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Full text of "The official records of the Oregon volunteers in the Spanish war and Philippine insurrection"

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BBEV15T BIlKiADIKR (IKXKRAL O. SIJMMEES, IT. S. V., UOMMA^fDINQ 
SKCOK^l) UEKtiOX 1*. H. VOMJNTEBm INPANTEY. 






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THE 



OFFICIAL RECORDS 



OREGON VOLUNTEERS 



SPANISH WAR 



PHILIPPINE INSURRECTION 



COMPILED ♦BY 



BRIGADIER GENERAL C. U. GANTENBEIN 

Former Adjutant General, State of Oregon, and late 
Major Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infantry. 



SECONB EDITIOIS^ 

PRINTED UNDER DIRECTION OF 

BRIGADIER GENERAL W. E. PINZER 

Adjutant General, State of Oregon, and Late First 
Lieutenant Second Oregon U. S Volunteer In- 
fantry. Captain Third Infantry, 0. N. G. 



"':i^^::6v 




■ri 

/ ' 



SAIiEM, OREGON 

J. R. WHITNEY, STATE PRINTER 

1903 



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M.'- 



3 ^ ^"^ - r 



HOUSE JOINT RESOLUTION NO. 6. 

Reaolved by the House, the Senate concurring : 

That the State Printer be and he is hereby directed to print and bind in proper form 
one thousand four hundred and forty additional copies of the "Official Records of the 
Oregon Volunteers in the Spanish War and Philippine Insurrection," to be paid out of 
the fund appropriated for the maintenance of the Oregon National Guard. One volume 
to be distributed by the Adjutant General to each of the privates who served in the 
Second Oregon United States Volunteer Infantry, and in Batteries A and B, Oregon 
United States Volunteer Light Artillery, the remainder thereof, if any, to be disposed 
of as the Governor may direct. 

Passed by the House February 16, 1903. t n. tx . ^^.^ 

Li. 1. xlAKRIo, 

Speaker of the House. 
Passed by the senate February 18, 1903. Geo. C. Bbownbi.1,, 

President of the Senate. 



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PREFACE. 

This second edition of the " Official Records of the Oregon 
Volunteers in the Spanish War and Philippine Insurrection," 
was authorized by the Legislative Assembly of 1903, conferred 
in House Joint Resolution No. 6, which reads as follows : 

^^ Besolvedhy the House, the Senate concurring : That the State Printer be 
and he is hereby directed to print and bind in proper form, one thousand 
four hundred and forty .additional copies of the 'Official Record of the Ore- 
g-on Volunteers in the Spanish War and Philippine Insurrection,' to be paid 
out of the fund appropriated for the maintenance of the Oregon National 
Guard. One volume to be distributed by the Adjutant General to each of 
the privates who served in the Second Oregon United States Volunteer In- 
fantry, and in Batteries A and B, Oregon United States Volunteer Light 
Artillery, the remainder thereof, if any, to be disposed of as the Governor 
may direct." 

In accordance with the above resolution Brigadier General 
C. U. Gantenbein, late Adjutant General, instructed the State 
Printer to proceed with the printing of the "Records," and 
when I assumed the duties of Adjutant General, by appoint- 
ment from His Excellency, Governor Geo. E. Chamberlain, I 
took up the work where it was left off by my predecessor, and 
have given the State Printer such assistance as was possible 
with the idea of having these records published in a manner 
befitting the services of the late Volunteers. 

The greatest care has been exercised to avoid mistakes in 
copying the first edition. The proofs, after being read in the 
State Printer's office, were carefully read and corrected by me, 
assisted by Captain L. H. Knapp, Quartermaster, Third Infan- 
try, O. N. G. 

This volume is an exact copy of the first edition, with the 
exception of a few minor corrections made by me, and the sub- 
stituting of a more serviceable paper for the heavy, brittle, 
glazed paper that experience taught was very hard to bind into 



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Vi PREFACE. 

a serviceable volume. After careful consideration and consul- 
tation with the Military Board, I decided to substitute a fancy 
cloth binding in place of a full sheep, thereby making a more 
attractive volume, less liable to break, and withal, just as lasting. 

W. E. FINZER, 

Adjutant General. 
Portland, Oregon, December 14, 1903. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Introduction yj^ 

Summary of Principal Events Connected with Military Operations in the Philip- 
pine Islands i 

Summary of Principal events Connected with Operations of Second Oregon Volun- 
teer Infantry 21 

Official History of Operations of Second Oregon Volunteer Infantry 15 

ABSTRACTS OF MUSTER ROLLS. 

Field, Staff, and Band 99 

Company A ^ ^^03 

Company B ]^28 

Company C i^ 

Company D 170 

Company E 197 

Company F 216 

Company G 242 

Company H _ 269 

Company I 286 

Company K 3Qg 

Company L 329 

Company M 35O 

Battery A . 372 

Battery B 334 

REPORTS OF GENERAL OFFICERS, WITH APPENDED REPORTS OF OREGON 
VOLUNTEER OFFICERS. 

Report of Maj. Gen. E. S. Otis, U. S. V., Commanding Department of the Pacific 

and Eighth Army Corps, Military Governor in the Philippine Islands 397 

Report of Brig. Gen. Irving Hale, U. S. V., Commanding Second Brigade, Second 
Division, Eighth Army Corps, of Operations of his Brigade near Waterworks, 

February 6 to 9, 1899 532 

Report of Col. John M. Stotsenburg, First Nebraska U. S. Volunteer Infantry, of 

Operations near Pumping Station, dated February 25, 1899 534 

Report of Capt. R. H. Barber, Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infantry, of Recon- 

noissance along Mariquina Road, dated February 25, 1899 535 

Report of Second Lieut. Charles A. Murphy, Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infan- 
try, Commanding Hotchkiss and Gatling Battery, of Reconnoissance along 

Mariquina Road, dated February 24, 1899 537 

Report of Brig. Gen. R. P. Hughes, U. S. V., Provost Marshal General in Manila, of 

Fires and Accompanying Events that Occurred February 22 and 23, 1899 538 

Report of Maj. G. A. Goodale, Twenty-third U. S. Infantry, of Pursuit of Insurgents 

in Tondo, February 23, 1899 .,„,„ ^.,_^_^^__^ „,__.,_,__,__ 540 



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Vlll TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Report of Capt. J. M. Poorman, Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infantry, of Pursuit 

of Insurgents in Tondo, February 23, 1899 „„_— 541 

Report of Capt. R. E. Davis, Second Oregon TJ. S. Volunteer Infantry, of Pursuit of 

Insurgents in Tondo, February 23, 1899___- 542 

Report of Maj. Percy Willis, Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infantry, of Pursuit 

of Insurgents in Tondo, B^'ebruary 23, 1899 . 543 

Report of Brig. Gen. Loyd Wheaton, U. S. V., of Operations Along the Pasig River, 

March 13 to 19, 1899 546 

Report of Brig. Gen. Loyd Wheaton, U. S. V., of Operations of His Brigade, March 

22 to 31, 1899 - 548 

Report of Col. O. Summers, Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infantry, of Operations 

His of Regiment, March 24 to 31, 1899 552 

Report of Maj. Gen, H. W. Lawton, U. S. V., of San Isidro or Northern Expedition, 

April 22 to May 30, 1899 555 

Report of Brevet Maj. J. F. Case, Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infantry, Acting 

Engineer Officer, First Division, Eighth Army Corps, April 27 to May 31, 1899— 578 

Report of Maj. Herbert W. Cardwell, U. S. V., Chief Surgeon, First Division, Eighth 

Army Corps, April 21 to May 30, 1899 581 

Report of Brevet Brig. Gen. O. Summers, Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infantry, 
Commanding Provisional Brigade, First Division, Eighth Army Corps, April 
22 to May 25, 1899 585 

Report of Maj. P. G. Eastwick, Jr., Second Oregon TJ. S. Volunteer Infantry, of Re- 

connoissance near Angat, April 26, 1899 592 

Report of Col. O. Summers, Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infantry, of Operation 

of Provisional Brigade near Marunco, April 29, 1899 593 

Report of Col. O. Summers, Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infantry, Commanding 

Provisional Brigade, of Capture of San Rafael, May 1, 1899 - 594 

Report of Lieut. Col. George O. Yoran, Commanding Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer 

Infantry, of Capture of San Antonio, May 19, 1899 595 

Telegram of Maj. Gen. H. W. Lawton, U. S. V., Reporting Capture of San Antonio, 

dated May 21, 1899 596 

Report of Maj. Gen. H. W. Lawton, U. S. V., of Expedition to the Province of 

Morong, June 2 to 8, 1899 597 

Report of Brig. Gen. Robert H. Hall, U. S. V., Commanding Third Brigade, Second 
Division, Eighth Army Corps, of Operations of his brigade on Morong Expe- 
dition, June 2 to 8, 1899 „ 600 

Report of Brevet Brig. Gen. O. Summers, Commanding Second Oregon U. S. Vol- 
unteer Infantry, of Operations of his Regiment on Morong Expedition, June 
2 to 7, 1899 603 



APPENDIX. 

Orders for Mobilization and Organization of Oregon Volunteers — 607 

Report of Col. O. Summers, Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infantry, of Transpor- 
tation of his Command from San Francisco to Manila, dated July 8, 1898 615 

Report of Maj. M. H. Ellis, Surgeon Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infantry, of 
Medical and Sanitary Conditions Existing on Steamship Australia, dated 
December 29, 1898 „_ .___ „_...„_.,_ - 616 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. IX 

PAGE 

Report of First Lieut. Ralph Piatt, Commissary Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer 
Infantry, of Conditions in Reference to Subsistence on "Steamship Australia, 
dated December 20,1898 617 

Report of Capt. H. L. Wells, Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infantry, of Conditions 

in Reference to Subsistence on Steamship Australia, dated December 20, 1898— 618 

Report of Col. O. Summers, Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infantry, as Acting 

Provost Marshal of Manila, August 13 to 17, 1898 620 

Report of Capt. H. L. Wells, Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infantry, Containing 
Bills of Fare at Three Meals of Eleven Companies of Regiment for November 

30, 1898 621 

Report of Maj. M. H. Ellis, Surgeon Second Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infantry, of 
Sanitary Conditions on Steamship Newport from Manila to San Francisco, 
dated July 18, 1899 622 

Death Roll and List of Wounded of Oregon Volunteers in Spanish War^and Phil- 
ippine Insurrection 624-5-6 

Letters, Telegrams, and Resolutions Expressing Appreciation of Services of Second 

Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infantry 627 

Order Publishing Intention of President McKinley to Recommend Special Medal 
of Honor to be given Members of Eighth Army Corps for Performing Willing 
Service though Entitled to Discharge Upon Ratification of Treaty With 
Spain 630 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

Frontispiece— Brevet Brig. Gen. O. Summers 

Facsimile of Letter written by Maj. Gen. H. W. LaWton, U. S. V 4 

Officers, Second Regiment, Oregon U, S. Volunteer Infantry 8 

Field, Second'Regiment, Oregon XJ. S. Volunteer Infantry. . 20 

Staff, Second Regiment, Oregon U. S. Volunteer Infantry 24 

Squad Detailed to Escort and Raise First American Flag in Manila _ 36 

Dress Parade of Second Oregon in Court of Cuartel de Espana 40 

Facsmilie of Letter Written by Maj. Gen. Wesley Merritt, U. S. A 44 

Third Battalion Resting on Mariquina Road 52 

Headquarters First Battalion on Ridge Overlooking Pasig 56 

Head of Column of Four Hundred Insurgents Captured at Taguig, near Pasig__^ 60 

First Line of Trenches Carried by Second Oregon at Malabon 68 

Second Line of Trenches Carried by Second Oregon at Malabon 72 

Third Line of Ti'enches Carried by Second Oregon at Malabon 76 

Facsimile of Letter Written by Brig. Gen. Loyd Wheaton, TJ. S. V 84 

Return of Second Oregon, Showing Second Battalion on Market Street, San Fran- 
cisco 94 

Band - 100 

Company A — — 104 

Company B_ — 1-- ^-— -— 136 

Company C — j- 1^3 

Company D 184 

Company E 200 

Company F 216 

Company G — 248 

Company H 280 

Company I 296 

Company K ^12 

Company L ^ 344 

Company M 360 

Battery A 376 

Battery B 388 

Map of Central Portion of Luzon Island 391 

Dead of Second Oregon Lying in State in Armory at Portland, Oregon 626 

Riverview Monument — — 631 



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INTRODUCTION. 



These records have been compiled under the authority of 
the legislative assembly conferred in section 70 of the Military 
Code of 1901, which reads : 

In addition to the foregoing duties and all other duties prop- 
erly pertaining to the office of Adjutant General and chief of 
staff, he shall, at the expense of the State, cause five hundred 
copies of the muster rolls of the Oregon Volunteers for the 
Spanish-American war to be printed by the State Printer, bound 
in proper form and distributed in such manner as the Gov- 
ernor may direct. 

The records of Oregon Volunteers in the Indian and Civil 
wars are very incomplete, so that it is always difficult and often 
impossible to furnish desired information. The legislative 
assembly very wisely adopted the above provision for perpet- 
uating the official records of the late Volunteers, in case the 
originals, by any accident, should be lost or destroyed. 

A literal compliance, however, with the requirements of the 
above section would have resulted in a volume of at least twelve 
hundred pages of tabulated, and therefore very expensive work, 
including much matter of comparatively little importa-nce. I 
have for this reason assumed the responsibility of preparing 
an abstract of the muster-in and muster-out rolls of each organ- 
ization and of adding official histories and reports of great 
value in their bearing upon the services of the State's volun- 
teers in the recent war and insurrection. 

From the following statement of the contents of the original 
rolls on file at Washington and in the office of the Adjutant 
General in the State of Oregon, it may be readily learned 
whether any information not given in the abstracts can be 
furnished by the custodian of the military records. 



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Xll INTRODUCTION. 



MUSTER-IN ROLL. 



This roll shows the designation of the organization, the name 
of its commanding officer and of the regimental commander at 
the date of muster-in; the date of the President's call for vol- 
unteers (April 23, 1898); the term of enlistment (two years, 
unless sooner discharged); the name of each officer and enlisted 
man, present and absent, his rank, description, place of birth, 
including town or county, as well as State, occupation, date, and 
place of enrollment; the name of his enrolling officer and the 
period for which enrolled; the place of rendezvous, whether 
married or single, if single, the name and address of his parent 
or guardian; remarks showing physical defects not sufficient to 
reject, and finally the signg^ture of each member of the organ- 
ization to the following oath : 

I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will bear true faith 
and allegiance to the United States of America, and that I will 
serve them honestly and faithfully against all their enemies 
whomsoever ; and that I will obey the orders of the President 
of the United States and the orders of the officers appointed 
over me, according to the Rules and Articles of War. 

A recapitulation gives the number of rpembers of each grade, 
present or absent, and the whole number belonging to the or- 
ganization. The company commander, mustering officer and 
examining surgeon or surgeons then sign certificates in the 
following forms, respectively : 

I certify that this muster-in roll exhibits the true state of 

Captain , Company (or — ) for the period mentioned 

herein ; that each man answers to his proper name in person, 
and that the remarks set opposite the name of each officer and 
soldier are accurate and just. (Signed by company comman- 
der, with rank, organization, and date.) 

I certify that I have carefully examined the men whose 
names are borne on this roll, their horses and equipments; 
that the oath of allegiance to the United States was sworn to 
and subscribed before me, and that I have accepted them into 
the service of the United States for the term of two years from 

this day of , 1898. (Signed by mustering officer, 

with rank, organization, station, and date.) 

I certify that 1 have carefully examined the officers and 
enlisted men whose names are borne on this roll agreeably to 



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INTRODUCTION. Xlll 

the General Regulations of the Army, and that, in my opinion, 
they are free from all bodily defects and mental infirmity which 
would in any wa}^ disqualify them from performing all duties 
pertaining to military service. (Signed by each examining 
surgeon ; if more than one, with rank, organization, station, 
and date.) 

[Note.— All defects discovered in the medical examination, not sufficient to reject, 
but which might be exaggerated by the soldier's duties, will be noted opposite his name 
in the column for remarks. If the medical examination is made by two or more sur- 
geons, the certificate on the roll will be signed by each.] 

MUSTER-OUT EOLL. 

The muster-out roll shows the designation of the organiza- 
tion, the name of its commanding officer at the date of muster- 
out and at the date of muster-in ; the name of the regimental 
commander ; the date when called into service by the President; 
the place of general rendezvous (Portland, Oregon); the term 
of enlistment (two years from date of enrollment, unless sooner 
discharged); the place at which the company was organized; 
the date of arrival at Portland and distance traveled ; the name 
of each officer and enlisted man, present and absent, his rank, 
when, where, and by whom enrolled and period for which en- 
rolled ; when, where, and by whom mustered in ; by whom and 
to what time last paid ; his place of residence ; place of dis- 
charge ; the charge for clothing issued by the State ; the amount 
due the United States or due the soldier for clothing; the 
amount due the United States for arms and equipage ; remarks 
giving record of each officer and soldier, and finally his pay 
account in detail, with his signature acknowledging receipt of 
payment. 

After being recapitulated, the roll is certified by the com- 
pany commander and the mustering-out officer, as follows: 

I certify that this muster roll is made out in the manner re- 
quired by the printed instructions; that it exhibits the true 
state of the company at date of muster-out; that each man has 
answered to his name in person ; that the remarks set opposite 
the name of each officer and enlisted man are accurate and 
just; that the valuation of the horses and horse equipments 
since the muster into service was made by disinterested and 
competent judges, and at fair and just rate ; and that the non- 
commissioned officers and privates against whose names this 
valuation is set forth actuallv owned the horses and had them 



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XIV INTRODUCTION. 

in service for the time paid for. (Signed by company com- 
mander, with rank, organization, and date.) 

I certify that I have at , on this day of , 

1899, carefully examined this roll, and, as far as practicable, 
caused the allowances, stoppages, and remarks to be properly 
stated; have mustered the company for discharge, and it is 
hereby discharged from the service of the United States. 
(Signed by the mustering officer, with rank, organization, sta- 
tion, and date.) 

The muster-out roll concludes with a brief record of events 
which may be necessary or useful for future reference. 

ABSTRACTS OF MUSTER ROLLS. 

The information contained in the abstracts published in this 
volume has been copied from the muster-out rolls, except the 
description, place of birth, and occupation, which have been 
taken from the muster-in rolls, and for volunteers of the Second 
Oregon Regiment responding to the second call of the Presi- 
dent, from the descriptive cards. A few men were mustered 
into the regiment in San Francisco, California, and in Hono- 
lulu, Hawaiian Islands. It has been impossible to give the 
description, place of birth, and occupation of these men, as the 
muster-in rolls were completed in Portland and no descriptive 
cards appear to have been furnished for them. 

The muster-out roll of Company D, Second Oregon Volun- 
teers, fails to show the dates of muster-in of the second-call men. 
Application was made to the War Department for this informa- 
tion, but it has not yet been received. The dates of enrollment 
being practically the same, these have been substituted. With 
the above exceptions, the information given under each head is 
a full, true, and correct copy of the original rolls, and will, it is 
believed, be found sufficient to furnish any information desired. 

OFFICIAL HISTORY. 

Mr. Dodson's history of the operations of the Second Oregon 
U. S. Volunteer Infantry was prepared at the request of the 
Hicks-Judd Company, of San Francisco, California, whose book 
entitled ^'Campaigning in the Philippines" is a popular and at 
the same time a reliable publication of events connected with 
our recent war and insurrection. Mr. Dodson was one of the 



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INTRODUCTION. XV 

first to respond to the President's call for volunteers. He en- 
listed in the Second Oregon Infantry, and served with credit 
until the regiment was mustered out, being twice wounded in 
an engagement with the insurgents near Pasig. His narrative 
was written while still in the service, and is an interesting and 
accurate account of the varied experiences of the Oregon Vol- 
unteers, particularly as the occurrences described were still 
fresh in the memory of the author and were seen from the 
standpoint of an enlisted man. Mr. Dodson, while in the vol- 
unteer service, was correspondent for the Oregonian, a.nd his 
letters will be remembered by the general public for their fair 
and conservative descriptions of persons and events associated 
with the regiment. 

BEPOKTS. 

The reports of Oregon officers and of general officers under 
whom the Oregon Regiment served contain valuable official 
data conected with the service of Oregon volunteers, reduced 
to writing immediately after the occurrence of the events 
described. 

The annual report of Major General E. S. Otis is a compre- 
hensive history of military operations and of the most impor- 
tant civil and political conditions prevailing in the Philippines 
from June 30, 1898, to August 31, 1899, covering the full term 
of service of the Second Oregon Volunteers. The reader will 
be surprised at the variety of the problems presenting them- 
selves to the governor general and at the ability, foresight, and 
industry displayed in solving them. 

Mr. Arthur Wallace Dunn, in an article published in the 
Review of Reviews for November of this year, and entitled 
" Government in the Philippines from 1898 to 1902," says : 

General Otis was a most methodical man and knew every- 
thing connected with the Philippine Government. He brought 
to bear upon the problems presented to him not only a mili- 
tary training, but a legal and business education which made 
him invaluable to the government. Under the direction of 
General Otis, tariffs were made and modified, revenues were 
collected, and expenditures made. The Chinese were excluded 
by his order, and immigration and commercial laws made and 
enforced. He dealt with all questions, whether military or 
civil. He had the power of life and death; his orders were 



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XVI INTRODUCTION. 

supreme, whether in case of murder or police offense, for all 
trials were regulated by the military, of which General Otis 
was the supreme head. His orders established a department 
of posts, provided an educational system, divided the con- 
struction of public works and improvements of various^kinds, 
and, in fact, were the law for eight million people. I heard 
Secretary Root pay him a high compliment during a private 
conversation, when he said that the people of this country 
could never know how much they owed General Otis. The 
careful regard he had for details, and the attention he gave to 
every part of the grave affairs he controlled during his'admin- 
istration prevented the extravagance that usually follows a war 
where so many troops are engaged. Not a breath of scandal 
or hint of corruption was ever heard in connection with the 
vast expenditure for military and governmental purposes 
durinff^the time when General Otis w^as in command. 

This estimate of the General's services will be cheerfully in- 
dorsed by^'every member of the Eighth Army Corps, having 
an opportunity to observe the countless difficulties offered and 
the manner in which they were met. General Otis as military 
governor in and of the Philippines was unquestionably the 
right man in the right place at the right time. His report 
will be found replete with interesting and instructive informa- 
tion. 

SECOND OREGON U. S. VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. 

In answer to the call of the President, the State promptly 
furnished one regiment of infantry, two batteries of light artil- 
lery, and one company of engineers. 

The Second Oregon was the only organization that had an 
opportunity to do a soldier's duty on the battlefield. The 
facsimile letters of Generals Merritt, Lawton, and Wheaton, 
and the testimonials published in the Appendix bear witness 
to the discipline, courage, and achievements of its members. 
In the words of General Wheaton — ^' Their gallant conduct 
during the recent campaign in Luzon has reflected credit upon 
the State from whence they came." 

The regiment was the first to land in the Philippines, the 
first to enter the walled city of Manila, and the first to return 
to the United States. From August 13, 1898, until March 12, 
1899, it was one of the three regiments performing the trying, 



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INTRODUCTION. XVll 

difficult, and dangerous duties of provost guard in Manila. It 
took part in forty-two battles, engagements, and skirmishes, 
marching five hundred and thirty-eight miles in three months. 

The character of the rank and file is indicated by the follow- 
ing figures prepared by Captain W. S. Gilbert, regimental chap- 
lain and historian : Average age, 24.98 years ; average height, 
5 feet 7.68 inches ; average weight, 148i pounds ; married, 89 ; 
students, 156 ; clerks, 141; lawyers, 15; bookkeepers, 15 ; car- 
penters, 29; farmers, 123; laborers, 175 ; mechanics, 66 ; teach- 
ers, 28; merchants, 34; ministers, 2 ; college graduates, 114; 
employed when enlisted, 1190; members of church, 531. 

Of the 56 officers and 1296 enlisted men, in all 1352, accounted 
for on its muster-out rolls, 13 were killed in action, 3 died of 
wounds, 3 were captured and killed, 43 died of disease while 
in the service, 1 met his death by accident, and 1 was drowned, 
making a total number of 64 deaths. The total loss by death 
of the remaining State volunteer regiments serving in the Phil- 
ippines, as shown by the statistical exhibit issued from the office 
of the Adjutant General of the Army in 1899, is as follows : Twen- 
tieth Kansas, 65; First Nebraska, 61; First South Dakota, 60; 
First Washington, 43; Thirteenth Minnesota, 42; Fifty-first 
Iowa, 40 ; First California, 36 ; First Colorado, 35 ; First Mon- 
tana, 35 ; First Tennessee, 26 ; Tenth Pennsylvania, 21 ; First 
Idaho, 21 ; First North Dakota, 18. 

BATTERIES A AND B, OREGON U. S. VOLUNTEER LIGHT ARTILLERY. 

Battery A was mustered into the United States service July 1, 
1898, at Portland, Oregon, and changed station from Portland 
to Vancouver Barracks, Washington, July 9, 1898 ; Battery B 
was mustered in July 26, 1898, at the same place, and went 
into camp at Sellwood, Multnomah County, Oregon. Owing to 
the speedy termination of the war, their services were rendered 
unnecessary, and they were mustered out October 15, 1898, at 
Vancouver Barracks, and October 20, 1898, at Portland, re- 
spectively. These organizations were composed of fine material, 
maintained excellent discipline, and cheerfully performed all 
duties required of them under the most trying circumstances. 
*'They also serve who only stand and wait." 



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XVlll INTRODUCTION. 

COMPANY M, SECOND U. S. VOLUNTEER ENGINEERS. 

This company, though recruited in the State of Oregon, was 
part of a United States volunteer regiment, and there are no 
records on file in the ofiice of the State Adjutant General re- 
lating thereto. I requested the Secretary of War to furnish me 
with a copy of its muster-in and muster-out rolls, as inquiries 
are frequently made with regard to it and its members which 
I am unable to answer. I was advised, however, that its records, 
like those of all other United States troops, were in the exclu- 
sive custody of the War Department, and that under the long- 
established rules of the department, it was not considered 
necessary or proper that the officials of any State should be 
furnished with copies of such records to enable them to answer 
inquiries with regard to these organizations or the members 
thereof. 

SPANISH WAR MEDALS. 

At the suggestion of His Excellency, Governor T. T. Geer, 
the State presented its volunteers in the Spanish war with 
medals made of bronze taken from a Spanish cannon captured 
at Manila and given to the State by the United States Govern- 
ment. Substantial, of convenient size and artistically designed, 
with the name, rank, and organization of the owner neatly 
engraved, they are highly prized by the volunteers as invaluable 
reminders of the State's appreciation of their patriotic services. 
In all, sixteen hundred and seventy-tw^o were issued, of which 
all but about two hundred have been delivered to the owners. 

OREGON EMERGENCY CORPS. 

On April 26, 1898, a few days after the call for volunteers, 
the patriotic women of Portland organized a society, called the 
Oregon Emergency Corps, and elected Mrs. Henry E. Jones, 
president; Mrs. W. A. Buchanan, vice-president ; Mrs. F. E. 
Lounsbury, secretary, and Mrs. Martin Winch, treasurer. 
Branches were established in all the principal towns of the 
State, and July 29, 1898, a consolidation was effected with the 
National Red Cross Society, under the name of the Oregon 
Emergency Corps and Red Cross Society, with Mrs. Henry E. 
Jones, president; Mrs. A, J. Meier, vice-president; Mrs, Levi 



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INTRODUCTION. XIX 

Young, first assistant to president ; Mrs. H. H. Goddard, second 
assistant to president; Mrs. F. E. Lounsbury, secretary; Mrs. 
Robert L. Taft, corresponding secretary ; Mrs. William Alvord, 
treasurer, and Mrs. William Patterson, assistant to treasurer. 

Having fully and successfully performed its mission to care 
for the families of volunteers and to provide something in addi- 
tion to the bare ration for the subsistence of the men, the Corps 
was formally disbanded October 27, 1900. The praise deserved 
by its members for their unselfish, patriotic services was well 
expressed in an editorial in the Evening Telegram on the occa- 
sion of its disbandment : 

During the three and one half years of its existence it has 
done more good in various ways than can be calculated or esti- 
mated. It has been a blessing to hundreds of volunteer soldiers, 
and to many others besides. The work of these patriotic women 
has been entirely unselfish ; they have labored diligently, some- 
times for days and nights together, to benefit others, without a 
thought of any reward except the consciousness of performing 
a duty. In many details it was work that none but unselfish, 
loving-hearted women could perform, and it was done all the 
more effectually because it was entirely a labor of love. Many 
a volunteer, not only from Oregon, but from neighboring States, 
will remember the kindness of these devoted women with a 
glow of gratitude as long as they live ; and many, too, who never 
returned, blessed them along with mothers, sisters, and sweet- 
hearts as life faded away in the dank fens of distant islands. 
As a last act of its organized existence, the Emergency Corps 
has turned over $821.95, the total balance remaining in the 
treasury, to the Oregon Volunteer Monument Fund, an act 
quite in keeping with the useful and charitable deeds with 
which the history of the Corps is filled. 

The Corps had a membership of one thousand nine hundred 
and seventeen, and included auxiliaries at Weston, Astoria, 
Hillsboro, Pendleton, Lafayette, Corvallis, La Grande, Hood 
River, Hubbard, Roseburg, Woodburn, The Dalles, and Port- 
land. 

CONCLUSION. 

This book is intended to be a book of reference. Whatever 
merit it may possess must therefore lie in its accuracy. The 
greatest care has been exercised to avoid mistakes in copying 
the original records. The proofs after being read in the State 



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XX INTRODUCTION. 

Printer's office were carefully read and corrected by me with 
the assistance of Captain L. H. Knapp, quartermaster Third 
Regiment, Oregon National Guard, and late first lieutenant 
and quartermaster Second Oregon Volunteers. While it can 
not be expected that the volume will be found entirely free 
from errors, every effort has been made to reduce them to a 
minimum. 

Though the preparation of a book of this character is neces- 
sarily laborious, and at times monotonous, it has served to recall 
pleasant associations that were already beginning to fade from 
memory and has resulted in a familiarity with official military 
records which may prove useful in the event of the organiza- 
tion of toother volunteer regiment from this State. 

In conclusion, I wish to express appreciation of the courtesy 
shown by my colleagues of the Military Board, Brigadier Gen- 
eral C. F. Beebe, and Colonels D. M. Dunne, James Jackson, 
A. B. Gillis, and S. C. Spencer, in authorizing the publication 
of these records in a manner befitting the services of the late 
volunteers. ! 

C. U. GANTENBEIN, 

Adjutant General. 
Portland, Oregon, December 10, 1902. 



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SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS CONNECTED 

WITH MILITARY OPERATIONS IN THE 

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 



FROM DECLARATION OF SPANISH WAR TO MUSTER OUT OF SECOND 
OREGON VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. 

[EXTBACT FROM REPORT OF MAJOR GENERAL COMMANDING THE ARMY.] 

April 21, 1898— Act of Congress declares a state of war witli Spain to exist. 

April 23, 1898— President issues proclamation calling for 125,000 volunteers. United States 
consul at Manila is given Ms passport and leaves for Hongkong. 

April 25, 1898— Asiatic squadron leaves Hongkong for Mirs Bay, China. 

April 26, 1898— War with Spain formally declared. Regular army increased to 63,106 men. 

April 27, 1898— United States consul reaches Hongkong from Manila and joins the Asiatic 
squadron at Mirs Bay. The American squadron sails for the Philippines. 

May 1, 1898— The Asiatic squadron, U. S. N., under command of Commodore Dewey, 
engages and destroys the Spanish squadron, under command of Admiral 
Montojo, in the bay of Manila. 

May 2, 1898— Landing party of sailors and marines destroys several magazines in the 
vicinity of Cavite. 

May 3, 1898— The Cavite arsenal is abandoned by the Spanish and occupied by the 
forces from the squadron. 

May 16, 1898— Major General Wesley Merritt, U. S. A., assigned to command of the De- 
partment of the Pacific. 

May 25, 1898— President issues proclamation calling for an additional 75,000 volunteers. 
First expedition sails for Manila from San Francisco, California, under 
command of Brigadier General T. M. Anderson, U. S. V. This expedition 
comprised the First California Volunteer Infantry, Second Oregon Vol- 
unteer Infantry, five companies of the Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, and a 
detachment of California Volunteer Artillery. 

May 30, 1898— General Merritt arrives at San Francisco and assumes direction of the ex- 
peditionary forces. 

June 15, 1898— Second expedition sails for Manila under command of Brigadier General 
F. V. Greene, IJ. S. V. This expedition comprised the First Colorado 
Volunteer Infantry, First Nebraska Volunteer Infantry, Tenth Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteer Infantry, four companies Eighteenth and four com- 
panies Twenty-third U. S. Infantry, two battalions Utah Volunteer 
Artillery, and detachment of U. S. Engineers. 

June 18, 1898— Aguinaldo, by proclamation, establishes an interior civil government at 
points captured from or abandoned by Spanish authority. 

June 21, 1898— Formal surrender of the Island of Guam, Ladrone group, to the com- 
manding oflficer U. S. cruiser Charleston. 

June 23, 1898— Aguinaldo proclaims himself military dictator and president of the Phil- 
ippine revolution and outlines a system of general government, 



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L SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS. 

June 27, 1898— Third expedition sails for Manila under command of Major General Wes- 
ley Merritt, U. S. A., and Brigadier General Arthur MacArthur, U. S. V. 
This expedition comprised four companies of the Eighteenth and four 
companies of the Twenty-third U. S. Infantry, four batteries of the Third 
U. S. Artillery, one company U. S. Engineers, First Idaho Volunteer 
Infantry, First Wyoming Volunteer Infantry, Thirteenth Minnesota 
Volunteer Infantry, First North Dakota Volunteer Infantry, Astor Bat- 
tery, and detachments of Hospital and Signal Corps. 

June 80, 1898- First expedition, under command of Brigadier General T. M. Anderson, 
U. S. v., arrives oflf Manila. 

July 1, 1898— Disembarkation of expeditionary forces begun and landing made at 
Cavite. 

July 7, 1898— The Navy takes Isla Grande and garrison of 1,300 without resistance. 

July 15, 1898— Fourth expedition sails for Manila, under command of Major General 
E. S. Otis, U. S. V. This expedition comprised six troops Fourth U. S. 
Cavalry, two batteries Sixth U. S. Artillery, five companies Fourteenth 
U. S. Infantry, and a detachment of recruits. One battalion of the First 
California Volunteer Infantry encamps at Malate on the outskirts of 
the city of Manila. 

July 19, 1898— Fifth expedition sails for Manila with First Montana Volunteer Infantry 
and detachment of recruits, under command of Colonel H. C. Kessler, 
First Montana Volunteers. 

July 23, 1898— Sixth expedition sails for Manila with eight companies of the First South 
Dakota Volunteer Infantry and detachments, under command of Briga- 
dier General H. G. Otis, U. S. V. 

July 25, 1898— General Merritt arrives at Manila. 

July 29, 1898— Seventh expedition sails for Manila with four companies of the First 
South Dakota Volunteer Infantry and detachment of recruits, under 
command of Lieutenant Colonel Lee Stover, First South Dakota Volun- 
teers. 

July 31, 1898— Night attack on United States forces by Spanish troops in trenches around 
the city of Manila. 

Aug. 1, 1898— Second Division, Eighth Army Corps, organized under command of Brig- 
adier General T. M. Anderson, and Brigadier Generals MacArthur and 
Greene assigned to command brigades therein. During the night Span- 
ish field artillery shelled the trenches occupied by United States troops. 

Aug. 2, 1898— Spanish open fire at 5 a. m. and 9:45 p. m. on the trenches occupied by 
United States troops, continuing in each instance for a period of less 
than an hour. 

Aug. 5, 1898— Spanish open vigorous fire with artillery and infantry on the troops in 
trenches. 

Aug. 7, 1898— Joint demand made by General Merritt and Admiral Dewey on the Cap- 
tain-General for the removal of noncombatants from the city of Manila, 
and notice given of intention to bombard the city. Camp Dewey estab- 
lished on the outskirts of the city. 

Aug. 9, 1898~In reply to statement of inability on part of Spanish authorities to re- 
move noncombatants from city on account of the presence of insurgent 
troops, joint formal demand is made for the surrender of the city of 
Manila and its defenses. Foreign war vessels leave their anchorage in 
front of the city and American fleet clears for action. 

Aug. 12, 1898— Protocol with Spain signed at Washington, D. C, by Hon. William Day, 
Secretary of State, and M. Jules Cambon, French Ambassador to the 
United States. 

Aug. 13, 1898— Spanish intrenchments about the city of Manila bombarded by the Navy 
and stormed and carried by the troops ; the city entered and a commis- 
sion appointed to draw articles of capitulation. 



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SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS. 3 

Aug. 14, 1898— General Merritt issues his first proclamation to the Filipino people. 

Aug. 15, 1898— Orders issued for the assumption of civil government by the United States 
military authorities in the city of Manila and district of Cavite, and 
officers assigned to duty thereunder. 

Aug. 16, 1898— General Merritt receives cablegram from President announcing cessation 
of hostilities. 

Aug. 21, 1898— Transport Arizona sails for Manila with four companies of the Eighteenth 
U. S. Infantry, and detachments of First Nebraska Volunteer Infantry, 
Tenth Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, and First Colorado Volunteer 
Infantry, under command of Brigadier General Charles King, U. S. V. 

Aug. 22, 1898— Disembarkation of Light Battery D, Sixth U. S. Artillery, headquarters 
and five companies Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, detachments of Twenty- 
third U. S. Infantry, Third Artillery, First California, First Wyoming, 
Thirteenth Minnesota Volunteer Infantry, and two batteries Utah Vol- 
unteer Light Artillery, from transports JPeru, City of Puehla, and City of 
Rio de Janeiro, begins at Manila. 

Aug. 25, 1898— First division, Eighth Army Corps, organized, Brigadier General T. M. 
Anderson, commanding. 

Aug. 28, 1898— General Merritt assumes duties as military governor and transfers com- 
mand of the Eighth Army Corps to Major General E. S. Otis, U. S. V. 
Brigadier General Arthur Mac Arthur relieves General Anderson in com- 
mand of Second Division. Disembarkation of Light Battery, Sixth U. S. 
Artillery, six troops Fourth U. S. Cavalry, First Montana and First 
South Dakota Volunteer Infantry from transports Peru, Pennsylvania, 
and City of Rio de Janeiro, begins at Cavite. 

Aug. 29, 1898— Major General E. S. Otis, U. S. V., reheves Major General Wesley Merritt, 
U. S. A., in command of the Department of the Pacific and as military 
governor of the Philippine Islands. 

Aug. 30, 1898-Brigadier General H. G. Otis, U. S. V., assigned to command of First Bri- 
gade, First Division. 

Sept. 2, 1898— First Battalion First South Dakota Volunteer Infantry disembarks at 
Manila. 

Sept. 8, 1898— General Otis demands the withdrawal of insurgent forces from the entire 
city of Manila, Its suburbs and defenses. 

Sept. 13, 1898— Commission appointed by Aguinaldo confers with General Otis in regard 
to his demand of September 8, 1898. 

Sept. 15, ] 898— Insurgents withdraw from hmits of the city of Manila, as established by 
General Otis, with the exception of the districts of Paco and Pandacan, 
south of the Pasig River. 

Oct. 7, 1898— Civil courts as constituted by the laws of Spain are allowed to resume their 
jurisdiction and regular functions, subject to supervision of the military 
government in its policy of occupation. 

Oct. 9, 1898— General Anderson and staff while proceeding up the Pasig River in a steam 
launch are ordered to return to the city by Filipino guard. 

Oct. 10, 1898— General Otis makes formal demand for the retirement of Filipino forces 
from Paco, Pandacan, and other points established by survey to be 
within the city limits. 

Oct. 14, 1898— Eighth Army Corps reorganized. 

Oct. 17, 1898 -Transport Senator sails for Manila with a battalion of Twenty-third U. S* 
Infantry, battery of Cahfornia Volunteer Artillery, and detachment of 
recruits for Second Oregon Volunteer Inflantry, under command of Major 
G. A. Goodale, Twenty-third U. S. Infantry. 

Oct. 19, 1898— Transport Valencia sails for Manila with Companies F, G, I, and L, First 
Washington Volunteer Infantry, and detachment of battahon California 
Artillery, under command of Lieutenant Colonel W. J. Fife, First Wash- 
ington Volunteer Infantry, 



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4 SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS. 

Oct. 25, 1898— Filipino forces retire from points indicated by General Otis in liis demand 
of October lOth. 

Oct. 27, 1898— Transport Indiana sails for Manila with headquarters and band, Compa- 
nies C, D, E, G, H, I, K, and M, Twentieth Kansas Volunteer Infantry 
under command of Colonel F. Funston, Twentieth Kansas Volunteer 
Infantry. 

Oct. 28, 1898— Transport Ohio sails for Manila with Companies A, B, C, D, E, H, K, and 
M, First Washington Volunteer Infantry, and detachment California 
Artillery, under command of Colonel J. H. Wholley, First Washington 
Volunteer Infantry. 

Oct. 30, 1898— Transport Zealandia sails for Manila with the headquarters. Companies 
A, B, C, E, F, L, and M, First Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, under com- 
mand of Colonel W. C. Smith, First Tennessee Volunteer Infantry. 

Nov. 3, 1898— Transport Pennsylvania sails for Manila with the Fifty-tirst Iowa Volun- 
teer Infantry, undei" command of Colonel J. C. Loper, Fifty-first Iowa 
Volunteer Infantry. 

Nov. 6, 1898— Transport City of Pueblo sails for Manila with Companies D, G, H, T, and 
K, First Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, detachment California Artillery, 
and First Troop Nevada Volunteer Cavalry, under command of Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Gracey Childers, First Tennessee Volunteer Infantry. 

Nov, 9, 1898— Transport Newport sails for Manila with Companies A, B, F, and L, Twen- 
tieth Kansas, and Wyoming Battery, under command of Brigadier Gen- 
eral M. P. Miller, U. S. V. 

Nov. 10, 1898 — Transport Arizona sails from Honolulu, H. I., for Manila, with battalion 
of Eighteenth U. S. Infantry, recruits for First Nebraska, Tenth Penn- 
sylvania, and First Colorado Volunteer Infantry, and a detachment of 
Hospital Corps men. 

Nov. 21, 1898— Expedition under command of Major G. A. Goodale, Twenty-third U. S. 
Infantry, arrives at Manila. Left San Francisco October 17, 1894. 

Nov. 22, 1898— Expedition under command of Lieutenant Colonel W. J. Fife, First Wash- 
ington Volunteer Infantry, arrives at Manila. Left San Francisco Octo- 
bers 1898. 

Nov. 24, 1898— Expedition under command of Major G. A. Goodale, Twenty-third U. S. 
Infantry, disembarks. Arrived at Manila November 21, 1898. Expedi- 
tion under command of Lieutenant Colonel W. J. Fife, First Washington 
Volunteer Infantry, disembarks. Arrived November 22, 1898. 

Nov. 25, 1898— Transport Arizona arrives at Manila from Honolulu with battalion of 
Eighteenth U. S. Infantry and detachment of recruits and Hospital 
Corps men. Sailed November 10, 1898. 

Nov. 26, 1898— Expedition under command of Colonel J. H. Wholley, First Washington 
Volunteer Infantry, arrives at Manila. Left San Francisco October 28, 
1898. Detachment of California Heavy Artillery disembarks at Manila. 

Nov. 28, 1898— Expedition under command of Colonel W. C. Smith, First Tennessee Vol- 
unteer Infantry, arrives at Manila. Left San Francisco October 30, 1898. 

Nov. 30. 1898— Expedition under command of Colonel F. Funston, Twentieth Kansas 
Volunteer Infantry, arrives at Manila. Left San Francisco October 27, 
1898. 

Nov. 30, 1898— Troops on transport Arizona arrived Novefnber 25th, disembark and join 
regiments. Companies A and B, Tenth Pennsylvania Volunteer Infan- 
try, assigned to duty at Corregidor Island. 

Dec. 5, 1898— Troops of First Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, arriving on transport Zea- 
landia November 28, 1898, disembark and are assigned to duty with the 
provost guard. 

Dec. 6, 1898— Expedition under command of Lieutenant Colonel Gracey Childers, First 
Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, arrives at Manila. Left San Francisco 
November 6, 1898. First Washington Volunteer Infantry disembarks 
from transports Fa^encm and 0/ito. 



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SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS. 5 

Dec. 7, 1898— Expeditions under command of Brigadier General M. P. Miller and Colonel 
J. C. Loper arrive at Manila. Sailed from San Francisco November 9th 
and 3d, respectively. 
Dec. 9, 1898— Troops of Twentieth Kansas Volunteer Infantry, on transport Indiana, 

arrived November 30. 1898, disembark. 
Dec. 10, 1898— Treaty of Peace signed at Paris between the United States and Spain. Light 
Battery, Wyoming Volunteer Artillery, and Troop A, Nevada Cavalry, 
disembark from transports Newport d^n^ City of Puehla, respectively, and 
join garrison at Cavite. 
Dec. 11, 1898— Battalion of Twentieth Kansas Volunteer Infantry, arriving on transport 
Newport December 7, 1898, disembark and join reginaent. Detachment 
of California Heavy Artillery disembarks from transport City of Puehla 
and joins garrison at Cavite. 
Dec. 13, 1898— General Otis receives a petition signed by business men and firms on Iloilo 
asking for American occupation and protection. Troops of First Ten- 
nessee Volunteer Infantry, arriving on transport City of Fuebla Decem- 
ber 6, 1898, disembark and join regiment on provost duty. 
Dec. 15, 1898— Astor Battery sails from Manila en route to San Francisco, California. 
Dec. 23, 1898— President orders the relief of the Spanish garrison at Iloilo by United States 

forces. 
Dec. 24, 1898— Spanish garrison at Iloilo evacuate the city and insurgents take possession. 
First separate brigade organized under command of Brigadier General 
M. P. Miller and ordered to proceed to Iloilo. 
Dec. 26, 1898— Expedition sails for Iloilo from Manila. 

Dec. 28, 1898— Expeditionary forces arrive in harbor at Iloilo and open communication 
with the insurgents in possession of the city with a view to its occupa- 
tion by United States forces. 
Dec. 29, 1898— Insurgents ask for time to receive instructions from revolutionary govern- 
ment as to the occupation of Iloilo. 
Dec. 30, 1898— Insurgent leaders at Iloilo refuse consent to the landing of United States 

%: troops at that place. 

Dec. 31, 1898— Merchants and foreign residents petition General Miller to postpone land- 
ing of troops and avoid firing of the city by the insurgents in occupation. 
Jan. 19, 1899— Transport Qrayit sails from New York for Manila with the Fourth U. S. 
Infantry and Companies B, G, I, and M, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, 
under command of Major General H. W. Lawton, U. S. V. 
Jan. 22, 1899— Company I, First Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, under command of Cap- 
tain Given s, escorts a battalion of Spanish prisoners to the southern 
islands of the Archipelago. 
Jan. 26, 1899— Transports Scandia and Morgan City sail for Manila with Twentieth U. S. 
Infantry, under command of Brigadier General Loyd Wheaton, U. S. V. 
Jan. 29, 1899— Expedition under command of Captain N. N. Givens left Manila January 
22, 1899, on escort duty, returns to station. Fifty-first Iowa Volunteer 
Infantry leaves Iloilo for Cavite in order that troops may land for exercise. 
Jan. 31, 1899— Transport Pennsylvania arrives at Manila. 

Feb. 1, 1899— Transports Ohio and Senator sail for Manila with the Twenty-second U. S. 
Infantry, under command of Colonel H. C. Egbert, Twenty-second U. S. 
Infantry. 
Feb. 2, 1899— Astor Battery mustered out at New York City. 

Feb. 3, 1899— Transport Sherman sails from New York for Manila with Third U. S. In- 
fantry, and Companies D, H, K, and L, Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, under 
command of Colonel J. H. Page, Third U. S. Infantry. 
Feb. 4, 1899— Picket line opposite San Juan del Monte fired on by insurgents, and a 
general engagement is precipitated. Street disturbances in the city of 
Manila controlled by provost guard. Attack upon United States troops 
at Manila by insurgent forces under Aguinaldo. 



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6 SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS. 

Feb. 5, 1899— Advance made against insurgent lines results in their retreat to positions 
beyond the foothills, and the capture of Santa Ana, San Pedro Macati, 
Pasig, and other villages in the immediate vicinity of the city of Manila. 
Provost patrol disperses a party of armed natives within the city. 
Feb. 6, 1899— Earthworks and blockhouses constructed and occupied by insurgents, and 
the city water works, on the Mariquina River, east of Deposito, captured. 
Feb. 7, 1899— Sharp and decisive skirmishes on the Mariquina Road. 
Feb. 8, 1899— General Miller directed to take the city of Iloilo. 
Feb. 10, 1899- A general advance is made on the enemy's position in and about Caloocan. 

First Tennessee Volunteer Infantry arrives in the harbor of Iloilo. 
Feb. 11, 1899— City of Iloilo is fired and abandoned by the insurgents, being immediately 

occupied by the United States forces. 
Feb. 12, 1899— Line of First Separate Brigade extended toward Jaroand Molo, driving 

the insurgents before it. 
Feb. 13, 1899— Eighteenth U. S. Infantry encounters insurgents at the main bridge over 

the Jaro River. 
Feb. 14, 1899— A detachment of 500 insurgents is defeated in the vicinity of Santa Barbara. 
Feb. 35, 1899— United States troops occupy Molo. 

Feb. 19, 1899— United States troops occupy Ar^velo. Transport /S'/ier*d;an sails from New 
York for Manila with the Twelfth U. S. Infantry and headquarters and 
Companies A, C, E, and F, Seventh U. S. Infantry. 
Feb. 20, 1899— East Paco is fired by incendiaries. 
Feb. 22, 1899— Incendiary fires in the city of Manila. 

Feb. 23, 1899— Insurgent outbreak in the Tondo district. Tenth Pennsylvania and First 

South Dakota Volunteer Infantry engaged by the enemy. Twentieth 

U. S. Infantry arrives at Manila and is assigned to provost duty in the 

city. 

Feb. 24, 1899— First Nebraska Volunteer Infantry defeats a party of insurgents north of 

the Mariquina Road. 
Feb. 25, 1899— Minor engagements in the vicinity of Mandurriao, in which insurgents 

are driven off. # 

Mar. 1, 1899— Insurgents make an attack in force on outposts of First and Second Bat- 
talions, Eighteenth U. S. Infantry, at Iloilo, Island of Panay. Insurgents 
shelled from trenches by Battery G, Sixth U. S. Artillery, and attacked 
and routed by the Eighteenth U. S. Infantry. Visayan military district 
established. 
Mar. 2, 1899— Congress authorizes the enlistment of 35,000 volunteers and increase of the 

regular army to 65,000 men. 
Mar. 3, 1899— Tennessee Volunteer Infantry and Light Battery G, Sixth IT. S. Artillery, 

makes a reconnoissance on the Savannah, southeast of La Paz. 
Mar. 4, 1899— Transport Senator, with portion of Twenty-second U. S. Infantry, arrives 

at Manila, Sailed from San Francisco February 1, 1899. 
Mar. 5, 1899— Transport Ohio, with portion of Twenty-second U. S. Infantry, arrives at 
Manila. Sailed from San Francisco February 1, 1899. Insurgents in- 
trenched across Marquina Road, northeast of Deposito, are routed and 
driven oflT. Cable communication with Iloilo established. 
Mar. 6, 1899— First Nebraska Volunteer Infantry engages the enemy on the north and 

south of pumping station on the Mariquina Road, driving them off. 
Mar. 7, 1899— Entire district lying between the Pasig River, the Mariquina River, and 

the Deposito pumping-station road, is cleared of insurgent forces. 
Mar. 8, 1899— The Twelfth U. S. Infantry, en route to Manila, lands at Malta and is re- 
ceived with courtesies by the British garrison at that point. 
Mar. 10, 1899— Expedition under command of Major General H. W. Lawton arrives at 
Manila. Sailed from New York via Suez Canal. 



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SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS. 7 

Mar. 11, 1899~A provisional brigade for temporary service, composed of the Twentieth 
and Twenty-second U. S. Infantry ; Companies C, D, E, G, H, K, L, and 
M, First WavShington Volunteer Infantry; Companies A, B, D, E, 1, L, 
and M, Second Oregon Volunteer Infantry ; Troops E, I, and K, Fourth 
U. S. Cavalry, and one section of Light Battery D, Sixth U. S. Artillery, 
under command of Major General H. W. Lawton, engage the insurgents 
at Guadaloupe, Pasig, Pateros, and Cayenta, March 11th to 17th. 

Mar. 16, 1899— First Separate Brigade engages the insurgents at the Jaro bridge and at 
Mandurriao. Two companies of the First Colorado Volunteer Infantry 
attack body of insurgents retreating from Cainta and drive them through 
the town of Mariquina. 

Mar. 17, 1899— General H. W. Lawton relieves General T. M. Anderson in command of the 
First Division. 

Mar. 21, 1899— Companies F, G, L, and M, First California Volunteer Infantry, sail from 
Manila en route to Bacolod, Island of Negros. 

Mar. 22, 1899— Expedition under command of Colonel J. II. Page, Third U. S. Infantry, 
arrives at Manila. Sailed from New York February 3, 1899, via Suez Canal. 

Mar. 24, 1899— Transport City of Pueblo sails for Manila with headquarters and Companies 
A, F, G, I, L, and M, Ninth U. S. Infantry, under command of Captain 
James Regan, Ninth U. S. Infantry. 

Mar. 25, 1899— General engagement at Caloocan participated in by Twenty-second U. S. 
Infantry, Second Oregon Volunteer Infantry, and the Second Battalion 
Third U. S. Infantry ; enemy driven across the river in front of Malinta. 

Mar. 26, 1899— Second Oregon Volunteer Infantry cross the Taliahan River east of Mala- 
bon and drive the insurgents by successive charges from trenches occu- 
pied by them along the line of road leading to Bulacaa. Twenty-second 
U. S. Infantry captures Malinta under heavy insurgent fire. 

Mar. 27, 1899— Brigadier General M. P. Miller retires and is succeeded in command of the 
Visayan military district by Colonel Van Valzah, U. S. A. 

Mar. 28, 1899— Transport Zealandia sails for Manila with six companies of the Ninth 
U. S. Infantry, under command of Captain C. M. Rockefeller, Ninth U. S. 
Infantry. 

Mar. 31, 1899— The insurgent capital at Malolos stormed and occupied by United States 
troops. Battalion Twenty-third Infantry engages insurgents about four 
miles from Marquina. 

April 8, 1899— Expedition comprising Troops C, G, and L, Fourth Cavalry ; Companies 
A, C, D, E, G, I, K, and L, Fourteenth U. S. Infantry ; Companies A, C, 
D, and F, First Idaho Volunteer Infantry; Companies C, D, I, and K, 
First North Dakota Volunteer Infantry; two mountain guns from the 
Separate Mountain Battery, and four companies of sharpshooters con- 
centrate at San Pedro Macati and embark on cascoes up the Pasig River 
for Laguna de Bay. 

April 9, 1899— Attack on and occupation of the city of Santa Cruz by the Laguna de Bay 
expedition. 

April 10, 1899— Towns of Pagsanjan, Longos, and Paete occupied by the expeditionary 
forces. 

April 12, 1899— Treaty of Peace signed by the President. 

April 13, 1899— Outposts at Malolos attacked by insurgents, who are driven off. 

April 14, 1899— Expedition under command of Lieutenant Colonel J. H. Smith, Twelfth 
U. S. Infantry, arrives at Manila. Sailed from New York via Suez Canal 
February 19, 1899. 

April 15, 1899— Engagement with insurgents near Quingua. 

April 17, 1899— Expeditionary forces return to San Pedro Macati. 

April 18, 1899— Transport Hancock sails for Manila with Twenty-first U. S. Infantry and 
Light Battery E, First U. S. Artillery, under command of Colonel J. 
Kline, Twenty-first U. S. Infantry. 



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o SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS. 

April 20, 1899— Transport Newport sails for Manila with Light Battery F, Fourth, and 
Light Battery F, Fifth U. S. Artillery, under command of Major J. L. 
Tiernon, First U. S. Artillery. Transport Warren sails for Manila with 
headquarters and eight batteries of the Sixth U. S. Artillery and detach- 
ment of recruits, under command of Brigadier General E. B. Williston. 
April 21, 1899— First North Dakota Volunteer Infantry; Twenty-second U. S. Infantry : 
Companies A, C, F, G, K, L, and M, Third U. S. Infantry ; Troops C, G, 
and L, Fourth U. S. Cavalry ; Hawthorne's Separate Mountain Battery ; 
Second Platoon JLight Artillery D, Sixth U. S. Artillery ; section of Utah 
Light Artillery, and detachment Nineteenth Company Volunteer Signal 
Corps, concentrate at La Loma church and move noi^thward. 
April 22, 1899— Troops of the northern expedition successfully assault and occupy the 

city of Novaliches. 
April 28, 1899— Expedition under command of Captain James Regan, Ninth U. S. In- 
fantry, arrives at Manila. Sailed from San Francisco March 24, 1899. 
April 24, 1899— San Jos6 occupied by the main column of the northern expedition, and 
the city of Norzagaray is assaulted and captured by the Bocaue column 
of the expedition. Troops of the Second Division force passage of the 
Quingua River and advance on Pulilan. 
April 25, 1899— The main column of the northern expedition joins the Bocaue column at 

Norzagaray. 
April 25, 1899— Troops of the Second Division advance along the north bank of the Quingua 
River toward Calumpit, where they ford the Calumpit River and clear 
the town of insurgents. First Montana Volunteer Infantry and Twen- 
tieth Itansas Volunteer Infantry move against insurgents on Ragbag 
River, and capture their position on the banks of that river. 
April 26, 1899— The northern expedition encamps at Angat and Marunco. 
April 27, 1899— Expedition under command of Captain C. M. Rockefeller, Ninth U. S. In- 
fantry, arrive at Manila. Sailed from San Francisco March 28, 1899. 
April 28, 1899— Transport Ohio sails for Manila with six companies of Thirteenth U. S. 
Infantry, under command of Captain J. H. H. Peshine, Thirteenth U. S. 
Infantry. Transport Senator sails for Manila with headquarters and six 
companies Thirteenth Infantry, under command of Colonel A. T. Smith, 
Thirteenth U. S. Infantry. Troops of the Second Division force the pas- 
sage of the Calumpit River and defeat the insurgent forces under the 
personal command of General Luna. 
April 29, 1899— The northern expedition rqoves along both banks of the Rio Grande de la 
Bulacan, and after engOiging the enemy and driving them down the river, 
take the town of San Rafael and then return to Angat. 
May 3, 1899— Brigadier General J. F. Smith assumes command of the Visayan military 

district. 
May 4, 1899— A brigade of the northern expedition engages the insurgents near Maasin 
and occupies that town. Sharp engagements at the Santo Tomas River. 
May 7, 1899— River gunboats, under command of Captain Grant, Utah Volunteer Artil- 
lery, shell insurgents from their trenches along the Guagua River. 
May 10, 1899— Gunboats engage the enemy at San Luis. 
May 11, 1899— Insurgents driven out of San Ildefonso. 

May 13, 1899— Commissioners from the insurgents ask for conference with General Law- 
ton at Baliuag. Northern expedition takes the city of San Miguel de 
Mayumo. 
May 15, 1899— General Lawton routes the enemy near San Isidro and marches from 

thence to San Miguel. 
May 16, 1899— San Isidro, the third city occupied by the insurgents as a capital, is seized 

by forces under General Lawton. 
May 17, 1899— Aguinalda and his revolutionary government retire to Cabanatuan. 
May 19, 1899— Spanish garrison at Jolo relieved by United States troops. 



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SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS. 9 

May 22, 1899— Transport /S'/jerman sails for Manila with Sixth U. S. Infantry and recruits, 
under command of Brigadier General J. C. Bates. 

May 24, 1899— Insurgents engaged in harassing outposts at San Fernando are driven off 
with heavy loss. 

May 27, 1899— Northern expedition returns to Manila. 

May 30, 1899— Transport Grant sails for Manila with Sixteenth U. S. Infantry and re- 
cruits, under command of Lieutenant Colonel W. F. Spurgin, Sixteenth 
U. S. Infantry. A detachment Twenty- third U. S. Infantry engages and 
defeats outlaw band on the Island of Negros. 

June 3, 1899— Advance is made upon Antipolo against insurgent forces under General 
Pilar. 

June 4, 1899— Brigadier General R. P. Hughes assumes command of the Visayan mili- 
tary district 

June 5, 1899— Morong occupied by United States troops after a decisive engagement. 

June 10, 1899— Generals Ovenshine and Wheaton's columns defeat insurgents at Par- 
aiiaque and Las Piiias. 

June 13, 1899— Insurgents intrenched along the Zapote in the vicinity of Las Piiias and 
defeated with considerable loss. 

June 14, 1899— Transports Ohio and Newport sail from Manila with Second Oregon Vol- 
unteer Infantry, under command of Colonel Owen Summers. 

June 15, 1899— Imus voluntarily surrenders to General Lawton and invites occupation 
of the city by his command 

June 16, 1899— Town of San Nicolas occupied by United States troops. Demonstration 
made against San Fernando by the insurgents. 

June 19, 1899— Insurgents ambush reconnoitering party on the Dasmarinas Road and are 
routed by the main column. 

June 22, 1899— Transport Zealandia sails for Manila with Companies C, E, G, and I, 
Twenty-fourth U. S. Infantry, under command of Major J. M. Thomp- 
son, Twenty-fourth U. S. Infantry. 

June 24, 1899— Transport /S/ieric^an sails for Manila with Troops A and F, Fourth U. S. 
Cavalry ; Companies B and H, Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, and detach- 
ment of recruits, under command of Brigadier General S. B. M. Young. 

June 26, 1899— Town of El Pardo occupied by United States troops. 

June 28, 1899 -Transport Valencia sails for Manila with headquarters and Troops B and 
M, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, and Companies E and H, Twenty-fifth U. S. 
Infantry, under command of Major Charles Morton, Fourth U. S. Cav- 
alry. 

July 1, 1899— Transport Pennsylvania sails for Manila with headquarters and six com- 
panies Twenty-fifth U. S. Infantry, under command of Colonel A. S. 
Burt, Twenty-fifth U. S. Infantry. Transport Hancock sails from Manila 
with First Nebraska Volunteer Infantry and Batteries A and B, Utah 
Volunteer Artillery, under command of Colonel H. fe. Mulford. Trans- 
port Senator sails from Manila with Tenth Pennsylvania Volunteer In- 
fantry,, under command of Lieutenant Colonel J. E. Barnett. Mayors 
for the cities of Paranaque, Las Piiias, Bacoor, and Imus elected by na- 
tives under military protection. 

July 2, 1899— Transport Sherman arrives at Bacolod with Sixth U. S. Infantry. 

July 5, 1899— The President authorizes organization of ten volunteer regiments author- 
ized under act of March 2, 1899 (Twenty-sixth to Thirty-fifth, inclusive). 

July 11, 1899— Transport Connemaugh sails for Manila with detachment of Fourth U. S. 
Cavalry and 275 horses, under command of First Lieutenant E. B. 
Winans, Jr., Fourth U. S. Cavalry. 

July 18, 1899— Transport City of Para sails for Manila with Troops D and H, Fourth U, S. 
Cavalry, headquarters, and Companies A, F, H, and K, Twenty-fourth 
U. S. Infantry, and Company B, Engineer Battalion, under command of 
Brigadier General Theodore Schwan, U. S. V. 



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10 SUMMARY OF PRIKCIPAL EVENTS. 

July 17, 1899— Transport Warren sails for Manila with First Colorado Volunteer In- 
fantry, under command of Colonel H. B. McCoy. 

July 18, 1899~President authorizes organization of two additional regiments of volun- 
teers (Thirty-sixth and Thirty-seventh), to be recruited in the Philippine 
Islands. 

July 19, 1899— Captain B. A. Byrne and Lieutenant Nesbitt, with a force of 70 men, sur- 
prised a superior force of the enemy, and in a hand-to-hand engagement 
killed 150 insurgents, with a loss of 1 killed and 1 wounded. 

July 20, 1899— Detachment of Sixth U. S. Infantry defeats a robber band near Tolon. 

July 22, 1899— Civil government established at Negros. 

July 24, 1899— Company K, Twenty-third Infantry, defeats insurgents in the Acan Val- 
ley, Cebu. 

July 25, 1899— Transport Tartar sails for Manila with headquarters and Companies B, 
D, F, G, H, I, K, and M, Nineteenth U. S. Infantry, under command of 
Colonel S. Snyder, Nineteenth U. S. Infantry. 

July 26, 1899— Transport Ohio sails for Manila with two companies Nineteenth U. S. In- 
fantry and detachment of recruits, under command of Major O. J. 
Sweet, Twenty-third U. S. Infantry. Transport Newport sails for Manila 
with two companies Nineteenth U. S. Infantry and detachment of re- 
cruits, under command of Captain F. H. French, Nineteenth U. S. In- 
fantry. Transport Tacoma sails for Manila with detachment of Fourth 
U. S. Cavalry and 200 horses, under command of Captain G: O. Cress, 
Fourth U". S. Cavalry. Transport Sheridan sails from Manila with First 
California Voliiiiteer Infantry and Batteries A and D^ California Volun- 
teer Light Artillery, under command of Colonel V. D. Duboce. Calamba 
captured after a sharp skirmish. 

July 28, 1899— Detachment Sixth Infantry encounters insurgent force near Valdez, in 
the Visayan district. 

July 29, 1899— Company L, Twenty-third Infantry, takes station at Kolo, P. I. 

July 31, 1899— Transport Grant sails from Manila with First Wyoming Volunteer Infan- 
try, First North Dakota Volunteer Infantry, First Idaho Volunteer 
Infantry, and Wyoming Battery Volunteer Light Artillery, under com- 
mand of Lieutenant Colonel M. C. Trenmann. Los Baiios occupied by 
United States troops. 

Aug. 2, 1899-r-Transport Indiana ssiils for Manila with detachment of recruits and 
casuals, under command of Colonel C. C. Hood, Sixteenth U. S. Infantry, 
Company H, Twenty-first Infantry, and platoon of Battery E, First U. S. 
Artillery, proceed in cascoes from Calamba to Los Baiios. Insurgents 
make feint on Calamba during night. 

Aug. 7, 1899— Second Oregon Volunteer Infantry mustered out in San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia. 



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SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS. 11 



SUMMARY OF THE PMlSCiPAL EVEISTS CONINECTED WITH 

THE OPERATIONS OF THE SECOND OREGON 

VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. 

Prepared by Capt. W. S. GiiiBERT, Regimental Chaplain and Historian. 

Apr. 25, 1898— The President made a call upon the Governor of Oregon for a regiment of 
volunteers. 

Apr. 30, 1898— Officers, Second Regiment, Oregon United States Volunteers, appointed 
by Governor Lord. 

May 7, 1898— Field, staff, and noncommissioned staff mustered in. 

May 9, 1898— Company A mustered in. 

May 10, 1898— Companies B, C, and T> mustered in. 

May 12, 1898—Conipany E mustered in. 

May 13, 1898— Companies F, G, and H mustered in. 

May 14, 1898— Companies I and K mustered in. 

May 15, 1898— Companies L and M mustered in. 

May 11, 1898— At 6:15 p. m. Companies A, B, C, and D, under command of Major Ganten- 
bein, left for San Francisco, arriving May 13th, at 7 A. M. 

May 16, 1898— The remaining eight companies, under command of Colonel Summers, 
boarded train at 8 p. m. for San Francisco, arriving May 18th, at 2 p. m. 

May 24, 1898— Regiment marched to docks at 8 A. m.; Companies A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, 
K, and L, under Colonel Summers, embarked on United States transport 
Australia; Companies F, I, and M, under Major Eastwick, on the United 
States transport City of Sydney; anchored in bay at 5:30 p. m. 

May 25, l^^^— Australia, City of Sydney, and Peking weighed anchor at 4 P. M. with the 
first expedition to leave the United States for war in a foreign country. 

May 30, 1898— Memorial services. 

June 1, 1898— Arrived at Honolulu at 7 p. m. 

June 4, 1898~Sailed from Honolulu at 9:45 A. M. convoyed by United States cruiser 
Charleston. 

June 5, 1898— Changed direction, and headed for Ladrone Islands in accordance with 
sealed orders. 

June 10, 1898— Crossed the one hundred and eightieth meridian at 3:10 A. m. 

June 20, 1898— Arrived at Guam at 7:20 A. M.; entered port of San Luis d'Apra. 

June 21, 1898-~At 10:30 A. m. Companies A and D disembarked to effect surrender of the 
islands. At 6 P. M. Elias Hutchinson, Company M, buried at sea from 
United States transport City of Sydney. At 6:30 p. m. Senor Jos6 Marina 
y Vega, Governor of Guam, with four officers and fifty-four enlisted men, 
taken as prisioners on board City of Sydney. 

June 22, 1898— Left port at 2 p. m. 

June 28, 1898— Sighted Luzon at 10 A. m.; met by United States qvxAbqv Baltimore a.t'^ p. m. 

June 30, 1898— Anchored in Manila Bay, off Cavite, at 5 p. m. 

July 1, 1898— Nine companies on Australia landed ; first military force to land in Philip- 
pines. 
July 2, 1898— Companies F, I, and M landed. 
Aug. 12, 1898— Ordered to Manila. 

Aug. 13, 1898— At 7:30 A. M., headquarters, band, First and Second Battalions, left Cavite 
on steamer Kwonchoi for Manila ; Company F embarked on steamer 
Zafiro as bodyguard to Major General Merritt; Oregon troops disem- 
barked at Manila at 4 p. m., being first to enter Walled City ; received 
surrender of Spanish army of 13,000 officers and men ; troops quartered 
in palace. 



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12 SUMMARY OF PKINCIPAL EVENTS. 

Aug. 14, 1898— At 5:30 A. m. removed to Cuartel de Espaiia ; Company F in palace as palace 
guard; Colonel Summers, acting provost marshal of Manila; Major 
Gantenbein in comm.and of regiment. 

Aug. 22, 1899— Companies C, I, and M arrived from Cavite. 

Nov. 24, 1898— Detachment of recruits from San Francisco reported for duty. 

Dec. 1, 1898— Company H detailed on special duty at customhouse. 

Jan. 3, 1899~Company B stationed at Cuartel Arroceros. Major General Otis' proclama- 
tion to Filipinos. 

Jan. 9, 1899— Order holding all troops in quarters. 

Jan. 11, 1899— Call to arjns at 2:30 p. m.; regiment began to leave curatel in seven minutes 
from time of call. 

Feb. 1, 1899— Company B reported back for duty. 

Feb. 4, 1899— Battle of Manila commenced at 8:30 p. m. and continued until 5 o'clock 
the next morning. 

Feb. 5, 1899— Advance all along the line ; insurgents driven from their trenches. Com- 
panies C, G, and K, Major Eastwick, and Companies D and L, Major 
Gantenbein, ordered to Paco. Company D captured 49 insurgents. 
Company A stationed at Malate Bridge. 

Feb. 6, 1899— Water works captured. Companies C, G, and K, Major Eastwick, left for 
the front at 1:25 p. m., ordered to San Juan del Monte. 

Feb. 15, 1899— Company A captured 103 prisoners in Binondo. 

Feb. 18, 1899— Companies E, I, and M, Major Willis, ordered to Paco at 9 p. m. 

Feb. 22, 1899— Companies H, I, and L, Major Gantenbein, engaged all night in Tondo 
during insurgent attempt to burn Manila. 

Feb. 23, 1899— Companies E and M, Major Willis, with Companies C and M, Thirteenth 
Minnesota, engaged insurgents in Tondo district at 11 A. m., driving 
enemy seven miles to Caloocan, Engagement lasted until 5 p. m. 

Feb. 24, 1899— Third Battalion, Major Eastwick, engaged at San Juan del Monte from 
3:20 P. M. to 7 P. M. 

Mar. 5, 1899— Company C engaged on Mariquina Road, Company K engaged near San 
Juan del Monte. 

Mar. 6, 1899— Company G and Hotchkiss Battery, Lieutenant Murphy, with Company 
K engaged insurgents on Mariquina Road for eight hours. 

Mar. 7, 1899— Companies G and K engaged enemy near Mariquina and dispersed them. 
Burned the town. 

Mar. 10, 1899— First and Second Battalions ordered to join General Wheaton's flying 
column for the Pasig campaign. 

Mar. 12, 1899— Marched from Manila to San Pedro de Macati at 3:15 p. m. 

Mar. 13, 1899— Advanced upon Guadaloupe at 5 A. m. with Fourth Cavalry, Twentieth and 
Twenty-second Infantry, and First Washington; enemy repulsed; 
camped at Malapai-na-Bato. 

Mar. 14, 1899 —Companies E and I, Major Willis, crossed river and engaged enemy oppo- 
site Pasig, returning at 3 p. m.; Companies B, D, and L, Major Ganten- 
bein, engaged all day from bluff overlooking Pasig. 

Mar. 15, 1899— Companies D and M, Lieutenant Colonel Yoran, advanced with wagon 
train two miles ; Companies E and I, Major Willis, crossed river again 
and engaged enemy opposite Pasig, a mile in advance of former position ; 
First Battalion still engaged from blufl: near Pasig. 

Mar. 17, 1899— Treaty signed by Q,ueen Regent of Spain. 

Mar. 18, 1899— Company D sent to relief of company of Washington regiment at Taguig ; 
town captured and burned. 

Mar. 19, 1899~First and Second Battalions, except Company M, under command of 
Colonel Summers, with Twenty-second Infantry and First Washington, 
engaged in battle of Laguna de Bay ; forced march of twenty-five miles 
across country— hardest day's work in the Philippines ; insurgents 
routed and driven fifteen miles down the shore of the lake ; Company A 
joined regiment. 



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SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS.^ 13 

Mar. 20, 1899— Regiment returned to Manila. 

Mar. 22, 1899— Company F relieved from duty at palace and joined regiment. 

Mar. 24, 1899— Marched to Caloocan at 7:30 A. M.; entered trenches at nightfall, relieving 
Twentieth Kansas. 

Mar. 25, 1899— Battle of Malabon ; left trenches at 8:30 a. m.; captured two lines of en- 
trenchments ; drove enemy beyond Tiiliahan River, opposite Tinajeros. 

Mar. 26, 1899— Entered village of Sila ; advanced on Polo road at 11 A. M.; Prince Loewen- 
stein found mortally wounded within insurgents' lines; entered Manila 
at 4:30 P. M.; Companies A and M stationed at Caloocan until April 5th ; 
Company L at Tondo and Blockhouse No. 2 until April 4th ; Companies 
D and E at Malabon until April 6th, and Company F at Meycauayan. 

April 5, 1899— Companies A, L, and M moved to Marilao. 

April 7, 1899— Companies D and E moved to Bocaue. 

April 11, 1899— At 3:80 A. M. enemy attacked Marilao and Bocaue camps. A miracle that 
troops were not annihilated. 

April 12, 1899— Nine companies under command of Colonel Summers, left Bocaue at 5:45 
A. M. and entered Santa Maria at 8:10 ; town burned. 

April 16, 1899~Attack on outposts east of Malinta. 

April 18, 1899--Company C at Meycauayan. 

April 21, 1899— Provisional Brigade under Colonel Summers, encamped at 5:30 p. m., Major 
Willis in command of regiment. 

April 28, 1899— Cavalry at 3:40 P. M. engaged enemy north of Santa Maria. Brigade en- 
gaged at 4:30 P. m., and advanced to hill at Norzagaray, 

April 24, 1899— Town captured at 7:30 A. m. 

April 25, 1899— Capture of Angat ; town burned. 

April 26, 1899— Companies B, F, G, and K, Major Eastwick, made reconnoissance east of 
river. 

April 27, 1899— Brigade entered Marunco at 10:45 A. m. Cloudburst. 

April 29, 1899— Forded river and entered San Rafael at noon. Returned to Marunco. 

May 1, 1899— Lieutenant Colonel in command of regiment left camp at noon. Forded 
river and engaged enemy at San Rafael at 1:45 p. M. Captured town at 
6 p. M. 

May 2, 1899— Captured Ualiuag at 1:15 p. m. 

May 4, 1899— Maasin taken at noon. 

May 5, 1899— Companies A, B, L, and I, Major Willis, advanced to reconnoiter. 

May 12, 1899— Scouts, supported by two companies, attacked enemy on flank at San 
Ildefonso. Companies B, G, K, and F, Major Eastwick, occupied the 
town at 5 p. m. 

May 13, 1899— Entered San Ildefonso. Captured San Miguel at 4 p. m. Honor to the 
twenty-five scouts under Lieutenant Thornton. 

May 15, 1899— Left San Miguel at 3 p. m. Enemy engaged at Salacat at 5:15 p. m. 

May 16, 1899— Entered San Roque at 9:30 A. m.; scouts captured bridge and enemy's posi- 
tion at Balac. 

May 17, 1899— Captured San Isidro, entering town at 9:30 A. m.; Third Battalion, Major 
Eastwick, entered Gapan ; farthest north. 

May 20, 1899— Left San Isidro at 5 a. m.; engaged enemy near San Antonio ; entered the 
town at 9 a. m., and Cabaio at 4:10 p. m.; forded the Pampanga twice. 

May 21, 1899— Advanced at 5:30 A. M.; forded river. 

May 22, 1899— Entered Arayat at 5:30 A. m., and Pasig at 9 A. M.; telegram received at 9 
A. M. ordering Oregon Regiment to Manila, preparatory to going home. 

May 23, 1899— Homeward bound ; camped for the night at San Simeon ; joy inexpressible. 

May 24, 1899— Entered Calumpit at 9 A. m. 

May 25, 1899— Seven companies, Colonel Summers, left Calumpi^ on train for Manila at 
10:30 A. M.; quartered in Cuartel de Espaiia ; Company F detailed as 
Palace Guard, 



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14 SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS. 

May 27, 1899— Companies C, D, E, and M return to Manila and rejoin regiment. 

May 30, 1899— Graves decorated. 

May 31, 1899— Company H reported back to duty. 

June 2, 1899— Regiment ordered to the front at 7:25 p. m.; camped one mile west of 

pumping station. 
June 3, 1899— Broke camp at 4 a. m.; engaged the enemy in the foothills east of pumping 

station and east of Taytay. 
June 5, 1899— Entered Morong. 

June 6, 1899— Embarked in cascoes at noon for Manila. 
June 12, 1899— Second Battalion embarked on transport Ohio. 
June 18, 1899— Headquarters and First Battalion embarked on transport iVeifpori; Third 

Battalion embarked on Ohio. 
June 14, 1899— Weighed anchor at 10:25 a. m. homeward bound. 
June 18, 1899— Arrived at Nagasaki, Japan, at 11 p. M. 
June 22, 1899— Left port 5 p. m., through the Inland Sea. 
July 2, 1899— Two Sundays one hundred and eightieth meridian. 
July 4, 1899-Celeb ration. 
July 13, 1899— Reached San Francisco. 
Aug. 7, 1899— Mustered out. 



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OFFICIAL HISTORY OF THE OPERATIONS 



SECOND OREGON U. S. V. INEANTfil 

As Published in "Campaigning in the Philippines," by the 
HiCKS-JuDD Co., San Francisco, California, 



W. D. B. DODSON, 

Who was Appointed by General Summers to Write this History and 

WAS Permitted to Use the Official Records of the 

Regiment in Compiling the Same. 

There came from no State of the great American Republic a 
more complete regiment than that sent out by Oregon for the 
nation's service in obedience to the call of President McKinley 
April 25, 1898. In personnel of ofl&cers and enlisted men, in 
clothing, in arms, in equipment, the Second Regiment, Oregon 
U. S. Volunteer Infantry, had no superior among the gallant 
volunteer commands that took part in the Spanish-American 
War, or the harassing troubles incident to the acquisition of 
Spanish territory. In every part of the service the regiment 
was tried; the heat of the crucible was intense, but never the 
verdict, ^'Found wanting/' Patience is not the least virtue of 
the soldier ; in this quality the stout men from Oregon shone 
with conspicuous effect. Perseverance is inseparable from the 
military; Oregon's perseverance was never questioned. Valor 
in the popular mind, is the sum and substance of the warrior, 
and is emphasized most of all requirements by the esoteric ; one 
day alone needs to be cited to establish beyond cavil or doubt that 
the sturdy sons from the Emerald State would never falter in 
the path of duty, and, in fact, possessed the American weakness 
of leaning toward brilliant recklessness. ''I take off my hat to 



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16 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

the American volunteer," said the German Consul at Manila 
when he looked at the field of Malabon, charged over by the 
Second Oregon, Saturday, March 25, 1899. 

Citizen soldiers, skilled alike in the destructiveness of war 
and the arts of peace, have long been the nation's pride. Fondly 
nurturing this system of national defense, even though against 
the much-feared standing armies of the Old World, America 
may have come to overestimate the availability of her forces 
for a sudden call. It could have been a mistake in time only, 
for all the world acknowledges the genius, devotion, and courage 
of the American spirit, which is so easily whipped into the 
approved fighting machine of military operations. However, 
there are volumes to be written on the success of America's 
plan, and these volumes will be simply the history of the Na- 
tional Guard organizations that were converted into the volun- 
teer army of 1898. 

THE OREGON NATIONAL GUARD. 

In Oregon the State National Guard consisted of the First 
Regiment, Oregon National Guard, located in Portland, seven 
companies; the Second Regiment, Oregon National Guard, 
located in the Willamette Valley and Southern Oregon, eight 
companies ; Third Battalion, three companies, located in East- 
ern Oregon ; and three separate companies. Brigadier General 
Beebe commanded the brigade. His Excellency, William P. 
Lord, being Commander-in-Chief by virtue of his pfiice as 
Governor. Each company had between forty-five and sixty 
members, the maximum being the more often pressed. Colonel 
Summers, of Portland, was at the head of the First Regiment, 
and Colonel Yoran, of Eugene, commanded the Second Regi- 
ment. A full staff trained in their military capacities, so far 
as drills and military encampments could accomplish, was 
under each colonel. Every ofiicer of the Oregon National 
Guard, after being chosen in the usual manner, was subjected 
to a rigid examination to test his capacity for the position. 
The experience of all the officers in that capacity covered 
periods from one to sixteen years, and many of these, especially 
of the shorter terms, had arisen from the ranks. All had 
drilled the men of their commands in close and extended order, 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 17 

and wherever it had been practicable, field officers had drilled 
in battalion and regimental formation. 

Who can say this school was valueless ? Who can say this 
mastery of military movements in peace was not as helpful in 
battle as the same degree of instruction would have been, had 
the proficiency been acquired as an object of life and under 
salary ? Garrison and the battlefield are two things. Dis- 
cipline in the former is a maze of red tape and technicalities, 
to which a man must offer his life if he would aspire to supe- 
riority ; discipline on the latter is rugged in its demands, and 
has but passing difficulties for the brave and ardent. 

Throughout a major portion of Oregon the militia was a 
popular institution. Owing to the intervening distances be- 
tween commands, competitive drills never became the incentive 
to military training that they did in the more populous com- 
monwealths. Yet a sense of duty and the social dignity of its 
supporters made the militia a much-sought means of recrea- 
tion and entertainment. Twenty-two campanies were already 
in prosperous condition, and in the territory of the Second 
Regiment alone five or six more could have been organized at 
any time the State saw fit to modify existing laws fixing the 
number of the militia. Young men of the best character filled 
the ranks, some of whom worked up to commissions. Weekly 
drills were well attended, notwithstanding the members of 
some of the country companies lived miles from the drill hall. 
All papers requisite in the organization were kept up to date, 
arms and equipments in good condition, armories orderly, and 
clothes uniform and neat. Without previous warning General 
Beebe called at Ashland one day about noon, with Colonel 
Yoran of the Second Regiment, to inspect Company D, Captain 
May. He asked the captain if his company would be ready 
by 7 p. M. that day, and was answered in the affirmative. A 
note to the first sergeant was all the work performed by the 
captain. A note from the former to each of his corporals was his 
part. A few notes and a few visits was the work of each cor- 
poral. Although some of the members of the company lived 
between one and fifteen miles from the city, all but one were 
ready in first-class condition by 7 p. m., and that one was met 
hurrying from his home to the city early next morning, a 



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18 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

distance of fifteen miles. He received notice late at night. 
Although without special preparation, the armory was found 
exact, clothes properly hung, equipments arranged, and pieces 
cleaned. This is an example of the faithfulness to duty of the 
Oregon National Guard. The large, fine armory of the First 
Regiment, in Portland, with its thoroughly military arrange- 
ments and care, always attracted the eye of the regular army 
oflScers. 

THE REGIMENT ORGANIZED. 

When the President issued his first call for volunteers to 
fight against Spain, and apportioned the number among the 
States, Oregon found that she had been granted the privilege 
of raising only one regiment. This forced upon the Governor 
an embarrassing duty — selection. Two regiments and a bat- 
talion were already organized, and each struggling to keep 
down the recruiting pace. Ex-members of the guard tried to 
get back, besides the hordes of untried men offering themselves 
in view of pending trouble. At the time the Governor issued 
the order for the guard to assemble in Portland, April 25th, a 
company up to the war footing could have been brought from 
the locality of each already existing. A few hours after the 
order to assemble was issued by Colonel Summers, the seven 
companies of the First were in the armory, ready to march. 
Colonel Yoran issued in the morning the order for his regi- 
ment to assemble. By noon the companies were in their re- 
spective armories, fitted for their journey to Portland, and 
thence to the field. 

In the Oregon National Guard there was no room for selec- 
tion, so the Governor decided to consolidate the guard, as 
nearly as he could, into one regiment of the required number 
for war. Bitter disappointments were thus caused to some, 
but no charge of local favoritism could be made, and all ad- 
mitted that the policy adopted put into the new regiment the 
picked material of the entire guard. In consolidating two com- 
panies the senior captain was given the command, while the 
junior was given the first lieutenancy in the new company. 
The same rule applied in choosing the regimental commander, 
Colonel Summers being given first place and Colonel Yoran 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 19 

the second. Lieutenant Colonel Gantenbein of the First Regi- 
ment was chosen senior major; Major Willis of the Second 
Regiment was chosen second major, and Major Eastwick of 
the First Regiment third major. Captain Ellis, surgeon of 
the Second Regiment, was chosen surgeon, his assistants 
being Colonel Cardwell and Major Whiting, both of Portland. 
Colonel Cardwell was surgeon general on the Governor's staff, 
with rank of colonel, previous to his appointment. Major Whit- 
ing was surgeon on General Beebe's staff. Captain Macrum of 
Portland, surgeon of the First Regiment, was first appointed 
assistant surgeon, but resigned. Captain Cardwell was pro- 
moted to tiie rank of major soon after arriving in Luzon, and 
was attached to the staff of Major General Anderson as chief 
surgeon of volunteers. Hospital Steward Brosius was the 
assistant surgeon of the Third Battalion, and was given rank 
of captain after reaching Manila, to fill the vacancy made by 
Captain Cardwell's promotion. 

Captain Gilbert of Eugene, chaplain of the Second Regi- 
ment, Oregon National Guard, was appointed chaplain of the 
volunteers. Captain Rutenic of Portland was appointed regi- 
mental adjutant, with rank of first lieutenant, but resigned, 
Lieutenant Crowe, adjutant of the first regiment, then being 
appointed to take the position. Lieutenant Knapp, quarter- 
master of the First Regiment, was appointed quartermaster of 
volunteers. H. A. Littlefield of Portland and J. A. Byars of 
Roseburg were appointed assistant stewards to Steward Brosius. 
James Rintoul, Jr., sergeant major of the First Regiment, was 
given the same position in the new regiment. Carl Ritter- 
spacher was made quartermaster sergeant, Charles Dillon, com- 
missary sergeant, G. A. Mueller, chief musician, and Henry 
Hockenyos and Samuel McGowan, principal musicians. 

Consolidation of companies was accomplished on no fixed 
principle. Separate companies and those of the Third Bat- 
talion and two regiments were put together according to the 
Governor's ideas of efficiency. Officers were selected from 
members or veterans of the Oregon National Guard. The com- 
mendable purpose of the Oregon officers was made manifest in 
the eagerness of several to accept commissions much inferior 
to their rank, and even in more than one case guard officers ex- 



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20 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

pressed the intention of enlisting should they not be chosen 
for commissions. Colonel Telfer, inspector general on the 
Governor's staff, resigned his position, asked to be recognized 
on the veteran list, accepted the captaincy of Company C, First 
Regiment, and, upon consolidation of that company, being 
junior captain, cheerfully took the first lieutenancy of Company 
L, into which his company merged. Captain Whiting re- 
signed from his position as surgeon on the generars staff, and 
had made arrangements to enlist in Company H, when he 
received the appointment as assistant surgeon of the new 
regiment. Hope for rank and liberal salary did not animate 
Oregon ; love for country was the motive for going to war. 

No troops were earlier to prepare for the field than Oregon's. 
Within a few hours after receiving the order, the entire bri- 
gade, save one company (separate Company K at Bandon), 
were in waiting. The First Regiment could have gone before 
the examining surgeon the day orders were issued, and the 
troops from other portions of the State within periods ranging 
from two hours to that many days. General Beebe instructed 
Major Mitchell, quartermaster of his staff, to establish a camp 
at Irvington Park, in Portland, to be named ''Camp McKinley,'' 
which, with the aid of Captain Case of Company I, First Regi- 
ment, and the Engineer Corps, under Lieutenant Povey, and 
the Signal Corps, under Lieutenant Humphrey, was completed 
April 29th. The First Regiment was held in the Portland 
Armory May 2d and 3d, under command of Major Eastwick. 
April 30th troops began to arrive from the Willamette Valley 
and Eastern Oregon, all being comfortably cared for at the 
camp, which had been placed under the command of Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Gantenbein, pending the official advent of Colonel 
Summers. By May 4th all were in camp ready for examina- 
tion. Captain Morris, assistant surgeon in the regular army, 
had been selected by the War Department for this work. From 
May 4th to May 16th the troops spent the time in camp, wait- 
ing and faithfully drilling, most of each day being devoted to 
drills and military instruction. May 3d the First Regiment 
joined the other troops in camp. May 5th Captain Morris ar- 
rived. A board of three officers was appointed by the Governor 
to aid him in examining the surgeon and assistant surgeons of 



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MaJ. Forcy Willis. 



M«j. P. G. Bastwick. Jr. 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 21 

the new regiment, Dr. A. J. Giesy and Dr. A. S. Nichols being 
the members. Captain Kendall, Eighth U. S. Cavalry, was 
appointed by the War Department mustering officer for Oregon. 
Captain Morris began the medical examination of troops May 
7th and as soon as the medical board had passed on the merits 
of the applicants for positions as surgeon and assistant sur- 
geons, the successful aspirants came to his assistance. This 
work was completed May 15th and the last company to be 
mustered in, took the oath on that day. 

PREPARATION FOR DEPARTURE. 

Life at Camp McKinley, although filled with the bustle of 
preparatory work, was yet attended by that restless longing to 
get into the field which invariably possesses a new soldier. 
Drills in squad and companies were had twice a day, besides 
the frequent battalion and regimental drills had for instruc- 
tion of field officers. Governor Lord was a frequent visitor at 
the camp, and either in person or through Adjutant General 
Tuttle, gave potent assistance. The Governor held a farewell 
review a few days before the departure of the First Battalion to 
San Francisco, when he touchingly bade the soldiers remember 
the honor of their State and Nation in whatever adversity the 
fortunes of war might bring. General Beebe also reviewed the 
troops shortly prior to their departure, and expressed his con- 
fidence in the Oregon regiment. Camp life was made as pleas- 
ant as possible for the boys by hundreds of sympathetic friends. 
The Emergency Corps was organized by patriotic ladies to pro- 
vide for the exigencies of the regiment, and provide the soldiers 
with such necessaries as the Government did not supply. Mrs. 
Dr. Henry E. Jones was elected president, and Mrs. Fannie 
Lounsbury, secretary. The members of the corps organized 
themselves into as many committees as there were companies, 
each committee with a chairman who was ex officio member of 
the general executive committee. Through subscriptions and 
from other sources, the corps, afterwards known as the Red 
Cross Society, was able to furnish each company $100 in cash, 
besides a good sum for the hospital and countless useful arti- 
cles for every member of the regiment. After the command 
reached the Philippines, the society sent two nurses for its use, 



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22 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

namely. Miss Lena Killain and Miss Frances Wood. Three 
sums of money, aggregating something less than $1,000, were 
also remitted, and again, just before the final return, $500 more. 

THE REGIMENT MOVES TO SAN FRANCISCO. 

It being impracticable to send the entire regiment to San 
Francisco, the Pacific coast rendezvous for the Philippine 
troops, one battalion was started as soon as four companies had 
been sworn in, with Major Gantenbein in command. They 
arrived there May 13th. By May 16th the two remaining bat- 
talions and regimental headquarters were prepared for the 
start. To every member of the departing regiment there will 
always remain a vivid memory of the patriotic outpour of the 
loyal residents of Portland and the adjacent country on that 
occasion. Streets were crowded all along the line of march to 
the depot, and by the time that was reached, the mass of hu- 
manity occupied all available space. 

With difficulty a narrow lane was formed through the shout- 
ing, weeping people, along which the column moved with its 
burdens of dainties and flowers heaped upon the soldiers from 
both sides. Night or day, the trip through Oregon was a con- 
tinuous ovation. Each depot had its waiting throng, with 
their baskets of food and flowers. May 18th the two battalions 
reached the pier at Oakland. The first battalion to arrive was 
waiting on the San Francisco side of the bay to join in the 
march to the Presidio. A delegation of the San Francisco Red 
Cross ladies had prepared in the waiting room of the ferry 
landing a refreshing luncheon, which the tired soldiers fully 
appreciated. Many laudatory remarks were made by the citi- 
zens of California, as the stalwart sons from the sister State 
marched in columns of fours through the streets of San Fran- 
cisco to the site of their camp. The San Francisco papers 
sta^ted the following morning that the regiment was the finest 
appearing that had entered the city and was also more fully 
equipped and armed. To demonstrate how thoroughly had 
been the State's work in maintaining its militia, it is but nec- 
essary to call attention to the few articles furnished the volun- 
teer regiment by the Government before it was started on a 
voyage of 7,500 miles to commence a campaign in the tropics. 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 23 

Practically nothing was added. A few rifles were replaced, 
mainly owing to the inability of the Government to make the 
needed repair in the limited time. The number, however, was 
very small, which well shows the care of the Oregon National 
Guard for their pieces. The regiment was plentifully supplied 
by the State with headquarters' tents, cook tents, and wall 
tents. Until the command arrived in Cavite no cooking uten- 
sils, other than those brought from the State, were used, and 
even during the entire campaign in the Philippines some of 
these were still in service. More could be said of the surgeons' 
instruments, for they were thoroughly modern, new and com- 
plete. Each of the guard regiments had kits, which gave an 
abundance for the volunteers. When the regiment left Port- 
land, it took for each man a complete latigue blue uniform, 
with campaign hat, blue overcoat and blanket. It also had as 
much heavy underwear as was allowed, and the State would 
have purchased new shoes and light underwear for each man 
had not the military board been assured that all such things 
would be plentifully supplied by the Government upon arrival 
in San Francisco. 

WITH THE FIRST EXPEDITION TO MANILA. 

Camp life at the Presido had but few variations. At first, 
there was intense eagerness to become a part of the first expe- 
dition, hope for the realization of which grew each day the 
commanders saw more of the regiment. Measles broke out 
immediately after arrival, but in a mild form, that did not more 
than cause temporary inconveniences from quarantine restric- 
tions. May 22d General Merriam informed Colonel Summers 
that the Second Oregon had been selected as one of the com- 
mands for the first expedition to the Philippines, the sailing 
date then not being far distant. Naturally, the news caused 
much joy and excitement. On the night of its receipt a royal 
celebration, more rough and informal than stately, took place 
in camp, terminating in a demand for a speech from the colonel. 
The shadow of death from a service in a torrid zone and on the 
battlefield did not darken the joy of realizing that the regiment 
had been summoned to its work. Both General Merriam and 
General Otis had complimented the colonel on the splendid 



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24 OREGON VOLUNTEERS In SPANISH WAR. 

physique of his men, their equipment and drilling. Any one 
who has left home and friends with such a command at the 
gruesome bidding of war, can well comprehend the difference 
to soldiers between being chosen coast guard, far from danger, 
and in being a part of the army in the field. *'The Webfooters 
are loose,'' growled a regular, two blocks away, when the tide 
of joy broke forth. The coloners speech, admonishing the men 
of the grave work foreshadowed and exhorting all to the utmost 
effort when called upon, closed the event. 

A new future opened to all after learning positively that 
Manila was the destination. All worked then with untiring 
zeal. Drills, though long and irksomO, were taken up with 
redoubled interest. Health was guarded for the ordeal in store. 
A passing fear was caused by the light epidemic of measles, 
which the vigorous preventive work of the surgeons soon dis- 
sipated. Nothing else arose to liinder embarkation. 

Quartermaster Knapp was requested to make requisition for 
needed shoes, socks, and underwear, which was duly done. At 
every point this officer found a deficiency of stores, and such a 
crush and haste in the general department that his regiment 
could command but little attention. Colonel Summers received 
orders to be ready to embark, with nine companies, on the 
United States transport Australia, May 25th, the other three to 
sail on the United States transport City of Sydney at the same 
time. But little opportunity was given for preparation. The 
regiment had reached the Presidio on the 18th of the month. 
The First California Volunteers had preceded the Oregonians 
two or three days and were said to have exhausted, in fitting 
out, the stores intended for putting the finishing touches on 
the latter. The result was that the Second Oregon left San 
Francisco with barely any additions to its equipment furnished 
by the State. How unjust and unappreciative was the criticism 
emanating from the War Department later, that the Oregon 
regiment itself was at fault for the situation it was placed in as 
to clothing. At that date time was valuable, which the War 
Department culpably overlooked in getting the medical exam- 
iner and mustering officer at work on the Oregon Volunteers, 
and then endeavored to shift the responsibility for the delay to 
the shoulders of the Governor and State officers. But for the 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 25 

weakness and flighty purposes of the enemy, such delays and 
sluggishness would have deprived America of the fruit of 
Dewey's great victory at Manila Bay, May 1st. 

Early on the morning of May 24th the Oregon regiment 
broke camp at the Presidio. As it formed for the march to the 
wharf, Colonel Jackson, then inspector general of the Oregon 
National Guard, formally presented to the regiment a beautiful 
stand of colors, the gift of the people of Portland. In a voice 
softened by emotion, Colonel Jackson bade officers and men god- 
speed, never doubting that the proud colors would be brought 
back home, perhaps scarred, but without a stain. His farewell 
was very touching, and moved many to tears. For live years 
he had taken a paternal interest in the National Guard, as 
official instructor. 

By 8 A. M. the regiment was alongside the steamer, ready to 
embark. Owing to the failure to have supplies and stores 
loaded on the Australia the day previous it was night before 
the troops could be put on. The other three companies of the 
regiment for the City of Sydney, F, I, and M, with two battalions 
of the Fourteenth Infantry, occupied their quarters on the vessel 
in due time. Major Eastman as senior officer on the City of 
Sydney was in command of all the troops on board the transport. 
Both transports pulled out into the bay, near the anchorage of 
the City of Peking with the First California, which regiment 
had boarded the day previous. One case of mumps was dis- 
covered on the Australia next morning. The patient was sent 
ashore immediately. 

San Francisco turned out to wave the three transports good- 
by on the morning of May 25th. Docks, streets, and shore 
were covered with gesticulating humanity. All the tugs and 
steamers in the harbor followed in the wake of the three trans- 
ports until they had tu'rned through the Golden Gate. Sailing 
orders had been issued, and home, country, and friends were 
being left, perhaps forever. Two thousand six hundred souls 
were starting forth to kill or die. Bad enough was the prospect 
on the distant shore, where brave Dewey had plunged into the 
gloom and fought out a spot where he could raise the flag. 
But would that be reached. The Spanish navy was then an 
unknown quantity. Those formidable armored cruisers had 



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26 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

defied American vigilance and were cruising somewhere for vic- 
tims. Furnished with secret information and familiar with the 
physical possibilities of distances, the War Department might 
have possessed knowledge that the expedition, protected by the 
Charleston from Honolulu, was in no danger from Spanish men- 
of-war. No such assurance reached the men or lower officers. 
Discipline says enlisted men shall know nothing but obedience. 
They know, however, that all human beings are fallible, and 
many of those composingthe first Philippine expedition started 
on that long voyage with grave apprehensions that the story of 
some unnamable tragedy at sea might be the only history of 
their end. 

Leaving your country or state for another is nothing. Your 
countrymen greet you, yet customs do not change, and you are 
not a foreign atom each community entered fain would throw 
off. Leave your nation. See the home of your father's vanish 
in mist. See your native city fade from a jumble of houses 
into nothingness; the peaceful valleys and green hills sink, 
blend, vanish; the bold headlands and stretch of coast line die 
over a too-fast growing stretch of water. When the eye fails, 
realize the embodiment of your country's spirit vanish — mod- 
ern inventions, conveniences, cities, railways, institutions — 
and for all this take the environments of semibarbarism. Man 
can love home only after leaving it. What must be the emo- 
tions of the soldier leaving home for foreign war? His soul 
pours out upon the rocks that mark the furthest confines, even 
as too often does his blood on foreign wastes. 

A HEARTY SEND-OFF FROM SAN FRANCISCO. 

More enthusing farewell could not have been given than the 
touching conduct of the people of San Francisco when the 
first expedition sailed away for the Far East. The bay was 
crowded with gaily decorated boats, steamers, and tugs, some of 
which followed closely until the three transports passed through 
the Golden Gate. Great throngs waved farewell from along 
the wharves and water front. So the Oregon troops sailed from 
the United States on the longest voyage American soldiers had 
then ever taken for war. They were the pioneers for their 
country in a great movement. Dewey was not a pioneer. He 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 27 

was a comet that struck amidst the enemy and there burned. 
A path between him and America was necessary. 

"Support Dewey" were the words when the troops were first 
talked of for the Philippines. However, the more deliberate 
members of the Oregon regiment thought, as they moved away 
to the Orient, of the westward march of empire, of the expand- 
ing nation that had absorbed a continent, and were vaguely 
conscious of being associated with a movement forming an 
epoch of history. They knew how hard it was to tear the Stars 
and Stripes from a helpless land. There are so many afRlia- 
tions, so many entanglements, increasing the longer it floats, 
that but few hands dare take it down. When, in ages to come, 
the power of the great American Republic is the irresistible 
element standing for peace and justice in every part of the 
world, and the establishment of a mighty nation's policy has 
necessitated planting the Stars and Stripes in every quarter of 
the globe, the Second Oregon asks to be remembered as one of 
the humble agents that took up the burden cheerfully May 25, 
1898, the dawn of the great era. 

BAD COOKING FACILITIES ON THE TRANSPORT. 

Immediately after getting to sea it became apparent that 
poor cooking facilities had been provided on the Australia for 
such a body of men. The owners of the steamer, the Spreckels 
Brothers, asked to be given the contract of feeding the men 
while on board at so much per capita. This was refused, and 
wretched facilities provided instead. Conspicuous among other 
errors was the ration intended for soldiers in the torrid zone. 
The usual seasickness affected all during the first few days, 
and the fare of half-boiled bacon, potatoes the same, worse 
coffee and hardtack, was not relished. Changes for the better 
were made in the cooking utensils at Honolulu, and more vege- 
tables, found to be of great value, were added to the commis- 
sary stores. Before Guam Island was reached a large quantity 
of fresh beef in the improvised refrigerator spoiled and was cast 
overboard, the drinking water in the tanks was exhausted, and 
the condenser proved of limited capacity. These circumstances 
added much to the discomforts of an overcrowded ship in a 
tropical climate, and the voyage became very wearisome. Mea- 



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28 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

sles also appeared again a few days out from San Francisco. 
Each case was isolated as well as space would permit, and the 
total number afflicted during the voyage of thirty-six days was 
thus kept down to thirty-nine. 

ENTERTAINED AT HONOLULU. 

Honolulu was reached by the three transports June 2d. 
Perhaps nothing more cordial will ever be experienced by 
American soldiers on foreign soil than the welcome of beauti- 
ful Honolulu to the first Philippine expedition. It was hospi- 
table, lavish and of grand proportions. Two reasons impelled 
the people of the Paradise of the Pacific, either of which was 
most potent: first, was the pure spirit of generosity, and the 
American patriotism of so many residents of Honolulu who 
were born in the great republic, and some still owed it alle- 
giance; second, those annexationists who maintained their 
little republic, waiting for union with the United States, saw 
that if they became involved in foreign difficulties, no matter 
how, the United States had no alternative but annexation. 
Honolulu eagerly sought opportunity to violate neutrality laws, 
courted the anger of other nations, and was gratified to see 
their great patron acknowledge openly what she had long con- 
ceded. 

The soldiers of the first expedition found themselves the ob- 
ject of extremely flattering attention. The first day ashore 
revealed to them that a blue uniform was a license to enter 
any house or part of the city, a privilege that was not violated 
in such shocking manner as occurred when United States 
troops arrived in the same city later. The friendly people 
greeted the passer-by, invited him to partake of fruit, food, or 
delicacies. If small purchases were made by soldiers in stores, 
pay would not be accepted. Refreshment stands, barber shops, 
livery stables, fruit stores, cycleries, street cars, baths, and 
restaurants were all free. Generous hands had worked before 
for the departing soldiers; a proud, rich people had cheered 
them on, but nothing so lavish or complete in the way of hos- 
pitality had ever exceeded the gift of the inhabitants of Hono- 
lulu. The second day was the climax. A splendid feast was 
spread in the grounds of the executive building (the queen's 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 29 

palace before the republic). To it was invited every Ameri- 
can soldier in the harbor, including the crews and marines of 
the Charleston and Bennington, then in Honolulu. President 
Dole, his cabinet and army officers, aided Honolulu's promi- 
nent citizens and fair women to serve and entertain the guests. 
A fine spread, made more memorable by the profusion of 
tropical fruits, was partaken of by the hungry soldiers. They 
left their tireless hosts next morning, bearing ^'leis" (wreaths) 
of beautiful flowers on their hats and around their necks, the 
pretty Hawaiian greeting, "Aloha" in their minds, and they 
will never be so ungrateful as to forget their Honolulu recep- 
tion. 

' GUAM VISITED AND TAKEN. 

The cruiser Charleston led the little fleet out of the harbor 
June 4th, and before Oahu Island had been lost to view news 
was signaled from the man-of-war to the transport that the 
expedition should steam for the Ladrone Islands. Sealed or- 
ders had been opened, directing Captain Glass of the Charles- 
ton to proceed to Guam, the largest of the group, capture it 
and raise the American flag. A thrill of animation passed 
through the men as they learned that an encounter of indefi- 
nite severity was possible at Guam. Rumor had it that at 
least two Spanish gunboats would be met at the islands, which 
would give the Charleston a warm reception. How many of 
the enemy's soldiers would be found there was a subject of 
controversy; enough, anyhow, for a fight. 

Speculation was rife by the morning of June 20th, when the 
fleet began steaming around the northern headland of Guam. 
In the mist of morning the Charleston reminded one of some 
inexorable hound of vengeance as she silently slid through the 
waters of the small bays along the coast searching for the gun- 
boats. The harbor of San Luis d'Apra, near which Aguana, 
the capital, is situated, was neared while the morning was yet 
young. An elevated reef of very old coral formation, partly 
covered with tropical vegetation, constituted the southern 
boundary. This projected full two miles into the sea, termi- 
nating in a bold headland fifty to eighty feet high. Starting 
from another part of the concave shore line, probably five 



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30 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

miles from the base of the southern reef, was another reef, 
mostly submerged, extending in a southwestern direction to 
within two hundred yards of the outer extremity of the first, 
forming a fairly protected harbor. The narrow channel for 
entrauce was deep, as was one half of the bay, the other por- 
tion b^ing an expanse of shoals from one to four feet deep, 
with as fantastical and beautiful a coral bottom as was ever 
given a body of water. 

Straight for this narrow channel steered the plucky little 
Charleston, with the Australia, City of Peking, and City of Syd- 
ney formed on the outside. It was an intense moment for the 
soldiers. All thought a sea fight imminent, with the stimu- 
lated interest of personal safety involved. They clambered 
as high into the rigging as regulations would permit to watch 
the fray. From the outside, the masts of what looked like a 
brig were visible, and also another object thought to be a fort 
or ironclad in the middle of the bay. The Charleston was 
overshadowed by the high reef close to which she hugged in 
entering. As the cruiser reached the free water inside the 
channel, smoke began to belch from her sides, and the regular 
detonations told the anxious spectators that her challenge was 
being followed by onus of serious intentions. Shells were seen 
to ricochet from what had been discovered to be a fort, falling 
in the bay beyond. After several shots, Avithout answering, 
firing ceased, and a small boat containing two officers was seen 
to put out from Paete, the Aguana end of the harbor, towards 
the Charleston. The boat got alongside and the two oSicers 
boarded, who were the oj0&cer of the port and the health officer. 
Surprise and incredulity mingled with equal portions on the 
part of the American officers as the Spaniards began an apology 
for not returning the Charleston's salute. It was explained by 
the two affable and ceremonious gentlemen that there was 
not enough poAvder in the port to discharge the old muzzle- 
loading smoothbore the requisite number of times, but it had 
been sent for. When told by Captain Glass in answer that he 
had come on a hostile errand, obedient to orders to seize the 
islands, the two officers seemed overcome with astonishment. 
Had their wishes been fulfilled, they would have sunk through 
the deck. It had been three months since the last island mail 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 31 

was received from Manila, the last news merely telling of the 
destruction of the Maine, but war on the heels of the apology 
offered by Spain was the furthest possible result contemplated, 
the officers thought. Be their surprise real or feigned, Cap- 
tain Glass introduced new complications by informing the 
officers that they were his prisoners. They expostulated that 
they came on an errand of peace and were wrongfully detained, 
but to no avail. They came, not under a flag of truce, although 
ignorant, through neglect or inability of their nation, and it 
mattered little what other considerations were offered. Both 
were later given the privilege of returning to the shore, pro- 
vided they would bear a message commanding the governor at 
Aguana to surrender, which they did. 

In reply to the request to the governor to come aboard the 
cruiser to arrange terms, he stated that it was against Spanish 
law for the governor of a province to board a foreign man-of- 
war. He was then ordered to meet the captain in Paete next 
day at 9 a. m. In the mean time the PeJcing and Australia had 
steamed through the narrow channel and found anchorage 
near the Charleston, the captain of the City of Sydney still 
standing off Point Oratic, as he hesitated to enter with his 
vessel. On the morning of June 21st, as the hour of 9 o'clock 
neared, preparations began on the Charleston and Australia for 
landing troops in case the delay was taken advantage of by the 
governor for resistance. Forty marines were put in small 
boats from the cruiser, and Company A, Captain Heath, Com- 
pany D, Captain Prescott, from the Second Oregon. Only one 
launch being available, two trips were necessary to tow the 
boats across the bay. About the same time that Lieutenant 
Braunersreuther, representing Captain Glass, set out in a small 
boat for the shore, where the governor was expected, the first 
tow of soldiers and marines started from the Australia^ the 
portion aboard from the Second Oregon being one platoon of 
Company A. These were taken to the Japanese brig in the 
harbor, which was first suspected of being a Spanish gunboat, 
and moored to the stern of the vessel, while the launch returned 
to tow the remainder of Companies A and D. Shortly before 
the second tow reached the brig, Lieutenant Braunersreuther 
returned with the captive governor and his officers. Nothing 



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32 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

remained for the eager troops but to quietly return. They 
had received their baptism, but not of fire. A furious little 
tropical shower passed over while they were waiting, thoroughly 
soaking everything that would absorb water. 

When Lieutenant Braunersreuther got to the shore he had 
found the governor and his oJERcers. His excellency was sum- 
moned to surrender, and, after meditating for a few minutes, 
handed the lieutenant a sealed note to Captain Glass, which 
was at once torn open and read, a right claimed as the fully 
empowered representative of the captain. To this proceeding 
the governor protested lightly. The note was an uncondi- 
tional surrender, in view of the overwhelming force in the 
harbor. The governor was then informed that both himself 
and officers woiild be held as prisoners, and was required to go 
aboard the Charleston immediately. A stronger protest was 
entered to such summary proceedings. The governor explained 
that neither himself nor officers had made arrangements for 
departure, and urgently insisted that they be permitted to re- 
turn to their homes for this purpose. He was quite overcome 
when refused and signed an order for all the soldiers to come 
to the landing that afternoon with their arms and ammunition, 
in a resigned though objecting mood. His order was obeyed 
by the soldiers without protest. Promptly at 4 p. m. fifty Spanish 
soldiers carrying Mauser rifles, fifty native soldiers with Rem- 
ington rifles, and fifty without guns, appeared on the beach. 
A small force of marines with boats for the prisoners were 
present and commenced the disarming. Care was taken to 
prevent treachery of any kind. When the rifles were all stored 
in a small boat, the natives were told they were free, and the 
Spaniards were ordered to embark. The former tore from their 
clothes the Spanish military buttons with manifest joy, casting 
them to the ground with an emphasis that bespoke their state 
of mind over the fall of the Spanish yoke. The fifty Spanish 
soldiers were put aboard the City of Sydney and transported to 
Cavite, where they were held until peace was arranged. The 
Spanish officers, six in number, including the officers of the 
port, health officer, and governor above-named, were placed on 
the Charleston. They evinced unmistakable signs of fear at 
leaving their families on Guam Island without military protec- 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH. WAR. 33 

tion. That they misjudged the spirit of the natives is proven 
by the safety of the women's sojourn in the lonely Pacific. So 
ended the "Battle of Guam." 

A few moments before noon of the same day, June 21st, a 
small boat put out from the Charleston for Fort Santa Cruz, the 
little dismantled fortress in the center of the bay that had at 
first attracted the Charleston's fire. A few minutes later the 
Stars and Stripes were seen to rise to the top of the flag pole 
on the fort. Great shouts went up from the transports and 
cruiser. The Charleston fired the national salute, the bands 
struck up the " Star Spangled Banner," and a cordial welcome 
was given to the stranger in the western part of the Pacific. 
The City of Sydney had ventured into the harbor a little while 
before. 

THE FIRST DEATH IN THE REGIMENT. 

On board the City of Sydney, June 20th, while lying off the 
point, occurred the first death in the Oregon regiment. Elias 
Hutchinson, Company M, was operated on for appendicitis a 
few days prior and died from the effects. His body was buried 
at sea, with ceremonies more impressive than any witnessed 
by the boys any time during their campaign in the Philippines. 

June 22d the fleet steamed out of San Luis d'Apra harbor 
and shaped its course for the northern point of Luzon. Until 
the rough outline of that coast rose up through the mist on the 
morning of June 28th nothing occurred aboard of interest. 
Schools of officers, noncommissioned officers and privates were 
given new interest by the approach of service. Brown duck 
clothing was issued to the sweltering soldiers on the Australia, 
those on the other boats having received theirs before. Shoddy 
underwear for the volunteers was also distributed again, as it 
would only stand about one or two washings, and the first re- 
ceived near Honolulu had mostly become useless. It began to 
dawn upon all how little prepared the expedition was for the 
tropics, and particularly the Oregon regiment. Because that 
regiment had arrived in San Francisco with the most complete 
outfits for campaigning in the United States, it had been 
launched into the tropics with scarcely any additional cloth- 
ing. At Honolulu General Anderson's quartermaster, Major 
3 



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34 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

Jones, purcliased some more underwear for the Oregon men, 
which was a grateful duty to the humble command, which was 
now having the first experience of being made sufferers as well 
as scapegoats for the incompetence or negligence of the gen- 
eral departments. While the men were trying to adjust their 
feet to a collection of the worst misfit shoes ever thrust upon 
a confiding body of humanity, the reproach came from the 
worthy staff of the general that the Oregonians were themselves 
to blame; their quartermaster had been told to make requisi- 
tion at San Francisco. Lieutenant Knapp is still unable to 
draw any lucid conclusion of his own blame from the chaos of 
"noes," /'noes," and ''don't knows," that greeted him on every 
hand in San Francisco while he was trying to get his requisi- 
tion filled in the general quartermaster department. 

ARRIVAL AT MANILA. 

A little uneasiness was created on the transports by the 
sight, off the northern point of Luzon, of a column of smoke 
arising from some vessel evidently approaching. The fleet had 
been a month cut off from communication with the world, the 
last reports being of possible interference by Germany and 
France, and what aspect the war might now have was a sub- 
ject for many conjectures. As the stranger neared, her two 
funnels and fighting tops told she was a man-of-war, but the 
resemblance to the Baltimore of Dewey's fleet allayed suspicion. 
Such she proved to be. For nine days the cruiser had stood 
off the northern head waiting. Her gallant crew were given 
a taste of good old American enthusiasm, bottled for a month, 
as the cruiser came alongside the transports. Courtesies were 
exchanged, and the soldiers told of the penned Spanish fleet 
at Santiago de Cuba. All steamed around the island, the two 
cruisers skirting along the shore for any vessel with the Span- 
ish flag. From the glassy sea on the north the fleet swung 
toward the south in the teeth of a stiff monsoon from the 
turbulent China Sea. The afternoon and night passed with 
a steady increase of the wind. Another spell of seasickness 
passed through the ranks, and the following afternoon all hailed 
with redoubled delight the appearance of Corregidor Island. 
Single^file the fleet went up the bay after the Baltimore. A 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 35 

G^ermaii cruiser, the Kaiserin Agusta, impudently steamed close 
to the transports, as if to inspect the troops arriving, and passed 
on to her anchorage with the foreign fleet. Late in the after- 
noon the three transports dropped anchor off Cavite inside the 
circle maintained by the cruisers — the last of a voyage never 
more devoutly wished finished than by the soldiers. 

First to impress the soldiers was the siege of the Spanish 
forces in Manila, where they had withdrawn and fortified 
themselves to meet the Americans. It was certainly gratifying 
to the most bellicose to learn that the Filipinos were overrun- 
ning the whole island, save Manila and a few fortified outposts. 
The swelling natives celebrated the appearance of the Ameri- 
can troops in the harbor by a characteristic attack on the 
Spanish works, commencing before dark, contrary to their 
custom. Small arms crackled, punctuated by the deeper roar 
of cannon, and from appearances a furious assault was in 
progress. A thrill of gratitude and affection animated the sol- 
diers' breasts for the Filipinos. It was not then understood 
that Filipino treachery, not valor, had aided the American 
fleet in penning up the Spanish in Manila. The Spaniards 
found it necessary to withdraw their limited forces from the 
surrounding country to protect their capital, depot, arsenals, 
homes — all expressed in a word, '' Manila." At first they 
established lines far beyond the city limits, and were erecting 
fortifications around the bay to contest the ground with the 
Americans as they marched from Cavite around to Manila, as 
was the supposed method contemplated. Filipino soldiers in 
the Spanish service betrayed their masters, thus forcing a with- 
drawal of the lines to Malate, on the south, as a more easily 
held position. Here breastworks of a substantial character 
were thrown up, to oppose which the Filipinos dug trenches, and 
here for nearly a month prior to the arrival of the first troops 
at Cavite and a month following that time was enacted a lurid 
farce of the lighter order, styled "war," by the egotistic Filipinos. 
Their play at fighting mostly took place at night. A Filipino 
would shoot from a secure trench, with little or no aim. If the 
Spanish reply was warm, the valiant Filipino would hide com- 
pletely, thrust his rifle sufliciently above his head to reach 
above his ditch and discharge it. The bullet might strike in 



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36 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

the mud fifty yards distant, or encroach on the domain of tt^e 
moon by the time it passed over the Spanish trenches. Fatali- 
ties on either side were naturally rare. A few small posts held 
by loyal Spanish soldiers, such as monasteries and churches, 
in the territory betrayed were left isolated by that deed and 
fell to the swarming besiegers before starvation made corpses 
of the garrison. 

THE FIRST REGIMENT TO DISEMBARK. 

The first of the expedition to disembark were the nine com- 
panies of the Second Oregon on the Australia, Early on the 
morning of July 1st, orders were issued by General Anderson 
for Colonel Summers to have his men prepare to go ashore at 
once. It was rather late in the afternoon before the necessary 
cascoes had been towed alongside, but all the troops on the 
Australia were in their quarters at Cavite by dusk. The follow- 
ing day, July 2d, Companies F, I, and M came ashore, and were 
followed by the First Calif ornia Volunteers and the Fourteenth 
Infantry. The first person of the regiment to touch Luzon soil 
was Colonel Summers, who, with his staff, went to inspect his 
quarters the morning of July 1st. The first battalion of the 
American army to land in the Philippines was the First Bat- 
talion, Second Oregon Infantry, Major Gantenbein, the first 
company was K, Captain Worrick, the first enlisted man Pri- 
vate McKenna, Company L. 

General Anderson reserved the palatial building formerly used 
as the mayor and marine officers' quarters for the Fourteenth 
Infantry, leaving the marine and old infantry barracks for the 
volunteers. Colonel Smith, First California, being Colonel Sum- 
mers' senior, selected the Marine Barracks, and Oregon was 
quartered in the foul, slimy structures that had not been used 
by even the Spanish for years. When Admiral Dewey saw 
the condition of the quarters next day he said it was a shame 
and an outrage to quarter Americans in such a place, and 
suggested to the Colonel that he take other buildings adja- 
cent. The Colonel moved one battalion to neat quarters inside 
the fort. General Anderson became highly indignant over 
the affair and immediately ordered the Colonel back, so the 
old quarters were packed to the limit with human chattels, 
"soldiers." 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 37 

MUCH SICKNESS TN THE REGIMENT. 

Lectures had been given the men on board the vessels per- 
taining to health in the tropics. Partaking of water, fruit, or 
liquor, or any indulgence, had been emphasized as sure of fatal 
consequences, unless strictly regulated. Yet there was at first 
an alarming number of petty ailments, some growing into more 
serious complications. The boys were fruit hungry and ate 
freely of the great quantities offered for sale by the natives at 
trifling prices. Water was not regularly boiled. The " Klon- 
dike^' rations of the army became nauseating in the hot climate. 
To save expenses General Anderson empowered his quarter- 
master to draw from the command details for unloading the 
supplies carried by the transports and packing them in store- 
houses. The Fourth of July, ordinarily observed by Americans 
in a splendid manner, will be remembered by the Oregon boys 
as a suffocating day of hard labor. All these conditions coop- 
erating produced much sickness. By the third day after land- 
ing Major Ellis and Captains Cardwell and Whiting found 
sick-call responded to by more than a hundred men. Rather 
acute cramps, diarrhoea, and fevers were the usual symptoms. 
Most of the men remained in quarters, merely receiving medi- 
cines, but some were taken to the improvised hospital — an old 
building wholly untit for such use. A week after the troops 
landed, the Oregon sick-list had swelled to approximately three 
hundred, and it seemed that half the regiment was unfit for 
duty. The longshore work was discontinued. Strict measures 
were adopted concerning drinking water and fruit. More care 
was taken in preparing food. It was some time, however, be- 
fore there was much decrease in the number of sick. The 
regiment, as compared with the Fourteenth Infantry and Cali- 
fornia regiments, seemingly, was suffering most. This was due 
to difference in methods of the surgeons. The two former 
regiments treated most of their sick in quarters, so there was 
no display of the number nor any record made. The Oregon 
surgeons at first caused the sick to appear at the hospital when 
sick-call was sounded. Here they presented an alarming aspect, 
well adapted to the use of prying press correspondents, whose 
ambition was to show that volunteers were unfit to control 
themselves. ■ 



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38 OREGOK VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

TROUBLE BEGINS WITH THE FILIPINOS. 

Contact with the friendly Filipinos, although devoid at first 
of anything of a portentous nature, never promised much but 
discord. Oh the part of the soldiers there came a feeling of 
admiration, produced by the vague reports of Filipino success 
around Manila. The secret of that success being unknown, 
newly arriyed soldiers readily attributed it to valor and skill 
in the field. How much their high opinions were shaken by 
the appearance of the rabble Aguinaldo termed soldiers, is 
difficult to estimate. A sentiment of the utmost cordiality ex- 
isted for several days, but events of a deteriorating character 
soon began to operate. Probably these were quickened by the 
attitude of the commanding generals on both sides, for soon 
the aspirations of Aguinaldo had taken such shape that the 
American General was known to entertain them with suspicion. 
The removal of Aguinaldo's headquarters to Paraiiaque did 
not improve matters. American soldiers had petty conflicts 
with Filipino citizens and soldiers. In some instances it could 
not be denied that excesses of the ''big white brethren'' were 
at the bottom of difficulties. Contrary to all admonitions, the 
American soldiers indulged in liquors, especially a native brew 
called anisad, which was a violent intoxicant and also very 
cheap. A very few drinks of this would fire the Anglo-Saxon 
blood until a battle royal only could appease. It was not rare 
to see some burly soldier pass through the streets of Cavite 
hurling off a pack of Filipino citizens and soldiers who were 
trying to apprehend him, and, incidentally, wrecking a few of 
the various fruit stands encountered. The American officers 
were always prompt to punish any offense against the Filipinos 
where satisfactory evidence could be had, of which the Filipino 
authorities were informed. The petty character of the swarm- 
ing natives began to appear in the numerous commercial trans- 
actions. If an American soldier could be cheated in any man- 
ner, it was held proper by them to do so. 

Their rapacity became intense after the first pay day of the 
Americans. In their experience with the Spaniards, private 
soldiers never received such fabulous sums as the careless 
Americans exhibited. Some of the first soldiers to show them 
pieces of gold were thought to be officers, as they could not 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 39 

believe a soldier possessed such wealth. Then the hucksters, 
peddlers, fruit stands and stores multiplied, and from the prov- 
ince of Cavite were brought loads of everything that an Amer- 
ican soldier would buy. Nothing but contempt was excited in 
the minds of Americans as a result of every increase of their 
knowledge of Filipinos and their wa3^s. Before the siege of 
Manila commenced, soldiers were heard to say they would re- 
ceive with joy the news that the conceited Filipinos were to be 
disciplined by force. The savage pleasure they exhibited in 
showing how at times the throats of Spaniards were cut added 
only repulsiveness to a multitude of other repellant conditions. 
Drills and schools were commenced with vigor by Colonel 
Summers as soon as his men were quartered at Cavite. Ex- 
tended order exercises in particular were given often. Much 
benefit was derived from the knowledge imparted to officers 
and noncommissioned officers in the schools held on board the 
transports. As exertion in the heat of the day was prohibited 
during July, the early morning hours and evening were chosen 
for drills. At these times the work was taken up faithfully, by 
companies, battalions, and in regimental formation. In view 
of the need of drilled men in the struggle anticipated before 
Manila, officers and men entered into their work with enthu- 
siasm, a friendly rivalry also giving life to the drills. Thorough 
inspection by both the General and the Colonel told that full 
equipments would count in the selection of forces. Small 
amounts of clothing were again issued, arms repaired where 
necessary, ammunition distributed, and shelter tents furnished. 
Until the second expedition arrived, the Oregon men were so 
poorly shod that the command was unfit to take the field. 

ROUTINE WORK AT CAVITE. 

Thus July dragged along with a routine of preparatory work. 
During the latter part of the month the Fourteenth Infantry 
and the California Volunteers were shipped across the neck of 
the bay from Cavite to Paraiiaque, where Camp Dewey was 
formed. The Oregon men packed their belongings with the 
expectation that they would soon follow. Other expeditions, 
composed of unseasoned volunteers and regulars, arrived and 
were put into the field. Sickness had nearly disappeared from 



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40 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

the ranks of the Oregonians; they had drilled hard and well, 
were somewhat acclimated, and they felt keenly the arrange- 
ment that left them in Cavite. 

On three different occasions officers of the regiment were 
able to render General Anderson excellent service in the pre- 
liminary arrangements for the attack. Captains Heath, Com- 
pany A, Wells, Company L, and Prescott, Company D, and 
Lieutenant Telfer, Company L, were invited by Captain Are- 
valo, a Filipino officer on Aguinaldo's staff, to visit with him 
his home in Pasig, above Manila. The officers accepted, mak- 
ing the journey across the foothills from Penada to Pasig. 
They were delayed by muddy roads and reached the shores of 
the bay at Paraiiaque one afternoon when the surf prevented 
crossing. Considerable uneasiness was felt over their absence, 
and all were ordered before General Anderson when they re- 
turned for staying away over time. The explanation given 
was satisfactory to him, and the information gathered about 
Filipinos during the trip was appreciated and thankfully re- 
ceived. Some correspondents magnified the affair into another 
example of volunteer stupidity and incompetence. Lieutenant 
Bryan of E, and Lieutenant Moore of F, aided by Private 
Green of E, spent several days around the Manila fortifications 
sketching and mapping the whole country for the General. 
Their work was very complete and efficient. A perfect map 
with sketches of the whole line of breastworks placed in the 
General's hands knowledge of the enemy's works that was in- 
valuable in the subsequent operations. Captain Case of Com- 
pany F, performed some excellent work in the same interest as 
an engineer officer. His scouting along all the roads from 
Paraiiaque and adjacent country to Manila and report on their 
availability for marching over and use in transportation proved 
of useful service. 

Great excitement prevailed in the Oregon regiment when 
news of the commencement of fighting July 31st was received. 
General Merritt had then arrived and had said that the regi- 
rnent would be left in Cavite as a guard for the base of sup- 
plies. He further intimated, however, that should it be nec- 
essary to make an assault on the walls of Manila before the 
city surrendered the regiment would be given a prominent 



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DEI5SS PABADIS OF SECOND OliECJON IN COURT OB' CUABTEL DE ESPA5JA. 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 41 

part. Trouble with the natives then seemed imminent, and 
Cavite was the most likely point for an attack, should they be- 
come hostile over any arrangement found expedient during 
the siege. General Anderson told the Colonel that the regi- 
ment had been selected for duty at Cavite because of the con- 
fidence reposed in it. A change of quarters was all that broke 
the monotony of the early days of August. Friday, August 
12th, Colonel Summers was ordered to have nine companies 
of his regiment ready to embark on vessels before daylight on 
the morning of the 13th, the day finally agreed upon for the 
assault. This most delightful information ran through the 
camp with electric speed, notwithstanding it might foretell ter- 
rible carnage under the grim old walls facing the sea, where it 
was understood the Oregon men were to land. The soldiers 
took up the shout until wherever there was an Oregon man in 
Cavite a series of wild caperings told something was to happen. 
The natives could poorly understand that all the gayety was 
caused by the prospect of facing the Spaniards behind the 
walls of Manila. 

Adding more to the enthusiasm of the Oregon men was the 
report that one company from the regiment would be selected 
as bodyguard for General Merritt. Company F, commanded 
by Captain Case, was named for the work, and was to go aboard 
the Zafiro on the morning named, which vessel the General 
and staff were to occupy during the bombardment. Taking 
300 rounds of ammunition per man and only such equipment 
as was necessary in the field, all other articles were packed. 
A more forlorn command was never seen in the Philippines 
than that left in Cavite under Lieutenant Colonel Yoran and 
Major Eastwick, consisting of Companies C, I, and M. Not 
from a sense of danger, for the soldiers would welcome a fight 
with superior numbers, but because they were being left when 
the regiment went into action. 

THE CAPTURE OF MANILA. 

Before the appointed hour, August 13th, Colonel Summers 
had his men aboard the Kwoiichoi and Zafiro. These two ves- 
sels took positions amidst the fleet until the vessels of Admiral 
Dewey, preceded by the Monterey^ slowly steamed for Manila 



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42 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

and then followed at a reasonable distance from the Olympian 
so that communication between General Merritt and the Ad- 
miral was maintained. A sense of awe overcame the soldiers 
as they felt themselves moved along with the majestic proces- 
sion, most of which had taken part in the naval battle of May 
1st, at the sanie spot. As the monitor steamed directly for the 
much-talked-of batteries of Manila and gradually worked her 
way inward until within easy range, every eye was strained 
through the slight mist to catch the first glimpse of smoke from 
her turrets or a similar challenge from the fortifications on the 
shore. AH looked in vain. The monitor never took the offen- 
sive, and the big Krupp guns on shore did not care to i*ouse her 
to action. 

At 9:15 o'clock a. m. the Olympia was off for Fort San An- 
tonio Adad, in Malate, at which she fired the opening gun. It 
was a 6-inch gun on the starboard side. 

The shell struck the water and ricochetted until it struck the 
land. The Petrel and Raleigh followed shortly, with more suc- 
cess. For about an hour the three cruisers kept up a deliber- 
ate fire, which was quickened whenever a puff of smoke along 
the right wing of the Spanisii trenches indicated the position 
of the enemy. The vessels slackened at last, and the charge 
of the land forces commenced. A part of the Colorado regi- 
ment could be seen by the Oregon boys rushing along the 
beach toward the stone fort. Their progress was visible until 
they plunged into the Cingalon River and clambered up the 
sides of the old stone structure which had been partly demol- 
ished by the heavy shells from the fleet. When it was seen 
that opposition had ceased in this quarter, the cruisers, fol- 
lowed by the Zafiro and Kwonchoi, steamed up directly oppo- 
site the mouth of the Pasig. The vessels did not open fire on 
the city, nor was there any shooting at them from the shore. 
An undisturbed calm reigned for quite a period, which was 
relieved by the arrival of a launch from shore bearing at the 
prow a flag of truce and the Belgian flag astern. Through the 
fleet word quickly circulated that negotiations for surrender 
were in progress. The Admiral's flag lieutenant and a repre- 
sentative of General Merritt returned on the launch to the city. 
After a brief interval, the officers came back to the ship with 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 43 

word that the Spanish General agreed to surrender, and asked 
to have six hundred men put inside the Walled City at once to 
maintain order. The nine companies of the Oregon regiment 
were just the number required, and the Kwonchoi and the 
Zafiro were immediately headed for the shore. General Merritt 
and staff took a launch, preceding the troops by over an hour, 
and when they reached the Ayuntamiento, where the Spanish 
General had offices, were in possession. The Kwonchoi ran 
aground trying to reach the sea wall, and her troops were trans- 
fered to the shore in launches. Company F reached the wall 
in the same manner, being the first of the troops to land. 
Colonel Summers landed from the London Times and New York 
Herald launch, reaching the shore of Manila ahead of any of 
his command. 

As fast as each of the two battalions could be landed, it 
formed in the square terminating the Reina Christina drive 
around the monument of Don Simon de Anda. From there 
Company F and the First Battalion, Major Gantenbein, marched 
up the Reina Christina drive and entered the Walled City, 
marching directly to the Ayuntamiento building, followed a 
half hour later by the Second Battalion and band, Major Willis. 
On the high walls as the soldiers passed were numerous Span- 
iards, some still holding their arms, and the looks with which 
they greeted the uncouth-appearing conquerors were an3^thing 
but pleasant. The way from the gate of the wall to the palace 
was crowded with soldiers and citizens of the fallen power. 
There were approximately five thousand armed men concen- 
trated inside the walls. As the little band of five companies 
marched through the dense throng, bright with the splendid 
uniforms of Spanish officers and soldiers, some of the Ore- 
gonians could not help but remember vividly tales of Spanish 
treachery. There was never any reason to doubt Spanish sin- 
cerity, for if no other cause was oppressive, Dewey was 
anchored just beyond the walls, and the advancing American 
forces occupied the city all around. 

The Oregon men were lined up in front of the palace be- 
tween rows of Spanish soldiers. The Spanish General's fiag 
had been hauled down, and in its stead the blue emblem of 
General Merritt's authority was run up over the building. 



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44 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAH. 

Lieutenant Young, Company A, took a platoon of his company 
to escort the Admiral's flag lieutenant and Lieutenant Povey, 
Company L, during the pulling down of the big flag over the 
parapets of the western wall. A large crowd of Spanish men 
and women were in the vicinity when their national colors 
were lowered and tne Stars and Stripes took their place. Some 
of the women wept aloud and nearly all stood with averted 
faces. One lady pleaded with the Spanish oflicer nearest to 
die rather than see the flag lowered. Lieutenant Povey, aided 
by two privates, managed the halyards in both cases. As the 
Stars and Stripes were run up, the Second Battalion marching 
up the Reina Christina drive toward the Walled City cheered, 
and the band struck up the Star Spangled Banner. The effect 
was very dramatic. 

GUARD duty IN THE CITY. 

Squads from different companies wpre detailed for guard 
duty at the six entrances to the Walled City, over the treasury 
and palace buildings, and the two large magazines found under 
the walls. Company A was placed in charge of the arsenal. 
Four companies slept in the palace. E)etails were made to 
receive the arms of the surrendering soldiers. One crew 
worked in the vestibule of the palace until early next morn- 
ing, and another in the arsenal. For two days commands 
from the trenches were coming in to surrender, keeping the 
Americans quite busy receiving and storing the arms and 
ammunition. Colonel Summers was made acting provost 
marshal and was placed in charge of everything inside the 
walls for about a week, leaving the immediate commaiud of the 
troops to Major Gantenbein. The second day all the troops, 
except Companies A and F, were quartered in the Cuartel de 
Espaiia. For the first three days hardly any of the soldiers 
were able to sleep, duties were so heavy. After that the arse- 
nal was placed in charge of the Twenty-third Infantry, which 
regiment also assumed control of the lower third of the Walled 
City. Four companies of the Minnesota regiment were given 
a belt in the center, and the Oregon regiment took charge of 
the southern half, besides the palace, where Company F was 
quartered. 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 45 

The work of the Second Oregon inside the walls during the 
early da^^s of American occupation was equal to the best services 
performed in the Eighth Army Corps during the same time. 
It was bloodless, but exacting. Spaniards have always asserted 
that the surrender of Manila on August 13th was pursuant 
to a prearranged plan agreed upon by their General and Gen- 
eral Merritt. Everybody realized how fruitless of everything 
but havoc would be resistance by them. Food scarce, health- 
ful water controlled by the enemy, the city invested by a strong 
force of disciplined troops and a swarm of blacks, an overpow- 
ering fleet standing within easy range, final defeat was inevit- 
able. Reliable authorities repeated before the surrender that 
all that deterred the Spanish officers from immediate sur- 
render was the unreasonable attitude of their home govern- 
ment should not a show of resistance be made, and also the fear 
of occupation of the city by the Filipino armed rabble. As 
soon as their ungrateful people could be appeased and there 
was assurance that civilized troops would assume control of the 
city, there seemed no further disposition to prolong a destruc- 
tive, useless conflict. There was ample evidence during the 
bombardment that the American commanders appreciated the 
situation, if, indeed, they were not acting according to mutual 
plans, and, although the inherent efficiency of the American 
soldiers was partly demonstrated, there can be no doubt that 
the enemy retired from their outworks far more readily than 
they would have under other circumstances. It has been 
hinted that the ambition of certain American commanders 
actually precipitated most of the fighting of the day. Certainly 
the indiscreetness of the commanders at one time came near 
causing a renewal of the fight, after negotiations for absolute 
surrender were well under way. Nothing of the kind can be 
charged to the Oregon regiment or its commander. All work 
assigned to Colonel Summers and his men was dispatched with 
promptness, firmness, and consideration. 

Six long weary months for the Oregon men passed between 
August 13th aud the outbreak of the struggle with the Fili- 
pinos — months filled with doubtful issues, trying experiences 
and disappointments. News of peace between the United 
States and Spain followed closely upon the fall of Manila. No 



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46 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

policy had then been outlined by the McKinley administration 
regarding the future of the Philippines, There seemed to the 
soldiers on duty there, although personally weary of the service 
in the tropics, no reasonable alternative for the Government in 
the matter. However, no declaration was ever made during 
the period intervening the date of the peace protocol and the 
announcement of the Peace Commissioners' work, so the sol- 
diers never knew until then whether their sacrifices were for 
American possessions or in furtherance of a chance adventure. 
They believed a reasonable interpretation of their contract of 
enlistment would grant their discharge soon after the expira- 
tion of hostilities. The desire to get back to the United States 
was aggravated by the act of favoritism perpetrated by the War 
Department in returning the Astor Battery shortly after the 
Spanish war ceased. 

THE UNHEALTHY CITY. 

Sickness proved during this waiting period more fatal than 
human enemies. Exceedingly unsanitary sewers in old Manila 
aided the disease-breeding cesspools and filthy moats in dissemi- 
nating typhoid, malaria, and fevers. Several deaths occurred, 
and but few members of the regiment escaped an attack of some 
form. In some instances a soldier would recover from one dis- 
ease to become the victim of another equally or more severe. 
Smallpox appeared shortly after the troops reached the city. 
When it was first discovered in the city, there was a feeling 
bordering on consternation. Dire conjectures were made of 
the limits which it seemed probable smallpox would reach in 
a city so filthy, densely populated, and hot. Strict measures 
were planned and executed to restrict its course. A few deaths 
resulted from this disease, but a mere fraction of the number at 
first apprehended. Americans failed to consider that smallpox 
in Manila is nearly always prevalent, has a relatively small 
number of untouched cases among the natives, and, therefore, 
with scientific care of the soldiers, but little danger was to be 
apprehended from it. 

Preparation of the food furnished soldiers soon demanded 
more attention than it had ever received. Owing to the fact 
that much of the ration was improper food for a hot climate, 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 47 

this subject became especially important. In the Cuartel de 
Espaiia the soldiers built large ovens and heaters that enabled 
them to bake breadstuffs and cook their meals in the most ap- 
proved manner. Gradually, also, the subsistence department 
altered the ration as consumption pointed out the required 
articles. One feature of the regiment's conduct during this 
period that will be remembered with pride, was the splendid 
discipline maintained and the soldierly appearance of the men. 
While in the Filipino war it was found, as elsewhere, that the 
fastidiously exact in attire do not always make the best fighters, 
there were many good results from the wholesome discipline 
of the Oregon regiment. The regiment gained the name of 
being the most military in appearance and performance of 
duty of any volunteers in Manila. No licentious excesses could 
flourish under such restraints, and, consequently, the names of 
the Oregon soldiers were not so often associated with high- 
handed and unlawful practices as were some others engaged in 
provost guard duty. When trouble commenced the discipline 
of the regiment also assured it places of the greatest responsi- 
bility. A work of no small importance was done by the regi- 
ment in forcing residents in the district guarded to keep their 
premises clean of all filth and rubbish. Captain Heath was ap- 
pointed by the Colonel sanitary officer, and regularly inspected 
the beats patroled by the soldiers for any lapse in enforcement 
of orders in this respect. 

MARKED ABILITY OF THE OFFICERS RECOGNIZED. 

As a mark of the individual ability of the officers of the 
regiment, may be cited their employment in positions of im- 
portance in the Military Government. Their judicial ability 
was above the average. Major Gantenbein was early appointed 
president of two general courts-martial, one of the senior mem- 
bers of the military commission, the highest tribunal of the 
administration, a member of the board of claims against the 
Spanish Government and of the board of claims against the 
United States Government. Though detailed on these various 
boards he continued to perform all the duties of battalion com- 
mander with his regiment until March 22, 1899. Upon the 
establishment of the Supreme Court of the Philippine Islands 



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48 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

a few days before the departure of the regiment for the United 
States, he was tendered a position as Associate Justice of the 
Supreme Court, but preferred to return with his regiment. 
Major Eastwick was appointed president of a general court- 
martial composed of Oregon and Tennessee officers. Lieuten- 
ants Dunbar and Telfer were chosen judge-advocates of general 
courts-martial. Lieutenant Colonel Yoran always acted as field 
and summary court ofiicer of the regiment. Lieutenant Piatt 
was appointed acting assistant judge-advocate on General 
Hughes' staff, a position requiring much work during the early 
occupation by the Americans, owing to the involved nature of 
real estate and contracts. Captain Wells was appointed on a 
board of examiners, for the Eighth Army Corps. Captain 
Whiting was given full charge of the smallpox hospital, where 
his tireless and efficient work won the praise of every patient 
cared for, as well as his superiors. Lieutenant Bryan had 
charge of the sales' department of the general commissary until 
his resignation from the service on account of poor health. 
Lieutenant Povey was detailed as depot quartermaster of Cavite 
until that depot was abandoned. He was then brevetted cap- 
tain and made assistant depot quartermaster to Major Jones, 
depot quartermaster at Manila. Lieutenant Wolfe was detailed 
to act as third in rank at the Presidio de Manila, the island 
penitentiary, where Captain Case also acted for a period on a 
commission inspecting the books of the institution as left by 
the Spaniards. 

Oregon privates were on duty in every department of the 
corps. In the Adjutant General's office there were more Oregon 
men than from all other commands combined. The quarter- 
master's department had also a large percentage of Oregon men, 
and in most of the undertakings of the government requiring 
especial skill or training, Oregon men were to be found. 

Company H of the regiment was selected by General Hughes 
for the customhouse, where the general capacity of the mem- 
bers for all branches of work in that institution was often 
commented upon. General Hughes himself stated that it was 
unlikely that in the entire army corps another company could 
be found in which there were so many men competent to man- 
age such affairs. Lieutenant McKinnon acted as boarding 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 49 

officer of the port from the time the company entered upon 
customhouse duties until relieved. Captain McDonell had a 
supervising position, and Lieutenant Gritzmacher commanded 
the customhouse guards. 

RECRUITS FOR THE REGIMENT. 

When President McKinley issued the second call for troops 
all the State was allowed to raise was a sufficient number to fill 
the Second Oregon companies up to the full war footing. This 
number was ready before the mustering officer could attend to 
the physical examinations. It was deemed inexpedient to 
assemble all at a central point, so the mustering and medical 
officers visited different cities of the State where the recruits 
were enlisted. The call was issued May 25th, and the last of 
the recruits left the State July 7th. They could have gone far 
earlier had they been accepted as fit for service sooner. At 
first the recruits were placed under the command of Major 
Diggles as detachment commander, and under the immediate 
control of a sergeant of the Thirteenth Minnesota, as drill- 
master. The total of 313 men were separated into provisional 
companies for convenience in drills and mess, but were mus- 
tered as one company. Up to the time of departure for Manila 
the recruits were under many different commanders from dif- 
ferent regiments. They were not uniformed with system or 
method. A campaign hat would be issued one day, a pair of 
leggings another, a blouse still another, and so on until the men 
presented a semimilitary aspect. Some of the clothing issued 
was of the worst quality. 

At first the recruits were encamped at what was known as 
Camp Merritt, part of the time in an old barn, without bedding, 
shelter, or adequate clothing. They were then moved into 
tents, and made to sleep in the wet, cold sand, where many of 
them contracted pneumonia, and several died. The Oregon 
men were later removed from cold, disagreeable Camp Merritt 
and camped in the Presidio, where their condition was vastly 
improved. After repeatedly preparing for the voyage across 
the Pacific to join their regiment, the tired men were finally, 
on October 17th, put aboard the transport Senator for Manila, 
where they arrived the day before Thanksgiving, On Thanks^ 
3 



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50 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

giving day they disembarked, after being thoroughly vaccinated, 
and partook of a pleasant repast that had been prepared for 
them by the members of the respective companies to which 
they were assigned. One member of the recruits, who had 
acted as sergeant major of the detachment, John W. Marshall, 
was afterwards appointed sergeant major of the regiment upon 
the discharge of Sergeant Major Rintoul. 

With the commencement of the "siege of Manila" on the 
night of February 4th, the work of the provost guard became 
arduous and critical. Throughout the time that the regiment 
remained on such duty until relieved to take the field, it certainly 
is favorable to notice that no hostile demonstration ever oc- 
curred in the district patroled. Oregon men were as eager as 
any in the corps to inflict punishment on the contemptuous 
Filipinos, for they, equally with all Americans in Luzon, had 
suffered from their insolence. Yet they performed duty with- 
out venting revengeful feeling, performed it so thoroughly and 
well that it was only after strong efforts that Colonel Summers 
was finally able to get his command relieved from provost 
guard duty. 

THE OUTBREAK OF THE FILIPINO REBELLION. 

On the night of February 4th, when fighting commenced, all 
of the Oregon regiment took its assigned posts. A false alarm, 
previously, when the soldiers were all called out, demonstrated 
that the Oregonians were equal if not superior to the best in 
point of speed. Then the regiment was marching out of the 
cuartel in fighting array seven minutes after the alarm. Better 
time than that was made February 4th. The positions were 
occupied long before the residents were fully aware that hos- 
tilities had commenced. The First Battalion, Major Ganten- 
bein, held the southern gate, the portion of the wall west of it, 
and the outer bridge of the causeway leading ovfer the water 
to the southern gate. Major Eastwick conducted three com- 
panies of his battalion to the southeast corner of the wall and 
the more southerly of the eastern gates. 

The Second Battalion was held by Major Willis on Victoria 
Street, immediately in front of the cuartel, as a force to operate 
anywhere inside the walls should trouble commence. At dif- 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 51 

ferent times on that memorable night the Oregon soldiers took 
the same positions, after trying to secure temporary rests. 
Every man was at his post, including a score who had been 
receiving treatment in the regimental hospital. When Gen- 
eral Hughes made his rounds to ascertain the arrangement of 
the provost guard force, he found nothing to do in the Oregon 
district. All were in perfect position, anxiously waiting for 
the visage of strife to emerge from the jumble of old buildings. 
Company H, at the customhoase, guarded a district adjacent 
to that building. Company F kept a strong guard over the 
palace, besides reinforcing the guards of the Twenty-third 
Infantry at two of the city entrances. Nothing of moment 
happened to any of the Oregon soldiers that night. The long 
firing line, circling fourteen miles around the great city, was 
within easy hearing distance, and awakened within the breasts 
of idle guards within the walls a spirit of intense eagerness. 

At daybreak, when the American advance commenced, in- 
creased vigilance was demanded of the Walled City guards. 
Nothing more. Opportunity was had to observe the decadence 
of Filipino egotism. The most intolerable insolence was nigh 
the bursting mark when firing commenced. The immediate 
occupation of every street by determined soldiers was a slight 
depression. Fast accumulating reports of Filipino reverses 
rapidly added to their discouragement. By noon, when the 
audacious followers of Aguinaldo had but one purpose in life — 
shelter from the white man's fury— -Filipinos in Manila were 
the most forlorn, abject bipeds inhabiting the earth. 

The savage work of skulking blacks in the Paco district, 
hiding in preteodedly friendly houses and firing at the soldiers 
from the rear, or the ambulances with wounded soldiers and 
Red Cross attendants, brought upon them in the early morning 
severe punishment. As troops could not be spared from the 
front, one battalion of the Oregon regiment was asked to take 
charge of the district. Major Eastwick, with Companies C, 
G, and K, patroled all between Paco church and the hospital. 
Several times the men were fired upon from the huts and also 
from the Paco church before it was destroyed by the Wash- 
ington, Oregon, and Idaho soldiers. No fatalities occurred, 
nor were the soldiers able to locate their sneaking enemy. In 



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52 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

the afternoon the three companies were sent to quarters for a 
little rest, and Companies D and L, under Major Gantenbein, 
took the patrol. Natives became unusually troublesome in a 
remote quarter of the district, to which Major Gantenbein 
directed his attention. Forming a long skirmish line he con- 
ducted his men through the zone, driving from it all bearing 
arms and capturing forty-five men who were strongly suspected 
of being the guilty parties, as some of thenl were discovered 
while in the act of casting firearms into sloughs. Four or five 
of these natives, while attempting to escape, were shot. 

THE CAPTURE OF THE WATER WORKS. 

• Monday morning following the third battalions of the Ore- 
gon, Tennessee, and Twenty4hird Infantry regiments were 
ordered to be ready to march to the support of the Nebraska 
regiment in the contemplated assault on the water system, still 
held by the Filipinos. F, the fourth company of the battalion, 
being at the palace, was not taken. Companies C, G, and K 
were under way promptly at noon, thickly interspersed with 
numerous men from the other companies of the regiment, who 
were trying to get on the firing line by this means. All strag- 
glers were sent back despite protests. Company G was com- 
manded by Captain Barber, promoted to the captaincy shortly 
before, owing to the resignation of Captain Gadsby. Compa- 
nies C and K were commanded by their original captains. 
Moon and Wor rick, respectively. Maj or East wick was assigned 
to the reserve in the fight that resulted in the capture of the 
entire water system. Lieutenant Sutton, Company G, who had 
just been promoted to the position, was ordered to take one 
platoon of his company to the firing line of the Twenty-third 
and Tennessee men, out on the Mariquina Road, reaching the 
position just in time to form in the final charge over the breast- 
works of the Filipinos. Next morning, Captain Barber, with 
the remainder of the company, joined him, after which the 
long march around through the Mariquina Valley was taken 
up. Light skirmishes continued until the command reached 
and destroyed Mariquina, a town of fifteen thousand inhabitants. 
Company G rejoined Major Eastwick on the pipe line that 
night. The three companies for four days guarded the district 



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OKEGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAE. 53 

between the pumping station and the Deposito, a distance of 
four miles. Several exciting incidents occurred in the light 
skirmishing and lonely picket duty, but without serious results. 
Following the installment of the Nebraska regiment at the 
pumping station and along the adjacent portion of the pipe 
line, Major Eastwick's battalion was assigned to the district 
between the Deposito and Manila, covering a distance of two 
and a half miles. Captain Barber held. half of Company G in 
the old stone powder magazine on the north bank of the San 
Juan River, and the other half in stone Blockhouse No. 5, just 
across on the other bank. Captain Worrick divided Company 
K between a good position immediately south of the Mariquina 
Road and an eminence nearer the magazine. Captain Moon 
held Company C on a ridge between the Mariquina Road and 
the position of the Wyoming battalion, a half mile to the north. 
Substantial breastworks were thrown up by each of the com- 
panies, and daily drills had in the work of defending them. 
Lieutenant Murphy of Company K was assigned to the com- 
mand of a Hotchkiss and Gattling battery, consisting of two 
guns of each make, which was directed to operate with any 
part of the line in that vicinity needing its services. The men 
to work the guns were drawn from the Utah battery and the 
three Oregon companies. 

THE UPRISING IN MANILA. 

Not until the night of February 22d was there anything of 
a hostile effort inside the city to engage the provost guard. 
About 9 o'clock that evening fire, plainly of incendiary origin, 
broke out in the Santa Cruz district, first appearing in a house 
of ill repute in the Chinese quarter there. Spreading rapidly 
in the face of the ludicrous and half-hearted work of the na- 
tive firemen, a section three blocks in width was burned towards 
the center of the city. A variety of Chinese structures, besides 
five or six rather imposing Spanish residences, were in the 
path ; also one cigar factory. The arrival of the English and 
German fire brigades and the energetic work of the soldiers 
were the means of confining the fire to this district, which was 
bordered, leeward, by one of the numerous canals in Manila. 
None of the Oregon men were called upon then. 



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54 OREGON VOLUNTliERS IN SPANISH WAK. 

Shortly after the first fire had subsided, flames began to leap 
from the nipa huts in the Tondo district, near where Company 
C of the Thirteenth Minnesota regiment was quartered. It was 
while making an effort to reach the scene of this fire so as to 
extinguish it, that shooting commenced. Soon the whole Tondo 
district was infested with Filipinos carrying arms. Shots were 
fired at passing soldiers from windows in the San Nicolas and 
Binondo districts. A strong body seemed to have organized in 
the vicinity of Paseo de Excarraga, where an effort was made 
to cut off the Minnesota boys. Company H of the Oregon regi- 
ment went to the rescue, after which the two formed along the 
circular boulevard, cutting off communication between the 
large force in Tondo and the scattering sharpshooters through- 
out the more central portion. Company A, Second Oregon, 
had been doing police duty in the Binondo district for more 
than a week preceding the fire. The district patrolled by it lay 
along the canal dividing Binondo and San Nicolas. One squad, 
under the immediate command of Sergeant Deich, was sta- 
tioned at the rear of the old market building, where the third 
and most menacing fire originated, when flames started up. 
Several Filipinos running from one housetop to another near 
the market were shot. Captain McDonell of Company H, see- 
ing the conflagration starting at the rear, sent several squads 
back to fight fire there and to aid in guarding the firemen from 
the treacherous attempts of the Filipino sharpshooters scattered 
thereabout. About the same time Companies I and L of the 
Second Oregon, the remaining two companies of the First Bat- 
talion, under Major Gantenbein, were also called by General 
Hughes to the scene. Half of each guarded the arms, while the 
other halves were organized into small squads to use the fire ap- 
paratus, which was worse than useless in the hands of natives. 
It was absolutely apparent by that time that the pretended 
amigos were either in hearty sympathy with the dastardly 
attempts of the insurgents to fire the city, or were so terrorized by 
threats of the insurgents that they were useless. In three in- 
stances Filipinos were discovered cutting the hose. Orders 
were issued to shoot any person found in such. work. The 
Oregon boys, aided by some of thp Minnesota guards, seized the 
fire apparatus, placed it where it would be effective, and worked 



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OREGON VOLtTNTEl^IlS IN gJt*ANISH WAU. 55 

like Trojans until well into the following day. The English, 
fire engine and another steamer of fair proportions were taken 
in hand, with splendid results. Had it not been for this and 
the heroic labor of Captain Wells, with some of his men, and 
squads from H and also I, under Lieutenant Campbell, the fire 
could not have been checked on the southwest before reaching 
the valuable warehouses and storerooms along the waterfront, 
among which were the government buildirigs containing sup- 
plies and clothing. A slight breeze had sprung up from the 
northeast. In the path of the flames starting from the old 
market were swarms of Chinese and Filipinos, housed with 
true Oriental economy of space. As fast as their quarters 
ignited they were forced out on to the streets, from which they 
had been ordered under severe penalties. General Hughes had 
issued orders for everybody, save the soldiers and firemen, to 
be kept inside. The terror-stricken inhabitants gradually ven- 
tured from the burning buildings, apparently less in awe of the 
sweeping conflagration wrapping their homes than the white 
soldiers, whom they had been taught to fear as the most atro- 
cious of mankind. As the frightened people realized that the 
Americans were governed by reason they became more mobile 
and were easily conducted in an orderly manner to safe locali- 
ties and kept within prescribed bounds. Many sights of de- 
pressing distress were placed before the eyes of the soldiers that 
night which will never be effaced. 

General Hughes warmly complimented more than one of the 
Oregon men for efficient service. When he' called upon Lieu- 
tenant Telfer to man the English fire engine, that officer in a 
few moments selected from the half of Company L under his 
command an engineer, a driver and hoseman, who quickly had 
in operation practically the only engine used that night. Light 
pressure was noticed in all the hydrants, thus reducing the effi- 
ciency of the ordinary hose. Several squads of Oregon men, 
under the immediate direction oi General Hughes, Major Gan- 
tenbein, Captain Wells, and Lieutenant Campbell, however, did 
good work with these weak streams. In the morning all the 
Oregon men were relieved for much-needed rest. The com- 
panies remaining in the Cuartel de Espaiia, as guard inside 
the walls, experienced no appreciable difficulties. Once or 



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56 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

twice little attempts at arson were forestalled in time to pre- 
vent damage, and extra guards vigilantly patrolled the streets. 

General Hughes decided to drive the insurgents, who had 
fortified in Tondo, out of the city or capture them. He asked 
Colonel Summers to send two companies that were rested, under 
the command of a major, who should operate with two compa- 
nies from the Thirteenth Minnesota, in doing this work. 

Major Willis was ordered to take Companies E and M, Cap- 
tains Davis and Poorman, respectively, and proceed to the 
Tondo church. There he was joined by Companies C and M, 
Thirteenth Minnesota. Each of the four companies had in 
ranks only half their men, as the other half were on guard 
duty. Insurgent sharpshooters, posted through the ruins of 
the demolished buildings in the vicinity of the church, had 
kept up from daybreak an accurate fire on everybody approach- 
ing their position. Major Willis marched the four companies 
out into the fire zone until the column was fired upon. Then 
he deployed in extended order, placing Company E on the left, 
Company M in the center, and Company C, Thirteenth Minne- 
sota, on the right. Company M of the Minnesotas was com- 
manded by Captain McKelvy, and Company C by Lieutenant 
Snow. Lieutenant Dunbar was with Company E, and Lieu- 
tenant Platts with Company M of the Oregon companies. With 
Captain McKelvy's company in reserve, the advance com- 
menced. Across the two streets extending almost parallel 
through Tondo were built stone barricades, a small stone en- 
closure one hundred feet square being between the two barri- 
cades. As soon as the line started forward a pretty hot fire 
was opened by the enemy, scattered advantageously in front 
of the main positions. Steadily these were borne backward 
until the full force was encountered behind the fortifications. 
Here the firing was hot for the number engaged. Major Willis 
kept a position near the center of the line and kept in touch 
through his adjutant. Lieutenant Brazee. By checking the 
center slightly and forging his two wings ahead, the major was 
able to catch the two barricades and stone enclosure in some- 
what of a flank fire, which proved too deadly for the enemy. 
As the Filipinos broke from their cover and commenced to 
retreat to the tramway station they offered excellent targets for 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 57 

the American soldiers, who utilized the opportunity with deadly 
accuracy. A line of eight, running alongside the little fort, 
were mowed down almost instantly by the left wing, which had 
advanced so as to fully command the space retreated over. 
Those in the center also advanced rapidly about the same 
instant, adding to the discomfiture of the demoralized blacks. 
They fled rapidly toward a series of barricades beyond the 
tramway station, barely checking there to give a few parting 
shots. 

Major Goodale, Twenty-third Infantry, with two companies 
from that regiment, arrived on the scene just as the first bar- 
ricades and little fort were being carried. They were able to 
bring down a few of the enemy on the extreme right that had 
taken refuge in the brush. Being the senior officer, he was 
tendered command of the whole force by Major Willis. After 
a brief halt the line was reformed, the fresh troops being placed 
on the left this time, and the four companies of the volunteers 
on the right. The latter spread over all the ground adjacent 
to the railroad, and moved forward until Caloocan was reached, 
but had no more fighting. Major Goodale, with his two com- 
panies, gave the remaining Filipinos a finishing touchdown 
in the swamp near the shore of the bay. It was evident that 
all were retreating in this direction, but the land forces relied 
upon the cooperation of some small launches under the com- 
mand of naval officers to intercept any fugitives trying to reach 
Malabon. 

The Tondo fight was one of the most successful from a stra- 
tegic point that had occurred. For the number of Americans 
engaged, it was a splendid success. Major Willis commanded 
approximately 200, and it was estimated that the insurgents 
had between 250 and 300. Sixty were killed on the field, fifty 
were taken prisoners, and the remainder succeeded in again 
reaching Malabon. Eighty well-armed soldiers in one band 
were counted while crossing the shallow lagoon between the 
mainland and a narrow strip of land leading to that city. Sev- 
eral others escaped in the same way. The American loss was 
trifling. Up to the arrival of the companies of the Twenty- 
third, no one had been mortally wounded. Two Minnesota 
soldiers had been lightly hit, and Private Hildebrand of Com- 



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58 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

pany E, Second Oregon, received a scratch on one finger. In 
the fight by Major Goodale one soldier was killed and another 
badly wounded. A distressing scene was revealed when the 
soldiers entered the stone enclosure used as a fort. Inside of 
this there were twenty dead bodies, all well armed, besides 
thirty adult men, probably in the ranks of the insurgents be- 
fore they discovered that escape was impossible, and about one 
hundred and fifty women and children. The fright of these 
abject creatures, made more heartrending by severities follow- 
ing an attempt of some of the men to murder one of our soldiers 
while engaged in caring for the Filipino wounded, was extreme. 
They fell upon their knees with wild lamentations, nearly smoth- 
ering with caresses and fondling those who approached. While 
a member of Company M was in the act of scaling the wall, 
Captain Poorman discovered a Filipino making ready to stab 
the soldier with a large knife. The captain quickly shot the 
Malay with his pistol. All of the Tondo district from the church 
north was fired as the fighting line advanced. The work was 
also pushed on through the district until Caloocan was reached, 
as all the residents thereabouts had been harboring the hostiles 
for several days while the plans for murder and arson were per- 
fected. 

A FIGHT ON THE FOURTH OF MARCH. 

Companies C, K, and G had an engagement with insurgents 
near San Juan del Monte March 4th, in which Corporal Ponath 
of Company G was shot through the right lobe of the lung. 
Sharpshooters along the water line had grown audacious, and 
were bothering nightly the outposts. General Hale, command- 
ing the brigade doing duty along the line, requested Major East- 
wick to make an excursion with whatever number of his men 
seemed necessary to clear the country. Taking the three com- 
panies, he marched out through the country east of the line 
until Cruznalis, three miles from San Juan del Monte, was 
reached. Here the enemy was met in force. Arranging his 
men for the attack and taking advantage of all available shelter, 
the major opened the fight with several volleys. Gradually his 
men worked forward until the position of the enemy became 
untenable. The fighting lasted until evening, covering a period 
of five hours, Considerable loss was sustained by the Filipinos, 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 59 

the exact number being unknown. The Oregon men escaped 
with rare good fortune, as their only wounded man, Corporal 
Ponath, recovered. 

Quiet reigned along the water line then until March 5th. 
Again sharpshooters became so harassing that aggressive 
movements were planned against them. Company B, First 
Nebraska, had an outpost on the Mariquina Road about three 
miles from the junction defended by the Oregon men. Cap- 
tain Moon was sent out there March 5th with twenty-four men 
to clear the woods. The captain at the outposts directed him 
to the village where the most activity had been noticed during 
the past week. Captain Moon advanced against it in skirmish 
order. Suspecting an ambush, if he entered along the ordi- 
nary route, he wheeled before reaching it and took the village 
at right angles to the road. Everything within was quiet as 
the dead, so still, in fact, that, in view of the presence of inhab- 
itants so shortly before, it was suspicious. Just as the little 
line was emerging from a thin fringe of trees into the road, a 
terrible fire was opened on it. The Filipinos had a strong bar- 
ricade across the street farther down and had dispersed troops 
back along either side, so that when this was encountered, a 
heavy ambush fire from both flanks could be directed upon 
troops occupying the road. The direction of the Americans' 
entrance had driven them from one side and from the barri- 
cade, but they still held the line of trenches on the other side. 
Taking advantage of trees and a hedge, the men under Captain 
Moon returned the overpowering fire with vigor. For over an 
hour this exchange continued until the Filipinos undertook a 
flank movement. The captain then hurriedly retreated over 
a little ridge, where he remained until reenforced by Company 
B of the Nebraska regiment and two other companies taken to 
the rescue by Major Eastwick. Captain Moon's men again 
advanced to their former position, engaging the enemy until 
two of the Nebraska companies had worked around behind the 
entrenched Filipinos. The enemy was then quickly routed 
with rather heavy loss. Captain Worrick with Company K had 
also been sent out to help, and fortunately came in a direction 
that brought him upon the rear of the Filipinos just as they 
had made another stand. When fired upon the second time 



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60 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

from the rear they fled panic-stricken. Captain Worrick later 
took twenty men and dislodged a lot of sharpshooters that had 
gathered a little over a mile north of the Deposito. He had a 
brief engagement, in which his men saw several victims of 
their excellent shooting, which terminated in the rout of the 
enemy again. 

Another move on the Mariquina Road was made March 6th 
by Captain Barber, aided by Lieutenant Murphy commanding 
one Hotchkiss gun. The captain's men did not discover the 
enemy until close upon an outpost in light trenches. The 
greeting was a few Mauser volleys at very close range, which 
were fortunately without serious results to the Americans. 
After arranging his men to meet these sharpshooters, a rapid 
advance was commenced that bore the outpost back on the 
main body. The Filipinos had a commanding position on a 
ridge beyond the range of the Springfields. Company K, 
under Captain Worrick, was sent to the aid of Company G. 
Lieutenant Murphy got his Hotchkiss in play, with apparent 
effect on the Filipinos. They had begun to shrink from the 
accurate fire, when the Hotchkiss broke down, so that it had to 
be taken from the field as useless. The two companies then 
made a general forward movement that culminated in defeat 
for their foes after eight hours of successive fighting. Privates 
Eide and Stanton of Company G, who had been detailed with 
one of the Gatling guns, tried to join the command during the 
fighting and were both wounded. 

After resting a day Companies G and K moved against Mari- 
quina Village, dispersing all opposition in that vicinity and 
burning what remained of that populous place. Mariquina is 
situated in the Mariquina Valley, two miles above where the 
pumping station marks the beginning of the water system of 
Manila. It had been in the hands of the American soldiers 
before, but not destroyed, as several natives working on the 
water system lived there, and it had become such a refuge for 
the hostile bands that its destruction was decided upon. 

WITH WHEATON's FLYING COLUMN. 

Provost guard duty for the Second Oregon Regiment ended 
March 12th, a day of rejoicing for the tired, impatient men, who 



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OREGON VOLUNTEEKS IN SPANISH WAR. 61 

had been hard at work since August 13, 1898. When the news 
was brought that the regiment, as a whole, had been ordered 
out, and the Cuartel de Espana was to be left forever, men went 
about their duties with sprightly step. Colonel Summers sup- 
posed when he first received information that he was to take the 
field that all of his companies would be relieved from other 
duties and assembled. When the order was issued it only 
provided that seven should act with him in the flying brigade, 
organized under General Wheaton, to operate up the Pasig. At 
the last moment this number was cut down by one by General 
Hughes ordering that Company A should not leave patrol duty 
in the Binondo. Colonel Summers, therefore, marched out to 
San Pedro Macati on the afternoon of March 12th with Com- 
panies B, D, E, I, L, and M. After such a long period in 
quarters it was expected that the Oregon men would be slow 
to get started. The contrary was evident. The command was 
under way at precisely the appointed hour, receiving quite an 
ovation from the battalion of the Seventeenth Infantry that 
had been sent to occupy the old quarters. 

General Wheaton's brigade camped a short distance beyond 
the church at San Pedro Macati, taking advantage of an ele- 
vated turnpike running almost parallel with the trenches that 
had been erected by the American troops during the lull in 
fighting. A heavy shower that made camping disagreeable 
did not dampen the ardor of the fighting men. By daylight 
the following morning the long line was forming behind the 
American trenches, which they were soon to leave to the rear 
in the charge. Insurgents were strongly fortified near the 
river at the old Guadalupe church and in the rough country 
thereabout. The plan of battle was to hold the left of the line 
facing this district stationary until the right swung around on 
the flank of this position, when the pivot should charge. The 
Washington Volunteers were assigned to the extreme left, 
which was supported by the Laguna de Bay on the Pasig; the 
Oregon men joined the right, and were joined on the right by 
the Twentieth Infantry, while the Twenty-second Infantry was 
given the right wing, supported by two troops of the Fourth 
Cavalry. Washington and Oregon, holding the pivot of the 
movement, and being confronted by the very formidable works 



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62 OREGON VOLtJNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

in the rough district around Guadalupe, were expected to 
experience the hard fighting. Shortly after the break of day 
the advancing right met resistance of a light order. The Krag 
volleys were distinct to both sides at Guadalupe. Then the 
Laguna de Bay and two guns of the Sixth Artillery opened on 
the trenches in front of the left. Between the rattle of the 
rapid-fire and machine guns on the boat and the heavier ord- 
nance, the neighboring hills reverberated with a startling roar. 
The bombardment was too much for the native soldiers. Their 
fire, that commenced rather briskly as the Oregon regiment 
passed over the intrenchments into the open field, slackened 
quickly. 

Colonel Summers had formed his line behind the old ceme- 
tery, through which ran the line of trenches, terminating at 
the river in San Pedro Macati. Major Gantenbein commanded 
the First Battalion on the right, and Major Willis the Second 
Battalion on the left. Not a shot had been fired as the troops 
passed over the Washington entrenchments into the open that 
had been swept by bullets for many months. The line had barely 
straightened out after winding over the wall before Mausers 
began to pelt through it. Quickly getting all into position, the 
men were ordered to lie down, which position they retained 
during the brief bombardment immediately following. The 
ColoneFs orders were to join the left of the Twentieth, which 
was supposed to move but little, pursuant to the flanking plan 
of the day. It soon became evident that a miscalculation had 
been made as to the space to be covered, and also that the com- 
mander of the Twentieth was little observing the generally 
understood purposes. The left of that regiment extended across 
the ground intended for the Oregon men, reaching nearly as 
far as should the left of the latter, and as soon as the Filipinos 
weakened under the bombardment, the Twentieth moved 
promptly forward, bearing all in front of the left as fast, if not 
faster, than the right of the line could move. Then Colonel 
WhoUey, of the First Washington, decided to charge. He 
passed over the Oregon's right, which was endeavoring to keep 
in touch with the Twentieth's left, and charged up a hill in 
front of Guadalupe, only to find when he reached the top that 
the enjcroaching left of the Twentieth was squarely in the front 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 63 

of his right. Owing to the jam caused by these conditions, 
Colonel Summers had taken Major Willis' battalion off the line, 
holding it in reserve, and later reported to General Wheaton 
that his command had been crowded out altogether. The 
General complimented the Colonel for the faithfulness with 
which his instructions had been carried out, and ordered him 
to march down to. the river road, where he should await instruc- 
tions before advancing. Later in the afternoon the brigade 
proceeded up the Pasig, with but trifling resistance, in the order 
of the day's formation — the Twenty-second covering the foot- 
hills and in front, followed by the Twentieth, Oregon, and 
Washington. That night the Oregon companies camped at a 
village called Malapat na Bato, about three miles east of Guada- 
lupe. 

Next morning, March 14th, the whole column got under way 
again, the wagon trains being between the Oregon and Washing- 
ton regiments. As the heavil}^ laden bull-carts started around 
a small point in the river just above the Oregon camp, a num- 
ber of insurgent sharpshooters posted across the Pasig both on 
the mainland and the first island of the Pasig delta directed an 
accurate Mauser fire into the column at long range. One bull 
was struck in the neck and two or three men were grazed, but 
none seriously wounded. Sharpshooters were thrown out along 
the river bank, and also formed on the crest of a little hill, 
from which positions the fire was returned for several minutes 
with spirit. The members of the Twentieth were soon called 
forward to a point above where they could reach the sharp- 
shooters menacing the wagon-train, leaving only Springfields 
to drive them out. The range varied from 1,000 to 2000 yards, 
an effective distance for Mausers, but beyond the reach of 
the old, large-calibre Springfield. However, a skirmish line 
returned the fire. Colonel Summers asked the General that 
he be given transportation for a couple of companies to cross 
the Pasig so they could advance to the shore of the narrow 
branch on the other side of the island, thus driving all from 
the mainland and enabling the men to approach those on the 
island to within easy range. After much delay a launch was 
placed at his disposal for this purpose, and Companies E and I 



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64 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

were taken over to the north bank, under command of Major 
Willis, and accompanied by the Colonel and his staff. 

Forming in the brush covering the rough hillside, the two 
companies pushed forward without resistance until they came 
to the edge of a low, level bottom bordering the narrow branch 
of the river. From the brow of the hill an effective fire was 
opened on the remaining sharpshooters in the flat. These 
were quickly driven out. Under the fire of half of Company 
I, left on the hill, Company E and the remainder of I, charged 
down through the cornfields of the flats right to the edge of 
the water. As soon as the line emerged from the foliage the 
insurgents in trenches across the river opened a heavy fire. 
This was replied to with such spirit that the Filipinos left that 
part of their position moving up stream. The other half of 
Company I having Joined, the command was given '*by the left 
flank," until opposite the Filipinos again, when the first ex- 
perience was repeated. By this method the Colonel pushed the 
insurgents back until he thought there would be no difficulty 
encountered by the wagon-train and then withdrew down the 
river to the point where the companies had crossed that morn- 
ing, taking Private Olsen of Company E and Private Dodson 
of Company F, both wounded in the feet. 

While this attack was in progress, Lieutenant Colonel Yoran 
and Major Gantenbein attempted to move the train past the 
danger point. More of the insurgents got into position on the 
island at places where they were not exposed to the fire of the 
two companies on the other mainland, and gave the train sev- 
eral heavy volleys. Private Carden of Company D was shot 
through the body. A considerable distance fully commanded 
by the enemy was in front, and it was not deemed advisable to 
make further attempts to pass the wagon-train until the danger 
had been reduced. The command occupied again the camp 
of the night previous. 

Companies D and M, under command of Lieutenant Colonel 
Yorah, relieved three companies of the Washington Volunteers 
as wagon-train guard next morning. Major Gantenbein, com- 
manding B and L, took a position on the right bank of the 
Pasig at such an elevation that a fire could be directed into the 
town of Pasig, which was to be assaulted that day. Companies 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 65 

E and I, under Major Willis, again crossed the river to the 
position they fought on the day previous. When the Twen- 
tieth and Twenty-second charged into Pasig the four companies 
under Major Gantenbein and Major Willis opened fire. Major 
Willis pushed his command up the branch of the river until 
he was one and one half m^iles above Pasig City, and in a posi- 
tion. for an effective flank fire on the insurgents fighting the 
two regiments in their front. Excellent work was accom- 
plished. Just how many Filipinos were killed could not be 
ascertained, but evidence existed that the number was large. 
Private Oesch of Company E was slightly wounded in the thigh, 
that being the only casualty in the Oregon regiment. March 
18th, the camp of the regiment was shifted a mile and a half 
farther up the river, from which Companies B, D, E, I, and L, 
under command of Colonel Summers and Majors Gantenbein 
and Willis, started early the following morning on the longest 
march of the Philippine campaign. General Wheaton decided 
to sweep the whole country through to the shore of the lake. 
The five Oregon companies formed the center, with the Wash- 
ington regiment on the left and the Twenty-second on the 
right. From 6 a. m. to 11 a. m. this line swept steadily for- 
ward, clearing every district where any opposition wa^ found. 
The Filipinos fought from vantage points, only to feel them- 
selves borne back in every quarter. Until the line halted at 
11 A. M. there had been almost constant fighting, increasing to 
much severity in some positions. Private Page, Company D, 
was killed, and Corporal Bowne was wounded in the left thigh. 
Tired, footsore, and hungry, the members of the Second Ore- 
gon reached their old camp at Malapat na Bato late that after- 
noon, completing a march of at least twenty miles, and by 
some said to be thirty. With the usual fighting ammunition, 
a day's rations and ordinary equipage, including a haversack 
heavily bobbing against the legs, and the long Springfield 
bayonet, diversifying the time by tripping the bearer, a march 
of twenty-five miles in the hot season of Luzon is no small 
achievement. 

On the evening of the 19th Company A, Captain Heath, joined 
the regiment at its camp. The company had been ordered 
to start when the regiment first joined the flying brigade, but 



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66 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

was held, to the bitter disappointment of its members, until 
the 19th. The same sentiment of disappointment, unsweet- 
ened by any argument that could be produced, weighed heavily 
on every Oregon man left on provost guard dutjr when his 
regiment took the field. Besides Company A in Binondo, 
Company F was at the palace and Company H at the custom- 
house. No event in the regiment's history produced thoughts 
so much akin to insubordination as did this apparently unjust 
course of still holding a part of the regiment to the nagging 
guard duty faithfully performed for six months. To the credit 
of the Oregon regiment, however, it may be said that duty with 
the disappointed was never slighted, for they had confidence 
that their company commanders, as well as the Colonel, would 
wrench them from the iron grasp of the provost marshal gen- 
eral as soon as possible. 

THE MALOLOS CAMPAIGN. 

In view of the Malolos campaign, then being planned, all 
troops were eager to get into one of the brigades intended for 
that work. Oregon was ordered from the Pasig March 20th, 
and camped on the Reina Christina drive, between the Walled 
City and the bay. There the command was joined by Major 
Eastwick, with Companies C, G, and K from the water system, 
and Company F from the palace, March 22d. Great comfort 
was taken from the fact that the regiment was again to be in 
General Wheaton's brigade. It at least insured a fighting posi- 
tion, for that general had demonstrated his fighting capacity. 

Orders were received to march out to Caloocan on the 24th, 
where General Wheaton's brigade was to rendezvous. The old 
churda was reached by the regiment before noon. From that 
hour until after twilight the men rested and prepared for what 
they were told would be a hard day's work on the morrow. 
When night had settled down so that the movement f)i men 
was discernible by the watchful enemy only a short distance 
beyond the trenches, held by the Twentieth Kansas, the work 
of moving that command out and putting the Oregons in com- 
menced. Silently one section filed from the high breastworks, 
and as silently a corresponding section would march in. So 
accurately did the Filipinos shoot over the range where they 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 67 

had practiced for more than a month, and so close had they 
pushed their lines, that this change would have been accom- 
plished with much difficulty had it not been done without cre- 
ating any suspicion. As it was there were occasional shots to 
give the dusky figures flitting through the gloom an admoni- 
tion that danger lurked near. When the Oregon regiment 
had securely settled down the officers exhorted the men to get 
as much sleep and rest as possible. The outposts, sent a few 
yards beyond the trenches on ground the boys had never seen 
before, found the well calculated volleys fired occasionally by 
the Filipinos for their benefit rather terrifying. The Filipinos 
had studied the exact locations where outposts were stationed, 
and had placed their guns in daylight so they could sweep the 
ground. Beyond these stirring little incidents the regiment 
destined to fight the hardest battle of the Filipino campaign 
rested fairly well the night before the great day. 

At Malabon, another flank movement on the Filipinos had 
been planned, largely of the same character of that attempted 
at San Pedro Macati. General Wheaton's brigade, consisting 
of the Second Oregon, Twenty-second Infantry, and Third 
Infantry, was to constitute the pivot, resting on the shallow 
channel separating Malabon from the mainland. The right of 
the long line rested on the water system, ten miles distant, the 
First Colorado Regiment being the extreme wing. Between 
that command and the Second Oregon at Malabon were the 
Thirteenth Minnesota, First Nebraska, Fifty-first Iowa, Twen- 
tieth Kansas, Third Heavy Artillery, First South Dakota, 
Twenty-second Infantry, and Third Infantry. It had been cal- 
culated that the rough territory covered by the extreme right 
and center would require nearly a day, at the end of which 
time some of the above regiments at least would be on the 
flank and well to the rear of Malabon. Accordingly the officers 
of the Second Oregon understood that the left would not move 
forward until late in the afternoon of March 25th, or even 
possibly until the following morning. The soldiers had not 
filled their canteens in the morning, thinking it better to wait 
until the afternoon, so that water would be cooler and fresher. 
They were idly lounging in the secure trenches, about 8:30 
A. M., when word was passed down the line that a charge was 



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68 OKEGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAE. 

to be made immediately. Hastily strapping on their equip- 
ments and arranging for such an event, the men of the Second 
Oregon commenced their part of the Malabon fight a few min- 
utes later by firing a couple of volleys at the enemy's trenches 
in front. Then came the command, ''Over the trenches !" 

The regiment at that moment was arrayed in the usual order. 
The First Battalion on the right was commanded by Major 
Willis, in the absence of Major Gantenbein, who had been ap- 
pointed by General Otis a member of the Claims Commission 
then in session, and from which he could not be relieved for 
the Malolos campaign. Company B, Captain May, held the 
right of the battalion, Company E, Captain Davis, the left, 
Company I, Lieutenant Phillips, the right center, and Com- 
pany M, Captain Poorman, the left center. In command of 
the Second Battalion, stationed in the center, was Major East- 
wick, Company C, Captain Moon, held the right of the battalion, 
.Company F, Captain Case, the left, Company K, Captain Wor- 
rick, the right center, and Company G, Captain Barber, the left 
center. The Third Battalion, on the extreme left, was com- 
manded by Captain Heath, acting major, he being senior cap- 
tain of the regiment. Company D, Captain Prescott, held the 
right of the battalion. Company L, Captain Wells, the left, and 
Company A, Lieutenant Kelly, the center. 

All knew that the country in front of the trenches held by 
the Oregon men was strongly fortified. During the long period 
of the Twentieth Kansas there the Filipinos had been dili- 
gently digging trenches, taking advantage of every elevation, 
every hedge or covering. Some of the trenches, particularly 
what appeared to be the main line, supported by a blockhouse, 
were seen to be unusually large and formidable, and it seemed 
a waste to throw troops against them from the front until the 
place had been well shelled. However, the movement on the 
right, if carried forward as planned, would have brought sol- 
diers up on the flank and to the rear of these elaborate fortifi- 
cations, making them absolutely untenable without the neces- 
sity of more than a light struggle. In addition to the tangle 
of difficulties immediately in front there were numerous posi- 
tions over on the island where Malabon was situated, just a 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 69 

convenient range for Mausers, but beyond the range of Spring- 
fields, fronj which a deadly flank fire could be directed. 

Sharpshooters on the other side of this narrow neck of water 
could deliver a flank fire before the Kansas trenches were left, 
and each step forward brought the line into greater disad- 
vantages until it was not only enfiladed but shot at almost 
from the rear. One or two pieces of artillery, properl}^ placed, 
could have easily driven these sharpshooters from their posi- 
tions and saved the Oregon men from the fiercest of all fires. 

Shortly before 8:30 o'clock a. m. a couple of guns on the hill 
back of the trenches opened fire on the Filipino ditches in front. 
The wooden blockhouse was the first target, from which the 
insurgents fled as soon as they realized that it was being fired 
upon. The soldiers could be seen to scatter to the right and 
left into the deep ditches near by. As these localities were 
shelled lightly, they would scamper back towards the block- 
house, or some other seemingly safe position. As soon as the 
Oregon line showed over its trenches for the charge, the Fill- ' 
pinos could be seen running from several directions to get back 
into their positions, safe then, as the artillery ceased. 

Such were the foreboding conditions. No time was given 
for the right to swing around, no effort was made to use artil- 
lery. At 8:30 o'clock a. m. Colonel Summers received his 
orders to charge the enemy. He did not hesitate a moment. 
His men were ready in less time that it takes to tell it. They 
fired two volleys and clambered over into the open field. About 
fifty yards from the trench the line knelt and fired a few mo- 
ments at will. The fire of the enemy by this time had begun 
with full force. From Malabon and from the inscrutable for- 
tifications in front Mauser and Remington bullets poured into 
the advancing line. A few of the boys fell in this space. But 
little time was lost in halts. Advancing by rushes and then 
stopping to shoot only long enough for the men to regain their 
breath, was the order. The first Filipino trenches were not over 
two hundred yards distant when the charge commenced. These 
were soon approached so closely that the blacks tumbled out 
and sneaked into the next. But few of the enemy were caught 
there, as their retreat was well protected and but little stand 
was made, probably due to the knowledge that a more des- 



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70 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

perate stand of greater numbers would be made a little farther 
back. With these difficulties the right of the line grappled 
quite successfully, hardly halting in the onward movement. 
Down on the left greater obstacles, multiplied by the lack of 
knowledge of the situation, were to be overcome. There the 
Malabon fire told most heavily, and marshy land with few ac- 
cessible roads, completed a tangle that only the most deter- 
mined American spirit was equal to. A short distance from 
the starting point Captain Wells, commanding the extreme 
wing, found his way led through a tremendous bog. Through 
this, obliquely to the line of advance, lay the road to Malabon. 
By the time his men reached the road, footing on either side 
was nearly impossible to find. Taking one section he got on 
the road and started forward, but was met with such a deadly 
fire that the attempt was abandoned. Five of his men fell 
almost at the same instant. Only four or five remained unin- 
jured out of the entire platoon when he finally succeeded in 
getting the wounded back again where he could rejoin the line, 
the captain himself bearing a bullet mark across the abdomen. 
The left had also by this time become exposed to a heavy fire 
from a trench constructed in the marsh on the mainland. The 
line was passing it, which enabled the occupants to enfilade 
the Oregons at close range. A stubborn charge carried this 
with light loss. The center of the line was exposed about as 
much as the left, but had better ground to walk on. Once a 
slough that reached to the middle of the men had to be forded, 
which left their feet and legs wet, foul, and heavy. Closely 
following the first line of trenches came a second, about equal 
in strength and well shielded by bushes and trees. Over this 
the boys went without pausing to observe the extent of their 
conquest. Besides these niore distant lines were numerous 
rifle-pits and fortifications of a minor order, each well stocked 
with Filipino soldiers and each equally difficult to discover 
and capture. Along in the late morning the outlines of the 
massive entrenchments, which surpassed all others and which 
marked the end of organized opposition to the regiment that 
day, hove in sight. This line was near the banks of the Tulia- 
han River, east of Malabon. Engineering skill far in advance 
of any ever possessed by the Filipinos had directed the con- 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 71 

struction, both for the resistance of infantry and as a protection 
against shrapnel or round shot. A massive bank from fifteen 
to forty feet thick had been thrown up in front, an abrupt edge 
on the side used by the Filipinos being secured by the use of 
bamboo wickerwork. Through the bank at regular intervals 
had been cut portholes, held in shape by bamboo and protected 
at the outer end by stones, arranged to give assailants' bullets a 
turn into the bank unless they struck exactly the center of the 
little opening. These portholes and the ditch had been covered 
over with bamboo structures, on which had been heaped from 
one to three feet of earth, making them shrapnel proof. Artil- 
lery could have made poor headway there. As soon as the 
Oregon soldiers rushed on to this veritable tunnel no one was 
visible. Bullets came whistling from it with terrible frequency, 
and if the little portholes were closely examined, there could 
be seen thin puffs of vapor. The soldiers never faltered in front 
of this new form of danger. They were accustomed to push 
steadily forward wherever there were Filipinos to be faced. 
A rousing American cheer soon announced that the boys had 
climbed to the top and were digging the moles out from be- 
neath. Many of the Americans fell while crossing the space 
immediately in front of the ditch. When the top had been 
gained, it was their time to reverse the destructive weapon. 
The Filipinos stood their ground so tenaciously that when at 
last the soldiers were upon them, and death must result from 
any further delay, they could not make an exit with the same 
sly deftness that protected them while leaving the other ditches. 
The soldiers shot many of them, either as they were getting out 
of the fortifications or endeavoring to find shelter in the brush 
and ruins in the narrow strip between there and the river. 
But the pursuit did not stop there. A pretty fair protection 
for the enemy was found in the ruins of an old church a short 
distance on. Through these the soldiers hurried, knocking 
over every Filipino that was seen dodging around the great 
blocks of stone and concrete. Often the pursued would rise 
only a few feet distant from the Americans, fire his gun squarely 
in their faces, and coolly meet the swift death that followed. A 
few of the boys had exceedingly narrow escapes in experiences 
of this character. The soldiers never checked until the river 



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72 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

had been reached. Here the Colonel was hastily approached 
by an orderly from General Wheaton with orders to halt. The 
General had watched the advance closely throughout the day. 
His spirits rose higher as he saw the line plunge on and on. 
When the required ground had been covered he turned to his 
aides with a request for an orderly. Not finding one at hand, 
he became impatient and called, '^Get an orderly here, quick, 
to catch those Oregonians, or they will be out of the country 
before we can stop them." 

STUBBORN FIGHTING AT MALABON. 

Malabon field presented difficulties found on no other field 
during this campaign. The Twenty-second Infantry, on Ore- 
gon's right, had comparatively light work. The long fighting 
line of that day met stubborn resistance, particularly at San 
Francisco del Monte and in the vicinity of La Loma church, 
but nowhere was there such a union of resistance with artificial 
and natural difficulties as in front of the Oregon soldiers on 
the left. That regiment, in number killed and wounded, forti- 
fications captured, speed of work and fearlessness of execution, 
made the most remarkable fight of the campaign. 

The German Consul in Manila, visited the field two days 
later, investigating the cause of the accidental death of Prince 
Loewenstein. When he looked at the formidable works from 
which the Filipinos had been driven by infantry, he asked 
what troops did the work. Being informed that it was the 
Second Oregon Volunteers, he simply said, "I take off my hat 
to the American volunteer.'' That is the tribute of a skeptical, 
prejudiced authority. The Second Oregon does not need to 
refer to the volume of praise, welling from all quarters, to estab- 
lish its title to the noble qualities of American soldiers. 

On the field of Malabon there was not the opportunity for 
individual daring. The whole line swept steadity onward, 
needing only command to go slower, halt and fight from cover. 
No one could distance his comrades, because these comrades 
strove with all human energy to keep in the front. The 
Colonel remained largely with the right and center, from which 
positions he commanded the entire line. Lieutenant Colonel 
Yoran was more with the left of the line. Each of the majors 



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OBEGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 73 

vied with the other in keeping the battalions fully abreast. 
With rare exceptions captains led the way into difficulties, not 
because the men hesitated, but because they were told to follow. 
Particular mention was often made by the American papers 
published in Manila of the hospital work of the Oregon detach- 
ment at Malabon. Major Ellis established his field hospital in 
the Caloocan railroad station, with an additional receiving tent 
immediately behind the Kansas trenches, which, though dan- 
gerous to the major, his assistants and the attendants, was easily 
reached. When the line moved forward temporary stations 
were established closely behind, where Captain Brosius, Lieu- 
tenant Anderson, and Steward Byars gave hasty dressing be- 
fore the wounded were taken back to the receiving tent. In 
all portions there was much danger. Filipino sharpshooters, 
stationed with the willful purpose of shooting the wounded and 
hospital workers, kept up a constant fire wherever there was 
the sign of a Red Cross. Private Clark of Company A was 
taken to the tent with a slight wound in the arm, and was mor- 
tally wounded again while being lifted from the stretcher by 
Attendant Bollam to be dressed. Others receiving attention 
or working there had close calls for life. Contract Surgeon De 
Mays, attached to the regiment, and one of the surgeons from 
Admiral Dewey's flagship Olympia, who kindly volunteered, 
aided in the Oregons receiving a tent, where several wounded 
and exhausted regulars from the Twenty-second Infantry and 
the Third Infantry were also treated. 

CASUALTIES IN THE REGIMENT. 

Five Oregonians were killed outright on the field, and four 
died later in the hospital, two of the number expiring before 
midnight on the day of the battle. Those killed on the field 
were: Bert J. Clark, Company A, shot in the arm and back; 
William A. Cook, Company D, shot through the neck ; Guy 
Millard, Company L, shot in the abdomen; L. V. Strawder- 
man. Company L, shot in the stomach; H. B. Taylor, Com- 
pany L, shot in the chest; Herman P. Adams, Company B, 
wounded below the heart, died that night ; Charles R. Rupart, 
Company L, wounded in the right leg, and died late that after- 
noon from hemorrhage. He was too weak for an operation 



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74 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

when carried to the surgery, and received only temporary aid. 
Bert B. Chandler, Company C, wounded in the head, lived until 
April 15th, when he died. George Eichhamer, Company G, 
was wounded in the abdomen, the ball passing through the 
liver. He died April 26th from an abscess on the liver, caused 
by the wound. 

The wounded were as follows : 

Company A — George C. Snyder, upper right chest ; Frank H. 
Thompson, head; William B. Ungerman, scrotum and thigh. 

Company B — William J. Armitage, arm. 

Company C — Elvin J. Crawford, head; Earl Mount, right 
arm ; Elmer 0. Roberts, right side ; James E. Snodgrass, right 
knee. 

Company D— First Sergeant James West, right hand and 
left leg; Sergeant A. Lee Morelock, left foot; J. C. Headlee, 
right arm and upper chest ; W. E. Searcy, through both but- 
tocks ; Asa L. Roberts, left ankle. 

Comj^anj/ £* — Lieutenant A. J. Brazee, adjutant First Bat- 
talion, left arm ; John E. Davis, left shoulder ; Jacob N. Smith, 
head. 

Company F — Charles Buedy, head. 

Company Gr^ Sergeant Charles A. Marcy, right side ; Albert 
H. Jordon, both legs; Eugene Sampson, right arm ; George 
W. Spicer, upper jaw. 

Company I — Corporal Rudolph Gantenbein, right knee. 

Company K-^-^slj L. Antrim, left leg; Emmet L. Jones, 
back ; John Janzen, back ; William P. Schwartz, left shoulder. 

Company L — Captain Harry L. Wells, abdomen; Sergeant 
W.W.Wilson, right hand; Guy N. Sanders, right arm and 
neck; C. E. Sanders, left leg; W. T. Allen, thigh; B. F. Dun- 
seth, right foot ; John A. Bailey, right arm and hand ; Frank 
E. Adams, right side. 

Company M — Corporal Brady F. Burnett, right shoulder; 
Corporal L.G. Holland, left shoulder and arm ; John H. Blosser, 
face; Emmet Casper, right foot ; A. J. Califf, right arm. 

Edward Colgan, quartermaster sergeant of Company K, was 
wounded in the right leg by a piece of bursting shell. Edward 
Jaques, Company M, was wounded in the left hand by a rifle 
exploding. Gordon A. Peel, orginally a private in the Oregon 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 75 

regiment, and then a member of the Hospital Corps, U. S. A., 
attached to the regiment, was wounded in the left hand and 
left cheek. Peter West, also an Oregon man, but then a mem- 
ber of the regular Hospital Corps, was shot through the head 
while driving an ambulance wagon to receive the Oregon 
wounded. 

When the Oregon line reached the bank of the Tuliahan 
River, on the afternoon of March 25th, it was discovered that 
the Filipinos had earthworks on the opposite side, where they 
could command the bridge and crossings. It was the opinion 
of many that the bridge could be passed without much loss, 
but orders were to hold the south bank for the night. A pretty 
strong fire was still coming from Malabon and the brush gen- 
erally. Wherever possible to reach the enemy with Spring- 
fields, companies were placed in position to return the fire, 
and some effect was noticed at 1,000-yard ranges. The sol- 
diers, with bayonets and other improvised tools, commenced 
to erect earthworks for the night. Behind these the tired men 
found no trouble in sleeping, despite the intermittent hostilities 
of the enemy. A small squad from Company E advanced 
across the broken span of the stone bridge manifesting much 
coolness in the venture. They had barely secured a position, 
to be held as an outpost, when they heard the stealthy tread of 
a Filipino outpost approaching for the same purpose. The 
last arrivals were given a volley that killed four of their num- 
ber and sent the remainder back in hasty retreat. 

With the dawn of morning the regiment was again under 
way. As the advance of the previous day brought the line 
more and more under the deadly fire from the left, the Colonel 
disposed the troops so as to partly face that direction to reply, 
and when the halt was made at night the entire regiment 
occupied positions opposing Malabon, the First Battalion on 
the right, reaching the stone bridge opposite Tinajeros, and the 
left occupying advantageous points nearer the point started 
from on the morning of the 25th, During the night of the 
25th the Filipinos all along this front withdrew, so that the 
Oregon men had to develop their foe again before beginning 
the fight. A scouting party of eight men from Company A, 
under Sergeant Deich, and three men under Sergeant Bartell 



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76 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

of Company L, crossed the stretch of shallow water in front of 
the left into Malabon proper. These men pushed forward until 
they had penetrated the center of the city, passing in the mean 
time evidence of hasty entrenchments thrown up during the 
night. By the time the big stone church was reached flames 
had burst forth from various quarters, particularly about the 
business section, and the church itself had begun to smoke. 
The two squads tried to extinguish these at the risk of being 
surrounded by insurgents, who they knew could not be distant. 
Sergeant Deich, becoming separated from the other men, en- 
countered an insurgent officer and two soldiers, apparently 
engaged in plying the torch. One of these was shot and the 
other two fled. An Englishman named Bates, interested in a 
large sugar refinery in Malabon, who had been inside the city 
during the whole trouble, informed the soldiers that three 
thousand insurgents had hastily retreated from the city when 
the scouting party approached, believing it was the vanguard 
of the regiment entering the city. These troops fled across to 
the mainland on the north side, being slightly exposed to the 
shells of the fleet then firing into such positions as seemed to 
be occupied by the armed Filipinos. The scouting parties 
finally withdrew and joined the regiment at Malinta. 

The regiment crossed the Tuliahan in front of the village of 
Tinajeros, the broken span of the stone bridge being supplanted 
by a wooden structure. Slight opposition was found soon after 
reaching the other bank. At 11 a. m. the First and Second 
Battalions, under Majors Willis and Eastwick, respectively, 
with the Third Battalion, under Captain Heath, in support, 
advanced in skirmish order against a district a short distance 
south of Polo, which was known to be entrenched. The road 
leading from Polo forked at the point where the regiment 
deployed. The First Battalion, composed of Companies B, M, 
E, and I, advanced straight ahead, and directed their attention 
to a fire from the right front coming across a slough. Major 
Eastwick, with Companies C, F, G, and K, was ordered to oppose 
the fire from a marsh and the bushes on the left. He deployed 
his men and started forward, but found the marsh impassable 
for a line of infantry and assembled again into column of fours, 
in order to pass through the wet land where he could reach the 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 77 

enemy. While marching up an open glade, ridged as usual 
with rice fields, a furious fire from the front and left was poured 
into the column. Everybody lay down instantly, and then by 
rushes, Companies C, G, and K were deployed to respond, while 
Company F was held in support. Getting into position on this 
bullet-swept space tested the nerve of the officers and soldiers 
most thoroughly, but was accomplished without more than two 
men being wounded. Advances by rushes against the trenches 
in front and heavy volley firing by the Second Battalion, and 
also by Companies A, D, and L, under Captain Heath, which 
came up, quieted the enemy. 

Companies B and M had great difficulties to overcome, par- 
ticularly B, which was advancing in an open space, absolutely 
without protection, against most formidable blind entrench- 
ments. Company M had the shelter of low bushes that made 
its work less hazardous. At no time during the war, probably, 
was there a heavier fire than Company B, under Captain May, 
faced before it rushed the Filipinos from their position. A 
circular trench, rather to the left, a longer straight ditch imme- 
diately in front, and the bushes off to the right, where com- 
panies E and I were engaged, all had their deadly fire, and in 
the half-hour required for Company B to gain the position it 
was certainly most marvelous that not a man was killed. A 
few of the boys had holes through their clothing and hats, and 
some of those in support at the rear were wounded. One 
Hotchkiss gun, in charge of a corporal from the "^Hah Light 
Artillery and manned by eight Oregon men, was an especial 
object for insurgent bullets. The gun came up for position, 
but could not be used, owing to the line in front. Leo B. 
Grace of Company A was wounded while attending it. 

MORE MEN WOUNDED. 

The Oregon wounded were: Leo B. Grace, Company A, 
wounded in the neck ; Frank Woodruff, Company C, wounded 
in the left heel; Richard E. Brickdale, Company F, wounded 
in the left leg; E. C. Thornton, Company G, wounded in left 
hand; Corporal Frank E. Edwards, Company M, wounded 
through both legs, and Daniel C. Bowman, Company D, injured 
in hand by accidental discharge of rifle. 



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78 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

When these trenches were captured Polo was in sight, and 
off to the right could be seen the North Dakota and Montana 
regiments charging the insurgent lines. If the Oregon men 
had been permitted to go on they would have been able to 
capture Polo long before any other troops arrived, and the 
regiment's position where it was, which was practically behind 
Malinta, was sufficient to enforce the evacuation of that city, 
then being attacked from the other side. Colonel Summers 
received orders to retire to Malinta, which were obeyed. Then 
there was no resistance in front of the command. 

A SAD ACCIDENT. 

A most unfortunate incident of the day was the death of the 
German Prince, Loewenstein Wertheim, in a small hut in the 
course of Company M's charge. The Prince had been repeat- 
edly warned that day, by both Colonel Summers and Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Yoran, not to venture beyond the firing line, and 
also that if he did so it would be at his own risk. Contrary to 
these instructions he and a comrade named Niggle had gone 
ahead and were in this little hut in the brush when a squad 
of Company M, during the charge, approached. Instead of 
making his presence known in the ordinary way he called out 
in Filipino. The boys, thinking some of the treacherous enemy 
occupied the hut, riddled it with bullets, one of which pierced 
Loewenstein's abdomen, and the other the arm of Niggle. 
Despite all prompt medical attention the Prince died soon 
after. 

At Malinta the regiment remained for some time. On the 
27th of March the Third Battalion, consisting of Companies 
A, D, and L, went back to Caloocan to guard that district and 
furnish guards for the train being operated on the Manila and 
Dagupan track. The following day Companies D and E were 
sent into Malabon to act as a provost guard of that city, and 
Company M took Company D's place at Caloocan. A portion 
of Company L was stationed in Tondo, and the remainder at 
La Loma church — Blockhouse No. 2. 

AN EXCURSION TO OBANDO. 

On the 28th Major Willis, commanding Company I, under 
Captain Phillips, and a platoon of Company B, under Captain 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 79 

May, made a long excursion to the north and east, passing 
through Polo and on to Obando, near the shore of the bay. 
Returning the command came through Malabon, entering from 
the north and found some large buildings there still burning. 
On the same day Major Eastwick, commanding Company C, 
Captain Moon, and a platoon of Company G, Lieutenant Sutton, 
made an excursion to the east, a distance of two or three miles, 
and returned through Polo, capturing during the march three 
natives armed with knives. Again on the 29th Major Willis, 
commanding Companies B and I, penetrated five miles to the 
northeast without discovering the enemy in an organized body, 
but succeeded in capturing eleven prisoners. April 1st Major 
Eastwick, in command of one hundred men, selected from Com- 
panies C, G, and K, went out east over five miles scouting, when 
the flankers were opened on by about forty insurgents. After 
a brief skirmish the Filipinos were dispersed, with slight loss. 
There was no loss in the major's command. April 4th Com- 
pany L returned to Caloocan, and on the 5th Companies A, L, 
and M moved on the train to Marilao. Company F had been 
placed at Meycauayan on the railroad track. On the 6th Com- 
panies D and E left Malabon and joined the regiment at Ma- 
linta, the next day moving further north to Bocaue. Major 
Willis on the 7th, with Companies B and I, marched northeast 
until Novaliches was reached. During the trip insurgent bugle 
calls and shots were heard, but no enemy developed. On the 
same day Captain Wells left Marilao with fifty men and ad- 
vanced to within a short distance of Santa Maria, where a few 
shots were exchanged with the insurgent outposts in front of 
that city. The little command withdrew without casualties. 
Major Eastwick again on the 8th marched to the northwest 
with seventy-five men from Companies C, G, and K, as far as 
Obando without finding the enemy. Pour men under Sergeant 
Deich of Company A scouted clear around Santa Maria, on the 
10th, for the purpose of discovering the nature of the fortifica- 
tions there. They approached near from behind, but were 
driven back by the insurgents. The same day. Lieutenant 
Telfer, with twelve men of Company L, made a scout three 
miles to the east and encountered the enemy. 

The Oregon men had during this period been simply guard- 



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80 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

ing the railroad track from Malinta as far north as Bocaue. 
The American line on the north had, in the mean time, been 
pushed on to Malolos, which was taken by General McArthur's 
division, and the railroad had been operated that far. Patrols 
were kept up nightly between the various camps to prevent 
insurgents from destroying the track, and where the camps 
were quite distant, strong outposts were placed between them to 
support the patrols. By instructions from General Wheaton, 
the troops had treated the Filipinos, claiming to be friendly 
disposed, with the utmost consideration, and aided them to 
reach the rice stacks and bins in the neighborhood. There 
was occasional firing on outposts or scouting parties, but in the 
main it was believed the district had been fairly pacified until 
the night of April 10th. 

AN ATTACK BY THE FILIPINOS. 

About 11:30 that night, the usual quiet of darkness was 
transformed into a hell for the lightly protected troops along 
the track. A command of Filipinos, variously estimated at 
from 1,000 upwards, stole in from the direction of Santa Maria 
on the right and first assaulted two Minnesota camps above 
the Oregon district. At 11:30 they began to envelop the camp 
of Companies D and E at Bocaue. These companies main- 
tained a guard of six men at the station on the track, three 
quarters of a mile from the city, where the remainder of the 
troops were quartered. Minnesota camps on both sides volley- 
ing down the track, and the insurgents from the east made it 
necessary to withdraw these towards the city. Insurgents took 
the station and moved down to the opposite bank of the river 
from Bocaue. A pontoon bridge connected with the city. The 
stone church was manned by Captains Prescott and Davis, and 
a platoon took a position along the river to preveilt insurgents 
from crossing. A mess-cart and two buffaloes, owned by the 
companies, and left on the side next to the station, were cap- 
tured. The troops fired across the river with good effect, as 
the insurgents withdrew back to the station, carrying their 
wounded and dead. The Minnesota camp on the north called 
for assistance, and Lieutenant Dunbar of Company E with 
twenty men from each com^)any, E and D, wound his way 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 81 

through the darkness to assist the beleaguered Minnesotans. 
He passed the camp and fell upon a number of insurgents 
a little beyond, whom he routed. His presence caused the 
others to hastily withdraw to avoid a flank movement. At 
dawn the lieutenant moved off toward Santa Maria, reaching 
the road leading to that city, while there were about one hun- 
dred and fifty of the insurgents withdrawing from Bocaue. 
Opportunity seemed most favorable for cutting off the entire 
number, but Lieutenant Dunbar was ordered by the senior 
Minnesota officer to desist, as the latter thought the insurgents 
were American troops. Notwithstanding that they were not 
allowed to charge, the forty men fired at from six to eight hun- 
dred yards with such effect that nineteen of the fleeing insur- 
gents were killed. 

At Marilao a fiercer contest raged with worse results to the 
Americans. Captain Heath, in command of Companies A, L, 
and M, had, in obedience to instructions, posted an outpost of 
twelve men and one corporal, one mile from the camp at both 
the north and south ends of the track. These were General 
Wheaton's orders to protect outposts so distant, the two placed 
on each side of the track, had to be well out and were nearly 
three quarters of a mile away. The two side outposts on the 
north consisted of twelve men each, while the two in the cor- 
responding positions on the south were only six each. Lieu- 
tenant Kelly was the officer of the day. The outposts toward 
the north reported two or three times during the hours imme- 
diately after midnight that there were suspicious circumstances 
in their vicinity. These the lieutenant ordered to fire upon 
whatever assumed sufficiently suspicious proportions and to 
continue firing until they could ascertain if there was an enemy. 
Sergeant Deich of Company A being sergeant of the guard was 
sent up to the north track outpost about 3 o'clock to investigate 
reports received from there, but found nothing to justify state- 
ments. Immediately after returning a more ominous report 
was received from the same post, and Lieutenant Kelly order- 
ing Sergeant Deich to awaken a guard and follow started up 
the track. About a half-mile out the party was confronted by 
a long skirmish line of Filipinos across the track, who rose 
from the ground and fired not one hundred yards distant. 



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82 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

The volley was terrific, but no one was hurt, and the lieuten- 
ant, finding the Filipinos in force between him and his outpost, 
returned hastily to camp. Firing was then general, as the 
troops, half-clad, had rushed from their tents as soon as the 
lieutenant \\as fired upon. To the newly awakened soldiers 
the constant flashes through the darkness and the buzz and 
whiz of bullets through their camp appeared terrible. Every 
one stood determined, however, with the ultimate result that 
the attack from the north was repulsed. The experiences of 
the north track outpost under Corporals Lipes and Collard of 
Company A were thrilling. They found themselves enveloped 
by the enemy before they could open fire, and retreat to camp 
was cut off by a solid line that joined across the track below 
them. Then they noticed that there was another line of Fili- 
pinos back of them, who were apparently bolo men in reserve. 
Nothing but quiet seemed hopeful to these men, and the two 
corporals conducted the squad into a depression fairly well 
screened from the Filipinos. In this they remained until the 
Filipinos changed their line an hour or so later, having the 
uncomfortable experience of hearing the volleys of Springfield 
slugs fired from camp whiz over their heads while the fight 
was in progress. 

The two side outposts on the north of twelve men each 
worked their way in earlier, one of them being fired upon as 
they came, and hearing the shouts from the Filipinos at the 

rear, ''Run, you Americano -; got enough of it now ?'' 

Corporals Lipes and Collard, during a lull in the firing, finally 
worked their men in under a renewed fire from the enemy who 
discovered them when they started down the track. Private 
Myers shot one Filipino under a culvert passed over and another 
near by who shot at him when he killed the first. 

One of the side outposts on the south concealed themselves in 
trenches when the Filipinos began to work between them and 
the camp. All the others got in, save the one at the south end 
on the track, consisting of ten men, commanded by Corporal 
Rich of Company A. The corporal and five men secreted them- 
selves when they found the enemy between them and the camp, 
and remained until nearly morning. Four men — Henry Payne, 
Joseph Berry, Everett Millard, and Arthur PuUen of Company 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 83 

M, — started in immediately. A short distance nearer the 
camp they met R. B. Hoffman and a member of anotlier regi- 
ment, the latter of whom had fled from the construction car 
in Marilao when the firing commenced. Hoffman belonged 
to Company M and was guard at a bridge near the edge of the 
camp, when informed by the fleeing man from the construc- 
tion train that the camp was captared. The six men then 
started along the track in the opposite direction to the camp 
and ran into a large body of Filipinos concealed on both sides 
of the track. Payne and Hoffman were killed. Millard and 
Berry were badly wounded. Pullen and the stranger got away, 
the former with a bullet hole through his hat, fired almost 
under his nose. Millard and Berry were still alive when found 
next morning, but both had been fearfully mutilated by their 
savage foes and left for dead. Berry died shortly, but Millard 
recovered. 

Before break of day the vigorous fire poured into the Fili- 
pinos from the camp had changed their apparent purpose of 
capturing it. Lieutenant Kelly, with a platoon, discerned a 
line approaching his station at the south end. He permitted 
it to come fairly close, and then called out if they were Amer- 
icans. Receiving no reply, the platoon gave the advancing 
line a few volleys that sent them back in confusion. In the 
morning there was considerable evidence that the Filipinos 
had suffered, but in most instances they carried away their 
dead and wounded. In addition to those mentioned. Private 
Rommel of Company A was the only one of the Oregonians 
wounded, his wound being very slight. 

It was evident the insurgents making the night attack came 
from Santa Maria and were probably guided by some of the 
friendly Filipinos who had been coming daily to the camp for 
food. General Wheaton planned to destroy the latter city, and 
the Second Oregon, with the exception of Company M, left 
Marilao, and Company F,at Meycauayan, was massed at Bocaue 
on the 11th, together with the Thirteenth Minnesota and some 
artillery, for the attack. This column moved against Santa 
Maria early in the morning of the 12th with slight opposition. 
A pretty strong skirmish took place in front of the city. The 
First and Second Battalions, with the Third Battalion in re- 



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84 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISPI WAR. 

serve, formed on the left of the Minnesota troops. Colonel 
Summers took Companies B, I, and E of Major Willis' bat- 
talion and Companies A and L of Captain Heath's and pro- 
ceeded through a village near by named Pandi. The two places 
were destroyed, and all armed natives were put to flight. In 
a bureau in Santa Maria was found an article taken from the 
body of one of the murdered men of Company M. That night 
the entire command returned to their former camps on the rail- 
road track. From that time on the insurgents did not bother 
the Oregon outposts much, and a much friendlier spirit was 
shown by those pretending to be ^'amigos." 

Lieutenant Young of Company A was wounded in the foot by 
an insurgent scout while reclining on the ground only one hun- 
dred yards from camp April 15th. Private Walker of Company 
A accidentally shot himself in the foot on the 17th, the wound 
proving slight. An attack was made on the outposts at Malinta 
on the 17th by a few insurgents, who were easily driven back. 
That day Major Eastwick with fifty men made a trip through 
the northeastern country without locating any more of the 
enemy. Captain Moon with Company C left Malinta April 
18th to take a position at Meycauayan with Company F. Major 
Willis on the same day, in command of Companies B and I, 
made a long trip to the north and east without meeting oppo- 
sition. 

CAMPAIGNING WITH LAWTON. 

General Lawton's campaign up the Rio Grande de Pam- 
panga was being planned at this time, and Colonel Summers 
was chosen to command the Provisional Brigade to form his 
advance. The brigade was composed of seven companies of 
the Second Oregon— A, B, F, G, I, K, and L, eight companies 
of the Thirteenth Minnesota, Troop I, mounted. Fourth Cavalry, 
and one fieldpiece from the Utah Light Artillery. The brigade 
assembled at Bocaue, where General Lawton with a larger force 
was to move from La Loma church near Caloocan to meet it. 
Lieutenant Colonel Yoran then being in the hospital with acute 
dysentery, Major Willis commanded the regiment, Major East- 
wick the First Battalion and Captain Heath the Second Bat- 
talion. 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 50 

An early start of the Provisional Brigade on the 23d enabled 
it to pass through Santa Maria unopposed by 8 o'clock a. m. 
No enemy was found until the column was approaching Nor- 
zagaray at 4:20 p. m. The cavalry troop in advance under Lieu- 
tenant Boyd succeeded in dispersing the small body that first 
opened fire, but at 6:30 o'clock a larger force was encountered. 
Major Eastwick's battalion was deployed and bore the enemy 
back to the brow of the hill overlooking Norzagaray after a 
spirited engagement that lasted about half an hour. The field- 
piece shelled the city briefly from the hill, but darkness pre- 
vented further operation. That night the command retired 
a mile to a favorable camping place on a small stream. Early 
the following morning the attack was renewed, with the cavalry 
in advance, followed by a battalion of the Thirteenth Minnesota 
deployed, the First Battalion of the Second Oregon being in 
support. Off to the left of the line of advance were a number 
of sharpshooters, who kept up an annoying fire at long range. 
Companies B and F of the Oregons moved against them, and 
were later supported by two Minnesota companies, further along 
the road. After a sharper fight than that of the previous even- 
ing the Filipinos withdrew, leaving the city of Norzagaray in the 
hands of the Americans. Three Minnesota men were slightly 
wounded. The same day Captain Heath, commanding Compa- 
nies A, I, and L of the Second Oregon and a troop of cavalry, 
was sent down the road toward San Jos6 to see if General Law- 
ton's command was approaching. After a most exhausting 
march the infantry halted, and the cavalry proceeded until 
Lawton's men were met, when the battalion returned to Nor- 
zagaray. The effects of this little march were felt by the men 
for several days. 

Major Eastwick's battalion and the Third Battalion, Thir- 
teenth Minnesota, left Norzagaray at 5:50 a. m. of the 25th, 
with the fieldpiece, and moved southwest over a plateau until 
it overlooked the village of Angat. The fieldpiece under Ser- 
geant Anderson opened on Angat, and soon drew upon itself 
a hot fire from the city. To flank the enemy Company F was 
sent to the right and soon had a telling fire directed into the 
Filipinos. Under cover of this. Companies G, K, and B, of 
the Second Oregon, deployed to the left, followed by the Third 



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86 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

Battalion of the Minnesotas, who took position between the 
last three companies and Company F. As the line advanced 
upon Angat a hot fire was opened upon it, which soon ceased 
and the place was occupied. The Filipinos retreated across 
the river to a very desirable position on a bluff, from which 
they renewed the fight at longer range. Owing to the eleva- 
tion and the peculiar position occupied the artillery could not 
shake them. Company G was sent five hundred yards to the 
left and front on the river bank, from which place a flank fire 
was delivered that silenced the enemy. One man of the Thir- 
teenth Minnesota was slightly wounded in the arm. 

While the engagement was in progress at Angat a few insur- 
gents opened fire at the men in Norzagaray. A number of the 
boys were in the river bathing when the bullets commenced to 
drop around, leaving them little time for dressing. A man 
would be seen running through the streets with no other uni- 
form than a belt well filled with cartridges, yet diligently using 
his Springfield or Krag rifle. The number of insurgents were 
estimated at about fifty and were easily dislodged. General 
Lawton and his staff arrived in Norzagaray while the little 
fight was in progress. 

Another excursion was made to Angat by Major Eastwick, 
commanding Companies B, K, G, and F, on the 26th. The 
battalion was fired upon by numerous insurgent outposts and 
squads during the day, and in each instance returned the fire, 
with the result of killing eight of the enemy and capturing ten 
prisoners. None were lost on the American side. 

April 27th General Lawton, whose command had reached 
Norzagaray, instructed Colonel Summers to march on Marunco 
with his brigade. Major Eastwick with his battalion was sent 
over the first range of hills to the left, and met no resistance 
during the day. Captain Heath's battalion, with one battalion 
of the Thirteenth Minnesota under Major Diggles, crossed the 
river to reconnoiter the east bank. A few insurgents were 
engaged by this command under Major Diggles, but shooting 
was at long range, and did not continue more than a few 
minutes. Angat was passed and Marunco reached without 
further opposition. Two days later the brigade pushed for- 
ward to San Rafael, a city of some importance, but which was 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 87 

evacuated by the enemy without a fight. The Filipinos were 
then making overtures for peace at Manila, and General Lawton 
was ordered to stay his march until the conclusion of the nego- 
tiations and withdrew the Provisional Brigade from San Rafael 
back to Marunco. 

Campaigning during the rainy season was partly illustrated 
to the members of the brigade during their sojourn in and 
about Marunco. Rain fell in greater or less quantities almost 
daily, although the season proper was not supposed to com- 
mence until about the first of June. The first night in Marunco 
the command camped in rice fields. A heavy shower during 
the night flooded the tract, many of the soldiers awakening to 
find two inches of water around their beds. A hasty scramble 
to vacant huts near followed, the troops being allowed to occupy 
them in view of the excessive weather. 

During the marches and countermarches, beginning with 
Angat, the soldiers also had their first experience in wading 
rivers, a feature of the Pampanga campaign that told heavily 
on the health of the men. Foraging was forbidden, but the 
"government straight" provided for the American soldiers in 
Luzon was found a very short as well as undesirable article of 
subsistence, and the boys slyly bereft neighboring poultry 
yards of their products, and further enlivened their scant mess 
by procuring quantities of mangoes and such other fruit as 
could be obtained. 

An organization that later came into conspicuous prominence 
was perfected while the column rested at Marunco, generally 
known as Young's Scouts. This body of men was brought 
together and led by a civilian named W. H. Young, who had 
attracted the attention of General Lawton by his exceptional 
courage and skill as a scout. Young was given permission to 
ask for volunteers from the regiment in General Lawton's com- 
mand, and had under him as many as twenty, all told, six of 
whom went from the Second Oregon. These six were James 
Harrington of Company G, E. E. Lyons and M. W. Robertson of 
Company B, Frank High of Company G, Scott of Company 
— , and James B. O'Neal and M. B. Huntley of Company L. 
Some of the scouts were in every engagement, while others 
took part in only a few. This corps, led by Young until he 



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88 OKEGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

was wounded, and Lieutenant Thornton, Company B, Second 
Oregon, afterwards, performed some of the most daring work 
recorded in the Philippines, often meeting face to face far 
superior numbers with such intrepid courage and firm front 
as to rout all opposition. 

Lieutenant Colonel Yoran rejoined the command at Marunco, 
havingmade the journey across the country from Maloloswith 
a few of the other Oregon men reporting for duty from the 
hospital. Major Willis then took command of the First Bat- 
talion, composed of Companies A, B, 1, and L, as the lieutenant 
colonel took charge of the regiment, and Major Eastwick's bat- 
talion was composed of Companies F, G, and K. Peace nego- 
tiations failing, the advance was resumed May 1st. Colonel Sum- 
mer's brigade forded the stream near Marunco and was near 
San Rafaehwhen a body of insurgents, estimated at from four to 
five hundred posted along the crest of a ridge to the right of the 
city, and the line of march opened fire. Company A was 
advance guard, and as soon as the fire developed, Company L 
was sent forward to support it. The remaining two companies 
of Major Willis' command, Companies I and B, deployed on 
the same line immediately following and commenced the fight, 
Major Eastwick's battalion deploying on the right of the First. 
The insurgents withdrew^ back over the hills to the right, when 
the line advanced, and the two battalions made two half-left 
turns, until San Rafael had been rounded, and then assembled 
and marched into the city. Before the enemy finally broke 
they opened a heavy fire upon the two Oregon battalions from 
a hill covered with brush. It required a lively charge to drive 
them from their position, and three men were wounded while it 
was being made. These were Corporal Chamberlain and Private 
Smith of Company K and Private Reeves of Company A. Cham- 
berlain was wounded in the leg. Reeves in the knee, and Smith 
in the arm. This was the first engagement for the scouts, and 
they quickly demonstrated their value. One private in the 
Thirteenth Minnesota was killed. As this city had been occu- 
pied a few days prior without bloodshed, and was evacuated b}^ 
the Americans merely to give the Filipinos time to talk, the 
men felt that the loss the second time was useless. 

At the capture of Baliuag the regiment had its turn as train- 



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OKEGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 89 

guard, and did not participate in the fighting. The heavy firing 
ahead was so distant that there were no casualties among the 
Oregon men. It witnessed the escape of the Filipinos' bull- 
cart train, upon which Colonel Summers was directing a de- 
structive artillery fire when ordered to cease by General Lawton, 
whose staff officers claimed they saw a flag of truce in the 
column. Upon the General calling for a volunteer to meet the 
supposed flag, Captain Case of the Oregons, accompanied by 
Sergeant Major Marshall and Private Poindexter, went toward 
the Filipino column with another white flag. They had ap- 
proached within four or five hundred yards when the Filipinos 
gave them a fusillade that came near killing the whole party. 
By quickly covering themselves behind rice ridges the party 
finally succeeded in getting back. The train had by this time 
passed out of reach. At 1 p. m. Lieutenant Colonel Yoran was 
ordered to occupy Baliuag with his regiment and patrol the 
city, which was done. In this engagement the scouts also did 
excellent work. 

Two days later, May 4th, the Provisional Brigade captured 
Maasin, a village eight miles beyond Baliuag. The Thirteenth 
Minnesota Regiment was on the firing line that day, with the 
Oregon regiment in support. Companies A and L were de- 
ployed, but did not become engaged. Captain Heath was struck 
on the leg by a spent bullet that caused a contused wound. The 
Filipinos were driven from Maasin with comparatively light 
losses, only three of the Minnesota men being wounded. 

On both the 6th and 7th Major Willis conducted his bat- 
talion on reconnoitering expeditions near San Ildefonso, which 
lay two or three miles from Maasin in the direction of San 
Miguel. Numbers of the enemy were sighted, and they would, 
upon seeing the Americans, apparently form in battle, but no 
engagement was brought on either side. Sergeant Godfrey of 
Company B was out one day with three men digging sweet 
potatoes when a body of insurgents nearly surrounded them. 
Two of the men escaped to the camp and told an alarming 
story. Lieutenant Hamlin took about forty men out to rescue 
the other two, but they showed up a little later unharmed. 
Insurgent outposts going off duty in the morning would often 
creep as close to the American lines as possible, fire a few vol- 



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90 OKEJGON VOLtlNl^EERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

leys, and then retreat. May 8th Colonel Summers, Majors 
Willis and Eastwick of the Second Oregon, Major Diggles of 
the Thirteenth Minnesota, and Captain Case with Company F, 
Second Oregon, commanded by Lieutenant Grimm, and Com- 
pany K, Thirteenth Minnesota, commanded by Lieutenant 
Walsh, advanced to within a short distance of San Ildefonso, 
when they were fired upon while making observations. Major 
Diggles was struck in the head, from which he died several 
days later. Corporal Miller of Company F received a slight 
wound in the arm and leg. After a few return volleys the two 
companies were withdrawn. 

San Ildefonso was captured May 12th by the scouts, aided by 
Major Eastwick in command of Company B, Second Oregon, and 
Company H, Thirteenth Minnesota. The scouts commenced 
the attack and were given some heavy volleys by the insur- 
gents. Major Eastwick's two companies then opened on the 
center of the enemy, whereupon they retreated and the attack- 
ing party entered the city. Companies G, K, and F of the 
Second Oregon were sent up to the city that night to help 
them hold San Ildefonso should an attempt by made to recap- 
ture it. 

On the following day the formidable city of San Miguel, 
of which there had been so many reports, was captured by 
eighteen of Young's scouts, supported by Company A, Second 
Oregon, and one company of the Thirteenth Minnesota, com- 
manded by Captain Heath. This was a most daring piece of 
work. San Miguel had been reputed to be the Filipino strong- 
hold of that section of the country. Reports had it that the 
insurgents had artillery there and would make a desperate fight 
to hold the city. Young led his men straight against a line of 
entrenchments in which were from three hundred to six hun- 
dred insurgent soldiers, one wing of the works being protected 
by a river and the other by a dense growth of timber and 
brush. He disposed his men about fifty feet apart, and had 
one half advance at a time, so that the other half, concealed, 
could have opportunity to shoot the Filipinos exposing them- 
selves to shoot at the first. Alternating in this manner he 
pushed so close to the entrenchments that the enemy aban- 
doned them and retreated into the city from which they were 



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OKEGOK VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 91 

also driven. Young was wounded while at the approach of 
the bridge leading into the city, yet continued to fire while 
there were Filipinos in range. Harrington pushed across the 
bridge and drove a few sharpshooters from the tower of the 
stone church, where they had been doing effective work. Tak- 
ing the same position, he turned his weapon on the enemy with 
deadly execution. Captain Heath with his command was close 
to the rear of the scouts during the advance. He sent Sergeant 
Deich with eleven men to the right to approach the city from 
another quarter. This squad encountered three bodies of 
the retreating Filipinos and threw them into further confu- 
sion with a few well directed volleys. There were about one 
thousand Filipinos in the city when the attack commenced. 
Lieutenant Colonel Yoran with Companies K and I, Second 
Oregon, and two Minnesota companies came up that night 
from the brigade to help hold the city, and the remainder fol- 
lowed the next day. Young died of lockjaw, caused by blood 
poisoning, three days later in the hospital at Manila while an 
attempt was being made to amputate his leg. He had been 
struck in the knee by a brass-coated Remington bullet. 

Salacat, a small village on a fork of the Rio Grande, was 
captured on the 15th without much opposition. The scouts 
advanced toward San Isidro May 17th and found the enemy 
strongly entrenched at Tarbon bridge, a wooden structure of 
much importance, owing to the difficulties in crossing the 
stream without it. Lieutenant Thornton commanded them 
when they made this fight, which in daring and surprising 
achievement was barely second to San Miguel, Over two hun- 
dred Filipinos occupied a string of trenches admirably situated 
along the river bank fully commanding the bridge and its ap- 
proach. The brush had been cut for quite a distance on the 
opposite side to give the sharpshooters full view of the advan- 
cing foe. Tall grass nearly as high as a man's head covered 
most of the land adjacent to the river, and into this the scouts 
crept until they were upon the edge of the river. Here they took 
such protection as the few remaining bushes afforded and drove 
the Filipinos from the splendid works across the stream. As the 
enemy retreated they set fire to the wooden bridge. The sec- 
tion of the scouts under Lieutenant Thornton rushed upon the 



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92 OREGON VOLUNTEEKS IN SPANISH WAR. 

bridge under cover of the fire of the other section and checked 
the flames in time to save the structure. Taking possession of 
the trenches captured the scouts soon drove the Filipinos from 
the field. Several Filipinos were killed, seven taken prisoners, 
and fourteen rifles captured. Private Harrington of Company 
GjWho ranked as one of the bravest and most daring members 
of the band, was found after the engagement shot through the 
neck. He had apparently been killed instantly. When Gen- 
eral Lawton heard of Harrington's death and that of Young, 
which soon followed, he said that he had lost the equal of two 
regiments. The dead Filipinos were members of the well- 
known Manila First, which bore the name of being the finest 
regiment in Aguinaldo's army. Each had an "amigo" or peace 
suit in his haversack. 

Companies A, L, I, and B, commanded by Major Willis, went 
to the scene of the fight, arriving in time to lend a hand in sav- 
ing the bridge. A detail under Captain May soon repaired it 
so the column could cross. It was later named "Harrington's 
Bridge," in honor of the hero who gave up his life there. 

CAPTURE OF SAN ISIDRO. 

San Isidrowasattacked on the morning of May 17th. Colonel 
Summers brought his brigade up in front of the city early that 
morning, the First Battalion, Second Oregon, composed of 
Companies A, B, I, and L, under Major Willis, forming with 
their right resting on the road. One battalion of the North 
Dakota formed on their right, and the Twenty-second Infantry 
on the left. The scouts were sent to feel around the cemetery 
on the left, which was supposed to be heavily fortified. It de- 
veloped that the heaviest fire came from the center and right. 
The battalions of the Oregon and the North Dakota troops 
steadily moved closer, until the enemy gave w^ay on all sides. 
Just before the fight commenced General Lawton arrived, and 
upon seeing the excellent arrangement of the forces by Colonel 
Summers, graciously permitted the latter to command during 
the entire engagement, that he might have the credit of cap- 
turing the objective point of the campaign. Private Butts, 
Company L, was wounded in the thigh. After the first break 
in the lines, the Filipinos made no further effort to hold the 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 93 

city. The same da}^ Major Eastwick was sent to Gapan with 
his battalion, which was entered without resistance. While 
the battalion was still in the city the Third Infantry was seen 
approaching in line of battle for the purpose of capturing the 
same place. An orderl}^ was sent out to inform the commander 
that the city was occupied, and his profane remark upon being 
told that he might enter was a standing by-word with the reg- 
iment for months. 

In San Isidro was found the prison where the sixteen Amer- 
ican prisoners captured by the Filipinos had been confined. 
Private Humphrey of Company A found a letter written by 
Lieutenant Gilmore of the Yorktown. who, with his boat's crew, 
had been captured some weeks previously. In this the Amer- 
icans learned that their comrades in the hands of the Malays 
were receiving severe treatment, as were the Spanish prisoners 
also in custody. 

THE REGIMENT ORDERED HOME. 

The First and Second Battalions crossed the river under 
command of Lieutenant Colonel Yoran and had two fights, the 
First Battalion, Companies A, I, and L, being on the firing 
line. The column started back May 20th, taking the road on 
the north side of the Candaba swamp instead of that on the 
south, which they had come on. The scouts went ahead and 
became involved in a fierce little engagement at San Antonio. 
As soon as the troops advanced the enemy gave way, retreating 
beyond the range toward Tarlac. In the course of the march 
down the river to Calumpit the river was often crossed under 
grave difficulties at times. No further hostilities of note were 
offered by the Filipinos. At Candaba May 22d the Oregon 
regiment received word that it was to immediately return to 
Manila to be transported to the United States. The men had 
all through the day been under the impression that another 
long, fatiguing campaign was being planned for them. When 
the telegram was communicated to them their joy assumed a 
most boisterous character. It was much like the expressions 
of joy a year previous, when on the 22d day of May, 1898, the 
Second Oregon was informed that it would be part of the first 
expedition to sail to the Philippines May 25, 1898. 

Calumpit was reached on the 24th, where the regiment took 



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94 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

the train for Manila arriving in the afternoon of that day, and 
taking up quarters in the old Cuartel de Espaiia. On the fol- 
lowing day Companies D, E, C, and M returned to the city 
from their guard duty along the track. Company F was tem- 
porarily quartered in the palace again. 

LAWTON COMPLIMENTS THE REGIMENT. 

General Lawton spoke in the highest terms of the regiment, 
both officers and men, while under him. He urgently recom- 
mended that Colonel Summers be promoted to be a brigadier 
general, and Captain Case a major. General Otis recommended 
that each be given a brevet, which was done by the President. 
The position of advance guard threw upon the Oregon and 
Minnesota regiments a vast amount of work and danger. So 
splendidly did Colonel Summers perform this work with his 
brigade, however, that General Lawton continuously kept him 
there all through the campaign. When the regiment reached 
the city all of the men were much reduced, and fifty per cent 
of them so weak that they would have been unable to remain 
in the field much longer. Nearly all were suffering from some 
kind of stomach or bowel complaint, due to the water, food, 
and heat, and from sore feet and ringworms. 

DETAINED FOR MORE FIGHTING. 

Preparations for embarkation was commenced at once. The 
command was disappointed in the time of sailing and seemingly 
was not likely to leave the island for some time, as orders were 
soon issued for it to prepare to take the field in a movement 
under General Lawton against Morong. The men veiled their 
disappointment, and those able by June 2d to march were ready 
for more fighting. The medical officers' investigation called 
out over half of the regiment as unfit for duty. 

Companies A, B, C, D, E, G, H, I, K, L, and M, under com- 
mand of Colonel Summers, marched from Manila to within a 
mile of the pumping station of the water system the afternoon 
of June 2d. General Hall's brigade rendezvoused there that 
night preparatory to the march down into the Mariquina Valley 
June 3d. General Lawton with another brigade was advancing 
on Taytay from the direction of the source of the Pasig, and 
General Hall was to fall upon the rear of that city about the 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 95 

time it was attacked from the front. Before dawn, June 3d, 
General HalFs brigade, consisting of the First Colorado, Fourth 
Cavalry, Second Oregon, one battalion of the First Wyoming, 
and the Fourth Infantry, marched from the plateau back of 
the pumping station down into the Mariquina Valley and up 
in front of the destroyed village of Mariquina. The column 
then turned down the valley, the cavalry leading, and followed 
by the Second Oregon, until the foothills on the opposite side 
were approached. Filipino sharpshooters off to the left opened 
fire while the cavalry was crossing a small stream, and both 
the dismounted and mounted troops of the Fourth Cavalry 
were deployed. Then Captain Heath, commanding the Third 
.kttalion, consisting of Companies A, H, and L, was ordered 
t.» proceed against the small village in the foothills ahead. 
S*iortly after deploying the line was fired upon by a pretty 
strong force of Filipinos posted on the ridges above. The hot 
reply soon quieted the enemy, who were driven still farther back 
by the mountain battery, commanded by Lieutenant Haw- 
thorne, which had taken position in the valley below. Both 
of the Oregon battalions were brought up to support the Third, 
under the belief that a hot engagement would follow. 

As soon as the Filipinos withdrew back over the hills, the 
column proceeded down the valley skirting the hills and finally 
taking a road bearing off towards Antipoio in a direction to 
pass two miles behind Taytay. The severe firing could then 
be heard where Lawton's men were engaged. While the column 
was passing through a depression, flanked on both sides by a 
ridge and small peaks, the Filipinos laid an ambush that was 
rather formidable for a few moments. The cavalry companies 
were in advance, closely followed by the Second Oregon. A 
hot fire was directed at these two regiments from two small 
peaks on the left, a higher butte in front, and a low ridge on 
the right. Fired at from the front and both sides, it appeared 
that serious loss would be sustained before the ambush could 
be broken. Colonel Summers ordered the First Battalion, under 
Major Willis, and composed of Companies B, E, I, and M, to 
wheel to the right and attack the ridge ; Major Eastwick's bat- 
talion, composed of Companies C, D, G, and K, to the left, 
against the two peaks on that side, and Captain Heath, with 



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96 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

Companies A, H, and L, straight ahead to fall in with the 
cavalry firing line in front. All three battalions charged fear- 
lessly up until the enemy was forced to give way. Major East- 
wick's rnen got so close to their opponents that a few prisoners 
were taken. 

William McElwain of Company H was killed instantly, a 
bullet striking him in the neck. A. J. Salisbury of Company H 
was shot through the left arm and rear portion of the chest. 
H. M. Wagner of Company B was shot through the abdomen. 
E. L. Doolittle of Company C was shot through the arm. Clay- 
ton L. Ransom of Company L was wounded slightly on the 
head. Two of the cavalrymen were killed and four or five 
wounded. 

No effort was made to get down behind Taytay after the fight- 
ing ceased. Major Willis' battalion moved up over a hill in 
the rear of the city, but the commanding general did not deem 
it advisable to go down, so all the troops were recalled to the 
vicinity of the ambush and camped for the night. Next morn- 
ing there was a little scattering fighting as the Americans 
cleared the adjoining peaks and ridges of Filipinos, but with- 
out casualties. Major Eastwick's battalion was subjected to a 
rather hot fire for a few minutes, while on top of Lookout Peak, 
which was soon silenced. 

That afternoon the brigade proceeded along the military 
highway, called Calle Real, through Antipolo, and on down into 
the basin of Morong, camping for the night in a village named 
Teresa. On the following day, June 4th, the brigade marched 
into Morong, finding upon its arrival that the First Washington 
had preceded it by a day, having entered the city from the lake 
by the aid of the gunboats. On the last two days of the march 
the heat was quite oppressive, and many of the men succumbed. 

From Morong the Second Oregon was returned to Manila, 
June 5th, on cascoes, towed by launches. All reached the 
Cuartel de Espaiio that night, except Companies C and G, whose 
cascoes got fast in the mud and were detained until the next 
morning. 

FINALLY ORDERED TO EMBARK. 

A few days later the regiment received orders to embark on 
the transports Ohio and Newport for the United States, A vote 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 97 

was granted the members as to their destination, San Francisco 
or Portland, which was decided in favor of the former city, 
owing to the fact that travel-pay would be allowed the men from 
the place where they are mustered out to their homes. Seventy- 
five men asked for their discharges in Manila, which were 
granted, with the privilege of those doing so receiving free 
transportation back to the United States any time within a 
year on a Government transport. 

The Second Battalion embarked on the Ohio June 12th and 
was followed by the Third Battalion next day, the First Bat- 
talion and headquarters taking the Newport at the same time. 
Lieutenant Colonel Yoran was placed in command of the troops 
on the Ohio^ and Major Gantenbein commanded the troops on 
the Newport, Both vessels sailed out of Manila Bay June 14th, 
bearing the first regiment of volunteers to leave the Phil- 
ippines. On June 18th Nagasaki was reached, where the 
transports lay for four days taking coal and meat. Great 
enthusiasm prevailed among the social Japanese over the 
arrival of some of the United States fighting men. The offi- 
cers of the regiment were tendered a reception by local clubs. 
June 22d the transports sailed out of the harbor and steered 
through the Inland Sea along the southern coast of Yeddo 
Island. Two days later the steamers emerged from this archi- 
pelago at Kobe, and shaped for San Francisco, which they 
reached July 12th. 

MUSTERED OUT AT SAN FRANCISCO. 

A splendid welcome was given the regiment by the people 
of San Francisco and a very strong delegation from Oregon 
headed by Governor T. T. Geer. Next day the command 
marched ashore and through the city to the Presidio, amidst 
a bewilderment of greetings and demonstrations of joy. It 
remained camped at the Presidio until August 7, 1899, when 
it was finally mustered out of the service of the United States, 
the majority of men returning to the State, Tuesday, August 
8th, on two special trains provided for the soldiers. 

Governor T. T. Geer with his staff met the special trains at 
the State line August 9th, and thence conducted them to Port- 
land. Splendid ovations greeted the returning troops at each 

town where the train stopped. Portland was reached August 

7 



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98 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

10th and the same afternoon those remaining with the colors 
marched to Multnomah Field, where, amidst thousands of spec- 
tators, General Summers formally turned the regimental colors 
over to the Governor. This impressive scene brought tears to 
many eyes and was the last act of the regiment in a body. 

Beyond the seas they went down to battle. Beyond the 
bounds of country, beyond precedent, beyond national tradi- 
tion, they sailed in obedience to duty's call. They fought their 
country's enemies, and the fiercer elements by which Nature 
marks races and gives them homes. Many of them lie upon 
the distant shore, their erstwhile proud frames dissolving in 
decay, their white bones studding the soil with those of the foe. 

Honor the dauntless spirit that leaves luxuriant home only 
to expire in the agonies of death. Treasure with loving gen- 
tleness the memories that now alone connect the fallen with 
this earth. Give unto them the affectionate praise, so sweet to 
contemplate when stern fate was cutting away life's buoyant 
wings, when existence was narrowed to cycles of minutes rather 
than years. Grateful recollection by fellow-man is the sweet- 
ness of patriotism. To those who offered in vain the great- 
sacrifice, but who stood by the altar while the incense of their 
comrades' souls floated to the Unknown, accord the tribute of 
" Duty Done." They ask no more. In behalf of the members 
of the Second Regiment Oregon United States Volunteers In- 
fantry, as well as to leave an authentic record of their achieve- 
ments, this history is written. 

HONORS TO THE BRAPE. 

Seven members of the regiment were recommended for 
medals of honor at the close of service in the Philippines. 
Five of these — Lieutenant Thornton of Company B, and Pri- 
vates Lyons and Robertson of Company B, Frank C. High of 
Company G, and M. B. Huntley of Company L — were members 
of the scouts, and were recommended by Captain Birkheimer, 
staff officer, to General Lawton, for the gallant work at San 
Miguel and Tarbon Bridge. Sergeant Major Marshall and Pri- 
vate Smith of Company F were recommended by General 
Summers for gallant conduct on the field. 



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Enrolled and mustered in as principal musician* ap- 
pointed chief musician from principal musician Nov. 
30, '98, per Reg. S. 0. No. 191. hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., U. S. 
Vols., dated Nov. 30, '98. 

Enrolled and mustered in as principal musician; en- 
titled to reenlisted pay; enlisted in Troop E, 4th 
U. S. Cav., Aug. 23, '89; discharged Aug. 24, '91; reen- 
listed in Co. C, 14th U. S. Inf., Nov. 1, '94; discharged 
Oct. 31, '97; sick in quarters Oct. 15 to Nov. 2, '98, inc.; 
in line of duty. 

Joined regiment by enlistment at San Francisco, Cal., 
Mav 23, '98; appointed principal musician from pri- 
vate (unassigned) Jan. 1, '99, per Reg. S. 0. No. 210, 
hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., U. S. Vols., dat^d Jan. 5, '99; sick in 
quarters July 18-23, '98, inc.; Aug. 22-26, '98, inc.; Sept. 
24 to Oct. 5, '98, inc.: all in line of duty. "No clothing 
was issued to him by the State." 

Joined regiment by enlistment at San Francisco, Cal., 
unassigned recruit attached to N. C. staff and band; 
sick in quarters J uly 16-19, '98, inc.; Sept. 24-29, '98, inc.; 
June 12 to July 15, '99, inc.; sick in general hospital, 
Presidio of San Francisco, since July 16, '98; all in line 
of duty. "No clothing was issued him by the State." 

Mustered out of service 2d Or. Inf., U. S. Vols., to take 
effect May 25, '98, by reason of acceptance of commis- 
sion as chief surgeon U. S. Vols., per S. 0. No. 269, 
A. G. O., dated Nov. 14, '98. 

Discharged and final statements given at Manila, P. I., 
Feb. 25, '99, per S. O. No. 12, A. G. O., dated Jan. 16, '99. 
Due soldier for clothing not drawn in kind, $39.45. 
Due United States for ordnance lost, W2. Service, 
"honest and faithful." Character, "excellent." 

Discharged and final statements given at Manila, P. I., 
Mar. 5, '99, per S. 0. No. 57, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific 
and 8th A. C, dated Feb. 28, '99. Due soldier for cloth- 
ing not drawn in kind, $55.32. Service, "honest and 
faithful." Character, "excellent." 
- Enrolled and mustered in as chief musician; reduced 
from chief musician to private Nov. 30, '98, and trans- 
ferred to Co. D, 2d Or. Inf., U. S. Vols., per Reg S. O. 
No. 191, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., U. S. Vols., dated Nov. 30, '98. 
Duesoldier for clothingnot drawn at settlement,$42.31. 
Due United States, quartermaster's supplies, $1.27. 


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Thomas Carlton--— 

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H. W. Cardwell— 

Captain and 

Assistant Surgeon. 

James Rintoul, Jr 

Sergeant Major. 

Harry A. Littlefleld- 

Hospital Stetvart. 

Gustav Mueller—.— 

Private. 



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Tried by summary court Jan. 19, '99, for violation of 
the 62d art. of war; sentenced to forfeit one ($1) dollar 
of his pay; fine deducted on Jan. and Feb., '99, pay 
roll; sick in quarters Oct. 19-27, '98, inc.; June 2-4, '99, 
inc.; June 30 to July 2, '99, inc.; all in line of duty. 

Tried by summary court Feb. 20, '99, for violation of 
the 33d art. of war; sentenced to forfeit fifty (50) cents 
of his pay; fine deducted on Jan. and Feb., '99, pay 
roll; sick in quarters Sept. 20 to Oct. 6, '98, inc.; Oct. 16 
to Nov. 10, '98, inc.; not in line of duty; sick in quar- 
ters Nov. 10-14, '98, inc.; in line of duty. 

On special duty as acting regimental commissary ser- 
geant since May 9, '98; Reg. S. 0. No. 27, same date. 
Tried by field officers' court Aug. 3, '98, for violation 
of the 33d art. of war; sentenced to forfeit three ($3) 
dollars of his pay; fine deducted on July and Aug., 
'98, pay roll. 

Enrolled as corporal; promoted sergeant Sept.—, '98; 
Reg. S 0. No 143, same date; sick in regimental hos- 
pital Dec. 29, '98, to Jan. 3, '99, inc.; in hne of duty. 

Sick in 1st reserve hospital, Manila, P. I., Sept. 1-25, '98, 
inc.; sick in quarters June 5-13, '98, inc.; Aug. 20-31, '98, 
inc.; Sept, 26 to Oct. 3, '98, inc.; Oct. 7-10, '98, inc.; all in 
line of duty. 

Tried by summary court Jan. 17, '99, for violation of 
the 62d art. of war; sentenced to forfeit one (fl) dollar 
of his pay; fine deducted on Jan. and Feb.'99, pay roll; 
on special duty in Reg, Q,, M. Dept. July 1 1-19,'98, inc.; 
Reg. S. 0. No 97, dated Cavite Arsenal, P. L, July 11, 
'98; relieved from special duty in Reg. Q,. M. Dept. by 
Reg. S. O. No. 101, dated Cavite Arsenal, P. I., July 19, 
'98; on special duty in ^B rig. Q. M. Dept. July 19 to 
Aug. 9, '98, inc., per S. 0. No. 16; bdqrs. 1st brig., 1st 
div., 8th A. C, dated Cavite Arsenal, P. I., July 19, '98; 
relieved from special duty by S. 0. No. 8; hdqrs. 1st 
brig., 1st div., 8th A. C, dated Cavite Arsenal, P. I., 
Aug. 9, '98; sick in quarters June 5-29, '98, inc.; Sept. 3 
to Oct. 27, '98, inc.; sick in regimental hospital Feb. 13 
to Mar. 12, '99, inc.; sick in 1st reserve hospital, Ma- 
nila, P. I., Mar. 13 to Apr. 18,'99, inc.; all in line of duty. 


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3d Sergeant. 

Frank T. Hayes 

4th Sergeant. 

Charles I Dillon 

5th Sergeant. 

OmarM.DeWitt 

Quartermaster Sergeant. 

James J. Welsh 

Corporal. 

Harvey L.McAlister- 

Corporal. 



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Enrolled as private; promoted corporal Apr. 1, '99, Reg. 
S. 0. No. 5; field service, dated Manila, P. I., Apr. 20, 
'99; tried by summary court Jan. 2, '99, for violation 
of the62d art. of war; sentenced to forfeit three ($3) 
dollars of his pay; fine deducted on Jan. and Feb., '99, 
pay roll; in confinement Jan. 9-14, '99; released on 
being tried by summary court for violation of the 
62d art. of war, and found not guilty, and acquitted; 
absent without leave Sept. 7, '98, less than 24 hours. 

Enlisted at Portland, Or., June 17, '98; assigned to com- 
pany by Reg. S 0. JSTo. 187, dated Manila, P. I., Nov. 
26, '98; joined company at Manila, P. I., same date. 
No clothing was issued to him by the State. Ap- 
pointed artificer Jan. 21, '99, Reg. S. O. No. 7, same 
date; tried by summary court Feb. 5, '99, for violation 
of the 33d art. of war; sentenced to forfeit one month's 
pay; nine and 60-100 ($9.60) dollars of fine deducted on 
Jan. and Feb., '99, pay roll; eight and 40-100 ($8.40) dol- 
lars of fine deducted on Mar. and Apr., '99, pay roll; 
sick in quarters June 2-5, '99, inc.; sick in 1st reserve 
hospital, Manila, P. I., Mar. 22 to Apr. 14, '99, inc.; all 
in line of duty. 

Tried by summary court Jan. 17, '99, for violation of the 
62d art. of war; sentenced to forfeit fifty (50) cents of 
his pay; fine deducted on Jan. and Feb., '99, pay roll; 
sick in quarters May 20, '98; July 16-18, '98, inc.; sick 
in Presidio hospital, Presidio, Cal.. since July 19, '99; 
all in line of duty. 

Sick in quarters Oct. 13-17, '98, inc.; not in line of duty; 
appointed company artificer Oct. 21, '98, to rank as 
such from Oct. 4, '98, Reg. S. 0. No. 195, dated Manila, 
P. L, Oct. 2, '98; relieved from duty as company ar- 
tificer Jan. 21, '99, Reg. S. 0. No. 7, same date; tried 
by summary court Sept. 19, '98, for violation of the 
62d art. of war; sentenced to be confined at hard labor 
for two weeks, and to forfeit five ($5) dollars of his 
pay; fine deducted on Sept. and Oct., '98, pay roll; in 
confinement Sept. 19 to Oct. 5, '98, inc.; tried by sum. 
mary court Nov. 16, '98, for violation of the 31st art 
of war; sentenced to forfeit three ($3) dollars of hi' 


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Corporal. 

Don C. Butler 

Artificer. 

Thos. J. Warren 

Musician. 

Fremont R. Chase 

Musiciayi. 



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Nov. 2-10, '98, inc.; May 2^-31, '99, inc.; sick in regi- 
mental hospital Feb. 9-13, '99, inc.; all in line of duty. 

No remarks. 

Tried by summary court Sept. 20, '98, for violation of 
the 62d art. of war; sentenced to forfeit four m) dol- 
lars of his pay; fine deducted on Sept. and Oct., '98, 
pay roll; in confinement Aug. 1-5-23, '98, inc.; released 
without trial; in confinement Sept. 18-21, '98, inc., 
released with trial resulting in conviction; sick in 
quarters Sept. 30 to Oct 1, '98, inc.; Nov. 8, '98, to Jan. 
5, '99, Inc.; all not in line of duty; June 8-15, '99, inc.; 
June 16-19, '99, inc.; in hue of duty; sick in Presido 
hospital, Presidio, Cal., since July 19, '99; in line of 
duty. 

Enlisted at Portland, Or., June 21, '99; assigned to com- 
pany by Reg. S. 0. No. 187, dated Manila, P. I., Nov. 
26, '98; joined company at Manila, P. I., same date. 
No clothing was issued to him by the State. Tried 
by summary court Oct 11, '98, for violation of the 33d 
art. of war; sentenced to forfeit one {il) dollar of his 
pay; fine deducted on Oct. '98, payroll, in confine- 
ment Jan. 9-12, '99, inc.; released with trial from sum- 
mary court for violating the 62d art. of war; found 
not guilty and acquited; sick in regimental hospital 
Dec. 18-26, '98, inc.; sick in quarters Dec. 26, '98, to Jan. 
3, '99, inc.; all in line of duty; sick in 1st reserve hos- 
pital, Manila, P. I., Apr. 15 to May 11, '99, inc.; not in 
line of duty. 

Enlisted at McMinnville, Or., June 20, '98; assigned to 
company by Reg. S. O. No. 187, dated jManila, P. I., 
Nov. 26, '98; joined company at Manila, P. I., same 
date. No clothing was issued to him by the State. 
Tried by summary court Jan. 17, '99, for violation of 
the 62d art. of war; sentenced to forfeit fifty (50) cents 
of his pay; fine deducted from Jan. and Feb., '99, pay 
roll. 

Enlisted at McMinnville, Or. June 17, '98; assigned to 
company by Reg. S. O. No. 187, dated Manila, P. I., 
Nov. 26, '98; joined company at Manila, P. I., same 


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Ewing, Len. D. 

Gallagher, Anthony. 

Garretson, Edgar S— 

Graves, Herbert G. __ 
Grace, Leo. B 



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Sick in quarters May 20-22, '98, inc.; June 5-9, '98, inc.; 
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inc.; Aug.20 to Oct. 30,'98, inc.; June 7-9,'99, inc.; June 
18-24, '99, inc.; June 27 to July 2, '99, inc.; July 5-20, '99, 
inc.; sick in brig, hospital, Cavite Arsenal, P. I., July 
12-18, '98, inc.; sick in regimental hospital June 9-25, 
'98, inc.; sick in quarters Aug. 11-20, '98, inc.; all in 
line of duty. 

Enlisted at Portland, Or., June 17, '98; assigned to com- 
pany by Reg. S. O. No, 187, dated Manila, P. I., Nov. 
26, '98; joined company at Manila, P. I., same date. 
No clothing was issued to him by the State. Tried 
by summary court Dec. 27, '98, for violation of the 
33d art. of war; sentenced to forfeit one ($1) dollar of 
his pay; fine deducted on Nov. and Dec, '98, pay roll; 
sick in quarters May 29 to June 1, '99, inc.; in line of 
duty; in confinement Mar. 11, '99; released without 
trial; absent without leave Mar, 10, '99 (less than 24 
hours). 

Enlisted at Portland, Or., June 15, '98; assigned to com- 
pany by Reg. S. 0. No. 187, dated Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, 
'98; joined company at Manila, P. I., same date. No 
clothing was issued to him by the State. Sick in 1st 
reserve hospital, Manila, P. I., Nov. 22 to Dec. 22, '98, 
inc.; sick in field brig, hospital May 4 to June 9, '99, 
inc.; all in line of duty. Deposited with Major Wm. 
B. Rochester, Jr., A. P. M., U. S. Vols., at Manila, P. I., 
Mar. 7, '99, twenty-five ($25) dollars. 

Enlisted at Portland, Or., June 15, '98; assigned to com- 
pany by Reg. S. 0. No. 187, dated Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, 
'98; joined company at Manila, P. I., same date. No 
clothing was issued to him by the State. Sick in 1st 
reserve hospital, Manila, P. I., Dec. 5-14, '98, inc.; sick 
in quarters May 14 to June 3, '99, inc.; July 6, '98; all 
in line of duty. 

In confinement Dec. 7-14, '98, inc.; released on being 
tried By sumn3.ary court Dec. 14, '98, for violation of 
the 62dart.of \var; found not guilty and acquitted; 
sick in quarters Jnlv 22-24, '98, inc.; Oct. 3-7, '98, inc.; 


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McGrath, Miles 

McKinney, George B. 

McMillan, Timothy. 
Miers, Charles C 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 



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Appointed company cook Nov. 14, '98, per Reff. S. O. 
No. 184, same date; relieved from duty as company 
cook Dec. 5, '98, per Reg. S. 0. No. 194, same date; ap- 
pointed company cook Mar. 11, '99, per Reg. S. 0. No. 
22, same date; sick in quarters June 27-^, '98, inc.; 
Sept. 27-29, '98, inc.; June 2-9, '99, inc.; July 18-20, '99, 
inc.; all in line of duty. 

Sick in quarters Sept. 9-12, '98, inc.; Sept. 25 to Oct. 25, 
'98, inc.; Nov. 19 to Dec. 4, '98, inc.; Dec. 14-18, '98, inc.; 
May 19 to June 11, '99, inc.; sick in 1st reserve hospi- 
tal, Manila, P. I., Oct. 25 to Nov. 19, '98, inc.; Dec. 18, 
'98, to Jan. 27, '99, inc. Absent, sick on hospital ship 
Belief since June 12, '99; all in the line of duty. Re- 
joined company Aug. 3, '99. 

Enlisted at Portland, Or., June 16, '98; assigned to com- 
pany per Reg. S. O, No. 187, dated Manila, P. I., Nov. 
26, '98; joined company at Manila, P. I., same date. 
No clothing was issued him by the State, Wounded 
in action at San Rafael, P, I., May 1, '99. Sick in field 
brigade hospital May 2-28, '99, inc.; sick in 1st reserve 
hospital, Manila, P. I., May 28 to June 12, '99, inc.; 
sick in quarters June 13 to July 13, '99, inc.; sick in 
Presidio hospital, Presidio, Cal., since July 14, '99; all 
in line of duty. 

Wounded in action at Marilao, P. I., Apr. 11, '99. 

Enrolled as private; appointed wagoner Oct. 21, '98, per 
Reg. S. 0. No. 175, same date; sick in quarters Oct. 29 
to Nov. 1, '98, inc.; Nov. 16-22, '98, inc.; May 19-23, '99, 
inc.; June 2-22, '99, inc.; June 23-27, '99, inc.; July 2-19, 
'99, inc.; sick in 1st reserve hospital, Manila, P. I., 
May 24 to June 1, '99, inc.; sick in Presidio hospital, 
Presidio, Oal., since July 19, '99; all in line of duty. 

Tried by summary court Jan. 17, '99, for violation of 
the 62d art. of war; sentenced to forfeit fifty (50) cents 
of his pay; fine deducted on Jan. and Feb., '99, pay 
roll; sick in quarters June 1-15, '99, inc.; June 27 to 
July 7, '99, inc.; all in line of duty; in confinement 
Nov. 6-8, '98, inc.; released without trial. 

Tried by summary court Feb. 10, '99, for violation of 
the 32d art. of war (absent Feb. 7, '99, less than 24 


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Reynolds, Otis A 

Reeves, John T 

Rommel, Edward 
Scanlon, John 

Simmons, Guy D 

Shepherd, David 



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Sick in quarters June 12-27, '98, inc.; July 6, '98; all in 
line of duty. Transferred to U. S. hospital corps 
Aug. 6, '98, per S. 0. No. 18, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific 
and 8th A. C, dated Cavite Arsenal, P. I., Aug. 6, '98. 
He had no settlement for clothing. Due U. S. for 
clothing drawn between date of enlistment and date 
of transfer twenty-eight and 54-100 ($28.54) dollars; in 
this settlement state clothing is charged at full 
schedule prices; the soldier is entitled tosix and 86-100 
(16.86) dollars for the difference between the full 
schedule prices of State clothing and board of survey 
prices. On the descriptive list on account of pay and 
clothing furnished at the time of transfer. State cloth- 
ing was charged at full schedule prices. 

Enlisted at McMinnville, Or., June 17, '98; avSsigned to 
company per Reg. S. 0. No. 187, dated Manila, P. I., 
Nov. 26, '98; joined company at Manila, P. I., same 
date. No clothing was issued to him by the State. 
Tried by summary court Sept. 28, '98, for violation of 
the 32d art. of war (absent less than 24 hours); sen- 
tenced to forfeit five ($5) dollars of his pay; fine de- 
ducted on Sept., '98, pay roll; tried by summary court 
Jan. 20, '99. for violation of the 62d art. of war; sen- 
tenced to forfeit fifty (50j cents of his pay; fine de- 
ducted on Jan. and Feb., '99, pay roll; sick in quar- 
ters Nov. 29 to Dec. 6, '98; in line of duty. Killed in 
action at Malabon, P. I., Mar. 25, '99; inventory of 
effects and final statements forwarded to Adjutant 
General May 26, '99; service, "honest and faithful." 

Sick in quarters June 8-24, '98, inc.; July 9-14, '98, inc.; 
Sept. 16, '98; Oct. 20-30, '98. inc.; Nov. 15-17, '98, inc.; 
sick in 1st reserve hospital, Manila, P. I., Nov. 18 to 
Dec. 8, '98, inc.; all in line of duty. Died at 1st reserve 
hospital, Manila, P. I., Dec. 8, '98; inventory of effects 
and final statements forwarded to Adjutant General 
Mar. 6, '99; service, "honest and faithful." State cloth- 
ing is charged at fTill schedule prices. In the settlement 
on final statements, soldier's heir Is entitled to six and 
86-100 ($6.86) dollars, the difference between schedule 
prices and board of survey prices of State clothing. 


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Killed in action- 
Private. 

Clark, Birt J.— 

Died of disease- 
Privates. 

Hibbs, Frank W 



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Originally mustered in with company as captain; ap- 
pointed and accepted commission May 10, '98. 

Originally mustered in with company as 1st lieutenant; 
On special duty as acting regimental adjutant per 
S. 0. No. 1, hdqrs. 2d Or. Vol. Inf., dated Apr. 22, '99; 
returned to duty with company per verbal orders on 
July 14, '99; sick in quarters June 17-18, '98, inc.; Nov. 
28-29, '98, inc.; all in line of duty; appointed and ac- 
cepted commission May 10, '98. 

Originally mustered in with company as 2d lieutenant; 
on special duty as chief of scouts May 18-22, '99, inc., 
per Held S. O. No. 4, hdqrs. 1st div., 8th A. C, dated 
May 18, '99; sick in quarters June 17-18, '98, inc.; Nov 
27, '98, to Jan. 4, '99, inc.; all in line of duty; absent 
with leave July 16-19, '99, inc., per order regimental 
commander; appointed and accepted commission 
May 10, '98. 

Enrolled as first sergeant and mustered in as 1st ser- 
geant; sick in quarters Dec. 8-10, '98, inc.; in line of 
duty. In the settlement for clothing is included the 
sum of thirteen and 99-100 (118 99) dollars, total value 
of articles issued by State. Deposited on Aug. 8, '98, 
forty ($40) dollars with Major Kilbourne; Nov. 5, '98, 
twenty-five ($25) dollars with Major Sears. 

Enrolled and mustered in as quartermaster sergeant; 
sick in quarters July 30 to Aug. 2, '98, inc.; Sept. 6-9, 
'98, inc.; Dec. 29-31, '98, inc.; all in line of duty. In the 
settlementfor clothing is included the sum of thirteen 
and 99-100 (513.99) dollars, total value of articles issued 
by State. 


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John L. May 

Captain. 

Frank B. Hamlin 

ist Lieutenant. 

James E, Thornton— 

2d Lieutenant. 

Wm. C. Grubb „ -_- 

■1st Sergeant. 

Frank S. Godfrey— 

Quartermaster Sergeant. 



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Joined company by enlistment at Manila, P. I., on 
Nov. 24, '98; assigned to company per S. 0. No. 187, 
hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '98; sick 
in quarters Nov. 30 to Dec. 1, '98, inc.; sick in hospital 
Dec. 2-4, '98, inc.; sick in quarters June 21, '99; May 
14-17, '99, inc.; sick In hospital May 18-26, '99, inc. 

Joined company by enlistment at Manila, P. I., Nov. 
24, '98; assigned to company per S. O. No. 187, hdqrs. 
2d Or. Inf., dated at Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '98. No 
clothing issued by State; sick in quarters Dec. 31, '98, 
to Jan. 2, '99, inc.; June 24, '99; sick in hospital July 
16 to , '99, inc.; all in line of duty. 

Joined company by enlistment at Manila, P. I., Nov. 
24, '98; assigned to company per S. O. No. 187, hdqrs. 
2d Or. Inf., dated at Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '98. No 
clothing issued by State; absent without leave Mar. 
10, '99; not tried; pay for time absent to be deducted 
on this roll. 

Sick in quarters Julv 30, '98; Aug. 23-31, '98, inc.; Sept. 
4-7, '98, inc.; all in line of duty. Absent without leave 
July 16-17, '99, inc.; not tried; pay for time absent to 
be deducted on this roll. In the settlement for cl oth- 
ing is included the sum of thirteen and 99-100 ($13.99) 
dollars, total value of articles Issued by State. 

Joined company by enlistment at Manila, P. I., Nov. 
24, '98; assigned to company per S. O. No. 187, hdqrs. 
2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '98; sick in 
hospital Dec. 13-24, '98, inc.; sick in quarters Feb. 27 to 
Mar. 18, '99, inc.; sick in hospital Mar. 19 to Apr. 10, 
'99, inc.; sick in quarters May 1-17, '99, inc.; all in line 
of duty. No clothing issued by State. 

Sick in quarters May 14, '98; May 20-22, '98, inc.; July 
6-12, '98, inc.; July 20^22, '98. inc.; Sept. 16-17, '98, inc.; 
Oct. 14-19, '98, inc.; sick in hospital Oct. 25 to Dec. 18, 
'98, inc.; sick in quarters Dec. 19, '98, to Jan. 8, '99, inc.; 
June 5-11, '99, inc.; all inline of duty. In the settle- 
ment for clothing is included the sum of thirteen 
99-100 ($13.99) dollars, total value of clothing Issued 
by State. Deposited on Aug. 8, '98, ten (f 10) dollars 
with Major Kilbou me. 


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Bray, John R 

Briner, John H._ 

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Butler, Wm. E 

Churchman, Geo. H._ 



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Remarks. 


Joined company by enlistment at Manila, P. I., Nov. 
24, '98; assigned to company per S. O. No. 187, hdqrs. 
2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '98. Sick in 
quarters May 13-14, '99, inc.: in Une of duty. Absent 
without leave on July 16, '99; not tried; pay for time 
absent to be deducted on this roll. Tried by sum- 
mary court Mar. 9, '69, for violation of 32d art. of war 
(absence without leave less than 24 hours on Mar. 7, 
'99); sentenced to forfeit one month's pay; fine de- 
ducted on Mar. and Apr. pay roll. No clothing Is- 
sued by State. 

On special duty in regimental band, per S. 0. No. 2, 
hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Portland, Or., May 11, '98. In 
the settlement for clothing is included the sum of 
thirteen and 99-100 ($13.99) dollars, total value of arti- 
cles issued by State. Sick in quarters (on band sick 
report) Sept. 26-29, '98, inc.; Jan. 11 to Feb. 4, '99, inc.; 
all in line of duty. 

Sick In quarters June 27-30, '98, Inc.; July 8-11, '98, inc.; 
Aug. 8-18, '98, inc.; Sept. 26 to Oct. 1, '98, inc.; Nov. 
10-15, '98, inc.; Dec. 5-6, '98, Inc.; Dec. 16-19, '98, inc.; 

May 12-14, '99, inc.; sick In hospital July 20 to , 

inc.; all in line of duty. Assigned to Company B May 
23, '98, per Reg. O. No. 48, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Camp 
Presidio, San Francisco, Cal., May 23, '98. No cloth- 
ing issued by State. 

Sick in quarters July 6, '98; Sept. 6-9, '98, Inc.; Feb. 27 
to Mar. 14, '99, inc.; sick in hospital Mar. 15-18, '99, 
inc.; all In line of duty. Tried by summary court 
for violation of 62d art. of war on Jan. 2, '99 (neglect 
of duty); found not guilty and acquitted. In the 
settlement for clothing is Included the sum of thir- 
teen and 99-100 ($13.99) dollars, total value of articles 
issued by State. 

Sick in quarters July 11-12, '98, inc.; Aug. 23-27, '98, Inc.; 
Sept. 16-21, '98, inc.; Dec. 15-19, '98, inc.; June 6-7, '99, 
Inc.; all In line of duty. Absent without leave July 
16, m, and July 18, '99; not tried; pay for time ab- 
sent to be deducted on this roll. In the settlement 


1 

1 


1 


Ashland- 

Portland- 
S. F., Cal. 

Portland - 
Portland- 


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May 10- 
May 23- 

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May 10- 


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Hopwood, Olney G.__ 

Howell, Morris 

Kleupfer, John H 

Klum, Blaine ________ 

Lewis, Ed C. -_—____ 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 



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140 



OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAH. 



P 
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1 
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Joined company by enlistment at Manila, P. I., Nov. 
24, '98; assigned to company per S. O. No. 187, hdqrs. 
2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '98. Tried by 
summary court Mar. 9, '99, for violation of 32d art. 
of war (absent without leave less than 24 hours on 
Mar. 7. '99); sentenced to forfeit one month's pay; 
fine deducted on Mar. and Apr., '99, pay roll; absent 
without leave July 16, '99; not tried; pay for time ab- 
sent to be deducted on this roll. Sick in hospital 
Nov. 27 to Dec. 3, '98, inc.; sick in quarters Dec. 30, '98, 
to Jan. 2, '99, inc.; sick in hospital Apr. 22 to May 29, 
'99, inc.; sick in quarters May 30 to June 4, '99, inc.; 
all in line of duty. No clothing issued by State. 

On special duty in quartermaster's department per 
S. 0. No. 170, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., Oct. 
14, '98; on special duty in depot quartermaster's de- 
partment, per S. O. No. 87, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific 
and 8th A. C, dated Manila, P. I., Oct. 25, '98; returned 
to duty in company per S. O. No. 154, hdqrs. dept. of 
the Pacific and 8th A. C, datedManila,P.I., June8,'99: 
on special duty in regimental quartermaster's de- 
partment per S. O. No. 26, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Ma- 
nila, P.I , June 10, '99^. Sick in quarters Sept. 5-9, '98, 
inc.; in line of duty. No clothing issued by State. 
Assigned to Company B, 2d Or. Inf., May 23, '98, per 
Reg. 0. No. 48, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Camp Pre- 
sidio, San Francisco, Cal., May 23, '98. 

Sick in quarters Aug. 14-21, '98, inc.; Oct. 25 to Nov. 1, 
'98, inc.; Nov. 18-21, '98, inc.; June 2-3, '99, inc.; all in 
line of duty. In the settlement for clothing is in- 
eluded the sum of thirteen and 99-l(X) (f 13.99) dollars, 
total value of articles issued by State. Deposited on 
Nov. 5, '98, thirty (§30) dollars with Major Sears; on 
Mar. 12, '99, twenty ($20) dollars with Major McClure. 

Tried by summary court Mar. 9, '99, for violation of 32d 
art. of war (absent without leave less than 24 hours 
on Mar. 7, '99); sentenced to forfeit one month's pay; 
fine deducted on Mar. and Apr., '99, pay roll. Sick 
in quarters June 26 to July 30, '98, inc.; Sept. 3-7, '98, 
inc.; Mar. 30, '99; sick in hospital Mar. 31 to May 28, 


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Parsley, Everett B— 
Putnam, Frank T 

RadclifFe, A. L- 

Riddle, Edward W— 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 



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144 



OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 



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PQ 
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1 


Joined company by enlistment at Manila, P. I., Nov. 
24, '98; assigned to company per S. O. No. 187, hdqrs. 
2d Or. Inf., dated at Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '98. Sick 
in quarters June 8-9, '99, inc.; in line of duty. No 
clothing issued by State. Deposited Jan. 7, '99, thirty 
($80) dollars withMajorSheary; on Mar. 12, '99, twenty 
($20) dollars with Major McClure. Also sick in quar- 
ters July 28, '99; sick in hospital July 26 to — -, '99; all 
in line of duty. 

Discharged June 12, '99, per G. 0. No. 54, hdqrs. A. G. 0., 
dated Washington, D. C, Mar, 22, '99; discharge and 
final statements furnished. Assigned to Company 
B May 24, '98, per S. 0. No. 88, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated 
S, S. Austy^alia June 29, '99. Sick in quarters Sept. 29 
to Oct. 1, '98, inc.; in line of duty. Character,"excel- 
lent." No clothing issued by State. 

Discharged Apr. 8, '99, per S. 0. No. 74, hdqrs. dept, of 
the Pacific and 8th A. C, Manila, P. I., Mar. 17, '96, as 
amended by S. 0. No. 80, hdqrs, dept. of Pacific and 8th 
A. C, dated Manila, P, I., Mar. 27, '99; discharge and 
final statement furnished. Character, "excellent," 
Sick in hospital June 4-8, '98, Inc.; sick in quarters 
June 9-16, '98, inc.; Oct. 5-18, '98, inc.; Nov. 17-21, '98, 
inc.; Dec. 30, '98, to Jan. 1, '99, inc.; Feb. 12-15, '99, inc.; 
all in line of duty. In settlement for clothing is in- 
cluded the sum of twenty and 85-100 ($20.85) dollars, 
total value of articles issued by State. Due soldier, 
six and 86-100 ($6.86) dollars overcharged on clothing 
issued by State. Deposited Aug. 8, '98, twenty ($20) 
dollars with Major Kilbourne. 

Discharged June 12, '99, per G. 0. No. 54, hdqrs. A. G, 0., 
dated Washington, D. C, Mar, 22, '99; discharge and 
final statements furnished. In the settlement for 
clothing is included the sum of twenty and 85-100 
($20.85) dollars, total value of articles issued by State. 
Due soldier, six and 86-100 (-6.86) dollars, overcharged 
for clothing issued Id v State. Deposited on Aug. 8, 
'98, twenty ($20) dollars with Major Kilbourne; on 
Sept. 15, '98, twenty ($20) dollars with Major Sears; 
on Nov. 5, '98, fifteen ($15) dollars with Major Sears; 


1 

1 

1 


1 


Ashland - 
S.F.,Cal.- 
Portland- 

Portland- 


1 


July 11_ 

May 24- 
May 10- 

May 10- 

- 


1 


Laborer- 
Farmer — 
Laborer— 


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Or. 

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Young, Harry D. 

Discharged. 
Purdy, Edwin P 

Dixon, Joseph D 

Foster, Joseph 



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Discharged June 12,'99, per G. O. No. 54, hdqrs., A. G. O., 
dated at Washldgton, D. C, Mar. 22, '99. Discharged 
and final statements furnished. Character, excel- 
lent. Tried by summary court Aug. 29, '98, for vio- 
lation of 62d art. of war (charged with afi'ront to non- 
commissioned officer while in the discharge of his 
duty); sentenced to confinement at hard labor for 80 
days, and forfeit one month's pay; one and 4-100 
($1.04) dollars deducted on July and Aug., '98, pay roll, 
fourteen and 56-100 ($14.56) dollars deducted on Sept. 
and Oct., '98, pay roll. Sick in quarters from Oct. 27 
to Nov. 14, '98, inc.; sick in hospital Nov. 15-25, '98, 
Inc.; sick in quarters Nov. 26 to Dec. 18, '98, inc.; all not 
in line of duty; Apr. 19 to May 7, '99, inc.; June 8-9, 
'99, inc.; in line of duty. In the settlement for cloth- 
ing is included the sum of twenty and 85-100 ($20.85) 
dollars, total value of articles issued by State. Due 
soldier, six and 86-100 ($6.86) dollars, overcharge for 
clothing issued by State. 

Sick in quarters June 4 to July 3, '98, inc.; sick in hos- 
pital July 4-21, '98, inc. Embarked on S. S. Australia 
for conveyance to San Francisco, Cal., U. S. A., July 
22, '98. Descriptive list furnished. In settlement for 
clothing is included the sum of twenty and 85-100 
($20.85) dollars, total value of articles issued by State. 
Due soldier, six and 86-100 ($6.86) dollars, overcharge 
for clothing issued by State. On sick furlough Aug. 
31 to Sept. 80, '98, inc., per G. O. No. 114, A. G. 0., dated 
Aug. 9, '98. Discharged Feb. 20, '99, at Vancouver Bar- 
racks, Washington, perS. 0. No. 25, Department of 
Columbia, dated Feb. 18, '99. Reason, services no 
longer required. Discharge and final statements fur- 
nished. Character, excellent. Physical condition 
good. 


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Wann, William— 



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Enrolled and mustered in as captain; sick in quarters 
June 12-13, '98; Oct. 13-18, '98; Jan. 7-25, '99; sick in 1st 
reserve hospital, Manila, P. I., Jan. 26 to Feb. 6, '99; 
sick in quarters Apr. 16-18, '99; all dates inc.; all sick- 
ness in line of duty; in command of battalion, 2d Or. 
U. S. Vols., per verbal order commanding officer 2d 
Or. U. S. Vols.; confirmed by S. 0. No. 159, hdqrs. dept. 
of Pacific and 8th A. C, dated Manila, P. I., June 13, 
'99; Apr. 22, '99, to May 25, '99. Difierence between 
pay as captain and major Apr. 22-30, '99, still due. 

Enrolled and mustered in as 1st lieutenant; sick in 
quarters Nov. 20-24, '98; June 26 to July 10, '99; all 
dates inc.; all sickness in line of duty. 

Enrolled and mustered in as 2d lieutenant; detailed 
on special duty Dec. 1, '98, as regular ordnance officer 
per Keg. 0. No. 190, hdqrs. 2d Or. U. S. Vols; returned 
to duty with company, dated Manila, P. I., Feb. 24, 
'99, hdqrs. 2d Or. U. S. Vols., per S. O. No. 15; sick in 
quarters Sept. 2-8, '98; Oct. 13 to Nov. 2, '98; Nov. 27-29, 
'98; Dec. 27, '98, to Apr. 30, '99; May 28 to June 4, '99; all 
dates inc.; all sickness in line of duty. 

Enrolled and mustered in as 1st sergeant; sick in quar- 
ters Aug. 10-12, '98; June 6-8, '99; in line of duty; all 
dates inc. 

Enrolled and mustered in as sergeant; sick in quarters 
July 19, '98; Oct. 27 to Nov. 2, '98; sick in 1st reserve 
hospital, Manila, P. I., Nov. 3-14, '98; sick in quarters 
Nov. 15 to Dec. 4, '98; Dec. 23, '98, to Jan. 1, '99; all in 
line of duty; all dates inc. Deposited Jan. 12, '99, thirty- 
five (t35) dollars with Major Sheary. 


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Portlands 
Portland- 

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Portland- 
Portland- 


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May 10- 
May 10- 

May 10- 
May 10- 


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Printer 

Dentist- 
Clerk 
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Lt. Br. 
Lt. Br. 

Lt. Br. 
Br. — 


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William S. Moon 

Captain. 

Robert S. Huston 

ist Lieutenant. 

Fred W. Haynes 

2d Lieutenant. 

Isaac D. Larimer 

ist Sergeant. 

Charles E. Currie — _ 

Sergeant. 



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•^Enrolled and mustered in as private; appointed mu- 
sician Nov. 15, '98, by order captain commanding 
company, 2d Or. U. S. Vols., Manila, P. I. Sick in 
quarters Aug. 2-3, '98; Oct. 11-12, '98; sick in Oregon regi- 
mental hospital Nov. 29 to Dec. 5, '98; sick in 1st reserve 
hospital, Manila, P. I., Dec. 6 to March 16, '99; July 
4-5, '99, all in hne of duty; all dates inc. Deposited 
May 17, '99, sixty (S60) dollars with Major Coflin. 

Joined company at Manila, P. I., Nov. 24, '98, by trans- 
fer from prov. Company L, 2d Or. recruits; joined as 
private; appointed company cook May 1,'99, per Co. 0. 
No. 6, dated Meycauayan, P. 1., May 1, '99; confirmed 
by S.O.No.39,hdqrs. 2d Or. U.S. Vols., July 29, '99; tried 
by summary court Aug. 21, '98, for violation 62d and 
38th arts, of war; sentenced to forfeit fifteen (115) dol- 
lars; record received Oct. 15, '98; collected on pay roll 
for Oct., '98; sick in quarters Feb. 3-5, '99; all in line of 
duty; all dates inc. No clothing issued by State. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private. Sick in Oregon 
regimental hospital June 23-25, '98; sick in quarters 
June 26-30, '98; July 7 to Aug. I; Oct. 2-3, '98; Oct. 9-18, 
'98; Dec. 26-28, '98; sick in 1st reserve hospital, Manila, 
P. I., Dec. 29, '98, to Jan. 9, '99; sick in quarters Jan. 10 
to Feb. 5, '99; all inc.; all in line of duty. 

Joined company at Manila, P. I., Nov. 24, '98, by trans- 
fer from prov. Company L, 2d Or. recruits. Deposited 
Jan. 12, '99, fifteen (^15) dollars with Major Sheary. 
No clothing issued by State. 

Enrolled and mustered in as sergeant; on special duty 
with quartermaster's department, Manila, P. I., per 
S. 0. No. 70, hdqrs. dept. of Pacific and 8th A. C, Oct. 6, 
'98. Drewcommutation of rations from Oct. 6, '98, to 
Feb. 3, '99, per S. O. No. 73, hdqrs. dept. of Pacific and 
8th A. C, Manila, P. I., Oct. 10, '98; returned to com- 
pany Feb. 3, '99, per S. O. No. 31, hdqrs. dept. of Pacific 
and 8th A. C, Manila, P. I., Feb. 3, '99, reduced from 
sergeant to private Sept. 1, '98, per Keg O. No. 143, 
hdqrs. 2d Or. U.S. Vols, Manila, P. I., Sept. 1, '98. Tried 
by summarycourt Apr. 5, '99, for violation of 32dart. of 
war (absent Apr. 1-2, '99, inc.); sentenced to forfeit 


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Eugene— 

Portland- 

Eugene — 
Portland - 


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July 13- 

May 10 

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May 10- 






Farmer __ 
Farmer — 

Student- 

Student- 
Painter— 


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Charles A. Cornell— 
John Q,. Howard 

Privates. 
Applegate, Moray L.- 
Anderson, Albert B._ 
Brumley, Ralph S.— 

1 



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Enrolled and mustered in as sergeant; reduced from 
sergeant to private Oct. 20, '98, per Reg. O. No. 173, 
dated hdqrs. 2d Or. U. S. Vols., Manila, P. I., Oct. 20, '98; 
sick in quarters July 11-12, '98; Oct. 11 to Nov. 10, '98; 
Jan. 2-3, '99; Feb. 7-11, '99; Feb. 21 to Mar. 11, '99: June 
12, '99; all dates inc.; all in line of duty. 

Joined company at Manila, P. I., Nov. 24,'98, by transfer 
from prov. Company L, 2d Or. recruits; wounded in 
right foot Mar. 26, '99, at Polo, P. I.; sick in field hos- 
pital Mar. 26 to Apr. 8, '99; all sickness in line of duty; 
all dates inc. No clothing issued by State. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; on special duty 
with regimental band Dec. 5, '98, per Reg. 0. No. 196, 
hdqrs. 2d Or. U. S. Vols., Manila, P. I.; returned to 
company Dec. 22, '98, per Reg. 0. No. 206, hdqrs. 2d Or. 
IT. S. Vols., Manila, P. I., Dec. 22, '98; on special duty 
as train guard Apr. 6 to June 9, '99, per verbal order 
commanding officer; sick in quarters July 9, '98; July 
14-18, '98; sick in 1st reserve hospital, Manila, P. I., 
Sept. 9-18, '98; sick in quarters Jan. 30 to Feb. 1, '99; 
June 10-14, '99; July 5-9, '99; all dates inc.; all in line 
of duty. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; sick in Oregon 
regimental hospital June 5 to July 4, '98; sick in quar- 
ters July 9-12, '98; all in line of duty; returned to San 
Francisco, CaL, July 23, '98; discharge and final state- 
ments given at Presidio, San Francisco, CaL, Sept. 5, 
'98; discharged on surgeon's certificate of disability, 
per indorsement Aug. 5, '98, dated headquarters de- 
partment of California. Still due soldier seven and 
5-100 (pM) dollars, per reduction for State clothing. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; sick in quarters 
Sept. 19-24, '98; sick in 1st reserve hospital, Manila, 
P. I., Sept. 25 to Oct. 27, '98; sick in quarters Oct. 28, '98, 
to Jan. 11, '99; all dates inc.; all in line of duty- dis- 
charge and final statements given at Manila, P. I., 
Jan. 11, '99; entitled to travel pay; discharged on sur- 
geon's certificate of disability under orders approved 
by commanding officer, dept. of the Pacific and 8th 
A. C, dated Jan. 8, '99; twenty-one and 56-100 ($21.56) 


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Williams, George 

Shelley, Walter J. _„. 
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Enlisted for company in prov. Company L, 2d Or. 
recruits; never joined company; absent on furlough 
Oct. 31, '98, to go to Eugene, Or., by order commanding 
officer, department of California, G. 0. No. 131, A. G.O., 
Washington, D. C; furlough extended thirty days by 
order Secretary of War; discharged at Eugene, Or., 

Ser S, 0. No. 68, dated A. G. 0., Washington, D. C, 
[ar. 23, '99. No clothing issued by State. No record 
of discharge certificate and final statement having 
been furnished. 
Enrolled and mustered in as private; promoted to 
corporal from private June 6, '98, per Reg, 0. No. 7, 
dated S. S. Australia, hdqrs. 2d Or. U. S. Vols., June 6, 
'98; reduced from corporal to private July 29, '98, per 
Reg. 0. No. 114, hdqrs. 2d Or. U. S. Vols., Manila, P. I., 
dated Sept. 2, '98; in confinement July 23-28, '98, inc.; 
sick in quarters Oct. 25-29, '98; May 22-23, '99; sick 
in 1st reserve hospital, Manila, P. I., May 24 to June 8, 
'99; discharge and final statement given at Manila, 
P. I., June 12, '99, per G. 0. No. 54, A. G. 0., Wash- 
ington, D. C, and S. O. No. 57, hdqrs. dept. of the 
Pacific and 8th A. C, June 11, '99; ordnance and 
quartermaster's stores deducted on final statements; 
entitled to travel pay as provided in G. 0. No. 54, 
A. G. O., Washington, D. C; seven and 17-100 (87.17) 
dollars still due soldier per reduction for State cloth- 
ing; due soldier per error on clothing account twenty- 
eight (28) cents. 
Enrolled and mustered in as private; transferred to 
Company L, 2d Or. U. S. Vols. Sept. 3, '98, per S. O. 
No. 144, hdqrs. 2d Or. U. S. Vols,, Manila, P. I., Sept. 3, 
'98; descriptive list furnished. 
Enrolled and mustered in as private; transferred to 
Company M, 2d Or. U. S. Vols., per S, 0. No. 84, hdqrs. 
2d Or. U. S. Vols., Manila, P. I., Nov. 14, '98; descrip- 
tive list furnished; still due soldier per error on cloth- 
ing account two and 54-100 ($2.54) dollars. 
Enrolled and mustered in as private; attached to 2d 
Or. Reg. Hosp. Corps Aug. 12, '98, per Reg. 0. No. 
125, hdqrs. 2d Or. U. S. Vols., Cavite, P. I., Aug. 12, '98; 


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Gilleland, Arthur L- 

Transferred — 
Huntley, Merritt B.- 
Oliver, Geo. W 

Hooker, L. St. Elmo- 



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Since completion of this roll. Captain A. F. Prescott, 
was mustered out to date, July 25, '99, to accept com- 
mission as captain in 85th U. S. Vol. Inf. 

Enrolled as captain and mustered in with company as 
1st lieutenant. 

Enrolled as 1st lieutenant and mustered in with com- 
pany as 2d lieutenant; sick in hospital at Gavite, 
P. I., July 27 to Aug. 30, '98, inc.; in line of duty; de- 
tailed on special duty as acting ordnance officer per 
S. 0. No. 15, hdqrs, 2d Or. Inf., Feb. 24, '99. 

Mustered in as corporal; promoted sergeant per G. 0. 
No. 7, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., June 5, 98; appointed 1st 
sergeant per Co. 0. No. 2, Mav 1, '99; sick in quarters 
Nov. 2-23, '98, inc.; inline of duty. Due soldier S35, 
deposited at Cavite, P. I., Aug. 8, '98, with Major Kil- 
bourne; %m deposited at Manila, P. I., Sept. 15, '98, 
with Major Sears; $85 deposited at Manila, P. I., May 
15, '99, with Major Coffin. 

Mustered in as private; promoted sergeant perS. O. 
No. 159, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated at Manila, P. I., 
Sept. 30, '98: sick in quarters Aug. 15-21, '98, inc.; June 
1-4, '99, inc.'; all in line of duty. 

Mustered in as corporal; promoted sergeant per S. 0. 
No. 144, hdqrs, 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., Sept. 8, 
'98; sick in 1st reserve hospital, Manila, P. I., Apr. 10 
to May 27, '98, inc.; sick in quarters June 1-4, ^98, inc.; 
Oct. 19-24, '98, inc.; all in line of dutv. Due soldierfSO, 
deposited at Cavite, P. I., Aug. 8. '98, with Major Kil- 
bourne; $40 deposited at Manila, P. I., Jan. 6, '99, with 
Major Sheary; $25 deposited at Manila, P. I., Mar. 8, 
'99, with Major Rochester. 


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agent. 

Farmer — 

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houseman 

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Austin F. Prescott— 

Captain. 

Geo. A, Hartman, Jr. 

1st Lieutenant. 

Prank A. Mead— — — 

2d lAeutenant. 

Hezekiah C. Cotner— 

ist Sergeant. 

William S. Atchinson 

Quartermaster Sergeant. 

Ben Dupuis 

3d Sergeant. 



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Tried by summary court Sept. 22, '98, for violation of 
32d art. of war (absent one day); sentenced to forfeit 
$5; fine deducted on Sept., '98, pay roll; pay for time 
absent to be deducted on this roll; tried by summary 
court Nov. 16, '98, for violation of 32d art. of war (ab- 
sent Nov. 7-10, '98, inc.); sentenced to forfeit 110 and 
ten days' confinement; fine deducted on Nov., '98, 
pay roll; pay for time absent to be deducted on this 
roll; sick in 1st reserve hospital, Manila, P. L, May 28 
to June 3, '99, inc.; sick in quarters June 4-17, '99, inc.; 
sick in regimental hospital June 17 to July 15, '99, inc.; 
sick in hospital, Presidio, San Francisco, Cal., since 
July 15, '99; all in line of duty. Due soldier $25, de- 
posited at Cavite, P. I., Ausr. 8, '98, with Major Kil- 
bourne: $15 dep .sited at Manila, P. I., Mar. 8, '99, with 
Major Rochester; $20 deposited at Corregidor Island, 
May 31, '99, with Major Coffin. Since completion of 
this roll this soldier died at United States general 
hospital, Presidio, San Francisco, Cal., July 29, '99, at 
8:30 P.M. Final statements and inventory of effects 
in duplicate forwarded to Adjutant General, U. S. A., 
Washington, D. C July 31, '99. 

Tried by general court-martial for violation of 39th 
art. of war rieaving post); found guilty and sentenced 
to be confined at hard labor four months in Bilibib 
military prison, Manila. P. I., and to forfeit $10 per 
month for the same period, per S. 0. No. 28, hdqrs. 
provost marshal general, Manila, P. I., Feb. 14, '99; fine 
deducted on Feb., Mar., Apr., and May, '99, pay rolls. 
Pursuant to telegraph orders from War Department, 
dated May 11, '99, the unexpired portion of his sen- 
tence relating to confinement is remitted per S. O. No. 
128, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, dated 
Manila, P. L, May 12, '99; sick in regimental hospital 
June 26 to July 6, '99, inc.; sick in quarters July 7-10, 
'99,inc.; all in line of duty. Due soldier $20, deposited 
at Cavite, P. I., Aug. 8, '98, with Major Kilbourne. 

Tried by summary court Sept. 22, '98, for violation of 
32d art. of war (absent less than 24 hours); sentenced 
to forfeit g3; fine deducted on Sept., '98, pay roll; tried 


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Mustered in as private; promoted corporal per S. 0. No. 
144, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., Sept. 3, '98; 
promoted sergeant per S. O. No. 11, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., 
dated Manila, P. I.. Feb. 3, '99; reduced to private per 
S. O. No. 3, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf. (in field), Apr. 7, '99, sick 
in quarters June 7-X3, '99, inc., in line of duty; June 28 
to July 10, '99, inc., not in line of duty; vSick in quarters 
since July 18, '99; in line of duty. 

Mustered in as private; promoted sergeant June 5, '98, 
per G. 0. No. 7, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., on S. S. Australia; 
reduced to private per S. O. No. 130, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., 
dated Manila, P. I., Aug. 16, '98; tried by general court- 
martial for violation of 38th and 62d arts, of war; found 
guilty and sentenced to forfeit f20 per S, 0. No. 50, 
hdqrs, 2d div., 8th A. C, dated Manila, P. I., Oct, 8, '98; 
fine deducted on Oct. and Nov., '98, pay rolls; pro- 
moted corporal per S. O. No. 194, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., 
dated Manila, P. I,, Dec. 5, '98; reduced to private per 

5. 0. No. 11, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., Feb 
11, '99; tried by summary court Jan. 14, '99, for viola 
tion of 62d art. of war; found not guilty and acquitted- 
tried by summary court Feb. 20, '99, for violation of 
62d art. of war; found not guilty and acquitted. 

Mustered in as private; promoted corporal per S. 0. 
No. 7, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., on S. S. Australia, June 5, '98; 
reduced to private per S. 0. No 148, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., 
dated Manila, P. I,, Sept, 13, '98; tried by summary 
court Sept. 22, '98, for violation of 33d art. of war; 
sentenced to forfeit |1; fine deducted on Sept,, '98, pay 
roll; sick in quarters Aug. 10-13, '98, inc.; Aug. 17-20, 
'98, inc.; Aug. 30 to Sept. 8, '98, inc.; Oct, 3-17, '98, inc.; 
all in line of duty; Oct. 28 to Nov. 4, '98, inc., not in 
line of duty; sick in division hospital, Manila, P. I., 
Nov. 6-28, '9S, inc., in line of duty; sick in quarters 
Dec. 1-8, '98, inc., in line of duty; Feb. 2-19, '99, inc., 
not in line of duty; June 5-14, '99, inc., in line of duty. 
Due soldier $10, deposited at Manila, P. I., Sept. 15, '98, 
with Major Sears; f 10 deposited at Manila, P. I., Jan. 

6, '99, with Major Sheary; $15 deposited at Manila, 
P. I., May 15, '99, with Major Coffin. 


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Tried by field officers' court-martial May 5, '98, for vio- 
lation of 32d art. of war (absent less than 24 hours); 
sentenced to forfeit $3; fine deducted on Aug., '98, pay 
roll; tried by summary court Sept. 17, '98, for viola- 
tion of 32d art. of war (absent less than 24 hours); 
sentenced to forfeit $3; fine deducted on Sept., '98, pay 
roll; tried by summary court Nov. 7, '98, for violation 
of 62d art. of war; sentenced to two weeks' confine- 
ment and to forfeit $5; fine deducted on Nov., '98, pay 
roll; tried by summary court Feb. 10, '99, for viola- 
tion of 32d art. of war (absent oneday); sentenced to 
five days' confinement and to forfeit $6; fine deducted 
on Feb., '99, pay roll; pay for time absent to be de- 
ducted on this roll; detailed on special duty in com- 
missary department per O. No. 2, hdqrs. 1st battalion, 
2d Or. Inf., on S. S. Newport, June 14, '99; sick in 
quarters Aug. 30 to Sept. 10, '98, inc.; Sept. 22-26, '98, 
inc.; in line of duty; Oct. 29 to Nov. 2, '98, inc.; not in 
line of duty; Nov. 10-22, '98, inc.; Dec. 21-31, '98, inc.; 
sick in 1st reserve hospital, Manila, P. I., Apr. 14-25, 
'99, inc.; sick in quarters June 18-23, '99, inc.; all in 
line of duty. 

Sick in quarters Sept. 30 to Oct. 4, '98, inc.; in line of 
duty. Due soldier $40, deposited at Cavite, P. I., Aug. 
8, '98, with Major Kilbourne; $30 deposited at Manila, 
P. I., May 15, '99, with Major Coffin, 

Mustered in as private; promoted corporal per S. O. 
No. 144, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., Sept. 
3, '98; reduced to private per S. O. No. 183, hdqrs. 2d 
Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. L, Nov. 9, '98; sick in quar- 
ters July 12-19, '98, inc.; June 30 to July 16, '99, inc.; 
all in line of duty. Due soldier 170, deposited at Ma- 
nila, P. L, May 15, '99, with Major Coffin. 

Mustered in as private; promoted sergeaTit per G. O. 
No. 7, June 5, '98, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., on S. S. Australia: 
tried by summary court Sept. 19, '98, for violation 
of 62d art. of war; found guilty and reduced to pri- 
vate and sentenced to forfeit $5; fine deducted on 
Sept., '98, pay roll per S. 0. No. 151, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., 
dated Manila, P. I.. Sept. 19, '98; tried by summary 


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Kupers, William -__ 
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Marin, Jacob C.^_— 



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Tried by.summary court Sept. 17, '98, for violation of 
32d art. of war (absent less than 24 hours); sentenced 
to forfeit $2; fine deducted on Sept., '98, pay roll; sick 
in quarters July 8-11, '98, inc., in line of duty. Due 
soldier $30, deposited at Manila, P.I,, May 15, '99, with 
Major Coffin. 

Tried by summary court Sept. 17, '98, for violation of 
32d art. of war (absent less than 24 hours); sentenced 
to forfeit $2; fine deducted on Sept., '98, pay roll; de- 
tailed on special duty at hdqrs. 1st brigade, United 
States expeditionary forces, Cavite, P. I., per S. 0. 
No. 12, July 15, '98; relieved from special duty at bri- 
gade headquarters per S. O. No. 1, hdqrs. 2d div., 8th 
A. C, Aug, 2, '98; sick in quarters Nov. 4-10, '98, inc,; 
Dec. 6-9, '98, inc^* all in line of duty; Dec. 14-21, '98, inc.; 
Dec. 27, '98, to Jan. 4, '99, not in line of duty; sick in 
1st reserve hospital, Manila, P. I., Apr. 29 to May 25, 
'99, inc.; sick in quarters July 13-17, '99, inc.; all inline 
of duty. Due soldier $25, deposited at Cavite, P. I., 
Aug. 8, '98, with Major Kilbourne; $10 deposited at 
Manila, P. I., Sept. 15, '98, with Major Sears. 

Assigned to and joined Company D, 2d Or. Inf., per 
S. O. No. 187, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., 
Nov. 26, '98; sick in quarters Dec. 5-11, '98, inc; sick in 
1st reserve hospital, Manila, P. I, Mar. 12 to Apr. 1, '99, 
inc.; sick in quarters June 17-20, '99, inc.; all in line of 
duty; sick in U. S. A. hospital, Presidio, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., July 23, '99, in line of duty. No clothing 
was issued to him by the State. Due soldier $30, de- 
posited at Manila, P. I., May 15, '99, with Major Coffin. 

Sick in quarters Oct. 1,5-22, '98, inc.; Oct. 27 to Nov. 4, '98, 
inc.; all In line of duty; sick in 1st reserve hospital, 
Manila, P. I., Mar. 22 to Apr. 16, '99, inc., notin line of 
duty; sick in quarters May 31 to June 4, '99, inc.; June 
24 tx) July 16, '99, inc.; aU in line of duty. Due soldier 
$25, deposited at Cavite, P. J., Aug. 8, '98, with Major 
Kilbourne; $5 deposited at Manila, P. I., Sept. 15, '98, 
with Major Sears; $5 deposited at Manila, P. I., Jan. 6, 
'99, with Major Sheary; $20 deposited at Manila, P. I., 
May 15, '99, with Major Coffin. 


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Soules, Elmo M. 

Stan wood, Franklin- 
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Tried by summary court Sept. 22, '98, for violation of 
32d art. of war; sentenced to forfeit $1; fine deducted 
on Sept., '98, pay roll; tried by summary court Dec. 
22, '98, for violation of 62d art. of war; found guilty 
and sentenced to thirty days' confinement at hard 
labor; in confinement Dec. 22, '98, to Jan. 21, '99, inc.; 
tried by summary court Jan. 31, '99, for violation of 
33d art. of war; sentenced to forfeit 1=1; fine deducted 
on Jan., '99, pay roll; sick in quarters Sept. 5-9, '98, 
inc.; in line of duty; Feb. 2-20, '99, inc.; sick in regi- 
mental hospital June 24 to July 11, '99, inc.; not in 
line of duty. Due soldier $25, deposited at Cavite, 
P. I., Aug. 8. '98, with Major Kllbourne. 

Sick in quarters Oct. 17-21, '98, inc.; in line of duty. 

Detailed as battalion adjutant per G. 0. No. 1, hdqrs. 
2d Or. Inf., dated Portland, Or., May 10, '98; discharged 
at Manila, P. L, June 12, '99, per S. O. No. 157, Ext. 3, 
hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, June 11, '99, 
under Prov. G. O. No. 54, A. G. O., Mar. 22, '99; dis- 
charge and final statements given; character, "excel- 
lent;" service, "honest and faithful," Due officer for 
two months' extra pay for foreign service per G. 0. 
No. 13, A. G. O., Jan. 17, '99; for travel allowances from 
San Francisco, Cal.. to Portland, Or., per G. 0. No. 54, 
A. G. O., Mar. 22, '99; due officer for pay from May 1 
to June 12, '99. 

Mustered in as private; promoted sergeant June 5, '98; 
per G. 0. No. 7, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., on S. S. Australia; 
reduced to private per S. 0. No. 130, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., 
dated Manila, P. I., Aug. 16, '98; tried by summary 
court Sept. 17, '98, for violation of 32d art. of war 
(absent less than 24 hours); sentenced to forfeit $3; 
fine deducted on Sept., '98, pay roll; promoted ser- 
geant Sept. 29, '99, per S. 0. No. 158, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf.. 
Manila, P. I., and 1st sergeant per Co. 0. No. 14, Sept' 
29, '98; reduced to private per S. O. No. 179, hdqrs. 2d 
Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., Oct, 21, '98; tried by sum- 
mary court Nov. 16, '98, for violation of 32d art. of 


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Woods, Morton 

Discharged by order. 
Fielding S. Kelly ____ 

^st Lieutenant. 

James West 

Sergeant. 



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Mustered in as private; promoted corporal per S. 0. 
No. 184, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., Nov. 
14, '98. Discharged at Manila, P. I., June 12, '99, per 
S. 0. No. 157, Ext. 3, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th 
A. C, June 11, '99, under prov. G. 0. No. 54, A. G. 0., 
Mar. 22, '99; discharge and final statements given- 
character, "excellent;" service, "honest and faith- 
ful." Due soldier for clothing not drawn in kind, |20; 
due soldier for pay from May 1 to June 12, '99; due 
soldier for two months' extra pay for foreign service 
per G. 0. No. 13, A. G. 0., Jan. 17, '99; due soldier for 
travel allowance from San Francisco, Cal., to Pendle- 
ton, Or., per G. O. No. 54, A. G. 0., Mar. 22, '99. 

Mustered in as private; promoted corporal per S. 
No. 3, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf. (in field), Apr. 7, '99. Dis- 
charged in Manila, P. I., June 12, '99, per S. O. No. 157, 
Ext. 3, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, June 
11, '99, under prov. G. 0. No. 54, A. G. 0., Mar. 22. '99; 
discharge and final statements given; character, "ex- 
cellent;" service, "honest and faithful." Due soldier 
for clothing not drawn in kind, $19.75^ due soldier for 
pay from May 1 to June 12, '99; due soldier for two 
months' extra pay for foreign service per G. 0. No. 13, 
A. G. 0., Jan. 17, '99; due soldier for travel allowance 
from San Francisco. Cal., to Pendleton, Or., per G. 0. 
No; 43, A. G. O., Mar. 22, '99; due soldier f20, deposited 
at Cavite, P. I., Aug. 8, '98, with Major Chas. E. Kil- 
bourne; $20 deposited at Manila, P. I., Sept. 15, '98, 
with Major John M. Sears; $10 deposited at Manila, 
P. I., Mar. 8, '99, with Major Wm. B. Rochester, Jr. 
it 10 deposited at Manila, P. I., May 15, '99, with Maior 
Eugene Coffin. 

Mustered in as corporal; reduced to private per S. 0. 
No, 116, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf, dated Cavite, P. I., Aug. 2, 
'98; transferred from Companv K to Company D, 2d 
Or. Inf , per S. 0. No. 10, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf, dated Ma- 
nila, P. I., Feb. 1, '99; tried by summary court Nov. 
16, '98, for violation of 33d and 38th arts, of war; sen- 
tenced to forfeit fl3; tried by general court-martial 
for violation of 62d art. of war; found guilty and 


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Corporal. 

A. A. Manning 

Corporal. 

Privates. 
Boyd, Frank 



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Remarks. 


Enrolled and mustered in as corporal; appointed ser- 
geant May 13, '98, per G. 0. No. 7, May 13, '98; appointed 
quartermaster sergeant, per Co. 0. No. 11, May 1, '99; 
sick in quarters, in line of duty, Oct. 21-:^, '98, inc., 
and Mar. 10-12, '99, inc. In the settlement for cloth- 
ing is included $11.10, total value for clothing issued 
him by the State. Deposited Aug. 8, '98, with Major 
Kilbourne $40; Nov. 5, '98, with Major Sears, $10; Jan. 
9, '99, with Major Sears, $10. 

Detailed as clerk in brigade headquarters, per S. O. 
No. 4, June 25, '98; relieved from special duty at bri- 
gade headquarters, per S. O. No. 47, 1st div., 8th A. C, 
May 31, '99; relieved as quartermaster sergeant and 
appointed duty sergeant, per Co. 0. No. 11, May 1, '99; 
sick in division hospital Mar. 24-28, W, inc., in line 
of duty; in quarters June 28 to July 12, '99, inc., in line 
of duty. In the settlement for clothing is included 
$11.16, total value of clothing issued bim by the State. 

Enrolled and mustered in as corporal; appointed as 
sergeant, per Reg. S. 0. No. 190, Nov. 30, '98; sick in 
quarters, in line of duty, June 8-11, '99, inc.; June 20 
to July 12, '99, inc.; July*16-27, '99, inc.; in line of duty. 
In the settlement for clothing is included $11.16, total 
value of clothing issued him by the State. Deposited 
Nov. 5, '98, with Major Sears, $20. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; appointed cor- 
poral, per Reg. S. 0. No. 169, Nov. 25, '98; appointed 
sergeant, per Reg. S. 0. No. 17, Mar. 2, '99; sick in 
quarters, in line of duty, Oct. 5-31, '98, inc.; tried by 
summary court Sept. 17, '98, for violation of 32d art. of 
war (absence without leave 24 hours); sentenced to 
forfeit $5; fine deducted on Oct. pay roll; tried by 
summary court Sept. 22, '98, for violation of 32d art. 
of war (absence without leave 48 hours), and for viola- 
tion of 33d art. of war (absent from guard mount and 
from retreat); sentenced to forfeit $15; fine deducted 
on Oct. pay roll; pay for time absent to be deducted 
on this roll. In the settlement for clothing is included 
$11.16, total valueof clothing issued him by the State. 
Deposited Mar. 8, '99, with Major Rochester, $10. 


i 


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Portland- 

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Portland- 


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May 12_ 

May 12_ 
May 12_ 


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Harry J. Hayes 

2d Sergeant. 

Rezin D.Hewitt 

3d Sergeant. 

Harry Anderson 

4th Sergeant. 

Theodore L. Gamble- 

Wi Sergeant. 



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Enrolled and mustered in as private; appointed lance 
corporal per Reg. S. 0. No. 190, Nov. 30, '98; appointed 
corporal per Reg. S. 0. No. 204, Dec. 17, '98; sick in line 
of duty in quarters July 29 to Aug. 2, '98, inc.; Feb. 8 to 
Mar. 10, '99, inc. In the settlement for clothing is in- 
cluded $11.16, total value of clothing issued him by 
the State. Deposited Aug. 8, '98, with Major Ohas. E. 
Kilbourne, $30; Nov. 5, '98, with Major John M. Sears, 
$50; Mar. 11, '99, with Major John M. Sears, |20; May 
15, '99, with Major Eugene Coffin, $20. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; appointed cor- 
poral per Reg. S. 0, No, 17, Mar. 2, '99; joined company 
per S. O. No. 119, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th 
A. C, Nov. 24, '98; sick in quarters, in line of duty, 
May 28 to June 1,'99, inc. No clothing issued him by 
the State. 

Enrolled and mustered In as private; appointed cor- 
poral per Reg. S. O. No. 19, Mar. 4,'99; sick in quarters, 
in line of duty, June 7-13, '98, inc.; July 7-9, '98, inc.; 
July 11-15, '98, inc.; Dec. 29, '98, to Jan. 3, '99, inc.; Mar. 
26 to May 18, '99, inc., in division hospital. In the 
settlement for clothing is included $11.16, total value 
of clothing issued him by the State. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; appointed cor- 
poral per S. O. No. 3, field series, Mar. 16, '99; sick in 
quarters, in line of duty, Sept. 13 to Oct. 4, '98, inc.; in 
division hospital Nov. 8 to Dec. 18, '98, inc. Deposited 
Aug. 8, '98, with Major C. E. Kilbourne, $15; Sept. 21, 
'98, with Major John M. Sears, $5; May 15, '99, with 
Major Eugene Coffin, $30. In the settlement for cloth- 
ing is Included $11.16, total value of clothing Issued 
him by the State. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; appointed cor- 
poral per Reg. S. O. No. 28, June 22, '99; sick in quarters, 
in line of duty, July 8-11, '98, inc.; Aug. 25-27, '98, inc.; 
in division hospital Dec. 13, '98, to Jan. 3, '99, inc.; in 
quarters Mar. 26-28, '99, inc. In the settlement for 
clothing is included $11.16, total value of clothing 
issued him by the State. 


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James Mead __ 

Corporal, 

Frederick T. Smith__ 

Corporal. 

Clarence 0. English— 

Corporal. 

Veii L. Masten— . 

Corporal. 

Edward D, Oeseh 

Corporal. 



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OliEGON VOLUNTEERS iN SPANISH WAR. 



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Joined company by enlistment per S.O. No. 119,hdqrs. 
dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, Nov. 24, '98; sick in 
quarters in line of duty Sept. 21 to Oct. 10, '98, inc.; 
Dec. 28, '98, to Jan, 3, '99, inc.; in hospital Jan. 9 to 
Apr. 11, '99, inc. Deposited May 15, '99, with Major 
Eugene Coffin, $25. No clothing issued him by the 
State. 

Sick in quarters in line of duty Jan. 28 to Feb. 21, '99, 
inc. In the settlement for clothing is included $11.16, 
total value of clothing issued to him by the State. 
Deposited Nov. 5, '98, with Major J. M. Sears, $10. 

Sick in regimental hospital in line of duty Jan. 22 to 
Feb. 1, '99, inc. In the settlement for clothing is in- 
cluded $11.16 total value of clothing issued him by 
the State. Deposited Aug. 8, '98, with Major Kil- 
bourne, $15; May 15, '99, with Major Coffin, $20. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; appointed com- 
pany cook per Reg. 0. No. 9, Jan. 1, '99; sick in quar- 
ters, in line of duty. Sept, 28 to Oct. 4, '98, inc.; Oct. 
5-14, '98, inc.; Nov. 17-19, '98. inc.; Dec. 14-16, '98, inc.; 
in division hospital Apr. 9-27, '99, inc.; May 30 to June 
4, '99, inc.- detailed in commissary department July 
8, '98, per Reg. O. No. 9, July 8, '98; relieved from spe- 
cial duty per Reg. G. 0. No. 10, Aug. 12, '98. In the 
settlement for clothing is included $11.16, total value 
of clothing issued him by the State. 

Sick in quarters, in line of dutv, July 8-10, '98, inc.; Oct. 
8-16, '98, inc.; Jan. 2-11, '99, inc. In the settlement for 
clothing is included $11.16, total value of clothing 
issued him by the State, Deposited May 15, '99, with 
Major Coffin, $15. 

Sick in quarters, in lineof dutv, June 16-21, '98, inc. In 
the settlement for clothing is included $11.16, total 
value of clothing^ issued him by the State. Deposited 
Aug. 8, '98, with Major Kilboiirne, $45; Nov. 5, '98, 
with Major Sears, $25. 

Enrolled and mustered in as sergeant; reduced to pri- 
vate per S. 0. No. 1 (field series), 2d Or. Inf., Mar. 16, 
'99. In the settlement for clothing is included $11.16, 
total value of clothing issued him by the State. 


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Babb, Andrew A.____ 
Basey, Robert W 

Bebb, John E 

Boynton, Clyde 

Bradley, Alfred L— _ 
Brown, Allen M 



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Sick in division hospital in line of duty Mar. 25 to 
Apr. 26, '99, inc.; caused by gunshot Wound in left 
shoulder. In the settlement for clothing is included 
$11.16, total value of clothing issued him by the State. 
Deposited Aug. 8, '98, with Major Kilbourne, $10; 
Sept. 21, '98, with Major Sears, $15; Nov. 5, '98, with 
Major Sears, $15; Jan. 9, '99, with Major Sears, $10; 
May 15, '99, with Major Coffin, $10. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; joined company 
by enlistment per S. 0. No. 119, hdqrs. dept. of the 
Pacific and 8th A. C, Nov. 24, '98; sick in quarters in 
line of duty Apr. 1 to May 3, '99, inc.; July 2-12, '99, 
inc., in hospital. No clothing issued him by the State. 

Sick in hospital, in line of duty, Sept. 1-5, '98, inc.; in 
quarters Sept. 14 to Oct. 7, '98, inc.; Oct. 20 to Nov. 26, 
'98, inc.; Jan. 17-18, '99, inc.; Feb. 9-18, '99, inc.; in reg- 
imental hospital Mar. 24 to Apr. 3, '99, inc. In the 
settlement for clothing is included $11.16, total value 
of clothing issued him by the State. 

Joined company by enlistment per S. O. No, 119, hdqrs. 
dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, Nov. 24, '98- sick in 
quarters in line of duty Apr. 13-23, '99, inc. No cloth- 
ing issued him by the State. 

Tried by field officers' court Aug. 5, '98, for violation of 
33d art. of war (absent from reveille roll call Aug. 4, 
'98): sentenced to forfeit $1; fine deducted on July 
and Aug. pay roll; tried by summary court Nov. 10, 
'98, for violation of 62d art. of war* sentenced to for- 
feit $10 and to confinement thirty days at hard labor; 
fine deducted on Nov. and Dec, '98, pay rolls; tried 
by summary court Mar. 10, '99, for violation of 62d 
art. of war; sentenced to forfeit one month's pay 
:$15.60); fine deducted on Mar. and Apr., '99, pav rolls; 
sick in quarters in line of duty Aug. 20-24, '98, inc.; 
Sept. 29 to Oct. 10. '98, inc.; Mar. 28 to Apr. 3, '99, inc. 
In the settlement for clothing is included $11.16, total 
value of clothing issued him by the State. Depos- 
ited Aug. 8, '98, with Major Kilbourne, $20. 


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Portland- 

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May 12- 

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Farmer „ 
Farmer — 

Engineer- 
Boiler- 
maker. 


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Davis, John E.__— _._ 

Dolan, Walter - 

Doughty, Albert F 

Duffej^ Austin __..- 

Fitzgerald, Ed J. 



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Accidentally shot in the left hand while cleaning gun, 
Jan. 1, '99; sick in quarters, in line of duty, Sept. 25 to 
Oct. 4, '98, inc.; Jan 3. to Feb. 3, '99, inc.; sick in hos- 
pital Apr. 16 to May 11, '99, inc.; sick in quarters June 
12-27, '99, inc. In the settlement for clothing is in- 
cluded $11.16, total value of clothing issued him by 
the State. 

Detailed on special duty per Reg. S. 0. No. 41, May 17, 
'98; sick in quarters, in line of duty, Apr. 13-23, '99, inc. 
In the settlement for clothing is included $11.16, total 
value of clothing issued him by the State. 

Joined company by enlistment per S. O. No, 119, hdqrs. 
dept. of Pacific and 8th A. C, Nov, 24, '98. No clothing 
issued him by the State. 

Tried by summary court Oct. 13, '98, for violation of 62d 
art. of war (charge, neglect of duty); sentenced to for- 
feit 15 pay and five days' confinement at hard labor; 
fine deducted on Sept. and Oct,, '98, pay roll; sick in 
quarters, in line of duty, Sept. 27 to Oct. 10, '98, inc. 
In the settlement for clothing is included $11.16, total 
value of clothing issued him bj^ the State. Deposited 
Aug. 8,'98, with Major Kil bourne, $20; Sept. 21,'98, with 
Major Sears, 110; May 15, '99, with Major Coffin, $30. 

Joined company by enlistment per S. 0. No. 119, hdqrs. 
dept. of Pacific and 8th A. C, Nov. 24,'98. No clothing 
issued him by the State. 

Appointed corporal per Reg. S. O. No. 102, July 20, '98; 
reduced to private at his own request per Reg. S. 0. 
No, 19, Mar. 4, '99. In the settlement for clothing is 
included $11.16, total value of clothing issued him by 
the State. 

Joined company by enlistment per S. 0. No 119, hdqrs. 
dept. of the Pacific and 8th A, C, Nov. 24, '98; sick in 
quarters, in line of duty, Jan. 7-9, '99, inc. No clothing 
issued him by the State. 

Enrolled May S, 98, and mustered in May 12, '98, as 2d 
lieutenant. "No official information concerning cause 
of discharge. 


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Stone, Lloyd B. _ 
Wade, Benjamin F.__ 

Wamsley, Ghas. C— 
Wessburg, John E.— 

Wickline, Elza M— 

Discharged. 
Bryan, Edgar J 

2d Lieutenant. 



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Enrolled and mustered in as sergeant; appointed 1st 
sergeant per G. O. No. 7, May 13, '98; discharged by 
favor to accept commission Feb. 28, '99. In the settle- 
ment for clothing is included $18.15, total value of 
clothing issued him by the State; due soldier $6.99 for 
clothing overcharged. 

Discharged per S. 0. No. 77, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific 
and 8th A. C, Mar. 24, '99; discharge and final state- 
ments given. In the settlement for clothing is in- 
cluded $18.15, total value of clothing Issued him by 
the State; due soldier $6.99 for clothing overcharged. 
Sick in quarters, in line of duty, June 26-29, '98, inc.; 
Sept. 1-5, '98,inc.; Sept. 6-28, '98, inc.; Mar. 12-24, '99, inc. 

Discharged per S. O. No. 77, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific 
and 8th A. C, Mar. 24, '99; discharge and final state- 
ments given. In the settlement for clothing is in- 
cluded $18.15, total value of clothing issued him by the 
State; due soldier $6.99 for clothing overcharged. Sick 
in quarters, in line of duty, July 12-13, '98, inc. 

Discharged per S. O. No. 120, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific 
and 8th A. C, May 22, '99; discharge and final state- 
ments given. In the settlement for clothing is in- 
cluded $18.15, total value of clothing issued him by 
the State; due soldier $6.99 for clothing overcharged. 
Sick in quarters, in line of duty, June 5-9, '98, inc. 

Discharged Mar. 15, '99, per S. O. No. 68, hdqrs. D. A., 
Washington, D. C, Mar. 23, '99, No clothing issued 
him by State; discharge and final statements given; 
due soldier for clothing withdrawn Dec. 31, '98, $28.50. 

Appointed lance corporal per S. 0. No. 189, Nov. 25, '98; 
appointed corporal per S. O. No. 190, Nov. 30, '98; dis- 
charged per S. O. No. 157, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific 
and 8th A. C, Juhe 12, '99; discharge and final state- 
ments given. In the settlement for clothing is in- 
cluded $11,16, total value of clothing issued him by 
the State. Sick in quarters, in line of duty, Oct. 7-11, 
'98, inc.; Oct. 22 to Nov. 4, '98, inc.; Dec. 14-31, '98, inc.; 
tried by summary court for violation of 32d art. of 
war (absent without leave 24 hours), sentenced to 
forfeit $3 pay; flue deducted from Sept. and Oct,, '98, 


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1st Sergeant. 

Privates. 
Carter, Wm. E 

Dyer, George E 

Strayer, Robert L 

Noah, George E 

Thompson, Wm. G. .. 

Corporal. 



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Discharged per S. 0. No. 157, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific 
and 8th A. C, June 12, '99; discharge and final state- 
ments given. In the settlement for clothing is in- 
cluded $11.16, total value of clothing issued him by the 
State; tried by summary court Sept. 22, '98, for viola- 
tion of 33d art. of war (absent without leave less than 
24 hours and absent from guard detail, in violation of 
33d art. of war); sentenced to forfeit Uo of his pay; 
fine deducted from Sept. and Oct., '98, pay roll- tried 
by summary court Jan. 11, '99, for violation of 32d and 
33d arts, of war (absent without leave and absent 
from retreat roll call); sentenced to forfeit |3; fine de- 
ducted on Jan. and Feb., '99, pay roll; absent, sick, in 
line of duty, June 3 to Aug. 6, '98, inc.; Sept. 21 to Oct. 7, 
'98, inc.; sick in quarters Oct. 27 to Nov. 8, '98, inc.; 
Jan. 10-11, '99, inc. Enlisted in Troop G, 4th United 
States Cavalry, May 4, '95; discharged May 3, '98. 

Discharged per S. 0. No. 91, headquarters department 
of California, May 5, '99; sick in quarters, in line of 
duty, July 5-7, '98, inc.; July 21-26, '98, inc.; sick in 
hospital and absent, sick, Sept. 27, '98, to May 5, '99, inc. 

Transferred to hospital corps, U. S. A., Sept. 9, '98, per 
S. O. No. 17, hdqrs. dept. of the army, Washington, 
D. C, Aug. 5, '98. In the settlement for clothi ng is in- 
cluded 118.15, total value of clothing issued him by the 
State; due soldier S6.99 for clothing overcharged. 

Joined company by enlistment per S. 0. No. 119, hdqrs. 
dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, Nov. 24, '98; ap- 
pointed corporal Nov. 25, '98, per Reg. S. 0, No. 189, 
Nov. 25, '98; appointed sergeant major per Reg. S. 0. 
No. 3, Mar. 1, '99; detailed on special duty per S. 0. 
No. 203, Dec. 16, '98. No clothing issued him by State. 

Transferred to hospital corps, U. S. A., per S. O. No. 59, 
hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, Mar. 2, '99. 
In the settlement for clothing is included 111.16, total 
value of clothing issued him by the State; transferred 
to company per S. 0. No. 158, hdqrs. dept. of the Pa- 
cific and 8th A. C, June 12, '99, by error; dropped from 
the roll per S. O. No. 36, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., July 21, '99; 
balance due soldier, difference between private's pay 


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Orchard, Hollie R,— 

Transferred — 
Privates. 

Anderson, Enoch- 
Marshall, John W— 

Sergeant Major. 

Peel, Gordon A 



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Enrolled and mustered in as captain; special duty at 
hdqrs. 1st div., 8th A. C, as acting engineer officer, 
per G. F. 0. No. 3, dated Angat, Apr. 27, '99; returned to 
duty with company June! 0,'99, per telegraphic instruc- 
tions from hdqrs. 1st div., 8th A. C, dated Manila, 
P. I., June 10, '99; sick in quarters Oct. 15-16, '98; sick 
in Red Cross hospital Oct. 17 to Nov. 7, '98; all dates 
inc.; all in line of duty. 

Enrolled and mustered in as 1st lieutenant; in com- 
mand of company Apr. 27 to June 10, '99, S. 0. Reg. O. 
No. 1, dated Apr. 27, '99; sick in hospital Oct. 5-21, '98; 
all dates inc. Due United States $54.17, pay received 
from erroneous date of enrollment to date of mus- 
ter in. 

Enrolled and mustered in as 1st sergeant; discharged 
at MaTiila, P. I., to accept commission, Jan. 30, '99; 
appointed as 2d lieutenant, to rank from Oct. 31, '98; 
sworn into United States service Jan. 30, '99; assigned 
to Company F, S. 0. Reg. No. 9, dated Jan. 30, '99. Due 
soldier $6.77, excess charge for State clothing. 

Enrolled and mustered in as sergeant; appointed 1st 
sergeant from sergeant Feb. 1, '99, per Co. No. 4, dated 
Manila, P. I., Feb. 1, '99; sick in quarters June 24 to 
July 13, '98, inc.; Nov. 26, '98, to Jan. 3, '99, inc.; sick in 
1st reserve hospital May 23-29, '99, inc.; sick in regi- 
mental hospital June 12-14, '99, inc.; all in line of 
duty. 

Enrolled and mustered in as sergeant; wounded in 
action at Norzagaray, P. I., Apr. 25, '98; sick in quar- 
ters Nov. 4-9, '98; Apr. 25 to May 1, '99; May 4-12, '99; 
June 7-11, '99; June 19 to July 3, '99; all dates inc.; in 


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Captain, 

Edwin Grim 

ist Lieutenant, 

C. H. Meussdorff"er, Jr. 

2d Lieutenant, 

William 0. North ____ 

ist Sergeant, 

C. R, Herrington-___. 

Sergeant. 



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222 



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Enrolled and mustered in as private; with detachment 
of Oregon recruits from June 18 to Nov. 24, '98; joined 
companv at Manila, P. I., Nov. 24, '98; sick in regi- 
mental hospital Nov. 29 to Dec. 6, '98, inc.; sick in 
quarters since May 19, '99; all in line of duty. No 
State clothing issued. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; tried by sum- 
mary court Feb. 20, '99, for violation of 32d art. of war 
(absent less than 24 hours); sentenced to forfeit one 
month's pay; fine collected on Jan. and Feb., and 
Mar. and Apr., '99, pay rolls; sick in quarters June 
9-13, '98; Aus. 7-8, '98; Sept. 24-27, '98; Oct. 11 to Nov. 9, 
'98; all dates inc.; sick in regimental hospital Aug. 
6-7, '98; in 1st reserve hospital Sept. 27 to Oct. 11, '98; 
all dates inc.; all in line of duty. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; sick in quarters 
July 4-7, '98; Nov. 27 to Dec. 22, '98; Jan. 25 to Feb. 2, 
'99; Mar. 15-16, '99; all dates inc.; in regimental hospi- 
tal Dec. 22, '98, to Jan. 25, '99, inc.; all in line of duty. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; with detachment 
of Oregon recruits from June 21 to Nov. 24, '98; joined 
company at Manila, P. I., Nov, 24, '98; sick in quarters 
May 29 to June 2, '99, inc.; in line of duty. No State 
clothing issued. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; with detachment 
of Oregon recruits from June 18 to Nov. 24, '98; joined 
company at Manila, P. I., Nov. 24, '98. Deposited with 
Major Gambrill fl5, Mar. 8, '99; deposited with Major 
Coffin SIO, May 28, '99. No State clothing issued. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; with detachment 
of Oregon recruits from June 18 to Nov. 24, '98; joined 
company at Manila, P. I., Nov. 24, '98; tried by sum- 
mary court Dec. 31, '98, for violation of 62d and 33d 
arts, of war; sentenced to forfeit S5 and $1, respec- 
tively; fines collected on payroll of Jan. and Feb., '99; 
tried by general court-martial Feb. 15, '99, for viola- 
tion of 20th art, of war; sentenced to three months, 
confinement, at hard labor, and $10 per month; fine 
deducted on Jan. and Feb., and Mar. and Apr., '99, 
pay rolls; confined from Feb. 16 to Mar. 30, '99; uiiex- 


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Case, Charles L 

Chapman, Wm. R — 
Cline, Thomas D 

Clements, Del 

Cole, Edward — — 



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Enrolled and mustered in as^ private; sick in quarters 
June 17, '98; July 5, '98; July 18, '98; July 19, '98; July 
22-24, '98; July 26-31, '98; Sept. 14-15, '98; Oct. 29 to 
Nov. 4, '98; Dec. 11, '98, to Jan. 14, '99; Jan. 25-26, '99; 
May 2-24, '99; all dates inc.; all in line of duty; sick 
in quarters Aug. 13-22, '98, inc.; not in line of duty; 
sick in regimental hospital July 21-22, '98; July 24-26, 
'98; in division hospital Jan. 14-26, '99; in 1st reserve 
hospital May 20 to June 1, '99; all dates inc.; in line 
of duty. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; on special duty 
May 24, '98, to Aug. 12, '98, per Reg. S. 0. No. 50, dated 
May 3, '98; returned to duty by verbal order of com- 
manding officer 2d Or. Inf., Aug. 12, '98; on special 
duty at regimental^headquarters per Reg. S. 0. No. 163, 
dated Oct. 7, '98, and S. 0. No. 12, dated Feb. 18, '99; 
wounded in action Mar. 14, '99, at Pasig, P. I. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private: on special duty 
in quartermaster's department per S. 0. No. 11, hdqrs. 
dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, dated Jan. 11, '99, 
from Jan. 11 to June 8, '99; relieved from duty by S. 0. 
No. 154, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, 
dated June 8, '99; sick in quarters Mar. 13-16, '99, inc.; 
in liue of duty; in quarters June 11-14, '98, inc.; June 
15 to July 15, '98, inc.; in regimental hospital June 
8-11, '98, inc.; June 14-15, '98, inc.; not in line of duty. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; on special duty 
in quartermaster's department, per. S. 0. No. 11, 
hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, dated Jan. 
11, '99, from Jan. 11 to June 8, '99; relieved from duty 
per S. O. No. 154, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th 
A. C.^ dated June 8, '99; tried by summary court Nov. 
16, '98, for violation of 33d art. of war; sentenced to 
forfeit $3; fine deducted on Nov. and Dec, '98, pay 
roll; sick in quarters June 8-13, '98; Sept. 7-10, '98; 
Nov. 9-14, '98, inc.: sick in regimental hospital Dec. 
30, '98, to Jan. 10, '99, inc.; all in line of duty. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; tried by sum- 
mary court Nov. 26, '98, for violation of 33d and 62d 
arts, of war, sentenced to forfeit $6; fine deducted on 


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Dodson, Wm. D. B— 
Flood, Frank - 

Flood, Philip 

Foster, Charles F 



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Enrolled and mustered in as 1st sergeant; discharged 
Jan. 30, '99, by favor, to accept commission; discharge 
and final statementgiven; service, "honest and faith- 
ful." Due soldier $6.77, excess charge for State cloth- 
ing, not paid him when discharged. Deposited with 
Major Kilbourne $50, Aug. 8, '98; deposited with Major 
Sears $20, Oct. 20, '98, clothing account at date of dis- 
charge, due soldier, $25.95. 

Enrolled and mustered in as sergeant; discharged at 
Manila, P. I., Nov. 9, '98, per telegraphic instructions 
from Adjutant General, U. S. A.; discharge and final 
statementgiven; service, "honest and faithful." Due 
soldier $7, excess charges for State clothing, not paid 
him when discharged. Deposited with Major Kil- 
bourne $60, Aug. 8, '98; clothing account at date of 
discharge, due soldier, $17.01. 

Enrolled and mustered in as corporal; promoted from 
corporal to sergeant Nov. 18, '98, per Reg. S. 0. No. 186, 
same date; sick in quarters July 27-29, '98, inc., in line 
of duty; discharged June 12, '99, per S. 0. No. 157, 
hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, dated Manila, 
P. I., June 11, '99; discharge and final statementgiven; 
service, "honest and faithful;" ordnance charged at 
date of discharge, $1.15; clothing account at date of 
discharge, due soldier, $24.73. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; appointed cor- 
poral from private Aug. 2, '98, per Reg. S. O. No. 116, 
same date; discharged Dec. 19, '98, per telegraphic in- 
structions from Adjutant General, U. S. A., dated 
Dec. 17, '98; discharge and final statement given; 
service, "honest and faithful." Sick in quarters July 
29-30, '98, inc., in line of duty. Due soldier, $6.86, excess 
charge for State clothing, not paid him when dis- 
charged; clothing account at date of discharge, due 
soldier, $29.66. Deposited with Major Kilbourne |5, 
Aug. 8, '98; ordnance charged on Nov. and Dec, '98, 
pay roll, $0.47. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; discharged at 
Manila, P. I., Sept. 25, '98, per telegraphic instructions 


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Arthur C. Stubling- 

Sergeant. 

Wm. C. Johnston 

Sergeant. 

Clare Ingman __ 

Corporal. 

Privates. 


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Enrolled and mustered in as private; tried by sum- 
mary court Oct. 25, '98, for violation of 62d art. of war; 
sentenced to be confined for thirty days, and to forfeit 
f 10; fine partially deducted on Sept. and Oct., '98, pay 
roll, balance to be deducted noted on final siatement. 
Died of smallpox Nov. 23, '98, at Manila, P. I., sick in 
quarters May 22-23, '98; July 23-24, '98; July 31 to Aug. 

4, ^98; Sept. 4-10, '98, inc.; in line of duty; sick In quar- 
ters June 9 to July 7, '98; July 10-15, '98, inc.; not in 
line of duty; sick in regimental hospital Aug. 10-12, 
'98; sick in division hospital Nov. 6-23, '98, inc.; in 
line of duty; sick in regimental hospital June 27-29, 
'98; not in line of duty. Final statements and in- 
ventory of effects forwarded to Adjutant General, 
Washington, D. C. Due soldier, $6.42, excess charge 
for State clothing, not credited him on final state- 
ments. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; died of dysentery, 
Dec. 8, '98, at Manila, P. I.; sick in quarters July 11, 
'98; July 18, '98; Sept. 27-30, '98; Oct. 20 to Nov. 16, '98, 
inc.; sick in division hospital Nov. 16 to Dec. 8, '98, 
inc.; all in line of duty. Final statements and inven- 
tory of effects forwarded to Adjutant General, Wash- 
ington, D. C. Due soldier, S6.42, excess charge for 
State clothing, not credited him on final statements. 

Enrolled and mustered in as 1st lieutenant; on special 
duty as battalion adjutant since May 15, '98, per Reg. 

5. O. No. 44, dated May 16, '98; erroneously carried on 
former muster roll; dropped by instructions of mus- 
tering officer. 


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Norton, Fi'ed J 

Dropped. 
Rhees Jackson 

/si Lieutenant, 



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Enrolled and mustered in as 1st heutenant; appointed 
captain Dec. 3, vice William Gadsby, resigned, and 
assumed command of company Jan. 30, '99, as cap- 
tain; in command of company per S. O. No. 179, 
hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Oct. 31, '98; confirmed and 
made of record per S. O. No. 137, hdqrs. dept. of the 
Pacific and 8th A. C, dated Manila, P. I., Dec. 14, '98; 
on special duty as assistant mess officer per S. O. No. 
67, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated June 4, '98; sick in quar- 
ters July 23-24, Sept. 22-23, Nov. 3-6, '98; all dates inc.; 
in line of duty. 

Enrolled and mustered in as sergeant; appointed 1st 
sergeant per S. O. No. 119, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated 
Aug. 3, '98; discharged Dec. 2, '98, to accept commis- 
sion; discharge and final statements furnished; as- 
signed to Company G per S. 0. No. 119, hdqrs. 2d Or. 
Inf., dated Aug. 3, '98; discharged Sept. 2, '98, to ac- 
cept commission; discharge and final statements 
furnished; assigned to Company G per S. 0. No. 9, 
hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Jan. 30, '99; sick in quarters 
May 22, July 19, Aug. 28-29, '98, Apr. 2-4, '99; sick in 1st 
reserve hospital Apr. 5 to May 26, June 4-6, '99; all 
dates inc.; all in line of duty; accepted commission 
and mastered in as 2d lieutenant at Manila, P. I., by 
Colonel 0. Summers, 2d Or. Inf., Jan. 30, '99. 

Enrolled and mustered in as sergeant; appointed 1st 
sergeant per Co. O. No. 7, dated Feb. 18, '99; sick in 
quarters May 23, June 24-27, June 29, July 16, Sept. 12, 
Sept. 24-28, Oct. 10-15, Nov. 18-22, '98, Feb. 24-25, July 
17, '99, to date; all dates inc.; all in line of duty. Due 
for deposit, $50, Mar. 10, '99, with Major Rochester, Jr. 


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Captain. 

Delbert J. Sutton - — 

2d Liexitenant. 

Charles E. Baty 

ist Sergeant. 



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Enrolled and mustered in as private; transferred to 
hospital corps, U. S. A., per S. 0. No. 18, hdqrs. dept. 
of the Pacific and 8th A. C, dated Cavite, P. I., Aug. 
6, '98; erroneously transferred to Company G from 
hospital corps per S. 0. No. 158, hdqrs. dept. of the 
Pacific and 8th A. C, dated Manila, P. I., June 11, '99, 
and S. 0. No. 28, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, 
P. I., June 12, '99; dropped from roll per S. 0. No. 36, 
hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Presidio, Cal., July 21, '99, 
sick in quarters July 5, '98, in line of duty; descriptive 
list furnished. Due soldier for clothing undrawn at 
settlement, Dec. 31 , '98, $34.76; value of clothing drawn 
since settlement, $3.48 and $2.65; soldier to be credited 
with 17.05 for reduction in price of State clothing. 
Enrolled and mustered in as private; on special duty 
with hospital corps, U. S. A., per S. O. No. 100, hdqrs. 
2d Or. Inf., dated July 15, '98; transferred to hospital 
corps, U. S. A., per S. 0. No. 17, hdqrs. dept. of the 
Pacific and 8th A. C, dated Aug, 5, '98; erroneously 
transferred to Company G from hospital corps per 
S. 0. No. 158, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, 
dated Manila, P. I., June 11, '99, and S. 0. No. 28, 
hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., June 12, '99; 
dropped from roll per S. 0. No. 36, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., 
dated Presidio, Cal., July 21, '99; descriptive fist fur- 
nished. Due soldier for clothing undrawn at settle- 
ment Mar. 31, '99, $38.87; value of clothing drawn 
since settlement, $5.17; soldier to be credited with 
$6.76 for reduction in price of State clothing. 
Enrolled and mustered in as private; transferred to 
hospital corps, U. S. A., per S. 0. No. 7, hdqrs. dept. of 
the Pacific and 8th A. C, dated Manila, P. L, Aug. 5, 
'99, and descriptive list furnished; erroneously trans- 
ferred to Company G from hospital corps, U. S. A., per 
S. 0. No, 158, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, 
1 dated Manila, P. I., June 11, '99, and S. O. No. 28, 
i hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. L, June 12, '99; 
1 dropped from roll per S. 0. No. 36, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., 
1 dated Presidio, Cal., July 21, '99; descriptive list fur- 
nished. Due soldier for clothing undrawn at settle- 


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Rolfe, George E 

Marcellus, Marius B._ 



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per S. O. No. 187, hdqrs, 2d Reg., 0. U. S. V., dated 
Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '%%] on special duty in regi- 
mental headquarters per S. O. No. 29, Ext. 2, hdqrs. 
2d Reg., 0, U. S, V., dated on board S. S. Newport at 
sea June 27, '99; sick in quarters June 5-8, '99, inc.; in 
line of duty. No clothing issued by State. 

Recruit; assigned to and joined company Nov. 26, '98, 
per S. 0. No. 187, hdqrs. 2d Reg., O. U. S. V., dated 
Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '98. No clothing issued bv 
State. Due soldier for deposit: May 3, '99, $15. 

Recruit; assigned to and joined company Nov. 26, '98, 
per S. O. No. 187, hdqrs. 2d Reg., O. U. S. V., dated 
Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '98. No clothing issued by 


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24, '98, inc.; Jan, 1, June B-10, '99, inc.; sick in division 
hospital, Manila, P. I., Jan. 2-15, '99, inc.; all in line 
of duty; tried by summary court Mar. 27, '99, for vio- 
lation of 32d art. of war (absent Mar. 26, '99) ; sentenced 
to twelve days' confinement; pay for time absent 
deducted on Apr., '99, pay roll; in confinement Mar. 
27 to Apr. 7, '99, inc. No clothing issued by State, 

Sick in quarters July 6-16, 27-31, Sept. 15-20, '98, inc.; 
sick in division hospital, Manila, P. I., since Sept. 20, 
'98; all in line of duty. Absent, sick atSan Francisco, 
Cal., per S. O. No. 63, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific 
and 8th A. C, dated Manila, P. I., Mar. 6, '99; de- 
scriptive list furnished; no official notice of dis- 
charge; communication received from soldier stating 


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OREGOK VOLUNTEERS m SPAKlStt WAU. 



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Recruit; assigned to and joined company Nov. 26, '98, 
per S. O. No. 187, hdqrs. 2d Reg., 0, U. S. V., dated 
Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '98; on special duty at regi- 
mental headquarters per S. 0. No. 196, hdqrs. 2d Reg., 
O. U. S. v., dated Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '98; relieved 
from special duty per S. 0. No, 12, Ext. 4, hdqrs. 2d 
Reg., O. U. S, v., dated Manila. P. I,, Jan. 18, '99; sick 
in quarters Apr. 14-17, June 1-11, 14-20, '99, inc.; all in 
line of duty. No clothing issued by State. 

Recruit; assigned to and joined company Nov. 26, '98, 
per S. O. No, 187, hdqrs. 2d Reg., 0. U. S. V., dated 
Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '98; sick in regimental hospital 
Feb. 26 to Mar. 14, '99, inc.; in hue of duty. No cloth- 
ing Issued by State. Due soldier for deposit: Jan. 11, 
'99, $45; Mar. 10, '99, $30; Mar. 24, '99, f80; May 3, '99, $80. 

Recruit; assigned to and joined company Nov. 26, '98, 
per S. 0. No. 187, hdqrs. 2d Reg., O. U. S. V., dated 
Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '98; sick in quarters June 1-2, 
6-11, 28-29, '99, inc.; all in line of duty. No clothing 
Issued by State. 

Recruit; assigned to and joined company Nov. 26, '98, 
perS. O. No. 187, hdqrs. 2d Reg., O. U. S. V., dated 
Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '98; tried by summary court 
Mar. 27, '99, for violation of 32d art. of war (absent 
Mar. 26, '99, less than 24 hours); sentenced to be con- 
fined nine days; in confinement Mar. 27 to Apr. 5, '99, 
inc.; sick in quarters June 16-18, '99, inc.; Dec. 21-28, 
'98, inc.; all in line of duty; Mar. 1-27, '99, inc., not in 
line of duty. No clothing issued by State. 

Recruit; assigned to and joined company Nov. 26, '98, 
per S, O. No, 187, hdqrs, 2d Reg., O. U. S, V., dated 
Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '98. No clothing issued by 
State, 

Sick in quarters Sept. 12-13, 19-22, Oct. 27-30, '98, inc; 
sick in regimental hospital July 11-27, '98, inc.; all in 
line of duty. Due soldier for deposit: Aug. 8, '98, $25. 

Recruit; assigned to and joined company Nov. 26, '98, 
per S. 0. No. 187, hdqrs. 2d Reg., 0. U. S. V., dated 
Manila, P. I., Nov, 26, '98. No clothing issued by 
i State, Due soldier for deposit: May 3, '99, $80. 


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Teesdale, John J 

Tindall, Gregg 

Tremont, Roxie 

Turney, Isaac 

Ward, Wiley W. — _. 
Warner, Kenneth G._ 



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Discharged at Manila, P. I., June 12, '99, per S. O. No. 
157. Ext. No, 8, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, 
dated Manila, P. I., June 11, '99; under provisions of 
G. 0. No. 54, c. s., hdqrs. of the army, A. G. 0., Mar. 
22, '99; discharge and final statemen ts furnished; tried 
by summary court Mar. 14, '99, for violation of 32d art. 
of w^ar (absent Mar. 11, '99, less than 24 hours); sen- 
tenced to forfeit S3; deducted on Apr., '99, pay roll; 
tried by summary court Mar. 27, '99, for violation of 
32d art. of war (absent Mar. 25-26, '99, 26 hours); sen- 
tenced to be confined twelve days; pay for time absent 
deducted on Apr., '99, pay roll; in confinement Mar. 
27 to Apr. 7, '99, inc.; sick in quarters May 19-21, July 
8-10, Sept. 15-16, Oct. 26-29, Nov. 3-7, '98, inc.; Jan. 29 to 
Feb. 1, '99, inc.; sick in regimental hospital Feb. 3-13, 
'99, inc.; all in line of duty; sick in quarters Sept. 
20-25, '98, inc.; not in line of duty. 

Discharged at Manila, P. I., June 12, '98, per S. 0. No. 
157, Ext. No. 3, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th 
A. C, dated Manila, P. I., June 11, '99; under provi- 
sions of G. 0. No. 54, c. s., hdqrs. of the army, A. G. O., 
dated Mar. 22, '99; discharge and final statements fur- 
nished; tried by summary court Mar. 27, '99, for vio- 
lation of 32d art. of war (absent less than 24 hours); 
sentenced to be confined four days; in confinement 
Mar. 28-31, '99, inc.; sick in quarters July 26-30, Sept. 
6-10, 19-22, '98, inc.; all in line of duty. 

Discharged at Manila, P. I., June 12, '99, per S. 0. No. 
157, Ext. No. 3, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, 
dated Manila, P. I., June 11, '99; under provisions of 
G. 0. No. 54, c. s., hdqrs. of the army, A. G. 0., dated 
Mar. 22, '99; discharge and final statemeiits furnished; 
tried bv summary court Mar. 18, '99, for violation of 
62d art. of war; sentenced to forfeit f 15; fine deducted 
on Apr., '99, pay roll; tried by summary court Mar. 27, 
'99, for violation of 32d art. of war (absent Mar. 26-27, '99, 
31 hours); sentenced to fourteen days' confinement; 
in confinement Mar. 27 to Apr. 10, '99, inc.; sick in 
quarters July 14-16, Oct. 10-14, '98, inc.; in line of duty. 
Pay for time absent deducted on Apr., '99, pay roll. 


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Coleman, Frederic A. 
Coyne, Frank B 



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Transferred to Company F, 2d Reg., 0. U. S. V., Apr. 21, 
'99, per S. F. 0. N o. 5, Ext. 4, hdqrs. 2d Reg., 0. U. S. V., 
dated in the field, Malinta, P. I., Apr. 20, '99; tried by 
summary court Apr. 10, '99, for violation of 62d art. of 
war; sentenced to forfeit $3; tried by summary court 
Sept. 24, '98, for violation of 33d art. of war; sentenced 
to forfeit $3; fine deducted on Sept., '98, pay roll. Re- 
cruit; assigned to and joined company Nov. 26, '98, 
per S. 0. No. 187, hdqrs. 2d Reg., 0. U. S. V., dated 
Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '98; descriptive list furnished. 
Due soldier for clothing allowance, Dec. 31, '98, 16.92. 
No State clothing issued. 

Transferred to regimental band per S. 0. No. 51, hdqrs. 
2d Reg., 0. U. S. V., dated on board S. S. Australia 
May 24, '98. This man was transferred from band to 
Company M, 2d Reg., 0. U. S. V. Never was paid. 
Descriptive list furnisued. Due United States for 
clothing since enlistment, $18.02. 

Transferred to hospital corps, U. S. A., Aug. 5, '98, per 
S. O. No. 17, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, 
dated Cavite, P. I., Aug. 5, '98; descriptive list fur- 
nished. Due United States for clothing since enlist- 
ment, S21.93. 

Killed in action Feb. 22, '99, at San Pedro de Macati, 
near Manila, P. I. Buried in Paco Cemetery, section 9, 
niche 2. Final statements and inventory of effects 
forwarded to Adjutant General Mar. 1, '99. 

Killed in action June 3, '99, in San Mateo Valley, near 
Taytay, P. I. Buried in grave 34, National Cemetery, 
P. I., near Manila. Recruit; assigned to and joined 
company Nov, 26, '98, per S. O. No. 187, hdqrs. 2d Reg., 
O. U. S. v., dated Manila, P. I., Nov. 26, '98. No 
clothing issued by State. Final statements and in- 
ventories of efl^cts forwarded to Adjutant General 
July 16, '99. 
! Died at sea en route to United States of "typhoid fever," 
! Sept. 24, '98. Buried at Portland, Or. Sick in quarters 
June 18-24, July 14-16, Aug. 13-24, '98, inc.; sick in gen- 
eral hospital, Manila, P. I., Aug. 25 to Sept. 21, '98, 
inc.; all in line of duty; absent, sick since Sept. 22, '98, 


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Sherman, Ray M 

West, Peter F 

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Hampton^ Edw. W.- 
McElwain, William- 

Died of disease. 
Ordway, Eliot W 



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Enrolled as private; appointed corporal Jan. 3, '99, per 
S. O. No. 209, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., 
Jan. 3, '99; in confinement June 23-24, '98; released 
without trial; in confinement Aug, 1, '98; released 
without trial; sick in division hospital Sept. 11 to 
Oct. 16, '98, inc.; sick in quarters Aug. 26 to Sept. 10, 
'98, inc.; all in line of duty. In the settlement for 
clothing is included $11.16, total value of articles 
issued him by the State. 

Joined company by enlistment at Manila, P. I., Nov. 
24, '98; enrolled as private; appointed corporal Jan. 3, 
'99, per S. 0. No. 209, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, 
P. I., Jan. 3, '99. No clothing issued him by the State. 

Enrolled as private; appointed corporal Jan. 3, '99, per 
S. 0. No. 209, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. L, 
Jan. 3, '99; sick in division hospital Mar. 22 to Apr. 2, 
'99, inc.; May 18-31, '99, inc.; sick in quarters Sept. 
14-22, '98, inc.; Nov. 24 to Dec. 2, '98, inc.; all in line of 
duty. In the settlement forclothing is included $11. 16, 
total value of articles issued him by the State. 

Enrolled as private; appointed corporal Jan. 3, '99, per 
S. O. No. 209, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. L, 
Jan. 3. '99; sick in quarters May 29 to June 2, ^9S, inc.; 
Jan. 21 to Feb. 5, '99, inc.; all in line of duty. In the 
settlement for clothing is included $11.16, total value 
of articles issued him by the State. 

Joined company by enlistment at Manila, P. I., Nov. 
24, '98; enrolled as private; appointed corporal Jan. 3, 
'99, per S. 0. No. 209, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, 
P. L, Jan. 3, '99. No clothing issued him by the State. 

Enrolled as private; appointed corporal Jan. 3, '99, per 
S. 0. No. 209, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., 
Jan. 3, '99. In the settlement for clothing is included 
$11.16, total value of articles issued him by the State. 

Enrolled as private; appointed corporal Jan. 8, '99, per 
S. O. No. 209, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., 
Jan. 3, '99; sick in quarters July 7-8, '98, inc.; Jan. 
11-13, '99, inc.; all in line of duty; in the settlement 
forclothing is included $10.23, total value of articles 
Issued him by the State. Deposited $20, Aug. 8, '98, 


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Harry C. Enkins 

Corporal. 

John B. Finley 

Corporal. 

George Lee Harding. 

Corporal. 

Lionel A. Johnson— 

Corporal. 

Max Kesselring 

Corporal. 

Frederick J. Powell__ 

Corporal. 



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On special duty in quartermaster's department since 
June 15, '98, per R. 0. No. 7, hdqrs. 2d and 3d battal- 
ions, 2d Or. Inf., dated S. S. Ohio, June 15, '99; on daily 
duty as train guard Apr. 6 to June 12, '99, inc.; in con- 
finement Oct. 31 to Nov. 8, '98; released without trial 
(on investigation of the causes of above confinement 
by the colonel of the regiment the soldier was proved 
guilty of no ofltense); sick in quarters Oct. 26-27, '98, 
inc.; in line of duty. In the settlement for clothing 
is included $11.16, total value of articles issued him by 
the State. 

Sick in division hospital Sept. 20 to Oct. 4, '98, inc.; sick 
in quarters June 1-7, '98, inc.: Aug. 27 to Sept. 1, '98, 
inc.; Sept. 10-11, 14-19, '98, inc.; Oct. 5-17, 24-26, '98, inc.; 
June 13-20, '99, inc.; all in line of duty. In the settle- 
ment for clothing is included $11.16, total value of arti- 
cles issued him by the State. 

Tried by general coui-t-martial for violation of 62d art. 
of war; sentenced to confinement for one month and 
to forfeit pay for same period, per S. O. No. 49, hdqrs. 
provost marshal general, dated Manila, P. I., Dec. 19, 
'98; fine deducted on Dec, '98, pay roll; in confinement 
Dec. 9, '98, to Jan. 18, '99, inc.; tried by summary court 
for violation of 62d art. of war Jan. 31, '99; sentenced 
to forfeit $10; fine deducted on Feb., '99, pay roll; sick 
in 1st reserve hospital June 5 to July 18,'99, inc.; sick in 
quarters Aug. 2-6, Dec. 13-14, '98, inc.; all in line of 
duty. In the settlement for clothing is included $11.16, 
total value of articles issued him by the State. De- 
posited 810, Aug. 8, '98, with Major Kilbourne. 

Joined company by enlistment at Manila, P. I., Nov. 
24, '98; sick in quarters May 24-31, '99, inc.; in line of 
duty. No clothing was issued him by the State. 

Joined company by enlistment at Manila, P. I., Nov. 
24, '98; in confinement Dec. 1-5, '98, inc.; released with- 
out trial; sick in quarters Mar. 26 to Apr. 2, '99; inc.; 
June 4-7, '99, inc.; all in line of duty. No clothing 
was issued him by the State. 

Inconfinement July 20, '98; released without trial; sick 
in quarters June 6-20, '98, inc.; not in line of duty; sick 


1 
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Portland- 
Portland - 
Portland- 
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Albany __ 

Portland- 


i 


May 14- 

May 14- 
May 14- 

July 14- 
July 14- 

May 14- 


1, 


Clerk 

Student- 
Editor -- 

Farmer — 
Laborer- 
Mechanic 




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Patterson, Frank 

Perry, William M. 

Poindexter, F. L 

Porter, Leonard W. - 
Purdom, Arthur F— 

Rath, Charles J 



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Remarks. 


1 


Enrolled and mustered in as capta 
Jan. 11-18, '98; Jan. 22 to Feb. 7, '98 
hospital, Manila, P. I., Apr. 16-2 
Apr. 26 to May W, '99; all dates inc. 
Due, pay as captain from date of 
29, '98, inc. 

Enrolled and mustered in as 1st 
quarters Aug. 21-27, Oct. 1-15, '98; 
Mar. 16, Mar. 26 to May 2, May 17 to 
inc.; all in line of duty; ordered t( 
general of the army for discharg 
Par. I, S. O. No. 157; order revoke 
department commander, departi 
under date of July 14, '99. Due, p 
from date of enrollment to Apr. 2 

Enrolled and mustered in as 2d lie 
duty with Company F, 2d Or. Inf 
per S. b. No. 47, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf 
returned to duty with his comp 
hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Jan. 30, '9 
command of Hotchkiss gun per S 
battalion, 2d Or. Inf., dated B^eb. U 
S. 0. No. 152, hdqrs. dept. of the P 
c. s.; relieved per verbal order of 
Or. Inf., under date of Mar. 22, '9 
Aug. 17-18, '98; May 14-17, May 20 
dates inc.; all in line of duty; in 
pany per verbal order of commai 
Inf.; confirmed per S. O. No. 154, 
Pacific and 8th A. C, c. s. Due, 
pay as 2d lieutenant and captaii 
'99, and Apr. 16 to May 1, '99. 


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Charles A. Murphy— 

2d Lieutenant. 



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Enrolled and mustered in as sergeant; on special duty 
as clerk A. G. 0., hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th 
A. C, per S. O. No. 50, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 
8th A. C, dated Sept. 16, '98; returned to company per 
S. 0. No. 95, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, 
dated Nov. 2, '98; appointed 1st sergeant per Oo. 0. 
No. 8, dated July 20, '98; reduced to private from 1st 
sergeant per S. 0. No. 141, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated 
Aug. 27, '98; appointed corporal from private per S. 0. 
No. 6, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Jan. 17, '99; tried by 
general court-martial for violation of 62d art. of war; 
found guilty and sentenced to forfeit $10, per B. O. No. 
50, hdqrs. provost marshal general, Manila, P. I., dated 
Dec. 28, '98; fine deducted on Jan. and Feb., '99, pay 
roll; tried by summary court Nov. 16, '98, for violation 
of 38th art. of war; sentenced to forfeit S12; fine de- 
ducted on Jan. and Feb., '99, payroll; sick in quarters 
May 31 to June 2, July 25-29, '98; Apr. 22 to May 26, 
June 2-3, July 10-15, '99; all dates inc.; all in line of 
duty; on special duty as sergeant major, 3d battalion, 
2d Or. Inf., per S. 0. No. 2, hdqrs. 3d battalion, 2d Or. 
Inf., dated Feb. 16, '99; returned to company per ver- 
bal order of Majoi- Eastwick, under date Mar. 26, '99. 
Deposits : Aug. 8, '98, |35 with Major Kilbourne; Aug. 
11, '98, $35 with Major Gambrill; Mar. IB, '99,S25 with 
Major Rochester; May 12, '99, S25 with Major Coffin. 

Enrolled and mustered in as cook; sick in 1st reserve 
hospital, Manila, P. I., May 9 to June 15, '99, inc.; all 
in line of duty. Due, the diflferenee between pay of 
cook and private for months of May and June, '99. 
No clothing issued by State. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; appointed musi- 
cian per Co. 0. No. 7, dated June 15, '98; in confine- 
ment June 20-24, '98, inc.; released without trial; sick 
in quarters Nov. 10-17, '98; Mar. 9-21, Apr. 5-9, '99; 
sick in 1st reserve hospital, Manila, P. I., Apr. 23 to 
May 16, '99; sick in quarters May 31 to June 11, '99; ail 
dates inc.; all in line of duty. Due, pay as private 
from date of enrollment to Apr. 29, '98, inc. Deposits : 
Aug. 8, '98, $25 with Major Kilbourne; Sept. 15, '98, 


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Corporal. 

Herman Breyer 

Qoo\, 

Elwood Clark 

Musician. 



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Assigned to and joined company at Manila, P. I., per 
S. 0. No. 187, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Nov. 26, '98; en- 
rolled and mustered in as private; appointed corporal 
from private per S. 0. No. 193, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated 
Manila, P. I., Dec. 3, '98; on special duty hdqrs. provost 
marshal general per S. O. No. 26, hdqrs. provost mar- 
shal general, dated Feb. 13, '99; returned to duty per 
S. 0. No. 1(^, hdqrs. provost marshal general, dated 
June 8, '99. No clothing issued him by the State. 

Assigned to and joined company at Manila, P. I., per 
S. 0. No. 187, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Nov. 26, '98; en- 
rolled and mustered in as private; appointed corporal 
from private per S. O. No. 193, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated 
Manila, P. I., Dec. 3, '98; sick in quarters Jan. 3-13, '99; 
Jan. 23 to Feb. 13, '99; June 2-6, '99; all inc.; in line of 
duty. No clothing issued him by the State. 

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corporal from private per S. O. No. 200, hdqrs. 2d Or. 
Inf., dated Manila, P. I., Dec. 12, '98; appointed cor- 
poral from lance corporal per S. 0. No. 212, hdqrs. 2d 
Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., Jan. 9, '99; sick in quar- 
ters Sept. 27 to Oct. 7, '98; Oct. 30 to Nov. 18, '98; Nov. 
25 to Dec. 6, '98; Jan. 3-6, 23-26, '99; all inc.; in line of 
duty. 

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corporal from private, per S. 0. No. 8, hdqrs. 2d Or. 
Inf., dated Manila, P. I., Jan. 28, '99; appointed cor- 
poral from lance corporal per S. 0. No. 6, hdqrs. 2d 
Or. Inf., dated Manila, P. I., Mar. 1, '99; on special duty 
In regimental quartermaster's department per S. O. 
No. 152, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Sept. 24, '98; returned 
to duty per S. 0. No. 158, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated Sept. 
29, '98; sick in quarters July 13-15, '98; Sept. 13-18, '98; 
Oct. 16-21, '98; sick in regimental hospital May 20-21, 
'98; sick in division hospital, Manila, P, I., June 1-12, 
'99; absent, sick on hospital ship Melief, June 13 to 
Aug. 3, '99; all inc.; in line of duty. 

On special duty with regimental commissary depart- 
ment, per S.O. No. 26, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated June 10, 
'99; enrolled and mustered in as private; appointed 


1 
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The Dalles 
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Charles F. Wagner-, - 

Corporal. 

Arthur E. Trask 

Corporal. 

Ernest R. Ballard 

Corporal. 

William W. Brown- 

Lance Corporal. 



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Wounded in toes of left foot in action Mar. 25, '99, and 
in division hospital, Manila, P. I., Mar. 25 to May 26, 
'99, inc.; discharged June 12, '99, per S. 0. No. 157, 
hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 8th A. C, dated June 
11, '99, and G. O. No. 54, A. G. 0., dated Mar. 22, '99; 
discharge and final statements given; service, "hon- 
est and faithful." Due soldier for clothing, 141.31. 

Sick in quarters May 31 to June 1, '98; June 29 to July 
1, '98; July 9-18, 16-18, '98; Aug. 7-13, '98; Aug. 29 to 
Sept. 29, '98; Nov. 1-2, 4-6, '98; sick in division hospital, 
Manila, P. I., Nov. 7, '98, to Jan. 23, '99; all inc.; in 
line of duty; transferred sick to San Francisco, Cal., 
Jan. 24, '99, per S. 0. No. 20, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific 
and 8th A. C, dated Jan. 20, '99; discharged Mar. 10, 
'99, per S. O. No. 47, hdqrs. department of California, 
dated Mar. 7, '99, at United States general hospital, 
San Francisco, Cal.; discharge and final statements 
given; service, "honest and faithful." Due United 
States: 1 knife, 7c; 1 fork, 5c; 1 spoon, 2%c; 1 tin cup, 
15c; 1 meat ration can, 25c; 1 haversack, 88c. Due 
soldier for clothing, $30.74. 

On special duty in quartermaster's department per 
S. 0. No. 4, hdqrs. 1st brigade, United States exped. 
forces, dated June 26, '98; sick in quarters June 21-24, 
'98; July 27-30, '98; sick in regimental hospital July 
23-26, '98, all inc.; in line of duty; discharged June 12, 
'99, per S. O. No. 157, hdqrs. dept. of the Pacific and 
8th A. C, dated June 11, '99, and G. 0. No. 54, A. G. 0., 
dated Mar. 22, '99; discharge and final statements 
given; service, "honest and faithful." Due soldier 
for clothing, 145.21. 

Discharged June 12, '99, per S. O. No. 157. hdqrs. dept. 
of the Pacific and 8th A. C, dated June 11, '99, and 
G. 0. No. 54, A. G. 0., Mar. 22, '99; discharge and final 
statements given; service, "honest and faithful." 
Due United States: 1 meat ration can, 28c; 1 tin cup, 
15c. Due soldier for clothing, S13,43; confined Mar. 
23-24, '99, inc.; released without trial. 

Sick in quarters Sept. 16-19, '98; Oct. 20 to Nov. 2, '98; 
Nov. 12-15, '98; sick in division hospital, Manila, P. I., 


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Hackney, Sloan- 
Hart, William H 

Hernsworth, F. W— 
Hillert, Fred _ 



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Sick in quarters July 5-10, '98; Oct. 5-10, 21-28, '98; Nov. 
25-29, '98; Dec. 3-10, '98; sick in regimental hospital 
June 22-'^, '98; all inc.; in line of duty; killed in action 
at Malabon, P. I., Mar. 25, '99; inventory of effects and 
final statements forwarded to Adjutant General. Due 
United States: 1 bayonet, $1.18; 1 scabbard, 81c. Due 
soldier for clothing, $14.81. 

Sick in quarters Oct. 11-15, '98. inc.; in liTie of duty; 
killed in action at Malabon, P. I., Mar. 25, '99; inven- 
tory of effects and final statements forwarded to Ad- 
j utant General. Due United States: 1 bayonet, $1.18; 
1 bayonet scabbard, 81c. Due soldier for clothing, 
$29.56. Due soldier for deposit: Aug. 8, '98, $15; Sept. 
15, '98, $15; Nov. 7,- '98, $15; Jan 6, '99, $10; total, $55. 

Sick in quarters June 22-26, '98, inc.; in line of duty; 
killed by mistake by sentinel Jan. 6, '99; inventory 
of effects and final statements forwarded to Adj utant 
General. Due United States: 1 Springfield rifle, cali- 
bre .45, 813.02; 1 canteen, 53c. Due soldier for clothing, 
$22.53. Due soldier for deposit: Aug. 8, '98, $35. 

Enrolled and mustered in as private; appointed wag- 
oner from private per S. 0. No. 207, hdqrs. 2d Or, Inf., 
dated Manila, P. I., Dec. 23, '98; reduced from wagoner 
to private per S. O. No. 17, hdqrs. 2d Or. Inf., dated 
Manila, P. I., Mar. 2, '99; sick in quarters July 10-13, 
'98; Sept. 6-10, 28-28, '98; sick in regimental hospital 
May 29 to June 5, '98: July 5-7, '98; Jan. 13-17, '99; sick in 
division hospital. Manila, P. I., Jan. 18 to Feb. 7, '99; 
Feb. 28 to Mar. 9, '99; all inc.; in line of duty; died of 
smallpox at division hospital, Manila, P. I., Mar. 9,'99; 
inventory of effects and final statements forw^arded 
to Adjutant General. Due soldier for clothing, $10.73. 

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Taylor, Hayes B 

Killed by accident. 
Lee K. Morse 

ist Sergeant. 

Died of disease. 

Private. 

O' Flaherty, Henry— 



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Originally mustered in as captain; on leave of absence 
Sept. 13 to Oct. 9, '98, per G. O. No. 130, A. G. 0., 1898. 

Originally mustered in as 1st lieutenant; on leave of 

absence Sept. 13 to Oct. 9, '98, per G. O. No. 130, A. G. O., 

1898. 
Originally mustered in as 2d lieutenant; on special 

duty as A. C. S. July 1-10, '98, B. 0. No. 1; on leave 

of absence Sept. 13 to Oct. 9, '98. per G. 0. No. 130, 

A. G. 0., 1898. 
In the settlement for clothing is included the sum of 

116.40, total value of articles issued him by the State; 

mustered in as 1st sergeant; on furlough Sept. 20 to 

Oct. 9, '98, per G. O. No. 130, A. G. O., 1898. 
In the settlement for clothing is included the sum of 

$22.40, total value of articles issued him by the State; 

mustered in as quartermaster sergeant; on furlough 

Sept. 9 to Oct. 9, '98, per G. 0. No. 130, A. G. 0., 1898. 
In the settlement for clothing is included the sum of 

$22.40, total value of articles issued him by the State; 

mustered in as veterinary sergeant; on furlough Sept. 

9 to Oct. 9, '98, per G. 0. No. 130, A. G. 0., 1898. 
In the settlement for clothing is included the sum of 

$22.40, total value of articles issued him by the State; 

mustered in as sergeant; on furlough Sept. 9 to Oct. 9, 

'98, per G. 0. No. 130, A. G. O., 1898. 
In the settlement for clothing is included the sum of 

$22.40, total value of articles issued him by the State; 

mustered in as sergeant; on furlough Sept. 9 to Oct. 9, 

'98, per G. O. No. 130, A. G. O., 1898. 
In the settlement for clothing is included the sum of 

$22.40, total value of articles issued him by the State; 


1 

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Portland- 
Portland- 

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Portlaud- 

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Robert S. Greenleaf— 

Captain. 

Loren A. Bowman— 

/sf Lieutenant. 

Hiram U.Welch 

2d Lieutenant. 

S. E. Rehnstrom 

ist Sergeant. 

Thaddeus S. Potter.- 

Quartermaster Sergeant. 

Andreas I. Sorensen^ 

Veterinary Sergeant. 

John W. Nendel 

Sergeant. 

Stephen L.Tompkins 

Sergeant. 

Andy Ingemaii— — 

Sergeant. 



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the sum 
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uty to du 
y 26, '98; ' 
130, A. G. < 


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;luded 
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jluded 
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ment for clothing is inc 
value of articles issued 
tyat post quartermaster 
2, July 21-27, '98; from sp 
5, per S. 0, No. 137, dat 
!pt: 9 to Oct. 9, '98, per G. 


g is inc 
issued 
ct. 15, ' 
g is in< 
issued 
9, '98, 


2: is inc 
issued 
g is in 
issued 
'98, inc 
9, '98, 




1 




settlement for clothin 
total value of articles 
rlough Sept. 9 to Oct. 
O., 1898. 

settlement for clothin 
total value of articles 
n quarters Aug. 22-26, 
rlough Sept. 9 to Oct. 
0. 1898. 

settlement for clothii] 
total value of articles 
n quarters July 14-17, '! 
settlement for clothiuj 

total value of articles 
rlough Sept. 9 to Oct. 
0., 1898. 

settlement for clothi 
.40, total value of art 


clothin 
articles 
. 25 to 
clothin 
articles 
to Oct. 


lothini 
rticles 
lothini 
rticles 
15-22, 
Oct. 








O 03 O 05 >i-^ 








ent for 
alue of 
tal Aug 
ent for 
alue of 
Sept. 9 


ent for 
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ent for 
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:ers Jul 
Sept. 9 








settlem 

total V 
n hospi 
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settlem 

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he settle 
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Originally mustered in with battery as captain; ab- 
sent, with leave, Sept. 11 to Oct. 10, '98, inc., per G. 0. 
No. 130, A. GO., c. s. 

Originally mustered in with battery as 1st lieutenant; 
absent, with leave, Sept. 11 to Oct. 10, '98, inc., per G. 0. 
No. 130, A. G. O., c. s.; appointed A. A. Q,. M. and 
A. 0. S., to date from July 26, '98, per Bat. 0. No. 1, 
same date. 

Originally mustered in with battery as 2d lieutenant; 
absent, with leave, Sept. 11 to Oct. 10, '98, inc., per G. O. 
No. 130, A. G. O., c. s. 

Mustered in as private; appointed 1st sergeant July 26, 
'98, from private per Bat. G. O. No. 1, same date. No 
clothing was issued him by the State. Absent on 
furlough Sept. 11 to Oct. 10, '98, inc., per G. 0. No. 130, 
A. G. O., c. s. 

Mustered in as private; appointed quartermaster ser- 
geant July 26, '98, from private per Bat. G. O. No. 1, 
same date. No clothing was issued him by the State. 
Absent on furlough Sept. 11 to Oct. 10, '98, inc., per 
G. 0. No. 130, A. G. O., c. s. 

Mustered in as private; appointed veterinary sergeant 
Aug. 1, '98, from private per Bat. G. 0. No. 3, same 
date; sick Aug. 30, Sept. 1-3, '98, inc.; inline of duty. 
No clothing was issued him by the State. Absent on 
furlough Sept. 11 to Oct. 10, '98, inc., per G. O. No. 130, 
A. G.O.,c. s. 

Mustered in as private; appointed sergeant July 26, '98. 
from private per Bat. G. 0. No. 1, same date. No cloth- 
ing was issued him by the State. Absent on fur- 
lough Sept. 11 to Oct. 10, '98, inc., per G. 0. No. 130, 
A. G. 0., c. s. 


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William J. Riley—— 

Captain. 

John G. Rutenic 

ist Lieutenant. 

Alliene Case 

2d Lieutenant. 

Frank G. Jewett 

ist Sergeant. 

Daniel H. Rickert — 

Quartermaster Sergeant. 

Carleton W. Faull — 

Veterinary Sergeant. 

Jay Bowerman . 

Sergeant. 



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REPORTS 

OF 

GENEEAL OFFICERS 

UJSDEH WHOM THE SECOND OREGON INFANTRY SERVED, 

WITH 

APPENBEB REPORTS 

OF 

OREGON VOLUNTEER OFFICERS. 



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REPORT 



MA J. GEN. E. S. OTIS, U. S. V, 

COMMANDING DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC AND EIGHTH ARMY CORPS, 
MILITARY GOVERNOR IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific and 

Eighth Army Corps, and Office United States 

Military Governor in Philippine Islands, 

Manila, P. 7., August 31, 1899. 
The Adjutant General, United States Army, 

Washington, D. C. 

Sir: I have received instructions from the Major General commanding the Arnay to 
submit an annual report of the military operations of the troops of this command, also 
from the War Department to furnish a report of the affairs of this military government. 
The matters connected with each of these subjects are so closely related as to make the 
rendition of separate and independent reports very difficult without producing in each 
much which the other must contain. I have, therefore, concluded to embrace in a 
single narration with comment, as necessary explanation may appear to me to demand, 
the conditions which have presented themselves, both military, civil, or political, and 
the means which have been adopted to meet them. In doing this only the general fea- 
tures of the more important events can be touched upon, as an attempt to detail causes, 
effects, and the action which has been applied by the military authorities would involve 
a very extended recounting of facts and a lenghty discussion of theories. 

The time which I am directed to cover in these reports may properly be divided into 
two periods — the first extending from June 30, 1898, to February 4, 1899, the date upon 
which the then rebellious subjects of Spain attacked at Manila, w^ithout cause, the 
forces of the United States, which under the protocol of August 12, 1898, and likewise the 
articles of capitulation of the following day, were lawfully in possession of the city, bay, 
and harbor of Manila. The second period extends from February 4, 1899 (when these 
open and declared hostilities were inaugurated), to the present date. The events of a 
portion of the first period, in so far as the concentration of troops at San Francisco and 
the transportation of those sent out to the Philippines, to and including July 15, 1898, are 
concerned, together with all action of troops preliminary to, and attendent upon, the 
capture of Manila on August 13, 1898, and thereafter to the end of that month, have been 
ably rei^orted by my predecessor, Major General Merritt. But a brief reference to the 
preparations made by the Government, as solely affecting the army, in its efforts to 
meet existing or anticipated conditions in the Philippines resulting from, or likely to 
arise in, the war with Spain, is pertinent here in order to present intelligently the serv- 
ices of troops in these islands. 

The Philippine problem, so unexpectedly and suddenly thrown upon the Govern- 
ment for solution by the destruction of the Spanish fleet in the harbor of Manila on May 
1, 1898, when the concentration of all its troops and military stores was being hastily 



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398 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

made on the southern Atlantic coast, received tlae prompt attention whiph its impor- 
tance demanded. At once the enlistment of volunteers in the Pacific Slope and adja- 
cent States was accelerated and their places of assembling changed to San Francisco. 
Under War Department instructions to proceed to that point for duty, I arrived there 
on May 17th, where already Major General Merriam, commanding the Department of 
California, had placed in camp an infantry regiment and a heavy artillery detachment 
of California volunteers, an infantry battalion of Oregon troops, and five companies 
of the Fourteenth tJ. S. Infantry. Within the next ten days the Nebraska, Colorado, 
Minnesota, Wyoming, Idaho, Utah, North Dakota, and Montana volunteers arrived, 
also the two remaining battalions of the Oregon regiment and a volunteer regiment 
from Pennsylvania. On May 29th the Eighteenth and Twenty-third U. S. Infantry 
and a company of the United States Engineers reported, and during the month of 
June the volunteer organizations of South Dakota, Iowa, Tennessee, the Astor Bat- 
tery, of New York, four foot batteries of the Third, and two light batteries of the Sixth 
U. S. Artillery, and six troops of the Fourth Cavalry were placed in camp, also two 
volunteer signal companies and large Hospital Corps detachments. On May 30th 
General Merritt arrived from New York and relieved me from command of all these 
so-called expeditionary forces, remaining there until the 29th of the following month, 
when he departed for the Philippines. 

The proper equipment of these troops was attended with great diflficulty. Suddenly 
called to meet an expected emergency in a far distant portion of the world, no prepara- 
tions had been made to receive them. The supply departments, not anticipating any 
concentration of forces on the Pacific coast, had made no provision for furnishing arms, 
ammunition, clothing, subsistence, or other war material with which an army about to 
operate seven thousand miles from its base mUst necessarily be supplied. Indeed, at 
the time these troops arrived at San Francisco, such property, usually kept in moderate 
quantities on the Pacific coast, had been sent to the East for the army destined to invade 
Cuba and Porto Rico. The volunteer organizations were supposed to report equipped 
and uniformed, but a large majority of the arms they presented were worthless, and in 
some instances entire organizations had to be rearmed. Their clothing had evidently 
been in use for a long time in State service, was worn out, and many of the naen were 
dressed as civilians. In spite of all of these embarrassments, the celerity with which 
these troops were equipped and made ready for the field, and with which great quan- 
tities of necessary supplies and war materials were placed in San Francisco and loaded 
on transports, furnishes very satisfactory evidence of the efliciency of the staff depart- 
ments of the Army. Fortunately, San Francisco is a great market, and much that was 
needed could be obtained there through contract and purchase. The facilities thus 
offfered were taken advantage of, and assisted very materially in the work of prepara- 
tion. The shipping on the Pacific coast was found to be very limited, and vessels in 
anywise suited (even after they were overhauled and repaired ) to transport troops to 
the tropics were few, and most of them were at the time absent, engaged in foreign or 
domestic trade. This want was the principal cause of delay in dispatching troops, but 
the persistent efforts of the War Department, assisted by the army supply officers in 
San Francisco, accomplished the desired results very quickly, considering the embarrass- 
ments with which it had to contend. The time required for these preparations, how- 
ever, was most advantageously employed. General officers, as soon as they reported for 
duty, were placed in charge of brigade organizations and labored assiduously in giving 
proper instructions to their commands, so that when these troops sailed for the Philip- 
pines they could be considered moderately efficient for service. 

Upon reporting at San Francisco, on May 17th, I learned that General Merriam had 
received orders to ship to Manila Bay the California regiment and a battalion of the 
Fourteenth U. S. Infantry by a transport that was then being loaded in the harbor with 
naval stores for Adniiral Dewey's squadron. Thereafter being instructed to obtain suffi- 
cient transportation to forward also the Oregon regiment, two small transports wore 
secured, and on May 25th the three vessels sailed in company, carrying the troops above 
mentioned, under the command of Brig. Gen. T. M. Anderson, U. S, V.,and entered the 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 399 

harbor of Maniki on the oOth day of June. Pursuant to the instructions of General 
Merritt, four companies of the Eighteenth and four of the Twenty-third U. S. Infantry, 
a detachment of engineers, the Colorado, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, and Utah Volun- 
teers, and a detachment of the Hospital Corps — all under the command of Brig. Gen. 
F. V. Greene, U. S. V.,— sailed for Manila on June 15th. On June 27th, under instruc- 
tions from the same source, four companies of the Eighteenth and four of the Twenty- 
third U. S. Infantry, detachments of Engineer and Signal Corps, the Idaho, Minnesota, 
North Dakota, and Wyoming Volunteers, departed on five transports, and on June 29th 
General Merritt, in person, accompanied by his staff, sailed on steamer Newport for the 
same destination, having on board two foot batteries of the Third U. S. Artillery, and 
the Astor Light Battery. The troops of Avhich these three expeditionary forces were 
composed numbered 470 officers and 10,437 enlisted men. Subsequently, and between the 
15th and 25th days of July, the fourth expedition left San Francisco, transported by five 
vessels, and made up of two batteries of the Third U. S. Artillery, five companies of the 
Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, six troops of the Fourth U. S. Cavalry, the Montana and 
South Dakota Volunteers, with Signal and Hospital Corps detachments, numbering in 
all 172 officers and 4,610 enlisted men. Before this last expedition reached Manila that 
city had capitulated, and the United States troops were in possession. No additional 
troops were dispatched from the United States until the latter part of October. Then, 
and in the following month, were sent the Washington, Kansas, Tennessee, and Iowa 
regiments of volunteers, the Nevada troop of cavalry, the Wyoming Light Artillery, 
and two foot batteries of California troops, numbering, collectively, 186 officers and 4,466 
enlisted men. There were no further arrivals during the first of the two periods which 
it is intended that this report shall cover, and subsequent troop additions will not be 
mentioned until later. 

With the officers of my staff I accompanied the fourth expedition and arrived in the 
harbor of Manila on August 2lst, where we first learned of the operations of the 10,000 
men who had preceded or accompanied Major General Merritt, and which had resulted 
in the surrender of Manila and its occupation by the United States forces on the 13th of 
that month. Reporting to General Merritt, I was placed in command of the Eighth 
Ai'my Corps by General Orders, No. 10, Headquarters Department of the Pacific and 
Eighth Army Corps, of August 23, 1898, which were issued under War Department 
General Orders, No. 73, of that year. Upon August 29, 1898, in accordance with General 
Orders, No. 3, Headquarters Department of the Pacific, of that date, I relieved Major 
General Merritt of the command of the Department of the Pacific and as Military Gov- 
ernor of the Philippine Islands. At this time the military situation was as follows : 

Under the articles of capitulation. United States occupation was confined to the 
harbor, city, and bay of Manila. Admiral Dewey, with his fleet, held the bay, also the 
naval establishment at Cavite, which had been captured in May. The insurgent forces, 
commanded by General Aguinaldo, entered the city with our troops on August 13th, 
and actively held joint occupation with them over a considerable part of the southern 
portion of the same, declining to vacate on the plea, j^r5i(, that they had served as allies 
with our troops, during the operations which had preceded the taking of the city, and 
therefore had the right to participate in the victory; and, secondly, that they wished to 
maintain all advantageous positions secured in order to resist successfully the troops of 
Spain, should that government be permitted to resume its former power in the islands. 
Brigadier Generals Anderson and MacArthur were exercising immediate command of 
the troops-— the former at Cavite and vicinity, where a small contingent was stationed, 
and the latter at Manila, where the great majority had been judiciously placed in 
barracks and other available buildings. General MacArthur, also, as provost marshal 
general, had charge of the police of that city and supervision of about 13,000 prisoners-— 
Spanish and native — who had been surrendered by the Spanish authorities. These 
had been collected in the walled portion of the city and occupied, for the most part, its 
churches and convents. Outwardly peace reigned, but the insurgents, disappointed 
because not permitted to enjoy the spoils of war, in accordance with medieval customs, 
and to exercise with the United States authorities joint control of municipal affairs, 



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400 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

were not friendly disposed and endeavored to obtain their asserted rights and privileges 
through controversy and negotiations and a stubborn holding of the positions taken 
by their troops. This manifestation caused General Merritt to cable the authorities at 
Washington, on August 14th, as follows : 

Since occupation of town and suburbs the insurgents on outside are pressing demand 
for joint occupation of the city. Inform me at once how far I shall proceed in enforcing 
obedience of insurgents in this matter and others that may arise, etc. 

To which he received reply — dated August 18th — that there must be no joint occupa- 
tion of the city, bay, and harbor with the insurgents; that they and all others must . 
recognize the military occupation and authority of the United States and the cessation 
of hostilities proclaimed by the President. Some correspondence between General Mer- 
ritt and Aguinaldo preceded and followed this dispatch, and I believe also two or three 
discussions of the subject between the representatives of Aguinaldo and General Mer- 
ritt's subordinate officers, all of which have been reported. Upon leaving the island, 
General Merritt's chief of staff turned over to me a communication from General Agui- 
naldo, and in letter transmitting it said : 

Enclosed you will find a letter from General Aguinaldo and a blue print of Manila. 
The letter was brought by his aid two days ago, and was informed that a reply would 
be sent within four days. The matter should have immediate attention, as General 
Merritt has not been able to take it up, owing to his hurried departure. The letters 
referred to by Aguinaldo, by General Merritt, will be found in the press copy-book at 
the Department Headquarters and here. ^ .,_ • . 

The demand now made by Aguinaldo is to retain his people just outside of the inte- 
rior black pencil mark On the map. The outsidfe pencil marks indicate the position 
that General Merritt desired to have the insurgents withdraw to. I inferred from what 
the aid said that what Aguinaldo particularly desires is that in case his requests are 
not granted that reasons are to be given which he can use to satisfy his people. The 
trouble with him seems to be that he does not think it prudent to give positive orders 
for his people to withdraw from the city. 

The communication turned over read as follows : 

Revolutionary Government of the PmiiippiNES, 
Fresidencia Bakoor, August 'Z7, 1898. 
Gen. Wesley Merritt, Mamto. 

My Dear Sir : Knowing the contents of your letter of the 24th instant, I can not do 
less than manifest my surprise at knowing that you had formed the idea that my com- 
missioners compromised themselves, in the conference of the 15th, to retire my troops 
outside of the line that you would designate. 

I understood, and still understand, as well as the commissioners, that the evacuation 
by my troops of tlie posts that they occupy to-day on the outskirts Of the city, would 
take i3lace when the proposed conditions were accepted by you, among which figured 
the condition that the agreement (treaty) should be in writing to be vahd ; for which 
reason, not having yet accepted some of the propositions made at that time, nor those 
that were substituted in my previous communication, I do not think that up to the 
present time I have contracted said obligation. „ '' . .^ 

If I have permitted the use of the waters before the promulgation of the treaty it was 
more to demonstrate that I am disposed to sacrifice to friendship everything that does 
not prejudice too much the rights of the Philippines. I comprehend, as well as your- 
self the inconvenience of a dual occupation of the city of Manila and its suburbs, given 
in the conditions stipulated in the capitulation with the Spaniards; but you ought to 
understand that without the long siege sustained by my forces you might have obtained 
possession of the ruins of the city; but never the rendition of the Spanish forces, who 
could have retired to the interior towns. 

I do not complain of the disowning of our help m the mentioned capitulation, 
although justice resents it greatly and I have to bear the well-founded blame of my peo- 
ple I do not insist on the retention of all the positions conquered by my forces within 
the city limits, at the cost of much blood, of indescribable fatigues, and much money. 
I promise to retire, then, to the following line: .,',.. . 

In Malate, the continuation of the calzada of Singalon to the bridge that joins said 
road • from this bridge in straight line to that of Paco; from this last bridge, following 
the creek Paco, and leaving outside the suburb Tandue, to the river Pasig ; following this 
river and entering by the creek that goes to the bridge of Aviles ; from this bridge, fol- 
lowing the road (calzada) of the same name and that of Santa Mesa, that are the divid- 
ing lines between Sampaloc and the village of Pandacan, to the jurisdictional limit of 
the suburbs of Sampaloc, Trozo, and Tondo. ., ,^ 

But before I retire to this line, I pray you to reclaim from Admiral Dewey the protec- 
tion of our ships for free navigation, and permit me to insist, if you will, upon the res- 
titution of the positions that we now are going to leave, if in the treaty of peace to be 
celebrated between Spain and the United States they acljnowledge the dominion ot 
Spain in the Philippines. I expect as well that you order the American forces outside 
of above line to retire within the city, as already agreed to. 



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OKEGON YOLUNTEEKS IN SPANISH WAR. 401 

I do not believe that the acceptance of the conditions proposed will prejudice the 
smallest right of your people, as it signifies nothing more than the acknowledgment of 
a part of the rights of a friendly people. 

I am compelled to insist on the said conditions to quiet the complaints of my chiefs 
and soldiers, who have exposed their lives and abandoned their interests during the 
siege of Manila. 

I hope that this time you will manifest the spirit of justice that pertains to such a 
free and admirably constituted Government as that of the United States of America. 
Yours, very respectfully, 

Emilio Aguinaldo. 

Aguinaldo's letter was considered the following day, when it became evident that 
time would be required to prepare an answer, as prior to doing so it was important to 
gain a knowledge of the contents of past communications on the subject, and to ascer- 
tain what other steps had been taken to adjust the difficulty, of which I was ignorant. 
I thereupon telegraphed to General Aguinaldo at Bacoor, Cavite province, his then 
headquarters, as follows : 

Manila, August 31, 1898. 
General Aguinaldo, Bacoor. 

Referring to promise made by General Merritt to reply to your letter of August 27th 
within four days, I desire to state that he was unexpectedly ordered away and had not 
opportunity to reply. Being unacquainted with the situation, I must take time to in- 
form myself before answering, which I will do at the earliest opportunity. 

Otis. 

To this telegram he replied on the same day as follows : 

General Otis, Commanding United States Forces, Manila, 

General, : By your telegram of this date I understood that your excellency substi- 
tutes General Merritt in his absence, for which I beg you will kindly accept my cordial 
salutation and my most sincere congratulations. 

I shall have much pleasure in continuing with your excellency the friendly relations 
which ought to exist between us. 

The bearer is one of my aids, who will acquaint you of some reserved affairs. 

Hoping you will give your attention as the welfare of both countries require, 
Very respectfully, yours, 

Emilio Aguinaldo. 

Bacooe, August 31, 1898. 

A communication, of which the following is a copy, was thereupon prepared and 
sent to General Aguinaldo, at Malalos, Luzon, to which point he had removed his head- 
quarters and established his so-called capital, viz : 

Office United States Military Governor 

IN THE PpIILIPPINE ISLANDS, 

Manila, P. I., September 8, 1898. 

The Commanding General of the Philippine Forces. 

Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 27th 
ultimo, addressed to General Merritt, my predecessor, and by him transferred to me on 
the eve of his departure from Manila. By telegram of the 31st ultimo I informed you of 
General Merritt's hurried departure, in obedience to the orders of my Government; 
that his necessarily hurried preparations did not permit him to make reply to your 
communication ; that such duty devolved upon me, and that I would perform it at the 
earliest opportunity and as soon as I could acquaint myself with the condition of 
affairs, of which I, having but recently arrived, had slight knowledge. To my telegram 
you made a most courteous response, and now having fully considered the situation. 
I have the honor to make reply as follows : 

And first, in your note of the 27th ultimo you are pleased to manifest surprise that 
the late United States military governor should have reached an erroneous conclusion 
as to the result of a conference with your commissioners on August 15th, as apparently 
manifested by his letter to you of August 24th. I do not know the extent of any con- 
versation which may have been indulged in at that conference, nor the nature of the 
impression which may have been conveyed. Referring to written memoranda in my 
possession which purport to contain the substance of propositions discussed, I find that 
certain concessions were made by the commissioners in expected return for specific 
privileges to be conferred, and, as there has not been a mutual agreement in these mat- 
ters between the interested parties, I do not understand that any obligations have 
arisen by reason of that conference. 

Second. I note with pleasure your allusion to your very friendly disposition toward 
my Government, as manifested by your prompt attendance to our request for a supply 
of water ; also your expression as to the inconvenience of the dual occupation of the 
city of Manila, and I do not forget that the revolutionary forces under your command 
have made many sacrifices in the interests of civil liberty and for the welfare of your 
people, and to this I will be pleased to allude hereafter. 

Third. In connection with your remark as to the injustice of the United States in 
not properly appreciating your assistance in the capture of Manila, I beg a full consider- 

26 



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402 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

ation, on yoar part, of the mandatory conditions which accompany occupation, which 
I am sure you fully appreciate, but to which I will respectfully invite your attention in 
a subsequent portion of this reply. 

Fourth. You designate certain lines within the suburbs of the city of Manila, to 
which you promise to retire your troops, and name as conditions precedent : First, pro- 
tection to your shipping by the United States Navy, and the free navigation of your 
vessels within the waters in the United States occupation; second, restitution to your 
forces of all positions which are now occupied by your troops, in the event that treaty 
siipulatiops between the United States and Spa,ln surrender to the last-named Govern- 
ment the territory occupied by the former; and, thirdly, that United States troops now . 
occupying positions beyond the lines you name shall retire within the same. 

A discussion of your proposition to hold jointly, with the United States Government, 
the city of Manila, involves consideration of some of the other concessions you desired 
to be made, and to that I will at once refer. I yii'ifth to i^resent the matter, in the lirst 
instance, in its legal aspect, although from remarks contained in former correspond- 
ence, I am of the opinion that you are folly aware how untenable the proposition is. 
The United States and Spain were and are belligerent parties to a war, and were so 
recognized by the civilized world. In the course of events the entire city of Manila, 
then in full possession of Spanish forces, was surrendered to the first-named belligerent 
power. The articles of agreement and capitulation gave the United States Government 
full occupancy of the city and defenses of Manila, and that Government obligated itself 
to insure the safety of the lives and property of the inhabitants of the city to the best of 
its ability. By all the laws of war and all international precedents. United States 
authority over Manila and its defenses is full and supreme, and it can not escape the 
obligations which it has assumed. 

By the able representatives who have charge of the Philippine revolutionary forces 
this conclusion will be admitted to be incontrovertible, and argument on the point is 
unnecesary. Can they who seek the civil and religious liberty and invite the approval 
and assistance of the civilized world afford to enter upon a course of action which the 
law of nations must condemn? 

But conceding, as you do, the strictly legal right of my Government to hold and 
administer the atfairs of the city of Manila and its suburbs (I thus conclude from 
expressions contained in former correspondence and from my appreciation of your 
intellectual attainments), you base your proiiosition — a joint occupation — upon sup- 
posed equitable groimds, referring to the sacrifices your troops have made and the 
assistance they have rendered the American forces in the capture of Manila. It is well 
known they have made personal sacrifices, endured great hardships, and have rendered 
aid. But is it forgotten that my Government has swept the Spanish navy from the seas 
of both hemispheres ; sent back to Spain the Spanish army and navy forces, recently 
embarked for your destruction, and the secure holding of the Philippine possessions; 
that since May 1st last its navy has Held the city of Manila at its mercy, but out of con- 
sideration of humanity refused to bombard it, preferring to send troops to demand 
surrender, and thereby preserve the lives and property of the inhabitants? Is it forgot- 
ten that the destruction of the Spanish navy and the retention of the Spanish armed 
men in its European possessions has opened up to you the ports of the island of Luzon, 
and held Spain helpless to meet its refractory subjects? 

As between my Government and the revolutionary forces of the Philippines, I fail to 
discover on what principle of common justice a joint occupation of Manila can be 
naaintained. Equity, in a legal acceptance of the term, would most assuredly condemn 
it. A sense of justice should, in my opinion, have prompted the revolutionary forces to 
aid those of my country in every way possible in return for the great assistance they 
have received. You remark, in substance, that had you not prevented the Spanish 
forces from retreating from the city the United States would have received naught but 
its ruined streets and buildings. Possibly ; but had all Spanish subjects, elsewhere and 
here, been the contented subjects of Spain, war between it and my Government would 
not have been waged. It was undertaken by the United States for humanity's sake, 
and not for its agkrandizement, or for any national profit it expected to receive, and it 
has expended millions of treasure and hundreds of the lives of its citizens in the 
interests of the Spanish sufifering colonists. 

Apart from all legal and equitable considerations, arid those having their origin in 
personally conceived ideas of justice, I wish respectfully to call your attention to the 
impracticability of maintaining a joint occupation of Manila and its suburbs, and in 
this I know that I shall have the approval of your excellent judgment. It would be 
extremely difficult to prevent friction between our respective forces, which might result 
in unfortunate consequences, labor as we may for continued harmonious relations. 
Located in close proximity, irresponsible members of our organizations, by careless or 
impertinent action, might be the means of inciting grave disturbances ; and in this 
connection I call to your attention the recent shooting affair at Cavite, which still 
requires investigation. There might also arise conflict of authority between our sub- 
ordinate officers. Even now, within precincts in entire actuar pQssession of our troops, 
I find that permits are given to citizens, who are styled local presidents, to make 
arrests, to carry arms, etc., in viohition of our instructions and authority, and that 
several cases of kidnaping have taken place. In pursuance of our obligations to main- 
tain, in so far as we can, domestic tranquillity, our officers have arrested suspected 
parties, and they have asserted (with what element of truth I know not) that the insur- 
gent forces are the offenders. I have declined to accept their statements, as I prefer to 
believe the contrary, although it would appear that officers connected with those forces 
have issued the permits to which I allude. Such interference with our administration 
of civil affairs must eventually result in conflict. 

Again (reverting to a legal aspect of the subject), the affairs pf the entire city corpo- 
ration must be administered from a common center. The trust accepted by my Gov- 
ernment from those who surrendered actual possession confers a discretionary power, 
which can neither be shared nor delegated. The validity of this conclusion will be 
readily understood by yourself and associates as a well-established legal proposition, 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 403 

and does not require argument. And here permit me to remark upon a view of the 
.subject 5^ou have advocated in support of the plea for dual occupation of the city's 
suburbs. Your forces, you say in substance, should have a share in the booty resulting 
from the conquest of the city, on account of hardships endured and assistance rendered. 
The facts on which you base your conclusion granted, your conclusion, under the rules 
of war which arc binding on my Government, does not follow, for it has never recog- 
nized the existence of spoils of war, denominated "booty," as have many European 
governments. No enemy's property of any kind, public or private, can be seized, 
claimed by, or awarded to, any of its officers or men, and should they attempt to appro- 
priate any of it for their individual benefit, thej^ would be very severely punished 
through military tribunals, on which have been conferred by law very sweeping juris- 
diction. The enemy's money and property (all that is not necessary to be expended in 
administering local affairs in the enemy's territory) must be preserved for final arbitra- 
ment or settlement by and between the supreme authorities of the nations concerned. 
My troops can not acquire booty nor any individual benefit by reason of the capture of 
an enemy's territory. I make this comment, believing that you hold erroneous opin- 
ions in respect to individual advantages which occupation bestows. 

I request your indulgence while I briefly consider the concessions you ask us to make 
as conditions precedent to the retirement of your forces to the lines indicated by your 
note of the 27th ultimo. 

The first is : Protection to your shipping and free navigation to your vessels. Neither 
the extent of protection nor the limit of free navigation you request is understood. Cer- 
tainly you could not mean protection on the high seas, or in the ports not in the right- 
ful possession of the United States. That, as you are fully aware, could only be effected 
by treaty, or guarantee, following international recognition of the belligerent rights of 
the Philippine revolutionary government. While the existing armistice continues, the 
United States are in rightful possession, in so far as the navigable water of the Philip- 
pine Islands are concerned, only of the bay of Manila and its navigable tributaries. 
Within the same all vessels of trade and commerce and the war vessels of recognized 
national powers sail freely as long as the sovereignty of my Government is not assailed 
nor the peace of the locality threatened. In this respect, whatever concessions are 
extended by way of relaxation of trade restrictions, incident to war, to the citizens of 
these islands will be extended to all alike, and discrimination in this regard is neither 
intended nor permitted. Admiral Dewey exercises supervision over all naval matters, 
and they are in no way related to the duties conferred upon me by law. Nor would it 
avail should I seek his consent for greater latitude of action, for even if disposed to 
grant special concessions he could not do so, and I doubt if the supreme authority of 
my Government could now, under the prevailing truce with Spain, invest him with the 
requisite powers to do so and at the same time preserve its international obligations. 

The second concession named by you is restitution of positions in the city of Manila 
to your forces, in case the treaty of peace remands to Spain, the territory surrendered 
under the late capitulatory articles ; and the third and last is a promise to retire our 
troops within the lines indicated by you, as the lines on which you desire your troops 
to remain permanently. These propositions having a kindred nature, may be consid- 
ered together, and, indeed, have already been impliedly answered. From previous 
statements of facts and logical conclusions made and stated in this communication, 
concerning the nature of the obligations resting on the United States with regard to the 
territory to which they have the legal right of possession under contracting articles 
with Spain, it is evident that neither inlaw nor morals can the concessions be made. 
I would be powerless to grant them in any aspect of the case, being nothing more than 
an agent to carry out the instructions of the executive head of my Government and 
not being vested with discretionary power to determine matters of such moment. In 
the present instance I am not only powerless to accede to your request, but have been 
strictly enjoined by my Government, mindful of its international promises and 
national honor, which it has never broken nor sacrificed, not to accede joint occupation 
of the city and suburbs of Manila, and am directed specially to preserve the peace and 
protect persons and property within the territory surrendered under the terms of the 
Si)anish capitulation. These mandates must be obeyed. 

Thus have I endeavored with all candor and sincerity, holding nothing in reserve, to 
place before you the situation as understood by me, and I doubt not by the Republic 
which I represent. I have not been instructed as to what policy the United States 
intends to pursue in regard to its legitimate holdings here, and hence I am unable to 
give you any information on the subject. That it will have a care and labor conscien- 
tiously for the welfare of your people I sincerely believe. It remains for you, benefi- 
ciaries of its sacrifices, to adopt a course of action which will manifest your good inten- 
tions and show to the world the principles which actuate your proceedings. 

You and your associates could not regret more than I any conflict between our forces, 
which would tend to excite the citizens of my country, who are always a unit in action 
whenever its sovereignty is attacked or its rights to fulfill its international obligations 
is called into question. " Then they never count cost, and, as you are fully aware, its 
resources are abundant. Rather than see the ships of the navy of the United States 
controlling the navigable waters of these islands and its army devastating their terri- 
tory, I would greatly prefer to advise my Government that there is no longer need to 
send more of its troops to this section of the country, and that those whom it holds 
waiting on its Pacific slope can be remanded to their homes or employed elsewhere, as 
it may determine. 

It only remains for me to respectfully notify you that I am compelled by my instruc- 
tions to direct that your armed forces evacuate the entire city of Manila, including the 
suburbs and defenses, and that I shall be obliged to take action with that end in view 
within a very short space of time should you decline to comply with my Government's 
demands; and I hereby serve notice on you that unless your troops are withdrawn 
beyond the line of the city's defenses before Thursday, the 15th instant, I shall be obliged 
to resort to forcible action, and that my Government will hold you responsible for any 
unfortunate consequences which may ensue. ■ ' 



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404 OREGON A^OLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

Permit me to believe that my confidence in the sound judgment and patriotism of 
yourself and associates is not misplaced. 

You will please pardon me for my apparent unnecessary delay In replying to your 
cbmmunicatioii of the 27th ultimo, hut press of the duties connected with the adminis- 
tration of the aflTairs of this city is my excuse. 

In conclusion, I beg to inform you that I have conferred freely with Admiral Dewey 
upon the contents of this communication and am delegated by him to state that he 
fully approves of the same in all respects ; that the commands of our Government 
compel us to act as herein indicated, and that between our respective forces there will 
be unanimity and complete concert of action. 

I am, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

E. S. Otis, 
Major General U. S, V., 
United States Military Governor in the Philippines, 

On September 13th a commission sent by Aguinaldo and consisting of three mem- 
bers, one of whom was the treasurer and another the attorney general of the insurgent 
government, called for the purpbse of discussing the subject of my letter of the 8th. 
They asked me to withdraw it and simply request in writing that the insurgent troops 
retire to the line designated by General Merritt, which I refused to do, stating that 
unless they withdrew as directed we would be obliged to resort to force. They then 
asked that I withdraw the letter and issue a request unaccompanied by any threat to 
use force, as Aguinaldo was fearful that he would be unable to remove his troops upon 
demand. To which I replied that the letter of the 8th instant \vould stand. They then 
said that as the demands of that letter must remain unchanged, the insurgents would 
withdraw as directed therein, but that if I would express in writing a simple request to 
Aguinaldo to withdraw to the lines which I designated — something which he could 
show to the troops and induce them to think that he was simply acting upon a request 
from these headquarters— he would probably be able to retire his men withput much 
difficulty ; that, of course, they themselves understood the direction to withdraw, which 
would be obeyed, and thereupon repeated their desire to obtain a note of request, where- 
upon I furnished them with the following : 

Office Ui^itbd States MhjItaky Governor 
IN the Philippine Isi^ands, 

Manila, P. I., September 13, 1898. 
The Commanding General of the Philippine Forces. 

Sir: Referring to my communication of September 8th, I have the honor to inform 
you that I have had a most agreeable conversation with certain gentlemen who are in 
the interests of your revolutionary government upon the matters therein contained. 
We have discussed at length the complications now existing, which will exist, and will 
doubtless increase, while our troops continue to occupy jointly certain districts of the 
city of Manila. I have urged upon them the necessity of the withdrawal of your troops 
in order that the friendly relations which have always been maintained by and between 
them and the forces of the United States Government may be perpetuated. I am sure 
that the gentlemen fully appreciate my sentiments and will clearly report them to you. 
May I ask yon to patiently listen to their report of our conversation ? 

It is my desire that our friendly intercourse and mutual amicable relations be con- 
tinued ; that they be not jeopardized if we can by consistent action avoid it, and such, 
I am certain, is the desire oi' yourself and associates. 

May I ask, therefore, that you withdraw your troops from Manila? 

Permit me to add in conclusion that I have that confidence in your ability and patri- 
otism which will lead you to accede to this request. 

I am, with great respect, your most obedient servant, 

E. S. Otis, 
Major General U. S. V., 
United States Military Governor in the Philippines. 

In reply to which, on the 16th, the following was received : 

MAEOiiOS, BULACAN, September 16, 1898. 
The Commanding General of the American Forces. 

My Bear Sir; Referring to your esteemed communication, dated the 13th instant, 
I have the honor to inform you that I have given appropriate orders that my troops 
should abandon their most advanced positions within some of the suburbs, and that 
they should retire to points where contact with yours Would be more difficult, in order 
to avoid all occasion for conflict. 

I hope that by these presents you will be fully convinced of my constant desire to 
preserve amicable relations with the American forces, even at the risk of sacrificing a 
part of the confidence i)laced in my government by the Philippine people. 

A consideration of my many occupations will serve to excuse me for not having 
answered with the promptness desired. 

Your very respectful servant, Emilio Aguinaldo. 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 4(J0 

On the evening of the 15th the armed insurgent organizations withdrew from the 
city and all of its suburbs, as acknowledged by their leaders, excepting from one small 
outlying district. This certain agents of Aguinaldo asked on the j)revious day to be 
permitted to retain for a short time, on the plea that the general officer in command 
would not obey instructions, and they proposed to remove his men gradually by 
organizations and thereafter to punish him for his disobedience. The withdrawal was 
effected adroitly, as the insurgents marched out in excellent spirits, cheering the Amer- 
ican troops. 

During the progress of these negotiations the tactical organization of troops was 
being effected. General Merritt, on August 23d, had formed the corps into two divi- 
sions, the first at Cavite, composed of troops recently arrived and expected to arrive 
later, with certain exceptions; the second, of those stationed in Manila. Early in Sep- 
tember orders were issued announcing the staff officers of the corjjs and department; 
also announcing to the command the promotions of Brigadier Generals Anderson, Mac- 
Arthur, and Greene to major generals United States Volunteers, and of Colonels Oven- 
shine and Hale and Lieutenant Colonel Whittier to the grade of brigadier generals of 
Volunteers; also the composition of divisions, which were organized as follows: The 
first, comprising all troops in the district of Cavite, Major General Anderson to com- 
mand, and consisting of one brigade to be commanded by Brig. Gen. H. G. Otis ; the 
second, under command of Major General MacArthur, consisting of two brigades, to be 
commanded, respectively, by Brigadier Generals Ovenshine and Hale. Measures were 
taken to promptly meet any difficulties which might arise under the demand to with- 
draw from the city which had been served upon the insurgents. Brig. Gen. R. P. 
Hughes, U. S. v., relieved General MacArthur as provost marshal of Manila, and was 
placed in command of a separate brigade to constitute the provost guard, consisting 
of the Twenty-third Infantry, the Second Oregon, and First Montana regiments of 
volunteers. 

In General Merritt's orders of August 15th and 16th, wherein he prescribed regula- 
tions for the government of Manila, he announced as follows : 

In addition to his duties as brigade commander, Brig. Gen. Arthur McArthur, 
U. S. v., is hereby appointed military commandant of the walled city of Manila, and 
provost marshal general of the city of Manila, including all outlying districts within 
the municipal j urisdiction. * * He will relieve the civil governor of his functions, and 
take possession of the offices, clerks, and all the machinery of administration of that 
office, retaining and employing the present subordinate officers of civil administration 
until in his judgment it is desirable to replace them by other appointments. * * In 
paragraphs 8 and 4 of the terms of capitulation, full lists of public property and stores 
and returns in duplicate of the men by organizations are to be rendered to the United 
States within ten days, and public property of all kinds is to be turned over to the staff 
officers of the United States designated to receive them. Under these paragraphs the 
chief of artillery at these headquarters and the chiefs of the staff departments will take 
possession of the public property turned over as above, pertaining to their respective 
departments. The returns of prisoners will be submitted to their military commandant 
of the city, who will assign the men, for quarters, in such public buildings and barracks 
as are not required for the use of United States troops. * * The chief paymaster at 
these headquarters will turn over such portions of the Spanish public funds received by 
him, by virtue of this order, to the military commandant above designated, as may be 
necessary for the administration of his office. All removals and appointments of sub- 
ordinate officers of civil administration and transfers of funds authorized by the order 
must receive the approval of the commanding general before action is taken. 

In addition to the command of his brigade, Brig. Gen. F. V. Greene, U. S. V., will per- 
form the duties hitherto performed by the intendente general de hacienda, and will 
have charge, subject to instructions of the major general commanding, of all fiscal 
affairs of the government of Manila. 

Col. C. A. Whittier, U. S. V., is appointed collector of customs, and the chief paymas- 
ter. Department of the Pacific, will designate a bonded officer of the Pay Department as 
custodian of all public funds. Both of these officers will report to Brigadier General 
Greene for instructions. 

Under this last paragraph Maj. Charles H. Whipple, paymaster, U, S. A., was directed 
to receive the Spanish public funds. Maj. R. B. C. Bement, U. S. Volunteer Engineers, 
had already been appointed the collector of interval revenue, and by request of General 
Merritt and consent of Admiral Dewey, Capt. Henry Glass, U. S. N., was designated as 
captain of the port. 

On August 22d military commissions and provost courts were provided for and their 
jurisdiction defined. In the proclamation issued at the time of the surrender of the 



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406 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

city, it was ordered that the municipal laws "should be considered as continuing in 
force in so far as compatible with the purposes of military government," and should 
"be administered through the ordinary tribunals substantially as before occupation, 
but by officers appointed by the government of occupation." 

By department orders, issued on the eve of his departure, General Merritt, under 
instructions from Washington, relieved General Greene and personal staff from duty 
directing their return to the United States, and appointed Lieut. Col. C. A. Whittier, 
inspecitor general of the corps (and shortly afterwards announced as brigadier general 
of volunteers), intendente de hacienda, which gave hirn charge of all fiscal matters in 
the territory of occupation, and continued him as collector of customs. 

Such were the chief measures announced and the means adopted to continue in part 
and establish in part a temporary government to administer the affairs of the city of 
Manila. Unfortunately, the Spanish civil authorities abandoned most of the civil offices 
without making transfer of the public records and property. The officers of the Spanish 
army never made satisfactory returns of their troops, by organization or otherwise, and 
did not render lists of property to the United States within the period of ten days, as 
promised in the capitulatory articles, nor have they ever rendered such lists. The civil 
court justices vacated their positions and gradually sailed for Spain without giving 
notice of their intention to depart, nor taking the necessary measures to render secure 
the property and especially the records of their courts, inany of which pould never be 
found, and. which, presumably, they took with them. To be sure, they had not been 
authorized to exercise their functions as judges by the government of occupation, as pro- 
vided for in the articles of capitulation, until October 4, 1898, and then only in a limited 
degree, as the granting of such authority, in the then prevailing condition of public 
feeling, would have been politically disastrous, or at least most injurious, to United 
States interests. Indeed, in two or three instances when, without appointment or 
authority, they attempted to judicially determine questions in litigation and pending 
at the time of the surrender of the city, indignant protests were submitted by inhabit- 
ants, both native and foreign, and instructions to suspend action on the ground of 
unauthorized proceedings were issued from the office of military govern or.^ 

Finally, upon October 7th, to meet the needs of the citizens for tribunals to pass upon 
questions of a strictly civil character, the following order was issued : 

Until otherwise directed from these headquarters, the civil courts, as composed and 
constituted by the laws of Spain, which were held and administered prior to August 13, 
1898, within Philippine territory now subject to United States military occupation and 
control, are permitted to resume at once the exercise of the civil jurisdiction conferred 
by Spanish laws within the limits of that territory, subject, however, to such super- 
vision by the military government of the United States here instituted as in its judg- 
ment the interests of that Government may demand. This privilege does not extend 
to or embrace permission to institute criminal jurisdiction of any nature or character 
whatsoever. 

The provisions of orders heretofore issued by the authority of the United States in 
the Philippine Islands inconsistent with the foregoing instructions and directions are 
hereby revoked. 

The difficulties and perplexities which confronted all officers appointed to conduct 
civil affairs was therefore very great. The prisons were full to overflowing with con- 
victed criminals and persons charged with crimes. Immediate attempts were made to 
relieve this. congestion, and applications of the friends of those incarcerated, for their 
release, were constant. In the jail deliveries which followed, although conducted after 
search of records obtainable at the time, a few of the most notorious criminals escaped. 
Subsequently greater care was exercised and each individual case was made the subject 
of investigation, and even then, when pardon accompanied by release was granted, it 
was frequently followed by application for the return of embargoed estates, which pre- 
sented very perplexing questions for determination, involving a study of many Spanish 
war-measure decrees. 

The city government which was in operation at the time of surrender and the rev- 
enue measures practiced for its support were the results of national, colonial, and local 
decrees, orders, and approved recommendations, more or less complicated, with amend- 
atory features, uncodified, and running over a period of many years, presenting a 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 407 

system so complex tliat after the study of months it is not yet fully understood and 
certainly not appreciated. The monthly expenditures for the city have been double the 
amount of its receipts, but as all collections of whatever nature made in the islands are 
deposited with the general fund in the treasury and money is drawn therefrom on war- 
rants as demands arise, no difficulty has been experienced. 

The chiefs of the supply departments and staff corps of the Army, who had been 
directed to receive and receipt for the Spanish military stores when the prescribed lists 
should be presented, were obliged to rely solely upon their own efforts to discover this 
property, as no assistance was tendered by the officers of Spain. They were, it is 
believed, fairly successful in their persistent searches, took up and accounted for the 
property found, considerable of which, such as clothing, subsistence, and medicines, 
were expended in the care of Spanish prisoners of w^ar. The inventories which they 
made were very advantageous in the final settlement of United States and Spanish 
claims in regard to this class of property. General Merritt's orders and those which 
closely followed were based on the articles of capitulation by which it was transferred 
to the United States, as information concerning the peace protocol of August 12th, 
which held in abeyance all questions of property right pending the conclusion of a 
treaty of peace, had not been received. The fifth article of the Paris treaty of Decem- 
ber 10th returned to Spain ail these army stores and property, and the inventories which 
our officers had taken constituted the basis of intelligent settlement with the represen- 
tatives of that government under treaty stipulations, and in many instances enabled 
those representatives to formulate their demands. 

For three and one half months Admiral Dewey with his squadron and the insurgents 
on land had kei)t Manila tightly bottled. All commerce had been interdicted, internal 
trade paralyzed, and food supplies were nearly exhausted. Upon the opening of the 
port merchants were clamoring for the recstablishment of inter-island commerce. 

They had advanced large amounts of money on their harvested crops of tobacco, 
hemp, and sugar which awaited, at many points of the various islands, shipment to 
Manila. No present relief could be furnished by the military authorities. The harbor 
was filled with Spanish shipping and that of other European countries. The United 
States was not represented by merchantmen of any character. Spain owned and was 
entitled to possession of all Philippine territory, except temporary occupancy of the 
bay, harbor, and city of Manila, although the insurgents had forcibly seized upon many 
cities and ports. The insurrection had spread to, and was active in, all the islands with 
the exception of the Sulu Archipelago, and there the hereditary antagonism of the Moros 
was only comparatively dormant. Spain was concentrating her scattered forces in the 
south at the central Visayan Islands and at Zamboanga, and the Spanish general who 
was in immediate charge of Spanish military affairs (General Rios) had made his head- 
quarters at Iloilo. Through negotiations with General Rios, conducted under War De- 
partment permission, an arrangement was effected whereby vessels carrying either the 
Spanish or American flag might engage in trade at a number of the inter-island ports, 
the Spanish laws to be applied to shipment and commercial privileges. But a grave 
difficulty still presented itself. Vessels flying the Spanish flag could not safely enter any 
ports which had been seized by the insurgents, nor could inter-island commerce be 
opened to foreign governments as it was free and undutiable in all respects. The mer- 
chants formerly employing the flag of Spain resorted to sale and transfer of their ships 
to American residents, technical doubtless in many instances, but upon furnishing due 
written proof of a full compliance with United States consular regulations in these par- 
ticulars, provisional American registration was granted. Many of these vessels were 
thereupon released and trade became quite active. Still another difficulty was encoun- 
tered and materially affected the public revenue. The customs tariffs and regulations 
which has been prescribed for application were faulty in many respects and required 
amendment before they could be intelligently applied. It was, therefore, ordered on 
September 29th that "the enforcement of these regulations be postponed until the 10th 
day of November next, and that the tariffs and duties at present imposed be continued 
to be applied in the port of Manila until that date, with this exception, viz, that all 



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408 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

goods and merchandise secured, or purchased, within the dominions Of Spain (the Phil- 
ippine Islands excepted) since April 25th, last, the date of formal declaration of war by 
the United States Government between that country and the Kingdom of Spain, shall 
be received into this port upon the same conditions as to paymenf^ibf tariffs and duties 
as the goods and merchandise of strictly neutral nations." 

Upon October 3d Capt. J. F. Evans, of the volunteer subsistence department, who had 
been sent to the Philippines to assist in revenue matters, was assigned to duty at the 
customhouse, his services to be temporarily "confined to a careful consideration of trade 
conditions and an exhaustive study of the United States customs and tariff regulations 
prescribed for application, with a view of suggesting amendments and modifications 
therein, in order to render them as practicable as possible to existing circumstances." 
The entire labor of revision was imposed upon him and he performed it in a most satis- 
factory manner. His revision was adopted and put in force at the announced date 
(November 10th), has given satisfaction to all parties concerned, and has worked 
smoothly, only a few minor amendments having been made since it became operative. 

There were also other complications which arose from Spanish action or a misunder- 
standing on the part of the United States authorities of Spanish expressed intention as 
to the particular measures which must be adopted to secure the entrance of American 
vessels to Spanish ports — such as sailing under Spanish captains and the obtaining, 
under certain conditions, from General Rios himself, at Iloilo, of a special permit to 
visit certain trading points. Occasionally a vessel was turned back on her course by 
Spanish office;rs or denied entrance to a port after arrival there. Of this the merchants 
complained and the complaints became the subject of considerable ofiicial correspond- 
ence and controversy. The insurgents, too, whose government had taken firm root at 
Malolos, were, through the medium of president, cabinet, and congress, reeling off 
decrees and constitutional provisions at a rapid rate. Their army was continually suc- 
cessful against the small Spanish garrisons scattered throughout the islands, and they 
were beginning to acquire the belief that they were invincible. Revenue was their need 
and desire, and this they began to derive quite largely from imposing export duties on 
all products shipped to Manila from any shipping point in their possession, compelling 
the merchants to pay on their property some ten per cent ad valorem upon removal. 
These many obstacles so impeded commerce that trade languished and the customs rev- 
enues were greatly impaired. 

With the entrance of the United States troops into Manila and the opening up of that 
port immigration became active. Business men from our own and other countries, 
studying the situation, were quite numerous. Members of the criminal classes, who 
always follow the wake of a conquering army, came from the American and Asiatic sea- 
coasts in large numbers. The native population of the city rapidly increased and was 
augmented by a considerable Chinese influx, most of which presented cedulas or certifi- 
cates of personal identity, issued by the late Spanish Government, in order to prove 
former residence in the islands, as the United States Chinese exclusion law was directed 
to be applied. Aguinaldo's army of observation, on the outskirts of the city, contained 
many natives or residents of Manila, who, with all others of his soldiers, were accorded 
if unarmed, though uniformed, full liberty to enter any portion of the same. AH these 
heterogeneous elements, with the fourteen thousand United States troops quartered 
here, filled the city to repletion and gave the provost marshal general and his guards 
ample occupation. The outside country was not yet shut to trade and the port was open 
to all foreign ships. Hence subsistence was abundant and the minor business indus- 
tries were well employed. 

In a former portion of this report I stated the fact that the insurgent authorities had 
received permission to continue in occupancy of certain suburbs of the city for a short 
time when they, on September 15th, withdrew their troops fforn its interior portions. 
They did not subsequently remove their troops in accordance with agreement, but 
appeared to be determined to retain Paco and Pandacan, as they believed them to be 
advantageous military positions, south of the Pasig River. The assertion was made, 
and became current, that these suburbs were not within the jurisdiction of Manila, and 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 409 

it became advisable to make search and survey to gain desired information on that 
point. These were made by Lieutenant Colonel Potter, chief engineer of the corps. 

The survey showed that the city had never been correctly mapped, especially as con- 
cerned the trend of the Pasig River and the lines of outlying districts. The best opinion 
did not consider the suburbs, still occupied by the insurgent troops, beyond city limits, 
but no decree could be found which fixed their political status. These troops had given 
great annoyance. Their officers had extorted contributions from the citizens of Manila, 
some of whom they had kidnaped and carried away. They had placed guards upon 
the river bank and in many instances refused to permit our officers to pass their lines, 
although a mutual agreement had been made which permitted the individual members 
of both armies, when unarmed, to pass and repass all military lines without hindrance. 
A number of reports were submitted of insurgent interference in this respect. General 
Anderson called at my quarters on October 9th, and complained of the indignity he 
had received at the hands of the insurgents, in not being permitted to proceed up the 
river through the insurgent lines, and was thereupon informed that, as soon as a certain 
map of survey could be completed, General Aguinaldo would be directed to rem.ove his 
troops from Paco. On the following day he submitted the following official complaint : 

Headquarters First Divisioj^, Eighth Army Corps, 

Cavite Arsenal, P. J., October 10, 1898. 
The Adjutant General, 

Department of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, Manila, P. I. 

Sir : I have the honor to report that yesterday, the 9th instant, while proceeding up 
the Pasig River, on the steam launch Canacao, with three officers of my staff', the Ameri- 
can flag flying over the boat, I was stopped by an armed Filipino guard and informed 
that we could go no farther. Explaining that we were an unarmed party of American 
officers out upon an excursion, we were informed that, by orders given two days before, 
no Americans, armed or unarmed, were allowed to pass up the Pasig River without a 
special permit from President Aguinaldo. 

I demanded to see the written order, and it was brought and shown me. It was an 
official letter signed Pio del Pilar, division general, written in Tagalo and stamped with 
what appeared to be an official seal. It purported to be issued by the authority of the 
president of the revolutionary government, and forbade Americans, either armed or 
unarmed, from passing up the Pasig River. It was signed by Pilar himself. 

As this is a distinctly hostile act, I beg leave to ask how far we are to submit to this 
kind of interference. 

It is respectfully submitted that whether this act of Pilar was authorized or not by 
the assumed insurgent government, it should, in any event, be resented. 
Very respectfully, 

Thomas H. Anderson, 
Major General, U. S. V., CoTnmandirig Division. 

As soon as the completed map of survey of the city could be blue printed a communi- 
cation was prepared and taken by one of my aids to Malolos. An allusion was made 
therein to General Aguinaldo's letter of September 16th, in which he informed me of his 
action of the previous day in withdrawing troops in consonance with my former request 
and which did not at the time require reply. The communication was as follows : 

Office of the United States Military Gonernor, 

Manila, P. I., October Ik, 1898. 
Gen. Emidio Aguinaldo, 

Commanding Philippine Revolutionary Forces, Malolos, P. I. 

General : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of the 16th 
ultimo, and beg to apologize for the late official recognition of the same, presenting as a 
reason for my delay the necessity of obtaining certain information in order to arrive at 
conclusions in matters materially affecting the substance of oar late correspondence, 
the securing of which has been attended with great difficulty. 

I fully appreciate the friendly spirit manifested toward my Government in your 
expressions of regard, which your action in retiring your troops has confirmed, but I 
believe there has existed and still exists some misunderstanding as to the limits of ter- 
ritory which that Government is compelled to occupy and administer under its inter- 
national obligations with Spain, the responsibility for which it can not escape. 

The articles of capitulation transferred the city of Manila, with suburbs and all 
defenses, as I had the honor to inform you in my letter of September 8th. It was found 
impossible to determine definitely, on any existing map, either the limits of the city or 
the lines of its defenses. The latter had been variously placed, at some points retired 
and at others thrust out beyond the conceded city limits. I therefore directed my chief 
engineer, by a careful search of the municipal records and an actual survey, to ascertain 



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410 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

the lines within which occupation by United States troops was obligatory by reason of 
the terms of the surrender. He has tinally concluded these directed labors, and has pre- 
sented a map, of which the enclosed blue print is a copy, on which is traced in white the 
lines determined upon. By reference to this print and a comparison of the same with 
all former existing maps of the city and suburbs, it will be preceived that the latter vary 
materially from it, especially as the trend of the Pasig River and the location of the 
Spanish defenses. The lines of circumvallation on the i^rint begin at the Bocana de 
Vitas and thence they follow May pajo Creek until they reach the line of the Lico road 
produced, thence proceed along said line and road to Lico, thence to the junction of the 
two roads in front of the Chinese hospital, thence along the road in front of said hos- 
pital to the north corner of the hospital wall, thence to Blockhouse No. 4, thence by 
Blockhouses Nos. 5, 6, and 7 to San Juan del Monte Creek at the aqueduct, thence down 
said creek and up the Rio Pasig to the mouth of Concordia Creek, thence by Concordia 
and Tripa de Gallinas creeks to a point opposite the plac^ where the road from Cingalon 
to Pineda (Pasai) turns sharply to the right, thence by road to Maitubig, and thence to 
tbe mouth of the Malate Creek. This map is believed to be correct, as the surveying and 
platting were executed with the greatest care and with a desire for accuracy. The lines 
do not include all of the territory which the late Spanish civil engineer of this city has 
described as living within its suburbs and a larger proportion of them are drawn within 
the lines of the city's defenses; but they are practical, and include all portions of the 
suburbs which my Government, under its promises to Spain, could be expected to hold 
possession of under any demands which Spain might present. 

In your withdrawal of troops I note that to the north they retired to the line described 
on the map furnished by my predecessor. General Merritt, while to the east and south 
his request was not observed. As far as Paco is concerned, it was understood that the 
troops in that section would be withdriiwn within a short period of time, and I have 
now the honor to represent that the retention of that mutually conceded suburb has 
been a source of great annoyance to the American authorities, and, as I fully believe, to 
yourself, while the revolutionary forces along the Cingalon and connecting roads have 
been the cause of complaint from the inhabitants of that section. 

I am therefore compelled by reason of my instructions, which direct me to execute 
faithfully the articles of the Spanish capitulation, because of the interests of my Govern- 
ment and, as I sincerely believe, the welfare of your own forces, to ask that you with- 
draw all your troops beyond the lines marked in the accompanying blue print which 
are above described, and I must request such withdrawal on or before the 20th instant, 
else I shall be forced into some action looking to that end. 

Permit me, in conclusion, General, to bring to your attention facts of which you are 
doubtless ignorant, and which all connected with the AmeHcan authorities, especially 
that vast majority who have entertained a decided and pronounced friendly interest in 
the Philippine people, have viewed with more or less indignation. In a number of 
instances kidnaping and robbery have been committed recently within the city by par- 
ties who claimed to be connected with your forces, some of whom stated that they were 
acting under your instructions. This I can not believe ; but the high-handed oflfenses 
committed by these persons stiow how important it is, for the interests of all concerned, 
to withdraw your troops as herein requested. In numerous instances my officers have 
submitted complaints to me that they have been arrested and been compelled to turn 
back to the city, though journeying as unarmed and peaceful citizens merely with the 
intent to seek health and recreation ; and on Sunday last a funeral party from the Brit- 
ish war ship Powerful, now lying within this harbor, was so delayed by the Insurgent 
forces at Paco, when proceeding to its English cemetery, that it was obliged to return to 
its vessel and repeat the journey on the following day. I fail to see how such proceed- 
ings can be justified before enlightened public opinion, and it is a matter of profound 
surprise to me that a people seeking relief from the control of a government, by which, 
in the pronounced judgment of a large portion of the civilized world, it has been 
oppressed for centuries, should permit its armed authorities to so conduct themselves 
as to arouse the indignation of friendly and assistant nations. The indignities which 
my Government has suffered from the revolutionary forces still illegally maintained at 
Paco (few of them are cited herein) can not be tolerated in future. Kesistance to the 
high-handed proceedings committed is not merely considered a duty from which there 
is no escape, but would be esteemed a virtue by any civilized government cognizant of 
the facts. I do not for a moment permit myself to entertain the impression that either 
you, or the able advisers by whom you are surrounded, have authorized these insults to 
my Government, but I must bring them to the notice of the authorities which main- 
tain these troops, and upon which rests the legal responsibility for their conduct. 

There is another matter which I beg especially to present to your distinguished con- 
sideration. There are a great number of United States soldiers within this city and a 
large accession primarily intended and equipped by my Government for use against 
the armed forces of Spain, is en route for this port. The continued unhealthfulnesS of 
the city, notwithstanding the strenuous efforts we are making for a thorough police of 
the same, may make it necessary to temporarily encamp such troops as are suffering 
from diseases contracted here on some point of land which promises favorable sanitary- 
conditions for restoration to health. 

Should the emergency become imminent, the dictates of humanity and the over- 
whelming demands of my Government would oblige me to establish a convalescent 
camp in this locality, to which troops could be sent for recuperation, and to relieve the 
congested situation which must attend the presence of so large a body of armed men 
within a thickly populated city. I have in mind for this possible camp the grounds on 
the shore of the bay formerly occupied by United States troops and designated Camp 
Dewey, or the high gi"ound to the east of the city. It is my desire to place it at a locality 
which would not inconvenience any organizations connected with your forces or the 
surrounding inhabitants, and lo the emergency of this anticipated proceeding I respect- 
fully invite your consideration and ask your assistance should execution become 
necessary. Should action of this character be decided upon, I beg of you to rest firmly 
in my unqualified assurances that it will be undertaken in a spirit of the greatest 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 411 

friendliness and with the sincere desire to neither compromise nor affect in the slightest 
degree your interests and those of the people whom you represent, but, on the contrary, 
to enhance them. 

Permit me to subscribe myself, General, with the highest respect, 
Your most obedient servant, 

E. S. Otis, 
Major General JJ. S. F., 
United Slates: Mititary Governor in the Philippines. 

On the 18th of October three accredited representatives from Aguinaldo called, and 
the chairman. Doctor Tavera, a member of the Malolos cabinet, presented a note, of 
which the following is a copy : 

Manila, October 18, 'J898. 
His Excellency Major General Otis, 

Military Governor of the United States Forces in the Phili2opines. 

Generat-: I have the honor to place in your hands this note, which I bring person- 
ally, in which I make known the object of the mission confided to me by President 
Ag\unaldo, and which I will reiterate verbally. The letter dated the 14th of this month, 
which you directed to General Aguinaldo, reached his hands, and desirous of complying 
with your desires he called in council all of his generals and made known to them the 
desires which you expressed in your letter. 

Highly appreciating the spirit of friendship and good feeling which is constantly 
noted in your honorable letters, and which reflects the sentiments of Americans and of 
their policy toward us, the generals of Mr. Aguinaldo cheerfully accede to that which 
you ask. 

But the idea of the possibility that Spain may return to this territory and occupy 
Manila as the result of the decision of the Americo-Spanish conference now in session 
in Paris, has caused said generals to try and obtain a modification of the demands which 
you make in your letter of the 14th. 

Having verbally explained, for your consideration, the reasons which influence the 
manner of thought of the Philippine generals, I shall make also the following proposi- 
tions, made by President Aguinaldo : 

First. The Filipinos will retire beyond the line of demarcation indicated in the blue 
print, as you desire. 

Second. The Filipinos will retain Pandacan under their jurisdiction. 

Third. The Filipinos consider it of greatest importance to occupy the blockhouses, 
with their forces of the line, in view of the possible return of the Spanish, promising not 
to pass with arms. 

Fourth. General Aguinaldo asks of you an extension of the time indicated for evacua- 
tion of his troops. 

I repeat, sir, with the greatest consideration and respect, 

T. H. Pardo de Tavera. 

Considerable discussion followed, and Tavera, a man of excellent scientific and pro- 
fessional attainments, long a resident of Paris, and educated there, and who had advo- 
cated openly the establishment of American sovereignty in the islands as necessary to 
the welfare of the inhabitants, ably represented his chief, strongly urging the conces- 
sions requested in his communication. It developed that my letter of the 14th had 
aroused fierce opposition ; that Aguinaldo had indignantly disclaimed any knowledge 
of the promise to gradually withdraw the troops from Paco and Pandacan, and that 
opinion on the question to withdraw or fight, which the insurgent'leaders had discussed, 
was well-nigh equally divided. All the concessions requested were denied. Then an 
extension of the date fixed in my letter upon which the insurgent troops must be 
retired to October 25th was asked for and granted. In the course of our conversation 
Doctor Tavera and his associates strongly urged permission to retain all the Spanish 
blockhouses, but were informed that we could not yield in this matter, as some of them 
were within the lines beyond which they must withdraw. They then reverted to the 
blockhouses northeast of the city which were on those lines, saying that they had no 
shelter for their troops if they were taken from them, and I remarked casually that I 
did not consider them of any importance, as we did not intend to occupy them, but that 
I was unable to concede the point. It seems, however, that I was misunderstood in 
this matter, and the committee reported to Aguinaldo that these blockhouses would 
remain in his possession. When, six days later, after I had corrected this mistaken 
impression. Doctor Tavera called upon me in person and explained the most unfortunate 
position in which he had been placed by reason of this misunderstanding. I informed 
him that I would not take immediate action, even if the insurgents did not vacate 
these houses on the date announced. All this appears in subsequent correspondence. 



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412 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

On October 20th it was reported that insurgent troops were moving southward by 
railway from Malolos and other points and were being concentrated near the north 
line of the city. On calling the attention of the insurgent authorities to this threaten- 
ing demonstration the concentration ceased and many of the troops were removed. 

On October 23d the following was received : 

IlEVOT--tJTIONAKY GrOVERNMEISrT OF THE PHIIilPPIlVES, 

Presidency, Malolos, October 22, 1898. 
Gen. E. S. Otis, 

Commander in Chief of the American Forces, Manila, P. I. 

General,: In view of your favor of the 14th instant, I consulted the opinions of my 
generals and advisory council, and I have appointed Dr. Pardo de Tavera in order that 
he might place before you the wishes of all, as he did on the 18th. Said commissioners, 
upon giving me an account of your wishes, told me that you had consented to postpone 
the ultimatum for the withdrawal of our troops until the 25th and the retention by our 
forces of the blockhouses situated on the line shown on the blue map which you sent me 
with said letter, taut had not acceded to the desires of the Philippine people that my 
forces continue to occupy Paudacan. Relative to the latter point, I take the liberty of 
telling you that your predecessor, General Merritt, understood that the American forces 
only ought to occupy, according to the terms of the capitulation of Manila, the city and 
its environs, i.e., Binondo, Tondo, Santa Grnz, Quiapo, Sampaloc, San Miguel, Concep- 
cion, Ermita, Malate, and Paco, or San Fernando de Dilao, and thus he clearly puts it 
in his letter of August 20th last. The town of Pandacan has always been considered out- 
side of the old nauniciipal limits of Manila, which the general himself mentions in said 
letter, and I hope your high sense of judgment will see it thus. 

Nevertheless, I understand that your forces are already occupying Uli-Uli, Nactahan, 
and Santa Mesa districts, which, although belonging to the jurisdiction of Pandacan, 
they can continue to do, in order to prevent the continual encounters with mine which 
cause disagreeable incidents. 

I take pleasure in manifesting to you that it is not lack of confidence, and much less 
animosity, that prompts me to write in this manner. To-day, more than ever, the Fili- 
pinos desire to live in peace and perfect harmony with the Americans, because they will 
take care that the Philippines do not return under the odious Spanish dominion. 

When it is possible for a formal convention to pacify and harmonize the interests of 
the two peoples, then the suspicions of my people — which I can not completely quiet 
with my prestige and authority, no matter what good desires move me— will disappear. 

I beg of you not to consider as an insult to your flag a bad interpretation of my 
orders, which I will severely punish according to the gravity of the offense. You, with 
your keen perception, will understand that a people agitated by a revolution return 
gradually, not suddenly, to their normal life, no matter how educated they are supposed 
to be. It becomes necessary for me to act with much tact in order to give no cause for 
internal dissensions. 

And this consideration is what obliges me to ask you about the form and conditions 
with which you wish to establish a sanitarium within my lines; because I wish, at all 
cost, to prevent the possibility of your complaints being renewed concerning acts ema- 
nating from the continual contact of oiir forces. I understand that you have considered 
it necessary to demand the withdrawal of our forces, notwithstanding the friendship 
which binds us, in order to prevent friction. On this account, although I highly appre- 
ciate the humane sentiments which prompt you, I do not dare allow it, without previous 
explanation, for the very reason that I wish to preserve the friendship that constitutes 
the welfare of both peoples. 

I hope you will pardon me, as the necessity of consulting various advisers has obliged 
me to delay my answer. 

I am, General, with the greatest consideration, your obedient servant, 

Emilio AaUINAIiDO. 

The representatives of A.guinaldo who presented this communication came prepared 
to argue its merits, and after considerable conversation I sent the oral reply that the 
subject had been exhaustively discussed and that General Aguinaldo must withdraw 
his troops from the lines designated on or before the date announced, remarking at the 
same time that I would make formal reply later to certain points which he had pre- 
sented in his note. 

The insurgent troops were withdrawn on the afternoon and evening of October 25th, 
as promised, and on October 27th the following letter was sent to Malolos, and brought 
out those of November 4th and 16th, which hereinafter appear. These terminated all 
official correspondence upon the subjects therein discussed : 

Office United States Military Governor 
IN THE Philippine Islands, 

Manila, P. I., October 27, 1898. 
Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, 

Commanding Revolutionary Forces, Malolos, P. J. 
General : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of 
the 22d instant, and have awaited the result of correspondence and conferences upon 
the subject of which you ti'eat. 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 413 

Concerning the conference of the 18th instant with your representative, Dr. Pardo de 
Tavera, it resulted in an honest misunderstanding between us in one slight particular 
only. The doctor very ably, by letter, submitted your wishes — one of which was the 
retention of the blockhouses on the designated line. In regard to this matter, I said 
I was powerless to make any concessions, and in the conversation which followed 
remarked, in substance, through the interpreter, that we did not wish to occupy them, 
as we did not consider them of any importance. The doctor, I can conceive, very nat^ 
urally misunderstood my meaning — in fact the interpreter might have done so — and 
when, on the 24th instant, the doctor again called and forcibly expressed his construc- 
tion of my language, I was so impressed with his earnestness and honesty of purpose 
and convictions, I remarked that, although the law^ would not permit a concession, I 
would not raise any objection, unles hereafter compelled to do so by my superior 
authority, if your forces continued to occupy the blockhouses to the north of the Pasig 
River. 

I have referred to General Merritt's letter of August 20th, which you mention, and 
find that it is as you state. Unfortunately, I am bound by the terms of capitulation, 
which recite " the city and defenses of Manila and its suburbs." Pandacan is certainly 
far within the line of defense and, from information obtained from two weighty sources, 
I have been led to believe that it has, of late, been considered one of the city's suburbs, 
although we have been unable to tind any Spanish decree which fixes its status with 
definiteness. 

In regard to the establishment of a convalescent camp for the restoration to health 
of members of my command, it was my intention to consult you and arrive at an 
understanding in the matter before attempting anything of the kind. I knew you 
would not ofter objections if it could be so placed as not to give your people annoyance, 
since it could not be in any wise a menace, but, on the contrary, would place our sick 
within your power and to a certain extent under your protection. I have that confi- 
dence in your humane sentiments and in the kindly impulses of your people as to 
believe that you would surely consent to a measure of this character, and I think the 
poorer classes of surrounding communities would be pecuniarily benefited by the small 
trade that it would give rise to, as hospitals make many purchases of edible products 
which your people would be glad to furnish. Should necessity arise under which I 
would be forced to take action, it will be my pleasure to confer with you before proceed- 
ing in the matter, and I am fully convinced that you will give assent and assistance. 

Permit me, General, to assure you that I fully appreciate the difficulties under which 
you labor in your endeavors to carry out the desires and demands of your people. As I 
have alreadv expressed myself in former communications, I am fully convinced of your 
wish to maintain harmonious relations with the United States forces and government 
of Manila, and that you deplore, with me, any proceeding which may disturb that har- 
mony and friendly feeling. I have been fully aware that all unpleasant incidents which 
have occurred, and to whi<3h I alluded in my former letter, were due entirely to irre- 
sponsible and unwarranted action of subordinates, and I am constantly called upon to 
correct misconceptions entertained by my troops and to punish ofl'enses which they 
have wantonly committed. 

I am gratified with the success, both as concerns the interests of the Filipino people 
and the United States troops, which has attended our mutual efibrts for the amicable 
adjustment of afiairs, and sincerely hope that the manifested good will which now 
exists by and between our forces may be long continued. 
I am, General, most sincerely, your obedient servant, 

E. S. Otis, 
Major General U. S. V., 
United States Military Governor in the Philippines. 



Revolutionary Government of the Philippines, 

Presidency, Malolos, November A, 1898. 
Mai. Gen. E. S. Otis, 

Commander in Chief of the American Fo7'ces of Occupation at Manila. 

General : In having the honor of answering your letter of the 27th of October last, 
I shall make no mention of the first paragraphs of the same, because I see, with pleas- 
ure, that the matter referred to in them has had a solution adj usted to your desires. 

I shall limit myself only to the last paragraphs that speak of the establishment of a 
camp for convalescents. Concerning this paragraph, I ought to observe that from the 
moment when a concession is made of a part of the territory occupied by our forces and 
a hospital is built in it, you will have to place there a force in charge to look after the 
interests there created, unless it depends for security solely and exclusively upon the 
guaranty offered by the laws dictated by our government. 

l:ou, yourself. General, have always impressed me more than once with the fact of the 
impossibility of a dual occupation of Manila, because the continual contact of your forces 
and mine might give place to innumerable disagreeable incidents, if not serious and 
grave conflicts, which may disturb the harmony that exists between us. I am fully 
aware of the humanity you invoke in favor of the sick, but on the strength of this con- 
sideration it is my sacred duty to look after millions of souls whose security and inter- 
ests would be compromised if a conflict between us should ensue. The only solution 
possible is to completely cede you the use of this encampment, and this, as you will under- 
stand, requires some fixed basis of arrangement more concrete than can result from a 
verbal one made in a conference. Besides, it is my duty to submit these conditions to 
the representatives of the people. 

It is not lack of confidence which obliges me to proceed in this manner; it is neces- 
sity. These bases, if in the mean while a friendly convention between your government 
and mine is not realized, will constitute the provisional rules that will serve as the 
form for the solution of the claims that might occur. 



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414 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

And, above all, these bases will contribute very much to perpetuate the friendship 
that exists between us, because my people will take great care not to break them. 
I am, with the greatest consideration, your attentive and obedient servant, 

Emilio Aguinaldo. 



Office United States Military Governor 

IN THE Philippine Islands, 

Manila, P. Z, November 10, 1898: 
Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, 

Commanding Revolutionary Force.% Malolos, P. J. 

General : I received with pleasure your note of the 4th instant, and have the honor 
to reply to the point you present in regard to the establishment of a convalescent camp 
beyond the present line of actual occupation by the United States troops, as follows • 

I am not convinced that such estabhshment will be at all necessary, and, in fact 
from present indications it would appear that we shall be able to care for our sick 
within the line and del\:)nses of Manila. 

With regard to right of occupancy of territory, so many international questions arise 
under the articles of capitulation with Spain, which the United States is in honor 
bound to strictly construe and obey in all matters affecting its action, that I do not 
intend to present them for determination if it can be consistently avoided, especially 
not those which might demand argument and decision, such, for instance, as might 
arise regarding shore lines, which rightful occupation by the United States of the bay 
and harbor of Manila, with conceded rights of use for commercial purposes, miffht 
involve. x- j;- , t-. 

I am, General, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

E. S. Otis, 
Major General U. 8. V,, 
United States Military Governor in the Philippines. 

During the latter part of October instructions were received from Washington direct- 
ing that effort be made to secure the release of members of the Spanish clergy and 
religious orders who were held by the insurgent government as prisoners of war. Cor- 
respondence ensued and is here given to serve as a basis for comment in a later portion 
of this report. Four communications passed, of which the following are copies : 

Office United States Military Governor 

in the Philippine Islands, 

^ ^ , Manila, P. I., November 2, 1898. 

Gen. Emilo Aguinaldo, 

Commariding Philippine Revolutionai^y Forces, Malolds, P. I. 

General : By direction of my Government, I have the honor to present for your dis- 
tinguished consideration a subject which is causing much comment and a great deal of 
severe criticism of the Filipino people throughout Europe and among the very large 
class of Cathohc citizens of my own country, and that is the retenti<m, as prisoners of 
war, of the Spanish Catholic clergy and nuns. I believe that a vast majority of the 
reports of great cruelty and barbarous treatment practiced by the Filipinos toward 
individuals which have been put in general circulation are untrue. Indeed, I have for- 
bidden cablegrams prepared on this subject, which I had good reason to suppose could 
not be substantiated, to be sent to other countries, and I have informed the United 
States authorities that many rumors of this nature in circulation throughout the civil- 
.ized world were greatly exaggerated. Still, however, the facts stand out prominently 
that these individuals have suffered privations and hardships, and are still held in 
captivity, and fabrications charging most cruel and inhuman treatment resulting in 
loss of hfe will continue to be spread abroad to the great detriment of the interest and 
welfere of the Filipino people. I do not consider that I sacrificed in any particular the 
confidence reposed in me by my Government in communicating to vou that it has been 
requested by the Vatican at Rome and by many distinguished men high in the councils 
of nations to employ its good ofiices in efforts to secure the liberty of the Spanish clergy 
and of all individuals connected with rehgious orders now held in durance, among 
whom are especially mentioned the Bishop of New Segovia and the nuns in the north- 
western part of the island of I^uzon. 

It is, of course, needless for me to present to you or the able counselors by whom you 
are surrounded, and, indeed, it may be considered a presumption on my part to invite 
your attention to the fact that this clergy, and, indeed, the civil functionaries of the 
Spanish Government, can not under a strict interpretation of the rules of international 
law, be deemed prisoners of war, except in certain very aggravated cases. It would 
require most decided action on the part of members of religious orders to place them in 
that category, and the seizure and retention of nuns, or interference with them in the 
practice of what they consider their duties under the sacred religious vows, iw invariably 
looke^^ upon with marked disfavor by all nations claiming to practice civilized warfare. 
All this is well known to you, and I only allude to it to account, in a measure, for the 
erroneous impressions which publicly prevail regarding the humane sentiments and 
good intentions cherished by the Filipinos, and which are so damaging to them in 
securing a position as a people which they seek to invoke. You will please pardon me 
for this allusion, but the matter is so important to the best interests of the Filipinos 
that I have taken the liberty, uninvited, to present it. 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 415 

Confident that you seek the welfare of your people, may I in that confidence ask you 
to use your conceded influence to correct this condition of affairs and to act with me in 
efforts to place these prisoners in a position which will put an end to the acrimonious 
criticisms which now so widely prevail? I would be pleased to receive them here at 
Manila and care for them while they make preparations to leave the country, as I am 
informed many of them desire to do ; and more particularly does it appear to me as 
most essential that prompt action be taken with regard to the nuns. Any traveling- 
expense or cost of food required to effect their removal to this point I would be glad to 
meet should you desire it. ^ 

I am, General, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

E. S. Otis, 
Major General U. S. V., 
United States Military Governor in the Philippines. 



Revolutioxary Government of the Philippines, 

-,^ . ^, ^^ ,, ,, PreKidenc2j, Malolos, November 3, 1898. 

Maj. Gen. E. S. Otis, 

Commander in Chief of American Forces of Occupation in the JPhilippincs. 

Genekal: I take pleasure in acknowledging your kind communication of yester- 
day's date, and I ought to t(}ll you that your observations, far from displeasing me 
are very useful to me, as they are dictated by the enlightenment acquired in the 
atmosphere of a free country. 

I ought also to inform you, especially, that we do not make prisoners of women and 
children, and much less of the nuns. If some woman or child is found among our 
prisoners, it is because they are part of the family of one from whom they do not wish 
to be separated, requiring us to support them at the expense of the Philippine treasury 
I his detail is not foreseen in international law, but the Filipinos observe this custom' 
prompted by humane sentiments. ' 

I am glad to hear you say that the Spanish clergy and civil officials can not be pris- 
oners of war according to international law. Before answering this point allow me to 
observe that we have only taken as prisoners the priests (sacerdotes religiosos) belonging 
to the Bpanish clergy, and not those who live the life of monks ; and permit me to make 
this point clear in order that the explanation which I have the pleasure of giving you 
may be more intelligible, and so, also, that foreign public opinion may not be mistaken. 
It IS true that international law declares in general that the clergy and civil officials can 
not be prisoners of war, but the spirit of these very laws exclude the Spanish priests 
(sacerdotes religiosos) and civil officials in the Philippines, because they (Spaniards) 
alone possess the certain class of persons known by that name. 

Beginning with the Spanish civil oflicials, I take the liberty of pointing out to you that 
at the beginning of the declaration of war between the United States and Spain thev 
were obliged by General Augustiu to bear arms, without distinction as to class, and even 
before, during the first stages of the Philippine revolution, Spanish civil officials were 
already formed into armed volunteer corps who, if they did not frequently go into the 
field in company with the regular soldiers, shot and arrested defenseless and pacific 
inhabitants in order to imprison them and submit them to indescribable torture. Be- 
sides, I ought also to say that in the Spanish penal prisons and penitentiaries groan even 
hundreds of prisoners and deported Filipinos who were torn away from their homes on 
account of the suspicions of the old Spanish Government and thanks to the arts and 
malicious customs of the priests (sacerdotes religiosos), called ministers of peace. 

Kelative to the priests, or rather Spanish ''sacerdotes religiosos," I take the liberty of 
laying before you the following points : 

A. The religious corporations of the Philippines have acquired large agricultural 
colonies by means of fraud. In olden times the Filipinos, prompted by their religion 
gave a\yay a part of the products of their lands to the old priests (sacerdotes religiosos) 
for their support. But in the course of time that which was prompted by spiritual 
motive they made obligatory, taking possession of the lands, in order to better secure 
It, and making the proprietors dependents or colonists who could not refuse paying, 
because of the vengeance of the Spanish authorities, whom the said sacerdotes had in 
their favor, through bribery. 

B. According to the canons of the Roman Church, these priests or religious sacerdotes 
can not claiin the privilege of absolving, which is solely reserved to the secular clergy, 
to which the Filipino priests belong. Nevertheless, the eccleciastics, in order to be able 
to exercise the duties of the parochial priests (cura parroco) in the Philippine towns, 
have been cheating the Vatican and foreign public opinion, picturing these towns as 
savage ranches, which require the care of Spanish religious missionaries that the natives 
^^y ^P*^ return to their ancient idolatry. The B'ilipino priests who have tried to rectify 
this false opinion of the Vatican relative to the religious state of the country, in order 
to be obedient to the canons of the church, died martyrs, accused by the ecclesiastics of 
being disturbers. 

C. The same priests (sacerdotes religiosos) tried also to cheat the Spanish Govern- 
ment, making It believe that they were the only upholders of Spanish sovereignty in 
the Philippines, and although the Spanish authorities recognized the fraud, they did 
not want to admit anything, as they were influenced by the gold of the religious corpo- 
rations. These priests, exercising the right of absolving in the Philippine towns, have 
been for a long time the absolute masters of the life, honor, and property of the Fili- 
pinos. For this reason, it is a widely known and notorious fact, recognized by all the 
foreigners who have studied Philippine afmirs, that the primary causes of the Philip- 
pine revolution were the ecclesiastical corporations which, taking advantage of the cor- 
rupt Spanish Government, have robbed the country, preventing progress and liberty 



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416 V3REG0N VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

With these antecedents, General, you will understand that, owing to the influence 
and interests of the religions corporations in the Philippines, it is neither just nor politic 
to set at liberty the priests (sacerdotes religiosos). The archbishop, as well as the Span- 
ish bishops in the Philippines, belong to the regular Spanish clergy, and it is not prudent 
to allow them to continue ruling in these islands, as they can incite a counter revolution, 
assisted by their gold and some fanatic Filipinos, who will obey their commands. 

When the Filipino priests, unjustly spurned by the Vatican, have obtained the right 
to appointment to the duties of bishops and parochial priests, then there will be no dan- 
ger to the public tranquillity in setting at liberty the ecclesiastics. The Spanish Govern- 
ment and the Pope have proven themselves ignorant of law or justice, when one deals 
with their interests. For that reason the Filipinos wish to hold the civil officials in order 
to obtain the liberty of the prisoners and deported Filipinos ; and the priests in order to 
obtain from the Vatican the recognition of the Philppine clergy. 

As a representative of the Government of the United States, I beg of you, General, 
with the greatest kindness, to notify it that neither vengeance nor hate influence the 
Filipinos when they hold the civil officials and Spanish ecclesiastics, but that public 
interests and the peace of the Philippine people demand these measures. International 
law will have to give way before the just caus^ of a country of millions of souls, because 
this cause is one of humanity, civilization, and progress. My people exact these meas- 
ures and I can not but comply with their will. If you. General, can interpret the senti- 
ments of the people to your Government and foreign public opininon, and by this means 
correct the erroneous ideas emanating from the ignorance of the true condition of the 
country, you will make yourself a creditor to the gratitude of the Filipino people and 
the civilized world. 

I am, with the greatest consideration, your most obedient servant. 

EMII.10 Agtjinaldo. 

Office United States Military Governor 
IN THE Philippine Islands, 

Manila, P. I,, November 10, 1898. 
Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, 

Commanding Philippine Revolutionary Forces, Malolos, P, I. 

General : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your cordial communica- 
tion of the 8d instant, for which permit me to thank you, and to which my manifold 
duties have denied me the pleasure of replying as promptly as I wished. 

I highly appreciate your expressed desire to act for the public interests, the peace of 
the Filipinos, and in accordance with the dictates of humanity, but you will pardon my 
candid confession that I am unable to comprehend the force of your remark to the effect 
that international law must give way before the just cailse of a country of millions of 
souls because it is one of humanity. I fail to understand how the principles of that law 
can be antagonistic i,n any particular to the welfare of a people, founded, as they are, 
on the best interpretation of the law of nature, which the acknowledged wisdom of 
ages of human progress has been able to bestow. Every independent nation claiming 
advanced enlightenment professes to be bound by these obligations of that law and cer- 
tainly would be held responsible by the civilized world should it openly violate them. 

My previous letter contained the request of my Government tor the release of the 
clergy and members of religious orders, including nuns of a certain locality reported to 
be held by you as prisoners of war. Your reply informs me that you hold as such pris- 
oners the Spanish priests and former civil officials, but not women and children, "much 
less nuns." In regard to the latter, I must have been misinformed, for I received the 
impression that thfey sought return of their personal effects, of which they have been 
deprived, with permission to join their friends in this city. Your letter, however, 
assures me that they have not been despoiled and possess full hberty of action to jour- 
ney wheresoever they please. This information I will gladly convey to my Govern- 
ment and to persons immediately interested in their welfare who have expressed 
concern for their safety as regards health, life, and individual property. 

In respect to the Spanish officials whom you hold as prisoners of war, you are pleased 
to remark that during the first stages of the Filipino revolution they were formed into 
an armed volunteer corps, were subsequently obliged to bear arms without distinction 
as to class, and th^^t if they did not frequently take the field with the army of the enemy, 
nevertheless shot and arrested peaceful and defenseless inhabitants. These you desire 
to retain until opportunity ofi"ers to exchange them for Filipino prisoners now in the 
hands of Spain. I am not conversant with the facts you narrate, and am not therefore 
competent to arrive at any conclusion. It is, however, a well-established principle of 
law that the chief officers of a hostile government, such as its diplomatic agents and 
those who are of particular importance and use to it, become, upon capture, prisoners of 
war, but I do not think that its minor officials are classed in that category, unless armed 
or attached in some capacity to a hostile army for the purpose of rendering active aid. 

As regards the members of the Spanish clergy I understand you to state, in substance, 
that they are held prisoners of war on account of the grave offenses cpmrnitted by them 
while Luzon was under the practical domination of Spain ; that they were the primary 
and principal cause of the revolution which has been in progress for the past two years ; 
that it is not prudent to set them at liberty, as they are disposed, and might be able, if 
released, to incite a counter revolution in Spanish interests, and that they are retained 
in prison not only for such reasons, but also to compel the Vatican to recognize the con- 
ceded rights of the Filipino clergy, which has heretofore been denied it. 

Accepting these as established facts (my knowledge is not to the contrary), the con- 
clusion does not appear to follow that these members of the clergy can be considered 
prisoners of war, and I can not conceive how, under the laws of war or any international 
right arising from the state of belligerency existing between the Filipinos and Spain, 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 417 

they can be so denominated. Nor do I understand your suggestion that the spirit of 
these laws, if not their context, excludes these people from the protection which strict 
interpretation bestows, whatever may have been their previous crimes. Even if these 
priests belonged to religious corporations, against which the Filipinos had well- 
grounded complaint for past offenses, and indeed for cruelties received at their hands ; 
even if they exhorted the communities in which they resided to resist the revolutionists, 
and might still do so if released ; even if they persecuted the Spanish subjects among 
whom they lived, they could not be considered as prisoners of war in any sense of that 
term unless captured while making armed resistance or giving active armed aid to the 
enemj'. 

The law of nations allows every sovereign government to make war upon another, 
and concedes the right of revolution to a people greatly oppressed, but it does not admit 
a violation of the rules of regular Avarfare regarding the status of persons arrested or 
captured or in the treatment of prisoners of war, although they may belong to the forces 
of an unjust assailant or a formerly tyrannical master. 

The expressed intention of holding these Spanish priests as prisoners of war in order 
to force the Vatican of Rome into certain acknowledgments with appropriate action I 
can not conceive to be well founded in law, custom, or precedent, and am convinced 
that such a position is untenable. 

In this somewhat hasty letter, General, I have accepted all your facts for the sake of 
argument, and am unable to reach your conclusion, viz, that the members of the relig- 
ious orders are rightfully kept imprisoned, and that the interests of the Filipino people 
demand their retention. I do not think that the views you advance would receive 
favorable general acceptance, and believe therefore, in all sincerity, that the good name, 
reputation, and welfare of that people would be greatly enhanced by relieving those 
men from the captivity which they have so long endured. 

I can only ask in conclusion that the wishes of my Government may receive more 
favorable consideration than your most friendly letter indicates. 
I am. General, with great respect, your obediant servant, 

E. S. Otis, 
Major General U. S, V., 
United States Military Governor in the Philippines. 



Presidency Revolutionary Government of the Philippines, 

Malolos, November 18. 1898. 
To Maj. Gen. E. S. Otis, 

General in Chief of the American Forces of Occupation in Manila. 

General : Allow me to inform you that I have received your kind letter of the 10th 
instant; begging you to pardon the tardiness with which I answer, because of my many 
occupations. 

I highly appreciate your desire to intercede for the liberty of the Spanish civil offi- 
cials and the priests, and be assured that if well-founded reasons did not exist in order 
to retain them, always attentive to the laws of humanity and agreeing with the princi- 
ples that regulate the relations of independent states, I would not have given you occa- 
sion to make in their favor the petition that elevates you so much. 

In my last letter I have advanced the reasons which I have convinced myself justi- 
fies me in considering as prisoners of war said employes and ecclesiastics. Neverthe- 
less, you attempt to depreciate the force of my arguments, relative to which I beg of 
you to kindly favor me by listening to my answer. 

You say in your letter that in virtue of the principles of a right well established the 
chief employes of a hostile government, as well as diplomatic agents and those that 
render services of a particular importance, can be considered as prisoners of war; but 
that you do not think mere employes can be classified in said category unless they are 
armed or in some way attached to a hostile army for the purpose of lending their active 
aid. And in view of this assertion, coming from a person so competent, I can not do 
less than congratulate myself, for in that statement you recognize as justified the prin- 
cipal reasons that 1 uphold in retaining as prisoners the civil employes as well as the 
priests. 

Admitting that principle, it must be confessed that it is strictly in conformity with 
my conduct if it is admitted (an undeniable fact) that the civil employes, as well as the 
regular priests (parrocos), not only supported in an active way those who combated 
against the Filipino revolutionists, but also personally took up arms in order to fight 
against them. 

I have already said in my last letter that the decree of General Augustin of the 23d of 
last April obliged not only the employes of the state and municipality to take up arms 
but also the Spaniads born here, and that in the first epoch of the Filipino revolution 
they formed armed volunteer corps which, while guarding the towns, made arrests, 
tortured the prisoners, executed defenseless citizens, or joined the regular soldiers to 
fight against the revolutionists. General, read carefully the local papers from the time 
the revolution began and you will see there the proof of what I say. The pages of said 
papers are indisputable evidence of the military services rendered by the civil employes 
of the Spanish Government and the compensation received by them as a premium for 
their services. With these antecedents is there room for the least argument that the 
Spanish civil employes should not be held as prisoners of war? 

The same, if not worse, can be said of the priests. The latter, degrading their office, 
transformed from servants of the Lord to feudal lords and supported by the Spanish 
Government, were absolute masters of the lives, lands, and honor of the Filipinos. 

At the beginning of the revolution they did not discharge the duties of ministers of 
peace or preach gentleness or Christian charity, but, profaning their sacred mission, 
they made themselves the police of the Spanish Government, false denouncers of inno- 
cent citizens. 
27 



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418 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

It seems incredible that those who should raise their prayers to stop so much cruelty 
and infamy committed by the Spanish Government, those who should give themselves 
over to reclusion and mortitication and penance for so much crime, were precisely those 
who took part in the affairs, and with base insinuations, with infamous accusations 
and ideas of vengeance, increased more and more the pyre of the dead, and the defam- 
atory charges through which were sacrificed precious and innocent lives and the honor 
of many citizens. 

Again, vengeance does not move me in treating these ecclesiastics as prisoners of 
war. I conform to the principles of international law advanced hy yourself, for, apart 
from the abuses committed by the priests, to which T have referred in my last letter, and 
the facts that I add in my present one, you are informed that they have taken up arms 
against the revolution; as, for example, the priests (parrocos) of ihe town of Li pa, 
province of Batangas, who made themselves leaders of volunteer corps. In Manila, 
during the seige of the town by your forces, all the ecclesiastics, organized and uni- 
formed, formed a part of the municipal armed guard, and all of them you may be Sure 
have lent their directive and effective cooperation to the forces that fought against the 
Filipinos, not only maintaining at their expense armed bodies, but acconipanying them 
in their expeditions as well as inciting them to battle. 

The consents have been the most impregnable defenses, where the Spanish combat- 
ant, together with the priests, shielded themselves in order to attack the revolutionists, 
and this government preserves quite a number of muwkcts taken from the ecclesiastics. 
Therefore, the principle which you mention can be applied to them, and it follows in 
consequence that they should be treated as privsoners of war — the more so if all their 
civil attributes are taken into consideration. There is reason, therefore, to class them 
in the category of chief employes or those rendering service of special importance. 

The principles of international law sustained by the most noted authors were taken 
into account by me when I treated as pi:isoners of war civil employes and the priests. 
Jiore, Martens, Bluntschli, and others, hold that all persons, though not forming a part 
of the arraiy, but who follow it to perform their pacific functions, can be held as prisoners 
of war. I only exempt the hospital personnel, according to the Geneva convention, pro- 
vided that they take no active part in the war ; and the Spanish-American encyclopedia 
says : "All those who form part of the enemy's forces, whether they are regular troops 
or militia, all those who accompany armies on their expeditions, the newspaper corre- 
spondents, providers, even the civil officials, can be made prisoners," 

Besides, retort (represalias) is a right admitted by the most cultured nations as a 
penal power to be exercised by one of the belligerents with respect to the other when the 
latter violates the rules or laws generally accepted ; or as a sanction in the sense that by 
it the represalia can require the enemy to fulfill his duties. 

In virtue of the right of retort, during the war of North American independence, the 
great Washington, to avenge the shooting of an American colonel, a prisoner in the 
hands of the English, deemed beyond the rules of war the English Colonel Argyll, a 
prisoner hteld by the Americans. Thanks to the intervention of the Queen of France, 
the order was not executed. In virtue of the same right, the German generals in the 
war of 1870 ordered the houses in which their soldiers had been treacherously attacked 
to be fired and destroyed. 

If there were then no international rules to justify the retention of the civil officials 
and priests as prisoners of war, could not we Filipinos, not even considered belligerents 
by the other nations, invoke the right of retort in order to secure measures obliging the 
Spanish Government to grant the liberty of many Filipinos (prisoners for political rea- 
sons) and check their barbarous methods of torturing and shooting the lovers of liberty 
and independence of their country ? 

This is the reason why, in my last letter, I said that international law would have to 
give way before the just cause of a country of millions of souls, because this cause is 
one of humanity, civilization, and progress. 

It is far from my intention, in making this assertion, to show you that in retaining 
as prisoners, the persons in whose liberty you are interested, I cite international law 
only when attending to the desires of my people, because I have well demonstrated that 
in taking this determination I have really been guided by those laws, at least when 
they do not greatly prejudice the welfare of my people, I have only wanted to say that 
in many cases the principles of international law, generally observed by the most 
cultured of nations, must conform to existing circumstances in the interest of a people 
who bewail the violation of those laws. For this reason it is understood that the most 
civilized nations recognize the right of retort. Thus also, General, when I tell you that 
the Filipino people desire to hold as prisoners the civif officials in order to obtain the 
release of the deported Filipinos and their priests, and in order to obtain from the 
Vatican the rights of the Philippine clergy, I have not wished to defend the measures 
adopted on that ground alone, when other well founded principles justify my conduct. 
I have only wished to indicate that at the opportune moment, notwithstanding the 
motives previously advanced, liberty can be granted to these prisoners without the dis- 
pleasure of the people. 

I should like to see that moment arrive as soon as possible, to demonstrate to you 
my liveliest sympathy for the fulfillment of your desires, which to-day I am impeded 
from meeting for well understood reasons. 

The Philippine people, who aspire to a life of liberty and independence, have not 
deserved from the civilized nations, not even the United States, at least until the present 
time, the recognition of their rights in the War against Spain. They have the glory of 
having complied with the rules reqtiired to be observed by belligerent powers, and 
nothing can be said to the contrary. I have no doubt, General, that having given your 
noble impulses and cultured judgment and sympathy to my country you will know 
how to interpret the sentiments of this letter before your Government and the civilized 
world, and to justify my conduct in holding as prisoners of war the civil officials and 
the priests. 

I close this letter, begging you to pardon the trouble its perusal will cause you. 
I remain, your most respectful servant, 

Emilio Aguinaldo. 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 419 

The last reply, and possibly the first, was drawn by Aguinaldo's attorney general, a 
person of excellent legal attainments, who is now serving as one of the United States 
judges in the court of the audiencia, and was considered unanswerable by the Malolos 
Government. It received newspaper publication at Malolos and here in Manila. An 
answer was drafted in part, but never delivered. It recited the fact that the discussion 
of the subject had reached proportions never contemplated ; that I was not authorized 
to intercede for the release of the civil officials, and that my requests had been limited 
to priests or members of religious orders, and further remarked as follows : 

A reference to the correspondence will show that my expressed desires are limited 
strictly to requests of that character, and in reference to them you have been good 
enough to inform me that of the classes of persons named you hold as prisoners of war 
only the Spanish clergy, permitting full freedom of action to all female members of 
religious institutions. 

The announcement of that portion of your policy which affects nuns, or women who 
are devoting their services to the interest of church and benevolent societies, was re- 
ceived with satisfaction and has disarmed, to a certain extent, the hostile critics who 
have proclaiiTied that the revolutionary forces were imposing barbarous treatment on 
inhabitants in Luzon whom they retained in captivity. Appreciating this sentiment, I 
was pleased to assure one of the good ladies of the church. Dona Sista del Ilosario of the 
33ominicans, who called for an expression of my opinion as to whether she could make 
a contemplated journey to the province of Cagayan for the relief of certain nuns, that 
she would not experience any dithculty in so doing, as their movements were entirely 
optional with themselves and would not be interfered with. 

Returning now to the subject of my Government's request, viz, that which concerns 
priests. You are pleased to quote from my letter of November 10th, not however the 
language employed, but as understood by you, doubtless, and to apply it in aid of your 
argument for their retention. The meaning of my language is very different from, that 
which you believed it to convey. My remark referred strictly to civil officials, was only 
a passing brief attention given to one which your former letter contained, and had 
nothing whatever to do with any other class of individuals. I said that it was "a well 
established principle of law that the chief officers of a hostile government, such as its 
diplomatic agents and those who were ot particular importance and use to it, became 
upon capture, prisoners of war," not its minor officials, unless armed or attached in 
some capacity to a hostile army, etc. I had not then, nor have I now, the impression 
that the priests could be classed as important civil officials of the Spanish Government, 
nor as minor civil officers armed as soldiers or attached to the Spanish hostile army 
warring against the insurgent forces in the field. 

Formerly, as you are aware, a lawful prisoner of war was an active combatant 
secured by capture or through surrender. In these later times the class has been greatly 
enlarged, and embraces members of the sovereign family, ministers and diplomatic 
agents of a government, and persons of importance at particular moments, though sep- 
arate from the mass of combatants. This extension is due to the fact that no great 
hardships should now attend the lot of a prisoner of war, while his detention may help 
to defeat the military operations of the enemy or assist those of the army making the 
arrest. 

With an army in the field pursuing active hostilities, the laws of war permit civilians 
accompanying it to be taken and held as prisoners temporarily and while their services 
may be of benefit to that army. The termination of hostilities should put an end to the 
period of imprisonment. So with the priests. If their confinement as prisoners of war 
was ever lawful, further detention can hardly be j ustifled on the ground that it will 
assist your revolutionary government, or that release will injure it, unless, possibly, 
you apprehend determined hostility thereto, manifesting itself in dangerous demon- 
strations on the part of the people who may be governed by their prejudices or spirit of 
revenge, for it is understood to be the desire of the priests to return to Spain and not 
linger in these islands longer than is abs^olutely necessary; and it is conceded, I pre- 
sume, that, removed from the country, they will be powerless to aid Spain in its further 
efforts to crush what it is pleased to denominate a formidable rebellion. The plea that, 
you hold them to effect an exchange for priests of Philippine nativity and to compel 
certain recognition of principles by the Vatican at Rome is not well founded. The 
imprisoned native priests were probably state prisoners when Spain held acknowledged 
control of the islands and before rebellion had raised its front. The pacification, too, 
which terminated in the agreement or so-called treaty of Biac-na-bato may have set at 
rest all questions arising in the cases of prisoners captured during the rebellion of 1896. 
For an army to seize members of the clergy and hold them as prisoners of war for the 
purposes of effecting the release and return of certain civilians, placed in captivity long 
before that army or the government to which it belongs had an existence, must be con- 
sidered a novel proceeding. To seize Spanish citizens, whatever their offenses, and hold 
them as prisoners of war to compel certain action by the Vatican of Rome is most 
assuredly indefensible under any circumstances. 

The war doctrine of "retort" which you introduce in your argument can not be 
applied, and you certainly do not wish to be understood as contending that you would 
be justified in shooting friars, whom you hold as prisoners of war, simply because 
Spanish subjects tried and convicted under the forms of law were executed, etc. 

As stated, this answer was not served, as I had been reliably informed that Agui- 
naldo contemplated, or had promised Influential Filipinos to release the minor civil offi- 
cials, but that the temper of the people was such that he could not let go the members 
of the religious orders held in captivity. I also had an impression that he would not 



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420 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

keep his reported promise with regard to the Spanish ofhcials, but intended to hold 
them for certain purposes, the chifefest of which were to secure large money considera- 
tions and European action tending to the recognition of his government. I therefore 
informed the War Department that efforts to obtain the release of the Spanish clergy 
were unavailing. The course which has since been pursued by the insurgent authori- 
ties has confirmed the correctness of the impressions which were received at that time. 
The general allusions made in former portions of this report to the action taken by 
the United States authorities which the private rights or the former privileges and obli- 
gations enjoyed by or imposed upon the inhabitants while under Spanish administra- 
tion, do not show the true significance of that action in many essential particulars. 

Manila is the capital of territory having seven or eight millions Of people. The dif- 
ferent islands and in some instances the different provinces of the same island are 
dependent upon each other for the necessaries of life. Certain sections of the country 
confine their industries for the most part to the cultivation of rice, others to tobacco, or 
to hemp or sugar, or the raising of live stock, and exchanging these products in a great 
degree for articles of consumption or other necessaries, which are conveyed in light- 
draft vessels to the numerous towns and villages which are situated on the five thou- 
sand miles or more of island coast. The hemp, sugar, and tobacco districts must have 
rice, and that in kind becomes the medium of exchange for their products. Little 
money is used or needed. The merchants of these towns and villages receive the prin- 
cipal product of the district for the merchandise sold to the inhabitants and barter the 
products of other districts for it. The great center of the island trade is Manila, and 
trade is controlled and conducted mostly by Europeans — the Chinamen, however, 
looking carefully after its retail features. The closing of the port of Manila, or a radical 
change in the restrictions or regulations under which this trade is carried on, would 
seriously affect the inhabitants of the islands, and the business interests of the large 
merchants who are also the exporters of the native products. 

Under present social conditions as affected by the special industries of particular 
sections, it is possible, by completely interdicting inter-island commerce, to reduce to 
great individual suffering the mass of the inhabitants, as well as to seriously impair the 
large European or foreign business capital which has been invested here for commercial 
purposes. As has been stated, the surrender of Manila threw into the possession of the 
United States for control, not only the municipal affairs of the city, but the commerce, 
the shipping, and a large share of the trade revenues of the Philippines, with power to 
modify at its pleasure the regulations by which that trade has been conducted. The 
orders of the President wisely directed in efitect a continuance of late prevailing customs 
duties, with very slight modifications, and the. public interests demand that relief 
should be extended to the people of the islands through the resumption of trade. These 
modifications, however, slight as they were and unavoidable under the circumstances, 
were the sources of grievances on the part of individual merchants, which they pre- 
sented through the consuls of their governments or in person. The least change in the 
former tariff schedule affected those who were stocked or those who wished to import 
merchandise, and gave competitors unfair advantages. Many had bought goods in 
Spain at high market rates for the purpose of securing the Spanish trade privileges on 
home products, and were unable to have delivery made in Manila on account of the 
war. They therefore asked to have the Spanish trade privileges extended to these 
special goods to avoid the great pecuniary loss which they must otherwise suffer. 
Repeated requests of this character occasioned a great deal of correspondence, and the 
concession of September 29th was thereupon granted, which was to the effect that all 
such goods as might be entered prior to November 10th, the date upon which the 
amended tariff regulations were to go into effect, might, upon due proof of facts, be 
admitted under the old Spanish customs rules. Even this concession did not meet the 
merchants' demands, and they contended for a longer time in which to present their 
goods, but had to be denied after fruitless argument by both parties in interest. 

The United States had not only assumed charge of the customs regulations of the 
islands, but also of all fiscal matters. General Greene, and subsequently General Whit- 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 421 

tier, was appointed to the position of intendente general de hacienda, which was really 
the office of the colonial minister of finance, and although their duties were limited in 
orders to "the supervision of tlie fiscal affairs of the government of Manila," they were 
obliged to consider those of a general character quite extensively, such as importation 
and internal revenue. The colonial treasury has been surrendered, and its administra- 
tion involved questions of local and general import. The funds of both the city, the 
island, the peninsular government, the money deposits of private individuals guaran- 
teeing faithful performance of local and other contracts were merged beyond possibility 
of segregation. The laws, however, could not be considered to impose obligations upon 
any of the inhabitants of the islands living outside of territory in the rightful possession 
of the United States, however they might he applied to residents of Manila, There was 
a dual occupation of this office of intendente general, as Spanish officials still considered 
those fiscal matters which related to the business of the islands in which Manila was not 
concerned. To avoid unnecessary complications and also to simplify administration, 
the office was placed in temporary suspension and all fiscal matters supervised from the 
office of the military governor. The bureau of internal revenue, like the customs, as 
soon as taken possession of by the United States officers, presented perplexing questions. 
The sources of revenue and the proper administration of funds depended upon numer- 
ous Spanish decrees extending over a long period of years. It received moneys which 
belonged to the funds of the city, executed the stamp laws, the industrial tax regula- 
tions, and looked after the issuing of personal cedulas to the inhabitants of the islands, 
etc. As soon as the office was established the residents of the city began to tender the 
periodical payments. The question as to what character of taxes should be collected by 
the United States came up for consideration. Back taxes were paid in and refundnaents 
or credits on prior payments requested. In answer to questions subnaitted by the col- 
lector of internal revenue, the following specific instructions were given and show the 

nature of difficulties presented : 

Office of MiiiiTABY Secretakt, 

Manila, P. J., September 15, 1898. 
Maj. R. B. C. Bement, U. S. V., 

Collector of Internal Revenue, Manila, P. I. 

Sib : I am directed by the military governor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of September 14th, with inclosed exhibit of cash received by you since the 26th ultimo. 
He directs me to say, in answer to your question as to whether you shall receive the 
railroad tax or not, that he is not convinced that the United States Government has the 
right to collect it. It was a tax imposed by the general Spanish Philippine Government 
for services performed in the island of Luzon. 

The United Siates have rightful occupation of the city of Manila and its defenses 
only. Under the prevailing armistice they have no right to impose taxes for services 
performed in any other part of the world. This tax, being a provincial or colonial tax, 
makes it doubtful if it comes within the taxes which can be paid to the present author- 
ities of the city of Manila. The Spanish governor stationed at Iloilo, who has jurisdic- 
tion over all portions of the Philippine Islands not in the actual rightful possession of 
the United States, might be able to raise a good legal point should we accept this rail- 
road tax. Further consideration will be given to the question. 

The nciilitary governor directs me further to say that as regards our right to issue the 
old personal cedula he is also in doubt, as he is not aware what privileges it conferred 
upon the person to whom it was granted ; that he has been told that it was in the nature 
of a passport, permitting the holder to journey in all portions of the islands. Such 
authority the United States can not give, so that any cedula issued by us would not be 
of value to the party to whom issued. It would merely be evidence of personal identifi- 
cation, giving the right to remain in and travel about the city of Manila or through the 
territory over which the United States holds sway. If he is incorrect in his impressions 
please inform him. 

For these and other reasons (one of which is the dislike exhibited by the inhabitants 
to the cedula tax) he has not thought it consistent with good policy to issue the cedula 
Very respectfully, 

Henry C. Cabbli., 

Military Secretary. 

Office of the Military Secretary, 

Manila, P. I., September 21, 1898. 
Maj. R. B. C. Bement, U. S. V., 

Collector of Customs and Internal Revenue, Manila, P. I. 
Sib : I am directed to acknowledge the I'eceipt of your communication of the 19th 
instant with inclosures (the inclosures I herewith return), and to state in reply that the 
only policy which can be pursued under the present American administration of this city 



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422 OKEGON VOLUNTEEKS IN SPANISH WAR. 

is to refuse to consider all claims wbich wei-e pending, treating them as claims against the 
Snanish Government, in which we are not interested. As a consequence of this policy 
we must to be consistent, ignore all debts due to the Spanish Government prior to 
occupancy whether in the nature of taxes or otherwiwse. We retain all moneys and 
secunties found in the Spanish treasury at the inception of occupation as the property 
of the pubUc enemv, and do not acknowledge the validity of any liens which the former 
subiects of Spain (whose present status is that of Spanish citizens with citizenship held 
in abeyance) mav submit for requested adjustment. In pursuance of that poUcy the 
answer to the first question submitted by you must be, "Yes ; only received taxes which 
have accrued since August 13th." ^ ^ ,x ^- *i *• ^ ^v. 

The answer to the second question is, '^Yes; refund taxes tor the portion of the quar- 
ters prior to August 13th, and retain taxes which have accrued since that date." 

To the third question the answer is, "No." Parties who have paid taxes to the Span- 
ish Government may possibly have a claim against the Spanish Government, but cer- 
tainlv not against the United States Government. Money in the treasury at the time it 
was surrendered to the United States is public money and can not be returned in hqui- 
dation of Spanish indebtedness, whatever the nature of that indebtedness. 

You will not make any refundments in any instance except from money actually 
j'giggjYed by yon. 

To the fourth question the answer is contained in answers already made. 

The fifth query is met in the second answer. „ , , ^ . ^ 

To be plain the collector of internal revenue should refund only from money received 
by him. Money covered into the Spanish treasury by Spanish officials, for whatever 
purpose or from whatever source, must remain there. 

By command of Major General Otis. Henby C. Cabem., 

Military Secretary, 

Inquiries were being continually presented from this department of public affairs, 
which necessitated the labor of discovering and translating a great many Spanish 
decrees by which the department was affected. The question of issuing the cedula, from 
which an annual revenue of $4,000,000 had been received, and which was one of the chief 
grievances presented by the Filipinos against the Spanish Government because of its 
cost, was long considered, and was finally requested by the inhabitants, as it furbished 
the simplest means of personal identification, provided it could be given for a money 
consideration not burdensome. It was therefore issued to applicants, numbering over 
sixty thousand, at a rate sufficient to pay all expenses connected with the issuing of the 
same. It was eagerly sought by the people and was a source of great satisfaction. This 
department, too, was so closely connected with the administration of strictly municipal 
affairs (since it Collected a considerable share of the city revenue) as to present compli- 
cations. The city revenue came from more than twenty different sources, including 
urban taxes collected at the office of internal revenue, ten per cent of the amounts col- 
lected for port, harbor, and light dues, etc. 

Until 1894 the municipality, strictly speaking, consisted of the walled town, and was 
then extended to embrace the adjacent surrounding villages, such as Ermita, Malate, 
Binondo, and others, which had previously been granted a certain abridged independent 
control of its public affairs. The royal decree of January, 1894, under which this change 
was brought about, pretended to recognize to a certain extent the clannish or tribal, or 
rather family, hereditary customs which enter into the public affairs of all Filipino 
village communities, but had little weight in the formation of the new government. 
The entire city was divided into eleven districts, and a considerable number of the city 
oflacers were made elective under stringent ballot regulations. 

The Governor General, however, appointed to the most responsible positions, and 
had the power of absolute veto on all actions of the municipal council, so that in fact 
the city continued to be, as formerly, under quasi-military administration. Should the 
prescribed sources of revenue fail to furnish the necessary public funds, the council 
might seek others from which to draw, and upon approval of its recommendations by 
the Governor General that certain new features of taxation be introduced, they w^ere at 
once applied. A reestablishment of this so-called city government by the United States 
was an impossibility, even if the spirit of the inhabitants had made it prudent. There- 
fore complete control of not only the police of the city, but of all its municipal affairs 
was intrusted to the provost marshal general. He was directed to deposit in the general 
treasury, as was also the officer of internal revenue, all funds received from any source 
whatsoever, and to draw on the public treasury for moneys to cover the necessary city 
expenditures. The accompanying reports of the provost marshal general and the 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 423 

collector of internal revenue explain the constitution and workings of these respective 
departments. 

The subject of Chinese inimigration had to be considered very soon after occupation. 
Many of this class of inhabitants had retired to China during the three years of political 
agitation which had preceded the surrender of Manila. Now, when the United States 
took possession and a more stable government was predicted, they sought to return. 
Large numbers, too, who had never resided in the Philippines endeavored to enter, in 
order to take advantage of the reviving trade facilities anticipated. Notwithstanding 
the many thousands who had permanently settled in the islands, who, as residents, 
were conducting large business enterprises, a great share of the retail trade in the 
larger cities, the minor exchanges in merchandise carried on between the outlying 
towns and villages, and who were extensively employed to perform the more arduous 
and exhausting kinds of manual labor; notwithstanding the very marked strain of 
Chinese blood noticeable in a fair proportion of the native inhabitants, showing con- 
siderable consanguineous relationships, the old hereditary race prejudice was still active 
and continually manifested itself in illegal and oftentimes bloody demonstrations. 

The Filipino is by nature an agriculturist ; the Chinaman a trader not burdened by a 
troublesome conscience when seeking the profits of traffic. The former is more or less 
indolent in normal conditions. The latter is ever on the alert for individual pecuniary 
gain, is more than a match for the Filipino when any business relationship is estab- 
lished betv/een them and is apt to pay for the advantages he acquires by subsequent 
robbery and oftentimes murder. Pursuing his avocation through the country as an 
insignificant trader carrying his pack of goods, he is considered by the more unruly 
classes of Filipinos of a desirable object for sequestration and often disappears forever 
by some means unknown to relatives and friends. Still, he persistently confronts all 
these personal dangers, obedient to his mastering desire to acquire money. Under 
Spanish rule the Chinese residents controlled the opium trade, secured the greater share 
of the profits from legalized gambling which was extensively prosecuted throughout the 
islands, were the winners in lawful raffling, and were close seconds to the Filipinos in 
the business enterprises attending the licensed occupation of cockfighting. 

Not only was this active race enmity and the unfortunate existing conditions which 
were more or less in consequences giving trouble, but the Chinamen themselves were 
divided into warring factions. By the larger faction the acting Chinese consul was 
accused of taking advantage of his consular powers by exacting payments of money for 
his individual profit. The consul thereupon asked permission to discipline his refrac- 
tory countrymen and to deport in his discretion those whom he miight discover to 
belong to the criminal classes. 

After due consideration of the perplexing questions which presented themselves upon 
the opening of the port of Manila in this matter of Chinese immigration, the conclusion 
was reached that the application of the United States statutes controlling such immi- 
gration to United States territory furnished the best solution, and therefore within the 
month succeeding our occupation the following instructions were issued : 

The laws of the United States, which prohibit the entrance of Chinese, will be enforced 
here. 

The exceptions are : 

Chinese laborers, skilled or unskilled, formerly resident in Manila and temporarily 
absent therefrom, will be allowed to return upon proper proof of such previous resi- 
dence, which may be made by presentation of a Spanish cedula or certificate of the 
American consul, of the port from which the returning Chinese have sailed. 

The closest scrutiny of such cedulas and certificates is enjoined, and in doubtful cases 
the collector of this port will require them to be supported by additional proof, and no 
Chinaman, of whatever nationality, will be permitted by him to land except upon con- 
clusive proof of previous residence. 

There will be exempted from the above restrictions the parties named in article 3 of 
the convention between the United States of America and the Empire of China, pub- 
lished in supplement to the Revised Statutes of the United States, volume 2, pages 153-7, 
to wit: Chinese officials, teachers, students, merchants, or travelers for curiosity or 
pleasure. The coming of those classes of Chinese will be permitted upon the production 
of a certificate from their Government or the government where they last resided, visaed 
by the diplomatic or consular representative of the United States in the country or port 
whence they depart, supplemented by such further proof as is required in section 6 of 
an act of Congress, approved July 5, 1884. 



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424 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

All Chinese entering this port shall register at the office of the Chinese consul or 
consular agent. 

It is also directed that the following regulations shall govern the return to this port 
of Chinese laborers, skilled or unskilled, residents of Manila, who leave this port after 
this date. 

Every such Chinese laborer will, before his departure from this port, report to the 
collector of customs or his deputy, who will enter in a registry, to be kept for that 
purpose, the name of such laborer, his age, occupation, physical marks or peculiarities, 
and such other facts as may be deemed necessary for the purpose of identification. 

Said collector or his deputy will furnish to every such departing Chinese laborer a 
certificate to be signed by said collector or his deputy, which certificate shall wset forth 
all the facts shown by the registry book above mentioned, corresponding with said 
registry in all particulars. 

The certificate herein provided for shall entitle such Chinese laborer to whom the 
same is issued to return and reenter this port upon producing and delivering the same 
to the collector of customs of said port, and said certificate shall be the only evidence 
permissible to establish his right to reentry, but said certificate may be controverted 
And the facts therein disproved by the United States authorities. Upon delivering such 
certificate by such Chinese laborer to the collector of customs at the time of reentry into 
this i>ort said collector shall cause the same to be filed in the customhouse and duly 
canceled. 

These instructions are still practiced substantially — the only modifications made 
consisting in methods of application — and the orders which have been issued by the 
War Department since their date have confirmed thein. The action taken by the 
United States and Chinese governments in changing the consular representative of the 
latter has resulted in quieting very materially the complaints of the resident Chinese 
against each other, although an occasional one is submitted. The conditions of these 
residents and their evident interest in a stable government to enable them to practice 
their natural trading propensities, also the utter absence of any patriotic sentiment by 
Which they could possibly be animated, renders the conduct of many of them anoma- 
lous. Within our military lines they are ardent friends of the Americans, and, beyond, 
a good many are apparently active insurgents. They fill subordinate positions in the 
insurgent army, and one of the ablest insurgent general oflacers is a Chinaman, but his 
chief occupation appears to be to look carefully after the finances within the territory 
of his sphere of action. They have performed a great deal of the vast amount of 
manual labor expended in the construction of the insurgent intrenchments which are 
encountered by our army wherever it is called upon to operate, but under impressment, 
doubtless, as they seize every ox)portunity to escape insurgent domination, provided 
they are not restrained by their individual property interests. 

Allusion is made in a former portion of this report to the difficulties encountered in 
reestablishing satisfactory civil tribunals. It is there asserted that "the civil court 
justices vacated their positions and gradually sailed for Spain without giving notice of 
their intention to depart." Before this happened there had been a few interesting inci- 
dents connected with the opening of the courts by the Spanish j udges without previous 
consultation with the military authorities, which excited the inhabitants of the city, 
who submitted strong protests. The provost marshal general therefore was directed to 
close the minor civil tribunals and the court of the first instance — a court with j urisdic- 
tion coextensive with the territorial limits of a province. There was also in session the 
court of the a.udiencia, or the supreme court of the islands, having appellate jurisdic- 
tion exclusively. The chief justice, whose court was empowered by Spanish decree to 
sit in the city of Manila only, claimed the right to hold court and to at least administer 
upon cases aflTecting inhabitants not resident in the city, independent of United States 
authority, and also argued its right to determine cases, both civil and criminal, which 
were pending on appeal prior to United States occupation. In submitting his request 
or demand, he asked for a personal interview, and the following reply was returned : 

Office of the Military Goveenojr, 

Manila y P. I., September ^5, 1898. 
Hon. Sbkvando P. Victoria, 

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines. 
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 21st 
instant, a translation of which is now before me. Replying thereto, 1 beg to inform 
your honor that so much of your communication as is devoted to the discussion of the 
question of continuance under military government, such as has been established in the 
city of Manila by the United States, of the local courts of the country alnd of the civil 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 425 

laws (municipal), has received the consideration which its importance merits, and to 
say further that the views expressed by you in the main have my concurrence. 

*But while it is true, as pointed out by your honor, that under the conditions noted 
the generally accepted rule under international law is that all civil law continues to 
take'its usual course in places and territory under military government, and is usually 
administered by the ordinary tribunals substantiallj^ as before the establishment of the 
military government ; it is likewise true, and I am sure will be admitted by your honor, 
that these laws continue in force and the local courts continue in the exercise of their 
jurisdiction only with the sanction of the occupying belligerent, which may, for cause 
deemed sufficient by it, suspend the same or wholly supersede them. Upon the estab- 
lishment of military government at this place, it was decreed by my predecessor that 
"municipal laws (the term 'municipal laws' being used in its broader sense and in con- 
tradistinction to the term 'international law'), such as affect private rights of persons 
and property, regulate local institutions, and provide for the punishment of crime, shall 
be considered as continuing in force so far as compatible with the purposes of military 
government, and that they be administered through the ordinary tribunals substan- 
tially as before occupation, but by officers appointed by the government of occupation." 
(See paragraph 3 of proclamation, dated August 14, 1898.) 

The effect of this provision was to suspend operation of your court, and other courts 
of subordinate jurisdiction sitting at Manila, until reorganized in accordance with its 
requirements, and it is not understood how this unequivocal language could be mis- 
understood. 

I am informed that the provisions of the proclamation above quoted was inserted 
after mature deliberation, and that there was understood to exist a necessity for the 
restriction placed upon the exercise of jurisdiction by your honor's court, and by the 
subordinate courts heretofore referred to, in the then condition of the public mind 
toward these tribunals. 

Whether it is now necessary to continue the restrictions heretofore placed upon the 
operations of the courts named is a question which I have at present under consid- 
eration. The assurance contained in your letter to the effect that the supreme court 
presided over by you and the subordinate courts "considered themselves obliged to 
cooperate with their continual functions to the better realization of a service which the 
army of occupation of your excellency's command took charge of," is a most important 
consideration in relieving me of such doubts as have arisen. I am very desirous that 
the judiciary shall resume its custonriary jurisdiction, provided that adequate assurance 
can be had that the exercise of such jurisdiction shall not in any way tend to defeat or 
obstruct the operations of the established government and will not result in a wide- 
spread discontent and dissatisfaction among the great majority of the people subject to 
the military government, thereby creating greater difficulties and hardships than those 
pointed out in your communication, and which it is your desire as well as my own to 
mitigate. 

I beg to assure you that the questions raised by you shall have my earnest attention, 
and to the end that a complete understanding may be brought about and the purpose 
we both have in view may be advanced as rapidly as possible. I shall be pleased to 
appoint an interview with you in my office when informed of the time that will be most 
convenient for your honor to respond to such an invitation. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, E. S. Otis, 

Major General^ U. S. V., Military Governor. 

Several conferences followed ; also interviews with leading Filipino lawyers, and the 
result was the order of October 7th, set out in a former portion of this report, by which 
the courts were permitted to resume the exercise of all civil jurisdiction conferred by 
Spanish laws, but not criminal jurisdiction of any nature. The permitted use of these 
abridged functions was not satisfactory to the Spanish judges, and their courts were 
gradually closed, depriving citizens of temporary legal process in their business trans- 
actions, which in a few instances was desired, except in so far as they obtained remedy 
through the military governor's office. 

All citizens charged with crimes and misdemeanors were in the mean time brought 
before military commissions and provost courts, which were occasionally instructed, in 
order that they might meet varying conditions as occasion demanded. These military 
tribunals have worked very satisfactorily and have been acceptable to the inhabitants 
because of conceded just administration and celerity of action. Even now since the 
reestablishment of the civil courts they transact a large amount of business, as civil 
jurisdiction does " not extend to and include crimes and offenses committed by citizens 
of or persons sojourning within the Philippine Islands, which are prejudicial to mili- 
tary administration and discipline, except by authority specially conferred by the mili- 
tary governor." 

The surrendered Spanish treasury, in which the deposit safes and vaults had been 
carefully examined and contents correctly inventoried by a board of officers appointed 
for that purpose, the members of which returned thereto all former contents and 
securely sealed the sanae to await the determination of the question of rightful pos- 
session of contents, gave a good deal of annoyance on account of the numerous applica- 



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426 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

tiOns of private individuals for the return to them of money, bonds, or other securities 
which they had deposited voluntarily as investments or in exf^hange for Spanish bonds 
never received, or to guarantee the specific performance of contracts which they had 
entered into with the city and provisional governments. The treasurj^ books showed 
many special individual deposits in money and many special deposits of bonds, some 
of which were properly designated when placed in the Spanish vaults, so that owner- 
ship could be readily determined. The money which individuals claimed that they had 
deposited, if received and retained, had been merged into the general fuhd, and together 
with the claimed bonds would have exceeded in amount probably all the money and 
paper securities which the treasury contained. The correspendence between these indi- 
viduals and the military authorities was volaminous. The conclusions reached are 
shown in the following communications : 

Office Unitej) States Mtt.ttaky Governor 
IN THE Philippine Islands, 

Manila, JP, I., October 6, 1898, 

Mr. JOSE'DE GtTRENA, 

Attorney for Dr, Francisco Sainz, Manila, P. I. 

Sir : The military governor directs me to acknowledge the receipt of your communi- 
cation of a few days since (which is apparently without date), in which you request the 
return to your client of certain moneys deposited by him in the Spanish treasury at 
Manila, etc., which were to be held in trust by the Spanish Governmenx as security for 
the specific performance of certain contracts which he had entered into with the govern- 
ment of that country. 

In reply, I am directed to return the copies of contracts submitted by you, and to 
state that your client appears to have a claim against the Spanish Government for 
moneys deposited, but none against the Government of the United States. 

All funds which came into the possession of the United States upon the surrender of 
the city of Manila and its defenses on August 18th last, were surrendered as public funds, 
and were turned over to the United States under articles of capitulation requiring that 
"all funds in the Spanish treasury and all nublic funds shall be turned over to the 
authorities of the United States." As you are" evidently aware, there is no requirement 
of international law to the efl'ect that funds, the title to which is vested in the United 
States by capture, shall be distributed among such persons as have pecuniary claims 
against the country from which the funds w^ere captured. The contracts made by and 
between your client and the Spanish Government evidently rest in suspension by reason 
of "the s^Gt of the public enemy," and may be revived in full force upon the cessation of 
United States military occupation and return of the territory occupied to Spain. The 
military government holds as a legal proposition that a Spanish subject (with citizen- 
ship in temporary abeyance) can not have, either in equity or law, a lien uponmoneys 
surrendered by the Spanish Government as its public funds. They came into the pos- 
session of the United States wholly unincumbered and title passed to my government 
with possession. 

Very respectfully, Henry C. Cabell, Military Secretary. 



Office United States Military Governor 

IN THE Philippine Islands, 

Manila, P. I., September 19, 1899. 
Messrs. R. Aenlle & Co., 

fji Magallanes Street, Manila. 

Gentlemen : In reply to your communication of the 9th instant, the military gov- 
ernor directs me to state that investigation shows that the bonds you mention in the 
communication are in the possession of the present custodian of the Spanish public 
funds, and that they can not be delivered at the present time for the following reasons, 
viz : 

That they concern a contract entered into by Spanish authorities and a subject of 
Spain ; that all obligations of such a nature, and all rights under them, are suspended 
during the existence of war between the dominion of wSpain and the United States Gov- 
ernment, and remain in suspension until the final declaration of peace between those 
two countries. 

That the military government of the United States established in Manila is not under 
any obligation to recognize in any way formerly existing regulations between Spain and 
its subjects, whether arising under contract or otherwise. 

That it is not the duty of that government, and it might be said its right, to attempt 
to adjust claims of such a character. They remain in abeyance, and are revived upon 
the declaration of peace. 

Very respectfully, yours, Henry C. Cabell, Military Secretary. 

In answer to individual requests for the return of voluntary bond deposits, which 
could be identified and ownership established by marks and designations accompany- 
ing these special deposits, applicants were informed that they must await the unsealing 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 427 

of the safes, which could not be done until some settlement of American and Spanish 
interests should be arrived at. The result has been that the money deposits merged into 
the general fund have not been recognized as creating any obligation against the United 
States Government, which received this entire fund as the public money of Spain ; that 
the recognized special deposits have been returned to the individual owners, under the 
supervision of the United States and Spanish boards of liquidation, which were ap- 
pointed several months since to settle the respective interests of those governments 
under the provisions of the late Paris treaty. 

There was another class of cases which for a brief period constantly obtruded them- 
selves and which involved long-continued study and careful consideration. They arose 
upon the applications of individuals for the return to them of their estates embargoed 
by the Spanish authorities during the recent rebellion. The estates of many Filipinos 
who were charged with treason were taken possession of and administered upon by 
Spanish ofRcials, After the United States had taken Manila, present and returning res- 
idents who had suffered from this cause sought the restoration of their properties. The 
case of the Cortez Filipino family, which had taken refuge in Hongkong, was pushed 
for determination before the Manila military authorities with all the vigor of demon- 
stration of which the members of that family and the United States consuls at Hong- 
kong and Manila were capable. These embargoes affected individual real properties, a 
portion of which might be situated in the city, a part in some other locality under 
Spanish domination, and such was the condition of the Cortez estate. A conclusion 
was finally reached on the facts presented and rendered in the following expressed 
opinion, of date of November 25th : 

That the present United States military occupation of a portion of the Philippine 
Islands, under and by virtue of the armistice existing between the Governments of the 
United States and Spain, is of a temporary character and does not place upon the 
former any obligations to redress or even inquire into alleged grievances imposed by 
the latter while dominant here upon its subjects, especially if such allegations are sub- 
mitted by those subjects and concern only their individual property rights; that the 
United States, under its temporary occupancy and the conditions which prevail, would 
not be justified in setting aside the laws of Spain and the decisions of its courts when 
individual property rights are alone concerned, not even in matters arising under 
its war decrees promulgated for the correction, or the punishment it may be, of its 
refractory subjects participating in a formidable rebellion with intention to destroy its 
sovereign yjower ; that the relief asked for by the petitioners is civil in its nature and 
should be sought in the civil courts of the conquered, which have been continued and 
are permitted to exercise their formerly conferred civil jurisdiction in all matters not 
involving arrests of persons and criminal prosecution, and therefore the case does not 
concern the military administration, specially constituted for other purposes ; that the 
case involves a question of United States revenue, since the petitioners demand a return 
to them as Spanish subjects of the public property of Spain as declared by Its authori- 
ties to which the United States has succeeded and which it has the legal right to receive 
and enjoy, for I ascertain by reference to the Spanish military code that the effect of the 
declared embargo of the property of the petitioners and the proceedings taken under it 
was to vest the uses and profits of the embargoed estates in the Spanish Government 
while the embargo continued — title to the same remaining in the individual owners 
from which possession was taken. 

The active continuance of the embargo was made to depend upon pardon or the 
result of a trial by the Spanish courts upon the charge of treason, rebellion, or sedition, 
confiscation attending conviction and sentence and restoration following acquittal. 
During the existence of the embargo the real property affected was apparently held in 
trust by the Spanish Government for its sole use and benefit, with remainder vested in 
parties formerly holding the unqualified fee, and dependent upon a contingency involv- 
ing due conviction of the crime of disloyality to that government. These conclusions 
are supported by exj)lanatory provisions contained in a decree issued by the governor 
general on January 19, 1897, wherein it was declared that in the case "of an absent cul- 
prit presenting himself and being acquitted by the court, he will only have a right to 
claim a return of ihe property not alienated and to the rents and profits which have 
not been applied." Finally, it is concluded that the United States Government during 
its occupancy under its truce with Spain, which provides only for a temporary cessa- 
tion of hostilities, would be recreant to its trust should it knowingly divert, without 
just cause arising under the laws of war, properties the uses of which would again inure 
to the dominion of Spain upon a return of Spanish sovereignty. Declared permanent 
possession by the United States would modify conditions and present the entire ques- 
tion in a different aspect, for then the rights of all concerned, whether dependent upon 
treaty obligations or otherwise, would be defined* or become easy of interpretation. 

It was therefore ordered that the provost marshal general seize all funds of the Cortez 
estate on deposit in the local banks, take forcible possession of all the real properties 
belonging to that estate which were situated in the city of Manila, and administer the 



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428 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

same for the use and benefit of the United States GoYernment. These conclusions 
arrived at, which were fully justified by the facts, enabled the United States authori- 
ties to take legal possession, temporarily at least, of not only the realty but also the 
personalty of the estate which Spain held, and which belonged to the public properties 
she had promised to surrender under the articles of capitulation. The provost marshal 
general took possession of the estate as directed, accounted for the proceeds received 
while he held possession, and finallj^, under the instructions of the War Department, 
turned estate, with all proceeds, oyer to the owners. Tliis case served as a precedent for 
future proceedings upon questions of embargo, although in cases of minor importance 
embargoed property was at once turned over to the claimant upon due proof of right to 
receive it. 

Until October Hth the United States troops in the Philippines remained stationed at 
Manila and Cavite, as provided in General Merritt's orders of August 23d, with very 
slight exceptions, Major Generar Anderson retaining supervision of the district of 
Cavite and Major General Mac Arthur of the troops stationed in Manila, the three organ- 
izations composing the provost guard continuing, however, under the control of Briga- 
dier General Hughes. 

They were most bountifully supplied with subsistence and medicines, but light cloth- 
ing suited to the climate and facilities necessary for occupying and messing in barracks 
were needed. These were soon obtained through contract and purchase from the mer- 
chants of Hongkong and Manila and by shipment from the United States- The troops 
received tactical instructions daily, but the weather was too hot for much physical exer- 
tion, and time hung heavily upon them. Th€;y entertained the impression that the 
Spanish war had terminated, and the volunteers appeared to believe that they should be 
recalled to the United States at once and regular troops sent out to perform the monot- 
onous garrison duties which were about to follow the victory of Manila. Many became 
ill from too free indulgence in the fruits and manufactured drinks of the country, and 
indifference to that care and attention of person which a tropical climate makes neces- 
sary. Homesickness alone produced illness in numerous cases, so that early in Septem- 
ber the hospitals began to be rapidly filled. This led to the adoption of judicious pre- 
cautionary measures. Aguinaldo was faithfully executing his agreement made with 
General Merritt with regard to water privileges and the city water works, which was to 
permit us to use the pumping station situated eight miles from the walled city, provided 
we would pay the men of his selection for running it and defray all the necessary expend- 
itures. This we were faithfully doing, but the secured >vas not of desired quality and 
boiling and distilling were resorted to. Circular instructions prepared by the Medical 
Department, warning men of the results of inj udicious action, were issued from head- 
quarters, and all sanitary measures possible were adopted. 

The sick rate, however, increased. On September 4th one hundred and thirteen sick 
soldiers were shipped to the United States, as their restoration to health In this climate 
was extremely improbable, and more followed. The per cent of sickness to numerical 
strength in some organizations rose to twenty, and in two or three organizations to 
thirty, while in others it did not exceed six or eight, although the latter were no better 
housed nor provided for than the former, but the men of the latter were, without doubt, 
better supervised and watched over by their officers and were measurably contented 
with conditions. As long as the practice of sending sick men home continued there was 
no improvement in the sick rate, but as soon as the convalescent hospital was estab- 
lished on Corregidor Island (an island at the entrance of Manila Bay) and the sick sent 
there for treatment a marked change for the better was apparent. In November 
improvement was noticeable, and in January the health of this army would compare 
favorably with those of any concentrated army of like proportions in existence. To be 
sure the men had become by this time, fairly acclimatized, and new troops arriving here 
will be obliged 16 pass through this period of acclimatization before they become 
properly eflEicient for prolonged service in the field. 

During my first weeks of diity here I was impressed with the spirit of suspicion and 
the partially concealed unfriendly feeling manifested by the Tagalos toward the Ameri- 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 429 

can forces. That they either had very little confidence in our promises or were then 
forming conclusions to oppose any establishment of United States authority in Luzon 
was apparent, however loudly they might disclaim hostile intent or declare as an excuse 
for their attitude fear of the return of Spain. I saw, however, with satisfaction, their 
ablest men by education and mental equipment taking part in their authorative delib- 
erations, and I had considerable confidence in the efficacy of their suggestions and 
advice. Still, after carefully weighing conditions, I was unable to arrive at any satis- 
factory conclusions. To a cable received on September 16th, I replied on the next day 
as follows : 

Adjutant Generate Army, Washington . ■ 

Referring to telegram yesterday, now tliink prudence dictates increased force — this 
after deliberation on situation appearing to-day and possible developments. Force suf- 
ficient for present purposes, but contingencies may arise difficult to meet. Parties 
ploting constantly to convey erroneous impressions and excite insurgents. Demands 
of city government and sick list draw heavily on armed organizations. An additional 
5,000 men could be used to supply losses and give greater confidence. Battalions of 
Eighteenth and Twenty-third Infantry, still at San Francisco, should join at once. 

Measures were being applied constantly to improve the sanitary condition of the 
city, to increase the efficiency of the troops, and to meet any emergency which might 
develop from an uprising of the inhabitants, or from hasty action by any portion of our 
or the insurgent forces, which, though maintaining amicable intercourse, were, in fact, 
in an attitude of resistance and hostility upon all questions involving the right of 
armed occupation of the suburbs and defenses of Manila. The insurgent soldiers had 
looted extensively the portions of the city to which they gained access, and were greatly 
disappointed that this privilege over other parts of the same was not accorded them. 
Their enforced withdrawal to outer lines was the cause of discontent, and augmented 
any desire which they may have formerly entertained to resist or attack the American 
troops. This growing discontent was observable among the lower classes of the city's 
inhabitants, from whom a considerable share of Aguinaldo's army was drawn, and 
was undoubtedly increased by the reprehensible conduct and illegal actions of some of 
our own men, who were severely punished for their misdeeds when detected. Out- 
wardly, however, relations of the most friendly character were maintained. The officers 
and enlisted men of the two armies mingled in friendly social intercourse. To the 
casual observer the only discordant element in the dense complex population, made up 
of every nation and tongue in existence, were the hated Spanish prisoners, whom the 
Filipinos still longed to persecute and kill, and who were obliged to keep within the 
walls of Old Manila for safety. 

Repeated conferences were held with influential insurgents, whose chief aim appeared 
to be to obtain some authoritative expression on the intent of the United States with 
regard to the Philippines, and complained that they were unable to discover any one 
who could speak ex cathedra. They asserted that their Malolos arrangement was a 
government de facto, which had the right to ask an expression of intent from the United 
States Government. 

To increase and better organize the force in Manilf), the following orders were issued 
on October 14th : 

The troops comprising this command, with the exception of the Twenty-third U. S. 
Infantry, Thirteenth Minnesota, and Second Oregon Regiments of volunteer infantry, 
which will continue to constitute the guard and police force of the provost marshal 
general of the city, the Eighteenth U. S. Infantry, and the detachment of California 
Volunteer Heavy Artillery, which will compose the permanent garrison of Cavite, are 
organized into two divisions, designated as First and Second Divisions of the Eighth 
Army Corps, each to consist of two brigades. 

The following designated troops now quartered and to be quartered in the city south 
of the Pasig River, will form the First Division : 

Six troops of the Fourth U. S. Cavalry. 

Light Batteries D and G, Sixth U. S. Artillery. 

The Astor Battery, 

Fourteenth U. S. Infantry. 

First California Volunteer Infantry. 

First Idaho Volunteer Infantry. 

First North Dakota Volunteer Infantry. 

Battalion First Wyoming Volunteer Infantry. 



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430 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

The following organizations north of the Pasig River will compose the Second 
Division: 

Company A, Battalion of Engineers. 

Four batteries Third tJ, S. Artillery. 

Batteries A and B, Utah Volunteer Light Artillery. 

First Colorado Volunteer Infantry. 

First Montana Volunteer Infantry. 

First Nebraska Volunteer Infantry. 

Tenth Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. 

First South Dakota Volunteer Infantry. 
Troops expected to arrive from San Francisco soon will be assigned to these divisions 
when numerical strength and facilities for quartering will be considered. 

For the purpose of enforcing discipline through general courtrmartial proceedings, 
together with appropriate action to be taken to that end, the First and Eighteenth 
companies, Volunteer Signal Corps, are attached to the First, and the Hospital Corps, 
U. S. A., to the Second Division. 

Maj. Gen. T. M. Anderson, U. S. V., is assigned to the command of the First Division, 
and Maj. Gen. Arthur Mac Arthur, U. S. V., to the command of the Second. They will 
submit as soon as practicable the proposed organization of brigades of their commands. 
Brig. Gen. Charles King and SamuelOvenshine, U. S. A., are assigned for duty with 
the First Division, and Brig. Gen. H. G. Otis and Irving Hale, IT. S. V., to the Second 
Division. They will report in person to the commanding generals of their respective 
divisions fOr assignment to brigade commands (General King, expected to arrive soon, 
so reporting upon arrival). 

Officers now serving on the staffs of general officers under proper orders will continue 
on such service. The chief quartermaster and chief commissary of the command will 
nominate officers of their respective departments for assignment as division and brigade 
quartermasters and commissaries, being mindful of assignhients in those capacities 
w^hich have already been made. The chief surgeon of the coinmand will nominate offi- 
cers of the Medical Department for assignment as chief surgeons of divisions. 

The organized divisions had little exacting duty to perform, as the provost marshal 
general with his guard of three regiments was held responsible for the preservation of 
order within the more thickly populated portions of the city. Division commanders 
looked carefully after the health, practical instruction and personal conduct of their 
men, prescribed drills and practiced ceremonies, and watched by means of small out- 
posts the armed insurgents to the number of six or eight thousand, who maintained a 
warlike attitude on the outer lines. The Army Regulations, appropriate to peace condi- 
tions, were enforced in matters of examinations, courts, boards, returns, reports, and 
correspondence. Barracks, quarters, messing facilities, and sanitary surroundings w^ere 
improved, and in so far as strictly military operations were concerned the passing period 
was devoid of excitement or apparent importance. In answer to request to make a 
statement in regard to the welfare of the troops, I remarked, on November 19th, that 
since August none had arrived except absent members of and recruits for organizations 
which had preceded them ; that the fifth expedition left San Francisco between the 19th 
of October and the 8th of November and its advance was expected daily, and continued 
as follows: 

The medical department of the corps has always been well supplied with medical 
stores. There has been a shortage of medical officers which has been fairly well met 
through contract physicians. Now we are abundantly supplied with medical stores 
and hospital buildings, though medical officers have been overworked. The sick report 
to-day is about twelve per cent of the command ; that of the British army in this lati- 
tude is about ten per cent. The most of our sickness is of a mild type, and the health 
of the troops is now markedly improved. The total number of deaths of the command 
since leaving San Francisco is 161, or a little more than one per cent. Of these deaths 54 
were due to typhoid fever, 25 to wounds received in battle, 7 to accident, 13 to dysentery, 
and 13 to smallpox. This number of deaths among 15,000 men, covering a period of sev- 
eral months, is surprisingly light. 

In the matter of subsistence the troops have never sufTered. They have been supplied 
with abundant rations, better even than any body of men I ever had association with. 
There is to-day well stored in this city subsistence for 17,000 men for four months. Also 
large supplies for sale to officers and men, all of which are in excellent condition. In 
addition to the regular issues 80 cents per day is giveii to each organization for every 
man reported ill with which to buy delicacies needed by the sick. Doubtless troops have 
suflfered somewhat because of their lack of knowledge to properly prepare their food, 
but all with former experience such as our Regular regiments are acquiring additional 
regimental funds. The command is now fairly well supplied with all needful quarter- 
master's articles excepting wagon transportion. The volunteers are still armed with 
the old Springfield rifle, but steps have beCn taken to supply the most reliable of them 
with the Krag-Jorgensen and smokeless ammunition. 

No one can tell what duties these troops may be called upon to perform. It is more 
than probable, should the islands be retained by the United States, that they will be 
kept exceedingly busy establishing United States authority and maintaining a fair 
degree of order. In casting over all the difliculties which have been met in transporting 
these soldiers, composed mostly of raw material, over 7,000 miles of water and placing 



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OREGON VOLUNTFJERS IN SPANISH WAR. 431 

them here in good condition and well supplied, results must be considered as quite satis- 
factory. Nothing of the kind had ever before been attempted, and no previous prepara- 
tion had been made. 

On November 21st and 25th the absent battalions of the Eighteenth and Twenty-third 
Infantry arrived. 

Throughout that month, and a good portion of December, the troops remained quiet, 
their health steadily improving. On December 2d I cabled the Adjutant General of the 
Army that the percentage of sick of the command, as reported on November 30th, was 
ten and one sixth as against twelve and one fifth for October 31st ; that the number of 
deaths was twenty-six as against forty-five for October; that the sick rate was about the 
same as that among troops of other governments serving in tropical climates ; that one 
third of the sick were sufifering from typhoid and malarial fevers ; one sixth from intes- 
tinal troubles, and that the remaining half of all ailments were slight in character. The 
only matters in which troops took special interest grew out of their speculations on the 
attitude and proba.ble intentions of the insurgents. 

On December 1st the United States transport Indiana, with headquarters and two 
battalions of the Kansas Volunteers arrived, followed on the 7th of that month by the 
transports Newport and Peiinsjjlvania with other volunteer organizations. The volun- 
teers, however, had grown weary of their service and many applied for their discharge 
on the plea that the Spanish war had terminated. They were firmly impressed with the 
belief that the future occupation of the United States Army in the islands would be con- 
fined to garrison duty, a belief that was shared by the older European residents and the 
abler natives of Manila, and they considered that such duty should be performed by 
regulars. My own confidence at this time is a satisfactory solution of the diflaculties 
which confronted us may be gathered from a dispatch sent to Washington on December 
7th, wherein I stated that conditions were improving and that there were signs of revo- 
lutionary disintegration ; that I had conferred with a number of the members of the rev- 
olutionary government and thought that the most of them would favor peaceful submis- 
sion to United States authority. I had strong reasons for this expressed confidence 
from assurances made to me by some of the ablest Filipinos who had occupied positions 
of importance in the insurgent government and had signified their intention to with- 
draw from it. Had the volunteers then supposed that their services would soon be 
demanded to maintain the honor and integrity of their country they would willingly 
have awaited the emergency. But all ofi[icial proceedings tended to give them the con- 
trary impression. Returning transports were carrying back to San Francisco numbers 
of specially discharged men. On December 13th the Astor Battery was relieved from 
duty and directed to proceed to New York City. Its departure on the 16th of the month 
was followed soon by the sailing lor home of one third of the Nebraska regiment Indi- 
vidual applications for discharge became numerous, and on December loth I forwarded 
to the Adj utant General of the Army the following communication : 

I have the honor to forward herewith four hundred and twenty-seven applications 
from enlisted men of this command for their discharge from the service, some on spe- 
cially stated grounds which require consideration, but for the most part on the plea that 
War Department orders entitle them to it. They refer to paragraph 2, General Orders, 
No. 41), current series, and think that the present cessation of active hostilities between 
the United States and Spain is the "close of the war" within the meaning of that para- 
graph ; hence these numerous individual applications which they consider the para- 
graph invited them to make. ^ 

Doubtless the end of the war awaits the proclamation of peace, and in these islands 
that day may be somewhat deferred. 

The number of these applications indicates the desire of the enlisted men of the com- 
mand to escape the country, and shows how difficult it is to hold them in conditions of 
contented discipline. Much of this desire to escape their military obligations at a time 
when their services are especially demanded arises from homesickness, and that fact 
accounts largely for the heavy per centum of sickness with which we have been afflicted. 

Under present exigencies I am obliged to disapprove all these applications. 

But notwithstanding the desire to hold the volunteers as above expressed (and it was 
necessary to hold them or no army would remain), I continued to believe that we might 
overcome diflficulties without resort to force, for, on December 22d, in answer to an inquiry 
as to the truth of certain newspaper statements of that date which charged us with the 



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432 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

commission of grave offenses, I cabled that Manila was never more quiet ; that order 
prevailed and that the native population of the city had been greatly augmented within 
three months; that the criminal class was large, and that representatives of the same 
were arriving from the United States and Asiatic coasts, who were closely watched; that 
the conduct of the troops was good, to a degree in fact that it was subject of favorable 
comment by the citizens, and that disorders were promptly punished, as the business 
transacted by the courts would show. I further asserted that the disparaging state- 
ments which appeared in the United States, Hongkong, and Singapore newspapers, 
were without an element of truth, and that military rule was firm as circumstances 
demanded, since outbreaks were likely to occur. Still I continued to have confidence 
in the peaceful solution of affairs, although it was apparent that the radical element in 
the insurgent councils (consisting of men without property and of little character, by 
whom the passions of the more ignorant n^-tives were being inflamed and who were 
then organizing within the city clubs for legitimate improvement and amusement, as 
they claimed, but really for revolutionarj^ purposes), might precipitate hostilities with- 
out giving us much warning. Aguinaldo, too, aided by his more intimate associates, 
was constantly levying and collecting war contributions and exciting tlie people with 
the cry for independence- He was in coiistant communication with a business firm of 
American membership mostly, having headquarters in Hongkong (one of whose mem- 
bers, individually present in Manila, had been appointed chief of ordnance of the insur- 
gent army), and was secretly negotiating for a large supply of arms and ammunition, 
all of which was well known to me at the time. 

During this period of quiet, in so far as strictly military affairs were concerned, the 
labors of civil administration were very exacting, and necessitated a mass of corre- 
spondence too voluminous to be embodied in this repori. A few extracts will be sub- 
mitted to show the character of the questions which were constantly presenting them- 
selves for oflScial determination. Already many individual claims against the United 
States for damages to or loss of property, caused for the most part by the insurgent sol- 
diers who had been in occupation of a portion of the city, were being received. 

Great difficulties attended the efforts to administer on business principles the city's 
revenues ; to ascertain all former sources of that revenue ; to put the proper machinery 
in order to collect that portion of it the payment of which was considered appropriate 
and just, and to detect the constantly perpetrated frauds made easy under practices of 
long standing, and bring guilty officials or city employes to punishment. 

The merchants were importunate. Those of foreign citizenship complained to the 
resident consuls of their respective governments, by whom their protests were officially 
submitted. This action appeared to threaten international complications, and had to 
be promptly and judiciously met. On October 31st the following reply was sent to one 
of these representatives of a foreign power, from whom a protest signed by nearly all 
the resident business men of his government was received ; 

Deak Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of 
the 29th instant, with attached copy of declaration and petition of certain resident mei- 
chants of Manila, inclosed. 

Had this protest been presented to the military governor of Manila by the protes- 
tants, the matter complained of might possibly have readily received some satisfactory 
adjustment, but as it has been submitted direct to the government of * * as a dec- 
laration and protest against the action of the United States authorities, and received as 
such by that government, it becomes a matter requiring mature deliberation. I have 
therefore the honor to invite your attention to the statement of facts contained in this 
declaration, the conclusions which protestants have drawn therefrom, and the presen- 
tation of facts as understood by the United States authorities here stationed, with their 
legal conclusions briefly submitted. 

The protestants correctly recite the publication of the official circular from the office 
of the United States military governor on the 26th instant, but the alleged facts, viz, 
"that with the exception of a few, and some of them insignificant, ports (and that 
under certain restrictions which greatly embarrassed trade), the iiUer-island trade of 
the Philippines is prohibited," are not warranted. Still, it is possible that this narra- 
tion was merely intended to bo a conclusive summary of facts set up in the indicated 
circular, and if so, it is only fair to treat them as such, and they may be considered in 
connection with the remaining conclusions which the protest contains and wbich are 
"That the principal hemp-producing districts, such as Albay, Sorsogon, Leyte, and 
Samar, are closed by this circular against Manila trade, involving incalculable loss 
to * * interest in the Philippines; "That the arbitrary enforcement of vessels 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 433 

engaged, being obliged to carry Spanish officers only, is a measure almost impossible to 
fulfill, as vessels are unable to comply therewith in view of the danger the Spanish offi- 
cers would be exposed to from the native crews which they carry and the insufficiency 
of qualified Spaniards to man the vessels," and further " that if this arbitrarv order is 
enforced it will entail the complete ruin of Manila trade." 

The above, independent of the allegations regarding the business interests of the 
Protestants, comprises, it is believed, all the facts and conclusions which the protest 
contains. 

For reply to these several criticisms (although unaccompanied bv any expressed 
opinion upon the right to demand remedial action) I beg to invite your attention to a 
brief summary of the endeavors made by the United States authorities for the intei-ests 
of Manila merchants in the matter of coasting trade, and thereafter to give correct 
interpretation of the circular which appears to be the object of complaint. 

Shortly after United States authority had been established in the city of Manila to 
wit, August -iOth, the Spanish governor general of the Philippines was approached with 
a proposition for the reestablishment of inter-island commerce in products of the coun- 
try. To this that officer responded with a cablegram, of w^hich the inclosed exhibit 
marked A, is a certified copy. This cablegram was interpreted as follows : "As soon as 
the port of Manila is open to Spanish ships fljang their flag I will order that all the 
ports in the territories under my command shall immediately admit American ships 
flying the American flag," etc. 

Thereafter, upon receiving information from merchants that coasting vessels from 
this port were not permitted to land at certain of the ports in the Visayas, the attention 
of the Spanish governor general was called to the fact and he replied, on October 14th 
that he would send his chief of staflT to Manila, for conference. At the first meeting 
with that StaflT officer, upon being invited to explain the action of his chief in arresting 
the progress of trade sought to be carried on in accordance with an existing agreement 
he replied that his Government had executed the agreement, which only extended to 
the ports of Iloilo, Cebu, and Zamboanga. Upon being shown the original dispatch 
from Iloilo, of which Exhibit A is a copy, he replied that the Spanish word " puertos " 
used therein, embraced only ports of entry, of which the three above named are all the 
southern islands contain, and that such was the understanding of the Spanish Gov- 
ernment when the cablegram was sent. To the question why vessels dispatched on 
or about September 1st were permitted to trade at other ports, he replied in substance 
that they were not interfered with as it was believed that they were not committing 
injury. • * 

The explanation as to the true signification of the word "puertos" and the expressed 
intent of the Spanish Government was received in good faith, and endeavors were then 
made to secure an extention of coasting privileges. As a result, this representative of 
the Spanish governor general agreed that all ports of the islands at which the authority 
of Spain was maintained or which were occupied by Spanish troops would be considered 
as open to all vessels engaged in legitimate commerce and flying either the Spanish or 
American flag, provided officers in charge of vessels were of Spanish birth or nationality 
(they could not trust Filipino crews because of their sympathies with the insurgents) 
and provided the United States military governor would vouch by cablegram at the 
time of sailing of vessels from Manila that they contained nothing objectional. Upon 
pressing the representative for further latitude of trade in Spanish possessions he 
agreed, on behalf of his principal, to add the ports of Yligan, Dumaguete, and Surigao 
on like conditions, but with the further proviso that application and consent for vessels 
to enter them should be previously made and obtained. He was then pressed to include 
the ports of Calbayog and Carrigarra, but repUed that his government had no troops 
there — only Indian officials — and that it could not guarantee protection or safety to 
vessels entering the same. Asked, Spanish authority having ceased there, if he would 
consider that the vessels then had the right to enter, he replied that the ports were in 
the same condition as those in the island of Luzon, in the possession of the revolution- 
ary forces, and that the Spanish Government could not be held responsible for any 
damage to entering vessels which might result. No further concessions were obtainable 
as it was said the governor general, under present conditions, was powerless to grant 
them. Inquiry was made by this office if Spaniards to take charge of vessels could be 
secured to carry on this trade, and reply was received that they could be secured with- 
out any difficulty. Thereupon the circular inclosed, marked B, was issued for the infor- 
mation of all parties concerned, it being considered to contain the best terms in further- 
ance of the interests of Manila merchants which could be secured at this time. It was 
drawn up and ratified by the Spanish governor general's representative in order that the 
Spanish Government might be held to a faithful performance of its obligations. 

The circular is not understood to be of the nature expressed in the protest. It is 
viewed as a concession and in no wise as a prohibition on the part of the Spanish Gov- 
ernment, which is at liberty to close its ports to outside commerce and influences if it 
elects to do so. A government almost in extremis mortis, as certainly the Spanish Gov- 
ernment in the central Philippine Islands must be considered to be at present, has the 
lawful right to shut temporarily all of its ports, whether declared of entry or otherwise 
and whatever the business interests of outside merchants, be they foreigners or citizens 
ot its domain. This is a declared international right fully accepted. 

I can not perceive, therefore, that any present action can be adopted to further the 
interests of the protestants, and accepting in good faith the action of the Spanish author- 
ities m all previous negotiations, as vouched for by them, and as it is necessary to do in 
the absence of proof to the contrary. I can not see that there exists just cause for com- 
plaint against the United States authorities. I am still in correspondence in regard to 
all these matters and may be able to secure more advantageous conditions, although a 
disinterested party might casually conclude that this vigorous attack on the policy or 
intention, or possibly the integrity of constituted authority, on the part of resident 
merchants might tend to diminish future persistent efl^brts for their welfare. 
Very respectfully, your obcdent servant, 

E. S, Otis, 
Major General, U. S. V., 
^o United States Military/ (Governor in the Philippines, 



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434 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

The correspondence was brought to a satisfactory conclusion upon November 8th by 
the following cornnaunication : 

Sib : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 4th 
instant wherein you inform this office that the action of certain protestants ( * * sub- 
jects residing and doing business here) should not be considered in any wis^ as the action 
of the olticial representative of their government in this city further than his notarial 
functions are concerned. I am pleased to accept this construction, and shall give the 
matter no further consideration. 

As regards the i^arties protestant whose joint and very satisfactory communication 
you inclosed and is appreciated. I am certain that they will soon be firmly convinced 
that the United States authorities have not omitted to make continued effort to advance 
their business interests in every way possible. It appears to me, however, that they 
have not a full appreciation of the difficulties which the government of the United 
States established here have been obliged to contend with. 

1 am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, E. S. Otis, 

Major General^ U. /S. F„ United States Military Governor. 

The clearance of vessels continued to give annoyance, as the political conditions in 
the southern islands were constantly changing, and the coasting trade agreement 
between the Spanish and American officials could not be satisfactorily executed, as 
correspondence, of which the following communications are copies, clearly indicates : 

Office United States Mii^itary Goveknor 

IN the PIIIIjIPPINE ISI.ANDS, 

Manila, p. I,, November n, 1898. 
Captain OF THE Port, ilfam^a, P. T. 

Sir: I am directed to inform you that the military governor has just received a 
cablegram from Iloilo, dated the 8th instant, and cabled from Capiz on the Uth instant, 
of which the following i^ a translation : 

" Iloilo, November 8, 1898. 
"Governor General t® General Otis, 

''^Military Governor, Manila: 
"Your telegram of present date received. I order consul, Hongkong, not to send 
cargo whatever in consideration of what your excellency indicates. I spoke of the 
affair to the commander of the C/iarZe.9ton." 

This in response to a telegram from this office, dated November 1, 1898, of which the 
following is a copy ; 

"Governor General, Iloilo : 

"Spanish consul, Hongkong, cleared vessel flying British flag on coasting trade to 
southern ports, Luzon, thence to Manila. Vessel arrived from Legaspi and has been 
permitted to enter under protest. This clearance viewed as in violation of agreement. 

"Otis, 
" United States Military Governor in the Philippines.''^ 
Very respectfully, 

C. H. Murray, 
Captain, Fourth U. 8. Cavalry, Aid. 



Captain of the Port, Manila, P. I. 



Office United States Military Governor 
in the Philippine Islands, 

Manila, P. I., November 25, 1898. 



Sir: I am directed to return to you the inclosed letter of Messrs. Smith, Bell & Co., 
and to say in reply that, as is well known, a circular was issued from this office on 
October ii6, 1898, announcing that under a mutual agreement between the United States 
and Spanish authorities vessels flying either the American or Spanish flag could be 
dispatched for Tacloban and other southern ports named, provided due notice by cable 
was given the governor general at Iloilo that they were engaged in legitimate com- 
merce. 

In the case of the vessel of the Compania Martima, the Salvador a, which had a like 
experience with the vessel Cebn, the military governor telegraphed the governor general 
at Cebu, on the 16th, stating that the vessel had cleared from this port October 28th for 
Iloilo, Cebu, and Tacloban; that the vessel was turned back from Cebu and not per- 
mitted to proceed to Tacloban to the great loss of merchants, as the Cebu authorities 
reported that they could not permit vessel to enter any ports excepting those styled ports 
of entry. To this cablegram General Rios replied as follows : 

"Regret what has occurred with steamer Salvadora in Cebu. Attribute it to inter- 
ruption of telegraph lines that exists, making my notice, which I repeat by mail, arrive 
late. Begging your excellencj^ that hereafter, at the same time, to notify me and the 
governor general in Cebu when vessel does not previously touch at Iloilo." 

It would seem from the above dispatch of the 19th, that either the Spanish authorities 
in the southern islands are not keeping faith (which is not charged nor believed), or 
that they have neglected to inform officers at the various ports of the agreements which 
have been entered into. Under present conditions it is not possible to comply with 
General Rios's late request, as there are no opportunities to cable either Iloilo or Cebu, 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 435 

since the cable company's staff at Cebu has been removed on account of threatened 
danger from insurgents. Conditions therefore seem to be such that the SSpanish author- 
ities are not able to keep their agreement because of the action of the public enemy, and 
might plead excuse for any seeming violation of the same. Vessels hereafter clearing 
for the southern ports, named in the notice with which you have been furnished, will 
be obliged to clear assuming all attendant risks. 

Further action will be taken in the matter of the Cebu to ascertain what remedies 
can be applied in instances of such a character. 

Very respectfully, C. H. Murray, 

Captain, Fourth U. 8. Cavalry^ Aid. 

The requests of certain merchants for permission to pass their merchandise through 
the customs as Spanish goods under the former Spanish tariff rates, on the plea of 
purchase in Spain before declaration of war and inability to present it sooner, continued 
throughout the year. They were presented, many of them individually, and some 
through their consuls. Every case was based upon a slightly different statement of 
facts, which was fully considered in replies. Applications made through the consul for 
Germany show the character of this correspondence : 

Office United States Military Governor 

IN THIS PHII.IPPINE Islands, 

Manila, P. I., October 5, 1898. 
Hon. Dr. Fr. Kruger, 

Consul for Germany at the Port of Manila. 

Sir: Referring to your note of the 1st instant, I have the honor to state that the 
reason for deferring the application of the United States customs tariff and regulations 
from October 1st to November 10th was to gain sufficient time to make modifications 
therein in certain particulars in order to better adapt them to existing conditions. It 
was discovered that errors had been committed in the preparation or compilation of 
these regulations, and it was with the desire to make the necessary corrections that the 
postponement was ordered. 

A slight concession was granted to the merchants of Manila, which was thought 
would not prejudice United States interests, and it was considered that sufiicient notice 
was given to place them on their guard and allow them opportunity to protect them- 
selves. The interests of the Manila merchants are so conflicting that no rule of general 
action could be adopted which would be satisfactory to all, and the requests submitted 
by the merchants in whose behalf you write have received greater consideration than 
those of merchants of the United States do when a change of tariff duties are made. 
There a tariff law takes effect as soon as enacted, and the rule of caveat emptor applies. 

The proof which will be required to show that merchandise from Spanish ports prior 
to April 25, 1898, will be, independent of the accustomed manifests of cargo, bills of 
lading, and the usual consular certificates, a certificate from the United States consular 
agent at the Spanish port of shipment to the effect that the goods were purchased prior 
to April 25th, and in case there is no United States consular agent at such port then a 
certificate of a consular agent of Great Britain at such port as the goods were so pur- 
chased. 

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 

E. S. Otis, Military Governor. 



Office United States Military Governor 

IN THE Philippine Islands, 

Manila, P. I., December 21, 1898. 
Hon. Dr. Fr. Kruger, 

German Consul, Manila, P. I. 

Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 19th 
instant, with inclosure, which refers to merchandise shipped from Spain and recently 
received in this port. Concerning such goods you refer to an order issued from this 
office on September '29th, last, in which directions were given that goods secured or pur- 
chased in Spain prior to April 25th, last, would be received at this port until November 
10th under the former Spanish tariff regulations. 

That order clearly indicates that such merchandise received here after the last-named 
date would be subject to the same duties as the goods of all other neutral nations, the 
United States included. 

Notwithstanding the instructions contained in this order, goods purchased in Spain 
by Manila merchants which arrived here as late as the preseni month have been 
admitted under the conditions expressed in that order, the merchants showing satisfac- 
torily that delay in making shipments was beyond their control. 

In respect to the entry of these goods you say that certain proofs of purchase in 
Spain, as regards time and circumstances, which were presented by the merchants, 
have not been accepted by the collector of customs. On this point you quote my letter 
of October 5th, indicating the proofs it will be necessary for the merchants to furnish, 
among which was included the following: 

"A certificate from the United States consular agent at the Spanish port of shipment 
to the effect that the goods >yere purch?/Sed prior to April 25th, a,nd in case tbere is nq 



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436 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

United States consular agent at sucb port then the certificate of the consular agent of 
Great Britain at such port that the goods were so purchased." 

You state that the merchants interested gave the best proofs they could under the 
circumstances, and that it was impossible to secure the certificate of the British consul 
at Barcelona (acting for the United States) as to shipment; that under the proof the 
merchandise has not been admitted as desired. 

Undoubtedly the customs authorities have acted within the instructions received 
from this office in demanding a consular certificate, and the subject now becomes a 
matter for further deliberation and further instructions. Your request is that the col- 
lector of customs be authorized to return the gauran tees which the merchants had 
given in order to liave the goods passed, and that their attidavits, made before the Brit- 
ish consul at Barcelona, be accepted in lieu of the consular certificate which orders 
have prescribed. 

The request will receive attention, and you will be informed soon of conclusions 
reached. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, E.S.Otis, 

Military Governo?'. 

After full investigation this application was denied, as were all others of like import 
which were submitted about this time. In arriving at conclusions, the possibility of 
purchasing goods in Spain under a continuing con tract for purchase, or placing orders 
for them under an agreement for delivery at some future distant date, was considered, 
as well as the conflicting interests of merchants who were stocked or had recently pur- 
chased elsewhere than in Spain, and who antagonized favorable action on the applica- 
tions. 

The Spanish prisoners gave annoyance and were a menace to public tranquillity and 
the health of the city. Requests for permission to expatriate them were preferred on 
several occasions, but such action could not be taken without the consent of both Spj^in 
and the United States, since the disposition of the Philippine Islands awaited the result 
of treaty stipulation. These prisoners might yet be needed in the islands by Spain for 
military service. When Manila capitulated, many of them were ill, and required care- 
ful attention and special treatment. All the necessary articles and appliances were 
furnished the Spanish oflEicers with which to bestow the needed care. The prisoners 
soon commenced to improve in physical condition, but having no employment, 
indulged too frequently in reprehensible conduct, and were an object of suspicion by 
our oflicers, who thought that they would require close restraint should hostilities with 
the Filipinos ensue. The old antipathy between insurgent and Spanish soldiers, which 
in the first few weeks of our occupation of the city was intense, and which manifested 
itself in slight rioting, followed in one instance by the murder of an insurgent officer 
near one of the gates of the walled city, was gradually disappearing, and Spanish 
officers and enlisted men began to mingle in friendly intercourse with insurgent tro9ps. 

No accurate lists of numbers had been made, nor could one be prepared from the 
rolls of organizations obtainable. Finally, on October 1st, the provost marshal general 
was directed to make an accurate count of all present. For this purpose he caused the 
various organizations to form, at the same hour, at the places where they were severally 
quartered, and had one of his officers with each of the organizations to verify numbers 
by actual count. This method of verification was repeated on subsequent occasions. 

Under the terms of the capitulation the Spanish officers, though prisoners of war, 
were permitted to immediately supervise the afiairs of the organizations to which they 
belonged. In the demoralization which followed the condition of prisoners of war, their 
authority Was greatly diminished ; and the general who was nominally in command of 
these Spanish forces made formal request to impose, through adequate punishment, a 
more efficient discipline. This was denied in the following letter : 

Office United States Military Governor 
IN the Philippine Islands, 

Manila, P. J., November 28, 1898. 
Gen. Francisco Rizzo, 

Commanding Spanish Forces, Manila, I*. I, 

General : Referring to the request made by you a few day since, that officers of the 
Spanish Army be permitted and assisted to enforce against their men, now prisoners of 
war, the disciplinary measures of the Spanish military code, I have the honor to reply 
that after mature deliberation on the special points contained in the request submitted, 
the conclusion has been reached that conditions do not permit the American authorities 



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OKEGOK VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 437 

to grant all that has been asked. They will endeavor to do what they can consistently 
to preserve good conduct on the part of the prisoners, and with that end in view instruc- 
tions have been given to retain them within the walled city after 5 o'clock in the even- 
ing, and to compel them to retire to their respective barracks after the hour of 8. 

The American authorities are responsible for the care of these prisoners, and must see 
that they receive humane treatment in accordance with the dictates and spirit of their 
own military code, and therefore no promises can be given as to the methods they will 
apply in exercising supervision. It is our desire to do all we can to carry out the wishes 
of the Spanish officers who are looking after the w-elfare of their men, but it will readily 
occur to you that under prevailing conditions we can not enter into any agreements 
which fetter in any wise a free latitude of action in the special cases which may arise. 
I am. General, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

E. S. Otis, 
Military Governor. 

Early in October certain Spanish officers, prisoners of war, asked for permission to 
depart for Spain on account of illness, and their requests were favorably indorsed by 
General Rizzo. Applying to the War Department for instructions in these cases, I was 
directed, on October 7th, to grant, in my discretion, requests of this character. Where- 
upon, on application in writing, accompanied by the proper disability certificate of a 
Spanish surgeon and the approval of the general officer present and supervising Spanish 
affairs, passports with permission to return to Spain were given. A considerable num- 
ber took advantage of this privilege before the general authority to send home the 
prisoners was received. On December 14th the Spanish authorities served upon me 
notice of the contemplated discharge of the native troops held in Manila as prisoners. 
Although it was known that a good many of the three thousand of these prisoners had 
deserted to the insurgents, it was deemed important to weigh the probable results of 
this contemplated communicated action, and the following letters were prepared and 
delivered : 

Captain General Rizzo, 

General of Division of the Spanish Army, Manila, P. I. 
General : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of 
this morning, in which you inform me you are about to discharge from the Spanish 
service the Spanish native troops held as United States prisoners of war in this city. 

I beg that you defer your contemplated action in this matter of discharge until I may 
be able to make inquirv as to the condition, intent, and former places of domicile of 
these troops, that I may act understandingly with regard to them. As prisoners of war, 
under the articles of capitulation, they should remain under guard within the city and 
under the immediate supervision of their officers until instructions as to their final dis- 
position are received from Madrid and Washington. 

You will therefore please suspend all actions relating to their discharge until I may 
be able to communicate further with you. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, E. S. Otis, 

Major General, U. 8. V., 
United States Military Governor in the Philippines. 



Office United States Military Governor 

IN THE PHIiyrPFINE ISLANDS, 

Manila, P. I., December 17, 1898. 
Division General Francisco Rizzo, 

Commanding Spanish Forces, Manila, P. I., 
General : In further response to your letter of the 14th instant, regarding your con- 
templated action in the matter of discharging Spanish native troops held in this city as 
prisoners of war, I have the honor to inform you that exhaustive inquiry has been made 
as to their permanent homes and possible conduct should they be discharged at this 
time. It has been ascertained that a very large number of them came from the southern 
islands, and that some of them, though of Luzon, would be afraid to return to their 
homes, even if discharged. Those living in the southern islands should be sent there ; 
those of Luzon who are afraid to return to their homes should be kept here in Manila. 
There are others of these natives who might give trouble in the city if discharged, and 
they should be kept under restraint. 

All the native troops, therefore, will be continued in their present status as prisoners 
of war, to remain in restraint under the immediate supervision of their officers until 
the chief authorities of the dominion of Spain and the United States give final direc- 
tions as to their disposition. This is in conformity with the articles of capitulation of 
August 14th, last. -r^ c^ ^ 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, E. S, Otis, 

Major General, XJ. S. V., 
United States Military Governor in the Philippines. 



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438 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

These natives were subsequently discharged in Manila. Some were taken to a west- 
ern Luzon province and released, and others were permitted to go from the city in any 
direction they wished, or to remain in it if they desired. It was subsequently a notice- 
able fact that they became the most formidable troops in Aguinaldo's army, fought 
splendidly at Caloocan, where they lost in casualties a large portion of their numbers. 

About this date Spanish officers, with their families, were arriving in the city from 
the southern islands. Some of them had been exercising command of native troops, 
which were disbanded there or had deserted to the enemy, or they were not desired in 
the Spanish military organizations still retained at the south. They came ostensibly 
to secure transportation to Spain by vessels plying between Manila and Barcelona. 
Lingering with us a considerable i)eriod, and not knowing their numbers, request was 
made upon the Spanish authorities for their names and intention, and the further 
request w:as made that the United States auth<5)rities be notified in future of the fact of 
the arival of any Spanish officers from southern ports. 

The United States authorities, after entering Manila, had continued in place the Span- 
ish officers who had exercised charge of the large city prisons, where about two thousand 
suspects and convicts were confined. General Hughes, the provost marshal general, who 
had supervision of these prisons, detected, while inspecting the August and September 
prison accounts, fraudulent transactions in which these officers were concerned. He 
thereupon placed them in arrest and submitted the charges of "conspiracy to embezzle 
public funds in violation of the laws of war," and "embezzlement in violation of the 
laws of war," when they were brought before a military commission for trial. The 
result of the court's long and patient investigation, during which the accused officers 
had the benefit of the best American and Spanish legal advice obtainable, and of their 
own selection, was the conviction of two of them, and the acquittal of the third upon 
an admittedly proven alibi. The two who were convicted were each sentenced to pay a 
fine in "the sum of $2,500 in gold coin of the United States, and to be confined at hard 
labor in such place of confinement as may be designated by the reviewing authority for 
a period of three years." The review of the case is in language as follows : 

In the foregoing case of Carlos Aymerich, Branlio Zorita, and Jose Ruiz, jointly tried 
by a military commission for conspiracy to embezzle, and the embezzlement of, public 
funds, the commission has adjudged a finding of acquittal as to Carlos Aymerich, evi- 
dently considering certain evidence submitted to it and tending to establish an alibi as 
to this accused, as having an important bearing upon the case, to the extent, at least, of 
raising a reasonable doubt as to his participation In the ofi'enses alleged. In this view 
the reviewing authority does not concur, believing that the evidence of record conclu- 
sively establishes the criminal responsibility of the said Aymerich jointly with the other 
accused under both charges, and is, therefore, unable to concur in the finding of acquittal 
in his case. Orders have already been issued for his release from confinement. 

The findings and sentences adjudged the other two accused, to wit, Branlio Zorita 
and Jos6 Ruiz, are approved. In view of the confinement already served by them and 
the circumstances surrounding this case, deemed in certain respects to justify the exten- 
sion of clemency, the confinement at hard labor for three years awarded each of these 
accused is reduced to six months. As mitigated, the sentences will by duly executed 
and so much thereof as relates to confinement, at Bilibid Prison. 

The commission took up the trial of these cases on November 22d liist, and gave a 
long and patient hearing to the voluminous testimony introduced and the lengthy argu- 
ments of the prosecuting officers and defendants' counsel. The funds which it was 
charged that the parties had misappropriated accrued previous to the date of United 
States occupation, but were subsequently covered as expended in the payment of fraud- 
ulent vouchers manufactured in August and September for services rendered and prop- 
erty delivered for the benefit of the prisons prior to that date. They therefore belonged 
to the United States by capture, or promised surrender under the capitulatory articles. 
The Spanish authorities labored in the interests of the accused, and the date on which 
they were brought before the military commission the chief of staff of the Spanish gen- 
eral, who subsequently acted as assistant counsel for one and submitted an able closing 
argument on the merits, sent in a written application asking that they be remanded 
to the Spanish authorities for trial, representing that the honor of Spain was involved. 
He was informed, however, that the United States tribunal, which had be^n directed to 
judicially determine the question of their guilt or innocence, had not been ordered until 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH' WAR. 439 

after an exhaustive investigation had been made and the justness and expediency of 
the step carefully considered. The cases were not published until March 13th, after the 
offenders had been in arrest for six months. Some time thereafter and on April 19th, 
a petition was presented, headed by his grace the archbishop of Manila and signed by 
its leading inhabitants, Spanish and foreign mostlj'', praying for the release of Zorita, 
though acknowledging the justness of his sentence. He was released on the payment of 
32,500 gold, his time of confinement having nearly virtually expired. Ruiz still remains 
in confinement. No decided effort by friends for the commutation of his sentence has 
been made. It would be matter for satisfaction if the same action could be applied in 
his case as in that of Zorita. 

Another case, that of a Spanish newspaper editor, one Antonio Hidalgo, charged 
with "publishing and circulating seditious newspaper articles in violation of the laws 
of war," was brought before a military commission in November last. The accused was 
found guilty and sentenced " to pay a fine of ^500 in United States gold coin to, and for 
the use and benefit of, the United States ; that he be placed and kept outside of the lines 
of the territory now occupied by, and within and under the jurisdiction of, the military 
forces of the United States, and that the press, type, furniture, material, and all appur- 
tenances of the printing office of La Voz Espanola be confiscated and sold for the use 
and benefit of the United States." 

The review is as follows : 

In the foregoing case of Antonio Hidalgo the record discloses that the accused was 
accorded an impartial trial, his rights having been protected at every stage thereof. 
The findings are in accord with the evidence, and the sentence, in amount and char- 
acter of punishment awarded, shows that the commission correctly estimated the crim- 
inality which, under the conditions existing at the time of their commission, was 
involved in the offenses which the accused stands convicted. Such a sentence the 
reviewing authority is reluctant to modify. 

It appears, however, from facts elicited since the conclusion of the trial that the 
accused fully appreciates the gravity of the offenses committed by him, and regrets 
their commission. He has furnished satisfactory proof of previous good character and 
reputable standing in this community, and has directly and through influential citizens 
petitioned for clemency. In view of these facts, and in the belief that the example fur- 
nished by this trial and conviction constitutes sufficient warning that the military gov- 
ernment here established possesses and will exercise the power necessary to protect 
itself against libelous and seditious publications designed to asperse its character and 
weaken its authority, the reviewing authority is pleased to remit so much of the sen- 
tence as relates to confiscation of property and to the deportation of the accused beyond 
the lines now occupied by the military forces of the United States. 

The fine imposed is reduced to $250, gold coin of the United States, the accused to 
stand committed until such fine is paid; the confinement under this sentence not to 
exceed three months. 

As mitigated, the sentence will be duly executed. 

The fine was paid and Hidalgo released. The trial produced a good deal of excite- 
ment, both on account of the standing of the accused in the community, his numerous 
friends among the better citizens, and the novel proceeding. The case was prosecuted 
for the sake of example and to give warning to the proprietors of other newspapers of 
the penalties which might be imposed upon them if they continued to indulge in abuse 
and calumny. It has had beneficial effects. 

This period was one of plotting in the interests of the insurgent cause and men of 
every nationality appea^red to be engaged in questionable enterprises promising indi- 
vidual gain. Rumors of the purchase and introduction of arms and ammunition at 
various ports on the Luzon coast were incessant. Admiral Dewey had seized a vessel 
at Cantagas engaged in this contraband trade, but the cargo had entered the interior. 
It was an understood fact that money in considerable quantities was being sent to the 
insurgent j unta at Hongkong, which was then presided over, or at least advised, by an 
American citizen and a British subject. Insurgent delegations departed for Japan and 
the cities on the Asiatic coast. All this occasioned a mass of correspondence with 
United States representatives stationed in these countries. Smuggling and illicit trade 
of a varied character was being actively conducted, and the cunning of the Filipino 
and the Chinese was difficult to contend with. Insurgent newspapers had been estab- 
lished in our midst and oftejji indulged in criticisms of the manner in which affairs were 
being conducted, but were generally busy insinuating that the United States offered 



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440 OREGON VOLlTNT^EEiRS IN SPANISH WAR. 

nothing advantageous to the Filipinos, who had expended so much blood and treasure 
for their independence. The formerly expressed fear that Spain would return had given 
way to the statement that it was the intention of the United States to replace her in the 
odious domination which she had exercised for centuries. The better class of Filipinos 
recommended the suppression of these Filipino newspapers, and to my question 
whether the people believed the statements found in theni, replied that they did and 
were greatly impressed. The editors were warned and became more temperate in their 
denunciations, even asking assistance to place before the people the true condition of 
affairs. Able articles were prepared and furnished, at my request, by the well known 
scientist. Doctor Becker, upon the true theory of government and the probable inten- 
tion of the United States in Luzon and other islands. They were generally used by 
these editors as targets for such unfriendly criticisms as their supple and peculiar minds 
could invent. A sanguinary and venomous article would be followed for three or four 
successive days by temperate productions favoring United States protection on lines 
which they were powerless to explain or understand. 

Questions of grave import were being constantly thrust upon the United States 
authorities, some having decided international significance demanding prompt atten- 
tion. The acting American consul was busy with political and commercial xjroblems, 
among which were those relating to the acquisition of citizenship or the participation 
by foreign vessels in the inter-island trade. On December 9th he was informed of a 
decision which had shortly before been rendei^ed and expressed in the following terms : 

The effect of section 8, article 1, of the Constitution of the United States, and legisla- 
tion by Congress thereunder, is to vest the exclusive power of conferring citizenship 
by naturalization in Congress. This power is not shared by State or Territorial govern- 
ments, nor by military governments established by the United Stages in the exercise of 
its war power. 

In establishing rules on the subject, Congress has provided among other conditions 
upon which citizenship will be conferred upon aliens, excepting those having service in 
the Army or Navy, a previous residence of five years within the territorial limits of the 
United States. It is very clear that this condition has not been complied with by the 
within-named applicant. 

United States citizenship may also result from (1) completed conquest and incorpora- 
tion of territory, and (2) from treaty. No act of the individual in the former case is 
necessary other than election to become a citizen, usually manifested by continued 
domicile within the territory conquered and incorporated. In the latter case it is 
necessary only for the individual to comply with the conditions that the treaty may 
establish. Until negotiations have proceeded further it is impossible to determine 
whether the within applicant can avail himself of either of these methods. 

Applications for citizenship can not be acted upon at the present time ; they could 
merely be received and filed. 

To his inquiry with regard to coasting trade privileges he was informed by communi- 
cation as follows : 

In reply to your note of yesterday with inclosure, I am directed to state that the 
inclosure granting the permission of the Spanish Government to do certain acts as 
therein explained was given July 5th last, prior to United States occupation of the city 
and harbor of Manila, and under conditions, both in this respect and in so far as the out- 
side ports of Luzon are concerned, which have materially changed. 

Since that time certain agreements have been entered into between the representa- 
tives of the United States and Spain which the action contemplated in the inclosure 
would violate, and hence can not now be carried into execution. Vessels can not be 
cleared from this port for inter-island ports, under the Norwegian flag. 

As regards the tobacco now in the upper country, it can be brought to this port by 
vessels of the Maritime Company, sailing under the American flag. That company has 
two vessels engaged in this trade which will be able to bring in all the tobacco grown in 
the upper provinces, and at uniform transportation rates to all owners concerned. The 
Few ws, now due here, will sj^il in about four days for Aparri, and the iSaturnus, now en 
voyage for that port, will soon be here, and as soon as she can unload will return. 
Information has been obtained that the whole tobacco crop can be moved by these two 
vessels and in suflicient time to prevent injury to the crops. 

Your inclosure is herewith returned. 

The sphere of United States action in the Philippines was now about to be enlarged. 
During the last interview with General Rios's staff officer on the subject of inter-island 
trade, alluded to in a former portion of this report, he submitted a proposition for the 
relief of the Spanish garrison at Iloilo by our troops, saying that General Rios would be 
pleased to turn that city over to the United States authorities and withdraw to Zam- 
boanga. The proposition was discussed, but immediate action was not considered 



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OKEGON VOLXINTEEUS IN SPANISH WAR. 441 

practicable, and he was requested to convey to the general our appreciation of his offer 
and report that permission would be sought to accept it as soon as the Paris treaty 
negotiations indicated unmistakably that the United States would succeed to the 
government of the islands. About December 13th a petition was received, signed by 
the business men and firms of Iloilo, asking for American protection there. On Decem- 
ber 14th I cabled to Washington the following : 

Bankers and merchants with business houses at Iloilo petition American protection 
at Iloilo. Spanish authorities are still holding out, but will receive United States troops. 
Insurgents reported favorable to American annexation. Can send troops. Shall any 
action be taken ? 

No response was received until the 19th of that month, when I was informed that the 
President and Secretary of War were absent from Washington, and that consideration 
of my question would await their return, which would be shortly. Appreciating the 
great desirability of securing possession of this city, the second of the Philippines in 
importance, I was anxious to receive an affirmative answer to my cable question of the 
14th instant. It was reported that the Spanish troops were hard pressed by the insur- 
gents, who had made an attack a few days previous, declaring that they would capture 
the town before the arrival of the Americans. It was also stated that the attack had 
been repulsed, with a loss to the insurgents of three hundred men. 

The petition for protection which had been submitted by the business men appeared 
to me to furnish sufficient ground upon which to base intervention in their behalf, inde- 
pendent of specific instructions from Washington, and I therefore, in conference with 
Admiral Dewey, asked that one of his war vessels convoy troops which I meditated 
sending to Iloilo at once. This the Admiral thought it not wise to do, as we were await- 
ing authority which had already been sought, and furthermore that he was of the opin- 
ion General Rios would hold out. I shared with him this latter conviction and awaited 
directions. On December 23d the following dispatch was received : 

Washington, December 23, 1898. 
Otis, Manila : 

Answering your message, December i4th, the President directs that you send neces- 
sary troops to Iloilo, to preserve the peace and protect life and property. It is most 
important that there should be no conflict with the insurgents. Be conciliatory, but 
firm. 

By order of the Secretary of War. 

These instructions were conveyed to Admiral Dewey and I cabled the following: 

MANII.A, December '23, 1898, 
General Rios, 

Governor General Philippine Islands, Iloilo, Panay. 

A considerable United States force. Army and Navy, will leave Manila in two or 
three days, and its commanding general is ordered to confer with you at Iloilo. 

Otis, 
United States Military Governor. 

This message was sent to Capiz, a northern point of the island of Panay, then the 
terminus of the cable, whence messages were telegraphed overland to Iloilo before the 
insurgents had destroyed the land lines. Cable messages were sent subsequently by 
special gunboats which reported for them at short intervals. The next morning the 
superintendent of the cable company surprised me with the information that two gun- 
boats arrived at Capiz the day before, collected all telegrams, and left for Iloilo at 5.35 
p. M.; that my dispatch did not reach the cable office there till 5.50 p. m.; that the cable 
operator reported that General Rios would leave Iloilo with all Spaniards for Lambagan 
the afternoon of the 24th, and would go to Manila by the end of the month. Eflforts 
were immediately made to communicate by other means with General Rios before he 
could evacuate the city. A coasting vessel was secured, with which Lieutenant Colonel 
Potter, of the Engineer Corps, was directed to proceed, and if possible communicate in 
person with General Rios, requesting that he continue in possession of the city until the 
arrival of our troops. Colonel Potter departed on his mission that night and nothing 



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442 OHEGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

was heard from him until the morning of the 28th, when he returned. He reported that 
General Rlos had evacuated on the evening of the 24th, thirty-nine hours before his 
arrival ; that he found the insurgents in possession of the city ; that he had landed and 
held an interview with the consul for Great Britain, and that the town was quiet, 
Aguinaldo's flag flying, and that he could not reach any conclusions as to the probable 
results of General Miller's arrival ; that he saw the latter on the evening of the 27th and 
reported to him fully the situation as he had found it. On the morning of the 27th I 
telegraphed Admiral Dewey, at Cavite, as follows : 

Nothing from Colonel Potter. Capiz reports having seen vessel ofl'shore last evening 
and thinks that possibly insurgent authorities there would not permit landing. If Pot^ 
ter remains at Iloilo, Rios still holds out. Should he arrive here within the next twelve 
hours, Rios has evacuated. 

I thereafter telegraphed Admiral Dewey the substance of two dispatches as soon as 

delivered, which were as follows : 

Iloilo, December 2h. 

Treaty of Paris signed ; my Government orders me to go to Manila, where I shall 
arrive at end of month, and in accordance with your excellency will hasten repatriation. 

General Rios. 
Also, 

Steamer which arrived yesterday at Capiz is Spanish gunboat Elcano. Iloilo evacu- 
ated on the 24th. 

This last message was received from the cable company. I also telegraphed the 
Admiral that "Colonel Potter not having reported, I am inclined to think that Span- 
iards still hbld Iloilo." I then cabled the following : ^ 

Adjutant General, Washington : 

Iloilo expedition left last night. Reported that Spanish forces evacuated 24th instant. 
Report not confirmed. General Miller fully instructed as to action whether Spanish 
forces there or not. Action to accord fully with President's directions. Will cable 
results as soon as possible. Expedition should reach Iloilo to-morrow morning. 

As soon as Colonel Potter had received instructions to proceed, as above indicated, 
the following was issued : 

General Orders, ) Headquarters Department Pacific 

No. 39. 1 AND Eighth Army Corps, 

Manila, P. J., December fA, 1898. 

I.— Brig. Gen. Marcus P. Miller, U. S. V., is assigned to the command of the follow- 
ing-named troops, viz : 

Light Battery G, Sixth U. S. Artillery. 
Eighteenth U. S. Infantry. 
Fifty-first Iowa Infantry. 

And will proceed with them to Iloilo, island of Panay, by transports Newport, Ari- 
zona, sm^ Pennsylvania, under such naval escort as the rear admiral commanding the 
Asiatic squadion may furnish him, and there execute the special instructions he will 
receive from these headquarters. 

The troops will constitute a separate brigade within the meaning of the Seventy- 
third Article of War, to be known and designated as the First Separate Brigade of the 
Eighth Army Corps. They will be equipped and supplied as orders already and here- 
after to be issued indicate. 

The following-named officers will constitute the staff of the First Separate Brigade 
of the Eighth Army Corps : 

First Lieut. C. G. Woodward, Third U. S. Artillery, aid, acting assistant adjutant 
general. 

Capt. John B. Jeflferey, U. S. V., quartermaster. 

Capt. C. R. Rrauthoff", commissary of subsistence, U. S. V., commissary. 

Maj. E. R, Morris, brigade surgeon, U. S. V., chief surgeon. 

By command of Major General Otis. Thomas H. Barry, 

Assistant Adjutant General. 

General Miller and the Iowa regiment of volunteers had recently arrived. The regi- 
ment remained on the transport prepared for departure. Light Battery G, Sixth Regi- 
ment U. S. Artillery and the Eighteenth Infantry had been directed to hold themselves 
in readiness for this expected service. Carefully prepared instructions were then issued, 
of which the following is a copy : 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 443 

Office United States Militaky Governor, 

Hpjadquarters Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Manila, P. L, December 2A, 1898, 
Brig. Gen. Marcus P. Mili^er, U. S. V., 

Comina7iding First Separate Brigade, Eighth Army Corps. 

Sir: In obedience to the instructions of the President of the United States, dated 
the 28d instant, directing that troops be sent to Uoilo, island of Panay, there "to pre- 
serve the peace and protect life and property," your command has been selected for this 
duty and has been ordered to depart therefor on Monday next, the 26th instant. 

Those instructions contain the following cautionary language : 

" It is most important that there should be no conflict with the insurgents. Be con- 
ciliatory, but Arm." 

When they were given it was supposed that the Spanish forces in Uoilo and in con- 
flict with the insurgent inhabitants of the island would retain their hold of the city 
until the arrival of United States troops, when they would transfer all authority to the 
latter and peaceably evacuate. From cable dispatches received this morning from 
northern Panay, it is feared that the Spanish troops may surrender the city to the 
insurgents before your arrival, in which event your duties will become more compli- 
cated and will require delicate and skillful action for successful prosecution. However, 
every possible precautionary measure has been taken to retain Spanish forces there. 
Yesterday a telegram was sent to northern Panay, the limit of to^iegraphic communica- 
tion with Uoilo, advising the commanding general of those forces of your early depart- 
ure for that port, and this evening a fast vessel will be dispatched carrying the same 
information, but it is possible that these measures may fail to accomplish desired results. 

In the event of your arrival at Uoilo prior to the departure of the Spanish troops 
therefrom, you will communicate with their commanding general, inviting him, in 
accordance with an existing mutual understanding, to then remove his forces, to permit 
you to take formal possession of the city and thereupon with his consent you w-ill pro- 
ceed to occupy the same with your command. If, on the contrary, you find the city to 
be in the possession of the insurgents, you will proceed with great caution, avoiding all 
manifestation of mediated forcible action and undue display of force. You will place 
yourself in communication with the insurgent authorities through the representative 
men of Uoilo, whom you will take from Manila with you on your voyage, who will use 
their best endeavors to bring to a successful determination any difficulties which may 
present themselves. You will make known to the inhabitants the purpose of the United 
States, which, having succeeded to all the rights of Spain in the Philippine Islands, 
under treaty stipulations following conquest in the Eastern and Western hemispheres, 
intends to establish among them an efficient and most stable form of government which 
shall fully protect them in all their private interests and liberties, in which they shall 
have representation, and which will secure for them increasing and jabundan't pros- 
perity. As the slight proof of your declared intention, you will release unto them the 
Spanish native soldiers sent here by the Spanish Government, who, through the efforts 
of the United States authorities, will be returned to their homes in Panay, who will 
accompany you and who are grateful for the supervision which those authorities have 
exercised over them. You will find the representative people of Iloilo a superior class 
and amenable to reason, and it is believed that they will place confidence in the faith 
and good intentions of the United States and will accord you a most favorable recep- 
tion. No undue haste will be made and the rights of your Government will be 
fully made known and insisted upon. Conflict between troops will be avoided unless 
it becomes necessary for defense. Should you be able to eflect a landing as a result of 
your negotiations you will disembark only a sufficient portion of your command to 
subserve present purposes — the remainder being held on transports awaiting further 
instructions. Should you not be able to effect a landing without conflict, you will hold 
your forces on your transports in the vicinity of Iloilo and await further directions 
from these headquarters. But in all these matters you must be governed to a great 
extent by your own good judgment after a careful deliberation upon conditions, having 
in view the instructions of the President of the United States to avoid armed repression. 
The government which you are called upon to establish at Iloilo will be one of mili- 
tary occupation. Upon taking possession it will be your duty to issue an order pro- 
claiming such a government within the territory occupied or controlled by United 
States forces under your command. The municipal laws of the territory occupied, such 
as affect private rights of persons and property and provide for the punishment of 
crime, are to be considered as continuing in force so far as compatible with the new 
order of things, unless suspended or superseded by proper military authority. The 
judges and other officials connected with the administration of these laws may, if they 
accept the authority of the United States, continue to administer the ordinary law of 
the land as between man and man, but under the supervision of the said military 
authorities. The local courts thus continued in power shall not, however, exercise 
jurisdiction over any crime or offense committed by any person belonging to the Army 
of the United States, or any retainer of the Army, or person serving with it, or any 
person furnishing or transporting army supplies, nor over any crime or offense com- 
mitted on either of the same by any inhabitant or temporary resident of said territory. 
In such cases, except when courts-martial have cognizance, jurisdiction to try and 
punish is vested in military commissions and provost courts which will be convened 
(by you) from time to time as occasion may require. 

B^or the purpose of providing for the prompt punishment of crime in cases where the 
civil courts may fail, from whatever cause, the military commissions and provost 
courts will, in addition to the exercise of powers above indicated, be vested with juris- 
diction concurrent with the civil courts to hear and determine all crimes and offenses 
committed by inhabitants or temporary residents within the limits of United States 
occupation. Of these crimes and offenses, those which are capital and such others as 
you may desire to refer to it will be brought to trial before the military commission. 



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444 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

and those which are not capital, which may be adequately punished with the punish- 
ing powers of provost courts, may be referred to them for trial. Trials by civil courts, 
however, will be preferred where there is satisfactory reason to believe that justice will 
be done. 

In all sentences imposed by military commissions and provost courts the punish- 
ments awarded shall conform, as far as possible, in character and degree to the laws of 
the United States, or of either of the States, or to the customs of war. The proceedings 
of military commissions after being acted upon by you will be forwarded to these head- 
quarters for the action of the commanding general. The punishment awarded by 
provost courts shall not exceed confinement, with or without hard labor, for a period of 
one year, or a fine of $1,000, or both. The sentences of these courts do not reciuire 
approval, but may be mitigated or remitted by you. Copies of orders on these subjects, 
the provisions of which control the action of the military courts established in this 
city, will be furnished you for your inforniation and guidance and for application under 
conditions similar to those prevailing here. 

It will be necessary for you to create a government for the determination of city 
affairs under the direct supervision of a provost marshal, to appoint officers and assist- 
ants for the collection and care of revenue, and to conduct postal affairs. The customs 
regulations in force here will be applied by you at Uoilo, and an officer connected there- 
with has been directed to report to you for appointment as collector of customs, who 
will be provided with copies of all customs regulations and the necessary blank forms. 
You will be furnished with the requisite assistants, thoroughly supplied, to establish 
upon your arrival all necessary mail facilities, and you will apply in this department 
the postal laws of the United States Government. 

Iloilo is an important point of entry, and to secure competent aid for duty in connec- 
tion with the port you will consult Captain Dyer of the Navy, commanding officer of 
the jBaZ^'imore, which escorts your transports, who has a thorough practical acquaint- 
ance with such matters. 

In establishing your administration you will consult various orders and regulations 
governing all these subjects at this port — making your actions conform thereto in all 
essential particulars. No further instruction can be given you. Much must depend 
upon your tact and discretion and your ability to meet varying circumstances as they 
arise. However, should you fail to secure a peaceable entry into the city, you will 
report fully your proceedings to these headquarters request further instructions. 

By command of Major General Otis. 

Thomas H. Barry. 
Assistant Adjutant General. 

On the evening of General Miller's departure the following was also furnished him : 

Headquarters Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Manila, P. I., December m, 1S9S. 
Brig. Gen. M. P. Milt.er, U. S. V., 

Cominanding First Separate Brigade^ Eighth Army Corps. 

Sir: I am directed by the major general commanding to furnish you with the fol- 
lowing in structioi:^s : 

In case the Spanish forces have evacuated Iloilo, you will, on approaching that city, 
keep your transports Arizona and JPennsylvania well to the rear and beyond the view of 
the inhabitants of Iloilo, and you will take into the Iloilo waters your naval escorts, the 
Baltimore and Callao, and the transport vessel Union, on which are the native Spanish 
troops, with your vessel, the Newport. You will make known to the insurgent authori- 
ties the object of bringing the large force with you, which is, viz : To take possession of 
other ports in the islands, if conditions and circunistances are favorable, but that it 
may be necessary to keep troops at Iloilo until definite instructions concerning other 
ports of the islands are received from AVashingtbn. 

Very respectfully, Thomas H. Barry, 

Assistant Adjutant General. 

General M;iller, in command, escorted by the United States steamship Baltimore, 
sailed on the evening of the 26th, and as Colonel Potter did not return until the morn- 
ing of the 28th, we were without any information for thirty-six hours. In the mean 
time reports were brought that Aguinaldo had expressed satisfaction with the situation, 
as fighting would certainly commence at Iloilo upon the landing of our troops, which 
would excite the natives in Luzon to active hostilities. He had issued orders, it was 
intimated, to oppose landing, but feared that a considerable force of Tagalos sent there 
would not be in time to participate. It was afterwards learned that these special insur- 
gent troops did riot reach Panay until December 29th. 

In the foregoing instrustions mention is made of representative men of Iloilo and 
Spanish native soldiers, whom General Miller was directed to take with him, the first 
to assist in making the object of the United States known and the latter in proof of 
good intentions. The soldiers referred to were sent by General Rios to Manila for dis- 
charge from the Spanish military service, without permission or warning. They were 
about two hundred of a lot numbering six or seven hundred, and were Visayans 
belonging mostly to Panay, while the remainder were Tagalos. They were discharged 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 445 

upon arrival in the harbor, though not paid off, as the Spanish authorities pleaded lack 
of sufficient public funds, and request was submitted to permit them to land in the city. 
After much deliberation, it was decided to land such of them as desired to remain in 
Luzon on the northern shore of Manila Bay, and to send to Panay those who desired to 
go south. The two hundred, who were accompanied by their families, elected to go 
south. They were placed upon a Government transport, rationed, each given a small 
amount of money from the public funds, and departed for their homes with General 
Miller's command. The representative business men had come up from Iloilo a short 
time before for the purpose, as they asserted, of arranging matters with the Americans 
so that there might be a peaceful solution of affairs. They were introduced by some of 
the native citizens in whom confidence was placed, and expressed themselves as desir- 
ous of having the United States troops go to Iloilo, and to accompany them in order 
that they might prevail upon the people to receive them without opposition. These 
men were intelligent and apparently very much in earnest, and General Miller, who 
was present at the last conference, shared fully my opinion as to their honesty. He took 
them with him on his own transport and gave the best accommodations the vessel 
otfered, free of charge. Upon arrival at Iloilo, he sent them into the city to prepare the 
way for him and they were seen no more. He landed the discharged native soldiers on 
the Panay coast, and it is believed that they joined the insurgent ranks without taking 
much time for consideration. It was subsequently ascertained that while temporarily 
sojourning in Manila one of these representative men quietly visited Malolos, and 
received Aguinaldo's orders, which he carried with him to his people. 

Lieutenant Colonel Potter, when returning from Iloilo, had met the command of 
General Miller and had reported the situation to him when some distance north, off" the 
Panay coast. Upon receiving his report, and being ignorant of General Miller's move- 
ments, I returned him at once with the following instructions : 

Headquarters Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Manila, P. J., December 28, 1898. 
Brig. Gen. Marcus P. Miller, U. S. V., 

Commanding First Separate Brigade, Eighth Army Corps, Iloilo, P. I. 

Sir: Lieutenant Colonel Potter has just arrived and reported the situation at Iloilo. 
He reports the evacuation by the Spanish forces, and that the insurgents are in full pos- 
session ; he further reports that those authorities were anticipating your arrival, and 
that there was a widely prevailing sentiment in the city in favor of receiving your forces 
without resistance. All of this, Colonel Potter informed me, he made known to you 
when he consulted you yesterday on his return trip. 

To meet this state of afl'airs your instructions need modification, although it is 
believed you will grasp the situation as presented and be governed by conditions. Your 
instructions bid you to be conciliatory but firm, and, further, that you will not make 
any great display of force, but seek to gain possession of the city through peaceable 
negotiations, not exercising undue haste ; that should you fail to secure a peaceable 
entry into the city you will report fully your proceedings to these headquarters and 
request further instructions. 

By firmness and conciliatory action it is believed that you will be able to land your 
force without conflict, but you will make as strong a display of the same as possible, 
landing them and taking possession' of the city forcibly, if more pacific measures are 
without avail. It is, of course, necessary now, in this stage of the proceedings, to occupy 
Iloilo, and the manner of doing so must be left to your discretion, avoiding conflict if 
possible, but accepting it if necessary to accomplish the object. 

Information received here is to the effect that the insurgent forces are weak in 
strength even when united — that they are not united, but are divided in their senti- 
ments toward the United States Government, the majority being friendly disposed. 

No further instructions can be given you, and there is no disposition to limit your 
discretionary action. Conduct affiairs in accordance with the demands of the situation, 
having in view always the necessity of occupying the city with your troops. 

Colonel Potter will return as soon as you report to him the situation, unless you wish 
to retain him for a short time to acquaint him with results of action already taken or 
action which you meditate. 

Very respectfully, E. S. Otis, 

Major General, U, S. V., Commanding, 



Since writing the above I am in receipt of information from the Malolos government, 
which was gathered yesterday. Its former cabinet resigned a few days ago because of 
its inability to agree with Aguinaldo and his confidential advisers. A new provisional 
cabinet has been appointed, consisting of men hostile to American annexation, among 
whom are a number of army officers. These men are closely watching the results of 



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446 OREGOIS^ VOLUNTEEKS IN SPANISH WAR. 

your expedition and greatly hope that you will be obliged to use force to gain Hollo. 
They think that conflict there would inspire the people here to take up arms against the 
Americans. It is therefore still quite necessary to avoid force if you can do so and still 
succeed. 

E. S. Otis, 
Majo7^ General, U. S. V., Commanding. 



Headquartees Depabtment Pacif:^c and Eighth Akmy Coups, 

Manila, F, J., December 28, 1898. 
Lieut. Col. C. L. Pottek, 

Chief Engineer Officer, Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps. 

Sir : Siiice delivering to you instructions for General Miller, I am In receipt of a dis- 
patch from Admiral Dewey saying it is not practicable to send the Callao to Iloilo, and 
he further thinks the proper thing now to do is to recall the expedition, as the insur- 
gents are in full possession and will probably not give up without a fight. This expres- 
sion of view on the part of the Admiral only confirms my view that you should use 
every possible means of conciliation, and still I am not of the belief that the expedition 
can be returned. Better that we leave the war vessel and a small force to confront Iloilo 
and scatter the fbrce to other ports in the southern islands, where troops are very much 
needed at the present time. You will therefore inform General Miller to be governed by 
these views as nearly as possible. I will try and send further information in regard to 
the condition of the islands to-morrow or next day. Notwithstanding all this, I still 
hold to my view that Iloilo must be taken. 

Very respectfully, E. S. Otis, 

Major General, V. S. V., Commanding. 

Lieutena,nt Colonel Potter sailed as soon as he had received these instructions. I then 
cabled to the Adjutant General of the Army such information as I had obtained from 
Iloilo, adding in my dispatch that I could not arrive at conclusions as to results, and 
would not hear from there for four days, as cable communication had been destroyed ; 
the Spanish forces had evacuated all stations in ttie southern islands, except Zambo- 
anga, by orders, as they asserted, from Madrid. On December 80th I cabled Washington 
that — 

All military stations outside of Luzon, with the exception of Zamboanga, turned 
over by Spaniards to inhabitants, who may be denominated insurgents with more or 
less hostility to the United States. Some points we can take without friction, and could 
have taken nearly all outside of Luzon peaceably before the 23d and 24th of the month, 
when Spain withdrew her forces without our knowledge. Am waiting to hear results 
from Iloilo, and am meditating action in islands of Leyte, Samar, and Cebu, in all of 
which Luzon insurgents have been at work for several months. Conditions here at 
Manila and character of inhabitants not understood in the United States. Large num- 
ber of insurgent troops still in the field, scattered throughout Luzon provinces, and 
about 6,000 outside this city, which contains large number of sympathizers, who have 
threatened uprising. Former insurgent cabinet disrupted. Provisional one formed, 
consisting mostly of irresponsible men who demand complete independence and war 
with the United States. The situation requires delicate manipulation, and our troops 
here can not be widely scattered at present. Great majority of men of property desire 
annextion, others seek personal advancement and plunder, and promises of which hold 
insurgents together, but already much dissatisfaction in ranks and conflicts with inhab- 
itants in middle provinces. Will report further in a few days. Am in consultation with 
Admiral Dewey, now engaged in effort to stop shipments of insurgent arms from China 
and Japan through meditated seizure. We will probably send another force south within 
a short time. 

General Miller's first report was received at these headquarters on the morning of 
December 30th, and was as follows : 

Headquarters First Brigade, Eighth Army Corps, 

On Board Transport Newport, 

Iloilo Marbor, P. I., December 28, 1898 — 3 p.m. 
Adjutant General, 

Department of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps. 

Sir: I have the honor to report that my command arrived in the harbor of Iloilo 
about 10 A. M. to-day. The Arizona and Pennsylvania were left at Point Luzaron, thirty 
miles away. The Baltimore and Neivport anchored off the city. 

An aid of the commanding general, Martin Delgado, immediately reported aboard 
my ship. I gave him an interview. He reported that the commanding general desired 
to know "if we had anything against them — were we going to interfere with them ;'" 
I informed him that I had written a letter stating to his commariding officer and the 
people of Iloilo the object of my visit, and would send the letter over. Accordingly, 
Lieut. M. K. Barroll, Third Artillery, and two volunteer aids and the commission went 
to visit the commanding general. Tbey were met by a subcommittee, of tbe committer 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 447 

of which R. Lopez was president, General Delgado being present. My aids gave them 
my letter (a copy inclosed). They wanted to know of Lieutenant Barroll almost at the 
very first whether he had any instructions for them from Aguinaldo. He answered no; 
but that the instructions were from Major General Otis, commanding the Philippine 
Islands United States forces. After reading the letter they claimed that they had no 
power to act in cases affecting their federal government, but promised to meet me on 
my ship to-morrow afternoon. 

When we entered their flag was flying from two places in the city. At 3 p. m. to-day 
it was not flying. I presume this was because my letter claimed the authority of the 
Spanish Government over Iloilo, as it was abandoned by the Spanish troops. 

They were polite, but I think them determined not to give us control, except we use 
force, when they will yield without much fighting. They have taken charge of the cus- 
tomhouse and post office. They know that our troop ships are off Point Luzaron, there- 
fore I ordered them in to-night — not nearer than six miles. 

The city is quiet, but the white citizens, especially Americans, are afraid. Their force 
is estimated at 800 well-armed men, 1,000 badly-armed men, 1,000 men with guns, pikes, 
etc.; ammunition not supposed to be abundant. 

I am told now that the members of the commission are afraid to express an opinion 
in our favor. The fact thai their people are in possession of the city has changed the 
views of the many wavering ones. The longer they remain in possession collecting 
customs, running post offices, the more they will be confirmed in the idea that they can 
do it. I should recommend that force be used at once, in which case I desire the Callao, 
or some other light-draf L boat, and the California heavy artillery battalion sent down 
till the place is taken. With the forces now here and that in addition I would not 
e xpect to fire a single shot, as the native troops would never move out. I will keep you 
informed. 

Very respectfully, M. P. Miller, 

Brigadier General, U. 8. V., Commanding First Separate Brigade, 

The following is a copy of the inclosure referred to in the above communication : 

Headquartebs First Brigade, Eighth Army Corps, 
On Board Transport Newport, 

Iloilo Harbor, P. I., December ^8, 1898. 
Commanding Officer of the Troops at Iloilo, Island of Panay, 

AND the People or Iloilo and the Island of Panay: 

The troops under my command appeared here under an order of the President of the 
United States of America promulgated by Major General Otis, commanding all of the 
troops of the United States in the Philippine Islands. It is accompanied by the United 
States naval ship Baltimore, sent by Admiral Dewey, commanding the United States 
squadron in these Asiatic waters. 

When these orders were communicated to me it was supposed that the troops of Spain 
were still in possession of Iloilo, and that the transfer of possession and governmental 
authority would be by them to representatives of the Government of the United States, 
which has succeeded by virtue of conquest supplemented by treaty stipulations, to all 
the rights heretofore exercised by Spain in these islands. Upon arrival I find that the 
city of Iloilo is in the reported possession of native troops. The intention of this letter 
is to place myself in communication with those now exercising authority at Iloilo, with 
the view to the accomplishment of my mission to this place as above indicated. 

This communication will be handed you by my aid, Lieut. M. K. Barroll, Third 
Artillery, who is accompanied by four gentlemen, former residents of Iloilo, who will 
make known to you more in detail the purposes of the presence of my command at this 
place. 

There accompany my command on the steamship Union certain Spanish soldiers, 
natives of the island of Panay, whom it is my purpose, at a later date, to release with 
the privilege of returning to their homes, an act which it is hoped will be interpreted as 
an evidence of the good will of the major general commanding in the Philippines, 
under whose orders I am acting. 

I shall be pleased to receive a call from representatives of those to whom this com- 
munication is addressed on board the transport Newport at as early an hour as your 
convenience will allow. 

Very respectfully, M. P. Miller, 

Brigadier General, U. S. V., 
Commanding First Separate Brigade, Eighth Army Corps. 

General Miller's second report, dated December 30th, and forwarded by a merchant 
vessel, is as follows : 

HEADCilTARTBRS FiRST SEPARATE BRIGADE, 

On Board Transport Newport, 

Iloilo Harbor, P. I., December 30, 1898. 

Adjutant General Department of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps: 

Sir: I want to report that a committee of people having civil control of the city of 
Iloilo and claiming also control of the island, met me here yesterday at 6 p. m., and 
again claimed that they could not turn over the control of Iloilo to my command with- 
out consulting Aguinaldo. Should they agree to do it their lives and property would be 
in danger. After a long talk, setting forth the intention of our Government, explaining 
the kind of government, and reading to them extracts of your letter of instructions in 
reference to the same matter, I told them there was no time to consult Aguinaldo, and 



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448 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

my demand was that the President of the United States, as successor to the rights of 
Spain in these islands, required them to turn over the control of the city of Uoilo. I 
then asked them directly: -'Should we land, would you meet us with armed resist- 
ance?" They could not answer that question. I asked them if they would not have 
their troops march out of the city and permit us, their friends, to move in without 
resistance to-morrow, the 31st instant. They requested time to consult with the com- 
mittee that they represented, promising to return with a definite reply at noon, Decem- 
ber 30th (to-day). ' ^ 

Lieutenant Colonel Potter, corps engineer, arrived here yesterday evening with a 
letter of instructions from you to me. It is ray intention to land troops in twenty-fOur 
hours, after having served notice on the foreign consuls of the city and the people to 
that effect. ■ . -, ^ , ^ • <, 

The estimate of armed native troops to-day is 3,500, who are said to be massed m the 
city and at Jaro and Molo, and six or seven thousand from the mountains armed with 
boios, who are massed at the same places. ., 

I think I should have the Twentieth Kansas Regiment sent to me as soon as possible; 
20,000 rounds of .45 calibre ammunition for Gatling guns should be supplied. Two field 
mortars (3.6 inches), with equipments and supply of ammunition, should be sent to me 
at once. 

I forward this communication by the steamer Union. 

M. P. MiLLEB, 

Brigadier General, U. S. v., Commanding Brigade. 
General Miller's next report is dated December 31st, and was received on January 2d. 

It is as follows: ^ ^ 

Headquarters Separate Brigade, 

Jloilo Harbor, P. I., December 30, 1898. 

CO]!ilMANDING GENERAI. DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC, Manila, P. I. 

Sir: I have just concluded second conference with commission representing the 
native government at lloilo. They submitted a communication, copy inclosed here- 
with : 

This communication was supplemented by verbal statements that if we insisted on 
landing our troops, but without arms and as friends, they could not answer for the 
attitude of the people, but that the army would endeavor to restrain the people. If 
\ye landed in force they would not answer for attitude of either army or people. This 
means, plainly, armed resistance to our landing. . . , ,. . ^ 

A large number of native troops have been brought to the city withm the past thirty- 
six hours. Best estimate, 12,000, 2,500 of which are armed with rifles, the remainder Deing 
armed with bolos only. Their ammunition supply reported limited. 

The situation is further complicated by petition of lloilo merchants, representing the 
larger part of mercantile interests there, copy of which find herewith. 

I understand, General, that it was at the request of many of the parties signing this 
petition for protection of life and property at lloilo that this expedition was organized 
and dispatched to this point ; that their request was largely its justification. Their 
present attitude contradicts their previous petition in a nieasure, and as the situation, 
if forced by me by a landing of United States troops, promises great loss of life among 
noncombatants and destruction of private property at lloilo, I have deemed it best 
to delay compliance with my orders for a sufficient time to communicate the above 
information to you and receive your instructions. I am further influenced to this delay 
because of the fact that before making the formidable attack upon lloilo now necessary, 
it would be incumbent upon me to give the usual notice looking to the removal of non- 
combatants to points of safety. , , ^, ., .., x^ T. * 

I entertain no doubt of my ability to take and hold lloilo with my present force, but 
in view of excitement prevailing among inhabitants of the city and island as reported 
to me, and the large number of people assembled in the city, it might be prudent to send 
an additional regiment to this point. 

Two steam launches suitable for towing rowboats for use in landing troops are much 
needed. ^- ^ ^^ 

Very respectfully, ■ M. P. Mii^lbr, 

Brigadier General Commanding. 

The inclosure reads : 

(Translation of the letter from President Lopez, of the federal government of 
Bisayas, to General Miller.) 

GENERAii : Upon the return of your commissioners last night we determined and dis - 
cussed in a definite manner the situation and the attitude of this reason of Bisayas, in 
regard to its relations and dependence upon the central government of Luzon ; and in 
view of what these commissioners have manifested, I have the honor to notify you that, 
in conjunction with the people, the army, and committee, we insist upon our pretension 
not to consent, in our present Situation, to any foreign interference without express 
orders from the central government of Luzon, upon which we state once more that We 
depend, and with which we are one in ideas, as we have been until now in sacrifices. 

Therefore, if you insist on your side upon disembarking your forces, this is our final 
attitude. 

May God give you, etc. ^* LOPEZ, 

lloilo, December 30, 1898, President. 

To General M11.1.ER. Vice Secretary. 

The petition of merchants bore the signatures of the leading business men of lloilo, 
was of date December 29th, and read as follows : 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 449 

General MilXiER, 

Commanding United States Forces, Iloilo Bay : 

We, the undersigned merchants of Iloilo, beg you to take into consideration our large 
interests and the probable result of a conflict with the natives, which in our belief would 
seriously prejudice and harm the trade of these islands for years to come. We ask you 
to consider the orders they have received from their chief, Aguinaldo, of Malolos. 

General Miller further reported on same date (probablj^ a later hour of the day) that 
the situation remained unchanged, except it was rumored that two hundred armed men 
arrived at Iloilo from Negros. He continued : 

I this morning requested the commanding officer of the Baltimore, if compatible with 
his instructions, to take such measures as he deemed necessary to prevent the entrance 
of vessels carrying armed men into the Iloilo River, hie happened in after I got my 
letter written, and I brought the subject up. Orally he informed me that he had no 
right to do this ; that under his instructions he does not feel authorized to commence the 
attack, and acts in defense of our expedition only. 

The insurgents have occupied an old star fort at the point of the peninsula, the site of 
Iloilo, the fire of which sweeps beaches on which we propose to land. My troops have 
got to commence the attack ; I therefore shall put a mountain and gatling gun in boats 
tind open fire on their fort and a storehouse near it filled with troops, at 2,500 yards, thus 
inviting the captain of the Baltimore to help defend us by attacking the enemy to the 
best effect. 

We are aware that on the successful accomplishment of this contest depends the 
future speedy yielding of insurrectionary movements in the islands. The insurgents 
raised their flag over the fort this morning. The action as above entitled will be con- 
tingent on future instructions to be received from the department commander. 
Very respectfully, 

M. P. M1LI.ER, 
Brigadier General, U. S. A. 

The excitement in Manila and Malolos over this Iloilo affair became rapidly more 
intense and manifested itself in unmistakable signs of danger to the still languishing 
peace should an attack be made by our troops upon that city. Aguinaldo's government 
was now in full possession of very radical men, the majority of whom desired war in 
any event, and it was in a great measure dominated by his army. These men desired 
some immediate action on the part of the United States by which they might be able to 
arouse the opposition of the inhabitants against its troops, and anticipated hostilities 
at Iloilo appeared to them to oflFer the desired material. 

I had also incidentally heard from Iloilo that General Miller would probably meet 
with insurgent opposition should he attempt to make a landing there. Knowing the 
great desire of the United States Government to maintain peace by all honorable 
means, maturely considering the situation in Luzon which had been so quickly devel- 
oped, meditating the transfer later of more troops to Iloilo when the unnatural excite- 
ment should be allayed, and an opportunity presenting itself to communicate with 
General Miller by a British man-of-war, whose captain courteously offered to take any 
message I might desire to send, I sent on the evening of December 29th the following 
hastily prepared communication : 

Hbadquaetbbs Department Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Ma/nila, P. I., December 29, 1898. 
Brig. Gen. Marcus P. Miller, U. S. V., 

Commanding First Separate Brigade, Eighth Army Corps, Iloilo, Panay. 

Sir : This will be delivered to you by Captain Montgomery, of the British navy, who 
leaves for Iloilo in the morning. I enclose copy of our translation of a cablegram 
received to-day in cipher, from which you will understand the position and policy of 
our Government toward these islands. 

Do not be in haste with your negotiations for the surrender of the city. Should there 
be strong and very decided opposition to your entry, backed by considerable force, do 
not be in haste. It will not do to bombard the city, nor will it do to let the natives loot 
and burn it. Foreigners have large possessions there and a great deal of money in the 
banks. You can remain in the harbor with your force. If you meet with decided or 
strong opposition, await there further instructions, and if necessary I can direct a por- 
tion of your force to other ports in the southern islands, where you will not meet much, 
if any, opposition. I trust in your discretion. 

Very truly, yours, E. S. Otis, 

Major General, XT. S. V., Commanding. 

I contemplated at the time the sending of the First California Volunteers to the 
southern waters as soon as conditions at Manila would justify the weakening of the 
military force here, and immediately directed that regiment to be put in readiness for 
29 



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450 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

embarkation. It was placed on board five small merchant vessels preparatory to sail- 
ing at any directed moment, was retained thereon for several days, when Luzon atfairs 
indicating that it might be required for use in Manila in a short time it was returned to 
its former barracks. 

The cablegram referred to in the above letter to General Miller was the proclamation 
of the President received in cipher. The translation was completed about an hour 
before the letter was written, and was transmitted to General Miller to inform him of 
the policy which the Government intended to pursue. Neither its contents nor feasi- 
bility of immediate issue had been carefully considered. No direction for its publica- 
tion had been given and it was not supposed th£^t it would be proclaimed at Iloilo. The 
general, however, under the impression that it had been transmitted for publication, 
issued it very soon after it was received, and in his letter of January 6th informed me as 
follows : 

Three days ago I sent to the governing committee (R. Lopez, president,) a copy of 
the letter of instructions of the President, and asked that they permit the entry of my 
troops. No answer has been received, and I expect none. I had copies of the Presi- 
dent's instructions translated into Spanish and distributed to the people in various 
ways, and am informed that the people laugh at it. The insurgents call us cowards, 
and are fortifying the old fort at the point of the peninsula, and are mounting old 
smooth-bore guns left by the Spaniards. They are intrenching everywhere, are bent on 
having one fight, and are confident of victory. As I informed you in my letter of yes- 
terday, I believe we can now capture the city with the force now present, and with the 
assistance of the Navy without the loss of much life and without much destruction of 
property, and should we destroy it all I believe it would he of advantage to the city, as a 
newer city would be built up soon. The character of the natives, having been under the 
subjugation of Spain so long, is such that once well punished they will submit to fate. 
The people are superstitious and believe in fate, and now believe that fate will give 
them victory. 

His letter of the previous day, January 5th, is as follows : 

Headquarters First Separate Brigade, Eighth Army Corps, 
On Board Transport Newport, 
Iloilo Harbor, JP. I., January 5, 1899. 
Adjutant GENERAii Department of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps : 

Sir: I have the hionor to report the situation as quite serious. The native troops 
now number over 4,000 well-armed men. There are more than 12,000 armed with bolos 
and miscellaneous weapons. They are constantly intrenching about the fort and at 
the mouth of the Iloilo River. I do not allow any one on shore, as the insurgent 
commander sent me word that he would not be responsible for our unarmed men in 
town. * * * 

Last evening about 6.40 o'clock, just at dark, while at supper, the captain of the water 
boat went toward the rear of the boat, where the guard was stationed, and suddenly 
sprang at the guard with a knife, cat the head of one of the guards through the skull, 
and the other one on the arm and jaw. The latter was knocked overboard and then 
struck by the native on the head with an oar. One native then jumped overboard and 
escaped; the two others were secured. A boat from the ship was lowered and picked 
up the soldier in the water, who is not badly hurt. The soldier cut on the head is likely 
to die, but there is a slight hope for his recovery. 

I think the longer we wait before attack the harder it will be to put down the insur- 
rection. 

The city is entirely at the mercy of the Baltimore, and with her assistance, advancing 
under her guns and Captain Bridgman's battery, T have no doubt we can drive the 
insurgents out of the city, but their army will confront us outside. That situation 
would be intolerable, even if firing ceases. I would therefore recommend that a force 
sufficient to beat them badly in the open field should be prepared ready to send down, 
if required , after the city is taken. Let no one convince you that peaceful measures can 
settle the difficulty here, unless you first settle matters peacefully in Manila and Luzon 
Island. 

******** 

The English and German warships and all other large vessels in the harbor have 
daily received refugees from the city. Many of the city people with their effects are 
leaving on small coasting steamers for neighboring Islands. 

Order appears to be maintained in the city, except for Americans, who feel humiliated 
and want to get at them. 

Very respectfully, M. P. Miller, 

Brigadier General, U. S. F., Commanding. 

After fully considering the President's proclamation and the temper of the Tagalos 
with whom I was daily discussing political problems and the friendly intentions of the 
United States Government toward them, I concluded that there were certain words and 
expressions therein, such as "sovereignty," "right of eesslop," and those which directed 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 451 

immediate occupation, etc., though miost admirably employed and tersely expressive of 
actual conditions, might be advantageously used by the Tagalo war party to incite wide- 
spread hostilities among the natives. The ignorant classes had been taught to believe 
that certain words, as " sovereignty," " protection," etc., had peculiar meaning disas- 
trous to their welfare and significant of future political domination, like that from 
which they had recently been freed. It was my opinion, therefore, that I would be jus- 
tified in so amending the paper that the beneficent object of the United States Govern- 
ment would be brought clearly within the comprehension of the people, and this con- 
clusion was the more readily reached because of the radical change of the past few days 
in the constitution of Aguinaldo's government, which could not have been understood 
at Washington at the time the proclamation was prepared. It was also believed that 
the proclamation had been induced partially by the suggestions of the naval authorities 
here, which three weeks previous, and while affairs were in a specific and comparatively 
quiet state, had recomended "that the President issue a proclamation defining the 
policy of the United States Government in the Philippine Islands and assuring the 
inhabitants that it is our intention to interfere as little as possible in the internal affairs 
of the islands. That as soon as they developed their capability for self-government 
their powers and privileges will be increased. That will allay the spirit of unrest." 
These authorities at that time recommended the government of the islands as a terri- 
tory with a civilian as a governor, to be followed later by a naval and military commis- 
sion, to determine questions of a naval and military character. 

The amended proclamation was thereupon prepared, and fearing that General Miller 
would give publicity to the former, copies of which, if issued, would be circulated soon 
in Luzon, I again dispatched Lieutenant Colonel Potter to Uoilo, both to ascertain the 
course of events there and to advise the commanding general of the dangers threaten- 
ing in Luzon, and which might be augmented if any action was taken which the insur- 
gents could make use of in furtherance of their unfriendly designs. General Miller 
thought his action in making publication of the proclamation on January 3d correct, as 
he had not been instructed to the contrary, and his opinion, he contended, was con- 
firmed by a War Department dispatch which I had directed Colonel Potter to deliver to 
him, and which he had received on January 6th. He was satisfied that the use he had 
made of the proclamation was that contemplated by the War Department authorities, 
but it was not long before it was delivered at Malolos and was the object of venomous 
attack. 

Nothing further of great moment transpired at Iloilo for several successive days, and 
we return to the narrative of Manila events. General Miller, however, remained eager 
for battle, and with his command restive under the taunts of the natives and criticisms 
of foreign citizens, he repeatedly asked for permission to attack the city. Complications 
of a civil nature were also arising, as shown in his communication of January 8th, of 
which the following is a copy : 

Headquarters First Separate Brigade, Eighth Army Corps, 
On Board Transport Newport, 

Iloilo Harbor, P. J., Sunday, January 8, 1899 ~£ p. m. 

Adjutant General Department of the Pacific and Eighth Army Corps. 

Sir : I have the honor to report, for the information of the major general command- 
ing, that the situation here is not improving since my last report. I have not landed 
the Fifty-first Iowa on the island opposite to Iloilo, as two boat crews of troops of the 
Fifty-first Iowa landed on the 5th instant and were met by over 75 to 100 natives armed 
with various weapons, rifles, shotguns, and knives, who asked them their business and 
warned them off with threats of bringing out more troops if they did not go away. The 
men of the regiment are well, and the colonel does not desire to land under such circum- 
stances of hostility. The insurgents are still at work fortifying; last night they sunk 
four mud scows at the mouth of Iloilo River to prevent pasvsage of our Navy. This did 
not annoy us, as the PetreVs place for action, if we have one, is undisturbed. The city is 
so completely under the control of the warships of the Navy that we are indifferent as 
to what the insurgents do. When the time comes nothing can save insurgents in the city 
but flight. The subject most disturbing to our American minds is that a Dutch ship is 
loading with sugar ; who shall collect the duty is a question. Captain Evans and I dis- 
cussed the question last evening without conclusion. The duties will amount to 55,000, 
quite a snug sum, with which the insurgents will be able to buy machine guns, etc., if 
we leave them alone. Other ships arriving will add more and more to their revenues, 



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452 ORE^GON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

The port ought to be clbsed, if it is a practical thinj?, after due notice to foreign gov- 
ernments. We need here two good steam launches capable of towing a line of rowboats 
rapidly for landing purposes. We can not get them herewithout seizing them, and the 
good ones are under the protection of foreign flags. 

As to the insurgents yielding to the order of the President and allowing occupation, 
it will not be done unless the central government at Malolos directs them to do so. If 
we have to fight at Manila and here, I should think it better to strike the first blow here, 
as, with the assistance of the navy, result in our favor can scarcely be doubted. 
Very respectfully, 

-^ ^ M. P. MIM.EK, 

Brif/adier General, U. S. V., Commanding. 

Full official Iloilo correspondence, which was carried on about this date, together 
with reported interviews on the situation, will be found in the accompanying report of 
Brigadier General Hughes, U. S. V., now commanding there. They are of interest and 
of considerable ihaportance as showing the then existing attitude of Spanish civil oflft- 
cials toward our Government. 

The amended proclamation of January 4th appeared in the English, Spanish, and 
Tagalo languages, and was published in Manila through newspapers and posters. The 
English text was as follows : 

PROCLAMATION. 

Office of tpie Military Governor op the Philippine Islands, 

Manila, P. J., January k, 1899. 
To tfie People of the Philippine Islands .- 

Instructions of His Excellency the President of the United States relative to the 
administration of affairs in the Philippine Islands have been transmitted to me by 
direction of the honorable the Secretary of War, under date of December 28, 1898. They 
direct me to publish and proclairn, in the most public manner to the inhabitants of 
these islands that in the war against Spain the United States forces came here to destroy 
the power of that nation and to give the blessings of peace and individual freedom to 
the Philippine peox^le; that we are here as friends of the Filipinos; to protect them in 
their homes, their employments, their individual and religious liberty, and that all per- 
sons who, either by active aid or honest endeavor, cooperate with the Government of 
the United States to give effect to these beneficial purposes, will receive the reward of its 
support and protection. 

The President of the United States has assumed that the municipal laws of the coun- 
try in respect to private rights and property and the repression of crime are to be consid- 
ered as continuing in force in so far as they be applicable to a free people, and should be 
administered by the ordinary tribunals of justice, presided over by representatives of 
the people and those in thorough sympathy with them in their desires for good govern- 
ment ; that the functions and duties connected with civil andmunicipal administration 
are to be performed by such officers as wish to accept the assistance of the United States, 
chosen in so far as it may be practicable from the inhabitants of the islands ; that while 
the management of public property and revenues and the use of all public means of 
transpprtation are to be conducted under the military authorities, until such authori- 
ties can be replaced by civil administration, all private property, whether of individuals 
or corporations, must be respected and protected. If private property be taken for 
military uses it shall be paid for at a fair valuation in cash if possible, &nd when pay- 
ment in cash is not practicable at the time, receipts therefor will be given to be taken up 
and liquidated as soon as cash becomes available. The ports of the Philippine Islands 
shall be open to the commerce of all foreign nations, and goods and merchandise not 
prohibited for military reasons by the military authorities shall be admitted upon pay- 
ment of such duties and charges as shall be in force at the time of importation. 

The President concludes his instructions in the following language : 

"Finally, it should be the earnest and paramount aim of the Administration to win 
the confidence, respect, and affection of the inhabitants of the Philippines by insuring 
to them in every possible way the full measure of individual rights and liberty which is 
the heritage of a free people, and by proving to them that the mission of the United 
States is one of beneficent assimilation, which will substitute the mild sway of justice 
and right for arbitrary rule. In the fulfillment of this high mission, while upholding 
the temporary administration of affairs for the greatest good of the governed, there will 
be seduously maintained the strong arm of authority to repress disturbance, and to 
overcome all obstacles to the bestowalof the blessings of good and stable government 
upon the people of the Philippine Islands.'^ 

From the tenor and substance of the above instructions of the President, I am fully 
of the opinion that it is the intention of the United States Government, while directing 
affairs generally, to appoint the representative men now forming the controlling ele- 
ment of the Filipinos to civil positions (if trust and responsibility, and it will be my aim 
to appoint thereto such Filipinos as may be acceptable to the supreme authorities at 
Washington 

It is also my belief that it is the intention of the United States Government to draw 
from the Filipino people so much of the military force of the islands as is possible and 
consistent with a free and well-constituted government of the country, and it is my 
desire to inaugurate a policy of that character. I am also convinced that it is the inten- 
tion of the United States Government to seek the establishment of a most liberal gov- 
ernment for the islands, in which the people themselves shall have as full representation 
as the maintenance of law and order will permitj nntl which shall be susceptible of 



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orb::gon volunteers in Spanish war. 453 

development, on lines of increased representation and the bestowal of increased powers, 
into a government as free and independent as is enjoyed by the most favored provinces 
of the world. 

It will be my constant endeavor to cooperate with the Filipino people, seeking the 
good of the country, and I invite their full contidence and aid. 

E. S. Otis, 
Major General, XJ- S. F., MiUtarij Governor. 

Before publication of this proclamation I endeavored to obtain from able Filipino 
residents of the city an expression of opinion as to its probable effect upon the popula- 
tion, but was not much encouraged. A few days thereafter they declared the publication 
to have been a mistake, although the foreign residents appeared to believe the procla- 
mation most excellent in tone and moderation, ottered everything that the most hostile 
of the insurgents could expect, and undoubtedly would have a beneficial influence. It 
was received by the better classes of natives with satisfaction, as it was the first author- 
itative announcement of the attitude Avhich the United States assumed toward the 
islands and declared the policy which it intended to pursue, and because the declared 
policy was one which, in their opinion, conditions imperatively demanded should be 
imposed for the interests of the Filipino people who were incapable of self-government. 
The publication separated more widely the friendly and war factions of the inhabitants 
and was the cause of exciting discussion. 

The ablest of insurgent newspapers, which was now issued at Malolos and edited by 
the uncompromising Luna, he who had been an openly declared enemy of the United 
States from the time Manila capitulated, subsequently commanded an insurgent army 
and was assassinated while exercising chief military command of the insurgent forces, 
attacked the policy of the United States as declared in the proclamation, and its assump- 
tion of sovereignty over the islands, with all the vigor of which he was capable. He 
went further and contended that the policy as declared was merely a subterfuge to tem- 
porarily quiet the people until measures could be inaugurated and applied to put in 
practice all the odious features of government which Spain had employed. Everything 
tended simply to a change of masters for the Filipino people without amelioration of 
condition. This paper was published in Tagalo, had a considerable circulation, and was 
assisted by other Tagalo publications. No statement reflecting upon the United States 
Government and its troops in Manila was too base, untruthful, or improbable for news- 
paper circulation, and unfortunately received credit by the more ignorant of the natives, 
although the subject of ridicule or indignant comment by the abler Filipinos. Agui- 
naldo met the proclara^ation by a counter one in which he indignantly protested against 
the claim of sovereignty by the United States in the islands, which really had been con- 
quered from the Spaniards through the blood and treasure of his countrymen, and abused 
me for my assumption of the title of military governor. Even the women of Cavite 
province, in a document numerously signed by them, gave me to understand that after 
all the men were killed otF they were prepared to shed their patriotic blood for the liberty 
and independence of their country. The eltbrts made by Aguinaldo and his assistants 
made a decided impression on the inhabitants of Luzon outside of Manila, who acquired 
an unfavorable opinion, to say the least, of an American citizen, whom of course few of 
them had ever seen. The insurgent army was especially affected by this tirade of abuse 
of Americans, but agreeably so, as it had met and conquered the soldiers of Spain and 
only awaited an opportunity to demonstrate its invincibility in war with the United 
States troops cooped up in Manila and whom it had commenced to insult and charge 
with cowardice. Shortly before this time the insurgents had commenced the organiza- 
tion of clubs in the city, in which now, I was informed, amounted to ten thousand. 
The chief organizer was a shrewd mestizo, a former close companion of Aguinaldo, by 
whom he had been commissioned to perform this work. He was a friend and associate 
of some of our officers; was engaged in organizing the clubs only, as he stated, to give 
the poorer classes amusement and education ; held public entertainments in athletics to 
which our officers were invited, and in which our soldiers were asked to participate. 
Gradually arms were being secretly introduced and bolos were being manufactured, and 
distributed. The arms were kept concealed in buildings, any many of them were subse- 
quently captured. The Chinamen were carrying on a lucrative busi ness in bolo making, 



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454 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

but the provost inarshal bad cruelly seized considerable of their stock. These clubs 
had received military organization and were commanded by cunning Filipino officers 
regularly appointed by the Malolos government. The chief organizer departed after 
organization had been perfected and thereafter became a confidential adviser in Malolos 
affairs. This organization was the subject of grave apprehension, as it was composed of 
the worst social element of the city, and was kept under police supervision as closely as 
possible. It was also dreaded by the better class of Filipino inhabitants, many of whom 
believed themselves selected for assassination on account of their expressed desires for 
American protection. The streets of the city were thronged with unarmed insurgent 
officers and enlisted men from the numerically increasing insurgent line on the out- 
skirts, proud of their uniforms and exhibiting matchless conceit, amusing to our men, 
who were apparently unconcerned observers, but who were quick to take in the rapidly 
changing conditions. 

In the midst of this suppressed excitement the city was comparatively quiet, crime 
well suppressed, and business interests were flourishing. The merchants were active to 
take advantages of all avenues of trade possible. Vessels were sent to the China coasts 
for products to supply the southern ports, entered and cleared at the port of Hollo against 
the protest of General Miller, and paid the accustomed charges on dutiable goods and 
products to the insurgents, who had installed themselves there. United States consuls 
at Singapore and Hongkong asked the perplexing question whether vessels could be 
cleared for Iloilo and Cebu, and could be answered evasively only, as follows : 

Manila, P. I., January .9, 1899. 
United States Consul General Wildman, Hongkong. 

United States not yet administering civil affairs at either Iloilo or Cebu. No new 
consular action as to these ports should be inaugurated at present. 

Otis. 

The Manila Chamber of Commerce took this matter up for investigation and saw 
that the rights of merchants in ports virtually at war with the United States were 
denied. I was called upon for an explanation and addressed its secretary as follows : 

Sir: I am in receipt of the communication of the Manila Chamber of Commerce of 
yesterday, the 12th instant, in which I am informed that "the American consul at Hong- 
kong declines to dispatch steamers or vessels for Cebu and Iloilo; also, that American 
authorities here will not allow a steamer to come here with permission to proceed to 
Cebu, and request information as to the course to be pursued in the immediate future 
by the American authorities with regard to the above named ports." 

In reply, I have the honor to inform you that the United States consul at Hongkong 
having, on the 6th instant, made inquiry in the matter of clearing vessels at Hongkong, 
for Iloilo and Cebu. was answered on the 9th instant, by cable, as follows : 

"The United States not yet administering civil affairs at either Iloilo or Cebu. No 
new consular action as to these ports should be inaugurated at present." 

This message to the American consul is not considered authoritive by any means, as 
we have no auLhority to give him directions, and the matter of clearing vessels at Hong- 
kong rests entirelv within his discretion. 

To the categorical questions which you submit I am pleased to return answer as 
follows: . 

To the first question my answer is: Not by any act of the United States authorities 
at Manila. „ ., 

To the second question I reply that : Trade can be conducted, in so far as the United 
States authorities now in occupancy of these islands are concerned, the same as for- 
merly. Vessels will be cleared from this port for ports of the islands until instructions 
received from my Government indic^^te a contrary course of action. 

To the third question I can only answer that: All the instructions thus far received 
from my Government are embodied in the proclamation issued from this office on the 
4th instant, which I inclose and to which I respectfully refer. 

The consul for Great Britain wished to know why a British steamer had been sus- 
piciously dealt with and was replied to as follows : 

Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of this 
date, and to say in reply that the matter referred to therein will be investigated It is 
reported that the steamer Zweena arrived from Singapore with a general cargo, a part of 
which it appears is destined for Iloilo by same vessel. From reports received and decla- 
rations made it was beUeved that she had on board contraband of war. The reports 
received j ustified the action which has been taken in so far as search was concerned. 

And again inquiring concerning seizure at Manila of a small steamer, in which a 
British subject claimed to be interested, he received the following reply : 



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OREGON VOLUNTEMSIIS IN SPANISH WAB. 455 

Manila, P. I., January 2, ISOD. 
Hon. H. A. Ramsden, 

H. B. M. Consul, Manila, P. I. 

Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 
31st ultimo, inclosing copies of correspondence between yourself and Messrs. HoUiday, 
Wise & Co., in the matter of the seizure by the United States authorities of the steamer 
Laguna cle Bay in the Pasig River. 

The seizure of this vessel became necessary for Government purposes, and before it 
was made the owner of the same had been consulted. Later, Mr. Ashton, in your com- 
pany, called upon me at this ottice, when I assured him that the Government would 
not allows the steamer to engage in private trade on the Pasig River, and that it was 
prepared to make good to parties concerned any loss which Government action would 
entail. At the time of this conference I was under the impression that the captain of 
the port had given permission for this boat' to navigate the Pasig River, but have been 
informed to the contrary''. It is hoped that this matter can be satisfactorily adjusted in 
a few days. 

Very sincerely, yours, E. S. Otis, 

United States Military Governor. 

In the mean time the local Spanish authorities were present and desired to close up 
the pending international business. As early as December 28th, I was informed by the 
superior Spanish officer present that the treaty of peace had been concluded and that 
he wished to take up the settlement of affairs. I replied that I had not received any 
information or instructions in the matter, but as soon as received would cooperate with 
him in every way possible. On the following day he applied for permission to leave the 
islands. He was a prisoner of war, in fact, supervising the affairs of the Spanish 
prisoners present in Manila. A high-toned gentleman, a most courteous and accom- 
plished officer, our official relations had always been pleasant and agreeable. I replied 
to his application in the following terms: 

Office of the United States Military Governor, 

Manila, P. J., December 9JJ, 1898. 
Division General Francisco Rizzo, 

Commanding Spanish Forces, Manila, P. I. 

General : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this instant 
requesting passport to return to Spain next month, and in reply thereto I hasten to 
inform you that you are free to leave at any time you may desire, and that it will give 
me great pleasure to render you every assistance that you may need in making the 
necessary preparations for your departure on so long a voyage. 

I am, General, with much esteem, your obedient servant, E. S. Otis, 

Major General, U. S. V., United States Military Governor. 

Shortly thereafter General Rios, general of division of the Spanish army, who had 
been commanding in the south, arrived in Manila. He had. been directed by his gov- 
ernment to supervise, as acting governor general, Spanish interests in the islands, and 
at once addressed himself vigorously to the settlement of affairs and the shipment of 
Spanish prisoners, for which I had received authority. In personal conferences, through 
numerous communications and written requests, he occupied considerable of the time 
of the United States authorities, although it was yet impossible to consider many of the 
matters which he presented, since the Paris treaty had not received ratification. A few 
responses to the letters he submitted indicate the variety of the subjects which he 
wished promptly attended to and the difficulties of compliance. They are as follows : 

Office United States Military Governor 
IN the Philippine Islands, 

Manila, P. I., January 9, 1899. 
His Excellency Diego de los Rios y Nicalau, 

General of Division, Spanish Army, Manila, P. I. 

General : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this instant, 
referring to embarkation of Spanish troops, prisoners of war, on the Ilth instant, and 
to say in reply that there is no objection on the part of the United States Governnaent, 
and that I will give appropriate instructions to the officials having charge of such busi- 
ness to have your excellency's desires consummated. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 'E,. S. Otis, 

Major General, IT. S. V., 
United Slates Military Governor in the Philippines. 



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456 OREGON VOLUNTEEKS IN SPANISH WAK. 

January 10, 1890, 

General: In a hurried communication of last evening, sent in respjonse to your 
letter of yesterday, in which you inform me that you must discharge in Mindanao, 
about 2,000 troops who were taken there from the Visayan and Luzon islands, and 
further say that it is impossible to scatter them to their homes, I suggested that the 
Visayans might be taken to Iloilo and I will see that the necessary orders are given to 
the United States authorities there to permit them to land upon arrival. The Luzon 
men will probably give great trouble if they are brought into the harbor of Manila 
at the present time. Many of those already received here escaped from the authorities, 
and with the convicts sent by you have fixed themselves in Manila, where they give a 
good deal of annoyance. We can not receive any more of these troops in the city at 
present, and I wish you would delay sending them to this island. After a short period 
we may be able to take them and send them to their respective homes. I am very 
desirous of giving this matter full consideration before arriving at further conclusions. 

I would like to be informed of the approximate number of Visayans, and also the 
number of Luzon men you intend to bring north, stating each class separately. 



January 12, 1899. 

Generaij : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of 
the 10th instant, in which you request me to direct my officers to hand over to the chiefs 
of the several departments of the Spanish hacienda certain public documents belonging 
to the Spanish Government, etc. 

In reply permit me to state that since our late conversation on this subject I tele- 
graphed my Government of your desire in this particular and I have not yet received 
any res^jonse. 

Being, as I am, entirely ignorant, in so far as official information is concerned, of the 
relations existing between Spain and the United States at the present time, I do not 
think I have the power to act favorably upon your request until the instructions of my 
Government are received. 

January U, 1899. 

Genekal : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 21st 
instant, referring to your wish to appoint a Spanish clerk in the Manila post office, and 
in reply would say that I am unable to grant your request, as the appointment of all 
postal clerks is under the exclusive control of the Post Office Department of the United 
States. 

' January 16, 1899. 

GENERAiii I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 15th 
instant just receiyed, referring to the embarkation of about 400 Spanish troops, pris- 
oners of war, on the steamship Monserrat, and to say in reply that there is no objection 
on the part of the United States. Appropriate instructions will be given to the officials 
having charge of such business in order that your excellenciy's desires may be consum- 
mated. 



January 20, 1899. 

General, : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of yesterday 
received this morning, in which you inform me that there are about 630 native troops 
there belonging to the Visayas. 

As soon as you desire to assemble the men and turn them over, I can send therh to 
Iloilo under proper guard. Concerning the Luzon men, we will be glad to send them to 
some point nearer Manila than Albay. 

I have instructed General Hughes to make all necessary arrangements for the ship- 
ment of the Visayans and he will confer with any officer you may be pleased to name 
in t-egard to the matter, 

January 2A, 1899. 

General : I have given instructions to the custodian and treasurer of public funds 
to permit any committee whom you may appoint to examine the books and records of 
that office for the period of time previous to American occupation of Manila. 

The treasurer will be pleased to show you exhibits of the contents of the safes of the 
treasury as reported by board of officers appointed under authority from these head- 
quarters. The safes were sealed after this board had inventoried the contents and have 
not since been opened. 

January £3, 1899. 

General : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 24th 
instant, and in reply to say that I have directed the captain of the port to permit the 
ladies, children, and Mr. Richard Fernandez and his assistant, now on the General Alva, 
to land. I have also directed him to permit the officers upon that vessel to visit you on 
official business, and to permit a small party to land daily for the purpose of purchasing 
supplies. 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 457 

January 26, 1899. 

General.: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter requesting 
that the regimental records, books, and documents belonging to the Spanish troops 
formerly occupying certain barracks in this city be returned to you. In accordance 
with your request I Mill instruct the provost marshal general to turn over to any officer 
whom you may name to receive the same, all records belonging to Spanish regiments 
which are in the possession of the United States authorities. 

It should be remembered that at the time United States occupation of the city com- 
menced a great deal of public property was abandoned hj the Spanish officials, never 
having been turned over under the terms of capitulation. The United States authorities 
have collected and preserved all such property in so far as it was possible for them to 
do so. 



Manila, P. I., January 26, 1899. 
Brig. Gen. Vicente Arizmendiz, 

Spanish Army, Manila, P. J. 

Sir : I am directed by the militarj'^ governor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of the 2Hh instant, referring to a commission of the Spanish army of which you had 
been appointed president by his excellency General Diego de los Rios, Spanish army, 
and in reply to say that he has not yet received any information as to the terms of the 
treaty of peace between the Governments of Spain and the United States, now awaiting 
ratification, and that he is not therefore at this time prepared to enter upon the subject 
of the final disposition of Spanish troops, records, funds, and property under the control 
of the United States forces in the Philippine Islands. 

Very respectfully, C. H. Murray, 

Captain, Fourth U. iS. Cavalry, Aid. 

Manila, January 29, 1899. 
His Excellency Diego de los Rios y Nicalatj, 

Division General, Spanish Army, Manila, JP. I. 

General : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of 
yesterday, and beg to reply that instructions have been given to the United States oflficer 
who was placed in supervisory charge of the building containing the mint to give the 
necessary orders to enable you to carry out your expressed wish. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, E. S. Otis, 

Major General, U. S. V., United States Military Governor. 



January 31, 1899. 

General : Replying further to your communication of thelTth instant, to that por- 
tion of the same which asks that "permission be given for the withdrawal of everything 
concerning the settlement in hand, and which does not affect the treasury of the estab- 
lishment, properly speaking," I have the honor to state that I have received as yet no 
instructions from the United States Government concerning these matters, and am 
ignorant of the terms of the pending treaty between Spain and the United States, now 
awaiting ratification. 1 am, therefore, powerless to act understandingly until I receive 
information and directions from Washington, which will doubtless be furnished ine as 
soon as the proposed treaty receives validity. 

In the mean time I shall be glad to further your desires in every way in so far as I am 
able, and it will be possible for me to adopt some preliminary measures, subject to 
future confirmation. * * * 

The inference may be drawn from the tenor of the foregoing replies to the written 
application of General Rios, that time was sought to properly meet his demands. Time 
was required to consider fully what specific action was necessary to guard United States 
interests and its rights under the treaty, which was not yet of validity, not having 
received ratification. But it was also deemed inexpedient to enter upon any course of 
proceedings which should embarrass the United States Government in case the pro- 
posed treaty should ultimately fail of confirmation. Not until January 31st were the 
preliminaries of any decided course determined upon, except in so far as the repatria- 
tion of prisoners and the surrender of strictly military property and records were con- 
cerned. Then a board of oflScers was appointed for the purpose shown in Department 
orders of that date, which reads as follows : 

4. A board of officers, to consist of Maj. Charles McClure, chief paymaster of the 
department; Maj. 0. U. Gantenbein, Second Oregon, U. S. V., and Second Lieut. M. A. 
Hildreth, First North Dakota, U. S. V., is hereby appointed to meet and confer with a 
committee named by his excellency Division General Diego de los Rios y Nicalau, Span- 
ish army, for the purpose, as stated, "of clearing the accounts of the Spanish Gov- 
ernnaent in the Philippines." The board will determine upon some definite course of 
procedure by which the Spanish committee can have access to all records and documents 
now in possession of the United States authorities which it may desire to consult, and 
will arrange therefor. No property or records can be delivered until the proposed treaty 



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458 .OREGON VOLUNTEEKS IN SPANISH' WAK. 

receives validity through ratification, and the board will continue its sessions anticipa- 
ting that event, when definite instructions looking to a settlement of public afl'airs, judi- 
cial and executive, can be conveyed. The board will ascertain fully the desires of the 
committee as to the nature and full extent of its desired action and give it every possi- 
ble facility consistent with the present status of affairs. 

On January 81st two hundred and one commissioned ofl^cers and two thousand five 
hundred and forty-one enlisted men, prisoners of war, and about two hundred sick offi- 
cers, also prisoners, who departed individually under privileges specially granted, had 
sailed for Spain. Several thousand remained within the walled town, whose probable 
conduct ill the event of serious disturbances within the city was the subject of much 
speculative discussion. 

From August, 1898, to the time the treaty of Paris came from the representatives of 
the contracting Governments, the insurgents had maintained their niilitary lines 
around Manila on the plea that they desired to be prepared to meet the soldiers of Spain, 
should she return to her late possessions. As soon as the result of the treaty negotia- 
tions became known, the dishonesty of that plea became fully apparent. Then the crisis 
in the insurgent government was at hand. Aguinaldo and his able adviser, Mabini, the 
man who bad furnished the brains for the radical element and who, in fact, was the 
government, proposed to transfer the declaration of open hostilities from Spain to the 
United States. This the conservative members of the cabinet and congress would not 
countenance, and the result was their withdrawal. Mabini was able to form a new cab- 
inet with himself as dictator, and to dominate the remaining members of congress. 
Independence was the cry and the extermination of the Americans the determination. 
They sought an excuse to inaugurate hostilities, but the United States had kept strictly 
within its legal rights and had simply performed its international obligations. Repeated 
efforts were made to secure some mark of recognition for their government from the 
American authorities, some of which appeared to be quite cunningly devised. I was 
addressed by so-called ministers of state on diplomatic subjects, and was visited by 
accredited members of the Malolos government. The various foreign consuls resident 
in Manila were officially informed by this government of its proceedings and furnished 
with copies of its so-called decrees. Never since the time Aguinaldo returned to Cavite 
in May of 1898 and placed himself under the masterful spirit of Mabini had he the 
slightest intention to accept the kind offices and assistance of the United States, except 
as they might be employed to hold Spain throttled while he worked the scheme of self- 
aggrandizement. His success was not in the least astonishing, as after the various 
islands had driven out the few remaining and discouraged soldiers of their openly 
declared enemy, they naturally turned to Luzon for some form of central government, 
the islands of the south being well aware of their inability to maintain successful sepa- 
rate and distinct political establishments. The crude one in process of formation in 
central Luzon offered itself through its visiting agents and was accepted in part (not- 
withstanding race animosities and divergent business interests) and very probably 
because no other alternative offered. The eight months of opportunity given the ambi- 
tious Tagalo by the hold on Spain which the United States maintained was sufficient 
also for him to send his troops and designing men into the distant provinces and hold 
the unarmed natives in subjection while he imposed military authority, and thus in 
December, 1898, we find in northern and southeastern Luzon, in Mindoro, Samar, Leyte, 
Panay, and even on the coast of Mindanao and in some of the smaller islands, the 
aggressive Tagalo, present in person, and whether civilian or soldier, supreme in 
authority. The success which attended the political efforts of Aguinaldo and his close 
associates, and gave them such sudden and unexi^ected power was not calculated to 
induce them to accept subordinate positions in a reestablished government, and the 
original premeditated intention to control supremely at least a portion of the Filipino 
people had become firmly fixed. The cry for liberty and independence (really license 
and despotism under their governing methods) and the vile aspersions of the motives 
of the United States, which they have widely circulated, have served them to stir up 
distrust and fear of the American among the people to a considerable extent, especially 
those of Tagalo origin. The charge which they continually brought, until December 



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OREGON A^OLUKTEERS TN SPANISH WAR. 459 

last, that the United States administration in power intended to restore the islands to 
Spain, which until then was the chief cause of discontent and excitement, and in the 
asserted truth and circulation of which they were greatly assisted by the Spanish, resi- 
dent and representative, fell ilat when the result of the labors of the Paris treaty com- 
missions became known. Then the pretext that the United States was about to substi- 
tute itself for Spain, continuing all her former governing abuses, including the imposed 
authority of the hated friar, was resorted to and had its etfect on the ignorant masses. 
Whatever action the United States might now take, except to immediately withdraw 
its authority and subject the people to anarchy and the European vast property inter- 
ests in these islands to destruction, could be so tortured as to support this pretext. It 
was eagerly waited for by the now irresponsible band of conspirators at Malolos, few of 
whom had anything to lose and everything to gain by inciting hostility. The United 
States proclamation issued on the 4th of January offered them the first opportunity 
and was the opportunity which they desired. No sooner was it published than it 
brought out a virtual declaration of war from, in this instance at least, the wretchedly 
advised President Aguinaldo, who, on January 5th, issued the following: 

The government of the Philippines has considered it its duty to set forth to the civi- 
lized powers the facts determining the rupture of its amicable relations with the Army 
of the United States of America in these islands, to the end that they may thereby reach 
the conviction that I, for my part, have done everything possible to avoid it, although 
at the cost of many rights uselessly sacrificed. 

After the naval combat, which occurred on May 1st of last year, between the Spanish 
squadron and that of America, the commander of the latter consented to ray return 
from Hongkong to this beloved soil, and he distributed among the Filipinos some rifles 
found in the arsenal at Cavite, doubtless with the intention of reestablishing the revo- 
lution, somewhat quieted by the convention of Biac-na-bato, in order to have the Fili- 
pinos on his side. 

The people, influenced by the declaration of war between the United States and 
Spain, understood the necessity of flghting for their liberty, feeling sure that Spain 
would be destroyed and rendered incapable of leading them along the road to prosperity 
and progress. The Filipinos hailed my advent with joy, and I had the honor of being 
proclaimed leader on account of the services which I had rendered in the former revo- 
lution. 

Then all the Filipinos without distinction of classes took arms, and every province 
hastened to expel from its frontiers the Spanish forces. This is the explanation of the 
fact that, after the lapse of so short a period of time, my government rules the whole of 
Luzon, the Visaya Islands, and a part of Mindanao. 

Although the North Americans took no part in these military operations, which cost 
no little blood and gold, my government does not disavow the fact that the destruction 
of the Spanish squadron and the gift of some rifles from the arsenal to my people influ- 
enced the progress of our arms to some extent. It was also taken for granted that the 
American forces would necessarily sympathize with the revolution which they had 
managed to encourage, and which had saved them much blood and great hardships ; 
and, above all, we entertained absolute confldence in the history and traditions of a 
people which fought for its independence and for the abolition of slavery, which posed 
as the champion liberator of oppressed peoples; we felt ourselves under the safeguard 
of a free people. 

The Americans, seeing the friendly disposition of the Filipino people, disembarked 
forces at the town of Paranaque and took up positions all along the line occupied by my 
iroops, as far as Maytubig, taking possession of many trenches occupied by my people, 
by the employment of astuteness, not unaccompanied by violence. They forced a capit- 
ulation on the garrison of Manila, which, inasmuch as it was invested by my troops, 
was compelled to surrender at the first attack. In this I took a very active part, 
although I was not notified, my forces reaching as far as the suburbs of Malate, Ermita, 
Paco, Sampaloc, and Tondo. 

Notwithstanding these services, and although the Spaniards would not have surren- 
dered but for the fact that my troops had closed every avenue of escape to the towns of 
the interior, the American generals not only ignored me entirely in the stipulations for 
capitulation, but also requested that my forces should retire from the port of Cavite and 
the suburbs of Manila. 

I represented to the' American generals the injustice done me, and requested in 
friendly terras that they should at least expressly recognize my cooperation, but they 
utterly declined to do so. Nevertheless, being always desirous of showing friendliness 
and good feeling toward those who called themselves liberators of the Philippine people, 
I ordered my troops to evacuate the port of Cavite and the suburbs of Erinita, Malate, 
Sampaloc, and Tondo, retaining only a portion of the suburb of Paco. 

In spite of these concessions, not many days passed before Admiral Dewey, without 
any reason whatever, arrested our steam launches which had been plying in the bay of 
Manila with his express consent. Almost at the same time I received a letter from 
General Otis, commander of the American army of occupation, demanding that I 
should withdraw my forces beyond the lines of a map which he also sent me, arid which 
showed within the lines the town of Pandacan and the hamlet of Singalong, which 
never have belonged to the municipal area of Manila and its suburbs. 

In view of this unjustifiable attitude of both American leaders, I summoned a coun- 
cil of my generals and asked the advice of my cabinet, and in conformity with the 



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460 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

opinion of both bodies I named commissioners, who placed themselves in communica- 
tion with these Americans. Although Admiral Dewey received in an insolent manner 
and with aggressive phrases my commissioners, whom he did not permit to speak, I 
yielded to the friendly suggestions of General Otis, withdrawing my forces to the desired 
line for the purpose of avoiding contact with his troops. This gave rise to many misun- 
derstandings, but I hoped that once the Paris conference was at an end my people would 
obtain the independence promised them by the consul general in Singapore, Mr. Pratt, 
and that the friendship formerly assured and proclaimed in manifestoes and speeches 
w^ould be established by the American generals who have reached these shores. 

But it did not turn out thus. The said generals accepted my concessions in favor of 
peace and friendship as indications of Aveakness. Thus it is that, with rising ambition, 
they ordered forces to Iloilo oh December 26th, with the purpose of acquiring for them- 
selves the title of conquerors of that portion of the Philippine Islands occupied by my 
government. 

Such procedure, so foreign to the dictates of culture and the usages observed by civi- 
lized nations, gave me the right to act without observing the usual rules of intercourse. 
Nevertheless, in order to be correct to the end, I sent to General Otis commissioners 
charged to solicit him to desist from his rash enterprise, but they were not listened to. 

My government can not remain indifferent in view of such a violent and aggressive 
seizure of a portion of its territory by a nation which has arrogated to itself the title, 
champion of oppressed nations. Thus it is that hiy government is disposed to open 
hostilities if the American troops attempt to take forcible possession of the Visaya 
Islands. I denounce these acts before the world, in order that the conscience of man- 
kind may pronounce its infallible verdict as to who are the true oppressors of nations 
and the tormentors of human kind. 

Upon their heads be all the blood w^hich may be shed. Emilio Aguinaldo. 

Malolos, Jamiary 5, 1899. 

A number of copies of this unfortunate declaration were speedily sent out for circu- 
lation among the people, when an effort was made to recall them and substitute an 
amended edition, but a few had found their way to Manila and were eagerly sought 
after by the citizens. That evening the insurgent newspaper, entitled The Herald of the 
devolution, published a supplement in which the following appeared : 

officiaij manifesto of the phesident of the kevolutionary goveri^ment ! 

To my Brothers, the Filipinos, and to All Respectable Consuls and Other Foreigners : 

A proclamation of Mr. E. S. Otis, major general of the United States Volunteers, 
appeared in Manila papers yesterday, compelled me to issue fbe present, with a view 
to expose to all who read and understand the present document my most solemn pro- 
test against the whole contents of the said proclamation, the duties of my conscience 
toward 6od, my political compromises toward my beloved people, and my private and 
official relationship with the United States nation, all of which forced me to do so. 

The General Otis called himself in the said proclamation military governor of the Phil- 
ippine Islands. I protest one and a thousand times, with all the energy of my soul, 
against such authority. 

I solemnly declare that neither at Singapore, Hongkong, nor here in the Philippines 
did I ever agree, by word or in writing, to recognize the sovereignty of America in this 
our lovely country. On the contrary, I declare that I returned to these islands, trans- 
ported by the United States man-of-war, on the 19th of May last, with the decided and 
firm intention to fight the Spaniards in order to reconquer our liber t.y and independ- 
ence. I have thus declared in my official proclamation dated May 24th, and I have like- 
wise published in a manifest addressed to the Filipino people on the 12th of June last, 
when in my native village of Kawil, I exhibited for the first time our holy national flag 
as a sacred emblem of that sublime aspiration, and finally, so it was confirmed by the 
American general, Mr. Merritt, antecessor of Mr. E, S. Otis, in the manifest which he 
addressed to the Filipino people days before he intimated the Spanish general, Mr. 
Jaudenes, the surrender of the city of Manila, in which manifest he clearly and posi- 
tively said that the army and navy of the United States came here to give us-our liberty 
and destroy the bad rule of the Spanish Government. To say all at a tinier nationals 
and foreigners are witnesses that the armj'^ and navy of the United States stationed 
here have acknowledged the fact of the belligerency of the Filipinos, whose flag has 
triumphantly crossed our seas before the eyes of the foreign nations here represented 
by their respective consuls. 

As in GeneralOtis's proclamation he alluded to some instructions edited by His 
Excellency the President of the United States, referring to the administration of the 
matters in the Philippine Islands, I, in the name of God, the root and fountain of all 
j ustice, and that all of the right which has been visibly granted to me to direct my dear 
brothers in the difficult work of our regeneration, protest most solemnly against this 
intrusion of , the United States Government on the sovereignty of these islands. 

I equally protest in the name of the Filipino people against the said intrusion, 
because as they have granted their vote of confidence appointing me president of the 
nation, although I don't consider that I deserve such, therefore I consider it my duty to 
defend to death its liberty and independence. 

Finally, I protest against such an unexpected act of sovereignty of the United States 
in these islands, in the name of all the proceedings which I have in my possession with 
regard to my relationship with the United States authorities, which unmistakably prove 
that the United States did not take me from Hongkong to fight the Spaniards for their 
benefit, but for the benefit of our liberty and independence, for which purpose the said 
authorities verbally promised ihe their most decided assistance and efficacious coopera- 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 461 

tion ; and so should you all my dear brothers understand, in order that we may united 
act according to the idea of our liberty and independence, which were our most noble 
desires, and assist with your work to obtain our aim with the strength which our old 
conviction may afTord and must not go back in the way of glory which we have obtained. 

The unmistakable intention of Aguinaldo, as shown in these proclamations, taken in 
connection with the well known fact that what remains of his congress was subservient 
to Mabini's dictation, was ample notice to the troops to prepare for hostile demonstra- 
tions on the part of the insurgent army. Greater precautionary measures w^ere directed 
and taken in the w^ay of redistributing organizations throughout the city, in advancing 
and strengthening (though still far within our own mutually conceded miUtary lines) 
our posts of observation, and for the quick response of the men if summoned for defen- 
sive action. Otherwise no change in the conduct, condition, or temper of the troops was 
observable. So quietly were these precautions effected that Filipino citizens, noticing 
the apparent indifference of our men, warned me repeatedly of the danger to be appre- 
hended from a sudden simultaneous attack of the insurgents within and w^ithout the 
city, and were quietly informed that we did not anticipate any great difficulty. Another 
very noticeable proof of premeditated intent on the part of the insurgents was preceived 
in the excitement manifested by the natives and their removal in large numbers from 
the city. All avenues of exit were filled with vehicles transporting families and house- 
hold effects to surrounding villages. The railway properties were taxed to their utmost 
capacity in carrying the fleeing inhabitants to the north within the protection of the 
established insurgent military lines. Aguinaldo, by written communications and mes- 
sages, invited his old-time friends to send their families to Malolos, where their safety 
was assured, but Hongkong was considered a more secure retreat and was taken advan- 
tage of. A carefully prepared estimate showed that forty thousand of the inhabitants 
of the city departed within the period of fifteen days. 

Early in the month I had cabled the authorities at Washington that open hostilities 
at Iloilo meant war throughout the islands, and that I had cautioned General Miller 
and the troops at Iloilo Harbor; and on the 9th instant I received a joint dispatch 
signed by the Secretaries of the Army and Nav^^ and addressed to Admiral Dewey and 
myself, conveying the instructions and suggestions of the President, which were in part 
as follows : 

Am most desirous that conflict be avoided. Your statement that a conflict at Iloilo 
or at any other southern ports means war in all the islands increases that desire. Such 
conflict would be most unfortunate considering the present, and might have results 
unfavorably affecting the future. Glad you did not permit Miller to bring on hostili- 
ties. Time given the insurgents can not injure us, and must weaken and discourage 
them. They will see our benevolent purposes and recognize that before we can give 
them good government our sovereignty must be conceded and unquestioned. Tact and 
kindness most essential at this time. * * * We accepted the Philippines from high 
duty in the interests of their inhabitants and for humanity and civilization. Our sac- 
rifices were made with this humane motive. We desire to improve the condition of the 
inhabitants, seeking their peace, liberty, and pursuit of their highest good. * * * Will 
send commissioners if you think desirable to cooperate with you both in your delicate 
task. They can not leave here for two weeks or reach Manila for two months. * * * If 
possible to hasten repatriation of Spanish soldiers before the treaty is ratified it will be 
done. * * * Hope good counsel will prevail among the inhabitants and that you will 
find means to avoid bloodshed and restore tranquillity to that unhappy island. How 
is the health of Miller's command ? 

When this dispatch was shown Admiral Dewey he immediately remarked that he 
had recommended a commission, and desiring to be in accord with him I cabled as fol- 
lows : 

Manila, P. I., January 10, 1899. 
Adjutant Generate, Washington. 

Have conferred with Admiral Dewey. We think commissioners of tact and discre- 
tion could do excellent work here. Great difficulty is that leaders can not control igno- 
rant classes. Health of Miller's command good. 

I also cabled : 

Our troops well in hand and confident that we can meet emergencies. Long confer- 
ence last night and concessions asked, but insurgents have no definite idea of what they 
want. Further conference to be held. If peace kept for few days more immediate danger 
will have passed. 

The injunctions of His Excellency the President of the United States to exert our- 



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462 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

selves to preserve the peace had an excellent effect upon the command. Officers and 
men, confident of their ability to successfully meet the declared enemy, were restless 
under the restraints Avhich had been imposed and were eager to avenge the insults 
received. Now they submit very quietly to the taunts and aggressive demonstrations 
of members of the insurgent army who continue to throng the streets of the business 
portions of the city. 

Subsequent to January 5th, and before the President's message had been received, I 
was approached by influential Filipino gentlemen (through an agent, an American 
citizen, they feaiiog that their individual safety would be endangered should they call 
in person,) who expressed a strong desire for continued peace and an harmonious settle- 
ment of difficulties. They asked me to appoint a commission which could confer with 
one to be appointed by the Malolos government, with a view to working out a plan for 
the adjustment of the conflicting political interests of the parties concerned. Reply 
was made that the so-called Malolos government could not be officially recognized by 
word or act, but that I would gladly call a board of officers to confer with one which 
Cleneral Aguinaldo might appoint. The gentlemen made two or three hurried trips to 
Malolos, and on January 9th I received the following communication : 

MALOiiOS, January 9, 1899. 
Maj. Gen. E. S. Otis, 

G-eneral of the Amei^ican Forces of Occupation in Manila. 

General : I have been informed after the interview between the commissioners of 
my governhient and Mr. Carman that there will be no inconvenience on your parti a 
naming, as commanding general, representatives that will confer with those whom I 
will name for the same object. 

Although it not being explained to me the reason why you could not treat with the 
commissioners of my government, I have the faculty fordoing the .same with those of 
the commanding generkl, "who can not be recognized." Nevertheless, for the sake of 
peace, I have considered it advisable to name, as "commanding general," a commission 
composed of the following gentlemen: Mr. Florentino Flores, Eufrasio Flores, and 
Manuel Arguellcs, that they may together represent me and arrive at an accord with 
those whom you will name, with the object of using such methods as will normalize the 
actual situation created by the attitude of your Government and troops. 

If you will deign to attend to said commissioners and through these methods come to 
some understanding, "if only temporary," that will insure the peace and harmony 
among ourselves, the Filipino public would reach a grateful glory. 

I am yours. General, with the highest consideration, your most respected servant, 

Emilio Aguinai^^o. 

Reply was at once made to Aguinaldo' s peculiar letter, and was expressed in the 
following terms : 

Headquarters Dbpart^eent Pacific and Eighth Army Corps, 

Manila, P. I., January ,9, 1899. 
General Emii.io Aguinaxdo, 

Connmanding Revolutionary Forces, Malolos, P, I. 

General : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of 
to-day, and am much pleased at the action you have taken. I greatly regret that you 
have not a clear understanding of my position and motives, and trust that my explana- 
tion, assisted by the conference I have invited, will make them clear to you. 

In my official capacity I am merely the agent of the United States Government to 
conduct its affairs under the limits w^hich its constitution, laws, precedents, and specific 
instructions prescribe. 1 have not the authority to recognize any national or civil 
power not already formally recognized by my Government, unless specially authorized 
to do so by the instructions of the Executive of the United States. For this reason I 
was unable to receive officially the representatives of the revolutionary government, 
and endeavored to make that inability clear to the distinguished gentlemen with whom 
I had the pleasure to converse a few evenings since. You will bear witness that my 
course throughout niy entire official connection with affairs here has been consistent, 
and it has pained me that I have not been able to receive and answer communications 
of the cabinet officers of the government at Malolos, fearing that I might be erroneously 
charged with lack of courtesy. 

I^ermit me now, briefly, General, to speak of the serious misunderstanding which 
exists between the Filipino people and the representatives of the United States (xovej-n- 
ment, and which I hope that our commissioners, by a thorough discussion, may be able 
to dispel. I sincerely believe that all desire peace and harmony, and yet by the machi- 
nations of evil-disposed persons we have been influenced to think that Tve occupy the 
position of adversaries. 'JChe Filipinos appear to believe that we meditate attack, while 
I am under the strict orders of the President of the United States to avoid conflict in 
every way possible. My troops, wi tnessing the earnestness, the comparatively distu rbed 
and unfriendly attitude of the revolutionary troops, and many of thecltizens of Manila, 
conclude that active hostilities have been determined upon, although it must be clearly 
within the comprehension of unprejudiced and reflecting minds that the welfare and 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 463 

happiness of the Filipino people depends upon the friendly protection of the United 
States. The hand of Spain was forced, and she has acknowledged before the whole 
world that all her claimed rights in this country have departed by due process of law. 
This treaty acknowledgment, with the conditions which accompany it, awaits ratifica- 
tion by the Senate of the United States; and the action of its Congress must also be 
secured before the Executive of that Government can proclaim a definite policy. That 
policj^ must conform to the will of the people of the United States expressed through its 
representatives in Congress. For that action the Filipino people should wait, at least, 
before severing the existing friendly relations. I am governed by a desire to further the 
interests of the Filipino people and shall continue to labor with that end in view. There 
shall be no conflict of forces if I am able to avoid it ; and still I shall endeavor to main- 
tain a position to meet all emergencies that may arise. 

Permit me to subscribe myself, General, with the highest respect, your most obedient 
servant, 

E. S. Otis, 
Major General,, U. S. V., Commanding. 

The following order calling aboard was thereupon issued, and the president of the 
same was directed to arrange for a meeting with the commission appointed by Agui- 
naldo as soon as practicable : 

Special Okders, | Headquakteks Depaktment Pacific 

No. 9. J AND Eighth Army Corps, 

Manila, P. I., January 9, 189S. 
[Kxtract.] 

8. Brig. Gen. R. P. Hughes, U. S. V., Col. James F. Smith, First California Volunteers, 
Lieut. Col. E. H. Crowder, Judge Advocate, U. S. Volunteers, are hereby appointed a 
commission to meet a commission of like number appointed by General Aguinaldo, and 
to confer with regard to the situation of affairs, and tx> arrive at a mutual" understand- 
ing of the intent, purposes, aim, and desires of the Filipino people and the people of the 
United States, that peace and harmonious relations between these respective peoples 
may be continued. 

By command of Major General Otis. Thomas H. Barry, 

Assistant Adjutant General. 

The representative boards engaged in joint conference on the evening of the day the 
order was issued, and had repeated and prolonged evening sessions, sometimes extend- 
ing far into the night. Minutes of proceedings were kept and submitted, and the 
various extended arguments indulged in were duly reported to me after the adjourn- 
ment of each special session. The board representing the insurgent interests could not 
give any satisfactory explanation of the qualified sovereignty, measure of protection, 
or specific autonomy which it thought should be vested in or enjoyed by the respective 
governments, nor present any practical plan for the solution of the vexed political prob- 
lems which constantly arose in the progress of the discussion. It conceded the fact that 
the protection of the United States was essential to the welfare and integrity of the 
islands, but could not determine how that protection should be applied ; certainly not 
to the extent of interference with internal affairs further than the collection of customs, 
possibly, from which source the United States might receive a compensation for the pro- 
tection furnished. They begged for some tangible concession from the United States 
Government — one which they could present to the people and which might serve to 
allay the excitement. Nothing could be accomplished without the sacrifice of some of 
the attributes of sovereignty, and certainly that could not be done by any existing 
authority. 

Finally, the conferences became the object of insurgent suspicion, and of amusement 
to those who did not wish beneficial results. The newspapers announced that a peace 
commission was about to be sent from the United States, and it was observed that the 
volunteers were not being sent home as the newspapers announced had been ordered. 
What was the meaning of this commission when one was in session already and why 
were the regular regiments being dispatched from the United States ? The United States 
authorities were merely endeavoring to gain time to place themselves in position to 
impose slavery on the Filipinos. 

The members of the insurgent board inquired of our otficers as to these matters. 
Upon the report of facts by General Hughes I informed him that I would address him 
an explanatory letter which he could present, if he chose, at the next and last confer- 
ence, and accordingly sent him the following communication ; 



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464 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

Office United States Military Governor 
IN the Philippine Islands, 

Manila, P. J., January 25, 1899. 
Brigadier General Hughes, 

Chairman of committee appointed to meet a committee appointed by General Agui- 
naldo totconfer with regard to the situation of affairs and to arrive at a mutual 
understanding of the intent, purposes, aim, and desires of the Filipino people and 
the people of the United States. 

Sir: I am informed that the Filipino peojile do not place confidence in our good 
intentions which tliey are seeking from this conference. The fact that the President has 
appointed a commission seems to have confirmed them in tlieir impressions. It might 
be well, therefore, to give you a brief liistory of events having relation to these commis- 
sioners. They are as follows : 

Early in December Admiral Dewey and myself received instructions from Washing- 
ton to report the condition of afluirs and ofl^er suggestioiis. Upon December 7th Admiral 
Dewey telegraphed as follows : 

"It is strongly urged that the President issue a proclamation defining the policy of 
the United States Government in the Philippine Islands and showing the inhabitants 
that it is our intention to interfere in the internal affairs of the Philippines as little as 
possible; that as they develop their capabilities of government their po\Vers and privi- 
leges will be increased. That will allay the spirit of unrest. The Spanish soldiers should 
be expatriated as soon as possible; they arc a source of discord and danger." 

And the Admiral goes on to say that a force of several regiments raised from among 
the best insurgent troops and officered by the best of their leaders would do much to 
disarm opposition. 

Upon this suggestion 1 think the proclamation was issued. Later Admiral Dewey 
cabled (I think some time about the 1st of January, I am not aware of the date,) that he 
thought the appointment of a commission by the President would be an excellent thing. 
On January 9th I was asked by the Washington authorities what I thought of the 
appointment of a commission to confer with the revolutionary authorities, and I replied 
that I thought it might do excellent work here. Before this date, early in January, I 
had been requested by prominent Filipinos to appoint a committee from my own com- 
mand to meet a like committee to be appointed by General Aguinaldo. This was done 
on January 9th, one day before receiving the Washington dispatch asking if I thought 
the appointment of a commission by the President would be advantageous. Hence, 
what might be styled the two commissions have no relationship whatever. The one of 
which you are president, sitting to ascertain the desires of the Filipinos and having no 
authority to grant concessions except by permission of the Washington authorities ; the 
other commission, appointed from Washington, comes with full instructions from the 
President of the United States and empowered to act for him. 

On January 10th i telegraphed to Washington as follows : 

"Conditions improving; confidence of citizens returning; business active. Confer- 
ence held Saturday ; insurgents presented following statement, asking that it be cabled: 
'Undersigned commissionerscommander in chief of revolutionary army of these islands 
state to commissioners of General Otis that aspiration Filipino people is independence, 
with restrictions resulting frOm conditions which its government agree with American 
when latter agree to officially recognize the former.' No conclusion reached ; another 
conference to-morrow evening. I understand insurgents wish qualified independence 
under United States protection." 

To this despatch no reply has been received. 

Upon another matter, viz, the sending of regular troops here, the purpose of which 
has been greatly misunderstood, you may communicate the following dispatch, received 
on December 7th : 

"General Otis, JkTam/a .• 

"The Secretary of War directs you to send Astor Battery home on first returning 
transport. If you can spare volunteers to take first returning ships, send them in the 
order of their arrival. Six regular regiments are in course of preparation to report to 
you. It is probable that part of them will sail direct from this coast by way of canal — 
thus to give you good transports available for service from Ban Francisco." 

The meaning and intent of this dispatch was to return the volunteer troops as soon 
as possible and to send part back by the transports then in the harbor, if practicable. 
The Astor Battery was sent home, but I declined to send other volunteer troops at that 
time, as the revolutionary government had assumed a threatening attitude, notwith- 
standing our great desire for peace and harmony. The orders from Washington have 
not changed. I still have authority to return the volunteer troops, so that they can be 
discharged in the United States, by any returning vessels available, but I decline to 
return them as long as we are threatened with active hostilities. Under the articles of 
capitulation still prevailing with Spain, as there has been no ratification as yet of a 
treaty, I aih obliged to hold Manila and its defenses, but no hostile act will be inaugu- 
rated by the United States troops. 

Verv sincerely yours, E. S. Otis, 

Major General, U. iS. V., United States Military Governor. 

The commissioners held their final joint conference, I think, on January 25th. With 
the insurgent representatives it was one continued plea for some concession which 
would satisfy the people. One of them was a man of excellent legal ability, who had 
occupied an important Judicial position at Cebu under the Spanish Government for a 
number of years. He had recently arrived in Manila, and on the invitation of Agui- 



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OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 465 

naldo had visited Malolos. He was animated with a desire to restore harmonious rela- 
tions, or at least to effect a temporary peace until the existing excitement could be 
allayed, when the people might listen to reason. He secured the appointment of Agui- 
naldo's board and was named thereon as the most important member, but he was so 
circumscribed by specific instructions that he could not accomplish anything. I charged 
hira with playing a false part, basing the charge on a knowledge of his legal acquire- 
ments. He confessed that he was fully aware of the untenable position he occupied, 
and was powerless under the circumstances. He was an adept at legal fiction and could 
discover pregnants both negative and positive in every international postulate. The 
appointment of the President's commission had caused so much speculation, both as to 
membership and object, that I desired to correct mistaken impressions and to take away 
further opportunity for deliberate falsehood, and knowing that this gentleman still held 
friendly relations with the Malolos authorities and desired to know the truth in the 
matter, I sent him the following unofllcial letter: 

Manila, P. I., February 5, 1899. 
Hon. F1.011ENTINK Torres, Manila, P. J. 

My Dear Sir: I am in receipt of a Washington dispatch dated the 1st instant, 
which informs me that the gentlemen who expect to serve on the proposed commission 
on the part of the United States will reach Hongkong on the 21st of the month. They 
will probably arrive here about the 25th. 

So many inaccuracies have been spread abroad concerning the identity of the gentle- 
men of the commission that I desire to make explanation. They are Messrs. Denby, 
Schurman, and Worcester. Respecting the first, he is doubtless well known as the late 
United States minister to China ; the second is the president of Cornell University, one 
of the leading institutions of learning of the United States; the third is Professor 
Worcester, of the University of Michigan, also one of our leading educators and who 
has a personal acquaintance with the Philippines, he having spent some time here. He 
is a friend of Dr. Bourns, of our health board, who formerly made a tour of the Philip- 
pine Islands in the interest of science. 

I am sure that the reputation of these gentlemen will commend them to the Filipino 
people as men of probity, ability, and most humane sentiments, having at heart the 
interest of that people. Admiral Dewey and myself have also been placed on this com- 
mission—the Government following the policj'^ pursued with reference to Cuba and 
Porto Rico. My own inclinations and desire are not to serve thereon, being simply a 
soldier, but I must obey the commands of ray Government. 

It is quite important that friendly relations be maintained in every way among all 
of us, and I am doing my utmost to that end. A great deal of friction has been caused 
by the action of troops, resulting, I am certain, from a misunderstanding of conditions. 
Our soldiers are frequently insulted and threatened within our own lines, but thus far 
have quietly submitted, obeying their instructions. If, however, these threatening 
demonstrations should proceed so far as to endanger life, I might not be able to hold 
them in check. I trust that the revolutionary authorities will exercise every endeavor 
to put a stop to demonstrations similar to those witnessed during the past two days. 
I am, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

E. S. Otis. 

A few days before the above letter was written and on January 26th, I was surprised 
by the receipt of a letter from Aguinaldo because of the boldness with which he therein 
indicated his purpose to continue his assumptions and establish their correctness by the 
arbitrament of war. I cabled it in cipher to Washington in accordance with his request, 
as it contained such suggestive announcements of the course of conduct he was likely 
to pursue. The cablegram and my reply to the communication are as follows : 

Manila, P. I., January %7, 1899. 
Adjutant General, Washington. 

The following received : 

"Philippine National Government, 

'■^Office of Secretary of Foreign Affairs. 
"Maj. Gen. E. S. Otis, 

" Commander in Chief of American Forces of Occupation in Manila. 

" My government has promulgated the political constitution of the Philippine Repub- 
lic, which is to-day enthusiastically proclaimed by the people, because of its conviction 
that its duty is to interpret faithfully the aspirations of that people — a people making 
superhuman efiTorts to revindicate their sovereignty and their nationality before the 
civilized powers. 

" To this end, of the governments to-day recognized and observed among cultured 
nations, they have adopted the form of government most compatible with their aspira- 
tions, endeavoring to adjust their actions to the dictates of reason and of right, in order 
to demonstrate their aptitude for civil life. 

30 



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466 OREGON VOLUNTEERS IN SPANISH WAR. 

" And, taking the liberty to notify your excellency, I confidently hope that, doing 
justice to the Philippine people, you will be pleased to inform the Government of your 
nation that the desire of mine, upon being accorded ofiicial recognition, is to contribute 
to the best of its scanty ability to the establishment of a general peace. 
" May God keep your excellency many years. 

"Emilio Aguinaldo. 
[Seal of the revolutionary 
government of the Philippines.] "A. Mabini. 

" Malolos, January 23, 1890:'' 

Otis. 



Hp:]adquaeteks Depaktment Pacifio anb Ejighth Akmy Coups, 

Manila, P. J., January 29, 1899. 
Gen. Emilio Aguinai,do, 

Commanding Philippine Revolutionary Forces, Malolos, P. J 

General: I have the honor to inform you that I received a communication dated 
the 23d instant, signed by you and purporting to be issued from the office of the secre- 
tary of foreign affairs of the " Philippine national government." 

I am pleased to further inform you that a translation of that communication into the 
English language, as shown in the accompanying paper, has been cabled in full to the 
United States authorities at Washington. 

I am, General, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

E. S. Otis, 
Major General, U. S. V., Commanding. 

In the mean time General Miller's command was retained in the harbor of Iloilo. It 
continued to be greatly dissatisfied because it was not allowed to seize the city. The 
Fifty-first Iowa Volunteers had remained on its transport since leaving San Francisco, 
a period of more than seventy days. It was very necessary to disembark it for sanitary 
reasons, and any attempt to do so on the Panay coast or the adjacent small islands 
would have resulted in conflict with natives. It was directed to return to this harbor, 
where upon arrival it was placed at Cavite, relieving the Tennessee regiment, which was 
brought to this city. On January 20th General Miller wrote that it would be his aim "to 
maintain the existing conditions of friendly relations with these people," and continued : 

The people here will follow the conditions in Luzon and will permit our nailitary occu- 
pation of Iloilo as soon as ordered from the central government. Outwardly the best 
terms of friendship exist personally between us. I have informed them verbally that 
they could go on with their usual occupations, afloat and ashore, without interference 
from us ; that seizures we made were necessities merely to enable us to get along from 
day to day and that nothing would be taken otherwise. They are satisfied apparently, 
believe me most implicity, and everything is pleasant. 

There were two or three matters outside of the enforced policy of nonmilitary action 
which greatly troubled General Miller. He had gone from Manila prepared to establish 
civil government and had with him his oiiicers of the port and of customs. The mer- 
chant vessels entering and leaving Iloilo with subsistence and merchandise and p