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Full text of "O'Hare Field--Chicago International Airport"










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VOL.2 MASTER PLAN REPORT 



3 5556 020 436 929 



VOLUME II 



CHICAGO O'HARE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT 



MASTER PLAN REPORT 



City of Chicago 



Richard J. Daley - Mayor 



William E. Dowries, Jr. - Commissioner of Aviation 



TRANSPORTATION LIBRARY 

SEP 1994 

NORTHWESTERN" 



Naess & Murphy 
Architects-Engineers 

Landrum and Brown 
Airport Consultants 

James P. O'Donnell 
Fuel System Consultant 



JtfA/O 



63L> 

v. 2- 



NAESS & MURPHY • ARCHITECTS ENGINEERS 



November, 1960 



Mr. William E. Dowries, Jr. 
Commissioner of Aviation 
City of Chicago 
City Hall 
Chicago, Illinois 

Dear Commissioner Downes: Chicago-O'Hare 

International Airport 

Volume II, "Master Plan Report" 

We submit herewith Volume II, the "Master Plan Report" as the final report of a 
proposed series dealing with various aspects of planning for Chicago-O Hare 
International Airport. 

This volume, prepared by Landrum and Brown, Airport Consultants, discusses the 
master plan of the O'Hare International Airport airfield, terminal complex, and 
service areas as well as other related subjects and is serving as the basis for planning 
future facilities for the development of the airport. 

Very truly yours, 

NAESS AND MURPHY 





2 2 4 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUE. CHICAGO A. ILLINOIS 



HARRISON 7-3456 



CHICAGO-O'HARE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT MASTER PLAN 
TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Chapter Title Page Number 

I INTRODUCTION 1 

II TRAFFIC 5 

III METEOROLOGY 17 

IV RUNWAY DEVELOPMENT 32 

V TERMINAL COMPLEX DEVELOPMENT 45 

VI COMMERCIAL AVIATION 48 

VII GENERAL AVIATION 51 
VIM LAND USE 53 
IX FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 59 



TABLE OF EXHIBITS 

Exhibit Title Page Number 

I Airport Location Map 4 

II Wind Rose - O'Hare Field Station 

October 1946 -August 1955 26 

III Wind Rose - O'Hare Field Station 27 
Decembeir-January-February 

IV Wind Rose - O'Hare Field Station 28 
June - July-August 

V Wind Rose - Midway Airport Station 

January 1952-December 1956 29 

VI Weather Rose - O'Hare Field Station 30 
January 3 955 -December 1957 

VII Weather Rose - Midway Airport Station 31 
January 1935 - Decmeber 1941 

January 1948 - December 1950 

VIII First Stage Master Plan 67 

IX Second Stage Master Plan 68 

X Third Stage Master Plan 69 
XS Fourth Stage Master Plan 70 

XII Area Development Plan - Second Stage 71 

XIII Area Development Plan - Ultimate Stage 72 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois 



http://archive.org/details/oharefieldchicag02odon 



CHAPTER I 
INTRODUCTION 



CHAPTER 1 

INTRODUCTION 

This Master Plan Report for the Chi cago-O 1 Hare Internationa! Airport has 
been prepared to present, to the City of Chicago, an orderly progression of Airport 
planning and development for this City's major jet aircraft airport,, The rapid 
growth of commercial aviation' and the advent of large turbo-jet aircraft have created 
many problems at major airline airports. The City of Chicago, however, has taken 
the first steps toward the solution of these problems by initiating new terminal building 
and airfield construction. 

The purpose of this report is, therefore, to submit a complete and comprehensive 
Master Plan for the full development of Chicago's major jet aircraft airport, Chicago- 
O'Hare International Airport . The need for this Master Plan, a revision to the original 
Master Plan, has been clearly defined by the increased requirements of the new jet 
aircraft and by the requirements of the greatly increased number of air travelers. 

As is the nature of a Master Plan, this report is very broad in scope. It is designed 
to provide solutions to the operating requirements of the new aircraft and to the comfort 
requirements of the air traveler. The ultimate Master Plan, in itself, is a complex 
combination of solutions which provide the answers to the basic requirements as theyare 
anticipated to develop during all the stages of the growth of aviation at Chicago-O'Hare 
International Airport. Each stage of development has, by itself, a set of requirements 
which must be met. The solutions to all the basic requirements are presented within this 
report in the form of four Master Plan drawings and descriptive material . As is also the 
nature of a Master Plan, no attempt is made to provide detailed solutions to engineering 
and architectural problems. These problems require specialized attention and their 
solutions during the advanced stages of design will vary with the increased 

- 1 - 



technology of future years. 

It should be noted, however, that the present day technology, developed 
by many research institutes, was applied to the problems presented by the Master 
Planned Development of the Chicago-O'Hare International Airport. One of the 
most notable studies being the research study made by the Technical Development 
Center of the original Civil Aeronautics Administration, now the Federal Aviation 
Agency, to determine runway capacities at O'Hare International using vaiious runway 
configurations. Another is the study of simultaneous aircraft tum-ons to parallel 
runways prepared by the Chicago Air Traffic Supervisor of the Federal Aviation Agency 
with the participation of many airline personnel, the Air Transport Association, and 
other interested personnel. Other studies, such as those prepared on high speed turnoffs, 
were used as they applied to the Master Planning of the airport. 

Chapter II of this report delineates the growth of air travel at Chicago-O'Hare 
International Airport. Forecasts of the anticipated numbers of aircraft, air passengers, 
and other elements necessary for planning a complete development are shown here. 
The meteorological conditions, as described in Chapter III, are fundamental to runway 
direction and capacity. However, many other items, some of greater importance than 
meteorology and some of less importance, have been considered and described in 
Chapter IV which defines the runway development., The terminal complex development 
described in Chapter V is not detailed in nature since it is a function of architectural 
design. The emphasis of this chapter is placed upon land use to provide assurance for 
the maximum development of the area. All other elements of commercial aviation and 
general aviation are described, as they affect land use and airfield capacities, in 
Chapters VI and VII. To assure a full development of the entire airfield area, many 

- 2 - 



constructive suggestions for land use are described in Chapter VIII. The 
recommendations presented in Chapter IX are re-statements of the basic facts evolved 
from the major areas of development. These facts should be given consideration only 
with all of the other elements of the entire Master Plan to prevent uneconomical or 
conflicting developments. 

The Master Planned Development of Chicago-O'Hare International Airport, as 
described in the following chapters, cannot and has not been considered as a part from 
the whole. This airport is an integral part of the aviation of the United States as a 
whole and a major part of the aviation of the Chicago area in particular. Exhibit I of 
this report shows the relationship of Chicago-O'Hare International Airport to other 
airports in the general area . The apparent areas of major conflict between this airport 
and other airports has been given full consideration within this report and by other 
groups such as the original Civil Aeronautics Administration and their Technical 
Development Center. It would appear well advised to recommend that the City of Chicago 
prepare a study to determine the ultimate use of all the airports within these areas of 
conflict. It should be noted, however, that the simultaneous use of all these airports will 
affect only the staging of development of the runways at the Chicago-O'Hare International 
Airport, as outlined in this report. The actual location and design of the runways, as 
shown in the Master Plan exhibits, is considered to be good Master Planning and will not 
be affected by the use of other airports. 

As a final note, this Master Plan should be constantly reviewed by the City of 
Chicago and should be adjusted to meet any new situation which may arise from the 
rapid evolution of air transportation and its complimentary technical advances. 

-3- 



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AIRPORT LOCATION MAP 
CHICAGO O'HARE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT 



STATUTE MILES 
GRAPHIC SCALE 



LANDRUM a BROWN 
CINCINNATI, OHIO 



PAGE NO 4 



CHAPTER II 
TRAFFIC 



CHAPTER I! 

TRAFFIC 

As a basis for determining the physical requirements of the Chicago-O'Hare 
International Airport facilities, forecasts of the anticipated air and surface traffic 
were prepared and are presented here. These forecasts have been used to determine 
the space requirements and operating capacities of many of the airport facilities, 
especially those facilities within the confines of the terminal area. However, many 
other elements of design have been given consideration and the Master Plan presented 
within this report is a result of the blending of these forecasts with the other requirements 
which must be met. 

The forecasts for the year 1965, presented within this chapter, have been taken 
from the "O'Hare International Airport Air and Surface Traffic Report", Volume \. 
Since the analyses and methods used to determine these forecasts are fully described 
within the above mentioned Volume I, no attempt will be made to describe the details 
of these projections. The forecasts for the year 1965 have already been translated into 
space and capacity requirements for many of the airport facilities which are in design 
phases at the writing of this report. 

Also presented are forecasts for the ultimate period of development of this 
airport. Since these ultimate forecasts are essentially projections of those forecasts for the 
year 1965, the same analyses and methods will apply to these projections. These forecasts 
have been used to present assurance that the Master Planned facilities have the capacity 
to meet future requirements beyond 1965. 

The following tables are presented by groups as their respective quantities affect 
individual areas of design. 

- 5 - 



AIR PASSENGERS 

The total number of air passengers to be served by the Chicago-O'Hare 
International Airport has been used as the basis for determining the size of the 
terminal buildings and their facilities. The buildings must be of sufficient 3ize to 
serve the air traveler with comfort and efficiency and must have the capacity to expand 
so that they can meet the future requirements without sacrificing these attributes. The 
air traveler who has to make a connecting flight must be served with the same ease 
provided the originating or terminating passenger. In addition, sufficient facilities 
must be provided for the international passengers. 
TOTAL ENPLANING AIR PASSENGERS TABLE i 



Scheduled Domestic Passengers 

Scheduled International and 
Overseas Passengers 

Total 



T?65 



Enplaning Passengers 

Ultimate 



5,142,500 



134,000 
5,276,500 



10,277,000 



533,500 
10,810,500 



-6 - 



TOTAL PASSENGERS BY TYPE 



TABLE II 



1965 



Local and Non-Local 
Originating 
Connecting 

Total Enplaning 
Local and Non-Local 
Terminating 
Connecting 

Total Deplaning 
Total All Passengers 



2,958,300 
2,184,200 
5,142,500 

2,958,300 

2,184,200 

5,142,500 

10,285,000 



Ultimate 

5,909,300 

4,367,700 

10,277,000 

5,909,300 

4,367,700 

10,277,000 

20,554,000 



-7- 



y 



AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS 

In general, the number of scheduled airline aircraft operations is a function 
of the total number of air passengers and is dependent upon the seating capacity and 
load factors of the aircraft used by the airlines. However, in addition to airline 
aircraft operations, consideration must also be given to the number of aircraft operations 
performed by both general aviation and military aircraft. The total number of aircraft 
operations during a peak hour determines the ultimate capacity of the airfield to accept 
aircraft safely. The number of peak hour operations also dictates the number of runways 
required, and to some extent, the staging of construction of runways to handle the 
anticipated volumes. The total number of annual aircraft operations is a function of the 
peak hour operations. 

Because the present day jet aircraft require increased runway and terminal 
facilities, an estimate of the anticipated numbers of movements by this type of aircraft 
is presented. In general, the present day turbo-prop aircraft have requirements similar 
to the large reciprocating engine aircraft. The number of helicopter air taxi operations 
is also presented since the helicopter requires special consideration in the terminal area 
and along its flight path to and from the terminal . 

Chapter IV, "Runway Development", explains how the forecasts given in this 
section affect the design of the Master Plan and describes its provisions for the special 
requirements of the different types of aircraft. As mentioned previously, the estimates 
for 1965 shown here were taken from Volume I of this report and need no further explanation. 
However, the number of peak hour aircraft operations for the Ultimate period, as shown in 
the following table, is believed to represent the approximate maximum number of safe 
operations for this airport under instrument flying conditions, and it has been used as the 
basis for all projections for the Ultimate period. 

- 8- 



TOTAL AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS 



TABLE III 



Scheduled Domestic 

Scheduled International and Overseas 

Non-Scheduled 

Total Air Carrier Operations 



Number of Annual 


Operations 


1965 


Ultimate 


282,300 


428,200 


5,000 


20,520 


30,800 


30,800 


318,100 


479,520 



SCHEDULED AIRLINE AIRCRAFT 
( Domestic and International ) 



TABLE IV 



Jet 

Turbo-Prop 
Reciprocating 
Total 



Schedule 


d Annuc 


1 Airline Operations 


1965 




Ultimate 


64,900 




336,540 


146,800 




112,180 


75,600 




- 0- 


287,300 




448,720 



-9- 



GENERAL AVIATION OPERATIONS 



TABLE V 



Local 
Itinerant 

Total 



Number 


of Annual 


Operations 


1965 




Ultimate 


24,800 




24,800 


66,000 




66,000 


90,800 




90,800 



MILITARY OPERATIONS 



Total 



TABLE VI 



Number of Annual Operations 
1965 Ultimate 



81,000 



- 0- 



PEAK HOUR AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS 



Scheduled Air Carrier 



All Other Aircraft 



Total 



TABLE VII 

Median Peak Hour Aircraft Operations 
1^63 



74 



40 



114 



Ultimate 



99 



21 



120 



HELICOPTER AIR TAXI OPERATIONS 



Total Annual 



Median Peak Hour 



T?6T 



TABLE VII 



Operations 



41,100 
10 



Ultimate 
73,800 
15 



-10- 



MR MAIL AND AIR CARGO 

Estimates of the tons of air mail and air cargo anticipated to be enplaned 
at the O'Hare International Airport are provided here to assure that sufficient land 
area is available for the development of these functions. The operation of these 
functions requires sufficient building space, vehicular parking and circulation, and 
aircraft loading apron area. 
AIR MAIL TRAFFIC TABLE IX 



Total Tonnage 



Air Mail Enplaned 



1965 



23,600 



QTtimati 
57,000 



AIR CARGO TRAFFIC 



TABLE X 



Total Tonnage 



Air Cargo Enplaned 



1965 



118,600 



Ultimate 



198,000 



- 11 - 



TERMINAL BUILDING POPULATION 

As stated in the Introduction of this report, the terminal buildings are a 
function of architectural design and therefore are not developed in detail within 
the Master Plan. This report shall be confined to the mass area expansion of the 
terminal buildings and only general use is made of the population figures shown in 
the following tables. However, these estimates are of great value to the detailed 
architectural design for present and future building programs. The employee population 
in the terminal buildings and area is also shown so that its impact on design, Especially 
during the peak shift, can be studied. 



- 12 - 



TERMINAL BUILDING POPULATION 



TABLE XI 



Median Peak Hour Terminal Population 





1965 


Ultimate 






Friday 


Sunday 


Friday 


Sunday 


Ticket Counters 


360 


410 


720 


820 


People Seated - Lobby 


760 


770 


1,520 


1,540 


People Standing - Lobby 


430 


770 


860 


1,540 


General Merchandise 


120 


200 


240 


400 


Total Lobby 


1,670 


2,150 


3,340 


4,300 


Coffee Shop 


560 


620 


1,120 


1,240 


Dining Room 


530 


570 


1,060 


1,140 


Cocktail Lounge 


350 


360 


700 


720 


Total Food and Drink 


1,440 


1,550 


2,880 


3,100 


People Unloading 


80 


150 


160 


300 


People Loading 


80 


120 


160 


240 


Total Front of Terminal 


160 


270 


320 


540 


Claim Baggage 


250 


340 


500 


680 


Total Terminal Population 


3,520 


4,310 


7,040 


8,620 



EMPLOYEE POPULATION 



TERMINAL BUILDINGS AND AREA 



Peak Shift Shop Employees 
Total Employees 



TABLE XII 



Peak Day Employee Population 

V?55 



2,700 
5,700 



Ultimate 

4,100 

9,200 



- 13 - 



GROUND TRANSPORTATION 

Since roadways and parking lots comprise the largest areas of land use in 
the terminal area, it is of the greatest importance that the anticipated numbers of 
vehicles in specified areas be presented here. This Master Plan gives full consideration 
to the area required to supply sufficient parking space for all vehicles and to the roadway 
design so that both will provide efficient and safe circulation for all types of vehicles. 
The size of many functional areas, such as the taxicab reserve pool, rental car area, 
parking lots, and the terminal curb frontage requirements have been determined from 
the estimated peak hour inventories shown in these tables. 
VEHICULAR TRAFFIC MOVEMENTS TABLE XIII 



Median Day Vehicle Movements 
T963 Ultimate 



Friday Sunday Friday Sunday 



Private Automobiles 45,380 50,520 87,130 97,000 

Taxi 6,500 6,350 8,320 8,130 

Airport Limousine 160 140 270 235 

Truck 990 990 1,980 1,980 



Total 53,030 64,560 97,700 107,345 



-14- 



GROUND TRANSPORTATION INVENTORIES 



TABLE XIV 



Vehicles in Unloading Area 

Vehicles in Loading Area 

Paid Parking 

Employee Parking 

Taxi cabs 

Limousines 

Rental Cars 



Peak Hour Vehicle Inventory 
1965 Ultimate 

Friday Sunday Friday Sunday 



40 



40 



20 



310 



30 



45 



80 



80 



20 



250 



35 



620 



60 



90 



5,300 5,800 12,900 14,200 
2,700 - 4,100 - 

110 60 140 80 



35 



500 



The information presented in the preceding tables has been used to determine 
that the Master Plan presented in this report is sufficiently and safely designed. Although 
some of the information is of a detailed nature, it has been presented to form the basic 
structure for present and future detailed architectural planning, |t is,therefore, con- 
sidered wise and well within the scope of this report to recommend that constant checks 
be made upon the figures presented here to determine that the actual growth of air travel 
in future years follows the pattern presented so that adjustments in design may be made 
if they become necessary. 



-15- 



INDEX TO TRAFFIC TABLES 

Table No. Title Page No, 

AIR PASSENGERS 

I Total Enplaning Air Passengers 6 

II Total Passengers by Type 7 

AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS 

III Total Air Carrier Operations 9 

IV Scheduled Airline Aircraft 9 

V General Aviation Operations 10 

VI Military Operations 10 

VII Peak Hour Aircraft Operations 10 
VIM Helicopter Air Taxi Operations 10 

AIR MAIL AND AIR CARGO 

IX Air Mail Traffic 11 

X Air Cargo Traffic 11 

TERMINAL BUILDING POPULATION 

XI Terminal Building Population 13 

XII Employee Population 13 

GROUND TRANSPORTATION 

XIII Vehicular Traffic Movements 14 

XIV Ground Transportation Inventories 15 

- 16- 



CHAPTER III 
METEOROLOGY 



I 



CHAPTER III 

METEOROLOGY 

A review of all meteorological data which was available for the Chicago 
area has been made to determine the effect of winds and weather conditions upon 
the development of a runway system and also to determine the runway wind coverages 
for the Chicago-O'Hare International Airport. In addition to the analysis of winds and 
weather conditions affecting the O'Hare International runway system, a study was also 
made for the Midway Airport because of the inter-dependence of the operation of air 
traffic between these two separate airports. 

CHICAGO AREA 

In general, Chicago is in a region of frequent changing weather. The prevailing 
winds range from the south to the west, but are quite variable. The annual normal 
amount of precipitation is about 32.7 inches. Summer thunderstorms are locally 
heavy and variable and thundershowers, sometimes with strong, gusty winds and hail, 
are observed on an average of 37 days during the summer months. The annual average 
snowfall is 35.3 inches.. During the cold season, slight melting and refreezing of 
precipitation is fairly common and can cause hazardous runway conditions. In this area, 
fog is infrequent and visibility is more often restricted by local air pollution. 

Information accompanying the most recent Air Force weather data gathered at the 
O'Hare International Airport indicates that low visibilities are, more often than not, 
associated with southeasterly winds. The source of this reduced visibility is believed to 
be industrial and city smoke. This deduction tends to be confirmed by the climatological 
data stating that fog is infrequent and visibility is much more often restricted by local air 
pollution. Low ceilings are normally associated with northeasterly winds, however, 

- 17 - 



both low ceilings and visibilities do occur simultaneously a great majority of the time. 

The Weather Bureau Climatological Summary indicates that air masses moving 
from the north across Lake Michigan often reach the shore areas an hour or more before 
affecting the western parts of the City. This however, cannot be taken as a positive 
indication that the time lag in air movement would be as great between the O'Hare 
and Midway Airports. It is believed that this time lag effect between these two 
airports will present difficulties only when north and northeast winds previal because 
both airports are about equidistant from the lake shore . No appreciable time lag 
difficulties due to air masses moving across land are anticipated because the regional 
topography does not significantly affect air flow. 

O'HARE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT - GENERAL 

To provide a picture of the seasonable weather variations at the O'Hare location, 
the records of the Department of Air Force, Uniform Summary of Surface Weather 
Observations have been used. The tables of Flying Weather, taken from these records, 
have been used as the source of information and are based upon the following defined 
limitations. "Time Closed" is considered to be with a ceiling less than 500 ft. and/or 
visibility less than one mile. "Instrument Time" is when ceilings range from 500 to 
900 ft. and/or visibility from one to two miles. These records have been kept for the 
period from October 1946 to August 1955. They indicate that the yearly average for 
time closed is 4.3 percent and for instrument time is 1 1 .2 percent. The yearly maximum 
time closed occurs during the month of January with 9 J percent and is followed by 
December with 8.1 percent. The minimum time closed occurs during the months of 
July, August and September and varies from 1 .8 to 1 .5 percent. The yearly maximum 

- 18- 



time when instrument conditions prevail occurs during the month of December with 
17.3 percent. This is followed by January and February with 15.4 and 15.8 percent 
respectively. As is to be expected, the months of July, August and September present 
the minimum amount of instrument time with 6.7, 5.7 and 6.2 percent respectively. 
It should be noted, however, that the ceiling and visibility limitations, as defined in 
the Department of Air Force tables, are not comparable to the limitations used in the 
analysis of Instrument Flight Rule periods which shall be referred to in this chapter. 

Studies have been made of the wind and weather coverages given by the primary 
runway directions at the Chicago-O'Hare International Airport. These runway directions 
are given by the azimuth readings of 9-27, 14-32 and 2-20. It should be noted that 
the runway azimuth of 2-20 at the O'Hare Airport, as originally master planned, will 
give the same wind and weather coverages, within hundredths of a percent, as are shown 
for runway 2-20 of this master plan because actual angle of divergence between these 
two runways, as used for master planning purposes, is only about five degrees. Only those 
runways and combinations of runways at the Midway Airport, which are comparable to the 
runways at the O'Hare Airport were analyzed for this report. 

GENERAL RUNWAY WIND COVERAGE ANALYSIS 

Because Federal participation in the cost of runway development and construction 
is sometirrles determined by the percentage of 15 miles per hour wind compontent coverages 
given by runways, an analysis of the International Airport system under these conditions 
was made. This analysis indicates that the coverages of 15 miles per hour winds at O'Hare 
International Airport range from 86.57 to 88.35 percent and are far below the 95 percent 
usually required for Federal participation. For comparative purposes, an analysis of the 
winds which previal at Midway Airport was also made using the O'Hare Airport runway 

- 19- 



directions. These coverages ranged from 91 .10 to 92.02 percent. The increased 
coverages of the winds at Midway Airport shown by this analysis, and also in other 
analyses, is probably due to the fact that the mean average wind speed at the Midway 
Airport location is about 10 miles per hour while, at the O'Hare Airport location, 
the mean average wind speed is about 10.9 miles per hour. 

All other analyses of wind and weather coverages that have been used for 
studies of the runway development plans at the O'Hare International Airport, and for 
runway wind coverages, are based upon the coverage of cross wind components of 20 
knots. The coverage of 20 knot winds provides a realistic evaluation of the runway 
systems because all present day aircraft are certified to operate in cross winds in excess 
of 20 knots and because Commercial Airline operating limits are also in excess of the 
20 knot cross wind components. While it is true that the new swept wing jet aircraft, 
now coming into operation, are more susceptible to cross winds than present aircraft, 
it is believed that they also will be able to operate in cross wind components of 20 
knots without difficulty. 

The information used in the analyses of the Wind Rose for the O'Hare Airport was 
taken from the records of the Department of the Air Force, Air Weather Service. The 
data from which the Wind Roses were developed is taken from the records of "Percentage 
Frequency of Occurrence Direction by Speed Groups" for Surface Winds for the years 
1947 through 1955. It should be noted that a mathematical balance was applied to the 
percentage of frequency of speed groups to obtain a hundred percent balance of all 
speed groups. The Wind Rose for Midway Airport was developed from the Department of 
Commerce, Weather Bureau records for the years 1952 through 1956. All records and 
percentages of coverage taken from the Wind Roses included within this report are for 



- 20 - 



surface winds which prevail during all conditions of ceiling and visibilities. 

An overall inspection of the Wind Roses for all months of the year at both 
the O'Hare International Airport and Midway Airport provides an indication of the 
nature of the winds in the Chicago area. While individual runway coverages at 
Midway Airport are greater than at the O'Hare Airport, due mainly to a lower mean 
average wind speed at Midway Airport, the ratio of directional wind coverage at both 
airports is similar. At both airports, the greatest percentage of coverage is given by 
the east-west direction. However, at O'Hare, the Northeast-Southwest direction gives 
a better coverage than does the Northwest-Southeast direction, while at Midway, 
the reverse is true, although the difference in percentages of coverage is negligible. 
This data tends to confirm Weather Bureau information stating that the prevailing winds 
at the Midway Airport are predominantly South-Southwest, but are quite variable and 
indicates that this statement also applies to the O'Hare location. 

A breakdown of the surface winds at O'Hare International for the winter months 
of December, January and February reveals, by percentages of coverage, that these 
winds prevail through all the western quadrants, but are slightly greater from due west. 
A similar breakdown of summer winds, prevailing through the months of June, July and 
August, reveals the fact that these winds prevail predominatly from the South- 
Southwest. These summer winds are critical for aircraft operations because of their 
accompanying higher temperatures and humidity. The mean temperatures for these three 
months are 68.2 degrees, 73.0 degrees and 71 .3 degrees, while the maximum average 
temperatures are 78.5 degrees, 83.4 degrees and 81 .4 degrees respectively. Any shift 
in the summer winds to Northwest or Northeast is usually accompanied by cooler air. 

- 21 - 



In addition to the studies on surface winds, studies and analyses have also 
been made of the winds that previal during conditions when ceilings and visibilities 
limit aircraft operations. This data is presented so that Instrument Flight Rule 
conditions can be analyzed and it is shown in the Weather Rose Exhibits. The weather 
data used in the analysis of the O'Hare International Airport Weather Rose was taken 
from the records of the Air Force Weather Station, located at the O'Hare Airport, for 
the years January 1955 through December 1957. The Weather Rose for the O'Hare 
Airport is based upon the 20 knot wind component coverages during conditions when 
ceilings of 600 ft. or less and/or visibilities of two miles or less are prevalent. These 
limitations are believed to represent the most realistic Instrument Flight operation 
conditions. The data presented in the Midway Airport Weather Rose was taken from the 
records of the Weather Bureau for the years January 1935 through December 1941 and 
January 1948 through December 1950. The Weather Rose for Midway is based upon a 
600 ft. ceiling and one mile visibility because the Weather Bureau records have been 
kept in such a manner that an analysis of a 600 ft. ceiling and a two mile visibility 
could not be prepared. Again, the Midway data is presented for comparative purposes 
and shows only those runway combinations which are comparable to O'Hare International 
Airport. 

A review of the Weather Roses for International and Midway, even though they 
are based upon different limitations, indicates that there is a considerable difference 
in runway coverages. This apparently is due to the close location of smoke sources to 
the Midway Airport. It is also revealed, by the coverage tabulations, that an almost 
complete reversal of order of runway coverages at O'Hare is experienced at Midway. 
This again, is presumed to be due to the location of air pollution sources affecting these 



- 22 - 



two airports. It is presumed, although no supporting data is available, that there will 
be time variations between the lowering of visibilities at the O'Hare Airport and 
Midway Airport. Therefore, very close coordination of flight control should be 
exercised if O'Hare International and Midway operate simultaneously under heavy 
aircraft volumes. 

CHICAGO-O'HARE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT WIND COVERAGE 

A detailed analysis of the Wind Roses for the Chicago-O'Hare International 
Airport provides the following information which has been given weighted value in the 
ultimate runway system design. Runway 9-27 gives a coverage of 97.81 percent of the 
20 knot cross wind components for the all weather-winds. Following, in order of 
coverage, is runway 2-20 with 96.97 percent and runway 14-32 with 96.59 percent 
coverage. It should be noted that the difference in coverage of these latter two 
runways is of no serious consequence. By combination of runways, the best 20 knot 
component coverage is given by runways. 9-27 and 2-20. This combination coverage is 
99.91 percent. As might be expected, the combination of runways 9-27 and 34-32 
give the second best coverage with 99.15 percent. 

A review of the O'Hare Field Wind Rose for the months of December, January 
and February indicates that runway 9-27 gives the best coverage with 95.44 percent 
and is followed closely by runway 2-20 with 95.14 percent. During the hot summer 
months runway 2-20 gives the best coverage, by far, with 91 .24 percent, while 
runways 9-27 and 14-32 provide only 85.91 and 85.23 percent coverage of 20 knot 
wind components . Again, the combination of runways 9-27 and 2-20 gives the best 
coverage for two runways by giving 3.97 percent more coverage than runways 9-27 
and 14-32. 

-23- 



CHICAGOO'HARE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT WEATHER COVERAGE 

A detailed analysis of the Weather Rose for the O'Hare International Airport 
also provides information which has been used in the ultimate runway design. St should 
be noted that IFR conditions prevail for 10,78 percent of the time on a yearly basis. 
As stated on the Weather Rose Exhibit, SFR conditions are assumed to prevail during 
those hours when the airport ceiling is 600 ft. or less and/or the visibility is two miles 
or less. Inspection of this Weather Rose reveals that fact that runway 14-32 provides the 
best wind coverage with 99,11 percent and is closely followed by runways 2-20 and 9-27 
The maximum difference in coverage given by the three single runways is only 0.33 
percent. In combination, runways 14-32 and 2-20 give the best coverage of IFR winds. 
However, the difference in coverage given by any combination of two runways is so small 
that it is negligible, 

CHICAGOO'HARE AIRPORT RUNWAY ANALYSIS BASED ON METEOROLOGY 

In summary, runway 9-27 gives the best coverage of "all weather" surface winds 
and, while it gives third best coverage of IFR winds on a yearly distribution, it does 
give the best coverage of "all weather" winds during the winter months of December, 
January and February when IFR conditions are expected to be most prevalent. Runway 
9-27 should, therefore, be considered the primary runway from the meteorological stand- 
point. Runway 2-20 gives the second best coverage of the "all weather" and IFR winds 
based upon a yearly distribution of these winds. In addition, runway 2-20 gives, by far, 
the best coverage of the "all weather" winds during the summer months of June, July 
and August when very high temperatures are prevalent. It has been indicated in the Civil 
Aeronautics Administration, now the Federal Aviation Agency, Jet Age Planning Report 
No, 2 that jet and turbo-prop engines are more seriously affected by increases in 
temperature than are piston engines and the turbo-prop engines are most seriously 

affected. This fact has been taken into account in the runway requirements specified 

-24- 



by the Federal Aviation Agency special regulation S.R. 422. When compared with 
past performance standards, S.R, 422, generally, more severely limits the take-off 
weight and runway length on high altitude airports at high temperatures. The 
importance of runway 2-20 is, therefore, obvious and this runway should be considered 
as a primary runway, based upon the meteorological data, since it covers the hot 
summer winds. Full consideration should be given to its design length so that take-off 
weights will not have to be reduced substantially with increased temperatures. The 
importance of runway 14-32 in the O'Hare Airport runway layout should not, however, 
be underestimated. As previously stated, this is a region of frequent changing weather 
and the winds constantly shift from southerly directions through the west to northerly 
directions. It is, therefore, runway 14-32 which provides the wind coverage during these 
wind shifts and gives almost 100 percent coverage of all winds when used in conjunction 
with the other two runways. 

Giving full weight to the analysis of the meteorological data presented within this 
chapter, the following, by order or presentation, would be the preferential runway system al 
Chicago-O'Hare International Airports 

No. 1 - Runway 9-27. Due to its overall "all weather" and its winter time 

IFR wind coverages. 

No. 2 - Runway 2-20. Due to its coverage of winds during the high temperature 

summer months. 

No. 3 - Runway 14-32. Due to its coverage of the frequent shifting winds. 

It should, however, be strongly emphasized that many elements, other than 

meteorology, have affected the ultimate layout and design of the runway system at the 

O'Hare International Airport. All of these elements, such as air traffic routes, the use 

of the runway system at Midway Airport, terminal area layout at the O'Hare Airport, 

obstructions and topography and land use at this airport will be discussed, as they have 

affected the runway system Master Plan, in subsequent chapters of this report. 

-25 - 



WIND ROSE 



O HARE FIELD 
STATION -PARK RIDGE ILLINOIS - O'HARE FIELD 

PERIOD COVERS 
OCT. 1946 - AUG. 1955 




15 MPH COVERAGE 
20 KNOT COVERAGE 



WIND COVERAGE TABULATIONS 



RUNWAY 
DIAGRAM 



RUNWAY OR 
COMBINATION 



14 - 32 



9 - 27 



2- 20 



14 - 32 
9 - 27 



2 - 20 
14- 32, 



9- 27 
2 - 20 



9- 27 
14 - 32 
2 - 20 



15 MPH COVERAGE 



% COV. 



% NOT COV 



86.57 



88 35 



88 22 



94 68 



9592 



98.27 



99 56 



13.43 



11.65 



II. 78 



5.32 



4.08 



1.73 



0.44 



20 KTS COVERAGE 



% COV. 



95 59 



97 81 



96 97 



99 15 



98 99 



99 91 



99.98 



% NOT COV. 



3.41 



2 19 



3 03 



0.85 



I .01 



0.09 



0.02 



EXHIBIT - II 



LANDRUM a BROWN 
CINCINNATI , OHIO 



PAGE NO. 26 



WIND ROSE 



O'HARE FIELD 

STATION - PARK RIDGE ILLINOIS - O'HARE FIELD 

PERIOD COVERS DECEMBER, JANUARY 8 FEBRUARY 
FROM DEC. 1946 THRU FEB. 1955 




WIND COVERAGE TABULATIONS 



RUNWAY 
I DIAGRAM 



RUNWAY OR 
COMPINATION 



A -32 



2-20 



9-27 14-32 



14-32 2-20 



9-27 2-20 



3-27 14-32 
2-20 



20 KTS COVERAGE 



% COV 



94.73 



95 44 



9514 



98 98 



99.04 



99.64 



99 99 



%NOT COV 



4 56 



5.27 



4.86 



1.02 



0.36 



96 



0.01 



EXHIBIT -III 



ILANOHUM S BROWN 
CINCINNATI, OHIO 



PAGE NO. 27 



WIND ROSE 



O'HARE FIELD 

STATION - PARK RIDGE ILLINOIS - O'HARE FIELD 

PERIOD COVERS JUNE, JULY a AUGUST 
FROM JUNE 1946 THRU AUG. 1955 




WIND COVERAGE TABULATIONS 



RUNWAY 

DIAGRAM 



RUNWAY OR 
COMBINATION 



14-32 



9-27 



2-20 



9-27 
14-32 



14-32 
2-20 



9-27 
2 -20 



9-27 
14-32 
2 -20 



20 KTS COVERAGE 



1' COV. 



85 23 



85 91 



91.24 



95.19 



98.76 



99.16 



99.94 



7. NOT COV. 



14.77 



14.09 



8.76 



4.81 



1.24 



0.84 



0.06 



EXHIBIT- 12 



LANDRUM a BROWN 
CINCINNATI , OHIO 



PAGE NO. 28 



WIND ROSE 

CHICAGO MIDWAY AIRPORT 
PERIOD COVERS 5 YEAR CYCLE 
JAN. 1952- DEC 1956 




WIND COVERAGE TABULATIONS 



RUNWAY 

DIAGRAM 



^X 



X 



V 



RUNWAY OR 
COMBINATION 



13-31 



9-27 



4-22 



13-31 
9-27 



13-31 
4-22 



9-27 
4-22 



13-31 
9-27 
4-22 



20 KNOT COVERAGE 



X COVERED % NOT COV 



98.79 



98.88 



98.52 



99.57 



99.98 



99.61 



100.00 



1.21 



1.12 



1.48 



0.43 



0.02 



0.39 



0.00 



EXHIBIT -2 



LANDRUM a BROWN 
CINCINNATI, OHIO 



PAGE NO. 29 



WEATHER ROSE 

O'HARE FIELD 

INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES 



PERIOD 
JAN. 1955 



COVERS 
DEC. 1957 



NOTE' FIGURES INDICATE PERCENTAGE OF SURFACE WINDS WITH CEILING OF 600 OR LESS AND/ OR 
VISIBILTY OF 2 MILES OR LESS. 




INSTRUMENT WEATHER 
20 KNOT COVERAGE 





RUNWAY 
DIAGRAM 


RUNWAY OR 
COMBINATION 


% OF IFR 

TIME COV. 


X OF IFR 

TIME NOT COV. 




\ 


14-32 


99.11 


0.89 






9-27 


98.78 


1.2 2 






NOTE : 


/ 


2-20 


99.06 


0.94 


1 TOTAL PERCENTAGE OF IFR 
TIME = 10.78 % 

2. TOTAL PERCENTAGE OF VFR 
TIME = 89.22 % 


X- 


14-32 
9-27 


9 9.45 


0.55 


V 


14-32 
2-20 


99.71 


0.29 


/ 


9-27 
2-20 


9 9 63 


027 






\z 


14-32 
2-20 
9-27 


99.99 


0.01 



EXHIBIT -H 



LANDRUM & BROWN 
CINCINNATI, OHIO 



PAGE NO. 30 



WEATHER ROSE 

INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES 
CHICAGO MIDWAY AIRPORT 



CHICAGO WEATHER STATION 
PERIOD COVERS 
JAN. 1935- DEC. 1941 
JAN. 1948 -DEC, 1950 

NOTE' FIGURES INDICATE PERCENTAGE OF SURFACE WINDS WITH CEILING OF 600' OR LESS AND / OR 
VISIBILITY OF I MILE OR LESS. 




INSTRUMENT WEATHER 20 KNOT COVERAGE 



NOTE" 

I. TOTAL PERCENTAGE OF IFR 
TIME = 5.22% 

2. TOTAL PERCENTAGE OF VFR 
TIME = 94.78 % 



RUNWAY 
DIAGRAM 



X 



RUNWAY OR 
COMBINATION 



13-31 



9-27 



4-22 



13-31 
9-27 



13-31 
9-22 



9-27 
4-22 



13-31 
4-27 
4-22 



X OF IFR 
TIME COV. 



96 99 



97 46 



9768 



9906 



99.95 



99.60 



10000 



% OF IFR 
TIME NOT COV. 



3.01 



2.54 



2 32 



0.94 



005 



40 



0.00 



EXHIBIT -Y\\ 



LANDRUM 8 BROWN 
CINCINNATI, OHIO 



PAGE NO. 31 



^ 



i 



CHAPTER IV 
RUNWAY DEVELOPMENT 



< 



I 



CHAPTER IV 

RUNWAY DEVELOPMENT 

Although there had been a Master Plan in existence for the Chi cago-O' Hare 
International Airport, there was an obvious need for revision in view of the greatly 
increased number of air passengers and the expanded vehicular traffic associated with 
this increase, and also in view of the recent introduction of turbo-jet aircraft into 
airline service„ The first of these factors required the enlarging of the terminal 
building, aircraft parking apron, and the parking lot area. The enlargement of these 
areas in turn, suggested a greater separation between the originally planned runways. 
The second factor, the introduction of jet aircraft, required a more obvious revision; the 
lengthening of runways to satisfy the needs of these new aircraft. 

To establish a runway system incorporating the needed revisions, it was essential 
that all of the items necessary to good runway design be considered. The primary con- 
sideration given to an ultimate runway development was the selection of a runway 
system which: ( 1 ) could be developed with a minimum of cost, ( 2 ) would satisfy all 
but the extreme conditions encountered when consideration is given to local meteorological 
conditions, ( 3 ) would permit optimum safety of aircraft operation under conditions of 
maximum air traffic capacity, ( 4 ) would give consideration to air traffic routing with 
relation to other airports, ( 5 ) would minimize the jet noise effect on surrounding 
communities^ and ( 6 ) would minimize the effect of any obstructions surrounding the 
airport. It is needless to say that these items are inseparable in design analysis and, as 
such, will be discussed according to their total effect on the runway system. 

It was known from the outset of this study that a system allowing multiple runway 
operation would be required to serve the air traffic anticipated for Chicago-O'Hare 

-32 - 



VI 



VII 



International Airport, Two basic runway patterns that permit multiple runway operation 
were available for design at the Chicago-O'Hare Airport. These were the tangential 
and parallel runway systems. The original O'Hare Field Master Plan had been designed 
using the pure six runway tangential system with two runways in each of three directions,, 
However, increased runway length requirements for present day and future jet aircraft 
operations required that the pure tangential system be modified so that the runways would 
intersect each other. This intersection point created a hazardous operating condition and 
somewhat reduced the runway system value as related to a pure tangential system. The 
Civil Aeronautics Administration Technical Development Center then prepared a comparative 
evaluation study of the two basic runway systems using simulated aircraft procedures. As a 
basic assumption for this study, the original master planned tangential system was used as 
designed except that runways 14R - 32L and 9R - 27L were extended beyond their original 
planned length. Following this and other assumptions, the Technical Development Center 
Report stated in its Summary, "the converging ( tangential ) system appeared to offer the 
best possibilities for high-capacity operations". The Recommendations of this report also 
stated, "as soon as possible, steps should be taken to determine the conditions under which 
dual simultaneous approaches can be approved by the Office of Flight Operations and 
Airworthiness and accepted by industry" „ 

As the runway system design developed, following the Technical Development 
Center Report, it became increasingly obvious that the basic fundamentals of the tangential 
runway system would be effectively reduced or completely lost. The loss of effectiveness 
of this system was due mainly to the intersecting and crossing of runways near their mid- 
points as was required by the need to increase the original design lengths of the runways 
and also by the need to relocate some runways to provide sufficient area for expansion 

-33- 



within the terminal complex. 

The runway system design then took on the basic features of a parallel runway 
system. At this point there were actual aircraft flight tests run on the simultaneous 
use of parallel runways at the O'Hare Airport. These tests were run under the direction 
of the Air Traffic Supervisor for the Chicago area with the participation of the Airline 
Industry and other interested personnel. The results of these tests were published along 
with pertinent comments and conclusions which tended to substantiate the value of the 
parallel system. Thus the parallel runway system has evolved as the basic system for 
development at the O'Hare International Airport. It should be noted that the runway 
system, as designed, can be used as a partial tangential system as the need arises, 
especially during the early stages of development. The value of the two reports just 
mentioned, does not cease, however, with the selection of the runway system. There 
were many conclusions contained within these reports that have been used in the 
development of the runway system and many that will be of value to an ultimate local 
airport plan. 

The need for a multiple runway system at this airport is clearly demonstrated 
by the number of aircraft movements that it must sustain. Traffic estimates indicate 
that there will be about 1 14 peak hour aircraft movements at this field in 1965. This 
far exceeds the capacity of 40 to 60 movements for a single runway system. The Technical 
Development Center Report indicates that, under the minimum condition and using 
simulation procedures, a parallel runway system is capable of accepting 42 instrument 
arrivals per hour. Assuming 60 take-offs per hour, a reasonable figure, the runway 
system at Chicago- O'Hare International can handle a minimum of 100 movements per 
hour. Using independent aircraft approaches and highspeed turn-offs, it is estimated 

- 34- 



that this system could handle about 120 movements per peak hour under instrument 
conditions. Under ideal weather conditions it is believed that this system would be 
capable of handling in excess of 130 aircraft movements per hour for limited periods. 
However, for planning purposes, 120 movements shall be considered as the upper limit 
because it is during instrument flying weather conditions that air traffic delays are more 
likely to occur. 

Regardless of the runway system chosed for any airport, an ideal situation is 
created, if any two runways, which are to be used simultaneously, can be designed so 
that they are of nearly equal value, thus preventing the creation of a preferential runway 
system. In addition, both runways should be designed to accept jet aircraft. However, 
this can not always be accomplished if land area is not available to develop the runways 
to their required lengths. At the O'Hare Airport, the required runway length, corrected 
for altitude only, is about 1 1 ,000 feet. This correction is based upon the Federal Aviation 
Agency Technical Standard Order runway length of 10,500 feet for an inter-continental 
airport which is the approved classification for the Ghicago-O'Hare International Airport. 
Although the correction factor for runway gradient will vary with the design of each 
individual runway, it is believed that the final corrected runway length for this airport 
will average from 11,200 to 11,300 feet. Runways of these lengths are believed to be 
sufficient for the operation of the longest range present day jet aircraft. However, a 
review of the meteodogical data presented in Chapter III indicates that the prevailing 
winds, at O'Hare Field, during the hot summer months do not always accommodate 
aircraft operations in the directions of the runways which are readily expandable to the 
required lengths. Therefore, it appears to be advisable to extend some runways beyond 
this design length in consideration of possible crosswind operations during extremely hot 

-35- 



( 



and humid weather. The final runway length should, however, be dependent upon layout, 
design and economic considerations. 

It is neither possible nor practical to construct all of the runways at this airport 
to the same length. However, only the longest range jet aircraft require runway lengths 
approximating 1 1,300 feet for take-off operations. Length requirements for landing 
operations and for aircraft flying shorter stage lengths are somewhat less than those 
mentioned. Therefore, a preferential runway system is not necessarily predetermined 
by the construction of shorter runways so long as the runways are capable of handling 
the majority of aircraft operations. 

Having established the type of runway system operation and approximate runway 
lengths, it then becomes necessary to develop each runway to its maximum operating 
capacity by providing sufficient taxiway systems, highspeed turn-offs and hold aprons for 
each runway. As the runway master plan has been developed, each runway is provided 
with independent taxiway access to the runway ends so that there will be no conflict 
between landing aircraft and aircraft taxiing to take-off positions. Each runway has, 
as nearly as possible, direct taxi access to and from the terminal area. Also, each 
runway end has bean provided with a hold apron capable of holding four or more aircraft 
waiting for take-off clearance. As a rtecessity to highspeed jet aircraft operations and 
to increased runway capacities, each runway has been provided with the highspeed 
turn-offs. The location and design of these turn-offs was an individual study in itself 
since each turn-off had to be located so that it could accept as many aircraft as possible 
and, at the same time, give these aircraft direct access to the terminal area without 
creating a conflicting taxiing pattern. 

Since Chicago's O'Hare International Airport is situated in a near ideal location, 
from the standpoint of surrounding land development, it was not difficult to develop a 
runway system which would minimize the effect of existing obstructions on runway usage 

-36- 



and would also minimize the effect of aircraft noise on surrounding communities. However, 
where a conflict did exist between runways and surrounding developments, the runways 
were oriented in such a manner so as to minimize any serious effects. 

Unfortunately, this airport is not quite so ideally located with relationship to 
other airports. The "Airport Vicinity Map", Exhibit I, shows the relatively close location 
of both the Midway Airport and Glenview Naval Air Station to the O'Hare International 
Airport. Due to the close relationship between these three airports and because the basic 
runway directions at Chicago-O'Hare had been established by the original Master Plan, 
and also because the runway directions and operating procedures are firmly established 
at the other two airports, there are definite conflicts in aircraft traffic approach and 
departure routings. These conflicts are pointed out in the previously mentioned 
Technical Development Center Report and have been given full consideration within this 
runway development study. However, these conflicts can only be considered as they 
affect the staging of runway construction because, as just stated, the runway directions 
at the O'Hare Airport had been established by the original Master Plan and could not be 
altered. Therefore, a very close relationship should exist between the City of Chicago 
and the Federal Aviation Agency with regard to air traffic routing so that the capacity to 
handle enroute air traffic at this airport can be increased at the same rate that its 
ground facilities are capable of accepting aircraft. There are also smaller General 
Aviation airfields in the local area which must be given consideration with regard to 
their effect on air traffic safety. Sn particular, the Ravenswood Airport should be phased 
out to prevent a conflict with the O'Hare Airport runway system. 

The meteorology at this airport location, much the same as the air traffic routing, 
will more definitely affect the staging of runway construction than the runway alignment. 

-37- 



It was shown in Chapter III, "Meteorology", that all three runway directions at the 
O'Hare International Airport are important to providing year round coverage of prevailing 
winds. However, when the meteorological data is given weighted consideration, along 
with all of the other factors involved in the layout of the runways, it can be seen that its 
greatest value is to provide assurance that satisfactory wind coverage is given throughout 
each stage of development. 

The point of greatest concern during the development of the Chicago- O'Hare 
International Airport Master Plan was to provide sufficient runway and terminal facilities 
as immediately required by the large jet aircraft being pressed into airline service. Thus, 
the function of construction economics and speed determined the first stage runway develop- 
ment. The economics of design and construction of the airfield was also studied in every 
stage of development thereafter. So long as a runway or taxiway retained a serviceable 
life, it was supplemented with additional facilities or extensions. However, where 
engineering studies indicated that maintenance and repair costs of existing facilities far 
exceeded their value to the Master Planned development, these facilities were replaced 
with new facilities properly designed for safe and efficient use. 

The actual growth of the Chicago-O'Hare International Airport may well be 
compared to the growth of a human being from infancy through youth, into manhood. It 
is because of the complexity of this growth pattern that the entire Master Planned develop- 
ment for this airport has been broken into three stages of growth. These three stages are 
further broken into four Master Plan drawings to define more clearly the phases of construction. 
Since it is a primary function of a Master Plan to dictate only the proper order for development 
of required facilities, no attempt has been made within this report to determine actual 
construction dates. These dates are a function of engineering, architectural and financing 

-38- 



design and the Architects for the City of Chicago have prepared such information, in 
keeping with the Master Planned design for a period which is in the realm of human vision 
at this time. This Master Plan Report does, however, attempt to determine the length of 
the development stages so that the City of Chicago and the Architects are presented a 
planning guide for detailed studies. 

The staging of the growth of aviation at the Chicago-O'Hare International Airport 
and the Master Planned runway development is herein described, 

PRiMARY STAGE DEVELOPMENT 

The Primary Stage Development is considered to be the period through which the 
development will see the introduction of jet aircraft in increasing numbers at the O'Hare 
International Airport,, This stage will cover about five years starting from the time of 
introduction of jet service,, The entire terminal building complex, finger and ramp con- 
figuration, excepting one future finger area and an addition to the existing terminal 
building, will be developed during this period as will be the airline hangar area and 
other supporting facilities. The developments during this stage are indicated in the First 
Stage or "Bond Issue" Master Plan and the Second Stage Master Plan. Since the design 
planning for the Second Stage development will proceed concurrently with the First Stdge 
construction, to be completed in 1962, the runway planning criteria is described as one 
single development stage. 
Primary Stage Development Runways 

First Stage Master Plan - Exhibit VIS! 

Second Stage Master Plan - Exhibit IX 

The principal runway pattern will be northwest-southeast during the early years 
because of the existence of parallel runways in this direction. 

-39- 



( 



I 



Runway 14R - 32L will be the primary jet aircraft runway and will be extended to 
1 1,600 feet for jet aircraft take-off. Runway 14|_ - 32R will provide the parallel 
runway for this direction. The existing runway 14l_ - 32R should be extended to the 
Northwest as far as possible during the later years of this period so that it is capable 
of serving all types of aircraft. Highspeed turn-offs, taxiways and hold aprons should 
be provided for both of these runways. 

Runway 14R - 32L is the existing instrument landing runway with an ILS approach 
from the northwest. It should remain as the primary instrument runway during this Stage, 
especially since it presents a minimum of interference with instrument operations at the 
Midway Airport. It appears that, in the future, simultaneous approaches will be permitted 
to runways 14R and 14l_» Therefore, full consideration should be given to the installation 
of an ILS approach from the northwest to runway 14|_ - 32R and this runway should be 
considered as a future fully instrumented runway following its extension to the northwest. 

The meteorological data, the general terminal building and ramp configuration, 
and the location of the cargo area dictate the construction of runway 9R - 27L as soon 
as funds become available. Also, the present Mannheim Road should be relocated as 
soon as possible so that runway 9R-27L can be constructed to the maximum length possible. 
Because of the importance of this runway in the Chicago-O'Hare system, it should be 
developed to near perfection with instrumentation, hold aprons and high speed turn-offs. 
The existing runway 9C - 27C will serve as a parallel to runway 9R -27L but, because of 
its present condition and location, it should not be extended beyond its present length. 

As an interim measure only, runway 4-22 can be extended to the northeast and 
can be used to cover extreme southwest wind conditions- 



-40 



X 



Because the approach from the south to runway 18 - 36 is in direct conflict with 
the terminal building, parking lot and aircraft ramp area, this runway should be phased 
out immediately and be used as a taxiway only, 

INTERMEDIATE STAGE DEVELOPMENT 



This stage of development will cover the period during which all airline operations 
from O'Hare International Airport will become well established and during which air traffic, 
and the use of jet aircraft, will increase to a near maximum. It is anticipated that this 
stage will last for a period of 10 to 15 years. Air traffic routing and control will develop 
into a serious problem with surrounding airports if early steps are not taken to provide for 
the increased capacity of the O'Hare Airport, The terminal complex will be expanded 
during this period with an addition to the existing terminal building and the cargo area 
will probably require expansion to increase its capacity. 
Intermediate Stage Development Runways 

Third Stage Master Plan - Exhibit X 

Two more major runways should be developed during this period to provide near 
maximum capacity for this airport. The first of these is runway 9|_ - 27R. Those same 
elements of master planning design which dictated the early construction of runway 
9R - 27L, specifically the meteorology and the relationship of the terminal complex to 
the runway system, also combine to cause the east-west direction to become the primary 
direction for aircraft operations. The construction of runway 9|_ - 27R to its maximum 
length with a parallel taxiway system, high speed turn-offs, hold aprons, and instrument 
landing system thus completes the primary operating runway pattern for O'Hare International 
Airport. The construction of this runway also permits the completion of a taxiway system 
that will provide direct taxi access to runway end 14R. It should be pointed out that, 
to make runway 9|_ - 27R a fully operating runway, it is necessary to construct a reversible 

_41 . 



direction taxiway to runway end 27R. This taxiway must bridge the existing airport 
entrance road, but its construction will complete a circular taxiway system which will 
enhance the value of each and every runway used by the airport. 

The major importance of a runway in the northeast-southwest direction to the 
J Hare Airport runway system has been pointed out in the chapter on Meteorology. As 
an interim solution to the problem of jet aircraft take-offs on extremely hot and humid 
days, when the winds are expected to prevail from the southwest, runway 4-22 has been 
shown as extended in the Primary Stage Development. This runway does not, however, 
have sufficient length to serve as a take-off runway for long range inter-continental jet 
aircraft. Therefore, it becomes immediately necessary to construct a new runway 2L - 20R 
to a sufficient length as a provision for hot weather take-off. Since hot weather seriously 
affects the take-off capabilities of large jet aircraft, it is estimated that this runway should 
be about 11,800 feet long. However,, there are many engineering design and vehicular 
circulation problems involved in constructing the runway to this length. |t is possible to 
shorten the required take-off length of this runway by reducing the gross take-off weight 
carried by the long range jet aircraft. This, however, is a penalty inflicted upon the 
airlines, the severity of which can not be accurately determined at this time. Therefore, 
it is recommended that runway 2|_ - 20R be build during this Stage to a length of approx- 
imately 8,400 feet. This length will satisfy all but the heavily loaded long range jet 
aircraft. But, the engineering design of this runway should permit its future extension 
to 1 1 ,800 feet. Hold aprons, high speed turn-offs, and a fully operating taxiway system 
should also be provided. 

-42 - 



ULTIMATE STAGE DEVELOPMENT 

This Stage of development will occur when air traffic at the Chicago-O' Hare 
International Airport reaches its maximum safe peak. It will probably occur when 
instrument flight movements on the runway system reach about 120 movements per peak 
hour. The total yearly movements of all aircraft, except helicopters, during this period 
may approach or be in excess of 500,000 movements per year. This increased number of 
movements over present day limits will be possible through the maximum use of a multiple 
runway system. During this period, the terminal complex will be expanded to its maximum 
with the addition of one finger and ramp area and increased parking facilities, and the cargo 
area will be expanded to its maximum. 
Ultimate Stage Development Runways 

Fourth Stage Master Plan - Exhibit XI 

The east-west runway direction will remain as the primary runway system and 
the northwest-southeast direction will be the secondary system. 

The northeast-southwest runway direction will increase in importance during this 
stage as heavier aircraft of present day configurations are introduced. It will then become 
imperative to assess the true value of the penalty which will be paid in aircraft gross 
weight reductions when take-off operations are made necessary in this direction. If then 
required, runway 2L - 20R should be extended to its full design length of 11,800 feet 
and instrumentation should be provided. 

The addition of runway 2R - 20L to the O'Hare International Airport runway system 
during this stage will be dependent upon many factors, but only actual operating experience 
and the capacity of the existing runway system can determine its value. In keeping with 
good Master Planning design, this runway is shown as an ultimate development because 

- 43 - 



I 



its use can increase the traffic handling capacity of the runway system in the northeast- 
southwest direction. This runway need not be instrumented if runway 2|_ - 20R is 
instrumented from the northeast because the winds in the direction of these runways are 
prevalent during the summer months when instrument flight conditions are at a minimum. 

Because the aircraft of tomorrow and their operating requirements are unknown 
today, except for preliminary discussions of mach two and three air transports, provision 
has been made for extending runway 14R - 32L to a length of 14,000 feet or greater during 
this stage. The ultimate length of this runway, however, can only be determined by the 
requirements of these future aircraft. 

Although the staging of construction of the various elements of the Chicago-O'Hare 
Airport runway system may differ from the sequences just described, because of the numerous 
factors affecting construction, it is firmly believed that the actual design and location of 
the runways, taxiways, high speed turn-offs, and hold aprons are based on sound planning 
criteria and should not be revised materially as construction progresses. All of the Master 
Plan Exhibits referred to in the preceding paragraphs are presented following the written 



material, for ease of reference. 



I 



1 



44- 



CHAPTER V 
TERMINAL COMPLEX DEVELOPMENT 



CHAPTER V 

TERMINAL COMPLEX DEVELOPMENT 

The emphasis of this chapter is placed upon the terminal area land use, 
and its purpose is to provide assurance that sufficient land area will be available within 
the terminal complex to accommodate all anticipated expansion requirements. To be 
more definite, the terminal complex, as considered here, shall include the terminal 
building and aircraft loading concourse, the aircraft loading apron and gate positions 
and the terminal area roadway system and parking lots. It shall also include the 
circulation and parking area requirements for rent-a-car service and taxi and limousine 
service, the service station and other facilities, such as utility plants. 

The original need for a greatly increased area within the terminal complex 
necessitated the increase in the separation distances between the east-west parallel 
runways, and the northeast-southwest parallel runways, as shown on the Master Plan 
Exhibits. This increase in separation distances now permits the full development of the 
terminal complex and sufficient area has been provided for the construction of the 
terminal buildings and aircraft loading gates, and the auto parking areas. Future 
expansion of the terminal complex will proceed in the same stages as followed by the 
runway development so that the two may keep pace with the increasing air traffic at the 
Chicago-O Hare International Airport. 

The Primary Stage of Development, covering a period of about five years, will 
see the construction of two terminal building units with aircraft loading concourses, along 
with all of their supporting facilities. The aircraft loading concourses and apron area 
will provide aircraft gate positions for about 61 domestic aircraft and about 12 overseas 
and international aircraft. Agreement has been reached with all domestic air carriers and 
the gate positions supplied during this period are considered to be sufficient for their 

-45- 



needs. The two terminal buildings and aircraft loading concourses, now in the 
final design stage, have been planned to provide facilities for a period in excess of the 
Primary Stage. The auto parking area has been planned to accept approximately 5,000 
vehicles and special attention has been paid to the design of the airport entrance road 
and parking lot grade separation to assure a smooth flow of traffic within the terminal 
complex. Consideration has also been given to the design of the upper and lower roadways 
in front of the terminal building units to provide assurance that sufficient curb frontage 
for loading and unloading vehicles will be available, and so that there will be a sufficient 
number of lanes for moving traffic. A service area has been set aside for the location 
of a heating plant, a telephone exchange, and for storage of rental cars. A service station 
for public use also is to be constructed during this period. An area has also been set aside 
for the construction of a new air traffic control tower in the vicinity of the terminal 
buildings. 

During the Intermediate Stage of Development, the existing terminal building is to 
be expanded by the addition of a unit terminal and another aircraft loading concourse . 
This expansion will add approximately 10 more aircraft gate positions. At some time during 
this stage, additional auto parking area will be required. This area can readily be supplied 
by the construction of parking decks as required. The basic layout of the parking lot has 
given consideration to this future construction. 

It is anticipated that the terminal buildings, as completed during the earlier stages, 
will fulfill the requirements of the Ultimate Stage when the Chicago-O'Hare International 
Airport reaches its maximum capacity. However, there will necessarily have to be an 
intelligent and more concentrated use of all space available. The maximum number of 
about 93 aircraft loading gates will be supplied with the construction of one aircraft loading 
concourse at the easterly end of the terminal complex. It is believed that this number of 
gates will be sufficient, even under the most severe conditions, when efficient use of all 

-46 - 



available gates is made. Expansion of parking areas will again be accomplished by 
the construction of parking decks, and the capacity of the terminal roadway system 
can be increased by the construction of additional traffic lanes. The terminal service 
building area and the public service station will not require large increases over their 
original design . 

it should be pointed out that only those facilities necessary for the safe and 
efficient operation of the terminal buildings and their related functions should be 
constructed within the terminal complex area. Any unnecessary development in this area 
may hinder future required expansion. 



-47 - 



CHAPTER VI 
COMMERCIAL AVIATION 



I 



CHAPTER VI 

COMMERCIAL AVIATION 

Only the primary needs of Commercial Aviation at Chicago-O'Hare 
International Airport will be met by the construction of landing facilities and terminal 
facilities that provide safe and efficient service for the traveling public. The air 
carriers serving this airport must also have facilities beyond fhose required by the public. 
The airline maintenance hangars and fueling facilities, as well as flight kitchens, all 
of which are necessary to flight operations, have been given full consideration in this 
Master Plan. Other facilities must also be made available for the transportation of mail 
and cargo by air carriers. 

HELICOPTER 

Provision must be made for the ever increasing use of helicopters by the 
traveling public. Since the helicopter does not require all of the airfield facilities and 
traffic routing procedures necessary for other types of commercial aircraft, it has been 
treated with special emphasis. Because of the hovering capability of this type of aircraft, 
it can land or take-off from a pad of only 150 feet in diameter and can approach to or 
depart from its landing area along a relatively narrow corridor. For this reason, the 
helicopter landing areas have been located at the outer edge of the terminal area 
taxiways in the vicinity of the main terminal buildings. The approach to or departure from 
these areas can be made without crossing over the heavily populated terminal complex area. 
Properly selected traffic routing will prevent any serious conflict with the operating 
runways. The helicopter landing pads, as shown located on the Master Plan Exhibits, are 
provided with direct taxi routes to the terminal gate positions for the convenience of 
loading and unloading helicopter passengers. 

-48 - 



AIRLINE MAINTENANCE 

An area has been provided in the First Stage Master Plan for airline hangars 
and maintenance. This airline maintenance area has been designed with the close 
cooperation of the airlines who will serve the Chicago-O'Hare International Airport, 
and provides sufficient hangar area to meet the expressed needs of these airlines. A 
two-way taxiway system, with direct access to the terminal area, has been provided in 
the later stages of development of this area. A service road which gives each hangar lot 
direct access to the terminal area has also been provided. This hangar area can be 
extended in the Ultimate Stage Development, if required. 

FUELING FACILITIES 

To provide the airlines with a source of aviation fuel sufficient to meet their 
demands, a very complete study, made with the cooperation of all airlines, was .prepared . 
It was obvious from the beginning of these studies, that a bulk storage area for fuels 
would be required. This area has been located adjacent to a railroad delivery point, and 
provision also has been made for the delivery of fuel by pipeline. Service roads are 
provided so that truck delivery to the storage area and between this area and the terminal 
can be made easily. Engineering studies and designs made by fueling consultants, also 
with the cooperation of the airlines, provide for the safe and efficient transfer of fuel 
from the storage area to the terminal gate positions. Fuel transfer areas and truck fill 
stands have been located in areas adjacent to the terminal complex for airlines requiring 
these services. 

AIR MAIL - AIR CARGO - FLIGHT KITCHENS 

The transfer of mail and cargo by air ar^ additional services, performed by 
commercial airlines and cargo air carriers, that require ground facilities. Although the 

-49- 



area requirements for the air mail facilities have been given to the architect by the 
Post Office Department, it is necessary to establish these facilities in a convenient 
location. The location selected for this facility provides direct truck access to the 
terminal area and to the cargo area for the delivery of mail to and from aircraft. Direct 
access between this area and the major roads leading to the airport has been provided 
and sufficient area is available for future expansion. Aircraft parking apron is not 
required for this service „ 

Since the need for direct access to the terminal area and to the major roads 
leading to the airport is also necessary to the efficient operation of the cargo area and 
the flight kitchen area, these facilities have been established in the general area of the 
air mail facility. The building and land area requirements for these facilities were 
determined by consultation with the primary users. Projections of the ultimate volumes 
to be handled by these facilities, shown in Chapter SI, have been used to determine that 
sufficient land area will be available for the ultimate expansion of these facilities. Both 
the air cargo and flight kitchen facilities, have been designed to make them readily 
expandable as additional area is required. The air cargo area, in particular, can be 
doubled in size by developing the area adjacent to the proposed runway 2R-20L. This 
development is shown on the Ultimate Stage Area Development Plan, Exhibit XIII. 

All of the facilities reviewed in this chapter and their area requirements have 
been indicated on the Second and Ultimate Stage Area Development Plans, Exhibits XII 
and XIII at the end of this report. To indicate the total area available for the ultimate 
expansion of these facilities, a tabulation of land use acreages is shown in the chapter on 
"Land Use". This tabulation shows the acreage available for the ultimate expansion of 
these facilities as compared to their total area during the Primary Stage of Development. 

- 50 - 



CHAPTER VI! 
GENERAL AVIATION 



CHAPTER VII 

GENERAL AVIATION 

Because of the importance of the Chicago-O'Hare International Airport in 
the Chicago area, it is inevitable that a certain amount of general aviation activity 
will take place at this airport. This activity normally includes business flying, 
pleasure flying and instructional flying. In general, there is no serious conflict 
between the general aviation and commercial aviation activities when neither of these 
activities is excessive. This was the case at the O'Hare Airport in the past. However, 
the situation is gradually becoming more serious as commercial aviation activities 
increase. A definite conflict will arise between the small general aviation aircraft 
and the larger and faster commercial aircraft attempting to use the same runway system, 
especially during instrument flight conditions and when peak hour air traffic movements 
approach maximum safe capacity. 

St should be noted in Chapter IB, Table V, "General Aviation Operations" that 
no increase in the number of annual general aviation aircraft operations is indicated 
for the ultimate period over the year 1965. It has also been assumed in this chapter that 
military operations will have been removed from this field by the ultimate period . St 
is believed that these future steps will be necessary so that the Chi cago-O 'Hare 
International Airport can be developed to its fullest extent for commercial aviation. 

Although the unlimited growth of general aviation at the Chi cago-O "Hare Airport 

should be regulated, this type of activity will remain an important asset to aviation and 

facilities should be provided for it. St is believed that, as commercial aviation grows, 

the regulation of general aviation activities should proceed by eliminating non-essential 

flying such as pleasure and instructional flying. Therefore, the facilities to be provided 

for general aviation in the future, should be designed for executive and business aviation 

uses primarily. 

- 51 - 



It will be necessary to remove the existing general aviation facilities from 
their present location as plans progress for the expansion of the existing terminal 
building . Since it is estimated that the area requirements for these facilities will 
increase to approximately 40 to 50 acres, it is necessary to provide a new location of 
sufficient size to permit future expansion. A tract of land of this size is immediately 
available in the Airline Hangar area as shown on the Area Development Plans. Taxiways 
and vehicular access to the terminal area are also available. This tract of land can be 
extended in the Ultimate Stdge of Development by relocating or bridging the existing 
drainage canal. The possibility that unused hangar lots may be developed in the future 
for general aviation purposes also exists. 



- 52 - 



CHAPTER VIII 
LAND USE 



CHAPTER VIII 

LAND USE 

Although the major portion of the airport property is used by the airfield, 
the terminal complex, the airline maintenance area, the air cargo, air mail 
and flight kitchen area and the general aviation area, there is much remaining 
land of which effective utilization should be made. Since any development within 
the airport boundary should adhere to the strictest zoning principles for the 
promotion of safety, it is necessary to base the total land utilization upon the 
Ultimate Stage Master Plan. In this way, assurance is provided against developing 
certain areas which may ultimately conflict with the safe use of the runway system. 
There are land uses, however, that can take advantage of areas available 
during the early stages of runway development. The Area Development Plans, 
Exhibit XII and Exhibit XIII, based upon the Ultimate Stage Master Plan, are 
presented at the end of this report to indicate necessary and possible types of land 
utilization. 
Airfield Areas 

Exhibit XIII indicates the total airfield area that must be used for the 
protection of the ultimate runway system and approach clear zones. All of this 
area will not be necessary during earlier stages of development but it must be 
reserved for future airfield use as shown on Exhibit XII . Temporary uses, such as 
farming, can utilize these reserved areas during the early stages of development. 
Terminal Complex 

This land use includes all of the area required for the terminal buildings, 
fingers, auto parking area, aircraft parking ramps and maintenance and equipment 



-53 - 



building areas. As indicated on Exhibit XII, a portion of the ultimate terminal 
complex area must be reserved for future construction. Also, an area which can 
be used for general aviation purposes during the second stage development must 
ultimately be vacated for terminal finger construction. 
Airline Maintenance 

The airline maintenance area has been sub-divided into lots of suitable 
size for airline occupancy and many lots are leased or have been requested. The 
area development plan for the second stage, Exhibit XI!, indicates an area adjacent 
to the airline maintenance which has been reserved for future development. This 
area is shown developed as additional maintenance area in Exhibit XIII if long range 
requirements dictate the need. 
Air Cargo 

The area development plan for the second stage, Exhibit XII, indicates the 
area immediately required for air cargo buildings aircraft parking aprons and auto 
parking lots. However, it is believed that a considerably greater area will be required 
for the full development of cargo facilities. Therefore, certain areas, indicated as 
being reserved for future development in Exhibit XII, have been shown as completely 
developed air cargo areas in the ultimate master plan Exhibit XIII. 
Post Office 

Close cooperation with U. S. Government Post Office authorities has 
permitted the selection of a site for this function which is of proper size and location 
to meet all of the necessary requirements determined by this Federal Agency. 
Flight Kitchens 

The area reserved for this function, as shown on Exhibits XII and XIII, is 

-54- 



believed to be sufficient to serve the ultimate space requirements for the 
preparation of plane meals. 
General Aviation 

There is an area, shown in Exhibit XII, adjacent to the existing terminal 
building that is presently being used for general aviation purposes. However, this 
area must be relocated in the future to provide space for additional terminal building 
requirements. The ultimate relocation of this general aviation function and the need 
to provide additional space in the future has necessitated the selection of a general 
aviation area adjacent to the airline maintenance area. This area can be expanded in 
the ultimate stage to provide for limited general aviation activities. 
Fuel Storage 

The area required for this function during the early stages of development can 
be greatly expanded, as shown in Exhibit XIII, to provide for the ultimate needs. 
Industry or Agriculture 

There is a considerable expanse of land along the southwestern and western 
boundary of the airport that can be used for industrial or agricultural purposes. A 
mainline railroad runs along the entire western boundary and makes this section of 
the airport valuable as industrial sites. Many industries, such as aviation industries 
and manufacturers of heavy industrial equipment require railroad delivery of 
materials and also receive and ship materials by air. For industries such as these, 
a location within the airport boundary and adjacent to rail delivery points would be 
ideally situated. There is also land suitable for development by lighter industries 
that use air freight services available within this area . 

-55- 



This same area can be used for agricultural purposes. Many income- 
producing crops can be grown in areas not suitable for industrial development. 
Agriculture can also be used as a buffer between non-conforming developments in 
this section . 
Other Areas 

There are many areas within the airport boundary for which no specific use 
has been recommended. Many of these areas have good highway access and can be 
used for commercial or recreational purposes. Others lie within the airfield limits 
and should never be put to use for purposes not directly related to aviation safety. 
Areas Reserved for Futu re Developments 

Exhibit XII, the area development plan for the second stage, shows many areas 
that are reserved for future developments. The future uses of these areas have been 
mentioned and are shown in Exhibit XSII . It also has been noted that many of these 
areas can be used for agricultural purposes on for other temporary developments such as 
recreational areas. 
Clear Zone and Property Require ments 

Exhibits XII and XI S I indicate areas over which additional property rights will 
be required. Both of these Exhibits show the same areas to emphasize the fact that 
the acquisition of the required property rights and zoning restrictions may proceed over 
a period of years with the only necessity being that the proper clear zone and property 
restrictions be enforced when required by runway construction. 



- 56 - 



To indicate the development of all usable land at Chicago-O'Hare 
International Airport, the following tabulation of land use acreage is presented. 

This tabulation shows the area development during the Primary Stage of development 

as taken from the Second Stage Master Plan, Exhibit XII, and the ultimate area 

development as taken from the Ultimate Stage Master Plan and as shown in Exhibit 

XIII. 



- 57 - 



AREA DEVELOPMENT 



CHICAGO-O'HARE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT 



Land Use 



Airfield 

Terminal Complex 
Airline Maintenance 
Air Cargo 
Post Office 
Flight Kitchen 
General Aviation 
Fuel Storage 
Industry or Agriculture 
Others 

Reserved for Future Development 
Total Acreage ( Approximate ) 
Clear Zones and Zoning Protection 
Total Ultimate Acreage ( Approximate ) 
* includes 24 acres required for clear zone protection for runway 4 - 22 in the Primary 
'. Stage only. 



Primary 


Ultimate 


Stage 


Stage 


Acreage 


Acreage 


2,170 


2,855 


400 


480 


210 


285 


47 


188 


4 


4 


9 


9 


40 


52 


26 


72 


990 


990 


975 


1,105 


1,170 





6,040 


6,040 


267 


267* 


6,307 


6,307 



-58- 



CHAPTER IX 
FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 



CHAPTER IX 

FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

GENERAL 

Finding: The original Master Plan for the Chicago-O'Hare International 

Airport did not provide sufficient facilities for handling the 
recently introduced large turbo-jet aircraft or the greatly increased 
air passenger traffic. 
Recommendation: ( a ) The City of Chicago has taken the first sfeps to make 

this airport one of the finest jet age air terminals in the 
country by initiating terminal building and airfield 
construction and by preparing Master Plan studies. It is 
recommended, therefore, that this master plan be adhered 
to as closely as possible and that continuing construction 
programs be prepared until the ultimate goal is attained. 
Finding: There are several major airports and some smaller airports in the Chicago 

Area that have overlapping aviation responsibilities. 
Recommendations: ( a ) To assure itself that the Chicago-O'Hare International 

Airport and aH other airports in the area can be developed 
to their maximum capacity, the City of Chicago should 
prepare a study of all airports to determine that all 
conflicts of responsibility are eliminated. The Federal 
Aviation Agency should be called upon to determine air 
traffic procedures which will benefit all local airports. 
( b ) The Ravenswood general aviation airport, located within 
the approach to runway 14L at the O'Hare Airport, should 
- 59- 



be phased out of use to prevent conflict with this 
major jet aircraft runway. 
Finding: The rapid technological advances in aircraft design, air traffic 

control and air passenger handling will provide many new types of 
equipment, facilities, and procedures for airport use in the future. 
Recommendations: ( a ) To maintain its position as a leading jet age airport, 

Chicago-O'Hare International should be provided with 
the most modern advances of technology in these fields. 
( b ) The City of Chicago should constantly review this Master 
Plan and all detailed planning to assure conformity with 
technological advances. 

TRAFFIC 

Finding: Estimates of future traffic of all types anticipated to serve this airport 

indicate a large growth potential. 
Recommendations: ( a ) All means available to the City of Chicago should be used 

to exploit this potential. 
( b ) Constant observations of the actual growth of all types of 
traffic should be made to provide assurance that the traffic 
estimates presented in Chapter II of this report are in 
keeping with the actual growth pattern. 

METEOROLOGY 

Finding: At the Chicago-O'Hare Airport location, the all-weather winds and 

the winds that previal during instrument flying conditions are-quite 
variable over a yearly period. 

-60 - 



Recommendation ; ( a ) A three direction runway system should be developed 

at this airport and provision should be made for possible 
weather instrumentation in all three directions. 
Finding : The coverage of 15 m.p.h. winds by each of the three runway 

directions gives considerable less coverage than the 95% coverage 
sometimes required for Federal participation. 
Recommendation : ( a ) Base the practical analysis of runway design upon a 20 

knot ( 23 m.p.h. ) wind coverage. This coverage is within 
the safe design limits for cross wind operations of present 
day aircraft. 
Finding: Meteorological data should not be used alone as the final determinant 

for runway development. However, it should be given full considerations 
for design purposes. 
Recommendation: ( a ) Give full consideration to the following rating of. runways, 

based upon wind and weather coverages, but combine this 
rating with all other considerations for the ultimate develop- 
ment planning: 
Preference No. 1 - Runway 9-27. Due to its 

"all weather" and winter time 
IFR wind coverages 
Preference No. 2 - Runway 2-20. Due to its 

coverage of winds during the 
high temperature summer months 
Preference No. 3 - Runway 14-32. Due to its 

coverage of the frequent shifting 

winds. 
-61 - 



RUNWAY DEVELOPMENT 

Finding: The ultimate runway system designed for the Chicago-O'Hare 

International Airport must be evolved through a series of development 
stages. Each stage, in itself, must be developed with consideration 
to its meteorological, engineering design, construction timing, and 
economic requirements and must progress toward an ultimate goal. 
R e commen da ti on s : ( a ) During the Primary Stage of Development, runway 14R-321 

should be extended to 1 1 ,600 feet for jet aircraft take-off 
and runway 14L-32R should be extended as far as possible 
within the airport boundary to provide a parallel runway 
system. Runway 9R-27L should be constructed to its 
maximum length as soon as possible. As an interim measure 
only, runway 4-22 can be extended to the northeast, but 
runway 18-36 should be phased out immediately. Runway 
14R-32L should remain as the instrument runway, and 
provisions should be made for the instrumentation of runway 
9R-27L. 
( b ) During the Intermediate Stage of Development, runway 
9L-27R should be developed to its maximum length. Its 
construction will provide additional area within the 
terminal complex. The east-west direction will then 
become the primary operating direction. Runway 2L-20R 
should also be constructed to provide sufficient runway length 
for hot weather take-off for the large jet aircraft. 

-62 - 



( c ) Runway 14R-32L can be extended, during the Ultimate 
Stage, to length of 14,000 feet or greater if required by 
future aircraft types and runway 2L-20R should be 
extended to its full design length if the economics of 
maximum gross weight take-off dictates this requirement. 
Runway 2R-20L should also be constructed during this stage 
when the need is justified by the number of aircraft 
operations in the northeast-southwest direction. 
Finding: The runway system designed for the O'Hare International Airport has 

the capacity to operate as a partial tangential runway system if desired, 
especially during the early stages of development, and as a parallel 
system with independent runways. 
Recommendation:: ( a ) Provision should be made for the future instrumentation of 

all runways except runway 2R-20L for use as parallel 
operating runways. 
Finding: The runways, taxiways, highspeed turn-offs, and hold aprons designed 

for this airport, during each stage of construction, are based upon sound 
planning with the benefit of the most recent technological advances in 
airport design and it is believed that they will promote safe and 
efficient flying for all types of aircraft during all kinds of weather 
for the full length of life of the Chicago-O'Hare International Airport. 



-63- 



Recommendation: ( a ) The design of the runway system shown in this report 

should be closely followed throughout all of the stages of 
development. 

TERMINAL COMPLEX 

Finding: A large area is required for the total development of the terminal 

complex . 
Recommenda ti ons: ( a ) The present runway 9C-27C should be relocated to the 

north, as shown on the Master Plan Exhibits, to provide 
the required area . 
( b ) No facility which is not necessary for the safe or 

efficient operation of the terminal buildings and their 
related functions should be constructed within the terminal 
complex area . 

COMMERCIAL AVIATION 

Finding: The rapidly increasing use of helicopter service by the traveling public 

has made it necessary to provide facilities for this type of aircraft. 

Recommendation: ( a ) Provide helicopter landing areas near the terminal gate 

positions so that these aircraft can arrive and depart 
without conflicting with the runway system in use and so 
that the helicopter passengers can be transported directly 
to the terminal building. 



-64- 



GENERAL AVIATION 



Finding: 



Recommendations: 



It is essential that this airport provide facilities for general aviation , 
however, a great increase in the use of the airport by general aviation 
aircraft will create a conflict with commercial aviation activities. 
( a ) Restrict general aviation activities to business and 
executive flying and reduce pleasure flying to a 
minimum. 
(b) If at all possible, remove all military aircraft activity 

from the airport. 
( c ) Relocate the present general aviation facilities to an area 
which is conveniently located for access to the terminal 
buildings. 



LAND USE 

Finding: There are many acres of land within the airport boundary, not used 

directly for aviation purposes, that can be effectively used. 
Recommendations: ( a ) Any secondary use of land should adhere strictly to the 

aviation zoning requirements for the ultimate development 
of the airport. 
( b ) There is considerable acreage located adjacent to a 

railroad mainline which can be used for industrial lots. 



-65- 



( c ) The use of land for farming purposes can create a buffer 
zone between nonconforming developments. Crops can 
also be grown in areas which ultimately will be used for 
aviation developments. 
Finding: Area and space assignments are subject to rapidly varying requirements 

depending upon individual needs. 
Recommendation: ( a ) This master plan should be constantly reviewd so that area 

allocations can be adjusted according to need without 
interferring with future developments. 



-66 - 



EXHIBITS 

VIII First Stage Master Plan 

IX Second Stage Master Plan 

X Third Stage Master Plan 

XI Fourth Stage Master Plan 

XII Area Development Plan - Second Stage 

XIII Area Development Plan - Ultimate Stage 




PAGE NO 67 



LEGEND 

\ 1 PROPOSEO SECOND STAGE CONSTRUCTION 

I 1 PHASE OUT 

I 1 BUILDING LINES AND CLEAR ZONES 

1 1 AIRPORT PROPERTY LINE 

GRAPHIC SCALE 





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CHICAGO O HARE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT 

EXHIBIT XII 

AREA DEVELOPEMENT PLAN 
SECOND STAGE MASTER PLAN 

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CITY OF CHICAGO 

RICHARD J DALEY HAYOR 



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EXHIBIT XIII 

AREA DEVELOPEMENT PLAN 

FOURTH STAGE MASTER PLAN 

(ULTIMATE DEVELOPEMENT) 



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CITY OF CHICAGO