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Full text of "Offshore transport and diffusion in the Los Angeles Bight - 1 : NPS data summary"

LIBRAfTY 

TECHNICAL REPORT SECTION 
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOO 
MONTEREY. CALIFORNIA 9394Q 



NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 

Monterey, California 




OFFSHORE TRANSPORT AND DIFFUSION IN THE 
LOS ANGELES BIGHT - I, NPS DATA SUMMARY 
G.E. Schacher, K.L. Davidson 

and C.A. Leonard 
DoE. Spiel and C.W. Fairall 

Environmental Physics Group 
Naval Postgraduate School 
Monterey, California 



FEDDOCS 
D208.14/2:NPS-61-81-004 



Approved for public release? distribution unlimited 

Prepared fort Outer Continental Shelf Division 
Bureau of Land Management 
Los Angeles, California 90017 



NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 
Monterey, California 

Rear Admiral J. J. Ekelund D - A - Schrady 

Superintendent - Acting Provost 

The work reported herein was supported in part by the Bureau 
of Land Management, Outer Continental Shelf Division, Los Angeles, 
California 90017. 

Reproduction of all or part of this report is authorized. 
This report was preparedjby: 



w ix nam rc. roues 
Dean of Research 



Unclassified 



StCURlTY CLASSlFl" ATIGN OF THIi F-AGd (When Dele t mated) 



REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 



READ INSTRUCTIONS 
UEKORE COMPLETING hOKM 



I REPORT NUMBEF- 

NPS-61-81-004 



U GOVT ACCESSION NO 



3 RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NUMBER 



4 TiTlE uni/Sulii/iii) 



OFFSHORE TRANSPORT AND DIFFUSION IN THE 
LOS ANGELES BIGHT - I, NPS DATA SUMMARY 



5 TYPE OF REPORT ft PERIOO COVERED 

Technical Report 



6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 



7. AuTHORf*.) 



• ■ CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERfa) 



G.E. Schacher, K.L. Davidson, C.A. Leonard 
D.E. Spiel and C.W. Fairall 



». PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND AOORESS 

Naval Postgraduate School 
Monterey, California 93940 



10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT TASK 
AREA * WORK UNIT NUMBERS 



II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND AOORESS 

Outer Continental Shelf Division 

Bureau of Land Management 

Los Angeles, California 90017 

14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME ft AOORESSC// dllterenl from Controlling Otllce) 



12. REPORT DATE 



13. NUMBER OF PAGES 



18. SECURITY CLASS, (at tnlt report) 



Unclassified 



IS*. DECLASSIFY CATION/ DOWN GRADING 
SCHEDULE 



'« DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (at ihi. Report; 



17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (at the ebetrect entered In Block 20, It dllterent /root Report) 



l«. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 



19. KEY WORDS (Continue on revere* nae It neceeeery and Idontlty by block number) 



Overwater Transport, Diffusion, Marine Boundary Layer 



20. ABSTRACT (Con Inue on revere* elde It i»c«iivy and Identity by block number) 



Meteorological measurements have been made in support of offshore 
transport and diffusion experiments in the Los Angeles Bight area 
This report presents the meteorological data, reduced to values 
which can be used in assessing current transport models. 



dd ,; 



FORM 
AN 73 



1473 EDITION OF 1 NOV 68 IS OBSOLETE 

S/N 102-014- 6601 

3 



Unclassified 



SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data fni.i.j) 



Table of Contents 

Page No 

I. Introduction 10 

II. Ship Operation Scenario 12 

III. Shipboard Equipment 15 

IV. Tracer Release Data 16 

V. Wind Histories 17 

VI. Radiosonde Results 22 

VII. Acoustic Sounder Inversion Height 42 

VIII. Meteorological Data 51 



List of Figures 



Page 



Figures la, b. Wind histories: true wind speed versus 20,21 
time in immediate area of tracer gas 
releases. Vertical bars show wind speed. 

Figures 2a-s. Temperature and relative humidity pro- 23-41 
files determined from radiosonde releases 

Figures 3a-d. Acoustic sounder strip charts. The 43-46 
sounder was located on the RV/Acania. 



List of Tables 



Page 



Table 1. Significant shipboard events. 14 

Table 2. Characteristics of exhausts used during tracer 16 
gas releases 

Table 3. SF 6 bottle weights before and after the four 18 
releases. The total times for each release 
are also given. 

Table 4. Exact locations and start and end times for 17 
each release. Times are local, Pacific Day- 
light Time. 

Table 5. Inversion height as determined from the acous- 47-50 
tic sounder. More than one height is listed 
when multiple layering makes the situation 
ambiguous . 

Table 6. Meteorological data: V-wind speed, RH-re- 52-55 
lative humidity, T-air temperature, Ts-sea 
surface temperature, Zi-inversion height, U*- 
scaling wind speed, T*-scaling temperature, Q Q - 
heat flux, Z/L-stability parameter (L-Monin 
Ubukhov length), oj*-mixing rate, t-mixing time. 



I . Introduction 

During September of 1980 the Environmental Physics 
Group of the Naval Postgraduate School (MPS) and Aero- 
vironment, Inc. conducted a research program in the 
Santa Barbara Channel area of the California coast. The 
purpose of the operation was to perform offshore tracer 
experiments in order to parameterize dispersion models 
that are in current use and to build a data base for 
future model development. The purpose of this report is 
to present the pertinent meteorological and source data 
for use by those who will be involved in the modeling 
effort. Only the basic data, reduced to engineering 
units, will be presented here; interpretation of these 
data and application to the models will be the subject 
of a future joint report by Aerovironment and NPS. 

Although the data gathered in this experiment has 
much wider application, it was collected for the speci- 
fic purpose of parameterizing models that will be used 
to assess the onshore impact of offshore oil exploration 
and production sites. Such impact currently has great 
importance since many coastal areas are near the legal 
air pollution limit and any significant additional load- 
ing could push them over the limit. Air pollution 
models in current use have not been adequately validated 
for the overwater regime. The results of this study 
should remedy the inadequacy of the models. 



10 



During the tracer experiments SFg gas was released 
from the ship RV/Acania and tracked by an aircraft, a 
small boat, and one mobile and fixed stations on shore. 
Meteorological data was gathered on the ship and on the 
shore. This report contains shipboard meteorological - 
data and gas source strength. Shore meteorological data 
and tracer results can be found in a report by Aerovi- 
ronment . 



11 



I I . Ship Operation S cenario 

Since the impact of offshore sources on the shore is 
the purpose of these investigations the experiments must 
be performed during periods of onshore winds. These 
winds must be of a fairly long duration since it takes a 
minimum of 6 hours to gather enough data during any one 
experiment. The preliminary decision to release the 
tracer gas on any given day must be made on the previous 
day due to the time needed to prepare all of the samp- 
ling sites. Thus, the following schedule was used. 

All Days 

1. 0800-1200-2000: radio shipboard meteorological data 
to shore. 

2. 1000: Shore obtains weather forecast from Point Mugu. 

3. 1200: shore command center makes a go/no-go decision 
for a release on the following day. 

Release Day 

4. 0700: begin hourly wind reports to shore. 

5. 1000: decision on release made by ship-shore 
communication, final decision made on shore. 

6. Final positioning of ship. 

7. 1100: start tracer gas release. 

8. 1900: end tracer gas release and hourly wind 
reports . 

The exact timing of the release varied somewhat and was 
two hours later for one of the tests because of wind 
conditions . 

12 



Because of difficulty in moving the shore stations, 
targeting of the plume was accomplished by moving the 
ship. This had to be done before the release was begun 
because moving the ship would introduce wander into the 
plume trajectory and contaminate the results. In order 
to hold the ship stationary to the degree needed it was 
anchored during a release. 



13 



Significant Events: 

At times the ship was peforming tasks not directly 
associated with this study or was in port. As an aid in 
interpreting the data we list times of "significant 
shipboard events". 



Underway from Monterey 

Arrive at operation area 

Underway to Anacappa Island 

Drift in Anacappa passage 

Move to open channel 

On station at operation area 

Underway for Port Hueneme 

Dock 

Underway 

Arrive at operation area 

Underway for Port Hueneme 

Dock 

Underway 

Arrive at operation area 

Underway for Port Hueneme 

Dock 

Underway 

Arrive at operation area 

Depart for Monterey 



Table 1 - Significant Shipboard Events 
14 



9/21 


0905 


9/22 


1030 




1225 




1400-1700 




1700 




1930 


9/25 


1000 




1118 


9/27 


0500 




0640 


9/23 


1930 




2030 


9/29 


0500 




0615 




1930 




2030 


9/30 


1015 


10/1 


1010 




1630 



Ill . Shipboard Equipment 

We give here a brief description of the meteorolo- 
gical measurements that were made on the ship. Details 
of the equipment and calibration procedures can be found 
in a previous report. Two meteorological stations at 
heights of 7 m and 20.5 m above mean sea level were 
used. At each level the following parameters were mea- 
sured: 

relative wind speed 
relative wind direction (upper level only) 
air temperature 
dew point 
wind speed fluctuation 
The following parameters were also measured: 

sea surface temperature 

ship roll 

ship location 

inversion height 

temperature and humidity profiles to 5,000 ft. 

sky cloud cover 
The temperature and humidity profiles were obtained 
by shipboard radiosonde launch and were taken every 12 
hours. The temperature inversion height was determined 
by an acoustic sounder which gave a continuous strip 
chart record. Most data listed above was averaged for 
one half hour intervals. The exceptions were relative 
wind direction and ships roll. For both, 10 sec aver- 
ages were obtained and recorded for the full period of a 
gas release. 

15 



IV. Tracer Release Data 

Four separate experiments were performed. For 
each the gas was released through the exhaust of one of 
the ship's diesel motors. The main engine was used 
first but the cool gas injection caused a slight crack 
in the exhaust pipe so the exhaust of one of the motor 
generator sets was used for subsequent releases. Both 
exhausts are inclined at an angle of 45° above the 
horizontal. Both engines are 2 cycle diesels so exhaust 
flow rate is obtained by multiplying 2/3 times the dis- 
placement times the revolutions per minute. The perti- 
nent data to characterize plume rise are: 



Stack Flow 
displacement Temp. Rate Diameter 



Release 

Numbers 


rpm 


1 
2,3,4 


1250 
1500 



(Cu in) (°F) (cu in/sec) ( in) 



860 210 9.17xl0 3 8 
426 250 7.13x103 4.5 



Table 2. Characteristics of exhausts used during tracer 
gas releases. 



For a release, 4 tanks of SFg were connected to a 

single manifold. The manifold has a pressure gauge and 

two rotometers, one supplied by the manufacturer and one 

calibrated and supplied by Aerovironment . The second 

meter was used to set the flow rate the first to monitor 

it since it was less subject to fluctuations. The gas 

pressure to the rotometers was maintained at 25 lbs/in 2 . 

16 



Using the data found in Table 3 the flow rates for the 

four releases were 

Release 1 49.01 lbs/hr 
Release 2 50.74 lbs/hr 
Release 3 48.54 lbs/hr 
Release 4 47.91 lbs/hr 

Durinq the releases the ship was anchored approxi- 
mately 5 Nmi SWW of Ventura. As stated above the re- 
leases started at approxi mately 1100 and ended at 
approximately 1900. The exact times and locations are 
given in Table 3. 



Release Date Latitude 



1 9/24 

2 9/27 

3 9/28 

4 9/29 



34°14.2'N 
34° 14. 8 'N 
34°14.2'N 
34°12.8'N 



Longitude Start Tim e End Tim e 
119°21.1'W 1135 1900 
119°21,1 , W 1107 1815 
119°21.1'W 1243 1900 
119°20.4'W 1143 1900 



Table 4. Exact locations and start and end times for 
each release. Times are local, Pacific Daylight Time. 



17 



Bottle 

Number 


Initial 

Weiqht 

(lbs) 


Release 1 


Release 2 


Weiqht 

after 
Release 3 


Release 4 


1 


255 


164 








2 


256 


166 








3 


252 


159.5 








4 


254 


164 


140.5 






5 


257.5 




145 




! 


6 


253 




141 




i 


7 


253 




139 






8 


278 










9 


260.5 










10 


256.5 






158.5 




11 


256 






152.5 




12 


255 






151.5 




13 


257 








144 


14 


254 








140 


15 


251.5 








139 


16 


257 








247.5 



Release time 7:25 7:08 6:17 7.17 



Table 3. SF 6 bottle weights before and after the four 

releases. The total times for each release are 
also given. 



18 



V. Wind Histories 

Recent histories of wind direction and speed can be 
very useful for predicting winds on a short term basis 
as lona as the synoptic situation does not change. For 
this operation winds were recorded and plotted at least 
every hour in the experimental area. These plots, shown 
in Figures 1, were very useful in the go/no-go decisions 
for release days. 

The local situation during the time of the opera- 
tion was one of light and variable winds. During the 
late night and early morning the wind was generally 
easternly, switching to onshore flow in the late morning 
or early afternoon. If the changeover was too late, or 
the winds too light a tracer gas experiment could not be 
performed. As can be seen from the figures, the time at 
which the wind direction began to change, and the rapid- 
ity of the wind speed magnitude change, is a good pre- 
dictor of the ultimate direction and speed. 



19 



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21 



VI . Radiosonde Result s 

Radiosondes were released from the ship twice in each 
24-hour period, generally at 0000 and 1200 PDT. 
Releases were made and interpreted by a Navy radiosonde 
team. Temperature and humidity were determined at 
standard levels and significant points. Since we are 
interested in the detailed structure of the boundary 
layer such a treatment is too coarse. Thus, the 
original strip chart output and the met team determined 
calibration points were used to construct fine scale 
graphs, which are presented in Figures 2. 



22 



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Figure 2s 
41 



VII. Acoustic Sounder Inversion Height 

The acoustic sounder was operating on a nearly 
continual basis throughout the cruise. In Table 5 we 
list the inversion height as determined from the sounder 
strip chart output. At times it is difficult to deter- 
mine the correct height because of multiple layering so 
more than one height is given. Photographs of the strip 
charts are shown in Figures 3 as they can greatly aid in 
determining the boundary layer depth, especially when 
they are compared with the radiosonde results. 

Normally, it is fairly easy to determine the boun- 
dary layer depth from acoustical sounder records, espe- 
cially over the ocean. This was not true for this oper- 
ation. The ship was near land and the period v/as during 
a major smog event. Multiple layering was common and 
even with radiosonde results it was not always possible 
to determine the height of the well-mixed layer. 



42 




Figure 3a 
43 




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45 




Figure 3d 



46 



Table 5. Inversion height as determined from the acoustic 
sounder. More than one height is listed when mul- 
tiple layering makes the situation ambiguous. 



DATE 


TIME 


09/21 


0900 




1130 




1200 




1230 




1300 




1330 




1500 




1530 




1600 




1630 




1730 




1800 




1830 




1900 




1930 




2000 




2030 




2100 




2130 




2200 




2230 




2300 




2330 




2400 






9/22 


0030 




0100 




0130 




0145 




0200 




0230 




0300 




0330 




0400 




0600 




0630 




0700 




0730 




0800 




0830 




0900 




0930 




1000 




1030 




1100 




1130 




1200 




1400 




1430 




1500 




1530 




1600 




1630 



Z(m) 








90 


120 


100 


70 


60 


70 


70 











80 


120 


180 


240 


300 


340 


290 


190 





300 


340 


380 




400 


430 


460 


350 


220 


190 


160 


140 


80 





280 


320 


410 


460 


500 


520 


550 


560 


570 


580 


140 


230 




220 


220 


240 


210 


270 



160 



210 



260 



DATE 



9/22 



580 
590 

"520" 
450 
410 



9/23 



TIME 


1700 


1730 


1800 


1830 


1900 


2000 


2030 


2100 


2130 


2200 


2230 


2300 


2330 


2400 




0030 


0100 


0130 


0200 


0230 


0300 


0330 


0400 


0430 


0500 


0530 


0600 


0630 


0700 


0730 


0800 


0830 


0900 


0930 


1000 


1030 


1100 


1130 


1200 


1230 


1300 


1330 


1400 


1430 


1500 


1530 


1600 


1630 


1700 


1730 


1800 


1830 


1900 



Z(m) 


260 


310 


320 


340 


280 


360 


370 


360 


400 


370 


380 


300 


330 


320 




340 


340 


330 


320 


310 


320 


330 


320 


310 


320 


330 


310 


320 


300 


320 


310 


340 


330 


340 


320 


310 


330 


340 


350 


360 


370 


350 


330 


310 


320 


330 


310 


300 


290 


280 


260 


270 


290 



47 



DATE 


TIME 


9/23 


1930 




2000 




2030 




2100 




2130 




2200 




2230 




2300 




2330 






9/24 


0000 




0030 




0100 




0130 




0200 




0230 




0300 




0330 




0400 




0430 




0500 




0530 




0600 




0630 




0700 




0730 




0800 




0830 




0900 




0930 




1000 




1030 




1100 




1130 




1200 




1230 




1300 




1330 




1400 




1430 




1500 




1530 




1600 




1630 




1700 




1730 




1800 




1830 




1900 




1930 




2000 




2030 




2100 



Z(m) 


300 


290 


310 


300 


240 


210 


200 


180 


200 




210 


190 


230 


250 


270 


300 


310 


320 


340 


320 


330 


340 


320 


310 


290 


310 


320 


310 


320 


310 


300 


330 


320 


330 


350 


360 


340 


350 


340 


310 


280 


270 


250 


270 


280 


270 


280 


270 


280 


270 


260 


240 


220 



DATE 
9/24 



390 



9/25 



"9/26 



TIME 


2130 


2200 


2230 


2300 


2330 




0000 


0030 


0100 


0130 


0200 


0230 


0300 


0330 


0400 


0430 


0500 


0530 


0600 


0630 


0700 


0730 


0300 


0830 


0900 


0930 


1000 












1300 


1330 


1400 


1430 


1500 


1530 


1600 


1630 


1700 


1730 


1800 


1830 


1900 


1930 


2000 


2030 


2100 


2130 


2200 


2230 





Z(m) 




210 




170 




160 




180 




200 








220 




210 




230 




290 




310 




330 




320 




300 




290 




300 




320 




310 




300 




290 




240 




270 




250 




270 




260 




250 




240 
























350 




350 


380 


360 




310 




230 




300 




240 


340 


270 




280 




290 




300 




320 




330 




310 




240 


330 


250 




220 




240 




220 




210 









48 



DATE 


TIME 


9/27 


0000 




0100 




0130 




0200 




0230 




0300 




0330 




0400 




0430 




0500 




0530 




0600 




0630 




0700 




0730 




0800 




0830 




09C0 




0930 




1000 




1030 




1100 




1130 




1200 




1230 




1300 




1330 




1400 




1430 




1500 




1530 




1600 




1630 




1700 




1730 




1800 




1830 




1900 




1930 




2000 




2030 




2100 




2130 




2200 




2230 




2300 




2330 






9/28 


0000 




0030 




0100 




0130 


' 


0200 



Z(m) 


200 


210 


220 


250 


240 


260 


250 


260 


270 


250 


270 


270 


290 


200 


180 


300 


330 


340 


280 


160 


180 


240 


230 


210 


240 


230 


210 


200 


210 


140 


130 


110 


120 


110 


130 


140 


150 


160 


120 


100 


110 


90 


220 


240 


230 


250 


200 




200 


280 






280 



280 
" 4 00 
440 
450 
400 
380 
380 



230 
240 
250 
270 
290 
340 
360 



220 
230 
250 
260 
"270 
290 
280 



DATE 
9/28 



9/29 



TIME 


0200 


0230 


0300 


0330 


0400 


0430 


0500 


0530 


0600 


0630 


0700 


0730 


0800 


0830 


0900 


0930 


1000 


1030 


1100 


1130 


1200 


1230 


1300 


1330 


1400 


1430 


1500 


1530 


1600 


1630 


1700 


1730 


1300 


1830 


1900 




















0430 


0500 


0530 


0600 


0630 


0700 


0730 


0800 


0830 



Z(m) 


230 


250 


260 


270 


260 


270 


250 






200 












250 


230 


240 


300 


290 


260 


210 


200 


170 


150 


160 


120 


110 


120 


140 


130 


120 


110 


130 





















240 


200 


240 


310 


320 


350 


380 


390 


360 



280 



49 



DATE 


TIME 


9/29 


0900 




0930 




1000 




1030 




1100 




1130 




1200 




1230 




1300 




1330 




1400 




1430 




1500 




1530 




1600 




1630 




1700 




1730 




1800 




1830 




1900 






9/30 


No well 


10/1 


Inver 


















10/2 


0800 




0830 




0900 




0930 




1000 




1030 




1100 




1130 




1200 




1230 




1300 




1330 




1400 




1430 




1500 




1530 




1600 




1630 




1700 




1730 




1800 




1830 




1900 




1930 




2000 



Z(m) 


340 


360 


380 


80 


330 


80 


400 


410 


100 


80 


410 


420 


330 


340 


330 


310 


320 


300 


280 


260 


270 




defined 


sion 










90 


110 


140 


130 


110 


120 


130 


140 


150 


140 


190 


120 


90 


100 


110 




100 


110 


80 






220 


230 


220 


230 



DATE 
10/2 



400 



370 



4 00 
390 



10/3 



TIME 
2030 
2100 
2130 
2200 
2230 
2300 
2330 



0000 
0030 
100 
0130 
0200 
0230 
0300 
0330 
0400 
0430 
0500 
530 
0600 
0630 
0700 
0730 
0800 



Z(m) 

240 



110 
140 
150 
130 



120 
110 

90 
"110 
100 
130 
140 
150 
170 
160 
120 
140 
120 
130 
140 
100 

90 



50 



VIII. Meteorological Data 

Table 6 presents the basic meteorological data and 
calculated parameters. Only data taken during the 
tracer gas release periods are included. Wind speed, 
relative humidity, and air temperature values are those 
measured at the upper level (20.5 m). All calculated 
parameters were determined using the bulk aerodynamic 
method. 

The boundary layer mixing rate and mixing height 
depend on the boundary layer depth, Z^. We have al- 
ready mentioned the difficulty in determining the depth 
for these data. On the 28th and 29th we could not de- 
termine if the depth of the well-mixed region was 100 
or 400 m, which makes the mixing rate and time calcula- 
tions ambiguous. The results shown are self consistent 



51 



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55 



DISTRIBUTION LIST 

No. of copies 

1. Defense Documentation Center 2 
Cameron Station 

Alexandria, Virginia 22314 

2. Library, Code 0142 4 
Naval Postgraduate School 

Monterey, California 93940 

3. Dean of Research, Code 012 1 
Naval Postgraduate School 

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4. Professor J. Dyer, Code 61Dy 1 
Naval Postgraduate School 

Monterey, California 93940 

5. Professor R.J. Renard, Code 63Rd 1 
Naval Postgraduate School 

Monterey, California 93940 

6. Dr. C.W. Fairall 10 
BDM Corporation, 1340 Munras St. 

Monterey, California 93940 

7. Assoc. Professor K.L. Davidson, Code 63Ds 10 
Naval Postgraduate School 

Monterey, California 93940 

8. Professor G.E. Schacher, Code 61Sq 10 
Naval Postgraduate School 

Monterey, California 93940 

9. Mr. Donald Spiel 1 
BDM Corporation, 1340 Munras St. 

Monterey, California 93940 

10. Mr. Charles Leonard 1 
Meteorology Department 

Naval Postgraduate School 
Monterey, California 93940 

11. Mr. Tom Rappolt 1 
Energy Resources Co., Inc. 

3344 N. Torrey Pines Ct. 
LaJolla, CA 92037 



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