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Full text of "Official records of the Union and Confederate navies in the war of the rebellion : ser. I, v. 1-27, ser. II, v. 1-3"

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
AT LOS ANGELES 






JEFFERSON DAVIS, 
President of the Confederate States, 1861-1865. 



OFFICIAL RECORDS 



UNION AND CONFEDERATE NAVIES 



WAR OF THE REBELLION. 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

The Hon. JOSEPHUS DANIELS, Secretary of the Navy, 

BY 

C. C. MARSH, Captain, U. S. N., Retired, 
Officer in Charge Naval Records and Library. 



SERIES II. VOLUME 2. 

Navy Department Correspondence, 1861-1865. with Agents Abroad. 



WASHINGTON: 
1921. 



CONTENTS OF PRECEDING VOLUMES. 



VOLUME 1. 
Operations of the cruisers from January 19, 1861, to December 31, 1862. 

VOLUME 2. 
Operations of the cruisers from January 1, 1863, to March 31, 1864. 

VOLUME 3. 
Operations of the cruisers from April 1,. 1864, to December 30, 1865. 

VOLUME 4. 

Operations in the Gulf of Mexico from November 15, 1860, to June 7, 1861. 
Operations on the Atlantic coast from January 1 to May 13, 1861. Opera- 
tions on the Potomac and Itappahannock Rivers from January 5 to Decem- 
ber 7, 1861. 

VOLUME 5. 

Operations on the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers from December 7, 1861, 
to July 31, 1865. Operations of the Atlantic Blockading Squadron from 
April 4 to July 15, 1861. 

VOLUME 6. 

Operations of the Atlantic Blockading Squadron from July 16 to October 29, 
1861. Operations of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron from October 
29, 1861, to March 8, 1862. 

VOLUME 7. 

Operations of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron from March 8 to Sep- 

tember 4, 1862. 

VOLUME 8. 

Operations of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron from September 5, 1862, 

to May 4, 1863. 

VOLUME 9. 

Operations of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron from May 5, 1863, to 

5, 1864. 



VOLUME 10. 

Operations of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron from October 28, 186*, 

to February 1, 1865. 

3 



172951 



4 CONTENTS OF PKECEDING VOLUMES.. 

VOLUME 11. 

Operations of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron from October 28, 1864, 

to February 1, 1865. 

VOLUME 12. 

Operations of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron from February 2 to 
August 3, 1865. Operations of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron 
from October 29, 1861, to May 13, 1862. 

VOLUME 13. 

Operations of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron from May 14, 1862, to 

April 7, 1863. 

VOLUME 14. 

Operations of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron from April 7 to Septem- 
ber 30, 1863. 

VOLUME 15. 

Operations of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron from October 1, 1863, to 

September 30, 1864. 

VOLUME 16. 

Operations of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron from October 1. 1864, to 
August 8, 1865. Operations of the Gulf Blockading Squadron from June 7 
to December 15, 1861. 

VOLUME 17. 

Operations of the Gulf Blockading Squadron from December 16, 1861, to Feb- 
ruary 21. 1862. Operations of the East Gulf Blockading Squadron from 
February 22, 1862, to July 17, 1865. 

VOLUME 18. 

Operations of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron from February 21 to July 

14, 1862. 

VOLUME 19. 

Operations of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron from July 15. 1862. to March 

14, 1863. 

VOLUME 20. 

Operations of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron from March 15 to December 

31, 1863. 

VOLUME 21. 

Operations of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron from January 1 to December 

31, 1864. 

VOLUME 22. 

Operations of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron from January 1. 1865, to 
January 31, 1866. Operations of the Naval Forces on Western Waters from 
May 8, 1861, to April 11, 1862. 



CONTEXTS OF PRECEDING VOLUMES. 5 

VOLUME 23. 

Operations of the Naval Forces on Western Waters from April 12 to December 

31, 1862. 

VOLUME 24. 

Operations of the Naval Forces on Western Waters from January 1 to May 17, 

1863. 

VOLUME 25. 

Operations of the Naval Forces on Western Waters from May 18 to February 

29, 1864. 

VOLUME 26. 

Operations of the ^aval Forces on Western Waters from March 1 to December 

31, 1864. 

VOLUME 27. 

Naval Forces on Western Waters from January 1 to September 6, 1865. Opera- 
tions of Supply Vessels, 1861-1865. 

SEEIES II. VOLUME I. 
PART 1. 

Statistical Data of Union and Confederate Ships. 

PART 2. 
Muster Rolls of Confederate Government Vessels. 

PART 3. 
Letters of Marque and Reprisal. 

PART 4. 
Confederate Departmental Investigations, etc. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 

Jefferson Davis, President of Confederate States Frontispiece. 

Alexander H. Stephens, Vice President Confederate States 41 

Stephen R. Mallory, Secretary Confederate States Navy 174 

Blockade runner Armstrong 340 

Confederate States steamer Rappahannock 624 



CALENDAR. 



isei. 


JANUARY. 


JULY. 


Sun 


. M. 


T. 


W. 


T. 


F. 


Sat. 


Sun 


. M. 


T. 


W. 


T. 


F. 


Sat. 




-- 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 




1 


2 


3 


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6 


6 


7 


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11 


12 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


14 


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16 


17 


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26 


21 


22 


23 


24 


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26 


27 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 




-- 


28 


29 


30 


31 






.. 


FEBRUARY. 


AUGUST. 


-- 


.. 


-- 


-- 




1 


2 








.. 


1 


2 


3 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


10 


11 


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13 


14 


15 


16 


11 


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13 


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20 


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22 


23 


18 


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20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


-- 


-- 


25 


26 


27 


28 


| 29 


30 


31 


MARCH. 


SEPTEMBER. 


-- 


.. 


-- 






1 


2 


1 


2 


3 4 


5 


6 


7 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


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22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


29 


30 












31 




























APRIL. 


OCTOBER. 


-- 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


14 


15 


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17 


18 


19 


20 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


21. 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


28 


29 


30 


-- 


- 


-- 


-- 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 




.. 


MAY. 


NOVEMBER. 


-- 


-- 


-- 


1 


2 


3 


4 




. 


.. 


.. 




1 


2 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


21 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


19 


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21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 


-- 


24 


25 


26 


27 


26 


29 


30 


JUNE. 


DECEMBER. 














1 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 














2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


'13 


14 


9 


10 


11 


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19 


20 


21 


16 


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24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


29 


30 


31 










30 





























CAUEKDAB. 



1862. 


JANUARY. 


JULY. 


San. 


M. 


T. 


W. 


T. 


F. 


Sat. 


Sttn. 


M. 


T. 


W. 


T. 


F. 


Sat. 








1 


2 


3 


4 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 


-- 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 




-- 


FEBRUARY. 


AUGUST. 














1 












1 


2 


2 


3 


4 


5 


. 6 


7 


8 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


74 


15 


, 10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 




24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 
















31 










































MARCH. 


SEPTEMBER. 














1 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


7 


a 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


U 


15 


14 


15 


T6 


17 


18 


19 


20 


T6 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


28 


29 


30 










30 


31 






















































APRIL. 


OCTOBER. 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 




.. 




1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


27 


28 


29 


30 


-- 


-- 


- 


I 26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 


-- 


MAY. 


NOVEMBER. 










1 


2 


3 














1 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


9 


TO 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


' 29 
















30 






































" 


JUNE. 


DECEMBER. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Q 


7 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


29 


30 


- 


-- 


-- 


-- 


-- 


28 


29 


30 


31 


-- 


-- 


-- 



10 



CALENDAR. 



1805. 


JANUARY. 


JULY. 


Sun. 


M. 


T. 


W. 


T. 


F. 


Sat. 


Sun. 


M. 


T. 


W. 


T. 


F. 


Sat. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 




.. 








.. 


1 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


9 


10 


T1 


12 


13 


14 


15 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


29 


30 


31 










23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 
















30 


31 








































FEBRUARY. 


AUGUST. 


, 


. 




1 


2 


3 


4 




. . 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


12 


13 


U 


15 


M 


17 


18 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


26 


27 


28 


-- 


- 


-- 





27 


28 


29 


30 31 


-- 


.- 


MARCH. 


SEPTEMBER. 








1 


2 


3 


4 


. . 










1 


2 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


to 


11 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


M 


-- 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


APRIL. 
















1 




2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 




9 


10 


T1 


12 


13 


14 


15 




16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 




23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 




30 














, 


















MAY. 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 




14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 




21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 




28 


29 


30 


3t 




-- 


-- 




JUNE. 












1 


2 


3 




4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 




11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 




18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 




25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 







CONTENTS. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1861. 



No. 


From and to whom. 


Date. 


Subject. 


Page. 




Confederate States Congress to 


Feb. 


Report of the Committee on Naval Affairs. 


41 




C.M.Conrad. 
Confederate States Congress . 


Feb. 12 


Resolution, adopted Feb. 12, 18*11 


43 




Confederate States Congress 


Feb. 20 


An act to establish Navy Department 


44 




Navy Department to Confed- 
erate States Congress. 
M. D. Crugat to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

Navy Department to the Pres- 
ident. 
Confederate States Congress. . 


Mar. 12.. 
Mar. 24.. 

Apr. 26. . 


Estimate of appropriations for vear ending Feb. 4. 
1S62. 
Begs that Senor Don Mariano Alvarez may be 
accredited as diplomatic agent to represent 
Spain in the Confederate States. 
Secretary's report, including estimates for 1862 

An act for the reorganization of the Confederate 


44 

50 

51 
57 




Governor of Virginia to Saml. 
Barron. 
Richmond Dispatch 


May 2... 
May 3. . 


States Navy. 
Commission as cat>tain in the Virginia Navy, to 
date from Apr. 23, 1861. 
Notice of the blockade of Southern ports 


58 
58 




R. Gamble, jr., to Confederate 
States Congress. 

Confederate States Congress . 


May 1. . . 
...do 


Desires that his invention of a floating fort for de- 
fense of harbors, be submitted to officers of the 
Navy, by Committee on Naval Affairs. 
An act regulating the sale of prizes and the distri- 


59 
61 




Confederate States Congress... 
Navy Department to J D 


May 6... 
May 9 


bution thereof. 
To amend an act recognizing the existence of war 
between the United States and the Confederate 
States. 
Order to proceed to England to buy ships . . 


63 
64 




Bulloch. 
Navy Department to Confed- 


...do 


Recommending appropriation of one million dol- 


66 




erate States Congress. 
Confederate States Congress... 

Confederate States Congress 


May 10. . 
...do 


lars to purchase six steamers abroad. 
An act authorizing a Confederate agent to be sent 
abroad to purchase ships and arms. 
An act approved to tmrchase or construct vessels 


66 
67 




Navy Department to Confed- 
erate States Congress. 

Navy Department United 
States to S. Barron. 

Navy Department to J. H. 
North. 
Navy Department to Confed- 
erate States Congress. 
Navy Department to Confed- 
erate States Congress. 

Navy Department to D. N. In- 


...do 
May 14 

May 17 
May 20 
...do.. .. 

...do 


of war in France or England. 
Suggests the importance of having ironclad ships 
constructed or purchased for Confederate States 
Navy. 
Acknowledges letter tendering resignation as 
captain in the U. S. Navy, and states his name 
has been stricken from the rolls. 
Order to proceed to London, and gives instructions 
for work abroad. 
Estimate for purchase of six steamers abroad by 
Confederate agent, approved by the President. 
Estimate for purchase or construction of two fully 
equipped steamers abroad, approved by the 
President. 
Orders Ingraham to obtain iron plates in Tennes- 


67 
70 

70 
72 
72 

72 




graham. 
D. N. Ingraham to Navy De- 
partment. 
Navv Department 


May 23 
(No date) 


see, Kentucky, and Georgia. 
Reports his efforts in the matter of obtaining iron 
plates in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Georgia. 
Statement of contracts for iron, made by the Navy 


73 
73 




G. N. Hollins to J. W. B. 
Greenhow. 

Navy Department to S. Bar- 
ron. 
F. Forrest to Navy Depart- 
ment. 
Navy Department to F. For- 
rest. 

Navy Department to the Pres- 
ident. 
Navy Department to Con- 
gress. 


June 6 
June 11 
June 20 
June 24 

July 18 
July 20 


Department. 
Report of the loss of the C. S. S. Raleigh in Cape 
Fear River. 
Sends appointment as captain in Confederate States 
Navy with instructions therefor. 
Reports the loss of David Williams, a Gosport 
Navy Yard employe. 
Acknowledges receipt of the report ofthe lass of 
David Williams, and pays tribute to his devotion 
to the public service. 
Report of the Secretary of the Navy since Apr. 26, 

Letter in reference to manning of batteries in 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Louis- 
iana, and Virginia. 

11 


74 
75 
75 
75 

76 
79 



12 CONTENTS. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1861 Continued. 



From and to whom. 



W. S. G. Andrews to governor 
of North Carolina. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch & J. H. North. 

Navy Department to J. H. 
North. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

Navy Department to Confed- 
erate States Congress. 

W. H. Peet to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

Navy Department to D. N. 
Ingraham. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

Navy Department to J. H. 

North. 
J. D. Bulloch to A. D. Mann. 



Navy Department to J. D. 

Bulloch and J. H. North. 
J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch. 



J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. . 



M. F. Mauryto W. B. Preston 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart 
ment. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart 
ment. 

Navy Department to J. H. 
North. 

John Letcher to Virginia Con- 
vention. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

R. B. Pegramto J. H. North 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

L. 3. Beall to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

L. J. Beall to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

Confederate States Congress. . . 



Confederate States Congress. 
Confederate States Congress . 

R. B. Pegram to J. H. North 
Confederate States Congress . 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Date. 


Subject. 


July 23 
...do 
July 25 
..do 


Denounces lighthouse keeper at Hatteras Light- 
house as traitorous to the State of North Carolina. 
Announces the signal success of the Confederate 
Army. 
Inquires about the purchase or building of an iron- 
clad vessel. 
Regarding the sending of purchased vessels to 
North Carolina or South Carolina. 
Concerns muskets to be purchased for the Confed- 
erate States Navy. 
Reports of work in Europe as to the purchase of 
ships and arms. 
Reports of his activities as Confederate agent in 
Europe. 
Report of officers commissioned in the Virginia 
Navv, and incloses an extract of a report of 
July'18, 1801. 
Communication of, concerning the need of copper 
for the Confederate States Navy. 
Orders the purchase of the steamer Nashville. . . . 


July 27 
Aug. 13 
..do. ... 


Aug. 16 

Aug. 29 
Sept. 19 
Sept. 26 

Sept. 27 
Oct. 3 

Oct. 8 
Oct. 9 

...do.... 

Oct. 22 
Nov. 19 
Nov. 25 
Nov. 20 
Nov. 30 
...do.... 

.do 


Sets forth the need of arms and ammunition for 
the Confederate States Navy, and equipment 
for the Confederate States Marine Corps. 
Regrets inability to give orders for purchase or 
construction of ships in Europe. 
Reports change of duties in assuming command of 
a ship to carry valuable cargo to Confederate 
States. 
Announcing visit of Colonel Ficklen to Great 
Britain on public business. 
Requests transfer of documents and moneys from 
Bulloch before his return to the Confederate 
States. 
Declines to turn over moneys intrusted to him by 
the Confederate States Government to J. H. 
North; also documents. 
Plan and policy for a Navy in the waters of the 
Chesapeake. 
Proposal of, that steamer Fingal be sent back to 
England with cargo of naval stores and cotton. 
Reports steamer Fingal in Savannah River ready 
to receive, freight. 
Giving instructions about funds to be turned over 
to Captain Bulloch. 
Transmits report of captured property at navy 
yard and Harper's Ferry. 
Instructions in regard to arming steamer Fingal 
with guns, and disposition of funds on hand to 
Lieutenant North. 
Giving details of repairs needed by Confederate 
States steamer Nashville, at Southampton, 
England. 
. Ordering Captain Bulloch to take command of 
steamer Fingal to sail for England shortly. 
Reports steamer Fingal being ready to sail shortly 
for England with cargo of cotton and resin. 
Concerning efficiency of the Confederate States 
Marine Corps and needs of same. 
Requests that Congress be asked to authorize a 
clerk in the Marine Bureau, attached to the Navy 
Department. 
Resolution of, that Secretary of the Navy be em- 
powered to purchase four gunboats for defense 
of the Cumberland River, and a like number 
for defense of the Tennessee River. 
An act authorizing the President to have con- 
structed a number of gunboats in accordance 
with Commander Maury's plan. 
An act making appropriations for the construc- 
tion of 100 gunboats for the coast defenses of the 
Confederate States. 
Gives details of the repairs of Confederate States 
Steamer Nashville at Southampton, England. 
An act making appropriations for the purchase 
and alteration of steamers into gunboats for the 
defense of the Cumberland and Tennessee 
rivers. 
Reports the sailing of the steamer Fingal from 
Wassaw Sound to Thunderbolt Battery near 
Savannah. 


...do.... 
Dec. 5 
Dec. 11 
'Dec. 17 

Dec. 19 

Dec. 23 
...do.... 
.do 


Dec. 24 
...do.... 



CONTENTS. 
NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1861 Continued. 



13 



No. 


From and to whom. 


Date. 


Subject. 


Page. 




J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

Navy Department to Confed- 
erate States Congress. 
Navy Department 


Dec. 26 

...do.... 
(No date) 


Gives details of the steamer Fingal being held up 
near Savannah, and the safe return of a boat and 
party to Skiddaway. 
Gives estimates for the pay of 2,000 seamen, and 
for pay of additional officers. 
Memoranda concerning the purchase, construc- 


120 

121 
122 




Confederate States Congress. . . 


(No date) 


tion, and appropriations for ships for the Con- 
federate States Navy. 
A bill t o provide for the pay of officers who resigned 
from the United States Navy, and whom it is 
proposed to add to the Confederate States Navy. 


123 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1862. 





J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

Navy Department to the 
President. 
C. K. Prioleau to J. H. North. . 

R. Semmesto J. H. North 


Jan. 3 

Jan. 6 
Jan. 9 
...do 


Reports no opportunity has offered to get steamer 
Fingal to sea through the ship channel between 
Wassaw Island and little Tybee. 
Submits a plan for forming a' provisional Navy. 

Advises a trip to Liverpool to inspect work being 
done on his ship. 
Requests Lieutenant North to send him $20.000 


123 

124 
125 
126 




Navy Department to War 
Department. 
Navy Department to J. D. 


Jan. 10 
...do 


for repairs to Confederate States steamer 
Sumter at Cadiz. 
Concerning seamen in the Army who wish to enter 
the naval service. 
Orders Bulloch to return to England if Fingal can 


127 
127 




Bulloch. 
Navy Department to J. H. 
North. 
Navy Department to J. D. 


Jan. 11 
do . 


not run the blockade at an early day. 
Gives instructions about vessel which North is to 
. command. 
Orders and instructions to Bulloch on his return 


12S 
129 




Bulloch. 
J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 
Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 
J. D . Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 
Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 
J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 
Navv Department to "War De- 


Jan. 13 
Jan. 14 

Jan. 16 

Jan. 19 
Jan. 20 
Jan. 22 
...do 


to England. 
Reports impossibility of Fingal's escape and re- 
quests to DC ordered to England. 
Calls particular attention to the construction of 
iron or steel-clad ships in France or England. 
Reports no prospect of Fingal getting to sea, 
which he turns over to Lieutenant North. Re- 
quests J. Low may be appointed his assistant 
to accompany him to England. 
Turns over the steamer Fingal. in perfect order 
for any voyage, to G. T. Sinclair. 
Grants his request for J. Low's services, and gives 
further instructions about work in England. 
Acknowledges commission as commander in Navy 
and expresses gratitude for the honor. 
Requests that certain naval officers serving in land 


130 
131 
132 

133 
133. 
134 
13S 




partment. 
Navy Department to War De- 
partment. 

R. Semmes to J. n. North 
R. Semmes to J. H. North 

Navy Department to War De- 
partment. 

M. F. Maury to Navy Depart- 


Jan. 23 

...do 
Jan. 24 
Jan. 25 

...do 


batteries be ordered to Navy Department. 
Requests that certain naval officers serving in land 
batteries be ordered to report to Navy Depart- 
ment. 
Reports his arrival at Gibraltar in Sumter and re- 
quests equipment for crew of his ship. 
Communication from Gibraltar, showing lack of 
funds to repair or coal the Sumter. 
Concerning men discharged from the Army and 
ordered to report to the Navy Department, with 
enclosure. 
Showing need of artisans and ship carpenters in 


135 

136 
135 
137 

13& 




ment. 
J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 
J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


Jan. 27 
..do.... 


gunboat preparations. 
Reports no receipt of funds or orders, and suggests 
recall if no money is available for work abroad. 
Communicating arrival at Wilmington, N. C., and 


13S 
138 




ment. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 
R. Semmes to J. H. North 

War Department 


Jan. 30 
Feb. 2 

Feb. 3 


a prospect of sailing to England in steamer Annie 
Childs shortly. 
Reports enemy active and watchful, which pre- 
vents Annie Childs from leaving for England. 
Shows Sumter unfit for a cruise without repairs 
and needed coal. Tells of being ordered out of 
Cadiz. 
Special Orders No. 27. Certain naval officers on 


139 
140 

141 




C. K. Prioleau to J. H. North. 
C. K. Prioleau to J. H. North. 
Navv Department to Congress . 


...do.... 
Feb. 5 
...do 


duty with the Army will report without delay to 
Navy Department. 
Giving" instructions to meet certain ship at Holy- 
head, England. 
Regrets Lieutenant North does not approve of 
plans for getting certain ship out of Liverpool. 
Sends estimate of amount required to pay bounty 


141 
141 
142 








to seamen by act of Congress, Jan. 16, 1862. 





14 CONTENTS. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1862 Continued. 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject, 



Eraser, Trenholm & Co-, to J. 

H. North. 
J. H. North to C. K. Prioleau . 

J. IT. North to J. M. Mason... 



Feb. 5 
Feb. G 
..do 



J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 
C. K. Prioleau to J. H. North. 

R. Semmes to J. H. North . . . 



War Department. 



Feb. 8 
..do..... 
Feb. 13 

..do.... 



Confederate States Congress . . . 



Eraser, Trenholm & Co. to J. 
H. North. 



C. HusetoJ. H. North. 



J, II. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 
R. Semmes to J. II. North 



Navy Department to the Pres- 
ident. 

D. Robertson to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

J. H. North to W. T. Mann 
W. T. Mann to J. H. North. .. 

London & Provincial Marine. . 

Insurance Co. to J. M. Mason. 

J. P. Creesy to R. H. Dana, jr. 

The President to Confederate 

States Congress. 
J. D. Bulloch to. J. IT. North. . 



J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. . 
J. D. Bulloeh to J. H. North 



J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

Navy Department to J. H. 
North. 

The President to Confederate 

States Congress. 
Navy Department to Treasury 

Department. 
The President to Confederate 

States Congress. 

The President to Confederate 

States Congress. 
Navy Department to Congress 
J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

Caleb Huse to J. Gorgas 



Confederate States Congress. . . 

J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Feb. 15 
Feb. 20 
Feb. 21 

Feb. 22 
Feb. 26 

Feb. 27 
Feb. 28 

.do. 



Mar. I 
..do...., 
Mar. G 
Mar. 10 
Mar. 11 

Mar. 14 

...do 



Mar. 16 
Mar. 17 

Mar. 20 
..do.... 



Mar. 24 



Mar. 25 



Mar. 29 
...do... 



Apr. 1 



Apr. 5 
Apr. 6 



Notify North that ship built in Liverpool is ready 
for delivery. 

Accept ship for Confederate States Government 
and requests ship be sent to the port of London . 

Asks instructions abont taking charge of ship built 
for Confederate States Government. 

Reports small gunboat ready for sea, without arms, 
etc., which English Government will not allow. 

(rives details concerning ship built for Confederate 
States Government. 

Acknowledges receipt of clothing for seamen and 
reports Sumter unable to leave Gibraltar for lack 
of coal. 

Special Orders No. 30. Lieutenant Colonel R. F. 
Pinekney and Major R. P. Loyall relieved from 
duty with Provisional Army and ordered to 
report to<Navy Department. 

An act, approved, to relinquish any claim on the 
part of the Government to any share in certain 
prizes. 

Requesting instructions as to disposal of vessel at 
Liverpool built for Confederate States Govern- 
ment. 

Telegram states immediate action necessary. Ship 
will sail Tuesday morning unless North's order 
stops her. 

Notifies Secretary that gunboat Oreto will leave 
Liverpool B'eb. 25 for RabanA. 

Reports boilers on C. S. S. Sumter unseaworthy, 
and the arrest of his paymaster in Tangier, 
Morocco, by United States consul. 

Secretary's report since Nov. 18, lil, with en- 
closures. 

Commends to the favorable notice of the Secretary, 
EmanuelCastainado, a Spaniard, who lost all his 
effects on brig B. T. Martin. 

States the Oreto has not yet sailed for Havana 

living details of the Oreto, which expects to sail 
for Havana soon. 

Communication on subject of capture of steamer 
I. in wood by Confederate forces, with enclosure. 

Announces arrest of paymaster of C. S. S. Sumter 
and United States consul at Tangiers. 

Submits letter from Navy Department for further 
defense of Mobile Boy and Alabama River. 

Telling of plans in England, and by direction of 
Navy Department to assist Lieut. North in 
making out estimates for an ironclad vessel of 
2,0)00 tons. 

Letter containing description of ship being out- 
fitted by him in Liverpool. 

Communicates the fact that Maffitt has a fast 
steamer to ply between West Indies and south- 
ern coast. 

Reports of offers to construct and build iron gun- 
boats, cased with armor plates from stem to stern. 

Announces no mail received from Lieutenant 
North for a long period, and instructs him to fit 
out his vessel with his best judgment. 

Replying to request of Congress to furnish informa- 
tion of James River defenses. 

Transmits estimate of amount required to purchase 
or construct ironclad ships of war in Europe. 

Transmits to Confedera! ,vss commu- 

nication from the \iivy Department, and sug- 
gests papers be regarded confident ial. 

Transmit s estimate for additional appropriation for 
Navy Department. 

Report of the Secretary of the Navy 

Expresses disappointment over change of orders 
uot to command first ship, which was given to 
Bulloch. 

Reports the shipment on steamer Bahama of arms 
and ammunition for the Confederate States 
Government. States that only six or seven bat- 
teries could be taken on Bahama, therefore sold 
rest to Captain Blakely, R. A. (rives details of 
arms, etc., to be shipped to the Confederate 
States. 

To amend an act to provide for the organization of 
the Navy, approved Mar. 16, 1361. 

Awaits funds to carry out Secretary's instructions 
to buy ships. 



CONTEXTS. 15 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1862 Continued. 



From and to whom. 


Date. 


Subject. 


Page. 


The President to Congress 


Apr. !0 


Transmits letter of Navy Department concerning 
construction of ironclads in Europe. 


181 


J. H. North toG. Thomson 


Apr. 11 


Requests model, plans, and specifications prepared 


182 






of an armor-clad ship for Confederate States G ov- 








ernment'smspection, with the view of contracts 








for same. Asks to have plans, etc., of vessels 








contracted for expedited. 




Confederate States Congress 


...do 


An act authorizing contracts for purchase of six 


182 






iron-plated ships of war. 




Nary Department to Congress. 
J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


...do 
...do 


Desires authority to make advances to contractors 
for supply of much needed iron. 
Gives details of sailing of steamer Manassas. and 


185 
183 


ment. 




activities in work of securing more ships for 








service. 




J. H. North to Navy Depart- 


Apr. 14 


Desires largeamoimt of money to pay for building 


185 


ment. 




and equipping armored ship contracted for, by 








orders. 




J. D. Bulloeh to Navy Depart- 
ment. 


Apr. 19 


Reports sailing of ship Melita with arms, ammuni- 
tion, etc. Also arrival of Lieutenant Hamilton 


185 






as executive officer of ship No. 2. 




Navv Department to J. D. 
Bulloeh: 


" Apr. 30 


Comments on ironclad Monitor, and places a mil- 
lion dollars at his disposal to build ironclads for 


186 






the N 




Navv Department to J. H. 


May 2 


Gives instructions about commanding vessel that 


188 


North. 




wasbirilt by Bulloch. 




Governor of Alabama to Gov- 


...do 


Assures governor of South Carolina of cordial co- 


188 


ernor of South Carolina- 




operation of Alabama in sustaining Confederate 








Government. 




Navv Department to J. D. 


May 3 


Orders Bulloch to transfer 8100,000 to R. Pemmes. 


190 


Biilloch: 








Navv Department to J. H. 


May 5 


Sends commission as commander in the Navy for 


191 


North. 




the war. 




Navv Department to J. D. 


May 7 


Orders Bulloeh to ad vise G. T. Sinclair in the pur- 


191 


Bulloch. 




chase or construction of a ship, and to furnish him 








funds for cruising purposes. 




J. & G. Thomson to J. H. 


May 9 


Notifies Captain North that model and specifica- 


191 


North . 




tions have been drawn for armor-clad ship, to be 








contracted for by Confederate States Government. 




J. D, Bulloch to J . H. North . . . 


May 1* 


Gives details about the constractioji aud building 


192 






of ironclad vessels. 






Mav 20 


Specification of ironclad steamer. .... 


193 


G . Thomson to J. H. North . . . 


May 21 


Agreement between J. & G. Thomson and J. H. 


199 






North to build and construct an armored plated 








screw steamer bv Jane l, 1863. 




J. M. Stribliug to J. H. North . . 


May 20 


Reports arrival of steamer Bahama at Nassau,N.P. 


204 






May 25. 




Navv Department to J. D. 


..do 


Inquires about armament of steamer Mauassas at 


205 


Bulloch. 




Nassau, N. P. 




J. H. North to Navy Depart- 


June 7 


Reportg commencement of ship ordered by the 


206 


ment. 




Secretary of the Navy. 




J. D . Bulloch to J . H. North . . . 


June 11 


Instructs North to take command of first ship 


206 






built at Liverpool. 




E. C. Stiles to Navy Depart- 


June 13* 


Reports has secured a fine steamer for service 


671 


ment. 




a','ain?t the enemy. 




J.H. North toJ.D. Bulloeh. . . 


June 14 


Announces himselfVeady to take command of ship 


207 






ot Liverpool. 




J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North . . . 


Time 17 


Advises speedy trip to Liverpool to consult about 


207 






command of ship and other matters of impor- 








tance. 




J. II . North to J. & G. Thom- 


June 18 


States, may have to leave country, in which case 


208 


son. 




will transfer their agreement to another party. 




J. fi G. Thomson to J. H. 


...do.... 


Refuse to transfer their agreement to another party 


203 


North, 








A. McLaui'hlin to J. McC. 


June 22 


Instructions about work at Johnston's shipyard in 


208 


Baker. 




connection with gunboat building there. 




J. II. North to J.D. Bulloch. . . 


June 20 


Announces orders received from Navy Department 


209 






to take command of vessel built by Builoch. 




J. H. Bulloch to J.H. North.. 


June 27 


Transfers command of shio built by himself at 


209 






Liverpool to North. 




C. J. McRaetoJ. Gor-. 


June 30 


Concerning iron to be furnished to complete guii- 


210 


.\Cnor. 




boats Morgan and Gaines. 




C. J. McRae to J. Gorgas 


July 3 


Gives details of work on Government contracts 


210 






and asks money for same. 




C. J. McRae to G. Minor 


July 4 


States catt not deliver iron from his rolliiv mills 


211 






before October 15. 




J. D . Bulloch to Navy Deoart- 


...do..... 


Reports transfer of ships to North, and contracts 


212 


mcnt. 




made for three armored ships. 




J. H. North to Navy Depart- 


July 5 


Reports has taken command of ship built by 


212 


ment. 




BuUoch, and transferred to him contract for 




J. D. Builoch to J. H. North. 


July 8 


building armor plated steamship. 
Revokes letter of transfer of ship on June 2S, built 


213 






bv himself, which was to be commanded by 

lN f orth. 





* 1804. 



16 CONTENTS. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1862 Continued. 



No. 



From and to >vhom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



J. M. Mason to J. H. North . . . 



J. D . Bulloch to J. H. North . . 
Navy Department to J. H. 
North. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

C. J. McRae to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

C. J. McRae to governor of 

Alabama. 
Navy Department to all 

agents. 

G. Thomson to J. H. North 



G. N.Sanders 

G. N. Sanders to J. E. Ward. . 



G. N. Sanders to J. E. Ward. . 
G. A. Trenholm 



July 10 
July 12 



..do.... 

July 13 

July 15 
July 17 

..do... 



J. H. North to G. Thomson 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

G. A. Trenholm to J. E. Ward. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

Navy Department to J. H. 
North. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

C. J. McRae to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

W. Andrews to J. M. Mason. . . 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



G. N. Sanders to R. Sanders. . 
G. N. Sanders to J. E. Ward. . 



J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



R. Semmes to J. H. North 

J. M. Mason to J. H. North. . . 
J. H. North to G. Thomson. . . 

W. P. Williamson to Navy 
Department. 



(No date) 
July 19 

...do 

(No date) 

July 20 
July 21 

July 22 
July 23 
July 25 

July 29 
July 30 
Aug. 1 
Aug. 4 



Aug. 5 

..do 

Aug. 6 

Aug. 8 
Aug. H 



....do... 
Aug. 13 
Aug. 15 

...do... 



Asks funds to pay passage of Acting Midshipman 
W. Andrews to Gibraltar to relievo Midshipman 
Armstrong, to be provided for out of navy fund. 

Explains revocation of command of ship for North. 

Gives reasons for change of orders from first ship 
built in Liverpool, to command second ship 
built there, with orders to return to Confederate 
States. 

Announces R. Semmes will command C. S. S. 
Alabama on return to England, and hopes two 
more ships can be constructed at once. 

Concerns the building of ironclad steam rams in 
Alabama and gives details about work for the 
Navy in Confederate States. 

Communicates readiness to fill orders for iron and 
inquires for details of quantity needed. 

Notice to Government agents to afford all facilities 
to Hon. John E. Ward in business for the Gov- 
ernment. 

Gives details of work on ship under charge of 
North and discusses certain plans for construc- 
tion. 

Memoranda and suggestions of, for shipbuilding 
plans and contracts. 

Contract between G. N. Sanders and J. E. Ward 
for building ironclads for the Confederacy. 

Power of attorney 

Memoranda in reference to Sanders building, 
furnishing, and equipping an ironclad steamer 
for Confederate States. 

Inquires about length of ship's prow and asks for 
drawings of ship for the Secretary of the Navy. 

Summarizes work done in England toward the 
building of ships for the Confederate States Gov- 
ernment. 

Disapproves of Sanders' contract to build an iron- 
clad ship for Confederate States Government. 

Sends form of a commission for officers of the Navy 
and Marine Corps, with instructions for same. 

Replies to Secretary's letter about his orders and 
instructions in contracting for ships and com- 
mand of same. 

Revokes order of Dec. 12 to return to Confederate 
States and gives instructions about shipbuild- 
ing in Liverpool. 

Sends copies of contracts for pistols and ironclad 
vessels of war and orders inspection of same 
when delivered. 

Gives views about the building of ironclad steam 
rams in Alabama and outlines difficulty of get- 
ting mechanics and workers in iron. 

Returns post-office order for Lieut. Armstrong 
and requests to haveit made payable to himself; 
states provisions and stores much damaged on 
Confederate States steamer Sumter. 

Commends S. G. Porter for seamanship, coolness, 
and courage, who will take charge of supplies for 
War Department and transport them to the 
Confederate States. 

Hopes no legislation will be enacted that might 
interfere with his construction of ironclad steam- 
ers. 

Requests contracts in Mr. Ward's possession to be 
forwarded through J. M. Mason, London, Eng- 
land, to himself. 

Reports R. Semmes' arrival, with four officers, in 
Liverpool; requests 200,000 to pay for ship 
being ouilt in Glasgow. 

Comments on various matters and urges comple- 
tion of ironclad vessels as most important. 

Reports R. Semmes' arrival and his officers in 
Liverpool; comments on unpleasant criticism 
his commission of captain has caused in Confed- 
erate States Navy and requests lower rank in the 
service for himself. 

Advises North to remain in Liverpool for duty 
until further orders from Navy Department. 

Concerns a new draft for Midshipman Andrews at 
Gibraltar. 

Objects to three-bladed propeller on ship being 
constructed for Confederate States Government. 

Reports difficulties of building machinery for gun- 
boats in Confederate States. 



CONTEXTS. 
NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1S62 Continued. 



Vo. 


From and to whom. 


Date. 


Subject. 


Page. 




Navy Department to the 


Aug. 16 


Report of the Secretary of the Navy since Feb. 27. 


241 




President. 




1862. 






Navy Department to Congress . 


Aug. 20 


Submits number, names, and residence of all clerks 


252 








and employees in Navy Department and amount 










of their pay. 






State Department to Navy 


Aug. 25 


Transmits information of a newly invented gun- 


253 




Department. 




powder for Ordnance Bureau of Navy Depart- 










ment. 






R. T. Chapman to J. H. 


Aug. 26 


Reports his arrival from Nassau to senior naval 


253 




North. 




officer in England. 






W. Andrews to J. H. North. . . 


Aug. 28 


Acknowledges Bank of England post bill for 100. 


254 




J. II. North to Navy Depart- 


Aug. 30 


Requests funds as soon as possible to pay for con- 


254 




ment. 




tracted ships and gives details of work in Liver- 






J. T. Wood to C. ap R. Jones. . 


...do 


pool. 
Gives details of activities in the James River 


256 








squadron. 






J. <fe G. Thomson to J. H. 


Sept. 1 


Reports progress on ship being constructed for 


257 




North. 




Confederate States Government and forwards 










plans of same. 






J. D. Bulloch to J. M. Mason 


".do .. 


Desires instructions as to sale of Confederate States 


257 








steamer Sumter at Gibraltar. 






J. H. North to Navy Depart- 


Sept. 2 


Reports condition of ships building in Liverpool 


258 




ment. 




and urges necessity of sending funds for payment 










of same. 






Treasury Department to the 


Sept. 3 


Replies as to resolution of Congress concerning 


261 




President. 




funds sent abroad in payment of salaries of agents 










and officers of Army and Navy and forwards en- 










closures. 






Navy Department to Congress. 


Sept. 8 


Submits a register of officers of the Confederate 


262 








States Navy. 






J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


Sept. 10 


Reports return to England after a short cruise to 


263 




ment. 




Western Islands, where Alabama took on 










stores and sailed for the Confederate States; 






Committee on Naval Affairs 
to Confederate States Con- 


Sept. 11 


gives details of ship being built in Liverpool. 
Report of Committee on Naval Affairs on promo- 
tions in the Navy. 


266 




gress. 










Navy Department to Congress . 


do 


Promotions of naval officers 


207 




J. D. Bulloch to J. M. Mason.. 


Sept. 1-5 


Comments on the issuance of cotton bonds and 


268 








price of cotton per pound. 






J. II. North to Navy Depart- 


Sept. 19 


Reports of work on ships building in Liverpool, 


268 




ment. 




and urges need of money to make payments Tor 










same. 






Navv Department to J. D. 


Sept. 20 


Shows difficulty of placing funds for operations in 


269 




Bulloch. 




England, as exchange of Confederacy nearly ex- 










hausted. 






Navv Department to Congress 


.. do . 


Commends Constructor Porter as a skillful and 


271 








valuable officer, and incloses his letter. 






Navv Department to J. II. 


Sept. 21 


Gives instructions about shipbuilding in Liver- 


272 




North. 




pool, and as to raising funds for its completion. 






Navy Department to The 


Sept. 22 


Asks for additional funds for construction and 


273 




President. 




equipment of ships abroad, and incloses estimate. 






The President to Congress 


Sept. 24 


Recommends appropriation for construction of 


274 








ironclad and other vessels abroad for Confeder- 










ate States Navy. 






Navy Department to The 


...do.... 


Recommends appropriation of $2,000,000 to de- 


274 




President. 




velop and foster the production o f iron and coal. 






J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


...do.... 


Reports money on hand to meet payments for con- 


274 




ment. 




tracted ships now building, and gives details of 










other important business on hand. 






Navv Department to J. II. 
North. 


Oct. 2 


Requests every possible effort be made to complete 
his ship as soon as practicable. 


278 




Navv Department to J. D. 


Oct. 3 


Congratulates Bulloch on his success in getting Ala- 


279 




Bulloch. 




bama to sea, and suggests plans as to raising 










funds. 






Navv Department to J. D. 


Oct. 8 


Requests Bulloch to send thanks of Navy Depart- 


280 




Bulloch. 




ment to Fraser, Trenholm & Co. for their gift of 










a gunboat to the Confederate States. 






Navy Department to J. M. 


Oct. 20 


Thanks Mason for his advice and assistance to G. 


280 




Mason. 




T. Sinclair in his work. 






Navy Department to State 


Oct. 24 


Transmits plan of Mr. Sanders for keeping up com- 


281 




Department. 




munication with Europe, which he approves of. 






J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


Oct. 25 


Reports arrival of Lieutenant Wilkinson, the mur- 


282 




ment. 




der of Midshipman Andrews on the Sumter . and 






Navv Department to J. II. 
North. 


...do 


the progress in the building of armor-clad ships. 
Comments on North's complaints, and if he wishes 
to be relieved from duties in Liverpool will as- 


283 








sign him elsewhere. 





176429 VOL 2 PT 121- 



18 CONTENTS. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1862 -Continued. 



No. 


From and to whom. 


Date. 


Subject. 


Page. 




Navy Department to J. D. 


Oct. 27 


Acknowledges receipt of drawings of ships, and 


284 




Bulloch. 




givas instructions about guns to be adopted. 










Incloses a draft on Fraser, Trenholm & Co. 






Navy Department to Treas- 


do ... 


Calls attention to secret joint resolution of Con- 


284 




ury Department. 




grass to contracts made for six ships to be paid 










for in cotton. 






Navy Department to J. D. 


Oct. 29 


Desires Bulloch to name his two ships North Caro- 


286 




Bulloch. 




lina and Mississippi, respectively. 






Treasury Department to 
Navy Department. 


Oct. 30 


Approves suggestion fur contract for building iron- 
clad ships to bo paid for by cotton certificates, 


287 








and incloses forms of articles of agreement. 






Navy Department to J. M. 


...do.... 


Invokes Mr. Mason's interest in the prompt con- 


2S7 




Mason. 




struction of six ironclad steamers in England. 






Navv Department to J. D. 


...do.... 


Notifies Bulloch that ho will bo supplied with 


288 




Bulloch. 




funds to meet contract, from sale of bonds. 






J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North.. 


Nov. 1 


Acknowledges receipt of delayed letter, and is glad 


288 








to hear ship is progressing satisfactorily. In- 










closes statement of prices ofnavalguns. 






Navy Department to J. D. 


Nov. 3 


Concerning funds to complete ships, and the pur- 


288 




Bulloch. 




chase of a first-class marine engine, to be sent as 










speedily as possible to the Confederate States. 






J. D. Bulloch to J. II. North.. 


...do 


Forwards information concerning Whitworth guns 


2S9 




J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North.. 


Nov, 6 


and states hisships are progressing satisfactorily. 
Instructs about transfer of contracts for shipbuild- 


290 








ing, and gives opinion about armament of iron- 










clad ships. 






J. H. North to G. Thomson . . . 


...do.... 


T'rges speeding up of work on armored ships being 


291 








built in Glasgow for Confederate States Govern- 










ment. 






J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


Nov. 7 


Reports on contract for revolvers, work upon iron- 


291 




ment. 




clad ships, means of getting ships clear of Brit- 










ish jurisdiction, and asks further instructions 










about work in England. 






Navy Department to M. F. 


...do.... 


Gives details of cotton certificates to be issued by 


295 




Maury. 




Confederate States Treasury Department. 






J. II. North to Navy Depart- 


Nov. 11 


Reports progress on his ship and calls the attention 


295 




ment. 




of the Secretary to the Whitworth shell. 






Navy Department to State 


Nov. 14 


Gives details of Mr. Sanders' plans. 


296 




Department. 










J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


Nov. 15 


Memorandum of instructions about the sale of C. 


297 




ment. 




S. S. Sumter. 






Governor of North Carolina to 
Navy Department. 


...do.... 


Concerning control of a quantity of State railroad 
iron, which is needed for boats building in North 


297 








Carolina. 






The President to Navy De- 


...do.... 


Decision on appeal of the Secretary on the ques- 


297 




partment. 




tion of compensation to chief clerk of the Navy 










Department. 






G. Thomson to J. H. North... 


Nov. 18 


Reports progress of work on ironclad ship, and 


299 








asks for payment of installment on same. 






J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


Nov. 21 


Gives details connected with the sale of C. S. S. 


299 




ment. 




Sumter, and reports favorably on progress of 










armor-clad ships. 






J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch.. 


...do.... 


Gives account ofa visit to Messrs. Thomson's ship- 


300 








yard, and inquires for details of the firing of the 










Whitworth gtm. 






Navv Department 


Nov. 22 


General order of 


300 




J. D. 'Bulloch to J. H. North. . . 


Nov. 23 


Gives an account of a visit to Whitworth's gun fac- 


300 








tory and a satisfactory interview with Mr. Whit- 










worth. 






J. II. North to J. D. Bulloch. . 


Nov. 24 


Furnishes general information of his work and sug- 


301 








gests agreement on style of equipment, etc., for 










ships. 






J. D. Bullooh to Fraser, Tren- 


.do 


Transmits thanks from tbo Secretary of Navy for 


302 




holm & Co. 




gift of gunboat to Confederate States Govern- 










ment. 






J. Wilkinson to E. P. Stringer 


Nov. 25 


\nnouncesarrivsil in Glasgow Nov. 24 1862 


302 




J. D. Bulloch to J. A. K. Wil- 


...do 


Order to sell the C. S. S. Sumter 


303 




son. 










J. D. Bulloch to J. 11. North. . 


Nov. 26 


Gives informal ion about money for plans and con- 


303 




C. R. Blandy to D. H. Erskine. 


Nov . 29 


tracts for shipbuilding and equipment. 
Makes a claim for destruction of goods on ship Lau- 


305 








raetta, destroyed at sea by C. S. S. Alabama, and 










forwards papers conr-miingsame. 






J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


Dec. 2 


Concerning the raising of funds for future ship- 


306 




ment. 




building, and reports two armor-clad turret ships 










progressing well. 






Navy Department to J. D. 


Dec. 13 


Hopes contracts have been made for four ships of 


307 




Bulloch. 




the Alabama class. 






Navy Department to J. H. 


do 


Gives instructions to, and trusts the completion of 


308 




North. 




his ship is being expedited. 






J. n. North to The Whitworth 


Dec. 16 


Inquires when guns and ammunition for ironclad 


308 




Ordnance Co. 




ships can be delivered. Would like to know 










price, etc., of 10-inch bore gun. 





CONTEXTS. 
NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1362 Continued. 



19 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. . 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment . 

J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. . 
J. II. North to J. D. Bulloch.. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



Dec. 17 
Dec. 13 

...do 

Dec. 19 

Dec. 20 



J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch-.; Dec. 22 

J. H. North to Manchester ...do 

Ordnance & Rifle Co. 

J. H. North to G. Thomson do.. 



J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. . 

Manchester Ordnance & Rifle 
Co. to J, H. North. 

J. II. North to J. D. Bulloch. . 

Department of Justice to Navy 
Department. 

J. D. Bulloch to J. II. North. . 



J. G. Yancey to J. II. North.. 



J. IT. North to Manchester 
Ordnance & Rifle Co. 



Manchester Ordnance & Rifle 
Co. 



J. D. Bulloch to J. M. Mason. . 



J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. . 
J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. . 



Dec. 23 

...do 

Dec. 26 
Dec. 27 

Dec. 28 
Dec. 29 

...do 

Dec. 30 

...do 

Dec. 31 
...do 

fNodate) 
...do.. 



Sends estimates of prices for 8-inch and 9-inch 
naval guns. 

Acknowledges draft for $1,000.000 to be paid out of 
proceeds of bonds for sale by Mr. Spence, and 
gives details of his work generally. 

Communicates ways and means of raising money 
for paying contracts for ships built in England. 

Reports'making a visit to shipyard with G. T. Sin- 
clair, and finds ship half plated and progressing 
well. 

Transmits triplicate of draft on Fraser, Trenholm 
& Co. for proceeds of sale of a million dollars' 
worth of bonds. 

Reports details of work and urgent need of funds 
to pay for ship, almost finished. 

Wishes'to be informed how soon four 120-pounder 
guns can be gotten ready, with a quantity of shell 
therefor. 

Gives instructions about a 9-inch gun and wishes 
tracing of alterations made and sent to him. 

Acknowledges receipt of several letters, comments 
on different orders received, and gives dimen- 
sions of ship he is building in England, together 
with other activities in his work. 

Advises the selling of cotton at 8 or 10 cents a pound 
for cash without delay. 

Announces time of completion of guns and wishes 
remittance of one-third of price, as per terms of 
agreement. 

Returns gun drawing and inquires about enough 
money to go ahead on Whit worth guns. 

Replies to Secretary's letter about bounty on en- 
listment in the Marine Corps, and gives details 
concerning bounty upon enlistment. 

Acknowledges receipt of gun drawing and gives 
brief statement of financial condition of Navy 
Department. 

Comments on success of Confederate States Army 
before Fredericksburg and asks for copy of speci- 
fications of ship being built by North. 

Incloses order for guns, etc., and transmits remit- 
tance of one-third of the price as per terms of 
agreement. 

Acknowledges specification of order for guns, car- 
riages for same, steel shells, etc., and check on 
account of order for 1,710, 18s. 

Informs MasonthatCaptainSemmes boarded C. S. 
S. Alabama in Bay of Angra Aug. 20; no equip- 
ment or stores on board when she left Liverpool; 
not more than 30 of crew on ship and additions 
made thereto after leaving England. 

Gives details about fnnn of cotton certificates and 
reports arrival of Erlanger agents at Richmond 
with further instructions. 

Inquires about money to be raised by sales of cot- 
ton and asks for further details concerning finan- 
cial affairs. 

Memorandum of meeting between Messrs, Slidell, 
Ma-son, Barren, McRae, and North. 

Agreement between J. <fe G. Thomson and O. 
Suensen and C. F. Tietgen. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1963. 



J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch... 



Jan. 2 



J. H. Northto G. Thomson do 

J. D. Bulloch to J. M. Mason.. Jan. 5 



J. H. North to Manchester 
Ordnance & Rifle Co. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy De- 
partment. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



J-m. o 



Jan. 7 



.do. 



Acknowledges receipt of two letters; states no 
money on hand to meet payments and feels un- 
easy about monetary affairs. 

Acknowledges receipt of tracing of 9-inch gun, for- 
warded from Bridge of Allan. 

Can not arrange for contract to furnish ships with 
batteries and ordnance without more money, 
and inquires about a lean. 

Wants specification of order for lubricating wads 
corrected, and wishes screw elevating motion 
applied to guns. 

Reports British Government has issued orders to 
restrict dispatch of ships for the Confederate 
States Navy. 

I)iri.-ts Sumter be sold and proceeds to be used to 
pay for fitting out ships, etc. Suggests fitting 
out vessels in a French port if possible. Gives 
general directions about building of ships and 
payment thereof. 



20 CONTENTS. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1863 Continued. 



From and to whom. 


Date. 


Subject. 


Page. 


Navy Department to J. H. 


Jan. 7 


States efforts to provide funds for ships in course 


334 


North. 




of construction, and advises offering bonuses for 








early delivery of ships. 




J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North . . . 


Jan. 9 


Discusses contracts for shipbuilding, payments 


337 






thereon, and reports available funds on hand ex- 








hausted. 




J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch. . 


Jan. 12 


Comments on contracts for ships being built, is 


337 






ready for contract to be turned over, and would 








like to have opinion on ship under construction. 




J. H. North to J. M. Mason 


Jan. 13 


States everything at a standstill for the waul of 


338 






fimds, is anxious to know when loan can be made 








forapaymenton ship heis building. 




Navv Department to J. D. 


Jan. 14 


Gives information about bonds for two million dol- 


339 


Bulloch. 




lars not having been sold by Treasury Depart- 








ment, which turned them over to Navy Depart- 








ment; with further details for their disposal. 




J. M. Mason to J. H. North 


Jan. 16 


Acknowledges letter of grievances, and advises 


339- 






prudential considerations and patience. 




J. H. North to J. B. Lafitte 


....do.... 


Expresses thanks for kindness and attention and 


340 






gives advice about forwarding letters to the Con- 








federacy. 




J. H. North to G. Thomson 


.do 


Acknowledges tracing of 9-inch gun and asks ad- 


340 






vice about hanging ports on ship now building. 




J. R. Hamilton to J. H. North. . 


Jan. 17 


Fears supplies sent by Kate were much damaged. 


340 






Expresses doubts about British Government 








allowing his ship to go to sea. 




J. H. North to J. M. Mason.. 


Jan. 19 


Reports delay of Mr. Sanders' arrival; and that 


341 






another payment is soon due on ship he is having 








built, expressing anxiety on the subject of 








funds. 




J. D. Bulloch to J. M. Mason. . . 


Jan. 20 


Comments on the general situation of affairs and 


342 






present low state of our finances. 




J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. . . 


..do 


Hopes to visit Glasgow soon, authorizes retransfer 


342 






of contract , and gives his instructions from Navy 




J. II. North to J. Brown & Co. . 


Jan. 21 


Department concerning bonds and loans. 
Requests price list for 8-inch smooth bore cast steel 


343 






guns, etc. 




J. IT. North to Mersey Steel 
and Iron Co. 


...do 


Requests price list for 8-inch wrought iron smooth 
bore guns with naval carriages, etc. 


343 


J. H. North to W. Butcher 


do 


Requests price list for 8-inch smooth bore cast steel 


343 


Co. 




guns with naval carriages, etc. 




G. T. Sinclair to J. H. North. . . 


Jan. 22 


Desires permit for visit to Shoeburvness dockyard 
be sent him, and discusses general affairs. 


,344 


J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


Jan. 23 


Reports installments now due will almost exhaust 


344 


ment. 




funds on hand, leaving very little for contingent 








expenses. Prospects of getting ships out of 








England seen doubtful at present. 




E. Bellot des Minieres to J. M. 


Jan. 26 


Desires Mr. Mason to second and encourage friend- 


346 


Mason. 




ship of French Government for the Confederate 








States so it may obtain cotton. 




J. D. Bulloch. 


do 


Retransfer of contract to J . H . North 


347 


G.T. Sinclair to J. H. North. . 


Jan. 29 


Gives cost of 8-inch guns; much trouble has arisen 


3*7 






as to details for contracts, etc. 




M. F. Maury to J. H. North 


Feb. 1 


Believes attempts are now being made to raise 


348 






funds, which are scarce. 




Navy Department to C. S. 


Feb. 2 


Suggests amending act, for promotion to captain, 


348 


Congress. 




from lower grad,e, for gallant and meritorious 








conduct. 




Navy Department to C. S. 


...do 


Gives details for the use of five millions needed in 


348 


Congress. 




England, for ships, etc. 




G. T. Sinclair to J. H. North . . . 


..do 


Has closed contract for guns and carriages, which 


349 






are to be finished in 10 weeks and gives prices for 








same, and appurtenances also. 




Navy Department to C. S. 


Feb. 3 


States title of Secret Acts No. 116 and No. 117 


350 


Congress. 
J. H. North to J. M. Mason 


...do 


Informs Mr. Mason that for want of funds can not 


350 






order armament and equipment for ship being 




J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


...do 


built, and begs for instructions on the subject. 
Reports wants of money lias caused orders for ships 


351 


ment. 




and ordnance stores to be delayed: movements of 








Confederate States agents closely watched, there- 








fore advises other ships be built in France. 




J. D. Bulloch to J. M. Mason . . . 


Feb. 4 


States he will require 80,000 to complete equip- 


352 






ment of 2 ironclads building in Liverpool, and 








much larger sum to carry out Navy Department's 








orders. 




J. D. Bulloch J. H. North 


..do.... 


Will furnisli money to pay for ship by direction of 


352 






Navy Department. 




J. M. Mason to J. H. North 


.do .... 


Notifies North that French loan has been effected, 


353 






and hopes money will be in hand in a very few 








days. 




J. H. North to G. Thomson 


...do 


States he hopes to be with Mr. Thomson on Friday 


353 






next in Glasgow. 





CONTEXTS. 
NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1863 Continued. 



21 



No. I 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



W. Ewing <fc Co. to J. M. 
Mason. 



J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch.. 

J. H. North to Manchester 
Ordnance & Rifle Co. 

J. H. North to W. Butcher & 
Co. 

Manchester Ordnance & Rifle 
Co. to J. H. North. 

J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch. . 
J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. . 



J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch . , 
J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. . 

Manchester Ordnance & Rifle 
Co. to J. H. North. 

J. & G. Thomson to J. H. 
North. 

J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

E. P. Stringer to J. M. Mason. . 
J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch.. 

W. Ewing & Co. to J. M. 
Mason. 



J. <t O. Thomson to J. H. 

North. 
J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. 



J. II. North to J. M. Mason. 



Navy Department to J. H. 
North. 

J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

J. M. Mason to J. H. North... 



Na^-y Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



Navy Department to W. G. 
Crenshaw. 



J. M. Mascn to J. H. North.... 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. & G. Thomson to J. H. 

North. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



Feb. 5 

..do.... 
..do.... 
..do... 



Feb. 6 

Feb. 7 
Feb. 9 

Feb. 10 
Feb. U 

Feb. 12 
..do.... 
Feb. 13 

Feb. 18 
..do.... 
Feb. 17 

..do.... 
Feb. 19 

..do... 



Feb. 20 
..do.... 
Feb. 21 
..do.... 

Feb. 22 



Mar. 2 
Mar. 3 
...do... . 

Mar. 4 



Reports loss of steamer Lafayette, which was 
burned by Captain Semmes, Confederate States 
Navy, and asks compensation for destruction of 
their ship from Confederate States Government. 

Requests 150,000 to meet necessary payments 
for ships, etc. 

Inquires when two 70-pounders and two 32-pound- 
ers could be furnished to order. 

Wishes price list furnished for 3j and 4 J inch steel 
rifled guns, etc 

Sends tracing of 70-pounder gun and states could 
deliver guns to order in 3 or 4 months from date 
of same. 

Tells of return from Glasgow and discusses retrans- 
fer of contract. 

Has been officially informed that Erlanger's propo- 
sition has been accepted: but some weeks will 
elapse before money can be furnished for ships 
contracted for. 

Asks for information about securing funds for three 
iron ships. 

Informs Commander North Erlanger's agent has 
not yet arrived, so unable to furnish funds until 
his arrival. 

Acknowledges letter and will send a list of appara- 
tus supplied with the guns. 

Announces armor-clad ship being built; will be 
fully plated in 10 days. 

Reports that want of money has delayed the finish 
of ship he is now superintending, and gives de- 
tails of efforts to try and raise needed funds. 

Introduces Mr. G. Blandy and commends him to 
Mr. Mason's consideration. 

States he will need 30,000 more to meet all ex- 
penses on ship he is having built. 

Acknowledges letter respecting claim for corn 
destroyed on board steamer Lafayette by steamer 
Alabama, and forwards inclosure from Foreign 
Office. 

Acknowledges letter with reference to retransfer 
of contract and sends price lists for spare gear, etc. 

States prices of arms and munitions of war have 
varied very much during past two years. Will 
send a tracing of turret "desired. 

Shows need of 18,000 to make another payment 
on ship, and wishes to know how soon funds can 
be furnished for an order for guns, etc. 

Suggests expediting completion of shipbuilding 
by offering a bonus, ana desires details of draft, 
etc., as soon as possible. 

Reports much delay in completion of ship for want 
of monev, as unable to give orders for armament 
and outfit of ship. 

Announces there will be unquestionably money 
to the credit of Government in a few days and 
gives advice on several subjects. 

Comments on various matters, sends forms of 
naval commissions, and desires information as 
to whether both of Bulloch's ships will be ready 
at the same time, and what plans are made for 
getting them to sea. 

Desires Captain Bulloch to see W. G. Crenshaw 
with the object of learning whether he can trans- 
mit supplies needed to the Confederate States. 
Gives instructions on the subject as to funds for 
same. 

States Navy Department is interested one-fourth 
in enterprise of AV. G. Crenshaw's to purchase 
supplies in England for needed articles for Con- 
federate States Navy. 

Desires to know what'amount besides the 18,000 
now due will be needed to make further con- 
tracts. 

Announces officers for two vessels will proceed to 
England within next 10 days, unless Bulloch 
sends word not to have them come. 

Sends tracing of gun as requested. Notifies Cap- 
tain North ship plated, and asks for payment of 
instalment due on same. 

Refers Captain J. Lawson to J. D. Bulloch, who 
offers to build and equip a cruising ship for Con- 
federate States Government. 



22 CONTENTS. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT COHKESl'ONDENCE FOR 1803 Continued. 



From and to whom. 



J. H. North to J. M. Mason.... 

Manchester Ordnance & Rifle 
Co. to 3. H. North. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

Navy Department to J. T>. 
Bulloch. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Shaw & Finlay to J. M. Mason. 

J. H. North to T. & C. Hood . . 

J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch. . 
.T. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. . 

J. D. Bulloch to J. M. Mason. . 

J. M. Mason to J. H. North. . . 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. H. North to T. & C. Hood.. 

J. H. North to J. & G. Thom- 
son. 



J. M. Mason to J. H. North. . 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. H. North to T. <fe C. Hood. 

J. H. North to P. Henderson 
&Co. 

Navy Department to J. Slidell 



J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch. 
J. H. North to J. M. Mason. . 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



J. H. North to T. & C. Hood. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. H. North to J. M. Mason. . 



J. M. Mason to J. H. North . . . 

J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Date. 



Mar. 4 
Mar. 5 

Mar. 7 
Mar. 9 
...do... 

Mar. 12 

Mar. 13 

Mar. 14 
Mar. 17 



Mar. 18 
Mar. 19 

,..do 

..do... 

Mar. 20 
Mar. 23 

Mar. 24 



Mar. 27 

Mar. 26 
...do. . . 
Mar. 27 



...do... 
Mar. 30 



Apr. 1 
Apr. 3 



Subject. 



States 8,000 more required to the. 18,000 on hand 
and in a few weeks 18,000 more will he needed. 

Sends specification of order for two 70-pounder 
Kims, etc., and two 32-pounder guns and appur- 
tenances. 

Gives instructions about funds; gives names of 
officers ordered abroad and can not express 
Presidents's views about ships as he is ill. 

Advises purchase of fast steamer to transport 
urgently needed Navy supplies to Confederate 
States. 

Acknowledges forms of commissions; has just 
closed contract for ship 300 tons larger than 
Alabama: advises sending officers to France as 
soon as possible, and expresses willingness to re- 
main in England. 

Makes claim for property destroyed on steamer 
Lafayette by Captain Semmes, Confederate 
States Navy, in steamer Alabama, valued at i 
2,575 18s. 6d. 

Accepts terms proposed in consummation of con- 
tract, and incloses check for 1,800 as first pay- 
ment. 

Sots forth urgent need of receiving money as soon 
as possible. 

Replies to letter of urgent need for money, which he 
is unable to furnish as no bonds have oeen sold 
with which to supply funds for contracts. 

Reports being very busy getting a ship ready to 
send coal, etc., for the Alabama, and encloses 
contract between the Secretarv of the Navy and 
Mr. G. N. Sanders. 

Promises money required this week, or next at the 
latest. 

Expresses apprehension about getting ships to sea 
at an early day, and gives advice as to proceedings 
on the subject. Orders purchase of fast steamer 
to transport naval supplies to Confederate States. 

Gives instructions about guns and ammunition 
ordered. 

Announces he will send money probably this week 
or next Tuesday at the latest, for payment on 
ships. 

Documents relating to fitting out and arrange- 
ments for purchasing of ships in England. 

Inquires whether Isaac, Camp Dell & Co. had offered 
a commission on purchases made from them for 
the use of Confederate States Government, and 
asks for exact facts. 

States a vessel like Giraffe would suit very well to 
transport naval supplies speedily to Confeder- 
ate States that he wishes purchased. 

Desires tracing of alterations on gun carriage need- 
ed, nncl prices of same. 

Requests payment of 18,000 to Messrs. James and 
George Thompson, being sixth instalment on 
ship being built by them. 

Discusses t he ( ransf erence of ships built in England 
to Mr. Arman with view of removing them from 
England and fitting them out in France. 

Inquiries about money to complete ship and states 
he needs 174,000 for expenses and cruising fund. 

Replies to query about offer of commission from 
Issac, Campbell & Co., with explanation of same. 

Gives instructions about appointments of oificers 
required for all ships, ana encloses letter to J. 
Slidell. 

Acknowledges tracing of gun, and approves of Mr. 
Sinclair's gauge for shells, which he orders. 

Reports contract for two marine engines to send 
Secretary, and has assurances from highest quar- 
ter that French builders can construct ships and 
batteries without interference or interruption. 
Needs funds for contracts. 

Sets forth need of money to meet payment on ship 
now building and asks instructions about more 
funds. 

Directs requisition be made on Captain Bulloch 
and sent to Mason, stating when money is wanted . 

Reports fine progress on ship he is having built; 
was much pressed for money to order guns and 
had to borrow from friends to do so. Asks for an 
order to the depositaries for needed funds re- 
quired by him. 



CONTENTS. 
NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1863 Continued. 



23 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch . . 
J. H. North to J. M. Mason. . 



Nary Department to C. S. 

Congress. 

J. H. North to T. & C. Hood . . 



Treasury Department to Navy 
Department. 



J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

J. D. Bulloch to J. H: North. 



Navy Department to Treasury 

Department. 
J. H. North to T. & C. Hood. . 

J. H. North to J. M. Mason. . 
J. M. Mason to J. H. North. . . 

Navy Department to C. S. 

Congress. 
J. H. North to T. & C. Hood.. 

Navy Department to C. S. 
Senate. 

Navy Department to C. S. 
Congress. 

Navy Department to C. S. 
Congress. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



J. H. North to Elswick Ord- 
nance Works. 

Navy Department to Confed- 
erate States Congress. 

J. H. North to J. M. Mason. . . . 
J. R. Hamilton to J. H. North.. 
J. H. North to G. B. Tennent. 
J. H. North to W. Noble... 



J. R. Hamilton to J. H. North. 
J. R. Hamilton to J. H. North. 



R. R. Carter to J. H. North... 
J. H. North to J. Slidell... 



Apr. 4 
...do... 

Apr. 5 
Apr. 8 
Apr. 11 

Apr. 11 
Apr. 13 

...do... 
Apr. 14 
Apr. 16 
Apr. 20 

...do... 

...do... 
Apr. 21 

...do.... 
...do.... 
...do..., 

Apr. 22 
...do.. 



J. H. North to Elswick Ord- 
nance Works. 

M. F. Maury to J. H. North... 



Apr. 23 
..do.... 

..do 

Apr. 25 



Apr. 28 
May 1 



...do.... 
May 2 

May 4 
..do... 



Requires 154,000 for construction, etc., for ship he 

is superintending the building of. 
Sends receipt for 26,000 and encloses requisition 

on J. I). Bulloch for 154,000 needed to complete 

his ship. 
Calls attention to the want of seamen for the Navy, 

and hopes a bill can be passed giving necessary 

relief. 
Acknowledges tracing of gun carriage, and inquires 

cost of same made of best material and in best 

manner. 
States no returns from Europe as to Erlanger loan, 

but thinks we may venture to draw according to 

contract. Makes suggestions about partition of 

payment between War and Navy Departments. 

and gives rates of exchange in England and 

France. 
Reports delay in completion of ship which may not 

be finished before July. Delay caused by lack of 

funds. Gives details of work generally. 
Informs North that he has been unable to raise or 

send any money for payment on ships and is 

much worried over the monetary situation. 
Does not concur hi proposed action relative to 

exchange. 
Orders 10 rear chock carriages, and gives details 

about same. 
Begs funds from Mason, as there is no prospect of 

securing any from Captain Bulloch. 
Replies to request for money, and will try to relieve 

North's necessities in a few days. 
Requests Senate increase appropriation for service 

abroad another $5,000,000. 
Gives details of alterations to be made on work 

already ordered. 
Sends duplicates of letters that were not received 

concerning increase of appropriation for service 

abroad. 
Unable to find bill for the use of Navy Department 

abroad, and suggests it is still before the Senate in 

secret session. 
Explains the situation concerning act for appro- 

E ration for service abroad, which he desires to 
ave amended. 

Inquires of progress and condition of ironclads; has 
no advices of negotiation of Erlanger loan and 
gives general instructions about present situa- 
tion. 

Orders two 150-pounders and two 12-pounders. 
Requests drawings of guns and carriages and 
price lists for same. 

Informs Senate that President has signed bill ap- 
propriating $5,200,000 for use of Navy Depart- 
ment abroad. 

States funds urgently needed to complete ship and 
hopes to be soon favored with money to meet 
payments due. 

Gives details of powder tanks; fears all vessels 
building in England will be seized and subjected 
to delay in sailing. 

Discusses orders for guns, carriages, and ammuni- 
tion, and gives general information of work on 
hand. 

Wants to know if another 1 50-pounder can be ready 
by middle of July and orders 100 steel shells and 
other ammunition. 

Sends description of powder tanks requested 

Gives information about powder tanks and wishes 
to know whether zinc or copper is wanted in 
their manufacture. States British Government 
will not permit a man-of-war to leave its shores. 

Comments on general situation at home and 
abroad, and expects to leave for France soon. . 

Inquires as to a transfer of ship he is building to 
some French house, that it may not be seized by 
British Government when finished and ready 
for sea. 

Requests the third 150-pounder be commenced at 
once, and would like to have a price list of guns 
of various calibers. 

Requests blank form of contract of North's with 
builders. 



24 CONTENTS. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1863 Continued. 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



J. Slidell to J. H. North. 



J. M. Mason to Treasury De- 
partment. 

J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. II. North to T. & C. Hood. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



M. F. Maury to J. H. North. . 

J. H. North to Navy- Depart- 
: ment. 



J. R. Hamilton to J. H. North 
M. F. Maury to J. H. North.. 
J, H. North to T. & C. Hood., 
J. II. North to J. M. Mason... 



J. M. Mason to J. H. North... 
G. T. Sinclair to J. H. North. 
J. M. Mason to R. Dowling... 
J. M. Mason to J. Slidell..., 



J. D. Bulloch toNavy Depart- 
ment. 



J. II. North to G. Thomson.. 



J. E. Macfarland to State De- 
partment. 

T. H. North to Manchester 

Ordnance Co. 
J. H. North to J. M. Mason... 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. H. North to G. B. Tennent 



J. H. North to G. "W. Rendel. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



May 5 

May 6 
..do... 



May 7 
..do... 



..do 

May 8 

May 9 

May 10 
May 11 
..do... 



May 12 
May 14 
..do.... 
..do.... 

May 16 

..do.... 
May 17 

May 18 
May 21 

May 23 
..do.... 

...do.... 
May 26 



Replies as to transfer of North's ship to a French or 
other continental house, woula depend upon 
state of forwardness of vessel. Will give further 
advice when Mr. Sinclair reaches Paris in a few 
days. 

Gives much information about "proposed cotton 
certificates" and says money must be obtained 
to meet urgent needs. 

Reports his ship as making fast progress, and that 
two Armstrong guns are ordered for same. 
States there is danger of British Government 
seizing finished ships, and hopes his ship can 
be put under the French flag. 

Sends copy of secret act of Congress appropriating 
2,000,000 for construction of ironclad ships of 
war in southern Europe. 

Acknowledges letter, gives instructions about an 
order for hatchets, and encloses check for 150. 

Gives details of Erlanger loan to be paid in Paris 
and then transmitted to agents in Liverpool for 
disbursement. Has placed 300,000 to Bui- 
loch's credit to meet expenditures of North and 
Sinclair. 

Wishes to have forms of contracts with builders 
copied and forwarded without delay. 

Reports progress of his ship, and that two Arm- 
strong guns have been ordered which will prove 
a powerful addition to her armament. Asks au- 
thority to appoint officers in England who be- 
long to Confederate States. 

Gives prices for order of powder tanks, and states 
10 weeks will be needed to complete order. 

Wishes estimate of amount required, to be sent by 
return mail. 

Requires the straight bar, and bed and quoin 
made similar to tracing that was sent. 

Encloses a copy of letter of April 23, to which no 
answer has ever been received and begs an early 
reply. 

Replies that Mr. Spence arrives to-morrow when 
financial affairs will be overhauled, after which 
will write. 

Announces Slidell thinks his ship would better be 
turned over to a Hamburg house, as expense is 
heavy for a transfer to the French flag. 

Transmits appointment as commercial agent at 
Cork for the Confederate States of America, 
from State Department. 

Desires to know when McRae can visit London, as 
it is most urgent to talk to him in regard to Er- 
langer loan, and begs Slidell to so inform him. 

Reports British Government is now enforcing for- 
eign enlistment act and ad vises no further opera- 
tions in England, and would transfer all ship- 
building to France. Give details of difficulties 
of getting money to make payments on contracts 
which causes delay in completing needed ships. 

Urges hurry on ship he is superintending the build- 
ing of, as it is of utmost importance to get her to 
sea as soon as possible. 

Acknowledges Treasury drafts for Messrs. Mason, 
Slidell, et al., which have been forwarded to 
their destinations. 

Requests large sized drawing of pivot gun carriage; 
also a drawing of the bolt and socket. 

Urges necessity of placing funds in his hands as 
soon as possible as bills are due and money is 
wanted. 

Hopes no delay will prevent the purchase of a 
steamer and steam engines for the Navy Depart- 
ment. 

Comments on guns to pivot amidships, and would 
like to have a working drawing of Hulse's gun 
carriage, and will order round steel shot as soon 
as money is available. 

Sends tracings asked for, and gives ideas about 
carrying guns amidships to be pivoted on either 
side! 

Desires at once all information possible about ships 
at Birkenhead and Glasgow being read}' for sea, 
and how they can be gotten out, with all details 
of their condition. 



CONTENTS. 
NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1863 Continued. 



25 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



Page. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



Navy Department to State 

Department. 
Navy Department to J. Slidell 



J. H. North to G. W. Rendel.. 
J. H. North to 0. J. McRae... 



L. Annan to Minister of the 

Marine and Colonies. 
J. H. North to T. & C. Hood. . 

J. M. Mason to J. II. North... 



J. Slidell to J. Voruz, aine, and 

L. Arman. 

Chasseloup-Laubat to L. Ar- 
man. 

J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. II. North to Manchester 
Ordnance & Rifle Co. 

J. Voruz, ainfi, to Minister of 
Agriculture and Commerce. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



J. M. Mason to R. Dowling. 



Navy Department to J. M. 
Mason. 



E. F.rlanger & Co. to J. Voruz, 

aine. 
L. Arman to J. Voruz, aine.. 



Jollet & Babier and Th. Dubi- 
geon & Filsto J. Voruz, aine. 

L. Arman to M. F. Maury 



L. Q. C. Lamar, J. Slidell, and 
J. M. Mason to J. H. North. 



J. M. Mason to J. H. North 



Navy Department to J. D. 
BuJloch. 



Mazeline Co. to J. Voruz, aine 

Navy Department to J. D. 

Bulloch. 
J. II. North to J. M. Mason. . 



May 26 



...do 

May 27 

May 28 
...do 

June 1 
June 4 
June 5 

June 6 
...do.... 



.do. 



June 8 
...do 

...do.... 



June 9 
June 10 

...do.... 
June 12 
June 13 

June Itj 
June 19 

June 23 
June 25 
June 26 



Announces additional assurances have been re- 
ceived that iron-plated ships of war can be con- 
structed in France by French builders and deliv- 
ered ready for service on the high seas, and 
wishes inquiries made so as to reach the Emperor 
of France on this subject. 

Acknowledges with thanks copies of the Mechanic's 
Magazine and Engineer. 

Wishes Slidell to induce French Government to 
transfer ironclad warships armed and equipped 
from their navy to the Confederate States Gov- 
ernment if practicable. 

Encloses tracing of gun carriage and suggests alter- 
ations thereon. 

States in immediate want of 30,000 to meet pres- 
ent demands, and will need 130,000 in addition 
to above sum later on. 

Asks authority to provide armament for 4 steam- 
ers for a foreign shipowner. 

Wishes change made in drawing from straight bar 
to a bent iron bar. 

Desires presence in London as soon as practicable 
for a conference with Messrs. Slidell, Lamar, and 
McRae, and wishes him to bring contract for ship 
he is building. 

Thinks contract for arming 4 steamers can be put 
into execution at once. 

Authorizes M. Arman to furnish 12 to 14 30-pounder 
cannon on 4 iron and wooden steamers, which 
are being built at Nantes and Bordeaux. 

Reports delay of work on ship on account of strikes. 
States general opinion is that no ships construct- 
ed in England for Confederate States Govern- 
ment will be allowed to leave there. 

Gives instructions about alterations to be made on 
gun carriages. 

Begs to be allowed the benefit of the drawback on 
a supply of 5,000 conical shot, to be made for Mr. 
B lately of London. 

Orders purchase of fast paddle-wheel steamer at 
once; if any engines, etc., are ready, send them 
on steamer. An officer should bring out steamer, 
i f he can be spared. 

Desires inquiries made in Ireland relating to alleged 
enlistments there, by Federal agents under false 
pretenses. 

Gives instructions to supply Commander Maury 
with money to purchase a fast sidewheel steamer, 
in case Captain Bulloch has not already bought 
one. 

Encloses contract and other papers, and begs to 
have Captain Bulloch certify to same. 

Acknowledges Captain Bulloch's check for 720,000 
francs as payment for 2 steamers now build- 
jug for the Confederate States. 

Gives cost and other details of steamer being built 
for the Confederate States, the payments to be 
made according to the terms agreed upon. 

Submits the final plan of a gun battery drawn ac- 
cording to the design of Captain Jansen and gives 
details of same. 

Advise North to sell ship under construction, as 
only means of saving large amount already ex- 
pended, as British Government will prevent ship 
going to sea under Confederate flag. 

Regrets compulsory sale of ship, and hopes that 
North can operate without risk of Interference in 
France. 

Gives instructions about funds to be used for 4 
contracts to build ships in France, and to act as 
general banker for funds, to be placed to his credit 
from sale of bonds. 

Notes an error in dimensions of the engines and 
comments on details of specification therefor. 

Sends drafts for 26,000 and 38,902 13s. 4d., respec- 
tively, to be disposed of as directed. 

Reports unable to sell ship he is having built to the 
Russian Government, because not sufficiently 
advanced for their purposes. Would like to have 
opinion on the decision in the case of the Alex- 
andra. 



26 CONTENTS. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1863 Continued. 



From and to whom. 



J. M. Mason to J. H. North... 
J. H. North to G. Thomson. .. 



J. H. North to Messrs. Williams 
&Co. 

Navy Department to J. H. 
North. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Dept. . 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Dept. . . 

J. H. North to C. C. Williams. 
J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. . 



J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. T>. Bulloch to J. Spence 

J. H. North to G. Thomson.. . 



J. H. North to Manchester 
Ordnance <V Rifle Co. 

J. H. North to J. & G. Thom- 
son. 

J. H. North to Manchester 
Ordnance & Rifle Co. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. H. North to Navy Depart- 



Date. 



June 27 
...do.... 
June 29 
June 30 
...do... 



July 1 

July 3 

...do.... 

...do... 
July 4 



..do.... 
July 6 
July 7 
July 8 



July 9 



July 10 



ment. 

I 

J. H. North toC.C. Williams. ...do. . ., 
...do.... 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

J. H. North to Manchester 

Ordnance & Rifle Co. 
J. H. North to G. Thomson . . . 

3. Voruz, ain4 to A. Voruz 



A. Blakely to J. Voruz, ain<3. . . 



J. Voruz, aine,to Minister of 

Marine. 
L. Annan to J. D. Bulloch 



J. M. Mason to G. T. Sinclair.. 



Navy Department to J. H. 
North. 



July 13 



July 14 



July 15 
July 16 

July 20 
...do 



Subject. 



Replies the decision in Alexandra's case removes 
many fears, and not to hurry in the matter of 
concluding a sale of ship. 

Urges importance of proceeding as rapidly as pos- 
sible the construction of ship being built for 
Confederate States Government. 

Inquiries about prices for pivot and broadside gun 
carriages, and what time it would take finish 6 or 
8 of them. 

Orders North to report to Flag-Officer Barron to 
explain matters in his charge and to be governed 
by orders he may deem proper to give. 

Gives general information about ironclads under 
construction; the sale of ships to Bravay & Co., 
the exchange of property requiring ^Tc>ut cau- 
tion; new contracts inane, to complete ships, 
with Laird & Co. for Bravay & Co., as agents for 
the Pasha of Egypt ,and other details ol the a iTair. 

Reports the traitorous conduct ofC. R. Yonge in 
connection with the launching of the Alexandra 
which was seized shortly afterwards in Toxtetle 
dock by British authorities. 

Orders six pivot gun carriages for 6 guns rifled, of 
75 hundredweight each, and gives instructions 
about them. 

States a confidential messenger leaves for Dixie on 
Saturday week, and he will go to Paris to-mor- 
row giving address there if needed. 

Gives details of work under his supervision which 
owing to strikes does not progress as rapidly as 
he could wish. Has had great difficulty to ob- 
tain money to meet payments for ship, which 
has eauaed much anxiety. 

Desires to be informed whether he can rely upon 
sale of bonds to supply him with funds within 
5 or 6 months. 

Requests to see drawings for the boats as to 
whether they meet with his approval, and 
wishes to know the size and number of boats the 
Hector can carry. 

Begs correct working drawings of the 70-pounder 
and 32-pounder guns be sent, with instructions. 

Transmit check for eighteen thousand pounds 

Sends drawing asked for, and wants correct draw- 
ings of a 70-pounder and a 32-pounder gun. 

Transmits a complete set of drawings for two Brit- 
ish-built ships to be called Nos. 294 and 295, giv- 
ing details thereof. States No. 294 was launched 
July 4. Will senu further reports about ar- 
mored ships later. 

Notifies the Secretary that confidential and impor- 
tant dispatches will be sent by Lieutenant Whit- 
tle, a special messenger. Gives general details of 
work under construction. 

Gives general information about work under his 
superintendence and comments on various mat- 
ters of interest in Europe. 

Wishes to order slides 14 feet long and would like 
to know prices of slides of 15 and 16 feet long. 

Gives information about Agrippina, a vessel 
bought to take Alabama's armament and stores 
to Terceira.and encloses letter of her commander. 

Requests a drawing of a 32-pounder gun which was 
not sent as desired in former letters. 

Sends size and number of boats wanted for Santa 
Maria and instructions therefor. . 

Gives instructions to continue to make good and 
well-executed plans for Captain Bulloch. Gives 
lowest factory prices for puns. Forty-eight 30- 
pounders sold to Captain Bulloch for 7,000 francs 
apiece. 

Orders at once 48 30-pounders and 9,600 shells ac- 
cording to drawings given. Details of proofand 
price will be arranged later. 

Requests a permit to visit trim establishment at 
Ruelle, to inspect tools used there. 

Details of contract, between L. Arman and J. D. 
Bulloch, to construct two steam rams at Bor- 
deaux. 

Gives advice about having ship launched, and sug- 
gests till final decision in the Alexandra case is 
rendered, would wait to dp so. 

Wishes to hear fully of condition of ship, and how 
soon she will be ready for sea. 



CONTEXTS. 
NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1863 Continued. 



27 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



i Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloeh. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. H. North to F. Napton 

M. F. Maury to W. F. Carter.. 
J. H. North to T. & C. Hood.. 
J. D. Bulloehto J. T[. North.. 

J. Voruz, aine, to Minister-of 

Marine. 
J. H. North to G. B. Tennent.. 

Minister of Marine to J. Voruz, 

aine. 
J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch. . . 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. D. Bulloch to J. II. North. . 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy De- 
partment. 



J. IT. North to J. D. Bulloch.. 

Chasseloup-Laubat to L. Ar- 

man. 
J. D. Bulloch to J. II. North.. 



J. H. North to T. & C. Hood.. 

J. H. North to Manchester 
Ordnance & Rifle Co. 

J. H. North to T. & C. Hood... 
Cotterill & Sons to J. M. Mason. 



J. H. North to Manchester 
Ordnance Rifle Co. 

Navy Department to J. H. 
North, 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch". 



Navy Department to S. Bar- 
ron. 



Naw Department' to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

Governor of North Carolina to 
S. Barron. 

J. D. Uulloch to Navy De- 
partment. 



July 20 
...do 

July 21 

July 22 
July 24 
July 25 
July 28 
July 29 

..do 

Aug 1 

..do 

Aug. 3 

Aug. 4 
Aug. 7 

..do 

Aug. 8 
Aug. 9 

Aug. 11 
Aug. 17 

..do 

..do 

Aug. 22 
Aug. 29 



Aug. 30 



.do. 



Aug. 31 
Sept. 1 



Expresses anxiety over condition of ships being 
built in England, as no letters have been re- 
ceived for four months. Gives information 
about financial affairs. 

Reports recent return to England from France 
where he inspected clipper corvettes building for 
the Confederate States Navy, giving details of 
same. 

Encloses copy of complaint of G. N. Sanders of 
course of officer charged with supervision of con- 
tracts for construction of vessels. 
Orders two broadside carriages, six slides, and six 
pivot carriages, for guns, with instructions. 

Orders visi t to shipyards on T liam.es, and to send 
report about vessels there for sale. 

Sends 1 ,()00 as second instalment due on contract. 
Gives instructions about gun sights. 

Reports, has lately contracted for two ironclads in 
France to cost 80,1)00 each. 

Asks authority to fabricate forty-eight32-pounders 
at his gun factories at Nantes for Captain Bulloch. 

Wishes former order canceled, and new one, en- 
closed, substituted therefor. 

Grants authority to make forty-eight 32-pounders 
guns at his factory at Nantes. 

Inquires about funds to pay for ship under con- 
struction, and gives progress of work on same. 

Announces has no letters since the middle of May, 
and is anxious about completion of ships build- 
ing in England. 

Replies as to funds for completion of ship and will 
send money as soon as Treasury warrants arrive. 
Thought sale had been determined on, as chances 
of getting out big ships are hopeless. 

Reports general situation of affairs under his su- 
pervision, and of the intention to sell ship build- 
ing in Glasgow, giving reasons therefor. Has 
contracted for two corvettes in France and gives 
their description. 

States the need of 124.000 to meet payments on 
ship as they become due. 

Asks plans of cannon, which he wishes made, by 
ordance works. 

Gives financial situation and requests the approxi- 
mate time when approximate sums win be re- 
quired to make payments on ship. 

Finds errors in list of articles ordered, which he 
would like corrected, and would like price list 
of boxes for shells. 

Cancels former list 01 articles ordered, and encloses 
a new one, which he would like furnished in- 
stead. 

Sends instructions about certain fuse wanted, and 
orders an 8-inch shell box made. 

Would like to have an interview with Mr. Mason 
concerning a certain claim for silver on ship B . F. 
Iloxie. 

Takes exception to certain shells for 32-pounder 
and would like to have order for same corrected, 
according to instructions. 

Expresses regret over delay of completion of ships 
building, and hopes every effort will be made 
for their speedy finish. Gives advice about 
getting ships to sea. 

Gives instructions as to funds to be used in pay- 
ments for ships ordered. Hopes cotton certifi- 
cates may be used to meet demands for ships. 
Makes suggestions about manning Nos. 294 and 
29T>, which is left to Bulloch's discretion, and 
gives other information about various affairs. 

Orders Barron to proceed to England as soon as 
possible to take command of two vessels to be 
delivered at sea by Commander Bulloch, and 
gives further instructions for same. 

Seivls notice the cotton certificates are not yet 
ready, and instructs Bulloch to supply funds 
to North for his ship. 

Sends thanks of North Carolina State convention 
to officers and soldiers for defending Hatteras. 

States dispatches from Richmond were captured 
by the enemy, and given publicity at home and 
in Europe, which greatly increased difficulty of 
work being done abroad for the Confederate 
States Navy. Expresses fears that funds may 
run short for needed payments. 



28 CONTENTS. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1863 Continued. 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



J. II . North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



W. N. de Mattos to J. M. Ma- 
son. 



J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch. 
J. M. Mason to J. Slidell... 



Sept. 4 

Sept. 12 
Sept. 15 



J. D; Bulloch to J. II. North. 



Navy Department to J. II. 
North. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. IT. North to J. D. Bulloch. . 
Bulloch. 



J, A O. Thomson to J. H. 

North. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

Navy Department to S. Bar- 
ron. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloch to J. II. North. . 



J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North... 



J. H. North to Navy Depart- 



Navy Department to S. Bar- 
ron. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



Sept. 17 
Sept. 20 

Sept. 21 

Sept. 22 
Sept. 21 

Sept. 25 
Sept. 28 
Sept. 29 
...do... 
...do... 
Oct. 1 



Oct. 11 

Oct. 16 

Oct. 17 

Oct. 20 

Oct. 22 



Regrets to learn that many dispatches have not 
been received, and reports work progressing 
slowly, as ship will not be ready for sea before 
next December. 

Submits claim for $2,000 for loss of cargo of salt on 
ship Nora, which was destroyed by the C. K. S. 
Alabama. 

States absolutely necessary that funds must be 
had to carry on his work, and hopes to be fur- 
nished with money as soon as possible. 

Wishes advice on subject of terminating his 
mission to England, and hopes for an early re- 
ply. 

Agreement between J. D. Bulloch and J. Voruz, 
ain<5, concerning guns and accessories. 

Expresses anxiety about monetary situation and 
sends a draft for 15,000, which he hopes will 
relieve immediate demands. Would like a 
statement as to when more is needed. 

C. J. McRae is made financial at,'ent for War and 
Navy Departments and will control funds for 
the public service. Orders, at earliest moment, 
that a statement be furnished McKae, giving all 
details of contracts, amounts paid thereon, etc. 

Gives financial condition of Confederate States 
in Europe, with instructions about cotton cer- 
tificates and proceeds therefrom, with enclosure. 

Acknowledges draft for 15,000 and regrets neces- 
sity for requesting at least 5,000 more to make 
another payment on liU ship. Gives statement 
of future needs. 

Announces fully one-third of armor plates are 
fitted, and asks that eighth instalment be paid 
for same. 

Transmits draft for $2,000,000 of cotton certificates 
on C. J. McRae, depositary, Confederate States, 
in Paris. 

Gives instructions as to funds to be furnished for 
for enterprises on hand in Europe with details 
for same. 

Transmits a draft on C. J. McRae in his favor for 
437,500 to be paid out of proceeds of Erlanger 
loan. 

Requests most prompt and effective means be 
adopted to get Commander Sinclair's vessel to 

Reports has been able to secure a steamer to carry 
one of the marine engines needed, with Lieuten- 
ant Carter in charge. Gives general information 
about affairs in England. 

Can send 5,000 required at present, but will be 
unable to send thirty and seventv thousand 
pounds later as no funds are available for those 
sums needed. 

States C. J. McRae has been directed to retain 
money required in France and can not furnish 
means to North. The only source left from 
which t o expect money is the sale of cotton which 
is uncertain as to time of arrival. 

Regrets lack of funds to complete his ship has re- 
tarded progress on her and fears when completed 
the British Government will sei?e her when she 
tries to put to sea. Gives details of his difficul- 
ties to secure funds to pay for instalments on 
ship and other contracts for supplies. 

Requests Barren to take the whole subject of com- 
pleting and getting his ship to sea in hand, as 
early as possible, and not to wait for Commander 
Sinclair any longer. 

Reports full information about the seizure of iron- 
clads Nos. 294 and 295 by the British Govern- 
ment. 

Reports purchase of steamer for Navy Department 
to be commanded by Lieutenant Carter which 
will sail in a couple of days and gives full details 
of same. States 200,000 bales of cotton have 
been run through the blockade and hopes for 
money from their sale to meet payments for 
ships. 

Orders supplies for Navy Department to be sent in 
two lots by steamers to Bermuda agent, to be 
forwarded to Confederate States. 



CONTEXTS. 29 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1863 Continued. 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



Navy Department to S. Bar- 



J. H. North to B. Fraser. 



J. H. North to C, J. McRae.... 
S. Ban-on to G. T. Sinclair. . . 



S. Barren to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Oct. 24 

Oct. 26 

Oct. 29 
Nov. 10 
Nov. 



J. H. North to J. M. Mason.... Nov. 21 
J. H. North to S. Barron do... 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy De- 
partment. 

J. D. Bulloch, to Navy De- 
partment. 



J. M. Mason to J. H. North 



Navy Department to the 

President. 
Navy Department to J. D. 

Bulloch. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy De- 
partment. 



R. L. Page to J. M. Brooke 



Nov. 25 
Nov. 26 

Nov. 27 

Nov. 30 
Dec. 3 




J. II. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy De- 
partment. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



C. R. Blandy to the President. 



Dec. 8 
Dec. 14 

Dec. 15 
Dec. 26 
Dec. 29 

Dec. 31 



Requests Barren toinstruct Commander Maffitt to 
make full report of his operations from date of 
leaving Confederate States until his detachment, 
and forward same to Navy Department as soon 
as possible. 

Informs Fraser and brother of great uncertainty 
of ship's movements, and not to allow arrange- 
ments made with him, to interfere with future 
plans if he can better his condition. 

Reports two payments due of 18,000 each on ship 
he is superintending the building of, and thinks 
he will require 20,000 some time in November. 

Advises him to disappear from scene of his late 
operations, as his ship is almost certain to be 
interfered with. 

Reports Rappahannock is in possession of Confed- 
erate States Navy and undergoing many repairs 
at Calais. The Florida still at Brest completing 
repairs and hopes to go to sea within a fortnight. 
Georgia arrived in Cherbourg Oct. 28, almost 
broken down and needs repairs. 

Fears there is very little chance of his ship leaving 
England as British Government is watching in 
every direction. 

States British man-of-war is watching Pampero 
and that she will not be allowed to leave English 
waters. Fears his ship will not be allowed to go 
to sea by British Government. 

Reports Confederate States Navy financial situa- 
tion in Europe in reply to Secretary's instruc- 
tions on the subject. 

Reports the corvettes are progressing satisfactorily, 
gives details of armament of French guns. Two 
ironclads are well advanced and are nearly three- 
fifths finished . 

Gives an opinion on the ships at Liverpool not 
being allowed to leave for sea by the British 
Government. 

Report of the Secretary of the Navy of operations 
since Jan. 10,1863. 

States most anxious over the course pursued by 
British Government in reference to Confederate 
States ships. Cotton is being sent forward as 
rapidly as transportation will permit. 

Transmits two papers upon the bursting of the 13- 
inch BLakely rifled gun at Charleston recently, 
to be given to Capt. Blakely. 

Acknowledges several letters containing certain 
instructions, all of which shall be carefully ful- 
filled. Work progressing well on French cor- 
vettes. Second engine will sail in a few days 
for Bermuda. 

Reports no leather on hand for fuse washers and 
what is used is made out of scraps of leather, 
giving details of same. 

Reports meeting and consultation with Confeder- 
ate States Commissioners in Paris, who advise 
the sale of his ship, as steamer Pampero has just 
been seized by British Government. 

Reports Florida may go to sea in ten days; the 
Rappahannock is progressing slowly; the 
Georgia is about finishing up repairs and will 
be ready for service in 10 days or two weeks. 
Has assumed command afloat. 

Has been informed by C. J. McRae that he can not 
pay the draft in my favor for 437,500, and there 
are not sufficient funds to meet next payments 
on contracts. Hopes soon for pecuniar y aid by 
the sale of cotton. 

States nonarrival of Coquette, and hopes she is- not 
lost. Gives information of cotton shipped to 
date which is sent nearly every week. Regrets 
Erlanger loan was not sufficient to meet naval 
contracts by 1,600,000 francs. A new loan is now 
before Congress; and gives general information 
on financial situation, with enclosure of state- 
ment from H. Hotze. 

Hopes Confederate Government will reimburse 
him for the loss of cargo on Lauraetta, which was 
destroyed by the C. S. S. Alabama. 



28 CONTENTS. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1863 Continued. 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



J. II . North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



W. N. de Mattos to J. M. Ma- 
son. 



J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch. 
J. M. Mason to J. Slidell... 



J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. 



Navy Department to J. H. 
North. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. IT. North to J. D. Bulloch. . 
Bulloch. 



J, &. Ci. Thomson to J. H. 
North. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

Navy Department to S. Bar- 
ron. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. . 



J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North . . . 



J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Navy Department to S. Bar- 
ron. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



Sept. 4 

Sept. 12 
Sept. 15 
..do 

Sept. 17 
Sept. 20 

Sept. 21 

Sept. 22 
Sept. 21 

Sept. 25 
Sept. 28 
Sept. 29 
...do... 
...do... 
Oct. 1 



Oct. 11 

Oct. 16 

Oct. 17 

Oct. 20 

Oct. 22 



Regrets to learn that many dispatches have not 
been received, and reports work progressing 
slowly, as ship will not be ready for sea before 
next December. 

Submits claim for $2,000 for loss of cargo of salt on 
ship Nora, which was destroyed by the C. S. S. 
A labama. 

States absolutely necessary that funds must be 
had to carry on his work, and hopes to be fur- 
nished with money as soon as possible. 

Wishes advice on subject of terminating his 
mission to England, and hopes for an early re- 
ply. 

Agreement between J. D. Bulloch and J. Voruz, 
ain<5, concerning guns and accessories. 

Expresses anxiety about monetary situation and 
sends a draft for 15,000, which he hopes will 
relieve immediate demands. Would like a 
statement as to when more is needed. 

C. J. McRae is made financial agent for War and 
Navy Departments and will control funds for 
the public service. Orders, at earliest moment, 
that a statement be furnished McRae, giving all 
details of contracts, amounts paid thereon, etc. 

Gives financial condition of Confederate States 
in Europe, with instructions about cotton cer- 
tificates and proceeds therefrom, with enclosure. 

Acknowledges draft for 15,000 and regrets neces- 
sity for requesting at least 5,000 more to make 
another payment on his ship. Gives statement 
of future needs. 

Announces fully one-third of armor plates are 
fitted, and asks thai eighth instalment be paid 
for same. 

Transmits draft for $2,000,000 of cotton certificates 
on C. J. McRae, depositary, Confederate States, 
in Paris. 

Gives instructions as to funds to be furnished for 
for enterprises on hand in Kurope with details 
for same. 

Transmits a draft on C. J. McRae in his favor for 
437,500 to be paid out of proceeds of Erlanger 
loan. 

Requests most prompt and effective means be 
adopted to get Commander Sinclair's vessel to 
sea. 

Reports has been able to secure a steamer to carry 
one of the marine engines needed, with Lieuten- 
ant Carter in charge. Gives general information 
about affairs in England. 

Can send 5,000 required at present, but will be 
unable to send thirty and seventv thousand 
pounds later as no funds are available for those 
sums needed. 

States C. J. McRae has been directed to retain 
money required in France and can not furnish 
means to North. The only source left from 
which to expect money is the sale of cot ton which 
is uncertain as to time of arrival. 

Regrets lack of funds to complete his ship has re- 
tarded progress on her and fears when completed 
the British Government will seize her when she 
tries to put to sea. Gives details of his difficul- 
ties to secure funds to pay for instalments on 
ship and other contracts for supplies. 

Requests Barren to take the whole subject of com- 
pleting and getting his ship to sea in hand, as 
early as possible, and not to wait for Commander 
Sinclair any longer. 

Reports full information about the seizure of iron- 
clads Nos. 294 and 295 by the British Govern- 
ment. 

Reports purchase of steamer for Navy Department 
to be commanded by Lieutenant Carter which 
will sail in a couple of days and gives full details 
of same. States 200,000 bales of cotton have 
been run through the blockade and hopes for 
nwney from their sale to meet payments for 
ships. 

Orders supplies for Navy Department to be sent in 
two lots by steamers to Bermuda agent, to be 
forwarded to Confederate States. 



CONTEXTS. 29 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1863 Continued. 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



Navy Department to S. Bar- 
ren. 

J. H. North to B. Fraser 

J. H. North to C. J. McRae.... 
S. Barron to G. T. Sinclair. . . 



S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Oct. 24 

Oct. 26 

Oct. 29 
Nov. 10 
Nov. 



J. H. North to J. M. Mason... J Nov. 21 
J. H. North to S. Barron do... 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy De- 
partment. 

J. D. Bulloch, to Navy De- 
partment. 

J. M. Mason to J. H. North... 



Navy Department to the 

President. 
Navy Department to J. D. 

Bulloch. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy De- 
partment. 



R. L. Page to J. M. Brooke 



J. II. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy De- 
partment. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



C. R. Blandy to the President. 



Nov. 25 
Nov. 26 

Nov. 27 

Nov. 30 
Dec. 3 



Dec. 8 

Dec. 14 

Dec. 15 

Dec. 26 

Dec. 29 

Dec. 31 



Requests Barron toinstruct Commander Maffitt to 
make full report of his operations from date of 
leaving Confederate States until his detachment, 
and forward same to Navy Department as soon 
as possible. 

Informs Fraser and brother of great uncertainty 
of ship's movements, and not to allow arrange- 
ments made with him, to interfere with future 
plans if he can better his condition. 

Reports two payments due of 18,000 each on ship 
he is superintending the building of, and thinks 
he will require 20,000 some time in November. 

Advises him to disappear from scene of his late 
operations, as his ship is almost certain to be 
interfered with. 

Reports Rappahannock is in possession of Confed- 
erate States Navy and undergoing many repairs 
at Calais. The Florida still at Brest completing 
repairs and hopes to go to sea within a fortnight. 
Georgia arrived in Cherbourg Oct. 28, almost 
broken down and needs repairs. 

Fears there is very little chance of his ship leaving 
England as British Government is watching in 
every direction. 

States British man-of-war is watching Pa/mpero 
and that she will not be allowed to leave English 
waters. Fears his ship will not be allowed to go 
to sea by British Government. 

Reports Confederate States Navy financial situa- 
tion in Europe in reply to Secretary's instruc- 
tions on the subject. 

Reports the corvettes are progressing satisfactorily, 
gives details of armament of French guns. Two 
ironclads are well advanced and are nearly three- 
fifths finished. 

Gives an opinion on the ships at Liverpool not 
being allowed to leave for sea by the British 
Government. 

Report of the Secretary of the Navy of operations 
since Jan. 10, 1863. 

States most anxious over the course pursued by 
British Government in reference to Confederate 
States ships. Cotton is being sent forward as 
rapidly as transportation will permit. 

Transmits two papers upon the bursting of the 13- 
inch Blakely rifled gun at Charleston recently, 
to be given to Capt. Blakely. 

Acknowledges several letters containing certain 
instructions, all of which shall be carefully ful- 
filled. Work progressing well on French cor- 
vettes. Second engine will sail in a few days 
for Bermuda. 

Reports no leather on hand for fuse washers and 
what is used is made out of scraps of leather, 
giving details of same. 

Reports meeting and consultation with Confeder- 
ate States Commissioners in Paris, who advise 
the sale of his ship, as steamer Pampero has just 
been seized by British Government. 

Reports Florida may go to sea in ten days; the 
Rappahannock is progressing slowly; the 
Georgia is about finishing up repairs and will 
be ready for service in 1!) days or two weeks. 
Has assumed command afloat. 

Has been informed by C. J. McRae that he can not 
pay the draft in my favor for 437,500, and there 
are not sufficient funds to meet next payments 
on contracts. Hopes soon for pecuniary aid by 
the sale of cotton. 

States nonarrival of Coquette, and hopes she is- not 
lost. Gives information of cotton shipped to 
date w r hich is sent nearly every week. Regrets 
Erlanger loan was not sufficient to meet naval 
contracts by 1,600,000 francs. A new loan is now 
before Congress; and gives general information 
on financial situation, with enclosure of state- 
ment from H. Hotze. 

Hopes Confederate Government will reimburse 
him for the loss of cargo on Lauraetta, which was 
destroyed by the C. S. S. Alabama. 



CONTENTS. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1ST,!. 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



i Page. 



J. D. BuHoch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



S. Ban-on to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. M. Brooke to S. Barron. 



J. Tattnallto J. K. Mitchell... 



Navy Department to J. D, 
Bulloch. 

S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Navy Department to J. D. 

Bulloch. 
J. M. Brooke to S. Barron 

Navy nopartment to J. D. 

Bulloch. 
J. M. Brooke to S. Barron 

J. M. Brooke to S. Barron... 



S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



S. Barron to J. M. Mason 

Navy Department to S. Bar- 
ren. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bullock. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

Navy Department to S. Bar- 
ron. 

Navy Department to J. H. 
North. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

Navy Department to State 
Department. 



Jan.. 6 



Jan. 11 



.do. 



Jan. 14 

Jan. 10 

Jan. 22 

Jan. 24 

Jan. 25 

Feb. 3 

Feb. 4 

Feb. .12 

...do 

Feb. 14 

Feb. 15 

Feb. 17 

Feb. 18 



..do.... 
Feb. 24 
..do.... 



British Government delays case of ironclads in 
Exchequer Court. If not released, will soli and 
use money in France. Loan not enough to com- 
plete contracts; can only get money from cotton 
or sale of ships. Very little cotton received. 

Reports Florida has finished repairs and made 
trial trip. Needs more men for service. Rap- 
pahannock repairing slowly. Plans to sell 
Georgia and devote hinds to naval service. 

Requests that Lieutenant Mnrdaugh be assigned 
to the duly of selecting a supply of standard 
work's embracing the manufacture of guns, am- 
munition, etc., needed for Office of Ordnance 
and Hydrography, Navy Department. 

Acknowledges receipt of letter directing him to 
order a TOnri no ofiicer to duty as provost marshal 
of a court-martial. 

States Coquette's engine broke down within 40 
miles of Wilmington, N. C. Suggests the build- 
ing of two very fast steamers to carry cotton. 

Reports Florida will probably sail next week; 
Rappahannock will be ready for service next 
week, as will also the Georgia, for northwest 
coast of Africa probably. 

Comments on the finanniilsituation and states has 
not begun any ironclads, for which purpose cot- 
ton certificates have been issued, and explains 
the reason. 

Gives advice about funds to be realized for the en- 
t erprises tinder his charge. 

Sends list of books to be purchased for Office of 
< >rdn;iiiee and ! tydrography. 

Instructions about delivering bnnds to Mr. L. M. 
Morritt, aeent of Alabama Steamship Co. 

Transmits letter of instruct ions relating to pur- 
chase and shipment of cartridge bags. 

Encloses samples of material for cartridge bags, 
which should be sent to L. Heyliger, Nassau, 
N. I'., when purchased. 

Reports the sailing of the Florida on the night of 
the 9th February, from Brest. 

Reports Commander Maury's ill health compelled 
him to give up the command of the Georgia: 
North's vessel sold to Danish Government: and 
instructions given for the sale of the rams in 
France and England. 

Fears the British Government may seize ships of 
Messrs. Bravay if they try to resell them to the 
Confederate States, and enclosas instructions to 
them. 

States he has heard his ship has been sold to Dan- 
ish Government in England for 240,000 with- 
out her armament, which he hopes can be sent 
1 o the Confederacy. 

Reports the Emperor of France has notified the 
builders that the ironclads will not be permitted 
: il, and that qorvcttes must not be armed in 
Franco. Encloses note to L. Annan. Esq. 

Replies to certain inquiries on the subject of na- 
tionalizing a vessel. 

Comment s on general affairs and hopes the block- 
ade of Wilmington, N. C., can be raised, so that 
cotton can be carried from that port . 

Gives information about Coquette at Bermuda 
and hones she can carry a full cargo of cotton. 
i lie. names of the four corvettes. 

Advises a conference with Mr. Slidcll about the 
sale of the ships at Liverpool and the disposition 
of North's ship. 

Approves of the sale of the Georgia and gives in- 
structions as to the disposal of 'the proceeds of 
ship. 

Notifies North that he consents to the sale of his 
ship and gives instructions concerning same. 

Comments on a debate in the House of Commons 
on the subject of the seizure of the two Liverpool 
rams. 

Transmits a false report from the Secretary of the 
Navy to the Speaker of the Confederate States 
House of Representatives, which was supposed 
to have originated in the United States, and 
other papers. 



CONTENTS. 
NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRES1'ON1>KN< 'K FOR 1864 Continued. 



31 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



Navy Department to Sir R. 
Palmer. 

W. W. Hunter to J. K. 
Mitchell. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

W. C. Whittle to J. M. Mason. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

R. F. Pinkney to W. W. Hun- 
ter. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. M. Brooke to S. Barron 



J. H. North to G. W. Rendel. 

J. H. North to F. Napton... 

J. H. North to Messrs. J. 
Whitworth & Co. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



J. H. North to J. Whitworth 
&Co. 

Navy Department to S. Bar- 
ron. 

H. J. llartstcnc to S. Barron. . 

J. M. Brooke to J. D. Bulloch. . 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

Navy Department to J. H. 

North. 
Navy Department to J. D. 

Bulloch. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Navy Department to 3. D. 
Bulloch. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

Navy Department to S. Bar- 
ron. 



Mar. 10 



.do. 



Mar. 12 
Mar. 15 
..do..., 



Mar. 16 

Mar. 17 
..do.... 



Mar. 18 



Mar. 19 



..do... 
..do... 



..do... 
Mar. 21 



Mar. 29 

Apr. 1 
Apr. 6 
...do... 
Apr. 7 



Apr. 10 
...do... 



Apr. 11 
Apr. 14 



Apr. 16 

Apr. 19 
Apr. 25 



Gives information that the so-called authentic re- 
port of the Secretary of the Navy read in (he 
House of Commons, Feb. 23, was a fortery. 

Reports the Sampson can be used for the service 
of a light-draft armed steamer to cooperate with 
the land forces. 

Reports an account of the debate in the House of 
Commons on the subject of the seizure of the 
Confederate Government rams. 

States he was the last naval officer who had charge 
of C. S. S. Nashville, and gives details of 
what became of said vessel later. 

Gives general information about the situation of 
his work and reports the need of more funds. 

Reports his ship is advancing toward completion . 
and hears from Scotland that she is sold condi- 
tionally to the Danish Government. 

Requests more time for the completion of work on 
C. S. S. Savannah. 

Reports the present status of work on the corvettes 
building in France, and hopes to get Treasury 
Department steamer off between 1st and 5th of 
April with supplies. 

List of articles to be shipped to Confederate States 
for Navy Department for Office of Ordnance and 
Hydrography, and enclosure. 

Sends an orxier for certain articles pertaining to 
ordnance. 

Orders gun carriages, etc., for two Whitworth guns. 

Orders certain articles pertaining to guns and 
ordnance. 

Reports of contract for three marine engines, and 
gives details of cost and their shipment to Con- 
federate States. 

Comments on the situation of affairs in Europe as 
to building and dispatching ships to break up 
trade of Federal Government on New England 
coast, West Indies, and in the Pacific. Also 
sends a statement by W. P. Hall concerning four 
steamers. 

Transmits a letter of Lieut. Wilkinson as to best 
steamers for blockade service, and a letter from 
the Secretary of the Treasury, about contracts 
for shipbuilding. 

Acknowledges letter of Mar. 26, and encloses check 
for .1,972 1&. 4d. 

Gives instructions about cruising vessels, and all 
officers not needed for service to be ordered home. 

Requests renewal of furlough for three months from 
April 6, on account of ill-health. 

Gives instructions about arms and ammunition for 
Office of Ordnance and Hydrography, to be sent 
to Nassau, N. P. 

Regrets the necessity of selling the French iron- 
clads, and suggests a way of retaining them for 
future use. 

Gives advice about shipment of guns to Nassau or 
Bermuda for Confederate States. 

Sends letters by special messenger, whom he 
wishes to return in charge of a blockade runner, 
if ready. 

Sends memorandum of operatives required from 
abroad, with annual salary to be paid each in 
pounds sterling. 

Reports that Lieut. Evans says the Georgia will 
be ready for sea in a week. Will sail for rendez- 
vous where he hopes to meet the Rappahannock 
for the transfer of battery. 

Reports loan entirely exhausted, and is therefore 
unable to build two fast steamers for blockade 
running. Gives statement of the financial situa- 
tion at the present. Tells of steamer Matilda 
being stranded on Lundy Lsland and is a total 
loss, but covered by insurance. 

Encloses description of small marine engines and 
boilers and orders 12 made as early as practicable, 
and tells of other needs. 

Cancels the order of Mr. P:\li-ser to construct en- 
ginas for Navy Department. 

Sends instructions to examine into facts as to gross 
negligence of the commander of the Rappahan- 
nock failing to get to sea for want of coal. 



32 CONTENTS. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1864 Continued. 



From and to whom. 



Navy Department to the Pres- 
ident. 

M. Mason to Chairman Naval 
Committee, Confederate 
States Senate. 

S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

J. H. North to J. & G. Thom- 
son. 
J. Tattnall to W. W. Hunter. . 



S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

G. Thomson to J. H. North . . . 
S. Barron to J. H. North. . . 



Navy Department to S. Bar- 
ron. 
G. Thomson to J. H. North. . 



Navy Department 

T. B. Mills to W. W. Hunter. . 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 
J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch. 



Navy Department to J. D. 

Bulloch. 
J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North . . 



J. H. North to G. W. Rendel. . 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. H. North to C. C. Williams 
J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch . . 



J. H. North to J. Whitworth 

&Co. 
Navy Department to J. H. 

North. 
Navy Department to J. D. 

Bulloch. 

M. P. Robertson to J. H. 
North. 

S. Barren to W. H. Murdaugh. 



J. H. North to T. & C. Hood. 
Navy Department to S. Barron 



Date. 



Apr. 30 
May 2 

May 4 

May 5 

...do.... 
May 12 

...do... 



May 13 

May 19 
May 24 

May 31 
..do... 



June 2 
June 3 



Subject. 



June 4 
June 6 

June 7 
June 8 

June 10 
...do..... 

...do 

June 11 

...do 

...do 

...do 

June 13 
...do 

June 16 
June 20 



Report of the Secretary of the Navy since Nov. 30, 

1863, with enclosures. 
Transmits Navy bill and hopes to have it reported 

as early as convenient. 

Reports arrival of Georgia in Liverpool, which was 
turned over to J. D. Bulloch. Regrets the plans 
for equipping the Rappahannock were frustrated 
by the French authorities. 

Inquires what disposition to make of money arising 
from sale of his ship. Will send her battery to 
the Confederacy by the first opportunity. 

Requests that 80,000 be paid to his credit with 
the Clydesdale Banking Co., Glasgow. 

Reports Ogeechee is ready to receive her crew, and 
desires to know if there is an excess of recruits 
over the complement of flag-officer's squadron. 

Reports arrival of Georgia in Liverpool; docked, 
dismantled and turned over to Bulloch. Hopes 
for a favorable decision in the case of the Rappa- 
hannock soon. 80.000 has been placed to the 
credit of North, and would like instructions as 
to disposal of this money. 

Comments on the Confederate rams in the hands 
of the British Government and gives opinions as 
to their future disposal. 

Hopes to finish ship in a short time, which was 
delayed bv a strike of the joiners. 

Announces his appointment as senior officer of a 
board of naval officers, for examination of such 
midshipmen as may appear in Paris, June 1, and 
encloses names on board. 

Approves action in case of Commander Hartstene. 

Replies to request for statements of accounts that 
he can not furnish same until vessel is completed. 

General Order of the Secretary of the Navy 

Can not proceed to river with Sampson in com- 
pliance with order, as his galley is unfit for serv- 
ice and needs repairs. 

Gives general information about affairs under his 
charge in England and Europe, and reports sale 
of Georgia for 15,000 June 1. 

Acknowledges dispatches of Apr. 7 and 11, and 
reports Lieutenant Fry ill with fever and ague. 

Requests the forwarding of rifled guns with equip- 
ments and ammunition to the Confederacy, at 
earliest opportunity. 

Requests the shipment of insulated wire to Nas- 
sauat once,_ for submarine battery purposes. 

Requests an invoice of guns, etc., to be sent to Con- 
federate States, which he will take charge of, and 
forward as desired. 

List of articles to be delivered to Mr. Bulloch, or to 
his order. 

Reports the sale of the rams and corvettes by M. 
Arman in obedience to the imperative orders of 
the French Government and expresses much 
indignation at the way the Minister of Marine 
has acted. 

Requests certain articles be delivered to Mr. J. D. 
Bulloch, giving list of same. 

Requests that 10 G8-pounder smoothbore guns be 
sent to the Confederacy if possible, with other 
articles. 

Requests certain articles be delivered to Mr. J. D. 
Bulloch, in list sent. 

Gives instructions as to certain payments on ac- 
count of ships and the disposal of same. 

Requests Bulloch to receipt for funds as payments 
are marie for ships to North, who has been in- 
structed to turn over such funds to him. 

Inquiries for Captain Bulloch, whether the four 
70-pounders Whitworth guns are distinct from 
those ordered for the Knppahannock. 

Appoints Murdaugh to inspect and receive pis- 
tols, and ammunition for same, for use of Confed- 
erate States Navy. 

Requests certain articles be in readiness to the or- 
ders of Mr. Bulloch. 

Announces that Commanders North and Sinclair 
are directed to report to him, and gives instruc- 
tions about affairs abroad. 



CONTENTS. 33 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1864 Continued. 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



Navv Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



W. H. Murdaugh to S. Barron 

Navf Department to J. D. 
BJlloch. 



Navy Department to J. D. 

Bulloch. 
Navy Department to J. D. 

Bulloch. 

J. H. North to C. J. McRae. 
J. H. North to G. B. Tennent 

J. H. North to Mr. Galbraith.". 

M. P. Robertson to J. H. 

North. 
J. H. North to C. J. McRae.... 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloeh. 



J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



June 20 

June 23 
...do..... 

June 25 
June 27 

June 28 
June 29 

June 30 

...do 

July 1 
July 5 

...do 

July 6 

July 8 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

J. D . Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. H. North to J. Thomson. . . . 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. D . Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. . . 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J . D . Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Biilloch. 

S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



July 12 
July 13 
July 15 

July 16 
Jnly 18 

...do 

July 25 
July 27 

...do..... 
July 28 
July 29 

July 30 
Aug. 2 



Commends his course in reference to certain ships; 
and gives his views on affairs abroad and at home. 
Would like to have 5,000 pounds of guncotton 
sent, if possible, for torpedoservice. 

Reports inspection of pistols made by C. Girard 
& Co., and gives details of same. 

Advises of a scheme of Mr. P. R. Smith's to build 
an immense navy in fighting trim, in a short 
space of time, and asks his judgment of the 
matter. 

Transmits letter of Mr. Sanchez, and requests 
Bulloch to examine vessels. 

Gives instructions about Treasury bonds of $1,000 
each to be placed to his credit, to be paid to Mr. 
Kavanaugh. 

In compliance with request, is able to let him have 
105,000, with reservations thereto. 

Announces that copies of invoices have been sent 
to Captain BtiUoch, and gives further informa- 
tion on the subject. 

Requests enclosure be sent to Mr. Thomson, and 
gives instructions thereon. 

Acknowledgesreceipt of letter of 28thinst. covering 
invoices of cloth, small stores, small arms, etc. 

Encloses two checks for 80,000 and 25,000, re- 
spectively, with instruct ions. 

States that the arrival of the Alabama at Cher- 
bourg has been announced in the public press; 
and the importance of getting vessels of her class 
afloat is enhanced by her withdrawal from the sea. 

Reports receipts of 110,000 for two payments on 
ship and allows 105,000 of it to C. J. McRae. 

Reports nothing new in the case of the Rappahan- 
nock's detention at Calais. Officers of Alabama, 
except one or two, and of the Georgia, will return 
soon to the Confederacy. 

Reports sale of Georgia to E. Bates of Liverpool. 
Unable to send skilled metal workers to the Con- 
federacy, giving reasons therefor. Has given 
order for 12 small marine engines to J. & G. 
Thomson. Has been notified that Rappahan- 
nock will soon be released. Encloses sale of C. 
S.S.Georgia. 

Calls attention to Mr. Wetson's claim, which he 
thinks should be promptly paid. 

Reports Rappahannock not yet released, and gives 
reasons for its further detention. 

Reports nothing new in reference to French opera- 
tions; British Government has not yet paid for 
the Birkenhead rams, but final settlement is 
daily expected. Five more blockade runners 
have been bought and four more arranged for. 

Requests a statement of his account, to be item- 
ized separately. 

Gives suggestions as to needed cruisers to replace 
the Alabama. Proceeds from sale of Coquette 
will be placed to his credit. 

Wishes six torpedo boatssent to the Confederacy as 
soon as possible, and gives suggestions thereon, 
and much ad vice about construction. 

Notifies Bulloch that Commander Wood is au- 
thorized to draw upon him to the extent of 10, - 
000. 

Reports the present situation of the rams and cor- 
vettes building for us at Bordeaux by M. Annan, 
and forwards enclosures on the subject. 

Announces delay in shipment of ordnance and 
other goods by Manchester Ordnance and Rifle 
Co. 

Gives instructions about cotton received and ship- 
ped to Messrs. Eraser, Trenholm & Co. by L. 
Heyliger. 

Reports shipment of goods for Navy Department 
by Steamer Owl for Bermuda July 31, and sends 
a number of skilled mechanics by Bermuda pack- 
et to sail Aug. 6. 

Wishes tw o small steamers purchased or bought for 
service, in and about the harbor of Wilmington, 
and gives instructions concerning. 

Reports French Government would only permit 

Rappahanaock to sail with 35 men, so was unable 
to sail at all. 



176429 VOL 2 PT 121 3 



34 CONTENTS. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1864 Continued. 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



S. Ban-on to J. H. North 

J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch.. 

J. H. North to C. J. McRae.... 

S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Navy Department to J. H. 
North. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



C, . Thomson to J. H. North . . 



J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. . 



J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. H. North to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Aug. 5 

Aug. 7 
Aug. 10 



.do. 



Aug. 12 



Aug. 13 

Aug. 17 
Aug. 18 

Aug. 19 

Aug. 23 
Aug. 25 



Aug. 27 
...do... 

...do... 
Aug. 29 



Discusses the French Emperor's policy toward 
the Confederacy as being more unfriendly than 
Earl Russell's; and reports 1,000 pounds of gun- 
cotton is in the course of shipment, the rest to be 
sent as soon as possible. 

Inquires as to Secretary's orders to Sinclair and 
himself concerning their return to the Confeder- 
ate States. 

Directed by the Secretary of Navy to turn over 
funds arising from sale of his ship, and has re- 
quested Mr. McRae to pav to Captain Bulloch 
105,000. 

Requests payment to Captain Bulloch of 105,000 
from funds arising from sale of his ship. 

Reports Rappahannock laid up and no prospect of 
selling it present. Will send home on Aug. 20 
two batches of officers in charge of Lieutenants 
Borchert and Cenas. 

Gives instructions as to funds derived from the 
sale of his ship, which are to be turned over to 
Commander Bulloch. 

Gives instructions as to disposal of funds realized 
from sale of ships in England. Wishes to have 
procured t wo fast sailing ships to strike enemy 's 
commerce in the whaling grounds. 

Comments on the deceptions practiced by the 
French agents in reference to ships being built 
in France for the Confederacy. Encloses draft 
for 300, 0(K) in Government bonds. 

Regrets that blockade runners being built can not 
be delivered earlier than November or December. 
Gives instructions about funds from sale of 
Georgia, and fears he will have to give up the 
design ol making Bessemer steel for the present. 

Announces frigate is ready for delivery, and ex- 
pects the Danish Government to take it over in a 
few days. Can not furnish correct account until 
Danish Government arranges with him about 
payments. 

Can "not furnish receipt for 105,000, as Genera] 
McRae could not furnish that amount without 
forcing sale of bonds, and gives instructions 
about money to rema'n in McRae's hands, sub- 
ject to conditions. 

Agrees to arrangements concerning funds in the 
hands of Mr. McRae. 

Gives a statement of cotton received and shipped 
by L. Heyliger to Fraser, Trenholm & Co. 

Reports details o fconditional sale of his ship to the 
Danish Government. Has not been able to get 
a statement of his account with the builders and 
is compelled to wait awhile longer for same. 

States Lieutenant Carter has been chosen as special 
messenger to carry dispatches. Steamer Atlanta 
was recently purchased to cruise against enemy's 
commerce, and hopes Bulloch can have built 
more vessels for this purpose, giving instructions. 

Reports all wounded men of Alabama are now paid 
oil' and discharged from hospital in Cherbourg, 
with one exception, and asks instructions in his 
behalf, as he may lose his right liand. 

Reports the two rams have passed into the posses- 
sion of the British Admirality. The Admiralty 
paid 220,000 for them, and A. Bravay passed 
over to him 188,000 for the credit of the Navy 
Department. 

Reports he has ordered insulated wire and will 
have it shipped as soon as ready. Gives a state- 
ment of financial conditions at present. 

Reports the death of Wm. Sinclair by drowning, 
and gives details of same. 

Reports 100,000 have been added to funds of 
Navy Department from sale of ships and cotton. 
Has contracted for an 8-inch rifle gun, and gives 
description ofsame. 

States the department has purchased a cargo of 
provisions and ordnance stores, and gives in- 
structions for their payment. 

Reports that he has secured the services of M. P. 
Robertson as his confidential clerk, and asks for 
authority to pay him 500 per annum. 



CONTEXTS. 35 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1864 Continued. 



No. 


From and to whom. 


Date. 


Subject. 


Page. 




Navv Department to J. D. 


Aug. 31 


Authorizes the payment of J. Wetson's claim for 


716 




Bulloch. 




$2,000, with interest from Sept. 14, 1861, at 9per 










cent. 






J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


Sept. 1 


Comments on the general situation of affairs under 


716 




ment. 




his supervision in Europe, and is now having 










built two large double screw ships to repeat the 










operations olthe Tallahassee. 






Navy Department to J. D. 


Sept. 5 


Sends drawings for engines required for an armored 


718 




Bulloch. 




ram, and wishes them ordered for two vessels as 










early as practicable. 






Navv Department to J. D. 


Sept. 7 


Furnishes statement of tobacco shipped to Fraser, 


719 




Bulloch. 




Trenholm & Co., and gives instructions concern- 










ing same. 






M. P. Robertson to J. H. 


Sept. 10 


Acknowledges letter of 9th instant with order for 


719 




North. 




blankets. Announces Whitworth goods are 










ready, but will not be delivered until paid for. 






J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 


Sept. 15 


Reports purchase, and building of steamers for 
Navy Department, with details thereof. 


720 




J. H. North to J. Whitworth 


...do.... 


Gives details- of agreement made by Mr. Hulse 


722 




& Co. 




about payments on orders. 






J. H. North to J. Whit worth 


Sept. 16 


Incloses check for 3,229 5s. Id., being in foil for 


722 




&Co. 




all demands against J. H. North. 






J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


...do... 


Reports purchase of a fine composite ship for 


723 




ment. 




oloekade running, and gives details thereof, 










which will be called the Shenandoah; and has 










ordered six torpedo boats according to instruc- 










tions. 






Navv Department to J. D. 


Sept. 19 


Has authorized Lieutenant Wilkinson to draw on 


725 




Biilloch. 




Captain Bulloch for 2.000 for his cruise. 






Navv Department to J. D. 


...do 


Has authorized Lieutenant Ward to draw on Cap- 


725 




Biilloch. 




tain Bulloch for 2,000 for his cruise. 






Navv Department to J. D. 


Sept. 20 


Sends notice that orders for freight on supplies from 


726 




Bulloch. 




Nassau and Bermuda have been given on him 










with details of same. 






Navy Department to J. D. 


...do.... 


Lieutenant Ward is further authorized to draw on 


726 




Bulloch. 




Captain Bulloch for an additional 2,000. 






J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


Sept. 23 


Incloses invoices of goods to be shipped to the Con- 


726 




ment. 




federacy, via Bermuda, per ships Diana and 










Driving Mist. 






Navv Department to J. D. 


Sept. 25 


Lieutenant Wilkinson is further authorized to 


727 




Bulloch, 




draw on Captain Bulloch for an additional 










2.000. 






Navy Department to J. D. 


Sept. 28 


Gives instructions about providing funds abroad 


277 




Biilloch. 




to meet all requirements. 






Navv Department to J. D. 


Sept. 29 


Orders the sum of 24 14s. 5d. to be paid to Cren- 


728 




Bulloch. 




shaw & Bro., by Captain Bulloch. 






J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


...do.... 


Acknowledges receipt of several dispatches, and 


728 




ment. 




gives general information on the present state of 










affairs. 






J. H. North to C. C. Williams. . 


Sept. 30 


Incloses check for 713, being in fun for all de- 


730 








mands. 






G. Thomson to J. H. North. . . 


Oct. 5 


Asks for a meeting so as to have accounts adjusted 
and ready for settlement. 


730 




J. D. Bulloch to W. C. Whittle. 


Oct. 6 


Gives instructions about a meeting to take place 


731 








between Lieutenant Whittle and Mr. Richard 






Navv Department 


do 


Wright, who will present Captain Corbett. 
General Order of the Secretary of the Navy.. 


732 




J. D. Bulloch to J. F.Ramsay. 


Oct. 8 


Orders Lieutenant Ramsay to proceed to sea in 


733 








S. S. Laurel and to convey Lieutenant Waddell 










and stall of officers to the Island of Madeira, with 










speedy dispatch, for special service there. 






J. II. North to J. <fc G. Thomson 


Oct. 11 


Requests accounts be sent and would like to see 


734 








Mr. G. Thomson and have a special interview. 






S. Barren to J. H. North 


Oct. 12 


Acknowledges notes and regrets things are wrong, 


734 








but asks for trust in his integrity of conduct. 






J. H. North to G. Thomson. .. 


Oct. 13 


Wishes that 19,280 3s. 3d. balance due Captain 


734 








North by the firm be paid soon. 






3 . H. North to G. Thomson. . . 


Oct. 14 


Disputes charge of commission and demands bal- 


735 








ance due him be paid in the meantime. 






J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


Oct. 28 


Transmits invoice or goods to be shipped on steamer 


735 




ment. 




Stag to sail Oct. 21, and reports other activities 










i n connection with his work. 






J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


...do... 


Reports the safe departure of the Sea King on Oct. 


736 




ment. 




8, and gives details concerning her. 






J. H. North to G. Thomson 


Oct. 21 


Demands payment of balance due him by Oct. 24, 


737 








or else will pass the matter in other hands for 










adjustment. 






J. H. North to Navy Depart- 


Oct. 24 


Reports trouble about payments for sale of ship, 


737 




ment. 




with G. Thomson, who" held back some of the 










monev and charged exorbitant rates for his 










commission. 





36 CONTENTS. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1864 Continued. 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

J. II. North to J. & G. Thom- 
son. 

J. H. North to J. & G. Thom- 
son. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Navy Department to the Presi- 
dent. 
J. H. North to J. D. Bulloch. . 



S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. . 
J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North.. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



J. D. Bulloeh to S. Barron 

S. Barron to Navy Department 



Oct. 24 



Oct. 27 
..do... 



..do... 
Oct. 28 



Nov. 5 
Nov. 9 



.do. 



Nov. 10 
...do.... 
Nov. 15 

Nov. 17 



Nov. 19 
Nov. 21 



Nov. 22 
Nov. 23 



J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North.' ..do.... 
M. P. Robertson to J.H. North. Nov. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



S. S. Lee to all officers in Pay 
Department of Confederate 
States Navy. 

J. D. Bulloch to J. H. North. . 

Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



Nov. 26 



Dec. 1 
Dec. 2 



Reports 12 pair of engines ordered are all completed, 
and 10 pair already shipped, the rest in the course 
of a few da vs. Six boats are under construction, 
which may leave for the Confederate States in 
December. 

Reports 150-pounder shunt gun ready for delivery 
and will arrange for its speedy shipment soon. 

Agrees to adjustment of extra bill amounting to 
17,719 6s. 9d. 

Sends receipt for 25,280 



Transmits invoices of machinery shipped by 
steamer Susan Beirne. and goods by ship Ma- 
donna, belonging to Captain North, for Navy 
Department. 

Report of the Secretary of the Navy, with inclo- 
sures. 

Reports his departure from Scotland, and gives 
balance on hand as 67,428 9s. lid., which he 
transfers to Captain Bulloch. 

Reports success in getting afloat another cruiser 
against the commerce of our enemies. States 
Rappahannoek lies in basin at Calais still. 

Forwards report of Lieutenant Morris of the attack 
and seizure of C. S. S. Florida by U. S. S. 
Wachusett in port of Bahia. 

Sends bill of T. & C. Hood for approval, as it con- 
tains extras. 

Acknowledges receipt of letter inclosing check for 
67,428 9s. lid. 

Reports dissatisfaction of Captain Butcher upon 
being relieved of command of steamer Owl. 
Gives details of contracts made by C. J. McRea 
with Fraser, Trenholm & Co. 

Notifies Bulloch of lost dispatches, and that nothing 
received from him since Aug. (i. States two 
small steamers are urgently required for special 
servii-e. Comments on plans to nelp release Con- 
federate States prisoners of war on Johnson's Is- 

_ land in Lake Erie. 

incloses invoices of goods shipped on account of 
Navy Department oy several ships. 

Gives instructions concerning Chief Engineer 
Quinn. who will report to Captain Builoch on 
arrival in England. States that he has received 
drawings and a model of a torpedo boat from 
Lieutenant Fry. and gives opinion thereon. 

Encloses note of Mr. Tidball. chief clerk of Navy 
Department, for his perusal. 

Reports Commander North can soon be ordered 
to the Confederacy; Commander Sinclair to be 
retained in Europe; Commander Barnev much 
better in health, so can be made use of; "Rappa- 
hannock still in basin at Calais. 

Finding extras in Hood's bill were essential, has 
paid the bill. 

Sends word all goods are shipped and invoices 
forwarded to Mr. Mallory. except those from 
Hood. 

Acknowledges receipt of several dispatches con- 
taining instructions, and replies Mr. Wetson has 
been paid in full; the engines for armored ram 
are in hands of manufacturer; has sent memo- 
randum of shipments of tobacco to Fraser, 
Trenholm & Co.; and will meet payments from 
funds in hand, borrowing if need be from another 
bureau or department. 

Encloses invoice of two small marine engines 
shipped from Glasgow in steamer Emily for the 
Navy Department and a memorandum from 
T. & C. Hood. Has shipped 150-pounder gun 
to Confederate States on brig Babthorp, and 
sends details concerning same. 

Circular of instructions to pay officers in Con- 
federate States Navy. 

Memorandum of goods shipped by J. D. Bulloch 
for account of Commander J. H. North. 

Gires instructions about funds on hand with 
which to aid the Treasury Department if such 
can be done without detriment to the Navy 
Department. 



CONTENTS. 
NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1864 Continued. 



37 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



S. Barron to Navy Department 
S.Barron to Navy Department 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloeh. 



J. D. Bulloeh to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Navy Department to I. D. 
Bulloeh. 



S. Barron to Navy Department 

J. D. Bulloeh to S. Barron 

J. D. Bulloeh to S. Barron 

J. D. Bulloeh to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



S. Barron to J. H. North 



Dec. 8 
Dec. 10 
Dec. 16 



Dec. 17 



Dec. 22 



Dec. 24 



Dec. 26 



Reports arrival of crew of C. S. S. Florida, which 
have been sent on board the Rappahannock at 
Calais. 

Requests information as to whether naval officers 
on foreign service not at sea, shall be allowed 
commutation of quarters and fuel. 

Acknowledges receipt of several dispatches and 
commends his judgment and energy in getting 
the Shenandoah to sea in face of great obstacles. 
The steamers Owl and Stag have arrived; the 
loss of the Bat is yet unknown. The Laurel will 
be sold as unsuitable for blockade trade. Cap- 
tain Barron ordered to return to Confederate 
States and to turn over all unfinished business 
to Bulloeh. 

Gives information about fuses for 150-pounder gun 
erroneously sent with gun and which are to be 
replaced by W. G. Armstrong & Co. with 
perfect ones. 

States Treasury Department will take steamer 
Laurel at cost to us and load her with cotton 
for Liverpool; Lieutenant Ramsay will com- 
mand her. Wishes stationery and commissions 
lost in steamer Bat duplicated and sent to Navy 
Department. 

Reports there is a plan at work by which it is 
hoped to have a formidable vessel of war afloat 
in a few days, but from prudence will not say 
more just now. 

Requests the presence of Lieutenant Barron on 
Dec. 28, as his services are needed. 

Acknowledges letter with enclosed orders for Dr. 
Green and Acting Paymaster Curtis. Hopes 
Lieutenant Barron will not be dropped from the 
list, as his services are needed. 

Transmits invoice of goods shipped by Babthorp 
for Commander Maury : invoice of goods shipped 
by sailing vessel Amy for Navy Department, 
with particulars thereof. Reports steamer 
Runber was wrecked in Angra Bay with many 
articles on board for submarine defense, though 
some saved and sent to Confederate States in 
steamer Ruby. 

Desires a visit from J. H. North in order to make 
arrangements for returning to the Confederate 
States. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1865. 



S. Barron to J. H. North 

S. Barron to G. T. Sinclair. . . 



Z. B. Vance to Navy Depart- 
ment. 
J. D. Bulloeh to J. Low 



S. Barron to G. T. Sinclair. . . 



S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloeh to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



J. D. Bulloeh to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Jan. 2 
do. 

Jan. 3 

Jan. 8 

Jan. 10 

Jan. 20 



Jan. 26 



Jan. 26 



Gives instructions to return to the Confederacy and 
there report arrival to the Secretary of the Navy. 

Gives instructions to return to the Confederacy, 
and there report arrival to the Secretary of the 
Navy. 

Comments on the loss and capture of steamer 
Advance. 

Gives instructions for sailing to Nassau, N. P., on 
steamer Ajax as supercargo Jan. 12, and duties 
after arrival there. 

Consents and approves of his accepting command 
of a .steamer employed in running supplies for 
the Army and Navy, and gives instructions 
concerning same. 

Reports Commander North is soon to leave for the 
Confederacy and will send by him orders issued 
to Captain T. J. Page. Has authorized Com- 
mander Sinclair to take command of one of the 
Crenshaw blockade runners. Notes with regret 
the death of Commander A. Sinclair and Gunner 
P. C. Cuddy by drowning, Jan. 14. 

Acknowledges order for supplies for Marine Corps, 
and will endeavor to fill it with funds on hand. 
Reports arrival of Chief Enirineer Quinn in 
Steamer Africa, who will aid in plans for eneines. 
Six torpedo boats are nearly completed and will j 
soon be shipped. 

Reports the financial standing of the Navy Depart- 
ment under his charge in England, and gives 
details of same. 



172951 



38 CONTENTS. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT COUKKSl'ONi iKXCH FOR 1865 Continued. 



From and to whom. 



Date. 



Subject. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 



S. Barren to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



S. Barren to M. i". Maury 

S. Ban-on to J. D. Bulloch 

S. Barren to C. Girard & Co. 
S. Barron to J. M. Brooke 

S. Barron to J. H. North 

Navy Department to J. D. 
15 ul loch. 

S. Barron to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 
ment. 



R. R. Carter to M. P. Robert- 
son. 



Navy Department to J. N. 
Maffltt. 



5. Barron to C. M. Faunt- 
leroy. 



S. Barron to J. D. Bulloch . . . 



S. Barron to G. T. Sinclair 



Navy Department to J. D. 
Bulloch. 

S. Barron to J. D. Bulloch . . . 



S. Barron to J. H. North.. . 



J. H. North to J. Whitworth 
&Co. 



M. F. Maury to J. H. North... 



Jan. :il 
Feb. 1 

Feb. 3 
Feb. 3 

Feb. 6 



Feb. 8 
Feb. 8 

Feb. 15 

Feb. 17 
Feb. 20 

Feb. 23 
Feb. 24 

Feb. 2 
Feb. 28 



Mar. 1 

Mar. 4 

Mar. 6 

Mar. 9 

April 2 



Encloses a copy of a joint resolution of Congress 
and gives instructions to turn over 250,000 to 
Treasury Department of the fund credited to the 
Navy 1 >epartment , if possible. Sends two other 
enclosures. 

Reports that Captain T. Jefferson Page has taken 
command of C. S. S. Stonewall, and commends 
Captain Bulloch for his tact, energy, and man- 
agement in getting possession of the Stonewall, 
which was a difficult matter. 

Orders Commander Maury to turn over to Com- 
mander Bulloch all the available Georgia funds 
on hand, viz: 3.500. 

Notifies Captain Bulloch that Commander Maury 
has been instructed to turn over to him 3,500', 
needed to pay expenses on account of t he Rappa- 
hanuock. 

States that the payments on contract with the 
Navy Department for revolvers will not be filled 
until further orders are received from the depart- 
ment. 

Announces that contract for pistols with Girard 
& Co. has not been completed, only a portion 
having been delivered; has notified them that no 
more will be needed until further orders from the 
Navy Impertinent have been revived. 

Has received orders to return home, and to send 
North, Page, Barney, and Sinclair also. 

Recommends James 8." Cibbes's son for a position 
in one of our cruising ships, and hopes his desire 
to serve his country may be gratified. 

Ucporis receipt, of orders to return to the Confed- 
eracy, also those of Commanders North, Sin- 
clair, and Barney, which will be obeyed as early 
as practicable. 

Announces that Lieutenant C. W. Read is author- 
ized to draw on Captain Bulloch for 10,000 at 
00 days after sight. 

Reports theseizure of C. S.S. Tnscaloosa by British 
autbontiesat the Cape of Goc-i Hope, command- 
ed by Lieutenant J. Low, and transmits corre- 
spondence of same. 

Reports the breaking down of the Coquette and 
her return to Bermuda to wait for machinery 
from Kaglnnd. Sent, about. 20 boxes to the Con- 
federacy giving details thereof. 

Gives instructions about the employment of steam- 
ers Chameleon and Owl, if practicable. If not, 
to turn Owl over to J. B. Lafitte and to sell 
Chameleon if possible for 15.000. Hopes a 
vessel can be purchased out of proceeds of Chame- 
leon 's sale to bring in supplies and small arms. 

Notifies Lieutenant Fauntloroy that the Secretary 
of the Navy tunis over the Rappaharmock to 
Commander Btilloch for such disposition as 
deemed best for theinterests of the Government; 
so he may consider himself as under the orders of 
Commander Bulloch hereafter. 

Has been directed to turn over all unfinished busi- 
ness to Commander Bulloch by the Secretary of 
the Navy, and resigns as flag-officer in command 
abroad. 

Informs Commander Sinclair that the Secretary of 
the Navy orders his return to the Confederacy, 
and give's instructions about affairs confided to 
his management. 

Gives instructions as to disposal of steamers Enter- 
prise and Adventure and wishes two light-draft 
vessels to replace them. 

Gives instructions about the settling up of affairs 
of the Rappahannock under command of Lieu- 
tenant Fauntleroy, which order the Secretary 
of the Navy required of him. 

Notifies North that lie hopes to leave for the Con- 
federacy on Apr. 2, unless some unforeseen cir- 
cumstances prevents. 

Expresses astonishment that there were still unde- 
livered four hundred and odd time fuses on former 
order, therefore gives instructions to hold for 
the present. 

Sends request to Mrs. Maury concerning disposi- 
tion of his medals. 



CONTENTS. 39 

XAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESrONDENCE FOR 1865 Continued. 



No. 


From and to whom. 


Date. 


Subject. 


Page. 




J. D. Bulloch to Navy Depart- 


April 12 


Reports representatives of Treasury Department 


810 




ment. 




have been conferring with the Commissioners of 










the Confederate States regarding the financial 






J. D. Builoch to J. M. Mason. . 


Oct. 20 


situation abroad, giving details concerning. 
Transmits copies of Earl Russell's letter and his 


811 








instructions to Captain Waddell. with comments 










thereon. 





NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE FOR 1S66. 





J. Galbraith to J. H. North.... 


Oct. 30 


Comments on the sale and transfer of armor plated 
ship ordered from James and George Thomson, 
and certifies GalbraitVs efforts were done to the 
best advantage in that transaction. 


812 




41 



ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS. 
Vice President of the Confederate States, 1861-1865. 



MYY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1.865. 



Report of Committee on Naval Affairs. 

[FEBRUARY , 1861.] 

The Committee on Naval Affairs beg leave respectfully to report : 
That the committee, believing that in the present condition of our 
affairs, with the limited means at our command, and with no navy 
yard in our possession except that of Pensacola, which is commanded 
by the guns of Fort Pickens, any very extensive naval preparations 
in time to meet the dangers that threaten us are impracticable, have, 
for the present, limited their enquiry to such naval means as might 
serve as auxiliaries to forts and arsenals and cooperate with land 
forces in the defense of rivers and harbors. 

The committee having no means of informing themselves on this 
subject (the executive departments whose appropriate duty it would 
be to furnish this information not being yet established), they sum- 
moned to their aid several gentlemen of reputation and experience, 
lately attached to the Navy of the United States, and another, for- 
merly a distinguished officer of the Corps of Engineers, and requested 
them to prepare a report upon the subject. This report was 
promptly made, and the committee herewith append it. 

The committee think that the suggestions therein contained are 
highly important and call for immediate action, but as the duty of 
carrying them into effect has since devolved upon the Executive, the 
committee will simply recommend that a copy of this report, and of 
the documents accompanying the same, be sent without delay to the 
President. 

[Inclosures.] 

MONTGOMERY, ALA., February 21, 1861. 

SIR : The undersigned committee, having had under consideration 
the several points connected with the military and naval defenses of 
the rivers and harbors of the Confederate States, has the honor to 
submit the following report: 

1st, the defense of the Passes and approaches to the city of New 
Orleans from the sea. The committee recommends that the existing 
forts on the river below New Orleans be put in the best possible 
condition, both as to armaments and garrisons; that the suggestions 
of Major Beauregard contained in a printed slip in the possession of 
the chairman of the Committee on Naval Affairs, as to the employ- 
ment of rafts in aid of the forts, be adopted and acted upon, and 
that discretionary power be given to that officer to remove at dis- 
cretion any of the guns, carriages, or other material now at the lake 
forts and at the arsenal at Baton Rouge to the river forts, and that 
he be empowered to erect such temporary earthworks at suitable 
points on the river as, in his discretion, he may deem proper and 
necessary. The above defenses have reference to an enemy after he 

41 



42 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

shall have passed the bars at the mouths of the river. To prevent 
his ingress over these bars, the committee is of opinion that a couple 
of staunch and strong tugboats be immediately purchased and fitted 
for the reception of as many heavy guns, each, as they will bear. 

2d, the defense of Mobile. With regard to this port, the committee 
is of opinion that if Fort Morgan be put in good condition and garri- 
soned, and an additional battery, to consist of two or three heavy 
guns, be established upon Sand Island, its defense against ships of 
war will be complete. In addition to these defenses, a suitable 
steamer of light draft should be immediately purchased and equipped 
for the protection of the interior waters of the bay and sounds from 
the incursions of boat expeditions. 

3d, Pensacola. The committee adopts, with reference to this port, 
the reports heretofore made by Colonel Chase. These reports are in. 
the possession of the Committee on Military Affairs. 

4th, Savannah. Fort Pulaski should be put in good condition and 
garrisoned, and in addition thereto one or more earth batteries should 
be erected on Tybee Island, to guard and defend the entrance to the 
river, and the engineer of the district should be given discretionary 
power to make such other constructions, and call into requisition 
such other appliances, as, in his judgment, may be demanded by 
contingencies. 

5th, Charleston. The main ship channel into this port may be 
perfectly defended by Fort Moultrie and by heavy batteries on 
Sullivans Island and Morris Island. For the protection of the 
harbor and the interior waters, and to guard against surprise by 
boat expeditions, one or two small steamers with light armament 
should be employed. 

In the above brief report, prepared with much haste to meet the 
requirements of the naval committee, the undersigned have confined 
themselves to an examination of the necessary means for the imme- 
diate defense and protection of the principal assailable commercial 
points. With reference to the protection of the extensive seaeo;i;;t 
of the Confederate States the undersigned have refrained from mak- 
ing any suggestion ; this is a subject which will require much delib- 
eration and the command of considerable means. 

L. ROUSSEAU. 
WM. H. CHASE. 
V. M. RANDOLPH. 
D. N. INGRAHAM. 
RAPHAEL SEMMES. _ 

Hon. C. M. CONRAD, 

Chairman Committee on A 7 aval A /fairs, Montgomery, Ala. 

The printed slip below is the one referred to in the above report 
as having been written by Major Beauregard. 

Our Military Defenses. 

NEW ORLEANS. February 15, 1861. 
To the Editors of the Daily Delta: 

GENTLEMEN : As time presses, and it may soon become urgent to 
be prepared for the worst, permit me to make a few suggestions 
which may lead toward that end. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 43 

In the first place, we must look to our most vulnerable point, the 
Mississippi River; for one single steamer, with only two or three 
heavy guns, coming into the port of New Orleans would in a few 
hours destroy millions worth of property or lay the city under a 
forced contribution of millions of dollars. 

It is an undeniable fact that in the present condition of Forts 
Jackson and St. Philip any steamer can pass them in broad daylight, 
and that even when in a proper condition for defense they could 
not prevent the passage of one or more steamers during a dark or 
stormy night without the assistance of a properly constructed raft 
or strong wire rope across the river between the two forts so as to 
arrest the course of said steamers, even only for half an hour, under 
the severe cross-fire of said works. 

The first thing to be done, then, is to commence the construction 
of (or prepare, at least, the materials for) said obstacles; then the 
guns of the u land fronts " of Fort Jackson ought to be mounted at 
once on the " river fronts "; the guns, chassis, and carriages at Baton 
Ilouge, Forts Pike, Wood, Battery Bienvenue, etc., that are not re- 
quired at present at those points ought to be sent at once to those two 
forts on the river, to be put in position as advantageously as possible 
on their river fronts ; not overlooking, however, the flank guns of the 
other fronts. All said chassis and carriages ought to be tried forth- 
with by double charges of powder and shot. Ample supplies of am- 
munition ought to be sent there forthwith. The trees along the river, 
masking the fires of those two forts up and down the river, ought 
to be cut down at once, particularly those on the Fort Jackson side. 
In a few words, no expense ought to be spared to put these works in 
a most efficient state of defense, for $50,000 or $100,000 spent thus 
might a few weeks hence save millions of dollars to this State and 
the city of Xew Orleans. 

A rough calculation shows me that the raft spoken of would cost 
about $40,000, and three wire cables probably $60,000. Either of 
these obstacles should be so arranged as to be opened or closed at will 
from the shore, for the passage of commercial vessels, etc. As soon 
as hostilities shall have commenced, one of those small tugboat pro- 
pellers ought to be stationed at the Head of the Passes to give timely 
warning to the forts of the approach of any foreign steamers of war, 
by the firing of alarm guns and rockets. 

Preparations and experiments ought to be made in the city to 
blow up with a galvanic battery any hostile vessels that might come 
to an anchor opposite to the city. 

A few Paixhans guns or columbiads ought also to be put in tem- 
porary positions along the levee, to assist in the defense of the port. 
In fact, not a stone should be left unturned that might assist in ac- 
complishing that object. We should be thoroughly prepared " for 
the ides of March." 

AN OBSERVER. 

[FEBRUARY 12, 1861.] 

Resolved, That this Government takes under its charge the ques- 
tions and difficulties now existing between several States of this Con- 
federacy and the Government of the United States, relating to the 
occupation of forts, arsenals, navy yards, and other public establish- 



44 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

ments. And that the President of this Congress be directed to com- 
municate this resolution to the governors of the States. 

BARTOW. 

Agreed to. 

[Adopted Feb. 12, 1861.] 

An act to establish the Navy Department. 

FEBRUARY 20, 1861. 

Be it enacted, etc., That an executive department be, and the same is 
hereby, established, to be called the Navy Department. 

SECTION 2. Be it further enacted, That the chief officer of said de- 
partment shall be called the " Secretary of the Navy," and shall, 
under the direction and control of the President, have charge of all 
matters and things connected with the Navy of the Confederacy, and 
shall perform all such duties appertaining to the Navy as shall, from 
time to time, be assigned to him [by] the President. 

SECTION 4. Be it further enacted, That said Secretary shall be au- 
thorized to appoint a chief clerk and such other clerks as may be 
found necessary and be authorized by law. 



Estimate of appropriations for the office of /Secretary of the Navy, 
required for the year ending the 4th of February, 1862. 

No. 1.] NAVY DEPARTMENT, March 12, 1861. 

Salary of Secretary of the Navy, per act of March 1861 _______________ $6, 000 

Salary of chief clerk, per act March 8, 1861 ____________________________ 1, 500 

Salary of chief clerk, as corresponding clerk and disbursing agent ____ 600 

Salary of two clerks, at $1,200 each, per act of March 8, 1861 ___________ 2, 400 

Salary of one clerk, per act March 8, 1861 _____________________________ 1, 500 

Salary of one messenger, per act March 8, 1861 ________________________ 500 

12,500 
Contingent 



For blank books, binding, stationery, lights, fuel, and miscellaneous 

items ____________________________________________________________ 2, 000 



14,500 
Fourteen thousand five hundred dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 



Estimate of appropriations required for the year ending 4th Febru- 
ary, 1861, to pay officers of the Navy on duty at the Navy De- 
partment. 

No. 2.] NAVY DEPARTMENT, March 12, 1861. 

One captain in charge of construction, etc., per act March 11, 1861 $3, 600 

One clerk, per act March 11, 1861 1, 500 



5,100 
One commander in charge of orders, detail, court-martial, etc., 

per act March 11, 1861 $2, 825 

One clerk, per act March 11, 1861 1,500 

4, 325 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 45 

One paymaster in charge of supplying provisions, clothing, etc., 

per act March 11, 1861 $2, 100 

One clerk, per act March 11, 1861 1, 500 

3,600 

One surgeon in charge of supplying medicines, medical stores, 

etc., per act March 11, 1861 2, 600 

One clerk, per act March 11, 1861 1, 500 

4,100 

17, 125 
Seventeen thousand one hundred and twenty-five dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



Estimate of appropriations required for the year ending the 4th 
Febmamj, 1862, to pay officers of the Navy on duty and off duty, 
based upon the presumption that the grades authorized by the act 
of 1861 will be filled. 

Xo. 3.] NAVY DEPARTMENT, March 12, 1861. 

Four captains at $4,200 $16,800 

Four commanders 11, 300 

Thirty lieutenants 54, 000 

Five surgeons 10, 000 

Five assistant surgeons - 5, 250 

Six paymasters 10, 800 

Two chief engineers 3. 600 



111, 750 
Approximate estimate of noncommissioned officers- and midshipmen 20, 000 

131, 750 



One hundred and thirty-one thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars. 

Pay of commissioned officers $111, 750 

Pay of noncommissioned officers, etc 20,000 

131, 750 
One hundred and thirty-one thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Estimate of pay of officers, noncommissioned officers, musicians, and 
privates of the Marine Corps for the year ending the 4th Feb- 
ruary, 1862. 

Xo. 4.] XAVY DEPARTMENT, March 12, 1861. 

One major $1,980 

Six captains 5,340 

Six first lieutenants 7,020 

Six second lieutenants 6,600 

One quartermaster 1,686 

One paymaster 1,686 

Six hundred privates, at $11 per month 79, 200 

Noncommissioned officers 7, 000 

Musicians 1, 000 

111, 512 



46 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 18G1-1865. 

Clothing $40, 000 

Fuel , 5, 000 

Pay of armorers, purchase of accoutenwnts, ordnance smivs, flags, 

etc 5,000 

Transportation and expenses for recruiting 6,000 

Rent of barracks, offices, etc., v/liere there are no public buildings 2, 000 

Contingencies in clothing, freight, cartage, etc 6, 000 



64,000 
Recapitulation. 

Pay Department $111, 512 

Quartermasters' Department - 64, 000 



175, 512 
One hundred and seventy-five thousand five hundred and t \velve dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
/Secretary of the Navy. 

Estimate of appropriations required for the year ending 4th Febru- 
ary, 1862, for provisions and clot hiny and contingencies in Pay- 
master's Department 

No. 5.] NAVT DEPARTMENT, March 12, 1861. 

Rations for 800 men, one ration per day, 292,000 rations for the year, 

at 25 cents each $73,000 

Rations for 56 commissioned officers at same rate 5, 110 



78, 110 

Rations for 600 marines at same rate 54, 750 

For contingencies 1, 000 



55, 7r>o 
Recapitulation. 

Rations for seamen $73, 000 

Rations for commissioned officers 5, 110 

Rations for marines 54, 750 

Contingencies 1 1, 000 



133, 860 
One hundred and thirty-three thousand eight hundred and sixty dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 

/Secretary of the Navy. 



Estimate of appropriations required for the year ending 4th Febru- 
ary, 1861, for the pay of warrant and petty officers and of -five hun- 
dred seamen, ordinary seamen, landsmen, and boys and Engineer 
Department. 

No. 6.] NAVY DEPARTMENT, March 12, 1861. 

Pay of 500 seamen, ordinary seamen, landsmen, and boys, at $18 

per month $108, 000 

Engineers and assistants, stokers, and coal heavers 50, 000 

Pay (approximate) of petty officers 10,000 



168,000 
One hundred and sixty-eight thousand dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 



iXAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 47 

Estimate of expenditures v:hich will be required for coal for use of 
steamers for the year ehdh>.</ the l^th of March, 1861. 

No. T.] NAVY DEPARTMENT, March 12, 1861. 

For 25,000 tons of coal, to be placed at the several points to be desig- 
nated on the seaboard, or to be purchased as required from time to 
time at $9 per ton $225,000 

Approximate estimate of naval stores for same period, embracing sails, 

spars, boats, anchors, etc 10,000 



235,000 
Two hundred and thirty-five thousand dollars. 

S. E. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

Estimate of the probable cost of ten steam gunboats for coast de- 
fenses of the Confederate States, to be built or purchased as may 
be most convenient. 

No. 8.] NAVY DEPARTMENT, March 12, 1861. 

Five steam gunboats of not exceeding 750 tons each, at $90,000 

each $450, 000 

Five steam gunboats of not exceeding 1,000 tons each, at $110,000 

each 550,000 



1,000,000 
For contingencies . 100, 000 



1, 100, 000 
One million one hundred thousand dollars. 

S. E. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Estimate of probable cost of completing and equipping the steam 
sloop Fulton, now at the Pensacola yard. 

No. 9.] NAVY DEPARTMENT, March 12, 1861. 

For work and material of carpenters, painters, and mechanics, gen- 
erally, on her hull $20,000 

For work and materials of machinists on engine 5,000 



25,000 
Twenty-five thousand dollars. 

S. E. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

Estimate of the amount required for the pay of officers and others at 
the Navy Yard, Pensacola, for the year ending February 4, 1862. 

No. 10.] NAVY DEPARTMENT, March 12, 1861. 

One captain $3, 000 

One commander 2,825 

One lieutenant 1, 875 

One master 1, 100 



48 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

One surgeon $2, 600 

One paymaster 2, 600 

One boatswain 1, 100 

One gunner 1, 100 

One carpenter 1, 100 

One sailmaker 1, 100 

One paymaster's assistant 750 

One steward (paymaster's) '. 480 

One steward (surgeon's), 480 



20, 710 
Ordinary. 

One lieutenant $1, 875 

One carpenter's mate 288 

Two boatswain's mates 456 

One cook 288 

Ten seamen, $180 each 1,800 

Forty ordinary seamen $144 each 5, 760 

10, 467 



31, 177 
Hospital. 

One surgeon $2,600 

One assistant surgeon 1.050 

One steward 4SO 

One matron 250 

Three nurses, $180 each 540 

Two cooks, $168 each 3:5(5 

Three washers, $144 each 4:52 

One carter 144 

One messenger 168 

Three watchmen, $360 each 1,080 

7, 080 

Civil 

One storekeeper $1, 700 

One naval constructor 2, 600 

One civil engineer 3, 000 

One draftsman 1. 200 

One inspector of timber 900 

One superintendent of floating dock and machinery 1,000 

One clerk of yard 1,200 

One clerk to commandant 1,200 

One clerk to storekeeper 1, 200 

One clerk (2d) to storekeeper J)00 

One clerk (3d) to storekeeper 750 

One porter 456 

16,106 



54, 363 
Fifty-four thousand three hundred and sixty-three dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

The above estimate is the same made by U. S. Xavy Department 
to late Congress. 



2STAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 49 

Estimate of the amount required for preservation of works and 
current repairs at the navy yard, Pensacola. 

No. 11.] 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, March 12, 1861. 

For preservation of works and current repairs $10, 000 

Ten thousand dollars. 

S. E. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

The above estimate is the same made by the U. S. Navy Depart- 
ment to the late Congress. 



Recapitulation of estimates. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, March 12, 1861. 

No. 1. 

Estimate for the office of the Secretary of the Navy $12, 500 

Contingencies 2, 000 



14,500 



Estimate of pay of naval officers on duty at Navy Department, with 

one clerk each 17, 125 



No. 3. 

Estimate of pay of commissioned officers, as per act 11 March, 1861, 
and noncommissioned 131, 750 



No. 4. 

Estimate of officers, noncommissioned officers, musicians, and 

privates of the Marine Corps 111, 512 

Clothing and fuel 45,000 

Contingent transportation, etc 19,000 



175, 512 



Total on page 338,887 

No. 5. 
Quartermaster's Department, rations, etc ; 133, 860 

No. 6. 
Paymaster's Department = 168, 000 

No. 7. 
Coal and naval stores 235,000 



Estimate of probable cost of 10 steam gunboats, to be built or pur- 
chased as may be most expedient 1, 000, 000 

One million of dollars. 

Contingencies 100, 000 



1, 100, 000 
176429 VOL 2 PT 121 4 



50 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

No. 9. 
Estimate of probable cost o~f completing steam sloop Fulton $25,000 



2. 000, 747 
No. 10. 

Estimate of the pay of officers and others required at the Pensacola 
Navy Yard 54, 363 

No. 11. 
Estimate for repairs, etc., at Pensacola Navy Yard 10,000 



Total 2, OG">, 1 10 

Two millions, sixty-five thousand, one hundred and ten dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



HAVANA, March %>>, 1861. 

DEAR SIR: Now that the Southern States have formed a Con- 
federacy of their own, the recognition of which by foreign powers 
will soon require the mission of diplomatic agents near its Govern- 
ment, I would be highly gratified if her Catholic Majesty's Govern- 
ment would accredit to yours Seiior Don Mariano Alvarez, lately 
consul general and charge d'affaires at St. Domingo, and now on his 
way to Madrid. Mr. Alvarez, who is an intimate friend of your 
brother-in-law Fernando and a gentleman of high abilities and most 
conciliating character and liberal ideas, has already had an oppor- 
tunity of knowing the South and its institutions with which he 
S3^mpathizes, having been consul in Key West for some time, where he 
has left the pleasantest recollections! [He] would, I have no doubt, 
win the affections of your Government and strengthen more and 
more the friendly relations between the two nations. Undoubtedly 
Spain naturally is destined to be the warmest friend of the South 
in Europe, as well as in America, if for nothing else for the similarity 
of institutions in its "We 8 * Indian colonies. Could you not manage 
it so that your agent in Madrid should see him? He has a great 
deal of credit* with the Queen and can get any post he pleases. 

Mr. Alvarez lives in Madrid plaza de Oriente No. 14 cuarto prin- 
cipal a la Yzquierda. My object in taking the liberty of writing 
you in this manner is the deep interest I take in the Southern 
republic. 

Please present my regards to Mrs. Mallory. accept my sincere 
wishes for the happiness and prosperity of the new Confederacy, 
and believe me, respectfully and sincerely, 
Your most obedient servant, 

MANUEL D. GRUGAT. 

Hon. S. R. MALL.ORY, 

Secretary of the Navy, Montgomery. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 51 

Report of the Secretary of the Navy. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, April 26, 1861. 

In pursuance of the authority contained in the naval appropriation 
act approved March 16, 1861, I entered upon the duty of procuring 
vessels for the Navy of the Confederate States. Experienced and 
judicious naval officers and civilians have been actively engaged in 
the ports of the United States, Canada, and the Confederate States 
in search of steamers suitable for, or which might be readily con- 
verted to, war purposes, and offers to build vessels have been invited 
and have been received from leading naval constructors. The ex- 
pediency and policy of purchasing rather than building vessels at 
this time are obvious. 

The construction and equipment for sea of a steam sloop or frigate 
of sufficient power and speed to compare favorably with similar 
ships of the United States. Great Britain, or France would occupy 
in the Confederate States, under the most favorable circumstances, 
at the present time, from 12 to 18 months and cost from eight hun- 
dred and fifty to twelve hundred thousand dollars. 

With the necessary preparation effected, there can be no doubt 
that ships can be constructed within the Confederate States as eco- 
nomically as in any other part of the continent, but delay and ex- 
pense are necessarily involved in such preparation. The estimates 
submitted to the department for constructing ships exhibit a differ- 
ence of 80 per cent between the offers of builders who are familiar 
with and prepared for the construction of war vessels in Northern 
ports and those of our own ports. 

I propose to adopt a class of vessels hitherto unknown to naval 
services. The perfection of a warship would doubtless be a combi- 
nation of the greatest known ocean speed with the greatest known 
floating battery and power of resistance; and such a combination 
has been diligently but vainly sought, with but little regard to cost, 
by Great Britain and France. 

Vessels built exclusively for ocean speed, at a low cost, with a bat- 
tery of one or two accurate guns of long range, with an ability to 
keep the sea upon a long cruise and to engage or to avoid an enemy 
at will, are not found in their navies, and only to a very limited ex- 
tent in that of the United States, the speed and power of whose ships 
are definitely known. The latter power has built a navy; we have 
a navy to build; and if in the construction of the several classes of 
ships we shall keep constantly in view the qualities of those ships 
which they may be called to encounter we shall have wisely provided 
for our naval success. 

The State of Georgia, at her own expense, purchased two small 
steamers to aid in the defense of her coasts; and these having been 
tendered to the Confederate States, a competent officer has been 
directed to examine them, and they will be purchased and continued 
in their present service if found adapted to it. 

The coasts of Carolina and Georgia, from Charleston to the St. 
Mary's River, are exposed to the operations of marauders, and especi- 
ally to the raids of such parties as the Abolition societies are sending 
abroad, and a few determined men of the Redpath and John Brown 
school might there inflict incalculable injury, when upon islands and 



52 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

at isolated points large bodies of slaves are employed and left almost 
entirely to themselves. 

Many other portions of our extended seaboard, indented as it is 
with bavs and inlets, though less tempting to marauding and piratical 
aggression, are equally exposed ; and I propose to provide protection 
against such attacks as early as practicable. 

Steam vessels which can be most advantageously employed against 
commerce have been actively sought for, but they are very rarely 
found engaged in the passenger or carrying trade: and the agents of 
the department have thus far purchased but two, which combine the 
requisite qualities. These, the iSumter and McRae, are being fitted as 
cruisers and will go to sea at the earliest practicable moment. 

Side-wheel steamers, from the exposure of their machinery to shot 
and shell, and their liability to be disabled by a single shot, from the 
fact that if prevented from steering they are helpless as sailers ; and 
that they can not carry to sea sufficient coal for any but short 
cruises, are regarded as unfit for cruising men of war; and propellers 
are adopted by all the naval powers of the earth. Vessels of this 
character and capacity can not be found in this country, and must 
be constructed or purchased abroad. 

The steamer Star of the West^ which was recently taken possession 
of on the coast of Texas, being then engaged as a United States mili- 
tary transport, and sent to New Orleans, has been turned over to this 
department, and a board of examination having decided her to be 
unfit for war purposes, except as a transport, she will be used for the 
present as a receiving ship at Xew Orleans. 

OFFICERS OF THE NAVY. 

The act of organizing the Xavy authorizes the President to ap- 
point "4 captains, 4 commanders, HO lieutenants, 5 surgeons, 5 
assistant surgeons, 6 paymasters, and 2 chief engineers, and to em- 
ploy as many masters, midshipmen, engineers, naval constructors, 
boatswains, gunners, carpenters, sailmakers, and other warrant and 
petty officers or seamen as he may deem necessary, not to exceed in 
the aggregate 3,000." And the act entitled an act supplementary to 
an act entitled an act to organize the Navy, approved March 16, 
1861, enacted, " That in case officers who were formerly attached to 
the Navy of the United States, but had resigned in consequence of the 
secession of any one or of all the Confederate States, the President is 
authorized to affix to their commissions such dates as may be neces- 
sary to secure to them the same relative position that they held in 
the former service." 

Under these acts 4 captains, 4 commanders, 21 lieutenants, 5 
surgeons, 2 assistant surgeons, 4 paymasters, and 1 master, who 
resigned their commissions in the Navy of the United States in con- 
sequence of secession, have been appointed to the grade and rank 
thev severally held there, in the Navy of the United States. In 
addition to these, 11 midshipmen have been appointed. These 
appointments have been also made exclusively from the number of 
those who resigned from the United States Navy and Naval Acad- 
emy, in consequence of the secession of these States, and they havo 
been taken according to their academic merit as exhibited by the 
report of that institution. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 53 

MARINE CORPS. 

Recruiting stations have been established at Montgomery and 
New Orleans; but as enlistments in the services of the States of 
Alabama and Louisiana and in that of the Confederate States are 
being made, the whole number of marines authorized by law has not 
yet been obtained. One company of 100 men is now in charge of a 
heavy batten 7 in front of Fort Pickens and is being actively drilled 
in the use of great guns and small arms. 

I suggest that another second lieutenant be added to each of the 
six companies of this corps. The companies consist of 100 men each, 
and they must be more frequently called upon to act in small detach- 
ments than the companies of any other arm of the military service. 

ORDNANCE FOR THE NAVY. 

Appreciating the importance of fostering private efforts to manu- 
facture heavy guns for the Navy at different points in the Confed- 
erate States, a contract has been made with two establishments at 
New Orleans for casting a few 8-inch and 32-pounder guns with a 
moderate quantity of shot and shell. But the practical difficulties 
to be overcome induce serious doubts of the success of the under- 
taking. 

Rifled cannon are unknown to naval warfare ; but these guns hav- 
ing attained a range and accuracy beyond any other form of ord- 
nance, both with shot and shell, I propose to introduce them into the 
Navy, and an estimate for $20,000 is submitted for the purpose of 
obtaining them. Small propeller ships, with great speed, lightly 
armed with these guns, must soon become, as the light artillery and 
rifles of the deep, a most destructive element of naval warfare. 

ORDNANCE STORES. 

The preparation of ordnance and ordnance stores, including can- 
non, powder, shells, .shrapnel, and fuzes, and the various prepara- 
tions essential to naval success, is a subject that demands prompt 
attention. The number of those who are familiar with the prepara- 
tion of many kinds of ordnance stores is very limited, and I propose 
to establish a magazine and laboratory for their manufacture and 
safe-keeping at some appropriate point at once; and an appropria- 
tion of $37,000 is asked for the purpose. 

ASSISTANT PAYMASTERS. 

The law organizing the Navy provides for six paymasters: four 
have already been appointed. I would suggest that the grade of 
assistant paymasters be created, the number limited to six, and that 
all paymasters shall in future be promoted from this grade. 

Such a grade, while it would meet the wants of the service and re- 
lieve the department from devolving upon commanding officers the 
duties of which they are totally ignorant and which usually entail 
upon them embarrassments and losses, would provide a necessary 
class of officers for small vessels at a moderate expense. 



54 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

The salary upon sea service should not, in my judgment, exceed 
$1,000 ; nor the bond be in a less penalty than $10,000. 

Not only are naval officers, as a class, ignorant of the duties re- 
quired of a paymaster, but the performance of these duties by the 
commanding officers of a vessel must inevitably place him in a wrong 
position toward his crew and have a tendency to relax discipline and 
impair the efficiency of the ship. The accounts and disbursements of 
the ship should be kept and made by an officer unconnected with 
sailing, disciplining, and fighting the vessel; and the seamen, in all 
controversies in relation to their pay and clothing accounts with the 
paymaster, should find an impartial arbiter in the commanding 
officer. 

LIVE OAK. 

The preservation of forest timber for naval shipbuilding requires 
the attention of Congress. 

No nation of the earth possesses ship timber of equal excellence 
or in equal abundance; and, \vhile Great Britain, France, and 
Russia are carefully guarding and providing for the preservation of 
every forest tree of their own useful for naval purposes and are 
obtaining large supplies of spars for heavy ships from our States, we 
can not with prudence ignore the subject. 

The best live-oak timber is found in Florida, Mississippi, Louisi- 
ana, and Texas; and the pine forests of Georgia, Alabama, and 
Florida furnish spars and lumber unsurpassed by any of the same 
character in the world, and the white oak is found in all the States 
of the Confederacy. 

Limited reservations, judiciously selected after careful examina- 
tion, might be made with the consent of the States within which they 
may be located ; and the collectors of the customs within the several 
districts, or special agents, might be employed to protect them from 
depredation. Timber could not be cut and removed to any great ex- 
tent upon such reservations if the collectors or agents exercised good 
faith and proper diligence. 

NAVY PENSIONS. 

The policy and justice of providing pensions for wounds and dis- 
abilities received by naval men in the line of duty in defense of the 
honor and interest of our country, and of extending the benefits of 
such pension to the widows and children of deceased pensioners dur- 
ing their widowhoo.d or minority, will not, I presume, be questioned. 

Seamen necessarily leave home, family, and friends behind them 
in their professional career, and may rightfully look to their country 
to shield and protect their wives and children. 

It may be questioned whether any pension laws are in force, and 
hence I invite attention to the subject. There are in the Confederate 
States widows and orphans of gallant Southern men, who died in the 
service of their country. Their pensions heretofore drawn under the 
laws of the United States have been cut off, and I submit the question 
of providing for their payment. 

Estimates amounting to the sum of $278,500 are herewith submit- 
ted, which, with the amount already appropriated, will, it is sup- 



XAVY DEPARTMENT COlUtESPONDENCE, ltftil-1365. 55 

posed, meet the wants of the naval service for the year ending 
February 18, 1862. 
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORT, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
The PRESIDENT. 



Recapitulation of estimates of Navy Department for the year ending 

February 'l8, 1862. 



No. l. 

Estimate for the purchase of nautical instruments, charts, and books 

for C. S. Navy _________________________________________________ $5,500 

No. 2. 
Estimate for the equipment and repair of vessels of C, S. Navy _______ 100, 000 

No. 3! 

Estimate to build laboratory for safe-keeping ordnance stores and labor 
in preparing them ________________________________________________ 37,000 

No. 4. 

Estimate for ordnance and ordnance stores __________________________ 80, 000 

No. 5. 

S 

Estimate under the head of " Contingent enumerated " _______________ 50, 000 

No. 6. 

Estimate for medical supplies and surgeons' necessaries for sick of 

Navy, Engineer, and Marine Corps -------------------------------- 6,000 



278,500 
Two hundred and seventy-eight thousand five hundred dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 



Estimate of the amount required for the purchase of nautical instru- 
ments, books, and charts for the C. S. Navy far the year ending 
February 18, 186%. 

No. 1.] NAVY DEPARTMENT, April 26, 1861. 

Instruments .$4, 500 

Books 500 

Charts 500 

5,500 
Five thousand five hundred dollars. 

Cnder the head of " Instruments " are embraced all the instruments 
used to navigate vessels. 

S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



56 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

Estimate of the amount required for the equipment and repairs of 
vessels of the Navy for the year ending February 28, 1862. 

No. 2.] NAVY DEPARTMENT, April 26, 1861. 

For the equipment and repair of vessels $100, 000 

One hundred thousand dollars. 

This estimate embraces repairs of vessels of all classes and kinds, 
including refitting, docking, calking, painting, alterations of rig, new 
spars, sails, tackle, apparel, furniture, etc. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Estimate of the amount required to build laboratory and magazine 
for preparation and safekeeping of ordnance stores, and labor in 
preparing them. 

No. 3.] NAVY DEPARTMENT, April 26, 1861. 

Laboratory and magazine for preparation and safekeeping of ordnance 

stores $30,000 

Labor in preparing ordnance stores 7, 000 



37,000 
Thirty-seven thousand dollars. 

S. B. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Estimate of the amount required for ordnance and ordnance stores 
for the C. S. Navy for the year ending February 18, 1862. 

No. 4.] XAVY DEPARTMENT, April 26, 1861. 

For rifted cannon $20, 000 

For small arms, including muskets, carbines, pistols, pikes, battle-axes, 

swords, and accouterments 50, 000 

For powder, cannon and musket, 500 barrels 10,000 



80, 000 
Eighty thousand dollars. 

Xo estimate for heavy ordnance other than for a few rifled guns 
is presented, as supplies are expected to be obtained from the Norfolk 
Navy Yard. 

S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

Estimate of the amount required under the head of " Contingent 
Enumerated" for the folloiving purpose x. vizi 

No. 5.] NAVY DEPARTMENT, April 26, 1861. 

Freight and transportation ; printing and stationery ; advertising, models, and 
drawings ; repair of fire engines and hose ; repairs and attending to steam 
engines in yards; purchase and maintenance of horses and oxen, and driving 
teams; carts, timber wheels, and the purchase and repair of workmen's tools; 
postage on public letters; fuel, oil, and candles for navy yard and shore sta- 
tions ; pay of watchmen and incidental labor, not chargeable to other appropria- 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 



57 



tions; wharfage, dockage, and rent; traveling expenses of officers and others 
under orders; funeral expenses; store and office rent; commissions and pay of 
navy accents and clerks; flags, awnings, and packing boxes; books for libraries of 
vessels ; premiums and other expenses of recruiting ; apprehending deserters ; 
per diem pay of persons attending courts-martial, courts of inquiry, and other 
services authorized by law; pay of judge-advocate; pilotage and towage of 
vessels and assistance to vessels in distress ; and for bills of health and quar- 
antine expenses ; for the C. S. Navy for the year ending February 18, 1862. 

$50,000 
Fifty thousand dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Estimate of the amount required for medical supplies; and 
surgeons' necessaries 'for the sick and hurt of the Navy, including 
engineer and marine corps. 

Xo. 6.] XAVY DEPARTMENT, April 26, 1861. 

For medical supplies required for 10 vessels at $550 $5. 500 

Fur medical supplies required for Navy Yard, Warrington * 500 



Six thousand dollars. 



6,000 



Medical supplies embrace sets of amputating, pocket, and other 
instruments, and a medicine chest for each vessel, hospital, and re- 
ceiving ship. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 



An act for the reorganization of the Navy. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
Confederate States in Congress assembled, That from and after the 
passage of this act, the Navy of the Confederacy shall consist of the 
following officers, whenever, in the opinion of the President, it be- 
comes necessary to the public interests, viz : 

20 pursers or paymasters, 

20 pursers or assistant paymasters, 

20 surgeons, 

30 first assistant surgeons, 

30 second assistant surgeons, 

1 engineer-in-chief, 

12 chief engineers, 

30 first assistant engineers, 

30 second assistant engineers, 

30 third assistant engineers, 

20 boatswains, 

25 gunners, 

10 sailmakers, 

10 carpenters. 

And be it further enacted, That the different grades or ranks 
embracing that of admiral to lieutenant, inclusive, shall assimilate 
with, and be the same as. those of corresponding rank in the Con- 
federate Army, and that all promotions made for gallant and meri- 
torious services shall have due regard to seniority of commission and 
standing on the register; but in all cases where sufficient proof is 
adduced of disability, either professionally, physically, mentally, or 



3 admirals, 

3 vice-admirals, 

3 rear-admirals, 

6 commodores, 

20 captains. 

20 commanders, 

20 first lieutenants, 

65 second lieutenants, 

20 lieutenants " for the war," 

20 masters " in line of promotion," 

20 masters " for the war," 

20 master's mates " for the war," 

rid midshipmen, 

50 acting midshipmen, 



58 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 18G1-18G5. 

morally, of the senior officer, then it shall and may be lawful to 
promote the junior, and the President is hereby authorized to place 
such senior officer on the furlough list upon the half pay and rank 
of the grade and rank to which, if promoted under other circum- 
stances, he would have been entitled. 

SECTTOX 2. And be it further enacted, That for distinguished serv- 
ices in battle or otherwise the President be requested to cause suitable 
medals to be struck, or appropriate badges to be prepared and pre- 
sented to such officers, which are to be worn on all public occasions, 
as the incentive to others to win the nation's gratitude by deeds of 
noble daring or distinguished merit. 

SECTION 3. All officers on sea service will be allowed one ration per 
day; the same shall apply to all officers attached to receiving ships 
and vessels in commission. 

SECTION 4. ^4??^ be it further enacted, That all laws inconsistent 
with the provisions of this act be, and the same are hereby, repealed. 



Scale of rank in service. 

The admiral, with the general. 
Vice-admiral, with the lieutenant-general. 
Rear-admiral, with the major-general. 
Commodore, with the brigadier-general. 
Captain, with the colonel. 
Commander, with the lieutenant-colonel. 
Lieutenant commanding, with the major. 
Lieutenant, with the captain. 



THE COMMONWEALTH or VIRGINIA. 

To Captain Samuel Barron Greeting: 

Know you, that from special trust and confidence reposed in your 
fidelity, courage, and good conduct, our governor, in pursuance of 
the authority vested in him by the constitution and laws of this Com- 
monwealth, doth commission you a captain in the Navy of Virginia 
to rank as such from the 23d day of April, 1861. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto signed my name as governor 
and caused the seal of the Commonwealth to be affixed, this 2d day 
of May, 1861. 

[SEAL.] JOHN LETCHER. 

By the governor : 

GEORGE W. MUNFORD, 

Secretary of the Committee. 



[Extract from Richmond Dispatch, May 3, 18(51.] 

Tlie blockade. Our correspondents from the seaboard represent 
that Lincoln's blockade of our ports is in full operation. The fol- 
lowing is Commander Pendergrast's notice to captains of steamers: 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 59 

U. S. FLAGSHIP CUMBERLAND. 
Off Fortress Monroe, Va., April 30, 1861. 

To all whom, it may concern: I hereby call attention to the proclamation of his 
Excellency Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, under date of April 
27, 1861, for an efficient blockade of the ports of Virginia and North Carolina, 
and warn all persons interested that I have a sufficient naval force here for 
the purpose of carrying out that proclamation. 

All vessels passing the capes of Virginia coming from a distance and ignorant 
of the proclamation will be warned off and those passing Fortress Monroe will 
be requested to anchor under the guns of the fort and subject themselves to au 
examination. 

G. J. PENDERGBAST, 
Flag-Officer, Commanding Home Squadron. 



MONTGOMERY, ALA., May 4i 1861. 
To the honorable the Congress of the Confederate States: 

Your memorialist states that he is a native of the State of Vir- 
ginia and citizen of the State of Florida ; that he is the inventor of 
a floating fort, adapted for the defense of harbors, the mouths of 
rivers, and all coastwise defenses whatsoever, where a small arma- 
ment is to be opposed to a large one, or where, under the present 
system, expensive land forts but partially defend the harbors. The 
accompanying paper marked "A" contains a full and complete de- 
scription of the same, with specifications. The model thereof has 
been examined by the honorable the Secretary of the Navy, and your 
memorialist is authorized to say that he has a very favorable opin- 
ion of its usefulness. It has also been examined by the gentlemen 
of the Florida delegation, who recommend it to the favorable atten- 
tion of the Government. Your memorialist prays that the plan, the 
specifications, and the model thereof be referred to the Committee 
on Naval Affairs, with instructions to examine the same, and if it 
shall to them see [seem] fit, to submit the same to officers of the naval 
service and to others expert in engineering and ordnance, with per- 
mission on his part to explain his invention to the said committee 
and experts, and your petitioner will ever pray. 

ROBERT GAMBLE, Jr., 

Of Florida. 



To the honorable the Congress of the Confederate States of America 

in Congress assembled: 

The memorial of your petitioner shows that he is the inventor of 
a rotary floating fort, which in consequence of its peculiar adaptation 
to aggressive and defensive war, and particularly to harbor defense, 
he deems to be of the greatest value and utility. He has endeavored 
in vain, with much labor and expense, to bring it to the favorable 
notice of this Government, in whose interest his whole heart is en- 
gaged. His object in now addressing this Government is to make 
two propositions, the acceptance of either of which would be agree- 
able to him. The first of these propositions is to tender to this Gov- 
ernment the use of his invention during the present impending war, 
asking no compensation for its use during that period, but requiring 
that the Government shall construct a fort on his plan, subject to 
such modifications as will not essentially alter the principles upon 



60 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

which it is founded. The second proposition is one which will be 
mutually profitable to the contracting parties. Convinced of the 
great value of his invention and that its value will be ultimately 
acknowledged and will eventually redound to the interest of hig 
country, and believing that it will be tested only by private enter- 
prise, he asks at the hands of this Government those facilities now 
in their power to grant which will enable him to construct a fort on 
his plan to test by experiment the value of his invention, premising 
that for all material advanced this Government shall be refunded. 

The material advanced by this Government would consist of arma- 
ment and material of war; that is, guns, and shot, and shell, for 
the equipment of one fort of twenty-five guns, which guns are to be 
returned to the Government, together with the same amount of shot 
and shell which may be received from it. Your petitioner stipulates 
that all public property belonging to the Confederate States, which 
shall be taken by him from the enemy, shall be divided equally be- 
tween this Government and himself, and if such property is taken 
by the combined action of your petitioner and the forces of this 
Confederacy, then your petitioner shall receive such proportion as 
shall be awarded by a joint commission, three-fifths whose members 
shall be appointed by this Government and the remainder by your 
petitioner, and he further stipulates that all public and private 
property belonging to the enemies of this Confederacy which shall 
fall into his hands shall inure to his sole use and benefit. He also 
stipulates that as far as possible the Government shall permit him 
to use their navy yards, workshops, and machinery for the con- 
struction of his forts. He also stipulates that he shall have the 
right to construct as many forts as he may deem proper to accom- 
plish his views. He also stipulates that this Government shall issue 
to him and to his agents commissions empowering him or them to 
make war upon the enemies of this Confederacy. He also stipulates 
that he shall receive such compensation for the destruction of prop- 
erty belonging to the enemy as may be awarded to any other person. 
Trusting that your honorable body will give this petition a favorable 
reception, your petitioner will ever pray, etc., 

ROBERT GAMBLE, Jn. 

To the honorable the Congress of the Confederate States of America 

in Congress assembled. 

The memorial of your petitioner shows that he is the inventor of 
a rotary floating fort, which, in consequence of its peculiar adapta- 
tion to aggressive or defensive war, and particularly to harbor de- 
fense, he deems to be of the greatest value and utility. He has en- 
deavored in vain, with much labor and expense, to bring it to the 
favorable notice of this Government, in whose interest his whole 
heart is engaged. His object in now addressing this Government 
is to make two propositions, either of which would be acceptable to 
him. The first of these propositions is to tender to this Government 
the use of his invention during the present impending war, asking 
no compensation for its use during that period but requiring that the 
Government shall construct a fort on his plan, subject to such modi- 
fications as will not essentially alter the principles on which it is 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 61 

founded. The second proposition is one which will be mutually 
profitable to the contracting parties. Convinced of the great value 
of his invention and that its value will be ultimately acknowledged 
and will eventually redound to the interest of his country, and be- 
lieving that it will be tested only by private enterprise, he asks at 
the hands of this Government those facilities now in their power to 
grant, which will enable him to construct a fort on his plan, to test 
by experiment the value of his invention, premising that for all 
material advanced the Government shall be refunded. The material 
advanced by the Government would include armament and material 
of war necessary to a full trial of its efficiency; timber and such 
stores of iron and machinery now in their possession as may be 
found suitable for its construction ; your petitioner to furnish mate- 
rial at least equal in value to the advances made by the Government, 
and to give a mortgage on all such material furnished by both par- 
ties, as a guarantee of indemnification to the Government for all 
supplies advanced. Your petitioner further stipulates that if suc- 
cessful in his anticipation he shall have further aid from the Gov- 
ernment pro rata as above for the speedy equipment of as many 
forts as he may deem necessary to the successful accomplishment of 
the specific ends which he has in contemplation, at least, to the extent 
of setting affoat two hundred guns in such subdivisions as he may 
elect. Your petitioner further stipulates that all public property 
belonging to the Confederate States which shall be recaptured by 
him from the enemy shall be divided equally between himself and 
this Government, and if such property is taken by combined action 
of your petitioner and the forces of this Government, then your peti- 
tioner shall receive such proportion as shall be awarded by a joint 
commission, two-thirds of whose members shall be selected by this 
Government and the remainder by your petitioner. And your peti- 
tioner further stipulates that all public property or private property 
belonging to the enemies of this Confederacy which shall fall into 
his hands shall inure to his sole benefit and use. Your petitioner 
also stipulates that as far as possible the Government shall permit 
him to use its navy yards, workshops, and machinery for the con- 
struction of his forts. Your petitioner also stipulates that this Gov- 
ernment shall issue to him and his agents commissions empowering 
him or them to make war upon the enemies of this Confederacy. 
Your petitioner further stipulates that he shall receive compensa- 
tion agreeable to the laws of maritime nations for all property in 
ships or armament or stores or of every kind whatever which may 
be destroyed by him. 

Trusting that this honorable body will give this reasonable peti- 
tion a favorable reception, ordering that the proper department shall 
take immediate steps to execute the proposed contract, your peti- 
tioner will ever pray, etc. 

ROBERT GAMBLE, JR. 

An act regulating the sale of prizes and the distribution thereof. 

The Congress of the Confederate States of America do enact, That 
all prizes of vessels and property captured by private armed ships 
in pursuance of the act passed by Congress recognizing the existence 



62 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

of war between the United States and the Confederate States; and 
concerning letters of marque, prizes, and prize goods, which may be 
condemned in any court of the Confederate States, shall be sold 
at public auction by the marshal of the district in which the same 
shall be condemned, within sixty days after the condemnation 
thereof, sufficient notice of the time and place and condition of sale 
being first given, on such day or days, on such terms of credit, and 
in such lots or proportions as may be designated by the owner or 
owners, or agent of the owner or owners of the privateer which may 
have captured the same: Provided, That the term of such credit 
shall not exceed ninety days ; and the said marshal is hereby directed 
to take and receive from the purchaser or purchasers of such prize 
vessel and property, the money therefor, or his, her, or their promis- 
sory notes with endorsers, to be approved by the owner or owners 
of the privateer, to the amount of the purchase, payable according 
to the terms thereof. 

2. That upon all duties, costs, and charges, being paid according 
to law, the said marshal shall, on demand, deliver and pay over to 
the owner or owners of the privateer, or to the agent of such owner 
or owners of the privateer which may have captured such prize ves- 
sel and property, a just and equal proportion of the funds received 
on account of the sale thereof, and of the promissory notes directed 
to be taken as aforesaid, to which the said owner or owners may be 
entitled, according to the articles of agreement between the said 
owner or owners, and the officers and crew of the said privateer; 
and a just and equal proportion of the proceeds of the sale as afore- 
said, shall, on demand, be also paid over, by the said marshal, to the 
officers and crew of the said privateer, or to their agent or agents. 
And if there be no written agreement, it shall be the duty of the 
marshal to pay over, in manner as aforesaid, one moiety of the 
proceeds of the sale of such prize vessel and property to the owner 
or owners of the privateer which may have captured the same; 
and the other moiety of the said proceeds to the agent or agents of 
the officers and crew of the said privateer, to be distributed accord- 
ing to law, or to any agreement by them made: Provided, the said 
officers and crew, or their agent or agents, shall have first refunded 
to the owner or owners or to the agent of the owner or owners of the 
privateer aforesaid, the full amount of advances which shall have 
been made by the owner or owners of the privateer, to the officers 
and crew thereof. 

3. That for the selling prize property, and receiving and paying 
over the proceeds as aforesaid, the marshal shall be entitled to a com- 
mission of one per cent and no more, first deducting all duties, costs, 
and charges, which may have accrued on said property: Provided, 
That on no case of condemnation and sale of any one prize vessel 
and cargo shall the commissions of the marshal exceed two hundred 
and fifty dollars. 

4. That it shall be the duty of the marshal, within 15 days 
after any sale of prize property, to file in the office of the clerk of 
the district court of the district wherein such sale may be made, a 
just and true account of the sales of such prize property, and of all 
duties and charges thereon, together with a statement thereto an- 
nexed of the promissory notes taken on account thereof, which ac- 
count shall be verified by the oath of the said marshal ; and if the said 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 63 

marshal shall willfully neglect or refuse to file such account, he shall 
forfeit and pay the sum of five hundred dollars for each omission or 
refusal as aforesaid, to be recovered in an action of debt by any per- 
son interested in such sale and suing for the said penalty on account 
of the party or parties interested in the prize vessel or property sold 
as aforesaid in any court having cognizance thereof. 

5. That the owner or owners of any private armed vessel or vessels, 
or their agent or agents, may, at any time before a libel shall be 
filed against any captured vessel or her cargo, remove the same from 
any port into which such prize vessel or property may be first 
brought to any other port in the Confederate States, to be designated 
at the time of the removal as aforesaid, subject to the same restric- 
tions and complying with the same regulations with respect to the 
payment of duties which are provided by law, in relation to other 
vessels arriving in port with cargoes subject to the payment of 
duties : Provided, That before such removal the said captured prop- 
erty shall not have been attached at the suit of any adverse claimant, 
or a claim against the same have been interposed in behalf of the 
Confederate States. 

Approved May 14, 1861. 



An act to amend an act entitled "An act recognizing the existence 
of war betvieen the United States and the Confederate States, and 
concerning letters of marque, prises and prize goods, approved 
May 6, one thousand eight hundred and sixty -one" 
SECTION 1. The Congress of the Confederate States do enact, 
That the tenth section of the above entitled act be so amended that 
in addition to the bounty therein mentioned the Government of the 
Confederate States will pay to the cruiser or cruisers of any private 
armed vessel commissioned under said act, twenty per centum on 
the value of each and every vessel of war belonging to the enemy 
that may be sunk or destroyed by such private armed vessel or 
vessels, the value of the armament to be included in the estimate. 
The valuation to be made by a board of naval officers appointed, 
and their award to be approved by the President, and the amount 
found to be due to be payable in eight per cent bonds of the Con- 
federate States. 

SEC. 2. That if any person who may have invented or may here- 
after invent any new kind of armed vessel, or floating battery, or 
defense, shall deposit a plan of the same, accompanied by suitable 
explanations or specifications, in the Navy Department, together 
with an affidavit setting forth that he is the inventor thereof, such 
deposit and affidavit (unless the facts set forth therein shall be 
disproved) shall entitle such inventor or his assigns to the sole and 
exclusive enjoyment of the rights and privileges conferred by this 
act, reserving, however, to the Government, in all cases, the right 
of using such invention. 
Approved, May 21. 1861. 



64 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

CONFEDERATE STATES, NAVY DEPARTMENT, 

Montgomery, May 9, 1861. 

SIR: Upon the receipt of this order you will proceed to England 
for the purpose of purchasing or having built, as your judgment 
may dictate, six steam propellers. 

Although these vessels are required immediately, and the great 
importance of purchasing rather than encountering the delay of 
constructing them is apparent, it is not less important that they 
should possess the essential qualities desired. It may therefore be 
found necessary to construct them. 

Should 3^011 determine upon this course, it will be necessary to 
adopt measures not only to secure the ends desired, and the execu- 
tion of your contracts in good faith, but which will shield us from 
the errors as well as the undue exactions of builders and construc- 
tors. It is not necessary that this Government should be recognized 
in the transaction, and it will be expedient for you to make your 
contracts through the intervention of some well known and estab- 
lished English commercial house which has the confidence of the 
commissioners from these States to England. 

You will present yourself to these gentlemen as early as practi- 
cable, counsel with them as to your objects, and seek their coopera- 
tion so far as they may feel at liberty to extend it. Their advice 
will enable you to select agents upon whose good feeling and faith 
toward our country as well as upon whose integrity and judgment 
you must to a certain extent depend. 

You will endeavor by your contracts to provide as one of the 
conditions of payment for the delivery of the vessels under the 
British flag at one of our Southern ports, and, secondly, that the 
bonds of the Confederacy be taken in whole or in part payment. 

The class of vessels desired for immediate use is that which offers 
the greatest chances of success against the enemy's commerce, and 
in their selection the department is unwilling to limit your judg- 
ment. But as side-wheel steamers can not be made general cruisers, 
and as from the enemy's force before our forts, our ships must be 
enabled to keep the sea, and to make extended cruises, propellers 
fast under both steam and canvas suggest themselves to us with 
special favor. 

Large ships are unnecessary for this service; our 'policy demands 
that they shall be no larger than may be sufficient to combine the 
requisite speed and power, a battery of one or two heavy pivot guns 
and two or more broadside guns, being sufficient against commerce. 
By getting small ships we can afford a greater number, an im- 
portant consideration. The character of the coasts and harbors 
indicate attention to the draft of water of our vessels. Speed in 
a propeller and the protection of her machinery can not, of course, 
be obtained upon a very light draft, but they should draw as little 
water as may be compatible with their efficiency otherwise. 

At least one Armstrong breech-loading rifled gun, with pivot car- 
riage, or some other gun of equal merit, should be provided for each 
vessel, the caliber and weight of which you will determine. 

The selection of the best gun involves careful inquiry. A gentle- 
man, Mr. Huse, is now in Europe upon public business, whom you 
may consult with advantage upon this point, as he is charged with 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 65 

the purchase of ordnance for this department. Our commissioners 
will make you acquainted with him. One hundred rounds of pre- 
pared ammunition, both shot and shell, must accompany each gun, 
and you will ascertain the method of preparing it. 

In addition to the guns you will also purchase 1,000 navy pistols, 
revolvers, with 100,000 rounds of fixed ammunition and 500,000 per- 
cussion caps. One thousand navy carbines, with 100,000 rounds of 
fixed ammunition, and 500,000 percussion caps. The proper supply 
of appendages (bullets, molds, wipers, etc.), and also spare parts for 
both pistols and carbines must be provided, and also 1,000 navy cut- 
lasses. 

A supply of the ordinary marine fireworks for each vessel must 
also be obtained, and 10,000 pounds of cannon and 2,000 pounds of 
musket powder. 

The following articles of clothing you will also purchase : 

For marines. Two thousand pairs of pants, 2,000 jackets, 1,000 
overcoats and watch coats, 1.000 pairs of shoes, brogans, 2,000 flannel 
shirts, 2,000 canton flannel drawers, 2,000 pairs woolen socks, 1,000 
blankets, 1,000 fatigue caps, 1,000 shirts (linen and cotton). (See 
extracts at end for description of marine clothing.) 

For seamen. Two thousand pairs pants, cloth or cassinette, 2,000 
jumpers, 1,000 round jackets, 2,000 pairs duck pants, 2,000 blue 
flannel overshirts, 2,000 blue flannel undershirts, 2,000 blue flannel 
drawers, 2,000 pairs of shoes, 3,000 pairs of socks (woolen), 2,000 
blankets. 2,000 blue cloth caps, 1,000 pea jackets, 2,000 barnesley 
shirting frocks, 2.000 black silk handkerchiefs, 1,000 yards of bunt- 
ing divided into red, white, and blue. (To be similar to the clothing 
used in the British navy without any designating marks.) 

It may be necessary and advisable to place all the arms and muni- 
tions on board of the swiftest vessel, and to embark in her yourself. 
The best manner of entering the Southern ports is necessarily left 
to your judgment. Should the vessels under the British flag be 
warned off bv a blockading force, they might try the next port, 
running the Virginia, Carolinas. Georgia, and Florida coasts down 
successively. They should be brought into those ports only where 
they could be fitted out. 

Crews of admirable seamen and firemen might be shipped, in- 
duced to come by the higher wages given in our Navy and hopes of 
promotion and prize money. 

Should any of the vessels be prevented by force from entering our 
ports, The liavannah might be sought, or Jamaica, from whence ar- 
rangements might be made for running them over the Gulf or fitting 
them out. 

The vessels should be so prepared that no detention would be 
necessary in our ports, hence a due supply of navy stores and pro- 
visions, liquor excepted, for a six months' cruise should be placed 
on board of each vessel. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

JAMES D. BULLOCH, Esq., 

Montgomery, Ala. 

17G429 VOL 2 PT 121 5 



(JO ( OCr.KSJ'ON.'iKXCK, l:-T,I - 

NAVY DKPAHTMKNT, May /), JM1. 

Sin: An agent of this department for the purchase of si 
propellers abroad will leave for England to-morrow. In addition 
to the vessels he has specific instructions as to the purchase of muni- 
tions of war and certain naval stores and provisions for a six 
months' cruise for each ship. 

The appropriation heretofore made for the purchase of 10 steam 
gunboats will be inadequate for these objects, 4 of the 10 having 
been purchased, together with munitions of war, and officers of the 
Navy, under the direction of the department, being engaged in 
efforts to purchase others. 

I have the honor, therefore, to submit for your consideration and 
to recommend an appropriation of $1,000. i)0<) for the purchase of 
six screw ships, with rifled ordnance, small arms, and other muni- 
tions of war. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLOBY. 
Hon. Mr. (Vxu\!>, 

(' Ittiii'/iiiin Committee on Naval Affairs. 



No. 110.] 

[Secret.] 



An. act antl>or'r:'in<j en <K/< nt ft> lt> wnf- l>ro-1 f<> jini-i-fm-o Vf88&t$ 
arm*. nnd mal-'nuj on < i>jn-(>i>ri.<ition t!i> rt'for. 



The Congress of the Confederate >'/.//. -\ of Antcr'ud '/o en 
That to enable the Navy Department to send an agent abroad to 
purchase six steam propellers, in addition to those heretofore 
authorized, together with rifled cannon, small a )- ms, and other 
ordnance stores and munitions of war, the sum of one million of 
dollars is hereby appropriated out of the Treasury of the Confed- 
erate States. 

HOWKLL Coim, 
President of the Congress. 
Approved, May 10, 1861. 

JKFFF.KSOX DAVIS. 
A true copy. 

JAMES M. MATTIIK\\S. 
Law Clerk, I><'i>tirtiut-nt -Justice. 



No. 117.] 

An act to authorize the purchase or consti^uctwn of certain ' 

of war. 

SECTION 1. The Congress of the Confederate States of America 
do enact, That the President be, and he is hereby, authorized to cause 
to be purchased if possible, otherwise to be constructed with the least 
possible delay, in France or England, one or two war steamers of 
the most modern and improved description, with a powerful arma- 
ment and fully equipped for service. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 67 

SECTION 2. The Congress do further enact, That the sum of two 
millions of dollars be and the same is hereby appropriated to carry 
the foregoing section into effect. 

HOWELL COBB, 

President of the Congress. 
Approved, May 10, 1861. 

JEFFERSON DAVIS. 
A true copy. 

JAMES M. MATTHEWS, 
Law Cleric, Department Justice. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Montgomery, May 10, 1861. 

SIR : I desire to submit for your consideration the following facts 
and suggestions: 

The inequality between the batteries of ships and guns placed in 
regular or temporary military works has frequently been demon- 
strated and long been acknowledged; and the leading minds of 
England and France during the last few years have been actively 
employed in what was regarded as impracticable the establishment 
of an equation between ships and forts. 

Much speculation, numerous ingenious devices, and extensive ex- 
periments, cautiously and thoroughly conducted, are before us as the 
results, in part, of these attempts ; and without delaying your atten- 
tion with these, I will briefly cite a few leading facts which may be 
regarded as having been satisfactorily established, and which have 
driven the Navy Departments of England and France into active 
rivalry in the construction of iron-armored ships. 

The resistance of iron plates, fixed upon an unyielding surface, 
to the direct action of heavy ordnance, was first fairly tested by 
Mr. Stevens, of New York, in 1845; and the results of his experi- 
ments proved that wrought-iron plates, 1 inch thick, thus sup- 
ported, could not be penetrated or injured by shells, and that the 
same iron 6 inches thick, resisted all shot and at every distance. 
Upon these data he commenced but never completed, under the 
patronage of the United States, the construction of an iron floating 
battery for harbor defense. 

His views and labors attracted much attention at that day in 
France and England, and in France particularly, they originated 
careful and detailed experiments. In 1853-54 France launched six 
iron-plated vessels; and although rude and unfit for the duties of 
warships, they proved to be formidable batteries. 

In October, 1855, one year after, Britain's crack line of battle- 
ships were so roughly handled and repulsed before Fort Constantine, 
without injury to the fort, three of these batteries anchored within 
800 yards of the strong position of Kinburn, which mounted 51 
guns and 12 mortars, and reduced it in about 40 minutes. 

Mr. Russell, the London Times correspondent, who witnessed the 
affair, thus describes it: 

The floating batteries of the French opened with a magnificent crash at 
9 : 30 a. in. and one in particular distinguished itself for the regularity, pre- 
cision, and weight of its fire throughout the day. 



68 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

The Russians replied with alacrity, and the batteries must have been put 
to a severe test for the water was splashed into pillars by shot all over them. 

The success of the experiment (iron-cased batteries) is complete. They 
were anchored only 800 yards from the Russian batteries. The shot of the 
enemy at that short range had no effect upon them; the balls hopped back 
off their sides without leaving any impression save such as a pistol ball makes 
on the target in a shooting gallery. 

The shot could be heard distinctly striking the sides of the battery with 
a sharp smack, and then could be seen flying back, striking the water at 
various angles, according to the direction they took, till they dropped ex- 
hausted. 

On one battery the dents of 63 shots are visible against the plates of one 
side, not counting the marks of others which have glanced along the decks 
or struck the edges of the bulwarks ; yet, all the damage that has been done 
to that vessel has been the starting of three rivets. 

In 1857 France determined upon the construction of 10 ironclad ships ; 
vessels that should not only possess in a superior degree the speed and sea- 
worthy qualities of the finest ships afloat, but upon whose impenetrable armor 
the missiles of naval warfare should fall as harmlessly as a distaff upon a 
coat of mail. 

The first of this class of ships was launched and made her first cruise last 
summer and her extraordinary qualities have attracted the attention of the 
naval world. 

This ship, the Gloire, is 250 feet long by only 21 feet beam, and carries 38 
rifled 50-pounders. Her sides are constructed of iron, or, as is alleged, of steel, 
5.1 inches thick, and her ends of plates varying from 5.1 to 2.5 inches. A deck 
of wood and iron, 18 inches thick,- is thrown over her guns, forming a perfect 
casemate throughout her entire length. The steering gear and captain's i>ost 
are placed in an iron redoubt, on her upper deck, which is proof against the 
heaviest ordnance. Her engine is of 900 horsepower and her speed 12 knots, 
and greater than that of any war vessel of Britain. She is, of course, perfectly 
invulnerable to shell and hot shot, the two most destructive elements of naval 
warfare; and while rifled cannon may destroy wooden ships at 5,000 yards, 
they are harmless against her at a greater distance than 400. 

The success of the Gloire has stimulated the naval energies of France, and 
the other nine vessels were to have been completed and launched about the 
1st of May, 1861. 

The power of such a fleet, carrying 300 rifled 50-pounders, can hardly be esti- 
mated ; but it seems to be admitted that there is no sea castle, fort, or defensive 
work in the British Channel that it could not demolish with comparative im- 
punity. 

Eight-inch solid shot can not penetrate their sides at a greater distance than 
200 yards, while at double this distance their guns are capable of breaching 
and leveling the heaviest walls of granite known to England's channel defenses. 

To meet this terrific power it is already suggested that iron-cased forts and 
artillery of 15, 20, and even 30 inches bore, must be supplied, and this very 
suggestion admits the present superiority of ships over forts. 

In addition to these ships the French minister of marine has ordered the 
construction of 100 gunboats, which are to be plated with iron. 

England has been slow, but not idle, and is preparing to meet these for- 
midable structures of France. Her experiments have been carefully made, 
and though her builders are yet uncertain as to whether the French ships are 
plated with steel or iron, they have demonstrated the sufficiency of wrought 
iron. 

In 1859 the Admiralty ordered the construction of four ironclad vessels. Sir 
Richard [William G.] Armstrong, the inventor of the celebrated gun and whose 
opinions upon such subjects are recognized wherever known as authority, tells 
the late Secretary of War, General Peel, " That if we can produce iron-cased 
vessels attaining anything like the same speed and as seaworthy as ordinary 
men-of-war, no other vessels will have the slightest chance against them." 

The mutations in the construction, character, and capacities of ships from 
their earliest use have kept pace with those in every other device of the genius 
of man ; and though the Gloire is, at this moment, the leading warship of the 
sea and equal in power to an entire fleet of wooden vessels, plans have already 
been submitted to the British Government for a far superior vessel at the same 
cost. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 69 

The admiralty's call upon the genius of England in 1859 was responded to 
by thousands of naval constructors, bringing to the Government a vast amount 
of information. Of all the plans submitted, that of Captain Courteney Coles 
[Cowper Phipps Coles?], of the Royal Navy, has met with the most general 
approbation. 

The cost of the Gtoire can not probably be ascertained, as the French Gov- 
ernment uniformly conceal, as far as practicable, all information upon their 
naval progress ; but from the best information from reliable English sources 
the cost in England of a frigate currying a battery of six rifled 80-pound Arm- 
strong guns, would not, when ready for sea, exceed $1,800,000. 

This certainly seems to be a large price to pay for a six-gun ship, when we 
reflect that the finest wooden screw frigates that float, carrying 40 guns of 
the heaviest caliber, cost but half this amount. 

But no comparison of their relative values can be instituted, inasmuch as 
the most formidable wooden frigate would be powerless in a contest with 
such a ship; and the employment of ironclad ships by one naval power must 
compel every other to have them, without regard to cost, or to occupy a posi- 
tion of known and admitted inferiority upon the sea. 

But it may be safely assumed that even upon the basis of expenditure, the 
iron vessel will at the end of five years active service, be cheaper, all other 
considerations being discarded, than the wooden frigate, as her crew would, 
consist of but one-fourth the number, and the expenses incident to the crew be 
proportionally less in the former than in the latter. 

And to this we may fairly add the further consideration that the wooden 
frigate entails upon the country the obligation to pension, for deaths and dis- 
abilities among a crew of 600 men, in a highly destructible ship; whereas the 
ironclad vessel, while nearly indestructible herself, would afford almost im- 
munity to her crew of but about 150 men. 

These facts are presented for your consideration. 

I regard the possession of an iron-armored ship as a matter of 
the first necessity. Such a vessel at this time could traverse the 
entire coast of the United States, prevent all blockades, and encounter, 
with a fair prospect of success, their entire Navy. 

If to cope with them upon the sea we follow their example and 
build wooden ships, we shall have to construct several at one 
time: for one or two ships would fall an easy prey to her com- 
paratively numerous steam frigates. But inequality of numbers 
may be compensated by invulnerability; and thus not only does 
economy but naval success dictate the wisdom and expediency of 
fighting with iron against wood, without regard to first cost. 

Naval engagements between wooden frigates, as they are now built 
and armed, will prove to be the forlorn hopes of the sea, simply 
contests in which the question, not of victory, but of who shall go- 
to the bottom first, is to be solved. 

Should the committee deem it expedient to begin at once the con- 
struction of such a ship, not a moment should be lost. 

An agent of the department will leave for England in a day or 
two, charged with the duty of purchasing vessels, and by him the 
first steps in the matter may be taken. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MAIXORY, 
Secretary of the Navy* 

Hon. C. M. COXRAD, 

Chairman, Committee on Xaval Affairs. 



70 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865; 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, May 14, 1861. 

SIR: Your letter of the 22d ultimo, tendering your resignation as 
a captain in the TJ. S. Navy has been received. 

By direction of the President your name has been stricken from 
the rolls- of the Navy from that date. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

GIDEON WKLLES, 
Secretary of the Navy-. 
Mr. SAML. BAKRON, 

Late Captain, U. S. Navy, Norfolk, Va. 



CONFEDERATE STATES, NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

MoiitijO'i/w/'ij, May J7, 1861. 

SIR: Upon the receipt of this order you will proceed to Savannah 
and join the and proceed thence to London. 

You will land at some convenient point in Ireland and reach Lon- 
don by the ordinary steam and rail route. At London you will 
call upon the commissioners of the Confederate States to whom you 
have a letter from this department, and: to whom the department of 
State has also addressed a communication in relation to your mission. 

Herewith I hand you a copy of my recent letter to Congress upon 
the subject of ironclad ships and a copy also of the bills authorizing 
the purchase of the most formidable war ships. 

In this report you will find a general outline of the French frigate 
Gloire, which made her first cruise last summer, and which is re- 
garded as the most formidable ship afloat. 

The Confederate States require a few ships of this description, 
ships that can receive without material injury the fire of the heaviest 
frigates- and liners at short distances and whose guns, though few in 
number,, with shell or hot shot, will enable them to destroy the wooden 
navy of our enemy. 

The views and disposition of the French Government are under- 
stood to be favorable to our cause, the recognition of our inde- 
pendence at an early day is expected, and it is thought that arrange- 
ments might be made with it for the transfer to our Government 
either directly or through- some friendly intermediary of one of the 
armored frigates of the class of the Gloire. 

You will therefore in such manner as upon consultation with our 
commissioners you may deem most advisable, ascertain whether this 
great object can be accomplished. 

The importance to France of raising the existing blockade of the 
ports of the cotton States and of preventing their future blockade 
must be evident to that Government. 

France and England must be hereafter connected with us by the 
strong ties of mutual interests, they as the purchasers of our cotton 
and other produce, we as the consumers of their manufactures, they 
have such an immediate and direct interest in preventing this block- 
ade that we look to them w T ith confidence for such aid [as] they may 
properly render to enable us to maintain the freedom of our ports. 

Should the French Government assent to this transfer by a sale of 
the vessel, you will at once apprise me of the fact, and a full com- 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 71 

pleinent of officers and men can be sent from this country to bring 
the vessel over and all the necessary details including price and pay- 
ment at once be arranged. 

Should this proposition be declined by the French Government 
you will then direct your efforts to securing its sanction to the con- 
struction for us of an armored ship in France. Such construction 
would have to be done in such manner as to leave us unidentified 
publicly with it, and it is presumed that this can be done through 
parties in France, who will negotiate for receiving the bonds of this 
Confederacy in payment. 

If authorized to construct we would want two ships, and by build- 
ing each vessel to carry but six or eight heavy guns, we can probably 
obtain both complete within the amount provided for this purpose 
by law. In such case one should be built in Great Britain and one 
in France. 

Before proceeding with the details of such vessels it would be 
advisable to consult with Captain Cowper Coles of the Royal Navy, 
or with other recognized authority upon the subject, and to acquaint 
yourself also with all the advances made in building iron-armored 
ships. The Warrior, now being built upon the Thames, must have 
your attention. 

Secrecy and dispatch are equally essential throughout your labors, 
and your investigations, contracts, etc., must be so conducted as to 
secure them. 

The armament of these vessels will require your careful considera- 
tion. Armstrong 80-pounders, breech loading, it is presumed will 
claim your attention. 

If you shall contract for the construction of these vessels you will 
not fail to urge their completion within the shortest possible time, 
with coal, provisions, sails, ordnance, ordnance stores, and all equip- 
ments and outfits for a six months' cruise. 

I have named a six-gun frigate, but I am unwilling to limit your 
discretion in this respect, but confide much to your judgment. 
We want a ship which can not be sunk or penetrated by the shell 
or shot of the U. S. Navy at a distance at which we could penetrate 
and sink the ships of the enemy, and which can not be readily car- 
ried by boarders. 

You will keep the Department advised of your movements and 
transactions by every conveyance, using the means severally ex- 
plained to you to do so. 

The dispatches intrusted to you by this Government you will de- 
liver as early as practicable. 

Instruct Mr. Bulloch to place on board the such Arm- 
strong guns with their equipments and shells as Mr. shall 

be willing to receive, with percussion caps and any other ordnance 
stores which he may be disposed to bring to us. 

You will, so far as your special duties will permit, associate your- 
self with Mr. Bulloch in the purchase and selection of vessels, their 
batteries and outfits, and render him all the aid in your power 
in the important duties devolved upon him. 

You are furnished with a pamphlet copy of the laws of the 
Confederate States and our Constitution. 'The provision in rela- 
tion to the slave trade, our export duty on cotton to secure the pay- 



72 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

ment of the interest upon our bonds, and their redemption may, to- 
gether with our tendencies to free trade, be useful in your discus- 
sions with business men. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Lieut. JAMES H. NORTH, C. S. Navy. 



Estimate of the amount requiring to send an agent abroad to pur- 
chase vessels and arms per act approved May 10, 1861. 

No. 9.] NAVY DEPARTMENT, May 20, 1861. 

For the purchase of six steam propellers, with armaments, snvall 
anus, ordnance stores, and other munitions of war, per ad ap- 
proved May 10, 18G1 ___ $1,000,000 

One million of dollars. 

S. R. MAI.LORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Approved. 

JEFFERSON DAVIS. 



Estimate of the amount required for the purchase or construction 
of one or two war steamers in England or France fully armed and 
equipped per act approved May 10, 1861 . 

No. 10.] NAVY DEPARTMENT, Mai/ .'<>. /,s'67. 

For the purchase or construction of one or two war steamers of the 

most modern and improved description fully armed and equipped 2, 000, 000 

Two million of dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary Nary. 
Approved. 

JEFFERSON DAVIS. 



CONFEDERATE STATES, NAVY DEPARTMENT, 

Montgomery, May 20, 1861. 

SIR : Upon the receipt of this order you Avill proceed to ascertain 
the practicability of obtaining wrought-iron plates of from 2 to 3 
inches in thickness. 

The Tennessee Iron Works have, I am informed, rolling mills 
for heavy work. They are on the Cumberland River in Stewart 
County, Tenn. 

Daniel Hillman & Co. have a rolling mill on the Cumberland in 
Kentucky some 40 miles below the former works, and there is said 
to be a rolling mill at or near Atlanta, Ga. These plates would 
require to be made uniformly and punched. 

You will ascertain as early as practicable whether the plates of 
this thickness can be furnished, and their form, dimensions, weight, 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 73 

and price per pound must be stated, together with the best means 
of forwarding them to New Orleans. 

I am respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the 
Captain DUNCAN N. INGRAHAM, C. S. Navy. 

Montgomery, Ala. 



NASHVILLE, May 23, 1861. 

SIR: I have the honor to inform you I arrived here this morning 
and immediately saw Messrs. Hillman and Mr. Woods, the proprie- 
tors of iron works in this neighborhood. The Messrs. Hillman inform 
me they are not at this time prepared to do the work required, but 
they might get up the" machinery in two months, but the position of 
Kentucky will not under any circumstances induce them at present 
to do any work which might endanger their mills and are now pre- 
paring to close their operations for the present, being only about 40 
miles from the Ohio line. They think the work could be done at 
Atlanta, Ga. I left directions with the collector of that port to 
obtain information during my absence. I shall return to-morrow 
morning. The works of Mr. Woods are not prepared under any 
circumstances to do such heavy work. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

D. N. INGRAHAM. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



MONTGOMERY, May 28, 1861. 

SIR: I have the honor to inform you, since my last communica- 
tion, I visited the ironworks and rolling mill at Atlanta, Ga. The 
proprietor, after a consultation with the director of the works, found 
it impossible to undertake the rolling of iron plates, no other than 
railroad iron being made at the mill, and it would require an entire 
change to adapt the mill to other work. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, 

D. N. INGRAHAM, 
Captain, C. S. Navy. 
lion. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Nary. 



Statement of contracts made ~by the Navy Department. 

Joint contract with War Department made with Joseph R. Ander- 
son & Co., Richmond. Va., for cannon, shot, shells, bar, bolt, and 
boiler iron, and iron plates for covering vessels. To run for two 
years from January 1st, 1862. Dated October 26th, 1861. 

J. C. Robinson, Botetourt County, Va., for 3,000 tons No. 1 char- 
coal pig iron, to be delivered 1,000 tons per annum. 



74 NAVY DEPAKTME.XT COKIlliSPONDENCE, 1801-1*65. 

S. F. Jordan, Rockbridge County, Va., for 2,500 tons of blooms, 
500 tons to be delivered the first year and 1,000 tons the second and 
third years. 

D. & H. Ferrer, Page County, Va., for 2,000 tons of charcoal 
blooms, to be delivered within three years. 

Joseph R. Anderson, Richmond, Va., for 3,000 tons of Catawba 
cold-blast charcoal iron, to be delivered in two years, commencing 
in April, 1862. 

B. M. Jones, Danville, Va., 2,000 tons of blooms and 1,200 tons of 
steel, to be delivered in one year from 1st July, 1862. 

Thos. Steers, 3,6.00 tons No. 1 Cloverdale gun iron, 1,200 tons to be 
delivered per annum, commencing O n the 1st of January, 1863. 

Thos. Steers, 3,600 tons No. 1 Grace iron, 1,200 tons to be de- 
livered per annum, commencing in April, 1862. 

Scott <& Welford, 2,000 tons of iron from Catharine Furnace, to 
commence delivering April 1, 1862, and to be completed in three 
years. 

W. H. Peet and John Thomas, of Tennessee, for 1,000 tons ingot, 
bar, and sheet copper; 50 tons in first six months and as required 
afterwards. 

A contract has been made with a firm in North Carolina to furnish 
iron for rolling plates for plating vessels. 

The only two rolling mills now in operation in the Confederate 
States, the Tredegar Works in this city and the Atlanta works at 
Atlanta, Ga., are engaged in rolling plates for plating vessels of war. 

The sum of $10,000 has been advanced to a firm in New^ Orleans to 
complete a rolling mill, Messrs. Clark & Co., to be paid in iron plates. 

The department has dispatched agents to buy up all the scrap iron 
to be found. 

Jieport of the court of inquiry convened to examine into the circum- 
fiances connected with the loss of the ironclad sloop " Raleigh " on 
the Cape Fear River. 

WILMINGTON, N. C., June 6, 1861. 

The court having inquired into all the facts connected with the 
loss of the Confederate States steamer Raleigh, in the waters of 
North Carolina, have the honoi* to report the same, together with 
our opinion upon the points in which it is required by the precept. 

In the opinion of the court the loss of the Raleigh can not be 
attributed to negligence or inattention on the part of anyone on 
board of her, and every effort was made to save said vessel. We 
further find that the Raleigh could have remained outside the bar of 
Cape Fear River for a few hours with apparent [safety] but, in the 
opinion of the court, it would have been inproper; and, in view of 
all the circumstances, "her commanding officer was justified in at- 
tempting to go back into the harbor when he did." 

It is further the opinion of the court that the draft of water of 
the Raleigh was too great, even lightened as she had been on this 
occasion, to render her passage of the bar, except under favorable 
circumstances, a safe operation, particularly as her strength seems. 
to have been insufficient to enable her to sustain the weight of her 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORHESPOIsDENCE, 1861-1865. 75 

armor long: enough to permit every practicable means of lightening 
her to be exhausted. 

GEORGE X. HOLLINS, 
Captain and President. 

J. W. B. (jrREENHOW, 

Surgeon and Judge Advocate. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Montgomery, [Ala^\, June 11, 1861. 

SIR: You are hereby informed that the President has appointed 
you a captain in the Navy of the Confederate States. You are re- 
quested to signify your acceptance or nonacceptance of this appoint- 
ment; and, snould you accept. 3^011 will sign before a magistrate the 
oath of office herewith "and forward the same with your letter of ac- 
ceptance to this Department. 

S. K. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Captain SAMUEL BARRON. C. S. Xavy, 

Richmond, Va. 



COMMANDANT'S OFFICE, 
Navy Yard, Gosport, June 20, 1861. 

SIR: I regret to inform you that a very valuable operative, en- 
gaged in stopping the leak of the Plymouth in submarine armor, 
lost his life just as he was about to finish the work. He was a- volunteer 
to perform this duty, and was sanguine of success, and I had made 
up my mind to recommend a handsome reward to him if he suc- 
ceeded. He leaves a wife and three young children. He was a very 
valuable man. I beg leave to recommend that some compensation 
be made to his family for their loss, and that a pension be allowed 
to his wife during her widowhood. 

I am, sir r respectfully, your obedient servant, 

F. FORREST, 

Commandant. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of Navy. 

P. S. His name is DaA r id Williams, and a resident of Portsmouth, 
Va. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Na-vy Department, Richmond, June ~4, 1861. 

SIR: Your letter of the 20th instant, communicating the intelli- 
gence of the death of Mr. David Williams, has been received. 

The zeal a.nd devotion to the public service which actuated the 
conduct of Mr. David Williams, and which resulted in his loss of 
life, demand not only public recognition, but devolve upon a good 
government the duty of providing for the widow and children thus 
deprived of support. 



76 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 18G1-L%5. 

I will bring the facts to the attention of Congress as early as 
practicable, and doubt not its action will to some extent relieve them 
from the sad consequences of his death. 

If Mr. "Williams has left a son sufficiently advanced in years to 
be usefulty employed, you will report the fact to the Department. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Flag-Officer FRENCH FORREST, 

Commandant, Navy Yard, Norfolk, Va. 



CONFEDERATE STATKH, 
Navy Department, July 18, 1861. 

SIR : I have the honor to report to you the operations of this de- 
partment since the 26th of April last, the date of my last report. 

Four steamers have been purchased and equipped to aid in the 
defense of the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia, and contracts 
are being made with builders in those States for the immediate con- 
struction of gunboats to mount each three heavy guns and to act 
in connection with the steamers. This force, supplied with a proper 
number of fast rowboats and seamen for coast guard duty, and able 
to traverse the entire inland navigation between Charleston and 
Savannah, and on other parts of the coasts, it will, it is believed, 
effectually oppose all piratical attempts upon them, while a union 
of the force would master any of the enemy's smaller ships, and 
might successfully assail his frigates. 
i This command is assigned to Flag-Officer Tattnall. 

Three steamers have been purchased, armed, and equipped at New 
Orleans. One of these, the sloop Sumter, of 520 tons, armed with 
one 8-inch pivot gun and four 32-pounders, with a complement, all 
told, of 109, under the command of Commander Semmes, ran the 
blockade of the Mississippi River and got to sea as a cruising vessel 
on the 30th ultimo. 

The sloop McRae, of 830 tons, armed with one 9-inch pivot and 
six 32-pounder guns, with a complement of 152, all told, under the 
command of Lieutenant Commanding Huger, is ready and watching 
for an opportunity to get to sea. 

[ These are both good, substantial steam propeller sloops of war, 
with uncommon speed for vessels of their class. 

The third steamer, the Jackson, one of the Mississippi tugs, has 
been strengthened, thoroughly fitted, armed, and equipped, and hav- 
ing made a trip to Memphis for service under General Pillow, has 
returned to New Orleans. 

In addition to this vessel, Captain Rousseau, charged with the 
duty of aiding by naval means in the defense of the coasts of 
Louisiana and the Mississippi River, has authority to construct five 
gunboats adapted to those waters, arid to purchase, arm, and equip 
four other steamers, and to employ armed barges in the Lake and 
Sound service in connection with them. These vessels, it is alleged, 
can be completed in sixty days. 

The cost of making the necessary alterations and outfits of vessels 
in New Orleans have far exceeded the estimates of the officers in 



XAYY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 77 

charge, in consequence, as they allege, of mistakes of experts as to the 
repairs of hull and machinery, vastly enhanced price of labor and 
materials, and by the combinations in a great degree between work- 
men and vendors. 

The department has purchased from the State of Xorth Carolina 
five small steamers, whose draft of water enables them to pass the 
shallow waters connected with Pamlico, Albermarle, and Currituck 
Sounds, and which are of a class of vessels essential to their defense. 
These vessels will be properly armed and equipped and actively 
employed. 

The side-wheel steamers Patrick Henry and [Thomas Jefferson}, 
formerly known as the Yorktown and Jamestown, have been pur- 
chased from the State of Virginia. 

The Patrick Henry has been partially plated with iron, to shield 
her boilers and some of the vulnerable portions of her machinery. 
This vessel is of a burden of 1,300 tons, and is one of the fastest 
side-wheel steamers afloat. She has been greatly strengthened to 
support a battery which consists of two 10-inch pivot and eight 
8-inch broadside guns, with a complement all told of 180. She is 
in the James River, commanded by Commander John E. Tucker, 
under orders for sea, and will run the blockade at the earliest prac- 
ticable moment for a cruise off New York. 

NORFOLK YARD. 

This establishment has been placed under the control of the 
department since my last report. A large force is usefully em- 
ployed there, chiefly in the various operations connected with the 
military defenses of the country. 

Heavy guns from this yard have been sent to several of the 
Confederate States. Two hundred and three have been sent to 
Xorth Carolina, 52 to Tennessee, 21 to Louisiana, 40 to South Caro- 
lina and Georgia, and 217 are in 21 batteries in Virginia, commanded 
by naval officers. 

The preparation of these guns, with their equipments for service, 
the construction of gun carriages, and the preparation of shot and 
shell have principally occupied the large force at the yard. 

The organization of a naval laboratory has been commenced and 
it will soon be in a condition to manufacture the fuses, caps, bullets, 
shot, shell, shrapnel, fireworks, etc., in general use, and to cast-iron 
and brass cannon. 

The machine shop at this establishment for the want of suitable 
means has never been able to complete a heavy steam engine for 
a war vessel, the shafting having to be done in Baltimore or else- 
where. With the exception of Tennessee there is no establishment 
within the Confederate States where such work can be done. I have 
purchased a Xasmith hammer to supply this deficiency, and in a 
short time the entire machinery of steamships may be constructed 
there. 

The frigate Merrimack has been raised and docked at an expense 
of $6,000, and the necessary repairs to hull and machinery to place 
her in her former condition is estimated by experts at $450,000. The 
vessel would then be in the river, and by the blockade of the enemy's 
fleets and batteries rendered comparatively useless. 



78 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

It has therefore been determined to shield her completely with 
3-inch iron, placed at such angles as to render her ball proof, to com- 
plete her at the earliest moment ; to arm her with the heaviest ord- 
nance, and to send her at once against the enemy's fleet. It is believed 
that thus prepared she will be able to contend successfully against 
the heaviest of the enemy's ships, and to drive- them from Hampton 
lioads and the ports of Virginia. 

The cost of this work is estimated by the constructor and engineer 
in charge at $172,523, and as time is of the first consequence in this 
enterprise, I have not hesitated to commence the work and to ask 
Congress for the necessary appropriation. 

The Plymouth and Gerrrumtown have also been raised. The Co- 
lumbus, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Dolphin are still under water, 
and as the expense of raising them will be about $25.000 an appro- 
priation for the purpose is recommended. 

The act of Congress approved May 20, 1861 (Pamphlet Laws, 
second session, 18(51, p. 39), limits the appointment of officers of the 
Navy to those resigning from the Navy of the United States in conse- 
quence of secession of any or all of the Confederate States and who 
may be fit for active service. 

Several officers unfit for active service have resigned from the 
retired list of the United States Navy, and one officer who was not 
retired, but who is unfit for active service, has also resigned. These 
gentlemen have been actuated by a patriotism no less devoted than 
that which has distinguished the great body of Southern naval 
officers, and as no provision has been made for them the subject is 
presented for your consideration. 

The State of Virginia before joining the Confederate States 
appointed to her naval service several officers who had resigned from 
the United States Navy not in consequence of secession. They were 
employed generally as artillery officers in commanding, instructing, 
or erecting batteries. They are generally officers of the highest pro- 
fessional character and efficiency and are rendering important serv- 
ice, and I submit for your consideration the expediency of retaining 
them in the public sevice during the war or otherwise. 

Herewith I submit a copy of the letter of Flag-Officer Forrest, 
communicating the death of Mr. David Williams at the Norfolk 
yard, and a copy of the reply of the department. 

The circumstances under which he perished constitute the claims 
of the widow and children upon the consideration of Congress. 

The report hereunto annexed shows the number and grades of 
naval officers who have resigned from the United States Navy in 
consequence of secession, and of such of those as have received ap- 
pointments in the Navy of the Confederate States. 

Recruiting for the Marine Corps is progressing, and it is stationed 
at the Pensacola forts, cooperating with the army under General 
Bragg. 

The service already employs the 500 seamen, ordinary seamen, 
landsmen, and boys authorized by the act of March 15, 1861, and I 
recommend as necessary for the public interests the employment of 
an additional 500 of the same classes, who will be principally occu- 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 79 

pied on the coasts of Xorth Carolina, South Carolina", Georgia, Ala- 
bama, and Louisiana. 

ESTIMATES. 

The two acts of Congress, Nos. 116, 117, approved on the 10th of 
May last, authorized the expenditure of $3,000,000 for certain ob- 
jects, including the purchase of an ironclad or armored war ship; 
but no money was supplied in the general estimates to meet these 
expenditures, and the operations of the department in the purchase, 
construction, equipment, etc., of vessels have been circumscribed to 
and confined to the sum of $1,100,000, appropriated by the act of 
loth March, 1861. Of this sum I placed $600,000 at once" in England, 
and dispatched agents abroad to purchase gunboats ; and the balance, 
$500,000, only, has been available to purchase and equip vessels for 
coast defense. With this sum there have been purchased the follow- 
ing steamers: Swnttr, McRae, Jackson, Lady Davis, Savannah, 
Samwson, and Resolute, and the balance on hand from this appro- 
priation is $140,000. 

Funds are wanted to meet the estimated value of the five steamers 
from North Carolina, the two from Virginia, the steamer Florida, 
of Mobile, for w r hich negotiations are pending, two small steamers 
and barges for Lake Pontchartrain, five steam gunboats to be built in 
Mobile and New Orleans for Lake and Sound service, five gunboats 
to be built in South Carolina and Georgia for those coasts, and the 
reconstruction and iron plating of the Merrimack. 

No additional appropriations are required under acts Nos. 116 
and 117, before referred to, as the appropriations were embraced 
in the acts; but I recommend that funds be provided as early as 
practicable to meet those appropriations, and enable the department 
fully to carry out the terms of the acts. 

Estimates of the additional amounts required to meet the wants 
of the department for the year ending February 18, 1862, are here- 
with submitted. 

Vrith much respect I am, sir. your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

His Excellency THE PRESIDENT. 



. CONFEDERATE STATES, 
Navy Department, Richmond, July 20, 1861. 

Sis: Herewith I inclose to you a letter from Captain Barron, in 
charge of the Office of Orders and Detail. 

Twenty-one batteries in Virginia are commanded by naval officers, 
who instruct soldiers detailed from the Army to work the guns. 

Captain Barron suggests that we can ship men to man these bat- 
teries in North Carolina, South Carolina. Georgia, Louisiana, and 
Virginia, who being boatmen, fishermen or sailors, are unwilling to 
enter the Army; and that we could thus relieve the soldiers in the 
batteries for their duties in the field. 



80 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

If this suggestion be adopted, 1,000 men, instead of the 500 recom- 
mended in my report, would be required. 

I am respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Hon. C. M. CONRAD, 

Chairman of the Committee of Naval Affairs, Richmond, Va. 



HEADQUARTERS, Cape Ilatteras, July 23, \_186 1~\. 

GOVERNOR : Hatteras Light House is a traitor to the State, offering 
aid and comfort to the enemy, while to the cruisers which are now 
sailing out of this port, and the coasting and West India trade, it is 
of little advantage. They all know the coast so well they do not 
need the light-house. By day Hatteras can be seen from sea 40 miles, 
thus warning all merchantmen away out of reach of our priva- 
teers and navy vessels, while the men of war of the enemy use it as 
a center round which they move. If it was removed none but those 
accustomed to this port could enter, and no other in these times will 
attempt it, and the coast would present no prominent object. 
Very respectfully, yours, 

W. S. G. ANDREWS, 

Major, Commanding. 
His Excellency HENRY CLARK. 



CONFEDERATE STATES, NAVY DEPARTMENT, 

Richmond, July 23, 1861. 

GENTLEMEN : Nothing has been received from either of you as yet. 

Our arms have just been crowned with signal success. The enemy, 
35,000 strong, attacked our forces at Manassas, a position about 22 
miles from Alexandria, D. C. [Va.], on Sunday, the 21st instant, 
and after a bloody contest of 10 hours, he was routed with great 
slaughter and driven back upon his entrenchments upon the Foto- 
mac. We had but 15,000 men engaged, but their furious and per- 
sistent charges with the bowie knife and bayonet, drove the enemy 
at every point. We captured all the field batteries, many standards, 
prisoners, ordnance stores, and his dead and wounded are said to 
amount to 13,000. 

Our people are united, thoroughly aroused, and determined to 
listen to neither truce nor peace until every hostile foot shall be 
driven from our soil. All is zeal, courage, activity, and union. 

The barbarities practiced by the enemy are unknown to civilized 
warfare. Not only has he ruthlessly destroyed private property 
wherever found, devastated the green fields, burned villages and 
towns, insulted helpless women in the most diabolical manner, but he 
refuses to respect the hospitals of the sick, which, with all other 
buildings within his reach, he assails. 

This dispatch will be delivered to you by Lieutenant Commanding 
Huger, of the C. S. sloop McRae, which goes to England direct. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 81 

Arms and powder of good qualities are of the first consequence to 
us, and I have deemed it important to send her over to obtain a 
supply, if practicable. 

If you can purchase 10,000 good Enfield rifles, or rifled muskets 
with bayonets, do so at once, without regard to price, if they can be 
brought in the McRae. Their weight would be equal to about 60 
tons, and I think she might bring them without inconvenience to her 
speed. 

If, upon consultation with Lieutenant Huger, you shall think she 
can carry more, you will act accordingly and send more. If any dif- 
ficulty occurs as to funds, confer with the War Department agents, 
but buy them on our own account if you can do so. 

Should any difficulty be opposed by the British authorities to her 
thus receiving arms, perhaps you might so arrange as to send them 
out to sea to her. Act promptly. If this can not be done at all, 
then advise the agents for the War Department, Captain Huse and 
Major Anderson, to ship arms in English bottoms to Nassau to some 
English house there, for and on account of Mr. John P. Baldwin 
(whom we will send for them), and from thence we can send them 
into the Confederate States in small vessels. 

Keep me advised fully as to your movements. Rifled cannon are 
now of secondary importance, we can make them; but small arms, 
woolens, blankets, and shoes are of the first consequence. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. K. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Captain JAMES D. BUIXOCH and Lieutenant NORTH, 

London. 



CONFEDERATE STATES NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

Richmond, July 25, 1861. 

SIR: No advices have been received from you since you left. 

You will inform the department as to the prospect of purchasing 
or of building in England or France an ironclad war vessel, and 
the terms thereof, with as little delay as practicable. 

If we can neither purchase nor build such a vessel directly or 
indirectly, you will return here in one of the vessels to be purchased 
by Captain Bulloch, or in such other manner as you may deem best 
for the public interests. 

In my judgment the best plan for bringing arms into out States 
is the following: They should be shipped in a British vessel to 
Nassau, New Providence, to Mr. Henry Adderly, commission mer- 
chant, or to some other reliable merchant there, for and on account of 
a supercargo on board, who should be some man having our interest 
at heart. We can then have an agent there who will ship them, a 
few thousand at a time, in small Bahama wrecking vessels, clearing 
them for Vera Cruz, Campeche, Truxillo, Orsono [Oinoa?] or along 
other points of the Mexican Gulf, and run them into anv of the inlets 
of Louisiana or Texas, or ship them to New York or Baltimore and 
rim them into the inlets of Florida, South Carolina, or North Caro- 
lina. 

176429 VOL 2 PT 121 6 



82 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1801-1865. 

No vigilance of the United States authorities can prevent these 
vessels from running the arms in. Of course we. would have to pay 
for the risk, but it would be fully encountered. 

Consult with the agents of the War Department upon this subject 
who have the means of purchasing and shipping arms. Powder in 
kegs could be shipped in large casks like hardware, as could pistols 
and Enfield rifles also, apart from their stocks. But the stocks 
should go in the same casks with their barrels. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R, MAULOKT, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Lieutenant JAMES H. NORTH, C. S. Navy, 

London , 



CONFEDERATE STATES, NAVY DEPARTMENT, 

Richmond, July 2o, 1861. 

SIR: I have received no advices from you since your departure. 

The enemy is building many small, strong, light-draft gunboats 
to assail us in our shallow waters, and the want of similar vessels is 
greatly felt. 

Could you send the vessels which you are commissioned to pur- 
chase to the coast of North or South Carolina, they could now enter 
at Hatteras, Ocracoke Inlet, and Beaufort, N. C. Port Royal, Fernan- 
dina, and Brunswick are now open to us. The McRcee has good 
pilots and could sail in company with any such vessel across the 
ocean to our shores. 

If you can, in addition to the 10,000 rifled muskets, send us 200 or 
500 tons of powder, either in a vessel which you may buy for a gun- 
boat or in another, do so at once. 

In addition to these, our soldiers in the field require woolens for 
clothing, shoes, and blankets, and you can offer to the agents of the 
War Department to send any of these articles in any of the vessels 
you may purchase, together with arms and ammunition. 

Time is highly important to us, as the enemy will increase the 
numbers of his blockading forces as the cool season approaches. 

I confide much in your judgment and discretion. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 



Captain JAS. D. BIJKLOCH. 

London, Em/la-nd. 



- * 
Secretary of the Navy. 



CONFEDERATE STATES, NAVY DEPARTMENT, 

Richmond, July 27, 1861. 

SIR : In addition to the 2,000 muskets to be purchased on account 
of the Navy and to be sent over on the McRaz, you will purchase 
about 200 tons of powder, to be shipped in a British vessel to Nassau, 
New Providence, consigned to Mr. Henry Adderly, commission 
merchant, for arid on account of a supercargo on board, who should 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 83 

be some discreet man having our interest at heart. We can then have 
an agent there who will ship it to us in the small Bahama wrecking 
vessels. The powder in kegs might be put in large casks like 
hardware* 

You have in England $600,000, sent you by Lieutenant North, 
$400,000 in bills of exchange on London and a letter of credit on the 
bank of Liverpool for $200,000. 

You will inform the department when you require more funds, and 
they will be placed to your credit in England. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the wavy. 
Captain JAS. D. BULLOCK, 

London, England. 



LONDON, August 13, 1861. 

SIR: Since my departure from Montgomery on the llth of May 
last I have had no opportunity of communicating with you by letter, 
excepting in such form as to preclude the possibility of entering into 
details. Three gentlemen have at different times consented to take 
verbal messages, but no one has been willing to run the risk of 
attempting to carry anything in writing. I will therefore report 
now that I arrived in Liverpool on the 3d of June and lost no time 
in communicating with Messrs. Eraser, Trenholm & Co., who fur- 
nished me with the address of the commissioners of the Confederate 
States in London. Upon these honorable gentlemen I called at 
once. They tendered me their utmost sympathy in the object of 
my undertaking, but further than to hand me offers and specifica- 
tions for ships which had been forwarded to their address, they 
could afford me no practical aid. Nevertheless, I have conferred 
with them as to all my movements, and am happy to say that I 
receive their cordial countenance and support, so far as their posi- 
tion admits. 

I soon learned that no contracts or purchases could be made with- 
out cash actually in hand, it being the invariable practice in Eng- 
land to pay a portion of the contract money at the time of agree- 
ment and the balance as soon as the articles are completed and 
invoiced. I could therefore only examine arms and visit dock- 
yards and great gun factories, making in this way estimates of 
prices and arranging for contracts as soon as the means of pay- 
ment should arrive. 

There were already in England agents for the Federal Govern- 
ment as well as for several of the Northern States, each with large 
orders and abundance of ready money, and these persons, in their 
zeal, were actually bidding against each other, thus running up the 
prices of arms to a figure far beyond those set down in the list I 
furnished you at Montgomery. Captain Huse, C. S. Army, had felt 
the effect of this rivalship among the Northern agents to a very 
serious extent. 

The Queen's neutrality proclamation is more than embarrassing; 
it is almost an exclusive barrier against shipments to the South. 



84 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

English shipowners, partly from dread of the consequences and 
partly from loyalty, very generally decline taking anything contra- 
band of war as freight, and to induce any person to engage in fur- 
nishing or forwarding supplies for the Confederate States, requires 
so much secret negotiation and the employment of so many middle 
men, that the very maneuvering necessary to complete an arrange- 
ment seems to excite and direct suspicion. But by far the greatest 
perplexity that has cramped my individual movements has arisen 
from a cause which you will doubtless be shocked to learn and 
which has occasioned me the utmost astonishment as well as cha- 
grin. Almost simultaneously with my arrival in England there 
came in due course of mail a New York paper, I think the Times, 
with nearly a half column of telegrams, purporting to have been 
sent from Montgomery via Petersburg, Va., on the 19th of May, in 
which my departure for Europe, with the precise service assigned 
me, the total amount of money furnished, and even the banks and 
bankers through whom the credits were to be arranged, was as 
minutely detailed as if the particulars had been furnished direct 
from the Treasury Department or from the pages of my instruc- 
tions, and this, too, before either the money or the orders had reached 
me. Since that time all persons supposed to be in the service of the 
Confederate States are strictly and closely watched. The United 
States consuls employ especial detectives for the purpose. You will 
remember that before leaving Montgomery I read my orders care- 
fully, and was therefore at no loss in what direction to turn my in- 
quiries. None of the leading gun factories were in condition to take 
contracts, except upon very long time, and I was forced to adopt the 
plan Captain Huse fell into of employing a commission house here 
familiar with the gun trade and directors in the London Armory 
Co., to contract for the sea service rifles my orders called for. with 
the small makers in Birmingham and elsewhere. After careful ex- 
amination of the shipping lists of England, and inspecting many 
vessels, I failed to find a single wooden steamer fit for war purposes, 
except one paddle steamer, too large and costly and drawing too 
much water for our coast. Wood as a material for ships has almost 
entirely gone out of use in the British merchant service, and their 
iron ships, though fast, well built, and staunch enough for voyages 
of traffic, are too thin in the plates and light in the deck frames and 
stanchions to carry guns of much weight. I therefore made ar- 
rangements to contract with two eminent builders for a gun vessel 
each, but they could not begin to collect the necessary material until 
I was prepared to deposit the entire cost of each vessel to their credit 
in bank, conjointly with some agent of my own. We, however, 
agreed upon plans and estimates, so that there should be no time lost 
when the money arrived. The selection of the best great guns for 
these ships gave me much thought and perplexity, as it seems im- 
possible to get at any official or reliable statements of the actual 
results of practice with the various descriptions of rifled ordnance 
in use here. All such information is so closely withheld by the Ad- 
miralty that British naval officers appear to be almost totally unin- 
formed on these points. Sir W. Armstrong's breech loading gun 
could not be got on any terms, as it is made solely for the Govern- 
ment, and as with the means of investigation at hand I could not 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 85 

see any advantage in the breech over the muzzle loader for sea serv- 
ice, and the cost of the former was far greater than that of the 
latter, I have selected the Blakely gun, which loads in the ordinary 
way. This gun is composed of a cast-iron core, which, after being 
accurately turned, is hooped with wrought-iron bands, shrunk over 
the gun from base to trunnions, and welded closely together, the 
trunnions being sometimes part of one of the bands. This method 
is thought to obviate the difficulty of uniformity in the welding of 
such large masses of metal as high caliber guns require, and at the 
same time allows you to throw a heavy projectile with less weight 
of metal than would be required in guns of like caliber constructed 
entirely of cast iron. Captain Blakely's practice tables show won- 
derful ranges with these guns, when their weight has only been 
as 40 to 1 in proportion to the projectile. Of course, for sea service 
the ratio must be greater than that, and I only mention the above 
fact to show the strength of the gun. As far as memory served me I 
arranged for all other purchases directed in my instructions, and 
waited anxiously for the means of getting actually and actively at 
work. At last, on the 27th of July, a portion of the funds intended 
for the uses mentioned in my orders came to Messrs. Fraser, Tren- 
holm & Co., and during the next week additional sums, amounting 
in the aggregate to 131,000, which is the total amount thus far 
received. About the same time vour instructions, dated llth May, 
were handed me by Lieutenant Barnes H. North, who, with Major 
Anderson, had just arrived in a sailing vessel from Savannah. 

I lost no time in closing up the various contracts by making the 
necessary deposits, and will now, as briefly as would be consistent 
with clearness, detail these contracts and the limits of time required 
for their completion. The fear that this letter may fall into wrong 
hands induces me to withhold the names of the contractors, but you 
may rest assured that they are reliable in mercantile character, and 
of the first reputation in their respective departments of business. 
The money sent being only about one-third of the sum required to 
fill your entire order, was distributed thus : 

A gun vessel, length, extreme, 185 feet; breadth. 28 feet 4 [inches] ; 
depth, 14 feet; burthen, 695 tons; rig, bark; draft, 12 feet; battery,, 
two 7-inch 82 cwt. rifled guns on pivot carriages and four smooth- 
bore 32-pounders. ; engines, 200 horsepower; calculated speed, 
11.5 knots. 

A second gun vessel, length, 210 feet; breadth, extreme, 32 feet; 
depth, 17 [ft.] 3 in.; tonnage, 1,024; deepest draft, 15 feet; engines, 
300 horsepower; calculated speed 12 knots when in fair trim. Bat- 
tery, two 82-hundredweight pivot guns, rifled, and four broadside 
guns, 4.5-inch calibre and 42 hundredweight. 

The contractor for the first of these ships, upon the assurance of 
Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co. that they would be responsible for 
the first payments, began to lay her down before my funds arrived, 
tind she will be ready for sea by the second week in December. The 
second ship could not be begun upon until the money was ready to 
deposit and the builder does not agree to have her reacly for sea until 
sometime in the spring, although he is working to get her off his 
hands as soon as possible. 

The guns intended far these two ships are well advanced, and will 
be all ready with their carriages in four weeks from date. I have 



86 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

contracted for 1,200 (Bashley Britten) shells for these guns. Those 
for the 7-inch will weigh 100 pounds, and for the 4.5-inch calibre 
Go pounds. The shells are percussion and will all be ready in a fort- 
night. 

The plans and models of these two ships have been selected with 
all the care and caution that the urgency of our need permitted, and 
I feel satisfied that they will be as efficient cruisers as any ships of 
their size in the British Navy. The contractors are to deliver them, 
complete for sea, with a spare suit of sails and boatswain's stores 
for a 12-months' cruise. 

The 100 sea-service rifles and the cutlasses could not be had ready 
made. I contracted for them through an agent and they will all be 
ready in about three weeks. The cutlasses are identical with those 
used in the British Navy and can be shipped upon the end of the 
rifle as a bayonet. 

The entire amount of clothing for seamen and marines, including 
shoes and blankets, is finished arid will go in the ship by which I 
shall forward this report. The fixed ammunition, with 1,000,000 
military caps, will go forward at the same time. Revolvers were 
not to be had on any terms. I therefore contracted with a large 
factory for 1,000, as per order ; these, I hope, will be ready for ship- 
ment as soon as the great guns. I have been surprised at the slow- 
ness with which all factories here begin the execution of contracts. 
They all seem to have extensive preparations to make, but when 
once under way they work with great steadiness and regularity and 
can always duplicate orders promptly so that additional arms, etc., 
can be very speedily supplied, the only absolute requirement being 
always money. 

You will observe that I have provided for everything mentioned 
in your orders, except the entire number of ships, and, I will add, 
the outside clothing for Marines. Every article is of the very best 
quality, and was selected only after comparison with its correspond- 
ing pattern in the British service. 

Major Anderson, Capt. Huse, and myself consult freely together 
upon our duties, and are now engaged in sending forward a quan- 
tity of munitions. Those for the Navy Department are all marked 
<ND>, and invoices will be. sent herewith. The above contracts 
have reduced my finances to about $40,000, which I have kept for 
the purchase of a fast steamer, in case the services of such a vessel 
should be found necessary. Major Anderson and Captain Huse will 
have a large supply of arms ready in about five weeks, and we are 
arranging to unite our remaining funds, buy a ship, and send her over 
in my charge with all she can carry. The intention will of course 
be to get in as secretly as possible, but the batteries for the ships 
of war building here will be put on board, and if running will not 
save the ship, she will be prepared to resist capture. 

We have heard of the glorious victory of Manassas, and I would beg 
to suggest that the first ship launched for our Navy should be 
christened by that memorable name. 

You will, I trust, pardon a word purely personal to myself. I 
beg to urge an application for the command of the first ship that 
goes to sea under our flag from this side of the ocean, and to earnestly 
request that you will send me a commission for that purpose by the 
earliest opportunity, I have had much trouble and perplexity in 



STAVY DEPAllTMEXT CORRESPCCXDEXCE, 1861-1865. 87 

getting the contract for the two ships taken, and trust you will grant 
the justice and propriety of my claim to use one of them myself. 
Any commission you grant me will be given up at the end of the 
war, so that I will not embarrass you in arranging the peace estab- 
lishment. If we succeed in getting our plan detailed above to a sat- 
isfactory completion, I hope to report in person to you before the 
Federal Government has recovered from its present panic, but I 
pray you to send me a commission without waiting for my possible 
arrival in Richmond. 

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 
Hon. S. E. MALLORY. 



[AUGUST 16, 1861.] 

SIR: I have been in this country rather more than a month, and 
most anxiously have I been awaiting the arrival of a communication 
from you, and at last have the pleasure of acknowledging the receipt 
of yours, dated June 28. 

Most gladly would I obey the instructions therein contained, if I 
only had it in my power. You must not forget that I am here with- 
out one dollar to carry out your orders, and the people of these parts 
are as keen after money as any people I ever saw in my life. If 
they find you have plenty of money to carry out your views they are 
as polite as possible, otherwise they are too busy to attend to you. 

I requested General Fear, on his arrival, to call, see, and explain 
to you my situation, which he promised to do, especially as he re- 
fused to carry any letters. 

I am sorry to say that the general impression out here is that, if 
I had millions at my command, I could not carry out your views, as 
both France and England are anxious to get all the ironclad ships 
they can. 

If I had the means, however, at my disposal, I would at least make 
the attempt. It takes a long time to get up or build one of these 
ships. The Warrior they have been building nearly two years, and 
I think it will take a month or two to finish her. I have made two 
visits to her and was very much pleased with all I saw. She is a 
splendid ship and well worth all that she will cost, which, I under- 
stand, is $2,500,000. She is too large for us, and will draw more 
water than she can carry into most of our ports. I sometimes get 
dreadfully sick at heart when I think how little I am doing for my 
poor country, when I know full well that the services of every mail 
and boy are of the utmost importance. 

Mr. >.[ulloch], I suppose, will write you in full, giving you a 
detailed account of his operations. 

Please let me hear from you soon, and, if nothing better offers, I 
shall be pleased to command one of the vessels he is now building. 

God grant, however, that our arms may be victorious, and that 
peace may soon be restored to our at present distracted country. 
We have thought it best not to send anvthing by the schooner. 
Hoping to hear from you very soon, I remain, 
Your obedient servant, 

[JAMES H. NORTH.] 



88 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

In my second letter [to the honorable Secretary] I made the fol- 
lowing additions : 

I have determined to send the yacht back with dispatches only, 
as I can see no use in my keeping her over here any longer at only 
an expense to our Government. I have informed Major Anderson 
and Mr. Bullpen of my intention, but thus far they both decline 
sending anything over in her. I have no money, or I certainly would 
send over a few rifled cannon. Most of the things that you ordered 
through Mr. Bulloch, I believe, are ready, and I suppose will be 
shipped by him as soon as he meets with what he may consider a 
good opportunity. We have heard of the success of our arms at 
Manassas Junction with much pleasure, and I iiave no doubt the 
results will be of immense advantage to us. In fact, since that time 
I have heard the English will have our cotton in the fall, cost what 
it may. I expect to leave for Paris to-day. Oh, if I only had the 
money. 

Very respectfully, etc., 

[JAMES H. NORTH.] 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

[Enclosure.] 

PARIS, September, [1861.1 
1, (556) 10. (669) 
556.21 

Can do any thing in the 

28, (160) 16, (273) 3, (104) 3, (738) 20, (418) 5, (736) 

way of building if I only 

9, (803) 36, (536) 1, (153) 22, (409) 1, (408) 2, (539) 22, 

had the money Please let me 

(382) 5, (736) 3, (512) 28, (577) 26, (471) 15, (496) 23, 

hear from you. 

(389) 12, (353) 11, (817) 

North. 
13,529. 

Sent by a French gentleman. 

[A second copy sent by Mr. Ravenel, of Charleston, S. C.] 



CONFEDERATE STATES, 
Department, Richmond, August 16, 1861. 

SIR : The following statement will give the information called for 
by the resolution of the 2d instant, No. 8, which I received from you 
yesterday, so far as this department can furnish it : 

Those officers w r ho were commissioned in the Virginia Navy, and 
who had resigned from the Navy of the United States in consequence 
of the secession of Virginia or of any of the Confederate States, and 
who were " fit for active service," have been commissioned or ap- 
pointed in the Navy of the Confederate States. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 89 

There were officers in the Virginia Navy who had not thus resigned 
from the Xavy of the United States, and others who were not re- 
garded fit for active service. These have not been commissioned or 
appointed in the Xavy of the Confederate States. I do not think 
that the compact between the Confederate States and the State of 
Virginia provides for these cases, and appointments to the Navy 
have been made by virtue of, and under, the laws of Congress. 

Herewith I hand you an extract from my report of the 18th of 
July last, touching this subject, and also a classified list of the Vir- 
ginia officers turned over to this department. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Nan/. 
Hon. WM. BALLARD PRESTON, M. C., 

Richmond, Va. 

P. S. I return herewith the resolution which you left with me. 

[Enclosure.] 

[Extract from the report of the Secretary of the Navy to His Excellency the President 
of the Confederate States, July 18, 1861.] 

tk The act of Congress approved May 20, 1861 (Laws, 2d session, 
1861, p. 39), limits the appointment of officers of the Xavy to those 
resigning from the Xavy of the United States in consequence of 
secession of any or all of the Confederate States and who may be 
fit for active service. 

" Several officers unfit for active service have resigned from the 
retired list of the U. S. Xavy and one officer who was not retired, but 
who is unfit for active service, has also resigned. These gentlemen 
have been actuated by a patriotism no less devoted than that which 
has distinguished the great body of Southern naval officers, and as 
no provision has been made for them, the subject is presented for 
your consideration. 

" The State of Virginia, before joining the Confederate States, 
appointed to her naval service several officers who had resigned from 
the U. S. Xavy not in consequence of secession. They were employed 
generally as artillery officers in commanding, instructing, and erect- 
ing batteries. They are generally officers of the highest professional 
character and efficiency, and are rendering important service, and I 
submit for your consideration the expediency of retaining them in 
the public service during the war or otherwise." 



Officers transferred by Virginia as being in her service. 

First. Xaval officers who resigned from the U. S. Xavy in conse- 
quence of secession. These have been commissioned in the C. S. 
Xavy. 

Second. Officers who had, at various periods, resigned from the 
U. S. Navy Avithout regard to and before secession. These are: 
Commander William Leigh (resigned years ago. a lieutenant) ; 
Lieutenants William T. Smith, C. St. Geo'rge Xoland, Andrew Weir, 



90 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORKEHPONDENCE, 1861-18G5. 



Beverly Randolph, L. II. Lyne. and C. E. Thorburn. Medical 
officer Surgeon A. Y. P. Garnett. 

Third. Officers who were on the reserved list of the U. S. Navy, 
who resigned in consequence of secession: Captains Hugh N. Page 
and II. II. Cocke; Commanders Joseph Myers, William Green; 
Lieutenants Bushrod W. Hunter and John S. Taylor; Master H. A. 
F. Young. 

Fourth. Officers who never were in U. S. Navy, but who have 
been appointed officers in the Virginia Navy: Paymasters William 
H. Peters and Richard Taylor; Masters Thomas Taylor and James 
S. Kenner; Midshipmen James W. Pegram, George T. Sinclair, and 
M. B. Ruggles; Chief Engineer Hugh Clark; Boatswain W. H. 
Face; Carpenter Hugh Lindsay. Marine Corps. Lieutenants C. M. 
Colyer and O. Bradford. 

Revenue officers resigned from U. S. service. Captains Richard 
Evans, R. K. Hudgins, Osmond Peters; -First Lieutenant J. F. 
Mulligan; Second Lieutenants D. Lagnel, B. W. Frobel, W. E. 
Hudgins, J. R. C. Lewis. 



Statement showing the number and grades of naval officers who 
resigned from the U. A 1 . -\</r>/ '/,, comt't/iicnce of secession, and of 
such of those who have received appointment* /'// the C. >V. Xavy. 





pointed. 


and 
pointed. 


Remarks. 


Captains 


9 


5 




f!oinriiaj><]ers 


26 


5 


2 have not applied' 3 on rosci \\- list. 


Lieutenants 


64 


4 




Masters 


4 


1 


Not auplied. 


Midshipmen 


16 






Acting midshipmen 


59 






Sinuous 


19 






nt surgeons. . 


10 






Paymasters 


7 






Chief en ,'im'ors 


3 






First assistant engineers 


3 






Second a Distant enpineere 


4 






Thii d assistant engineers . . . 


3 






Boatswains 


4 






Gunners 


3 






;,?? 


4 






Sailmakers . 


3 















Recapitulation of estimates of Navy Department. 
No. 1. 

Estimate of the probable amount required for the purchase and 
building of steamers and gunboats for coast defenses of Con- 
federate States (see note) $765,000 

No. 2. 

nf the amount required to repair ami tit. the steam frigate 
i.'crri>>nack as an ironclad ship 172, 523 

No. 3. 



Estimate f the amount required to raise the ships of the line 

':;, / 1'anmylrati-la, and brig Dolitl/iti 25,000 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1805. 91 

No. 4. 

Estimate of the amount required for the pay, subsistence, etc., of 
5GO additional seamen, ordinary seamen, landsmen and boys, and 
firemen and coal heavers for 7 months $90, 000 

No. 5. 

Estimate of the amount required for medical supplies and surgeons' 

necessaries, in addition to former appropriation ' 4, 000 



1,696 

No. 6. 

Estimate of the amount required to pay persons (civilians) em- 
ployed at navy yard, Norfolk. Va., from 1st July, 1861, to Feb. 18, 

6, 700 



Total - 1, 063, 223 

One million and sixty-three thousand two hundred and twenty-three dollars. 

S. R. MAIJX>RY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT. July IS, 1861. 

NOTE. If funds are provided to meet the appropriations made by 
acts Xos. 116 and 117, approved May 10, 1801, the sum of $50,000 
only will be required under estimate No. 1. 



Estimates of the probable amounts required for the purchase 
and building of steamers and gunboats for coast defenses of Con- 
federate States. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, July 18, 1861. 

To nay for live small steamers, purchased from the State of North 

.iina $75, 000 

To pay for the steamers Yorktown and Jamestown, purchased from 

the State of Virginia 280,000 

To pay for steamer Florida, now negotiating for at Mobile 75,000 

To pay for steamer Pamlico, now negotiating for at New Orleans 40,000 

To pay for two small steamers, now negotiating for at New Orleans 40, 000 

To py for four gunboats, to be built at New Orleans and Mobile 

(about *20,>0 each) 80,000 

To pay for steam gunboat, under agreement with Hughes & Co., at 

New Orleans 75.000 

To pay for five gunboats, to be built at Savannah and Charleston 

(about $20.000 each) 100,000 



$765,000 
Seven hundred and sixty-five thousand dollars. 

NOTE. If funds are provided to meet the appropriations made by 
acts Xos. 116 and 117. approved May 10, 1861. the sum of $50,000 
only will be required under this estimate. 

S. R. MAI.LORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 



92 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

No. 2. 

Estimate of the amount required to repair and fit the steam frigate 
Merrimack a$ an ironclad sh!/>. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, July IS, 1861. 

To repair and lit the Merrimack as an ironclad ship $172, 523 

One hundred and seventy-two thousand five hundred and twenty-three 
dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 



Estimate of the amount required to raise the ships of the line Co- 
lumbus, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and brig Dolphin. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, July 18, 1861. 

To raise the ships of the line Columbus, Delaware, and Pennsylvania 

and brig Dolphin $25,000 

Twenty-live thousand dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 



Estimate of the amount required for the pay, subsistence, etc., of 
">00 additional seamen, ordinary seamen, landsman and boa/s, and 
firemen and coal heavers, for seven months to 18 February, 1862. 

XAVY DEPARTMENT, July 18, 1861. 

For pay, subsistence, etc., of fiOO additional seamen, ordinary seamen, 

landsmen and boys, and firemen and coal heavers $90,000 

Ninety thousand dollars. 

8. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 



Xo. 5. 

Estimate of the amount required for medical supplies and surgeons* 
necessaries for the Navy, including Marine and Engineer Corps, 
in addition to former appropriation, for year ending February 
18, 1862. 

XAVY DEPARTMENT, July 18, 1861. 

For medical supplies and surgeons' necessaries $4,000 

Four thousand dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

No. 6. 



93 



Estimate of the amount required to pay persons (civilians) employed 
at navy yard, Norfolk, Va-., from July 1, 1861, to February 18, 

1862. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, July 18, 1861. 

One storekeeper $1, 100 

One naval constructor 1, 700 

One clerk of the yard 800 

One clerk to commandant . . , 800 

One clerk (second) to commandant 640 

One clerk to storekeeper 800 

One clerk to naval constructor 560 

One porter 300 



Six thousand seven hundred dollars. 



6,700 

S. R. MALLORT, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



THURSDAY, August %9, 1861. 

DEAR SIR : Referring to our conversations touching the necessity of 
Government, in an emergency, for a full supply of the article of 
copper, and in view of the fact that there is within the confines of the 
Confederate States but one source from whence an adequate supply 
can be obtained, and of the further fact that that one source can be 
made available only by the fostering aid of the Government to an 
extent sufficient to justify the necessary expenditure for the erection 
of suitable machinery, the construction of which must be promptly 
entered upon, as well as the obtaining the proper artisans, all of 
which seems well understood by your honor; and that the Govern- 
ment may have a proper basis for prompt action upon your requisi- 
tion, it is proposed to place at a given point, say Cleveland, Tenn., 
from three to five thousand tons of copper from the mines of Polk 
County, in East Tennessee, in ingot, bolt, bar, or sheets, as may be 
required, commencing at once for ingots and in five or six months for 
bolt and sheets. The same to be paid for by the Treasurer of the 
Confederate States, upon presentation of the proper evidence of such 
delivery in notes and bonds of the Confederate States at par value. 
The price proposed is 25 cents per pound for ingot, and 37^ cents per 
pound for bolt or bar and sheet copper. It is believed that the above 
rates are within the average price for a term of years past, and the 
proposition is not made with reference to the existing state of things 
in our country, but is placed upon a strictly peace basis. In passing, 
I may remark that there can be no possible competition in this supply 
except from foreign sources, and though the blockade be removed, 
this article may be considered contraband of war. 

In conversation with Hon. Mr. Conrad, he suggested the propriety 
of making a distinct proposition, and said any suggestion, coming 
from your honor, would receive the prompt action of the Naval 
Committee. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

W. H. PEET. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of Navy, Confederate States. 



94 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDED CE, 1861-1865. 

CONFEDERATE STATES, NAVY DEPARTMENT, 

Richmond, Va., September 19, 1861. 

DEAR SIR: Your letter of the 17th instant has just been received. 

If the vessel * is in good condition to make the run to England, her 
machinery sound and in good working order, and she can be made 
ready immediately for the voyage, you will purchase her upon the 
terms proposed, the Government paying $100,000 to the Charleston 
owners and holding itself responsible to the alien enemy owners in 
such manner as it may determine. 

The duty required of her, as you are aware, demands every precau- 
tion against failure, and every preparation for a successful trip must 
be made immediately, the vessel to sail on the 25th or 26th instant 
at furthest. 

Her former captain, knowing the ship and her trim, may be 
engaged as an acting master at $1,200, if you deem it best. It would 
be well also to carry out three or four pilots familiar with the Caro- 
lina and Georgia coasts, as two of them might be wanted by vessels 
expected from Europe. 

Lieutenant Pegram is ordered to report to you for the command, 
and other officers are also detailed. You will ship her usual crew of 
seamen, coal heavers, and firemen, and it would be well to engage 
her former engineers. A cabin cook and steward, with proper 
assistants, including a stewardess, will be required, as the cabin 
passengers will number 14 ladies and gentlemen, with 6 attendants, 
stores and provisions for whom will also be laid in. These and all 
necessary arrangements are all confided to you, and the importance 
of keeping the whole subject as private as possible is evident. 

Lieutenant Pegram will perform such duties as may be required 
of him as paymaster, the department having no officer of that grade 
to detail for the service. 

You will advise the department immediately upon the A eceipt of 
this letter at the earliest day at which the vessel can be ready for sea. 

The speed of the vessel is represented to be 12 miles an hour, and 
you will report the best information yoii can obtain as to this point, 
as her alleged speed furnishes the principal reason for purchasing 
her, and the commissioners would not be permitted to go to sea in a 
vessel which any ship of the enemy could overhaul. 

If she can carry two guns without impairing her speed, arid you 
can readily place them on her, you will exercise your judgment as to 
the mounting them on her. A signal gun she should have. 

Lieutenant Pegrain will join you arid aid in these details. You can 
determine a private signal for her something that may be distinctly 
seen and which we may recognize on her return voyage. 

You will advise me by mail at once. I do not rely upon the 
telegraph. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. K. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the 

Captain D. N. INGRAIIAM, 

Charleston, S. C. 



* Refers to C. S. S. Nashville. 



NAVY DEPAirrME.VT COERESPO-X DEXCE, 1861-1865. 95 

CONFEDERATE STATES NAVY DEPARTMENT, 

Richmond, September ~,'6, 186L 

Your letter of the 16th ultimo, together with the invoices of 
goods sent, reached me on the 20th instant. 

Your contracts for the two vessels, arms, and clothing are ap- 
proved, as is also your proposition to purchase jointly with the 
agents of the War Department a fast steamer and send her over with 
arms, etc. 

The article most required by us is powder. We are making percus- 
sion caps to supply our wants. 

The Xrixhrilie takes our commissioners to Europe and will bring 
back all that you may put on board of her. I send you through the 
house of John Fraser & Co. $100,000. I think you had better put 50 
tons of cannon and 5 tons of musket or rifle powder on board of her. 
with 3,000 yards of flannel for cartridges for great guns, 25 tons of 
lead, and 100 tons of- Scotch pig iron; and also the following articles 
for the Marine Corps: Eight hundred overcoats (watch coats); 
1.000 waist belts, black leather (such as used in British service), with 
cartridge box, cap box. and bayonet scabbard, attached by means of 
slides: l.f>i0 knapsacks, such as used in British service, with straps to 
connect with the waist belt ; 20 bugles, with extra mouth pieces : and 
20 swords for noncommissioned officers, with shoulder belts. 

You have doubtless learned of the occupation of Hatteras Inlet by 
the enemy. Beaufort is, however, secure, and, though blockaded, he 
can not take it. An expedition now being organized North is said 
to be directed specially against Brunswick, Ga., but I presume it 
may embrace Port Royal and perhaps Fernandina. 

I send out in the NashriUe several pilots, in order that you may, if 
you desire it, retain one or more of them for your service. Captain 
Coxetter, late of the privateer Jeff Davis, and Captain Coste, late 
of the Revenue Service, are first-rate Carolina and Georgia pilots. 

In reply to your reference to a commission in the Navy. I can 
only say that until Congress meets in November nothing can be done 
in the matter, as the existing law upon the subject has to be changed. 
I will then, at the earliest moment, recommend the change necessary 
to provide for one, the law as yet limiting appointments strictly to 
officers of the old service resigning in consequence of secession. 

Should you require the services of any of the young officers of the 
Nash ville to aid you in bringing over the vessel to which your letter 
refers. Lieutenant Commanding Pegram has orders to detach them 
for such service. 

I am. respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORT, 

Secretary of the Navy. 
Captain JAMES D. BUEEOCH, 

LonfJfi. fc /if/land. 



CONFEDERATE STA ; 

Navy Department. Richmond. September 27, 1861. 
SIR : Your letter of the 2d ultimo has been received. 
The department regrets very much to learn that you were unable 
to purchase or contract for the construction of an ironclad war ves- 



96 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

sel, which would be invaluable to us at this time. But it is fully 
aware of the difficulties with which you had to contend. We will 
endeavor to construct such vessels in the Confederate States. 

Captain James D. Bulloch, in a letter of the 16th ultimo, states 
that he would probably leave England in about five weeks for the 
Confederate States in a fast steamer, with certain supplies for this 
and the War Department. For fear he should have left England 
before this reaches you, the department made a requisition in your 
favor, through John Eraser & Co., to purchase exchange on Eng- 
land for $100,000, to enable him or yourself to make purchases of 
articles required by the department, to be sent over in the Nashville. 

If Captain Bulloch is still in England you will transfer the amount 
of the bills of exchange to him, as he can perhaps best make the 
purchases. If, however, he has left, you will receive and open the 
letter of the department to him and make the purchases therein indi- 
cated as early as practicable and not detain the vessel. The powder 
is most wanted, and if that can be obtained at once the vessel need 
not be detained for the other articles. They can be sent over by the 
next opportunity ; but if practicable, all should be sent. 

You will make every exertion to ascertain the practicability of 
building or buying an ironclad war sloop and the time required. 
You can remain in England and attend to such affairs as may be 
devolved upon you until further directions. 

Messrs. Jno. Eraser & Co. are regarded as good friends of our 
country, whose aid may be valuable to you, and it will be well to 
obtain their assistance, perhaps, in your business affairs. 

The Bermuda will return in about 10 days. Her failure to bring 
us small arms has caused universal regret. Fifty thousand arms at 
this time would be worth untold millions to us and no effort must be 
spared to forward them. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORT, 
Secretary Navy. 

Lieutenant JAMES H. NORTH, 

London, England. 



Confidential.] LIVERPOOL, October 3, 1861. 

DEAR SIR : You have doubtless been aware that the officers charged 
with the purchase of war supplies for tjhe Confederate States have 
been arranging of late for a most valuable and important shipment 
and will readily understand why you have not been minutely in- 
formed as to the various details. The pressing necessities of our 
country and the active measures the Government of the United States 
is taking to seal up the Southern ports urge us to the utmost exertion 
in our efforts to get this cargo safely in, and it has been determined 
that I should take charge of the ship in person. This proceeding 
involves a departure from the letter of my instructions, which are 
specific, but the funds of the Navy Department thus far remitted to 
me are not sufficient to carry out those instructions in full, and, as 
the arrival of additional sums is doubtful, I think I am quite justified 
in changing the sphere of my duties. I nave no hesitation in assum- 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 97 

ing this responsibility, because I am sure the Government will be 
greatly relieved if the voyage be fortunate, but as we may fail in 
spite of every exertion and failure might bring not only criticism but 
condemnation of my individual course, I desire to put it on record 
that the expedition is undertaken after mature deliberation and in 
accordance with the deliberate judgment of Major Anderson, Cap- 
tain Huse. and myself, and that we have thoughtfully discussed the 
chances of failure and have used every means in our power to guard 
against them. You are aware of the difficulties that beset us and 
the obstacles that oppose us, and should our exertions end in naught, 
I trust you will find it consistent with your views to say hereafter 
that in this matter we acted for the best. The intimation conveyed 
in this letter is due to you as one of the representatives of our coun- 
try in the courts of Europe, and there are, besides, personal reasons 
in the interest you have expressed in me individually why I should 
wish you to be correctly informed as to this measure. I shall com- 
municate with the honorable commissioners, who are now in Paris, 
on the same subject. 

It will give me pleasure to take charge of any public or private 
matters you may have to intrust me with, and these had better be sent 
me by Wednesday of next week. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant. 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 
Hon. A. DUDLEY MANX. 



CONFEDERATE STATES, NAVY DEPARTMENT, 

Richmond, October 8, 1861. 

GENTLEMEN: Colonel Ficklin, of this State, visits Great Britain 
upon public business and is a gentleman entitled to your confidence. 

He proposes to return in a steamer that will answer the leading 
purposes of a war vessel for our waters, as well as for a seagoing 
cruiser. Her speed in seagoing condition should not be less than 12 
miles per hour, nor should her size exceed about 900 tons. Should 
he succeed in delivering here a vessel that will meet your approval 
as a man-of-war in all respects, I have undertaken to pay 30 per 
cent upon, or in advance of, her cost for her. You may, therefore, be 
consulted upon this point by him, and I ask your attention to it. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. E. MALLORY, 

Secretary Navy. 

Captain J. D. BULLOCH and Lieutenant NORTH, C. S. Navy, 

Agents of Navy Department, England. 



QUEEN'S HOTEL, 
Liverpool, October 9, 1861. 

SIR : As circumstances have arisen which, in your opinion and that 
of the officers with whom you have been associated, make it necessary 
for you to return to the Confederate States, I have to request as the 
only remaining agent of the Navy Department left here, that you 
will transfer to me all the papers, drawings, specifications, contracts, 

176429 VOL 2 PT 121 7 



98 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1801-1865. 

etc., together with any money you may have on hand, so that if you 
.should not return (and it is impossible for anyone to tell what may 
iiappen in such times as these), I may be enabled to carry out the 
work so handsomely begun by yourself. 

My wish is not to touch, alter, or interfere in any way or manner 
with your plans or arrangements, but only as a precautionary meas- 
ure, in case accident or any other cause should prevent your returning. 
I wish you every success in the noble enterprise that you are about 
to embark in, and may God soon restore you to your family and 
friends is the sincere wish of 
Yours, very truly, 

JAMES H. NORTH, 

Lieutenant, Confederate Stat-- 1 * X<ioy. 
Mr. JAMES D. BULLOCH, 

6 Oxford &treet* Liverpool. 



No. 6 OXFORD STREET, 

Liverpool, October 9, 1861. 

SIR: I am in receipt of your note of this morning, and can only 
regard it as an intimation that you desire to place our conversation 
of yesterday in an official shape. I regret this, because in declining 
to comply with your request I will be compelled to say something 
that may grate upon your feelings, which, I assure you, is very far 
from my wish or intention. I was sent to Europe for certain specific 
purposes, clearly detailed in my instructions, and was employed 
especially in a civil capacity, because the Government of the Con- 
federate States did not wish to be recognized in the transactions 
entrusted to my management. To carry out the aforementioned pur- 
poses, a sum of money has been furnished and stands charged to me. 
I can not therefore resign its control and management to anyone, 
simply because he is an u agent of the Navy Department," but must 
claim my right to leave all my monetary affairs in the hands of 
Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co., who, by the advice of the Con- 
federate States Government, have been my agents and business ad- 
visers. I may add, however, in this connection that the contracts 
already completed and those still outstanding will absorb very nearly 
every farthing thus far sent me by the Navy Department, and that 
when the payments coming due are made there will really be nothing 
to transfer. You must perceive that it would only create confusion 
to turn my accounts over to a third party, and can not think of 
doing so. I must equally decline to hand you " all papers, drawings, 
specifications, contracts, etc."; these are of my own conceiving and 
are my own individual property. The Navy Department, in its 
instructions, gave me unlimited discretion, and as I- have been forced 
to use that discretion upon my sole judgment, when I would have 
been glad of professional support and advice, I can not part with 
the papers you ask for, but will leave them in charge of those who 
hold all my vouchers. This is the only proper business manner in 
which I can proceed, and reflection will bring you to the same con- 
clusion. I regret that we have not been oftener together, and that 
we have not acted more in concert. The cause, however, does not 



2JTAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 99 

lie with me. You will remember that the funds necessary to cany 
out my instructions arrived simultaneously with yourself; that I 
informed you at the same time that my contracts were all arranged, 
so that I had only to close them by making the necessary deposits. 
I immediately set about this business, which compelled me to go to 
various parts of the Kingdom, and it was quite impossible for me to 
regulate my movements by your supposed wish to communicate with 
me, which you now declare to have been your desire. At the first 
moment of actual leisure I went to London, where I still had business 
and where I certainly expected to see you. To my surprise, you had 
left for the Continent. Even the commissioners did not at that time 
loiow your address, and it was not until the return of Captain Huse 
from Paris, some ten days or a fortnight since, that I knew officially 
of your being in that city. The expedition which Major Anderson 
and myself are about to undertake was then fully arranged, and I 
simply notified you -of the fact as a matter of courtesy. I fully 
understand the uncertainty of my returning to England, and had 
made arrangements for Mr. Prioleau to turn the ships over when 
ready for sea to any commissioned officer or special agent of the 
Confederate Government who might at that time be in Europe. In 
thus keeping the matters entrusted to me in private hands, I am not 
only carrying out my OAMI views of caution and discretion but am 
really following the letter and spirit of my instructions. If circum- 
stances should prevent my return, you will, in all probability, be the 
fortunate person who will take the first Confederate States ship to 
sea, and I will heartily congratulate you upon any success you may 
achieve ; but in the meantime I can not see the propriety of handing 
over to you papers the contents or results of which you could in no 
way be responsible for. You have already been informed that my 
only outstanding contracts are for two ships; all papers and speci- 
fications connected with these you are at liberty to examine freely at 
Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co., but they must continue in the 
hands of those gentlemen as my agents. I wish I could have written 
this in fewer words, but, after all, it is my unwieldly penmanship 
that has taken up so much space. I assure you that I have penned 
the above in the kindliest humor, but we are here on perfectly dis- 
tinct duties, and I see no reason why I should turn mine over to you 
until circumstances make it necessary. 

I am, yours, very truly and respectfully, 

JAMES D. BULJLOCH. 
JAMES D. XORTH, Esq. 



FREDERICKSBURG, October 22, 1861. 

MY DEAR SIR : It is evidently no part of the plan of the Adminis- 
tration to have a navy at present, or even to encourage one. I do 
not intend to challenge the wisdom of the Confederate authorities. 
Neither do I wish to pass upon it one way or the other. But I do 
wish to urge upon you, and to impress upon you, the importance, 
nay the vital necessity, to our State of a navy upon our own waters 
sufficient to make her the mistress of them. To build up such a navy 
is perfectly within her power, and she has the ability to do it in a 
little while. If I can show that she can do this with a sum not 



100 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

greatly exceeding, if equaling, the cost of one of the first-class 
steamers of the enemy ; if I can show that the force thus created will 
be sufficient to clear him out of the Chesapeake and its waters, to 
cut off his communication with Fortress Monroe, to liberate the 
people of Maryland and give that State a voice, will you not go for 
it in the convention and assist me there " with might and main"? I 
know you will. Then give me, I pray you, your attention while I 
develop the plan. Let it be agreed that if you discover any defects 
in it, or any want of sequence in the chain of facts, principles, and 
arguments, which I am about to invoke in support of it, that then 
you shall not give it further thought. But, on the other hand, let it 
also be understood that if you can neither gainsay facts, nor try 
conclusions, then and in that case you will, in your place, advocate 
it with all the earnestness and zeal with which you are wont to press 
measures upon which your heart is set. 

First, then, let it be understood that this little Virginia Navy is 
not intended for the high seas, but only for the smooth and tran- 
quil Avaters of our own bays, creeks, and rivers ; that it is no part of 
the plan for it to cruise outside of the capes, or even to keep the 
open bay in rough weather. 

These conditions will be fulfilled if we make the vessels of this 
Navy sufficiently strong for smooth-water navigation and sufficiently 
stout for the armament we wish to put upon them. Thus, you ob- 
serve, that as far as I have yet developed my plan, a comparatively 
inexpensive class of vessels will satisfy all the conditions of the 
problem before us. 

Permit me then to make another step on the ladder of Navy postu- 
lates up which I am endeavoring to lead you. 

It is a self-evident proposition that 

A rifled cannon will send as far and hit as hard when fired from 
the smallest boat as it will when fired from the largest ship. 

Whence follows this corollary, which brings us up to another 
round on the ladder. 

Any number of rifled cannon distributed among a given number of 
small vessels having strength and stability sufficient to carry each 
its piece and bear its -discharge will be at least as effective in a sea 
fight as the same guns would be if all were carried by one large 
vessel. 

Indeed, a fight between the large vessel on one side and the small 
ones on the other, each side bringing into play gun for gun of the 
same metal, the advantage would be on the side of the small vessels 
and for these reasons : 

First. The large vessel is easier to hit. 

Second. She is as vital as the small ones, indeed more so; for ex- 
periments have shown that a wooden shell, loaded and lodged in 
the side of a seventy-four, is capable of rending and tearing her in 
such a manner as to make it impossible for her to keep the sea and 
live. The French experiments and others have shown this to be 
true. 

Third. The bulwarks of small vessels like those proposed are, on 
the other hand, so thin and frail that they would scarce afford lodg- 
ment for a heavy shell. In case they were struck by one of these 
missiles it would pass through and through, failing to explode in 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 101 

her side, it would do no more damage than a solid shot. And so one 
of our frail-sided little vessels may fight one of Lincoln's leviathans 
with shot or shell as she liked, while she can be fought back practi- 
cally only with solid shot or unexploded shells their equivalent. 

Fourth. The small vessel having but one or two guns, and they in 
the open air, is not bothered by the smoke. She can take aim as fast 
as the men can load. But in the large ships with the guns between 
decks and a great many of them, the smoke after the first broadside 
or two becomes so thick as to obstruct the light and prevent anything 
like aim. Therefore, in a brisk action, the small vessel may always 
fire with aim, which wind, weather, and other circumstances often 
prevent the large ship from doing. Consequently the little vessel 
may always fight with its eyes open, while the other is occasionally 
blinded. 

Fifth. When a large ship is attacked by a number of small ones 
her crew is grouped* into a small space ; theirs are dispersed around 
in small groups over a large space, consequently one shot fired into 
the large vessel may kill many more men than one shot fired into a 
small one can do. 

Sixth. Moreover, as in sea fights more men are killed and wounded 
by splinters than by cannon balls, and as a large ship will yield more 
splinters from her thick sides than one of the proposed frail vessels 
for smooth water will from her slender sides, it follows that the 
small vessels are, gun for gun, capable of greater execution than 
large ones. 

By these six self-evident propositions it is made plain that small 
vessels armed, in smooth waters, with rifled cannon throwing shells 
are, gun for gun, superior to large vessels. In other words, the true 
naval doctrine for these times is as you have often heard me say, 
" Big guns and little ships," an idea which I have for years been 
seeking to impress on the Xavy Department of the old, corrupt, and 
rotten concern yonder in Washington. 

Still further to impress you with just conceptions as to the power 
of a few guns in open air, when acting separately or in pairs against 
many guns in a large ship, let us suppose one of the enemy's heaviest 
frigates to be during the winter frozen up in the Potomac ; and that 
while so frozen up, Walker were to attack her with his battery 
mounted on runners and maneuvered on the ice. Notwithstanding 
the difference in caliber and number of guns, and which would all be 
on the frigate's side, the chances are that she would be compelled to 
strike to such a force. One gun on the open beach has been known 
to whip a frigate. 

The reason is plain ; the frigate, to damage her assailants on the ice, 
would have to strike gun after gun, or the crew ; which, at long rifle 
range, would be a very difficult matter because of the smallness of 
the target they would present, whereas she, with her large propor- 
tions, would be struck by almost every shot. So if you imagine Lin- 
coln's whole Xavy to be thus fettered, you can readily conceive it 
would not take many of our six-gun batteries of flying artillery many 
days to ;t pepper the whole of them well " and riddle them, too. 

But unfortunately for us. you will say, there is no chance of any 
such freezing up. True. But fortunately for us, I rejoin, we can 
with the aid of steam and the facilities of our smooth waters, bring 
into play a far more effective species of flying artillery than Walker's 



102 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

battery would be on runners and the ice, or than any that has ever 
been seen on land or on sea. 

Of such I propose to construct a Navy for the Chesapeake. In a 
few words it consists of rifled cannon of the largest caliber, mounted 
on launches propelled by steam, and floating just high enough to 
keep the water out. 

These launches are intended to be realty nothing but floating gun 
carriages. They should have no accommodations for cooking or 
sleeping. When cruising, officers and men should fare just as they 
do in any other " boat service." When not cruising they should cook 
and live in huts or tents on shore, taking care to place their launches 
under the protection of our shore batteries, or in some other place of 
safety, with a watch on board. 

By this arrangement we secure facility of construction, rapidity 
in equipment, economy in outfit, efficiency in battle. 

The cost of one hundred such launches including armament, en- 
gine and machinery will, I estimate be $10,000 each. 

The enemy's Niagara cost over a million. 

Each launch should carry two guns, pivot mounted. One forward 
the other aft. None of them should be calculated to keep the sea 
for more than two or three days at a time. They should draw 5 or 6 
feet and, with armament, crew, engine, and fuel aboard, with steam 
up, should not be more than about 2 feet above the water. 

Thus, with about 20 feet beam, any one would present a target end 
of something like 40 square feet, which at the distance of a mile and 
a half or two miles, good rifle cannon range, would be hard to hit. 

Practically such launches would be almost shot-proof, for the men, 
except when loading, could lie down in the bottom of their boats and 
be below the water line, thus securing to that extent the protection 
of an armor far more complete than that in which any steel-clad ship 
can incase herself. In England they are building steel-clad frigates 
at a cost of $2,500,000. Such is the difference between steam frigates 
for all seas and steam launches for gentle Avaters and smooth weather. 

Now, if I be right in my calculations, we can, for a sum not ex- 
ceeding the cost of one of these new-fashioned men-of-war, with her 
ten or a dozen guns, build, put afloat, equip, man, and maintain on 
our own waters a fleet of 200 guns. 

The Niagara, costing near a million and a half, mounts but 10 guns. 

If we set promptly and energetically to work we may, by the 
opening of the next campaign, have this little but powerful Navy 
ready for action. 

Suppose these launches to be fleet-footed, they ought to have speed, 
and that 10 of them, choosing their opportunity, should attack the 
Niagara, taking their position at long but good rifle cannon range, 
she has not a gun that will carry that far, for few of Lincoln's ships 
have rifle cannon, and those that have them have only a few pieces, 
broadside on. The Niagara would present a target of not less than 
10,000 square feet against one of only 40 by each launch. 

The contest would be most unequal, and the chances in favor of the 
launches would be as two hundred and fifty to one. For that is the 
multiple by which the target of the frigate exceeds the target of the 
launches. The Potomac Fleet of the enemy would find in a fleet 
of 100 such launches a perfect hornet's nest. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 103 

You recollect, as bearing me out in this position, the exploit, a few 
weeks ago, of a little bit of a steam tug called the Harmony. Mainly, 
by way of experiment, a rifled 32-pounder was put on board. With 
it she went down from Norfolk and [took] up her position at the 
distance of 2^ miles from the Savannah, and there she fired for hours 
at that ship, dismounting, I am told, her big gun and striking her 
several times, but receiving no damage whatever in return. Xow, 
with a little training and practice, how much more effective might 
we not expect her to become. 

Suppose the convention, as soon as it meets, were to authorize the 
building of these launches. The ship carpenters of 'Matthews and 
Gloucester and other counties would build them in a little while. 
Most of them are serving with the active volunteers, but would, I am 
told, willingly exchange for these launches and work on them at 
half the old navy -yard rates. Green timber will answer for them, 
though there is no'lack of seasoned timber already cut and dried by 
the Yankees. These boats may be built almost at any point on the 
James, York, Rappahannock, etc., that is sufficiently protected by our 
batteries. In the War of 1812 we built a ship on the Lakes in sixty 
days. Surely we can improvise launches here now as quickly as we 
did ships there then. 

Imagine this fleet of 100 propellers coming out by prior arrange- 
ment some mild day next spring, and the Potomac being as smooth 
as a mill pond, going up to clear that river out. The enemy might 
be taken by surprise, at any rate the larger his ships there the better, 
for there can be no reasonable doubt as to what the result would be, 
for he could not get away. 

From Willoughby's Point to Fortress Monroe is exactly 2| miles. 
This is within effective rifle cannon range. Suppose that while we 
are getting our launches made a heavy battery of rifled pieces be 
quietly erected on that spit. From it to the Rip Raps the distance is 
a mile and a half. The man-of-war anchorage is between there and 
Fortress Monroe. The guns of the Willoughby's Point battery could 
drive out the ships sheltered there and force them where we could 
reach them with our launches, to which they must strike or from 
which they must flee. 

This would make us masters of the Chesapeake; the prizes taken 
from the enemy in the meantime would, in rough weather, take up 
their position as guard ships between the capes, while the launches 
would seek shelter in the neighboring coves to resist the entrance of 
any reinforcements, and thus Fortress Monroe would be ours. In the 
meantime the way over into Maryland would be opened and Balti- 
more, with all her .resources, would be available to us. 

If these steam launches are to be so effective, why, it may be asked, 
could not the enemy meet us launch for launch? 

The answer is : Let the State instead of the Confederacy undertake 
them. I>eing a State affair, the enemy will not pay much attention 
to them. Pie will not know that we intend to bring them against him 
until they make their appearance. Then, having lost control of the 
Chesapeake, he will have to build his at the Xorth. This will take 
time, and. moreover, he must have them stout enough to keep the sea. 
They must also be provided with accommodations for officers and 
men. They will present, therefore, larger targets than we will : conse- 
quently the advantage, even when they do make their appearance. 



104 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

will be on our side. In the meantime Old Point will haA'e fallen and 
the Norfolk Navy Yard, as Avell as Baltimore, will have been brought 
into play. 

This plan may fail, it is true ; the best-arranged military and naval 
expeditions are liable to failure. But I am not entirely unknown, 
and upon the success of this enterprise I am willing to risk life, repu- 
tation everything that is dear. 

It is no small matter for [a] military man to be compelled to take 
up his plans before nonprofessional men. dissect them step by step, 
and show to the satisfaction of costive legislators that each step is to 
be made upon firm and sure ground " and no mistake." As I am 
persuaded you will admit that in this case has been done. 

But to say the least in its favor, all must admit that the plan looks 
well; that the chances of success are promising; that the ends to be 
reached are momentous ; that the expenses in comparison to the value 
of the results are insignificant, and that it is worth the trial. There- 
fore I need not add another w r ord except to ask if I have not made 
out my case to your satisfaction ? 

If we wait for the legislature to make the appropriation, we lose 
precious time. If the convention will vote the money, it will become 
available just about the time our Army is going into winter quarters. 
Thus with the least detriment to that branch or the public service, we 
may withdraw from it the ship carpenters, the engine builders, the 
iron founders and the whole retinue of artisans concerned in the 
preparation of such a fleet, employ them upon this work and " push 
it through," really almost Avithout cost. For if they are wintered in 
the Army, we having to incur the expense of pay and subsistence, Avill 
then be without anything to show for it in the spring, but men at 
arms. These same men may build this fleet during the winter, and 
| in] the spring join their regiments refreshed by the labor. 

There is another consideration which admonishes us to be quick. 
If Avith that Gibraltar of ours in the hands of the enemy he Avere to 
invite us to treat, and offer terms, they Avould not only be in the tone 
of insolence, but they would be exacting in proportion to the im- 
portance, aye the absolute and vital necessity, of Fortress Monroe to 
Virginia. Millions would be demanded for it and without it the war 
would have to be continued. 

There is yet another reason for dispatch. The folly of the North 
bids fair to im T olve that section in a war with England. If that 
power, becoming a belligerent, Avere to find that fortress in the hands 
of Lincoln, Great Britain might Avrest it from him. In that eA^ent 
John Bull, Avho neA r er lets go a stronghold without a consideration, 
might cling to it Avith a tenacity that would give us trouble. 

There is danger in delay and great need of prompt action. 

It is proper for you to know that the attention of the governor has 
been called to this subject. He AA'ill, I hope, bring it before the con- 
A r ention. If so, I hope he will receiA 7 e a hearty and earnest coopera- 
tion from you and your friends. 
Very truly, yours, 

M. F. MAURY, C. S. Navy. 

The Citizen WM. BALLARD PRESTON, 

Near Blacltsburg, Montgomery Co., Va. 

N. B. You Avill understand that in this letter I am treating of the 
policy to be pursued for a NaA^y only for the waters of the Chesa- 



XAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPOXDEXCE, 1861-1865. 105 

peake for the present, and until we get the control of them. I have 
no reference to the permanent navy policy we ought to pursue. 

M. F. M. 



KICHMOND, VA., Xoveinber 19, 1861. 

SIR: In compliance with your verbal instructions of this morn- 
ing, I have the honor to propose that the Fingal be sent back to 
England as speedily as possible with a cargo of naval stores and 
cotton on account of the Confederate Government. That she shall 
return at the earliest practicable time with such arms and ordnance 
stores as Captain Muse may have ready for shipment upon her 
arrival in England, making the best of her way to one of the Con- 
federate or West India ports as the state of the blockade may sug- 
gest, when she is ready for sea. That for this purpose a clever busi- 
ness officer, with a good knowledge of our own coast and the naviga- 
tion of the West India Islands, be detailed to go out in the Fingal to 
bring her back, and that a coast pilot for both the Atlantic and Gulf 
be sent to assist him. The FingaVs cargo could be consigned to 
Messrs. Eraser. Trenholm & Co., Liverpool, and the amount of sales, 
which would doubtless be promptly returned, could be made avail- 
able for the purchase of such special articles as may be deemed of 
present and pressing need. Powder can not be bought in England 
except in small quantities, but must be contracted for. 

I furthermore respectfully propose that my orders may be to take 
the Fingal to England and there to turn her special control over to 
the officer selected to bring her back, of course, assisting as much as 
my other duties will permit in arranging for her proper and safe 
clearance. That I be specially instructed to fit out as speedily as 
possible the shipbuilding under contract with me by Messrs. Faw- 
cett, Preston & Co., of Liverpool, to get her to sea as nearly equipped 
for war service as circumstances will permit. If England has 
acknowledged the Confederate Government and declared war against 
the United States, I suggest that my orders be to fully equip the ship 
in England and proceed to operate upon the coast between New York 
and Portland, Me,, and to harass the enemy wherever ice will permit 
access to harbors. If, however, England still remains neutral, it 
will be impossible to equip the ship for war and get her safely into 
a Confederate port, as the American consuls in Great Britain would 
be very active in their efforts to prevent her sailing and would prob- 
ably have men-of-war to follow her out of the British Channel and 
across to this coast, no matter under what fla^ she might be disguised. 
In this contingency I propose that I be instructed to send the arma- 
ment and war stores to some out port, get the ship to sea under a 
foreign flag with a partial cargo not contraband of war, and finish 
her equipment at the port selected under the Confederate States flag. 
Then to run down the west coast of Africa, cruise for a short time 
with the hope of picking up one or two prizes from which to rein- 
force the crew, and thence to proceed to the China seas where a large 
and defenseless commerce of the enemy seems to invite attack. 

The East Indian trade has met no check during this war and is 
pouring large profits into the hands of certain well-known merchants 
of Xew York, who are most earnest in their support of the Federal 
Government and most bitter in their enmity to that of the Con- 
federacy. This suggestion as to my own employment is made because 



106 NAVY DEPARTMEXT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. ' 

of your expressed intention and desire to have me commissioned as 
soon as possible, and I respectfully request that if Congress passes 
the necessary act to enable you to give me a commission you will 
detail Acting Midshipman Anderson, of Savannah, Acting Lieu- 
tenant Whittle, and Acting Midshipman Bulloch, now on board the 
Nashville, to serve with me. I beg to call your attention to an appli- 
cation I made yesterday that Mr. John Low, who came oA'er with me 
in the Fingal, and who was of great assistance, might be suitably 
rewarded, and your partial promise to make him an acting master. 
I shall be pleased, if you deem proper to appoint this gentleman to 
that rank, to have him also detailed for service with me. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BCLLOCH. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Nary. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, November 20, 1861. 

DEAR SIR: I have received two letters from you and one short 
dispatch in cipher by Mr. Hotze since your departure for Europe. 

Your last letter of the 10th of October says nothing in relation to 
obtaining ironclad vessels, and I infer that the impracticability of 
building or buying, either in France or England, and for which you 
were specially sent and which was stated in your letter of the 2d of 
August, still exists. 

Your letter of the 2d of August was replied to under date of Sep- 
tember 27 and sent you by the NashviUe. The funds therein named, 
I learned only yesterday, were not provided by the Treasury Depart- 
ment, and go out in the Fingal. The bills of exchange for $100,000 
being payable to you, you will turn them over to Captain Bulloch 
and aid him in carrying out the orders of the department. He will 
advance you any funds you may require for personal use and will 
also turn over to you any balances in his hands. 

The department is aware of the difficulties in the way of your mis- 
sion, and with all confidence in your zeal and ability, sympathizes in 
vour expressions of regret at your inactivity. You will remain in 
England to take command of the fine vessel under contract for us, 
the first one finished being assigned to Captain Bulloch and the sec- 
ond one to yourself. I will endeavor to send you special instructions 
for your guidance in this command, but a perusal of those given to 
Captain Bulloch will indicate their general tenor. 

Lieutenant Sinclair will give you all the latest intelligence, and 
hence I say nothing of recent occurrences. 

Should you at any time find it practicable to build an ironclad 
ship in England or France, I will furnish you the means at once; 
but I confess that the accounts given by Captain Bulloch and Captain 
Decie leave but little hope of your success. 

"With my best wishes for your health and success, 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant. 

S. K. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Lieutenant JAMES II. XOKTII. 

('. S. Navy, London, England. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-18G5. 107 

JT-NE 28, 1861. 

Buy an iron clad war ship 

(156)24 (4:47)33 (183)27 (800)29 (674)26 if possible; 
and upon any terms. 

S. E. M. 
JAMES H. NOKTH. 



SAVANNAH, November 2-5, 1861. 

SIR : I have the honor to report that the steamship Fingal has teen 
discharged and now lies in the Savannah River ready to receive 
freight. 

Paymaster Kelly has written to Columbus to have the necessary 
quantity of coal sent down at once and expects it to be here to-mor- 
row or next day. I can not refrain from urging the necessity of 
getting the ship off without delay. Yesterday five of the enemy's 
gunboats stood cautiously in, and after throwing a number of shell 
upon and over Tybee Island, landed without opposition. This morn- 
ing the Federal flag is flying from the light-house and they will 
doubtless soon have a battery upon the point of the island. The only 
egress left for the Fingal is through Wassaw Inlet [Sound], and it 
can scarcely be supposed that the enemy will permit it to remain 
open many days. Flag-Officer Tattnall has gone down with steamers 
and the gun vessel built here to pay the fleet a visit, and the city is 
filled with interest and excitement on his account. 

The small amount of naval stores and cotton required for the 
Fingal could be got on board in a couple of days if it were brought 
here on the spot. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCII. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



MESSAGE. 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, 

November 30, 1861. 
GENTLEMEN OF THE CONVENTION : 

On the 18th day of this month I sent to your honorable body a 
communication, supplemental to one sent on the 17th day of June 
last, in which I stated that I would transmit, so soon as printed, re- 
ports of the value of the property captured at the navy yard and 
Harper's Ferry. The reports are herewith communicated. The 
property is in possession of the Confederate Government, for use 
during the war. 

Respectfully, JOHN LETCHER. 

[Enclosure.] 

NAVY YARD, GOSPORT [NORFOLK], YA.. 

October 19, 1861. 

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith, in compliance with 
the directions of the department, inventories of all the public prop- 



108 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

erty on this station which was taken on the 21st of April, 1861, in 
the name of the Commonwealth of Virginia. 

The information embraced in the documents herewith forwarded 
will be found classified in separate papers, marked A, B, C, D, E, 
and F. 

Paper A embraces lists of all the fixed property, such as territory, 
buildings, and other permanent improvements, ships and other ves- 
sels, steam engines, machinery, etc. 

Paper B comprises lists, as nearly correct and in as full detail as is 
practicable, of materials and stores of every description that were on 
hand in the several departments on the 21st of April, 1861, when 
possession of the station was taken in the name of Virginia. 

Paper C is a report of expenditures, as near as can be arrived at, 
of naval supplies during the time the establishment was under the 
control of the Commonwealth of Virginia, viz., from the 21st of 
April to the 30th of June, 1861. 

Paper D comprises lists, as nearly correct as is practicable, of 
materials and supplies of every description that were in the several 
departments on the 30th of June, 1861, when the Confederate States 
assumed charge and control of the establishment. 

Paper E is a statement of disbursements by the Commonwealth 
for purposes connected with this naval station from the 21st of April 
to the 30th of June, 1861. 

Paper F is a general recapitulation of the value of property at 
Norfolk and Portsmouth, taken in the name of Virginia on the 21st 
of April, 1861 ; the value of that expended from the 21st of April to 
the 30th of June, 1861 ; and the value of that turned over for the 
use of the Confederate States on the 1st of July, 1861. 

To enable the department to comprehend the extent of territory 
referred to in these reports, its position in the harbor, and the posi- 
tion of the various buildings, I forward also herewith four separate 
plans one (original) of the harbor of Norfolk and Portsmouth, on 
which will be found indicated the navy yard, St. Helena, marine 
hospital at Washington Point, the naval hospital, and the magazine 
at Fort Norfolk; one (a tracing) of plan of the navy yard proper, 
showing the buildings and other improvements now standing, as 
well as those that were destroyed by the enemy on the night of the 
20th of April, 1861; one (a tracing) of the hospital and the grounds 
surrounding it; and a plan (original) of the grounds and improve- 
ments at Fort Norfolk. 

In determining the value of the property enumerated in paper A, 
I was aided by officers of the Confederate States Navy on duty at 
this post, who, at my request, were directed by Flag-Officer Forrest, 
C. S. Navy, to cooperate with me in this duty. Navy Constructor 
John L. Porter and Master Carpenter James Meads were associated 
with me in estimating the value of the vessels and wrecks of vessels; 
Chief Engineers William P. Williamson and M. Quinn, the engines 
and machinery ; Master Joiner James A. Williams and Master Mason 
L. C. Adams, the buildings and other improvements; and Naval 
Storekeeper R. M. Boykin, the territory. 

Excepting the last-named officer, there was happily no material 
difference of opinion between these gentlemen and myself as to the 
value of the property we were directed to appraise, and we cordially 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 109 

concurred in the reports which accompany paper A. and which will 
be found numbered from 1 to 7, inclusive. Xaval storekeeper Boy- 
kin's valuation of the land within the navy yard inclosure varies very 
materially from mine. His paper upon the subject, as well as my 
own, will be found among the papers accompanying A, and num- 
bered 8. 

The public buildings and other structures enumerated in paper A 
are, with few exceptions, of the first class. Many of them, particu- 
larly those recently erected, are splendid structures. Among these 
may be mentioned the foundry, boiler house, powder magazine, ord- 
nance building, and provision store. No expense has been spared in 
their construction. Every means necessary to facilitate the opera- 
tions carried on in these several buildings have been provided. The 
object of making them thoroughly complete has been fully attained; 
and for the purposes for which they were designed and for which 
they are now used, it may safely be said they are unexcelled in any 
part of the country. 

The victualing house, not quite finished, will also, when completed, 
be a first class fireprooi building. This structure was erected under 
contract, by private individuals, to whom there appears to be due, 
for materials and labor employed upon it, $15,170.29; for which 
they hold properly authenticated vouchers. Of this sum there is due 
to F. TV. Parmenter, of New York, $1,585.33. This, it is presumed, 
will be forfeited, under the act of Congress. The remaining claims, 
viz, one of $4,542.76, in favor of J. E. McWilliams, of Portsmouth, 
Virginia, and the other, $9,042.20, held by the bank of Virginia 
at Portsmouth, will, it is supposed, be presented to the proper tri- 
bunal for adjudication. 

The naval hospital near Portsmouth is located at the most beautiful 
and healthy point in the harbor. It is built of free stone and granite, 
and is capable of accommodating 600 patients. It is provided with 
every convenience and appliance needed for the objects for which it 
was designed. All the necessary dependencies for a first-class hos- 
pital, such as surgeon's dwelling, keeper's house, cemetery, st-ables, 
etc.. are provided; and the grounds are covered with a growth of 
shade trees. 

The new customhouse at Norfolk, recently finished and occupied, 
is built of fine hammered granite, and is thoroughly fireproof. The 
old customhouse is a dilapidated building, unworthy of reparation, 
and valueless, except so far as the old materials may be considered. 

The marine hospital at Washington Point has been in use for 
many years. It is a brick building, and has been found amply com- 
modious for the purposes for which it was designed and been ap- 
propriated, namely, the accommodation of the sick of the commercial 
marine of this port. 

The improvements at St. Helena are few, and of but little value. 
The dwelling for the keeper's use is a small building, or rather an 
aggregation of buildings of small dimensions. The coal house there 
needs repairs, the walls being badly sprung. 

It is difficult to estimate the value of property destroyed on the 
night of the 20th of April. 1861, when the Federal forces, having 
previously fired the navy yard, evacuated it. The extensive row 
of buildings on the north front of the yard, containing large quanti- 



110 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

ties of manufactured articles and valuable material, such as pivot- 
gun carriages, several full suits of sails for frigates and sloops of 
war, a very large number of hammocks and bags, and immense quan- 
tities of canvas, cordage, etc., were, with their contents, entirely 
destroyed. Ship houses A and B, which were very large wooden 
structures, the former containing the line of battleship New York, 
on the stocks, were also totally destroyed ; so also were the buildings 
used as barracks. These latter, however, were of but little value. 

The total destruction of every ship in ordinary at this station, 
except the frigate United States, was attempted and in part ac- 
complished. The line of battleship Pennsylvania, the frigate Co- 
lumbia, and the brig Dolphin were burned to their floor heads. The 
lower bottom timbers and keels only remain, and are visible at low 
water. The frigate Raritan has disappeared altogether. Whatever 
is left of her is out of sight in the deep-water channel way. The 
steam frigate Merrimaclc was sunk and burned to her copper line, 
and down through to her berth deck, which, with her spar and gun 
decks, were also burned. The sloop of war German to ten was sunk 
and burned to her bulwarks on the port side. The sloop of war 
Plymouth was scuttled and sunk. No other damage was done her. 

The old line of battleships Delaware and Coin mini* were scuttled 
and sunk at their moorings. The powder boat was also scuttled and 
sunk. The frigate United States, a very old ship, and unfit for re- 
pairs, received no damage at the hands of the enemy. She was in no 
way molested. 

Many heavy cannon were spiked, and for the time rendered useless ; 
but they have since been restored. Some had their trunnions broken 
off. The small arms (of which there were in the yard 1,329 carbines, 
274 rifled muskets, 950 naval pistols, and 337 Colt's revolvers) 
in part carried off in the frigate Cumberland, and the remainder 
broken and thrown overboard. 

The dry dock did not escape attention. Twenty-six barrels of 
powder (a quantity sufficient to have destroyed the dock and every 
building at the south end of the yard) were found distributed in 
the culvert on its north side and across the head of the dock. These 
barrels were connected by a train, continuing on to the inner steps 
at the bottom of the clock, where it is supposed slow matches were 
placed for ignition at a prearranged moment. The plan, however, 
was happily discovered in time to frustrate it. Lieutenant C. F. M. 
Spotswood, of the Navy, to whom the discovery was reported early 
on the morning of the 21st, promptly directed the opening of the 
gates, when the dock was flooded, and thus saved from destruction. 

In reference to the reports embraced in papers B, C, and D, it is 
proper I should remark that they are not so minute and in such 
detail as might be desired. It Avill be remembered that I entered 
upon my duties on the 26th of August, ultimo, and that my instruc- 
tions limit me to reports of operations commencing on the 21st of 
April, continuing on and ending the 30th of June. Large expendi- 
tures have been made since the period at which my reports conclude. 
The difficulty, therefore, if not impossibility, of enumerating every 
article expended from the 21st of April to the 30th of June, and on 
hand the 30th of June (a period of nearly two months anterior to 
the date of my entrance on duty) will be readily perceived. Besides, 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. HI 

the intense excitement pervading this entire community, as well with- 
in as without the navy yard, at the time of its attempted destruction, 
and for many days thereafter; the momentary calls on this re- 
pository for every available means of defense against an apprehended 
attack from the enemy at this and at other points, and the urgent 
necessity of a prompt compliance with these calls, was well calculated 
to, and did, prevent the observance of any regular system of registry. 
I have spared no effort, however, in arriving at as correct results as 
are practicable under the circumstances ; and although the informa- 
tion embraced in the items now under consideration may not be as 
full and in such detail as the Department could wish, the total 
amounts therein reported may be relied on as nearly if not quite 
correct. 

I had purposed offering some remarks upon the vast importance 
to Virginia and to the entire South of the timely acquisition of this 
extensive naval depot, with its Immense supplies of munitions of 
war, and to notice briefly the damaging effects of its loss to the Gov- 
ernment at Washington ; but I deem it unnecessary, since the presence 
at almost every exposed point on the whole Southern coast, and at the 
numerous inland intrenched camps in the several States, of heavy 
pieces of ordnance, with their equipments and fixed ammunition, 
all supplied from this establishment, fully attests the one, while the 
unwillingness of the enemy to attempt demonstrations at any point 
from which he is obviously alone deterred by the knowledge of its 
well- fortified condition, abundantly proves the other, especially when 
it is considered that both he and we are wholly indebted for our 
means of resistance to his loss and our acquisition of the Gosport 
[Xorfolk] Xavy Yard, 

I can not close this report without a brief reference to the dis- 
tinguished and veteran officer who presides over and directs this 
vast establishment; and in doing so I avail myself of the occasion 
to make a formal acknowledgment of the distinguished courtesy he 
xtencled to me, and the prompt energy with which he has facili- 
tated my operations in appraising the property on this station. 

My report, as I have remarked, would be incomplete did I fail 
to go beyond this mere personal acknowledgment and state that, 
on the 21st of April, he took formal possession of the public works 
at this point and hoisted the flag of Virginia. 

On the evacuation and surrender of the yard, Flag-Officer French 
Forrest, thus commissioned by his Excellency Governor Letcher, 
assumed command. 

Since that time, by his prompt exertions, he has evoked order 
out of chaos, method out of confusion, and with great labor reorgan- 
ized the establishment. 

I may, perhaps, be anticipating the work of his biographer when 
I venture to remark that on the secession of Virginia he promptly 
resigned the high rank he had deservedly attained in the Federal 
Xavy, and leaving his property to the tender mercies of the Wash- 
ington Hapsburgs, carne to serve the land of his nativity. 

To doubt that his sacrifices and services will be remembered by 
posterity and appreciated by the Commonwealth would be to im- 
peach the gratitude of the one and the generosity of the other. 



112 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

This personal tribute, well considered and deliberately written, 
closes the report which, under your Excellency's instructions, I have 
had the honor to prepare. 

With great respect, I am, sir, your obedient servant. 

"Wii. H. PETERS, 

(. 'ommissioner. 
His Excellency JOHX LETCHER, 

Governor of Virginia. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond. November 30, 1861. 
SIR : Your commission will be sent to you so soon as Congress shall 
act upon it. You will please send me a statement of the cost of the 
Fingal, and of the portion of the purchase money furnished by this 
department. 

Should you deem it expedient to arm the vessel with the guns, or 
a portion of them, brought by her, you will advise me by telegraph, 
and at the same time apply to Captain Tattnall for them. Two of 
the largest, I presume, would be sufficient. 

Should you not arm her, and Lieutenant Sinclair, in taking com- 
mand, should deem an armament expedient, you will endeavor to 
purchase and place in his possession such as he may indicate; and 
you will also supply him with funds to pay incidental expenses of his 
return voyage. 

All funds remaining in your hands over and above the expendi- 
tures for the objects named in your instructions you will deliver to 
Lieutenant North, who will remain in England to bring over the sec- 
ond vessel for which you contracted. 

The department expects you to act much at your discretion and 
relies upon your judgment. You will aid Lieutenant Sinclair in 
obtaining his crew and will furnish him with all necessary funds. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant. 

S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary Navy. 
Captain JAS. D. BULLOCK, 

Commanding Steamer Fingal, Savannah. 



C. S. S. NASHVILLE, 
Southampton, November 30, 1861. 

MY DEAR NORTH: I have just received your favor of the 28th. I 
am sorry that Mr. Prioleau could not make it convenient to pay us a 
visit. I consider that time is of great importance to us ; therefore I 
have commenced making the necessary repairs to the engine and the 
calkers have begun their work outside, but the weather has been so 
intolerably bad that they could make very little progress. I hope to 
go into dock early next week, when we will be able to determine the 
extent of the injury the Nashville has received from having struck 
repeatedly on the bar at Charleston since she was last examined. 
She leaked very badly during the voyage, and I only trust that it 
was for the want of a thorough calking. The present aspect of 



XAVY DEPARTMENT COREESPOXDEXCE, 1861-1865. 113 

affairs makes me more anxious than ever to get clear of our top- 
hamper. At all events it would increase the speed of the ship and 
make her much safer as a sea-going vessel to remove our upper decks, 
and I am inclined to think that no impediments will be thrown in 
our way by the authorities at this place. The efficiency of the vessel 
will thus be greatly increased, even as a dispatch vessel, and she 
could, with a few guns mounted, be a match for many of the block- 
ading vessels stationed along our Southern coast. I desire to con- 
sult you freely about a good many things, and wish that you would 
come here as soon as you can make it convenient to do so. 

The taking of Port Royal will make it difficult for the Nashville to 
enter the ports of Charleston and Savannah, but I think John Bull 
will soon make the cost clear unless Jonathan backs down, so would 
it not be as well for us to see how the cat jumps before we take a leap 
in the dark, which may plunge us into a dungeon ? 

* *.*;'.* * * * * 

Ever your sincerely, attached friend, 

R. B. PEGRAM. 
Captain J. H. NORTH, C. S. Navy, 

London. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Xavy Department, Richmond, November 30, 1861. 

SIR: You will take command of the Fingal, receive on board so 
much cotton and rosin, to be delivered to you under the orders of 
the Secretary of the Treasury, as your judgment may approve, to- 
gether with your coal, and proceed to such port in Great Britain as 
you may deem expedient, delivering your cargo as you shall be re- 
quested by the Secretary of the Treasury. 

You will select two coast pilots to aid in bringing the Fingal 
safely back. 

On your arrival in Great Britain you will transfer the command 
of the vessel to Lieutenant G. T. Sinclair, whom you will receive on 
board at Savannah. 

You will then place on board the Fingal such articles as you may 
have purchased for this department, in such manner as your judg- 
ment approves, Lieutenant Sinclair being instructed on the subject. 

The sum of $100.000, referred to in my letter to you of the 27th 
instant, has not, I have just learned, been placed in England. This 
amount is now in the hands of John Eraser & Co., in bills of ex- 
change in London, and they are instructed to deliver the same to 
you. 

In addition to this amount, the department has called for the sum 
of $75,000, to be placed to your credit in England. 

The articles which you were directed in that letter to purchase 
will be paid for out of this amount, and there will then be, it is pre- 
sumed, a balance in your hands sufficient to meet your wants in fitting 
out the Manassas and supplying you with a fund of $25,000 to meet 
the current expenses of your cruise, wages excepted. You will omit 
the rifie powder mentioned in my letter of 27th of September and 
purchase only the 50 tons of cannon powder, with the other articles 
specified. 

170420 VOL 2 PT 121 8 



114 JTAVY DEPARTMENT COEEESPONDENCE, 1801-1805.' 

So soon as either of the vessels under contract in England shall be 
completed and delivered you will adopt such measures as you may 
deem best to arm and equip her as a war vessel, to be called the 
Manassas, without infringing the laws of Great Britain or giving 
to that Government just cause of offense; and, having obtained a 
crew and all things necessary for an extended cruise, you will leave 
England in command and proceed against the enemy in whatever 
quarter of the ocean circumstances may then indicate as affording 
the greatest advantages and chances of success. 

Lieutenant Commanding Pegram is instructed to detail such offi- 
cers from his vessel as you may require, and you are authorized to 
confer acting appointments upon such others as you may deem neces- 
sary. 

The department, the speed and qualities of your vessel being un- 
known, is unwilling, so far in advance, to assign any particular 
locality for your operations, but desires to impress upon you the 
importance of rendering your vessel as formidable and your cruise 
as destructive to the enemy as practicable, leaving to you entire free- 
dom of action. Should your judgment at any time hesitate in seek- 
ing the solution of any doubt on this point, it may be aided by the 
reflection that you are to do the enemy's commerce the greatest in- 
jury in the shortest time. 

A speedy recognition of our Government by the great European 
powers is anticipated; and I have no reason to doubt that, if you 
shall seek their ports, you will receive the consideration and treat- 
ment due from neutrals to an officer of a belligerent power with 
which they desire to establish close commercial connections. 

The strictest regard for the rights of neutrals can not be too 
sedulously observed, nor should an opportunity be lost of cultivating 
friendly relations with their naval and merchant services, and of 
placing the true character of the contest in which we are engaged 
in its proper light. 

You will avail yourself of every opportunity of communicating 
with your Government, using when you may deem it expedient :i 
cipher for this purpose. 

The department relies with confidence upon the patriotism, ability, 
and conduct of yourself, officers, and men, and with my earnest 
wishes for the prosperity of your cruise and your triumphant return 
to your country, 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Captain JAS. D. BTJLLOCH, 

/Savannah, Ga. 



SAVANNAH, December , 18G1. 

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your two letters 
of the 30th ultimo, and have thoughtfully perused their contents. 
If anything could add to the zeal I feel for the service, it would be 
the exceedingly kind and flattering language of your instructions. 
You have treated me with a confidence far beyond my expectations 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 115 

and have assigned me duties of great responsibility and trust. I do 
not shrink from them, because I feel an innate conviction that the 
same kind Providence, who has thus far shielded and protected our 
cause, will continue to guide and direct the judgment of any officer 
who endeavors to discharge his duties honestly and faithfully. 
Mindful of human weakness, I enter upon this service with no vain- 
glorious expectations, but with the simple determination to give all 
my energies to its successful accomplishment. The greatest obstacle 
will be met at the very outset in the difficulty of arming and manning 
the Manassas in a neutral port, for even if Great Britain should have 
acknowledged the independence of the Confederate States, unless 
she has also become a party in the war, her obligations under the 
international code would force her to prohibit the equipment of an 
armed ship under a belligerent flag in her ports. You are better 
informed as to such probable contingencies than I can be, and I only 
illude to the subject to show that I am fully prepared to submit to 
the disappointment of not at once getting upon that element which 
is free to any flag when properly defended. Such portions of your 
instructions as are specific shall be carried out as strictly to the letter 
as possible, and, in the exercise of the large discretion granted me, I 
will endeavor to act with as much caution and prudence as will be 
consistent with promptness and vigor. I particularly note your 
remarks in reference to neutrals, and will bear constantly in mind 
your suggestions upon this and all other points. 

There has been much delay in getting the cotton forward, but I 
think the Fingal will be ready for sea on Saturday night. The 
enemy's fleet seems to be very Susy about Tybee Bar and has up to 
last night left Wassaw [Sound] Inlet open. I very much fear that 
this state of things will not last long, for they must have learned that 
the Fingal is here. I have been obliged to limit the FingaVs cargo 
to 150 barrels of resin and 400 bales of cotton, as it is necessary to 
have the ship light and in her best running trim. It can not be 
hoped that she will get clear of the coast without a chase. I have 
not deemed it necessary to arm the Fingal for the return voyage, as 
it is important to preserve her original character as an English ship. 
This course will insure her less trouble and annoyance in getting 
another cargo on board. If on our arrival in England the Con- 
federate Government has been acknowledged, the flag can be changed 
and I can put on board such guns as Lieutenant Sinclair may desire. 
In reference to the purchase of the Fingal, it was agreed at first that 
her cost should be equally divided between the officers acting for the 
War Department and myself, but these gentlemen did not receive 
anticipated remittances, and having contracts falling in which re- 
quired prompt payment, I was compelled to pay for her altogether 
with the funds ot' the Xavy Department, as well as to settle all 
stevedore's bills, expenses of transportation, wa^es for crew. etc. 
These vouchers for all these expenses are on file in Messrs. Fraser, 
Trenhoim & Co.'s safe in Liverpool, with all my other papers, which 
it would not have been safe to bring over; but the FingaVs cost price 
was 17,500. Just before leaving Liverpool Messrs. Fraser, Tren- 
hoim & Co. made out and handed me their account current, which I 
forward by to-day's mail. The particular vouchers are in their 



116 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

hands for safe-keeping. The balance in my favor at the date of 
settlement, you will perceive, is 10,207.2.9, but this sum has prob- 
ably been expended by this time, as several contracts must have 
fallen in since my departure, which I authorized them to pay upon 
the receipt of the proper vouchers. 

As soon as the cotton is on board I will report by telegraph, and 
I earnestly hope that the same good fortune which brought us in 
may pilot us oif the coast. Acting Midshipman Anderson has re- 
ported for duty, and I regret now not having asked you for an 
assistant surgeon, but fear it is too late. 

I will keep you constantly and minutely informed as to my acts 
and movements. In fine, I will endeavor to act at all times in 
accordance with the supposed wishes of the department. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Hon. S. E. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



HEADQUARTERS, C. S., MARINE CORPS, 

Richmond, Va., December 11, 1861. 

SIR: I have the honor to return herewith a copy of a bill before 
Congress to abolish the office of quartermaster to the marines and 
to devolve the duties of that office upon the paymaster of the Corps. 

I feel satisfied from my experience that the passage of this bill 
by Congress would impair the efficiency of the Marine Corps and 
prove detrimental to the interest of the Government. This Corps, 
being, as it were, isolated from the other military branches of the 
service, should be complete within itself, and with this view Congress 
has organized it and made a distinct appropriation for its support. 
The duties of quartermaster of the Marine Corps combine those of 
commissary of subsistence and ordnance officer, besides all those that 
relate to the procuring, safe-keeping, and the distribution of cloth- 
ing. The quartermaster is required to give bonds for the faithful 
performance of these duties and for a strict accountability of the 
funds placed in [his] hands. Without such an officer it would fre- 
quently be necessary to entrust public money to officers who have 
given no security for its faithful disbursement. 

I consider the duties of paymaster entirely incompatible with 
those of quartermaster, inasmuch as his time is periodically em- 
ployed in making payments at points where the marines may be 
stationed, in paying the officers monthly by correspondence, and in 
settling the accounts of discharged marines. These duties require 
him to be fixed in position, when not engaged in making his period- 
ical payments, and would prevent him from giving that attention 
to the duties of quartermaster that their importance requires. 

It is true that in the Army there are no paymasters, but it has been 
found necessary to detail quartermasters to perform their duties 
alone. Besides, in the Army there are not only commissaries of 
subsistence but officers detailed especially as ordnance officers and 
for the purpose of procuring clothing material and having it made up. 



XAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 117 

In conclusion, I beg leave to remark that the Marine Corps is now 
embarrassed with a want of clothing, in consequence of being for 
some time past without a quartermaster. 
Your obedient servant, 

LLOYD J. BEALL, 
Colonel, C. S. Marines. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



HEADQUARTERS, C. S. MARINE CORPS, 

Richmond, Va., December 17, 1861. 

SIR : The services of a clerk in the Marine Bureau attached to the 
Xavy Department being indispensable to the proper keeping of the 
books, records, and returns of the Marine Corps, I respectfully 
request that Congress may be asked to authorize the payment of such 
a clerk out of the contingent fund of the Marine Corps, at the lowest 
rate of compensation allowed to clerks in the Navy Department. 
I have the honor to be, your obedient servant, 

LLOYD J. BEALL, 
Colonel, C. S. Marines. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



Resolved, That the Secretary of the Xavy be empowered to pur- 
chase four steamboats, to be converted as soon as practicable into 
gunboats for the defense of the Cumberland River, and also to pro- 
cure a like number of gunboats for the defense of the Tennessee 
River, at the earliest practicable moment. 

Adopted, December 19, 1861. 



A lill to authorize the President to cause to be constructed a certain 

number of gunboats. 

The Congress of the Confederate States of America do enact, That 
the President be, and he is hereby, authorized to cause to be con- 
structed a certain number of gunboats not to exceed one hundred, in 
accordance with the plan submitted by Commander Maury, and ap- 
proved and adopted by a board of naval officers on the 14th of De- 
cember, 1861. Provided that nothing in this act shall be so construed 
as to prevent such small variations from said plan as shall be deemed 
best for the public service. 

December 23, 1861, read 1. 2, 3. passed. 



An act making appropriations for the construction of one hundred 
gunboats for the coast defenses of the Confederate States. 



The Congress of the Confederate States do c/ifef, That two millions 
of dollars be appropriated for the construction of one hundred gun- 
boats for the coast defenses of the Confederate States. 

December 23. 1861. read one, two. and three times and passed. 



118 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-18G5. 

C. S. S. NASHVILLE, December 23, 1861. 

MY DEAR NORTH: Captain Patey has just been on board and re- 
quested that I should make no alteration AV hat ever in the ship fur- 
ther than to complete the necessary repairs. I had commenced fitting 
a breast piece for my guns, to which he objected, saying that it might 
be regarded as a preparatory measure to increasing my armament, 
or rather the weight of my guns, so you see my hands are completely 
tied for the present, and as for removing the top-hamper it will be 
out of the question to attempt such a thing at this time, for the 
authorities are dreadfully afraid of doing something to incur the 
displeasure of the Yankees, so much so, indeed, that I am in doubt 
as to whether they will ever permit us to receive many articles of 
which AVC are in want of to complete our equipment for sea. 

I wish with all my heart that I could get away from this place, but 
I can see no alternative but to await the decision of the Government 
respecting the affair of the Trent. 

The dock master promises to get the Nashville out of the dock this 
week. We Avere ready to come out more than a week ago, but the 
condition of another ship which is [in] dock with us Avill not admit 
of the water being turned in, so we are in a box, and for all I know 
it may have been done intentionally, for there is no telling in these 
times who can be trusted. If you have any news from America, let 
me hear from you. 

* * * * * * * 

Ever yours, most sincerely, 

K. I*. PEORAIU. 
Captain J. H. NORTH, C. S. Nav}-, 

London. 



No. 322. 

An act making appropriations for the purchase and alteration of 
steamers into gunboats for the defense of Cumberland and Ten- 
nessee Rivers. 

The Congress of the Confederate States of America do enact, That 
five hundred thousand dollars be appropriated for the purchase and 
alteration of steamers into gunboats for the defense of the C' umber- 
land and Tennessee Rivers. 

Approved, December 24, 1861. 



STEAMSHIP FIXGAL, 

Off Thunderbolt Battery, near Savannah, December 24, 1861. 
SIR : On Saturday morning, the barometer and the general appear- 
ance of the sky indicating a favorable state of Aveather, I made my 
preparations for sea, and on Sunday morning early dropped the 
ship down to a bight in Wilmington Island, where she could lie con- 
cealed from the enemy's ships at WassaAA 7 , as well as at Tybee. This 
bight is about one mile and a half above a seven-gun battery on 



K"AVY DEPARTMENT COREE3POXDEXCE, 1861-1805. 119 

Skiddaway Island, from which, point there is a clear view of the 
opening to "VTassaw Sound. Immediately after anchoring the com- 
mander of this battery informed me that three blockading vessels 
were off the bar, and that one of them had chased his boat well in 
on the afternoon before. Still, as all appearances indicated a dark 
and squally night, it was determined to get underway on the first 
quarter of the flood, so as to get down to the bar before the moon 
rose. At early dusk a fog set in over the marshes, concealing the 
leading marks, and the pilots were unwilling to move the ship. This 
circumstance, sufficiently annoying at first, probably saved us from 
capture, as it appears the enemy were keeping an especial lookout 
that night. Monday morning was dark and rainy; no vessel could 
have seen to cross the bar before half past 7 o'clock, yet at 8 one of 
the small vessels appeared in full sight of the battery below us, and 
actually sailed up to within half a mile of its guns, turned, and 
steered down channel again without receiving a shot. I am informed 
that the approach of this vessel was not reported to the commander 
of the battery until she was in the act of turning. Ignorant of the 
incident above mentioned, I sent an experienced pilot in an eight- 
oared boat, with good sails, kindly furnished by Lieutenant Com- 
manding Kennard, of the Samson, to examine the bar and coast 
north and south of the point of Wassaw Island, and to report as 
quickly as possible, so that we might, if possible, go to sea on the 
afternoon tide. In the meantime two additional gun vessels had 
joined the first and, coming rapidly up channel with the young 
flood, cut off our boat, compelling her, as it is now thought, to go 
into one of the creeks running through Romerly Marsh, from which 
I trust she has been able by this time to reach Green Island. The 
three enemy's vessels took up an anchorage just opposite the main 
passage through Romerly Marsh, thus effectually closing all com- 
munication with Savannah through any outlet. As the enemy could 
easily have discovered the position of this ship by landing upon 
Wilmington Island, and could have cut her off with boats at night, 
I took advantage of last night's flood to bring her up to this place, 
where there is another battery. For some time before last Saturday 
the enemy had not entered Wassaw Sound, their vessel simply 
cruising up and down the coast in very regular order. This move- 
ment, therefore, would seem especially intended to prevent the escape 
of this ship, and would indicate treachery somewhere. It may. how- 
ever, only be the development of the general plan of attack upon 
Savannah, which place I consider far from being safe. The bat- 
teries are weak in guns and gunners, and whatever the gallantry of 
the men may be, which is undoubted, they could not withstand a 
vigorous attack from the ships that could be brought over "VVassaw 
Bar. I will remain in a position to take advantage of any change 
in the enemy's plans and will lose no opportunity of getting to sea. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



120 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

SAVANNAH, December 26, 1861. 

SIR: On the 24th instant I addressed you from the anchorage at 
Thunderbolt, reporting my failure to get the Fingal to sea, and in- 
forming you that the enemy had effectually sealed up all the ap- 
proaches to Savannah from Wassaw Inlet and the other channels 
leading from the southward. The position of the Fingal above the 
battery at Thunderbolt was not safe, as the enemy might, at any 
time, cut her off with boats. I therefore, by the advice of Flag- 
Officer Tattnall, sent her back to the city on the afternoon of the 
24th, and went down to Wassaw Island myself in search of the boat 
and party, I informed you had been cut off by the sudden approach 
of the enemy's gunboats on the day before. I returned to Savannah 
last night, and have the satisfaction of reporting that the men were 
found and brought safely to Skiddaway, and are now here with the 
exception of two, w r ho I regret to say, deserted, and it is feared got on 
board of the blockading vessels. These two men, the officer of the 
boat informed me, belonged to the Savannah and were both North- 
erners. Yesterday morning, while I was on Wassaw r Island, a large 
paddle-wheel steamer joined the three vessels already anchored below 
Skiddaway, and late in the afternoon a screw steamer, bark-rigged, 
and pierced for eight guns came in. There are thus five ships of war 
at the entrance to the Romerly Marsh, a force too powerful for the 
simple blockade of the Fingal, and this assembling of the enemy's 
fleet can only be regarded as preliminary to an attack in force upon 
the city. It is impossible to conjecture what chance may occur to 
open a passage for us in the Fingal. My impression is that nothing 
but a positive defeat of the enemy in his attack, or the intervention 
of Great Britain will enable her to escape. If the Fingal is irretriev- 
ably locked up for the war, I presume you w r ould desire me to get to 
England in some other mode, as many matters heretofore intrusted 
to my management in that country are in an incomplete state, and as 
the funds intended for certain future purchases have already been 
forwarded to my credit. I learn from a correspondent in New Or- 
leans that three steamers fitted out by private enterprise have very 
lately run the blockade of the Mississippi, and he further informs 
me that the Pass & FOutre is sometimes left open for several days. 
These enterprises continue to be organized, and it is not unlikely that 
I might get to Havana in this way or by the way of Tampico. There 
is at present in New Orleans a paddle-wheel steamer called the W. H. 
Webb, formerly a towboat in New York. She is well known to me 
and is of great power and speed, and if in good order now would be 
the very best vessel I know of to use in transporting cargoes from 
the Bahamas or West Indies to our coast. I have written for par- 
ticulars of her present condition. The Fingal is a ship of such strik- 
ing appearance, that she would attract notice anywhere; and her 
speed being only 9^ or 10 knots at most she could scarcely keep away 
from the enemy's paddle-wheel cruisers along the coast. The Webb, 
I should think, would carry the bulk of 500 bales of cotton and her 
speed can not be less than 12 knots. In light towing trim she has 
steamed 16 knots the hour. It is not at all my wish to leave the 
Fingal unless she is irretrievably locked up. Having brought her 
safely through the enemy's fleet in one direction, I feel a natural 
ambition to complete the work by carrying her out again. But, sir, 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 121 

I have given my whole mind to the objects for which you directed 
me to return to England. Your instructions of November 30 have 
assigned me to a service that has excited very ambitious hopes, to the 
realization of which I would give every energy of which I am cap- 
able. To be shut up in idleness here for the rest of this war, would 
be a sad crushing of these expectations, and a disappointment to me, 
I am sure you will understand and appreciate. I have often thought 
that an opportunity might offer to run the Fingal out by the direct 
bar channel at Tybee, if a hard northeast gale should compel the 
blockading ships to put to sea. They can not lie in Cockspur Roads 
without being under the guns of Fort Pulaski, and the anchorage 
outside of the light is open from NNE. round by the east to south. 
The weather, however, continues most propitious for the enemy, all 
signs of change seeming to fail of their promise. No chance circum- 
stances and no laxity on the part of the blockaders will be allowed to 
pass unheeded, and should the Fingal get to sea you will be informed 
by telegram, and I will proceed in accordance with your telegraphic 
instructions of the 22d instant unless otherwise ordered in the mean- 
time. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant. 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of t-he Navy. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 

Navy Department, December 26, 1861. 

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith estimates of the addi- 
tional amounts which will be required for the pay of 2,000 addi- 
tional seamen, authorized by the act of Congress approved December 
10, 1861, and for the pay of additional officers authorized by the act 
of Congress approved December 24, 1861. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Hon. THOMAS S. BOCOCK, 

President pro tempore of the 

Congress of the Confederate States. 

[Enclosures. ] 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, 

December 26, 1861. 

Estimate of the amount required for the pay of additional officers 
of the Navy, authorized by act of Congress approved December 24, 
1861, and also the additional officers which will be required and 
which the President is authorized to appoint, under the act organiz- 
ing the Navy, approved March 16, 1861, to the 1st of April, 1862, 
under the head of " Pay of officers of the Navy on and off duty " : 

For pay of officers of the Navy on and off duty $115,607 

Two captains - $1, 800 

Five commanders 3, 532 

Fifty lieutenants 18. 750 



122 NAVY DEPARTMENT (.'OKI 

Ten assistant paymaslers 

Thirty assistant surgeons 

One hundred acting masters 

One hundred uclinir midshipmen - 38, 4<>o 

Thirty acting first assistant engim-ers '.-. 

Fifty acting second assistant en.u-ii:v:-s 12, .~<M) 

Fifty acting- third assistant engineers _ !>..".. ." 

1 1 .",, GOT 
One hundred and fifteen thousand six hundred and seven doll;: 

S. Iv. M M.'.OKY. 
Sccrc*(u i/ of the .V 



NAVY I);.: tJK >.r.NT, 

.' 

Estimate of the amount required for the ; -'.iioii additional 

seamen, authorized by act of Congress approved I)I-<VH;|MT '<. i-t;i, 
to the 1st of April, 18G2, under the head of " Pay of warrant and 
petty officers, seamen, ordinary seamen, landsmen, and boys, and 
Engineer's Department " : 

For the pay of warrant and petty olficers, sea in- -n, ordinary seamen, 

landsmen, and boys, and Engineer's Department sm-v, ii.m 

One hundred and eight thousand dollars. 

S. K. MALLOKY. 
Secretary of the .\ar//. 



[Memorandum.] 

On the 10th day of May, 1861, C apfxropriafc 

to purchase or construct in France or England one or more ironclad 
steamships. 

On the 17th of May Lieutenant James H. North, C. S. Navy, 
sent abroad to carry out the object of the law. In July and in 
August, 1861, he reported that it was impracticable to purchase or 
build such a vessel. 

In September the department determined to build iioncl;:<: 
in the Confederate States, and on the 9th of that month i-etjiK-sicd 
the President to authorize the transfer of the amount of that appro- 
priation, $2,000,000, to another appropriation under act of Con/. 
No. 124, May 14, 18G1, which v.as done, and the r"i>-'ini< lis.n 
large ironclad gunboat commenced in New Orleans under (he sui 
vision of Messrs. Tift, agents of the department. Tl;. 
and seventy-five thousand dollars have been expended up to this 
time. This vessel will be finished, it is hoped, in about forty days, 
and the cost will not exceed $800,000. These gentlemen ! 
commenced the construction of two smaller ironclad \ 
will cost about $150,000 each. 

Messrs. John Hughes & Co., of New Orleans. 1. coin ra -ted 

to construct one ironclad ship which will cost about $1,(KK).(KX). 

A small-sized ironclad gunboat is also under construction at the 
navy yard, Norfolk, which will cost from S-2()0.<H)0 to $:',()<>.!)<)(>. Three 
others will be commenced at once. 



XAVY DEPABTMEXT COERESPOXDENCE, 1861-1865. 123 

The department is also endeavoring to have one or more ironclad 
gunboats built at Savannah, Charleston, and New Orleans. 

Thi- .-00 will be expended within ninety days, and the de- 

partment has estimated for $3,000,000 to continue the building of 
ironclad vessels in the Confederate States. 



to provide for the pay of the officers, who have resigned from 
f '. A. .V It is proposed to add to the Confederate 

Xavy. 



Be it enacted* etc.. That the sum of three hundred and fifty-two 
thousand six hundred dollars be. and the same is hereby appro- 
priated out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, 
to be expended in the pay of the officers who have resigned from the 
r. S. Navy and whom it is proposed to add to that of the Confederate 
States, said sums to be appropriated as follows : 

For the i>;iy of twelve captains on and off duty _____________________ $40, 000. 00 

Twenty-nine commanders on and off duty _________________________ 71.000. 00 

Ki-hly lieutenants ___________ _ __________________________________ 139,400.00 

Twenty-live surgeons, including passed assistant surgeons __________ 50,200.00 

Tw.'Ive assistant surgeons _______________________________________ 14,400.00 

Sixteen paymasters _____________________________________________ 31.600.00 

To ]>;:y Captains Lawrence Rousseau, .Josiah Tuttnall. Victor M. Ran- 
dolph. and I>iiiu-an N. In^rahaui, and Oquamantler Raphael Semnies 
certain truvi-iin,' t -\, -eii.-es. ;:s per resolution of March lo, 1861 
(h've hundred and ninety-three dollars) ________________________ 598.00 



SAVANNAH, Januai^y 3, 1802. 

SIR: Since my last letter there has been no change in the position 
of the blockading vessels off Tybee, but the enemy seems to have 
changed the design indicated by the first appearance of his squadron 
near Skiddaway Batter}'. On the 30th ultimo three old sailing 
ships, probably part of the much-talked of " stone fleet," were 
brought in and anchored at the entrance to the Romerly Marsh and 
have since been stripped to their lower masts. If these vessels are 
sunk in their present position the inland communication would, of 
course, be closed between Savannah and the more southern parts of 
Georgia, but should the enemy, content with this interruption of local 
trade, remove the men-of-war for other operations or for outside 
cruising the Finr/al might yet be got to sea through the regular 
ship channel leading between Wassaw Island and Little Tybee. Up 
to the present moment no opportunity has offered to pass the block- 
ading ships. By way of Wassaw they occupy the entire channel 
with live ships, sometimes seven, and at the anchorage near Tybee 
there have never been less than four ships, frequently as many as 
eleven. If the blockade at this point should ever be left to sailing- 
ships alone the Finffal might be got to sea at night, but I consider 
the- success of any attempt in the present position of affairs as very 
doubtful. The artificial obstructions in the river and the removal 
of all buoys would render the use of temporary lights necessary for 
the passage of certain points inside of Cockspur. and within reach 
of the enemy's glasses. Furthermore, it would be necessary to keep 



124 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

- 

the ship well to the northward in the Calibogue Channel to escape the 
notice of the fleet, and the darkness which would render this result 
probable would entirely conceal all leading marks and bearings. 
The greatest obstacle in running the blockade from Savannah lies in 
its distance from the sea 2 and the consequent difficulty of knowing 
where the blockading ships may be until you are actually among 
them. However, I can only assure you that no opportunity which 
would justify an attempt shall be lost. If the Finyal should be cap- 
tured in an effort to escape I desire to impress you beforehand with 
the conviction that judgment, and not the rule of chance, has coun- 
seled the undertaking. There is a rumor here to-day that the Gladi- 
ator has arrived in the river St. Mary's. If this be true, you will, of 
course, learn the fact officially and will change the orders conveyed 
by telegraph on the 22d. In the absence of further instructions I will 
proceed in accordance with that dispatch. If the ship is detained 
here for any greater length of time, it will be necessary to draw a 
requisition for funds to pay the officers on duty in connection with the 
FingaVs voyage. Besides Lieutenant Sinclair, there are one master, 
three midshipmen, and three pilots, and by virtue of the authority 

granted me in your letter of I have appointed Mr. C. IS. 

Yonge, who has been attached to the Lady Davix for some time, an 
acting assistant paymaster, such an officer being absolutely necessary 
to aid me in the large disbursements the duties you have assigned 
me will require. You will pleas.e instruct me on this point. I will 
keep you constantly informed of the enemy's movements off the ap- 
proaches to this harbor and the chances of getting the Finr/al out, 
and will keep her in condition to take advantage of any change in the 
present state of affairs. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Hon. S. R. MALL.ORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



CONFEDERATE STATES NAVY DEPARTMENT, 

Richmond, January #, 186%. 

SIR : I have the honor briefly to submit for your consideration the 
following plan for the formation of a provisional navy. 

By the concurrent action of the maritime powers oi the old world 
our privateers are excluded from all but their OAvn ports, and these 
may be closed to them by the blockade. 

The recognition of our independence by these powers, and the ad- 
mission to their ports of our flag upon an equal footing with the flags 
of all nations, will in no respect advance the interests or increase the 
facilities of privateering; and to create a branch of naval warfare 
which shall enable us to unite and employ private capital and enter- 
prise ugainst the enemy, and which shall be free from the objections 
urged against privateering, I propose the organization of a provi- 
sional navy. 

If we divest privateering of its exclusively private, and invest it 
with a public, character, and connect it with the Government by judi- 
CJGUS checks, the objections heretofore urged against it will no 'longer 
exist. 



ISTAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 125 

To attain these objects I would prescribe the grades of officers of 
the provisional navy and commission such officers for the war. I 
would regulate the minimum complement of every vessel, pay a 
small monthly stipend to officers and men, to be received at the termi- 
nation of their cruise; reserve a portion, say 10 per centum, of all 
prize money, to be paid into the Confederate Treasury, and extend to 
the service the laws and regulations established for the government 
of the Navy, so far as they might be found to be applicable, and pre- 
scribe for it a uniform. 

The grades of commissioned officers might prudently be confined 
to the following: Lieutenant commanding, first lieutenant, second 
lieutenant, assistant surgeon. 

Warranted officers would be masters, boatswains, surgeon's mates, 
gunners, carpenters, and sailmakers, and to these the Secretary of the 
Navy might be authorized to issue warrants. 

The amount of pay per month to all entered for a cruise of not 
less than six months, I would recommend for seamen, $5; warrant 
officers, $10 : lieutenants, $15 ; lieutenant commanding, $20, to be paid 
only for the time employed in cruising beyond the waters of the Con- 
federacy ; the payment to be made at the termination of every cruise 
under the authority of the Navy Department. 

The practical operation of an act of Congress embracing these 
provisions would be this: A party wishing to engage in the service 
would furnish the Navy Department with the name, armament, and 
character of his vessel ; the number and ratings on a descriptive list, 
embracing name, age, place of birth, etc., of his crew, and a duplicate 
of the shipping articles ; the names of the persons to be commissioned 
and warranted as officers, with the evidence of their character and 
fitness, together with a duplicate of the contract between owners, 
officers, and crew for the distribution of prize money. 

These provisions would, I think, so immediately connect the pro- 
visional navy with the Government as to obviate the leading objec- 
tions to the privateer service, and would secure for it in foreign 
ports recognition as a national service, and the privileges usually 
accorded to naval vessels of all nations; while the reservation of 10 
per cent of prize money would reimburse the treasury for all ex- 
penditures on account of pay. 

With much respect, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

His EXCELLENCY THE PRESIDENT. 



HAM COURT, January 9, 1862. 

MY DEAR SIR: Captain Huse having informed me that you wished 
to confer with me on the subject of the ship at Liverpool, I venture 
to advise that you go to Liverpool without loss of time and acquaint 
yourself with the actual state of the vessel and with the character 
of the work that is being done to her, and learn the probabilities of 
her being ready as promised. You will find Mr. Mann thoroughly 
faithful to our cause, very discreet, and most anxious to get the 
vessel into your hands and safely away, which is a work of some 
difficulty and delicacy in the present state of affairs. If you will 
stop here on your way down for a day or two, I will derive great 
pleasure from your visit and we can talk over matters. In this case 



126 NAVY DEPARTMENT 'UKKSL'OIs DKXCE, 1861-18G5. 

you had better leave the Paddington Station at 11 o'clock, booking 
to Worcester, and if you will drop me u line the day be ion.-, I will 
have a conveyance there to meet you and bring- you here. 

With our united kind regards'to Mrs. North ami yourself, believe 
me to be, 

Very truly, yours, 

C . K. i ni;>i..: u . 
Lieutenant NOKTH. 

C. S. S. SUMTEH, Cadiz, ( 

DEAR NORTH: I have just received in reply to my ( ; to Mr. 

Yancey the following very extraordinary dispatch from the telegraph 
office in London : 

" Mr. W. R. Yamgey " of course they have murdered the name 
in the transmission u is unknown in London." My dispatch 
very plainly written, addressed to " W. L. Yancey, Commissioner of 
the Confederate States, London," and should have been properly 
transmitted. Lest, however, the telegraph should play me false. ly 
the intermediation of some agent in the interest of the enemy, I 
addressed you this note: Do me the favor to see Mr. Yam-ey, ami 
request him to send me $20,000, if possible, as my ship is very much 
out of condition, and requires to be docked and somewhat extensively 
repaired. I had several gales of wind on my passage over, one of 
them the heaviest I ever saw, and had my bulwarks stove in, and 
came very' near losing the whole of my upper deck, the fastenings of 
which were started. My propeller is much -worn, too. from constant 
service (136 days at sea since 1 left New Orleans), and will require 
repairs. I have received and replied to your dispatch. What is 
going on at FalmoutbJ Rest assured that I will make every effort 
to be on hand, if there is anything in the wind. But funds must be 
sent me promptly. Although I have captured 16 Yankee ships I 
have only gotten from them the paltry sum of $1,000, so close to the 
wind do these Yankee devils sail their ships. I captured four on 
m J w ay hither, two fine, large ships, one whaler (a bark) and one 
schooner. I burned all but one of the ships, which I liberated on 
a ransom bond, she having a British cargo on board, and brought in 
and landed here 43 prisoners. The authorities here first ordered me 
to depart within twenty-four hours, misconstruing the Queen's proc- 
lamation. I respectfully declined to obey. The matter wa.s referred 
to Madrid, and I was permitted to land prisoners and remain for 
repairs. I have not received a line direct from the South since I left. 
Do write me and give some news. The only news we have received 
has been through the lying Yankee newspapers. When I left, no 
uniform had been adopted. Send me a description of it, and send 
me also some buttons. I presume you have had some made in Lon- 
don by this time. Send enough for all of us, and have them charged 
to my paymaster, who will give you a receipt for them. Is not Great 
Britain going to recognize us soon, or has she been cowed by the 
"Round Heads," and is she afraid of her Canadian Provinces? 
Yours, truly, 



. 

Commander [Lieutenant] J. IT. Noimi, C. S. Navy. 

I address you simply as Mr. North on the em-elope, to evade scru- 
tiny. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT COREESPOXDEXCE, 1861-1865. 127 

CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Itiehniond, Janwirij 10, 18G2. 
SIR : The seamen in the Confederate States are all, or nearly all, 
in the ranks of the Army, and seamen can not be obtained for the 
naval service outside of them. 

Upon my application you issued the following order upon the 
subject: 

The Secretary of the Navy has applied for such able seamen as have taken 
service on the Army whilst awaiting the completion of vessels in which they 
cuuhl eerra. The Secretary of War desires that you will issue an order to the 
troops of your command, with a view to ascertain which of the men are seamen 
and desire to enter the naval service. A battalion is now being formed here 
to reinforce yon in place of the men thus abstracted. 

This order, if executed with a desire to obtain seamen, would be 
amply sufficient, but .as yet it has failed in its design. 

The following is the order of General Holmes upon the subject : 

In compliance with instructions of the War Department, commanding officers 
will report without delay to this office the names of all men of their commands 
who are seamen and desire to enter the naval service. 

It will be at once perceived that no seaman can be obtained under 
this order, as the subject is left to commanding officers, who are 
generally indisposed to part with their men. 

Xaval officers on recruiting duty report that they can obtain at 
least 150 good seamen near Aquia alone, all of whom are anxious to 
enter the naval service, but that under General Holmes' order they 
have not been able to get one. 

I will feel greatly obliged if you will direct such further action as 
yon may deem expedient to obviate the difficulty. 

At Norfolk, General Huger mustered his men, a naval officer spoke 
to them collectively and explained the duty required of them, and the 
seamen at once came forward from the ranks, and no delay or 
difficulty occurred. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. E. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Hon. J. P. BEX.TAMIX, 

Secretary of ^Yar. 



CoXFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA. 

\itvij Department, Richmond, January 10, 18f>2. 

SIR : Your several letters reporting your efforts to run the blockade 
with the Fin-c/al and the difficulties to be encountered have been re- 
ceived. 

Time is passing, and as the period for the completion of the first 
of the two ships under contract in England is rapidly approaching, 
your presence there with the funds in your possession is reojiired. 

If, therefore, upon receipt hereof, you shall be satisfied that no 
prospect of running the blockade with the Fingal at an early day 
exists, you will proceed to England in such manner as your judg- 
ment may approve. 

The Ella Warley (lately the Isabel) and another steamer are to 
leave Charleston for Nassau shortly, and you might doubtless obtain 
a passage in the first-named vessel. 



128 NAVY DEPAKTMENT COREEsrOXDEXCE, 1861- 

In this event, you will turn over the command of the Fingal to 
Lieutenant G. T. Sinclair, giving him all the information you may 
deem useful for his guidance. You Aviil regard the orders directing 
the vessel to go to Nassau as rescinded, and she will proceed direct 
to England, or via Bermuda, as may be deemed most expedient, 
adopting such means in clearing the vessel and in obtaining consular 
papers as will continue her character as a British vessel, commanded 
and manned by British seamen. 

Fraser & Co. advise me that they have placed exchange in London 
for $75,000 in your possession, which is in addition to the $100,000 
previously forwarded to your credit. 

Dispatches for Lieutenant North and Lieutenant Commanding 
Pegram will be sent to you to-morrow. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Captain JAS. D. BULLOCH, 

Commanding Steamer Fin gal, Savannah, Ga. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, Januni-i/ 11, 1862. 

SIR: This letter will be delivered by Captain Bulloch who will, 
I trust, be able to give you the latest naval and military news from 
our country. 

Captain Bulloch will take command of the first ship that shall 
be finished, and the entire completion of which is looked for next 
month; and you will receive orders to command the other vessel, 
whose completion is looked for in May. The arming and equipping 
of this vessel and her preparation for entering upon a cruise against 
the enemy will occupy your attention; but uninformed as I am of 
the tone of public opinion in England in relation to our cause, and 
of the rigor with which her avowed neutrality may be enforced, I can 
give you no specific instructions for your guidance in this respect. 
We desire to get the ship afloat, armed, manned and equipped, and 
at sea under your command against the enemy at the earliest 
moment; and your course will be influenced by that which may be 
pursued by Captain Bulloch with the Manassas. 

The department confides in your judgment and zeal to get her 
to sea. Opportunities for giving you instruction for your cruise 
will doubtless occur, but you are requested to read over those of 
the department to Captain Bulloch, to enable you to judge of the 
general views of the department. He has been requested to submit 
them to your perusal for this purpose, and to place you in com- 
munication with the contractors and all parties connected with 
building the vessel you are to command, and to turn over any 
surplus funds he may have. So soon as the condition of our 
finances in England can- be ascertained, you will be supplied with all 
necessary funds. 

You are requested to continue your efforts to obtain an ironclad 
sloop of war. Should the condition of public opinion induce any 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1805. 129 

British builder to consent to construct one for us, you will obtain 
his plans and offers to enable us to contract. 

With my best wishes for your health and welfare, 
I am respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
'Secretary of the Navy. 
Lieutenant JAS. IT. NORTH, C. S. Navy, 

London. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, January 11, 1862. 

SIR: Herewith yo'u have letters for Lieutenant North and Lieu- 
tenant Commanding Pegram, which you will please deliver. 

When you shall be prepared to leave England Lieutenant North 
will take your place as the special agent of the department, and you 
will please inform him of all matters of interest to the country with 
which you have been charged by the department, and in the charge 
of which he will relieve you in England, and particularly with 
reference to the contract and construction of the second vessel in 
England. 

After completing the purchases for this department according 
to the list inclosed, disbursing for all bills contracted, and retaining 
a sufficiency for current expenses on your own cruise, you will hand 
over any surplus in your hands to Lieutenant North. 

You will perceive that I have modified the order for purchases 
of the 27th of September, 1861. The iron is omitted, and 100 tons 
of powder are now ordered instead of 50 tons. The powder, as you 
are aware, is an article of the most pressing necessity, and if it can 
not be obtained in England, you will make every exertion to pro- 
cure it elsewhere. Shipments of it, perhaps, might be made through 
mercantile agents and middlemen, from Spain, Belgium, Holland, 
or Sardinia, or even France, to some point where the Nashville 
could receive it. If you could put 100 tons of saltpeter on board in 
addition, it would be well. 

An agent just from England brings to my notice the Punjaub and 
the Assaye as two vessels of speed and power, already armed and 
fitted for war and which may be purchased. If I mistake not, you 
have already examined them and determined against purchasing, but 
I mention the subject for your information. 

I am very anxious to commence the construction in England by 
contract of an ironclad sloop of war of four or six guns, and, with 
Mr. North, you will please give the subject attention. 

We have failed hitherto in our efforts in this respect. 

You w r ill please communicate by every safe opportunity. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Captain JAMES D. BULLOCK, C. S. N. 

(Commanding steamer Fingal, Savannah, Ga. 

176429 VOL 2 PT 121 9 



130 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

SAVANNAH, January JJ, J 

SIR: In my several letters of the 24th and 2(>th ultimo and the 3d 
instant, I reported the blockading ships in such position and force in 
Wassaw Sound and at the Tybee Anchorage as to prevent the escape 
of any vessel from this port. I regret to say that this letter must 
be of the same tenor. The enemy are fully informed of the FincjaVs 
position and the intention to get her out if possible, and appear de- 
termined to prevent the attempt or to capture her if such an attempt 
be made. Indeed, unless there be some change in the political rela- 
tions of the United States with the courts of Europe, I consider the 
port of Savannah as completely closed to commerce for an indefinite 
time, and consequently my detention here with any hope of getting 
the Fingal to sea is not only unnecessary., but will occasion much 
delay and confusion in the settlement and arrangement of the busi- 
ness for which I was originally sent to Europe. I therefore respect- 
fully suggest that you order me to proceed at once to England for 
the purpose of completing that business and of still further <:.;;, ing 
out your instructions of November o(). 1M(>1. \ on will remember 
that by the terms of agreement the first ship contracted for in 
England was to be ready for sea in December. As the contracts were 
made in my individual name I left a power of attorney with Messrs. 
Eraser, Trenholm & Co. of Liverpool, and directed them to deliver 
the first ship, if I had not returned at the time of her completion, 
to any commissioned officer of the Confederate Navy who might be 
in England. The Maita-snas must of course be ready now, and under 
the above-mentioned power of attorney, has no doubt been turned 
over by the builders to either Lieutenant Commanding 1'egram or 
Lieutenant North, I therefore request that you will so far modify 
your instructions of the 30th November, as to direct me to assume 
command of the second ship. If neither of these ships can be 
equipped in England I would still prefer to bring over the second, 
as she is more especially the style and model of my own selection, 
and a person can always superintend his own plans and complete 
them more satisfactorily than anyone else. However, sir, my great- 
est desire is to get to sea in an armed ship, under our own flag, as 
soon as possible, and as you are better informed in relation to inter- 
national politics than it is possible for me to be, you will of course 
be tetter able to judge of the probability of arming and manning 
either of our ships in England. If England remains at peace with 
the United States I should have to proceed in the manner mentioned 
to you verbally when I was in Richmond. 

I still learn that vessels from time to time get out of the Mississippi 
and the bays to the west, and also from Charleston, and I anticipate 
no difficulty in getting to England, if you think proper to direct such 
a move. I beg leave to refer you particularly to my letter of the 3d 
January and to ask specific instructions as to officers' pay, and also 
to request that you will direct who is to go with me. I shall require 
some one to assist in the management of my accounts, which are 
large and multifarious, and desire to know if you approve my ap- 
pointment of Mr. Yonge as an acting assistant paymaster. 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCK. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



XAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1661-1865. 131 

CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, January 14. 186%. 

SIR: I desire more particularly to direct your attention to the 
subject of constructing iron or steel clad ships in France or England 
than was done in my letter of the llth instant. Lieutenant North 
has had this matter in charge, but has not yet been able to do any- 
thing with it. 

I earnestly desire to have an armored steam sloop of moderate size, 
say of about u.o'M tons, and to carry 8 or 10 heavy gnu*, built in 
England upon the most approved plan and in the shortest time : and 
the evident change of feeling and opinion in England in relation to 
our country induces me to believe that we may now contract for the 
construction and delivery of such a vessel. 

The vessel mighC be contracted for in the name of a Brazilian, 
Sardinian, or Spanish house and delivered to us at a neutral port, 
where her armament might be placed on board. 

The completion of the Gloire, the Warrior, and the Prince fur- 
nish large information and mam 7 useful hints for the construction 
of such a vessel as this. We would expect, of course, to follow the 
practice of English manufacturers and make the payments in ad- 
vance : and we would, to stimulate an early delivery, advise providing 
by contract fo$ forfeiture for nondelivery and for rewards for a 
delivery within the time stipulated. 

Many plans for such a vessel have been submitted, and herewith I 
send you the drawings, without specifications, of the one devised by 
Naval Constructor Porter and Chief Engineer Williamson. The 
model which I have shows very clean, sharp, and beautiful lines of a 
2,300-ton ship ; but the principal novelty is in the manner of mount- 
ing the guns, which are placed amidships in an iron casemate, the 
two after and forward guns in which are so pivoted as to fire in 
broadside or fore and aft. Besides these, two heavy guns are 
pivoted near the ends. The decks are clear and all accommodations 
are below them. The hull is ironed and is low in the water, and by 
the device of the single casemate much iron is dispensed with. 

I submit this plan for your information only, but so anxious am I 
to have an ironclad ship built that, should you and Lieutenant North, 
with whom I associate you in this matter, be able to contract or to 
make the preparatory arrangements to contract for an armored or 
steel or ironclad ship, you will proceed with all dispatch to prescribe 
the character of the vessel, and I will place the funds in England 
at once. 

As no copy of this letter is sent to Lieutenant North, you will 
please communicate it to him. 

I am. respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALT.OET, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Captain JAMES D. BTTLT.OCH, 

Savannah, Ga. 



132 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

SAVANNAH, January 16. 1862. 

SIR: Your two letters of the 10th and llth instant, with inclosure 
for Lieutenant Commanding Pegram and Lieutenant. North, arc at 
hand. As I can see no immediate prospect of getting the Fingal 
to sea, I will assume the discretion granted me in your instructions 
of the 10th instant. I will therefore turn over the Fingal to Lieu- 
tenant Sinclair and will proceed to England by the first opportunity 
which will probably be in a few days and from Charleston. You 
have already been informed of the peculiar difficulties to be encoun- 
tered in getting out a ship in England, and the necessity of haxing 
an assistant whose personal integrity as well as devotion to our cause 
can be relied upon. Mr. John Low, lately appointed by you a 
master in the Navy, for his active and zealous aid in bringing the 
Fingal out, is just such a person, and I respectfully request that he 
be ordered to accompany me. Mr. Low, besides being a good seaman, 
has excellent business qualities, and would be of great assistance 
to me in fitting out both the ships as well as in inspecting the various 
articles to be purchased. If I succeed in getting to sea in either of 
the ships, a paymaster or some one to do his duty will be required; 
indeed, such an officer is necessary to me already for the proper 
arrangement of my money aflPairs on the other side. The expenditure 
of so large a sum as has been confided to me and' for such multi- 
farious purposes, involves a complexity of accounts and a quantity 
of correspondence too great, for me to manage properly without 
assistance, unless much time is lost from active work. If, therefore, 
the appointment of acting assistant paymaster I gave to Mr. Yonge 
meets your approbation, I respectfully request that he be ordered to 
go with me in that capacity for general service. 

Some time since you ordered .Vet ing Midshipman Anderson to 
report to me for duty, with the intention that he should serve with 
me in the Manassas. If this continues to be your wish, please send 
me the necessary orders. I will remain in Savannah until the last 
moment, so that my movements may not excite comment, but as I 
shall be in direct communication with Messrs. Jno. Fraser &, Co., of 
Charleston, and may in a few days be summoned to that city, you 
will please send your reply to this letter to the care of those gentle- 
men. 

The two ships Punjaub and Assay e, alluded to in your letter of 
the llth instant, were offered to me in England for 65,000 each. 
They are paddle-wheel frigates of the Indian Navy, and after the 
great mutiny had their coal bunkers taken out and returned to 
England with troops under canvas. They were in good condition 
and ready for sea except for the lack of bunkers, but I rejected them 
because of their great draft of water, large consumption of coal, 
and number of men required to man them, to say nothing of prime 
cost which was beyond my means. In fine, they would not make 
efficient cruisers unless we were in possession of regular and 
numerous coaling depots. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Hon. S. R. MALI.ORY, 

Secretary of tTie Navy. 



XAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 133 

SAVANNAH, January 19, 1862. 

SIR : I have this day formally turned over to Lieutenant G. T. Sin- 
clair the control and management of the Fingal, and have furnished 
him with a copy of your letter of the 10th January. It is proper 
for me to call your attention to the fact that the crew of the Fingal 
signed articles in England as British seamen, under the British 
merchant seamen's act, and if discharged away from England it 
must be by their own consent. If the Fingal remains permanently 
blocked up here, the men might be induced to enter the Confederate 
service; if not, it would be necessary to furnish them the means of 
returning to England or some one of the British colonies. Other- 
wise they would have a claim against the nominal English owner in 
Great Britain, wjiich would doubtless give trouble and annoyance. 
I have communicated this fact to Lieutenant Sinclair. The Fingal 
is now in perfect order for any voyage and is completely arranged 
and furnished for 30 or 40 passengers. She would require much 
alteration and the loss of much valuable furniture to convert her into 
a regular gun vessel, and even then she would be a very vulnerable 
ship, both from the exposed position of her engines and the nature 
of her material. The engineer considers her engines and boilers 
good for ten years, and at the end of this war I think she ought to 
bring fully her prime cost. I know of no vessel so well adapted 
in every respect for the trade between New Orleans and Havana. 

Your letter of the 14th instant, with enclosed plans for iron 
corvettes, has been received and its contents shall meet my careful 
and earnest attention. Messrs. John Laird & Sons, of Birkenhead, 
are now building a ship of 7,000 tons for the British Government and 
the Napiers, of Greenock, had just completed the Black Prince when 
I left England. These are the best-informed builders in England, 
and from the Messrs. Laird I could get every information, having 
already had much intercourse with them as the contractors for one 
of our ships now building on the other side. I will write you more 
fully before sailing. To-morrow I shall finish all business here, and 
on Tuesday or Wednesday shall go to Charleston, communicate with 
Messrs. Jno. Fraser & Co., and proceed on Thursday to Wilmington, 
N. C., to join the steamer North Carolina, in which ship the above- 
mentioned gentleman have kindly offered me a passage. Any further 
instructions you may have to send me you will please, therefore, 
direct to me at Wilmington, from which place I will report. 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORT, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, January 20, 1862. 
SIR : Your communications of the 13th and 14th instant have been 
received. 

In the former you express a preference for the command of the 
second ship to be built in England, and you will therefore regard 
the department's instructions of the 30th of November so modified 
as to authorize you to assume command of either ship. 



134 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

Your request for the services of Mr. Low is complied with, and 
his orders are herewith enclosed, and also those of Acting Midship- 
man Anderson. 

There is a difficulty at present in the way of Mr. Yonge's appoint- 
ment as acting assistant paymaster, and I suggest that you appoint 
him your clerk at $500, for which authority is given., ti'.ul appoint 
him acting assistant paymaster when his services in this c; t p;i.-ity 
shall be required. 

In view of your important agencies in England, your expendi- 
tures for clerical assistance will, of course, be allowed. 

You can have Mr. Yonge's accounts made up and paid' as aei 
assistant paymaster from the time you appoint him to the date of 
your appointment of him as clerk. 

The enemy's force in the China Seas is very small, the little 
steamer Saginaw, of 400 tons, being the only ship, as I learn, left 
there; and as the circumstances and operations of the enemy c:'ii 
not be foreseen, you will regard yourself as invested with the largest 
discretion as to your cruising, observing substantially the previous 
instructions of the department. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant , 

S. li. MALLORY, 

of th-f J\V? % t >/. 



Commander JAMES D. BULLOCH, C. S. Xa\ 

Care of Fraser & Co., Charleston, S. C. 



CHARLESTON, January 22, 1862. 

SIR: I had the honor to receive your letter of the 17th instant, 
enclosing me a commission as commander in the Navy just before 
leaving Savannah and have not been able to make my acknowledg- 
ments until now. 

It is neither my wish nor intention to discuss the motives that 
induced the President to confer this rank upon me, but while I am 
deeply sensible of the honor and am grateful to yourself personally 
for this evidence of trust and confidence, I can not but declare that 
it is beyond my expectations and in excess of my deserts. 

The commission you now send places me above many officers who 
would be my seniors if the Navy list were arranged according to 
relative rank in the old United States service. You are sufficiently 
aware of the feelings of naval officers on the subject of promotion 
and will readily conceive that the assignment to me of this advanced 
rank will create much criticism and a feeling of discontent in many 
quarters which will vent itself on me as its cause. If the Navy was 
fairly afloat in this war and the sea was a field of competition open 
alike to all, I would feel no delicacy in accepting any promotion the 
President might deem my services worthy of, but I am unwilling to 
avail myself of the fortuitous circumstances that have forced me 
into prominence and the chance performance of a service many 
would have executed with equal success as a means of stepping over 
any officer. As my commission terminates with the war you may 
have special reasons for giving me the particular rank of commander, 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 135 

but I desire thus formally to record that neither in person nor 
through the influence of others have I sought this advancement. 
Your instructions having assigned me to the command of a national 
ship, I desired and requested a commission, so that I should in 
reality be a national officer, but I did not imagine that the President 
would place me in a position higher than my date in the old United 
States service would entitle me to, and I would rather go back to that 
position now than be the cause of discontent in the service or of 
wounding the feelings of a single one of the gallant gentlemen who 
headed the list of lieutenants. 

Your letter of the 20th, with enclosures, is just received. I will 
answer it in extenso as soon as I get certain information Messrs, 
Jno. Eraser & Co. expect to receive in the morning. I shall probably 
go on to Wilmington to-morrow. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BTJLLOCH. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, January 22, 1862. 
SIR : I beg leave to call your attention to my letter of the 18th of 
December and to repeat my request that certain officers of the Navy 
might be ordered to report to this department. The following offi- 
cers therein named and whose services are required have not yet 
reported: Commanders E. F. Pinkney and Thomas R. Rootes, and 
Lieutenants William L. Maury and Robert R. Carter. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORT, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, 

Secretary of War. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OP AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, January 23, 1862. 
SIR: I have the honor to request that the following naval officers 
serving in batteries may be ordered to report to this department for 
immediate duty : 

Commander" C. H. Kennedy; Lieutenants John Wilkinson, D. P. 
McCorkle. and Charles J. Graves; Acting Masters Thomas L. Har- 
rison and E. G. Read. 

Kennedy, Wilkinson, and Graves are at Aquia Creek. The others 
are at Evansport. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary, Navy. 
Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, 

Secretary of War. 



136 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPOND K\< 'K, L86I4180K 

C. S. S. SUMTF.R, 

Gibraltar, January 23, 1862. 

DEAR NORTH : I have just received a letter from Mr. Yancey, tell- 
ing me that you can procure the clothing I want for my crew, with- 
out funds; in other words, on credit. I am glad to hear this and 
I inclose a list of such articles as are necessary. Do me the favor 
to procure these things as soon as convenient, and send them to me 
by steamer. I was in a manner driven out of Cadiz after having 
been hurried into dock, had a hole patched in my bottom, and hur- 
ried out again with the most indecent haste. They would not per- 
mit me to put a stroke on my upper works or my boilers or engine. 
Having stopped the holes they said my ship could go to sea and go 
I must. I got underway on the evening of the 17th and on the morn i ng 
of the 18th, in the Strait of Gibraltar, I captured two more Yankee 
ships; one of them I was obliged to liberate, the other I burned. 
The burned ship had on board 50 tons of sulphur, so that I have 
spoiled the manufacture of a lot of Yankee gunpowder. The offi- 
cers at this post have received us very kindly, but they are very 
particular in the preservation of their neutrality, several notes hav- 
ing already passed between the authorities and myself. I have leave 
to put all repairs on my ship and machinery that are not contraband ; 
that is, that have no connection with her battery, increase of crew, 
etc. The latter rule will affect me very injuriously, as some of my 
worthless fellows have run off and I am quite short. Do not forget 
the buttons I mentioned in my first note to you and send us a news- 
paper occasionally when you find one containing anything of interest. 

We all send best regards to yourself, Fauntleroy, and any other 
officers that may be with you. 
Yours, truly, 

R. SEMMES, 

Lieutenant J. H. NORTH. 



CONFEDERATE STATES STEAMER STJMTER, 

Gibraltar, January 2 4., 1862. 

DEAR NORTH : I dropped you a line yesterday in relation to cloth- 
ing for n^ crew. I now write to say that I have to-day written to 
Mr. Yancey on the subject of funds; but, as this gentleman writes 
me that he expects to leave London in a few days for the Confederate 
States to take his seat in the Senate, he may have sailed before my 
letter reaches him. In which event, will you do me the favor to 
call at his lodgings, No. 31 Bay Street, obtain the letter, and pre- 
sent it to Hon. Mr. Mason if he shall have arrived, and if he shall 
not have arrived, to the charge of our affairs ad interim, whoever 
he may be? I am now lying perfectly idle, waiting for funds. I 
can not strike the first stroke toward repairing my ship until I am 
in funds; and, even if my ship were in a condition to go to sea, I 
have not even the wherewithal to coal her! And you can imagine 
how galling this is to me, as I could sweep the whole Mediterranean 
in from fifteen to twenty days if I had the means of locomotion. We 
are treated with great hospitality here, and everybody seems to be 
Southern. John Bull moves very slowly, though, in the matter of 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 137 

recognizing us and opening the blockade. The fact is, the old gen- 
tleman has been considerably bullied and somewhat intimidated by 
the Yankees, or he would have struck a decisive blow long since. The 
pressure is now upon his throat, however, and he can not much longer 
delay. Cotton or starvation and riot and perhaps bloodshed stare 
him in the face, and the poor old gentleman must arouse himself 
from his lethargy at last. 
Yours, truly, 

R. SEMMES. 
Lieutenant J. H. XORTH. 

Send me the citv address of Mr. Mason as soon as he is located. 

R. S. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Xavy Department, Richmond, January 25 f 1862. 
SIR: Herewith I have the honor to inclose copy of a letter from 
Lieutenant John Taylor Wood, C. S. Navy. 

' Lieutenant Wood has made two attempts to obtain seamen from 
General Magruder's command. 

Men are discharged from the Army and ordered to report to this 
department to enter the naval service, for whom no application has 
been made and who are not wanted, whilst those who have been ap- 
plied for are not discharged; and I suggest for your consideration 
such a cooperation on the part of the officers of the Army with those 
of the Navy as will prevent the discharge of men from the Army 
who are unfit for the Navy, and which will enable this department 
to obtain the seamen whom we designate and who desire to enter the 
naval service. 

I am. respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY. 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN. 

Secretary of War. 

[Enclosure.] 

NORFOLK, VA., January 22, 1862. 

SIR: In obedience to orders from the department, I proceeded 
again to the headquarters of General Magruder. On arriving there, 
I found that the men had been sent by another route to their place, 
passing me on the way. But on returning here, I find that but two 
of the men selected by mj-self were sent ; the others are men that I 
did not see, nor even visit their encampment. They are certainly a 
A'ery different class of men from those I selected. 1 have written to 
General Magruder in regard to it. We can not get good men from 
the Army unless their officers will assist and not oppose us, from 
the colonel down. As their times expire in the spring, we must com- 
pete with the Army for men. 
Respectfully, etc., 

J. TAYLOR WOOD, 

Lieutenant, etc. 
Captain F. BUCHANAN. 

Commanding Bureau Orders and Details. 



133 NAVY DEPARTMENT C'ORRF.SPOXnKNCK, 1KH- 

" SPECIAL SEKVK >:." 
Navy D('i>ni-i UK ,,t. J a nun,'!/ J->, A v 

SIR: I beg leave to state that in our gunl>oat proparatiOHi we are 
brought to a standstill for the want of ship erii'prntcrs and otlier 
artisans, for whom we depend almost entirely upon the Army. I 
earnestly request that the call which has Uvn nuide for them may 
have a speedy answer. 

Respectfully, etc., 

M. F. MATKY, 

Cot/i. 'initi'/, i , f '. X. \<tr>f. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary Navy, Present. 



LONDON, January 27, / 

SIR: It is now six months since my arrival in this country, and 
most anxiously have I been expecting the arrival of something of 
importance from you. I have written or sent you a vernal message 
by almost every opportunity that has offered, out as yet I have r6- 
ceived but two communications from yon. ami neither of those 
touched upon the subject. Some of my communications in which I 
urge the necessity of your sending me money so that I might carry 
out my orders, or permit me to return home, must have reaches you, 
as I have seen by the papers the arrival of no less than four or n>e 
of those opportunities. It is cruel in such times as tlio.se to keep me 
in such a state of suspense. I have a reputation at stake, and that 
reputation is not only dear to me but dear to my family. If you 
have nothing for me to do here, or it is not eoiiveniont to send me 
money, why not recall me so that I may at least share the dangers 
and privations of my countrymen? I again repeat that anything 
can be done in this country it you only have money, and without it 
you can do nothing. One of the gunboats that Mr. Bulloch ordered 
will be completed in a few days. I have written to Captain Semmes 
on the subject, having heard that the Sumter wanted extensive re- 
pairs. I am anxiously expecting his answer. 
Very respectfully, etc., 

JAMES H. NORTH. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



WILMINGTON, N. C., January 27 , 1SG:>. 

STR : At Charleston, under date of the 22d instant, I had the honor 
to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 20th, with enclosed 
orders for Mr. Low and Acting Midshipman Anderson, both of whom 
have since joined me at this place. Messrs. John Fraser & Co. very 
cordially offered myself and party a passage in the Annie Child's. 
to sail from this port, and w T ere so earnestly anxious to get me off 
that they have directed the captain of that vessel not to wait for any 
more cotton, but to proceed to sea as soon as the necessary quantity 
of coal is on board. The captain informs me that he is short 70 tons. 



K"AVY BEPARTMEXT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1SG5. 139 

but.it is here in a flatboat and lie hopes to have it in by 12 m. to- 
morrow. The ship in other respects is ready for sea now. I learn 
that the enemy are fully informed of her being here and the intention 
to get her out, and keep a vigilant watch. On Saturday a bark- 
gunboat was lying off the bar, just in the fairway of the chan- 
nel. She rode out the whole of the late gale alone, but was joined 
yesterday by two other vessels, one of which I rather think must be 
the Pocohontas. I am going down to the bar to-day in company with 
Captain Hammer, of the Annie Childs, and a pilot, and will report 
the result df our reconnoissance as soon as we return. I note your in- 
structions in reference to Mr. Yonge and will act accordingly. 
I am, very respectfully, JGUT obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BTJLLOCH. 
Hon. vS. II. MALLOKY, 

/Secretary of the .AVry. 



WILMINGTON, N. C., January 30, 186%. 

SIR : Day before yesterday I went down to the mouth of the Cape 
Fear River to examine the present position of the blockading ves- 
sels and to learn something of their general movements. As the 
>th of water over New Inlet Bar is less than the draft of the Annie 
(' IJlds, I merely noted the fact that two bark- rigged gunboats were 
anchored off that entrance, and proceeded at once to the mouth of 
the main river. I returned to the city last night, and regret to re- 
port that the enemy are very active and watchful and lie in such a 
position as to forbid any attempt to run out, except under very favor- 
able circumstances of weather. Two gunboats are now lying about 1 
mile WSW. from the bar, and one of them practiced target firing 
for two or three hours on Tuesday at a house on the beach. The guns 
1 were 11-inch and 6i-inch, rifled, as proved by shells picked up 
in the woods. The firing was excellent in range and direction, the 
distance being 2 miles and the house being completely riddled. To- 
day the Annie Ckilds is ready for sea, and it is Captain Hammer's 
intention to drop her down at high water to-morrow as far as the 
bends of the river will afford concealment from the enemy's glasses 
oil' the bar. and there to await the first favorable chance to .slip out. 
Captain Hammer has had much difficulty in getting a pilot, and even 
now is not sure of the one who has engaged for the voyage, several 
having already begged off after positive engagements to go. In such 
adventures as these all must necessarily be of willing mind. I can 
not, sir, exaggerate the relief I shall experience in being rid of all 
such obstacles as are beyond my own judgment and control, nor the 
intense satisfaction with which I shall hail the first plunge of the 
dtep-sea lead, with its assurance that the Annie Childs is free from 
skittish pilots as well as blockaders. 

Midshipman Maffitt has this morning reported to me for duty. I 
have directed Mr. Yonge to open a regular pay roll, and to take up 
all the officers' accounts. Will you please inform me whether they 
are to draw sea pay from date of orders or from the time of joining 
a ship to England? I shall have no funds for pay accounts here, 
but hope to get off so soon as not to make it necessary to draw for 



140 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

any. It is quite impossible to appoint a sailing day, but, as no. op- 
portunity will be lost, I may not be able to write you again, but will 
arrange to have a telegraph sent you whenever the ship gets out. 

As I go down in the ship to-morrow, you will please direct any 
further communications to care of Harris & Howell, of this place, 
who will forward all letters to me at Smithville. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BUL.LOCH. 
Hon. S. R. MALLOET, 

/Secretary of the Navy. 



C. S. S. STTMTER, 
Gibraltar, Febn:i'u -', 

Dear NORTH : I have received your several notes of the 23d and 
25th ultimo from London and Liverpool. I have telegraphed vou, 
to-day as follows. " Do not bring her. Can come for her. Par- 
ticulars by mail." This of course has relation to the new ship. The 
Sumter though unfit for a cruise without a thorough overhauling, in 
both hull and machinery, at considerable expense of both time and 
money, may yet be patched up, so as to make the run to England, 
where she can have the facilities of docks and machine shops. So 
that as soon as I receive funds to enable me to purchase coal, I 
will fill up and endeavor to make this run. To what point would 
it be best to come, enemy's cruisers and other things considered? 
Upon receipt of this, telegraph me briefly in some such mode as fol- 
lows, viz: "To Falmouth," "To Southampton," "To Liverpool," 
as the case may be. This being Sunday I have not yet sent on 
shore to inquire for the clothing which you inform me has been 
shipped, but I presume it is all right, and I will send for it to-mor- 
row. "I will see that my paymaster pays the bills. I am much obliged 
to you for the papers sent. Are you not uneasy about Messrs. Mason 
and Slidell? They had not been heard of at New York as late as 
the 15th January. The crippled condition of the Sumter is a great 
source of annoyance to us all. I could have swept every Yankee from 
the Mediterranean in twenty days, from my arrival at this port. As 
it is, however, the Yankee skippers have received such a fright that 
they are mostly laid up to the eastward of this, now and then one 
running by, in fear and trembling. 

They did order me out of Cadiz. After having patched a hole 
in my bottom, the wise Spanish officials came to the conclusion that 
my ship would float, and as this was all that was absolutely neces- 
sary in their sage judgments, nothing would do but that I must de- 
part. The fact is, I believe, that they were bullied in Madrid by 
that red Republican German refugee, Carl Schurz, old Abe's worthy 
representative. "The Universal Yankee Nation," with its large 
fleets and armies and proximity to Cuba, has certainly frightened 
Spain, whatever may be the case as to Great Britain. The Cubans 
themselves were very friendly to us, when we were at Cienfuegos, 
and so I am informed are a large majority of the people of Spain, 
but the Government is trembling for Cuba, as Great Britain a little 
while back trembled for Canada. We are treated here with much 
courtesy. Many of the officers of the garrison were under orders for 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 141 

Canada during the late row, and express their disappointment at the 
pacific turn which things have taken. We think here that we shall 
be recognized and that the blockade will be opened in the next six 
weeks. Present me very kindly to Mr. Yancey, Pegram, and others 
that may be at hand. 

Yours, very truly, etc. 

R. SEMMES. 



SPECIAL ORDERS, 1 ADJUTANT AND INSPECTOR GENERAL'S OFFICE, 

Xo. 27. J Richmond, February -5, 1862. 

******* 

XXVI. The following naval officers now on duty with the Army 
will report without delay to the Secretary of the Xavy in this city: 
Commander C. H. Kennedy ; Lieutenants John Wilkinson, D. P. Mc- 
Corkle, Charles J. Graves; Acting Masters Thomas L. Harrison, 
E. G. Pvead. 

By command of the Secretary of War : 

Jxo. WITHERS, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. 



LIVERPOOL, February -5, 186%. 

MY DEAR SIR : I have seen Mann this morning and ordered him to 
engage captain, engineers, firemen, and crew of the 0. and to put 
everything on board of her that is necessary all to be substantial 
and comfortable, but not extravagant, and to get her ready for sea 
forthwith. If you are willing that I should do this, I am willing to 
assume all the responsibility as far as spending the money goes. 
Mann thinks (and I agree with him, upon reflection) that you had 
better not come here. If you were seen about her while fitting out 
or on board her when sailing it might lead to trouble. The plan pro- 
posed now is that on a certain day you and your family should be 
at Holyhead, where the ship will call for you and take you on. The 
ship will be under British colors and commanded by a British cap- 
tain, whom you will leave at Madeira or some other accessible port 
where you may stop to coal. She will go as an ordinary merchant 
vessel, with nothing about her to indicate a warlike character, and 
I sincerely hope you will approve of the plan fully, believing that 
there is no other way of getting the ship out of England. 
Yours, truly, 

C. K. PRIOLEAU. 

[Lt. J. H. NORTH.] 

LIVERPOOL, February 5. 1862. 

MY DEAR SIR: I am this morning in receipt of your note of yes- 
terday, and very sincerely regret that you do not approve of the plan 
proposed nor agree with me, apparently, as to the imperative neces- 
sity of getting the ship out of Liverpool in any practicable way. 
As it is so, however, nothing remains for me to do but to obey Cap- 
tain Bulloch's orders and formally tender you the vessel, which I do 



142 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

in the inclosed letter from my firm. You will, of course, appreciate 
the impossibility of my interfering personally any further in the 
matter. I can only hope that our country, in this her hour of r.eed, 
will soon and safely receive what will be of so much importance to 
her a good fighting ship. 

In reply to your question : The reason why I think she may not 
take arms, etc., on board is because she is perfectly well known to be 
a war vessel, built for the Confederate States; and unless a purely 
mercantile and innocent character be fixed upon her, and she be sent 
away clearly to be delivered empty to the ostensible owners wlm 
ordered her built, she will be stopped; of this I feel convinced. 

I wish to add in defense of myself (although in perfect good hu- 
mor and feeling) that my firm have been shipowners for many years; 
that we now own five steamers and nine or li-n sailing ships; :nid tha' 
we have never sent one of them to sea improperly fitted out or un- 
provided with proper charts, chronometers, -etc. 
Yours, very truly, 

C. K. PlMOI.KAU. 

Lieutenant NORTH. 

CONFEDERATE STATES or AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, February 5, 1862. 
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith an estimate of the 
amount required to pay the bounty to seamen, authorized by act of 
Congress, approved January 16, ls<;-_'. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALL.ORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Hon. A. H. STEPHENS, 

President of the Congress, pro tempore. 

[Enclosure.] 



DEPARTMENT, February 5, 1862. 
Estimate of the amount required under the head of " Pay of 
warrant and petty officers, seamen, ordinary seamen, etc.," to pay the 
bounty of fifty dollars to seamen, enlisting for three years or for 
the war, authorized by act of Congress, approved January 16, 1862 : 

To pay bonnty of fifty dollars to two thousand st>jim<>n, ordinary 

seamen, landsmen, and boys and firemen, and coal-heavers, _______ $100,000 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 



LIVERPOOL, February 5, 1862. 

DEAR SIR : Captain J. D. Bulloch, on his departure from this coun- 
try in the Fing-al, left with us the following written instructions 
with regard to a vessel which he had ordered to be built for the 
C. S. Government. We quote from his letter 10th October, 1861: 

If the ship now building by Mr. Miller should be ready for sea before my 
return, you are hereby authorized to have her delivered to any commissioned 



V 

iNAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 143 

officer of the Confederate States Navy, or any special agent of the Confederate 
States Navy Department, who may be in England at the time or should no one be 
here to represent the Navy Department, you will please deliver to Captain Huse 
or to his neeessor. 

In accordance with these orders, we beg leave now to inform you, 
as the senior naval officer of the Confederate States known to us to 
be in England, that the above ship is now ready for delivery, and 
to ask whether it is your desire to take charge of her. We need 
scarcely add that if we can be of any service to you in the premises, 
you have only to command us. We have some" funds belonging to 
'Captain Bulloch, which we should feel ourselves justified in using 
on your order for the purpose of getting the ship ready for sea. 

There are, moreover, . four 7-J-inch guns, with carriages, and 400 
shot and 400 shell to suit these pieces lying here ready for shipment ; 
please instruct us regarding these. Captain Huse desired us to send 
them to London, but this has since been abandoned in consequence 
of the vessel for which they were intended (the Southwick) not 
being able to take them. 

We axe, dear sir, yours, faithfully, 

FKASER, TEENHOLM & Co. 

Lieutenant J. H. NOKTH, C. S. Navy. 

London. 



37 HUSSELL SQUARE, 
London, February 6, 1862. 

MY DEAR SIR: I have received your private letter of the 5th 
instant and that of your firm, the latter formally turning over to 
me the vessel lately built by Messrs. Fawcett, Preston & Co. 

In reply to your request that I should take charge of the ship 
referred to, I have to say that I accept the vessel and request that 
yon will cause a crew to be shipped for her, capable of navigating 
her across the Atlantic, including a captain who will be willing to 
remain on board of her until her arrival at Nassau ; and that you 
will have the ship sent to the *port of London. This to be done in 
ease she can be put under English colors and her name be changed to 
Hornet Pinckney. 

In taking out the register for the ship, her owners may be given 
as S. Isaac Campbell & Co., who are prepared to sign such papers 
as may be necessary to make the transfer legal. 

The ship will load in London with a cargo, a portion of which 
will be for the British Government, as has already been done in 
the case of the Southwick, which ship is to have 4 tons of freight 
on Government account for Nassau. S. I. C. & Co., as you are 
aware, are the owners of the S., and they are willing to charter or 
purchase the Harriet Pinckney. 

It will much oblige me if you will have the ship fitted out for the 
trip she is to make, namely, to Nassau, and if you will have all 
articles that would be of service in the future, of the best quality, 
such, for example, as chronometers, glasses, barometers, sextants, etc. ; 
her cabin stores and stores for the men to be calculated for the voyage 
to Nassau, say, fifty days. 



144 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORUKSPON !>KNCE, 1861- 

Will you also have the kindness to inform me, or request the 
builders to do so, without delay, how many tons' space she has for 
cargo, such, for example, as barrels (powder in case the British Gov- 
ernment send any, which will probably be the case) and small pa< -Im- 
ages. 

The guns and carriages intended for this vessel I would like to 
have sent forward by the first opportunity, with any other freight 
that may be going forward for the Government. 

It is probable that I shall not go out in the ship myself, such a 
course on my part being strongly opposed by Mr. Mason. Tn that 
case it will be necessary for the ship to be sent to Nassau, consigned 
to some commercial house there, as if she were an ordinary mnvhant 
vessel, and for her to be under the command of a merchant captain. 

[J. H. NORTH.] 

C. K. PKIOLEAU, Esq. 



LONDON, Feli'uar// 6\ 186%. 

DEAR SIR: This morning I received a letter from the firm of 
Eraser, Trenholm & Co., the following of which is an extract : 

Captain J. D. Bulloch on his departure in the Flnfinl left with us the follow- 
ing written instructions with regard to a vessel which he had ordered to be 
built for the C. S. Government. We quote from his letter 10th October, 1861 : 
"If the ship now building by Mr. Miller should be ready for sea before my 
return, you are hereby authorized to have her delivered to any commissioned 
officer of the C. S. Navy, or any special ag<*nt of the C. S. Navy Depart nu'nt 
who may be in England at the time, or should no one be here to represent the 
Navy Department, you will please deliver to Captain Host- or his su<-< vssor." 

In accordance with these orders we beg leave now to inform you, as the 
senior naval ollicer of the Confederate Si ales known to us to be in England, 
that the above ship is now ready for delivery and to ask whether it is your 
desire to take charge of her. 

Mr. Prioleau thinks we should not take arms on board, as she is 
perfectly well known to be a war vessel, built for the Confederate 
States, and unless a purely mercantile and innocent character be 
fixed upon her and she be sent away clearly to be delivered empty to 
the ostensible owners who ordered her* built, she will be stopped. 

Under the circumstances I am very much at a loss to know how to 
act. I dislike very much to take charge of an empty ship and 
should be very much pleased to have your opinion as the principal 
representative of the Confederate Government. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES H. NORTH, C. S. Navy. 

Hon. J. M. MASON, 
London. 

I never could get Mr. Mason to give me a written opinion on the 
above, but he did verbally, and upon that opinion I acted. 



LONDON, February <, ISO.?. 

SIR: An opportunity offers, and I avail myself of it, so that I 
may again inform you that I am waiting most anxiously to hear 
from you. I think I have mentioned in all my letters that with 
money I can do anything, and that without it, nothing. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 145 

The small gunboat ordered by Mr. Bulloch is ready for sea, but 
I am at a loss to know what to do with her, as the English Govern- 
ment will not allow arms, etc., on board. At any rate, I shall con- 
sult with Mr. Mason and act as he thinks best on the occasion. The 
Sumter, when last heard from, was still at Gibraltar, awaiting the 
arrival of funds. They were all well. Captain Semmes expresses 
himself as being deeply mortified that he should be detained when he 
might have swept the Mediterranean of the enemy's vessels. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. H. N[ORTH]. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY. 

LIVERPOOL, February 8, 1862. 

MY DEAR SIR: I have your note of yesterday, for which I thank 
you. It was scarcely necessary, since I was not offended, and knew 
that you did not mean that I should be. But I see that my plan can 
not be carried out, and have countermanded all orders. The ham- 
mocks for the men were finished when your letter came, and are on 
board, but they will not come amiss in any event. The first and 
second engineers were engaged and I have not discharged them again 
because tlizy are hard to get if wanted in a moment, and their wages 
running on is of little consequence. Everything else about the ship 
remains in statu quo, and whether you or Captain Semmes take her, 
I suppose furniture for the officers' rooms will be required to be put 
on board before she starts. You will, of course, order whatever 
you think needed, and F., T. & Co. will be happy to pay the bills. 
I go down to Worcestershire on Monday, but Mr. Welsman will 
be here and at your orders. 
Yours, very truly, 

C. K. PRIOLEAU. 

If you decide to take arms, etc., on board as freight, I would 
suggest her going round to London for this purpose. 



C. S. S. SUMTER, 

Bay of Gibraltar, February 13, 1862. 

DEAR NORTH: The second lot of our clothing has come to hand. 
The articles all appear to be very good, and I am much obliged to 
you for the trouble you have taken. The buttons and badges we 
think very pretty. The total amount of the bill as sent is 730.14.9. 
Did you pay this bill by a draft on Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co., 
or did you draw the whole sum of $4,000, which these gentlemen 
inform me they retained for your use out of the amount drawn for 
by me? If the former, request Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co. to 
credit my drafts on the Navy Department with the difference be- 
tween the amount of the bill, and the $4,000 retained; if the latter, 
hold the difference to my credit yourself, until you hear from me. 
I have been ready for sea for the last four or five days; that is, to 
make a run of five or six days to some port where my ship can be 
taken in hand and rendered seaworthy, but a combination of the 
merchants (under the influence of the^ Yankee consul) against me, 

176429 VOL 2 PT 121 10 



146 NAVY DEPARTMENT C'omiESI'uNHr.XCE, 1861-1865. 

has prevented me from purchasing coal in the market. I have in this 
exigency demanded to be supplied (paying for it of course) by the 
dockyard of the garrison. This question having pu/zled the officials 
they have referred it to London. Xo answer has yet been received. 
If I can not be coaled here either by individuals or the Government, 
I shall be obliged to have coal sent to me from some other port. To 
return to the condition of my ^iip. She is not quite as had as 
Captain Weeks represented her, but she is entirely hors de combat 
for cruising, and will require extensive repaii-s. We iind upon 
survey that her entire upper works will have to be renewed, they 
being rotten, and that even some of the timbers of her main body 
were started during our late passage across the Atlantic. Her boilers 
and condenser are about burned out, and \vill require to be taken out 
of her before they can be repaired. If I am permitted to make these 
repairs at all in any neutral port, they will occupy some two months, 
and cost a considerable, sum of money. I think of running, as I 
wrote you in my last letter, to some English port for this purpose. 
Or what think you of my trying the French (Havre), as we have 
troubled the English somewhat at Southampton and Gibraltar lately. 
The gallant Tuwnrara reached these waters yesterday, and is now 
at anchor in this port. I think I shall not have much diiliculty in 
running her blockade, when I shall be coaled and the proper oppor- 
tunity shall present itself. By the way, what is her speed? Send 
me a lot of papers by the next steamer, as we see nothing but the 
English papers here. Yankee news is not reliable, I know, but then 
we have been reading it for some months past by the aid of a mental 
commentary as we go along, which enables us to come at something 
like the truth. Did Mr. Yancey go home in the Xuxhr/Hi'S And 
what news have you from the Confederate States that we are not 
likely to see in the newspapers ? 
Yours, very truly, 

R. SEMAIES. 

Lieutenant JAS. H. XOKTII, 
37 Russell Square. 



SPECIAL ORDERS,! ADJUTANT AND I x SPECTER GENERAL'S OFFICE, 

No, 36. J H'n'htHond, February 13, 1862. 

* * : * * * , * 

VI. Lieutenant Colonel R. F. Pinkney and Major B. P. Loyall 
are relieved from duty in the Provisional Army and will report with- 
out delay to the Secretary of the Navy in this city. 

******* 

By command of the Secretary of War : 

JNO. WITHERS, 
Assistant A djuttin t- Gen eral. 



An act to relinquish any claim on the part of the Government to 
any share in certain prises. 

The Congress of the Confederate X fates of America do enact, 
That the Government of the Confederate States do hereby relinquish 



1TAVY DEPABTMEXT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 147 

all claim to any portion of the proceeds of the sale of certain vessels 
and their cargoes captured in the Chesapeake Bay and Potomac 
Biver, on or about the 29th day of June, 1861, by George X, Hollins, 
captain in the Confederate States Navy, and certain officers of the 
Navy, and private citizens under his command; said prizes having 
been made without the participation of an}' vessel of the Confederate 
States or other Government aid. 
Approved, February lo, 1862. 



LIVERPOOL, February 20, 186%. 

DEAR Srn: We ha^e not received any reph~ to our letter of a late 
date. 

The builders of the steamer therein referred to, for most urgent 
reasons, are unwilling that she should remain any longer in her pres- 
ent position, and at their risk. It has therefore become absolutely 
necessary that you should communicate your wishes with respect 
to this vessel, or that we should be informed that you decline to act 
in the matter. 

Awaiting an immediate reply. 

We remain, dear sir, yours, truly, 

ERASER, TRENHOLM & Co. 
Lieutenant JAS. H. NORTH, 

37 Russell Square, London. 



UNITED KINGDOM ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH COMPANY, LIMITED, 

Fleet Street Station. 

Received the following message the 21st day of February, 1862: 
From information here, immediate action necessary. I am act- 
ing. Ship will sail Tuesday morning. Nothing can stop her but 
your positive orders to the contrary. 

HUSE, Liverpool. 
NORTH, 37 Russell Square, London. 



LIVERPOOL, February 82, 1862. 

SIR: The gunboat Oreto will leave this on Tuesday next (25th) 
for Havana. It may be necessary for you to order some one there 
to take charge of her. I should* have gone in her myself, but the 

fentleman who had charge of her building objected so much that 
had to give way. I shall write to Mr. Helm, at Havana, informing 
him of the fact. " I am anxiously expecting something from you. 
Very respectfully, vour obedient servant, 

J. H. N[ORTH]. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

P. S. They would allow me to send nothing in her. 



148 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

C. S. S. SUMTER, 

Bay of Gibraltar, February ,'d, 

Dear NORTH : Since I wrote you last, we have been patching up 
with the hope of running to Southampton or some other port in the 
British Channel for the purpose of overhauling and repairing our 
ship, so as to make her capable of again taking the sea, but our 
efforts I am sorry to say have proved fruitless. On Sunday last we 
got up steam, and with a pressure of only 12 pounds our boilers 
gave way in a place supposed to be sound when the fires were lighted. 
Having blown off the steam I ordered a survey, and the surveyors 
have been obliged to condemn the boilers out and out, as being un- 
worthy of further service. The Sumter is thus hors de combat for 
the rest of the war, I fear; and I shall be obliged to have recourse 
.after all to your Liverpool ship, that is to say, always my friend, 
if I do not interfere w r ith you, or any other available officer, who is 
entitled to a command. But here a serious question presents itself. 
Under the strict neutrality rules recently adopted by Lord Russell, 
and in the face of the rigid vigilance which is known to be exercised 
by the British Government, will it be possible to get the ship out 
of Liverpool with an armament and a crew? 

I have written to Mr. Mason, reporting to him the unfortunate 
condition of my ship,' and asking for advice and orders. I have 
also inclosed to him my report to the Secretary of the Navy. These 
papers should reach him by the same mail that brings you this. Con- 
fer with him on the subject-matter in hand, and let me hear from 
you at your earliest convenience. 

I have recommended that the Sumter be laid up, in charge of a 
midshipman and a boat's crew, until the end of the war, and then 
that she be taken to some British port to be thoroughly repaired. 
The hull of the ship below her gun deck is believed to be sound, and 
she may be made as good as a new ship for about half the cost of a 
new one. 

As some time must, in all probability, elapse before the Secretary 
of the Navy can be communicated with, I think Mr. Mason might 
very well assume the responsibility of authorizing me to make the 
contemplated arrangements. But of the propriety of this, he must 
himself judge, as I can not move hand or foot without orders. 

What do you think of my paymaster being in a Moorish dungeon? 
I sent him to Cadiz the other day, on business for the ship, and the 
steamer (French) in which he was embarked having stopped at Tan- 
gier, he went on shore and was seized and imprisoned at the instiga- 
tion of the Yankee consul. You know that in the Barbary States 
consuls have jurisdiction over their own citizens under special treat- 
ies, and this impudent Yankee had my paymaster arrested on the 
plea that he was a citizen of the United States. I have written 
about a cord of letters to various authorities, Moorish and British, 
but up to this moment have not been able to effect the liberation of 
my unfortunate officer. The Moorish authorities are ignorant and 
stupid, and the British officials are afraid to interfere lest they 
should run foul of the Yankees again. 

The fact is that the whole British nation were so badly frightened 
in their late quarrel with the Yankees, and have been so delighted 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 149 

to get out of it without a war, that I am afraid we shall never bring 
them up to the mark again. 

They will stand a good deal of starving before they can be worked 
again up to the sticking point. Although all the world interfered 
to keep the peace in the Trent affair, the British officials will not see 
in that affair any precedent authorizing them to exercise their good 
offices of mediation in the Morocco difficulty. So goes the world. 
Well, thank God, we are independent of them all, and can whip the 
Yankees without their assistance. As I shall per force be detained 
here some time yet, write me all the news you have from home, that 
does not reach me through the English press, and send me some late 
Southern, or, in their absence, Northern newspapers. By reading 
the latter with a key we can perhaps guess at the truth. 
Yours, truly, etc., 

R. SEMMES, 

Lieutenant JAS. H. NORTH, C. S. Navy. 



CONFEDERATE STATES NAVY DEPARTMENT, 

Richmond, February 87, 1862. 

SIR : I have the honor to report to you the operations of this de- 
partment since the 18th of November, 1861, the date of my last re- 
port, and to recite briefly the progress which has been made in naval 
defenses. 

Flag-Officer George N. Hollins, charged with the naval defenses 
of the Mississippi and the coast of Louisiana, has under his command 
the following vessels: Steamers McRae, Lieutenant Commanding 
Huger, 8 guns; General Polk, Lieutenant Commanding Carter, 6 
guns ; Florida, Lieutenant Commanding Hays, 4 guns ; Mobile, Lieu- 
tenant Commanding Shepperd, 4 guns; Pamlico, Lieutenant Com- 
manding Dozier, 2 guns; Ivy, Lieutenant Commanding Fry, 2 guns; 
Jackson-, Lieutenant Commanding Gwathmey, 2 guns; Segar, Lieu- 
tenant Commanding Shryock, 2 guns : Bienville, 5 guns ; Carondetet, 

5 guns ; Manassas (iron ram) 1 gun ; Livingston, Commander Pinkney, 

6 guns; Pontchartrain, 5 guns; Maurepas, 5 guns; schooner Pickens, 
1 gun: floating battery New Orleans, 20 guns: floating battery 
Memphis, 18 guns. Six barges carrying 12 and 24 pounder howitzers. 

Flag-Officer Tattnall, charged with the naval defenses of Carolina 
and Georgia, has under his command the gunboats Savannah, Lady 
Davis, Sampson, Resolute, and Huntress, and five gunboats carrying 
three guns each, with Commander Page, Lieutenants Maffitt, Rut- 
ledge. Kennard, Jones, and Pelot. 

Flag-Officer Buchanan, on the James River, has under his com- 
mand the ironclad frigate Virginia, of 10 guns ; the steamer Patrick 
Henry, partially protected by iron plates, of 6 guns; the steamer 
Jamestown, of 2 guns: the Teaser, of 1 gun; the Raleigh, of 1 gun, 
and Beaufort, of 1 gun. 

Flag-Officer Randolph, charged with the naval defenses of Mobile, 
has under his command the steam sloops Morgan and Gaines, which 
have just been launched, and designed for a battery of eight guns, the 
schooner Alert, and two barges, carrying 24-pounder howitzers. 



150 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1805. 

The armed steamer Rappahannock, under the command of Lieu- 
tenant Lewis, is on the Rappahannock River, and the armed steamer 
Richmond, under the command of Master Joseph White, is :it i-l\ . -ins- 
port, on the Potomac. 

CONSTKUCTION OF VESSELS. 

There are now being constructed at New Orleans two large and 
formidable iron-plated steamships, of about 1,400 tons, each designed 
for a battery of 20 of the heaviest guns. One of these, the L< 
has been launched and nearly completed, and the other, it is belie u-d, 
will be completed in six weeks. These ships are designed to \\ 
at short distances the heaviest naval ordnance, and it is believed 
that they will be able tojcope successfully, without risk, with the 
heaviest ships of the enemy. 

Two ironclad steam sloops of war are being built at Memphis, 
each to carry six guns. 

Two ironclad steam gunboats, with iron prows as rams, are in 
course of construction at New Orleans, to carry four guns each and 
it is expected will be completed in 50 days. 

Preparations are being made to build there two heavy steam rams 
to carry four guns each, so soon as the iron plating can U prepared, 
to construct two steamers for lake service, in addition to those just 
launched, and also to construct steam propellers under the recent 
act of Congress. 

At Mobile two large steamers, the engines for which orders have 
been given to purchase, will be immediately commenced, in addition 
to gunboats recently authorized by Congress. 

One gunboat is nearly completed at Columbus, Ga., and two others 
are under contract for completion there. 

Two are nearly completed at Pensacola and one at Jacksonville. 
Five are under contract at Savannah, two of which are nearly com- 
pleted. Seven steam gunboats were contracted for at different points 
in the waters of North Carolina. At Norfolk \ve have contracts for 
seven steam gunboats and at the navy yard three others are bei; up- 
built, and on the rivers of Virginia active preparations are in prog- 
ress under a selected corps of experienced officers, to construct 100 
steam gunboats of about 170 tons, each to carry two guns. 

I submit herewith a copy of the report of "Flag-Officer Lynch of 
the engagement of his fleet with that of the enemy at Karaoke 
Island and Elizabeth City on the 9th and 10th of February. The 
gallant conduct of Flag-Officer Lynch, his officers, and men 'against 
the overwhelming forces of the enemy, reflects credit upon the naval 
service and merits high commendation. 

I deem it proper briefly to advert to some of the numerous ob- 
stacles which present themselves in our Confederacy to the speedy 
creation of a navy, and which time and prudent 'legislation v, ill 
remove. 

Armed hosts may spring forth and armies may be promptly mar- 
shaled to repel invasion, but naval defenses of a country have ever 
necessarily been of tardy growth, and in this age, when the steam 
engine is as essential to the warship as her battery, and when warfare 
upon the deep is conducted upon a scale far greater than ever be- 



XAYY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 151 

fore, the difficulties, delay's, and expenses of creating a navy are 
immeasurably multiplied and increased. 

The materials of construction, the artisans, the workshops, the 
instructed officers, and the seamen all essential to the creation of a 
naval establisliment demand time and the fostering hand of the 
Government, whatever may be its resources, to develop and bring 
into useful operation. 

The want of workshops of large capacities is severely felt. No 
marine engines, such as are required for the ordinary class of sloops 
of war or frigates, have ever been made in any of the Confederate 
States, nor have workshops capable of producing them existed in 
either of them. Parts of three such engines only have been made in 
Virginia, but the heavier portions of them were constructed in 
Pennsylvania and Maryland, and had we the workshops, the con- 
struction of one such engine would require a year. 

From the commencement of hostilities our foundries have been 
engaged in supplying the pressing demands for cannon, shot, and 
shell, and but few of them have been in a condition to engage in the 
manufacture of steam engines. Hence the department, to meet the 
urgent demand for naval defenses, and as a temporary expedient, 
has been compelled, while preparing the means for the construction 
of a permanent Navy, to avail itself of such steam vessels found in 
our ports as could be converted to war purposes, and to purchase 
others in order to obtain machinery for new vessels. 

All efforts at construction, whether by contractors or by the de- 
purtment, have been crippled by the want of mechanics. Every 
applicant willing and able to work upon our vessels has been em- 
ployed and at wages nearly double those given 12 months ago. 
Calls for mechanics have been made upon the Army repeatedly, and 
these have been responded to as far as the interests of that branch of 
the service would seem to warrant, and yet not half the number 
required can be obtained. 

The same difficulty exists in obtaining instructed sailors. The 
States forming our Confederacy, engaged chiefly in agricultural 
pursuits and having but little commerce and few ships upon the sea, 
have furnished no school for seamen, and the services of this valu- 
able class of men, only to be created by time and judicious legisla- 
tion, can not be performed by landsmen. 

The United States have a constructed Navy: we have a Navy to 
construct, and as we can not hope to compete with them in the 
number of their ships the results of three-quarters of a century 
wisdom and policy require us to build our ships in reference to those 
of the enemy, and that we should, in their construction, compensate 
by their offensive and defensive power for the inequality of numbers. 
This it is confidently believed can be accomplished by building plated 
or ironclad ships, a class of war vessels which has attracted much 
attention and elicited great research in England and France within 
the past five years. 

Fully impressed with the importance of this subject, an intelligent 
and reliable officer of our Navy was sent in May last to England and 
France, and he is still there, with instructions to have constructed, 
if practicable, an iron-plated vessel similar to the French sloop 
Glolre. This could only be done with the assent of the Government. 



152 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORBBSPONDKXl'K, 

Such ships being useless for all purposes but those of naval warfare 
are built only as national vessels and can not be purchased, and the 
relative positions of these countries, their rivalry in naval construc- 
tion, and the attitude assumed by both toward our country have 
rendered it impossible as yet to accomplish the object in view. Very 
recent information, however, induces the belief that one such vessel 
may now be contracted for in France and one in England, but I 
have not been able to ascertain at what cost or within what time 
they could be completed or whether we would be permitted to fit 
the vessels out in any European port. Upon this subject a special 
agent was sent to England recently. 

We have succeeded, however, in constructing two fine steamships 
(not ironclad) in England through third parties, one of which was 
probably completed and delivered to our agents a month ago and the 
other is to be completed and delivered in May next. Such vessels 
as the English frigate Warrior, whose cost has exceeded $5, 000,000, 
and as the French sloop Gloire^ which cost about $2,000,000, can not 
be constructed in this Confederacy. 

The judgments of naval men and of other experts in naval con- 
struction have, however, been consulted, and such an arrangement of 
iron plates to the hulls of vessels has been adopted as will, it is 
believed, enable us with a small number of vessels comparatively to 
keep our waters free from the enemy and ultimately to contest with 
them the possession of his own. The two ironclad frigates at New 
Orleans, the two plated ships at Memphis, the two ironclad gunboats 
in course of construction at New Orleans, and the Virginia, now 
completed at Norfolk, are vessels of this character. 

Such vessels as those first named can be constructed in a third of 
the time which would be required to build a sloop like the Gloire if 
we had the ability to build one, and yet, though the Vir(/ini<fx ma- 
chinery and the hull to the bends were good, at least 1,500 men 
working zealously have been engaged upon and for her completion 
since July last. 

In order to stimulate the production of iron plating a reliable 
agent was sent in April last to the different rolling mills of the 
country to ascertain the practicability of manufacturing iron plates 
of the character required for such vessels, and from that time to the 
present every effort has been made to stimulate their production, and 
although the quantity we have been thus able to obtain is limited 
rolling mills are in course of construction which will, it is believed, 
greatly facilitate if they do not supply this important want of the 
public service. An estimate may be made of the iron thus required 
for naval purposes and the consequent development of the iron and 
coal deposits of our country by the fact that about 1,000 tons have 
been used in plating the Virginia. 

This has been produced by the Tredegar Works, of Richmond, 
while an equal quantity of similar plating is being manufactured by 
rolling mills in Atlanta, Ga., for an iron-plated frigate nearly com- 
pleted at New Orleans. 

The manufacture of anchors and chains, of bolt, bar, rod, and 
boiler iron, of bolt and pig copper and copper sheathing, new 
branches of industry in our Confederacy, the manufacture of heavy 
iron and light bronze ordnance and of powder; the collection of ship 
timber and naval stores and supplies of niter, sulphur, coal, iron, and 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 153 

steel, and the establishment of laboratories for the preparation of all 
classes of ordnance stores, have been satisfactorily commenced, by 
contract and otherwise, upon a scale looking to the future wants of 
the country. 

Under the orders of this department experiments have been made 
by naval officers with iron-plated targets, which afford valuable in- 
formation in addition to that derived from French and English tests, 
upon the resistance of iron plates to shot and shell. 

I recommend that the number of officers in the different grades 
of the Navy be determined by law. So long as officers were coming 
to us from the Xavy of the United States and places were reserved 
for them this could not be done, but ample time has been afforded to 
all who desired to join us from that source. 

The act originally providing for a Navy, approved March 16, 
1861, limited the number of captains to 4, of commanders to 4, of 
lieutenants to 30, of surgeons to 5, of assistant surgeons to 5, of pay- 
masters to 6, and of chief engineers to 2, and under the act of May 
20, 1861, providing for the appointment of all officers fit for active 
service, resigning from the Navy of the United States in consequence 
of the secession of these States, the grade of captain has been in- 
creased to 10, of commander to 28, of lieutenant to 76, of surgeons to 
22, of assistant surgeons to 14, of paymaster to 11, and of chief engi- 
neer to 5. 

There has been no promotion in the Navy, and can be none until 
the numbers in the several grades shall be determined. 

The good of the service would be advanced by increasing the num- 
ber of grades, thus rendering promotion more frequent, and I recom- 
mend that instead of one grade of lieutenants there be two, to be 
known as the grades of first and second lieutenants, and that the 
grade of master in the line of promotion be also established. 

I have heretofore brought to your attention the importance of pro- 
viding for the education of midshipmen. The scientific education 
of naval officers is more necessary now than at any previous period, 
and all the naval powers of the earth have made for it the most ample 
and thorough provision. I would not recommend a large expendi- 
ture for this purpose in the present condition of the Treasury, but 
the foundation of an institution so essential to the interests of the 
Navy may be economically laid. 

Appointed from civil life, and possessing but little knowledge of 
the duties of an officer, ignorant even of the vocabulary of the pro- 
fession, midshipmen are sent to vessels or to batteries where adequate 
study and instruction are impracticable. Until the establishment of 
a naval school the receiving ship at Norfolk might be prepared for 
the accommodation of a hundred midshipmen, where, under com- 
petent naval officers, a knowledge of important branches of the pro- 
fession might be acquired. 

The creation of a volunteer or provisional Navy for the war, here- 
tofore brought to your notice in detail, merits, I am persuaded, se- 
rious consideration, and I deem it proper to repeat my recommen- 
dation upon the subject. 

The Norfolk yard, under the efficient direction of Flag Officer 
Forrest, is rendering the most important service to the country. 
The construction of vessels and their equipments of gun carriages, 



154 NAVY DKJ'Airr.MKXT roKKKSPOXDHNf']-:, 1W1- 

ordnance, and ordnance stores, the manufacture of steam engines and 
of shot and shell are all progressing satisfactorily. 

The Pensacola yard being commanded by the enemy's guns, lias 
been useless as a naval establishment. 

A code of regulations for the general government of all per 
connected with or employed in the naval service, i for by 

the act of March 16, 1861, has been carefully prei-an-d and will be 
submitted for your approval at an early day. 

On the 24th of December last Congress appropriated S.V.MI.OOO for 
the construction of gunboats on the Cumberland and Tennessee 
llivers, and on the following day I sent an energetic and reliable 
naval officer, Lieutenant Isaac X Brown, of Mississippi, to Nash- 
ville, with full authority and instructions to purchase and arm 
steamers and convert them into gunboats with all possible dispatch. 
He entered at once upon this duty, purchasing the steamers / 
Wood, James Johnson, and I>it.t>lxn\ ordnance for which was in part 
and promptly sent from liichmond. He had not completed i 
vessels when the enemy reached Nashville, and information has 
reached me unofficially that he destroyed them to prevent them from 
falling into the enemy's hands. 

iliNK COIM'-. 

Under the existing law prescribing the term of service of marines, 
enlistments can be made for four years. 

This has retarded enlistments, and I recommend that authority be 
given to enlist marines for three years or for the war: and that the 
bounty of $50 for enlistment in the Army and Xavy be extended to 
this Corps. 

Estimates of the amount required for the naval service to the :'.<)th 
of June next are herewith submitted in accordance with the request 
of the Secretary of the Treasury. 

With much respect, your obedient servant. 

S. R. MALLOKY. 

Secretiti'y of tlir .V, ////. 

To the PRESIDENT. 

f Enclosures.] 

Reoapitulatwn of estimates of Navy Department. 

NAVY DKI-AUTM --.XT. 
Fcl>,-i.'<in! .?:. 1 
No. 1. 

Estimate of the amount required for compensation of Secretary of 

the Navy, clerks, and messengers $f>, 475 

No. 2. 

Msiimate for incidental and contingent expenses 3,000 

No. 3. 
Estimate for pay <>f the Xavy 737. ."..I" 

No. J,. 
Estimate for provisions and contingencies in paymaster's department- 373, 237 



XAVY DEPARTMENT CGIUIESPOXDEXCE, 1861-1805. 155 

No. 5. 
K.-limate of the amount required for ordnance and ordnance stores.. SI, 160, 000 

No. 6. 
Estimate for purchase of nautical instruments 30, 000 

No. 7. 
Estimate for equipment and repair and wear and tear of vessels 150. 000 

No. 8. 
Estimate for fuel for steamers, navy yards and stations 400,000 

A'o. 9. 

Estimate of the amount required for purchase of hemp for the Xavy_ 40, 000 

No. 10. 

Estimate for surgeons' necessaries and appliances 17,000 

A'o. 11. 
Estimate of the amount required for contingent enumerated .- 200,000 



3, 116, 040 
Three million, one hundred and sixteen thousand and forty-nine dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

No. 1. 

Estimate of the amount required for compensation of the Secretary 
of the Navy, clerks and messengers in his office, from the 1st of 
April to the 30th of June, 1862, l>einy the end of the fiscal year. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, 

February tf, 1862. 

For salary of the Secretary of the Navy per act approved Feh. 21, 1861 $1, 500 

For salary of chief clerk, also corresponding clerk and disbursing agent, 

per act approved Mar. 8, 1861 525 

For salary of four clerks on duty at ^N'avy Department, attached to the 

offices of Orders and Detail, Ordnance and Hydrography, Provisions 

and Clothing, and Medicine and Surgery, per section 9 of act approved 

Mar. 15, 1861, at $1, 500 per annum, each 1, 500 

1'i'i- salary of one clerk at $1,500 per annum, per act approved Jan. 

14, 1862 375 

For salary of two clerks at $1,200 each per annum, per act approved 

Mar. 8, 1861 600 

-alary of one clerk at $1,200 per annum, per act approved Jan. 

14, 1862 300 

For salary of one clerk at $1,000 per annum, per act approved Mar. 

8, 1861 250 

For salary of one draftsman at $1,200 per annum, per act approved 

Jan. 14, 1862 300 

For salary of messenger at $500 per annum, per act approved Mar. 

8, 1861 125 

5, 475 
Five thousand, four hundred and seventy-five dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 



156 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

No. 2. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, 

February 27, 1862. 

Estimate of the amount required for incidental and contingent ex- 
penses of the Navy Department from the 1st of April to the 30th 
of June, 1862, being the end of the fiscal year. 

For fuel, lights, labor, .stationery, telegrams, postage, oflire furniture, etc. $3,000 

Three thousand dollars. 

S. E. MALLOKY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 



No. 3. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT, 

February 27, 1862. 



Estimate of amount required under the head '''Pay of the Nav;/" 
from the 1st of April to the 30th of June, 1862, being the end of the 
fiscal year. 



For whom required. 


Average 
yearly 
fate of 
pay. 


Amount 
for three 
months. 


Amount. 


12 captains . 


$4 300 


$12,900 




33 commanders . . . . 


i' vj:. 


20,625 




77 lieutenants 


2,500 


48,125 




50 lieutenants 


1,500 


18,750 




22 surgeons ... ..... 


2,500 


13.760 




45 assistant surgeons 


1,250 


14,062 




10 paymasters 


3,000 


7,500 




16 assistant paymasters. 


1 irff) 


4,000 




7 chief engineers . 


2,200 


3,850 












Amount required for commissioned officers 






$143,562 


43 masters 


1,200 


12,900 




150 midshipmen 


550 


20, 625 




10 boatswains 


1,000 


2,500 




50 gunners 


1,000 


12,500 




50 carpenters . ... 


1,000 


12,600 




C sailmakers 


1.000 


1,500 




50 first assistant engineers 


1,250 


15, 625 




150 second assistant engineers. . . 


1,000 


37,500 




150 third assistant engineers 


750 


28,125 












Amount required for warrant officers .... 






113,775 


For the pay of 5,000 seamen, ordinary seamen, landsmen, boys, firemen, 
and coal heavers 




240 


300,000 


For bounty to 3,000 seamen, etc., authorized by act of Congress, approved 
Jan. 16. 1862, at 




50 


150,000 


Total amount required for " Pay of the Navy'' from the 1st of April 








and thirty-seven thousand three hundred and 'thirty-seven dollars 






737,337 











Respectfully submitted. Office of Provisions and Clothing, Jan- 
uary, 31, 1862. 

JOHN DE BKKE, 
Paymaster in Charge. 
S. R. MAI.LORY, 

decretory of the Navy. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 
No. 4. 



157 



Estimate of amount required under the head of "Provisions and 
Contingencies in Paymaster's Department " from the 1st of April 
to the 30th day of June, A. D, 186%, the end of the -fiscal year. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, February 27, 1862. 





Number 
of 
rations. 


Average 
cost. 




For the subsistence of 6,000 men for the three months, at one ration per 
dav, 91 days, 6,000 men 


546 000 


60c. 




Amount required for provision 






$327,600 


For contingencies in Pa}-master's Department, for printing, blankets, 
freight, cooperage, pay of transportation agents, storage, lights, etc 






11,625 


Add for additional contingencies that can not be estimated for, ten per 
cent required .... 






34,012 


Total amount required for Provision and Contingencies in Pay- 








two hundred and thirtv-seven dollars 






373,237 











Respectfullv submitted, Office of Provisions and Clothing, Janu- 
ary 31, 1862. " 

JOHN DE BREE, 
Paymaster in Charge. 
S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



No. 5. 

Estimate of the amount required for Ordnance and Ordnance Stores 
far the Navy for three months , from Apr. 1 to June 30, 1862, the 
end of the fiscal year. 

C. S. NAVY DEPARTMENT, 
Office of Ordnance and Hydrography, February 12, 1862. 

cnnnon__ $200, 000 



Tor 
Fi >r 
For 
For 
For 
For 
For 
For 
For 
For 



trim carriages complete 

projectiles of all kinds 

laboratory stores 

gunpowder 

powder tanks 

small arms 

contingent expenses 

expenses of powder mills at Petersburg, Va._ 
purchase of saltpeter 



200,000 
80,000 
20,000 

250,000 
50,000 

180,000 
20,000 
10,000 

150, 000 



1, 160, 000 

One million, one hundred and sixty thousand dollars. Of this amount the sum 
Of one million dollars is required for the armament of the steam gunboats 
authorized by Act of Congress of the 24th of December, 1861. 

GEOROE MINOR, 
Commander, in Charge. 
S. R. MALLORY. 

Secretary of the Navy. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, Febr-uary 27, 1862. 



158 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-18G5. 

No. G. 

'Estimate of the amount that will be required for the purchase of 
nautical instruments, books, charts, etc., for the Navy, for three 
months from Apr. 1 to June 30, 1862, the end of the fiscal year. 

C. S, NAVY DEPARTMENT, 
Office Ordnance and Hydrography, February 12, 1862. 

For chronometers ?8, 000 

For compasses 5, 000 

For sextants 4, 000 

For spyglasses ?>, <oo 

For barometers 3, 000 

For thermometers -"on 

For hydrometers 1, <H)o 

For artificial horizons ~>in 

For log glasses 

For parallel rulers lioo 

For mathematical instruments 1, OOO 

For nautical books, maps, and charts f>, .">oo 



30,000 
Thirty thousand dollars. 

GEORGE MINOR, 
Commander in Charge. 
S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 
NAVY DEPARTMENT, February 27, 1862. 



No. 7. 

Estimate of the amount required for equipment and repairs mtd 
wear and tear of vessels in commission from the 1st of April to 
the 30th of June, 1862, "being the end of the fiscal year. 

For equipment and repairs and wear and tear of vessels of the Navy 

ill commission $150, 000 

One hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 

S. R. MAI/LORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
NAVY DEPARTMENT, February 27, 1862. 



No. 8. 

Estimate of the amount required for fuel for steamers, navy yards, 
and stations from the 1st of April to the 30th of June, 1862, being 
the end of the fiscal year. 

For fuel for steamers, navy yards, and stations .$400, 000 

Four hundred thousand dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
NAVY DEPARTMENT, February 27, 1862. 



JSTAVY DEPARTMENT COKKESPOXDENCE, 1861-1365. 159 

No. 9. 

Estimate of the amount required for "Purchase of Hemp for the 
Navy " from the 1st of April to the 30th of June, 1862, being the 
end of the -fiscal year. 

For purchase of hemp for the Navy $40, 000 

Forty thousand dollars. 

S. K. MALLORT, 

Secretary of the Navy. 
NAVY DEPARTMENT, February 27, 1862. 



No. 10. 

Estimate of the amount required for "Surgeon's Necessaries and 
Appliances for the Sick and Wounded of the Navy, including the 
Navy and Marine Corps" from the 1st of April to the 30th of 
June, 1802, being the end of the -fiscal year. 

For medicines, surgical instruments, hospital stores, furniture, etc $17,000 

Seventeen thousand dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
NAVY DEPARTMENT, February 27, 



No. 11. 

Estimate of the amount required under the head of " Contingent 
Enumerated' 1 ' 1 from the 1st of April to the 30th of June, 1862, 
being the end of the fiscal year. 

For the following purposes, viz : Freight and transportation, print- 
ing and stationery, advertising, models and drawings, repair of fire 
engines and hose repairs, and attending steam engines in yards; 
purchase and maintenance of horses and oxen, and drawing teams, 
carts, lumber, wheels, and the purchase and repair of workmen's 
tools ; postage on public letters, fuel, oil, and candles for navy yards 
and shore stations; pay of watchmen and incidental labor not 
chargeable to the appropriations, wharfage, dockage, and rent; 
traveling expenses of officers and others under orders; funeral ex- 
penses; store and office rent, commissions, and pay of navy agents 
and clerks, flags, awnings and packing boxes, books for libraries of 
vessels, premiums, and other expenses of recruiting; apprehending 
deserters; per diem pay of persons attending courts-martial, courts 
of inquiry and other service authorized by law ; pay of Judge Advo- 
cate ; pilotage and towage of vessels and assistance to vessels in 
distress and for bills of health and quarantine expenses, $200,000. 

Two hundred thousand dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, February 87, 1802, 



160 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

CONSULADO DE K-l'VNA. 

Norfolk, Va., February 28, 1862. 

SIR : In the month of July last past, the brig B. T. Martin, Captain 
French, while in the performance of her voyage from Philadelphia 
to Cardenas, Cuba, was captured by the privateer York, fitted out 
from this port. On board of the former vessel as passenger was a 
young Spaniard, Emanuel Castamado, of S'agua la Grande, |C'ul>a |, 
who was returning to his family and home, having been at school 
in Chester, Pa. To save the brig from the enemy she was run 
on shore and the privateer afterwards met a similar fate, both being 
burned. By this catastrophe the young Spaniard lost all his ef- 
fects, including his wearing apparel, books, etc. He had paid his 
outward passage, which was also lost to him, and was brought 
hither with only what he stood in from North Carolina, and after 
remaining at my house for ten days was, by the kindness and accus- 
tomed courtesy of our commanding general, Huger, sent down to 
Fortress Monroe, whither I accompanied him, in order that he might 
reach a Northern port, and seek a further transit to his friends. 

I now, in my official capacity, call your attention to his claim for 
indemnity, valuing his effects at a very low estimate, $40, and his 
expenses north, $85, including his outward passage, being the exact 
sum expended by him, together $125. 

Mr. C., I would remark, is solely dependent on a widowed mother, 
who has a large family. Under these circumstances, I commend 
his claim to your favorable notice, and have the honor to be, sir, 
Your most faithful servant, 

DN. ROBERTSON. 
Her Most Catholic Majesty's Consul for Virginia. 

His EXCELLENCY S. R. MALLORY. 

Secretary of the Navy, C. S., Richmond. 

The undersigned, late commander of the privateer York, doth 
hereby certify that the facts as stated in the preceding letter from 
Duncan Robertson, esq., consul of Spain, are, to the best of my 
knowledge and belief, true. Given under my hand at Norfolk this 
28th day of February, 1862. 

J. P. GEOFFREY. 

Mr. Emanuel Castamado was brought to this place and delivered 
to the Spanish consul by the officers of the privateer York, as 
stated within. 

BENJ. HUGER, 
Major- General. 

37 RUSSELL SQUARE, 
London, February 28, 1862. 

MY DEAR SIR : Your note of the 27th, enclosing " Chart Book/' has 
been received. I have "ticked" off a few others, thinking that they 
may be of use one of these days. I see by your note that the 0[reto] 
has not yet sailed. Unless I have reasons to the contrary after the 
arrival of the W[est] India steamer I shall go in the O\rcto\. If 
it should be necessary for her to leave immediately, she can stop in 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 161 

at some other port for me. What say you to Milford Haven, Fal- 
mouth, or Isle of Man ? Let me hear from you, if you please. 
Yours, truly, 

J. H. N FORTH] . 
Mr. W. T. MANX, 

York Street, Liverpool. 



MARCH 1, 1862. 

Mr DEAR SIR : Your note is to hand, but though you say duplicate 
charts marked x, yet none are so marked. So we duplicate those you 
wrote and marked about half a dozen. 

Unless you order J>y telegraph on Monday morning early that she 
is not to go she will go as arranged entered out for several ports. 
It is not considered prudent to put into the ports named, and the 
best place for you would be Madeira, unless you like to take he 
risk of going on board here from tugboat, as some of us propose 
going out with her, and then returning in tug. But you will also 
remember the point named to you relative to your being on board 
the ship at all ; however, I have no right to even name this, and do 
so only in my anxiety for her getting out unquestioned and that 
all the trouble and expense should not be or even have a chance of 
being to no purpose. Pray telegraph under any circumstances and 
give distinct instructions, and if you do so to-morrow my private 
address is Olive Mount, Wavertree, Liverpool. 

We registered this morning, etc., 30 men, about as many as we can 
venture on, besides engineers, firemen, etc. I am very anxious all 
may go right. 

Yours, very truly, 

W. T. MANN. 



LONDON AND PROVINCIAL MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
2 Royal Exchange Buildings, London, March 1, 

SIR : I have the honor to communicate with you on the subject of 
the ship Linwood, and in doing so I must apologize for thus in- 
truding upon you, but hope that the case in which I am concerned, 
and in which you, under the circumstances, may not be uninterested, 
will be considered a sufficient introduction. 

The Lvnwood. as you are probably aware, was a Federal-owned 
vessel, and bound from Rio de Janeiro to New York, with a cargo of 
coffee, a portion of which was insured by this company against perils 
of the seas, but providing by a special clause against captures and 
seizures or any consequences thereof, or of any attempt thereat, 
or of any consequences of war, having regard to the war existing 
between the Confederate and the Federal Governments and knowing 
that the coast and Cape Hatteras more particularly was in the 
possession of the Confederate forces. 

The captain of the vessel proves by his log, as also by evidence 
on oath before proper authorities, that " knowing where the light off 
Cape Hatteras ought to be, he kept a man on lookout for the light 
and that in consequence of the absence of the light the ship struck," 
and became, fairly, with her cargo, the prize of the Confederate 

176429 VOL 2 PT 121 11 



162 3STAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPOND KXCK, 1"<'M 

forces. This occurred at nearly midnight on the 17th July, 1861; 
the capture took place at daylight of the following morning, as 
mentioned in a letter from Major Andrews, a copy of which is 
annexed hereto and marked No. 1. 

I have every desire to do justice to the owners of tho cargo of the 
Linwood, and promptly to meet any claim, if liable, but such a con- 
tingency as this capture was anticipated and was not insured against. 

It is generally admitted that the extinction of the light in so 
prominent a position was the act of the Confederate commanders, 
and justly so, for the purposes of warfare. This may 1Y;;-!y be in- 
ferred from the tenor of a dispatch, dated 2-Sd July, 1801, from 
Major Andrews, commanding, to his Excellency Henry Chirk, a 
copy of which, marked No. 2, is annexed, in which that officer pro- 
posed the demolition of the light-house as being a beacon in day time, 
warning merchant vessels away, and affording a center around which 
the enemy's men-of-war might move. 

The fact of the light being extinguished by the Confederate fo> 
although thus generally admitted, is after all merely an inference 
wherewith to meet any claim that may be ad van; 

The communication with the Confederate States being difficult, 
I am led to trouble you in the matter, believing that you would be in 
possession of full particulars relating to the operations at so im- 
portant a position, and that you may not be indisposed in a matter 
of commercial importance, to afford such information that will 
enable me to act fairly and in justice toward those with whom I am 
concerned. 

The favor that I would ask you is, the order by which the light 
at Cape Hatteras was put out? Should you, however, be unable to 
give me this, might I ask you to inform me as to the best means by 
which I could obtain the information I require, either from the 
officers in command or some other authentic source? 

I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient servant, 

JNO. LE GYT DANIELS, 

Secretary. 

J. M. MASON, Esq., etc. 

[Enclosure.] 

Extracts from dispatches, reported in the Times neirspoper of Satur- 
day, Dec.. 21, 1861, as having been taken from Fort Clark by Mr. 
Fiske, aid to General Butler. 

No.l.] 

HEADQUARTERS, Cape Hatteras, July 22, [/<sv?7]. 



The commissary has on hand supplies for about twenty-five days. 

When I arrived here I found the bark Linwood a wreck near the 

camp. She came on shore with 6,000 bags of coffee on board, of 

which only 129 have come under my care, some of which is damaged. 

I desire particulars and instructions on the subject of wrec 

The wreck master here asserts that the commander of the troops 

look the control of the wreck out of his hands, and that he could. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1885. 163 

with his wreckers, have saved at least 1,000 bags. There seems to- 
have been a strife for salvage, which had like to have resulted in 
the loss of the whole of a wreck worth at least $250,000. The laws 
seem to be plain upon the subject, but the law being enacted for a 
state of peace, and a state of war existing, I should like to know 
what my duty is. My opinion is that in cases of wrecked property 
belonging to an enemy the State occupies the place of the merchant, 
owners, or underwriters, and after salvage and the wreck masters' 
commissions have been taken, the State takes charge of the residue 
as the property of an enemy. The arms found in the wreck have been 
transferred to the ordnance officer. The prisoners have been sent to 
l*erne. together with Captain Campbell, of the wreck Lydiu 

. and delivered to General Gwynn, etc. 
Very truly, yours, 

W. S. G. ANDREWS, 

Major* Commanding. 
His Excellency HENRY CLARK. 



U. S. SHIP INO, 

Off Cadiz, March 6, 1862. 

SIR: By the bark Harvest Home, Captain Dickey, I send to the 
United States as prisoners in irons Mr. Henry Myers, paymaster 
of the pirate Swniter, and Mr. T. T. Tunstall, ex-consul at Cadiz. 
They were delivered to me by the U. S. consul at Tangier, Mr. De 
Long. Full particulars of their arrest have been forwarded the State 
Department by Mr. De Long, the consul, who informed me, on receiv- 
ing them, that they were engaged in Tangier in endeavoring to pro- 
cure coal and provisions for the rebel steamer Sumter, now lying 
in Gibraltar. Their acts and conversation while at Tangier fully 
warranted the consul in arresting them. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JOSIAH P. CREESY, 
Acting Volunteer Lieutenant, Commanding U. S. ship I no. 

Hon. RICHARD H. DANA, Jr., U. S. Attorney, 

Boston, Mass. 

U. S. SHIP INO, 

From Tunstall I took $55 in Spanish gold and a revolver; from 
Mr. Myers $45 in gold, together with four pieces of Moorish coin, 
value of 25 cents, and a Spanish real, also a gold watch and chain, 
and a small piece of iron. The watch is No. 17,901, D. B. Nichols, 
maker, of Geneva work; on the watch chain was an American half- 
dime. 



RICHMOND, March 10, 1862. 

SIR : Annexed I submit a letter from the Secretary of the Navy, 
indicating a plan for the further defense of the Bay of Mobile and 
the Alabama River, asking for an appropriation to carry it into 
execution. 

The general purpose and means proposed are similar to those 
authorized by an act of the Provisional Congress for the better 
defense of the Mississippi River, 



164 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

I commend the proposition to the favorable consideration of Con- 
gress, and would suggest, if it be adopted, that the disbursement of 
the money be made in the manner provided for appropriations for 
the Navy. 

JEFFERSON DAVIS. 

The SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 

[Enclosure.] 

CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, March 10, 1862. 

SIR: Captain James, of Mobile, has submitted to this department 
a plan for protecting the engines and boilers of the Alabama River 
boats by bulkheads of timber and compressed cotton against shot 
and shell and of arming them for service against the enemy in the 
bay and waters of Mobile. This plan has been submitted to Flag- 
Officer Randolph, in command at Mobile, and by him approved, and 
it has also the approval of the committee of safety of that city. 

Captain James is introduced to me by members of the Alabama 
delegation as a man entitled to confidence, and he informs me that 
the steamboat men of Mobile and Montgomery, who will not enter the 
naval service, are ready to aid in fitting up and fighting those ves- 
sels and will enlist in the enterprise; that the time necessary to 
complete a boat according to the plan will not exceed twenty days; 
and that the boats will not be thereby decreased in value for com- 
mercial purposes. 

Upon these statements, and as temporary defenses, I deem the 
plan worthy of trial, and therefore submit to you the expediency 
of asking Congress for an appropriation of $1,200,000 for purchasing, 
arming, manning, and equipping 10 steamers for this purpose. 

The wisdom of Congress will devise the best manner of con- 
trolling the expenditure of the appropriation, if made, so as best to 
protect the public interests and at the same time to give to the enter- 
prise such a character as will secure for it the ready and zealous 
efforts of the men who are represented as ready to engage in it and 
whose cooperation is deemed important. 

A distinct corps, with appropriate grades for captains, mates, 
and pilots of boats, might be previously organized, all to be under 
the general direction of the flag-officer of the station. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. -R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

The PRESIDENT. 



10 RUMFORD PLACE, 
Liverpool, March 11, 1862. 

MY DEAR SIR: I was not aware of your address until this morn- 
ing or should have forwarded the letters for you, entrusted to my 
care, last night. They are posted for to-night's 9 p. m. train, and I 
hope you will receive them early in the morning. Although I was 
detained eight or ten days in AVilmington, the Department did not 
send me any later dates for you than I noAV forward. It was my in- 
tention to go on at once to London, as I have several large contracts 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 165 

to make there, but the condition of our little war craft here demands 
my earnest attention and I will not be able to go to London until 
some time next week. It is the wish of the Navy Department that 
you should command one of the ships building in this country, and 
I beg that you will decide at once if you desire to assume charge of 
the one now lying here. The duties assigned me by the Department 
will not admit of my leaving this country immediately, so that unless 
you relieve me of this ship I must make some other disposition of 
her. Captain Semmes, of the Sumter, would doubtless be delighted 
to exchange her, [with] the vessel he is now in, and it is important 
that I should communicate with him at once. You will please, there- 
fore, give me your intentions and wishes as early as possible. My 
own general, as well as particular, instructions from the Navy De- 
partment are too-bulky to send you by post, but I will be happy to 
submit them to your inspection when I see you in London. The Hon- 
orable Secretary of the Navy, in a letter addressed to me a few days 
before my departure, directs me to assist you in making out estimates 
and plans for one ironclad vessel of about 2,000 tons. I will confer 
with you in reference to this matter whenever you desire. In the 
meantime, I will ask the Messrs. Laird if they could undertake such 
a contract. 

Please present my compliments to Mrs. North. I can give you 
cheering news from our part of the world, in spite of the late disas- 
ters in Tennessee, but for want of time must postpone the recital until 
we meet face to face. 

I am, very respectfully and truly, yours, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Commander JAMES H. NORTH, C. S. Navv. 



LIVERPOOL, March 14, 
DEAR SIR : Your favor of the 12th instant is at hand, and I thank 
you sincerely for your kind congratulations. I find a good deal to 
do here, and scarcely think I will be able to go^up to London until 
about the end of next week. The outfit of our little ship has occupied 
me for the last two or three days, and she is now nearly ready. If I 
could get her to Captain Semmes she would be in good hands, and 
this would be the best disposition that could be made of her, but in 
the present state of feeling in Europe on the subject of American 
affairs, a Confederate cruiser could effect little or nothing afloat. 
The prohibition as regards coaling, and the constantly expressed 
disapprobation of the European powers against national ship prey- 
ing solely upon commerce, although avowedly intended as acts of 
neutrality, are in reality most favorable and partial to the North. 
"\Vith the ship I am well pleased. She is well built and fastened, 
and very roomy in her fighting quarters. The engines are equal to 
any I ever saw. On the trial trip she made 11 knots. The Seminole 
and ships of her class in the Federal Navy have several feet of their 
boilers, as well as parts of their machinery, above the water line; 
this ship's boilers are nearly 2 feet under water, and the arch of 
the coal bunkers protects the engine room very effectively. I have 
also carefully inspected the other ship and am delighted with her. 



166 NAVY DEPAKTMENT COIIHESPONDENCE, 

She will be, in my opinion, equal to any vessel of her da,ss in the 
world. I arn especially interested in her, as she is more particularly 
the one of my choice, and I had much more time in which to arrange 
her plans and perfect her designs. 

I will, of course, assist you in any way you desire to arrange for 
the building of an ironclad ship. Mr. Mallory requested me by 
letter to let him know if a contract for such ;i vessel could be ni;;;K'. 
and directed me to send him plans and specifications, lit- said he 
would send on the money as soon as he learned that the undertaking 
was practicable. I will show you his correspondence on the subject 
when we meet. 

The news from Dixie is saddening, but I really think the late 
reverses will do our people good. They were too confident and too 
careless of the necessary precautions. If it is possible to arrange 
my business here by Wednesday next, I will go up to London on 
Thursday, but my stay there will be necessarily short, as I have only 
a contract for 100 tons of cannon powder to make there, and that 
can be done very quickly. Mrs. Bulloch will l>e with me. She 
desires her compliments to yourself and Mrs. North, and thanks for 
your congratulations to her on my safe return. 

We have moved out to No. 2 Marine Terrace, Waterloo, where I 
found Mrs. B. had taken a small house. 
In haste, I am, yours truly, 

JAMES D. BLLLOCII. 

Commander JAMES H. NORTH. 



LIVERPOOL, Mare// /.'/< /-S'63. 

DEAR SIR: Your favor of yesterday is at hand. Accept my 
thanks for your offer to forward letters. There is now no difficulty 
in writing to the Confederate States by way of Nassau. Our Govern- 
ment has established a system of communication which seems to be 
working very well. Maffitt has a fine, fast, little steamer in which 
he will ply regularly between the West Indies and the Southern 
coast, varying the places of arrival, to distract the blockaders. I 
wrote yesterday by the New York steamer. The West Indies mail 
bags do not pass through the U. S. post office at all, and this mode 
of corresponding is far safer than by private hands. 

It will afford me pleasure to give the gentleman you speak of 
any information in my power. 

In haste, I am, yours, truly, 

JAMES D. BUTXOCH. 

Commander JAMES H. NORTH. 



37 RUSSELL SQUARE, 

London, March 16, 1862. 

SIR : This will be handed you by Major Ficklin, who leaves for 
the Confederate States and who will be able to tell you of the state 
of things here much better than I can write them. 

My letter will only be a duplicate of the one sent on yesterday, as I 
think it advisable to write by every opportunity. 



KAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 167 

On the arrival of Mr. Bulloch at Liverpool, he forwarded to me 
the two letters entrusted to his care by the Navy Department: the 
first dated November 20, and the latter January 11. I regret to see 
by those communications that my letters have not been understood 
by the Navy Department as intended. 

In all, or nearly all of my communications to the department, I 
tell them that with money I can do anything, and that without it I 
can do nothing. Now, I certainly thought that such expressions as 
these would be fully understood by yourself, thinking it best not to 
write too fully in such times as these, but as I have not been 
understood, I now beg to report that I have had offers to con- 
struct and build iron gunboats cased with armor plates from 
stem to stern from 2| to 2^ inches thick amidships and 2 inches at 

each end for per ton. Also iron screw corvettes of from 

1,800 to 2,000 tons, builder's measurement, with 4f-inch plates or 9- 
inch teak amidships, tapering off to 6 inches of teak and 3^-inch 

plates at each end, armor extending from stem to stern, for 

per ton. 

If I had only had the money they would have been all under way, 
the smaller ones possibly finished by this time. These people here 
will do nothing without they know you have money ready to plank 
down, and that is what I have tried to impress upon you in all my 
letters. 

In my last communication to you I mentioned that the Oreto 
would leave Liverpool on the 25th of February, and that I should 
have taken charge of her myself, but the parties who had the con- 
tract for her were so much opposed to it that I finally gave up the 
idea. Circumstances have arisen, however, which did away with 
the imperative necessity of sailing so soon, so that by and with the 
advice of Mr. Mason I determined to detain her; now Mr. Bulloch 
has returned, he will take charge of her and I suppose carry out the 
instructions received from you. As yet I have not seen Mr. Bulloch 
or his orders, he having been detained at Liverpool. 

I heard from Commander Semmes a few days ago ; he has had many 
difficulties to contend with since his arrival in Cadiz, but I suppose 
his reports to you (which have been forwarded by Mr. Mason) will 
tell you all. In his last letter, of February 26, he says : " On Sunday 
last we got up steam and with a pressure of only 12 pounds, our 
boilers gave way in a place supposed to be sound when the fires were 
lighted. Having blown off the steam I ordered a survey and the 
surveyors have been obliged to condemn them." He also tells me 
that his paymaster was in a Moorish dungeon, he having been cap- 
tured by the Yankee consul. I see by the papers, however, he has 
been released. The Su?nter has some two or three of the Yankee 
warships watching her movements, although she is at anchor in 
Gibraltar waters. She is doing the Confederacy some good by keep- 
ing the enemy's ships there. 

I am sorry to say that since the Trent affair a tremendous reaction 
has taken place in the tone of public opinion here in relation to 
our cause. 

These people have received such a fright that it will be a long time 
before they recover from it, and the Yankees might, in my opinion, 
insult them with impunity. 



168 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

The English Government are very strict in carrying out their 
avowed neutrality views. It will be impossible for the present to 
arm a vessel in this country. We need not expect this Government 
to do anything for us; on the contrary, they would be charmed to 
see us destroy each other like Kilkenny cats. In fact no one can 
judge of the public opinion here without he is on the very spot. 
They care nothing for us except as far as cotton and dollars and 
cents are concerned. On the subject of slavery they are a nation 
of fanatics. It is said thev have cotton enough to last until next 
fall. 

Since my arrival in this country I have received but four com- 
munications from you, one in cipher of June 28 and three others of 
September 27, November 20, and January 11. 

1 have written or sent a verbal communication by nearly every 
opportunity that has offered. I can not tell you how deeply I feel 
my situation, having done, comparatively speaking, nothing when 
God only knows how anxious I am to do something for our poor 
country. 

In such times as these we must act with promptness and you should 
place some confidence in the judgment of your agent and not stop 
to send drawings and specifications back and forth. Please take- 
what I have written in a friendly way. I mean nothing disrespect- 
ful by it. I am only too anxious to serve you. 

With great respect, I am, your obedient servant, 

JAMES H. NORTH, C. S. Navy. 

Hon. S. E. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Xavy, 



CONFEDERATE STATES, 
Navy Department, Richmond, March 17, 1862. 

SIR: Your letter of the 25th of January last, dated at London, 
was delivered to me last evening by Lieutenant Fauntleroy, and it 
was the first 1 have received since you left the Confederate States, 
with the exception of two brief notes, a single cipher, and your 
letter of the 12th of August. 

I am unwilling to suppose that you have failed to write fully 
to me as to the practicability of attaining the special object for 
which you were sent abroad, and I infer that you have apprised me 
thereof in detail, but up to this hour I have received no informa- 
tion from you upon which any reliable opinion could be formed, ex- 
cepting your letter of August 12. 

By your instructions of the 17th of May last you were directed, 
first, to ascertain whether the English or French Government would 
sell to the Confederate Government ironclad vessels of war: and 
next, whether, if they could not be purchased, you could, with the 
sanction of either or both governments, have such vessels constructed 
by contract and fitted for war purposes in France or England. In 
your instructions of the 28th of June last you were instructed to 
purchase an ironclad war vessel upon any terms. 

Your instructions of the 28th of July last informed you that I 
was without advices from you, and that if you could not buy or build 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 169 

ironclad vessels you were to return to the Confederate States in 
any way you might deem most advisable. 

Your single sentence in cipher is "Anything can be done here 
for money," and the verbal communication through Mr. Bulloch and 
Mr. Fair were to the effect that no ironclad war vessels could be 
purchased from the English or French Governments, who could not 
even be approached on the subject, and that in the present condi- 
tion of public sentiment in England and France could not be built 
and fitted out for us there. You are aware that to build such a 
vessel would involve an expenditure of at least a million of dollars, 
a sum of money that could not with justice to the Treasury be placed 
in England unless a prospect of using it for the purpose designed 
existed. 

On the 27th of September I replied fully to your letter of August 
the 12th, and you would then have been again recalled, but that your 
presence was necessary, Mr. Bulloch having left there, to receive and 
dispense the funds of the department in England. 

Your remark in the brief note received last night upon the cruelty 
of keeping you abroad surprises me greatly, and can only be justified 
by your failure to receive my letters and my failure to receive yours. 

In my two letters of instruction to you of November 30, 1861, and 
January 10, 1862, you were directed to take charge of one of the 
vessels we are building in England and to command her as a cruising 
ship. This order being in compliance with two requests contained in 
your letters of the 12th of August and 10th of October. 

I trust that this vessel will soon be ready. I have requested the 
Treasur}^ Department to place in your hands $150,000. With this 
sum and the amount remaining in the hands of Commander Bulloch, 
which he will turn over to you on leaving England, you will fit out 
your vessel according to your best judgment and as circumstances 
will permit as a cruising vessel. 

The steamer Economist leaves here in a few days, and by her I 
will forward your instructions and send^you some officers for your 
vessel. They will be ordered to report to you, but will be ignorant 
of the design of the department in sending them, and it will be well 
for you to let them remain so until you require their services. If 
money can expedite the completion and outfit of your vessel, you 
will not fail to employ it judiciously. Your good judgment is con- 
fided in, and everything is expected from it. 

In your next communication you will please inform me whether 
we can have an iron-plated, ball-proof war vessel of from six to 
eight guns built and fitted for us in England or France, and upon 
what terms, at what cost, and within what time. 
Yours, respectfully, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Lieutenant JAMES H. XORTH, 

London, England. 



RICHMOND, VA., March 20, 1862. 

In reply to the resolution of the House of Representatives of the 
24th ultimo, requesting the President to furnish certain information 
in reference to the James River defenses and the defenses of the city 



170 IfTAVY DEPAETMEXT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

of Richmond, with his own opinion thereon, and to cause a survey 
to be made of the Chickahominy and its branches with reference to 
its being occupied as a defensive line, I transmit herewith a com- 
munication from the Secretary of War, submitting a report of 
Captain Alfred L. Rives, in charge of the engineer bureau, on the 
subjects referred to, so far as the information obtained will admit. 

The report of Captain Rives states the facts in regard to the state 
of the defenses of the James River and the city of Richmond, and 
in the views presented by him I generally concur. It may be proper, 
however, to add something in explanation of the facts presented, and 
my own impressions derived from various sources from time to time. 

The work at Day's Point possesses but little value for the defense 
proper of the James River. It was located with regard to the pro- 
tection of Burwell's Bay and the country above from foraging excur- 
sions of the enemy by water, and as a protection to our own boats 
in the river. A site somewhat lower down would have been prefer- 
able, according to information obtained since the location of the 
work; but it has thus far fulfilled its object, and as it has been well 
constructed with much labor and expense, it is probably best not to 
disturb it except by the addition of a small outwork to command the 
approaches in its rear, which I am told is being done. 

The next position above, defended by the works at Hardy's Bluff 
and Mulberry Island, possesses great importance from being the 
right flank 01 General Magruders chosen defensive line on the Pen- 
insula, and the lowest point which gives the hope of a successful 
protection of the river against the wooden fleets of the enemy. Iron- 
clad vessels, of which we have not had sufficient experience to form 
a correct judgment, can pass these works, as the channel is too wide 
and deep for obstructions, unless wrought-iron bolts now being pre- 
pared for trial against the Ericsson battery [Monitor] and others of 
the same class prove more effective than can be reasonably hoped 
for; but still the transports necessary for a formidable expedition 
ought to be kept back by the batteries so long as they are held, and 
it is thought that they should not be silenced by a few ironclad 
sels operating with a small number of guns at long range, especially 
as the battery at Hardy's Bluff has considerable elevation. Both 
works are strong against a land attack. The guns at Jamestown 
Island will probably be removed to the position just referred to so 
soon as it is fully prepared for them. 

The position at Drewry's Bluff, seven or eight miles below Rich- 
mond, which has intimate relations with the defenses proper of this 
city, was chosen to obstruct the river against such vessels as the 
Monitor. The work is being rapidly completed. 

Either Fort Powhatan or Ivennon's Marsh, if found to be the 
proper positions, will be fortified and obstructed as at Drewry's 
Bluff, to prevent the ascent of the river by ironclad vessels. Block- 
ing the channel where sufficiently narrow by strong lines of obstruc- 
tions, filling it with submarine batteries, and flanking the obstruc- 
tions by well-protected batteries of the heaviest guns, seem to offer 
the best and speediest chances of protection with the means at our 
disposal against ironclad floating batteries. 

The field works for the defense of Richmond, which are arranged 
upon the plan of the detached system, conceded by most military 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

men to be the best, are completed with th exception of two an the 
side of the city and one main and two accessory works on the Man- 
chester side. The unfinished works will be completed as soon as more 
important ones further from, the city are in a more efficient condition. 
The line occupied by these works was chosen to make it as short as 
possible, partly from the difficulty of defending a longer line, and 
partly from the time, labor, and expense necessary to construct such 
a one. It is rather nearer the city than desirable, but the enemy must 
remain out of reach of eur guns, at least as heavy as his, until the 
line is carried, and then the city must fall whether the line be- 
near or removed within the limit of a few miles. I see no advantage 
in constructing a new line more removed from the city, unless the 
Chickahominy be found suited to the system of dams and overflow, 
which. I think, from the information in my possession, is problematical. 
Should the enemy get near enough to lay siege to this city, addi- 
tional works can be thrown up as he develops his plans and means, 
and these, with those already constructed, can be armed with the 
guns which would necessarily be brought back with the troops to 
defend them. The want of heavy guns and the requisite carriages 
has prevented the fortifications here from being armed with them to 
any extent, and I do not think it wise to take them for this purpose 
from other points where, in my opinion, they are more needed. 

Any system of fortification which could be constructed during 
war for the defense of this eity would only serve to gain time. An 
army which allows itself to be shut up in a fortified city must finally 
yield to an enemy superior in numbers and munitions of war. 

JEFFERSON DAVIS. 
The HOUSE or REPRESENTATIVES, C. S. A. 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, March 4-> 1862. 

SIR: I herewith transmit for the consideration of the House of 
Representatives a communication from the Secretary of the Navy 
with " accompanying papers, which afford the information sought 
by the resolution of the House of Representatives on the 17th in- 
stant. " 

I also suggest that these papers be regarded confidentially and be 
considered in secret session. 

JEFFERSON DAVIS. 

The Hon. the SPEAKER OF THE HCUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 

[Enclosure.! 

CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, March %1, / 

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the accompanying 
papers which afford the information sought by the resolution adopted 
by the House of Representatives on the 17th instant : 

"A" is a copy of my instructions of the 20th of May last to Captain 
D. X. Ingraham to visit iron works with the view of obtaining iron 
for plating ships, and his report thereon. 



172 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

" B." Copy of instructions to Captain Bulloch for construction and 
purchase of ships, arms, and munitions of war. 

" C." Instructions to Lieutenant North, in reference to purchas- 
ing or constructing ironclad ships in Europe. 

" D." Statement of contracts for delivery of iron and of rolling 
mills at work. 

In addition to the foregoing, I will add that the Department has 
just received formal notice from the Tredegar Works that in conse- 
quence of the nonfulfillment of contracts made by them with fur- 
naces for iron they are unable to comply with their contract. They 
now have to take possession of furnaces and mine and work the ore, 
and compel us to pay the expense thereof. 

With much respect, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

The PRESIDENT. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, Mcich 21, 1862. 
DEAR SIR: In accordance with your suggestion. I send you here- 
with the numbers in the several grades, together with the new grades 
which I deem advisable to establish, and also a memorandum of ex- 
planations for j^our information. 

I have thrown them into the form of a bill, which you will change 
at pleasure, of course. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Hon. A. G. BROWX, 

Chairman of Committee on. Naval Affairs. 

[Enclosure.] 

Proposed assimilated rank between Navy and Army, according to 

date of commission. 

Admiral with general. 

Vice admiral with lieutenant-general. 

Rear admiral with major-general. 

Commodore with brigadier-general. 

Captain with colonel. 

Commander with lieutenant-colonel. 

Lieutenant-commander with major. 

First lieutenant with captain. 

Second lieutenant with first lieutenant. 

Master with second lieutenant. 

Surgeons, paymasters, engineers, and other officers of the Navy to 
assimilate with officers of the Army on same assimilation as that of 
the Navy. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 18G1-1865. 173 

CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond ', March 20, 1862. 
SIR : I have the honor to transmit herewith an estimate which has 
this day been submitted to the President for his approval. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Hon. C. G. MEMMINGER, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 

[Enclosure.] 

Estimate of the amount required to l>e placed in England to pur- 
chase or construct ironclad ships of war. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, March 19, 1862. 

To purchase or construct in Europe ironclad ships of war $2, 000,000 

Two millions of dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, March 25, 1862. 

SIR: I herewith transmit for the consideration and action of the 
House of Representatives a communication from the Secretary of 
the Treasury covering " an estimate of an additional appropriation 
required for the service of the Navv Department from April 1 to 
November 30, 1862." 

I recommend that an appropriation be made of the sum, and for 
the purpose specified. 

JEFFERSON DAVIS. 
The honorable the SPEAKER OF THE 

HOUSE or REPRESENTATIVES. 

[Enclosures.] 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, March 25, 1862. 

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith an estimate of an 
additional appropriation required for the service of the Navy De- 
partment from April 1 to November 30, 1862. 

In' order to meet this estimate, it will be necessary for Congress to 
provide for $2,000,000 in addition to the sum for which provision 
was asked in my report submitted to Congress on the 14th instant. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

C. G. MEMMINGER, 
Secretary of the Treasury. 
The PRESIDENT. 

[Subenclcsure.] 

Estimate of an additional appropriation required for the service of 
the Government from April 1 to Nov. 30, 1862. 

CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, TREASURY DEPARTMENT. 

Register's. Office, March 25, 1862. 

To purchase or construct in Europe ironclad ships of war $2,000,000 

Ro. TYLER, 

Register. 



174 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1W 1-1865. 

Report of the Secretary of the X 



C. S. NAVY DEI-AKTM: vr, 
I!i,-hnwi!, M.n-ck -''>, 

SIR: In compliance with the resolution adopted by the House of 
Representatives on the 18th instant " that the Secretary of the Navy 
be requested to make a report to this House of the plan and con- 
struction of the Virginia, so far as the same can be properly com- 
municated, of the reasons for applying the plan to the M<-r;-/in<irk, 
and also what persons have rendered especial aid in designing and 
building the ship," I have the honor to report that on the J.0th day 
of June, 1861, Lieutenant John M. Brooke, Confederate States Navy, 
was directed to aid the department in deigning an ironclad war 
vessel, and framing the necessary specifications. 

He entered upon this duty at once and a few days thereafter sub- 
mitted to the department, as the results of his investigations, rough 
drawings of a casemated vessel with submerged ends and inclined 
iron-plated sides. The ends of the vessel and the eaves of the case- 
mate, according to his plan, were to be submerged 2 feet, and a light 
bulwark or false bow was designed to divide the water, and prevent 
it from banking up on the forward part of the shield with the vessel 
in motion, and also to serve as a tank to regulate the ship's draft. 

His design was approved by the department and a practical 
mechanic was brought from Norfolk to aid in preparing the draw- 
ings and specifications. This mechanic aided in the statement of 
details of timber, etc., but was unable to make the drawings, and the 
department then ordered Chief Engineer Williamson and Con- 
structor Porter, from the navy yard. Norfolk, to Richmond about 
the 23d of June for consultation on the same subject generally and 
to aid in the work. 

Constructor Porter brought and submitted the model of a flat- 
bottomed, light-draft propeller, casemated battery, with inclined 
iron-covered sides and ends, which is deposited in the department. 
Mr. Porter and Lieutenant Brooke have adopted for their casemate 
a thickness of wood and iron and an angle of inclination nearly 
identical. 

Mr. Williamson and Mr. Porter approved of the plan of having 
submerged ends to obtain the requisite flotation and invulnerability, 
and the department adopted the design, and a clean drawing was 
prepared by Mr. Porter of Lieutenant Brooke's plan, which that 
officer then filed with the department. 

The steam frigate Merrimack had been burned and sunk and her 
engine greatly damaged by the enemy, and the department directed 
Mr. Williamson, Lieutenant Brooke, and Mr. Porter to consider and 
report upon the best mode of making her useful. The result of their 
investigations was their recommendation of the submerged ends 
and the inclined casemates for this vessel, which was adopted by the 
department. 

The following is the report upon the Merrimack: 

SIR : In obedience to your order we have carefully examined and considered 
tlie various plans and propositions for constructing 'u shot-proof steam battery 
and respectfully report that in our opinion the steam frigate Mcrriniuck. which 
is in such condition from the effects of fire as to be useless for any other 
purpose without incurring a very heavy expense in her rebuilding, etc., can 




174 



STEPHEN R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy, Confederate States, 1861-1865. 



WAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 175 

be made an efficient vessel of that character mounting heavy guns, 

* * * and from the further consideration that we can not procure a suitable 
engine and boilers for any other vessel without building them, which would 
occupy too much time. It would appear that this is our only chance to get a 
suitable vessel in a short time. The bottom of the hull, boilers, and heavy and 
costly parts of the engine being but little injured reduces the cost of construc- 
tion to about one-third of the amount which would be required to construct 
such a vessel anew. 

We can not, without further examination, make an accurate estimate of the 

cost of the proposed work, but think it will be about , the most of which 

will be for labor, the materials being nearly all in the navy yard, except the 
iron plating to cover the shield. 

The plan to be adopted in the arrangement of the shield for glancing shot, 
mounting guns, arranging the hull, etc., and plating to be hi accordance with 
the plan submitted for approval of the department. 

We are, with much respect, your obedient servants, 

Wxi. P. WILLIAMSON, 

Chief Engineer, C. S. N. 
JNO. M. BKOOKE, 

Lieutenant, C. S. N. 
JNO. L. POBTEB, 

Naval Constructor. 

Immediately upon the adoption of the plan, Mr. Porter was di- 
rected to proceed with the constructor's duties. Mr. Williamson was 
charged with the engineer's department, and to Mr. Brooke was as- 
signed the duties of attending to preparing the iron and forwarding 
it from the Tredegar Works, the experiments necessary to test the 
plates and to determine their thickness, and devising heavy rifled 
ordnance for the ship, with other details pertaining to ordnance. 

These gentlemen labored zealously and effectively in their several 
departments. Mr. Porter cut the ship down, submerged her ends, 
performed all the duties of constructor, and originated all the interior 
arrangements,, by which space has been economized ; and he has ex- 
hibited ability, energy, and ingenuity. 

Mr. Williamson thoroughly overhauled her engines, supplied de- 
ficiencies, and repaired defects, and improved greatly the motive 
power of the vessel. Mr. Brooke attended daily to the iron, con- 
structed targets, ascertained by actual tests the resistance offered 
by inclined planes of iron to heavy ordnance, and determined inter- 
esting and important facts in connection therewith, and which were 
of great importance in the construction of the ship, devised and pre- 
pared the model and drawings of the ship's heavy ordnance being 
guns of a class never before made, and of extraordinary power and 
strength. 

It is deemed inexpedient to state the angle of inclination, the 
character of the plates upon the ship, the manner of preparing them, 
or the number, caliber, and weight of the guns ; and many novel and 
interesting features of her construction, which were experimentally 
determined, are necessarily omitted. 

The novel plan of submerging the ends of the ship and the eaves of 
the casemate, however, is the peculiar and distinctive feature of the 
Virginia. It was never before adopted. 

The resistance of iron plates to heavy ordnance, whether presented 
in vertical planes or at low angles of inclination, had been investi- 
gated in England before the Virginia was commenced; and Major 
Barnard, U. S. A., had referred to the subject in his " Seacoast 
Defenses." 



176 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

TTe were without accurate data, however, and were compelled to 
determine the inclination of the plates and their thickness and form 
by actual experiment. 

The department has freely consulted the three excellent officers 
referred to throughout the labors on the Virginia, and they have all 
exhibited signal ability, energy, and zeal. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Hon. THOMAS S. BOCOCK, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 



LOXDOX, March 29, 1862. 

SIR: Hearing that Captain Bulloch had arrived in this city from 
Liverpool, I immediately called upon him (26th) and had an inter- 
view. 

In referring to my orders of November 25, I find that you order 
me to " remain in England, to take command of the fine vessel under 
contract for us, the first one finished being assigned to Captain Bul j 
loch, and the second one to yourself." In my orders of January 11 
(and this is the last communication I have had the honor of receiv- 
ing from you), I find the following: "Captain Bulloch will take 
command of the first ship that shall be finished, and the entire com- 
pletion is looked for next month ; and you will receive orders to com- 
mand the other vessel, whose completion is looked for in May." You 
then go on to say : " Opportunities for giving you instructions for 
your cruise will doubtless occur, but you are requested to read over 
those of the department to Captain Bulloch. to enable you to judge 
of the general views of the department." 

Now, sir, imagine my surprise and astonishment when, in reading 
over the instructions of the department to Captain Bulloch, to find 
one bearing date of January 20 assigning to him the command of 
the very same vessel that the foregoing orders assigned to me; the 
first one finished having sailed, my not knowing this fact. I have 
no doubt, you had good reasons for changing those orders, but not a 
line or intimation of any kind had I received to prepare me for this 
humiliating disappointment until it was announced to me by Captain 
Bulloch himself; and would that were all, for now Captain Bulloch 
tells me he holds a commission as commander in the Confederate 
Navy. I am not aware of anything that I have done to merit such 
treatment from the department unless it be my inactivity since my 
arrival here, which God alone knows no one can deplore more deeply 
than myself. 

'Tis true that Commander Bulloch has filled his mission well. I 
have not a word to say against him ; but, had the same confidence 
been placed in me that has been placed in him and money sent me 
to carry out my orders, I have no doubt I should have done equally 
as well, and had an ironclad steamer or steamers completed by this 
time, and in all probability the blockade raised. But not one cent 
have I received, though I have written and sent messages by almost 
every opportunity, saying that with money I could do anything and 
that without it nothing. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT COREESPOXDEXCE, 1861-1865. 177 

The last thirty-three years of my life have been devoted to my 
country, and I trust my duties have been faithfully performed; 
never have I refused any duty that may have been assigned me, 
and for many, many years have I been looking forward most anx- 
iously for the time when I should receive that promotion which I 
thought myself entitled to. 

Rank to a military man is everything and that rank has been 
taken from me. When South Carolina, my native State, and from 
whence I received my appointment, secedecl from the Union, I felt 
it my duty to give up that commission I had held in the general 
Xavy so long, and tender to her my services, and now that commis- 
sion I so much coveted and so ardently hoped for has been given to 
another, and that other a civilian, who, when in the service, was 
many years my junior. If the demands of the Navy had been such 
that it was necessary to go outside the service for a commander, I 
should be the last to object or say one word, but when I know we 
have in the corps of lieutenants men that would do credit to any 
Xavy, and when I see naval officers diverted from their legitimate 
duties and scattered about the country, I must beg to record my 
most solemn protest against the foregoing act. I ask for nothing 
but that justice should be shown that corps by the Government to 
whom we belong. 

I have visited the principal shipyards of England, and have 
obtained all the necessary information, and most anxiously am I 
awaiting the receipt of funds to carry out your instructions. These 
people object to furnish drawings and specifications without you 
promise them the work, or they think there is a strong probability 
of getting it. At this very time there are two gunboats of about 
500 tons each, armor plated, that will be completed in about a month 
or six weeks, which I think I could have purchased if I only had had 
the money. 

I again beg to repeat that I am most anxious, ready, and ever will- 
ing to carry out such instructions as you may honor me with. 
I am, very respectfullv, your obedient servant, 

J.H. N[ORTH],C. S. Navy. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy, Richmond. 



[Newspaper clippings.] 

Captain Hu<se to Major G or gas. 

LIVERPOOL, April 1, 
I have had great difficulties to contend with in shipping the field 
artillery which, as I have previously informed you, I should soon 
send from Hamburg. 

Messrs. Fraser,TrenholmCo.,of this city, placed at my disposal 
a fine ship, the Bahama, which I supposed would take all the bat- 
teries. It is found, however, that the cargo is so difficult to stow 
that but six or seven batteries can be taken on board the Bahama. 
I went to Hamburg to superintend in person the shipment; but 
finding soon after my arrival that every step I took was watched by 

17G429 VOL 2 PT 121 12 



'NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-18<;\ 

spies sent from London by the U. S. minister as well as by 
the United States consul at Hamburg, and by learning that this consul 
had declared publicly that the ship, being known to have Confederate 
property on board, 'would be captured. After taking legal advice, 
and carefully considering the matter, I determined to leave Hamburg 
and endeavor to dispose of the batteries to some purchasers of such 
merchandise in England. I accordingly came to this country and 
sold the whole 10 batteries to Captain Blakely, late of the Ixoyal 
Artillery, who is now engaged in the manufacture of artillery. He 
is now in Hamburg, tending to the shipping of the batteries. Just 
after my arrival in England, I received a telegram from Hamburg 
informing me that one of the lighters from which the lidl^tna was 
receiving her cargo has been run into by a British steamer under 
charge of a Hamburg pi lot, and sunk with eight pieces and carriages, 
etc., on board. There are reasons for thinking that the pilot was 
bribed to commit the act, and the inhabitants being unanimously 
opposed to the Confederacy, it is probable that it will be impossible 
for me to recover any damages. I have had the satisfaction, however, 
this morning, of receiving a dispatch from Captain Blakely. inform- 
ing that the lighter had been raised, and the water being fresh, the 
carriages are not materially injured. Immediately on my arrival 
in England I set about obtaining a ship to take the remainder of the 
batteries left by the Bahama, and such other articles as might be 
ready. 

I have the satisfaction of being able to inform you that I have 
succeeded in engaging the steamship Melita for the work, and that 
she leaves Liverpool to-day for Hamburg. From Hamburg she will 
proceed to London, and there take on board the following articles: 

Rifles, about 10,000; barrels of powder, 2,000; sets of accoutre- 
ments, 5,000; knapsacks, 5,000; cavalry swords, 300; yards of light 
blue cloth, 10,000; pairs of shoes, 3,000; bayonet scabbards, 6,000; 
cavalry belts, 1,000; saddles, etc., complete. 250. 

In addition to the above I have had offered to me about 50,000 
pair of French shoes and 25,000 cotton shirts. If the holder of these 
shoes and shirts will take my order on the Confederate Treasury, 
payable in the Confederacy, in payment for them, I shall purchase 
them. The shoes are of the French Army pattern, and although not 
by any means equal to shoes I have purchased in England, still I 
have thought that they would be serviceable, and that possibly they 
might be much needed by the army. I have previously informed } T OU 
that I have reason to be entirely satisfied with the London Arm- 
strong Co. in all transactions that I have had with them. The rifles 
manufactured by this company are far superior to those obtained 
from almost every other source, and possess, moreover, the advantage 
of being interchangeable. 

I have requested the chairman to hand to me a tender for supply- 
ing 40,000 rifles from their manufactory. Enclosed I have the honor 
to submit a copy of their proposition. In case the department should 
desire me to make this contract, I beg to be informed at the earliest 
moment, as otherwise I may find it impossible to arrange the matter. 
Thinking it possible that the department might desire a smaller bore, 
I made inquiries on this point, and found that they could make a 
smaller bore, but not without altering several of the machines. The 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 179 

exterior of the rifle would have to be left the same as at present. It 
is the opinion of some British officers that the barrel of the Enfield 
rifle is too light. Making the bore smaller therefore would rather 
be an improvement in giving greater strength to the rifle. 

The Austrian bore is slightly smaller than the English; but al- 
most every other European government rifle is of a larger bore. The 
Austrian rifle is a very serviceable weapon, though to one accustomed 
to Enfield and Springfield arms they have a very rough appearance. 
I am in a position to purchase 20,000 to 30,000 Austrian rifles at about 
40 shillings each, say about $10. At present I am not in a position 
as regards funds to make the purchase, inasmuch as I owe at Least 
$00.000 more than I have the means of paying. 

I have thought it necessary in the discharge of my duty to press 
the credit of the Confederacy as far as possible without endangering 
its good name ; but I must now limit myself to the contracts already 
made. I must pay my debts before doing anything^ more. As soon, 
however, as money sufficient for the purpose is received, I shall 
invest it (unless I* receive orders to the contrary) in four batteries 
of Austrian rifled field artillery, 32 guns, suitable for gun cotton 
as well as for powder, which guns I have already secured, and 
20,000 rifles now in the Vienna arsenal. Unless I should be able 
to purchase a large number like 10,000 to 20,000 I should not, with- 
out special orders, depart from the Enfield bore, not that the Aus- 
trian bore is too small, but because of the great importance of 
uniformity of bore. It has given me great concern that I have not 
been able to make better arrangements for running in the several 
cargoes that have been forwarded. It is impossible, as I have stated 
in my previous letter, to obtain vessels with capacity for cargo and 
coal for so long a voyage that have at the same time the requisite 
speed for attempting the blockade. I have endeavored to purchase 
a very fast paddle-wheel steamer, to run from Nassau to the coast; 
but I have no money now for any purpose. I should not hesitate 
to appropriate money for this object, even without orders, seeing 
how long the Gladiator was detained at Nassau, and considering 
the great importance of these goods being safely landed. 

The Ef-ortorrtht* Lieutenant Fauntleroy, was at Bermuda on the 
6th of March, expecting to sail the next morning. As we have 
dates from New York to the 20th of March, with no account of the 
Ec9nomfat, I have strong hopes that she has arrived at a Confederate 
port. The steamer Minna sailed while I was in Hamburg. It was 
intended that she should take 500 barrels of gunpowder. I found on 
my return to London, however, that the powder had all been left on 
account of the vessel being full. Had I been in London I should 
have sent powder in preference to anything else. 

On board the Mi,ui consigned to J. Adderley & Co., are the 
following articles for the Confederate Government: 

Knapsacks and boards, etc., 5.900; sets of accoutennents. 5.690: 
gun slings. 1,840: saber belts, 992; yards of cloth, light blue. 4,500; 
sabers. 1.8oO: rifles. 5,700: pairs of shoes. 300; sets of saddlery 16. 

Correct invoices have been sent by the Minna to Nassau. 

The Mc-lita will sail from London with a very valuable cargo in 
about 15 days. I have requested Lieutenant North of the Navy to 
take charge of her. but have not yet received his reply. Should 



180 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

it be in the negative I shall endeavor to obtain an officer from the 
Sumter, still lying at Gibraltar. The Merita is, for a screw steamer, 
quite fast, and with an enterprising officer on board could, I am 
confident, be run in. There will be several large field howitzers so 
placed that without disturbing the general cargo they can be taken 
to the deck and there mounted and with these quite a good defense 
could be made against wooden gunboats. 

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant, 

CALEB HUSK, 
Captain of A r tiller;/. 
Major J. GORGAS, 

C. S. Artillery, War Department. 



[House of Representatives, No. 11. Mr. Conrad. April 5, 1862. read first and second 
times, placed on calendar and 150 copies ordered to be printed.] 



An act to amend an act entitled "An act to provide for the organiza- 
tion of the Navy, approved March 16, 1861, and for other pur- 
poses" 

SECTION 1. The Congress of the Confederate States of America do 
enact, That the grades of the commissioned officers of the Navy of 
the Confederate States shall hereafter be as follows, to wit: Four 
admirals, ten captains, thirty-one commanders, one hundred first 
lieutenants, twenty-five second lieutenants, twenty masters in line 
of promotion, twelve paymasters, forty assistant paymasters, twenty- 
two surgeons, fifteen past assistant surgeons, thirty assistant sur- 
geons, one engineer in chief, and tAvelve engineers. 

SEC. 2. All the admirals, four of the captains, five of the com- 
manders, twenty-two of the first lieutenants, and five of the second 
lieutenants shall be appointed solely for gallant or meritorious con- 
duct during the war. The appointments shall be made from the 
grade immediately below the one to be filled, and without reference 
to the rank of the officer in such grade, and the service for which 
the appointment shall be conferred shall be specified in the commis- 
sion : Provided, That all officers below the grade of second lieutenant 
may be promoted more than one grade for the same service. 

SEC. 3. The warrant officers shall be as follows: Twenty passed 
midshipmen, forty midshipmen, one hundred and six acting mid- 
shipmen, fifty first assistant engineers, one hundred and fifty second 
assistant engineers, one hundred and fifty third assistant engineers, 
ten boatswains, twenty gunners, six sailmakers. and twenty car- 
penters. 

SEC 4. The annual pay of the additional grades created by this 
act shall be as follows: Admiral, six thousand dollars; second lieu- 
tenant, for service afloat, twelve hundred dollars; when on leave or 
other duty, one thousand dollars; master in the line of promotion, 
one thousand dollars for service afloat ; when on leave or other duty, 
nine hundred dollars: past midshipmen, nine hundred dollars for 
service afloat; when on leave or other duty, eight hundred dollars. 

SEC 5. The annual pay of assistant paymasters shall hereafter be, 
when on service afloat, twelve hundred dollars; on other duty, "eleven 
hundred dollars. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 181 

LONDON, April 6, 186%. 

SIR: I have visited the principal shipyards of England, have ob- 
tained all the necessary information, have received offers for building" 
(the amount I mentioned in my last) , and most anxiously am I await- 
ing the receipt of funds to carry out your instructions. If I can YSITS& 
money enough to make the first payment (which I am trying very 
hard to do), I shall begin operations at once, trusting to remittances 
coming as soon after as possible. 

At one of the yards they have two gunboats of about 500 tons each, 
armor plated with 2| [2| ?] inch iron, that will be completed in about 
a month or six weeks, that the builder thinks might be purchased, if 
I only had the money to make the offer. They were to cost somewhere 
in the neighborhood of $120,000. I know not what would be their 
asking price. 

Let me beg to assure you that you will find me ever ready and 
willing to carry out any instructions that you may honor me with, 
but let me entreat that I may soon be at work. 

The success of the Virginia has caused great excitement here. The 
Admiralty have taken the subject in hand and are determined to have 
an ironclad Navy as soon as possible. Many, many questions are 
asked about the Virginia. Her success certainly was a glorious one. 
Waiting most anxiously to hear from you, 
I remain, sir, your obedient servant, 

JAMES H. NORTH, 
Confederate States Navy. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy, Richmond. 



RICHMOND, April 10, 1862. 

SIR : I transmit herewith a letter from the Secretary of the Navy, 
submitting a proposition for the construction of ironclad vessels in 
Europe, and commend it to the attention of Congress. 

JEFFERSON DAVIS. 
Hon. THOMAS S. BOCOCK, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

[Enclosure.] 

CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, April 10, 186%. 

SIR: A proposition has been submitted to this department by a 
citizen of the Confederate States for the construction in Europe of 
six substantial ironclad vessels, of six guns each, capable of resisting 
heavy marine ordnance, and suitable in other respects for war pur- 
poses, their character and details to be determined by this depart- 
ment. 

He proposes to construct them at his own cost within a reasonable 
time and to be paid for them when delivered in a Confederate port, 
in cotton by installments, each installment to be a full cargo for each 
vessel with the privilege of carrying it to a port of some European 
power, the cotton to be valued at its current market price when and 
where delivered. 



182 NAVY DEPARTMENT C'OllKKSPOXDKNCE, 1861-1865. 

At the expiration of eighteen months from the delivery in a Con- 
federate port the vessels to become the property of the Government 
whether payment shall have been made or not. 

The Confederate Government is to have the right to two-thirds 
of their carrying capacity on the homeward vovage, and the. party 
in question will have the entire carrying capacity on the outward 
voyage, of each vessel; and he is to pay two-thirds of the running 
expenses and the wear and tear of the vessels, and the Confederate 
Government one-third. The Confederate Government is to become 
the general underwriters of the vessels, but not of their cargoes, and 
is to nominate and appoint all employees on board. 

He further proposes that if peace should be concluded within 
three months after the delivery of a vessel the Government shall 'take 
the vessel, paying cost price, with 10 percentum thereon and int. 
on the amount or disbursement for it at 8 percentum per annum. 

These are the general outlines of the proposition, and I think fa- 
vorably of it, but have not the power to accept it ; and if you approve 
it, I submit for your consideration the expediency of bringing the 
subject to the attention of Congress for its consideration, and for 
such legislation as Congress may deem advisable upon the subject, 
With much respect, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLOKY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

The PRESIDENT. 



LONDON, April 11, 1* 

DEAR SIR: I have instructions from my Government to contract 
for the building of an armor-clad steamship. Money I expect to he- 
sent me at once, on their hearing that I have partially arranged such 
contract, and as Mr. Stringer has undertaken to get my letter for- 
warded, I am in hopes of getting an answer to same in thirty to 
forty days. Ilherefore ask of you. in order to facilitate the work, to 
go on and make model, plans, and specifications of such vessel that 
we have had a conversation about, and that you consent to do so, 
without charge, should the contract not be entered into. 
Yours, etc., 

JAMES H. NORTH. 
Mr. GEORGE THOMSON. 



[Secret session. House of Representatives, r.y Mr. Conrad, from Committee on Naval 
Affairs. Apr. 11, 18G2. Read flrst and second times, placed on Calendar arid ordered 
to be printed.] 

An act to authorize certain contracts for the purchase of not ex- 
ceeding six iron-plated vessels of war. 

SECTION 1. The Congress of the Confederate State* of America do 
enact, That the President be, and he is hereby authorized to contract 
with any party or parties for the construction, either within the 
limits of the Confederacy or elsewhere, of a number, not exceeding 
six, of ironclad vessels of war, of such description, character, 
capacity, size, and build as he may deem advisable. The said vessels 
to be built at the cost and risk of the party or parties BO contracting, 



NAYY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 183 

and to remain their property until fully paid for, or until a certain 
period of time shall have elapsed. The price agreed upon of such 
vessels to be paid in cotton, deliverable at the port or ports of the 
Confederate States where such vessels shall be prepared to receive 
the same, and to be exported on such vessels alone. Such cotton to 
be valued at its current market price when and where the same shall 
be delivered, and on such further terms and considerations as the 
President may deem advisable. 

APRIL 16, 1862. Engrossed, read third time, and passed. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department^ Richmond, April 11, 1862. 

SIR: I suggest for your consideration the expediency of extend- 
ing the authority to make advances conferred upon the War Depart- 
ment by the act of Congress No. 209, approved 6th of August, 1861, 
to this department, and that in addition thereto authority be given 
to make such advances to increase the production and manufacture 
of iron. 

Much of the iron necessary for the operations of this department 
can not be classed under the denomination of '* munitions of war/' 

Contractors for supplying iron are failing to redeem their engage- 
ments, but by making advances of money to parties who are now 
ready with large means to engage in the business we can probably 
guard against similar failures. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
/Secretary of the Navy. 
Hon. A. G. BROWN, 

Chairman Committee Naval Affairs, C. S. Senate. 



LIVERPOOL, April 11, 1862. 

SIR: I wrote on the 21st ultimo reporting the sailing of the M a- 
nassas and a duplicate of that dispatch goes to Nassau by steamer. 
Although the custom-house authorities closely inspected the Manassas 
and exacted an assurance upon honor that nothing contraband of 
war should be placed on board of her, the American consul has not 
been content to let the matter rest even now that the ship is far on 
her voyage, but has caused to be published a report that she has 
captured the American ship Yorktown, and this has given such un- 
easiness at Lloyd's that additional inquiries have been made on the 
subject. Yesterday the agents of the Yorktown published a letter 
in the Times asserting that they had official notice of the Yorktown s 
arrival in New York, and it is hoped that the Federal officials will 
now be silent on this subject at least. 

The British Government seems to be more determined than ever 
to preserve its neutrality, and the chances of getting a vessel to sea 
in anything like fighting condition are next to impossible. The 
Manassas was necessarily dispatched without even the fittings to her 
magazine and light room, and now the builders of our ship No. 2 



184 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

are trying to induce me to leave out the bolts for the broadside guns. 
As this vessel, however, will be masted and coppered in a private 
graving dock, I shall endeavor to equip her more completely than 
the first. If the present rigid watchfulness of the custom-house offi- 
cials continues, and it is found impossible to get No. 2 out as a proper 
fighting ship, I will do the next best thing, fill her up with arms 
from a ship chartered to supply her at an out port, and make a dash 
for some harbor on our Gulf or Atlantic coast. In fact, I see but 
little for a cruising ship to do at this time. There are no Federal 
ships abroad except those now watching the Sumter, who keep well 
together, and the little Saginatv, far away in the East Indies. The 
feeling everywhere in Europe is strongly against the simple destruc- 
tion of private property at sea, which can not always be identified 
as that of your enemy. The llar-vey Birch turns out to have been 
owned by a warm sympathizer with our cause, and the cruise of the 
Sumter, although evincing great energy, skill, and tact on the part 
of Captain Semmes, has resulted in no profit; but, on the contrary, 
has tended to excite some feeling against us among the commercial 
classes in Europe. Looking, therefore, to the prejudices of other 
nations, which in our present circumstances can not be wholly 
ignored, as well as to the actual necessities of our condition at home, 
it would seem imperative that all our naval resources should be con- 
centrated for defense, and unless some change takes place in the 
present attitude of foreign powers in reference to American a If airs 
I will avail myself of the discretion granted in your instructions, 
and will endeavor to get the ship where you can personally decide 
upon her future employment. The engagement between the Vir- 
ginia and Monitor has changed the entire plan of iron shipbuilding 
for the British Navy. Several of the largest screw liners have al- 
ready been selected to be cut down and converted into ironclad ves- 
sels on Captain Cowper Coles' principle, and four entirely new ones 
are to be built at once under the direction of that officer. The 
Messrs. Samuda, of London, are to build one of these, and contract 
to have her ready for sea in June, 1863. This is undoubtedly the 
shortest time in which an ironclad ship suitable for an Atlantic voy- 
age could be built ; and ships with sufficient buoyancy to bear up at 
sea the quantity of iron requisite to make them invulnerable would, 
of necessity, be very burdensome and expensive. Indeed, it would 
seem by experiments lately tried (April 7) at Shoeburyness that there 
is no defense against heavy rifled guns fired with flat-headed bolts. 
A projectile of this description was fired from a 156-pounder Arm- 
strong gun, with 40 pounds of powder, and passed entirely through a 
target representing a section of the Warrior's side. From inquiries 
I find that several parties would contract for any description of ship, 
but as I before remarked, an ironclad sea-going ship must be large 
and would require at least a year to complete after the order was re- 
ceived on this side. I would therefore respectfully suggest that ves- 
sels be laid down at once, at the various ports in the Confederacy 
where timber is abundant, then by sending over scale drawings or 
working plans of their decks and sides, the iron plates, rivets, bolts, 
etc., could be made here, marked, and shipped to arrive as soon as the 
vessels would be ready to receive them. 

Experiments made before the parliamentary plate committee show 
that there is no difference of power to resist "shot in plates, whether 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 185 

rolled or hammered, but they can be manufactured cheaper and in 
less time by the first process. I hope to obtain in a few days tracings 
of the working plans of Captain Coles' revolving cupolas, which I 
will forward by the earliest opportunity. In about a fortnight I will 
ship 1,000 barrels of gunpowder to Nassau, and will send forward all 
other supplies as speedily as possible. I inclose a memorandum of 
Navy revolvers already shipped and will send 100 more with the 
powder. \Viil continue this dispatch by a vessel to sail next week. 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant. 

JAMES D. BULLOCK. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

LIVERPOOL, April 16, 1862. 

[P. S.] In continuation of my letter of the llth instant, I beg to 
correct the statement in reference to the experiments at Shoebury- 
ness, which was taken from a local paper. The official report is that 
the shot from the rifled guns failed to penetrate the target. The shot 
that passed through the target was a 156-pounder spherical shot, 
tired from a smooth-bore, wrought-iron gun, manufactured upon the 
coil principle of Sir W. Armstrong, with a charge of 50 pounds. 
I shall have 2,000 barrels of powder at sea by the middle of next 
month. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH, 

Commander, C. S. Navy. 



LONDON, April llf., 1862. 

SIR : Have arranged for the building and equipping of an armored 
ship of 3,000 tons. Please send me bills for large amount immedi- 
ately. Ship to cost, all ready for sea, 200,000. On receipt of this 
say if I shall build another, or small ones, with lighter armor plates. 

[NORTH.] 
[Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of Navy, Richmond.'] 



LIVERPOOL, April 19, 
SIR : By the steamship Melita, which was to have sailed from Lon- 
don on Saturday last, I shipped for the Navy Department 2,000 
barrels of powder: 380 revolvers, with cartridges, caps, and spare 
parts; and 25 tons of rod lead in barrels. Captain Semmes and Lieu- 
tenant Kell, late of the Sumter, have sailed in this ship, which has 
also on board a large quantity of arms, etc., for the War Depart- 
ment, and I have great hopes that these officers will succeed in getting 
these much-needed supplies safely to their destination. Since my 
last letter Lieutenant Hamilton has arrived and reported to me for 
duty as executive officer of the ship No 2. I hailed his arrival with 
much satisfaction, for I felt seriously the want of professional aid, 
not only to assist me in equipping the ship but in drilling the crew. 
'Lieutenant Hamilton expresses the heartiest interest in our approach- 



186 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

* 

ing cruise, and has assumed his share of the duties with cheerful 
zeal. The ship now lies in the graving dock, with all her engines and 
boilers in and topmasts on end. The delay in getting her afloat 
at the time originally appointed was due to the difficulty of getting 
proper timber for some of the most important parts, such as the 
main sternpost, stem, and forefoot. 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Na.vy. 



CONFEDERATE STATES, 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, 

Richmond, April 30, 1862. 

SIR: Your letter of the 14th ultimo announcing your arrival in 
England has this day been received, and inclosed you will receive 
copy of a letter from Lieutenant North of the 15th ultimo, received 
yesterday. 

This is the first information I have received since Mr. North or 
yourself left us holding out a prospect of obtaining ironclad vessels 
for the Navy in Europe, and I hasten to urge upon you the im- 
portance of having at least two of them built, armed, and equipped 
at the earliest moment. Your letter refers to plans which you were to 
transmit to me, but I must request you to act upon your own judg- 
ment in order to save time. By this time you have doubtless been 
informed of the Monitor and the other iron-plated vessels which 
the enemy is building, and with this knowledge and such light as 
British inquiry and experiment have thrown upon the subject, to- 
gether with your knowledge of the bars and waters of our country, 
you will be able to act advisedly. 

As the contest between the Virginia and the Monitor may. however, 
be of service in the general consideration of the subject, I send you a 
copy of Captain Buchanan's report. Elongated rifled shot, or bolts 
of wrought iron or steel, can be effectively used against the iron 
armor of ships, and they should not weigh less than 120 to 14-0 pounds. 
I do not doubt, however, that such armor and its supports may be 
crushed in by 15 or 20 inch spherical shot, and that such shot must 
be brought into service against iron-plated ships. 

Our ordnance experiments have been useful and interesting, and 
we have demonstrated beyond question the great superiority of 
banded guns over those not banded. 

A drawing of Lieutenant Brooke's new gun is enclosed. In 
strength, accuracy, and range it is superior to all of our guns. Dur- 
ing the action between the Virginia and the enemy's fleet, after being 
fired several times, it was doubly charged by mistake, and stood the 
test of 28 pounds of powder without the least complaint. Its caliber 
is 7 inches, and I think it might safely be made 8. Unless you can 
procure better guns in England, you 'will have at least one of the 
latter class on board your ironclad vessels. 

The Virginians powers of resistance are due not to the thickness of 
her armor of 4-inch rolled common iron, but to its angle of inclina- 
tion, which is 38, 



NAVY DEPAET.V 'RRESPOXDKXCK, 1861-1865.' 187 

You inform me that it is impossible to arm our vessels in England. 
This is an embarrassing matter, for the construction of ironclad ves- 
-el- will at once attract attention, and their departure from England 
might be prevented by the Government. 

Ton may, however, be able to build them and to carry them under 
the British flag to some West Indian port and there arm them. 

I have placed about $1,000,000 to your credit for this object with 
Messrs. Trenholm, Eraser & Co., and hope to increase this amount to 
two millions soon. 

As time is of vital importance to us, you will endeavor to secure 
the completion of these vessels at the earliest possible moment. 

In your correspondence you will sign your name in your cipher 
and use the same means to guard your communications. 

I write to Commander Semmes by this conveyance, instructing him 
to take command of the largest of the two vessels built by you and 
to transfer his officers and crew to her, if he shall not be able to put 
the ^y inter in seaworthy condition ; and in this matter you will afford 
him all the assistance in your power. 

I write also to Lieutenant North to take the command of the 
other vessel. Both vessels must be fitted and found for a long cruise, 
and, as ample funds are provided for this purpose, I trust that they 
will be carefully attended to by yourself and these officers, whose 
united and harmonious action I rely upon for good results. 

The Queen's proclamation will compel you to consider carefully, 
and provide for coaling these vessels in other than British ports. 

New Orleans has fallen, the enemy has the Mississippi, and our 

iggle has commenced in earnest/ This is a heavy blow, but it 

serves but to nerve our people to greater resistance. Surrenderor 

concession are not thought of, but on the contrary we are, if possible, 

more than ever resolved to conquer and maintain our independence. 

Since this letter was commenced I have seen a report of the recent 
experiments of heavy ordnance against targets, representing the 
resisting power of the Warrior, from which I observe that Sir Wil- 
liam Armstrong's smooth-bore gun. with a solid shot of 156 pounds, 
and 40 pounds of powder, demolished the armor and its teak sup- 
ports. I presume he used steel or wrought-iron shot, though the 
report does not say so ; aiid I will thank you to give me the earliest 
information upon this point. 

We have very quietly ascertained the sure, if not the best, means 
of penetrating armored ships, but this information will be useful. 

Captain Cowper Coles is entitled to the paternity of the Monitor. 
I studied his views attentively in 1855, and again in 1859, and if he 
can reduce his conical turrets to an angle of 38 he will avoid the 
effect of Armstrong guns. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
.Secretary of tlie Navy. 

Commander JAMES D. BFLLOCH, C. S. Navy, 

Liverpool, England. 



188 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

CONFEDERATE STATK>. 
Navy Department, Richmond, M<nj J, 186%. 

SIR: Your letter of the 14th ultimo was received yestenhiy; and 
it gives me the first information received since you and Captain 
Bulloch left us, holding out any prospect of getting ironclad vessels 
constructed in Europe. I write immediately therefore to Captain 
Bulloch to proceed as expeditiously as possible with this important 
iuty. 

lou were advised in my letter of the 17th of March last that 
$150,000 had been placed to your credit with Fraser, Trenholm & Co., 
and that you were to take command of the vessel built by Captain 
Bulloch. These funds, it is hoped, have enabled you to fit your ves- 
sel for a long and useful cruise, general instructions for which were 
also given. 

You are, however, to regard yourself as unrestricted upon this 
subject, but will consult fully with our ministers about it. 

The Queen's proclamation relative to coaling ship, if still in force, 
may entail some embarrassment upon your movements; but I trust 
you will be able to overcome them by shipping coal from England 
to neutral ports where you may be permitted to make deposits. 

Should you cruise in the East Indies you could doubtless provide 
for coal. 

New Orleans has fallen and the enemy is in possession of the 
Mississippi River to the Gulf, and I am looking to the speedy aban- 
donment of Norfolk also. The vast naval forces of the enemy have 
given him immense advantages upon our rivers and inland waters, 
an<J we must expect to surrender the greater part of our seaboard; 
but yet our confidence in achieving and maintaining our independ- 
ence is unabated, our people are loyal and united, and, with the 
blessing of God, we will so conduct this struggle as not only to secure 
to ourselves and our posterity the right of self-government, but the 
respect and approbation of mankind. 

Any appointments of acting masters or lieutenants or warrant 
officers which you may deem it necessary to make for your vessel 
will be approved, and you will act as your own purser and appoint 
a clerk. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Lieutenant JAMES H. NORTH, C. S. Navy, 

London, England. 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, 
Montgomery, Ala., May 2, 1862. 

SIR : I have to apologize for not having replied at an earlier day 
to your Excellency's communication of the 22d of March. Almost 
immediately after its reception I was called away by official engage- 
ments, and apprehending that I should not be able to give to your 
suggestions the consideration which they merited, I requested a con- 
fidential friend to reply to your letter during my absence. Until 
my return recently I was not apprised that the friend upon whom I 
imposed that duty had been prevented by ill health from writing 
to you. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 189 

Your views as to the importance of sustaining the Confederate 
Government by the energetic and cordial cooperation of the States 
meet my entire concurrence, and I am prepared to pledge the re- 
sources of this State in any system of operations which may be 
agreed on as necessary to the success of this great revolution. I 
believe that the harmonious, determined, and persistent purpose of 
all the States to sustain the common Government will be required to 
achieve success, and to that end I am ready to consecrate all the 
powers and all the resources of this Commonwealth. I am prepared, 
therefore, not only to meet but to cooperate with your Excellency in 
devising the means which are best calculated to insure the harmoni- 
ous action of the different States and the most perfect combination 
of all our means of defense. 

The passage by the Confederate Congress of the law of conscrip- 
tion will, to a considerable extent, supersede the necessity for State 
action on that subject. In my opinion, however, the entire white 
male population capable of bearing arms, should be enrolled, and I 
am preparing with that view a system by which I hope to organize, 
and, as far as possible, arm and drill, all of that class in the State 
who are not subject to conscription under the act of Congress. My 
purpose will be, if possible, to make a soldier of every man left in 
the State, and to secure such an organization as will make the entire 
population available for defense wherever the State is invaded. The 
scarcity of arms and ammunition is a serious difficulty in carrying 
out this policy, but I am sparing no exertions to collect and repair 
all the common arms of the country, and I hope in this way to be 
able to arm a large proportion of the force thus left for home defense. 

The resources of this State for the manufacture of almost every 
requisite for war purposes are perhaps unsurpassed, but they are to 
a great extent undeveloped. The war has done much for us; capi- 
talists are investing largely in manufactories of arms of every kind, 
of saltpeter, and sulphur, and the working of lead mines. We have 
not, however, realized much yet from these sources. Unfortunately 
for us, the impression has very generally prevailed until lately that 
the war would be of short duration, and that the raising of the block- 
ade by foreign intervention would afford us access to the markets of 
Europe ; and on this account capitalists have hesitated to embark in 
enterprises for the manufacture of articles of prime necessity to us. 
The legislature of the State made considerable appropriations to 
encourage private enterprise, but these appropriations, owing to the 
impression to which I have already alluded, fall far short of our 
necessities. I have made contracts wherever it was possible to do so, 
for the manufacture of guns, but the deliveries under these contracts 
have not yet commenced. One establishment with which I had con- 
tracted for the manufacture of 5,000 Mississippi rifles, the first of 
which were to have been delivered by this date, has been forced to 
remove its machinery to Georgia, in consequence of the invasion of 
our northern counties by the enemy, and I shall, on that account, be 
subjected to a considerable delay in receiving the arms. I have also 
had made a considerable number of pikes and bowie knives, which 
are now ready for use. A large factory of arms is about being es- 
tablished under the patronage of the State, which it is probable from 
the character of those engaged in it, will soon be put in operation. It 
is probable that the combination of the States in making arms would 



190 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

greatly expedite the equipment of our soldiers. Different parts of a 
gun could be made from models at different points, and sent to a 
common armory for the purpose of being fitted together for service. 
Such a division, could it be accomplished, would be beneficial in the 
highest degree. To adjust the details of such a scheme would require 
time and a knowledge of the capabilities of the States in workmen as 
well as material. 

We have at present only three foundries in the State engaged in 
casting cannon. Two others which control large capital, and which 
are already supplied with machinery, will in a short time be prepared 
to commence operations, and will manufacture heavy ordnance on 
an extensive scale. Our resources for engaging in this branch of 
manufacture are almost unlimited. The mineral region of this 
State abounds in large quantities of iron, limestone, and coal. Noth- 
ing but a combination of skill and capital is required to convert these 
resources into an abundant supply of all the munitions of war. Con- 
tracts have also been made for the manufacture of saltpeter on a large 
scale, but the richest cave in the State, from which we have antici- 
pated a supply of 2,000 pounds daily, is within the section now in the 
hands of the enemy. 

There are other matters presented in your Excellency's communi- 
cation which are entitled to the gravest consideration. Such are your 
suggestions in reference to the purchase of arms abroad, with cargoes 
of cotton sent out under State authority, and the adoption of some 
policy by which the credit, or paper obligations of the different States 
shall be mutually sustained. For the purpose of discussing these 
and other matters of vital importance to the success of the revolution, 
1 approve your suggestion that the executives of the different States 
should meet together at some convenient point, and I will take part 
in such a convention at any point which may be selected. If, from 
your correspondence with the governors of the other States, you have 
ascertained that such a convention is practicable, I shall be happy to 
meet you in such an assembly, and shall submit to your Excellency 
the appointment of the time and place at which it shall be held. 

I have the honor to be, with great respect, your most obedient 
servant, 

JOHN GILL SHORTER, 

His Excellency, Governor PICKKNS. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 

Navy Department, Richmond, May -5, 
SIR: I have instructed Commander Semmes to transfer his com- 
mand to the second vessel constructed under your direction, if he 
should be unable to refit and repair the Sumter, and should deem it 
expedient to do so, and informed him that you would furnish him 
$100,000 when he shall be ready for sea as a fund to cruise with. 

You will please transfer to him that amount, taking his receipt in 
triplicate, out of the funds in your hands. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Commander JAMES D. BULLOCH, C. S. Navy, 

Liverpool, England, 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 191 

CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, May 5, 1862, 

SIR : Herewith you will receive a commission as commander in the 
Navy for the war, conferred upon you by the President under the 
act of Congress authorizing the appointment of additional officers 
in the Navy for the war. 

This commission will terminate with the war, but will not vacate 
your commission of lieutenant. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Commander JAMES H. NORTH, C. S. Navy, 

London, England. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, May 7, 1862. 

SIR: Lieutenant George T. Sinclair is ordered to England to con- 
struct or purchase a clipper propeller for cruising purposes, and 
which he is to command. 

He has been instructed to consult with you as to the best plan of 
vessel and the best means of building, arming, and equipping her, and 
you will afford him all the assistance in your power, and also furnish 
him a copy of your instructions for cruising. You w r ill also furnish 
the means out of funds which will be placed in your hands through 
the house of Fraser, Trenholm & Co., and of which you have been 
advised, for constructing or purchasing, arming, and equipping the 
vessel, and if he has not funds sufficient, pay him and his officers and 
crew to the date of sailing, and furnish him also $60,OOQ to be used for 
cruising purposes. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Commander JAMES D. BTTLLOCH, C. S. Navy, 

Liverpool, England. 



CLYDE BANK FOUNDRY, 

Glasgow, May 9, 1862. 

DEAR SIR : Since our G. T. returned from London after arranging 
with you as to preparation of plans, etc., of armor-clad steamer, he 
has gone very minutely into the weights and arrangements of same, 
and we have now the pleasure to acquaint you that we have got the 
vessel drafted, and model made, also the plans of arrangements of 
arrnor plating, engines, and boilers, coals, etc. We are now so far 
advanced as to be able to commence the vessel at once on receiving 
your definite instructions. 

On going into weights of vessel and machinery, with displacement 
of vessel, we have found it necessary to increase the beam to 50 feet 
to get the required displacement for weights in order to keep to the 



192 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

draft of water as wished by you. We have also found it necessary 
for the stability of vessels when the coals were all consumed, to ar- 
range the coal bunkers to carry about 400 tons water ballast, so that 
the great weight of armor plating aloft might not prove troublesome 
in sailing. All this you will see arranged on the plans, and we will 
explain all matters personally when in London, after you have re- 
ceived satisfactory information from your friends in the South. 

The arrangements for captain's and officers' cabins, storerooms, 
ammunition and shot lockers, etc., we must leave unfinished until we 
see you again ; a few hours' talk together will, we have no doubt, dis- 
pose of these matters. Meanwhile, the want of definite arrangements 
for these will not by any means prevent the work being proceeded 
with. 

We shall be glad to have a few lines from you in course to let us 
know when you expect to hear from the South ; also if you can give 
us any suggestions as to the arrangements we allude to (in previous 
sentence), we might be able put them somewhat into shape before 
meeting with you. 

We are, dear sir, yours, truly, 

JAMES AND GEORGE THOMSON. 

Captain NORTH, 

37 Russell Square, London. 



LIVERPOOL, May 18, 1862. 

DEAR SIR: Yours of the 18th is just at hand. When you asked 
me for copies of my contracts with plans, etc., I did not suppose you 
wished them for any immediate purpose but simply to file away, and 
I have not made haste to complete them. I have, however, re- 
quested the draftsman at Lairds to prepare drawings from the origi- 
nal plans, which, of course, will take some time. The contracts are 
very minute and cover so many sheets that it will take some days to 
copy. Mr. Yonge will be at work on them at once and I will hand 
them to you as soon as finished. You are, of course, aware that 
these plans and specifications being for wooden ships would be no 
guide to you in contracting for one of iron. It would give me much 
pleasure to assist you in any way. Indeed, such are my instructions 
from the Secretary of the Navy* I can not help thinking, however, 
that in the present aspect of affairs, as well as in view of the un- 
settled opinions on the subject of ironclad ships, it would not be 
advisable to go into a heavy contract for a cruising ship of that 
material. My opinion has always been, and I have so expressed 
myself to the Navy Department, that the cheapest, and by far the 
speediest, mode of getting our iron [clad] fleet for the protection of 
our harbors and rivers Avould be to build the hulls of wood in the 
Confederate ports and send over working plans from which the 
plates, bolts, etc., could be made here and sent over in lots, properly 
assorted and marked. The Messrs. Laird have kindly assisted me 
in getting estimates as well as much information as to time required 
for building best forms of ships, etc. The details are not yet com- 
plete ; when they are you shall have the benefit of them. I have been 
informed of the bids to the British Admiralty, and taking the lowest 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 193 

for a ship of 2,500 tons the time was fifteen months and the cost 
208,000, not including spars or outfit. If any one offers to build 
for 3 r ou in less time and for less money, I would advise you to 
stipulate for a forfeiture for nonfulfilment of contract. My ship 
was launched on Wednesday last, and on Saturday night all the 
engines and boilers were in their places. She has been universally 
pronounced to be a beautiful and staunch-looking ship. Every 
aspiration of my heart is bound up in her, and I pray God to help 
me to use her profitably in our country's cause. Lieutenant Hamil- 
ton assists me with cheerful zeal and is buoyant with anticipations 
of a serviceable cruise. If you would come down and inspect her, 
you could form a much better idea of the internal arrangements 
than could be conveyed ill a drawing or written description. 

The news from home is bad. It seems incredible that the defense 
of Xew Orleans should have been left to two old forts, yet such 
must have been the case. The evacuation of Yorktown was doubt- 
less a military necessity, and may be also a ruse to draw McClellan 
away from his supports. Our people are fighting against immense 
odds. God grant them courage to resist and constancy to endure. 
If it comes to a field like that of Flodden, I hope Southerners will 
die around their chiefs as the Scots did around King James. Let 
me hear from you now and then. With compliments to Mrs. North. 
I am, very truly, yours, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Captain JAMES H. XORTH. 

Maffitt writes that Jones was promoted for his gallantry, etc., in 
the Virginia's first fight. 



MAY 20, 1862 

Specification of hull, masts, spars, rigging, outfit, engines, boilers, 
etc., of an arniorclad iron steamship. 

Principal dimensions. Length on load line, 270 feet; breadth of 
beam, molded, 50 feet; depth molded to upper deck, 30 feet; depth 
molded to main deck, 22 feet; tonnage, builders' measurement, 3,200 
tons. 

Keel of hammered scrap iron 14 inches deep, 4 inches thick. 

Stem of hammered scrap iron with part of keel forged on same, as 
also projection for ram being fastened to the stem, to be same size 
as keel at bottom, as also same size at top. 

Stern post or screw frame to be of hammered scrap iron forged 
in one piece, the after post to be 12 x 6 inches, the inner post to be 
12 x 7 inches, the lower portion uniting the two posts to be 12 x 8 
inches and to have about 6 to 8 feet of the keel forged onto it. 

Frames to be spaced throughout the vessel 18 inches from center 
to center and to be of angle iron 6 x 3^ x T %, and to have reverse 
bars of angle iron 4y 2 x 3 x ^ ; running along the top edge of floor 
plates and up the frames to where they are cut for the recess for 
armor plating. In the wake of engine space the frames and reverse 
frames are to be double to the height of floors, and in the wake 

176429 VOL 2 PT 121 13 



194 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

of boiler space the reverse frames are to be double on top of floors 
up to 6 feet water line. 

Floors. The floors to be of plate 30 inches deep at center of vessel 
and {$ thick, and to be carried up to the 5 feet water line (as shown 
in plan), tapering to the breadth of frame there; each floor plate to 
have two ^-inch lumber holes, one on each side of center keelson. 

Keelsons all as shown in plan of midship section; the center keel- 
son of plates 38 inches deep x % thick, well riveted to floors with 
angle iron 3i/o x Sy 2 x %; to have two bars of angle iron 8 x 4 \ ' i 
inches running fore and aft on each side of center plates and well 
riveted to same, as also to reverse angle iron bars on top of floors. 
Eeverse bars on top of floors to be double by short pieces where keel- 
sons are. 

Side keelsons, of plates 32 inches deep x T % thick, well riveted to 
floor plates witji angle iron 3- x 3^ x f , and to have two bars of angle 
iron 6 x 3| x f running fore and aft on each side of keelson plate, well 
riveted to same, as also to reverse frames on top of floors. 

Bilge stringer between bilge and lower deck beams to be of angle 
iron 6 x 3f x f inches two bars back to back, well riveted together and 
to reverse frames. 

Bilge keelsons to be same as side keelson but of such depth of plates 
as the depth of floor plates where bilge keelsons are placed will 
admit of. 

Strengthening of fore peak of vessel, from the fore-peak bulkhead 
to stem of vessel to be most thoroughly and efficiently strengthened 
from keel to main deck by plated breast hooks of plates f to f thick, 
placed about 3 feet apart, well fastened to reverse frames with angle 
iron 3| x 3^ x f ; this part of the bow of vessel where the " ram " for 
striking when in action is attached, to be made of the greatest possible 
strength on the most effective plan, so as to resist as much as pos- 
sible the shock of collision. 

Plating for outside of vessel. Garboard strake, f;} thick, next 
strake ^f thick; from that to upper part of bilge \^ thick; from 
that to armor plate shelf -J-g-; plating in wake of armor plates , ! ; ; ; 
shear strake {% ; plating at bow from the 14-foot water line at gun- 
wale, where the armor plates stop short of stem, to be 1 inch 
thick; plating at stern of vessel from where the armor plates stop 
from 14 feet water line up to armor plating (as shown in model) to 
be 1 inch thick; all the plating to be lap-jointed longitudinally, with 
exception of the plating under armor plating, which shall be flush 
with the butt straps outside; all vertical joints to be flush-jointed 
with butt straps of sufficient strength ; the armor shelf to have suffi- 
cient brackets and framing for same, all of sufficient strength and 
as shown in plan. 

Riveting. Keel, stern, and stern frame to have three rows of 
rivets; riveting of shell of vessel to be double, both longitudinal and 
vertical landings with about 8 rivets to the foot; the riveting of 
floors, reverse bears, and deck beams, rivets to be f inch diameter, 
and from 6 to 7 inches apart ; shell rivets f- inch diameter ; rivets for 
keel, stem and stern frame 1J inches diameter; rivet holes to be 
very carefully punched opposite each other, and not to be nearer to 
the edge of plates than the diameter of the rivet. 



NAYY DEPARTMENT CORRESPOXDEXCE, 1861-1865. 195 

Calking. The whole of the seams and butts to be pared and 
calked in the most careful manner, so that they may be made per- 
fectly water-tight. 

Beams all to be of bulb iron; upper deck beams 10 inches x T %; 
main deck beams 12 x f inches; lower deck beams 9 x | inches; all the 
beams to have on top edge two bars angle iron 3-| x 3~| x ^ inch ; the 
ends of beams to be turned down to form knees "twice the depth of 
beam and to be thoroughly welded; the whole of the beams to be 
placed on every alternate frame 3 feet from center to center, ex- 
cepting where plan of arrangement of engines and boilers interfere ; 
where beams require to be cut at hatchways or at engines or boilers, 
the fore and aft carlines then required to be of same strength as 
beams. 

Stringers on upper deck of plates 42 inches broad x f thick, with 
angle iron 5 x 5 x f , well riveted to stringer plate and shear strake. 

Main and lower deck stringers of plates 36 inches broad x f thick, 
with angle iron 5 x 4 x f , well riveted to deck beams and reverse 
frames. 

Deck beam ties. Upper deck beam ties of plates 30 x inch ; main 
deck of plates 24 x ^ inch ; to have one row on each side of hatchways 
and to have as many diagonal ties on main and upper deck as may be 
found practicable with regard to hatchways of plates 18 inches x 
inch, all well riveted to deck beams. 

Mast partners of plates inch thick, extending in length about 3 
spaces of beams and 5 to 6 feet in breadth, with the diagonal ties well 
fastened to this deck plating. 

Hold stanchions of round iron placed on every alternate beam, 
those in lower hold to be 3| inches diameter; from lower to main 
deck "3 inches; from main to upper deck 3 inches, all to be well 
secured to beams and keelsons. 

Bulklieads. To have such number extending to main or upper 
decks as shown in plan of vessel; those used as coal boxes to be of 
plate f thick; those used as water-tight bulkheads to be of plate \ 
inch thick ; stiffened with angle iron 4^ x 3 x \ ; every 30 inches verti- 
cally the water-tight bulkheads to have double frames at ship's side 
and at the outside tiers of shell plating to have doubling pieces 
same thickness as shell plating and these to be in such lengths as 
will fasten to the two adjoining frames. At the after-peak bulkhead 
the deck is to be plated from bulkhead to sternpost, as also from 
the fore-peak bulkhead to stem and made water-tight with plates 
j 7 6 thick; also from after- peak bulkhead to stern frame the vessel 
to have a series of bulkheads for fastening screw pipe and 
thoroughly strengthening the vessel in that part; the fore-peak 
bulkhead to be of f plate stiffened with athwartship plates 36 x \ at 
lower deck beams, and every care to be taken to make this bulkhead 
sufficiently strong and water-tight in the event of the bow of the 
vessel getting damaged when running against another vessel. 

Armor plating to be of hammered scrap iron of as large sizes as 
practicable, the thickness of plates to be 4| inches, excepting at the 
extreme ends, where it will be reduced to 3 inches, as shown on 
model: the armor plating to extend from the 14-foot water' line 
from bottom of vessel to gunwale and from bow to stern, as shown 
in model (that part of the bow as also -at the counter of stern between 



196 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

I 

the 14-foot water line, and gunwale forward and aft between the 
14-foot water line, and armor plating aloft as previously herein 
specified to be plated with 1-inch plates). The armor plating to be 
all well jointed both in the longitudinal and vertical joints, and well 
fitted to teak backing, and thoroughly fastened and bolted to the 
ship through teak and plating, and that in the most approved and 
efficient plan for strength, the vessel to have 10 gunports arranged 
on each side, 3 feet high and 2 feet wide, through teak backing and 
armor plating, these ports to have suitable blinds of such plan as 
may afterwards be approved of. 

Rudder stock and frame to be of scrap iron, all in one piece; 
stock to be 9 inches diameter, plated with one-half inch plates, and 
made complete with all necessary steering gear and wheels, as shown 
on plan. 

Capstan. To have a capstan for purchasing anchor, as shown on 
plan, complete with all stoppers and riding bitts, chain lockers, etc. 

Winches. To have a winch on each mast for working yard. 

Pumps. To have manual-labor pump fitted in each compartment, 
as also one of Downton's pumps (or other equal thereto) fitted on 
main deck, with suitable hose for same. 

WOODWORK, ETC. 



Backing for armor plates to be of best teak, 18 inches thick, well 
fitted and secured to plating of vessel. 

Waterway of upper deck to be of teak. 

Waterway of main deck of pitch pine. 

Waterway of lower deck of pitch pine. 

Decks. Upper deck of pitch pine, 4 inches thick; main deck of 
pitch pine, 4J inches thick ; lower deck of pitch pine, 3^ inches thick. 

Bulwarks to be of wood and fitted as may be required for working 
the large guns, fore and aft, the stanchions and rails to be of teak. 

Hold flooring. Hold to be floored with red pine up to lower deck 
beams, as also from lower deck to main deck and from main deck to 
upper deck beams, all as may be required and of sufficient strength. 

Masts and riggings. Vessels to be rigged as a bark or ship, as may 
be required; lower masts to be either of wood or iron as may be 
required ; to have all necessary spars required for rig as also all nec- 
essary standing rigging and running rigging (the former to be either 
of wire or hemp). 

To have a double set of sails of best canvas, with windsails and 
tarpaulins for holds and hatchways. 

Anchors and cables. To have nine anchors of the following 
weights, viz : Two of 54 hundredweight each, 1 of 50 hundredweight. 
1 of 30 hundredweight, 1 each of 11, 9, and 4 hundredweight, and 2 
boat anchors 1 hundredweight each; to have 300 fathoms of 2-J-inch 
cable of best iron tested to admiralty proof. 

Boats of^size and number as may be required, with davits complete. 

Signal lights in accordance with act of Parliament. 

Side accommodation ladders as may be required, fitted to side of 
vessel. 

Water-closets as may be required suitable for officers and crew, 
fitted complete with pumps, etc. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 197 

Binnacles and compasses of the best description as may be re- 
quired. 

Powder magazine to be thoroughly lined with copper and fitted up 
in the most perfect manner, and to have cocks fitted for drawing 
magazine when required. 

General arrangements. The lower holds and between-deck holds 
to be fitted up to plan to be approved of, for storerooms, spirit rooms, 
provision rooms, shot lockers, powder magazine, cockpit, etc., all as 
may be required for size of vessel; the main deck to have all neces- 
saries for working the guns with shot racks, etc., as also swinging 
tables and seats, with provision for swinging hammocks, all as 
usually required for a man-of-war of this class. The captain, officers, 
and petty officers to have suitable accommodation similar to plan or 
any other more* suitable plan that may be agreed upon. The cap- 
tain's and officers' staterooms and cabins to be furnished with cabinet 
and upholstery work as may be required. 

Fresh-water tanks as may be required, with suitable pumps for 
same. 

Cooking caboose to be fitted on main deck, and of sufficient size 
for cooking for the whole ship's company: as also one suitable for 
captain and officers. 

Ship's chandlery and sundries to be supplied with a complete set 
of lanterns and lamps for cabins, forecastle, holds, firemen, and 
stewards use; also supply of crowbars, pincers, handspikes, water 
casks, water buckets, fire and tar buckets, mess-kits, pitch pots and 
ladles, oil tanks, oil cans, paint brushes, whitewash brushes, chain 
hooks, holystones, scrapers, mast knives, marline spikes, rigging 
screws, brooms, patent and common logs, with glasses for common 
log with rails, sounding leads, spare blocks, as may be required, etc. 

Distilling apparatus of sufficient size to be fitted up complete with 
all necessary pipes and pumps from engine. 

MACHINERY. 

Engines to be of horizontal direct-acting construction (similar to 
plan) of the nominal power of 500 horses (collective). 

Cylinders to be 75 inches diameter and 3 feet stroke, carefully 
bored and fitted ; to have double-ported slide valves wrought by link 
motion ; pistons to have one packing ring with strong steel springs. 

Air pumps, one for each engine, and to be of brass, with brass seats 
for valves; the valves to be of vulcanized india rubber: one bilge 
injection cock fitted to each engine. 

Feed and bilge pumps, two of each, with brass valve seats and 
india-rubber valves: bilge pumps to pump from any compartment 
of vessel. 

Wrought-iron parts of engine, viz, shafts, rods, levers, valve gear- 
ing, etc., to be of the best scrap iron. 

Propeller of cast iron, with three blades; a spare propeller with 
two blades. 

Pipes. All steam, feed, injection, blow-off, and discharge pipes 
to be of copper ; suction pipes and bilge to be of lead. 

Boilers to be tubular, in four parts (similar to plan), with iron 
tubes ; to have 350 feet of fire-grate surface and 9,500 feet of heating 



198 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

surface; to be fitted with bottom and surface blow-off rocks with cock 
at ship's side, as well as at boilers; suitable telescope funnel, stop 
valves, safety valves, gauge cocks and glasses, forward bars, and 
bearers. 

Boilers to be coated with felt and lagged with lead or wood where 
practicable;' plates for flume box, tube plates, sides, and top of fur- 
nace to be of best Yorkshire iron; shell plates to be of best Glasgow 
or Staffordshire iron; bottom of boilers to be double rivet'-,] and the, 
whole to be well stayed, so as to stand a water pressure of 50 pounds 
per square inch ; the floor plates in stoke hole to be of checkered sheet 
iron three-eighths inch thick. 

Donkey engine with pump, to be supplied to pump from sea and 
bilge and discharge into boilers into sea or upon deck with hose of 
sufficient length to reach any part of the vessel; donkey engine to be 
supplied with steam from the boiler of engine for pumping water 
ballast. 

foundries. The engines and boilers to be furnished with nil neces- 
sary tools required for working same, viz, firing tools, tools for clean- 
ing boilers, screw keys, lamps, etc., oil-feeding cups for engines, ham- 
mers, chisels, blocks and tackle, oil tank and cans, tallow tanks, clock, 
counter and indicator for engines, steam and vacuum gauges, and all 
other necessary tools. 

Coal bunkers to be made of iron plate, fitted, as shown in plan, to 
hold 1,000 tons of coal; and to be fitted with all necessary doors, etc. 

Water ballast. The center compartments of coal boxes before and 
abaft boilers (marked in plan for coals or water) to be arranged for 
carrying water ballast, said compartments to be well stayed to re- 
sist the pressure of water and calked water-tight ; to have all neces- 
sary water-tight doors for same, as also stop valves and pipes for fill- 
ing and emptying same. 

Pumping engine and boiler for water ballast to be of sufficient 
power and size for pumping water ballast, and to have all necessary 
pipes, valves, and connections for same. 

The engines, boilers, and all fittings and furnishings for same to be 
made and finished in Messrs. James and George Thomson's best style 
of workmanship and material, and equal in all respects to nny engines 
or boilers made by them. 

Finally, the vessel to be supplied with all smith work connected 
with hull, masts, spars, blocks, deadeyes, rigging, sails, plumber work, 
painting, carpenter, joiner, and cabinet work, brass, glazing, and up- 
holstery work; all necessary hatches, skylights, and companions; in 
a word, to finish the vessel complete for sea, with material and work- 
manship of first quality, with exception only of armament and am- 
munition, stores for vessel and machinery, steward's furnishings, and 
nautical charts and instruments, all of which, as usual, owners 
supply. 

CLYDE BANK FOUNDRY. Glasgow, 20th May, 1862. 



XAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 109 

Memorandum of agreement entered into of this date, %lst May, 1862, 
between George Thomson, Esq., acting for and on behalf of Messrs. 
James and George Thomson, engineers and shipbuilders, Glas- 
gow, on the one part, and James H. North, Esq., of 37 Russell 
Square, London, on the other part. 

First. The said first parties, viz, James and George Thomson, 
shall build and construct for account of the said second party, viz, 
James H. North, Esq., an armor-plated screw steamer, conform to 
specification agreed to, and docketed by both parties this date. 

Second. The said steamer shall be delivered complete, in accord- 
ance with said specification, by the first, day of June, 1863, at Glasgow. 

Third. The price of said steamer, so completed, shall be 182,000, 
say, one hundred and eighty-two thousand pounds sterling, payable 
by the said second party to the said first parties in the folio wing 'in- 
stallments, viz : 

Months. 18,000 on signing this agreement. 
About the time due, 1 12,000 when keel of vessel is laid. 
About the time due, 3 18,000 when vessel is half in frame. 
About the time due, 5 22,000 when vessel is fully in frame. 
About the time due, 6 22,000 when vessel is half plated. 
About the time due, 7 18,000 when vessel is fully plated. 
About the time due, 8 18,000 when teak backing for armor plates is fitted. 
About the time due, 9 18,000 when armor plates are fitted. 
About the time due, 10i 18,000 when vessel is launched. 

About the time due, 12 18,000 when vessel is delivered complete 7 in accordance 

with specification. 



182,000 

It being agreed that the amount of second installment shall now 
be placed so as to be at the disposal of said first parties when said 
installment becomes due. 

Fourth. The said first parties shall give ten days' notice in writing 
to the said second party, or his representative in London for the time 
being, when each separate installment shall become due. 

Fifth. It is agreed that should the said second party not be in funds 
when the third installment becomes due, to meet the payment of 
said installment, the said first parties shall in such case be at liberty 
to put a stop to the progress of the work in connection with said 
steamer, but, before putting an end to the contract in consequence of 
the nonpayment of said installment, the said first parties are to allow 
the said second party two months from the date said installment may 
fall due for the purpose of endeavoring to carry out the contract, or 
otherwise making such arrangements in the circumstances as may be 
mutually agreed upon between the said parties. 

GEORGE THOMSON. 

JAMES AND GEORGE THOMSON. 

JAMES H. NORTH. 

JAS. GALBRAITH, witness. 

EDGAR P. STRINGER, witness. 

Canceled by mutual agreement of this date, December 21, 1863. 

GEORGE THOMSON. 
JAMES AND GEORGE THOMSON. 
JAMES H. NORTH. 



200 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 18G1-1865. 

Alterations and extra fitting*. ]'ri<jnt> \f>. 61. 





Tons. 


Cwt. 


Qt. 


Lbs. 


Uato. 


. 


S. 


D. 


Shell plating abaft 4J-inch armor plating to be two 
thicknesses of 1 inch each for 16 feet aft from termina- 
tion of armor plating, and in breadth from lower edge 
of 4i-inch armo. plating to the 3-inch armor plating 
round stern. 
Plating 


9 
1 
@ 
@ 


11 
3 


3 
2 


..... 


2d 
3d 

6s 
20s 


17* 
32 
6 


19 
19 


4 

9 


Rivets 


Setting plates 20 














Time of fitters, calkers. riveters, painters, hammermen, 
holders on, helpers, boys, and foremen 








230 






Paint ' '. '....". 












5 


10 


1 


Forward peak bulkhead from spar deck to twixt deck to 
have 9-inch teak backing and 3- inch armor plates wit h 
suitable strong iron doors and hinges at openings for 
working chain cables through. 
Armor plates 


13 
1 


17 
15 
10 
1 
10 


1 
2 
2 
2 

1 


24 

14 

"io" 

"@" 


- . ML 
46s. 8d. 
Is. 
Is. 
2d. 
6s. 9d. 


473 


9 


f.47 
83 
58 
8 
65 
224 
11 
16 
2 

38 
18 
41 

24 
13 

63 
107 
18 
22 
3 
203 
11 
137 
19 
110 
11 


8 
2 
16 

u 

11 

15 
3 
5 
6 

5 


4 

6 

"4 

6 
7 

3 




Bolts for armor plates 


Hinges, bolts for doors 




Iron plating 


3 


666 feet of teak. . . . 


Sawing of teak 








Bolts for teak turned and screwed 




2 


3 


17 


1-. 
31. 

IBB. 

45s. 
693, 


S-inch yellow pine molds. 185 feet . . . . 




Use of machine and men s time at boring and counter- 
sinking for armor-plate bolts, 17 da} r s 










Use of machine and men's time boring and tapping on 
edges for lifting and adjusting plates, 8 days 










Use of large planing machine at top and bottom plates, 
15 days 










5 

15 
10 


.... 


Use of large planing machine and men's time at doors, 
9 days . 










55s. 


Use of machine and men's time boring doors, 6 davs . . . 










45s. 
60s. 


Use of large machine and men's tiine bending" and 
straightening plates, 21 days 










Time of carpenters 308 days 










7s. 
- .'-I. 
7s. 

7s. 
8s. 6d. 
4s. 
5s. 6d. 

7s 


1 
5 
1 
16 
li 
13 
8 
5 
19 
1 


"6 
"'6 


Time of foreman, 43 days 










Time of joiners, 63 days 










Time of foreman, 9 days 










Time of engineers, 582 days 










Time of foreman, 98 days 










Time of laborers, 687 davs 










Time of foreman, 70 days 










Time of iron shipbuilders, 317 days 










Time of foreman iron shipbuilder, 26 davs 










8s. ed. 

46s. Sd. 
Is. 
30s. 


The gun ports on fighting deck to lie increased in width 
inside to suit the angle for training guns by cutting 
out the frames adjoining the ports and replacing them 
with kneed frames to retain the strength of vessel; 
these ports to have an extra armor-plate blind out- 
side (over water-tight blind inside), wrought with 
chain outside and block and tackle inside; sills of 
ports to have an iron-plate shell with brass socket 
for gun pivots; the wood on sides of ports to be cov- 
ered with iron plates. 
Armor-plate blinds outside of ports 


12 


9 
14 
8 


1 

1 
3 


16 
20 

24 


1,993 





6 


581 
80 
13 
4 
10 
14 
14 
20 
8 
5 
34 
3 
74 
9 
20 
19 
2 
6 
8 
8 


18 
16 
8 
6 
8 
M 
6 
8 
15 
18 
1 
11 
11 
2 


4 

"ii 

8 

1 
"9 

3 


20 large forged and turned bolts for same 


Chain for working blinds.. . 




Pulleys 




Brackets 












Bolts, turned and screwed 




2 
2 
3 

1 
1 


2 
2 
2 
2 


14 
6 
16 

7 
6 


Is. 
Is. 
Is. 
Is. 
Is. 
6s. 9d. 
3d. 
2d. 
3d. 
:id. 
3d. 
Od. 
Od. 
4s. 


Shackles, turned and screwed 




Snugs or stoppers 




Bolts for same, turned 




Box and screw keys 




Teak chocks for holding brackets, 101 feet 








J-inch yellow pine molds, 285 feet 










Iron plate shelves on port sills 


3 


19 
6 
14 
13 
1 


3 
2 
1 
2 


14 


4 
11 
4 
18 


Rivets 


Angle iron on top of ports 




Angle iron below sills on ship 's side 




"is" 
1 


9 


Iron cleats on beams for working blinds inside 




Plates and eves for same 




2 




40 blocks for same 








Iron stropping, same.. . 










1 


8 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 
Alterations and extra fittings, Frigate No. 61 Continued. 



201 





Tons. 


Cwt. 


Qt. 


Lbs. 


Rate. 


. 


S. 


D. 

6 
4 
9 

1 


Rope stropping, same 












3 
10 
9 
5 
80 

45 
168 
69 
38 
15 

85 
12 

12 
1 


1 

3 
18 
18 


India ruhner washers 












Iron washers 












Iron screws 












20 brass sockets, finished and fitted complete 










80s. 
60s. 
45s. 
55s. 
45s. 
35s. 

7s. 
8s. 6d. 

7s. 
8s. 6d. 


Use of large machine and time of men bending and 
straightening armor plates, 15 davs 














Use of machine and time of machinemen tapping and 
countersinking armor plates, 75 davs 










15 
5 
5 


.... 


Use of large planing machine and time of machinemen, 
23 davs 










Use of machine and time of machinemen boring holes 
through armor plates for brackets, 17 days 










Use of machine and time of machinemen boring large 
holes i*! sill plates &J days _ 










Time of carpenters making and fitting chocks for brack- 
ets and bolting same, fitting blocks and collars for 
chains of blinds, fitting and finishing iron plate shell 
on sill 3 and sides of ports 245 davs 










15 
6 

5 
14 


"*6 


Time of foreman, 29 davs 








Time of joiners making molds andskeletons for bending 
blind <, 35 davs 








Time of fo~eman, 4 days 








Time of engineers at bending armor plates, boring and 
packing and sorting hinge bolts, fitting on armor 
plates blinds, bolting same and brackets, boring in- 
side skin of snip for chains and hinges, easing bunds 
at quay, and transporting plates to be altered from 
and to shipyard, 1,063 davs 










7s. 
4s. 
8s. 6d. 

7s. 
4s. 
2s 6d 


372 

663 

86 

239 
163 
54 


1 
8 
14 

15 
16 
5 


.'.'.'. 


Time of laborers at same, 3J317 davs 










Tims of for Pin an, 204 davs 










Time of iron shipbuilders, setting, tapering, and fitting 
on plates ana angle iron on port sills, setting and 
fitting on angle iron below sills on ship's side, tapping 
and bolting, riveting brass socket in sill plate, also 
riveting angle iron on side plates and through armor 
plates, also riveting sill plates to angle iron on ship's 
side, boringholes at ports ; making and fitting on pieces 
of angle iron for top of siU plates, setting, fitting on, 
and riveting eyes and plates on beams for working 
blind chains inside 685 days 










Time of laborers at same 819 days 




















Time of foreman, 97 davs 










8s. 6d. 


41 


4 

17 


6 
1 


The bottom of vessel inside up to bilge covered with 










3,118 


250 






Six guns a side to be wrought on upper deck over orig- 
inal arrangements. 
Teak stanchions for same, 255 feet 










6s. 9d. 
Is. 

6d. 
2s. 

7s. 6d. 









250 






3 


86 
274 

7 
144 
45 


1 
10 

2 
12 


Ring bolts and eye bolts for working guns turned and 
screwed 


2 


9 

2 
12 




2 
3 


2 

4 
18 


Iron plates on oustide of stanchions for eye bolts and 
ringbolts.. 


Large brass hinges for ports finished with screw bolts. . 








Time of joiners . ... 












307 
160 


6 
14 


"io 
1 

"lO 
10 

7 

5 
3 

""5 


Time of shipbuilders 












One If-inch stud table with shackles complete 


7 
26 


16 

10 
19 

18 
16 
3 


3 

3 
3 

2 
3 

2 


8 

3 
7 

18 
9 
J 


20s. 6d. 

46s. 8d. 
Is. 

40s. 
3d. 
Is. 
6s. 9d. 


1,025 


6 


ICO 


14 


A lookout house to be fitted on upper deck aft made of 
iron with teak backing and covered with 44-inch 
armor plates outside teak, and to have iron roof and 
all finished and complete; the deck beams under 
house to be plated over with iron and made sufficient- 
ly strong for carrying weight of house. 
Armor plates.. . 


160 

1,238 
110 

677 
51 
19 
256 
7 


14 

9 
19 

6 
11 
13 
10 
18 


Bolts for teak and do., all sizes 


Plating over beams, also for bottom, sides, ends, and 
roof of bouse (best Leeds iron) 


16 
1 


Rivets 


Bolts for top 


Teak backing 760 feet 




Sawing same. . . 












202 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 



- 



Alterations and cjrtru fittings, Frigate \o. 61 Continued. 





Tons. 


Cwt. 


Qt. 


I.bs. Rate. 
1 


. 


8. 


D. 

9 












3d. 
60S. 
568. 

45s. 
438. 


3 
108 
225 
137 
33 

K 


8 


Use of machine bending and setting armor plat*s, 3C 










Use of largo planing machines and time of machinemen, 










5 




.... 


Use of machine and time of machine men boring and 










Use of machines and t i mo of maohinemen tapping edges 










Telegraph (brass' and uulia rubber tubes, and rods, 
handles, etc.) from house to steering wheels, engine 




















7s. 
.M. 
7s. 

7s. 
ss. t.d. 

s-.,,i. 

Is. 

-...:. 
* 
6s. 6d. 
2s. 6d. 


173 
26 
S4 
11 
11 
1 

36 
HI 

:- 


15 
22 


. 
15 
7 
18 
is 
5 
9 
15 


"*6 

" " Y, 
"" 




























































































4 
9 
17 


(i 
""e 

6 


Time of laborers 3 946 days ... 










Time of foreman (>J days . 






























One 9-inch Downton's patent pump, fitted to pump 
from five places, bilge, sea, and all connections, pipes, 
etc. 












4,580 

i n= 

SO 


6 

===== 


5 

I. 


Lead and hose pipes, brass eoapilogB, bends, toad 







>' ' 






105 






2-inch yellow pine for covering pipes, 30 feet 










M. 


1 


1 
2 
3 
2 
19 
14 


6 
3 

1 
3 
1 






































6 








































2 


9 

8 


"*2 

4 


Time of foreman 












One 7-inch Downton's patent pump, fitted to pump 
from bilge, sea, and with pipes and all connections: 














197 





45 
















58 






H-inch yellow-pine covering pipes, 40 tee't 










7d. 


1 


3 
2 
3 
10 

1 


4 
6 
1 
8 
9 


Nails t r. t . t . . '. 
























Tune of carpenters 












3 

6 


Time of iron-ship builders 












Covers for 4 hatchways: 
Yellow -pine cleatino;, 195 feet 










5d. 
lOd. 
Is. 6d. 


114 


7 


4 


4 


1 

4 
2 

"io" 

6 
16 
15 


3 

7 
3 
6 
6 

"" 

7 

4 
6 


1-inch teak framing, 5J feet , 










2-inch teak framing. 41i feet 










3 
1 

4 


Iron screws, Ifc. ; 3-inch nails, 4s. 6d 










Iron bars, lockings, chains, etc. , complete 




1 


2 


13 

18 


6d. 
4d. 


Sheet iron round funnel on after one 




Paint 








Time at do 












11 


40 chests for crew, yellow pine 












25 


16 


48 
28 
1 
7 
3 
2 
1 
IS 
10 
124 
4 


8 
5 


Elm " 












120 pairs brass edge hmges 










Is. 
Is. 3d. 


120 locks 

90 pounds nails, 45s. ; 20 pounds sprigs, 26s. 8d 








.... 


.... 


10 
11 


'"s 


80 chest handles 










Sd. 


Brass screws 










8 


6 


Black birch listings for do . 












Nails for do., 5s. 10d.; paint, 10 












5 
16 

17 


10 

" '> 
7 


Time of joiners 












Time of foreman 
























j 22. r > 


3 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 203 

Alterations and extra- fitting*. Friaatr No. 61 Continued. 





Tons. 


Cwt. 


Qt. 


Lbs. 


Rate. 


:. 


S. 


D. 


Sundries: 










4 
10 
14 
3 


10 
10 
14 














2 compasses 












6 boat compasses 












Ad Justin" the above compasses 












3 
1 
9S 


3 
10 


.. 


Rollin" an'l pitching machine 










2 large hawsers, extra 










4 Danish ensigns, very large 












5 

1 
1 


10 
10 
10 
10 
6 


6 


11 boat ensigns - 












1 pilot flag 








' 


2 pennants 









1 boat do - 






















30s. 
28s. 
40s. 
80s. 
25s. 


30 
28 
6 
24 

47 
5 


20 casks for crew (washing) -^ 


























6 casks for topsail halvards 














38 extra deck lanterns 
6 watch tackles , complete 










10 


.... 


6 watoh blocks, do., very large 












15 






24 luff tackle blocks, complete with falls 












16 






12 hanks . 














12 




1 smith's hearth (large and complete) 








12 






1 anvil " " 










3 






4 smith's tongs 












9 




1 fore hammer 












6 
3 


6 


1 hanrl hammer 















6 chisels 














8 
2 
2 


6 
6 


1 worm chisel 














2 hand; pincers 














1 vi bench 












1 


10 




1 vise 












1 


5 

5 


.... 


1 hand vise 












3 honnh h^mmflrs 














18 




2 screw drivers 














?. 




6 crosscut chisels 














9 
1? 


1 


1 dozen files, assorted , 














1 saw for cutting iron 














12 
1 

1-1 


6 
9 

fi 


1 widener 














1 soldering iron, of copper 














1 screw wrench 














1 dumb screw 












10 




4 evebolts 














f, 




2 pincers 












o 




8 augers 










1 






2 M>ntprs and liit.ts 












4 

2 
2 
6 
fi 


6 
6 
6 
3 


4 eimlets 












2 rasps for wood 












2 riveting hammers 












2 set hammers 












4 chisels 












4 
1 
10 
3 
3 
14 


8 
6 
6 
6 
6 


1 set stone 












2 jack planes 












1 first-hand plane 












1 second-hand plane 












2 iron wrenches 












1 uluepot 










2 
4 


9 


2 larcre hammerg 










2 calkin? irons and 2 single sets 












4 




2 small cooper's planes 












4 




1 long cooper's plane 












6 
1 


6 


1 bung bore 












1 iron screw. 












V. 




1 cooper's bench (large) 












3 






1 pair compasses 














1 
3 
4 
2 
3 


6 
6 
6 
3 


1 hfl Hitler 












1 handsaw 












1 hjint* fM>rP-w - - 

























1 sm^ll hn.t.clipt 














2 


9 


Awning for the crew in wet weather .awning abaft 
from mizzenmast to stem, with fringe 4 feet deep. 
Canvas cover for hammock nettings 












75 












55 






Eves for do., 380 (5 li.. . . 












2 
7 
7 
7 
28 
27 
35 
35 


7 

"io" 

4 
5 

IS 



6 


Awning stanchions. . ." 




2 


2 


1 


6 
3s. 
3s. 


30 coal bags 




48 wooden squeegees 










1 sparfi mi\in tQprpy;f 










1 spare fore topmast 












1 fore topsail yard 












1 jibboom". 












35 







204 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1801-1865. 

Alt f rations and extra fittiiiyx, Frigate A'o. 61 Continued. 





Tons. 


Cwt. 


Qt. 


Lbs. 


Hate. 


. 


S. 


D. 


Sundries Continued. 
6 leather fire buckets, with 14 fathoms of line 












6 






24 canvas fire buckets with 6 fathoms of line 












12 






Portable screens around engine and boiler hatches. . 












15 






Carving Danish arms on gangway boards 












25 






4 hawser reels finished and fitted up complete 












10 


3 
















2 


15 




22 extra boat skcets 












3 


6 




Flag poles for life buoys (leaded) ... 














12 




4 teak lookout platforms, with teak accommoda- 
tion ladders, finished and fitted complete. . 












20 






Flag chest aft, with teak accommodation ladder. . . . 












3 






Tank pumps with india rubber hose, brass coup- 
lings and fitted complete 












8 


' ir, 




2 large fire engines, with hose, directors, couplings, 
etc. , complete 












200 






4 hand fire engines, with hose directors, couplings, 
etc. , complete 












40 






Stand for hand fire engines 












15 




































(1031) 
13,225 


(3) 


"io 



NASSAU, N. P., May 29, 1862. 

DEAR SIR: The steamer British Queen has just arrived and will 
leave in a few hours, so I take this opportunity of sending you a 
few lines. We arrived here on the 25th after a very pleasant 
passage, and here the Bahama will have to remain until her cargo 
(hardware) is shipped in small steamers to the Confederate] 
o[tates]. She draws too much water to attempt to run her into 
Charleston, which is now the only available port, and I am afraid 
that before long that it also [will] be in the hands of the enemy. 
Captain Vincent, w r ho is here in the Seabrook, says that many of the 
guns at St. Philip were spiked, so that the passage of the enemy's 
vessels to New Orleans was not very difficult. Thirty-five thousand 
bales of cotton were burned, and all the sugar and molasses thrown 
into the river, so that the enemy did not make much of a haul in 
that place. The Oreto is here and will [run] out as soon as possible, 
but there are many difficulties to be overcome before she can be of 
service. Maffitt is going in her; he has two mids[hipmen] with him, 
and I have volunteered to go with him, as I considered it my duty 
to do so under the circumstances, though my inclinations would take 
me home. Norfolk being evacuated, I know not where my wife has 
gone. I, however, heard that she was well. Your letters I will send 
on by the lirst opportunity. Yesterday the governor gave permission 
for the Oreto to take cargo on board, but it will be impossible to ship 
a crew for her. The Nashville is still here ; will sail with a cargo in 
a few days. No promotions have been made in the Navy as yet, 
and I understand that you still remain a lieutenant. Huse is sus- 
pected of not being true to the cause, and will, I think, be recalled; 
his wife is here and leaves in the steamer to-day. Mr. and Mrs. 
De Leon also leave in the steamer. Mr. De L. has kindly offered to 
take this letter. Bulloch is only a provisional commander, and his 
appointment has created such a row in naval circles that the Depart- 
ment has declined to make any more appointments; the excitement 
about it has not yet subsided. Mr. De Leon can give you more infor- 
mation about affairs in Charleston than I can. The Bahama and 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 205 

Oreto affairs have been very badly managed indeed. The Santiago 
de Cuba is off the Hole in the Wall firing into all vessels that pass. 
She was on the lookout for the Bahama, which we suspected, so we 
gave her cruising ground a wide berth. Saw only three vessels 
(merchant) on our way across. Will you be kind enough to forward 
the inclosed note to the commanding officer of the Sumterf * * * 

Hope that you will speedily be able to get a fine vessel afloat. 
With regards, I remain, 
Your friend, 

J. M. STRIBLING. 

Captain J. H. NORTH. 



CONFEDERATE STATES, 
Navy Department, Richmond, May 29, 1862. 

SIR: Your letter of the J4th of April reached me yesterday. Its 
duplicate failed, and was probably properly destroyed. 

A letter from Lieutenant Maffitt, at Nassau, informs me of the ar- 
rival at that port of the Manassasf in charge of Mr. Low, but I have 
nothing from you upon the subject further than your statement of 
her leaving England without being fitted. I am anxious to know 
whether her armament has been sent to her, what it consists of, and 
what speed she has, and the probabilities of her being speedily fitted 
for sea. 

In my letters to Commander North I directed him to take command 
of this vessel, or of the second one, and I trust he has made his ar- 
rangements to do so, as in my instructions to Commander Semmes 
I have authorized him, if he deems it practicable, to transfer his 
officers and crew to the second vessel, which may be called the 
Alabama. 

I have nothing to add in relation to ironclad ships further than 
to express my confidence in your judgment, no less than in your 
zeal and ability, and to say that if, upon surveying the whole field, 
you shall reach the conclusion that you can not build abroad, arm, 
equip, and bring here such ironclad ships as will successfully con- 
tend with the enemy's Navy, you will exercise your discretion in the 
premises and advise me as early as practicable. 

If Commander Semmes should find it expedient to transfer his 
command from the Sumter to another vessel, and Commander North 
should have taken command of the Alabama (your second vessel), 
you will purchase or build a vessel for him out of the funds in your 
hands, and fit out and equip her for him, and supply him with funds 
to pay his officers and crew, for cruising purposes, to the amount 
of $100,000. 

The name of the vessel you have sent to Nassau has been changed 
to Florida. 

Your letter of the 21st of March, informing me that she had left 
England, failed to reach the department. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY,^ 

Secretary Navy. 
Commander JAMES D. BULLOCH, C. S. NAVY, 

Liverpool, England. 

* Called also Oreto ; commissioned C. S. S. Florida. 



206 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 19G1-1S65. 



No. 11. 



Sir; 
25/680. 
Plans 
15,576. 
have commenced the 



LONDON, Jun-e 7, 1862. 



13,388. 

to 
14,743. 

She 
22,673. 
pounds. 
1,586. 

she 



and specifications being all ready I 

10,99 23,694. 9,128 5,91. 15,620. 1,408 

ship. It is absolutely necessary 

5,736 26,674 1,450. 26,449. 3,73 



7,195. 
have 
13,388. 
will 
31,809. 

The 
27,732. 
advances 



money to 

3,512. 14,743. 
cost about 
25,221. 10,72. 
payments to 
18,560. 
towards 



22,673. 36,82. 
better satisfied 
4,134. 9,650. 

do. 
16,273. 



meet 
11,498. 
two 
27,758. 

be 

14,743. 8,128. 
completion. I 



20,746. 31,198. 
now that I 
24,530. 1,736. 1,408. 



North 
13,529. 



the 
5,736. 
hundred 
27,404. 

made 
13,486. 
feel 
4,328, 

have something 
13,388. 30,690. 



1,408. 



payments. 
18,560. 
thousand 
4,739. 
as 

11,112. 

much 

26,516. 

to 
14,743 



LIVERPOOL, June 11, 1862. 

DEAR SIR : Day before yesterday the Cunard steamer Xiagara ar- 
rived, bringing the Nassau mails, and I was much disappointed at 
not receiving a single line from our Department. To-day, however, I 
have been quite startled by the receipt of a bulky envelope, contain- 
ing several letters from the honorable Secretary of the Navy, one as 
late in date as May 3. These communications are of such importance 
as to involve the possible change of all my plans here, and it will be 
absolutely necessary that we should consult without delay. The 
Secretary says he has written you by the same opportunity, but it is 
not improbable that your letter may have miscarried, and I will 
state, in short phrase, the gist of the Secretary's instructions. He 
says you will take command of the first ship built by me here. Cap- 
tain Semmes, with his officers and crew, will be transferred to the 
second ship, and I will remain to build two iron-cased ships " suitable 
for our waters." You will perceive that we should see each other as 
soon as possible. My engagements will not permit me to leave Liver- 
pool, and I think you had better come down here at once. To-morrow 
I go out in the new ship for a trial of engines and will be at sea all 
day, but can meet you at the office of Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co. 
on Friday at 12 o'clock. If you desire any other time of meeting, 
telegraph me. The Secretary incloses me a copy of your letter of 
March 15, for what reason I know not, unless because of your allu- 
sion to the Orcto. 

In ^reat haste, I am, very truly, yours, 

JAMES D. 

Commander JAMES H. NORTH. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 207 

37 RUSSELL SQUARE, 
London, June 14, 1868, p. in. 

DEAR SIR : On my return from the city I found a letter from the 
honorable the Secretary of the Navy, and, as I had written you this 
morning, telling you that I had not received a line, I now hasten to 
inform you of the fact. 

Mr. Mallory's letter is dated May 2, in which he says : " You are 
advised in my letter of the 17th of March last that $150,000 had been 
placed to your credit with Fraser, Trenholm & Co., and that you 
were to take command of the vessel built by Captain Bulloch. These 
funds, it is hoped, have enabled you to fit your vessel for a long and 
useful cruise, general instructions for which were also given. You 
are, however, to regard yourself as unrestricted upon this subject, 
but will consult fully with our ministers about it," etc. 

As the vessel alluded to has sailed from this months since, I 
am now ready to take the command of the one you have in Liverpool 
or I am ready to continue the work on the armor-plated ship begun 
by myself near one month since. I am all packed and expect to leave 
this for Glasgow on Monday. Any communications that you may 
have for me, please direct them to the care of Messrs. P. Hender- 
son & Co., Glasgow. Inclosed are the dimensions of the ship I 
have contracted for. 
Yours, truly, 

JAMES II. NORTH. 

Commander JAS. D. BULLOCH. 

P. S. Please let me have a copy of Captain Buchanan's report. 



LIVERPOOL, June 17, 1862. 

DEAR SIR : Your letter of the 14th from London is postmarked the 
16th, and has consequently only reached me to-day. Inasmuch as the 
general instructions of the honorable Secretary of the Navy granted 
me a large discretion, and his especial instructions of April 30, which 
I showed you on Friday last, could not be carried out to the letter, it 
was my intention to depart from them so far as to go to sea in the ship 
now nearly ready here myself, and to turn over the whole business 
of contracting for iron-cased ships to you. I frankly confess that I 
was partly impelled to this course by the fact that my judgment did 
not agree with yours as to the class of ship most advisable or most 
suitable for the wants of the Confederate Navy, and, as you had 
already contracted for one in accordance with your own views, it 
seemed every way preferable that you should be the person to carry 
out those views. 

The letter you have now received, and which has been so un- 
accountably delayed, seems to place beyond a doubt the real inten- 
tions of the Department, viz, that you should command a ship afloat, 
and you had better, therefore, come on here at once to discuss and 
arrange the manner of getting to sea. The ship at the Messrs. Laird's 
is so nearly ready that I had appointed about the 4th of July for her 
departure, so you perceive there is no time to be lost. Mr. Mallory's 
allusions in his last letter to me to the requirements and capabilities 



208 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORKESPOKDEXCK, Wl-1865. 

of our coast and harbors shows that moderate sized vessels are 
wanted, a feature it will, of course, be very difficult to reconcile with 
absolute invulnerability. You will please get full and minute speci- 
fications of Mr. Thomson's ship, so that when we meet, which should 
be as soon as possible, there will be no delay in our coming to an un- 
derstanding on this or any other point. 

I have lent Captain B. s report to Mr. John Laird, and will give 
you a copy as soon as it is returned. 

In great haste, I am, yours, truly, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Commander JAS. II. NORTH. 



HELEXSKUKG, June IS, 1862. 

GENTLEMEN: I will be pleased to meet you to-morrow at your 
works. Contrary to my expectations I may have to leave this county 
very shortly, and, in that case, must transfer the articles of agree- 
ment entered into about the construction of an armor-plated ship to 
another party. 

I am, yours, truly, 

JAMES II. NORTH. 
Messrs. J. & G. THOMSON. 



('i.vi)r. HANK FOUNDRY, 
Glasgow, June 18, 1862. 

DEAR SIR: We are in receipt of your note of to-day. It will be 
quite convenient for us to see you to-morrow. 

We learn, with surprise and not a little regret, that there is a 
probability of your having to leave this country very shortly. 

You are aware that our understanding with you when arranging 
the contract for the armor-plated steamer was that you were to 
remain in this country to see such carried out. A transaction of the 
nature of this one peculiar in many respects could have been 
entered into by us only from a strong feeling of confidence and trust 
toward the party we were contracting with, and such our preliminary 
personal negotiations with you enabled us to form toward your good 
self. Excuse us, therefore, stating very respectfully that the transfer 
of our contract to another party will not be in accordance with either 
the spirit or the letter of our agreement w T ith you. 

We trust that you may be enabled to make arrangements for carry- 
ing out personally your contract with us, so that our confidence in the 
transaction may not be disturbed, or the rapid progress of the work 
interfered with, by the necessity which would otherwise arise for 
our adhering strictly to the letter of the contract in respect to our 
payments. 

We are, dear sir, yours, truly, 

JAMES and GEORGE THOMSON. 

Captain XORTH. 

COLUMBUS, GA., June 22, 1862. 

SIR : I wish [you] , on your arrival at Johnston's ship yard, to con- 
sult with Master Carpenter J. S. Haynes, C. S. Navy, and inform 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 209 

yourself as to the true condition of the gunboat now in process of 
construction at that place, and inform me immediately by mail. 

Captain Whiteside, of the steamer , has kindly offered to stop 

on his trip up, and will take charge of any letters. 

The department is very much annoyed at the manner in which 
things have been conducted at that yard. There seems no disposition 
on the part; of the contractor to complete the work, his main view 
being to construct a permanent arrangement at his place for future 
operations of a private nature, which is highly detrimental to our 
cause. I have urged him to exert himself in this undertaking and 
sacrifice everything to getting that vessel in the water. 

Your will prepare for me a true statement of the condition of the 
vessel, and what are the probabilities, if any, of launching, to be 
forwarded to the Navy Department. 

I send you ten scupper pipes, and also three men, shipped as ordi- 
nary seamen, which you will quarter on board the Kate Bruce. 
I am. very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. McLATJGHLIX, 

Lieutenant, C . /S. Navy. 
Acting Master J. McC. BAKER, C. S'. Navy. 



LIVERPOOL, June 26, 1862. 

SIR: I have received orders from the honorable the Secretary ol 
the Navy, under date of May 2, " to take command of the vessel built 
by you, and at the same time he acknowledges the receipt of a dis- 
patch received from me and says : " It gives me the first information 
received since you and Captain Bulloch left us, holding out any pros- 
pect of getting ironclad vessels constructed in Europe. I write im- 
mediately, therefore, to Captain Bulloch to proceed as expeditiously 
as possible with this important duty." 

I am now ready to assume the command of the vessel, and to 
transfer to you the contract for an armor-clad iron steamship entered 
into between the Messrs. Thomson, of the Clyde Bank Foundry, and 
myself, on the 21st May, 1862. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES H. NORTH, C. S. Navy. 

Commander JAS. D. BULLOCH. 



LIVERPOOL, June 27, [1862]. 

SIR : I am in receipt of your letter of the 26th instant, and in com- 
pliance with the instructions of the honorable Secretary of the Navy, 
as quoted by you in that letter, I hereby formally and officially trans- 
fer to you the* command of the ship built by me here. 

A detailed statement of the condition of the ship and the plans 
heretofore devised for getting her out of English waters would be 
too lengthy for a letter of this character, but I hold myself ready to 
make verbal explanations on all points upon which you may desire 
information, and I will yield you willing assistance in consummating 
the objects of your approaching cruise. I am furthermore ready to 

170429 VOL 2 PT 121 14 



210 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1801- 

relieve you in your contract with the Messrs. Thomson, as soon as 
those gentlemen sign the agreement necessary to make the inn. 
legal. 

I am, very respectfully, your ohedient servant, 

JAMES D. Bri.i. 

Commander, ' . ^. 
Commander JAMES H. NORTH. 



MONTGOMERY, [ALA.], June 3 

SIRS: Frequent applications are made to me for iron from the 
Shelby County works by officers of the Confederate and State (i->\- 
ernments. For instance, to-day Governor Shorter has ham led me a 
letter from Commodore V. M. Randolph, asking him, the governor, 
to order 3 tons of three-fourths round iron, rolled either at Mont- 
gomery or the Shelby Works, to complete the work being done on 
the gunboats Morgan and Gaines, with the request that I will fin 
the iron from the Shelby Works. Captain | C. G.] Wagner has also 
ordered 50 to 100 tons of pig iron for the ordnance post. I shall fill 
these two orders, as I know that it is necessary for the parties to 
have iron to complete Government work. But I desire that you will 
give me specific instructions as to what orders I shall fill, and how 
these accounts are to be paid. I am here to-day on business, but will 
return to Selma to-night. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

C. J. McR.\K. 

Colonel J. GORGAS and Captain GEORGE MINOR, 

( ' liitfa of Ordnance, Richmond. 

P. S. The 3 tons three-fourths rod iron, wanted for the gunboats 
at Mobile, are already made under an order sent a short time since 
by Captain Minor to have 100 tons of round iron rolled for the gen- 
eral purposes of the Navy Department. 

C. J. 



SELMA FOUNDRY, July J, 
SIR : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of yours of the 
26th ultimo, enclosing tracings for gun carriages and chassis. It 
was not my intention to make these carriages and chassis at present, 
but merely to order the timber and other material. I shall spare no 
efforts to get the works here underway as speedily as possible. To 
meet the views of the department I am driving the rolling mill and 
foundry on together, though by the contract I was to commence 
making cannon on the 1st of September and rolled iron the 1st 
of December. As this change has been made at the request of your- 
self and Mr. Mallory. I desire that the Secretaries of the Army and 
Navy address me a note authorizing it, or instruct you and Captain 
Minor to do so. This idea, however, has been elaborated in my letters 
of the 20th and 25th ultimo. 1 have not yet been able to make any 
contracts for railroad iron, though I have been endeavoring to do so 
with the Shelby County Company, Mr. | C. C. | Huckabee, and another 
party, with whom I was negotiating for the delivery of 6,000 tons 



KAVY DEPARTMENT CJORRESPO^TDE^CE, 1861-1 211 

of pig metal per annum before I received your letters instructing me 
to give railroad, rails the preference in all contracts. I fear, how- 
ever, that nothing can be done with any of these parties, as none of 
them seem disposed to risk a dollar of their own money for the 
benefit of the country. I am, however, now in correspondence with 
another party who proposes to take a large contract, half pig and half 
railroad iron (6,000 tons per annum of each), if the prices can be 
agreed on. I have offered 6 cents per pound for railroad rails, spikes, 
chains, and fish bars, and the same price paid the Shelby Works for 
the pig. They are willing to furnish the pig iron at the price, but 
will not undertake the rails for less than 7 cents per pound. I shall 
Avail your answer to my letter of the 20th, in reference to the price 
to be paid for rails, Before I go further. The increased contract with 
Mr. Huekabee will require $30,000 in Treasury notes. The other 
contract for 6,000 tons pig metal requires an advance of $30,000, and 
if I succeed in making the large contract for rails and pig metal 
(6,000 tons eachj , it will require an advance of $75,000. It is, there- 
fore, necessary for you to place $135,000 in Captain Wagner's hands 
during this month in order to carry out these contracts. Besides 
this the Shelby County Company will have delivered $15.000 to 
$20.000 worth of iron by the end of the month. When it is agreed 
to advance contractors' mone}', it should be done at once in order 
to get them to commence with promptness. The men who have money 
will not take contracts from the Government, except on the most 
unfair conditions, consequently nothing can be done until the Gov- 
ernment furnishes the money to begin with. 

I have the honor to be, with much respect, your obedient servant, 

C. J. MCRAE. 

Colonel J. GOEGAS, 

Chief of Ordnance, Richmond. 

P. S. I make application through you to the Secretary of War 
for the detail of Privates Thomas C. Wright and William Dane, of 
Company A, Confederate Battalion, Louisiana Volunteers, Colonel 
F. H. Cfo>ck, now in or about Tupelo, to report to me here to work in 
the foundry as machinists. They are both good lathe and vise men 
and I am much in need of such. Please give this matter your per- 
sonal attention, and much oblige. 
Your obedient servant, 

C. J. 



SELMA, [ALA.], July 4-, 1862. 

Y"our dispatch of the 3d is just at hand. I telegraphed Mr. Mai- 
lory two days ago that no iron could be delievered from my rolling 
mills before the middle of October. I have also written several times 
to this effect. See my letters to Colonel Gorgas, of the 20th and 
25th ultimo and instant. If I can not get material to make ma- 
chinery, I can not deliver the iron even in October. I know that 
most of the articles which I asked for are, or were, in the naval 
stores at Montgomery when I asked for them. 

C. J. 
Captain GEORGE MINOR, 

Chief of Ordnance^ C. S. Navy, Richmond. 



212 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

LIVERPOOL, July 4, 1862. 

SIR : Your letters of April 30 and May 2 have been received. Have 
transferred the ship to North and, in the expectation of regular and 
adequate relief, have contracted for three armored ships, the first 
to be ready in March, the second two months later. Have given the 
matter much and careful investigation, and [if] money does not 
fail, there will be no delay in the execution of the contracts. 

The credit of your Department is thus far very sound, as I have 
been able to pay all liabilities very promptly. There is a double 
advantage in basing all transactions upon cash payments; work is 
more quickly done and you have the benefit of a liberal discount. In 
some of my contracts the discount for cash has been as high as 10 
per cent. 

The contracts alluded to in the cipher above are for a very largo 
amount, but not so large as the sum mentioned in your letter of April 
30, which you inform me will be put to my credit with Messrs. 
Fraser, Trenholm & Co., for the specific purpose alluded to in thia 
letter. With the various incidental expenses attending such con- 
tracts, and the cost of what you are well aware must be the necessary 
adjuncts, the entire amount mentioned in your letter would be 
absorbed, and I sincerely hope the remittances will be regular and 
ample. I feel called upon to say, however, that money appropriated 
in Richmond is very much reduced in amount when converted into 
pounds, shillings, and pence by the high rate of exchange and that 
to complete all outstanding contracts will require 390,000 in this 
country. By referring to what has been sent, independently of 
30.000 to Captain North and the $15,000 sent me for the outfiVetc., 
of shrps, you will see what amount must be forwarded me. I know 
your anxiety on the subject matter of the cipher part of this letter, 
and' can assure you that no exertion will be wanting on my part to 
have everything completed in the shortest possible time and in the 
best manner. Lack of money alone Avill delay or embarrass me. 
The designs are entirely new, but I confidently anticipate your ap- 
proval or" them. This letter goes by the Nassau mail via New York, 
and I must necessarily be cautious. By the first safe messenger, I 
will send you a full report with scale plans. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH, 
Commander, C. S. Xavy. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



No. 12. 

LIVERPOOL, July 5, 1862. 
SIR-. 455/19-5. 

680/25. 

In obedience to your orders of May 2d I 
418/20, 533/15, 743/14, 817/17, 541/21, 536/36, 496/4-2 408/2, 

have assumed the command of the vessel built by 
388/13, 114/35, 736/5, 195/1, 536/36, 736/5, 793/15, 153/2, 157/2, 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 213 

Captain B.[ulloch] and have transferred to him the 
163/21, 99/10, 388/13, 748/29, 743/14, 396/15, 736/5, 

contract for the armor plated steam ship now 

213/5, 343/35, 736/5, 110/26, . 577/2, 704/1, 674/26, 530/24, 
building It is impossible for me to 

153/1, ... 450/1, 449/26, 416/15, 343/35, 496/15, 743/14, 
say when I shall sail. I am only 

657/11, 806/12, 408/2, 672/18, 652/28, 408/2, 94/13, 539/2, 
waiting the completion of gun[s and] equipment[s] but will 
800/4, 736/5, 198/31, 536/36, 380/25, 305/5, 156/1, 809/31, 
be off as soon after delivery as possible. 

128/8, 536/37, JL12/11, 691/10, 86/9, 248/6, 112/11, 584/16, 
I shall request Captain [Bulloch] to communicate with 
408/2, 672/18, 635/10, 163/21, ... 743/14, 197/1, 811/18, 

you when 1 leave. 
817/11, 806/12, 408/2, 469/2. 
Respectfully, 

637/5, 

[NAVY DEPARTMENT.] N.[ORTH] 

529/13. 

LIVERPOOL, July 8, 186%. 

SIR: On the 26th of June last you informed me by official letter 
that the honorable Secretary of the Navy had instructed you to take 
command of the ship built by me here. I therefore, under date of the 
28th ultimo, resigned to you the command of that ship then nearly 
ready for sea, it being understood that for the convenience of busi- 
ness and from prudential motives, I should continue the equipment 
of the ship and the other preliminary arrangements for her cruise. It 
now appearing by later advices that you are not the officer detailed for 
the command of this ship, it is not necessary that you should continue 
to be her nominal commander, and I therefore revoke my letter of 
transfer, dated June 28, 1862. I will continue to act as heretofore 
and hope to have the ship and all her armament ready to sail, in 
whatever direction the fortunate and distinguished officer who is 
really to command her, may desire. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH, 
Commander, C. S Navy. 

Commander JAMES II. NORTH C. S. Navy. 



54 DEVONSHIRE 'STREET, 
Portland Place, London, July 8, 1862. 

DEAR SIR : I have a letter, dated the 7th instant, from Acting Mid- 
shipman William Andrews, expressing his readiness to go at once to 
Gibraltar, to relieve Midshipman Armstrong under my order, but 
saying he has not the means of paying his passage. This you or 
Captain Bulloch must provide out of the navy fund. Be good 



214 NAVY DEPAKTAIKA'T < '< -IMtKSI'OiN DhNiT;, 

enough to do so at once and let him fro. His address is ui tin- " licivi- 
dere Hotel, Liverpool." 

Mr. William P. Brooks and M. O'Brien, engineers of the /SW 
called on me this morning, and said that an opportunity offere< 
which they could go home, and asking whether they were to go. I 
told them I would let them know in two or three days. These men 
were detained here, I think, with others, under an arrangement with 
Captain Bulloch, who was to take them on board the ship which he 
then expected to command, and he has provided for their expenses 
through Mr. Hotze. They can still be detained here until you wunt 
them. 

Please let me hear promptly on both heuds of this letter. 
Very respectfully, yours, 

J. M. MASON. 

[Commander J. IT. NORTH.] 

P. S. I have a note from Captain G. T. Sinclair, ('. S. Navy. <l;>t''<| 
on the steamer Africa, on his way to Liverpool, lie desires to see 
you. You will hear of him through Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co. 

J. M. M. 

LIVERPOOL, July 10, 18', 

SIR: Your letter of yesterday is this morning before me. It n> 
was my intention or desire to exercise any " authority " in connection 
with your individual arrangements or plans. Under certain im; 
sions I wrote you a letter. Those impressions being subsequently 
changed by later authentic and even official information, I deemed it 
advisable to revoke what I had previously written. There can be no 
actual command in a purely naval sense exercised over the ship now 
here until she is put under the Confederate flag, and as the oilicer de- 
tailed to command her is not here, and I am expected by the Navy 
Department, as well as by that oilicer himself, to complete her outfits 
just as if "1 were to command her myself," it did seem to me useless 
and absurd that still a third officer should for a few short days ap, 
upon paper as her commander. As the matter now stands, I am 
simply an agent for the Navy Department in the construction of ships, 
and I will deliver them to the officers detailed for their command in 
as complete a state as existing circumstances will permit. All my in- 
structions have been freely handed you for perusal, or been read to 
you by me. You know, therefore, what duties have been assigned me 
as well as I do. I am not so well informed as to your position here. 
If there is in your possession any order from the department ap- 
pointing you to a command that is not rendered void by later instruc- 
tions, I will congratulate you upon your chances of distinction and 
will assist you in getting the ship away with cheerfulness and without 
one pang of envy or jealousy, notwithstanding my great disappoint- 
ment, but it seems from all the information I have that Commander 
Semmes is more fortunate than either of us, and it is for him that 1 
am to perfom that service. Your offer to assist me in any way is 
frankly accepted. Heretofore I have had neither assistance nor'ad- 
vice, there seeming to have been a strange feeling among the majority 
of naval officers who have been in England that my position in the 
service was incompatible with their own dignity and that I must 



NAVY DEPARTMENT COBBESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 215 

therefore be regarded as one to be left alone. This gives me no con- 
cern beyond the detriment such a state of feeling may prove to the 
public service, but you and myself are of an age to be above the dis- 
play of childish jealousies and offishness, and I propose that vre con- 
tinue to meet as our first acquaintance, and not to avoid each other's 
glance as was the case this morning. 
1 am, very respectfully, yours, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 
Commander JAMES H. NORTH. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA. 
Navy Department, Richmond, July 12* 186%. 

SIR: Your letter of the 29th of March last reached me this 
morning. 

The department notified you on the llth of January last that you 
would receive orders to command the second vessel then being built 
in England; but, for reasons satisfactory to the department, you 
were subsequently assigned to the command of the first vessel, the 
Florida (Oreto), now at Nassau, and any just ground for "the sur- 
prise and astonishment," in this respect at the department's action, 
is not perceived. 

A commission as commander for the war was sent you on the 5th 
of May, and your failure to follow the Oreto, which left England 
about the 21st of March, and to take command of her, as was con- 
templated, as you were apprised by Captain Bulloch, on the 26th 
of March, is not understood, and has been productive of some em- 
barrassment. 

Captain Bulloch was nominated by the Executive for his position 
in the Navy under existing law, and was duly confirmed by the 
Senate, and your protest to this department against the action of 
these coordinate branches of your Government is out of place. 

>n the receipt of this letter, you will turn over to Lieutenant 
G. T. Sinclair the instructions which you may have received, together 
with any public funds in your hands, and return to the Confederate 
States in such manner as your judgment may direct. 

Should you not be provided with funds for this purpose, Com- 
mander Bulloch will, upon your application, supply them. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. K. MALLORY, 
Secretary of tlie Navy. 

J. H. XORTH. 

C. S. XAVY DEPARTMENT, 

Richmond, July 12, 1862. 

SIR : Captain Semmes returns to England to assume the command 
of the Alabama, and you will please afford to him all possible assist- 
ance in fitting her for and getting her to sea and in maintaining her 
as a cruiser. Should the Alabama have been sent to sea, you will 
please aid Commander Semmes by every means in your power to 
purchase or build and fit out another vessel suitable for the pur- 
pose referred to in his instructions. 



216 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

Your dispatch of the llth of April affords no encouragement to 
the hope long entertained of having ironclad vessels built in Europe, 
but impressed with the importance of this measure, I deem it proper 
to urge it upon your attention. 

The Oreto, now known as the Florida, has met witn vexatious 
seizures and delays at Nassau, of which you will have been advised, 
but I have reason to hope that she will finally get to sea. 

If you can build two more vessels similar to those you have con- 
structed it should be done at once. Consult your discretion as to 
combining the greatest speed and power of battery. My own jmlg- 
ment is in favor of the class of your largest vessel, the Alabama, 

Funds will be sent you as exchange can be obtained. 

Of the powder shipped by you, we have received from you re- 
cently 606-{-2 56=862 barrels. We nave notice of the loss of 400 bar- 
rels in the Cectte, between Charleston and Nassau. 

I deem it important to obtain at least two coil-made, smooth-bore 
guns, such as Sir William Armstrong successfully used with 40 
pounds powder in his recent tests against the Warrior's shield, to- 
gether with working drawings and descriptions for making them. 

The breech-loading gun shipped to us has been tried in recent bat- 
tles, and is condemned by the judgment of Army artillerists. The 
escape of gas soon rendered it unfit for service. 

You will please send us any device for submarine navigation, any 
preparation for inextinguishable fire to be used in incendiary 
shells that you may deem useful, together with the working draw- 
ings of Captain Cowper Coles for turreted ships. 

Our arms have been blessed with signal success before this city. 
The investing force under General McClellnn was superior to ours, 
under the immediate command of General Robert E. Lee. McClel- 
lan supposed that Beauregard's force from Corinth had joined us 
here, but not a man from that force was with us. 

We assailed the enemy impetuously in his well-constructed en- 
trenchments, and, through six days and nights of hard fighting, 
drove him from them all, and step by step to his present position 
under the guns of his ships, about 25 miles from Richmond. His 
troops fought well, exhibited discipline and constancy, and their arms 
find equipments, and, in fact, the appointment of the whole army, 
were the most perfect, as they were the most thorough and expen- 
sive, that have ever been exhibited in war; but the concentrated rage 
of our people, the stern indignation which the conduct of the North 
has aroused, supplied all deficiencies, and they uniformly closed and 
grappled with their foes wherever they could be reached. The var 
has assumed a most sanguinary character, and may soon become one 
of extermination. We are a united people, our hearts resolved on 
independence, without which we do not regard life as desirable. 

We are all here astonished at the evident apprehension of the 
Government of Great Britain of a war with the United States. Mr. 
Seward's gasconades upon this subject excite but the contempt of 
his own people. Should the Republican leaders take a single for- 
ward step toward such a war, their party would collapse like a "bubble. 

Should Great Britain and France acknowledge our independence, 
make with us treaties of commerce, and send their products in their 
own ships to our ports, the war would not only cease but their 
course would meet the approval of a vast majority of the people 



XAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 217 

of the United States, for the war is carried on DV a party in power, 
not by the people. 

Inclosed you have a copy of my instructions to Commander 
Semmes. 

Your services in England are so important at this time that I 
trust you will cheerfully support any disappointment you may ex- 
perience in not getting to sea. The experience you have acquired 
renders your agency absolutely necessary. 

The department has contracted with Mr. George N. Sanders and 
his associates for certain vessels (six), copies of the contract, speci- 
fications and drawings of which are inclosed. 

Should he enter upon the execution of his contract, you will please 
adopt proper measures to supervise the construction as contemplated 
by the contract. 

I am, respectfulty, }'our obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Nary. 
Commander JAMES D. BULLOCH, C. S. NAVY, 

Liverpool, England. 

P. S. Should Commander North call upon you for funds to meet 
his expenses to the Confederate States, you will please supply them. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary Navy. 

SELMA, [ALA.], July 13, 1862. 

SIR : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
the 2d instant, informing me that Paymaster Thomas R. Ware has 
been instructed to pay Alessrs. Gates and Templeton $14,000 on their 
bills approved by me. I have instructed Mr. Ware to pay them 
$10,505.51 of this sum ; the balance of their account I shall [not] order 
paid until I go to Mobile and ascertain that it is all correct. Mr. 
Dates requests me to ask you to send back to him, at Mobile, the plans 
and drawings of an ironclad steamer ram, with torpedo, which he 
submitted to your consideration through me when I was last at Rich- 
mond. I was in hopes that something would have been done by you 
toward the building of such vessels in this part of the Confederacy, 
more particularly after the conversation I had with you the day 
before I left Richmond, in which you stated that the plan of the 
vessel submitted by Mr. Gates was in the main a good one, and that 
by the mail which would follow me you would reply to his propo- 
sition, pointing out such alterations and improvements in his plan 
as the department thought advisable. Mr. Gates having waited 
patiently for near two months without having heard from you or 
his drawings, respectfully requests that they may be returned to 
him. The floating batteries being built here by Mr. [Henry D.] 
Bassett may be of some service, but such vessels do no credit to the 
naval architecture of the Confederacy, and show that we have 
learned nothing by experience. What we wanted here was two first- 
class ironclad ships (rams). Had they been commenced the 1st of 
May. the woodwork could have been completed by the 1st of Novem- 
ber, by which time the iron for covering them and the engines and 
machinery could have been finished from our works here, and by 
the 1st of January next you might have sent to sea two vessels that 



218 NAVY IV : ;:, 

would not only have defended Mobile, but b ^Missis- 

sippi River of the enemy and enabled us to have "d New 

Orleans. I yet hope that you will can sels to be built. 

Mr. Gates is a skillful constructor and a \ery reliable man. an 
he is now doing nothing, he could commence on on<> 
immediately. There is no probability of Mr. ! i having his 

batteries finished by the time specified in the contract, a- none of 
the iron plate has yet arrived; it would not be of much benefit -to the 
country if they were completed, as, with the engine.-, and machinery 
in them, they will draw near T feet, and tln-iv is no probability that 
there will be that depth of water in the Alabama River through to 
Mobile before the 1st of November. 

Your dispatch of the 9th, saying that theiv \\a> but one hois' ing 
crane belonging to the Navy at Charlotte, | N. ( '. I. \\as July received. 
It was not a crane from Charlotte that I telegraphed for, but a crab 
from Montgomery, where there were two crabs, brought from the 
Pensacola Navy Yard, and it was said they belonged to the Navy 
Department. I inclose a letter from Mr. Bassett, asking for the 
detail of Private Demascus R. M. Yickers, to report to him to work 
as a blacksmith on the batteries. 

With much respect, your obedient servant, 

(\ J. McR.vi:. 

Hon. S. R. MALU>I;Y, 

Secretary of the *\ari/. Richmond. 



SELMA, [ALA.] , July 15, I* 1 

SIR: I am instructed by Colonel Gorgas to fill your orders for iron 
to enable Messrs. Diekson, Nelson & Co. to complete a contract with 
you for 5,000 rifles and bayonets. Please send an order for the 
quantity and description of iron wanted and I will have it executed 
at the Shelby works immediately. 

With much respect, vour obedient servant, 

C. J. 
His Excellency JOHN (TILL SIJORTFI:. 

Governor of Aluhanxi, Mon1</omery. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA. 
Navy Department, Richmond, /?//// //, ISC,.!. 
The Hon. John E. Ward, of Georgia, is engaged in busiii' 
importance for this department and its agents, and Government 
agents generally are requested to afford him such facilities connected 
therewith as may be in their power, particularly in reaching Europe. 

S. R. MALI.OUY. 

of the X<(dj. 



CLYIH: I>A>TK Forxnirv. 
(;i,ix</o!'\ July 17, I 

MY DEAR NORTH: Your note of 1-lth came duly t:> hand. With 
reference to the matter of construction of prow of armor ship, you 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 219 

nmy rest assured I would do my utmost to carry out any suggestions 
of yours that would be likely to add to the efficiency of the object in 
view. I may mention, however, that we have now got the frames 
for forebody of vessel set, and the stem (weighing about 10 tons) all 
finished, ready to set up, so as to enable us to commence setting up 
the frames in their places in the vessel immediately; so that any 
alteration on present plan, owing to the progress made, would involve 
not a little expense. Apart from this, however, altogether, I must 
tell you honestly, from the knowledge I have of the construction of 
running-down stems adopted by our own Government (being similar 
to the sketch you send) , compared with the plan I have recommended 
and am carrying out in your ship, I am still strongly of opinion that 
our plan is by far the> best for the object in view. I would consider 
it a decided improvement on our Government's, having advantages 
not possessed by the other. Thus, in the event of a ship on Govern- 
ment plan attempting to run down another armor-clad vessel, the 
stem would come in contact with the armor plating of the enemy's 
ship, and the result, I think, would be that the stem and forward 
part of the assailing ship would be completely crushed in. I think 
it is scarcely possible to strengthen the stem and forward part of the 
vessel sufficiently to enable those parts to resist, uninjured, the shock 
against the armor plating (say, 4^ inches thick) of the enemy's ship; 
whereas the construction of our prow is such that, being placed C to 
7 feet below the water line, it will strike any armor-clad ship below 
the armor plating at a comparatively weak part. Also, from our 
prow being made conical shaped, it will require less force to pene- 
trate the other vessels, and therefore not cause such a shock to the 
forward part of vessel; also, by the time that the prow (which 
projects 6 feet beyond stem) has buried itself in the side of the 
enemy's ship, the stem being then in contact with side or armor 
plating, the shock would be so much reduced that the stern (from 
the manner I intend strengthening it) would be sufficiently strong 
to resist the shock without incurring any damage at all, and from 
the conical shape of the prow it can easily be withdrawn by backing 
the vessel, leaving an opening in the side of the other ship below the 
armor plating that would sink her in a very short time. Even 
granting that the prow was carried away, which, from the exceed- 
ingly strong construction, I think scarcely possible, the fore part of 
your ship would still remain perfectly sound, with exception of a 
few rivet holes, the rivets of which may be torn out; but the strong 
bulkhead forward would confine any water flowing in by these holes 
to the fore peak of the vessel. I do honestly assure you that my 
intentions are to complete the whole ship, and more especially the 
stem and prow, of such strength that it will be almost impossible 
to crush it w T hen running down any other vessel, of the same class 
even. I really think the plan I am carrying out is superior to any 
other I have yet seen or hoard of ; notwithstanding all this, however, 
I am open to carry out any alterations that appear to you to be 
advisable, so as to make your ship entirely suitable for the service 
intended. I shall be glad to hear from you again on this subject. 

I sincerely trust that the recent successes of the South may be 
followed up,' and that Richmond may be placed beyond danger. The 
fortunes of war are too varying to speak confidently, but surely such 



220 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

men as Beauregard and Stonewall Jackson commanding will be able 
to keep the Yankees at bay. 

I am, yours, respectfully, 

GEORGE THOMSON. 
JAMES H. NORTH, Esq., 

Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co., 

A*o. 10 Kumford Place, Liverpool. 



Sanders makes a few suggestions and memoranda. 

Prevent Yankees knowing your business as long as possible. Don't 
let anyone know the extent of our contract until you are clearly of 
the opinion that numbers give us strength. The agencies, American 
and island, are valuable and should not be disposed of lightly. One 
American agency to Major Barbour only disposed of. Our model 
superior to anything in Europe or America for the Mediterranean, 
and no one should be allowed to have possession of our plans and 
drawings long enough to have copies. The plan itself is worth a for- 
tune as a perfect self-protecting freight transport and war vessel, 
counting for the first time all in one. 

See Lindsay, M. P., and talk freely with him. I think he will ap- 
preciate our scheme more fully than any other man in England. 

Milner Gibson and Cobden can be brought into our support upon 
the idea that we present the only feasible nonintervention plan that 
will give a supply of cotton. 

French Emperor can materially aid us without compromising his 
Government, by simply saying to the contractors that if the Con- 
federate Government should fail to take and pay for the steamers 
that he will, as they are exactly such as are best adapted to the 
Mediterranean for war purposes. 

GEO. N. SANDERS. 



Sanders' 1 power of attorney to Ward. 

CONFEDERATE STATES or AMERICA, State of Y't >-(/'/ aid. 
Know all men by these presents, that I, George N. Sanders, have 
made, constituted, and appointed, and by these presents do make, con- 
stitute, and appoint, John E. Ward my true and lawful attorney for 
me and in my name, place, and stead, to construct in Europe one or 
more iron-clad steamers, according to the articles of agreement be- 
tween the Confederate States of America and the said George X. San- 
ders, to appoint the officers and crew and all persons necessary to 
navigate and control the said vessels, except the commander, who 
shall be appointed by the Government, to associate with him in the 
enterprise European" and Confederate States capital, and for this 
purpose to transfer in whole or in part any interests, either to Euro- 
peans or citizens of the Confederate States, hereby giving and grant- 
ing to my said attorney John E. Ward, full power and authority to 
exercise all the rights and privileges given and conferred upon me 
by the aforesaid articles of agreement, as fully and entirely as I could 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 221 

do if personally present, hereby ratifying and confirming all that 
my said attorney may do in the premises. 

In witness whereof, I, the said George N. Sanders, have hereunto set 
my hand and seal at Richmond, in the State of Virginia in the Con- 
federate States of America, this 19th day of July, 1862. 

GEO. N. SANDERS. 

Signed, sealed, and delivered in presence of E. C. Cabell. 

British Consulate, State of Virginia : I, Frederick J. Cridland, 
her Britannic Majesty's acting consul for the State of Virginia, do 
hereby certify that this day personally appeared before me George N. 
Sanders, who did in my presence, and in the subscribing witness E. C. 
Cabell, affix his signature to the foregoing document, declaring the 
same to be his act and deed. 

Given under my hand and seal of office, at the city of Richmond, 
this 19th day of July, 1862. 

FRED. J. CRIDLAND, 
Her Britannic Majesty' } s Acting Consul. 

Cr. A. Trenholm also makes a few memoranda. 

1. Sanders is to build, furnish, and equip an ironclad steamer with 
his own funds, according to Government plans. 

2. The Government is to appoint the commander and Sanders the 
other officers and crew, the Government reserving the right to dis- 
charge any of the officers and crew appointed by Sanders, and to 
control them and the vessel, " not seriously directing said vessel from 
the legitimate objects of postal service and trade, as heretofore ex- 
pressed." 

3. One-third of all expenses to be borne by Government, two-thirds 
by Sanders. 

4. On the arrival of the vessel at a Confederate port, the Govern- 
ment shall load her with cotton and deliver said cotton at market 
rates in part payment of her cost. 

5. Installments shall be paid as above on each arrival until first 
cost and exchange shall have been paid, and also interest for six 
months at the rate of 8 per cent per annum. 

6. If the war terminates within three months after the completion 
and delivery of said vessel, the Government to pay the full cost in 
cotton, with interest at the rate of 8 per cent per annum, and 10 per 
cent as profit and to cover incidental expenses. 

7. In voyages home one-half the stowing capacity to belong to the 
Government, and returning to a foreign port, 150 tons of the same 
capacity. 

8. The Government to pay in cotton on demand for said vessel and 
outfit, if lost or captured. All damage done to the vessel by the 
enemy, not exceeding two-thirds the original cost, to be repaired at 
the exclusive cost of the Confederate States. All other damages to 
be repaired two-thirds at expense of Sanders; one-third at Govern- 
ment expense. 

9. At the expiration of 18 months the Government to take the ves- 
sel and pay the balance due, if any. 

10. Confederate States property to have preference over all others 
in transportation by said vessel. 



222 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861- . - 

11. Confederate Government to have monopoly of mails. Xo per- 
sons to be taken as passengers Avithout consent of Government. One- 
third of passage money to belong to Government. 

12. To carry six heavy guns. Government to get or:c-third of prize 
money, crew one-third, Sanders one-third. 

G. A. TRENHOLM. 



LIVERPOOL, July 20, 1862. 

DEAR MR. THOMSON: Your letter of the 17th instant, in answer to 
mine of the 14th, has come safely to hand. I thank you for writing 
me so frank and full a letter; mine was only a suggestion afi. 
conversation I had had with a brother officer. The fact is, I have 
great faith in your judgment, both as a practical man and a mech, 
so you must do in this matter as you think best. I am now about to 
ask another question, but recollect it is not intended to interfere 
with any of your plans: Do you think that the prow feet long will 
in any Avay interfere with the steering of the ship? In other words, 
do you think she will mind her helm as quickly as if it were not so 
long? 

I am pleased to hear that you are making such progress. I wish 
you to attend to something for me at once. It is that you will have 
me drawings of the ship made as soon as you can, so thai 1 may send 
them to the Secretary of the Navy. You had better have them made 
on thin paper and on as small a scale as you conveniently can. Mr. 
Laird has gotten up some very nice ones for ships of about 1,800 
tons. Some of his arrangements are first rate. I wish I could dra\v ; 
I would give you an idea of them. 

I sincerely thank you for your good wishes on the recent successes 
of the South. I have no doubt but that they will be followed up, if 
we only have the means for following up. You must not forget 
that all of our ports are locked up and that it is only occasionally 
we can succeed in running the blockade. A great many thousand 
rifles and many barrels of powder, instead of finding their v,;iy 
South, have been captured and taken North. 

You may depend upon it that with such men as Beauregard, 
Thomas J. Jackson, commonly known as " Stonewall," Lee, and 
Johnston, the enemy will have to light hard for all they get. All 
we ask is that we may be allowed to keep our powder dry and to 
have a plenty of it. When you send the drawings be sure to give 
me the dimensions, with the draft of water, horsepower, etc. 
******* 
Yours, truly, 

JAMES IT. NORTH. 



LIVERPOOL, July 21, 1862. 

SIR: The cipher appointed to be used in my communications with 
the Navy Department is such as not to admit *of lengthy correspond- 
ence, and I have therefore been compelled to set it aside in most in- 
stances and to adopt instead a somewhat vague mode of expression 
in the various reports I have had the honor to make to you, except 
when, as in the present instance a private messenger has enabled me 
to be full and explicit. 



XAYY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 223 

The duties assigned me when I left the Confederacy in February 
last, were not, however, of a complicated character, and did not 
involve much obscurity in the mode by which their progress could be 
explained. In brief, I was directed to complete the second, ship 
contracted for by me in Europe for the C. S. Navy and to equip 
her as a cruising man-of-war whenever I might find the attempt 
feasible, operating afterwards against the enemy in whatever sea 
and in whatever manner my judgment might indicate as most effective 
to injure or cripple his resources. These instructions were written 
in a manner so kind and flattering that I did not hesitate to express 
my gratitude to you personally, nor to add that you had excited 
u ambitious hopes" I had reasonable expectations of realizing. Al- 
most at the moment of departure from Wilmington. I was directed, 
on my arrival in England, to examine into the subject of armor- 
clad ships, and to assist Commander North (who had been previously 
sent to England to buy or build a vessel of that description), either 
by advice or otherwise in the object of his mission. Finding on my 
arrival that Commander North had, as he informed me, specific orders 
to buy or build a frigate and that he had already made arrangements 
to contract for such a vessel as soon as the necessary funds arrived, I 
devoted myself to the especial duties assigned me, but as vessels 
capable of acting efficiently either in the attack or defense of our 
coast and its estuaries must necessarily be of light draft, I put 
myself in communication with an eminent iron shipbuilder, whose 
position enabled him to obtain the official reports of all experiments, 
with the view of determining the minimum, draft compatible with 
seaworthiness and invulnerability. It resulted from a close calcula- 
tion of weights and form of model that by using turrets instead of 
broadside batteries, whereby the sides would be relieved of much 
strain and the heavy weights be thrown near the center, a vessel 
might be built of about the following dimensions : Length, 220 feet ; 
extreme breadth 42 feet ; draft, with crew and stores for three months, 
15 feet ; engines, 350 horsepower, nominal ; speed, 10^ knots ; tonnage, 
1,800 tons. I immediately directed the plans and scale drawings of 
such a ship to be made, and reported to you by letter that I would 
forward them as soon as they were ready and an opportunity offered. 
While this was going on, I think about the middle of May. Com- 
mander North received a remittance of $150,000, unaccompanied by 
any letter of advice, and supposing it to be for the uses mentioned in 
his original instructions, he prepared at once to close up a contract 
for an armored frigate and notified me of the fact. 

I advised him of the fact that a ship of less size, cost, and draft 
could be built, but he deemed his orders specific and peremptory as to 
class of ship and contracted for a frigate of 3,200 tons accordingly. 

About the 10th of June I received your letter of April 30, in which 
you say, "I write to Commander Semmes to take command of the 
largest of the two vessels built by you," and " I write also to Lieu- 
tenant North to take command of the other vessel," and you direct me 
to furnish these officers with funds for cruising expenses. As to 
myself you say, " I hasten to urge upon } T OU the necessity of having 
at least two armored vessels built and equipped at the earliest 
moment. Act upon your own judgment to save time. British en- 
quiry and experiments and your own knowledge of the bars and 
waters of our country will enable you to act advisedly." To render 



224 jSTAYY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 18G1-1865. 

these instructions possible of fulfillment you inform me that 
$1,000,000 has already been placed to my credit with the house of 
Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co., and that you hope to increase the 
amount to two millions very soon. Fortunately, I was in a position 
to act promptly upon these instructions. The drawings and plans 
ordered were nearly finished, and on the day after the receipt of 
your letter I requested the parties who had been assisting me all 
along to make a tender for the contract, having previously provided 
myself with the estimates of other builders who competed for the 
Admiralty contracts. In a few days the price was agreed upon and 
I gave a verbal order for two vessels, so that no time should be lost 
in contracting for the large quantity of armor plates required, while 
the actual contract could be formally drawn up, stamped, and signed. 

By giving the order for both ships to the same builder I got the 
advantage of a reduction of 1,250 on the cost of each, while by 
adopting the same size and model of ship and a like form of engine 
they could both be completed in very nearly the same time. Besides 
this, experience has taught me that it is far safer to keep our busi- 
ness as little extended as possible, as otherwise the chance of our 
transactions being ferreted out by the Federal spies, who abound even 
in this country, is greatly increased. For full descriptions of these 
vessels I beg to refer you to the drawings. 

The internal arrangements for officers and crew, position of maga- 
zines and shell rooms, and some other details are drawn as now pro- 
posed, to give a finish to the plan ; a clause in the contract gives me 
the right to modify or alter them as experience during the progress 
of the work may suggest. 

To illustrate tlie drawings I will give a brief explanation: Each 
ship will be plated from 3J feet below the water line to the water- 
ways of the upper deck. For 120 feet of the midship section cover- 
ing the entire engine space and the principal magazine, the armor 
will be 4J inches thick, and will taper very gradually to 4, 3^, 3, etc., 
until where the plates join the stem and stern posts the thickness will 
be 2 inches. This tapering of the plates is necessary to keep the dis- 
placement within bounds, and is not, I think, too great, as the cant of 
the frames at the extremities and the angles of the boAV and stern 
w T ill render it impossible for a shot to strike squarely upon any por- 
tion of a plate. To provide, however, against such a contingency, the 
two ends will be cut up into a number of water-tight compartments, 
the bulkheads being of light and thin, but tough Low Moor iron. 
The armor plates will be backed by 12 inches of teak amidships, 
tapering to 6 at the ends, both resting upon a shelf, as shown in the 
drawing, and bolted through the inner skin of the ship. All through 
the midship section on each side will be a strong bulkhead about 1C 
feet from the center line, the end of which will be riveted to athwart- 
ship bulkheads, thus making, as it were, an inner ship. The space 
between these fore-and-aft bulkheads and the sides of the ship proper 
will be divided into a number of water-tight compartments, so that 
if a shot should break the outside plating or a blow from an opposing 
ram should crush in the outer side, only one or more of these compart- 
ments would be filled, and it is calculated that filling the whole of 
them on one side would only list the ship a few inches. Upon each 
ship will be three fixed turrets, very nearly in the positions shown, 
made of 5|-inch iron, backed with 12 inches of teak. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 225 

The bottom, or floors, of these turrets will be of iron, with smooth 
upper surfaces for bearing the guns, either mounted upon turntables 
or otherwise, as may hereafter be determined, the whole shored up 
by a series of stanchions resting upon the keelsons and frames of the 
floor. The decks will rise gradually from the sides to the center and 
be plated with iron five-eighths of an inch thick at the waterways, 
increasing to three-fourths at the base of the turrets, and there will 
be an open watercourse all around the upper deck, as shown in the 
drawing. It is known that five-eighths iron plates will break up 
shells and hollow shot (Admiral Halsted, R. N., on iron-cased ships), 
and as no vertical fire can be thrown from one ship upon another it 
is thought that this deck covering will be sufficient. The bulwarks 
will be made to drop outboard abreast of the turrets for a sufficient 
distance to give the required sweep of the guns in training, and the 
ports will be so constructed as to allow sufficient fore-and-aft range 
and vertical movement of piece with the smallest possible external 
opening. I have had suggested to me by one of the firm who are to 
build the ships a very ingenious plan for fitting " port shields," 
which I have reserved for consideration. The great difficulty is in 
handling them, if of sufficient weight really to protect the ports. It 
is proposed to let them slide up and down in grooves, to have under 
each shield (and in a turret-armed ship there will not be many) a 
small cylinder and piston, the rod connecting with the lower part of 
the shield. The process is simple. Open a steam valve, the shield 
rises and covers the port; open an exhaust valve, the shield slides 
down by its own weight and opens the port. 

I propose to rig these ships as barks, with iron lower masts, sup- 
ported by three large wire shrouds on each side. The lower yards 
will be trussed in their proper places, and the lower topsail yards 
will be trussed to the heads of the lower masts as in Howe's rig. 
The topmasts will be of wood so fitted that in action or steaming 
head to wind they can be lowered into the hollow of the lower masts, 
the upper topsail rolling up as the yard is lowered, after the manner 
known as " Cunningham's patent." The gatfs will be of iron, also 
fitted to the masts, with joints admitting of their being eased over 
as the wind may require or being dropped up and down the masts 
when the sails are not in use. The object of making the spars of iron 
is that should a mast be shot away its weight will carry it down at 
once with the topmast inside of it, and the danger of fouling the 
screw be avoided. The bowsprit will be fitted with a hinge so as to 
be turned inboard when the ship is to be used as a ram. 

The apartments for officers and the quarters for crew will be 
lighted and ventilated from the deck above, as shown by the circular 
spots in the deck plan. You will perceive that the quarters for fire- 
men and stokers are entirely distinct from the berthdeck of the sea- 
men and marines, and are in direct proximity to the engines. The 
athwart ship bulkheads are continuous from the floors to the spar- 
deck, but each will have a sliding water-tight door, so that there can 
be communication from one end of the ship to the other on the accom- 
modation deck, if it should be necessary. In conclusion, there will 
be an inside water-tight bottom or floor about 24 feet above the outer 
plates, upon which the engines, boilers, etc., will rest, forming a 
tank or compartment which can be filled at pleasure, to preserve the 

iTi;429 VOL 2 PT 121 15 



226 NAVY DEPAKTALKXT C'ORRKHFOXl >K.\( 'K, H<il 

proper immersion of the armor plating when the ship is light from 
the consumption of fuel. The floor frames will be the full depth 
of this space. 

The above is a mere outline sketch of what the ships are intended 
to l)e ; a detailed description would be too lengthy for our limited 
mode of communication. As the work progresses I will make re- 
ports in cipher, which I trust you will be able to understand by refer- 
ence to the drawings. I am fully aware of the superior advjiin. 
of the revolving turrets, but the admiralty have bought Captain 
Coles' patent and have not yet decided whether private buildi-rs -A ill 
be allowed to use it. I have all the plans and dm ;owever, 

and it will not be too late to make the change three months hence. 

The first of these ships will be ready for sea in March and 
second in May, 1863. Cost of each fully equipped, exo try 

and magazine fittings, 93,750. The parties of the first part of i 
contracts have shown great faith in the stability of the Confederate 
Government, as well as great confidence in me personally, and I 
sincerely hope that the remittances will be such as to admit of th*> 
installments being regularly paid. I have at present about l-ir.oix), 
out of which is to-be taken 20,000 as a cruising fund for Commander 
Semmes, as you direct in your letter of May 3d. I am looking i. 
anxiously for the arrival of Captain Semmes. His ship is all ready, 
and the American minister is besieging the Foreign Office with 
mantis to stop her. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. Bnxo< n. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORT, 

Secretary of the Nary. 



Trenholm perforates the ironclads b>/ a few tkiiififx of his pen. 



CHARLESTON, /.-//// ,.'..'. 
MY DEAR SIR : I have read over the contract carefully. Divested 
of all circumlocution, it provides that Sanders and his friends are to 
build an ironclad war vessel, for which they are, in the first instance, 
to advance all the money. This vessel is to carry freight, passengers, 
and mails; to beprovided with guns, and take prizes when the oppor- 
tunity offers. There appears to me to be a number of objections to 
the scheme : 

1. It would be against the Queen's proclamation of neutrality to 
build such a vessel in England, and Englishmen would not advance 
the necessary capital; but,, if they would, the officers of the crown 
would stop the work. 

2. No experiments have been made in the navigation of the o<-oan 
by ironclad vessels. 

3. The iron covering of such a vessel is, I think, nearly equal to 
the weight she is capable of carrying as freight. Some ballast must 
be used to prevent her from being top-be; 1 , vy, and when (o this is 
added six heavy guns, ammunition, provisions for a largo crew, and 



XAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 227 

coal for 20 or 30 days, I do not think it would be possible for her 
to take any freight. 

4. To make war and take prizes she would have to sail under the 
national flag, either as a national ship or a privateer, and as such 
she would not be permitted (matters remaining as they are) to enter 
a foreign port even to coal, far less to take in cargo, and sail out 
of such port to levy war. 

These are some of the objections; but, if the foregoing are 
A'ttlid. the others are not worth considering. It is simply, to my 
mind, an undertaking to build an ironclad war vessel for the -Gov- 
ernment, which is to be paid for when delivered, with 10 per cent 
profit, and, if captured, to be paid for by the Government, but 
without any profit, and the contractor to advance all necessary funds. 

1 do not attach any importance to the provisions about freight, pas- 
sengers, etc. ; for I think, as already said, she could not carry any 
freight, and, if she could, it would be impossible to act in the double 
capacity of a common carrier and a man-of-war that is, other 
nations in their neutrality would not allow her to visit their ports 
on such terms. 

I am sorry to discourage the enterprise, and, perhaps, after all, 
Mr. Zanders may intend to make a contract for an ironclad vessel 
tnd nothing more; and may have reasons for believing that, parties 
can be found in England to enter upon the enterprise for the pro- 
posed compensation of 10 per cent. 

I remain, my dear sir, yours, respectfully, 

G. A. TREXIIOLM. 
Hon. JOHN E. WARD. 

P. S. Captain Cruickshank told me you requested him to look at 
the contract also. I have just shown it to him, and the drawings as 
well. He quite agrees with me that the ship could not carry any 
freight, and, if she could, that neutral nations would not allow her 
to visit their ports. She is to draw 16 feet without her armament and 
without a supply of coal ; these would put her down it is estimated, 

2 feet more (1 foot per 300 tons, as by the specifications), or 17 feet 
without cargo. He thinks a war vessel of so unmistakable a char- 
acter, could not be built in England, and, if she could, that 10 per 
rent profit would be entirely too small to tempt any one to embark 
in it. 

Yours, truly, 

G. A. TRENHOLM. 



XAVY DEPARTMENT, Richmond, July 23, 
SIR : Herewitli you will receive the form of a commission, embrac- 
ing the text and vignettes, to be engraved upon parchment, such as 
is usually employed for similar purposes. 

The precise arrangement and form of the letters of the text may 
be varied, ]>emg exclusively matters of taste, and upon these points 
you may advantageously consult the engraver. 

Please have 2,000 copies executed and sent by different vessels, 
not more than 200 at a time. 



228 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

I also inclose two different warrants, to be engraved and printed 
as shown on the forms, 2,000 copies of each of which you will also 
have executed. 

Five hundred copies of the first-named commission must be altered 
thus, by striking out the word "Xavv" and inserting "Marine 
Corps." 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MAI.LOKY, 

Secretary 
Commander JAMES D. BULLOCII, C. S. Navy. 

The plates should be received. 



LIVERPOOL, July 2o, [1862}. 

SIR: When I received the thirty-odd thousand pounds, through 
Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co., from you, I did not receive a letter, 
and as I had written you word that I had contracted for the building 
of a ship of 3,000 tons, I naturally concluded that this money had 
been sent by you to commence that work. The result is that I im- 
mediately went ahead with the ship, the specifications and draw- 
ings having been all ready, and had just made two payments. The 
first, on the signing of the contract, of 18,000, and the second, on 
the laying of the keel, of 12,000, when I received your letter of 
May 2, ordering me to the command of the ship built by Captain 
Bulloch. At the same time you tell me that you have given orders to 
Captain Bulloch to proceed with the construction of the armor- 
plated vessels. 

On the receipt of these orders I left Glasgow, where I was build- 
ing, and proceeded to this place. On my arrival I immediately trans- 
ferred my contract to Captain BPullocn] and assumed the command 
of the ship that he had built. I then notified you that I had assumed 
the command of this ship and should sail as soon as the equipment for 
the guns was finished, which I thought would be in a few days. I had 
hardly written you that letter when I received one from Captain 
Semmes, dated Nassau, telling me that he had just received orders 
from the Navy Department to command this ship, and that he should 
leave with some of his officers as soon as possible, which he thought 
would be in two or three weeks from the 8th of June. Captain Bul- 
loch has also received a letter from you, dated May 3, telling him 
that Captain Semmes was to command. I have heard nothing from 
you since my orders of May 2, though Mr. Sinclair did not leave 
Charleston for this country until June 2. I am at a loss to know 
how to act, but as everything has been taken out of my hands by the 
department, I have nothing left me but to return home, which I shall 
do as soon after the arrival of Captain Semmes as possible, provided 
that I receive no further instructions from you. In conclusion, I 
would beg to state that in contracting for so large a vessel I am not 
consulting my own judgment or carrying out my own views, but 
those of the department reiterated to me in its instructions. 

The third payment on this vessel will be due about the 1st of Au- 
gust 18,000. Captain B[ulloch], I .believe, has money to meet 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 229 

this, and, I suppose, will write you fully on the subject and the urgent 
necessity of sending over money as soon as possible, so that he may 
meet the other payments. 

Very respectfully, etc., 

J[AMES] H. N[ORTH]. 
[Hon. S. H. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy, Richmond.'] 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, July 29, 1862. 

SIR: Your letter* of the 6th of June last (in cipher), informing me 
that you had commenced the construction of an ironclad vessel, was 
received to-day. 

Funds to the amount of $800,000 have been forwarded to Com- 
mander Bulloch, and he has full instructions on the subject of dis- 
posing of them, and arrangements are being made to send an addi- 
tional amount. 

You will please forward by the first opportunity copies of the 
plans and specifications of the vessel you are building. 

You will regard the order of the department of the 12th instant to 
return to the Confederate States as revoked and remain in England 
for the purpose of superintending the construction of the vessel you 
have commenced. 

If Commander Bulloch should have left England in the last 
vessel he constructed, you will take charge of and open all dispatches 
to him from this department and carry out the instructions therein 
contained. 

Inclosed you will find a letter to Fraser, Trenholm & Co., of Liver- 
pool, to whom the funds sent for Commander Bulloch were trans- 
mitted, requesting them, in case he has left England, to place the 
funds to your credit. 

You will inform the department at once if this shoul 1 be done, that 
the proper charge may be made on the books of the Treasure 7 ; and 
also when the vessel is to be completed. 

I am. respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. E. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Commander JAMES H. NORTH, C. S. Navy. 

Liverpool, England. 

[Enclosure.] 

CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 

Navy Department, Richmond. July 29, 186.?. 

GENTLEMEN: In case Commander James D. Bulloch should have 
left England before the funds referred to in my letter of the first of 
June last should have reached you, you will please place them to the 
credit of Commander James H. North, C. S. Navy, and inform this 
department thereof. 



230 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORKKSPONI>K\(.'K, 1861-1865. 

The amount transmitted by Fraser & Co. \vas i;ir>:>.;;'.M !',-. :5d. 
Additional exchange will be purchased and nent to you, and you will 
please dispose of it as above directed. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant. 

S. R. MAI.I.ORY, 
Secretary of thr 
Messrs. FRASER, TRENHOL.M & Co., 

Liverpool, England. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, July 30, 186B. 

SIR: Inclosed herewith yon receive copies of contracts made by 
this department with A. Le Matt, for pistols, and C. E. Girard, for 
ironclad vessels of war. 

You will observe by the terms of the contract with Mr. Le Matt 
that the pistols are to be delivered and inspected in London, and 
you will inspect them or designate an officer of the Navy in England 
to do so and receive them, after which you will pay for them out 
of any funds in your hands and forward them to the Confederate 
States. Two hundred pistols have been delivered and paid for here. 
You will also superintend the construction of the vessel or vessels 
to be built by Mr. Girard. or designate an officer to do so, and keep 
the department advised of your proceedings under both contracts, as 
well as that of Mr. George N. Sanders. 

I am, respectf ulh r , your obedient servant, 

S. TJ. MAM, OUT, 
Secretary of the Nai^j. 
Commander JAMES D. BILUH'IT, C. S. Navy, 

LirtTj/oo/. E ii'jlan<l. 

P. S. If Mr. Girard builds his A'essels in France or elsewhere out 
of England, send an officer to superintend them and keep you ad- 
vised. 

S. R. M. 



SELMA, [ALA.], August 1, 1S<;.1. 

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of the 20th ultimo. The drawings submitted to the department by 
Mr. Gates were not working drawings by which a vessel was to be 
constructed, but merely the sketch of a plan of an ironclad steam- 
ship ram, with water-tight compartment at bottom, supposed by him 
to be suited to our shallow waters, and submitted for your inspec- 
tion. It was submitted about the 15th of May, and if your con- 
structor has been able in the very short space of time that lias in- 
tervened since then to prepare plans and specifications so definite 
in all respects that a clear idea of the details of constrnctnre can 
be obtained from them, I see no reason why Mr. Gates, after he has 
received these plans and specifications, if lie works with like indus- 
try and speed, may not complete the construction of one of these, 
vessels in about ten years; but I have received a letter from him, 



]STAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 231 

dated in Mobile on the 28th ultimo, at which time he had not even 
heard of the plans and specifications, which were so promptly sent 
him " with the view of advising him to build." 

His drawings, which you said had been returned to him, arrived 
here yesterday by express to my address. Constructor Pierce is also 
here, and at his request I have telegraphed to Mr. Gates to come 
here. 

I am truly glad to learn that you desire to have as many ironclad 
steam vessels constructed in our waters as you can find parties to 
build, and that you have taken measures accordingly. This is sub- 
stantially the same statement made to me in Richmond the loth 
and lOth of May. I am. however, tolerably well acquainted in the 
middle and lower part of this State, and have heard of no work of 
the sort being done except on the two floating batteries which Mr. 
Bassett is building. Early in April, and soon after the $1,200,000 
were appropriated by Congress for the defense of Mobile Bay and 
Eiver, I wrote you urging in the most earnest terms the immediate 
construction of two first-class ironclad ram steamers, and stated 
that Mr. Bassett and Mr. Gates, both of whom had proven them- 
selves to be competent constructors and reliable men, were ready to 
contract for the woodwork of the vessels. At that time they had 
control of a number of ship carpenters, whom they had had em- 
ployed on the Morgan and Gaine. Mr. Bassett went to see you and 
obtained the contract for the floating batteries, which enabled him to 
retain the most of his mechanics. Mr. Gates sent on his plan of a 
vessel, but as yet has received no reply, and the mechanics whom he 
could then have engaged are now in the Army, dispersed all over 
the Confederacy ; and in your letter of the 20th you say that the War 
Department declines to detail mechanics from the Army. Surely 
the inducements held out to Mr. Gates to build have been of the most 
tempting character. I here beg to suggest that the mechanical labor 
anrl skill in this part of the Confederacy does not justify the con- 
struction of more than two vessels of this sort at one time ; after hav- 
ing delayed so long do not now attempt too much. Mr. Bassett will 
have completed the batteries as far as he can until he gets the iron 
plate to cover them, in two weeks from this time. Give one of these 
vessels to Gates and the other to him, and do not confine them rigidly 
to plans sent out by Mr. Porter. Mr. Pierce is here and can consult 
with them and adopt a plan of vessel suited to our waters, and also 
superintend the work to see that it is done according to contract. 

I did not, nor do not condemn the batteries being built here, as 
batteries; on the contrary I think them excellent for that purpose. 
Their power of resistance will be very great, almost invulnerable, 
and they are able to carry a few guns of the largest caliber; but to 
compare them with the Virginia is simply ridiculous. They will 
have very little speed, and can neither bring on nor retreat from an 
action, whereas the Virginia had great speed and was master of her 
own time of battle, hence the terror which the slower vessels of the 
enemy had of her. We obtained a part of a crab from the naval 
storekeeper at Montgomery on your order. Some of the most im- 
portant parts of it were missing; I will have them made new and 
return the crab in good order. I am using my best efforts to get 
the works here in operation as soon as possible, but I am greatly 



232 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

embarrassed and impeded for the want of skillful mechanics. Mr. 
W. P. Barker, my superintendent, started yesterday for Rome, Chat- 
tanooga, Atlanta, Charlotte, and Richmond, for the purpose of get- 
ting mechanics, workers in iron. I shall have the buildings done in 
time, as that work can be done by negro carpenters and bricklayers, 
and if I can get a sufficient number of machinists to put up the ma- 
chinery and experienced men to run the rolling mill, I will be 
ready to commence rolling iron of the sizes required, say 2 to 2| 
inches thick, by the 1st of November, and the mill will have the 
capacity to roll 30 tons per day. By reference to my contract you 
will see that it was not ^contemplated that I should make heavy 
steam engines, only ordnance, and all iron (hat could be turned out 
from a rolling mill. My buildings, however, will be amply large, 
and the engines and equipments of sufficient power to do any sort 
of work, and it will afford me pleasure to do anything that may be 
required by the Government, and if the mechanics can be -obtained 
we can do almost anything in iron; but if the ."Vrivtary of War holds 
to the rule, which you say in yours of the 20th, he has adopted, "to 
detail no mechanics from the Army," my works \vill be of no use. 
as the mechanics to run them can not be had in the Confederacy out- 
side of the Army. I have given Mr. Barker letters to Captain Minor 
and Colonel Gorgas, and hope that both the departments will aid 
him in getting the right sort of men. 

With much respect, your obedient servant, 

C J. McRAE. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY. 

Secretary of the Nary, 



C. S. S. STTMTBR, 
Bay of Gibralt<tr, . \ n</ii*t //, 1862. 

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of the 25th, addressed to Lieutenant Armstrong. Mr. Armstrong 
having left for Southampton several days previous to the receipt 
of your letter, according to the instructions I received from him, I 
opened it. I also received a letter from Captain Bulloch, enclosing 
a post-office order for 100, but as the order is made payable to 
Lieutenant Armstrong it can not be drawn by me. I therefore return 
it, and respectfully request to have it made payable to me. I have 
also received Captain Bulloch's instructions concerning the powder 
and shell. I have examined the stores and provisions on board and 
find the provisions very much damaged, a large portion of them not 
being fit for use, and the rest of them spoiling very fast. Will you 
please inform me what disposition to make of them' Mr. Armstrong 
left here on the 23d of July. 

Most respectfully, your obedient servant, 

WILLIAM ANDREWS, 
Acting Midshipman, ComnHi<Hii</ C . A. 

Hon. JAMES M. MASON. 



LIVERPOOL, August 4, 1862. 

SIR : This will be handed you by Mr. S. G. Porter, who, in conse- 
quence of my recommendation, has been appointed by Major Huse, 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 233 

C. S. A., to take charge of a valuable shipment of arms for the War 
Department. In the execution of this service Mr. Porter may find 
it necessary to go into the Confederacy himself, and I have desired 
him to communicate with you personally and to inform you of my 
late operations, some of which it would be difficult to communicate in 
cipher. Mr. Porter has served with me in several ships as an officer, 
and has commanded a ship himself. I know him to be a seaman and 
a man of courage and judgment. It was my intention to have given 
him an acting appointment as a lieutenant, to go with me in the 
AltrJxnnfi, had not your orders of April 30 and May 3 assigned 
the command of that ship to another officer. If you have any service 
requiring coolness, courage, and good seamanship, I am sure it will 
be well executed by ]VJr. Porter, and you may rely implicitly upon his 
fidelity and discretion. He can tell you why I was forced to send 
the Alabama away before the arrival of Captain Semmes, and can 
inform you of the difficulty I have experienced, as also the progress 
made thus far in the rams. I have sent you full particulars and 
plans by a recent opportunity, and think it better not to say more 
in this letter, especially as Mr. Porter's departure is so sudden that 
I could not prepare duplicates. 

If remittances do not fail, you shall not have reason to complain 
of delay; but I earnestly beseech to be allowed to take one of the 
armor-clad ships to sea myself. 

I am. very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCII 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Xavy. 



RICHMOND, August 5, 1862. 

Any legislation in regard to the construction of ironclad steamers 
until time is given me to get mine underway will be very unjust. 
My detention here was necessary to the perfection of the contracts, 
which took much time and reflection. The final instructions of the 
Xavy Department have been issued but a few days. Bunglers enter- 
ing the European market might endanger the entire scheme. Great 
skill and diplomacy must be exercised to avoid the interference of 
European Governments. 

Xo one is entitled to my suggestions until full time is given me 
to carry them out. 

GEORGE N. SANDERS. 

REID SANDERS. 



RICHMOND, YA.. August ~j, 1802. 

MY DEAR SIR : Your favor of July 20 has come to hand. I regret 
exceeding^ that you will be unable to go to Europe, and assure you 
that my disappointment is great. 

You will oblige me by forwarding at your earliest opportunity, 
through John Eraser & Co. (care Hon. J. M. Mason), London, the 
contracts which you have in your possession. 
Yery respectfully. 

GEORGE N. SANDERS. 

Hon. J. E. WARD, Savannah. 



234 NAVY DEPARTMENT COTIUKSPOXDKXrr., 

No. 14. 

478,1-582,23 118,4 

LIVERPOOL. August 6. 
680,25 163,21 32,27 811,18 349,2 537,10 111/1339322' 817,'J 

SIR: Captain Semmes, with four officers, arrived here yes ten la y 
99,10 387,9 114,35 736,5 195,1. 408,2 630,17 418,20 738,18 
and has assumed the command. I remain in this 

224,12 157,2 396,31 83,31. 408,2 672,18 639,23 743,14 
country by his advice. I shall return to 

367,7-225,27806,16408,294,13 153,1 738,9 516,18 530,24282,16 

Glasgow, where I am building. Third payment now duo 
538,23 674,26. 577,28 348,8 512,3743,13 334,10 393,10. (>7l,_(> 

on ship. Please forward money to finish her. Ship 
399,31 221,25 72,1Q 758,27 404,27 739,4 586.1. 
will cost about two hundred thousand pounds. 
793,8 637,5 
Very respectfully, 



'ITH. 

399,34 665,5 536,36 736,5 523,15 
Hon. SEC. OF THE NAVY. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, August #, 18 

SIR: Yesterday the triplicate of your letter of the 2d of March 
reached me, being the first information received from you of the 
movements of the Oreto, now called the Florida. You will have 
learned before the receipt hereof that she has been several tim- 
in Nassau, and up to this time I am ignorant of her condition. Your 
previous letters of the same tenor and date doubtless reached the 
enemy and furnished him with data upon which he is proceeding 
against her at Nassau. Your cipher, though a tedious means of 
communication, had better, I think, be resorted to in matters of 
importance. 

Your letter of the 4th of July also reached me at the same time, 
and I am very glad to learn that you have at last succeeded in con- 
tracting for the construction of ironclad war vessels, the details an ! 
particulars of which vessels and contracts I am daily expecting to 
receive. 

I am pleased to learn that the credit of my department stands well 
in England, and sensible of the great importance of maintaining it, 
I am endeavoring to place funds to your credit, which the scarcity 
and very high rate of exchange render difficult. We have just paid 
200 and 2-10 per cent for 80,072,3.9, which amount is now in the hands 
of John Fraser & Co. of Charleston, with orders to place the same to 
your credit in England. 

I will direct the officer in charge of ordnance here to inform you 
of the amount of powder and arms received. 

The freights charged from Nassau are becoming oppressive. I 
have just paid $500 per ton measurement of 40 cubic feet. 



NAVY DKPARTMKXT CORRESPOND!. I-IS^",. 235 

Should you be called upon hereafter to send us freight, it will be 
well for you to join with the agents of other departments and send a 
small, fast steamer, which will not break bulk at Nassau. 

Clipper screw steamers of about 500 tons gross, to carry about 400 
tons of cargo, and having 11 knots speed upon 9 feet draft loaded, can 
be built in England, I am told, in from eleven to twelve weeks for 
10.000. Such vessels, in the name of British merchants, navigated 
by British seamen, and cleared for a British colonial port, might 
niiike the voyage under sail, bringing coal enough only to run the 
blockade with, and they could carry out cotton and thus supply us 
with exchange. They should be clipper screws, of course, with pow- 
erful engines. 

Confidential : I have contracted with Captain Lawson for the con- 
striction of HX ironclad vessels, for ordnance and ordnance stores 
for them, and for six engines or sets of engines like those in the ves- 
sels, to be paid for upon deliver}' in bonds of the Confederacy, at a 
certain rate. lie speaks with confidence of success in this enterprise, 
and has impressed me favorably as to his business capacity, while I 
really know very little about him. I have given him a formal letter 
of introduction to you. He has our plans and specifications for 
ships and will show them to you, if you desire it. 

Intelligence has just reached me of the loss of the Arkansas. This 
is a severe blow and. one which the late glorious career of this ship 
hardly enables me to bear with equanimity. 

I must impress upon you the great importance of completing iron- 
clad vessels at the earliest moment, and to do this it may be expedi- 
ent to offer a sum of money, in addition to the contract, for early 
completion. You will also please inform me what officers, pilots, etc., 
may be necessary. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant. 

S. V\. MALLOKY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Commander JAMES D. BULLOCH, C. S, XAVV, 

London, England . 



LIVERPOOL, August 11, 186%. 

SIR : I have already informed you by letter, as well as by private 
mosenger, that the Alabama is safely clear of British waters and 
that another vessel, with her battery and ordnance stores, had pre- 
viously sailed for a concerted rendezvous. I have now the satisfac- 
tion to report that Commander Semmes, with his officers, has arrived 
here and will sail to-morrow in a steamer chartered for the purpose 
to join the Alabama. It has been deemed advisable that I should go 
with Commander Semmes as far as the rendezvous to smooth away 
as much as possible his embarrassments and difficulties in assuming 
the command of an entirely new ship with a strange and untried 
crew. My absence will not be prolonged beyond one month, and I 
have arranged all other business so that there will be ncr delay or 
interruption in the progress of other work. As soon as it would be 
safe to allude to the movements of the Al.<J>ai'i><i in detail you shall 
have an account of her escape from the Tuscarora and the manner in 



236 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1.RG1-1865. 

which a crew was got on board. Suffice it for the present to say that 
the United States consul neither by the strictest espionage nor the 
most shameless false witnesses has been able to prove any violation 
of the foreign enlistment act or of her Majesty's neutrality procla- 
mation. When finally armed the A\labanta] will have a battery 
consisting of a 7-inch 100-pounder rifled gun, Blakely pattern, 84 
cwt. ; one 8-inch solid shot 68-pounder, smooth bore, 108 cwt.; and 
six 6-inch 32-pounder guns, 55 cwt. each. The 8-inch gun is of 
course provided with shell as well as shot, and I have provided 
seventy 42-pound spherical shot for the rifled gun in addition to 
the elongated shell and shot peculiarly adapted to its character. It- 
will give me the greatest satisfaction to know that Commander 
Semmes is fairly afloat in the Alabama and confident of his ability 
to do good service with her. I shall watch with pride* her coming 
success, although I can not overcome the feeling of disappointment 
I experienced when first informed I was not to command her my- 
self. The papers necessary to show all the plans, equipments, etc., 
of the ship are too bulky to be sent by any means now offering, but 
you shall have all these points as soon as possible. 

I have now to call your attention to a subject of so personal a char- 
acter that I regret the necessity of alluding to it at all. but I should 
be wanting in self-respect and in consideration for the commission 
I hold if I did not make some comments upon the peculiarities of 
my position. When in February last you did me the honor to send 
me a commission as commander in the Navy I felt fully aware that 
your act would be criticized and the traditional ideas of naval 
officers on the subject of relative rank would be shocked, and I 
therefore promptly expressed to you my reluctance to accept that 
particular commission. My knowledge of human nature, further- 
more, instructed me that the criticisms of the service would not be 
confined to the supposed offense against the traditions, but would in 
some way or other find vent in detractions or perhaps only insinua- 
tions more or less personal to myself. In the letter acknowledging 
the receipt of my commission as commander I requested you to 
change it to that of lieutenant and to place me in the list where I 
should have been had I never resigned from the old service. It 
mattered not to me one iota by what title I was called. I felt sure 
that a Government just struggling into existence, and necessarily 
dependent upon the united exertions of its adherents for success, 
would not irretrievably bind itself to a system of promotion in the 
military and naval services such as existed under the old Government 
of the United States, a system which proved itself, even in time 
of peace, so destructive to the efficiency of the Navy that it resulted 
in the forced removal of many officers from the active list by the 
action of the well-known " Board of Fifteen." The history of this 
event is familiar to you. The officers composing the board were per- 
sonally and collectively abused both in and out of the service. Con- 
gress almost wholly reversed their action, and the Navy was divided 
into two acrimonious parties which never could have become re- 
conciled. "In view of such experiences I felt sure that however the 
Army or Navy list might be arranged in the beginning zeal and 
merit would be left to find their proper level during the progress 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 237 

of the war and that the higher grades of the service would be fairly 
opened to all who entered it in any rank. I was willing to compete 
upon this understanding for naval advancement. I regret to learn 
from a few officers who have been or are now in Europe that much 
feeling has been evinced on the subject of my being in the naval 
service at all, and I learn with surprise that I am by some regarded 
as an interloper. Private advices inform me that influence has 
been used to prevent my being employed in the active duties of the 
sea, it seeming to be thought by a certain class of naval men that 
I should be sufficiently rewarded by the appointment of Xavy agent 
or constructor in Europe. These gentlemen seem willing to grant 
me the abilit}^ necessary to build and equip ships, but are unwilling 
that I should be put to the test of proving my ability to command 
them. Xo*v, sir, I' appeal with confidence to you to bear me out 
in the assertion that I have never sought reward of any kind for 
services rendered; I simply requested to be placed anywhere upon 
the Xavy list, that I might serve our common country in the sphere 
which education and habit rendered me most fit to occupy. It never 
entered my mind to imagine that the employment of any man in 
the service could or would give offense, nor that an effort would be 
seriously made to keep anyone in the background. For myself I 
would rather be a private in one of the numerous regiments of my 
native State than to hold the highest commission in the Navy if I 
am never to exercise its legitimate functions. One or two- naval 
officers have told me that Congress had pledged itself to give any 
officer who resigned from the IT. S. service the same pay and the 
same relative rank that he held in that service, and that this relative 
rank, etc., should be perpetuated. This would imply a bargain, and 
I am sure that the majority of the officers in the C. S. Xavy did not 
sell their allegiance. I have the satisfaction to know many who have 
seemingly followed their natural impulses in joining the cause of 
justice and their native land. 

Having already built two ships for the Xavy, the second of which 
is as fine a vessel of her class as any service can show, and which I 
was to have commanded myself, I am, as you have been informed, 
busily at work upon two armor-clad ships of entirely new design. 
In no event and under no circumstances of action upon your part will 
I relax my efforts to complete them in an efficient state, but I earnestly 
beg leave to urge my claim to command one of these ships in person. 
I desire, if you approve the .designs sent you, to be allowed to com- 
plete these ships without interference on the part of others, and to 
select the one for my own command. Whoever you may appoint to 
command the other shall receive my cheerful assistance in equipping 
her for sea, but as I can alone be responsible for the character of the 
ships, I respectfully request to be untrammeled in the completion of 
their designs. I trust I shall never be called upon to be more explicit 
in what I have said relative to my position in the Xavy, but if it ever 
becomes necessary my correspondence and the information I have 
received from others will convince you that I am not without just 
cause of complaint. In concluding this disagreeable subject, I wish 
to emphatically declare that my disappointment in not commanding 
the Alabama, as you originally designed, is only the natural regret 



238 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPOND*; NVK, 1861-1865. 

at purling with a piece of handiwork which had come to completion 
under my own eye and the future career of which I had allowed my 
imagination to foreshadow, and that it has no reference whatever to 
the officer you have appointed to the actual command. Commander 
Semmes was the first officer to show the Con federate flag upon the high 
seas, and his services in the Kumter entitle him to a prominent place. 
Recognizing this claim, when we first met in England I freely otFered 
him the command of the ship and expressed my readiness to serve 
under him in any capacity, lie declined this offer, wholly, I believe, 
from generous motives to myself; indeed, he said as much to me at 
the time. I shall, therefore, follow his career in the Al(il>fi>n<t. with 
unalloyed interest, and shall hear of his successes with pleasure, on 
private as well as public grounds. 1 wish equally to declare that I 
do not complain of your individual action toward myself? I grate- 
fully acknowledge the continued confidence you have placed in me 
and the flattering manner in which you have k-ft important trans- 
actions to be managed at my discretion. AVhat I deprecate iy the 
position a certain clique of naval officers seem desirous to assign me, 
and my simple appeal to you, as the head of the Navy, is that I shall 
not be debarred from entering into competition fairly for its honors. 
If I had no ambition beyond that of a private agent to do the work 
assigned him properly, I should be content to labor in a quiet sphere, 
but I aspire to purely professional distinction, and 1 feel that to toil 
here, as it were, in exile and then to turn over the result of my hv 
for the use of others is willingly to consign myself to oblivion. To 
retain the commission of commander and yet never to command a 
ship seems to me a mockery. I have no fear but that you will do- me 
justice in the duties I am now performing, and that you will appre- 
ciate the difficulties I have had to overcome and which still confront 
me f but my real profession is that of the sea, and I have many friends 
who will be seriously disappointed if I am never heard of upon that 
element. Trusting that you will not misunderstand the spirit of this 
appeal, I close the subject. 

The vessel which has sailed with the battery, etc., for the A lalainn, 
has also on board 250 tons of coal. I have bought her for the Navy 
Department, especially to run as a transport, and Commander 
Semmes can employ her regularly to carry coal from point to point 
as he may require, sending her back to me for additional supply 
when required. I have furnished Lieutenant Sinclair with minute 
drawings and specifications and the identical contract under which 
the Alabama was built, and he desires to duplicate her, but until 
funds necessary to complete the contracts now under way have been 
received it will be out of my power to do anything more for him. 
The armor-clad ships are getting on finely, and 1 nave great hopes 
that I shall be allowed to use the revolving turrets. On my return I 
hope to find this point settled. If the war continues until spring 
these vessels may yet have important and perhaps conclusive work 
in the question of the blockade. The difficulty of getting them fairly 
to sea will be very great, however, and I confess that thus far I can 
not see clearly the means to be adopted. The means I adopt for 
sending my letters- render it unnecessary to disguise them ru cipher, 
yet I refrain from mentioning names as much as possible and from 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, J^>l-186->. 239 

speaking of events until they have some time transpired. I shall 
continue to avail myself of every opportunity to write you. 
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, 
Your obedient servant, 

eTAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Hon. S. E. MALIA>RY. 

Secretary of tJie Xavy. 



LIVERPOOL, August 11, 1862. . 

MY DEAR SIR : I take pleasure in stating to you the substance of a 
conversation that passed between you and myself when I was in Lon- 
don in April last. You appeared to be doubtful as to the course you 
should pursue, whether you should return to the Confederate States 
or remain longer in London. Having looked over your orders and 
understood from you that you were in expectation of the trans- 
mission of funds to you by the Navy Department, with which to 
build an ironclad steamer, I advised you to wait for the arrival of 
these funds, or at all events for a reasonable period. Having been 
informed by you a few days afterwards that the sum of 30,000 had 
been remitted to you as you supposed for this purpose, I saicl to you 
that your course was then quite clear, and that you ought by all 
means to remain to execute the duty assigned to you. 

Having had a conference with you since my arrival at this place 
to take the command of the C. S. S. Alabama, my opinion is that 
you should remain here until you can have further orders from the 
honorable Secretary of the Navy. 
I am, very respectfully, etc., 

R. SEAIMCS, 
Commander and /Senior Officer Present. 

[Commander JAMES H. NORTH, C. S. N.] 



54 DEVONSHIRE STREET, PORTLAND PLACE, 

London, August 13, 1862. 

DEAR SIR : The enclosed came under envelope to you, which, with- 
out observing the address, I opened. I enclose it to you accordinglv. 
I do not know whether Captain Bulloch is yet in this country. If 
he is, please hand him the enclosed from Midshipman Andrews, at 
Gibraltar, that he may substitute a draft in favor of Mr. Andrews 
in lieu of that payable to Lieutenant Armstrong, which is returned 
herewith. 

If Captain Bulloch is absent, have the new draft arranged your- 
self and mail it to Midshipman Andrews. Or perhaps the simpler 
way would be for Lieutenant Armstrong to endorse the draft en- 
closed to the order of Mr. Andrews. 

Please have me informed whether Captain Semmes has reached 
England, and his address. 

Very respectfullv, yours. 

J. M. MASON. 

Captain JAMES H. NORTH, 

Liverpool. 



240. NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1%"). 

No. 6 OXFORD STREET, MT. PLEASANT, 

Liverpool, Auyuxt 7-5, 1862. 

DEAR SIR: In looking over the specification of our contract I have 
been amazed to find that the ship you are buildin" for me is to have 
a three-bladed propeller, which, of course, involves the necessity of 
its being fixed. In all our conversations I thought I had endeavored 
to convey the idea that the ship was to be fitted with a propeller for 
tricing up when not under steam or under canvas alone. So I lose 
not a moment in writing you on this subiect, so that the error may 
be corrected if the work has not progressed too far to do so without 
involving additional expense. 

I beg that you will let me hear from you as soon as possible, as 
this thing has worried me not a little. If the work has progressed 
to fit the propeller to trice up, it will be absolutely necessary to fit a 
clutch coupling near the deadwood bearing, so that the propeller can 
be disconnected and allowed to revolve when the ship shall be under 
sail. 

The only way that I can account for my not having seen it before 
was that the propeller was included in the machinery, and as I knew 
very little about engines, etc., it entirely escaped my notice. I had 
expected to have been with you by this time, but duty will detain me 
here 10 days or a fortnight longer. 

Hoping to hear from you soon, I remain, 
Yours, truly, 

JAMES H. NORTH. 

Mr. GEORGE THOMSON. 

P. S. Captain Sinclair has just requested me to say to you that 
Captain Bulloch is absent from Liverpool, so that he can not, until 
his return, get a copy of the tonnage scale. 
Yours, etc., 

J. H. X. 



XAVY DEPARTMENT, 
Richmond, August 15, 186%, 

SIR : In obedience to your order I have respectfully to report the 
principal difficulties in building machinery for gunboats in the South- 
ern Confederacy to be as follows : 

First. The insufficient number of workmen in the various mechan- 
ical branches required, a large majority of these machinists, founders, 
and blacksmiths, etc., being employed on ordnance and ordnance 
stores, and many of them serving in the Army, who, under the pres- 
ent regulations, can not be had for this service. In addition to this, 
I would state that in consequence of the very limited supply of this 
labor and the hurried state of work at the different shops and the 
system of " piece work," which has been adopted by many of them, 
by which system a good workman can earn from $6 to $10 per diem, 
competition for labor and a great advance of wages has resulted and 
the amount of work done has decreased; exorbitant wages almost 
invariably produce this effect, the operative not finding it necessary 
to work every day. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 241 

Secondly. The want of such material as iron, steel, tin, sheet cop- 
per, india-rubber packing, etc., and the various mountings and equip- 
ments, which have heretofore been obtained from the North. 

Thirdly. The want of proper machinery, tools, and facilities for 
heavy work, viz, machine shops, foundries, smitheries, etc., most of 
which being now engaged to their full extent exclusively on ord- 
nance work. There is no forge in the Confederacy for domg heavy 
wrought-iron work or rolling mill for sheet copper or thin iron ; the 
steam hammer saved from the Pensacola Navy Yard, which is now 
being erected at Charlotte, N. C.. will, however, relieve us shortly as 
to heavy forgings, and the iron mines now being opened, with the 
establishments which are being started for furnishing equipments and 
stores, etc., will. I hope, render us more independent in these articles. 
Soft pig iron, to mix-with hard and scrap iron on hand, is at this time 
very much wanted. 

I am, very respectfully, etc., your obedient servant, 

Wai. P. WILLIAMSON, 
Acting Engineer in Chief, C. S. N. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



CONFEDERATE STATES, 
Navy Department, Richmond, August 16, 186%. 

SIR : I have the honor to report to you the operations of this de- 
partment since the 27th of February last, the date of my last report. 

The military necessity of abandoning a large portion of the sea and 
river shores of our country to the enemy has entailed upon us serious 
naval losses and interfered to a great extent with our efforts at con- 
struction. 

The destruction of the Virginia in Hampton Roads, and of many 
vessels in course of construction upon the rivers of Virginia, North 
Carolina, and Florida, resulted from the withdrawal of our pro- 
tecting forces. 

In the defense of the Mississippi River against the combined attack 
of the enemy on the 24th of April, 1862, the naval force at the com- 
mand of the senior officer participated, and though the results were 
disastrous to our arms, the conduct of the officers and men of our 
squadron in the river against overwhelming forces exhibited the 
highest evidence of patriotic devotion and professional ability and 
daring. 

The conduct of the officers and crew of the McRae in these respects 
has rarely been surpassed in the annals of naval warfare. Exposed 
to the terrific fire of many heavy ships, all greatly superior to her in 
force, torn to pieces by their broadsides, her commanding officer, 
Huger, mortally wounded, and a large portion of her crew killed or 
wounded, they refused to surrender as long as they could keep her 
afloat, and she went down without having passing into the enemy's 
hands. 

The Louisiana contended also with the enemy's heaviest vessels at 
close quarters and in actual contact. Her commanding officer, Mc- 
Intosh, was mortally wounded, and when she could no longer be 
defended she was destroyed by her crew. 
17G429 VOL 2 PT 121 16 



242 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1SG1-1SG5. 

The Manassas, under Lieutenant Commanding TVarley, was han- 
dled with remarkable coolness and skill, and inflicted much injury 
upon the enemy before she went down. The reports* of Com- 
mander Mitchell, of the Louisiana, of Lieutenant Wai-lev, of the 
Manassas, and of Lieutenant Read, of the McRae, marked ' r A," " B," 
and " C," are appended. 

A navaj force of five gunboats and a floating battery under Cap- 
tain Hollins participated in the defense of Island No. 10 and did 
good service. 

Upon the fall of New Orleans the three gunboats, Eienvttle, Pam- 
licQ, and Carondelet, on Lake Pontchartrain, were destroyed by their 
officers. A court of inquiry has reported upon this transaction and 
expressed an opinion which justifies their destruction. The senior 
officer has, however, been sent before a court-martial for trial. 

Upon the abandonment of Island N"o. 10 Commander Pinkney, 
the senior naval officer in command, sent to the Arkansas and White 
Elvers the steamers Mauvepas and Pontchartrain, under the com- 
mand of Lieutenants Fry and Dunnington, and carried with him 
the Livingston and Polk into the Yazoo River, where, on the 26th of 
June, upon the approach of the enemy, he destroyed them. This 
officer has also been sent before a court-martini for trial. 

The abandonment of Memphis rendered the completion of the 
ironclad steamer Te-n,i<-*x'-r impracticable, but the work upon the 
sloop of war Arkansas being further advanced, she was carried to 
the Yazoo and there completed. On the 14th [loth] day of July 
this vessel, under the command of Lieutenant Isaac N. Brown, left 
her position in the Yazoo for Vicksburg, where she arrived safely 
after an engagement of several hours with 17 of the enemy's ships. 
Naval history records few deeds of greater heroism or higher pro- 
fessional ability than this achievement of the Arkansas. 

Commander Brown's report * of the engagement, marked " D," is 
appended. 

Her machinery was new, and sufficient time for its reliable adjust- 
ment had not been afforded when she was sent to cooperate in the 
attack upon Baton Rouge on the 7th instant. Chi the folio sving day, 
in the face of a greatly superior force, when within 5 miles of her 
destination, some derangement of her machinery occurred, when 
she was at once attacked by a large force o-f the enemy and, hopeless 
of escape, her crew destroyed her. 

A court of inquiry, to report upon the facts involved in the de- 
struction of the Virginia, by the order of her commanding officer, 
Flag-Officer Tattnall, and which court he asked for, having ex- 
pressed an opinion against the necessity of such destruction, I had 
charges preferred against him therefor, and he was tried by a court- 
martial, which he also applied for.. Upon a full examination of the 
case the court granted him an honorable acquittal. 

The same court was ordered to report upon the facts involved in 
the destruction of the Mississippi, and expressed the opinion " that 
the destruction was necessary to prevent her from falling into the 
hands of the enemy." 

* See Series I, vol. 18, pp. 289-301, 332-334, 336-338. 

* See Series I, vol. 49, p. 68. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 243 

The abandonment of Norfolk stripped us not only of a vast 
amount of valuable property and building material, but' deprived us 
of our only dry dock and of tools which are not found and can not 
be replaced or made in the Confederacy. 

Upon the destruction of the Virginia, her officers and crew were 
placed at Drewry's Bluff, under the command of Commander Far- 
rand, and the defenses at that point were committed to him. Aided 
by a small military force, and the able assistance of the Engineer 
Corps, the river was obstructed and batteries of heavy navy guns 
were established. 

On the 15th of May this position was attacked by the enemy's two 
ironclad sloops of war, Galena and Monitor, and two steam gun- 
boats, within a distance of about 400 yards. After a severe contest 
of two hours, the enemy's ships slipped their cables and ran down 
the river, the Galena <sn. fire and with 17 shot through her iron armor. 
The conduct of the officers and men in this gallant affair justified 
the confidence of the country and sustained the honor of the service. 

Commander Farrand's report,* marked E, is appended. 

In June Lieutenant Commanding Joseph Fry, in the gunboat 
Maurepas, sunk his vessel in White River near St. Charles, to obstruct 
the passage of the enemy's vessels and placed his battery on shore. 
In tli is position he was attacked on the 19th of June by two iron- 
clad gunboats, and after a severe action of two hours he beat them 
off' and destroyed the largest of the enemy's ships, the Mound City, 
and a great portion of her crew. He was then attacked by a land 
force of 1,500 men and his battery was captured. Lieutenant Fry, 
who behaved with great gallantry, was severely wounded and made 
prisoner, and no official report has yet been received from him. 

On the 25th of March the gunboat Pamlico, Lieutenant Command- 
ing Dozier, engaged the V. S. gunboat y< < r London, and on the 4th 
of April, the Carondelet, Lieutenant Commanding Gwathmey, with 
the aid of the Oregon and Pamlico, engaged three of the enemy's 
gunboats. Both engagements occurred near Pass Christian and 
were without material results. 

Cruising ships, constructed in Europe, are now in commission, 
and heavy ironclad vessels are being constructed at home and abroad, 
and ail the means available for this purpose are employed. 

The want of expert workmen is felt in every workshop, public and 
private, some of which have had to discontinue operations, while 
others are employing only a third or a half their productive capacity. 

The want of expert mechanics and of iron and the absence of tools 
and workshops for such work as heavy ironclad ships require, greatly 
curtail the ability of the Confederacy in the construction of this class 
of vessels. 

From the want of mechanics, contractors with this department for 
steam machinery, ordnance, and ordnance stores, and the hulls of 
vessels and for lumber and iron, fail to fulfill their engagements. 

The scarcity of mechanics is attributable to the fact that a large 
portion of those employed in the Confederacy were Northern men or 
foreigners, who have, "in consequence of the war, left the country, 
while our own mechanics are generally in the Army. 

* See Series I, vol. 7, p. 369. 



244 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

The embarrassments arising from this condition of things are 
pointed out by the report of Chief Engineer Williamson, which re- 
port, marked " F," is appended, and I will only add as an illustration, 
that the day after Congress passed the bill appropriating $600,000 
for the defenses of the Cumberland Kiver, Lieutenant Commanding 
Isaac N. Brown, of the Navy, Avhose instructions are appended, was 
charged with the duty of getting gunboats afloat upon this river, at 
the earliest moment and entered at once upon the duty ; but found it 
impossible either to have the necessary work done by contract or to 
obtain a sufficient number of mechanics to execute it within any rea- 
sonable time ; and from this cause the three boats which he had pur- 
chased and was fitting out, two for the Cumberland and one for the 
Tennessee River, were lost when Nashville fell. 

For want of mechanics at Memphis, the work upon the Arkansas 
was retarded at least six months, and the sister ship Tennessee, at the 
same place, had, upon its abandonment, to be destroyed. An appeal 
was made to the commanding general at Memphis when these ships 
were commenced to detail mechanics to work upon them, but without 
effect. 

Certain patriotic citizens of Georgia having constructed a floating 
battery sheathed with railroad iron for service in the Savannah 
River, and tendered her to this Government, she has been received, 
armed, manned, and equipped by this department. 

The river steamer Baltic has been purchased by the State of Ala- 
bama, prepared for gunboat service, and turned over to the Con- 
federate States. We have armed, manned, and equipped the vessel 
and she is in service at Mobile. 

IRON AND COAL,. 

The appended report, marked " G," of the officer in charge of ord- 
nance will exhibit the contracts and advances made by this depart- 
ment for iron and coal. Favorable representations having been made 
of iron and coal deposits in Cass and Harrison Counties, Texas, an 
agent has been dispatched there empowered to make such contracts 
as will encourage their development, and the manufacture of iron 
plates and ordnance. 

In addition to these contracts, in conjunction with the War Depart- 
ment, the following have been made : 

F. B. Deane, jr., & Son, of Lynchburg, Va., for 4,000 tons of shot 
and shell, to be delivered within two years. 

J. R. Anderson & Co., of Richmond, Va., for cannon, shot, shell, 
bolt, bar, rod, plate, and boiler iron, to the amount of $2,000,000 
annually, for two years. 

Messrs. Quinby and Robinson, Etowah Works, Georgia, for can- 
non, shot, shell, bolt, bar, rod, plate, boiler, and railroad iron and 
car springs to the amount of $1,500,000 annually for two years. 

The report of the officer in charge of ordnance, showing the prog- 
ress and condition of the ordnance work shops at Richmond. [Va.], 
Charlotte, N. C., and Atlanta, Ga., and the powder mill at Columbia, 
S. C., is also appended, marked " H." 

SEAMEN. 

The fifth section of the act of Congress entitled "An act to fur- 
ther provides for the public defense," approved the 16th of April, 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 245 

1862, provides that " all seamen and ordinary seamen in the land 
forces of the Confederate States enrolled under the provisions of 
this act may, on application of the Secretary of the Navy, be trans- 
ferred from the land forces to the naval service." Application hav- 
ing been made under this section for transfers of seamen from the 
military to the naval service, the Secretary of War, under existing 
exigencies, finds it impossible to make them. 

I respectfully recommend such legislation as may, without im- 
pairing the efficiency of the Army, secure the services of seamen 
or watermen for the Navy, and it may be advisable to provide that 
officers enrolling conscripts shall enroll this class separately for the 
naval service. They are methodically and thoroughly drilled by 
skillful and well-trained officers, and the conduct of officers and men 
of the Navy in shore batteries at Aquia Creek, Evansport, St. Charles, 
[Ark.], and Drewry's Bluff proves how thoroughly their discipline, 
efficiency, and devotion may be relied upon [on] shore or afloat. 

PRIZE MONEY. 

I recommend for the consideration of Congress the expediency of 
granting prize money to the officers and men of Flag-Officer Buchan- 
an's squadron for the destruction of the enemy's ships in Hampton 
Roads in the engagement of the 8th of March last. 

MARINE CORPS. 

The recommendations of the Chief of the Marine Corps, Colonel 
Lloyd J. Beall, are appended and approved, marked " L" 

The services of this command, unlike those of a regiment of in- 
fantry, are usually rendered by small detachments, and hence it re- 
quires a larger proportion of noncommissioned officers and musi- 
cians than other military organizations. He suggests such an amend- 
ment of the act organizing this Corps, approved May 20, 1861, as 
will allow 60 sergeants, 60 corporals, 20 drummers, 20 fifers, and 2 
principal musicians, the principal musicians to receive each the pay 
of a sergeant-major. 

The provisions of the act of Congress approved April 16, 1862, 
entitled "An act to further provide for the public defense," have 
defeated attempts to recruit for this corps. Its present condition 
and organization and the skill and character of its officers give as- 
surance that if full it would be the best-disciplined and one of the 
most efficient regiments in the service, and I recommend such legis- 
lation as will remove the difficulties in the way of recruiting for it. 

MEDICAL CORPS. 

The act of Congress, approved April 21, 1862, entitled " An act 
to amend an act to provide for the organization of the Navy," pro- 
vides for the grade of past assistant surgeon, but does not provide any 
pay for it, and I recommend that the pay of this grade be determined. 

ENGINEER IN CHIEF. 

The act just referred to also provides for the appointment of an 
engineer in chief and I recommend that the pay of this officer be 
determined. 



246 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

OF IKON. 



The want of iron is severely felt throughout the Confederacy, and 
the means of increasing its production d-mand, in my judgment, the 
prompt consideration of Congiv 

The Government lias outstanding contracts amounting to millions 
of dollars, but the iron is not forthcoming to meet the increasing 
public wants. 

Scrap iron of all classes is being industriously collected by agents 
of the Government, and we arc now rolling railroad iron into plates 
for covering ships, while the condition of the roads admonish us that 
they will soon require extensive supplies. The freight upon imported 
rails at this time, independent of all risks, exceeds three times its 
original cost. 

Under the joint resolution of Congress authorizing the President to 
contract for the construction in Europe of six iroucimi ap- 

proved April 19, 1862, a contract has been entered into with (Jeorge 
N". Sanders for their construction. 

I submit the estimates of the amount required by the department 
for the month of December, ls ',-_'. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. M.MJ.OTIY, 

Secret nr n of f//r \<irj/. 
The PRESIDENT. 

[Enclosure.] 

Estimate of the amount required for condensation of Secretary of 
the Navy, clerks and messengers in his office, for the month of De- 
cember. 1862: 

For salary of the Secretary of the Navy per act approved I-Vl.ruary 

21, 1861 ________________________________________________________ $500. 00 

For salary of chief clerk, also correspondence clerk and disbursing 

agent, per act approved March 8, 1861 ____________________________ 17~>. MM 

For salary of four clerks on duty at Navy Department attached to the 

ofTice of Orders and Detail, Ordnance and Hydrography, Provision-; 

and Clothinjr, and Medicine and Surgery, per section J) of act a>>- 

proved March 1.1, 1S61. at $1.500 per annuni ______________________ f>00. 00 

For salary of one clerk at $l,.~>oo per annum, per act approved January 

14, 1862 ________________________ -_ ______________________________ 12.-.. MM 

For salary of t\vo clerks at $1,200 per annuni, i>er a< 1 approved March 

8, 1862 _________________________________________________________ 200. MM 

For salary of one clerk at $1.2MO [p % r 1:111111111]. PIT act approved .Janu- 

ary 14, 18G2 ____________________________________________________ UN MH 

For salary of one clerk at $1.000 per annuni. per act approved Man-h 

8, 1862 _________________________________________________________ 84. 24 

For salary of one draftsman at $1,200 par annum, per a<-t approved 

January 14, 1862 _______________________________________________ 100.00 

For salary of messenger at $500 per annum, per act approved .M 

8, 1861 ___________ 41.66 



1,825.99 

Eighteen hundred and twenty-five dollars and ninety cents. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
NAVY DEPARTMENT, August 16, 186.'. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 247 

Rill for the reorganization of the M <<;;,,, I Corps of the Confederate 

States Navy. 

Be it enacted by the Congress of the Confederate States that, 

(1) All medical officers of the Xavy shall be denominated staff 
officers, and the medical staff shall be composed of the following 
grades : 

(2) One director general, with the rank of brigadier-general, and 
an annual pay equivalent to that of other heads of Naval Bureaus. 

(3) Ten inspectors of hospitals and fleets, to be appointed by the 
President from the grade of surgeons, and who shall have the rank 
of colonel, and the pay now allowed by law to fleet surgeons. One or 
more inspectors shall have the supervision of all naval hospitals 
within the Confederate States, and one shall be attached to each fleet 
and shall have general supervision of the medical department of the 
fleet. 

(4) Twenty surgeons with the rank of major and pay as now 
allowed by law. 

(5) Forty assistant surgeons, with the rank of captain, whose pay 
for the first five years shall be as at present, and, after five-years' 
service, that allowed by law to passed assistant surgeons. 

(6) Medical officers^ whose age or health renders it necessary, shall 
be retired on leave-of-absence pay, by a board of medical officers 
assembled for that purpose, their action being subject to the ap- 
proval of the President ; the vacancies thus occasioned to be filled by 
promotion. 

(7) Assistant surgeons shall be in the Xavy three- years, two of 
which shall have been spent on board of a vessel of war in active 
service, and part of the remaining year in si naval hospital before 
they shall be entitled to examination for promotion. 

(8) The commanding officer of any vessel, post, or station, in the 
execution of his duties- as such, shall take precedence of all medical 
officers attached to his command. In event of the removal, disability, 
or absence of such commanding officer, the line officer next in rank 
shall succeed to command., and will likewise take precedence of 
medical officers, but no medical officer shall, at any time, be subject 
to the orders of a warrant or inferior officer not in the line of promo- 
tion. 

(9) Medical officers of the Xavy shall share prize money,, select 
quarters, and be entitled to all the honors of their rank, and shall 
wear the uniform of such rank with such difference in the color of 
the material (if necessary) as may readily distinguish them from 
officers of the same rank in the line. 

(10) All court-martial for the trial of medical officers shall be in. 
part composed of such officers.. 

(11) The service performed in the United States Xavy by medical 
officers who have resigned therefrom, and are noncommissioned in the 
Confederate States Xavy. shall be considered as having been per- 
formed under their present commissions. 

(12) All laws or parts of laws in conflict with this act, are hereby 
repealed. 



248 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1801-1865. 

The foregoing bill, having been exhibited to the undersigned officers 
of the line, has been approved, as follows : 
Approved, with the exception of clause 10. 

FRENCH FORKEST, 
Flag-Officer <in<I Chief of Bureau of 

Orders nn<l Detail. 
Approved in full: 

GEORGE N. HOLLIXS, Flag-Officer, 

SAMUEL BARRON, Flag-Offi 

W. C. WHITTLE, Ctiirfn/n. 

ROBERT G. Roim, Commander. 

MURRAY MASON, Oommdnder. 

ARTHUR SINCLAIR, Command r. 

GEORGE MINOR, 
Commander, etc., Chief of Ordnance Bureau. 

J. W. r<i<>KK, Commander. 

JNO. M. BROOKE, Coin inn )t<l<-)>. 

WM. TI. MURDAUGII. / <f /V.s7 Lieutenant. 

D. P. McCoRKLE, Fii-xt L'n nt< nant. 

R. R. CARTER, /''//*/ Lieutenant. 

AY. II. WARD. Firxt Lieutenant. 

B. P. LOYALL. First Lieutenant. 

WM. C. WHITTLE, [Jr.], First Lieutenant. 

Clause No. 11 was added, with approval of the Secretary of the 
Navy, for the purpose of removing a difficulty which existed in ref- 
erence to the pay of medical officers -who refused commissions in 
the Lincoln Navy. The Secretary has a copy of this bill, but has not 
expressed an opinion upon its merits, with exception of the clause 
referred to. 

Statement of agreements for iron of all kinds made l>ij Office of 

Ordnance and Hydrography, .Van/ Department^ Jcm/'/ri/ 8 to 

August 7, 1862. 

OFFICE OF ORDNANCE AND HYDROGRAPHY, 

Richmond, Fa., August 1%, 1862. 

January 8. S. F. Jordan, Rockb ridge County, Va., 2,500 tons of 
blooms, to be delivered in three years from April 1, 1802. 

January 8. S. F. Jordan, Rockbridge County, Va., 1,500 tons of 
pig iron, to be delivered in three years from April 1, 1862. 

January 8. D. & H. Forrer, Augusta County, Va., 2,000 tons of 
blooms, to be delivered in 1862 and 1863. 

February 21. J. R. Anderson, Richmond, Va., 3,000 tons of Ca- 
tawba pig iron, to be delivered in two years from April 1, 1862. 

March 14. Lewis Crawford & Co., Rockingham County, Va., 800 
tons of blooms, to be delivered in three years from April 1, 1862. 

January . Scott & Wellford, Fredericksburg, Va., 2,000 tons of 
pig iron from Catherine Furnace, to be delivered in three years from 
April 1, 1862. 

January 9. Thomas Steers, Botetourt County, Va., 3,600 tons of 
No. 1 Cloverdale gun iron, to be delivered in three years from Jan- 
uary 1, 1863." 

January 11. Thomas Steers, Botetourt County, Va., 3,600 tons No. 1 
Grace gun iron, to be delivered in three years from April 1, 1862. 



]STAVY DEPAETMEXT COERESPOiSDESrCE, 1861-1865. 



249 



^ March 21. J. TV. Clegg and William McClane, Chatham County, 
X. C., 750 tons of pig iron, 50 tons of blooms, to be delivered in 1862. 
Three thousand tons of pig iron, 1,500 tons of blooms. 1,600 tons of 
plate iron, 1,200 tons of hammered iron, 500 tons of rolled iron, to be 
delivered in 1863. Three thousand tons of pig iron, 1,500 tons of 
blooms, 2,000 tons of plate iron, 1,500 tons of hammered iron, 1,000 
tons of rolled iron, to be delivered in 1864. 

April 22. H. H. Hubbard, Tennessee, 2,500 tons of No. 1 Tennessee 
pig iron, to be delivered in 12 months from date. 

May 15. C. J. McRae, Selma, Ala., guns, mortars, shot, shells, bar, 
bolt, and boiler iron, and iron plates for covering vessels, to the 
amount of $300,000 in 1862, $1,000,000 in 1863, $1,000,000 in 1864. 

June 26. Samuel P. L. Marshall, Cherokee County, Ala., 400 tons 
of pig iron, to be dile'vered in 1862; 3,000 tons of pig iron, to be de- 
livered in 1863; 3,000 tons of pig iron, to be delivered in 1864; 3,000 
tons of pig iron, to be delivered in 1865. 

August 7. Jerry Cowles, Bibb County, Ga., iron to be furnished 
from Dade County, Ga., 5,000 tons of pig iron, 5,000 tons of iron 
plates for covering vessels, to be delivered per annum for five years 
from May 1, 1863. 

August 7. Messrs. Scofield and Markham, Atlanta, Ga., 10,000 tons 
of iron plating. 

Arrangements are now being made to enter into contract with 
H. S. Fulkerson, Esq., of Shreveport, La., pig and wrought iron 
and iron plates for covering vessels for the purpose of developing the 
iron interests west of the Mississippi. 

In addition to the above the Ordnance Department of the Army 
has made the following agreements for iron, supplies of which may 
be obtained by the Navy, should any be required : 

Shaw & Terry, Waynesboro, Va., 500 tons pig iron. 

TV. K. Blair & Co.. Jonesboro. Tenn., 500 tons pig iron. 

Cox & Doviah, Wytheville, Va., 30,000 pounds hammered iron. 

A. Thomas & Hurst, Marion, Va., 2.500 tons pig iron. 

D. Trouberger & Co., Lincolnton, X. C., 200 tons of blooms. 
J. M. Smith, Lincolnton, X. C., 28 tons per month, pig iron. 

E. A. Brevard. Lincolnton, X. C., 30 tons per month, blooms. 

C. G. Huckabee, Bibb Iron Works, Shelby County, Ala., 1,000 tons 
of pig iron per annum for three years. 

John A. Green & Co., Wythe County, Va., 300 tons of pig iron. 

GEORGE MINOR, 
Commander In Charge. 

CONFEDERATE STATES XAVY DEPARTMENT, 

OFFICE OF PROVISIONS AND CLOTHING, 

Richmond, Va., August 14, 186*2. 

SIR : In answer to your query of yesterday. I have to state that the 
following are the contracts for coal, the prices, amounts, etc. : 



Contractor. 


Amount 
to be 
delivered. 


Price 
per ton. 


Point at which to 
be delivered. 


Robert Jemison 
James Browne. 
Do 


jr of Tuscaloos&i Ahk 


Trim. 
8,000 
8,000 
6,000 
3,000 


$11.00 
13.40 
16.80 
8.50 


Mobile, Ala. 
Charleston, S. C. 
Savannah, Ga. 
Wilmington, N. C. 


of Charleston S C 




Do 









250 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

k 

Mr. Jemison's contracts were altered and sent to him by order of 
the Secretary on April 11, 1862, since when this oflire has no know- 
ledge of his intention to fulfil them. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JOHN DE BRKE, 
Paymaster, C. S. Xncy, /'/ < /<<//</.. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the 



IT. 

OFFICE OF ORDNANCE AND . 

K/i-hntoiiil. ('<'... I uijiixt- /-/. /..';,'. 

STR: I have the honor to submit to the department the following 
report : 

All the ordnance and other stores that could be saved from the 
navy yard, Norfolk, were removed in the early part of May last 
to Charlotte, N. C., where the requisite land has been purchased. 
machine and workshops erected, and a laboratory established for tin 1 
manufacture of projectiles, gun cariages, laboratory stores, an- 1 other 
articles indispensable for naval purposes. The work has been con- 
ducted under the direction of Commander R. L. Page and is progress- 
ing. Difficulty has been experienced in obtaining supplies of the 
different materials required, owing to the railroads being crow KM! 
with troops and Government stores for the Army, but it is hoped 
that in a very short time the whole establishment will be in suc- 
cessful operation. 

The ordnance and laboratory stores that were saved from the enemy 
at the time of the evacuation of Xew Orleans, La., were taken to 
Atlanta, Gu., where a laboratory has been established, and buildings 
erected for manufacturing shot and shells, gun carriages, and labora- 
tory stores under the direction of Lieutenant D. P. McCorkle. C. S. 
Xavy, to Avho.se energy we are indebted for the saving of many valu- 
able articles at Xew Orleans that would otherwise have fallen into 
the hands of the enemy. The report of Commander A. B. Fairfax, 
inspector of ordnance, C. S. Xavy, who has recently visited Atlanta, 
states that "the buildings erected are as suitable as such temporary 
wooden structures can be for ordnance purposes. Neatness and on lei- 
reign in the establishment and the work done is good and economical.'' 

For reasons well known to the department the naval powder mills 
at Petersburg, Ya., were taken down and all the machinery, fixtures, 
and other articles were removed to Columbia, S. C., where, under the 
direction of Chief Engineer T. A. Jackson, the works are now being 
erected, and in the course of six weeks we expect to have them com- 
pleted and the manufacture of powder of a superior quality com- 
menced by that time. Chief Engineer Jackson has exhibited great 
skill, energy, and enterprise in performing the important duties en- 
t rusted to his charge. 

An ordnance store, laboratory^ and gun-carriage shop, under 
charge of Lieutenant R. D. Minor, C. S. Xavy. are in operation in 
Richmond, Ya. From the ordnance store the guns are equipped for 



iJSTAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 251 

service. At the laboratory, shells are strapped, fuzed, fitted, and 
prepared for use, fuzes are driven, friction primers made, and charges 
prepared for heavy guns. At the gun-carriage shop, carriages have 
been made for vessels at Charleston and Savannah, for the batteries 
at Drewry's and Chapin's [ChafKn's] Bluffs, and are now being made 
for the Richmond and other vessels. The work is progressing as well 
as the limited number of mechanics (blacksmiths especially) wilt 
admit. 

Smoothbore and rifle cannon for the Navy are being made at the 
Tredegar and Bellona Foundries. Shot and shells are being cast at 
Tredegar and Lynchburg, Va. 

Improved heavy banded and rifle gims, the invention of Lieutenant 
J. M. Brooke, 'C. S. Navy, for throwing solid bolt shot, are also being 
made at Tredegar ancl their projectiles prepared there. This merit- 
orious officer has rendered valuable service to the department in per- 
fecting improvements in rifled cannon and projectiles. 

Directions have been also been given by this office for the manu- 
facture of rifled projectiles at Petersburg, Va., Savannah, Ga., 
Charleston, S. C., Mobile, Ala., and Columbus, Ga. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

GEORGE MINOR, 
Commander in Charge. 

Hon. S. E. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



I. 

HEADQUARTERS CONFEDERATE STATES MARINE CORPS, 

Richmond, Va., August 14, 186%. 

SIR : The act of Congress approved May 20, 1861, providing for the 
reorganization of the Marine Corps, allows to the 10 companies com- 
posing the Corps, 40 sergeants, 40 corporals, 10 drummers, 10 fifers, 
and 2 musicians, assimilating the companies to the infantry organiza- 
tion. 

Having found by experience that the peculiar service of marines 
requires a larger proportion of noncommissioned officers and musi- 
cians than the land service, from the fact that the Corps is liable to 
be divided up into small detachments as guards on board of ships 
and at naval stations, and that these guards are not complete without 
one or two noncommissioned officers and a musician to each r I have 
the honor to present for your recommendation to Congress the fol- 
lowing amendment to the act above cited : 

That the act of Congress reorganizing the Marine Corps, approved 
May 20, 1861, be so amended as to allow the Corps of Marines 60 
sergeants, 60 corporals, 20 drummers, 20 fifers, and 2 principal musi- 
cians, the principal musicians each to receive the pay and allowances 
of a sergeant-major. The word " principal " is introduced before 
musicians, as it is evidently an omission in the original draft of the 
bill, and as without it the phraseology is wanting in sense. 



252 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

In connection with the foregoing proposition I would remark that 
in the U. S. service, 80 sergeants, 80 corporals, and 60 drummers and 
fifers are allowed to 1,000 marines. 

Since the passage of the conscription act great difficulty has been 
experienced in obtaining recruits for the Marine Corps. The pro- 
visions of this act subject all white men, residents of the Confederate 
States, between the ages of 18 and 35, to enrollment for service in the 
Army. 

This difficulty would be in a measure obviated if the 13th section 
of the conscription act were made to read as follows : 

That all persons subject to enrollment who are not now in the service under 
the provisions of this act shall be permitted, previous to such enrollment, to 
volunteer in companies now in service, or to enlist in the Navy or Marine 
Corps of the Confederate States. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

LLOYD J. BEALL, 

Colonel, Commanding (.'. /S'. Marine Corps. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



2. 

Estimate of the amount required for incidental and contingent ex- 
penses of the Navy Department for the month of December, 1862. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, August 16, 1862. 

For incidental and contingent expenses of the Navy Department $1, 000 

One thousand dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERK \, 
Navy Department, Richmond, August 20, 1862. 
SIR: In compliance with the resolution of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, adopted on the 5th of April last, I have the honor to sub- 
mit herewith " the number, names, and place of residence of all the 
clerks and employees " in this department " and the amount of pay 
received by each." 

With much respect, I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Hon. THOMAS S. BOCOCK, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 
(Enclosure.] 



253 



Names. 


Where born. 


Whence appointed. 


Salary. ' 


Position. 



E M Tidball 


Virginia 


Virginia. 


82 100 Chief clerk 


Z. P Moses 


.-outii Carolina 


South Carolina 


1 500 \ Clerk 


Theo S Garnet t,jr 


Vir^jni;! . ... 


Virginia 


1 200 Do 


Geo W Spottswood 


Florida . . 


Florida 


1 200 Do 


C. K. Sherman 


..do 


District of Columbia . 


1 000 : Do 


C. A. Vanfelson 


New York 


Alabama 













OFFICE OF ORDERS AND DETAIL. 



James S 


Jones 


Virginia . 


Florida 


$1 500 


Clerk 















OFFICE OF ORDNANCE AND HYDROGRAPHY. 



J P McCorkle 


Pennsylvania ... 


Virginia . 


SI 500 


Clerk 


A B Upshur 


Virginia 


...do... 


1,200 


Do 


F Volch 




do 


1.200 


Draughtsman. 


W Holdsworth . . . . . 


Virginia 


do... 


300 















OFFICE OF PROVISION AND CLOTHING. 



T. C. 


DeLeon 


South Carolina . ... 


South Carolina . . 


$1,500 


Clerk 















OFFICE OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 



C F Fennell 


Maryland .... 


Florida.. . 


fl 500 Clerk 











DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 

Richmond, August 25, 1862. 

SIR : I have the honor to transmit herewith for the information of 
the Ordnance Bureau of the Xavy Department a copy of a dispatch, 
dated June 23 last, from the Hon. James M. Mason, commissioner to 
London, and the papers which accompanied it, relating to a newly 
invented gunpowder. Copies of the latter papers, it is understood, 
are also in the hands of the Ordnance Bureau of the War Depart- 
ment. 

I am. sir, respectfully, etc., 

J. P. BEX.TAMIN, 

Secretary of State. 
Hon. S. B. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



31 BURY STREET, ST. JAMES, 

London, August 26, 1862. 

DEAR SIR : I arrived in England a few days ago in the S. S. Melita, 
from Xassau. You must be so well aware for what I came that it 
will be unnecessary to mention it. I was ordered, in the event of 
getting here too late, to report myself to the senior naval officer in 
England. I do not know T who is the senior officer, but presume you 
are. Lieutenant Evans is here with the same orders as myself. My 
health since leaving England has been very bad, indeed, and now 1 
am quite sick. I am under treatment. 



254 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

The case of the Oreto was to be decided the day we left Nassau. 
Some thought it would be favorable for 11.-. 
Truly, yours, etc., 

-KuHT. 1 . ( H.U'MAX. 

Lieutenant, C. IS. Navy. 
Captain NORTH, C. S. Navy, 

Liverpool. 



C. S. S. SUMTEB, 
Bay of Gibraltar, Auyuxt g 
SIR: I hereby most respectfully inform you that your letter of 
August 14th, enclosing a Bank of England post bill for 100, has 
been duly received by me. 

Most respectfully, your obedient servant, 

WILLIAM AXDIIKW-. 
Acting M/<lxliiin(t/i, ('. S. N., 

CouiiiKut'llin/ Steamer Sumter. 
Captain JAMES H. NORTH. 



No. 17. 

LIVERPOOL, August 30, 1862. 

SIR: I have written you so often upon the same subject thai I 
hardly know if it will be worth while to intrude myself upon you again; 
705,25 112,11 495,14 528,25 536,36 688,13 516,26 
still r as the matter is one of so much 

415.35 487,10 688,13 793,8 763,9 408,1 
importance, and the mails are so very uncertain, that I 
328,4 520,16 284,6 79,29 817,11 786,21 
feel it my duty to .address you again and urge 
786,2 817,11 523,33 536,34 668,6 512,3 546,8 393,22 
upon you the necessity of sending money over hero 

691,10 112,11 584,16 
as soon as possible. 

736,5 213,5 766,7 8039, 221,25 363,12 

The contracts which are now underway will cost from 
504,14 758,27 504,14 336,5 404,27 739,4 274,28 

two millions to two million fire hundred thousand dollars 
99,10 529,24 .514,1 349,8 536,36 717,12 

and we have not more than one-fourth of that sum 

498,11 736,5 560,18 409,22 408,1 382.L ) 2 

to meet the payments. If I had some 

203,;]:] 142,33 118,27 577,32222,11. 

Confederate bonds of authority to pledge cotton on the 
322,12 736,5 372,9 121,13 678,22 

faith of the Government, backed with the signature 

536.36 196,3 544,1 408,1 738,4 503,9 
of our Commissioner out here, I think I might 



IS'AVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 255 

' 

616.20 512,3 516,26 514,1 326,19 734,8 817,11 
raise money and on much more favorable terms than you 
160,28 418,20 203,32 

can in the Confederacy. 

813,12 618,7 599 r 2 809,31 128,8 516,26 

The work is in rapid progress, and it will be much 
250,31 677,6 91,5 321,28 736,5 800,26 512,3 

to be deplored if it should all fail for the want of money. 
285,12 556,29 669,10 408,1 315,19 674,26 408,1 
By the early part of September I expect the ship that I 
94,13 153,1 349,33 736,5 486,1 418,20 

am building to be half in frame. The machinery is in 

[2] 

599,2 736,5 236,18 144,6 408,1 388,13 633,24 

progress, the cylinder being bored. As I have reported once 

736,5 674,26 408,1 94,13 153,1 739,16 739,4 

or twice, the ship that I am building is about three thousand 
756,15 736,5 758,27 163,21 153,22 766,7=803,- 

tons, the two that Captain Bulloch have underway are little 
514,1 73,5,25 736,1 681,23 110,26 577,2 803,14 

more than half that size. They are all armor plated and we 
315,19 388,13 620,15 663,14 698,26 163,21 32,27 

expect to have thorn ready for sea in the spring. Captain Semmes 
537,10 469,24 514,6 758,5 d 453,19 

and officers left this on the morning of the 12th August to join 
674,26 736,5 704,2 166,4 529,24 639,23 

their ship. The steamer that carried them has not yet returned. 
163,21 153,22 805,19 736,14 817,11 577,28^432,2 496,15 

Captain Bulloch went with them. You will please inform me 
285,12 584,16 668,13 617,21 537,10 393,22. 

as early as possible who is the senior or ranking officer out here. I 

543,31 110,28 628,16 537,10 587,18 

understand in our Army, the regular officers take precedence and 

617.21 546,8 604,18 537,10 654,4 372,25 449,26 
rank over the Provisional officer of the same grade. Is such 

743,14 736,5 166,20 523,15 495,14 375,28 

to be the case in the Navy? As this is a matter of great 
415,35 408,2 130,34 529,24 321,28 432,2 

importance, I beg that you wifl not fail to inform me in your 
526,4 197,2 73,3 523,29 

next communication. It will be absolutely necessary that a large 
531,9 537,10 668,29 537,10 674,26 153,1 

number of officers be sent to officer the ships now building; from 
758,7 332,13 474,3 635,13 408,1 635,10 817,11 

twelve to fifteen lieutenants will be required. I request that you 

668,6 674,26 408,1 400,11 195,1 474,3 

may send for the ship I hope to command Lt. Thurston 
492,5 219,30 503.2 216,18 551,28 

(Marine Corps) and Midshipmen. Henry S. Cooke and Palmer 



256 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

474,3 174,6 = 489,14 300,23 11,13 239,21 

Saunclers. Lieuts. Chapman and Evans arrived hero a few days 
679,31 353,12 523:16 = 657,6 465,16 453,19 163,21 32,27 

since from Nassau too late to join Captain Semmes, 

737,21 633/24 496,15 668,13 523,8 537,10 

so that they have reported to me as the senior naval officer. I 

737,21 144,24 427,21 
am sorry to say that they are both indisposed, but I believe not 

670,15 
seriously so. 

J. II. N[ORTH]. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY. 

DREWRY'S BLUFF, JAMES RIVER, August 30, 1862. 

MY DEAR MR. JONES : I was delighted to hear from you, and have 
been on the point of writing myself a half dozen times. A good 
many changes are taking place here. Captain Tucker left this morn- 
ing for Charleston to take command of the Palmetto 8tut<\ Warley 
is his first lieutenant. Captain Chatard relieves him here in com- 
mand of the Patrick Henry. Eggleston left a day or two ago for 
Mobile as Admiral Buchanan's flag-lieutenant. I was sorry to part 
with him; he went rather reluctantly. Butt has been absent some 
time on sick leave, and I doubt very much if he is fit for duty for 
some time to- come. Lindsay is also away on leave, so that I am alone 
in the mess as well as in camp, for Lindsay 'is the only other officer 
on duty. Dornin has been ordered to Mobile. Pinckney is very ill 
on board the Patrick Henry, and Long is quite sick in camp. I 
have lost but one man by desertion, but they are dissatisfied at seeing 
all their officers leave and have applied in a body to go on board the 
Richmond. I expect to leave next week. I do not know who will 
take my place. All the sailors on shore here had better at once be 
transferred to different vessels and their places taken by soldiers. 
The Richmond comes on slowly. She will not be ready before the 
1st of October. I doubt very much if she goes below the barrier, 
for with her weak engine (80 horse) she would be mobbed and forced 
out of the channel. She will not steam more than 5 knots, if that. 

The promotions have produced quite a stir in naval circles. A 
party consisting of Commodore Forrest, Sinclair, Farrand, Pegram, 
and others are endeavoring to have the law repealed and a stop put 
to further advancement except by the old system of stagnation. I 
am sorry for this, for I believe that promotion as a reward for dis- 
tinguished services in battle will be the making of our service. You 
may take it put of the hands of politicians for this appears to be 
the main objection and make the advancement subject to a board 
of naval officers, three of the oldest officers, or one from each grade 
selected by the officers themselves. Put as many checks as you please 
on the law to prevent smuggling, but still promote for' fighting; 
otherwise the Navy never can be kicked into vitality. Admiral 
Buchanan's promotion laid Commodore Forrest up for some days. 
He was not visible at the office. I have not had an opportunity 'of 
making any inquiries in regard to his course as regards our protest, 
but will do so and let you know the result, Almost daily, as you see 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 257 

by the papers, an onslaught is made on our Secretary in Congress. 
A committee of investigation has been ordered upon his conduct and 
the affairs of the Department; but I am afraid that his skin is so 
thick that he will rub through it all. For some reason the President 
upholds him. 

Many thanks for your kind inquiries of Mrs. "Wood. 
Your friend, etc., 

J. TAYLOR WOOD. 
Lieutenant Commanding C. AP R. JONES. 



CLYDE BANK FOUNDRY, 

Glasgow, September 1, 1862. 

DEAR SIR : We have now the pleasure to hand tracings of plans of 
the whole of the arrangements of your vessel for transmission to 
your Government. We have drawn out these to the best of our 
judgment, incorporating as far as possible the arrangements car- 
ried out in our Government armor-plated ships. We trust the plans 
now sent (which, by the way, we have taken care not to make with 
any names or flags) may meet with your own and Secretary's ap- 
proval and may lead your friends at headquarters to continue by 
and by their confidence in our firm. We shall have special pleasure 
in carrying out any suggestions as to arrangements that you 
think proper to be made; we have arranged everything with as 
much care as possible, but in a vessel of this description several 
points may turn up during progress admitting of modification. 

The fine weather is enabling us to get on well; we may take this 
opportunity of intimating that in the course of ten clays from date 
we shall have the vessel half in frame. Your kind attention to this 
notice will much oblige; perhaps you will be good enough to drop 
us a couple of lines as to same. 

We are, dear sir, yours, very truly, 

JAMES AND GEORGE THOMSON. 

Captain NORTH. 

LIVERPOOL, September 1, 1862. 

SIR: I seize the very moment of landing from the S. S. Bahama 
10 inform you of my return to this place, and I am sure you will sym- 
pathize with me in the satisfaction of knowing that the Alabama 
is safely at sea, fully equipped, under our own national flag, and 
with a crew of 82 able seamen besides a staff of 27 officers. 

You will remember that I informed you of my intention to go with 
Captain Semmes to the rendezvous I had previously selected and 
to which the Alabama had been dispatched, as also a vessel from 
another port with her armament and ordnance stores. In this hasty 
letter I can only say that these combined movements were all suc- 
cessful. The little fleet met at Terceira, and three days of hard but 
brisk and cheerful work sufficed to put the Alabama in fighting 
trim. 

You can imagine the glow of pleasure with which Captain Semmes 
and myself greeted the first wave of our flag from the peak of the 

176429 VOL 2 PT 121 17 



258 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 



gallant craft and the satisfaction we felt in the assurance that arms 
as well as willing hearts were ready to defend it. On Sunday before 
last at midnight I bid Captain Semmes farewell, with an CM most 
prayer for his success, and full confidence in his will and capacity to 
earn it. You will not be long in hearing of his movements. 

Before parting Captain Semmes desired me to communicate with 
you in reference to the sale of the Sumter, and I shall hold myself 
at your service for such a purpose. Please instruct me as to your 
views or wishes. Would the British Government allow the sale to 
be made at Gibraltar if a guaranty were given that the trail.- i'-r 
of property would be final and bona fide and the ship would not 
be used except for purely commercial purposes? It would be ih 
sary to know this as a preliminary step in the transaction. If you 
conclude to authorize the sale and the Government does not inter- 
fere, I will proceed at once to carry out Captain Senunes's views. 
In haste, I have the honor to be, 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH, 

Commander^ C. S. Navt/. 

Hon. JAMES M. MASON. 



No. 18. 



680,25 
SIR: 

157,2 

by 

487,19 
mails 

408,2 

I 

736,5 

the 

284,6 

duty 

523,33 



408,2 815,15 817,11 

I wrote you 
736,5 803,9 536.36 523,16-657,6 

the way of Nassau, 

353,12 736,1 575,28 449,26 688,13 

from that place are so 



LIVERPOOL, September 2, i 
478-1-582,23 669,10 664,29. 
538,23 736,5 738,16 118,4 
on the 30th 
156,1 112,11 
but as 

793,8 703,9 

very uncertain 



August 
736,5 
the 



388.13 255,6 743,14 668,6 817,11 69,1 217,29 157,2 
have determined to send you a copy by 
628,16 487,19 704,2 408,2 328,4 450,1 520,16 
regular mail steamer. I feel it my 

743.14 79,29 817,11 86,19 538,23 736,5 712,19 99,1 
to address you again on the subject and 

536,36 668,6 512,3 546,8 393,22 112,11 691,10 



necessity of 
112,11 584,16 
as possible. 

728,3 
take 
404,27 



809,31 
will 



sending money over here as soon 
736,5 213,5 736,1 449,26 530,24 766,7-803, 
The contracts that are now underway 
363,12 758,27 504,14 743,14 758,27 504,14 
from two million to two million 

99,10 803,14 388,13 
and we have 

536,36 736,1 717,12 743,14 
01 that sum to 
408,1 382,22 203,33 

I had Confederate 

577,32 222,11 540,32 736,5 
pledge cotton or the 



336,5 404,27 739,4 274,28 

five hundred thousand dollars 

529,24 514,1 735,25 538,25 349,8 

not more than one fourth 

498,11 736,5 560,18 409,22 

meet the payments. If 

142,33 540,32 118,27 734,14 

bonds or authority to 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 259 

322,12 536,36 736,5 372,9 121,13 811,18 736,5 678,22 

faith of the Government, backed with the signature 

536,36 543,21 505,13 544,1 383,22 408,1 738,4 408,1 503,9 

of our minister out here, I think I might 

616,20 512,3 99,10 538,23 516,26 514,1 326,19 734,8 

raise money and on much more favorable terms 

73.%25 817,11 160,28 418,20 736,5 203,32 736,5 

than you can in the Confederacy. The 

813.12 449,26 418,20 618,7 599,2 99,10 450,1 809,31 
work is in rapid progress and it will 

128,8 516,26 743,14 128,8 250,31 409,22 450,1 677,6 91,5 321,28 
be much to be deplored if it should all fail 

343,35 736,5 800,26 536,36 512,3 
for the want of money. 
418,20 69,1 331,11 239,21 408,2 315,19 736,5 674,26 736,1 408,2 

In a few days I expect the ship that I 

94,13 153,1 743,14 128,8 383,18 418,20 349,33 736,5 486,1 

am building to be half in frame. The machinery 

449,26 418,20 599,2 99,10 736,5 236,18 144,6 408,2 

is in progress and the cylinders being bored. I 

388.13 633,24 758,27 540,32 739,16 741,30 736,1 736,5 674,26 408,2 
have reported two or three times that the ship I 

94,13 153,1 449,26 72,10 739,16 739,4 756,5 736,5 758,27 736,1 
am building is about three thousand tons. The two that 
163,21 153,22 388,13 766,7-803,9 449,26 477,22 514,1 735,25 383,18 
Captain Bulloch have underway are little more than half 
736,1 691,23 737,21 449,26 91^,5 110,26 577,2 99,10803,14315,19 
that size. They are all armor plated and we expect 

743.14 388,13 736,14 620,15 343,35 663,14 418,20 736,5 698,26 
to have them ready for sea in the spring. 

163,21 32,27 99,10 537,10 469,24 738,18 538,23 736,5 758,5 
Captain Semmes and officers left this on the 12th 

118.4 743,14 453,19 736,10 674,26 736,5 704,2 736,1 166,4 
Aug. to join their ship. The steamer that carried 

736,14 387,9 529,24 817,4 639,23 163,21 153,22 805,19 811,18 
them has not yet returned. Captain Bulloch went with 

736,14 817,11 809,31 577,28 432,2 496,15 112,11 285,12 112,11 

them. You will please inform me as early as 

584,16 808,20 449,26 736,5 668,13 540,32 617,21 537,10 544,1 

possible who is the senior or ranking officer out 

393,22. 
here. 

408,2 766,32 736,1 418,20 543,31 110,28 736,5 638,16 537,10 
I understand that in our Army the regular officers 

728,3 587,18 99,10 617,21 546,8 736,5 604,18 537,10 536,36 

take precedence and rank over the Provisional officers of 

736.5 654,4 372,25 449,26 715,22 743,14 128,8 736,5 166,20 
the same grade. Is such to be the case 



260 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1805. 

418,20 736,5 523,15 738,18 449,26 69,1 495,14 536,36 375,26 

in the Navy? This is a matter of great 

415,35 99,10 408,2 130,34 736,1 817,11 809,31 529,24 321,28 

importance and I beg that you will not fail 

743,14 432,2 496,15 418,20 817,11 526,4~ 197,2 450,1 809,31 

to inform me in your next communication. It will 
128,8 73,3 523,29 736,1 69,1 464,28 531,9 536,36 537,10 128,8 
be absolutely necessary that a large number of officers be 
668,29 743,14 537,10 736,5 674,26 530,24 153,1 553,12 758,7 

sent to officer the ships now building; from twelve 
743,14 332,13 474,3 99,10 543,22 537,10 418,20 601,33 809,31 
to fifteen lieuts. and other officers in proportion will 
128,8 635,13 408,2 635,10 817,11 809,31 668,6 343,35 736,5 

be required. I request you will send for the 
674,26408,2 400,11 743,14 195,1 474,3 738,12-538,23 492,5 219,30 

ship I hope to command, Lieut. Thurston, Marine Corps, 
99,10 503,2 216,18 99,10 551,28 474.3 

and Midshipmen Henry S. Cooke and Palmer Saunders. Lieuts. 
174,6-489,14 99,10 309,23 111,13 393,22 69,1 331,11 239,21 

Chapman and Evans arrived here a few days 

679,31 353,12 523,16-657,6 744,25 465,16 403,10 743,14 453,19 
since from Nassau, too late, however, to join 

163,21 32,27 737,21 388,13 633,24 743,14 496,15 112,11 736,5 

Captain Semmes; they have reported to me as the 

668,13 523,8 537,10 

senior naval officer. 

408,2 296,33 736,5 217,29 536,36 69,1 529,31 621,30 456,10 
I enclose the copy of a note received just 

86,9 815,6 520,16 465,1 197,2 743,14 817,1 

after writing my last communication to you. 

408,2 94,12 680,25 793,8 637,5 
I am, sir, very respectfully, 

408,1 529,13. 
J. NORTH. 

736,5 399,34 736,5 665,5 536,36 736,5 523,15 

THE HON. THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY. 

[Enclosure.] 

817,17 732,2 449,26 115,30 384,13 
Your telegram is at hand 

408,2 94,13 418,20 527,24 803,9 145,5 743,14 758,27 

I am in no way bound to the two 

[150] 

141,18 536,36 15,14 156,1 104,3 817,11 496,4 208,21 

boats of the Danes, but any you may consider 

543,17 530,24 449,26 511,25 743,14 78,18 503,9 365,3 

right now is the moment to act, I might get 

785,28 690,26 811,18 104,3 239,8 369,26 539,23 

up some 45,000 with any data to go on 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 261 

736,1 736,5 203,33 809,31 156,24 418,20 739,16 512,1 741,30 
that the Confederates will buy in three months time. 
560,14 418,20 222,11 540,32 304,7 737,14 363,3 

Payment in cotton or equal thereto. G[albraith] would get 

733,9 99,10 813,12 166,24 527,24 247,7 369,26 
the tenders and' I work the cash. No delay go to 

111,4 475,32 365,3 221,25 99,10 

Scotland arrange the lines of boats get the cost and 
936,17 657,11 805,35 372,9 809,31 273,16 99,10 94,13 

then say what the Government will do and I am 
817,17 489,14 
your man. 

348,6 336,5 "739,4 586,1 
40 5 000 painos. 



TREASURY DEPARTMENT, (J. S. A., 

Richmond, September 3, 1862. 

SIR : In response to the resolution of the House of Representatives, 
dated April 21, 1862, requesting to be furnished the amount of funds 
which has been sent abroad to officers or agents of the Government 
for military or naval purposes, indicating the department through 
which each amount has been sent, the date and amount of each sum 
of money sent, and to whom and for what purpose, and whether 
said sums were sent in coin, sterling bills, or produce, and the date 
and amount of each kind so transferred, and if in exchange or 
produce the prices paid for such exchange or produce, and whether 
said produce was paid for in bonds or notes, and what amount of 
funds so sent has been expended and what for, I have the honor to 
enclose statements marked (A)* and (B), giving all the information 
asked for, as indicated by the records of this department. In the 
column designating the percentage paid the calculation is made at 
the usual valuation of the pound sterling in exchange at $4.44. 
Very respectfully, 

C. G. MEM MINCER, 
Secretary of the Treasury. 

His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, 

President of the Confederate States. 



262 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, l^til- . 



"I!."] 

CONFEDERATE: ST\T;> nr AMERICA, 
Treasury Department, Itk-hmui,*!, , 1861. 

NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

Funds remitted- to England to be used in conxt ,'v''t'in<i. jmrch 
arming, and equipping vessels of war and to pia'dxixr mi** 
pistols, and ammunition for the same, clothing for tin- Ma 
Corps, and other munitions of ?////. 



Date. 


To whom 


Premium. 


Amount. 


1861. 
May 11 


Capt. J. 1). Bulloch 


Prr cent. 

Par 


$400,000.00 


Sept 23 


!<> 


10 


llX' 


Oct 1 ..... 


.. . do 


11 




21 


do.. 


11 


S, 131 'JO 


Nov 29 


. do... 






29 


do 


:.',-," 


75,000.00 


1862. 
Jan 3 


...do... 


25 .. 


102," 


o 


do 




* 12v ;:} 


Mar. 25 


...do 




240,O>0.<K) 


Apr 25 






44 


19 




...do... 


70 


no 28 


19 


...do... 


70 




19 


do 


-15 




19 


.. do... 




:(2s, 515 N) 


24 


...do... 




2J, S95. 70 


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* Interest. 



In addition to the amount of funds sent abroad to agents of the 
Government, to be used for war and naval purposes as exhibited by 
statements marked (A) and (B), the following letters of credit 
were given : 

May 18, 1861. Letter of credit on England by request of the Sec- 
retary of the Navy to James D. Bulloch for $200,000. 

February 26, 1862. Letter of credit to Paymaster Henry Myers, 
of the C. S. Navy, for 6,000. 

NOTE. Where the premium has been left blank, it is because it 
can not be at present ascertained from the books of this department, 
Captain Bulloch not having furnished any account for settlement. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, September 8, 186%. 
SIR: In response to the following resolution, adopted by the House 
of Representatives on the 3d instant 

Resolved, That the Secretary of the Navy be requested to furnish Congress 
with a Navy Register similar in form to that In use under the late ('Government 
of the United States, including a statement of the position held ill the old 
Government by the different officers now in the Confederate service, 



XAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 263 

I have the honor to submit herewith a register of the officers of the 
Navy. 

With much respect, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Hon. THOS. S. BOCOCK, 

Speaker of tlie House of Representatives. 



LIVERPOOL, September 10, 186%. 

SIR : I have the honor to report my return to England after a short 
cruise to the Western Islands, where I had gone with Captain. 
Semmes to see him fairly afloat in the Alabama. You have been 
already informed that I had taken the Alabama out of British waters 
and, leaving her off the northwest coast} of Ireland, had returned to 
Liverpool to prepare a ship for the conveyance of Captain Semmes 
and his officers as soon as they arrived. The battery and ordnance 
stores, with a quantity of men ? s clothing and general supplies for a 
cruising ship, with 250 tons of coal from another part of the King- 
dom, were dispatched in a sailing vessel bought for the purpose, 
and the two ships were ordered to rendezvous at Praya, in the Island 
of Terceira. Captain Semmes arrived from Nassau about the 8th 
of August, and on the 13th I sailed in the S. S. Bahama with him 
and all his officers for the previously selected rendezvous. In seven 
days the Bahama reached Praya, and we had the satisfaction of 
finding the Alabama and her consort at anchor in the bay. It was 
now Wednesday, August the 20th, and no time was lost in commenc- 
ing the transfer of stores from the tender to the Alabama. Be- 
nignly favored by Providence with mild, calm weather, we met with 
no interruption, and the work progressed so briskly that at 10 a. m. 
on Friday, the 22d, the last gun of the battery was mounted, the 
powder and shell all in and stowed, shot in their proper racks, and, 
in fine, the tender was discharged. The remainder of Friday and 
the whole of Saturday until 10 p. m. was occupied in coaling, at 
which time the main brace was spliced and the hammocks piped 
down, the Alabama, so far at least as related to her equipment, being 
ready for action. 

On Sunday morning the Alabama and Bahama steamed slowly 
off the land, and when beyond the marine league, which was covered 
by the jurisdiction of Portugal, our own national colors were hoisted 
for the first time at the Alabama's peak, welcomed by three cheers 
from the united crews of both vessels. Now came the affair of ship- 
ping the men formally for the Confederate States service, making 
out their allotment tickets, arranging their accounts, etc. This could 
be done leisurely, for we were on the high seas, beyond the reach of 
foreign enlistment acts and neutrality proclamations, the most an- 
noying foes we have to contend with on this side of the Atlantic. By 
12 o'clock at night all these matters were arranged, the two steamers 
stopped their engines, and bidding Captain Semmes a cordial adieu, 
with heartfelt prayers for his success, I stepped over the Alabamans 
side with feelings very much akin to those which oppress a man when 
he leaves his home behind him. The heavens were brilliant witli 
stars, a blazing comet illuminated the sky to the northwest, the 
lanterns of the Alabama gleamed brightly as she rose and fell to 
the sea; the signs were all favorably ominous, and banishing every 



264 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1 M;:,. 

sentiment but hope, I predicted a glorious cruise for I he dashing 
little craft and her gallant commander. Commander Semmes has 
written you inclosing crew list, etc., and for further information I 
beg to refer you to his report. 

The Tuscarora has been in the British Channel for more than two 
months, waiting to intercept the Alabama, when she attempted to 
move. Means were adopted to mislead Captain Craven, who. 1 must 
say, has proved himself a, very credulous officer, as well as a very 
rude man. He went prying about in the harbors and bays of the 
Irish and English coast long after the Alabama was fairly off, until 
he was flatly refused permission to coal at Belfast, and was com- 
pelled to go to Cadiz for fuel. If Captain Craven continues to be 
curious in reference to the Alabama's movements, he will, I think, 
very soon be gratified by frequent announcements of her locality. 

i our letter of July 11, with copies of contract with Mr. CT. N. 
Sanders, and drawings of ships, with specifications, etc., is at hand. 
Mr. Sanders arrived a few days since, but I have only had a few 
moments' conversation with him. as he was in a great hurry to 
get to London. He and his associates shall have my cordial aid, 
and I trust the necessary capital will be forthcoming. I have not 
been able to look over the plans and specifications carefully yet, but 
will do so in time to consult with Mr. Sanders, whenever he is ready 
to go into details, and will, as you direct, supervise on the part of 
the Government. I regret that mv letters are so long in reaching 
you and so often fail altogether. T write by every opportunity that 
can be considered at all safe. I trust you have learned by this time 
what I am doing in iron, and have received my plans, etc. The work 
is going on to my entire satisfaction, and if funds do not fail you 
shall have two formidable ships ready in the early spring. My letters 
were never intended to discountenance the idea of building iron- 
clad ships in Europe, but to show you the very great probability 
of failure to get them to sea in anything like fighting condition. 
The success which has attended the dispatch of the Alabama is, how- 
ever, cheering. At any rate the ships will not be forfeited and experi- 
ence may yet suggest a feasible plan of operations. At the proper 
time I will suggest the means of getting officers out for these ships. 
For the present I think they had better not be sent here. The presence 
of a number of naval officers in England could not fail to excite 
comment, and their movements would be closely watched. I do not 
hesitate to say that embarrassment has already been occasioned by 
the number of persons from the South, who represent themselves to 
be agents of the Confederate States Government. There are men so 
constituted as not to be able to conceal their connection with any 
affairs which may by chance add to their importance, and such per- 
sons are soon found out and drawn into confessions and statements 
by gossiping acquaintances to the serious detriment of the service 
upon which they are engaged. 

The proper armament for the turret ships is engaging my serious 
thoughts. Experiments are in progress at Shoeburyness to determine 
this very point, and I shall watch the results until the time requisite 
for the construction of the guns compels me to make a choice. At 
short battering distances the smoothbore has proved a more effective 
weapon than the rifled gun, even the ordinary 8-inch solid-shot gun 
of 95 hundredweight damaging the target more at 200 yards, when 



XAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 265 

fired with 16 pounds of powder, than the 100 pounder Armstrong 
rifled gun, with its service charge of 14 pounds, the difference of effect 
being very nearly equal to the difference in the weight of powder 
used in the charges, or of initial velocity of projectile. At long 
ranges the rifled gun would, of course, have the advantage, but at 
great distances neither projectile would have momentum sufficient 
to crush in the side of a properly armored ship. The last set of ex- 
periments (about 7th of July) lead to the conclusion that Sir W. 
Armstrong's coil principle is a failure. A large 156-pounder muzzle 
loader used on the occasion burst on the fourth discharge. The breech 
was blown to the distance of 50 yards in rear of the piece, the frag- 
ment weighing no less than 17 hundredweight. Captain Fishbourne, 
E. X., in a lecture before the United States Service Institution, con- 
cludes by saying that the smoothbore muzzle loader, either cast and 
banded or wrought in the usual way, must be the naval gun for use 
against armored ships. 

I have resolved to construct the turrets to revolve, and run the 
risk of being interfered with; and there will be two guns of the 
heaviest caliber practicable for actual service in each turret, mounted 
parallel to each other and 44 feet apart from center to center. The 
ports will be oval, large enough vertically to give 12 of elevation and 
5 of depression, with just width enough to clear the chase of the 
guns, so that an object can be seen over the side sights. I have the 
working drawings of Captain Cowper Coles's turret, as well as that 
of Mr. Ericsson, and will send them by first safe opportunity. The 
turrets of our ships will be a sort of compromise between these two, 
so as not to infringe the patent, if possible. 

You are aware of the difficulty of sending letters and the conse- 
quent necessity of being as brief as possible. I can not therefore 
reason upon points of interest, but must request you to be satisfied 
with simple statements. I am making a collection of all the official 
reports of experiments upon matters connected with ships and their 
armaments, and have the evidence given before the " defense com- 
mittee " and the " plate committee " of the House of Commons. These 
are in pamphlets and too valuable to be lost, and could not perhaps be 
duplicated, so I must await a safe opportunity to send them. 

Last accounts from Charleston quote exchange at a ruinous figure. 
It would seem advisable for the Government to issue bonds for sale 
in England. " Cotton scrip " would perhaps be the most available 
description of bonds, but they should be issued through the regular 
fiscal agents of the Government here, and not be left to the financier- 
ing skill or tact of private speculators for negotiation. The English 
like to do business in a formal matter-of-fact way, and are always 
suspicious of adventurers and of undertakings that require to Be 
puffed. The great battles lately won by our troops and the firm, 
dignified, and consistent attitude of the (Confederate Government is 
beginning to have its effect in Europe, and the judgment as well as 
the sympathies of most Englishmen lead them to expect the speedy 
consummation of Southern independence. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH, 
Commander, C. S. Navy. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of tlui Navy. 



266 NAVY DEPAKTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1^(11-1865. 



Report of the Committee on Nn-^al Aft'airx on />/-.-,;,, ^//M//* in the 

Navy. 

SEPTEMBER 11, l s <'>-j. 

The Committee on Naval Affairs have had under consideration the 
following resolution, referred to them by this House : 



Whereas the recent action under the late l;s\v of Congress of promoting 

" ont of tnrn " has resulted in cnvuin:: jrn-at discontent amonir 'lant 

and meritorious officers in the .Navy and is considered injurious to tin 
interests of the service: Be it therefore 
Rcaolvcd, That the Committee on Naval AiTairs he iii.-lru<-ted to enquire into 

the necessity or exix>diem-y of repealing or in some suitable manner modifying 

the hiw passed at the I M of Congress in regard to promotions in the 

Navy. 

And beg leave respectfully to report : 

That the law referred to (that of 21st April, 1862, Ch. 68) creates 
one new grade (that of admiral) and several additional officers in 
each of the grades heretofore existing in the service. It further 
provides that all the admirals, four of the captains, five of the com- 
manders, twenty of the first lieutenants, and five of the second lieu- 
tenants shall be appointed solely for gallant or meritorious conduct 
during the war. 

Although the resolution does not specify the precise nature of the 
complaints referred to, the committee are warranted in assuming 
that they were caused by this last clause in the law; in other words, 
that many officers object that promotions in the Navy should be made 
" for gallant or meritorious conduct." 

The committee can not perceive the justice of this complaint. 

A Navy is designed as a means of public defense. In examining 
the expediency of a law which relates to it, therefore, the first ques- 
tion to be asked is not when it will affect individuals but how it will 
operate on the public service. Now, it will be admitted on all hands 
that the strongest incentive that can be held out to " gallant or 
meritorious conduct in an officer" is the hope of promotion: yet, 
strange to say, prior to the enactment of the law referred to no such 
incentive was held out to the officers of the Navy, and if it were 
repealed none would now be held out. While in the Army, talent, 
energy, courage, and conduct are sure ultimately to lead to promo- 
tion, no such avenue to distinction was opened in the naval service. 
There, but one pathway to promotion was to be found, viz, the death. 
or resignation of a superior officer. All others were closed by the 
inexorable rule of seniority. The rarest talent, the most gallant ex- 
ploits, the most distinguished services, could not advance him one 
step in his professional career, and a grateful country could confer on 
him no other reward than the expression of its gratitude. 

A system better calculated to extinguish every spark of emula- 
tion and to repress the aspirations of generous ambition could scarcely 
be conceived. 

Nor was it less injurious to the public service than it was unjust 
to the meritorious officer. When the rule of promotion by seniority 
alone is rigidly adhered to, it must often happen that officers of the 
least merit haA-e the highest rank, and, on the other hand, that offi- 
cers of the most exalted merit may be low down on the ladder. Now, 
as by another rule of the service not less inflexible, everv command 
must be proportioned to the rank of the commanding officer, it fol- 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865, 267 

lows thnt the most important commands ma}* often devolve on the 
most incapable officer. 

Such a system might be tolerated in a time of peace, or in a country 
whose naval supremacy might enable it to get along with any sys- 
tem, however defective, but it is ill adapted to a country like ours, 
struggling to create a Navy in the midst of a war with a great 
naval power. On the contrary, the system we should adopt is that 
which enables the Government to place every man in the position 
he is best qualified to fill. 

This was the object of the law of April 21. It seems to the com- 
mittee that a law which opens the door of promotion equally to all 
affords no just ground of complaint to any, and that the only per- 
sons who ought to complain of a law which proposes to reward 
merit are those who have no merit to reward. 

If, as is alleged in the resolution, the execution of the law had 
given just ground of complaint, this would be the fault not of the 
hrw itself, but of those w r hose duty it is to carry it into effect. With 
a view of ascertaining what the action of the Executive had been, 
the committee, through its chairman, addressed a note to the hon- 
orable Secretary of the Navy. The answer to this note is hereto 
appended. It shows the action of the Executive under the act; 
whether that action affords any just cause of complaint it is for the 
House to determine. 

The committee will only add that, so far from thinking the pro- 
motions under the law of 21st of April have been too numerous, 
they are of opinion that the just claims of several officers have been 
overlooked. 

For these reasons the committee are of opinion that the law of 
21st April, 1862, ought not to be repealed. 

No modification of the law has been suggested, and the commit- 
tee have none to recommend, and beg to be discharged from the fur- 
ther consideration of the resolution referred to them. 



CONFEDERATE STATES or AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond. /S f ej)temler 11, 1862. 

SIR: Your letter of the 8th instant, requesting that I would inform 
the Naval Committee what officers have been promoted for " gallant 
or meritorious conduct," under the act approved April 21, 1862, 
entitled An act to amend an act, entitled "An act to provide for the 
organization of the Navy approved March, 1861, and for other pur- 
poses," has been received. 

I have the honor to state that Captain Franklin Buchanan was 
promoted to the rank of admiral, " for gallant and meritorious con- 
duct in attacking the enemy's fleet in Hampton Roads, and destroying 
the frigate Congress, sloop-of-war Cumberland, and three small 
steamers, while in command of the Confederate squadron in the 
waters of Virginia on the 8th day of March, 1S62." 

Commander Raphael Semmes was promoted to the rank of captain 
' ; for gallant and meritorious conduct " in capturing and destroying 
the enemy's commerce on the high seas while in command of the 
Confederate States steamer Sumter, 



268 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

Lieutenant Isaac N. Brown was promoted to the rank of com- 
mander " for gallant and meritorious conduct " in successfully en- 
gaging the enemy's fleet on the Mississippi River before the city of 
VicksBurg on the 15th day of July, 1862, whilst in command of the 
ironclad steamer Arkansas. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLOKY, 
Sec r<- la I-;/ of the Navy. 
Hon. C. M. CONRAD, 

Chairman of the Committee of Naval Affairs, 

House of Representatives, Richmond^ I '</. 



LIVERPOOL. September 15, 1862. 

SIR: In reference to the matter of issuing cotton bonds and the 
specific price per pound to be :i greed upon, 1 deem it proper to in- 
form you that I have this morning consulted several gentlemen whose 
business enables them to know with some certainty the state of the 
cotton market in the Confederate ports, and the belief is general that 
for the grade of middling, that is, Liverpool middling, the price 
would be above 20 cents a pound. They know it to have been 20 
cents in Charleston at the date of last advices. If bonds for a con- 
siderable amount of money were issued it would be important to 
stipulate that cotton of all grades should be received at relative 
prices, as it might not be possible for the Government to get posses- 
sion of a large number of bales, all of our classification, upon call. 

I am aware that you have declined Mr. Stringer's proposition, and 
I only mention the above fact, and throw out the suggestion in case 
money has to be raised for the use of the Government for other pur- 
poses. . 

The news from Virginia is glorious and I heartily congratulate 
you upon the grand successes of our arms. Private advices, how- 
every, state that the Northerners still harden their 'hearts like 
Pharaoh of old, and that they must be visited with still more trying 
reverses. Their punishment, by internal revolution, a military 
despotism, or absolute anarchy, seems inevitable. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, yours, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Hon. J. M. MASON. 

No. 19. 

LIVERPOOL, September 19, 18G2. 

SIR: I have just heard that Mr. Sanders will leave this for Rich- 
mond to-morrow morning, and can not think of allowing the oppor- 
tunity to pass without writing you again. I have written you fre- 
quently and sent my letters by different ways, but in such times as 
these it is impossible to tell if they ever reach their destination until 
months have passed away. It is now almost five months since I have 
received a line from you.* My last from you was dated May 2. Most 
of my communications to you have been written in cipher. If you 
have ever received them they will tell you of the urgent necessity of 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 269 

sending us money out here. Payments are becoming due, with little 
or no money to meet. The ship that I am building is well under way, 
her frames are nearly all up, and all the larger pieces of her machin- 
ery finished. If Mr. Sanders will take them I will send you draw- 
ings of the ship. Some of the internal arrangements, prow and ports, 
I think, I shall alter. I like the prow sent by Mr. Porter better than 
any I have seen, and I suppose experience has taught him what kind 
is best. Experiments are being made daily in gunnery by the Eng- 
lish Government, I mean on armor plates, etc., so that I will not de- 
termine what kind of battery to put on her until the last moment. 
At any rate, I will try and get the best. In my last interview with 
you, you promised that if I could succeed in building a ship, that I 
should command her. I sincerely hope you will not forget that prom- 
ise, but send out suitable officers and enough of them so that I may do 
credit to them, myself, and country. It is all important that we 
should have plenty of officers, as the nationality of the ship has to be 
pretty much taken from them. I visited the vessels that Captain 
B[ulloch] has under way yesterday. One of them is half in frame, 
and the other has her keel down; they will be fine vessels when fin- 
ished. I think will do the Confederacy much service. If I had Con- 
federate bonds or authority to pledge cotton on the faith of the Gov- 
ernment, backed with the signature of our minister out here, I think 
money might be raised, and on more favorable terms than you can in 
the Confederacy. We have heard nothing on this side of the water 
from Captain Renames, but I hope will 'ere long. He has a fine ship 
and a good set of officers with him. I enclose a slip containing the 
last experiments made [in gunnery]. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J[AMES] II. X[ORTH]. 
Hon. SECRETARY OF THE NAVY. 



LIVERPOOL, September 29, 1862. 

SIR : Mr. Sanders not coming this way I was disappointed in send- 
ing my letter of the 19th, but as the Nassau mails leave this to-day, I 
shall avail myself of the opportunity of sending you that letter with 
some additional remarks. 

Since writing the foregoing I have received your" letter of July 30, 
by Captain Lawson, the first and only letter since May 2. I shall for- 
ward by this opportunity the drawings of the vessel I am building, 
Avhich I hope may meet with the approval of the Department. 

I hope to have everything completed by May next. It is all im- 
portant that officers, and enough of them, should be sent out in time. 
Commander Bulloch is here attending to the duties assigned him. 
Mr. Sinclair has returned from London and will write you himself. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, vour obedient servant, 

J[AMES] H. N[ORTH]. 

Confidential.] CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 

Xavy Department, Richmond, September 20, 1862. 
SIR : The last letter received from you was dated the 4th of July. 
Since then I have endeavored to place in your hands the balance of 
the funds required for your operations, but the exchange of the coun- 



270 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

try is nearly exhausted and can only be procured in very small 
amounts. From this cause I am seriously apprehensive that the 
Treasury Department will fail to meet your demands, though every 
exertion is being made to do so. 

The Secretary of the Treasury has placed Confederate bonds in 
England in the expectation that they may be made available for the 
payment of our liabilities, and he is now purchasing rot ton and 
sending to England certificates of its deposit, to be disposed of for 
the same purpose. Cotton goes out in but very small lots, and this, 
our only source for obtaining exchange, can not meet a tenth part of 
our wants. It is evident to me, therefore, that we can not rely upon 
exchange for placing you in funds, and that other means must be 
resorted to. If the agent of the Treasury, Mr. S pence, can dispose 
of Confederate bonds even at 50 cents he will do so; and he is in- 
structed, in this event, to pay your requisitions upon him, to enable 
you to complete your contracts. 

Another suggestion occurs to me which you may possibly be able 
to act upon. You may possibly be able to obtain advances upon an 
agreement to repay the amount with 8 per cent interest in cotton, 
the question of the price of the cotton to be determined when the 
advances are made; and this price may be stated or you may agree 
to deliver the cotton at the current rates here when called for. 

You might offer another proposition, viz, that the amount of all 
advances made to you will be expended here by the Treasury De- 
partment in the purchase of cotton for and on account of the creditor, 
he being allowed all difference of exchange between Richmond and 
London. Cotton thus purchased would be stored by the Treasury 
and kept with all the care and diligence which the legal consequences 
of such a contract would involve, and transportation to the seaports 
and all facilities of shipment would be extended, none but the neces- 
sary expenses incident to such storage and transportation being re- 
quired. 

Cotton thus purchased would be regarded and treated as the prop- 
erty of the British creditors. 

As yet I am uninformed of your contracts for iron-plated ships 
and of the character of the vessels under construction, nor have I 
received any information beyond the announcements in the public 
press of the sailing of the Alabama, her armament, destination, etc. 
Upon these subjects please inform me in detail, using your cipher 
for material points. 

Commander Maury goes to England on special service, and you 
will please advance to him his current expenses and pay. 

I indulge the belief that the recent successes and present position 
of our armies will create a strong public sentiment in behalf of our 
cause in Europe, and nowhere more than in Great Britain ; and that 
the evident prospects of the speedy establishment of our independ- 
ence may enable us to raise such funds as your operations require by 
the hypothecation of our bonds or cotton certificates. 
^ You will please inform me whether the vessel contracted for by 
Commander North is embraced within the three named in your last 
letter, and for which 400,000 will be required. 

About 270,000 have been sent to you in exchange. 

Do not permit our credit in Great Britain to suffer, if by any legal 
act or the exercise of all your energy, you can avert it. Every pos- 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 271 

sible exertion must be made to complete the ships under contract ; to 
this end you may pledge bonds, make arrangements for cotton, as 
suggested, or borrow upon the best terms you can obtain. 

Should Commander North's ship not be included in your estimates, 
you will consult and counsel with him at once, disclose the difficulty 
of sending funds, my suggestions for raising them, and act jointly 
or separately in the completion of his vessel, as may seem best for the 
interests of our country, your cordial cooperation in all matters of 
consequence to her being confidently looked for. Not a day, not an 
hour, must be lost in getting these ships over, and money is of no 
consequence in comparison to the speedy accomplishment of this 
work. If we can succeed in getting them to sea, armed, manned, and 
equipped, we would, go to New Orleans at once and regain the 
Mississippi. With you and North and Terry Sinclair, who is with 
you. each in command of an ironclad ship, the river would be open 
to you, and you would reap imperishable renown in restoring the 
Crescent City to our arms. Nothing, I know, that I can say, is neces- 
sary to stimulate your exertions in our great cause, but I can not for- 
bear presenting this contingency to the noble ambition and love of 
country of yourself and those associated with you. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Commander JAMES D. BULLOCH, C. S. Navv, 

Liverpool, England. 

P. S. I enclose a letter for Lieutenant George T. '.Sinclair. Confer 
with him. He is prepared to build a vessel by contract. Provide him 
with the funds if you can by the means I have suggested, or by any 
means in your power, providing for your own contracts first. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary Navy. 



CONFEDERATE STATES, 

Navy Department, Richmond, Va., September %Q, 1862. 
SIR: Herewith I have the honor to submit for the information and 
consideration of your committee the letter of Constructor Porter. 
He is a skillful constructor and in all respects a valuable officer. 
With Lieutenant Brooke and Chief Engineer Williamson he ren- 
dered capital service in preparing the Virginia and has been con- 
stantly and industriously employed in important and professional 
pursuit since. It would be judicious, I think, to call him "chief con- 
structor " and to equalize the salary of the chief constructor and chief 
engineer, their duties and responsibilities being of the same grade 
and character. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Hon. A. G. BROWN, 

Chairman of Committee of Naval Affairs of the Senate. 



272 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

[Enclosure.] 

CONFEDERATE STATES, 
Navy Department, Richmond, September 20, 1862. 

SIR : I would respectfully request that you ask Congress to establish 
the office of chief naval constructor of the Confederate States, the 
duty of which I have been performing for some time, and I hope to 
the satisfaction of the Department. 

Ever since the secession of Virginia I have been constantly and 
actively at work for the Confederacy. I am the only naval constructor 
who left the United States Government to join the Confederate, and 
my knowledge of such matters has been of much service, which you are 
well aware of. The construction of the great Virginia, and her suc- 
cess in the Battle of Hampton Roads, under Captain Buchanan, is 
but one instance of my skill, while I have been constantly engaged 
in planning vessels of all descriptions to be built in this country and 
in Europe by act of Congress ironclad and others. The steamer 
Richmond, at this [city], the Palmetto [State'] and Chicora at 
Charleston, two splendid vessels, are also of my skill, while at Wilming- 
ton and Savannah other similar vessels are well in progress, which I 
have no doubt will be good and serviceable vessels. Within the past 
month I have labored incessantly to aid the Department in adapting 
vessels to such machinery as might be found in the Southern and 
Western rivers to be used in ironclad vessels, some for the Red River, 
Mississippi, Cumberland, Alabama, and the waters of North and 
South Carolina, and the Department knows well how I have dis- 
patched these matters. 

My knowledge is also of the utmost importance in the way of de- 
termining the bids for contracts for vessels, examining the various 
plans and propositions which are constantly being submitted to the 
^avy Department, and also having the general supervision of the 
various naval vessels now being built, making their inboard plans 
for quarters, magazines, etc. 

The Department has been compelled to appoint acting constructors 
to carry on its numerous operations, whose pay is equal to my own. 
These are the best men that can be found, but I have to make the plans 
and specifications for these men to build by, owing to their lack of 
knowledge in naval architecture, and it is but just that I should re- 
ceive more pay than they. I learn that there is a bill now before 
Congress establishing the office of chief engineer and regulating the 
pay for the same. I would therefore ask that my position as chief 
naval constructor may be defined and my pay not less than the chief 
engineer. 

With much respect, your obedient servant, 

JNO. L. PORTER, 
Constructor, C. S. Navy. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary C. S. Navy. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, September 21, 186%. 
SIR: Your cipher dispatch of August 9 was duly received, being 
the only communication from you since the receipt of your dispatch 
of June 6. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 273 

I learn with much satisfaction from your first-named dispatch 
that you had contracted for the construction of a fine ship, and 
earnestly trust that you may be able to make rapid progress with her. 

The difficulty of procuring exchange prevents the Treasury from 
placing funds abroad at this tune to meet our contracts, and I have 
just closed a dispatch to Commander Bulloch suggesting the means 
to be promptly resorted to in this difficulty, and to avoid multiplying 
the chances of the loss of dispatches, I will not report the substance 
of it here, but request you to confer with him immediately upon the 
subject. 

As yet I do not know whether the ship you are building is one of 
the three mentioned by Commander Bulloch or not, and I am with- 
out other information than such as your brief dispatch imparts. 
Full information is desired. 

If the ship referred to is not one of those contracted for by Com- 
mander Bulloch, but is one originated by yourself, you will regard 
yourself as invested with all the discretion and authority conferred 
upon him for raising funds to complete her, and will omit no effort 
to do so. Confer with him fully, and your joint action and co- 
operation in all matters touching the interest of the Confederacy 
is confidently looked for. 

I feel that I can say nothing to quicken your ardor in the execu- 
tion of your duty or your zeal in this special service; but still I 
deem it expedient to say to you that, could you and Commander 
Bulloch, and Terry Sinclair leave England in three well-manned, 
equipped, and efficient ironclad ships directly for the Mississippi, 
Xew Orleans would be restored to us. and imperishable renown would 
reward the aspirations of a noble ambition. 

Leave, therefore, no effort untried to push the work ahead. Ex- 
change shall be sent as fast as it can be received. 

You have never acknowledged the receipt of your commission as 
a commander for the war. 

I am. respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORT, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Commander JAMES H. XOETH, C. S. Xavy, 

Liverpool^ England. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, September 8 

SIR : I deem it highly judicious to call for an additional appropri- 
ation for the construction and equipment of ironclad and other ves- 
sels abroad. 

The expense of placing money abroad has exceeded all anticipation 
and the Secretary of the Treasury informs me that exchange, except 
in small sums, is exhausted. 

We must, I presume, look to the sale of our bonds for relief. 

Public sentiment has been steadily advancing in favor of our cause, 
as our operations there indicate. 

17O129 VOL 2 FT 121 18 



274 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

I have therefore tho honor to submit for your approval the annexed 
estimate. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORT, 
Secretary of the N<> 
The PRESIDENT. 



RICHMOND, VA.. Septfiitltcr %\, 1862. 

I herewith transmit for your consideration a communication from 
the Secretary of the Navy, covering an estimate for an additional 
appropriation for the construction and equipment of ironclad and 
other vessels abroad. 

I recommend an appropriation of the amount, and for the purpose, 
specified. 

JEI-TKKSOX DAVIS. 
To the Senate and House of Representatives. 

[Enclosure.] 

Estimate of the amount required to purchase, arm, man, and equip 
abroad vessels to be either used in coast defense, or in > 
against the enemifs commerce. 

XAVY DEPARTMENT. /v/^ -inker 22, 18< 

For the purchase, arming. manning, and equipping abroad of 
sels to be used either in coast defenses or in cruising against the ene- 
my's commerce, $4,000,000. 
Four million dollars. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

CONFEDERATE STATES OP AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, September %4, 1862. 
SIK: To enable this department to develop and foster the produc- 
tion of iron and coal, I have the honor to recommend that an appro- 
priation of $2,000,000 be placed at the disposition of the President. 

The deficiency of iron and coal to meet the pressing wants of the 
country has been shown in the two last reports of this department. 

Large advances upon contracts for coal and iron must be made to 
stimulate their production. 

An estimate is herewith submitted for your approval. 
With much respect, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
The PRESIDENT. 

LIVERPOOL, September 24, 1802. 

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of the 30th of July, inclosing copy of a contract with Mr. A. Le 
Mat for 3,000 grapeshot revolvers, together with drawings and 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 275 

specifications of armor-clad ships to be built by Captain Girardy. 
About a fortnight since I had a correspondence with the Messrs. C. 
Girard & Co., of Paris, who assumed to be the contractors for the 
revolvers, and who desired me to fulfill that part of the agreement 
which devolved upon the agent of the Navy Department in England. 

I informed these gentlemen that I was not authorized to act as 
general agent for the Navy Department, and, as I had no instruc- 
tions in reference to the particular contract in question, I could not 
undertake to carry out its provisions. 

Immediately upon the receipt of your letter of July 30, in which 
you direct me to carry out the terms of this contract, I wrote Messrs. 
C. Girard & Co., informing them of the fact and stating that I would 
make arrangements for the inspection of the pistols as soon as they 
could deliver them, at stated periods and in sufficient numbers to 
make it advisable. I was obliged to inform them at the same time 
that I had no available funds from which to make the prescribed 
payments, but, to avoid, if possible, any delay in forwarding the 
arms, I requested them to suggest some means by which I could 
give them security for ultimate payment, and am now awaiting their 
reply. That you may perceive at a glance the financial condition 
of your department in England, I will briefly state that the Ala- 
bama''s accounts have been settled in full, and I have paid to Cap- 
tain Semmes $100,000 for a cruising fund, as you directed. The 
tender to supply the Alabama with coal has also been paid for and 
all the expenses of her first voyage settled. Three installments upon 
the ironclad ship building under contract with Commander North and 
two each upon those building under contract with myself have been 
already paid, making in the aggregate the sum of 125,000. There 
remains to be paid on account of the above contracts about 275,000, 
and I have to my credit with Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co. only 
139.000. The future payments are to be made by installments, and 
at periods depending upon the progress of the work, but the per- 
sonal interest as well as the sympathies of the contractors impel 
them to such activity that one or more installments will fall due 
every month. Failure to meet pecuniary liabilities with prompt- 
ness would be especially injurious to our national credit at this time, 
and failure to pay the installments when due would delay, perhaps 
indefinitely, the completion of the ships, besides adding to the origi- 
nal cost as estimated. Under these circumstances it would be very 
injudicious for me to assume fresh liabilities until the means of liq- 
uidating previously contracted ones were actually in hand. It strikes 
me that my obvious policy, as well as duty, is to take up all con- 
tracts in the order of their dates or in the order in which your in- 
structions reach me, so that, should you be unable to make further 
remittances, some of the contracts, at least, would be sure of comple- 
tion and the danger of the entire work of the department being 
left in an unfinished state be avoided. You will remember that 
Commander Sinclair arrived here in the early summer with instruc- 
tions for me to furnish him the means of building a " propeller clip- 
per/' to be commanded by himself, and also to give him $60,000 as 
a cruising fund. That this officer is anxious to be at work you can 
readily imagine, yet, fully agreeing with me in the soundness of the 
policy of keeping the business of the department within safe and sure 



276 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

limits, he has not pressed me to comply at once with these instruc- 
tions, as such a course would put a stop to other operations already 
well in hand. I believe Commander Sinclair is in treaty with cer- 
tain parties to borrow the money necessary to build his ship, but 
as he will doubtless report to you in detail I shall not comment in 
any way upon the transaction. 

I feel it, however, my duty to remark upon the various contracts 
which private individuals have made with the Navy Department, 
and which I am directed by you to supervise on the part of the Gov- 
ernment, because I know you can not be aware of the state of things 
in Europe and are liable to be misled by the statements of inter- 
ested parties at home who may profess their ability to fulfill any and 
every agreement. I disclaim any special application of my remarks 
to the gentlemen who have thus far brought over contracts to be 
supervised by me, because they are all strangers to me and I ha,ve 
no wish to interfere in the slightest degree with their concerns, but as 
a public officer and the recognized agent of your department it is 
my bounden duty to inform you upon all matters which from the 
peculiar circumstances of our country are necessarily beyond the 
reach of your personal knowledge. If these contracts were taken 
by persons who could raise the money necessary to carry them out 
upon their own credit there would be an advantage in giving them 
out, but such does not appear to be the case and the result thus far 
has been only embarrassment to myself and a degree of publicity to 
the affairs of the department, which 1 fear may be still more em- 
barrassing. The best mode of explaining the manner in which con- 
tracts of the kind mentioned are put in train of execution here will 
be to sketch briefly a supposed case. A person arrives in England 
with a contract to build and deliver a ship to the Confederate Gov- 
ernment. Being destitute of money himself his first step is to look 
up some one who can furnish the necessary capital. Bankers of 
established position will not engage in such irregular transactions; 
he is therefore forced to seek for some keen, sharp financier who is 
ready for any transaction wherein there appears a chance of profit. 
Such a person being found, the original contractor either sells him the 
contract outright for a certain round sum or they agree to divide the 
profit. Now, the capitalist, not wishing to take the entire risk upon 
himself, casts about among his friends for aid, each of which must 
be assured of a certain gain, and all these several profits or commis- 
sions go into the price of the ship before even the builders profit 
is calculated. To give character to the transaction all these persons 
are informed that the ship is for the Confederate Government, and 
that the Confederate Government is responsible for the payments. 
The matter is discussed and soon comes to the ears of those who are 
dealing directly with the legitimate agents and officers of the Gov- 
ernment, the irregularity of the whole transaction is commented 
upon and the credit of the Government is measurably injured. I 
assure you, sir, that in this hasty sketch I have not at all exaggerated 
the process by which these contracts are set in train, and it is very 
doubtful whether a single one of them will ever be brought to a con- 
clusion. Thus far there has not been a beginning. I attribute the 
success which has heretofore attended the operations on account of 
our Government in a great measure to the caution and secrecy which 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 277 

has been preserved, and to the absolutely good faith with which all 
liabilities have been met. Secrecy, however, is out of the question 
when so many indiscreet persons are employed, and future difficulties 
will be greatly increased. An officer of the Government with a com- 
mission in his pocket and orders to purchase any amount or descrip- 
tion of material, and with authority clearly expressed to borrow the 
necessary amount of money on the credit of the Government, would 
be able to negotiate on better terms than any private individual 
whose own personal credit could not guarantee the transaction. My 
experience in Europe has taught me that it is always best and cheap- 
est to deal with principals, and with those who stand at the head 
of their respective trades or employments, and where contracts are 
given out to intermediaries who are neither experts nor men of 
capita] there is invariably delay, disappointment, and loss. You will, 
I am sure, understand and appreciate the motives which induce me 
to write thus, and I shall therefore make no further apology. If 
you were in a position to know, or rather to learn, these things from 
your own observation I would not venture to advise you. Since the 
date of my last letter Mr. Sanders has left England. He did not 
inform me of his intention to leave nor for what purpose. A Mr. 
Stringer, with whom he was negotiating for the money to carry out 
his contract, wished me to sign bonds to the effect that the Confeder- 
ate Government would pay for the ships in cotton, on the basis of 
8 cents per pound for middling. As the contract with Mr. Sanders 
clearly expressed that the payments were to be made in cotton at the 
market value of cotton, in the port and at the time each separate pay- 
ment might be made, I declined binding the Government to any other 
arrangement, stating at the same time that I had no authority for 
giving such, a guarantee. I presume the Government would not be 
willing to bind itself to deliver cotton at so low a rate, because it is 
much higher even now, and the opinion of the best judges here is that 
should the war end in the course of a year it could not fall to 8 cents 
a pound, while in such an event exchange would go down to a com- 
paratively low figure. 

I have nothing to add except that the ships are progressing as 
rapidly as could be expected and that I am more pleased with them 
every day. The ships being of entirely new design, I see reason to 
modify the plans from time to time, but only in immaterial points 
not involving important alterations. I hope you have received the 
plans I sent you with my letter of July 21, in which I gave you a 
detailed description of the principle upon which they are to be built. 
I confidently expect to afford you great satisfaction in the character 
of these two ships. I think they will be as near an approach to cruis- 
ing ships as can be devised when their powers of offense and defense 
are considered in conjunction with their light draft of water 15 
feet extreme. 

I have already heard of the capture by the Alabama of three 
American whalers off the Island of Flores, and I shall look for 
reports of this kind very frequently. Captain Semmes was much 
pleased with the Alabama and considered himself a match for the 
Tnscarora. I regret to inform you that Captain Semmes' letter 
enclosing crew list, etc., of which I advised you in my letter of Sep- 
tember 10, was lost in the steamer lona, which vessel was run down 



278 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 

in the Clyde, together with my letter accompanying it. I have sent 
you duplicate of mine, but have not one of Captain Somtnos'. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



CONFEDERATE STATES, 
Navy Department, Richmond, October 2, 1862. 

SIR: Your dispatch of August 30 was received this day, conveying 
the gratifying assurance that the work on the ship under your 
superintendence was making good progress. 

The first sentence of your dispatch is as follows : " I have written 
you so often upon the same subject that I hardly know if it be worth 
while to intrude myself upon you again." Under any circumstances 
the appropriateness of this language by one whose duty it is to 
embrace every opportunity to keep his Uovernment advised of his 
action is not perceived, but as this is the first dispatch received from 
you giving any information about the ship you are building, you cer- 
tainly have no right to regard it as intrusive. Your former dispatch 
of eight and a half lines of the 9th of August informed me that you 
were about to repair to Glasgow, where you were building the- third : 
that money was due on r|er, and that she would cost about '200,000. 
No others have come to hand, and the dispatches received from yon 
are few and not sufficiently in detail. From a letter .from Lieu- 
tenant Sinclair I had previously learned some of the details of your 
vessel. In the dispatch before me you state the sixe of the vessel to 
be about 3,000 tons, and is plated, and that you expect to have her 
ready in the spring. 

In my letter to you of the 20th of September the difficulty of pro- 
curing exchange to place money in England and the means by which 
I expected to place you in funds was fully stated. A duplicate is 
enclosed. 

You are enjoined to make every possible exertion to complete your 
ship at the earliest practicable moment. 

You request to be informed " who is the ranking officer," vou or 
Commander Bulloch, and you state that "it is a matter of givnt 
importance." From the request I infer that you have received the 
commission of commander in the Navy, transmitted to you on the 
5th of May last, and which your dispatches do not mention, and you 
are again requested to acknowledge the receipt. 

The department does not regard the question of rank among its 
agents abroad charged with the specific duties of building and 
equipping vessels as a matter of great importance, and it does not 
suppose that any difference as to rank between you and Commander 
Bulloch is of any importance whatever in comparison with the, public 
interests, or that it will be suffered in the slightest degree to inter- 
fere with them. 



XAVY DEPAETMEXT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 279 

In compliance with your request, however, you are informed that 
Commander Bulloch is senior in rank. 

I am, respectfully, j'our obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORT, 

Secretary of the Navy. 
Commander JAMES H. NORTH, 

London, England. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, October 3, 1862. 

SIR: Your letter of the llth of August was this day received. 
I congratulate you on your success in getting the Alabama to sea, 
and entertain no doubt that she will prove herself all that we have 
predicted for her. 

As 3 ? et no plans, descriptions, or details of the two armored ships 
you are building have reached me, but from your present letter I 
infer that you will adopt the turret of Captain L'owper Coles. 

In my letter of the 20th ultimo, a duplicate of which is herewith 
enclosed, you have my suggestions as to raising funds. 

I understand fully and appreciate the position you occupy, as cited 
in your letter. You were relieved from your orders to command the 
AiaJjama only and exclusively because I did not feel that I could 
dispense with your services or supply your place in a position of far 
greater importance to the country than the, command of a ship, and 
wherein you have rendered such good service. 

I presume that no naval officer would so far forget his true position 
and mine as to attempt to dictate to me your separation from a 
command afloat. Such an effort lias never been intimated, and your 
relief was the highest compliment I could pay to your zeal, energy, 
judgment, and capacity. I can well understand your disappoint- 
ment, and I can appreciate a seaman's desire to command a ship 
afloat, and especially one of his own genius and his creation, and I 
trust that you will soon be in a condition to have your wishes grati- 
fied, so far as this department can respond to them. 

I have heard from Commander North nothing of the details of 
the vessel he is constructing, nor do you make reference to her. It 
is expedient that I be informed whether she was contracted for and 
commenced by you or by him, the probable cost, the character of the 
vessel, and the probable period of her completion. 

Your duties, responsibilities, rights, and privileges as the agent of 
this department have not been and are not designed to be in anywise 
changed, modified, or decreased by any instructions to other agents. 

The department approves your course and, so far from giving any 
instructions to embarrass the exercise of your judgment, desires to 
do all in its power to support you in the arduous, delicate, and 
highly responsible duties committed to your charge. 

The house of Chamberlain & Co., of London, through its Mr. 
Chamberlain, now in this country, has agreed to advance funds to 
you to complete your contracts, and a copy of my letter to them is 
herewith enclosed. 



280 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

Mr. Chamberlain informs me that there are now in England two 
small ironclad gunboats, built for the Peruvian Government, suited 
to our waters. Look at them and purchase them if they will answer 
even a secondary purpose upon our rivers and can be brought here. 
They might start for Peru and run into any of our ports. They are 
said to draw but 6 feet water. If you could obtain six such vessels 
for our shallow rivers, they would be very useful. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORT, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Commander JAMES D. BULLOCH, C. S. Navy, 

Liverpool, England. 



CONFEDERATE STATES or AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, October 8, 1862. 
SIR: Lieutenant Hamilton's letter of the 25th of August, just re- 
ceived, informs me that Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co. are con- 
structing a gunboat of about 280 tons for the use of the Government 
of the Confederate States, and that they desire to know whether the 
vessel will be accepted. 

I have this day advised Messrs. Fraser & Co., of Charleston, of 
such acceptance, and you will please convey personally to Messrs. 
Fraser, Trenholm & Co. the thanks of the department for their 
munificent donation. 

Lieutenant Hamilton indicates a desire to command the vessel, 
and the department accedes to it. 

He states that $10,000 will be required to fit the vessel for a voyage. 
This sum you will please provide for, in the hands of her owners, 
by the means pointed out in my letter of the 2()th ultimo, and you 
will please pursue the course best calculated to ensure the safe arrival 
of the vessel at Charleston or some port of the Confederate States. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Commander JAMES D. BULLOCH, C. S. Navy, 

Liverpool, England. 

If you can induce any number of foundry men, workers in iron, 
machinists, boiler makers, brass founders, and blacksmiths com- 
bined, up to 500, to come here, the most liberal compensation will be 
given them. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary Navy. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, October 20, 1S62. 
SIR: Your letter of the 18th ultimo reached me a few days ago. 
Without your advice and effectual assistance the enterprise for 
which Lieutenant Sinclair has been selected must have been indefi- 
nitely deferred, and you have my cordial thanks for your action 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 281 

therein. Your stipulations in behalf of this department are fully 
endorsed and will be promptly fulfilled. 

The Treasury has under consideration your suggestions as to tne 
cotton bonds, and Mr. Benjamin will advise you of the modifications 
of the form transmitted by you which Mr. Memminger deems nec- 
essary. 

The speedy completion and departure of Mr. Sinclair's work I 
regard of so much importance that I must invoke your further aid, 
should he require it, to enable him to raise funds for the purpose 
of which I have advised him, and the repetition of which here I 
deem inexpedient. 

The courier who brought your dispatches found a means of com- 
munication whose safety justifies their further use, and Mr. Ben- 
jamin will probably advise you thereof. The completion of the con- 
tract of this gentleman will take a peculiar class of ships never before 
constructed upon the sea in our service, and I shall regret if the 
Treasury Department shall fail to make such arrangements as will 
enable him to accomplish this important enterprise. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Hon. JAMES M. MASOX, 

Commissioner, etc., Xo. -54 Devonshire /Street, 

Portland Place, London. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, October 24i 1S62. 
DEAR SIR : The plan of Mr. Sanders for keeping up direct commu- 
nication with Europe I think well of. 

Its operation will be subject to occasional interruptions, but it 
will be generally successful if his agents prove faithful and prudent. 
I enclose its details, together with his account of a thousand dollars, 
which seems reasonable. 

This department can furnish the officer and boat's crew desired, 
if necessary, but this crew should, in my judgment, be composed of 
persons residing in or near Northumberland County. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary Navy. 
Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, 

Secretary of State. 

[Enclosure.] 

Direct communication with Europe. 

Three fast-sailing schooners, to be chartered at Halifax and placed 
on a line between that port and Baltimore, one to leave after the 
arrival of the British mail steamer, and to keep up a semimonthly 
communication. 

Each vessel to have a fast lifeboat for landing and signals and 
signal lights. 



282 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1805. 

The Government to pay $300 for each round trip of csirh 
to pay for the lifeboat and signals and lights. 

To have a boat and boat's crew at \Yieomico lliver, Northmnber- 
land County, Va., with signals and signal lights. 

To place Lewis Sanders as dispatch agent at Halifax, at a salary 
of $100 per month. 

To place Reid Sanders on the duty at the Wicoini-'o. None but 
Government passengers to be carried, and each to pay '2~>. Govern- 
ment to have the spare of two .barrels in each vessel and to insure 
two-thirds the value thereof, or $3,000. 



LIVERPOOL, October 25, 1802. 

SIR: There is nothing for me to communicate in reference to my 
immediate duties here, in addition to what I have written in previous 
letters, but I can not let a single opportunity of writing pass un- 
heeded. The armor-clad ships are getting on finely, and I shall use 
every possible exertion to have them ready at the time specified. 
Lieutenant Wilkinson has arrived and hopes to be off in about 10 
days. I will write more fully by him. 

I will simply mention here that we have heard of 17 captures by 
the Alabama. A vessel arrived here yesterday with 73 American 
seamen, prisoners from the Alabama, and she has, besides this, lam led 
200 on the Island of Flores. Messrs. C. Girard & Co. have agreed to 
deliver the revolvers without payment being made here. No sample 
of the pistol furnished the War Department has been sent me, and 
it is therefore impossible to judge of the relative character of those 
the contractors are making lor the Navy. Since the sailing of the 
Alabama Lieutenants Chapman and Evans have arrived from Nassau, 
and, in obedience to orders from Captain Semmes, have reported to 
me for duty. I directed Lieutenant Chapman to go to Fftris and 
inspect the revolvers at the manufactory, and will send you a state- 
ment in detail on the whole subject or the contract by Lieutenant 
Wilkinson. 

A most unfortunate occurrence has taken place on board the 
Sumter, at Gibraltar, in the murder of Midshipman Andrews, the 
officer in charge, by one of the crew. This event has determined Hon. 
J. M. Mason to sell her, and he has written me * to arrange the 
matter with Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co. I will give you further 
information upon these points by Lieutenant Wilkinson. At present 
I have not heard anything from Gibraltar except the simple state- 
ment of the murder. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Hon. S. E. MALLORT, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

* See letter to Mr. Mason of November 13, 1863. 



DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 283 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, Richmond, October 26, 180 1. 

SIR: Your cipher letter, dated August, reached me on the 2ist 
instant. 

On the same day I received dispatches from other agents in Eng- 
land up to the 18th of September, inclusive. 

A previous dispatch, dated August 30, was received from you and 
replied to on the 2d instant, a duplicate of which reply is enclosed, 
;u:d you will also find enclosed the triplicate' of my letter of 
March 17. 

You will learn from this last letter that the $150,000, to which 
your dispatch of August refers, were sent to enable you to fit out and 
cruise with the Alabama; a purpose which the condition of the 
Sumter abroad, and the expediency of keeping her officers and crew 
together for further usefulness, induced the department to change. 

I regret to perceive that your dispatches, though very brief, seem 
to be conceived in a spirit of complaint, which I deem uncalled for. 
In the one before me I find this language : " I have heard nothing 
from you since my order of May 2, though Sinclair did not leave 
for this country until June. I am at a loss to know how to act, but 
as everything has been taken out of my hands by the department, 
I have nothing left me but to return home, which I shall do as soon 
after the arrival of Captain Semmes as possible." 

I know not to vrhat you refer as having been taken out of your 
hands, inasmuch as nothing had been so taken beyond relieving you, 
for the reasons before stated, from your order to the Alabama; 
nor could you be at a loss to know how to act with your instructions 
before you, and upon which instructions, without alteration or ad- 
dition, you did very soon after proceed to act. 

The department wrote to you on the 29th May, the 12th July, and 
the 30th July, and I infer from your dispatch that these letters, with 
others of previous dates, never reached you. 

You will remember that your dispatch of the 9th of August, of 
a few lines only, gave me the first intimation that J T OU had succeeded 
at last in making a contract to build a ship, and to this dispatch I 
replied immediately. 

Every letter received from you has been promptly responded to, 
and many other communications have been transmitted to you; 
while every effort has been made, from the moment information of 
your contract for a ship was received, to keep you in funds, efforts 
which are to a great extent dependent upon the condition of the 
Treasury and the blockade. 

I regret that you have not furnished me with information in detail 
relative to your ship. From two interesting letters from Lieutenant 
Sinclair I have acquired some knowledge of her construction; but 
you will forward drawings and specifications and a copy of your 
contract by the first safe opportunity. 

I presume, of course, that you were not informed of the departure 
from England of Mr. Sanders, as he brought nothing from you. 

Ceaseless diligence, prudence, and ardor in all efforts for the con- 
struction, equipment, manning, and getting this ship to sea, without 
so violating British neutrality and foreign enlistment acts as to call 
for British interference, are demanded. 



284 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

Without the exercise of the utmost vigilance, caution, and zeal, 
and, possibly, with their exercise, serious embarrassments may arise 
before these can be accomplished. I am unwilling, therefore, to re- 
tain in such a position any officer one moment beyond his wishes, and 
if, from any cause, as the tone of your letters lead me to apprehend, 
you prefer relief from this duty, there are other fields of usefulness 
and honor to which the department will promptly assign you. 
You will number all your letters in future. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Commander JAMES H. NORTH, 

Confederate States Navy. 



Sent in cipher.] 

CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, October 27, 186%. 

SIR : Your interesting dispatch of the 21st of July and your letter 
of the 2d of August reached me on the 21st instant, together with 
drawings of ships. 

I am very much pleased with the details so far as they are given. 
The number of guns is not stated. Less draft is desirable, but, of 
course, I am aware of the great difficulty of combining small draft 
with resistance to shot and the requisite speed. 

From the tests that are now being made near you, you will be able 
to determine the best gun to be adopted, keeping in view the fact 
that your ships will contend with the ironclads of the enemy. With 
large calibers we penetrate 6 inches of iron. High velocities will in 
future be sought for in ordnance, and I am of opinion that no sea- 
going ship with vertical sides will be able to resist the ordnance 
that we can now make. 

I congratulate you on the ability and success of your efforts in the 
case of Semmes' ship, which seems to be doing well. Enclosed you 
have duplicates of dispatches informing you of funds, etc. 

You have not acknowledged the receipt of my letter of July 23, 
enclosing designs for naval commissions to be engraved, printed, and 
returned here. Please attend to this matter as early as you can. 

The builder who has contracted to advance you 100,000 leaves for 
home in a day or two. I trust he will promptly pay the money on 
your request. 

Two 7-inch rifle guns, with projectiles, etc., and some powder, lead, 
and pistols, have just reached us, but I have not the particulars yet. 

Enclosed herewith I hand you the first of a draft on Eraser, Tren- 
holm & Co. for the proceed of 1,000,000 of bonds, and hope to send 
the first of a second million next week. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Commander BULLOCH. 



CONFEDERATE STATES NAVY DEPARTMENT, 

Richmond, October 27, 1 

SIR: I have the honor to call your attention to the copy of the 
secret joint resolution of Congress, which was sent you on Saturday, 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 285 

and to so much of my recommendation to Congress upon the subject 
of the act as shows the basis upon which it was passed, a copy of 
which was also sent you on Saturday. 

Under this authority contracts have been made with Mr. George N. 
Sanders by this department for six ships, to be paid for in cotton, 
a copy of which contract is herewith enclosed. 

Mr. Sanders informs me that if the Government will fix the price 
of the cotton to be delivered, he can execute his contract, and not 
otherwise; and, deeming the ships important to the public interest, 
I suggest for your consideration the expediency of stating the price, 
and of pursuing, with reference to payment in cotton for these 
ships, the course you have adopted with regard to the cotton bonds. 
I am. respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. K. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Hon. C. G. MEMMIXGER, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 

[Enclosure.] 

Articles of agreement, made and entered into this 19th day of July, 
in the year of our Lord 186 J, between George N. Sanders, of the 
first part, and John E. Ward, of the second part: 

The said party of the first part, for and in consideration of the 
sum of $5 to him in hand paid, and for the further consideration of 
the conditions hereinafter mentioned, agrees to pay to the said John 
E. "\Vard the sum of 1,000, in London, England, to pay the personal 
expenses of the said John E. Ward; and the said Ward is hereby 
authorized to create 1,500 shares of stock, of the value of 100 each, 
for each of two vessels, first to be constructed as hereinafter named, 
and to sell any portion of the same at par value in the Confederate 
States before proceeding to Europe, as hereinafter contemplated, 
and without waiting for the organization of the company necessary 
or contemplated for executing the contracts of said George N. Sanders 
with the Government of the Confederate States, and to appropriate 
the first 100 so received for part payment of his personal expenses, 
as before mentioned, or out of the first receipts in any form. 

The said party of the first part also agrees to pay to said John E. 
Ward 12^ per cent on all the profits realized from the first three 
vessels that may be constructed under the contracts or agreements 
made and entered into by said George N. Sanders with the Govern- 
ment of the Confederate States: that 10 per cent on all profits of 
all others, it being, however, distinctly understood and agreed upon 
by the parties to these presents that all European expenditures 
made by the said George N. Sanders or his legal representatives are 
to be paid before the said John E. Ward shall be entitled to any 
profits, and that his percentage is to be on these profits. If the 
said John E. Ward shall be prevented from attending to the business 
by capture, sickness, or death, then the sum of 500 shall be paid to 
him, his heirs, executors, administrators, or assigns, for his expenses 
in lieu of 1,000 as aforesaid, and the further amount of 10 per 
cent on all the profits realized from the vessels after paying all 
European expenses as aforesaid to be paid to the said John E. 



286 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

Ward, his heirs, administrators, or assigns in lieu of the percentage 
of 12^ and 10 per cent as aforesaid. 

And it is further covenanted and agreed upon between the pa; 
that the said George N. Sanders shall give to the said John E. Wn rd 
a full power of attorney to open negotiations immediately upon his 
arrival in Europe for the construction of two of the steamers, making 
all necessary arrangements for the disposition of the stock; but that 
he shall in this be limited to two steamers and shall make no contract 
for or disposition of any of the other steamers until the arrival of 
said George N. Sanders in England, or until the said Ward shall have 
been informed of the death or capture of the said Sanders: and in 
either of these events the said Ward shall go on and make the neces- 
sary arrangements, under the power of attorney given him, for the 
construction of all the vessels ; and shall in that case receive the sum of 
1,000 per annum, in addition to the compensation hereinbefore agreed 
upon, as his salary for attending to the construction and manage- 
ment of said vessels, as the agent of said George X. Sanders, if alive 
or captured, or of his estate, if dead. If the said Sanders and the said 
Ward shall both arrive in London, the said Sanders agrees to use his 
exertions and give his influence to have said Ward made president 
of such company as may be formed for the construction and manage- 
ment of said vessels, giving to the said John E. Ward just and rea- 
sonable compensation as a salary. 

In consideration of the foregoing the said John E. Ward hereby 
agrees to proceed, or attempt to proceed, without delay, or as soon as 
practicable, to London, and there to enter upon the duty of disposing 
of the stock, forming the company, and Inn ing the vessels constrti 
as hereinbefore stated, and to do all things to the best of his skill and 
ability as the agent and attorney of the said George N. Sanders in 
the construction of said vessels. 

In witness whereof the said parties have hereunto set their hands 
and seals the day and year first above written, at Richmond, Va. 

GEOTICE N. SANDERS. 
JOHN E. WARD. 

Signed and sealed in duplicate, and interchanged in our presence, 
this 19th day of July, 1862. 

E. C. CABELL. 

I, Frederick J. Cridland, her Britannic Majesty's acting- consul for 
the State of Virginia, do hereby certify that this day personally ap- 
peared before me George N. Sanders and John E. Ward, to me per- 
sonally known, and did in my presence affix their several signat 
to the foregoing document, declaring the same to be their act and deed. 
Given under my hand and seal of office at the city of Richmond, this 
19th day of July, 1862. 

FRED J. CRIDLAXD, 
Her Britannic Majestifs Acting Consul. 



CONFEDERATE STATES or AMERICA. 
Navy Department, Richmond, October 29, 1862. 
SIR : You will please name one of your vessels the North Carolina 
and the other the Mississippi. 



DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 287 

Send me any information you have of experiments of firing guns 
under water, the gun itself being submerged as well as the target. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

8. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary .V" 
Commander J. D. BULLOCH, C. S. Navy. 

Send also drawings of the new Whitworth shell, used against 
iron targets. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Treasury Department, Richmond, October 30, 1862. 
SIR: I approve the suggestion made by you of making your con- 
tract for building ironclad vessels in Europe conform to the arrange- 
ments of the cotton certificates sent to the Hon. J. M. Mason. I 
enclose a form of each of these certificates. Upon the meeting of 
Congress an appropriation must be made to meet your contracts, 
and the terms can then be altered so as to conform the mode of pay- 
ment to the cotton certificates, fixing a price for the cotton and pro- 
viding for the delivery at any port upon adding the charges of 
transportation. The only limit to these combined operations will be 
the quantity of cotton which the Government can purchase, which I 
hope will be found ample. 

Respectfully, your obedient servant. 

C. G. MEMMIXGER, 
Secretary of the Treasury. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richnwnd, October 30, 1862. 
SIR: Mr. Sanders has. as you are aware, contracted with this 
department for the construction in England of six ironclad steamers 
combining the capacities of the freighting and the fighting ships in 
a manner which will enable them to force the blockade of our ports. 
The interests of the country will be much benefited by the prompt 
construction of these vessels, and I beg leave to invoke your interest, 
not only in behalf of our enterprise already in progress but in behalf 
of this also. 

The Secretary of the Treasury has this day addressed to me a 
note upon the subject of the cotton to be delivered in liquidation of 
these contracts, and I enclose herewith a copy. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Hon. JAMES M. MA sex, 

Commissioner of the Confederate States to- 

Great Britain. London. 



288 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, October 30, 
SIR : I enclose herewith copy of a letter from the Secretary of the 
Treasury to James Spence, Esq., Liverpool, by which you will ob- 
serve that he has directed that you be supplied with funds from, 
the sale of bonds to meet your contracts, and also that of Com- 
mander North. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Commander JAMES D. BULLOCH, 

Liverpool, England. 



LIVERPOOL, November 1, 1862. 

DEAR SIR: An absence in London, where I was unexpectedly de- 
tained, and failure to notify our friends here of my whereabouts, 
has delayed the receipt of your letter until to-day. The reply of 
Mr. Whitworth is at home, but I will refer to it and give you the 
information you desire in the early part of the coming week, say 
on Monday. Mr. Whit\vort!i's statement of prices is from the 
smallest fieldpiece up to the 70-pounder naval gun. 

I am glad to learn that your ship is getting on satisfactorily. 

I learn from the Secretary that there will be money sent for present 
contracts, but am at the same time informed that exchange is ex- 
hausted, and the Government is arranging to put itself in funds on 
this side from other sources, and for future contracts. 

My little child has wholly recovered. 
In haste, I am, yours, truly. 

JAMES 1). In LLOCU. 

Commander JAMES H. NORTH. 

[Enclosure.] 

If commissions are to be charged, I wish Mr. Galbraith to give 
the order and make the payments. If Mr. Tennant's friend charges 
no commission and you put yours in his hands, let him attend to 
this also. 

GEO. T. SINCLAIR. 

1 150-pounder gun 1, 140 00 

75 segment shell 121 17 6 

75 common shell 97 10 

100 fuzes, at 2/9 i:' 15 

50 fuzes, at 1/10 4 11 8 



1,877 14 2 
688 17 1 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 

NAVY DEPARTMENT, 
Richmond, November 3, 1862. 

SIR : In my letter of the 20th of September you were informed as 
follows : 

Another suggestion occurs to me upon which you may possibly act. You 
may probably be able to obtain advances upon an agreement to repay the 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 289 

amount with 8 per cent interest in cotton, the question of the price of cotton 
to be determined when the advances are made, and this price may be stated 
or you may agree to deliver the cotton at the current rates here when called for. 

Since that communication was written advices have been received 
from England which induce a modification of the suggestion then 
made. 

Upon these advices the Treasury Department here has framed 
a certificate to be delivered to those who may be willing to make 
advances upon cotton, a copy of which certificate is enclosed, and it 
has instructed its agents abroad to obtain advances to a limited 
extent. 

Should you not have adopted the course indicated in my letter 
of the 20th of September to obtain funds, and should you be still 
without funds to complete your ships and to save the credit of your 
country in your contracts, you will adopt the certificate of the Treas- 
ury Department and conform any loan you may have to obtain to its 
terms. 

You will as soon as possible purchase for this department a first- 
class marine engine (propeller) and boilers, with 14- foot screw and 
every part complete, in perfect working order. All important pieces 
usually duplicated to be duplicated ; the engine to be extra powerful 
and reliable; boiler surface to be amply sufficient for working the 
engine to its extreme power. 

You will please send it out immediately in some fast vessel likely 
to reach port safely. If the boilers can not be shipped complete, 
which is very desirable, then the plates, all fitted and drilled, ready 
to fit together. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Commander JAMES D. BULLOCH, 

Liverpool, England. 



LIVERPOOL, November 3, 1862. 

DEAR SIR : On the other half of this sheet I send you the informa- 
tion concerning Whit worth's guns, asked for in your letter of the 
27th ultimo. Mr. Whitworth is a very clever mechanic and seems 
to be pushing hard to supersede Sir W. Armstrong in the snug berth 
he has thus far held against all competitors in England. In some 
late experiments at Shernecliffe [Sheerness?] a gun of the former 
beat one of the latter gentleman's, both in range and accuracy. 
There is a very general complaint that Sir W. Armstrong is, some- 
how or other, favored in all these experiments and that the relative 
merits of the two systems are not yet determined. It appears that 
the smoothbore advocates are gaining ground. My ships are get- 
ting on very satisfactorily; the first is about one-third plated, not 
armored, and the beams will soon be across; the second is half in 
frame. I made slight modifications in the plans from time to time, 
but none that are of much importance. The Alabama is doing well. 
I am, yours, truly, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 
Commander JAMES H. NORTH, 

C. /S. Navy. 

176429 VOL 2 PT 121 19 



290 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORK KS I '(>. \HKNVE, 18C1-1865. 

[Enclosure.] 

Particulars of the W/>!f"-o,'f/i , 
32-pounder. 10-)>'nuxlcr noniJ ./en. 



Length of bore ____________ 87 inches. Length of bore ____________ lit inches. 

Diameter of bore _______________ 4.14. Diameter of hutv ________________ 

I'itdi of lining ___________________ 75. I' itch of rifling ________________ 

Weight of {run ______ 3- hundredweight. \Wight of gun ______ 7~> hundreduvigh!. 

rharge of powder _________ 5i pounds. Charge __________________ 11' pounds. 

Average ranges ohtuined : Yards. K.HI. 

at 1 _____________________ OMI 1 ----------------------- 1,00() 

5 _____________________ 2,800 5 _______________________ ^.suiii 

10 _____________________ 4. s<>0 10 ______________________ 5,000 

35 -------------------- Price of muzzle loading gnn.._7iM). 

Cost: Proj.M-t iic-, : 

Price of muzzle louder ______ 400. Solid _____________ -,> j,,. r mo. 

Projectiles I'.. How ___________ <U", j M -r Hi. 

Solid ____________ :>< per 100. Flat fronted _________ .', cadi. 

Hollow __________ .">.") p,T UK). 

Flat fronted for pene- 

trating armor _____ 4 eai-h. 



LIVERPOOL, November tf, 
DEAR SIR: Your letter of yesterday is at hand, and I will inclose 
YOU the paper relating to the contract of the Messrs. Thomson from 
Waterloo this afternoon. You will remember that the above con- 
tract was formally transferred to me, upon your notification that 
such was the will of the honorable Secretary of the Navy. As you 
have since been directed to remain in England to superintend the 
construction of the ship building under that contract, vou had better 
officially inform me of the change in your orders and request a re- 
transfer of the contract to yourself. I will then make over all the 
papers to you in form, and you will thus have the matter entirely 
in your own hands. 

The armament of turret ships being limited, of necessity, to a very 
few guns, it is important that they should be of the largest caliber 
practicable for service at sea. I have given the subject till the atten- 
tion that time and the consideration of other essential points has 
permitted, and have concluded to arm the two ships here with a 
simpler gun than Mr. Whitworth's, or any other which is essentially 
a rifled gun. I make no pretense to being an authority on the sub- 
ject of artillery, but simply endeavor to generalize the experiments 
as officially reported, and compare the opinions of the officers who 
conduct or witness them. Xo satisfactory result has as yet been 
arrived at. Each system of rifling and construction has its advo- 
cates, who press the merits of their favorites with the zeal of par- 
tisans. One point seems, however, to be very generally agreed upon, 
viz, that the most effective gun against armor-plated ships is that 
which will throw the largest shot with the greatest initial velocity, 
the limits being the strength of material and the power of manipula- 
tion. Guided by the little that seems to be really known thus far on 
the subject, I have concluded not to use Mr. Whitworth's gun for 
the turrets, but may put one under a small shield in the forecastle of 
each ship. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 291 

I do not know what Mr. Mason expects to come out of the Sumter 
affair. Since our last exchange of letters on the subject, I have ceased 
to think of the matter. I fear the authorities will not let her be sold 
now. When I returned from Terceira she could have been got rid 
of, and I offered tp take all the details upon myself. We are all well 
here. 

Yours, truly, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 
Commander JAMES H. NORTH. 



BELLMOIR HOUSE, 

Bridge of Allan, November 6, 1862. 

DEAR MR. THOMSON : I received a letter from Captain Bulloch day 
before yesterday, in which he tells me that his " ships are getting on 
very satisfactorily, the first is about one-third plated, not armored, 
and the second is half in frame." Now, please do not let him get ahead 
of us, as I am so anxious we should be ready about the same time. 
They (in Liverpool) will be working under sheds during the winter, 
so that we must look out. I shall make you a visit the early part of 
next week. I want Mr. Wilkinson to visit your works so that he 
may report progress, etc. Be sure and have a copy of the contract 
and specifications ready for me to send out by him. 

******* 

Yours, truly, 

JAMES H. NORTH. 
CLYDE BANK FOUNDRY, 

Glasgow. 



LIVERPOOL, November 7, 18&2. 

SIR : Lieutenant Wilkinson sails in a day or two with such reason- 
able expectations of eluding the enemy's blockading ships that I 
hasten to avail myself of the opportunity to send you duplicates of 
former reports and to call your attention to certain matters upon 
which I desire further and more explicit instructions. 

First, contract for revolvers. This contract, whether regularly 
made over by Colonel Le Mat or not, is in the hands of Messrs. C. 
Girard & Co., of Paris. When these, gentlemen, after some corre- 
spondence, declared their willingness to deliver the revolvers upon 
a simple receipt with or without payment, I directed the inspecting 
officer. Lieutenant Chapman, since relieved in this duty by Lieu- 
tenant Evans, to ask for a sample of the pistols already delivered 
to the War Department and to get a written certificate from the 
manufacturer that the one furnished him was identical with those 
previously accepted. He was then to see that the revolvers offered 
for the Navy came fully up to the sample. One hundred have been 
accepted by"Lieutenant~Evans, and I hope they will be here in time 
to send by Lieutenant Wilkinson. Lieutenant Evans reports that 
these hundred are quite as well furnished in every way as the sample, 
but adds that the barrels, lock frames, and hammers are of cast iron; 
that the contact between the barrels and cylinders is so loose as to 



292 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

permit much escape of gas; and that the cylinders, not being pro- 
vided with springs, as in other repeating arms, are apt to revolve too 
far when the pistols are rapidly cocked, so that the hammers are 
likely to fall upon the divisions between the nipples when the firing 
is quick. These are such serious defects that I shall decline receiving 
any more of the revolvers under this contract unconditionally, but 
will write Lieutenant Evans to say to Messrs. Girard & Co. that he 
will forward the balance subject to inspection upon arrival in the 
Confederate States. I presume you have not seen any of the pistols 
already sent forward, but I beg that you will have them inspected 
and instruct me what to do in the matter as soon as possible. The 
ordinary revolver costs in England about G3s. and the grape-shot 
revolver Messrs. C. Girard & Co. are now supplying can be manu- 
factured by the London Armory Co. for something less than 5 
each. 

Armor-clad ships. An unusual amount of bad weather has some- 
what interfered with a certain portion of the work upon the ships 
of this description, but the builders are as anxious as myself to have 
them ready in the stipulated time, and have covered them with eight 
comfortable sheds, and have even introduced gas, so as to insure 
additional hours for work during the short, foggy days of this 
climate. I have decided upon the means of getting the first of these 
ships clear of British jurisdiction in a manner not to infringe her 
Majesty's neutrality proclamation, but the attempt will be attended 
with difficulty and will require to be conducted with such caution and 
secrecy that I fear to mention the plan even in this way. You will, 
I trust, be content to leave the management to my discretion when 
I assure you that I am sanguine of success, unless the conduct of 
the British Government to both belligerents is entirely changed. In 
each attempt to get a ship out, a different plan must be pursued. As 
the first of these ships will be ready to leave England by the first of 
April, it is time to arrange for getting officers detailed and in a posi- 
tion to join her. I am still firmly of the opinion that to send a 
staff of officers to this country would excite comment and suspicion 
and would probably end in failure to accomplish the end in view. 
I have reason to be sure that if I had not sent the Alabama and her 
armament away before the arrival of Captain Semmes and his 
officers, she would have been stopped. I beg leave, therefore, to 
throw out the following suggestion for your consideration. Select 
the officers for each ship, also a few leading men and marines, non- 
commissioned officers who are natives of the South or bona fide citi- 
zens of the Confederacy, to give nationality to the crow and to insure 
the actual possession of the ship until the men shipped at large are 
got into a good state of discipline. Send the first detachment out 
in a steamer especially provided for the purpose, so as to be under 
the command of the senior officer, and direct them to proceed at 
once to the Island of Madeira. Upon arrival at Madeira the senior 
officer should be instructed to notify me by the English as well as 
by the Portuguese mail, to coal his ship, have everything ready to 
sail at short notice, and, if he finds his presence excites comment, 
to go out for a short cruise, leaving a letter with her majesty's 
consul addressed to Captain W. Arkwright, British steamship C''r- 
natic, simply saying that he has gone out for a few days. Or, if 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 293 

circumstances should convince him that it would be better not to 
return to Madeira at all, let him steam slowly up to the Island of 
St. Michael and rendezvous under Ponta Delgada, leaving notice 
of the fact for Captain Arkwright, If there is any reason to sus- 
pect the sj'mpathy of her Majesty's consul, one officer in plain 
clothes, and warned to be discreet, might be left who could not fail to 
recognize the Carnatic on her arrival, from the peculiarity of her 
appearance, a pretty correct drawing of which has already been sent 
you. The steamer employed for this service should be sailed under 
the British flag, or better still the French flag, if a French owner can 
be found for her. and she should be managed in every way as a mer- 
chant vessel, the officers and their staff being simply passengers. 
The Julia Usher, a small steamer belonging to Messrs. Eraser, Tren- 
holm & Co., will very shortly sail for a Southern port. If she gets 
in you might employ her for the service just sketched, or the 
Giraffe, if she can be supplied with coal, would be a still better ship 
from her great speed. It would be well to combine movements so 
that the officers should not arrive much ahead of the ship they are 
to join, and with the state of the blockade under your own eye, you 
can arrange their departure from the Confederacy so as to reach 
Madeira about the 10th of April. The second ship will be ready 
two months after the first, and you will be able to judge of the 
proper time to send the officers for her out, but a different rendez- 
vous should be selected, of which you can inform me as soon as 
possible. I will, however, suggest one in my next communication. 
As Captain Semmes will soon have a thoroughly organized crew, I 
respectfully suggest that one of these ships be put at his disposal. 
The officers sent out could be transferred to the Alabama. I am sure 
Captain Semmes would be pleased with such an arrangement, and I 
have written him that it was my intention to bring the matter to your 
consideration. There may be difficulty in communicating with Cap- 
tain Semmes, but I shall soon know, as he will probably be at the first 
rendezvous agreed upon in a fortnight. I have already sent out a 
cargo of coal to meet him at Fort Royal, Martinique. The ships 
alluded to above are the two turret armed ships building by me 
here. I will not add anything on the subject of my being detailed 
for the command of one of these ships, but beg to refer you to a 
previous letter in which I have set forth my feelings and hopes. My 
ambition is to get afloat, but after what you say in your letter of 
July 12, I feel bound to submit with becoming grace to any as- 
signment of duty for myself you may think the interests of the 
public service require. You will pardon, I hope, the personal char- 
acter of these latter remarks. They are induced by that profes- 
sional pride you are well aware an officer should always possess. 

Additional armor-clad ships could be built here to suit any char- 
acter of service on our coast, but I can not enter upon other contracts 
until the money to meet present engagements is in hand, or until you 
notify me to go on. I am, however, engaged in discussing the plans 
of an ironclad ship of about 2,300 tons, to draw 14 feet water, with 
certain parties who are willing or now profess their willingness to 
build without any cash advances, provided Messrs. Fraser, Tren- 
holm & Co. will guarantee the payment of the cost of the ship when 
she is finished and delivered outside. These gentlemen have gener- 



294 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

ously offered to give this guarantee, and if the details can be satis- 
factorily arranged, I will not hesitate to lay down the ship. The 
builders are evidently backed by persons or capital and influence, 
and the proposition they make to deliver the ship, with guns and 
ordnance stores complete, a league from land is too favorable to be 
disregarded. 

Engines for vessels built at home. It appears from Northern ac- 
counts that you are building quite a number of rams in the home 
ports. It strikes me there must be a lack of engines or the means of 
making them in the Confederacy. It would take but a short time to 
run up a number of such engines, say from 60 to 100 horsepower 
nominal, as would be suitable for these or any other \vssel> intended 
for harbor defense. Up to 100 horsepower good double engines, extra 
strong and low, for small vessels or rams, with large cylinders and 
boilers in convenient parts, could be built here for 40 per horse- 
power. .Larger engines for rather less. I think there would be great 
economy in ordering a number of engines in England for such viv- 
as you may contemplate building hereafter, for even after the war, 
some time must elapse before good machine shops could be got into 
operation, and they can be packed very compactly for shipment. 
should it be necessary to run them in through the blockading fleet. 
Tl^e contracts given out by the department to private parties still 
remain without a beginning. I can only reiterate the opinion already 
expressed, that the persons holding them being without capital or 
financial credit will never be able to carry them out without much 
delay and increased cost to the Government. 

When Captain Semmes arrived in England he found himself so 
well provided with officers that he was willing to dispense with the 
services of Lieutenant Hamilton, who was to have been my first lieu- 
tenant had your original instructions been carried out. Just at this 
time Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co. conceived the very spirited and 
generous design of building a gunboat at their own cost, to be put at 
the disposition of the Confederate Government when completed, and 
they requested me to appoint Lieutenant Hamilton to superintend 
her construction. I had no hesitation in complying with this request 
for very obvious reasons, but have heretofore left the matter to be re- 
ported to you by Lieutenant Hamilton himself. I will say now that 
the gunboat is a fine little vessel of 287 tons, a decided improvement 
upon the English gun vessels of her class, and is well advanced to- 
ward completion. The builder is the same I employed to build the 
Florida, and she will be a staunch, efficient little craft. Lieutenant 
Hamilton will report in detail upon this matter, but I beg leave, re- 
spectfully, to suggest that in view of his disappointment in not go- 
ing out as first lieutenant of the Alabama, the intelligence and inter- 
est he has shown in superintending the ship, and the fact of his being 
actually here present, he be appointed to command her, either to 
cruise or to carry her to the Confederate States as you may see fit to 
direct. If the war continues until next summer, the Confederate 
Navy will be upon the sea in no contemptible force. Indeed, if the 
Government can provide the funds, ships can be set afloat from hence- 
forth very rapidly, as many builders are anxious to work for us and 
designs have already been proved. The Alabama has proved a fine 
ship. A released prisoner, Captain Julius, of the Tonawanda, says 
she is the fastest ship under canvas he has ever been on board of. I 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 295 

watch her proceedings with the deepest interest, and without one 
pang of envy toward her gallant commander, although I confess to 
a feeling of disappointment at having been obliged to part with her. 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, November 7, 1862. 
SIR: I yesterday closed a letter to you relative to building and 
purchasing vessels, etc. 

The cotton certificates which the Treasury Department will issue 
hereafter will be redeemable at current rates at the time and place of 
redemption, and the time will be within six months after the war is 
ended. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Commander M. F. MAURY, C. S. Navy, 

London, England. 



No. 20. 

GLASGOW, SCOTLAND, November 11, 1862. 

SIR : By the last opportunity that offered I sent you complete 
drawings of the ship that I am superintending the building of, and 
by this opportunity I send you a copy of the contract. As I am 
dealing with first-class builders, I had the contract drawn up more 
loosely than I otherwise should have done. But as I had not a cent 
of money when I first agreed with the constructor, I thought it best 
not to be too exacting. All that I did, however, met with the ap- 
proval of Mr. Mason, and I hope that it will also meet with that 
of the department. 

I shall take Mr. Wilkinson and Major Ficklin over the shops and 
yard where I am building, so that they may be able to answer any 
of your questions. I am happy to say that Mr. Sinclair is under- 
way with his ship. I received offers from the house of William L. 
Lindsay & Co., London, of a most favorable kind, but as I had no 
authority to build more than one ship, and Mr. Sinclair was most 
anxiously awaiting the arrival of money, he not being able to do 
anything without it, I handed the said letters over to him, and I am 
most happy to say he (Mr. Sinclair) succeeded in negotiating for some 
60,000, which has enabled him to commence his ship. I think she 
will be a very fine one. In shape she will be somewhat like the 
Alabama, only a little larger, and to be built of wood and iron, with 
greater horsepower, but Mr. Sinclair himself will write you in full. 

The ship that I am superintending is almost in frame, her beams 
being attached to the frames before they are put in their places. 
They are making fine progress with the machinery, and with every- 



296 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORKKSPOXDEXCK, l.Sfil-1Sf>r. 

thing thus far I am very well pleased; but Mr. Wilkinson will be 
able to tell you all. I occasionally send you by the way of Norfolk 
the London Times, as they contain many things of interest to us; I 
hope you receive them. The last I sent you contained the results of 
some very interesting experiments made between the Armstrong and 
Whitworth gun. The results are in favor of the latter. From all 
that I have seen and heard, I do not think the Armstrong gun popu- 
lar with the Navy. The officers generally look upon it as rather a 
dangerous gun, and the seamen I hear are afraid of it, so many acci- 
dents having happened. 

In the ship that I am superintending I shall place some of the 
Whitworths of the largest size, the balance smooth bores, also of 
large caliber. The Whitworth shell thus far is the only shell that 
has penetrated the Warrior target; the effect is described by some 
of the English officers as " terrific." I shall send you some extracts 
from his letter. In my opinion they would be splendid guns to 
defend our Southern harbors against the enemy's ironclads. 

A shot or shell made upon the Whitworth principle and used from 
the rifle guns we now have in the Confederacy would, I expect, be 
most formidable. At any rate, I beg to call your attention to it. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES H. NORTH, 
Commander C. /S. Navy. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy, l?'n-Itinond. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 

Navy Department, U)<-hin<L November 14, 

My DEAR SIR : Mr. Sanders desires to leave to-morrow morning. 

Mr. [Thomas W.] Benthall, of Baltimore, a master in our Navy and 

a capable shipmaster and in all respects a judicious and reliable man, 

will resign his position for a time, proceed at once to Baltimore, 

purchase a vessel and a portion of a cargo, clear for Boston, and 

pick up Mr. Sanders near Wolf Trap, in Matthews County, Va., and 

proceed to Halifax. 

I think that the aggregate expense of vessel, fitting out, cargo, 
advances, etc., will be about $5,500 in Federal currency. 

Mr. Benthall may be relied upon as a judicious agent. The ad- 
vance of funds can, I learn, be arranged through Mr. Carey, who is 
a cashier in a Baltimore bank and is now an officer in our Signal 
Corps. 

This plan seems to me to promise entire success. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. E. MALLORY, 

Secretary Navy. 
Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, 

Secretary of State, Richmond. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 297 

Memorandum to be handed to Hon. Secretary of the Navy by Major 

FicMin. 

NOVEMBER 15, 1862. 

On the 10th Hon. J. M. Mason sent me instructions to sell the 
fru inter. 

AYill have the ship inspected and appraised by experts and sold by 
auction as soon as possible. A British subject has agreed to buy her 
at the appraised value, if no one bids higher. Such material as will 
be useful in fitting a new ship will be preserved. Everything else 
will be sold either with the ship or in separate lots, as may be most 
advantageous. 

Have alreadj r taken steps to carry out the above and hope soon to 
be able to report the affair concluded. 

Have written fully upon all other points of duty by Lieutenant 
AVilkinson. 

Business still progressing favorably, but am exceedingly anxious 
to hear from the department on the subject of money. Could extend 
operations to any extent and for every kind of supplies, if sure that 
means have been devised for getting funds over here with certainty 
even a year hence. Am prepared to lay down two ships, class of No. 
2, on partial credit, if sure of means of payment being at hand a year 
hence. 

Have had nothing from the Department since 30th July. I write 
by every opportunity and send duplicates. 

Major F. takes these hurried notes. From the manner in which 
he goes, I fear to be more explicit. 

B [TTLLOCH] . 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, 
Raleigh, N. (' ., November 15, 1862. 

DEAR SIR : His Excellency Governor Vance has received your 
letter stating that he had the control of a quantity of railroad iron, 
and asking his consent to have the same rolled into plate to be used 
upon boats now being built in this State. His Excellency presumes 
that your informant, Commander Cooke, alludes to the iron of the 
Atlantic road. 

The State is but a stockholder in the road, a large portion belong- 
ing to private individuals. A meeting of the directors of the com- 
pany has been called and your proposition will be submitted to 
them. Their decision will be made known to you. 
Yours, very respectfully, 

DAVID A. BARNES, 
Aid-de-camp to the Governor. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



RICHMOND, VA., November 15, 
Decision on the appeal made by the Secretary of the Navy on the 

question of compensation to the chief clerk of the Navy. 

Act No. 130 has for its title u To provide a compensation [for] 

the disbursing officers of the several executive departments." It 



298 XAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

directs the head of each department to appoint one of his clerks as 
a disbursing clerk. It fixes his salary at $200 in addition to his 
compensation as clerk for disbursing the funds of said department, 
which may be required to pass through his hands. It repeals all 
laws and parts of laws on this subject now in force. The virtue of 
this repealing clause can only be determined by asserting what is the 
meaning of the words "this subject," that is to say. what is the 
subject on which act No. 1>K) was intended to operate. There seems 
to be but one possible answer to this, both in the title and words of 
the law. The subject is the appointment and compensation of dis- 
bursing officers of the executive departments. I think the Secretary 
of the Treasury must, in the hurry of business, have overlooked the 
special object of the law. when he said that this repealing clause h;id 
reference to the subject of disbursing. Its only two provisions 
relate to the appointment and compensation of the disbursing offi- 
cers of the executive departments; one of these is plainly stated in 
the title, and both in the body of the law. Now, the act Xo. ;">:> had 
assigned to the chief clerk of the Navy Department, " the duties of 
disbursing agents and corresponding clerk of said department," and 
affixed $600 per annum as extra compensation thereof : that is to say, 
for these two duties. That part, therefore, of the law which imposed 
on the chief clerk the duties of disbursing and allowed him com- 
pensation for that duty was repealed, and the Secretary of the Navy 
has power to assign to any other clerk the duty of disbursing and 
to allow him $200 therefor; but that part of the law \vhieh imposed 
on the chief clerk the duty of correspondence and allowed him 
extra compensation for that duty was not repealed. If the Secretary 
of the Xavy had appointed another clerk to the duty of disbursing 
clerk, that clerk would have been entitled to $200 per annum. His 
chief clerk would still have remained charged with the duty of cor- 
respondence, and, by the plain language of the statute, this duty is 
declared to be an extra duty and entitled to extra compensation, 
but no other compensation (extra) was provided than $600 a year 
for the performance of this, together with another extra duty. The 
Secretary seems to have avoided any question as to the amount to be 
paid for the separate duty of corresponding by continuing to con- 
fide to his chief clerk the duty of disbursing also. The history of 
the law, and the intention of Congress may have been such as the 
Secretary of the Treasury states them, and his memory on the sub- 
ject is no doubt correct, but Congress has, in my opinion, failed to 
express that intention, and its language does not bear the construc- 
tion placed on it by the Secretary of the Treasury. It is impossible 
for me to concur in his view that, although Statute Xo. 55 expressly 
declares the correspondence to be an extra duty of the chief clerk, 
and Statute Xo. 130 has not one word on the subject of correspond- 
ence, yet the latter statute repeals the former on that subject. 
Such a constructive repeal would be, so far as I am informed, un- 
precedented and contrary to the rules which govern the construction 
of statutes. My opinion is that the former law in relation to the 
duty and extra pay for correspondence remains unrepealed, and that 
the salary of the chief clerk of the Xavy remains as it was fixed 
under act Xo. 55. inasmuch as he still continues to perform the duties 
of disbursing clerk as well as corresponding clerk of the depart- 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 299 

ment. Though it is true that the act No. 55 imposes on the chief 
clerk of the Navy the duty of disbursing agent, not clerk, but his 
duties in that regard being the same as those of the disbursing clerks 
of other departments, no importance is attached to this difference in 
the description of the office. 

JEFFERSON DAVIS. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 

[Copy to C. G. Memminger, Secretary of the Treasury.] 



CLYDE BANK FOUNDRY, 
Glasgow, November 18, 1862. 

MY DEAR SIR: I hand herewith intimation for maturity of next 
installment of your ship, which be good enough to transmit, as ar- 
ranged, to Mr. Bulloch. The weather has now much improved; 
should it continue at all favorable, we fully expect to make very good 
progress. We have commenced plating at forebody, and hope to 
have nearly the one-half (if the weather keeps good, possibly the 
complete half) plated by New Year. 

With kind regards, yours, truly, 

GEORGE THOMSON. 
J. H. NORTH, Esq. 



LIVERPOOL, November %1, 1863. 

SIR : Since the date of the letter enclosed with this I have received 
authority from the Hon. James M. Mason, by whose order Captain 
Semmes laid up the Sumter at Gibraltar, to sell that vessel, with all 
her equipments, and to dispose of the latter in such manner as would 
most conduce to the interests of the Confederate Government. I 
have taken the steps necessary to effect this purpose by engaging a 
ship broker to go to Gibraltar and to have the Sumter appraised by 
experts, and Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co. have agreed to buy her 
at the appraised value should no one bid higher. I hope, therefore, 
to have the sale concluded in a fortnight, and will pass whatever sum 
she may bring to the credit of the Navy Department. 

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 
8th October in reference to the acceptance of a gunboat presented 
to the C. S. Navy by Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co., and have 
thanked those gentlemen for their munificent present, as you re- 
quested. You allude to a letter of the 20th September in which you 
have given me full instructions upon several matters and informa- 
tion on the subject of money. That letter is not yet at hand, but I 
look for it by Captain M. F. Maury, who is reported as having ar- 
rived at Bermuda some time since and who will probably be here to- 
morrow in the Boston steamer via Halifax. Your instructions shall 
meet my prompt attention. 

A vessel is to sail direct for the Confederate States in about two 
weeks and will afford me a safe opportunity of writing fully on all 



300 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

subjects. The original of the enclosed letter went by Lieutenant 
Wilkinson. The work upon the armored ships progresses favorably. 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH, 
Commander, C. /S. Xary. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



BRIDGE or ALLAN, November 21, 1862. 

DEAR SIR : I enclose a note received from the Messrs. Thomson. I 
visited their shipyard yesterday and approve of all they have said 
in their letter of the 18th. 

If you have seen Mr. Whit worth and know how the rifling of his 
guns have stood the firing of the steel shot and shell, I should be 
pleased to hear. 

Yours, truly, 

JAMES II. NORTH. 
Commander J. D. BULLOCH. 



GENERAL ORDER.] CoXFKDF. I! ATE STATES OF AMERICA, 

Navy Department, Richmond^ November 22, 1862. 

I. The following articles are substituted for Articles 2 and 3 of 
Chapter II, of the Navy Regulations, approved April 29, 1862: 

For Article 2, General Military Command. 

Of the commission and warrant officers, the following only shall 
exercise general military command, and in the order in which they 
are placed : Admiral, flag-officer, captain, commander, lieutenant 
commanding, first lieutenant, second lieutenant, lieutenant for the 
Avar, master, passed midshipman, midshipman, boatswain, gunner, 
master's mate, if warranted. 

For Article 3, Officers restricted in their right to command. 

The other commission and warrant officers shall be restricted in 
their right to command to their own respective corps, unless spe- 
cially extended. They are as follows: Surgeon, paymaster, chief 
engineer, naval constructor, secretary to commander in chief, passed 
assistant surgeon, assistant paymaster, first assistant engineer, assist- 
ant surgeon, second assistant} engineer, third assistant engineer, car- 
penter, sailmaker. 

II. In determining the relative and assimilated rank of officers 
who resigned from the Navy of the United States to take service 
in the Navy of the Confederate States, reference will be had to the 
date of commissions held by them in the Navy of the United States. 



WATERLOO, November 23, 1862. 

DEAR SIR: Your note of the 21st, covered by one of the 18th 
instant, from the Messrs. Thomson, came to hand yesterday, and I 
will be prepared to make the payment at the time specified. I have 
no drawing of any carriage especially for the Brooke gun; a simple 
tracing of the gun itself was all that was sent me from Richmond, 
which I will send if you wish it. Colonel Clay is very frequently 



KAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 301 

absent, but I managed to get hold of him last week, and asked him 
for estimates for 9 and 8 inch wrought-iron guns. He wished a few 
days to make drawings and close calculations, and promised to give 
me full information early this week, which I will hand over to you 
as requested through our friend Sinclair. Colonel Clay forges his 
guns hollow, and screws in the breech pieces, and his work is very 
thorough, as proved by the trials of the two guns called the Horsfull 
and the Prince Alfred. 

I had a very satisfactory interview with Mr. Whitworth at Man- 
chester on Friday last. He took me over his works and gave me 
very minute descriptions of his gun and its performances. I did not 
like to ask him in direct terms how many of his guns had worn out 
in the bore, but observed that he particularly mentioned that the 
hardened shot would only be occasionally used. The mode of con- 
struction at his works, irrespective of mere finish, is the most perfect 
and thorough I have ever seen, and I believe his gun tp be the strong- 
est now made. I expect a letter from Mr. Whitworth himself to- 
morrow, with detailed specifications, and will let you have a copy if 
you desire one. 

I have one ship nearly plated. 
Yours, truly, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Commander JAMES H. XORTH. 



BELLMOIR HOUSE, 

Bridge of Allan, November 24. 

DEAR SIR: Yours of the 23d came safely to hand this morning. 
I am glad to hear that you have still a in the locker. I would be 
pleased to have a tracing of the Brooke gun and carriage, with the 
scale marked. As soon as you can hear from Colonel Clay I should 
be pleased to hear from you. 

I think it high time my guns were underway. I am anxious to 
visit Mr. Whitworth's establishment myself. I understand the visit 
is a most interesting one. 

I shall be very glad to have a copy of the letter, with detailed 
specifications, etc., that you expect from him. 

I am afraid that you are getting ahead of me with your ships. I 
think it would be a good plan to agree upon the style of dress, 
blankets, china, plate, etc., that we want. We have a gentleman 
with us at present whom you know very well (Mr. Hasseltine) and 
whom I am sure would be most happy to attend to anything in the 
woolen and linen way for us without charging any commission. In 
the hardware line, Mr. Tennant says that he would be most happy. 

I write this for I think it would be as well for all of us to fix upon 
the same pattern. I should like to have about six of the Whitworth 
guns, but I must confess his charges frighten me. To think of 700 
for each gun and 5 for each flat-headed shell almost takes away one's 
breath. If you are flush in funds, I certainly shall order some of 
them. Sinclair has just informed me that he is writing you, so I 
suppose he will say his own say. 
Yours, truly, 

J. H. NORTH. 

Commander J. D. BULLOCH, 



302 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

Letter of tJianks to Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co. referred to in 
letter of November 21. 

LIVERPOOL, November 24, 1S62. 

GENTLEMEN : I am in receipt of a letter from the Hon. S. R. Mill- 
lory, Secretary of the Navy of the Confederate States, directing me 
to inform you that he accepts with pleasure the gunboat you have -n 
generously offered to place at the disposal of the Government, and to 
thank you in his name for this donation, as timely as it is munificent. 

Providence has ordained that acts of purely unselfish generosity 
shall so react upon the hearts of those who freely give, as to convey 
their own reward, and to render extravagant expressions of praise 
and gratitude not only superfluous but even at times unpleasing. 
You will, I am sure, therefore be content if I convey to you the ac- 
knowledgments of the Navy Department in the simplest form of 
official language, but it will nevertheless be a pleasing reflection to 
you hereafter that in the archives of our youthful Confederacy, as 
part of the record of its struggle for life, will be inscribed the fact 
that you received the thanks of a high officer of State for services in 
the cause of our common country, very few private individuals of 
any nation have had either the means or the inclination to render 
under like circumstances. 

It only remains for me, gentlemen, to express my gratification 
at the fortunate circumstances which have made me the medium 
through whom the honorable Secretary of the Navy has thought 
proper to convey his thanks to you, and to assure you of the perfect 
accord of sentiment on this subject between the spirit of my instruc- 
tions and myself. 

I am, gentlemen, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMKS D. BILI.OCH, 
Commander, Confederate Navy. 

Messrs. FRASER, TRENHOLM & Co. 



FUNCHAL, MADEIRA, November 25, 186. 

MY DEAR SIR: I know you will excuse the brevity of my note in 
consideration of the fact that I have selected you to address a pri- 
vate note to from among my friends in England and, moreover, that 
I have only a few moments to spare. We arrived day before yes- 
terday, in eight days from Glasgow, the latter part of the passage 
very rough, during which the steamer proved herself a capital sea 
boat. I had not time to write to you from Glasgow with regard to 
a passage for your nephew ; another route would unquestionably be 
quicker and safer. I hope to have the pleasure of seeing him at my 
own home and of endeavoring to repay some of the many obliga- 
tions I owe your firm, individually and collectively. All well on 
board and in good spirits, in the hope of reaching our destination 
in time at least to take a Christmas dinner at home. Please present 
my warm regards to friends, and believe me, 
Yours, etc., 

J. WILKINSON. 

E. P. STRINGER, Esq., 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 303 

Order to Mr. Wilson, broker, to sell the C, S. steamer Sumter. 

LIVERPOOL, November 25, 1862. 

DEAR SIR : You will proceed to Gibraltar and sell at public auction 
the S. S. Sumter, with all her apparel, as per advertisement already 
published. 

Lieutenant Chapman, C. S. Navy, the officer now in charge of the 
friir/t.fer. will furnish you with an inventory of all the stores remain- 
ing on board and will advise you what portion of them will be re- 
tained for shipment here. The balance you will please sell in lots 
to the highest bidder. If, in the opinion of yourself and Lieutenant 
Chapman, there are any articles which would sell to better ad- 
vantage here, taking into consideration the cost of transportation, 
you will please send them on, either in the Sumter, if the purchaser 
orders her to Liverpool, or by some regular trader. 

There are on board the Sumter certain stores and articles of va- 
rious kinds which were captured during the late cruise. I wish you 
would keep a separate account of them, so that the sum accruing 
from their sale may be quite distinct from the proceeds of the ship 
and her proper equipment. 

You have a power of attorney authorizing you to act as the agent 
of the Confederate Government in this transaction, and I have only 
to urge that you will be governed in your conduct by a due regard 
to its interests. It is not necessary for me to give you detailed in- 
structions, as we have conversed freely upon the business you are 
about to undertake, and I will confirm any arrangement of details 
that may be agreed upon between yourself and Lieutenant Chap- 
man, who is thoroughly acquainted w r ith the condition of the ship 
and is fully informed as to my wishes. 

Herewith I hand you a letter of introduction to Lieutenant Chap- 
man, and \vishing you a speedy and satisfactory conclusion of your 
mission, 

I am, respectfully and truly yours, 

JAMES D. BTJLLOCH, 

Commander, C. S. Navy. 
Mr. JAMES A. K. WILSON. 



LIVERPOOL, November 26, 1862. 

DEAR SIR: Your letter of the 24th instant is at hand, and I note 
your particular inquiries. Let me first, however, speak of money, 
upon which all our plans and propositions must hinge. In my last 
dispatch from the Navy Department, I am informed that bonds have 
been sent over here for negotiation and that the agent for placing 
them is directed to pay my requisitions to the full amount of any 
contracts I may have entered into. The honorable Secretary of the 
Xdvy asks if the sum necessary to complete your ship is included in 
the amount I advised him should be provided to meet outstand- 
ing contracts, and says. "If not. you will counsel with Commander 
North at once, disclose the difficulty of sending funcls, my sug- 
gestions for raising them, and act jointly or separately in the comple- 
tion of his vessel, as may be deemed best for the interests of our 
country, your cordial cooperation in all matters of consequence to 



304 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

her, being confidently looked for." I need not assure you that my 
cooperation will always be cheerfully rendered. The honorable 
Secretary adds that independently of the contingent resources to be 
derived from the sale of bonds, T may raise money by other means, 
depending upon my individual efforts. You are aware that an ap- 
proximate allowance was made for the cost of your ship in the 
statement sent by me to the Navy Department some time since, but 
it is now necessary to come to close figures, as there will be many 
demands upon the funds that may be realized from the sale of the 
bonds. Mr. Spence has been appointed agent for the sale of the 
bonds, and it is clearly for the interest of the Govrrnment that I 
should make no individual efforts until he has tried the money 
market. As time is rapidly passing, however, and the funds re- 
maining in my hands will soon be exhausted, it is necessary that I 
should know in exact figures how much will be wanted for existing 
naval operations, so as not to touch upon the necessities of the 
other departments who have orders upon the same source of supply. 
I will just mention here that the Secretary of the Treasury's or- 
ders are that the Navy requisitions shall take precedence of all 
others for the present at least. If Mr. Spence can not, in a short 
time, realize upon the bonds he has in hand I will be forced to try 
my own chances among Southern sympathizers, and the honorable 
Secretary has given me full power to raise money in any way that 
may be feasible. Please inform me, therefore, at your earliest con- 
venience, what sum you will require to equip your ship for sea, ex- 
clusive of the 22,000 due on the 28th instant, and which I will 
send to Messrs. J. and G. Thomson on that day, so that I may make 
the necessary requisitions upon the fiscal agents of the Govern- 
ment, or allow for it in my own negotiations. I told you in my last 
I had no drawing of the Brooke carriage. I send the gun, but I 
wish you would return it when you have made a tracing. The esti- 
mate from Colonel Clay I will send as soon as I have it. In refer- 
ence to the purchase of plate, china, hardware, etc., it is not necessary 
for me to employ a third party. All those things are included in 
my contract for the ship and are to be supplied at the cost of the 
builder. It is, of course, left for me to select the patterns. You 
saw those for the Alabama why not adopt the same style? I must 
confess that I never like to do by proxy what I can do myself. 
If we were about to order a cargo of dry goods and hardware for 
shipment to America there would probably be a saving by emplo} T ing 
experts in those lines of trade to make our purchases, but the amount 
of such articles required for our two or three ships is very small 
and can be picked up quietly through the builders of the ships them- 
selves without attracting notice; a multiplicity of agents gives 
publicity to any transaction. As to dress, the uniform is, I believe, 
established by regulation. I do not know, however, whether we can 

fet grey flannel for the men. If vou know anything on this point 
will be glad to hear it: indeed, I will be happy to have any sug- 
gestions upon the above points and will cheerfully cooperate in 
any plan you and Sinclair may suggest to insure uniformity. Here- 
tofore I have been very sanguine about getting the first of my 
ships to sea, but something of vital importance to us is brewing at 
the foreign office, and I fear the English ministry are about to forbid 
any shipment of supplies, or the sailing of vessels for the service 



XAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 305 

of either belligerent, and they will, I fear, issue the restriction in 
such a form as will prevent any British subject aiding us. 

I send the memorandum of your contract, which I have over- 
looked heretofore. Please tell Sinclair I will write him in a day 
or two and will send what he wants. 
I am, yours, truly, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 
Commander JAMES H. NORTH. 



FUNCHAL, MADEIRA, November 29, 1862. 

DEAR SIR: Having received intelligence that the American bark 
Lauraetta, Wells, master, was, while on a voyage from New York 
to this place, destroyed at sea by the armed steamer Alabama, and as 
the said vessel Laumetta had on board a quantity of cargo as per in- 
closed bill of lading and invoice, belonging to the shipper of said 
cargo and to me, both British subjects, I have, with a view to fixing 
the amount I shall, under protest to be made at your office, have to 
claim from any parties directly or indirectly concerned in the said 
named steamer Alabama, to beg that you will be good enough to 
name two or more competent persons and request them to report to 
you in writing what would have been the value in this market of the 
cargo mentioned in the said bill of lading and invoice had the vessel 
arrived here in regular course. 

I remain, respectfully, dear sir, your obedient servant, 

CHAS. R. BLANDY. 
. D. H. ERSKIXE, Esq., 

Her Majstey's Consul, etc. 

I, David H. Erskine, Esq., her Britannic Majesty's consul for the 
Island of Madeira, do hereby certify that the preceding is a true and 
faithful extract from the general register book kept at this con- 
sulate. 

Given under my hand and seal of office at Funchal, Madeira, this 
16th day of December, 1862. 

[SEAL.] DAVID H. ERSKINE, 

Her Britannic Majesty's Consul. 

[Enclosure.] 

BRITISH CONSULATE, 
Madeira, November 28, 1862. 

GENTLEMEN : On the requisition of Mr. Charles R. Blandy, British 
merchant of this island, I hereby request you jointly or severally to 
estimate and report to me in writing what would have been the 
value in this market of the cargo mentioned in the accompanying 
invoice and bill of lading had the American bark Lauraetta, Wells, 
master, by which vessel the same was shipped from New York, ar- 
rived here in regular course. 

I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your most obedient servant, 

DAVID H. ERSKINE, 

Her Majesty's Consul. 
JONQUIN IRZE BERNES, 
IVAN DE SALLES CALORA, and 
NICHOLAS KROHN, 

Esquires, Funchal. 

176429 VOL 2 PT 121 20 



306 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 18C1-1865. 

I, David H. Erskine, Esq., her Britannic Majesty's consul for the 
Island of Madeira, do hereby certify that the preceding is a true ami 
faithful extract from the general register book kept at this consulate. 

Given under my hand and seal of office at Funchal, Madeira, this 
16th day of December, 1862. 

[SEAL.] DAVID H. EKSKINE, 

Her Britannic Majesty^ Consul. 



MADEIRA, November 29, 
SIR: In conformity with the annexed requisition we, the under- 
signed, do hereby declare that at date, the following would have Won 
the value of the cargo (in bond) of the American bark Lauraetta, 
Wells, master, from New York, had that vessel arrived here in due 
course, viz : 

998 barrels of flour % Rs. 8,300 8, 283, 400 

295 boxes herrings @ 500 147, r><M 

3,600 pipe staves @ 135,000 per 1,200 405,000 

8,835,900 

Say total value of cargo (in bonds) eight thousand eight hundred 
thirty-five million and nine hundred reis, Maderia currency. 
We are, sir, yours very respectfully, 

JONQUIN IRZE BERNES. 
I. DE SALLES CALOKA. 
N. KROIIN. 
DAVID H. ERSKINE, Esq., 

Her Britannic Majesty's Consul. 

I, David H. Erskine, Esq., her Britannic Majesty's consul for the 
island of Madeira, do hereby certify that the preceding is a true and 
faithful extract from the general register book kept at this consulate. 

Given under my hand and seal of office at Funchal, Madeira, this 
16th day of December, 1862. 

[SEAL.] DAVID H. ERSKINE, 

Her Britannic Majesty's Consul. 



LIVERPOOL, December #, 1862. 

SIR : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
September 20, which was handed me a few days since by Commander 
M. F. Maury. The matters therein discussed shall have my best at- 
tention, but the opportunity of sending anything to you has so 
unexpectedly occurred that I have but little time to reply in full. I 
regret that you have not received my letter of July 21, because I 
have been in hopes that by this time I should have had your opinion 
of the rams. Letters to Messrs. John Fraser & Co., by the same 
mail and under the same cover with mine to you, have been received 
and answered, and I can not account for the failure of mine to reach 
you. Herewith I send duplicate. 



1TAVT DEPARTMENT CORRESPOTirDEISreE, 1861-1865. 307 ' 

Mr. Spence has gone to London to see what can be done with the 
bonds, and I shall not take any individual steps to raise money until 
he has tried the market. If the several Government officers now in 
Europe, each with authority to borrow money for separate and dis- 
tinct purposes, were to act independently, they would be practically 
bidding against each other. I have just received a letter from Com- 
mander Maury, requesting me to go to London to discuss a joint 
plan of procedure and will leave here to join him in the morning. 
It is greatly to be regretted that the proposition for a loan made by 
Messrs. Erlanger & Co., of Paris, should not have been earlier in the 
hands of the Government, as I fear the present mode of raising 
money will somewhat interfere with the operation suggested by them 
and which would at once place us all in funds. You shall have the 
result of our efforts -by the first opportunity. I have still funds 
enough on hand to go on with existing contracts for a month or two 
and do not anticipate any check to the work. The two armor-clad 
turret armed ships are progressing satisfactorily. I begin to fear 
that the Government will interfere with any attempt to get them 
out. The United States minister is pressing hard, to induce the 
authorities to interfere, and the number of real and pretended agents 
of the Government over here has unfortunately given great publicity 
to the proceedings. However, I will go on as if still confident of 
success. Will write by Nassau on the 25th and by a vessel to sail 
direct early in January. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, December 13, 1862. 

SIR : The last dispatch received from you was of the 26th of Sep- 
tember, 1862. I presume that your two iron ships are progressing 
rapidly to completion. The efforts of the Federal Government to 
prevent their completion have caused me great anxiety, knowing as 
I do the difficulty and delicacy of your situation ; but I trust that you 
will be able to accomplish your work and place them at sea success- 
fully. 

My letters of the 27th of October, 3d and 20th of November, dupli- 
cates of which you now have, explained my efforts to keep you in 
funds, and I hope that you have been able to realize my expectations, 
and that no want of funds will delay you. These arrangements con- 
templated your raising funds for the completion of the ship being 
built by Commander North, as well as by yourself. 

I trust that you have been able to contract for the four ships of 
the Alabama class, as directed in my letter of the 20th of November. 

Fully appreciating your public services and your anxiety to com- 
mand one of the ships you are building, I desire to comply with your 
wishes, and will select an officer to take your place when the neces- 
sity arises, to whom you will explain as fully as possible your con- 
tracts and manner of conducting our affairs. 



308 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

You will advise me as frequently as practicable of your progress, 1 
state particularly when you expect to set to sea, using cipher for 
important remarks, and tell me what officers you desire. 

The three vessels should get to sea as nearly together as possible. ' 
T am, respectfully, your obedient servant. 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Commander JAMES D. BULLOCH, C. S. Navy, 

Liverpool, England. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, December 13, ISO.'. 
SIR: The last dispatch received from you is dated the 29th of 
September, 1862. 

I trust that the efforts which 1 have made have placed you in 
funds for the completion of the ship, and that no delays will occur 
in this important matter. If, in your judgment, you can expedite 
the work in any way, you must not hesitate to adopt the measures 
to do so. 

The efforts of the Lincoln Government to induce the British au- 
thorities to interfere with your work have caused me great anxiety, 
knowing how much the difficulties of your task must be thereby 
increased; but I trust that your judgment and watchfulness will 
deprive the British Government of all decent pretexts for interfering. 
The three iron ships should get to sea as nearly about the same 
time as practicable. 

A set of drawings have reached me, representing, I presume, your 
ship; but I have no knoAvledge of the fact, and as yet I am without 
a knowledge of any important details regarding her. 

Keep me advised by every safe opportunity, using your cipher only 
for important words. Herewith you have a duplicate of my letters 
of the 2d and 26th of October. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALL.ORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Commander JAMES H. NORTH, C. S. Navy. 

Liverpool, England. 



BELLMOIR HOUSE, 

P>rnl(jc of All an, December 16, 1862. 

I have received your letter of the llth instant, enclosing a list of 
prices for your rifled guns, carriages, etc. 

Please inform me when you could deliver 4 of the 70-pounders, 240 
of the " flat-fronted " shells for penetrating armor plates, 400 ordi- 
nary shells, with fuses fitted for same. 

1 should be pleased to know the price and weight of the 10-inch 
bore gun and how soon you will be prepared to deliver such a gun. 
Are your gun carriages made of mahogany or white elm ? 
An early answer will oblige, 
Yours, respectfully, 

JAMES II . NORTH. 
The WHITWORTH ORDNANCE Co. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 309 

. LIVERPOOL, December 17, 1862. 

DEAR SIR : Colonel Clay has at last given me estimates for 9-inch 
and 8-inch wrought-iron guns. He says that never having made them 
of these dimensions, the cost can not be exactly determined before- 
hand, but the figures given will be the extreme price. 
9-inch wrought-iron gun, weight 7 to 8 tons, 500. 
8-inch wrought-iron gun, weight 95 hundredweight, 400. 
I have voluminous dispatches from the Navy Department and will 
write you again to-morrow, 1'lease tell Sinclair I will write him to- 
morrow and send the ordnance manual, etc. 
In great haste, I am. yours, truly, 

BTTLLOOH. 
Commander J. H. NORTH. 



' LIVERPOOL, December 18, 1862. 

SIR: I have just had the honor to receive by way of Nassau letters 
from you of the following dates : July 23, October 2, October 27, and 
November 4. "With these I receive a draft upon Messrs. Fraser, 
Trenholm & Co. for $1,000,000 to be paid out of the proceeds of 
bonds now in the hands of Mr. Spence for sale. The letter of July 
23 is not the original of that date and does not contain the forms of 
commissions you direct me to have printed. As soon as the letter 
containing them reaches me I will put them in the hands of an en- 
graver. 

I am gratified to learn that you approve of my designs for the two 
armor-clad ships. Everyone who has seen them in progress of con- 
struction has expressed satisfaction with their general arrangements 
and combination of qualities. As their life must necessarily begin 
with a sea voyage of over 3,000 miles, it was absolutely necessary to 
secure fair seagoing qualities and good speed, which, I think, could 
not have been accomplished on less draft and dimensions. I de- 
signed these ships for something more than harbor or even coast de- 
fense, and I confidently believe if ready for sea now, they could sweep 
away the entire blockading fleet of the enemy. Some of the Federal 
ironclads are undoubtedly formidable, and our two could not prob- 
ably cope with them in smooth watr. But then ours could shun the 
heavy, unwieldly tubs the enemy have thuB far built and would 
drown them out at sea. I have watched Avith pride and satisfaction 
the performances of the improvised armored vessels you have set 
afloat upon our home waters, and intelligent officers of the British 
Navy have wondered that so much has been accomplished with such 
insignificant means. In your practice to determine the necessary 
thickness of iron and the proper inclination of sides, you speak of 
penetrating 6 inches of plating. I am led to believe that there must 
be some defect in the metal used, or perhaps it is put on in a series 
of thin plates. No plate thicker than 5^ inches has been penetrated 
here, and only with the Whitworth gun and projectile. I am in- 
formed that the gun used In the trial wore itself out in the effort, 
and has been declared unserviceable. All experiments of the above 
kind are conducted under circumstances very favorable to the guns 
used, and the iron is by no means so advantageously placed as it 
would be when sustained by the continuous plating along the side- 
of a ship. A strict construction of these experiments would lead 
you to underrate the resisting power of ships. A vessel in motion, 



310 'NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

constantly changing her angles of. inclination, both in a longitudinal 
and transverse direction, would be far more favorably situated :t> 
regards the projectiles fired against her sides than a target upon 
the smooth, still surface of the practice ground. The results of ex- 
periments here and on the Continent have led to the belief that 
nothing is gained by inclining the sides of armored ships, especially 
if intended for sea service. At Shceburyness and in Holland plates 
have been penetrated at whatever angle placed, even as acute as 65, 
hence all iron ships building in Europe have vertical sides to get 
more room. Even Captain Coles has straightened up his turrets in 
order to adapt them to the use of muzzle loading guns without in- 
creasing their diameter. 

As I have previously informed you, it has been found necessary 
bo modify the original plans of the two rams as the progress of the 
work suggested improvements, but in no material points. I have re- 
duced the number of turrets to two in each ship, thereby getting a 
better position for them and securing a better arrangement of bulk- 
heads and apartments below. In each turret will be mounted two 
guns parallel to each other and 5 feet from center to center; caliber 
of gun, f) inches; weight of gun, 11 tons; projectile, about 240 
pounds. These guns are being now made under the immediate super- 
intendence of Captain Blakely, and are built up from an inner core 
or tube of steel. The training of the guns will be effected wholly 
by the movement of the turrets themselves, and the deck arrange- 
ments are such that the angles of fire will be 25 from the line 
of the keel one way and 30 the other. Besides these heavy guns 
inside the turrets, I shall place a Whitworth 70-pourider upon the 
stern and bow of each ship, without other cover than the fixed or 
stationary bulwark which extends for some distance from their 
extremities. Upon the conclusion of the treaty for authority to use 
the revolving turret, I found that our dimensions were almost pre- 
cisely those adopted by Captain Coles for the Royal Sovereiyn, and 
the size and weight of guns, as well as the method of mounting them, 
are so nearly identical that one would suppose there had been 
previous consultation, which was not the case. Captain Coles sug- 
gested one important improvement, viz, to make the turntable and 
turret itself eccentric, so that when the guns were run out the weight 
would be balanced and the training more easily effected. I do not 
pretend to have selected the best guns for these ships, the whole 
matter of armored ships and their armament being still in a transi- 
tion state. No one appears to have any fixed opinions, and experi- 
ments and experience are constantly changing the opinion of those 
who have access to official records. Perhaps in a short time some- 
thing positive may be decided, but I could not wait any longer, and 
with the lights at present before me have chosen the guns described 
above, leaving further investigations to those who are directing their 
attention especially and exclusively to the subject of ordnance. 

I have determined not to contract with the parties mentioned in a 
previous letter for a third armor-clad vessel, although Messrs. Fraser, 
Trenholm & Co. still hold to their offer. I could not exactly agree 
with the builders as to the style of the ship. They wished to make 
% a grand experiment upon what they deemed an invention and I did 
not consider the novel arrangements and appliances desirable; be- 
sides, the ship would have been very expensive, and your latest let- 



XAVY DEPARTMENT COREESPO^DEXCE, 1861-1865. 311 

ters. as Aveli as the opinions expressed by Captain Maury, who is 
just from home, led me to the conclusion that the armored ships now 
under construction will satisfy the required wants of the country. 
I am quite prepared to go on with the construction of wooden ships, 
the number you instructed me to build not being complete, but I 
can not make any more contracts until I have money in hand. 
Your suggestions on the subject of raising money have my best 
attention. If my contracts were the only ones to be provided for 
I could act simply and might, with the help of personal friends, be 
able to sell cotton enough to carry me through; but there are several 
officers here belonging to different departments of the Government, 
and the joint requirements of us all amount to a very large sum, 
It is clearly proper, therefore, that we should act through some com- 
mon agent, for otherwise we should be competing in the market. 
If Mr. Spence can sell the bonds sent out to him for negotiation 
there will be ample means to go on with all contracts ; if not, Messrs. 
Fraser, Trenholm & Co. will endeavor to sell cotton. The uncer- 
tainty of the transaction seems likely to deter buyers. They fear the 
continuance of the blockade and the casualties of the war and are 
loth to risk their money except on such terms as will be ruinous to 
us if there should lie a continued demand for money. There is a 
difference between the present circumstances and those under which 
cotton warrants were issued for Lieutenant Sinclair's ship. The 
amount required was comparatively small : the parties who ostensibly 
bought the cotton were in fact the contractors for the ship. I believe 
no money has yet been actually paid, and the ship will always remain 
as security for final payment or the delivery of the cotton. The 
contracts of Commander Xorth and myself, as well as those for the 
"War Department, require cash, and cash only, so that sales on our 
account must be bona fide and for money. I am sure this matter 
gives you much uneasiness. I can only say that we will endeavor to 
act diligently and jointly, and with the help of Mr. Spence in the 
matter of the bonds and the aid of Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co., if 
we are forced into cotton operations, I sincerely hope we may come 
out of our difficulties. You mention that a ^Ir. Chamberlain has 
agreed to furnish me with 100.000 on his arrival in England. I 
shall look anxiously for his arrival. I can keep my present work 
going on for about six weeks longer, by which time good fortune 
may in some way or other put us till in funds. 

I send you a few pages from the record of the exhibition and will 
send amended plans of the ships and turrets when completed. 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH, 
Co7nmander, C. S. Navy. 

Hon. S. R. MALIX>RY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



LIVERPOOL, December 18, 1862. 

DEAR SIR: I wrote you a few lines yesterday just to hand you 
Colonel Clay's estimate for 9 and 8 inch wrought iron guns. 

The Persia brings no news from Richmond in reference to the 
Erlanger propositions for a loan, and unless something comes from 



312 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

the agent sent over to negotiate with our Government very soon, say 
in two weeks from next Saturday, we must make a bona fide effort 
to sell cotton, as the next installment due upon your ship will be the 
last I shall have the means of paying. I think the sum necessary to 
complete the three ironclad ships might be realized by the sale of 
cotton; but the requirements of the home Government, through its 
various officers and agents in Europe, are for a very largo amount 
of money, and people seem afraid to risk their money upon so un- 
certain a speculation as buying an article shut up by a blockading 
fleet and subject to the casualties of war. The cotton certificates 
given out by Mr. Mason for Sinclair's ship do not appear to have 
been a sale, strictly speaking, because no money has been paid, and 
the contractors will always have the ship as a security for the 
money expended. Our necessities require cash to be actually paid 
in hand, for the certificates of cotton ownership on the other side 
of the Atlantic, and I am very fearful that we can not realize the 
amount we desire, because of the wants of others which must be pro- 
vided for at the same time. Mr. Mallory. even in his last dispatches, 
does not appear to be aware that I have been paying for your ship 
out of funds especially sent to me, and says he has no particulars 
whatever from you on the subject of cost, etc. In his very latest 
letter to me, he acknowledges the receipt of one from me. giving full 
particulars of the two rams building here, and tells me how he has 
endeavored to place me in funds, but makes no allusion to your ship. 
I presume, therefore, he has given you especial instructions, as I 
notified him of your contract in my letter referred to above. The 
Government, as you are aware, has appointed Mr. S pence to sell the 
bonds, and he is at work, but I fear with little chance of success. I 
have orders on Fraser. Trenholm & Co.. for $1,000,000 of the pro- 
ceeds of the bonds, but my additional orders will more than cover that 
amount. What I propose to do for myself is to borrow in small sums 
from Southerners who have been fortunate enough to make money 
by the rise in cotton, and thus to carry my present contracts along 
until Mr. Spence gives up his efforts or Messrs. Krlangers agent is 
heard from; then, if these means of raising funds in large amounts 
for the general uses of the various departments fail, I will be forced 
to make an individual effort to sell cotton through the house of 
Fraser, Trenholm & Co. or some other, as authorized by the Xavy 
Department. Branches of the War Department, as well as our own, 
are in want of money and if we were to act at once and without con : 
cert, we would go into the market as competitors. Mr. Prioleau has 
drawn up a form of cotton warrant more clear, concise, and business- 
like than any I have seen, and is sounding the speculative men of 
Manchester and elsewhere to see how much can with certainty be sold. 

I think you had better make out an estimate of what you will re- 
quire as soon as possible, so as to be ready to claim the amount,' 
should any of the methods now in progress for raising money suc- 
ceed. All funds are ordered to be paid to Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm 
& Co. and a good many orders have already been given upon them 
by the various departments at home. 
I am, yours, truly, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Commander JAMES H. NORTH. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 313 

BRIDGE OF ALLAN, December 19, 1862. 

DEAR SIR: Your two letters have come safely to hand; have not 
time to answer to-day, but will very shortly. I enclose you the notice 
from the Messrs. Thomson. Sinclair and myself visited the yard 
yesterday ; found everything progressing. The ship, I think, will be 
fully half plated by the time the payment will be due. I am writing 
against time. 

Yours, truly, 

JAMES H. NORTH. 
Commander JAMES D. BFLLOCH. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond, December 20, 1862. 
SIR : I transmit herewith triplicate of a draft on Fraser, Trenholm 
& Co., of Liverpool, for the proceeds of the sale of $1,000,000 in 
bonds. The first and duplicate were sent to you separately last 
month. 

T am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Commander JAMES D. BULLOCH, 

Liverpool, England. 

P. S. I have sent you form for commissions for the Navy and 
Marine Corps. Please inform me if you received them. 

If you have, please send them by the first opportunity. They were 
to have been engraved and printed on parchment. 

S. R. M. 

BRIDGE OF ALLAN, December 22, 1862. 

DEAR SIR: I wrote you a few hurried lines on the 19th instant, 
which I hope you received, as they inclosed the all-important notice. 
I regret very much that the Persia brings no news from Richmond 
in reference to the Erlanger proposition, for money is all important 
to me just now, and, as you say, unless something 1 comes from the 
agent sent over to negotiate with our Government very soon, we 
must make a bona fide effort to sell cotton. I agree with you per- 
fectly in the foregoing expression, especially the " bona fide " effort to 
sell cotton 

Mr. Thomson thinks the ship will be fully plated by the latter end 
of January, an I that you know will call forth another notice. 

Have you money enough to allow me to contract for my guns? 
Time, as you well know, is all important, and I am very anxious that 
they and everything else for this ship should be underway. 

In your letter you say that " Mr. Mallory, even in his last dis- 
patches, does not appear to be aware that I have been paying for your 
ship out of funds especially sent to me." In answer to this, please let 
me quote from Mr. Mallory'c letter to me, dated July 30, 1862 : " Your 
letter of the 6th of June last, informing me that you had commenced 
the construction of an ironclad vessel, was received to-day. Funds to 
the amount of $800,000 have been forwarded to Commander Bulloch, 
and he has full instructions on the subject of disposing of them, and 



314 NAVY DEPARTMENT ConnKSPOXnEXri-;, 18G1-18G5. 

arrangements are being made to send an additional amount." I also 
reported to him that the ship would cost about 200,000. I have sent 
him over the drawings and sped Heat ions, and by Wilkinson even a 
wooden model. All of which I sincerely hope he has received long 
before this. I must again quote from your letter to make myself 
understood. You tell me that "he acknowledges the receipt of one 
from me (you) giving full particulars of the two rams building here, 
and tells me how he has endeavored to place me in funds, but 111:1 kes 
no allusion to your ship. I presume, therefore, he has given you es- 
pecial instructions, as I notified him of your contract in my letter 
referred to above." The only especial instructions he (Mr. Mallory) 
has given me are those of September 21, which brought me to Liver- 
pool and which I showed you, and then to London, to consult with 
Mr. Mason. 

You remember my orders are based on yours, as Mr. Mallory tells 
me in said dispatches: "I have just closed a dispatch to Commander 
Bulloch, suggesting the means to be promptly resorted to in this 
difficulty, ana to avoid multiplying the chances of the loss of dis- 
patches, I will not repeat the substance of it here, but request you 
to confer with him immediately upon the subject." 

You and myself, I believe, are the only two who have the authority 
to raise money with cotton. As you will see from the above extracts 
from Mr. Mallory's letter, we are required to lose no time in raising 
funds, but, on the contrary, suggesting the menus to be promptly re- 
sorted to in this difficulty. I do not know what may be the instruc- 
tions of the officers of the War Department, but this I do know, that 
my orders are to confer with you immediately, and I can not imagine 
how we can become competitors if we agree as to the value to be set 
on all bonds or certificates to be issued, say from 8 to 10 cents per 
pound for cotton. 

I could have raised all the money I wanted and more when I was 
in London, and think I can do so now, at probably the latter price. 
I am willing that anyone may be the agent to raise the funds, but I 
am not willing to risk my reputation by the failure of my contract, 
and though I mav l>e willing to weigh the opinions of others, still I 
do not consider myself bound by those opinions. My orders are to 
confer with you, and though in a multitude of counselors there may 
be wisdom, still I prefer acting with you, and with you I desire to 
confer freely. 

In London I yielded to the general voice, and have regretted it 
ever since, as I am sure I saw mv way clear to a much larger amount 
than I really wanted. Pray, whatever is to be done, let it be done 
quickly, as my wants are many and most urgent. In the rough esti- 
mate that I have made I think even after the pnyment you are about 
to make shall be made, I shall require for my wants about 150,000. 

If I can get them completed in time. I shall contract for four of 
Whitworth's 120-pounders and 50 flat-fronted shell for each of the 
four guns. 

Let me hear from you as soon as you can. as I am very anxious 
that those guns at least should be in hand. 

Sinclair, I think, is writing you himself and will say his own say. 
Yours, truly, 

JAMES H. NORTH. 

Commander J. D. BULLOCH. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 315 

BELLMOIR HOUSE, 

Bridge of Allan, December 22, 1862. 

Your letter of the 19th instant has just come to hand. I began to 
think that my former letter must have miscarried, but yours this 
morning explains. 

I am anxious to know in what time you could get ready four 120- 
pounders with the same quantity of shell, etc., that I mentioned 
in my last. 

You may consider this an order for either the TO or 120 pounder. 
I want the heavier of the two if you can get them ready in time 
for me. 

Please let me hear from you as soon as you can. 
Yours, respectfully, 

JAMES H. NORTH. 
MANCHESTER ORDNANCE & RIFLE Co. 

P. S. The shells would be of very little use to me if the fuses 
were not fitted and ready for service. 
Yours, etc., 

J. H. X. 

BRIDGE OP ALLAN, December 22, 1862. 

DEAR MR. THOMSON : I am glad to hear that you have returned 
home safely. I am only sorry that you did not return a little sooner, 
so that we might have had the pleasure of seeing you on our last 
visit to your works. Your brother and Mr. Burns, however, did all 
th;it you could have done for us. 

I send a tracing that I want you to have copied for me, with some 
few alterations, viz : The gun has now a 7-inch bore. I want it 9-inch, 
with the same slope to the chamber, and instead of five bands I want 
but one or two. To make myself better understood, suppose you have 
a drawing of this gun as it now is, then run a red line on each side 
of the bore, extending it to 9 inches, and then another line to 10 
inches, with the same slope to [the] chamber, and instead of five 
bands have one. The gun as now drawn weighs 15,000 pounds. What 
will she weigh when bored to 9 inches, and what to 10 inches? Draw 
a sliding handle in the head of the screw where it is marked. Rep- 
resent the bore as rifled in the present scale, but as smooth at 9 and 
10 inches. By attending to the above as soon as you can you will 
greatly oblige, 

Yours, truly, 

JAMES H. NORTH. 

GLASGOW, December 22, 1862. 

SIR: Your letter of October 26, enclosing duplicate of October 2 
and September 21, together with triplicate of March 17, has just 
been received. 1 regret very much in reading over dispatches to 
find how completely I have been misunderstood by you, and to 
make myself understood clearly, as I hope to do, I shall quote freely 
and fully from your letters. I shall begin with your last to me, 
dated October 25. 

" You will learn from this letter, March 17, that the $150,000, to 
which your dispatch of August refers, were sent to enable you (me) 



316 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1*65. 

to fit out and cruise with the Alabama" Not having heard from 
you when I received this money, and having reported to you on the 
14th of April that I had arranged for the building and equipping 
of an armor ship, I naturally concluded that that money was sent 
me to meet payments, and used it for that purpose before I received 
your letter of May 2, which informed me for what purpose it was 
sent. 

You then go on to say : " 1 regret to perceive that your dispatches. 
though very brief, seemed to be conceived in a spirit of complaint. 
which I deem uncalled for. In the one before me, I find this 
language ' I have heard nothing from you since my orders of May 2, 
though Sinclair did not leave for this country until June. I am 
at a loss to know how to act, as everything has been taken out of my 
hands by the department.' " You then go on to say, " I know not to 
what you refer as having been taken out of your hands inasmuch us 
nothing had been so taken beyond relieving you for the icasons 
before stated from your orders to the Alabama. Nor could you be 
at a loss to know how to act with your instructions before you, and 
upon which instructions, without alterations or addition, you did 
very soon after proceed to act." 

When I explain to you fully, I sincerely hope it will only have 
"seemed" to you to have been a "spirit of complaint" and that 
you have kindly written the above to give me an opportunity to 
clear away what now seems to be " this spirit," etc. 

I think I may truly say that you ordered me three distinct times to 
the Alabama, and in proof of what I sav. please see your dispatches 
to me of November 20, 1861, January 11, 180-2, and May -2. \*(\ 
Your first two were countermanded by an order to Captain Bulloch 
of January 25, and the last order was countermanded by an order 
to Captain Semmes of May 3, or that without one line to me my 
command was taken from me and given to another. I do not com- 
plain about it; I only state the facts and to show you that I do not 
complain I do not hesitate to say that I think it much better a- 11 
is for this reason: Captain Semmes having a full complement of 
officers, he is enabled to do what I could not have done. You also, 
in the orders of May 2, tell me you write immediately to Captain 
Bulloch to proceed as expeditiously as possible with this important 
duty, referring to the ironclad vessels. So you will see that my 
orders to the Alabama also turned over my work on the ironclad 
ship to Commander Bulloch. Your orders to Captain Semmes. dated, 
as you will see, only one day after your orders to me to command same 
ship, left me without any duty. True. I was not detached, but the 
orders to Semmes were a virtual detachment, and I was left on my 
oars until the receipt of your duplicate the first never having been 
received order of July 30 reappointing me to the duty for which 
you sent me to this country, a duty in every way in keeping with 
the dearest wishes of my heart, and one I feel confident I would 
have completed by this date had my urgent calls for money in the 
first instance been understood by the department. 

I am not a fluent writer; I write Avith difficulty, and do most 
earnestly beg that you will not judge me by the length or frequency 
of my dispatches. I am \villing, however, to be judged by the work 
1 have in hand, if I can only obtain funds to complete her. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 317 

I must beg to assure you that you were mistaken in supposing that I 
did proceed to act under my former instructions without alteration 
or addition, after being superseded in the command of the Alabama. 
I did offer to assist Commander Bulloch in the heavy duty he had 
in hand, did assist him, and did proceed to Glasgow for that purpose; 
but not until after your orders to me of July 30 did I in any way 
assume command of the work, and even up to this time the contract 
remains in the hands of Commander Bulloch, as he alone commands 
the funds. 

Your orders of May 29 and July 12 that you allude to have never 
been received. I find it difficult to reconcile some of the statements 
in your dispatch of October 26, for, in one part of it you say, u You 
will remember that jour dispatch of the 9th of August, of a few lines 
only, gave me the first intimation that you had succeeded at last 
in making a contract to build a ship." Now, in yours of May 2, you 
acknowledge the receipt of mine dated April 14, and again in yours of 
July 30, you acknowledge the receipt of mine dated June 6, in which I 
had informed you that I had commenced the construction of an 
ironclad. 

I beg to call your attention to the above facts, as I hope they will 
show you that I try not to forget my duty, but I am ever anxious 
to carry out your orders. 

I trust that long ere this you have received the drawings, specifica- 
tions, and model that I sent you. The contract (or copy of it) I will 
send you with this dispatch, the papers above alluded to I sent you as 
soon as they were prepared by the constructor. 

You do me but justice in supposing that I did not know of the 
departure of Mr. Sanders. I had notice from Mr. Sinclair, who was 
in London at the time, that he, Mr. Sanders, would pass through 
Liverpool on his way to Richmond. I immediately prepared a dis- 
patch to send by him, but at the last moment I understood Mr. 
Sanders changed his plans and went direct from London to Queens- 
town. I sent the dispatch, however, some ten days after by the way 
of Nassau, dated September 29. I fully agree with you in thinking 
that the question of rank between Commander Bulloch and myself 
should not interfere with the great public interest with which we 
are both of us intrusted. It never has so far, and never shall; but 
still, as a military man, I must feel that the question is in that view 
one of importance, and I did hope that an ambition of thirty-odd 
years might have been spared the shock of seeing the dearest hopes 
crushed by finding myself made subordinate to one who was my 
junior by many years, and who has not, by any act of professional 
distinction, won a place above his former superiors. The only letters 
(until this mail) that I have received from you since my arrival in 
this country are dated June 28, 1861, in cipher, September 27, 1861, 
November 20, 1861, January 11, 1862, May 2, 1862, a duplicate of 
July 30, 1862, and September 21, 1862. 1 regret very much that my 
dispatches have not been sufficiently long and full to meet your 
approbation. 

In such times as these I thought it best if we could make ourselves 
understood, to be as laconic as possible, but as it is your wish that I 
write more fully, I will endeavor to do so in future. 

The drawings and specifications I sent you may never have reached 
their destination, so that I will endeavor to give you a detailed de- 



318 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

scription of the ship I am superintending. Her principal dimen- 
sions are as follows, viz : Length, 270 feet on load line ; 50 feet breadth 
of beam molded; depth molded to upper deck, 30 feet; to main deck, 
L feet: tonnage, builders' measurement, .'1,200: keel and stein are 
made of hammered scrap iron, 14 x 4. The entire frame will be of 
iron, her plating on bottom from fifteen-sixteenths to eleven-six- 
teenths armor plating, 4i inches except at extremes, where it will 
taper off to 3 inches, to be backed by 18 inches of teak and all secured 
to inner plating one-half inch thick. The armor plating to extend 4 
feet below load line. She will also have water-tight bulkheads. Her 
engines are to be horizontal, direct acting, of 500 horsepower, capa- 
ble of working up to 2,000. The coal bunkers to carry 1,000 tons of 
coal. 

In the construction of this vessel, I have taken my ideas of armor 
plating, teak backing, etc., from the Wa>*rior target, which up to the 
time of my signing the contract had stood the test better than any 
other. Her armament will consist of the Whitworth and smoothlwre, 
large caliber. The contract provides that she shall be ready in all 
respects by the first of June. 

On the 18th instant Mr. Sinclair and myself visited the yard and 
engine shops. The work on the ship is progressing to my entire 
satisfaction, as many men being employed to work upon her as it is 
possible to work to any advantage at this season of the year. She is 
in full frame,, water bulkheads up, and nearly half plated (not 
armor) . We expect to have her fully plated and ready for the teak 
backing (and after that the armor plates) by the latter end of Janu- 
ary. The work on the engines is rather ahead of the work on the hull. 
Please inform me by what name you wish her called. 

I be<r that you will allow me to again urge upon you the import- 
ance of having officers out here in time. A ship of this size will re- 
quire six lieutenants, one paymaster, one surgeon, one or two assistant 
surgeons, one master, with one engineer with about six assistants. 
One marine officer, Mr. Thurston, if you please, and some eight or ten 
midshipmen. Among the midshipmen I should like very much to 
have Henry S. Cooke and Palmer Saunders. If any pilots would be 
willing to come out as master mates I think it would be most desir- 
able to have them, as along our coasts these vessels should princi- 
pally act. 

I hope that I shall not suffer in your good opinion from an exercise 
of too much caution, for I have tried to be most guarded. In conclu- 
sion, I assure you there shall be no want of diligence, prudence, and 
ardor on my part in the completion of the work I have on hand, the 
full, successful accomplishment of which is the object nearest my 
heart; nor need I say to you that yon greatly misapprehend the tone 
of my dispatches, if you can for one moment suppose, that I would 
desire to be relieved from duty, the consummation of which I can 
now for the first time see in the future. 

If there has been any spirit of complaint in my letters it has been 
caused by the fact of my finding myself placed in a position of forced 
inactivity, at a period when my country was engaged in a death 
struggle, while others around me, like myself out of the active field 
of war, were furnished with the means of making themselves other- 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 319 

wise useful in our great and noble cause by executing the orders that 
sent them from the field of battle. 

Hoping that the foregoing explanations may prove satisfactory, 
I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J[AMES] H. N[ORTH], 

Commander, C. S. Navy. 
Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy, Richmond. 



LIVERPOOL, December %3, 1862. 

DEAR SIR: Your letter of yesterday is just at hand, and I hasten 
to reply. I learn with the greatest satisfaction that you can sell 
cotton perhaps at from 8 to 10 cents per pound. I was not aware 
that the offer made you in London was so direct and specific, or my 
voice in the council would have been in favor of your closing at 
once. The opinions of business men are valuable to us only upon 
points connected with the rules of trade, and when their opinions 
conflict with facts we should, of course, set them aside. 

If any person or persons have offered to buy cotton from you at 
10 or even 8 cents per pound, I earnestly advise you to sell without 
delay and irrespective of any anticipated means of raising money 
for the general uses of the Government. 

In advising you to act thus promptly I take it for granted that 
you consider the offer a bona fide one; that the parties purchasing 
will actually pay you the cash on the delivery to them of the cotton 
"' certificates of ownership " ; and that there are no conditions at- 
tached to the mode of supplying the cotton which it would be im- 
possible to comply with. In plain terms, if any man will pay you 
$40 to $50 per bale of 500 pounds, the cotton to be delivered to his 
order in any port in the possession of the Confederates, I would 
close the bargain instanter. I have lost no time in casting about for 
some such operation: and although many persons have in a general 
way expressed a belief that sales could be effected, yet I have not 
been able to get a single bona fide cash offer. 

The Secretary's suggestions are such as would naturally occur to 
those on the other side of the Atlantic, but they will, I fear, prove 
impracticable. Men will rarely part with money for paper, unless 
the collateral security is ample and tangible. I write in great haste, 
to express the opinion that you are not called upon to wait any 
longer if }^ou can move in the manner indicated in your letter, and 
I will more leisurely reply to you, perhaps, to-morrow. 
Yours, truly, 

JAMES D. BULL.OCH. 

Commander JAMES H. NORTH. 



SACKVILLE STREET, 
Manchester^ December %3, 186%. 

DEAR SIR : We beg to acknowledge your letter of the 22d instant. 
It would suit us best, and cause the least delay, to give you three 
70-pounders, which we could do in four months, and one 120-pounder, 
with the same complement of ammunition, viz, 60 steel shell and 100 



320 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 18(51-1865. 

common ditto, in six months. We therefore hand you the annexed 
specifications of the order according to this, and should feel obliged 
by a confirmation, accompanied with a remittance of one-third as 
per our terms. 

We have no doubt we should be able to supply the fuses for the 
shells; at all events, AVC will endeavor to do so. 

If we find that by any means Ave can shorten the above period of 
delivery, we will do so. 

We are, dear sir, yours, very obediently, 

MANCHESTER ORDNANCE & IVIFLE Co. 
J. L. 
JAMES H. NORTH, Esq., 

Bellmoir House, Bridge of Allan. \. B. 

[Enclosure.] 
Specification of order. 

SACKVTLLE STREET. 
Manchester, December 23, 1862. 

Three 70-pounder muzzle loading guns 2,100 00 

3 pivot slide carriages for same 150 <M o 

180 steel shells 1. 080 (K) 

300 common shells 1!>5 00 

500 friction tubes I (H) 

500 lubricating wads 15 00 

100 sabots 1 K> 

One 120-pounder muzzle loading gun 1,350 00 

60 steel shells 630 (M) o 

100 common shells 115 00 

200 friction tubes 1 12 

200 lubricating wads 10 00 

100 sabots - 5 00 



5,1)57 2 O 

Packing cases, cost price. 

Terms, net cash; one-third payable at the time of order, and the 
remainder on delivery at our works. 

MANCHESTER ORDNANCE AND RIFLE Co., 
J. L. 
JAMES H. NORTH, Esq., 

Bellmoir House, Bridye of Allan, N. B. 



BRIDGE OF ALLAN. 

December 26'. 1862. 

DEAR SIR: I beg to return the gun drawing that you were kind 
enough to loan me. Please let me hear from you respecting money. 
Have you enough to allow me to go ahead with the Whitworth guns ( 
1 am very anxious to hear from you on the subject, so please answer 
by return mail, and oblige, 
Yours, truly, 

JAMES H. NORTH. 
Commander J. D. BULLOCH. 

P. S. If you or Hamilton have drawings of gun carriages, side or 
pivot, you will oblige me with a copy. Send me a cotton certificate. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 321 

CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Department of Justice, Richmond, December 27, 1862. 

SIR: I have received your letter of the 23d instant, enclosing a 
letter from Major Allison to Colonel Beall, and one from the latter 
to you. You ask my opinion on the question presented in the letter 
of Major Allison. I have carefully considered the matters about 
which inquiry is made, and have now the honor to make my reply. 

The questions asked are, first, whether persons enrolled under the 
acts of April 16 and of September 27, 1862, are entitled to bounty 
upon enlistment in the Marine Corps? and, secondly, whether per- 
sons subject to enrollment under these acts are entitled to bounty 
upon such enlistment ? 

The act of April 10, 1862, entitled "An act to encourage enlistment 
in the Corps of Marines," provides that " every able-bodied man who 
may enlist and be received into the Marine Corps, shall be entitled 
to a bounty of $50," etc. 

The first section of this act declares "that enlistment shall be for 
the term of the existing war, or for the period of three years, as 
the recruit may elect at the time of enlistment." The action of en- 
listment under this law is one of voluntary contract and the induce- 
ment held out is the regular pay and allowances and the bounty pro- 
vided by the act. 

The first section of the act of October 2, 1862, declares "that 
from and after the passage of this act any person subject to enroll- 
ment for military service under the acts of Congress providing for 
the public defense, shall be permitted to enlist in the Marine Corps 
at any time prior to being mustered into the Army of the Confed- 
erate States." This section of the act extends the right of voluntary 
enlistment into the Marine Corps to persons subject to involuntary 
enrollment in the Army of the Confederate States. 

This right of voluntary enlistment may be exercised at any time 
before being mustered into the military service. The act of the 
10th of April, 1862, must govern as to the term of the contract of 
enlistment; and I can see no reason for depriving the party of the 
bounty authorized by that act. This act certainly does not expressly, 
and I do not think impliedly, deprive the person thus enlisting of the 
bounty promised. 

After the person has been enrolled in the military service by vir- 
tue of the second section of the act of October 2, 1862, at any time 
before being assigned to any company, he may be enrolled in the 
Naval or Marine Corps, on expressing his preference to be so en- 
rolled. Under this enrollment he has no right, as if enlisting under 
the act of April 10, to say he enlists for three years or for the exist- 
ing war, as he may elect; but he is enrolled for the length of time 
prescribed for the service of conscripts in the Army, viz : " For three 
years unless the war shall have been sooner ended." The difference 
'is obvious. Under the law of April 16, 1862, and of the 27th Sep- 
tember, 1862, the conscript can not be required to serve longer than 
three years, however long the war may last. This war may last for 
three, five, or ten years. If the person enlisting under act of the 
10th of April, or under the first section of the act of October 2, 1862, 
chooses (so "elects") he may enlist for the whole term of the war, 
and he may thus by his contract be compelled to serve for ten years 

176429 VOL 2 FT 121 21 



322 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 18G1-1865. 

if the war so long continues; or he may enlist for three years, and 
be compelled to serve for that length of time, whether the war 
ends or not before that time. But if he is enrolled for the military 
service, and is simply transferred by the enrolling officers of tin- 
military camps to the Marine Corps, he can not be required under 
the second section of the act of October 2, 1862, to serve in the 
"Naval or Marine Corps" longer than a period of the existing war, 
although the war may end within twelve months from the time he 
is thus enrolled, and he can not be required to serve longer than 
three years, although the war may last for ten years. 

I therefore conclude that when persons subject to enrollment under 
the acts of 16th April and 27th September, 1862, enlist by voluntary 
contract in the Marine Corps, they are entitled to the bounty of s.">' > 
provided by the act of April 10, 1862. But when persons have been 
enrolled in the military service and the enrollment afterwards trans- 
ferred to the Marine Corps, they are not entitled to the bounty 
provided by the act of April 10, 1862. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant. 

L H. WATTS, 

Attorney General. 

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



WATERLOO, December 28, 186%. 

DEAR SIR: Your letter of the 26th inclosing the drawing of gun 
I sent you some time since came to hand last night too late for the 
mail or I would have replied at once. You are, I suppose, aware 
that remittances from home have been made in the form of bills of 
exchange, which have frequently had some time to run after arrival 
here. Heretofore this has created no delay in making required pay- 
ments, as Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co. have always been a Me 
to put their hands upon the sums wanted without inconvenience. 
They have, however, made such large advances to other departments 
of the Government as somewhat to cramp their means, and having 
informed them that I would not call for any large sum of money 
before the term of the year, I was forced to inform Messrs. Thomson 
that I could not pay the installment due them until after the 1st of 
January, 1863, to which arrangement they have assented. I will now 
give you a brief statement of the financial condition of the Navy De- 
partment, so far as its affairs entrusted to me are concerned, that 
you may see how impossible it is to make any further contracts 
based upon money in hand. 

Now due and to bo paid at once on your ships . .... 22,000 

Two payments on ships here, 18,750 each 37, 500 



.-,!>, r.Oll 
Amount in hand of F., T. & Co 72, 000 



Balance available 12, 500 

I have a contract with Captain Blakely, made some time since, for 
guns, etc., for one ship which will absorb 8,000 of the 12,500, and 
although my ships are getting on very fast, I have not ventured to 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 323 

make contracts for the battery of the second ship nor for the maga- 
zine tanks of either, because these are cash operations. You perceive, 
then, that only 4,000 remains available for all purposes. Out of this 
sum, so long as it lasts, I am ordered to pay all the officers in Europe, 
and there are six besides Sinclair and yourself, besides furnishing 
Captain Maury with funds for contingent expenses and $10,000 to 
Hamilton to fit his gunboat for a cruise. 

My purse is, therefore, practically exhausted, and all further opera- 
tions are for the present at a deadlock. If you will send me a state- 
ment of what you require for an actual cash deposit, I will endeavor 
to allow for it in the private arrangements I am about making to 
meet my own contingent expenses. Mr. Prioleau has only the proof 
sheets of the cotton .certificate, and does not wish to send it away 
until the form is agreed upon and finally printed. Captain Maury 
is here and we have been talking a good deal on the subject of selling 
cotton. He gave me a copy of a letter he had received from the Navy 
Department, which I inclose for your perusal ; please send it back to 
me. 

Maury thinks it amounts to instructions as to the terms upon which 
cotton must be sold. Nevertheless, I think he agrees with me that 
if you can sell as you say for 8 or 9 cents per pound, cash, you would 
be perfectly justified in doing so. The character of the person buying 
is nothing, if he purchases for cash, but Mr. E. P. S. is something 
more than sharp, and I advise you to be cautious. 
Yours, truly, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Commander JAMES H. NORTH. 



HARTRIGGE HOUSE, 
Jedburgh, G. B., December 29, 1862. 

DEAR CAPTAIX NORTH: I congratulate you upon the success of 
the Confederate arms before Fredericksburg and hope that this vic- 
tory will be of great results for the restoration of peace. Maury 
calls me back to London, so that I can not have the pleasure of 
paving you a visit at the Bridge of Allan. I hope to do so the 
next visit I shall make to Glasgow or Edinburgh. Please tell Sin- 
clair that I have written home to send me the drawings of myl 
vessel. I shall send them to him as soon as they reach me. If I 
can be of any service to you please let me know it, 10 Sackville 
Street, London. I'll be most happy to do it. Be so kind to send 
me the promised specification of your ship, and if you can get 
the drawings from Napier of the Danish gunboat you will oblige me 
with a copy of them. 

Remember me to Sinclair and believe me, 
Truly, yours, 

YANCEY. 
To-morrow I leave for London. 



BELLMOIR HOUSE, 

Bridge of Allan, December 29, 1862. 

I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 23d instant. 
Enclosed I send you specification of order for the guns, shells, etc., 



324 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

which I will thank you to execute on the terms and time named 
in your letter. I also enclose you a check for one-third the amount, 
upon which I expect you to allow me interest at the rate of 5 per 
cent, as agreed by your Mr. William W. Hulse. 

Please acknowledge the receipt of this and of your acceptance 
of the order. I would have preferred the 120-pounders, and even 
now, if you could get ready four of the 120-pounders, without fail, 
by the 1st of June, 1 will give the order. 

Speci fit-til ion of onlt r. 

4 70-pounder muzzle-loading guns 2, 800 

4 pivot slide carriages for do 600 

240 flat-fronted steel shells 1,440 

400 common shells, fitted with fuses _''>() 

1,000 friction tubes. 7~>0 lubricitting \\;uls :;o. 10 

150 sabots _. T. 



3)5,132.15 

1, 710. 18 
MANCHESTER ORDNANCE & RIFLE Co. 

[Enclosure.] 

Messrs OVEREND GURNET & Co. 

Will please pay to the order of the Manchester Ordnance & Rifle 
Co., one thousand, seven hundred and ten pounds, eighteen shillings 
sterling, 1,710.18 and charge the same to my account. 

JAMES IT. XOKTIJ. 



SACKVILLE STREET, 
Manchester, December 30, 1862. 

SIR: We are in receipt of your favor of yesterday, inclosing speci- 
fication of order for four 70-pounder muzzle-loading guns, 4 pivot- 
slide carriages for same, 240 flat-fronted steel shells, 400 common 
shells (fitted with fuses), 1,000 friction tubes, 150 sabots, all of 
which shall be put in hand forthwith. 

We have also to acknowledge the receipt of check for 1,710.18 
on account of the order, for which we beg to thank you. Interest 
at the rate of 5 per cent per annum will be allowed on the prepay- 
ment as arranged by Mr. Hulse. 

We should be glad to know what description of elevating motion 
you wisli applied to the guns, whether screw or quoins. 
We are, sir, yours, very obediently, 

MANCHESTER ORDNANCE & RIFLE Co. 
J. L. 
JAMES H. NORTH, Esq., 

Care of Messrs. W. S. Lindsay d- Co., 

Austin Friars, London. 



LIVERPOOL, December 30, 1S(L>. 

DEAR SIR : I am in receipt of your letter of yesterday and hasten 
to reply to your enquiries seriatim. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 325 

First. Captain Semmes went on board the Alabama for the first 
time in the Bay of Angra, Island of Terceira, on, I think, the 20th 
of August, 1862, but did not assume command of her until August 
24, the ship then being at sea off the island Terceira. 

Second. When the Alabama left Liverpool she had no part of her 
armament on board, no ordnance stores, no military equipment. 

Third. When the Alabama left Liverpool she had not more than 
30 men on board, a number not sufficient to manage a steam vessel 
of her class bound upon a tropical voyage. 

Fourth. Additions were made to the Alabama's crew after leaving 
England; the men were put on board at sea, off the Island of Ter- 
ceira, 

Fifth. The Alabama received her armament between the 20th and 
24th of August, 1862. 

Sixth. The transfer of the Alabama, to the Confederate States 
as property was made on the 24th of August, 1862. 

Seventh. Captain Semmes was ordered by the honorable Secre- 
tary of the Navy to the command of the Alabama. 

Eighth. Putting a ship in commission consists in hoisting the 
national flag and the pennant, which latter represents the com- 
mander's dignity or authority, on a foreign station. It is usual to 
read the orders of the captain to the particular ship. In the case 
of Captain Semmes, both these formalities were complied with, and 
his commission as a commander in the C. S. Navy was also read to 
the men assembled on the quarter-deck. After this the men were 
released from their engagement as a crew for the Enrica and were 
asked to ship for her on the C. S. steamship Alabama. This took 
place on the 24th of August, 1862, at sea, more than a marine league 
from the Island of Terceira. Enrica was the name by which the 
Alabama was christened ; 290 was simply her number in the build- 
ing yard. I write the dates from memory, but can verify them if 
necessary by reference to my notes kept at the times of the various 
occurrences mentioned. I have telegraphic advice that the Swmter 
has been sold, but no particulars. I suppose Lieutenant Chapman 
will soon be here, when I will furnish you with a statement of the 
result of her sale. 

In haste to secure this evening's mail. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Hon. JAMES M. MASON. 

LIVERPOOL, December 31, 1862. 

DEAR SIR: Messrs. Fraser, Trenholm & Co. have just received a 
letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, at Richmond, inclosing the 
form of cotton certificate adopted by the Government, and which 
they are informed must be signed by Mr. Mason, then negotiated, and 
the proceeds placed in their hands to be drawn against in favor of the 
various departments. The Erlanger agents have reached Richmond 
and Mr. Mason writes Messrs. F., T. & Co., or Mr. Spence, that pro- 
ceedings had better be stopped until something is heard from them, 
which must soon occur. 

In haste, yours truly, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Commander JAMES H. NORTH. 



326 NAVY DEPAETMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

LIVERPOOL, December 31, 1862. 

DEAR Sra: I learn to-day from what appears to bo a reliable source 
that a Confederate officer has very lately raised as much money as he 
requires by the sale of cotton, and although the certificates are not 
yet placed, the money is nevertheless promised. No names were men- 
tioned, but I infer that you are the fortunate individual alluded to. 
If such be the case, you will please inform ine at your earliest con- 
venience, so that I may be relieved from the necessity of paying your 
next installment. I have been obliged to put the builders off. as I 
have already informed you, and now if you are likely to get money of 
your own, it will relieve me of much embarrassment. Have you 
ever notified the Messrs. Thomson that the contract has been tr 
ferred to you? You told me when last in London that you would 
write me a letter on the subject, but you have forgotten to do so. 
Please answer by return mail. I am concerned about my monetary 
affairs. 

In haste, yours truly, 

JAMES D. BULLOCK. 

Commander JAMES H. NORTH. 



Memorandum of meeting between Messrs. Slidell, l\Iason, Barron, 

McRae, and Xorth. 

When I arrived in Paris I called on Commodore Barren ; with him 
went to see Mr. Mason; the three of us then called on Mr. Slide!!, 
where we were soon joined by Mr. McRae, the agent of the three 
million loan. The conversation soon turned on the necessity of sell- 
ing the ship that I had been superintending the building of; 
this necessity was urged upon me by Mr. Slidell, who remarked 
that he entertained the same opinions on that subject now that he did 
or had months since, when he. Mr. Mason, and Mr. Lamar had written 
me a joint letter on that subject. As circumstances had arisen that 
would prevent the ship leaving the shores of England the property 
of any other than a foreign neutral government, it was proposed that 
she should be sold, ana that Mr. James Galbraith. of Scotland, 
should take charge of her and dispose of her to the best advantage, 
and that I should write to Mr. Galbraith. informing him that I 
wished to see him in relation to this business, and requesting [him"] 
to meet me in Paris. On receipt of two letters from Mr. Galbraith, 
I again called on Mr. Slidell, in company with Mr. Mason and Com- 
modore Barron. In these letters Mr. Galbraith informed me that 
he could not meet me in Paris for a few days. On learning this, Mr. 
Slidell again urged upon me the importance of time and in course of 
conversation asked if there would be any objection in allowing Mr. 
Erlanger to make preliminary inquiries as to the wants of some of 
the foreign governments of such a ship. The commodore, and myself 
thought there would be no objection, it being distinctly expressed and 
understood that any authority delegated to Mr. Erlahger should not 
interfere in any manner with the povrers of Mr. Galbraith, Mr. Er- 
langer's authority being confined to merely making inquiries. A day 
or two after this I received another note from Mr. Galbraith stating 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 327 

that his lawyers thought best that he should not come to Paris; he 
therefore requested me to meet him in London. This letter I showed 
to Messrs. Slidell, Mason, and Barron, who advised me to proceed 
immediately to London. 

On my arrival in London Mr. Galbraith thought it best that he 
should consult Sir Huh Cairns as to the best course to be adopted in 
the sale of the ship. He, Sir H. Cairns, thought it best that the ship 
should be transferred to the builder before any sale of her should take 
place, and then as soon as the transfer was made, to act with all pos- 
sible promptness, as time was all important. Upon Sir Hugh Cairns' 
advice I acted, transferring the ship to the builder. I then requested 
Mr. Galbraith to dispose of her as soon as possible and to the very 
best advantage. . 

On my return to Paris I immediately called on Commodore Barron 
and reported to him what I had done. He fully approved of my 
proceedings and advised that I should call on Mr. Slidell and report 
the facts to him. After repeating to Mr. S. what had passed, to my 
astonishment I found him apparently very much annoyed at my 
placing the matter entirely in the hands of Mr. Galbraith, and taking 
it. as he thought, from Mr. Erlanger. I then expressed my regrets 
that we had misunderstood each other, and that I was unaware that 
Mr. Erlanger was to have anything to do with the matter further 
than to make some preliminary enquiries, it having been distinctly 
understood, as I thought, that Mr. Galbraith was to be the business 
n, and he alone empowered to act in the premises. At this Mr. 
Slidell became still more excited and desired to know what was the 
use of asking his advice or opinion if I did not intend to follow it, 
and to prevent all mistakes in the future he requested that I would 
not again consult him or ask his opinion. On the eve of my depar- 
ture from his house he informed me that he was under the impres- 
sion Mr. Erlanger and Mr. Galbraith were to attend to this business 
jointly and divide the commissions. To this I replied that it was 
the first time that I had heard the subject of commissions mentioned 
in connection with Mr. Erlangers name. 

******* 

This agreement, made and executed by and between Messrs. James 
and George Thomson, of the city of Glasgow, shipbuilders, of the 
first part, and Captain Otto Suensen. of the Eoyal Danish Navy, and 
Carl Frederick Tietgen. Esq.. bank director in Copenhagen, as act- 
ing for and specially authorized by the Government of his Majesty, 
the King of Denmark, of the second part, witnesseth that fhe said 
first party hereby sells to the said Danish Government, and bind and 
oblige themselves to finish and complete of the best materials and 
workmanship, in terms of the specification signed as relative hereto, 
and launch and thereafter deliver to the said Danish Government or 
some person to be appointed by them completed, that ironclad steam- 
ship or vessel presently lying and in course of completion at the 
shipbuilding yard on the River Clyde, of the said first party, with 
her whole appurtenances, the whole work connected with the finish- 
ing of the said vessel and appurtenances, and the materials to be used 
therein to be to the satisfaction of such person or persons as may be 

* Matter missing ; not found. 



328 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

appointed from time to time by the said Danish Government, who 
shall have access at all reasonable hours to inspect the same, and in 
the event of any difference or dispute arising thereanent, then the 
same is hereby submitted and referred to two arbiters, one to be 
named by Andrew Kirkwood, of the city of Glasgow, solicitor, as 
specially' authorized by the said first party, and the other to be 
named by James Keyden, of the city of Glasgow, solicitor, as spe- 
.cially authorized by the said second party. 

Second. The price to be paid by the said second party for the said 
ship or vessel and appurtenances shall be 240,000, which shall be 
payable by the installments following, viz : The sum of 100,000 
thereof on the execution of these presents; the further sum of 
65,000 thereof upon the said vessel being launched, which launch- 
ing shall take place on or before the 24th day of February next, if 
the tide shall be suitable, failing which the said launching shall take 
place on or before the 10th day of March next, and the sum of 
75,000 thereof, being the remainder of the said price on the said 
vessel satisfactorily performing her trial trip after being completed 
as aforesaid, the object of such trial trip being to ascertain -that her 
machinery is in good working order, of which the two arbiters to 
be named in terms of article 1 hereof shall be the judges, declaring 
that whenever the said first installment of 100,000 is paid the said 
vessel shall be the property of the said Danish Government, subject, 
however, to a lien in favor of the said first party for the unpaid 
balance of the price and to the other stipulations contained in this 
contract. 

Third. The said ship or vessel and appurtenances shall be delivered 
to the purchaser on payment of the last installment of the said price, 
but the purchaser shall take the risk of fire insurance during comple- 
tion, and also the marine risk of her trial trip, or of any trip to adjust 
her compasses, and also the risk for her seizure by the British Gov- 
ernment in the event of a Avar breaking out between Denmark and 
any power at peace with Great Britain, and the said first party shall 
take all other risks connected with this contract or the implement 
thereof. 

Fourth. In case of such seizure by the British Government in the 
event aforesaid before the said vessel shall be launched as aforesaid, 
then the second installment of 65,000 shall be paid when the said 
seizure shall be made, and the further sum of 35,000 shall be paid 
by the said second party at the period of six months after the said 
seizure "shall take place, whether the said seizure takes place before 
or after the said launching, and the balance of 40,000 shall remain 
in the hands of the said purchasers without interest, until the said 
seizure shall cease and the said vessel be released, whereupon this 
agreement shall be implemented by both parties by completion and 
delivery of the said vessel and payment of the unpaid balance of 
the said price. 

Fifth. The said ship or vessel shall be delivered if practicable on 
or before the 15th day of April next, and at all events not later than 
the first day of May next, unless in the event of strikes of the work- 
men of the said first party retarding the said delivery, but if there 
are no such strikes and if delivery shall not be made on or before the 
first day of May next, the said first party shall be obliged to deduct 
from the said price, the sum of 50 sterling for each day beyond the 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 329 

said first day of May next, during which the said delivery shall be 
delayed, and that over and above the said obligation to deliver the 
said vessel, and the place of the said delivery shall be Glasgow in the 
River Clyde. 

Sixth. In case of the purchasers failure duly to pay the said second 
and third installments of the said price, or either of them 011 the 
launching and delivery of the said vessel as before stipulated, the 
said vessel shall be forfeited to the sellers, and the sums previously 
paid shall be retained by them. 

Seventh. The sellers shall be entitled until full payment of the 
price of the said vessel to retain the said ship or vessel in security 
thereof. 

Eighth. The said arbiters named under Article First shall have 
power to appoint an oversman, and to devolve all disputes and dif- 
ferences upon him in the event of their differing in opinion, and the 
said oversman shall have all the powers of the said arbiters, etc. 

JAMES and GEORGE THOMSON. 
O. SUENSEN. 

C. F. TlETGEN. 



LONDON, January 2, 1863. 

DEAR SIR: Your two letters of December 31 have just been received, 
they having been forwarded to me from the Bridge of Allan. In 
answer to your first question about my having raised money on cot- 
ton. I would say that Mr. Mason has received such instructions from 
the Treasury Department that he thinks I had better stop all pro- 
ceedings. So, in obedience I have stopped, and the result is, I have 
no money. 

Your second question is, " Have you ever notified the Messrs. 
Thomson that the contract has been transferred to you" (me). I 
never have, for the simple reason that the transfer has never taken 
place, my not having money to meet the payments ; and I thought that 
was our understanding, that the contract should remain with you 
until I received some money. Mr. Mason has also received a form of 
cotton certificate from the Treasury Department. 

I am happy to hear that Erlanger's agent has reached Richmond 
in safety, but would be still more happy to hear that the loan had 
been negotiated and that we had plenty of money. Like yourself I 
can not help feeling uneasy about our monetary affairs. I am very 
anxious to go ahead with the various things that I shall want for 
that ship. 

Yours, truly, 

JAMES H. XORTH. 

Commander JAS. D. BULLOCH. 

P. S. Shall return to the Bridge of Allan at once. 



LONDON, January 2, 1863. 

DEAR MR. THOMSON : Your kind note of December 29, 1862, to- 
gether with tracing of 9-inch guns, have come safely to hand, they 
having been forwarded to me from the Bridge of Allan. I am very 



330 NAVY DEPARTMENT rOKRESPONT>i:N<T., IH61-JS65. 

sorry that you had the trouble to retrace them, but I assmv you 

that I am exceedingly obliged to you for them. 

**:;.**** 

Yours, truly, 

J.VMKS 11. XoItTH. 

P. S. I hare some drawings that I think may assist us. I have 
requested Sinclair to show them to you, if you should pay us a 
visit on or about the 1st of January. 



LIVERPOOL, January 5, 1863. 

SIR: I am in receipt of the dispatches from the honorable Sec- 
retary of the Navy you were kind enough to forward, but they are 
simply duplicates of letters previously at hand and bring me nothing 
new. One of the letters, however, is mostly devoted to suggestions 
on the subject of raising money, and urgently presses upon me the 
importance of completing the armor-clad ships I am constructing 
at this port. You are well aware of the financial condition of our 
affairs in Europe and the numerous wants of the various departments 
of the Government; and in delaying any immediate individual at- 
tempts to borrow money in the several modes suggested by the 
Honorable Secretary of the Navy I am, I think, acting in accordance 
with your own opinion, that of the financial agents of the Treasury 
Department and of most of my associates in the public m 

The ships are in a very advanced state and it is time that their 
batteries and ordnance stores should be contracted for, but I can 
not arrange for them, as in such contracts a portion of the price 
must be paid in advance and full payments must be made upon com- 
pletion of the articles. Under these circumstances you can readily 
conceive with what anxiety I look for pecuniary relief, and how 
desirous I am to learn what limit there may be to our susp> 
Will you be good enough to inform me whether you have reason to 
expect the consummation of the loan proposed by the Messrs. Er- 
langer, and at what time; and should that negotiation fail or be 
indefinitely postponed, how long we should all wail I H> ;'<>!<> making 
other efforts to raise funds? The money remaining to my credit is 
so nearly exhausted that if the means of replenishing the stock 
are not very soon available it is absolutely necessary that I should 
communicate the fact to the contractors and endeavor to gut some 
extension of time for making the payments or prepare myself to sub- 
mit to an indefinite delay in the completion of the ships. 

I find, upon reference to my notes and to the log book of the 
Bahama, that the dates I gave you of the different occurrences on 
board the Alabama or in reference to her were correct. I may, 
however, say that the time when the actual transfer of the ship 
as property to the Confederate States took place may admit of doubt. 
After the Alabama's trial trip, which proved satisfactory, the re- 
sponsibility of the builders ceased ; she was thenceforth at my risk, 
but the change of flag did not take place until the 24th of August, 
nearly or quite a month after the ship had left England. 

I presume you have seen Lieutenant Chapman and have learned 
the result of the Sumter's sale. Thus far I have only his verbal 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 331 

statement, but will have his written report in a day or two. It 
would seem that the U. S. S. (.'hip pew a is likely to interrupt the 
iSiimter'j passage to England: but the British Government, having 
authorize*] the sale and having; pocketed the usual charges and 
granted the necessary register, etc., will hardly, I should think, 
permit her to he interfered with. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, yours, 

JAMES D. BULLCCH. 
Hon. JAMES M. 



BELLMOIR HOUSE, 
"Bridge of Allan, January 6. 186-3. 

VTLEMEN: Your letter of December 30 came safely to hand. 
Your copy of specification of order is not correct, the lubricating 
wads having been left out. I think my order was for T50, so pleas? 
have it corrected. 

In answer to your cjnestion of what description of elevating motion 
I would have applied to the guns, whether screw or quoins, I would 
snv screw. I think Mr. Tobler & Co. had a drawing. 
Yours, respectfully, 

JA^IES H. NORTH. 
MANCHESTER ORDNANCE & RIFLE Co. 

A r era ye ranges of the Whiticorth 12-povnticr. 



Elevation Degrees. Range yards. 

1 900 

2 

3 1, 800 

4 2,200 



rion Dejrrees. Range yards. 

5 2. COO 

Id + 4, 500 

7,000 

35 if), 000 



_lit of 32-pountler, 30 hundredweight. "Weight of 70-pounder, 70 hundred- 
weight. 



Written in cipher.] 

LIVERPOOL, January 7, 186-3. 

Correspondence between Federal minister and Secretary for P^or- 
eign Affairs in reference to building and dispatch of 290 published an 
opinion of a distinguished " Q. C." upon the case as submitted to him 
bv Federal minister. In one of foreign secretary's letters to Federal 
minister he says, in effect, that the unexpected illness of the Queen's 
Advocate had caused delay in getting a legal opinion, and when a 
substitute for that officer was consulted he advised that the ship 
ild be detained. I learned that something of the kind was going 
on and hurried off the ship, as it now appears from the correspond- 
ence, only the day before the order came to this port for .her 
tention. I am startled by the use of the word condemnation as ap- 
plied to the liability incurred in attempting to get our ship to sea, 
and am greatly concerned lest the complaints of the Federal minister 
may induce the British authorities to act more promptly in any 
case of the kind; that our ironclads may be permanently shut up 
if not seized ; evident from conduct of British Government that for- 
eign enlistment act will be very strictly construed when applied to 
our acts. Dread of offending TJnited States seems to be British rule 



332 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

of action nowadays. Incautious step might involve forfeiture of 
ships. Shall go [on] as if sure of success. Federal ships cruising 
about Madeira lately, but probably will change cruising ground be- 
fore March. If you think it dangerous to send officers there, as I 
proposed, select another place and advise me. Rendezvous should be 
as near the northern belt of trade winds as possible. The ironclad 
will be safe, even unarmed, and could protect her consort after join- 
ing company. Not able to raise money yet on bonds or cotton. Fiscal 
agent has written. I write fully by Southern mail. 
Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

BULLOCH. 
Honorable SECRETARY NAAY. 

p. S. January 9. Just heard Parliamentary committee to be 
appointed to investigate case of 2')0 and orders been issued to restrict 
dispatch of other ships. Arranging to get best legal advice. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Richmond. January [7j, 1863. 

SIR: Since the date of my last dispatch your letters of the llth 
of August, 10th and 24th of September, 25th of October, and 7th, 
8th, and 21st of November, 1862, have been received. 

The contract of Colonel Le Mat provides " that should any serious 
defect, rendering this pistol unfit for general service in the Navy be 
developed by use, this contract shall terminate with the delivery of 
the first thousand." Under this clause you will please submit the 
pistol to the inspection of such naval officers and other experts, not 
less than five altogether, as you may select for the purpose, to act with 
you; and upon the judgment of this board of examiners (you being 
on it), you will determine whether to restrict the contract to 1,000 
pistols or not. We have already received here 200 of these pistols 
on our contract, and if you shall determine to limit the delivery to 
1,000, but 800 remain to be received, and these 800 you will please 
decline to receive and advise the contractors that they will be re- 
ceived and inspected here. 

Mr. Masons dispatch, enclosing Lieutenant Chapman's report 
upon the homicide on board the Sumter has been received. His 
determination to sell her and to pay over the proceeds to you has 
been approved, and you will apply the proceeds to your expenditures 
for fitting out ships, etc. 

I have no doubt that Hester's statement in justification of himself 
is false. 

Commander Maury has been directed to apply a part of the cer- 
tificates sent out to his credit to the wants of your two ships and the 
one on the Clyde, should you require it before we can transmit to 
you further supplies. 

I concur with the views you express upon the inexpediency of 
sending naval officers to England, and these views have governed 
me heretofore. The plan suggested in your dispatch of the 7th of 
November for sending them is so difficult of accomplishment that I 
will at once submit to your judgment another, and request you to 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 333 

give me your views as promptly as practicable. It would be difficult, 
if not impossible, for us to obtain the services of a suitable steamer, 
and, failing in this, would be compelled to charter an English sailing 
vessel at Nassau for the purpose. 

I suggest to you, therefore, that you at once put yourself con- 
fidentially in communication with Mr. Slidell and learn from him 
whether you can not fit out the vessels at a French port, in which 
event the officers could go to France incog., via England in the ordi- 
nary way, and escape observation. I do not suppose that the French 
Government would give any formal assent to this proposition, but I 
do suppose that not only no obstacle would be offered, but that 
facilities would be extended, and that by fitting them out nominally 
for the Government of Italy, success would attend them, as a few 
days only would be "necessary to make the transfer of men and stores 
to them. I am not at liberty to state the reasons for this opinion, 
but they are sufficiently strong to induce me to press the subject upon 
your attention. If you could run over to Paris and see Mr. Slidell 
it would be the best and perhaps the only course to pursue. 

I do not desire by any suggestion here made to change any plan 
that you may deem best for getting the ships to sea. I do not know 
your entire plan, and offer my suggestions for your consideration, 
content to leave the matter to your uncontrolled discretion. I trust 
you will be able to advise me of your determination in time to avoid 
any delay in my cooperation. The transfer of Captain Semmes with 
an organized ship's company to one of these ships may be a judicious 
arrangement. Time, however, will be allowed for its consideration. 

I have given full consideration to your wish to command one of 
the ships, which you are building; and, though convinced that you 
are rendering and can render service of the greatest importance to 
the country in your present position, and that it will be very difficult 
for us to supply your place, I will not refuse your request for this 
command if you insist upon it. I enter fully into your professional 
preferences and pride in this matter, and can well understand your 
preference for this command. 

You inform me in your dispatch of the Tth of November that addi- 
tional ironclad ships can be built in England to suit any character of 
service. In my letters of the 20th of November and 13th of Decem- 
ber I requested you, if practicable, to construct four ships of the 
class of the Alabama. Push these ships ahead as rapidly as possible. 
Our difficulty lies in providing you with funds, but you may rely 
upon receiving cotton certificates sooner or later. 

You speak of having under consideration plans of armored ships 
of about 2,300 tons and to draw r 14 feet ; and of certain parties who 
are willing to build without cash advances, and to deliver the ships, 
armed and equipped, beyond British jurisdiction. Close with this 
proposition at once by all means, and give any reasonable bonus after 
agreeing upon the times of such delivery, for earlier delivery, together 
with a bonus for extra speed. 

I have reflected upon and investigated the operation of ram ships, 
and I am convinced that every ship may and should be used as a ram 
when opportunities are presented. Let me suggest, therefore, that 
on arranging the details of this vessel, you see whether you can not 
properly provide for using her as a ram. Our river high-pressure 
boats, carrying their boilers on deck, frequently run against a sand 



334 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1361-1865. 

bar or a snag, going at great speed, and bring up all standing, with- 
out deranging their boilers or engines in the i<>;i-i. The contact of 
the Virginia with the Cumberland was not felt on board the former, 
and the moving vessel that runs squarely into a stationary one rarely 
receives injury. 

Commence four more ironclad ships if you possibly can, to be com- 
pleted in the shortest time possible. I do not see how builders can 
fet high speed, so important to us, from a screw upon a low draft; 
ut you must, in view of the character of our harbors, get the draft 
as low as possible. 

The Secretary of the Treasury has been requested to place one and 
a half millions of dollars in cotton certificates at once to your credit : 
the funds to this amount are transferred to him, and I hope he will 
be able to transmit them by vessels now about to sail. 

Your suggestion as to engines is important. I made a contract 
for 18 marine engines of different sizes with an English party, 
which I am convinced will fail. If the condition of your fin;> 
will permit it, please purchase or have built 4 marine engines to 
drive 12-foot screws with the greatest power, and send them if pos- 
sible in a vessel belonging to the Government. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. R. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Commander JAMES D. BULLOCH, C. S. Navy. 

Liverpool, England. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Navy Department, Juinniri/ '/". / 

SIR: Your dispatch of the llth of November by the 6V/Y///V, with 
inclosures, has been received, and I am gratified to find you spe;> ' 
in favorable terms of the progress of your ship. Lieutenants Sin- 
clair and Wilkinson both speak of her as a very formidable ship. 

Your memorandum of contract provides for the completion and 
delivery of the ship on the 1st of June, 1863, according to the H: 
fications. Having no copy of the specifications, I can form no j 
ment as to what is to be her condition when delivered; and you are 
requested to furnish the department, as early as practicable, with this 
information. Would it not be well to offer a bonus for an earlier de- 
livery, and also, if possible, for her delivery beyond British juris- 
diction? Five or ten thousand pounds sterling would be most judi- 
ciously expended in the attainment of these objects. 

I am endeavoring to provide you with funds to guard against any 
delay, but our difficulties in getting funds to England are very great. 
Copies of the Times and the slips cut from it giving highly inter- 
esting and valuable information upon ordnance and Kindred topics, 
are received from you, and for which you have my thanks. 

You w r ill please keep me advised by every opportunity of your 
progress, and of anything you may regard as useful to our country. 
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

S. K. MALLORY, 
Secretary of the Na vy. 
Commander JAMES H. NORTH, C. S. Navy, 

Glasgow, Scotland. 



XAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 335 

f Taken from Richmond Whig, January 13, 1863.] 

Letter from. Comnumd^r Matthew F. Maur-y to the Editor of the 

London Times. 

SIR: TVe read of people in the olden time whose judgment God 
has taken away; but the annals of modern history may, I believe, 
be searched in vain for such an instance of judicial blindness as that 
under which the Northern people have been laboring. Upon no other 
theory can the conduct of the Lincoln Government, in the rupture 
between the Xorthern and Southern States of America, be accounted 
for. 

From the very beginning of these troubles Mr. Lincoln and his 
counsellors have been floundering in their own devices, stultifying 
themselves by their acts of to-day in their conduct of yesterday. Not 
longer ago than the last month Mr. Lincoln's Secretary of State 
wrote to his minister in London that " intervention would only 
afford an additional motive for America, to sustain her resolution to 
remain united.'' 

To reunite her is, if we are to believe professions, the first wish 
of Mr. Lincoln's heart, and his friends have intimated time and 
again, with a peculiar significance, that in a war with England 
the South would be sure to unite with the North. Then, why dread 
intervention? If such are to be its effects it should be courted by 
Mr. Lincoln, one would suppose. 

Evidently this threat through his minister for it bears a men- 
acing air was intended to intimidate the British people to suppress 
their avowal of sympathy with the South and to influence her 
Majesty 's Government ; for a few days after this menace was received 
in London he practically revoked his Emancipation Proclamation, 
which had been uttered with so much personality a few weeks 
before ; and, Lristead of abolishing slavery next week he offers to give 
us the rest of the century to do it in, and to pay us for it, too, if 
we will only do it ourselves and come back to him. 

This is certainly a bid for the South to come back, and it looks 
very like a practical admission on his part that the cause of subju- 
gation and reunion is becoming desperate. He can't lay his taxes 
to support the war. 

To one whose case becomes desperate dela}^ is always of moment. 
Everything must be done to gain time. The idea of foreign in- 
tervention must be staved off and a new plea put in for another 
respite of "sixty" or "ninet}'" days. This plea is sought to be 
enforced on a rumor which I am informed is now current in Yankee 
circles, to the effect that Southern traders are making overtures 
for a return to political union with the Yankees. This rumor is, 
it is said, derived from private letters received in this city from the 
North. It is only a " Yankee trick." If it could but gain credence 
here, even for a while, it would relieve for a time the Federal 
administration from the fear of its great bugbear, foreign inter- 
vention, and might do the Republican party k * a heap of good." 

Not only has no such overture been made, but there is no proba- 
bility that such a one will ever come. Our cause has been conse- 
crated by the best blood in the land; for it great sacrifices have 
been made ; its champions feel that they are clad in the triple armor 



336 NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 

of right. For these reasons it has become dear to the hearts of a 
whole people. Our men, women, and children glory in it; and, 
after the proofs that the world has had of Southern manhood is it 
likely that such men will be so base as to think of returning to Yankee 
dominion? Simply, a petition from the South to be received again 
as British plantations would be more possible. 

I am fresh from the South, having quite recently run the blockade 
of Charleston. I know the sentiments and feelings of my fellow 
countrymen, and so far from losing faith in our cause or entertain- 
ing any doubts as to success, we were never more decided nor in better 
heart. 

Besides our own self-reliance, the faith we have in our cause and 
leaders, we derive encouragement from the enemy. He begins to 
shows signs of giving in. Mr. Lincoln for the first time recognizes 
the possibility of permanent disunion, for he can find " no line, 
straight or crooked " which will suit him for a boundary, as yet, not- 
withstanding no country so abounds in well-established lines of this 
sort, for each State has its own. Moreover, financial ruin is staring 
his people in the face. The signs of its speedy coming among them 
are unmistakable. He dares not enforce a draft upon his militia nor 
the tax bill upon his people. They will neither give him his full 
contingent in men or in money. The dawn of returning reason is 
visible in his recent elections ; his administration is vacillating ; it is 
trying to shape a new policy as to satisfy each of two opposing fac- 
tions. His people are beginning to tire of him and his war, and to 
confess that nothing but grief can come of it to them. On the other 
hand, we have but to stand firm, think of our dead and be true to 
ourselves, and all will be well with us. 

As soon as the Northern press is unmuzzled, and the tongues of the 
friends of free government there are loosed, then we shall begin to 
see the beginning of the end. In the meantime, we are fighting, not 
against a constitutional government, for that has been overturned, 
but against a mob, with Mr. Lincoln at the head of it. 

I have heard since leaving the South a great deal said about our 
want of arms, about the half -starved and worse clad soldiers of the 
South. There is no lack of food among us. As for arms, we have 
taken enough from the enemy to equip all the force that we require ; 
and then as to clothing it is enough for me to say that the custom- 
house receipts at Charleston for the month of July, 1862, were greater 
than they have been for the corresponding month of any year of the 
last ten ; and this revenue was derived chiefly from duties on clothing 
and munitions of war, notwithstanding the famous blockade. What 
the receipts have been for the months of August, September, October, 
and November I can not say, for I have not seen the returns. 

A considerable amount of importations has also entered Wilming- 
ton, Mobile, and the ports of Texas. Besides this, large quantities 
of clothing have been brought across the Potomac and the Chesapeake 
into the numerous rivers and creeks of Virginia, also from Ohio 
and other producing States of the West. 

Events now transpiring in America show that we are quite as able 
to keep the field as is the enemy, and far more united. 
Respectfully, etc., 

M. F. MA FRY, 
No. 1 Albemarle Street, Piccadilly, December 22, 1862. 



NAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1865. 337 

LIVERPOOL, January 9, 1863. 

DEAR SIR : Your letter from London reached me in due course of 
mail, and I regret that you were interrupted in your efforts to sell 
cotton, although I confess that I was not as sanguine as you were 
of your ability to raise the sum requisite to complete your contracts 
in the manner proposed. When you informed me some time ago 
that the honorable Secretary of the Xavy had ordered you to remain 
in England to supervise and complete the iron ship, building in 
Glasgow, I supposed, of course, you would desire the contract to 
be formally turned over to you again, so that the matter might be 
really and entirely under your control. When the contract was 
transferred to me I felt confident that it would revert to you again, 
and therefore, if you recollect, proposed that you should go on 
superintending the ship as if the contract were still yours, conceiv- 
ing that my personal attention was not necessary. If, however, the 
papers are all to remain in my name, it will be necessary for me to 
inspect the ship frequently and look into her construction, for I 
can not be responsible for a piece of work I know nothing of. This 
would interfere with my own proper work, which at this time is 
very engrossing and would besides appear like an interference with 
yours, which I am anxious to avoid, and for these reasons I have 
again alluded to the matter and now leave the decision in your 
hands. So long as I had money on hand the payments on the Glas- 
gow ship were and should have been regularly made. I have just sent 
Messrs. James and George Thomson 22,000, which exhausts the 
available funds on hand, and, as I have already informed you, this 
is the last payment I can make on your ship unless bonds are very 
soon sold or money realized in some other way. Mr. Mason, Mr. 
Spence, and others seem to expect relief very soon, but my hopes are 
not sanguine, perhaps because of my great anxiety. 

It strikes me that W. S. Lindsay & Co. ought to help you out with 
one payment at least without any security beyond your receipt for 
the money, for I have understood that in consideration of the con- 
tract being made through them they would smooth away any difficul- 
ties that might occur. At any rate I would intimate to them some- 
thing of the kind. If any relief comes I will let you know before the 
next installment falls due, but you had better, like myself, be pre- 
pared for disappointment. 

I am going to Ireland this afternoon, to be gone until Monday. 
Yours, truly, 

JAMES D. BULLOCH. 

Commander JAMES H. XORTH. 



BRIDGE OF ALLAN, SCOTLAND, 

January 12, 1863. 

DEAR SIR : On my return from Glasgow, on Saturday evening last, 
I found your letter of the 9th instant awaiting me. Like yourself, 
I regret very much that I was interrupted in my efforts to sell cot- 
ton; for I confess that I was sanguine of my ability to raise the 
sum requisite to the completion of my contracts. In proof thereof 
I will send you a copy of a note received from one of the large 

176429 VOL 2 PT 121 22 



338 XAVY DEPARTMENT COEEESPONDEXCE, 1861-1865. 

European houses in London. This note I received on my second 
visit to London, and when I thought I had everything in fair train- 
ing again Mr. Mason thought fit to stop me, he having received 
such instructions from the Treasury Department as caused him to 
think it would be improper in any officer to continue negotiations. 

In your letter of the 9th you say: "When you informed me some 
time ago that the honorable Secretary of the Navy had ordered 
you to remain in England to supervise and complete the iron ship 
building in Glasgow I supposed, of course, you would desire the con- 
tract to be formally turned over to you again, so that the matter 
might be really and entirely under your control." 

In the above conclusion you are perfectly correct; such was really 
my wish; and I should have done so immediately had I have had 
any money to have carried out the contract, but, as I had no money 
I thought it would be an idle form and was in hopes that you 
had so" understood me in the conversations we have had on that 
subject. As you are now like myself, all your available funds hav- 
ing been expended, I unhesitatingly say I am ready for the contract 
to be turned over to me at any moment, that it may be agreeable to 
yourself and the Messrs. Thomson. 

Though I can not see any necessity for you to inspect the ship 
I am building, still, as long as you hold the contract you have a 
perfect . right so to do, and if at any time you should be visiting 
these parts I shall be very much pleased to see you and get your 
opinion of the ship. You may also assist me in the internal arrange- 
ments. I visited the yard on Saturday last and things are progr 
ing. 

I hope you had a pleasant visit to Ireland. 
Yours, truly, 

JAMES H. NORTH. 

Commander J A:\IES D. BULLOOH. 

[Enclosuro.l 

The following is a copy of the note sent Commander Bui loch in 
my letter of January 12, 1863 : 

TUESDAY, December 30, 1862. 

MY DEAR SIR: I can not at present say anything definite about 
the loan except that on the 9th December I was in a position to have 
confirmed the loan if you had been able to produce the proper author- 
ity for raising the 150,000. One of my friends is now traveling, 
but will be back on Monday. In the meantime my letter and form 
of the bond has been sent to him; his brother, who, however, will 
not commit himself alone, likes the proposition subject to the author- 
ity being approved, and I hope to let you have a favorable reply at 
an early date. 

I am, my dear sir, yours, truly, 

[JAMES H. NORTH.] 

BELLMOTR HOUSE, 
Bridge of Allan, January 13, 1863. 

DEAR SIR : I am extremely anxious to know if you have heard any- 
thing respecting the loan. My ship is advancing, and in a very short 
time another payment of 18,000 will be due upon her. For the want 



2JAVY DEPARTMENT CORRESPONDENCE, 1861-1S65. 339 

of funds everything with me is at a standstill. Time is all impor- 
tant : there is much to be done, and orders for guns, shot, shell, etc., 
should have been given long before this, and would have been given 
but for the want of money. 

I am most anxious upon this subject. My contract, as you know, 
is a peculiar one, and you will oblige me greatly by letting me know 
as soon as you have received the desired information. 
With grejst respect, I remain, yours, truly, 

JAMES H. NORTH. 

Hon. J. M. MASON. 



CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, 
Xavy Department, Richmond, January 14, 1863. 
SIR : I have this clay learned that the 8 per cent bonds for $2,000,- 
000, which were drawn under my requisitions of October 18 and 27, 
1862, respectively, and sent by the Secretary of the Treasury to 
Fraser, Trenholm & Co., to be sold, the proceeds to be paid to you, 
have not been sold, and that the Secretary regards the bonds as in 
the possession and under the control of this department. 

Under these circumstances, should no disposition have been made 
of them^ you will consult with Fraser, Trenholm & Co. as to the most 
judicious disposition to be made of them, keeping in view the mainte- 
nance of our credit. 

The Secretary informs me that these gentlemen express the opin- 
ion that they may be hypothecated. If they can not be used to aid 
you in your operations you will advise me at once, as in such case 
they must be canceled or returned. 

I write briefly in great haste, having just learned that the Giraffe 
is ordered to sea. 

I am. respectfully, your obedient servant. 

S. K. MALLORY 
Secretary of the Navy. 

Commander JAMES D. BULLOCH, C. S. Navy, 

Liverpool, England. 



24 UPPER SEYMOUR STREET. 
Portman Square, January 16, 1863. 

DEAR SIR: As it may entertain an idle moment, I send you on 
the preceding page copy of the Secretary's letter of which I spoke to 
you. I have it copied from the volume of diplomatic correspondence 
recently issued at Washington. 

I have your note of the 13th instant and one of like tenor from 
Captain Bulloch detailing his grievances. 

I have under full consideration the subject of taking m