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Full text of "Official verbatim report in Spanish and English of every session and the protocols and treaty in full between the United States and Spain as originally procured and exclusively published by the New York Journal and Advertiser"









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SECRET PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
PEACE COMMISSION 



Official Verbatim Report 

IN SPANISH AND ENCJLISH 

OF EVERY SESSION 

AND THE 

Protocols and Treaty in Full 

BETWEEN 

THE UNITED STATES AND SPAIN 

AS ORIGINALLY PROCURED AND 

EXCLUSIVELY PUBLISHED 

BY THE 

NEW YORK JOURNAL 

AND ADVERTISER 



Issued in Pamphlet form for the information 

of United States Senators and Representa. 

tives, Governors of States and Mem. 

bers of State Legislators — with 

the Compliments of the 

New York Journal 




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Protocol No. 1. 



PROTOCOLO NO. 1. 



CONFERENCE 
Of October 1. 1898. 

Present- 
On the piu't of the United States: 

Messrs. DAY. 

DAVIS, 

rUYK. 

GRAY, 

I! KID. 
On tile pait of Spain: 
Messrs. MOXTKKO RIOS. 

ArtAUZTZA. 

(JARNII'A. 

VILLA-URRUTIA, 

CERERO. 
Tiiere was present, as Seeretary i>f the 
United States Cnmmlssion. Mr. Mrn're. 
ami as Interpreter of the saini> Coinniission, 
Mr. Fergnsson. 

Mr. Ojeda, Seeretar.v of the Spanisli 
ComnusFion. not having arrivi^il in rar;s. 
his dntles were, on motion of Mr. .Monte- 
ro Rios. tile Anieriean Commissioners as- 
senting, discharged by Mr. Villa-rmitia. 

Tin- t [Kiliiissious and full power of lit. 
Aiiier.'eai. Commissioners were exhibited to 
the Spar.isli Commissioners, and copies giv- 
ej I' them 

The cciiimisr on of the Anieriean Seere- 
tary was ;"h.o exhibited, and a eopy 'iir- 
nished to the Spanish Commissioners. 

The commissions, which were also full 
powers of the Spanish Coinmissioncrs were 
exh'bited. and copies given to the Ameri- 
can ( ominissioners. 

It was resolveil that the protocols of the 
conferences shonld be kept in Knglish and 
In Spanish by the resi>eetive Secretaries, 
and that in the event of a disagreement 
between them it should be settled by the 
Gomnii.ssioners. to whom the protocols 
gho'.ild always be submitted for approval. 

It was also resolved that the protocols 
should contain the propositions presented 
by the Comm'ssloners and the action there- 
on, suppressing any record of the debates. 
In order that the discussions should be as 
full, frank and friendly as was desired 
by all the Ci>mniissioiiers. 

The Spanish Commissioners moved that 
the Commissioners on cither side should 
have the right to file memoranda on points 
deemed by them to be of sufficient Import- 
ance to warrant such action. On this mo- 
tion no decision was reached. 

Upon the suggestlou of Mr. Montero 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 1 de Octubre de 1898. 



Presenlos— 
'or pni'te tie ios Kstaiios 
ira : 



Tiiidos do Amer- 



i>AV. 
r>AVIS. 
FUi'E, 
(IKAY. 
UKID. 
Por jmi'to (U> K^fpana: 
los Scnoies MONTKKO Kins. 
AKARZTZA. 
OAKXICA. 
VILLA-rUHlTIA. 
I'KUERO. 



rio de la 
eiicargado 



Asisllan cii (.-aiidad de Scri-cl 
CiM'iision de los EsTados T'nidns. 
df l:i n-daccioii iiiErlesa del pioiocolo. Mr. 
MiMire. y eoiiKt Imi-rpretf de diolia Coinis- 
i'lii, Mr. EergusHoii. 

No liahiendo aun Ih'^ado a Paris el Seere- 
larii) lie la Comisinii espanola. Sr. Ojeda. se 
presto a haoer sns vecies. por indicaeiou del 
Senor Montero Kios y eon el asentimiento 
de los Coini sarins anieriranos. el S^nor 
\'ilhi-T'trutia. 

L"s nonibraiiiicutus y itlfnipotciieias de 
los Co.iiisarios anierioanos fiieroii preseii- 
tados a los C'omisarios espan()Ies a quienes 
se entreiraron eo]»ias de los niisnios. 

TamluiMi file prcseiitado el nombranilento 
del Secri'tario de la Comision arnerif-aiia y 
hei-ha entrejra <le una eopia de el. 

Asiinisiiio fueron presuntados piir Jos 
roniisarins cspanoles sus plenipott'ncias. de 
qui* s*' dit'i-on ropjas a la Comision ainerl- 
'■aca. 

Se loin ino I'll que las aotas de la ooii- 
feri-neia se redaetasen en espan<d e ingles 
por los respeetivos Secretanos. y que cu- 
ando no huhiese entre ellos aenerdo, re- 
solviese la eonfereneia. a cuya ai)rol)aclon 
hal)ian de ser sienipre sonietidas. 

S).- at-^irdo lanilden quf endiehas aetas 
ronstasen las proposieiones que preseu- 
taran los Comisarios y los aeuer dos que 
recayeran sohre las mismas. suprimlendo en 
eanibiu euanlo se refiriese a su discusIoD 
p:irT |)erniitir que esta fuera tan nmpHa, 
t;in franca y tan amistosa oonio nuos y 
otros Conilsarios deseaban. 

Los Comisarios espanoles propusierou que 
los Comisarios de una u otra de las partes 
tnveran el derecho de presentar memor- 
anda sobre aquell os puntos que por su Im- 
portancia eutendleran que asi lo requerlan. 
No se decldlo nada sobre este punto. 

Tmlioada por el Senor Montero Rlos la 



Rios tUat au order of business be estab- 
lished by the Commission, Mr. Gray 
moved that a committee be appointed, to 
consist of a Commissioner on eacb side, 
to agree upon, frame, and submit to the 
conference rules of procedure for the 
guidance thereof. The motion being agreed 
to, Mr. Gray • and .Mr. ViUa-Urrutia 
were designated as the committee, and re- 
quested to report to the conference at the 
next session, which it was resolved should 
be held (.>u October ?>. at - o'clock p. m. 



Till' President ut the Spanish Commis- 
sion stated that he was charged by his 
Government to Ia.v before the American 
Couimissioners a proposition, in limine 
and of a pressing nature, which he pre- 
sented in writing, and of whici a copy 
and translation are hereto annexed. Mr. 
Day requested that it be read, which was 
done, the Interpreter translating it into 
English. Upon the conclusion of the read- 
ing Mr. Day said that the American Com- 
missioners would examine the proposition 
and reply to it at the next session. 
Sigm-d: WILLI.\M R. DAT, 

CUSHMAX K. DAVIS, 
\VM. P. FRYE, 
GEO. GRAY, 
WHITELAW REID. 
J. B. MOORE. 



conveniencia de tijar el orden de los tra- 
ba.ios de la Comision. propuso Mr. Gray el 
norabramiento de dos delegados en repre- 
sentac'on de cada una de las partes para 
que. puestos de acuerdo, redacten y some- 
tan a la Confereucia las reglas de pro- 
cedimiento a que esta deba a.iustarse. 
.\probada la proposieion. gueron designa- 
dos el Sr. Viila-Urrutia y Mr. Gray para 
la redaccion del reglaniento que habia de 
presentarse a la aprobacion de la confereu- 
cia en su prosima sesion. acordandose que 
esta tuviera lugar el 3 de Octubre a las dos 
de la tarde. 

El Presidente de la Comision espanola 
manifesto que tenia encargo de su Gobier- 
no de preseutar a los Comisarios americanos 
como ouestlon previa y de caracter urgente 
una mociou que presento por escrito y cuya 
copia es anexa al protocolo. Mr. Day pidio 
que se diera de ella lectura y asi lo hizo, 
trartuciendola al ingles el Interprete. Ter- 
minada la lectura declaro Mr. Day que los 
Comisarios americanos estudiarian ticha 
mociim y darian su respuesta en la sesion 
[)rMXinia. 
FirnKido. E. MONTERO RIOS, 
B. DE ABARZUZA, 
J. DE GARNICA, 
W. R. DE VIELA-rRRlTlA. 
RAFAEL CERERO. 



ANNEX TO PROCOTOL NO. 1. 

Los Comisarios espanoles para convenir con los Senor. Coralsarlos auierlcanos un 
tiatado de paz cntre Espana y los Etados I'liMos de Aniprica tlcneu el honor dp 
hacer presente a los Senores Coinlsftrios ;iiiU'rU'fliu)s In sisuiente: 

Hablcudose conveuido en el artlculo G del protocolo fiimado en Washington el 12 
de Agosto ultimo por el Senor Ministro do Estado del Gotiierno federal y el Senor 
Embajador de Fraucia en concepto de Pli'iiipotenciario do Espana en que "al con- 
eliilrse y flrmarse aquel documento deberian ser suspendidas las hostilidades entrc 
los dos paises;"' y siendo de este convenio inmediata y necesaria conseeuoneia que el 
statu quo existente en aquel momento en Flllplnas no habia de poder alterarse en 
perjuieio de ninguua de las dos Altas Partes eontratantes mientras hubiera de durar 
tal suspension de hostilidades. los Comisarios espanoles entienden que tiablendo de 
ser el sobredieho Protoeolo y su estricta observaneia la base necesaria del tratada de 
paz que estau Uauiados a convenir con los Senores Comisarios americanos. estan en 

■ el easo de proponer y rieraandar a diehos Senores Comisarios que juntaniente cnu 
los infrnscritos se sirvan deelurar que dicho statu quo debc ser in?uediatameute re- 
stableeldo por la parte contratante que lo haya allerado o que baya consentldo o no 
impedido su alteraclon en perjuieio de la otra. 

Yentendiendo los Comisarios espanoles iiu'' tal staiu quo fue alterado y conti- 
nua cada dia eon mayor sravedad alterandose en perjuieio de Espana por li>s rebeldes 
tagalos que formaron durante la campana y continuan fermando una fuerza auxlliar 
de las tropas vegulares amerioanas, demaudnn a los Senores Comisarios americanos 
que juntamente con los infraserltos se sirvan dedarar que las autoridades y jefes de 
las fuerzas amerieanas en las Islas Filiplnas deben proceder inmediatamente a resta- 

■ bleeer eu su estricta y absoluta integridad aquel statu quo en los territorios que 
O'-upen V se abstengan de impedlr por ningnn medio directo ni indirecto que las au- 
toridades y fuerzas espanolas lo restablpzcan en los territorios que no ocupan las de 
los Estados Unidos. 

Los Comisarios espanoles se reservan volver a Insistlr sobre este asunt" asi como 
sobre los derechos que a Espana pudieran corresponrier por efecto de la indicada al- 
teracion que ha sufrido y puede coutinuar sufiiendo en Filipinas el Statu i\w> del 12 
de Agosto ultimo liasta su restableeiinon to. Esta conforme: 

EMILIO 1>K O.I EDA. 



TRANSLATION. 
(Annex to Protocol No. 1.) 

Ti:e Spanish Conmiissioners to arrange with the American Commissioners a 
treaty of peace between Spain and the United States of America, have the honor 
to l.iy before the American Commissioners the following: 

It having been agreed by .\rticle VI. of 'he Protocol signed in Washington 
on .August 12 last by the Secretary of State of the Federal noevrnnieut and the 
Ambassador of France acting as Plenipotentiary of Spain rhat ••upon the conclusion 
ai.d signing of this Protocol hi>stilities bef.vecri the two countries shall be suspend- 
ed:" and it being a direct and necessary conse(iuei:ce of this arrangement that 
tlie statu quo at the time existing in the Philippines could not be altered to the 
prejudice of the two High Contracting Part.es during' the continuance of .such sus- 
pension of hostilities, the Spanish Commissioner.... nmlerstanding that the Protocol 
aforesaid and its observance must be the necessary basis of the treaty of peace 
they are called upon to arrange with the American Commissioners, feel bound to 
propose and demand of the said Commissioners that jointly with the undersigned 
they be pleased to declare that the said statu quo must be immediately restored 
by the contractine party that may have altered the same, or that may have 
consented to or failed t" prevent its alteration to the prejudice of the other. 

Aid the Spanish Commissioners, understanding that such statu quo was al- 
tered and continues being altered with dai'v im reasing gravity to the prejudi<e of 
Spain by the Tag:ilo rebels, who formed during the campaian and still form an 
anxll-ary force to the regular American troops, demand of the .\merican Com- 
missioners that jointly with the undersigne.l they be pleased to declari' that the 
authorities and officers of the American forces in the Philippine Islands must at 
once proceed fully and absolutely to restore the s.-iiil statu cpio in the territories 
tiiey may occury. and must abstain from preventing, by any means, direct or In- 
direct, tile restoration thereof by the Spanish authorities and forces in the terri- 
tory not occupied by those of the United States. 

The Spanish Commissioners reserve the right to insist again upon this matter 
as well as upon the rights that may attach to Spain through the effect of the 
said alteration which the statu quo of August 12 last has svffered or may con- 
tinue to suffer in the Philippines until its restoration. True copy: 

EMTLIO r>E O.IEIIA. 



COMMISSIONS AND FULL POWERS 
REFERRED TO IN THE FOREGOING PROTOCOL. 

Commissions of American Plenipct^ntiaries. 

WILLIAM M'KINLEY. PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OP AMERI- 
CA, TO ALL WHO SHALL SEE THESE PRESENTS. GREETING: 

Know Yi'! That, reposing special trust and confidence in tbe Integrity and Abil- 
ity of Wiliiaiu R. Day, of Ohio, I do appoint him a Commissioner Plenipotentiary 
of the United States, under the Protocol siencd at Washington of the twelfth day 
of August, 1808, to negotiate and conclude a Treaty of peace between the United 
States and Snain, and do authorize an d empower him to execute and fulfil the 
duties of this Commission, with all the powers, privilege?, and emoluments there- 
unto of right appertaining, during the pleasure of the President of the United 
States. 

In testimony whereof. I have caused these letters to be made patent, and the 
seal of the United States to be hereun to affixed. 

Given under my hand at the city of Washington the 13th day of September in 
the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight, and the 123d 
year of the Independence of the United States of America. 

Signed: WILLIAM M'KINLEY. 

Ry the President: 
Signed: J. B. MOORE. 
Acting Secretary of State. 

The commissions of tbe other American Plenipotentiaries were in the same 
form, their names being as follows: 

CUSHMAN K. DAVIS, of Minnesota, 
WILLIAM P. FRYE, of Maine, 
GEORGE GRAY, of Delaware, and 
WHITELAW liEID i.f New York. 



Full Power of American Plenipotentiaries. 

WILLIAM .M'KINLEY. PRESIDENT i)F THE UNITED STATES OF AMERI- 
CA, TO ALL WHO SHALL SEE THESE PRESENTS, IJREETING: 

Know Ye! That, reposing special trust and confidence in the Integrity and Abil- 
ity of the Honorable William R. Day, of Ohio, lately Secretary of State of the 
United States: the Honorable Cushman K. Davis, of Minnesota, a Senator of the 
United States; the Honorable Wiiii.am P. Frye, of Maine, a Senator of tbe United 
States-; the Hnnorable George Gray, of Delaware, a Senator of the United States, 
and the Honorable Whitelaw Reid, of New Yorlc, lately Minister Plenipotentiary 
of the United States to France, I do appoint tJiem jointly and severally to be 
CiMnmissioners on the part of the United States under the Protocol signed at 
Washington on the twelfth day of August, 1898, to negotiate and conclude a Treaty 
of peace between the United States and Spain, hereby empowering them jointly and 
severally to meet the Commissioners appointed or to be appointed under said Pro- 
tocol on behalf of Spain, and with them to negotiate and sign a Treaty of peace be- 
tween the United States and Spain, subject to the ratification of their Govern- 
ment; and the said commission to hold and exercise during the pleasure of the Pres- 
ident of the United States for the time Ijeing. 

In testimony whereof, I have caused these lettois to be made patent and the 
seal of tbe United States to be hereunto aliEixed. 

Given under my hand at the City of Washington this 13th day of September, in 
the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight, and of the in- 
dependence of the United States of .\m erica the one hundred and twenty-third. 

Signed; WILLIAM MKINLEY. 

I'.y the I'rcsidcut: 
Signed: ,1. H. MOORE, 

Acting Se.retary of State. 



COMMISSIONS AND FULL POWERS OF SPANISH PLENIPOTEN- 
TIARIES. 



DON ALFONSO XIII. por la graola de Dios y ia I'oiisdtucion Rey de Espaiia y 

en sn ncmbre y durante su meiior edad PONA MAItIA CKISTINA, Roine Rogente 

del Roino: 

Tor ciiaiito ha lloKado el onso de celebrai- entre Kspaim y los Estados Unldos de 
Aiiieiii-a nil tratado de paz; siendo necesario que al efecto autodoc To debidamente 
a ppisoiias quo luerezi an Mi Heal conflanza y cimiui rjcndo en Voe. Don Eugenio 
Montero Kios. f'aballero de la Inslgne Orden del Toison de Oro, condecorado con el 
Collar de la Real y distinguida orden de Carlos III.. I'residente del Senado, ex-ml- 
nistro de la Corona, ex-presidente del Tribunal Supremo de Justlcia. Academico de 
la de Ciencias Morales y Politlcas, los cirouiistancias que a este fin pueden apeter- 
cerse: por tanto, he venldo en elegiros y nointiraros. eonio por la presente os elijo y 
nombro para que. en cumpllmlento de lo estlpnlado en el artlculo qulnto del Protoeolo 
firniado in Washington el dia doee del mes de Agosto ultimo y revestido del caraeter 
de Mi Plenipotenciario. contereneiels y convengais lo mas aeertado y oportuno, en 
union de los denias Plenipotenciarios que. .-on esta niisnia feoha. nombro, y con los 
que deslgne al propio objeto el Presidente de los Kstados Unldos. Y todo lo que asl 
confereuoiels. convengais, tratels. coneluyais y flrmels lo doy desde ahora per grato 
y rato, lo observare y cumplire, lo hare observar y cumpllr como si por Ml misma lo 
hubiere conferenciado, convenido. tratado, concluido y firmado. para la cual os doy 
Mi pleno poder en la mas auiplia forma que de derecbo se requiera. Y en fe de ellode. 
He hecha expedir la presente lirmada d M niauo, debidamente sellada y refrendada 
del infrascrito Mi ministro de Estado. Dado en el Palaeio de Madrid a veintidos de 
Septienibre de mil ochocientos noventa y ochi. Firmado: MARIA CRISTINA. 

El Ministro de Estado. 
Firmado: .7uan Manuel Sanchez y Gutierrez de Castro, 



TRANSLATION. 

HON ALFONSO XIII.. liY THE CliAClO f)F GOD AND THE CONSTITU- 
TION KING OF SPAIN. AND IN HIS NAME AND DURING HIS MINORITY, 
DONA MARIA CRISTINA. (JUEEN REGENT OF THE KINGDOM: 

Whereas the occasion has arisen for the con<'luding between Spain and the 
Uniti'd States of America of a Treaty of peace, and it being necessary that to 
such end I should duly confer authority upon persons who shall merit my royal 
confidence, and you. Don Eugenio Montero Rios, Knight of the Worthy Order of 
the (Jolden Fleece, decorated with the Collar of tne Royal and distinguished Order 
of Charles III.. President of the Senate. c'X-Minister of the Crown, ex-President 
of the Supreme Tribunal "f ,Iustice. .\cailemician of the Moral and Political Sci- 
ences, embody the characlcristlcs which niei't the I'equirements of the ease, I have 
therefore chosen and appointed, and by these presents do choose and appoint you 
to the end th::t. pursuant to the stipulations of Article V. of the Protocol signed 
in Washington of the twelfth day of the month of .\ugust last, and invested with 
the character of my Plenipotentiary, you may in unison with the other Plenipo- 
tentiaries r have appointed under this date and those who may be desigmtted by 
the Pres'dent of the United States for the same purjiose, confer and agree upon 
what may be be.st and most advisabli'. \nd- everything you may so confer and 
agree upon, negotiate, conclmb- .-uid sign. I n-iw confirm and ratify. I will observe 
and execute, will cause to lie observed -nid e\c<-,ited. the same as if I myself 
had conferred and agreed upon, negotiated concluded and signed it. for all of 
which I confer upon .von ample authority to the fullest extent required by law. 
Ill witness thereof I have caused these present to issue s'gned by my hand, duly 
S'l'aled and attested by the undersigned, my Minister of State. 

Given in the Palace of Madrid on tiie twenty-second day of Septi'Uiber of eight- 
cin iiuiiilrcd :ind ninety-eight. Sigii.d- MARIA CRISTIN.X. 

Signid: JUAN MANUEL S.WCHEZ V i:i 11 i:i;i:E/, UK c.\SIRn. 
Minister of State. 



The commissions and full powers ot tlie oclier Spanish Plenipotentiaries were 
in the sime form, their names and tities Ijeing as foi'ows: j 

Don BUENAVENTURA ABAUZDZA, Senato'r of the Kingdom ami sometime 
Ambassador and Minister of the Crown; 

Don JOSE DE GARNICA Y DIAZ, Assoc-iatc Justice of the Supreme Court ot j 

Justice, Deputy of the Cortez, Member of the General Codification Commission, ex- n] 

Vice-President of the Congress of Deputies; 

Don WENCESLAO RAMIREZ DE VILLA-URIIUTIA, Knight Grand Cross of 
the Royal Order of Isabel the Catholic, Knight Commander of the Royal and Dis- 
tinguished Order of Charles III., decorated with the White Cross of the second 
class of Naval Merit, Grand Cross of the Dutch Lion of the Netherlands. Oak Crown 
of Luxemburg, the Majidieh of Turkey, Knight Commander of the Legion of Honor 
of France, of the Concepcion de Viilaviciosa of Portugal, decorated with the Cross 
of the second class of the Bust of Bolivar, Knight of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus 
of Italy, of the Crown of Prussia, of the Crown of Christ of Portugal, Licentiate . 
iu civil and canonical law, and through competitive examination in admluistrative 
law Academician Professor of the Royal Academy of Jurisprudence and Legislation, 
my Minister Penipotentiary to His Majesty the King of the Belgians: j 

Dcu RAFAEL CERERO Y SAENZ, General of Division, Ranking General of En- 
gineers of the First Army Corps. Knight of the Grand Cross of the orders of San 
Hermenegildo and of Military Merit, white insignia; decorated with the Cross of 
the Ihird class of the Order of Military Merit, red insignia. 



i 



s 



Commission of American Secretary. 



WILLIAM MKLNLEY. PRESIDENT OF THK UNITED STATES OF AMEU- 
ICA, TO ALL WHO SHALL SEE THESE I'KESENTS. GREETING: 

Kncnv Ye! That, reposinR special trust and coufidenw iu tlie Iiiteudty aud Abil- 
ity of John Biisseit Moore, of New York. I do appoint him Secretary and Counsel 
to the Commissioners of the United States appointed under the Protocol signed at 
■Wasliington on the twelfth day of August, ISOS, to negotiate and conclude a Treaty 
of peace between the United States and Spain, and do authorize and empower 
him to execute and fulfill the duties of tliis Commission, with all the powers, privi- 
leges, and emoluments thereunto of right appertaining, during the i>leasure .>f the 
President of the United States. 

In testimony whereof. I have oausod the.se letters to be made patent, and the 
seal of the United States to be hereunto aflixod. 

Given under my hand at the city of Washington, the 13th day of September In the 
year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight, and the 123rd 
year of the Independence of the United Sir.tes of America. 

Signed: WILLIAM .M'KINLEY. 
t 
By the President: 

Signed: WILLIAM R. DAY. 

Secretary of State. 



Protocol No. 2. 



Protocolo No. 2. 



CONFERENCE 
of October 3, 1898. 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 3 de Octubre de 1898. 



Present— 
Cii tlie pari nf ihe 



L'niteil ."^tatts: 



Mes.srs. DAY. 

DAVIS, 

FKYK. 

liKAY, 

KKID, 

MOOKE. 

FEKGIISSON. 

On the iiart of .Spain: 

Messrs. MONTKUO UIOS, 
AliAKZfZA, 
GARXICA, 
VILLA IRRUTIA, 
CERKRO. 



The proloi'ol nf the preceding session was 
read and appniveil. 

Messrs. GRAY and VILLA-URRUTL^, as 
a committee on procedure, reported that 
they had. after conferring together, decided 
that it was not advisable at present to 
recommend the adoption of 'any roles In 
addition to tliose already iletermlned upon 
or still under discussion. 

The iiuestlon of annexing to the protocol 
memoranda on points of importance was 
then discussed. 

The Spanish Commissioners proposed that 
the Commissioners on either side should 
have the privilege of filing memoranda on 
points which they should deem to be of 
sufficent importance to justify such action, 
the memoranda so filed to be annexed to 
the protocols. 

The American Commissioners proposed 
that the right should be reserved to the 
Commissioners on either side to present 
memoranda on points which they mlgnt 
deem of sufficient importance to justify 
them in so doing, the question of annexing 
such memoranda to the protocol to be de- 
termined in each case by the Joint Com- 
mission. 

No agreement having been reached, It 
was decided to refer the matter to the 
Secretaries for their consideration and ad- 
justment, subject to the further action of 
the Commission. 



The American Commissioners then read 
their reply to the communication presented 
by the Spanish Commissioners at the first 
conference in relation to the preservation 
of the statu quo in the Philippines. A copy 
of the reply is hereto annexed. 



I'resentes— 
Por parte de ins Fstados Ciiidos de Amer- 
ica ; 
los Seniires DAY, 

DAVIS, 

FKYE, 

GRAY, 

REID, 

MOORE, 

FERGUSSON. 

Por parte de Espana: 

ins Senores MONTERO RIDS, 
AHARZUZA, 
GARXICA, 
VILLA-URRUTIA, 
CERERO. 

El protocolo de la sesion anterior fue 
Icido y aprobado. 

Los Senores Gray y Villa Urrutia como 
ponentes para formular las reglas de pro- 
cedimiento, manifestarou que despues de 
haber eonferenciado, habian decidido que 
no crelan por ahora necesario recomendar 
que se adoptaran otras reglas adicionales 
a las acordadas anteriormente y que aun 
s(? hallaban sujetas a debate. 



Se discutio la cuestiou de unir como 
anexos al pr.itocolo los Memorandums rel- 
ativos a asuntos de iinportancla. 



Los t'.iniisionados espanoles propusleron 
que los de ambas Partes tuvieran facultad 
de presentar .Memorandums sobre los pun- 
tos que creyeran de bastante importaucia 
para justificar tal deterininaciou y que los 
Memorandums formasen parte del protoco- 
lo como anexos al misiuo. 



Los Comisiouados ainericauos propusle- 
ron que se deberia reservar a los Comis- 
iouados de ambas Partes este derecho de 
presentar Memorandums sobre puntos que 
se juzgasen de bastante importancla para 
bacerlo asi; pero que la cuestlon de unlr 
tales Memorandums al protocolo se re- 
solveria en cada caso por la Comislon en 
pleno. 

Xo hablendose llegado a un acuerdo. se 
decidio encomendar el asunto al estudlo y 
resolndon de los Secretarios, salvo la 
aprobacion posterior de la Comlsion. 



11 



The Spjuiisli Cominissiouers reserved the 
riirht to put in an answer to the reply at 
I lie next sessiitn. 



The Spanish Commissioners then asked 
for the opinion of the Amerioan Commis- 
sioners ou the order of business. 

The American Commissioners stated that 
they were ready with propositions as to 
matters determined by the protocol. 

The Spanish Commissioners said they 
were ready to receive them. 

The propositions, as hereto annexed, were 
then read, and a oop.v of them handed to 
the Spanish Commissioners. 

After the reading was completed, the 
Spanish Commissioners stated that they 
desired to examine the paper, and, if 
necessary, present amendments, and moved 
that an ad.ionrmiient be talien until Friday. 

After discussion, it was agreed to ad.ionrn 
to two o'clock p. m.. on Friday. October 7. 

Signed: WILLIAM R. DAT. 

CUSHMAN K. DAVIS. 
WILLIAM P. FRYE. 
GEO. GRAY. 
WHITELAW REID. 
J. B. MOORE. 



Los Comisionados americanos leyerou 
luego SH contestacion a la comnnicacion 
presentada por los Comisionados espauoles 
en la primera conferencia relativa a la 
conservacion del statu quo en las Islas 
Filipinas. Una copia de la contestacion se 
acompana anexa a esta acta. 

Los Comisionados espanoles proponen 
luego a los Comisionados americanos que 
<'xp->iigan su opinion acerca del orden que 
se segTiira eu los traba.ios de la confer- 
encia. 

I,os Comisionados americanos manifiestan 
tpie tienen preparadas proposiciones sobre 
asuntos determinados por el Protocolo. 

Los Comisionados espanoles dicen que 
cstan preparados para recibirlas. 

Las proposiciones que se incluyen anexas 
son leidas dandose copias de ellas a los 
Comisionados espanoles. 

Despues de terminada la lectura los Com- 
isionados espanoles maniestau que desean 
examinar el documento. y si lo creen nec- 
esario presentar enmiendas. y proponen 
que se aplace la sesion hasta el viernes. 

Despues de haberse discutido esto, se 
(■i>:\,i]io en lerantar la sesion hasta las dos 
do la tarde del viernes 7 de Octubre. 

Firmado: E. MO.NTERO RIGS. 
B. DE ABARZrZA, 
.1. DE GARMCA. 
W R. DE VILLA-TRRUTIA. 
KAl'AIOL CERERO 



12 



Annex 1 to Protocol No. 2. 

Tlie American CouiiiiissitmLTS, haviuy duly cuiisiiien-il tin.- uuniimniicatiuii niado to 
tliein in writing by Uie Spanish Commissioners ai their conference on the 1st In- 
stant, made the following answer: 

The American Commissioners concur in the opinion, which that communication 
is understood to convey, that the Protocol ot August 12, 1S98. emhodies the condi- 
tions on which nejjotiations for peace have been undertalien. 

But in ihe proposal and demand of the Spanish Commissioners that the .\merican 
Commissioners join them in a declaration that Ihe statu quo existing at the time of 
the signature of the I'rotoeol "must be Immediately restored by the contracting 
party tliat may have altered the same, or that may have consented to or failed to 
prevent its alteration to the prejudice of the other, as well as in the demand of 
the Spanish Commissioners that the American Commissioners join them in the dec- 
laration that the American authorities in the rhilippines shall proceed to restore 
or else refrain from interfering with the effort ot Sjiain to restore the statu quo un- 
derstood by the Spanlsli Commissioners to have been disturbed by the Tagalo rebels, 
who are described as an auxiliary to the American forces, the American Commission- 
ers can see nothing but a proposal and demand to divert the conference from the 
object for which it has met to the considiTation of a subject which properly belongs 
to the two Governments, and not to the Commissioners here assembled. The Ameri- 
can Commissioners do not intend to intimate tlial the proposal was made witli this 
design, but tliey thinii it evident that this would be the necessary result of its dis- 
cussion. 

The topics embraced in the communication of the .Spani.'^h Commissioners were 
set forth in mucli detail in notes of the French Kmbassy in Washington to the De- 
partment of State of the United States of August 29. and September 3 and 11. To 
th('SC notes the Department of State rei)lic(l on .September o and 16. An examina- 
tion of these diplomatic papers will show that they embraced contested matters ot 
fact as well as contested matters of law. In respect of some of the questions of 
fact, it is probable that neither Government at present possesses full and accurate 
information: while, in respect of other questions of fact, the reports in the posses- 
sion of the Spanish Government were so entirely at variance with authentic infor- 
mation in the pos-scssion of the United States as to compel the conclusion that at 
least some of these reports were not of an official character. In respect ot questions 
of law. the views of the two Governments were also at variance. 

Tlie American Commissioners, therefore, with a view to prevent the diversion and 
failure of the present negoliations. as well as on the ground of a w;int of power, 
deem tliemselvcs obliged to reply that the questions involved in the present propo- 
sals and demands of the Siianish Commisioners liaving heretofore been presented 
to the Government of the United States and answered in notes of the Department 
of State, any further demands as to military operations in the Philippines must be 
addressed by the Government of Spain to the Government of the United States at 
Washington, and consequently that they cannot join in the proposed declarations. 

True Copy: 

J. B. MOOIIE. 



Annex 2 to Protocol No. 2. 

In i-ntering upon negotiations for a treaty of peace, the natural procedure is to 
follow the order of the topics in the Protocol of August 12. l.SSt.S. by which the Uni- 
ted States and Spain agreed upon the terms on which Ihey would enter upon the 
present negotiations. 

B.v Article I of the Protocol. Spain agrees to "relinquish all claim of sov- 
ereignty over and title to Cuba." 

With a view to the immediate execution of this engagement, steps have already 
been taken for the evacuation of the Island, as provided by the Protocol. 

Only one thing remains to complete the legal formalities ot the transaction, and 
that Is to embody In a treaty ot peace an appropriate stipulation by which Spain 
relinquishes, according to the eng-agements ot the Protocol, all claim of sovereignty 
and title. 

The American Commissioners therefore propose, as a part of the treaty of peace, 
the following article: 

"The Government of Spain hereby relinquishes all claim of sovereignty over and 
title to Cnba." 

"In this relinquishment ot sovereignty and title is included all claim to the public 
domain, lots and squares, vacant lands, public buildings, fortifications and the ar- 

13 



ijiaiueiits thereof, and Ijarraeks and otbor structures which are not private individual 
property. The archives, state papers, public records, and all papers and documents 
relative to the domain and sovereignt.v of the island and necessary or convenient for 
the government thereof, including all judicial and legal documents and other public 
records necessary or convenient for securing to individuals the titles to property or 
other rights, are embraced in the foregoing relinquishment: but an authenticated 
copy of any of them that may be required will be given at any time to such officer of 
the Spanish (Tovernment (as) may apply for it. The Government of Spain will like- 
wise furnish an authenticated copy of any paper, record or document in the Spanish 
archives, home or colonial, or in the possession of the Spanish tribunals, home or 
colonial, relative to the domain and sovereignty of the island and necessary or con- 
venient for the 5,'overnmeut thereof, or necessary or convenient for securing to in- 
dividuals the titles to property or other rights." 

By Article II of the Protocol, Spain agree^s to "cede to the United States the 
Island of Porto Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West 
Indies, and also an island in the Ladrones, to be selected by the United States." 

The Government of the United States having selected In the Ladrones the Island 
of Guam, the American Commissioners propose as the next article of the treaty of 
peace the following stipulation: 

"The Government of Spain hereby cedes to the United States the Island of Porto 
Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indie.s, and also 
the Island of Guam, in the Ladrones. 

"In this cession is included all right and claim to the public domain, lots and 
squares, vacant lands, public buildings, fortifications and the armaments thereof, 
and barracks and other structures which are not private individual property. The 
archives, state papers, public records, and all papers and documents relative to the 
domain and sovereignty of the islands and necessary or convenient for the govern- 
ment thereof, including all judicial and legal documents and other public records 
necessary or convenient for securing to individuals the titles to property or other 
rights, are embraced in the foregoing cession; but an authenticated copy of any of 
them that may be required will be given at any time to such officer of the Spanish 
Government as may apply for it. The Government of Spain will likewise furnish 
an authenticated copy of any paper, record or document in the Spanish archives, 
and home or colonial, or in the possessioQ of the Spanish tribunals, home or col- 
onial, relative to the domain and sovereignty of the islands and necessary or con- 
venient for the government thereof, or necssary or convenient for securing to in- 
dividuals the titles to property or other rights." 

True copy: 

J, B. MOORE. 



14 



Protocol No. 3. 



Protocolo No. 3. 



CONFERENCE 
of October 7. 1898. 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 7 de Octubre de 1898. 



Present— 

On the p.-irt of tlie T'nitod States: 
Messrs. DAY. 

n.wis. 

FRYE. 

GRAY. 

REII>. 

MOORE. 

FERfiURSON. 

On tlip p.Tit at Spain: 

Messrs. MONTERO-RIOS. 
ABARZUZA, 
OARXIOA, 
VILLA-URRtlTIA. 
CERERO. 

Mr. OJi'rta. bavins exhibited his commis- 
sion and furnished a ocpy of it, assumed 
the duties of Secretary of the Spanish 
Commission. 

The protoc-.>l of the preceding session 
was rend and approved. 

On the question of procedure referred to 
them at the last conference, the Secretaries 
made tin- fitlowin? report: 

"Where a i>roposition is [iresented and re- 
jected, the side presenting it shall have 
the right to tile a brief memorandum giving 
its reasons in supp«>rt of such proposition, 
nnd the other side shall have the right to 
file a brief reply, the written discussion to 
be confined to such memorandum and re- 
ply, which are to be annexed to the pro- 
tocol." 

This report was adopted by unanimous 
conaeut. 

The Spanish Commissioners then pre- 
sented, in pursuance of the resenrsition 
made by them at the last conference, a 
reply to tiie American answer on the sub- 
ject of the statu quo in the Philippines, at 
the same time stating that the reply was 
presenteil for the purpose of reserving the 
right to bring up the subject hereafter. 

The reply was received and filed; copy 
and translation are hereto annexed. 

The Si>anisli ('.oniniissioiiers then pre- 
sented, as an amendment fn the American 
pro|H(S!ils, a set of articles, in Spanish, 
copy and translation of which are hereto 
annexed. i« relation lo Cuba and Porto 
Rico. 

The American Commissioners, in order to 
afford opportunity for tlie translation and 
Consideration of the articles, moved that 
the conference be adjourned till Tuesday. 
October 11. at two o'clock p. m. 



Prest'ules — 
Por parte do los 
ica: 



I ados Unidos de Amer- 



los Senores T>.\Y". 

DAVIS. 

FUY'E. 

CRAY. 

REID, 

MOORE. 

FERGDSSON. 

Por parte de Esp.ana: 

los Senores MONTERO RIOS. 
ABAITZTZA. 
GARNICA. 
VILLA-UKRUTIA, 
CERRRO. 

El Sr. Ojeda despues de haber presentado 
su nombramlento y dado copla de el. actuo 
en ealldad de Secrctario de la Comlsion 
espanola. 

Se leyo y aprobo el acta de la sesion an- 
terior. 

Respecto rtt I - rocedimienlo que habia de 
adoptarse y que en la ultima sesion se dejo 
a cargo de los Secretarios, estos informaron 
haber llegado al acnerdo slgniente: 

"Slempre que una proposiclon sea pre- 
sentada y rechazada. la parte que la haya 
presentado tendra el derecho de anadir un 
breve memorandum en que se expresen las 
r.izdiies (in que aquella se funda, y la 
parte tendra el derecho de contestar en 
forma breve, llmitandose dicha discusion 
por escrlto al citado memorandum y con- 
testaclon qui Iran anexos al acta." 

El acuerdo anterior fue unanlmemente 
aprobado. 

Los Comlsarlos espanoies prcsentau eu vir- 
tu<i de la resen'a que hicieron en la ult'ma 
conferencia una contestacion a la comunlca- 
cion de los Comlsarlos americanos relativa 
al stjitu quo en Fllipinas. manifestando al 
mismo tiempo que el objet" de dicha con- 
testacion era el de reservar el derecho de 
promover este asunto ulterlormente. 

Dicho do<'umento fue debidamente re- 
eibido y su copla y traduccion flguran como 
anexos al acta presents. 

Los Comlsarlos espanoies presentan a con- 
tlnuaclon. como enmienda a las proposi- 
clones de los americanos. el artlculado ipic 
va adjunto. relatlvi. a Cul>!i y Porto Rli-o. 



I. OS Comisarios Americanos, a fin de dis- 
poiier del tiempo necesarlo para la txaduc- 
clon y consideration de dicho artlculado, 
propttsieiYm que la conferencia fuese apla- 
zada hasta el martes 11 de Octubre, 



15 



The conference was adjourned accord- Se aprobo este acuerdo y se aplazo la 
ingly. proxima sesion hasta el dia 11 de Octnbre 

Signed: WILLIAM. R. DAY. a las 2 p. m. 

^^I^V^A^V ''^'''^- '---•'"i- E. MONTERO RIOS. 

GEO. GKAl^ f ^1 t.rR:^^T^' 

^^'J^i^^jy.ffjl^'^- W. R. DE VILLA-DRRDTIA. 

JOHN B. MOORE. RAFAEL CERERO. 

EMILIO DE O.TEDA. 



5! 



♦ 4 

# 



s 



Annex 1 to Protocol JTo. 3. 



. COMISION 

Para la Negociacion de la Fas con los Estado Unidos. 
PROPOSICION. 

No. 2 (a). 

Los Coinisarios espanoles se liau enterado, eon la detencion que require la iui- 
ponaneia del asunto, de la co'itestaeion escrita eu que los Comisarios amorieanos se 
nlcgan a aceptar la proposiciou que los Espauoles liablamos presentado en la seslon 
celebrada per los unos y los otros en 1° del eorriente, para que se deelarase por la 
Couferencia, en pleno, q!ie debia restable<'erse el statu quo en Filiplnas exUtente en 
12 de Agosto ultimo, en que se eoneluyo y tirmo eu Wasbington el I'rotocolo, euyo 
articulo 6" contiene el acuerdo de suspender las bostilidades entre los dos paises. 

Vista esta contestaeion, los Comisarios espanoles entienden que es de su deber ba- 
cer prtsente a los Senores Comisarios amerieanos, Que si el statu quo exlstente en 
Filipiuas en 12 de Agosto ultimo, lejos de restablccerse continua perturbandose cada 
yez mas, en perjuicio de Kspana. el Gobieruo de Su Majestad Catoliea y eu su nom- 
bre sus Plenipotenciarlos en esta Conl'ereucia, se reservan proveer, a lo que entien- 
dan que exige el derecho de Bspana, una vez que no conciljen como ha de poder cele- 
brarse e! tratado de paz que estan encargados de conveuir eon los Senores Comisarios 
anierieanos sobre la indeclinable base del Pmtoeolo de Washington de 12 Agosto 
ultimo, si esta base se esta alterando eonstantemeute en una de sus partes y eada 
dia en mayor perjuicio de Espana. 

Paris. 7 de Octubre de l.StlS. 

Esta conforme: 

BJJILIO DK OJEDA. 



TRANSLATION. 

Annex 1 to Protocol No. 3. 
PROPOSITION. 

Xo. 2 (a). 

With Ibe careful consideration the subject demands, the Spanish Commission- 
ers have informed themselves of the written reply in which the American Com- 
missioners decline to accept the proposition which the Spaniards presented at the 
session held by both Commissions on the 1st instant, to the effect that the loint 
body declare that the statu quo existing in the Philippines on the 12th of Au^st 
last, date of the concluding' and signing in Washington of the Protocol, Article 
VI. of which contains the agreement to suspend hostilities between the two 
countries, should be restored. 

In view of this reply, tlii' Si):vnisli I'ouiniissiouers understand that it is tlieir 
duty to make known to the American Commissioners that if the statu quo existing 
in tile Philippines on August 12 last, far from being restored, continues to be dis- 
tuHipd to the prejudice of Spain, the Government of Her Catholic Majesty, and in 
her name its plenipotentiaries in this conference, reserve the right to aei as tliey 
may deem the rights of Spain sball require, since they cannot conceive bow the 
treaty of peace they are charged with arranging with the American Commissioners 
upon the immutable basis of the Prot.H'ol of Washington of -August 12 last, can be 
concluded if this basis is being constantly altered in one of its parts, and contin- 
ually to the greatiT prejudice of Spain, 

True copy: 

E.MILIO DE OJEDA. . 

IT 



Annex 2 to Protocol No. 3. 



COMISION 

Para la Negociacion de la Paz con los Estados Unidos. 



ARTICULO 1. 

Su Majestatl la Reina Catolioa. en nombro y ropreseutapion de Esijana y coiisti 
tutionalmente autorizada por las Cortes del Reino. renuiicia a su soberauia sohru la 
Isla d'' Cuba, trausflrieudola a los Estad is Unidos de America, que la aeeptan. pai'a 
que piiodan a su vez transferlrla oportuiiameoite al pueblo fubano cou las condiclones 
establecidas en este tratado, ofreeieudo los Estados Unidos que d'sde su ratiticaoinii 
seran sierapre y fielmente cumplidas. 

ARTICULO 2. 

La renuncia y transforencia que hace Su M.ij ■sl.'id Catolipa y <iue aoeptan lis 
Estados Unidos de Ameriea eomprmile; 

1. Todas las prerrogativas. atribuoioms y derecbos que. como parte integraute 
de dicba soberania. corresponden a Su Majestad Catolica sobre la Isla de Cuba y sus 
babilantes; 

2. Todas las cargas y obligaciones de todas clases, pendientes al ratitioarse eslp 
tratado de paz, que la C^irona'de Espana y sus autoridades eu la Isla de Culu 
hubiesen contraido legalmente en el ejercicio de la soberania que renuneian y traus- 
iieren. y que, <'n tal eoncepto. fornian parte integronte de la misiiia. 

ARTICULO 3. 

Kn oumplimieuto de lo i-onvendio en los dus artioulus aalerinn-s. Su Ma.iestad 
Catolica. en la representacion con que celebra este tratado, reuunoia y trausflere a 
los Estados Unidos, que las aceptan, eu el eoncepto sobredicho, tudos los edifieios. 
muelles, cuarteles, fortalezas, establecimientos, vias publiras y demas bieni-s inmue- 
bles que, con arreglo a derecbo, son de domino publico, y que como de tal dominio 
publico, corre-sponden a la Cornua de Espana en la Isla de Cuba. 

Quedan por lo tauto exceptuados de esta renuncia y transfirencia todos los 
bienes inmuebles radieantes en la Isla de Cuba que correspondan on el orden ciyil al 
Estado, en eoncepto de ,su propriedad patrimonial, asi como todos los dereebos y 
bifnes de cualquiera clase que sean, que, hasta la ratificacion del presente tratado, 
ha.yan venldo pacificamente poseyendo, en eoncepto de duenos, las Proyincias, Mnnl- 
cipios, Establecimientos publicos o priyados, Corporaciones eclesiasticas o ciyiles 
y cualesquii^ra otras colectiyidades que tongen legalmente personalidad .iuridica para 
adquirir y poseur Lieues en la Isla de Cuba, y los particulares, cualquiera que sea 
su uacionalidad. 

Su Majestad Catolica renucia tambien, y transflere a los Estados Unidos. a quien 
se le entregaran por le Gobierno espano', todos los documentos y titulos que se re- 
fieran exclusivnmente a la soberania transferida y aceptada, que existan en los 
Archiyos de la Peninsula. Habiendo de facilitarle copias cuando los Estados Unidos 
las reclamasen, de la parte correspondiente a dicba soberania que contengan los 
demas documentos y titulos tambien relatives a otros asuutos agenos a la Isla de 
Cuba, que existan en los mencionados Archivos. Una regla analoga habra recipro- 
camente de observarse, a favor de Espana, respecto a los documentos y titulos 
agenos en todo o en parte a la Isla de Cuba que se hallen actualmente en sus Ar- 
chivos y que Interesen al Gobierno espanol. 

Todos los Archiyos y Registros oflciales, asi administr,'itivos como judiciales. que 
«stan a disposieion del Gobierno de Espana y de sus autoridades en la Isla de Cuba, 
y que se refleran a la misma isla o a sus habitantes y a sus derechos y bienes, que 
daran a dlsposlclon de los Estados Unidos con los mismos derechos y obligaciones 
con que hoy lo estan a disposieion del Gobierno espanol y de dichas sus autoridades. 
Los particulares. asi espanoles como cubanos, tendran derecho a sacar, con arregto 
a las leyes. las copias antorlzadas de los contratos, testamentos y demas documentos 
que forman parte de los pnHncolos notariales " que sc custodien pn Ins Archivos 
administrativos y Judiciales, bien estos se hallen en Espano o en la Isla de Cuba. 

IS 



ARTICDLO 4. 

Para fljur las cargas y oblisacioncs de todas clases. que la Corona de F]spana cede 
y transflere como parte de s" soberania sobre la Isla de Cuba a los Bstadoa Unldos, 
y que estog aceptau, se atendera a las dos reglas slguientes: 

Prlmera: Las cargas y obllgaciones que liyan de transferirse, ban de haber side 
cstablecldas en forma oonstituclonal y en uso de sus legltlmas atrlbuclones. por la 
Corona de Espana. como soberana de la Isla de Cuba, o por sns autorldades legltl 
mas usando de las suyas respeetivas. antes de la ratlfieaclon de este tratado. 

Scgunda: Su creaclon o ooiistitiieujn ha de dabcr sido para el servlcio de la Isla 
de Cuba o co!i cargo a su Tesoru especial. 

AKTICULO 5. 

EJn vlrtud de lo dispiiesto en el nrtirulo anterior quedan comprendidos en la 
sobredieha transferencia, las dcudas cualquiera que sea su clase, cargas de justlcla. 
sueUlos o asignarionos de funcionarlos asl civiles como eolesiastleos. que hayan de 
continuar prestaudo sus servicios en la Isla de Cuba, .v pensioucs de jubilacion y 
reitro y de vludcdad u horfandad con tal que en todas ellas concurran las dos clr- 
cunstancias prescritas en el art.icuIo anterior. 

AETIOULO G. 

Su Majestad C-atolica, en nombre y representjicion de Espana. y constituclonal- 
mente autorizada por las Cortes del Reliio. cede a los Estados Dnidos de America y 
estos aceptan para si mismos. la snberania sobre le Isla de Puerto Rico y las demas 
que corresponden en la actnalidad a la Corona de Espana en las Indias Occidentales. 

ARTICULO 7. 

Esta cesion de la sol)erania sobre el tirriturio y habitantes de Puerto Rico y las 
demas Islas mencionadas se entiende que eonsiste en la cesion de los derechos y 
obligaciones. bienes y documentos relalivos a la soberania de aichas isles, Ignales 
a los que respecto a la renuncia y trans fereucia de la soberania de la Isla de Cuba, 
se deflnen en los articulos 2 hasta el 5 inclusive de este tratado. 
Esta conforme: 

EMILIO DE OJEDA. 



TRANSLATION. 
Annex 2 to Protocol No. 3. 

ARTICLE I. 

Her Majesty tbe Catholic Queen, in tbe name and representation of Spain, .ind 
thereunto constitutionally authorized by the Cortes of the Kingdom, relinquishes her 
sovereignty over the Island ot Cuba, transferring it to the United States of America, 
which accept it. in order that they may iu their turn transfer it at the proper time 
to the Cuban people, upon tbe conditions established in this treaty, the United 
States promising hereby that as soon as they are ratified they will always be 
faithfully complied with, 

ARTICLE II. 

The relinauishment and transfer made by Her Catholic Majesty, and accepted 
by the United States of America, embrace: 

1st. All the prerogatives, powers aud rights, which, as an integral part ot the 
sovereignty, belong to Her Catholic Majesty both over the Island of Cuba and over 
its Inhabitants: 

2nd. All charges and obligations ot every kind in existence at the time of the 
ratification of this treaty of peace, which the Crown of Spain and her authorities 
In the Island of Cuba may have contracted lawfully In the exercise of tbe sov- 
ereignty hereby relinquished and transferred, and which as such constitute an In- 
tegral part thereof. 

ARTICLE III. 

In compliance with the provisions of the two preceding articles. Her Catholic 
Majesty, acting In the same representative character with which she has entered 
Into this treaty, relinquishes and transfers to the United States, which accept 

19 



tliciu, upon tbe conditions above stated, all tlie buildings, whanes, baiTacks, fort- 
ressfS. eetablisliments. public ways of couuuuuication. and all other immovable 
property wbich according to law attaciics tn tbe public domain, and which so at- 
taching belongs to the Crown of Spain in the Island of Cuba. 

All immovable property situated in the Island of Cuba which under the civil 
law belongs to the state as patrimonial property, and all rights and property of 
whatsoever kind, which up to the notiflcation of tbe present treaty have been peace- 
full.v enjoyed and held in ownership by provinces, municipalities, public and private 
establishments, ecclesiastical and civil corporations, or any other collective bodies 
lawfully incorporated and having legal authority to acQuire and hold property in 
the Island of Cuba, and b.v private individ-uals. whatsoever their nationality, are 
therefore excluded from the above relinquisUmetir and transfer. 

Her Catholic Majesty further relinquishes and transfers to the United States 
all right to the documents and papers exclusively relating to the sovereignty here- 
by reliuquisJhod and accepted, to be found in the archives of the Peninsula, said 
documents and papers to be delivered to the United States by the Spanish Govern- 
ment, copies of such portions of r>ther dfjcuments and papers relating to other sub- 
jects foreign to tbe Island of Cuba, but relating to the sovereignt.v aforesaid, which 
ma.v exist in the said archives, shall be given to the United States whenever desired. 
A similar rule shall be reciprocail.v observed in favor of Spain regarding documents 
and papers foreign, in whole or in part, to the Island of Cuba, which may be in tbe 
archives of the latter and of interest to the Spanish Government. 

All archives and official reconls, executive and .iudicial. which are at the dis- 
posal of tbe Government of Spain nnd its authorities in the Island of Cuba, and 
which refer to the said island or its inhabitants, and to their righls and property, 
shall be at the disposal of the United States, with the same rights and obligjitlons 
as now .attach to them while at the disposal of the Spanish Government and its said 
authorities. Private persons, Spaniards and Cubans alike, shall be entitled to make 
according to law authenticated copies of conti-acts, wills, and other instruments 
forming part of the notaiial registers and tiles or in the cust(»dy of the executive 
and the judicial af'hives, be tbe same either in Spain r)r in the Tslaml of Cuba. 

ARTICLE IV. 

In order to establish the charges and obligations of. all kinds wliicli tiie Crown of 
Spain cedes and transfers as a part of its sovereignty over the Island of Cuba to 
the United States, and which the latter accejit. the two rules following will be ob 
served : 

First: The charges and obligations to lie transferred must have been levied 
and imposed in constitutional form and in the exercise of its legitimate powers by 
the Crown of Spain, as the sovereign of tlie Island of Cu'ba, or by its lawful author- 
ities in the exercise of their respective powers prior to the mtiiication of this 
treaty. 

Second: Tlie creation or establishment of such charges or obligations must liave 
l)fcw'n for the service of the Island of Cub;i. or cluirgeable to its own indiviilual 
treasury. 

ARTICLE V. 

I'ursnanl to the jii-ovisions of the foregoing article, there shall be embraced in 
the said tiMusfrr all debts, of whatsoever kind. Lawful charges, the sal.irics tpr ;il- 
lowaiiccs "f all eiiiplo.\'cs, civil and ci'Clesi;isfical. who shall coiitiime to render ser 
vices ill the Island of Cuba, and all iiensimis in tin- <-ivil and military services and 
of widows and orphans: provided that thi y cnnt'onn lo ihe requirements prescribed 
in the foregoing article 

Alil'ICLE VI. 

Her Catholic Majesty, in the name and representation of Spain, and thereunto 
constitutionally em|M)wered by the Cortes of the Kingdom, cedes to the United 
States of America, and the latter accent tor themselves, tlie sovereignty over tlie 
Island of Porto Rico and tbe other islands now ticloiiging to the Crown of Spain in 
tlii^ West Indies. 

ARTICLE VII. 

This cession of the sovereignty over tlie territory and inhabitants of Porto Rico 

and the otiier islands mentioned, is under.stood to embrace the cession of the rights 

and obligations, property and documents relating to the sovereignty of the said 

islands, similar in nil things to those which, with respect to the relinquishment and 

transfer of the sovereignly of tbe Island nf Cuba, are defined in Articles II. to V., 

inclusive, of the treaty. 

Tnie cop.y: 

EMILO DE OJEDA. 

2n 



i.(^2f 



COMMISSION OF THE SPANISH SECRETARY. 



viiiii 



EXl'.MO. SBNOR, 

S. M. el Key (q. D. g.) y pii 8U noiiilu-c Im Ki'iiia Rcuciit" ■Id Ui'iuo. si' li:i si-Tvi 
expedlr cl Real Deereto slKUlentc: 

"Tomaiido en eonsideraclou las I'spccMalcs i-ii-emnst«»neias qui' concvirion en Don 
"Emllio (le Ojeda. Mi Enviado Extraordinarlo y Mlnistro Plenipotenclario cerca de 
"S. M. Slieriffiana: En nonibre de Ml Angusto Hijo el Key Don Alfonso Trece y 
"como Relna Kegente del Ueino; Vengo en dispone!- quo. conservando su cargo. jUise 
"a desempenar las funciones de Secretario General de la Comlslon espauola encar- 
"gada de negoeiar en Paris el tratado de pilz entre Espana y los Bstos Unldos de 
"America. 

"Dado en Palaoio a velntiseis de Sept ieiiilii-e dr mil oehoeientos noventa y oclm. 

"MARIA CRISTI.VA. 

"El Presidentc del Consejo de .Ministnps. 
"PRAXEDES MATEO SAOASTA:" 
Lo que traslado a V. E. para su eonoeiniiento ••*. 
Plos sue. a V. E. m. a. 
Madrid. 26 Septiembre de ISaS. 

SAGASTA. 
Senor Don EMILli) HE O.TEDA. 



TRANSLATION. 



Moit Excellent i^ir: 

H. M. tlie King iwlioui God preservei .iiid in his name the Queen Regent of the 
Kingdom has been pleased to issue the Royal Deeree following: 

"Bearing in mind the special auaUnoations of Don Emllio de Ojeda, My Envoy 
"Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary near His Sheriffian Majesty, in tho 
"name of my Augnst Son, the King Don Alfonso XIII., and as Queen Regent of 
"the Kingdom. I will that, still redlining his office, he discharge the functions of 
"Secretary General of the Spanish Commission entrusted with negotiating in Paris 
"the Treaty of Peace between Spain and the United States of America. 

"Done at the Palace on the twenty-sixth of Septemt)er. eighteen hundred and 

"'""'•'■^-"'^"- "MARIA CRISTINA. 

"PRANEDES MATEO SAGASTA. 

"President of the Council of Ministers." 

Which T transmit to Y. E. for your Information***. 

God preserve Y. E. many years. 

Madrid. September 26, 189.S. SAGASTA. 

Senor Don EMILIO DE O.TEDA. 



31 



--^ 



Protocol No. 4. 

CONFERENCE. 
Of October 11. 1898. 



Protocolo No. 4. 

CONFERENCIA 
DEL 11 DE OCTUBRE DE 1898. 



Present- 
On the part of the United States: 
Messrs. DAY. 

DAVIS, 

FRYE. 

GRAY, 

REID. 

MOORE, 

FERGUSSON. 

On the part of Spain: 
Messrs. MONTERO RIOS, 
ABARZDZA, 
GARNICA. 
VILLA-DRRDTIA. 
CERERO, 
OJEDA. 

The protocol of the preceding session was 
read and approved. 

The American Commissioners presented 
a paper, copy of which is hereto annexed, 
in which they rejected the articles sub- 
mitted by the Spanish Commissioners at 
the last session as an amendment to the 



I'resentes— 
I'oi- parte de 
A.uerica; 

ins S<-nort 



los Estados Cnldos de 



DAY, 
DAVIS. 
FRYE, 
GRAY, 
REin. 
MOORE, 
FERGUSSON. 
l*or parte de Espana: 
:,.s SiiKHVs MONTERO RIOS, 
ABARZUZA, 
GARNICA, 
VILLA-URRUTIA, 
CERERO, 
OJEDA. 
I'i'f ii'ida y aprobada el acta de la sesion 
am<riiir. 

l.oy Ciiniisarius americanos presentan ana 
coutesiarioH rt^cnazaudo el articulado de 
tratailo qut les entregaron los Comisarlos 
c.spanoles 'en la sesion anterior eomo en- 
iiiicnda al proyei-to del tratado que presen- 
taron los americanos en lo relativo a la 
proposals of the American Commissioners reniiuola de Espana a la soberanla dei 
on the subject of Cuba. Porto Rico and E.spaua sobrc Cuba y a la cesion de Puerto 
other islands in the West Indies, and the Rico y otras islas en las Antillas asi como 



island of Guam in the Ladrones. 

The paper having been read in Enalish 
and in Spanish, the President of the Span- 
ish Commission on behalf of the Spanish 
Commissioners presented under the rules a 
memorandum setting forth their reasons In 
support of their propositions. 



de la Isla de Guam en el Archipielago de 
las Ladroues. 
Sc lee dicha contosracion en ingles y en 



1! 



iliazado 



cl 



The .American Commissioners Inquired I'lv.sidente de la 



articulado espanol 
Coniislon lespanola 



el 
en 



whether the Spanish Commissioners con- 
sidered their propositions as finally re- 
jected. 

The Spanish Comniissioners replied that 
the rejection was set forth in the very 
terms of the American reply, and that the 
occasion had therefore arisen for the pres- 
entation of their memorandum: bnt that, 
before filing the latter, they were read.v 
and even preferred to discuss the subject of 
it orally, since this might result in an 
agreement and render the filing of the 
inemorandnm unnecessary. 



nomhre de dicha Comision .v en virtud del 
reghimcntii. !>resen.ta un Memorandum en 
que se couslgnnn las razones en que fun- 
<iar,:u su proposic^on. 

I>a Coniisiof americana preguula si con- 
siderau los ospanoles deflnilivamente 
r<T.liai!ada su proposioion. 



L.1 



^■spanola diet' 



que 



The .\nierican Commissioners said that rechajio osta ecmsignado en los pmpios ter- 
Ihe memorandnra could be read, but that miuos de la contestacion amerlcana. y que 
they reserved the right under the rules p,)i- tanti> <*ra Ilegado el momento de pre- 
to make a written reply, and that any oral scinar cl .Memorandum; pero que esto no 
discussion Into which they might enter was obstante esta dlspuesta a discutlr oral- 
not to he considered as a waiver of that m'nie el asuuio antes de que se tome acta 
fl„l,t dtfl .Memorandum y hasta prePcrlria estc 

curso, i>iiesto (pie de llegarse a un acuerdo 
en la discusion podria prescindirse de la 
preseiitaciiin del Meiiioranduni. 

2.^ 



Se admit p In Ipctura dd documento. sf 
biea los Comisarius americauns se rcser- 
van el derecbo. se^i o do leldo o discutido 
oralmeute. de contestar por eserito eii In 
misma forma. 

L&ese en ingles el Memorandum qin' va 
adjunto al acta presento. 



Los Comisarius; amorifnn(>s mniiififstan 
que on su s^rntir. hnbiendn si do reehazado 
el artienlndn prcsentndo jior ios Comisarins 
espauoles. y baI>iendio estos presentado el 
Memornudnni nl respect*), segun previeiic 
el reglamontu. I. is ("umisarios ameri«-ani'>- 
estau facnltndos iiarn eoutestar por escrito 
y que por tan^to la discusiou debia versar 
abora sobre los articulos propiiestos por 
los americanos. 

Los Comisarlos espanoles deolaraon que 
en su opinion hablendo side recbazados 
ambos estaban en igual case y debian dis- 
cutirse a la vez ambos proyectos. 

Los Comisnrios americanos en vista de 
esto se manifestaron dispuetos a oir los 
argiimentos que tenian que adnoir los es- 
panoles: pern estos teniendo en cnenta que 
los americanos debian presentar una con- 
testa cion escritn propnsieron aplazar la 
discusion oral lin-^tn cjue les fuera conn 
cido el roniciiido de in respnesta anveri 
can a. 

Se con^iuii en ello, 

F.! PresidenTi' di- la Coniisioii es|ianiila 
manifesto que jmr In rapida lectnra del 
documento aniericano coiu'entando el articu- 
lado presentado por la Comision espauola. 
habia el comprendddo que los Comisarios 
americanos babian sido inducidos en error 
al creer que en dicbd nrticulado se esigia 
que los Bstados Unldos aceptar la renun- 
cia en su favor d«' la sobt*ranin iie Espnnn 
sobre Cuba, hnbicran de transmitirla al 
queblo cubann. EI Presidente anadlo que aT 
mencionar en dicbo nrticulado que dicba 
renuucia la hacia Kspana "a fin de que los 
Estados Uuidos puedam transferirla nl 
pueblo cubano" Espana se adaptaba aF 
espipitu y a la letra de la joint-resolution 
del Congreso anicricano, pero en el pro- 
ye<'t<i espanol no se imponia esta obligacion 
a los Estados Unidos puosto que so decia 
que podian bncer In trnnsforencia de la 
soberania mas iin (pir Imbieian de t^ner la 
obligacion de Iia<-ci-I:i. 

Los Comisarios americanos eontestaron 
que en efecto balua sido su impresion que 
la renuncia por parte de Espana estaba 
hecba en terniiiHis que segun las leyes 
americauas imj)Ii('abnn una obliii:neion 
liduoiaria. 



Tbe memorandum, copy and trauslatiou 
of which are hereto annexed, was then read. 



The reading having been completed, tbe 
American Commissioners stated that their 
understanding of tbe situation was this: 
that, tbe articles presented by the Span- 
ish Commissioners having been rejected, 
and the Spanish Commissioners having 
thereupon filed a memorandum under the 
rules, tbe American Commissioners were 
t'Utitled to make a written reply, and that 
the question now recurred on the articles 
proposed by tbe American Commissiouers. 

Tbe Spanish Commissioners declared that 
in their opinion the pi'oposition ou both 
sides had been rejected, and that both 
propositions were before the Commission ou 
nii equal footing for oral discussion. 



The American Commissioners stated tbat 
they were ready to hear the Spanish Com- 
missioners. 

The Spanish Commissioners suggested 
that, as the American Commissioners 
wished to reply to tbe Spanish memoran- 
dum, it would be advisable to postpone tbe 
oral discussion till tbe reply was before tbe 
Commission. 



To this the American Commissioners as- 
sented. 

Tbe President of the Spanish Commis- 
sion then stated that from the rapid read- 
ing of the paper presented by the Ameri- 
can Commissioners at the opening of tbe 
session, they had derived the impression 
tbat those Commissioners were laboring 
under a misapprehension as to tbe stipula- 
tion in the Spanish articles touching Spain's 
relinquishment of sovereignty over Cuba. 
In proposing tha.t the sovereignty should be 
relinquished to the United States in order 
tbat the latter .might transfer it to tbe 
Cuban people. Spain had merely conformed 
to the letter and spirit of the joint resolu- 
tion of the American Congress; but it was 
not her Intention to impose upon tbe 
United States an obligation to make such 
transfer, as was shown by the fact that It 
was said in the articles that the United 
Slates "may" transfer the sovereignty, not 
that they were bound to do it. 

The American Commissioners replied that 
the language employed in the article would, 
under the American law, impress the relin- 
quishment with a trust. 



24 



The Spanish i'ommissiouers said that it I,;i ('(miision (.siiaiinia ('ontesto <nic si tal 

the phraseology lent itself to doubts, either i-ra i-l sc^iitido i\uv s<';;un las Icyes anieri- 

under American law or under intei-natiniiai i-auas inMjiau airibuirlo, se mo<llft<^arla el 

rules of interpretation, they wonlu iixi" imi el sciitido i|iic a<'abatia dc su^ei'lr. 
change it. 

The conference was ad.iuui'ned to l"'riday. Si* apiazo l;i cKnl'crriu-ia liasta «d vii*rnt.'S 

October H. at two o'clock p. m. 1 1 dc OctMbre a las 2 p. ni. 

Signed: WILLI.Wl K. D.VV. i'ii-.nado: E. MONTEISO UIOS. 

CUSHMAN K. DAVIS. r. dE ABAIiZrZA. 

WM. P. FRYE. .). HE UARMOA. 

GEO. GRAY. W. U. DE \II.I-A-UliRrTIA. 

WHITELAW REID. UAIAI-:!. CEltREKO. 

JOHN B. MOORE. DMIl.ld i>l-: u.lIUiA. 



Annex 1 to Protocol No. 4. 



The AmtTican Commissioners, wlieu they presented in the conference of the 33 
liistMiit ;i ilnift .if artii-k'S f.ir the reliuquishment b.v Spain of sovereignty over and 
title to Cuba and for the seceion of Porto Itieu and other islands in the ^Yest Indies, 
and the Island of Guam in the Ladrones, stated that the disposition of these subjects 
was determined by the Protocol of August 12. 1898. 

The two articles of the Protocol relating to these subjects are brief, and, as it 
seems to the American Commissioners, easy of comprehension and readily to bt' 
carried into effect. 

They are: 

■'AliTICLE I.— Spain will relinquish all claim of sovereignty over and title to 
Cuba. 

"AIITICLK II.— Spain will cede to the United States the islaiid of Porto Rico and 
other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the \yest Indies, and also an island 
in the Ladrones to be selected by the United States." 

The American Commissioners were careful, in the articles proposed by them, to 
express the relinquishment or cession, as the case might be, in the very words of the 
Protocol, merely adding thereto the usual subsidiary and incidental clauses touching 
public property and archives, with a view to making the treaty effectual, and pre- 
serving evidence of public and private property rights. 

The Americaii'Commlssioners regret to find in the articles presented by the Span- 
ish Commissioners on the 7th instant a departure from the terms of the Protocol In 
the following particulars: 

To the unconditional engagement of the Protocol to relinquish all claim of sover- 
eignty over and title to Cuba, they have proposed conditions: 

1. That Spain shall transfer her sovereignty over the island to the United States, 
and that the United States "shall in their turn transfer it at the proper time to the 
Cuban people." 

2. That this transfer shall be made upon the ouuditious to be established in the 
treaty between the United States and Spain. 

3. That the United States shall engage itself to Spain for the performance of 
these conditions. 

In place of the unconditional relinquishment agreed to in the Protocol, it is pro- 
posed that the relinquishment now offered shall embrace all charges of every kind 
which Spain and her authorities in Cuba have lawfully contracted heretofore, and 
may hereafter contract, prior to the ratification of the treaty of peace; and these 
"charges and obligations," past, present and future, which it is proposed to "trans- 
fer" to the United States, are declared to include debts, civil and ecclesiastical 
salaries, and civil and military pensions, ostensil.)ly in arrears, as well as yet to accrue. 

To the American Commissioners this appears to be not a proposition to "relinquish 
all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba," but in substance a proposition to 
"transfer to the United States and in turn to Cuba a mass of Spanish charges and 
obligations.* 

It is difficult to perceive by what logic an indebtedness contracted for any pur- 
pose can be deemed part of the sovereignty of Spain over the Island of Cuba. In the 
article proposed it is attempted to yoke with the transfer of sovereignty an obligation 
to assume an indebtedness arising out of the relations of Spain to Cuba. The uncon- 
ditional relinquishment of sovereignty by Spain stipulated for in the Protocol is to 
be changed into an engagement by the United States to accept the sovereignty bur- 
dened with a large mass of outstanding Indebtedness. 

It is proper to say that if during the negotiations resulting in the conclusion of 
the Protocol Spain lind proposed to add to it stipulations in regard to Cuba such as 
those now pyt forward, the proposal, unless abandoned, would have terminated the 
negotiations. 

The .\merican Commissioners, therefore, speaking for their Government, must 
decline to accept the burden which it Is now proposed shall be gratuitously assumed. 

The .\merican Commissioners further observe that in article S of the draft there 
Is a negative clause, by which property not belonging to the Crown of Spain Is 
excepted from the proposed relinquishment and transfer of sovereignty. In one respect 
this exception appears to be unnecessary, and in another illogical. So far as It affects 



-•See Protocol No. 5 

26. 



the question of legal title li is unnecessary, since such title. If not held by Spain, 
would not pass to the United States by Spain's transferor sovereignty. On the othci 
hand, so far as it affects the question of sovereignty, it is illogical, since the sover- 
eignty, -n-hich includes the right of eminent domain, would, if excepted from the 
relinquishment, remain %vlth Spain. We would thus have the singular spectacle of 
Spain relinquishing her sovereignty over property belonging to the Orown. but retain- 
ing It over all other property. 

Thus again we should witness the utter defeat of the explicit engagement in the 
Protocol that Spain would "relinquish all claim of sovereignty over and title to 
Cuba." 

In the articles presented by the American O>mmissioners there were stipulations 
in relation to archives and official records, which stipulations were Intended to se- 
cure, and. as the American Commissioners believe, would efTectually secure, the ob- 
ject of preserving and of furnishing to those in interest evidence of title to property 
In the Islands in question. 

(') See Protocol No. 5. 

In the articles submitted by the Spanish Commissioners, it is provided that doc- 
uments and papers relating to sovereignty to be found in the archives of the Penin- 
sula shall be furnished to the United States; also "copies of such portions of other 
documents and papers relating to other suhlects foreign to the Island of Cuba and 
the sovereignty aforesaid as may exist In the said archives." 

It is difficult for the Americans to understand this latter clause: perhaps its 
exact meaning Is not conveyed In the English translation of the Spanish text. 

It is to be further observed that In the provisions of the Spanish articles relating 
to the furnishing of record evidence of titles to lands in Cuba and Porto Rico, it Is 
stipulated that the archives and records shall be at the disposal of the United States 
"with the same rights and obligations as now attach to them while at the disposal of 
the Spanish Government and Its said (Insuliin .inthoriries." This restriction, the 
object of which is not perceived, would seem to limit the control over archives and 
official records, after Spain's relinquishment of sovereignty, to the same power, both 
In kind and In extent, as was formerly possessed tiy the Spanish Government. This 
appears to be inconsistent with the right of control which every sovereign power 
should possess over Its archives and oITicial records. 

All the conditions .nnd oualiflcarlins above referred to .Tre bv general referi^nce In- 
corporated in the articles relating to the cession of Porto Rico and other islands In 
the West Indie*, nnd render tliese ,Trticle< e'inallv inadmissible. 

True copy: 

.1. }'. MOORE. 



27. 



Annex 2 to Protocol No. 4. 



COMISION 
PARA LA NEGOCIACION DE LA PAZ CON LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 



MEMORANDUM 



eu .iu,. se exponri, suciutameute las razoues o fuiuLuuentos del prorecto de arti- 
cuos mva el tratad,, dc pnz. relatives a la rem.neia. per parte de Bspana, de su 
scuerania en Cuba y Puerto Kieo, que presputan a la conferencia los Pleninoten- 
cmrios espanoles. 

Los Plenipotenciarios espaiiol.-s aeepiai, id |H-iisamieuto generador del provecto 
Oe artieulo presentado por los Senores CVvmisarios amerieanos sobre la remmoia de 
l!.spana a su soberania en Cuba y la eesion de sii soberania en Puerto Rico: pero les 
es imposible prestar el mismo asentimiento a lo demas que en dieho provecto se con- 
tiene. .va porque entienden que parte de ello e^^ta fuera del ak-ance que cabe dar a 
la renuucia y eesion sobredicbas, ya porque tambien estas reuuncia t cesion tal 
como apareeen en aquel provecto, ne eontieuen bajo otros aspectos euanto es indis- 
per.sible que comprendan. 



La renuncia que hace S. M. C, de su soberania en la Isla de Cuba es 
Didispensable que sea aceptada por el Presidente de los 
Estados Unidos de America. 

El (Jobiemo de hi Union americana njuuoa exiffo al Gobierno espanol que abau- 
aoa.ase la .soberania en Cuba, sino que la recunciase para qne la Isla fuese inde- 
pendiente. A.si consta en la correspondencia diplouiatica que eonserva el Gobierno 
de !>. M. c. sobre las negociaeiones entre aiuibas Altas Partes contratantes antea-- 
lores a la deelaraoion de la guerra. Asi tambien las Gamaras amerieanas lo declara- 
roii en la resolucion conjuuta de 19 de Abril ultimo, aprobada despues por el Senor 
1 rateideute de los Estados Unidos. El artieulo pramero de la citada resolucion dice: 
que el pueblo de Cuba es y debe ser libre e iudepeudjente." 

Asi tambien el Senor Secretario de E.stado en Wasbinston nrdeno en 20 del citado 
nies a su Ministro en .Madrid, que lo eomunicase al Gobierno espanol empleando las 
mjsmas palabras del texto de aquella resolucion para que "Espaiia renimciase in- 
mediatanit^nte su autoridad y gobieruo en la Isla de Cuba." 

T asi linalmeiite se consigno en el artieulo 10 del Protocolo firmado en Washing- 
ton en doce de Agosto pasado, euyo artionlo 10 segun el teito ofificlal, firmado en 
id.oma frances. a. la vez que el firmado en idioma ingles por los representantes de 
ambas Altas Partes contratantes. dice asi: 

••.VRTICLE 1. L'Espague renonoera a toi:tc pretention a su souverainete et a 
tout rinut sur Cuba.- que literaiuiente traducido al e.-ipaiiol e,iuivale a lo siguiente: 
La Kspaua nnimciaia a toda pretension a su so,berania v a todo derecho sobre 
Cuba. 

Seria ofender la grande ilustracion de Ics .Scunu-es Comisarios amerieanos tratar 
de demosirarles la esencial diferencia que. segun la doctrina elemental del dereebo 
publico mteniaeional. y la practica de las naciones. e.xiste entre el abandono v la 
renuncia de la soberania. 

El territoro abandonado tiene dereebo para adquirirlo el primer oeupante; el 
ternl.u'io renuuciadn i,asa neresari.imente a aquel a cuyo favor tiene que haeerse la 
renuncia. Y los Estados Unidos exigieron ia de Espana para el pueblo cubano a fin 
de que se coustituyese independlente. 

Aumjue es verdad iiue los EBtados Unidot de America, en el caso preseute, exi- 
gieron esto de i^spana, exigieron tambien que tal renuncia habia de haeerse por su 
mediacion. Los Estados Unidos habian de reeibir la Isla de Cuba y conservarla en 
si: poder teniendJ) su gobierno basta su pacirteacion. "abrigando el proposito de de^ 
.iar mo se puede dejar lo que no se tiene) el dominio y gobierno de la Isla al pueblo 

2S. 



(Je I'sta. una vi>z ri'ivli/.iHl.-i ilic-li:i |i:i.iiic,iiiiiii." Asi solcniin'mciilf so consisni) en el 
articiilo 40 de la rpsnlucion roiijuiita de las I'ainavas aiiK-rlraiias y cii cl rtospacli.i del 
Seiior Jliiiisiro de Estadci anierirano a sii Miuistrci I'li Madrid. Y sn hasta la parll- 
oariiin de la Isla no ban de dejiir su domlnio y gobierno los Estados Uiiidos. es de 
tiMla cvidi'iieia iiue onti-etantn smi cdlos Ins qw lo lian de conservar. 

Y el'eetlvameute Ins Wslailns Cnulns ennseivai-ou y eouservan en su jjoder a 
Santiago de Cuba y l"s denms ten-itniias ili- la Isla en (jue domlnan sus annas, slu 
Uaber'os enti'esado al |>neblo eubaim. pur im nni-r Indavia Gobierno que lo repre- 
spnte. Y en ol Protoeiilo de Washinclnn ya oifado fartieulo 40). se aeordo que la 
evaeuaeion de la Isla per las fropas espanolas y sus detallas se conven<lrian por una 
Couilsion mixta forniada por Coniisarios del (iohlerno espanol y Coinisnrios del 
Gobierno de \Vasliin;.'lon. pero no por Coniisario del pueblo oubano. 

i;i Gobienio federal es pues. el que. neei'sariainenle, liene que aeeptar la re- 
nuneia que liacs el de Espana a la scdierania en la Isla, para eonservar esta Isla 
en su i)oder y gobernaria hasta que esli> paeilieada. en uuyo easn. y no antes, 
segun sus propias resolueiones, es i-iniudii su pnvponen dejar l.-i soherania de equel 
tiTriiorii) a disposieimv del (iobierno que so eonstituya en Cuba. 

II. 

la cesion y la renuiicia de la sobeiania comprendeii las de los dere- 
chos y de las obligaciones que la constituyen. 

El eou<-e|>to de la soberania ile un Kslado nuuva se ha i-on(un«l«do en el ninndo 
antigno ni niueho nienos en id niundo inoiicrno y eristiann. eon el eoneepto del 
doiuinni civil y [irivado y nienos aun eon ,d del dominio del senor sobre el eselavo. 

l-;i s.dierano. es verdad (pie tii'ne prerrogaiivas y drechos sobre el terrltorio y 
sus habitantes; pero estas prerrogalivas di reehos le eorresponden no para su sai- 
isfaceion y go<-e, sino para el buen gobieraio y bienestar (W los pueblos que estan a 
sn soberania sometldos. Por e.sta razoi,, lo.-. dereehos del soberano se convierlen 
en obligaciones para eon sus siilnlitos. Kl sooerano tieiie obligacion de cuidar de su 
buen regimen y de sn progreso y prosperidad. El soberano no es dueno de los Im- 
■puestos y rentas que pereibe de sus subd.ilos, para emplearlos y consnniirlos en sn 
propio y personal benelieio. sino para invertirlos en la satisfaceion de las iieeesi- 
dades pnblicas y en el bienestar de ariueilos. El cumplimiento de estas obligaciones 
es el t'nndameuto de la legitiinidad de sus faenltades para oelebrar con terceras 
personas todas las eonveneiones y <'oniraer lodas las obligaciones que sean nece- 
sarins par.a proeurarse los re(-nrsos i)reeisos .il buen reginmn y gidueriio de sus sub- 
ilitos y ateuder al mei-jor servicio publico lU' los niisnio.s. 

Estas obligaeioues subsisten desde que sc <-oniraen hasta que se cnmplen. 

Y es de toda eyiiteneia que si durante l(.do el tiempo inierniidio entre la eonsti- 
tueion y el eunipliniiento de una oWigaeion de soberania, el soberano la pierde per 
reuuneia u otro titulo legitimo, la obligacion peiidieule pasa eonio parte integrante 
de la .soberania misnia a aqnel que en ella le siicede. Sena ciuitrario a la nocion 
mas plemental de la Justicia. e incompatible eon el dretado de la concieneia univer- 
sal de las gentes, que un soberano perdiera siis dereehos sobre el territi)rio .V sus 
subditos y hnbiera de continuar esto no obstante sometido al enmplimento de las 
obligaciones que habla ereado. exclusivamcnte. para su regimen y gobierno. 

Estas maximas apareeen observadas por todas las naciones ciiltas que no hau 
querido atropellar los prineipios eternos de la justicia, ineluso aqnellas en que estas 
cesiones se hicievon por la fuerza de las armas y conio premio de la victoria en los 
tratados sobre cesiones tcrritoriales. Rar« es el tratado en que no ha pasado con el 
terrltorio oedido al nuevo soberanio una parte propocional de 'as obligaciones gen- 
erates del Estado ccdentc, que en la mayoria de los casos tenian la forma de deuda 
publioa. 

Pera aun es mas claro el easo a que se retiere la oouveneion que ha de elabovar 
esta conferencia. Aqui no se trata de transfeii, eon la soberania de Cuba y 
Ptierto Rico, una parte proporcional de las; obligaciones y eargas generales de la Met- 
ropoll, sino tan sOlo las obligaciones y eargas que son peculiares a las Islas que se 
ceden y transfleren. Cuando no se trata de obligaciones de conjnnto y comunes a tp- 
dos los territorios sometldos al soberano que las eontrae, sino de obligaciones espe- 
elales al terrltorio mismo cedido y eontraidas por sus legitimas autoriades. ni una 
sola yez, aun en aqnellns tratados en que el veneedor se ha mostrada mas dispia- 
dado con el vencido ban dejado de pasar eon el terrltorio cedido sus propias y pe- 
culiares eargas y obligaciones. Asl, puede conslderarse como clausula casi obll- 
gado, la de que !a cesion del terrltorio lleva eonsigo la de las obligaciones y deudas 
departamentales, comnnales y en general hablando, pecnllares al terrltorio de la 
cesion. El Gran Conquistador de este siglo no se atrevio jamas a vlolar esta regla 

29. 



de eterra jusficia, en todos los trataros quo c-elebro con aquellos soberanos. cuyos 
teiTitorios. en todo o en parte, convertia en I'remio de sus victorias. 

Pues liien. es de hacer constar. que la soberania de Espana jamas dejo de ad- 
ministrar separadamente de la Metropoli siis colonias en .\merica, desde su descu- 
brimiento Le America espanola estuvo slempre goberando desde la capital de la 
mou.irquia por un Consejo especial llamado de Judias que en nada intervenia en el 
regimen \- ixobii-rno de la Peninsula, el ctial oorria a i-argo del Consejo llamado de 
Castilia. 

Dividido el territorio descubierto por Colon y por otros ilustres exploradores 
espanoles (que tan inmenso, aunque no siempre agradeeido serricio ban prestado 
a la oivilizacihnl en Virreinatos y Capitanias Qenerales, cada uno de estos peque- 
noR FIstados recandaba sus proplos ingresos v cubria sns proprios gastos, o contraia 
para eubrlrlos las ohligaciones que las necesidades de su propio goblerno demanda- 
ban: y rnando algnno de estos territorios se hallaba en defleit permanente. como 
sih^edia a la Tsla de Cuba, la colonia hernial. a n-as proxima acudia a su socorro. El 
Virreinato de Jlejiio desde 176G hasta 1806 auxilio a la Isia de Cuba anualmente 
con fuertes cantidades para sus atenciones de goliierno y para el desarrollo de su na- 
tural riqueza entonces inexplorada. a cuyos gastos no podia, a la sazon, atender con 
sus recursos prjpios. Nada menos que HiS uiillones de pesos entraron en Cuba [iro- 
cedenles de Mejico ba.io tal eoncepto, durante aquel periodo: conociendose estos aux- 
ilios en la adininistracion colonial espamla con el nombre de "situado de Majico." 

En el siglo actual llevo Espana hasta sus ultimas eonsecuenciag este sistema de 
adniinistracion separada e independente di sus colonias. El Ministerio de Ultra- 
mar era el departamento donde se concentraba esta administracion. Cada colonia 
tuvo anualmente su proprio presupuesto y sus deficits; cuando sus propios ingre- 
sos no eran bastautes para cubrir sus proprios gastos fucron atendidos por opera- 
eiones esj>eciales de deuda consolidada. hipotecaria o Uotante para y con cuenta de 
la colonia en cuyo beneficio estas operaciones se hicieron. 

Y la separacion ev.tre la administracion dr la Peninsula y la colonial fue, durante 
nincho tic'mpo tan completa. que el personal de funcionarios publicos para los servi- 
cios administrativos y judicales de las colonias. era peculiar a las mismas, hasta el 
punto de que estos funcionarios no teniau aptitud legal para ser incluidos en los 
cuerpns gerarquicos similaries de Espana. ni .lesinipenar en ella analogas tunciones. 

E«te regioien es el liajo que yino Espana administrando a Cuba hasta el momi'Uto 
prcseute. 

Sabemos bien que fuera de Espana se incurre en gravisimos errores, por efccto 
de no ser conocido el regimen colonial espanol. pero es tieuipo ya. y sobre todo es 
necesario. la occasion presente, que estos errores se de desvanezean, eontrastandolos 
con la yerdnd de los hechos y con los preceptos de las leyes espanolas, Cuba y Puer- 
to Rico nunca han vivido dentro del presupuesto general de la Nacion espanola ni en 
este rtguraron jamas sus ingresos. ni se inchiyeron sus ga.stos. Todas las obligaclones 
que esteii pendientes y hayan sido legalmente creadas para el servieio de Cuba y 
Puerto I;ico y a cargo de sus especiales Tesoros, siempre distintos y separados del 
Ti.'soro de la Peninsula, son obligaclones enbanas o puertorriquenas, es decir, obliga- 
clones locales, que atectan unica y exclusivamente a) territorio de las Islas y a sus 
habitantes. 

Lo dicho hasta aqui sobre la uaturalez de las obligaeioues coloniales y sobre los 
obligados a su complimento, jamas lo han desconocido edicho sea en su honor) los 
puebl'is hispano-americanos. Aquellos conquisttaron por su propio esfuerzo su inde- 
pendeucia y la mayor parte de eilos antes que Espana ia huhiera reconocido, habian. 
por les anteriores y solemnes de sus Camaras. deelarado propias y como las mas jiriyi- 
legidas de todas las deudas. las que la Corona de Espana habia contraido, durante su 
solierania. para el serricio de aquelles territorios. y se hallaban registradas en sus 
respectivos libros de Tesoreria. 

Son muy contadas las republicas hispano-americanos que aguardaron a hacer tan 
honrada declaracion. a que la Metropoli rcconciera su independoncia, porque. como 
decian. la Republica Argentina en el tratado que celebro con Espana en 21 de Sep- 
tiembre de 1863, y la del Uruguay, en el ue celebro en 19 de Julio de 1870. ■'asi 
como ellas adquirian los derechos y privilegios correspondientes a la Corona de 
Espana, coctraian tambien todos sus deberes y obligaclones." z 

Xotese que las Republicas hispano-americanas. sin escepcion, reconocieron e hici- 
eron suyas estas deudas de cualquier clase que fueran, detallandolas en el tratado 
de paz con Bolivia de 21 de .Tuli.i de 1.S47. en que se dice que. ■'cnmprendian todos 
los creditos por pensioners, sueldos. suministros, anticipos, tletes, emprestitos forzo- 
s.)S, depositcs, contratos y sualqueria otra deuda, .va da guerra, ya anterior a esta, 
que pesaren sobre aquellas Tesorerias, siempre que procediesen de ordenes directas 
del Goblerno espanol o de sus autoridades constituidas en aquellos territorios." 

Espana no reconocio la independencia de ningun Estado americano que antes 
h'lbiera sido colonia suya, sino con esta condicion, que aquellos Estados esponta- 
neamente declararon en sus respectivos tratados, que era de perfecta justicia. 

SO. 



Su derpclio y su dignidacl uo le permiteu reconoeer sin esta condiclon. que abora 
mas que antes, si tube( continua sleudo de justicia. la independencia de los pueblos 
cubaiia y puertoriqueno que estos no ban podido rouquistar pi.r su propi" J" cxdu- 
slvo esfuerzo. 

Kspana eta dispuesta a ceder la soberania de Puerto Rico y dcnias islas de las 
ludias Oceidentales, y a renunciar a lo soberania de la Isla de Cuba, todo a favor 
de los Estados Unidos. que habran de aceptaila. poniendo a su disposiciou esta sober- 
aula en el estado on que actualniente la posee. y por lo tanto con los derechos 
y las cargas que actualniente la constituyen. A eslo se obligo en los artlculos 10 y 
20 del Protocolo firmado eu Washington en 12 de Agosto ultimo y esto es lo que 
quiere eumplir cou la mas exquislta lealtad eu este tratado. 
Ksta conforme: EMILIO VV. (UEUA. 



Annex 2 to Protocol No. 4. 



MEMORANDUM 

succinctly setting forth tbe grounds or reasons of tbe proposed articles for the 
treaty of peace relating to the relinquishment by Spain of her sovereignty over Cuba 
and Porto Rico, presented to the conference by the Spanish Plenipotentiaries. 

The Spanish Plenipotentiaries accept tbe main idea of the proposed article, as 
drafted by the American Commissioners, relating to the relinquishment by Spain of 
her sovereignty over Cuba and the cession of her sovereignty over Porto Rico: but 
they are unable to concur in the remaining portions of said draft; because, on the 
one hand, they understand that part thereof goes beyond the proper scope of said 
relinquishment and cession: and because, on the other, the said relinquishment and 
cession as expressed in the said draft do not embody, in other ways, all that it Is 
indispensable they should. 

I. 

It is imperative that the President of the United States should accept 
the relinquishment made by Her Catholic Majesty of her sov- 
ereignty over tie Island of Cuba. 

The Government of the American Union never demanded that the Spanish Gov- 
ernment abandon (abaudonar) the sovereignty over Cuba, but that it relinquish (re- 
nunciar) the same, so that the island should become Independent. It so appears from 
the diplomatic correspondence in the possession of the Government of Her Catholic 
Majesty relating to the negotiations between the two contracting parties prior to the 
declaration of war. It was also thus declared by the American Congress in the Joint 
Resolution of April 19 last, subsequently approved by the President of the United 
States. Tbe first clause of that resolution reads "that the people of Cuba are and of 
right ought to be free and independent." 

So also, on the 20th of the same month, did the Secretary of State in Washington 
Instruct the American Minister in Madrid to say to the Spanish Government, using 
the identical language of the Joint Hesolntion. that "Spain should at once relinquish 
its authority and government in the Island of Cuba." 

And so. finall.v, was it set forth in Article I. of the Protocol signed In Washington 
on the 12th of August last, the official text of which as signed in French and English 
by the representatives of the two High Contracting Parties reads as follows? 

"ARTICLE ler. L'Espagne renoneera a toute pretention, a sa souveralnete et a 
tout droit sur Cuba." which literally translated Into Spanish Is as follows: "Espana 
renunciara a toda pretension a su soberania y a todo derecho sobre Cuba." 

To undertake to explain the essentia) rlilTerence which according to the elemen- 
tary principles of public international law and the usage of nations exists between 
the abandonment (abandono) and the relinquishment (renunciai of sovereignty, would 
be to offend the intelligence of the learned American Commissioners. 

Abandoned territories can of right be acquired by the first occupant, while relin- 
quished territories necessarily pass unto him to whom relinquishment is made. And 
the United States demanded that Spain relinquish in order that the Cuban people 
might become Independent. 

31. 



AUliuugli it is Iriiu tliat tlie United States of America aemaudecl tliis of Spain In 
the present case, they also demanaed that such relinquishment must be made 
through them. The United States were to receive the Island of Cuba and retain the 
possession thereof, aoverniny it until its paeiflcation was secured, asserting its -'de- 
termination to leave luo one can leave what he does not hold! the government and 
control of the island to its people, as soon as the said pacification is accomplished." 
So was it solemnl.v set forth in section 4 of the Joint Hesolutiun of the American 
. Congress and in the dispatch of the Secretary of State to the American Minister at 
Madrid. And if the United States are not to leave the government and control of 
the island until the paciflcation thereof is accomplished, it is self-evident that in the 
meantime the United States are called upon to adniluistcr the one and retain the 
other. 

And. ill fact, the United States held and continue to hold Santiago de Cuba and 
the other territories of the island where their arms are supreme without having de- 
livered them over to the Cuban people, as the latter have not as yet any Government 
to represent them. And in the said Protocol of Washington (Article IV.) it was 
agreed that the evacuation of the island by the .Spanish troops and the deta 1» 
thereof should be arranged and carried out by a mixed commission, consisting of 
Commissioners appointed by the Washington Government and by the Spanish Gov- 
ernment, but not of Commissioners appointed by the Cubans. 

The Federal Government is thereforenhe one which must of necessity accept the 
relinquishment made by Spain of her sovereignty over the island, so as to retain 
the latter under its control and government until it Is pacified, in which event, and 
not before, according to its own declarations, it will leave the sovereignty over' that 
territory at the disposal of the Government that may be constituted in Cuba. 

II. 

The cession and relinquishment of soveieignty embraces the cession and 
relinquishment of the rights and obligations constituting- it. 

The idea of the sovereignty of a State was never confounded in the ancient world, 
and much less in the modern and Christian world, with the idea of individual or pri- 
vate ownership. Much less still with the authority of the master over the slave. 

The sovereign, it is true, has prerogatives and rights over the territory and its 
inhabitants; but these prerogatives and rights attach to him not for his own satisfac- 
tion and enjoyment, but for the good government and the welfare of the people sub- 
ject to his rule. For this reason the rights of the sovereign become obligations with 
respect to his subjects. The sovereign is bound to see that they have a good govern- 
ment and to their progress and prosperity. The sovereign is not the owner of the 
tax proceeds or of the revenues he receives from his subjects, to be used for his own 
personal benefit, but to meet with them all public necessities and attend to the 
public welfare. The fulfilment of these obligations is the foundation of the legit'- 
macy of his authority to enter into conventions and agreements of all kinds with 
third parties, to contract all the obligations necessary to raise means for the good 
administration of the government of his subjects, and to attend to the public serv'ce 
in the best possible manner. 

These obligations exist from the mom.-nt they are contracted until they are ful- 
filled. And it is perfectly self-evident that if during the period Intervening between 
the assumption by a sovereign of an obligation and the fulfilment of the same, he 
shall i-i'ase lo bi- b.iinid thereby through i-clintiuishmcrit or any other lawful convey- 
.niic. tlie outstaniling obligation passes as an integral part of the sovereignty itself 
to hiui who succeeds him. It would be contrary to the most elementary notions of 
justice and inconsistent with the dictates of the universal conscience of mankind for 
a sovereign to lose all his rights over a territory and the inhabitants thereof, and 
despite this to continue bound by the obligations he had contracted exclusively for 
their regime and government. 

These maxims seem to be observed by all cultured nations thai are unwilling to 
trample upon the eternal principles of justice, including those in which such cessions 
were made by force of arms and as a reward for victories through treaties relating 
TO territorial cessions. Rare is the treaty in which., together with the territory ceded 
lo the new sovereign, there is not conveyed a proportional part of the general obliga- 
tions of the ceding State, which in the m.ijority of cases have been in tlie form of n 
public debt. 

32. 



But tlic case to which the couveiition u\ lie fnuneil by this conference refers Is 
clearer still. It Is not the purpose here to transfer, together with the sovereignty 
over Cuba ana I'orto Uico, a proportional part iif tlie obligations anil general charges 
of the mother cnuntry. but only the obligations and charges attacliing inciiviiiualiy to 
the isliiiuls cedml and transferred. When not treating of general obligations common 
to all the territories subject to the sovereign contracting the same, but of the special 
obligations of tiie particular territories ceded which were contracted by its legitimate 
authorilles. In no single case, not even in those treaties in wliicli the victor ha» 
shown himself most merciless toward the vanquished. Iiave the individual and sepa- 
rate charges and obligations of a ceded territory failed to pass therewith. Thus it 
may be consiilercd as .in absohitely essential condition that the cession of territory 
carries with it the cession of the departnicntai, commumil, and, generally speaking, 
individual nliiigations ami dei)ts "f the ceded territory. The Great Conqueror of thi^ 
century never dari'd to viitlate this rule or eternal justice in any of tlie treaties lie 
concluded with tliosc sovereigns whose territories lii' .ippropriatcd in whole or in 
part, as a reward for his victories. 

Very well; it must be recorded that the sovereignty of Spain never ceased to ad- 
minister its colonies in America, from the time of the discovery, separate from the 
mother country. Spanish America was always governed from the capital of the 
monarchy by a special council called "Council of the Indies." which in no wise In- 
terfered in the regime and government of the Peninsula, whicli was uinler a council, 
designated as the "Council of Castile." 

The territor.v discovered hy tjOininbiis .-md other illustrious Spanish explorers who- 
have reiub^red sucli gri-al tliunuii not always aiiprecialcd ser\ices to civilization 
being divided into vice-royalties and captaincies-general, each of these small States 
collected its own revenues .and met its own expenses, or contracted obligations to 
meet the necessities of its own separate government: and when one of these territo- 
ries found itself with a permanent deficit, as was the case in the Islainl of Cuba, the 
nearest sister-colony came to its rescue. The Vice-royalty of Mexico from 1766 to- 
ISOC annually assisted the Island of Cuba with heavy sums for its governmental 
needs and the development of its natural rc-sources. at the time unexploited. wliich 
expenses it could not. at such time, meet from its own revenues. Not less than 103> 
millions of pesos came into Cuba from Mexico during that period, this assistance 
being known in the Spanish colonial admiiiisl ration under the name of "Sitnado de 
Mexico." 

During the present century Spain carried to the last extreme this system of the 
separate and independent administration of its colonies. The Ministry of the Colonies 
was the department where this administration was centred. Each c'.lony liad an- 
nually its own budget and deficits. When its own revenues were not sufficient to 
cover its own expenses, these were met by special operations In the way of consoli- 
dated, mortgage or floating debts, and were chargeable to the colony for whose bene- 
fit such operations were conducted. 

And the separation of the administration of the Peninsula and the colonies was 
for a long time so complete that the body of public employes in the executive and 
judicial services of the colonies was separate and independent, to the extent that 
these employes had not the legal capacity to be included in the similar hierarchical 
bodies of Spain, or to discharge therein like functions. 

This regime is the one under which Spain has been administering Cuba up to the 
present time. 

We are well aware that outside of Spain grave errors are fallen Into, owing to 
the Spanish colonial system being unknown: but it is high time and above all at this 
juncture Is It necessary that these errors br dissipated by comparing them with the 
actual facts and the provisions of Spanish laws. Cuba and Porto Rico have never 
been included In the general budget of the Spanish nation, nor have their revenues 
ever figured therein, wliicli is also true of their ex[U'nditures. Ail outstanding obliga- 
tions that have been leg.llly contracted for the service of Cuba and Porto Rico, and 
whicii are chargeable to their individual treasuries, always distinct and separate from 
the treasury of the Peninsula, are Cuban or Porto Rican obiigtaions— that is. loi.-al 
obligations, .solely and exclusively affecting the territory of the Islands and their In- 
habitants. 

What has been said up to this point regarding the nature of the colonial obliga- 
tions and those bound thereby, has never been disregarded (to their honor be it said) 
hy the Spanish-American peoples. They achieved their Independence through their 
own efforts, and the majority of them, before Spain had recognized it, had by prior 
and solemn acts of their legislatures, declared as their own and as having preference 
those debts which the Crown of Spain had contracted during the continuance of Its 
sovereignty for the service of such territories, and which debts were recorded in their 
respective treasnry books. 



Very few of the Spanlsh-Amerlean Republics delayed so hoaorable a declara- 
tion until the mother country had recognized their Independence, as was said by the 
Argentine Republic in the treaty concluded with Spain on September 21, 1863, and 
by Uruguay, in that fonrliideii on ,Tuly 1!), 1.S70: "Just as they acquired the rights 
and privileges belonging to the Crown of Spain, they also assume all its duties and 
obligations." 

Note that the Spanish-American republics without exception recognized and as- 
sumed as their own these debts of every Uind whatsoever, specifying them in the 
treaty of peace with Bolivia of .Inly 21, 1847, wherein It is stated that they "include 
Alt debts for pensions, salaries, supplies, advances, transportation, forced loans, de- 
posits, contracts and any other debt Incurred during war times or prior thereto, 
■chargeable to said treasuries: provided they were contracted by direct orders of the 
Spanish Government or Its constituted authorities in said territories." 

Spain did not recognize the independence of any American State which had pre- 
viously been her colony save upon this condition, which those States spontaneously 
incorporated in their respective treaties, as of right they should. 

Her right and her dignity will not permit her to recognize— without this condi- 
tion, which now more than ever If possU')le is still just and proper — the independence 
of the Cuban and Porto Rican peoples, which they have not been able to achieve by 
their own unaided efforts. 

Spain Is disposed to cede the sovereignty over Porto Rico and other islands of the 
West Indies, and to relinquish the sovereignty over the Island of Cuba, all in favor 
of the United States, which shall accept the same; she placing this sovereignty at 
their disposal in the condition in which she now holds it, and therefore, with the 
rights and charges at present constituting It. She bound herself to this by Articles 
I, and II. of the Protocol signed at Washington on August 12 last, and this is what 
she desires to carry out with the strictest faith In the present treaty. 

True Copy: 

BMILIO DB OJEDA. 



34. 



Protocol No. 5. 



Protocol No. 5. 



CONFERENCE 
of October 14, 1898. 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 14 de Octubie de 1898. 



Pi-csent— 

On llie part of iho United States: 

Messrs. DAY. 

DAVIS, 

KItVE, 

<;i;av, 

KEID. 

MtlORE. 

PEUtiUSSOX. 

On the part '^f Spain: 
Messrs. MoNTETto Kids. 
AHARZrZA, 
ARNICA, 
VILLA-IRRtniA. 
CERERO. 
O.I ED A 

The protocol of the pre<;ediiif? session \\ ;i.s 
read and approved. 

The Amerieau Commissioners presented 
a reply to the memorandum submitted h.v 
the Spanish Commissioners at the last ses- 
sion on the relinquishment of s^ivereignty 
over Cuba and the transfer of debts. The 
paper was read, and a copy of it fs hereto 
annexed. 

The Spanish Commissioners, referring to 
the paper in which the American Commis- 
Bic.ners rejected, at the conference of the 
nth Instant, the articles presented by the 
Spanish Coniuiissioners at the conference 
of the 7th, on the subject of Cuba and 
Porto Hico, called attention to the follow- 
ing sentence: 

"To the American Commissioners this ap- 
pears to be not a proposition to 'relinquish 
all claim of sovereignty over and title to 
Cuba,' but in substance a proposition to 
'transfer' to the United States and in turn 
to Cuba a mass of Spanish charges and ob- 
ligations." 

The Spanish Coramissinr'ers desired a 
modification of this sentence on the ground 
that it might be thought to imply that tliey 
were not acting in good faith. 

Tne American Commissioners stated that 
In their opinion the sentence did not con- 
vey such an imputation, but, out of defc.-- 
ence to tlie Spanish Commissioners, they 
altered it to rt^rid as follows: 

"Ti the American Commissioners this ap- 
pears to be not a proposition to 'relinquish 
all claim of sovereignty over and title to 
Cuba.' but in effect a proposition to 'trans- 
fer' to the United States and in turn to 
Cul>a a mass of charges and obligations 
which, in the opinion of the American Com- 
missioners, properly belong to Spain." 



I'resentes- 
I'or parte tie los Estados Unidos de Amer- 
ica : 
los Senores DAY. 

DA^ IS. 

FRYE. 

GRAY, 

REID, 

MOORE, 

FEROUSSiiN, 

I'or parte de Espana- 

los Senores MONTEKO RIGS, 
ABARZUZA. 
GARNICA. 
VII.LA-I'RHrTiA, 
CERERO, 
OJEDA. 

K\ profiicolo de la sesion anterior fue 
leido y aprobado. 

Los Comlsionados americanos presentarou 
una contestacion al Memorandum que los 
Oomisionados espanoles sometieron en la 
ultima sesion acerea de la renuncia de la 
soberania sobre Cuba y la transferencia de 
sus deudas. EI docnmento fue leido in- 
cluyendose una copia anexa a esta acta. 

Los Comlsionados espanoles reftriendose 
al escrlto en el cual los Coniisionados 
americanos rechazaron en la conferencia 
del dia 11 del corriente los articulos pre- 
sentados por los Comlsionados espanoles 
en la conferencia del 7, acerea de Cuba y 
Puerto Rico, llamaron la atencion sobre 
la siguiente frase: 

"I'reen los Comlsionados americanos que 
esto no parece ser una proposision para 
rennnciar a toda pretension de soberania 
y a todo dereeho sobre Cuba, sino mas 
bien una proposicion para transferir a los 
Estados Unidos y estos a su vez a Cuba, 
una masa de cargas y obligaciones espa- 
nolas." 

Los Comlsionados espanoles pidleron la 
modlflcaelon de esta frase fundandose en 
que pudiera impllear que ellos no proce- 
dian de buena fe. 

Los Comlsionados americanos manifes- 
taron que en su opinion la frase no tenia 
tal Interpretacion, pero que por defereneia 
■A li>s Comlsionados espanoles, la moditi- 
caban en los terniinos siguicntes: 

"Creen los Comlsionados americau<)S que 
esto no parece ser una proposicion para 
renunciar a toda pretension do soberania y 
a todo dereeho sobre la Isla de Cuba, sino 
que ea realidad es una proposicion para 
transferir a los Estados Unidos y estos a 
Cuba una masa de cargas y obligaciones 
que en opinion de los Comlsionados ameri- 
canos pertenecen reaimente a Espana." 



This matter having been disposed of, tlie 
Spanish Commissioners stated that, bffore 
proceeding with the discussion of tlie ques- 
tions under consideration, they desired it 
to be understood that, if certain articles 
should be agreed to. but in the eud no 
treaty should be signed, the articles ns 
agreed to should not in such case be taken 
as expressing either Governmenifs estiui,i- 
tion of its just rights in respect of tlie 
subjects to which the articles related. 

The American Commissioners coucuircd 
in this view. 

The Joint Commission then proceeded to 
the oral discussion of the poimts discussed 
In the Spanish niemorand-ira of October 11 
and the American reply of to-da.v. 

'After the discu.ssion of the first point— 
the question whether the sovereignty over 
Cuba should be relinqui.slied to the United 
States— was exhausted, without any agree- 
ment having been readied upon it, the 
American Conunissiouers proposed to laiie 
up the .second point— the question whether 
charges and obligations conatituted a part 
of tiii> sovereiguty and as such passo.l 
with it. 

The Spanish Commissioners sugges-ed 
that if no agreement could be reached on 
the first point it seemed to be needless to 
discuss the second. 

The American Commissioners, concurring 
in this view, proposed that, owing to the 
lateness of the hour, the conference be 
adjounicd to continue the discussion of the 
first point at the next session, which should 
be held on Monday, the 17tu of October, at 
two o'cloolv p. m. 

The Spanish Commissioners agreeing, ihe 
conference was adjourned accordingly. 



Signed: WILLI.iM If. DAY. 

OUSH.MAN K. DAVIS, 
M"M. P. FRYE. 
CEO. GRAY. 
WIIITEt.AW RBID, 
.71 III. V 11 MOORE. 



Resuelto esto asuuto, los Comisionados 
espanoles manifestaron que antes de pro- 
ceder a la discusion de las cucstiones 
sometidas a estudio. deseaban que se estab- 
leciera, que si algunos articulos fue.seu 
aprobados, pero que al final no se Ilegase 
a firmar uu tratado, tales articulos apro- 
bados no deberian en uingTin case ser con- 
siderados como expresaudo la opinion de 
cualquiera de los Gobiernos sobre sus 
justos dereehos respecto a los asuutos a 
los cuales dichos articulos se referian. 

Los Comisarios americauos aceptaron esta 
proposicion. 

Luego la Comision procedio a la discusion 
oral de los puntos que se tratau en el 
Memorandum espanol del 11 de Octubre y 
a la eontestacion americana presentada 
ho.v. 

Y habiendose Jiscutido. sin que se Ilegase 
:i uu acuerdo el primer punto, relativo a 
si la soberania sobre Cuba deberia renun- 
ciarse a favor de los Estados Unidos, los 
Comisarios americanos propusierou con- 
tinuar con el segundo o sea la cuestion de 
si las cargas y obligaciones constituian una 
parte de la soberania y como tales debiau 
transmitirse con esta. 

Los Comisionados espanoles indicaron que 
si no se podia llcgar a un acuerdo eii el 
primer punto, no parecia oportuno con- 
tintiar la discusion del segundo. 

Los Comisionados americauos opinaron 
de la misma manera .v propusieron que 
dado lo avanzado e la hora, se aplazara la 
conferencia para contluuar la discusion 
del primer punto en la proxima sesion, 
que se celebrara el lunes 17 de Octubre a 
las dos de la tarde. 

Los Comisionados espanoles aprobaron 
esta mocion y en su eonsecuencia se sus- 
pendio la conferencia. 

Kinuado: E. .MONTERO RIGS, 
B. DE ABARZUZA. 
J. DE GARNICA. 
W. R. DB VILLA-URKUTIA. 
RAFAEL CERERO. 
EMILIO DE OJEDA. 



36 



Annex to Protocol No. 5. 



Tile Amorit'an Commissioners bereliv jji-estiit their leply tt> thv* memnramluiu 
wliicli tlte Spiiuish Commissioners, umler the rules of the Commission, snbmitted on 
the 11th instant, fttr the pnrpose of ^ivin^ their reasons in support of the articles 
which the American Commissioners hiHl rejected, in relation to Culja ami I*orTo Rico. 



1. 

Tile Siiiiliisli iiieiiioraniUiiu. referrin;; to tile (t«-nian<ls of the Cniteil .Stales before 
the war. to the joint resolution of Coniiress, iinil to the lan;,'uage of .\rticle I of tiie 
I'roiocol of Aususi 12. l.sns, maintains that it is "im|i>>nilive" that tlie mited States 
"should accept the relinquishment made l,y Her C;itliolic Majesty of her soverei;iiity 
over the Island of Cuba." 'lliis coiiteinion is based upon tlie fact tiiat in the various 
documents referre^l to the t'niletl statics reriuired Spain to "relimiuisli" her sover- 
eijrnty. but did not demand that she •'.ilianrton" it. 

A distlTjetioii is thus in.ade between .-i reliiiquishment and an abaridoniiieni ; and it 
is argued that while "abandoned territories" become derelict. s«> that tliey may be 
acquired b.v the first occupant, "relinquished territories" necessarily jiass to him to 
whom relinquisliment is made. 

The Aiiierican Commissioners are unible to admit that such a (Mstiiirtion be- 
tween the words in question exists eitlicr in law or in ciminion use. 

The word "relinquish," as delined in ilio Kuj^jlisii dictionaries, means "to jrive I'p 
the possession or oi-cupanc,v of : withdraw frOni: leave; abaiuion; quit." .\;raiM: "to 
renounce a claim to; resign ; as, to relinquish a debt." 

On the other hand, we fiml in that ^leat monument of Spanish IcarninL'. tlu' law 
dictionary of Rscrichc tUiccionario de I.e^islacion y .InrisprudeTiciai, irnder the word 
renunciar. which the Spanisli memoraiidnm declares to be the eq.iivalent of the 
rrench word renoncer (used in Spain's version of the Prot<x*oIl. and of the lOnslisli 
word "relinquish." the following detiiiition: "The vt>lniitary ;;i\'imr up of a riylit 
exercised or expe<-led to he exerciseil. or of a tliin;; held or possessi-d or expected to 
be held or po.ssessed." ' 

Coinmeiitin^' upon thi^ deliaition. Es'-richc sa.vs; 

"The i-elinquishmeirl differs from the cession in (hat the latter -cquires for its 
completion the concurrence of the wills of tlie grantor and the jrrantee and a just 
cause for the traiu-fcr. whib- the fornn r is jierfect wi'tli oiil,v the will of the relin- 
quisher. The effe<-t of the relinquislinient is confined to the abdication or droppins 
of the right or thinir ri'liiiqnishetl. The elVect of tlie cession is tlic eonveyaiue of the 
right to the gratrtee." 

The distinction thus drawn, not beiwi'eii relinqnishment and abandonment, whi'-'i 
are treated both in English an,] in Spanish as practicaly the same, but between 
relinnnishmont and ces-siou, is written upon the face of the Protocol, which, while 
obligsiting Spain (Article Ii to "relinqnisli all claim of sovereignty ovi-r and title to 
Ctiba," in the next article requires her to "cede to the United States the Island of 
Porto Uieo and other islands now under .Sjianish sovereignty in the West Indies, and 
also an island in the Ladrones. to he selected by the fnitcd States." 

If it were tine, as mainained in tlie Spaidsn memorandum, that the ait of relin- 
quishment includes, and reiinires for its coiiipletion. the process of legal transf.T 
from one band to another, and thus *• iistltutes in form and in effect a cession, it 
is obvious that tlie i-ontracting parties, in framing the I'rotoeol, i>niploycd, in stipu- 
lations which were deliberately separated and sharply contrasted, ditferent words to 
express the same inenning. 

The American Commis.--ioners understand ilie Spanish meniorandmn to maintain 
that their Government, prior to the war. demanded of Spain, in effect if not in 
words, the relinquishment of her sovereignty over Cuba to the T'nitiHl States. The 
Spanish memorandum donUtk^ss refijrs to the demand a copy of which was coni:na- 
iilcaled by tlie Secretary of State of the Cnited States to the Spanish .Minister at 
Washington on the 20th of April last. The precise words of this demand are "that 
the Government of Spain at once rellnqiilsb its authority and Government in the isl- 
and of Cuba and Cuban waters;" and the denunul is accompanied bv the declarali.ia 
that the Inited States, in taking the step, "disclaims any disposition or intention to 
exercise sovereignty. Jurisdiction or control over said Island except for the paelHca- 
tion thereof, and asserts Its determiuarion, when that is accomplished, to leave the 
goveniment and control of the island to its peojile under such free and independent 
Government as they may establish." 

To this demand the I'nited States .■equiied by a certain time "a full and satis- 
factory response ••*. whereby the ends of pi-ace in Cuba shall be assured." 

From the demands tlius fully set foth. the Spanish inenior:iudum extracts the 



assertion by tlie United Slates of its detprnjination "to leave the government and 
control of the island to its people," and. omitting both what precedes and what 
follows, construes that assertion as a demand "that such relinquisliment must be 
made tbrough them" (the United States). The demand as a whole, however care- 
fully and clearly excludes this construction. Not only is the assertion preceded in 
the same sentence, by lu express disclaimer on the iiart of the United States of any 
disposition or intention to talie the sovereig-nty of the isiand, but the assertion itself 
includes an express dec-laraUon of a determination to allow the island to remain, after 
pacjflcatlon, "under such free and independent Government" as mav be established 
by its people. 

To this construction of the demand we may apply a simple test. If Spain had 
answered that she would relinquish her sovereignty over the Island of Cuba, and 
had at the same time declared that it was not her intention to relinquish it to the 
United States, would any one have imagined that she had failed to make a "full 
and satisfactory response" to the demand? 



_ The second part of the Spanish uu-morandum is devoted to an argument to main- 
tain the proposition that "the cession and relinquishment of sovereignty embraces 
the cession and relinquishment of the rights and obligations constituting It." 

The American Commissioners are not disposed to comment upon the Indefl- 
mteness of this proposition, or upon the fallacies involved in treating the obliga- 
tions which a sovereign may Incur m the exercise of his sovereignty as a part of 
the sovereignty itself. National sovereigiity (soberania naclonal), as defined by 
high Spanish authority (Novisimo Dlccionario enelclopedico de la iengua castellana, 
por D. Delfln Donadin y Btugnau. based on the Dictionary of the Spanish Acad- 
emy ), is "the right which a nation has of organizing tbe public powers in such 
a way as it may deem advisable." This right, though it includes the power to con- 
tract obligations, is in no sense composed of them. The thing done in the exercise 
of sovereignty is not a part of the sovereignty itself; tbe power to create is not 
the thing created. Noc is it possible to shut our eyes to the fact that in the Span- 
ish memorandum the term obligations is used indiscriminately in respect of two 
different things, namely, the duties which a sovereign as such" owes to his subjects, 
and the debts which he may specially contract in the exercise of his sovereign power 
for his own purposes. 

With these preliminary observations, the American Commissionei-s proceed to the 
consideration of the specific matter before them. 

The American Commissioners note ihe declaration in tlie Spanish memorandum 
that there is no purpose now to ti-auffer witii the sovereignty of Cuba and Porto 
Rico a proportional part of the natiuu.il debt of Spain, but "only the obligations and 
charges attaching individually to the islands," which obligations and charges it 
likens to the local debts which pass with ceded territory. It appears, however, by 
the explanuiion given in the memorandum of the origin of these charges and obli- 
gations, and of the manner in which they were contracied, th.it they include the 
whole of what is commonly called the Cuban debt. The .\mericaii C-ommissioners, 
therefore, while reaffirming their position as to the exclusion by the Protocol of any 
proposal for tbe a.ssumption of such charges and obligations, will examine the sub- 
ject in some of its aspects. 

It is true that the linaucial department of the Isl.and of Cuba, commonly called 
the "Cuban Treasury," was not a branch of the Spanish Treasury, but it is equally 
true that it was accountable to the Spanish Secretary for the Colonies, the Miuis- 
tro de Ultramar, and that it was managed by a body of officials appointed by the 
Crown, at whose head was a high functionary, called Intendente General de Ha- 
cienda. In each year a budget was made up by the Spanish Colonial Secretary on 
data furnished by the Intendente General, and tbis budget was submitted to and 
acted upon by the Cortes. If in any year the revenues collected in Cuba were In- 
sufficient to rceet the burdens imposed upon them, the deficit was charged to the 
island, and formed a new item of the Cuban debt. It thus appears that the finances 
of the island were exclusively controlled by tbe Spanish Government, and that the 
debt was lu no sense created by Cuba as a province or department of Spain, or by 
the people of the island. In reality it is notorious that the denial to Cuba of any 
financial autonomy and of any power to protect herself against the imposition 'iy 
Spanish officials of enormo'is burdens for purposes foreign and adverse to her inter- 
ests, has been the most proliiie source of discontent in the island. The debt-creating 
power, such as commonly belongs to communes or municipal corpor.1tl.5ns, never was 
delegated to Cuba. Such a thing as a Cuban obligation, created by the island in the 
exercise of powers either inherent or delegated, is unknown to tbe markets of ine 

world. 

38. 



Hlivlng brU-Hy sk,-:.- r. system ot fll;:lluliil :..liniiiistr:Hi<m will. rt-siH'Ct 10 

("nbii. we iiiny eonsiilei- tlie urlgin of the debt. 

Prior to f^fil n" so-i-ulled Cuban debt existed. 

The revenues of the island were as a reie far more than sufficient to pay the 
expenses of its governmont. and produced in each year a surplus. This surplus 
wa« no; expended for the benefit of the island, but was sent to Madrid. The sur- 
pluses thus disposed of amounted, from 1856 to 1861 inclusive, to upward of 
$2(1,000,000. 

In 1864, in order to meet the national expenses of the attempt to reincorporate 
Sau Domingo into the Spanish dominions, and of the -expedition to Mexico," the 
Spanish authorities issued bonds to the amount of $.3,liO0,0(Hi. Subsoqiiently new 
loans were made, so that the so-called Cuban del>t had swollen by 1S6.S to $18,000,000. 

In that year the ten years war for Cuban mdependeiite brolce out. a war pro- 
duced by causes so generally conceded to be just as to need no exposition on this 
occasion. Ail the expenses of this war were imposed upon Cuba, so that lu 1880, 
according to a. statement made at Madrid in that year iiy the Spanish Secretary for 
the Colonies, the so-called Caban debt amounted to upwaird of .iilTO.000,000. 

Sub.se<iuentiy the Spanish Government undertooii to consoiidaite these debts, and 
to this end created in ISSG the so-cailcd Bilietes hipotecarios de la Isia de Cuba to 
the amount of 6-iO,000.000 pesetas, or ,^124,000.(W. 'The Spanish Government under- 
tooii to pav these bonds and the interest thereon out of the revenues of Cuba, but 
the ilationai character of tne debt was shown by the fact that, upon the face ot 
the bonds, "the Spanish nation" (ia Nacion Espanoia) guaranteed their payment. The 
annual charge for interest und sinking fund on account of this debt au.ounted to the 
sum ot 3y,10~l,000 pesetas, or $7,838,200, which was disbursed through a Spanish liuan- 
cial institution, called the Banco Hlspano-Coloniai, which is said to have coiiected 
daily from the custom liouse at Havana, through an agency there established, tlie 
sum" of $33..3.'!9. 

In 1890 a new issue of bonds was authorized by the Spanish Government, to tlie 
amount, as it is understood, of 875.000,000 pesetas, or $1-5,0(Ki..kW. with the same 
guarantee as before, apparently with u view to refund the prior debt, as well as to 
cover any ne,v debts coniracted between 18S6 and 1890. It seems, however, that 
only a small number of th<-se bonds had been disposed of when in February, lS9o, 
the last insurrection and movement for independence broke out. The Government of 
Spain then proceeded to issue these now bonds for tlie purpose of raising funds 
with which to suppress the uprising, so that those outstanding on January 1, 189S, 
amounted, according to published reports, to 858.550,000 pesetas, or $171,710,000. Ic 
addition to tiiese a further loan, liuown as the "Cnb.in War Emergency Loan," 
was. as the American Commissioners arc advised, floated to the amomit of 800.000.000 
pesetas, or $160,000,000. represented by what are called "five per cent peseta bonds." 

Although 't does not appear that any mention is made in these bonds of the rev- 
enues of Cuba, it is understood thai thi^y are regarded in Spain .is properly con- 
stituting a part ot the "Cuban Debt." together with various unliquidated debts, 
large in amount, incurred by the Spanisli authorities in opposing by arms the inde- 
pendence of Cuba. 

From no point of view i-an the debts above described be considered as local debts 
of Cuba or as debts incurr,_'d for the benefit of Cuba. In no sense are they obliga- 
tions properly chargeable to that island. They are debts created by the Govern- 
ment of Spam, for its riwn purposes and tlirongh its own agents, in whose creation 

Cuba had no voice. 

From the moral point of view, the proposal to impose them upon Cuba is equally 
untenable. If. as is sometimes asserted, the struggles for Cuban independence have 
been carried on and supported by a minority of the people of the island, to impose 
upon the inhabitants as a whole the cost of suppressing the insur-ections would 
be to punish the many for the deeds of the few. If. on the other hand, those strug- 
gles hiive. as the American Commissioners maintain, represented the hopes and as- 
pirations of tlie body of the Cuban people, to crush the Inhabitanits by a burden 
created by Spain in the cfTort to oppose tlielr independence would be even more un- 
just. 

The American Commissioners deem it unnecessary, after what lias been stated, to 
enter into an examination of the general references, made in the Spanish mnioran- 
dum. to cases lu which debts contracted by a State have, upon its al)sorption. been 
assumed by the absorbing state, or to cases in which, upon the partition of territory, 
debts contracted by the whole have been by special arrangement apportioned. They 
arc conceived to be inapplicable, legally and morally, to the so-called "Cuban Debt," 
the burden of which. impose<i upon the people of Cuba without their consent and 
by force of arms, was .me of tlie principal wrongs for the termination of wiilch the 
struggles for Cuban In'lependence were undertaken. 

Tlie American Commissioners have deemed it due to the Spanish Commissioners 
and to themselves to make these ob.serva tinns ul)on the genei-ai subject of Cuban 

39. 



"charges and obligations;." apart from the special circumstances under wliicU the 
present negotiations were begun. But. as they have heretofore .stated, they consider 
the subject to be disposed of beyond all question by the Protocol. Th^ suggestiDn 
that their Government should assume, either for itself or for Cuba, or Porto Uieo, 
the burden of the '-charges and. obligations" now in ijuestion was not put forward 
during the negotiations that resulted in the conclusion of that convention, nor, if it 
had been so put forward, would it have been for a moment entertained by the 
United States. 

From nnsellish motives, of which it is unnecessary to make a renewed de<-lara- 
tion, the Government of the United States, at great sacrifice of life .and treasure, 
has prosecuted the conflict whi<'h followed its demand for the relinquishment by 
Spain of sovereignty over Cuba. 

One of the results of that conflict is the unconditional agreement, embodied in 
the first article of the Protocol, that Spain "will relinquish all claim of sovereign. 
ty over and title to Cuba." Upon the simple fulfilment of that stipulation the Ameri- 
can Commissioners are obliged to insist. 

True copy: 

■ JOHN B. MOOUE. 



40. 



Protocol No. 6. 



Protocol No. 6. 



CONFERENCE 
Of October 17. 1S98. 



Present— 
On the parr of Ibc luiteil States: 

Messrs. DAY. 

DAVIS. 

PRYE. 

GRAY. 

REID. 

MOORE. 

FERGUSSON. 

On the part of Spain: 
Messrs. MONTEKO RiOS, 

ABARZrZA. 

GARXIfA. 

CERERO. 

Messrs. VILLA-URRliTIA and 
were absent because of Illness. 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 17 de Octubre de 1898. 



ioa 
Ins 



Presentes— 
parte de los Estartos TnUlos de Amor- 



The protoeol of the preceding session was 
read ""d approved. 

The President of the Spanish Commission 
stated that, without making any formal 
protest, he desired to bring to the atten- 
tion of the American rommissloners the 
fact that he had received from his Govern- 
ment a telegram referring to reports to 
the effect that two American men-of-war 
were about to leave American ports with 



SeiKires 1>AY, 

DAVIS. 

PRYE, 

GRAY, 

REID. 

MOORE. 

FERGUS'SON. 

I'or parte de Espnna: 
los Senores MONTERO RIOS, 
ABARZUZA. 
GARNICA, 
CERERO. 

OJEDA I,os Comlsarios espanoles informan a los 
:„nericano« que los Senores Villa-Urrut.a y 
0.ieda no pueden asistir a la conferencia 
por hallarse enfermos. 
Se le.v.> y fue aprobada el acta anterior. 



Fi s,.„„r Presidente de la Comision es- 
nanola. sin hacer una reclamaclon concreta, 
llama la atencion de los Senores Comlsa- 
rios americanos aeerca de un telegrama 
nue ha reclbido del Goblerno espanol rela- 
tivo al envio a Manila de dos bnques dc 
>.uerra americanos y refuerzos de tropas a 
1 "uarnicion de Manila, asi comn a los 



were about to leave American ports wun i s"-".,.. -- rictima* los 

reinforcements of troops for the garrison n.alos tratamientos '^^ J^ ^""J^'^^';^"', T. 
at Manila, and that Spanish prisoners in espanoles pr.sioneros de los ta„alos. .V ^ 



the possession of the Tagalos are HI- 
treated. He w.inM not read the telegram, 
bnt as such reports tended to ex<-ite the 
public mind and embarrass the efforts to 



leer dicho telegrama. ruega a los Senores 
Co.uisionados americanos lo pongan en 
- nocimiento del Gobierno de ^Vashington 
fin de evitar que esos heehos fomenten 



public mind anil emnarrass tne euo.it, lo u .... ...- -■•— - „,,,.„ nuhlico v en- 

es,ab,i.h peace and concord between the >«. ':'';'--^-;» ^1: f " ^ di;;^.Uad:s 



two nations, lie Imped that the American 
Commissioners would bring the matter to 
the knowledge of their Government. 

The President of the American Commis- 
sion replied that the American Commission- 
ers possessed neither Information nor in- 



ardeciendo las paslones creen d-ifieultades 
para la obra de paz y concordIa entre 
ambas naciones. 

El Sonor Presidente de los Comlsarios 
americanos manifiesta en contestacion que 
carecian de intormes e Instrucci.mes nece- 



ers possessed neither Intorma on nor m- ;" . "■ .^^^^ f^, ,,„„to. de la com- 

strucions such as would enable them to ^^^■' ^ ■••",*"'" ,„, „„, o.biernos. pero 



deal with the subject, which properly be- 
longed to the two Governments, but that, 
prompted by motives similar to those 
avowed by the President of the Spanish 
Conunission, they would communicate to 
their Govei-nment the fact that the reports 
in question had been brought to ihelr at- 
tention. 

The discussion of the business before the 
Joint Commission having been resumed. 
tJie Spanish Commissioners stateil that al- 
though the articles presented by them 
were not couched In the same words as the 
Protocol of August 12. 18!),S, and the propo- 
sitions in the notes pre< eding Its conclu- 
sion, the sense was. In their opinion. th< 
sam 



petencia nnica de los dos Goblernos. pero 
que inspirandose en iguales fines, o sea 
coiise'-'uir una paz duradera. comunlcara a 
Washington los deseos expresados por los 
Senores Comlsarios espanoles. 



Entrando en la ..rden del dia. la Comis- 
ion continuo la deliberadon iniciada en la 
i-.inferencia anterior, manlfestando el Senor 
Presidente de los Comlsarios espanoles, 
que si bien el articulado que hablan pro- 
puesto no estaba redactado en las mlsmas 
palabras empleadas en el Protoeolo de 12 
de Agosto de 1898. y en los despachos que 



> sense was lu ruen iji^tii...... I .■' ". — 19---- - , . _ _ 

slill, they were ready to withdraw n.edlaron para llegar a su conclusion, en 

41 



tlieii- articles, and to substitute fur them 
articles more nearly in eonformit.v with the 
language of tlie I'rotoeol. 

The American Commissioners, in response 
to this statement, presented a paper, copy 
of which is hereto annexed, in which, while 
recognizing the fact that the Government 
of the I'nited States assumed all responsi- 
bilities for protection of life and property 
that legally attach to it during the occupa- 
tion of Cuba, they Anally declined to as- 
sume the burden of the so-called Cuban 
debt, either for the United States or for 
Cuba, and offered as a substitute for the 
articles previously presented by them the 
precise stipulations of Articles I and II of 
the Protocol, as to Cuba, Porto Rico and 
other islands in the West Indies, and the 
island to be ceded in the tiadrones. 

The Spanish Commissioners stated that 
they reserved the right to e.^amine this 
proposal ami to present another draft of 
articles which should conform to the Pro- 
tocol. 

The conference w;is then adjourned to 
the 19th instant, at two o'clock, p. m. 



Signed: WILLIAM R. DAY. 

CTSHJIAN K. DAVIS. 
WM. P. FRYE. 
i;E(). OKAY'. 
WIIITELAW REID. 
.lOHN F,. MOORE. 



so opinion, el seutido es el mismo, pero 
cjue estaban dispuestos a retirarlas o re- 
formarlas mas en cousonancia con los ter- 
iiiinos usados en el texto del Protocolo. 

En contestaeioD los Comisarios amerl- 
camis presentaron un documento de que es 
copia anexa, en el cual. al propio tiempo 
ipie declaran que el Gobierno de los Es- 
tados Unidos asume las responsabilidades 
inherentes a la proteccion de vidas y ha- 
ciendas en Cuba, niientras dure la ocu- 
pacion de Cuba, declinan flnalmente el 
asumir la carga de la Dueda cubana, tanto 
para los Estados Unidos como para Cuba. 
Asiinismo proponen sustituir los articulos 
propuestos por ellos eon las estipulaclones 
precusas de los Articulos I y II del Proto- 
colo reterentes a Cuba. Puerto Rico e islas 
de las Antillas y la isia de las Ladrones 
que ha de ser cedida. 

Los Comisarios espauoles manifestaroD 
que se reservaban el dereeho de estudiar 
hi moeion presentada, a fln de presentar 
otro proyecto de articulos con arreglo al 
I'rolucolo, levantandose la sesion despues 
de haber convenido el volver a reunirse el 
ilia 19 del corriente a las 2 de la tarde. 



Firmado: E. MONTERO RIOS. 
B. DE ABARZUZA. 
J. DE GARNICA. 
W. R. DE VILLA-URRDTIA. 
RAFAEL CERERO. 
EMILIO DE OJEDA. 



42. 



Annex to Protocol No. 6. 



The American Commlsslonera having listened with great respect to the arguments 
orally urged by the Spanish Commissioners in support of the articles offered by 
them, lis well as duly considered the written memorandum submitted In support oi^ 
the same, must adhere to the rejection thereof as stated In the memorandum of the 
American Commissioners read to the Commission and attached to the protocol of 
the 11th instant. The chief additional reason adduced In the oral presentation for 
the acceptance of sovereignty by the Dnlted States In Cuba is that without such ac- 
ceptance the people of Cuba notably of Sp.inish origin will have no protection of 
person and property. The United States recognizes in the fullest measure that In 
requiring the relinquishment of all claim of Spanish sovereignty and the evacuation 
of the Island of Cuba It has assumed ail the obligations Imposed by the canons of In- 
ternational law and flowing from Its occupation. The United States, so far as It has 
obtained possession, has enforced obedience to law and the preservation of order by 
all persons. It has no disposition to leave the island a prey to anarchy or misrule.. 

As the Spanish Commissioners strenuously urge that the acceptance of sovereignty 
includes tie assumption of the so-called Cuban debt, and as it is evident that this 
question divides the Commission and stays its progress, the American Commissioners, 
having carefully considered the arguments of the Spanish Commissioners, must 
again and flnaliy decline to accept this burden either for the United 
States or Cuba. In the articles proposed by the American Commissioners on the 
third instant there were contained certain stipulations which, tie American Com- 
missioners believed, while not enlarging the Protocol, would effectually preserve the 
evidence of title to property and make clear the nature of public property and rights 
included In the relinquishment of sovereignty and title. It having been urged that 
these, no less than the articles proposed by the Spanish Commissioners, enlarge the 
terms of the Protocol, the American Commissioners are now prepared, for the pur- 
pose of disposing of the question of Cuba, Porto Rico and Guam, simply to embody 
in the treaty the precise stipulations of the Protocol on those subjects, neither ad- 
ding thereto nor subtracting therefrom. 

The American Commissioners, thereto re, offer as a substitute for the articles 
heretofore presented by them the following: 

"ARTICLE I.— Spain hereby rellquishes ail claim of sovereignty over and title to 
Cuba. 

"ARTICLE II.— Spain hereby cedes to the United States the Island of Porto Rico 

and other Islands now under Spanish sovereignty In the West Indies, and also the 

Island of Guam in the Ladrones." 

True copy : 

JOHN B. MOORE. 



43. 



Protocol No. 7. 



Protocolo No. 7. 



CONFERENCE 
of October 21, 1898. 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 21 de Octubre de 1898. 



In the protocol of the conference of Oc- 
tober 17, it Is stated that an ailjoummoui 
was tnken to Wednesday the 19th. On 
the ISth of October the I'rfsident of the 
Spanish Commission made to the Presi- 
dent of the American Commission a re- 
quest that the ne.\t meeting be postponed 
to the 21st of October, in order that the 
Spanish Commissioners might have an op- 
portunity to prepare certain papers for 
submission to the Joint Commission. 

The reassembling of the Joint Commis- 
sion vras therefore postponed until Friday. 
the 21st of October, at two o'clocl;, p. m., 
at which hour there were present— 

On the part of the United States: 



Messrs. DAY, 

DAVIS. 

FRTE, 

(iRAY. 

REID. 

MOORE. 

FERGI'SSON, 
On the part of Spain: 

Messrs. MOXTERO RIOS. 

ABARZUZA. 

GAR.MCA. 

VILI.A-IRRUTIA. 

CERERO. 

OJEDA. 

The protocol of the preceding sessioi. 
was read and approved. 

The American (Commissioners stated that 
they had telegraphed to their Government 
the representations made to them by the 
Spanish Commissioners at the last* ses- 
sion, as to the reports of the sending of 
two American men-of-war with reinforce- 
ments for the garrison at Manila and for 
the ill treatment of Spanish prisoners by 
the Tagalos. but that they had as yet re- 
ceived no reply, probably because "of the 
absence of the President from Washington. 

The Spanish Commissioners expressed 
their thanks for the action of the Ameri- 
can Commissioners. 

The Spanish Commissioners stated that 
they regretted to reject the proposals pre- 
sented by the American Commissioners at 
the last session, and that thev therefore 
presented certain articles as a substitute 
for the articles previously submitted by 
them in relation to Cuba .ind Porto Rico. 



An adjournment was taken on Monday, 
the 24th of October, at two o'clock, p. m.. 
In order that an opportunity might be af- 
forded for the translation and examina- 
tion of the new articles. 

Signed: WILLIAM R. DAT. 

CUSHMAX K. DAVIS, 
WM. P. FRYE, 
GEO. GRAY, 
WHITELAW KEID. 
JOHN B. MOORE. 



En el acta de la sesiou del 17 del cor- 
riente, se fijo el dia 19 para la proxima 
conferencla, pero habiendo rogado el Presl- 
dente de la Comlsion espanola el dia 18, 
al Presidente de la Comlsion auiericana, 
que se aplazase dlcha conferencla "ara el 
21, a fin de que los Comislonados espanoles 
pudiesen presentar en ella clertos docu- 
mentos, se eonvino en que se aplazase 
hasta dicha fecha y en virtud de este 
acuerdo se rennen hoy a la.s 2 de la tarde 
las (los Comisiones. hallandose presentes. 



l"or pane de los Estados Unidos de Amer- 
ica: 
los Senores DAY, 

DAVIS, 

FRYE. 

GRAY, 

KEID. 

MOORE, 

FERGLSSON. 
Por parte de Espana: 
In* S.nores Mf)XTERO RIOS. 

AP.ARZUZA. 

(;AKXICA. 

VILLA-IRRITIA, 

CERERO. 

OJEDA. 

Se leyo y fue apiobada el acta de la 
sesion anterior. 

Los Comislonados americanos manifes- 
taron que habian telegrafiado a su Go- 
bierno lo que los Espanoles les encargaron 
transmitirle respetco del envio de dos 
buques de guerra americanos con refuerzos 
para la guarnicion de Manila y del mal 
trato que a los prisioneros espanoles daban 
los Tagalos, pero que aun no habian re- 
cibido contestacion, debldo probablemente 
a la ausencia de Washington del Presi- 
dente. 

Los Comislonados espanoles expresaron 
con este motivo sn agradecimlento a los 
americanos. 

Los Comislonados espanoles manifestaron 
que sentian lener que rechazar los artl- 
culos pr€>sentados jior los Comislonados 
americanos en la ultima sesion. y que en 
consecuencia presentaron entonces un 
nuevo proyecto de articulos de tratado des- 
tinado a sustiluir a los que presentaron 
anteriormente, relatlvos a Cuba y a Puerto 
Rico. 

Con el objeto de pemiltir la traducclon 
y el examen de estos nuevos articulos, se 
eonvino en que la proxima sesion tendria 
lugar el Innes 24 del corrlente a las 2 p. m. 



Firmado: E. MONTERO RIOS, 
B. DE ABARZUZA, 
J. DE GARXICA, 
W. R. DE VILLA-URRUTIA, 
RAFAEL CERERO, 
EMILIO DE OJEDA. 



45. 



ANNEX TO PROCOTOL NO. 7. 



COMISION 
Paia la Negociacion de la Paz Con los Estados Unidos. 



AKTICULO I. 

Su Majestad Catolica I:i Itciiia npsi-iilp dp Espana. en nombre de su augusto 
hijo Don Alfonso XIII, Rey del Espana, eonstltuclonalmente autorlzada por las 
Cortes del Relno. renunchi a su soboraiila y a todo derecho sobre Cuba. 

Los Estados Unidos de America, aceptamlo osta renuurla. reolhen de Espana 
la Isia de Cuba para prestarle ayuda y dlrecclon y tenderla en su domlnlo y 
goblerno hasta que. una vez realizada su paciflcaclon. dtjeu dioho domlnlo y 
goblcrno al puoblo eubano. 

ARTICULO IT. 

La renuncla y transferencla que haoo S« Majestad Catolica y que aceptan los 
Estados Unidos de America, comprende: 

1. Cuantas prerrogativas, atrlbuclones y dcn'rhns corrcspondan a Su Majestad 
Catolica, como parte de su soberania sobre la Isla de Cuba sus habltantes. 

2. Cuantas cargas y obllgaclones pecunlarlas pendlentes a' ratlflcarse este tratado 
de paz. que prevlo un mlnucioso exanien de su orljen. objeto y condlclones de su 
creacion. deban reputarse. segun derecho estrlto e innegable equldad. distlntas de 
las que son proplas y peculiares del Tesoro de la Peninsula y haber sido slempre 
proplas y peculiares de Cuba. 

Para hacer el rlguroso examen que sc iirpscrihe en cl parrafo anterior, se nom- 
brara por las dos Altas Partes contratantes una Comislon de personas competen- 
tes e Imparciales segun sc determinara en el articulo correspondiente de este 
tratado. 

ARTICULO III. 

En cumplimiento de lo convenldo en log dos artieulos anterlores Su Majestad 
Catolica, en la representacion con que celebra este tratado. renuncla y transflere a 
los Estados Unidos todos los ediflcios. nmelles, cuarteles, fortalezas. estableclmlen-. 
tos. vias publicas y demas bienes inniuebles que. con arreglo a derecho son de 
donihro publico, y qu.' como de tal domlnlo publico, corresponden a la Corona de 
Espana en la Isla de Cuba. 

Quedan por lo tanto except uados de osta renuncla y transferencla todos los 
derp<hos y bienes de cualqniera clase que sean que. hasta la ratlflcion del presente 
tratado, hayan venldo padficamente poseyendo. en concepto de duenos. las Provln- 
clas. Municipios. Establecimientos publlcos prlvados, Corporaclones eclesiastlcaa o 
civiles y cualesqulera otras colectividades que tengan legalmeute personalidad ]ur- 
Idlca para adqulrlr y poseer bienes en la Isla de Cuba, y los particuiares, cualqniera 
que sea su nacionalldad. 

Su Majestad Catolica renuncla tambien y transflere a los Estados Unidos. a 
qulen se la entraearan por d Gobieruo espanol. todos los documentos y tltulos que 
se reneran exciusivamente a la sooeranla transteriaa y aceptaaa y todos sus 
derechos, que existen en los Archives de la Peninsula. Hablendo de fqcllitarie copias 
cuando los Estados Unidos las reclamasen. de la parte correspondiente a dlcha 
soberania que contengan los demas documentos y tltuIOs que se refleran ademas a 
otros asuntos distintos de la Isla de Cuba y de su sobarania y derechos. que ex- 
Istan en los menclonados Archives. Una rcgla anajoga habra reciprocamente de ob- 
sen-arse a favor de Espana respecto a los documentos y tltulos agenos en todo o en 
parte a la Isla de Cuba que se hallen actualmente en sus Archives y que Interesen 
al Goblerno espanol. • 

Todos lo.s Archives y Registros eflclales. asl adTilnlBtratlvo? como Jndlclales. que 
estan a disposiciou d»'l Goblerno de Espana y de sus Auroridadcs en la I&la de Cuba. 
y que se refieran a la mlsnia I.sia o a sus habltantes y a sus derechos y bienes, queda- 
ran sin reserva de ninguno de esta clase. a disposieien de los Estados Unidos para 
que los conserve o disponga de ellos con las mlsmas facultades que hasta ahera han 
tenldo sobre los mlsmos el Goblerno espanol y sua antorldades. Les particuiares, 
asi espanoles como cubanos. tendran derecho a saear, con arregle a las leycs. las 
copias autorizadas de los contratos. testamentos y demas documentos que formen 
parte de los protocelos notariales o qne se cnstodlen en los Archives admlnlstratlvos y 
judlclales. bien estos se hallen en Espana o en la Isla de Cuba. 



AKTICULO IV 

En eonpeiisaoiou de las peridas y gastos ocasionados a los Estados Unidos por 
la guerra y a las reclamacioQes de sus conciudadanos con motiro de los danos y 
perjuicios Que hiiljiesen snfrido eu sus pcrsonas y biones durante la ultima insur- 
recion de Cuba. Su llajestad Catolica, en tionibri' y represcntarinn de Espana, y 
eonstitucionalmente autorizada por las Cortes de! Reino. cede a los Estados Uuidos 
do America, y est'is aotptan para si mismos, la Isla de Puerto Rico y las otras 
islas que actualmcute estan liajo la soberania espanola en las Indias occidentales, 
si corao la Isla de Guam, en el Archipielaso de las Marianas o Ladrones. que fue 
eleffida, por los Estados Uuidos de America en virtud de lo couvenido eu el articulo 
II. del Protoeoio tirmado en Washington el 12 de Agosto ultimo. 

ARTICULO V. 

Esta eesion de la soberania s"bre el territoriii y habitautes de Puerto Rico y 
las demas islas mencionadas se eutiende que oonsiste en la eesion de los derechos 
y obligaciones. bieues y documentos relativos a la soberania de dichas islas, Iguales 
a los que respecto a la renuneia y transferenoia de !a soberania de la Isla de Cuba, 
se definen en los artieulos anteriores. Esta conforme: 

EMII-Kl DE (1.1 EDA. 



TEANSLATION. 

(Annex to Protocol No. 7.) 

ARTICLE I. 

Her Catholic Ma.1i'Sty. the Queen Regent of Spain, in the name of her August Son 
Don Alfonso XIII.. King of Spain, thereunti) eonstitutionally authorized by the 
Cortes of the Kingdom, n-linquishes her sovpreigTity over and titU. to Cuba. 

The United States of America, accepting said relinquishment, receive the Island 
of Cuba from Spain to lend it aid and guidance and hold it under their control and 
gorernment until', the pacification thereof realized, they leave said contnil and ^ov- 
ernm ent to the Cuban people. 

ARTIiLE II. 

The relinquishment and transfer made by Her Catholic Ma.1es-ty and accepted by 
the United States of America embrace : 

1. All prerogatives, attributes and rights appertaining to Her Catholic Majesty 
as part of her sovereignty over the Islaiid <if Cuba and its Inhabitants. 

2. .\U pi'Cuniary charges and obligations outstanding upon the ratification of this 
treaty of peace which, after a minute examination into their origin, purpose, and 
the conditions of their creation, should l)e held, pursuant to strict law and undeniable 
equity, to be distinct from such as^are properly and peculiarly chargeable to the 
treasur.v of the Peninsula, and to have been always properly and peculiarly Cuban. 

To make the strict examination arovided for in the foregoing paragraph, the 
two Higli, Contracting Parties shall name a Commission of competent and impartial 
persons in the manner to be determined in the proper article of this treaty. 

.\KII(1.K III. 

In obedience to the stipulations of the twe preceding articles. Her Catholic 
Majesty, in the ri'presentative character with whi<-h she conclmii's this treaty, re- 
Imquishes and transfers to the United' States all the buildin.gs. wharves, barracks, 
forts, establishments, public highwa.vs and uther immovable property which in con- 
formity with law are of the public dtwnain. and which being of the public domain 
belong to the Crown of Spain in the Island of Cuba. 

Therefore there are excepted from thU reliiiquishmeut and transfer all rights and 
property of whatsoever kind which up to the ratification of this treat.v may have 
been peacefully enjoyed as owners by th ■ provinces, nninicipalitics, pulilic or pri- 
vate establishments, ecclesiastical or civl' lindies and any other associations having 
legal capacity to acquire and possess prop rty in the Island of Cuba, and private in- 
dividuals, whatever may be their nationality. 

Her Catholic Majesty also relinquishes and transfi.rs to the United States, to 
whiTh they shall be d,elivernd by the Spanish (iuvi'rnment. all documents and titles 

48. 



exclusively referring to the sovereignty transferred and accepted, and to all its 
rights, which may exist in the archives oT the Peninsula. Copies of the part relative 
to the said sovereignty which may appear in other documents, and titles which re- 
fer moreover to other matters distinct from Uu- Island of Cuba or its sovereignty and 
rights, existing in said archives, must also be furnished when the United S^tes 
shall require the same. A like rule must be reciprocally observed with respect to 
Spain in so far as relatis to documents and titli's unconnected in whole or in part 
with the Island of Cuba that may now bo in its archives and which are of interest 
to the Spanish Government. 

All official archives and records, cxccutivo us well as judicial, at the disposal of 
the Government of Spain and of Its authorities in the Island of Cuba, and which re- 
fer to the said island or its inhabitant's, ilieir rlsrhts and property, shall remain with- 
out any reservation whatever of this kind at the disposal of the United States, to 
preserve the same or dispose of them with the same authority exercised over them 
up to the present time by the Spanish Government and its authorities. Private par- 
ties, Spaniards as well as Cubans, shall have the right to malte in accordance with 
law authenticated copies of the contracts wills, and other instruments forming part 
of notarial protocols or flies, ail of which may be in the executive and judicial ar- 
chives, be the latter In Spain or in the Island of Cuba. 

ARTICLE IV. 

As compensation for the losses and expenses occasioned the United States by the 
war and for the claims of its citizens by reason of the injuries and damages they 
may have suffered in their persons and property during the last Insurrection in 
Cuba, Her Catholic Majesty, in the name and representation of Spain, and thereunto 
constitutionally authorized by the Cortes of the Kingdom, cedes to the United 
States of America, and the latter accept for themselves, the Island of Porto Rico 
and the other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, as als<s the 
Island of Guam in the Mariana or Ladrones Archipelago, which island was selected 
by the United States of America in virtue of the provisions of Article II. of the 
Protocol signed in Washington on August 12 last. 

ARTICLE V. 

This cession of the sovereignty over the territory and inhabitants of Porto Rico 
and the other islands mentioned is understood to embrace the cession of the rights 
and obligations, property and documents relating to the sovereignty of said islands 
alike In all respects to the relinquishment and transfer of the sovereignty of. tlie 
Island of Cuba as defined in the foregoing articles. 

True copy : 

EMILIO DE OJEDA. 



49. 



Protocol No. 8. 



Protocol No. 8. 



CONFERENCE 
of October 24. 1898. 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 24 de Octubre de 1898. 



I'lesi'iites— 
I'or parto di' 



Present- 
On the part of the United States 

Messrs. PAT. 

DAVIS. 

FUYE. 

GKAY. 

UEin. 

MOOUE. 

PERGUSSOX. 

On the part of Spain : 
Messrs. MONTEltO RIGS. 
ABARZrZA, 
GARXTCA. 
VILLA-URRUTIA. 
CERERO. 
OJEDA. 



The protocol of the preceding session was 
read and approved. 

The American Commissioners stated that 
they had carefully considered the articles 
tendered by the Spanish Commissioners at 
the last meeting, by wliich. while S.pain 
was to reliiKiui&h sovereignty over Cuba, 
such rellntiuishnient was to be accepted by 
the United States and was to include such 
charges and obligations, outstanding at the 
ratification of the treaty, as should be held 
by a Commission not to be properly and istentes 

peculiarly chargeable to the treasury of '~ 

the Peninsula, but to be properly and 
peculiarly Cuban, and that they must re- 
ject the articles in question as well as any 
articles that required the United States to 
assume, either for itself or for Cuba, the 
so-called Cuban debt. They were willing, 
however, to add to the articles in which 
Spain relinquislied sovereignty over and 
title to Cuba a suitable stipulation by 
which the United States would assume the 
obligations as to the protection of life and 
property imiwsed by its occupation, so long 
as such occuiiatioii sh<Mil<i conriniie. 



After much discussion, the President of 
the Spanish Commission stated that the 
Spanish Commissioners did not care for the 
phraseology in which the relinquishment of 



!os Estados Unidos de 



pa rt 
America. 
Ins Scnores r>.\Y. 

DAVIS. 

I'RVK. 

GRAY. 

REID. 

MOORE. 

EURGI-SSON. 

I'or parte de Espana: 
los Senores MONTERO RIOS, 



AI'.ARZUZA. 
GARXICA. 
\II,I,ATl!l!i ■■Il.\. 

CERERO. 
O.TED A. 

I''ue leida y nprohada el acta de la sesion 
aiitei"ior. 

I, OS (^omisioiiados amerioanos manifes- 
laron que babian examinado con todo de- 
tenimiento los articulos presentados por los 
Comisionarios espanoles en la ultima sesion, 
en los cuales l<;spaua hacia el abandono de 
su soberania sobre Cuba que debia ser 
aceptaria por los Estados Unidos compren- 
d'endoso en dicho ab.andono y en su acep- 
tacion todas las cargas y obligaeiones ex- 
al tiempo de la ratificacion del 
iratado, que una Comision especial hubiera 
de considerar como no pertenecieutes ui 
afectas al Tesoro de la Peninsula, siuo como 
inhercutes y peculiares del de Cuba, anad- 
iendo los Comisionados americanos que se 
veian precisados a rechazar los articulos en 
cuestion. asi como cualesquiera otros en 
los que se o.xigiera a los Estados Unidos 
que asumiescn. ya sea para si. ye para 
Cuhvi. las cargas do la Deuda cubana. peri> 
que eslaban sin embargo dispuestos a ana- 
dir al articulo eu que Espana hacia el aban- 
dono de su soberania y derechos sobre 
Cuba, una estipulacion por la cual los Es- 
tados Unidos asumirian sobre si las obli- 
gaeiones relativas a la conservacion de las 
vidas y propiedades de los habitantes de 
Cuba, que ies imponia su ocupacion lueutras 
esta durase. 

Hespues de una prolongada discusion, 
manifesto el Presidente de los Comlsarios 
espanoles que la Comision espanola no daba 
importancia a la fraseologia en que se cx- 



sovereignty was expressed, so long as it presara el abandono de soberania, slempre 
embraced an obligation as to debts, such que comprendiese el tratado una obligacion 



as was stated in the second of the articles 
presented by them. 

The President of the American Commis- 
sion, replying to this statement, inquired 
whether the President of the Spanish Com- 



respecto de las deudas, tal como flguraba 
eu el articulo 2d del proyecto de articulos 
presentado. 

El Presidente de la Comision americana 
contesta a esta declaracion preguntando si 
el Presidente de la Comision espanola, en- 



51. 



mission intended thereby to say that the tendia decir con esto que los Comisarios es- 

Spanish Commissioners would refuse to panoles se nepraban a tomar en considera- 

consider any articles as to Cuba and Porto rfon cualesqudera articulos' respecto de 

Eico which contained no provision for. the Cuba o Puerto. Rico que no contuvlesen una 

assumption of indebtedness by the United disposicion por la que asumiesen sus deudas 

States, or Cuba, or both. los Estados Dnidos o Cuba o aiubos. 

The Spanish Commissioners having asked Los Comisionados espanoles habiendo pe- 

for time in which to reply to this inquiry, rtido uu plazo para eontestar a esta pre- 

the conference was adjourned to Wednes- gunta, se fljo la proxima conferencia para 

day, October 26, at four o'clock, p. m. el miercolc-s 26 de Octubre a las 4 p. m. 

Signed : WILLIAM R. DAT. Firmado: E. MONTERO KIOS. 
CUSHMAN K. DAVIS. B. DE ABARZDZA. 

WM. P. FRYE. J. DE OARNICA. 

GEO. GRAT. W. R. DE VILLA-fRUrTIA, 

WHITELAW REID. RAFAEL CERERO, 

.70HN B. MOORE. EMILIO DE OJEDA. 



52. 



Protocol No. 9. 



Protocolo No. 9. 



CONFERENCE 
Of October 26, 1898. 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 26 de Octubie de 1898. 



Present- 
Oil till' |i:irl nf tlip t'niti'd Stntes: 

Mostsis. DAY. 

n.wis. 

FRYE. 

GRAY. 

REID. 

MOORE. 

KEKOl'SSOX. 

Oil the part of Spain: 
Messrs. MOXTERO RIOS, 
AlSARZfZA. 
GAR.NIl A. 
VILLAURRUTIA. 
CERERO. 
O.I EDA. 
Till' pnitociil (tf rlit' pi-iM-edinir sessinii 
was road and approv<Ml. 

The Spanish Comniissiiuicrs tiled umlrr 
the rnles a ineinorandiim. enpy and trans- 
lation of wliieh are hereto annexed, givinff 
their reasons in support of the artieles pre- 
sented h.v them on the Hist of Oelober, 
and rejeeted by the .\merican roinnils- 
sioners on the 24tli. 

The Anieriean t'oinniissioners stated that 
they wonlil tile under the rules :i written 

reply, whirh should he ;illllexed It) tin' pro- 
toi'Ol. 



The Spanisli 
to tlie Inquiry 



t 'oiiiniissiouers 1 
addressed to thi 



M made 
hy the 
American Coiiiuiissiouers. at the elose of 
tlie last session, tlie following reply: 

"The Spanish Commissioners, havins be- 
come acquainted with the iiiiestion pr<i- 
pounded to tliein ar the eiul ol' the hist 
conference Ity the I'resirlent of tlie Amer- 
ican Commi.ssion,— hayins read it and 
stndiod it in order to understand with all 
clearness its meaning aiirt Its scope: 

"Cousiderinjr that in tlie conference tielil 
by the two Commissions on the 14th of hrad.^ por 
this month it was resolyed that no a;:ree- 
ment reached upon an.y article should be 
considered as the tinal expression of the 



Tor parle de los Estados Tnidos de 
America : 

lo.s Scnores PAY. 

DAVIS. 

FRYE. 

GRAY. 

REID. 

MOORE. 

EERGUSSON. 

I'or parte de Espana: 
li'S Sniores ^^O^•TER0 ItlOS. 
AP.ARZTZA. 
G ARNICA, 
\lLLA-rRRT'l'IA. 
CERERO. 
O.I EPA. 

Fue leida V aprobiida ,>1 acta lie la sesi.iii 
anterior. 

Los Coiuisafios espanoles preseiitar rii 
para su insor<,ion en el protocolo seirun 
reslainento nn Memorandum cuya copia y 
traduccion «on anexo«. en el cual oxpoivn 
sus razones en apoyo de los articulos pre- 
sentados por cUos el 21 del corriente y 
rei'hazados por los Comisarios ainiTtcarios 
el 24. 

Los Comisarios americanos otrecierou dar 
su <'outeRtaclon escrita conforme al ri'i:la- 
iiicnto. copia y tr.iduccion de l;i cual t'or- 
UKiraii iiartf <iel protocolo general de -as 
foisferi'ucias. 

Los Comisarios espaiuiles diertui :i la 
piefiuuta que al tin de la' sesion anterior ics 
diriffio la Couusion americana la contrsia- 
lion siKUiente; 

"Enterados los Comisarios espanoles de 
la pres;un'ta que. al terminar la ultima con- 
fereiica, les hizo el Senor Presidente de l.i 
Comisioii americana. y despnes de haherin 
Ii'ido y estudiado equellos para comprender 
con teda claridad su sentido y alcance: 



•■Considei-iindo que en la conferencia cele- 

ur.Vias Comisioni'S el (Via 1-4 de 

estc iiies. sc convino en qne el .acnerdo ile 

cualqnier articnio no po<Va considerarse 

como expresion definitiya do las mims y 



views and opinions of either Government opiniones de nno u otro Gobierno sobre ios 
on the points and matter contained tliere- puntos y materia contonida en dicho arti- 

iilo. si no so lles.aba a convenir en tod'vs 



!u, until after an agreement should 1)0 
readied on all other articles of tlie treaty, 
or in other words, upon the wliole of it: 

"Considerinji, therefore, that the question 
propounded by the President of the Amer- 
ican Commission cannot now be jriven any 
answer, which without violation of tile 
resolution unanimously ailopted by the two 



los del tratado, o sea en su totalidad: 

•'Consideraudo pot- lo taiito que la pre- 
sunta hecha por el Senor Presidente de la 
Comision americana no puede tenor aliora 
nna contestaciou qne implique una aproba- 
cioii dofinitiva del articulo o articulos a que 



Commissions at the aforesaid conference dlcha pretiuiita se reflere, a no infrlnslrse 
of the Hth instant may involve the tlml lo oonvenido por unanimidad por ambas 

5,3. 



approval of rlio m-ticlo or artioies to which 
the question refers: 

"Considerinfr. furthermore, that even iu 
case such resolution as the above had not 
been agreed upon by the Commissioners, 
its adoption would have been required Ij.v 
the ver.y nature and essence of the mission 
entrusted to them, which is to frame a 
treaty of peace, settling not only the ques- 
tion of the articles, but also that of the 
Philippine Islands and all other questions, 
even of lesser importance, which may exist 
between the two High Contracting Par- 
ties; 

"Considering that this treaty is not to 
be framed, as no other treaty has or ever 
can be framed, upon the exclusive basis of 
strict justice, as understood by each party, 
but also upon the basis of the advantage 
to be derived by either or by both, thus 
modifying In harmony therewith the de- 
mands of strict law: and that, therefore, 
the Spanish Commissioners, although un- 
derstanding that strict law decides the 
question of the Cuban debt in their favor, 
are in duty bound and are willing to mod- 
erate the said strictness in view of the ad- 
vantages which Spain may derive from 
other stipulations of the treaty which, 
without being prejudicial to the United 
States, may be favorable to Spain: 

"Considering, therefore, that the article 
or articles to which the President of the 
American Commission refers cannot at 
this time be the subject of final approval, 
since they must remain subject to the 
others to be included in the same treaty, 
meeting the approval of both ITigli Par- 
ties:— 

"The Spjinish Commissioners answer the 
said question by stating that, reiterating 
their conviction that pursuant to law the 
colonial obligations of Cuba and Porto 
Rico must follow these islands and their 
sovereignty, they do not refuse 'to con- 
sider any articles as to Cuba and Porto 
Rico which contain no provision for the 
assumption of indebtedness by the United 
States, or Cuba, or both.' subordinating 
the final approval of such articles to that 
of the others which are to form the com 
plete treaty: and they therefore invite the 
American Commissioners to enter upon the 
discussion of the other points to be em- 
bodied in the treaty, and at the outset to 
take up the discussion of the Philippine 
Archipelago, and to propo.se to the Span- 
ish Commissioners what they understand 
should be agreed upon in said treaty with 
respect to this subject." 

The American Commissioners, after the 
reading of this paper, inquired whether 
they were to understand that the Spanish 
Commissioners accepted the articles previ- 
ously presented by them as to Cuba, Porto 
Rico and Guam. 



Comisiones en la conferencia sobredicha del 
14 de este mes: 

"Considerando ademas. que aunque asi 
aquellos no lo hubleran convenido, lo exigia 
la indole y la propria esenoi de la mision que 
les ha si'lo confiada y que consiste en 
eiaborar un solo tratado de paz en que 
queden resueltas no solo la cuestion de las 
.4ntillas, sino tambien la de Filipinas y 
eualquies otra, aunque sea menos im- 
portante que exista entre las dos Altas 
Partes: 



"Considerando que no habiendo de elabo- 
rarse este tratado, como nunca se ha elabor- 
ado ni puedo elaborarse ninguno, con el 
unico criterio de la rigurosa justicia que 
cada una de las Partes pueda entender que 
le asista, sino tambien con el de la con- 
veniencia de cada una de ellas y aun de 
ambas.para modificar a su tenor las esigen- 
cias del criterio meramente juridico, y que, 
poi- eonsiguiente, sobre la cuestion relativa 
a la deuda de Cuba, los Comisarios espa- 
noles, que entienden que el Derecho la 
restielve a su favor, tienen el deber y estan 
dispuestos a cumpllr lo, de moderar este 
rigor, por las conveniencias que para Bspana 
puedan surgir de otras estipulaciones del 
tratado. que. sin ser perjudieiales a los 
Estados Unidos. puedan ser favorables a 
E.spana ; 

"Considerando por lo tanto. que el articnlo 
o articulos a que se reflere la pregunta del 
Senor Presidente de la Comision amerleana, 
no pueden ser por hoy objeto de una apro- 
bacion definitiva, pnesto ,iue no pueden 
menos de quedar subordinados a que ;os 
demas que han de ser incluidos en el misuio 
ir;:tadr, merezcan tambien la aprobacion 
de ambas Altas Partes: 

"I. OS Comisarios espanoles eontestan a la 
sobredicha pregunta diciendo que aflrmaudo 
su conviccion de que con arreglo a Derecho 
las obligaciones coloniales de Cuba y Puerte 
Rico deben pasar con esta? islas y su so- 
berania no rehusan 'tomar en consideracion 
cualquier otro articulu relativo a Cuba y 
Puerto Rico, que no conten,?a la clausula 
de asumir las cargas por los Estados Unidos 
o por Cuba o por ambos,' snbordinando la 
defir.itiva aprobacion de tal nrticulo a la de 
los demas que hayan de forniar la totalidad 
de' tratado: e invitan. en su consecuencla, 
a los Senores Comisarios americanos, a que 
se proceda a la dlscusion de Ins demas pun- 
tos que en el tratado se han de comprender. 
y desde luego a la del relativi al Archip>el- 
ago Filipino. proponieAdo a los Comisarios 
esiianoles lo que entiendan que debe con- 
venirse en aquel scobre este asunto." 

Despues de dada lectura de esta contes- 
toeion. los Comisarios americanos pregun- 
taron si debian entender par ella que los 
Comisarios espanoles aceptaban los articulos 
presentados por la Comision americana re- 
latives a Cub.i, Puerto Rico v Guam. 



54. 



The Spanish Commissioners replied that Los Comlsarios espauoles contestaron que 
they accepted them in the sense stated in Ids aceptaban en el sentldo expresado en 
the paper— provisioually. subject to the su doeumento, y subordinada sa aceptaoion 
conclusion of a treaty of peace. a la aprobaclon de los demas artlculos que 

haya de contenor el tratade de paz. 
On motion of the American Commission- A propuesta de los Comlsarios ameri- 
ers, the conference was adjourned to the canos. seapiazo la prozlma conferencla para 
87th of October, at two o'clock p. m. e' 27 de Octubre a las 2 p. m., a ftn de que 

Iob Comlsarios amerlcanos puflleran estudlar 
con todo deteolmlento la contestacion dada 
por los Comlsarios espanoles. 

Signed: WILLIAM R. DAY. FIrmado: B. MONTEEO RIOS, 
CDSHMAN K. DAVIS. B. DE ABARZUZA, 

WM. P. FRYE. J. DB GARNICA, 

GEO. GRAY. W. R. DE VILLA-URRDTIA, 

WHITELAW RBID. RAFAEL CBRERO, 

JOHN B. MOORE. EMILIO DE OJEDA. 



55. 



Annex to Protocol No. 9. 



COMISION 
Paia la negociacion de la paz con los Estados TJnidos. 

MEMORANDUM 
Presentado en la sesion de 26 de Octubre 1898. 



Los Coniisarios espanolcs sp liau eiitenid" c"" voriUuUTa peiui ilcl Miinoi'niKUim 
prosenlftdn por los Senorcs romisjii-io..; :i meiic-iuios fii Ui oonfpi-pncia iiUiina <-i'li'l)i-a- 
(la en 17 del oorrlentp. En este documento didios Seuoi-es. fundandosp en attrniaolones 
y apreciaciones con cuya oxai'titiid la Coiulsion fspanola no pnedc nianifoslirse 
conforme, a pesar de la rccia hnonpion con (lUo. no ilnda, que fueron o.vpuestas, 
concluyen aquellos por manlfeslai- qne ^iuslitnyi-n el projeeto de los dos articnios 
sobro Cuba y las denias islas. qne lialjian pi-pstntado en !a c-onferenoia dp :i del 
ecrvionto, con otros dos. roilncidos a la copi.i literal de los dos prinieros articnios del 
Protocolo de Washington, aiesando pan esto que entiendcn qne ol tra'tado de pa/., 
cu cuanto so refierc a la soberania di- las .\ntillas y de la Isla de Guam en las Mari- 
anas, no rtebe contener mas iii menos que la i-eprodnc-ion literal 'le aquellos do.s 
articnios. 

Mas conio estos ya f.irriKiu parte lie mm Coiiveni.* obligatorio cnal lo cs cl rinli.i-olo 
de WasbinRtoB. parece inntil hacer de cllos nua mora repriHluccion cii cl iratado 
q<ic ha be celebrarse en la couferencia. Los con'tralos, asi eu el ordcn privado conio 
en el Intern.acional. son perfentos, y prodncen ti>dos sns efectos para las partes que 
los hayan otorsado, sin necesldad de ningi:i.M cunnruiaeion posterior que en .la.la 
puede aumentar su efivacia. Parece, por cst(.. redundante esta rcprndni'cioM. si a 
ella se ha de limitar el tratado de paz sobre las Antill.is. oomo quicvn Ins Seiiores 
Comisarios ianericaiuis. _^ 

Si esta consideracion cs di- puiM raz..ii y ami ilc uicro buen seirtidn. la propuesi.:i 
dp los Comisarios americanos no se i(MiiprcMule >1iio en el supuesto de que estos 
ei.tienden que el tratado. aparte de cnaiquier disposicloii de carai-ter sccnndano 
que en ol pueda incluirse. no debe versar mas ipie sobre el Archipielago Filipino. 

Si tal es el pensaiuiento de la Comision amcricana. l.i espanola no puede prestane 
sn asentimicnto porque e-.itieiidp que su cjecncion seria una infraccion del I'ortocolo. 
Pespues de las tres eondlcinues qui' ( 1 Senor Secretario de Esta.lo de Washington, 
conlcstando en SI de Julio ultim.. al mensajc del Goblernn de Sn Majcstad (-atoliea, 
de 22 del mismo mcs. propnso a Rspaiia para terminar la gnerra. dijo: "Si las con- 
dlriones ofrecidas aqui son aceptadas cii su iiitegridad, los Estados fnidos nom- 
braran Comisarios que sv encontraran con los igualmentc autorizados por Espan.i. 
con objcto de arreglar los dctalles del tratado de paz y dc flrraarlo en las coiidicinnes 
arriba exprcsadas." Estos dctalles no aparocen circnnscritos al arcbiplelago. 

El propio Senor PresideiUe de la Keimblh'a amcricana. en la I'onfcrcncia .lue 
celtbro el 10 de Agosto con el Senor llnibajador de Frincia. rcpresentantc de Es])ana 
para el caso, ddstinguio pcrfcctauientc ■■! Protccolo del iratado dc pnz, dicieudo 'que 
aqnel dcbla ser un incro do<niiiiento p'-eliininar que no tendria por obieto mas ipie 
consagrar sin dilacion alguiia el acncrdo de los dos Gobiernes sobre los prlncipios 
misnios de la paz, v que. por lo tanto. i o seria neccsario rescrvar en cl. ni los de- 
rccho de las Cortes, ni los del Semidn federal, o llamados nnicanumte a ratilicar rd 
tratailo deflnitivo. 

IJI Senor Presidentc. es verdad. liabl" del asuiilo de las rilipinas para dccir ,|no 
quedaba reservado a la confcrcnci.-i dc Paris, pero un<n-i dijo. ni indico siqniera. 
quo psie asunto habria de ser el unio que se tratarla en este conferencia. 

Y Hnalniente en el articulo .5 del Protocoio, redaciado de conforniidail con todos 
estos precedeutes. se di"e que los Comisarios icMiibr.idos por anibas Atlas Partes 
hf.brian de proceder en Paris a negoclar y conclnlr un tratado de paz. sin limitar ni 
roiicretar su objeto y empl'-ando. por la inversa. una frase cnyo evidente .sentido cs 
qne on el tratado de" paz (|iie se clab.>rasc jior la Comlsi.in liablan dc resolversp tod.is 
las cuPStionVs, a la sazon pcudientes. cat re los dos Estados, qne le. estuvlesen re 
sucltas ya en el acuerdo preliminar del Prolecolo. 

Cierto es que los Senores C-oinisarlos americanos fund-.in precisamento sn ultimo 
proyc-i.. .-n la ,.oiwider.ieioii de que tnd.. lo relnlivo a las Antillas espanolas ya fiie 



resuflto eii el Protocolo. Mas a esta eonsideracion es precisamente ii la que desdo la 
primera couterencia no ban podido ni pueden prestar su asentimiento los Comisarlos 
espanoles. 

Los americanos eu su Memorandum de 11 de este mes manifestaron que los Com- 
isarios etpanoles ponian en su proyecto condiciones a la renuneia de la soberania 
eu Cuba. Giavisimo error. En aquel proyecto no se deseonoce el '>aracter puro e 
incondicional de tal renuneia: lo unico aue alli se hace es eonslgnar en lo que c-sta 
renuneia consiste. Y esto es eseneialmen te diverso de le que los Senores Comisarlos 
americanos entienden. 

Y que. efeetlvamente. los articulos del proyecto de 'os espanoles tiene por unico 
objeto fljar el sentido de la renuneia. pero no someterla a condiciones. esta denios- 
trado por el objeto mism.j de las discusiones orales y cscritas que vienen mediando 
entre log unos y los otros. 

Los Senores Comisarlos americanos entienden que el unico seatido que puede 
darse a la renuneia de soberania convenida en el Protocolo es el propio del abandono 
de esta soberania: para deducir de aqui, que Espana debe abandonar la Isla de Cuba 
como cualquier potencia puede abandonar u:- territorio desierto del Africa que antes 
hubiera poseido. 

For mas que la Comlslon espanola distingue el sentido juridico de la palabra 
abandono del qne es propio de la renuneia. no sostendria esta discusiou teclmica, im- 
propria de una confereneia diploniatica. si no fuera pnrque la Comision amerieana 
so.stieue su opinion como el principal fundamento que da a su aspirocion de que. 
por tal supuesto abandono. quede cortado todo vinculo de derecho y ninguno nuevo 
aur ja de aquel acto, entre Espana y los Estados Unddos. al apoderarse de la Isla. 
bien en su propio nombre y para ellos mismcs. bleu eu nombre y para el queblo 
cubano. 

Pero esia aspiracion, sin ejempio en los fastos diplomatieos del mundo. no pue- 
den admitirld los Comisarlos espanoles, daudo por reproducido cuan'to expusieron 
en el primer capitulo del Memorandum que presentarou en contra del proyecto de 
articulado de la Comision nnierieana, y anaden las breves conslderaciones siguientes 
que les sugiereu los dos Memorandums ultimamente presentados por la misnia. 

Deja la espanola a un lado la cila que. en apoyo de su opinion, la Comision 
an:erieana hace del Diecionario de Escriclie. que es una obra muy respetable cier- 
tamente, pero cu.vo unico objeto es la exposiciou de la jurisprudencia practica del 
Derecho privado, exposicion muy popular, es verdad, eu Espana, porque sirve de 
mentor a los jovenes abogados en el jirimer periodo de su vida profesional, pero que 
es completamente ageua a la ciencia del Dereche Intemacional y publico. 

Casos de abandono, en el sentido que se pietende, no registra la bistoria moderna 
de los pueblos mas que los de terrltorios desicrtos, o a lo sumo, poblados por las 
tribus barbaras del Africa. Abandono de un verdadero Estado, ya formado, de e.\'s- 
tencia secular, con una or.Lianiz.acion social y politiea completa y poblado de ha- 
bitantes que gozan .v tienen derecho a gozar de todos los benefieios de la civilizaclon 
rcoderna, no ha habido hnsta ahora, ni creen los Comisarlos espanoles que lo habra 
en el mundo. 

Los terrltorios abandonados son legitimamente ocupados por el Estado que qulera 
establecer en ellos su soberania. Mas loa ocupacion, meramente de hecho, no im- 
pone al oeupante otros deberes mas que ios one en las regiones de Africa cumplen 
las potencias de Europa con las barbaras tribus que los pueblan o los recorren. Cree 
la Comision americana qne los Estados Unidos en concepto de ocupantes de la Isla 
de Cuba, puesto que este es el unico en que segun el supuesto que deflenden habran de 
posesionarse de ella, no han de tener para con los habitantes de la grande Antilla 
mas deberes que los que cumplen con equ ellos degradades seres humanos? 

Tenemos la completa segin-idad de que no es tal el pensamjento de los Senores 
Comisarlos americanos, pero a esta cou.->ecueucia fatalmcnte conduce a la Comision 
americana. su empeno en negar toda difereneia de derecho entre los efectos del 
abandono y los efectos de la renuneia. 

A esta no obsta la protesta de los Senores Comisarlos americanos en su ultimo 
Memorandum, afirmando que los Estados Unidos dispensaran a los h.-^brtantes de 
Cuba y a sus proprietrades todo la proteccion que necesiten, como vienen hacieu- 
dolo en la peliuena porcion de territorio 'que r^n la isla ya ocupau por la t'uerza de 
las armas. Creen los Estados Unidos que a Espana eon relacion a la Isla de -Cuba 
y a sus habitantes, ne deben reconocersele por aquellos mas derechos al dejar su 
soberania, que los Estados Unidos o cualquiera otra Potencia se apresurariaii a 
reconocer a la mas desgraciada de las tribus africauas dc euyo territorio se apodera- 
ron? Pero, nparte de que ellos niismos no dan a esta obligacion que dicen que tie- 
nen, mas fundamento que el hecbo de ser pcseedores de la Isla, lo cual confirma lo 
que acabamos de indicar. tambien es cierto que dichos Senores Comisarlos no se 
prestan a que esta, ni otra obligacion alguna de los Estados Unidos, se consigne en 
el tratado que, segun exigen. ha de limitarse a la reproduecion de 'os dos. primeros 
articulos del Protocolo. 

58. 



For lo tauto esa obligacion que en el Memorandum dlcen que eoutnieu no sera 
exiplble por no eonstar en el tratado. y sin animo de ofensa para los Estados Unidos, 
la logica no pennile que se nleyiue en al)>o:uto. la posibiUdad de que pase. en mas 
o en menos. con ella. lo que con las obUg^iclones que espontaneameute coutrajeron los 
Estados Unidos en las ueeociaclones que prepan.ron el Protocolo y que, esto no ob- 
stante los Senores Comisarios amerioanos so nlegan a que consten en el tratado. 

Ui' Camaras de los Estados Unidos en su resoluclon conjimta. y el Seuor ITesl- 
dente de la Union en su ultimatum a l-kspana. pudo exislr a esta naelon. auiique 
Inutil es deelr que Espaiia no hubiera a.eedido a tan enorme exigencia, el abandono 
absoluto de su soberania en Cuba, en el -ontido en que ahora lo exigen sus ConiI:^»- 
rios, como pudo tambien exigirle su .es.on franca y libre de toda earga a los Ksta- 
dos Unidos. Mas lo oierto es que uo lo exigio. porqtie se limito a reolamarle la re- 
nuneia de su soberania ,,ara que el pueblo cubano fuera libre e independienle. o lo 
que e« lo mismo. la renunela de su soberania en favor del pueblo cubano, pani que 
fmra libre e Independente, si blen al mismo tiempo, no consintlo y antes blen exlgio. 
que esta renuncia ftu-ra. desde luego. liecUa a favor de los Estados Unidos. para 
aquel pueblo a qnien los Estados Unidos babian de prestar ayuda y dircccion. por- 
Quo no de otro modo era poslble que la Isla de Cuba dejara de pasar dire<-ta e in- 
mcdiatamento del poder de Espana al del ptiebio cubano. para liaber de permanccer 
en poder de los Estados Unidos hasta la paciticacion de la isla. Esto nos parece 
que los Senores Comisarios amerioanos no pueden menos de re.-nnocerlo como 
rigurosamente exacto. 

Y si tales fneron los terminos en que los Estados Unidos encerraron su exigencia 
a que'al fin accedio E.spana sin que aquellos los hublesen previamente modificado, 
es claro como la luz del sol. que el convetiio de que es formula el articulo 1 del 
Protocolo ipues otro no se celebro entre las dos Atlas Partes) tieue necesanamente 
que entenderse en el sentldo de los terminos en que fne propuesto pnr una de ellas. 
T aeeptado por la otra, y que no eslicito ahora a cualniiiera de -lias alterar esios 
terminos con el fin de eonvertir aquella .eiutncia. exigida para uii objeto determln- 
ado y a tenor de un procediraiento establicido. en un abandono absoluto sin el 
objeto y procedimiento eonvenidos. oomo el que pretende la Comision amencana .lue 

Noes pues el caso del abandono que la Comision anu-ricana exige. sino el de la 
renuncia eonvenida que la espanola sostiene, el que ha de consignarse en el tratado. 
Es un caso analogo a tantos olros por que ban pasado las potencias coloniales suan- 
do perdieron su soberania en todas o parte de sus colonias. Jamas una potencia colo- 
nial abandono, en el seiMido que ahora se quiere imponer. una colonia para que se 
conyirtiese en un nuevo Estado indepemlienie y libre. Cuando esto sucedio, la Metro- 
poli cedio renuncio su soberania, si antees h;. colonia misma no la habia conquistado 
por la fuerza de las armas, pero jamas la abiMidono en el sentido sobredicho. Si los 
Senores Comisarios americanos no estan conformes con e.sta categonea . anrmacion, 
les rogamos que nos citen un caso que la contradiga. 

Los Comisarios espanoles ruegan tamoien a los Senores Comisarios amencanM 
que fijen su atencion. tan ilustrada y serena, en la contradiccion palpitante que re- 
salta entre su teoria y los hechos que los Estados Unidos vieneii Ilevando a cabo. 
Scgnn la Comigion americana la unica L-ituaeion legal poslble sobre la Isla de Cuba, 
entre Espana de una parte y los Estados Unidos por si. o en nombre .lei pueblo 
cubano. de la otra, es la siguiento: Espana debo abandonar la Isla de Cuba. Los Es- 
tados Unidos despues del abandono ban de posesionarse de la Isia para el pueblo 

cubano. , , 

T por eonseguienle el transito de la Gran Anlilla Je una a oira siluacion ha de 
bacerse sin tstablecerse vinculo alguno de derecho entre Espana y su antigua colonia 
y por ella los Estados Unidos. I'ues i)i?n, las fueiv.as de los Estados Unidiw rindie- 
ron a SiuUiago de Cuba, y firniaron con i.as antorldades militates espanoles una ca- 
pitulacJon. En esta no exigieron que las fuerzas de la Metropoii abandonaran a San- 
tiago de Cuba, sino que se lo entregaran a las antorldades americanas. formandose 
inv°entario. que firmaron ambas partes, en el cual consta cuanto la ,ina entrego y la 
otra secibio. La Comision americano que esta en la Habana. por haber sido nom- 
brada en cumpliiniento de lo prescrito en el articulo 4 del Protocolo exige a la Com- 
ision esoanola que le entregne todo lo que a Espana correspondla en uso de su sober- 
ania, asi en lo civil como en lo milltar. y e sto, en virtud de instrucciones expresas de 
su Gobierno, y por demas esta el declr que esta eutrega, tambleu ha de ser en forma 
de inventarlo. 

Ante estos hechos es posible negar que Espana. al lenunciar a su soberania en 
Cuba, exlgcu los Estados Unidos que se la eni rogue a ellos mlsmos? 

Pues aun hay mas que esto: la Comision americana. a pesar de la teoria que 
sostiene ha acomodado sus primeros acios a la que sostiene la espanola. En el 
parrafo'2 del articulo 1 que aquella pnseuto en .'! de octubre, llama cesion (uo aban- 
dono) a la renuncia de la soberania de Espana en Cuba. T esto no se puede explicar 
por una simple incorreccion de lengnaje, porqne en el articulo 2 flja cuales han de 

59. 



ser los efectos de la cesiou de la soberauia de Puerto Rico, y emplear para fijar estos 
efectos, las mlsmas, exactamente las uiismas frases, que aeababa de emplear en el 
articulo 1 para fijar los de la renuiieia de la soberania en Cuba. Prueba aeabada de 
que, segun la Comision americana. a pesar de sus opiniones sosteuidas al ealor de la 
eontroyersia eon la espanola, al redaetar su primer proyeeto entendia que los efectos 
de la renuncia de la soberania eran los -jiismos. es.actamente los mismos. que los de 
su cesJon. 

y si quisiera deeirse que aunque sean igu:ile& los efectos. la renuncia. que ta 
Comision americana llama abandono. se distingue de la oesion, en que aquella no se 
hace con relacion a nadie que haya de adquirir el territorio abandonado, y por el 
contrario. la cesion se bace a favor de quim haya de adquirir el terrotorio cedido. 
tanipooo los Comisiarios americauos mariaron esta diferencia en su proyeeto. porque, 
balilando en auibos articulos de los ArclilTos y demas papeles que habiau de ser 
objeto de la rtnuucia o cesion. dicen por i^ia! en los dos, empleando las mismas 
frases, que loda copia legalizada de aquellos documentos que pudiera ser requerida 
por un funcionario del Gobierno espanol. se le expedlra en todo tiempo, y egto es 
inintelig'ible sine en e] sentido de que lia de baber quien pueda expedir tal copia. Y 
no sera posible esta expedicion sino por quien tenga en su poder el documento que 
ha de copiar. Y no pued tenerlo ensu podcr quien no lo haya recibido. Por consi- 
guiente los Comisarios aniericanos al esfablecer en el articulo 1 las reglas concer- 
nientes a la entrega de los Archwos de la Isla de Cuba, partian del saupuesto de 
que esa entrega hartia de ser hecha a alguien. T e.so. y nada mas que eso. es lo que 
coiisignaron en el artii-ulo 2. respecto a la entrega de los Archiyos de la Isla de 
Puerto RJco. 

La Comision americana acude para sostener su inaceptable opinion sobre el aban- 
dono por Espana de la Isla de Cuba, a la diferencia que consta en el Protocolo del 
mlsmo. Dicen que Espana se presto solamente a ceder a Puerto Rico a los Estados 
Onidos, entretanto que respecto a la Isia de Cuba se obligo a renunciarla. De esto 
deducen que los efectos de la obligaciou de Espana. respecto a una .\utilla. son mas 
amplios que respecto a la otra. Ya hcnos probado con el texto propio del proyeeto 
de articulado de dichos Senores que ni aun esta diferencia en los efectos con relaeion 
a Espana entreveian ellos. al redaetar su proyeeto. que existia. La diferencia, no 
obstante, se ccmprende bien bajo otro aspecto. Los Estados Unldos exigieron a Es- 
pana y despues le declararon la guerra para que Cuba fuera lihre e independiente. Y 
claro es que habiendo yencido ya no podian exigirle que se la cediese. de,1ando a un 
lado la libertad e independencia de la Isla, porque esto daria raativo al nmndo para 
ereor que tal libertad c independeticia no hahia sido la verdadera causa del conflicto. 

No le hiiMeron la misnia exigencia respecto a Puerto Rico, y si reclamaron des- 
pues la soberania de la pequena Antilla, y de las demas que rodeau a la Grande t.y 
que haran en lo pnrveuir imposible su independencia. siu la yoluntad y gracioso eon- 
sentlmiento de los Estados Unidos, que siempre la tendran a su raerced, por su do- 
minio sobre las que la rodean como un circulo de hierro), fue en eoncepto de indern- 
niz.acion de los gastos de la guerra. y de los perjuieios que decian que los ciudadanos 
aniericanos habian siifrido durante la iusurreccion colonial. Esta es !a natural expii- 
eacion de que en el Protocolo nparezca la soberania de una isla como renunciada y 
la de las otras como cedida. 

Los Comisarios espaiiolv's entienden por todo lo dicho. que es para ellos un dcber 
inehidible. el continuar sosteniendn (|ue la reruneia de la soberania en Cuba, a que 
se obligo Espana en el articulo del Protocolo. debe enteiulerse no abandono de la 
soberania an el sentido que dan a la frase los Senores Omisarios americanos. sino en 
el de renuncia propiamente dicha. tal eouio se ha einpleado en el e]emplar escrito en 
f ranees, que flrmo tanibien el Gobierno americano, y que por lo tanto no puede 
menos de aceptar como texto ofieial, Por consiguiente. Espana tiene la obligaciou 
de renunciar a la total soberania sobre la Gran Antilla, para que a esta obllgacion 
correspouda otra por part" de los Estados Unidos, y es la de recibir la Isla en nombre 
y para el pueblo cubano. por el eual. aparte de los altos lines humanitarios que. 
segun afirman. inspire su cenducta. por mas que a ello no puedo asentir Espana. se 
eoiiStituyeron libremente y por su propia esi>ontaneidad mainlatarios con todas las 
obligaeiones que se inipone el "negotiorum gestor." (aunque segun persisten en 
aflrma no lo sean "in remsuam"). segun denomina el derecho a aquel que se encarga 
de reclamar y gestionar los intereses de otro. por mas que este no le haya eonferido 
expresa y oflcialmente su mandate. 

Creen. por esto. los Ccimisarios espanoles que el eontraproyecto del articulo pri- 
mero que presentaron. esta red.actado en el e.otricto sentido que tiene el articulo 1 
del Protocolo. excepto en un impiirtaTitc punio de que pasan los Comisarios espa- 
noles a ocuparse. 

Los Estados Unidos de .\merica exigieron a Espana. -segun se ha dicho. la renun- 
cia de la soberania en Cuba, en los terminos que en este Memorandum quedan ex- 
piesados. 

La Comision americana en su iien\i!timo Memorandum dice, que si Espana hu- 

60. 



biest aooeOldo al sor requeriiia con el iiltlu.aluiii. a .ibandonav la Isia (U- Cuba, slu 
entrogarla a los Estados Uiiidos. todo el imiudo hiiblcra cieido i\\iv Espana aeoedia a 
cuanto so podia Pxisirlo. Lo hiibiera quiza oreido todo el mundo. niorios los Estados 
rnidos. poniiU' no parccc a la Comisioii cspaiiola que teiisra ncci'sidad de deniostrar, 
qua haya nadio. ni on Eui-opa ni en America, que crea que los Estados I'nidos se li'i- 
bieran dado por salisfcclios con que I'/spa na se letirase de la Isla de Cuba, bableudo 
ellos de abs ■ncrse de lo<la intervencion rn la (irande Antilla. para que ul pueblo que 
la babita coutinuasc guerreaudo eiitre si y baelendo de si mlsnio y de sus destinos. 
eii rirtud de su natural derccho. el uso i il abuso que. supuesto que era indepen- 
dieute. podia baccr sin o contra la voluutad de los Estados Unidos. 

De estos tenninos (-s Indeclinable e iunn'iliata cousccuencla, que los F/stados 
Unidos tienen que rccibir la Isla de Cuba, no ]iara conservarla para sUenipro. nl si- 
quiera indetluidainente couio propia, sino [lara I'jercer .su soberania, luleutras la Isla 
no este pacilicada y para eutregarla al puebln que la iiabita tan uronlo la pacilica- 
cion se haya realizado. 

Esto, pnes, debe coust-.ir en el arti'-ulo prinu-ni del tratado relatlvo a tal rcnuucia 
si ha de acoiuodar.s" al contrato convenido enlrc las clos Atlas Partes. 

Asl lo comprcndieron los Coniisarios espai.oles. Mas inspirandos' en sus vivos 
dcseos de traiisaceion y de pa/., se prostaban a que los Estados I'nidos quedaseu en 
libertad de transniitir al pueblo cubano la si>lM'nuiia de la isla. suando ellos y solo 
ellos, con.-iderasen que habia llegado la i!portu:>idad de hacerlo. 

rroponiendolo asl los Coniisarios espanolcs. reuunciaban en obseq'iio de los E<ta- 
dos Unidos el importantisinio derecho que tiene Espan.i para exiglrles, cuando la 
pacifieacion de la isla so realiee, que no retengan dicha soberania y la entregui-n a 
aquel pueblo. 

La Comision americana persiste en aflrniar que tal cs el proposito do los Estados 
Unidos. pero no quiere que eonste en el tratr.do el no'.orio derecho de Espana para 
exiglr su ouniplimiento a su debido tlempo. 

Mas una vcz que los Sonores Comis;ir\os aniericauos ■■:<• oponen teiniin.inlcniente a 
la aeeptacion del artieulo propuesto por entender que iio se acomoda al prinioro del 
Protocolo, los espauoles lo sustituyen con i.U't que no selaniente se aooniodara de an 
modo estriejo al rector .^entido de aquel artieulo priniero. sino quo apareccra redae- 
tado con sus propias palabras pero tanibicn con las frases lUerahncMte copiadas de 
los despachos que precedieron a su redaci ion y fijaron su sentido. 

He aqul la nueva redaecion que proponen en sustitu-non de la anterior: 

"Su Majestad Catolica la Reina Kegmte de Espana, en nombre de su augusto nijo 
Don Alfonso XIII, Key de Espana. constitucionalniente autorizada por las Cortes del 
Reino. renuncia a su soberania y a toiio derecho sobre Cuba. 

"Los Estados Unidos de America, .iceptaud-j esta renuncia, recibon de Espana la 
Isla de Cuba para prestarl'^ ayuda y diroecion y tenerla en su doniinio y gobierno 
hasta que. una vez reallzada su pacili<acicn. ilejen dicho dominio y gobierno al pue- 
blo cubano." 

FCNnAMEXTO DE ESTE ARTICULO. 

El parrafo 1 es la transcripciou did artieulo 1 d( 1 I'rotocolo. con las variaciones 
de oancilloria. 

El sentl'lo y las frases del parrafo 2 estan t<imados del ultimatum dirigido por el 
Gobierao ile Washington a Espana y comunicado en 20 de abril ultimo por aquel 
Seuor Secretario de Estado al Ministro de Espana en aquella capital. Figuran i'Si 
mismo en el el pensamiento y las frases del Gobierno americano consignados en la 
contostaclon del Senor Seeretario de Estados en Washington en 31 de Julio ultimo al 
meusaje del Gobierno espanol proponieudo la terminacion de la guerra. He aqui dl- 
chas frases: "el Gobierno de los B-slados Unidos no ha compartido las aprensiones de 
Espana sobre este punto (el de la falta de actual aptitud del pueblo cubano para su 
independencia) pero piensa que en las condJciones de perturbaclon y abatinilento en 
que esta la isla. esta necesita ayuda y direcclon que el Gobierno americano se iiai:a 
disqueslo a otorgarle." 

Xo hay. oues. en el artieulo nuevamiute redactado otro pensamiento ni otras 
frases qne las consignada.* en el ulUmamm de los Estados Unidos a Espana. eu el 
defpacho citado de su Seeretario de Estailo y en el Protocolo redactado accediendo al 
nltimatun y de acuerdo con la intencion de los Estadoa Unidos consiguada en el des- 
pacho sobredleho. 

Esto no obstante, ruegan los Comisarlog espanoles de nn modo especial a los Se- 
nores ComiSarlos americanos. que teugan presente que si la legltima exlgencia por 
parte de Espana para que en el tnitado se conslgne su derecho para reclamar, a su 
debido tiempo, a los Estados Unidos de America el cumpUmlento del compromiso qne 
espontaneamente contrajeron de dejar la Isla de Cuba llbre e Independiente, asl 
que este paclflcada, no fuse de su agrado. aquellos estan dispuestos a renunciar a tal 
exlgencia, dejando a la excluslva apreciaclon de los Estados Unidos el resolvcr cuan- 
do bnyan de cnmpllr tal compromiso, si esta renuncia de la Comision espnnola bu- 



biera de servir para la conclusion del tratado pendiente do paz. 

IjOS Senorrs Comisarios americanos rocLazan tanibien los doir.as articnlos ili-l 
proyecto prcscntado por los espauoles. 

No adinitcii qvie rte la soberania formon parte las cargas y obligaciones del cobei-- 
ano que jirocedan exclusivamente del servioio publico de la colonia. T sin cntvar 
In Comision espano-la en la discusion pui-amente tecnica de si forman parte de la 
soberania estas obligacioies. o son tau solo efecto del ejerclclo de la soberania mis- 
ma. porquc el resultado de esta discusion seria eompletamente ineflcaz para el puuto 
sobrc que no convlenen unos y otros Couiisarios. pasan los espanoles a rectiflcar 
breveniente los hechos y los conceptos que se hallan escritos en el Memorandum 
americano de 14 del corriente. rara denioslrar aquellos que las obligaciones colou- 
iales de Espauo an Cuba no deben quedar a cargo de esla isla. exponen que tales ob- 
ligaciones fuoron contraidas por la Corona con intervencion de sus fnncionarios en 
la colonia pero sin que esta hubicsc int'Tvcnido ni prestado su consentimiento para 
contraerlas. En efecto; el regimen colonial entonces vigente en Espana no daba a 
sn.- colonias la facnltad de tener Camaras eleotivas que ejerciesen con el soberano el 
poder supremo. En los- ultimos veintc luos ya no sucedia asi. Las Antillas tenian su 
rcpresetn<-ion en ambas Camaras. la i ii.i!. por cierto, iniorvino en todos los actos leg- 
islativos sobrc obligaciones colonialcs. siii que nunca hubicsc protestado contra j'U 
legitimidad y fuerza obligatoria. Mas, apart:' de csto. no se puedo Tiegar que mie.i- 
tras aquel regimen subsistio conservando todos los caracteres de la legalidad a la sa- 
zon establecida. los actos que la soberania i-olonial cjercicra dentero de las attribu- 
eiones quo las Icyes le conferlan. fucron pcrfectamcnte legitimos y produjeron lo que 
no podian menos de producir todas Justas consecuencias. Esta en una maxima funda- 
mental en el derecbo publico, sin la cual scria iniposiblc el credito de un Estado. 
perqne la validez de todos sus actos cstaria siempre a merced de oulquiera causa rev- 
olucionaria triunfante. Puede discutirsc el acierto de los actos del soberano, pero no 
oabe discuit su legitimidad y caractcr ohiigatorio, snando ban side ejecutados eu 
Tirtud de atribuciones y eon las solemuldades reconocidas y estableeidas por la ley. 

Este principio fue rccouocido por el Primer Consul, cuando otorgo con Baviera 
su tratado de 2-1 de Agosto de 1801. En su articulo 5 se acordo aplicar lo dispuesto 
eu el tratardo de paz de Luneville refcrentc a las deudns bipotecarias de los pais'-s 
de la orilla izquierda del RMii. En estos territorios habia Dietas que intervenian "l 
poder del soberano y por esto eu dicho Tratado de Luneville se habia exigido que 
tales deudas hubiesen sido por ellas coiisentldas. Mas en el Ducado de Devix-Ponts 
y en la parte del Palatinado del Rliin que adquiria la Francia por el tratado con Be.- 
viera, no habia cquella institncion de CcWemo, y por es'to convino el Primer Consul 
er el tratado de l.SOl que las deudas de estos paises pesarian con elles. con tal que 
hubiesen sido registradas en su origcn por sus autoridades admiuistrativas superi- 

ores. 

Segun la tesis contrarla a esta doctrina. si llegara a desaparecer el regimen auio- 
cratieo de la Rusla actual, el pueblo ruso pouria dejar de cumplir todas las obliga- 
ciones que sus Emperadores. mientras ;:quel regimen subsista. hayan contraido y .■•m 
traigan para el regimen y gobierno de su Imperio. Los mlsmos Estados Unidos, que. 
de seguro continuaron obseryando desde su emancipacion muchos de los preceptos 
legislativoK acordados antes sin su intervencion. por el poder de su Metro- 
pcii, tendri.ui que devolver a la Rusia el Alaska que les yendlo el Emperador en 1S07 
sin haber inteivenido en la venta los :inbitantes de la region yendida; como l.oi- 
drian que devolver a Espana la Florida, por identica razon, etc. 

Si para que sea legitima una deuda es n(M-esario que al crcu-la intervenga por si 
m.ifmo el pueblo que la ha de pagar. cuando las leyes no le dan tal intervencion, run 
mncha mas razon habia de ser necesaria la Intervencion de un pueblo cuando su 
soberano vendiese el terrirorio que equ^'l babita. 

La propia actual cesiou de la sober.mia de las Antillas estaria viciada de nulidad 
ya que los pueblos cubano y puertoriqueiio mi fueron eonsultados ni prestaron liasia 
abora su expreso y formal asentimiento al Protocolo de Washington. He ahi lus 
consecuencias de ia teoria o.ue bajo el ralor de la discusion se halla expuesta en .•! 
Memorandum de los Senores Couiisarios americanos. 

Precisamente el punto que limita mas la libertad de contratacion de los sobera-i- 
os, en la celebracion de los tratados. es el relative a las deudas de sus Estados. yo- 
br'e la integridad de su territorio y ,auu sobre su proplo honor pueden Ubre y valida- 
mente contratar porque eontratan sobre lo que es suyo. Pero carecen de esta liber- 
tad cuando sus actos repercntcn iiimedi.it aniente en los legitimos d»rechos privados 
de equellos particnlares que, al amparo de las li yes los h.ibian legitiniamente adqnir- 
ido. sin que despues bayan tenido int-rveneioii alung.i en los conllictos que en ios 
tratados se resnelveu. ni tengaii pur lo facto que indebidaraente sufrir sus consecuen- 
cias en perincio de sus privados y legitimos intereses. 

Los acreedores de un Estado. cnando con el eontr.atan tionen siempre niuy en 
cuenta las conditiones de solvencia del Estado a qnien prestan su fortuna. Por esto, 
cuando estas condiciones de soberania decrecen por efecto de ccslones territoriales, 

62. 



las Atlas Paitcs entio quieiics median isias. asi las que haeen la cesion oomo las que 
adquieivn lo cedido. procm-an siempre ri-s polar en sn inloErridad aqnollos deree'ios 
poi- medio del reparte do las ol)li;;apionfs. onire el territorlo ponservado por el sobe- 
rann cedent? y el territ'U-io adqnirido poi' el Seberano cesionaiio. Estn es lo qne Ua 
venido hactendose en los Iratados de ocsion territorial. 

Mas euando los acreedores han adn'Jiridn por el propio titulo de su eonlrato tn 
dereeliodlreeto sobre cierios p determiuailos bienes o clertas y delenninadas rentas 
para relntesrarse con ellos del capital preslndo y de sns legitimos Intereses. el sobe- 
rano no puede despues. sin contaro previa niente con su asentimiento. coder ni dis- 
Joner librcmente, como si fuenin de iii exclusivo domlnlo. de aquellos bienes y 
rentes. 

Si un soberano se prestara a cometer r.n atropello siinejante de derecbcs quo no 
son suyos. no por eso aquellos a quienes tales deredios f orresponrta'i tendran el de- 
ber de resi^narse y quedaran privadcs de reclamar en nombre de los principios fe.i- 
grados que amparan la propricdad priv.ida. I'i ii'specto a lo suyo. contra quien quier 
que sea en cuytt poder so halle e^iueiio ijuc lojjiliniameate les pertenece. 

Y bueno es, con este motivo. hacer fomalmente co:isiar. que aun eu la liipotesis 
de que no fuese aceptable el principio que sestieno la Comision espanola y qne corn- 
bate la ameri<-ana. a saber que in deuda colonial no debe quedar a cargo de la Metr-.>- 
poli, esto nunca podria significar que Kspana hubiese de contraer abora respecto a 
los lenedores de esa deuda mas obligac'ones que la® que contrajo al crearla. Y por 
lo tanto, respecto a aquella parte de la deutUi en que no contrajo nia.s que una ob- 
iij^cion snlxsidiaria de i>ai:o, por baberse oonsignado en su eutision una bipoteca c x- 
presa sobre ciertas y deternvinadas rentas y product«>s. Espana tendra cl derecho 
de no considerarse nunca obli^jada por tal contrato, con arre^lo a Derecbo, a pagar tal 
deuda. siuo euando dt^spues de baberse de.^tlnoda a su gapo en primer termjno 
las rentes y productos bipoteeados resultarau esros insuficientes. pues basta 
entonces no sera exigible, segun las regla.- elenientales del Deri'Cho. la obligacion sub- 
sidiaria que contrajo. 

Sin deteuerse la Comision espanola hoy sobre las noticias muchas Inexactas, 
que sobre ia deuda cubana se leen en el Memorandum araericano. se lintitara a 
atiriitar que .a Isla de Cuba no cubrio. por regla gericral. desde su descubrimiento, 
sus iiropios gastos. 

Mientras Espana conserve las eolonias amerieanas, vino la Isla sostenieudose con 
los auxilios pecuniarios de sus rermanas, y senaladaraente de los del irrcinato de 
MeJ'Co. En este siglo. durante niuy poos anos tuvo sobrantes, nn'rced al desarrollo 
de su natural riqueza obtenida al fin con aquellos resursos. y estos sobrantes es 
cierto que entraron en el Tesoru de la t'eninsuta. Mas apesar de eHos es lo cierto 
que eu la cuenta general del Estado I'spanol. de LSOfi a 07 aparece el Tesoro de la 
perinsula coa anticipos a Cuba en los anos anteriores de la epoca moderna. por 
valor de 429.n()2.01.'!.0S pesetas, asi emmi . parccen tambien adelantados a Puerto Rico 
.'!.22ii.4.<S.67 pesetas y a Saaro nonungi i.3'.i7.1G1.69 pesetas. 

La prosperidad d" Cuba fite i!e er "t i drracion, durante la mayor parte del tient- 
po transcurrido desde ios lienipos de rolon, ya por la esoasez de sus habitantes, ya 
por la servidumbre de la raza nagra que formaba la mayoria. y ya. en fin. jiorque 1< « 
espanoles prefirleran colonizar otras partes de America, no pudo la isla desaroliar sus 
riquezas na'urales. y. sin embargo, hubo que venir gastando constantemente en <*lla 
las grandes suntas qne exigia el planteaniienlo de las reformas y la creacion de los 
estnblecimientos que son coudicion eseucial de la vida moderna. 

La Comi.5ion espanola r.o puede menos de protestar contra la afirmaclon que en el 
niemorand\irn americano ':e hace. de que la insurreccion de los diez anos fue produc- 
to de causas justas. Y lamenta que sin uha necesidad que lo reclaniara de un moJo 
Indeclinable tal afirmaclon se baya consignado. como la Comision americana. sagura- 
mente .v con razon lamentaria que la espanola conslgnase aqul sin necesidad quo lo 
exiglera. la Justicia de las rebeliones de los aborigenes del inmenso territorlo ameri- 
cano que los Estados Unidos tuvieron que sofoear tanias veees con mauo £errea. y 
que asimismo conslgnase el derecbo a cuno amparo los Estados del Sur habian querido 
ronjper por las annas el 'azo federal. 

Es Inutll. por lo que Inego se dira. que la Comision espanola se ocupe concreta- 
mente de los eapitulos de la deuda cui>ana a quet se refiere el Memorandum anie..-i- 
cano. Comprenden los errires que hayau podido cometerse eu est docunicuto. 
porque es mny natural qne los Senores Comisarios americanos no conozcan 
contoda la precision qui- se requi(>re para juzgarlos con acierto. ios actos de l-i 
Administracion espanola. ni en la Peninsula, ni en sua eolonias. 
Y esto aparece ademas contirinado por los hechos. 

Sobre la razon que se cree que hay contra parte de la deuda cubana en la pr- 
tendida justica de la rebelnm dc una minoria de aquel pueblo reclamando su ind.> 
ptiidencla. solo haremos la observacion signienie: 

La mlnorla Insnrrecta, as verdad, se kvanto en arnias en demauda de la mde- 
pendencia de la Isla. Los Rsiados Tiiidos equiAocadamente creyeron que su causa 
era Justa y se la Impusieron cnn las armas a Espana. Mas ahora rosulta que Es- 

63. 



pano teuia razon, porque los propios Es tados Unldos reeonoceu que aquel pueblo 
uo tieue aun las condiciones necarias para gozar desde luego de su plena liberatad 
y soberauia, y por esta estau resultos a uu otorjrasela y a retener en ella su dom- 
ino, iiasta que el pueblo cubano puedo gozar de esa libertad prematurameute re- 
claniada. 

La (_'(inii,--,()ii r^piiiinl 1 .-sln ;idriii;i>. t-ii <■' .mso de il.iiiiai' la atenoion sulin- l:is i.lt- 
ligaciones tlr i'uerto Kiuu. I'M Mt'nioi-;uulnii' u qui- ciiiiiosta. se retiiTe uuicauit-iitt' a 
las do Cuba. Es que ^e oi-ee que a pes.ii- d que la ociberauia de la pekueua Autilla 
nc es renuuoiada. siuo cedida por lO.spaaa a los Estados L'nldos, debo tamljieii pasnr 
lihrr (le toda earga a su poderV Es (jue sc a^U'uta el princiiili.i de que las resinuo di- 
lerrit'-rii), rualqiuera que s'-a la eausa que las produzea. aunque est.i liu-ra la eon- 
quisia. y uniclio luas sieudo esta eausa purameute eonveneioual. uu lle\'an ipso faelD 
en si misuias las eargas que afeeteu al territoiio ccdido? 

En la diseusiou oral, los Senores Ceiiijsarios anierieauos indicaron que el (lobieruo 
esi-ianol babia <le(darado que solire la peqneua Antilla no existia deuda alguua. I^us 
Coniisarios espanoles ban registradu eaidador,!iniente lodas las negoeiaeioues eseritas 
que inediarou eutre las dos Atlas I'arles. desde el ultimatum del 8enor I'resid.'nle 
de la yniini de 20 Abril de este ano, liasta la tiiuui del rrotoeolo en Wasbiugton, eJi 
12 de Agosto dt-i niismn. K\\ niii^uiia d<' ella,- liallarna iudieaeioues ni vestigins d<-' 
tai deelaraeiou. Y iliilm se:i de pasu, iMitre iiiras iibligaeioues, pesa desde Ine-e 
niuerisiuu)S anus sijbre la pequeua Aiiiilla. an i iiaite qiK- aunque exigua. \\<> i-s nu-uis 
sagrada. de Ui earga perp-^tua y ^■evda^^■^illliente di' justieia, eon que Espana mas que 
en su uonibre en el de Ameriea. ha venido diuiiiuistraudo su gratitud al iumorial 
Colon que la descubrio y a sus Icgitinios d cFeeedic-ntes. y que la logiea llevarla a los 
Eslados Unldos a repudiar para que ■ujitinuara pagandola Espana. si liubieran de 
prevakH'er las eonelusioues de la f'nmision de aquidlus. 

Mas es el easo que la diseusiou siiliie la deuda llani.ida de Cuba uJ paicci' tejier 
oportunidad eu estos moiueutos. 

1.0S Senores Comisarios amerie.iuo.^ al ut-uparse de lus eapitulos prineipales de tal 
deuda. ereyerou sin duda, que la tloaiisiou e.^'auola proponia en su proyeeto que 
de.sde luego fuesen aqutdlos admitidos eomo ueuda eolouial. para pasar cou la sobe- 
r.-^-uia a Cuba, o a los Bstados Unidos. i" este es el eapital error sobre que desean-a 
su Memorandum, bos Cloniisarios espanoles no jtroponeu siuo que se consigue en el 
tratado un prineipio basta aiir)ra sJempre reeouueido, a saber, que eon una, eolonia 
pasa la deuda que le es peeuliar y afecta a su territoria. Coutra este priuelpiii. nada 
se diee eu el Jlemuranduui auierieano. Ni espera la Comision espanola, que se diga 
a lo menus por los .Estados Iniibis. ruyu terrltorla lue por ellos adquirido. no solo 
con su sangie. siuo tambieu eon el diuero lii' sus eajas. Hoy no faltan publieislas 
que alirnien que por los treee primeros Kst.idos siilistieiernn a su Metropoli qumee 
nulliones de libnis esterliuas. Y .son beebus utieiales que por la Louisiana, por la 
Florida, por los Estados iudios, por Texas, por Califoniia y por el Alaska .se paga- 
ron a Franeia. Espana. India, Uusia y M e.xice fuertes sumas. Esta vez seria la 
primera eu que los Estados ruidos. roi:tra sus propias tradieioues, adquirierau 
gratuitameuie territories que anexiouar pronto o tarde a la Union, 

El ejiso de la adquisiciou de Texas, lau identieo eu su origen. en , sus prooedimieii- 
tos y eu su termiuo al aetual de la Isia ile Ci'ba, prueba de un moilo barto elo- 
cuente cuau distlnta es la politica que entonces sigulo el Gobierno de Wasbington 
con Mexico, de la que ahora qulere seguir eon el Gabinete de Madrid. Entonces sus 
armas euqdeadas tambien en apoyo de los iusurrectos de Texas, se extendieron por 
la Republiea mexicana, Uegando a apoderarse de la propia capital, lo que no, ha su- 
cedido aliora; entonces exigieron de Mexico la independencia de Texas, como abora 
de Espana la de Cuba, y ademas la secioii del Xuevo Mexico y de California eumo 
abora exigierou la de Puerto Rico y demas Antillas espanolas. Pero entonces pagaron 
a Mexico sin exlgirle Indemniz.aciou de guerra, el valor de los territorios que se 
anexionaban, y tomaron ademas a su cargo la iudemnizacion de los eiudadanos 
americanos por aquella republiea perjudieadas. Hoy ban exigido a Espana por 
una indeuud/.acHui alauoga y por gastos de guera. la cesion de las islas sobredicbas. 
y ciuiereii ademas (jue las cargas de estas islas y de su li.erniana la drande iutilla 
queden a cargo di- la metro]ioli. que las intrmlujo pen- su mano lui el niundo civili- 
zado. 

Lo que propouen los Comisarios enpauoles es uuicaniente el recouociniiento de 
este prineipio, porque su ejucucion enlieuden que debe quedar despues a cargo de 
una Comision de personas rectas e imparciales. Si esta, reconociendo la ceunta 
que Espana presente de las obligaeiones que entieude que debeu ser a cargo de Cuba 
y de Puerto Rico, declaran que debeu sera cargo de la Aletropfili, Espana se confni- 
mara. Pero si declaran que todas o algunas deben ser a cargo do la colonia. im bay 
razon jiara que los Estados Unldos no presten eu tal easo tambien su aseutimiento. 
Si tan seguros estan de su derecho, uo ])ueden rebusar lo que la Comision espanola 
propone, ya <iue ningun peligro les ofrece. Y" si no lo estauvieran, su alta justificacion 

64, 



y vl ri'SptH'io que se tienen a si iiiisinos, Irs intjutiifu i>I ilrliiT ile suburflinar un In- 
teres pci-imlnrio a la causa sajtriuia de la justlcia. 

Y jmia demostrar la Comislon I'spaiiola » la niinTifiuiM quo el pensanilento solire- 
(IU'Ikj cs el uuioo que ahriga. y que pur <i tautn lut iulenta ahora que se rocouoza el 
pago de cantldad alguna detonninada conm oliliKaoion eoloulal de cuakjulera de las 
AntUIas, no tiene reparo eu sustltulr el ariieulo 'J que lialiia preseiiiadu y en supiiiiiii- 
el -i y 5 reempl.izaudo los tres por el slgriiente. 

"Artieulo 2.— I^a renunela y transfereueia ipie liace Su Majestail Catollea y que 
aeepiau los Kstados I'liidtis de America, eoniorende: 

"1. Cuantas preroj-'aIi\'as. aliibueioues y 4l4'i-ecli.is eon-i'spnndan a Su Majestad 
Calollea. <'oiuo parte de su s(dieraula sohre la Isla de Cuba y sus habltantes. 

"2. Cuantas cargas y obligaelones pecuiiiarlas pendlentes al ratiflcarso este tra- 
tado de paz, que prevlo un miuucloso exanien de su oilgen, objeto y oondloiones de su 
ereaelon, dcbau reputai'se. seguii dereoho i-slrii'to e iuiiegal)le equidad. distinlas ili' 
las que sini propias y pecullarcs del Tesoro de la Peninsula por ser y liaher sido 
sieliipre pi-opias y peeuliares de Cuba. 

"I'ara haeer el riguroso examen que se pi-esiTihe en el parrafo antei'ior. se ncirn- 
brara por las dos Altas Partes contratantes una Comlsion de personas eompetentes 
e Iniparelales segun se delenninara en el artieulo eorrespondlente de este tratado." 

Uespoeto del 2 parrafo del artieulo 3 del proyecto espauol, a los Senores Comi- 
sarios ainerieauos no les jiareee aeeprable la e.xcepeion de los hienes iiatriinonlales di?I 
Esiado line en el se estableeia. Segun el Dereeho administratiro espanol. id Kstado 
ejerce las facultades del dominio sobre todos los blenes que la ley espanola doclara de 
donunio publico. Estos claro es que yan eomprendidos en la eesion de la soherania. 
Mas en Espana el Estado puede tamblen adquirrlr y consen-ar eomo persona jurldlea 
bieues inniuebles por .os uiisnms iltiros ipie el Uereeho eivil est.-ibleee para los parti- 
culates. Estos eran los que se excejituaban en la eesion. No obstante lo que se aeal)a- 
de deeir. para demostrar una vez mas la Comlsion estianola su deseo de transaeeion 
y de paz. renuncia a esta excepcion y paea porque sean tamblen eomprendidos diehos 
bienes patrimoniales del Estado eu la cesi(.in y reunni-ia tie su soberania en las .-Xn- 
tillas. 

Las deuias e.Keepeiones etuisignadas en equel artieulo no puede ereer la Comlsion 
espanida que de.1en de ser aeepladas por la anierieaua. Esta en su proyeeto liablaba 
solo de la propiedad individual. I'ero no ignoran eiertanu-nte los liouor.ables linlivid- 
uos de la Comlsion amerlean.a. y liasta seria ofeinlei- su grande ilustraeion el supon- 
erlo. c|ue adenias del indlviduo hay otras personas juridicas en el seno de todas las 
soeiedades civlles, que sou capaees, per la le.ie^. ,!e .eiquirir y eouservar la propiedad 
mueble. e lumueble. Las soeiedades mercantiles e Industrlales, las de Dereeho eomun 
eivil. los eslablecimientos publicos como os de benetieeneia o ensenauza. etc., ptieden 
en Es])ana y sus colonlas adqulrir y couscrv.ir la proidedad ■<obredieha. que esta al 
anq)aro de las mismas Icyes que rigen y protegeii la propiedad individtial. Pnes a 
la propiedad de estas personas juridicas. conocida vulgarmente con el nombre de 
propiedad eorporatlva, porque no es un Indlviduo slno una corporacion el dueno, se 
retieri'n lodas las excepeiones couiprendidas en el segun<lo parrafo del artieulo ii del 
proyeeto espanol. 

En el euarto parrafo del mismo artieulo tamblen han llamado la atenclon de los 
Senores Comisarios amerieanos respeeto a la entri-gade los Areliivos. las frases que 
tienen por objeto manifestar que los Estados Dnldos dlspondran de ellos con los mis- 
mos dereehos y obligaelones eon que basta ahora han estado a disposieiou del Go- 
bernio espanol. La explicaelon de estas frases es muy obvla. El Estado mas que 
dueno absoluto de los Arcbivos publicos, es su depositario y conservador, asl es que 
no puede ilestruirlos ni enajeiiarlos. ni prlvar a los eiudadanos del uso que neee- 
siten hacer de los documentos en ellos contenidos para la defensa de sus dereebos. 
Ptiede el Estado destruir el regis! ro eivil (londe eonsta el estado civil de eada enida- 
dano? Puede destruir el registro de la propiedad donde constan los tltulos de do- 
minio del patrlmonio de eada cual? Clertamente no; pues eso es lo nuleo que se 
dice en tales frases. I^os TCstaclos Cniilos podran ilisponer de los Areliivos eomo podrla 
disponer el Goblerno espanol. pero nada mas que este dertn-ho puede este Oohierno 
traosiuitirles. porqm.' niiigun otro mas [ie.ie sobre ellos. 

A mayor abundemieuto y para que no ofrezea a la Comlsion amerir-ana duda al- 
guna el sentldo del pcnsamlento de la espanola. esta sustltnye el artieulo 3 que tenia 
presentado eon el que presenta ahora, en el que, ademas de suprimir la excepelon de 
los blenes patrimoniales del Eiit.'ido. aelara los eoneeplos que pareeleron dudosos a la 
Comlsion amerleana sobre los .\rehivos y sus p.-ipeles. He aqiii su texto: 

•■.U! Ticri.o .-{. 

"En ( unipUiniento de lo conveuido en los dos artieulos anteriores, Su Mn.iestad 
i'atoliea. en la representaelon con que Celebru este tratado, renuncia y transliere a 

65 



los Estados Unidos todos los ediflcdos, muelles, cuarteles. fortalezas. establecl- 
mientos, vias publicas y demas bienes iiunnebles que con arreglo a Derecho son de 
dDLuinlo publico, y que como de tal doujiaio iiublico coripspondeu a la Corona de 
Kspana en la Isla de Cuba. 

■ 'iui-dan por lo tanto except^adoK de csta rcir'uiiMa y transferencia todos los 
dercchos y bienes de cnalquiera clase que sea ouc. basta la ratificacion del presente 
tra.tado, bayan veuido paciflcamente poseyeudo. en oonoepto de duenos, las Provin- 
'Oias, ^Iiinioipios, EstabU'cimieiitos publicos o privados, (^crporaciones eclesiasticas 
■0 cix'iles y cualesqniera otras <.'oleoti\idades que teujraii le^almente personalidad 
jui-idica para adquirir y poseer bienes en la Isle de ruha, y los particulares. eual- 
quiera que sea su nacionalidad. 

"Su iMajestad Catolica renuncia tambii-n y translierc a los Estados Cnidos. a 
qnien so le entreg'aran por el Gobierno Esiianol, todos los documentos y titulos 
que se reflerau exolusivameute a la soberauia transferida y aceptada. y a todos sus 
dere<-hos. quo ixistan en los Arebivos de la Peninsula, Habjeudo de facilitarle coplas 
<'uaud(» los Estados Unidos las reolainasen, de la parte eorrespoudienie a dieba so- 
berauia que contengaii los demas documentos y titulos que se retieran ademas a 
otros asuntos distinlos de la Isla de Cuba y de su soberauia y derefbos, que existan 
en los meneionados .\rebivos. Una regla analogs babra reciprocamente de observarse 
a favor de Espaua respecto a los doeumentos y titulos agenos en todo o en parte a 
la Isla <le Cuba, que se b.illen aetualmeute en sus Arebivos y que intersen al 
Gobierno espanol. 

"Todos los ArehiA'os y registros oticiales. asi adniinistrati\-os eouio judiciales, 
que estiin a disposicion del Gobierno de Espana y de sus autoridades en la Isia de 
Cuba, y que se refieran a la ralsma Isla o a sus habitantes y a sus dereehos y bienes, 
■qued.irnn sin reserva de niiiguuo de esta clase a disposicion de los Estados Unidos 
para que los eonserven o dispongan de ellos con las mismas facultades que basta 
abora ban tenido sobre los mismos el Gobierno espanol y sus autoridades. 

"I-os particulares. asi espanoles como cubanos, tendran dereebo a saf-ar, con arre- 
glo. a las leyes. las copias autorizadas de los contratos, teslanientos y demas docu- 
uientcs que forman parte de los protocol os uotariales o que se custodien en los Ar- 
ebivos adininistrati\os y judiciales, bien cstos se ballen en Espana o eu la Isla de 
Cuba." 

En el articulo 6 del proyecto espanol i;o .';!■ couslgnaba la enusa de la cesion que 
bace Espana a los Estados Unidos de la Isla de Puerto Rico y demas Antillas y de 
la de Guam en las Marianas. Y siu embargo, csta causa esta expresaniente con- 
signada en el ya citado despacbo del Secrelario de Estado en Wasbington, contes- 
tando al Meusaje del Gobierno espanol. Eu el despues de manifestarse que el Seuor 
President e de la Republica uo reclamaba una Indemnizacion pecuelaria por la guerra 
para dar prueba de una senalada generosldad. se lee el slguiente parrafo: "Sin em- 
bargo no puede i>ermaneoer Insensible a las perdidas y a los gastos ocasionados por 
la guerra, ni a las reclamaeioues de ntiestros conciudadanos con niotivo de los dauos 
y periudicios que ban sufrido en sus personas y bienes durante la ultima insurrec- 
cion de Cuba. 

"En consecuencia esta obligado a pedir la cusion a los Estados Unidos y la evae- 
iiacion inmediata por Espana de Puerto Rico v de las demas islas que se ballan ac- 
tuiilmente bajo la soberania de Espana en Lis ludias occidentale.s. asi como la cesion 
en las Ladrones de una isla designada por los Estados Unidos." 

Estos desjgnaron la Isla de Guam. 

Eos Gomisarios espanoles sustituyen el articulo 6 de su anterior proyecto con el 
qu? abora prosentan. baciendo constar la ( ausa de la cesion. La Comision ameri- 
cana es bien segnro que en este punto estara conforme con la espanola para que en 
el tratado no aparezcan los Estados Unidos adquiriendo gratnitamente aquellas islas. 

He aqui el articulo: 

"AKTTCrLO 4. 

"En compensaclon de las perdidas y gastos ocasionados a los Estados Unidos 
por la guerra. y a las reclamaclones de sus conciudadanos con motivo de los danos 
y perjuicios que hubiesen sufrido en sus personas y bienes durante la ultima insu- 
reccion de Cuba, Su Majestad Catolica, en nombre y representacion de Espana, y 
constitucionalmente autorizada por las Oortes del Keino, cede a los Estados Unidos 
de America y estos aceptan para si mismos, la Isla de Puerto Rico y las otras Islas 
<5ue actualmonte estan bajo la soberania espanola en las Indias occideutales, asi 
como la Isla de Guam en el Arcbipielago de las Marianas o Ladrones. que fue ele- 
gida por los Estados Unidos de America en virtud de lo convenldo en el articulo 2 
del Protocolo firmado en Wasbington el 12 de Agosto ultimo." 

Respecto al articulo 7 del pro.vecto, la (.'omision espanola entiende por cuanto va 
dicho eu este Memorandum, que debe sostenerlo sin otra variante que la Indispens- 
able para ponerlo en relacion con los nuevos artlcules que se presentam. 
Quedara pues redactndo en la forma siguieute 

66 



■AUllCULiO 5. 

•Esta eesioa de lii soberania sobre el tirnldi-io y liabitantes dc Pucrlo Rko y 
las domas islas moucioiuulas se ontleude que consiste en la cesiou de los derechos y 
obligacioiies, bieiics y docuuieuiDS relativos a la soberania de dichas Islas. Iguales a 
los QiK' I'l'sp'Cto a la renuucia y Iransfereiicla de la soberania de la Isla de Cuba, se 
definon on los arueulos anterlores." 

En resuiuen de tedo, resulta que la unlca cuestlon quo hasta aliom oxisto y 
aguai'da nnft rosulucion de anibas Comisi oaos osia rcducida a una cuestlon pecual- 
aria. de iniportancia relativameute seeund;ni:i paia una de las Altas Partes contra- 
tantes, la de la deuda colonial. 

Y entlenden los Coinisarios espandles qne no es posible que una cuestlon de esta 
Indole pueda dejar de tener ima solucion satisiatioi-ia, ya que media entre partes, la 
una el nuis ffrande Estado del Xuevo Muiido. iiuuciisanu'nte rico y prospero. eon 
inasotables reoursos con que lo dota la n.um-alc;:a y la prodigiosa acliridad de sus 
habilantes. y el cual adquiere ailemas por csi^ li.iiado lorritorios do gi-ande inipor- 
tancia. realizaudo nsi una aspiraciou de Sii politica en America, y la otra una grande 
y noble nacion del antlguo. cordial auiigii dt auuel en dias para ella mas prosperos, 
pcro enipobrecida lioj- por las desgracias que sobre ella ha acuniulado el sigio que 
terniina. con ur Tesoro cargado de oblig;icinnes y a la cual este tratado le reserva 
la ci.niirniacion solemne dc la perdida de los ullimcs restos del imperio americano, 
cuyo dcscubrimiento hizo posible la existeucia dc -iquella gran Repubiica y que 
adenias con el tanto enriquccio ai uiundo modcrno. :i costa quizas de su propio bien- 
estar y del desarroUo que tenia dereclio n esperar de sus tjrandes clcnientos de rl- 
queza acumuiados y no explotados en su scny. por dedicar preferente su ateneiou a 
colonias. que coroo otros seres en el ordeu dc la naturaleza a quiches .su madre 
dedica sus desvelos. ba criado y sostendio a cosla de su propio bieuestar. 

i;st:i confjrme: E.MIIJO DE UJEDA. 



TRANSLATION, 
(Annex to Protocol No. 9.) 



MEMORANDUM, 



It Is with deep regret that the Spanish Commissioners have thoroughly ac- 
quainted themselves with the memonindnni presented by the American Commis- 
sioners at the last session, held on the 17th instant. In this document the said 
gentlemen, relying upon assertions and views to the accuracy of which the Span- 
ish Commission cannot subscribe, despite the uxjright intention with which it doubts 
not they were expressed, and by saying that tliey sul>stitute for tlie draft of the 
two articles relating to Cuba and tlie other islands, which the.v presented at the 
session of the .Srd instant, two other articles which are limited to literally copying 
the two first articles of the Protocol of Washington, alleging in this behalf that 
they understand that the treaty of peace, so far as it refers to the sovereignly of 
the West Indies and the Island of Guam, in the Marianas, should contain neither 
more nor less than a literal reproduction of those two articles. 

But as these alread.v form a part of a binding agreement, which the Protocol 
of Washington is, it seems useless merely to reproduce them in the treaty which 
is to be elaborated in the conference. Contracts, private as well as international, 
are perfect and produce all their effects for the parties executing them without 
the uecesslt.v of any subsequent confirmation, which can in nowise increase their 
efTicacy. Therefore, this reproduction, if the treaty of peace relating to the West 
Indies Is to be thus limited, as the American Commissioners desire, seems to be 
redundant. 

If this consideration is pure reason, f>r even mere common sense, the priqjosal 
of the American Commissioners can only be comprehended on the supposition that 
the latter understand that the treaty, apart from any provision of a secondary 
character that may be included therein, should relate only to the Philippine Archi- 
pelago. 

If such is the thought of the American Commission, the Spanish Commission 
cannot assent thereto, because It understands that Its execution would be an in- 
fraction of the Protocol. 

67 



After the three couditinns which the Seeretary of State at Washinfcton. re- 
plying on July ;iO last to the message of the Government of Her Catholie Majesty 
of the 22nil uf the saifl month, proposed to Spain for the termination of the war. 
he said: '"If tlie terms hereb.y offered are accepted in their entirety <-oniniission- 
ers will be named by the United States to meet similarly authorized commissioners 
on the part of Spain for the purpose of settling the details of the treaty of peace 
and siffuing and delivering it under the terms above imlicated." These iletails 
do not appear to be circumscribed to the archipelago. 

The very President of the American Republic, in the conference be held on 
August 10 with the Ambassador of France, representing Spain for the time be- 
ing, made au absolute distinction between the Protocol and the treaty of peace, 
stating that the former should only be a mere preliminary document which should 
have no object or effect other than to record without any delay the agreement ot 
the two Governments upon the principles themselves of the peace, and that, there- 
fore, it would not be necessary to reserve therein either the rights of the Cortes 
or those of the Federal Senate, who were charged only with the ratitication of the 
tinal treaty. 

The President, it is true, siioUe of the Philippine yuestiou to state that it was 
reserved for the Paris conference; but he never said. <»■ even intimated, that this 
subject should be the onl.v one to be treated by this conference. 

And. finally, in Article V of the Protocol, framed in harmony with all tliese 
antecedents, it is said that the Commissioners named by both High Parties were 
to proceed to Paris to negotiate and conclude a treaty of peace, without limiting 
or restricting their object, and, on the contrary, employing a phrase the evident 
meaning of which is that the treat.v of peace to be elaborated by the Commis- 
sion shoulil settle all questions at the time pending between the two states which 
were not nlread.v settled in the preliminary agreement of the Protocol. 

It is true that the American Commissioners base their last draft on the ground 
that everything relating to the Spanish Antilles is already settled in the Protocol. 
But this argument is precisely the one to which the Spanish Commis-sioners fronj 
the very first conference have not been able and are now unable to assent. 

The Americans in their memorandum of the 11th of this month stated that 
the Spanish Commissioners placed conditions to the relinquishment of sovereignty 
over Cuba in their proposal. A very serious error. In that proposal the absolute 
and unconditional character of such relinquishment is not disregarded: all that is 
done therein is to lay down what this relinquishment consists of. And this is 
essentially different from what the American Commissioners understand. 

And that, in fact, the articles of the draft of the Spaniards have for sole object 
the establishing of the meaning of the relinquishment, but not to subject it to eon. 
ditions. is demonstrated by the very object of the oral and written discussions 
which have been taking place between the two sides. 

The -\meriean Commissioners understand that the only meaning which can be 
giveu lo the relinquishment of the sovereignty agreed upon in the Protocol is that 
of the abandonment of this sovereignty, to deduce therefrom that Spain should 
abandon the Island of Cuba just as any power may abandon a desert territory in 
Africa which it might formerly have possessed. 

-\Ithough the Sp.anlsh Commission distinguishes bclwecn the legal mr'ariing of 
the woril "abandonment" and that of the word "relinquishment," it would not en- 
gage in this technical discussion (improper in ;i diplomatic conference! were it 
not for th.' fact that the American Commission urges its opinion as the principal 
ground for its cl.iim that through such supposed abandonment all legal bond is 
severed and iio iii'w mic. gniws out of the act. as between Spain and tin- rniti-d 
States, up. in the latter t.iking possession of the island either in their own name and 
for themsidves or in the name of and for the Cuban people. 

Knt this claim, unexampled in the diplomatic anmils of the world, caniini be 
adndttcd by the Spanish Commissioners, who make a part hereof of all that they 
Set forth in the first section of the memorandum they presented in reply to the 
draft of articles of the American Commi.ssion. and they add the following brief 
observations which are suggested to them by the two memoranda lately presented 
by the latter Commission: 

The Spanish Commission pa.sses over the citation made in support of its opinion 
by the American Commission from tlie Diceionario de Bscriche. which is certainly 
a very respectable work, but whose only object is the exposition of the practical 
principles of private municipal law. a very popular expositiim in Spain, it is true, 
fls it serves as a mentor for young lawyers in the early period of their profes- 
sional life, but which is alisohitcdy foreign to the science of international and 
public law. 

Cases of abandonment in the sense claimed are mit recorded in the modern 
history of peoples save those of desert territories, or at best, populated by the 
barbarous tribes of Africa. An abandonment of a tine state already formed, ex- 
isting for centuries, witb a complete social and political organization and peopled 

68 



wiUi iiiliabltants \vhi> ciiJi'V anil Iimvc thr liL-lil t" iMijn.v all tlic ben«'ms i>f niDdriii 
(•ivillzatloii, has never heen known np tu the present time, and the Spanish ('om- 
mlssioiiers do not Ijelieve tiiere Is sni'h n ease In tlie world. Al)andi)neil territories 
are lef.'itlmatel.v oceupled li.v the state desiring to establish its sovereijint.v therein. 
But this merely de facto oeeupation does not Impose upon the oeeupant dnties other 
than those performed in tlie regions of .\friea by the European powers wltli regard 
to barbarons tribes peopllni; or overrnniiing them. Hoes t'lc American Commis- 
sion lielieve that the I'nited States, as o<-cnpants of the Island of Cuba (since tills 
is the only condition upon which. ac<'ordinf; to (he view tliey defend, they are to 
take possession of iti are to have no duties with respect to the Inhabliants of the 
Creat Antllllan Isle other than those pcrl'ornii'd with ri'ganl to those degraded 
linman beings? 

We are fully satislied that such is not the tlKoight of the .\mcrican ConLiuis- 
sioners. but their insisteuce in denying all iiiUcrence In law between the effects of 
abainlonment and the elTects of relhiiinishmcnt inevitably leads to this conclusion. 
And this. notwithstandliLg the asserticui of tlu' .\merlcan Commissioners in their 
last inemoranduin to the elTcct tliat the I'nited States will atTord the iubabitants 
of Cuba and flu'ir property all the protection they may need, as they have beiMi 
doing in tlic small portion of ti'rritiM'y of (he islaml occupied by fm-ce of arms. I>o 
the I'nited Stales believe that tliey ought not to recognize more rights in Spain 
upon her relimiuishing her sovereignty over the Island of Cuba and its inhabitants 
than they or any other power would hasten to recognize in the luost unforiuuate 
of the African tribes whose territory tliey are ta.kiug'j But aside from the fact 
that they theiuselves do not atlribnte to this obligation, which they say they have, 
more than the right to be possessors of the island, it is also true tlnit the said 
Commissioners do not lend themselves to this or any other obligation of the I'uited 
States being recorded In tlie treaty, which, as they ilcmand. must be limited to 
the reproduction of the two tirst articles of the Protocol. Therefore, this obliga 
tloii. which in the uiemoraiidum tliey .say tliey contract, will not be enforceable, as 
it is not ill the treaty: and witiioui any iiiteiition to offend tlie United Statis. logic 
absolutely precludes the denial of the possibility of there happeniug. more or less. 
la this connection that which happened with respect to the obligations which tlie 
United States spontaneously ciuitracted in ihc iicgotiati(His leading up to the Pro- 
tocol, ami which, notwithstanding this, i he .\nicric.in Comniissicuiers decline to have 
apiiear in the treat.v. 

The Congress of the United St.iies. in its joint resolution, and the President of 
the Union, in his nitimatnm i.i Spain, could have demanded of the latter nation 
(although it. is usele.ss to state lliat Spain would not have acceded to so liarsli a 
deniaudl the ab.s(dute abandoiinieiil id' her sovereignty over Cuba in the sense in 
which it is now demanded by the American Conimissiouers. as he cou'd have also 
demanded its full ccssinn to the United Stales free of all burdens. Hut tlie trutli 
is that he did not demand it bi'caiise he liiuited himself to claiming tlie relm- 
quishnient of the sovereignty in order mat the Cuban people luigiit become free and 
independent, or. what is the s.nue thing, the rcliininishment of the sovereignty 
in favor of the Cuban peoiile. that they might bcciniie free and independent, al 
though at the same lime be demanded that this reliniiUishment should be at the 
outset made in favor of the United States for tliat people to whom tlie United 
States were to give aid and guidance, as it was not otherwise possible for the 
Island of Cuba to pass directly and immediately from the possession of Spain to 
that of the Cuban people, as it was to remain in tlie control of the United States 
until the paclHcation of the islaml. it seems to us that the American Commission- 
er.- cannot fail to recognize this as strictly correct. 

.\nd if such were the terms in which the Uiii'cd States expressed their de- 
iiiand. to which Spain Anally acceded without the former having previously modi 
■ fled them, it is as clear as the light of day that the agreement which is fornmlaled 
in Article I of the Protocol (for no other was concluded between the two High 
Parties! must necessarily be taken in the scii.se of tlie terms in which it was |iro- 
posi'd bv one of the parties and accepted by tlie otlier. and that it is not lawful 
for cltlii".r of the parties m.w to alter those terms for the purpose of converting 
thai reliiKinishmeut. demanded for a determinate purpose and following a proced- 
ure agreed upon, into an absolute abamlonment. without the object and iiroceiliire 
stipulated, as the .\merican Commission now contends should be done. 

Therefore, what is to be set forth in tli- treaty is not the abandonment which 

the American C.nnmlssion demands, but rather the relimiuishment agr I upon. 

whl.h the Spanish Commission upholds. The case Is analogous to many oth.'rs 
which colonial powers have had to meet when they los, their sovereignty over a I 
or a part of their colonies. N.'vcr did a colonial power abandon, in the sense it is 
now sought to urge, a colony that it might be converted into a new state, free iiiid 
independent. When such a case arose the mother country ceded or ivliiuinisbed her 
sovereignty if the colony had no, coiuincr.d it previously by force of arms, but 

69 



she neviT abandoneil it iu the sense referred to. If the American Commissioners 
are not in accord with this categorical assertion, we beg them to cite one case that 
will contradict it. 

The Spanish Commissioners also beg the American Commissioners to direct 
their calm and enlightened attention to the flagrant contradiction which stands 
out between their theor.v and the acts which the United States have been carry- 
ing into effect. .According to the American c'omnii^ision the onl.T legal situation 
possible over the Island of Cuba between Spain un the one part and the United 
States for themselves or in the name of the Cuban people on the other Is the fol- 
lowing: Spain must abandon the Island of Cuba. The United States after the 
ambandonment are to take possession of the island for the Cuban people. And 
consequentl.v the transit of the island from one situation to another must be made 
without establishing an.v legal bond between Spain and her former colonies and, 
for the latter, the United States. Very well; the forces of the United States con- 
quered Santiago de Cuba and signed a c.ipitulation with the Spanish military an- 
thorities. In this they did not demand that the forces of the mother country 
should abandon Santiago de Cuba, but that it should be delivered to the American 
authorities, an inventory being made which was signed b.y both parties, in which 
is recorded how much the one delivered and the other received. The .American 
Commission which is in Havana, having been appointed pursuant to the provisions 
of Article IV. of the Protocol, demands that the Spanish Commission deliver over 
to it all that belongs to Spain in the exercise of her sovereignty, as well in the 
civil branch as in the military; and this pursuant to the express Instructions of its 
Government; and it is unnecessary to state that this delivery must also be made 
with an inventory. 

In view of these facts is it possible to deny to Spain, upon relinquishing her 
sovereignty over" Cuba( the right to demand that the United States have it deliv- 
ered to themselves? 

But there is more than this: The American Commission, in spite of the the- 
ory it Is urging, has accommodated its tirst steps to the theory urged by the 
Spanish Commission. In the second paragraph of Aritcle I. which the former 
Commission presented on October 3, It calls the relinquishment of the sovereign- 
ty of Spain iu Cuba a cession, not an abandonment. And this cannot be explained 
as a simple inaccuracy in language, because in Article II it establishes what are 
to be the effects of the cession of the sovereignty of Porto Eico. and employs in 
establishing these effects the same, exactly the same, phrases which it had just 
employed in Article I to establish the effects of the relinquishment of the sover- 
eignty in Cuba. A complete proof that the American Commission, notwithstand- 
ing the opinion it sustained in the heat of the debate with the Spanish Commis- 
sion on framing its tirst draft, understood that the effects of the relinquishment 
of sovereignty were the same, exactly the same, as those of a cession. 

And if it is argued that, although the effects are the same, the relinquishment, 
which the American Commission called abandonment, is distingnished from the 
cession in that the former is not made to any one who is to acquire the aban- 
doned territory, whereas, on the contrar.v. cession is made in favor of some one 
who is to acquire ceded territor.v, the American Commissioners also failed to mark 
this difference in their draft, for. speaking iu both articles of the archives and 
other papers whlcl- were to be the object of the relinquishment or cession, they 
say the same thing 't both, employing the same phrases, that every certified copy 
of said document that might be requested by an officer of the Spanish Govern- 
ment should be issued to him at all times, and this is unintelligible save in the 
sense that there must be some one to issue such copy. And it will be impossible 
to issue it save b.v the one having in his possession the document to be copied. 
And he who has not received it cannot have it in his possession. Consequently, 
when the American Commissioners established in Article I the rules relating to 
the delivery of the archives of the Island of Cuba, they acted on the supposition 
that such deliver.v had to be made to some one. And this, and nothing more than 
this, is what they set down in Article II relating to the delivery of the archives 
of the Island of Porto Rico. 

The American Commission, in order to sustain its inadmissible opinion regard- 
ing the abandonment by Spain of the Island of Cuba, relies on the difference which 
appears in the Protocol itself. They say that Spain agreed to cede only Porto 
Rico to the United States, while she bound herself to relinquish the Island of 
Cuba. From this they deduce that the effects of the obligation of Spain with re- 
spect to one are broader than with respect to the other. We have already proved 
by the very text of the draft of articles presented by the said gentlemen that 
when they drew it up they did not even perceive this difference iu the effects 
with respect to Spain. The difference, nevertheless, is well understood under an- 
other aspect. The United States made a demand on Spain and afterwards declared 
war on her that Cuba might become free :ind independent. And It is clear that, 
having conquered, they could not demand that the island be ceded to them, ignor- 

70 



•" Tr-Zl ?:; ,.r ..: n,o .-.n,.. ..o,„„„a ro^nnUn. Porto R.oo. and did s„b- 
conHH-t '"' ''■'^ ';^,.,",.„^,„. „f tue in,„M- inland nnd of the others surrounding 
rr''lwMeL wl. re,X .n"ssime its i„d.,,..„don<-o without tho will and .racious 
Cuba ^'"•-•'^J' „ ;,,"tat.-V which will always hav it at their morny. owinfT to 
Pons.-nt of the I nlteri . u _. ,„.,. „ „,,„,, „f ir„n) m the way of In- 

thelr control over the '^'""''^ '■"■^'™^"*';^,-, '„V ,„„ „„,„„,,,, ^,„oh they said Amerl- 

"•'"T^r u„a whiel S. n bound hevse.f in the artie.e of the ITotocol must 
eiirnty m I uba to n mi n .| , «overei"ntv in the sense uiveii to the 

'"■ ""'^r'r rX.n';-:;:::X-butX'Vi:;t"of a reiiu.uish .,. ..ropeny 

pnrasebytheAnKilcan MM. ^_^^_^^^_ ^^^^.^l^ ^j_^_ A.neriean Gov- 

speakius. as '^^^'^^'^'^j'^^^^'^ this reason it cannot do less than accept as an 
enunent also ^'^-;;^;'^^^"^;^ ,*' bound to relin,p,ish the total sovereignty over 
ofTieuil t"^'"'- ^""^f'J"'^"' f:,. ti^n ,„av bl.nl the United States, which is that of re- 
''?"• ":/'';i^^.;;rm he a of' ^a 'or ..,c Cuban people, for who,,,, aside from 
celvmg the ,sland i° "'^ "" "^ i^j, ^„ ,.,,, ,„.,.,,. inspired their action (although 
the biffh .'>""^"""" ^'° " 1 tbey freely and of their own motion constituted them- 

Spam ca,,not assent J^ , ,^^,f« ,^„^,„,. „ „„. .,.,«„tiorum «estor- (although 

selves a!:e,its. ^^ <' " J' „;,. ^^e not such -in ,-.„i sna,n"). as the law designates 

tPey P>-'-'^: '";;'■ ;^^^';, ^,,^ managing and d._.fe:.ding the interests of another, al- 
""" " , , tt r ma^ not have conferred upon him exnress and official power, 
though the '"" •^"'.^f "^' „„";' „>erefo,.,. believe that tbe counterdraft of the Hrsl 
■rue ^J';'"-; ";™~:a'is fra,.,cd in ,.„. strict sense of Article I of the 

article wh.ch the.> P" ^" . ' .„, ,, „i,|, ,|,e Spanish C<.n,missioue.-s p.-oceed to 

Protocol, save ,n one mipo, t.,,ir j, n . 

take up. , -, , , ,„,,.ric-i denial' l.'.l ..f Spain, as has been said, the re- 

The ^•'"•'-\\';^fV;',,.,i„,„v over mbt in the terms set forth in this memo- 
linqu,sb,nent of tne so\eiei,.iii,> 

i-andum. r ,mniissi,.„ in its last mcmo,-andum but one says that, if Spain 

. The •Y"f';''" ^„ted in he u imatum to the abandonment of the Island of 
l,ad acceded as requ red ,„t ^^^^ everybody would have thought 

Cuba wtthout delivering It to the U ^^ ^^^_ Everybody perhaps would 

that Spain had '.".^''""'f'™"^ states, because it does not seem to tbe Spanish 
have ^.'<'""" so e.eept the U ted S^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^.^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ .^ ^^ ^_^^ ^.^^^^ 

Commission that '. '^ """,., \.,, „„„ t^e United States would have been sati^ 
in Kurope or America «hKlo- abstaining fro,,, all 

fled with ^^P-" -'^;'',;.1J,X rthat the people inhabiting It should continue 
intervcnt,o„ „, the Ureatt. Anjine^ s nntUT!i\ right, making of 

n..,ingan,ong,hen.se.ve^^^^^^^^^^ ^^.,_.,.,^^ .„ ^..^.„. „f ,„,,, „„,. 

IS::^-;;:':^ mrwlt^orwit, ,-eference to the will of ,he United 

*'"tf '■. the undeniable and immediate result of these terms tha, the United 
It IS the uudenlaniL . u ^^^^._^ .^ ^^^^. ^^^^ _.^^_, __,,^. ^^.^^ ,„. 

treaty relative to such relin.,uishment ,.„n,„,issi„ners. But, animated by 

doing so had co,,,e. . ,i,.fei-ence to the 

Bv this proposition the Spanish Com n„ss,one,-s '-: ^ "■,^,„" ;*:,,„ „,e paci- 
U,.it«l States, the most important right he d by Sp„>. " ' ; '•„ "^,,„ J,,,,. 
flcation of the island shall be ..ITected. that ,he> d,, not ,.ta,n 
eignty. and that they pass it o^",'" ^^ •''' P;;';^ .^ „,„ „„, „ ,, ,i,e intent of the 
The American Com,niss,on pcr>is,s ,„ "'"""-''■''"„,„ („ demand that It 
united States, but does not want the notorious nght of Spain to 
be carried out in due time to be of reco,-d in t.;<"V;^" .■„,„, ,„ „.,.epting the 

But since the American Commissioners are dec,de,II.% opposKi to ' 

proX. -ticle because of their constructio,, tha, ^[^ ";;^X"7ZZ^^y^'^ 
article of the Protocol, the Spanish '■"■''""7';'"'';;;,,:'''./;U' ,.',.,. hut will 
will m.t only strictly ag,-ee with the c:,r,vc, „,ean„.g "I Ib.,i nr. , 

71. 



be seen to be worded imt only in its very terms bnt also in tlie seurenres literally 
eopied from tbe notes wliieli |>reee(kMl its draftinfr and determined its imijoi-t. 

Here is the new i)I)rasi'olo;;y whieli is proposed in snbstitution for tbe previons 
one: 

"Her t'atholie Majesty, the giieeii lieneTit .if Spain, in the name of her Ansinst 
son. Don Alfon/.o XIII. Kin;; of Spain, thereniito eonstitntionally authorized by 
the Cortes of the Klnjtdoni. reliniiuislirs her so\ treii^nt.v over anil title to i'ut)a. 

"The United S.tates of Anierlea. areeptin^' said relincpilshmeut. reeeive tbe 
Island of I'nba from Spain to lend it aid and fsiiidam-e ami Indd it nnder their con- 
trol and soverumeut UTitil the p.ieiiiiMtion tliereof rcalizeil. they leave said eontrol 
and i.'overnment to ihe I'ulian ipei.ple," 

Basis of This Article. 

l-ara^rapb one is I lu trans.-ript i>t Aiii,!c> I ..f ilie I'roioi-ol with the ihauaes 
of diplomatie form. 

The import and phraseology of par.r.; rapli two are taken from the nliimatum 
addressed tcj Si)ain b.\- the (itpvernnient of Washington and efminiunieated on the 
20th of April last by the Secretary of State to the Minister of Spain at Washing- 
ton. There also appear therein the view.s and the sentences i)f tbe Anierii'.an 
Government set forth in the reply of the Secretary of State of Washington of the 
31st of Jul.v last ti> the messa.ire of tbe Spaitish Government proposing to termin- 
ate the war. Here are the said sentences: 

"The Government of the United Stall's lias not shared the apprehensions of 
Spain (that of the lack of present aptitnde of the Cuban people for iudepeudeuee) 
bnt thinks that in the perturbed and prostrate conditions of the island the said 
Island needs aid and KUidauce. which the .\merican Government is iireparcd to 
grant to it." 

There is, therefore, in the new drafting of the article, no other import nor 
other phra.ses than those set forth in tbe ultimatum of the United States to Spain 
in the aforementioned note of their Secretary of State and in the Protocol worded 
in compliance with the ultimatum aud in accordance with the intent of the United 
States, as set forth in the aforesaid not e. 

Notwithstanding that, the Spanish Commissioners especially request the Amer- 
ican Commissioners to bear in mind that, if the legitimate demands on the part of 
Siiaiu that the tieaty mention lier riglit to ask in due time of the ITnited States of 
America the fulfilment of the engagement spontaneousl.v undertaken by them, to 
leave the Island of Cuba free and independent whenever jn'ace is restored, be 
distasteful to them, the former are reail,v to forego this demand, leaving it ex- 
clusively to the determination of the United States to decide at what time this 
engagement .should be fultilled. if the conclusion of the pending treaty of pe:ice 
can be snltserved by sucli renunciarion 1).\- the Spanish Commissioners. 

The American Commissioners also reject Hie other articles of the draft sub- 
mitted by the Spaniards. 

They do not admit that the charges and obligations of the sovereign which 
proceed exclusively from the public ser\ici. of the cidon.v are part of the sover- 
eignty. The Spanish Commission, without entering upon a purely technical dis- 
ctis.siou of the question as to whether sucli obligations form part of the sovereignty 
or are merely an effect of the exercise of the sovereignty itself, for tbe result of 
such a discussion would be absolutely without eft'ect upon the point on vi'hich 
the Commissioners ou both parts do not agree, will simply proceed briefly to set 
riglit the facts and the opinions which are set forth in the American memorandum 
of the 14th instant. In order to demonstrate that the colonial obligations of .Sjiain 
iu Cuba must not remain a charge upon that isl.-ind. the American Commissioners 
state that these obligations were contracted by tlie Crown through the medium of 
its officials in the colony, but without an.v intervention or consent towards sucli 
obligations on the part of the colony. 

It is true, the colonial .system then prevailing in Spain did not confer upon its 
colonies the right of having elected Chambers which would administer the .su- 
preme powers in con.innction with the so^'ereign. In the last twenty years, how- 
ever, it was not thus. Tbe .\ntilles bad representalives in both Chambers who 
surely intervened in all the li'gislative acts bearing upon colonial obligations witli- 
out ever protesting against their lawfulness or binding force. Moreover, besides 
this, ir cannot be denied that so long as this system iirevailed. maiiitainiiig all 
the cliaracteristics of le,galit.v established .it the time, tbe acts which the colonial 
sovereignty performed witliin the powers witli which it was invested by law, were 
perfectly lawful, .■iiid carried, as tlicy ciild not fail to do, all their rightful con- 
sequences. It is a fundainciital maxiiii of public law, without whicll the credit of 
a state could not exist. Imm.ius,. the v.Uiility of all Its acts uoiild always be at the 
merc.\ uf any l riiiiiiphanl i-i.\-olutioiiar.\' nio\ (-aieiit wh.i lsoe\ er. 'Pbe wisdom of 



the ac-ls of tho s(ivi>ri'i«ii iiim.v Ih' iHsiiiss.mI. Inn n lu-n Ihi-.v liavi' lirrii cxi'i-iilcil 
by virtue r>f his attributes ami in Ilie s.ilenm form reeojiiiized and <-slahllslieil by 
law. their lawfulness anil liluilin;.' iharai-tin- are uol a matter tor (llsi'ussloii. 

This principle was recognized by the First Consul when he concluded his first 
treaty of August 'J-l. I.SOI. witli Havana. In its fifth article be agreed to ai)ply lb.' 
provision of the Luneville treaty of peace with regard to the mortgage debts (jf 
the country on the left bank of the Rhine, In those territories there were Diets 
which participated in the p.vwer of tho sovereign, and for this reastm the said 
treaty of I.uneville demanded that such debts should have been agrecil to by thcni. 
But in the Puchy of Deux-I'onts and In that i)art of tlie Palatinate of the Uliini- 
which France acquired by the treaty with Havaria there was no sui-li a govern- 
mental institution, and. therefore, the First Consul agreed in the treaty of 18(11 
that tlie debts should follow the countries, provideil they had been registered at 
their origin by the supreme adinlnlstrative authority. 

If tile position opposed to this doctrine were luaintained. the Uussian people 
might lH> exempted from meeting all the obligafous thai may have been or may 
be contracte<l by Its Emperors while thl.s system should i>btain. for the administra- 
tion and government of their Empire, iu the event of tlie abolition of the auto- 
cratic system now prevailing in Russia. The United States themselves, who as a 
matter of fact coutinued to obseiwe after their emancipation many of the provis- 
ions of law enacted previously without their intervention by the |io\vcr of the 
mother country, would have to return to Russia Alaska, which the Kiuperor sold 
to them in 18C7 without the interveutiou in such sale of the inhabitants of the 
country thus sold; lilcewis.' tlii^y sliould return to Spain Flori.la, for tlic same 
reason, etc. 

If in order that a debt be lawful it be iu»ccssary that the people wliich has 
to pay the same should intervene when it is incurred, when the law does not con- 
fer such intervention, how much more neees.sary must the iutervention of a peo- 
ple be when its sovereign sells the territory wbicli it inhabits. 

The very act of cession of sovereignty over the Antilles would be tainleil with 
nullity, since the Cuban and Porto Ricaii peoples have uot been consulted and 
have not e.^pressed their formal as,sent to the Protocol of Washington. Such are 
the consequences of a theory which in the heat of discussion has been advanced 
in the memorandum of the .\meri<-an Coiiiinissioners. 

Tlie very point which most limits the frei'doin of action of sovereigns in tlie 
conclusion of their treaties is that relative to the debts of their states. As to the 
integrity of their territory and even as to their own honor they may bind them- 
selves freely and validly becjiiise they dispose of what is their own. But this lib- 
erty is curtailed when their acts immediately reflect on the lawful riglits of those 
private parties who lawfully acquired said rights under the protection of the laws 
and have thereafter liad no part whatsoever in the conflicts which are solveil by 
treaties, and should consequently not suffer unduly from the con.seciueni'cs of sueh 
treaties to the prejudice of their private and legitimate interesls. 

When the creditors of a state make a i-ontract with the same, they always take 
Into earnest account the conditions of solvency of the state to which tliey lend 
their property. Hence, when these conditions of solvency are impaired in couse- 
queiice of territorial cessions, tlie High Contracting Parties between whom these 
cessions are effected, that which makes the ce.s.sion as well as that wliicli acquires 
the ceded territory, always endeavor wholly to respcet such riglits by means of a 
partition of the obligation between the territory kejil by the ceding sovereign and 
the territory acquired Iiy the sovereign to whom it is eedeil. This is what has been 
done in the treaties of ti'rritori.al ce:isi, n. 

But when the creditors have been granted by the very certificate of tlieir con- 
tract a direct lien on certain defined property or I'ertain defined inccune. in order 
thus to recover the loaned capital and its legitimate interest, the sovereign caiiUiit 
then, 'vithont first reckoning with their consent, cede or freely dispose of such prop- 
erty and incomes as if they were his full and exclusive property. 

If a sovi reign should consent thus to trample upon rights which are not his 
own. those to whom such riglits appertain would not bo bound to submit and re- 
main without appeal, in the name of the sacred principles which protect private 
Iiroperty. to the respect of what belongs to him. whoevir be may be who has In 
his power that which lawfully belongs to him. 

And it were well in this connection formally to record that even granting that 
the principle sustained by the Spanish and contested by the -American Commission, 
to wit, that the colonial debt should not be chargeable to the mother country. Is 
Inadmissible, this could never mean that Si>nin should now assume, with resiieet 
to the holders of that d bt. more obligations than she contracted upon creating It, 
And. therefore, with respi.<t to th.-it part of the debt where she contracted only j 
subsidiary obligntiou to jiay (since at Issne It was expressly scured by i'ertain and 
determinaie revenues and reieiiits). Spain will have the right, under the law. to 

73. 



consider that she is not lyound to pay such debt sjive in the fvpnt of the revenucB 
and receipts primarily hyiiotheej^ted to the payment thereof proving: ins^iffioient. 
for not until then, according to the elementary rules of law, will the subsidiary 
obIi^^^tion siie contracted be enforceable. 

Without expatiating to-day (\pn the information, very incorrect, whicli is set 
forth in the American memorandum concerning the Cuban debt, the Spanish Com- 
mission would confine itself to assertinj; that as a general rule the Island of Cuba 
has not since its discovery covered its own expenses. 

As long as Spain kept the American colonies the island was sustained b.v the 
pecuniary aid of her sisters and sptcially by that of the Vice-Royalty of Mexico. In 
this century, for a very few years, she had a surplus, thanks to the development of 
her natural resources, at last ol)tained through this assLstance, and it is true that 
this surplus was turned over to the treasury of the Peninsula. But with this excep- 
tion it is patent that the general accounts of the Spanish state from 1.S9G-1807 show 
that the treasury of the Peninsula advanced to Cuba, in the years preceding that 
recent peiiod, a sum amounting to 429,602,013.08 pesetas. There also appears an ad- 
vance to Porto Rico of .S,22n,4SS.r>7 pesetas, and to Santo Domingo 1.397,161.69 pe- 
setas. 

The prosperity of Cuba was ot short duration; for the greater part of the tlmefrom 
the days of Columbus, by reason either of tlie scarcity of its Inhabitants or of the 
slavery of the black race which formed the majority, or lastly because Spaniards 
preferred to coloni/.e other parts of Am'Tica. the island was unable to develop 
its natural resources; and it was nevei-thcless constantly necessary to expend in the 
Island the large sums which were required for the establishment of reform and the 
creation of the institutions which are the essential conditions of modern life. 

The Spanish Commission cannot "but protest against the assertion made in the 
American memorandum that the ten years insurrection was the outcome of just 
grievances, and it regrets that such an assertion should have been made without a 
necessit.v which would have required it unavoidably, in the same way as the 
American Commission would surel.v. and with good reason, regret that the Spanish 
Commission should say anything here without an imperative necessity of the jus- 
tice of the rebellions of the natives of the immense American territory which the 
United States had so often to suppress with an iron hand, and if it should also say 
an.vthing of the right by which the Soutnern States attempted to break tlie federal 
■bond by the force of arms. 

It is useless, for reasons that will hereinafter be stated, for the Spanish Com- 
missioners to take up the concrete discussion of the divisions of the Cuban debt to 
which reference is made in the American memorandum. They understand the errors 
that may have found their way into that document, because it is very natural that 
the American Commissioners should niit have- such accurate knowledge as is requi- 
site for precise judgment of the acts of tlie Spanish administration in the Penin- 
sula or in its colonies. 

And we find a confirmation nf this in the facts. 

In regard to the argument against the recognition of a certain part of the Cuban 
debt, on the ground that the rebellion ot a minority of the Cuban people to obtain 
their independence was just, we have only to make the following remark; 

The insurgent minority, it is true, rose up in arms to secure 'the independence 
of the island. The Unite<l States erroneousl.v believed that their cause was just, and 
by force of arms caused it to prevail against Spain. But now the facts have 
shown that Spain was right, as the United States themselves have had to recognize 
that the Cuban people are not as yet in such conditions as are necessary to entitle 
them to the enjoyment of full liberty and sovereignty. It is upon this ground thai 
the United States have decided to withhold from that people the said privileges 
and to hold them under American control until they become able to enjoy that lib- 
erty prematurely demanded by them. 

The Spanish Commission feels bound, furthermore, to call the attention of the 
American Commission to the obligations of Porto Rico. 

The American '^memorandum" which is now answered refers exclusively to the 
obligations of Cuba. Is this omission due to the belief that as the sovereignty over 
Porto Rico was not relinquished but cedeii by Spain to the United States, it must 
be conveyed to the latter free from burdens of all kinds? Is the principal main- 
tained that cessions of territory, for whatever causes, whether conquest, or a mere 
agreement, do not carry witli them ispo facto all the burdens which encumber the 
ceded territory? 

In the oral discussion the American Commissioners stated that the Spanish Gov- 
ernment had declared that no debt rested on the smaller .\ntille. The Spanish 
Commissioners have carefully gone over all the written communications that have 
passed between the two High Parties, from the ultimatum of the President of the 
Union of April 20 of this year to the signing of the Protocol in Washington on 
August 12 of the same. In none of them have they found a suggestion or trace of 
such a declaration. And, be it said in passing, tliat among other obligations, the 

74. 



smiilhr Antille has bw.'n Imnli'iiril Inr vi-ry many years witli a part, whldi tbi>ii!;li 
small Is no less sacred, of the iHTiiottial and truly Just eharge through which Spain, 
In the name of America rather than her oa^ti. has been showing her gratitude to the 
Immortal Columbus, who discovered It, and his legitimate descendants, and, should 
the conclusions of the .\nierican Commissioners prevail and Spain continue paying 
it, logic would place the United States in the position of repudiating it. 

But the fact is that the discussion upon the so-called Cuban debt seems to lack 
opportunity at the present. 

Tlie American Commissioners, when referring to tiie principal items of the said 
debt, doubtless believed that the Spanish Commission had suggested in its draft the 
si^id items to he at once admitted as colonial debt to be transferred together with 
the sovi relgnty cither to Cuba or to tbo rnitcd States: and this is tile capital error 
upon which the American memorandum is l)ased. The Spanish Commissioners only 
wish that the principle, np to this time always admitted, to wit: that a debt t>eiug 
exclusively the debt of a colony and afiftrctlng its territory, goes with the colony Itself, 
be also recognized in this treaty. The American memorandum says notlilng in con- 
tradictUm of this [)riuciple. nor do the SiKtnish Commissioners expect that anything 
be now said against it. h ast of all by I lie I'nitid States, whose territory was 
acquired by them not only with their l)iood but aI>o with the inone.v of their treas- 
ury. There are pul>liclsls wiio maintain tiiat the thirteen original States paid over 
to their mother country fifteen million pounds sterling l£15.uOO,0iK)i: and the facts 
are official that the United states paid to I''r;ince, Spain, the Indian nations and 
Rtissia respectively considerable sums of mttney for Lotusi-ana, Florida, the Indian 
States. Texas, California and .\laska. This instance would he the first one in the 
hlstor.v of the United States, in wlilch the.v, acting at variance with their own tra- 
ditions, should have gratuitously acquired a territory which sooner or later will be 
annexed to the Union. 

The case of the acquisition of Texas, identical as to its origin, its process and its 
end with that of the Island of Cuba, eloquently shows that the policy then pursued 
with Mexico by the United States is different from the one now pursued with Spain. 
In the case of Mexico the American arm'es, also in support of insurgents, the Texan 
Insurgents, spread themselves over the territory of the whole Mexican Uepubllc, 
and went as far (a fact which has not talien place in Cuba) as to capture the na- 
tional capital. The United States demauded then from Mexico the independence of 
Texas as they now demand from Spain the indeiiendence of Cuba, and furthermore 
they caused Mexico to cede to them New Mexico and California, as now they caude 
Spain to cede to them Porto Itico and the other Spanish islands in the West Indies. 
But in the case of Mexico they did not ask from her CJovernmcnt any war indem- 
nity, and consented not only to pay her the value of the territories ceded and an- 
nexed to the American Empire, hut also to assume tlic payment of thn American 
claims then standing agjiinst Mexico. 

In the case of Spain, however, they have demanded from her, in the way of war 
indemnity, the cession of the Islands above mentioned, and ask now, additionally, 
that the burdens which encuml>er those islands as well as their sister Cuba be 
thrown on the mother country, who with her own hands introduced them into the 
life of the civilized world. 

The only wish of tiie Spanish Commissioners is that the principle above referred 
to be admitted and recognized. Its practical application may. according to their 
understanding of the subject, he afterwards entrusted to a Commission of righteous 
and impartial persons. If this Commission upon examination of the 1)111 of items to 
be tiled by Spain, showing wiiat obligations ouglit in her opinion to be paid by either 
Cuba or Porto Kicii siiould th'<-ide tiia tiiose obligations must fail on the mother 
country, Spain shall submit to its decision. But if the Commission decides that the 
whole or a part of the said debts ought to be paid by the colony, there is no reason 
why tlie United States in their turn should not also submit to the award. If the 
United States feel so sure, as they seem, in thiir position, they cannot sec any 
danger In assenting to the proposition herein made by tiio Spanish Comndsslon. But 
if Uiey are not so sure, their high sense of Justice and the duty of respect which 
they owe to thems Ives impose upou them the obligation of causing a matter of 
mere pecuniary interest to be made subordinate to the sacred cause of Justice. 

And in order to show to the Americ.in Commission that the Spanisli Commis- 
sioners have no other wish than the one stated, and that their purpose is nut by 
any means to have a fixed sum adjudged at this time, as a colonial debt to be paid 
by the Spanish Antilles, they have decided to withdraw Articles II, IV and V, as 
drawn up by them in their former draft, and offer as a sitbstitute for the thn-e, a 
single article reading as follows; 



"AUTICLE II. 

"The i-eliiKiuisbim-nt and traiisfi-r m.iae by Her Catholic Majesty and accepted 
by the United States of America embrace: _ 

"1. All the prerogatives, pon-ers and rights belonging to her Catholic Majesty 
as a part of her sovereignty over the Island of Cuba and its inhabitants. 

"2. All the Charges and pecuniary obligations, outstanding at the date of the 
ratification of this treaty, which upon cartful examination of their origin, their pur- 
'poses and the conditions of their creation, should be adjudged according to strict law 
and undeniable equity to be different from the charges and obligations which prop- 
erly and specifically belong to the Peninsular treasury, owing to their having been 
at all times properly and specifically belonging to Cuba. 

"To secure the careful examination provided for in the foregoing paragraph, a 
Conmiission consisting of competent and impartial persons shall be appointed by 
the two Higli Contracting Parties. The manner of this appointment shall be deter- 
mined in this treaty by a separate article." 

The American Commissioners do not feel disposed to concur with the Spanish 
Commissioners in the exception made bv the latter in the second paragraph of Ar- 
ticle III. of their draft, regarding what is called p.atrimonlal property of the state. 
The state, under the Spanish laws, exercises all rights of o^vnership over the prop- 
erty declared by law to be public property, .and it is plain that in this case the 
cession of the sovereignt.v carries with 't the cession of all those rights. But the 
state in Spnin can also, in the capacity of a body politic, or corporation, acquire and 
hold real property, b.v the same means and through the same processes as private per- 
sons can do under civil mimlclpal la^^'. This peculiar kind of property was the on& 
referred to in the exception suggested by tlie Spanish Commissioners. Notwith- 
standing tills fact, and in order to show once more that they feel disposed to com- 
promise differences, and to promote peace, the Spanish Commissioners do hereby 
waive the said exception, and acce|it that the patrimonial property of the state be 
also included in the cession and tran.sfer of the sovereignty of Spain over tbe An- 
tilles. 

As to the other exceptions which were then suggested, the Spanls^li Commission 
cannot believe that the American Commission will ever refuse to accept them. The 
American Commission in its draft refers onl.v to individual property. But the Honor- 
able Commissioners of the United States are not ignorant of the fact, and the mere 
suggestion of it would involve an offense to their great learning, that in addition 
to individual persons there are other persons, capable In all civil societies, of law- 
fully acquiring and holding property both real and personal. Commercial and in- 
dustrial firms, ordinary co-partnerships, ptiblic establishments, whether charitable 
institutions, schools, or others, can in Spain and her colonies acquire and hold prop- 
erty and enjoy the same protection as is given under the laws to the propert.v of 
Individual persons. All the exceptions suggested in the second paragraph of Article 
III. of the Spanish draft, refer to the property belonging to the said coi-porate enti- 
ties, which cannot be considered as individual persons. 

Certain phrases to be found in the fourth paragraph of the same article, relating 
to the delivery of imblic archives, and stating that the United States shall exercise 
over them the same rights and be subject to the same obligations as Spain, have 
attracted the attention of the American Commission. The explanation of the reason 
Tvhy these phrases were used is easy to be made. Properl.v speaking, the state is 
not the absolute owner of the public archives, but rather the keeper or depositor.v of 
the same. It Is for this reason that it cannot destroy the documents which belong 
to them, or dispose of them by sale or otherwise, and also, that no citizen can be 
deprived of the right to make use of those documents in defense of his rights. Can 
It be In the power of the state to destroy the Registries of the Etat-civil and with 
them all the evidence as to the civil condition or status of all its citizens? Can 
'it be in its power to destroy the property registries, wherein the title deeds and the 
proofs of the ownership of ail property are kept and preseiwed? Certainly not. But 
this is precisely what is meant by the plirases above mentioned. The United States 
shall have the same rights as far as their archives aii^ concerned as .Spain used to 
have; — and those rights, the only ones vested in Spain, are also the only ones which 
She can transfer to the United States. 

Nevertheless, and in order to remove from tile minds of the Ami-rican Commis- 
sioners any possible doubt as to the real intention of the Spanish Commissioners, 
in framing as they did the aforesaid Article III, they have decided to consent to 
modify that article and word It in a different way, omitting to except from the 
operation of the cession the patrimonial property of the statL\ and explaining the 
points which the American Commissioners deemed to be doubtful. Here Is the text 
of the article as amended: 



•Ai;Tiri,K 111 

•In i.ursuiiuv of the agrefmont contalneil in the two prwedini; articles. He.- 
Cntholk- Maie-ity aotins In the same repres(.ntatlve capacity in which this treaty ■« 
entered into rc'linaulsl.es and transfers t.. the fnite,! .Statts all the hnlidin^.^. 
wharves ha'rracks. fortresses, establishments, pnbllc highu-ays, and all other real 
propert.v' which a.>pertaln under the law to the i.ublic domain, and «-liich as such 
belons to the Crown of Spain In the Island of Cuba. 

'The rights and the property of all kinds whatsoever wMch up to the date of 
the ratification of this treatv have been either p,.ae<.fully exercised, or possessed or 
held by the provinces, municipalities, public or private Institutions, civil or ecclesi- 
astical corpoRitlons. or any other collective entities having legal c;.pacity to a.qulre 
and hold prepertv in the Island of Cuba, and by private individuals of whatsoever 
nationality shall not lie included In the relinquishmrnt and transfer above made. 

"Her (itholie Majesty al.so relinquishes and transfers to the United States a'l 
the documents and title papers exclusively relating to the sovereignty tniusfirre.t 
and accepted and to all rights thereof, which may be found in the archives of the 
Peninsula. Copies shall also be given to the IJnlted States whenever they may ask 
for them, of the passages concerning the said sovereignty and riglits. which may 
occur in other documents not relating to the Island of Cuba, but to other subjecls 
foreign to it, which may exist in the said archives. And the same shall be ob- 
served recipi-ocally in favor of Spain regarding documents and papc-rs. haviti.- 
nothing to do. either in whole or in part, with the Island of Cuba, now to be found 
in the Cuban archives, which may be of interest to the Spanish Government. 

•'All th • official archives and registries, whether belonging to the judicial or t.i 
the executive ilepartmeiits of the Government, now al the disposal of the Spanish 
Government and its authorities in the Island of Cuba, and relating to the sa'd 
island or its inhabitants, and to their rights and property, shall be left without re- 
striction of anv kind at the disposal of the United States, in order that the latter 
may keep thmi with the same powers whieh were heretofore vested in the Spanlsn 
Government and authorities. 

••Private indiviiluals. whether Spaniards or Cuban.s. shall have the right to ask 
for and obtain, in the niannir provided by law, authenticated copies of all co.i- 
tracts. last wills and testaments, and other documents to be found in the notarial 
archives, which are deemed to form piirt of the judicial or executive archives either 
in Spain or in Cuba." 

Article VI of the Spanish draft did not set forth the reason of the cession made 
by Spain in favor of the Unite<l States of the Island of Porto Rico, the other Span- 
ish Antilles, and of the Island of Guam 'n the Marianas. That reason nevertheless 
was explained in the despatch of the Secretary of State of the United States in his 
answer to the message transmitted to him by the Spanish Government. Said des- 
patch states that the President of the Republic did not demand the payment of any 
war indemnity, owing to his desire to give testimony of signal gmerosity. and then 
it says: 

"Nevertheless he cannot be Insensible to the losses and expenses of the United 
States Incident to the war or to the claims of our citizens for injuries to their per- 
sons and property during the late insurrection in Cuba. He must, therefore, re- 
quire the cession to the United Statts and the immediate evacuation by Spain of 
the Island of Porto Rico and other islands now under the sovereignty of Spain in the 
West Indies, and also the cession of an island in tho Ladrones, to be selected by 
the I'nited States." 

The island designated by them was the Island of Guam. 

The Spanish Commissioners have now decided to change the text of the article 
as formerly framed by thim and oiler as a substitute another article which wi'l 
leave on record the rea.son of the cession. It is quite certain that the American Com- 
mission will agree with the Spanish Cmii mission In the advisability of pnn-enting 
the United States from being shown in the treaty as acquiring gratuitously the said 
islands. Here is the nuw text "f the articl": 

"ARTICT.E IV. 

•■In comi)ensation for the loss and xpenses incurred by the United States on 
account of the war and for the elaims of their citizens for damages done to their 
persons or property during the last insurrection In Cuba, Her Catholic Majesty. In 
Ihe name and in representation of Spain, and constitutionally authorized to do so 
by the Cortes of the Kingdom, cedes to the UnitMl States of America, and the latter 
accept for themselves the Island of Porto Rico and all other islands in the West In- 
dies which are now under the sovereignty of Spain, and also the Island of Guam In 
the Marianas or I/adrones .\rchipehigo. .vhlch was chosen by the United States by 
virtue of .\rtlcle II of the Protocol signed at Washington on August 12 ultimo." 

In regard to Article VII In the draft of the Spanish Commission, the latter under- 

77 



stands that it is its duty, for the reasons stated in this memorandum, to leave it as 
it is, with no other change than that which is required indispensably to put it iu 
harmony with the new ^^tiei^s now introiluced. In eonsequenee thereof, it wiil read 
as foilows: 

"ARTICLE V. 

"This cession of sovereiRnty ipver the territory and inhabitants of Porto Rieo 
and the other islands mentioned is understood to consist in the transfer of the 
rlirhts and obligations, propert.v and documents relating to the sovereignty over said 
islands, in the same way as was provided in the preceding articles in reference to 
the relinquishnu nt and transfer of the sovereisnty over the Island of Cuba." 

It results, iu recapitulation, that the only question up to now in existence be- 
tween the two Commissions and awaiting their decision is a question of raonfy, 
which as far as one of the High Contracting! Parties is concerned is relatively of 
secondary importance. Thnt question is the one which relates to the colonial debt. 

The Spanish Comm-is.sioni rs understand that a question of such a nature as this 
cannot fail to be solved, satisfactorily between two parties, one of which is the 
greatest nation of the new world, immensely rich aud prosperous, blessed with Inex- 
haustible resources, whether due to nature or to the prodigious activity of Its in- 
habitants, which on the other hand acquires by this treaty territories of great im- 
portance, and thfreby tulflls an aspiration of its iiolicy in America, while the other 
party is a great and noble nation of the old world, a cordial friend of her late an- 
tagonist in days for her more prosperous, but now impoverished through the misfor- 
tunes heaped upon her during the century which is about to terminate; whose tre.is- 
ury is overburdened b.v obligations, and for whom the present treaty will mean the 
solemn conlirmatiou of the loss of the last remnants of her American empire, al- 
though through her discovery of the new world she was instrumental in the very ex- 
istence of the Great American Republic, and to the enriohment of the modern na- 
tions, perhaps at the expense of her own welfare and to the detriment of the full 
development of the great elements of wealth accumulated in lier own bosom but 
neglected through iier desire preferentially to attend to her colonies, creatures who 
bke all others in the order of nature enli-Jt the utmost solicitude on the part of their 
mother, who feeds and supports them at the sacrifice of her own welfare. 

True copy: 

EMILIO DE OJEPA. 



78 



Protocol No. 10. 



Protocolo No. 10. 



CONFERENCE 
of October 27. 1898. 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 27 de Octubre de 1898. 



Present— 
On the part of tlip I'nitpil Statps: 

ilossrs. DAY, 

DAVIS, 

FUYK. 

i;i!AY, 

i:i:ii). 

.MOOHK. 
KKKCtSSO.N. 
Ou I lip part of Spain: 
Mpssi-s. .MONTKKO RIOS. 
ABAKZUZA. 
(lARMCA. 
VlLLAIItlU TTA. 
CEKEUO. 
OJEPA. 

The protocol of the preppdiiiff session was 
rp.id and approved. 

The Amprican Coniniissionprs prpsputpd 
their written reply, oopy of which i.s hereto 
annexed, to the meiuarandum filed by the 
Spani.*?h Coniiniissionprs at thp last session 
in supptirt of tlip articles which they pre- 
sented on the 21st instant, and which were 
afterwards rejected by the American Com- 
missioners. 

The American Commissioners, referring 
to the acceptance by the Spanish Commis- 
sioners, in the terms expressed in the pro- 
tocol of the last session, of the artic'lps 
presented by the American Commissinnprs. 
said that they were uncertain wliplher thi- 
acceptance was intpndpil lo apply h. tin 
articles first or to those last i)rpspnicil by 
them, and suggested that, if it was Imma- 
terial lo the Spanish Commissioners, the 
American Commissioners preferred that the 
acceptance should tx' taken to refer to the 
articles first presented oy them, as those 
articles contained provisions as to public 
archives and records. 

THE PRESIDENT of the Spanish Com- 
mission replieil that, as his acceptance of 
the articles was conditional upon the ap- 
proval of the treaty of peace, he had no ob- 
jection to accepting these or any other ar- 
ticles, and especially as the first article of 
the American project was the same, saving 
differences in diplomatic form, as the first 
paragraph of the first Spanish articles; but 
that he did not mean that he renounced the 
second paragraph of that article, and that 
with respect to this part and to the other 
articles presented by Spain, he reserved, as 
provided in the protocol of the fifth ses- 
sion, ail the rights theri'in contained. If 
there was no ultimate agreement upon the 
wliole. 

THE PRESIDENT of the American Com- 
mission replied that the American Coinmis- 
e'oners were content to take the acceptance 



I'resentes 

Por parte de los Sstados Unidos de .Vmel- 
,ca,' 
Ins Spnores DAY. 

DAVIS. 

FRYE. 

GRAV. 

REID. 

M()t>RE. 

I'EUGIISON. 
i'nr |iarte de Espana: 
los Senores MONTERO RIOS. 

ABARZIIZA. 

CAliXlGA. 

VILLA-rliKll'IA. 

CERERd, 

O.IEDA. 

Fue leida y a[irobada el acta dp la seslon 
anterior. 

Los Coinisarios americanas hacen entrega 
de su pontpstaeion escrita que es anpxa aX 
acta presente. ai Memorandum presentado 
por los espanoles en apoyo de los articulos 
presentados por ellos en la sesion del 21 del 
corriente. que fueron rechazados por los 
Comisarios ampricanos. 

I. OS Comisarios americunos reflrieudose a 
ia aceptacinn por los Comisarios espanoles, 
i*n his tprminos expresados pn el actu de la 
ultima sesion. de los articulos presentados 
por los Comisarios americanos, manifesta- 
ron hallarse inciertos sobre si dicha acep- 
I a clou se referia a los articulos prlmera- 
mente presentados por ellos o a los ultl- 
Dios. .v sugirieron que si a los Comisarios 
pspaniilps les era indifereute. los Comisari- 
os americanos preferirian que la acepta- 
pion recaye.se sobre los artlcnjios primera- 
mente presentados por ellos. por contener 
estos dlsposiciones relativas a los Arciiivos 
publicos y expedientes. 

E; Presidente de la Comlsiou eS)Miuola 
pontesta que siendo su aceptaciou de dichos 
articulos condicional de la aprobaeion del 
tratado de paz, no tiene inponvenieute en 
acpptar estos u otros articulos, tanto mas 
puanto que el articulo lo del proyecto 
americano, es Igual, salvo las diferenclas 
de canclllerla, al primer parrafo del ar- 
tipido tspanol: pero que esto no significa 
que renuncle a la sesunda. parte de dlcho 
articulo lo presentado por Espana, y que 
en cnanto a esta parte del articulo y a los 
deiuas presentados por Espana, se reserva 
1 0lios los deechos que coni.ienen, como se 
ponvlno eti el acta de la 5a. .sesion, si no 
liubiese acuerdo ulterior subre la totalidad. 

i;i I'rpsidpnie de la Comlslon americaua 
(oiitesto que la.s Comisarios americanos se 
avenian a que la acept-iclon de los Comisa' 



79 



of the Spanish Commissioners, as expressed 
in their paper, and entered in tlje protoeol 
of the last conference, as applying to the 
articles last snbmitted, which were ex- 
pressed in the words of the Protocol of 
August 1-2. ISyS. 

THE PRESIDENT of the Spanish Com- 
mission repeated that the form and word- 
ing of tliose or of the other articles was a 
matter of indifference to him; and he asked 
whether the American Commissioners wiiuid 
object to inserting in the article in which 
the cession of i'orto Rico and the other 
islands in the West Indies and tin- Island 
of Guam was made, or in any of tin- ntlii'r 
articles of the treaty, a statement that ilic 
cession was made as indemnity for tlie ex- 
penses of the war, and thi' injuries suffered 
during it by American citizens. 

THE I'KESIliENT of the American <'om- 
niission replied that the articles slicmld 
stand as wio'n they were accepted, and. he 
considered, as disposed of for tlie present; 
adding further that the American Commis- 
sioners did not mean to be understood that 
it should not appear in some proper fco-m 
in the treaty that the cession of Porto Kico 
and rhe idlier islands above referred to 
was on account of indemnity for the losses 
and in,iuries of American citizens and the 
cost of the war. This view had been ex- 
pressed in the note addressed to tJie Spanish 
Government containing the demand of the 
President of llie United Stales, and the 
American Commissioners rei*(»gnized the 
force and meaning of that demand. 

THE PRESIDENT of the Spanisli Com- 
mis.sion said that it was not ais intention 
Dnw to discuss this point, loit to state his 
desire tliat the question and tlie answer 
to it shoulii be entered in the prutocol, 

THE PRESIDENT of the Spanish Com- 
mission then iminired whether the Ameri- 
can Commissioners were ready to answer 
the Avritteu proposal presented by the Span- 
ish Commissioners at the last session, in 
which the.y accejil ed conditionally the two 
arti<*Ies of thi* American draft. 

THE PRESIDENT of the American Com- 
mlssirui said tliat he un<lerstood that in the 
said proposal the American Commissioners 
were invited to present their propositions 
in regard to the Philippine Tslands. tind 
said that as tliis matter was of c.ipital im- 
portance, and as the American Commission- 
ers were not yet ready to submit a pro|)osaI 
ill ri'gard tn it. he would pr-'pns" iUl ail- 
jnnriijoeiit in nrrler th.it they might have 
ati ..ppoitunity tci lo so, and w<oild suggest 
tliat ill the mean time the Secretaries sJnjuld 
emleavor to agree on the terms of the arti- 
cle relating to public property, archives and 
rei-ords. in Cub.a. I'orto Rico and other 
islands in the West Indl.'S. and Gnain, for 
submission to the Joint Commission. 

This suggestion was adopted, as well as 
the proposal for an adjournment; and it w*;s 
agreed, on motion of the American Com- 
missiouers. that the Joint Commission 
shioild meet ag.-iin on Momlay. the 31st of 



rios espanoles. tal cual la expresaba el 
escrito cousignado en el acta de la ultima 
conferencia, se reflese a los articulos ul- 
timameute presentaAlos. expresados en las 
palalii-.is led J'rotocolo de 12 de Agosto de 

E- IMesidcnte de la t omision espanola 
repite ijui- le es in.liferente la forma y re- 
ilaccion de uni;s n otros articulo.s. y pre- 
gunta a la (_!omision americana si esta teu- 
dria inconvcniente en que en el articnio en 
que se tra.ta de la crsion de Puerto Rico, 
"tras j'slas de las Antillas y la de Guam, 
ft ■■0 otro cualquiera de los articulos del 
trat.-ido se exprese que esta cesion es en 
concepto de indemnizacion por los gjtstos 
tie la gticrra y los perjueios sufridos du- 
rante clla [lor Ins cjudadanos a.tuericanos. 

El Presidente de la Comision americana 
contesto que los articulos lE'bian iiermane- 
cer como estaban cuaudo fueron aceptados, 
•'ebiei'do por ahora considerarse coiufi ter- 
'iiinad'xs. y .ajiadio que los Comisarios 
anu-ricanos no querian signitica que se en- 
tendiese que no liabria de fignrar en forma 
adecuaiia en el tratado que la cesion de 
i'uerto Rico 3' las demas islas anteriormente 
nieu'icionadas. era a cnentadeiudemnizaci'>n 
|ior perdidas y agravios de los eiudadanos 
.nnericanos y gastos de la guerra. Este puu- 
10 de vista habia sido expresado en la nota 
dirigida al Gobieruo espanol en que se con- 
sigiKi.ban las demandas del Presidente de 
los Estados Unidos y los Comisarios de los 
Estados Unidos reconocian la fuerzo y el 
siguiticado de esta demanda. 

El Presidente de la (.'omjsion espanola 
dice que in) era su intencion el debatir 
ahura este punto. sino el de hacer constar 
su deseo que tiguren en el iwotocolo su 
|o-cgniita y la contostacion dada. 

EI Prt'sidente de la Comision espanola 
liide entoncesi a la Comision americana que 
ctiiiteste a la proiiosiciou escrita hecha eu 
la se.sion anterior 7>or los Comisarios es- 
jianoles. al ;o-eptar condicionalmente los 
dr>s articulos del proyecto aremicano. 

El Presidente de la Comision americana 
manifesta que entiend',' qne en dicha pro- 
Iiosicion se les invita a presentar svis pro- 
posiciones relativas a Filipinas, y dice que 
sieiido este punto de importancia tan capi- 
tal, y no hallandosc la Comision americana 
en disposici<m de formular aqi^ellas toda- 
via. propone un aplazamiento para hacerlo 
y siigiere qne entre tanto los Secretaries 
(i.'iierales de amlias ConiLsiones .se pongan 
lie .icurrdo para I'edactar un articuio rela- 
tivi :i la priqiiedad pnblica. a los \rchivos, 
expedientes y documentos notariales eu 
Culia. Puerto P.ico. otras islas de las An- 
tillas y Guam que sera snmetido a la Co. 
iiiision en pleiin. 

Sc .iprneba e.sta suggestion asi como el 
.ipl izamlento ]iedido por la Comision amerl. 
cana. y se conviene que los Comisarios se 
reuniran el lunes ."!! de Octubre a las 2 
p. m.. ^?n que la Comision anierioana presen- 



SO 



Octolicr. nt two o'clock p. m.. when the lara sns proposiojones sobre Fillplnas, sin 

Amoricnn Commissioners should present a porjnlclo do que si para entonces no hubl- 

proposiil on the subject of the Philippines; ese nun [jodlilo elaborar ens proposlclones 

anil that it by that time the American la Comlslon amerlcana. se acuerde un nu- 

Commissloners were not prepared to do so evo aplazamlento. 
the meeting should be postponed to a later 
day. 

Slpned: WII.LIAM R DAY. Fiiiiia.l..: K. MONTERO RIOS. 

(tSHMAN K. n.WlP. B. DE ABARZUZA, 

WM. P. FRYE. J. T>K GARNICA. 

riKO. GRAY. \V. R. r>E VILLA-URRUTIA. 

WHITELAW REID. RAFAEL CERRERO, 

JOHN B. MOORE. EMir>in DE OJEDA. 



81 



Annex to Protocol No. 10. 



To the nu'inoraiulum submit led li.v the S|i:misli C'Dimnisslonin's in support of the 
articles [iresented by tbem dm tbe 'Jlst instiint. Mini rejeotecl liy the Aiiiericaii Cdiii- 
inlssioiiers on tlie IMIli inst:nit. tile iatter snlmiil nniicM- liic rnies the foliiiwin;; re- 
ply: 

'I''he nienii'raniluni opens wilii an expression of ilie liei-p rejiret Willi \\iiieh tbe 
Spanish Coniniissioners have aeqiiainteil i heniselves Willi Ibe paper in whii'h the 
Ameriean (.'nniniissioners, «i the session of the 17th Instant proposed to suiislltnte 
for the artieles previonsly pri'sented by lliem, in relation lo Cuba. Porto Uieo and 
other islands in the West Indies, and the Island of <?nani in tlie Ladrones. the precise 
stipulations of the first and second articles o( the Protocol of August 12, 1898, neither 
addinj; thereto nor subtracting therefrom. 

The American Commissioners on their pan feel eiiiial rei;iet that in the memo- 
randum now under consideration the Sjianish Commissioners slioiild have seen tit to 
reject that proposal on grounds whicli disclose a misconstruction both of the proposal 
Itself and of tbe stipulations of tbe Trotncol on which it was based. 

The American Commissioners in their proposal of the ITlh instant st.ited that 
they were prepared, for the purpose of disposing of the question of Cuba. Porto 
Rico and Guam, simply to embody in the treaty the precise stipulations of the Pro- 
tocol on those subjects." The American Commissioners are still prepared to take 
this step, believing that the stipulations in question would suffice for the accomplish- 
ment of the puriKises to which they relate. But they have never asserted that the 
treaty of peace should be limited, in respect of Cuba. Porto Uieo, and Guam, to the 
repetition of the precise terms of the Protocol and those subje<'ts. Their position Is, 
however, that any clauses that may be added must be devoted to the execution of the 
stipulations of the Protocol, and must n"t impair tliem or affix conditions to what 
was unconditional. 

Having adverted to the misconstruction of their proposal, tbe Ameriean Commis- 
sioners will point out the misconstruction by the Spanish Commissioners of the Pro- 
tocol. The Spanish Commissioners observe that as the stipulations of the Protocol 
form part of a binding agreement, which they properly declare tbe Protocol to be, it 
is useless merely to reproduce them In the treaty that is to be elaborated in the con- 
ference. The Spanish Commissioners, however, seem to forget that the Protocol was 
an executory agreement, and that it cannot be assumed to be useless to ask either 
party now to do what in that agreement it promised to do. "Spain will." so reads 
Article I. of the Protocol, "relinquish all claim of sovereignty over and title to 
Cuba." This is the promise. The American Commissioners, having come hither to 
claim the fulfllment of that promise, ask the Spanish Commissioners, clothed with 
full powers to conclude a treaty of peace, to say in that treaty: "Spain hereby re- 
linquishes all claim, of sovereignty over and title to Cuba." 

Upon what theory can this be deemed a "useless" or "redundant" stipulation? 
Is it not, on the contrary, manifest that the treaty of peace, no matter what else it 
may include, must contain a stipulation t" this effect ? 

"indeed, in offering the precise stipulations of the Protocol, the American Com- 
missioners sought to put aside the controversy raised by the Spanish proposals as 
to the relinquishment of sovereignty and the assumption of the CulKin debt, and to 
afford the Spanish Commissioners an opportunity to meet them on ttie common 
ground of what the two- Governments had unmistakably agreed to. It was and is 
now apparent that on the composite subject, as the Spanish Commissioners consid- 
er it to be, of the relinquishment of sovereignty over Cuba and the assumption of the 
CulKin debt, the views expressed on tbe one side and on the other are irreconcilable, 
and that, unless some common ground is found, the conference is at an end. In this 
crisis the American Commissioners conceived that both sides might, without any 
compromise of princiiile or of opinion, agree that, instead of amplifying the words of 
the Protocol, or substituting for them argumentative stipulations, they would execute 
the promise In the words In which It was made. They regret that the Spanish Com- 
missioners rejected this conciliatory proposition. 

The Spanish Commissioners, in the memorandum now under consideration, recur 
to tbe distinction which they have sought to make between the words "abandon" 
and "relinquish." On this verbal question, which was raised by the Spanish Com- 
missioners in their memorandum of tbe 11th of October, the American Commission- 
ers find no occasion to add anything to what tliey have already said; but they feel 
called upon to repel the Imputation that they have sought either to leave Cuba in a 
derelict condition or to evade any responsibility to which their Government is by Its 
declarations or its course of conduct committed. 

83 



In their prci|ios.il oi the ITtli iiisi;iiit. tlir' Aiiicricaii Cominissioiu'rs iikuIu the fnl- 
Juwinj^ deolaratirm: 

••The Unitpfl States re<-rjguixes in the fullest measure that in reiiuiriu!,- tlie relin- 
quishment of all claim of Spanish sovereignt.v anil the evaeuation of the Island of 
Cuha it has assnmecl all the obligations imposed by the canons of international law 
anil flowing from its occupation. The United States, so far as it has obtained pos- 
session, has enforced obedience to law and preservation of order by all persons. It 
is not disposed to leare the island a prey to anarchy or misrule." 

By this declaration it is manifest tliat the American Commissioners have not 
contemplated the reduction of Cuba to the condition of a derelict and abandoned 
territory. Tiiey concede, however, the .iustice of the Spanish contention that the 
obligations which the United States have assumed with respect to Cuba should be 
acknowledged in the treaty, and they stand ready to make such acknowledgment. 
They are ready to insert proiier stipulatiuns as to the protection of life and property 
in Cuba during its occupation liy the United States, and as to the aid and guidance 
wbicli it ma.v be necessary for the United States, in the present distracted condition 
of the island, to give. 

The Spanish menmrandum refers to the capitnlatiou of Santiago de Cuba, as 
well as to the evacuation of Cuba under Arlii'le IV. of the Protocol of August 12, 
18'JS. as proof that the island is to be delivered to the United States. So tar as this 
argument goes it is perfectly souml. By the evacuation of Cuba the island is to pass 
for the time being into the possession of the United States, and the United States 
will, for the time being, occupy it. Tlie Spanish memorandum, however, inquires 
whetlier. in view of these facts, it is possilde to deny that Spain, in relinquishing 
her "sovereignty" over rnb.-i. lias the riglit tu demand tliat it shall be neeivert by tlie 
United States. 

This argument begs llie question. The American Commissioners have never de- 
nied that the Island of Cub.i will, upon its evacuation by the Spanish forces, come 
into the possession of the authorities of the United States; but this possession is by 
no means to be confounded with the sovereignty of the island, which the United 
States has long since declared to Spain an intention not to assume. The United 
States will take po.sse.ssion of the island for the purpose of pacifying it, but not as 
titular sovereign; and it is not to be charged with proposing to reduce it to the con- 
dition of a "desert territory in Africa," merely because it declines to assume the 
character of such sovereign. 

As to the statement of the Spanisli memorandum that Spain's relinquishment of 
sovereignty over Cuba was described by the American Commissioners, in the second 
paragraph of the first article presented by them on October 3. as a cession, they 
have only to say that they have searched the paragraph and the whole article for the 
word in question, and that they are forced to the conclusion that an error in trans- 
lation has misied the Spanish Commissioners. 

The Spanish Commissioners, adverting to the citation by the American Commis- 
sioners of the dictionary of Escriche, seek to minimize the importance of that cita- 
tiou by saying that the dictionary serves as a mentor for young lawyers in the early 
period of their professional life. The American Commissioners, however, can do no 
less tlian infer from this statement that the work in question is recognized in Spain 
as being tlie highest authority. 

The American Commissioners are at a loss to conjecture what more they can say 
to render tlieir position clear as to the pui^pose and meaning of the relinquishment 
by Spain of all claim of sovereignty over Cuba as stipulated in Article I. of the 
I'ndocol. The various forms which tlie argnnieiit of tlie Spani.sh Commissioners on 
this subiect assumes are nothing but variations of their misconstruction of the Amer- 
ican Commissioners' position. For example: The Spanish memorandum argues that 
tile stipulatiuns in the Protocol In regarrt to the relinquishment of sovereignty over 
Cuba and the cession of Porto Kico are, in spite of a total difference in language, to 
be considered as the same in effect, because the .\iiieriean Commissioners, in the 
articles presented by them on the 3rd instant, seemed to contemplate that the ar- 
chives in Culia, as well as those in Porto Rico, shall be in the possession of some 
one to whom application for copies may be made. The Siiauish memorandum de- 
clares that this would be impossible unless some one has the documents in bis pos- 
session. This is quite true; but the observation would be meaningless if it were not 
for the fact that the Spanish Commissioners insist upon saying that the American 
Commissioners, because tiiey decline to .iccept for their Government the sovereignty 
of Culia, have contended that tlie isl.ind must be abandoned liy Spain in the sense 
of being left derelict. 

It is perfectly manilest that the contracting parties in deliberately employing 
dilTcrent stipulations with respect to Cuba and Porto Kico neither expressed nor 
intended to express the same idea. This difference is so clearly and fully explained 
in the memorandum of the American Commissioners of the 14th of October that it 
seems to be idle to enlarge upon it. 

84 



I'lii- AhiiTicaii Commissioners linvc iumt 1imm'<1 ilnir |iosllion as to Spain's ii'lln- 
ijnishnu'nt nf all i-lnlm of sovereignly over Cuba npon the Rngllsh text of the I'ro- 
topol as (UstinKnlsheil from the l-'reni,-li teNt. as the Spanish niemoranjum stisgests. 
On the contrary, lu their memoraiulnni of the 14th of Octoher. the Anier.lean Com- 
missioners illstinetly ileeiared that the wonls nsed wltli ri fei re lo Cuba in the 

Freneh text ^vero precisely the same In nicaiiiii.;; as lliose iiseil in ilie Kn^'lisli text. 

In their memorandum of the Hth of Oetolier. the American Commissioners ap- 
plli'ii to their position as to Spain's relliiqnlshnient of all claim of sovereignty over 
Cnlia a simple test. If Spain, they said. had. in reply to the demands of the United 
Slates, declared that she relinquished lier sovereisnty over Cuba, but did imt relin- 
quish It to the I'nited States, no oni> conld liave imagined that the demand of 
the United States would not have been satlslied. The Spanish memorandum inti- 
mates that everybody would have tliousbt so except the United Stales, and di'clares 
that tliere is no one either in Europe or In America who believes that the TTnited 
States would have been content with Spain's willidrawing from the island aiui would 
have al)stalned from all intervention therein, leaving the Inhabitants to contlniu' to 
fijllit anionR themselves. It Is obvious, however, tliat Spain's relinquishment of sov- 
ereignty over Cuba and the .subsequent Intervention of the 'United States for the pur- 
pose of establishing order there are dilTerent matters. Whatever the United States 
miirhl in certain eontiUKeneles have done with respect to Cuba, Spain would have sat- 
isfied the demands of that Government by withdrawing from the island. Tlie ques- 
tion of subsequent iutcrveution in its affairs would then have lain between the 
United States and the people of the Island themselves. The United States certain- 
ly could not have complained if Spain, wldle relinquishing her sovereignty, had re- 
fused to aid in or be a party to this inti'rvcnlion. 

In the Spanish memorandum an effort is made to answer that part of the argu- 
ment submitted by the American Commissioners on the 14th instant in which it i^ 
maintained that the so-ealled Cuban debt is not in any sense a debt of Cuba, luu 
that It Is in reality a part of the national ilebt of Spain. The American Commission- 
ers were able to show that the debt was contracted by Spain for uational purposes, 
whieli in some cases were alien and in otliers actually adverse to the interests of 
Ciil)a: that in reality the greater part of t was ci>ntracted for the purpose of support- 
ing a Spanish army in Cuba; and that, while the interest on it has been collected by 
a Spanish bani; from the revenues of Cuba, the bonds bear upon their face, even 
where those revenues arc pledged for th^ir payment, tlie guarantee of the Spanish 
nation. As a national debt of Spain, the Ani(<rican Commissioners have never (pies- 
tioued its validity. 

The American Comiuissioners. tlierefore. are not required to maintain, in oriier 
that they may be consistent, the position that the power of a nation to contract debts 
ortl bligation of a nation to pay its debts depends upon the more or less pop- 
ular form of its government. They would not question the validity of the national 
debt of Russia, because, as the Spanish memorandum states, an autocratic system 
prevails in that country. Much less do the American Commissioners maintalu that a 
nation cannot cede or relinquish sovereignty over a p.irt of its territory without llie 
consent of the inliabitants thereof, or that it impairs tlic natiiuial obligation of 
its debt liy such cession or relinquishment. 

Into tliese ipiestions they do not tliink it necessary to enter. 

As to the rights, expectations, or calculations of creditors, to which the Spanish 
memorandum adverts, the American Commissioni-rs have only to say that as regards 
the so-called Cuban debt, as explained in their memorandum of the 14th instant. 
the creditors, from the beginning, tool; the cliances of the investment. The very 
pledge of the national credit, while it demonstratps on the one hand the national 
character of the debt, on the other hand iiroclaims the notorious risl< that attended 
the debt in its origin, and has attended it ever since. 

The Spanish memorandum obsi rves that in the last twenty years the Antilles 
have been represented in the Spanish Cortes arul declares that their representa- 
tives have participated in all legislative acts bearing upon colonial obligations with- 
out ever protesting against their lawfulness or binding force. The information In 
the posses.sion of the American Commissioners leads to a different conclusion. 

The American Commissioners liave in their liands tlie Diarlo de las Sesiones de 
Cortes, for Thursday, tlie 'Jinh of .luly, IS.SC, wh( n tbi' Cuban budget for 1.S8C-1SS7 
was introduced and discussed. By this record it appears that on the day named 
Senor Ki-rnandez de Castro, a Semitor from Cuba, referring to the budgets of 1880, 
18.S2. 18.S:i, 1884, and 188C, declared lliat he bad olijected to all of them, and that no 
Cuban debt ought to be created, since the obligations embraced lu it were national 
and not local. He entered Into a brief examination of the items which constituteil 
the debt, and created soniethlug of a sensation by pointing out that quinine bad 
been consumed In Cuba, during tlie war of l.sdK-lsTs, at the rate of .$.-i,tWO a week. 

Anot.her Cuban Senator, Senor Morelos. supp.>rtcd tlie views of Senor Fernandez 

de Castro. 

So . 



Senator Carbonell. representing the UBlverslty of Havana, In a speech of great 
power, continued the argument, saying; "Hnve the people involved in this matter 
ever been consulted? The country has not been heard, and now for the first time 
has become acquainted with the fact that It has to pay such debts." 

The Cuban and Porto Rican Senators. SiTiort^s Pnrtnondo. Ortiz. Labia. Xlon- 
toro, Fernandez de Castro, Pigneras and Vlzcarrondo, went further, and introduced a 
bill to provide for the paymeut by Spain ..f the so-called Cuban debt In proportion 
to the productive capacity of the various provinces. 

The protests of the colonial Senators were not heeded, bat their justice was rec- 
ognized by no less a Spanish statesman than Senor Sagasta. the present Premier of 
Spain, then in the opposition, who said: 

"Our treasury is not now sufficiently provided with funds to aid Cuba in the 
way and to the extent that we should like to do; but I say the Peninsula must give 
all that it can. and we must do without hi-sitatiou all that we can." 

"Was not this a clear acknowledgment of the national character of the debt? 
Perhaps not so clear as that made in the decree of autonomy for Cuba and Porto 
Rico, signed by the Queen Regent of Spain on the 2oth of November. 1897, and coun- 
tersigned by Senor Sagasta, as President of the Council of Ministers. In Article II. 
of the "Transient Articles" of the decree, Wf and the following declaration: 

"Article II. The manner of meeting th'- expenditures occasioned by the debt 
which now burdens the Cuban and Spanish treasury, and that which shall have 
been contracted tmtil the termination of the war. shall form the subject of a law 
wherein shall be determined the part payal-.Ie by each of the treasuries and the 
special means of paying the interest thereon, and of the amortization thereof, and, 
if necessary, of paying the principal. 

"Until the Cortes of the Kingdom shall decide this point, there shall be no 
change In the conditions on which the aforesaid debts have been contracted, or In 
the payment of the Interest and amortization, or in the guarantee of said debts, or 
In the manner In which the payments are now made. 

"When the apportionment shall have been made by the Cortes it shall he for 
each one of the treasuries to make payment of the part assigned to it. 

"Engagements contracted with credit.irs under the pledge of the good faith of 
the Spanish nation shall in all cases be scrupulously respected." 

In these declarations we find a clear assertion not only of the power of the Gov- 
ernment of Spain to deal with the so-called Cuban debt as a national debt, but 
also a clear admission that the pledge of the revenues of Cuba was wholly within 
the control of that Government, and could be modified or withdrawn by it at will 
without affecting the obligation of the debt. 

As to what is stated in the Spanish unuiorandum touching the aid given to 
Cuba iu the last century or the early par of the present eenturj- by the Vice-Roy- 
alty of Mexico, the American Commission-rs might offer certalu pertinent historical 
observations: but they deem it necessary now to .say only that Mexico is not mak- 
ing any claim before this Joint Commission, either directly or indirectly. 

As to the statement that Cuba has pr duced during a very few years in the pres- 
ent century a surplus which was turned "ver to the treasury of the Peninsula, the 
American Commissioni rs will cite the justly celebrated "Diccionario Geografico-Es- 
tadistlco-Historico de la Isla de Cuba," liy Senor Don Jacobo de la Pezueia. by 
which (see article on Senor Don Claudio Martinez de PiniUos) it appears that after 
1825 not only were all the expenses of th- island paid out of its revenues, but sur- 
pluses were sent, annually and regularly, to the mother country. These surpluses 
from 1S50 to 1860 amounted to $34,416,83ij. .\nd it is to be observed that in addi- 
tion to the regular annual surpluses ttiriud over after 1825. extraordinary subsi- 
dies were from time to time granted to the Home Government. It was for services 
rendered in matters such as these that S -nor PiniUos received the title of Count of 
Villanueva. 

As to the recent "advances" to Cuba, referred to in the Spanish memorandum, 
it is to be regretted that details were not given. But, by the very term "advances," 
it is evident that the Spanish memoranduui does not refer to gifts, but to expendi- 
tures for the reimbursement of which Cuba was expected ultimately to provide; 
and the American Commissioners do not doubt that these expenditures were made 
for the carrying on of the war. or the paymeut of war expenses, in Cuba. 

When the American Commissioners, in their memorandum of the 14th instant, 
refei-red to the Cuban insurrection of 186S as the product of just grievances, it was 
not their intention to offend the sensibilities of the Spanish Commissioners, but to 
state a fact which they supposed to be generally admitted. They might, if they saw 
fit to do so. cite the authority of many eminent Spanish statesmen in support of 
their remark. They will content themselves with mentioning only one. On Febru- 
ary 11, 1860. Marshal Serrano. President of the Provisional Government at Madrid, 
in his speech at the opening of the Oonstitueut Cones, referred t" the revolution in 



Spnio anil tliv insurn-otion In Cuba In the following terms: "The Revolution Is not 
responsilile for tlii» rising, vvliioh Is due lo the errors of past Governments: and we 
hope tliiu it will lie speedily put down and thai tranquillity, based upon liberal re- 
forms, will tlien he durable." (Annual Ilej-'ister, isii'.l. p:i;;e L>."i.j.) 

The American Commissioners linve rend witliont offence the refer- 
ence in the SpnnlHli nieuiorniiiliiin to the Indiiiti rebellioni* ivliich It 
has been necessary I'or the I iiiled States to snpiiress, for they are 
niinhl«- to see any parallel between the nprlsiims of those barhnrons 
and often »aviM?e tribes, which lin^e <lisii|ipenred before the march of 
ci vilir.ntlon be4Minsc they were nnnbW" !<» Miibiiiit lo it, and tin- insui — 
recti«ni.s iiK'ainst Spanish rnl«' in Cuba. iiiMiirriM-t ions in ^vliieli nijiiiy 
of the iKiblest men of Spniilsb bli»od in the i^tliiiiil )ia\c purl i(*ipiite<l. 

Xor are the .\merieiin Coininissi^jiiers olTen«led by the reference of 
the Spanish memoriiiiilniii ti» tb*- attempt tt( the Sontliern States to 
secede. The .SpaiiiHli I 'onimission ers exiilently niiNConeeive the na- 
ture and the object o*" that nio\einent. The i^nr i»f sei'ession was 
foug-bt and concluded upon a iiae.stion of <*onst i t at ional |»rineiple, as- 
serted by one party to the contli**t and deaie<I b> the other. It ivas a 
contlict in no resnect to be lilvencfl to tli«' npriNill^^H aprainst Spanish 
rule in Cuba. 

THE VMBRICiAX COMMIS-SlIOVERS ARE ITVAWARE OF THE fJROl'ND 
OX ■WHICH IT IS ASSERTED IX THE SPAMSH ME^IOR VXDI'M THAT 
THE l"VITED ST.ITES HAS BEEX C01IPEI.I.EI> TO VOMIT TII.VT THE 
CliBAN PEOPLE ARE AS YET UXFIT FOR THE EXJOVMEXT OF Fl LI. 
LIBERT!' AXB SOVEREJIGXTY. It Is true that an Intimation of such nnflt- 
ness was made In the note of the Spanish Government on the 22d of July last. 
The Government of the United States, In its reply of the 30th of July, declared 
that it did not share the apprehensions of .'Spain in this regard, but that It recog- 
nized that in the present distracted and prostrate condition of the island, brought 
about by the wars that had raged there, aid and guidance would be necessary. 

The reference In the Spanish memornndum to the obligations of Porto Rico Is 
not understood by the American Commissioners, who had been led to believe that 
there was no Porto Rican debt. On June MO. 1806. Senor Castellano. Colonial Min- 
ister of Spain, in submitting to the Cortes the budget of Porto Rico for 1896-97, 
the last one. as it is understood, ever framed, said: 

"The duty to report to the National re|ireseutatiou the financial condition of 
Porto Rico is exceedingly gratifying. It shows the ever growing prosperity of the 
Lesser Antllle. which, through the multiplicity of its production and the activity 
of its industry, has succeeded in securln,:; markets for its surpluses in the whole 
world. 

"It being without any public debt (sin deuda publieai. all its necessities being 
covered, its treasury being full to repletion, its public services being fulfilled with 
regularity, with economy in the expenses, and with a constant development of the 
revenues of the state, the spectacle afforded by Porto Rico is worthy of attention." 
The Gaceta de Madrid of July 1, 1801. which published this budget, published 
also a law. approved June 29. 1896, providing for the disposition to be made of the 
surplus of $1.7.50.009 in the treasury of Porto Rico at the expiration of the fiscal 
year l.S0,=i-96. 

Xo Porto Uican loan was ever contraeted or floated before 1896. 
Xo Porto Rican bonds are quoted in the markets of Europe or .\merlca. 
It is possible that the Governor-General of Porto Rico may have borrowed 
mone.v from a bank or from private persons in order to meet in advance expenses 
authorized b.v the budget, and that he may have given promissory notes for the 
amount borrowed, hut these notes, paid on maturity, do not constitute a Porto 
Rican debt, in the sense claimed by the Spanish Commission. 

Xor Is it to be supposed, in view of the flourishing condition of the colonial 
finances, as explained by the Spanish Minister of ilie Ccdonies. that any note of the 
kind referred to remains unpaid. 

The American Commissioners are nol acquainted with the works of the publi- 
cists who maintain that the thirteen original tinited States paid to Great Britain 
15.fKX>.0tt0 pounds sterling, presumably for the extinguishment of colonial debts. 
The American rommissiomrs. however, feel no Interest in the matter, since the 
statement Is entirely erroneous. The preliminary and definitive treaties of peace be- 
tween tJie United Slates and Great Britain of 17S2 and 1783 were published soon 
after their conclusion, and have since ben republished in many forms. They are 
the only treaties made between the two countries as to American Independence, 
and they contain no stipulation of the kind referred to. 

Xor do the American Commissioners pereeive the relevancy of the citation In 
the Spanish memorandum of the sums paid tiy the United States to France. Spain, 
Russia and various Indian nations for territory acquired from them. In none of 

87 



these cases does it appear tUat tlie United States assumed auy debts. The money 
paid by the United States was paid for the territoir. 

As to the case of Texas, the American Commissioners have oniy to observe that 
Texas was an independent State which yielded up its independence to the United 
States and became a part of the Amerlian Republic. In view ot this extinction of 
the national sovereignty, the United States discharged the Texan debt. Indeea. '■he 
whole reference made in the Spanish memorandum to the case of Texas Is quite In- 
accurate. The United States did not demand of Mexico the independence of 
Texas. That Independence was establlshi'd liy the inhabitants of Texas themselves, 
and had long been acknowledged, both by the United States and by other powers, 
before the voluntary annexation of Texas to the United States. 

The payments of money made by the United States to Mexico for territory ob- 
tained b.v the former from the latter at the close of the Mexican war are referred 
to in the Spanish memorandum, but these payments established no principle. They 
were made by the United States as a p.irt of the general settlement with Mexico, 
anil it will hardly be argued that If the treaty of peace had contained no stipula- 
tion in the subject, anything would have been due from the United States. 

The Spanish memorandum, however, refers to these transactions as if they con- 
stituted precedents for the proposal put t irw.ird liy the Spanish Commissioners for 
the arbitration by the United States and Spain of the question whether the whole 
or any part of the alleged Cuban and Por'o Eioan debts should be assumed or guar- 
anteed b.v the United States. The Americ-in Commissioners are compelled to take 
a different view of the subject. They have no doubt that if during the negotia- 
tions with Mexico a proposal had been put forward b.v either party for the arbitra- 
tion of the question whether Mexico should cede the territories demanded by the 
United States, or whether if they were ceded the United States should pay for 
them, and if so how much, such proposal would have been re,1ected by the other 
party as entirely Inapplicable to the transaction. 

So it is in the present case. The Commissioners of the United States and of 
Spain have met for the purpose of concluding a treaty which is to terminate a war. 
The matters involved in the transaction are matters for mutual adjustment and a 
definitive settlement. They are matters to be determined by the parties them- 
selves, and not by any third party. Arbitration comes before war, to avert its evils; 
not after war to escape its results. 

As was shown l>y the American Commissioners in their memorandum of the 14th 
of October, the burdens imposed by Spain upon Cuba in the form of the so-called 
Cuban debt have been the fruitful sourc;' of Cuban insurrections. In the opinion of 
the .\merioan Commissioners the time has come for the lifting of this burden, and 
not for the submission to a third part.v of the question whether it shall be lifted 
at ail. 

Having answered so much of the Spanisli memorandum as relates to the vit«l 
articles of the Spanish proposals and exp mnds the Spanish views regarding them, 
the American Commissioners do not thini; il necessary to discuss the remaining 
articles, which ma.v be, for the purpose of tliis discussion, regarded as merely sub- 
sidiary, and as to which they make all necessary reservations. 

Near the close of their memorandum, the Spanish Commissioners say: 
'"It appears by this recapitulation that the only question now pending between 
the two Commissions and awaiting their decision is a question of money, which, so 
far as one of the High Contracting Parties is concerned, is relatively of secondary 
importance. That question is the one which relates to the colonial debt." 
In this conclusion the American Comniissioners concur. 

The American Commissioners have m lintained that the proposal by the Spanish 
Commissioners that the United States shall assume the so-called Cuban debt is in 
reality a proposal to affix a condition to the unconditional promise made by Spain 
in the Protocol of Augu.st 12, 189S. to "relinquish all claim of sovereignty over and 
title to Cuba"; and they have further miintained that the abstention of Spain from 
proposing such a condition at that time precludes her from proposing it now. The 
American Commissioners have declared, and now repeat, that if such a proposal had 
been made during the negotiations that r 'sultcil in the conclusion of the Protocol It 
would have terminated them, unless it had been withdrawn. 

In confirmation of the position that the Spanish Commission is now precluded 
from proposing the assumption by the United States of the so-called Cuban debt, 
the .\merican Commissioners, besides invniung the unconditional stipulation of the 
Protocol, are able to point to the fact that the Sjianish Government. In the corre- 
spondence that resulted in the conclusion of tliat instrument, took the precaution, 
in replying to the demand of the United States for the relinquishment by Spain of 
all claim of sovereignty over Cuba, and her immediate evacuation of the island, to 
refer to the duty which in her opinion rested upon the United States under the cir- 
cumstances to provide for the protection of life and property in the island until it 



slioiilil havi- rwu-bi'd tbi- stagi' nf si-lf-g.ivi'riiiiii'iit. In his miti' of August 7. 1898. 
the Duko of Almodovar. replying to tlio d ■niMiul of tlie I'liilea Slates. sal'I: 

•"riie necessity of witlulrnwing from tlii' territory of Culwi being linpeiative, tlie 
nation assuming Spain's piaee must, as iong as this territory shall not have fully 
reaehed the condition required to take rani; among other sovereign powers, provide 
for rules which will insure order and protect against ail risks the Spanish residents, 
as well as the Cuban natives still loyal t > the mother countiT-" 

If to this reservation, which tlie Ameri<-an Commissioners have declared their 
readiness to recognize in the treaty, the Spanish (Juvernment had desired to add 
another on the .subject of the Cuban debt, the opportunity then existed and should 
have been seized. Indeed, the insertion of a few words in the reservation actually 
made would have rendered it applicable to tin- so-ciilleil Cuban debt as well as to 
the protection of life and property. 

A labored argument is made in the meinonniiinin submitted by the Spanish Com- 
missioners to prove that the Government of llie Cnited States in declining to take 
upon Itself the so-called Cuban debt is acling in violation of all principles of Inter- 
national law and assumes an attitude hi'herto unknown in the history of civilized 
nations. Oases supposed to be apposite are cited, showing the assumption of na- 
tional debts where one sovereignty is absorbeil by another, or a division of national 
indebtedness where a nation is deprived .)f an integnil part of its domain, either 
by cession, or the attainment of independence by a colony theretofore^ cliaig'd with 
raising a part of the national revenue. Elsewhere we have pointed out tlic differ- 
ences manifestly existing between the cases cited and the one in iiand. 

The United States may well rest its case njion this point upon the plain terms 
of tlie Protocol, which, as the memorandum submitted by the Spanish Commission- 
ers well say.s. contains the agreement between the parties "for no other was 

formulated between the two parties." and which is executed when Spain relin- 
quishes all claim of sovereignty over anl title to Cuba. If the question were still 
open the Unitetl States might w-ell chal'enge the fullest Inquiry into the equity of 
this demand. 

It is urged in the Sp.anish Commissionrrs' memorandum that the T'nitcii State.s. 
erroneously believing In the justice of the cause of Cuban independence, made It Its 
own. and took up arms in Its behalf. "The fnited Stales." so declares the Spanish 
memorandum, "made a demand on Spain, and afterwards declared w'ar rm her, that 
Cuba might become free and independen:." The causes of the demand of the 
Vnited Stales for the termination of Spanish sovereignty in Cuba are amply shown 
In the history of the events wliich preceded it. 

l-'or many years the United States patiently endure<i a condition of affairs in 
Cuba whiiJi gravely affected the Interests i>f the nation. As early as ISTo Tresideut 
Grant called attention to all its dread h irrors and the consequent injuries to the 
Inti'rests of the Unitetl States and other nations, and also to the fact that the 
agency of others, either by mediation or i)y intervention, seemed to be tlie only 
alternative which must sooner or later be invoked feu- the termination of the strife. 

During that administration, notwithstanding tliat it was clearly intimated to 
Spain that the United States could no longer endure the situation— whicii had be- 
come intolerable— no unfriendly aition was taken, and for ten yi-ars it suffered 
all tlie inconvenience and deprivation, destruction of trade and injury to its citi- 
zens incident to the struggle, whicli was ei'ded by the I'eace of Zatijon, only to 
break out again and to be waged with every feature of horror and desolation and 
protitless strife which had characterizeii tlie former struggle. President Cleve- 
land, in his Annual lles.sage ot 1896. was constrained to say to the Congress of the 
United States: "When the inability of Spain to deal successfully with the Insur- 
rection has become manifest, and It is dc-monstrated that her sovereignty is extinct 
In Cuba for ail purposes of its rightful existence, and when a hopeless struggle for 
Its re-establishment has degenerated iu'o a strife which means nothing more than 
the useless sacrifice of human life and the utter destruction of the very subject- 
matter of the contlict. a situation will b" presented in which our obligations to the 
sovercignt,v of Spain will be sujierst'deil by higher obligations, whicli we can 
hardly hesitate to recognize and discharge." 

Throughout President Cleveland's admiiiistraiiun this situation was patiently en- 
dured, at great loss and expense to the Uiiiti'<l States, which then and at all 
times was diligent in maintaining the higliest obligations of neutrality, through the 
vigilance of its navy and its executive and judicial departments. The present Chief 
Exeiutlve of the United States. In his ti'st .\iinual Message. In ISO", again called 
attention to the disastrous effects upon oour interests of the warfare still being 
waged in Cuba. The patient waiting of the people of the United States for the 
terinination of these conditions culminated In the .Mes.sage of April 2. 1898. of the 
President to Congress, in whicli he sale": "The long trial has prove<l that the 

sn 



object for which' Spain has wagefl the w;ir cannot be attained. The fire of insur- 
rection may flame or may smoulder wltli varying seasons, but it has not been and 
it is plain ttiat it cannot be extinguished by present methods. The only hope of 
relief and repose from a condition wliich can no longer be endured is tlie enforced 
pacification of Cuba. In the name of humanity, in the name of civilization, in be- 
half of endangered American interests which give us the right and. the duty to speals 
and to act, the war in Cuba must stop." 

Acting upon this Message the Congress of the United States, in the Resolution 
approved by the President April 20, 1898. which has been so often referred to In 
the memorandum submitted l>y the Spanish Commissioners, based its demand that 
the Government of Spain relinquish Its authority and government in the Island of 
Cuba, and withdraw its forces from Cnba and Cuban waters, upon conditions in 
Cuba (so near the United States) which were declared to be such that they could no 
longer be endured. 

It is not necessary to recite the reeoni of the events which followed that de- 
mand, well known to the members of this Conimissicm. and which are now a part 
of the history of the world. It is true that the enforced relinquishment of Spanish 
so\-ereignty will result in the freedom and independence of the Island of Cuba and 
not in the agrgandizement of the United States. This resume of events which led 
to the United States taking up arms is not made to wound the susceptibilities of 
the Spanish nation, or its distinguished representatives upon this Commission, but, 
in view of the truth of history and the stjitements made in the memorandum sub- 
mitted by the Spanish Commissioners, less could not be said by the representa- 
tives of the United States. Not having taken up arms for its own advancement, 
having refrained from acquiring sovereignty over Cnba, the United States now 
seeks to attain a peace consistent with Its ends and purposes in waging war. In 
asking, as a victorious nation, for some measure of i-eparation. It has not emulated 
the examples of other nations and demanded reparation in money for the many 
millions spent and the sufferings, privations and 'osses endured by Its people. Its 
relations to Cuba have been those of a people suffer'ng witliout reward or the bope 
thereof. 

The American Commissioners therefore feel that they are fully Justified both In 
law and in morals In refusing to take upon themselves in addition to the burdens 
already Incurred the obligation of discharging the so-called colonial debts o£ 
Spain — debts, as heretofore shown, chiefly incurred in opposing the object for the 
attainment of which the resolution of Intervention was adopted by the Congress 
and sanctioned by tlie President of the Diiited States. If it could be admitted, as 
argued in the memorandum submitted by the Spanish Commissioners, that the 
United States iu this connection stands as the agent of the Cuban people, the duty 
to resist the assumption of these heavy obligations would be equally imperative. 
The decrees of the Spanish Government itself show that these debts were incurred 
in the fruitless endeavors of that Government to suppress the aspirations of the 
Cuban people for greater liberty and freer government. 

True copy: JOHN B. MOORE. 



SO. 



Protocol No. 11. 



Protocol No. 11. 



CONFERENCE 
of October 31, 1898. 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 31 Octubre de 1898. 



Present— 
On the part of the United States: 

Messrs. DAY, 

DAVIS. 
FRYE. 
GRAY, 
RBID, 
MOORE. 
FERGUSSON. 
On the paJt ol Spain: 
Messrs. MONTERO RIGS, 
ABARZDZA. 
GARXICA, 
VILLA-TJRRDTTA. 
CERERO. 
OJEDA. 

The protocol of the preceding session was 
read and approved. 

The American Commissioners stated that, 
In accordance with the understanding ex- 
pressed In the protocol which had Just been 
read, the.v were prepared to present their 
proposal on the subject of the Philippines. 
The proposal was read In English and 
translated Into Spanish and delivered to 
the Spanish Commissioners. It was as fol- 
lows: 

"The American Commissioners, having 
been Invited by the Spanish Commissioners 
at the last conference to present a propo- 
sition In regard to the Philippine Islands, 
beg to submit the following article on that 
subject : 

" 'Spain hereby cedes to the United 
States the archipelago known as the Philip- 
pine Islands, and lying within the follow- 
ing line: A line running along the parallel 
of latitude 21° 30' North from the 118th to 
the 127th degree meridian of longitude East 
or Greenwich, thence along the 127th de- 
gree meridian of longitude East of Green- 
wich to the parallel of 4° 45' North lati- 
tude, thence along the parallel of 4° 45' 
North latitude to Its Intersection with the 
meridian of longitude 119" 35' East of 
Greenwich, thence along the meridian of 
longitude 119° 35' East of Greenwich to the 
parallel of latitude 7° 40' North, th.ence 
along the parallel of latitude of 7° 40' North 
to Its Intersection with the 116th degree 
meridian of longitude East of Greenwich, 
thence by a direct line to the intersection 
of the 10th degree parallel of North lati- 
tude with the 118th degree meridian of 
longitude East of Greenwich, and thence 
along the 118th degree meridian of langl- 



Presentes— 
For parte de los Estados Ilnldos de 
America: 
los Senores D.A.Y, 

DAVIS, 

FRYE. 

GRAY, 

REID. 

MOORE, 

FURGUSSON. 
For parte de Espana: 
los Senores MONTERO RIOS. 

ABARZCZA, 

GARNICA. 

VILLA-FRRUTIA. 
OBBBRO, 

OJEDA. 

Fue lelda y aprobada el acta de la seslon 
anterior. 

EI Presidente de la Comlslon amerlcana 
maniflesta que, conforme al acuerdo que 
conslgna el acta que acaba de leerse, los 
Coraisarlos ameiicanos estan dispuestos a 
presentar su proposiclon relatlva a PlUpln- 
as. La proposiclon es lelda en Ingles, de- 
spues en espanol, y entregada a los Com- 
Isarios espanoles. Su contenido es el sl- 
guiente: 

"Los Comlsarlo amerlcanos hablendo 
sido Invitados por los Comlsarios espanoles 
en la ultima conferencia a presentar una 
proposiclon respecto de las Islas Fillplnas, 
se permiten someter sobro esta cuestlon el 
articulo siguknte: 

"Espana por este articulo cede a los Es- 
tados Unidos el archipielago conocldo por 
Tslas Fillpmas. situado dentro de las lineas 
aguentes: una liena que corre a lo largo 
del paralelo 21 degrees 30 minutes de latl- 
tud Norte desde el grade 118 hasta el grado 
127 del meridlano de longltud Este de Green- 
wich: y de aqui a lo largo del grado 127 
mer'diauo de longitud Este de Greenwich 
hasta el paralelo 4 degrees 45 minutes de 
latitud Norte; y de aqui a lo largo del para- 
lelo 4 degrees 45 minutes latitud Norte 
hasta su •ntcrsecelon con el meridlano de 
l.ingitud 110 degrees 35 minutes Este de 
Greenwich; de aqui a lo largo del meridlano 
de loug'tud ll'.> degrees 30 minutes Este de 
Greenwich, al paralelo de latitud 7 degrees 
40 minutes Norte: de aqui a lo largo del 
paralelo de latitud 7 degrees 40 minutes 
-Norte hasta su intersecclon con el grado 
lit) del meridlano de longltud Este de 
Greenwich: de aqui por una Ilnea directa a 
la Intersecclon del 10 degrees grado para- 



91 



tnde East of Greenwich to the parallel of 
latitude 21° 30' North." 



"A proper reference to the cession thus 
proprvsed may be inserted in the article of 
the treaty relating to public property, ar- 
chives and records in territory wlilch Spain 
cedes or over which she relinquishes her 
sovereignty. 

"The American Commissioners beg fur- 
ther to state that they are prepared to in- 
sert in the treaty a stipulation for the as- 
sumption by the United States of any ex- 
isting indebtedness of Spain incurred for 
public works and improvements of a pacific 
character in the Philippines." 

The Spanish Commissioners asljed for an 
."-djournment in order that they might ex- 
amine the proposal, and either accept It or 
present a counter-proposal, and suggested 
that the Commission should meet again on 
Friday, the 4th of November, at two 
o'clock, p. m.. without prejudice to asliing 
for a postponement, if it should be neces- 
sary. 

This suggestion was accepted, and the 
conference was accordingly adjourned. 

Signed : WILLIAM R. DAY. 

CtrSHMAN K. DAVIS. 
WM. P. FRTE. 
GEO. GRAY. 
WHITELAW REID. 
,70HN B. MOORE. 



lelo de latitud Norte con el 118 grado merl- 
diano de 'ongltud Este de Greenwich; y 
de aqui a lo largo del grado 118 meridlano 
de longitud Este de Greenwich al paraielo 
de latitud 21 degrees 30 minutes Norte. 

"Una mencion oportuna de la cesion asl 
propuesta puede ser insertada en el artl- 
culo del tratado relativo a la propledad pub- 
lica. Archives y actas notariales en los 
territories que Espana cede o a cuya so- 
berania renuncia. 

"Lo.s Couiisaricis americanos se permiten 
ademas manifestar que estan dispuestos a 
insertar en el tratado una estipulacion por 
la que asumiran los Estados Unidos cual- 
qiiiera deuda de Espana contraida para 
obras publlcas o mejoras de earacter pacl- 
tico en Fillpiuas." 

Los Con-.isarios espanoles piden un aplaza- 
niiento para estudiar d'cha proposcion y 
sugieren que ambas Comisiones se reunan 
do nuevo el viernes proximo a las 2 p. m., 
sin perjuicio de pedir un uuevo plazo si 
fuese nesesario. 



Aceptada esta indicaeion, se levanto la 
ses'on. 

Flrmado: E. MOXTERO RIOS, 
B. DE ABARZUZA, 
J. DE GARNIGA, 
W. R. DE VILLA-URRUTIA, 
RAFAEL CERERO. 
EMILIO DE O.TEDA. 



92 



Protorol No. 12. 



Protocolo No. 12. 



CONFERENCE 
Of November 4, 1898. 

Present- 
On the part of the United .States: 

Messrs. DAY, 

DAVIS. 

FUYE. 

OKAY. 

liini). 

.MooIiK. 

FKI!<;I'SS(>N. 
On the pai-t (if Spain: 
M<'ssis. Ntd.NTKHO lUOS. 

AHAKZTZA. 

GAUNlfA. 

VILLA-rUKUTIA. 

CEUKISO. 

0.7i;i>A. 

Tne protocol of the preceding session was 
read and approved. 

The President of the Spanish Commission 
staleti that, havi-ig carefnlly examined the 
proposal of the American Commissioners in 
relation to the rnilippines. he presented a 
counter-proposal on that subject, which 
oonnte'--proposal he delivered to the Sec- 
retary of tlie Spanish Commission, who 
handed it to the Secretary of the Ameri- 
can Commission. 

The American Comndssioners desiring to 
have the eountcr-propo.sal translated to 
them immedi:itelv. it was read in English 
by their mterprcter: and it is annexed to 
the protocol. 

The President of the American Commis- 
sion then stated that as they understood 
from the reading of the paper that their 
proposal was rejected, they had under the 
rules a right to file a memorandum in 
writing in support thereof, and that, un- 
der the circumstances, and in order that 
the paper presented by the Spanish Com- 
missioner.? might be carefully translated 
and considered, the American Commission- 
ers desired an adjournment till Tuesday, 
the Sth of Xovember, at 2 o'clock p. m. 

The Spanish Commissioners agreed to the 
adjournment, hut stated that, as their pa- 
per, besides rejecting the American pro- 
posal, also put forward a counter-proposal, 
they underst(]od that they would have the 
right to SHliniit a memorandum in writing 
In support of such counter-proposal. If the 
Anerlean Commissioners should reject It. 



The Commissioners concurring in opinion 
upon these matters, tJie conference was ad- 
journed to the day previously fixed. 
Signed: WILLIAM R. DAY, 

CISHMAN K. DAVIS, 
WILLIAM P. FRYE. 
GEORGE GR.1Y, 
WniTELAW REID. 
JOHN P.. MOriRK. 



CONEERENCIA 
Del 4 de Noviembre de 1898. 

Presentes — 
Por parte de los Estados Unidos do 
.\nierlcn: 

los Senores DAY. 

DAVIS. 
li-KYE. 
GRAY. 
REID. 
MOORE. 
FERGCSSOX. 
Por parte ile Es[v;ina: 

los Senores MO.VTERO RIOS. 
ARARZUZA, 
(iARxN'ICA, 
VILLA-URRUTIA, 
CEREHO, 
OJEDA. 
Fne leida y aprobada el ;ict;i de la sesion 
anterior. 

El Presidente de la Comision espanola 
manifiesta que despues <le haber examinado 
atentamente ia proposi(Mon de los Comi- 
sarios americanos relatlva a Fillpinas. pre- 
senta una contraproposiclon sobre ei mismo 
asunto. que entrega al .Secretario de la 
Comision esT^anola, quien a su vez la pone 
en manos del Secretario de la Comision 
americana. 

Los Comisarios americanos deseando que 
fuese inmedlatamente traducida dicba con- 
traproposiclon, file leida en ingles por su 
Interprete y anadidtji en caliiind de anexo 
al presente protocolo. 

El Presidente de la Comision americana 
manlliesta que entiende que de la lectnra 
del anterior documento se desprende ser 
rechazada la proposicion de la Comision 
americana, y que segun el reglamento tiene 
esta el dereeho de presentar nn Memo- 
randum escrito en apoyo de aquella: que 
en vista de ello y a tin do que pmlier.a ser 
traducido cuidadosamente y examinado el 
documento presentado. los Comisarios 
americanos deseaban aplazar la conferencla 
hasta el inartei? 8 de Noviembre a las 2 
p. m. 

Los Comisarios espanoles asientcn al apla- 
zaniieiito. pero anaden que el documento 
por I'Mos iiresentado ailemas de rechazar 
la proposicion americana contlene una con- 
traproposiclon y que p<ir tanto entienden 
que asimlsmo tcndrian el dereeho de pre- 
sentar nn .Memorandum por escrito en 
apoyo de su contrapn>po.sieion, si esta 
fuese rechazada por los Comisarios ameri- 
canos. 

Slendo esto acor dado por los Comisarios, 
Se apiaza la conferencia hasta el dia y 
hora anteriorraente citados. 
Firmado: E. MONTERO RIOS, 
B. DE ABARZUZA. 
J. DE GARXTCA, 
W. R. DE VILLA limUTIA. 
RAFAEL CERERO. 
BMILIO DE OJEDA. 



Annex to Protocol No 12. 

COMISION 

Para La Negociacion de la Paz Con Los Estados Unidos. 

PROPOSICION. 

I>a Comision espanola hji elido con viva yorpr^sa la proposicion que la amorl- 
cana ha pros ntado en la seslon del 31 del ultimo mes de Ootubre. 

El unioo artlculo que en ella se eontleno esta reducldo a que Ksi)ana ceda a log 
Estados r'nidos el archlplelaio eoinH-ido imr Ishis Piliplnas. sltuado en el perimctro 
alii g^osraflcamente detemiinado. 

Contiene ademas dioha proposiclon. auntiue no para que fortneii parte del artlculo, 
dos parrafos de los euales el segundo es de una importaneia tal. que exige que la 
Comision espanola haya de oeupars" en este escrlto espeeialmente de su contenldo. 

Ixis Comisarlos espanoles afaban de deelr que les ha oausado viva sorpresa esta 
proposirion. y es de su dtber exponer las razones que tal sentiraiento expHean. 

Desde la primera conferencia hasta la ultima, los Senores Comisarlos americanos 
sostiivierou constantemente, y alegaron ciimo principal fundam^nto de los proyectos 
sobre Tuba y Puerto Rico, que en estas confereneias, ambas Comisiones tenian que 
atenerse a las bases establecidas en los preliminares de paz que habian sido con- 
venidos y flrmados el 12 de Agosto ultimo. Lo mismo deolan y contlnunn diciendo 
los Conii.sarios espanoles. La unlco diferencia entre los unos y los otros conslstio en 
que Ins americanos sostenian que aquel doeum'nto habla de ser entendldo estrlcta- 
mente en su sentido literal, sin querer tomar en eonsideracion para fl.1ar este sentldo 
ningun otro dato. antecedente nl dooumento. Y eomo en el Protocolo no se habla 
fscrito la frase "Deuda de Cuba o de Puerto Rico." entendian que por esta razon 
Espana debia transmitir o ceder su soberanla sobre aqnellas Islas. quedandose con 
sus obllgaciones. Los Comisarios espanoles. por la inversa. entendian que fl sentldo 
literal del Protocolo debia fljarse tenlendo presentes no solo las reglas generales del 
Depfcho internacional sobre Interpretaclon de los tratados. sino tambien las nego- 
ciaclones en que ambas partes lo habian preparado y en que de anteniano lo habiau 
oficialmente interpretado. 

Pues bien. la proposiclon pref ndlemlo la eesi(m por Espana 3e las Islas Fili- 
pinas a los Estados Unidos. no solamente no cabe dentro de los artlculos del Proto- 
colo. sino que esta en notoria contr:id'<tioii eon el, y es, en opinion de la C^mislon 
espanola. sn flagrante infracclon 

Contiene aquel eonvenio seis arricnlns y de ellos solamente el tercero se refiere 
al Archipleiapo Filipino. Dice asi liter.i'mente traducido del texto oflcial frances: 

"Los Estados Unidos ocuparan y tendran la cludad. la bahia y el puerto de 
Manila, esperando la conclusion de nn tratado de paz que debera determinar la In- 
specclon (controle). la di.sposicion y el gobierno de las Filipinas. " Esto es Jo unlco 
que hay en el Protocolo sobre el archip'clago. 

Aunque la Comislon espanola adoptase para la interpretaclon de este artlculo, e' 
estrecho criterio del sentldo literal que la amerieana sostiene (por estrano que sea 
este sostenlmiento) que debe aplicarse. no se podria decir otra cosa sino que eQ 
aquella disposiclon se aeordo la ocupacion nieramente temporal o provisional de 
Manila y su puerto y bahia por los Estados Unidos hasta que se hiciese el tratado 
de paz en que se habia de determinar o eonvenir scbre la inspecclon, la disposicioo 
y el gobierno de Piliplnas. 

Que tiene esto que rer con un cambio o cesion de soberanla? 

La primera parte del artlculo es completamente clara. No ofreci- la menor duda 
de que alii lo unieo que se consigno sobre Manila, su bahia y puerto. fue su ocu- 
pacion, no definitlva, sino provisional, por los Estados Unidos. ocupacion que no 
habla de dnrar mas que hasta la celebricion del tratado de paz. No net^sita el 
sentido literal del texto comprobacion alRuna. Mas si la necesitara, pueden los 
Senores Comisarlos americanos registrar el numero 19 del Llbro amarillo que acaba 
de publlcar rl Ooblerno de la Republlca francesa. Dlcho numero contiene la circu- 
lar que a los tres dias de firmado el l'rot<x*ol. dirlgio el Senor .Mlnlstro de negoclos 
extrangeros de Francia a sus Embjadorea en Europa. dandoles cuenta de la nilslon 
a que el Oobierno de la Republlca se habia prestado que desempenara sn Embajador 
en Washington para ofreoer la paz al Oi'bierno d-- los Estados Unidos en nombre 
del de Su Majestad Catolica. Y en esta circular dice el Senor .Ministro que su Em- 
bajador en aquella capital habia finnado <'n nombre de Espana. y a su ruego, nn 
Protocolo que contenia las exig neias de los Est,ados Unidos para la paz. Enumera 
el Senor Ministro tales exigencias y respecto a Filipinas conslgna, como la unica que 
contenla aquel documento. la ocupacion prOTlsional de Manila por las fuerzas ameri- 
canas, 

95 



Los Si nores romisarios ameriranos i.o descouoceran la inooutrastahle fuerza 
moral del testimonio del Senor Miuistro de la Kcpubliea francesa, arniga per igual 
dp los dos Estados beligerantes. y cnyo Senor Miulstro no podia saber el cou- 
tenido del Protocolo. sino pur el autorizadUinio iniiduftii de su Euibajador. que lo 
Labia diseiitido, i-<>nvenido y tinnadn en uonibre de Espaua enn el Gobieruu amer-- 
cano. 

El earaeter merameute prnvisional de tal ni'iipaeiou subsistio aim despues de fir- 
niado el ProtiK'olo. euando. rontia lo couvi nido en su articulo (!0. el General ilerrtt 
se apodero de la plaza i>or la fuerza. En el ultimo parrafo del numero 5 de las 
reglas convenidas i)ara la capitulaeiou y que fueroii Armadas en 14 de Agosto en 
nonibre del Ejereito ami;ricauo por el Brigadier General de vohmtarios Mr. F. V. 
Greene, por el Capitan de la marina amerieana Mr. Lamberton. por el Teuienle Coro- 
n' 1 e Inspector General Mr. Wbittier y por el Teiiiente (^'<»ronel y Juez Ab<»g;ido Mr. 
Crotwder, se lee lo S'guiente: "Lu deyolueion de las armas depositadas por las 
fuerzas espanolas tendra lugar euando s evarue la plaza por las mismas o por el 
Ejereito amerieano.'" 

Entendian. pues, los que esto t1rmab;n que las fuerzas amerioanas no ocupaban 
delinitivaniente la plaza poniue snpi)nian que podia llegar el tvjso de que bubiisen 
de evaeuarla. Y si suponian esto, elaro es que entendian que era merameute pro- 
visional la ocupaeion. 

Es verdad: las frases "iiisp e<-inu, disp<isi<-iun \- giibiern<i de las Fillpinas" no 
tiene un sentido elaro. El Gidiierno espanol y sii representarite en Wasliington ya 
lo hicieron notar reolamando su explicaeiou ;il Gobierno aiuerieano ique m> la die) 
anti-S de firmarse el Protocolo. Pero cualqutera que sea la que aliora intente dar. 
no puede Ilegarse, en nlngun caso, a pretender qu? tales frases eucierren el pensa- 
mieiito de la cesion de la soberauia de Espaua en el archipielago. Esta cesion. alii 
ciinveuida. o sea la adquisieion a perpetuidad del archipielago por los Estados Tni- 
dos. estaria en contradiccion con la ocupaeion exclusivainente temporal de Manila, 
tambien alii acordada, ya que esta expresamente conslgnada en el mismo parrafo. 
No podrlau nunca tampoco admitirse con arreglo a las maximas de interprftaciou 
de los tratados, porque tal supuesta cesion serio un beneficio a favor de quienes se 
uegaron a aclarar, sin alegar para ello razou alguna valedera. euando oportuna- 
m'nte se les pidio. el concepto que ya entonr-es ajiarecia ambiguo e indeterminado 
de tales frases: y porque. aun sin tal razon, habria lugar a palicar a los Senores 
Comisarios amerioanos. con el fundamento que ellos no tuvieron para apli<'arla a 
los espanoles (s gun estos entienden), la razon que consignaron en su ultimo Memo- 
randum, y segun la eual, "la abstenclon de Espana de proponer en el I*rotocolo la 
condicion del tras aso de la deuda. la iucapaeitaba para proponeria ahora." Los 
Estados Unidos se abstuvieron de pmpon r ;i Espana en el Protocolo. franca y 
abiertamente. como franca y abiertamcute ilebe I'onsignarse todo en los tratados, 
que siempre se otorgan para ser entendidos y ciiniplidos de buena tv. la cesion de su 
soberania en el archipielago. Xo lo hicieron. y por eso estan incapacitados de pro- 
poneria abora. 

Cuanto precede realmente sobra, porque existe la prueba, irrefutable para los 
Senores Comisarios amerioanos. de que al lirmarse el Protocolo de Washington el 
dignisimo Senor Presidente de la Union no solo no abrigaha el pensamiento ds que 
Esi)ana hubiese cle ceder el Archipielago Filipino a los Estados Unidos, sino que 
abrigaba el pensamiento contrario. o sea el ile que Espana habra de conservar alii 
su soberania. 

En la conferencia que el Emba,iador de Francia Senor I'ambon tuvo en 4 de 
agosto ultimo con Mr. McKinley. a presencia de su Seeretario d'e Estado. hac''- 
endole observacMones sobre la cesion de la Isla de Puerto Rico en compensacion de 
los gastos de la guerra, el Si nor Presidente le contesto mostrandose inflexible en 
este punto, y le repitio que la cuestion de Fillpinas era la unico que no estaba ya 
deflnitivamentc resuelta en su pensamiento. Con tal motivo el Senor Cambon le 
pidio explicaciones sobre el sentido de las sobr dichas frases de la clausula. .3 re 
lativa al Archiiiielago Pilinpo. porque aparecia redaetada en terminos que podiau 
prestarse a los teniores de Espana respe'-to a su sol>erania en aquellas islas. El 
Senor Presid ute le contesto his siguientes ti'Xtuales palahras: "Xo quiero dejat 
subsistir ningun eiiuivoco sobre este paiticular. Los negociadores de los dos paises 
seran los que resuelvan cuales sean las ventajas permanentes" ffljese la atencion 
en la frase: no "derechos") "que pediremos en el archipielago, y en flu los que 
decidan la iuten-eneion (eontrole), disposicion y goibiemo de Fillpinas" y agrego 
"El Gnbierno de .Madrid puede tener la seguridad de que. hasta ahora no hay 
nada resuelto. a priori, en mi pensamiento contra Espana. asi como considero que 
Tio hay nada decidido contra los Estados Unidos." Gabe en lo posible que nadie 
dude de que el 12 de Agosto el Senor Presidente de los Estados Unidos al finuar su 
Seeretario de Estado el Protocolo, no tenia el pensamiento de exigir a Espana la 
Cesion de su soberania en el archipielago para los Estados Unidos? 

Pero ha.v mas: no solo no tenia ese proposito, sino que sus frases deuiuestran 
que tenia el de ijue Espana habia de conservar acpieila soberania. Segun ei los 
Comisionados en Paris hablan de acordar las ventajas permanentes que los Estado.s 

96 



sob-nnla. qu. ven.ajas para el porv.M.lr era poslble que puilei«n los Comlslon.dos 
,le los Estndo. miaos a Espana y qn. esta habla .U- po.l-r ™°'"<'''"^"' ' „":' '"' 
Esta.los rnidos se bal.Inn de qvudar co„ la s„b,M~a..l... .on.,, se expllca '1"^ ^us 
Comisio..ndos en Paris hubi-ran de ped'.r a Espana ventajas o.i un ...vbipiebigo 
que al iiiismo tlempo babbin de reehimar y re(-lbir como suyor 

Mas aun hav ot.a prueba. tan In-efuiable como la anterior, de que .1 Uobleruo 
de Washington" no solan.ont,. entun.-es .slaba a^-eno a todo pensaa.leuto y proposlto 
sobr.. la soberania cb 1 A.^-bipUla^-n Kil-pi..o. slno .p.e .onsintlo que . sta bublera 

de eonlinnar en Espana. exeluyeudo e.. su pr pe..san.lento toda n»idani-,a sobre 

este punto al redaetar ],ri.i.er„ y al lir.nar despn.s la <-lansula :i del I'rotoeolo. 

Conleslando al (;obl..r..o <h- Espana. por su despaeho de 7 do Agosto, el H"..or- 
able Senor Sc<-.-etario ,le Esta.l,, en Washington, que le Uabia hecho saber en el snyo 
del SI d« Julio las eondielones. tales eon.o aparecen redactadas e ineluidas en el 
I'lvtooolo, iKiJo las enales el (ioblerno americauo estaba dispuesto a poner t,.r...l...> a 
la snerra, le rtwia el Mii.istio < spanol sobre la base S lo que slgue: 

•T.a base referente a las Islas Filipnas pareee a nuestra inteligeueia dein.isiado 
ind.Iermlnada. En primer terniino el titulo invoeado por los Bstados U.iidos para 
la o<-up«eion de la balila. puert,> y eiudad de Manila, esperando la comlusion di- un 
ti-atado de paz. no puede ser el de conquista, porque la ciudud de Manila se .letiende 
ann: a pesar d,l bloqueo por mar y el asedio por ticrra, aquel por la llota auier'- 
eai.a. y este por las fnerzas qu,' acandilla un indij-'ena alentado y pei-trecbad.i por 
el Alinlrante, la bandera espanola no ha sido arriada. En segnudo lugar el Arclii- 
pielago Filipino se halla intaeto en poder y bajo la soberania de Espana. Eu- 
tienile pues el Gobierno espanol que la oeupaeion temporal de Manila liabra de 
wnstitnir una garantia. I>ieese <iue en el ti^iitada de paz s: determiiiara la in- 
terveneion. la disposieion y el gobierno de Eilipinas, y como la inti-nc-ion del 
Gobierno federal queda por deinas velada en esta clausula interesa a este Gobii.rno 
eonsignar que acepUi.ido la base tercera no rcnnneia a priori a la soberani.-. tota' 
del Arcl.ipielago Filipino, dejando a los negociadores el cuidado d e estipular 
ae ra de las refor.nas acimsejables por la situacion de aquellas posesiones y el 
uivel de culiura de sus naturales. El Gobierno de Su Majestad acepta la base 3- 
acompanada por la declaracion supradicha." 

Bleu daro jiparece qtie el Gobierno espanol no acepto la unica base que en cL 
Protocol hay sol>re FiUpiuas. sino en cuanto en ella se quisiera decir que Manila no 
habla de ser mas que temporalmente ocupada, como garantia, y que la inter- 
vencion. la disposieion y el gobierno de que en la base se hablaba, tendrian por 
unico objeto el regimen y gobierno interior dc aquellas islas, pero no su soberania 
total que Espana expresameute se reservaba y habia de conservar. 

Contra esta interpretaeion dada de antemano por el Gobierno de Su Majestad 
Catolica a la base tereera del I'rotoeolo, y en cuyo unico sentido la aeeptaba, nada 
dijo. nada indico el Gobierno de Washington antes de flrmarlo. Por la inversa el 
Senor Secretario de Estado al remitlr al Senor Embajador de Francia la minuta 
del Protocol que habia dt- firmarse le decia en una cart;i. que la nota del Gobierno 
espauol (que era la en que se hallaban las frases antei-iormente transcritas) contenia 
en su espiritu la aeeptaeion por Espana de las condiciones propuestas por los 
Estados Fnidos. Por consiguiente la condiciou tercera habia sido redactada por el 
Gobierno aniericjino en el niismo sentido en que la entrndia el Gobierno espanol, 
porque no podia decir. en otro caso, el Senor Secretario de Estado. con vista de la 
nota en que constaba el unico sentido aceptable para el Gobi rno espanol, que este 
la aeeptaba. 

Asi pues: los E.stados Unidos podran reelamar hoy tal soberauia. uias para 
esta reclamacion no pueden fundarso en el Protocolo. 

Y que otro titulo que no sea este puiden alegar contra la volimtad de Espana? 

Vki el Protocol se fljaron las bases que los Estados Unidos exigian a Espana 
para la paz, o lo que es lo mismo todas las condiciones que los Estados fnldos 
Imponion a Espana para que pudiera aquella restablecersc entre los dos paises. A 
la vez se acordo alii la inmedi.-ita suspension de las hostilldades, suspension qne 
por parte de Espana fue religiosameute observada hasta el prcsente. Por 'o 
tanto los Estados Inidos no pui di'U ni tienen decrecho para exigir hoy a Espana 
mas condiciones onerosas. que las contenidas en el Protocol, por causas anteriores 
a su fecha, una vez que entonces no impusieron mas que las que alii estan e&Tltas, 
dandose con su aeeptaeion por satlsfechns; ni por causas posteriores ya que dtsde 
entonces Espana no ejecuto aeto alguno de agresion ul dio inotlvo a nuevas exi- 
gen<-ias ni reclamacionts de los Estados I'nidos. 

Si f-or inotivos que no estan en la esfera de la eompetencia de la Comlsiou espa- 
nola, el Gobierno amerlcano desea ahora adqiiirir la soberania del Archipklago 
Fili]iliio, no es ciertamente el medio adecuado para el logro de sn proposilo una 
reclamacion heeha al amiiaro de los preliminares de paz eonvenidos en .I Pro- 
tocolo firmado en Washington en 12 de Agosto i)or ambas .\ltas I'artes. 



Los Comisarios espanoles iudicaron al principio de I'Sff csfritn que el 20 parrafo 
que despues del proyectado artlculo contenia la proposieion americana era de tal 
importancia que les imponia la necesidad de oeuparse espeeialmeiite de su coa- 
tenido. 

Dichos Senons Comisarios maniflestan en el que estan dispuestos a iusertar eu 
<?1 tratado una estipulacion par la que asuniiran los Estados Unidos rualquiera 
<ieuda de Espana contraida para obras publicas o mejoras de earacter pacitico ea 
Filipiuas. 

El Arcbipiela^o t^sta efeotivamente gravado cou una deuda de 200 millones de 
pesetas, garantizada eon la bipoteea de los productos y redimientos de la Aduana 
■de Manila; y pesan ademas sobre la Corona obligacimies. eargas de justicia y otras , 
pensiones de menor importancia. del servicio exclusivo de aquella eolonia. 

Por lo que bace a la deuda bipotecaria, ya ban cousignado los Comisarioi 
espanoles con ocasion de la deuda de la misma clase que pesa hipotecariamente ■ 
sohrf la renta de las Aduanas y sobre todos ios impuestos. directos o indirectos de 
la Isla de Cuba, que no queden siquiera admitir discusion acerca ilel valor y 
4?Iicacia de talcs bipotecas. 

Constituidas legalmente por uu Soberano h/gitinnj y legitimameute adquiridas 
por los particulares de diversas uacion alidades que se interesaron en aquellas 
■operaciones de credito. Esj)ana no es duena de ios derecbos de estas terceras per- 
•sonas que estan al amparo de las leyes que protegen la propiedad privada, para que 
■en un tratado con los Estados Unidos ni con otra Poteneia alguna, pueda consentlr 
en nada que siguifique o implique una lesion de derecbos que no son suyos. Se lo 
vedan Ios deberes mas elementales de la probidad publica y privada. 

Espana no reclama el r>-cour.cimiento de esas dcudas bipi>tecarias para su pro- 
pio bencBcio. quosto que su tesoro no se ba obUsado a pagar tales deudas sino subs - 
diariamente. esto es, solamente en el caso en que no fueran suflcicntes las rentas c 
impuestos bipotecados. Si bace tal reelamacion es solamente tn cumplimieuto de 
un debet* moral que pesa sobre todo deudor bonrado. y ademas en beneficio de los 
tenedores de su deuda propia, los cuaU's no podian meuos de ver un peligro para sus 
intereses en el b'ecbo de que Espana, sin estar a ello obligada. rrcargase las obli- 
gaciones de su tesoro con otras cuantiosas a que bubiera de atender juiitamente 
que a las suyas propias y corriendo el peligro de que sus recursos no bastast-n para 
atender a todas. La deuda y obiigacioues de las colouias que a ella directamente 
interesan son las que uo gozau del priviiegio dv una bipoteea. porque respeeto a 
elias esta principalmente obligada al pago. y entiende que no es justo que cuando 
las ba coutraido por y para sus eolonias, baya de continuar despues de perderlas. 
gravada con tales cargas. que son, dtspues de todo, una pequena parte del inmenso 
capital que en aquellas se invirtio y que ba cubierto con sus propios recursos. 

(iuede dicbo, por lo tanto, y esptran los Comisarios espanoles que uo babran de 
tener la necesidad de repetirlo, que Espana no puede ni debe. porquf el resjieto a lo 
ageno se lo veda, convenir eu este tratado, ni eu uinguno. sobre nada que implique 
la lesion o la suspension o siquiera descouocimituto de derecbos privados y agenos 
contra la voluntad de sus legitimes y particulares duenos. 

Mas aun por lo que toca a la deuda colonial no priviiegiada. su dignidad y el res- 
peto que se debe a si misma, le vedan igualmeute admitir las bases que resaltan en 
el parrafo de la proposiciou de que se esta ocupando y que cousiste en el examen de 
la inversion que Espana baya podido dar a los productos obtenidos por la creaciou 
de dicbas deudas. Esto equivalia a somoter al criterio de una poteneia extrana los 
actos de su gobierno interior. Acertados o uo (acertados entiende que ban sido 
todos) fueron perfectamente legitimos y estan al amparo de su soberania. 

Y aun en la inadmisible bipotesis de que tal acierto no bubiera babido en ellos, 
no saben los Comisarios espanoles que baya nailie que pueda hacer depender la legl- 
timidad de una deuda legalmente eontra'da, de la inversion buena o mala, que, des- 
pues de constituida, baya dado el deudor a sus productos. 

No ban de poner termino los Comisarios espanoles a este escrito sin ilamar la 
atencion de los bonorables Comisarios americauos sobre un punto que no puede 
menos de ser resuelto en el tratado, en cumplimiento de lo conveuido en la base 
■6a del Protocolo: dice esta asl: "Una vez terminado y flrmado este Protoeolo, de- 
beran suspendtrse las bostilidades en los dos praises, y a este efecto se deberau 
dar ordenes por cada uno de los dos Gooiernos a los Jefes de sus fuerzas de mar y 
tierra, tan pronto couio sea posible." 

Ya antes de la flrma del Protocolo, al Senor Presidente de la Union, despues de 
enterar al Senor Embajador de Francia el dia 30 de Julio ultimo, de las cond'- 
ciones que los Estados Unidos imponlan a Espana para restablecer con ella la paz. 
le manifesto que consentia en conceder la suspension de bostilidades en seguida 
que el Senor Ministro de Estado espauol biciera saber al Embajador de Francia. 
sa representante en Wasbington, que aeeptaba las negociaciones sobre las bases 
Indicadas por el Gobierno federal, y que autorizaba a dicbo Emba.1ador para firmar 
en su nombre el acta prelimiuar que punla termino a las bostilidades. 

El Gobierno espauol manifesto su conformidad con tales bases, y autorizo al 
Embajador de Francia para aceptarlas y flrmarlas en su nombre, por su despacho 

SS 



de 7 de Agosto. que fue iiiiniHlhUameiite commiii-ailo al Gobieruo de Wasbiugton. 
Apesar de esto. las hostilidadcs no se suspopilieinii entonws. Mas al (In s'' acordo 
su suspension pooos ilias rtespues. o sea el 12. por el nipnelonado artliulo (i del I'ro- 
toeolu. 

Esto no obstante el dia 13. el General .Mei-rilt. .lefe do las fuerzas auiericaiias 
eu Manila, y el Adniiranie do la tlota en aquella l>alila. exisleron la rendlclon de 
la plaza, .v por no prestarsc a ella sus autorldades. rompleron el fuego diolias 
furrzas contra el polvorin de San .Vntouio -Miad. .v eontra las trineheras que de- 
fendlan la eiudad del lado de tierra. causando inuwpsariaiuente nn iinniero eon- 
siderahle de bajas a las fuerzas espanolas. que liubieran cntreorado paclBcaniente 'a 
cludad a los amerk-anos. en eunipllmlento de la base ft del I'rotoeol. para que la 
conservasen en garantia basla la eeleliraeion del tratado de paz. 

i:i General Merritt entro por la fuerza en Manila, hlzo prisonera de suerra su 
guarnieion eiinipuesta de 8 a 9.()IH) honibres. se apoilero de los fondus publieos y dc 
la reeaudaoion de los impuestos. inelusos los de .\duanas. nombro Intend nte Gen- 
eral y Admhilstrador de la naeienda publiea y reeoltector de diehos impuestos a los 
ofieiales de su ejercito que tuvo por eonvepiente. deslitu.vendo por esto a los funclon- 
arios espanoles; rel'vo al Comniandante espanol de la guanlia eivil enear^ada del 
orden publleo: eonstituyo trihunales miiltares: abrio el puerto de Manila, y todos 
los demas. de Filipinas que .se hallaban I'U poseslon d" sus fuerzas de mar y tierra, 
al eomereio de su nacion y al de los nioitrales. previo el nago de los derechos que 
rlglesen al tleiupo de su iutroduceion y que sus funeionarios pereibierou. Todo (slo 
consta en el aeta iireliminar de eapilulaeion del V\ de .\gnsto. en la capilulaeion 
misuia <lel 14. en el bando del General Merritt de ipual fe<-lia. m sus ordenes de 
22 y 2;) del propio mes, y en las denias dietadas per las autorldades y funeionarios 
americanos en Manila. 

El Gobiemo espanol reelamo al de Washington, contra todo lo alii ix!urrido. por 
conducto de la Embajada francesa. en 29 de Agosto. 3 y 11 de Septienibre ultimo. 
Insistiendo despues hasta el presente eu las misnias reelamaciones, y senaladamente 
en al Inmedlafci libertad de la guarnieion prisionfra en Manila y en la devolur-ion de 
sus armas. questo que por una parte no podia enviar refviorzos desde la Peninsula al 
arcbipielago. euyo envio tampoco velan con buenos ojos ]os Estados Unidos, y por la 
otra, neeesitaba aquellas fuerzas para Pbertar a mlllares de espanoles prisoneros de 
los insurreetos tagalos y victimas de sus males tratamientos. y para combatir y do- 
minar aquella insurreecion de sus propios subditos. Las reelamaciones del Goblerno 
espanol fueron hasta ahora Inutiles. Estos heehos continuan cada dia tomando peer 
aspecto. El 21 de Septiembre el Capitan W. P. Moffatt. nombrado por el Prevoste 
GObernador americano, encargado de las prisones de la plaza de Bilibld. con facul- 
tad de disponer la entrada y libertad de toda clase de presos. se la dio a dos Ila- 
mados Sih-estre Lacoy y Marcos Alarcon. que estaban procesados por el delito de 
robo en cuadrilla. a otros dos que lo estaban por desereion. a seis que lo estaban 
por desaeato, a otro que lo estaba por asalto y robo y a otros tres que lo estaban 
por homicldlo. Como se ve, todos estos presos estaban en la carcel por delitos 
comunes. Este hecho inandito fue comunlcado al Goblerno de Su Majestad Cato- 
lica por la Comandancian General del Apostadero de Manila. 

Ahora bien. se hace precise examinar todos estos bechos desde el punto de visto 
de su legalidad y eon relacion a lo que en la clausula 6 del Protoeolo se babia 
convenido. ,t constituia una formal obllgacion para ambos Gobiernos. 

Desde cuando debio comenzar a producir sus efectos la suspension de las hos- 
tilidadcs acordada en dicha clausula 6? La contestaciou no es dudosa. El texto 
es clar.:) y explicito: las hostilidadcs habian de snspenderse desde la conclusion y 
firma del Protoeolo. 

Esto ocurrio en la tarde del 12 de Agosto. For lo tanto. desde dicba tarde los 
actos de guerra que cualquiera de los beligerantes ejeeutara. habian de tenerse 
como no heehos para el efecto de restablecer el "statu quo ante" el motnento de 
la firma del Protoeolo. 

Es ocloso y hasta seria ofensivo para la alta ilustracion de la Comision amerl- 
cana exponer aqui la doctrina, no solo admitida desde los tiempos de Grotius sin 
contradiecion en el Dereoho y en las practicas internaclotiales. y a que prestan sii 
asentimiento y su apoyo todos los ilustres tratadistas anglo-americ-anos que de 
la materia se hau ocupado, sine que ademas csta eleyada en los Estados Unidos a 
la categorla de Derecho cstableeido. en el artieulo 140 de sus Instrucciones para los 
Ejeroitos en campana, que dice asi: "El armisticio liga a los beligerantes a partlr 
del dia convenido entre ellos para su ejecucion, pero los otieiales de los dos ejercltos 
no son responsables de esta ejecucion. mas que desde el dia en que el armislic'o 
les ha sido oficlalmente notiflcado." 

El dia de la ejecucion fljado en el artieulo seis del Protoeolo fue el en que se 
concluyese y firmase: asl textualmente se dice alll: "A la conclusion y flrma de 
este Protoeolo las hostllidadis entre los dos paises deberan ser suspendidas." 

El General Merritt y el Almlrante de la escuadra no seran personalmente re- 
sponsables de la sangre que innecesariamente dcrraniarou el dia 13. si entonces no 
tenian notlcla oficlal del Protoeolo que s^' babia flrmado cl dia anterior en Wash- 

99 



injrton. pero csto no ubsta para que. romo dice uno de los mas ilustres tratadistas 
del Derecho internacional. v\ honor milltar exije abstenerse escrupiilosamente de 
aprovecbarse de toda ventaja que podria saearse do la iguoraucia de las tropas 
que uo bubieran sido todavia Infonuadas del armistieio. En cases como este la 
Potencia beligerante cuyas fuerzas. per igrioraucia, ejecutaron uu aeto de guerra, 
no puede aprovecbarse do sus ventajas y debe reponer las cosas el "statu quo ante" 
indemuizamlo al beligerante perjudicado de los danos y perjui<*ios que por aquel acto 
de gnerra se le bubieran inferido, y restituyendo, oonio dice el ilustre publicist a 
anglo-american Dudley Field, todas las presas becbas en contravencion del armistieio. 

Rsto es tan elemental y vulgar en los Estados Unidos, que en sus colegios sirve 
d** texto la obra titulada "Elementos dp Derecbo internacional y Lcyes de Guer- 
ra" escrita por el Mayor General Halleck y en cuya edicion de Filadelfia. pagina 
28.T. se !ee lo siguiente: 

*'La tregua liga a las partes contratautcs desde el momento de su conclusion a 
nienos que no se estipule especialamente otra cosa, pevo no liga a los individuos 
de una naciou hasta el punto de bacerles personalmeute responsables de su ruptura 
mieutras no tengen noticia actual y positiva d(* ella. 

"Tor consiguiente, si los individuos sin conocimlento de la suspension de hostili- 
dades. raalan uii enemigo o destruyen su propiedad, nu cometen por tales actos un 
crimen ni estan obligados a iudemnizacion pecuniaria. poro si bacen prisoneros o 
prosos. el soberano esta en la obligaciou (b' poner a aquellos inmediatamente en 
libertad y de restltuir las presas." 

El Gobii-rno americano no ba puesto. basta abora. en libertad a la guaniicion 
prisonera dv Manila, ni ba reducido su ocupacion belica de la plaza a los limites de 
uu simple derecbo de guarniciou en ella. que es, segun el artioulo 80 del Proto- 
eob), 1q unico a que tenian derecbo como garantiu basta el tratado de paz. 

Les Coniisionadas espanoles. por lo tanto, en complimento de lo expresamente 
convenido en el Protocolo, entienden que en el tratado de paz debe consiguarse: 

1. La entrega iuiuediata de la piaza al Gobieruo espanol. 

2. La liliertad inmediata de la guarniciou de la m'.sma. 

3. La ilevolucion al Gobierno espanol de todas los fondos y propriedades pub- 
licas de que se todas clases que Ua venido percibiendo y que perciba basta su dev- 
olucion: y 

4. El (junipromiso por parte de los Estados Unidos de indemuizar a Espana de 
los gravisimos perjuicios que le ba ocasiouado con la reteneion de aquellas tropas 
prisioneras. porque a esto fue debido que impunemente se propagase la insurreclon 
tagala in la Isla de Luzon y sn invasion en ias Islas Visayas, y porque tambien a 
esto mismo ba sido debida la continuacion de l.»s malos treatmientos de bjs millares 
de prisioneros espanoles civiles y militaires a que impuncmente continuan sometien- 
doles las fuerzas insurrectas tagalas. 



En vlrtud de cuantit precede la Comision espauola tiene el honor de bacer a la 
Coniisiou americana la siguiente proposicion: 

Pnniero. Que no puede acepter la proposicion que ba presentado pidiendo 1& 
cesion de la soherania del Arcbipielago Filipino a los Estados T'uidos por entender 
que es coniraria a los preliminaries de paz eonvenidos en e! Protocolo de Washing- 
Ion; y 

Segundo. Que en su cimsecuencia la invitn a que. de acuerdo con lo convenido 
en los meiicionados articnios 3 y 6 de! Protocolo. .-^e sirva presentar una i)ropnsi- 
cion sobre la inten-encion. disposicion y gobierno del Arcbipiela^gv* Filipino y sobre 
el comprouHso que. segun lo que se aeaba de docir. deben contraer los Estados Uni- 
dos por efecto del becho de guerra ejectuado pur sus Iropas despues de firmado el 
Ib'otocolo. apoderandose a viva fuerza de la eiudad de Manila y ejecutando los actos 
que estan fuera de his umius derecbo s que los Estados Unidos podian ejercer 
en aquePa tiudad y su bahia y pn'tto. con arreulo a la convenido en la ffcjnrionada 
base 3 del Protocolo. 

Esta <-niifoi'pie: EMILin HE O.IKKA. 



100 



ANNEX TO PROTOCOL NO. 12. 



I'Kiii'd.'^i-no.N, 



Tlic Siiiuilsh ('"niiiiissi.iii hns n-!iil witli t:ii.Ml .^miirisi^ tlw proipiisll l.m iiri'sciitca 
bj- tilt' AnuTlcaii ('oiiiiiils..ii<m at the mi'i'Iiii.' lu-lil <in ihc Hist of Octolior. uUliii.i. 

Thf only article wliieli said proposition lonlains is reducea to provldlnj; for the 
cession by Spain to the Tnitert States of tlie areliipelasro known as thi' I'liilipiilne 
Islands, situated wltliln tlie perimeter Ki'ouranliiealiy deterniineil In Its texl. 

Hut Ml ..dclition tliereto the proposition eoiilains two paraaraplis. not intenileil to 
form a part of tlie artiele. the seeoiul of wliich is of siic-li importance as to il.'niami 
from the Spanisli Commission to deal with it specially in tills paper. 

The Spanis'i Coniniissioners have stat I'd that tin- American proposition excited In 
them preat surprise, and it la their duty to set fortii the reasons which explain that 
feellnj,'. 

From the tirst to 'he List conference, tlie .Vmcrir'an Commissioners liave been 
allegiiij? eonstimtiy— and that alieKation was tlie princiiiai finnind upon wliii-li tiieir 
drafts relating to Cuba and Porto Kico were liased— that in their conferences tile 
two Commissions have to aliidc liy tile basics I'stalitisiieil in the preliminaries of 
peace asrecd upon and sijined ■>n the 12th of Aufrnst ultimo. The same was said 
and eoutinnes to be said by the Spanish Commissioners. One difference, however. 
has existed lu this respect between the two Commissions, and this has been that 
the American Commissioners understand tli.ii tlie Vrolocol should be construed ac- 
cording to 'ts letter, strictly, and witliou t t.iiiiiij; into consideration any data, ante- 
cedent or document. For this reason, as tlie %Vords •■Deiit of Cuba, or of I'orto 
Kico" were not written on the Protoi-ol. thev have deemed that Spain should trans- 
mit or cede lier sovcreiiinty over the islands, but should retain the tatter's i>blit;a- 
tions The S|ianisli Commissioners understand, on the contrary, that for deterniin- 
Mis the literal meaniiiK of tlie I'roti>col it is pece^sary not only to bear iu niiml the 
seneral rules of international law as to tlie interpretation of treaties, but also the 
negotiations carried imi between the two parties wlii<-h cnlmimited in this agreement, 
and Ml which the Interpretation of the lain-r had been given beforehand and of- 
ieially. 

Therefore the proposition relating t" tlu' cession by SiKiiii to the Cnlted States 
06 the rhilippi'ie Islands, besides not be ing included in or covered by the articles of 
the I'rotoi-oi. appears to be in open contra diction of its terms. In the. , .pinion of the 
Spanish Commissiiui It is a tlagr.ii.r vicdatiop of the agreement. 

The I'rolocol contains six articles, and only (Uie. tlie third, refers to the IMiilip- 
pine Archipelago. Literally trauslateil lin to Spanish! from the official Frem-h text, 
it reads as follows: 

'■The United States shall occupy and III Id the city, the bay and tin- liarb.>r of 
Manila iiending the eoncluslcm of a treaty of pi'aci. which shall determini- the iu. 
spectiim icontrolei. the disposition, and the government of the Philippine islands. 

This is all that tlie Protocol says about tin- arch.pelago. 

I'lveii accepting as a projier standard for the interpretation of tliis article the 
n:>rrow one of the literal meaning, as claimed Ino matter how strange it may ap- 
peari by the American Commission, the Spiiiisli Coniinis.<ion would have only to re- 
ply that the text of the Protocol refers to nothing else than the temporary or pro- 
visional occ-upation by tlie United States of .Miinra. its harbor, and its l>ay. until the 
treaty of peace, deterniining or agreeing upon the inspection, disposition and gov- 
erninelil of the Pliili|ipine Islands, should be concluded. 

■\Vliat has this to do with any cliaiig e or cession of sovereignty? 

The tirst part of the article is pco-fei-t ly clear. Not even the slightest doubt can 
exist as to the fact that the only agreement as to Manila, its bay and its harbor, re- 
ferred to the occupation Uiereof, not final but provisional, by the I'uited States: 
said occupation to last only until the conclu.<ion of the tr.'aty of peace. No proof is 
necessary to corrotiorate this Mteral constru'-tion of tlie text. But shmild it bo re- 
quired, the American Commission would tind it in doi iineiit number 11) lu the Yellow 
Book just published by the Government of tni' French Bepublic. Said document 
contains the idrcuiar addressed by the French Minister of Foreign .\tTairs to the 
Fremh ..Vmbassailors iu Kurjipe. three days .after tile signing of the Protoiid, ac- 
qu.linting tliein witli the mission wliicli the (iovernmout of tlie Republic had allowed 
to be entrusted to the Frendi Ambassador at Wasliing'on, to offer peace to the (Jov- 
ernment of the United States in behalf of the (iovernmeut of Her Catholic Majesty. 
This circular states that the French Ambassador at Washington had signed, iu the 
name of Spain and at her request, a Protocid setting forth the demands of the 
Uuiled Stalls, and after enumerating those demands, and iu referring to the I'hlllp. 
pine Islands, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs .says that the only one con- 

101 



talned in that document was the provisional occupation of Manila by the American 
forces. 

Toe American Commission will not disres-'.-ird the unquestionable moral weight of 
the testimony of the Minister of Foreign" Affairs of the French Republic, equally 
fnendly to the two belligerent states, who could know nothing about the Protocol 
except thrciuffh the most authoritative channel of the French Ambassador who had 
discussed it with the American iJovernim iit. and ajjreed to it and signed it, in 
the name of Spain. 

The mere provisional character of that occupation remained even after the Pro- 
tocol was signed, when Genera! Merritt, contrary to what had been agreed upon in 
Article VI. of the same, forcibly took possession of Manila, In the last paragraph 
of Xo. o in the rules for capitulation agreed upon and signed on August 15, on the 
part of the United States, by Brigadier-General of Volunteers E. V. Greene, by Cap- 
tain Lamberton of the United States Navy; by Lieutenant-Colonel and Inspector- 
General Whittier, and by Lieutenant-Colonel Judge-Advocate Crowder, the following 
was said: 

"The return of the arms surrendered liy the Spanish forces shall take place 
when they evacuate the city or when the American army evacuates." 

Therefore it was understood by those who signed this agreement that the 
Americau forces did not permanently occupy the place, as they anticipated the 
case that they would have to evacuate it. And if they anticipated this, it is cleat 
that they understood their occupation of the place to be merely provisional. 

True, It is, that the words "inspection, disposition and government of the Philip 
pine Islands" have not a clear meaning. The Spanish Government and its represen- 
tative at Washington had noticed this fact and asked tor the proper explanation 
thereof (which was not given) by the American Government, before the Protocol 
was signed. But whatever construction m.^.y now be placed upon these words, the 
fact is that m no case can their meaning be .so stretched as to involve in any way 
the idea of ces.sion of the sovereignty of Spain over the archipelago. Such a ces- 
sion or acquisition in perpetuum of the archipelago by the United States, had it 
been agreed upon in the Protocol, would have been in contradiction with the mere 
temporary occupation of Manila, which at the same time was agreed upon in the 
same clause of that instrument. 

Xor could the said construction ever be admitted as valid, under the rules of in- 
terpretation of treaties, because the said admission would result in benefiting a 
party who refused to explain, when asked at th« proper time to do so, the meaning 
of the words which even then were considered ambiguous and indeterminate. Even 
if this were not the case, the rule which the Spanish Commission understand to have 
been applied to them without reason, set forth by the American Commissioners in 
their last "memorandum," namely, that "the abstention of Spain from proposing in 
the Protocol the condition of the transfer of the debt precluded her from proposing 
it now," would be applicable to the case. The United States abstained from propos- 
ing to Spain in the Protocol, frankly and ope'ilv, as frankly and openly as all 
things must be set forth in all treaties, which must never be concluded unless to be 
understood and complied with in good faith, the cession of her sovereignty over the 
archipelago. They did not do it, and they became thereby precluded from proposing 
it now. 

Ali the foregoing statements must really be considered in excess of necessity, as 
it is a fact, perfectly well known to the American Commissioners, that when the Pro- 
tocol was signed at Washington the most worthy President of the Union not only 
had no idea that Spain would have to cede the Philippine Archipelago to the United 
States, but entertained, on the contrary, an opposite idea, namely, that Spain would 
retain her sovereignty over it. 

In the conference held on August 4 last, between .Mr. Cambon, Ambassador from 
France, and President McKinley, in the presence of the United States Secretary of 
State. Mr. Cambon made some remarks as to the cession of Porto Rico in compensa- 
tion for the expenses of the war, and the President, showing himself inflexible upon 
that point, repeated his assertion that the Philippine question was the only one not 
finall.v sefthd in his mind. It was then that Mr Cambon asked for an explanation 
about the meaning of the above cited phrases in Article III. of the Protocol, relating 
to the Philippine Archipelago, as the language of said article might lend itself to 
inspire fear in Spain in regard to her sovereignty over those islands. President Mc- 
Kinley answered him, verbatim, as follows: 

"I do not want any ambiguity to be allowed to remain on this point. The iiego- 
tifitors of both countries are the ones who shall resolve upon the permanent advan- 
tages (notice that he said 'advantages' and not Tights') which we shall ask in the 
archipelago, and decide upon the intervention (controle), disposition and government 
of the Philippine Islands." ' 

He further said: "The Madrid Government can rest assured that up to now 
nothing is decided a priori, in my own mind, against Spain, nor do I consider any- 
thing decided by it against the United States." 

Is it therefore doubtful that on the 12th of .\ugust. when the Secretary of State 

102 



of till' liiiti'il Slali's ■-iu-iiril Tin- rrciliicc.l. tlir rri'sldiMil nf tlic I'liitiMl Stilti's Iniil no 
ideii of (li-iiiiiiuiiu;.' frniii S|i:ihi tlir crsslnii ic. thv r?iiii-(l stales of liiM- soviTeismy over 
tl;o archi'pt'UijroV 

Km lUui-o is soiin'i!iiii« more. Tlio I'rcsiili'ni nf Uii- I'liilcil States, far from eii- 
t<_'riaiiiin;; tliat jiurposo, cleai-ly sliowfd by his laiijrua;;r tliat lie desired tliat Spain 
sboiiid preserve tier sovereignty. lie said tliat tlie ( 'otninissioners at I'arls would 
bave to eonie to an agreement as to the permanent advantaRcs to be demanded by 
the United States in the I'hilippine Arebipeiaj;o. If Siiain was to be deprived of her 
sovereignty, what future advantages eould imssibly oe asked from Spain by the 
United States Commissioner.'!, or granted them by Spain? How would it be possible 
for the Ameriean Comniissioners at Tails to ask Sp^ in for advantages in an archipel- 
ago which tliey at the same time h.nd to deiiuind and receive as their own property? 
There is still an^ither pro.if. as irrefiit abli. as the above, that the Washington 
Government, far fr.oii liaving at that time any idea or intention to acquire sovereign- 
ty over the I'liilippine -Vrchipclago. consenleil tliat saiil sovereignty continue to be 
Tested in Si>ain. liy renuiving from its own mind all id. 'a of eliange in this respect. 
either when framing or signing Article IK. uf the rrotoeol. 

When the Spanisli Government, by its disjiatch of tlie 7tli of -Vugust. answered 
the note of the Honorable Secretary of State of the United States of the 31st of 
July, wherein he informed Spain of the conditions, sncli as set forth in the Protocol, 
upon which the American Government was disposed to pur an end to the war. the 
Spanish Si-cretary of State used in regard t.i liasis 3 the following language: 

••The basis ridating to tlie Thiliiiiiiiie Islands seems, according to our under- 
standing, to be too indeterminate. In the tirsi place, the title invoked by the United 
State.s for the occupation of the bay. harbor and city of Manila, pending the concln- 
sion of a treaty of peace, cannot be conquesi. as the city of Manila is still defending 
itself. In spite of the blockade by sea and -lie siege liy land, the former i.r th* 
American fleet, the latter by forces commanded by a native encouraged and assisted 
by the American Admiral, the Spanish flag has not been lowered. In tlie second 
place, the I'hilippine Archipelago is whidly In the power and under the sovereignty 
of Spain. The Spanish GoviMiimenI understauds. therefore, that the temporary occu- 
pation of Man^'a must ei.iistitute a guar.intee. 

"The treaty of peace, it is said, shall di'termine the intervention, disposition and 
government of the Philippine Islands, and as the intention of the Federal Govern- 
ment is too much veiled in this clause, it is important for this Government to state 
that while accepting the 3d basis, it does not relinquish a priori the entire sover- 
eignty over the Philippine Archipelago, and leaves to the negotiators the care to 
stipulate in regaril to such reforms as it may be advisable to introduce there— in 
view of the situation of those possessions and the degree of cultivation of their in- 
habitants. The Government of Her Majesty a<-cepts the .3d clause as supplemented 
by the aforesaid declaration." 

It appears very plainly that the Spanish Government did not accept the only 
item of the Protocol which relates to the IMiilippine Islands, except in so far as it 
meant that the occupation of Manila siiould 'ue only temporary and in the nature of 
a guarantee, and that the intervention, disposition and government spoken of in the 
item should refer to the interior regime and administration of the government of the 
.said islands.' and not to the entire soverevgiity. wliieh Spain expressly reserved and 
was entitled to retain. 

Against this construction iilaced lieforeliand by the ijiivi-rmnent of Her Catholic 
Majesty upon the 3d basis of the I'rotoco'.-a construction noon which exclusively it 
was accepted— the Washington Government said or suggested nothing, before sign- 
ing the instrument. On the contrary, the Secretary of State of tiie linked States. 
when sending to the French Ambassador the draft of the Protocol whicii was to be 
signed, said to him in a letter that the note of llic> Spanish (iovernment (the one in 
which the ahove cinoied phrases appeari contained in its spirit the acceptance by 
Spain of the conditions proposed by the Ci.i'ed States. Therefore, the third condi- 
tion had been frauieu by the American Government in tiie same sense in which It 
had beiMi nndel-stood by the Spanish Government, otherwise it would have been ini- 
possil-le fnr the Secretary of State of the United States to say. upon examination of 
the note in which the Spanish Governineni explained tne only meaning of the article 
which would be acceptable to it. that tlie Spanish (Jovernnient did accept it. 

The result Is that while the United States may now come and claim the saiil 
sovereignty, the claim can never be founded upon the Protocol. 

And what other title, different from that agreement, can they allege, against the 
will of Spain, to be vested in tliein? 

The ba.ses upon which the United States agreed to make peace with Spain, or in 
other words, the conditions whicii the Uniteil States imposed upon Spain for the re- 
establisnmeiit of peace between the two countries, were set forth in tlie Protocol. 
.4n immediate suspension of hostilities was also agreed upon in that instranient; and 
Spain up to the present time has scrupulously kepi the agreement. Therefore the 
United Slates can have no right to demand now from Sjialn any onerous conditions 

103 



not contained in the Protocol, either because of events prior to its date-since when 
the Protocol was sifrucd the I'liiteil States did not make more demands than are 
written therein, and were satisfied with their aece;itance bv Spain— or liecause of 
suljseqnent events, since Spain, after the instrument was signed, did not commit any 
aegression or give the United States any occasion to make further complaints or de- 
mands. 

If for reasons which are beyond the sphere of jurisdiction of the Spanish Com- 
mission, the American Government wishes now to acquire sovereignty over tie Phil- 
ippine Archipelago, the proper way to accomplish that purpose is certainly not a 
claim based upon the preliminaries of peace agi-eed upon between the two High Con- 
tracting I'arties and set forth in the Protocol signed at Washington on the 12th of 
August. 

The Spanisli Commissioners stated at the beginning of this paper that the second 
pi.ragraph which the American proposition contained after the proposal article was 
of siich importance that it imposed on them the necessity of dwelling especially upon 

its import. ' 

The Commissioners assert therein that they are disposed to insert in the treaty a 
stipulation whereliy the United States will assume any debt of Spain contracted for 
pnlilie works or improvements of a pacitti- character in the I'Uilippines. 

The arch-pelago is in fact burdened with a debt of HW billions of pesatas. secured 
bv mortgage on the proceeds and revenues of the Manila custom house; and there 
further rest upon the Crown obligations, just charges and other pensions of lesser 
importance, exclusively connected with the service of that colony. 

With respect to the mortgage debt, the Spanish Commissioners have already stat- 
ed with relation to the debt of a like nature which by way of mortgage Ijurdens the 
revenues of the custom houses and all the taxes, direct and indirect, of the Island of 
Cuba, that they cannot even admit any discussion relalive to the validity and effi- 
cacy of such mortgages. 

Legally created by a legitimate sovereign, and legally acquired by the individ- 
uais of various nationalities who intereste.d themselves in tliose provincial operations, 
Spain is not the proprietor of the rights of these third parties, who are under the 
aegis of the laws protecting private property, so as to consent in a treaty with the 
United States or any other power in any way to anything which means or implies an 
impairment of rights which are not hers. The most elemental duties of public and 
private probity forbid tills. 

Spain does not demand the recognition of these secured debts for her own benetit, 
since her treasury has not bound itself to pay the same, save subsidiarily, that is. 
only n the event that the revenues and taxes mortgaged are insufticient to meet 
them. If she makes the demand it is onl.v in obedience to a moral duty resting upon 
every honest debtor, and. further. In behalf of the holders of her own debt, who 
could not but see a danger to their interests in the fact that Spain, without being 
bound thereto, should overburden her treasuiy wdth other heavy obligatioois ftor 
wnich it would be liable jointly with her own. and running the risk of her resources 
being insufticient to meet them all. The debt and obligations of the colonies which 
directly interest her are those not enjoying the privilege of security, because with 
respect to these she is primarily bound, and she understands that it is not just that 
when she has contracted them for her colonies she shouhi continue, after losing 
them, burdeneii with such charges, which are. after all. a small part of the immense 
capital invested in those colonies which was furnished from her own resources. 

Let it be understood, therefore, and the Spanish Commissioners hope there will be 
no necessity to repeat it. that Spain cannot and ought not, since respect for the rights 
of others forbids it. to agree in this treaty or in any to anything implying the im- 
pairment or suppression or even disregard of the private rights of others against the 
will of their legitimate and special proprietors. 

Still more w-ith respect to the unprivileged (unsecured) colonial debt, their dig- 
nity and the respect due to their own selves likewise forbid them accepting the bases 
which stand out in the paragraph of tlie proposition under consideration, which con- 
sists of the looking into the investment Spain may nave made of the proceeds result- 
ing from the creating of such debts. This would be equivalent to submitting to the 
judgment of a foreign power the acts of her internal government. Judicious or not 
(and the Commissioners understand they liave all been judicious) they were perfectly 
legitimate acts and they are protected by aer sovereignty. 

And even in the inadmissible hypothesis that such judiciousness were wanting in 
them, the Siianish Commissioners do not know that there is any one who can cause 
the legitimacy of a legally contracted debt to depend upon the investment, good or 
bad. which after its creation the ilebtor may have made of its proceeds. 

The Spanish Commissioners cannot close this paper without calling the attention 
of the honorable Aniericau ('ommi.ssioiiers to a point which cannot but be resolved In 
the treaty, in obedience to the stipulations of the tjth basis of the Protocol, which 
is as follows: "Upon the conclusion and signing of this Protocol, hostilities between 
the two countries shall be suspended, and notice to that effect shall be given as soon 

104 



jis [Mtssibic by each Govcniiin'iii \n ilic rimiumiul-rs of its iiiUitiiry ainl uuval forces." 

Kven before the si;:nin;r >if tb.> rmtocnl the rroslileiu of tbc Uribm. nfter nppris- 
luR the Ambassador of Fraiiri- .m the ."•(> li .if July hist of th.^ ronditions ilie riiited 
Suites ii.iposed on Spain for restcirinj,' peace tlierewith. said to him tliat he ronsented 
to jjrantinjr the *iuspension of hostilities as soon as the "Spanish Minister of State 
shoulil n>ake itnown to the Ainbassatbir of France, l>is representative in Wash.''i;;tou. 
that he accepted the nes<>tiations npon the bases sassested by the Federal iiovern- 
ment: and anthori/.ed tlie said Anibassa lor to si^n !n his name tlif preliminary 
minute which put an end to the hostilitb*;*. 

The Spanisli Government make known Its a'^^'fement to such bases, ami autho- 
rized tlie Ambassador of Friini-e to accept an,] sijjn them in its name through its 
dispatch of August 7. which was iiumcdlatcly communicated to tbo Government at 
Washintflori. Xot withstamiiiis this, the h stilities were not then suspended. Hut 
finally the suspension thereof was aitnved to a few days later, that is on the TJtli. in 
the said (Ith article of the rrotoeoi. 

lu spite of this, on the 13th. General Merritt. commander of the American forces 
In Manila, and the Admiral of the fleet in that hay. demanded the surrender of the 
place, and as its authorities did not agree thereto, the said forces opened fire on the 
San Antonio Abad powder nia;;azine and on the trenches which defended the city on 
t!»e land side, unnecessarily causing a considerable number of losses to tlie Spanisli 
forces, who would have peacefully delivered tlie city over to the Americans in obedi- 
ence to the third basis of the Protocol that they might h.dd it as a guaranty pend- 
ing the eonclusion of the treaty of peace. 

General Merritt etitered Manila by force, he made prisoners of war of its garrison 
made up of eigiit or nine thousand men, he took posse&sion of the public funds and 
tiie collection of taxes, including customs receipts; he named as Intendant General 
and Administrator of the I'uhlic Treasury, and Tux Gollector. the oft'icers of his army 
he saw fit. there-by displacing the Spanish ull'iciais. He relieved the Spanish Com- 
mander of the »;ivii Guarcl charged with the maii.teaauee of public order: he consti- 
tuted military courts: be opened the port of Manila and a!] Ibe other ports of the 
Philippines in the posj>ession of his land and naval forces to the commerce of his 
nation and of neutral nations, conditioned on the payment of the dues in force at 
the time of his arrival, which were collected by his officials. 

All of this i.s recorded in the preliminary minute of the capituhitinn *>\' August lo. 
In the capitulation of the 14th itself, in the proclamation of General Merritt <)f llise 
date, in his orders of the 22d and 2.'?d of the same numth, and in the others dictated 
by the American authorities and officials in Manila. 

The Spanish Government reimmstrated to that rif Washington through the French 
Kml)assy against everything that occurred there on August 20 and the 3il an<i 11th 
of September last, repeating such remonstrances since and down to the present time. 
signally insisting up. n the iminediato r'le ise of the garrison held prisoners in Manila 
and upon the return of their arms, since, on tlie one naud. it could not send rein- 
forcements from the Peninsula to the archipelago, nor would the Tnitcd States look 
favorably upon such an action, and, on the other hand, it needed those forces to lib- 
erate the thousands of Spanish prisoners of the Tagalo insurgents, victims i>f their 
il:-treatnient. and to combat and dominate tliat insurrection of its own subjects. 

The remonstrances uf the Spanish Goveri'ment have been up to the present fruit- 
less. These acts are daily assuming a worse phase. On September 21 Captain W, P. 
Moft'att. appointed l>y the American Provost-Marshai in charge of the Uilibid prisons 
with authority to regulate tlie entrance and release (»f all kinds of prisoners, re- 
leased two named Silvestre Lacoy and Marcos Alarcon. charged with the offence of 
highway rolibery; two others charged with desertion: six charged with contempt of 
authority; another charged with assault and robbery, and three others charged with 
homicide. As Is seen, all thesi* prisoners were in jail for common crimes. This un- 
heard of act was communicated, to tlie (ioierntnent of Her CathoUc Majesty by the 
Commandant General's Office of the station of Manila. 

W'ry well: it becomes necessary to exaniiee all liiese acts from the standpoint of 
their legality and with relation to what was agreed on in Article VI. ..f the Protocol. 
which constituted a formal obligation for lK)th Governments. 

When was the suspension ot f.ostilities airreed on in said Article VI. l<i go Into 
effectV The answer is not douldful. The text is clenr and explicit: the hostilities 
were to be suspended upiui the c..nclusI<»M and signing of the I'rotoei)!. This (w- 
curred on the afternoon i.f August 12. Therefore fmm that afternoon tlie warlike 
acts which either of the belligerents shouhl commit were to be helii as not done in 
order to restore the statu <ino ante at the moment of signing the Protoc()I. 

It IS idle, and may even be an Insult to the great learning of the American Com- 
udssion, to expound here the doctrine, not only .idn.itted without contrarlictlon since 
the time of Grotlus in international law ami usagi'. and to which all the learned An- 
glo-American treatise-writers have given tlieir assent and support, but which is fur- 
thermore raised In the I'nlted States to the category of establislied law in article 140 
of the Iiistruction'i to Armies in tlie Field, which reads as follows: '■Tlie armistice 

10". 



biuds til. lielliti'ieuts from the day agreed upon between them for its going into ef- 
fect: but the officers of the two armies are not responsible for this except from the 
day upon which they are officially notified of the armistice." 

The day when it was to go into effect determined in Article VI. of the Protocol 
was that on which it should be concluded and signed. There it says verbatim: 
■•Upon the tou.'lusion and signing of this Protocol, hostilities between the two 
countries shall be suspended." 

General Merritt and the Admiral of the squadron may not be personally respon- 
sible for the blood they unnecessarily shed on the 13th If they had no official notice 
then of the Protocol which had been signed on the previous day in Washington: but 
tills does not coL'fliet. as one of the most learned writers on intprnational law says, 
with military honor, demanding that they scrupulously abstain from profiting by any 
advantage that may be gained through the Ignorance of troops who may not yet have 
been informed of the armistice. In cases like this the belligerent power whose forces 
through iguorance commit a warlike act, cannot profit by its advantages, and should 
restore things to the statu quo ante, indemnifying the belligerent injured for the 
damages and injuries he may have suffered through said warlike act, and restoring, 
as is said by the learned Anglo-American publicist, Dudley Field, all prizes taken In 
violation of the armistice. 

This is so elementary and common in the United States that in their colleges the 
work entitled "Elements of International Law and Laws of War." written by Major 
General Halleck, serves as a text-book, and In tJie Philadelphia edition thereof, page 
2S.3, appears the following: 

"The truce binds the contracting parties from the moment of its conclusion un- 
less other\vi.se specially stipulated; hut it does not bind the individuals of a nation 
to the e:;tent of making them personally responsible for its rupture until they have 
actual and positive notice thereof. 

"Consequently, if individuals with knowledge of the suspension of hostilities, 
kill an enemy or destroy his property, they do not by such acts commit a crime, nor 
are they bound to pecuniary indemnity, but if prisoners or prizes are taken the 
sovereign is bound to immediately release the former and to restore the prizes. ' 

The American Government has not released, up to this time, the imprisoned gar- 
rison of Manila, nor has it reduced its military occupation to the limits of a simple 
right to garrison it, which is. according to Article III. of the Protocol, the only thing 
it had a right to do as a guaranty until the signing of the treaty of peace. 

The Spanish Commissioners, therefore, in obedience to what was expressly agreed 
to in the Protocol, understand that the treaty of peace ought to embody: 

1. The immediate delivery of the place to the Spanish Government. 

2. The Immediate release of the garrison of the same. 

3. The return to the Spanish Government of all the funds and public property 
taken by the American army since its occupation of the place, and of the taxes of 
every kind collected or to be collected up to the time of returning the same. 

4. The obligation on the part of the United States to indemnify Spain for the 
serious damage occasioned her by the detention as pr'soners of the said troops, to 
which detention is due the spreading with impunity of the Tagalo insurrection in the 
island of Luzon and its invasion of the VIsayas Islands, and because, moreover, to 
this same cause has been due the ill-treatmeut of thousands of Spanish prisoners, 
civil and military: treatment to which the Tagalo insurgents have continued to sub- 
ject them with impunity. > 

In virtue of what has been said the .Spanish Commission has the honor to make 
to the -\merican Commission the following proposition: 

1. That it cannot accept the propositions it has presented asking for the cession 
of the sovereignty of the Philippine -irchipeiago to the United States, as it .under- 
stands that this is contrary to the preliminaries of peace .igreed upon in the Proto- 
col of Washington. 

2. In consequence of this it invites the American Commission to present, n ac- 
cordance with the stipulations cf Articles III. and VI. of the Protocol, a proposition 
concerning the control, disposition -nd government of the Philippine Arc'uriJeiago and 
concerning the obligation which, as has just been said, it is the duty of the United 
States to contract because of the acts of war committed by its troops after the 
signing of the Protocol in forcibly seizing the city of Manila and performing acts be- 
yond the scope of the only rights the United States could exercise in that city, its 
bay and harbor, pursuant to the stipulations of the said Article II. of the Protocol. 

True Copy: 

1 BMILaO DE OJEDA. 



106 



Protocol No. 13. 



Protocolo No. 13. 



CONFERENCE, 
of November 9. 1898. 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 9 de Noviembre de 1898. 



On the 8th instant, the day to whioh 
the conference was adjonrnod, the Amer- 
ican Commissioners requested a postpone- 
ment of tlie meeting from 2 to 4 o'clock. 
In order that an opportunity might be giyen 
for the completion of the copying of their 
answer to the counter-proposition presentefi 
by the Spanish Commli?sloners at the last 
session. The Spanish Commissioners being 
nnable to be present at the latter hour, 
the session was, on ihelr soggestlon. post- 
poned till the 9th of November, at 2 
o'clcek p. m., at whiei hour there were 
Present— 

On the behalf of the Tluitod States: 
Messrs. D.iY. 

DAVIS. 

FRYE. 

GRAY. 

REID. 

MOORE. 

FEUGUSSOX. 

On the part of Spain: 
Messrs. MONTERO RIOS. 

ABARZDZA. 

GARNICA, 

CERERO. 

OJEDA. 

The protocol of the preceding session was 
read and approved. 

The American Commissioners presented 
an answer to the counter-proposition sub- 
mitted by the Spanish Commissioners on 
the 4th instant in relation to the Phil- 
ippines. A copy of the answer is hereto 
annexed. 

The Spanisli Commissioners stated that 
tbey would examine the answer, but that 
Its length and the necessity of having it 
carefully translated ,iade it impossible for 
them at the moment definitely to state 
what time would be needed for a reply; 
and they proposed either to advise the 
American Commissioners later in the day 
when the Commission might meet again, 
or at once to designate a day without 
prejudice to asking for a postponement, 
should it be necessary, and should the 
nature of the document require it- 

The American Commissioners preferring 
the latter course, the conference was •ad- 
journed till Saturday, the 12th of Novem- 
ber, at 2 o'clock, p. m., with the under- 
standing that the Spanish Commissioners 
might if necessary ask for a postponement. 

Signed: WILLIAM R. DAY. 

CUSHMAN K. DAVIS. 
\\M. P. FRYE. 
GEO. GRAY. 
WHITELAW REID. 
JOH.N" B. MOORE. 



El 8 del corrlente, dla senalado para la 
reunion de las Comisiones, sollcitaron loa 
Comisarlos americanos que en vez de cele- 
hrarse a las dos tuvlese lugnr a las cuatro 
de aquella tarde. a flu de completar la 
copia de su respuesta a la contraproposlclon 
presentada por los Comisarlos espanoles en 
la ultima seslon. No pudlendo concnrlr a 
dicha hora los Comisarlos espanoles, so 
aplazo a propnesta suya hasta hoy 9 de 
Noviembre a las 2 p. m. en cuya hora se 
hallan 

Presentes— 
Por parte de los Estados Dnldos de 
America: 
los Senores DAT, 

DAVIS, 
FRYE. 
GRAY, 
REID. 
MOORE. 
FERGDSSON. 
Por parte de Espana: 
los Senores MONTERO RIOS, 
ABARZDZA, 
GARNICA. 
VILLA-DRRDTIA, 
CERERO, 
OJEDA. 

Fue leida y aprobada el acta de la seslon 
anterior. 

Los Comisarlos americanos presentan una 
contestacion a la contraproposlclon presen- 
tada en la seslon del 4 del corrlente por los 
Comisarlos espanoles relativa a las Islaa 
Filiplnas y se une dicho documento a esta 
acta. 

Los Comisarlos espanoles manlfestaron 
que examinarian dicha contestacion y que 
en vista de su extension y de la necesldad 
de traducirla con esmero. que hacla Impos- 
Ible el saber a punto fljo el tiempo que se 
necesltarla para contestarla. proponlan, ya 
sea dar aviso a la Comlslon americana 
aquella noche mlsma, del dla en que podia 
rennirse la Comlsion, ya sea fljar en aquel 
momento an dia sin perjuicio de pedlr tin 
aplazamiento si fuese necesario y resultase 
de la naturaleza del documento. 

Los Comisarlos americanos hablendo dado 
la preferencia a la segunda de estas prop- 
oslciones, se aplazo la conferencla hasta el 
sabado 12 del corrlente a las 2 p. m. en la 
intellgencia de que los Comisarlos espanoles 
tendrian la faeultad de pedlr un aplaza- 
miento si lo conslderasen necesario. 

Flrmado: E. MONTERO RIOS, 
B. DE ABARZUZA. 
J. DE GARNICA, 
W. R. DE VILLA-URRDTIA, 
RAFAEL CERKRO, 
EMILIO DE OJEDA. 



107 



Annex to Protocol No. 13. 



ANSWER OF THE AMERICAN COMMISSIONERS 
TO THE PROPOSITION OF THE SPANISH COMMISSIONERS 



of November 3,, 1898. 

Til.. MiuTioan Conimissiioners. replying tg the S|>:Hiisli prnii„sition of the 411i 
instant, will prof-eotl at ones to the examination of the grounds on which the Span- 
ish rommlssioners endeavoi- to .Instity their expression of surprise at the Amer- 
ican proposiils of the Slst of October on the suhjcvt of the I'lilllpplnes. 

The Spanish argument sets out with the erroneous assumption that the United 
States based Its deniands In resiiect of the I'hlllppines upon the terms of the Proto- 
col in llie same sense sis it bases Its demands in regard to Cuba and Porto Itico 
upon the terms of the same instmmeut: and. proceeding upon this assumption, it 
finds in the position of the United States on the two subjects an inconsisteuey. 
The United States, it declares, adhered. I u the respect of Cuba and Porto Rico, to 
the "letter" of the Protocol, while in the case of the Philippines, it has presented 
a demand "not included in or covered by the articles" of that agreement. 

The American Commissioners are not disturbed by this charge of Inconsist- 
ency, since they deem it obviously groundless. They based their demands in re- 
gard to Cuba and Porto Ulco upon the precise terms of the Protocol, because it 
was in those very terms that the United States had made its demands and Spain 
had conceded them, by promising to "relinquish all claim of sovereignty over and 
title to Cuba." and to "cede" to the Un Ited States Porto Rico and certain other 
islands. The United States, in insisting upon the words of the Protocol on these 
subjects merely asked tliat the precise concessions of Spain be made good. 

In the case of the Philippines, the United States, except .is to the bay, city, 
and harbor of Manila, confined itself to demanding that the subject should be left 
In the widest and fullest sense for fuiure negotiations. While it did not, with the 
exception referred to, demand specific concessions, it reserved and secured the right 
to demand them. Its position, therefore. Is. not that its present demands in respect 
of the Philippines were specifically set out in the Protocol, but that they are justi- 
fied by and included in the right which it therein expressly reserved and secured 
to make deniands in the future. 

Putting aside, however, the erroneous assumption of which notice has just been 
taken it appears' that the Spanish Commissioners differ with the American Commis- 
sioners as to the scope and meaning of the third article of the Protocol signed Ly 
the representatives of -the two Governments at Washington on the 12th of August, 
1898. This article is as follows: 

"ARTICLE .3.— The United States will occupy and hold the city, bay and harl)or 
of Manila, pending the conclusion of a t reaty of peace, which shall determine the 
control, disposition and government of the Philippines." 

The Spanish Commissrouers contend that in the negotiation and settlement of a 
treaty under this article nothing can b<- demanded by the United States •which im- 
pairs the sovereignty of Spain over the islands, and that a fair construction of 
the terms of 'the article can require only such changes In the government of the 
Islands, reforms in administration and kindred changes, as do not affect ultimate 

Spanish sovereignty. ..,■„.„- ,„ 

It is the contention on the part of ihe United States that this arUcle lea^ e.. to 
the determination of the treaty of peace the entire subject of the future gove.-n- 
ment and sovereignty of the Philippines necessiirily embraced in the terms used 
In the Protocol. ^ , „,„, 

The Spanish Commissioners support their contention upon two grounds, i Irst, 
that the meaning of the words is not such as to include the sovereignty of Spain 
in the Philiprilnes. Second, that the history of the negotiations, and the reserva- 
tions made by Spain in the course thereof, preclude the United States from making 

Its claim. . X 

It Is a principle of law no less applicable to international dtrrerenees than to 
private controversies that where the result of negotlntlons has been embodied In 
a written compact, the terms of such agiecment shall settle the rights of the 
parties Th° reasons upon wUch this doctrine rests are too well known to need 
recapitulation here. Wlille the United States might well rest its case upon a con- 
struction of the terms used. It has no disposition to avoid the fullest examination 

109. 



and the most seai-ohing sciutiuy of tlie negotiations which preceded the malsing of 
the Protocol, as they but serve to make clear the purpose of the parties to leave 
to the treaty now in process of negotiation the fullest opportunity to dispose of 
the governiufut and sovereignty of the I'hilippine Islands in such a manner as mig'it 
be recorded in the treaty. 

The tw) (.icveruments teing at war. negotiations with a view of obtaining a 
treaty of peace were opened by the Ooveriim€nt of Spain through the Minister of 
State addressing to the President of the "United States, in the name of the Gov- 
ernment of Her Majesty the Queen Regent, a note dated the 22d of July, 189S, 
which it is not necessary to set out in full here. It is sufficient to say that 
therein the I'resideut of the United States is asked to name the terms upon whi.^'a 
peace may be had between the two countries. This note was presented to the Pres- 
ident of the United States on the i;flth dav of July. 1898. by Mr. Cambou. Ambassa- 
dor of the Freuch Republic at Washington, authorized to make the applicaticoi, 
and represent the Spanish Government in the subsequent negotiations which h d 
up to the execution of the Protocol. At that meeting the President received the 
note of July 22 from the Spanisli Government .ind advised Mr. Uambon that after 
consultati'iii with his Cabinet he would prepare au answer which could be trans- 
mitted to the Spanlsih Government. On July 30, following, the terms of peace 
having be^n i-arefully considered and agreed upon by the President and his Cabi- 
net, the President received Mr. Cambon at the Execu-live Mansion in Washing- 
ton, at whi'-li meeting were also present Mr. Tbiebant, Secretary of the French 
Eoibassy in Wasbington. and the then Secretary of State of the United States. 
The answer of the President to the communication of the Spanish Government, 
dated July 30, 180.S. was then read to Mr. Oambon. This note was in the e.xacit 
form in "wiiich it was afterward signed and delivered to Mr. Cambon to be sent 
to the Spanish Government, with a single exception. After some discussion of the 
terms of the note as to Cuba, and Ponn Rico and other West Indian islands, Mr, 
Camlion said he did not know what tin- Spanish Government would desire as to the 
Philippines, and no matter n-lint the note mislil say as to the Commis- 
sion, the SiiMiiish (;ovor«iin-nt Moaltl r«'Bar<l the purpose of the 
I niteil Stales as lieinK tixeil to ac<|iiirc not only Cmha and Porto 
Hieo. hul (In- IMi il ii>i>iaes as Hell. The President said that as to the Phil- 
ippines the note expressed the imrpcisi's of this Government and their liiinl dis- 
position wonUl depend upon the treaty to he neg-otiated hy the Coni- 
mlssionei\s and ratifled hy the interested Goyernnients. 

After further discussion, in which the President reiterated that the treaty unist 
determine the faite of the Philippines, and the note of the President on that snb- 
ject reading then as now with the single exception that the word "iiossessiou" was 
then in Articie III., so that it read ■'eontrol, possession and government of the Phil- 
ippines" where it now reads "control, dispos'ition and government of the Philip- 
pines." Mr. Cambon said that the word "possession" translated into Spanish in such 
a way as to be regarded of a severe and threateningi nature, and suggested a 
change in that word. He suggested the word ".-nnditioa." The President declined 
to change the word except for a word of similar import or meaning. "The word 
"disposition" being suggested, after consideraible talk tlie President consented that 
that word, not changing the meaning, being indeed a broader one and including 
pos.session, might be substituted. Thereupon the note at the close of the interview 
of July 30, in exactly the form it was originally cast with the single change of the 
word "disposition" for "possession," v,as delivered to Mr. Cambon to be communi- 
cated to the Spanish Government. 

On Wedn.?sday, August 3, in the affemoou, Mr. Cambon having intimated a de- 
sire for a further interview with the President, another meeting between the same 
persons was held at the Executive Mansion. Mr. Cambon said the Spanish Govern- 
ment had received the answer of the ['resident, and that it was regarded by Spain as 
very severe. After asking a modification as to Porto Rico, to which the President 
promptly answered that he could not consent, Mr. Cambon said there was a disposi- 
tion to believe in Spain that the United States intended to take the Philippine group; 
that the Spanish Government appreciated that reforms were necessary in the gov- 
ernment; that American privileges should be granted; but that Spanish sovereignty 
should not be interfered with was a matter which Spain w-ould insist upon. The Prej- 
"ident answered that the question of Cub.i, Porto Rico and other West India Islands, 
and the Ladrones, adniitt.?d of no negotiation; that the disposition of the Philippine 
Islaiids, as he had already said to Jlr. Cambon, must depend upon the treaty which 
might be negotiated, and that he could not make any change in the terms theret.->- 
fore submitted. Mr. Canibjn called atleation to the wording of the note as to the 
possession of the city, bay and hai'bor of Manila to be retained during the pendency 
of the treaty, and .asked what was to be done with them afterward. The President 
said that must depend upon the terois of the treaty. 

This is the same interview alluded to in the inemoraudura of the Spanish Commis- 
sioners as having occurred on the 4th of August. It in fact occurred on the afternoon 

no. 



4»f Aiiiiust li. the iiilTt'ri'n''f iu dale arisiii;^ I'r.jin ilic fa.-t. uo iitiubt. that it wiiti re- 
|)(irlo(l on the 4tb of Au;,'iist. Tliis can make but little diilereiiop, as tlu-n- was I)Ut 
one interview at that time. 

In reportini? the c<)n versa! ions, ami ;-nniparin<; the memoranda made b}' Mr. Cam- 
bon witli those made by llie representative of tbe American Government then pres- 
ent, it mnst be borne in mind that Mr. Cambou did no't spealj or understand EiiKll.'ii. 
but communicated willi the President Ihroush the medium of an interpreter, his Sec- 
retory, and that neither of tlie Ainerkan representatives understood or spolse the 
Frefch language. Making ilds allowaiu-<'. It is jierfectly apparent that the American 
Fiesldent. even in the version reported and transcribed In the memorandum of the 
Spanish Commission, at all limes mainlainod that the treaty of peace should deter- 
mine the control, disposition and governni I'j't of ilie I'liiiippines. The I'residenl did 
say that the Philippine (juestion was the only one left open for neL'oti:il ion anrl 
settlement in the treaty. It is iiiiiloiiliti-ill.'i' true tliut it ivus luit tlieii fully 
Mottled in Iiis ii^vii iiiii'.fl iim t(» \^hat lE is|»<>.st t icm .slKiiilil lit- iiuKic of 
the l*liili |»piiieN. Hllil it been, tliei-e tvoiiiil lia\'e been iKltlliilK' to 
leave to iieu'otiiitioii niiil Mettleiiient in the treaty. It was t lie pur- 
pose of the I'resideiit in everything written and spolceJi to leave to the negotiations 
of the treaty the most ample freedom witli reference to the Philippines, and to settle, 
if tlieir negotiations shoul.l result in an :!greement, the control, disposition .and gov- 
eritnu nt of those islands in tlie treaty 'vf peace. When Mr. Cambon spoke of Spain's 
purpose to retain sovereignty over those Islands, the President did say he wauled it 
c-learly understood that no . ambiguity should remain upon that point, but that the 
whole inatt.n- should be decided as set forth ir the treaty of peace, which should de- 
termine the control, disposition and governmc nl of the Pliilippine Islands. He cer- 
tainly diJ tiot use the word "intervention" nor limil the subject of negotiation to 
"advantages" in the Philippines; nor can it be claimed that any report was made to 
the Spanish Government of the precise English words used by the President. In the 
SKint paragraph quoted in the memorandum of the Spanish Commission iu which it 
is said he csed the words above quoted, it is added th.Tt the President also said the 
negotiators should decide up the "intervention"" (controle), disposition and govn-n 
menl of the Philippine Islands. Even this version of the conversation is ample proof 
that the President showed no unceprainty as to the scope and moaning of the terms 
useii. He did say in substance, in reply to the inquiry of Mr. Cambon as to whether 
the United States had prejudged the matter of the Philippine Islands and the rights 
to be acquired therein by tlie United States, that the case had not been prejudged 
ettber as to the United Stales or as to Spain. The whole matter would be left to the 
Comiui.».sIon for negotiation, and to be si>ttled by the treaty of peace- In the meautlme 
the United States would insist upon holding Manila as laid down in the note, and its 
disposition thereafter would depe:'d n|ica the terms of the treaty. This Is reported 
In the quotation in the Spanish n.)le a- liie utterance of the President that "the Mad- 
rid Oevernmcnt can rest .i-sanal tinit ii|i t.i now iiotliiug is decided a priori in my own 
mind against Spain, nor do 1 consider a.iything decided by I't against the United 
States."" This may not be an unfair interpretation, though not tile exact words used 
by the President. It shows clearly that he did i-.ot regard the United States as limit^'d 
to "advantages in the PhUippincs." but tlie vhcle matter, being undecided in the 
rresident's mind, was left open in accordance with the terms of tlie note. The case 
was not decided in advance in any of itsasrecLs either for or against either govern- 
ment. 

Great stress is laid in the Spanish me moranilum aiion the alleg.iniou that tlio 
President had not then determined to take the Philippine group, and indeed did not 
intend to do so. It Is utterly Immateilal. to inquire as to what either Government 
would then have insisted upon. There was a mutual agreement that the question 
should not then be decided. Opportunity for full Investigation was re.served. the tinal 
conclusion to tie arrived at as the result of the negotiations now in progress, in the 
treaty of peace to be here concluded. 

Further conversation as to the number of Commissioners, the place of meeting. 
et cetera, terminated the iinterview. 

On the afternoon of August n, Mr. Cambon, having received the note of Au- 
gust 7 sent by the Duke of Almodovar, called by appointment at the B.xecutive 
Mansion in Washington, at which interview were present the same parties as at the 
last meeting. That part of that note which relates to the Philippines, in the exact 
terms in which i't was then presented in Kiiglish text by the French .Vnibass.uhir 
to the President of the United States is as follows: 

•' "The terms relating t" tlie Philippines seem, to our understanding, to be quite 
indefinite. 0;i the onf- hand, the ground on which the Unitetl States believe them- 
selves entitled to occupy the bay. the harbor and the oily of Manila, pending the 
conclusion of a treaty of peace, cannot be tliat of. conquest, since in spite of the 
Mockade maintained on sea hy the .Vmcrlcan licet, in spite of the siege established 
on land by a native supportiHl and provided for by the .American .\dniiral. Manila 
still holds" its own. and the Spaiiisli standard still waves over the city. On the other 

111. 



l.illid, tile wli.iU' At-chipelu;;ti of the i'liili piiiiiess is in tlit- power anil under tlJe sovor- 
eigiily of Spain. Tlierefore tlie Government or" Spain tbinlis tiiat tbe temporary oe- 
enpation of .Manila should eonstitute a guaranty. It is stated tliat Uie treaty of 
peace shall deteruiine the eoni.rol. disposition, and g()verniiient of the Pliilippiiies; 
but as the intentions of the Federal (Jovernment by regression reniai.T veiled, there- 
fore the Spanish (lovernment must deelare that, while aeeeptiULr the third condition, 
the.v do not a priori renorince the sovereignty of Siialu over the archipelago, leaving 
it to the negotiators to agree as to snob reforms as tne condition of these posses- 
sions and level of cul'ture of their natives luiiy render desirable. 

••'The Government of Her Majesty accepts the third condition, with the above- 
mo ntione<l declarations.' 

"Sucli are the statements and observations which tbe Spanish Government has the 
honor to submit in reply to your Kxccilivicy's commuiiication. The.v accept the prof- 
fered terms, subject to the approval ..f th? Cortes of the Kingdom, as required by 
their cons'titutionai duties. 

"The agreement between the two go\errnienls implies tlie ii-reiueaiilc susi)ension 
of hostilities and the designation of Commissioners for the purpose of settling the 
detail- of the treaty of peace and of .signing 11. under ;he terms above indicated." 

It is translated in the memorandum of the Spanish Commissioners in language 
differing somewhat from the teruvs of the note as presented to the president. In tli" 
translation in ithe memorandum it is said that the treaty shall determine "the inter- 
vention, disposition and government of the Pliilippine I.slands." In tlie note as iire- 
stnted to the President it reads "it is stated that the treaty of pe.ice shall deter- 
n".ii!e tbe control, disposition and govci-nnient of the I'hilippines." The word "entire" 
precedes "sovereignty" in the translation eml'odied in tlie Spanish note. 

It is true that, talking these words of the IiuUe of Almodovar eitlier as they wore 
conveyed to the President of the Uniitcd States, or as they are now quoted iu the 
Spanish proposition, it may be argtied that they do no more than reserve to Spain the 
right 'to maintain that she did not in advance of the negotiations for peace renounce 
her sovereignty over the archipelago, fjhe did this, liy her own declaration, for ihe 
reason that the intentions of tbe United States were "veiled;" clearly perceiving 
that by the terms of the demand the United Slates would have the right, if it saw fit 
to exercise it. to aslv that .she yield her sovereignty over tbe group, and that her 
sovereignty was tlius put :u jeopardy, slie 'took the ftrecjiution to say that she did not 
intend, in assuming tbe chance of such a demand, to concede it in advance. 

The American Commissioners do not deny that this may be a fair construction of 
this particular paragraph of the Duke's note. The representatives of the United 
States were not williug, however, to leave anything to construction. When therefore 
tbe Duke's answer was read to tbe President it was immediately objected to by bim 
and the Secretary of State, in that it was v^.gue and indefinite, pupporring to accept 
the terms laid down in the note of the United States, while requiring some modifica- 
tion. In referring 'to the Philippines, wliile in one paragraph it stated the acceptance 
of the terms, in another it seemed to retain the full right of sovereignty, with such 
reforms, etc., as tha't Government might see tit to grant. The unsatisfactory char- 
acter of this answer is more clearly shown when in the subsequent pa"t of the same 
note, not quoted in the memorandum of tbe Spanish Commissioners, i't was said with- 
out qualification that they (the Spanish Government) accept the proffered terms, sub- 
.1ect to tbe approval of tbe Cortes of ibe Kingdom, as required by their constitu- 
tii nal duties. In the part of the note referred to above it is said •'the Spanish (iov- 
ernment must declare that, while accepting the said condition, ithey do not a priori 
renounce the sovereignty of Spain over the archipelago, leaviiig it to the negotiators, 
etc." These eontradictoir statements were called to the attention of Mr. Cam.bon, 
and made the note, as was said to him, unsatisfactory to the United States. 

It is to be observed, as has already in effect been pointed out. that even the terms 
of this note are inconsistent with tbe claim now put forward that Spa lish sovereign- 
ty sliall not lie interfri-ed with, for the length to which the statement goes in the 
note is that tlie Spanish Government (hie~ i of a priori rellnqui.sh entire sovere'guty 
i.vri the Pliilippine Archipelago, tints I 'a ving it clearly to be inferred that the Spnn- 
isli Government recognized that Hie itcg itiations resulting in a treaty iniglit require 
a relinquishment of Spanish sovereignty eonsi»qnent upon suc-h negotiations. 

5Ir. Caiubon, liaviiig heard the objections raised liy the Americiu repres^'utatives 
tc the note, assertiMl that allowance must be made for lilfferent translations which 
the note had undergone in course of transmission, and to tbe desire of tbe Spanish 
Government to express regret at Ihe loss of its colonies: and he was very conadeiit 
that it was the intention to accept tbe teims of the United States- It was then sug- 
gested by the American represenativcs that if 'this be true, and the note was to be 
regtirde,! as a full aeeeptaiice. tbe best w.iy t.i settle the matter was to put the terms 
in the shape of a definite Pi-otoeol, whirli the President would authorize the Se<'retary 
of State to sign for the United States, Mr. Cambon to submit to the Spanish Gov- 
cmment the rxai-t terms of the Protocol, to which an an.siwer Yes or No could be 

112. 



hiui; and If the Spanlsli Governmeut iicci'pKHl Uic Protocol, that \\ ould end the 
conlrov-ersy. Mr. Oambon eoncuired in this view, and said if the Protocol was 
drawn up in proper form he would sulisnit It to the Spanish Government, and If 
authorized would exeoiite It on its part. 

On that evening. Augii.st 0, the Prolocoi was prepared in the State Department 
at Washington, and taken to the Executive Mansion, where it was submitted to the 
Prcsiilcut .and members of the Cabinet there present. On the morning of August 10, 
Mr. Cambnn called at the State Deparlment at Washington, a draft of the Protocol 
was submittal to and .'ipproved by him, and put into French by Mr. Thiebaut. Secre- 
tary of the French Eml)as-'y at Washington, and experts in the State Department. 
It was carefully compared with the En;.'ilsh text, and then telegraphed by Mr. Gam- 
bon to the Spanish flovernment. On the same day, August 10, the note of the Sec- 
retary of State enclosing the Protocol wai sent to Mr. Cambon In Washington. Thi.> 
nolo, it is said, contains the admission of the Secretary of State of the Uniti"! 
States that the note of the Dute of Almodovar of August 7 "contained in its spirit 
the acceptance by Spain of the couditions proposed by the United States." The 
b» St answer to this obvious misccinstrurtion of the terms of the note of the Secre- 
tary of State is in the text of the nole itself, which is as follows; 

"Department of State, 

Washington, August 10, 1S9S. 
"EXCELLENCY, 

"Although it Is your understanding that the note of the Duka of Almodovar, 
■which you left with the President on yesterday afternoon, is intended to convey an 
acceptance by the Spanish Government of the terms set forth in my note of the oOth 
ultimo as the bisis on which the President would appoint Commi.^sioners to nego- 
tiate and conclude with Commissioners on the part of Spain a treaty of peace. I un- 
derstand that we concur in the opinion that the Duke's note, doubtless owing to the 
various transformations which it has undergone in the course of its circuitous trans- 
mission by telegraph and in cipher, is not, in the form in which it has reached tlie 
hands of the President, entirely explicit. 

"Under these circumstances, it is thought that the most direct and certain way 
of avoiding misunderstanding is to embody in a Protocol to be signed by us as the 
representatives, respectively, of the United States and Spain, the terms on -whicli 
the negotiations for peace are to be undertaken, 

"I tiiercfore enclose herewith a draft of stch a Protocol In which you will hii'l 
that I have embodied the precise terms tendered to Spain in my note of ihe *itli 
ultimo, together with appropriate stipulations for the appointment of Commissioners 
to arrange the details of the immediate evicuation of Cuba, Porto Pico, anu ether 
islands vnder Spanish soverii-pity in the West Indus, as well as for the appoint- 
ment of Commissioners to treat of peace. 

"Accept, Excellency, thu' renewed assr.ranr.e of :ny highest consideration. 

••(S'fened:) WILLIAM R. DAY 

"His Extellcncy M. Jules Cambon, etc." 

In thii note, so far from say'ug tnat the Secretary of State of the Uuiri'd States 
undii stands that the note of the S-panish Goveri/nient of August 7 accepts tne Amer- 
hai; terms. :t is distinctly said "aith'i'.gli It Is your (Mr. Cambon'.s) understanding 
tiiar the ncre of the Duke -if Aluudevar is Intended -o convey the acceptance by the 
Spanish Government of the terms set forth in my note of the 30th ultimo, • ♦ * I un- 
derstand that we concur in the opinion that the Duke's note, doubtless owing to the 
various transformations which it has undergone In the course of Its circuitous traus>- 
mission by telegraph and in cipher, is not, in the form In which ic reached the 
hands of the President, entirely explicit." 

Here it is distlnotly stated that the Secretary of State and Mr. Cambon concur 
that the note is not entirely explicit. Was it then to be expected after all this care- 
ful negotiation that a note wliich the .\merican representatives contended did not 
accept the terms of the United States, and which both negotiators agreed was not 
explicit, was to be received as a sali-^factory answer to the American demand? 
Not so. 

"Under these circumstances it is tlioiight that the most direct and certain way of 
avoiding misunderstanding is to embody in a Protocol, to be signed by u.s as the 
representatives, respectively, of the United States and Spain, the terms on whi.-li 
the negotiations for peace are to be undertaken." 

This Is a most emphatic and definite declaration that the note of .\ugust 7 was 
not satisfactory, and that It was the purpose of the United States to leave nothing 
open o misunderstanding, but to embody, lu a contract so plain that dispute would be 
forever foreclosed, the exact terms up'm which negotl.itlons for peace woidd bo 
undertaken. The note goes on to say "I therefore enclose herewith a draft of such 
a I'rotocol, iu which you will find tliat I have embodied the precise terms tendered 

113 



to Spain iu my iii>ti- of tlic :ji>tli ultunu, Logetlier witli aiipropriatc stipnl.itimis fm- 
the appointment of Commissioners, etc." 'What does tbis not mean? Does it admit 
tlie construftion tliat tlie proposal was intended to embody tlie aoceptanc-e of Au- 
gust 7, reserying Spanisli soyerelgnty? Itis dfflniteiy settled, as a perusal of tlie 
documents will sliow, that the rvotoiol emUrMlied. not the uncertain and equivocal 
terms of the note of August 7, but the precise terms stated in the note i,f the Aui<h' 
.ican Government of July 30. Tills note to Mr. Cambon enclosed the Protocol .iust 
as it was written and just as it was signed by the parties. It would seem, if ever 
au attempt was made to have a clear understanding, if ever all pre<'autions werc- 
takeu which could leave no rCK>m tor misunderstanding, such was the course pur- 
sued in the present case. 

It is thus seen how utterly groundless is the declaration in the Spanish •■prop..- 
sition""that, in order to determine the meaning of the Protocol, it is necessary to 
"bear in mind » • • the negotiations -arrled on between the two parties which '-ul- 
minated in this agreement, and in which the interpretation of the latter had been 
given beforehand and officially:" In the correspondence thus involved by tlie Span- 
ish Commissioners as an iulerpretatiou of the Protocol, the two Governmeut> did 
not contemplate the execution of snci an instrument; and if the respon.se of the 
Spanish Government to the Aincrican demands had taljen the form of a sin.|)ie 
acceptance, no Protocol would have been made. The first .suggestion of such i!n 
instrument was that made in 'the interview iu which the Spanish response was de- 
clared to be unsatisfactory. la was because the Spanish response was unacceptable 
that the United States demanded a Protocol, And it is upon this rejected resp.m-ie 
that the Spanish argument for the limitation of the clear scope and meaning of the 
Protocol is built. 

If further proof of the soundness of ihe position of the United States were need- 
ed, it would be found in a most convincing form iu the telegram sent by Mr. Cam- 
boii to the French Minister of Foreign AfTairs, See the' French •■Yellow Book" le- 
fcrred to in the Spani.sh memorandum, telegram number '.>. Mr. Cambon to me 
Feneh Minister of l-"oreign Affairs. 

■■.No. 'J 

•■M. .JULES C.^Ml'.oN. .\mbassador of the French Itepublic al Washington, 
to :m. PEIyCASSE. Minister of I'oreign Aflairs. 

Washington. August In, l.S'.LS. 
■•The Federal Goverament has decid'-d to slate precisely (preciser). in a Protocol, 
the bases upon which the peace negotiations must, iu its judgment, be enlcred 

I'I'on. 

••I send you berrwiih this document, which I shall thank you to tr.insmit to .iie 

>5paiiish (jovernment. ,. i -vtri, .v ■• 

' "(Signed:) J. (.'AMBO-N. 

In this telegram, which was immediately c<unmunicated to the Spanish (Joyern- 
ment and which led to the telegram to Mr. Cambon authorizing him to sign the 
Protocol, followed by full power from the (Jm-en Itegenl to Mr. Cambon to that 
effect, Mr. Cambon distinctly ^i.vs, not that the Amencan Government has accepted 
the note of August 7, or in any wise agreed to such reservations as are contained 
therein, but that "the Federal Government has decided to sitate precisely ipreciseri, 
in a Protocol, the bases upon which the peace negotiations must, iu its judgment, 
be entereti upon. I send you this document, etc." 

It thus clearly appears that tlie bases of peace negotiations were to be deter- 
mined b.v the iustrument which was enclosed, and which it was understooil put in 
definite terms the ultimaite agreement of the parties. 

It was because the answer made in the note of August i was rejected by ihe 
United States, and for this reason alone, that hostilities were not upon the receipt 
of that note declared to be suspended; and it has remained for the Spanish Com- 
missioners in their ••proposition" to advance for the first time m behalf of their 
Government the snggestion that such a declaration should then have been made. 
It was not so made"becau-3e that note was not received as au acceptance of the 
American demands. Hostilities were declared to be suspended only upon the sig- 
nature of the Protocol- 

The correspondence quoted in the French ■•Yellow Book," no less than the sub- 
sequent communications from Mr. Cambon to the American Government, shows 
distinctly that with the exact terms of this Protocol before it, the Spanish Govern- 
ment on the 11th Instant, and subsequently by full power of the yueen Regent, 
authorized Mr. Cambon to eseeme the Protocol iu behalf of Spain. Observe the 
language of the note of Mr. Cambon to the American Secretary of State of August 
12. 1S98; 

•■Kmbassy of the French Kepublic in the United States. 
•■Washington, .\usust TJ. ISOS. 

114 



"Mlt. SKCUKTAUY OK .STATK: 

"I have the honor to inform you Unit [ liiive Just received, through the Inter- 
mediation of the department of foreign alTalrs at Paris, a telesrani. daled Madrid. 
August 11, in which the Dulie of .Vimodovar del I{lo announces to nie that, b.v order 
of Her Majesty the Queen Iti'sii'nt. ihe Spanish (Joverninent eonfei-s upon me full 
powers in order that I may sisin. without other formality .and without delay, the 
rrotocol whereof the terms liave been drawn up by common accord between you and 
me. The Instrument destinecl to make refndar the powers which are thus k1v<.mi to 
me by telegraph vrill be subsequently addressed to me by the post. 

"His Excellency the Minister of Slate adds that in ncceptinj; this I'rotocol, :.ud 
by reason of the suspension of Imstilitles which will be the immediate consequence 
of that acceivtauce. the Spanish (Joverninent has pleasure in hoplnj; that the Govern- 
ment of tlie United States will take the necessary measures with a view to re- 
strain (empecher) all agsresslon on the par; I'f the Cuban separatist forces. 

"The fiovernment of the Republic having, on the other hand, authorized me to 
accept the powers wdiich are ccniferred upon me by the Spanish Government. I siiall 
hold myself at your disposition to sign the Protocol at the hour yon may be plc.isod 
to designate. 

"Congratulating myself upon thus co-operr.ting with you toward the restoration 
of peace between tho two nations, both friend^, of France. I beg you to accept, 
Mr. Secretary of State, the fresh assurances of my very high eonsideraition. 

"(Signed:) JULES CAMBON," 

In the light of these facts, it appears there is absolutely no foundation for the 
claim that the American (JovcM-nment accepted the Spanish reservations so far as 
they are contained in the note of the Duke of Ahnodovar of August 7. Had that 
note been only a distinct and unqualided acceptance of the terms as contained in 
the .\inerlcan note of Augu-st SO, It would have been tmneC'es.sary to require that 
all uncertainty and doubt should be removed by reducing into few and simple terms, 
which it was believed could never be misunderstocd, the final agreement of the 
parlies. So far from remaining unanswered, the note of August 7 was d(>claied un- 
satisfactory when presented to the President. Thus ended the attempt to come to 
an agreement by correspondence; and It was decided that a Protocol .should cm- 
body the ultimate term^. 

The Spanish Government telegraphed the amplest authority to Mr. Camiion to 
e^e^ute it. We are then remitted to the terms of the Protocol itself. 

The American Government is at a loss u, know huw stronger terms lould have 
been used to evidence the purpose of the Presidetit to keep open the most full and 
absolute right to deal with and determine the dominion over the Philippine Isl- 
ands. This was the purpose of inserting the third article of the Protocol, which 
embodied the terms of the third demand of the United States, as set forth in the 
note of July 30 of the American Government to the Duke of Almodorar, wherein 
it is said: "Third. On similar grounds the United States is entitled to occupy and 
hold the city, bay, and harbor of Manila pending the conclusion of a treaty of 
peace which shall determine the control, disposition and government of the Phil- 
ippines." 

What are these .similar grounds? They are to be fcniiid in the next preceding 
paragraph of the note of July 30, in \\ hich the President .says that, though not then 
making any demand fctr pecuniary indemnit.v. neverthvMess he cannot be insensblle 
to the 10SS.-S and expenses of the United Stales incident to the war, or to the 
claims of our citizens for injuries to their persons and property during the late in- 
surrection in Cuba. He must. Therefore, require the cession to the Uniti'd States, 
and the immediate evacuation by Spain, of the Island of Porto Rico, etc. On similar 
grotmds, to wiit, among others the right of the tJnitcM States to have indemnity 
for its losses, the T'nited States wii) licild the city, bay and harlior of Manila 
pending the oonclnsnon of a treaty of peace, whi<-h shall determine the conirol, 
disposition and government of the Philippines. 

How could the United States riH-eive indemnity in whole or in part from the 
control, disposition and governmen't of the Philippines, if Spanish sovereignty was 
not to be touched? It Is difficult to conceive what terms could have been used 
which would more clearly have evidenced the purpose of the parties to afford the 
fullest latitude in dealing with the Philippine question. The treaty was to deter- 
mine not alone the control. disiHjsitlou and gcvemmeul, but at the sjime time had 
full power to determine all that is implied in control, disposition and goveniment. 
Certainly the word "control" was not used here In the sense of "register" or "In- 
spection," but In its broader sense of "authority or command; authority over; power 
over; the regulaticm or rule of." 

What word could be broader than "disposi'tlon," which has practically the same 
meaning in both the French and EnglUh lai:gu.ages? "The disposal of; distribution 
of; alienation of; definite settlement of; ultimate destination." We have In these two 
words, then, authority over, dominion of, final and ultimate destination of the sub- 

115 



]ect matter. What is ■■govenuuei.f but the right of administnition, or exercising 
sovereignty, the direotiou. the political management of a state? Either of these 
terms implies power of interfering with sovereignty. Taken together, they give 
the fullest scope in dealing with all power, governmemtal, territorial and admin- 
istrative. 

It is not argued in the Spanish ■■piuposiUon" that these words should have a 
narrow meaning so far as disposition and government are concerned, but trans- 
scribed into the French language }t is sought to give a narrower meaning to the 
word "control." It must be construed in the connection in which it is found in 
the Protocol, in Its broader sense of po.ver or dominion. Noscitur a sociis is a 
legal maxim which applies to the discussion or determination of the meaning of 
phrases. "Control" .associated with disposition and government of territory migut 
have a very different significance when used in another relation in its less familiar 
meaning of "inspection or register." The word "disposition" used in another as- 
sociation might have an entirely ditt'eremtmeanirg, and a meaning which, in ronuec- 
tion with government and control, would deprive it of all sense. 

The American Government, then, feels itself amply supported in its right to de- 
mand the cession of the Philippines with or without concessions, relying upon 
either the exact terms of the Protocol or those terms interpreted in the light of 
the negotiations, oral and written, which led to its execution. 

Tlie Commissioners of the United States notice with regret that an attempt 
has been made in the memorandum of the S<ranish Comiaissioners Ho invoke the high 
authority of the French Minister for i'^oreig-n Affairs in the interpretation of the 
Protocol, so as to exclude therefrom all mention of the right of the treaty to deal 
with the control, disposition and government of the Philippines. In the French 
"Yellow Book" cited by the Spanish Commissioners, it is apparent th.it as early 
as the 10th of August the French Government was in possession of the exact terms 
of the Protocol, transmitted in the note of that date of its Ambassador, Mr. Cam- 
hou. Would anybody believe that in summing up this note the Minister would in 
tentionally omit one of the most essential parts of the Protocol? 

The note numher 19 referreil to is no part of the negotiations; its pm-prs.' was 
merely to advise the Amba.-;.sadors of the French Republic at London, St. Pe- 
tersburg, neriin, Vieima, etc., of tiie result of the acticn of the repres.'utativo of 
France in bringing about a suspension of hostilities, and the preliminary agreenieat 
as to peace, between two nations tonard which the French Government w;is actu- 
ated by feelings of humanity and mutual friendship. In this note it is said tli.-it 
the points upon which both parties have reached an agreement were set forth 
in a protocol. In stating the contents of th.-u instrument, doubtless through inad- 
vertence, it is not stated that the treaty shall determine the control, disposition and 
government of the Philippines. 

The attention of the Minister being called to this n,atler by the American Am- 
bassador in Paris, he very pr.iiiiptly c .irrected any misapprehension whicii might 
fxist as to his dispatch. This appears in the following letter from tha American 
Amba.-sador, which has jusit been received by the American Commissioners- 

"Ambassade des Etats-Unls, IS, Avenue Kleber. 

Paris, Xoveniber .", is^^s 
"Dear Sir; 

"T beg 1(1 inform you that I saw the French Minister of Foreign Affairs u, re- 
g.-ird to that portion of the reply of the Spanish Peace CommissioTiers in v M( h 
tb-y lefer to a letter sent by him to the French Ambassadors dated August i.". 
IRDS. which appears in the French "Y -How Book," and nttempt to construe the 
langu.age used therein as an interpretation of the French Minister of the meaning 
of the Protocol, and speak of the unquestionable moral weight of the testimony 
therein given by him regarding that instrument. He assured me emphatically and 
unreservedly that the letter referred to was intended to be simply a brief resume of 
the general features of the preliminary peace negotiations carried on between the 
two belligerents, and th.at he did not attempt to quote the precise language of the 
Protocol. He disclaimed any intention of giving any views of his own ^reganUng it. 
having no authority for so doing, and declared that the brief mention contained 'n 
his letter could in no wise be construed as an Interpretation by him of the terms 
or meaning of that Insitrument. He promised that he would at once send to th" 
French Ambassadors the full text of tlie Protocol in order that thoy might be in- 
formed of its conditions In extenso and that there might be no ground for misap- 
prehension as to its terms. 

"The Minister repeated what he had said several times before, and which I know 
to he true, that he and his Government had all along observed a strict and imjiar- 
tial neutrality between the two powers which were negotiating, being equally friend- 
ly to both, and that he intended to eontinue the observance of such neutrality. 

"Very truly yonrs, "(Signed;) HORACE PORTEr! 

116. 



"Hon. Wllliiiiii IJ. liMv. l'ii>i.liin i>( ilic AiKii-i<'aii I'rafe ('oniniissli)ii. Paris." 

It Is stated that tlu^ oi'iMipatliMi of .Maitila was to hp only ii'inporary. This is nn- 
iloi:htc(lly triip. The Pi-itocol, .so far as it vfhitcs to tho Pliiliiiplnes. i.s I'l.sflf pnivis- 
lor.al. It expressly provides for the dt)ing of certain things pending the conclusion nf 
n treaty which is in this particniar to snpersinle It. Had it provided for the perma- 
nent occupation of Manila hy the I'niled Slates, it womd have wiMcdrawn the Pldl- 
ippines to that extent from the sphere of fuliire ncioiiation. 

While the terms of isnrrender <ited in 1'if Sj)ai!isli nienioranduni. negotiated 
after the execution of the I"roto<'ol and having iiothlnj; to do with the negi>liatlons 
for peoee. sho.v the character of this occupation. It is to be noticed tluit the very 
parafjiaiih elt(Hl from tiie terms of that deeumcnt shows lh:it it was e(iually con- 
tentijlated that conditions niiijht arise which would require the evacuation hy the 
Spanish forces of the city. In if il i!» said "the return of the arms surrendered hy 
tile Spanish forces shall take place when they evacuate the city or when the Amer- 
ican army evacuates it. The eom.manders of the Ameriean and Spanish forces .lid 
not undertake to determine the right of either party permanently to hold Xlaiuia. 
hut contemplated conditions wliicli niight re(iuire its evacuation tiy the forces <'f 
either country- ' 

lUit It is as idle to cite the stipulations of tlie capitulation for the purpose of de- 
•erminins the nieaning of the Protocol as it would he to cite the stipnlath.ns of ihe 
Pnitocol for the purpose of determining the meaning of the capitulation. It is uo- 
teri(u:s tliat. owing to the interruption of teiegraiyhic cominunieatioii. Manila was 
capture<l and the capitulation arranged and tonclnded hy the comniandei- of the 
American fon-es in the Philippines without communlcatio-n with his Governmciu. 
which was at the moment as uninformed of what was taking place at Manila as was 
Its commander of what was taking place at Washinirton. It is superfluous. tiie|;e- 
forc, to arane, even if it were material to do so, that the stipulations of the caplt'i- 
latlon cann.tt be Invoked in explanation or limitation of the stipulatiors of the I'ro- 
tocol. For the same reason It is perhaps ur.necessary to comment rpon the state- 
ment that "General Merritt. contrary to what had li"en agreed uiku; In Artiide VI. 
of the same (Protocoii. forcibly took possession of Manila." The American (.'oui- 
mi.>?roners are lotb to assume that the Spanish "proposition" emphiys these words 
for the purpo.se of intimating that f;<>neitil Merritt could at the time of the cap- 
ture of Manila have had knowledge of the Protocol. It is a fact doublle^.- well 
known to the Spanish Government that on the 16th of August last, four days 
after the signature of the Protocol, and four days before the re<'eipt at Wash- 
ington of the news of the capture and capitulation of Manila, the Depaitnu nt of 
State addressed to the Krench Amhass.idi>r a note soliciting the consent of the 
Spanish iJovernment to the restoration of "able communication T)etween Manila and 
Ilcng Kong, in order that continuous telciirajihic connection with tlie Philipiiines 
might be re-established. 

I't is ob.s)^-^!^! that the Spanish Coininissioners in their "proposition' say tliat the 
words of the Protocol in relation to tlie Philippines "have not a clear meaning." 
but that no matter what ccn'struc<tlon may be placefl upon them, "in no ca.se can 
their mea.uing be so stretched as to invol\c in any way the irlea of cession of the 
sovereignty of Spain over the arehipeligo," si. ice "such a cession or acquisition in 
l>erpetuum of the archipelago by the United States, had It been agreed upon In the 
I'rotocol, would have been in contr.idlclion with the mere temporary (x-cuiiatlon of 
Manila, which at the same time was agreed upon in the same clause of that instru- 
niei.t." This statement, as well as the pan. graph that Immediately follows it. mere- 
ly reiterates the errone<>us nssnniiition. to wriich \>'e ha\'e alread.v a.iverte<l. that the 
r.ltiii.ate demands of th<' fnlted States In ri'spect to the Philippines were embodied 
in the Protocol, while, as a matter of fa.-t. the instrument shows upon Its face that ;t 
was agreed that the formulation of those demands should l>e postponed till the ne- 
gotiations for a treaty of peace shoulri be nndertaken. 

How. theii, stands the demand of the Government of Ihe rnitert States f.ir the 
cession of the Philippine Islands with the concessions which it is will'tig to make, as 
sot forth in Its proposition of the .'ilst ultimo'' This demand miglit be limited to the 
single gniund of Indi^niiiity, but this limitation the American ronimissiouers d.i not 
herein concede. The United States does not now put forward any claiin for pecuniary 
indemnity to cover the enormous cost .if tin war. It does not take the sovereignty of 
(^(■ba : US has been shown in former memoranda submitted b.v the Ameiican Coiiimis- 
sioi.ers. it assumes only burdens there. It does demand, and Sp.ain has agreed to 
cede, the Island of Porto Rico and the small Island of Guam In the Ladroues. Wliit 
is Spain a.sked to give up In the Phillppiu.'s'/ A country constantly in rebellion 
against its sovereignty, so that If the United States were to withdraw theiefrom to- 
day. Spain would immediately have to rosort to arms to overcome a rebellious and 
discontented ix-ople. 

This situation could no! be more vivicliy portrayed than to use the wf>r.ls of the 
Spanish tnemorandum in which, after s|ieaking of Spain's neglect of her own wel- 

117. 



faip to tup iletrimeut o( her full devciopment, this coadition is attributed to "her 
desire to preferentially attend to her colonies, creatures who, like all others in the 
(.rder of nature, enlist the utmost solicitude on the p«rt of their mother, who feels 
and supp'irts them at the sacrifice of her welfare." 

The American Commis.>5ioners note, with some surprise, that the Spanish Com- 
missioners, so soon after buviug provisionally accepted the American articles as to 
Cuba and Porto Rico, now return to the question of the so-called Cuban debt. They 
regret to find a position whieh, under certain reserves, had been di«;tinctly waived, 
immediately resumed, and now expressed in language rarely employed in diplomacy, 
unless to convey a deliberate ultimatum. The Spanish Commissioners assume that 
this debt, for the most part incurred by Spain (not Cuba) In the effort first to sub- 
.iugate the Cuban insurgents, and subsequently to overcome the United States, has 
the binding tffect of a mortgage upon the very land wrested from Spain through 
the defeat of this effort. They then say that they cannot even admit any discussion 
as to the validity and efficacy of sucii mortgages. In language equally unusual, they 
ccEtinue: "Let it be understood, therefore, and the Spanisih Commissioners hope 
there will be no necessity to repeat it, that .Spain cannot and ought not to agree in 
this treaty," etc. Now, since Spain, as lately as in the next to the last paper filed 
here by her Commissioners did, under reserve, agree in this treaty to waive objec- 
tions to our articles containing no reference to the so-called Cuban debt, the Amer- 
ican Commissioners feel themselves .justified in inquiring dlstinctl.v whether this sud- 
den change of position is finalV Do the Spanish Commissioners wisli it to be un- 
derstood now, without any necessity for repetition, that they will accept no treaty 
which does not provide for an assumption of this so-called Cuban debt, or for some 
part of it, by the United States, for itself or for Cuba? 

The American Commissioners observe also the declaration that the dignity and 
self-reapeot of Spain forbid an inquiry into the use Spain may have made of the 
proceeds of these loans. Now — to consider only a single aspect of the issue thus 
raised — it is i^ot denied that the proceeds of a part of these loans were employed di- 
reotl.v in maliing war upon the United States. Is it to be understood that the 
United States, after succeeding in the war. is forbidden to take notice even of thia 
fact'.' That would be to require the successful nation to pay the war expenses of the 
defeated nation. Is it an acceptance, withi.nt inquir.v. of this part of the so-called 
Cuban debt, that the .Spanish Commissioners declare is demanded b.v the dignity and 
self-respect of Spain — which the.y wish therefore to have now understood, and 
which they hope ttfere will be no necessity to repeat? 

The American Commissioners do not here examine the statements that these debts 
were legally created, that they may have been legally acquired by individuals of va- 
rious nationalities, or that Spain is not tse revenues, and is bound to the third par- 
ties. They do question the statement that Spain does not demand the recognition of 
these so-called "secured debts" for her nvji benefit. The.v are bonds of the SiKtulsh 
nation, guarauteed by the faith of the Spanish nation, with another guarantee (which 
might more properly have been called :i "subKidiary" one), pledging Spanish sover- 
eignty and control over certain Spanish colonial revenues. Spain has failed to main- 
tain her sovereignty and control over these revenues, and is bound to the third •jii'- 
ticS' with ^'hom she dealt for that failurs to make good her title to the security she 
pledged. The third parties knew what it was pledged for— the continuous effort to 
put down a people struggling for freedom from the Spanish rule. They took the ob- 
vious chances of their investment on so precarious a security, but they must have re- 
lied on the broad guarantee of the Spanish nation. It is not for us to deny that "the 
most elementary duties of public and private probity" justify that reliance, but ws 
do deny emphatically that they require th freed people, or any one acting for them 
to pay the cost of all the efforts for their subjugation. To admit that such costs could 
be attached ineradicably to the soil they lived on is to put it in the power of any un- 
just ruler to condemn a, colony to perpetual subjugation and mlsgovernment by simply 
loading it with so-called "mortgages" for loans effected without their consent by 
their oppressors, till it can neither bear them itself nor find anyone else to assume 
them. That ^\ould be a conclusion alike repugnant to common sense aud menacing 
to libert.v aud civilizatiou. 

.\fter reviewing in their "proposition" the provisions of the Protocol, the Spanish 
(Jommissioners proceed to inquire whether there is anjr other "title," not founded 
on that agreement, upon which the demand for the cession of the group can be 
siipported. Under this head they discuss the capture of Manila by the Americ.in 
forces, and. after concluding that the capitulation was invalid, they declare that the 
treaty of peace should proWde for the immediate delivery of the place to the Spanish 
Government, the immediate release of the Spanish garrison, and the performance of 
various acts which imply that the military occupation and government of the city by 
the United States has been illegal. 

These startling pretensions require at the hands of the American rommis-sionera 
a <.iimprehi'nsive examination. 

118. 



Oil tile '^nil "1 .Inly. INjiN. the Oovernranit of Spaiu, Impelled by ami adiiiitliii^ 
the .iilvi-ise icsiiUs of the war, made repn-scntntlons to the Presidem of the United 
t>tates by written ci'uiniuiiii-ation of its Minister of Foreign Affairs, traii.sniUie>l 
througli the Ambassador of France at Washington, to I he expressed ind that "the 
cfaiaraitles already so great" and "evils still fireater" to the two cotintrles misht "be 
terminated otherwise than by force of arms." The response of the President, thron^'h 
Mr. Day, Secretary of State, to this eommiini(:.1ion was iiiade ,Tvily :^0, ISOs, and was 
lu pai^ as follows: 

The President, therefore, responding lo your Excellency's request, will state the 
t^einis of pence which will ov accepted l,y him at the present time, subject to the 
approval of the Senate of the United States hereafter. 

"Your Kxcellency in discnssiug the subject of <"nba intimates- that Spain has de- 
sired to spare the island ilie dangers rf pronialure independence. The Government 
of the United States has i,<il shared tiie appreliensions of .'•pain in this repird, bnt 
It recognizes the fai't that in the distratted and prostrate condition of tlie island :vd 
and guidance will 'be nei'essary, and tliese it is prepared to give. 

"The United States will require: 

"FIRST. ITie relinquishment by Spain of all claim of sovereignty over or title to 
Cuba and her immediate evacuation of the island. 

"SECOND. The President, desirous of exhibiting signal generosity, will not now 
put forward any demand for pecuniary indemnity. Nevertheless, he eannot be insensi- 
ble to the losses ami expenses of the United States incident to the war or to the claims 
of our citixens for injuries to their persona and property during the late insurrection 
in Cuba. He must, therefore, require the cession to the United States and the imme- 
diate evacuation by Spain of the Island of Porto Rico and other islands now under 
the sovereignty of Spain in the West Indies and also the cession of an island in the 
I.adrones, to be selected by the United States. 

"TH-IRD. On similar grotmds, the United States is entitled to occupy and will 
hold the city, bay and harbor of Manila pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace 
which shall determine the control, disposition and goyernment of the Philippines. 

"If the terms hereby offered are accepted in their entirety. Cominissioners will 
be named by the United States to meet similarly authorized Commissioners on the 
part of Spain for the purpose of settling the details of the treaty of peace and 
signing and delivecing it under the terms above indicated." 

The negotiations thus entered into were followed by the Protoeol of agreement 
between the United States and Spain signed at Washington August 12, 189,S, by 
which it was provided: 

"ARTICLE I. 

"Spain will relinquish all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba. 

"ARTICLE II. 
"Spain will cede to the United States the Island of Porto Rico and other islands 
now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, and also .nn island in the La- 
drones to be selected by the United States. 

ARTICLE III. 

"The United States will occupy and hold the city, bay and harbor of Manila, 
pending a conclusion of a treaty of peace which shall determine the control, disposi- 
tion and government of the Philippines." 

'•ARTICLE VI. 
:'of that instrument obligated Spain to the immediate evacuation of Cuba, Porto 
Rico and the other islands under Sl)anisii sovereignty in the West Indies, and provid- 
ed for the appointment by each Govern-iient, within ten days of the above d.Tte, of 
Commissioners who should meet at Havana in Cuba and at S.in Juan iu Porto Rico 
within thirty days after such date for the pui-pose of arranging and carrying out 
the det.oils of such evacuation. By 

"ARTICLE V. 

"of the Protocol, the Contr.acting Parties agreed to appoint each not more than 
Ave Commissioners to treat of peace. •> ho should meet at Paris not later than Octo- 
ber 1, 1898, and proceed to the negotiation and conclu.sion of a treaty of peace. 

"Article \'I. of the Protocol is as follows: 

"Upon the conclusion and signing of this Protocol, hostilities between the two 
countries shall be suspended, and notice to that effe<-t shall be given as soon as pos- 
sible by each Government to the commander? of Its military and naval forces," 

Etfore the notice provided for in Article VI. could possibly be given, and on the 

119 



13tu day uf August, 18!I.S. Ilie uext day after its signature, the American land and 
naval forces at Manila attacked that city ami. upon the 14th of August. 1898. com- 
pelled its surrender under the terms of a military capitulation, which comprehended 
rot only the surrender and occupation of the city, but also the surrender of its g.ar. 
rison. beine from 9.000 to ll.CtM troops in number, and comprisinK substantially 
the entire Spanish milit.n-y force in the I'hiiippine Islands. The United States there- 
upon, having previou.sly for a long iinie heei. in possession of the bay and harbor 
of Manila, took military possession of that city, and has ever since been in military 
occupation thereof, administering its gnernment concerns in the manner usual in 
such cases. In .^ui doing, the T'nited States took po.ssession of the pnDlic property of 
Spain situate in Manila, including cenain moneys due to that Government which had 
beon collect -d as revenues; proceeded to administer, collect and expend the taxes, 
and customs of that port, and also to r ikc ciiarge of and administer the police gov- 
ernment of the city; and generally continued to exercise over the city, harbor and 
bay the rights and powers of a belligerent in rightful military occupancy. 

It is noiv contended by Spain, who also, as a part of that contention, rejects th»i 
articles tendered by the United States for the cession to that Government of the 
Philippine Archipelago, that such occupation and acts were in violation of the Proto- 
col, and that, for that reason, she is en titled: 

1. To the immedi.aite delivery of the place (Manila) to the Spanish Government. 

2. The immediate release of tlie garrisoii of the same. 

:'.. The return to the Spaui.sh Government of all the funds and public property 
taken by the American army since its occipation of the place, and all the taxes ol' 
every kind collected or to be collected up to the time of returning the same. 

4. The recognition of the obligation on the part of the United States to indem- 
nify Spain for alleged serious damage oc-casioned by the detention as prisoners of 
her troops, to which detention it is alleged is due the spread with impunity of tie 
Tagalo insurrection in Luzon and its invasion of the Vizalan islands, and. more- 
over, because to the same has been due the alleged ill-treatment of thousands of 
Spanish prisoners, military and civil. 

In the dilatory assertion of these extraordinary claims the Spanish Commission- 
ers have at times repudiated and at other times have appealed to and eiai'iied 
rights under the stipulations of a convention entered into between Spain and the 
United States, by and under which the rights, dulies. liabilities and status of tlae 
contracting parties were explicitly settled. That convi^ntion is the Protocol tf 
August 12. 189S. 

It is contended by the American Commissioners that an estnhlishmenrt of Ihe 
statu quo provided for oy that Protocol, and comprehended within its intent and 
meaning upon a fair constniction of its terms. Is the only demand that Spain can, 
upon her own theory, make in the premises, even if it is hypothetically conceded, 
for the mere purposes of this branch of the discussion, that the legal propositions 
which she advances are at all applicable to the alleged breach of the armistice. For 
the United States insists and has always insisted (except hyimtheticaiiy as stated 
above and nn>rely for purposes of this argument) that the military operations by 
which Manila was captured were .instiliable fnd lawful. The statu quo is the rigiit 
of the United States to occupy and hold the city, harbor and bay of JIanila pending 
the conc!n,sion of a treaty of peace whi-ni shall determine the control, disposition 
and government of the Philippines. That condition exists. The United States does 
so hold .such territory. It has been so confede<l and insisted by Spain in corre- 
spondence which will be particularly considered in another portion of this paper. 
That occupancy is referable to. and is justified by. the Protocol, and cannot he de- 
feated by the alleged illegality of hostiMtie.s. To so invalidate it. it will be neces- 
sary for Spiiin to denounce and repinliole the Protocol In al! Its parts, including, of 
course, the authority nnder which this Commi.i-sion is proceeding and the stipulation 
for an armistice, and thus produce a renewal of active war. as we shall elsewhere 
more fully demonstrate. 

It is maintained by the American Commis.'iioners th:it all and singular the acts 
done after the surrender of Manila and complained of by Spain were and are right- 
ful acts under the Protocol itself; that they would have been rightful if no naval or 
military operations whatever had been Condrcted against that city after the signa- 
ture thereof, and that the^r rightfidne.^s is not impaired by such liostile operations. 

The Prctocol presents two features: One. general in its character-, pertaining to 
negotiations for peace: the other, subordinate and special in its provisions, pertain- 
ing to the capitulation of the city of Manila and its bay and harlio>-. but which is 
also an inseparable part and parcel of the stiinilations and processes by which a 
treaty of peace is to be etfected. 

Tlie second of these features presents a e.ise of the military cipitulation of a 
certain defined territory, to be occupied and lu-ld by the United States "pending the 
conclusion of a treaty of peace which shall determine the control, dispo.^jition and 
government of the Philippines." This stipr.lation is sometimes ignored and some- 

120 



tiIln'^■ rfliiHl iiinin I>\- llu- ^^)l;llli>ll * 'I'Uiinistjioi.tM's to iiif't the v;iri.nis «-xim'lii'ic s (if 
thfir jir^uniont. 

'l*ho Spnnish ('oiiiinKss'.niM-i-s jirc ciiiircly cHri-cl in troaliiif: this lurlicuiai' stipu- 
Imlou of the Protocol (as thoy ilo in one bnMii-li of tlu'ir argunicnti as a niiluaiy 
convf-ntion provldiug for a papltnlation. and In citing (as they do) the laws of war 
applicable to military occupancy of a c-jncjiKM-cd or snrrendcrt tl pi»ition of the terri- 
tory of one of the belliir-'rcnts. If, tlu'rcfi>rc. as the American Commissiiinei-s con- 
tend, the acts complained of. and for which Spain now deinamls reparation, were 
ri^'hlfnl acts nnder the Protocol, and conld rij-'htfnlly have been done by that Cov- 
eri'ijient if no hostilities whatever hail b*'en ( (tndiicted ajrain^ Manila after its -sig- 
ualnre. the entire contention of Spaiiv for reparation on acconnt of tnt)se acts fails. 
The Protocol, as respects ■the occnp^ition by the I'nitcd States of the city of ^[anila 
and its bay and harbor, was, as we have observed, a military convention for the ca- 
pitulation of certain territory therein sptcilically dclincd. When executed by the 
United States taking possession it presented a case of inllitary occupation of that 
certain defined territory, and vested in that Government all the rights which the 
laws of war give to a military occupancy. This capitulation was general in its char- 
acter and terms. It comprelieuded the detiiied territory and all that it contained, in- 
cluding the forts, the munitions of war, the barracks. It included everything aud 
every person left in the city by Spain. It included the garrison for that reason. 
Under the special circumstances of the case the surrender of the garrison was neces- 
sarily contemplated by the Protocol. The city was closely besieged on the land side 
by the insurgents. It was in extremity tor provisions and the insurgents controlled 
the w"ater supply. The Spanish forces had been unable to raise the siege, and there- 
fore could not escape from the city on the land side. The city was blockaded by the 
American fleet; the fleet of Spain had been destroyed and there was no escape for her 
troops by water. The coiiditions were such that even if an escape could have been 
effected by land or sea. the forces of Spain would have had no base whatever for any 
militar.v operations. So clearl.v was this the situation that the Spanish Commander- 
in-Chief fled from the city shortly before it was attacked, took refuge on a neutral 
man-of-war. and was conveyed by it to Ilong Kong. Had it been intended that the 
garrison siiould be permitted to depart from the capitulated city, the usual provision 
would have been made that it should march out with its arms and with the honors 
of war. Containing no sucli provision, the exaction that the Spanish troops should 
surrender to the occupying power was as Justitiable and legal under the Protocol as 
was the taking possession by that power of the forts, barracks and munitions of war. 
Consequently, no rightful claim whatever against the United States can be made that 
afterward it refused to permit the capituuUed artn.v to resume its arms and proceed 
be.vond the limits of the capitulated terriior.v as an organized military force for the 
purpose of suppressing the Tagalo insurrection, or for any militar.v purpose what- 
soever. That this has alwa.vs been tlie position of the United States upon this ques- 
tion plainl.v appears from the diplomatic correspondence between the two Govern- 
ments, and particularly in the letter of the Secretary of State to Mr. Cambon dated 
September 16. 189S. The argument which would sustain the right of Spain to the re- 
lease of her array would, with equal cogeiic.v. support a claim on her part to have de- 
livered up to her for the same imrpose a ship of war that might have been included In 
the capitulation, and all the munitions of war which came Into the possession of the 
United States under and b.v virtue of its stipulated right of occupancy. In all cases 
where, pending war. a certain defined part of the territory of one of the belligerents 
is by the terms of a military convention, agreed to be put in the military occupa- 
tion and possession of the other belligerent, the sovereignt.v of the occup.ving party 
<the United States in the present instan?e1 displaces or suspends the sovereignty of 
the other belligerent and becomes for the purposes of the military occupation a 
substitute for it. 

It is not necessary to multiply citations of the many authorities which sustain 
this proposition. General Tlallcck's work on International Uaw has been invoked by 
the Spanish Commissioners and the citations in tills paper will be limited to that 
work, observing that they .arc made from the chapter which treats of the rights of 
military occupation during war as contradistinguished from the rights of a complete 
conquest, 

"Capltnlations are agreements entereii Into by a commanding officer for the sur- 
render of his army, or b.v the governor of a town, or a fortress, or particular dis- 
trict of country, to surrender It into the hands of the enemy." 
(Halleck. vol. IT., p. 310.1 

"It follows, then, that the rights of military occupation extend over the enemy's 
terrltor.v onl.v so far as the Inhabitants are vanquished or reduced to submission to 
the rule of the conqueror. Thus. If a fort, town. city, harbor. Island, province, or 
particular section of country belong Ing fo one belligerent. Is forced to submit to the 
arpis of the other, snch place or territory Instantly becomes a conquest, and Is sub- 

121 



jeet to the laws which the conqueror may iiui>ose on it: although he has not yet ac- 
quired the plenum dominium et utile, he has the teinporary right of possession and 
government." 

(Hallecli. vol. II.. p. 434.) 
To consider more specifically the claims advanced by the Spanish Commission- 
ers: 

The first is. that Spain "is entitled to the immediate delivery of the place {Manila) 
to the Spanish Government." 

To do this would contravene the provisions of the Protocol by which it is agreed 
that ''the United States will occupy and hold the city, bay and harbor of Manila 
pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace," which treaty the two Commissions have 
been negotiating ever since October 1, 189ts. They are negotiating under the Pro- 
tocol. That instrument is an entirety. Neither party, having entered into it and con- 
tinued the uegotiations for which it provides to a date more than two months after 
the acts were done of which Spain now complains, can now allege such acts as 
grounds for the rejection of the obligations of that instrument. 

If any right of repudiation ever existed, it should have been asserted in due time 
as against the entire instrument and all of its provisions. This has never been at- 
tempted. On the contrary, the contracting parties have proceeded to negotiate, agree 
and perform under the requirements of that instrument. 

By so doing Spain has waived the alleged breaches of the Protocol wh"ich she now 
advances. 

The second demand is for the immediate release of the garrison of Manila. We 
show in another place that this garrison was, under the facts and circumstances, 
necessarily included in the capitulation provided for by the Protocol. 

The third demand is for the return to the Spanish Government of all funds and 
public property taken by the American army since its occupation of the place (Ma- 
nila) and all taxes of every kind collected or to be collected. ' 

We have maintained in another portion of this paper that the occupation of 
Manila is justly referable to the Protocol: that that instrument is a military capitula- 
tion: that the effect of the occupancy by the United States was to suspend the sov- 
ereignty of Spain in the territory so occupied, and to substitute for the purposes 
of military occupation the sovereignty of the United States. It follows upon prin- 
ciple and authority from these considerations that the United States had the right 
to take the public property, and to collect the taxes demanded, and has the right to 
retain the same. 

•'Political laws, as a general rule, are suspended during the military occupation 
of a conquered territory. The political, connection between the people of such terri- 
tory and the State to which they belong Is not entirely severed, but is interrupted or 
suspended so long as the occupation continues. Their lands and immovable property 
are, therefore, not subject to the taxes, rents, etc., usually paid to the former sover- 
eign. These, as we have said elsewhere, belong of right to the conqueror, and he 
may demand and receive their payment to himself. They are a part of the spoils of 
war, and the people of the captured province or town can no more pay them to the 
former government than they can contribute funds or military munitions to assist 
that government to prosecute the war. To do so would be a breach of the implied 
conditions under which the people of a conquered territory are allowed to enjoy 
their private property, and to pursue their ordinary occupations, and would rende 
the offender liable to punishment. They are subject to the laws of the conqueror, and 
not to the orders of the displaced government. Of lands and immovable property 
belonging to the conquered state, the conqueror has, by the rights of war, acquired 
the use so long as he holds them. The fruits, rents and profits are therefore his, 
and he may lawfully claim and receive them. Any contracts or agreements, however, 
which he may make with individuals farming out such property, will continue only 
so long as he retains control of them, and will cease on their restoration to, or 
recovery by, their former owner." 

(Halleck, vol. II.. p. 437.) 
••During the war of 1S12 the city and harbor of Castine, a port of the United 
States, was taken and occupied by the British forces: their commander proceeded to 
levy and collect customs duties. The question of his right to do so and the suspension 
of the sovereignty of the United States was afterward adjudicated by the Supreme 
Court. 

•■ 'By the conquest and military occupation of Castine," says the Supreme Court, 
•the enemy acquired that firm possession which enabled him to exercise the fullest 
rights of sovereignty over that place. The sovereignty of the United States over the 
territory was, of course, suspended, and the laws of the United States could no longer 
be rightfully enforced there, or be obi gatory upon the inhabitants who remained and 
submitted to the conquerors. By the surrender, the inhabitants passed under a tem- 
porary allegiance to the British Government, and were bound by such laws, and such 

122 



only, as It chose to recofc-nlze and impose. From the nature of the case, no other laws 
could be obligatory upon them; for where there Is no protection or allegiance or 
sovereignty there "can be no claim to obedience. Castlne was. therefore, during this 
period, so far as respected our revenue laws, to be deemed a foreign port, and goods 
Imported into it by the inhabitants were subject to such duties only as the British 
Government chose to require. Such goods were In no correct sense Imported Into the 
United States.' " 

(Halleck, vol. II., p. 446-447.) 

• 'The moneys derived from these sources may be used for the support of the gov- 
ernment of the conquered territory, or for the expenses of the war." 

(Halleck, vol. II., p. 447.) 

■•Those who are permitted to hold commercial intercourse with such territory, 
whether thev be subjects of the conqueror, or of foreign States, must conform to the 
regulations, and pay the duties established by the conquering power; and, in case of 
conquest by the United States, the President, in the absence of legislative enact- 
ments, exercises this power." 

^Hallecli, vot. II., p. 446.) 

'•We win next consider the effect of a military occupation of a State upon debts 
owing to Its government. Does such conquest of the State carry with it the Incorpo- 
real rights of the State, such as debts, etc.? In other words, do these rights so attach 
themselves to the territory that the military possession of the latter carries with t 
the right to possess the former? There are two distinct cases here to be considered. 
First, where the Imperium of the conqueror is established over the whole State (vic- 
toria universalis); and, second, where it is established over only a part, as the cap - 
tal, a province, or a colony (victoria parti cularis). As has already been stated, all 
rights of milltarv occupation arise from actual possession, and not from constructive 
conquests; they are de facto, and not de jure rights. Hence, by conquest of a part 
of a country, the government of that country, or the State, is not in the possession of 
the conqueror, and he. therefore, cannot .•Inim the incorporeal rights which attach 
to the whole country as a State. But, by the military possession of a part, he will 
acquire the same claim to the incorporeal rights which attach to that part, as he 
would, bv the military- occupation of the whole, acquire to those which attach to the 
whole. We must also distinguish with respect to the situations of the debts, or rather 
the locality of the debtors from whom they are owing, whether in the conquered 
country, in ttat of the conqueror, or in that of a neutral. If situated In the con- 
quered territory, or in that of the con queror, there is no doubt but that t'l*' <=°°- 
qneror may, by the rights of military occupation, enforce the collection of debts 
actually due to the displaced government, for the de facto government has. in this 
respect, all the powers of that which preceded It." 

(Halleck, vol. II., p. 461.) 

In other particulars Spain has not only waived any right to Insist that the hostil- 
ities at Manila were in violation of the Protocol, but has acted upon the assumption 
that they were not such acts of violation. 

On August 13, 1898. the French Ambassador, acting for Spain, in a letter of thai 
date, addressed to the Secretary of State, inquired as follows; "May the postal serv- 
ice by Spanish steamers be re-established between Spain and Cnba. Porto K co, 
Philippines?" 

"Will Spanish merchants be permitted to send supplies in Spanish bottoms to 
Cuba. Porto Kico, Philippines?" 

To these Inquiries the Department of State answered by letter dated August if, 
1898. that; 

"1. This Government will interpose no obstacle to the re-establlshment of toe 
postal service by Spanish steamers between Spain on the one side and Cuba. Porto 
Rico and the Philippines on the other. 

"2. The United States will not object to the Importation of supplies In Spanlsn 
bottoms to Cuba and the Philippines, but It has been decided to reserve the Importa 
tion of supplies from the United States to Porio Itico to American vessels.'^ 

Though it is probable that both of these communications were written before no- 
tice of the capture of Manila had been received, yet It Is believed that Spa'n has, 
down to the present time, availed herself of the privileges thus solicited and granted. 

On August 29, 1898, the French Ambassador, acting for Spain, by letter of that 
date, addressed to the Secretary of State, suggested that "the Spanish troops, whom 
the capitulation of the city of Manila has reduced to inaction, might be placed at once 
at the disposal of Spain, who would use them for the defence of the islands against 
the insurgents. 

12S 



"The Minister of State at Madrid tliinks that, if the United States Govermneat 
sees any objection to this arrangement, It will, at least, have no reason to oppose 
the dispatch of troops directly from the Peninsula to the Philippines." 

To this letter the Department of State made answer under date of September 5, 
1S98, and observed, among other things: 

"In your Informal note of the 29th ultimo it Is stated that the Spanish Govern- 
ment suggests that, for the purpose of checking insurgent hostilities, the Spanish 
troops now held as prisoners of war by the American forces may be placed at the dis- 
posal of Spain, to be used against the Insusgents: or. If this be objected to, that the 
Spanish Government may be allowed to send troops from the Penlnsala to the Phil- 
ippines. It can scarcely be expected that this Government would even consider the 
question of adopting the first alternative, m view of the fact that for some time be- 
fore the surrender of Manila the Spanish forces In that city were besieged by the 
insurgents by land, while the port was blockaded by the forces of the United States 
by sea." 

It seems impossible to conceive that the correspondence from which the above 
quotations have been made could have taken place except upon the basis of the 
opinion then entertained both by the United States and Spain, that the possess'on 
by the former power of the City of Manila, and the surrender to it of the Spanish 
forces were either lawful ab initio, or hao become lawful by acquiescence and waiver 
by Spain, and that nothing had been done or required by the United States that waa 
not warranted by the terms of the Protocol respecting the occupation by that Gov- 
ernment of the city, harbor and bay of Manila. 

And on the 11th day of September, 1898, the Ambassador of France, acting for 
Spain. In a letter of that date to the Secretary of State, distinctly stated that "the 
Spanish Government Is of opinion that the occupation by the American forces of the 
city, bay and harbor of Manila must be considered in virtue of the Protocol of August 
12, and not in virtue of what was agreed to in the capitulation of the 14th of the 
same month, which is absolutely null by reason of its having been concluded after 
the belligerents had signed an agreement declaring the hostilities to be suspended." 

Considering together these requests and concessions, and particularly the explicit 
admission above quoted, it seems a feat of forensic and dialectic hardihood to assert 
now that the military occupation by the United States of the City of Manila is void 
under the Protocol, and that, for that reason, the city ought to be delivered up to 
Spain. Its garrison liberated, its forts, barracks and munitions returned, the moneys 
collected paid back to Spain, and the United States to be mulcted in damages for the 
militar.v operations of the insurgents. 

And. considering from altogether another point of view the claim that, since 
Manila was actually captured a few hours after the Protocol was signed on the other 
side of the globe instead of a few hours before. It should be returned, the thonght 
might occur to a ,1ust and impartial m'nd to remember why it was not captured ear- 
lier. The world knows that the attack was only dela.ved to protect the city and Its 
Spanish inhabitants from the dreaded vengeance of the Insurgents. It would bt 
extraordinary If this act of humanity should now be claimed by the beneficiary as 
the sole reason for depriving the benefactor of his victory. 

It might ftirther occur to a just and impartial mind that the General and the 
Admiral commanding, to whom that humane delay was due, were entitled to a more 
generous recognition of perfectly well known facts than is Implied In the statements 
of the Spanish Commissioners that "in spite of this (the signature of the Protocol) 
General Merritt and the Admiral of the fleet demanded the surrender of the place, 
etc. • • * opened fire. * * * unnecessarily causing a considerable number of losses to 
the Spanish forces;" and again that "General Merritt and the Admiral of the squad- 
ron may not he personall.v responsible for the blood they unnecessarily shed on the 
13th. If they had no otticial notice then of the Protocol which had been signed on the 
previous day In Washington." The American Commissioners have too high an esti- 
mate of the chlvalrlc honor of the Spanish people to accept that as the final record 
Spain would wish to make of this incident. 

The American Commissioners for the various reasons hereinbefore stated are 
constrained to reject the several demands embodied In the "proposition" to which 
the present paper Is an answer. 

True copy : 

JOHN B. MOORE. 



124. 



Protocol No. 14. 



Protocolo No. 14. 



CONFEEENCE 
of November 16, 1898. 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 16 de Noviembre de 1898. 



The conference having been postponed 
at the reqnest of the Spanish Commis- 
sioners, in order that they might have an 
opportunity to prepare a reply to the 
paper presented by the American Com- 
missioners at the last session. It was de- 
cided to meet on the 16th of November, at 
two o'eloclJ p. m., at which hour there 
were 



Present— 
On the part of the United States: 
Messrs. DAY, 

DAVIS, 

FUYE, 

GRAY, 

UEID, 

MOORE, 

FERGUSSON, 
On the part of Spain: 
Messrs. MONTERO RIOS, 

ABARZUZA, 

GARXICA, 

VILLA-URRUTIA, 

CERERO. 

OJEDA. 

The protocol of the preceding session 
was read and approved. 

The Spanish Comraissiouer presented 
their answer, copy and translation of 
which are annexed to this protocol, to 
the American memorandum relating to 
the Philippine Islands, and in so doing 
the President of the Spanish Commission 
stated that the document, besides being 
an answer to the American memorandum, 
was also a memorandum in support of 
the last proposition presented by the 
Spanish Commissioners; and he called at- 
tention to the concluding part, wherein 
a motion or proposition wias made with 
reference to the contingency that the 
American Commissioners should think 
that they must Insist upon their former 
proposal on the Philippines. 

The American Commissioners asked 
that the final part of the memorandum, 
to which the President of the Spanish 
Commission referred, be read, and it was 
orally translated Into English by their in- 
terpreter. 

The American Commissioners moved 
that, in order that the whole paper might 
be carefully translated and attentively 



Iios Comlsarlos espanoles en virtud de lo 
acordado en la seslon anterior respecto del 
aplazanileuto de la proxima conferencia 
para una fecha posterior a la fijada, solicl- 
taron une prorroga para presentar su con- 
testacion al Memorandum que en la ultima 
seslon presentaron los Comlsarlos ameri- 
canos y hablendose tijado de comua acnerdo 
el dla 16 a las 2 p. m. para la reunion de 
ambas Comlsiones. se hallen en dlcho dla 
y hora. 



Presentes— 
parte de 



los Estados Dnidos de 



Por 
America: 
los Senores DAT, 

DAVIS. 

FRYE. 

GRAY. 

REID, 

MOORE, 

FERGUSSON. 
Por parte de-Espana: 
los Senores MONTERO RIOS. 

ABARZUZA. 

GARNICA. 

VILLA-URRUTIA. 

CERERO. 

OJEDA. 
Fue leida y aprobada el acta de la seslon 
anterior. 

Los Comlsarlos espanoles presentan la 
contestacion al Memorandum amerlcano, 
que es anexa al acta presente. relative a 
las Islas Filipinas, y al hacerlo, el Presl- 
dente de la Comision espanola, manifiesta 
que dioho documento a la vez que contesta 
al americano, es asimismo un Memorandum 
en apoyo de la ultima proposlclon presen- 
tada por los Comlsarlos espanoles, y llama 
la atenclon sobre su ultima parte en ';ue 
se hace una mocion o proposlclon para el 
caso en que los Comlsarlos amerlcanos crean 
deber insistir en su anterior proposlclon 
sobre Filipinas. 



Los Comlsarlos amerlcanos plden que sea 
leida la ultima parte del Memorandum a 
que se reflere el Presldente de la Comision 
espanola. y sta es vertida verbalment al 
ingles por su Inierprete. 

Los Comlsarlos amerlcanos manlflestan 
que conslderando pue es nccesarlo tradiiclr 
con esmero y enterarse atenlameute Ue 



125. 



examined, the eoiifereiice be adjcnirned diclio documeiito, iiroponen el aplazamleulo 

till Saturday, November 19, at two de la sesion basta el s^bado a las 2 de la 

o'clock p. m., without prejudice to asking tarde, sin perjuicio de pedir una prorroga 

for a postponement if necessar.v, si lo estimasen neeessario. 

The Spanisb Commissioners expressed Los Comisarios espanoles manlflestan su 

their assent to tliis motion, and it was asentimiento, y queda por tanto fljada la 

tlierefore decided that the next confer- proxima conferencla para el sabado 19 a 

ence should be held on Saturday, the 19th las 2 p. m. 
instant, at two o'clock p. m. 
Signed: 

■WILLIAM R. DAY. Firmado: E. MONTERO RIOS. 

CUSHMAN K. DAVIS. B. DE ABARZUZA. 

•WM. P. FRYE. J. DE GARNIOA. 

GEO. GRAY. W. R. DE VILLA-URRDTIA. 

■WHITELAW REID. RAFAEL CERERO. 

JOHN B. MOOKK. ElIILIO DE 0.7EDA. 



126. 



Annex to Protocol No. 14. 



COMISION 
Paia la Neg-ociacion de la Paz con los Estados Unidos. 



Presentado en la Sesion del Dia 16 De Noviembre de 1898. 
(14 Conferencia.) 



Kl ultimo cscrito present ;i(lii pm- l:i Comisioii :imorioana tiene un doble objeto. 
Por una parte es el Memorandum que presenta en apoyo de su proposleion de 3 de 
Octubre ultimo, pidiendo la eeslon de las Has Fllipinas a los Elados X'nidos. Y por 
la oira es la expnsieinn tie las razimes que tiene la Comision amerleiinn para nn ad- 
mitir la inoposieion espanola de 4 de este mes. en que la Invitaha a que presentase 
una euya olijeto fnera el pomplimlento de lo eunvenido en los Artieulos -t y G del 
Protocolo de Washington. 

Por lo que liace al primer objeto sobre que versa el Memorandum araericano. la 
Comision espannla se dedicara prlmerameiite en este a repllear a su euntenido. Y por 
in (|ue liiic-e a la seirnnda parte, aquella inslstira en la forma de Memorandum regla- 
mentario en la exposicion de las razones que abonan su proposleion recliazada. 

Replica al Memorandum americano. 

Kazones de metodo y el deseo de reducir las proporcioues de este escrito inclinan a 
los Comisarios espanole,s a ocuparse primnramente del punta relative a las deudas 
hipotecarias de las colonias de Espana, que. aimque de capital Lmportanela. no hu- 
bieran vuelto a controvertlr en esta parte de la di.scusiou del tratado. si no apare- 
oiera nuevameute promovido por la Comision amerieatm en el ultimo parrafo de su 
proposleion. pidiendo la eeslon del Archip ielagu Filipino. 

Reeonoee la Comision espanola la difleultad que siente para contestar a esta parte 
del Minioranrtum americ-ano. debida esta diflcultad a los graves errores de' becho de 
que aquella esta sembrada. y tambien a las extranas dootrinas Juridieas que alii 
campean. 

Ante to do necesita la romisiou i-spanola hacer eonstar que en su dnoumento ;io 
entiende haber emplcado lancua;:e. ni s quiera f rases improplas de una diseuslon 
diplomatiea. Celosa de las cnnsideraciones a que tiene derecho empieza por guardar 
rellglosaniente las que corresiMind.'n a Ins demas, y. en sus doeumentos evita eon el 
mayor cuidado toda frase que pueda ser personalmente desagradable a quien vaya 
diri'gida. y eon inueha uias razon. las que pudieran repularse ofensivas a quienes 
estan, y tienen dereflio a estar. :il .-nnparo de las personas eon quienes los Comisarios 
espanoles tengan que dis<?utir'. 

Los Comisarios americanos dieen que nolaron con sorpresa que los espanoles, 
despues de haber aceptado provisionalmente los artieulos que aquellos habian pro- 
puesto sobre Cuba y Puerto Rico, vnelven ahoran a suseitar la cue.stion de la deuda 
cubana. planteando de uuevo uii tema que bajo cierlas reservas habia sido termi- 
nanteniente abandonado. Y no satisfechos con tan retnndas aflrmacione.s anandieron 
que la Comision espanola en su eontestacion escrita presentada en la sesion de 20 de 
Octubre. habia retirado sus observaciones anteiiores a los artlcule.s de la Comisioa 
amerleana. 

Por lo que hace a esta suquesta retirada. invitamos a nuestros dignos colegas rte 
America a que. buseaudo con todo detenimiento las frases de nuestra eontestacion 
escrita, en que aquella constc, se slrvan <-itarlas. pues entre tanto y siempre nosotros 
hemes de afirmar de un mode rotundo. que en nuestro doeumento no existen tales 
frases, resultando de el por lo contrario que nada tenlamos que retirar. pueslo que 
sostenlamoa nuestras aflrmaciones, aunqn? subordlnando su aostenlmlento en lo futuro 
a las eonvi-nieneias de Espana. En efeetn. como prueba de lo que acabamos de deeir 
y romo sutieieiiie eontestacion a las frases de la Comision auiericana. basta Iran- 
scriliir aqnilas en que einista aquella supufsta aeeplaeion provi.<lonal y aquel teriniuan- 
te ali.indon del tenia sobre la niencionda dueda. "Los Comisarios espanoles eontestan 
"a la sobredicha pregunta (que es la qne por esiiilo les habia becho la Comision 
••araerleaua en la reunion del dia 24 Octubre) y dicen que. alirmando sus eonvicoioues 
"de que eon arreglo a Derecbo. las obligacioues coloulales de Cuba y Puerto Kico 
"rteben pasar con estas Islas y su soberania. no rehusau tomar en conslderaeion eual- 
••quler otro artieulo relativo a Cuba y Pnert.. Ui.o qne no coatenga la clausula de 

127 



"asumir las cargas por los Estados Unid,.s o p.ir Cuba o por aiiibos (estas eran las 
■•propias palabras rte la iuPKiiala a ipip (■ontestaban), suborrtinando la deflnltiva 
"aprobacion de tal artioulo a la de los demas que hayau de formar la totalidnd del 
"Tratado. etc." Y entre las razones que por eserito eonsignaron para dar esta con- 
■'testacion. esta la que alii se expresa cou las siguientes frases: '•Considerando que 
"no habiendo de elaborarse este tratado eomo nunca se ha elaborado ni puede elabo- 
"rarse ninguno. eon el uuico crlterio de la risurosa .iustioia que cada uua de las 
"partes pucda ciiteiider que le asirta, smu taiiibien eon el de la convenieneia de cada 
"meramente juridieo. y que por consiguieute sobre la cuestion relativa a la deuda de 
"Cuba los Comisarios espanoles. que entieuden que el rigor del Derecho la resuelve a 
'^su favor, tienen el deber y estan dispuestos a cumpllrlo. de moderar este rigor por 
"las conyeniencias que para Espana puedan surgir de otras estipulaclones del tratado. 
"que sin ser perjudiciales a los Estados Unidos, puedan si'r fav.irahles a Espana." 

Fareee bien claro que el supuesto abandono de que ahora se habla en el Memo- 
randum americano y la supuesta aeeptacion de los articulos relatives a Cuba y Puerto 
Rico, estaba limitaiia al case en que la Comision espanola entendiera que en los 
demas que se (ueran diseutiendo y aprobando. hubiese para Espana ventajas que. a 
su Juicio. la compensaran de un sacriflcio mayor o menor de su derecho sobre las 
deudas. puesto que. si tales ventajas no se ofreeian. no tendria la Comision espanola 
razoii para Ijaei'r iiin.L'uno; y por lo tanto, claro es que podria inslstir en el reconocim- 
iento de su derecho. 

Pues bien que ventajas rlesdo entonces se han ofrecido a Espana. hasta este 
momento. en el curso de las coufereucias? 

Desde aquella fecha los trabajos de! tratado no adelantaron mas que un paso, y 
este ha cousistido en pedir a Espana. sin alegar razon alguna en pro de tal petlciou 
cuando se hizo. que ceda a los Estados Unidos el ArchipieUiKo de Pilipinas. Entieude 
la Comision americana que esta cesion es una ventaja para Espana! Sus Comisiona- 
dos no se sorprenderian al oir una eontestacion en sentido afirmativo. que ya hacen 
prever ciertas frases eonsignadas en el Memorandum a que contestan. No necesitan 
deoir que no participan de esa, opinion. 

Hubiera, pues. estado la Comision espanola en su derecho. volviendo a insistir no 
de un modo incidental, sino direct© y principal, en sus reclamaciones sobre la trans- 
mision de las deudas y obligaclones colonlales. No lo han hecho. ni se proponen ha- 
cerlo ahora. mas esto no ha obstado nl obsta a que no deje pasar en silencio supuestos 
y aflrraaciones, siquiera para que no Ilegue un dia en que se diga que habiau sido por 
ella oonsentidas. porque no las habia eontrovertido. negandolas expresamente sn 
asentlmiento. 

Aflrma la Comision americana Espana contrajo (no dice que haya invertido la 
deuda anteriormente contraida) la mayor parte de la deuda hipotecaria de Cuba "en 
un esfuerzo. primero para subyugar a los insurrectos cubanos. y luego para oponerse 
a los Estados Unidos. y discurriendo sobre el mismo tema. anade, que "no se ha ne- 
"gado que parte del importe de estos emprestitos se invirtio directamente en hacer 
"la guerra a los Estados Unidos." Para hacer tales aflrmaclones es indispensable su- 
poner que se ignoran las feehas de la creacion de tales deudas. La una fue emitida 
por Ileal Decreto de 10 de Mayo de 1SS6. es decir. ocho anas despues de establecida la 
paz en Cuba, y nueve antes de que. por las sugestiones y medlos que ya son del do- 
minio publico, hubiera vuelto a perturbarse. La segunda cmision se hizo por Real 
Decreto de 27 do Setiembre de 1890. es decir. doce anos despues que reinaba una paz 
completa en Cuba y se hallaba esta isla en el apogeo de su prosperldad. y ciuco anos 
antes qne hubiese comenzado su desolacion por la nueva rebelion que alll. mas o 
menos espontaneamente surglo. Y en los dos Decretos se dice ademas cuales eran las 
causas que provocaban estas emlsiones, y los gastos en cuya satisfaccion se habia de 
Invertir su importe. figurando entre los prlncipales el pago de los deficit de los pre- 
supuestos anteriores y posteriores de la Isla, los cuales bien sabido es que eran de- 
bidos a la gran rebaja que en sus impuestos habia hecho la Metropoli. 

Querra decirse que esta. por un don sobrenatural de advinacion. sabia en 1886 
y ISfiO que en lSO,"j habia de reproduclrse la Insurrecion de Cuba, y en 1898 los Es- 
tados I'nidos le liabian de dispensar su proteccion armada? I'ues. solamente en tal 
hipotesis podria admitirse la exactitud de las frases que se leen en el Memorandum 
americano. T por lo que hace a los gastos que a Espana ocasiono la guerra de Ins 
Estados Unidos. sin duda so Comision ignora que en 20 de Abril de este ano. en que 
eomenzaron las hostilidades. el Tesoro espanol aun estaba reallzando las operaeiones 
que. en forma de obligaciones con la garautia especial de las Aduanas de la Penin- 
sula, liabla acordado hacer en l8li(i y 1.S97 por mil millones de pesetas, y otra por dos- 
cientos veinte y tres millones de pesetas, acordada en - de Abril di- 189S con la ga- 
rantia especial de las rentas del tabaco y timbre del Estado y la del impuesto de con- 
snmos de Espana, y que. en fin. para la atencion especial de la guerra con los 
Estados Unidos. se habia acordado ademas cmitir por Real Decreto de 31 de Ma.vo 
de este ano. deuda perpetua interior al 4 % por valor de mil millines de pesetas, de 
las cuales fueron inmediamente negocladas 806.785,000. Despues de estos da'tos. 
es lie suponer que la Comision americana m. Ii;ilir;i de insistir en la aflrmaeifni tan 

128 



sill fmidiiiiu'iua avcnturada i-ii su Mi'iiioramiiiiii. por ciuuprciuU-i' qii*' los pistos do la 
KiH'rra oou los Estados I'nulns uaila liriirn (iin- v<-r cnii la di-iida liipoteoarla rolonlal 
lie Cuba. 

Vila vez mils la Comision aiiu'i-ioaua cxpone Pii su ultluio Meuuirandum la cxtruua 
teoria do quo las colonlas ospaudlas no Ilcnon obllsarioii do paf;ar la douda coutrulda 
por la Motropoli para soforar la rebolinu do pocos o uuiohos do sus habltaulos. Poro 
osta vo/. llo;jau hasta el pnnto de poiu-r tau sliijxular tooria al aniparo ilel sontldo 
coniun. alinuando quo la ooutraria es uua auioua/.n para la HVterlad y la elvllizaclon. 

Ah: si los oolonos y los ciudadanos de su <!rau Itopublioa hubioson nlejrado para 
justilicar una roboldia. o ou lo futun> ale;;asou i-u oaso i^ual. do quo aquol podoroso 
Kstado no osta ciortamonto oxonto. uua lomia soiuojauto. la hulilera aduiitido y la 
adudtira ol Oobioruo aiuorioauoV Ln q.io i.o el sontido oouiuu. slno ol soutidi> moral 
ropruolia. os quo so Intonio ponor toda relioliou coiiira los podoros legitimos al aui 
paro do la libortad y do la oiviUzaoion. Era o no Ksjjaua soborana loffitima do Cubii 
cuando gurjrio In priuiora insurro<'oiou y durante toda la sejruuda? Se ha atrevido 
nadio a noy:ar ni a p^uier en duda siquiora. la soborania de Kspaua sobre aquid'.-i 
isla ou el tiompo a tiuo nos ostamos rortrieudoV No fueron los mismos Estados Uuidos 
y su (jobloruo los que un dia y otro ilia lo roolaniaron <iue la sofooaso. sin oxolnlr ol 
medio do las armas. restaljieoiondo lo mas pronto posiblo la paz ou ;su eoloida? P\ios 
acoediondo Espana a estas iustaneias quiou, inoluso los Estados I'nidos. puodo no- 
gar la loKltlmidad de los gastos <iuo hizo al satisfaoerlas? 

Teoria semejanto que, por los respeto^ que la Comision espauoia, vioiu> ^uardan- 
do y lieno el deber de guardar. uo calitica, come seguramonte la calificariau todos los 
Pudoios ooustituidos de la tiorra. no puede sostonerse a la faz de los Iionibros, siuo par 
tiendo ilol supuesto de qui' ol podor metropolitauo era ilogitimo y su soborania una 
arbitrariodad del despotisiuo. Y eoucreta y ceuldauionto ge calitica asi a la Corona 
do Kspaua por su domiuaciou en Cuba hasta la celebraciou del Protocolo de Wash- 
ington? Puede. sobre todo, ealiUcarla asi ol Esl.ido quo. sin cesar. ha soMcitiido la 
aeoiou do osa soberania para dominar a los quo ctjntra <-lla so habian levantado ou 
la isla con las armas en la uianoV 

P.Msaromos a otro asnnto, ya que este es muy delicado para tratarlo con calnia y 
seronidad ou una discusiou diplomatica en que se iutenta controyertirlo. 

En el Memorandum a que eatamoa contestando, so asieuta la singular ahrtuaciou do 
que la hipoteea constituida en las dos sobredichas emisiones, puede llamarse mas 
lu'opiameute una garautia subsidiaria. y quo quieu esta prlucipalmento obligada al 
pago es Ui uaclou espauoia. Sin duda la Coiulsiou amoricaua, al haeer tal atirma- 
ciou, no tenia a la vista el articulo 2" del Heal Kecreto de 10 de Marzo de ISSG. 
acordando la emisjon de 1,240.(KX) bllletes hipotecju'los de la Isla de Cuba, ul el 
parrafo tambieu seguudo del articulo igualmente sognndo del Real Recreto de 27 de 
Scliombre de 1890, acordando la emisiou de 1,750,000 billetes hipotecarios tambieu 
de la uUsma Isla. Los dos dicim Uteralmente lo mismo, y bastara por lo tajito quo 
trauscribamos uuo de ellos. l-»ico asi: "Los nuevos biilotes toudran la garautia es- 
pecial do las reutas de Aduauas, sollo y timbre, do la Isla de Cuba, la de las con- 
tribuclones directas e iudirectas que alii oxistau o quodan e.stablocerso en lo sucesivo, 
y la general de la nacion espauoia. Estaran exteutos de todo impuesto ordinario ji 
e.vtraordiuai-io, etc." 

Tampoco ha debido ver la Comision tfmericaua ninguuo do los titulos emltldos de 
estas deudas, que so hallan por todas partes osparcidos iucluso eu Cuba y en las 
manos do torcoros y particulares duonos; si ios hubiora vlsto, habria leido en ellos lo 
si5;nioi.to: "(jarautia ospocial do las reutas do Aduauas. sollo y timbre do la Isla d(? 
<'uba. la do las contribucionos directas o iudirectas quo alii oxistau o puodau esta- 
blocorso en lo sucesivo y la gcuoral do la nacion espauoia." "El Banco hispano- 
colouial porcibira por medio do sus dologados on la Isla do Cuba o roclbira en liar- 
coloua por conducto del Banco ospauol de la Habana. ol producto do las .\duauas 
de a ndsmn. retouiondose auticipado y diariameulo lo nocosario. sogun la labia al 
dorso. para apllcarlo en cada trlmestre al pago de Intoroscs y amortlzaciones." 

Si despues de esto la Comision amoricaua continua outoudloudo quo csi.-i douda 
uo so euiitio c(jmo hipotocaria y que la hipo'oca no consistio eu Jas rentas do las 
Aduauas de CuIki y sus domas inipuostos. y uo estas rentas uo fuoron las quo se 
■•senalarou principalnicute y on priinor lugar. y por lo tauto autes que >'l 'ros.iro do 
la Peninsula, para ol pago d, ..s i:iioros,-s y an;;irliz.u-ieu do osta di'Ud.i- ri.ida M:as 
toneuios quo decir. No sabemos Ooniostrar la cvidoiuia. 

Por lo que hace a los tenedores de eslos riiulos y a la sevoridad iiuo ouloddeuios 
OS iuJHstllicada, con quo aquellos sou tratados ou el .Memonuidum auiorlcano. no os 
Espana la que tieno el dehor do dofouderJos. Cuando a su notlcla llogno ol jniio quo 
s.ibre ellos se omlto. es do supouor ipio por si ndsmos se defenderan. poniuo dospnos 
do todo. no necesltau hacer graudes osfnorzos para domonstrar la jusllcia do su c:cusa. 

Por lo (luo a Espana toca, y con osto su Cf^itdsiou procodo a contestar catogorioa- 
uioute a las proguuias (jue so forniulan on id .Mcmorandinu anioricano, lo basta do- 
fonder la logltimidad de sus actos y ol perf.'i-to din i-ho con qin- on o aquolla douda 
y establecio su hipoteea; y por couslgulente, el estrieto que tiene para no pagar los 

129 



iiitpi-fses y iimiiitiznriim ilo la iiiisma. siur> i-imii,i„ sr Ic pnicbe la ii.sufick'iK-ia de las 
rpatas hiiioticaila.s cull i]ne aqiieilus dubeii sc-r priimTamcnte sarisfccbcis. 

Si los que tales reutas tengaii en su poder, quieren o no cnmiiliil la nlni-aciun 
sohre ellas eoustltuifla, es eusa que qucaara bajo su respcnsabiliilail, qursto qiu- Es- 
pana no tieue nioilios de hacerlos ("lunplir csta nbliKariiui. ui pin- ntra parte tieue ella 
jiara ri,u Icis ai rcvibins mas d( berrs que Ins que jiuuiadauienle lia veiidu basta 
-abora euuiplieud... I'er.) Espaua, vuelve a .leeirlo su Couiision (y es lu uuieo que tex- 
tualmeute Jia dicbu eu su drx-umeuto anieriur. auuque eii otro sentido aparezea eu el 
lUemorauduui auK-rieano) no quede jirestarse eu e.ste tratado oiin Ins Esladiis Unidos. 
Hi eu otro alffuuo con eualquier poteucia. a baei'r ui ili'rlarar eu su ]u-npii> uouibie. 
uada que uiauilieste " siquiera iuqdique ijue eila uiisULa poue eu duda y uiurliu uieuos 
dc<seouoee. ui aim voluutariauieule luei-iua jioi- lo que a ella toea, los deii-( lius bipote- 
larios de los t. uedores de aquellas deudas. No tieue uiedios efieaces para que los 
que hayau de ser tenedores de las hipotecas respeteu tales dereebos. Per esto lo 
los emplea; si los tuviese. ya que no poi- extrieta justieia a lo menos por uu deber 
juoral. los euiplearia. ajustamlose asi a los seutiuiieutos de la probidad pubiiea y 
privada. 

Cl'eeu. pues, los Coaiisarios [■s|iaiu>les baber e.iuti'stado bien eategorieauiriite a las 
preguutas que sobre este particMilar se les diri;,'eu en el .Memorandum americauo, y 
<lespues de esto pasan a ocuparse del prineipal puulo tratado en aquol Memorandum 
y que se retiere a hi soberauia dei Arebipielagc* I-'ilipiuo. 

Seguu el .MeuMiraudum auu'rieano se funda la < esiou ili-l Arebipieiaito qui' se pide 
A Espaua, mt eu que tal ceslon se baya comenido eu i 1 artioulo .; del Protoeolo. 
eomo Se couyluo eu el 2 la de la Isla de Puerto Kieo. siuo en que. seguu aquella Com- 
i.=ion. entre los .isuntos relativos a las jslas Filipiuas (jue eu el artieulo .sobrediebo 
se deparou a la libre rescduriou de la Confereucia de Paris, esta el que tieue por ub- 
jeeto la eesion p.ir Es|iaua lie la soberania en aquellas islas a los Estados Unidos de 
Aineriea. 

La rouiisiou espauola sostiene qiu- bjos de baln>rse eueomeudado tan ;j;raye asuu- 
to ,a la I'ouferencia de Paris, asuut.i qui siu duda seria_ uias impiu'taute que todos los 
que esta iiaiiuida a discutir, el artie-iilo 3 del Protoeolo deseansa sobre td supaesto de 
que la soberania del Arehipielago babia de continuar siendo de Espaua. 

La Courision americana busea el fundamento de su tesis en la interpretaeiou de 
I. IS frases de la eitada clausula 3, ^ adenas eu las uegociaciones que la jirepararou y 
leruiinaron eon su aeeptacion. 

E.vainiuareuios eou fria serenidad los razcuuiuiientos de esta tesis. Iiice la Com- 
isiou auierieaua que eS uu i)i-ineipio de liereeho que "euaudo el resultado de uegocia- 
ciones se ha eoniprendido en uu escrito cerrado. los teruiiu'os de este acuerdo deben 
defluir los dereebos de las partes." 

La t'oniision espauola admite esta regia de la iuterpretaeion de los tratados. 5,i 
tieue eouio funda uieuto indispensable, el de que los terminos del acuerdo sean claros 
y preeisos y ib' iiuludable y fljo sentido, porque. eu tal easo, debe entenderse que las 
<Ufereneias ipu' duraute las negociaciones hubiera babido entre los Estados contra- 
tanteb, (luedaron resueltas por el acuerdo elaro, preeiso, y de fijo sentido en que con- 
viuieron. Mas es este el caso sobre que uisouten al preseute ambas Comisiones? 

Antes de contestar a esta pregunta. eutienda la Coniision espauola. que es bueno 
transeribir. una yez mas, el texto del artieulo .'J del Protoeolo, literal ,v fieinu-nte tra- 
ducido del original franees. Dice asi: "Los Estados Unidos ocuparau la eiudad, puerto 
y babia de Manila en espera de la conclusion de uu tratado de paz que debera deter- 
minar la intervencion (controle). la disposieiou y el gobierno de las Filipiuas," 

No sobe la Coniision espanola si la americana iguora que, al recibirse por el Go- 
bierno de Madrid el despacho del Senor Secretario de Estado de Washington, en 
feeba .3 de .Tulio. eommunieandole las tres eondii ioues eon cu.va aeeptacion por 
Espaua, estabnu los Estados Unidos dispiiestos a haeer la paz. y la tereera de las cua- 
les era la que, siu la menor alteraciou se trauseribio despues eu el Protoeolo. for- 
inando su clausula .3, dirigio uu despacho telegrafieo al Senor Enibajador de Franeia 
eu Washington, Mr. Cambon, el 1 de Agosto, en el que sobre este punto le decia 
literalmente !o siguiente: "El tercer punto en que se detemina la forma de dispo- 
Ber de las Islas Pilipinas parese falto de precision a este Gobierno, Ha suplido 
(este Gobierno se entiende) las deficienclas que en el se adyierten, suponieudo que 
no hay custion respecto de la soberania permaneute de Espaua en aquel Arehi- 
pielago, y que la ocupacion temporal de Manila, su puerto y su babia, por el 
Gobierno federal, solamente ba de durar el espacio necesario para un acuerdo 
entre ambos paises sobre reformas administrativas." Tenemos a disposieiou de la 
Comision americana este despacho. por si quisiera leerlo y estudiarlo por si mlsma. 
Mr. C'ambon, recibido que bubo este documeuto, tuva con el Senor I'resldente de 
la Republlca americana una conferencia. el dla 3, y que, respecto al particular de 
que la Comisiou espanola se ocupa en este momento, aparece referida en el despacho 
de dicho Senor Embajador de 4 de Agosto, en los terminos siguientes: "Aproyeche 
esta declaraclon para rogar al Presidente que tuviera la bondad de precisar sus 
intenclones en lo posible eu lo que se refiere a Pilipinas. En este punto, le dlje, esta 

130 



la contfstncicn, del Gobi>M-no Fodorul redai'tiiilM .-ii Icrniiims ipio inirdcn pi-cstarsc a 
todas las pretenslones de parte de los Estados tliiidos. y por consigulenti-. a todos 
los tomoros de Espana respecto do su soberanla." El Presldeiito le coniesto como 
luego se dlra. Mas el Gobierno espanol, a pesar de las palabras do aquel Alto Magls- 
trado, luslstio, en su despaoho ile 7 de ARostci. on las diidas quo lo ofroola el sentldo 
de la clausula 3. luutll Inslstencla. El Goliienio anicrioan<i, lu entonoes, ui antes, nl 
despues, so presto a manlfestnr coucretamento su pousaiuonto, envuolto en las 
frasos de eontrole, dispoeion y fiobieruo do I'Mlipluas. do (ino so liahia de ocupar la 
Coufereneia de Paris. Ahoni es cuando pur pi'lmora voz onlra on osta oxplloaolon. En 
el Memorandum, a quo osta oimtostando la Ciiiuisicui ospanola. os donde la oonsigna 
la anierlcaua. Dice: "Ciorlamoute la palabra control (en Ingles) no fue aqui 
aplieado on el sontido de roglslor (investlL-acion o Inspocciou) sino en su sentldo mas 

ampUo de autoridad o mando quo palabra podia sor mas anipHa Que 

disposiciou. que praciicamouto liono la niisnia sijjniticacion on francos y en In.^les. 
. . . tenemos por laiiici on ostas dos palabras Ma autoridad sobre' 
doinlulo de," final y do liniiiv.i oxplicicaelon de la materia on cuestion. V Que es 
gobierno sino el derocho do .■idminlstracion o de ejorcor soliorania. la dlrossion, 
el manejo politico de un Estado? Cualquiora de estes torminos inplioa la facultad o 
poder do intorvonir cou soberanla. Juntos tionen cl mas auiplio aloano,> para 
trator de todos los podoros. siubernainental, territorial o adniinistratiro." 

La explicacion. si no paroce oportuna por lo tardia, tampoco pareco satisfactorla. 
Desde luego so ocurre que si con cl proposito de que tal cosa signiflcason aquellas 
palabras .so empeno el Gobierno americano on sostoncrlas. anuque sin oxplicarlas, a 
pesar de las divorsas voces en que asi se lo piilio V porque razon no tuvo ontonces 
la fran queza que ostenta aliora su Comision V porque en vez de decir qtio la 
conferencia de Paris babia de detorminar la intervencion, la disposicion y el gobierno 
de las Islas Eilipinas, no dijo (luo dlcba oonforoncia habia de resolver sobre su so- 
berania, acordando o no, su cosion a los Estados Unidos, como abora la reclaman sus 
•Comislonados. I'nndandoso en que en aquellas frasos osta lanibien contendia esta 
cesion? ?Xo hubiera sido osto mas breve, mas oxplicito y do mayor franquezaV 

Pero ?es admisablo la intorpretacion quo ahora fuera do sazon proteudon dar equel- 
los a las sobriedichas fracosV Dicen que la palabra control (eontrole en francos) no 
puede tomarse en el sentldo de register (invest gaclon o inspeccion) sino on el de autor- 
idad o mando. Y ? ponpn'V Porque este es el sentldo mas amplio que tal palabra tlene 
en ingles. Mas presciudon de fijar su atenciou en que el Protocolo tuo rodactado tam- 
bien en francos, cuyo ojemplar firmo como oflclal el Senor Secretario de Estado de 
Washington, y que dicha palabra, en frances, no slgniflca semejante cosa, sino Inves- 
ligacion o inspeccion, que tambien slgnitica en inglos. Y ? como puedon dejar de 
reconocer los Comlsarios amoricanos que cuando un tratado so ha redactado oficlal- 
mente en dos a mas idiomas a sns palabras no so pnodo dar otro sentldo quo el que 
sea comun a todos olios? 

Sostienon asimlsmo que la palabra disposicion siguiflca ona.1onac on. No lo uega- 
mos, por mas que cuando so emplea en esto sontido, es para aplicarla a las relaciones 
jurldicas de la vida civil y privada. puos en francos la signiticaoion mas comun y 
frecuonte de tal palabra es la de "distribucion sogun un ordon certo y detormi- 
nado." 

Aflrman que la palabra gobierno slgniflca el derocho do administrar o de ejorcer 
soberanla, y auncjuo tal .sentido puede admitirse, tampoco puede rechazarse el de 
la "mauera de gobernar" o la "forma quo tal gobierno ha de tener." Mas se uno 
u otro el sentido en que aquollas rres palabras fueron empleadas on la clausula 3, 
si no hubiera en las nogociaciones datos suflcientes para fljar entre tan diversos sen- 
tidos aquel en quo se emplea ron. os imposihle quo so desconozca, como se acaba de 
demostrar, que por lo menos no tienen en si mlsmos y por si solas tales palabras un 
sentido claro, precise, y que no puoda ofrocor motivo a ambiguedados y dudas. Asl 
lo deniostraron ya ontonces los hechos. 

El Gobierno espanol y su ropresontante en Washington, precisamento porque no 
teniau esa claridad. roclamaron aunque inutilmente explicaciones. y ? quien se em- 
peno con verdadera tenacidad en sis ener tan oscuras frases? No se negara que ha 
sldo el Gobierno do Washington. Pues sirvanse leer los Senores Comlsarios lo que 
sobre la Intorpretacion do frasos semejantes. dice el inmortal Vattel, una de las mas 
grandes autoridades on cuanto se reflere a las relaciones Intornacionalos de los pue- 
blos, en su Derocho de gentos. tomo 3, pagina 197: "La duda debe rosolvecse contra 
"aquel que ha dado la ley en el tratado, porque es el, en alguna nianera. quion la ha 
"dlctado, y la falta os suya si no se ha exprosado mas claramente; y entendlendo o 
"restringiendo la slgniflcaclon de los torminos en el sentldo que el es menos favo- 
"rable, no se le hacc nlugun agravio o no se le hacc mas que aquel a que ha querldo 
"exponerse. Mas con una Intorpretacion contrarla se correria el rlesgo de convertir 
"termlnos vagos o ambiguos en lazos para el mas debll contratante, que ha sido obll- 
"gado a reciblr lo qne el mas fuerte ha dlctado." 

131 



Aciiba ill- iiKlii-ar la Cnmisiiin rsiiauola que I'li Ims upgoi'iai'imies hay ilatos suti- 
cieiites para fljar el vevdadero seiitiilo tie a(iuellas tiH'S bleu luemorables palabras. Lo 
mismo por su parte aflrma la Comision aniericaua. Veamos oual (ie los dos eontradie- 
torios sentidos entiendeii ambas Comisioues que es el que debe preferirse. 

En el Memorandum americano se asieuta eomo base de todo el razonamiento, 
segun ya se ha dicho, que en la clausula 3 del Prntocolo. se dejo a la llbre resoluclon 
de la Confereneia de Paris que habia de elaborar el tratado de paz el put" relativo a 
la solieranui del Archipelago Filiiduo, Pues bien. ha tenido la Comision amerioana en 
cueuta. i-uando hacia tan graves atirmacioues. que el Senor Secretario de Estado de 
Washiiit'lon. eu su despacho de 30 de Julio, en iiur comunlco al Gobieruo espanol 
las tres c'ondlfiones que el de los Estados Tnidos le imponia para la paz y en que la 
tercera como queda dieho, estada redactada on las niismas palabras eon que se 
lee en <?! Protocolo, estableela lanibien el nombraniiento de los Comisarios que habiau 
de redaetar el tratado de paz y tijaba y elicunseribia sns facultades para este objeto? 
En dieho despacho se lee el parrafo si.L'uiente: "Si las condieiones ofrecldas aqui son 
■■ace])tadas en su integridad. los Kstailos fnidos nonibrarau Comisarios que se encon- 
"traran con los igualmente autorlzados por Espaua con el objeto de arreglar los de- 
"talles del tratado de paz y de lirmarlo eu las condieiones arriba inilicadas." En- 
tiende la Comision americana que cs un detalle eu este tratado de paz la inesperada 
cesion que rcclam.an a Espaiia de un immeuso territorio que tiene mas de :iii(MRKI ki- 
lonietros cuadrados de superflcle y que cuenta cou mas de W.OIHI.IMJIJ de habitautesV 
Entiende que es un detalle la art(iniscion de un Ari-hipehiKo que para nadie es UQ 
secreto que csta llaiuado a ser proximamente \in faitor iniporrante para la paz del 
mnndii'.' 

I'ero acudamos a los preccdentcs, cipioo hace la c isi.m anooicana. en bnsca de 

ese sentido tan ambiguo. 

Ketiere aquella el princlpio de las negoiiacioncs. Kslanios coutormcs cou su relato 
hasta que Ilega a la narracion de la primcra conferencia de Mr. Cambon cou el 
Senor I'resideute de los Estados Uuidos. Se refiere en el Memorandum que. en tal 
conferencia. el Presidente dijo respeeto a Filipiuas, que la nota lla citada del SO de 
Julio) expresaba los propositos de su Gobieruo. y la disposiciou tinal de aquellas dc- 
penderia del tratado que debia negociarse por l..s Coniisionados: que despues de 
una posterior discusion en que el Presideute rcitcro que el tratado habia de deter- 
minar el porvenir de las Islas Filipinas, se leyo el articnlo 3 en que .se decia que los 
Comisionados resolverian sobre el controle. la posesion y el go.bierno de aquellas 
islas: que Mr Cambon propnso la substitucion de la palbra posesion por la de condi- 
ciou. pen- netender que aquella podia ser tomadn por el (irdjierno espanol como severa 
y amenazadora: que el Presidente se nego al cabio propuesto. mas al fln acepto en 
lu"ar de la palabra posesion la de dispos'cion. que Irefleren los Comisionados ameri- 
cauos. no .sabemos si como opinion del Presidente o suya propia) no cambiaba el 
siguiticado, y que siendo muy amplio. podia incluir el de la posesion. 

Veamos ahora como reflere Mr Cambon lo que paso eu esta entrevista. Decia 
eu su depacho de 31 de Julio al Gobieruo espanol: "Las peticiones forniuladas en el 
"articnlo 3 (di.1o al Presidente) son a proposito para comprometer eu Madrid el exito 
-de esta negociacion preliminar, sobre todo si se mantiene entre las palabras controle 
••y gobieruo de Filipinas la palabra posesion. que parece poner desde ahora en dudu 
•■la siihcrania de Espana sobre esta colonia. Observara V, me dijo entonces el Presi- 
•■dcntc do la Itepublica, que mis peticiones. eu lo que se reflere a los dos primerso 
"articulos, no admiteu discusion: dejo a las negoeiaciones el cuidado de resolver la 
"cuesticin de Filipinas. Si las fuerzas americauas "(tijese tuda la atcncioii en estas 
■frasesi peruianecent hasta hoy en sus posicioues, es para obedfcer a un deber que 
■me impouen respeeto a los residentes y extrangeros los progresos" laqui unas pala- 
bras que nil pudieron traducirse. pero que bien si. comprende que debiau rcferirse a 
la iusurreccion tagalai. Vicndo ■'al Senor Presideute de la Repnblica resnelto a no 
■■niodlticar los teminos del articnlo 3 hice un llamaiuieuto tan apremlante a su gene- 

•■j^osidad que manda recuiplazar la p ibibia posi'sioii jior la de disposiciou que 

"no prejuzga el resultado de las negociaciniics y inie iki tiene el mismo sentido glo- 

■■lial." 

Entre una y otra relaciou uotaran se;;uranu'ute los Cdinisarios anicricanos b:is- 
tantes (liferencias. En la suya nada se lee respeeto a la uuica razon, iiue uianifc>sto 
el Presidente que tenia, para no retorar <l?sde luego del Archipielago las fuerzas 
Americauas. lo cnal acusa que enti>nc-es estaba muy lejos de pensar en que hubiera 
de pedirse la soberania de equel para los Estados Unidos. Segun la relaciou ameri- 
cana. la palabra disposiciou fue aceptada. porque conteuia el sentido de la palabra 
posesion: nas, se.u-nn el despai^ho de Mr Cambon, aquella palabra en lugar de la de 
posesion .■anibiaba el sentido global de la clausula. Y teugan o no razon la Com- 
ision americana o Mr Cambon. siempre resulta que este acepto el cambio. por(|ne 
enti'ndio que asi quedaba desi^artada todi cuestion sobre la conservacion de la so- 
berania de E.spaua sobre Filipinas. 

El vieru<'> 3 de Agosto. volviu a celelii :r el Seiiur Presidente otra conferencia 

132 



.-..ii Mr CimbDii. S,- ili.e .-ii ,■. M.- immuii::, mi.-, rii .-Iki. manifi-sto f»te que 

Kspaiiii .usistin subi-f .-l asnnt.) >\r .|iu- sii s,.i.friiiii.i im fm-ia iiuerveniilii; que el 
I'l-csiil, ii;i- 1.' .■.)iUesto qui' la ili-|)i>slciiiii il • .as Is. as Fillpli'as ilelila depeudi-r del tra- 
tad., .iiie haliia ilc m-Koc-iai-sc. .v qui' in. p-.'li.^ Ii..<-.'r iilnj-un cabio eii los tenuhios 
aliteri..lliiente pniquestos. 

Vcaiii.is ali..ni i-ouKi r.'li.'.v .-sta .-..iiv.Tsa. i .1. .\li- (.■:iiiib..u. ... sn .l.'spa.l... .l.-l 
i d.' AKost.) al .Ministlo de Kstad.. espan ■!. Mi-. .Mai- Klule.v si-- m..sti-., intl.-xlble 
|s..bi-.- la i-esliiii .U- ruei-t.. Hi.-.ii .v in.- i-ep. i., <iu,- la ciu-sli...! de Killpinas .-ra la 
Ulii.-a qui- ■li.i estaba .va il.-tililllvanu-iil.- i,.-a. .la .-ii su peasamielU..." IJi-spues di- 
i-el'erlr su Ins.sti-ui-ia en las fras.-s que j-a .piclaii transriilas en esa- Mein..randuni. 
Mr l-ainbun .•..ntiiiua : -Mr. Ma<- Kinle.v me .-..niest... ni, .luiero de.iar subsistir 
••nin};uii equivm-o sobre este parlli.ilar: 1 -s m-.ai>.-iad.iies de liis dos palses seran los 
"que resuelvan cuales seran (not.-s.-i las v.-ntajas perniaueiites que pediremi.s eu el 
-areliipelago v, en Hn. los .pii- .l.-.i.lan 1 i int.-vcn.-ion |c-.jntrole), disposirlim j- 
"KobieriK. d,- "las Islas Filipinas. Y asre.-... .-1 C.bl.-rn., de Madrid puede teller la 
-sesuiradad .le que hasta aUoi-a. no ha.v n.,„a r.-sn.-lt.. a priori .-n mi pensainiento 
--contra Kspana, asi emiio eonsid.-r.. que 11. , lia.v naila .U-i-i.iio contra los Ksla.l.is 
•'I'nid.is.'" iTe.Mual.l 

Compart-se lamiiien una i-ela.-i..ii .-on h, ..:r.i. 1..- ip-l M.-ni..ran.hini anu-ri.-an.. se 
limi!a a referir .lue el Sem.r I'r.'si.lent.- h .1.1:1 .l..-li.i .in.- la .lisposicion .le las Islas 
I--ilipiiias .l.-bia depeuder d.-l trala.la .V qu ■ . in^-nn f-ambi.. p.i.Iia liaeer en l..s ler- 
miiios. 1-eio ..mite la .seguuda y mas imp..riann- parte de la .-ouversaei..n .ine retiere 
Mr Caml.on. a pesar de que eonlien.- datos .lui- n.. piieden dejar lug.ir a la nie- 
n.ir ilu.la sibre le enestion pendii-nti-. Se ..l.si-rv.i .-n primer Iniiar que asi en esta 
.■..nieslacion. i-oni.i i-n la anterior, ile la m snia nian.-ra iiue i-n las m.las del tJ.v 
iiienio Americano, se omite con el mayor cnidado la iialabra soberania. al liablar de 
las Filipinas. entre lauto que, con un cuidado i«ual. se emplea esta palabra por el 
Gobieruo espauol .v por su rcpresentante en Wasiiington. para decir sin cesar que 
aquella no quedaba sometida a diseusion. Umise osta obscrvaciou a las .va hecbas 
siobre la persistente .v elara aunque implic'ta r.-sistencia a expliear las tres palabras 
sobr.-dicbas. 

-Mas a jiesar de todo esto el Senor Presi.lente ilijo. .v la Comision aniericana eu su 
.Memorandum no lo iiiega cateKoricamenle. qu.- la C.inrerencia de Paris serin- la que 
liabia de resolver cuales babian de ser las venta.iae permanentes que los Estados 
rnidos habian. de pedir eu el Arcliipielago. adenias de i-ual habia de ser el controle. la 
disposi(-ioii .V el ^oblerno de las islas. 

Se di.-e en el Memorandum que el Presideute no se limito a hablar de las ventajas 
permanentes. Es verdad que la Comision espanola no ha dicbo. ni dice que .se haya 
limitado a eso. porque anaiiio lo que se acaba de decir. I'era que tiene esto que vei 
para descouocer el sentido que de las palabras del PresidiMite resultan? Si era su 
|.en.samb-nt... ya perfet-tamentc formado a la sazou. el pedir en la confereni-iii no una 
sola ventaja sino veutajas permanentes en i-l ar.-hipieiago i>ara los Estados I nidos. es 
cvidente que no pensaba pedir la soberania. Puede esta caliticarse de mcra ventaja 
pernianente de los Estados l"ui.los en aqni-ll.is islasV Y aun.iue tan siufnilar bipotesis 
quisi.-i-ii sostenei-se como babia de explicarse en este eas.i el uumero plural ein- 
pleado por el Senor Presideute de los Estados Unidos? A esta observaci.in ya beclia 
en (-1 es.-rit.. anterior de la Comision espanola no se contesta en el Memorandum 
.\mericano. y se comprende. porque ho tiene contestacion posible que pueda ser 
harmonizada cou el proposito que alli se pretende sostener. 

No henios de ocuparnos de las indicaciones que en el Memoran.lum se leeii s.ibri- 
el diversa iilioma que enteudian y hablaban los interloeutores en las do eonterencias 
(-obre.liehas; no puede ciertaniente tal .-ir.-unstancia dar verosimilitud al supuesto de 
que el Senor Presideute no haya expresi.la. no ya una idea incidental, slua las ini 
IKirtantes y capitales que Mr. Cambon aflrnia que le ha oblo. 

Si este uo lo hubiera eiiteiidido. a pesar de .lue tenia .i su lado. segun si- reti.-r«- 
en aquel Memorandum, a su Se.-retarlo que eiiiiende y habla el insles. no s.- pue.le 
sup.iner .lUe lo hubiera atribuido. d.- inodo tan positive, sin faltar deliberandamente a 
la vi-rda.l. lo ijuc (-onsign.. en su d.-spa.-l..^. 

P.isemos ahora a la nota del Oobieriio .spanol .1.-1 7 de .\>:..st... La Cniision ame- 
ri.-aua esta eontorme eon la espanola en reii.nocer yue eu esta nota del Gobierno de 
.Madrid al manifestar que e.tptaba la clausula '-i salv., a priori su soberania sobre el 
Arehipielago Filipino; por esto no consideramos n.-eesario transeribir una vez mas 
textualmente sus palabras: la uni.-a difereiicia entre ambas Comisiones coiisiste en 
que entretanto que la espanola afirma y se ratifl.a i-n .-sta afirmaelon. qu.- en la 
nota de su Cobierno se empleaba el adj.tiv.. .-nt.-ra .. toi.il. al babhir de la soberania 
que alll se reservaba para Espana. la Am.-ri.-aua .li.e .lu.- .-u la tradu.-.-i.m al ingles 
de esta nota. que entre-: al Cobi.-n... d. \Vasliin;,'ton .Mr. Camli.iu. no existe tal 
ndjetivo. Xosotros tenenios lo copia. no l.i tra.lui.i.in .-oni.. se la llama en el M.-ino- 
ranilum anierl.-ano. de la nota ori!.'inal del (J.ibieri... espan.il. la qu.- p.mene.s a la 

I.-?? 



disposieion de la Comision :imiTifaiia. Kii ella, el adjetivo esto escrito; si al hacerse 
en Washington su traduccion al ingles, se omitio, cosa se que sabra la Comision ame- 
ricana, por haber visto tal traduccion, pero que puede menos de ignorar la espa- 
nola que nunca tuvo de ella conocimlento. La diferencla no tlene importancla alguna, 
porque, aun prescindlendo de tal adjetlvn. queda sicmpre como verdad y asi la re- 
eonoce la Comision americaua, que el Gubfcrno es|ianol se reservaba alll a priori sa 
soberania sobre Filipinas y que solamente con esta leserya aceptaba la base 3. T so 
despues el Gobiemo espanol no camblo de opinion, y en efecto esto no se aflrma ni 
seria posible que se aflrmase en el Mpmi.rnurlum amerlcano, siempre resultara que 
el Protocolo y su clausula •'! no obligaii. en huen derecbo, ol Gobierno espanol. slno 
con la expresa reserva que hizo al aceptarla, y de que no desistio despues. 

Mas en el Memorandum amerlcano comprendiendose sin duda, la incontrastable 
fuerza de la consecuencia que resultaba de haberse firmado el Protocolo sin que el 
Gobierno de Washington, una vez enterado de aquella reserva, nada hubiera dlcho 
en contra suya, se maniflesta que, asi el Presidente de la DnJon como su Secretarlo 
de Estado, al olr la lectura de aquella nota, dijeron que era vaga e Indegnida, sapo- 
niendo que aceptaba los terminos de la de los Estados Unidos, mlentras requeria 
alguna modiflcacion, y que respecto a Filipinas. si en un parrato se expresaba la 
aceptacion de la clausula, en otro parecia rcservarse el derecho absolute de sobe- 
rania. 

La reflexion es habil, mas por desgracia suya. no parece tan exacla como habil. 
Es vardad que dichos Seuores, leida que les fue la nota, revelaron su desagradn. Lo que 
no parece esacto, a juzgar por lo que dijo entonces Mr. Cambon, es que la causa 
de tal desagrado fuese lo que, no vaga e indefiuidamente, sino clara y termlnante- 
mente, en la nota se decia sobre la reserra que Espana dacia de su soberanJa cobre 
el archipielago. El mismo Memorandum amerlcano transcribe el parrafo correspon- 
diente de la nota leida y en esta. no vaga e indeterminada, slno expresa, clara, y ter- 
mlnante esta reserva. 

La causa revelada en aquel acto, por el Senor Presidente, de su desagrado, fue 
otra nuy diversa, que refiere Mr. Cambon en el parrafo siguiente de su despeacho 
de 10 de Agosto, Helo aqui: "Senor Duque: Tambien ha sido esta vez en la Casa 
"Blanca. en presencia del Senor Mac Kinley y por expreso deseo suyo, donde he 
"comunicado al Secretarlo de Estado el telegrama (la nota sobredicha) de 7 de 
"Agosto, en que V. E. declara que el Gobierno de Espana acepta las condioues im- 
"puestas por los Estados Dnidos. Esta lectura contrario visiblemente al Presidente de 
"la Republioa y al Secretarlo de Estado. Despues de un silencio proiongada me dijo 
"el Senor Mac Kinley: Yo habia pedido a Espana la cesion y por consiguiente la 
"evacuacion immedlata (esta evacuaeion inmediata no hemos podido averiguar cn- 
"ando Labia sido pedida) de las Islas di- Cuba y Puerto Rico: en vez de la aceptac'on 
"eategorica que esperaba, el Gobierno espanol me dirige una nota en que Invoca la 
"necesidal de obtener la aprobaciou de las Cortes; no puedo prestarme a entrar en 
"estas consideraciones de orden interior. Hice observar que al conformarse el 
"Gobierno de Su Majestad con sus deberes constitucionales no hacia mas que Imltar 
"al Presidente, al cual le estan impuestas obllgaciones analogas, que en su contes- 
"tacion de 3 o de Julio habia reservado expresamente la ratiflcacion del Senado 
"Federal" (asi era la verdad y constaen dlcho despacho de 3 de Julio). 

No alego el Senor Presidente ni su Secretarlo de Estado otro motivo para su dis- 
gusto, mas que el sobredicho, y segun Mr. Cambon. en la conversacion nada dijeron 
aquellos .Senores sobre la expresaila reserva de la sober.mia del archipielago que 
hacia Espana. nl sobre otra cos.i alguna mas que la, reserva del Gobierno espanol 
de la aprobaciou de las Cortes. 

Asi es que el Senor President? coucluyo por contestar al Senor Cambon. que le 
pregnutaba sobre las prendas de sinceridad que podria darle Espana. lo siguiente: 
"Habria un medio de poner termino a todo equivoco: podriamos nosotros preparar 
"uu proyecto que reproduzca las condiciones propuestas a Espana en los mismos 
"terminos en que ya los he formulado (hasta. aqui esto era en efeeto todo lo conve- 
"nido) y que tijen lo.s plazos en que se nombraratL por una parte los Plenipotencia- 
"rios enciirgados de negociar en Paris el tratado de paz, y por otra parte Comis- 
"iones especialos encargadas de determinar los detalles de la evacuacion de Cuba 
".V de Puerto Kioo." (Esto si que se habia pasado de consignarle en la nota del 
3o de Julio, .y esto por si solo hubiera sido cau.sa bastante para explicar el cambio 
de fonualizacion de las condicioues para lo paz.) 

Veasi pues si hay una distancia inmeusa entre lo que en el Memorandum amerl- 
cano se aflrma, y lo que Mr. Cambon manifesto al Gobierno espanol en su nota 
del 10 de Agosto, o sea inmediameute despues de h.tber asistido a tan importante 
conferencia y cuando por consiguiente tenia tan reciente en su memoria lo ocurrido 
en ella. Haciendo justica a la perfecta vera,cidad de los Comisarios amerieanos. su 
relacion de aquella conferencia a los tres meses de celebrada. no puede ser preferida 
por los 'Comisarios e.spanoles a la del Honorable Mr. r'ambon que bizo la suya in- 
mediamcnto despues de uccrido el suceso que en ella tan detalladamente iiarraba, 

134 



Kn el .\[i'nu>i'iUMlniii iiini'ilcmio sc uiega que el Senor Secretarlo de Kstado (le 
Washliigtiiii hiiya maiiifistmlu eii su not a (k- 10 de Ajrosto a Mr. Camhon. como la 
CuiiiJsiou uspauola li;i.bia aliirinado. (lUf la drl Gublenio de Madrid (la de 7 de Agosto) 
contenla eu su espiritu la aceptarion por Espaua de las condiciones propuestas por 
kw Estados Unldos; y al efeeto se iuserta alii literalmcnte dicha nota. 

UectlHoan la Comislon espanola su alinuaeion anterior acomodandola a lo que en 
aqiiella se expresa. Tei-o cniniple a su veracidad de<"lr que al haceria se refirio a la 
uota de Mr. Canibou. de 11 de .\gosto, que enlpie/..^ eon el slguiente parrafo: "Senor 
"Duque: Al transmitirn)e el proyecto de I'rotocolo cuyo texto he telej;raflado a 
"V. E. el Secretarlo de I-^stado me lia dirigido una earta que puede resuinirse coiuo 
"slgue: Aunque la nota entregada ayer en la Casa Blanca coutiene en su espiritu la 
"aeeptacion po*- E.^pana de las coudieiaiifvs propuestas por los Estados Uuidos. en 
"su forma no las particularlza bastante espUeilamenle, lo que sin duba. se debe a que 
"liU tenido que ser tradueida y eifrada varias veees." Estas palabras que bleu pue- 
dan expliearse sin mengua de la ludiscrutible veracidad del Honorable Mr. Cambon, 
indujeron y no podian nienos de iudicir a error a los ( ouiasarios espanoles. Cum- 
plen noblemente el deber de declararlo asi.. 

Mas despues de todo. la dlferencia no es de iniportaucla. El Senor Secretarlo 
de Estado, y esto si que consta en su propia carta, no puso otn> deff^cto a la nota 
espanola del 7 de Agosto, que el uo ser enteraniente explioite, sin duda a oausji de 
las diversas transformaciones que habia sufrido. Pero es el case, que ese defeeto no 
es posible que lo hubiese atrizuido el Senor Secrctario de Estado al parrajo de dicha 
nota perfectamente tradui-ida al ingiis (salvo el adjetivo ••total"i que en el Memoran- 
dum amerieano se copia. y se dice que habia sido leido al Senor Presidente de la 
Union y a su Secretarlo de Estado. y en cupo parrafo, elara. exiJlicita y terminan- 
temente, el Gobiemo espanol reserva a priori su soberania en Filipina.s. Seria poco 
e-tpliclto todo lo demas que la nota eontenia si se quiere decirlo asi; pero aquella re- 
serva no lo fue se^'uramente. Por !o lanto. la carta a que nos venimos refiriendo uo 
contradice la aflrmacion que sosteuemos, de que la mencionada resen'a, de que el 
liobiema de Washington oportunamente se habia enterado y constaba tan ciara en 
la traduccion inglesa que tenia en su poder. no lue por el contradicha. ni sirvio de 
motivo para emplea la nueva forma de Protocolo. como medio de solemnizar el con- 
vetiio sobre las bases de la paz. Ese motivo bien resalta en los documentos ya 
examinados que contienen aquellas negooiaciones. 

Despues de cuan-to precede nos parece que. hayan sido cualesquiera las iulimas 
intenciones del Gobiemo de Washington, su eonducta y sus palabras escritas y ha- 
bladas no son bastantes para destruir la aflrmacion que haeermos de que Espana 
acepto la tercera cla.usula del Protocolo en el sentido comunicado a aquel Gobiemo, 
y no contradicho por el, de que a priori quedaba a salvo su soberania en Filipinas, 
puesto que su controle, su disposicion y gobierno. que habian de aeordar le Conferen- 
cia de Paris, se referian unicamente a su regimen Interior. T esto por si solo seria 
bastante para sostenen sin contradiccion fundada que aquella Conferencia no puede 
ocuparse nl tiene atribuciones para ocuparse de la cesion que piden los Estados 
Dnidos. aunque por un supuesto, que consideramos imposible. llegara a destruirse 
la prueba que, tomada de las mismas palabras del Senor Presidente de la Union, 
hemes procurado hacer y creemas que hemos hecho, de que segun su propio pensa- 
lulento entonces aquella soberania quedaba fuera de discusion ulterior. 

Que ha de decir la CXimision espanola sobre las palabras que lee en el Memoran- 
dum amerieano y que parecen buscar un fundamenta a la actual peticiondeaquellos 
en la Indemnizacion de guerra, como si no estuviera fuera de discusion y no hubiera 
sido reconocido pod la misma Coniision americana que esta Indemnizacion de los 
gastos de la guerra. y no solo de ella sino tambien la de los ciudadanos americanos. 
en su maporia, si no todos originarios de Cuba aunque, al parecer. naturalizados 
despues en los Estados Unidos. que habian sufrido perquicios en la. ultima insur- 
recclon, se habia eonvenido en cubrirla con la cesion de Puerto Rico, de las denias 
Antillas y de la Isla de Guam eu las Marianas? 

O ?es" que esa Indemnizacion ha de ser una c-uenta a.bierta en que quepa pedlr 
lodo lo demas que a Espana queda, Ineluso la propia Peninsula? 

Por elerto que el haberla limitado a la Isla de Guam en el Oriente es un Indieio 
mas que aeredita que los Estados Unidos no pensaban a la sazou e nlas Islas Fili- 
pinas. SI pensaran ?se concibe que reelamarau entonces. desdc luego. una pequena 
e Insigniflcante Isla y dejaran de reclamar el Inmenso Imperio Filipino que estaba 
a ella Ian proximo? 

Reconozcase. pues, que carcse de fundamento la reclamaeion o peticiou del Arch- 
iplelago Filipino qne se hace para los Estados Unidos en la forma y con las condi- 
clones que se leen en la proposicion americana. Mlentras esta cesion se pretenda en 
tal forma y con tales condiciones. la Comision espanola no puede menosde reehazarla. 



135 



Memorandum en apoyo de la ultima proposicion espan 

Kn csta pni|Misiciiiii picliiTdii Ins Cniiiis.irii s iIh Ks|i;iii.i. si'l'IU] -c ri'imdMi.i. (|iii' Icis 
amcrifimos presentasf'u otivi iii-oiiiixliuuln l:i .1 lo .•.niviMiicl.i in los iirticiilos :! y <> del 
Protooolo, ("sto es. nroponicndn In foniiii *If iiitHr\iMir:oii. ilisimsicion y y:ithiHrno que 
habia' ile estableoersp por Espana en Filipinas. bi (levr)luc-i,in <le la plaza, pnei-to y 
bahia fie Manila, la libertad de sn anarniriim aetualmeiite prislonera. la devoliicion 
de Ins fondns puhliciis. renfa.s e inipnestos cine bnbiesen peivibldo liasta que se 
hieiera la piitrega de la plaza, y el cninp nmiiso. n sea el I'eeon.iciniiento pur parte 
de los Estados I'nlilos. de la obliKaclon de indeninizar a Espana per la reteiicion de 
las tropas qne snarn^eian la eiiidad. c-iia udn se rindio. el 14 de Agosto nltinm. 

La Cmnision aniericana ha ri'i-liazadn esta pri>pi)ski(in. porqae enfiendi. qnc' nn 
exi.ien que la pr^s.-nte los litadi.s artiinlos :•. y l! d.-l I'n.tn ■ol,., 

Itespert.i a i.i piiniil-.i paitr ipic se r ctiere a la inrer\ cnrinn. ilispnsi.i.m y •:!!- 
bierno del arc-biiiiebi'.'d el l)Ml:ir de deniostrar aiini qne no se lia minplido el artleulo 
3 eon la proposieion anjerii-.ina ni c|uc. en Ingar de oenparse lei reshnen interior de 
a(|nellas islas. se pidio sn eesiiui a los Estados T'nidos. seria lepetir lo que en la 
parte anterior de estp doenniento de.ia ex|niPsto In Cnniision espauola. De sns 
razonaniientos entionde qno resnita. ron la i-laridad ilel medio dia. qne una eosa es 
la cesion di> acinell.is isl.is. .pn' i-s ,|,' todo imiito au'ena a In contenido en la eonven- 
oion de Washiii:,'t in, y otia I's nl icniiue 11 interior de l.is misnias qne. segnn su 
referiila i-l.insnla :: lairdr y dnlii. snr materia del tratado do paz. 

Faltarian, jiiins. los rmnisarins nsp.-in nji-s a sns [irnpias cnnvirciones, si no pnrsis- 
tieraii en demandar a la Comision anierieana. la preseiitarinn dn ana pinposic-ioii 
sobre tal resimen. a no (inedar infringirta. no solo en sn pnipio senfido, sino liasta 
en sn propio texto. la elansnla :'. de nqnid eonrenio. 

Kn el ju-iiner iiarrafo do la prnpusiiio n espeoial y rol.il i\ .1 a la tnnia di- Manila, 
se pide la devolneion inmedi.ita a Kspan a de la i-indad v de su babia y pnerto. 
Reetifieaiolo aqni 111.1 di' las nqnivoeaeiones de liocbn i|iic almndan en el .Menioinii- 
dnni anieriraiio teneinos qui' liai-rr const ar qm-. mi la innjiosirion espaimla. mi se 
pidio esta enrega inniediai.i, iii do iiada do In quo Ins simiicntos pariafns do la innpo- 
.sieion tatnbieii contienen. para (|iie se llevaso a i-abn dosdn .ilinra. La riitie;;;i in- 
inediata b'abia de sni-eiU'r. rniun no pndl n iiieiios de ser asi. a la eelebraeioli del 
tratailo do paz. La prnelia es bioii ron cliiyonte para <ine los Comisarios es|)anoles 
debierau snpoiier que nnm-a ten|lriiui qne barer esta roetilieaeion. Dii-e asi el 
primer parrafo de la proposieion so-bredi idia: "Los Cnniisarios espanolps por lo 
tanto. on eninplieiniento de lo expresame nto i-on\riiidn en el Protoeolo. niitieiiden 
quo on el tratado de paz debe eonsignars o. T la c'nlref,'a. it. . » * <■■■ Si osia se 
babia (le eonyenir en el tratado de paz e omo pndo siiponorsc quo la (■oniision os- 
panola pedia qne se iiiciese antes de ron yonirseV 

Vanios a despejar el trabajn do csto .Memorandnni liarinidn dos rertitirariones 
de oaracter personal antes do eiitrar a dismtir rl jiiintn do la n'liilirion y i-.ipitn- 
larinii lie -Manila y sns ninsorlioiirias. 

Kn el .Meniorandiini espaiinl al que ol nllinin amorioann sir\'i- dr ronrestarion. nu 
bay frase qno iifenda ni lastiine la lionora bilidad del General Merrift y del Alniiraiite 
I>euey. Kn el Moniorandniii anjerirano q niere darse a entender qne. eon mayor o 
iiionor babilidad. so ■iisinna en ol ospano 1 la iiba de que los iefes niilitiires do la 
ruinii rindirroii pnr hi fnnza i\r las arni.is la plaza de Manila (d i;^ de ,\i;ostn. 
(aiaiido ya sabian quo so biibia amrdado la suspension de liostilidades. Es nn error. 
La Coniision ospanola no einpleo. ni aeostum'bra a emplear. liabilidades de ningun 
genero para disfrazar nn ponsainiento. Si bnbiora ereido quo lupieKos (leneralos 
babian faltado al irniistieio despnes de toner notieia do sn eolobraeion. lo bubiosen 
clarainente dirbn. Al iiaoerlo asi no hnbieran faltado a los respetos qne aqnellos 
Jefes ineroeeii. rnm,, ;i uadio so le noourrio ereer en 1S71 qtn* se t'altaba a los respetos 
debidos al Oeiioral ilcniiin do Manteuffol iinpntandide la falta que babia eometido. 
enando despnes do relrbrado nn arniistirin pareial entre las tropas franeesas y 
alenianas. se api'Mvorlin dol orrnr on que. snbro la extension de este arniistieio. babia 
ineunido ol (lonoral Clinrbant. para enyolvor ,v obligar a refugiarse en Siiiza al enerpo 
de o.)eroito de su aiando. Xosntros na da lienios ditdni. ni tenenios ipie dorir, 
ronira In ooinlnrta persmial de aqnellos dos .Iefes. al eontrario. podemos atirniar 
no lirrliii quo rednnila en pro de los belles >ontiniieiitos ibd Alndrante. I-;i 1 de 
-Mayo, quiza ba.io la embriagadora iiitlueiaia do la yirtoria. eiivio dosde rl "(Myni- 
pia" al Gobernador (general de Manila, una rominniiirarion ipie dirr asi: ■"lio no 
rendirse inmediatainente todos los buque s inrprdnns y do .inrrra que existaii nm 
bandera es|iann|a. Manila sera destrnida." Esta eoniunieaidon presuniinios que no 
flgurara en el rapitnio de la bistoria I'U que se registran los seryieios prestados a 
la eansa de la buinanidail de ipie tanto so alardea en estos tienipos. Toro iios eoni- 
plaeeiiios en reeonorer que el autor de aquella orden draeoniana. por la espontanepf 
dad de sns buoiios selitilnielitos se abstuyo. annqlie liubiera iiodiibi intentarlo. do 
llrnala a rabo. 

1S6 



Ksto no obstii pnra que i-l liucii liiicin. i|ni' niiTfceii iicrsiuiiiliniMito nqncllips hmio- 
nihlcs .Iffes. no puedii cxIcmliTsi- haslM .-l ininlo do tenor qno uKnidooorlos quo 
Imliloson delibonuliinionti' dlliitudo l:i rond IcIom d.' lii plaza Inista ol 1.'! do AKost.i. por 
su propiisito do •■pi'otoKor a la ohidad y a sns liahitaiilos ospanolos oonfra la liMTlblo 
voii;.'anza do los insiirroi-tos." Xo parooo i-ompronsllili' osto proposito: los lasan-o<'tc>s 
no siliaban aun la idaza por ol lado do t iorni. on los prlinoros dias ilo Mayo, quo 
so ainonio ostalja bloquoada dosdo ia lialua por la flotn aniorioana. lOnipozanm dps- 
puos y no oon el misnio nnmoro do f uorza s desdo ol princlpio. pues estas' fiioron poco 
II i)oi-o aumentandose liasia forinar las niasas do insnrrootos quo se hallalian al frente 
de las trinolioras do dofensa por ol lado do ilorra ol dia do la rendioion. Do suorlo 
quo. si por la indk-ada raz(Ui los .lofos anioricanos no so liabiau ipoderndo basia aquel 
tlonipo do la plaza, nuudio nionos (b'bioron bacorlo dospuos. Ma.s. aparto de osto. los 
hfobos demuostran nui- tal poli^'ro no o xislia, porqui- sioini>re buhioniu iiodido 
<>vltarlo las fuorzas ainoric-inas (pio. al roudir.so .Manila, habrian do dosouibaroar 
f'U ella y jiuaruooorla. oomo lo ovitaron dosdo ol U do Affosto. a posar do quo soRun 
so lia diolio. ora mayor ol nunioro di' b>s insnrrootos sublovados cine donilnabau on 
las nfnoras. 

Veaso. puos. ronio sill inourrir on pora do ilo iLifiral il nd. pnodo do.iar do roo..nci 
lonilas puosto sorvioio a los scdirodiclios .lofos. sin iiuo osto on n.ola "bslo al 
liuen oonoopto a que los haco ai-roodores sn I'omportaniionlo personal. 

Kn oanibio ol Momeuanduin amorioano al roforir la iuesperada n-ndicion y la 
salida do .Manila del {ioni'ral (pio niandaba las tropas ospauolas. oniploa una palabra 
do toilr, inmto inoonipatiblo oon ol honor do unniiliiar. Cualquiora quo baya sid.i 'a 
i-onduota de aquel Jefe. esta al aniparo de las leyes y tribnuales do su palria. c|u.> 
c.vanunaran sus aetos pa™ aprobarlos o desaprobarlos. soKun fuosi' niouestor, poro no 
csia a uieroed de uadio nnis v sohlo toilo do .iuoions de oaraoter oiTioial iino qnioran 
pniitirso en ol oxtran^roro y por oxtranj;er<is, 

Dejanios osontado on la si-Kiinda parte do osio Monnirainluni. iino on la l.-inlas 
veces citada olansula .3 del rrotm-olo. so nabia oonvoi ido la oonpaoiou por las fnorzas 
de los Kslados fuidos do l.a oiudail. ouorlo y lialiia ile Manila basIa le oolobraoion 
del ti'arado de paz. nn-raun'mo on o<uu-opto do ;r:irautia. 

Kn tal sentido queda alii deiucuistrado (pn- aoopto osta ooupaoion ol (lobiorn(. do 
Madrid sin oxpresa contradiooiou por parte del (iidiiorno de \Vasbin«lou. 

Kn el Meinorauduni anu>ric-ano paroe quo quiore deslizarse la idea do cpn- tal oon- 
Jiaoion dobia toner, asiniisnio. ol oaraoter do indenmizaoion por los jiastos do suerra. 
fuudandose i-n que en la nota de :«) do Julio en qne el Senor Seoretario de Kstado- 
cuninuioo al Gobornin espanol las tros ooiulioiones ba.|o las ouales podia restableoer.so 
la |iaz. di'spuos de deoir on la seRunda quo par;i aqn(dla in(leuiniz;u-i(Ui Kspana liabia 
do ledor Puerto Kioo. las otras Antillas y la Isia do Guam, so oomonzabi la claus- 
ula :; or>n las frases: "l-or la niisnni razon. los Kst.idos I'nidos tienou titulos para 
<K-upar la plaza de Manila, oto." I/a obsi-rvaoiim no oaraoe a primera vista de 
alKuna fuorza. poro saben perfaolamente los ( oniisionados anierioanos que osta es 
aparenle y qne lo oeurrido prueba ■■umplidan'ont.- lo oontrario. Despues de manlfestar 
insistir ol Gobierno espanol on sn nota del 7 de Asinsto y su roiMo.seutanto on las 
oonfirenoias que oelebro oon el Senor I'residonte do la Uepublioa. on que la oonpa- 

<i lo Manila no babia de toner ntro oara<ter ipio ol do una mora ;;aranlia. aparoopa 

su|irimidas en el I'rotooolo las frases sobrodiolias. I>o snerto que dojo do baoors" en 
el rolaoiiiu alj-'una ontre la ooupaoion fntiira do aquella plaza y el pa^o de la iudem- 
nizaoiini do };norra. y adennls de.io de deeirse quo bw Kstados I'nido.^s teuian ya el do- 
reolio do .KMiparla. Sin duda por osto la idea so insinua. poro no so desenv\n'lvo. ni 
eate!rt)ricamente se atirnia. on r\ Momorandus anuTioaioi. 

I. OS ('oniisionados espanoles reooncen qno tuvioion una aj;iadabl4' sorprosa aj ob 
servar (luo. on este doouinento. ya no so alofiaba. oonio liabia alostado ol (iobiorn.i 
ainerioano al ooniestar la nota del es|)anol do 7 de Setieuibre ultimo, la razon poren- 
toria do que la suspenoion do bostilidailos. sonun la olansnla I! del I'roloonlo no 
deliia oiunenzar a roEir inuiediatauioiiti' de oonoludlo y lirinado este doouinento sino 
despues de sn uotitioaolou a los .lofos do las fnorzas boliKerantes. a posar de que 
pnuto do tanta imporiaiiol:i liabia sido oxpnesto. razonado y domonslrado i'i)n todo 
deleniinieuto. on el duonmonlo espanol a qne aqncd sirve de oontestaeion. Ksta eoii- 
duota abona su bnen oriterio y su ilustraoion en la materia, porque oquivale a un 
iiuplieito reoonooiinlenlo do la solidez de acpiella atirmaolon que. dospuos ili' todo, 
es olenioMtal en la materia, i cplo por iiadio. oomo doctrlna eorriento. lia siilo i-. intra 
dioha. 

Kn oainblo espiran. insistieiido en analojras indioai-iones tpie se leen en la oltad-i 
respuesta del Gobierno de los Estados Vnidos a la noia del de Madrid de 7 de Selloni- 
bre nitlnio. a desvirtuar pin" tardia la reolamaoiiui ospanola sobre la oapilulaolon ile 
Manila, Xo ban podido ooinpronilor los ('oniisionados os|iaiioles la fuorza del razona- 
niieiito sobre este punto. Kl Gcdiiorno de Madrid forniubi oon toda soleiniildad osta 
reelannieliin en la inenolnnada nota. es declr. "J.i dIas dospuos de la oapilul.ioion do 
la plaza. (Jue ley. nl qne pniitioa a'anian que so teiiua por pre.soriiy el dereiho a 

137 



una dei-laiiKH-i'Mi dc esra ^specif, cuando iiu se haee antf'sdc iranstnirrir v\ dia vi)io*i 
mo tercero a contar desde el becho quo la niotiva? 

Se dice adcinas. entrando en el te/reno de las intcnciones del Gobierno espano\ 
que este suijonia que aquel hecho ile JTuerra habla sido perfectamente correcto ouando 
pocos dias despues pedia al Gobiernc) amerioaiio permiso para Ti-ansportar viveres a 
FUipinas y restablecer e servicio ordinario de sus vapores correos. Cuando esto 
acaecio. aun ignoraba el Gobierno espauol ociitrido e! dia 14 de aquel mes en Ma- 
nila. Asi tamblen deja entender la Comision americana que es verdad. Mas aunque 
lo supiera. qxie perntiso es ese que se supone pedido por el Gobierno espanol? Lo 
sucedido es lo que no podia menos de ocurrir entre Gobiernos que, aunque ennuiii^os 
guardan siempre los deberes que la lealtad impone a todas. 

El statu quo que resultaba de la suspension de hostilidadcs probibia a eada xmo de 
los beliserantes mejorar su situacion en perjuicio del otro, mientras aquel estado 
subsistiera: el Gobierno espanol, como cuaiquiera otro que no quiere faltar a los 
indicados deberes, tenit el de comunicar al Gobierno ainericano. obrando con el 
de acuerdo. el restahleciniiento de los servicios que exlstian antes de la guerra; asi 
obro el mismo Gobierno de Washington cuando en Ifl de Agosto solicito del Gobierno 
de Madrid el eonsentimiento para restablecer el serTi<-io telegraflco entre Manila y 
Honp Kong. 

Reeonozcase, pues, que la reclamacion del Gobierno espauol fue heeha en tljmno 
oportuno, y aunque entonces no la hubiera hecho. sn Comision estaba autorizada 
para hecerla ahora. puesto que lo esta para pedir todo aquello que conduzca al cuni- 
plimiento flel y exacto del eonyenio de Washington. 

Queda, pues, sentndo por no haber sido contradicho en el Memorandum ameri- 
cano a que en este se contesta, que la suspension de hostilidades convenida en la 
clausula 6th del Protocolo, conienzo a resrir y a producir sus legales efectos. inme- 
diataniente despues que equel se flrnio en la tarde del 12 de Agosto de este ano. Y 
tengase presente que "si hay un precepto de la§ leyes de la guerra mas claro y ne- 
rentorio que otro alguno es el de que los oaetos entre los enemigos, como son las tre- 
guas, han de cumplirse flelmente y que su inobseryancia debe califlcarse no solo 
como una contradiecion del verdadero interes y del deber de las partes inmediatas 
sino de los de toda la bumanidad." Estas frases uo las rechazaran los Comislonados 
americanos porque son de su illustre compatriota el eminente Wha"rton en su Di- 
gesto del Derceho internacionai de los Estados Unidos, formado con textos de los 
Presideutes y Secretaries de Estado, con las decisiones de los tribunales federales 
y con los dictamenes de los Attornies General. 

Se ha observado con esta escrupulo.<idad lo convcuido en la clausula 6 del Pro- 
tocolo? EI dia 13 de Agosto era oanoneada de la plaza de Manila y el 14 se rendia. 
Los Jefes de las fuerzas americanas uo tienen los Comisionados espanoles razon al- 
gnna para afirma que supleran que las hostilidades estaban suspendidas; pero es le 
clerto que aquella accion de guerra se e.jecuto despues de esta suspension. 

r con este motiyo tiene la Comision espanola que completar la pequena his- 
toria que se hace en el Memorandum amerioano sobre el restablecimiento del cable 
de Manila. Se dice alii que en 16 de Agosto fue el Gabinete de Washington quien, 
por medio de una nota al Embajador de Francia, solicito el eonsentimiento del Go- 
bierno espanol para restablecer la comuuicacion telegraflca entre aquella plaza y Hong 
Kong. 1" esto es verdad, pero tamblen lo es lo que se pasa a referir. EI-Almirante ameri- 
cano habia cortado en Manila dicho cable al principio de la campana. Despues de 
rarios inutiles intentos de la Dlreccion general espanola de correos y telegrafos 
cerca de la Compania concesiouaria para el restablecimiento de su seryielo, insistio 
aquella Dlreccion en 9 de Julio ultimo cerca de la indicada Compania sobre tal re- 
stablecimiento, conformandose por parte de Espana con la absoluta neutralidad del 
servicio. La Compania puso esta proposicion en noticia del Embajador de los Es- 
tados Unidos en Londres para obtener tamblen su eonsentimiento. Mas este, en 16 
del mismo mes, le contesto que su Gobierno preferla que contlnuase cortado. De 
esto resulta que si no habia comunicaciones directas con Manila por la via de Hong 
Kong el 12 de Agosto, en que se firmo el Protocolo, era debido al Gobierno de Wash- 
ington que hacia un mes que se habia o puesto a su restablecimiento. Razon de 
mas, si fuera precisa (que no lo es) para que la ignoraneia de da suspension de hos- 
tilidades en que estaban los Generates americanos al atacar la plaza el 13 de 
Agosto, no solo no pueda servir de motivo para que los Estados Unidos se aprove- 
chen del acto de guerra entonces ejecutado contra lo que su Gobierno habia con- 
venido el dia anterior, sino para que tengan que responder de los indebidos per- 
juicios que aquel acto cause a la otra parte bellgerante. 

Todos los razonamientos extendidos en el Memorandum nmerieano sobre el ca- 
racter legal qne alli se pretende dar a la rendicion y eapitulacion de Manila y a los 
actos que desde entonces ejecutaron en la plaza y aun funera de ella, los Jefes 
de las fuerzas militares de la Union, pueden concentrarse en las siguientes afirma- 
clones: 

PRIMERA. EI caracter legal de la mencionada eapitulacion es el mismo que cor 

13S 



respondorla a la entrega pariflcn de la plaza cu vlrtud dc lo convenido en la clausula 
3 del Protocolo, y por esto los derechos quo la parte bellgerante tleue en la plaza 
que acupa oomo garantla son los mismos que tendrla si la ocupara por baberla ren- 
dido en acclon de guen;a, y 

SEIiUXnA. La oeuparion de Manila, sii linlila y puerto convenlda eii la clausula 
3 del Protocolo fue una ocupacion mllitar. 

La Comlsion espanola no liuhiera creldci unnca que tuviera que rectillciir errores 
tan graves si no los leyera estampados en el Memorandum amerleano. 

Es elemental en la materia que la ocupacion de una plaza o de un terrltorlo, con. 
renlda entrc las partes beligeranies para (lUe sirva de grantia a lo estipulado en un 
tratado o al cumplimiento de una obligaciou que pcse sobre aquella a quien corres- 
ponda la soberania de la plaza o terrltorio ocupado. no tlene. nl puede tener, otro 
titulo mas que el del convenlo mismo en que se halla estipulado. Pero el de la 
ocupacion a viva fuerza de una plaza o terrltorio que se rindc por un arto de 
guerra tiene un nonibre special y es ei de I'apltuiacion. 

Y el denominar asi lo convenido en el I'n.tocolo para poner por tal medio a su 
amparo la capitulaeion ilefral de Manila despues de Uaberse flrmado aquel documento, 
es un error en que hasia aliora nadie ha, oticial ni cientiflcamente. incurrido. y que 
no eonsiente el slgnificado, no ya tecnico sino vulgar, de la palabra capitulaeion. 
La ocupacion pacifica de garantla no da mas dereoho a la parte ocupante que el de esta- 
blecer la guarnieion o conservar las fuerzas mllitares quo consldere necesarias en la 
plaza o terrltorio, para tenerios en su poder entretanto que no se cumple la obliga- 
cion principal a que la ocupacion sirve de garantla. El aprovlsionamiento de las 
iropas de ocupacion es natural que sea a cargo del soberano del terrltorio ocupado. 
Mas aunque este aprovisionamiento es una oondicion natural no es esencial del con- 
venio. Por esto, en los casos mas notables qui' se ban presentado de ocupaciones de 
esta especie. tuvo buen culdado la parte ocupante de estipular. de un modo expreso, 
la obligacion de este aprovlsionamiento. P.ien conocidos sou los casos de ocupacion, 
en concepto de garantla, que bubo en 1815 y 1871 de varios departamentos de la 
Francia, a la terminacion el primero de las guerras del Imperio, y el segundo de la 
Franco-Prusiana. En ellos so estipulo expresamente que el sostenimiento de las 
tropas de ocupacion habia de correr a cargo del Cobierno francs. Esto no se hlzo en 
la clausula 3 del Protocolo de Washington. 

Todos los demas derocbos dc la soberania, senaladainente la percepciou de las 
rentas e impuestos publicos, continuan en la pacifica posesion del soberano del terrl- 
torio ocupado. La parte ocupante tiene que respetar religiosamente tales derechos. 
La legitimidad de sus actos no se extien de mas alia de lo que sea necesario para 
el cumplimiento del fin de la ocupacion. 

De estos elementales principios. que para el caso presente no necesitan mayor 
desenvolvimiento, resulta que los Estados Unidos. en virtud de lo convenido en la 
clausula 3 del Protocolo. no tenian mas derecho que el de conservar en su poder, 
ha.«ta la celebraciou del tratado de paz, la ciudad, puerto y habia de Manila, somo 
garantla de lo convenido en dicho Protocolo, y por lo tanto, nada mas que el derecho 
de guamecer dicha plaza, bahia y puerto con las fuerzas necesarias de su ejercito y 
marina, pero respetando el ejercicio de la soberania de Espana en ellas en todo lo 
demas que sea compatible con este derecho de guarnieion (que asi propiamente es 
denominada la ocupacion de garantia). 

Pero la de una plaza o territorio por un acto de guerra da mas araplios derechos 
al beligerante que de la una o del otro se ha apoderado por la fuerza. No adquiere, 
es verdad, por la conquista, el derecho de soberania en el pais conquistado, pero si 
adquiere la posesion, y ejercicio provisional de esta soberania. Mientras la ocupa- 
cion subsiste, las atribuciones del soberano en el orden politico, en el finaneiero y aun 
en el administrativo, pueden ser ejercidas por el ocupante, aunque sienipre con la 
moderacion que requiere el respeto debido a los derechos de los habltantes pacifios, 
porque hoy la guerra no se hace entre los pueblos, sino entre las fuerzas armadas 
de los Estados beligerantes. 

Baste con lo dicho para que resalte la diferencla capital que a nadlo permite 
contundlr la ocupacion pacilica de grantia con la ocupacion belica de la conquista. 
En que concepto persisten los Estados Unidos dcsde el 14 de Agosto en ocupar la 
ciudad puerto y bahia dc Manila? En concepto de ocupacion belica, por hal)orse 
apo<lerado de la plaza a viva fuerza despues de flrmado el Protocolo. En que con- 
cepto tlenen exclusivamente derecho los Estados Unidos para ocupar aquella plaza y 
su bahia y puerto? En el de ocupacion paclflca de garantla y nada mas que en 
este, por lo convenido en la clausula 3 de aquel convenio. Como. pues, cabe aflrmar 
que es Indlferente para el caso el caracter de tal ocupacion? Es inutll iusistlr 
mas sobre un punto de los mas elementales que hay en la materia del Derecho 
Internaclonal de la guerra. 

El segundo error que se ostenta en el Memorandum americano consiste en su 
poner que fue una ocupacion mllitar la convenlda en el Protocolo. Para aquellos 
que entiendan esta denoniinaeiou en ol sentido de ocupacion con fuerzas mllitares. 

139 



siu rtuda alguna sera In misma tleuomiua clon la que apliearau a estos dos tan di- 
versos casos de t>rupacion. Mas pur quienes, empleaudo el tecnicismo consajirado 
IJor la cieuoia y por los tratados. reserveu la denomiuaeion de ocupaeioii militar 
a la ocuparion belica. o sea a la que se hace por la fuerza. uo podra oaiilicarse de 
ocupacion militar la convenida eu el Protoeolo. 

Es, pues. inutil querer poner al amparo de uua denominacion oomun aetos esen- 
cialmente diversos y cuyas cousecueuelas legitimas jamas se han confuudido. La 
ocupaeinn de la plaza, bahia y puerto de Manila a que tienen derecho los Bstados 
Unidos por lo conyenido en Wasljiugton, no es una ocupacion militar o belica que 
les haya eonferido legitimamente lus dereehos y facultades que esta lleya en si 
misma. 

Los Jefes Ue las fuerzas americaiias eu Filipiuas. es iududable que partieiparou 
del error que en el Memorandum se coniete. 'Se compreude que una vez apodela- 
dos de la plaza y mientras no tuvierou noticia de la suspension de bostilidades, 
luibiesen comenzado a ejercer todas las facultades y dereehos de un oeupante 
militar o belico. Mas. en el Memorandum am^ericano se reconoce que el 16 de 
Agosto fueron aquellos Jefes enterados de la suspension conyenida de Iiostilidades. 
Esto no obstante, continuaron ejercienilo aquellas facultades que no tenian y que 
debiau saber que uo teuian. Eu aquella feelia aun funcionaban los organismos de la ad- 
miuistracion e.spanola. Desde el 16 de Agosto fue ouando las fuerzas aniericanas 
conienzerou a apodenirse '•manu militari" de tales organismos. y de los fondos. 
rentas e impuestos publicos. asi conio continuaron reteniendo prisoneras las tropas 
espanolas que se babian rendido el dia 14. 

Consideramos inutil insistir mas en la refutacion de errores de tal grayedad e 
importancia, cuya unica explicacion sola mente puerte hallarse en la triste y dura 
necesidad de tener que emplearlos como unicos medios de defensa de uu puuto cuar- 
teado por todos lados. 

Y como no liemos podido dar en el M emorandum americano con razones de 
mayor solidez que las indicadas entre las que se alegaron contra la proposiciou es- 
panola. se cousidera esta Comision en el deber de sosteuerla y de no jioder con- 
formarse. por lo tanto. con la conclusion que pone termino al sobredicbu Memo- 
randum. Con lo dicho podria la Comision espanola dar por terminado este trabajo, 
si no fuera jior el yivo deseo que la aninia de buscar. por su parte, medios que 
remoyieudo los obstaculos que hoy e.Kisten para lierar a cabo la obra de paz 
encomendada a estas conferencias. puedan facilitar a ambas Comisioiies el de- 
sempeno ile uua misiou. que no puede meuos de estar eu perfecta armonia con los 
sentiniientos ile bunianidad y iiatriotismo que por igual ciertamente las anima. 

Aceptese la interpretacion que la Comision americana da a las clausulas .1 y 6 
del Protoeolo. o ucej)tese la que sostlene la espanola, es, por desgracia, evidente 
que surge una situacion que tan solo la bueua fe de ambas partes puede resolver. 
Ya porque la eonferencia de Paris uo tenga atribueioues para ocuparse de la cues- 
tion sobre la soherania del Archipielago Filipino, aunque solo por el modo y 
forma con que es i)ropuesta por la Comision americana. ya porque. aunque tales 
atribuciones tenga tiene tambien la natural y legitima libertad de ejercerlas en el 
sentido que la couciencia inspire a sus individuos. es lo cierto que. por halar.se diyi- 
dida por igual la opinion de estos sobre el asunto. se hace imposible la solucion 
del mismo. La Comision americana segu rameute no sosteudra que en el caso de 
conflicto o empate de su boto con el de la espanola deba prevalecer el sugo para 
que tenga el caracter de acuerdo de la eonferencia en pleno. 

Y como los Estados Unidos no llevan sus pretensioues mas alia que a que se 
les recouozca el dererho, que. .segun ell os. tienen por el Protoeolo para pedir la 
soberania del archipielago. pero iifi llegan hasta ^l extremo de decir que las asiste 
tambien el derecho de exigir a la eonferencia que aeceda a su peticion, imponien- 
dosela como si fuera un mandate, aparece manifle.sta la imposibilidad de que pueda 
ser atendida la peticion del Gobierno americano. y en su conseeueneia la de que 
este pueila adquirir la soberania del archipielago per el uitIco titulo legitimo q>ie 
afirma y re<-onoce (pie puede trasmitirsela. 

Cuales son las conseeuencias de una situacion tan apremiante e inHe.\ibleV La 
ruptura de las negociaeiones? La consiguiente reapertura de la guerra? 

Habtti quien no se detenga ante conseeuencias tan terribles? Habra quien 
entienda que no es preferible antes que someterse a ellas acudir a cualquier otro 
medio que la buena fe no puede menos de inspirar a las partes contratantes? 

Y cual es este medio! 

I'udieran njuy bien ambas Cumisioues acordar que la cuestiou relativa a la sobe- 
rania de las Islas Filipinas quedase separada de sus negociaeiones y reservada a 
las que directamente se entablaran entre ambos Gabinetes. pudiendo entretanto 
continuar deliberando aquellas sobre todo lo demas que ha de contenerse en el 
tratado de paz. 

Este medio, a primera vista tan seucillo. encierra no obstante graves peligros. 
y senaladamente los mismos que ptnlierau existir ahora si las negociaeiones se 
rompieran, con la sola ventaja de ilil.itar por poco tiempo su advenimiento. Si 

140 



las dos Oltas Partes no llegason a un aiii crilii. In sltuaiimi siTla ijjual a la m iiuo 
hoy St" lialla la conferpncia (ie Tails. 

I'ara la Cmnlsinn espanola hay otro niodlo nwis sencillo y mas sejairo. y eonsiste 
en line ambas C'omislones acuerilun proponer a sus Got)lernos que un Arbitro, o un 
Tribunal arbitral coustituido en la forma en que aquellos convengan, flje el recto 
sentklo eu que deben ser entendldos los Artlculos 3 y 6 del Protocolo de Wash- 
ington. 

La diferencia de opinion entre auibas Comisiones dcseansa prlneipalmente en 
el diverso sentldo que cada una da a aquello.s artleulos. 
Asi resulta de sus respeotivos Memo randnms. 

I'ues bien. si eu los condictos de las naeioues hay o puede haber al;;o ([ue en 
vez de ser resuelto por la fuerza de las aruias. deban los liouibres de bueiia 
roluniad Iratar de resolverlo por la fuerza de la Justieia. o siquiera por los 
dictados de la equldad. es preeisamenle aquello que eonsiste en la diversa inter- 
pretaeion que haya snrgido al tartar de apliearsc un artioulo de enalquier tratado 
en que anteriorinente hubierau eonvenido. 

I'odran los soheranos. por un sentliuieiito de natural tiereza. resistirse a sonie- 
ter al juicio de un terc-ero todo aquello que ateeta a su honor, o siquiera a su amor 
propio. Portran no querer eneombendar a un Juieio stniejante la exlsleneia o aun 
la iutegridad de sus Estados. Pero no se eoueibe iiue a la faz del mundn nioderno 
y eristiauo preflerau eubrir la tierra de cadaveres e innudarla de sanprre buniana. a 
sonieter su propia opinion en asuntos t«u expuestos a la falibilidad de la inteli- 
geneia de los honibres, eomo no puede menos de serlo el sentido que quiera darse 
a un mere artieuio de eualquier conveneiou que sobre materia fibre y agena a las 
sajrradas causas sobredichas haya podido ser celelira<la. 

Los Estados Vnidos son entre todos los pueblos del mundo eivilizado los que. para 
gloria sUva. ban tornado la inieiatlva y ban niatiifestado mas deeidido eni[ieno en 
que se aeuda a este medio tan humano, l.iu rai-ional y tan eristiauo, antes que 
al eruento de la guerra. para resolver los conllietos entre las naoioues. 

Ya en ISJo el Seuado de Massaebusi-tts aprobaba una proposicion. preseutada 
por la Asoeiai-ion Americana de la Paz. preionizando la creaeion de nu Tribunal 
Interuacioual para resolver amistosa y delinitivamelite las diticuitailes cnire los 
pueblos. 

Kn !«! el Coinite de uegoeios extrangeros de Washington por unanimidad de- 
claraba que era' de desear que los Estados Unidos insertasen en sus tratados una 
clausula para cpie difereucias que no pndieran resolverse por la diplomacia 
fueran sonu'tidas. antes de comenzar las bostilidades. a la resolucion de Arbitros. 
En 1S."):5 el Senado aceptaba el voto del Comite de uegoeios exirangeros. En 
1873 otra tcz el Senado. y en 1874 las dos Cainaras volvian a consiguar esta hu- 
mauitaria aspiradon. Y en 1SS.S, en fin. no bastandoles fijar su propria linea de 
condncta eu tan laudable sentido, ambas Camaras aeordaban por res(j|ucion con- 
junta rogar al Presidente, que emplease de tiempo en tiempo su iuHuencia para com- 
prometer a todos los (iobiernos que cou los Estados fuidos sostuvieran relaciones 
<liplomaticas, a someter las cuestlones que entre los unos y los otros pndieran 
snrgir en el porveuir a la resolucion de Arbitros. 

El caso que se presenta en las conterencias de Paris, espcra la Comision 
espanola que no ha de dar motivo a que los Estados Unidos, apartaudose de tan 
gloriosns preeedentes. quierau resolverlo por el ultimo medio que entre seres raciou- 
ales y libres es trlstemente inevitable, siquiera nunca sea licito, eu defecto de otros 
mas humanos, para conservar inalterable la paz entre los hombres. 

Esta conforme: 

EllILIO HE O.IEDA. 



TRANSLATION. 

Annex to Protocol No. 14. 

The last paper presented by the Americ-jin Commission serves a double pur- 
pose. On tbe one band it is a memorandum in support of its proposition of tbe 
31st of October ultimo, asking for the cession of the Philippine Islands to the 
United States. On the other hand it is a statement of the reasons why tlic 
American Commission refuses to acoept the Spanish proposition of the 4th in- 
stant, by which it was invited to submit a draft having for its object the fulfil- 
ment of the agreements made and eutei-ed into in Articles III and VI of the 
Washington Protocol. 

As regards the tirst point of the American menior:iudum. to whii-h the Span- 
ish Commission will tir.st give its attention, a reply to its contents T\ill be pres- 
ently given. As regards the other point, the Spanish Commission will insist on 
setting forth in rhe form of a menn>randnm, as piovided by the rules, the 
grounds upon which its rejected proposition is based. 

For the sake of systematic exposition, and moved by the desire to reduce as 
much as possible the dimensions of the present paper, the Spanish Commissioner.s 
feel themselves inclined to deal in the first place with the mortgage debts of the 
Spanish colonies.— which in spite of its capital importance they would have re- 
frained from discussing again at the present stage of the negotiation of tlu* 
treaty, if. as it appears, the American Commission had not raised it anew in tlu* 
last paragraph of its proposition, asking for the cession of the Philippine Archi- 
pelago. 

The Spanish commission acknowledges the difficulty under which it finds 
itself to answer this part of the American memorandum.— said difficulty arising 
out of the grave errors of fact with which said memorandum is strewed, and of 
the strange doctrines of law which are maintained in it. 

The Spanish Commission needs before all to put on record that in its opinion, 
no language, or even a phrase, improper to a diplomatic discussion, has been use<l 
by it. Jealous of the considerations to which it is entitled, it begins by paying 
religiously those which are due to others, and in its documents it avoids with 
the greatest care the use of any phrase which might be personally unpleasant to 
whom it might be addressed, and much more, and with still stronger reasons, any 
word which might be deemed offensive to those who are and have the right to 
be under the protection of the persons with whom the Spanish Commissioners 
may have to discuss. 

The Americ-iin Commissioners say that they noticed with surprise that the 
Spanish Commissioners, after having accepted pro\isionally the articles which 
the former had proposed in regard to Cuba and Porto Rico, come now and 
raise again the question of the Cuban debt, reviving a point which under cer- 
tain reservations had been expressly abandoned. And not contenting them- 
selves with such rotund affirmations, they further said that the Spanish Com- 
mission in its written answer presented at the meeting of the 26th of Octobi-r. 
had withdrawn its former observations to the articles of the American Commis- 
sion. 

So far as the said supposed withdrawal is concerned, we invite our worthy 
American colleagues to search with care all the phrases of our written answer, 
and show to us where it can be found. In the meantime, now as always, we are 
bound to state most positively that our document does not contain any such 
phrases, and that it shows, on the contrary, that we had nothing to withdraw, 
since we continued to maintain our views, subject, however, to what might prove 
in the future to be best for Spain. And. indeed, as a proof of what we hare 
just stated, and as suft'icient answer to the phrases of the American Commis- 
sion, we shall content ourselves with transcribing here the phrases wherein the 
supposed provisional acceptance and the express withdrawal of the subject of the 
Cuban debt are said to be found. The Spanish Commissioners answer the said 
question (the question which the American Commission had propounded to them 
In writing at the meeting of the 2Gth of October) by stating that, reiterating their 
conviction that pursuant to law the colonial obligations of Cuba and Porto Rico 
must follow these islands and their sovereignty, they do not refuse to consider 
any articles as to Cuba and Porto Rico which contain no provision for the as- 
sumption of indebtedness by the United States or Cuba or both ithese were ex- 
actly the same words of the question which we answered), "subordinating the 
final approval of such articles to that of the others which are to form the com- 
plete treaty." etc. And one of the reasons, set forth in writing, which induced 
us to thea foresaid i.nswer was ;is follows: 

142 



"Consideriug that this treaty Is not to be fraiin-d. as ,in mhiM- treaty has or 
ever can be framed, upon the exelusive basis of strict justice, as understood l)y 
each party, but also upon the basis of the advantage to be derived by either or 
by botii. thus mMlifyiug in harmony tlierewith the demands of strict law; and 
that therefore the Spanish Commissioners Iiltbough understanding that strict 
law decides the yiiestlou of the t'uban debt in their favor are in duly bound 
and are willing to moderate the said strictness in view of the advantages 
which Spain may derive from other stipulations of the treaty, whicii without 
being prejudicial to the United States may be favorable to Spain." 

It seems to be very plain that the supposed abandonment, now spoken )f iu 
the American memorandum, and the supposed acceptance of the articles relating 
to Cuba and I'orto Rico, were limited to the contingency that the Spanish 
Commission should understand, from the discussion and approval of all tlie otlier 
articles, that advantages enongb were derived by Spain sulTlcleut to compensate 
a greater or lesser sacrifice of her rights regarding said debts, since if such ad- 
vantages were not derived tl'e Spanish Commission had no necessity to saerltice 
anything, for which reason it is clear that it could insist upon the recognition 
of its right. 

This being the case, what have been the advantages offered to Spain, up 
to this moment, in the course of the conferences? 

Since the date of tbat answer the negotiations for the treaty have ad- 
vanced only one step, and this has consisted in asking Spain, without alleging 
any reason iu support of this request when made, the cession to the United 
States of the Philippine Archipelago. Does tbe American Commission under- 
stand that this cession is an advantage for Spain? The Spanish Commissioners 
would not be surprised by hearing this question answered affirmatively, as cer- 
tain phrases of the memorandum seem calculated to anticipate. But they do 
not need to say that they do not share that opinion. 

The Spanish Commission would have been, therefore, justified in insisting, 
not indirectly, but directly and principally, upon its claims as to the transmis- 
sion of the colonial obligations and debts. It has not done this, nor does it in- 
tend to do so at present: but this has not prevented nor does it prevent it now 
from not allowing to pass, without contradiction, supposed statements and af- 
tirmations, if only that a da.v may not come when it can be charged with having 
consented to them, because of failure to contradict them, and e.xpressly refusing 
Its assent therto. 

The American Commission affirms that Spain contracted (it does not say 
that it used the debt previously contracted) the greatest part of the Cuban 
ilebl '"in an effort, first to conquer the Cuban insurgents. and then to oppose 
the United States," and then discoursing upon the same theme, it says, "that 
It has not been denied that a part of these loans was directly used to wage 
war against the United states." To make such statements it is indispensable to 
suppose that the dates of the creatitm of those debts are not known. One debt 
was contracted under the autliority of the Decree of May 10, 1886, that is to 
say, eight years after tlie re-establishment of the peace in Cuba, and nine years 
before the fresh disturbances of the Siimc iu that island through suggestions aud 
by means which now are known to the world. The second issue was authorized 
by Royal Decree of September '27. Is'.Hi. that is to say, twelve years after Cuba 
had found herself in a condition of perfect peace, and -at the pinnacle of her 
prosperity, and five years before the work of her desolation began, through the 
new rebellion which more or less spontaneously broke out there. And the two 
Decrees e.xplain also what were the reasons why the said issues were authorized, 
and what were the expenses to be met by them, the piiyment of deficiencies iu 
previous and subsequent appropriation bills in the island being prominent among 
them. It is well known that these deficiencies were due to the great reduction of 
taxes made in Cuba by the mother country. 

Will it ever be said that Spain, through some supernatural gift of divina- 
tion, foresaw in ISSO and I.S'.IO that in l.S!>."i an insurrtction %vas again to break 
out in Cuba, and that In 1.S98 the United States were to lend it their armed 
protection? Under no other hypothesis the correctness of the phrases of the 
American memorandum relating to this point could ever be admitted. 

And so far as the expenses Incurred by Spain owing to the war with the 
United States are concerned, without doubt the vVmerican Commission is unaware 
of the fact that on the 20th of April of the present year, when the hostilities be- 
gan, the Spanish Government was still engaged in operations of credit. In the 
shape of bonds, with the direct guarantee of the custom houses of the Penin- 
sula, to the amount of l.ix» millions of pesetas, ns decided In 1S96 and 181)7. and 
In other operations to the amount of '2'2:i millions of pesetas, as authorized on 
the 2d of April, 1898, with the specla I guamnte,' of the stamp and tobacco 
revenues In the Peninsula, as well as the revenue called de consumo In Spain,— 

143 



and that, in ortior to mt-et thf expimse of tUr \v;ir with tht' United States, a 
Ro3'al Decree had been issued un the Slst of May in the present year, suithor- 
izing' thte ereation of a 4 per cent perpetual 4lome«tie debt, to the amount of 
1.000 millions of jiesetas. ()ut nf which SOtJ.TS.l.iHK) were immediately negotiated. 
Upon a<-quaintance with these facts, it is t<i be supposed that the American Com- 
mission will not be willinj? to insist uiMtn the statement so groundlessly made in 
its memorandum, as it will then understand that the expenses of the war with 
the United States have nothinj^ to do with the Cuban colonial mortga>;e debt. 

The American Commission advocates ouce more in its memorandum the 
strangle theory that the Spanish colonies are not bound to pay the debt contracted 
by the mother country to put down the rebellions whether of few. or of many, 
of their inhabitants. But this time it reaches the extreme of putting: sucli a 
singular doctrine under the shelter of common sense, by affirming that a doc- 
trine to the contrary would be a threat to liberty and civilization. 

Ah! if the colonists and the citizens of the (ireat Kepid>lic would tiave al- 
leged, in .iustiti(vition of a rebellion,— or should allege in the future, in an in- 
<*ident!il case, an emergency from which that powerful nation is certainly not 
exemepted.— a. theor>- of that kind.— would the American Government have ever 
accepted it? Will it ever accept it in the futureV What is condemned not by 
common, but by moral sense, is the attempt to pnt all rebellion against legiti- 
mate authority under the shelter of liberty and civilization. AVas Spain, or 
was she not. the legitimate sovereign of <'nba when the tirst insurrection broke 
out. and dnring the whole term of the second? Has any one ever dared to deny, 
or t»t doubt even, the sovereignty of Spain over that island at the time to whi(di 
v:e tare now referring? Were not the United States themselves, and their Gov- 
ernment, those who day after day urged Spain to pnt down the rebellion, with- 
out excluding the use of arms, and re-establish as promptly as possible the 
peace in her ccdony? And if Spain complied with such demands, who. iu the 
United States included, can deny the legitimate character of the expenses which, 
by virtue of that compliance, she necessarily incurred? 

A doctrine of this nature, which the Spanish Commission, through considera- 
tions of respect, observed thus far by it, and which it -has the duty to observe, 
does not deservedly chuVacterize as it certainly would be by all the constituted 
Powers of the earth, cannot be advocated in the face of men.- except from the 
standpoint that the authority of Spain was illegitimate, and that her sovereignty 
was only an arbitrary act of depotism. And is the crown of Spain characterized 
in this manner, concretely and speciticaliy. for her domination in Cuba prior to 
the signing of the Washington Protocol V Can this be done above all by the \*^yy 
same nation which urged Spain to exercise her sovereign authority to i-onquer 
those who had risen in arms agsiinst her in the island? 

Let us pass to another subject, as the present is too delicate to be treated 
with calm and serenity in a diplomatic discussion wherein any attem|)t is made 
to controvert it. 

In the memuramluui whi<'li we are now answering, the .singular atfirniMiiou 
is made that the mortgage <n-eated by the two issues above named can be called 
more properly a snbsidiaiT guarantee, and that the party principally bound to 
pay is the Spanish nation. Undoubtedly the American Commission in making 
this affirnnilion had not before its eyes Articde TI of tlie Koyal Decree of May 
10. ISSfi. authorizing the issue of l,240.0l>i> hypothecary bonds of the Island of 
Cuba, ctr the 2nd paragraph of Article II of the Rctyal Decree of September 27. 
1890, authorizing the issue of 1,750.<HH) hypothecary l>onds of the same island. 
Both texts read literally the same thing, and it will be sufficient for us to tran- 
scribe one of them. Their language is as follows:— "The new bonds shall have 
the direct (especial! guarantee of the customs revenue, stamp revenue of the Is- 
land of Cuba, direct and Indirect taxes now levied or to be levie<l there In the 
future, and the subsidiary (general) guarantee of the Spanish nation. They shall 
be exem|)t fiom all ordinary ami extraordinary taxes, etc." 

Nor can the American Citmniissioii have seen any of the bomls issued under 
thesH authorizatious, which are sc.it tercd everywhi re in the wuiiil. Cuba in- 
cluded, and are owned by third parties and private individuals; had it seen them 
it niiiiht lia\c n-.o! the following: 'i>irecf /especi:il) guar.antee of the <-ustom 
revenue, stamp revenue of the Island of Cuba, direct or indirect taxes tliercju 
levied or \o hv levied hereafter, and the subsidiary (general) guarantee of the 
Spanish nation." "The Spanish Colonial Bank shall receive, in the Island of 
Cuba, through its agents there, or in Barcelona, through the Spanish Bank of 
Havana, the receipts of the custom houses of Cuba, and such amount thereof 
as may be necessary, according to the statements fi-rnished on the back of tho 
bonds, to meet the quarterly payment of interest anil principal, shall be re- 
tained daily and in advance." 

If, after this, the Anii'ri<'an Cnniniis-i'tu c.iufinues to understand thai rlus 

14:4 



ilfl)t was not coutraiteil :is a lUbt siiunil by mmtfaKO. and that this mortKaco 
was not plaoed upon tbe oustnnis ri'Vinues ami otber taxus of Cuba. -and fiii- 
tbcr that those revenues were not pledjred prlueipally and primarily, anil there- 
fore prior to the Peninsular 'I1-easury. to the payment of interest and prineipal. 
we sluili have nothing to say. We are unable to pro\-e wluit is self-evident, 

Tnrning now to the bondholders and to the severity, in our opinion unjusti- 
Hed, with which they are treated in the American memorandum, we shall say 
that the duty to defend tliem does not beions io Spain. When they know what 
is the opinion entertained about them, it is to be supposed that they will defend 
theni.selves, for after all they will not need .iiiy irreat effort to demonstrate the 
justice of their Ciiuse. ' 

So far as Spain is concerned, and here tlu- Si>anisli Commission proceeds t" 
answer categorically the questions propounded in thi' American memorandum, it 
is sulTlcient for her to defend the legitimacy of her action and her perfect 
right to create that debt that the mortgage with which it was secured. -and 
therefore tlie strict right vested in her not to i>ay either interest or prlnci|ial. 
except upon proof of the insufficiency of the mortgaged revenues, out of which 
they should be primarily paid. If those who hold those revenues are not will- 
ing to comply with the obligations to the fultilment of which said revenues 
were pledged, the responsibility therefor will belong to them, and not to Spain, 
who has neither the means to compel them to comply with that duty, nor is 
bound to do for the bondholders anything else than what she has honestly done 
up to now. But Spain, the Spanish Commission .says again, (.and this is the only 
thing that she has textually said, although the American memorandum seems 
to understand it differently.) cannot lend itself in this treaty with the Dnlted 
States, nor in any other treaty with any other Power, to do or to declare in her 
name anything which may mean, or imply, that she herself has doubts, and 
much less ignores or voluntarily abridges, so fa as she is concerned, the mort- 
gage rights of the bondholders. She has no efficient means to cause those who 
may become holders of the mortgaged revenues to respect those rights. There- 
fore she does not employ them: did she have them, she would employ them, if 
not through strict justice, at least through a moral duiy, thus following the dic- 
tates of probity both public and private. 

The Spanish Commissioners believe therefore to have answered categorically 
enough the questions propounded to them In this respect In the American memo- 
randum, and this being done they proceed to occupj- themselves with the prin- 
cipal point which is dealt with in that memorandum which refers to the sov- 
ereignty over the Philippine Archipelago. 

According to the American memorandum the cession of the archipelago 
which is asked from Spain does not rest upon any agreement to that effect 
made in Article III of the Protocol, as was the case in regard to the Island of 
Porto Rico in Article II of the same; but on the fact that, according to the 
American Commission, the matter of cession by Spain to the United States of 
America of her sovereignty over those islands was Included in the number of 
those relating to the Philippine Islands which were left to the free decision of 
the conference of Paris. 

The Spanish Commission maintains that such a grave subject, undoubtedly 
the most important of all which it is c.Tlled upon to discuss, far from having 
been entrusted to the Paris Conference, is shown by Article III of the Protocol 
to have been left beyond its scope, as said .\rticie rests upon the basis that the 
sovereignty over that archipelago should continue to be vested in Spain. 

The American Commission tries to find an nrgimient in support of its views 
In the construction that it places upon the language of Article III, and also 
upon the negotiations which preceded the Protocol and culminated in its ac- 
ceptance. 

"We shall examine with cold impartiality the reasonings tipon which this 
thesis is founded. 

The American Commission s.iys that it is a principle of law that "when the 
result of some negotiations has been embodied in a written compact, the terms 
of such agreement shall settle the rights of tlie parties." 

The Spanish Commission accepts this rule of interpretation of the treaties. 
If it has, as an indispensable condition, the fact that the terms of the agri^ement 
are clear, precise and of settled and indubitable meaning, because is must be 
understood In that case, that all the differences which presented themselves 
during the negotiations between the contracting states were set at rest by the 
clear, precise and explicit agreement entered into by them. 

But, is this the case with the subject now discussed by the two Commis- 
sions? 

Before answering this question, the Spanish Commission deems it to be ad- 
visable to transcribe once more the text of .\rticle III of the Protocol. llterall.T 

UT,. 



nn.l t.iitlifully i im iishi l.-.I rnnn i!s Kr.-iirli .ni-iii;il. ft i\-:n\s ;is I'nilows: "The 
Unilcii Slati'S shnll uccupy tin- rity. barln-r and hay (»f M;iiiil;i. pi'iidiii^' Hit' ron- 
clusidii of a treaty of poaoe which shall iletermiiif the inii-ix iMition ii-.mr loIr). 
disposition and government of the I'liilippine Islands." 

The Spanish ('omniissiim dors nor ku'iw whi-tln-r tlic AimTi.-.-ni roinniission 
i^. or is not, oonversant wirh the fart hat whni thr < iovcinnn nt ot' Maiirid le- 
cciviMi from ttii* Washington Secretary of Stati.' his dispatch of .Iidy :^<>. setting 
fortti tlie conditit.ns. npon tho acceptance of which the United States were dis- 
posed to conclude the, peace.— the third of whi<'h was snbseqnently transcribed 
witliout any change in tlie Protocol, and forms Article III thereof,— it sent a 
telei^ram to Mr. Canibon. Ambassador of France in Washington, dated Angnst 1, 
in which, referring to this point, it ftterally saiil the fidlowing: "The third 
point in which the form of disposition of the IMiilipjiine Islands is determined 
seems to this Government f" lack precision. It ithe Sjianish Govenimenti has 
snpplied the deticiency To be noticed in it. on the snpp<isition that there is no 
question in regard t<i the |ierniaiieiit sovereignty of Spain over tliat archipehigo. 
and that the temporary oe<-npalion of Manila, its harbor a ml its bay by the 
Federal (J-overntneut shall last only^ the linn- which may be necessary for the 
two countries t<> reach an agreement as to administrative reforms." We have 
this dispatch at the disposal of the American ("ommissirm. should it wish to read 
it and study it. 

I'pon tlie reciipi of ihis (luciinieiit Mr. <'amlion hnd a lonference (Au;4ust 3) 
with the rresidi-nl of the American lieiMiblic. and the portion thereof which re- 
fers to the point now ile.ill witli by tlie Spanish ( 'ommissi<rit wms conihed by 
the Fr<'nrh And)assadoi- in his dispat^di of the -Itli of Ain:iist in the foMowing 
langinige: "I av.ailed myself of this dccl:ir;ii ion to request the I're^ident to have 
Jhe kinilness to state as i)recisely as possible his intentions in regard to the 
riiilipitine Islands. On this point, I told him. the answer of the Federal <Jovern- 
menl is couched In terms that may lend themselves to all c-lalius on the part of 
the I'nited States, and consequently t<i all Jipprehcosions of Spain in regard to 
her sovereignty." The rresident replied to him. as will be hi-ri-after explained. 
Hut the Spani-^h < Joveinmcnl . notwlthstamliim' the language of tin- rresident. 
reiterated in its dispatch of August 7 the doubts entertained by it about the 
meaning of Article III. Useless reiteration. Neither then, nor before, nor af- 
terwards, has Jhe American Government ever consented to give a concrete form 
to the idea involved in the phrase "control, disposition and government" of the 
rhilippine Islands, to be determined by the Paris Commission. Now. for the 
first tinie. it has come to give an explanation. In the memorandum to which 
the Spanish Conimission is now giving an answer, the American rommission has 
set it forth. It says: "(.'ertainly t^ie word control was not used here in the 
sense of 'register' or 'inspection,' but in its broader sense of "authority or i*om- 
mand." What word could be broader than 'disposition,' which lias priictically 
the same meaning in both the French and the English languages? We have in 
these words, then, authority over, dominion of, final and ultimate destination of 
the subject matter. What is government but the right of administration, or ex- 
ercising sovereignty, the direction, the political management of a state? Kither 
of these terms implies power of interfering with sovereignty. Taken together, 
the.v give the fullest s<-opc iu dealing with all power, governmental, territorial 
and administrative." 

The explanation, besides being as it appears inopportune by reason of its tar- 
diness, seems ^almost to be unsatisfactory. It occurs, at once, that if the Ameri- 
can OoTernment used those words in the sense afores;iid, which it never explained 
In spite of the repeated requests made to it for that purpose, what was the rea- 
son why it did not show at that time the frankness now displayed by its Com- 
mission? Why instead of .stating that the Paris conference should determine the 
control, disposition and government of the Philippine Islands did it not say that 
said conference should decide about the sovereignty over said islands, by agree- 
ing or disagreeing as to their cession to the United States, as now demanded by 
the American Commissioners, on the ground that such a cession is also embraced 
in those phrases? Would not this have been briefer, more explicit and more 
frank? 

But. is it possible to accept the construction placed now. out of season, by 
the American Commissioners vipon the said phrases? They said that the word 
"control" (controle in French) cannot be taken in the sense of register (investi- 
gation or inspection), but in the sense of authority or command. And why? Be- 
cause this is the broadest meaning of the word in the English language. But 
the American Commissioners have failed to notice that the Pnttocol was also 
written in French, that the Secretary of State at Washington affixed his signa- 
ture to the official copy so written of the instrument, and that the word "con- 
trole" in French does not mean what 'qsnSna ni osiu su 'a'iuo jnq *poinii?[o si 

146 



Investisatiou oi- iiispfL-tluii. I!iu how liiii ili.- Aiii.-rlciiii Coniniissinni'i-s full to 
reUogulze that wlieu a treaty bus hci-n olTlolally ilrawn in t\v.> .>r iiiDif laiiKuaBCS. 
Ita words cannot be given a sense (linri'reiit from ilie one wlilili is eoninioii to 
tben\ in those languages? 

They also state that Ilie wonl .lispositiini nieMns nlienatloii. We ilo noi ileny 
it, nithougli when the term is usetl in that sense It Is always in eonneetion with 
legal business in private elvil life, beeause In Krench the most usual meaning of 
the wonl is •■lUstribution aecording to a ciTtain and determined order." 

Tliey affirm that the word governmeni means the right of administering or 
exercising sovereignty: and allhough it is true that such a sense ean be admitted. 
It is also true that the meaning of "manner of governing." or of "f.oiii whieh 
may be given to the governmeni" eannot be rejected. 

Kut whatever the sense may be in whhdi the said threi' words were nseil in 
the third article of the I'l-otocol, evi'ii if snlTlcient information conld be found in 
the record of the negotiation lo liv <\\r true sense in which they were used. II Is 
Impossible not to see, as has been prov.-d. that the said words do not possess In 
themselves a clear, precise nic-aiiing. incapable of lending Itself to doubts or 
ambiguities. So if was already denmnstratcd by ai'tual facts. 

The Sp.inish Oovernnieni and lis ri'presi-ntativc in Washington, on ilie very 
ground tliat the said worlis lacked clearness, asked, although uselessly, for e.\- 
planath)ns. .\nd who Insisted with real stubbornness upon retaining such obscure 
phrases'; It cannot be denici ibai it was the Covernment of Washington. Let 
the American ronimissioncrs be pl.'ascil to rcail what the immortal Vatti'l. one of 
the greatest authorities on all things referring to internatioual relations, says in 
his Law of Nations, Vol. III. page 1!)7. "The doulit must he resolved against the 
one who has given the law in the treaty, liecansc he is in some manner the one 
who dictated it. and it is his fault if he has no] expressed himself with more 
clearness. Hy extending or rc'stricting tl.e meaning of the words in the sense 
which is less favorable, im injury is done to him. other th.iu that wbi.li be was 
■willing to incur. But l)y making the interpretation otherwise the risk uoiil.l bi- 
run to convert vague or ambiguous terms into bimds to tie up the feebler of the 
COEitracting parties, who was compelled to receive what the strougi-r <lictated." 

The Spanish Commission has just stated that the record of the lu^gotiations 
contains suft'icieni data to fix the true sense of those three very nn'morable 
words. 

The American Commission, ..ii ils part, affirms the same thing. Let us see. 
then, to which of the two conlradict.)ry constructions, adhered to by either Com- 
mission, must be given preference. 

It is stated in the Anieiican memorandum as the basis upon which, as has 
already been said, the whole reckoning thereof is founded.- that in Article III 
of the Protocol the point relating to the sovereignty over the I'hilippine Archi- 
pelago was left to the free decision of the Paris conference to which tlie framing 
of the treaty of peace was entrusted. But has the American Commission taken 
Into consideration, when making such a grave alTlrmation. that the Washing- 
ton Secretary of State, in his dispatch of July M last, in which he communi- 
cated to the Spanish Governmi-nl the three conditions imposed upon the latter by 
the United States, before cou.senting to re-establisli peace, and in which Article 
III was, as before said, couciied iu the same language which was afterwards 
used in the Protocol, provided also tor the appointment of Commissioners to 
frame the treaty of peace, and fixed and circumscribed their powers in that 
respect? In tliat dispatch the following paragraph occurs: "If the terms hereby 
offered are accepted in their entirety. Commissioners will be named by the 
United States to meet similarly authorized Coinndssioners on the part of Spain 
for the purpose of settling the details of the treaty of peace and signing and 
delivering it tinder the terms above indicated." Does the American Commission 
understand that the unexpected demannd of the cession hy Spain of an iinmense 
territory, the area of which exceeds SOO.OtX) square kilometres, ami whose popula- 
tion is" over O.OOO.OtK) of inhabitants, is a detail in this treaty of peace? Do they 
understand that the acquisition of an archipelago, whose importance as a fac- 
tor in the near future for the peace of the worhi is no secret for any one, cii*. be 
But let us go to the record, as the Ann rican Commission does, and search tor 
light as to the meaning of tliose ambiguous words. 

The American Commission narrates how the negotiations began. We agree with 
Its narrative up to the point relating to the fir.-it confej-ence between Mr. Cambon 
and the President of the Cnited Stat.-s. The mcn.orandum says that in that confer^ 
one., the President said iu regard to the Philippines that the note (the cited note of 
Julv MO) expressed the purposes of his Government, and that the linai disposition 
to be made of those islands should depend upon the treaty to be negotiated by Com- 
missioners. That after a subsequent discussion in whieh the President reiterated 
that the treaty should determine the future of the Philippine Islands, Article III. 
was read In which it was stated that the Coii.mlssioi ers should decde about the 

147 



coutrole. the possession and the yoveriinii'iit of those ishiiids: that Mr. C'aiuboii pro- 
posed the ehaii^e of the word possession into tlie word eonditioii. t>eeause he thought 
the former could lie construed by Spain as threatening and severe; that the Presi- 
dent refused to consent to the proposed change, but at last was induced to admit 
the word disposition in place of the word possession, which, according to the 
American Commissioners (we do not know w'hether on their own personal opinion 
or on opinion expressed by the Fresidenti did not change the meaning, and which, 
for havine so much amplitude, might also embrace possession. 

Let us see now how Mr. Cambon relates what happened in that conference. In his 
dispatch of the 31st of Jul.v he said to the Spanish Government what follow.s: 

"The demands formulated in Article III (1 said to the President) are apt to en- 
danger in Madrid the success of this preliminary negotiation, especially if the w'ord 
possession is retained in eon,iuuction with controle and government of the Philippine 
Islands, as it seems to put in doubt from this moment the sovereignty of Spain over 
that colony. You will notice, the President of the Republic then told me, that my 
demands as set forth in Articles I and II. admit of no discussion: I leave it to the 
negotiators to decide the quistion of the Philippine Islands. If the American forcea 
(let full attention be paid to these phrases) retain up to now their respective posi- 
tions, it is in obedience to a duty imposed upon me, in favor of residents and for- 
eigners, by the progress. . . (Here are some words which conld not be translated, 
but which are easily understood to mean thi' Tagalo insurrection.) Seeing that tlie 
President of the Republic was firm in not changing the terms of Article III. I made 
such an urgent appeal to his generosity as to secure his order to use the word dis- 
position instead of possession, as the former does not prejudge the result of the 
negotiation and has not the comprehensive meaning which belongs to the other 
word." 

The American Commissioners will notice, no doubt, that between the two rela- 
tions there are many differences. In tiieir own narration nothing is said in regard 
to the only reason alleged by the President not to cause at once the American forces 
to be withdrawn from the archipelago, a reason which reveals that the President at 
that moment was very far from tblnliing that the sovereignty over that territory 
should be asked to be transferred to the United States. According to the American 
narration the word disposition was accepted because it contained the meaning of 
the word possession. But according to Mr. Oambon's dispatch the word disposition 
accepted in place of possession changed the comprehensive meaning of the article. 
And be the American Commission or Mr. Cambon right or wrong, the result is that 
the latter accepted the change because he understood that all question about the 
sovereignty of Spain over the Philippine Islands was thereby eliminated. 

On Friday the 3d of August the President held another conference with Mr. Cam- 
bon. The memorandum reads that the latter stated at that time that Spain insisted 
upon the pi>iiit tliat her soviTeignty should not h.- interfered with; that the President 
replied that the disposition of the Philippine Islands should depend upon the treaty 
to be negotiated; and that he could not make any change in the terms previously 
proposed. 

Let us see now how Mr. Cambon narrates, in his dispatch of August 4 to the 
Spanish Minister of State, what passed at this Interview. 

"Mr. McKlnley showed himself unyielding (regarding the cession of Porto Rico), 
and he repeated that the question of the Philippines was the only oni' which was not 
as yet finally settled in his mind." After narrating his insistence with respect to 
the phrases which are already embodied in this memorandum. Mr Cambon cimtlnues; 
"Mr. McKlnley answered me: 'I do not want any misunderstauding to remain on 
this subject; the negotiators of the two countries shall be the ones to be called upon 
to decide what are to be (note this) the permanent advantages we shall ask for in 
the archipelago, and, finally, those to decide the intervention (controle). disposition 
and government of the Philippine Island-s. .\nd,' he added, 'the (iovernment of Ma- 
drid can rest assured that u)) to the present nothing against Spain has been settled a 
priori in my own mind, as I myself consider that nothing is decided against the 
United States.' " (Verbatim.) 

Compare one narration with the other. That of the American memorandum 
confined itself to the statement that the President had said that the disposition of 
the Philippine Islands should depend upon the treaty, and that he could not make any 
change in the words. But it omits the second and most important part of Mr. Cam- 
bon's conversation as narrated by him. although it contains information capable of 
removing all doubt in regard to this question. It is to be noticed, in the first place, 
that while the word sovereignty used in connection with the Philippine Islands is 
carefully avoided, both in this answer and In the former one and In the notes of 
the American Government, the same pains are taken by the Spanish Government 
and by Its representative in Washington to use the very same words and unceasingly 
repeat that the Spanish sovereignty was not under discussion. Ijet this remark be 
united to the others already made In regard to the persistent and clear although 
implied refusal to explain the meaning of the words above mentioned. 

148 



Hut in spite of all this, tlic I'risUli-iiI sriiil. niicl tlip Anieripan Conimlssion doi-s 
not categorically deny it In Its memorandi'iii. that tlic Paris conference slionlil tie 
tlie only one called upon to decide as 1" tlie ])ernianent advantages to be asked liy 
the United States in tlii' I'hi;ipplnc Archipelasf. and as to the control, disposition 
and covcrnnient of the islands. 

The niemoranduni says thai the rresliient did not ( onflne himself to speaking of 
permanent advantages. It is true that the Spanisli Conunission has not said, nor 
does It say now. that lie confined himself to that point, for he added what has just 
been referred to. But what has this to do with ignoring the meaning of the words 
of the President? If his mind, already fully made up at that time, was to ask of the 
conference not merely one but several permanent advantages to be enjo.ved by the 
United Slates in the archipelago. 11 is self-evident tliat he did not think of asking tor 
Ihe sovereignty. Could the latter ever lie considered as a permanent advantage of 
the I'nited Slates in those islands? And even though so singular a byitotliesls were 
upheld, how could the plural number used by the President of the Uidled Slates 
be properly explained? To this observation already made in the preceding paper of 
the Spanish Commission no answer has been given in the American memoraudum. 
and the reason is that none can he given which can harmonize with the purposes It 
Is there attempted to uphold. 

We cannot occup.v ourselves with the indications made in Ihe memorandum about 
the different languages spoken by both interlocutors in the aforesaid conferences. 
Such a circumstance cannol impart any probability to the supposition that Ihe Presi- 
dent did not express, not an incidental nlea. but the important and capital state- 
ments which Mr. Cambon asserts he heard. If Mr. Cambon did not undersland what 
the President said, although, as stated in the Memorandum, he had at his side his 
own Secretary who understands and speaks the English language, nevertheless he 
cannot be supposed to have attributed "o him. without deliberately violating truth, 
such positive language as that recorded in his ilespatch. 

Let us pass now to the note of the Spanish Government of August T The .\mer- 
ican Commission concurs with the Spanish that in said note the <;overnuieui of 
Madrid, upon stating that it accepted Article III. reserved a priori its sovereignty 
over the Philippine Archipelago: therefore we deem it unnecessary again to tran- 
scril>e its contents verbatim. The only .lifference existing between the two Commis- 
sions lies in that while the Spanish Coranission asserts, and reiterates this assertion, 
that in the note of its Government, on referring to the sovereignty therein reserved 
for Spain, the adjective "entire" or "whole" was employed, the American Commis- 
sion says tiutt there is no such adjective in the English translation of the note wh'ch 
Mr. Cambon delivered to the Governmenl of Washington. We have the copy, not 
the translation, as it is called in the American memorandum, of the original note of 
the Spanish Government, which we place at the disposal of the American Commis- 
sion. Therein appears tlie adjective. If when Ihe translation thereof into English 
was made in Washington 11 was omitted. It is a matter with which the Amcrlan Com. 
mission is acquainted, as it has seen su^'h translation; but the Spanish Commission, 
who never hati knowledge of it. cannot bui be ignorant of it. The ditterenee is of no 
importance whatever, since, having Ihe said adjective out of the question, the truth 
is. and the American Commission acknowledges it. that Ihe Spanish Government 
reserved therein a priori its sovereignty over the Philippines, and that it only ac- 
cepted .\rticle III with this reservation. .\nd if liie Spanish Ciovernment liid not 
change its luiud afterwards- and tills in fact is not asserted, nor would such an as- 
sertion be possible, in the .\merican mciUoraudum— the result must always be that 
the Protocol and its 'M .\rticle clo not in good law bind Ihe Spanish Government save 
with the express reservation it made on accepting it, and which it did not subse- 
quently witlidraw. 

But in Ihe American memorandum, doubtless recognizing the incontrovertli>le 
force of the consequence which grew out of the Protocol having been signed without 
tlie Government of Washington, once apprised of such reservation, making any ob- 
jection thereto, it is stated that the President of the I'nlon as well as his Secretary 
of State, on hearing tlie salil note read, remarked that it was vague and indefinite, 
purporting to accept the terms of that of tlie United States, while it reqiiireil some 
raodificalion, and, as regards the Philippines, while In one paragraph it stated ihe 
acceptance of the article, in another it seemed to retain tiie full right of 'sovereignty. 
Tile argument Is skilful, but unfortunately its aecurac.T is not as apparent as its 
skiifuiiiess. It is true thai Ihe said genilemen showeil their dissatisfaction upcui 
Ihe note being read to them. What is apparently inaccurate. Judging from what Mr. 
Cambon then said, is that Ihe cause of the dissatisfaction was what was said, not 
vaguely and indefinitely, but clearly and explicitly, in the note as to the reservation 
whii b Spain made of her sovereignly ovi r the archipelago. The very .Vmerican 
memorandum transcribed the |)aragraph in interest of the note, and tlierciu this res- 
ervation appears, not vague ami uncerlain. but express, clear and explicit. The 
cause for his dissatisfaction at the time given by the President was a very different 

149 



one. which Mr. Cnmbon rffrrs to in rhf followin;;; (inr;i;;rniih from his dospatt-h of 
August 10. Here it is: 

"Dulse: Again has it been at the White House, in the presence of Mr. MeKinle.v, 
and at his express request, that I have coinninnicated to the Secretary of State the 
telegram (the note aforesaid) of August 7. in which Your Excellenc.r declares that the 
Government of Spain accepts the ccndilions imposed t>.T the United States. This read- 
ing visibl.v displeased the President of the Kepnblie and tlie Secretary of State. After 
a long silence Mr. McKinley said to me: 'I had asked of Spain the cession, and con- 
sequentl.v the immediate evacuation [we have been unable to ascertain when this im- 
mediate evacuation was requested] of the Islands of Cuba and I'oito Rico. Instead of 
the categorical acceptance I expected, the Spanish Government addresses me a note 
in which it invokes the necessity of obtaining the approval of the Cortes. I cannot 
lend ni.vself to going into these considerations of an internal nature.' I observed 
that the Government of Her Majesty in complying with its constitutional duties did 
no more than follow the Tresident upon whom like obligations are imposed, and that 
in his repl.v of .lul.v .^0 he had expressly reserved the ratification b.v the Federal Sen- 
ate." (This is the fact, and so it appears from said despatch of Jul.v 80.) 

Neither the President nor his Secretary of State advanced any reason for their 
displeasure other than the foregoing, and, according to Mr. rambon, these gentlemen 
said nothing during the conversati(ui respecting the said reservation made by Spain 
of her sovereignty over the archipelago, nor regarding anything else whatever save 
the reservation of the Spanish Government as to the approval of the Cortes. 

Thu.s the President ended by answering Mr. Cambon. who questioned him as to 
the pledges of sincerity Spain might give, as follows: "There might be a means of 
putting an end to all misunderstanding; we might draw up a pro,iect which shall re- 
produce the conditions proposed to Spain in the same terms in which I have already 
framed them, [up to this time this was in effect all that had been agreed upon) and 
which shall establish the terms within which there shall be named on the one hand 
the Plenipotentiaries charged with negotiating the treaty of peace in Paris, and on 
tlie other the special Commissioners intrusted with the determining of the details for 
the evacuation of Cuba and Porto Rico." (The iceorporation of this was overlooked 
in the note of July 30. and this alone would have been sufficient to explain the 
change in the framing of the conditions of peace,) 

See. then, if there is not an immense difference between what is stated in the 
A;iierienn memorandum and what Mr. Caaibcn said to the Spanish Government in his 
note of August 10. or immediately after having been present at so important a con- 
ference, and when, consequently, what occurred thereat was fresh in his mind. Doing 
justice to the absolute truthfulness of the American Commissioners, their account of 
that conference, three months after it was held, cannot be preferred by the Spanish 
Commissioners to that of Hon. Jlr. Cambou. who gave his immediately after the 
happening of the event, which he so minutely recounted in his despatch. 

It is denied in the American memorandum that the Secretary of State of ^\■a.sh- 
ington stated in his note of August 10 to Mr. Cambon. as the Spanish Commission 
had asserted, that the note of the Government of Madrid (that of August 7) con- 
tained in its spirit an acceptance by Spain of the conditions imposed by the I'uited 
States, and in this connection the said note is inserted literally. 

The Spanish Commission corrects its former assertion, accommodating it to the 
above. Knt it is due to it to say that on making the assertion it referred to the note 
of Mr. I'ambon of August 11, which begins with the paragraph following: 

"Duke: Upon transmitting to me the draft of the Protocol, the text of which I 
have wired Your Excellency, the Secretary of State addressed me a note which may 
be epitomized as follows: .\lthough the note delivered yesterday at the White House 
conveys in its spirit an acceptance by Spain of the conditions proposed by the 
United States, in its form it does not so specify with sufficient explieitness. owing 
doubtless to its -having to be translated .ind put in eiiiber several times." 

These words, which may well be e.'splained without detracting from the unques-, 
tioned veracity of the Hon. Mr. Cambon. led. as they could not but do. the Spanish 
Commissioners into error. The.v nobly comply with the duty of so admitting. 

Btit after all the difference is unimportant. The Secretary of State (and this cer- 
tainly does apiiear from his own letter) raised no objection to the Spanish note of 
August 7, other than that it was not entirely explicit, undoubtedly due to the various 
transformations which it had undergone. Bjit the fact is that the Secretary of State 
could not possibly have directed big objection to the paragraph of said note, perfectly 
well translated into English {save the adjective "entire"), which is copied in the 
American memorandum, and which it is said was read to the President of the Amer- 
ican Union and his Secretary of State, wherein the Spanish Goverument clearly, ex- 
jilieitly and conclusively reserves a priori its sovereignty over the Philippines. AU 
the remaining contents of the note may be little explicit, if it is wished so to assert, 
but that reservation was not, surely. Therefore the note to which we refer does not 
contradict the statement we are supporting, tliHt tlie said resi-rvation. of which the 
Government of Washington was opporKuiely apprised and wliieli apiicars so clearly 

150 



Ill till' ICiisllsli traiislMlii.n in its pcissrs->iiin. was not by it i-initniaiftcil. nor did ii 
s.-iv.. as a n-asou for ,Mnpl...vintr tlw <n-w form <if Protoool as a moans of soU-mni/.lii;; 
till- aKi-p.-iiiciit upon till- l.ascs of poaoo. Tliis reason idoarly stands out In the docu- 
tneiits already examined whieli said negotiations emliody. 

In view of the foregoing. It seems to us that whatever may liave lieeii lin- real 
intentions of the Government of Washington, its aets and its written and spoken 
words do not snfflee to overcome the assertion we make that Spain aeeepted the Sil 
artloie of the Trotoeol In the sense eomninnicaied to that Coverninent. and not eon- 
tradieted by it. that Its sovereignty over I lie riiiiippinos was presprvi'd (M (re- 
served) a pri.iri. slnee their eonlrol. disposition ami government, whieh were to he de- 
termined liy the Paris conference, referred only to their Internal reglnH'. And this, of 
itself, wonid be sufficient to maintain without fear of successful contradiction that 
this conference cannot consider, nor has it the power to consider, the cession ask^d 
by the United States, evi'ii though In the hyiMiliiesls to ..ur mind impossible that the 
proof, drawn from the very words of ilu' I'resident of the T^nion. which we havi' 
attempted to furnish and we think we li:nc turiiislied. Ihat in his own mind at that 
time the said sovereignty was beyonil all subsequent discussion, should be destroyed. 

What is the Spanish Commission to say with respe<-t to the words it reads In the 
American memorandum which seem to <ei'k in a war indemnity a ground for their 
present request; as though this were not excluded from discussion, and It had not 
been acknowledged by the very American Commission that it had been agreed to 
cover this indemnity for the expenses of the war. and not only these, but also the 
claims of American citizens, the majority of which, if not all. natives of Cuba, ai 
though apparently lati>r naturalized in the United States, who had suft'ered injuries 
In the last insurrection, by the cession of Porto Rico, the other West Indies, and the 
Island of Guam in the Mariana? 

Or. is this Indemnity to be an open aecount in which it shall be proper lo ask ail 
that remains to Spain, including the Peninsula itself? 

Certainly the limiting of the indemnity to the Island of Guam in the East is 
another Indication which proves that the United States did not think at the time of 
the Philippine Islands. If they did. is it conceivable that they would then claim, at 
the outset, a small and Insignificant island and fail to claim the immense Philip- 
pine Empire which was so near to it? 

Be it acknowledged, then, that the demand or request for the Philippine Archi- 
pelago which is made for the United States in the form and under the conditions set 
forth In the American proposition, lacks foundations. While this cession is claimed 
in such form and under such cnnrlitions, tlie Spanish Commission cannot but de- 
cline It. 

Memorandum in Support of the Last Spanish Proposal. 

It will be remembered that in ihal pr sal, the Spanish Commissioners a.sked 

that the American Commissioners should present another adjusting the same to the 
stipulations of Articles III and VI of the Protocol, that is, expounding the form of 
Intervention, disposition and government whicli should be established by Spain In the 
Philippines, the return of the city, bay and harbor of Manila, the release of Its gar- 
rison, now held as prisoners, the refunding of tlie public moneys, revenues and im- 
posts which might have been collected up to the time when the city might be de- 
livered, and the undertaking or say the acknowledgment on the part of the United 
States of the obligation to indemnify Spain for the detention of the troops that gar- 
risoned the city when it surrendered on the Hth of August last. 

The American Commission has rejected that proposal because In its judgment the 
aforesaid Articles III and VI of Ihe I'rotocol do not demand that it be presented. 

With respect to the first pari whieh refers to the intervention, disposition and 
government of the archipelago, all attempt lo demonstrate here that Article III is 
not in accordance with the American proposal which, instead of addressing itself to 
the internal regime of these Islands, asks their cession to the United States, would 
be a mere repetition of the statements set forth by the Spanish Commission in the 
preceding part of this paper. 

It Is believed that its arguments show with the clearness of noon-day that the 
cession of these Islands which In every respect foreign to the provisions in the Wash- 
ington agreement Is one thing, and that the internal regime of the said Island.s, which 
under the aforesaid Article III may and must be a matter for the treaty of iieace. Is 
another. ., 

The Spanish Commissioners would then be remiss in their own convictions ii 
they did not persist in requesting the American Commission to present a proposal 



IM The Spanish text here is 'a priori quedaba a salvo la soberania,-— m Eiislwh the sov- 
creiBnty ««s a priori or from the beilinajng left Ui «ifety. or p^eser^■e<^, or conserred." In llic fore- 
BOiiiB iwse the SpanWi test insti'ad of ■.incdaba a sj.bo" r.-a.Ls r.swva. [Note of traiislalor. 1 



151 



concerning said regime in which the 3rd Article of the said agreement will remain 
unbroken, not only in Its meaning bnt also in its intent 

In the first paragraph of the proposal with especial reference to the capture ot 
Manila the immediate return to Spain of the city, its bay and harbor is demanded 

By way ot rectifying here one of the niisai.prehensions of fact that aboun.l in the 
American memorandum, we have to put it on re,.,rd that the Spanish proposal did 
not demand that immediate return, nor the immediate execution of anythin-. set 
forth in the following paragraphs of the proposition, which contain nothing to be in- 
stantly done. The immediate delivery was. as it could not otherwise be to bo ef- 
fected upon the con.-lusion of the treaty of peace. So conclusive is the proof that the 
Spanish Commissioners were bound to suppose that they should never be called upon 
to make this rectification. The first paragraph of the aforesaid proposal reads as fol- 
lows: "The Spanish Commissioners therefore in accordance with the express stipula- 
tlons of the Protocol understand that the treaty of peace must provide for first the 
delivery, etc." If this was to be agreed upon in the treaty of peace how can it be 
supposed t.hat the Spanish Commission should ask that the delivery be elTected be- 
fore it was agreed on? 

We shall now clear this memorandum of difficulties bv making two rectifications 
of a personal character before taking up the discussion of the point bearing on the 
surrender and capitulation of Manila and their consequences. There is not in the 
Si):inish mcnioraiidum. to which the last American mcnioranduiu is a reply a single 
sentence that assails or wounds the respectability of General Merritt and' Admiral 
Dewey. The American memorandum would intimate that the idea is suggested with 
more or less ability in the Spanish memorandum that the military commanders of 
the Union conquered the city of Manila by the force of arms on the ]3th of An^'ust 
when they already knew that the suspension of hostilities had been agreed on This 
Is an error. The Spanish Commission did not use. is not in the Jiabit of using cun- 
ning of any kind to conceal its sentiments. If it had believed that these generals had 
broken the armistice after receiving notice ot its conclusion, it would have said so 
openly. By so doing it would not have been lacking in the regard which these com- 
manders deserve, in the same way as it occurred to no one in 1871 that it was a 
lacking of the regard due to the German General de Manteuffel to charge him with 
the offence which he committed when, after a partial armistice between" the French 
and German forces had been signed, he availed himself of the mistake made by Gen- 
eral Clinchant upon the extension of the said armistice, and surrendered the" army 
corps under his command and compelled it to take refuge in Switzerland. We have 
said nothing, we have nothing to say against the personal behavior of these two 
commanders. On the contrary we .-an state a fact that redounds to the credit of the 
fine sentiments of the Admiral. On the 1st of .May. he sent to the Governor-General 
of Manila from the Olymiiia. perhaps uuder the intoxicating infinence of victory a 
communication which read as follows: "If all the vessels, torpedo boats and war sh'ips 
under the Spanish flag do not surrender immediately Manila will be de-stroyed." 

We presume that this communication will -have no place in the chapter of history 
In which are recorded the services rendered to the cause of humanity of which there 
is so much ostentation in these days. But we take pleasure in acknowledging that the 
author of this draconian order, refrained, in the spontaneousness of his kind feelings, 
from carrying it out. although he might have had the power to attempt it 

This cannot prevent us from not carrying the f.ivorable oijlnh.n to which the hon- 
orable commanders are personally entitled to the point of considering ourselves 
obliged to them for their deliberately postponing the surrender of the city until the 
13th of August for the purpose of -protecting the city and the Spanish residents 
against the awful vengeance of the insurgents." This purpose does not seem com- 
prehensible: in the early days of May the insurgents were not yet besieging from the 
huid side the city, which was only blockaded from the bay by the American fleet. 
They began afterwards and not with the same numbers of" forces from the outset, 
since these were increased little by little, until they made up the masses ot insur- 
gents \vlio were in front of the trenches of defence on the day of the surrender. So 
that if the American commanders had not taken possession of the city until then 
for the reason above mentioned, they should much less have done so thereafter. But 
besides this, it is demonstrated by the fact that such a danger did not exist, for It 
could at all times have been avoided by the American forces which upon the surron- 
der of Manila should have landed in and garrisoned the city, in the same way as it 
was avoided after the 14th of August, in spite of the fact that as above stated the 
Insurgents in arms who prevailed outside of tlie city were in larger numbers. 

It may thus be seen how It is no sin of ingratitude to fail in recognizing that 
supposed service at the hands of tlie aforesaid commanders, without this being in any 
way a hindrance to the favorable opinion to which their personal behavior entitled 
them. 

Ori the other lianil. the American memoi'; 
surrender and the exit from Manila of the 

152 



liiiii ill iis n 


■(■cr.lHe 


1.1 the unexpected 


teneral in e 


onuiianti 


of the Spanish 



troops on the evening before the surrender, uses a word altogether irreeonelhtble 
with the honor of a soldier. Whatever may have been the eonduct of that eomniau- 
der, he Is under the protection of the law and tribunals of his country, which will 
look Into his actions for the purpose of approval or disapproval as the case may re- 
qvilre: but ho is not at the mercy of any one else. and. above all, of opinions of an 
official character that would he delivered abroad and by foreigners. 

We have laid down in the seconil pan of this memorandum that in the so often 
cited 3d article nt Ihe Protocol the occupation by the forces of the United States of 
the city, harbor and bay of Manila until the conclusion of the treaty of peace had 
been agreed upon merely by way of a guaranty. It is therein demonstrated tiiat the 
Government of Madrid accepted this occupation In that sense, without express fou- 
tradletion on the part of the Government of Washington. 

It seems that In the American memorandum it is endeavored to inject the idea 
that such occupation should ilicewlse have the character of an Indemnity for the ex- 
penses of the war based on the fact th.it in the note of .Tuiy .30. in which the Secre- 
tary of State communicated to the Spanish Government tlie three conditions upon 
which peace could be restored, after saying in the second that by way of such In 
demnity Spain must cede Porto Rico, the other West Indies and the Island of Guam, 
the 3rd article began with the words; "On similar grounds the United States is en- 
titled to occupy the city of Manila, etc." .4t first sight the argument is not wanfing 
In force; but the American Commissioners iinow perfectly well that this is only ap- 
parent, and that what did occur proves absolnleiy the contrary. Although the Spanl.^h 
Government in its note of August 7 and lis representative in the conferences with 
tile I'resiclent of the liepuljlir. stat<-d ami insisteil that tin* oecujtal ion of M;iiiila w:is 
to have no character other than that of a mere guaranty, the said words are sup- 
pressed in the Protocol. So that the latter failed to express any connection between 
the future occupation of said placi- and the payment of the war indemnity, and 
moreover It failed to state that the United States were alread.v entitled to occupy it. 
Doubtless, for this reason, the idea Is only hinted at. liut not developed, nor cate- 
gorically asserted In the American memorandum. 

The Spanish Commissioners acknowledge having been agreeably surprised on 
noticing that in this document the -American Commissioners do not allege, as had 
been alleged by tiie American Government on replying to the note of the Spanish 
G()venniient of September T last, I lie peremplor.v reason that the suspension of hos- 
tilities, aecording to tile i;tli .\rtiele of the I'roloeol. o\lght not to go iiilo elTi'ct ini- 
uiedialeiy upon the eoni'lmling and signing of this instriiiuent. but after notice there- 
of to the eommanders of tlie hostile forces, an allegation wliicii w.is made notwith- 
standing tile fact tiiat a p^iiiit of such imporlaiieeliafi been expounded, reasoiu'-d and 
demonstrated with all care in the Spanish document to whieii that reply was given. 
This action of the .\nierican Commissioners proves their sound .judgment and learn- 
ing in the premises. be<*ause It is equivalent to an implied reeognlllon of 'the validity 
of the Spanish view on the subject, whicii, after all, is eiementar.v and which as 
a current doctriae lias never been attacived b.v any one. 

Xe\'ertiieless Ihey endeavor, upon argumnts analogous to those set forth In the 
said reply of the Government of the United States to the note of the Government of 
XIadrid of September 7 last, to invalidate the Spanish claim as to the capitulation of 
Manila, for being tardily made. The Spanish Commissioners are unable to see tlie 
force of this argument. The Government of Madrid formulated this claim with ever-r 
solemnity in the said note, or in other words, twenty-three days after the capitula- 
tion of Manila. What laws or practice justify holding a claim of ihis kind as forfeited 
when not presented before the twenty-third day subsequent to the act giving rise to it? 

Entering into tiie field of the intentions of tlie Spanish Government, it is stated 
further that the latter supposed that the above act of war liad been perfectiv correct, 
when a few days later it requested of the American Govemiiient permission to trans- 
port provisions to the Philippines and reestablish its regular mail service. When this 
occurred, the Spanish Government was still ignorant of the events wlilch had taken 
place on the 14th of that month in Manila. The American Commission also leaves It 
to be understood that this is so. But even if the Spanish Government hail been 
cognizant of those events, what permission is that which It is supposed the Spanish 
Government requested? What happened was only what could not fall to occur be- 
tween (iovernnieiits whicli. although enemies, observe at ail times the duties which 
oprlghtncss imposes upon all. 

The status quo growing out of the suspension of hostilities prohiliited each ot 
the belligerents from improving his situation to the prejudice of the other while suck 
status lasted. The Spanish Governmenl. like any other which does not wish to fall 
In Its said duties, was bound to communicate to the American Government, acting io 
coiliert with it. the re-estaljllsiiiiii'iil of the service whieii existed prior Io the war. 
The Government of Washicgton acted in the same way when on August IG It re- 
quested the consent of the Government of Madrid t" re eslalillsli Iho telegraphic 
service between Manila ami Hong Kong. 

Let It be acknowledged then that the claim ot the Spanish tJoverument was 



lodged in Umv. ;iud that even if it had nut been then presented, its Commission was 
authorized to malip it now. since it is em powered to ask for everythins that shall 
lead to a faithful and strict oarrying out of the convention of Washington. 

It is therefore settled, since it has not been contradicted in the American mem- 
orandum to which this is a reply, that the suspension of hostilities agreed upon In the 
6th Article of the Protocol went into legal effect immediately after the latter was 
signed on the afternoon of August 12 of this year. And let it be borne in mind that 
"if there is one rule of the law of war more clear and peremptory than another. It Is 
that compacts between enemies, such as truces and capitulations, shall be faithfully 
adhered to, and their non-observance is denounced as being manifestly at variance 
with the true interest and duty, not only of the immediate parties, but of all man- 
kind." The .\merican Commissioners will not repudiate these words as they are 
those of their learned countryman, the eminent "Wh.uton, in his Digest of Interna- 
tional Law, made up of passages taken from Presidents, Secretaries of State, decis- 
ions of Federal Courts, and opinions of .attorneys General. 

Have the provisions of the fith -Article of the Protocol been observed with this 
scrupulousness? On the l.?th day of August the city of Manila was bombarded and 
on the 14th it surrendered. 

The Spanish Commissioners have no reason whatever for asserting that the Com- 
manders of the American forces knew that the hostilities were suspended. But it 
is a fact that the said hostile act was executed after this suspension. 

-\nd in this connection the Spanish Commissioners have to complete the short 
history recounted in the Americ-an Memorandum, regarding the reestablishing of the 
Manila cable. It is stated therein that it was the Government of Washington which. 
on .\ugust 10. through a note to the -Embassador of France, requested the consent 
of the Spanish Government to the re-estalilishmeiit of telegraphic communieation be- 
tween that place and Hong Kong. This is true, but so also is what Is about to be re- 
lated. The American -Admiral had cut the .said cable at the beginning of the campaign. 
After several fruitless efforts of the Spanish Director General of Posts and Tele- 
graphs with the concessionar\- company looking to the re-establishment of its service, 
on July 9 last the said Director insisted on the re-establishment, agreeing on the part 
of Spain to the absolute neutrality of the service- The company brought this pro- 
posal to the notice of the Ambassador of the United States in London, in order also 
to obtain his r-onsent. But the latter on the 16th of the same month replied that his 
Government preferred that It remain cut. It results from this that if there was no 
direct communication with Manila, via Hong Kong, on August 12, when the Protocol 
was signed, it was due to the Government of Washington, which one month before 
had opposed its re-e.stablishment. This is another reason, were it necessary (which it 
is noti to prove that the ignorance of the American commanders, when attacking 
the place on -August 13, of the suspension of hostilities, not only cannot serve as a 
reason for the United States to profit by the act of war then executed in violation 
of what their Government had agreed to the previous day, but furnishes a ground 
upon which to base a claim for the unjiistifled damage the said act inflicted upon the 
other belligerent party. 

All the arguments set forth in the American memorandum as to the legal charac- 
ter it is there endeavored to give to the surrender and capitulation of Manila and to 
the acts since then executed in the city and even outside of it, by the commanders 
of the military forces of the Union, may be reduced to the following affirmations: 

FIRST. The legal character of the said capitulation is the same as that which 
would correspond to the peaceful surrender of the place, pursuant to the stipulations 
of Article III of the Protocol, and therefore the rights which the belligereut party 
has in the place he occupies as a guaranty are the same as he would have if lie oc- 
cupied it through an act of conquest in an act of war; and 

SECOND. The occupation of Manila, its harbor and bay, stipulated in -Vrticle III 
of the Protocol, was a military occupation. 

The Spanish Commission would never have believed that it would have to correct 
such grave errors, had it not seen them written in the American memorandum. 

It is elementary on the subject that the occupation of a place or of a territor.v, 
agreed upon by belligereut parties Ih.-it it may serve as a guaranty for the stipula- 
tions of a treaty, or the performance of an obligation resting ou the party possessing 
the sovereignty over the place or territory.occupied, has not and cannot have any 
title other than that in the convention iu which it is stipulated. But the title to oc- 
cupation by main force of a place or territory which surrenders through an act of 
war, has a special name, which is capitulation. And to so denominate what was 
agreed on in the Protocol in order thereby to bring under its terms the illegal capitu- 
lation of Manila after the signing of that instrument, is an error Into which no ouo 
up to this time has officially or sclentiflcally fallen, and which neither the technical 
nor ordinary meaning of the word capitulation would admit. The peaceful occupatiou 
as a guaranty conveys no more right to the occupying party thau of establishing the 
garrisons or maintaining the military forces he may deem necessary, in the place or 
territory, to retain it in his possession, until the performance of the principal obliga- 

154 



tion of whlfh tho ciocupation Is tlio guaranty. It Is nnturnl tliat the iin>vlsionin!.' of tlio 
army of ooenpntlon should be at the expcnsi- of the sovereign of tho territory occu- 
pied. But although this provisioning la a natural londitlon. It Is not essential to the 
convention. Therefore in the most prominent eases whleh have arisen of occupation 
of this kind the occupying party took good care expressly to stipulate the obligation 
to provision. Well known are the eases of occupallon by nay of gtniranty of several 
departments of France which occurred io LSI." and In 1.S71. the former at the end 
of tile wars of the Knipiri' and the latter at the eoneinsion of tile Franco-Prasslan 
war. There It wag expressly stipulated that the maintenance of the army of occupa- 
tion should be at the expense of the French Government. This was not done In Ar- 
ticle III of the Protocol of Washington. 

All the other rights of sovereignly, signally the collection of revenues and publ'e 
taxes, continue in the peaceful possession of the sovereign of the territory occupied. 
Tlie party occupant must religiously respect such rights. The legitimacy of his acts 
does not extend beyond what may be necessary to meet the vmla of the occupation. 

From these elementary principles, which for the present case do not need to be 
enlarged upon. It results that the I'liltiMl States, pursuant to the stipulations of Ar- 
ticle III of the Protocol, has no further right than to retain in its possession until 
the conclusion of the treaty of peace the city, harbor and bay of Manila as a guar- 
anty of the engagements of said Protocol, and. therefore, no more than the right to 
garrison the said city, bay and harbor with the nece.ssiiry forces of its army and 
navy, but respecting the exercise of the soveri'ignty of Spain over the satue in every- 
thing else compatible with this right to garrison, which is the proper designation of 
a guaranty occupation. 

But the occupation of a city or territory through an act of war gives fuller rights 
to the helligerent who has taken forcible possession of one or the other. He does not 
acquire, it is true, through conquest, the right of sovereignty over the conquered ter- 
ritory, but he does acquire the possession and lemi>orary exercise of this sovereignty. 
While the oeeupation lasts the prerogatives of the sovereign, political, flnanclal, and 
even executive, may be exercised by the oi-eup.int. but always with the moderaliou 
required by the respect due the rights of the pacific inhabitants, since nowadays war 
Is not waged between the peoples, but between the armed forces of the belligerent 
states. 

What goes before suffices to bring out the capital difference which precludes «ny 
one from confounding the peaceful guaranty o<'cupatlon with the belligerent occu- 
pation or conquest. On what ground does the United States persist after the 14th of 
August in occupying the city, harbor and bay of Manila? On the ground of bellig- 
erent occupation, having taken the city by force after the Protocol was signed, Oa 
what ground has the United States the exclusive right to occupy that city, bay and 
harbor? On tlie ground of a peaceful guaranty occupation, and nothing more than 
this, pursuant to tlie stipulations of Article HI of the said compact. How, then, 
can it be asserted that the character of such occupation Is Immaterial in this case? 

It is needless to lay further stress upon one of the most elementary points in the 
matter of the international law of war- 

The second error tliat is displayed in the American memorandum consists in sup- 
posing that the occupation agreed to in the Protocol was a military one. Those who 
understand this expression in the .sense of occupation with military forces there can 
have no doubt whatever in applying the same denomination to these two kinds of 
occupation, although they are s'o different. But for those who, using the technical 
term sanctioned by science and by the treaties, call military occupation only that 
which is belligerent, or flTected by force, the occnjiation agreed to in the Protocol 
cannot be termed a military one. 

It is therefore useless to endeavor lo bring under a common denomination acts 
which are esseutiall.v different and whjse lawful consequences have never been con- 
founded. The occupation of the city, bay and harbor of Manila granted to the 
United States by the Washington agreement. Is not a military or belligerent occupa- 
tion, from whioh can lawfully be derived the rights and faculties which are inherent 
therein. 

It cannot be doubted that the commanders of the American forces in tlii' I'hil- 
'ippines fell into the same error as the memorandum. One can understand that once 
in possession of the plaee nad while they bad no notice of the suspension of hoslIII- 
tles they should have commenced to exercise all the rights and privileges of a mili- 
tary or belligerent occupant. But the American memorandum admits that on the 
16th of August these commanders were advised of the stipulated suspension of hos- 
tilities. Notwithstanding this, they continued lo exercise these rights and privileges, 
which they did not possess, and which they ought to have known they did not pos- 
sess. On that date the machinery of Spanish administration was still in operation. 
It was on the 16th of August that the .\merican forces began to take possession 
manu milltarl of that machinery, i>f the public moneys, revenues and Imposts, and 
also to hold as prisoners the Spanish troops that had surrendi^red on tlic 14th. 

We believe It unnecessary to itisist any ioiigi-r upon the refutation of errors of 

155 



such gravity and importance, for which a single explanation can be found only in the 
sad and dire necessity of using them as the only means of defence on a point whioh 
is battered from all quarters. 

And as we have been unable to come across auy argument in the American 
memorandum more substantial than those referred to, among those that were ad- 
vanced against the Spanish proposal, this Commission considers It Its duty to support 
It and set forth that it cannot concur in the conclusion with which the memorandum 
closes. 

The Spanish Commission might here put an end to this paper, were it not for tie 
earnest desire with which it Is animated of seeking on its part some means of re- 
moving the obstacles which are now stanfl'ing in the way of the work of peace en- 
trusted to these conferences, and of facilitating to both Commissions the fulfilment 
of a charge which cannot but be in perfect harmony with the sentiments of human- 
ity and patriotism which surely Inspire them both in the same degree. 

Whether the interpretation of Articles III and VI of the Protocol as given by the 
American Commission, or as insisted upon by the Spanish Commission, is accepted, 
the fact remains unfortunately that a situation is created which can be settled only 
'by the good faith of both parties. Be it because the conference of Paris has no pow- 
ers to consider the question concerning the .sovereignty over the Philippine Archi- 
pelago, in the manner and form proposed by the American Commission; be it because 
even though it had such powers, it also would have to enjoy the natural and legiti- 
mate freedom of exercising them in the sense dictated by their eonseienee to the 
members thereof— the real fact is that as the opinion of the Joint Commission Is 
equally divided on the subject, the solution of the difficulty becomes impossible. 

The American Commission will surely not contend that in the event of conflict, 
or tieing of its vote with that of the Spanish Commission, theirs should prevail and 
be given the character of a decision of the Joint Commission. 

And inasmuch as the United States do not claim anything more than a recognition 
of the right which, according to them, they have under the Protocol to ask the sov- 
ereignty over the archipelago, but do not go to the extreme of saying that they 
also have the right to demand of the conference that their petition be acceded to, and 
force the same upon it as if it were an order, the impossibility of the petition of the 
American Government being complied with, and consequently of the sovereignty over 
the archipelago being secured by it through the only lawful title which it professes 
and acknowledges as the only mode of transfer, becomes manifest. 

What are the consequences of so harrassing and unyielding a situation? Tlie rup- 
ture of negotiations? The consequent renewal of hostilities? 

Is there anyone who will not halt in the presence of such terrible consequences? 
Is there anyone who will entertain the idea that it is not better before submitting to 
them to resort to some other means that i:ood faith cannot fail to suggest to the 
Contracting Parties? 

And what is that means? 

Both Commissions might very well agree to leave the question relating to the 
sovereignty over the Philippine Islands out of their own negotiations and reserve it 
for direct negotiations to be opened between the two Governments, and continue in 
the meanwhile their discussion of all the other points embodied in the treaty of 
peace. This method, which at first sight appears so simple, is nevertheless fraught 
with serious dangers, and signally those wliieli might exist now were the negotiations 
broken off. with the only advantage of putting the dangers off for a Short while. 
Should the two High Parties fail to agree, the situation would be the same as that 
which now confronts the Paris conference. 

In the opinion of the Spanish Commission, there is another means more simple 
still and surer, which consists in an agreement by the two Commissions to propose to 
their Governments that an arbitrator or an arbitration tribunal, constituted In the 
manner by them agreed upon, shall determine the true sense in which Articles III 
and VI of the Protocol of Washington should be taken. 

The difference of opinion between the two Commissions lies principall.v in the dif- 
ferent sense each gives to those articles. 

This appears from their resiiective memoranda. 

Now, it seems that if ever in interna tional conflicts there is. or may be. any- 
thing which men of good will should endeavor to settle by force of justice, or even 
by the dictates of equity, instead of force of arms. It is that which consists In a dif- 
ference of interpretation of an article of any treat.v previously agreed upon, aiisinf 
out of the attempt to put It into execution. 

Sovereigns may, through a feeling of natural pride, refuse to submit to the judg- 
ment of a third that which affects their honor or even their amour-propre. They 
may not wish to entrust to such a judgment the existence or even the integrity of 
their states. But it is inconceivable that in the face of the modern and Christian 
world they .should prefer covering the earth with corpses and deluging it with hu- 
man blood, to submitting to it their own opinion, in matters so exposed to the falU- 

i56. 



bllity of the lulnil of men. such as cannot fall to be Iho proper sense to be given to 
an article of a couveotlon, conclnded upon matters which are alien and foreign to 
the above sacred anbjects. 

The United States are among the peoples of the civilized world those which, to 
their glory, have taken the Initiative and have shown the most decided Interest In re- 
sorting to this means so humane, so rational, and so Christian, rather than to the 
bloody one of war. to settle controversies between nations. 

As far back as 18.^5 the Senate of Massachusetts approved .a measure presented 
by the American Peace Association urging the creation of an International court to 
settle amicably and finally all difficulties between countries. 

In 1851 the Committee on Foreign Relations of Washington (sic) unanimously de- 
clared that It was desirable for the United States to In.sert In Its treaties a clause 
whereby dlCTerenccs which could not be seltled diplomatically should be submitted 
before the outbreak of hostilities to the judgment of arbitrators. 

In 1853 the Senate approved the report of the Committee on Foreign Relations. 
In 1873 the Senate .igaln. and In 1874 the two Houses, reaffirmed this humanitarian 
aspiration. And. finally, In 1888. not satisfied with having marked out their own 
line of conduct In so laudable a direction, both Houses agreed by Joint Resolution to 
request the President to use his Infiuence from time to time to bind all governments 
maintaining diplomatic relations with the United States to submit all questions that 
might arise between them In the future to the Judgment of arbitrators. 

The Spanish Commissioners hope that the case which presents Itself before the 
Paris Conference will not lead the United Stats to depart from such glorious prece- 
dents, and seek to settle the matter by the last means which although never lawful 
among rational and free beings Is sadly Inevitable, in preference to other means more 
humane, conducive to preserve unalterable peace among men. 

■ True copy: 

BMILIO DE OJEDA. 



Protocol No. 15. 



Protocolo No. 15. 



CONFERENCE. 
Of November 21. 1898. 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 21 de Noviembre de 1898. 



Tlie ses-skm hiivini; been postponed, at 
the re<iue*t of the American Oommission- 
ers. tin Monday, the 21st of November, 
on that day there were present- 
On the imrt of the United States: 



Messrs. DAY. 

DAVIS. 

FUYE. 

OKAY. 

RKID. 

MOORE. 

FEKGUSSON. 

On the pa.rt of Spain: 

Messrs. MOXTKRii lllos. 

ABAltZfZA. 

liARNKA. 

VILLA-rHKirlA. 

CERERO, 

(UEDA. 
The protoeol of the precedinj; session 
was read and appro%-ed. 

The President of the American Commis- 
sion presented a reply to the memorandnm 
presented l)y tlie Spanish ('•ommissioners 
at the last session on the snbject of the 
riiMlpplnes. In so doinjr. lie called atten- 
tion to the cancludlns part i>f tlii' reply, 
and .siit'cested that it be read. lint. befi>re 
it was reail. he stated that he desired to 
sa^v that the American ('ommissioners had 
ca:-efnlly ex:imlned the very able argument americanos 
of tlie Spanish Commissioners, but had felt 
obliged to adhere to their construction of 
the i><)wers of the Joint Comuils.slon under 
the Protocol. The Joint OrtnimisMion 
had lieen in seKsinn for se^-eriil 
WfeliM, mill it ^viis the oiiiiiioii of 
tlie .Viiierienii CoiiifiiiMMioiiers tlint il 
coiieluNi4»ii slionld lie reiK'heii. Tliey 
liitil <*oiisiiltei1 their (io^eriililenl 
mill liiid ileei<le<l tit llliiUe eoiiees- 
Hioiis, i\tiii'h ^^I'ri* em ImmI ii'il in tlie 

t «'liiilinu part of tlieir re|il>, 

nlilcli tiiiN iiiteiiili'd lo .riiiK' (lie 
ll iMIMIMsioil (II II i-loMe, "^ 



Il.'ihiiiidose aplaziido la seslon ;\ pelicion 
de los ('oniisarlos americanos hasta el lunes 
i;l del corrlente a las 2 p. m.. se haliaron 
endlchos diii y bora 

Presentcs-- 
I'nr [)ai-tc dc 

ira : 

lo.s Scnorcs 



los Estados riildos dc Anier- 



DAY. 
DAVIS. 
ERYE. 
GRAY. 
REID, 
MOORE, 
FEUGDSSON. 
I'or parte de Espana: 
los Senores .MO.VTEKO l!li>S. 
ABARZrZA. 
GARMCA. 
VILI.AIRRITIA, 
CERERO, 
OJEDA. 
iprobada el acta de lit seslon 



The concluding part of the reply of the 
AiiAeriean Commissioners was then read 
b.v their Interpreter to the Spanish Coin 
mlssloners. 

The President of the Spa.nlvsh Col is- 

slon. after the close of the rending, stated 
that if the memorandum of the .\merlc:in 
('ommissioners i-ontained nothing more than 
what had jnst been read, he c^>uld give 
an imnuiliate answer; but, as it was ncces- 
sar.v tf» translate and to bei-ome ajcipiaiiiteil 
with the preceding part some time would 



I-'ne ieida 
anterior. 

El Presidente de la Cotnlsion ainericana 
presento una contestaeion al Memorandum 
presentado por los Co-Mlsarlos espanolcs 
en la ultima seslon relative a las ElUplnas. 
.\1 haeerlo asi. llamo la atencion sobre la 
parte final de su contestaeion y manifesto 
su deseo de que se dlera leetura de ella. 
Pero antes de que fuese ieida, dijo que de- 
seaba hacer coustar que los Comls.arlo9 
habian considerado atenta- 
meiite los argnmentos habilisimos de los 
C.omisarlos espanoles; pero que se velan 
obligados a adiierirse a su interpretaclon 
de las facultades de la Comlsion en pleno, 
scgun K>s lermluos del Protocolo. Dicha 
Coinision babla prolongado sus labores 
durante varias senmnas, y en vista de esto 
los Comisarios amerlcaiios oplnaban que 
dcbia Ib'garsi- a un resultado final. Hfiblan 
ciius\illado a sn Gobierno y di'cidido 
hacer las concesiones que estaban con- 
slguadas al final de su contestaeion y 
< iiyo objeto era el de termlnar de una 
vcz la discusion. 

I. a ultima parte de dicha coutesiadon 
fuc vertida verbalmente al castellano por 
c I luierprete de la Comlsion amcrlcana. 



I.I Pr.'sidcnte de la Comlsion espanola 
inanlfiesta qne si el Memorandum de los 
Coinls.-u'los americanos no eontuvlese otra 
ciiMi qui' lo que acababa de leerse podrlu 
dar una contestaeion Inmeillata; pero que 
couio b.il'la qne tradncir y eiiterarse de lo 
que precedhi a su parti' ultima se necesl- 
laria algun liempo para dar una respuesta: 



be uewled in niik-h to prepare a reply. He I'ropuso eu seguida que las Comisioues se 
then proposed tbat the Oommissioners meet reuniesen el miercoles 23 a menos que surja 
on Wednesday, the 23d instant, unless alguu incidente que exija un aplazamlento. 
something should arise to require a post- 
ponement. Asienten los Comisarios amerieanos y se 
The American Coimiiissioners concurring, acuerda que se aplaze la sesion hasta el 
it was agreed to adjourn the conference miercoles 23 de Noviembre a las 2 p. m., 
to the 23d of November, at 2 o'clock p. m., gjn perjuicio del derecho de aplazarla que 
without prejudice to the right of the Span- agigte a los Comisarios espanoles. 
ish Commissioners to ask for a postpone- 
ment. 

Signed: WILLIAM R. DAY. Firmado: E. MONTERO RIOS. 

CUSHMAN K. DAVIS. B. DE ABARZUZA. 

WILLIAM P. FRXE. J. DE GARNICA. 

GEORGE GRAY. W. R. DE VILLA-DRRDTIA. 

WHITELAW REID. RAFAEL CERERO. 

JOHN B. MOORE. EMILIO DE OJEDA. 



160 



(Annex to Protocol No. 15.) 



REPLY OF THE AMERICAN COMMISSIONERS 
TO THE MEMORANDUM PRESENTED BY THE SPANISH COM- 
MISSIONERS 
ON NOVEMBER 16, 1898. 



The AnuTica.n ComniissiaiRTs liavi; txaiiiiiiLMl the inpinoraudtiiii of the Spanish 
Ciniimi-isloners with thai delihenitc care aud iittomion which they have been ac- 
riistnmod to bestow upon nil the represent.itions which those Oonimlssioners have 
been pleased to submit touchinj; the questions before the conference. 

They note, in the first place, that the Spanish Commissioners disclaim any in- 
tention by tlieir paper of the :id of November to withdraw their previous accept- 
ance of the American articles on the subject of Cuba. Porto Rico and the other 
Spanish islands in the West Indies, and the Island of Guam in the Ladrones. 

This disclaimer, in spite of the form in which it is expressed, the American 
Commissioners would be content simply to ucccpt without commeni, were it not for 
the fact that it is accompanied with certain observations on the so-cajled Cuban 
debt tliat impose upon them the nec-essity of recurrinpr to what they have pre- 
viously said on that subject. 

lu citing the Royal Decrees of 1SS6 and l-'^Oi'. and the contents of the bonds is- 
sued thereunder, as something with which the American Commis-sioners were pre- 
viously unacquainted, the Spanish ComiJ'issloners seem to have overlooked or for- 
gotten the paper which the American Commissioners presented on the 14th of Oc- 
tober. In that paper the American Commissioners expressly mentioned and de- 
scribed the financial measures of 1.886 and 1.890 and the stipulations of the bonds- 
thereby authorized. But they did more than this. Being concerned with the sub- 
st!'.nce rather than with the form of the matter, they reviewed with some minute- 
ness the history of the debt and the circumstances of its ceration. They showed 
that it was in reality contracted by the Spanish Government for national purposes; 
that its foundations were laid more than twenty years before the Royal Decree 
of 1S.S6. and at a time when the revenues of the island were actually producing 
a surplus, in national enterprises In Mexico !Uid San Domingo, foreign to the In- 
terests of Cuba: and that it was soon afterwards swollen to enormous dimensions 
as the result of the imposition upon Cuba, as a Ijind of penalty, of the national 
ex-penses incurred in the efforts to suppress by force of arms the ten years' war 
for the independence of the island. At this point the American Commissioners in 
their paper of the 14th of October referred to the financial operation of 1886. bat 
they properly referred to it in Its true character of a national act for the consolida- 
tion or funding of debts previously incurred by the Spanish Government, and ex- 
pressly quoted the national guaranty that appears on the face of the bonds. At the 
risk of a repetition which should be unnecessary, the American Commissioners 
will quote from their paper of the 14th of October the following paragraph: 

"Subsequently the Spanish Government undertook to consolidate these debts 
(I. e.. the debts incurred in Mexi(.i>. San Domingo, and the ten years' war) and to 
this end created In 18.86 the so-called Biiletes hipotecarios de la Isla de Ctiba, 
to the amount of 620,000.000 pesetas, or $124,000,000. The Spanish Government un- 
dertook to pay these bonds and the interest thereon out of the revenues of Cuba, 
but the national character of the debt was shown by the fact that, upon the face 
of the bonds, 'the Spanish Nation' ila Nacioii i-spanolai guaranteed their iKiynient. 
The annual charge for interest and sinking fund on account of this debt amounted 
to the .sum of 39,191. IXX) pesetas, or $7.S:is.20i). which was disbursed tlirough a 
Spanish financial institution, called the Ban<<> Hispano-Colonial. which is said to 
have collected daily from the custom house at Havana, throtigh an agency there 
established, the sum of S::!:f.:{:«i." 

The .\merican Commissioners then referreil in the same paper to the ;inthi>rlza- 
tion by the Spanish Government in 18.90 of a new issue of bonds, apiKirently with a 
view to refund the prior debt as well as t" cover any new debts contracted between 
1886 and ISPO, and stated that, after renewal of the struggle for Independence In 
February. 1895. this Issue was diverted from Its original purpose to that of raising 
funds for the supjiressiim of the Insurrection. 

The American Commissioners are at a loss to perceive how. In re<-lting the.se 
transactions, in which past and not future obligations were dealt with, they 
could have been understood to Intimate that Spain, through what is described In the 
Spanish memorandum as a ■■su|ieinatural gift of divination." foresaw the Insurrec- 

161 



tion of lSit5 and the ultiuiate iutei-voDtifHi of the L'uittMl Strifes. The Amei-iraii 
Commissioners will not indulge in the ready retort whioh this faiieifiil effort at 
sarcasm iavates. Whether the consequences of imposing upon (.'uba hiirdens not 
to be borne were or were not; foreseeu by Spaid is a question upon which it would 
be idle now to speculate. 

As to the special "Cnban War Emergeacy Loan." composed of "live jier cent 
peseta bonds." which were referred to as part of what was considered in Spain as 
properly constituting the Cuban debt, the American (_'omniissioners exjjressly de. 
Glared that it did not appear that in these bonds the revenues of Cuba were men- 
tioned. 

The American Commissioners, in reviewing in their paper of the 14th of Octo- 
ber the histor.v of the so-called Cuban debt, necessarily invited the fullest exam- 
. Illation of tlieir statements. They have yet to li-a.rn that those statements con- 
tained any error. 

The.y freely admit, however, that they hail never seen it asserted, till the.v 
read the assertion in the Spanish mtmoramlum. that the deficiencies in the (;uban 
appropriation bills or budgets which the debts are said to represent were "due to 
the great reductions of taxes made in Culm b.v the mother country. If. as they 
are now assured, this is a fact "well known." the.v are compelled to admdt that 
they were, and that they still remain, ignorant of it. Indeed, the American Com. 
mlssioners were not aware that Cuban appropriation bills or budgets existed prior 
*o 1880, in May of which year the lirst measure of the kind was submitted to the 
Spanish Cortes. During the discussion of that budget, a distinguished Senator, not 
A Cuban, who hiid been Minister of State in the Sjianisb Cabinet, Senor Don 
Seiwando Ruiz Gomez, presented to the Senate an official statement of the Colonial 
Department, showing that the alleged debts of CHiba amounted to ,$r2(;.S-34.410.25 
in gold and .$45,?.(X),0T6 in paper, or, in round numbers, ,$14n,00O.(KI0 in g<dd. 

It is true that after 18.80, and especially after 18.80, deflcii neies appeared in 
the budgets, but a correct conception of their cause may be deiived from the 
budget of 1S86-1S87. when the prior debts were consolidated. The amount of the 
burdens imposed upon Cuba by that budget, eight .vea.rs, as the Spanish memo- 
randum (djservcs, "after the establishment "f lieace," was $25.9.59,734,79, which 
was distributed as follows: 

General obligations $10,85,3,.836,79 

Department of Justice .8&3.022.22 

Department of War 6.7.30.977.17 

1 ■■ Department of the Treasury 903..32G.2!> 

i ' . Department of the Navy 1.434,211.40 

Department of the Interior 3.t«5,6oS.92 

Departn.ent of Fomento 1.2,38,702.IW 



$25.9.50,7.34.79 

Of the sum tt.tnl of this burden, it is seen that the three items of General 
Obligations. War. and Xavy. constitute nearly three-fourths. .\nd what >vere the 
•'General Obligations?" The principal item— nine-tenths of the whole — was that 
of $9,647,423.02, for interest, .sinking fund, and incidental expenses, on the so- 
called Cuban debt. The rest went chiefly for pensions to Spanish officials. 

The budget for 1896-1.897 amounted to .$28,583,432.23. 

These figures, which speak for themselves, seem to render peculiarly infelic- 
itous the novel suggestion that the deficiencies in the f'nban budgets have been 
<3ue to the reduction of taxes. 

As to that part of the Spanish memorandum in which the so-called Cuban bonds 
are treated as "mortgage bonds," and t he rights of the holders as "mortgage 
rights," it is necessary to say only that the legal difference between the pledge of 
revenues yet to be derived from taxation and a mortgage of property cannot be con- 
fused b.v calling the two things by the same name. In this, as in another instance, 
the American Commissioners are able to refer to previous statements which, al- 
though the Spanish memorandum betrays no recollection of them, for obvious rea- 
sons remain unchallenged. The American Commissioners have shown, in their ar- 
gument of the 27th of October, that the Spanish Government itself has not consid- 
ered its pledge of the revenues of Cuba ns m any proper legal sense a mortgage, 
but as a matter entirely within its control. In proof of this fact the American 
Commissioners quoted in that agreement certain provisions of the decree of auton- 
■omy for Cuba and Porto Rico, signed by the Queen Regent of Spain on the 25th 
of November. 1897, and countersigned by Senor Sagasta. as President of the Coun- 
cil of Ministers. By that decree it was declared that the manner of meeting the 
expenditnres oeccsioned by the debt which burdened "the Cuban and Spanish treas- 
ury" should "form the subject of a law" wherein should be "determined the part 
payable by each of the treasuries, and the special means of paying the interest 
thereon, and of the amortization thereof, and, if necessary, of paying the principal;" 
that, when the "apportionment" should have been "made by the Cortes," each of 

162, 



the treasuries should "mako payment of the part assljfued to It." and. finally, that 
"encasements contraL-ted with creditors under the pledge of the ifood faith of 
the Spajiish nation shall in all cases be scrupulously respected." 

In these declarations the American Commissioners find, as they stated in the ar- 
gument above referre<l to, "a clear assertion not only of the power of the Govern- 
ment of S|)ain to deal with the so-called Ouban debt as a national debt, but also 
a clear admission that the pledRes of the revenues of Cnba were wholly within the 
CDntrol of that Government, ami couhl be modified or withdrawn by It at will with- 
out afTeeting the obligation of the debt." and. so long as the stipulated payments 
upon the debt were made, without violating I lie engagements of Spain with her 
creditors. 

No more in the opinion of the Spanish Government. Ihorefore, than in point of 
law, can it be malnt;uned tiiat the Government's promise to devote to the pay- 
ment of a certain pari of the national delit revenues yet to be raised by taxation 
In Cuba, constituted in any legal sense a mortgage. The so-called pledge of those 
revenues constituted, in fact and in law. a. pledge of the good faith and ability 
of Spain to pay to a certain class of her creditors a certain part of her future 
revenues. They obtained no other security, beyond the guarantee of the "Spanish 
Nation." whicJi was in reality the only thiig that gave substance or value to the 
pledge, or to which they could resort for Its performance. 

One more reniarlt, and the .\merican Commis-sioners have done with the re- 
newed discussion into which they regret to liave been obliged to enter on the sub- 
ject of the so-callwl Cuban del)t. The Spani.sh Commi:ssioners are correct in saying 
that the Government of the United States repeatedly urged Spain to re-establish 
peace in Cuba, and did not exclude the use of arms tor that purpose; but the impres- 
sion conveyed by this partial statement of tacts is altogether erroneous, as is also 
the Implied representation that Spain's Course in the matter may be considered as 
a compliance with the demands of the United States. The Government of^ the 
United States did indeed repeatedly demand that order be re-established in Cuba; 
but through long years of patient waiting it also tried and exhausted all the ef- 
forts of diplomacy to induce Spain to end the war by granting to the island either 
independence or a substantial measure of self-government. As early as the Spring 
Of 18G9. not long after the deepening gloom of the ten years' war began to settle 
npon the Island, the United States offered its mediation and its credit for the re- 
establishment of peace between Spain and her colony. Spain then as afterwards 
preferred war to tlie relinquishment of her rule, and the United States did not as- 
sume to discuss the legitimacy of the expenses incurred in the pursuit of that 
policy. But the question of Spain's right to incur those expenses, and that of her 
right or her power to fasten them as a perpetual burden upon the revenues of 
Cnba, after those revenues have passed beyond her control, are questions between 
which the American Commissioners feel neither difficulty nor hesitation in de- 
claring and maintaining a fundamental ditterence both in law and in morals. 

The American Commissioners, before pa-'sing to the principal subject before 
the conference, will briefly notice that part of the Spanish memorandum which 
treats of the occupation of Manila by the .American forces. 

With the elaborate references to the apparent implication in a previous paper 
that General Merritt and Admiral Dewey might ha.ve linowingly violated the 
armistice in their eaptnre of Manila a few hours after its signature, and with the 
new remarks about Admiral Dewey's draconian order, the spontaneousness of his 
kind feelings, and other and similar phrases, we do not occupy ourselves; nor with 
the objections to our use of tiie word "fled" in describing the escape of the Spaji- 
ish General before the surrender. We are entirely content on these points with 
the record. For the same reason we pass without comment the remark concern- 
ing the claim for indemnity "on similar grounds" in the Philippines that "on first 
sight this argument is not wanting in force; but the American Commissioners know 
perfectly well that this is only apparent, and that what did occur prove absolutely 
the contrary." We interpret this apparent charge of intentional deceit, in the light 
of the valued assurance given In another part of the same paper by the Siianish 
Commissioners when they, themselves, admit that "no language or even a phrase 
Improper to a diplomatic discus.sion has been used by them" and "they avoid with 
the greatest care the use of any phrase wiiich might be personally unpleasant." 

With regard to what is stated In the Spanish, memorandum as to the occupa- 
tion of territory as a guaranty in time of peace, and the limitaUons that are uso- 
aUy affixed to such occupation, the American Commissioners have only to advert 
to the fact that, as has often been observed by the Spanish Government in its 
communications, the state of war between the United States and Spain is not yet 
ended. In its original demands, just as in the Protocol of August 12, the United 
States declared that it would "occupy and hold the city, bay and harbor of Manila. 
p-ndJng the conclusion of a treaty of peace." These words Imported a military 
occupation, with all Its usual Incidents, political and administrative, during the con- 
tinuance of the state of war. 

16S. 



The distinction between the owupation of territory as a guaranty in time of 
peace and the miiitary occupation of the enemy-s territory in time of war, is 
weli illustrated in the case of France and Germany in 1871, which the Spanish 
memoranduni, unfortunately for its pui-pose, cites in support of its contention as 
to the nature of the American occupation of Manila under the Protocal. By a 
convention concluded on January 2S, 1871. France and Germany agreed to a gen- 
eral armistice, which took effect iuuuodiately in Paris and three days later in the 
departments. Under this convention the belligerent armies were to preserve their 
respective positions, which were separated by a definite line of demarcation, and. 
simply in recognition of the nature of the occupation, each of the armies reserved 
the right "to maintain Its authority in the territory that it occupies, and to em- 
ploy such means as ma.y be considered necessary for the purpose by its command- 
ers." By a subsequent convention of February 15, 1871. the fortified town of Bel- 
fort, which was besieged by the Germans, but had not been taken when the arm- 
istice was made, was brought within the German lines of occupation. On Feb- 
ruary 26. 1.S71, the belligerent powers concluded a preliminary treaty of peace. 
By iliis treaty, which, unlike the convention for an armistice, required the formal 
ratiflcation of the two governments, the sovereignty of France over Alsace-Lorraine 
was renounced, and provision marie for the .payment to Germany besides of a war 
indemnity. By an additional convention signed on the same day it was agreed that 
the German troops should "refrain for the future from raising contributions in 
money in the occupied territories," but, on the other hand, it was declared that the 
German authorities should "continue to collect the state taxes" therein. And it 
was provided by the preliminary treaty that riot until the conclusion and ratiflcation 
of the definite treaty of peace should "the administration of the departments" re- 
maining "in German occupation" be "restored to the French authorities." 

"The United States will occupy and hold," so reads the Protocol, "the city, bay 
and harbor of Manila, pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace." These brief 
■words obviously and necessarily imjpoited the military occupation, in time of war, 
though not of active hostilities, of a designated territor.v, with the usual incidents 
of such occupation, and not an occupation as a guarantee In time of peace. From 
the incidents of one kind of occupation nothing is to be inferred as to the incidents 
of the other, for the simple reason that the two things are different in their na- 
ture. The occupation by a belligerent army of a hostile territory is couceded to 
involve the exercise of a. paramount power of control which would be utterly in- 
consistent with the rights of the titular sovereign over his territoiT and its inhab- 
itants in time of peace. 

The American Commissioners have examined with special care that part of the 
Spanish memorandum which deals with the "control, disposition and government of 
the Philippines." and to the consideration of that subject they will now address 
themselves. 

The American Commissionei-s ai-e obliged at the outset to call attention to the 
fact that tiie present argument of the Spanish Commissioners contains the same 
defects as the previous one, in being directed against a position which tbe Amer- 
ican Commissioners not only have never assumed, but which they expressly re- 
pndia.te. The American Commissioners now repeat that their proposal for the ces- 
sion of the Philippines is neither based noJ^ alleged to be based upon a specific con- 
cession of Spanish sovereignty in tne Protocol, but upon the right secured to the 
United States by that instrument to make in the negotiations for peace such de- 
mands on the subject as it should then deem appropriate under the circumstances. 
The only obligation therefore now resting upon the American Cummissiouers is to 
show not that their proposals in regard to the Philippines iU-e founded on the Pro- 
tocol, in the same sense as their demands in the case of Cul>a. Porto Rico, and 
Guam, but that those proposals are embraced within the right thereby expressly 
secured to the United States to make demands in the future. 

In the light of this plain ajid simple proposition, which is sustained not only by 
the Protocol It.seif, but by every document referred to or quoted in the present dis- 
cussion, how idle and unavailing is the charactei-ization of the present demands of 
the United States as "tardy," as well as the insinuation that that Government in 
postponing, with the express concurrence of Spain, the formulation of its de- 
majids, was guilty of a want of "fninknessl" 

Tlie Americ-an Commissioners are gratified to find in the passages quoted in the 
Spanish memorandum from Mr. Cambon's reports of his conferences with the Presi- 
dent, the amplest confirmation of their position. Those reports, as quote<I by the 
Spanish Commissioners, show that the Spanish Government, far from asking, in 
any proper sense of the word, "explanations" of the phrase "control, disposition and 
government," fully understood Its meaning, and sought but failed to obtain a lim- 
itation of it. Indeed, there is not to he found from first to last a suggestion that if 
the words "control, disposition and government" were allowed to stand they did 
not embrace the amplest right to deal with Spanish sovereignty in the islands. 
In this relation it is the duty of the American Commissioners to notice the fact 

164 



tb.it the Spanish mcnimanauiii. iii CMmparin;; the irp.Mts "f Mr. C«inl)on with those 
quoted bv the Ainerk-aii C.iumissioiu.rs. ii.Iiirij.ies that the former are entith-.l to 
prefereiH-e bis-aiise they were .•onteini)oraiieoiis. Hut the record quoted by the Ainer- 
lean (V>inmlssl,.ners was also eoiueuiporai'eous. and was imide by the Secretary of 
State under the supervision of the President himself. With this observation, the 
American Coinmlssloners will pursue their arsunient. 

In his ri-port of the conversation of the auh of .luly. .Mr. (anibon is quoted as 
sfitinv' that "the President of the Kepubllc was llrni in not chansins the teniis of 
Article III.." but that, as the result v.f an appeal to his generosity, he consented to 
substitute the word "dispivsitlou" for "possession." 

"Ihe Americaai Oiinmisslouers have already stated that the President refused to 
ohnnse the word "pos.sesslon" except for a word of equally extensive meanius. and 
that the reason for >vhich Mr. Cambon was understood to desire the chanjje was 
that the word "possession" would, when translated into Spanish, seem to be of a 
severe and threatening nature. The meaninj; .if Mr. Cambon. as defined in his 
report to the Spanish (Jovernment, was that the word "disposition" did not "pre- 
judge" the i-e.sult of the negotiations, and that it had n.>t so "comprehensive" a 
meaning as the word "possession." 

Tlie American Commissioners arc unable to concur in Mr. Camlxin's estimate 
of the relative comprehensiveness of the>,e two English words; but they a.rc obliged 
to point out. as a matter more material to the present discussion, that he docs not. 
as the Spanish Commissioners affirm, allege that he "accepted the change becausi' 
.he understood that all question about the sovereignty of Spain over the Pliiliiiplne 
Islands was thereby eliminated." On the contrary, his only claijn is that the word 
. "disposition" did not "prejudge" the "result" of the "negotiation." His under- 
standing tlierefore appears to have been precisely the opposite of that ascribed to 
, him in the Spanish memorandum. 

That this is the case is confirmed beyond all peradventure by the unsuccessful 
■pfforts subse(iucntly made by Mr. Caniboii. under instruction of the (Jovernment at . 
.Madrid, to obtain a limitation of the AmiM-ican demand, as it then and has ever 
:,since stood, that the treaty of peace should determine "the control, disposiiion and 
.government of the Philippines." 

The telegram of the Spanish Governmi'ut to Mr. Cambon. in relation to tljLs de- 
mand has now for the first time been dischised to representa.tives of the Govern- 
. nient of the United States. What other instructions Mr. Cambon may then have 
,.had in hi.s possession, it is not material to conjecture. But. according to his own 
.'report, as quoted in the Spanish memorandum, he requested the President, in th(? 
interview of the 3d of August, ."to have the kindness to state as precisely as possi- 
ble his intentions in regard to the Philippine Islands. On this point." continues 
.Mr. Cambon, "I told him 'the .answer of the Federal Government is couched in 
terms that may lend themselves to all claims on the part of the United St.-iles. and 
consequently to all apprehensions of Spain in regard to her sovereignty." " 

Here is a clear declaration of Mr. Cambon that the phrase "control. di'siJosition 
.and government." admitted of "all claims" on the part of the United State.s. and 
that it created apprehensions on the part of Spain in regard to her "sovereignty;" 
and he asked, not for an "explanation" of the phrase, but for a statement by the 
President, as "precisely as ix>s.<ible." of his "intentions." In other words. Mr. Cam. 
bon. acting under the instructions of the Spanish Government, endeavored to ob- 
tain at that time a statement of the demands which the United States would niake 
in regard to the sovereignty of Spain, and thereby at least an implied limitation of 
the rights in that regard. The reply of the President, as reported by Mr. Cambon. 
shows that he was firm in his determination both to retain the precise words of the 
demand and the full liberty of action which they secured. On this sub.iect the Pres- 
ident, as reported by Mr. CamlKm. declared that he did not want "any misunder- 
standing to remain;" nothing was decided as against either Government; the nego. 
tiators of the treaty of peace must determine the matter. 

This is fr<5m first to last the sum and substance of Mr. Cambon's reports, as 
quoted in the Spanish memorandum. The recurrence in tliat memorandum to Mr. 
Cambon-s apparently ciusual use of the words "peruianent advantages." as an evi- 
dence that sovereignty was not in questiim. when he himself declares that the 
words "control, disposition and government" lent themselves to "all claims" .ind 
tlierefore raised apprehension as to Spain's "sovereignty." discloses the infirmity 
of the i-ontention in which the argument is employed. Indeed, the words "perma- 
nent .idvantages" are not in the ctmtext of Mr. Caml>on Invested with the impor- 
tance which tlie Spajiish memorandum now ascribes to them. As the .\merican 
Commissioners pointed out on a previous occasion, it is not pretended that Mr. 
Cambon attempted to report the original words of the President, who spoke in 
English; and. Immediately after attributing to the President words which he trans- 
.Uites by the tenus "permanent advantages." Mr. c.imbon narrates the Pr.>sidenfs 
undoubted rte<laration that the "con! ml. disposition and government" iif the Phil- 
ippines must be determined in the treaty of peace, in advance of which the case 
was not to be considered as ilecided againsf either Government. 

165 



In his report of the interview of the 9th of August. Mr. Cambon. as quoted in 
the Spanish memorandum, states that, when the note of the Spanish Government 
of the 7th of that month, in reply to the American demands, was read, the Presi- 
dent and the Secretary of State were visibly displeased, and that, after a long si- 
lence the President objected to that part of the reply which related to the evacu- 
ation of Cuba and Porto Kiico. The Spanish memorandum declares that neither the 
President nor the Secretary of State advanced any uther reason than this f<jr their 
displeasure, and that, '•according to Mr. Cambon, these gentlemen siiid nothing dur- 
ing the conversation respecting the said reservation made by Spain of her sov- 
ereignty over the archipelago." As no direct assertion to this effect by Mr. Cam- 
bon is quoted, the American Commissioners are obliged to assume that he made 
none, and that the statement in the Spanish memorandum is a mere inference from 
an omission to report what was said on the subject of the Philippines. This omis- 
sion may be accounted for by the fact that Mr. Cambon, although he had previously 
declared that the American demand admitted of "all claims" on the part of the 
United States, expressed and maintained the opinion that the Spanish reply fully 
accepted it. and therefore left nothing in that regard to be conceded, while in re- 
spect of the demand for the evacuation of Cuba and Porto Rico, which was to be 
immediate, the reservation by Spain of the approval of the Cortes, which was not 
then in session, presented an obstacle to an agreement. This objection he deemed 
It necessary to report, since it required, in his own opinion, a modilieation of Spain's 
reply to the American demands. But whatever may have been the cause of the 
omission, it Is a fact that no small part of the "visible displeasure" of the Presi- 
dent and the Secretary of State arose from the apparent design, upon which com- 
ment was duly made, in some way to limit the scope of the demand in regard to 
the Philippines— a design then as ever afterwards frustrated. In the opinion of the 
American Commissioners the note in question was fax from "explicit;" nor can it 
be maintained that the President, while hearing that note with "visible displeas- 
ure" and adhering with "real stubbornness ' to the phrase "control, disposition and 
government," because It "prejudged" nothing, at the same time accepted the words 
of limitation. 

But what does Mr. Cambon saor as to the introduction of the subject of the 
Protocol, which had not previously been suggested? After further conversation the 
President, as reported by Mr. Cambon, said; "There might be a means of putting 
an end to all misunderstanding; we migiit draw up a pro.iet, which shall reproduce 
the conditions proposed to Spain in the same terms in which I have already framed 
them, and which shall establish the terms within which there shall be named on 
the one hand the Plenipotentiaries charged with negotiating the treaty of peace in 
Paris, and on the other hand the special Commissioners entrusted with the determi- 
nation of the details of the evacuation of Cuba and Porto Rico." 

The American Commissionei-s are unable to perceive the "immense difference" 
between tills version of the President's words and that given in their own paper. The 
President suggests a means for putting an end, not to any particular misunder- 
standing, but to "all misunderstanding." And how does he propose to do this? By 
drawing up a Protocol, which "shall reproduce the conditions proposed to Spain." 
not with qualiflcations, reservations, or explanations, but "in the same terms in 
which I have alread.v framed them." There was not, nor could there be. any mis- 
apprehension as to the meaning and effect of these words, nor was any betrayed in 
the telegram, heretofore quoted b.v the Americ-an Commissioners, in which Mr. Cam- 
bon advised the Spanish Government that the Government of the United States had 
"decided to state precisely (preclser), in a Protocol, the bases upon which peace 
negotiations must, in its judgment, be entered upon." 

With this telegram Mr. Cambon communicated the text of the Protocol: and if 
his telegraphic summary of the note of the Secretary of State of the 10th of Au- 
gust was, as the Spanish Commissioners admit, inaccurate, it is equally true that 
his previous telegram conveyed with no uncertainty the purpose of the United States 
in requiring the adoption of a Protocol. 

If the fact were less clear than it is. that the refusal of the President to .accept 
the Spanish reply of the 7th of August as in any respect a satisfactory answer to 
the demands of the United States, gave rise to the Protocol, the American Commis- 
sioners would deem it proper to examine in detail the references to that note In the 
Spanish memorandum. But they will, under the circumstances, merel.v advert to the 
statement that Spain in the paragraph relating to the Philippines explicitly "re- 
served" her sovereignty over the archipelago, the implication being that she ex- 
pressly withdrew it from the sphere of negotiation. The language of the note Is, 
however, that "the Spanish Government must declare that, while accepting the 
third condition, they do not a priori renounce the sovereignty over the archipel- 
ago." This language, instead of withdrawing the sovereignty from discussion. Im- 
plies that it may. as the result of the negotiations, be necessary to renounce it. 
The American contention, however, dops not require further analysis of the note 
of August 7 than has been given in this and the pnceding memoranda of the 

166 



Anipriinii ('iiininissiiini'is. It was rejectfil liv I lio rrt'sldi'iit. ami the llnal agree- 
ment of the parties iMMlnccd to the clear and nnequivocal terms of the Protocol. 

The Spanish Coininissinners enili'aver lo ar^iie that there could have been no 
Intention to Include in the powers of this .Joint Commission the question of the 
sovereignty ot the rhilipplnes, becaaee tin' Secretary of State of the United States, 
In his note of the 30th of July last. aft.T statins the demands ot his Government, 
added: "If the terms hereby offered are aeei'pted in their entirety. Commission- 
ers will be named by the United States to meet similarly authorized Commis- 
sioners on the part of Spain for the porpose of settliu); the details of the treaty of 
peace and signiiif and delivering It under Ihe terms above Indicated." Is the "un- 
expressed demand" of the United States. Inquire the Spanish Commissioners, for 
the cession of an immense territory, unilerstood by tlie American Commissioners 
to be a detail of the treaty of peace? 

The American Commissioners have ui ciithculty in replying that they do so 
understand it. but not in the sense whicli ilie (piestion implies. It is evident that 
the Spanish memorandum seeks to construe i.lie language of the Secretary of State 
as if he liad used in connection with the word "details" the word "unimportant." 
and actually proposed to refer to the Commissioners the settlement of only "nulin- 
portant details." It should seem unneees.^.iry to say. however, that In speaking of 
"details" he merely referred to the particulars of the treaty as considered separately 
and in relation to the whole. It can hardly be supposed that if the two Governments 
had intended that the negotiations of tiie treaty of peace should be occupied with 
details of little importance, they would each have sent live commlssiouers to a neu- 
tral capital for the purpose of arranging them. 

But it is argued by the Spanish Commissioners that the words "control, disposi- 
tion and government," even taken by themselves, do not comprehend the subject 
of soveri-iguty, but merely that of governnu'utal "reforms." To the American Com- 
missioners such an interpretation Is Incomprehensible. If nothing but "reforms" 
had been intended. It could never have o;eurred to either party to employ for that 
purpose three words none of which expressed its meaning, while each ot them con- 
tained a broader one. On the other hand, the use of the word "sovereignty" in 
conjunction with the words aetnally employed was unnecessary, while, if used 
alone, it would have defeated the very object of postponing the whole subject of the 
Philippines for future determination. "Control, disposition and government" in- 
cluded everything. "Soverelguty" would have excluded everything but itself, and 
have left to future determination merely the question of Its own existence, su- 
preme and unconditional. In the event of the United States desiring to take only 
a part of the archipelago, such a limitation of the scope of the negotiations would 
have been injurious to both parties. 

The Spanish Commissioners, however, have sought to restrict the meaning of 
the words "control, disposition and government." by an appeal to the French text. 
Into which the original English was translated; and as the French word "controle," 
by which "control" was translated, bears a signiUcance less extensive than the lat- 
ter, they seem to contend that all the other words, both in the English and in the 
["rench text, should be reduced lo harmony with It. 

To the Amerieau Commissioners, this argument appears to involve the elimina- 
tion of the entire English text and of the greater part of the French. It first 
strikes out, as at least superfluous, the English words "disposition and government," 
and the L'reneh words "disposition et gouvernement," and then limits the meaniug 
of the English "control" to that of the French "controle." It thus virtually reduces 
the stipulation to the single French word last mentioned. By no principle of con- 
struction can this process be defended. 

The American Commissioners are therefore, for the reasons which they have 
stated, compelled to maintain that by the plain and comprehensive terms of the 
Protocol, as construed in their normal sense and In the light of all the circumstances 
of its adoption, the future of the Philippines was left. In the fullest measure, to 
the determination of this Joint Commission. 

This conclusion renders it necessary to answer Ihe proposals of the Spanish Com- 
missioners for the resignation by this Commission of its i>eacemakiug functions un- 
der the I'rotocol of the llith of August, and the transfer to other persons of the duty 
ot determining the question now particularly before It. 

The Spanish Commissioners propose that the .loint Commission, shall, instead of 
disposing of the question of the I'hilippines. adopt one of the following courses: 

I. Remit that question to the two Governments, for :uijustment. if possible, by 
direct negotiation; or 

II. Advise those Governments to submit It to an arbitration, in which the true 
sense of Articles III. and VI. shall be determined. 

To the llrst of these proposals it Is sufficient to reply that both Governments have 
by the solemn engagement of the Protocol committed to their direct reiiresenta- 
tivcs here assembled the duty of concluding a definitive treaty of peace which shall 

167 



detfi-mine thf (lesrtiny of the archipelago. That these representatives shall, after 
weeks of patient investigation and interchange of views in oral discussion and writ- 
ten argument, surrender their taslj unaccomplished to other representatives of the 
same Governments, is a suggestion which cannot be s-erious]y entertained. Indeed, 
the memorandum of the Spanish Commis-fioners frankly admits that in the event of 
a new disagreement the situation would he ili' same cs lihat which now eeufronts 
the Paris conference. 

It Is equally futile now to invite arbilr:it-Mi as tr the meaning of terms plainly 
expressed in the Protocol. "To avoid mi^uiMlerstanoiug," as the United States de- 
clared in its note of the 10th of August, the precise agreement of the two Govern- 
ments was put into a concise and simpl ■ form. Shall it be said that this Joint 
Commission is incapable of interpreting the viM-y compact nnder which It has assem. 
bled? The principle of international arbitration can .have no application to such a 
case. To avoid war no governmeut. it is believed, will do or suffer more than the 
one which the American Comniisioiiers have the honor to rei)resent In this confer- 
ence. Unfortunately no way for arbitration was opened before the actual conflict 
began. Arbitration, as we have had occasion heretofore to observe, precedes war. to 
avoid its horrors: it does not i-ome after the trial by battle to enable either party 
to escape its consequences. 

The American t'i>mmissioners. feeling that this body must accept the responsibili- 
ty of reaching conclusions, must decline to ask the assistance of an arbitrator. It is 
true that the very coL:stif.ition of a joint commission like the [.resent presupposes 
a possible irreconcilable difference of opinion of representatives of one nation opposed 
to others of equal number and authi ity. In such an event, nothing remains but for 
one of the contesting parties to yield its r,iinions in order that a reaceful solution 
may be reached. In the present case the American Commissionei-s have determined 
to make concessions to the extent embodied in the proposals which will conclude this 
memorandum. 

The United States is accused by the Spanish ( 'onmiissioners of harsh and severe 
measures in dealing with a discomfited enem.r. In the light of events which led to 
and characterized the war, no less than historical precedents which might be cited, 
this charge is found to be entirely groundless. 

For half a century the attempts of the Cubans to overthrow the sovereignty of 
Spain over the Island, within a hundred miles of the shores of the United States, have 
produced serious disturbances in that country, grave and constant interference with 
its commerce, and frequent danger of the rupture of friendly relations with Spain. 
How could the conditions existing in the island be otherwise than of vital concern 
to us? The Cubans were our neighbors, with whom our relations were necessarily 
intimate and extensive; and they had been engaged in a struggle for independence 
witJi stronger reasons than existed in our own case when we rebelled against the 
mother country. The revolution of 1895. like the prior attempts at independence, 
entailed upon us heavy burdens. It made it necessary to patrol our coasts, to tax 
both civil and military resources in order to detect and prevent expeditions from our 
shores in the iuterests of the insurgents, and to repress the natural sympathy of 
our citizens, while we remained passlre witnesses of misery, bloodshed and starvation 
in a laud of plenty almost within sight of our borders. .\t length came the destruc- 
tion of the battleship Maine In the harbor of Havana, with the loss of 266 of her 
crew. While we may not attribute, this catastrophe to the direct act of a Spanish 
official, it betrayed, in the opinion of the United States, such neglect or inability on 
the part of Spain to secure the safety of the ship of a friendly nation in the princi- 
pal harbor of the island as to induce Congress to recite it as an outgrowth of condi- 
tions which required our iuterveutl-ui. 

War ensued: and in less than four mouths nearly all the ports of Cuba were 
blockaded. Santiago was taken, the Spanish fleets in the West Indies and the Philip- 
pines destroyed. I'orto Rico was about to surrender. .Manila was on the point of 
capitulating, and all the colonies of Spain lay practically at the mercy of the United 
States. This recital is made, not in an unbecoming spirit of triumph, but because it 
exhibits the conditions that existed, and the advant.ages that the United States en- 
joyed, when, lU'eferring peace to war, it agreed to the Protocol. 
'' The Spanish Commissioners in their memorandum have in diplomatic words ex- 
pressed their surprise at our want of magnanimity to a defeated country. How does 
the ease appear in the light of wliat li.is been stated? We might have demanded 
from Spain indemnity In money for the C'st of the war, which, even if no unfore- 
seen contingencies occur, will have amounted to $240,01X1,000, at the close of the pres- 
ent calendar year, to say nothing of further expenses which will be required under 
the laws of the United States existing .at the outbreak of the war. We might have 
required compensation for our injuries and losses, national as well as individual, 
prior to the outbreak of the war. Yet we have asked for no money. From the re- 
linquishment iif Sjiauish sovereignty in Cuba we derive no compensation. Porto 
Kico, Guam ami the Philippines will bring burd'-ns as well as benefits, and, regarded 

168 



siinply as Unli'iiinii.v. will Iji- iiiossly iiKidi/wiiiitf to (.■oiijpoiisiUf iliv I'liiu-d States for 
tlio mere poL-uuiiu-y (.ost of lliu war: ^ii.J, .yot. l,ii spite of all this, for tlie salie of 
peace, we propose to lualje to Spain llbecul yniW"':"*!'^^'"^- ^"^'- "'"^ ^'^ J"*"'' <''>a''se<l 
witli abuse of our opportunities, or with takius \inijue advantage of the misfortunes 
of an adversary? The Ami-i;iea.u Couunlsaic/ui'rs can perceive no ground for such a 
charge. t)n the lontrary. l.liey thinli tiiat I lie .'Spanish Coniuilssioners should accept 
our terms at once, and restore peace bclwcM'n the two counlrlcs. 
/ Even if the United States were disposed to permit Spanish sovereignty to remain 

' over the I'liiiiiipines. and to leave to Spain the resloration of peace and order iu the 
Islands, could It now in honor do so? The Spanish Commissl.mers have, themselves. 
In an earlier stage of these negotiations, sjioken of tiie I''lllpluos as our allies. This Is 
not a relation which the Government of tlie (nlted States intended to establish; but 
It must at least be admitted that the insurgent ciiiefs returned and ri'sumed their 
activity with the consent of our miiitaiT and naval commanders, who permitted them 
to arm with weapons which we iiad captured from tiic Spaniards, and assured them 
of fair treatment ami justice. Should wc be justitied in now surrendering these 
people to the Government of Spain, even under a proml.se of .•luinesty. which we 
know tliey would not accept? 

If, on the other hand, the United States shoulii be content to retain Luzon alone, 
could anytlilng but trouble be expected from the division of the group? Would not 
contrasts in government, in modes of administration, and in tlie burdens of taxation, 
in dilTerent islands lying so closely together, but largely iidiabited by kindred peo- 
ples, produce discontent among the inhabitants? If the natives of the islands that 
remained under Sjianish rule should, as doubtless would be the case, continue in in- 
surrection, would not the natives of the American islands endeavor to help them, by 
fitting out hostile expeditions and furnishing arms and supplies? Would not com- 
plaints then be made by one Government agains-t the other, leading to crimination 
and recrimination and probably in the enil to .inotlii'r international war? 

The situation that has arisen in the rhiilpiiines was neither foreseen nor desired 
by the United States, but. since it exists, that Government does not shirk the respon- 
sibilities growing out of if. and the .\merican Commissioners now make to the Span- 
ish Commissioners, in the light of those responsibilities, a tinai proposition. 

The proposal presented by the American Commissioners in behalf of their Govern- 
ment for the cession of the Pliilippines to the United States having been rejected by 
the Spanisii Commissioners, and the counter-proposal of the latter for the with- 
drawal of the American forces from the Islands and the payment of an indemnity by 
the United States to Spain having been rejected by the American Commissioners, the 
American Commissioners, deeming it essential tliat tlie present negotiations, which 
have already been greatly protracted, should be brought to an early and definite 
conclusion, beg now to present a new proposition embodying the concessions which, 
for the ssike of innuediate peace, their Govciniiient is under the circumstances will- 
ing to tender. 

The Government of the United States is unabii^ to luoilify the proposals hereto- 
fore mjule for the cession of the entire archipelago of the Philippines, but the Ameri- 
can Commissioners are authorized to offer to Spain, in case tlie cession should be 
agreed to. the sum of twenty million dollars i$2(l,0(in.yO<>i to be paid in accordance 
with the terms to be fixed in the treaty of peace. 

And it being the policy of the United States to maintain in tlie rhilipplnes an 
open door to the world's commerce, the American Commissioners are prepared to In- 
sert in the treaty now in contemplation a s:ipulation to the elTect that, for a term 
of years, Spanish ships and merchandise shall he admitted into the ports of the Phil- 
ippine Islands on the same terms as .\meriean ships and merchandise. 

The American Commissioners are also authorized and prepared to insert in the 
treaty, in connection with the cessions of territory by Spain to the I'nited States, a 
provision for the mutual relinquishment of all claims for indemnity, national and in- 
dividual, of every kind, of the United States against Spain and of Spain against the 
United States, that may have arisen since the beginning of the late insurrection In 
Cuba and prior to the conclusion of a treaty of peace. 

The American Commissioners may be permitted to express the hope that they 
may receive from tile Spanish Commissioners, on or before Monday the 2Sth of the 
present month, a definite and final acceptance of the proposals herein made as to the 
Phlliiipine Islands, and also of the demands as to Cuba. Porto Rico and other Spanish 
islands In the West Indies, and Guam, in the form in which those demands have been 
provisionally agreed to. In this event It will be possible for the Joint Coutmlsslon to 
continue its sessions and to proceed to the consideration and adjustment of otfaer 
matters, including those which, as subsldi^u-y and incidental to the principal provi- 
sions, should form a part of the treaty of peace. 

In particular the American Commissioners desire to treat of religious freedom In 
the Caroline Islands, as agreed to iu l.S8i>: of the release of prisoners now held by 

169 



Sjjain for political offences in connection with the insurrections In Cuba and the 
Philippines: the acquisition of the island Tariously known as Kusale, Dalan, or 
Strong Island, In the Carolines, for a naval and telegraph station, and of cable-land- 
ing rights at other places in Spanish Jurisdiction; and the revival of certain treaties 
heretofore in force between the United States and Spain. 

True copy: 
JOHN B. MOORE. 



170 



Protocol No. 16. 



Protocolo No. 16. 



CONFERENCE 
November 28, 1898. 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 28 de Noviembre de 1898. 



i'lie oonrcreiice which was to have been 
held on the 'JSrd Instant h.Tvlng been ad- 
journed In consequence of the correspond- 
ence exchauKcd between the Presidents of 
the two Coniinlssions. which is appended 
to the present protocol. In the shape of two 
letters of the President of the Spanish 
Coiuuiisslon and the answers thereto of the 
I'resident of the Amerlcm Commission, the 
Joint Commission met to-day at two o'clock 
p. m., when there were 



Present-- 
On the part 



it the United States; 



Messrs. DAY. 

DAVIS, 

FRYE, 

GRAY, 

KEID, 

MOORE. 

FERGUS SON. 
On the part of Spain: 
Messrs. MONTERO RIOS. 

ABARZUZA. 

GARNICA, 

VILLA-URRUTIA, 

CERERO, 

OJEDA. 
The protocol of the preceding conference 
was reaii and approved. 

The I'resident of the Spanish Commis- 
sion, in a<!Cordance wlti tlie agreement pre- 
viously reached, presented to the American 
Commissioners a document containing the 
final answer of the Spanish Government to 
the proposition as to the Philippine Islands 
which till' American Commissioners pre- 
sented as (inal at the last session. 
The language of the answer is as follows: 

"The Spanish Commissioners hastened to 
lay before tlieir Government the proposi- 
tion which, as final, was presented to them 
at the last session by the American Com- 
missioners, and they are now specially au- 
thorized to give within the time designated 
and uncier the conditions expressed the re- 
ply which was requested of them by the 
-American memorandum. 

"Examinid solely in the light of the legal 
principles which have guided the action of 
the Spanish Commissioners during the 
course of these negotiations, the latter con- 
sider I he American proposition in every 
way inadmissible for the reason repeatedly 
set forth In previous documents forming a 
part of the Protocol. 

"Neither can they consider the .said prop- 
(islllons as a satisfactory form of agree- 
ment and compromise between two oppos- 

171 



Aplazada la conferencia que deblo cele- 
I'larse el dia 23 del corriente a consecnencla 
de la correspondancla camblada entre los 
I'resldentes de ambas Comlslones. que va 
anexn al acta presente. en forma de dos 
cartas del Presldente de la Comlsion espa- 
nola y del las dos contestaclones a aqnellas 
del Presidente de la Comlsion amerlcana, 
se reunieron ambas Comisiones hoy a las 
2 de la tarde hallandose 

Presentcs — 
I'or parte de los Bstados Unldos de Amer- 
ica: 
los Senores DAY. 

DAVIS. 

PRYE, 

GRAY, 

REID, 

MOORE, 

FERGUSSON. 

i'or parte de Espana: 

los Senores MONTERO RIOS. 
ABARZUZA. 
GARNICA, 
VILLA-URRDTIA. 
CERERO. 
OJEDA 

Fue ieida y aprobada el acta de la sesloo 
anterior. 

El Presidente de la Comlsion espanoia. de 
conformldad con lo acordado anteriormente, 
presenta a los Comisarlos americanos un 
document.a que contiene la contestaclon 
deflnitiva del Goblerno espanol a la propo- 
sicion sobre Filipinas, quo con caracter de 
final presentaron en la ultima seslon los 
Comisarlos americanos. 

Los terminos de dlcha contestaclon son 
Ins siguieutes: 

"Los Comisarlos espanoles se apresuraron 
a poner en conoclmlento de su Goblerno la 
proposiclcn, que con caracter de delinltiva, 
les tue presentada en la sesion ultima por 
los Senores Comisarlos americanos, y se 
hallan hoy expllcitamente autorlzados a dar 
la respuesta que dentro del plaza senalado 
y con las coudlciones expresados en el 
Memorandum americano se Ics pedla. 

"Examlnada unlcamente a la luz de los 
principios jnrldicos que ha venido Insplr- 
ando la conducta de los Comisarlos espa- 
noles durante el curso de estas negocla- 
clones, enruentran estos de todo punto In- 
admlsible la proposiclon americana, por las 
razones repetidamcnte expuestas en ante- 
riores documenlos que forman parte de 
Protocolo. 

"Tanipnco piienden conslderar dicha 
proposiclon como satisfactoria formula de 
a\enenela y transacclon entre opucstos 



iuff pnLfiplfs. since the terms which by 
wa.v of concession are offered to Spain do 
not be!ir a proper prorortion with the sov- 
ereii^ty w-'liich it is endeavored to compel 
us lo reliiuiuish in the Philippine Archl- 
peltgo. Had tJiey borne such proportion, 
Spain would have at once, for the saise of 
peace, made the sacrifice of accepting them. 
The American Commission knows that the 
Spanish Commission endeavored, although 
fruitlessly, to follow this course, goinpr so 
far as to propose arbitration for the settle- 
ment of the principal Questions. 

"Spain then Tiavin^ on her part exhausted 
all diplomatic recourses in the defence of 
whai she considers her rights and even for 
an cquiiaMe compromise, the Spanish Com- 
missioners are now aslied to accept the 
Amerionn proi>osition in its entirety and 
without further discussion, or to reject It, 
in which latter case, as the American Com- 
mission understands, the peace negotia- 
tions will end and the Protocol of Wash- 
ington will, consequently, be broken. The 
Government of Her Ma.iesty, moved by 
lofry reasons of patriotism and humanity, 
will not assume the responsibility of again 
bringing upon Spain all the horrors of war. 
In ordt-r to avoid them it resigns itself to 
the palnftil strait of submitting to the law 
of the victor, liowever harsh it may be, and 
as Spain lacks material means to defend 
the rights she believes are hers, having re- 
corded them, she accepts the only terms 
the United States offers her tor the con- 
cluding of the treaty of peace." 

This answer was delivered to the Ameri- 
can (Jntnmissioiiers and translated by their 
interpreter into English. 

The rre..,ident of the Spanish Commission 
expressed the opiiuon that, the proposition 
of tlie An.erican Conunission having been 
accepted, it was in order for the Secreta- 
ries of the two Commissions to confer and 
agree upon the form in whicb the articles 
relating to Cuba, Porto Rico and the Phil- 
ipT>ine Islands sltould be drawn up, which 
art'cies they should afterwards stibnUt to 
the Joint Commission for approval or modi- 
flcalioi:. 

The .-imcriCiUi Commissioners assented to 
his proposal, and suggested that the corre- 
spondence exchanged between the Presl- 
deiits of the two Commissions in the inter- 
val between the last and the present ses- 
sion be ai>j)ended either to this protocol or 
to the next. 

The President of the Spanish Commission 
c^incurriiig in this suggestion, it was agreed 
that the two letters which he had ad- 
dressed to the President of the American 
Commission and the answers thereto given 
by the latter be appended to the present 
protocol. 

The President of the American Commis- 
sion expressed the hope that a mutuaIl.T 
satisfactory agreement might be reached as 
to all matters other than those disposed of 
by the acceptance of the American proposi- 
tion, and, in order to hasten the conclu- 
sion of the treaty, he proposed that the 
American Commission should draw up artl- 



principios, pues las condiciones que a titulo 
de concesion se ofrecen a Espana, no guar- 
dan ninguna proporcion con la sol>eranla a 
ijue se uos quiere obligar a reunuclar en el 
Archipielago Filipino. Si la hubleran guar- 
dado, hubiese hecho Espana desde luego el 
sacriflcio de aceptarlas en aras del deseo de 
la paz, Consta a la Comision americana 
que la espanola intento, aunque sin exito, 
entrar en esta via, Uegando hasta proponer 
el arbitrage para la resoloclon de las cne»- 
Tiones principales. 

"Agotados ques, por parte de Espana, 
todos los recursos diplomatlcos para la 
defensa del que considera su derecho, y ann 
para una equitativa transaccion, se exlge 
hoy a los (^misarios espanoles que acepten 
en oonjunto y sin mas discusiones la propo- 
sicion americana, o due la rechacen, en 
cu.vo caso, quedarlan terminiidas, segun 
entiende la Comision americana, las nego- 
ciaciones para la paz y roto por consl- 
guiente el Protocolo de Washington. Bl 
fiobiemo de S. M. movido por altas razones 
de patriotismo y de humanidad no ha de 
incurrir en la responsabilidad de desatar 
de nuevo sobre Espana todos los horrores 
de la guerra. Para evitarlos se resigna al 
doioroso trance de someterse a la ley del 
vencedor, por dura que esta sea, y como 
carece Espana de medios materiales para 
defender el derecho que cree le aslste, una 
vez ya considnado, acepta las unlcas con- 
diciones que los Estados Uuidos le ofrecen 
para la conclusion del tratado de paz," 

Es entregada dicha contestacion a los 
Cnmisarios americanos y vertlda al ingles 
por su Interprete. 

El Fresidente de la Comision espanola 
maniiiesta que aceptada la proposiclon de 
la Comision americana procederia en sn 
sentir que los Secretaries de ambas Com- 
i.siones se puserian de acuerdo para la 
redaccion de los articulos referentes a 
Cuba. Puerto Rico y Filiplnas, que some- 
terian luego a la Comision en pleno para 
que esta los aprobase o modiflcase. 

Asiuute :i ello la C-oinlsion americana y stl 
Presidente propone que la correspondencia 
cambiada entre los dos Presidentes en el 
intervale entre la ultima y la presents 
sesicm scan anexas a esta acta o a la 
proxima. 

El Presidente de la Comision espanola es 
de la misma opinion, y se acuerda que las 
dos cartas que ha dirigido al Presidente de 
la Comision americana y las dos contesta- 
ciones de este sean anexas al acta presente. 



El Presidente de la Comision americana 
maniiiesta su esperanza de que pueda 
llegarse ahora a un acuerdo satisfactorio 
respecto de los demas pimtos subsidiaries 
de su proposiclon, aparte de los que han 
side ya acei>tados, y dice que con objeto de 
apresurar la conclusion del tratado, se 
propone redactar los demas articulos y 

172 



cies auil I'lH'Scnt them at the uext confer- 
ence lo be orally discussed, thus avoiding 
the presentation of memoranda which 
would delay the necotlatlons. 

The rresldent of the Spanish Commlsson 
answered that the form In which the Amer- 
ican Commissioners should desire to pro- 
ceed was loft entirely to their choice and 
that he had noihinR to suKt'est in this re- 
spect; and he also expressed the opinion 
tliat the rresentafon of memoranda would 
be unnecessary, except in some special case 
which inisht occur. Ho proposed that the 
meetlnor should be adjourned until the Sec- 
retaries should have drawn up the draft of 
articles prevlousl.v mentioned by him. 

The President of the American Commis- 
sion concurred in this proposal and, be'ng 
desirous also to present the articles refer- 
rini; to the subsidiary points of the treaty 
.It the next session, he moved that that 
session should be held on Wednesday, the 
30th instant, at two o'clock p. m. 

The rresideut of the Spanish Commission 
Concurred in th's proposi\l. and requested 
the American Commission to hasten as 
much as practicable their proceedings, so 
us to terminate at the earliest possible mo- 
ment the labors of the Commission. 

The session was accordingly adjourned 
till Wednesday, (he 30th Instant, at two 
o'clock p. ni. 

Signed: WILLIAM R. DAY. 

rUSHMAN K. DAVIS. 
WM. P. FRYE, 
GEO. GRAY. 
WHITEI.u4W REID. 
inilN !;. MOOKE. 



presintarlos en la pro.tlma conferencin para 
ser discutidos oralmente, evltandose asl la 
presentaclon de Memoranda que retrasarla 
las uogoclaclones. 

EI Presidente de la Comlslon espanola 
contesta que la forma en que deseen pro- 
ce<ler los Comlsarios amerlcanos queda 
conipletamente a su elecclon, y qne nada 
tiene por tanto que sugerir. al respecto, 
siendo asimismo de opinion que huelga la 
preseniaiii>n de Memoranda al respecto, 
salvo algnn caso especial que pudlera 
c)currlr, y propone que se levante la seslon 
y se aplacp la nueva reunion hasta que los 
Sei retarios puedon redactar el proyecto 
dp iirtlcniado. 

El Presidente de la Comlsion amerlcana 
haoe asimismo esta reserva y deseando 
preseutar el artlculado referente a los 
puntos subsidiaries del tratado en la prox- 
ima seslon. propone que esta tenga Ingar 
el mlercoles 30 del presente a las 2. 

El Presidente de la Comlslon espanola 
convlene en one asi sea y ruega a los 
Cflmisarios amerlcanos que apresuren en lo 
posible sus procedlmlentos a fin de qne 
treminen cuanto antes las tareas de la 
Comlsion. 

En eonsecnencia queda aplazada la prox- 
ima seslon para el mlercoles 30 del coniente 
a las 2 p. m. 

Firmado: E. MONTERO RIOS. 
B. DE ABARZUZA. 
J. DE GARNICA. 
W. R. DE VILLA-ARRDTIA. 
RAFAEL CERERO. 
BMILIO DE OJEDA. 



173 



Annex 1 to Protocol No. 16. 



COMISION 
Para la Negociacion de la Paz Con los Estados TJnidos. 



Sr. D. William R. Day. 
Muv Senor mio. 
a" fin dP que pueda csta Comlslon y tn su caso ol Goblerno deS. M. C. deliborar con 
pleno y exacto conocimiento de sii sentido sobre la proposlclon con que termlna el 
llemoranduni presentado en la sesion de nyn- por la Comlslon que diguamente 
presldis. y que acaba de tradiiolrse al es;):inol. nie es necesarlo rogaros que, con la 
iirgonciaque os sea poslble, <is slrvals, si os parece convenlente, aclarar el concepto 
de los puntos sigulentes de dicha proposiolon. cuya Intellgencla es para mi obscura y 

Taga : 

PRIMERO. La proposlclon qne hacels descansa sabre la base de que las colonlaB 
cspanoles ban de pasar Ilbres de toda carga, quedaudo por couslgulente todas, abso- 
lutamente todas. las obllgaciones y deudas colonlales pendientes. de cualquler daae 
que ellas sean y cualquiera que haya sldo su origen y objeto, a cargo excluslvamente 

de Espana? 

SEGUNDO. El otrocimiento que los Estados Unidos hacen a Espana de establecer 
Igualdad de condiciones durante cierto numero de anes en los quertos del Archiple- 
lago entre los buques y mercancias de ambas naciones. ofreelmiento que se hace pre- 
cedar de la afirmacion do qne la polltlca dc los Estados Tnidos es mantener en las 
FUipinas la puerta abicrta al comercio del mundo debe entenderse en el sentido de 
qUe ins buques y mercaneias de las demas naciones ban de gozar o poder gozar de ia 
mlsma situaclon que por cierto tiempo se oonceda a los de Espana, mientras los Es- 
tados Unidos no cambien dicba polltlca? 

TERCERO. Habiendo oonsignado el Sr. Secretarlo de Estado, en la nola de 30 de 
Julio ultimo, que ia cesion por Espana de la Isla de Puerto Rico y de otras Islas 
actualmente bajo su soberania en las Indias Occidentales, asi como de una en las 
Ladrones. era en compensacion de las perdidas y gastos heehos por los Estados Uni- 
dos, durante la guerra. y dc los danos que sus cludadanos habian sufrido durante ia 
ultima insurrecclon de Cuba, cuales son las reclamaciones a que se reflere ia propo- 
siclon, al exigirse en eila que en el tratadn se ha de insertar una dlsposiclon sobre 
el abandono mutuo de todas las reclamaciones individuales y nacionales surgldas 
desde el principio de la ultima insurreci .n en Cuba hasta ia conclusion del tratado 
de paz? 

CI'ARTO. Al decirse que en .■! tratad ■ se ba de convenir sobre la libertad de log 
detenidos por Espana por di'litos politicos relacionados con las Insurrecciones de Cuba 
y Fillplnas. se quiere dar a entender que a ia vez no se ha de convenir sobre la liber- 
tad de los prisloneros espanoles que estan en poder de las fuerzas americanas y de 
sus auxiliares los Insnrrectos de Cuba y FUipinas? 

QUIXTO. Tambien se ha de convenir en el tratado sobre la adqulslcion por los 
Estados Unidos del derecho de amarre de cables en otros sitlos bajo la jurlsdiccion de 
Espana. En que region estan dlchos slHo-<? Esta frase, compreude solamente los 
territories de Espana en el Orlente o tamliii'n en la Peninsula? 

SEXTO Se dice aslmismo que se renovarau clertos tratados que hasta ahora estu- 
vieron en vigor entre los Estados Tnldos y Espana. Cuales son estos tratados? 

Y finalmente. SEPTIMO. Dicen los Cimisarios americanos que si los espanoles 
aeeeptan final y concretamente su proposlclon y las anterlores sobre Cuba, Puerto 
Rico y demas islas, sera poslble a la Comision en pleno contlnuar sus sesiones y pro- 
ceder al estudio y arreglo de otros puntos. slgnlflcan estas frases que si la Comision 
espanola no accepta final y concretamente dichas proposiciones. sin modlfieaclon sus- 
tanelal, la Comision en pleno no contlnuara sus sesiones? 

Os raego y encarezco la resoluclon de estas dudas. si lo tenels a bleu, sobre la 
Intellgencla de vuestra proposlclon, lo mas pronto que os sea poslble, para qne la 
Comision espanola pneda dar en aeslon de la Comision en pleno la contestaclon qoe 
considere precedente. 

Aceptad, Senor, os lo ruego. el testlra..nio de mi distinguida consideracion. 

Firmado: E. MONTERO RIOS. 
Paris. 22 de Noviembre de 1S98. 



175 



(Annex 1 to Protocol No. 16.) 



COMMISSION 
FOE THE NEGOTIATION OF PEACE WITH THE UNITED STATES. 



mi;. WILLJA.M K. DAY, 
M.v Dear Sir: 

lu order that this Cuuimissiun aud, if iR'L'i.'s.sai.v. the Government of H. C. M., 
may stmly -nitli a fuli and exact knowledge tlie proposition wliicli closes the memo- 
randum presented at yesterday's session by the Commission you worthily head, the 
translation into Spanish of which has jusl been completed, it becomes necessary to 
beg you that with all possible haste you will be pleased to malie clear the meaning 
of the foliowins points of said proposition, which to me is obscure and vague: 

riR.ST. Is the proposition yon make based on the Spanish colonies being trans- 
ferred free of all burdeus, all. absolutely all outstanding obligations and debts, of 
whatsoever kind and whatever may have been their origin and purpose, remaining 
tliereby chargeable exclusively to Spain? 

SKCOXD. Is the otter made by the United States to Spain to establish for a cer- 
tain number of years similar conditions in the ports of the archipelago for vessels 
and merchandise of both nations, an offer wh'eh is preceded by the assertion that 
the policy of the United States is to maintain an open door to the world's com- 
merce, to be taken in the sense that the vessels and goods of other nations are to en- 
joy or can enjoy the same privilege (situacio:i) which for a certain time is granted 
those of Spain, while the United States do not ciiange such policy? 

THIKIi. The Secretary of State having stated in his note of July 30 last that the 
cession by Spain of the Island of Porto Rico and the other islands now under Span- 
ish sovereignty in the West Indies, as well as one of the Ladrones, was to be as 
compensation for the losses and expenses of the United States during the war, and 
of the damages suCCered by their citizens during the last insurrection in Cuba, what 
claims does the proposition refer to ou requiring that there shall be inserted in the 
treaty a provision for the mutual relinquishment of all claims, individual and na- 
tional, that have arisen from the beginning of the last insurrection in Cuba to the 
conclusion of the treaty of peace? 

FOUIJTH. Upon stating that the treaty must contain an agreemient as to the re- 
lease of those held by Spain for political offences connected with the iusuiT.'Ctions of 
Cuba and the Philippines, is it desired that il be taken as meaning that at the same 
time there is to be no agreement as to the release of the Spanish prisoners held in 
the possession of the American forces an,l I heir auxiliaries, the insurgents of Cuba 
and the Philippines? 

FIFTH. In the treaty there is also t.> be an agreement as to the acquirement 
by the United States of cable landing privileges in other places under the jurisdic- 
tion of Spain. Where are such places? Does this sentence only include territories 
of Si;ain in the Orient, or in the Peninsula also? 

SIXTH. It is also said that certaiu treaties which were in force between the 
United States and Spain up to this time wili be revived. What are these treaties? 

And. tinally, SEVENTH. The American Commissioners say that if the Spanish 
Commissioners accept their proposition finally and definitely and the previous pro- 
piisals as to Cuba. Porto Rico and other islands, it will be possible for the Joint 
Commission to continue its sessions and jn-ocoed to the examination and arrange- 
ment of other points. Do these words mean that if the Spanish C-ommisslon does 
not finally and definitely accept said propositions without substantial modifications, 
the Joint Commission will not continue its sessions? 

I beg and earnestly request yon to settle these doubts, should you be so disposed, 
as to the meaning of .your proposition as soon as may be possible, in order that the 
Spanish Commission may. in a session of the Joint Coijimission, furnish the reply it 
nui.v deem proper. 

Accept. Sir. 1 pray yon. the expression of uiy distinguished consideration. 

Signed: K. MoNTKKO KIOS. 

Paris. .V.ivember lii. l>iOK. 



176 



Annex 2 to Protocol No. 16. 



United States and Spanish Peace Commission. 
United States Commissioners. 
Paris. 



November 22, 1S9S. 
Senor Don E. Montero Rios. 
My Dear Sir: 

H.ivius received and read your letter of lo-day. touching tlie final pi'oposltioii 
preseuted by the Amerioau Commissioners at yesteiday's couterence, I liasten to au- 
sH-er your inquiries seriatim, first stating your questicvn, and then giving my reply. 

"KIISST. Is the proposition you malse based on the Spanish colonies being trans- 
ferred free of all burdens, all, ahsoluteij all outstanding obligations and debts, of 
wb.itsoever kind and whatever may liave been their origin and purpose, remaining 
thereby chargeable exclusively to Spain?" 

Ill reply to this question, it Is proper In call attention to the fact that the Amer^ 
ican Commissioners, in their paper of yesterday, expressed the hope tliat they might 
reeeive within a certain time "a definite and final acceptance" of their propositi as to 
the I'hilippines. and also "of the demands as to i;uba, Porto Itico and other Spanish 
ishuids m the West Indies, and Guam> in ilie form in which those demands have been 
provisionally agreed to." 

The form in wliich they have thus be-'ii agreed to is found in the proposal pre- 
sented by the American Commissioners On the 17th of Oolober and annexed to the 
protocol of the I'.th conference, and is as folio vs: 

■"AUTICLE 1. Spain hereby relinquishes all claim of sovereignty over and title 
to Cuba. 

".i.UTI<LE 2. Spain hereby cedes to the United States the Island of Porto Ilico 
and other Islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, and also the 
Island of Guam in the Ladrones." 

These articles contain no provision for the .issnmption of debt by the United 
States. 

In this relation. I desire to recall the statements in which the American Commis- 
sioners hale in our conferences repeatedly declared that they would not accept any 
articles that required the United States to assume the so calle<l colonial debts of 
Spain. 

To these statements I have nothing to add. 

nut. In respect of the Philippines, the American Commissioners, while including 
the cession of the archipelago in the artlrlo in which Spain "cedes to the United 
States the Island of Porto KIco and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty In 
the West Indies, and also the Island of Guam in the I.adroues," or in an article ex- 
pressed In similar words, will agree that their Government shall pay to Spain the 
sum of twenty million dollars ($20,000,000). 

"SICCOND. Is the offer made by the T'niteil States to Spain to establish for a 
certain number of years similar conditions in tne ports of the archipelago for ves- 
sels and merchandise of both nations, an offer which Is preceded by the assertion 
that the policy of the United States Is to maintain an open door to the world's com- 
merce, to be taken in the sense that the Vessels and goods of other nations are to en- 
joy or can enjoy the same privilege (situation) which for a certain time Is granted 
those of Spain, n'oile the United States do not change such policy?" 

The declaration that the policy of the United States in the Philippines will be 
that of an open door to the world's commerce necessarily Implies that the offer to 
place Spanish vessels and merchandise on the same footing as American is not in- 
tended to be exclusive. But the offer to give Spain that privilege for a term of 
years is intended to secure it to her for a certain period by special treaty stipula- 
tion, whatever might be at an.v time the general policy of the United States. 

•TlIIUIi. The Secretary of State having stated In his note of July :» last that 
the icssii.n by Spaiu of the Island of Porto Itico and the other Islands now under 
Spanish sovereignty In the West Indies, as well as one of the Ladrones, was to be 
as compensation for the losses and expends .>f the I'nited States during the war, 
and of the damages suffered by their citl/.'-ns during the last Insurrection in Cuba, 
wliai claims does the proposition refer to on reciuiring that there shall be Inserted In 
the treaty a provision for the mutual relinquishment of all claims. indivi<liial and 
national, that have arisen from the beginning of the last insurrection In Cuba to the 
conclusion of the treaty of peace?" 

While the Idea doubtless was conveyed in the note of the Secretary of State of 
til' I'liited Slates of the .''.Otli of July last that the cession of "Porto Rico and other 

177 



i&lauds now uudei- tbe sovert'iKiity ut Siiain in tlu> Wfst Indies, and also tlii? cession 
of an Island in tlie Ladrones. to be selecte.l by tbe United States." «ms reynired on 
jjroimds of indemnity, and that "on slmilai- grounds the United States is entitled to 
oecupy and will hold the city, bay and h^alior of Manila, pending- the conelusiou of 
s\ treaty of peacs which shall determine the control, disposition and government of 
the I'liilippines." no dehnition has as yet been given of the extent or precise effect 
of the cessions iu that regard. The American i omaiissioners therefore propose, iu 
connection with the cessions of territory. ■The mutua: rtlinquishment of all claims 
for indemnity, national and individual, of every kind, of the United States against 
Spain and of .Spain against the United States, thr.t may have arisen since the be- 
giuning of tlie late insurrection in Cuba and prior to the conclusion of a treaty of 
pe.ice." 

And I may add that this offer is made by thi' Americiin Commissioners in fuU 
view of the fact that the citizens of the United Slates, having claims that come 
within the foregoing relinquishmeut. will, on the strength thereof, apply to their 
own Government for Indemnity. 

As to the fourth, fifth and sixth questions containfd in your letter, permit me to 
point out that they do not relate to matters concerning which the American Com- 
missioners st.ated that the acceptance of our proposals within the time meutioned 
would be a condition of continuing the conferences. The American Commissioners 
coiitined that condition to their proposals touching Cuba. IVrto Rico and other 
SpanLsh islands in the West Indies. Guam and the Philippines. In respect of the 
other matters referred to. they expresse 1 their readiness to "treat." In case the 
Spanish Conunissioners should remove the obstacle to so doing, by a definite aufl 
final aciceptance of the proposals above mentioned, the refusal of which w.mid render 
the continuance of the conferences impracncable. 

In what I have just said, you will flnil an answer to your seventh question. 

It does not appear to be necessary to specify at this moment the particulars of 
the subjects referred to in your fourth, fifth .md sixth questions, since, if our pro- 
posals In regard to Cuba, Porto Kico ana other Spanish islands in the West Indies, 
Guam and tlie Philippines, are not accepted, the negotiations will end. I deem it 
proper, however, even at tJie risk of seeming to anticipate, to say. so far as concerns 
the sub.iect of your fourth question, that the Amerlc.in Commissioners would expect 
to treat for the release of prisoners on the basis of absolute equality. All Spanish 
prisoners in the possession of the American forces would necessarily be released as 
the result of a treaty of peace; and the Ameiican Commissioners would be willing to 
stipulate that their Government would undertake to obtain the release of ;vll Span- 
ish prisoners in the hands of the Insurgents in Cuba and the Philippines. 

With an expression of regret that the process of translating your letter has 
somewhat delayed my reply. I beg you to accept, my dear sir, the expression of my 
<listingulsh(d consideration. 

Signed: WILLIAM It. DAY. 



178 



Annex 3 to Protocol No. 16. 



COMISION 
Para la Negociacion de la Paz Con los Estados Unidos. 



Honorable M. WlHiam R. Day, 

Presldente de la Comlsion americana para la paz con Espana. 

Muy Senor mio do nil dlstlngulda conslderaelon, 
A tin de adelantar cuanto sea posible log trabajos que por ambos Gohleruos a una 
y otra CoBiislon hail sldo encomendados, y que ya requleren una proxlnia lermlna- 
clon. ruogo a Vd., en nnuibre de esta Comlsion que se slrva proponer a la de su digna 
presklencia si esta dlspucsta a acceptar por via de transaccion sobre la soberanla del 
Archipiclago Fillpinn cualquiiTa de las ti-rs proposidones siguientcs: 

A. — "Kenuncia de Espana a su soberanla en Cuba y ceslon de Puerto Rico y 
demas Antlllas, Isla de Cuain vu las Ladrones y Archiplelago Filipino, incluso Minda- 
nao y Jolo. a los Estados Unidos, liabiendo de satlsfacer estos a Espana la cantldad 
de clen millones de dollars (.$100.0110.000) en eompensacion de su soberanla en el 
archiplelago y de las ohras de utllidad publloa ej.cutadas durante su domlnacion en 
todas las islas de Orlente y Occldente cuya soberanla renuncia y cede." 

B.— "Cesion a los Estados Unidos de la Isla Ousaye en las Carolinas, del derecho 
de niarre de un cable en cualquiera de ell.is o ip- las Marianas, mlentras sean de! 
domlnio de Espana, y del Arebiiiiclago Filipino proplamente dicho. o sea empezando 
por el Norte, de las Islas Batanes, Babuyanes, Luzon, Visayas y todas las demas que 
slguen al Sur hasta el mar de Jolo. ivservandose Espana al Sur de cste mar las Islas 
de Mindanao y Jolo. que nunea ban torniado parte del Arobipielago Filipino propia- 
niente dicho. 

Los Estados Unidos en eompensacion de las islas sobredichas, del derecho de 
amarre del cable y de las obras publioas ojecutadas por Espana en aquellas Islas 
duranto su domlnacion, abonaran a Espana la cantldad de cincuenta millones de dol- 
lars (,'i;50,000,000)." 

C— "Espana renuncia a su soberanla en Cuba y cede gratuitamente a los Estados 
Unidos el Archiplelago Filipino proplamci.te dicho. ademas de Puerto Rico y demas 
Antlllas y la Isla de Guam que cede en eompensacion de los gastos de guerra e Indem- 
nlzaclones de culdadanos americanos por danos sufrljos desde el priucipio de la ul- 
tima Insurreccion cr.bana: 

"Los Estados Unidos y Espana someteran a un tribuniil arbitral euales son las 
deudas y obligacioBos de caracter colonial, que deban pasar con las Islas cuya sober- 
anla Espana renuncia y cede," 

Ruego a Vd. que esa Comlsion se sirva deliberar sobre cada una de estas proposl- 
dones por si considera aceptable cualquiera de ellaa, comunlcandomelo si lo tiene a 
blen antes del lunes proximo 28 del corriente o tenlendo formado ya eu juicio para 
dicho dia (que es el fljado en la ultima proposicion de esa Comlsion), en que podran 
rennirse ambas en pleno a la hora acostumbrada de las dos de la tarde, y en cu.va 
seslon esta Comlsion espanola dara su deflnitiva contcstaclon, de que, segun la de la 
americana. habra de depender la continuacion o termlnaclon de estas conferencias. 
Queda de Vd. con la mayor conslderaelon atento servidor q. 1. b. 1. m. 

Flrmado: E. MONTERO RIOS. 
Paris, 2.'! de Novlembie de 1S9S. 



(Annex 3 to Protocol No. 16.) 



COMMISSION 
POR THE NEGOTIATION OF PEACE WITH THE UNITED STATES, 

Hon. WILLIAM R. DAY, 

President of the American Commission f.ir Peace with Spain. 
My Dejir and Esteemed Sir: 

In order to push to the utmost the work which has been entrusted by the two 
Oovemments to one and the other Commission and which now requires a prompt 
termination. I beg you. in the name of this Conimlsslon. to be pleased to propose to 
that worthily headed by you whether It is willing to accept, by way of compromise 
In re the sovereignty of the Philippine Archipelago, any of the three propositions 
following: 

179. 



A.— "UeliuquJshment by Spain of her scivtrfiKiity over Cuba and cession of Porto 
Kico and other Antilles, Island of Guam in the Ijadrones and the Phiiipplue Archi- 
pelago, including Mindanao and Sulu, to tue L'mted States, the latter paying to 
Spain the sum of one hundred million ($100,000,000) dollars as compensation for her 
sovereignty in the Archipelago aud the works of public utility she has executed dur- 
ing her rule in all the islands of the East aud West the sovereignty over which she 
relinquishes and cedes." 

B.— "Cession to the United States of the Island of Cusaye in the Carolines, of the 
right to land a cable on any of these or of the Marianas, wiiile they remain under 
Spanish rule, and (cesion) of the Philippine Archipelago proper, that is. beginning on 
the north, the Islands of Batanes, Babuyanes, Luzon. Visayas and all the others fol- 
lowing to the south as far as the Sulu Sea, Spain reserving to the south of this sea. 
the Islands of Mindanao and Sulu which liave never formed a part of the Philippine 
Archipelago proper. 

"The United States, as compensation lor said islands, for the right to land ca- 
bles and for the public worlis executed by Spain in said islands during her rule, will 
pay to Spain the sum of fifty million ($50,000,000) dollars." 

C— "Spain relinquishes her sovereignty over Cuba and gratuitously cedes to the 
United States the Philippine Archipelag'j proper, besides Porto Elco, the other 
West Indies and the Island of Guam, which she cedes as compensation for the ex- 
penses of the war and as indemnity to Auierican oitii-ens for injuries .suffered since 
the beginning of the last Cuban insurreciion. 

"The United States and Spain will submit to an arbitral tribunal what are tihe 
debts and obligations of a colonial character which should pass with the islands the 
Riiverelgnty over which Spain relinquishes and cedes." 

I beg viin that said Commission be pleased to deliberate over each of these prop- 
ositious so that, should it consider any one of tbem aeceptable, it may be communi- 
cated to me, should you be so disposed, before Momlay next, the 28th instant, or 
your mind being already made up, on thp.t day (which is the one set in the last 
proposition of the said Commission) when the two Commissions may meet jointly at 
the usual liour of two p. m., at which session this, the Spanish Commission, will 
give its final reply, upon which, according to the answer of the American, must de- 
pend the continuation or termination of tbese conferences. 

I remain, with the greatest consideratiuu, your obedient servant. 

Signed: E. MONTERO RIOS. 
Paris, November 23, 189S. 



ISO 



Annex 4 to Protocol No. 16. 



United States and Spanish Peace Commission. 

United States Commissioners. 

Paris. 

-'""■■ • : November 2G, ISaS. 

My Dear Sir: 
Your letter dated the 23rd Instant. In which yon propose, by way of compromise, 
the adoption of one of tlwee alternative propositions, in place of the proposition sub- 
mitted by the American Commissioners at our last conference, was not received by 
me till the evening of the 24tli. 

I lit once had it carefully translated, and. in compliance with your request, laid it 
before my associates. 

\Vp maturely considered It, and, althouL'li <im- last proposition, which was .sub- 
milted under instructions, was expressly ileelared to be final, we decided, in view 
of the importance of the subject, to communicate your proposals to our Government. 
Its answer has just been received; and. as we anticipated, it Instructs us to ad- 
iiere to the final proposition which we have alre:;dy submitted. 

It is proper lo say that my associates and m.v.self. durins the Ions course of the 
negotiations, have. In accordance with the wishes of our Government, given the 
most deliberate attention to everything lii the .vay of argunient or of suggestion 
I- that has been brought to our notice, in the hope that some basis of mutual agree- 
ment micht be found. But. unfortunately, our discussions seemed to divide as. 
iiiKillier than to bring us together, and no progress was made tOT\ard a common ac- 

Under these circumstances the American Commissioners, acting upon explicit In- 
itiUuctiOBS. offered at once, for the sake o peaie. all the concessions which their 
Government was able to malte concemin.; the parlieiilar matters embraced in the 
J>n>posltion the acceptance of which was made a condition of further negotiations. 

As I stated in my letter of the 23rd instant, if ihat proposition should be accept- 
ed, tiie matters referred to in the concluding paiagraph of the paper submitted by 
the American Commissioners at the last session, would become the subject of nego- 
tiations, and. in regard to them. T shouid hope for a mutually satisfactory arrange- 

The .Vmerican Commissioners expect to be present at the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs on Monday next for the purpose of receiving the answer to their final propo- 
sition. 

T remain, with the highest consideration, your obedient servant. 

Signed: WILLIAM R. DAY. 
Seiior Don E. Montero Rios. etc., etc., etc. 



Co 



18L 



Protocol No. 17. 



Protocolo No. 17. 



CONFERENCE 
of November 30, 1898. 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 30 de Noviembre de 1898. 



Present- 
On the part of the United States: 

Messrs. DAY, 

DAVIS, 

FRYE, 

GRAY, 

REID, 

MOORE, 

FERGDSSON. 

On the part of Spain: 

.Messrs. MONTERO RIOS. 
ABARZUZA, 
GARNICA. 
VILLA-URRUTIA, 
CERERO. 
OJEDA. 
The protocol of the preceding session was 
read and approved. 

The President of the American Commis- 
sion presented a draft of articles with ref- 
erence to the conclnsion of a definite treaty 
m the first part of which draft were in- 
cluded the articles agreed upon by the two 
Secretaries for submission to the Joint 
Commission, in relation to the matters com- 
prised in the proposition accepted by the 
.Spanish Commissioners at the last session. 
Ihe Joint Commission then proceeded to 
the consideration of the draft, article bv 
article, and, after discussing some of tlie 
article.?, decided to adjourn the session, and 
to continue the discussion at the next con- 
ference, which was fixed for Thursday, the 
1st of December, at three o'clock p. ni. 
Signed: WIIyLIAM DAY. 

CrSHMAN K. DAVIS. 
■WM. P. PRYE. 
GEO. GRAY. 
WHITELAW REID. 
JOHN B. MOORE. 



Presentes— 

For parte de los Estados Unldos de Amer- 
ica: 
los Scnores DAY, 

DAVIS, 
FRYE, 
GRAY, 
REID, 
MOORE, 
FERGUSSON. 
Por parte de Espana: 

los Senores MONTEEO RIOS, 
ABARZDZA, 
GARNICA, 
VILLA-URRDTIA, 
CERERO, 
OJEDA. 
Pue leida y aprobada el acta de la seslon 
anterior. 

El Presldente de la Comision americana 
presenta un proyecto de articulos para la 
conclusion de un tratado de paz deflnitivo. 
en cuya parte primera estan Incluldos los 
que fneron acordados entre los Secretarios 
de ambas Comlsiones para ser sometldos 
a la Comision en pleno, relatives a las 
materias eomprendidas en la proposicion 
aeeptada por los Comisarios espanoles en 
la ultima seslon. 

La Comision en pleno procedio entonces 
al examen de los articulos uno por uno y 
despues de discutir algunos de ellos. de- 
eidio levantar la seslon y continuar la dls- 
cusion en la proxima eonferencia, que se 
fijo para el Jueres 1 de Diciembre a las 
3 p. m. 

Firmado: E. MON'TEUO RIOS, 
B. DE ABARZDZA. 
J. DE GARNICA, 
M-. R. DE VILLA-URRCTIA 
RAFAEL CERERO, 
EMILIO DE OJEDA. 



ISfe: 



Protocol No. 18. 



Protocolo No. 18. 



CONFERENCE 
of December 2, 1898. 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 2 de Diciembre de 1898. 



Tho session which \v;is to have been held 
ycstprdny h.Tvlnjr been postponed by mvitual 
ajirepment. owing to a lack of time to ex- 
ninliie the niodlflcatinns and iidditlons pro- 
posed by the Spanish Coinniissioners to the 
draft of a treaty presented by the American 
Commissioners at the session of November 
30, the two Commissions met to-day at two 
p. m., there being. 

Present— 
On the part of the United States: 

Messrs. PAY. 

DAVIS, 

PRYB, 

CRAY. 

REID. 

MDORE. 

rEK.(;issox. 

On the part of Spain: 

Alessrs. MOXTERO RIOS. 
ABARZUZA. 
GARXICA. 
VILLA-fRRUTIA. 
CERERO, 
OJEDA. 
The protocol of the preceding session was 
read and approved. 

The President of the American Commis- 
sion observed that at the last session he had 
presented a draft of articles for a final 
treaty, and asked the Spanish Commis- 
sioners if they had examined it. and were 
ready to give their reply. 

The President of the Spanish Commis- 
sion answered that he had consulted his 
Government, and that he could not reply 
until he had received its instructions; but 
that. In any case, the Spanish Commission 
was not inclined to treat of subsidiary 
points as the American Commission desired, 
withotit having first disposed of all the 
points essential to the treaty of j>eace. 

The President of the American Commis- 
sion asked the President of the Spanish 
Commission -whether he could state when 
he would receive the instructions; and the 
latter replied that he would probably re- 
ceive them to-day or to-morrow. 

The American Commissioners proposed 
that the Commission proceed to the reading 
and discussion of the articles presented by 
them that were not taken up at the last 
session. The President of the Spanish Com- 
mission observed that as those articles were 



.\|da?'ida de coinun acuerdo la conferen- 
cia line debio celebrarse ayer por falta de 
ticnipo para examinar las modificaclones y 
adiciones propncstas por los Comisarlos 
cspanoles al proyecto de tratado presentado 
por los Comlsanios amerlcanos en In seslon 
del :Mt de Novlembre, reunieronse hoy a 
1ms ;; p. ni. ambas Comlsloncs. hallandose 



I'resentes — 
Por parte de 
America, 
los Senores 



los Estados Dnldos de 



lAY. 

DAVIS, 

FllYE, 

OKAY, 

REID, 

MOORE. 

FURGUSSON. 
I 'or parte de Espana: 
los Senores MONTERO RIOS. 

ABARZDZA. 

GARXICA. 

VILI^A-IRRUTIA. 
CERERO, 

OJEDA. 
l'"uc leida y aprobada el acta de la seslon 
anterior. 

EI Presidente de la Comislon americana 
recuerda que en la ultima seslon present© 
un proyecto de articulos para un tratado 
deflnitivo y pregunta a los Comisarlos es- 
panoles si lo han examinado y estan dis- 
pupstos a dar una contestaclon. 

El Presidente de la Comision espanola 
maniflesta que ha consultado a su Gobierno 
y no puede contestar hasta haber recibldo 
sus instrueciones; pero de todos modos no 
esta dispuesta la Comislon espanola a tratar 
de los puntos accesorios que desea la ameri- 
cana sin que antes se haya concluido con 
todo lo relative a lo que constituye esen- 
c.a'mente el tratado de paz. 

El I'residente de la Comision americana 
pregunta al dc la espanola si paede declrcle 
cuando recibira dichas instrueciones, y le 
Presidente de la Comislon espanola con- 
testa qne probablemente las recibira de hoy 
a manana. 

Proponen los Comisarlos amerlcanos que 
se proceda a la lectura y discusion de los 
articulos por ellos propuestos que no fuer- 
on examinados en la scsion anterior; y el 
Presid,nte de la Comislon espanola hace 
obsorvur que dividiendosc dichos articulos 



divided into two parts, one comprising the en dos partes,-una compuesta de los ocho 
first ei-ht articles examined and approved prlmeros articulos ya examinada y apro- 
at the°last session with the exception of badu en la ultima seslon, salve cuatro pan- 
four points three of which the Americans tos. tres de los cuales quedarou los ameri- 
were to examine and the fourth of which canos en estudiar y el 40 quedaron los es- 

183. 



was to be submittpd by the Spaniai-as to 
their Govprnnient. and as the other part 
also dept'iidciit U]ion iiistriiftions frnm tliiit 
GovernmeiU. lip deeniprt it iispIpss In rx 
amim; and discuss the latter part. And. 
on the other hand, he stated tliat the Sec- 
retary General of the Spanish Cnmmisslon 
had delirered to the Secretary General of 
the American Commission a draft of other 
articles which must necessarily form part 
'6t the treaty nf peace ;ind with respect hi 
which the American Commissaoners had not 
as yet given an answer: and further that 
the American Commission was to have con- 
sulted its Government and to give an an- 
swer to-day on the three points al)rivi' n~n- 
tloned as forming a part of some ..f the 
eight articles already a|ipi-,,vcd, which 
answer was necessary in order that the 
agreement previously reached upon these 
articles might be enlarged; and that, there- 
fore, with a view to preserve in the dis- 
cussion the natural order, he considered it 
requisite that the articles that werp indis- 
pensable to such treaty should be com- 
pleted by the answer of the Aniericnn Com- 
missioners before passing on to the discus- 
sion of points of minor interest which did 
not affect the concluding of peace, though 
this did not imply that the Spanish Com- 
mis.^ioners did not entertain the desire to 
take them up at> the proper time. 

The American Commissioners insisted 
that the.se subsidiary jioints be taken up. or 
all discussion be postponed until the Span- 
ish Commissioners shall have received in- 
structions to treat upon all the points 
whicdi have been submitted to them. 

The President of the Spanish Commission 
held to his opinion, insisting that even 
after the Instructions of his Government 
with respect to the subsidiary points were 
received, the Spanish Conimission would 
not discuss them until after the termina- 
tion of the discussion of the articles which 
It had presented, and which related to the 
treaty of peace proper. The American Com- 
mission having inquired as to what were 
the three points to which the President of 
the Spanish Commission had above referred, 
which the American Commissioners were 
to examine, he replied that they were as 
follows: The extending to Cuba and Porto 
Rico of the commercial treatment granted 
to Spain in the Philippines: the repatria- 
tion at the expense of both nations of the 
prisoners taken, and the return to Spain 
of the war material in Cnba and Porto 
Rico with respM't to wliicli the evacuation 
commissions had not come to a decision, 
since such material in the Philippines, he 
understood, belonged tn Spain. He added 
that the Spanish Commission had promised 
to consult 'its Government regarding the 
maintenance of publii' order in the Philip- 
pines, and that if tlie .\[ueri<-an Ct^miuis- 
siioiers were ready to peter upon tlip dis- 



panoles en consultar a su Gobierno.— y la 
otra pendiente tambien de instrueeiones de 
sn (Joblerno. cree inntil examinar y dis- 
■ utir esta ultima. Kn cambio hace presente 
que el Secretario General de la Comision ea- 
panola ha entregado al de la americana el 
proyecto de los demas articulos que debe 
forniar parte necesariamente del tratado de 
paz. y sobre los cuales hasta el presente 
momento la Comision americana nada ha 
contest ado. y ademas que la Comision amer- 
icana quedo en consultar a su Gobierno y 
pu dar hoy contestacion sobre dichos tres 
indicados puntos relatives a algunos de los 
echo articulos aprobados que faltabau para 
amiiliar sobre dichos puntos el acuerdo ya 
lomado sobre aquellos. y que por tanto, con 
ob.ieto de gu.ardar en la dlscusion el orden 
natural, considera necesario que se com- 
pleten esros articulos indispensables de 
dicho tratado con la contestacion de los 
(;omisarios amerieanos. antes de pasar a 
discutir puntos de menor interes que no 
afectan a ia conclusion de la paz. lo cual no 
quiere decir que los Comisarlos espanoles no 
tengan el despo de fratar oportunamente 
de ellos. 



Insisten los Comisarlos amerieanos en 
que deben ser examinados estos puntos 
subsidiarios, o renunclarse a toda discusion, 
hsta que los Comisarlos espanoles hayan 
recibido instrueeiones para tratar sobre 
todos los puntos que les hayan sido some- 
tidos. 

llantieup el President e de la Comision 
espanola su opinion insistiendos en que aun 
despues de recibidas las instrueeiones de 
su Gobierno sobre tales puntos accesorios, 
la Comision espanola no entrara a dis- 
cutirlos sino desques que se haya terminado 
la discusion do los articulos que tiene pre- 
sentados, y que son relativos al tratado de 
paz proprianiento dicho; y habiendole preg- 
untado la Comision americana cuales eran 
los tres puntos a que se referia el Presl- 
dente de la Comision espanola y que debian 
ser examinados por la Comision americana, 
contesta qne son tres, a saber; ampliacioD 
a Cuba y Puerto Itico del trato eomercial 
concedido a Espana en Filipinas, repatria- 
cion por cuenta de ambas naciones de los 
prisioneros hechos, y devolueion a Espana 
del material de guerra en Cuba y Puerto 
Hko de que ya no hultleran dispucsto las 
Comisiones de evacuaclon. porque en cuan- 
to .-il existente en Pilipinas, entieude el 
Presidente que pertenecia a Espana. An- 
ade i!ue por su parte la Comision e.spanola 
se piunprometio a consultar acerca del man- 
tenimieuto dcd orden publico en Filipinas, 
y ipie si los Comisarlos amerieanos estan 
ilisiiuestos a aeeptar la discusion a que les 
invita, el se couinromete sin haber recibido 
insiruecicmes. a dar sobre este punto una 



ISl 



cussion to whlc'li ihe.v were invitpd. he 
wouldi. without having reeelvml instruc- 
tions, iinrtpi-tnke to sivo a ciiti-soricjii an- 
swer upon tin's point, whieli answer he was 
confident his Government would ratify. 

The"' discnsslon eontiniuMi, the American 
Commission. Insisting on ils i)roposiiI to dis- 
cuss the whole of its draft, or to postpone 
all discussion until the Spanish Commission 
shouiti liave instructions upon ail points. 
Tlie Spanish Commission, hoidinsr to its 
opinion that it was dul.v authorized to treat 
upon ever.vthins esseriiiai to the trcat.v of 
peace, and therefore read.v to sign its ar- 
ticles' at once, but dcti'rmiiied not first to 
treat of those points which are not essen- 
tial to the treat.v, asiced that its readiness 
to discuss in the natural order whatever 
related directly to the treaty of peace, be 
spread upon the minutes. 

The arguments on both sides having been 
repeated, rhc I'resiilcnt of llie .\merlcan 
Commission stated tliat ho as well as his 
colleagues hoped that the relations of the 
two countries might not be limited to the 
strict terms of a treaty of peace, but 
ratlier that an agreement might be reached 
for mutual concessions wliich would be 
beneficial to both Goveniments and pro- 
mote the cordiality in th.'ir relations. The 
President of the Spanish Commis.«iioD stated 
(hat this was also the desire of the Spanish 
Commissioners, but that to bis mind it 
would be easier to reach an understandipg 
Upon the less 'important points if the de- 
cisions arrived at on the necessary articles 
of the treaty of peace were satisfactor.v. 

Tlie American Commissioners proposed to 
adjourn the ses.sion in order that the in- 
structions awaited by the Spanish Com- 
missioners might arrive, and to examine 
the articles presented by the latter. 

The Spanish Commissioners agreed to 
this, and the session was adjourned till 
Saturday, the .Ird instant, at two p. m. 

Signed: WILLIAM It. DAY. 

CUSHMAN K. 1>A\IS 
WM. P. FRYE. 
GEO. GRAY. 
\VHITELAW REID. 
.lOUN B. MdORE. 



respuesta categorica que su (Joiderno 
fla en que ratiflcara. 



Coutinuo la discusion mantenion do la 
Coinision amerlcana su proposito de discu- 
tlr el eonjunto de su proyecto, o de aphizar 
toda discusion. liasta que la es[)anoia tenga 
instrucciones sobre todos sus cxtremos, y 
sosteniendo la espanola su criterio de que 
estan deliidamente autorizados a tratar de 
ciianto constitu.'i'e el tratado de paz eseii- 
cialtnente diciit>. dispuestos por tanto a 
firmar sus clausulas ai punto; pero resuel- 
tos a no tratar antes aquelios puntos que 
no son esenc'aies a dicho tratado, desean 
conste en el acta su disposiclon a segulr 
dlseutiendo por suorden natural cuanto a 
dicho tratadc de paz directamentc se re- 
flere. 

Repitense los a-rgumentos por una y otra 
parte, y hai>iendo raanifestado el Presidente 
de la Comlsion ainericana que tanto el como 
sus colegas eiiperaban que no se iimltarian 
las reiacioues de ambos paises a las condi- 
clones estrictas de un tratado de paz. sino 
que podria lle.garse a un acnerdo sobre mu- 
tuas concesiones beneflciosas para ambos 
Gobiernos. y quo fomentarian la cordiall- 
dad en sus relaciones. el Presidente de la 
Con'ision espanola manifesto que tales eran 
tainhien los deseos de ios Comisarios es- 
panoies. pero que en su sentir cuanto mas 
satisfactorias fuesen las soluciones dadas 
a los artlculos indispensahles del tratado 
de paz. mas se facilitaria la inteligeneia a 
que podria il^garse respecto de los demas 
puntos menos importantes. 

Los Comisarios americanos propusieron 
apiazar la sesion a fin de dar iugar a que 
llegasen las instrucciones que aguardaban 
los Comisarios espanoles y a estudiar los 
articulos por estos presentados. 

Acordado asi por la Comlsion espanola, se 
aplazo la sesion para el .sabado S del cor- 
riente a las 2 p. m. 

Eirmado: E. MONTERO RKIS. 
B. DE ABARZUZA. 
J. DE GARNICA. 
\V. R. DE VILLA I'RItr'I'lA. 
RAF.VEL CERERO. 
EMILIO DE OJEDA. 



ISG. 



Protocol No. 19. 



Protocolo No. 19. 



CONFERENCE 
Of December 5. 1898. 



CONFERENCIA. 
Del 5 de Dieiembre de 1898. 



At the rc'niu'st of tbe American Commls- 
fiioiiers the session which w.is to have been 
he'd on .Saturday, the 3d instant, was 
postponed until to-day at 3 p. m.. when 
there were 

Present — 

On the part of the United States: 

Messrs. DAY, 

DAVIS, 

FRYE. 

GRAY. 

UEID, 

MOORE, 

FERGUSSON. 
On th,e part of Spain: 
Messrs. MONTERO RIOS. 

ABAUZUZA. 

GARNIGA, 

VIIXA-URRUTIA. 

OERBRO'. 

OJEDA. 
Tlie protocol of the preceding session was 
r^ad and approved. 

The President of the American Commls^ 
siou asked the I'resldent of the Spanish 
Commission whether he had received: In- 
stru.'tions from his Government touching 
the points on which the American Commis- 
sioners desiired to treat. 
The President of the Spanish Commls- 
. sion replied that he had in fact received 
them.: but he reiterated his purpose not. tq 
take up those poln/ts until the matters In- 
herent in imd essential to the treaty of 
peace proper should be discussed and finally 
aipproved. 

It was agreted that the Commissions 
shou'd coniniunicate to each other the 
answers of their respective Governments 
to the questions previously submitted to 
them. The President of the American 
Oommission stated, in the first place, that 
his Government was not willing to grant 
and embody in the treaty of peace the ex- 
tension to Porto Rico and Cuba of the 
commercial treatment offered to Spain in 
the rhillppinx's for ten years; but that, 
recognizing the advisability of concluding 
a commercial agreement between the 
countries, the subject mjlght be treated of 
in a general commercial convention. 

With i-espect to the return and transpor- 
tation at the exp(.*nse of each nation, of the 
prisoners takejn by it, it was agreed, as an 
addition to Article VIII, that Spain and. 
the United States should transport them 
at their expense to the nearest port of 
their respective countries, but that the 
transportation of prisoners of war taken 
In the Philippines should, not include na- 
tive soldiers, but only Peninsular Spaniards 



A peticlon de los Comisarios amerlcanoB 
la sesion que deblo celebrarse el sabado 3 
del corriente fue aplazada para hoy a las 
3 hallandose en dichos dia y hora 

Presentes— 

Por parte de los Estados Unidos de Amer- 
ica: • 

los Senores DAY, 

DAVIS, 

FRYE, 

GRAY, 

KKID, 

MOORE, 

FERGUSSON. 
Por parte de Espana: 

los Senores MONTERO RIOS, 
.\BARZUZA, 
GARNICA, 
VILLA-URRUTIA, 
CERERO, 
OJEDA. 

Fue leida y aprobada el acta de la sesion 
anterior. 

Pregunta el Presidente de la Comlslon 
americana al Presidente de la Comlslon 
espanola si ha reclbldo instmcciones de sn 
Gobierno relativas a los puntos que la 
Comision americana deseaba tratar, y el 
Presidente de la Comlslon espanola con- 
testa que en efecto las ha reclbldo, pero 
que reitera su proposito de no tratar dichos 
puntos basta que se hayan discutldo y 
aprobado delinitlvamente los asuntos que 
son inherentes y esenclales al tratado de 
paa propiamente dicho. 

Se convino en comenzar por comunlcarse 
ambas Comisiones las contestaciones re- 
spectivas de sus Gobiernos a los puntos 
que les fueron sometidos anteriormente y 
maniflesta el Presidente de la Comision 
americana en primer lugar, que su Go- 
bierno no esta dispnesto a conceder y con- 
signar en este Tratado de p.az la extension 
a Puerto Rico y a Cuba del trato comer- 
clal ofrecido a Espana durante diez anos 
en FiUplnas; pero que reconoelendo la 
conveniencla de que se pacte an acuerdo 
comerclal entre ambos paises, podrla tra- 
tarse este asunto en un tratado de co- 
merclo. 

Respecto de la devolucion y trasporte por 
cuenta de una y otra Nacion de los prls- 
ioneros hechos por cada una de ellas, se 
acuerda como adicion al Articulo VIII, que 
Espana y los Estados Unidos los trans- 
portaran a su costa al puerto mas cercano 
de sus paises respectivos, pero que el 
trasporte de los prisloneros de guerra 
hechos en Fllipinas, no se extendera a los 
soldados Indigenas sino a los Individuos 



186. 



in Ihr army. The SiM-ri'tiirlc.wCcmTal cif 
tUc t«o LKniiuusslons \v-i>re chargod with 
tlie franiiiug of this adilltiuu tci ArtUlB 
Via. 

With icltani to the return of the war ma- 
terial iu Cuba aiul Porto Rico not disposed! 
of hy the levacuation eommlsslons, thi" 
Am*>rlcau Commission dwlarwl that they 
wore not autlw>ri»od to troiit. 

WItli respcs-t to the war miUiiLiI In the 
I'hlllppinos. the Aim^iean rnuunissioiiers 
Sitnted that It should be ^.roverned by th(- 
WLUie eolldltlons as were a^rci-d to by tho 
evacuallon eoiuniissions hi the \\'est Indies. 

The rresidoiit of thi- Sjianish Commission 
and his colleagues maiutaiiied that the ces- 
sion of the an-hlpelago did not carry and 
could not carry with It anything except 
what was of a fl.w<ll nature; they 
explained the character of the siege 
artillery and heavy oixinance which 
the Americans claimed for themselves, 
and affcr some discussion to thu 
end of determining precisely what each 
commission und:er.stood as portable and 
fixed material, it was agreed that stands of 
colors, luncaptured war vessels, small arms, 
guns of all calibres with theJr carriages 
and accessories, powder, ammunition, live 
stocix. and materials and supplies of all 
kinds belomging to the land and naval 
CoTces. shall remain the pro'i>erty of Spain; 
that pieces of heav.v t*rdnance, exclusive of 
field artillery, in the foitiflcatlons, shall 
remain in their empla($eme-nts for the 
term of six months to be reckoned from 
the ratification of the treaty; and, that 
the United States might, in the mean time, 
purchase such material from Spain, if a 
satisfactory agreennent between the two 
Governmentsi on the subject should be 
reached. 

It was agreed that the Secretaries-Gen- 
eral of the two Commissions shx>uld be 
entrusted with the fntming of such an 
article. 

The IVesident of the Spanish Commas- 
slon having agreed at the last session to' 
consult his Government regarding the pro- 
posal of the .\juerican Conimissioners that 
the United States should maintain public 
order over the whole Philippine Archi- 
pelago, pending the exchange of ratifica- 
tions of the treaty of peace, stated that 
tile answer of his Government was that 
•tile autliorltlos of each of the two nations 
shall be charged with the maintenance of 
order in the places where they may be es- 
tablished, those authorities agreeing amouij 
themselves to th.is end whenever they may 
deem it necessary. 

In view of this reply the .Vmerican Com- 
missioners did not insist that their pro- 
posal should be Incorporated In the treaty. 

The reading In Qngllsh and Spanish of 
the articles of the treaty from the first to 
the eighth Inclusive was then proceenied 
with, and they wvrv approved by botl? 
Commissions, which declared them to be 
final save as to mere modifications of form, 
upon which the Secretarii-s-<;<'neral might 
endeavor to a^ee, i 

1S7 



penlnsiilares de aquel ejercllo. Los Sec- 
r<'t»rlos generales de ambas Comlslones 
qnednn encargados de la redacciou de esta 
adldon al Articulo VIII. 

Kn 10 relatlvo a la devoluclon del mate- 
rial de guerra en Cuba y Puerto Rico de 
que no bayan dlspnesto las Comlslones de 
evacuaclon. la Comlslon amerlcana se de- 
clnra Inconipetente para tratar. 

Itespecto del material de guerra exlst- 
ente en Flliplnas. los Comlsarlos amcrica- 
nos luanlfestnron cpie debla ajustarse a lag 
misnias condlciones acordadas por las Co- 
missiones de evacuaclon en las Antlllas. 

El Presldente de la Comlslon espanola y 
sus colegas manifestaron que la cesion de 
dlcho archipielago no llevaba nl podia llcvar 
conslgo slno lo que es de caracter in- 
niueble. explicaron las condlciones de la 
artilleria de plaza y de sitlo que reclama- 
ban para si los americanos. y despues de 
alguna discusion al efecto de determlnar 
con precision lo que una v otra Comlslou 
entendlan por material portatll .y material 
flio se conviene en que seran propledad 
de Espana banderas y estandartes. buquea 
de guerra no apresados, armas portatlles, 
canones de todos calibres con sus mon- 
tajes y accesorios, polvoras. munlclones, 
ganado. material y efectos de toda clase 
perteneclentes a los ejercitos de mar y 
tierra; que las plexas de grueso calibre, 
que no sean artilleria de campana, colo- 
cadas en las fortlficaciones y en las costas, 
quedaran en sus empla/.amlentos por el 
plazo de seis meses a partlr del canje de 
ratlflcaclones del tratado; y que los Es- 
tados Unidos podran. durante este tlempo, 
comprar a Espana dlcho material si ambos 
Goblernos Uegan a un acuerdo satlstactorlo 
sobre el particular. 

Se acuerda que los Secretaries Generales 
de ambas Comisiones queden encargados de 
redactnr dicho articulo. 

El Presldente de la Comlslon espanola 
hablendo quedado en la seslon anterior en 
consultar a su Gobierno. respecto la propc. 
sicion de los Comlsarlos "■^^^'^""^ .?»; '"j 
cual los Estados Unidos mantendrlan el 
orden en todo el Archipielago FtHp.uo. 
mientras se ratificaba el tratado de pa^ 
manlfiesta que la contestacion de su &^ 
bierno es que las Autorldades de cada una 
de ambas naciones cuiden de conservar el 
orden en las regiones en que se fallen es- 
tablecidas. y poniendose con este objeto 
de acuerdo Unas y otras cuando lo estlmen 
necesarlo. 

En vista de esta contestacion, los Coml- 
sarlos americanos no Insistleron en que 
formase su proposiclon parte del tratado. 

Se precede en segulda a la lectura en 
espanol y en ingles de los artlculos del 
tratado desde el prlmero al ocho Inclusive 
y son aprobados por ambas Comlslones, 
que los declaran definitivos, salvas cual- 
qulera modificacion de uiera forma sobre 
las cualcs tratarlan de ponerse de acuerdo 
los Secretarios Generales. 



■ The Prersiil^ut of the Aiu'ei-ican Commas- Deseahdo entohces el Presidente de la 
sion desiring that the tliscussion of tho Comision amerieana qile se pasase a la 
mjitters presented by that Comniissiou discusion de los puntos presentados por so 
should next be taljen up, the President of Comision, y mantcniendo el Presidente de 
tiie Spanish Commission maintained the jg Comision espanola el crlterio que habla 
opinion which he had expressed at the lapt gostenido en la session anterior y al prln- 
seasion. and at the beginning of this, to cipio de esta, de que no podia pasarse al 
the effect that the examination/ of said examen de dichos puntos sin haber antea 
iuriitters should not be entered upon until discutido cuanto era esenclal al tratado 
the Commissions had discussed what was g^ pg^, y .tomando por tanto en consldera- 
essential to the treaty of peace, and that ,.jq,| i,,^ avticulos adiclonaies a los echo 
thcirefore the articles additional to the first primeros, propuestos por la Comision es- 
eight proposed by the Spanish Commission pan^ia, acordose que en vista de lo avan- 
should be taken up. zado de la hora se aplazase la sesion hasta 

mauana martes G del corriente a las doa 

p. m. 

■ It was agreed that in view of the late- 
ness of the hour the session should be ad- 
journed until to morrow, Tuesday, the 6th 
instant, at 2 p. m. 

Signed: WILLIAM R. DAY, 

CDSHMAN K. DAVIS. 

WM. P. FKYE, 

GEO. GRAY. 

WHITELAW REID, RAFAEL CERERO. 

JOHN B. MOORE. EMILIO DB OJEDA. 



Firmado: B. 


MONTERO RIOS. 


B. 


DE ABARZDZA. 


J. 


DE GAHNICA. 


W 


R. DE VILLA-URRUTIA 



ISS. 



Annex to Protocol No. 14. 



PREAMBLE. 

The Dnltad States of America and Ilor 
Majesty tbe Queon liownt of Spain. Lii the 
name of her August Son Don Alfonso XIII., 
desiring to end tbe state of war now cx- 
istlns; between the two countries, have for 
that purpose appointed as rienipotentlarlcs: 

The I'resident of the United States, Wiil- 
lam R. Day. lately Secretary of State; 
Ctishman K. Davis, a Senator of tJie United, 
States; William P. Frye, a Senator of the 
XJuited States: Gi*>rge Gray, a Senator of 
the United States, and Whlteiaw Reid. 
lately Minister Plenipotentiary of the 
United States to France; 

And Her Majesty the Queen Regent of 
Spain, (here insert names and titles). 

Who, having assembled in Paris, and 
having exchanged their full powers, which 
were found to be in diie and proper form, 
have, after discussion of the matters be- 
fore them, agreed upon the following ar- 
ticles: 

ARTICLE I. 

Spain hereby relinquishes all claim oi' 
soveraSgnty over and title to Cuba. 

And as the isfland is. upon its evacuation 
by Spain, to be occupied by the United 
States, the United States will, so long as 
such occupation shall last, assume and dis- 
chai»ge the obiisations that may under in- 
tern.Ltional law attacli to its character as 
ocoupant, for ili.^ pri>t<'Ction of life and 
prope(rty. 



ARTICLE II. 



PREAMBULO. 

S, M. la Reina Regente de Bspana. en 
nombre de Su AuRUSto Hljo Don Alfonso 
XIII. ,v los Estados Unidos de America, 
deseando poner termlno al estado de guerra 
hoy e.^istente entre ambas Naclones. han 
nombrado con este objeto por sus Plenl- 
potenciarios, a saber: 

S. M. la Relna Regente de Espana a 
(aqui se insertan los nombres) y el Presi- 
dente de los Estados Unidos de America a 
(aqui se Insertan los nombres). 

Los cuales reunidos en Paris, despues de 
haberse comnnlcado siis plenlpotenclas re- 
spectivas. habiendolas hallado en buena y 
debida forma, previa la discusion de laa 
materias pendientes, ban convenldo en los 
articnlos slgulentes: 



ARTICULO 1. 

Espana por el presente reunncia todo 
derecho de Soberania y propiedad sobre la 
Isla de Cuba. 

En atencion a que dicha Isla esta a punto 
de ser evacuada por Espana y ocupada pot 
los estados Unidos. los Estados Unidos 
mientras dure su ocupacion, tomaran sobre 
si y compliran las obligaciones que el_ der 
echo internacional )mpone a un caracter 
de ocupantes. para la protecclon de vldas 
y haciendas. 

ARTICULO 2. 



Spain herebv cedes to the United States Espana par el presente Tratado cede a 
the Island of Porto Rico and other islands los Estados Unidos la Isla de Puerto Rico 

y las demas que estan ahora bajo so so- 



berania en las Indias Occldentales, y la 
Isla de Guam en el Archlplelago de las 
Marianas o Ladrones. 

ARTICULO 3. 

Cede tambien Espana a los Estados Uni- 
dos el Archipielconocldo por Islas Fill- 
pinas, situado dentro de las Ilneas sl- 
gulentes: 

Una liuea que corre de Oeste a Este, 
cerca del 20 deg. paralelo de latitud Xortq. 
a traves de la mltad del canal navegable 



now imder Spanish sovereignty in the West 
Indies, and the Island of Guam Jn the La- 
drones or Marianas. 

ARTICLE III. 

Spain hereby cedes to tbe United' States 
the archipelago known as the Philippine 
Islands, and comprehending the islands ly- 
ing within the following line: 

A line runnin;r from west to east along 
or near the twentieth parallel of north 
latitude, and through the middle of the 
navigable channel of Bachi, from the one de BachI, desde el 118 deg. al 127 deg. 
hundred and eighteenth (llStb) to the one grades de longltnd Este de Greenwich; 
hundred and twenty-seventh (127th) degree de aqui a lo largo del clento veintlsiete 
meridian of longitude east of Greenwich. (127) grade meridlano de longltnd Este de 
thence along the one hundred and twenty- Greenwich al paralelo cuatro grades cua- 
eeventh (127th) degree meridian of longi- renia y cinco minutes ( 4 deg. 45 min.) de 
tude east of Greenwich to the parallel of latitud Norte; de aqui sguendo el paraleio 
four degrees and forty-five minutes (4° 45') de cuatro grades euarenta y clnco mlnutoa 
north latitude, thence along the parallel of de latitud Norte (4 deg. 45 min.) hasta su 
four degrees and forty-five minutes (4° 45') intersecclon con el meridlano de longltud 
north latitude to Its Intersection with the clento diez y nueve grados y trelnta y 
meridian of longitude one hundred and clnco minutes (119 deg. 35 min.) Este de 

]?9. 



nineteen degrees and thirty-five minutes 
(ll'.r 35') east of Gr*nwlch. tlience along 
tlie inertdian of longitude one hundred and 
nineteen degrees and thirty-five minutes 
(119° 35') east of Greenwich to the parallel 
of latitude seven degrees and forty min- 
utes (7" 40') north, thence aJong the par- 
allel of latitude of seven degrees and 
forts minutes (7' 40') north to its inter- 
se'-tion with tlie one hundred and sis)- 
teenth dlOtlil d«S'ree meridian of longi- 
tude east of Greenwich, thence hy a ckirect 
line to the intersection of the tenth iltithi 
de^Tce parallel of north latitude with the 
one hundred and eighteenth (llSth) degree 
meridian of longitude east of Greenwich, 
and thence alon,;; tire one hundred anit 
eighteenth illSth) degree meridian of 
longitude east of Greenwicli to the point 
of beginning. 

The United States will pay to Spain tlu 
sum of twenty million dollars (.$20.000.000> 
within three months after the exchange of 
the ratiifications of the present treaty. 

ARTTCLE IV. 

The United States will, upon the sigTia- 
ture of the present treaty, send hack to 
Spain, at its own oost. the Spanish .soldiers 
taken .IS prisoners of war on the capture 
of ilauila by the American forces. The 
arms of the sidiliei-s in question shall be 
res^ured to them. 

Spain will, upon the exchange of the 
ratifications of the present treaty proc<ee(* 
to evacv.ate tne Philippines, as well as the 
Island of Guam, on terms similar to those 
agreed upon by the Commissioners ap- 
pointed to arrange for the ^evacuation of 
Porto Rico and other islands in the West 
Indies. Under the Protocol of August 12. 
ISl'S. which is to continue in force till its 
provisions are completely exevuted. The 
time within jwhich the evacuation of the 
Philippines and of the IslaiKl of Gu,am 
shall l>e completed shall Ixi fixed by the 
lw<i Governments. 



Greenwich; de aqui siguiendo el meridlano 
lie longitud ciento diez v nueve grades y 
treinta y cinco minutos (119 deg. 35 mln.) 
Este de Greenwich ai paralelo de latitud 
siete grados cuarenta minutos (7 deg. 40 
mln.) Norte, de, aqui siguiendo el paralelo 
de latitud siete grados cuarenta minutos 
(7 deg. 40 min.) Norte a su interseccion con 
el ciento diez y setis (116 deg.) grado meri- 
dlano do longitud Este de Greenwich, do 
aqui por una linea recta a la interseccion 
del decimo grado paralelo de latitud Norte, 
con el ciento diez y echo (118 deg.) grado 
meridlano de longitud Este de Greenwich, 
y de aqui siguiendo el ciento diez .v ochu 
grado (ll.S deg.) meridlano de longitud Este 
de Greenwich ai punto en que comienza 
esta demarcacion. 

Los Estados Unidos pagaran a Espana la 
suma de veinte millones de dollars ($20,- 
000,0001 dcntro de tres meses despues del 
canje de ratificaciones del presente tratado. 



ARTICUDO 4. 

Los Estados Unidos al ser firmado el 
presente tratado trasportaran a Espiina a 
su costa 'ios soldados espanoles que hicleron 
prisoneros de guerra las fuerzas Americanas 
al ser captnrada Manila. Las annas de 
estos soldados les seran devueltas. 

Espana al ratificarse el presente tratado. 
prjcedera a evacuar las Islas Filipinas, asi 
como la de Guam,^ en condieiones seme- 
jantes a las acordadas por las comislones 
nombradas para concertar la evacuacion 
de Puerto Rico y otras Islas en las Indias 
Occidentales, segnn el Protocolo de 12 de 
Agosto de 189S, que continuara en vigor 
hasta que scan completamente cumplidas 
sns disposiciones. El termino dentro del 
cual sera completada la evacuacion de las 
Islas Filipinas y de la de Guam, sera fijada 
por ambos Gobiernos. 



ARTICLE V. 

In conformity with the provisions of Ar- 
ticles I. II and III of this treat.v, Si>a.in 
relinquishes in Cuba, land cedes in Porto 
Rico and otlier islands in the West Indies, 
In the Island of Guam, and in the Philip- 
pine Archipelago, all the buildings, 
wharves, barracks, forts, structures, public 
highwa.vs and other immovable property 
which in conformity with law belong to 
the public domain, and as such belong to 
the Grown of Spiuin. 

And it is hereby declared that the re/Iin- 
quishment or cession, as the case may be, 
to \vliich the preceding iwragraph refers, 
ciionflit in any respect impair the property 
or rights whicit b.v law belong to th4 i>eace- 
ful possession of propert.v of ail kinds, of 
provinces, municipalitJes. public or private 
establishments, ecclesiastical or civic 
biMlies, or any other associations luiving 
legal capacit.v to a<'quire and possess prop- 
ISO. 



ARTICULO 5. 

En complimiento de lo convenido en Ios 
articulos 1. 2 y 3 de este tratado. Espana 
renuncia en Cuba .v cede en Puerto Rico y 
en las otras Islas de las Indias Occiden- 
tales y en la Isia de Guam, en las Islas 
Filipinas, todos Ios edificlos. muelles, cuar- 
teles, fortalezas, establecimientos, vias 
publicas y demas bienes inmuebles, que 
con arreglo a derecho son del domlnio pub- 
lico y como tal corresponden a la Corona 
de Espana. 

Queda por lo tanto de?larado que esta re- 
nuncia o ccsion, segun el caso, a que se 
refiere el parrafo anterior, en nada puede 
niermar la popledad o Ios derechos que cor- 
re.spondan con arreglo a las leyes al posee- 
dor pacifico. de Ios bienes de todas clases 
de las provincias, municipios. estableci- 
mientos publicos o prevados. corporacio- 
nes civiles o ecclesiasticas. o de cuales- 
qulera otras colectlvidades que tienen per- 



erty in the afoiosaid tiTiitoi-lis ifii.>unie<l 
or ceded, or of private Individuals, ot 
wlialsoever nationality sneb individuals 
uKiy be. 

'J'lie aforesaid rellnqulsliniint or eession, 
as the case may be. includes all docu- 
ments exclusively referring to tile sover- 
eignty relinquished or ceded that may ex- 
ist in the archives of the Peninsula. 
Where any doemneiU in suK-h archives only 
in part relates to such sovci-clgnty. a copy 
of such part will be funiisbwi whenever 
It sliall be reauestcd. Like rules shall be 
ivciprocjilly observed in favor of Spain in 
respect of documents in the avlilves i;f 
the islands above referred to. 

In the aforesaid relinquishment or ces- 
sion, as the case may be, are also included 
sticii rljrhts as the Crown of Spain and its 
authorities possess in respect of the of- 
ficial archives and riicords. executive as 
well as Judicial, in the islands aboive ro- 
ferred to. which relate to said islands or 
the rights and property of their inhabi- 
tants. Such archives and records shall be 
carefully preserved, and private persons 
shall without distiniCtJon have the right to 
retiuire. in accordance with law, authenti- 
cated copies of the contracts, wills and 
other Instruments f<iruun,s part of notarial 
prolt/cois or fikw, or which may be con- 
tained in the executive or judicial archives, 
be the latiter in Spain or In the islands 
aforesaid. 



sonalldad jurliilca para adquirir y poseer 
l)iencs en los inenclonados terrltorlos re- 
nunciados o cedldos. y los de los indlviduos 
partlculares eualqulera que .sea su naclon- 
alldad. 

Dlcha renunda o cesion, segun el caso, 
Incluye lodos los documentos qu>> se re- 
fleran exclualvamente a dlcha Soberanla 
rennnclada o cedlda que exlstan en los 
Archives de la Peninsula. Cuando estos 
docuinentos existentes en dlchos Arehlvos, 
solo en parte correspondau a dicha Sobera- 
nla, se facilitarin coplas de dlcha parte, 
siempre que sean solicitadas. Uegias ana- 
logas hnhran reclprocamente de observarae 
en favor de Espana respecto de los docu- 
mentos existentes en los Archivos de las 
Islas antes mencionadas. 

En las antescitadas renuncia o cesion, 
segnn el oaso. se hallan coinprendldos 
aquellos derechos de la Corona de Espana 
y de sus Autoridades sobrc los Archivos y 
Reglstros Oficiales, asl administrativos 
como judlclales de dichas Islas que se re- 
fieran a ellas o a los derechos y propiedades 
de sns habitantes. Dlchos archivos. regls- 
tros. etc., deberaii ser culdadosamente con- 
servados y los partlculares sui cxcepcion. 
tendran dcrecho a sacar con arreglo a las 
Leyes. las copias autorizadas de los contra- 
tos, testamentos y demas docunientos que 
fornien parte de los protocnlos notariales o 
quo se custodien en los archivos adminis- 
trativos o Judicales. bien estos se hallen en 
Espana, o bien en las Islas do que se hace 
menclon anterlormente. 



AKTIfLE VI. 



ARTIOTJLO 6. 



The United States an<l Spain, in con- 
sideration of the provisions of this treaty, 
hereby mutuallj- relinquish all claims fur 
indemnity, national and imlivldual. of 
every kind, (Including all i-laitus for in- 
denmity for the cost of the war.) of cither 
Government, or of its citizens or snibjccts. 
against the other Governnuait, that may 
have arisen since the beginning of the late 
Insurreotion in Cuba and prior to the rati- 
fication of tJie present treaty. 



Espana y los Estados Unidos de America 
en antencion a lo establecido por este tra- 
tado, rcnunclan mutuamente por el pre- 
sente a toda reelamaclon de indemnlzaclon 
nacional o prlvada de cnalquler genero (In- 
clnyi'Udo to da reelamaclon por Indemnlza- 
clones por el coste de la gnerraK de un 
Goblerno contra el otro, o de sus subditos 
o cludadanos contra el otro Goblerno, que 
puedan haber surgido desdc el comlcnzo de 
la ultima Insurreccion en Cuba y anterior 
a la ratiflcaclon del presente tratado. 



AKTICI.E VII. 



ARTICULO 



The United States will, for the term of Ix>s Estados Unidos durante el termino 

ten years from the date of the exchange ot de dlcz anos a contar dcsde el canje de la 

the ratifications of the present treat.v. ad- ratiflcaclon del presente tratado, admltlran 

mlt Spanish ships and merchandise to the en los puertos de las Islas Filiplnas los 

ports of the Philippinet Islands on the same buques .v las mercanclas espanoles. bajo las 

terms as ships and mt-rchandlse of the mismals condiciones que los buques y las 

Uniteil States. mercanclas de los Estados T'nidos. 



1«1. 



ARTICLE VIII. 

Spain will, upon the signature of the 
presenit treaty, release all persons held by 
her as prisoners, mi'IItary or political, in 
connection with the insurrections in Cuba 
and the Philippines, and the war with the 
United States. 

Reciprocally, the United States \vill re- 
lease all persons made prisoners of war by 
the American forces, and will undertake 
to obtain Uae release of all Spanish prison- 
ers iu the hands of the insurgents in Cuiba 
and the Philippines. 



ARTICULO 8. 

Espana al ser iirmado el presente tratado, 
pondra en libertad a todos los detenido^.en 
calidad de prlsoneros de guerra o per dell- 
tos politicos, a consecuencia de las insur- 
recciones en Cuba, y en Filiplnas, y de la 
guerra eon los Estados Unidos. Reclpro- 
camente los Estados Unidos pondran en lib- 
ertad a todos los prisioneros de guerra 
heehos por las fuerzas Americanas y ges- 
tionaran la libertad de todos los prlsoneros 
espanoles en poder de los insurrectos de 
Cuba y de Filipinas. 



192.. 



Protocol No. 20. 



PROTOCOLO NO. 20. 



CONFERENCE 
Of December 6, 1898. 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 6 de Diciembre de 1898. 



lo 



Esiados I'nldos do .MmT- 



fiesont— 

On the port of tliP Duilcd States: 

Messrs. DAY. 

n.wis. 

FHYE. 
GRAY, 
rtKIT). 
MOORE. 

FERGrSSO.N. 

On the p.art of Spain: 
Messrs. MONTERO RIGS. 

ARAKZUZA. 

GARNICA. 

VILLA-DRRDTIA, 

CERERO. 

OJEDA. 

The protocol of the preeedins session 
was read and adopted. 

The President of the American Commis- 
sion, referring to the discussion that had 
taken place at the two preceding sessions 

on the subject of procedure, stated that he que tenia el Presidente de la Comision es 
recognized the force of the position of the pauola para discutir en primer termlno los- 
President of the Spanish Commission that artlculos relatlvos a la parte necesaria del 
the articles relating to the necessary part tratudo: pero que, en opinion de los Gomis- 
of the treaty should flret be taken up; arios americanos. nada habla mas estrlc- 
but that. In "the opinion of the American tamente pertinente a un tratado de paz 
Commissioners, nothing was more strictly que la rcnovaclon de los tratados suspen- 
pertiuent to a treaty of peace than a 



rroseiites- 
I'or parte d 
lia: 
los Sonores DAY, 

DAVIS, 
FRYE. 
GRAY. 
REID. 
MOORE. 
FEKGUSSON. 
I'or parte de Espana: 
los Senorcs MONTERO RIGS, 
ABARZUZA. 
GARNICA. 
VILLA-DRRUTIA, 
CERERO, 
CIEDA. 
El acta de la sesion anterior fue leida y 
aprobada. 

El Presidente de la Comisi.m ami-ricana, 
reBriendose a la discnsion habidu en las 
dos anteriores seslones respecto al orden 
de tr.abaj'os, declare reconocer la razon 



clause for the revival of treaties, which 
the war had suspended or terminated, 
such, for example, as the extradition treaty 
between the two countries; and he there- 
fore proposed that the Joint Commission 
should take up first, the article proposed 
by the American Commissioners for the 
revival of former treaties, then the arti- 
cles proposed by the Spanish Commis- 
sioners, and then the rest of the articles 
proposed by the American Commissioners. 

The President of the Spanish Commission 
replied that he felt compelled to insist 
upon the contention of that Commission 
on the subject of procedure, and that he 
begged to differ as to the order In which 
the article for the revival of treaties 
should be discussed; while such an article 
might be relevant to a treaty of peace, 
yet it was usually the last article of ail, 
and should, therefore, be the last con- 
sidered. 

The President of the American Commis- 
sion observed that, while the American 
Commissioners felt that their view was 
reasonable and proper, they desired to 
proceed with the business of the Joint 
Commission; and he inquired whether, if 
the articles proposed by the Spanish Com- 
mlss'on were taken up and considered, 

193 



dldos o termlnados por la guerra, tales 
como, por ejemplo. el tratado de extra- 
dicion entre los dos palses; por lo cual 
proponla que la Comision en pleno se ocu- 
para en primer termlno del artlculo pro- 
puesto por los Comisarios americanos para 
renovar los anteriores tratados, slgulendo 
con Ins artlculos propuestos por los Com- 
isarios espanoies y acahando con los demas 
artifulns propuestos por los Comisarios 
americanos. 

El President^ de la Comision espanola 
replico que debia inslstlr en el punto de 
vista adoptado por esta Comision respecto 
al procedimlento. slntlendo no estar de 
acuerdo respecto al orden en que se habia 
de discutir el articulo relatlvo a la renova- 
clon de los tratados. pues si hien es verdad 
que este artlculo suele insertai-se en los 
tratados de paz, or dinariamenle es el 
ultiniu do todos, y debe por lo tanto .ser 
el ultimo de los que sp esludiau. 

El Presidente de la romisiou aniericana 
replico que. aunqne los Comisarios anierl- 
caiios entendian que su punto de vista era 
raznnable y adecuado, deseaban slu em- 
bargo adelantar los trabajos de la I'om- 
Islon mixta, y pregunto que si los artlculos 
propuestos por la Comision espanola eran 
dlscutidos y e.\aminados. serlan a su vez 
tr)d<is Icis artlculos propuestos por la Com- 
ision aniericana de igual niauera dlscutidos 



all the articles proposed by tlie Americau 
Commission would then in like manner 
be talien up and considered. 

TUe President of the Spanish Commission 
answered in the alTirmative. adding that 
he had not proposed to take up the arti- 
cles of tlie Spanish Commission because 
they were its articles, but because they 
were specially appropriate to a treaty 
■of peace. 

The President of the American Commis- 
sion then took up flic subject of nation- 
ality, in regard to which the .Vmericau 
Commission originally presented the fol- 
lowing article: 

"APvTICLE VI. Spanish subjects resid- 
ing in the territory over which Spain by 
the present treaty relinquishes or cedes 
her sovereignty may remain in such terri- 
tory, or may remove therefrom, retaining. 
in either event, all their rights of property; 
and, in case they remain, they may pre- 
serve their allegiance to the Crown oi 
Spain, by making, before a court of rec- 
ord, within a year from the date of the 
signature of this treaty, a declaration of 
their decision to reserve such allegiance, 
in default of which declaration they shall 
be held to have renounced it and to have 
adopted the nationality of the territory 
in which they may reside. Except as pro- 
vided in this treaty, the civil rights and 
pol ticai status of the inhabitants of the 
territories hereby ceded to the United 
States shall be determined by the Con- 
gress." 

To this article the Spanish Commissioners 
proposed on the 30th of November the 
amendments contained in the two follow- 
Jng articles: 



cxaminados 



El Presidente de la Cnrnision espanoia 
coutesto afirmalivamente, .-madienilo qiw 
no habia propuesto discutir los articulos 
de la Coniision espanola ponpie fiiesen los 
suj-os propios, sino porque eran especiai- 
mente propios de un tratado de paz. 

EI I'residente de la Comision americaua 
empezo ocupandose de la nacionalidad. re- 
specto a la cual la Comision aincricana 
preseuto en un principio el articuin qne 
sigue: 

'•ARTICULO VI. Los subditos espanoles 
que residan en el territorio cuya soI>crania 
Espana ha renunciado o cedido por el pre- 
sente tratado, podran permanecer en diclio 
territorio, o podran salir de el, conservan- 
do en ambos casos todos sus derechos de 
propiedad, y en el caso de que permane- 
cieran en el. podran conservar su necion- 
alidad espanola haciendo ante una oflcina 
de registro, deutro del ano de la fecha de 
la firma de este tratado, una declaracion 
de su proposito de conservar dicha na- 
cionalidad; a falta de esta declaracion, se 
considerara que han renun?iado su nacion- 
alidad y aceptado la del territorio en que 
residen. A excepcion de lo dispuesto por 
este tratado, los derechos civiles y la ca- 
pacidad politica de los habitantes de los 
territories acini cedidos a los Estados 
Unidos, seran definidos por el Congreso." 

Kn 3 o de Xoviembre, los Coniisarios es- 
panoles propusieron que este articnlo se 
enm.'Udara por medio de los dos articulos 
siguientes: 



■'NATIONALITY. 

"AUTICLE . Spanish subjects now 

or hereafter residing or domiciled in the 
territory the sovereignty over which Spain 
relinquishes or cedes by the present 
treaty may live in or withdraw from said 
territory, acquiring and retaining in either 
case every kind of property, or alienating 
and freely disposing thereof or of its 
value or proceeds; practice, with the free- 
dom they now enjoy, industry, commerce, 
and other mechanical or liberal profes- 
sions, and enjoy their personal status, 
■without being subject to any excepfon 
prejudicial to the rights socureil to them 
by this treaty. If they remain in the ter- 
ritory they shall be allowed to preserve 
their nationality by making before the 
proper officer a declaration of such Inten- 
tion, within the term of one year, to be 
reckoned from the date of the exchange 
of ratifications of this treaty or the taking 
up of their residence therein. 

'■Failure to comply with this requirement 
shall 111' considered as a renunciation/of their 
natii>iiality and the adoption of that of the 



"Nacionalidad. 

■•AliTIi'L'LO — . Lips subditos espanoles 
residentes o domiciliados al prespnte o en 
lo futuro en el territorio cuya soberania 
Espana renunoia o cede por el presente 
tratado, podran vivir en dicho territorio 
o retirarse de el adquirieudo y conservan- 
do en unu u otro caso. toda clase de 
propiedad o reallzandola y disponiendo 
librcmente de ella o de su valor o pro- 
ducto, ejercer con la lihertad que actual- 
mente tlenen. la industria, el comercio y 
demas profesiones mecanica a liberales .v 
gozar de su estatuto personal; sin que pue- 
dan ser sometidos a mingun regimen de 
excepcion en prejuicio de los derechos que 
en este tratado se les reconoceu. Si per- 
mauecen en el territorio, podran conservar 
su nacionalidad haciendo ante una oflcina 
publica de registro una declaracion de su 
proposito de conservar dicha nacionalidad, 
dentro del termino de un ano, que se con- 
tara desde la fecha del canje de ratifica- 
ciones de este tratado. o desde que aquellos 
njen alii su residencia. 

"Si faltasen a este requisite, se les con- 
siderara como si la bubiesen renunciado y 
adoptado la nacionalidad del territorio eu 



IM 



territory In which they may reside. Save 
In the cases covered by this treaty, the 
civU rights and political condition of the 
Spaniards living in ceded territories, shall 
be governed by the laws applicable to all 
other foreigners In the territory of their 
residence. 

"AKTICLE . All the other inhabi- 
tants of the territories ceded shall have 
the right to choose the Spanish nat'onal- 
Ity within the period of one year to be 
reckoned from the date of the exchange 
of the ratiflcations of this treaty, the choice 
to be made in the manner provided for 
In the preceding article Notice thereof shall 
be given immediately to the Spanish Gov- 
ernment, or to its consular olticers. and 
without which requisite the nationality 
thus chosen shall not be at any time re- 
cognized." 

The American Commissioners proposed 
at this meeting as a suhstitute for the 
foregoing articles, the following article: 

"AUTICLB VI. Spanish subjects, na- 
tives of the Peninsula, residing in the 
territory over which Spain by the present 
treaty relinqu-shes or cedes her sovereignty 
may remain in such territory or may re- 
move therefrom, retaining in either event 
all their rights of properly, including the 
right to sell or dispose of such property 
or of its proceeds; and they shall also have 
the right to carry on their industry, com- 
merce and professions, being subject in re- 
spect theri-of to such laws as are appli- 
cable to other foreigners. In case they 
remain in the territory they may preserve 
their allegiance to the Crown of Spain by 
making, before a court of record, within 
a year trom the date of the exchange of 
ratifications of this treaty a declaration 
of their decision to preserve such alle- 
giance; in default of which declaration 
they shall be held to have renounced it 
and to have adopted the nationality of the 
territory in which they may reside. 

"The civil rights and political status 
of the native inhabitants of the territories 
hereby ceded to the Dnited States shall be 
determined by the Congress." 

The President of tiie Spanish (Commission 
objected to this article ,as it was read, 
on various grounds: and, after some dis- 
cussion stated that with respect to the 
article in question, as well as the other 
articles which the American Commission- 
ers might adopt, they would require, as a 
necessary condition of their adoption, the 
insertion in each article that was to run 
for a length of time, of a clause limiting 
the obligation of the United States there- 
under, In respect to Cuba, to the time of 
'ts occupation of the Island, or else the 
Insertion in the treaty of a general clause 
to this effect, as follows; 

"It Is understood that any obligation 
assumed by the United States with respect 
to Cuba is limited to the time of its oc- 
cupancy thereof." 



que resldan. Excepto en cnaiu.. pieviene 
este tratado, los derechos e-iviies y con- 
dlclon politlca de los espanoles habltantes 
en los territorios cedidos. se regiran por 
las leyes eomune a todos los demas extran- 
geros en el territorio de su resldcncla." 

•AKTICULO — . I'Os demas habltan- 
tes de los territorios cedidos podran optar 
por la naclonalidad espanola en el termino 
iW un ano. a contar rtcsde el camblo de 
ratlficaclones de este tratado, habiendo de 
hacer csU opciou en la forma prescrlta 
en el articulo anterior y poucrla inmedi.a- 
famente ademas en conocini lento del Go- 
bierno espaiioi o de sus agentes consulares, 
sin cuvo requisito no los sera reconocida 
en ninsuii tienipo la nacioiialida<i de su 
opcion." 



Ivos Comisarios amcrii aii..^ pr.iponen en 
esta sesion. que los anti'viores articulos 
Sean sustltuidos por el siguientc; 

"AUTICULO VI. Los subditos espanoles 
naturaies de la Peninsula, que residan en 
el territorio cuya soberania Espana renun- 
cia o cede por el presente tratado podran 
pennauecer en dicho territorio o marcharse 
de el. conservando en uno u otro caso 
tixlos SOS derechos de propledad. con in- 
ilusi<in del derecho de vender o disponer 
de tal propledad o de sus productos; y ade- 
mas tendran el derecho de ajercer su in- 
dustria. comereio o profesiou, sujetandose 
a este respecto a las leyes que scan apli- 
cables a los demas extrangeros. En el 
caso de que permanezcan en el territorio. 
podran conservar su naclonalidad espanola 
haciendo ante una ofieina de registro, den- 
tro de on ano de.spues del cambio de ratl- 
ficacicmes de este tratado. una declaraeion 
de su proposito de conservar dicha nacion- 
alidad; a falta de eSta declaraeion. se eon- 
siderara que ban renunciado dicha naclon- 
alidad y adoptado la del territorio en el 
cual inieden residir. 

"Los derechos clvlles y lo condlcion po- 
litlca de los naturaies que habiian los 
territorios aqui cedidos a los Estados 
I'nidos se determinaran por el Con^reso." 

Kl Presidente de la Comislon espanola 
presento varlas objeciones al texto de este 
articulo, y despues de alguna discuslon. el 
Presidente de la Comision americana de- 
claro que con respecto al articulo en cues- 
lion, como a los demas que los Comisarios 
amerieauos puedan aceptar, pcdiran que, 
como condlcion necesaria de su adopcion, 
se Inserte en todos los articulos que deban 
estar en rigor durante cierto tiempo, una 
clausula Ilmitaudo la obligacion que de 
ellos se derive para los Estados Uuidos, 
con respecto a Cuba, al tiempo de su ocu- 
pacion de la Isla. o en otro caso que se 
inscrlba en el tratado una clausula general 
que dlga: 

"Se entlende que cualqulcr obligacion 
asumlda por los Estados Unidos con re- 
specto a Cuba, se limlta al tiempo que 
ocupen a esta." 



19S 



No conclusiou having been reached uu 
Ihe articles in question, it was agreed 
that the rest of the articles should be 
read and then handed to the Spanish Com- 
missioners, in order that they might con- 
sider them and give their answer to the 
cuuiiter-proposals of the United States at 
the next conference, and that all the ar- 
ticles should be inserted in the protocol 
of to-day's conference. 

Pursuant -to this agreement, the follow- 
ing articles offered by the Spanish Com- 
mission were read: 



No habieuduse adoptaJo acuerdo alguuo 
sobre este artkiilo. se conviuo en que se 
leveran los demas y se entregaran a los 
Comisarios espanoles. para que pudieran 
examinarlos y contestar a las contra-pro- 
posieiones de los Estados Unidos en la 
sesion proxima, decidiendose ademas que. 
todos los articulos se Insertaran en el 
protoeolo de la conferencia de hoy. 

Eu eumplimieuto de este acuordo. fuerou 
leidos los siguientes articulos que habiau 
sido propuestos por la Comision espanola: 



(JHANTS .\ND cdNTKACTs FOR PUB- Conccsioiies dc obras y servicios 



Lie WORKS ANU SERVICES. 

"ARTICLE — . .^11 grants and contracts for 

public works and services in the -slands 
of Cuba, Porto Rico, the Philippines and 
other ceded territory shall be maintained 
in force until their expiration, in accord- 
ance with the terms thereof, the new Gov- 
ernment assuming all the rights and obli- 
gations thereby attaching up to the present 
time to the Spanish Government. 



public 



icos. 

••AHTICULO -. 
■■Continuaran observandose igualmeute 
todas las coneesiones do obras y servicios 
publicos en las islas do Cuba. Puerto Rico, 
Filipinas y demas territories cedidos, hasta 
su canceUacion, con arreglo a las clausulas 
,c>n que hubie.^eu sido otorgadas, subro- 
gandose el nuevo Gobierno en los derechos 
y eu las obligaciones que pur dicbos con- 
tratos correspoudieron liasta ahora al Go- 
bierno espanol." 



■PUBLIC CONTRACTS. 



"ARTICLE — . Contracts formally entered 
Into by the Spanish Government or its 
authorities for the public service of the 
islands of Cuba, Porto Rico, the Phllp- 
pines and others ceded by this treaty, and 
which contracts are still unperformed, shall 
continue in force until their expiration 
pursuant to the terms thereof. Such con- 
tracts as also cover the service peculiar to 
Spain or any of her other colonies, the 
new Government of the above mentioned 
islands shall not be called upon to carry 
out. save only in so far as the terms of 
said contracts relate lo the particular 
service "v neasury cpf such Islands. The 
new Government will therefore, as regards 
the said contracts, be holden to all the 
rights and obligations therein attaching 
to the Spanish Government. 



■■List of Pending Contracts for Public 
Works and Services. 

"Mail and transportation contract with 
the Compania Transatlantica. 

"Contract with English company (Cuba 
Submarinel for the cable on the south of 
Cuba. 

"Cable contract. Manila to Hong Kong, 
with another English company ('The East- 
ern'). 

"Railroad concessions from Manila to 
IJagupan. 

"All other concessions for railroads now 

196 



"Concesiones de obras y servicios 
publicos. 

■AITICULO -. 

■■Los contratos regularmente celebrados 
por el Gobierno espanol o por sus Autorl- 
dades para el servicio publico de las islas 
de Cuba, Filipinas. Puerto Kico y demas 
que se ceden por este tratado. y cuyos con- 
tratos esten pendientes de cumplimiento, 
continuaran observandose hasta su termi- 
nacioii. con arreglo a sus clausulas. 

"En aguellos en qne tambien estuviese 
interesado el servicio peculiar de Espana 
o de caulquiera de sus demas colouias el 
nuevo Gobierno de las islas sobredichas. 
no coneurrira a su cumplimiento. sino en 
la parte que. con arreglo al contrato mis- 
mo, corresponda a su servicio y Tesoro es- 
pecial. 

"(Juedara por lo tanto el nuevo (lobienui 
subrogado en lug.rr del espanol en todos 
los derechos y obligaciones que dc los racn- 
ciouados coutratos pudieran resnltaren en 
favor o eu contra de aquel. 

■■Lista de contratos pendientes por obras 
y servicios publicos. 

"Contrato para correos y trasportes con 
la Compania Trasatlantica." 

"Contrato de la Compania Inglcsa (Cub.i 
Submarine) para el cable en el Sur dc 
Cuba. 

"Ontrato del cable de Manila a Hong 
Kong eon otni Compania Inglesa (The 
Eastern). 

■■Concesion ilel ferrocaril ih- Manila a 
n.ignpan. 

■Todas les demas concesiones de fei'ro- 



In operatitin or under construction in Cul);i 
or Porto Rico. 

"Tlie iitKive are all tlip conlriUMs ai pres- 
ent recalleil, alllioujrh it cunnot be slated 
that tliere are not otluM-s relative to public 
worivs antl services. None of recent dale. 
"Decenil)er 1, isn.><." 

Tlio President of tlie .\uierlcan ("cinmis- 
slon stated that tlie .\nierican Conimls- 
sloners were constrained tn reject these 
articles. The United States did not pro 
pose to repudiate any contract found upon 
investigation to be binding under Interna- 
tional law: but no such clauses as now 
proposed liad been inserted in ireatii.-i 
heretofore made b.v the T'nlied States wil a 
Spain. France. Mexico and Russia, for the 
acqtiisition of terrltor.v; and it niijriil be 
assumed that tlie Tnlted Stales wonUl 
deal justl.v and e(iui(abl.v In respect of 
contracts Iliat were bindins uiidei- the 
principles of international law. 

Tile following: article, proposed bv th<' 
Spanish f'oiuiuission. was then re.-Ml ■ 

■RKl.ICIO.V 

•■.ARTICLE.- The Roman Catholic .Apos- 
tolic Religion, its institutions and inln , 
Isters. shall continue to enjo.v in ail the 
territories which are the subject of this 
ireat.v. the libert.v and the ri^'hts in the 
up.disturiied possession of which the.v arc 
at present. 

"The members of this Church, whatever 
their nationalit.v, shall continue to enjo.v 
the same libert.v the.v now enjo.v. with re- 
spect to Ihe profession of their rcliiilon 
and the exercise of their form of wor.ship." 
The President of the American Commis 
sion stated that the United States could 
malie no liistinction as to reii'.'ioii. and 
proposed tile followins: article: 



carriles en explotaciiui o en coiistnicclou 
en Cuba .v I'uerto Rico. 

"Kstos son los contralos que ahora se 
recuerdan. atinque no pneda declrse si na.v 
olros relativos a oliras .v servlcios pubiicos. 
nini:uii<> de elios de feclia recienle. 
•■1" cle Diclenibre ile l.SOS." 
EI Presldente de la Comislon americaiia 
declaro que los Coinisarios americanos se 
veian obllgados a rechazar estos artlculos. 
Los Estados tlnldos no se proponen pe- 
pudiar niusun contrato. que al ser exani- 
Inado se eucucEitrc que obllj:a*se;;un la ley 
Internadonal: pero clausulas parecidas a 
la que ahora se propone no se lian iiiscr- 
tado eii tratados antenormente cclebrad<is 
por los Estados Unidos con Espaiia. 
Krancia, Mexico, y Rusia por adi|ulsicion 
de terrltorios: y podia adniitirsi' que los 
Estados Unidos obraran con jtistida ,v 
equidad en los contratos que los oblistuen 
con areght a los principios del dcrecho 
Internacional. 

Se le.vo el siguienle articnlo. propnesto 
|ii>r ia Comision espanola 

"Religion. 

••AUTICII.O . 
"La relijjion catoiica -Xpostollca Uoniaua 
y sus instituciones y ministros contiuuaran 
gozando en todos los terrltorios que son 
objeto de este tratado. de la llbertad v 
prero.sativas en cuya [losesioii i>aclfica se 
hallan. 



■RELIGION. 

■■ARTICLE.— The inhabitants of i he tec 
ritory over which Spain relinquishes or 
cedes her sovereignty shall be secured in 
I'he free exercise of their religion." 

Til following atide. propo.sed 
Spanish Coniniisslon. was rc.id: 

"THE .MA INK. 



by the 



"Los tieles dc vsta Iglesla. cualquiera 
que sea su nacioualidad, cou:i;uiaran asi- 
mismo gozando de la iilxM-tad que h ly tie- 
neu para la profeslon de sn religion y el 
ejerciclo de suculto." 

El Presldente de la Comision americaiia 
declara que los Estados Unidos no pueden 
hacer dlstincion i-iitrt' las religiones. y 
propone el arti<-ul«> sii:uieiite: 

"Religion. 

"ARTICULO — . 

"Los habitantes del territorio. cny.i so- 
berania Espana renuncia o cede, tendran 
asegurado el iihro ejerciclo de su religion." 

Se leyo el slguiente articnlo propnesto 
por la Goaiislon espanola : 

••Zl Maine. 



"I>raft of additional arlicles to th. 
Treaty of Peace with Ihe Uniteil States. 



■■.MAINi;-ARTICLE.-At the request of 
the Spanish Government, the two hi-h 
contracting parties agree t.. appoint an 
intcrnalioual commlssiou to he entrusted 
witl, Investigating the rauses of and re- 
sponsibility for the .Main,, catastropho 
which occurred In the harbor of Havana 

;:"n,i:;i-;;;-.,!^i.>r,..i:;t^:i-r-::;; 

•■xperts to be appointed as follows: 



••PROVECTO DE Aifl'ICi L(iS A1>I- 
ClONALES AL THATAIXI HE P\Z CON 
LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS. 

"Maine. 

'"A peticion del Goblerno espanol. las dos 
Alias Partes contratantes convienen en 
noml)rar una comision internacional en- 
cargada de depurar las causas y responsa- 
bllldades de la catastrofe del .Maine, ocur- 
rida en el puerto de la llabana el 1,1 de 
I'^ehrero de IsyS. Esta (;'onilsli>n interna- 
cional se compoiidra de siete tecnu-os nom- 
brados de l:i inanera siguiente: 



i»: 



•■Tlirce by Hip Spanish Gciyerumpnt. one 
to be a Spanish subject, another a British 
subject and a third a French subject. 

"Three b.v the Tnited States Govern- 
ment, one to be a citizen of the Dnited 
States, another a British subject and a 
third a French subject. 

"The commission to be presided over, 
with a deciding vote, by a German ex- 
pert chosen by mutual agreement b.v the 
Spanish and American Governments. 

"Should no agreement be reached here- 
on, the Spanish Government shall desig- 
nate one person and the United States 
Government another, both persons to be 
experts and of German nationality, the 
choice for President to be decided by lot. 
and the drawing to take place at the De- 
partment of State at Washington. 

The expenses of this Commission are to 
be borne in equal moieties by the two 
Governments, the Commission to meet in 
Havana at the earliest possible niomeni 
after tile consent of the Governments of 
Germany. France and Great Britain is 
secured. 

"In the event of the Spani.sh Govern- 
ment being found responsitile, it shall pa.v 
to the United States its share of the ex- 
penses of the Commission. Further, a 
Spanish warship must go to New York 
and salute the flag of the United States. 

"If, on the contrar.v, the Commission 
Shall decide that Spain is not responsible, 
attributing the catastrophe to an accident 
inside the vessel or other fortuitous cause, 
the Government of the United States shall 
pay to Spain its share of the expenses of 
the Commission. 

"Moreover, the Tresident of the United 
States shall report the arbitral aw:ird tii 
the Congress of the United States, setting 
forth in the official message the righteous 
course of the Spanish nation." 

This article was rejected by the Ameri- 
can Commissioners, who stated that they 
considered the case as closed. 

The President of the Spanish Commis- 
sion stated that he was unable to consider 
it as closed, since the President of the 
United States had referred to it in his 
message to Congress on Monday last. 

The President of the American Commis- 
sion stated that the American Commis- 
sioners had not received a copy of the 
message and therefore had not read it. 

The President of the Spanish Commis- 
sion replied that he had in his pos.session 
an extract from it. which he could produce. 

The President of the American Commis- 
sion answered that the American Commis- 
sioners did not care to continue the dis- 
cussion of the subject on the present oc- 
casion. 

The following article proposed by the 
Spanish Commissioners was read: 



"Tres por el Gobierno espaunl. cuyos. 
nombramientos han de recaer precisamen- 
te, uno en un subdito espanol, otro en un 
subdto biitanico y el tercero en un subdlto 
trances. 

"Tres I'la- el Gobierno norte americano, 
cuyos nombramientos habran de recaer, 
uno en un ciudadano de los Estados Uni- 
dos, otro en un subdito britanico y el ter- 
cero en un subdito trances. 

"Pres'dira la Comision con voto decisivo 
un tecnico aleman. elegido de eomun acuer- 
do por los Gobiernos espanol y americano. 
Caso de no Ilegarse a un acuerdo. el Go- 
bierno espanol designara un indi\'iduo y 
el norte americano otro, dibiendo ser tecni- 
cos y de nacionalidad alemana. y en el 
Ministerio de Negocios Extrangeros de 
Washington se decidira por suerte el que 
hava de ser Presidente. 

"Los dos Gobiernos sufragarau por mitad 
los gastos de esta Comision. que debera 
reunirse en la Habana a la brevedad posi- 
ble. previo el asentimiento de los Gobier- 
nos de Alemania Francia y Gran Bretana. 

"Caso de aparecer responsable el Go- 
bierno espanol, tendra que alxtnar la parte 
de gastos correspondientes por esta Co- 
mision a los Estados Unidos. Ademas, un- 
barco de guerra espanol tendra que ir a 
Neuva York a saludar el pabellou de los 
Estados Unidos. 

"Si. por el contrario, decidiera la Co- 
mision la Irresponsabilidad de E.spana, 
atribuyendo la catastrofe a un accidente 
en el interior del buque, o caso fortuito, 
el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos tendra 
que abonar la parte de gastos eorrespon- 
diente por esta Comision a Espana. 

"Ademas, el Presidente de los Estados 
Unidos debera dar cuenta de la sentencia 
arbitral a las Camaras norte americanas, 
haciendo constar en el Mensage Oficial la 
lealtad de proceder de la Nacion espanola. 

Este articulo fue rechazado por los Co- 
misarios americanos. quienes declararon 
que consideraban terminado el asunto. 

El Presidente de la Comision espanola 
declaro que no podia considerarlo como 
terminado. desde que el Presidente de los 
Estados Unidos se haWa referido a el en 
su Mensage al Congreso el lunes ultimo. 

El presidente de la Comision americana 
declaro que los Comisarios americanos no 
habian recibido copia del Mensage. y por 
lo tanto no lo habian leido. 

El Presidente de la Comision espanola 
contesto que tenia en su poder un extracto 
del mismo, que podia presentar. 

El Presidente de la Comision americana 
replico que los Comisarios americanos no 
estaban dispuestos a continuar la discusion 
de este asunto en la ocasion presonte. 

Se leyo el siguiente articulo. propuesto 
por los Comisarios espanoles. 



19S 



••I'lJNSIliN TO THIC PIKIO 111- V1:KA- 
GUA. 

"Al:TICLE.-TUi' tnitcil Slates will fOli- 
limiL' paying to the aescendunts »( the 
Great Discoverer of Amerioa. Christopher 
Colmiibus. the portion still payable of the 
pension they have been colleotiiit; sinee 
the time of their illustrious predecessor, 
as a proof of the gratitude of modern civ- 
ilization, which Spain has been paying. 

"This pension, sinee the royal order of 
Novonil>er 11. IS'JSI^ has been reduced to 
the two suras following: 

■'Three thousand four hundred (hard) dol- 
lars annually, charge.able to the treasury 
of Porto Rico, and $4,000 (like dollars) to 
the treasury of Manila. 

"The Unitetl States and the said tie- 
scendants by mutual agreement may fix 
the principal represented by these pen- 
sions and liquidate the hitter by ileliver- 
ing over the principal thus agreed en, if 
deemed mutually advisable." 

The American Commissioners stated that 
they rejected this article. 

The following article, proposed by the 
Spanish Commissioners, was read: 



"Carga de justicia del Duque de 
Veragua. 

"ARTICTT.O 

"Los Estados L'nidos continuaran salis- 
faclendo a los descendientes del Gnin De- 
scubrldor de America. Cristobal Colon, la 
parte de pension todavia subslstente que 
hau veuido cobrando: desde los tlempos de 
su ilustre progeidtor. come una prueba de 
gratitud de la civilizacion moderna. que 
venia satisfaciendo Espana. 

"fOsta pension viene reducida desde Ueal 
Orden de 11 de Noviembre de 181!!), a las 
dcs cantidades signlentcs. 

":!.400 (pesos fncrtes) anuales cnnslgnada 
sobre el Tesoro de Puerto Uico. y $4.00() 
(pesos fuertes) sobre el Tesoro de Manila. 

"Los Est.ados Unidos y dichos descen- 
dientes de comun acuerdo podran capitali- 
zar estas pensiones y extiugulrlas por la 
entrega del capital que fijen. si asi respec- 
tivaniente In tuvieran por convenlente." 

Los Oomisarios aniericanos declaran que 
rechazan este articulo. 

Se leyo el siguiente articulo. propncsto 
por los Comlsarios cspanoles; 



•DEPOSITS AND BONDS." 



"Depositos y fianzas. 

"ARTICULO 

"ARTICLE. -Monevs received by Gov- "Seran denieltos los depositos. conslgna- 

ernment ofllces and "establishments in the clones, prestamos y flanzas de todas clases 

aforesaid territories from Spanish citizens constltuidas por ciuda.lanos espanoles en 

in the way of deposits, consignments, loans los establecimlentos y oficinas del Estado. 

:ind security of all kinds shall be returned existentes en los territorios sobredichos, a 

to the lawful owners, -whenever proper, sus legitimes duenos cuando fuere proce- 

elther because of the expiration of the dente su devoluclon por haber vencldo los 

time for Which they were made or be- plazos por que se hubiesen hecho o por 

cause of the fulfilment of the principal haberse ya cumplido las obllgaclones prin- 

obligatlons bv them guaranteed. This res- cipales a que slrvieron de garantia. Esta 

titutlon shall" be made by the head of the devoluclon se hara por el .lefe de la Ofielna 

office where the sums of money were de- en que se hubicren pntregado las canti- 

posited, consigned, loaned or given as se- dades depositadas, consignadas^ prestadas 

curitv; and in default thereof by whoever o dadas en fianza. 



en su defecto por 



is responsible for such sums under the 
law." 

The American Commissioners stated that 
they rejected this article. 

The following article, proposed by the 
Spanish Commissioners, was then read: 

"CONSULS. 
•ARTICLE.— Spain shall have the power 



quien de dieha devoluclon deba responder 
con arreglo a las leyes." 

Los Comlsarios americanos declaran que 
rechazan este articulo. 

Sc leyo el siguiente articulo propuesto 
por los Comlsarios espanoles: 

"Agentes consulares. 

"ARTICULO 
'Espana podra estableccr Agentes cmsu- 



10 establish Consular officers in the parts inrpg en los puertos y plazas de los terrl- 



:iiid places of the territories, the sover- 
eignty over which has been either relin- 
quished or ceded by the present treaty." 

This article the American Commissioners 
accepted. 

The following article, proposed by the p^^ i^s Comlsarios espanoles 
Spanish Commissioners, was then read: 



torios cuyarenuncia y cesion es objeto de 
este tratado." 

Los Comlsarios americanos aceptan este 
articulo. 

Se leyo el siguiente articulo, propuesto 



"JURISDICTION OF COURTS. 
"ARTICLE.— The Spaniards residing in 
the said territories sihall be subject in mat- 
ters civil as well as criminal to the juris- 
diction of the courts of the country where- pals en que residan con arreglo a las le.vcs 
In they reside, pursuant to the ordinary comunes que regulen su competencia. pu- 
laws governing the same: and tliey shall dieudo cotuparecer ante los mismos en la 

199 



"Jurisdiccion civil y criminal. 

"ARTICULO 

"I.dS csianoles residentes en los mencion- 

ados territorios estaran sometidos en lo 

civil y en lo criminal a los Tribunales del 



havf the right to appear before said courts 
ami to pursue the same course as citlzeus 
of the country to which the courts Ije- 
long." 
This article the Ameritau Coninilssioncrs 

accepted. 

The follo'.viUK article, proposed liy ihi' 
Spanish Commissioners, was read; 

••■TrUISlUrTION OF COrUTS. 

•■.\KTICLi:.-rivil and i-riminal actions 
and suits against the Government that 
may be pending at the time of the ex- 
change of the ratiflcations of this treaty, 
to which the citizens of the countries the 
sovereignty over which has beioi relin- 
quished or ceded are a party, and who. 
pursuant to such treaty, cease to be Span- 
iards, shall be tried and deterninied sub- 
ject to the following rules: 

■• -First— .Tildginents rendered cither in 
civil or criminal matters before the date 
aforesaid, and with respect to which there 
is no recourse under the Spanish law', shall 
be deemed to be final, and shall be exe- 
cuted in due form by competent authority 
In the territory within which such .ludg- 
ments should l)e carried out. 

•■ 'Second— I'ersonal actions and cases 
against the oGvernment which may be 
pending before the courts of the peninsula 
or the islands adjacent thereto. wh(>reiu 
a citizen of the .said territories who by 
this treaty ceases to be a Spaniard is the 
plaintiff, shall. If the defendant is a Span- 
iard, continue to be tried in due form be- 
fore the said courts to the rendition of 
the final .iudgnient. Personal actions where- 
in the defendant is an inhabitant of the 
said territories which by this treaty cease 
to be Spanish, shall be tried by the com- 
petent court of the domicile of the defend- 
ant. .\ctions in rem or mixed actions, 
when the immovable property in lilisaiioi! 
is situate in the Peninsula or ad.jaci.ut 
islands, shall be pursued to final judgment 
and until the same is executed before the 
courts having cognizance thereof. 

•■ 'Third— Criminal actions pending ou 
said date before the Supreme Court of 
Spain against citizens of the territory re- 
linquished and ceded, which ceases to bi' 
Spanish by this treaty, shall continue un- 
der its jurisdiction until final judgment; 
but this having been once rendered, the 
cases shall pass for execution to the juris- 
diction of the competent court at the place 
where the same should be carried out,* " 

The American Commissioners proposeil. 
in place <it the foregoing article, the fol- 
lowing: 1 (. 

".TUitisriicTiox OF cot;rts. 

"ARTICLE. -.Indlcial proceeilings p, nd- 
Ing at the time of the exchange of ratifica- 
tions of tbis treaty in the territories over 
which Spain relinquished or cedes her sov- 
ereignt.v shall be deterinineil according to 
the following rules; 



mlsma forma y empleando los mismos pro- 
cediniientos que deban observar los ciu- 
dadanos del pais a que pertcnczca el Tri- 
bunal." 

Los Coinisarios americanos accptan este 
articulo. 

Se le.vo el siguiente articnlo propucsto 
por los Comisarios espanoles; 

"Competencia de Tribunales. 

•■AHT1CUL(J 

"I^os pleitos civiles y administralivos y 
las causas criminales pendientes al ha- 
cerse el canje de ratilicacioues de este tra- 
tado, en que sean parle los ciudadanos 
residentes en los territorios renunciado y 
cedidos que con arrtglo a aquel dejen de 
ser espanoles concluiran de sustanciarse a 
tenor de las reglas siguientes: 

"PUIMEUA: Las sentencias dlctadas an- 
tes de la fecha mencionada asi en lo civil 
como en lo crhuinal, y contra las cuales 
no haya recursos que interpouer con ar- 
reglo a la ley espanola, tendraj el earaeter 
de ejecutorias y deberan ser cumplidas por 
los tramites legales por la Autorldad com- 
petente en el territorio en que proceda sti 
cumplimiento. 

"SECUNDA; Los plelitos civiles por 
accion personal, y los administrativos. 
pendientes ante los Tribunales de la Pen- 
insula a Islas adyaeentes. en que fuese 
demandante un ciudadano de dichos terri- 
torios, que por este tratado deje de ser 
pspanol, continuaran sustanelandose por 
los Tribunales ante quieues penden, hasta 
que recaiga sentencia ejecutoria, si fuese 
espanol el demandado. I.,os tambien por 
accion personal en que sea demandado un 
habitante de los sobredichos territorios que 
por este tratado pierda la nacioualidad es- 
panola, pasaran al conocimiento del Juez 
o Tribunal del domicilio del demandado 
que fuese competente. Aquellos en que se 
ejercite una accion real a mixta, si el in- 
mueble que fuese su objeto radicase en la 
Peninsula c- Islas adyaeentes. continuaran 
hasta que en ellos recaiga ejecutoria y 
esta sea cumplida ante los Tribunales que 
de ella estuvleran conocieudo. 

"TEHCEKA: Las causas criminales pen- 
dientes en la sobredicha fecha ante el Tri- 
bunal Supremo de Espana, contra los ciu- 
viadanos de los territorios renunciado .v 
ceilidos. que dejen de ser espanoles por 
este tratado, continuaran sometidas a su 
jurisdiccion hasta que ri'cbaiga sentencia, 
pero una vez que esta, fuese dietada, 
pasaran para su cumplimiento a la juris- 
lugar en que aquella deba ser cumplida." 

Los Comisarios americanos jiroponen que 
el anterior articnlo se substltuya por el 
siguiente; 

"Jurisdiccion de los Tribunales. 

"AltTICULO 

"Los procedlmientos judiciales pendientes 
al canjearse las raMficacioues de este tra- 
tado, en los territorios sobre los euales 
Espana renuncia o cede su sobreania, se 
dcicrn;inaraii coi; .-irozcglo ;i reglas sig- 
uici.ii > ; 



"1. Judgments reudureil oUIut Iu civil 
suits between private Individuals, .ir In 
criminal matters, before tlie date men 
tioned. and nitli respk-t to whieli there Is 
no recourse or rliiht of review under the 
Spanish law, shall be deemed to be tiuai. 
and shall be executed in due form by com- 
petent authority iu the territory within 
which such Judgments sliould be I'arrled 
out. 

"2. Civil suits between private individ- 
uals which may on the date mentioned be 
undetermined shall be prosecuted to .iudg- 
ment before the court in wliioh they may 
then be pending, or in the court that may 
be substituted therefor. 

".3. Criminal actions pendln;; on I he date 
mentioned before the Supreme Cnurt of 
Spain against citizens of the territory 
which by this treaty ceases to be Spanish 
shall continue under its jurisdiction until 
final judgment: but, such judgment having 
been rendered, the execution thereof shall 
be committed to the competent authority 
of the place In which the case arose." 

The following article, proposed by the 
Spanish Commissioners, was read: 

"Copyrights and Patents. 



"1. Las sentencias dictadas en causas 
eivllcs entre particulares. o en una mate- 
ria <rimlnal. antes de la fecha mencionada, 
y c*ontra las cuales no haya apelacion o 
derecho de revision, con arreglo a las 
leyes espanolas. se conslderaran como 
flrmes, y seran ejecutadas en debida forma 
por la Autorldad competente en el terrlto- 
rlo dentro del cual dlchas sentencias deban 
<-umplirse. 

"2. Los pleltos vivUes entre particulares 
que en la fecha mencionada no hayan sldo 
ju/.gados, continuaran su tramitaclou ante 
el Tril)uual en que se halle el proceso. o 
ante aquel que lo sustituya. 

".'i. Las aceiones en materia criminal 
pendientes en la fecha mencionada ante el 
Tribunal Supremo de lOspana contra ciu- 
dadanos del terrKorio (pie segun este tra- 
tado deja de ser espanol. continuaran bajo 
su jurisdiecion liasta que recalga la sen- 
tencia definitiva; pero una vez dielada 
esa sentencia, su ejecucion sera encomen- 
dada a la Autoridad competente del lugar 
en que la accion se suscito." 

Se leyo el siguiente articulo. propucsto 
por lus Cnniisarios es)i:ilinles: 

"Tropiedad literaria e industrial. 



•AHTICLE — . 

"The rights of property secured by copy 
rights and patents acquired b.v Spaniards 
in the islands of Cuba and Porto Uico, 
the Philippines, and all other territories 
ceded, at tlie time of the exchange of the 
ratification of tills treat.v. shall continue 
to be respected. Spanish scientific, liter- 
ary and artistic works, not subversive of 
public order in the said territories, shall 
continue to be admitted free of duty in 
the said territories for twent.v-five (2.">) 
years, to be reclconed from the date of the 
exchange of the ratifications of tliis treat.v, 
and the proprietary rlghis of their authors 
shall be protected for a like period." 

The American Commissioners proposed 
as a substitute the following article: 

"Copyrights and Patents. 

"The rights of jiroperty. se<-ured liy 
copyrights and patents acquired by Sjiaii- 
iards in the islands of Cuba and Porto 
Rleo. the Pliilipplnes. and other ceded ter- 
ritories at the time of the exchange of the 
ratifications of this treaty, shall continue 
to be respected; Spanish scientific, literary 
and artistic works, not subversive of pub- 
lic order In the territories In question. 
shall continue to be admitted free of duty 
Into such territories, for the period of ten 
years, to be reckoned from the date of 
the exchange of the ratification of this 
treaty." 

The reading of the articles proposed by 
the Spanish Couimlssloners having been 
completed, the President of the American 
Commission stated that It was bis under- 
standing that the articles proposed by the 

201 



■AKTICILO 

"(.'ontinuaran respetandose los derechos 
de pi-opiedad literaria, artistica e industrial 
adquiriridos por espanoles en las Islas de 
Cuba, Puerto Uico, Filipinas y demas ter- 
ritorios cedidos, al liacerse el canje de 
ralificaciones do este tratado. Las obras 
espanolas clentificas, llterarhis y artistieas. 
que no scan peligrosas para el orden publi- 
co en dichos territorios, continuaran en- 
Irando en los niismos con franquichia de 
Tod,» ilereclio de adiiana durante veiute y 
ciM -o (l'.j) anos. a C4Uitar desde el canje de 
ratificaciones de este tratado, y durante el 
iiusmo tcrmino sera pr<)tegid:i la propiedad 
de 3US autores." 

Los Coniisarios americanos propusieron 
que se sustituyese este articulo por el si- 
guiente: 

"Propiedad literaria e industrial. 

"AKTICI'LO 

"Los derechos de ,propledad lileraria e 
industrial reconocidos a los espanoles por 
medio de registros y patentes en las Islas 
de Cuba. Puerto Rico, Filipinas y ostros 
territorios cedidos. al canjearse las ratifi- 
caciones de este tratado. continuaran 
siendo respetados. Las obras espanolas 
clentificas. Ilterarias y artistieas. que no 
sean subversivas contra el orden publico en 
los territorios referldos continuaran siendo 
admitldas libres de derechos en los mismos, 
durante diez (10) anos a contra desde el 
canje de las ratificaciones de este tratado." 

Hablendose termlnado la lectura de los 
articulos propuestos por los Comisarios 
espanoles. el I'residente de la Comision 
amerlcana declare que entendia que los 
articulos propuestos por los Comisarios 
americanos serlan 'a<'eptados o rechazados 



American Commission would be accepted 
or rejected by tlie Spanish Commissioners 
at the next meeting. 

The President of the Spanish Commis- 
sion replied that the Spanish Commission- 
ers would pursue the same course with re- 
spect to the American articles as the Amer- 
ican Commissioners had pursued with ref- 
erence to the Spanish articles. 

On motion of the American Commission- 
ers, the conference was adjourned till to- 
morrow, Wednesday, the 7th of Decem- 
ber, without prejudice to the right of the 
Spanish Commissioners to request a post- 
ponement. 

Signed: WILLIAM R. DAT. 

CUSHMAN K. DAVIS. 
WM. P. FRYE. 
GEO. GRAY. 
WHITELAW REID. 
JOHN E. MOORE. 



per los Comlsarios espanoles en la sesion 
proxlma. 

El Presldente de la Comislon espanola 
contesto que los Comlsarios espanoles seg- 
ulran respecto a los artlculos americanos 
el mlsmo procedlmiento que los Comlsarios 
americanos habian seguido con referenda 
a los artlculos espanoles. 

A propuesta de los Comlsarios americanos 
se leyanto la sesion, acordando reunirse 
manana, miercoles 7 de Diciembre, sin 
perjaicio del derecho de los Comlsarios es- 
panoles para pedlr un aplazamlento. 

Firmado: E. MONTERO RIOS. 
B. DE ABARZUZA. 
J. DE GARNICA. 
W. R. DE VILLA-URRDTIA. 
RAFAEL CERERO. 
EMILIO DE OJEDA. 



202 



Protocol No. 21. 



Protocolo No. 21. 



CONFERENCE 
of December 8. 1898. 

The session which was to h.ive been held 
on yesterday having bi'pn postponed at the 
request of the Spanish Commissioners, the 
Joint Commission nut to d:iy at two o'elocli. 
p. m.. there being 

Present— 
On the part of the United States: 
Messrs. DAY. 

DAVIS. 

FUYE. 

CUAY. 

UKIP. 

MOORE, 

I-I^UGUSSON. 
On the part of Spain: 
Messrs. MONTEKO RIOS. 

ABARZrZA. 

GAUNICA. 

VILI.A-URKUTIA. 

CERERO, 
Mr. Ojeda was nnablo to be present, ow- 
ing to illness, and Mr. Villa-Urrutia per- 
formed his duties as Secretary. 

The protocol of the preceding session was 
read and approved. 

The Spanish Commissioners proposed that 
the American Commissioners modify the 
clause presented by them and mentioned in 
the protocol of the last session relating to 
the limiting of the obligations of the United 
States in Cnba to the time of its occupation 
thereof. 

The American Commissioners took this 
proposition under consideration and submit- 
ted to the conference a new wording of 
the clause, which was approved, and which 
is as follows: 

"It is understood that any obligations as- 
sumed in this treaty by the United States 
with respe<'t to ("uba are limited to the 
time of their occupancy thereof; but they 
will, upon the termination of such occu- 
pancy, advise any Government established 
in the island to assume the same obliga- 
tions. 

The Spanish Commissioners observed that 
although the .Vmeriean Commissioners had 
rejected at the last session the article pre- 
sented by the Spanish Commissioners relat- 
ing to the Maine, they considered It their 
duty to insist upon this question being sub- 
mitted to arbitration. 

The American Commissioners answered, 
referring to the observations made by them 
on this subject at the last session. 

The Spanish Commissioners replied that 
since this new proposal for arbitration was 
also rejected, they would ask the American 
Commissioners to be pleased to propose 
some method of clearing up the matter of 
the Maine, and the responsibility growing 
out of it, so that the unjust prejudice 
against Spain shown in the United States 



CONFERENCIA 
DEL 8 DE DICIEMBRE DE 1898. 



-Vplazada. a propuesta de los ComisarloB 
espanoles. la sesion que debio haber tenido 
lugar el dia de ayer. se rennieron el dia d« 
lioy a las dos de la tarde. hallando.so 

Presentes — 
I'or parte de los Estados ITnidos di- 
.\merlca: 

los Senores DAY. 

DAVIS. 
FRYE. 
CRAY, 
REID, 
MOORE, 
KERGCSSOX. 
I'or parte de Espana: 

los Senores MONTERO RIOS, 
ABARZUZA. 
GARNICA. 
VILLA-URRUTIA, 
CERERO. 

Por ii larse eiifermo no pndo asistir el Sr. 
Ojeda, e hiro sus veces como Secretarlo el 
Sr. Villa-Urrutia. 

Fue leida y aprobada el acta de la sesion 
anterior. 

Los Comisarios espanoles proponen que 
los de los Estados Unidos modlflquen la 
clausula por cllos prescutada y que se men- 
clona en el acta de la sesion ultima, rela- 
tiva a la limitacion de las obligaciones de 
los Estados Unidos en Cvhn a1 tiempo que 
dure su ocupacion. 

Los Comisarios americanos toman en con- 
sideracion esta proposicion. y someten a la 
conferencia una redaccion de dicha clausula 
que es aceptado y dice asi: 

"Queda entendido que en alqnlera obliga- 
"cion aceptada en este tratado por los 
•Estados Dnidos con respeclo a Cuba esta 
"limitada al tiempo que dure su ocui)acion 
"en esta Isla, pero al terminar dicha ocupa- 
"cion, aconsejaran al Gobierno que .se es- 
"tablezca en la Isla, que acepte las mismas 
"obligaciones.'* 

Los Comisarios espanoles manifestan que 
auniiue la Comision americana habia recha- 
zado en la sesion ultima ol artlculo presen- 
tado por la Comision espanola sobre el 
".Maine", consideraban, sin embargo, un 
deber insistir en que esta cuestlon se some- 
tiese a un arbitrage. 

Los Comisarios americanos oontestaron 
que se referlan a las manifestaclones que 
hicieron en la sesion anterior. 

Los Comisarios espanoles repllcan que, 
questo (]ue est:i nueva proposicion de arbi- 
trage era tambien rechazada, so sirvieran 
los Senores (^omisarios americanos proponer 
cu:il(iuier mtniio de exclarecer este asunto 



203 



by reason "f an iucmipiete inv*'Stigation 
might disappear, and the resentment of 
Spain. be<'ause the uprightness of her au- 
tliorities or sulijects. and the eapaoitr of 
her administration to guarantee the safety 
in her ports of vessels of a nation with 
whieJi she was at peace, had been placed 
In doubt, might also be blotted out. 

The American Commissioners replied that 
they had no method to propose. 

The President of the Spanish Commission, 
pursuant to the rules, presented a memor- 
andum, which is hereto annexed, in sup- 
port of the propositions rejected by the 
American Commissioners at the last session. 

The American interpreter proceeded to 
translate the memorandum and to read it in 
English. 

The President of the American Commis- 
sion reserved the right to reply in writing 
to the memorandum at the next session. 

After explanations Interchanged by the 
Pre.sidents of the two Commissions, such 
articles presented by the .Spanish Commis- 
sioners as were accepted or modified by the 
American Commissioners were approved. 

The reading of the articles presented by 
the American Commission was then entered 
upon. 

The articles were read, one by one. in the 
order in which they stood. 

The first was as follows: 
"ARTICLE. 

■■Spain hereby cedes to the United States 
the island variously known as Kusaie. 
Ualvin. or Strong Island, in the Carolines; 
and also concedes to the United Slates the 
right to land telegraph cables in the Canary 
Islands, or on any territory owned by 
Spain on the coast of Africa, or in the 
Peninsula. 

'"In consideration of what is set forth in 
this article, the United States will pay to 
Spain the sum of one million dollars 
($1,000,000) within thre^ months from the 
exchange of the ratiflcations of the present 
treaty." 

The President of the Spanish Commission 
declared that even in the event of an 
agreement being reached upon this article 
It would have to figure elsewhere than in 
the treaty, as it was foreign thereto; but 
that he was compelled to reject it, because 
the Spanish Government at this time 
aeither entertained the idea of disposing 
of one of the Caroline Islands, nor could 
it do so for want of constitutional au- 
thority, previous authorization of the 
Cortes being necessary in the premises. 
Neither could what related to cable land- 
ings be accepted, because if stipulated in a 
treaty it might imply an easement on the 
national territory which the Spanish Gov- 
ernment was not empowered to create, and 
because any American company might re- 
quest through the executive channel, as 
other alien companies have done, such a 
concession, which was foreign to an inter- 
national treaty. 



del llaine, y las responsabilidades consi- 
gulentes demanera que pudiesen desaparecer 
las injustas prevenciones que se habian 
manifestado en los Estados Dnidos contra 
Espana por causa de una informacion in- 
completn. .v se borrase tambien el resenti- 
miento de Espana por haberse puesto en 
duda la 1( altad de sue Autoridades o d* 
sus uacionales y la capacidad de su ad- 
ministraclon para garantizar por su parte 
la segnindad en sus puertos a los barcos de 
una Xacinn con quien estaba en paz. 

Los Comisarios americanos contestaron 
que no tenian ningun medio que proponer. 

El Presidente de la Comision espanola, 
con arreglo al reglamento. prcsento un 
Memorandum que va anejo al acta, en 
apoyo de las proposiclones rechazadas por 
la Comision americana en la sesion ultima. 

El Interprete americauo proccolio a la 
lectura en ingles de dicho Memorandum. 

El Presidente de la Comision americana 
se reserva el derecho de contestar por es- 
crito a dicho Memorandum en la sesion 
proxima. 

Despuos de las explicaeiones que media- 
ron entre los Presidentes de ambas Comis- 
iones quedo entendido que se aprobaban 
los articulos presentados por le Comision 
espanola, tales como habian sido aceptados 
o moditicados por la Comision americana. 

Procediose entonces a la lectura de los 
articulos presentados por la Comision 
americana. 

Los artiiulos fueron leidos uuo por uno, 
en el orden en que fueron presentados. 

El 1' fue el siguiente: 

•ARTICULO. 

■■Espana rede por el presente a los 
■•Estados Unidos la Isla diversameute 
"llamada Kusaie, Ualan a Strong Island e. 
•■las Caroliuas; y ademas concede_a los 
■■Estados Unidos el derecho de amariar 
"cables telegraficos en las Islas Canarias o 
•'en cualquier territorio espanol de la costa 
•de Africa, o en la Peninsula. 

•■En consideracion de los establecido en 
•■es(t articulo. los Estados Unidos pagaran 
•'a Espana la suma de un millon de dollars 
••(.$1,000,000), dentro de los tres meses del 
••canje de ratificaciones del presente tra- 
••tado." 

El Presidente de la Comision espanola 
declaro que aun en caso de que hubiera 
habido acuerdo soble este articulo, tendria 
que figurar aparte del tratado. por ser 
ageno al mismo; pero que se veia obligado 
a rechazarlo. por que ni entraba en el 
animo del Gobieno espanol, en este me- 
mento, el anagenar una de las Islas Caro- 
linas ni podia tampoeo hacerlo por carecer 
de facultades eonstitucionales necesitando 
para ello estar previamente autorisado por 
las Cortes. Tampoeo podia aceptarse lo 
relative al amarre de oablcs. por que estipu- 
lado en un tratado podrla significar ana 
servidnmbre sobre territorio uacional, que 
el Gobieruo espanol no estaba autorizado a 



204 



'I'll., followlna ."irtu'le was tuen read. cousui"". .• i ' .. ., , ., , „,, 

llif ioii.>«in„ amerlcana podria solieitar por la via ad- 

■•ARTICI..E. niinlstrativa y touio lo ban hccho otras 

confornilts- wllh the uuderslandlns Coiupaulas extrangeras. una con<-psion. 



nat'ional. 
Se Icyo luego el articulo sigulentc: 

ARTICUI.O. 



•In - _ 

eslablished by an exchange of notes in the agcna a iiu tiatado inter 
year 1.S86, Spain agrees that American 
missions and missionaries shall be allowed 
to resume and hereafter freely to carry on 
their worij in the Caroline Islands that re- 
main under Spanish sovereignty." 

The President of the Spanish Coiumis- 
sion observed that it was nol known that 
any claim was pending in the premises, and 
that as the Constitution of the State laid 
down the rights of private individuals in 
religious matters, there was nothing in this 
regard to Insert in the treaty. 

The following article was then read: 



"ARTICLE. 

•'The United States and Spain will re- 
ciprocally accord to the ships of each other. 
In their respective ports, most favored na- 
tion treatment. In respect of all port 
charges, Includiag entrance and clearance 
dues, light dues, and tonnage duties. 

"It is" further agreed that the two Gov- 
ernments will enter into negotiations with a 
view to the conclusion of a commercial 
convention." 

In place of the first paragraph, the 
American Commissioners now propose the 
following: 

"Spain will in her ports accord to vessels 
of the United States the same treatment in 
respect of all port charges, including en- 
trance and clearance dues, light duos, and 
tonnage duties, as is accorded to Spaiysh 
vessels in the jiorts of the United States." 

The President of the Spanish Commission 
objected to the second paragraph of the 
article as unnecessary; and suggested that 
the first paragraph be amended so that it 
should be reciprocal in its provisions and 
be limited as to its duration. 

After discussion, the following article was 
drawn up: 

"The Government of each country will, 
for the term of ten years accord to the 
merchant vessels of the other country the 
same ireatmeut in respect of all port 
charges, including entrance dues, light 
dues and tonnage duties, as It accords to its 



"I)e conforniidad con el aciierdo estable- 
•oido por un canje de notas en el ano 1SS6 
"Espana convlene eu que las misioncs 
"ainericanas y los Misioncros podrau reauu- 
"d.'ir y de qucs llevar libremonte a efecto 
"sus irabajas eu las Islas Carolinas que 
"quedan bajo la soberania de Espana." 

El Presidente de la Comision espanola 
maniflesta que no consta este pendieiile 
uiiiguna reclaiuacion sobre el particular, y 
que como la eonstitucion del Estado niarca 
los derechos de los paxticuiares en materlas 
rellgiosas nada hay que inserlar a este re- 
specto en el tratado. 

Se leyo luego el articulu siguiente: 

"ARTICULO. 

"Los Bstados Unidos y Espana coiice- 
"deran reciproeamente a los buques de 
"cada uno de ellos en sus respectlvos puer- 
"tos, el trato de la naciou mas favorecida 
"respecto a todos los derechos de puerto, 
"incluyendo los de entrada y salida, faros 
"y tonelage. 

"Se convlene adeinas eu que los dos 
"Goblernos emperaran las negociaciones 
"para couclulr un convenio couiercial." 

Eu lugar del primer parrafo. proponen 
ahora los Comisarios americanos el sig- 
uiente: 

"Espana concedera en sus puerlxis a los 
"buques de los Estados Unidos el mismo 
"trato con respecto a todos los derechos de 
"Puerto, Incluyendo derechos de entrada y 
"salida, de faro y tonelage. que se concede 
"a los buques espanoles en los puertos de 
"los Estados Unidos." 

El Presidente de la Comision espanola 
manifesto que el segundo parrafo del ar- 
ticulo era innecesario y pidio que se modi- 
flcase el primer parrafo de manera que 
fucse reoiproca la estipulacion y liinitado 
el tiempo de su duracion. 
Despues de discutido se aprobo el articu 



own merchant vessels not engaged in the |^ p„ j., {oi-ma siguiente; 



coastwise trade. This article may at any 
time be terminated on six months' notice 
given by either Government to the other." 
The following article was then read: 

"ARTICLE. 

"The following treaty stipulations here- 
tofore entered into by the United States 
and Spain shall be held to continue In 
force: 

"Treaty of October 27, 1795, so tar as it 
Is confirmed by Article XII. of the Treaty 
of February 22, 1819; 

"Treaty of B'ebruary 22, 1819, so far as 
Its provisions have not been executed or 
become obsolete; 

"Convention of February 17. IS'H. for the 



El Gobieriio de cada pais coucedra par 
"cl termino do diez auos, a los buiiues mer- 
"cantcs del otro, el mismo trato en euanto 
"a todos los derechos de puerto. Incluyendo 
"los de entrada y salida. de faro y tone- 
"lage, que concede a sus propios buques 
"mercantes no empleados en el comerclo 
••de cabotage. Este articulo pucde scr de- 
•nuuciado en cualquier tiempo dando no- 
"ticia previa de ello cualqulera de ello 
••cualquiera de los dos Gobiernos al otro 
••cou seis meses de anticlpaclon." 

Se leyo luego el articulo siguiente; 
"ARTICULO. 

••Los siguientes trafados. antes cclcbrados 
••enlre los Estados Unidos y Espana, cou- 
"tinuaran en vigor: 

205 



settlement of claims; 

"Agreement of February 17. 1S34, for tUe 
settlement of claims; 

"Agreement of February 11-12. 1871, tor 
tlie settlement of claims, Article VII; 

"Convention of January 5, 1877, and the 
supplementary convention of August 7, 
1882. for the extradition of crimiuals; 

"Protoc61 of January 7, 1877. concerning 
Juilioial procedure; 

"Convention of June 19. 182, concerning 
Trade Marks; and the agreement between 
the two countries in relation to inierna- 
tioucil copyright." 

The fresident of the Spanish Commission 
stated that the Spanish Commissioners were 
unable to accept this article. Some of the 
treaties to which it referred were obsolete 
or related to conditions which no longer ex- 
isted, while others should be modified, and 
it would involve a more extended examina- 
tion than the Joint Commission was in a 
position to give. But this did not imply 
that the two Governments might not take 
up the subject themselves. 

The American Commissioners inquired 
whether the objection of the President of 
the Spanish Comuiission applied to the ex- 
tradition treaties. 

The President of the Spanish Commission 
replied that it did, as those treaties needed 
revision. 

The American Commissioners urged the 
revival of the extradition treaties, the con- 
vention concerning trade marks, and the 
agreement in relation to internatioual copy- 
right; and proposed that, in view of the im- 
mediate importance of fhe subjects to 
which they related, they should, if the 
Spanish Commissioners were not prepared 
to revive them fully, be revived temporarily 
as a modus Vivendi, for a period of a year 
or oven for six months, so as to enable the 
two Governments to consider the question 
of their renewal. 

The President of the Spanish Commission 
adhered to the views which he had ex- 
pressed: and the article was rejected. 

The fidlowing article was then read: 

"ARTICLE 

"The present treaty shall be ratilied by 
the President of the United States by and 
with the advice and consent of the Senate 
thereof, and by Her Majesty the Queen 
Regent of Spain; and the ratifications shall 
be exchanged at Washington within six 
months from the date hereof, or earlier if 
possible. 

"In faith whereof we, the respective plen- 
ipotentiaries, have signed this treaty, and 
have hereunto affixed our seals. 

"Done in duplicate at Paris, the day 

of in the year of Our Lord one thnus:ind 

eight hundred and ninety-eight." 

This article was accepted. 

The conference was then adjourned, with 
tlie understanding that the Jciint Commis- 
sion should reassemble for the purpose of 
signing the treaty, whenever it should be 



"Tratado de 27 Octubre de 1795, en su 
"parte confirmada por el articulo XII del 
"Trat.ido de 22 de Febrero de 1819. 

"Tratado de 22 de Febrero de 1819. en sii 
"disposiciones que no ban sido ejecutadas 
"o que no ban caido en desuso." 

"C»mvenio de 17 de Febrero de 1834 para 
"el arreglo de reclamaciones. 

".Vcuerdo de 11-12 de Febrero de 1871, 
"para el arreglo de reclamaciones (Articulo 
"VII.l 

"Convenio de 5 de Enero de 1877. y cou- 
"venio supletorio de 7 de Agosto de 1882, 
"para la extradicion de criminales. 

"Protocolo de 7 Enero de 1877 sobre pro- 
"cedimientos judiciales. 

"Convenio de 19 de Junio de 1882 respecto 
'*a las mareas de fabrica: y el acuerdo entre 
"los dos paises. conrelaciou a la propiedad 
"literaria internacionai." 

Manifesto el Presidente de la Comisiou 
Icspanola que no podia aceptar dicho arti- 
culo, por que algunos de tratados a que 
el mismo se referia estaban ya en desuso o 
se referian a condiciones que ya no ex- 
istian, por lo cual era precise hacer tin 
estudio de cada uno de ellos mas detenido 
que el que podia hacer esta Comisiou. 
Pero que esto no significaba que ambos 
Gobiernos no pudieran entenderse directa- 
mente sobre este asunto. 

Los Comisarios americanos preguntarun 
si las observaciones del Presidente de la 
Comision espanola se aplicaban a los trata- 
dos de extradicion. 

El Presfdente de la Comision espanola 
respondio que si, por que estos tratados 
necesitaban ser corregidos. 

Los Comisarios americanos pidieron la 
renovacion de los tratados de extradicion. 
mareas de fabrica y propiedad literaria. y 
propusieron que en vista de la importancia 
inmediata de los asuntos a que se re 
referian, fuesen renovado temporalmente, 
como un modus Vivendi, por un plazo de 
uu ano o de scis meses, si los Comisarios 
espanoles veian inconveniente en su reno- 
vacion absoluta, a fin de permitir a ambos 
Gobiernos el estudiar la cuestion de su 
renovacion. 

El Presidente de la Comision espanola 
mautuvo su anterior opinion y el articulo 
fue rechazado. 

Se leyo luego el articulo siguiente: 

"ARTICULO. 

"EI presente Tratado sera ratificado per 
"Su Majestad la Reina Regente de Espana 
"y por el Presidente de los Estados Uuidos 
"de acuerdo y con la aprobaclon del Sen- 
"ado; y las ratlficaciones se cangearan en 
"Washington dentro del plazo de seis meses 
"desde esta fecha. o antes si posible fuese. 

"En fe de lo cual, los respectivos I'ieni- 
"potenclarios firman y sellan este Tratado. 

"Hecho por duplicado en paris a 10 de 
"Diciembre del ano mil ochocientos noventa 
"y ocho." 

Se aprobo este articulo. 

Se levanto la sesion en la inteligencia 
de que la Comision en pleno se reuniria con 



206 



ready for signature; and that. In the mean objeto de flrmar el tratado, cuando estn- 
tlme, each Commission might communicate vlcse en dlsposlcion de ser flrmado, y que 
to the other any memoranda which It eutre tauto ambas Comlsiones podrian 
should desire to flic under the rules. comunlcarsc cualquier Memorandum que 

con arreglo al reglamento deseasen pre- 

sentar. 

Signed: WILLIAM R. DAT. Flrmado: E. MONTEUO RIOS. 
CUSHMAN K. DAVIS. B. DE ABARZUZA. 

WM P FRTE J- I'E GARNICA. 

GEO GRAY ■^^ ^- ^^ A'lLLA-URRUTIA. 

WniTELAW REID. RAFAEL CERERO. 

JOHN B. MOORE. EMILIO DE O.TEDA. 



207 



Annex to Protocol No. 21. 



MEMORANDUM. 



L:i Comisiou i-spanola pn a la Americana el rroyecto de varH>s artioiilos, 

para el tratado de pa>!. im>; ostu reehaza. 

Se niega a reponooer a los habitantes de los paises cedidos y remiiieiados pur 
Espana. el derecUo de optar por la c-uidadaiiia de que hasta aliora gozarou. I sin 
embargo, este derecho de opcion. que es uuo df lus mas sagrados de la personalidad 
humaua. ha sidfi coust.mtemente respeetado desde que se emaucipo el hombre de la 
serirdunibre de la tieri . rhidieuduse a este sagrado dereeho tribuUi en los tratados 
que sobre cesion terricorial se celabraron en el mundo moderno. 

Se niegan a estipular el respeto que mereceu los contratos eelebrados por uu 
Soberano Icgitimo. para obras y servicios publicos. contratos que afectan substan- 
eialmente a la propiedad privada de particulares, y que fueron respectados en el 
Tratado do Campo-Forn de IT'JT. en el de Paris de 1814, en el de Zurich de 1839. 
en el de I'aris de 1860, en los de Viena de 1861 y 1866, y que respeto tambien 
Alemauia al terminar .su guerra con la Francia. por el tratado de Franctort de 1.S71. 

La Comision americana alega come unioa razon para no estipular este respeto, 
el que los Estados Dnidos en sustrados nunca lo han reconocido. Como si los 
Estados Unidos fueran la unica Potencia poseedora del criterio de justicia que debe 
inspirar las convenoiones y los actos de las Kaciones. 

Si niegan a que sean devueltos a sus legitimos y particulares duenos por quieues. 
sean funcionarlos espanoles o Americanos, esten obligados segun Justicia a esta de- 
Tolucion, las cantidades que hubiesen entregado en las cajas publieas de los terri- 
torios que dejan de pertenecer a Espana, en concepto de consignaciones. depositor a 
flanzas de contratos n obligaciones, despues que estos hayan sido eumplidos, y la 
fianza por lo tanto. deba sor caneelada. I, sin embargo, a esta devolucion se rindio 
bomenage por Belgica, los Paises-Bajos, Austria, Francia. Cerdena, Dinamarca, 
Prusia, Italia y Alemania, en los tratados que Piitre si celebraron en 1S30, 1839. 1861, 
1866 y 1871. 

Se niegan a reconocer el caracter permnuentp de las obligaciones que por este 
tratado contraen los Estados Unidos rcspeeto a cosas y personas en Cuba, limitando 
su duracion al tiempo de la ocupacion milltar de la Grande Antilla por las tropas 
americanas, sin tener presente que las obligaciones correlativas que Espana contrae, 
exige la Comision americana que sean permanentes, y que por consiguiente, queda 
de esa manera violada la justicia al violarse el prineipio de reciprocidad que informa 
siempre los derechos y las obligaciones de las partes contratantes. 

La Comision americana se presta en la sesion de hoy a que los Estados Unidos 
aconsejen la observaucia de este tratado al Gobierno independiente de Cuba mando 
I'.egue a constituirse. La Comision espanola vista esta manifestaciou, atempera 
cuanto acaba de decir sobre este punto. hasta que quede en harmonia cou las mani- 
festacioues en esta sesion de la Comision americana. 

Nacla tiene que decir la Comision espanola sobre la negativa de la Americana, a 
tomar a cargo de los Estados Unidos la pension de gratitud que Espana viene pagan- 
do a los descendientes del inmortal descubridor de America. Espana se reserva este 
asunto para resolverlo como entienda mas confocme a la justicia. sin olvidar las 
causas de la civilisacion moderna de la misma America. 

Espana ha podido sacriliear y sacrifica sus intereses todos coloniales en el altar 
de la paz y para evitar la renovacion de una guerra que es evldente que no puede 
sostenor con una Naeion incomparablemente mas poderosa y de mayores recursos, 
Tla sdstenido sus derechos en estas Conferencias con toda la energia que correspon- 
dia a la rectitud de su coneieucia. Cuando a su Comision le fue impuesta como 
ullimatum la propo.sicion cou que concluye el Memorandum americano presentado en 
la sesion de '-'l de Noviembre ultimo, sin abandonar su derecho y solo por via de 
transaccion. inspirandose en su amor a l.i paz. hlzo proposiciones en que sus inter- 
eses eran sacriflcados; los Estados Uuidos las rechazaron todas. 

Sobre las dos importantes cuestiones de derecho, dependientes de la iuterpreta- 
cion que se diera al Protocolo de Washington, propuso a la Comision americana el 
arbitrage. Fue tambien rechazada. 

Al ultimatum que acaba de citarse de -1 ile Xoviembre, sueede el que en la ulti- 
ma sesion va envuelto en los articulos que propone la Comision americana. La 
Espanola que cumpliendo las instruccioncs de su Gobierno se somctio al primero. se 
sometara tambien a este. 

Se conforma pues con que los Estados Unidos incluyan en el tratado los articulos 
e que este memorandum se refiere. 

208 



'-J ' 



Tero la Comlslon Americana recha/.a lanjliioii oiro, qiip ps para Espaiia, si cabc, 
(I., mayor Importancla que los denlas artli-nlos que la Kspanola Uabla propuesto; por- 
quo a (Uferonela de estos, aquel afccta a su propria aiqnlrlad. La catasUofo del Maine 
ill ocaslon en los Estados Unidos a que una parte muy oaracterlzada y senalada de 
su preusa cubrlese de ultrages el honor li.uiaiuliiblo del pueblo Espanol. ^ 

I'arcela que el tiempo iba haciendo su obra de teniplauza de las paslones y de 
olvldo de los agravlos cuando la Comislon auierb na en su eilado Memorandum de 
•>1 de Novicmbre ultimo, renovo tan liuneiilable .qente. aeusando de descnldo <• 

inrapacldad a Espana para gai-antlr en sns puertos lo segui-ldad de los buques de una 
Naclon amlga. El dereebo mas sagrudo que a Espana no podrla dejarde reconocer- 
sele por que so le reconoee al mas desgraiiailo do los seres humanos en la tlerra. 
ere el de dcfenderse de una impdtaclon que en tan trlstes eordlciones la dejaba 
ante las demas Naelones. Por esto presento su Comlslon el. 1 de este mes los arll- 
culos proponlendo el nombramiento dc una Comlslon tce^/ca internaelonal, noin- 
brada con todas la* garantias imaginablos para asegurar su'lmparcla^idad, fln de qui' 
proeediese a iuvestlgar las causas de la eatastrofe y si en ella eabia, slqulera fuera 
por negllgencla. nlguna respnnsabllldad a Espana. 

Cuondo esta proposlclou estaba sometida a la Comlslou amerleana, el Presldente 
de Icis Estados Uuldos, en su Mensage de 5 del mlsmo meth dirlgido a las Camaras 
amerieanas, volvlo a ocuparse de un asunto que no podia menos de vernover las 
paslones de los dos pueblos, entre qulenes sus Comlsarios estaban elaborando el res- 
tablielmiento de la paz Caliaco la eatastrofe de sospephosla, aflrmo que su causa 
liabla sido externa y anadio que solamente per fait a de una prueba posltlva la Com- 
lslon amerleana que babia inforinado sobre ella babia dojado de consignar a quien 
rorrespondla la responsabilidad de dlcha aeclon. 

Como era posible imaginar que el slguienle dia de pronuneiades estas frases en 
Wasbiugton. la Comislon amerleana en Paris linbia de negar a Espana aquel sagra- 
do dereebo de defensa en.vo respeto rod;nraba? 

Xo puedc pues la Comision cspan.ila resignarse :i lal negativa, y conslgna solen 
nementc su protesta contra ella. haciendo eonstar que en lo future no sera llelto 
jauras a los que se oponen a que se dcpuren las eausas de aquella horrible eatas- 
trofe. imputar ablerta a emboradaniente responsabilidad de ningrin genero. por ella. 
a la noble Naclon espanola y a sus Autorldades. Esta conforme: 

EMILIO DE O.IEDA. 



TRANSLATION. 
(ANNEX TO PROTOCOL NO. 21.) 
MEMORANDUM. 



The Spanish Commission proposed to the American Commission the draft 
of several articles for the treaty of peace, which the latter has rejected. 

The American Commission refuses to acknowledge the right of the inhabitants of 
the countries ceded or relinquished by Spain to choose the citizenship with wlibh up 
to the present they have been clothed. And nevertheless this right of choosing. 
which is one of the most sacred rights of human beings, has been constantly re- 
spected since the day in which man was emancipated from serfdom. This sacred right 
has been respected in treaties of territorial cession concluded in modern times. 

It refuses also to stipulate anything In relation to the respect due the contracts 

entered Into by a legitimate sovereign for public works and services. contracts 

which materially affect the rights of nrop.Tty of private individuals, whicb were r-.- 
spectcd in the treaties of ('ampo Formio of 1707. of Paris of 181-1. of Zurich of ISof). 
of Paris of ISGO. of Vienna of 1864 and 186G. and which Germany respected also when 
ending the war with France by the treaty of Frankfort of 1.S71. The American Com- 
mission alleged as Its only reason for this refusal that the United States in its treat- 
ies has never recognized these contracts, as though the United States were the only 
power controlling the standard of justice which must govern the conventions and 
the acts of nations. 

It refuses to provide for the restitution to their lawful and' private owners by 
whoever, be he a Spanish or an American ofTIcial. is bound rightfully to do It. of the 
sums of money they may have paid into the public treasnries of the territory which 
ceases to belong to Spain, in the way of consignments, deposits, or security for eon- 
tracts or obligations, after they have been executed or performed, and which secur- 
ity should be returned. And nevertheless homage was paid to such return by Belgi- 
um. Netherlands, Austria, France, Sardinii, Denmark. Prussia, Italy and Germany in 
the treaties concluded between them in 18:i9, ISoO, 1864. 1866 and 1871. 

205 



The American Commission refuses to r coognize the permanent character of the 
obligations contracted by the United States in this treaty with resiiect to persons 
and things in Cuba, limiting the duration thereof to the time of the military occupa- 
tion of the Greater Antilles by the American troops, without bearing in mind that the 
American Commission demands that the cirresponding obligations contracted by 
Spain shall be permanent, and that justice is thus violated in attacliing the prin- 
ciple of reciprocity whicli always governs the rights and obligations of contracting 
parties. 

In to-day's session (December 8), the American Commission consents to the 
United States advising the independent government of Cuba whenever it shall be 
constituted, to observe this treaty. In view of this statement, the Spanish Commis- 
sion moderates what it has just said upon this point in so far as It is necessary to 
maike it harmonize with the statements of the Araeriean Commission made in this 
session. 

Tlie Spanish Commission has nothing to say to tlie refusal of the American Com- 
mission to assume for the United States the pension of gratitude which Spain has 
been paying to the descendants of the immortal discoverer of America. Spain re- 
serves this matter to settle it as she understands shall best befit justice, without for- 
getting the cause of modern civilization and .\morica itself. 

Spain has been able to sacrifice, and does sacrifice, all her colonial interests upon 
the altar of peace, and in order to prevent the renewal of a war which it is evident 
she cannot sustain with a nation Incomparably more powerful and with greater re- 
sources. 

She has upheld her rights in these conferences with all the energy the rectitude of 
her conscience demanded. When there waas imposed upon her Commission as an 
ultimatum the proposition which closes the American memorandum presented at the 
session of November 21 last, without waiving its rights, and solely by way of com- 
promise, inspired by its love for peace, it made propositions wherein her interests 
were sacrificed. The United States rejected them all. 

Upon the two important questions of law, depending upon the interpretation to be 
given the Protocol of Washington, it propo.sed arbitration to the American Commis- 
sion. This proposition was also rejected. 

The ultimatum of November 24, which has just been cited, is succeeded by that 
which at the last .session is Involved in the articles the American Commi.ssion pro- 
poses. The Spanish Commission which, complying with the instructions of its Gov- 
ernment, submitted to the first, will also bow to this. 

It assents, then, to the United States including in the treaty the articles to 
which this niemorandum refers. 

But the American Commission also rejects another article which Is to Spain, if 
IMissible, of greater Importance than the other articles the Spanish Commission had 
Iiroposed; because, differing from these, the former affects her own dignity. The 
Maine disaster gave occasion for a very respecta.ble and prominent part of the pre.ss 
in the United States to cover with insults the unstainable honor of the Spanish peo- 
ple. It seemed that time was doing its worli of tempering passions and casting into 
oblivion the wrongs, when the American Commission, in Its said memorandum of 
November 21, again brought up so lamentable an Incident, accusing Spain of negli- 
gence and incapacity to guarantee security to vessels of a friendly nation in her 
ports. The most sacred right, which could not fail to be recognized as attaching to 
Spain, as it Is vouchsafed to the most wretched of human beings, was that of defend- 
ing herself from an imputation which left her in so sorry a plight before the other na- 
tions. For this reason her Commission, on the first of this month, presented the 
articles proposing the appointment of an International Expert Commission, to be 
named with all imaginable guarantees to assure its impartiality, in order that it 
might proceed to investigate the cause of the disaster, and whether any responsi- 
bility were attachable to Spain, even were it throiigh negligence. 

When this proposition was under submission to the American Commission, the 
President of the United States, in his message to the American Congress of the 5th 
of the said mouth, again took up a subject which could not but rekindle the passions 
of the two peoples whose Commissioners were working over the restoration of peace. 
He characterized the disaster as suspicious; he affirmed that its cause was external: 
and added that only for want of positive proof the American Board of Inquiry which 
had reported thereon had failed to fix the responsibility for the act on any one. 

How could it be imagined that on the day following that upon which these words 
were pronounced in Washington the American Commissioners in Paris could refuse 
to Spain that sacred right of defence the respecting of which she demanded? 

The Spanish Commission, therefore, cannot yield to such a refusal, and solemnly 
records its protest against it, setting forth that in the future it shall never be lawful 
for those who oppose the investigating of the cause of that horrible disaster, to Im- 
pute, openly or covertly, responsibility of any kind therefor to the noble Spanish 
nation, or its authorities. True copy, EMILIO DE OJEDA. 

210 



Protocol No. 22. 



Protocolo No. 22. 



CONFERENCE 
of December 10, 1898. 



CONFERENCIA 
Del 10 De Diciembre De 1898. 



I'resent- 
On the part of tlie Uulied States: 

Messrs. DAY, 

DAVIS, 

FRYE. 

GRAY, 

KKID. 

MOUUK. 

I-EHGLSSON. 
On the part of Spain: 
Messrs. MONTEUO KIOS, 

AKAUZrZA. 

GARNICA, 

VILLA UKUUTIA, 

(EUEKO, 

(IJEDA. 

The protocol of the preceding session 
was read and approved. 

The American Conunissioneri5 presented 
a written reply to the memorandum of the 
Spanish Commissioners read at the last 
session. The reply is hereto annexed. 
(Annex No. 1.). 

The Treaty of Peace (Annex No. 2.) was 
read and approved, and was signed by the 
Pleuipoteutiaries of Uie two High Con- 
Iracting Parties. 

The President of the Spanish Commission 
expressed his thanks to the American 
Commissioners for the kind phrases with 
which their last memorandum concluded. 
He had much pleasure in acknowledging 
also the courtesy and consideration which 
had been shown by them in their personal 
intercourse during the eontinuajnce of the 
negotiations, which, however painful to 
the Spanish Commissioners, would leave 
with them the personal remembrance of 
the attentions which had been bestowed 
upon them by the worthy members of the 
American Commissiou. 

The President of the American Commis- 
sion replied that the words to which the 
President of the Spanish Commission re- 
ferred were but the spontaneous expres- 
sion of the true feelings of the American 
Comnusslonors toward the Spanish Com- 
missioners, for whom they entertained 
sentiments of the highest esteem and re- 
gard. 

The protocol of this session was read 
and approved, and the Joint Commission 
ended Its labors. 
Signed: WILLIAM K. DAY. 

CUSHMAN K. DAVIS. 
\VM. P. PKYE. 
GEO. GRAY. 
WHITELAW REIU. 
JOHN B. MOORB. 



Presentes— 
Tor partt de los Estadcs Unidos de 
America: 
los Senores D.\Y, 

DAVIS. 

FRYE, 

GRAY, 

REID, 

MOORE, 

FERGUSSOX. 
I'or parte de Bspana: 
los Senores .MONTERO RIOS, 

ABARZUZA, 

GARNICA, 

VILLA-URRUTIA, 

CERERO, 

OJEDA. 

Fue lekla y aprobada el acta de la sesion 
anterior. 

Los Comisarios americauos presentaron 
su contestaciou escrita al memorandum de 
los Comisarios espanoles leido en la sesion 
ultima, que va anejo al protocolo (anejo 
Num. 1.). 

Se leyo y aprobo el tratado de paz (anejo 
Num. 2), y se procedio a su_flrma por los 
Plcnipoteuciaros de las .Vitas Partes con- 
Iralantes. 

E! Seuor Presldente dc la Comision espa- 
nola manlfiesta su agradecimiento a los 
Comis!irios americancs, por las atentas 
fraeos con que terminaron su ultimo meni- 
(/randum, y se complace en reconocer asim- 
jsuio la cortesia y la prudencia que en sus 
rclacioni's per.sonales ban demonstrado du- 
rante i-l eurso de una negoeiacion q\ie 
auaque dolorosa para los Comisarios espa- 
noles dejava en olios el recuerdo personal 
de las atencioues que ban merecido a los 
dignos niicmbros de la Comision americana. 



E! Presideute de la Comision americana 
rontesto que las palabras a que aludlo el 
Presideute de la Comision espanola eran la 
expontanea expresion de los vordadcros 
.sentimienlos de los Comisarios amerlcanos 
haeia los Comisarios espanoles, i)or qnienes 
tenian la mayor estiniacion y apreeio. 



Se leyo y aprobo el [u-otoeolo de esta se- 
sion, acabando sus trabajns la Comision en 
pleno. 
Firmado: B. MONTERO RIOS. 

B. DE ABARZUZA. 

J. DE GARNICA. 

\V. R. DE VlLLA-URRUTIi. 

RAFAEL CERERO. 

EMILIO DE OJEDA. 



211 



Annex 1 to Protocol No. 22. 



MEMOKANDUM 

OF THE AMERICAN COMMISSIONERS IN REPLY TO THAT OP THE SPAN- 
ISH COMMISSIONERS SUBMITTED AT THE MEETING OF DECEMBER 
•S. 1898. 

In the memorandum submitted at the last meeting by the Spanish Commission, 
ers, the statement is broadly made. "The American Commission refuses to. ac- 
knowledge the right of the inhabitants of the countries ceded or relinquished by 
Spain to choose citizenship with which up to the present time they have been 
clothed." 

The American Commissioners do not so understand the article upon the sub- 
ject of citizenship submitted by them ag a substitute for the article proposed by 
the Spanish Commissioners. An analysis of this article will show that Spanish 
subjects, natives of Spain, are allowed a year's time in which, by the simple 
process of stating in a court of record their intention so to do, they may preserve 
their allegiance to Spain. 

Such persons have the fullest right to dispose of their property and remove 
from the territory, or remaining to continue to be Spanish subjects or elect the 
nationality of the new territory. 

As to natives, their status and civil rights are left to Congress, which will en- 
act the governing power to control these important relations to the new govern- 
ment. The Congress of a country which never has enacted laws to oppress or 
abridge the rights of residents within its domain, and . whose laws permit the 
largest liberty consistent with the preservation of order and the protection of 
property my safely be trusted not to depart from its well settled practice in deal- 
ing with the inbabitauts of these islands. 

It is true that the Spanish Commissioners proposed an article upon the subject 
of nationality supplementing the one offered by Uiem as to nationality of Spanish 
nationality within one year after the exchange of ratifications of the treaty. This 
would permit all the uncivilized tribes which have not come under the jurisdiction 
of Spain, Tis well as foreign residents of the islands, to elect to create for them, 
selves a nationality other than the one in control of the territory, while enjoying 
the beneflts and protection of the laws of the local sovereignty. This would cre- 
ate an anomolous condition of affairs leading to complications and discord import- 
ant to avoid. 

Thi' American Commission felt constrained to reject the articles tendered by 
the Spanish Commissioners in respect to contracts entered into for public works 
and services. It took this step because the nature, extent and binding obligation 
of these contracts are unknown to the American Commissioners, and they again 
disclaim any purpose of their Government to 'disregard the obligations of inter- 
national law in respect to such contracts ,ts investigation may show to be valid 
and binding upon the United States as successor in sovereignty in the ceded ter- 
ritory. 

nhe American Commissioners also rejected the article proposed by the Spanish 
Commissioners upon the subject of "Deposits and Bonds." In the form tendered, 
the American Commissioners understood tliis article to obligate the United States 
to return moneys "received by Govern mint Offices and Estab3ishments from 
Spanish citizens" for the purposes specilicd. although the same never came into 
the possession of the auUiorities of the United Slates in said territories. Nothing 
<-an be further from the intention of the Government than to keep from the law- 
ful owners such sums as come under its control which should be restored after 
the fuiaiment of contracts or obligations intended to be secured thereby. Cer- 
tainly the United States have no intention to indulge in such confiscation of 
property which becomes subject to its coutrol, and may sstfeiy rely in such mat- 
ters upon the confidence warranted by its consistent record. 

Respecting the observation in the memorandum of the Spanish Commission 
upon the last message of the President of the United States, wherein he refers 
to the disaster ot the battleship Maine, tlie American Commissioners feel obliged 
to decline to enter upon any discussion of the same, in obedience to well estab- 
lished precedents and practice in the history of their country. 

The .American Commissioners cannot close this final memorandum without ex- 
pressing their sense of the thoroughness, learning, and devoted ability, no less 
than the uniform courtesy with which the Spanish Commissioners have conducted 
the negotiations about to terminate. 
True copy: 

JOHN B. MOORE. 
212 



Annex 2 to Protocol No. 22. 



THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
VXD HEU MAJESTY THE QUEEN RE- 
CENT OF SPAIN. IN THE NAME OF 
HEU AUGUST SON DON AUFONSO 
NUI. desiring to end the state of war now 
existins between the two countries, have 
for that purpos<? appointed as Plenlpoteu- 
tiuries: 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED 
STATES. 

William R. Day. ("usliman K. Davis, Wil- 
liam P. Frye, George Gray, and Whitelaw 
Rpid. citizens of the United Slates; 

AND HER MA.IESTY THE QUEEN 
ItEGENT OF SPAIN, 

Dou Eugenio Montcro Rios, President of 
I he Senate; Don Buenaventura de Abar- 
zuza. Senator of the Kingdom and ex- 
Miuister of the Crown; Don Jose de Gar- 
nica. Deputy of the Cortes and Associate 
Justice of the Supreme Court; Don Wen- 
ceslao Ramirez de Villa-Urnitia, Envoy 
Extraordinary j\nd Minister Plenipotentiary 
at Brussels; and Do. Rafael Cerero, Gen- 
eral of Division; 

W.ho, having assembled iu Paris, and 
having exchanged their full powers, which 
were found to be in due and proper form, 
have, after discussion of the matters be- 
fore them, agreed upim the following ar- 
ticles; 



LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS DE AMERICA 
Y S. M. LA RIOINA UEGENTE DE ES 
I'ANA. EN NOMBRE DE SU AUGUSl'O 
IIIIO DON ALFONSO XIII., deseando po 
II, T lerniino al estado de guerra hoy exis- 
tinle entrc auibas Naciones, han nombrado 
con estfe objeto por sus IMcnipoteuciaros, a 
saber: 

i:i. PKESIDENTE DE LOS ESTADOS 
IMliOS DE AMERICA A 

Wililam I!. Day, Cushman K. Davis. Will- 
iam 1'. Frye, Georges Gray, y Whitelaw 
Re.d. cludadanos de los Estados Uuidos: 

Y SU MAJESTAD LA REINA UEGENTE 
DE ESPANA A 

Don Eugenio Montero Rios, Presidente del 
Sciiado; Don Buenaventura de Abarzuza. 
Senador del Reim,, Miuistro que lia sido de 
la Corona; l>on Jose de Garuica. Dipulado 
a Cortes. .Ma.^'istrado del Tribunal supremo; 
Don Wenci^iiao Ramirez de Vilia-Urrutia, 
Enviado Extraordinario y Ministro pleuipi>- 
tcuoiairo en Bruscias; y Dipn Rafael Cerero, 
(ieueral de division; 

Los ciiales reuuidos en Paris, despues do 
uabcrse comunicado sus pienos poderes que 
fuerou haUados en bueua y debida forma, y 
pr-.-via la discusion de las materias pen- 
dieutes, hau convenido eu los siguientes 
arri. ulos; 



ARTICLE I. 

Spain relinquishes ail claim of sove- 
reignty over and title to Cuba. 

.Vnd as the Island is, upon Its evacuation 
by Spain, to be occupied l)y the United 
Slates, the United States will, so long as 
such occupation shall last, asstime and dis- 
charge the obligations that may under 
international law result from the fact of 
its occupation, for the protection of life 
and property. 

ART. II. 

Spain cedes to the Unites States the 
island of Porto Rico and other Islands now 
under Spanish sovereignty in the West In- 
dies, and the island of Guam in the Mari- 
anas or Ladrones. 

ART. III. 

Spain cedes to the United States the ar- 
chipelago known as the Philippine Islands, 
ami comprehending the islands lying with- 
in the following line: 

A line running from west to east along 
or near the twentieth parallel of north 
latitude, and thrtmgh the middle of the 
navigable channel of Bachl. from the one 
hundred and eighteenth dlSth) to the one 
hundred and twenty-seventh (127th) degree 
meridian of longitude cast of Greenwich, 



ABTICULO I. 

Ksjiana renuncia todo derccbo de sobc- 
rania y proiiiedad sobre Cuba. 

I'Ui atencion a que dicha isla. cuando sua 
cvacuada por Espana, va a ser ocupada por 
los Estados Unidos, los Estados Unidos 
inicntras dure su ocupaclon, tomaran sobre 
si V ciiuipliran las obligacioncs que por ci 
hechro de ocuiiaHa, les impone el Derecho 
inletnacional. para la protecclon de vidas 
y haciendas. 

AUTICULO 11. 

Espana cede a los Estados Unidos la Isla 
de Puerto Uic.i y las demas que es tan 
ahora bajo su soberania en las Indias oc- 
cidenlaies. y la Isla de Guam eu el Archi 
pielego de ias Marianas o Ladrones. 

AKTU:ULO III. 

Espana cede a los Estados Unidos el 
archieplelago conocido por Islas Filipinas. 
qne coiiiprende las islas slluadas dcntro de 
las llneas siguientes: 

Una linca que corre de Oeste a Este. 
cerer. del 20' paralelo de latitud Norte, a 
traves de la mitad del canal iiavegable de 
Bachi. desde el US' al 127' grados de longl- 
tud Este de Greenwich; de aqua a lo largo 
del clento veintislette (127) grado merldiano 
de longltud Este de Greenwich al paralelo 
cuatro grados cuarenta y cineo minutos (4- 

818 



seventh (127tli) degree meridian of longi- 
tude east of Greenwieli to the parallel of 
tour degrees and torty-flre minutes (4 deg. 
43m.) north latitude, thence along the par- 
allel of four degrees and forty-five minutes 
14 deg. 45 m.) north latitude to its inter- 
section with the meridian of longitude one 
hundred and nineteen degrees and thirty- 
five minutes (119 deg. 35 m.) east of Green- 
wich, thence along the meridian of longi- 
tude one hundred and nineteen degrees and 
thirty-five minutes (119 deg. 35 m.) east of 
Greenwich, to the parallel of latitude 
seven degrees and forty minutes (7 deg. 
40 m.) north, thence along the parallel of 
latitude seven degrees and forty minutes 
(7 deg. 40 m.) north of its intersection with 
the one hundred and sixteenth (116th) de- 
gree meridian of longitude east of Green- 
wich, thence by a direct line to the inter- 
section of the tentji (10th) degree parallel 
of north latitude with the one hundred 
and eighteenth (118th) degree meridian of 
longitude cast of Greenwich, and thence 
along the one hundred and eighteenth 
(118th, degree meridian of longitude east 
of Greenwich to the point of beginning. 

The United States will pay to Spain the 
sum of twenty million dollars ($20,000,000), 
within three months after the exchange 
of the ratifications of the present treaty. 



45') de latitud Norte; de aqua slgulendo el 
paralelo de cuatro grades cuarenta y cinco 
minutos do latitude Norte (4° 45') hasta fan 
interseeciou con el meridiano de longitude 
ciento diez y nueve grades y treinta y einco 
minutes (119° 35') Este de Greenwich, de 
aqui siguieudo el meridiano de longitud 
ciento diez y nueve grades y treinta y Cinco 
minutos (119- 35') Este de Greenwich, al 
paralelo de 'atitud siete gr;idos cuarenta 
minutes (7^ 40') Norte, de aqui siguieudo 
el paralelo de latitud ciete grades cuaranta 
minutos (7" 40') Norte a su interseccion con 
el cieute diez y seis (116') grade meridiano 
de longitud Este de Greenwich, de aqui 
pur una linea recta, a la interseccion def 
uecimo grado paralelo de latitud Norte, con 
el ciento diez y echo (IIS") grado meridiano 
de longitud Este de Greenwich, y de aqui 
siguieudo el ciento diez y echo grado (IIS ) 
meridiano de longitud Este de Greenwich aT 
puuto en que comienza esta demarcacion. 

Lu.s Estados Unidos pigaran a Espana la 
suina de veiute milliones de dollars ($20,- 
000. oOO) deutro de tres meses despues del 
canje de ratiflcaciones del presente tratado. 



ART. IV. 



ARTICDLO IV. 



The United States will, for the term of I-os Estados Unidos durante el termino de 

(en years from the date of the exchange diez auos a contar desde el canje de la rat- 

of the ratifications of the present treaty, ificacion del presente tratado, admitiran en 

.idmit Spanish ships and merchandise to 'os puertos de las Islas Filipinas los buques 

the iKirts of the Philippine Islands on the y las inercsiucias espanoles, bajo las mismsis 

same terms as ships and merchandise of <ondi<;ioues que los buques y las mercancias 

the United States. de los Estado.s Unidos. 



AKT. V. 

The United tSates will, upon the slgna- 
ttire of the present treaty, send back to 
Spain, at its own cost, the Spanish sol- 
diers taken as prisoners of war on the cap- 
ture of Manila by the American forces. 
The arms of the soldiers in question shall 
will be restored to them. 

Siiain will, upon the exchange of the 
ratiflcatiuns of the present treaty, proceed 
to evacuate the Philippines, as well as the 
island of Guam, on terms similar to those 
agreed upon by the Commissioners ap- 
pointed to arrange for the evacuation of 
Porto Rico and other islands in the West 
Indies, under the Protocol of August 12, 
1S98, which is to continue in force till Its 
lirovisions are completely executed. 

The time within which the evacuation 
of the Philippine Islands and Guam shall 
be Completed shall be fixed by the two 
Governments. Stands of colors, uncap- 
tured war vessels, small arms, guns of all 
calibres, with their carriages and acces- 
sories, powder, ammunition, live stock, and 
materials and supplies of all kinds, belong' 
ing to the laud and naval forces of Spain 
in tue Philippines and Guam, remain the 
property of Spain. Pieces of heavy ord- 



ARTICOLO V. 

I, OS Estados Unidos al ser firmado el pre- 
sente tratado, trasportaran a Espana a su 
costa lo!-: soldados espanoles que hicieron 
prisloneros de guerra las fuerzas america- 
uas al ser capturada Manila. Las armas de' 
cstos soldados ies seran devueltas. 

Kspana al canjearse las ratiflcaciones del 
Iiresente tratado, procedera a evacuar las 
Islas Filipinas, asi como la de Guam, en 
condiciones semejantes a las aoordadas por 
las Comisiones noinbradas para coucertar 
la evacuacion de Puerto Rico .v etras Islas 
en las Antillas Occidentales, segun el Pro- 
tocolo de 12 de -^gosto de 1S9S, que contin- 
uan; en vigor hasta que sean completaniente 
cumplidas .sus disposiciones. 

El termino dentro del cua! sera comple- 
tada la evacuacion de las Islas Filipinas y 
la de Gitam, sera fijado por ambos Gobier- 
nos. Seran propiedad de Espana banderas 
.V estaiid'artes, buques de guerra no apre- 
Siidos. .armas portatiles, canones de todos 
calibres con sus luontajes y accesories, pol- 
voras, municiones, ganado, material y efec- 
tos de toda clase pertenecientes a los ejer- 
citos de mar y tierra de Espana en las 
Filipas y Gn«m. Las piezas de grueso cal- 
ibre, que no scan artilleria de campana, 



214 



uniice. exchisivi' of liold ariilleiy, in tliu 
fiiitilkaliinis iinil coast ilefoncus, shall rv 
main in tlioU- iMiiplaceim-nU for the term of 
six months, to be reckoned from the ex- 
change of ratificalions of the treaty; and 
the United States may. in the meantime, 
pnrchase snch material from Spain, if a 
satisfactory agreement between the two 
Gevenimeuts on the snbjeet shall be 
reaciied. 



AHTiri^K VI 



Spain will, 
present treatj'. 



upon the sl^-nalure of the 

^ _ ,, release all prisoners of war. 

and all per.sons rtetaiuni or imprisoned for 
pol'tieal on'inces. in <onne<tlon with the 
in>-,irrecti..ns in Cuba and the Philippines 
ami th? war with the United States. 

[teeiprocaliy the United States will re- 
lease all persons made prisoners of war by 
the American forces, and will undertake to 
obtain the release of all Spanish prisoners 
in the hands of the insurgents in Cuba and 
the IMiilipplnes. The Government of the 
i;uued States will at its o^Yn cost return 
to Spain and the Government of Spain will 
at its own cost return to the United States. 
Cuba. Porto Kico. and the Philippines, ac- 
cording to the situation of their respective 
homes, prisoners released or caused to be 
released by them, respectively, under this 
article. 

ARTICLE VII. 

The UnittMl States and Spain mutually 
reliutiuish all claims for Indemnity, national 
and individual, of every kind, of either Gov- 
ernment, or of its citizens or subjects, 
affiiinst the other Government, that may 
have arisen since the bcsrinning of the late 
insurrection in Cuba and prior to the ex- 
clianKe of ratifications of the present treaty, 
including all claims for indemnity for the 
cost of the war. 

The T'nited States will adjudicate and set- 
tle tiie claims of its citizens against Spain 
relia<|ul.shed in this article. 



AHTICI.E VIII. 

In conforni'ty with the provisions of 
artioies I.. II. and III. nf this treaty. Spain 
reiinqnishes In Cuba, and cedes In Porto 
Itien and other islands in the West Indies, 
in the island of Guam, and in the Philip- 
pine .\rchipelago, all the buMdlngs. 



colocadas eu las foMlticaciones y en las 
co.stas, iinedaran en sns emplazamcntes |>"r 
el plazo de sels meses a partir del eanjo de 
ralilicaciones del preseute tratado, y los 
Ustados Unidos podran durante esc tiempo 
eomprar a Kspana dlcho material si ambos 
Goliiernos Illegan a un acuerdo satlsfacto- 
rki sobre el particular. 

AKTICULO VI. 

lispana al ser Qrmado el presente tratado. 
p.indra en llbertad a todos los prisloueros 
de guerra y a todos los detenldos o presos 
por delitos polltlcos a cousecuencia de las 
insinrecciones en Cnba y en Fllipinas y de 
la ijuerra con los Kstados Unidos. 

llcciprocaniente los E-stados Unidos pon- 
dran en llbertad a todos los prisloueros de 
gnerra hechos por las fuerzas americanas y 
gestlonaran la llbertad de todos los prislou- 
eros espauoles en poder de los insurrcctos 
de Cuba y Fllipinas. 

El Gobierno de los Kstados Unidos tras- 
poi-tara por su cuenta a Espana. y el Go- 
bierno de Espana transportara por sn 
cuenta a los Estados Unidos. Cuba, Puerto 
Rico y Filipinis, con axreglo a la situaoion 
de sns re-speclivos hogares. los prisioneros 
que pongan o que hagan poner en llbertad 
respeetivamente. eu vlrtud de este articulo. 

ARTICULO VII. 

Espana y los Estados Unidos de America 
renunclan mutuamente por el presente 
tratado a toda reclamacion de indemnlza- 
eion nacioual o privada de cu.alquier genero 
de un Gohiemo contra el otro o de sus sub- 
dllos o chuladanos contra el otro Golvierno. 
que pueda haber surgido desde el comlenzo 
de la ultima Insurrecclon en Cuba, y sea 
anterior al canje de ratlfleaclon?s del pre- 
sente tratado. asi como a toda indemniza- 
cion eu concepto de gastos ocasionados i>or 
la guerra. 

Los Estados Unidos juzgaran y resolvan 
las reclamaciones de sus cludadanos con- 
tra Espana a que renuncia en este articulo. 

ARTICULO VIII, 

En cumplimlento d elo convenido en los 
Articulos 1., II.. T III. de este tratado. Es- 
pana. renuncia en Cuba y cede en Puerto 
Rico y en las otras Iblas de las Indlas Oc- 
cidentales. en la Isia de Gnam. y en el Av- 
chipielago de las Fllipinas. todos los edlfi- 
cios. nmelles. cuarteles. fortalezas. esl able- 



wharves, barracks, forts, structures, public olmlentos. vias pnblica.s y denias blenes In- 

highways and other immovable propert.v niuebles que con arreglo a derecho son del 

which. In conformity with law. belong to flominio publico y como tal corresponden a 

the public domain, and as snch belong to |j, forona de Espana. 



the Crowu of Spain. 

Ami it Is hereby declared that the relin- 
quishment or cession, as the case may be. 
to which the preceding paragraph refers, 
cannot in any respect Impair the property 
or rights which by law belong to the peace- 



Qnedo por lo tanto declarado que esia re- 
nuncia o ceslon, segun el caso. a que se re- 
flere el parra.fo anterior, en nad.'i pnede 
mermar la propledad o los derechos que 
correspondan con arreglo a las leyes al 
poseedor pacifico. de los blenes de toda.s 



ful j>os.se.sslon of property of all kinds, of clases de las provlnclas. munlclplos. esta- 
provinces. municipalities, public or private bleclmlentos publlcos o prlvados. corpora- 
establishments, ecclesiastical or civic clones clviles o ecleslasticas. o de cuales- 
bodies, or any other associations having qtilera otras colectividadee que tienen per- 

216 



Ioj:al ciipaeity to acquire and possess prop- 
erty in the •! foresaid territories renounced 
or ceded, or of private individuals, of wliat- 
soever nationality such Individuals may be. 

The aforesaid relinquishment or cession, 
as the case may be, includes all documents 
e.vclusirely referring to the sovereisrnty re- 
linquished or ceded that may exist in the 
archives of the Peninsula, Where any doc- 
un.ent in such archives only in part relates 
to said sovereijrnty. a copy of such part will 
be furnished whenever it shall be requested. 
Like rules shall be reciprocally observed in 
favor of Spain in respect of documents in 
the archives of the islands above referred 
to. 

Ill the afot-esaid relinquishment or ces- 
sion, as the case may be, are also included 
such rishts as the Crown of Spain and its 
authorities possess in respect of the official 
arch ves and records, executive as well as 
judicial, iu the islands above referred to, 
which relate to said islands or the rights 
and property of their inhabitants. Such 
archives and records shall be carefull.v pre- 
served and private persons shall without 
distinction have the right to require, iu ac- 
cordance with law, authenticated copies of 
the contracts, wills and other instruments 
forming part of notarial protocols or files, 
or which may be contained in the executive 
or judicial archives, be the latter in Spain 
or in the islands aforesaid. 



ARTICLE IX, 

."Spanish subjects, natives of the Penin- 
sula, residing iu the territory over which 
Spam by the present treaty relinquishes or 
cedes her sovereignty, may remain in such 
tcrriiory or may remove therefrom, retain- 
ing in either event all their rights of prop- 
' ity, including the right to sell or dispose 
id .inch property or of its proceeds; and 
tliey shall also have the right to carry on 
their industry, commerce and professions, 
■ H-ing subject in respect thereof to such 
lawa as are applicable to other foreigners. 
In case they remain iu the .territory they 
may preserve their allegiance to the Crown 
of Spain by making, before a court of re- 
cord, wihin a year from the date of the ex- 
change of ratifications of this treaty, a dec- 
laration of their decision to preserve such 
allegiance; in default of which declaration 
they shall be held to have renounced it and 
to have adojited the nationality of the ter- 
ritory in which they may reside. 

The c'vil rights and political status of the 
native inhabitants of the territories hereby 
ceded to the United States shall be de- 
tiriiiined by the Congress. 

ARTICLE X. 



sonalidad jnrldica para adqulrir y poseer 
bienes en los mencionadog territories renun- 
ciado o cebidos. v los de los individuos par- 
ticulares cualquiera que sea su nacionali- 
dad, 

Dicha remincia o sesion, segun el caso. in- 
cluye todos los documentos que se refieran 
exclusivamente a dicha so'berania renunci- 
ada o cedida. que existau en los Archives 
de la Peninsula. 

Ouando estos documentos existentes en 
dichos Archivos solo en parte correspondan 
a dicha soberania, se f.icilitaran copias de 
dicha parte, siempre que sean solicitadas. 
Reglas analogas habran reclprocamente de 
observarse en f.avor de Espana, respecto de 
Ins documentos exi.stentes en los Archivos 
de laf: Islas antes mencionades. 

En las antecitadas renuncia o ceslon, se- 
gun el caso. So Italian comprendidos aquel- 
I'ts derechos de la Corona de Espana y de 
sns .'Vutoridades sobre los .\rchivos y Regls- 
Iros oficiales, asi administrativos como judi- 
ciaU'S. de dic'ias islas que se refieran a ellas 
.V a M)S derechos y propriedades de sus hab- 
itantes. Dichos Archivos y Registros debe- 
ran scr cuidadosamente conservados. y los 
particulares sin excepcion tendran derecho* 
a sacar. con arreglo a las le.ves. las copias 
aut->r;/,adas. de los contratos. testamentos 
.V demas do.'umeiitos que formen parte de 
los prolocolos notariales o que se custodien 
ell ios archives administrativos o judlciales. 
bien estos se hallen en Espana o bien en 
las Islas de que se hace menclon anterior- 
mente. 

ARTICDLO IX. 

Los subditos espanoles, naturales de la 
Peninsula residentes en el territorlo cuya 
soberania Espana renuncia o cede por el 
presente tratado, podran pernianecer en 
dicho territor'o o marcbarse de el, conser- 
vando en uno u otro caso todos sus depechos 
de propiedad, con Inclusion del derecho dc 
vender o disponer de tal propie<Iad o de sus 
liroductos; y adenvas tendran el derecho de 
ejercer su industria, comercio, o prafesion, 
sujetandose a este respecto a las leyes que 
cean aplicables a los demas extrangeros. 
En el caso dc que permanezcan en el terri- 
torlo, podran conservar su nacionalidad Es- 
pancla haciendo ante una oficina de regis- 
tro, dentro de un ano despues del cambio de 
ratificaeiones de este tratado, una decdara- 
cion de su proposito de conservar dicha 
nacionalidad, a falta de esta dcclaracion, 
se considerara que han renunciado dicha 
uacionalidad y adoptado la del territorio en 
el cual pueden residir, 

Los derechos civiles y la condiciou politica 
de los habitantes naturales de los territo- 
rios aqui cedidos a los Estados Unidos se 
determinaran por el Congreso. 

AUTICtlLO X. 



1 ;ie jiiUabitants of the territories over i,os habitantes de los territories cuya so- 
rt liieh Spain relinquishes or cedes her sov- berauia Espana renuncia o cede, tendran 
ereignty shall be secured in the free exer- ascgurado el Ubre ejercicio de su religion. 
CISC of their religion. 



216 



AltTIfl.!-: XI 

Till' Sp;Mii:u(ls vcsUUim in the Id riltnifs 
iiV(M wliith Spiiiu by this treaty ci dcs «>r 
rrliiuiuishis lun- st'Von'i;;nty shall be subje.t 
111 ..ijitteis eivll as well as riiiiiiiial to tlie 
jmisiUction of the courts of the eoiintry 
wio'rriii they resttle. pursuant to tiie or<li- 
nary laws ji;overiiinj: the saute: and they 
sh.tl! have the vij^hl to appear beftu'e sui-h 
eiiurts. jiiul III pursue tl.e same 4*<iuise as 
eitizeiis of the ein'iilry In wlib li the courts 
h( loiiir. 

AirrrcLE xii. 

.TK.lbial prn<-eeiliii;:^s peiuiiuir i\t the tiuie 
.»f the exohauire «>f railfieation of this treaty 
in the territories over which Spain re- 
iiiMjuislies or eeUes h( r soverei;iUty shall be 
"l't»riniued at'onnlinir t«. the folluwiu^ rules: 

1. Jiul,!;iU4 uts rrudered either in eivil suits 
between private individuals, or in eriminai 
matters, before the date inentioued. aud 
witli rospwt to whieh there is no recourse 
or rij;ht of review ueder t'le Spanish law, 
:;liall bf" deiunvl to be final, and sliall 1>h 
• xeciiltu ill due form by compi-leiit autlioi- 
iiy ill ilii> territory wliliiu whi<'h siieh jiid;^- 
nioiiis should he earriiil our. 

*J. t'ivll suits belwccu private individuals 
vvb;.-l. may '-n the date nienlioiiiMl be nude- 
tcr:iiiiifd shall be prosecuted to jud^'nuiil 
beftifi' the Ciiirr in v\ hicli they may tlicri 
lie jiei'diu^j. or ill llic eiiurt thai may be side 
diliiled therel.tr. 

.■;. Criiuinal aciions iicndiii^ chi the dale 
iiifiiljoned bt fore the Supreme Court of 
Spa'ii ai;ainst eit.zcusof thi- territory which 
liv this treaty ceases :o be Spanish shall i 
'-nuiinne under its inrisdietion until tinal 
judjrmen:: but. such judi^inent liavinj; been 
rendered, the exeeuliiui thereof shall be 
committed to th" eonipetent authority of 
Ihc place in which the ease arose. 

AUTICLK XIII. 

The rijrhis of property secured by copy- 
ri.:lits a'ld jiatents ae»piire<l by Spaniards iu 
the Island de Cuba, and in Torto Uieo. the 
I'hidpoines and other ceded territories, at 
the lime of the exchaufre of the ratilications 
of this treaty, shall continue to be re- 
s|»eeted. Sjtanish s<ient.tic. literary and 
;irtisiir works, not subversive of public 
irdcr in the territories in quest ir>u. shall 
< o!uinue to be admitted free of duty Into 
sucn territories, for the period of ten years, 
to bi' reckoned from the date of the ex- 
clian,::e of the ratitlcalions of this treaty. 



AKTHM-: XIV. 

Spain shall have the power to establish 
c.i.sular ofIi< ers in the ports and places of 
fhc territories, the sovereij:nly over which 
iia> been either relim|uisl,(-<l or ceded by 
the present treaty. 



AlITIifl.n XI. 

I.us espanoley resideutes en los tarrltorios 

cuyu soi>eranin cede o renuucla Espana por 
este iratndo, estaran sometldos en lo civil 
y eu io crltnlual a les tribunales del pais en 
que refidau con arreglo a las leyes coui- 
niuues (pie rejrulen su oompetencia, pudleu- 
uo -oniparccer ante aquellos en la lulsiiia 
foiiua y aiupleando los misnios pro cedl- 
luientus que debaii i»hserver los ciudadauos 
del pais a que pertenezca el tribunal. 

AKTICULO XII. 

l-os procedimientos judioiales pendientes 
al canjearsc las rati/lcaciones de este tra 
lado. en los teurii<»rios sobre los cuales Hs- 
pana renuncia o cede su soberania, se de- 
ter'M'narau eon arrej^Io a las re^^las sig- 
uientes: 

1. Las sentencias dictadas en causas 
I iviks cut re partienlares o eu materia 
crimieal antes de la fecha mencionada, y 
contra las <-uahs no haya apelai-iou o casa- 
i-ioii con arre^Io a las leyes espauolas, se 
C4insideraraii eomo lirnics y scran ejceiila- 
das eu dcbtda forma por la Antoridad eoiii- 
pct<iile en el terriiorio deiitrit del eual 
dichas seinciicias deban ciimplirsc. 

:_'. I.os pb'itos i-iviles eiiire parlieulares 
i|iic el) la feclia meii4-(<uiada no hayan sido 
Jiixi^adiis. <-ontinuaran su tramitacion anti* 
c| t lihuiial eu «|ue se Iiallc el piocrsip. o ante 
a. [Met que lo suslitnya, 

•". IaIs a<-c)oues eii materia criuiitial jieit- 
(iiijiics eu la fe< ha meiuioiiada ante el Tri- 
biiieil Siiiut'ino de Espana coiiira eluda- 
, (I.MiKis (h'l territorio que sey:uii este tratado 
ileja tie ser espauol, coutinuaran bajo su 
Jiirisdlccion hasta que recaiga la seuteueia 
delinitiva: pero una vez dictada esa semen- 
c'.:i. SU ejecucitm sera encomeudada a la 
Ai!*oridad coniji^tente del lugar en que la 
acciou se suscilo. 

AKTICULO XIII. 

Coutinuaran respetandose los dereclios de 
propiedad literaria. artist ica e industrial 
adquiriilos p«u- espanoles en las Islas de 
Cuba y eu las de I'uerto Rico. Filipiuas y 
dcnias territories cedidos, al ha<'erse el 
caiije de las ratiticationes de este tratado. 
Las obras espauoias eieutificas, literarias y 
artisticas. que uo sean pelifrosas para el 
ord<u publico eu dichos territories, contin- 
narau eitiiado eu los n:ismos eon franquieia 
de todo 'lereeho de aduana por un plazo de 
diez alios a contar dt*sde el oanje de ratilicii- 
clones cle este tratado. 

AliTICCLO XIV. 

Espana potira estahlecer Ageiites Consu- 
lares eu los pnertos y plazas de los terrlto- 
rios cuya renuncia y cesiou es objeio de 
este tratado. 



ARTICLE XV. 



AKTlcrLO XV. 



The Government of each country will, for Kl (lobiernti de cada pais concedei... ,.>.. 
the term of ten years, accord to the mer- el termiiio de die/, anos a los buques mer- 
ehanr vessels of the other country the same cante; 

217 



el ott'o el misuto trato en cuanto a 



tr(.;ili.i|.iit i:i iv^i...,-i ,i| nil luiri .-Iki r-cs. in- liid,)s Ins .Jcivi-I.ns ,1.. piiciin. .THliiyn,,!., lus 

cluclini; cnii.iii..' anil cli 1 1 M)iri' (hns, lUlit iU_- uutrada y salina. ilc^ fain y tnnc-laji'. iini- 

ilnis, anil Iminn.w (liitios, as it aL-ciinls tn concode a sus pmijios bmuii'S mcTcaiilcs nn 

ils own UH'iilianl vpbscIs. not ensa^' il in i nijileados en nl i-ninprcin tie fabotajc. 

Ilic cnastwisv Hade. Kste articulo pindi' sev dcMuinciadn m 

•I'liis aiti[|c iiimv al any lime Ijo tcrnii I'lialynici- tipiiipi) daiulo nntiria pri-via dn 

"■ii''<l 'II si>i mils nnlir,. -ivrn by lillur I'lb) ciiakjiuera dc Ins dns fJnbicrnns al cdr.. 

ili'vcrnnnMil lo I he ..tljcr. cai sois mcsos ili< nnti^-iiia.ai.n. 

AiriicLK x\T AirrrciTji \\i. 

It is ninl'Tslond tluil ally nbli?;atiinis as- l.<ui_'d,i piil ciidiilo i|Uf cnaliiaii'ia obli^a- 

siin:i'd in lliis invity by tbc I'nitcrl Stales eioii aeeptaila en este tratado imr ins 

Willi nsiii < I In I'nba ai-e liniitedi tn the Kstados Unidos uun resiieetn a Ctiba. esfa 

tiii'e ..r ils n.cni;aney tlnrenf: bnt it will, liniitada al tieiniii) que dni'e su neu|iarl..ii 

lip"!' till' li rniii'.ation nf siKdi nccnpainy, in esta isla, pero al teianinar dielia n.Mipa- 

adv'se any (iovernnient eslablisbcd in rhe i i"-'i aeousejaraii al Gobieruo ijae se eslab- 

islaad In assume the same oblig-al imis. le/.ea en la islii (pie acepte las mismas nbli- 

,y:a( ioiK's. 

AKTICLK XVll. AKTll I-l,u XVIl. 

■rin- present treaty shall be ratilied liv ''•' ''■'-'■^"<- Haladn si. ralilieadn pm- Sn 

tlie ITesblenl ot the United Stall's, by and ^''i J'-^'-i'l bi Ueina Hegel le di- Kspana y pni- 

wilii the ad\icn and isent nt tin. s"nate '' t'l'esideute de los Ksladns Ilnidns de 

llnr.id-. and by Her Mapsly the ()„rv\i '"'HPi'''" V ''"'^ l» aprobneinn del Seiiailn; y 

iti-aenl nf Spain: and lie' lalilbalbni shall ''"' '"i* i*i' aeion.'s se eari.iear; n WMsbhm 

1m- .•N.-iians.'d ai Wasliinyinii w.l si\ '"" ''"n'l" 'bl plazn de s.-is ses d.s.b- 

in lis fi I lln> (lain InTc.r nv railirr if '^'■' ''■'''•i- " '■""•■^ «i l">sii'b' I'm--,-. 

p,is,,l)d.'. I'-' '■'• 'b' I'l 'inil. los rrsprilixns I'l.nijiM 

In railh wberenr, we. III,, rnsperl i ^ ,. |'|,.|,- l''i"-binns lirinan y slim csln ir.ilado. 

ip'denli.iiirs, Inup si:;n.-d Iliis liraly ami H-.lin por d ■:ni. .1 I'aiis a .I..-/. iU- 

lia\,. l,,a'<'iinlo alli\,-d ■ srals. I M.-n iiilire d.'l an., mil u.ln.ei.'iitns iinenla 

rn.ln- ill .Inpli. .il.- al I'aiis. Hi,' l.'iilli .lay ■*' "'"" 

nf Ile.-.inbiT in I In. .\ .-ar ..r ( liii- l,..r,| , 

llnaisaiMl ..ii'lil I. h.-.i aii,| nim.iy ,.:i;l,|. 

''^'■'i" VVILLIA.M K. liAV. ,.s,.:,i, KIkIKMm \I(i\T1;i:(i IMnS 

'^'■•1" ctisii.MAx K. iiAvis. is.ai) P.. HP: .\i'.Ai;/,rx, \ 

l!^'''-'!! WILLIA.M r. FUYE. iS.al, .1 . UK ( I AUMi 'A. 

'^''"" GK'>- GRAY. IS. ..Ill W. U. UK VILLAIiUUrTlA 

C^i'all WHITELAW RKID. iS>-all IIAKAKI. CKKKUtl. 



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