatation Kkm^ Ppudijmjcji, 
Hirer DccmerarA. 

[ThiB fibre iH protlu^^d from tbe »t«m» of pUnUin and 
bAmOB %t&» {Muta paradiinac^ and fdjc^A/uifl)^ and might 
tie pbtaii]«)d in vi^' large quantilies h<nsi the pLmiain cul- 
tivntion of the colony. It U calculated that upwards of 
liOCl lbs* winghl of fibre might lit? prtxhioed annuidlj from 
mch ik'rt of pliintttiii% after i^ea|nng the frtiit eroptt. At 
preaeiit tb© sterna of the phMslain trrea, when cut dow^ri* 
«Tv iiUow^ to mt on the ground. If » remujiemt ivp priw 
could be fcaiiml hr thU fibre, o new bnnch af wwlustn' 
woidri be opc^ned up to tbe colonists. 

Niit^,— In addition to the aboTe-mi^ntioned spcf^imena^ 
tt Imrm 1 ii( Ihci fibrOj fonlributed bj W. DaTisoOf \m/& bcsoi 
sent fof ci^K^imeiital purpoMf. It noaj be prop*?r to 
nirulioii that in 184i6, A gentleman viAitcd tUis eoloiij, and 
FitliibitiHl several sp«ciinfn» of cloth of » b«!tiutifal silky 
teitnrei and apccimens of pflper of mipcrior qualitj, maiui" 
fnHured from the fibre of plantaina grown ia th& Jardin 
di*% PhiutesJ 

De BmtiON, J» 

79 SUk grasd, fibre of, from Pkulntbu Vigilance, Eiist 
B«a Coiwt^ Demt!rar». 

[Tbia fibri! ui obUined from 4!l^«« flJii%M»^» Ltn.] 

60 Silk gn»iT ^brw of, from RIvlt Bcrbtc», 

[This fibtv is obtftincd teom a ^poeusA of Mn^melm. It 

ifl rery dt vxmg, tind la used by th^e IudiaDj» to niak@ bow- 

itriftg^#j nt'tSj cordage, &e.] 

81 Fibi»iri, fibre of^ from Ei?cr Bcrbice. 

[lliii fibre ia derived froui the It« paltn {Mf$HriliA 
Jifd^omf Lin.) It m oaed by the Indiana for mftking Imm^ 
mockn, cordngpj &e,] 

82 Mohoe, fibre of, frtim Dem^rom, 

[Obtaiiied from a trtje of the mallow tribe {TkeMpeitm 
p^mlma^ (hrrea^ or HiUKms thim^ Swuptz ?) It is tctt 
strong, and ii«ed for making cofdai^^ coft&e bagA, &c.] 

83 Table top* including 84 difierent specimens of woods, 
the growth of the colony, vi». :^ 

1 Saud Mora, 



2 Lana. 

3 ItikiriboiirabaUi 

(jonng). 

4 Kretti, or bastard 

eilvcrbalH. 

5 Kurara, 

6 Xakamlli. 

7 Brown sUverbaHi, 

8 Yellow silvtirballi, 

9 Yourabolli. 

10 Baouafi 

11 Orahwood. 

12 Yerara. 

13 Puqileheart. 

14 Simarubfl. 
16 GomarPDW^ 

16 Cedar wMte. 

17 Ijoouat. 

18 CbutabaUI. ^ 

19 CaraburrL 

20 HuwaAiL 

21 Armiofti, 
23 SuradnnnL 
23 Assi^jxva. 
M Akartiki. 
25 Hfrnakiiiii. 
2C DumlahalU, 
27 TuribdU. 



28 Waiki. 

29 Siridani, 

ao Hoobboballl 

31 Banma. 

32 Hyawabftlli. 

33 TaUbo. 

34 Ma0aranuiii« 

35 Cabacalli. 

36 Pritti. 

37 CanubaMi 
SS Mom. 

819 Ijett^»rwood* 

40 Kucahara, 

41 "Wamara. 

42 Xamakasa» 

43 Hiaballi. 

44 Determa. 
4fi Wadaduri, 

46 Boaemood. 

47 Saka. 

48 Kerk. 

49 Kamacuiiiiick. 

50 Cedar, red. 
&1 Wild omnge. 
52 GuaTa, 

63 Logwood, 

54 Tjibiccuabic- 

55 t^jfev, 

66 Murwaana. 



m rarUbalH. 
58 W««liiba, 

60 CnrbaciOiL 

61 Bartaballi. 

62 Aeourib root, 

63 W&ra eouri, 
S4 DucallL 

Sb Arawtca. 

60 Bnngeo or obonj. 

07 Haekia, 

(i8 Kitr»hAni. 

69 ('nlatuuih. 

70 Kura<.ntrara. 

71 Towrancroo. 



72 GreHJnhcart. 

73 Ht* hva. 

74 Cabba^'fi trr«. 

75 WaBaba, 

76 Ym?! yarn. 

77 Warewiia. 

78 Hoobobsdli 

79 CanneUa, or wild epiw 

wood. 
SO llikinbouraballt, old. 

81 Bully trci\ 

82 giibcftki^l 
S3 Brown ailrerhalli, 

U 



[It win be ioen from tMfi table that Bntt»h daittoui |iro^ 
duce«i many wood» highly ornam^ital and niiftal Sir 
cabinet-making and iipholat«ry.] 

OuTMUMnf J, 

S4, Bia MoTAy tmasT&m and Tcrtical a^ctionJi, from 
EiTtr Dcmtsrara, 

[The tr&e (Mora e^tctUa) protlueing thi^ wood fre* 
quently reuuhes a height of upwarda of 100 (met. It 
growa abundantly on barrea mmdt^ei^ It b tough, dose 
and eroaa graine«d, utid is peetuljarty Adapted for ^hip' 
timbers and plank a^ for which pur]K>^* it ia eitcnaively 
ubM. TJie IriM^k of thja tK^^ whcsi of the height of fr*>ia 
40 to 50 foet, will square from 18 to 20 indies, but wtiea 
grown to that m^ it is gcnjcrally faulty, Tlie epecimena 
aent ar« from a tKv suppoaed to be from 30 to 40 j&lfa 
old,] 

B6 Qr«»nbQarij tnuat^tw aeclbn. 
SruTOHBPur, J, S, 

$Sii Ofceuhoart, vertiwd st'ction, from Birer BemenLra. 

[Tlie gptwnboart tree (Necifindra r&ditri) h vmrj abund- 
ant, and ita timbcnB, aquartng from 18 to 24 indite, 
can be procurfd witbcut u knot frcim 60 to 70 feet long. 
It ia a linc-graincd luird wood, well adapted for the* 
pbmkiiig of Teswla, houac frnmes, wlmnrc*i, bndgi>a, and 
othjs?r pur|xjBCi5, where grt*at wlreiigth and dunshiliCy ara 
required, Mr. Manifold, engineer of the Uimxerara Rail- 
way, »taU» that thia ia the bej*t limber for redialing tensile 
and ooraj^reaaiFc atrains, and is therefore well adapted for 
keliona for abipa and bcama of all kinds,] 

0PTBII>QB, J. 

B5&, &5c? SpeeimeiiB of black greenheart i transrerse and 
vertical aediona, 

[The timber of thia tree ia uaed for ship- building, 
phinks, kc.^ and id considered more durable than the 
fiommon grcenheart. Tlie specimens aent are from a tpee 
aupp« letil to be about 50 years old,] 

BlTCHJLfiAJT, A, 

86, S6a Purplehmrt, tranaverae and T«ttical eectioQii, 
from RtTer E»sequebo, 

[The purpleheart {€t>p<jifh'(t puififlom or hract^aia 1} 
yidd* a timber possessing gr^t atrength, durability, and 
daatieitj, and i« described by Lindley aa " inTaluable for 
reaiating the shock of artiUcry diachargea, on whieh act-onnt 
it ia employed for mortar beda/* It m used for windmill 
flhalt», rollers^ and maeliinerj'.] 

[Like the greenheart, the purpleheart tree of Bijmerara 
belonga to the naluial order Fa^ac&if, It is fbund 
abundantly in the forest* of Guiaaa. The timber U ex- 
tremely raluable for certain purjH:sBe*, a a for the carriage 
of artillenr, from ita extraordinary toughness and cajjaeity 
to resist violent concusaions. The tree ib the Copaifira 
puUfiora and bradeata. In addition to it« timber it is 



4 



Depekdencies.] 



BRITISH GUIANA. 



983 



raluable for the quantity of balsam which gushes finom 
its bark on being wounded. — B. E.] 

OUTBIDOE, J. 

87, 87a Kakaralli, transyerse and yertical sections, from 
Birer Demerara. 

[This wood is yery plentiful, and it has been proyed 
that it is more durable than greenheart in salt water, as it 
possesses the quaUty of resisting the depredations of the 
Bca-worm and barnacle. It may be had from 6 to 14 
inches square. The specimens sent are from a tree sup- 
posed to be about twenty years old.] 

88, 88a Wamara, or brown ebony, transyerse and 
yertical sections, from Riyer Demerara. 

[This wood LB hard and cross-grained, consequently not 
apt to split ; it would, therefore, answer yarious purposes 
in nayal architecture. It may be had from 6 to 12 inches 
square, and from 40 to 60 feet long. The Indians make 
war dubs of it. The specimens sent are from a tree sup- 
posed to be about twenty years old.] 

89, 89a Wooroballi, transyerse and yertical sections, 
from Biyer Demerara. 

[This wood is yery close and fine grained, is easUy 
worked, takes a high polish, and is much used in the colony 
for furniture. It may be had from 15 to 20 inches square, 
40 to 70 feet long. The specimens sent are from a tree 
supposed to be about twenty years old.] 

Buchanan, A. 

90, 90a Wallaba, transyerse and yertical sections, from 
Riyer Essequebo. 

[This wood is produced from Eperua faXcata^ Aubl., a 
tree yery abundant throughout the colony. It b hard, 
splits freely, and is yery durable from being impregnated 
with a resinous oiL It is used for house frames, palings, 
shingles, stayes, &c. It has been ascertained that a roof 
well shingled with this wood will last upwards of forty 
years. It may be had from 15 to 20 inches square, from 
30 to 40 feet long.] 

Dfggin, T. B. 

906 Wallaba, tecuba, or hart, Riyer Berbice. 

[This wood is the heart of the upper portion of the 
trunks of Wallaba trees which have been felled in the 
forests, and from which the sap wood has decayed. These 
are much used as paUng posts and for other outdoor pur- 
poses, being found to be so durable as to be almost im- 
perishable. They are about to be used as sleepers on the 
Demerara Railway, for which purpose it is supposed they 
will prove to be peculiarly well adapted. The defect of 
Wallaba and of it« tacouba is its inability to bear great 
lateral strain. It therefore should not be used for beams 
longer than 12 feet.] 

[Sir R. Schombiu^k states in reference to this tree, — the 
Wallaba tree of Guiana, — that its wood is deep red, fre- 
quently variegated with whitish streaks, hard, heavy, 
shining, and impregnated with an oily resin which makes 
it very durable. Its botanical name is Eperua falcata. 
-B. E.] 

OUTBIDGB, J. 

91, 91a Bully tree, transverse and yertical sections, 
from River Demerara. 

[The tree yielding this wood is supposed to be a species 
of Iftmtwopx. It is found throughout the colony, but 
most abundantly in the county of Berbice. It is of great 
size, and squares from 20 to 30 inches, and may be obtained 
from 20 to 30 feet long. The weather has little effect upon 
it, and it it employed for house frames, posts, floors, &c. 



The upper portion of the trunk and branches are manu- 
factured into shingles, wheel-spokes, palings, &c.] 

92, 92a Silverballi, yellow, transverse and vertical 
sections, from River Demerara. 

[This wood is supposed to be derived from a species of 
Nectandra, It is light and floats, and contains a bitter 
principle, which protects it from the attacks of worms. 
Hence it is much used for the outside planking of colony 
craft. It is also used for booms and masts. It grows to 
a great size, but then is often hollow. It will, however, 
square sound from 10 to 14 inches, from 40 to 50 feet 
long.] 

Fauset, T. 

93 Silverballi, portion of the planking of a drogher. 
[This specimen formed part of the outside planking of a 

drogher employed in the conveyance of produce in this 
colony, and is known to have been exposed to the action 
of salt water during a period of 20 years.] 

94 Silverballi, portion of the planking of a punt. 
[This specimen formed part of the bottom of a punt 

known to have been used in the Demerara River for a 
period of 30 years and upwards.] 

Buchanan, A. 

95, 95a Camara, or tonquin bean, transverse and vertical 
sections, from River Essequebo. 

[This wood is obtained from Dipteryx odorata, the 
tree which produces the well-known Tonquin bean. It 
is hard, tough, and durable in an eminent degree ; and it 
is said that a portion of its timber, one inch square, and of 
a given length, bears 100 lbs. more weight than any other 
timber in Guiana of the same dimensions. It is therefore 
peculiarly adapted for any purpose where resistance to 
great pressure is the object, and for shafts, mill-wheels, or 
cogs. It will square from 18 to 20 inch», firom 40 to 50 
feet long. This tree is, however, not very plentiful in this 
colony.] 

96, 96a Saouari, transverse and yertical sections, from 
River Essequebo. 

[This wood is obtained from Caryocar iomentosum^ 
Dec. or Pekea tuberculosa^ Aubl., the tree which yields 
the deUcious nut known as the Saouari, or Sewarri nut. 
It greatly resembles in its properties the mora, being ex- 
cellent for ship-building, mill-timbers, and plank, and may 
be had from 16 to 20 inches square, from 20 to 40 feet 
long.] 

OUTBIDGE, J. 

97, 97a, 976 Yaruri, or paddlewood, transverse and ver- 
tical sections, from River Demerara. 

[This wood is obtained from A»pido»perma exceUum, 
Benth. The whole tree, from 5 to 6 feet in diameter, and, 
to the first branches, about 50 feet in height, has the 
appearance of being fluted, or as if it consisted of a fas- 
ciculus of numerous slender trees. The fluted projections 
of the trunk are used by the Indians for the construction 
of their paddles. The wood is Ughfr, elastic, and very 
strong, and preferred to any other for cotton gin-rollers.] 

98, 98a Hackia, Ugnum vitae, transverse and yertical 
sections, from River Demerara. 

[This wood, known in the colony as Lignum vit<B^ is 
said to be obtained from Ouaicum officinale ^ Lin. ; but 
this seems doubtful, as the tree producing the wood attains 
a height of from 50 to 60 feet, and squares 16 to 18 inches, 
whilst the Guaicum officinale is described as a compara- 
tively small tree about 4 or 5 inches in diameter. It is 
used for mill-cogs and shafts. The specimens sent are 
from a tree supposed to be about 40 years old.] 



«B# 



rniRSH GUIAITA. 



{OouiBtniKD 



m^ 09^ 1931% tnmsTOTM} and Tertl«ftl ■eetioni, horn 
"Mivet Berbioa 

[Thk wood ll oll«iji«d ^fom B«mpa AmerieamOf Im^ 
§m flMifc ^ wkidi jieldfl the Indlui pifnunit tiUTwn u 
Iffift 47** ^^^ ^'^ ^ '*''^ li^gbi ftnd t be trmtk will fze- 
H—iily ■qotttt from M to IB kxhm. The wood ia eki«e 
gr^kmdi^ md k not Iklife to vpHt.] 

100, 100a linoiM ^^ tswmnw and Tcrtlcal 
soctjooe^ &om Blrer BttfaioB. 

[Thk w«)9d k ohltyiifld ffom the Mammae Awieriemma, 
Tin-j whkh pnodocetf Ibi MammBg tf^^ or wOd npiicot 
of Bonth AixMrbft.} 

[Ilia Munmee Apple tree k ah aHj of the cekbraM 
Mm^fitltmB. tern. Ft k raltu^d for Ihe niedkiiiil ppopcfrtieii 
«f Ik MBdi> tOw Oowvn «« dM&d andfraduoe u Idnd 
^ dnhnHil gMllwtT i Ibl Vl^ mlMa ftlBMol^d, forms a 
sort qf wisa It k iometimM eiUad iSmnMA aprbot tree. 

101. 101a Hrawa, tiiwwi«»e aad fcvtiail ^etiooA, 
irom BiTCT Berbice. 

[Thk wood k obtiuxied fiOM lli# iHi»» kepiaph^U^^ 
AtibL, OP inc«!iis<> tree, ykldilig ftv pim Hjawa.] 

102, 102i2 Corkwoodi |;aa»t«ne a&d TtsrticAl seotiofOfij 

from EiTejr Berbiec, 

102^ Oav^wood tree, aiwliiiest ikxu iicer the nxi^ 
fi^m Ttoolle Iftknd, Emr Smqiieho. 

p^ik wood k ftiffpoeed to be obtaiiuM! from i^a*^^ 
JJnMi^ lin., 07 J*. mtHtntm^ Tiirs^f and k nstsd chkfly ba 
KoAtiS for fijhing n«t8.] 

103, lOSd Coiirtdss tranffi-eme and fifftUtt Medona, 
from Pkntatiou WoodkndA^ BiTcr Maliaiei. 

[Thk wood k obtami>d from Avicenma ttitidiJy Jac,, a 
trm of iiiTprkmg rapidity of growth. These eptMrimuiiB 
are from a tree Rve ji^ars old* Th«f wood k perkhnblc 
when eipo*ed to ilie atmosphere, but k yery duiabk titidei- 
ground, and k thererore oaed as foundatioiiB for buddinga,] 

104, IQ^ia Itikiribotmiballi, tratusrerso and Tertiool 9ec- 
tions, 

[ThjA wood k BuppOied to he obtained firam Ma^^aetium 
Sckombmrgkiit Bftitk Thfi tnmk grows to the len^h of 
from 30 to 40 fi?ct^ and squarpa from 12 to 10 inches. It 
k tiaed cbieilj for cabinet work.] 

105, 105o Wliitcj t^dar^ or warraooori, tranHFeraiJ and 
TETtical eectioDi, frodo Hirer DomeiTmi* 

BiE, J. F, 

10&6, 10S<? White cedftr^ oi' warracooTi, tran*vcr»e and 
Terticfll sectional from Kirer Mahaica, East Sea Coo^t, 
Demorara. 

[Tlik wood k obtain^ irom lekoa aUwdmOt AubL It 
k light, ca«ilj worked, and Tcry aromatie. Sir Robert 
Schomb^Jirgk ^tat^ that one of hk c^iioe») '12 feet long and 
51 fot!t widet wa« made from a tree of thk speciea. It k 
uaed for oar» and puddles, aud for boartk for iueide work 
of hou9C«. During the American waj- it wiia uaed for 
»taT«s of Bugar hogsheads.] 

OftkibOB, J. 

106^ 106* Surmhmnij tfaniiT«ree and Terticsl aediona, 
from BiTcr Dememm, 

[It k much iiefd for timberfi, raii-ij and eoTcnng boiu^ 
fur eolony oraftt and for natea and fcUoea of wheck. It 



a ako made into csaoea bj Ilia Indknii. It will square 
irom 14 to 18 mdies, from 90 to 40 feel lon^*] 

107, 107it Determa, tranjBTene aad TerUeal sectioni, 
from Birer Demeiv^ 

[Jlik wood k naed for maata, booms, and plankmf for 
oaloaf oaft ( and i« iamxtm do not inf^t it| it k weU 
adaf<«d hw eheata, WBtdrobesi &e* It will aqnafc frsm 
14 to 16 inchea^ from 40 to iOlMl ift Imgtk] 

lOS, 108ei Orabwood, tnmmwM ind Tertkal Bedtions, 
from Kiteir ^emctttfi. 

[Thk wood k obtained from Xj^l&c&rput earapa^ 

Spnenf ,4 or Carapa ^mmnmmg^ AuM., the aeeda of whit^ 
jkld the crab otL It k a light wood, and talcefl a high 
polkh^ and k naed Cor mast« and wpATS>j flooring, parti- 
tiona, and doom of houMe. There are two TaTietie4, the 
red and wMtc Tbeae fpodmeni are thj? white. It aquam 
from 14 to 16 inches, from 40 to 60 f<3c»t h>ng.] 

109, 109^ Eoq\iareitfthaUi« traiiBTerse uad ¥frttcal soe* 
tum«, from ^Ter Demaaam, 

[Thk wood fotmB ooritet nficra and beams for cot* 
tages. It grows §nm U lo 30 fret Ismg^ and tram 4 to 
6 inchei in dkxneto-.] 

110, 110a Ooulah^/, tTvasTerae sad vertical aeetnmi, 
from Bif^ Demeram. 

[The tit» whhh p^Aa thk timber gi«WB upon land- 
hilk i the wood k ferj bard and dmahle if not eixposed to 
the woather i it k pl^itiful, and piinetpdljr luod for houw 
frmmjesi and will square 12 inchea, from SO to 40 feet long.] 

111^ Ilia Bkokhowij transvene and vintioa] aecttioiii, 
from Eiver T 



[Ttik k a good wood for house &am« aocj J _ 

ftirmtuTe, It will squaro from 6 to 7 inchaa, ft«Mi 10 to 

112, USi» OihMsalli, tramreme and Tertloal sactiotts, 
from BItct BemoBni. 

[Thk wood k iraprefnAted with a hitt^ptrmoiple, which 
defendi^ it agninat worms ; it lasts well onder water, and k 
much used for planking eolonj craft. It inu*t, bowererj 
be fe*tened with a>ppeT naik. It will square from 12 to 
16 inches, op eren more, from 40 to 45 fret long.] 

113, 113«» Tarri ysrri| or lancewood, transTerse and 
T^ertical sections, from Rirer Demerarft. 

plik tree is stated by Scbombuj^k to be J>i^uetia 
qmittrmmtt LindL, a sknder tree fomid in tolerable 
abundance in the interior of the colony. The wood pom* 
ACBBOi mueh toughness and chi^«ticity, and is usod for gig 
9hafta,a(nd, when tmall, for whip handles and fishing roda. 
The Indkns make their arrow points of it. It gnrws frwu 
4 to 6 inches in diameter at the lower end, and from 15 to 
20 ft^t long.] 

[Sir B, SchombuiTgk *tat4?e that the luupd, tough, and 
elastic wood, so liighly eateomed for the shafts of carnages 
and other coach-buOihog' purpospa, i» produc-ed by this 
troej yarn yarri. It belongs to the natnml order Am^m- 
acea^ and its botanicAl title k I>v^iiteHa quiiaremgiM, 
— R. E] 

114 Torch wood, from Biver Denierara. 

[Supposed to be obtained from a species of Am^rU or 
Idea. Wlien bcatcnj so sa to sepamte the SbPe, tha 
branches are used as t^^rches by the Indians.] 

115, 116a Tooroo, trtmsvcrae and Tertical eeotaonSj from 
River Dt'raerara. 

[Thk tree is a spccifi« of pahn» It grows to the height 
of from £0 to 70 fr«t. Ita woody outodfi k u^ad bj tho 



Depkxdexciks.] 



BRITISH GUIANA. 



985 



csbinei-makers for inlaid work, walking-stickB, billiard 
cuea, Ac] 

Beb, J. F. 

116 Coffee tree, TKwtion of the trunk, from Canal No. 
3, Rirer Demerara. 

116a Coffee tree, yertical section, from Canal No. 2, 
Birer Demerara. 

117, 117a Tigerwood, transrerse and yertioal sectionB, 
from Rirer Demerara. 

[This is the heart of the wood Itikiribouraballi, and is 
a valuable wood for cabinet-making.] 

STTTCHBrET, J. S. 

1176, 117c Transverse and vertical sections of letter 
wood, from the Biver Corentyne. 

[This ia obtained from Bronmum AubletU^ Poepy or 
Fvratinera juianensisy AubL, and is one of the oostUest 
woods which Guiana possesses. It is of a beautiful brown 
oobur with black spots, which have been compared to 
hieroglyphics ; the spotted part being only peculiar to the 
heart, which is seldom more than 12 to 15 inches in cir- 
comference. It is adapted for cabinet work of small size 
and for veneering only. From its extreme hardness it is 
difficult to work, and therefore little used.] 

OUTEIDGE, J. 

IVIdt 1170 Transverse and vertical sections of the saka 
or bastard purple heart-wood, from Bivcr Demerara. 
[Used for furniture.] 

11*^ 117^ Transverse and vertical sections of the ita- 
balU tree, from Biver Demerara. 

[The tree which produces this wood is Vochysia guia- 
nentiMy AubL, and is used by the Indians for making 
corials.] 

117A, 117t Transverse and vertical sections of the wada- 
duri or monkey-pot tree, from Biver Demerara. 

[The tree which produces this timber is the Lechythis 
grondiflora, ^ubl., and is plentiful. The wood is used for 
furniture, staves, &c. The specimens sent are from a tree 
supposed to be about 25 years old.] 

117;, 117* Transverse and vertical sections of the hya- 
wabaUi tree, from Biver Demerara. 

[This tree is scarce. This wood, known as zebra wood, 
is used for fiimiture. The specimens sent are from a tree 
supposed to be about 30 years old.] 

117^ 117w Transverse and vertical sections of the sil- 
badani tree, from the Biver Demerara. 

[This wood is used for furniture. The specimens sent 
are from a tree supposed to be about 20 years old.] 

117it, 117o Transverse and vertical sections of the simiri, 
or locust tree, from Biver Demerara. 

[The tree producing this wood is JTymenonea cou^rharil, 
Lin-, and is plentiful in various parts of the colony. It 
of^en attains a height of from 60 to 80 feet, with a trunk 
from 7 to 8 feet in diameter. The wood is hard and com- 
pact, and its durability recommends it for mill rollers and 
similar purposes. The Indians make " woodskins" out of 
the bark. The specimens sent are from a tree supposed to 
be above 100 years old.] 

117/>, 117^ Transverse and vertical sections of the tow- 
raneroo or bastard bully tree, from Biver Demerara. 

[It is very plentiful, and is used for framing timber, 
spokes, ke. It will square 25 inches, from 40 to 50 feet 
long. The specimens sent are from a tree supposed to be 
about 50 years old.] 

117r, 117* Transverse and vertical sections of the Mari- 
fiballi tree, from Biver Demerara, 

[This tree ia plentiful, and is used chiefly for spars. It 



will square from 13 to 14 inches, from 30 to 40 feet in 
length. The specimens sent are from a tree supposed to 
be about 20 years old. 

With regard to the timber trees of this colony, Sir 
Bobert Schomburgk, in his description of British Guiana, 
published in 1840, p. 116, observes : — " I cannot conclude 
my observations on the capabilities of British Guiana, 
without referring once more to the importance of its 
timber trade, and the source of wealth which might be 
derived if there were a sufficient number of woodcutters. 
At present, if we make a few exceptions, it is only carried 
on by individuals who enter upon it with but little capital 
and slender means ; and yet there are instances where the 
industrious and sober have reaped riches. The fitness of 
the timbers for naval architecture is unparalleled, and in 
some instances is said to surpass the teak. The green- 
heart, the mora, and souari or sewarri, of all other woods, 
are most unquestionably the best adapted for ship-build- 
ing. Within the last ten or twelve years a considerable 
quantity of brown grcenheart has been sent to Liverpool 
and Greenock j and I have been told that builders and 
others interested in shipping are now of opinion, after 
about ten years* trial of the wood, that in strength and 
durability it is superior to any oak, and it actually com- 
mands a higher price. Had these woods been introduced 
and extensively employed in the Boyal Dockyards fifteen 
or twenty years ago, it is the opinion of competent judges 
that we should not now hear much of dry-rot and Kyan's 
patent ; and not to mention that rapid decay of vessels 
built of English and African oak, and the consequent 
frequent repairs, with what saving to Gt)vemment would 
it not have been connected ! If, therefore, the attention 
of the Navy Board could be drawn to the important fact 
that British Guiana can furnish the finest and most durable 
wood in the world, in sufficient quantities to supply all 
the ship-building cstablislimcnts in Great Britain, a 
double benefit would arise from it, namely, the saving to 
Government and the increased demand for the natiuTil 
productions of the colony. Tlie first experiment might 
be made to establish a dockyard for tlie repair of such of 
Her Majesty's cruisers on the West India station as draw 
not more than 18 or 19 feet water. Tlio outlay of such 
an ostabUshment would be trilling if the importance of 
ultimate success be considered. The woods wliich are 
qualified for ornamental purposes vie in elegance, if 
polished, with any in tlie world. Tlie want of labourers 
is the great cause that these treasures Ue comparatively 
hidden, and have scarcely excited attention. The demand 
in the colony has been so great for native woods, that 
those who are at present employed in that trade are not 
able to meet it." It may be proper to add to this state- 
ment from Sir Bobert Schomburgk' s work, the fact, that 
in consequence of British Guiana being so extensively in- 
tersected by navigable rivers, ships of considerable burthen 
may load in the immediate vicinity of most of the wood- 
cutting establishments.] 

Miscellaneous Abttoles. 
Stutchbubt, J. S. 

118 Tonquin bean, from Biver Demerara. 

118a Tonquin bean, in capsules, from Biver Demerara. 

[This bean is the fruit of Dipterix odorata^ Willd., and 
is principally used to impart fragrance to snuff.] 

DuooiN, T. B. 

119 Job's tears (bud-like seeds), from Biver Berbicc. 
[This very peculiar seed of a grass is the fruit of Coiw 



F 




|, -f*w^ 




1 uuLf len 


ars, b applied to the utonj 


Gj* j iit€Arfimt9, Thej an? 


It Dcisount 11 


tpowd mediplnal qualiliEtf. 




^UQW. 


Soap bemes, i 


intatiou KuminTeld, HiTcr 


ilic ^cmei 


jit of S^pindvtM MffpOiKfruft 


• ujied for 


», Ti*5cklM)t^, bmp<rlet»^ Aa:.] 


-^ A* 


Mrii, 


ncarri Mtedt 


^ooi^^towii, DciBejum. 


.«m the ffeodr 


IWi»a txtralliHUmlrQf^t Liiu, 


Lsed for omau 


iqKww.] 


E„ 


A^ID. 


luelc, or cm ^d^ 


Of ««0dA ol lli« "^ Tous ktt 



item 



tMis ifl tbp Stfccl of an imdc^ 
• ttsly fiiip|K)3cd to Ije C* .-, 

-V Ppom thi? rhkorat? \ 

fj^ k^ mois HtiiJt-h of eonuucruc?. 
H| .ji and <?otild lie tniltiratcHl to l.. 
■ - MoBiftOJr & Kxox* 

123 Isjiiglflaft^ fpDin Qilbagre, coast of Demenirik 
[This i» the sound of the SHums — ? » ii^h verj 
ahundartt in the estuiirie!! of tlic tvvgts of this eolonj.] 
r Beie. J. R 

^Si Honey, from FlMitation WoodUinds, Ewer Ma- 






Thi* b the produce of a wmaXi wild bije, wM^eh ia sting* 

ind easiij domeatim-ted. Tlie lioney ia depo^it^ 

lU aepamte pouches, and may be removed once- every 

by nmkiug a pm^cture in the bottom of the jMuch, 

which it readily flow*» which opetmig, the insect 

ftftcnrardfl apecchly doeea up.] 

Babely, Mrs* 

X2S Onmmented hftTitrmoclt, made of ailli grua, «\ippoded 
to be the fibre of a epecien of Bromelia^ or of A^ave mvi- 
para^ Lin,, ornamented with the feathers of the tonc^n, 
umeaw, &c. 

SrcTTcirfltriiT, J. S. 

1S6 Itft, or eta patm bAmmock, made of th& fibre ot 
MauHiiii ^Tvosa^ Lio. 

127 Ho^H^ to the mm&^ made from ailk grata. 

Bab ELY, Mbb. 

128 Hat, made of the bark of the ita pahn. 

129 Indian be«d dreaaes, orcwuiient^ii with feathers, 
■worn bj tlie chiefs. 

Holmes, W. H. 
180 C«»e of piigiLla»j or paeksll*, mudo of the outer rind 
of the ita palm, and much ufled in the (Hilonj as basket tj, 

131 pJlumk-aiuiak^ from Kiver Dmnerara. A ehild's Xo^-^ 
and used by the Ituliana in theip tkiicea. 

132 Fans, made of the ita palm. 

SaiBH, Dattd, 

133 Biatapi, or coftaara squeezer, made of the ita 
|>alm, 

[tr«ed by the Indians for eipressing the juice from 
grated f»afaTn, Before twing filled, it La eompreaaed vm 
&r ae powible so as to mciTJi«e iba diameter \ it i^ then 
filed and suspended from a beam, and a lercr \& inserted 
into the lower loop^ to the long end of Trldch a weight is 
applied, by wloch the matapi.beeomeg elongated* It will 
haerred that thie ehan^ of form in the ve«ael will tend 



to diminish ite eubie contents^ and when slpi^tr^lMvl to its 
ntmo$.| lengthy its cji|Micity will W diminidiued by nearly 
one-third : hence it» applicability for eire<?ting expreMiooJ 
B%%, J, F. 
VM: El ami, or caasaTarsifteri used by the Indiana^ made 
of the ita palm. 

Basket, Mrs. 

135 Model of an Indian house, and twenty-eight minia* 
tore models of ftimiture, implements, &e.^ &a used bj the 
native*. ! 

BoaXt Mks. ) 

136 Cotton hammock. | 
[TliiB ia made of the wild cotton from the interior of 

the colony, referretl to in Sir E. Schombui^kV description 
tif BritLMh Quiana aa remarkable for ita fine long staple, 
ditky appearanc-e, and exLeellent quality. Full^aiawd ham- 
mocka made of I Ida material eomtoand a price from thfws 
to four timea higher tluin tho^ of English manujaeture.] 
BiEB, Berithard. 
iin eotton^ from River Pomfiroon. 
J iko the wild cotton of the interim.] 
STUTCffllFHY, J. S, 
3R, 1 [} Fiflhing net a of silk grafia, of Indian manu* 
ure. 

k) BafiketfUscd by the Indianii when traTelling, ilung 
\ their shoulders. Entire wardrobe of a female Indian 
,ao Warrow tribe* 

BuGon*, T. B. 
141 Indian war club, from River Berbiee, 

Akxott, Robe II t. 
142, 143 Indian war clubs, from RiTCr Deni^rara. 
I'Jrt Blowpipe and quiver, with poisoned arrow Sj u*ed 
by the Indians, 

[The inner tube of the blowpipe it a single intemode 
of the Aruntliimrta Schomhur^A-ii^ Bentii. These inter- 
nodes are aoraetimea 16 feet in length* The arrow ia 
inserted into tho tube, having a dossil of cotton around 
it* lower end, aim ia taken, and the arrow projected by a 
sudden expiration. Accompanying the quiver, thet^ is 
the maxilla of a fish which ia used for partiaUj culling 
llu.^ ixiiaoned end of the arrow, »o that that portion may 
break off and remain in the wound. Tliia cutting is ejected 
by mjiidly turning the arrow between the teeth of the 
maiilla.l 

145, 145a Bows and arrowa, bowa made of wasMba, 
used by the Indians. 

Dira&nr, T. B. 

146 Winna, used by the Indians for enclosing tobacco, 
ill the form of sheroota, for smoking, and said ia be made 
of the rind of the frail of the Manieole palm, Areca 
MMi «*«>;, Lodd,, from River Borbice, 

1 17, li7a Buck pot, used in preparing pepjier pot. 

[The^e i>ots are made by the^ Indiana, of a peculiar 
description of clay found on the banks of the rivers Ln 
various parts of the colony.] 

14S In than fly-h rush, 

I'lSfl Walking-stick of letter-wood, e«rved by the In- 
dians. 

OUTEIDOI, J. 

1484 Adada, or wood-akin, from the River Bemera™. 

[This is the bark of the purjile-heart tree, called by the 
Indiana Mfiriwu^ana. Sir R* ^chomburgk says : — ** Tliey 
take off the bark of this tree when fres^h cut down, and 
with very little trouble convert it into a cmioe^ commoidy 
called a ' wood-!?kin,* some of which are large enough to 
carry 20 to 25 peraona with perfect ftafety on anooth 



Depsndencibb. ] 



BRITISH GUIANA. 



©87 



water." During the month of Fehruary of the present 
jear, the contributor and two other persons, weighing 
together not less than 500 lbs., descended or ** shot" the 
Kapids, about 100 miles above the estuary of the Riyer 
Demerara^ in this wood-skin, in perfect safety. The seats 
commonly made use of in wood-skins consist of two or 
more light cylindrical pieces of wood, the ends of which 
are notched and rest upon the gunwale. The wood-skin 
sent measures 18i feet in length, and about 28 inches in 
width. Accompanying it are two paddles made of yaruri, 
or paddle-wood.] 

148 Quaick, or covered basket, of negro manirfacture, 
made of a palm called mouoourou. 

150 Basket, such as is used in coffee picking, of similar 
manu&cture. 

151 Hand basket, of negro manu&cture. 

152 Two baskets, of negro manufacture, made of the 
cabbage pahn, Areca montana, Lodd. 

153 C&labaiBhes, the shell or rind of the fruit of Cres^ 
caUia cnJeUy Linn. 

Steele, Matthew. 

154, 154a Door-locks, made of greenheart, and in use 
among the Creoles of this colony. 

155, 155a, 1555 Door-locks, made of crabwood, and in 
use among Uie Creoles of this colony. 

Bee,J.F. 

156 Walking-sticks, made from the outer part or rind 
of the tooroo {mlm, from the Bivor Demerara. 

156a A box containing eighty small specimens of the 
woods of the colony. 

157, 157a Diagrams showing the course of temperature 
at Georgetown, Demerara, during the five years 1846 to 
1850, and the mean range thereof &c. 

158 Bound table, composed of many kinds of wood, the 
growth of the colony. 

HoPKorsoN, Jonathan, Esq. 

159 Japanned cup and plate, made from the fig-tree. 

BiDGWAT, A. F., Esq, 
160, 161 Stuffed birds : — Toucan ; blue parrot, from 
the Eseequcbo ; yellow-bellied trojan. Skins of monkey, 
panther, &c 

CoLLiNO, John, Esq. 

162 Model of a Birch Indian's house and &unily. 

EiDOWAT, A. F., Esq. 

163 Cotton grown by W. Finlaison, Esq., Fullerswood 
Park, Blacknow, Jamaica. 

164 Specimens of the snake-nut of the colony. 

[This remarkable vegetable production was discovered in 
Demerara by Sir R. Schomburgk. The embryo of the nut 
bears a strong resemblance, from its being spirally twisted, 
to a snake curled up. The tree producing this singular 
nut is one of the soap-nuts, and has been called by its dis- 
coverer OphdocatyoH paradoxum. — R. E.] 

164a A native bag of coloured beads. 

A necklace worn by the natives, which is composed of 
teeth of the wild boar (peccary ?) 

Another, of dried seed-vessels of a remarkable shield 
fonn, and very hard. 

Another, of black polygonal beads, apparently of the 
wood of the Dari tree. 

A throat ornament composed of black feathers, probably 
of the black toucan. 



An '* eatou," or Indian lady's wardrobe, being a sort of 
basket worked in beads, the pattern of which is a running 
square border of prociselv tnat character which is com- 
monly called *' Egyptian," and of constant occurrence in 
Qreek sculptures and paintings. 

Pair of native sandals, the thongs as well as the soles 
of which are made of the bark of the palm tree. 

Various war clubs and other weapons of hard and dose- 
grained wodds grown in the colony. 

Bottle containing an aquatic fig-like plant-, met with on 
the waters of the Guiana rivers. It is of a highly noxiouB 
nature, and by some supposed to be the plant yielding the 
WaroiUi poison. 

A native ear-ring, composed of a long tooth, with a 
natural groove or furrow on its interior face, inserted on a 
piece of reed of very light texture. 

A comb for the hair, made of the outer wood of the 
Tooroo palm. 

Dried skin, 18 feet long, of a Boa constrictor, 

[This skin exhibits numerous perforations by a sword, 
with which the boa was despatched, immediately after 
crushing to death and swallowing a negro boy, who had 
accompanied an English gentleman on a fishing excursion 
near the junction of the Essequebo river with one of its 
tributaries.] 

A small case or quiver of hollow oane, suspended by a 
cord, spun from the vrild cotton. 

[The case contains an arrow point, or head, being a 
small thin splint of wood, little more than half an inch in 
circumference, and five or six inches long, hardened in the 
fire. The extremity has been steeped in the warouli 
poison. This arrow head is attached to the shaft by a 
thong or filament so contrived, that on striking an object 
it detaches itself^ remaining in the wound, and thus 
enabling the native hunter to recover his weapon.] 

Quayen, a native Indian squaw*s dress. 

Snake-nut, supposed to be the seed of a water-plant, 
which, when ripe, sinks, but, from some cause not ger- 
minating, again rises to the surface. Same species as horse- 
chestnut. Grows on a vino near the rivers. 

Wari, or waroidi poison, made from a vine ; the wood 
is chopped small, and boiled down to a paste. 



FALKLAND ISLANDS. 

The only contributions from these islands are the 
private collection of one exhibitor. This, however, 
represents, more or less completely, the natural features 
of the islands, since it includes sketches illustrative of 
their geology, botany, and mineralogy. — R. E. 



1 "WniTTiNGTON, G. T., Wokingy /Surriy— Proprietor. 

Portfolio containing fourteen sketches of remarkable 
places, geological formations, plants, &c., of these islands. 

Portfolio containing twenty-seven sheets : specimens of 
grasses, sheep's wool, &c., produce of these islands. 

Specimens of coal, copper, sandstone, quartz, spar, peb- 
bles, rock, peat, lichens, orchilla weed, Ac., from the 
same. 



[Official Illustbatbd Catajloqitb.] 



4 C 




The conn tries repreRentcd under iliis head, and above enumerated, have sent interesting collections of native 
produce of different kinds. Of these, the c«>l!oction from Van Dieraen*8 Land in the most extensive, com- 
prising objects sciitliv a cijnaideraljle nnmlK?r of exhibitors. In each Instance, however, the attempt had Iwen 
made to send for exhibit ioti such articlcja as rcpn^sented tteet the jiecuhar i>ro<lnet8 of the country exliibitinjf. 
Many of the objects are of great imf»ortance to the merchant seeking a new source for known materials, — R. E. 



EASTERN ARCHIPELAGO. 

South j\jiba, S. 32, 

The Eastern Archipelago, so recently opened to civili- 
zation and secure commercial enterprise, h repmaented 
by throe exhibitora, whoae contributions consist of 
native ch)th, a seriea of Malay paintinjis, a model of a 
pirat4j boat. In addition, is a crrcat variety of natural 
prcxiucts, vegetalklo and mineral. Amon^ the former, 
gutta perch a and it^s varieties \\ill fonn an in te nesting 
Btud}% The gums and spices arc likewise valuable,^ 
H. £* 

1 Gkft, Tlie Countess. 

Cloth manidhctured by the Seribas, in Borneo. 

Cloth made by the MHbnoes, in Borneo j «*nt home 
by Gkjvenior 8ir James Brooke. 

Twenty -nine djriLwiiigs of Boraeo plant*. 



2 IlAM.uoxn, W, P. & Co., Merchants, London* 

Specimens of sugar s coffee ; aago, pearl j oago, com* 
mou ; ertgo, flour ; pepper, hlaek ; pepper, wliit*? ; nut- 
megs ; maee ; elores; gambler j eutch; gum gnmlx>gc; 
pimi benjamin ; gmu laci riwj tortobe-ahell; twile-jskliellj 
M. O. P. ehellB ; elejihunts' teeth ; elephant a' grinder ; 
g^Uitta perelm j gum eaoulchoue, or India-rubber ; gum 
fiamnifi, and iaingljiMS, The latter uianutuetured in tlie 
ArL'hipcla,go from tho interior membranes of fisli, and 
Taliwd on accoimt of ita highly glutinous character* 
A aeriics of thirty-six paintingjij by a Malay artist, 
A model, made to icale, of a sailing-boat used by tlie 
natlvci^ in the Chinti ^lus and Eastern Art^hipi^ago for the 
piiilTOscif! of tmugghng and piracy. 

fc^p<?cimeus of rattans^ bambooB, &c., grown in and im- 
ported from the Eaeteni Arehipelkgo. 



WooLLET, W*, Se<jpetary to the Eastern Archi: 
pclago Compnny, 31 CornhilK 
Bark cloth, manufoctiuvd by the Dyaks of Borneo. 
Specimens of hard wood from Borneo ; and surfiwe Coal 
Labuan, 




NEW SOUTH WALES. 

South Abea^ S, 30. 
About twenty exhibitors from this colon j liave sent 
art idea for exhibition. The character of tbese prwbie- 
tiona acconls with the ix^cullar and commercial im- 
portance of the colony it^lf, consisting qs they do 
principally of raw niaterials and produce, wool being 
the moat prominent article. Austraha may be rightly 
considered the most extensive wool-pro^iueing country 
iu the world. In 1833, the imiKtrts from that country 
into Britain amounted to aliout three and a-half niillion 
pounds ; in aix years they had risen to ten million 
pouni^a, and in thirteen years to upi^-ards of t\^'enty- 
four mi II km ]>onnds. The climate combinea the qua- 
lities essential to a wool-CTowing district, lieing dry, 
with a wann summer and a (x)hl winter. On the 
Camden estate the late Mr. Macarthnr succeeded in 
rearing: those Merino tlrwrks, the ;;erm of which he had, 
in 180*1, introduced into Australia by means of sheep 
imported in a vessel named by him the ** Argo." They 
have pn>ved one of the chief sources of the prosperity 
of the Australian wool trade, now ^Fown into national 
importance, and iu the past year ainountin*; to thirty- 
six million i[x>unils, valued at two miUions sterling. 
On the same estute, of which four coloured views are 
exhibited^ an interesting CKix-riment is now lieing made 
of introducing: the cultivation of the vine. The vine- 
yards are situated on the Nej-ean River, forty miles 
s<43uth-west of Sydney, llie following account of 
l\wm ex]>eriments, which, if havin^j, as there apjiears 
every ]>robability of, a snceessful issue, camiot fail to 
Ix-conie of great commercial importance : — 

** After many experiments, local experience was at 
length ohtainctl. The l>est varieties of vines having 
Wn selected, were transferred to a proper site in 1830, 
after the soil had iK'en deeply trenched for their recep- 
tion. Tliia vineyard comprises alxjut twenty-two acres, 
and is situated on a natural terrace, originally of allu* 
vial def>osit, a formation which is of frequent occun'ence 
on the banks of aeveml of the larger streams in New 




OLo?m5s,] 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 



989 



fSkh 



I 

gruci 
H mrfj 

I 



8(mtJi Wales. The soil is a |)orous, brown, firiiJ-^Taiiied 
silioeons loam, of great depth, coiitAiEiiii<^ tutjcii decoiii- 
posed vegeiAble aiatt^r, pnttxicle o( iron, and probably 
aoomdd^ble quantity of {lotiish. In siiikiDij; a well 
An opptvrt unity was ofit red of aiJC^^rtflining; the condi- 
tion cif the »oil to the depth of hfty feet. Little chauf^e 
observable for the firat twenty feet ; but the pre* 
» of vegetable matter became ^adually less ftp|ia- 
; and the irun more abunilimt; the soil^ however* 
raatinued to be quite as jioroiis as at the Burface. lu 
desccading farther the change was more rapid, becoming 
more femiginous, with a considerable admixture ol" 
alumina, imtil» at the depth of forty feet, it api)cared 
to be little but sajid, clay, and iroo, of a brtf^ht red 
colour, and in such combination as to be perfti^tly 
pCTBaeable to w^ater, and conseiiuently to the roots of 
the Tines. At the depth of forty to hfty feet water is 
obtained freely by infiltration, apparently from the l>ed 
of the river Nepean, which flows at about that level, 
in a deep channel several hundred yards distance. 
Duriaje^ periods of heavy rain this stream swells so 
much aa to overflow its l>anks in certain pkicea^ imd 
then forms rapid currents between the cliain of alluvial 
terzacBB, such as the one desc rilled, and the hi^lier 
grottndB behind, rising to within a few feet of the 
mrfaoe of the former, and forming them into a series 
of temporary islands^ some of them of j^reat extent. 

** T!ie soil of these terraces possesses in ^vat i>tTfeC' 
many of the requisites for vine cultivation in a 
climate, which is also extremely uucertuiu «ith 
le^wct to moisture. During the most rainy iierioils it 
is Dever too wet ; nor after l^einp; duly trenched docs it, 
dturiniT the longest drtjughts, even close to the surface, 
ever l«oonie thoroughly deprived of moisture. 

" The great depth and |Joroai8 character of the soil 
renders it permeable to the surface water, however 
aboDrhmt, and capable of tnansmittinj^ it l>ack again 
by capillary attraction to the surface as it l>ecomcs 
pircbed by the great heats of summer. In les« than 
twenty years, roots of the vines were found to have 
pPDCftrated fifteen to twenty fe<*t^ — ^how much deeper is 
cot know^n. The growth of the plants is luxuriant, 
BOire equal, one year taken with another, than on the 
IP soils — their crops abundant and certain, were it 
wifor the liability of damage from hailstones, from 
foosta late m the spring, and rottenness in the fruit 
when a tcriee of showery weatber happens towards the 
md of summer ; the last two accidents being of more 
frai|Uent c>ccurrence in low tlian elevated situations, 

•' Abotit ten years subsequently to the formation of 
Qm toat-meDtioned vineyard, another was conmienceil 
b a totally different site and soil ; it occupies part of 
Ih^ slOfte of a hill of moderate elevation, the surface of 
fiormcd into terraces, to prevent damage 
_ ft pg heavy rains. The soil is a calca- 
; nsKn^ at ab<iut two to four feet upon 
thale, paising into soft calcareous clayey sandstone, the 
•oil itaelf bemir full of fragments of decomposing rock 
ind of indurated marl or calcareous earth. Although 
fWj expensive to form into vineyards in a sxiit^ible 
nunner, this description of land promises to \w pro- 
ductive and to yield wine of very i^ood quality, A 
ihii ['tion of land exists in considerable quan- 

feiti< I lUt the older ]K>rtion of the colony." 

Ko wines being permitte<l for exhibition, llie sf>eci- 
iient over are not found In this collection. 




At!- 'V s every requisite in rej^ard of her 

Qftt ^ for producing wine and dried fruits, 

lor tn >^|^iiii itself. But experience is as yet 

TLe increasing importance of the tallow and 

mIcs is indicated by articles of that class ex* 

An interesting apprmitus for detcnnining the 

Lpoivcr oC propellers is exiubited among these objects. 
— ILE, ' 



1 A UMTIAO E B ROTH EES, Hudd^rafeld—lm^HcT^ 
and Mnnidiioturers. 
A bale of scoured Sydney akin-wool, grown in New 
South Wales, and washed by Armitage and Company of 
Sydney, 

lA BfDwiLL, J. G.J Goveminent Oomminioiiar of 
Lands, Zinana^ Wide £ay, AMiraiia, 
A log of wood from the interior of Wide Bay district, 
north-eu^t eoa»t of Australia, the BriggaU) of the i 
tere (Brieklo w of Leiehordt's Journey), a species of I 
probttbly uiideseribed. 



2 Dat» T. k W,, -STurdfiM-j^— Mtmnfiictmvrs, 

Specimens of colonial timber. Fiiir of aah oara and 
pair of paddles, nmuuiketiired of colouial wood. 



2a Bbieabs, Jambs, %rff«#y. 

Two beef liams spiocd and cujH?d by the exhibitor. 

[The articles sent by the two preceding eihibitort 
were forwarded through Mr. A. Bogue.] 

3 BriiciiiTT, J. K., 15 Edmonton Crexceni^ Edmtmton^ 
A de)ik and a chei^ti- board of polished woods. 



4 Caixaqhait, — y Crown Prosecutor, Attorney- 
Qeneral, 

Two volumes of ptatutes, printed from types made in 
Sydney J and the books bound in Sydney. 



5 Clinch, J., 31 Abckurrh Law — Importer. 

A set of bagpipes, mode by Georgo SherreTj Sydney. 



DcT^BAB, D., Limehonsf. 

Samples of wheat flour from Port PhiUip, New South 
Wales, Agentp N. Tweeddale* 



7 Dakoah, R. C, Billihr Street 

Preserved fre^h bcHT-f and TimttoUi a substitute for aidt 
meats, from Newcoiitle, near Sydney ♦ 



LEABKorTH, Thomas, 40 Eo^al Cre§cent^ 
Notiinff iJtV/— Importer, 
Menuo wool from Port Phillip, 



!> MoTLETj TnoaiAs, Le^d* — Proprietor. 

Wool, from Sydney, New South Wales, 



10 Devttt a Moobz, 9 BiUiiw StreeL 

A coach wrench, made at Sydney. 



1 1 Din>OS0ir k Co., 1 New Bank Bmldinffa. 

Ores aud specimens of wood from Sydney. Cured hams. 
Various samples of cotton grown near Haitian d. 

1 2 LEAEMorra^ Thomas, 40 Eo*fal Creteeni, 

NQtting MilL 
Fonr panqiles of Aii&lraliiin aheep*8 wool from New 
South Wak^. 

13 Maoajithtjb, Lieut. -Ciilonel E. 

Case eentftining 182 speeknens of Merino wool, derived 
frftm tbt* late Mr. Mscertluur's original flock. In 1807 
tilt} first iiiqxji'trition into Eoghind of this wool was 2441 
lbs. In the Tear 18-18, it was 2;^,tXX>,C>0tHbs, from Now 
South Wales' akme (v»lued at more than l.aOO.OCK)^ J 
and from the whole of the Australian colonics 
3a,rHXi,(XM3 lbs, 

Fonr views in New South "Wales, one being Camden 
{IG niilea S. W. of Sydney), the original seat of Austrm* 
lian ^heep luibbandrjr, and now becoming celebrated foF 
its vineyards. 

[S]i«ciraen9 of the wines produced at these vineywdi 
have been sent over to England ; one of these is a hogs^ 
head from the first vineyard, made from a grape imported 

4 2 



fi\?m Fnim* culled " La Follc^/' mixed to Uie extent of 
about oiie-lliinl witli unotluT sort from Mafleira, calW 
th(j ** Verdeillio," I tic former Ix-'iiig Tery prodiietive and 
the latter remarkubk'' for its rielmess iii tlie sacchiiriiie 
principle* In the procew of manufactiiro tlie g:mi>es were 
cruihed by being poeaed through u maehiuo of simple 
const ruet ion, which reducva theiii thorougldy without 
hruisiiig the stalks, tind whidi, witJi the flpplication iifler- 
irard* of moderate pivssure to the *' rape," Beparates the 
juice firom it with ease and cxpeditioiu 

l^hs wine wae fcnnente'd m large vats of hewn stone 
contftming from 800 to 1,GOO gnOons, in which it remained 
until the tumultuoua fermentation liiid subeided. It was 
then dniviTi off* into large etoiH? caaka, oontainuig 400 
gaDonSj and sidlcrtxl to eonthme the gentle stage of ler- 
mentntiou mitd i^^uits stilL Tlie casks were regularly filled 
up, at short hiterrak, m tht^ fermenting Hqiiid Bubeided. 
W^ien the process was sufficiently complete it was clari- 
lled with iainglASS. 

Another is a quarter cask, from the *^ Widte Muscat of 
Lunelle." The grapes were eulTcred to acquire a very 
advanced &tage of maturity^ to the extent of sliriveUlng on 
the bunches. To this wine, during the tuinultuotu far* 
mentationj was added at diilcrent tim&a very pure brandy 
of home mauufactureT prervioujily filtered through cliar- 
cool to render it quite flavourleiȤ, in the proportion of two 
pints of piuT" alcohol to the hundred pints of wino. 

These whies liavc a certain dnness and bitterness ijeeii- 
liar to the Tainea of New South Wdee, to which the 
palate becomes aceuatomed : hut witli age this bittemes* 
poBscB oiE The s|]eeimend sent are said to ha void of this 
taste. 

The wines at Camden are rarely fit for use until throe 
years old, and greatly improved by keeping. Thej' are 
very wholeftomo, and are cTttensively used by person* who 
have acquired a taste for them-] 



15 MosEB, Son, & DatI3, 14 & 15 Aidgaie Hii^h Street. 

Ca&k of Austrahan mutton tallow, and another of het^f 
tallow, from the boiling estabUahment of Messrs. Eeti- 
jamin and Moses, Sydney. 



16 Watson, Yofjto, k Co., 2 Ahchureh Lane, Ciftf. 
Orcliilla maroon roans ; re*l roans* Enamelled hides, 

enamelled kangnroo ^kins, patent kangaroo skinSj, prepared 
by Thoums Hall and Co, 

17 BlajO), Dr., Sidney. 

Model of the eihibi tor's invention for eitingui filling 
fire arising from Bpontancous combustion in ships laden 
with w ooh 



18 SffElLBS, Fkjlncib W.J Civd Engineer. 

1. Model of latt ice bridge for eolonial railways or workfi, 
formed ehictly of uiisawn timber, and of original dclaUed 
construction, 

2. Model of plate rail for colonial railways, with origi- 
nal armngcment of details j formed of five-eighths inch 
iron plate, laid on iron hark hardwood. 

3. Model of trestlo frame for colonial railwayfj. used 
in^t^ead of embankments where timber t* plentifid- 

N,B, — The above were designed by the exhibitor for 
the Sydney Railway Comfjany. 

4. Hpeeunens of hardwood, in common um in New 
South Wales, and suitable for the above purposes. 



19 TkB AUflTKALlAN AORICTaTDBAL CoHPANT, 
12 Kin^g Anng Vardy Mo&rffate iifreet. 
Si>ecmicns of eoaln from the Company ^a mines at Now- 
caatlo, New South Wales. 



20 Leott, Lons, S5 Maftm Gard-eu, 

A block of si>enuaeeti, manufactured in New South 
Wales &om the sperm whale of the South Seas. 



21 Mitchell, Lieut.-Col. Sir T. L., Surveyop- 
General of New South Wales, 

1, A oloao cylinder of water for tei^thig the power and 
action of propellers, is mounted on wheels, wliich move in 
grooves cut in a board, to which ape attached bearings 
wliieh support the pi»ton-rod, passing through a stuffing 
bo]t I ana on wliich piston the model propeller is attached 
by a socket, and fixed by a nut inside* 

Tlie model propeller ij* phieoti within the cylinder by 
imscK'wing t he cap from the collar, to wliieh is fitted a 
leathern washer ; so tlmt when t«crewcd close, the whole 
i^* water-tight, Tlie cylinder is to be fitted with a hmnel, 
at the receiver, afler the whole apparatus haa been ad- 
justed. 

The turning gear is to he apphed by inserting the shaft 
at the oonneeting so<?ket, Mtdtiplying wheels drive this 
proijeller, which, acting on the water, causes the whole 
cjhnder to move backward or forward, with more or leas 
speed, thereby proving the power of the projseller on the 
water. 

2, Tlie Bomaring projwller used with the small steam 
engine in Port Jacke<on. Others of larger construction 
have been sent to England for trial, and may be heard 
of at Messrs. D, Cooper and Co., 3 CopthaH Chambers, 
Cit>', 

3. Rope made from the Doryanthes exeeUa^ with spe- 
cimens of the leaf and of the fibre. 

Tins root {a bulb) grows in great abundanee, covering 
some wild huids near Sydney* The leaves sent are Irom 
the Botanic Ghirdens j those from which the rope* were 
made were 6 feet long. The rope absorbs tar, wlueh it is 
said the New Zealand Oai will not. 

4. Cone of tlie BidweUii araucaria^ "Bunya hunya,'* 
the native name. The fi^it inside is eaten bv the nativea 



Moreton Bay, iu which direction the tree is found, 
growing in cin^mnfepence 70 or 80 feet, and to a pro- 
portionate height. 

5, New map of New South Wales (not yet published) . 
Original tliree- sheet map of the eolonj, engraved and 

printed at J!?ydney. Tlie engraver is deaf and dumb, and. 
was taught map-engraving in the csolony by the oom- 
pitcr of these maps, 

6, School-book, written, printed, and publiahed at 
Sydney. 

7, 8|>eeimens of native copper and of galena, both from 
Canobolaa Mountains, New South Wales. 



22 Ratnbk, a k G., Sydney, 

Two specimens of doeskin doth, 20 yards of each. 



2'i Webstkb, Captam, Governor of Darlingharst Oaol. 

Hats made from the leaf of the cahbage-tret\ nianufiic- 
f ure<l by the prisoners ui Darlinghiu^t gaol, exeniiiLifying 
the industry and diat'ipline of the prisoners in the Aus- 
tralian gaob. 



24 



OtDBS, Colonel, Sydney, 



Neats*-foot oil< 

KoBBI&OK, Mrs,, Sydm^, 

Stoekinp and mits knitted from a thread made of the 
opoiisum fur, by the eitlubitor. 

[The articles sent by the four preceding oihibitors were 
forwarded through Mr, A. Bogue.] 



South Absa, B. 21. 

AiTSTRA^LiA, regard being had to the vast size of th€ 
coantry, and the value which Bttacliesto it» prmhicta, 
k only inadequately reprcst'nted in tho Exhibition. 
The speeimena prescntc'd arc, bovvcver, of a very in- 
teretting and valuable description. The co[if*er orui*, 
which have been so productive of commercial pros- 
perity to the individuab concerned in their extraction, 
are shown by an interesting selection from the Lyndoch 
y alley minea, near Adelaide, and the Hnrra 11 una 
miiieA. The extraordinarj^ results of the latter undt^r- 
taking are among the occasional marvels of minin*^ 
^leculation. Specimens of the carbonate and oxiile 
of copper and of native copper are exhibite^l. In 
aildition, attention recjnires to iie dra^^Ti to a rtTent 
attempt to introduce the cultivation of tho Bilk worm 
into thia colony, and aiiecimena are exhihitefh 8oine 
igricultural and geolo^cal specimens likewise deserve 

1 South ArsTBixiAir CJompajit, 4 Neto Broad Street 
ft uteuu ciiS of eopj)er ores finom Kaiunantoo minoB :■ — 
Biacic and yellow tulphureta. Green and blue car- 

booaCo. Red and grvy oidde. ^Native copper. Feaeottk^ 
F^Tite»,&c ^^^ 

2 The B Afiossi Rakoe M rN n*o Comp ajtt, ty Messrs, 

CooDB, Browns, &, Co,, 10 iTiitv?** Armi Tard^ 
Moorg^e Street 
Sloiieft of copper ore, as raised from the lodoi. 
Sulpburet of copper, eoutfiining 40 per eetit. of pure 
copper^ raiAcd in the L\^^doell Vtdiej, about thirty miles 
from Adelaide, South Australia. 



3 GsAHAM k Hallett, South JtMim/i«— Proprietors. 
The following artides are £rom the mines at Burra 

■ 1 Red oxide of copper, 

■^^ 2 GT«en caThoiiat« of eoppert 
^^^L 8 Green carbonate of copper^ 
^^^H 4 Bed oxide and carbonate eotnbined, 
^^^B C Red oxide and blue carbonate. 
^^^B6 Stmta in which the minerals occur* 
^^^V ^ If alive copper. 
^^^B S Mohichite and red oxide of copper. 
^^^P 9 Fihroua malachite. 
W 10 Cabinet apecimeas, arranged. 

f 11 Tiewa of Enrra Buira mine and amelting-hoose, 
md the tomuhip. 

[The Bum Buna mines present one of the most 
itrikiiig examples of sncoesirfiil mining s|ieculation with 
which wo are acquainted. From indieutious whidi were 
iigarded as of a most favourable eharaeter, the mine wa^ 
started on the 5th of September, 1B45, with a capital of 
I2,320fi, nibacribed by a few merchants and traders at 
The following returns of ore raised fkam the 
at of the undertaking to JSeptember, 1850, 
wiD exhiMi the extraordinary success of this midcr* 

tikmg^- 

Tot»* Cwta» 

September aO, 1646 . . . . 6,S50 10 

„ 1S47 .... 10,794 17 

1B48, . . 12,791 11 

1S40. . . . 7,789 10 

1850. , . . 18,692 9 



Making a total in 5 years of . 56,428 3 

ofop pp tS' ore, Torying in qtiaUty from ore eont riining 30 per 
OiBt. of copper to much that produces 70 jjcr ecnt. of that 
MrtaL The money valui} of this is 738,108/^. 
Dua great mmenil deposit exhibits some peculiaritios. 



Although tlie miners and the proprietors speak of working; 
on lodes, these are of a very diffcrc^nt eharacter from the 
copi^er lodes of the primmrv rocks of tlua comitry. In a 
great basin, formed in an ampliitheatre of lulls, an Inmicnse 
deposit of clay— the result of the dccompoaitiun of the 
clay-slftte — Ima taken place; thisj under corn lit ions which 
wo are not enabled to determine, l>eramc also the reservoir 
for the reception of copper. In all probability it wa* first 
deposited in the pure metaUic etate^ — a fine example of tlie 
electrotype proe4?rf8 of Nature. During this process, tho 
so-called veins spread themselves t lux)ugh the soft clay in 
various directions, in precisely the some manner as wo 
miiyj by carrjing the terminal winvs of a voltaic battery 
into a mass of clay saturated witli sidpluite of copper, 
form a eurioua arborescent mass. Ey the aetion of 
oxygen contained in the water, this copper becomea. 
oxidized by the slow process whieh gives rise to the 
beautiful crystals of red oxide of copper, and from 
atato it pa»Be» into the blue and green carbonates, und( 
tho action of carbonic acid, tht* diilemiee in ihe colour of 
tho two arising from the quantity of water in eombination. 

The mabithites, which are now very extensively em- 
ployed for ornamental purposes, are carboimt^^s of copper, 
and large quantities of the s|T€eiiuens selected from the 
Bun-a Eurra mines tire sold for this purpose. 

Nearly all the copper ore roiiR'd at the South Australian 
mines, has been liitherto sent lo England, and smelted at 
Swansea J hut there lias been recently a smelting esta- 
blislunent introduced, which promiscii to be of gnwit ad- 
van t^igc to the colony. 

The number of people now employed at the Burra 
Burra mines is 1,003.— E. H.] 

4 Moses, H. E. k M., 87 Tmoer mu. 
Fine sample of AustniHan wheat, weighing 64 lbs. per 

bushel ; the protJuee of Adelaide, South Australia. Pre' 
»eri. ed fresh mcatSj pre|i»rcd nt the t-amperdoiini eatablis^li- 
incntH, iSydoey, New South Wales. Tl u-y iin^ upwards of , 
tliree years old, liave undergone a voyajjc of lG,lKJt> miles, [ 
are in a perfectly fresh state, and will ktx^p so for anyl 
number of years. 

5 Hajxett, R. k SONH, Brtmd Street^ EatcUff^ London 

— Importer. 
Ariieles from South Australia r — 
1, 2 Wheat, 

3 Hard soap. 

4 Ohve oih 

5 Pive cases, containing ipcoimens of opal and other 
rocks allied to precious stones. 

6 Two samples of ilour, and one of barley. 

7 A dried bouonet of smaU native plants. 

8 Sfwcimens ot stream gold, and gold in its matrix, 
y A ease of i)olij*hed stonesj the produce of the colony. 

6 MFHaAT, Mrs, 
Specimen of ^ilk raijHHl by the exldbitor, at Adelaide, in 

1850, the protlueo of 5bO worms fed on wliite and black 
mulberry leaves. 

7 Gbby, Earl (forwarded by), 
Specimens of silk produced in South Au^traUa, and 

showing the capabilitiae of that country for the produc- 
tion of this article. 



ttcry 

tli^^H 
:^mea^^^| 

tjiii^H 

ndeiP^^H 



9 IlEATn & BrHROW, 6 3>w Lohdm Sfreef, Mttrk 

Litne^ and Old Corn Exvhattfje — Importers. 
Specimens of South Australian grain. 

10 Josxpn, J. A., 7 Bhmfiefd Cresvenf^ BayswaUr, 

A block of erjppcr ore, weighing about 800 pounds, and 
containing about 45 per cent, of copper, raised from 



&OITTH AUSTRALIA.— VAN DIEMEN'S LAKI>. 



[COLOKIES AND 




■ 



Baker'A lodi»» »t Tungkillo Reedy Cn»ek, South Australia, 
on the special surrey of the Auftralian ISiIiniiig Compuny. 

Tarifties of copper ores nmed from the Comjwiny'a 
Tarioua locks of ores j minemla, and gc5ologi*3al Bpecimen* 
from South AuatTalitt, to illustrate the aunreyed portion 
of tliat colony. 

MifrcellaneoUii epecijneni of niinerala. 

[The South Australian minea have a peculiar ioterest 
from their geological and minorakiigical chaiaeter. The 
otee of copper are uaiiaEy of the rkh<est Turietiei, the jx^r- 
oxide carbonates, green and blue. The South Australian 
Mining Company poeeeM a temfcory of 22,000 arrea j their 
principal mining operations are tlie Tangkillo, where grrcn 
lodes are now being explored. Baker*8 lode liaa fdready 
need nearly 4,000 ton§ of copper ore, giving from 12 

SO per cent, of pure oo]>per. Formerly all the ore was 
ient to tbis country to bo smelted j hut smelting oi>emliou9 
are now carried ou in South Australia, and the result ia 
very gatiaiactoTj to the colony. — ^K, H*] 



VAN DIEMEN'S LAND. 

SOXTTH ArEA^ S. 31. 

The general character of the [jrividiictiuiis of the Tjis- 
manian colony resembles thiit of the others, aod is 
principally remarktiblc for the riimiluT and intercRting 
nature nf the products enutdned in the first four CLissea 
of the Exhibition. The except ions are, however, more 
nutiierous than in some other instances. Some in- 
torestiui:^ and attractive articles of furniture, lonned 
out of richly-roarkcil woods, are presented to notice, 
and may prove instrumental in directing the attention 
of decorative furniture makers to the cai^abilities t>f 
the materials for the conatruction of ftimiturt! in 
ED.^land. A few R|)ecimen8 of textile niaurifactures 
are also shown, such as a roll of tweed, made of colimial 
materials. A ciinsiderable number of 8|>ccimenR of 
fur, and of the prefta ration of h'ather, harnes.s, ttc, 
indicjite that proo^ress in this im]«irtant manufacture 
baa been made l>y tlie colormts. The possession of an 
abundant supply of tanoing materials of the purest 
kind, added to the abunihuicc atid cheapo ess of live 
stock, cannot fail ki render this an increasingly im- 
portant tiirectiou for industrial activity. 

^Vliat will, however, receive most attention, and 
what is Ell so most abundantly exhibited by this colony, 
19 a collection of specimens of woods a)>plicable for 
every purjiose of art or use. The muak-w<XMl of this 
colony, as an instance, is nientioue<! aii trainable for 
ornamental purjioses, of a cIoro and fine p-ain, and 
variously veined and ilotted, llie wood of the myrtle 
is represented aa of a l>eautiful vein and watered, 
fitting it admirably for show^y j>ictu re-frames. The 
blue gum-tree promises to lieome a most valuable sub- 
stitute for oak in shij>-buildin;^. It reaches a vast 
height in the forests of this colony ; two acctitins are 
exhibited which were taken at a distance of 134 feet 
apart, and a very trilling difference in their diameter 
appe-Eira. Tlie Huron |>i»e is likewise a valuable tinil>er, 
and sj.>ecimens of it arc exhibitcil as applied to do- 
mestic and omamentiil |>uri>08eH. In addition to these 
it is suggested ns alfordinc; an esccdlent material for 
organ-pdpea, which mi^ht l>e Tx>ml out of the solid 
timber, and some pipes are exhibited. The advantages 
claimed for them are, that they yield a softer and more 
mellow tone than pipt^B made of a looser grain. This 
wood is also extremely durable, and little influenced 
by atmospheric vicissitudes. 

Vegetable im>ducts.of varion.s kinds are also ex- 
ited. The agriculture of the colony ia represented 



by varioufi sjiecimcjis of wheat, Imrley, flour, &€, The 
gimi Tcsins of those wonderful liliHceoiis trees of Tas- 
mania, the grasH-trees, is exhibited, and ssuggeated as 
a material for the dyer and vamisli-maktr. Interest 
will al.*50 tie mucli excite<i by the specimens of what is 
called the native bread of Tasmania. This is in reality 
a large under^ound tniflie, known l>otanieally &a 
Mf/litta Atistralia. One of the sjiecimens weighed 
orii^nnally upwards of fourteen [K>unda. It is eagerly 
soui^ht by the natives, and not lc33 so by the mar- 
supial animals, who devour it with great greedineaa, 
it is bsilf-roasied lie fore Iwing used for human food. 
The furs of those animals which communicate | 
[!< culiar a feature to the sioology of Austral hi gener 
the MftrsHpiala^ have Ix^n suf>]>!ied in a man u facta 
and unman ufacturtnl state. The feathers and oil of 
the sooty pelrel, with articles of industrial value, i 
exhibited. Honey antl wax are likewise sent ; and| 
is incUcated that the feeding of the industrious ins 
producing them can nowiiere l^e more suocesafuUy i 
ducted than in this colony. To the naturalist a i 
cimen of Riiicized woo<1, frnmd about thirty-two miles 
from Holiart Town embedded in lava, will appear of 
nmcb interest. — R, E. 



Denisok, His Eieelleucy Sir W. T. 

1 Blue glim timber of Van Diemen's Land {Euca7yptu4 
ghhuhm.) Squared log 20 ft. long^ 12 'm», by 12 ins. 
Said to he equal to oak bm a ship-building iiinlN?r. The 
two seetionp exhibited were taken from one tree at a di»* 
tance of 134 ft. apart, 

2 Stringy bark of Van Diemen's Land {Eucalyptus 
rabusia). .Sqiuired log 20 ft. long, 12 tns. by 12 tns. 

[This tT«>e forms for the moat part a large tree ; the 
timber is, however, coarser tlian the last, and is chiefly 
used for house building and fcnring.] 

3 Blackwood, or lightwood, of Tai^mania {Acacia 
fnehnnx^ktii). Stjuared log, 20 h. long, 12 ins. by 12 ine» 
A very hard elo^*-grained diirk and full- veined cabixwi 
wood, used for finmitmne and fittings. 

4 Sassafras of T^Amania, often sassafrax {Aihermperma 
moichatnm). Squared log, 13 ft. long, 12 ins. by 12 ins. 

[This tn^ yields a soft, even, and elose-graiuiHi timber, 
adapted for turning, and, probably, for the carver. It ia 
largely used for flooring-boards, the inside work of houses, 
and cabin fittings in ships.] 

5 Myrtle of Tasmania (^ff^rtfjT CMitj«Aii^Aamii). Squared 
log, 12 ft. long, 12 ina. by 12 ins. It ia hard and close 
grained, with a lively red tint, streaked and mottled near 
the root ; and tales a fine polisli. 

These timtkers are abundant in the colony, and can 
mostly he obtained of any required size. 

AmrocK, Mrs. W., Elizabeth Slrsei^ MolaH IWik 

6 Two canisters of preserved meat. 

Hamilton, — , EUzaheth Street^ MohaH T o to m ' 
Mamdiicturer. 

7 Hall-ehair of black wood {Acacia melanoxyhmj^ 
with a raised shield cut on the biiek, kangaroo andl emu 
for fupi>or1er^, fiurmoimted by a roee, with thistle on one 
side and sliamrook oti tlie other, carved in rebef and 
pohshed. 

8 Small round table, of Horon pme {Daerydimm Framk' 
Unit) with ebess- board in the centre, and the pedestal of 
the same. The cliequcrs are alternately of plain Huron 
pine, and wood of the ehe-oiik of Tasmania {Cajtuarina 
qfiadnvcdcln)^ with a border of blaekwood, surrounded 
by a narrow string of myrtle, the whole beiiig eDclo^ed 
with a band of figured pine. 

PiEfisoy, — , Cabinet-maker. 

9 Pier table or cbilfonni^re, of polished blaekwood. 
Exhibited to ehow the dark tints and veining of thia 
wood, and the poliah of which it is Busceptihle. 



i 




TAK DimiEN^S LiVKD. 



993 



I 

I 



I 



I 



TeaSBB, A-, OtMcluimker, ColHfUt 8tr€^, Sohari 
Tovm — M an iifacturer. 

10 A pftii- of carriAge wlioek. The nnven of t lie wheels 
are of bWkwood, the vpokes and felloes of blue ffum ; 
for tbewe parpoeei, ili«» two kinds of timbar have been lound 
well adapted. 

Hektbs, J. G,, Eltsaheih and Macquarie SireeU^ 
Sobarl Town, 

11 CWm of lenther, tul. : — 

Hides of black and brown harness leather* Kip, Kip 
waied on the ;ijni2n, and hlftok-gmmiH] kip. 
Kangaroo- ftkins, jLpTtinedj brown, and waxed. 
Cftlf-*kin«, waied and browiL 
BUck basils. 

Pair rack*, cordoTim hone Mde. 
Solekatb^. 

[Hsne akiiu and hides are of Taamauion production, and 
have been tanned and dresoed at the eatabliflhment of the 
exhibitor.] 

CHAMPioy, — , Hobart Toum. 

12 Table of muskwood, EuryUa m^ffophytu of Tasmania. 
Hound tunjoTer table, with braeswork and springs of 

Tasmanian manufacture. Exhibited for the beuutj' ut the 
wood. 

DotTGLiS RiVEB Coal Cojcpaitt. 

13 Coal, two bufiheb. 

[Tim coal is exhibited as a sample of the strong bitu- 
minoufl coal occurring on the east coast of Yan Dicnicn*s 
Lsind, and traceable over a hurge area of counlrj', in aeams 
Tanying in thickncBs &om a few inches to ten feet and 
upwmfds,] 

Bbowk^ 3owSi Cabinotmaker, lMUHceHo». 

14 Sdeboard of bhickwood of Tasmania. 

[The timber of the Acacia melanoxiflon is considered to 
be more deeply Tt-incd and tinted on the northern than 
on the aoutbi?rD side of the colony. It 1% called black wood 
III I^nnceston and Ughtwood in Hobart Town.] 

[15 Top of star loo table. Composed of alternate* 
BaHtons of figured Hnron pine and blackwood, 
I on cedar, and meeting in the centre ; with finished 
pedeslaL 
10 LikdyU tabic of muskwood, 

17 Box of wilt 1 two sorts — coarse, for pickling ; and 
tfthle, or baflkct salt. A sample from which the magnf»iat^ 
Mlfa are said to be ttioroughlj separated, 

Mirs&AT, W^ Liverpool Strerty HohaH To«>n, 

15 Box of starch : the box made of Hurfm pine, figured. 
Them ore now sereral starch maniitaetorios in Mobort 
Xovrn* 

PiXOH, jAKSflii SS^Uqh Ca^tU, laU. 
IB PIaz, drisssod in 1850 hj the cxliihiior, who is en- 
dtaitniring to establish the cultivation of flax in Tasmania, 
to Box of dried apples. 

[QmeraHy, more fi-uits are dried in the northern than 
iht southern side of Tan Diemen's Laud } but the last 
two fimuiu!rrf bare beeD unfiiTOurable, from the unusmHj 
low tcmpenitore.] 

BuTTOisr, Thomas, Z^aunce^on. 

21 Samples of glue. 

22 CoDoentrat'ed solution of Sllmosa bark, extracted 
lijeDld water. 

[This polntion is employed for tanning leath^; it b 
OffliiMihiirl in a great measure free from colouring matter, 
•■d fifm the principles which give a dark^ uneven cha- 
racter to k-ather, rendering it brittle^ and depnxriating 
its ralue in the English market.] 

2S Mtxnota bark, ground, Sark of Acada moUssimct^ 
; wmttkv aaid to be the best for tanning. 



I>E3fiiox, His Exeelltm(7 Sir WuxiAM Thohab, 
Norfolk Island, 

24 Ilox of tobaooo in mL 

25 Box of arrow-root 

26 Box of ranize. 

27 Cayenne pepper. 
28 — 35. Wheuta : — FHrnier^s friend, wliite wkct, 

Jamcfi*s Essex, Golden tb'op, white Kent, mother of 
plenty, velvet, and whit« Lammas. 

Mabbhall, G», Kobie Farm^ PUtwaUr, 

36 Wheat, bag marked G. 

37 OaU, bog marked G. 

DEifiBON, His Excellency Sir W. T. 
3S Wheat (ChicHiam). 

MixLiOAy, JOSEPH, O^si&r Cow, 

39 Saaaafras bark of Tasmania {Aiherotpertna t#af* 
chatvm). Used medicinally as a hitter and a stomachic. 

MritnAY, W., Lirerpoal St reel ^ HohaH Toit>», 

40 Mould candiea. 

M*NAirOHT¥K, A. 

41 Cask of velvet wheat. 

Lrpfi COMBE, F. 

42 Cask of white Lammas wheat. 

M'Naughtkk, a. 

43 CSask of wliitc wheat. 

Walker, John, Barrack Sireel, MobaH IWfi. 

44 Cask of whiU> wheat . Cask made of silver wattle, 
with hoops of young wattle, 

Bbow*n k Oo., Ne» Wharf. 

45 White wheat, in a cask of Huron pino, hooped with 
black wntilc (Aeaeki fnoUis^ma). 

46 Wliite wJieat, iu a cask made of blauk wood, with 
hoops of bkck wattle. 

Tooth, E., Bagdad. 

47 Cask of malt. 

Pattebson, — , Liverpool Slreei^ Eobari Ibvm, 

48 Vm\ of small malt. Cask made of silver wattle, 
wiittle hoops. 

WjiiKER, J., Barrack Sireft^ Ilohart Town, 

49 Pearl barley. Cask made of silver wattlcj with wattio 
hoop^. 

Claytox, H., Noffolk Plmns, 

50 Flour. Cask made of silvtT wattle, ynih wh I tie hoops, 

Waleeb, J., Barrack Street, Hohart Totm. 

51 Fine flour. Cask made of silver wattle, with hoopa 
of young black wattle, 

M*NAroiTTEK, — . 

52 Superfine floxir of Van Diemtu's Lund. 

MrLLTOAN, A. M., LfWareHon. 

53 Small cask of biscuit, manufactured of Tasmanian 
flour, 

BbOCX, — , Macquarie Sireet, Boharl Toum. 

54 Common seamen's biscuits, 

55 Ship biiiciiits, fine. 

Dkkison, His Eieelleney Sir W, T, 
56 — 65 Muskwood {Eur^hia arffoph^llaj, smoothed 
and poh»hed on one side to show the grain. 

[The muskwood of Tasmania is valuable for the purpoaot ' 
of the cabinet-maker, being variously veinotl, dotted, and 
marked upon a brown-groimd colour. It ia close and fine' 
bi the i^rain, takes a hi^h poLLnh, and harmonises well witk 
the gilding on picture-frames, into wliich it is often worked 
up. The mu»k-tree grows only in dense forests* and damp 
sitiuitions ; and though it does nat nttaln the size of a 
forest tree in Tan Dieuien'a Ljiiid, it yet yieUls slabs largt 
enough f*>r ordinary omamentnl work. The fmest fiinc^ ' 
wood b of eour:?c obtiiincd from parts near the root, and 
from knotty gnarled butts of ti'ees.J 



VAN DTEMEN'8 tAKD. 



[OrjLosJiEB Aini 



I 



66 Skb of mjTila {Fa^fU$ Cttnm»ffham$i)^ of Yftn 
Diemoii** Lttud. 

[Tliia mjrtle often compowa dt^tise foresta of many 
mileS} and individual trees in aucli sitiialionB, attain 
a girth of from 30 to 40 ftM?t, with a proportiouate 
height. The wood ia of & fresh pink colour when newlj 
out, and is often very beautiftdlj veined and watfred, 
which Ills it for ahowy picture-frames, and similar cabinet- 
work.] 

67 — 70 Cedar (Afhrotaxis Melaf^inmd-es)^ or pencil pine, 
of Taamania, Marlborough, and hake Country* 

[The peneU pine foimd in the ravines and gorges of the 
mountain, and the high table-land of the colony, in 
groups, or singly j aomctimea in tlifi foresta, and not un- 
frequently in bure, unsightly groyes ; of dead, dr}% and 
bleached sterna, with a few large limba attnehcd, at the 
height of from 3,000 to 4,000 fiset above the le\ el of the 
Bea.] 

71, 72 Sectiom, with baric. 

73 Celery-topped pine {PJk^nocladu$ asphmfoUa) of 
Tasnaania. 

[Tliia pin« attainB a height of 150 feet, and grows 
in bO the cold and moist parta of Tan Diemeira 
Land, in a handsome pyramidal form. Tho young trees 
are Hometimca used aa spars for rig^g yeseeU, but they 
are too heavy ; the timber is very wldte and dose-graiBed, 
and uaefid for household purpose*.] 

74, 76, and 76. Section, with bark, 20 iDehcd long, 12 
inched io diameter. The same, ^ foot, and 12 inches in 
diameter. EosrC^vood, or zebra wood, of Tasmania, a&id 
>C» b«j plentiful about Marlborough and Lake Country, 

77 Muakwood log, from Tasman'a Femsnnla. 

SlHTH, C. T. 

78 Hops, Tasmania!]. 

MoxiGAN, X, MountWfilUnjtc^ emd Con^ 
stUuiwn Bill. 

79 Hones for edged tools, 

DmnsON, His EiceUency Sir W, T. 
A drip-stone, from Norfolk Inland. Piltora made 
of thifl rock, which ap|jear» t^o be a raided beach of cal- 
careous grit, are in general use in the colony, and much 
approved. 

MzLLiajLV, J., lUnderi Ztlamett in Batis Siraiig, 
81 Gum: giim redn of the ^raaa tree {Xanihorrhaa 
anstralis), 

[This gum re&in, or bfth*ani, is highly inflaniinable, jneld- 
ing, on combustion, a clear wliilc Hame and rich fragrant 
odour, and \» wM to be used iii chuFcbes in phice of 
frankincense i it dyea calico a nankin colour ; enters into 
the composition of some scaling- wai, and may become the 
baa is of a vannsb. Very abundant on miiny of the meagre 
soils of cluy auf] sand in Flinder*8 Island and the neigh- 
bouring ifllands and continent.] 

FowxEB, — t Maria Idgmdt 

82^85 Dogwood slabs {Bedfordia). 

86, 87 Muakwood slaba {Eurybia arffophtfUa)* 

88 He-oak. 

89 Iron wood, or Uffnum vita of TAsm&nm, {Noielaia 

Hohen'SOn, — , Wedhnr^* 

90 A gnn-stock of bhiekwood. Rouglily cnt into form, 
and polished on one »ido to show the grain of tlio wood. 

WniTEsrOES, — , Hohart Town, 

91 Blackwood of Tasmania. A tldn piece, poli&hed 
on one side. 

WZ Myrtlcwood. 
93 Muakwood. 



QuiJTK, — ^ Argyll Sireet, Mohart Toipi*. 
01 Blue gnxm. of Tan Diemon'd Lnnd (E«ca!yptwt 
^hfttlh^t). A piece taken near the root, squared and 
l>olishcd on two sides, to show the grain. 

QriiTK^ — , NQjfolk Island, 
95 Maple. SmaD piece of veneer, polished. 

M'NArGHTEN, — , Mohart Toum. 
96—102 Mujskwood of Tan Dieroen's Land {Burkina 

Hadben, Capt. R. E, 
103, 104 Muakwood of Van Dieracn's Land. 

ErsTON k MiLLiGAX, Macquarie Harbour. 
IDS, 106 Iron wood, or Ligmtm vUtB of Tasmania. 
Orosa section of the trunk of llu3 tree. 

[This tree rarely attains a diauu?ter of more thim 12 or 
1 4 inches. The density and hardnesa of t hi* wood t^ such 
as to Imvo led to its application in making ehcATca for 
ships* bloekj J 

Browkbigq, — , 
107, 108 Muakwood slabs. 

Bi7EGE98j Mrs., Darry Street, Rolari Tonm. 
100 Worsted work, rejireaenting a branch from a blue 
gum tree in flower, with four birds of Tasmania perched 
on the twigs. The branch, leaves, and flower* of tne blue 
gum (EtiLal^piu4t ffiobvlu^) aro represented. Tlie birds 
are a red- breast, a smaU lione^*sueker, a pardatote, and 
the blue-headed wren. The fi^nies of this and the nert 
are of the timber of the myrile-tTee of Van Dicmcn'a 
Land, made by Mr. Pearson, of llobart Town. 

110 Worsted work, representing a gn>up of indigenona 
flowers of Ta*inmnia. In the t*ritre ia the i%TUTata}i (71f- 
lopea truncafa) j immediately over it i.i a bead of the 
gTHM-treei of Mount Welhngton in flower (EU'kea di^icko' 
phjfUa) ; tlicn in order eonie Acaciu verticiUafa^ Billar^ 
diera lonfftfhra, Acacin armata (an exotic) Bichea 9p^ 
Ajtadtk mallitdma^ Atada tufrmejfiuii, Cawmina quadri- 
i>Almi, Fomaderriaf Boronia ^mriahiUMt Tetratheea jp., 
PuU^nta^ 9p.^ and Sol^tnum l^tdmaiufn. 

Hood, R. V., Liverpool StreH, Hobart Tonm, 

111 Timber of silver wattle {Aeacia decUbaia), with 
one side polished. 

112, 113 Miukwood skbs, 

114,115 filaekwood dkbs, squared (Aeacia meJ^tm' 

116 Crosa section of small tree of Huron pine, with one 
comer smoothed and pohehod. 

117 Huron pine slab (Bacrydium FroHJeUm*)^ squared, 
and ]>ohshcd on two aides, 

lis Muakwood slab, (EnryUa arffophffli/$)^ sq^uired 
and ixili^hetl, to show the grain and eharaeter of the wood 
for oraaniental purpo«». 

119 Myrtle slab (Faffm Ctmmn^^amii), from the ro&t. 

120 Mj-rtlc shib, from the stem of the tree. 

Dentson, Wis Excellency Sir W. T, 

121 Bosewootl, Aeacia »p.y of Van Diemen'a Land. 
Found in the Lake Comitry near Marlboroue^b. 

122, 12S Ro&ewotKl of Van Piemen's Laud. 
121 Celery pmo abb {Fh^Hod^tdmi oMplemifolia)^ 
squared. 

125 Eosewood. 

Hood, R. V. 

126 Hiiron pine picture frame, with gilt moulduig j the 
gokl l«if made by Mr. Utxpd. 

127 Musk wood picture frame. 

Mabbiott, The Venerable Arebdoacon. 

128 Muakwood picture fr-ame. 

Hood, R» V. Sobart Towm, 

129 Myrtlcwood picture frame. 

Wiseman, — , E&hart IWw. 

130 Wliip, for tandem or four horses. Tliong of colonial 
luatlaT, and the stick a young sasaafraa of Tufimania. 



Dbfehdekcies.] 



VAN DIEMEN»S LAND. 



995 



131 Two kdics' riding wkipB^ of wiudebone, tipped 
iriiJa viIto-, by M>. Jooea» 

132 Whip for stock-liujntmg, Tbong of cxjlomal leather, 
and »tick of fthi!K>ak. 

130 Stoc1t-himt«i^ft saddle, complete. Mitnuiactured of 
cobnial co\T-liide, prepared in Hooart Town, 
134 Btock-huntor'B breastplate, 

BcTTTOjr, Tttos., LamnctHtm, 
lEG Bresacd kangaroo iikina^ 

Dkit«on, Hii Eicell0ji€j Sir W. T. 

136 Boll oi Traed. Colonial mntorial, mnmi&ctiired 
by the inmates of Casoades* eatablisluneae. 

137 H^nk of jam* 

SrpKEDfTEKPSxi' OP Qtrras^a Obpkan Schools. 

138 Woollen glo^t!*, knitted. ManuJkctured by th© 
diiklr^D in the Queen' § Oqiliwi 8ch43ola, 

139 Woollen aocke, knittt-d. 

140 Tbe same, unbleoclH^d^ 

141 WooUen etoekingft, knitted, 
143 Shftwb, knitted. 

143 Swaitsdown, two sikm&. 

CiKBmJTE, K., Murray Street^ Molari Tatm. 

144 Sampkfi of #oiip, 

LuMSnEir, —^ Brhb&ne Sireeff Mohart Hbttm, 

145 Loo-table top, of Huron pin^^ 

146 Pedestal for tbe tabK 

Watchokn, W,, JUmrpooI SireH^ MohaH IW». 

147 Cadk of tallow. Tbi^ exlubitor djuiru to hare been 
the fijBt to export t*llow to England from the oolonj, 

DEiasoi.-, Hjfl EioeUency Bir W, T, 

149 Loo-tabk top, dogwood {M^Jbrdia ^.), 

\T\m dog-wood, or BedfardUs- tree, ia one of tho mo8t 
bautiM £u]Cy woods of Yan Di<nncfn*« Land. It attaizu 
to a Urgra* siie on Maria Inland tlian elsewbere. In tho 
Tidnitj of Hobart Town it la ^ mare ^hrub,] 

150 Pod^tal for the aame. 

151 Top of a Bofa-table, inkid with cheas-board in the 
middle, 

EouT, W. 

152 Fortmanteau, Made of colonial leather. 

Guifir, W,, LfiuncMt&fh 
1^ Feathers of mutton^birdf , or sooty petrel {Pujfimts 
hrmeavdU), 

[The«e feathcre are much used for pillowi, holatcrs, and 
mattresses, and, when properly prepared, answer tho pur- 
pose weJL Owing to the numbcTa of thb bird which resort 
to the iskndfl in Easi^'a Btroite, and tb<3 jirofusion of 
fcathicrB with which it is clothed, thia article can be 
(obtained in abundance.] 

HorT, W,, MlUahetk Street^ Mobari Ttma. 
15-4 A small rope line. 

155 Small Eiie«, three sixes. 

156 Beat small rDi>e, three dzea, 

157 Cable-laid lines, three »u^* 
1^ Oemmion lineal two tdzes, 

HAi^njXLf — , MohaH Tmvfkt 
15§ Biding-wbip, common. Made entirely of colonial 

mat^rrtala, 
IGO Two wHp-thong3| — one for gig, and one for hmitiug- 

whip. Made of horse-Mde, cU^ess^xl in Hohnrt Town. 

Oaicden, FttlLH', Launtext&n, 
ISI Wool, two fleeces^ Leieeatef iniprored. 
[The produce of sheep imported from the beat floeks in 
England in 1837, b» e^diibited to ahow the improvement in 
the aoftaess aod tiiky appearance of the flecec, winch are 
iHiibutcd to tha nature of the dimate. j 



162 Glue. 

163 Oil, firora neats' feet, 

164 Oilj from 8ho^*« trotters. 

Hood, E. V, 

165 GbM leaf, Monufiu^tured from Califomian gold, 
brought to Taamama by {^lonial trading vessels. 

166 Gold-beaters* akin. 

M*Kbfzie, Mrs., Sim Eilh, BaihwelL 

167 Knitted glov^, made frow, oposAiun fur, 
Slikslitz, Mrs., KiUymoim^ Break-^^^dt^, 

163 Qldrvefti made irom opo&tmm fkp « 

Tooth, E, 
16& Gloves, made from oposBom fur- 

M^Xekzee, Mrs., BalkwelL 

170 Lady's cape of opo^mim fur. 

Tooth, E, 

171 Gloves, made from lambs* wooh 

BimON, Teos., Launceti&tU 

172 Farchjuent, 

EouT, W, 

173 Bnifihes, one set of four. 

Litsoombe, F. 

174 Flaic, dpsit$ed. 

SttlfiLAND, W, 

175 Cama^mg. Made of skins of the black opossmn, 
lined with skins of the native cat. 

Dbhison, His Excellency Sir W. T, 

176 Bugs of various furs. Made of ekins of the brush- 
kangaroo {Ma^nmiurtis MeHt^iiii)^ forest kangaroo (Mt^ 
cf&p^ mstfor), black opossum (PAal^tnffitia Jidi^inoaa}^ 
native cat {Das^rm mvmriimt), tiger-cat (i>, m<n?ttia^w*)i 
well pnssorved, exhibited aa apecimens of grrat rarity aud 
beauty, 

SaABLAjiU, Mrs. J Qei>rgs Tmm, 

177 Book of pressed algee, coOeeted by the exhibitor, 

Datteb, Yen. ArDhdeacon. 
173 Eug of flkins of black opossuiu {Phalangvdt^fuU^ 

179 Bug of tanned skin a of brush-kangaroo, 

Mit*LiCri:N, J. 

180 Oarpente/s bench- screw. 

151 Three pairs of ahoe-laet*. 

TAUEKTiKij Dr., CftmpleUmm, 

152 Three ot^an-pipcs of Huron pine, bored in tlie solid 
piece, with stops, &c. 

[Two of thttjo are bored in sohd pine, and arc found 
to yield a softer and more mellow tone tlian those made of 
woods not so hard m the grairu It is confiidcred tliat 
the tube, being free from joints and glue, and made of 
very durable wood, when properly seasoned, will bo 
little influenced by atmoepherie changes. The small pipe 
has a stopper, wliich being removed, an oetave above will 
be product. The stopped pipe is regarded as a novelty ; 
it gives a y^ ioft note, well adapted for the truble half of 
the fttop-diftjjason of a chambei^oi^an. The third is exlii* 
bited to show how on open pipe of the ofiual construction 
may be tuned by means of a stopper, without injuiy to 
ita size.] 

WAfii>, C^ C^lUm Strtei^ Mobari Tmon^. 

153 Stockman's ankle- boots^ of eoloniiil materiah 

EfiOAir, — i Ltperpool Street, Mabart Town. 
184 Nino dreeeod kangaroo ikinsj tanned with wattle 
bark. 

HahpfBj — j Laurt^tti^^ 
1S5 Prepared groats. 

WAJin, C. 
130 Blacking for shoes. 



mB 



VAN DIEMEX^ LAXB. 



[COLONIBS AK1> 



187 Taimc<i fllcin wilh ibc hatr on of tJw Thtfheinut 
eyanomphalus. The hjffiniL, or tiger of ttio colonists, 
which has become very sctuve, 

[The Thyloiriiie or " pouched hyrena" of the Tasnumian 

oolonista ie the LLTgest aiid most fonuidnble of the ear- 

m?orou8 upeciua of that peeuMor order of qiiatimpetls 

IJUJarmpialia)^ which nre ohiiost oxdn(>iveh' confined to 

itraiia and V&q Dicmcn*a Land. Tlie Thylocine w 

rpoculiar to 'Van Dienjen'a Loud, nnd, oa ita ravagee 

g»t the Hooka of the settlers arc as destructive as 

* those of the wolf in other countries, it ia hunted down 

with great per»efverancc, and will probablj be the first of 

exiitiug qiiadrupeda which wQl be extirpated, — B. O.J 

DEifiBON, His EiccUencj Sir W. T. 

188 Six tanned el ins of the OrnUkatynehv* paradortt&. 
The platypus of tlio coLoxLista. The Jine fur under the 
noat of long hairs upon its bock b aaid to be equal to the 
fur of heaver for hat -making. 

[The Omit/tor/iifrwhm it pecidiar to Australia and 
TaAmania, and eonibifie§ with tlie hair and fur of a mam- 
nudian quadru|wd, the webbed feet and the be^ik of tlie 
duckj whilst tlie male has spurs on the liind legs like a 
oock. In its internal anatomy the Onulhorhf/tK'hm olfers 
many marks of FcjuLnntilanfe to both hirds and reptiles, 
and forms the nearest link in the mammalian series to 
tlie OTiparotia chisses^^B. O,] 

Smith, M. C. T. 

180 Sample of fine wool 

DUK>% — , Davcff Si reef, 

190 MtfliUa Auttraliitj a native bread obtained on tlie 
Snug Estate, North West Bay, D'Entreca*teaui ChanneL 

[The native bread of Taanuuiia, which growa under 

ground, like the tndHo in England, and, like it, has a pecu- 

lliar smell. It is edible, having formed, in a half-roafit«d 

, a portion of t he thet of the aborigines^ and haa been 

' tried in soup and in puddings by Europeans. 

*^This ipedmea is unusually large, having weighed 14j^^ lbs. 

in 1846, at present it weighs 10^ J lbs.] 

Lowes, T. Y. 

191 MiflUia AusiralU^ obtained at Qlenopchy 17 years 
•go. 

192 Writing-deet, of muskwoodj inlaid with pine, bWk- 
wood, «he-oak, and myrtle. 

193 Dre«aing-eac»e, or work-boi, of the same material*. 

MiT-LiGAX, J., ''i'/'ff^U SfreH^ Hobart Ib««i> 
IJM Keeklaees of shells, as worn by the aborigines of 



[The ahall composing theie neeUaoes seems to be closely 
allied to the Fkuffianellu. It u vatry abundant in the 
Tariou3 bays and sinuosities of the island. It powscsflea 
a nacreous brilliant lustre, which i^ diacloscd by the removal 
of the cuticle^ and iMs the aborigines e fleet by soaking 
in Tinegar, and uaing fiiotion. Yarious tints, black, blue, 
and green, are afterwards given by hoihng with tea, char- 
ooal, &e.] 

Walkee, Abm., Korfolk PlahiM, 

196 Flmnbago {Uack lead). 

[This ipecimen was found in a seam or rein about 
$ inches thick, traversing schistose clay, overlying an old 
qnortsose and crystialline limestone^ in a shaE where lodes 
of lead and copper are erpeetad to be realiMcL] 

RoLWEOAN, — , Collin* Street, MohaH IW»*. 

196 Book, in one volume, printed and pobhBht^ in Tun 
I>i<^men*s Ijand, bound in eolonial calf, gilt and lettcn^d 
with gold leaf manufactured in Hubort Town ijom Cah- 
{bmiim gold. 



MiLLIGATf, J,, Argyll Street^ HohaH Tofcn. 

197 " T»«n^anian Joumid," tliree volumes, printed and 
pubhshcd in Yan Dicmen's Land. 

Anpebson, — , Lwerpaol Sireet^ Rob<ifi 2W«i. 

198 Set of ladies' tortoiseshell oomba. 

Brown, FosLDneG, — , MohaH Thitm. 

199 Candkstick, turned, of iron wood, fipom Norfolk 
Tslaiift {Olea npeialn). The tops are turned firom the 
root of the Noribtk Island pine Qtraucaria exceUa), 

MiLUOAJJ, J., Arffifll Street, Mohart Town. 
300 Snuff-box, turned of iron wood {Oha apetala)^ 

201 Sniiif-box, of muskwood of Tasmania (itttf^^ui or- 
gophtfllmn) . 

202 Snaff-box, of Huron pine. 

209 Globular snuff- box, turned out of the tooth of the 
sperm whale. 

20* Ladies' thread-liolder, turned. 

205 Latiica' pidf-box, turned. 

206 Goblet, turned, 

Moses, S. lAnerpool Street, ffohari Taum, 

207 Jaw of a sperm whole, with forty-eight teeih, com- 
plete. 

[The sperm whale Phtfxefer ma4^rocephaIua. This species 
differs fixjm tbe greiit wiudcbone wlialc:«, in havi^ng a row 
of large teeth in the lower jaw, and a few si nail ones cxm- 
oealed in the gum of tlie upper jaw ; the gjiermaAeti is 
contained in a large cavity on the outside of tbe skull above 
the cranium. — R. O.j 

HriL, Hrau. 

20S Half Election of tbe trunk of the Tolosa tree (or 
FHtoitpomm bicofor). This U the wood of which the 
aborigines ehicQy made their wnddiea or elubi* 

M'NAUGHTiy, — . 

209 Muskwood sWb. 

Frxekax, Eer. E., Jiromu'* Jiitfer, 
210, 211 Yeneer, of the oak of Tasnutnia {CtMmarina 
qumlrivalvis.} 

212 Piece of a knot of myrtle-tree of Tasmania. 

213 Veneer of be-Oftk of Tasmania {Camarina ttricla)* 

214 Two veneers, of native cherry-tanee of Tasmauift 
{Ejeocarpma cmpreJixi/ormh). 

21 5» 216 Votu>er8 of Tasmania honeysuckle tree 
{B<tnktia Australis), 

Deniso^', Hie Excellency Sir W. T» 
220, 221 Half sections of a limb of honeysuckle. 
222j 223 Half sections of a small shensak trtje. 

MnxiOAN, J. 

221 Se<'tion of a small stem of Rt^heapandanifoUa^ oV 
tftini'd at Mft*"^uario Harboiiir. 8|ieoimcn, sUwd, bevelled, 
and French -pohshcd, to show tlie pith, m^dollary rays, 
and Ijeautifid markings of the wood* 

[This plant grows lite a p^ilm, and attains the height of 
tliirty to forty feot and ten inches diameter j it is con- 
Oncd to the danaa wet forests on the western side of tlie 
island.] 

SitXTi^ Pmup, Rati SeaertiA, 

222 Small bale of wooL 

MlLLlOAN, J» 

223 Specimen of pinkwood {Carpod^mfow Imcida} ob- 
tained at Macquurie 11 arbour. 

[Tliis tree attains an elevation varying frora 100 to 
150 feet in height, with a gixjd clear barrel, and grows 
chieily on the western nde of the islnnd in dense m\Ttle 
forests. The timber, which is finc-gnvined and very hard« 
has been used for making sheaves for sldps* blocks.] 

Peck, Geokoe. 
22i, 225, 226 C?ribhage boards^ veneered on pin^ in* 
laid, Ac. 




DKIfENl>BK01Jfi8.3 



VAN DIEMEN»8 LAND. 



997 



MnxiOAK, J. 

227 Butter-print of Huron pine {Mierocekaiys tetra- 
gond), 

Mosss, Champion, k Co. 

228 Eight ivoiy teeth of the spenn whale. 

Dknisok, His Excellency Sir W. T. 

229 Mi^le of Norfolk Island, a square specimen. 

MlLLIGAV, J. 

230 Seren haskets, made by the aborigines of Tas- 



231 Model of a water-pitcher, made by the aborigines 
of Yan Piemen's Land. 

[This water-pitcher is made of the broad-leaTed kelp, 
and is large enough to hold a quart or two of water. 
The only other vessel possessed by the aborigines for 
carrying a supply of water was a sea-shell, a large cymba, 
occasionally cast upon the northern shore of Van Diemen's 
Land, which contained about a quart.] 

Strutt, WiLLiAii, Baih Street. 

232 Marble, from Maria Island, partially dressed. 

BOTD, J. 

233 Marble, from Maria Island, cut and dressed as 
paper weights. 

Tebbs, — y QoMoum Street^ JSohart Town, 

234 Specimens of crockery-ware, made from the clay 
found in the domain. 

KsBMODB, B. Q., Mona Vale. 

235 Small bale of wool — exhibited as a fine sample. 

Jkkkinos, J. D., lAverpool Street. 

236 Chum, made of Huron pine (Microceharys tetra- 
g<ma), 

MOSBS, S. 

237 Bundle of whalebone; an important article of 
export. 

Smith, Lieutenant, E.N. 

238 Baspberry and currant jam. 

239 Green gooseberry jam. 

240 Bed gooseberry jam. 241 Quince jam. 

Boat, W. 

242 Bundle of curled horse-hair. 

Stmonds, E. 

243 Com riddle, coarse. 

244 Barley riddle, coarse. 245 Com sieve, fine. 

246 Fire-screen, for chair-back ; made of willow, grown, 
dressed, and dyed in Van Diemen's Land. 

247 Bottle basket, flat. 248 Bundle of willow rods. 

249 Fishing basket. 

250 Three double-handled baskets. 

251 Book basket. 252 Knife basket. 

253 Child's basket, round. 

MiLLIOAN, J. 

254 Gxxm of Acacia (Mueranata) j a shrubby tree on 
Flinders* Island, Bass's Straits. 

255 Guano, from Babel Island. 

256 Specimen of grey granite, from Flinders' Island. 

257 Granite, from the east coast of Van Diemen*s 
Land. 

258 Granite, from the Hampshire Hills. 

259 Porphyritic granite, from Webb's Harbour. 

260 Limestone, from Fingal and Break-o'-day. 

261, 262 Limestone, with galena, from Norfolk Plains. 

263 Brown-clay iron ore, ^und near Fingal. 

264 Clay iron-stone. Found in beds, alternating with 
bituminous coal, near the Douglas Biver, on the east 
coast of Van Piemen's Land. 

265 Beddle — red ochre or red chalk. It occurs in masses 
of uniform and determinate shape, imbedded in alluvium 
of loam and earth. 

266 Ore of iron, from the Hampshire Hills. It is 
nearly pure iron; seems ciystalline; and is highly magnetic. 



with polarity. It occurs in masses, at the line of contact 
between granite and basalt. 

267 Ore of iron. 

[This ore is found in nodules with quarts, in granite 
soil, near the Housetop Mountain, north-west of Van 
Piemen's Land; formerly used by the aborigines as » 
paint, being first peroxidized by roasting, and then re- 
duced to a fine powder by grinding between two stones.] 

268 Ore of manganese, from the vicinity of the French- 
man's-cap Mountain. 

Denison, His Excellency Sir W. T., T<unum*9 
Pemtuula. 

269 Two cross sections of the barrel of the blue gum 
tree. 

270 Limestone, from Maria Island. 

Fleog, B. C. 

271 Wellington boots, of kangaroo skin, dressed in 
Hobart Town. 

Dekisoit, His Excellency Sir W. T. 

272 Specimen of calcareous grit, from Norfolk Island. 

MUiLIGAK, J. 

273 Cake of bees'-wax, of Tasmania. 

Stmonds, E. 

274 Key basket. 

275 Bound basket, open. 276 Long basket. 

277 Straw hat, from TiTorfolk Island. 

278 Hoop for a sieve, made of Huron pine. 

MlLLIGAir, J. 

279 Four models of canoes of the aborigines of Van 
Diemen's Land. 

[These are exact models of the large catamarans, in 
which the natives used to cross to Brune Island: the 
material is bark of the Melaleuca equarrosa.'] 
Cox,F. 

280 Case of Tasmanian insects. 

Bonnet, — . 

281 Case of Tasmanian birds. 

GuNN, W., & MiLLiGAN, A. M., LauncestoH. 

282 Oil of the mutton-bird, or sooty-petrel {Pujffinus 
hrevicaudis). 

[Tliis is an oil of a deep-red colomr, and is obtained by 
pressure from the stomach of the young bird. It is said 
to possess virtue as a liniment in rheumatism, and it bums 
with a clear bright light. The sooty-petrel frequents 
certain low sandy islands in Bass's Straits, in vast 
numbers during the sunmier, burrowing to lay its soUtary 
egg, and literally undermining the ground.] 
Bbown & Co. 

283 Oil of the southem black whale. 

284 Oil of the sperm whale. 285 Oil of the black fish. 

Lowes, T. Y. 

286 Oil of the shark. 

Denison, His Excellency Sir W. T. 

287 Blood juice, obtained from a tree in Norfolk Island, 
which makes an indelible marking-ink, and is said to be 
used as a dye for calicoes, &c. 

MnjJGAN, J., & Hull, H. 

288 Gum kino, from the blue giun-treo, the stringy bark, 
and other Eucalypti. 

[This kino is said to be equal, as a medicinal agent, to 
the kino from the East Indies, and is yielded very pro- 
fusely by the Eucalypti^ after incision or injury.] 

Bonnet, — . 

289 Manna. 

[This specimen is an exudation from the leaves and i 
licate succulent twigs of the white gum-trees (Eucalypt 



k 



memmifBra) of Tma BiemeD^s Land» after their popforfttion 
hj An insect in ttie summer. It noon exaiocatei, and 
falls in the form of irregular tears j and during December^ 
Jikimmyj ]^e!inmry, and Moj^h i* usiuiily very abundant. 
Its projiertiefl ore similar to, but less powerful than those 
of the manna of fcho druggist,] 

Abbott, John, 

290 Tron-sandj a fine emery-like Bubftance, wliieli 
oomirs in tldn ItvTCPs on the sea-sbore at Iiong Bay iu 
D'Entrecasteanx Channel, being n drpnsit from wftt<*r 
piwfting Hirough iron-stone bede^ }HM"LoliiTLHn; the soil, and 
depositing the metallic matt^ar where it cornea in contact 
with the salt water, 

EOTTT, W. 

291 noney of Tofimama. Two bottle*, one of 18-19, 
and one of 1850. 

292 Besin of Oyster Bay pine {CalUtrU AuwtraU*). 
QTliis is a Tcry wMte resin^ foimd sometimifi, but rarely, 

in t<5ar9 of a bright amber tint, and scarce. The Oyster 
Bay pin© is oidy found along a narrow strip of counfcrj^ 
near the aea, on the eaat ooaflt of Van Diemen'a Land, 
And islands adjacent.] 

RorT, W. 

293 Beee' Wax, Taamanian. Three eakep, nnblejiched. 
[In no country, it is supposed, do bees thrive better 

tlinn in Van Diemcn^ Land, or prove so productive with 
little attention j thi» is attributed to the milthiess of the 
winter ^aaaon, and the fact that many Ta&manian plantj* 
bloom throughout the winter months. Tlie beo ha« now 
become uatimdi^ed in the forests, and many of the hollow 
trees an* filled with the produce of their labour,] 

BiCEENO, J. E. 
SD4 Alum, foiuid near Bridgewater, It occura vm an 
cllloreaecnee in caverns m the 3ayey rocks, 

Smitei^ Liexit,, R,N. 

295 Epsom wilts (flulphaie of magne^ift) ; found in 
kTemson the side of the Dromedary Mountain, near tho 

'enL 

296 Qum of the wattle*trce {Acacia molUsdina and 

fWattie gom exuides iu streams during the summer 
season from fissures and accidental injiuiai to the hai'k, 
and soon hardens into te^irs and hmips of Tarious siivs. 
It is equal to the gum-arabic of the shops, and used for 
tho same purposes,] 

LiPSOOMBK, F, 

297 Ham, cured ^^^ Mr. MarHhall, 

HiJNEa, Jt, Murray Street ^ Hobart Toum, 
Pidltles :— 

298 Red cabbage- 299 Walnuts. 300 Caidillower. 
sol Onion. 302 Mixed. 303 Tomata sauce. 

Dbitibok, Hia EiLvUenty Sir W, T. 
SO-l Walking-stick, made of the solid side of the bone 
of a whale, with round head, turned out of the tooth of 
the sperm whale. 

305 Walking-stick, made of the Folid side of the bone 
of a whale, with head turned, aud cut to resemble a man- 
rope knot, 

Mii^0AK> J, 

300 Iron ores, from Long Bay, 

[Tlieso ores occur in a bed about 7 or 8 feet thick, 
abofo sandstone, and at the foot of green^stone hiUs.] 

Makbiott, Yen, Arch. 
307 Walking-stick of the oak of Toamama {Casrtarina 



L 29S 

^H^ 29€ 



Lipscomb, F, 

308 Small round table, of Huron pine, inlaid. 

Db LlTTUt, B. 

309 Galena, from the Tama River, 

310 Iron ore j three specimens, found neur York River, 
above limestone. 

MiLLiaAN, J, 

311 Qakm% firom Macquarie Ilarbour. It occurs in a 
vein of mountaiii limestone in the cluuinel of Franklin 
River. 

Dkkison, His Excellency Sir W, T. 

312 Coffee, from Norfolk Island. 

Millioak, J, 

313 Wood opal, from Salt -pan Pkina, 

[It ooeurs in fragments of various suGes, scattered over 
the surface of tho soil, above greonfitone and sandstone] 

RSXB,— 

314 Wattle bark, chopped, as it is prepared for the ton* 
pits, 

MlUJOAN, — 

315 Rook crystal (sp, 25). 

[Tliis mineral is found in angular pieces in the pea^ 
soil above granite^ and in rolled pieees on the dea-coaet of 
Cape Barrow and Flinders* Island in Basses Straits,] 

Mtlligax, J. 

316 Benl (Aquamnntif) \ 30 specimen*, varying from 
60 fl^ to very hard, and from blue to light green, in er\ stab 
and frjigToenl s mtire or leas rounded and roughened, but 
having a brilhant lustn^ on the fraeture. 

317 Tojiaz, straw coloured j 300 specimens from Flin- 
ders' Icihind, Basses Straits, in crystals and fragments, 
more or less worn, but prvM^rving a high polish and great 
transparency j hard enough to cut glass, 

318 Topax, yellow ) 40 apeebnens, from the same locality. 
Tlie crystals exhibit more or less perfectly their natui^ 
fiiccs and angles, and possess, with a brilhant lustre, very 
considerable depth of tint, 

319 Topaz, pink-coloured i SO spectmena. 

Kemp, Geobok, 
330 Cornelian from the margin of Derwent, opposite 
Hobart Town, 

SnAKLAND, W. S. 
321 Thread Ince, two kinds, made by a giri eleyen yean 
of age, at New JTorfolk. 

Rektes, — . 
822 Wool. Sample of sldn-wooL 

323 Sample of skin- wool, scoured. 

MiLlIOAH, J. 

324 Jet, or ligmt<e, horn Macquarie Harbour. Iu the 
elilTs, imbedde<l with thi*, is found a fossil re^in, of a deep 
amber colour and agreeable i>erfume, 

336 Limestone, from the Gordon Eirc^, where tho 
formation is traceable nearly 60 miles. 

BlCHENO, J. E. 

326 Limestone from the Mersey River, obtained near the 
Western Mai%hf«, at a place noted for extensive caverns, 
between Hobart Town and Bridge water, 

327 Limestone from the foot of the Mount Wellington 
range. 

AssRS, Lieut R.E. 

328 Section of Norfolk Island pine {Aramcaria ex* 
ceha). 

Sly, J., lAverpoQl Street, Hobart Tattm* 

329 Fair of dress boots ; the legs, fronts, linings, and 
straps of kangaroo-skin manufactured j and the soles, 
insoles, &c^ of buUoek-hide tanned in Tan Biemen's 
Land. 

Fjsnxon, Mrs. 

330 Honey of 18G0. 




DKPEKDEKCraS.^ 



VAN DIEMEN13 LAND. 



090 



I 
I 



Do wujio, H* 
331—333 The "Tawiiania Ciileiidar" for 1848, l^iD, 
find for 1850« 

Destibok, His Eicellency Su- W. T. 

334 Potash from Taemaniaii timbera, 26 Iba, ; the 
T6BX3^t of erpcriiiicmtft hy the late Captam Siatiii?y, viz.j 
BlAt'kw^i, *>i lbs. ; wrtttks 6 lb*. ; the oak, 9 Iba. j 
pepi^cmiiut, 24 lbs, j gum (blue), 21 lbs. 

335 Bed ochre, resulting from the decompoBitlou of 
jaffpcrrcrtLS ore of iron. 

33a Yellow ochn.% 

S37 Speeimeus of marie. 

338 White otUt timber (La^mnea vd MihiteuM FaU^r- 

339 Speciniatt of difl tmber of pine (Araucaria «x- 

340 SpedjDens of mm-wood timber {OUa apeiah)i 
tvd to be the most durable, 

AH frow. Norfolk I^luiul^ 

MiLLIOAK, J, 

341 Specimen of timber of Oyster Baj pino {Caliiins 
Autiralis). 

[This timber 19 lued for agricultural implementa and 
for fittings of houses ; it is only to ho luet with along 
the coiut of the colony.] 

84i Specimen of greenstone, &om Fiugal; central 
T«riicAl fection. 

[Tlu* i* exhibitod as a «amplc of the prov ailing ovturlying 
rode of Yan Dicinen*a Land, of which all the roads anj 
made, and some houses and bridges sre built.] 
Blackbuhk k THOMaoy. 

343 Modid of the bridge acroas the river Derwrat, nt 
3nAglBiw»teTt Van DiemcnV Land, on the line of road 
baNreen Hobart Town and Lamiccston. 

pSie model is constructed of Huron pine, and i* upon 
a 1000 of ft qoarter of an inch to a foot. Erected by the 
eihibtlora from their oxm desii;^. The motlel was executed 
by W. Armstrong, under the direction of W, P. Kay, Esq.j 
I>traeU>r of Public Works in Van Diemon^s Land. 
Tba length of tliis bridge is 960 ft., the breadth of the 
roadway is 24 ft,, and it is raised 9 ft. abor© the liighcst 
h)|^-wat«r le^^eh The bridge is raised upon piles, the 
total number of which is 363 ; the pOea meaaure from 65 
to 90 feet each in leugth, and are driiren tlu-oiigh mud 
■nd ioft clay, the former 5 to 15 ft. in depth, tlie ktter 
sol aaoertamed. Continuous wilh the soutbcm end of the 
bridge there is a soHd caui«eway, exten fling to 2,1^50 ft. in 
length, with a breadth of 70 fl. Tbo whole h-ngth of 
faridge and causeway is 3,331 ft. Tlie work was ti^un in 
1883, by Colonel, n6w the Right Hon. Sir George Arthur, 
and completed in 1849, imder the gOTcmment of his 
EnodQency Sir W. T. Deniaon, at an entire cost of 
iq>warcU of 50,000?* The navigation of the river has 
been teeuied by the construction of a moYetihle pliitform, 
or roUing bridge, at the third bay from the northern 
fhoR^ 35 ik. in the clear. The longitudinal beams, upon 
wbioh roiU the platform or roadway of the moveable or 
loQing portion of the bridge, are shod with iron, and 
travel npon large flanged wheels, Cixed upon a pier prt'pared 
£(ff the purpote^ and the mode of moving tliis rolling part 
is bj powerful emb-winehea, working on toothed mils fixed 
cm thm framing mider the bridge, worked by men standing 
on the moving part and moving with it. Tho lateral plat- 
Ibrma «re also moved in and out by craVwinchea fixed 
on the Naming below.] 

TEOitsoy, Jahes. 

344 Coloured Bcetional elerotion of the bridge ond 
pnmwtj at Bridgewater^ Van Diijmen'a Land* 



CotlNCrL OF TUB EOTAX SOCIETT OF TaN 

Dikitbk'b Laitd. 

345 Books and bookbinding 1 pa^^rs and proceedings 
of the Boyal Society of Van Diemeii^s Land, volunit^ the 
1st. Printetl by Messrs, Best, and bound by Mr. Kolwo- 
gan, Collins Strc«t, Hobart Town. Tho htbogmphs by 
Mr. Thomas Brown, Macquarie Str«?t. Bound in txjlonial 
call-skins, tanned and dressed by Mr. Reeves. Gilt and 
lettered with gold leaf, manufactured from Califomian 
gold, by Mr. B. V. Hood, CoUins Btiwt, Hobart Town. 

Watsok, Jony, Sohari Tavm. 

346 Plank of blue gum {Eucaltfptus glohulm) \ length, 
146 ft., bnaidth, 20 in., depth, 6 in. 

[The various s|>ecies of Eucalyptus attain generally a 
groat size both in girth and length in sheltered situations, 
where the forest in thick, where there is no grass, and 
where injury has never or very rarely been sustnined 
from bush-iires. Blue gura has been measured upwards 
of 90 feet round near Tolosa, on tho northern aspect of 
Mount Wellington range, and on the R>uthem side, 
aceording to the Rev. T. J. Ewing, one of tho species has 
l)een measured 102 ft, at 3 or 4 ft, from the ground. 
Another Evcafvptiu, called stringy bark, exists near tho 
Cam River, on the north coast, measuring 64 ft. of solid 
timber at 4 ft. from the ground j the tree, having some- 
what the form of a four-sided column with its angles 
bt veiled, is 200 ft. to the first limb, wliero it is estimated 
to be rnort^ than 4 ft. in diameter, giving the eoonnous 
cubic njeaauremcut in the trunk alone of more than 1,OUO 
tons of timber,] 

Grant, James, Eaq., Tuliochjomn^ Fify;aL 

3 17 Tlnve mm ileeoes ; — 

(1) Fleece from a hogget ram, weighing, after behig 
scoured, 3 lb. 10 oz. 

(2) Similar fleece, wcigliing 3 lb. 11 02. 

(3) Fleece from an older ram, weighing 4 lb. 

Rtcii.uiDaoN Bhothers k Co., 17 SL Mdcn's Flace. 
Specimens of two sorts of wool. 

McLACHUiy, — . 

34S Specimena of Bilki*ed wood from Van Diemen'a 
Land, 

[This magnificent tree wo* diaoovered on the estate of 
Kieharfl Barker, Esq., of Macquarie PlauiB,Tan Dicmcn's 
Land, 32 miles from the City of Hobart Town, in tbo 
district of New Norfolk j it was 12 ft. high, and imbe<lded 
in lava, and distinctly surrounded by two flows of scoria, 
winch at some distant 6i\j had brought out the jidces of 
the tree to its surface, and l>ecame by a combination of 
silex, completely vitrified, and siunxjunded the ti*ee with a 
glossy surface, the interior of the tree producing opal 
wood. On a minute examination of the wood by Dr, 
Hooker, when here in the " ErcbnSj" it has l)t;en dis- 
covered to be a species of tree not growing in the 
neighbourhood, and appears to bo of the pine or eoni- 
fcroufl speoiea. It is eonjeetured it was originally throwm 
up by an eruption of a volcano to a considerable height, 
and came down with its Imavy end first upon a bedof sand, 
and had there ncmaincd for agea. In describing the tree he 
says :— ** Tlie manner in which the outer layi-rs of wood, 
when exposed by the removal of tho bark, separate into 
the ultimate fibres of which it is composed, forming an 
ainian thus-like mass on the ventricle of tho stump in one 
jtlace, and covering the ground with a white powder 
connnonly called native pounce, ia very curioui." It ia 
10 ft. high, and when first discovered, 3 ft. 6 ins. diameter, 
and hos been excavated at very considerable expense and 
labour, and was in a i>erfwtly porpendicular position on 
the point of a ridge of rocks.] 



1000 



TAX DIEIIEI^'S LAND.^ 



-EW ZEALAND. 


[CotOKIES AST) 


Statistics of New Zjealaih] 


,1850, 


POPUIJITIOX. 

British. 


4 


In Oiief Towns— 




Auckland ♦ , . , 


4,000 


WfUiiijjton . . , . 


4,000 


New Pljm«>uth . 


1/H]K)% 


NeUoTi , . . • 


2,J>U0 


Otft^o , . . . 


1,000 


Bemaoider . . , , 


8,000 


Totd British . 


20,000 ■ 


Total Naiivea . 


80,000 1 



iKCEj W. H*, Esq., CArifTtf.— Ppopriet^jr. 

3-19 A list of Australian birda, beionging lo the late 
John Mattherw Robert Incej E&q., coTniTiander of H.1I.S. 
** Pilot/' and collected duriiig the surr eying service of 
H.M.S. " Fly.'* 

1, Ptiloiiorhynehuii holosmoeus j male. 2. Carpo* 
pba^ mftjyfnifiea. 3* Ptilonoiynchaa holosericeus ; fe- 
mide, 4. Nettapua polohcUuB ; male, 5, Nettapiis pid- 
ehellus I female, 6. Pitta stpepitans. 7. NjtnpUicus 

Dienievieiisis. 10. Merops onintiia!, 11. Clialeophaps 
chrysoelilum. 12. Trichoglo9»*»ujf porphyroct^phalu-*. 13. 
Apro«mietu3 scapidatus, 14. Melipbngn loiigirostriji. 
15, llahinia Lambert i. 16. Aleyoiie piilcbra. 17. Apros- 
mLetuseritliroptcrug. 18. Petroieii inidtieolor. 19. Faleo 
fi\?ntatiii?, 20. GlYcipIiilft fhaciata. 21. ChryBooocnnc 
lueidiis. 22. PHlom [)aradia*us, 23. Paohycepliab me- 
l&uura. 2^1, Myzomela etrthrot-i'phjiLi. 25. Zostcrop* 
ofaloronotuii. 26. Dicnima bniciteatua, 27. Platyccrtms 
Brovmii. 28. Gh?opcliii huiiiLTttliiJ. 29. Eupbema pul- 
cheUo. 30. Ptiloris pamdiseus j female. 3L Halcyon 
MaclcnW. 32. Triebloglcwsus Swainsonii. 33. Seriiulua 
cbrTso<'epbaJiiB ; female. 3-1. PieaofhjTiehiia nitulu^. 
S5, PHhtiopuft BwainaoTui. 36, Malunia evaneus. 37- 
SeriLiiliia ekrysoet^ithaliw j raale. 3.S. TriehoglosutiJB ver- 
picoktr. 39. Melopsillacu^ uiiilulatus. 40, Entreldabtdk. 
4L Njmpliicus ivovBC HoUandiic j male. 4S. Miilviriis 
BroTftTiii* 

[These spt-iiimens iilustrate the ornithology of Tan 
Diemen'ii Land, m well m that of the Qreai Main of Kew 
Holhind. The plumage of the Chry&ocooeyi liiotdua (21), 
and the Taneties of " Alcyone," are espeoiAliy beautiful^ 
and udmirsblj jureaerred.] 



NEW ZEALAND. 

South Area, Q. akd E. 33. 
VALUABLE and tolenibly 



MTttERSON AND Francis, Uohftrt Town, (Agent, 

\Y. Franeij*, l.\>rn Eatehmige, London. 
350 Sainpie of wht'iit^ the groi^th of Villi Dicmen'e 
Land, wcigliiiig 65 i lbs. per imi>crial bushel. 

I A VALUABLE and tolenibly extensive (xiUection of 
V native an*l other pro<luct» has T>pen forwarded frcjm 
I this dijstjmt detJcndeucy of Great llritaiii. AnRtiijif the 

i mw materials are 8pednien.s illuHtrntive of the geolojj;y 

of certain districU. Amon^ thcso is some c(jpp<»r oru 
from a small island, distant a lew miles from Auck- 
land. To thifl ore the attention of the miner has 
(already been directedj and a Company has l«ien formed 
for it5 extraction. Other siwcimens from mines dif- 
ferently situated are also sent, and appear to indicate 
that ext^inftive Hiippliea may in a short time lie obtained 
from this interesting conntry. Some bhxks of litjTiite 
and Waikato coal represent some of the stores of mineral 
fuel possessed by the country. Sulphur aiid man^^a- 
nesc have also been forwarded. The ahumlant store 
of iron contained in the iron-saml of ('i)OjKT*s Bay, 
Auckland, has at lecf^th been made available for tbc 
manufacturer ; and the first castin;^; at Auckland 
Fountiry in December 1850, has been sent forexbilntion. 
The vegetable produce is also represented by some 
good specimena, such as those of Phtyrmium i^nar^ or 
New Zealand flax, kirk, dyes, Kauri p^um, orcbella, 
timbers, malt, and ho|>9. The manufactures are few 
and simple, consistinji only of coarse cloth, basket- 
work, leather, and some native curiosities. The fol- 
lowing stiitiiatical facts relative to this country have 
been prepared by Captain Collinsoa i-^ 



Total British and Katrres 100,000 
2, Extent. 

BdQngiTig to Briti^. 

Arable hmd , , , , 10,000 
Fastiir^ land . . . , 20,000 
B«iiminder : forest, mouiiUun, &c. 20,000 



50,000 
Total, 123,000 aquam raile®, or about the me of Qrmt 
Britain. 

3. Pboductions. 

\\Tiottt, maize, and similar gftun ; slicop, cattle, pigs, 
and other hve stock ; flax, puae timber, copper, snlphur, 
iron, and coal^ — by Britiish ooloniBts and natives. 

4. Exports and Imports, 1848. 

Imports from 
Great Britain (maDufactureB) . £5,^)00 
Britifih Colonies (stock and raw 

produce) . ♦ , . 170,000 
Fomgn Countries . • * 3,000 



£225,000 

Export of TfiW, Oi7, Flax^ Copper^ Timber^ 
To Great Britain . , , £16,000 
To British Cohinies . . . 22,000 
To Forei^i Countries , . 5,000 



£13,000 
5- SltTPPtSG. KcafSlUi*. 

To and from Great Britain , 9 per annum. 
„ Britiiih Colonies 90 „ 

,1 Foreign Countries 40 „ 

Small eoasting ve«seb) , . 200 „ 

6. Revenue and Exj'ENDiTtrBE, lJ548. 

From the Colony . . . £47,000 
Aid from British Parliament . 51,000 



Erpcnditure, 
0(lit^r» of Government, Ac, 
Pubhc Works, &c. * 



£96,000 

£62,000 
34,000 



Flax and wooL 



TrtiaEL, — * 



£96,tKK» — R. E. 



2 MtJBCHlSON, J. H., 10 Holhs Street, Caveudisk 
iS^iwirp— Proprietor. 
Copper ore from Kawnn, a small iahmd a few miles 
from Aueklainl, ^'ew Zealand. 



f? CoLLDTSOK, Eev, Joiix, Oix/pjvA^eK^— Pmprietor. 
Geologieal specimens from Now Zealand. 
Specimen of iron-sand from New Plpnonth, 
Small bag made from New Zeabnd fhix, by a liuly. 
Flax pn:'pared by the natlTCS ; native pattern and djea. 
Mat of New Zealand Hax ; nmde by the natives* 



DiPEKDKNCISS.] 



NEW ZEALAND. 



1001 



4 BOBXBTSOK, J. 

Specimens of Pko rmmm ienax^ or New Zeaknd flax. 

1 Coarsest flax. 2 Owee best oordage flax. 3 Dressed 
Owwflax. 4Tihore. 5 Dressed Tihore. 6 Flax dressed 
bj Europeans. 7 ilax in the leat 

Specimens of rope and wool-lashing. 

Coil 4-inch warp, tarred. Shark Ime. Hand lead-line. 
Gofl 4-inch tarred shroud-rope. Coil d-inch tarred rope. 
Coil 2i-inch rope, tarred. Coil rattlin, tarred, li-inch. 
Coil wool-lashing. Fishing line, Harbuka. Coils white rope. 

[Xew Zealand flax is obtained from the leaves of the 
pl^t botanically termed Pkormium tenax. It is indi- 
genous, and flourishes in marshy places. There are 
several rarieties ; the coarse is not much esteemed in this 
country, but the finer kinds are of great beauty and 
Tslue for textile purposes. — ^B. R] 

5 MoVjlt, J. 
Specimens of leather and skins. 

^p leather. Crop leather^ Half-dosen sheep skins. 
One good sheep skin (not tanned). 

Specimens of barks : Towai, tanning bark. Tanekaha, 
tsnmng bark» Hinan, black dyeing bwk. 

6 



Smith, J. A 
Specimen of soap, manufactured in Auckland. 

/ St. John's Collsoe, New Zealand. 

1 Specimens of cloth and hat. Manufactured by 
a native lad, aged 17 years, from wool grown, cleanseo, 
carded, spun, and woven, at St. John's College, and dyed 
with native woods. 

2 Hat mannfiictnred by Nicholas Cod, pensioner, 
Howick, New Zealand. 

Specimens of basket work : — 

1 Basket, manufactured of Mange Mange, which \b 
esteemed by the natives for its durability. Their eel 
bsBkets, made of this, last for a very long period. 

2, 3 Baskets made of supple-jack, obtainable in the 
Kew Zealand forests from the eighth of an inch to a foot 
in diameter. By J. Meagher, pensioner, Howick. 

8 Haborbatbs, J. 

Specimen of lignite, obtained from the banks of the 
Timaki, in the vicinity of Auckland. 

9 Gree>'wood, W. 

Specimens of coal, showing the strata of the exhibitor's 
coal mine at Matakana, 15 miles north from Auckland. 

10 CoyyElL, W. (a* Secretary of the Auckland and 

Waikato Coal Company.) 
Specimens of Waikato coal ; distance from Auckland 
35 miles, and 10 miles from Manukau H arbour. 

11 Taylor, J. 

Specimens of the copper series from the Kawau Com- 
pany'** mine, Kawau. 

1 Killas. 2 Gk>ssan. 3 Copper ore, from the upper 
part of the Lode. 4 Manganese, foimd near the Copper 
Lode. 5 General character of the copper ore. 6 Copper 
re^us. No. 2. 7 Copper regulus, best, No. 1. 

[It should be explained that the Killas is the clay slate 
rock in which these minerals occur. Gossan is a per- 
oxide of iron, derived in most cases from the decomposi- 
tion of the double sulphuret of iron and copper, and ordi- 
narily found upon the "backs" of lodes. In many caa^ 
the gossans have been found to contain considerable 
quantities of silver. — 'R. H.] 

12 Reeve, J. 

Specimens of copper ore from Messrs. Whitaker and 
Ecalc's mine, Kawau. 
1 Yellow ore. 2 Blue ore, 
[The yellow ore is copper pyrites, that is, a sulphmret 



of iron combined with sulphuret of copper, and the term 
blue ore is sometimes applied to the true sulphuret of 
copper, called also grey ore, and to the blue oarbonate of 
copper. — ^B. H.] 

13 Lewis, T. 

Specimens of copper ore. 

Specimens from Ghreat Barrier Island Mine, 86 mikt 
N.N.E. of Auckland. 



14 Smith, J. A 

Two specimens from Brodie's mine, Mongonui, 100 miles 
to the northward of Auckland. 

Specimen of iron sand, obtained in lai^ quantities in 
Cooper's Bay, Auckland. 

Specimen of sulphur, from White Island, Bay of Plenty^ 
on tne east coast of the Northern Island, New Zealand. 



1 5 Mburakt, E. 

Specimen of pumice stone, from the banks of the river 
Waikato. 



16 BaowK, W. 

Specimen of Kauri gum, obtainable in any quantity in 
the northern part of New Zealand, ranging m>m 20 nules 
south of Auckland to the North Cape. 



17 Gebbitwood, W. 
Specimens of building stone : — 

Scoria from the vicinity of Auckland, obtainable in 
any quantity. Stone from Matakana, 15 miles from 
Auckland : brought to Auckland in blocks of large size, 
and used in the Ordnance buildings. 

18 Bboww, W. 

Specimen of limestone, from Wangarei, 60 miles to the 
northward of Auckland. 



19 Smith, J. A. 

Specimens of Boman cement stone, found in large 
quantities on the banks of the Tamaki. 

Specimen of sharks' fins, which can be obtained in large 
quantities, and are suited for the China market for a 
native basket or kit. 

Specimens of flax seed and orchilla weed : — 

1 Flax seed {Pkormium tenax) for oiL 

2 Orchilla weed, collected in the vicinity of Auckland. 



20 Balnbatis, Lieut. H. C, H.M. 58th Begt. 
Specimen of a New Zealand war pah, on a scale of half 

an inch to six feet. 

21 Johnson, J. 
Specimens of New Zealand furniture woods : — 

1 Kauri (Dammara Australis). 2 Bimu (Dacrydiwn 
cupressinum). 3 Hakehake. 4 HakerautangL 5 MataL 
6 Kakikatea {Dacrydium excelsum). 7 Bewa rewa 
(Knightia excelsa). 8 Pohutukawa. 9 Wairangi pirau 
(or Now Zealand sandal wood). 10 Manuka (tea tree). 
11 Totara (Podocarpus totara). 12 Hakerautangi. 13 
Kobe. 14 Hinau. 15 Tanekaha (Pkyllocladus tricko- 
maniodes). 

22 The Waikato Coal Commttteb, Auckland. 
Specimen of coal, weighing 2 cwt. 

23 Pubchas, Bev. A 
Specimens of iron ore and Umestone. 

1 Iron ore, from Manukau. 

2 Limestone, from Kawhia. 

24 Low & Motion. 
Specimen of native grown maize. 
Specimen of Maori wheat and flour. 



25 CAHADrS, J. 

Spmraons of New Zealand Has. (Phormi^im tenax), \ 
1 New Zealanii t1 ai, huk^kled. 2 Net twine. 3 Shop 
twine. 4 Fisliing line, 5 Hand lead-llDe. 6 Mwlino. , 

26 KiN(l, alias, iV>tp Plymouth, 

Eetimle, made of New Zeabmd flm {Fhormimn t^a£)^ 
djed from New Zeiiland wootL*, the pattern and work 
copied from the mftt of a New ZekLnnder. 

27 LiGAB, C. 

Model of Wlnte Island, New Zealsad. In natlTO buI- 
pliur. On a scale of 10 inches to % mile» 
Also a drawing of the plnce, by 0, Heiiphy* 

28 TrBRKI^ J., Pmfea sor. 
Specimens of niitive flax und wool, 

29 Smtn. J. A. 

Spemmen of oil, from the burap-baeked whale^ caught 
at the Buy of Plenty. The «penn and h\i\ek whale* ore 
»ko caught in New Zealand ; but the bottles eontaiuiiig 
the speoimoufi of their oil have been broken, 

30 McLeoDi R. 

Specimens of mangancft^ from Brown and Campbeira 
lana at Waihaka, 15 miles from Aiiiekland. 

31 8|>eeimen of flour proMmted by the natiFe§ of Kan- 
gjarwliia, from wheat ^rown by IHaories, and ground by 
their own milk (turned by water) . 

SjjeeimtTi of a nRtiva box of papa mahuani, m which the 
natiyea keep their licsid dre^aea. 

' 83 TativOb, T. E. 

The grub of " Sphinx " destroyed by a vegetable fungus 
£nmd under the rata tree. 

[It is a Tt^inarkable fact tbat^ in the instanee mentioned, 

whieli is one of not imeommon occurrence, and in others 

, which are on record, the powers of animal vitality have 

, been OTcroome by thoae of Tegeiablc organi^sation. The 

I Ibngus in question penetrates into the cntirt* body of the 

insect, ramifying to the rcrj' extremity of its most delicate 

and sknder organs. For a time the insect Uvea with its 

diseased part, hut ultimately it tUes a victim to thi* active 

derdopmeiit of the fungus. — R, E.] 

34 "WoTTi^Aw & Son, 

Specimen of flax, cleaiu d by machinery. 



35 BOUBNE, W. 

Specimen of iron-casting. The first casting at Auck- 
land Foundry, IStli December, 1850, cast from iron-sand 
found in Cooper's liay. 

36 McLiOD, E. 

Specimen of tinlted midlet ; can be obtained in great 
quantities, and well suited for India and Cliina markets* 



37 



MooEE, F, &., 30 Arttndel Street ^ Strand^ 
Proprietor, 

lathographie picture of a native Tillflge, or Pab, in New 
Zealand, situated in Cook's Straits, Tlie figures in the 
fixre^round are all portrait*, and the origimd large picture 
DOW in London was painted in the colony. Tliis picture 



40 Lucas, R., & Co,, 36 South Audletf Street, 

Specimens of New Zealand woods :■ — Octagon table, top 
venwred with 11 8pix:imen8 of New Zealand woods, A 
sofa table, top veneeretl with three apecimens of New 
Zealand woods. A small eirculjir inlaid table on three 
twisted cohunns, carded claws^ &c. A wluit-not, with 
twisted colimms, veneered with tlu-ec specimens of New 
Zealand woods. A what-not, with twisted columns, 
veneered with one siMxnmen of New Zealand wood. A 
papiticre, with hinged flap and aliding screen panel, fluted 
with green silk, 4c, 



is faithfully descriptive of a |>ortion of the beautiful 
scenery of New Zeidand, and of tlie luibits aud eustoma 
of the imtives. It is a valuable record of the early bistvory 
of the eolonj, by Professor Gilfillan. 

Six water-cokiur drawiugs and six stael engrafings of 
New Zealand suhjeets. 

Four native mats or garments. 

One greenstone Mari or chiefs club. Three specLmenfl 
of greenstone. 

One carved box. One war-club. Native fiehiug-net 
and fishing-hooks. Two bottles of insects. Specimens of 
native gradaes. Large map of New Zealand. 

38 ABTlCLEa forwarded from Weilif^foUt ^eio Zeai-and, 

by the " Lord William Bentinek." 

Table-top composed of 19 specimens of Tamnaki woods, 
i\^ per diivj^nnviii accompanying same. 

Sample uf ML4au t^oal. 

Native basket containing four hanks of llai, two dyed, 
one (black) witli the hinau. 

Flax fishing-line and aaddle-girth, native made. 

Parcel, 10 baskets made of kio kie, and dyed with binan. 

Puriri, or iron wood, Bimu, MairL Miro. Kaiwiria. 

New Plymouth iron-sand in its natural state, unwashed. 

Packet containing a substance collected from the earth 
in the town of New Plymouth, supposed to be alum tn m 
very piuro state, 

Barley from T. Benwidc, Nelson- 
Malt made and hope grown by Hooper and Co. 

Barky and bops grown by II. Martin. 

Totara wood. Flax, 

Coal from Maaaacro Bay, taken from an open pit on tlic 
beach about eight feet deep, exposed to the action of the 
sea i tlie scam is 5 fr>et thick, and lias a dip of about 1 in 7* 

Lunestone, from same plac^ie tus coal. 

Native fish-hook, made with a shell only. Natire mat. 

Box of sundries, Ust enclosed, Rev. R. Taylor. 

Footstool, embroidered with New Zealand flax, R. 
Cameron. 

Spt.'ciinenfi of dyed flax, R. Cameron. 

Bix^nnens of eleaneti (lax in various stages, 

liuther tanned in Wellington with New Zealand m&t^ 
rials exclusively. 

Baskets mactc of kareac. 

Baakcta made of willow grown in the Kent and Ouuk 
fljeen moss, from the harbour of Port Nicholson, coUectod 
by Colonel MeClevcr^. 

Flax, prepared by J. Duncan. 

Native knives, formerly used for cannibal purposes. 

Picture of Port Vietoriaj in frame of New Zealand 
wood, R. Hart, 

Hat of native manufactTire, and shngs used by the 
natives fur carrying burdens. 

39 Malt and hops, made and grown by Hooper and Co. 1 
Coals from Maasoerc Bay, taken from an open pit on 

the beach. 

Sandstone, native fielifork and net. 
Sixjchncns of dyed flax, tanned leather* 




OFFICIAL 



FOREIGN STATES. 



4D 




I^OBTH AND South Abeas, C. to E. &8 to G1 ; F. 59 to 61 ; E. 59» GO ; 

L. to P. 58 to 62; Q. R. 56 to 61 ; 8. 67 TO 61. 
KoBTH East Centbal Gailery, I. 59 to 61. 
South East Central Gallery, M. 58 to 61. 
South East Gallery, N. O. 58 ; P. 59 to 63. 

Commissianers^ Chetalibb de Bubo, and Chables Buschek, Esq., 43 Clarg^ Stret^ PieoadUi^j 
Cu$t<m-h4mt€ A^ent, C. J. Majob, 21 BiUUer Street, 



Thb AustriEii productions fonn a higlily-interestincr feature in the Great Exhibition. About seven hundred 
ittd fifty exhibitors appear as the representatives of this important territory ; and the articles forwarded by them 
most be acknowledged to have added a large share to the attractions of the Foreign side of the Building. So 

S;e a pcnrtion of annotatory matter has been introduced, in such places as appeared to be most suitable in the 
y of this Catalogue, that it is rendered less necessary to offer a lengtheoed introductory notice. To the 
loatter so introduced it is merely necessary to add the remark, that originating from the best-informed sources, 
Md conveying a very large amount of useful knowledge, not to be readily met with in any other work, it hafl 
been inserted with very little abbreviation. The raw materials are largely represented, and by a most in-* 
teresting selection of objects illustrative of the mineral wealth of this monarchy. 

** Austria abounds in every description of metal. All the more useful kinds, with the execution of platinum^ 
are to be foimd therein ; and in the production of the precious metals, Austria is surpassed by Bussia abne. 
Tnnsylvania is one of the richest countries of Europe in gold ; Hungary, also rich in gold, is still richer in it0 
Tield of silver. Bohemia ranks next to Hungary in this respect, and Transylvania immediately after Bohemia. 
ID the production of quicksilver, Austria, by reason of her ])08session of Camiola, stands next to Spain. 
Bohemia supplies excellent tin, Carinthia the purest lead, and Hungary is extremely rich in copper. Iron is 
piodoced throughout the countries of this empire, the only exceptions being Gorz and Graoisca, Illyria 
and Venice. Styria is pre-eminent in resi>ect both of the quantity and the quality of its iron, which is con- 
adered equal to any raised in Europe. Fossil and brown coal the Austrian dominions may be said to possess 
in inexhaustible abundance, and, in consequence, mining has been carried on in these regions with ^)eculiar 
ipirit and energy. Due advantage has been taken of the progress of modem science in so pushmg the 
advancement of this branch of the national industry, that though it cannot be said to have attained the utmost 
decree of development which it may be capable of reaching, yet it must be allowed to have closely approxi- 
mated to it." 

Minerals, metals and their ores, chemicals, agricultural productions, silk raw and manufactured, models of 
machinery, carriages, and a variety of objects illustrative of the other classes of the Exhibition, are foimd in 
this collection. Numerous philosophical and musical instruments are also shown. The textile manufac- 
tures, and leather, paper, books, and printing are adequately illustrated in the various articles belonging to their 
classes. In glass manufactures Austria has long been pre-eminently distinguished, and the specimens exhi- 
bited sustain her celebrity. The metal manufactures are also illustrated by the contributions of a considerable 
nnmber of exhibitors, whose productions bear comparison with the universally celebrated hardwares of England. 
Beautiful examples of porcelain and common wares are exhibited. ITie miscellaneous objects represent in an 
interesting manner those variations in the products of foreign artizans which characterise them, and distinguish 
them from our own. Universal interest is excited by the fine specimens of statuary and other art productions 
exhibited by Austria. The suite of rooms containing the articles made by the Messrs. Leistler, of Vienna, 
ia one of the most interesting features in the Austrian dei)artraent, and presents an imposing picture of the 
laiurious furniture of the nobility of Austria. The state bed, with its appendages, the dining-tables, side- 
hoard, and chairs, exhibit a lavish outlay of ornamental labour. One portion of this furniture, a carved Gothic 
bookcase, is designed as a present to Her Majesty the Queen of England from His Majesty the Emperor of 
Austria.— B. E« 

4T>^ 



1006 



AUSTRIA. 



1 MiESBACH, Alois, Vienna — Proprietor. 

Coals, brown coalR, and lignite, from Lower Aufitria, 
Upper Austria, Styria, Moravia, and Hungary. 

[The coal mines of this exhibitor are the most extensive 
in the empire : his thirty mines contain a store of at least 
900,000,000 cwt. of coal, whereof 864,000,000 have been 
discovered by himsell They give direct employment to 
1,961 men, produce annually 2,750,000 cwt. of coal, and 
are already in a condition to furnish four times that 
quantity, although the greater part of them are only now 
being opened and prepared for working. 

Coal is found in Austria in constantly increasing quanti- 
ties, particularly in Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Lower 
Austria, and Hungary. Bohemia takes the first place as 
to the quantity, and partly, also, as to the quality of its 
coal, nearly half of the total quantity of the coal and 
brown coal produced in Austria being Bohemian. Con- 
sidered generaUy, however, the production of coal is only 
trifling at present. 

The production of coal, in 30 years, has increased 
tenfold ; and at a rapid ratio. The prices of wood and 
charcoal are constantly increasing, with an annually in- 
creasing demand for fuel to be consmned in factories, 
&c. It is, therefore, very probable that the coUieries of 
Austria will, at no distant period, be worked to a far 
greater extent than at present. Scarcely 100,000 cwt. of 
coals are extracted in a year from coal-fields that are 
known to contain as much as 1,500 millions of cwt. The 
exports of Austrian exceed the imports of foreign coal by 
about 300,000 cwt. A large proportion of the fuel ob- 
tained in Austria is hgnite. This substance, which is 
interpiediat<} in its character between wood and coal, and 
is of a brown colour, possesses considerable value as a 
calorific agent, although it is in this respect inferior to the 
drdinary coal of Great Britain. Its importance to the 
cDuntries and districts wlicre it is found can scarcely be 
exaggerated, and its abundance justifies the belief that 
the enormous thick detached beds in which it occurs will 
ere long be fully worked. The Ugnite not unfrequently 
presents those evidences of its origin from the decomposi- 
tion of coniferous trees, from which the geologist draws 
his most accurate inferences. — R. E.] 

Specimens of alum. 



2 Imperial Mines, Vienna. 

Mercury and cinnabar, and ores of the same, from Idria. 

[A large quantity of mercury or quicksilver is annually 
produced at Idria, a town in the duchy of Camiola, the 
inliabitants of which are cliiefly occupied in its extraction. 
Tlie (juicksilver mines are extremely productive. The 
einnabar ore yields when verj^ rich fifty i>er cent, of tliis 
metal. Tliis ore is a sulphuret of mercury, and gives up 
the latter metal by siibhmation. 

AVitli the quicksilver mines of Idria is connected a 
manufactory of vennihon, which produced, in the year 
1817, 981 cwt. of that i)igmcnt. The residue of the 
quicksilver is used up to some small extent, about 300 
cwt., for technical purposes and preparations, but the 
greater portion of it is sent abroad. Tlie exports of 
quicksilver amount to an annual average of 2,341 cwt. 
(in the year IHU) they reached 5,478 cwt.), and of 
preparations derived from it, such as corrosive sublimate, 
calomel, &c., to 11 cwt. By the consumption of quick- 
silver, for the manufacture of vermiHon and for other 
teclmical pui-poses, the value of the annual produce of the 
raw material is greatly increased. The mines have been 



worked for upwards of three centuries and a hal( and 
were originally discovered by an accident. — B. E.] 

Sulphmr, from Szwoszowic in Gkdida, and Badoboj in 
Croatia. 

Bosette-oopper, from Agordo in the province of Yenioe 
and Moldava. 

Blistered copper, from Schm5llnitz,in Hungary. 

Tin, from Schlaggenwald in Bohemia. 

[Tin, a metal which of late yean has become of so 
much importance in the occupations of manufacturing 
industry, is not found within the Austrian monarchy in 
sufiicient quantity to meet the demand for it. The im- 
ports of tin from abroad during the same period of five 
years, 1843 to 1847, amounted on an average to 8,785 
cwt. annually, whilst the exports of this article were but 
90 cwt., value 4,500 fiorins. But, whereas the impoiia 
of tin wares were, for the same time, inconsiderable, the 
exports under this head amounted to 804 cwt.] 

Litharge, from Pzribram in Bohemia. 
Zinc, antimony, and similar mining produce. 



3 Uppeb Hxtnoaeian Mining Association, 
Schmdllnitz, Hungary, 
Quicksilver, refined copper, block copper, and various 
other similar productions for smelting. 

[The whole quantity of raw copper raised in Austria is 
not used there. Until the year 1847, indeed, the imports 
of copper into Austria were greater than the exports from 
it J the excess of the former, as compared with the latter, 
during the years 1843 to 1846, averaging about 3,000 cwt. 
annually ; but since 1847 these exports have been con- 
siderably in excess of the imports. In the year 1847 the 
imports reached 8,667 cwt., while the exports were 28,254 
cwt. ; but in the year 1848, for 3,891 cwt. imported there 
were 5,489 cwt. exported, so that, out of the whole pro- 
duction of that period, 58,568 cwt. remained in Austria. 
It should, however, be borne in mind that the copper 
found in Austria docs not equal the Russian or the 
Swedish copper in quality, and that it is therefore indis- 
pensable to draw a sui)ply of tlie finer sorts from abroad. 
Of tlio quantity produced beyond the amount that she 
exports, about ■10,0(.X) cwt. are converted at the copper- 
mills and rolling-works into 38,400 cwt. of copper aheet- 
ijig and hollow ware (the Government estabhshments 
produced, in the year 1847, 6,502 cwt. of such ware and 
copper sheeting), and the remaining 18,568 cwt. were 
used for various alloys and other purposes. Copper ac- 
quires its highest increase of value when employed in the 
manufacture of percussion-caps, galvano-plastic produc- 
tions, and brass hardware. Austria drives a brisk trade 
in articles of copper and brass with foreign customers.] 



4 SzrilKAK, JoHANN Friedrich, Neusohiy Hungary 
— Proprietor. 
Cobalt and nickel ores, from Bocza, together with the 
residue obtained from the same. 

Calcareous slate, from Molcsa in Hungary. 
Analysis of the above residue : — 

Ferdinand Level. I Dreibnider Level. 

raw ore contains 01 '8 ; The raw ore contains 54'8 
per cent, residue. 
The residue : — 

Nickel 17-224 

Cobalt 10-430 

Iron 8-102 

Bismutli .... 7'044 
Copper .... 2- 101 
Aj^eniCjSidphitr, &e. -48-499 



Till 



per cent, residue. 




The residue : 


— 


Nickel 


22-540 


Cobalt 


19-886 


Copper . . . . 


9-719 


Iron 


15-403 


Arsenic, sulphur, &c. 


32-416 



100- 



100- 



AUSTRIA. 



1007 



[Hie area of cobalt and nickel have only recently been 
obtained on » large scale in Hungaiy, the mines baring 
only been in work for a few years. Botb tbese valuable 
metals ai« yielded fineely by the ores, which promise to 
beeome of considerable commercial interest when this 
department of industry becomes fully deyeloped.] 

5 KocHXKiSTBB, Fbibdbioh, PetM, Hungary— 

Proprietor. 

Two kinds of spon^ nickel from Hungarian ores ; red 
nd black oxide of cobalt. The Tarieties contain 97 and 
9S per cent, of the pure metal, free from arsenic, and are 
veil ad^ited for the manufacture of G^erman silrer. 

6 SiFT, Alxxakdsb (Manager of the Philippi Jacob! 

Mine), Bo9enaUy Hungary, 
SampleB of nickel ores. 

[The metallic wealth of Hungaiy has as yet been 
Mucely rerealed. The extensiTe mineral deposits of the 
country hare hitherto been worked chiefly by the state, 
•nd little opportunity has consequently arisen for com- 
mercial enterprise. It appears probable that ultimately 
the adrantages of this mode of doreloping the resources 
of the country will be more fully peroeiyed and appre- 
ciated.— B. K] 

7 ZsMBXBO MiXB, Boh^chau, Hungary. 
Ore of cobalt, and nickeL 

Jlower of cobalt, and nickeL 

8 KxvoTKL, JoHAinr (Manager of the Johannes Mine), 
I JSojeaaif, Hungary, 



this mine is estimated at from 



I of Nickel ore. 
[The annual produce < 
mto350cwt8.] 



9 Batki, Wexzsi^ Prague^ Bohemia — Manufacturer. 

Bohemian mineral produce. Ores of luranium, nickel, 

Tmadium, and cobalt. Oxide of iron, and yarious miuerals. 

[Uranium is a very rare metal, and occurs principally 
in two minerals, uranite and pitch-blende. Its oxides are 
laed with success for enamel painting, and produce also 
a beautiful tint when employed in small quantities for 
eolooring glass. Yanadium is a metal still more rare 
than the preceding, occurring in minute quantities in 
Kferal iron ores. Cobalt is used extensively in the arts ; 
iod the beautiful blue colour communicated by it to glass, 
in the pigment called smalt, is well known. — E. £.] 

10 SzEOO, SlOISMXTNi) (Manager of the Michaelis Mine), 

Ratenau, Hungary, 
jbitimony, and antimony ores. 

11 6EI8ZBEB6SB, Fbaxz (the Francis Smelting- works), 

Metzenaeifen^ Hungary. 
Begulus of antimony. 

12 SzoLLUSZ, Carl (Biserto Snielting-works), 

Rosenberg^ Hungary, 
Begulus of antimony. 

13 ToLDEBAiTEB, GsoBOE, Salzhurg — Proprietor. 
Specimen of arsenic ore. 

White and yeUow arsenical glass. 

14 HocHBEBGEB, JonANN (St. Procopi Chemical 

Works), KahTy Bohemia — Proprietor. 
Sulphate of iron. 
Alum and sulphur. 

[Sulphur is obtained in Austria in constantly in- 
cnasmg quantities ; latterly, however, the consumption 
W become greater than the production, and, conse- 
qonwly, the imports of this article, so much required for 



chemical purposes, have exceeded the exports. A large 
quantity of alum is also manufactured in Hungary, Bo- 
hemia, Styria, and Silesia. Of alimi, 89,113 cwt., whereof 
15,371 cwt. were the production of Hungary, 14,750 cwt. 
of Bohemia, 5,000 cwt. of Styria, and 2,887 cwt. of 
Moravia and Silesia. The supply thus furnished of those 
products does not only cover the entire demand for Uiom 
from the interior, but a surplus remains for export»* 
tion. 

On an annual average 8,674 cwt. of alum, and 1,338 
cwt. of the various kinds of vitriol, were imported from 
abroad ; whilst the exports for the like term were 5,681 
cwt. of alum, and 12,492 cwt. of vitriol. 

Alum and sidphuric acid are so largely used in the arts 
as to form important articles of commerce in all countries. 
— B. E.] 

15 ScHdNBOEN, Erwein, Count TON, Dlozkowic, 
Boliemia — Proprietor. 
Bougb Bohemian garnets (Pyrope). 



16 Pbince Ferdinand von Lobkowitz, Duke of 
Baudnitz, Bilin, Bohemia— Pro^prictor. 

Bough cut and pierced Bohemian garnets (Pyrope). 

[The garnets of Bohemia have long enjoyed a reputation 
little inferior to the celebrated stones of the East. Their 
brilliancy and colour render them extremely valuable 
as articles of commerce and for ornamental uses. They 
occur chiefly in the neighbourhoods of Swietlau and 
Dlaschkowitz. Garnet is chemically an anhydrous silicate 
of lime and of alumina. Those exhibited have a beautiful 
red colour. Bough garnets are sold by the pound. 
When cut and pierced thoy are sold in rows containing 
100 pieces to each row. — B. E.] 



17 Imperial Salt Works, Wtelicaka^ Qalicia, 
Samples of culinary salt. 

[Tliis important article, salt, forms the object of a 
State monopoly, and is of three descriptions — rock, 
boiled, and sea salt. Tlie aggregate quantity produced is, 
on an average, 6,000,000 cwt. per annum, whereof 10 per 
cent, is sea salt, 36 per cent, boiled, and 54 per cent, rock 
salt. 

In the year 1847 there were 211,000 cwt. of sea salt 
imported for the consumption of the Lombardo- Venetian 
provinces ; whilst 895,400 cwt. of rock and boiled salt 
were exported : namely, 678,000 cwt. to Bussia, 116,800 
cwt. to Prussia, 48,000 cwt. to Turkey, 45,100 cwt. to 
Switzerland, and the residue, in smaller proiwrtions, to 
Bavaria and Lichten stein.] 

18 Weber, Oiov. Davide, Venice— ^t^xiSacUxrcT. 
Samples of fine cream of tartar. 



19 Wagenmann, Seybel&Co., Jlenna — Manufacturers. 
Cliemieal productions, including tartaric acid, vinegar, 
acetic acid, acetate of soda, arsenic acid, chloride of lime, 
arseniatc, sulphate, and muriate of potash. 

[The production of chemical preparations, especially of 
those which have been brought forward by the great pro- 
gress of manuflEUJtures in general, has latterly, owing to 
this impulse, furnished important results. Bohemia has 
especially distinguished herself by the maniifacture of 
colours and of chemical preparations used in dyeing, 
whilst Vienna has not remained behind. Several of these 
productions — acids, and easily inflammable articles, salt- 
petre, phosphorus, &c. — are not exliibited, on account of 
Ihe danger of carriage. 



jjjmBiA. 




Sftltpetre is also an article of State mon^polj, bat ia 
flueflj mauufaLitiiPed by pmate inditiduibi who ere 
loftnd to cklivCT their pTiductionfl to the State, The 
nAmng, on the contTOiy, i* prinoipaily proridfid for bj 
th© Stito itsdt In 1&47, the qnantitjr of saltpetre pro- 
duced amounts to 21,600 cwt. Tliia wm cbii?ily ap|ii©d 
tc th© tnttiiufectiire of giinpowdert and ako to other pio^ 
poiC9. The progiMK of this trade, however, b but incon* 
lidersble. 
Soda ind potmh s/k produced in Hifflgaary in large 
The crjstaUised f oda foimd on the soil is 
at SOfOOO cwt. anuuallj, and the entire pro- 
of ftoda in HuitgofT, at 40,600 cwt., wh^iipof 
1 10^400 crwi. are distribated OYor the othiar pwvinces. 
» IftBt, altogether, tlie sam& qniintitj 19 produced a^ 
in Hunfoij alone ^ and thisim ii to be add^ 
> th£ amount of the laatm tdfm^m^ (56,000 cwt), 
orer exporta (65,000 cwt,)* b«faif 1,000 6wi 

Of potaili about 360,000 cwl. aafe produced, Kod of tHt 
quantity 200,000 cwt, m Hungary, the nymarader chiefly 
in Gklida. The production not only covers the whoh 
damand for home ran^nmption, but leaTes a oonaiderable 
eictas for export. Thn», in the year 1847, the importB of 
pota«h amounted to ll^dOS^^mUf whmmi tiie e^Kiita were 
41,900 cwt.] 

30 BttoecHSj TuA^t Xat^b, Prqjw, BoMtmm— 
Mftmdkctujer* 

Obetmcal prodnctious, inctuding euocmlc acid, tartaric 
ij^d^ i€«qui-o^de of chromium^ sesqm-oxldft of uranium, 
and merfuriai compounda, 

[In the manafeeture of ealta and adda for dyetngi 8ind 
other purpo«<?s, ^Kiuaidcrable progrcji^ ia being rapidly 
Skid^ Tlie fortunate results that have rewarded the 
•etifity of Bohemia tn the eipaniion and improremefnt of 
chemical manufactureit, which had their commenoeraent 
in itfl territoiy, ba^e excited the other proTince* of the 
mon&roby to follow her ^tompte in iimUar undertakings. 
XjOwst Austm already oecupiw a reapoctable phu^ In 
Upper Austria, Styria, the Tyrol, and Ixrmbardy^ the 
&ct of thifl progress is not to be denied j but C^rinthia 
poas««»es the moftt important manufacture of whit* lead, 
being faToured by nature with abundant ores of esceUent 
pure lead-] 

21 Ebafx, 0. Jacob, Prague^ Bohemia— Mmmhi^tMtt!t^ 
Albumen, etannate of toda, and ferrocyanide of potas- 
ihiia< 



— Manufacturer. 
Albumen, deiitrine, kiogome^ and arti^nal gum. 



23 BlTZSB, JOHAJfN, WtUtn^ffk^ near Mtk, <m ih^ 
Da nvhe — Manufacturer. 

mtmmarine blue^ in eight shad^, Ultfam&rino green. 
Cadmium yellow. 

Bed and rose madder. 



24 KuTOB & LsEB^it, Prai?iw— ManufiM^turepf. 
Ultramarine blue, in eight shades^ 
Ultramarine, gr«^en and black. 

Various colours, including chroms yellow, chrome 

25 FiALA, Wknzel, iVd^fWtf— Mannfiwjturer. 
Indi^ blue of three kind*. 



26 Eillirizar BAOTH£Ea, Tet^kem tm ike MU^ BohrmiA 

— Manufacturers^ 
Bed and yiolet herb archiL 
Bed and riolet extract of ard^ 

Spedmena of dyed wool, from whit^ tlie abore haTO 
been used. 

27 KiTraoKHQKE & Co., JVisyiM^— Manuikcturers, 
One hundred and eighty sampled of oolonra, 

28 PFia, W., Fesih^ ^nw^ojy— ManufactUMr* 
Ckrmine of two Mnd«. 



29 Battich, Johakx B., AUg^rmiorf^ 

ManufiicfuTer. 
Black ink for eopper-pkl© printing, 

30 HEBn¥BT^ f^iit2 Paitl Basoi? tov, Kle^Hfkri 

and Woififberff, CtxrifUMa — Mutu&ctur^. 

White lead of difibrent kinds. 



Mfluiiiiictujser* 
Wbitf^ lead of Tarioua kinds. 



CarirUkm — Mouuiac ti irct. 

Orange and bright red kid. 

Bed and gold Uthafgat 

[The l^d mines of Carinthm anpply a mmft piim sni 
Talu»hle description of lend, and ai¥» extensitely worked^ 
not merely to meet tl^ home dt^mand for that motal, bui 
to supply the »lapl« of a oanuiknible fordgn tradi^ whic-h 
has sprang up. Thtu^ vllflii during a pt^dd of fiTo 
years, from 1S43 to ISHf^ llie arerege yearly jmi*oi*ts of 
lead ore amounted to 142 cwt., and thoa« of mw hmd 
to 22 cwt,, and of «sa«t and rolled lead to 26 c?wt., the 
exports during the amne interval averaged, rcspoctitely, 
6,1S2 cwt,, 2,673 cwt., and 1,288 cwt. The impor*« of 
Htharge were inconaiderabla!, Mid the export« amounted 
to 1,800 cwtO 

33 BiJEz, EsNiT, FtUmk, Canntkim — ManuJa^urcr* 

White l^d of different kinds. 

[The le<id mine in the neighbourhood of Villach, in 
Carinthia, is a very eitenalTe and productiTe one, and 
has been oonsidered to he one of the laifgest aou]«ee of this 
metal in the Austrian empire.] 

34 BiGA&i;.ri^ Ptetbo (Iflte Lobeiteo), Fi?«»c«— Ka- 

nufecturer, (Agents, Fordati, Coxhead^ & Co., 
13 Old Jetery CMmiifirtf London.) 
Seli^et'ed aampies of white lead, lithsigOr and t^er^gria. 

35 Habdtmfth, Lmwia i C\mLy Vienna — 

ManufiicturerB* 
Specimens of Naples yellow. 
Various pieces of artiflrial pumice-«tone. 

36 BCHABAS, JOHAim, Otiercran^, ne0r llenma 

^Patentee, 

Patent art ijjcial pumioe^atoue of diff€t«nt kinds. 



37 B0HI4X, IiAiraEifz, Profile ^ Inventor and 

Patentee, 
Patcsnt artifieial Carrara marble, a new inrenttou, nai^ 
ticularJy adapted for Tascs, caudelabi^ lu*trea, rhan- 
delien^, argentine lamps, drawing*room omamont«, furni- 
ture, and moaaic paTementi, 

38 CBiaTOFOM, AjfTOicia, Pcufwa^Msnufocturer^ 
Eight samples of paTing blocka, and column* of orti- 

fidal marljliL 



AUSTRIA. 



1009 



39 Apouo CA2n>u Compastt, Viemna, 
Steurine and itearine candles. 

[The mAnufacture of stearine candles and soap, although 
the foRoer was introdnoed only a lew yean ago into 
Austria, haa already obtained an important position. Of 
the nmneroos mannfiu^tories established in this line in all 
parts of the empire, the most important hare contributed 
to the KihihitioD.] 

40 MnxT Caitdib Masttjlctobt, Vienna. 
Staarine and stearine candles. 



41 PFTizyxB k Beckxbs, Vienna — Mannfiicturers 

and Patentees. 
Candles, called palmatine candles (made by distilling 
palm oil). 

42 SxEASDni Candle Company, HermannHadt^ 

Trantyivania. 
Stearine, and stearine candles. 
Elaine soda soap^ 

43 Chiozza, Cabl Alois, & Soy, Trietie — 

Manufacturers. 
A laige aasortment of soap of different kinds, 

[The soap produced at Trieste is made chiefly from 
olive oiL The annual production of this oil amounts to 
90,000 cwt., two-thirds of which are firom Dalmatia, one- 
sixth from Lombardy, one-sixth from Gdrz, Ghradisca, 
Istria, and Trieste. To this quantity must be added con- 
sidarable imports from abroad. In the year 1847 they 
amounted to 234^411 cwt., against which were to be set 
some yerj inconsiderable exports. The manufacture of 
ioap from oliye oil has decreased considerably of late, 
and produces at present about 75,000 cwt.] 

44 MxLZXB, Daniel, Hermannstadt, Transylvania — 

Manufacturer. 
Soap of diiTerent kinds, for bleaching, &c. 

Washing soap. 

44a Kichteb, Axton, Konigsaal^ Bohemia, 

Soap of various kinds. 

45 CzEKELirs, Cabl, Jlermannsfadt^ Tran»yhania — 

Manufat'turer. 
Candles of Transylvanian tallow. 

[The production of tallow in the dominions of Austria 
amounted, on the average of the five years, 1843 to 1847, 
to 750,000 cwt. By its further manufecturo into tallow 
and stearine candles, soap, &e., the raw material, afVer 
deducting from its aggregate the quantity used up in its 
raw state, attains an increased value of 25 per cent. The 
production of stearine candles amounts to 20,000cwt.] 

45a Bachbich, Johann, Tlenna — Manufacturer. 

Specimens of prepared and unprepared agaric for Ger- 
man tinder. Amadou or German tinder fusees. Medi- 
cated agaric for rheumatism, and other aimilar complaints, 
and for linings of trousers, comforters, travelling caps, 
bandages. Sue. Agaric styptic for cuts and wounds. 

46 FCbth, Bebnabd, Schiittenkofen and Ooldenkron, 

Bohemia — Manufacturer. (Agent — Julius Lipp- 
mann, 29 Nicholas Lane, Lombard Street, 
London.) 
Patent lucifer matches, of different kinds and forms. 

[The manufacture of lucifer matches is constantly in- 
creasing. The excellent quality, the peculiar form, the 
cheapness of price, and the capability evinced by the 
makers of producing any quantity, have rendered these 
articles a manufacture of considerable importance. The ma- 
nufacture affords employment for a great number of work- 
men, and bida &ir to become a lucrative staple of export.] 



47 PoLLAK, A. M., Vienna — Manufiurturer. 

Patent luciliBr matches, of different kinds and forma. 



48 Pbeshel, F., k Co., Fieaiia— Manufacturer. 
Patent lucifer matches, of different kinds and forms. 



49 HoEFiiAinr, Cabl & GrsxAV, Whoczan^ near Prague^ 

Bohemia — Manufacturer. 

Patent lucifer matches of different kinds and forms. 



50 De Majo, Sajjitel, Triesch^ Moravia — 

Manufacturer. 
Patent lucifer matches of different kinds and forms. 



51 DoLLESCHAL, JosEPH, 7 TtfAaa— Patentee. 
Patent tincture, for destroying vermin. 

52 W'Cbth, Wilhelm Edleb vox, Jlenna — 

Inventor and Patentee. 
Material for stopping decayed teeth. 

53 The DiBECTORS of the Mixes of His Hjouxess 

tlie Pbince of LoBKOwiTE, DuEE OF Raudnitz, 

Bilin, Bohemia, 
Magnesia and digestive lozenges (pastilles digestives do 
Bilin). Prepared from the contents of the mineral waters 
of Bilin. 

54 Halla & Co., Prague — Manufacturers. 
Chemical powder, for making black writing-ink instan- 
taneously. 

55 Robebt & Co., Chross SoclowitZy Moravia — 

Manufacturers. 
Specimens of beet-root sugar. 

[The manufacture of beet-root sugar, only established in 
Austria in the year 1830, has since widely spread. 

The establishments have increased, not only in number, 
but also in extent, in a gratifying manner. Tlie north 
Slavian Provinces, Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia and Galicia, 
as well as Hungary, are the principal seats of tlicse im« 
portant factories.] 

50 Maxufactoby of the Bbothees Chevaliebs dk 
Neuwall, Klohauky Moravia — Manufacturers. 
Specimens of beet -root sugar. 



57 Richteb, Axtox, & Co., Kdnigsaal, Bohemia - 

Manufacturers. 
Specimens of beet-root sugar. 

58 Pbixce Fekdixaxd vox Lobkowitz, Bilin 

Bohemia — Manufacturer. 
Specimens of beet -root sugar. 

[This branch of industry is divided into the refining of 
foreign sugars, and the manufactiuxj and refining of sugar 
and syrup from materials of liome growth. Tlie Austrian 
monarchy can now reckon twenty-three refineries working 
up foreign sugars, which, in the year 181.7, prepared 
619,424 cwt. of raw sugar, so as to produce 495,539 cwt. 
of refined sugar, and 99,105 cwt. of syrup. Of the entire 
quantity there may be set down to the share of Lower 
Austria 158,300 cwt. ; to the share of Venice 79,000 cwt. ; 
of Camiola 57,000 cwt. ; and to that of Lombardy 
60,100 cwt. The proportion of sugar and syrup from 
materials of home growth increases annually in extent and 
consideration. Tlie home-grown materials which are used 
in this preparation are prepared beet-root and potatoes ; 
the latter in small quantities only. The number of sugar 
manufacturers is fifty-nine. Their joint production in 18-47 
amounted to 157,500 cwt. of raw sugar, for which pro- 
duction 3,148,000 cwt. of beet-root were consumed, and 
3,000 cwt. of potatoes. The raw sugar produced furnished 
130,000 cwt. of refined sugar, besides 20,000 cwt. of syrup. 



IMft 



AfHKWUk 



BolaniA68y00Oowt^apd€WBiAS6;/0eO«wi.} Hmm^io- 
tingwhgfingtheagitiByortMitdiMginto 

B i^wi <lMt tidt Imnoii of tii0 iMliobd iBdiii^ 
Aiiili^ ftanldiM a pradll0lSo!^ Ite ^fid^ 
i^ogatlMr, nit not kw tiiaa twwIy-ibL apd QO04iiM 
niSfionf of iloriiii. She 9ipn% of ivinad iogv pio- 
dDOidiiaartriMtoiot»<iilii< a j w t< wd iai» toapdwMHad, 
M tiM iii90Cti ■eon to be of ItOd faaporteiMM. Tbej 
mooiiftedia 18117 to TiD mm tett 4^405 owl. Ontiio 
otiMtlund^in q^of tiboooii*fanMdi|MS«Mtof ti^suMRi- 
fiMtaTO of ragv from baeNPool^ tibo im^^ 



jiMjaaam-UamstUm, Omn 'Sttamxom^ Mrniik^ 



eO BmW'BOOT Stoab MiannrAOgOKi^ g fawW a i, € fagrfg . 

gpacJuMMofb cct-FOOtgagMr. 
61 BsAXi,Qiimirra(UieJUitaii]oBoi]9,7'MMi 



63 Ul P3unrixiicnD8i!iAM7i0irB-lCii&CloKX'^ 



lloiir from Aiiitiiaa illwat. 

[IIieiJMlitfaiiioiinohjci^OTt^l^yBMOii aii^$fO' 
p^^UDil poiiBaol^ II €limia»irliidi !• eipodi^ 
totliorapiKirtof •iiimalaiidTe9eliib]ali&; inaddiftkiii 
to wluflb il !■ fsroond iviih •& csofllkiit loO, to Ifa^ 
only hsn and tbeve^ in the mounteiiioae dktricto, tiiai 
■erne tTMto of territory oceorirhiehaMiiol adiq^te 
tpeiindtarel ealthralioiL 

ISie ijifeon of agrionliim panned m I^mibei^ k 
onDenfc; ilie leei lo in the Tenetei pcQ>viiioM aadm 
BooHiiyxoL In em u lation of Teniee a n d TminhM^ ^tbe 
siiiket of Bohemia aad fiOedai of Vppir and Lower 
AiutriiS and of Salzburg and Styria^ baye made nnquea- 
tionable and praiseworthy exertions, although it is beyond 
question that in the three last-named proyinces there occur 
large districts of dreary waste and desert j but even in 
the two favoured provinces alluded to there yet remain 
some difficulties to be overcome. Hungary and GWicia 
furnish agricultural products far beyond their require- 
ments. Like Bohemia, Moravia and the Lombardo- 
Yenetian provinces are able to export com and other 
agricultural productions to other provinces in that neigh- 
bourhood, notwithstanding the density of their own popu- 
lation, which varies from 4,800 to 7,200 inhabitants per 
Austrian square mile ; but how far the abolition of vas- 
salage will have a tendency to increase the production 
cannot at present be at aU anticipated. Agricultural 
labour throughout the monarchy yields in average years 
an aggregate of 278,000,000 of Lower Austrian " metzen" 
of grain. Of these 47,000,000 are wheat, 61,000,000 rye, 
60,000,000 barley, 8,000,000 oats, 31,000,000 maize, 
1,000,000 buckwheat. Of peas, the yield ie more than 
6,000,000 metzen ; of potatoes, more than 100,000,000 
metzen; of turnips, about 25,000,000; of hops, about 
60,000 cwt. ; of butter, cheese, and other dairy produce, 
about 3,000,000 cwt. 

The manufieu;ture of cheese is, especially in Lombardj, 
very considerable: the production is abundant and of 
excellent quality. It is an article which proves the staple 
of a large trade, and, next to silk, is the most important 
to Lombardy of her products. 

The breed of cattle has not yet attained that per£3ction 

which it would be so much to the interest of Austrian 

'^andiy that it should do, and which it reaUy might be 



bsoi^iiqp.'lo^wlMi thaflxIraHMl^ 

of the ioa on whi ch it i» leawd ia e smM m e L } 

& Tsa JfrnmumD 8zsam BtoniB-lbzi^ JImm. 

DiAveul kinda of fioiiF from BimgHciHi wheat* 

" '- ' «i ii ■ 

64 Btemm ViMmrMnit, Smk k no^ nmt JVy s u 
JHftranft U&di ocfioiiFfrom j 



Diftwntlmda ofJowgfromAiiet^^ 

66 IRowoKfTf Astros^ JP^tt^/99, 
DiffBNttt Idbidi of floor from AaalaaB 

67 Tavw^ Ooawt Frahs, MaaiiHk 
Diflfavni kindi of floor from AoilriMi 

xiuwrent juaicii 01 nooir noBi jmmwmhi imeaib 
68a. Kisvif otbkt, Oofuvr Lao Tov 4 Ihkim 0O8»- 

Xuveosoi* 
Gittin atone (aemiliold) iorbioiiiBg with oold irntar bj 
a qiuek psooeia. TUiiBTenaaniaattdteie^matkn- 
portanea jy ahippinft aa ndlwatv OBoadiBtaM«mba 
oaed; it ia alao partiodarijr anitahle iprnaameiioiafaB, 
Beer oan be made bgr tiiia metiiod of oaj atMngliL aiidlhi 
hitter of thehopi aaaid to be retained fer aBylaia^oftiBaa, 

69 IxpniAiiTQBAOOoMAinTFAOtoiiBi, fliiana; 
Four kinda of axaS^ prodneed in Chdioia and TftA 

70 OiBirxcniAy A»mzoi7i.TiTBAL Scoonnr, XeaSooft. 
Hon«!y, chiefly eoUeoted bj the beea from tibo Woaaoma 

of buck-nheat. 
Winter Unaeed, from (konkda white and radniiQet 
Indian ootn, grown in Upper Garaiohk 400 fiithoma 

aboretiialafeloFliieaea. 

[The rearing of beea ia eairied on moat estenufely in 

the Yayvode and the Temeser Banate, Croatia, Slavonia, 
and Transylvania, on the military frontiers of Galicia, in 
Lombardy and Venice, and in Styria, likewise in Carinthia 
and Camiola. In the other provinces this trade is of little 
consequence or extent. The Germanic, Slavonic, and 
Italian provinces produce on an average 30,000 cwt. of 
wax, and the production of the other half of the Austrian 
empire may be of equal amount. Besides, the imports 
from abroad were rather greater tlian the exports, 
4,075 cwt. having been in the year 1847 imported, and 
only 1,814 cwt. exported. The extensive manufacture of 
wax into candles has been falling off since the introduction 
of stearine candles, and is now almost limited to those for 
the use of churches. It has been calculated that wax, by 
its manufacture into various articles of use and ornament, 
candles, artificial flowers, &c., receives an increase of 
50 per cent, value on the raw material] 

71 Chwalla, Anton, Vienna — ^Manufacturer. 
Austrian trame of two and three filaments. 



72 ScoLA, August, Lint, Upper Auttria, 

Baw unspun silk. 

[Of all the states of Europe, the Austrian monarchy 
possesses the most abimdant supply of silk. The produc- 
tion of silk is conducted on the most important scale in 
the Lombardo- Venetian kingdom. Next in order of im- 
portance comes the TyroL The same business is also 
carried on in the military frontier, Gtirz and Gtradisca, and 
also in Istria and Trieste, in Dalmatia and the south of 
Hungary. Triak have likewise been made in Lower 
Austria^ Bohemia, and Camiola. The production of co- 
coons amounts, on an average, annually-^ 



AUSTRIA. 



1011 



In Lombkrd^ ..... to 25Ci,000 c^-t. 
me FfQwmos ol Yeoioe * 200,000 „ 

Tlwiyol 2S»000 „ 

Xti« other proviiiGes . * 12,000 „ 



T<*tal 



490,000 cwt. 



Otj m toimd nimib^n^ 600^000 «nrt« 

The coooons aro prqp«z>ed »t tbe neelmg ^ftUblialmieiita 
mt& rmw silk. From thu rebuilt of mqiiiriea it wouJd 
appear UiAt Lonibardj compriiea 3i068 Feeling eflUbUsh- 
mfate, whic]:! emploj 79,500 workpeople^ without taking 
inla calctiifttioii the fmidlefr ^tahliahniLGzitSf which arc 
not iiueluded in this e^atmiemtion. The entire production 
UDOfixit^ to S^5 12,000 Yiennii Ibfl. ^ and^ ainec* 12 lbs. 
of oocncmi jield 1 Lb. ofmw iilk, there are required for 
tliii iggf^^gate of raw lilfc 306,400 ewt. of «%>cooiU[. The 
^Dsatit/ of coooona required ia exaeM of the quantitj 
iv^meed, an exceaa of Terj nearlj 50^000 t^wt., !« ^orered 
lij t^ pfoduetioii of the Yenctuui pronnce«^ chii^Hj bj 
thit of Tctitnu, 

Within tlie prorince of Venioe the rediiig eatftbliAhments 
tse pKttJ ELunierDUBi, but of Icsi extent. The neare&l 
ippforiiiMilioB to tbe truth in fd^brenoe to this matter ia 
obtained by taking the extent of the productioti at one- 
Ikalf «f tluiit in Lorobardy. The remAinder of the eo- 
ONKDi pitidnoed in the province midcr^go fturther prepiire- 
tiOD in Lombard, J, vmd parti; in the Tjrol aUo^ whilit n 
portiDn of thoee obtained in Bdrz and Oradijka, tm well 
li in Iitris, are prapiLred in Tenet inn reeling ealablbh- 
mentft. 

The Uttmbcr and the performnnced of the Telling ma- 
dtinea in the lyrol are aceuratelj known. In the year 
1S48 Souib Tjrol ooot^uned 550 of such reeling cstablish- 
nvnt«. Theae emplojed 13,000 hand^, suid tum(>d out 
m^fOQ Ibfl. of mw silk, ffom 31,900 Ti(-nna pwt. of 
ooeoofu. The anpplj of cocoons required, beyond tbjit 
fumistied by tbe production of the CMjuntrv, waa drawn 
from the Venetian prorinct-s. 

The reeling eatjibli*hmenli in the renmining proTinoea 
pfoduce, conjoinilj, from lOjtXK) cwt. of cocoodb, 75,000 
Tlcim& Iba* of raw silk. 

Tbe whole protlnction of taw #ilk obtnincti in tlic Au»- 
triftn mooart'hy ij about i,108,7CH> Ihsi. And tlio wiiDte 
•bout 71 6^400 Ibft, The number of working hands cm- 
ployed in tho reeling eetiibh^h mentis is not less than 
160,000 (op if their lerm of oeL'upation bo reduced to 270 
days in tbe year, 30^000 only). Besides tho product i* 
almdy enumcratisd, iihout [100 cwt, of cocooijjj are annu- 
ally imported into iFOmbnrdy, principally from Switeer- 
land and the neighbouring Italian BtiitiL'i^, and arc prc^ 
paml in tbe Lombard recLing CsitablifhuiPulB. The 
quantity of silk produced t* thus iucnciited to an aggre- 
gate of •^116,:200 IhsJ ^ 

73 STIEU^CAftS SlLHWOtllf BEEKI^INO Af €0€IATI0N, 

S|iecimei]a of raw fiilk ; illuiilmtion of the treatment 
of the iilkwomiB. 



74 R\l>rLOTITB BuornEKH, U'eijtsklrcheHi Jlunjary, 
Hungarian silk in skeins, 

75 LoilE>'3^ Aloyh, lf>tff*i-i«'A#w, Muft^ary, 
Maw nnepun piik fk^in the Buna to. 



76 rrEn/>oa, Evi, Wprse^tdz^ Jtuif^firtf, 

Raw un»pun silk from tin* Bunale. 

7 ft 4 KoFLEJi, FaiNZ, irKjmA>N A, Co., T^i*oL 
y^Mi&UM aampka of How ^ilkM, 



1 



77 Miimjjsii, GiQVAKS^i Bair., Fonno, FriidL 
Sample* of raw silk. 

78 S^yiaAGLU, Isaac, k CAuirraATi, QiOTJjrai B^ 

Spoeimeni of raw stlk. 

79 PiPPAFATA, -— , Zaraf Dalm&iio, 
ipecimenA of Dabnatian raw silk. 

80 SciraiBtKK & Co., Milan^ Trodmet, (Agents, 
J. iitone & Co,, 59 Old Broad Street, London.) 

1. Six spucimims of cocoouii ; A^ yellow, coarse Dbre : 
B, yellow, delicqtc j C, ycUow, satin j D, yellow, safiVon ; 
E, white, coarse Ware ; F, whilCj Me fibre. 2. SpecimenB 
of raw Bilk, on© thiiead j raw silk, yellow and white. 
3, Specimens of tram silkj three thitiadi. 4, Bpecimens 
of organ/.ine silk, for Telret, heavy and light satin and 
plush, 5. SptfcimeoA of gremidine : organsine grenadine, 
four threads. 6, Two qualiti^ of grenadine nuinufiicturea. 
Looma, Messrs. Brevi* Brotherfl- 

[The raw silk undergoes further preparation in the 
throwing mills, but the whole mass of the production b 
not thus worked up witlun tlie roonareliy, for tbe export* 
of raw silk are found considerably to exceed the importa. 
On an arenige of the five years, 18-13 to 1B47, the annual 
imports were 110,(X>0 Tienna lbs. of raw &ilk (through 
Venice, Swit^rland, and the adjatxiit Italian States), 
whilst 700,000 lbs. of this cotinnodity were exported, for 
the most port to Switierknd, the adjaij^nt states of Italy, 
end Southern Germany. Hence it resultn tliat a balance 
of raw siEk, amounting to &EQ,000 Ibti., hare been tAkcn 
off by foreign eoniiunptioo, and that tlie otlier S,518,SOO 
"I'itTina lbs. are retained by the statea of the monarchy, 
and more than two-tliirds thereof are worked up in Lorn- 
barrly. In 1817 that province reckoned 500 throwing- 
mdls, with 1,339,000 spindles ; and of these 703^100 were 
for spinning and 507,200 for twisting. In the thro wing- 
mills them solves 12,000 hanrls were employed (namely, 
4,44X> men, Cj.GOO wonu-n, and 2,100 children), and, more- 
over, there were oc<?upicd 3l,HO0 femaJe windttrs. The 
production yielded was l)Bi*,000 Vienna lbs, of tram, and 
1,189,700 Iba. of orghtiiine, making together 2,17D,5O0 
Virnna lbs. of llu-own silk : for this aggregate.! of produc- 
tion 2,25fi,200lbg. of raw ailk were used. The t]o«s silk 
was to the weight of 7G,O0Olbs. 

Tlic working of the throwing mills of Venic* produced, 
in ]jroportion to those of Lomlwrtly, almost similar rcsulta 
to those above iudieatcd iu reference to the reeling esta- 
blishments J only the production of tram greatly prepon- 
deratt,^. Tbe number of pereona employed ui the throw- 
ing-niiUfl, both witlun antl without doors, were 20,000. 
Their production wa^ above tHjO,0C© Vienna Ibt*., and the 
consinnptian of raw «^ilk by the eouTei-sion into this quan- 
tity was 1 jOO^sOOO lbs., giving waste (flostf) to the amount 
of 47,400 lbs. 

There are at prcjsent in the T^rol 55 throwing^millj, 
with 125,047 spindles; 85,583 of which kttcr are for 
spinning and 31>,46'l for twisting. In these nulls 500 men 
and l,iiOO women and children ore employed The pro- 
duction there, including that of tlie smaller throwing-miUi, 
which give occupation to 500 workmen, amount a to 220,400 
Vienna lbs. of thrown silk, for which 231,400 Vienna Iba, 
of raw aiik hare to be worked up. 

Of the remainder of the raw silk (23,200 lbs.) about 
M,000 lbs. are distributed tlirough the other southern pro- 
vinces, and tho remaining *J,200 lbs. appropriated to other 
purposes. 

Thus we find n resulting total of product ion e<iuol to 
3,374,000 Vkmna lbs. of thrown ailk. 



iMi 



iSDsinuu 



T c*oiiTeMion of the tlu^owu lillt i 

w ^\ 'I nlntOJit eiicliisivt^lj to Vieunii, JGH^ftAd 

Ci I ! , lo, v^ h I Up \i ^ s\ orVing up into mixed st iljSa lja« ii^MAiiijed 
tciisidumblj i'\ti']L«ion, B/ ikr the greater portion of tlie 
ftbrown Bilk i*, thereibMj eKported U> foreign morketa. 
J^<om 1S43 to 1847 thasB exports showed ah annual sTorage 
of l^m^^OO II39. of thrown silk, of 142,700 Iha. of cleaned 
nd ^jed eilk ^ so that thefti remained for hotm^ consuiup- 
llfin iilK»utone^ttjiniof the en^e produetion, &r 1,296^SQ0 
Aiit Ikh^'W* tho imporia w era verj tneonsiderable. 

I onc^hAlf of tbi» qunntit j b worked up m 
I wt it« inaiiufii£!tui^ inHnding the dyeing ^rocem, 
\ a Terr large capiial* Thb DCRDfiumption of silk 
fa Tionift moreua^ from year td jao;?* 

Mikn may be eU»sied irjiFoedi;itely nftor Yietitia, trith 
Tell!f«Eicv)» to ibe Yahie of it^ produotioDa m Dm claafi. 
It ^pettn th&t the cxdtiTatiofi and loanufiieture of silk 
IB Aiiitria flioTr a g^§» lesulting total of value of 
5D,O00,0O0 of flodiD* i and thftt fch«^ employ tuot-b tlmn 
80(V0QOpsiai»p BCMue for the whole year, sotiie for @hoiter 
Mvfd^ tf iho Iveading of ^ilkwOTms be ah^o iii<4iid«?rl. 
Of wlisl fan p ortiarift to Auaten 1^ pt^doLtion of eilk 
and fiflk fsodi wmtt be ii awiiMfe froii ffae eocu^de of the 
trade m thmt m^Ai^m^ wWk oeeop^ <^ hlfhest place 
among the objecti of AuBtriaaa oonmiBpee,] 



91 



d Etw aiUc apun olT wiLh cM>ld wb^i. 

82 BovCEtm, PiBXiO Abt^ Jfilaa — Manufacturer* 
Samplea of rnr »id fpun aOk. 

§3 dsjJMI, I>r. Gwtx^x^ Milan. 

Btacaied silfcwarma, imred by Ibe Ahihtt«r*» metliod. 

Smnpke of raw siUi. 

86 Paki, QtWBJk i>r, Ca««^^*oj»o, iVoujiwf* q/* 7Wi?«io. 
Samples of raw aiH. 

B6 CijroBB^ Maitihiotiosi EiatOiraKi, ^ MifiKiJ^t, 
Verona — Ptoduosr. 
Samplea of raw aiUc* 

Saanpba of raw and spun silL 

87a Vkbjsa Brotkebs Qaie Carlo Vor«a), MUan. 
CooQoiLB^ raw and flpun «tlk, silk &hrica» 

88 EoBWi, GioTAjr5i MabxAj flb*kfr*o. 

8itmplea of mw and »pnn lilk. 

80 HuTiTAttT, Von KiTm:x.nr, Cottkt Joil^Bt 

Sheep-wool in flcecsea, 

00 FiGBOfij TaAiCi & Sow i^ Fimi»a— Maawluints, 

Hu2tgariAn and Aufitnon-Sileaian Bhet*p and lamW wool. 

[The manufacture of wooEcti good* constituitc* an tm- 
portaut hr&noh of Anfitrhm industry* It ia of *o much 
the grater importance, as it work* up a raw xnatciial 
raiaed and euppHcd by Auatria hfrsel^ in whiclii bf»idi», 
ihe camet on a conaidcTAblo trade, a»d wMch^ botng a 
nati^ product} is nol aubject to the fluetnations that the 
tupply of a ?aw material dmTed from foreign comitiios U 
alwa^'^a liable to. 

The aYcragc productioii of wool in AusferiA amotint* 
annually to about 700,000 cwt. Of tliis quantity about 
one-third (produced in Moravia, SiJeaia, and JBohemia, 
in part al*o from Galioio, Hungary, and tTpper and 
Loirar Aiittm) ia of fiii« ^[iiali^t otie>hfilf (^wm fsom 



Qahela, Hungary, and partly llk^wiBe from ' 
is of middling quality ; the remiiinder, of an in 
is grown in Hungary, Ti^naylvania, and thm 
provint^^. To this estimate? must be added % qiiaatil^ oC 
inferior Mnds^ which genra^y ia of much about the aamt 
amount, imported chiefly from Turkey and the DanuMaa 
prinripalitiea : tliew importa amounttxi, on an arera^e of 
the flTe years lS^i3 to 1S47 (the years 1848 and 1849 
baling hvi w y-y- sjut of the u»ual eonr&e and eondttiotig 
iij« not noi luid Li.re), to 57,000 cwt* annually ; whilat tlio 
annual exports during the? same period sT^ji^ed 122^700 
crwt. About 637,000 ewt. of ^ooi t«mainedt EtHnrrfb-re, to 
be tnannfafttrnped by Austxiaa ijEiduatf^r.] 

9 1 Yoir MiTiAowiEr, Odtrmr Ajitost, Qmm^erwUia^ 

Pure stocl merino iheep^wooL 

2 LAuiBas-McEirinGii, Ooidft Exekksob, Kmwwm^ 
Silema—Bmygitit/o^ 

Sheep- wool in ieeec^ 

9B WAiLTt, OuTXKit, Oovwt Vou, JToJ 
Bohemia ^Proprietor. 

Washed and unwaali^ wooL 
Bohemian hop?. 

94 Fat^xa, N., & ALExm. J^ OramH^di, Trm^fkm^ 
Washed and unwashed Tvm^fkmma, ^aokt ' 



lambs'- wooL| and washed aiid 
Zigaja^fthe^ and kmbs'^wooL 



»okat Aim Mi 



Prepared Hungarian hemp for various purpoe^^ 

95a PsDftijgQSD LoTK Yark SpDomro Hi^ 

Baw flax, heckk-d flai^ and flax madu thi*refroai. 

S6 Fateitt FtAX RjjTrsTG EsTA&wawiixyT, 
UQerrdotf, near ScAoaier^, Montma* 
Eaw and heckled flox of the year i»50, 

[The average production of flax within thf* monarcbj 
amount Sj exeluaiYe of the growth of Hungary, the Tajrod^, 
ibis Tiomeser Banate^ Croaliai and Slaronia^ as well a* 
TransylTania, to 813,700 cwt., and that of hemp to 
725,400 cwt. Of Hungazy and Transylranla thi^ annual 
pnoduelmu of fiax is reckoned at 880^000 owt., and of 
bemp at 500,000 cwt, Tbe wvcnge ciopa, both as to Hax 
and to hemp, may be taken ai 1,200,000 cwt. of eocb. Of 
tbe flax, the distribution is to Galima, 256,100 cwi. j to 
Boli^mia, 178,800 cwt, 1 to Lombazdy, 111,200 cwt. ; to 
Moram and 8ilcaia, 6-1^200 owt, 1 and to the 1^1, 
60,000 cwt. Of thu hcmpi to Galicja, 494,900 cwt, j to 
tbe PrOTinoe of Tiruoe, 59,600 cwt. ; and to the Military 
Frontier, &7.150 cwt. Thiy furniBh 3€0,000 cwt. of clean 
flax, and 600,000 ewt. of tow^ of clean \mnp 360,000 cwt^ 
with 480,000 cwt. of tow* The«? qunntitie*, whic?h ulti- 
mately undjergo further manuiaeture, opp, as to flax, 
eeoreely at all affected by the course of trade with foreign 
countries ; for, during the quinquennial period, 1&4S to 
1847, the average imports amounted to 15,900 cwt,, and 
the C3iport9 to 19^400 cwt. Hemp, on the other band, 
derives a eonsidi^rable increase of quantity from the exoeai 
of the importa from abroad. During the iame inter?»l 
there were annually imported, on an avoTf^ge, 100,900 cwt,, 
whilst ouly 3i,7O0 cwt, were erpori^ed-] 

97 ToMASBUj LnoT,Pos^o,XomA*Trrfy— ManitfiM?tll»OT* 
Willow-Btraw for hats. 

98 EoTBCH A ReicbbIh Grais, Sftfrm. 
Styrian teazki, for the wooHmL maBuikctur^ 



AUSTRIA. 



1018 



99 BondwwL, Jcmbph, Sooty BohenUo — Producer. 
Hops from Saas, AnBch, and Melnik, in Bohemia. 

100 BATKJLfWwjxLf Prague, Bohemia — Manufacturer. 
Bohemian yegetable produce. 

Medical plants and pharmaceutical productions. 

101 Beali, Giuseppe (late Antonio Beali), Venice. 
Bleached Venetian wax in grains. 

102 Maltisttx, C. J., Peeth, JZWii^ary— Manufacturer. 
Befined and unrefined rape-oil. 

103 STEnrsOCK, A, St. Georgen, near Mauthhameen, 
Upper Auetria ; Agent, No, 5 Denmark Street, Soko. 
Specimens of linseed oil, yamish, and Austrian and 

Morarian Unseed. 

105 SCHMID, H. D., Vienna — Manufecturer. 
Steam-engine, with a paraboloidic regulator of new 

mTentioiL. 
Model of a patent scale-beam. 
Designs for beet-root sugar factories. 

[The manufiMsture of machinery has only very recently 
become a part of Austrian industry, and ah-eady promises 
wdL The superior quality of the raw material of the 
eoontry affords to this branch most important adyantages. 
Prime-morers, steam-engines, and locomotives are pro- 
duced of excellent quaUty. Various circumstances, par- 
ticularly the enormous freight, prevented the transmission 
of extensive contributions to the London Exhibition from 
this department. 

The rapidly-increasing demand for machines, in conse- 
quence of the general development of Austrian industry, 
and the progress of railway constructions and of steam 
navigation, has of late years called into existence the busi- 
ness of the wholesale manufacture of machines. But this 
newly-created manufacture had to contend, at its outset, 
with great difficulties. The natural consequence has been, 
that engine builders have not yet reached that perfec- 
tion which is to be desired, although they are already able 
to compete with foreign makers in some of the main 
or principal articles of their trade, and can now furnish 
steam-engines, machinery for direct use, planiug-machines, 
grooving tools, spinning-mules, mills, cranes, spindles, 
pumps, &c. The larger steam-engines (which are coming 
into extensive use) are imported from abroad in a smaller 
number eveiy year. For eiamplc, of the 136 steam-en- 
gines of 6,839-horse power, which was the number regis- 
tered in 1846, 98 of 4,559-hor8e power in all were manu- 
factured at home. At the close of the year 1846, 760 
steam-engines, representing 24,734-hor8e power, were in 
work in the Gkyrman, Slavonic, and Italian provinces, but 
the number has since considerably increased. Notwith- 
standing the improvement that has been made in tliis 
branch of industry, the importation of machines and parts 
of machines from year to year has gradually progressed.] 

106 MiLESi, Anoelo, Verona — Engineer. 

Model of a double condensation steam-engine. Has 
been erected in Verona, in full size, and is in use. 



106a Oldhini, JonAKN, Vienna. 

Model of an indigo mill. Model of an apparatus for 
printing yam, Ac., before weaving. 

107 Kjoebim, Ferdinand, Henna. 

A carriage. 

[Tlie manufiicture of carriages of different kinds is 
carried on in Vienna, Prague, Gratz, Milan, and also in 
sereral smaller places in Moravia and Bohemia. 



Vienna furnishes very tasteful, serviceable, and cheap 
carriages of all kinds. The export of them to foreign 
parts is veiy considerable, and the already large manu&o* 
ture is daily extending. 

The Vienna carriage is characterised by its easy draughty 
elegant form, and the durability of its upholstery work, &o.] 

108 Laubenzi, Litdwig, Vienna — Coachmaker. 

A four-seated cal^he, on nine steel springs and patent 
axles. 

109 The Heiss op P. Gamba, MHan — Manu&ctuiers. 
A Jacquard loom. 

110 BiDLEB, Febdinand, Spitol-on-ihe'Pifkm, 

Upper Austria — Steel-worker. 
Damascene steel. 
Damascened swords and sword-blades. 

111 Peroeb, J., OratZy StyHa — Manu£M;turer. 
A paur of pistols. 

112 Meteb & Co., Innepruck, 2^ro2— Manufiicturers. 
A Tyrolese rifle ; exhibited for its superior qualities and 

cheapness. 

113 ScHdNHiTBEB, JosEP, VUlach, Upper CariniMa 

— Manu£EK;turer. 
A bolt rifle, propelling the bolt by means of a spring, 
on a new construction. 

114 Lebeda, a. v., Prague — Manufacturer. 
A double-barrelled gun. 

A Tyrolese rifle. 

A pistol for target shooting. 

115 NowAK, Fbanz, Prague — Manu£fioturer. 
A double-barrelled gun. 

A pair of target pistols. 

116 Kehlkeb's Nephew, A. Cn., Prague — 

Manufacturer. 
A pair of pistols for shooting at a target. Tlie wood 
car\'ing3 by Mr. Worhnek, after drawings by Messrs. 
Marx and Sciberts. 

117 Pbeis, Anton, Prague — Manufacturer. 
An assortment of weapons, hangers, &c. 

118 ScHAMAL, Fbanz, Prague — Manufacturer. 
An air-pistol. 

119 MiCHELONi, Giovanni, Jfi/ai»— Manufacturer. 
Double-barrelled fowling-piece. 

120 Bubenitscee, Joseph, Rermannetadt, Tran- 

eylvania — Manufacturer. 
A travelling-pouch, containing a hunting-knife, a pistol, 
knives and forks. 

121 KiBNEB, J., Pesthy Hungary — Manufacturer. 
A double gun. 

122 Selliee & Bellot, Prague — Manufacturers. 

(Agents, B. A. Ghtiutofi' & Co., 4 Lime Street 

Square, London.) 
Patent percussion caps. The total manufacture of per- 
cussion-caps for sporting guns in Europe may be estimated 
at 1,300 millions vearly. Some idea of the importance of 
this article may be formed from the quantity of copper 
requisite for its production, viz., 896,000 lbs. weight. 
The great advantages of the percussion principle l^ve 
been so generally acknowledged that within the short 
space of 20 years all kinds of guns with flint-looks have 
been abandoned, and the percussion system has likewise 
been extended to muflkets for the army. The percussion- 
caps exhibited are stated to be remarkable for accuracy 
and equaHty of bore, for the malleabiUty of the copper, 
and superior quaUty of the powder. The percussion* 
caps coated with varnish exhibited may remain in water 



3«ft 



JLUSSSliL 



for 72 hoiit^ wifi mo!v withc»ut losmf their power of 

Kipplcs ^pietous) liornieUoa,lly DloAedt a new inTootjon, 
wluL'li preTenta! any muiatufc? horn peneLmtLug bt?twpi?ii llio 
pen- iisslon -caps and the nipple, nod ihu» pmerTefl tlie 
^port^mnan'i powdLT perfbetff tby* 

jipSQEqniaof iron i^jliudcrs ocNitod wilK oaat^steel of 
I and ftoiidi ty. 



)22a Bi^ E&itbt, ra&Mil| Cbdoliii, 

123 Hc^ET, FiunZp L^ia^ifs^ Bohema — Falantad 

« and Inventor. 
AfllMilTDW, rk potata-pultivntor, a dfiUing-^acltine, 
B taWTT i^d wef^d enirLicntcir, &c., the m%*cntio£ia of tlio 
diflilloir; niJinid>Ktit.red jit the iron- works of Count 
Sttdkm, at Jo«epiistb&l, BohemiA. P^rMonidly reps- 
t&red. 

124 LOBEO^ITZ, Pltll^C K F 11 TQJf^ 

Mokemia — > f aimtaL't o ry i j I ■ rai " 

Adoublr-inrirKrr. 
A BPL'^l'looat^neff* 

A Aub'Aoil plough, 
of tbe Chgfilif f«ii Infeld, of l^ism- 
p of the works. 




125 Bnsfi'STAM.Birad, BAMom Wjnm FKim>BzcE 

A QiiTot^dnUef . 
120 MABmt Qkiaoghdio, ilfi£a»— Proptietor. 



127 Paj^ Gmim». OnpinAsr fer Ibe C«4iyoiis Agri- 

eolttiM Sock^i XaiAdcA, 
IfoM fif ft €mdti&m pmasij. 
KbM of ft OvDiolitfi w»4ilf% 

128 SoifFiriB, JosEP, 4?^^^fi%; a^frta—Proprlrtop. 
Model of ft etaad for c^ooootifl. 



129 PaoKBOHp Amtos, G^*kii» ^o A<™»*a— InTentor, 
A ktiapBBck, &o,, of oonrenlent eonsttw^lion, 

130 MeCHA^ICAI, DElMIiriCENT or THE Tmfebxal 

PotTTBCHNie I]*9rrTFTK, Flenna. 

1, A TiniFerwil Y level, te1e»copti 15 Unos apertui^, and 
20 t{i»Oi mAgnifying xjower, homontid limb, with two 
Tcrnicni fitmi 30 to lb Beconds ; altitude drele, with rei^ 
Tiiei-*" iliTTrlod in njigle mmnie^ on silver j iniarometer 
Borew^ witVi itivnied head for meMUTtng distance and alti- 
tude, Pateut4?d by StAmpfef aud Stjirke ; in poliishL^d c-ase. 

2» A Y IcTcl, an inetrttmeiit for men^uriiig dbtarit« 
and ^Utude ^ patented bj Staanp^ andSUfk^ i t^kseope 
13 lines mpertisre^ li timnnueDifyiiig power, the eje-plece 
with m««£liifiiy for aeourate ndjmtment i limb divided bj 
the TGFmier to single minut^^ on taher ; horizontal damping 
and horicontaJ i^^^t»tiuent> &G, In poE»hi?d oa^a^ with 
locik and lyindlt^, 

3. A lj3vei with flied tekiacope, 16 liaef qiertawv 
12 time* Kiagnifying powiT ; limb divided at every minute 
Oil siiir^ ; horizontil clamping and horizontal riow mo- 
tion. In pobahj^d coec. 

4* A Utel with f^xed teleaoop^ 11 tines «p«rtm«, 
12 times mngtiif^ing power^ eje-pieeo with maehinei^ for 
•oetuale a4]mtinenti oblique limb divided at everj 
mmute mi ^rer-, arrangement for meosunnf diatoDcc^ 
da^^ BA abore. In pohshed ca*e, 

&, A level mthout limb j teleieope 11 linei aperture, 
12 times ma^ifyinf power. In poOsh@d caae. 

6, A pocket fcvel, weighbg 10| ouncee, with teie»^pe 
tim^ magnii^~ing power. 

7* A pocket levetling dioptriCp with tekaeope without 
tMgni^ing pow^r. 



8. A tt4ca(?opo lineal of nflvel oonatruction, made WK^ 
light, onlj wdghing 1| lb. In pohalipd oase^ 

II. A U^lcBcope lineal, patented hj' Slftmpfesr and Starka» 
In polished co^. 

10, A miiTerBAl IcTcl (theodolite) forinines ; octangular 
t^le«K'<jpo, 11 lines aperture j horisontat and Tertic^^mb, 
diTided on eilver by vcmii?rs froni 80 to 30 secondi j ar^ 
rangement for ines^uring di^taaee and altitude, striding 
spirit level, ie. In mse. 

A djoamogniph, fur Meertaimng the average strength 
of draught i IiiYt^oliml hj Adam CIicTalier de Bnrg, direc- 
tor of the Imperial Polytwhmc Institute^ Tietmik. 

[Mfltlicmat ical insli'mnent* of good quality and at low 
prices are mottlv made in Vienna, bj ti numb<er of ;?mall 
working trtidefeitjen, for die supplj of the monarchy. A 
few Apecimcni^ of the larger surTejing instnmienta aroj 
however, eiliibited. 

Opticjd iJiAtruments are likewise produced principally 
in Yieom^ gf SM|iaipif q?l»ii^, paj^ticularly thc^jie whidl 
$e(rvG mon &r puipoiei liCpHMnd. utiliLj than for si^ieuoo, 

m well as »iiectm\G9 and r jfli gjiftWi, of ill ilwiiiptHftM 
and ujoun tiiig!i, are made in Tlettttft bj m g gw rt moriiv <ff 
tradesmen. The gla^a«a eome moel^j from BohemJan 
manuf&aioricsj but are c:i)t in Vienna. Ho H3nple of tbis 
department lias btMni ^t nl. 

Of the philo&c^pliical inatrumtintik oafy a few spod* 
mens have beim forwarded.] 

131 Erani., rtm LEtTE?ssTEiy, J., FiAin»— InT«ntar* 
Qhhe of the moon. 

132 ^IBEBICATR, M.f QratZy >^/yrra— luPBlor. 
Chronoglobitun and planetnriun'i, 

IS3 BaA3o>Ei% E. W., iV^$fVi«— Manu£ichi»r. 
BaQ^inrometrioal ftpDaratoa for b^ing bees', designed by 
" 0* J, li. BalMiig, Ptvifaaaor of Clieiaietry, of Piftgus. 

134 Jetiak, FttiXZ, Pra^ite— Manufijcturer. 
Philosophical, chemical^ and medk^ appafatns and 

inatrum^ite. 
Works of art in gks^. 

135 B ATEA, Wekeei^ Pra^iM!-— Manu&ctuTCT, 
Chemicid and philosophical apparatus^ 

An ehjctro-mjignetic apparatus, bj Prol Petrina, Prague. 
An apparatus for trying beer, after the design of ilr. 
Steinheil, of Vienna, 

136 EocciEETTi, PiOLO, PodMA — EngineiT. 

G^omotrical instruments. 

137 WrriM, Faiirz Xatub, rTettMo^Eng^neer 
Pyrometer (or discovering the degree of haat i & new 

invention. 

Patent fnmio© bar, new invention, ProrifiionaUy rc^s- 
tered* 

Artificial fe«t and arma. 

Irtfcn-wire rope 

138 ZwiCKL, JoiEPH, Aizger9d4^f^ near Vumma 

— Manu&turer* 
Am instrument £br measuring concave sur&oea. 

139 MAECttisi, Gio. B., X^i— luTenton 

A writing machine for the blind^ producing the letters 
either black or in relief 

140 ScH^iniKE, JoBEPH, H^iiitii— Hanufacturer. 
Grand pianoforte of American mapla, T octaTes, with 

Viennese mechanism^ ornamented with inlaid*woi4£. 

[The excdknee and extent of this mnstcal department in 
Anatria are the natnrsl eons^q^ienees of the fondness of its 
inhabitants for music, and the extenaiTe difmand for 
mnaieal inatrumentii lesolling theffifhoni. 



AUSTRIA. 



1015. 



Tienna and Prague are the principal seats of the manu- 
ftctnie of stringed and wind instruments, which are cele- 
brated for piiritj of tone and cheapness, and are conse- 
queatlj arUdes of considerable export. Also in other 
parta of Bobamia and the Archduchy of Austria, and in 
Lombardy, excellent musical instruments are made. 

The Vienna pianoforte is considered to possess a full and 
beautiful tone, easy touch, elegant and light shape. The 
manofikcturen endeayouied to adapt the mechanism of the 
instruments to the taste of the various countries. The 
few specimens in the Exhibition deserve attention, also for 
the tasteful cabinet-work of the cases. 

Besides Vienna, at Prague, Oratz, Presburg, and other 
places in Austria, pianofortes of equally good quality arc 
manufactured. 

Harmonicons, both large and small, the latter of which 
are rather to be considered as toys, are extensively made 
in Vienna of good quahty, and are largely exported. 
Musical boxes from Prague are also exported in large 
quantities.] 

141 Vlabst, JoHAjry, Prague — Manufacturer. 
A pianoforte, 7 octaves, of walnut-tree wood. 

141a Pottje, J., Vienna — Manufacturer. 

Ghrand pianoforte of rosewood, with carved ornaments, 
seven octaves ; Vienna mechanism. 

141b Sittffebt, E., Vienna — Manufecturcr. 

Piccolo pianoforte of rosewood, with buhl-work and 
transposition mechanism, from designs of the arcliitect, 
Bernardo de Bemardis, in Vienna. The bronze orna- 
ments by A. HoUenbach, Vienna. 

141o HoxA, F., Vienna — Manufacturer. 

Ch«nd pianoforte, seven octaves, with brass string-plate, 
and the strings attached to separate iron tongues ; the 
case of Hungarian poplar. 

141d Deutschmakn, J., Vienna — Manufacturer. 
Amelodium. 

142 WiLHELM, Anton, Modling^ near Vienna — 

Maniifecturer. 
Leather for covering the hammers of pianofortes. 

143 BiENXBT, D., & Son, Maderhdiuer, BohemM^ 

Manufacturers. (Agent, Mr. Holste, 76 Basing- 
hall Street, London.) 
BifTerent kinds of prepared wood forrausical instruments. 

144 BiTTNBB, David, Vienna — Manufacturer. 

A stringed quartett (two violins, tenor, and violoncello). 
A violin, a bass-viol, and a guitar. 

145 KossELT, JoHANN, Tumau^ Bohemia — Manufacturer. 
A violoncello, inlaid with mother-of-pearl. 

140 Hebzlieb, p., Qratz^ Stgria — Manufacturer. 
A stringed quartett (two violins, tenor, and violoncello). 

147 CEBrxi, Enbico, Cremona — Manufacturer. 
A* violin. 

148 KiENDL, Anton, Vienna — Manufactiu^r. 
Two citherns (stringed instruments). 

149 HuTHEB, Michael, Vienna — Manufacturer. 
A cithern (a stringed instrument). 

150 Callboabi, Antonio (firm of Antonio Prial detto 

Romanin & Co.), Padua — Manufacturer. 
An aasortment of strings for musical instruments, in- 
cluding violin, violoncello, double bass, harps, &c., and 
specimena of cat-gut. 



151 Indbi, Antonio, Venice — ^Manufacturer. 
Samples of strings for guitar, violin, violoncello, harp, 

and double bass. 

152 Hell, Febdinand, Vienna — Manu£sK*turer. 
Musical instruments: a clarionet, comet-^-pistons, 

bugle, bass-tuba, trumpet, cuphonion horn, and a bass in- 
strument, a new invention, called Hell's horn. 

152a Theisz, S., Sermannstadtf Trantylvania — 
Manu£Gk;turer. 
A French horn and fife. 

1 53 Riedl's Widow, J. P., Vienna — Manufacturer. 
Various wind instruments of metal. 



154 Stehle, JouANN, Fitfnno — Manufiicturer. 
Harmonic bass (a new instrument) and a bassoon. 

155 Uhlmann, Joseph, Vienna — Manufacturer. 
Various wind instruments of wood and metal. 



156 ZiEOLEB, JoHANN, Vienna — Manufacturer. 
Flutes and clarionet. 

157 Ceeveny, W. F., Koniggrdiz, Bohemia — 

Patentee. 
Various wind instruments of metal ; among them » 
new phonikon horn, called Zevuhoroh. 

158 Eott, a. H., Prague — Manufacturer. 
Various wind instruments of metal. 



159 Rott, ViNCENZ, JosEP, Progriftf — Mannfecturei*. 
Various wind and stringed instruments. 

160 St6hb, Fbanz, Prague — Manufacturer. 
Wind instnmicnts : cuphonion and bugle. 

161 Pelitti, GnrsEPPE, Milan — Manufacturer. 
Wind instruments of metal, of novel construction. 

162 RzEBiTSCiiEK, F., Prague — Manufacturer. 

Four musical-boxes, playing two, three, four, and six 
tunes. 

163 Reinisch, Joseph, Vienna — Manufjacturer. 
Different kinds of harmonicons and mouth-organs. 

164 Steinkellneb, C, Vienna — Manufiicturer. 
Different kinds of accordions. 



164a Laitdachee, Franz^ Linz^ Upper Austria, 
Church clock. 

165 Liszt, Anton, jPttf»»«. 
Two travelling clocks. 

[Vienna, Prague, and Gratz are the principal seats of 
this industry. In the former place particularly, the con- 
struction of clocks is carried on extensively by a numerous 
class of small manufacturers. The Vienna clocks in glazed 
wooden cases, the metal clocks called Black Forest, or 
Schwarzwalder, clocks, and the small clocks (Nippuhren) 
on bronze or porcelain stands, and imdcr glass shades, 
have become considerable export articles — the former on 
account of their excellence, the latter owing to their 
appearance and cheapness. 

Ghimjh clocks, astronomical clocks, travelling docks, 
and also watches, are of superior workmanship.] 

166 Mabenzelleb, laNAz, r«««na— Clockmaker. 
A chronometer of novel construction. 

167 Ratzenhofeb, J. F., Ji«i»a— Clockmaker. 

A geographical clock, showing the difference of mean 
time in all the capitals of Europe, from a design by B. di 
Bemardis. 




ft twdkrmuamtk^ j^vilM aoduA 



170& JlOTWlWAWC PiVQf'Ai^ TVimi* Wiii 6 »*«(» Bifeei, 




tl wiU go for 30 T««T», and 
Vo. S Ibr ID jr«nii^iiffcaiil«lfr n^iu4ri«g to U* wtmnd 
Upu ntf imj W wmnid tip far » wnitury, without 
liliQalioD in d&flwaiioai or Ibmi. Kq, 3| » tHinpnir4ricai 
wbifi stMlf up by tli« |«a9vnp of Ihe 

in Omemcn, Mich m, J^u gg S pmnor. 

[CbHoRiglliitalqi md woftriftg hare ot Ute yocri been 

««» t^ inewMC in ABfltri% owing to tb« Jcmand 
^ eoaramplaian, Bobenii% Lower Aiistri^ inid 
ToiAifi, i& t))« 11^1, omt&b iDQ«i of the fpiiming - 
imS» i Bobimk tiu ti^ fii? the greats munber of estS' 
t4i«btti«i&ti for wwriiig and pmitiog. Ths erection of 
puwm4oamB 1m» kioI been oxt«Dpi¥e, lb« great^t part of 
ih« «ftuiei prodttfiod hmag woreo by h*iict b^T tbo whtr 
t of tb« Bob^QniJui Rioiuitiim'&cnitw dktiicts. The 
I of cK^ition jBiTL snd goodj hA0 incnated of Ifttc 
I in & meatifrc which besFi no pfoportkm to ib^ snuil 
SBBbtf of tJie sAiapki eibibU«d.] 



8|)QesmeD« of eotton jmtit. 



HHiilo cotton warp jiini. 
Bed-djed oottoa muk jmnL 



173^ Lsimaipt, Juuiri, ^Ij^lflotDOf, BoA^mia^ 

lUd oottoti ^rarO' 

174 PjutoXR, Joflicr^ jJirteiiWij?— Spinaer* 
C^ttloa y«J*n b ruiom itnges of mftnuikitim. 

175 l^OKDEMOVI COTfOtr MlIiL AXD 0TBOr(» EftTA- 

Snroptea of cott<m twtft^ djed Turkey red. 

176 EiCSTKS, FsjkHS, Bmiekomt mar Praffw, B^fJUmi^ 

^^piimer. 
Ttm spun fkjm HoHlo oottotu 

[The oottoo nmnufacture girci cimplojrtnetit the whole 
fCOT round to bimdrodfl of thouuBdi of mdiTiduAifl ; but 
no other branch U lubject to nudi flnctuatioui, and these 
AM oofiifiiotied, in the &it plao^ bj the neceasitj for 
drnwing the Bupply of tbe raw material fronj ahroBd. 
The rapid development of the ootton manufacture U 
ihown m the cltnLreet manner by the quantitks impm-led 
•i glTm iperioda. On an averftgc of the fire jear@, 1843 
to ld47| tbe^ had incn^eaaed to 403,100 ewt. In tbi? rear 
1B46 tboy had reaebed M7,SO0 ewt., and had Ihna witbin 
18 jciir» increa^ied ai«iretifold. The csporta of cotton 
were imimportaDt, amountmg on an arerage to about 
1,700 owt* onl j & jear : to that tb* whole quantity im- 
ported maj be conflidersd m entering for manu&ctore 
into Hm hom# eomiumptJAii ol the Au»^wn momMohy. 




Dm fnt proemm m ihm preygilioti of tbe cottoii t&kea 
InUie 7W7 1847 iW Auj^triMi 
iOS BpiiBMiy-fpai*, with 6,1S5 spm- 
MSl^S^ qwndica. Tbn^ bowery, 
MS ^mj tne^iiallf diitssboS«d t/f^ tiie aeml protitioes. 
TH^ gwalupt niniiW <if ipiDdLEi was powemd bj Lowiar ' 
Aiistna, whkh eoidd reeloo 6i28^9l6, movt of tliem in lbs 
m^hb^uz^ood of TlMin% and hw Jkjhmtam wiiicb had 
4ie^3@3. 3iexl in mdgrwwm ibt Tjvol, whieb eould count 
l^tlO (tbeK ahnixt exdoahelj in the Yorarlberg), tkeo 
Lombardy, witli 104^473 ipiodkB, and Upper AnflUu 
with €4^480, In tlie oiher p^vinoes, t^aamg mUla 
ooeur but fporinglj, btfo and ihem. 

The entire »tocl of coiton of all tlicse milk wba, at tho 
beginning of 1B4B^ about 52^6^ cwt-g and they fuppliod 
tbi^mj^TM in the courae of that jear, to the fujtber i^ 
U-nt of 4@0^13 ewt Tli^ total pvodncrtion for the iMI 
yqar, of co^tton jam and twisty w»» 837,^10 cwt. 

There werv employed diroctiy in the spsining mOla 
nearly SOjCDO workpeople i but the number indiDGctly 
I'mploYtsd being br^ tliia aniomit h thereby rsiaad to 
about 50,000 bandf. ] 

1764 D[E£2Ka&' Bsim^ ^qjumm^ Thermkdkmi^ mft - 
Bmmiiamt Vffrr Amdria* 
Specimens of Miiea |HB« 

177 Wmmme*B^m, a A^ Wmrmtd^, B&ktmia— 



Cotton Tehet of diSbrenI kinda, djed and praibsd. 
Wlute IbnneL 

178 QnxmMAys, Ca^l» Lindenam^ Bo hemn - ^ 

Manufacturer. 
Cotton yaruj dyed Turkey rod and pink. 
Ckitton Ttslvet and calico, dytsj Tnrkcj f«^ 

179 hAMBM, FA4MX, A Scuti, SL mm^emtktd, Msi^emim 

— Hanufaeturfin. 
Coil on Tehcta of dii^rent kind^. 

180 Wnrr^B, JoaiPH, FlraiMi— Manufactuiw. 
Quilted bed-eoTe». 

181 EanroiB, ALBSmT, Oheriangenau, near H(thsiuflhe^ 

^oi«fltM'<-MannfsrtuTtT and Bleacbar, 
Tariona cotton goodi. Jaconets, bandkedfcbieffi dbc, 

182 FmiEBSiCH^ AjfnEXAS, FieMia— Manuiacturar. 
Tarious ^ititmk gooda, ihiiiingi, mntlinfli thibets, &e* 
[In addition to the yam of Auatiian prodneiion, eon- 

dderable quantities of the finest j^rm are annnallj im- 
ported from abroad. In the Jlre yeara, fipom 1848 ta 
1847, there were imported annually 41,787 cwt., wHereai 
no more than 1,464 ewt. w&k exported annually duifng 
the aame internal 

The wearing, in fay &r tbe grestett prcipottion, per< 
tain* to the domeatic industry of tbe monarchy, the 
number of tbe more exteauMTe eetabliJihment^ being Tery 
sumlU. It is followed moat emtenairely in Bohemia, where 
it einpli>y» IBO.OOO people. MoraTia and Silesia com* 
next with regard to tbe extent to whicb this occupation ia 
followed, although bnt one aiiigle cotton fpinning-mai 
esiats in tbeni (and that only pinoe 1848) : in these pro- 
Tincea 40,000 persons earn a subaiatenee by weaving. In 
Ixiwer Auatriaj and specially in Viena% mixed fitufft 
particularly an? manufactured, and tbia ia^ to ionie ei- 
tentj tbe ca«e in tTjiper Austria ako. In Styria, Dlyria, 
Gahcui, and in the protince of Tenioe, tb« cotton manu- 
tkiuro ia but inodmaiderable. In the Tyrol (the Torarl- 
beiTg) the yam pf^ueed is net worked, but ia principfdly 
aent to Lombardy, Boberoia, Moraiia, and Auatna. The 
cotton weaving of Lombftrdy la of mora impoHanc^ 



AUSTRIA. 



1017 



ahfaough •! prosenti with the ezoeption of the mixed 
stiifEB, an ordinary fiibrio only is produced there. In 
Dahnatia and in the Military Frontier this branch of in- 
dustry can scarcely be said to be carried on at all ; and 
Hungaiy, together with the Yayrode and ihe Tsmeser 
Banate, Transylyania, Croatia^ and SlaTonia, produce but 
common stnfis, lor which the neighbouring Austrian pro- 
Tinoea famish the principal supply of yam; for the 
ayeragee of the five years last referred to show that 
14,728 owt. of yam were exported thither, whereas the 
imports from thenoe amounted only to 594 cwt. The 
number ci hands engaged in the occupation of cotton- 
weaTing amounts to S00,000.] 

183 Jmwt a Schikdleb, Hard, Vorarlbersf— 

Manufitcturers. 
Furnitures. Cloths. 
Ladies* dresses (aU wool). 
Ladies* and children's sosrft. 

184 KiAMSS, JoHAinr, Fietma — Manufacturer. 
Ladies' nrasfin dresses, plain and embroidered ; striped 

cotton, and muslin handkerchiefs. 

185 Laho, JoHAinr, ViemM — Manufiicturer. 
Specimens of fine cambric muslin. 

1 86 Lkitivbsboeb, Editakd, Seiehsfadt, Bohemia — 

Manufacturer. 
Plain and assorted coloured cotton prints, printed by 
cylinder and hand. 

Jaconets, cambrics, muslins of different colours. 

187 LsrrsNBEBaBB, Fbanz, ChtrntmoSf Bohemia — 

Manufacturer. 

Plain and yariously-coloured cotton prints, printed by 
cylinder, hand, or perrotine. 

Coloured jaconets, cambrics, muslins, and printed 
shirtings. 

188 LUBIBCH, JoHAiTW, Woijudorf^ Bohemia — 

Manufacturer. 
Quilting for waistcoats. 

1 89 Ossbebqek's Successor, Peteb, Markt Zv?e11, 

hovoer Austria — Manufacturer. 
Samples of cotton goods, Tarious coloiu^ glazed. 

190 VoucMAWN, loNAZ, r7«iiw — Manufacturer. 
Ladies* fuocj cotton dresses. 

Specimen of Ajor curtain. 

191 Keller, Josef, Briinn, Moravia— Sumner. 
Twdrc specimens of woollen yarns. 

192 LEiDEk'FBOeT, Edu ABD, BrUnn, 3f oraWa— Spinner. 
Woollen yams of Tarious colours. 

193 SCHKIEOEB, Anton, Neudeck, Bohemia — 

Manu&ctiu^er and Spinner. 
Worsted and woollen yams. 
Woollen fabrics, including thibets, muslin, cloth, &c. 

1 94 SoxHLBT, H. F. & E., BrUnn^ Moravia — Spinners. 
Woollen yams. 

195 Tetzjcbb, GrsTAV, Qdrkau, near Comotau, Bohemia 

— Spinner. 
Woollen yams. 
Vigogna yams, spun of wool and cotton. 

196 Thohas, Leopold, GrasUtx^ BoAwiw— Manufac- 

turer. 

Wonted and woollen yam. 

Woollen stuffs : Thibet, ladies' cloth, kma, half-wool 
tartans. 

[The production of wool and woollens is a most impor- 
tant branch of industry, and its export trade is only 
exceeded by that of .sUk goods. The raw material of 



which, besides a large quantity exported, is entirely of 
home growth. Nearly half the wool of Austria is Hun- 
garian ; next in importance arc Bohemia, Galicia, Morayia^ 
Silesia, Transylvania, Upper and Lower Austria. The 
woollen yams are usually spun in the doth manufactories, 
and sereral spinning-mills have been lately established. 

The shawls, which are manufactured almost exdusively 
at Vienna, combine durability and tastefulness with cheap- 
ness, and haye long been extensiye export articles. 

Some specimens of woollens mixed with cotton, silk, and 
thread, as well as carpets and similar articles, are exhibhed.] 

196a Dibbzeb*8 Hbibs, Johann, Theremenikalf near 
Chmtnden^ Upper Austria, 
Worsted yam. 

197 Thum, Anton, Reichenbergy Bohemia — 

Manufacturer. 

Worsted and woollen yams. 

Woollen goods, including Thibets, Circassia, Orleans, 
and waistcoats. 

Printed cashmere and Circassia shawls. 

[The woollen manufacture is most extensirely diffhsed, 
and the raw material receives its greatest increase in 
value in Silesia, where 2d0,000 cwt., in Bohemia, where 
150,000 cwt., and in Lower Austria, where 40,000 cwt. 
are annually worked up. With less enhancement of 
value wool finds a considerable consumption in Hungary, 
amounting, together with that of the Yayvode, the 
Temeser Banate, Croatia, and Slavonia, to 100,000 cwt. ; 
also in Transylvania which takes 40,000 cwt., and on the 
MiUtary Frontier, which absorbs 20,000 cwt. In the other 
provinces of the empire the manufacture is carried on 
upon a smaller scale, their consumption being about equal 
to their production ; but Chlicia and the Bukowina con- 
stitute an exception to this remark, for these scarcely 
work up one-tenth part of their production of the raw 
material ; and, with regard to its enhancement in value, 
they will probably stand between the first-named pro- 
vince and Hungary (excepting, however, Dalmatia, which 
furnishes only the commonest articles). Among the par- 
ticular towns, Reichenberg, Briinn, Vienna, Iglau, and 
Bielitz stand in the first class of producers of woollen 
goods. Vienna manufiictures scarcely any cloths, whereas 
in the other locahties both cloths and other woollen goods 
are extensively made. 

The manufSacture of worsted yams b not adequate to 
supply the requirements of the monarchy. It is most 
considerable in Bohemia. Altogether about 10,000 cwt. 
of worsted yam are wound off 30,000 spindles fix)m 25,000 
cwt. of wool. Tlie imports of worsted yam are almost 
exclusively furnished from Saxony and brought into Bo- 
hemia ; on an average of the same quinquennial period 
last referred to, they amounted to 12,900 cwt. 

Thus there remained for woollen yam and hand spin- 
ning about 600,000 cwt. of raw material. Of this quan- 
tity something more than the hali^ or about 350,000 cwt. 
were spun, for the most part in Moravia, Silesia, Bohemia, 
and Lower Austria, by machinery on 550,000 spindles 
into 250,000 cwt. of yam ; the remainder, representing a 
value of 18 millions of florins, is hand-spun.] 

198 V68LAU Worsted Yarn Spinning Cohpant, 

Vdaiau^near Vienna, 
Berlin wool, worsted yams, and arras yams. 

199 Kamner, George T., Cronstadt, Transylvania— 

Weaver. 
White sheep's wool and blue striped mgs. 
Black and white cloths (called Gujoratz cloth). 



1020 



AUSTBIA. 



260 Matek BEOTHEHa, Tlewiki— Mamifactureri, 
Silk, volret, and other waiat^joatmg*. 
S&tin icftrfi^ neekcloths, uid bimdkeivlilefi* 



267 Mbstbozi, Fxitl^ Vienna — MftTiuiW!tuiiw. 
Lihdies* silk handkerchiefs. 
Satin and Teket waistcoatings. 



268 RfilCHlBT, FBi.NZ, Fiffiwa— Miinufa4>tiiTer. 
Silki. Qroa de Naples j gros grain i groa d' A£riqtie ; 

Lemnttn nnd iatin Timpi^^ 

269 ScarrPER, Carl, Vienna — Manu&cturer. 
Silk plufh for hftts. 



270 ScHOPPKR, M, A., ri<f» j*<f— Manufacturer. 

An exfceneiTe selection of silk for fumituri% In bfoca- 
telles, Um|m0, Mtins, and damuks. 
Carriage lininge. 

27 1 SreBEBT, Fribdhich, n^rtwa— Manufncturer and 

Patentee. 
ClieniUo liandkerchiefs and bsjfideret. 

272 SiGMUNU, Ignaz, Tletma — ^Munufiictxtrer, 
Silk laivu } transparent gause ; and bajaderes. 

273 SrATTRAFT, F. X,, neniitf— Manufactuiwr. 
Plnin and brocaded silk handkeTcMe&. 
Ijiidiefi' ecftrfa and shawls. 



274 Wojncii, Frakz, Hemut — Manufa-ciuiw. 
Fancy silk goods, vaistcofttings» satin scarfii, &c, 

275 HiELLKK, Elias (Sons of the Ute), SchonUnde^ 

Bohemia — Mnnufiict ur«?r9. 

Scrwing, crochet, and knitting thrt'iid. 

Ltnen. 

[Although the ancient and, in fonner tim«s, flourbhing 
hnen trade of Austria has suffered greatly by the intro- 
cUictioti and progress of the cotton maniifiieture, and 
spinning by niaohinery, it still occupies an im|K)rtBnt 
position ; and the linen of the nlouIl^^lirl di«trif*ts ofBolie* 
Tnia, Moravia, Silcsiiij and Salzburg in of undeniable eneel* 
lenec. Tlie Government is also const an tlj eierting itfr 
influence for the improTement of the growing and pre- 
ym-Tui ion of flai. 

Among the hemp nmnufiicttifes, of which specimens 
hare lx«en sent, oofiiA •» distinguished by their novelty, 
as, for example, variegattHt coloured hemp thread for 
lo^Ues' fancy work, frequently preferrefl to silk. 

The linen jams of Austria are mosilly liand^^pnn : 
ntachine-spiiining is, however, on the incivaiK'. Sampler 
are exhibited both of band and nmchine spun yams.] 

276 Taitbir, Ferd., Unter-MeidUn^, near Vienna^ 

Manufaeturer* 
Tow-thread, coloured, of vurious kinds. 



Saddle-girt h«t halters, bridles, &c, 
Bell-roix^ of New Zealaud hemp (PAaj 



Unax), 



277 RoPE-aiAKERB' ASSOCIATION, Mermanngtadt, 

TrantifftvaHitu 
MantiJactures of hemp and flui, including girths, cord- 
age, &e. 

277a Hermanttstabt Tbads TJmov (Boidbr, X, 
Direetor), HeniMmuittdi, Ikramtfivrmifi, 
Cotton and linen cloth, waistcoat qmlting,, Hax thread 
trousering, bleached and unbleached linen. 

278 JA<3BR» Fkanz Johakn, Prague, Bohemia— 

Manufaet urer. , 
Cordage, 
Carpet of Italian hempj and one of Xew Zealand hemp. 




270 Pabsch Brothers, Qrampen^ Bohemia — 
Manufacturers. 
Wat(3'-bo«e of Bohemian hemp, for Bre-en^nm. 



280 Wedtbeeoek, GottliIvB, Lins — ^Msnuiacturcr. 

Hemp nianufactures, oorered witli lasting wools ; saddle- 
girt hs ; lines 1 twisted eords ; twines •» rarioiis cordages 
from hemp ; twine from German hemp. 



2B1 BuT a c glg & QukfT^ BH^tn^ Mormia — 

Man ufacturers. 
Sail-eloth of different kintls, spun and wore in the same 
manufactory* _^^^__^^_^^^_^ 

282 CHiACfficH, Mjchele, i1fK«if«— Monufaetmvr, 
Sail-cloth of different kinds. 



283 TiTi Bbkstolbnt Socwnr'a EsTABUBinnENT, 
Milan. 

Three tAblo-cIoths and » piece of Lorabandy Uiien. 



284 Feeie, Wenxkl, Merk(4fw, near SituHkmhiUik^ 
Bohemia. 

Iland-ppun hnen yam. 

Fine eambric of linen thread, spun by inhabitants of 
the Rie^eiigt^birge, Bohemia. 

Ladies' linen pockt't-handkerchitfa. 

[Tlie oldest of all the branches of Austrian industry is 
the linen mannfacture. It is, moreover, tlie most im* 
portant of thetm, and continues to be «o, intrinsically, on 
account of the citraorthnnry large number of persons 
whom it eniployB, part of them throughout the whole 
year, part of them for a shorter time ; but it has stiiTered 
severely by the rapid development of the cotton manu- 
fiielure, which, arailiug itself of the working powers that 
had binm already organized by the linen manufacture, em- 
ployed them far more profitably. The linen manuiaelure 
Bullcni, howt*ver, still more sensibly from the circumstanoe 
that the necessary degree of care is not devot«?tl to the 
important object of getting rid of defects of pivparation 
and management whieli are univenially acknowledged to 
exist tuider the prei*ent system. These defects extend 
evi*n to the prtKiuction of the raw mal:erial \ for the cul- 
tivation of flax and hemp is carried on in Austria as if it 
were but a puhsitliary or secon*lary object, it being deemed 
not sufficiently remunerative. A raw matenal, howerer, 
of cicelieut qimhty is produced. Tlie flax, especially that 
grown in Boheinia, Moravia, and Silesia, is equal to the 
best productKl in any other part of Europe ; but, from the 
can^esa steeping it roceiTesi, it loses enormously in ralue : 
large portions of it are partially spoiled, and tlie waste of 
the gerieral production is umieeeasarily increased* Aa 
ye(^, moreover, niachinc-spLuning has not attained any 
very considerable degree of deielopmentj and the hand- 
spinnings which affords but a scanty and procariotui 
hving, supplies in general but an imperfect and irregnlar 
article,] 

285 IlARRAm, Count, Jnmtmtz^ Jfofovsa, and 

Sfa rkrnhiiek, Boke tnia — ManufiMStUWr. 
Linen daitiai'k furniture. 
Damask tnble-cloths and napkins. 
Linen towels. 
Linen handkerchiefs. Linen web. 



286 HArrr, Leopold, Brunt*^ M&rapio — Manufoettuvr. 
NpeciiTiens of comnuni and damask linen ; mixed fikbries ; 
itri|)cd and coloured cloths j various ticks j and iin- 
bleaohed vi hitc vam linen. 



"Am ihr latEQamu aomumt i& Hiiipij Mii 

hat Af I i—iwjMiiBi of ffwp S ftfc. y kMd,i 

I man tk/m T Bik 
liaa CM^ iif I Ic ihr ibowr iBtmir^ of i^ iiMwihuim of : 
Kirr"«^sdi fsaiAiio ■Tjipwibii bw kn 

L of npc^voik nd tkr Ifte.^ 




■Old w i T «* i<^ n^nw 



2f^ FcsBx. Joscr. Tm 

Fsnrr fouffik inchidmc Hfhrr' batf a& d weiL 
Fine, imddbsii;. aiuD ^inxmd ectum dit—UL 
FicxDvdbalfwiiQ&cc rkw^it 
Scae^ li^ and eHEcr^ cf wcwil lor lMbe» and juink- 

Psimed occum 'hBi&aciiie&. 






[ Gt^itnm. ot tJir JKseai ink. Of lie ■ ■ m i i ij m f . 

I of I nil ijiwiiiiij i^ bulk miHi iir of damesLir [T^ nimf a rt apr of misrid fmft wcntf ti> itqaa^ 

: &bEn, labkHsksii^ azid lop- gxperieDnf a Ingiaer i«tip of incfqiiwi Tmhip ie l^ j i nn i iM* 

nrilk, aoid dcilk asr im- rtip t^ny Aft-»4wi»> itMum j*im wa^jj ^T«to>i>4#Ai: ^«Miif«.« ii»^ 

■4^^. Ill -UK* 2MSS Tnk vr ikba juaer the ^rmi one iw iiiiiii !■! onihr. Diif iBonxbcnDr of nuand 

tf ziznmd. acpecialh- in Bidifxma. Mmria. flmfi- » moit TaMspanmm in Bohfwna. L i iw u X«fCna» 

TV^ i«pe ^MfwiiEarg ij »» i§ of i£W oonae- McKi^-kL SAesia, I mmlawl*, Gaikaa, aoid Cj^^cr Awcna. 

cB fl%fluui[ anfi iiT'iii'^nc- XponsBia ^ ****** ^wr^r't^^ ***iFwft m Use ^BaBSBwtwe ^a jhp 

U^ ^ boBB dbBMB o Mumit a haurii g d W -d^ oooob &fans of eaeum mad baeB vKti, ier iwil% 2.<KM^ Imbb^ ; 

ior ^Domd and in t^ow of ocoob and ^wnQen Tam. &r wk^ ^UHK^ 
I looBtf; ofhuenaaidwocdkB T«n»^ Joraiwi Ifif^ Inr— r . 

Hi Iki laai iiMiiriiii f mii Hir jiiaiiaaii irf* rfi'iiii, of limen. ciMYfln. aoid wMdkK Tvitt.&r dOOc «f difcnat 

liifBiiii^ 4b^ m catoMtod ai a^oA 10 per oenu t^ aoi tsus cvmbBand aro^ aiik. ior SM^ iMaM^ In Law 

be III! Ill ^ aaj, V^SCMi* rvt^ of at^nc^ ^oniii^ kn varw and ^oar aK^icii «e anad aridi aik aMad *« 

•boat 4aC)g00O r«t.'eaBK ioaa t^ aaiiet, t^ nA kcaag ' oa t^ aea^ of i^ciaEriT^ ia^ iHaaiiii la Miiii aai 

•fe of tlie**^^«««,lS«»^l^C3<i»««PP"»^i«»» ocooa, InaaL aad awJkn yam. ^ i^Mwa af ii MW ^ 

ba Kported froM alaaad «bIt 2iS c«v, vbwBw ^ liaoa, and awAea 5» Mid idk 4aahiai< «e dT «P 

iToicr of ca^ertalBrt^MBr^fnodikava 42,^09 €«i^ nnt oo ai ayMa nu *Ia Lta iAM J ^ ^r ■Ji f i aT ^•^ 

it IbOova t^i t^sv iiaMiiind liv konr w a wumjaina tbe ckwacao' of diP ji i iiBniaaai maaiibiSMnL 0d 

" i 4mt 




cot ton an d flu x o r 1 1 vm |x*n jam . In A net ria 1 ikcwi sp thcw 
liali linens (enuiposcd of cott-on and flax yam), and 
trousorings, miide of cotton and woollen yama, arc of 
miieh unportanoe. Tlic mixture of cotton yam and iilk 
(for waietcoiitiiigs and furniture) ixrnj rank next to them.] 



298 LiKBiO, JonANN, Emchenberg, Bohemia — 
Jfanufacturer. 

An flasortmenl of pluui and fiinirtHl printed woollen 
Btmlfsi, comprising fJrlcaoSj Tliibet, lwj*tirig, luiitidiirin^ <tt!* 

Winter aliawb, printed Tbilx^ta, &c. 

209 Nettbebt, C, G., Gmrgswalde^ Bohemia— 
Maniifactynnr. 
Bakarine, eballi*, peipdin, miialiu, and mixed fabrka, 
prppared for printing. 



300 Bameder, Ignaz, Jleima — Mainifactorer. 
Woollen ehaw la J pctticoata; count erpojies. 



301 WoLFBxm, C, AtLtriif OH fh^ Elhe^ Boftemia— 

Maniifacturcn 
Cotton and wooDcn stulF^j including victoriii«»j poilc dc 
ch^rre^ impcrialft, allmmbras^ ill dc clil'Tre, &c. 

302 WDB8T, JoHAJfK N.» Ffendenikal, SiUgia'- 

Manufacturer. 
Table-covert, in. Turioua eoloiira and ityles of workman- 
ship. 

303 BiEjfBRT, FLoaiA:c» rieima— Manufiiotuwr. 
A Tttriclj of waisteotttings* 

304 EcHlNOEn BitOTHERa, I'knn^ — ^Manufacturera. 
Waistj^oatiiigs and woollen acarfs for gentlemen. 

305 Kbal, Axtox, Fitfutto — Maniifo*?turer. 
Waistooothigs of rftrioiis kindi. 



300 Bo€K8TROH, Heinhich, Jwitms — Manufacturer. 
Waiateontinga of wool, and wool and silk. 



307 FiAL, Jon ANN, 11ei$na — Manufacturer. 

Waist cjoatinga of wool, and of Imlf silk. 



308 WBSTHArsBEE, JOBEF^ Tlenna — Manufacturer. 
WaiBteoatinge of piqud and wooL 

300 BebOEB, Josbp, Vieuna — Mamdacturer. 
Eamogc, long, and a variety of other sbawla. 

310 BROTZMAN, Aj>am, Henna — Manufacturer, 
Tapifl and ramage ahawld of various eoloura. 
Long sluiwk- 

311 Hatdtkr, Sebastian, J7«?ww a— Manufacturer. 
Bazaage and long shawb of various coloiu^, 

313 KlTBO'a SOK, JOHANN, rwriiiia— Manufacturer. 
Tapia and ramage alia wis. 
Long and Thibet ehawln, Table-coTers, &c. 

313 Mabtinek, JoHAKN, FiffiMKi — Manufactimsr. 
Tupia and ramage ihawlg. 

Long shawls. 

314 MooEL, NiKOLAiTB, F*ffaji»— MannfactupOT. 
An ass<irtmcnt of skawli. 



315 B E TKii OLD, W FLU ELM, VleiuM — Manufacturer. 
Tapia and ramage shawls. 
Long and Ca»hmere shawli. 




316 RiaSj JosEy, rT^ufKi— Manufacturer. 

Ramago and long shawla. 



318 ScniTfDL, Andheab, Jlenntt — MannfaHuivr. 
Shawl-liaiidkerdiicfe* and long shawk. 



3 If* Wbnzel, Kabl, Vienna— 'Mtnuf&tHuror. 
Fancy woollen and cotton almwla. 
Shawls for mourning. 



320 Zeisel, J,, k BLtJKKis J. & C, Vienna — 
Manidiirtiirers. 
Large aisBortment of glmwiai, Bhawl-luwidkerchiefjs, long 
slmwla and scarfs. 



321 



Mbsskbb, Fhtedhick, B^mtte, Tyrol^^ 
Manulacturer. 
Brown calf- skin. 
Brown and black cow-ldde, for waterproof boots. 



322 PoLLAK, J. J., & Sons, Fraguet Bohemia — 
P[xtf'ntee9 and Manufacturers, 
Brown, black, pressed, and grained calf-akin. 
BWk japanned calf and &heep-akin. 
Black japanned grained »beep-bkin. 
Chamoifl dreasad sheep-skin. 

[Tlie production of leather Lb an objtx-t of indi8p«nsable 
imjjortance, and oecupies a very prominent plaoe among 
the branches of Austrian indastrj. It is an incontrover- 
tible la^t that the manu£»^uro of leather, Eke the other 
great divisions through wliich the industry of Aua1:ria is 
distributed, has Lately struck into a path of progreaa and 
improvement— especially as regards tlie tawing and the 
production of japanned and chamois leather, which are 
cheap and excellent.. Bark tanning, on the eontrary, haa 
hitlicHo succeeded to a very small extent only in freeing 
itself from the disad vantages of the old system of proce- 
dure, and in its attempts to furnish an article wliieli can 
compete at all with the Rheniah, Belgian, French, and 
Engli;:*h dcscTi|>tiona of sole and upper leather. 

With respect to the raw material — the hides and skins 
— the domei'tie cattle roared in tlie interior of the mo- 
narchy, together with the considerable quantities that are 
furnished from abroad — e?)i>eciaUy from across the caateni 
frontiers and from Swit^t'rland — ^are not by any means 
adequate to meet the annua! requirements of Amtria fop 
her home mflnufaeture. 

The imports of raw and half-prepared liides and akius 
const itide an important |mrt of the trade carrieti on hy 
Austria. In the following statement of tHiis trade, the 
division of the different descriptions of skina is t^en 
accoptling to the customs' tariff. The larger liidesare em- 
ployed, generally speaking, for the manufacture of sole 
leiUber. The snmller skins, which are mentioned in the 
second ckss, serve, with the exception of tlic calf-skina 
(which are for the most |Mirt bark-tanned), u the raw 
material for ** tawing*' and chamois tanning. The last 
skins mentioned, not imder any particular uame, are 
those which, partly in their rough atato, partly as leather, 
have a 8|>ecial but limited apphmtion. 

With respect to the localities from whence the raw 
material is derived for the Austrian Ictnther moiiufacturers, 
two-thirds of the larger ludes, afterwards worked up» come 
&om Russia, &om the Dannbian Principalities^ and from 
Turkey. The remauiing third of thia aggregate iB im* 
ported by sea, as Buenos Ayres Mdee^ which last are prin- 
cipally manufactured in Lonib«irdy and Venice into excel- 
lent sole-leather, far exceeding in quality the productions 
of the other Austrian provinces. Two-thirds of the smaller 
skins come from Turkey, and among these must be uieluded 
those sheep-skins which are obtai.nctl from the ffocks that 
are pastured in Transylrania, but which winter iu Bui* 



AUSTRU. 



1023 



Th0 fenuttBder come prtndpAUj from AHmlhia and 
Greece by w»y of Tkriaite, 

Thr annual quantity of raw uint^^rial for the Icatlier 
muiufiu^turB, including Uuit ImporttHl, oido until to about 
932,000 cwt. 

In the manufiictiire of leather of all ldD(U, 198 nrn^terA, 
with 5,000 labourera, «nd nearly 4,iXK) leather'tlrcHwers 
and eurriers, are employed — but this number docs not 
Include those «ngzLg«)d in the tame oocupationa in llun* 

YiemiA alone, in ita immediate neighbourhood^ reekonA 
ei|^l of the largovt leather establbhmimtii, and t^5 t^ui- 
yarda, in which the pn>cessc!d of taonmg are oarried out ou 
a T«ry large #cale. 

With reepc«t to the ext-ent of thi» trade, the estjiblirfh- 
mc^ta at Prague in Boheuiiii, at Brilnn in Moruviii, 
WtlheiiDabuTg and Krcuis in liower Au^triti^ at Eeutter 
in the Tyfi>l, at MilAnj and at Venice, take the? ^nitest 
ahare in thU produetirc braneh of Atistruin iudtijitry. In 
Hungary, tlie largest ftcnta of tlie laither manuflicturv are 
it Feath-Ofen and Pnwburg. Tttiming is very actively 
cuned on in TramnirlTania at Henuuntistadtf and among 
tlM Sseklers, who cf]K>euiUy ky iheniselTea out fur the 
pfcpamtion of niorotTO leather, and pursue that brunch 
with great suceoss. The produetiou of leutlior of all 
deampltona in Aujitria is ealeulated to amount rimiwdly 
to 543^000 cwt. Alihougli the demand for alum aiid 
^*t^mt^ tanned and jai^anned, or enameil^ leather, U 
peHbetlj oora^ by the home manu&cture, ao tliat 
the exportt and the importa pretty nearly balance one 
a&odier, thii is not the cii«>e with Ruraia leather and 
leatiier prepared with wood dyes,] 

324 Seykoba, Joskpii, Adler KqhUUc, Bohemia— 

Manufacturer, 
CaW'kathcr, tanned with pine bark. 

325 StTMB, JL H., ?7e»#ia— Manufacturer. 
Brown calf-«kin, japanned calf-skin, mlf and sheep skin, 
1 ktd leather in rariout colours for fancy articles. 

»-5kiu for furniture oovering. 

WOLLFF, Fftl£i»BlCH, SefmaHAgtodi, Traiu^lmnm 
— Cunw, 
nned goat and sheep skina of Tarious colours, 
T-fikina. 

1 goat-skint. 

327 CttiiisTL, JosEPS, FftMiiMi— ManufiuTttirer 
GtmlLanen^a boots and ehoea, waterproof sliooting* 

1 4VBota* Boota with cork and wood-pegged solca, and with 
f Wlow hcela. 

328 Frj^xk, J.J r»>rtik»*-Patt^ntee. 
Patent boota aolcd with a newlr-in vented matenal 



320 La^OBB, J06KFH, riemwi— Manulnctiirer. 
Gentlemeo'a boota and shoes. 



330 SuosxAEEBS* AaaociATiOK, MermaniuUtdt, 

Sboea and boots (caHod Taehi^^nncn) belonging to the 
SttUJQ and Bomanian national eostume. 



331 llKLiA, JoHAKir, Fieiww— Manufiicturcr. 
Ladioa^ ihoe^, boots, and BUppera. 

332 Fbikdl, hworoui, FifffUM— Manufacturer. 
L^diea' sho«i, orer-ahoM, and balf-boota with pegged 

aolm* 

[Of the modes of mnnufrirttuniig leiitljev, tbo*e wbitln 
t\*|pard the cohering of the huiuun feet cire maiutaiucd in 



the greatest eit^-'ut, and cm|>loy morw than 60,000 ihoe- 
makers, witlt a number of aaaintanta almost as large, 
Btit the monufaeture of such ortielcs ninks among the 
auuiller trades only» and in eon lined a# it were to home 
use?, with the ei.oq)tion of ladies' *hot*s marmfactured in 
Vienna^ which arc known to be excellent, and, on aeeomii 
of the elegance of their Tuakc and their moderate price, 
find an cxtenaive aale abroad. Besides theee, a consider- 
able export of shoes takes place from Trieste, wliich arc 
detiigiied for Tiirious marketa in the Lcrant. lu the 
southern provineea of Hungmiy a Tcry large quantity of 
shoes and slippers la made for sale in Turkey, and in the 
niihtury proyincea many laoed boots arc annually mauu- 
Hietured.] 

333 KUNKRTH, Akton, rieaiki— Manufacturer. 
Liulies' ahoeat Velvet alippera with gold embroidery, 
Gentlomfiia^f shoes. Orci^ahocs. 



334 BoTTLoexE, P*, Froffu^, Bohemia— MAnu£actuTer. 
Kid and lamb skins for g1over«. 



1^35 Jaqitemab, Fkaji'z, n^Mwa^Majiuiacturer. 

Gloves for kdiea and gentlemen. 

[The making of ladies' leather gloves is a braneh of 
trade eitcui^ivdy followed in Vienna and Prague, The 
production of tbia branch not only covers Iho entijra 
derimnda of the home miu-kct, but fumiihea also lai^ 
esfK>rts to the Danubian provinces and to Turkey. In 
Vienna alone tlicre arc established raon? than 250 glove- 
makers, some of whom carry on tlu^r business on a very 
Inrpe scale. Tlu^' employ above 5t>0 workmen and nearly 
3,5iX> female sewers, who fumi.sh annually more thuri 
ItiOjOOO dozen jjuLra of gloves. Prague reckons about &0 
manuioclurers of gloves.] 

330 QLoirmw* Amociation, Prvuf%^, Bohemia. 

Ladies and gentlettiAii^s gloves of kid, lamb, and sheep 
iikin. 

Gcntlemen*9 gloves of rein^deer leather, 

337 POBTSCHIST LEATHBR-CVTTKKil, Ilermann^tadt, 

IVanmfhania — Man ufaeturer. 
Sheep-skin, goat, and kid leather. 

338 Gellixek, Joii ann, Pra^ue^ Bohemia — 

Manufacturer. 
A set of sdver^plated }ianu»M. 



I 



339 LiiPFLEB, Fkiedejch, Pra4fue, Bohemia — 
Manufacturer. 
Baddies of rarioua kinds. Saddle-tree for horsea, with 
curved back. 



340 Zait, lOHATZ, Vienna — PatenttHS and 

Manufrteturer. 
Various saddles, girths, brlfiles, and horse-rugs, &c. 

[The munuiactupe of fancy artirlcs of leatlufr has 
made great progress of late years. This lioa been the caso 
pirtieuhu'ly ia the tnuie of bookbinding, both in Viemufc 
and Prague, where this braneh of trade is condueted on a 
krge scale : these not otdy satisfying all the requisitions 
of a daily incTeasing luiuiy at home, but also oommand' 
mg a very proEt^blc sole abroad. In the manufactmx^ of 
harness, saddlen, and various articles of furrieiy, Vienna,^ 
Prague, and Mdan, cxlcI all other cities and towns in 
the empire. In fuet, the parties enptigwl in this branch 
of luanuIUdime not only supply the whole tkmand of the 
mouiirehy, but also export largely annually to foreign 
countries, princip^:lly to Turkey.] 



1024 



AUSTRIA. 



341 GBIB88, Fbuducs, J le tm m IKnrmhri met. 
Riding and other whipt, with buttoiu and hancDflt of 

•ilTer, iTory, whalebone, horn, &o. 

342 MiirecHOir, M. F., Piuik, A^^oty— ManufiMtunr. 
Hungarian Csik<$a whip. 

343 GBoexopF, Qwomo^ F ig w M anofMtmtr. 
Trayelling trunk and hunfeing-pouohea. 

344 EiNHAUBiB, JoMW, T»€mi^ IJfTol— Leatherouttw. 
Leather reticule, emhroidend with peaoook feaUiflra. 

lyrolBM hunting-poudiea, gun-aUiiga, and belta. 

345 Lkathxb-guttebs* AMWCiATXcnr, J T i n w — i larff, 

A belt. 

346 Qbtib, J., IMI, AiMrr---Fnrriar. (Agents 

Mr. J. a. Mayer, 68 Osfod Straet, LoiidoiL) 
Hungarian sheep-akin Bunda (a cloak). 



347 



A8800IATXD FVBBIXM, 



Black lamb-akina. 
WaUachian and HeltMi taat 



and Teat 



348 DiNZL, Fbaits, Vm 

Gutta perdia artiolea, inrinding 8ti(A% lidiiig-whq^ 
anuff-bozes, goblets, llowcr-pota, Ac 



849 Lako^ Feaki, ahwtt- ahyr, UpftrJmiH* 
-^Mannfiuiturer. 
Artists* Inrushes of i 



350 Pattax, Georo, ffermamiuiadt^ Dramsyham 
Manufifccturer. 
Hor^vbnwh. 
Clotho8 and hair bnuhee. 



351 Bayer, J. Gkobq, HerwMntutadi^ Tratuylvamia— 
Hattor. 
Felt cloth, dark brown ; scarlet and black for waist- 
coats and cai>9 ; and materials for making felt. 



352 IICBSCH, Jos., Pragme^ BoJbeaita— Manufiicturer. 

Bohemian »ilk and felt hats. 



353 Erise, Carl, Pragme^ Bokemia — Manufacturer. 
Felt and silk hats. 
Thibet mechanical hats. 



354 MrcE, Joseph, Pra^e, Bokemia — ManufiMrturer. 
Silk and felt hats and bonnets, of Tarious kinds. 
Felt shoes and boots. 
Samples of coloured felt cloth. 



Tinoea haa iallen ol( while tiv 
after the 



flf Bilk 



356 BmDlo^ Joskf, Sirmm$A^CmrwiolM, XrvMwy 



Hone-hair aiev^-hottoma of naioaa kinda. 
cylindrical ai0fe4iottoina, lor paper] 

[Sfefe-bottona aremade in n^jrriainc 
titiea at Tcrj moderate prioea, and of good qpiditj. TIhj 
are principaUj eqmrted; and bhieify toltalj, Fnnoab the 
NeOieriaiida, Spain, GibrahM^ SflTfiBi Boani% Ae.] 

357 QxABonoHnSk Aimnr, flXnaafMoft, O m m a i m 



Hbrae-liab aiev^-botloiiis, of noiooa kinda. 
Cylindrical Biev^-bottoms, &r paper 



858 LooKO. jyAwKono, gsfalwy^ O m r mo i m 
ManufiMtnnr. 
Horae-hab aiefo-bottoma of i 
pf lindrieal a iefo- b o tto mi, &r paper i 



355 Srba, Antox, ProjTve, BoA^iwiVi— Manufacturer. 

Felt and silk hats ; waterproof miUtanr hats ; shooting 
hats of wool and felt. 

[The manufaoture of felt hats is carried on hx upwards 
of 3,000 dealers in the«e articles, not including thoae of 
Hunirarr. Verr few establishments for hat -making are 
carritHi on uixtn a kirge scale ; and Vienna and Prague 
aiv the princi)vd seats of the manufiK^ur^crs both of Mt 
and of beaver hats. Milan pitniuixw silk hats in lar^ 
quantities, and of excellent qualitj. l>f lat^ rears the 
prodiuMion of fine felt hats in the Germanic A\istrian piY»- 



yomT, JTwijiiMiliW, Fiai 



859 



OiMoClM,inadeofftsiiradftMtinMaBdeottoni. Tabfe* 
ooreratoraaeBiblawoof Floor-dotha. Ourii^OMpeta. 



wmfie prmnm^ 

papers, ofrariouB 1 

OokRDed pifMra. 

[It ia onfy of lata java thai tiiapipar 



-Ifimfiaiiii t a , 



atthoogh belon gi ng to the oldaatbr ai idiea of indiMfayaiib- 
sisting in the Austrian monarchy, haa by reaaon of the 
introduction of mechanical power made any considerable 
progrees, and at the same time partially supplanted the 
smaller establishments. 

Lombardy, Lower Austria, and Bohemia occupy, among 
the prorinces of the Austrian monarchy, the first rank in 
the manufacture of paper. After them come Venice and 
the TjToL In the other prorinces the paper fisctories are 
for the most part but of smaU extent ; Dalmatia has none 
whatercr. Lower Austria possesses the most extensive 
paper manu&ctories. The average production of the 
monarchy amounts to 6d0,000 cwt. of paper. Of this 
quantity 250,000 cwt. are ordinary writing paper ; 60,000 
cwt. fine paper ; 20,000 cwt. drawing paper ; 150,000 cwt. 
printing paper ; 100,000 cwt. packing paper ; and 6(^000 
cwt. paper for technical purposes. As to the various sorts 
or kinds of paper, Bohemia and Lower Austria produce 
the most writing paper; Lombardy and Bohemia, fine 
paper; Lombardy, drawing paper; Lower Austria and 
Bohemia, printing paper ; Lombardy and Venice, packing 
paper ; and Bohemia and Lombardy, paper fcv technical 
purposes. 

The manu£M^ure of paper employs directly 12,000 
people, and indirectly at the least as many more. The 
mills are driven by water power, with the exception of 
some few to whidi steam power and machinery have been 
applied. Two-fifths of the whole production are made bj 
machine, and thi>cte-fifths by hand.] 



3lU 



EOOKBTR, JOH., Stmhemhaek, SeimiiemMoJ^ 
Boitmia — Manu£Ktur«r. 
racking paper (fiannel paper), of a peculiar kind, to be 
uscyi in packing miners or glasses, by laying it between 
t he same instead of strips of clot h. 




I 

I 



362 iMnSMUl. COITBT AMD GOTTRKlTKJrT FBINTIWa 

Office, Jlenna. 
Specimenfi of tjpographj &nd piinlmg of nil descrip- 
tkma. 

[OsUed upon by the Stat4» to undertake the printing for 
ill the Kini^trie», for GkiveTmnent and the Cburta of Justice, 
for the Army, Pot»t-OIB<x\ Cust<»ina, &c., as well ae to e%e- 
cut<? its bonds niid paper money, securely, quickly, and 
agneeably to all practical requirements, tliis establishment 
ba« likewiae aimed at cultivating und perftictiug the 
|r*phic arts, and thereby rt^ndering tioportant a<!Tvice« to 
art and *d^nee. The union within it* wftM* of all the 
different braachea of the g^phie arts, tendinis to the niul- 
tiplioation of word* or pictures, is the point which dis- 
tragltiiliei thm Inatitution from all others of a similar 
natufe. 

The grealeftt portion of this work k for the use of the 
Gofcrnmeut offices $ but in coaee where artista or men of 
leaming can find no publisbere for their works, or where 
iocli work^s o^ account of the dilHculty and expense of 
their execution, could not he produced iii any other esta- 
blifthment, but descnrc smpport in the interests of art and 
*L-ienct5, with consent of the Ministry-, leaye is g^ven to have 
them brought to hght by the est tensive reeouroe« of the 
State prmtiiig office. By the hl>eraUty of tlie Austrian 
OoTVmment, the chiu^ges in aiich casea are iixed on a very 
modenile scale, and their Hqiiidiktion ia allowed to tiike 
plorte gradually, in the coutm? of sM?yeral years, by the sole 
of the work iteclf, which will have hod time to tjccome 
known. ]] 

Ponch-cntting Department. — Steel punehes of forci^i 
diancters only. Of thew the ImjK^ritd cstubliahinent 
poiSiaacB IQ4 alphabcta of the Innguagea of the whole 
I^Dbe, without recKonin^ the diilercnt ai;&uia in which many 
of the alphabei« have been cast. 

Punches of lynx's tisetl for books printed in the middle 
if;e, firom the sixth to the piitet^nth t*entury inclusive. 
Types for the use of the blind of Europe uutl 'Asia. The 
ilpliabets are as follows : — 



New P*li (No, 

KjtmlKigm (with joinU And with- 
out) 

Hirmisae 

Hiigis 
BiMya 



H^neae (KmtMknntk, No. 1) 
Jftp«ii««i (KmiakAQA, No. SJ 
JapuiMe ( FtroLimaj 
TtdiJrokiaui 



HirravlTpbie 
HiermtM 

E>liiopM! Bud Amharie 

Ifhn^urftjr fnmsmmted) 
UiT .n in«(7lpt*, 

Ai>' ■ 

anSkArrUrj 

BMvew 

EZSr«r BftbbfDic 




ted) 



Cktnie 



Albaniati (difft'rpDtty t}iap«d) 

Lycimi 

AmieniKn 

Georgian (ecrlfjriM*, ]ette>r«) 
FeraepolJuu (ciuieirarm liatten} 

Zend 

Cbcwl 

Uldftit Indmn %ifpis 
We«tem CJi^ttn inncription 
Agoka initcriptjan 
Initcription of litii^mt 
Pynuty orUi}pUi(Alkh»l«d) 

A bom 

Puaepa 

Kuliin (ten yt%x% tfler Cbfliit) 
Ektrviiru^iimri ( Sitnacr, Nn* \ ) 
iVvnn^gari (8iui.scr. No. '/) 

Stkh 

Anam inficript. 

K«yti-Nngairi 

Itand»c1ia 

FI»nd»:hin'MoU 

Heittan 

Slndhoe 

Nerbodda 

Kiatnm 

TFliDga 

Kamata 

Tanul 

Malay aljm 

UinKB]ti 

MaldMui 

Jatnamm 




Xylography. — Three large woodcuts, afller religious 
liistorical drawings by Fuhricb, together with impressions 
of them in guttu percho, and matrices produced by me»nj 
<yf the galvanic proceaa ; also apedmena of hii»torieal and 
several other representations. A eoyection of aeala, and 
ee\'eral woodcuts after Alhrecht Diirer. 

Clieniitj^iy. — BepresentatiotiA of the different depart- 
mentw of the Imperial establisliment, etched on zino, 
ehanitypcd, and printed with the common printing press j 
a new inrentton by FiU, for etching on tine in a raised 
manner. 

[If this art ht* not calculatM to sypcrsctle wood engraT- 
ing, it can be applied witli great advantage for certain 
purposes in the etching atyle, for map?, plans, drawingi'l 
of machines. Sec. A zinc plate ia covertHl with an etching 
groimdj the drawitig etched in the u»ua1 manner with the 
needle^ and bitten in. The etching ground b now 
removed^ the deep lines clcjmed with acid, and then tlie 
whole plate, in a warm state, coveri^d with an cosily 
fusible metal, with which ^ of conrHCj the hnea of the draw- J 
ing are filled up. Wlien the metal thus laid on is coId:1 
and finuj the whole plate Ib planed until the zinc appoan I 
again, and only the Hnea of the drawing remain filled 
with the fusible metal, which is casUy distinguished by 
it a white colour, from the grey of the zinc. The whole 
plate is now etched j^cveral times ; the former lincj* of the 
drawing, filled ^ith thia easily fusible negative metal, are 
not afieeted by the acid, while the pure /inc is eaten away. 
In this manner a drawing for printing in the copixT-phite 
pre«3 can be converted into one in relief for use in the 
ordinary printing press.] 

Let ter- founding. — Ma triera of the newly-cnt Neaclu 
or Arahic'Turkish eharacters^ used for printing j also seve- 
ral sperimen?* of matrioes produced by the galvanic process, I 
Composition of a Chinese text with moveable types, which 
conaist of 400 signs, hnea, and point*, by which ahnost aE 
the Chinese characters may be formed. A specimen, 
showing the composition of Japanese with moTeable tj-pea, . 
for comparison with music, which is also composed with I 
moveable types, 

[The combination of the Chinese characters derelops a 
new invention of the highest interest. The 80,000 signa 
of that language are formed in the same manner as musio 1 
is formed with moveable ty|x^, acc>ordingtothe typometrical 
syst^-^m of M. Auer, the director of the establishment. 
This system eontains about 4O0 point a and strokes ; and 
although the trouble of joining the^c is taken into account, 
still the adTantage of Gutenberg^s invention of printing 
with moveable typea is manifestly of the greatest import' 
ance, when we consider the immenae number of Chinese 
cbarBctcrs.] 

St€reotv]>ing Department. — The types of the eh 
raotew of the entire globe, two lai^ tabic*, each 
540 square inches, stereotyped in type metal, together witk I 
gutta percha and plaster of Paris matrioei, also copies of I 
them produced by the galvanic process, 

Ekctro-Metalliu^. — RniseLl and engraved plates of 
woodcuts and objects of typography and chalcography. 

Copy of two petrifications of the flshe« Pycnodu^ FentiU 

[The original waa first in crusted with gutta pcreha, , 
Tliis crust was taken oil', and, after being prepared^ plaeed 



iu the galvuciu upp^ratust a copy was thua oblmiied;^ 
Mrithout the iiid of u drawing, wbiuli is quite fit for 
pdntiilg.] 

Al&i^ plat« 33 feet long aod 2i feet broad. On account 
of the difllcuUv of trtitit»porting this, the piatt^ is very 
thin. 

Tlirec large tables of copper nrntrioea, each of wliieh 
eoottttiia lj2(>0 Chinese chanictcra. 

Two hurgc pbitcs of l,HtKJ stjuttre inches each, for copjx^r- 
plate pnutttig or polif^liirig. 

Beveral ^iitt^ imtcIih matrices for the iwc of thia dc- 
jwiHiiiciit of eeieiice. 

Refuse of copper U!*cd in the cloutro-gaivanic procwia, 
atrctched, rolled, bcatciij &c,, to show the quality of the 



Works of sculpture from the antique (high rohefs and 
I low relief*), t'tc, ehx'tnitv]»ed in copper. 

Several metol fmnitsi, produced by the galvanic pruceaa, 
con taining p I lotograyi }ih. 

The st-t?n.x>tyiH* pLites are of galvanic copper. 

Typometr}'. — IUii!»tmtionH of the eysttciu of calctdating 
and measuring olf the apace taken up by the peiti>eL'tive 
iHU'r!*, by the DinxTtor of the Luij^riiil cstablLHlinient, 
Alois Auer, Govcruoiciit Counsellor antl MiMiilK^r of the 
Iiufterial Aca*lciny of 8eience(i. (An cxphiuntion of this 
(ivyfcm liaabcen print4*d in the memorials of Ihe Academy, 
Vol I,) 

[The system of Typometry, or the method of calcidating 
and incasuring the space taken tip by each geparate letter, 
tlescrvc* iitteution. Not only i» the advtintnge of Ijcing 
able to caleulat4J by this Kystcni wlmt spuce niajiuscriptj* 
will occupy when they arc printed of great imiwrtance^ 
but a still greater advantage attaches to lids ftysteni, 
nnmely, that aU Borte of tabidar mutter may now be much 
more easily wrangi^J, IwcaUiH* the fiptice tnken up by each 
Bcparate column can be f-alculated to the grcatcfeit nicety: 
tliis m of great imports uce iu a tccluuciil point of 
[ iriew. 

Three thousand Imndred weight, or 150 inillion.*i of let- 
ter»» have been ca,*t in ihc founder}^ of tiie e»tablii$hinciit 
aceonliiig to this sy*tciu.] 

T\^>graphy. — Some of the Bp«oimen8 of printing of 
the lm|UTial estabMshraent, m Genuan, Roman, and Italic 
typt^, the punches of which were cut m the eistiibbi^hiuent. 
Likcwi^ict aU the script and oii laiucntai leltcn* which are in 
uic on the European eontineut, 

IVinted test* of the foreign charaetcrs of the whole 
world, (>omc of thcni of variouti aizes. 

Qcmiuu letters iijted for bookfi during the iniddk* ages, 
from the sixth centurj' to the invention of the art of 
printing. 

The type of the first printetl work, Gutenberg's BiblCj 
in four diMennit niaes. 

Ornamental letters copied from originals of the scvcn- 
t^-nth century, 

T^^pea for the use of the blind, in the European and 
Asiatic languages. 

IVpographit^l Productions in Glaxcd Frames.—*^ Tlie 
Hall of Language!!," ptihlishetl hy the Dirtrtor of the 
establishment, A, Aucr, Government Coimsicllor. 

First Part, — Tlic Lord's Prayer in 6lJ8 huiguages and 
idioms, printed with Rtunnn type j with their respective 
inti-rprctation. In nine tables. 

Second Part, — Tlie Lord's Prayer, prinCwl with the 
csharacters appropriate to the res jx^-ti venations, containing 
206 varietJes of language, and a survey of more than 1lH> 
ibretgn alphabetfl ajm eh&racters, with transcriptions. In 
eight t4iblt^. 

DcTck^pmcut of the hteral characters of tlie whole globe, 
in a geneak>ginil form. On one hand from the Chme«*e 
cliaraetcTi*, to which un^ added the Koreanic and Japanese 
•'^ters, aiul on the other hand from the African 
hie signs, which are inuTietliutcly followed bv 
ttiiiim characters, wliich reprcbent the firtt 




known signs of writing. All the rest of the alphabeti 
take their origin from the*e, and then branch out bilo 
numberless ratiiitlc^itiuns wliiL-b are traced up to the 
eharacters used tlu*oughout the world at the present 

day* 

The Gut*ndx"rg Bible, of whi(*h a page contains 42 linfli, 
with |>airited onmmcntal Iwrtler. 

In the Portfoho. — Types of the Propa^andft at 
Rome, in 23 alphal>ets. 

Bodoni*s " O ratio Dominica,** 28 alphabets. 

Tlie foreign f yi^es of Franets from Falkeii*tein*» History 
of the Art of Printing, Vl alphabets. 

llic foreign typeji of Gennony, nftcr BaUhom, ID alpha- 
bet*. 

The ty]K?s of India, IS alpliabet«. 

Pedigree of the EmiM-rors of Austria, 

Grouiid'plani sketehes of the whole of the Imperial 
Estabhshment. 

Two smaller [lortfohos contain an album im 16 languages, 
printed for particuhir occasions. 

Printed Books in ortlinar)' Binding, — Jf emoriaU of the 
Impreriid Academy of St'icnces, one vohunc. Object* 
illurftnitive of the iM-ience» of mathematics and natural 
history : to this is added a map of 58 tables, executed in 
ec4oured lithographs. 

Memorials of the Imjx^rial Ae^idemy of Sciencea, one 
vobnne. Objects illustnitive of philosophy and history. 
With 1 2 1 i t h ograj^hed t jiblcs. 

The ty]M>mctrictd system of the Director of the Establish- 
OK'id, Alois Auer, 

liammer-PurgstaLl, Rhetorie of the .Imbs, Iftt volume. 

Tr«jtics between Austria and Turkey, Turkij*h, with a 
trans^lation, 

Flizmaicr*9 Ambic-Persian -Turkish Grammar, 

Schlcchta, Abdmrobinan D*diami*s " Frulding!«garteii," 
Persian and Gcninin. 

Scldechta, *^The Right of Katioiu; in time of War and 
in time of Peace," two volumes, transbitod from the Ger- 
man into Turkish. 

A Treat iste on the higher Arit timet ic, Turkish, 

Boiler's Sanscrit Grammar. 

t'atalogye of the Hebrew Manu«eripta iu the Lmperial 
Library at Vienna. 

Goldentliab t'lavis Talmudica, Hebrew. 

Amcth, Cabinet of Coins and Antiquities. 

Bolzii, ^[unuale. 

Kijl il gm her, Hi' nn eneut ica, 

Statistics and Tables of Commereo of the Empire of 
Austria, S) volmiies in folio. 

History of the Austrian National BanL 

Lira del Fopolo, two parts, for the use of aiDging' 
masters. 

Hoven, neine*s Songs, one volume in 'Ito., printed with 
moveable tj^Jcs for music, 

(In the pn^Ks. Printed with the original tyixa,) For 
Dr. Meliren of C'openhsgen — Rhetoric of the Arab«. 

For l.)r, Holmboc of Christiana— Comparative Know- 
ledge of l^lUgUBgCS. 

For Dr. Zenker of Leipsic — ^Turkish Chrestomathy and 
Dietionary, 

For Dr. Spiegel of Erlangen— Zend^Avceta, by Zoro- 
aster. 

Diplomattirium of tlie Momistcry at Kremsmiinster, 
printed with the types apj^ropriate to the respective 
centuries, 

Pfkmaier's edition of ** The Four Serpens," a Japanese 
novel, with a Germrin tratiNbilion. For the first time 
printed with moveable Japanese types. 

[Tliis work in the Japtinesc Inn gunge, printed for the 
first time with moveable type, jind accompatiicd by a Ger- 
man translation of Dr, Plbinimer, de*i?n*es notice. Though 
but little known in it-» native coimtry, this edition Itas 
tw^'U traTi}*latc<l in Amt'rica, and is already in the prass. 
The appearaneie of tliis Japanese novel caused A great 
sensation in foreign oovmtrics: the |>erfcetion with which 
the printing had been executed actually created the doubt 




I 

I 



I 



I 



I 



oi tiie mindi of ibe nMsmbera of a Gomiaii Society for 
ihs prosnoiion of the Onentid Unguages, whether the 
ivprnomc port knd the Lll»0tr»tian& of this work had not 
been exiocuted at JftpAO, and the Qemuui part only at 

•* At the first riew " ohseirea a writer in the Journal of 
the Qritniai Sod^ty^ " a ecepticid critk might bi? led to 
tuppoae that the liouaunible Impeiml estabhsluiicnt hn^t 
boo^t the original edition at Japan, (rom wliieU plncp it 
wm also liimiahed with the paper on wliieh the Grtrmuu 
baoabitioii had heen prLoted, and that tboi it hud Ik^IIi 
pirt« iMund together. But no I tliis fine satiBlike pui>er 

is of Gcnnan mannfactiLpe ; these Jspanesu dm- 

ncters, which with their arabesque-lilce scrolls resemble 
the productiona of tranaieDt stenogmpby j and these 
jirinted lUmtTations, with portraits, costumes, biiiJdiiv^, 
&ad uLeosiloj which seem to belong to a diiferent world- — 
they mere not produced hj woodcutting at Jeflu, but have 
been cloaelj copied at Yieima, from the originuln, by 
rneaoa of typography and rinco-lithograj-khy- That is, the 
Japioieee choractere have been printed, for tlie firt*l tiitie, 
with ffiOT«ahl6 type, and the iHustrnlions, together vtith 
ttaac esplmiBtions belonging to them, and the prefiK-e, 
bav^ beHi engraTed on junc j proofs of them were then 
ptulkd on paper, after which they have been transferred 
to stone."3 

Specimens of ChpomO'tithogTaphy. (By Hartinger.) — 
Two fiower-pieeei. One fruit- piece. One head for study. 
One still life. 

O tm ee pieture, reprt**enting the Emperor Joseph IL, 
vbo pf«acrilx« 100 ducats as medicine to a widow who is 
dying of hunger. 

Flowers (16 phitee). For tlie work, "Pamdisus 
Vindobooensis,' * 

Buttcrfiies, petrifications, plants, objects of archi- 
tecture, 4tc, 

Tlie original oil paintings are hung up next to tliem, 
in order th»t they may be compared at plena ure with the 
pritttijig in rolours. 

[The impresiiions printed in single eolouT exhibit the 
manner in which the various colours bsve been combined- 
The point-hole«, which may be perceived, are produced by 
» pin on the stone, by which tlic several colours are mode 
to lit clo«ely to each othen] 

lUujitrBtiona of remarkable diseases of the human skin, 
aix sheets* 

Cf»pp€T-pl»te9 and Steel Engravings.— Illustrations for 
KOrks, Btid cards printed on particular wea-iiun*. 
Oalvanogrophy. — The Depnrtvuv. Exeeutcil on copficr 
by 8ehtndlc!r, etehetl by Axiiuiinij copied by meana of the 
ilvanie process, oiid printed iit the Iniperiul e6tivblt,'*h- 
ttt. Tliere is subjoined, for comi^aristm, I he origiiml 
; weU a» the copy produced by the galvmiic proLVi^s, 
1 pnxkfr pulled bc-:fore the etching of the plute. 

^ fOalrnnoRTsphy, in the short int enal which haa 
ela]>sed sineo it* first apjx'arant'e, lia^* been divided into 
two roc?tliods. The fir»t eoiisi*ti* in the coiii|Hi»itiou Ix^big 
rxeeuted by the artist liimself wilh colour (rojii*ted terra 
di Sicima, or bLack-lead and hu*cetl oil) and the ordinary 
brush, in the same way as an kHOnTi-iuk drawing u[ion a 
•ilTereri-eopper plate, which is then placed in the galvan- 
optaiitie upparatus, in order to obtain a copy of tlie raised 
dniwing. The copy, or simk pbte thus obtained, is 
tooeiied up with the usual copj>cr-plate engraving tools, 
and the light and shade unprovi*!!, and then serves for 
printing: from ; it can,, of eoun*e, by means of tlie galvauiir 
^[iparstits, be multiphed to any dc^iired extent, Thi» 
meibod, oartaiidy» possesses the advantage of alluvviiig 



1 



rapidity in exoeutiou and great freedom of treatment. In 
the second mt^hod of galvanogruphy, the outUnes of tho. 
given drawing are etched in the usual manner, tlic vario^ 
tones of the picture laid on with the roulette, and a gal-t 
vanoplAstie copy of thia sunk plate 10 then prvduoed. 
this second (raijied) plate, the artist completes his pi< 
by means of chalk and Indian ink, and puts in the Ugl 
and sliades^ ke, \ from tliis a aeeond galranoplaatic copf' 
is produced* Tliis seeoud copy, or sunk plate, the third 
phite in the order of procedure, serves, after being touehtnl 
up, for printing from in the copjier- plate preaa.] 

Omameritftl De|mrtaient, — Original drawings in the 
Oneiiful and Occident al styles, executed for viorks printed 
for the East and West. 

OmanicTital Ti.xl»Is for B(X^"kbinder*. — Diflenmt oma- 
mcrita exiiihiiing the Oriental and Occidental styles. 

Phutography. — Si>ecimen8 of, by Paul Pretseh, Lower 
Road, Ishngton, Ix>ndon. Siae, IGJ by 21 i inches, the 
largest pbotograpliic picture hitherto made. 

Views of Schonbrunii (the usual aumnjcr rt»id(5uce of 
the Imperial Court) and of Viunuo. 

View of a garden, 

Neptune group. 

Gloriette (an elevated point, from which a most eitcn- 
ftive view is enjoved), Schdobrunn, 

Eutnmoe, m itii the obelisk of tropliies. 

Entrance to the Gloriette. 

Interior of the Gloriette. 

Three heads. 

Two hmds, Niobe ami Caracalla, 

A courtyard in the subiurb Kcubau. 

Tlie pre^i^iitent of the institution, Councdlor Auer^ hits 
made this eombinatitm the object of his peculiar interest* 
Ten years ago the efttablishment was not tlmving ; but by 
]iis imwcaricti care he lias raised it to one of the gn^ilest 
in the whole world. At thia nioment it ticciipit^j*, m tins 
dilTerent branches of business^ more tiian WO i>ersons, in 
a spiacc extending over 51,1X^*0 »quaj\^ feet. 

Mochanicid inventions', discoveriejs of seienoo, the cre- 
ative genius of the arti&f, and the productive activity of 
talent, are all suc4x^efidly emi>loyed in eonjunetion with 
the powers of nature, asi steam, the moving power, light- 
ning, the hydro -eleetrie fluid, and light, the producer of 
pictures. 

Five large buildings, from four to sii stories high, con- 
tain all the fnattriel of the establishment : these are con- 
neeted with isach other by means of gidleriiHs, while two 
stoue and three iron stuirenses connect the upper with tho 
lower floors* A steam-engine of Sit-horae power moves 
46 printing-machines, 2-i copixr-plate presse.^, and 8 
glazing eyhnders j it also pumps and nii^cs cold and 
warm water to the diirereut floors of the building, aud^ in 
adiUtion, conveys through eopjKT pipes hot air into all 
the ruonis. Similar provisions sui>i>ly four large wash- 
botises with the means of cleanuig tlie types : a birge high 
drjing-house, wldeh rises like a church between two of 
the other buildings, fumislied with galleries idl round the 
interior, is heated by the same means* All the work»hoi>s 
and rooms are hghtci:! with gas, and pruviiled with 
speaking- tulies, which end in 15 mouths in the office of 
the director of the eetabhahmont, Tbetw are ako '13 
large and 12 smaUer irtm letter-printing presses, 4*) litho- 
graphic presaes, 8 for numbering, and 6 for embortjilug, 
worked by hand. Eight tj-pe-foundiup machines and lt> 
furnaces, attended by four persons each, furnish a con- 
stant supply of fn*sh types, of which the es1ubliH}itiient 
possi'ssea alwut 3,tX)0 ewt., or near l50,CKJt»,0t>t> t>f letter* 
all of whii^i are kept in I bo ^eate*l onler. Mure the 
3O0,0CX) sheets are priuted daily, for which Gm reams | 



4 




papQi* are rcquiM^d. THking the year Ift-U iis an trxaiuplc^ 
and comparing its pixxt net ions with what i» now done, 
the result sbows th^t as mudi ia now piint^d in 13 days 
as IB the whole of that jear. 

363 iMPKBUi BilllTAfiY GkOORAFHICAI* iKaXITlTTE, 

A Tiunety of maps. 

Portfoho of mop» engfavod on oopperplatei, eiecut^ 
frtim a mditary eurvev^ founded on itftroaomical and 
tri|:ionometriLral obsorvatioiii. 

Toj>ogr&|>liical niap of the Lomhardo-Yenetian kingdom* 

42 large iheete. St'ide ^{55. 

SpedfU map of Moravia and Sdesui. 20 Bheets. 

Special nmp of Bohemia, 3H sheets. Scale of both 
ii^P* Ti^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^P ^*^<^^ sheets liare hcen 
alrettdy pnblbihed). 

General map of Moravia and Silesia, 4 large aheet^. 

Topographical map of Centiral Iialj% Mntainbig Tus- 
•Otnj and the Papal Stat^ after a triangulation and an 
drigioal siLTvey, executed in these count rie« in the years 
1841-3, bj Austrian officers, luider the direction of the 
MiL Otoe* In*tit. Sejde sAaot wi 49 large sheets, of 
which 11 have bt^en publish^, 

A reduction on the scale of |rW of the map of Paria, by 
Pelet. The two preceding are lithograph. 

A smaE travelling and post maji of toe Austrian Stat**, 
engraved, on four stones, printed in oolourft, of which the 
eomphcat4!d ©XjBCution is to be considered with regard to 
its very tmall wsale. 

Globe, 2 feet radius, lettjer-preM in the Armenian lan- 
guage. In 7 wheetft. The drawing of the mountains with 
chemical crayon, the rej*t engravod on fttone ; printed in 
tliff«Tent colours. 

Etlmograpliicttl map of Yorarlberg, the drawing of the 
mountains with chemical crayon, the reat engraved on 
stone; printed in »ii colours. 

Geological map of the environa of Leoben, in Styria, 
transferred from a coppeq>lat<j on »tone| and pnnt'cd in 
11 colours, 

Geognostical map of the Austrian States, with part of 
Gennanf and Italy, eugraTod on stone, and printed in 
colours m dilfcreot nuumera, 

Geoguostical maps of Egjpt, the Tftunis, the Eaatem 
Sudau, Syria, and Nubia, annexed to Mr, Kuseegger's 
*' Travel* " composed, drawn ^ and engraved on ntoni% and 
printed in many colours in the Imp, Miht. Gcog, Inetit. 

Environs of Vienna and Baden, composted of 96 sheets, 
executed on stone after an original sun'ey. Scale t^^. 
The drawing of the mountaiiiH with chemical crayon, the 
rest engraved on stone j the ditferent kinds of cultivation , 
printed in colours, I 

General map of Europe, hj Sched»j exerat«d in the 
Imperial Eoyul Military Gcog, Instit,, composed of 20 
sheets. The drawing of the mountaina with ehemicfll 
orajon, the re»t engraved and printed in colours. 



Spectmena of typography, in gold, Bilrer, and colours, 
including a Roman missal, Thomas ik Kempis, Ac. 

[The number of printing and Hthographic establish- 
ments in Austria luia considerably increased of late years. 
They amount in all to 400, of which 160 are found in 
Lombordy and Venice, and 6& in Yicnna. The most ex- 
tensive of these establishment a are in Vienna and Prague. 
First on the li«t must be noted the Court, and Govemmiiit 
Printing-OlHet? at Yitfmia. The type-foimderiea, uauallv in 
coimcction with the print ing-offlcea, not onlj cover the 
home demand, but also obtain a brisk though biqaII 
foreign trade.] 

368 Abiosth, Joseph^ Dire^^t or of the Imp. Numisiiuitie 
and Antiquarian Cabinet, flefnitt. 
A work on gold and silver monuments, by the exhibitor 
(aa a sample of the process of copper-piate engraving in 
Vienjia). ^_^_ 

368a Katseb, Jo^ef Franjc, Graiz^ St^ria — 
Lithographer. 
A variety of mapt. 



309 Ratth, JoHiLNN, Jlenrut — Litlvographic Printer, 
An album, eontaining lithograplue eopiea from original 

draisiuga by Vienna artisti*. 

Specimens of the varioua styles of litliogmphj and 

printing. _^ 

370 Bebkajtx, JoaEP, Jlenna — Publiiiher. 

Lithographs : — 

Views on tlie bankfl of the Danube. 

The Austrian armies during the course of two centuries. 
(40 prints.) 

Tlie Austrian army in 1849 (8 prints). 

Statistical maps of Austria. 



1 

^1 ■ 



371 



M-ECHfiTTi, Pfetbo (hite Caulo Mechbtti), 
Jlenna — Publisher. 



Portraits drawn from nature, by Kriohuber. 
Musie composed by Dossauer, Spohr, Willmers, 
Strauss, A:c. 

372 MCiilB, n. F,, rieniMt— Publisher. 

Freijer's map of Camiola. 

lUustrations to the History of Austria, bj Professor 
Geiger. 

Album of the Vienna artietu. 

Album of waltzes and national melodic«. 



364 



CerkI, CABTi, Officer in the Imperial Military 
Geograpliieid Inntitute, Henna. 
Map of Italy in eight sheets, plain and coloured. 



365 Raffelspebobe, Fbattz, Fieima— Patentee and 
Printer. 
Maps, with the names in the Gorman, Himgarian, Bohe- 
mian, Servian, IHjrian, Italian, French, and English 
languages, executed by the ordinarj^ printing press. Out- 
line maps. 

3(vG Battagia, Giitseppe, r^twi^— Printer. 

Spwimens of typography, with simple and convenient 
binding. 

367 Haask's Boks, GottlLED, Prague y Bohemiti^ 
Printers and Tjp^'founder». 
l^ypc of various kinds ; ^twl tlie.*, matric^**, kc. 



373 NEUKAiry, T. L., nea#w»— Publisbup, 

Litbographu : — Portraite, battle seenes, &c. 
Album, containing views of Vienna. 

374 Steiger, J. Georg, Henna — Manufatturer. 
Playing-cards, of four sorts, eiliihited in a frame. 

The fraine bj Jos. Griller, of Vieima. The metal onia* 
ments by Gt)tt8chalk and Lamaacli, Vienna. 

[To tliis braneb of industry belongs also the maiiulke- 
ture of coloured and embossed |«ii>er», placing cards, 
paper-hangings, pasteboard, and papier maehe ware. 
Ahuost the entire production of these aijveral articles, with 
the exception of the last, belongs to Vienna. Lombordy 
alone has established a few paper-hanging factories. The 
Vienna articles are excellent. As to the nmnulk^Tturei in 
papier mach^ those of Bohemia are the best ; thoee of 
Vienna the most elegant.] 



374a Gbeitter, M., llenHa — Caligraphiat. 

A Lord's Prayer, and three other spei-imens of cali- 

.175 SchOT^, Fbaux, Tlffiiiia— Caligniphiet. 
A cflligraphic tableau. 




AITSTRIA. 



10S9 



376 IL4BB3nCHT, Ar^DiiT, flemmt — Dreasing'CiLee 

Maker. 

Lttdies' t43ilet-tablc, with horj omanieiits. 

A pftinter a easel. 

Fancj utklfia of leather, portfolios, caseet*, pockety 
ladies' snd gentleiiieii^a oompaiiionB, traTeUing medicine 
dbeiU, d^g»r-Doxeit portmoimaieB, lucifer-nuitcli boies, &o. 

377 Stiaskt, Wn.iTKT>v, Pro^ii*, Bohemia-^ 

Bookbinder* 
A biU CUM gat. 

An album with the Tiew of the royal caatle and cathe- 
dnd at Prague. 

Paptstcne in brown Ti^lTct, with gold f tnnga. 

37 B Keitrx, a., rUi^ma — ManufiMtnrer. 

Fancy-wan* of wood and paper ; paper baikets j screens ; 
letter-weight ; tableau. 

Samples of stuinped-paper ornaments. 



379 JoHXE k Thiele, J^ientta — Manufacturers. 
Pasteboard ware t c&ikete, waich^atonds, pin-cu^liiotia, 

gobleta, &c. 

8tone paateboard ware : cups, baeketo, eaakcis, watch* 
standa, pm^oushionB, Ac. * 

380 BSEQSS, C. H*, HfiMM— Mannfecturcr. 
Wafers of paper and geiatiiie, of different kinds. 



381 HAEDTinrni, L. A C, BudnmLs and Tleniia — 

Manufacturers. 
Black-lead and red-clmlk iMmeiLi of various kindS| and 
artificial alatea. ^ 

382 Orohmaitn, Adolp^ Schdnlmdef Bohema — 

Mtmufactupef. 
SOk-laoe, petinetB, veilB, Ac. 



383 Mcna's Hsibs, A., Barinffen^ war Carhhad^ 

Bohemia, and Fieaiwi— -Manulacturers- 

8ilk*kce, woollen-lace, of dlirercnt colours. 

Kmbroid^riea, iucludijig pocket-luuidkcrchiefflj ladies* 
dwoce, collars, Ac. 

[The lace manufacture formerly proTided a yery im- 
portant source of employment for the inhabitant* of ^ortb 
BoLenda ; but» by the disooTcry of the bobbin -net firamc, 
the lace manufacture by hand hoa rery much dedliued, aiul 
the number of the inhabitants of the mount iiiu diiitrictSf 
who were onoe engaged in it, hus now jklli^n {rom about 
SOJOOO to 12,000. The cheapness of thi? articles produced, 
and the evtabliehnietit of liicc- making fchooU,, whereby an 
improrement on the methotls of uuuiufiK'ture could be 
learned, have infiiaed, of late years, new life into tJiia 
branch of industrial occupation, but without supplying 
any woll*foundod hope that they wiM sulHce to rwwtorc it 
to iu former flourishing condition. In Upper and Lower 
Aostria, in Silesia, and in Camio!a likewise, kco of ordi- 
nary kinds is still nionufactiux'^t. Net, particularly ui 
Ttenna and Bohemia (more especially in the district of 
Kgcr), is lar^ly produced^ and veils at Milan. 

The productions of the bubbin-net ma