Skip to main content

Full text of "Ohio annals : Historic events in the Tuscarawas and Muskingum Valleys, and in other portions of the state of Ohio; Adventures of Post, Heckewelder and Zeisberger; legends and traditions of the Kophs, Mound builders, red and white men; Adventures of Putnam and Heckewelder, founders of the state; Local history, growth of Ohio in population, political power, wealth and intelligence ..."

See other formats






3 1833 00826 5917 

Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2009 witii funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 


Historic Events 




The State of Oliio. 

• Adventurks of Tost, IIeckewelder and Zei^berger. 
Legends and Tit v]»itiuns of the Kophs, Mound Builders, 
Red and White Men. 

Adventures of Putnam and Heckewelder, founders of the State. 



. T»:ArK'y)in 

c . 11 . ivr I T C H E 3sr K R 

Of the Now riiiljidelpliia (Ohio') Bar. 

Thomas VV. Obkll, Pithlisher. 





I'miled by W. D. Bukiiam, r);ijloii, Ohio. 



This volume is dedicated to the Press. Passiiio- over 
the geological and pre-historic portions, and coming down 
to the historic column, the State of Ohio presents one of 
the grandest series of panoramic scenes in histf>rv. 

scB»E ,. 827450 

Post's cabin in 1761 — He gets from the Indians fifty steps square for God s 
farm— He returns in 1762 with Heckewelder, and enters the cabin singing- 
a hymn. 


Zeisberger preaching to Netawatwes and the Indians, who give liini land for 
curing small-pox, and privilege to establish mission at Big Spring. 


Heckewelder and twenty-two canoes arrive at Schoenhrunn with Indians and 
all go to putting up buildings. 

S C E N E 1 V . 

Simon Girty at Schoenbrunn urging converts to join the English side in revo- 

S C E N E V . 

Captain White Eyes rebutting Pipes speech at. Goshocking— Heckewelder 
rides from Fort Pitt to Coshocton and cahns the Delawares. 


Pipe and the Monseys and Wyandots go over to the British— Return to Salem 
and drive off missionaries and Indians to Sandusky. 


Zeisberger and Heckewelder taken tn Detroit and tried for treason, while 
Indians return to valley for corn. • 


S C E .\ K V in. 

Girty over on Monongahela urging the borderers to go and kill the Indians and 
burn their towns — March of Williamson to Gnadenhutten with his men — 
Murder of ninety-six Indians. 

SC K .N E 1 .\ . 

Girty at Sandusky urging Indian warriors to revenge the death of their kindred 
— Warriors start on their raids to the border. 

S C E N K X . 

Organizing of Crawford's rangers, and march towards Sandusky — Stop at 
Schoenbrunn — Crawford in a dream sees Ann Charity and her skeletons — 
His march onward — Indian towns abandoned — Indians attack and defeat 
his army — Crawford captured and burned — Army back at Schoenbrunn — 
Williamson in his dream sees Ann Charily on her return pass Schoenbrunn 
with her skeletons, guarded with warriors carrying the scalps of Crawford's 
men — Her appearance at Gnadenhutten — Buries skt-letons and scalps — 
Ann disappears — Great Spirit moves up and down the valley — The ruins 
for fifty miles — Four hundred Indians repass the Big Spring — God and 
Mannitto appear; after cursing the valley, dry up the spring and disap- 
pear to fight it out on another line. 

S C E N E .\ I . 

Zeisberger and converts in the wilderness among the snows and dangers for 

seventeen years. 


Putnam and his men land at Marietta; settlement thereat. — Indian treaty — 
Brandt and his two hundred warriors at Duncan's falls — He is visited by 
Louisa St. Clair, who conducts him to the governor's house — Seeks her to 
wife — Is repulsed by the governor, and returns to his camp crazed in love. 

SCENE X I 1 1 . 

Harmar marches to the Maumee — His defeat — St. Clair renews the fight— His 
defeat — Indians around Marietta, at the forts, and declare no white man 
shall plant corn in Ohio — Scenes at Marietta — Wayne comes — Marches to 
the Maumee, and his victory — Return of peace — Ohio settled by white men. 


Death and burial of Putnam and Heckewelder — Tableaux of the great State 
covered by three inillion of inhabitants — Owning twenty-three hun- 
dred million dollars of property — Paying twenty-three million dollars 
taxes — Riding on five thousand miles of their own railroad, within her 
borders — Supporting twelve thousand common schools, two hundred col- 
leges and academies — Three hundred and fifty newspapers and ])eriodicals 
printed in the State, with two million readers. 

In conclusion the editor asks the commendation of the press, by inserting 
this summary in their papers. 



Theory of tlie geological struetnve— A molten mass— Sea of fire— Sulphurous gas— Crust 
iinii Crevices— Air and Moisture— The first rain enters the crevices— Explosions- 
Upheavals — Continents — Oceans — Mollusks — Fishes- Plants — Reptiles— Animals- 
Man — Plains and bottoms— Hills and Mountains — Names— The water-shed of Ohio- 
Legends of the Kophs and Israelites. Pages 1-10. 


Story of the cave-dwellers— ]Mound builders in Stark, Tuscarawas, Coshocton, Muskingum, 
Morgan and Washington — Forts and mounds in Licking and other localities — Legend 
of the Northmen, Welshmen, &e.— La Salle at the Muskingum two hundred years 
ago— Ohio part of France— Gist's trip down the Muskingum, 1750— Washington and 
Gist— Braddock, &c. Pages 17-44. 


Capture and captivity of James Smith and John McCuUongh in the valleys, 17.'i5-175t; — 
Their adventures — Christian F. Post's visit to the Tuscarawas, 1701 — Heckeweldei-, 
1762 — Traditions of the Lenape, Mengue, Mahiecani — Their first acquaintance with 
liquor. Pages 45-69. 


Boquet's military expedition into the valleys, 17G4 — Recovers 200 white men, woman and 
children. Pag(>s 7U-S2. 


The Moravian Germans settle on the Tuscarawas, 1771-2 — Si»hoenbrunn — Code of Laws — 
Zeisberger and Heckewelder, 177:> — (4nadenhutten — Rev. Jones sets out to convert the 
heathen — They drive liim away with mock devils — Indian feast at New Comerstown — 
Events there in 1774 — Legend of the white woman — Pipe and White Eyes — Settlement 
near Coshocton, 1776 — Netawatwes — Cornstalk — Geo. Morgan— 1777 — Mousey Conspir- 
acy — Dunmore's war of 1774 — Legend of Abraham Thomas. Pages 83-125. 


Legend of Cornstalk at Gnadenhutten — Erection, investment and abandonment of Fort 
Laui'ens- Incidents and adventures thereat — Death of White Eyes, 1778-9— Col. John 
Gibson kills "Little Eagle"— Forts in Ohio— Number of Indians— Buckskin Cur- 
rency. Pages 126-145. 


Heekewelder's great ride — Lichtenau settlement, near Coshocton, abandQned^>Sinion 
Girty after Zeisberger's scalp — Salem settled in 1780 — Indians massacred at Coshocton, 
1781 — British and Indians capture Schoenbrunn, Gnadenhutten and Salem — Drive oft 
the inhabitants to Sanduslcy— Trial and acquittal of Heckewelder, Zeisberger and 
Seuseman, as spies. Pages 146-158. 



liegenJ of the bloody valley— Tlie Gnadenhutten massacre— Capture and death of Col. 
Crawford— Ann Charity, the witch— Capture and death of Charles Builderhack— liavid 
Williamson, 1782. Pages 158-176. 


The ancient Seneca capital, "Tuscarawas" — Gehelemukpechuk, Goshuekgunk, &c.— 
Fifty miles of ruins along the ancient river- Legend of the " Big Spring" — Story of 
the white S(|uaw's revenge— Legend of the white captive girl at New Sehoenhrunn— 
Legend of theConner family— settlers in eastern Ohio— Congress gives the val- 
leys to the revolutionary soldiers, 1785— The Indian fighters, the Zanes, Foes and 
Wetzells— Logan, the Mingo chief— Sketch of Simon Girty. Pages 177-207. 


Trailitions of the Senecas— A legend of slaughter— Sketch of Sliingask— fieath of his 
queen at " Tuscarawas "—Legend of Heckewelder's love— Narrow Escape— Delaware 
barons and lords of the forest on the Tuscarawas— Indian food— Cookery— Dress— 
Courtingand Marriages— Kindness, &c.— The Indian's heaven— Sketch of Black Hoof- 
Legend of " Three Legs Town, &c. Pages 208-224. 


First settlement at the mouth of the Muskingum— Marietta— Erection of the North-west 
territorial government, 1788- Erection of Washington and other counties— Marietta 
settlers named and described— Indian war— Scenes in the days of her danger— Harmar 
and St. Clair— First court in Ohio— Indians kill the first settlers in Morgan County- 
Wayne's victory— Organization of the State— Recapitulation of events in the lives of 
Rufus Putnam and .John Heckewelder, the founders of Ohio— Adventures of Hamilton 
Kerr, the Indian fighter- Legend of Louisa St. Clair— Joe Rogers, the ranger- Louis 
Phillippe, Burr and the Mariettians— The Blennerhassetts and Burr, Ac- Zeisberger 
returns from seventeen years exile— Founds Goshen and dies— Last of the missions 
and red men in the valleys. Pages 224-271. 


The last Indian war— War with England— Teeumseh's conspiracy- His death— Elliott 
family— Killing of Robert Elliott— Growth of Ohio by counties for seventy years- 
Progress of parties and their names — Names of, and votes for all the Governor.?— 
Presidential votes since 18.52— Increase of wealth by counties for twenty-lbur years- 
Coal and its formation— The bible narratives and geology— Members of the three 
constitutional conventions of Ohio— Newspapers in the valley— First .salt works in the 
valleys. Pages 272-29:5. 


Eai'ly settlers in Morgan and Muskingum— Early settlers in Coshcocton County— Incident 
of si aver J'— Early settlers and prominent men in Stark County— First houses and mills 
in the valley.s— First berths in Ohio— First christian burying grounds in Ohio— Oldest 
inhabitants in the TuscaravVas valley, and first preacher.*— Sketches of Christian 
Deardortr, John Judy, Sr., Philip Correll, Peter Williams, Jacob Blickensderfer, 
John Knisely, Henry Latfer, Abraham Shane, Walter M. Blake, Alexander McConnell, 
John Coventry, George Sluthour, James Patrick, Sr.— Death roll of four lumdred earl\ 
settlers — Sketch of Zoar— Model will — Largest land holders— List of early lawyers and 
(tounty officers — Elk fight. — Wolves and wolf hunters— Henry Willard's bear fight — 
John Mi/.er's catamount fight. — John Henry's panther fight— Adam Reamer and the 
•'mad woman" — Canals in Ohio— Railroads in Ohio— Funston, the murderer— Front 
men from Ea.stern Ohio — Governors, U. S. Senators, Supreme Judges — Development 
of intelligence in Ohio — The newspaper and periodical press in Cincinnati, Cleveland, 
Columbus, l>ayton, Toledo, Zanesville, and all the county towns in Ohio, Ac. Pages 


The legeml of fire and water 1 

The story of animals, mastodons and elejihantsin Ohio :i 

The story of hills and valleys (i 

The legend of the Kophs U> 

The legend of the island Atalantis and Israelites 14 

The story of the cave dwellers in Ohio 17 

The legend of the moimd builders in the valleys 20 

The aneient race in Coshocton County 21 

The moLuid and fort builders in Muskingum, Sur ■£', 

Legend of the Northmen and Welshmen ;il 

Legend of La Salle at the Muskingum :!ti 

Traditions of the Delawares or Lenape, Iroiiuois ur Mengwe, Mohicans or Mahiceani, 

and Mousey or Minsi fiJ 

Legend of their first experience under liquor (i."> 

Legend of the White Woman's river Kiii 

Legend of Cornstalk at Gnadenhutten , 12(; 

Legend of Ogista sacrificing his son 20S 

Legend of the bloody valley and the witch, Ann Chaj'ity ITiS 

Legend of the Big Spring IT'.i 

Story of tlie white squaw's revenge ISO 

Legend of the captive girl at New Schoenbrunn 182 

Legend of the Conner family IS'l 

Legend of Heckewelder's love 210 

Legend of the Indian's heaven 217 

Legen<l of Throe Leg's town 2r.J 

Legend of Marietta in the days of her danger 217 

Legend of Louisa St. Clair, the governor's daughter 252 

Legend of Louis Phillipe at the Muskingum 251; 

Legend of Burr and the Blennerhassetts at Marietta 207 

Storv of tho wolf bitten mad woman -ill 


There being a distance of one hundred and sixty miles between the editor and 
type-setters, he was unable to see revised proofs, consequently errors have 
intervened. He calls attention to the most prominent for the reader to correct: 

On page 14, read "who," after "lawgiver;" page Ifi, read "the tribes," in- 
stead of "they;" page 37, " Whitewoman, ' should be " Walholding; " page 56, 
"present," should be "original;" 63, "between" lead "about;" 65, read 
"recover," instead of "receive;" 74, read "and the fact," after "plains;" 147, 
after "from," read "the scenes of; " 159, after "north-west," ^ead "and; "181, 
read "vowed," for "avowed;" 189, after "preach," put a 'period," and omit 
"quotation marks;" 217, read " 1762" instead of '■ 1792; " 242, read "1781, 
instead of " 1789; " 275, read "valleys," for "counties;" same page, read "Cal- 
lender, a relation of," before the word "General;" 289, add "Lewis D. Camp- 
bell, Vice-President; " 291, read "William T. Bascomb," instead of " Josiah 
Hartzell ; " 298, read "south," instead of "north;" 305, after "valley," read 
"who came after 1800; " 320, fill first dash, " 1819;" second, "80 odd;" pages 
321 &c., death-roll, in some cases the death may have been in the latter part 
of the year before, or the forepart oTf the year after the otie given ; 324, read 
"four thousand," instead of "four hundred," 322, read "1853," instead of 
" 1653;" read ' Saffer" as " Laffer," Kinsey, as Kuisely, Trupp, as Trapp, Ne- 
part, as Neighbor, Langhead, as Laughead, Nugill, as Nugen, &c.; page 346, 
read '• ten per cent.," instead of " six ; same page, read "$10 per head," instead 
of "$5;" 351, after "Joseph W. White," read "1863 to 1865;" 347, for 'mame," 
read "name; " 353, read " G. W. Hill," after " B. F. Nelson," &c. » 

In Appleton's Cyclopedia, of sixteen volumes, which occupied the time and 
scrutiny of a dozen editors several years, it is stated on page 349, of volume 6, 
that " British frontiersmen," massacred the ninety odd Christian Indians at 
Gnadenhutten in 1782. These murderers were Williamson's American bor- 
derers, aroused to fury by the murders committed by Indians under pay of the 
British at Detroit, and Simon Girty's band of colonial renegades. 

In Evert's Atlas of Stark County, 1875, it is stated that in 1802 there were 
five thousand Delaware warriors on the Tuscarawas in a distance of eight 
miles south of Massillon. All the warriors of all the tribes in Ohio did not 
number five thousand at that time. The Delawares had less thaij six hundred 
warriors at Wayne's victory in 1794 — the confederated tribes numbering a'"out 
two thousand. In Harrison's fight with Tecumseh the confederated tribe.'' were 
less than two thousand. But such errors of fact and the types will occur. 



Before noting the coming of men into these valleys, it 
may be well to refresh the memory as to the geological 
structure of Ohio. 

Going down the geological column of the globe, especial- 
ly as regards North America, the geologist observes the 
evidence of it having been a molten mass, its surface a sea 
of fire, and the air nought but sulphurous gas. That after 
a countless period a crust formed, the air cooled over it, 
and moisture following, the first rain began to wash a 
young world. 

The turbid waters seeking an outlet through the crevices 
in the crust caused explosions and earthquakes, ending in 
upheavals of igneous rocks into continents, and the subsi- 
dence of the waters into oceans. 

This is the whole story of the action of water in the 
first, or Eozoic age, when there was no life, according to 
the elder geologists, but modern discoveries indicate the 
existence of organized life in that age. 

Then came the ages of time classed as : 

The Silurian, or age of Mollusks; 

The Devonian, or age of Fishes ; ^ 

The Carboniferous, or age of Plants and Trees; 

The age of reptiles ; the ago of animals, and last the age 
of man. Omitting the eras, periods, and epochs, in Ohio 
is found peat and alluvium in the age of man : beaches, 
terraces, iceberg drift, glacial drift, forest bed and clay in 
the strata belonging to the age of animals; in the age of 
reptiles, strata wanting: in the carboniferous age, coal. 

conglomerate rock, limestone, minerals; in the Devonian 
age, Avator-lime, saline rock, shale, and all the rocks fonnd 
in the Niagara, Clinton and Cincinnati gronps; as known 
to geologists, making twenty-four kinds of strata, repeated 
many times as in the coal veins. These, as all others, show 
the action of water as the master force in their formation 
an*d deposition, demonstrating the great fact that the sea 
covered Ohio, sometimes partially, and sometimes entire, 
sufficiently long to produce all these stratifications, each in 
turn, and the several series collectively in their turn. 

Colonel Whittlesy, of the first geological corps of Ohio, 
many years ago, estimated the stratas to extend in depth 
3566 feet, since which time, by the aid of science, this 
depth has been increased, but when it is considered, as 
claimed by some, that each inch of coal counts 2,000 
years, it is beyond computation, or human comprehension, 
to fix the period of all these formations and deposits. 

Taking an expanded view of the continents, the geolo- 
gists find at the bottom of the column minerals, rocks, and 
limestone, and in the waters, mossy, spongy debris, shells, 
and coral. Higher up they find in addition sandstone 
and the ores, and in the waters plants and fishes. Ascend- 
ing still they find in addition (to gold, silver, iron, and 
lead,) marble, slate, tin and copper, and in the waters reefs 
of coral, fossil fishes, and sharks, of great dimensions. 
Ascending still they find strata of all the rocks and miner- 
als, including dead forests, and plants, converted to coal. 
Also clay beds, shale, shell beds, fossils, lignite, cement, 
marl, buhr and building stone, sedimentary sand and 
gravel, with evidence that mammoth animals roamed over 
the land, and monsters of the deep swam in every sea long 
before the age of man. 


Among animal and reptile remains found in North 
America and Europe are mammoths, mastodons, tapirs, 
carnivores, reindeer, the dinothere — a combination of ele- 
phant and whale — two-horned rhinoceros, tigers, lions, 
bears, hyenas, four times their present size. The ichthyo- 
saurus, forty feet in length with paddles like a whale, and 
eyes the size of a man's head — the iguanodon, a gigantic 
reptile, body as large as an elephant — the megalosaurus, a 
monster reptile seventy feet long — the teleosaurus, a slen- 
der reptile, thirty feet, jaws opening six feet — the hadro- 
saur, a species of kangaroo, twenty feet long — the cimolia- 
saur, a monster serpent forty feet, are some of the issue of 
land and water in the ages before man, whose remains 
have been found by geologists in Europe and America. 

In Ohio, the mastodon and elephant roamed. Near 
Massillon, Ohio, there was dug up in the year 1832, as 
stated by a gentleman in the Clearfield Banner of that 
year, two large tusks, measuring each nine feet six inches 
in length, and eight inches in diameter, being two feet in 
girth at the largest ends. The outside covering was as 
firm and hard as ivory, but the inner parts were decayed. 
They were found in a swamp, about two feet below the 
surface, and were similar to those found at Big-bone lick, 
Kentucky, the size of which animal, judging from the 
bones found, was not less than sixty feet in length. Each 
tooth of the creature found in Kentucky weighed eleven 

In December, 1868, a Mr. Kennon, of Fairview, Ohio, 
on the edge of a creek, five miles from the Muskingum 
River, and ten miles south-east of Zanesville, found a bone 
of the foreleg, and tooth of a mastodon. The tooth 
weighed seven pounds and four ounces, and the bone of 
the leg, or knee, was over two feet in length, and thirty 
inches in circumference. They were found projecting out 

of the bank, about four feet below the surface of the laud, 
and uoar the water. From calculations made at the time, 
these remains were judged to have belonged to an animal 
twice the size of a full-grown elephant, and were exhibited 
by the finder to the junior publisher of this book, and 
other persons in Cambridge, Ohio, at the time, and taken 
to the home of Mr. Kennon for preservation. 

Other remains of animals of like huge dimensions have 
been found in these valleys, and elsewhere in the state. 
Professor JSTewberry says that in Cuyahoga County numer- 
ous .portions of the skeletons of elephant and mastodon 
have been found in the gravel and sand of the Cleveland 
plateau. In other parts of Ohio they are found in the 
forest-bed and in the overlying portions of the drift, as 
well as in the peat marshes that belong to the present geo- 
logical epoch. Hence it may be concluded that the ele- 
phant and mastodon continued to inhabit portions of what 
is now Ohio from the time when the ancient soil accu- 

Professor Gilmore says : 

"In the summer of 1870, a partial skeleton of a mastodon 
was found in a swamp in Auglaize County, Ohio. The 
bones were found in natural juxtaposition and in such 
shape as to leave no question that the animal was mired 
and died in the place where he was found. The lower 
halves of the legs were nearly upright, and in proper rela- 
tive position, though somewhat sprawled. The bones of 
the feet were perfectly preserved, together with the distal 
portion of the lower shaft bones. The upper ends of these 
bones were somewhat decomposed. The bones of the body 
and head lay in a crushed and fragmentary condition, 
about eighteen inches from the surface. Ribs, tusks, ver- 
tebra and teeth were in proper place, and the latter were 
well enough preserved to identify the specimen as an adult 
and rather large individual of mastodon giganteus. The 
legs being thrust in the mud were best preserved. The 
body exposed to the air decomposed rapidly, and let the 

bones fall to the surface of the bog, where they were but 
partially protected. The overlying peat has been formed 
since the deposition of the skeleton. The swamp had 
been cut by some farmers in making a broad ditch, and 
before drainage had become so firm as to be sparsely 
covered by trees. There can be no question, however, 
that the creature lived and died long after the deposition 
of the drift on which the marsh deposits rest." 


Of fish, the remains of twenty different species have been 
found in the Ohio coal measures and corniferous limestone. 
In the waverly group of stone in Southern Ohio, in sedi- 
ments of the carboniferous age have been found large fish 
beds; and in Lucas, Delaware, Cuyahoga, Medina, Portage, 
Summit, Jefferson, Warren, and many other counties, in- 
cluding those of the Muskingum and Tuscarawas valleys, 
fossil remains of fish, salamanders, and sharks have been 
found in the shales, coal, and limestone -i-ocks, some of 
which have been traced back by geologists to their re- 
spective Carboniferous and Devonian seas, in accordance 
with the stratas in which found, these stratas serving with 
comparatively unerring correctness, to indicate the corner 
stones of geological time. 

It is claimed that the oldest fish remains found in 
America are those in the carboniferous limestone of the 
Devonian age, but in Europe fish remains reach down to 
the Upper Silurian limestones, which in Ohio, are the Cin- 
cinnati group, and therein will yet be found these remains. 

It is supposed that the first submergence of the Eozoic 
continent resulted in the deposit of the group of Lower 
Silurian limestone, which after standing countless ages, 
the Lower Silurian sea was withdrawn, and succeeded by 
land surfaces without stratification. Afterward the land 
was again submerged, the sea reaching nearly as far as 
before. In the advance, continuance and retreat of the 


waters of the second submergence, the Upper Sihirian 
strata was deposited, made up in part of the Clinton, Ni- 
agara, and Helderberg limestones, from the remains of 
animals that inhabited the Upper Silurian sea. When 
the waters again retreated to the ocean basins that have 
always been sea, and remained millions of years, they again 
came back in the Devonian submergence, and were tilled 
by hordes of monsters more formidable than the sharks of 
our day. When the Devonian retreat of seas took place, 
all tlie group of great scale armored and bucklered fishes 
departed, never to return, but when the next or carbo- 
niferous submergence took place sharks abounded in great 
numbers, and reigned as monarchs of the ocean world, 
while along the shores and in the lagoons of the coal 
measures, after the retreat of the carboniferous seas, were 
found the "ganoids," a small glittering scale armored fish 
which abounded in great numbers. Also amphibeans, 
many of which were aquatic, and carniverous salamanders 
not unlike those of this day, but of great dimensions. 
Some were slender, snake-like without limbs, and from 
which is traced a connected chain from the ganoids tlirough 
the amphibeans up to reptiles of our day, for after the re- 
treat of the carboniferous sea, all the space between the 
Mississippi and Atlantic was left dry land, and never since 
entirely submerged, and along the lakes and rivers of the 
Canadian continent, the ganoids of the coal period have 
continued to exist to the present time. 


Professor Yolney says that in 1796, the spring freshet in 
the Great Miami caused that stream to form but one with 
the St. Marie, and that he passed over in a boat from the 
one river which runs into the Ohio, to the other which 
runs into Lake Erie. The Muskingum, which runs into 
the Ohio, also at that day communicated by means of the 

Tuscarawas, and of small lakes iu the present Summit and 
Stark Counties, with the Cuyahoga, which flows into Lake 
Erie, and in Volney's day, in the ordinary stages of water 
in the Cuyahoga, Tuscarawas, and Muskingum, boats passed 
from the Ohio into Lake Erie with but a very short (if 
any) portage by land. The recession of waters from the 
ancient shores of the Muskingum, Tuscarawas, and other 
streams, forming as we see at this day, tirst, second, and 
third stages of flats of land, bear out Mr. Vohiey in his 
theory that the Ohio being barred up at one period, ])urst 
asunder its barriers little at a time, and in tlie course ot 
ages the drainage exposed flrst the plains and then the 
bottom lands for the use of man. The celebrated Mr. 
Schoolcraft, in one of his works, while speaking of the 
tracks two human feet imprinted in a limestone rock, says, 
" May we not suppose a barrier to have once existed across 
the lower Mississippi, converting its immense valley into 
an immense interior sea," and are not the great northern 
lakes the remains of such an ocean? And did not the 
demolition of this ancient barrier enable this powerful 
stream to carry its banks, as it has manifestly done, a hun- 
dred miles into the gulf of Mexico? "If," as remarks 
Professor Priest, "the Mississippi, in bursting down its 
barriers, drove the earthy matter one hundred miles into 
the sea, it may well be supposed that if all that space, 
now the gulf, was then a low tract of country, as its shores 
are so now, that it was overwlielmed while the higher 
parts of the coast, now the West India Islands, are all 
that remain of that doomed country," while on the other 
hand all that vast expanse of land embraced in Ohio, and 
other States between northern lakes and the gulf, were 
drained by degrees, as is shown along the ancient shores 
of our rivers. 


During the great Biibmergeiices of the different ages the 
action of the waters through fissures on the fire-heated 
and igneous rocks beneath caused upheavals, forming hills 
and mountains, and they in turn as the seas retreated pro- 
duced our valleys and rivers, in efliibrts of the waters to 
follow and mingle with the retiring oceans, back in their 
more ancient basins of carboniferous, Devonian, Silurian, 
and Eozoic times. But the God of nature, to preserve his 
works from destruction by the too rapid and all-powerful 
action ot the waters when in motion, seems to have inter- 
posed ridges and hills across the valleys and rivers, as ter- 
races, barriers, and water sheds, to prevent the land surface 
from wastage in washing, and excavating too quickly the 
rivers, valleys, and gorges. 

Thus pent up for ages, these immense back waters pro- 
duced in turn cold, and that snow, ice, glaciers, with ice- 
bergs hanging as pendants at their bottoms, grasping in 
their freezing embrace bowlders, drift, and rocks, which 
when a barrier gave way in time in front of the pent up 
element, by erosion, the glaciers and bergs moved south, 
the one levelling the land surface, while the other dropped 
its bowlders, drift, and rock into chasms, gorges, and rivers, 
as they molted away, thus preparing the earth for the 
future habitations of men. 


The Tuscarawas and Muskingum rivers, meandering 
through parts of Summit, across the counties of Stark, 
Tuscarawas, Coshocton, Muskingum, Morgan, and Wash- 
ington, form the valleys called by those names. In early 
times the valleys and the two rivers were known only as 
the " Muskingum," but when the whites came the name 

"Tuscarawas" was given to all that portion between the 
dividing ridges in the present Summit County, and the 
town of Coshocton, near which the Walhonding River 
intersects the Tuscarawas, and form the Muskingum, which 
empties into the Ohio at Marietta. In Indian language it 
was "Mooskingom" or "Elk's Eye." 

The name " Tuscarawas" is said by some writers to have 
been derived from the Tuscarora tribe of Indians, origi- 
nally in North Carolina, but who it is claimed came to 
New York State, and became part of the six nation con- 
federation, and afterward some of the tribe wandering 
west to the Ohio valley, gave their name to the locality of 
their hunting grounds, and the "a" being substituted for 
"o" in the spelling, Tuscarawas became the historical 
name the whites gave the river and valley. Eut as early 
historians make no mention of the Tuscarora tribe of 
North Carolina ever having settled in the valley, it is 
probable that the definition given by Heckewelder is the 
correct origin of the word. He says Tuscarawas in Eng- 
lish means " old town," and that the oldest Indian town in 
the valley was called "Tuscarawa," being situated near 
the present Bolivar. 


In 1672, a map — attributed to La Salle — calls the Ohio 
by the Iroquois name of " Olighin Sipon," or, as called by 
the Ottowas, " The Beautiful River." 

A map of 1687 calls it "Dono," or " Albacha" (Ohio or 
Wabash). A Dutch map of 1708 calls it"Oubach." A 
map of 1710 makes the Ohio and Wabash one river, and 
calls it "Oho." In 1711 it is called "Ochio." In 1719 it 
is called " Saboqnungo," and after that the French named 
it "Labelle," or beautiful river, and the name finally set- 
tled down to the word " Ohio." 



Professor Newberry traces the water shed dividing the 
basin of Lake Erie from the waters of the Ohio. " This 
water shed," says Newberry, "forms a range of high lands 
that slope by long and easy descent to the Ohio." " The 
trough of the Ohio is excavated in a plain, and the some- 
what striking features which it presents are all the result 
of the erosion of this plain, which, still unbroken, forms 
the larger part of our area. North from the Ohio the 
plateau has been excavated to form the broad valleys of 
the Miami, the Scioto, and the Muskingum." " Our topo- 
graphical features may therefore be described as those of a 
plain slightly raised along a line traversing it from north- 
east to south-west, and worn in the lapse of time by the 
draining streams into broad valleys." " On a line drawn 
from Cincinnati to Marietta we begin in the excavated 
valley of the Ohio, four hundred and thirty-two feet above 
the ocean, and one hundred and thirty-three feet below the 
surface of Lake Erie." Going east the summit is reached 
of the divide between the Miami and Scioto five hundred 
and fifty-three feet above Lake Erie. The Scioto valley is 
bordered on the east by a divide which separates the waters 
of the Scioto from the Hocking about six hundred feet 
above Lake Erie. Between Athens and Harmar there is 
a divide separating the valley of the Hocking from that of 
the Muskingum, which latter has an altitude at its mouth 
of one hundred and thirty feet above Cincinnati, or about 
the level of Lake Erie, and reaches northwest to Massillon, 
in Stark County, where the Tuscarawas has an altitude of 
three hundred and thirty feet above Lake Erie, part of 
which is accounted for by the fact ascertained by borings 
at Canal Dover and other points that the Tuscarawas has 
been filled up and now runs nearly two hundred feet above 
its rocky bed of the carboniferous age — an age Avhich in- 
volved the extermination of all plant and animal life, and 
the formation of coal. 


Beginning with another line of observation, and running 
from the west margin of Ohio through Darke, Mercer, 
Logan, DeLaware, Knox, Coshocton, Tuscarawas, Carroll, 
and Jefferson to Steubenville, Newberry premises that the 
great divide separating the waters of Lake Erie from the 
waters of the Ohio has an altitude, on the line dividing 
Darke and Mercer counties, of six hundred feet above Lake 
Erie, while in the valley of the great Miami it is but two 
hundred and eighty feet, and in Logan County nine hun- 
dred and seventy-five feet above Lake Erie, the highest 
point of land in Ohio above the lake. Proceeding east 
through Delaware, the altitude is less than three hundred 
feet, and in Knox County the divide between the Scioto 
and Muskingum is in some places eight hundred feet above 
Lake Erie. From Coshocton the line of observation runs 
in the valley of the Tuscarawas an east and west course to 
Uhrichsville, thence to Steubenville, passing the divide 
separating the waters of the Tuscarawas from those of the 
Ohio at an altitude of eight hundred feet above Lake Erie 
at some points, and on reaching Steubenville the altitude 
is but sevcnt^^-six feet above the lake, showing the ancient 
bed of the Ohio far below the present stream. 

A third line from the northwest corner of the State of 
Ohio, to the Pennsylvania line in Trumbull County, crosses 
the great divide in the north-east portion of the State, and 
in the north and west at Elyria, Monroevillc, Fremont, 
Napoleon, &c., it crosses streams flowing toward the lake 
in valleys which in depth bear no comparison with those 
of the rivers draining the southern slope of the divide. 
These differences in the two slopes of the water shed are 
accounted for thus: After the ice had retired from the 
southern part of the State, the lake basin was still occu- 
pied by a glacier which reached far beyond the present 
lake basin, and when that ice sheet moved from the north- 
east toward the south-west, it planed down the surface 
north of the water shed, filling the old channels of the 
draining streams, producing a level plain, and that after 


the ice had left all Ohio, the water for ages covered all 
north of the great divide, which became the shore of the 
great fresh water sea, while the slope south of the divide 
was exposed to surface erosion, and covered more deeply 
with earthy sediments. 

Hence the later theory is that the Ohio and all its trilju- 
taries — Muskingum, Tuscarawas, Scioto, &c. — have been 
running in nearly the same valleys they now occupy ever 
since the carboniferous age. 

That the water shed kept back the lake waters of Erie 
north, while the draining streams of the Tuscarawas, Mus- 
kingum, &c., in eastern Ohio, and the Scioto, Miami, &c., 
in the west, collected the overflow of the water shed, and 
the rain fall below, carrying them to the Ohio, and it in 
turn emptying them into the Mississippi, which discharged 
them into the sea ; and in Indiana and other States the 
waters were kept back by like barriers, and drained by 
their rivers in like manner as the Ohio and Mississippi. 

But that both these great streams had barriers barring 
them up for ages, as Volney and Schoolcraft respectively 
suggest, there can be no doubt. When they gave way, 
such was the flow of pent up waters that here, in these 
valleys, the Tuscarawas and Muskingum cut their channels 
deep through all the coal veins to rock bottoms, at some 
points nearly two hundred feet below the present river 
beds, and in Indiana where Fort Wayne stands, a large 
river flowing to the lake, and which Newberry says, " never 
had a name, and no man ever saw," ceased to flow north, and 
disappeared, as its ancient shores now tell. In the South 
they have a tradition of a "sunken land," overwhelmed by 
the elements from the north in ages past — as has happened 
in our time by fire and sword — and the reader of this story 
of water may stop and ponder on the coincidence, while 
further reflecting on the geological fact, that the drainage 
of the land he lives in cost all that drowned country now 
lying at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico. 



At the time of a deluge in the Psychozoic era, the western 
continent was subjected to the same submergence as was 
the eastern continent, except that portions of the elevated 
regions were not covered by water, a fact which is corrobo- 
rated by the most learned geologists of the present and 
past centuries. On these elevated regions existed a race 
approximating to human beings, in that they had powers 
of locomotion on two feet like man, and similar powers to 
move on all fours like animals. Their muscular power 
was equal to the gorilla of this day, and their intellectual 
power equal to that of man. Their stature was that of 
the largest of the human race, when standing erect, and 
when moving on hands and feet, were the size of the 
largest of the Koph tribe alluded to in the second book 
of Kings. It is related that one of the tribe was captured 
and presented to King Solomon, as one of the curiosities 
of the land of Ophir, by one of that monarch's captains, 
on his return therefrom with a vessel having for cargo a 
full load of gold. On one of the monuments of King 
Thosmes of Thebes, was also found a representation of a 
Koph in his animal posture, having every appearance of a 
beardless face, but covered with a coat of long hair from 
the top of his skull downward to his rump, fitted by na- 
ture in folds to his body like unto the cowl and gown of 
a priest of modern times when he stood erect. 

Such were the race of ante-deluvians spared on this con- 
tinent by the deluge, and on the subsidence of the waters 
they re-appeared on the table lands along the banks of 
lakes and streams, and procured a precarious living by the 
net and sling, in part, and by clubs and stones, their 
weapons of war, until they were exterminated by a more 
civilized race. 

Another legend is, that when the nomadic Indians reached 
this continent, about seven hundred years after the flood, 


and before tlie birtli of Christ, about fourteen hnndrod and 
forty years, they found access thereto through Asia and 
Europe to the Mediterranean, thence by the Canary Ishmds 
over a large continent, the size of Africa, stretching from 
those isles across to what is called the West Indies at this 
day. These were the outermost shores of the American 
continent, and the sea now known as the Gulf of Mexico 
did not exist, but instead thereof all that space was a fruit- 
ful and prolific land. 


A tradition exists that the Israelites first peopled 
America. It is a biblical fact that ten of the tribes of 
Israel were taken north and west about seven hundred 
years after the flood, or fourteen hundred years B. C. It 
is a geological fact that the Canary Islands were once a 
part of the outer rim of the land connecting the eastern 
with another continent, and that the AVest India Islands 
of this day were once the outer fringe of land connecting 
the western continent with another, and it is handed down 
in tradition, that a continent did exist in the intervening 
space of the size of Africa as known at this day. The 
tradition is given in Washington Irving's Life of Colum- 
bus, volume 3, page 401, as follows: 

" The island Atalantis is mentioned by Plato in his dia- 
logue of Timseus Solon, the Athenian lawgiver, is sup- 
posed to have traveled into Egypt. He is in an ancient 
city on the Delta, the fertile island formed by the Nile, and 
is holding converse with certain learned priests on the 
antiquities of remote ages, when one of them gives him a 
description of the island of Atalantis, and of its destruc- 
tion, which he describes as having taken place before the 
destruction of the world. The island he was told had 
been situated in the western ocean, opposite to the Straits 


of Gibraltar. There was an easy passage from it to other 
islands, which lay adjacent to a large continent, exceeding 
in size all Europe and Asia. Neptune settled on this 
island, from whose son, Atlas, its name was derived, and he 
divided it among his ten sons. His descendants reigned 
here in regular successions for many ages. They made 
irruptions into Europe and Africa, subduing all Lybia as 
far as Egypt, and Europe to Asia Minor. They were 
resisted, however, by the Athenians, and driven back to 
their Atlantic territories. Shortly after this there was a 
tremendous earthquake, and an overflowing of the sea, 
which continued for a day and a night. In the course of 
this the vast island of Atalantis, and all its splendid cities 
and warlike, nations were swallowed up and sunk to the 
bottom of the sea, which, spreading its waters over the 
chasm, formed the Atlantic ocean. For a long time, how- 
ever, the sea was not navigable on account of rocks and 
shelves, of mud and slime, and of the ruins of the drowned 



The early history of the valleys of the Tuscarawas and 
Muskingum belong to the six river counties of Wash- 
ington, Morgan, Muskingum, Coshocton, Tuscarawas, and 
Stark, equally, as it was up and down these valleys they 
principally ranged, from the Cuyahoga to the Ohio. The 
eastern counties and the counties west can also justly claim 
that they, too, are indirectly interested in whatever took 
place between the red and white men in the six valley 
counties named. But as the enumeration of incidents of 
the other counties would necessitate details dispropor- 
tionate to the size in which this volume is gotten up, it is 
determined to speak of the tribes who made their homes, 
and performed their principal evolutions in what is now 
the six counties named, with an occasional digression into 
other territory. 

As part of the earliest aboriginal, and mound, and cave 
history of Stark County, the reader will lind interesting 
details touching the supposed cave dwellers in the northern 
portion, and of Post's efforts to establish a mission in the 
southern portion, while he was in the service of the Penn- 
sylvania Colony, 1761-2. 

As part of the history of what is Tuscarawas County 
will be found in Gist's journey in 1750, Schoenbrunn and 
other settlements in 1772-3, and the massacre in 1782. 

As part of the history of Coshocton County will be found 
the events of Boquet's expedition in 1764; the Delaware 


capital in 1774-5 ; the settlement at Lichtenau, &c., and 
General Brodhead's campaign of 1780. 

As part of the history of Muskingum County will be 
found Dunmore's war in 1774; the Waketomeka campaign, 
and incidental Indian lighting. 

As part of the history of Morgan County will be found 
the Indian slaughter at Big Bottom, and other incidents of 
Indian warfare. 

As part of the history of Washington County will be 
found St. Clair's campaign, erection of Fort Harmar, Har- 
mar's campaign, hghts with the Indians about Marietta, &c. 

As regards the residue of Indian historical events they 
apply to other counties also, or, in other words, form State 


Circumstantial evidence leads to the conclusion that cave 
dwellers were the first inhabitants of Ohio, and that they 
appeared at the head of the valleys under consideration in 
this volume. 

Colonel Charles Whittlesy, president of the Northern 
Ohio Historical Society, in his publication of an explora- 
tion along the Cuyahoga from its source to its mouth, 
discloses the fact that he found artificial habitations made 
in the rocks forming the sides of the river, which, though 
narrow, has cut a channel down the northern side of the 
dividing ridge between that river and the Tuscarawas. In 
places the chasm made is deeper than the stream is wide 
at its head, and on the -sides were caves containing bones 
of animals,. and of men, showing that they were once in- 
habited by human beings. 

General Bierce, in his history of Summit County, cor- 
roborates from personal examination the statements of 
Colonel Whittlesy as to the caves, and he further relates 
that in Green township, formerly of Stark County, now of 


Summit, on the east side of the Tuscarawas, great numbers 
of stones were found by the white settlers of Stark County 
on an elevated plateau. They varied from four to six feet 
in circumference, and were elevated slightly above the 
land surface, with a comparatively even surface on the top, 
on which it is supposed sacrifices of human beings or of 
animals were made to appease the wrath or propitiate the 
favors of some ancient god or gods. Near by is the old 
Indian trail, used by the Indians in passing from the San- 
dusky countr}^ to the Ohio, along the ridge, but no evi- 
dence was found about these stone altars, either in calcined 
bones of burnt prisoners, or of charred wood, or Indian 
implements, to indicate that the altars had been made use 
of for any purpose, by the modern race of Indians, and in 
the absence of other evidence the conclusion is that the 
altars were erected by the ancient race who domiciled in 
the caves, and were probably the first of mankind in Ohio. 

Passing down the Cuj^ahoga, Colonel AVhittlesy found 
earth-works and evidences of a later race than the cave 
dwellers above, and further on toward the lake he found 
what approaches to regular fortifications, evincing a still 
higher civilization than the earth-workers above, but he 
leaves his readers to form their own conclusions, he simply 
giving the facts he uncovers. 

What are the conclusions therefrom forced on the mind? 
Why, that first there was a race, who not knowing the use 
of tools, and who lived in caves among rocks, and piled 
up loose stones to worship or use in worship. Second, a 
race who could move earth with implements, and erect 
earth defences, or piled up earth into great mounds for 
burial, sacrificial or military purposes. Third, a race who 
worked stone and earth with other improved implements 
into regular fortifications, and places of abode or worship. 
Fourth, the race of red men who came after, and kicked 
down the stone altars, and earth-works, struck fire from 
a flint, burned all they could of the ancient fortifica- 
tions, using only for themselves the bow and arrow, stone 

' 19 

hatchets and stone arrows, with bark canoes, and thongs 
of animal hides for fishyig and hunting purposes, while 
the mounds of the ancients were left unharmed as places 
of lookout, or of burial for their chiefs and warriors. As to 
who the supposed " cave dwellers" were, and from whence 
they came, will never be satisfactorily settled. 

But three important geological facts when put together 
renders it an easy task to conjecture their origin. First, 
it is beyond contradiction that certain portions of this con- 
tinent are the oldest portions of the earth's surface, and 
contain its Eozoic crust, without evidence of marine beds, 
or other proofs of submergence by any floods since that 
day. Certain areas in northern New York, Canada, Labra- 
dor, and west of the Mississippi, in Missouri, Arkansas, 
Dakota, Nebraska, &c., remain as in Eozoic time. — See 
Dana's Geology, page 135, 136, 137, and 138. Second, from 
the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Ocean no sea has 
entirely overflown this land since the close of the carbo- 
niferous age — the age that produced the plants and forests, 
out of which coal was formed. Third, at the time the 
carboniferous sea disappeared, the water shed holding back 
the mass of waters of the lake existed, and on which dry 
land first appeared in Ohio. This water shed traversed 
the State from south-west to north-east, in the direction of 
the Canadian and New York hig'hlands. . 

Mr. Atwater, the antiquarian, in his work on the an- 
tiquities of America, holds to the opinion that the people 
who put up stone altars, earth-works, and fortifications, 
commenced their work at the head of the northern lakes, 
thence along their b'orders into what is now western New 
York, thence in a south-western direction, following rivers 
to and down the Ohio and Mississippi, thence to the city 
of Mexico, as now known, where they had their central 
seat of power, and from which locality radiated colonies 
into what is now known as South America, and other 



Following down the valley, the liistory of u later race is 
written, as shown hy their mounds and earth-works, found 
near Massillon, JTavarre, and Bethlehem, in Stark County, 
and near Bolivar, iS'ew Philadelphia, and jSTew Comers- 
town, in Tuscarawas Counties. 

Zeisberger, when he stopped in 1771 at the Big Spring, 
two and one half miles south-east of jSTew i'hiladelphia, 
the spring since called Schoenbrunn (or fine spring), found 
on the plain above it the clearest evidences of an amphi- 
theater, or circular earth-work, rimmed at the edge "with 
the thrown up earth, and close by on the bank he found 
three mounds or tumuli of the ordinary height of scrip- 
tural mounds, satisfying him that the race who constructed 
them were more warlike and better acquainted with mak- 
ing defensive positions than the Indians of his day. 

Across the river, on the west bank, and nearly opposite 
the eastern part of the present iSTew Philadelphia, and not a 
a mile from its court house, are the remains — now obliter- 
ated from view, but twenty years ago plainly discernible — ■ 
of an earth-work or moat, extending in a semi-circular foiin 
around the river front of an old cornfield, as the Indians 
called it, and which had been used prior to the advent of 
the Christian Indians (in 1772). They were unable to give 
any^ account of it, other than that of an old Indian, who 
came to the mission, and who claimed to be descended 
from a nation who inhabited this territory" many hundreds 
of years, and were driven away to the south-west by a more 
ferocious race of men from the north. He had a tradition 
that his ancestors knew some of the arts, as known to the 
missionaries — that they were a peaceful people, and devoted 
much of their time to the worship of deities — that wherever 
a sufiScient number sojourned for a time they constructed 
works of defence, and for worship, and sacrifice. A short 


distance from this ditch or moat was a mound on higher 
ground, on the summit of which large trees were growing 
when the first white settlers reached the valley. Partial 
excavations made many years ago exhumed arrow heads, 
dust as of earthen-ware that had been burnt, and the cal- 
cined dust of bones supposed to be human, from which the 
mound was judged to be the sepulcher of a noted person 
of the by-gone times, and has never been opened since. 

ISTear the town of New Comerstown, and on the bank of 
the Ohio Canal, below Port Washington, were found, when 
the canal was being constructed, the remains of earth- 
works and earth forts, similar to those discovered higher 
up the river. What is the more remarkable in this con- 
nection, is the fact that although stone was abundant near 
all the earth-works of those early colonists who constructed 
them, yet none appears to have been used, whether from 
religious prohibition, or inability to utilize the rocks of the 
river hills. 


In the county of Coshocton," as we pass west on the Pan- 
Handle Railroad, and just before crossing the Muskingum 
River, two miles, or thereabouts, from the county seat, is 
seen to the right a large plain in the river bend, of several 
hundred acres, and on the east bank of the river, a few 
hundred yards from the bridge, a large mound thirty or 
forty feet higli, with trees thereon. In its vicinity, Zeis- 
berger settled Lichtenau, in 1776, and he was attracted to 
the spot from the numerous evidences of an ancient race 
having been buried there, more civilized than the Indians 
of his day. The missionaries have left but meager details 
of what they there found, but enough to clearly prove that 
the inhabitants understood the use of the ax, the making 
of pottery, and division of areas of land in squares, &c. In 
a large grave-yard, which covered many acres, human bones 


or skeletons were found, less in stature than the average 
Indian by a foot and a half. They were regularly buried 
in rows, heads west and feet east, as indicated by the en- 
ameled teeth in preservation, so that the disembodied spirits 
on coming out of the graves would first see the rising sun, 
and make their proper devotional gestures to their great 
Spirit or God. From approximate measurement this grave- 
yard contained ten acres, and has long since been plowed 
up and turned into cornfields. The race of beings buried 
there averaged four feet in height, judging from the size 
of the^ graves, and layers of ashes. Estimating that twenty 
bodies could be buried in a square rod, this human sepul- 
cher, if full, would have contained over thirty thousand 
bodies, and the ordinary time required to fill such a grave- 
yard, would not be less than five hundred years, in a city 
the size of Coshocton of the present day, assuming that the 
generations averaged thirty-three years of life. One skele- 
ton dug up from this grave-yard is said to have measured 
five and one half feet, and the skull to have been perforated 
by a bullet. The body had been dismembered, and iron 
nails, and a decayed piece of oak were found in the grave. 
On the farm of a Mr. Long, about fifteen miles south-west 
of St. Louis, was found, many years ago, an ancient bury- 
ing ground, containing a vast number of small graves, indi- 
cating that the country around had once been the seat of a 
great population of human beings, of less than ordinary 
size, similar in every respect to those found near Coshocton, 
But on opening the graves they found the skeletons de- 
posited in stone cofiins, while those at Coshocton bore evi- 
dence of having been buried in wooden coffins. After open- 
ing man}^ of the graves, all having in them skeletons of a 
pigmy race, they at length found one, as at Coshocton, 
denoting a full developed large sized man, except in length, 
the legs having been cut off" at the knees, and placed along 
side the thigh bones. From this fact man}' scientific men 
conjectured that there must have been a custom among 
the inhabitants of separating the bones of the body before 


burial, and that accounted for the small size of the graves. 
The skeletons, however, were reduced to white chalkj^ 
ashes, and therefore it was impossible to determine whether 
such a custom existed or not. 

A custom is said to have existed among certain tribes of 
the western Indians to keep their dead unburied until the 
flesh separated from the bones, and when the bones became 
clean and white they were buried in small coffins. The 
iTanticoke Indians of Maryland had a custom of exhuming 
their dead, after some months of burial, cutting off from 
the bones all the flesh and burning it, then drying and 
wrapping the bones in clean cloths, and reburying them, 
and whenever the tribe removed to new hunting grounds 
the bones of their dead were taken along. It is know^n 
that this tribe removed to western Pennsylvania, and por- 
tions of them came to the Muskingum valley with the 
Shawanese. Zeisberger had two ISTanticoke converts at 
Schoenbrunn, and one of whom (named Samuel Nanticoke) 
affirmed — as tradition goes — that this pigni}^ grave-yard at 
Lichtenau was their burying ground, and contained the 
bones of their ancestors, carried from one place to another 
for many generations, and found a flnal resting place in 
these valleys, when their posterity became too weak, from 
the wastage of war, to remove them elsewhere. 


In the year 1826, an English traveler named Ash visited 
the ancient mounds and forts on the Muskingum, and made 
some explorations of them. , The party procured guides and 
workmen at Zanesville, and proceeded west Ave miles from 
that place, where mounds, barrows, forts, and ramparts of 
great variety and form were found, which then showed 
plainly their magnitude and magnificence. The works 

« 24 

were of triangular form, and occupied almost the wliole 
surface of a large plain that is bounded by ranges of high 
hills. The first excavation made was into a large barrow, 
which was found at tlie southern end of the group. At a 
depth of three feet from the surface the shovelers struck a 
fine mould, and under this were regular layers of fiat stones, 
which had evidently come from the hills in the vicinity. 
Under the stones were the remains of human frames, placed 
in rows with a fiat stone between them. The bones were 
in a very advanced state of decay, and instantly crumbled 
into powder when exposed to the air. A careful calcula- 
tion satisfied the party that this mound or barrow contained 
at least two thousand skeletons. In one of the little com- 
partments was found a stone pipe, carved to represent a 
bear's head, and some pieces of fine pottery. 

The party next opened a large flat mound, situated near 
the center of the group, upon which nothing was growing 
but a multitude of difi'erent kinds of wild flowers. After 
throwing ofi' the top of this mound to a level with the plain, 
nothing was found to indicate that it contained any remains. 
As the party were about to leave it and move to another, 
one of the men carelessly jumped from the outer bank into 
the excavation for a spade, when the ground gave way 
under all of them, and they went down about three feet. 
Upon, examining further it was found that a platform of 
decayed timbers had given way, which covered a hole meas- 
uring four feet by seven, and four feet deep. After con- 
siderable digging with the expectation of finding bones, 
the spades struck hard substances, which proved to be round 
stones like bodies, nine inches in diameter, and weighing 
about twenty pounds each. They resembled a mortar shell 
in size and general appearance, but upon being scraped with 
sharp instruments the surface became yellow like gold. At 
this discovery the workmen became almost wild with joy, 
believing that their fortunes were in their grasp. Upon 
consultation it was agreed to cover up the " diggings," take 
one of the " nuggets," and return to Zanesville to test it. 


After having arrived at the town a private room was secured, 
in which the party gathered to witness the trial by lire. A 
few moments after being placed in the fire the ball turned 
black, filled the place with a sulphurous odor, and then 
burst into ten thousand fragments. The inmates rushed 
from the house jjell-mell into the street, and gazed upon 
each other in mutual wonder and astonishment. After the 
smoke cleared away they found their gold ball to be nothing 
more than a sort of metal called sprite or pyrites, com- 
posed of sulphur and iron, which abounds in the valley hills. 

On the banks of a creek on the west side of the Mus- 
kingum, in Morgan County, were found numerous small 
mounds,' the bases of which were composed of hard burned 
bricks about five inches square, and on the bricks were 
charcoal cinders mixed with particles of calcined bones of 
human frames. The general shape and size of the mounds 
showed that the bones had been first burned on the brick 
altars, and afterward covered with earth to protect them 
and mark the spots. One of these mounds was over twenty 
feet square, and the bricks plainly showed the action of the 
fire. This mound was covered with large trees, some of 
which were ascertained to be at least five hundred years 
old. Lying on the ground were found trees in a state of 
decay that had fallen from old age. From a minute calcu- 
lation of the age ot the fallen trees and those yet standing, it 
was found that the mound was at least a thousand years old. 

In Washington County, four miles from the mouth of the 
Muskingum, and not far from that stream, was found an 
eminence, evidently the work of human beings, the summit 
of which was flat, and the sides covered with growing trees. 
An excavation on the top of this eminence failed to dis- 
close any stones or other marks which might lead to the 
supposition of its being a place of interment for the dead. 
The land thereabout was undulating, but not sufficiently 
hilly to obstruct a view from this mound for several miles, 
which goes far to prove it a place for observation. It is 
reasonable to suppose that these eminences — there were 


others found in the vicinity — were the posts for lookouts 
or sentinels, from which an advancing foe could be seen in 
time to prepare for an attack. They may have been used 
as points on which to kindle beacon tires in the night time, 
such as were used on the heights of Scotland in the times of 
Bruce and Wallace, or those of the Persians, who ,in this 
way worshiped the Oramaze, the god who made all things. 

On the west side of the Muskingum, a short distance 
further north, and on the banks of a small creek which 
empties into the river, skirted by hills, were found traits of 
a large number of people having once lived there. On each 
side of the creek were semi-circles of a huge rampart, con- 
taining at least three acres. The remains of two stone 
abutments were discovered directly opposite each other, on 
the banks of the creek, and at the center of the circle, which 
established the fact of there having been a bridge connec- 
tion between the two forts. The timber which grew on 
the ramparts and within the inclosure was large and of 
great age, some trees being seven feet in diameter. 

Some distance further up the creek were found a great 
number of mounds, in regularly formed circles, and cut in 
two by the creek, or the large circle down the stream. At 
some distance back from the creek were two large mounds, 
about twelve feet high. They were composed principally 
of stone from the creek banks. Heavy timber grew on 
these mounds also. Here had been placed the remains of 
the people who inhabited the towns inclosed within the 
large circles. From all this it is highly probable that the 
mounds forming the circles were the dwelling places of the 
ancient race that inhabited these places. 

On the east side of the Muskingum, on an elevated plain, 
about half a mile from the Ohio, were found a large forti- 
fication, or town, nearly a mile in circumference. One large 
fort was almost square in shape, and contained about forty 
acres, surrounded by a rampart of earth about eight feet 
high and twenty-four feet wide at the base. Three open- 
ings or gateways were on each side, the largest being the 


center one on the side facing the river. From this outlet 
was a road formed of two parallel walls of earth about two 
hundred feet apart. These walls were twenty feet high on 
the inside, five on the outside, and forty in width at the 
base. The road descended gradually toward the low ground 
near the river, which probably reached the ends of the walls 
when the works were constructed. Inside of this fort, at 
the north-west corner, was an oblong elevated square one 
hundred and eighty feet long, one hundred and thirty-two 
broad, and nine high, level on the summit, and nearly 
straight on the sides. N'ear the south wall was also an 
elevated square, one hundred and twenty by one hundred 
and fifty feet, and eight feet high, similar to the other, ex- 
cepting that instead of an ascent to go up on the side next 
to the wall there was a hollow way, ten feet wide, leading 
twenty feet toward the center, then rising with a gradual 
slope to the top. This was thought to have been a secret 
passage. A third elevated square was in the south-east 
corner, and measured fifty by one hundred feet, with ascent 
at the ends ten feet wide. In addition to this forty acre 
fort was one containing twenty acres, with a gateway on 
each side, and at each corner was a circular mound. A 
short distance from this smaller fort was a conical mound, 
over one hundred feet in diameter at the base, and thirty 
feet high. Around it was a ditch four feet deep, fifteen 
wide, and- defended by a parapet four feet high, through 
which was a gateway twenty feet wide. In one corner of 
the outside wall of the great fort was a reservoir, twenty- 
five feet in diameter, with its sides raised above the level 
four feet. It was thirty feet deep and tapered to a point at 
the bottom like a funnel. 

On the west side of the Muskingum, Mr. Ash found an 
eminence which commanded a fine view of Marietta and 
the rivers, up and down, displaying a great distance along 
the narrow valley of the Ohio. After an inspection of this 
place it was believed to have been once occupied as a point 
of observation, or a strong hold. The summit denoted arti- 


ficial construction, and was oval in shape, being twenty- 
three by forty -five feet. Around the base was a wall of 
earth wliich was too much decayed to calculate its size 
when built. A heavy growth of timber grew over the 
whole. Upon closer examination a small hole or orifice was 
found below the roots of a hirge tree which grew on the 
very summit. Several flat stones were removed from around 
the hole, when other larger ones appeared below, and under 
these a bed of river sand a foot deep. Upon removing the 
sand a hollow paved with flat stones came into view. These 
being removed another bed of sand was found, and under it 
another bed of stones neatly fltted together. Under these 
was what seemed to be a lot of mats in a great state of de- 
cay, the dust of which being blown off revealed a beautiful 
tesselated pavement of small, colored stones; the color and 
stones arranged in such a manner as to express harmony 
and shades, and portraying at full length the figure of a 
man, at the feet of which was a snake coiled up. The body 
of the figures was composed of dyed woods, bones, &c., 
which crumbled into dust at contact with the air. The 
colors of the stones were white, green, blue, and spotted 
red and white. The whole was affixed in a thin layer of 
sand, and fitted together with nice precision. Under this 
was the remains of a skeleton, at least seven feet in length. 
By the side of the skeleton was found an earthen vessel or 
urn, in which were several bones and some white sediment. 
The urn appeared to have been made of sand and flint, and 
when struck would ring like glass. It held about two gal- 
lons, and had a top of the same material. Among other 
things found were a stone ax, twenty-four arrow points, 
some beads, a large couch shell, decomposed liKe chalk, 
some shreds of cloth and hair, brass rings, upon which 
were characters engraved, resembling Chinese. 

Ancient remains exist at Circleville, also near Chillicothe, 
Portsmouth, on the Little Miami, at Cincinnati, on the north 
bank of Paint creek, along the Ohio, near Lebanon, on the 
Huron River, at the junction of all the rivers along the Mis- 


sissippi, on the Illinois Kiver, on the Wabash, opposite St. 
Louis, down at Baton Kouge, and from the Atlantic to the 
Missouri, &c. 


Samuel Park, Esq., who delivered an address in 1870 
before the Pioneer Association of Licking County, on the 
Antiquities of Franklin, Muskingum, and Licking coun- 
ties, related among other facts the following : " Elder John 
Smock, a citizen of Perry County, Ohio, aged seventy-one 
years, and for fifty-one years a citizen of Muskingum coun- 
ty, says- when twenty years old he was burning charcoal 
near Dresden, and with several others had the curiosity to 
open a mound eight feet high, about one mile north-east 
of Dresden. On doing so, they found in the middle of the 
mound, on a level with the surrounding plain, five human 
skeletons lying in a radiating position with their feet toward 
the center. With the bones were a large number of flint 
arrow points, some' of them seven inches long, and they 
appeared to have been deposited in a wooden box, entirely 
decayed. The}^ also found a stone hammer, shaped like a 
shoe-hammer, with a groove around the middle, instead of 
an eye through it. Also a blue marble pipe, eight inches 
long, one and a half inches w^ide, a half inch thick, with the 
bowl in the middle of it. There were three orifices drilled 
through to the bowl from each end. Mr. Smock said he 
had often smoked through each of the six orifices. The 
pipe was nicely executed and ornamented. A brass kettle 
was also found, of three gallons capacity, bruised and flat- 
tened by the weight of earth upon it. There was also found 
an ax of four pounds weight, long and narrow bit, badly 
ruvsted, but showed the iron and steel when ground to a 
smooth surface." Mr. Park, in commenting on this mound, 
remarked, " here were found several articles lying in juxta- 


position at the bottom of this ancient tumulus that evidently 
belong to ages not less than three thousand years apart, and 
with the mode of burial representing several nations." 


Professor Park spent much time visiting and exaijiining 
mounds and fortifications in Licking County, in the vicinity 
of Newark, and the townships adjacent. Of mounds in that 
county there are about one thousand, three hundred of 
which had not been opened as late as 1870. Some of those 
opened had no human bones or articles in them; others had 
bones, remains of pottery, hatchets of stone, &c. Of the 
fortifications, of Avhich there were many, eight had not been 
examined as late as 1870. Of those examined nearly all 
were constructed Avith the moat or ditch inside the wall. 
Many were small, not exceeding two hundred feet in diam- 
eter, while others inclosed many acres, inside the walls, 
which ranged from eight to thirty feet in height, made of 
stone, unburned brick, and earth, in true military form. 
The Licking County Agricultural Society's grounds are 
located in one of the largest ancient mound-fortifications, 
which incloses forty acres of land, and Mr. Park concludes 
that in it was probably a massive temple or palace of a 
ruling prince, who ruled over a city having a population 
equal to that of the whole State of Ohio at the present day. 

The professor, after a full investigation, arrives at no defi- 
nite conclusion as to the origin of these ancient Americans, 
l)ut thinks their origin may be traced to the general dis- 
persion from the plains of Shinar, and that the state of 
civilization to which they attained was not borrowed from 
any other division of the earth, but was the natural growth 
and development of their own system of mental culture. 



It is evident that the men who erected the forts at the 
mouth of the Muskingum knew the mechanic arts, while 
those who erected the earth-works in Coshocton and Tus- 
carawas, and the stone altars in old Stark County, at the 
head of the river Tuscarawas, knew but little of those arts. 
Who they were and whence they came has been the study 
of antiquarians for nearly a century. One writer claims 
that America was peopled as early as the time of the siege 
of Troy. Another insists that in the time of Alexander 
the Great, his ships touched and landed some of his subjects 
on the American continent. A third argues that the Ro- 
man ships that carried Ceesar's army to Gaul, were of such 
huge dimensions that the soldiers had to jump into the sea 
to reach the land, and therefore those ships could cross the 
ocean in safety, and land the Romans on this continent. A 
fourth presumes that the Greenlanders, Scandinavians, Ice- 
landers, &c., reached the continent by reason of the numer- 
ous islands then in the Pacific and otlier seas. The JSTorth- 
men have a tradition tliat Lief, Biorn, and Eric, each visited 
this country at difierent periods between A. D 700 and A. D. 
1000. Welsh writers give a tradition from Powell's history 
of Wales, that Prince Modoc sailed the second time from 
his country toward this continent with ten ships and was 
never heard of afterward. But that tribes of Indians have 
been found in the far West who speak a language in uni- 
son with the Welsh dialect is a well established fact, and 
the further fact that scraps of ancient Welsh armor have 
been found at several localities, and among others at the 
falls of the Ohio, has led antiquarians to believe that Mo- 
doc's ships being wrecked on the American coast, portions 
of their crews wandered among the Aborigines, and in the 
course of time became Indians. It has been lately avered 
that the Modocs of Washington territory, speaking as they 
do a language approximating the Welsh, were descendants 
of Welsh colonists. 



Robert Cavalier La Salle was born in France, 1635, edu- 
cated for the ministry, came to Canada, 16(37, renounced 
his contemplated cloister life, and plunged into the ^Yilde^- 
ness to make a name as an explorer. After crossing Lake 
Erie in a small trading-boat of his own, he penetrated the 
wilderness in many directions, following the sources of the 
Mississippi and its tributaries, and also tracing other rivers. 
In 1667, he and a companion were among the Senecas, in 
!N"ew York State, seeking guides to lead them to the Ohio, 
and country of the Shawanese. They gave him a Shawanee 
prisoner for some hatchets and clothing, and learning the 
route he intended to take, — up Lake Erie and down the 
Miamies, they told him of a shorter route to the Ohio. If 
we take the map, we find a shorter route to the Ohio b}' 
leaving the Lake of Cats (Erie) more easterly than the 
Miami or Maumee, then going up the more easterly stream 
(Cuyahoga), crossing a short portage (the summit portage 
of this day), then down a branch of another river (the Tus- 
carawas), thence down a large river (the Muskingum) with 
few rapids in it for one hundred miles to the Oubach (Ohio). 

There is no data to show that La Salle followed that route, 
but the facts that he had a Shawanee guide, and wanted to 
go to the Shawanese country, and the Ohio, by the nearest 
route, is strong presumptive evidence that he folloAved these 
rivers to Marietta, and from that point ascended and de- 
scended the Ohio. But here his record is lost for nearly 
three years, during which his friends had no trace of La 
Salle. It is in evidence, however, that he did examine the 
Ohio and its tributaries, and the three lost years may have 
been taken up in so doing, for a map was made in 1672 sup- 
posed to be from data of La Salle. The whole length of 
the Ohio is laid down witli the name it now bears on this 
map. Whether he reached the Muskingum at its source 


or ut its mouth — he was on it beyond a doubt — and being 
there it can readily be perceived that a man of his cast of 
mind woukl not have left the valley until he had examined 
the mounds, earth-works, and fortilications at Marietta, 
Zanesville, E'ewark, and other points along the Muskin- 
gum and branches described in the preceding chapter of 
this book. This would have taken up much of his lost 
three years, for such a prolific territory touching the an- 
cient Americans had not then been found in his travels. 

He afterward returned to Canada, and in process of time 
wandered do'wn the Mississippi, took possession of the whole 
country in the name of France, and called it Louisiana. Re- 
turning to Quebec in 1683 he sailed for France, came back 
to Canada, organized another expedition and reached Texas, 
wliere he charged one of his expeditionists with murdering 
his son, and this man shot the father also. Thus perished 
one of the four great explorers whose portraits now grace 
the walls of the rotunda at the city of Washington. 

Mr. Pierre Margry, of Paris, said to be a descendant of 
La Salle, has unpublished maps and documents of the great 
explorer, which have been given to the United States, and 
will soon be published according to a plan which originated 
with the Historical Society of Korthern Ohio, of which 
Charles Whittles}^, Esq., is president, and who has published 
a letter to him from Mr. Margry, containing an extract of 
one of La Salle's unpublished letters indicating the Maumee 
and Miami as the route he took to reach the Ohio in 1669. 
The original extract in French was sent to F. Parkman, Esq., 
of Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, author of the publication 
called " Discovery of the Great West," and who had therein 
described the Alleghany as the natural route from the Sena- 
cas — Onondaga — country to the Shawanese country by way 
of the Ohio. 

In a late letter by the writer of this article to Mr. Park- 
man, the route by Cuyahoga, Tuscarawas, and Muskingum, 
was suggested as the probable one taken, and an opinion 
asked of him. His answer is subjoined: 


"Jamaica Plain, August 4, 1875. 
" C. H. MiTCHENER, Esq., New Philaclelpliiti, Ohio : 

'■'■Dear Sir: Returning home yesterday, after an ahsence 
of several weeks, I found your letter of July 23. 

" In the oljscurity which covers La Salle's movements after 
he left the Lulpitians in 1609, it is not possihle to state any 
thing with coniidence as to the course he took to reach the 
Ohio. The only account that seems to me to deserve to he 
admitted as evidence is that contained in the unpublished 
memoir of 1678, of which I have given an account in the 
'Discovery of the Great West.' On page 20, note, I have 
printed the only passage which throws any light on the 
matter. By this it appears that he went by way of Onon- 
daga, whence he seems to have reached and descended the 

" What he may afterward have done is at present a mat- 
ter of conjecture. The extract of one of his letters to which 
you allude, — meaning as I infer the passage sent by Mr. 
Margry to Colonel Whittlesy, — is too obscure and self-con- 
tradictory to aftbrd safe ground for any conclusion. It is, 
moreover, without date. 

"I have some hope that I may hereafter find the means 
of answering your questions more satisfactory. 

"Yours Respectfully, F. Parkman." 

From the above Mr. Parkman adheres to his published 
theory, though not confidently. From the Onondaga coun- 
try in Kew York, the seat of ancient power of the Five or 
Six Nations, to the Shawanee country of Ohio, is about five 
hundred miles by way of the Cuyahoga, Tuscarawas, and 
Muskingum; by way of the Alleghany, including the mean- 
derings of the Ohio, over six hundred miles, and by way of 
the Maumee portage over seven hundred miles. In going 
south or west the Indians took the shortest route, as did the 
mound builders before them, and the buffaloes before them. 

La Salle, in the absence of positive proof to the contrary, 
may be considered as following the old trails, when he ex- 
plored the Ohio two hundred years ago. 



As eiirly us 1535 the territory called New France, eni- 
l)raciiig al)()ut all the laud west of the Ohio, was roamed 
over by the Jesuits, gaiuiug the friendship of the Indians, 
aiid planting the catholic cross in the name of the Holy 
Father. Such was their success, that in one hundred years 
their heads and rosaries became as potent to the red man 
as they have to his white brother in all lands. 

In 1713, by the treaty of Utrecht, Louisiana belonged to 
France, and extended from the gulf to the northern lakes. 

In 1748 the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle quieted French 
title for a time to this great area, and her forts erected at 
Niagara in 172(3, and at Presqueisle, (signifying peninsula, at 
the present Erie, Pennsylvania,) and at Le Boeuf, (signify- 
ing place of buiialoes, Erie County, Pennsylvania,) frowned 
upon all trespassers from the dominions of his Britanic ma- 
jesty in the East. SZ^i 4.oO 

In 1749 some traders found on the Ohio buried a leaden 
plate, which they stole and sent to the colonial authorities, 
containing this inscription in French: 

Literal Translation. — "In the year 1749, reign of Louis 
XV., King of France, we, Celeron, commandant of a detach- 
ment sent by monsieur, the marquis of Galissoniere, com- 
mander-in-chief of New France, to establish tranquility in 
certain villages of these cantons, have buried this plate at 
the conlluence of the Ohio and of Po-ra-Da-Koin, this 29th 
of July, near the river Ohio, otherwise Beautiful River, as 
a monument ol renewal of possession which we have taken 
of the said river, and of all its tributaries, and of all the 
land on both sides, as far as to the sources of said rivers, — 
inasmuch as the preceding kings of France have enjoyed 
(this possession), and have maintained it by their arms and 
by treaties, especially by those of Riswick, Utrecht, and 


In this same 3'ear, the Freucli bt'coiiiiiig iilarnied at the 
bokhiess of Eui;'lish traders from the eastern colonies, in 
venturing into tin- Ohio coinitry, sent armed forces tliereto 
to drive them hack, and in January, 1750, tlie Tenns}'!- 
vania colonial governoi' informed tlie council that the past 
summer a French captain, (■eleion, with three hundred 
French and some Indians, had entered the Oiiio \alley to 
reprove the Indians for their friendship to the English, a*id 
for suffering the English to trade with them. 


The English colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia had 
licensed traders to traverse this French territory, four of 
whom had been seized as early as 1749 as trespassers, and 
were carried as prisoners from the hanks of the Ohio into 
Canada, under charges of tampering with the Indians and 
endeavoring to seduce them to conve}' to the English rights 
in land for powder, lead, and whisk3^ 

Under a deed obtained by the colonies of Pennsylvania, 
Virginia, and Maryland from some Iroquois chiefs for " all 
the land beyond the mountains," twelve Virginians, among 
whom was George Washington, in the year 1748, procured 
from the king of England, through the governor of Virginia, 
a grant for half a million acres of land, on both sides of the 
Ohio Kiver, and between the Monongahela and Kenawha 
rivers. Of this grant, two hundred thousand acres was to 
be located at once, one hundred families to be put thereon 
in seven years, and a fort built sufficient to protect them. 
The company was called the " Ohio Land Company." They 
immediately sent out a surveyor, by the name of Christo- 
pher Gist, to explore the country, and find the best land. 
He left the Potomac River, in Maryland, in October, 1750, 
crossed the Ohio near Pittsburg; thence to the mouth of i 


Beaver River; thence crossed the country and reached the 
Tuscarawas Eiver on the 5th of December, at a point oppo- 
site the present town of Bolivar. On the 7th he crossed over 
to an Indian village, and fonnd the Indians in the French 
interest. Following the river south, he reached another 
Indian town on the 14th, near the junction of the Tusca- 
rawas and Wliite Woman. This town contained about one 
hundred families, a portion in the French, and a portion in 
the English interest. Here he met Andrew Montour, a half 
breed, and George Croghan, an English trader, who had his 
head-quarters at this town. In his journal. Gist says: 

" When we came in sight of the town we perceived 
English colors hoisted on the king's (chief's) house, and at 
George Croghan's. Upon inquiring the reason, I was in- 
formed that the French had lately taken several English 
traders, and that Mr. Croghan had ordered all the white 
men to come into this town, and had sent runners to the 
traders of the lower towns, and that the Indians had sent 
to their people to come and counsel about it. 

"Monday, December 17. — Two traders, belonging to Mr. 
Croghan, came into town and informed us that ten of his 
people had been taken by forty Frenchmen and twenty 
Indians, who had carried them with seven horse loads of 
skins to a new fort the French were building on one of the 
branches of Lake Erie. 

" Tuesday, 18. — I acquainted Mr. Croghan and Mr. Mon- 
tour of my business with the Indians, and talked much of 
a regulation of trade, with which they were pleased, and 
treated me verj?^ well. 

"Tuesday, 25. — This being Christmas day, I intended to 
read prayers, but after inviting some of the white men, they 
informed each other of my intention, and being of several 
persuasions, and few of them inclined to hear ''any good, 
they refused to come; but one Thomas Burney, a black- 
smith, who is settled there, went about and talked to them, 
and then several of the well-disposed Indians came freely, 
being invited by Andrew Montour. The Indians seemed 


to be well pleased, and came up to me and returned me 
their thanks, and then invited me to live among them. 
They were desirous of being instructed in the principles of 
Christianity; that they liked me very Avell, and wanted me 
to marry them after the Christian manner, and baptize their 
children, and then they said they would never desire to re- 
turn to the French, or suffer them or their priests to come 
near them more, for they loved the English, but had seen 
little religion among them. 

"Wednesday, 26. — This day a woman that had long been 
a prisoner and had deserted, being retaken and brought into 
town on Christmas eve, was put to death in the following 
manner: They carried her without the town and let her 
loose; and when she attempted to run away, the persons 
appointed for that purpose pursued her and struck her on 
the ear on the right side of the head, which bent her flat 
on her face to the ground. They then struck her several 
times through the back with a dart to the heart; scalped 
her, and threw the scalp in the air, and another cut off her 
head. Thus the dismal spectacle la}' until evening, and 
then Barney Curran desired leave to bury her, which ho 
and his men and some of the Indians did just at dark. 

" Friday, January 14, 1751. — One Taaf, an Indian trader, 
came to town from near Lake Erie, and informed us that the 
Wy an dots had advised him to keep clear of the Ottowas, 
(a nation firmly attached to the French, living near the 
lakes,) and told him that the branches of the lakes were 
claimed by the French, but that all the branches of the Ohio 
belonged to them and their brethren, the English, and that 
the French had no business there, and that it was expected 
that the other part of the Wyandots would desert the French 
and come over to the English interest, and join their breth- 
ren on the Elk Eye (Muskingum) creek, and build a strong 
fort and town there. 

"Wednesday, 9. — This day two traders came into town 
from among the Pequantices (a tribe of the Twig Twees), and 
bronght news that another English trader was taken pris- 


oner by the French, and that tliree French soldiers had 
deserted and come over to the English, and surrendered 
themselves to some of the traders of the Picktown (Pipe- 
town), and that the Indians would have put them to deatli 
to revenge their taking our traders ; but as the Frencli had 
surrendered themselves to tlie English, tliey would not let 
the Indians hurt them, hut had ordered them to be sent 
under the care of three of our traders, and delivered at this 
town to George Croghan. 

"Saturda}^, 12. — Proposed a council; postponed; Indians 

"Monday, 14. — This day George Croghan, by the assist- 
ance of Andrew Montour, acquainted the king and council 
of this nation (presenting tliem with four strings of wam- 
pum) that tlieir roggony (father) had sent, under the care 
of, the governor of Virginia, their l)rother, a, large present 
of goods, which were now landed safe in Virginia, and that 
the governor had sent me to invite them to come and see 
him, and partake of their father's charity to all his children 
on the branches of the Ohio. In answer to which one of 
the chiefs stood up and said that their king and all of them 
thanked their brother, the governor of Virginia, for his care, 
and me for bringing them tlie news; but that they could 
not give an answer until they had a full or general council 
of the several Indian nations, which could not be until next 
spring; and so the king and council, shaking hands with 
us, we took our leave. 

"Tuesday, 15. — We left Muskingum and went west live 
miles to the White Woman Creek, on which is a small town. 
This white woman was taken away from New England when 
she was not al)Ove ten years old by the French Indians. ISlie 
is now upward of lifty; has an Indian husband and several 
children. Her name is Mary Harris. She still remembers 
that tliey used to be very religious in New England; and 
wonders how the white men can be so wicked as she has 
seen them in these woods. 


" Wednesday, 16. — Set out south-west twenty -five miles 
to Licking creek. The land from Muskingum is rich and 
broken. Upon the nortli sid^ of Licking creek, about six 
miles from its mouth, were several salt licks or ponds 
formed by little streams or drains of water, clear, but of a 
bluish color and salt taste. The traders and Indians boil 
their meat in this water, which, if proper care is not taken, 
will sometimes make it too salt to eat. 

"Saturday, 19. — Arrived at Hockhocking, a small town 
of Delawares. 

"Sunday, 20. — Traveled twenty miles south-west to Ma- 
guck, another small Delaware town near the Scioto." 

After exploring the Scioto bottoms, Gist and his party 
proceeded to Shawnee town, at the mouth of this stream. 

" Here we arrived on the 28th, and fired our guns to alarm 
the traders, who came and ferried us over the Ohio. This 
town is situated on both sides of the river, and contains 
about three hundred men. They are great friends to the 
English interest. In the evening a proper officer made a 
public proclamation, that all the Indian marriages were dis- 
solved, and a public feast was to be held for three succeed- 
ing days, in which the women, as their custom was, were 
to choose again their husbands. The next morning early 
the Indians breakfasted, and afterward spent the day in 
dancing until evening; when a plentiful feast was prepared. 
After feasting they spent the night in dancing. The same 
way they spent the two next days until evening. The men 
dancing by themselves, and the women in turns, around 
fires, and dancing in their manner and in the form of the 
figure eight, about sixty or seventy of them at a time. The 
women, the whole time they danced, sung a song in their 
language, the chorus of which was : 

" I am not afraid of my husband, 
I will choose what man I please." 

The tliird day, in the evening, the men, being about one 
hundred in nundjer, danced in a long string, following one 


another, sometimes at length, at other times in the figure of 
an eight, quite around the fort, and in and out of the house 
where they hehl their councils, and the women, standing 
together as the men danced by them, and as any of the 
women liked a man passing by, she stepped in and joined 
in the dance, taking hold of the man's blanket whom she 
choose, and then continued in the dance until the rest of the 
women stepped in and made their choice in the same man- 
ner, after which the dance ended, and they all retired to 

Gist and Croghan proceeded on to the falls of the Ohio, 
and thence returned home by way of N'orth Carolina. 

In 1752 he appeared at Logstown, fourteen miles below 
Pittsburgh, where the English and Indians had met for a 
"big talk," the English claiming "all the land beyond the 
mountains," under the Lancaster treaty of 1744, and the 
Indians claiming that they only ceded their lands to the 
warrior's road, at the foot of the Alleghanies. 


In 1753, Colonel George Washington took Mr. Gist with 
him as a comj^anion, and journeyed on foot to Fort La 
Bouef (near present city of Erie, Pa.,) — and in his journal, 
Washington says: "I took my necessary papers, pulled 
off my clothes, and tied myself up in a watch-coat. Then 
I took my gun in hand, and pack on my back, in which 
were my papers and provisions. I set out with Mr. Gist, 
fitted in the same manner, on Wednesday, the 26th of 
December. The day following, just after we had passed a 
place called Murdemig Town, we fell in with a party of 
French Indians who had lain in wait for us. One of them 
fired at Mr, Gist or me, not fifteen steps off, but missed. 
We took the fellow into custody and kept him until about 
nine o'clock at night, then let him go, and walked on the 
remaining part of the night, without making any stops, 


that we might get the start so far as to be out of reach of 
their pursuit next day, siuce we were well assured they 
would follow our track as soon as it was light. We con- 
tinued traveling the next day until quite dark, and got to 
the river, which we expected to have found frozen, but it 
was not. The ice I suppose had broken up alcove, for it 
was driving in vast quantities. There was no way for get- 
ting over but on a raft, which we set about building with 
but one poor hatchet, and finished just after sun-setting. 
This was a whole daj^'s work; we next got it launched, 
then went aboard and set oft", but before we were half over 
we were jammed in the ice in such a manner that we ex- 
pected every moment our raft to sink, and ourselves to 
perish, I put out my setting pole to try to stop the raft, 
when the rapidity of the stream threw it with so much 
violence against the pole that it jerked me out into ten feet 
water, but I saved myself by catcliing hold of one of tlie 
raft logs. Notwithstanding all our eftbrts we could not 
get to the shore, but were obliged, as we were near an 
island, to quit our raft ajfid make for it. The cold was so 
severe that Mr. Gist had all his fingers and some of his 
toes frozen, and the water was so shut up that we found 
no difticulty in getting off the island in the morning, and 
went to Mr. Frazier's. As we intended to take horses, and 
it taking some time to find them, I went up to the mouth 
of Youghiogany to visit Queen Aliquippa. I made her a 
present of a watch-coat and bottle of rum, the latter of 
which she thought the better present of the two. Tuesday, 
January 1st, left Frazier's, and arrived at Mr. Gist's house 
at Monongahela. The 6th we met seventeen pack-horses 
with materials and stores for a fort at the forks of the 
Ohio (now Pittsburg). The day after we met some fami- 
lies going out to settle, and this day arrived at Wells Creek 
(now Cumberland). — [The above is abridged from MarshalVs 
Life of Washington.'] 

The eftbrt of this land company, as developed by the 
trip of Mr. Gist into the Ohio valley, to get a foothold 


west of the Ohio, aroused the French government, and in 
1753 that government took the initiative in erecting a line 
of forts from the lakes to Louisiana, to protect its interests 
and keep back the English from occupying French terri- 
tory. Colonel (afterwards General) Washington was disr 
patched by the Virginia government to demand informa- 
tion of the French, as to the object of Jthe French troops 
which had arrived at Presque Isle on their way to the Ohio. 
As soon as he returned to Virginia, that colony raised and 
sent troops to the Ohio ; but before they arrived the French 
had erected a fort at Logstown, fourteen miles below Pitts- 
burgh, surprised a block-house of the Ohio company at that 
place, seized their skins and goods, and killed the English 
traders except two. The Virginia troops arrived at the 
junction of rivers above, established a post, but, before 
linishing it, were surprised and captured by a French force, 
which immediately erected Fort Duquesne, in 1754, and 
thus a war was begun between England and France. In 
1755, General Braddock was sent out with an English 
army to recapture the place, but was met by the combined 
French and Indian forces, — the latter numbering five hun- 
dred warriors from the Muskingum, Scioto, and Sandusky, 
— and defeated. 

[^Note. — In regard to th5s defeat, General Morris said it was owing to the 
want of care and caution in the leaders, who held in great eontempt the In- 
dian mode of fighting. Washington says the dastardly behavior of the regular 
troops exposed the whole army. In spite of every effort they broke and run 
like sheep from the Indians. Colonel Burd says the enemy kept behind trees 
and logs and cut down the troops as fast as they advanced. The colonial 
soldiers asked to be allowed to take to trees and fight, but General Braddock 
called them cowards, and struck some who attempted to tree and fight. It is 
said of two brothers, named Tom and Joseph Faucett, who had spent their lives 
in Indian fighting, that Braddock struck Joseph Faucett down with his sword, 
for taking to a tree. Tom Faucett seeing this aimed at and shot Braddock in 
revenge. Braddock was buried in the middle of the road, and wagons made 
to pass over it to hide the grave from the Indians, and marks made on trees to 
enable his friends to tell where he lay. In 1823 some men repairing this road 
found his bones with his military trappings, which were sent to Peale's museum, 


Braddock's defeat • assured peace for a time to all the 
French interests in " New France," west of the Ohio, and 
opened up the border country of Virginia and Pennsylvania 
to the murdering incursions of the savages from the west, 
who penetrated into the heart of each colony, and carried 
back to our valleys the scalps of the English colonists by 
scores during 17555 1756, and 1757. 

In 1758, expeditions were sent out by the colonial gov- 
ernments of Pennsylvania and Virginia, to recapture Fort 
Duquesne, and penetrate the Indian territory. In Novem- 
ber, Colonel Washington, and the force with which he was 
connected, came near the fort, when it was set fire to, and 
abandoned by the French, and taken possession of by the 
English, who rebuilt and named it Fort Pitt, after William 
Pitt, the great English statesman, by whose statesmanship 
the war was brought to a conclusion, and France, in 1760, 
yielded to England as well all of Canada as the territory 
west of the Ohio. 

Thus we are justified in saying that the Ohio Land Com- 
pany, in sending Mr. Gist down these valleys in 1750, to 
^^find the best lands,'' was one of the remote causes of that 
great European war, which ten years later lost France her 
principal possessions i-n America, and, at a period still later, 
procured for the American colonies a general by whose wis- 
dom England also lost her possessions in the colonies; 




Colonel James Smith, a citizen of Pennsylvania, was sur- 
prised near Bedford in May, 1755, and taken prisoner by 
two Delaware Indians. He was lodged at Fort Duquesne 
at the time of Braddock's defeat, and witnessed barbarities 
practiced upon prisoners taken in that battle, having himself 
to run the gauntlet, and submit to tortures more cruel than 
death itself. He was then taken to an Indian town called 
Tulhillas, on the White Woman, about twenty miles above 
the forks (or north of Coshocton), inhabited by Delawares 
and Mohicans, where he remained some months, and under- 
went the ceremony of being made an Indian. His account 
of it and other ceremonies is here given from his published 
narrative, illustrative of the manners and customs of the 
inhabitants of this territory one hundred and twenty years 
ago. He says : 

" The day after my arrival at the aforesaid town, a number 
of Indians collected about me, and one of them began to 
pull the hair out of my head. He had some ashes on a 
piece of l^ark, in which he frequently dipped his iingers, in 
order to take the firmer hold, and so he went on, as if he 
had been plucking a turkey, until he had all the hair clean 
out of my head, except a small spot about three or four 
inches square on my crown; this they cut off with a pair of 
scissors, excepting three locks, which they dressed up in 
their own mode. Two of these they wrapped around with 


a mirrow Ijuudod garter made by themselves for that pur- 
pose, and the other tliey }»hiited at full length, and then 
stuck it full of silver brooches. After this they bored my 
nose and ears, and tixed me ott" with ear-rings and nose 
jewels; then they ordered me to strip off my clothes and 
put on a breech-clout, which I did; they then painted my 
head, face, and body, in various colors. They put a large 
belt of wampum on my neck, and silver bands on my hands 
and right arm; and so an old chief led me out in the street, 
and gave the alarm halloo, coo-ioi(jh, several 'times repeated 
(piick ; and on this, all that were in town came running and 
stood around the old chief, who hold me by the hand in the 
midst. As I at that time knew nothing of their mode of 
adoption, and had seen them put to death all they had taken, 
and as I never could find that they saved a man alive at 
Braddock's defeat, I made no doubt but they were about 
putting me to death in some cruel manner. The old chief 
holding me by the hand, made a long speech, very loud, 
and when he had done, he handed me to three young squaws, 
who led me by the hand down the bank, into the river, 
until the w^ater was up to our middle. The squaws then 
nnide signs for me to plunge ni3'Self into the w^ater, l)ut I 
did not understand them; — I thought that the result of the 
council was, that I should be drowned, and that these young 
ladies were to be the executioners. They all three laid 
violent hold of me, and I for some time opposed them wdth 
all my might, which occasioned loud laughter l)y the mul- 
titude that were on the bank of the river. At length one 
of the squaws made out to speak a little English (for I be- 
lieve they begun to be afraid of me) and said, ' no hart yon;' 
on this I gave myself up to their ladyships, who were as 
good as their word; for though they plunged me un<ler 
water, and washed and rubbed me severely, I could not say 
they hurt me much. 

" These young women then led me up to the council house, 
where some of the tribe were ready with new clothes for me. 
They gave me a new ruffled shirt, which I put on, also a 


pair of leggiiis done oli'witli ribbons and beads, likewise a 
pair of moccasins, and garters dressed with beads, porcu- 
pine quills, and red hair — also a tinsel laced cappo. They 
again painted my head and face with various colors, and 
tied a bunch of red feathers to one of those locks they had 
left on the crown of my head, which stood up live or six 
inches. They seated me on a bear-skin, and gave me a pii)e, 
tomahawk, and polecat-skin pouch, which had been skinned 
pocket fashion, and contained tobacco, killegenico, or dry 
sumach leaves, which they mix with their tobacco, — also 
spunk, iiint, and steel. When I was thus seated, the In- 
dians came in dressed and painted in their grandest man- 
ner. As they came in they took their seats, and for a con- 
siderable time there was a profound silence — every one was 
smoking, l)ut not a word was spoken among them. At length 
one of the chiefs made a speech, which was delivered to me 
])y an interpreter, and was as follows : 

" My son, you are now flesh of our flesh, and bone of our 
bone. By the ceremony which was performed this day, 
every drop of white blood was washed out of your veins; 
you are taken into the Caughncwago nation, and initiated 
into a warlike tribe; you are adopted into a great family, 
and now received with great seriousness and solemnity in 
the room and place of a great man. After what has passed 
this day, you are now one of us by an old strong law and 
custom. My son, you have now nothing to fear; we are 
now under the same obligations to love, support, and de- 
fend you, that we are to love and defend one another ; there- 
fore, you are to consider yourself as one of our people." 

At this time I did not believe this fine speech, especially 
that of the white blood being washed out of me ; but since 
that time I have found tluxt there w\as much sincerity in said 
speech ; for, from that day, I never knew them to make any 
distinction between me and themselves in any respect what- 
ever until I left them. If they had plenty of clothing I had 
plenty; if we were scarce, we all shared one fate. 


"After this curcmouy was over, I was introduced to my 
new kin, and told that I was to attend a feast that evening, 
which I did. And as the custom was, they gave me also a 
howl and wooden spoon, which I carried with me to the 
place where there were a number of large brass kettles full 
of boiled venison and green corn ; every one advanced with 
his Ijowl and s[)oon, and had his share given him. After 
this, one of the chiefs made a short speech, and then we 
began to eat. 

"The name of one of the chiefs in this town was Tecan- 
yaterighto, alias Pluggy, and the other Asallecoa, alias 
Mohawk Solomon. As Pluggy and his party were to start 
the next day to war, to the frontiers of Virginia, the next 
thing to be performed was the war dance, and their war 
songs. At their war dance they had both vocal and in- 
strumental music — they had a short, hollow gum closed at 
one end, with water in it, and parchment stretched over the 
open end thereof, which they beat with one stick, and made 
a sound nearly like a muffled drum, — all those who, were 
going on this expedition collected together and formed. 
An old Indian then began to sing, and timed the music by 
beating on this drum, as the ancients formerly timed their 
music by beating the tabor. On this the warriors began to 
advance, or move forward in concert, like well disciplined 
troo})S would march to the fife and drum. Each warrior had 
a tomahawk, spear, or war-mallet in his hand, and they all 
moved regularly toward the east, or the way they intended 
to go to war. At length they all stretched their tomahawks 
towards the Potomac, and giving a hideous shout or yell, 
they wheeled quick about, and danced in the same manner 
back. The next was the war song. In performing this, 
only one sung at a time, in a moving posture, with a toma- 
hawk in his hand, while all the other warriors were en- 
gaged in calling aloud ^hc-ith, hc-uh,' which they constantly 
repeated while the war song was going on. When the war- 
rior that was singing had ended his song, he struck a war- 
post with his tomahawk, and with a loud voice told what 


warlike exploits he had done, and what he now intended to 
do, which were answered by the other warriors with loud 
shouts of applause. Some who had not before intended to 
go to the war, at this time were so animated by this per- 
formance, tliat they took up the tomahawk and sung the 
war song, which was answered with shouts of joy, as they 
were then initiated into the present marching company. 
The next morning this company all collected at one place, 
with their heads and faces painted with various colors, and 
packs upon their backs, they marched off, all silent, except 
the commander, who, in the front, sung the traveling song, 
which began in this manner : ' hoo caugh-tainte heegcma.' Just 
as the rear passed the end of the town, they began to fire in 
their slow manner, from the front to the rear, which was 
accompanied with shouts and yells from all quarters. 

" This eveiTing I was invited to another sort of dance, 
which was a kind of promiscuous dance. The young men 
stood in one rank, and the young women in another, about 
one rod apart, facing each other. The one that raised the 
tune, or started the song, held a small gourd or dry shell 
of a squash in his hand, which contained beads or small 
stones, which rattled. When he began to sing, he timed 
the tune with his rattle — both men and women danced and 
sung together, advancing toward each other, stooping until 
their heads would be touching together, and then ceased 
from dancing, with loud shouts, and retreated and formed 
again, and so repeated the same thing over and over, for 
three or four hours, without intermission. This exercise 
a}»peared to me at first irrational and insipid; but I found 
that in singing tlieir tunes, they used ya ne no hoo loa ne, ^'c, 
like our/« sol la, and though they have no such thing as 
jingling verse, yet they can intermix sentences with their 
notes, and say what they please to each other, and carry 
on the tune in concert. I found that this was a kind of 
wooing or courting dance, and as they advanced, stooping 
with their heads together, they could say what they pleased 


ill eacli other's ear, without disconcerting tlieir rough music, 
and the others, or tliose near, not hear what they said. 

'■' Shortly after this I went out to hunt, in company with 
Mohawk Solomon, some of the Caughnewagas, and a Dela- 
ware Indian that was married to a Caughnewaga squaw. 
We traveled about south from this town, and the first night 
we killed nothing, but we had with us green corn, which 
we roasted and ate that night. The next day we encamped 
al)oiit twelve o'clock, and the hunters turned out to hunt, 
and I weiit down the run that we encamped on, in com- 
pany with some squaws and boys to hunt plums, which we 
found in great plenty. On my return to camp I observed 
a large piece of fat meat; the Delaware Indian that could 
talk some English, observed me looking earnestly at this 
meat, and asked me, ^what meat you think that isf I said I 
supposed it was bear meat; he laughed, and said, ' ho, all one 
fool you, heal now elly j)ool,' and pointing to the other side of 
the camp, he said, ' look at that skin, you think that beat skin ? ' 
I went and lifted the skin, which appeared like an ox-hide ; 
he then said, 'what skin you think thatf I replied that I 
thought it was a buffalo hide; he laughed, and said, 'you 
fool again, you know nothing, you think buffalo that colof I 
acknowledged I did not know much about these things, and 
told him I never saw a bulfalo, and that I had not heard 
what color they were. He replied, 'by and by you shall see 
(/leaf many buffalo: he now go to gleat lick. That skin, not 
buffalo skin, that skin buck-elk skill.' They went out with 
horses, and brought in the remainder of this buck-elk, which 
was th(3 fattest creature I ever saw of the tallow kind. 

" We remained at this camp about eight or ten days, and 
killed a number of deer. Though we had neither bread 
nor salt at this time, yet we had both roast and boiled meat 
in great plenty, and they were frequently inviting me to 
eat when I had no appetite. 

"We then moved to the buffalo lick, where we killed 
several Ijufialo, and in their small brass kettles they made 
about hali" a bushel of salt. I suppose this lick was about 


thirty or forty miles from the aforesaid town, and some- 
where between the Muskingum, Ohio, and Scioto. About 
the lick was clear, open woods, and thin white-oak land, 
and at that time there were large roads leading to the lick, 
like wagon roads. We moved from this lick about six or 
seven miles, and encamped on a creek. 

"Though the Indians had given me a gun, I had not yet 
been permitted to go out from the camp to hunt. At this 
place Mohawk Solomon asked me to go out with him to 
hunt, which I readil}' agreed to. After some time we came 
upon some fresh buffalo tracks. I had observed before this 
that the Indians were upon their guard, and afraid of an 
enemy; for, until now, they and the southern nations had 
been at war. As we were following the buffalo tracks, 
Solomon seemed to be upon his guard, went very slow, and 
would frequently stand and listen, and appeared to be in 
suspense. We came to where the tracks were very plain 
in the sand, and I said, it is surely buffalo tracks; he said, 
^hush, you know nothing — may he buffalo tracks, and may be 
Cataivba.^ He went very cautious until we found some fresh 
buffalo dung; he then smiled, and said ^ Cataiuba can not make 
so.' He then stopped and told me an odd story about the 
Catawbas. He said that formerly the Catawbas came near 
one of their hunting camps, and at some distance from the 
camp lay in ambush ; and in order to decoy them out, sent 
two or three Catawbas in the night past their camp, with 
buffalo hoofs fixed on their feet, so as to make artificial 
tracks. In the morning, those in the camp followed after 
these tracks, thinking they were buft'alo, until they were 
fired on by the Catawbas, and several of them killed; the 
others fled, collected a party and pursued the Catawbas; 
but they, in their subtlety, brought with them rattlesnake 
poison, which they had collected from the bladder that lies 
at the root of the snake's teeth ; this they had corked up in 
a short piece of a cane stalk; they had also brought with 
them small cane or reed, about the size of a rye straw, which 
they made sharp at the end like a pen, and dipped them 


into this poison, and stuck them in the ground among the 
grass, along their own tracks, in such a position that they 
might stick iato the legs of the pursuers, which answered 
the design ; and as the Catawbas had runners to watch the 
motion of the pursuers, when they found that a number of 
them were lame, being artilicially snake bit, and that they 
were all turning back, the Catawbas turned ui»ou the pur- 
suers and defeated them, and killed and scalped all those 
that were lame. When Solomon had finished his story, 
and found that I understood him, he concluded by saying, 
^you don't know, Catawba velly bad Indian, Catawba all one 
devil, Catawba.' 

" Some time after this I was told to take the dogs with 
me and go down the creek, perhaps I might kill a turkey ; 
it being in the afternoon, I was also told not to go far from 
the creek, and to come up the creek again to the camp, and 
to take care not to get lost. When I had gone some dis- 
tance down the creek, I came upon fresh buffalo tracks, and 
as I had a number of dogs with me to stop the buffalo, I 
concluded I would follow after and kill one; and as the 
grass and weeds were rank, I could readily follow the track. 
A little before sundown I despaired of coming up with them ; 
I was then thinking how I might get to camp before night. 
I concluded, as the buffalo had made several turns, if I took 
the track back to the creek, it would be dark before I could 
get to the camp; therefore I thought I would take a nearer 
way through the hills, and strike the creek a little below 
the camp ; but as it was cloudy weather, and I a very young 
woodsman, I could find neither creek nor camp. When 
night came on, I fired my gun several times and hallooed, 
but could get no answer. The next morning early, the In- 
dians were out after me, and as I had with me ten or a dozen 
dogs, and the grass and weeds rank, they could readily fol- 
low my track. When they came up with me, they appeared 
to be in a very good humor. I asked Solomon if he thought 
I was running away, he said, ' 7io, no, you go too much clooked.' 
On my return to camp they took away my gun from me, 


and for this rash step I was reduced to a bow and arrow 
for nearly two years. We were out on this tour for about 
six weeks. 

"When we returned to the town, Pluggy and his party 
had arrived, and brought with them a considerable num- 
ber of scalps and prisoners from the south branch of the 
Potomac. They also brought with them an English Bible, 
which they gave to a Dutch woman who was a prisoner; 
but as she could not read English, she made a present of it 
to me, which was very acceptable. 

" When they killed a butfalo they would lash the paunch 
of it round a sapling, cast it into the kettle, boil it and sup 
the broth. They were polite in their own way, passed but 
few compliments, and had but few titles of honor. Cap- 
tains or leaders were the highest titles in the military line, 
and in the civil line chiefs or old wise men. No such terms 
as sir, mister, madam, or mistress, but in their stead, grand- 
father, father, uncle, brother, mother, sister, cousin, or my 
friend, were the terms used in addressing one another. They 
paid great respect to age, and allowed no one to attain to 
any place of honor among them, without having performed 
some exploit in war, or become eminent for wisdom. They 
invited every one that came to their houses or camps to eat, 
as long as they had anything to give, and a refusal to eat, 
when invited, was considered a mark of disrespect. In 
courting, it was common for a young woman to make suit 
to a young man, and the men generally possessed more 
modesty than the women. Children were kept obedient, 
not by whipping, but by ducking them in cold water. 
Their principal punishment for infractions of their laws or 
customs was degradation. The crime of murder was atoned 
for by liberty given to the friends or relations of the mur- 
dered to slay the murderer. They had the essentials of mili- 
tary discipline and their warriors were under good command, 
and punctual in obeying orders. They cheerfully united in 
putting all their directions into immediate execution, and 
by each man observing the motion or movement of his right 


hand companion, they could communicate the motion from 
rig'ht to left, and march abreast in concert,'and in scattered 
order, though the line was a mile long. They could per- 
form various military maneuvers, either slow or fast, as 
they could run. They formed the circle in order to surround 
the enemy, and the semi-circle if the enemy had a river on 
one side of them. They could also form the large hollow 
square, face out and take trees; this they did, if their ene- 
mies were about surrounding them, to prevent being shot 
from either side of the tree. Their only clothing when 
going into battle was the breech-clout, leggins, and mocca- 
sins. Their leaders gave general orders by a shout or yell 
in time of battle, either to advance or retreat, and then each 
man fought as though he was to gain the battle himself. To 
ambush and surprise the enemy, and to prevent being am- 
bushed and surprised themselves, was their science of war. 
They seldom brought on an attack without a sure prospect 
of victory, with the loss of few men, and if mistaken, and 
likely to lose many men to gain a victory, they would re- 
treat, and wait for a better opportunity. If surrounded, 
however, they fought while there was a man alive, rather 
than surrender. A Delaware chief, called Captain Jacobs, 
being with his warriors surrounded, took possession of a 
house, defended themselves for some time and killed a num- 
ber of the whites. When called on to surrender, he said, 
' he and his men were warriors, and they would all tight 
while life lasted.' Being told that they would be well used 
if they surrendered, and if not, that the house would be 
burned over their heads, he replied that he ' could eat tire,' 
and when the house was in flames he and his men marched 
out in a lighting position and were all killed." 

Smith remained in the Muskingum country until Octo- 
ber, when he was taken to the country bordering on Lake 
Erie, where he remained with the Wyandots hunting and 
fishing for several years. In 1760 he accompanied a war 
party into Canada, which was captured. The prisoners 
were confined at Montreal four months, when they were 


exchanged. Smith then returned to his home in I^ennsyl- 
vania. lie afterward accompanied Boqiiet's expedition 
to the Muskingnm as a guide. He served as colonel of a 
Pennsylvania regiment in the revolutionary war, and sub- 
sequently removed to Kentucky, and served in the legisla- 
ture of that State. 


In July, 1756, John McCullough, then a lad, was taken hy 
some Delaware Indians in what is now Franklin County, 
Pennsylvania, and carried into captivity beyond the Ohio. 
He remained with them eight years. In his narrative of 
adventures, he relates that a great prophet appeared among 
the Indians on the Tuscarawas about two years after he 
(McCullough) had been taken, which would be about 1758. 
This prophet was of the Delaware nation — had certain hie- 
roglyphics representing the probation human beings were 
subject to on earth, and the happiness or misery of a future 
state. "While exhorting his hearers he wept like a child, 
and told them the only way to purify themselves from sin, 
was to take certain emetics and abstain from carnal knowl- 
edge of the different sexes — that as fire was not pure that 
was made by steel, they should 'quit the use of fire-arms, and 
when they wanted fire, should produce it by rubbing two 
sticks together, as they had done before the white people 
found out their country. He professed to have his instruc- 
tions from a higher power called Keesh-she-la-mil-lang-up, 
who fhoiu/ht the red man into being. McCullough states 
that he knew a company of .the followers of the prophet, 
who had secluded themselves for two years — had quit the 
use of fire-arms, and lived in accordance with his rules, 
firmly believing that by so doing they would be able to 
drive the whites out of the country. But while tlie prophet 
and his followers were endeavoring to spirit the white peo- 
ple away, others betook themselves to a more speedy way 


of getting rid of them. They fell upon a number of traders 
at Malioning, and after killing tliem took tlieir beaver- 
skins and set oft" for a trading post on the Tuscarawas, in 
tlie vicinity of the present village of Bolivar. An old In- 
dian named Daniel, cautioned the traders not to buy the 
skills, assuring them that the skins belonged to some mur- 
dered traders. They however purchased the furs through 
fear. The same evening old Daniel assured them they would 
all 1)6 killed by daylight next mdrning, which prediction was 
verified, and in the destruction of this trading establishment 
was frustrated for a time the second attempt of the English 
colonists to eftcct a settlement in the Tuscarawas valley. 


The governor of the Pennsylvania Colony induced Rev. 
Christian Frederick Post, a Moravian missionary, to visit 
the Indians on the Ohio and its tributaries and deliver 
peace messages to them. He reached the Ohio in 1758, and 
the Tuscarawas in 1761, and on its north bank, in present 
Stark County (near the present Bolivar), erected the first 
house built in Ohio by white men, except such cabins as 
were put up by traders and French Jesuits. It is yet indi- 
cated by the chimney stones. Post having performed the 
business intrusted to him, returned to Bethlehem, and be- 
ing impressed with the belief that he could convert the red 
men to Christianity, he again returned to the Tuscarawas 
in 1762, accompanied by John Heckewelder, another mis- 
sionary of the Moravian church. Thej- arrived in May at 
the spot whereon Post had erected his cabin in the 3^ear 
previous, and proceeded to mark out about three acres of 
ground, and clear the same, for a corn-field. The Indians, 
who luxd a large village on the opposite side of the river, 
about a mile south of Post's cabin, became alarmed when 
they saw the sturdy oaks of the forest falling by the ax of 


the white man. They sent word to Post to desist, and sum- 
moned him to appear before them at their council house 
the next day, when the great chiefs of the nation, with 
Tamaque (king beaver) at their head, would announce their 
decision, as to whether or not he should be permitted to go 
on clearing his field. Mr, Post was prompt in his attend- 
ance at the council house, when the speaker, in the name 
of the council, delivered to him the following address : (See 
Heckewelder's I^arrative, page 61). 

"Brother: Last year you asked our leave to come and 
live with us, for the purpose of instructing us and our chil- 
dren, to which we consented; and now being come on, we 
are glad to see you. 

"Brother: It appears to us that you must since have 
changed your mind, for instead of instructing us or our 
children, you are cutting trees down on our land. You 
have marked out a large spot of ground for a plantation, 
as the white people do everywhere ; and by and by another, 
and another, may come and do the same; and the next thing 
will be that a fort will be built for the protection of these 
intruders, and thus our country will be claimed by the white 
people, and we driven further back, as has been the case 
ever since the white people first came into this country. 
Say ! do we not speak the truth ? " 

Post had been a missionary among the Iroquois as early 
as 1745 — was well acquainted with the language, manners, 
and customs of the Indians — had endured great hardships, 
and endangered his life many times in behalf of the religion 
he was now about to preach on the banks of the Tusca- 
rawas. Instead of being intimidated by the reproachful 
address just delivered to him, he replied to it in the follow- 
ing words, as reported by Heckewelder : 

"Brothers : What you say I told you is true, with regard 
to my coming to live with you, namely, for the purpose of 
instructing you ; but it is likewise true, that an instructor 
must have something to live upon, otherwise he can not 
do his duty. Kow, not wishing to be a burden to you, so 


as to ask of you provision for me to live ii[)on, knowing 
that you have already families to provide for, I thought of 
raising my own hread, and believed that three acres of 
ground was little enough for that. Yon will recollect that I 
said to you, that I was a messenger from God, and prompted 
by him to preach and make known liis will to the Indians 
(heathen), that they also, by faith, might be saved, and be- 
come inheritors of his heavenly kingdom. Of your land I 
do not want one foot; neither will my raising a sutticiency 
of corn and vegetables off your land for me and my brother 
to subsist on, give me or any other person a claim to the 

Post having retired for the purpose of giving the chiefs 
and council time to form an answer ; this done, they again 
met, when the speaker thus addressed Mr. Post : 

"Brother: Now as you have spoken more distinctly, we 
may, perhaps, be able to give you some advice. Yon say 
that you are come at the instigation of the Great Spirit, to 
teach and to preach to us. So also say the priests at De- 
troit, whom our Father, the French, has sent among his In- 
dian children. Well, this being the case, you, as a preacher, 
want no more land than one of those do, who are content 
with a garden lot for to plant vegetables and pretty flowers 
in, such as the French priests also have, and of which the 
white people are all fond. 

"Brother: As you are in the same station and employed 
with those preachers we allude to ; and as we never saw any 
one of those cut down trees and till the ground, to get a 
livelihood, we are inclined to think, and especially as these, 
without laboring hard, yet look w^ell, that they have to look 
to another source than that of hard labor for a mainte- 
nance. And we think that if, as you say, the Great Spirit 
wants you to preach to the Indians, he will cause the same 
to be done for you as he causes to l^e done for those priests 
we have seen at Detroit. We are agreed to give you a 
garden spot, even a larger spot of ground than those have 
at Detroit. It shall measure fift}'^ steps each way; which, 


if it suits you, you are at liberty to plant thereon what you 

To this proposition, lleckewelder says, Mr. Post agreed, 
and on the following day the lot was stepped off by one of 
the chiefs, named Captain Pipe, fifty steps square, stakes 
drove in at the corners, and Post went on with his work 
again. An Indian treaty being appointed at Lancaster that 
summer, Mr. Post prevailed upon a number of the Indians to 
attend with him, leaving Mr. Heckewelder at the missionary 
station, to instruct the Indian children. In a short time 
after Post's departure it became known to Heckewelder 
that the Indian nations were again taking up arms, at the 
instigation of the French, against the English. His situ- 
ation became very critical, but he found means of sending 
a letter to Mr. Post, at Lancaster, and receiving an answer^ 
in which Post advised him to leave the country lest he 
should be murdered. In October he set out with some tra- 
ders for Pittsburg, and on the way met Mr. Post, accompanied 
by Alexander McKee, Indian agent, and apprised them of 
the dangers of going to the Indian town. McKee was 
going out to receive and provide for the white prisoners 
promised to be given up at the Lancaster treaty, and Post, 
considering himself safe under the protection of the Indian 
agent, they disregarded Heckewelder's counsel and pushed 
on, but soon returned, McKee without any prisoners, and 
Post only saved his life by flight through the woods. The 
same winter a number of traders were murdered by the 
Indians, and had it not been for the prudence of Hecke- 
welder, both he and Post would have failen a sacrifice. 
Thus ended the first attempt of the Moravians to convert 
to Christianity the heathen of the Tuscarawas valley. 

Roundthaler, the biographer of Heckewelder, gives the 
following facts touching Heckewelder's stay at the Tusca- 
rawas (near the present Bolivar), in 1762. After being 
thirty-three days on the way, he and Post arrived at Tus- 
carawas (the Indian town), on the Muskingum, and entered 
the cabin Post had built the year before, singing a hymn. 


The cabin stood about four rods from the stream, on the 
east side of the river. No one lived on that side, but on 
the west side, a mile down the stream, resided a trader 
named Thomas Calhoon. Farther south was the Indian 
town called Tuscarawas, of about forty wigwams. A mile 
still farther down the stream a few Indian families had set- 
tled. Eight miles above the cabin was another Indian 
village. [This was probably on or near the site of the 
present Bethlehem, in Stark county]. Wild ducks were in 
abundance, but then having no canoe, Post and his com- 
panion had to wait until they flew near the shores to shoot 
them. Wild geese were still more difficult to get. Pheas- 
ants and squirrels were worthless in the summer. Of fish 
they had plenty, but the manner in which they were forced 
to prepare them, rendered them disgusting; so Post and 
Heckewelder lived principally upon nettles, which grew in 
abundance in the bottoms. They resolved to make a canoe, 
and having finished one, used it to procure game and to 
bring down cedar wood from up the river for the purpose 
of making tubs and other articles for the Indians. 

After Post left, Heckewelder was compelled to hide his 
books to prevent the Indians seeing him reading or writing, 
they believing that whenever the whites were engaged in 
reading or writing, it was something concerning their ter- 
ritory, and that the writing of the whites was the cause of 
robbing them of their lands. Having got a canoe, he was 
enabled to bring down five and six ducks at one shot, but 
the Indian' boys borrowed and lost his canoe before many 
days. The nettles becoming too hard to eat, Heckewelder 
waded the river and went to the cabin of the trader, Cal- 
hoon, to procure something to eat. 

In a short time the wife of the chief Shingash died, 
which was announced by the most dismal bowlings of the 
women of the town. Heckewelder, Calhoon, and four In- 
dians carried her to the grave. The body was covered 
with ornaments, painted with vermillion, and placed in a 
coffin, at the head of which a hole had been made, that the 


soul might go in and out. On arriving at the grave, the 
deceased was entreated to come out of the coffin and stay 
with the living. The coffin was then lowered, the grave 
tilled up, and a red pole driven in at its head. A great 
feast was then made and presents distributed around, Cal- 
hoon and Heckewelder each receiving a black silk hand- 
kerchief and a pair of leggins. For three weeks a kettle 
of provisions was carried out every evening to the grave to 
feed the departed spirit on its way to the new country. Mr. 
Calhoon invited Heckewelder to come and stay with him, 
which he finally did on account of sickness. 

Post had not been gone three weeks when it was circu- 
lated that he never intended to return, and that his sole 
purpose in coming there was to deliver the Indian country 
into the hands of the whites. The Indians said the tribe 
would not permit him to return if he wished to do so, and 
Heckewelder was then warned by friendly Indians to leave 
the country. One afternoon one of Calhoon 's men called 
for Heckewelder to lock his door and come over immedi- 
ately to Calhoon's, which he did. Calhoon told him that 
an Indian woman had come and requested him to take the 
other white man from his cabin, that he was in danger there. 
The next morning two of Calhoon's men went over to tlie 
cabin, found it broken open, and from appearances two In- 
dians had waited there all night to kill Heckewelder. He 
never saw his cabin again. King Beaver advised him to 
hasten his departure out of the country or his life would be 
taken. He was three weeks on the way to Fort Pitt, being 
worn down with the fever. After recovering he proceeded 
on to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 




Heckewelder, in liis liistory of the Indian nations, records 
a tradition of the Leni Lenape, placing them on the western 
part of the American continent, from whence they migrated 
eastward, and arriving at the Mississippi or " River of Fish," 
they joined forces with the Mengwe, otherwise called Mingoes, 
or Iro(p(ois, and afterward "Five" or "Six Nations." Dis- 
covering the countr}' east of the Mississippi to be inhabited 
by a powerful nation of stout men, who had large cities on 
the principal rivers, the Delaware, Potomac, Susquehanna, 
and Hudson, well fortified, entrenched, and ditched, the 
Lenape (since called Delawares), and Iroquois or Mingoes, 
asked leave to pass through the country eastward, which 
being granted by the Alligewe or Alleghany Nation, they 
penetrated east over the Alleghany mountains, but the Alli- 
gewe, seeing their great numbers, withdrew the permission to 
pass through; whereupon a war ensued between the Lenape 
and Mingoes, or Iroquois, or Monseys, on one side, and the 
Alligeioe on the other, which finally terminated in the extir- 
pation of the Alligewe, and their forts, cities, and entrench- 
ments fell into possession of the conquerors, known as the 
Lenape and Mengwe, or Delawares and Iroquois. 

They lived as friends for hundreds of years, but feuds hav- 
ing arisen among them, the Lenape took possession of the 
lands watered by the Hudson, Potomac, Delaware, and 
Susquehanna, and the Mengwe took possession of the lands 
along the great lakes. The lands along the Delaware be- 
came the center of the Lenape possessions, but the whole 
of that nation did not settle there, many remaining west of 
the mountains, and on the Mississippi, and some beyond 
that river. Those of the Lenape or Delawares, who reached 
the Atlantic coast, divided into three tribes, two of which, 
the Turkey and Turtle tribes, settled between the coast and 


mountains, and extended their settlements beyond the Po- 
tomac, south. The third tribe. Wolf, or Minsi, afterward 
corrupted into Mousey, lived back of the two other tribes, 
and being- the most warlike, watched the movements of the 
Mengwe or Iroquois, and in course of time extended their 
settlements to the Hudson on the east, and west beyond the 
Susquehanna, and north as far as the heads of that river 
and the Delaware, while south they penetrated portions of 
New Jersey, and aloug the Lehigh, in Pennsylvania. 

From these three tribes, in the course of time, sprung 
many others who took tribal names, and located in diiFerent 
localities, but all looked up to the Lenape as parent tribe, 
and it Avas proud to call all these collateral tribes, such 
as the Mahiccani or Mohican, the Nanticokes, &c., grand- 

Becoming thus very powerful, the Mengwe or Iroquois, 
along the great lakes and St. Lawrence, began to be fearful 
of the Lenape power, and sought to weaken them, by in- 
volving the Lenapes in a war with the Cherokees of the 
south. To effect which they killed a Cherokee, and laid a 
Lenape war club by his side, then charged the murder on 
the Lenape tribe. This exasperated the Cherokees to 
war against the Lenape, but the trick being exposed the 
Cherokees and Lenape united to exterminate the deceitful 
Mengwe or Iroquois. About that time the French landed 
in Canada, and the Iroquois being hemmed in by the French 
on one side, and the Lenape or Delawares on the other side, 
sought peace,, and proposed a confederacy called the " Five 
Nations Confederacy" for the purpose of driving out the 
French from their country. This was between the Hfteeuth 
and sixteenth century, and the Delewares and Iroquois, af- 
ter many battles between themselves, effected peace and 
established the confederacy. The crafty Iroquois then pro- 
posed to the Delawares to abstain from war with the French, 
and appear as mediators between the French and Iroquois, 
as a measure of Indian diplomacy. The Delawares in good 
faith accepted the trust as neutrals and peace-makers, or as 


the Iroquois termed it, they became women for the good of 
the confederacy. The 31ahiccani or Mohicans, relatives of 
the Delawares, were also ensnared into becoming women, 
and were bound not to go to war, but act as peace-makers 
between the Iroquois and their enemies. 

The Delawares having accepted their new functions a 
feast was celetjrated, and all the nations invited thereto, 
including delegates of the Dutch emigrants who had set- 
tled in what is now l!Tew York. The ceremony over, of 
being placed in the situation of "the women," the Dela- 
wares became cousins of the Moifpoe, and the Mohicans be- 
came nephews, the hatchet was buried, and it was agreed 
that it any nation attacked the Delawares the Meugwe 
should repel them. The peace belt was laid across the 
shoulders of the peace-makers, and all foreboded futures^ 

But no sooner had the Mengwe or Iroquois vassalized 
the Delawares into the hu.militating position of women, 
than they began their machinations to destroy their power. 
They induced the Cherokees to declare war, and march 
against the Delawares, at the same time sendjng runners to 
their camps advising them of the approach of the Chero- 
kees, and promising to assist the Dehnvares in their expul- 
sion. Instead of rendering such assistance, they reproached 
the Delawares in the face of the enemy as "women," as 
cowards, and held back from the light until the Delawares 
were overpowered and defeated, when the Mengwe at once 
assumed to be their superiors, avowing that they had con- 
quered and reduced them to vassalage. These avowals were 
made to the English and other Europeans who by this time 
had planted colonies along the Atlantic coast, and in a few 
years had such effect as to induce the latter to believe them. 
The Delawares and their kindred tribes were yet sufhciently 
strong to have crushed out the treacherous Iroquois, but 
their attention was attracted by the landing of Europeans 
along the Atlantic coast, from New England to Virginia? 
and their wonder at the ships sailing up the outlets of their 


large rivers, iille<I them with preunmitiuns of the presence 
of their greiit Muiiitou, or Supreme Being, and hence the 
Iroipiois escaped the punishment merited for their perfidy. 
Here ends traditional, and verital)le history hegins as to 
the Delawares, Mohicans and their trihal relations, coming 
to the valleys, under consideration in this book. But he- 
fore following them across the Alleghanies, a few incidents 
may be in plfice. 


An old intelligent Delaware Indian related to llecke- 
welder,! that a great many years previous, when men with 
white skins had not yet been seen in the land, some Indian 
runners reported that a large house of many colors was 
sailing up the coast toward the bay (New York). The 
chiefs assembled at York Island, and after seeing it stop, 
the hunters were sent out for game, and the women ordered 
to prepare victuals, as a sacrifice to the great Manitou. 
Other runners reported the strange creature to he filled 
with human beings of a different color from that of the 
Indians. Soon a man dressed in red came ashore with 
several of his color, bowed to the chiefs, and having drank 
some liquid out of ahackback, presented some to the chiefs, 
who passed it among themselves, and were about to return 
it untasted, when a chief jumped up, and declaring it an 
insult to the great man to return the liquid without tasting, 
swallowed a portion, soon staggered, fell, went to sleep, was 
laid out for dead by his fellow chiefs, then awoke and 
induced them to partake, and all became drunk, and so 
remained for some time, during which the great man and 
his attendants returned to his house (ship), and when the 
Indians became sober, he again returned to land with beads, 
axes, hoes, and other articles as presents, after which he 
departed, telling them by signs he would return the coming 
year. On his second visit next season the Indians were 


riiucli rejoiced, ami wore tlie axes and lioes banging to their 
Ijreasts as ornaments, and the stockings given tlieni tlioy 
had made tobacco-ponclies of. The wliites then showed 
them how to cut (h)wn large trees with the ax, and to cul- 
tivate the ground witli tlje lioc. Having gained the friend- 
ship of (he Indians, the wliites asked fur so much ground 
foi- a garden spot as the hide of a bullock wouUl cover. 
This hc'ing granted, the whites cut the hide into a thin long 
I'opc, not larger than a child's linger, an<l dra\\ing it out in 
a circular form, closed the eiuls, ami the hide thus encom- 
passing a large })iecc of land, they took possession. The 
[iidians were surprised at the cunninguess of the whites, 
but assented to tlie surve}", and they lived contentedly for a 
long time. 

After a while the whites successive!}' asked and obtained 
more laud on each request, until the Indians became c-on- 
vinced that the whites wanted all their land and refused 
further grants. They referred to the deception of the bul- 
lock's hide, and remarked that the land they iirst concedi^d 
to raise greens on was planted with (jreat rjujis instead, and 
strong houses were put up on it. Finding the Lenape and 
Mahiccani averse to more grants, they forcibly took posses- 
sion of the whole island (New York Island), and proceeded 
to tlie Mengwe country, formed a league with them, and 
obtained from the treacherous Iroquois or Five Nations, a 
grant of all the Delaware lands, which the}' claimed to own 
by right of conquest when the}^ made women of tlie Lenape, 
as heretofore related. This treaty is claimed to liave been 
made by the Hollanders (who settled on Manhattan Island) 
with the Iroquois or Mengwe. 

Then the Gcngecs or Yankees arrived at 31<ic/Ui/schiC(Ui)ir 
(Massachusetts), and p)osse8sed themselves of the choice 
lands, and on [)rotest being made by the Indians, war was 
made u[>on them, and such Indian prisoners as were taken, 
Avere carried off in ships to sea, and sold as slaves, or 
drowned, as none ever came back. Those not captured 
were driven away, one tribe beyond Quebec, others dis- 


persed in small 1)0(lioH, some to Pennsylvaiiiii, while others 
went to the West and mingled with trihes there. 

In Pennsylvania they were disturhed in like manner hy 
tlie Swedes and Dutch, to whom they had given meat, and 
land to live upon. Finally the good miquon (William Penn) 
came and brought the Delawares words of peace and good 
will. They lived on the Lenajje hittuck (Delaware River) 
contentedly until he died, when the strangers — land traders 
and speculators — began by fraud and force to get their lands 
in that part of the country. To accomplish their object, the 
strangers sent for the Mengwe (Iroquois) to meet them in 
council at Lachauwakc (Easton), and take the Lenape "by 
the hair and shake them well." The Mengwe came, told 
the Lenape or Delawares, and Mahiccani or Mohicans, that 
they had been made women, had no land, and must be gone 
out of the country to Wyoming^ where they might live. 

The Delawares, when tirst known to the whites, were in 
subjection to the Iroquois or Five Nations, who claimed to 
own the territory embraced in New York, Pennsylvania 
and New Jerse}', and through the entire western country. 
The Delawares at that time inhabited a portion of the New 
Jersey territory and the eastern portion of Pennsylvania, 
and were held to be in such a state of vassalage to the 
Five Nations as to be incapable of carrying on war, or of 
making sales of lands without the consent of their con- 
querors. Nevertheless they did sell land to the English, 
which incensed the Iroquois or Five Nations against the;ii. 
In July, 1742, a council was held at Philadelphia between 
the governor of the Pennsylvania colony and sundry chiefs 
of the Six Nations and Delawares, when Cawassatiego, a 
chief of the Six Nations accused the Delawares of perhdy. 
llis speech is preserved in Mcintosh's Book of Indians, and 
is as follows : 

" Cousins : Let the belt of wampum serve to chastise you. 
You ought to be taken by the hair of the head and shaken 
severely till you receive your senses and become sober. 
You don't know what ground you stand on, nor what you 


are doing. Our brother Onas' (the governor of Pennsyl- 
vania) cause is very just and plain, and his intentions are 
to preserve friendship; ou the other hand, your cause is 
l)ad, your heart far from being right. AVe have seen with 
our eyes a (k'cd signed by nine of our ancestors about lifty 
years ago for this very land, and a release signed not nuuiy 
years since by some of yonrselves. But how come 30U to 
take upon yourselves to sell land at all ? We concpiered you, 
we nuide women of you; you know you are women, and can 
n(j more sell land than women; nor is it fit you should have 
the power of selling land, since you would abuse it. This 
land that you claim, has gone through your guts. You have 
been fuiMiislied with clothes, meat, and drink, by the goods 
paid for it, and now you want it again, like children, as you 
are. But what matters ! You sell land in the dark. Did 
you ever tell us that you sold them land? Did we ever 
receive any part, even, the value of a pipe shank, from you 
for it? This is very different from the conduct our Six 
IN'ations observe in the sale of land. On such occasions 
they give public notice and visit all the Indians of the 
united nations, and give them all a share of the presents 
they receive for their lands. But we find you are none of 
our blood; you act a distinct part, not only in this, but 
in other matters; your ears are even open to slanderous 
reports about our brethren. Therefore, for all these rea- 
sons, we charge you to remove instantly. AVe don't give 
you liberty to think about it. "ion are w^omen — take the 
advice of a wise man, and remove immediately. We assign 
you two places to go: either to Ugoman or Shamokin; you 
may go to either of these places, and then we shall have 
you more under our eyes, and shall see how you behave. 
Don't deliberate, but remove away and take this belt ot 
wampum, which serves to forbid you, your children, and 
grand-children to the latest posterity, forever meddling in 
hand affairs; neither you nor any who shall descend from 
you, are ever hereafter to presume to sell any land." 


Soured and embittered a_^ainst their conquerors, many of 
the Delawares retired to the country watered by the Sus- 
quehanna and Alleghany and their tributaries, and between 
1742 and 1750 they reached the Tuscarawas and Muskin- 
gum. By tlie year 1768 they had nearly all settled west of 
the Ohio, and became released from their troublesome rela- 
tions, the Iroquois, until the breaking out of the American 



The first English military expedition into Ohio was made 
in 1764 by Colonel Henry Boqnet marching an army of 
fifteen hundred men into and through what is now Tusca- 
rawas County to the forks of Muskingum, now Coshocton. 

Its object was to punish and awe the Indians, and the 
history of that campaign is full of thrilling interest to the 
people at this day. 

It will be remembered that the French evacuated Fort 
Pitt as well as all their forts in the Ohio and lake territory 
in A. D. 1758 by treaty with the English government. 
The Indians, however, were not satisfied. They were more 
friendly to the French than to the English rule over their 
hunting grounds, having receiA^ed more presents, more 
ammunition and whisky from the French than they did 
wherever subject to English domination. They smothered 
their feelings until about 1762, when the great north- 
western war Chief Pontiac had a dream in which the great 
Spirit appeared to him and said he must arouse the nations 
and drive the English from the land, and " when you," said 
the great Spirit to him, "are in distress I will help you." 
lie sent the war belt to all the nations, assembled their 
warriors before all the British forts, with directions to put 
on friendly guise, and after getting access to their forts, to 
slay every man, woman, and cliild in each garrison and in 


the territory. There were twelve forts in the Indian terri- 
tory. Of these, nine were taken by Pontiac's strategy dnr- 
ing 1762 and 1763, and the whites not pnt to death were 
carried into captivity. 

To illustrate the manner and the cunningness of the 
savages take the fort at Presque Isle, tlie present locality of 
Erie, Pennsylvania, as an example : One hundred and iifty 
Indians appeared in huntinglTgarb'with skins to sell. The 
commander of the fort went out a mile or so to look at 
the furs. Neither he or his guards ever returned, but the 
savages, each laden with a package of furs on his back, and 
his knife and a short rifle hid in his hunting frock, came 
to the fort, asking admittance to unload the furs the com- 
mander had purchased. Of course the gates were opened, 
the savages entered, and of all the garrison men, women, 
and children, but two are reported as having escaped. 
Other forts were taken by other devices, and the onl}- three 
not taken were Ligonier, Bedford, and Fort Pitt. The white 
settlers were raided upon and killed, or carried off, and 
the whole frontier given up for a time to Indiau massacre. 
The indignation of the colonial authorities was aroused. 
General Bradstreet marched up the lakes with three thous- 
and men. Other forces went out, and the Indians were 
driven back from the forts they had captured. Pontiac's 
war of extermination was a failure. Chagrined at the great 
Spirit for not assisting him, lie made peace in 1766, became 
a drunkard, and wandered about until 1769, when he was 
killed, near the present St. Louis, by an Illinois Indian in 
a drunken row, says tradition. 

The Delaware, Shawanee, and other Indians of the Ohio 
territory had been assigned by Pontiac to take Forts Pitt, 
Ligonier, and Bedford, and after his war was over in 1763 
they still menaced tliese forts, and spread terrcn- through- 
out w^estern Pennsylvania and Virginia. To punish these 
savages Colonel Boquet w^as ordered to march from Phila- 
delphia against the hostile tribes on the Ohio. His force 
was one thousand five hundred men, three hundred of whom 


deserted at Carlisle, snch was their fear of the savages who 
had destroyed Braddock's army at Bloody Run nine years 
])efore. Boquet was a brave and sagacious chieftain, and 
he pushed on with his force on Braddock's old trail, through 
Pcjinsylvania, until he got to Bushy Run, within four days 
march of Fort Pitt, in the month of August, 1763, where 
the combined Indian force of Delawares, Shawanese, Wj'^an- 
dots, &c., attacked and fought him for two da3^s and nights, 
but were finally defeated, losing sixty of their best warriors 
and chiefs. The Indian army then raised the investment 
of Fort Pitt, and retired to their homes on the Tuscarawas, 
Muskingum, Scioto, &c., while Boquet with his shattered 
. army proceeded to Fort Pitt, and were put to garrison duty, 
being too much cut up to follow the savages that year into 

At length, on the 3d of October, 1764, he marched from 
Fort Pitt with one thousand five hundred regulars and 
militia to the Muskingum country to punish the Delawares 
and Shawanese and other tribes. 

The order of march was as follows : A corps of Virginia 
v-olunteers advanced in front, detaching three scouting par- 
ties ; one of them, preceded by a guide, marched in the center 
path which the army was to follow. The other two ex- 
tended themselves in a line abreast, on the right and left, 
to scour the woods on the flanks. Under cover of this ad- 
vance guard, the axmen and two companies of infantry 
followed in three divisions to clear the side paths and cut 
a road in which the main army and the convoy marched 
as follows: The front face of the square, composed of parts 
of two regiments, marched in single file in the right-hand 
path, and a Pennsylvania regiment marched in the same 
manner in the left-hand path. A reserve corps of grena- 
diers followed in the paths, and they likewise by a second 
battalion of infantry. All these troops covered the con- 
yoy which marched between them in the center path or 
main road. A company of horsemen and a corps of Vir- 
ginia volunteers followed, forming the rear guard. The 


Pennsylvania volunteers, in single file, flanked the side 
paths opposite the convoy. The ammunition and tools were 
placed in the rear of the first column, which were followed 
by the baggage and tents. The cattle and sheep came after 
the baggage, in the center road, properly guarded. The 
provisions came next on pack-horses. The troops were 
ordered to observe the most profound silence, and the men 
to march at two yards distance from each other. By march- 
ing in this order, if attacked, the whole force could be easily 
thrown into a hollow square, with the baggage, provisions, 
&c., in the center. 

From the day of starting to the 13th was occupied in reach- 
ing camp number twelve, by way of Logstown, Big Beaver, 
Little Beaver, Yellow, Nimishillen and Sandy creeks. 

Colonel Boquet's journal says : 

"Saturday, October 13, 1764. — Crossed Nenenchelus 
(Nimishillen) Creek about fifty feet wide, a little above 
where it empties itself into a branch of the Muskingum 
(meaning by this branch what is now Sandy Creek). A 
little further came to another small stream which was 
crossed about fifty perches above where it empties into 
the said Muskingum. Here a high ridge on the right 
and a creek close on the left forms a narrow defile about 
seventy perches long. Passing over a very rich bottom 
came to the main branch of the Muskingum about seventy 
yards wide, with a good ford a little below, and a little 
•above is Tuscarawas, a place exceedingly beautiful in situa- 
tion, the lands rich on both sides of the river. The country 
on the north-west side being an entire plain upward of five 
miles in circumference, and from the ruined houses here 
appearing, the Indians who inhabited the place and are now 
with the Delawares are supposed to be about one hundred 
and fifty warriors." [Supposing each warrior to represent 
a family of five persons, the town would have numbered 
seven liundred and fifty Indians.] 

"Sunday, October 14, 1764. — The army remained in 
camp, and two men who had been dispatched with let- 


ters returned and reported that within a few miles of this 
place they had been made prisoners by the Delawares, and 
carried to one of their towns sixteen miles distant, where 
they were kept until the savages, knowing- of the arrival 
of the army here, set them at liberty, ordering them to 
acquaint G<)h)nel Boquet that the head men of the Dela- 
wares and Shawauese were coming as soon as possible to 
treat for peace with him. 

"Monday, October 15, 1764, — The army moved two 
miles and forty perches further down the Muskingum, to 
camp number thirteen, situated on a very high bank, 
with the river at the foot of it, which is upward of one 
hundred yards wide at this place, with line level country 
at some distance from its banks, producing stately tim- 
ber free from underwood and plenty of food for cattle. 
8ix Indians came to inform the colonel that all their chiefs 
had assembled about eight miles fi-oin the camp, and were 
ready to treat with him of peace, which they were earn- 
estly desirous of obtaining. He returned for answer that 
he would meet them next day in a bower at some dis- 
tance from ,camp. In the meantime he ordered a small 
stockaded fort to be built to hold provisions for the troops 
on their return, and to lighten their convoy, as several large 
bodies of Indians were within a few miles of the camp, whose I 
former instances of treachery — although they now declared 
they came for peace — made it prudent to trust notliing to 
their intentions. 

" Wednesday, October 1/7, 1764. — The colonel, with most 
of the regular troops, Virginia volunteers and Lighthorse, 
marched from the camp to the bower erected for the con- 
gress, and soon after the troops were stationed so as to 
appear to the best advantage. The Indians arrived and 
were conducted to the bower. Being seated, they began 
in a short time to smoke their pipes — the calumet — agree- 
ably to their custom. This ceremon}^ over, the}' laid down 
their pi[)es and opened their pouches wherein were their 
strings and belts of wampum. 


"The Indians present were Seneca Chief Kiyastrnhx, with 
fifteen warriors, Custaloga, chief of the Wolf-Delaware tribe, 
Beaver, chief of the Tnrkey tribe, with twenty warriors, 
Shawanese Chief Keiffiwautchtha, a chief and six warriors." 

Kiyaf huta, Turtle Heart, Custaloga, and Beaver were the 
speakers. The general substance of what they had to offer 
consisted in excuses for their late treachery and misconduct, 
throwing the blame on the rashness of their young men and 
the nations living to the westward of them — suing for peace 
in the most abject manner, and promising severally to de- 
liver up all their prisoners. After they had concluded the 
colonel promised to give them an answer the next day, and 
the armj' returned to camp. The badness of the weather 
however prevented his meeting them until the 20th, when 
he spoke to them. 

The boldness with which Colonel Boquet spoke excited the 
chiefs, but remembering how terribl}' he had chastised them 
at the battle of Bushy Run a year previous, they succumbed 
at once, and the two Delaware chiefs delivered eighteen 
white prisoners, and eighty-three small sticks expressing 
the number of other prisoners they still held, and promised 
to bring them in as soon as possible. Keifftwautchtha, the 
Shawanese deputy, promised on behalf of his nation to sub- 
mit to Colonel Boquet's terms. Kiyafhuta addressed the 
several tribes before their departure, exhorting them to be 
strong in complying with their engagements, that they 
might wipe away the reproach of their former breach of 
faith, and convince the English that they could speak the 
truth, adding that he would conduct the army to the place 
appointed for receiving the prisoners. [It will be recol- 
lected that the stockade built at camp number thirteen, 
was two miles and forty perches down the river from the 
Indian town of Tuscarawas, which was near the present 
site of Bolivar. The boiver at which this Indian congress 
was held was further down the river, and must have been 
in or near the edge of the Dover plains, that at this s[)ot was 
consummated an agreement which resulted in the restora- 


tion of all the white prisoners held by the Delawares and 
other tribes in the valley, makes the plains of the Tnsca- 
ravvas memorable in history.] 

"Monday, 22. — The army, attended by the Indian depu- 
ties, marched nine miles to camp number fourteen, and 
crossed Margret's Creek, al)out fifty feet wide." [The route 
of this day's march was in a south-west direction from the 
site of Fort Laurens to Margret's Creek, which is now Sugar 
Creek, which was crossed in the vicinity of the moutli of 
what is known as Broad Run, about one mile south of the 
town of Strasburg; thence up the valle}' of the latter stream 
to the place of encampment, whicli was in the vicinity of 
the present village of Winfield, in the north-west corner of 
Dover township.] 

"Tuesday, 23. — The army marched sixteen miles one- 
quarter and seventy-seven perches further to camp number 
fifteen, and halted there one day." [Tlie route of this day's 
march was up the Broad Run valley to the head of that 
stream, where a dividing ridge was crossed in section four, 
range three, in Sugar Creek township, bringing the army 
again into the Sugar Creek valley ; thence south along the 
east side of Sugar Creek through Auburn and Bucks town- 
ships, passing near to the present site of Ragersville. In the 
south-western part of Bucks township crossed Sugar Creek; 
thence over the dividing ridge between the waters of that 
stream and White Eyes Creek; thence down the valley of 
White Eyes Creek to a point south of the present village 
of Chili, in Coshocton County, where camp number fifteen 
was located.] 

"Thursday, 25. — The army marched six miles one half 
and sixteen perches to camp number sixteen, situated in 
the forks of the Muskingum." [This being near the present 
site of Coshocton. Before leaving the encampment where 
the congress was held, Boquet was informed that there were 
several marauding bands of Indians along the river valley, 
and who would likely ambuscade him if he marched down 
the ^%lley past Three Legstown, at the mouth of Stillwater, 


and New Comerstown. Hence the route taken as above 

"Tills }»Uice (forks of Mnskingnm) was fixed upon instead 
of Wakatoniica as the most central and convenient place 
to rcc'oive the prisoners, for the principal Indian towns lay 
around them from seven to twenty miles distant, except 
the lower Shawnee town situated on the Scioto River about 
eighty miles, so that from this place the army had it in 
their }»owcr to awe all the enemies' settlements, and destroy 
their t(jwns, if they should not punctually fuliil the engage- 
ments they had entered into. Four redonbts were built 
here opposite the four angles of the camp. The ground 
in front was cleared, a storehouse for the provisions was 
erected, and likewise a house to receive and treat peace 
w^ith the Indians when they returned. Three houses were 
separate apartments for the captives of the respective prov- 
inces, and proper officers to take charge of them, with a 
matron to take charge of women and children, so that with 
the officers' mess-houses, ovens, &c., this camp had tlie ap- 
pearance of a little town in which the greatest order and 
regularity was observed. 

"Sunday, October 27, 1764. — A messenger arrived from 
King Custaloga informing them that he was on his way 
with the prisoners, and also a messenger from tlie lower 
Shawanese towns of the like import. The colonel having 
reason to suspect the latter nation's backwardness sent one 
of their own people desiring them to be punctual as to the 
time fixed — to provide a sufficient quantity of provisions 
to subsist the prisoners — to bring the letters wrote them 
last winter by the French commander at Fort Charles, 
which some of their people had stopped ever since, adding 
that as their nation had expressed some uneasiness at our 
not shaking hands with them, they were to know that the 
English never took their enemies by the hand before peace 
was concluded. 

" The day following the Shawanese messenger returned, 
saying that when he had proceeded as far as Wakatomica, 
the chief of the town had undertook to proceed with the 

78 . 

message himself, and desired the other to return and ac- 
quaint the English that all tlic prisoners were ready, and 
lie was going to the lower towns to hasten them. 

"Monday, Octoher 28, 1764. — Peter, the Caughnawaga 
chief and twenty Indians arrived from Sandusky Avith a 
letter from Colonel Bradstrect, The Caughnawagas re- 
ported that the Indians on the lakes had delivered but few 
of their prisoners; that the Ottowas had killed a great 
part of theirs, and the other nations had done the same, or 
had ke[)t them. From tliis time to November was chiefly 
spent in sending and receiving messages to and from the 
Indian towns relative to the prisoners who were now com- 
ing into camp in small parties. The colonel kept so steadily 
to this article of having every prisoner delivered, that when 
the Delaware kings (Beaver and Custaloga) had brought in 
all theirs except twelve, which they promised to bring in a 
few days, he refused to shake hands or have the least talk 
with them while a single captive remained among them. 
By the 0th of JSTovember most of the prisoners had arrived 
that could be expected this season, amounting to two hun- 
dred and six, besides about one hundred more remaining 
in possession of the Shawanese, which they promised to 
deliver in the following spring. Everything being now 
settled with the Indians the army decamped on Sunday, 
the 18tli of November, from the forks of Muskingum, and 
marched for Fort Pitt, [up the Tuscarawas valley to its pro- 
vision stockade, near the present town of Bolivar; thence 
by way of Sandy valley and Yellow Creek to the Ohio, and 
up to Fort Bitt,] where it arrivedjDu the 28th of Noveml)er. 
The regular troops were sent to garrison tlie different points 
of communication, -and the provincial troo})s, with the cap- 
tives to their several provinces. Here ended the first armed 
expedition that had ever penetrated the Tuscarawas val- 
ley, and as the chronicler says, notwithstanding the diffi- 
culties attending it, the troops were never in want of any 
necessaries, continuing perfectly healthy during the whole 
campaign, in which no life was lost, except one soldier 
killed at the Muskingum. 




The scene of the delivery of these captives to Colonel 
IJoquet is tlins narrated by one who was present: "Among 
them were many who had been seized when very 3'onng, 
and liad grown up in the wigwam of the savage. Tliey 
liad contracted the wild habits of their captors, learned 
their langnage and forgotten their own, and were bound to 
them by ties of the strongest affection. Many a mother 
found a lost child; many were unable to designate their 
children. There were to be seen husbands hanging round 
the necks of their newly recovered wives. There were to 
be seen sisters and In-cithers unexpectedly coming together 
after long years of separation. And there were others fly- 
ing from place to place, inquiring after relatives not found ; 
trembling to receive an answer to questions ; distracted with 
doul)ts, ho[)es, and fears on obtaining no account of tliosc 
they sought for; or stiffened into living monuments of 
horror and w^oe on learning their unhappy fate. Among 
the captives brought in was a woman with a babe three 
months old. One of the soldiers recognized her as his wife, 
who had been taken by the Indians six months before. 
They rushed into each other's arms, and he took her and 
the child to his tent and had them clothed. But there was 
still another child missing, and on more children being 
brought in the woman was sent for. Among them she 
recognized her own, "and was so overcome with joy, that, 
forgetting her sucking child, she dropped it from her arms, 
and catching up the other run off" with it, unable to give 
utterance to her joy. The father soon followed her with _ 
the babe she had let fall, in no less transport of affection." 

The separation between the Indians and their prisoners 
was equally affecting, and there were as many tears shed by 
the sous of the forest at the parting, as there were by the 


captives at meeting their relatives. Mr, Ilutchins relates 
that the Indians visited them from day to day, brought 
them food and presents, and bestowed upon them all the 
marks of the most tender atfection. Some even followed 
the army on its return, and employed themselves in hunt- 
ing and bringing in provisions for the captives on the way. 
A young chief had formed such an attachment to a young 
woman among the captives, that he persisted in following 
her, and afterward paid the penalty of his life for his attach- 
ment. Nor was the affection of some of the captive women 
less strong for the red man. One female who had been cap- 
tured at the age of fourteen, had become the wife of an 
Indian, and the mother of several children. When told 
her that she was to be delivered up to her parents, her grief 
knew no bounds. " Can I," said she, " enter my parents' 
dwelling? Will they be kind to my children ? Xo, no ; I 
will not leave my husband;" and she darted off' into the 
woods and was seen no more. 

Among the captive children surrendered to Colonel Bo- 
quet, was one whom no one claimed, and whose after his- 
tory is full of romance. In 175(3, the wife and child of a 
Mr. John Crey, living near Carlisle, had been taken by the 
Indians. Grey died, and by his will gave to his wife one- 
half his farm and to his daughter the other half, in case 
they should ever return from captivity. The mother got 
away from the savages, returned home, and finding her 
husband's will, proved it and took possession of the farm. 
In 1764-5, when Colonel Boquet returned with his cap- 
tives, Mrs. Grey repaired to Philadelphia to search among 
them for her daughter. Failing t<5 recognize licr little 
Jane, some one induced her to claim the girl before spoken 
of, for the purpose of holding the other half of the farm. 
She did so, and brought up the strange child as her own 
daughter, carefully keeping th^ secret. The girl grew 
up as the daughter of John Grey, married a man named 
Gillespie, and took possession of the farm, which afterward 
passed through different hands up to the year 1789, when 


some of the collateral heirs of John Grey, oljtaining in- 
formation abont the spurious Jane Grey, commenced suits 
to recover the land, being four hundred acres of the best 
land in Mifflin County, Pennsylvania. A legal contest en- 
sued, which lasted in one phase or another for forty-four 
years, and in 1833 the case was finally disposed of, against 
the identity of the adopted child, and the property reverted 
to the heirs of the sisters and brothers of the original John 
Grey. The above facts are gathered from Sherman Day's 
History of Pennsylvania. 

Of the captives released from bondage in the Tuscarawas 
valley one hundred and eleven years ago, thirty-two men 
and boys and iifty-eight females belonged to Virginia, 
and forty-nine men gjid boys and sixty-seven females be- 
longed to Pennsylvania. Many of the men took to the 
woods for a living, and became scouts for Washington's 
army in the revolution. And as the boys grew up they in 
turn became scouts and pioneered the way for St. Clair in 
'91, Wayne in '94, and General Harrison in 1812, in their 
campaigns against the Indians. Thus did their captivity 
in this valley have its compensations, for by it they learned 
the Indian mode of warfare, became familiar with their 
war-paths and strong-holds, and after assisting to drive out 
the descendants of their captors, these descendants of the 
captives, many of them, took up their abode in the Tusca- 
rawas valley, and their posterity are now among its .hon- 
ored citizens in the fourth generation; and as they pursue 
their daily avocations at the plow or in the workshop, they 
have little conception of the fact that there is not a cross- 
ing place or fishing spot along our river, or a spring 
its valleys, or a lookout on the hill-tops, that has not been 
made sacred by the captivity of their ancestors and the 
death-screams of white men and women under the toma- 
hawk, scalping-knife, and faggot of 'the then merciless 

Harvey, in his History of Pennsylvania, says a great num- 
ber of the restored prisoners were sent to Carlisle, Penn- 


sylvania, and Colonel Boquet adv^'tised for those who had 
lost children to come and reclaim them. One old woman 
who had lost a child, and failing to recognize it among the 
returned captives, was lamenting her loss and wringing her 
hands, telling Colonel Boquet how she had years previous 
sung a little hymn to her daughter, who was so fond of it. 
The colonel told her to sing it then, which she did as 
follows : 

" Alone, yet not alone am I, 

Though in this solitude so drear; 
I feel my Savior always nigh, 

He comes my every hour to cheer." 

She had no sooner concluded, than her long-lost daughter, 
who had failed to know her mother by sight but remem- 
bering the hymn, rushed into her mother's arms. 

Colonel Boquet's success in conquering the Indians made 
him a brigadier-general, but he died in 1766, at Pensacola, 
of fever. 

C II A P T E R V. 


David Zeisberger, who liad been preaching to "Lo" for 
over thirty years in Pennsylvania, Georgia, and New York, 
suffering great privations, but meeting with some success, 
became convinced that his converts, to be held faitliful, 
must be removed beyond the evil influences and tempta- 
tions of the white man's vices. The pious German had 
established a mission on the Alleghany, where he preached 
to the sons of the forest every day, and had made such a 
favorable impression on the chiefs of the "Delawares, 
that Netawatwes, Pakaake, and Weldpachtschiechen, who 
ranged from the Susquehanna to the Alleghany, granted 
us" — says he in his journal — "a portion of land on the 
Muskingum River, where we might pursue our mission 
without molestation. When we settled there we found 
that their promise was fulfilled, and we met with no hinder- 
ance in our work. Not long after this Netawatwes with 
his tribe removed to Goscliackgunk. He then ceded to us 
all the lands in the vicinity of Gekelemukpechunk, in order 
that we might live separately and apart, and enlarge our 
settlement. Soon after this Netawatwes requested us to re- 
move to a place close to Goschackgunk, so that his people 
might have a better opportunity to hear the word of God." 

The above is an extract from Zeisberger's unpublished 
diary, which makes nearly one thousand pages, and is now 
in the possession of Julius Dexter, Esq., of Cincinnati, who, 
in making the translation, says "the diary is written in a 
crabbed German text." 


John Heckewelder, the master mind of the two, though 
not so devout as Zeisberger, in his narrative, says that they 
made a settlement on Beaver Creek in ApriJ, 1770, where 
the Indians came to hear preaching, and among others who 
became converts, was a great Indian orator named Glik- 
hican. He was the counsehjr of Pakaukee — called by Zies- 
l)ergcr Pakaake — chief of the tribe, and his conversion so 
astounded the other Indians that they called a council, 
and while discussing the question, messengers arrived from 
Gekelemukpechunk — and which signifies in English "Still- 
water" — with a large black belt of wampum. They brought 
a message from the Muskingum chiefs to the missionaries 
at Beaver, stating that a disease had carried off great num- 
bers of Delawares; that it was brought upon them by witch- 
craft ; that the only cure for the contagion was Christianity; 
that to get rid of the disease, small-pox, it was necessary . 
to become Christians, which they intended to do, and if the 
missionaries would come to the Muskingum and preach 
they would be well received, and such Indians as would 
not embrace their religion should be treated as common 
enemies. The missionaries however did not go until another 
invitation was extended to them, with the assurance that 
they should have all the land they wanted, and which 
should never be sold from under their feet, as the Iroquois 
had done to the Delawares. 

Zeisberger's first visit to the valley was in March, 177 1. 
From Fort Pitt west was the great trail made by the bufl:a- 
loes first, and used by the mound builders next, then by the 
later races of Indians in going to and returning from the 
Sandusky country and lakes. Zeisberger followed this trail 
almost due west until he came to the Tuscarawas River, 
where he left it at the crossing place — near Bolivar of this 
day — and following the meanderings of the river soutli and 
south-eastwardly he reached in about fifteen miles a big 
spring, three miles from the present l^ew Philadelphia. 
Along a bluft aljout twenty feet high, of gravel and sand, 
which had been the ancient east shore of the river, he found 


the remains of three ancient earth-works or forts of the 
mound builders, and opposite thereto in the bottom some 
fields partially covered by the forest, yet sufficiently visible 
to satisfy him that they had been once utilized by the 
ancient race. One was surrounded by a ditch several feet 
in depth and width, and the excavated earth forming an 
embankment live to ten feet high, and faint traces of which 
are yet discernible on the west side of the Tuscarawas. On 
the north is a mound covering a half to one acre, and ten 
or more feet high, once used as a sacrificial, or Imrial place. 
Leaving the spring, Zeisberger proceeded on to the forks, 
where Stillwater Creek enters the Tuscarawas; and then 
followed the river trail to the Indian capital, adjacent to 
the present Kew Comerstown. It was nearly a mile square, 
contained about one hundred log houses, one of which, 
belonging to the Delaware chief Netawatwes, was shingle 
roofed, and had board floors, and other indications of par- 
tial civilization. This is the chief whom Colonel Boquet 
in his campaign of 1764 deposed from office for not attend- 
ing the conference (at the forks of the river, the present 
site of Coshocton), but the chief continued his functions 
after Boquet returned to Fort Pitt. Zeisl)erger remained 
several days with the chief, and ha\dng preached in his 
house, as is said, the first protcstant sermon within tlie 
north-west territory, again returned to Pennsylvania. 


Early in 1772, with a number of Christian Indians, lie 
again visited the Delaware capital, and desired privik^ge to 
establish a mission in the valley. The chief Netawatwes 
and others, were so pleased (and some of whom believed 
that the small-pox, which had disappeared, was driven 
away by his sermon the year before) that the "Big Spring" 
was suggested as the proper locality, and a grant was made 
to him, for his mission, of all the land between the mouth 


of Stillwater and Old Town. Ileckewelder says Tuscarawas 
means "■ old toAvn," but the grant must have extended from 
the mouth of Old Town Creek, nearly opposite New Phila- 
delphia, to Stillwater Creek. Boquct says he found an old 
Indian town callen Tascanaoas at the river crossing, near 
the present Bolivar, from which some infer that the grant 
extended to tliat town, but such was not the fact. The 
grant however was extended the same year south, so as to 
include all the land from Stillwater Creek to within three 
miles of the Delaware capital — adjoining the present New 
Comerstown. By the two grants they thus obtained posses- 
sion of nearly all the bottom lands of the valley in Tusca- 
rawas County. 

On the 3d of May, 1772, Zeisberger and twenty-eight per- 
sons located at " Big Spring," and called it Schoenbrunn, 
or " Fine Spring." Here, on lands now owned by Elisha 
Jacobs, and adjacent thereto, owned by Henry Zimmerman, 
John B. Reed, and Alexander Brown, they set about erect- 
ing houses, clearing land, planting corn, &c. 

Early in the same year a large body of Christian Indians, 
under charge of Rev.' John Etwin, had set out from their 
settlement on the Susquehanna for the Tuscarawas valley. 
They nmnbered nearly three hundred persons, had a large 
number of horses, some seventy head of cattle, plow-irons, 
harrow teeth, pick-axes, all kinds of farming utensils and 
tools, iron pots, brass kettles for boiling maple sugar, and 
provisions for the whole body. They arrived at the settle- 
ment on the Big Beaver early in August. Zeisberger had 
returned from Schoenbrunn to that place to meet them. 
This whole body of emigrants left the Big Beaver settle- 
ment on the 5th of August, accompanied by Etwin, Zeis- 
berger and Ileckewelder, and arrived at Schoenbrunn on 
the 23d of August, 1772. Having decided to make Schoen- 
brunn a permanent settlement, they sent a delegation to 
the Indian chiefs at Gekelemukpechunk (in English Still- 
water), announcing their arrival. The delegation were re- 
cei\'ed with much friendship by the chiefs in council, and 


a grand feast was prepared, and the event duly celebrated. 
Heckewelder, in his narrative, states that visitors arrived 
daily at Schoenbrunn from Stillwater and other valleys to 
view the new comers, witness them putting up buildings, 
plowing the ground, &c., but what most excited their curi- 
osity was the fact of so large a number of Indians living 
happily together, and devoting themselves to labor in the 
fields, &c. Encouraged by these friendly visits, tlie mis- 
sionaries set to work and built a chapel at Schoenbrunn, of 
square timber, thirty-six feet by forty feet, shingle roofed, 
with a cupalo and bell. They also laid out their town regu- 
larly, with wide streets, and kept the cattle out by good 
fences, and adopted a set of rules of government, which are 
here given verbatim from Heckewelder's narrative : 

"1. We will know of no God, nor worship any other but 
him who has created us, and redeemed us with his most 
precious blood. 

" 2. We will rest from all labor on Sundays, and attend 
the usual meetings on that day for divine service. 

"3. We will honor father and mother, and support them 
in age and distress. 

"4. No one shall be permitted to dwell with us, without 
the consent of our teachers. 

" 5. No thieves, murderers, drunkards, adulterers, and 
whoremongers shall be suffered among us. 

" 6. No one that attendeth dances, sacrifices, or heathenish 
festivals, can live among ns. 

" 7. No one using TschappicJi (or witchcraft) in hunting, 
shall l)e suffered among us. 

" 8. We will renounce all juggles, lies, and deceits of 

"9. We will be obedient to our teachers, and to the 
helpers — national assistants — who are appoii\ted to see that 
good order be kept both in and out of the town. 

"10. We will not be idle and lazy; nor tell lies of one 
another; nor strike each other; we will live peaceably to- 


'•' IJ . Whosoever does any harm to another's cattle, goods, 
oi- ettbcts, &e., sluill pay the damage. 

"12, A man shall have only one wife — love her and pro- 
vide for her, and the children. Likewise a woman shall 
have but one liusband, and he obedient unto him; she shall 
also take care of the children, and be cleanly in all things, 

"13, We will not permit any rum, or spirituous liquors, 
to be brought into our towns. If strangers or traders hap- 
}ten to bring any, the helpers — national assistants — are to 
take it into their possession, and take care not to deliver it 
to them until they set off' again. 

"14, None of the inhabitants shall run in del)t with tra- 
ders, nor receive goods on commission for traders, without 
the consent of the national assistants, 

"15, ISTo one is to go on a journey or long hunt without 
informing the minister or stewards of it. 

"16. Young people are not to marry without the consent 
of their parents, and taking their advice. 

"17. If the stewards or helpers apply to the inhabitants 
fbr assistance, in doing work for the benelit of the place, 
such as building meeting and school houses, clearing and 
fencing lands, &c., they are to be obeyed. 

"18. All necessary contributions for the public ought 
cheerfully to be attended to." 

The above rules were made and adopted at a time when 
there was a profound peace ; when however, six years after- 
ward (during the revolutionary war), individuals of the 
Delaware jSTation took up the hatchet to join in the contiict, 
the national assistants proposed and insisted on having the 
following additional rules added, namely: 

"19. 'No man inclining to go to war — which is the shed- 
din 2; of blood, can remain amons; us. 

" 20. Whosoever purchases goods or articles of warriors, 
knowing at the time that such have been stolen or plundered, 
must leave us. We look upon this as giving encourage- 
ment to murder and theft." 

JMo person was allowed to live in the society without iirst 


having promised to conform to the foregoing rules. When 
any person vioUxted the rules he or she was lirst admon- 
ished, and in case that proved ineffectual the offender was 
expelled. Other rules were adopted for daily meetings, for 
government of schools, for attention to visitors, and for 
rendering assistance to the sick, needy, and distressed, so 
that the poorest person in the society was dressed, and as 
well provided for as the most wealthy. 

The missionai'y, Zeisberger, after establishing the emi- 
grants at Schoenbrunn, visited the Shawanese Indians, about 
lifty miles south of Schoenbrunn, where he preached and 
was well received. His absence from the Big Beaver settle- 
ment soon induced the Christian Indians of that placp, with 
their missionary, Rothe, to quit it and join the settlers on 
the Tuscarawas. A portion of them traveled across the 
country by land, and Heckewelder, with the balance, left 
Beaver on the IStli of April, 1773, in twenty-two canoes, 
paddled down the Ohio to the mouth of the Muskingum; 
thence up that and the Tuscarawas River to Schoenbrunn, 
after encountering many privations. The many converts 
^made from among the Delawares at Schoenbrunn, added to 
the original emigrants at that place, rendered it necessary 
to establish a new settlement ten miles down the river, 
which was begun the same year, 1773. Here they laid out 
a town in regular order, with wide streets, put up a chapel 
with cupola and bell, the same as at Schoenbvunn, and gave 
the place the name of Gnadenhuetten, which it retains to 
this day. Having need of a resident minister at this settle- 
ment, they dispatched some Christian Indians to Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania, to bring on the Rev. Mr, Schmick and his 
wife, who arrived at Gnadenhuetten on the 18th day of Au- 
gust, 1773, and took up their residence in a new house, 
built expressly for them. Zeisberger, in the fall of this year, 
again visited the Shawanese Indians, where he was well 
received, but being a turbulent and warlike tribe, his efforts 
to civilize them were not so successful as with the Indians 
around Schoenbrunn. Illustrative of their character, it is 


related that a horse was stolen from Schoenbrunn. Some 
time thereafter a Shawauee rode into Schoenbrunn on this 
horse. The owner, a Christian Indian, seeing the horse 
claimed him of the Shawanee, averring that he had been 
stolen from him. The Shawanee insisted that he came by 
the horse as a gift from an uncle. The Christian Indian 
cited Zeisberger's la\\' on stolen property, and was about 
moving away with the horse, Avhen the Shawanee, seizing 
a bit of l)unit coal, made a rude figure on a door, of one 
man leading a liorse, and another man coming up from be- 
hind and scalping him. "That,-^' said he, "is Shawanee 
law." The threat thus con ve3^ed proved effectual, and the 
Shawanee "border ruffian" was allowed to ride away from 
Schoeidjrunn on his stolen horse. 

Thus was commenced on the banks of the Tuscarawas, the 
first attempt at civil government in the great north-west 
territory. Post had been at Bolivar ten years before, but 
no successful attempt had been made to colonize and civ- 
ilize, as well as christianize, the aboriginies of the Ohio 
territory, prior to the efforts of Zeisberger. The history 
of civilization presents no code of government for man,^^ 
more perfect or more sublime, than a portion of those arti- 
cles adopted at Schoenbrunn. 

One hundred years have come and gone since they were 
promulgated — Zeisberger's bones lie mixed with the clods 
of the valley, one mile below — his companions and converts 
have all passed away — and nothing remains to mark the 
spot where the first bell sounded in the north-west terri- 
tory, in Christ's service, save the old spring, and a huge 
elm tree which was there with Zeisberger, and which now 
bends with age over the water oozing out of tlie bank 
in copious tears of sorrow, but unfitHo drink. 

The mad locomotive rushes by in gigantic strides, and 
with deafening screams, as though man, its master, 
was angered at the thought that he has been for a century 
expanding the human mind, since Zeisberger and his fol- 
lowers came there, and yet witli all his efforts and all 


his knowledge he can to-day produce no better code of 
law for -human government than the one enunciated by 
that unarmed man of God, with only the Bible in his liand, 
in 1772 * 


In the year 1773, Rev. David Jones, a Presbyterian min- 
ister, was sent out from Philadelphia City to the Scioto and 
Muskingum valleys, with the view of establishing amission. 
On arriving at Schoenbrunn he found Zeisberger had plant- 
ed his colonies along the Tuscarawas, and as they gave 
evidence of success, Jones proceeded on south aud spent 
some time among the Shawanese, but found no encourage- 
ment for a mission among them. He therefore returned 
up the Tuscarawas valley to New Comerstown, in the 
vicinity of the present town of that name. Here the In- 
dians were having a great feast and dance, in which, 
will sky procured from traders, was the principal performer. 
Under its influence they refused Jones permission to preach, 
shut him up in one of their huts, and put a guard around 
him, and some proposed to kill him, but one of the chiefs, 
called Gelelemend or Killbuck, interfered and saved his 

After the Indian feast was over they listened to the 
preacher, and he having spoken much against the use of 
whisky, made such an impression on the mind of the Chief 

*[Not,e. — Two years ago, being the one hundredth year since the Schoenbrunn 
settlement, Mr. Jacobs, who owns the spring, deeded it to the Union Bible 
Society, on condition that the spring and big elm be fenced around. Mr. John 
Judy, C. H. Mitchener, William C. Williamson, and other citizens then 
procured a memonfel stone, with proper inscriptions, and planted it at the 
spring, there to ^oint out to those who come at the end of the next hundred 
years, whei-e Schoenbrunn or "Fine Spring," may be found.] 

Killbuck that he became a convert then, and was ever 
afterward opposed to its use. While Jones remained at 
"The ]^ew Comerstown," Killbuck destroyed all the liqifor 
on hand, and notiiied the traders that if they bronght 
any more whisky among the Indians they (the traders) 
wonld be scalped. This aroused their enmity against the 
preacher, and threats being again made by some of the 
drinking Indians against his life, the Chief had him escort- 
ed up the river to Grnadenhutten settlement, and from 
there to Schoenbrunn, from which place the Delawares saw 
him safe to Fort Pitt, it being mid-winter, and the snow, 
as Jones states in his joiirnal, some four to five feet deep. 


Rev. Jones, while down among the Shawanese, was 
treated to an exhibition of mock devils which he thus de- 
scribes : 

" Among the diversions of this people may be reckoned 
their mock devils, three of which I saw myself, and if I 
had not heard that Mr. Brainerd described such, I should 
have been more surprised. These they call manitous. l^ot 
long before my departure, a young Indian came into the 
house where I lodged, and told me that the manitous were 
coming, and if we did not give them something they would 
bedaub us with all nastiness. Upon which I looked out 
and saw them near one hundred yards off. All the Indians 
knew me, and therefore the manitous seeing me I appre- 
hend intended to scare me. Each had a stick in his hand, 
and one stooped down by a tree as if he was going to shoot 
at me, but I could see that he had no gun. Afterward 
he came toward me, with all the pranks imaginable, mak- 
ing as hideous noises as he could possibly invent; each 
made the same noise. Eacli had false faces of light wood, 
and all were dressed in bear-skins, with the black hair on, 
so that they had no appearance of anything human. The 

: 93 


I foremost one had a great red face, with a huge, long nose, 
1 and prodigious large lips, his head above being covered 
} with bear-skin. As he came near me, he made a wouder- 
I ful rattling, with a great dry tortoise shell, having an arti- 
licial neck and head, and being tilled with grains of corn, 
I and other trinkets. The other two had black faces, resem- 
bling the countenance of a bear, with very long chins. 
They came around me with an al)undance of pranks, mak- 
ing a noise nothing like the voice of a man. After some 
time, I asked them what they wanted; but manitous can 
not speak. They continued their racket, and at last show- 
ed me a pipe, by which I understood they wanted tobacco. 
Upon the reception of any gift, they make some kind of 
obeisance and depart, dancing the strangest capers that are 
possible. In short, their looks, voice and actions, are such 
that I thought if they had got their samples from beneath, 
the scene could not be much exceeded. This ajiparel is 
used also l:)y their pow-wowers in their attempts at con- 


The year 1774 brought trouble to the missionaries and 
their settlements at Schoenbrunn and Gnadenhutten. A 
war had begun betwen the white settlers of Virginia and 
the Mingo, Wyandot and Shawanese tribes, dwelling on 
the north side of the Ohio. Wlienever any of their num- 
ber were killed they sought revenge upon the tirst wliite 
man who came in their way. Scalping parties came and 
hovered around the establishments at Schoenbrunn and 
Gnadenhutten, so that the missionaries were daily in dan- 
ger of their lives, and dare not leave their houses. 

The ditliculties between the Virginians and Indians every 
day became more alarming to the Christian Indians and 
th^ir missionaries, so to avert war the head men of the 


Delawares proceeded to Pittsl)nrgli to meet the deputies of 
the other nutions uiid the Enghsh, in council, with a view 
of restoring peace. On the 5th of May, 1774, the council 
met and delivered condolence speeches to the Indians, re- 
(piesting that Captain White Eyes would c&vxj these 
speeches to the different nations, and obtain their answers. 
As these speeches and answers belong to the history of the 
valleys, they are here given in full, as published by author- 
ity of Congress, in the first volume, fourth series, Ameri- 
can Archives : 

" Pittsburgh, May 5, 1774. — At a condolence held with 
the Delawares, Six Nations, Shawanese, Munsies, Mohe- 
gans and Twigtwees, who are the several nations that have 
suffered in the late unfortunate disturbances, 

"Present: Captain ConoUy, commandant, and a number 
of other gentlemen. 

"Six Illations Indians: Gnyasutha, White Mingo, and 
a number of other chiefs, and principal men. 

" Delawares : C aptains White Eyes, Pipe, Keykewenum, 
and Samuel Compass, with a number of other Indians of 
that nation." 

The English addressed the Indians thus : 

"Brethren: It was with the deepest concern that we 
informed you two days ago of the late unhappy death of 
some of your friends, and it adds much to our grief, upon 
this occasion, when y^e consider that some of our rash, in- 
considerate people, have been accessory thereto. We con- 
dole with you, and bewail the misfortunes you have suifer- 
ed, and as a testimony of our sincerity, we deliver you 
these strings of wampum. (A string to each nation.) ' 

"Brethren: We wipe the tears from your eyes, and re- ■ 
move the grief which this melancholy circumstance may 
have impressed upon your hearts, that you may be enabled 
to look upon your brethren (the English) with the same 
friendship as usual, and listen to them with the like good- 
ness of heart as formerly, when no evil disturbed your 
minds. (A string to each nation.) 


*' Brethren: We now collect the bones of your deceased 
people, and wrap them n}t in these goods which we have 
prepared for that purpose, and Ave likewise inter them, that 
every remembrance of uneasiness upon this head may be 
extinguished, and also buried in oblivion. (Delivered a 
condolence present.) 

" Brethren : We have now conformably with your cus- 
tom, condoled with you in the usual manner upon such 
occasions; and we are to request some of your chiefs pres- 
ent, who have the most influence with the distant tribes, to 
proceed to them with the greatest expedition with what 
you have now heard, as it is highly necessary that we should 
be made acquainted, witliout delay, with the result of their 
councils upon the present circumstances of affairs, as well 
as it may be useful for them to l)e informed of our senti- 
ments thereupon; and that the stroke they have received, 
is not only contrary to the judgment of every wise man 
among us, but all authority, which consequently will be 
exerted to do them justice; therefore these facts ought to 
have great weight in their determination at this time. And 
as a further proof of our uprightness toward them two of 
the gentlemen here present will accompany you in the exe- 
cution of this good work. (A string of wampum.") 

Captain White Eyes, on behalf of the Indians present, 
made the following answer : 

" Brethren : (The English.) We have heard with sat- 
isfaction the several speeches you have now delivered to 
us, and we return our sincere thanks for the friendship 
and concern you have been p)leased to express for us 
upon this occasion; we can not doubt of your uprightness 
toward us, and that the mischief done to us, has been done 
contrary to your intent and desire, which we believe has 
arose entirely from the evil minded persons who have been 
the perpetrators of it, therefore it is incumbent upon us to 
aid you with our best assistance. As the great and good 
work of peace has been established between us, by the labor 
and pains of our greatest and wisest men, it ought not to 


be tlii^turherl l»y the folly or imprudence of an j rash people 
whatever, who, hereafter, refusini^ to pay due obedience to 
o-ood advice, or offering to slip their hand from the chain 
of friendship, it will be our duty to chastise, sliould not 
those examples of violence before their eyes have this effect. 

"Brethren: I will carry your message to the other na- 
tions; they are intended for myself, as it is a business too 
serious to be trilled with, or boj's to be employed on; it is 
the happiness of ourselves, our women and children, and 
everything dear to us, that we are endeavoring to prescribe. 
Therefore there can be iio doubt that I shall speak my sen- 
timents fully and truly to all nations upon it. (A large 
string of white wampum.) 

May 25. White Eyes after delivering the condolence 
speeches to the Delawares, at "The ^ew Comerstown," 
received the following answer, directed to their brethren, 
the English: 

" Brethren : We are glad to receive your messages now 
delivered to us by Captain White Eyes, upon the late dis- 
turbances which have happened between our young men, 
and we return you thanks for the speedy measures yon 
have taken to speak to ns upon it. We are entirely satis- 
lied upon this account, and banish everything which could 
give us uneasiness from our hearts, as you desire us, and 
likewise request that yon will do the same, that nothing 
may remain upon either side to discontent us. (A string.) 

" Brethren : We have too great a regard for ancient 
friendship established between yon and us, and which has 
so long existed between our forefathers, to suffer the con- 
duct of foolish men to have any bad effect upon it, or to 
weaken our good intentions in the least, so as to loosen 
our hands from the hold we have of it; therefore we do 
not look toward the evil that has been done with any re- 
sentment in our mind, but with a desire to have it buried 
in oblivion, as well as everything else that has an appear- 
ance of disturbing our futnre tranquility. Be strong, 
brethren, and think favorably of our peace, as we do, and 


we shall be too powerful tor uuy bad people, who are not 
inclined to listen to or preserve it as we do. Brethren, 
when our wise people concluded the peace that subsists be- 
tween ns, it was mutually agreed between them that the 
rashness or folly of bad men ought not, nor should not, 
have any evil eiiect upon the amity settled between them, 
and this is still wdiat we adhere to. Brethren, last of all 
we spoke to our grandchildren, the Shawanese, upon this 
head, and desire them to keep their young, ini[)rudent 
men from doing mischief, and this advice we have given 
them at this time. (A belt.) 

"Brethren: From the road which you have cleared be- 
tween you and us, we now, by this string of wampum, upon 
our parts, remove every obstacle that may impede our 
traveling it with satisfaction, and we desire that our young 
men may be permitted to continue their trade as usual. 
Those white people who are in our towns, to the number 
of eleven, you will see in a few days, who are going to Pitts- 
l)urgh under the protection ot your brethren the Delawares 
and as soon as matters wear a more favorable aspect, we 
shall expect them to return to our towns. (A string.) 

The Shawanese then delivered the following answer to 
the condolence speakers, and message sent them : 

" Brothers : ( Captain Conolly, Mr. McKee and Mr. Crog- 
han.) We have received your speeches by White Eyes, 
and as to what Mr. Croghau and Mr. McKee says, we look 
upon it all to be lies. Perhaps what you say may be lies 
also, l)ut as it is the first time you have spoken to us, we 
also listen to you, and expect that what we may hear from 
you may be more confined to truth than what we usually 
hear from white people. It is you who are frequently pass- 
ing down and up the Ohio, and making settlements upon 
it, and as you have informed us that your wise people were 
met together to consult upon this matter, we desire you 
to be strong, and consider it well. 

" Brethren : We see you speak to us at the head of your 
warriors who have collected together at sundry }ilaces up- 


on this river, where we understand they are buihling iurts, 
and as you have requested us to listen to you, we will do 
it, but in the same manner that you appear to speak to us. 
Our people at the Lower Towns have no chiefs anu^iii; 
them, but are all warriors, and are also preparing theu)- 
selves to be in readiness that they may be better able to 
hear what you have to say. You tell us not to take any 
notice of what the people have done to us; we desire you 
like^^'ise not to take any notice of what our young men 
may now be doing, and as no doul)t you can commatid 
your warriors, when you desire them to listen to you, we 
have reason to expect that ours will take the same advice 
when we require — that is, when we have heard from the 
governor of Virginia. 

"Brethren (of Pennsylvania): It is some years since 
we had the satisfaction of seeing you at Pittsburgh, when 
you came there to renew the ancient friendship that sub- 
sisted between our forefathers, and it gave us great pleas- 
ure to assist you in the great work when the path was open- 
ed between you and us, and we now tell you that your 
traders who have traveled it shall return the same road in 
peace, and we desire our grandfathers, the Delawares, to 
be strong in conducting them safe to you. (A string.") || 

This warlike speech of the Shawanese frustrated the '^ 
hope of peace with them, which sorely exercised the mis- 

The following extracts of letters from David Zeisberger, 
missionary at Schoenbrunn, dated May 24, 1774, depicts 
their trials: 

"In my last I iutormed you of the critical situation in 
which we found ourselves here. We then were in hopes 
that the dark cloud w^ould pass over soon, and peace be re- 
established, as the Shawanese, in the council at Wakata- 
meka, had given seemingly a pretty favorable answer. But 
it appears now that they were only afraid of the DeUuDare 
part}^ in the council, for we heard since that a party of 
twenty warriors were gone to make an incursion where the | 


Mingoes have been killed. The Chief Netranafincs brought 
this aecount himself mournfully to Gnadeiihu'tten, desiring 
some messengers might be sent after one Killback, who was 
on the road to Pittsburgh, with the traders. We sent di- 
reetly two men with a letter to Mr. Anderson, tliat they 
may know" of it at Pittsburgh. The messengers returned 
last night, after having delivered their message. The Del- 
awares suppose that the Shawanese will soon move oil". I 
think our greatest danger would be if the wdiite people 
would make an ineursion into the Indians' hind; and if 
they should strike the Dalawares, the war would be gen- 
eral, and we then eould not continue here ; but we will keep 
unto the Lord a solemn feast of thanksgiving if he rules 
things so that we can stay here, for our flight would l)e 
subject to many difliculties ; and where should such a num- 
ber of people find a twelve months' subsistence, if they 
must forsake all that they have planted, for we are more 
than two hundred souls in this place only, besides the con- 
gregation at Gnadenhutten ; and to move into the settle- 
ments of the white people with our Indians, I can not find 
advisable. We know how it was in the last war. 

"ScHOENBRUNN, May 27, 1774. — We are in great distress, 
and don't knoAv what to do; our Indians keep watch about 
us every night, and will not let us go out of town, even 
not into our cornfields. If there should be more bad news, 
w^e w^ill be forced to move from here, for we are in danger 
from l)oth sides. I heard from some, that if the white 
l)rethren should be forced to leave them, the greatest part 
would return to the Susrpiehanna. But if otdy tlie Dela- 
wares continue in their peaceful mind, it may go Ix'tLer 
than we .now think. At the council at Wakatiunaka, were 
several head men of the Delawares })resent, who live at 
Scln)enbrunn and Gnadeidiutten, l)eing particularly sent 
for by Ndaiuattre.s for to assist them in the good work ol 
preserving })eace. The chief addressed the 8hawanese and 
Mingoes i)resent in a fatherly manner, showing unto them 
the blessing of peace, and folly of war; and toM them posi- 


tively that tLey need not to expect any help or assistance 
from tlie Dehiwares. The Shawanese gave liim in answer, 
they did believe his words to be good, and they w^ould take 
notice of them, and desired him to give also a fatherly ad- 
monition to their wives to plant corn for them, whicdi he 
did, ])ut they seemed more inclined to move ort' than to 
plant.'' — American Archives, fourth series, images 285-6, 

On the same day that the al)Ove letter was written, some 
whites killed several Indians, a slioi't distance above Wheel- 
ing, and tliose who escape<l fled to the Delaware towns for 
protection, at the same time threatening vengeance. 

At a meeting held with the Indians at Pittsburgh, the 
29th of June, 1774. 

"Present: Captain Aston, Major McCulloch, Captain 
Crawford, Mr.Valen Crawford, Captain Nevill, Mr. Edward 
Cook, Mr. John Steveson, Rev. Mr. Whiteaker, Mr. Joseph 
Wells, Mr. James Innis, Mr. Kneas Mackey, Mr. Joseph 
Simmons ; with a number of the inhabitants and traders. 

"Indians : Captain White Eyes, Weyandahila, Captain 
Johnny, with sundry other young men. 

" Captain W^hite Eyes first informed us that he had re- 
turned from transacting the business which he had been 
sent upon by his brethren, the English, and that he now 
had the satisfaction to tell us that he had succeeded in his 
negotiations with all those tribes of the several nations of 
whom he had since seen and conferred with u})on the un- 
happy disturbances which unfortunately arose this spring 
between the foolish people of both parties; and that he 
had found all nations fully disposed to adhere to their an- 
cient friendship and the advice of their wise men." 

Here he delivered a paper from the chiefs of the Uela- 
wares, containing as follows : 

"JSTew CoMERSTOWN, June 21, 1774. — Brethren: When 
the late unhappy disturbances happened, you desired us to" 
be strong and to speak to the other tribes of Indians to 
hold fast the chain of friendship subsisting between the 
English and them. We now inform you that we sent for our 


uncles, the Wyandots, and our grandchildren, the Shawa- 
nese, and also the Cherokees, and we have desired them to 
be strong and to inform all other nations, and hold fast on 
the chain which our grandfathers made, and you may de- 
pend our king still continues to go on in that good work. 

"As things now seem to have a good prospect, and peace 
likely to he restored again, brothers, we desire you to be 
strong; and also, on 3^our parts, to hold fast the chain of 
friendship, as you may remember when it was made it was 
agreed that even the loss of ten men on either side sliould 
not weaken it. If for the future we are all strong and 
brighten the chain of friendship, our foolish yoiuig men will 
not have it in their power to disturb it. We can not inform 
you any more of our grandchildren, the Shawanese, than 
that they are gone, and intend soon going to Fort Pitt, to 
hear of the disturbances that had happened between your 
foolish people and theirs, when you will then hear from 
their own mouths what they have to say. 

"Brothers: As things now seem to be eas}', and all the 
nations have now agreed to hold fast the chain of friend- 
ship, and make their young men sit quiet, we desire 3'ou 
to consider of what you have to say when our grandchil- 
dren, the Shawanese come to speak to you. The head men 
of the Shawanese are gone to Waketomica, and intend to 
send their king up to Fort Pitt, that he may himself hear 
what his brothers, the English, have to say. 

" King Newcomer, ISTeolige, 
" White Eyes, Killbuck, 

"Thomas McKee, Wm. Anderson, 
"Epaloind, Simon Girty. 

"To George Croghan, A. McKee and J. ConoUy, Esq." 

]^ew Comerstown appears at that day to have been a ren- 
dezvous as well for noted white men as Indians. McKee, 
Anderson and Simon Girty, whose names are attached 
above, were whites, and we notice the fact that while Zeis- 
berger and Heckewelder at Schoenbrunn and Gnadenhutten 
were civilizing the Delaware Indians, the other Indians at 


New Comerstown were making savages of white men. 
Cirty, MeKoe and Anderson were oflrisli Ijirtli, their par- 
ents having settled ah)ng the Sus([uehanna at an early day. 

Jonathan Alder, who knew Girty, says he was a friend 
to many prisoners, and that he knew of Girty having pur- 
chased several white hoys from the Indians, and sent them 
to the British to be educated. 

Ileckewelder, in his narrative, gives the following ver- 
sion of the troubles of 1774, in the Tuscarawas valley: 

'' The year 1774 was a year of trial to the Indian congre- 
gations, on account of a war which liroke out between the 
people of Virginia, and the Senecas and Shawauese tribes 
ot Indians, in which, as it became well known, the white 
people were the aggressors. Of these latter, a number 
were settled on choice spots of land, on the south side of 
the Ohio River, while the Indians dwelt on the north side, 
then their territory. The sale of land below the Kanawah 
River had opened a wide fiekl for speculation. The whole 
country on the Ohio River had ah'eady drawn the attention 
of persons from the neighboring provinces, who, generally 
forming themselves into parties, would rove through the 
country in search of land, either to settle on or for specu- 
lation ; and some, carek^ss of watching over their conduct, 
or destitute of humanity, would join a rabble (a class of 
people generally met on the frontiers), who maintained that 
to kill an Indian was the same as killing a bear or a buffalo, 
and would fire ou Indians that came across them by the 
way ; nay, more, would decoy such as lived across the river 
to come over for the purpose of joining them in hilarity, ', 
and when these complied, they fell on them and murdered 

Ileckewelder continues : 

"It is indescribable how enraged the relations of the 
murdered became on seeing such abominable acts com- 
mitted without cause, and even b}' some white men who 
always pretended to be their friends. The cries of tiie rela- 
tions of the snflercrs soon reached the ears of the respec- 


tive nations to whom they belonged, and who qnickly 
resolved to take revenge on the long knives; (for, said 
they) 'they are a barbarous people.' Some, however, con- 
sidering the difficulty of meeting the perpetrators, proposed 
killing every white man in their countr}-, until thoy should 
believe themselves amply revenged for the valual)le lives lost 
by the long knife men (Virginians). i^Tothing couhl equal 
the rage of the Senecas, in particular, and it was impossi- 
ble to foresee where the matter would end. Parties after par- 
ties came on, the missionaries had to keep witliin their 
houses, the enraged Indians insisted that every able man 
should do his utmost to take revenge. They kept on the 
look out for traders, to kill them, but these had already 
generally lied the country, while some were taken under 
protection by friendly Shawanese Indians, who afterward 
conducted them safely to Pittsburgh. These good people 
however, oh! shameful to relate! were, on their return, 
waylaid by some of those white vagabonds, tired upon, 
and one man shot in the breast, in which situation he, 
with his wound bleeding, fortunately reached Schoenbrunn, 
where it was dressed, and all possible attention paid him. 
"A Mr. Jones, who followed trading, and was at the 
time coming with two men in a canoe up the Muskingum, 
being ignorant of what had happened, was happily apprised 
of his danger, and the risk he was running, by an In- 
dian woman, who discovering him, advised him, without 
a moment's delay, to leave the canoe and take the woods 
direct for New Comerstown, where he would be safe. On 
the second day of their traveling in this manner, having 
accidentally hit upon the path leading to the Shawanese 
towns, at Waketameki, one of, Jones' men, named Camp- 
bell, feeling himself so fatigued by traveling in the woods, 
declared he would not leave the path again, and from which 
resolution he could not be persuaded. Scarcely had these 
two men got to the ridge when they heard the scalp yell 
in the direction they supposed the man to be. The fact 
was, a large party of Senecas, relations to those who had 


been murdered on the Ohio, and now on their way to 
Waketanieki, meeting this man, murdered him, and in 
their rage cut up the body and stuck the pieces on the 
Irishes, marching ott" in triumph. Captain White Eyes, 
who lived some distance from tlie path, liearing the yell, 
run instantly in that direction, where he found the man- 
gled body, which he collected and buried. The party, 
however, on returning the next day and finding what had 
been done, tore up the grave, and scattered the pieces at a 
greater distance. White Eyes, now on the watch, discov- 
ering what they were doing, repaired to the spot a second 
time, and succeeding in finding every part of the mangled 
body, carefully dug a grave in a more secure place, and 
interred the whole. 

" Next, a Mr. Duncan, well known to almost every In- 
dian in the parts, was sent out from Pittsburgh, to endeavor 
to procure from the enemy a cessation of hostilities un- 
til government could hold a conference with them. But 
l)efore he reached Waketameki, having Captain White 
Eyes for his conductor, he was fired upon, and had a vevy 
narrow escape. The enemy now renewed their threats 
against the Delawares, declaring that if they did not join 
in the conflict they should pay for it. 

"A report being in circulation that the governor of Vir- 
ginia was marching troops against the enemies' towns on 
the Scioto and Muskingum, and the inimical Indians hav- 
ing, for the purpose of fighting them, all moved westward 
of the Christian Indian towns, it was thought a proper time 
to conduct the missionary Rothe, with his wife and child, 
to a place of more, safety, while the other missionaries 
were determined to hold out to the last. Accordingly the 
former were taken to Pittsburgh, from whence they proceed- 
ed to Bethlehem ; while those remained, together with the 
Christian Indians, who were holding themselves in readi- 
ness to depart and proceed iip the river to Cu3^ahoga should 
the Virginia troops be beaten, which, however, was not the 
case, for after the battle at or near the great Kanawah, the 


enemy sued for peace, promising to deliver up all the pris- 
oners in their possession. In the course of the expedition 
the Shawanese towns at Waketameki had been destroyed 
by the white troops, while the orders given by their com- 
manders were, not to pass through any of the Christian 
Indian towns, nor in any manner to disturb those Indians. 

"•On the joyful news of peace being conchidcd between 
the contending parties, the Christian Indians set apart the 
6th day of November as a day of thanksgiving and prayer, 
which was celebrated with solemnity, offering up thanks 
and praises to the Lord for his gracious protection, 

" The war being now ended, which, altliough of short 
duration, was dreadful in its nature for the time it lasted, 
the general wish of the Christian Indians was that a dur- 
able peace might follow. 

"In other respects this year (1774) had been remarkable 
to the Christian Indians. First, the chiefs of the nation, 
both on the Muskingum and at Cuschcushke, had unitedly 
agreed and declared that the brethren should have full 
liberty to preach the gospel to the nation wherever they 
chose, and this resolution they also made publicly known. 
And, secondly, these seeing that their friends and rehitions 
pursued agriculture, and kept much cattle, they enlarged 
the tract of land first set apart for them, by moving their 
people off' to a greater distance, and consulting their 
uncles, the Wyandots, on the subject (they being the na- 
tion from whom the Delawares had originally received the 
land), these set apart, granted, and confirmed all that coun- 
try lying between Tuscarawas (old town) and the great 
bend below New Comerstown, a distance of thirty miles 
on the river, and including the same to the Christian In- 
dians. Two large belts of wampum were on this occasion 
delivered by the Wyandots and the chiefs of the Delaware 
nation to the Christian Indians, who in return thanked 
them for the gift, both verbally and by belts and strings of 

"The peace and rest enjoyed b}^ tlie Indian congregation 


throiio-lioiit the year 1775 was favorable to visitors, wlio 
caiiie ill iiuiiiUers to hear the gospel preached, so that the 
chapel at ISchoenbriinii, although large, was too small to 
contain them. The heathen preacher, Wangomend, had 
also in this year come on from (jroschgoshink, to see if ho 
coidd siu'LH'od in propagating his i'oolisli doctrines, but 
the Indian lirethren l)id him go to their children and learn 
ol them. 

"Toward the fall of this year two valuable, worthy, 
and exem[)lary national assistants departed this life — the 
one John Papunhank, a Delaware, and the other Joshua, 
of the Mohican tribe. Both were, at their res[tective places, 
wardens of the congregation, the for)iier at iSc^hoenbrunn, 
and the latter at Gnadenhutten. Joshua was one of the 
first Indians baptised by the brethren in 1742." 



"Near the junction of the Killbuck and Walhonding 
rivers, a few miles north-west of the present Coshocton, 
lived, as caidy as 1750, Mary Harris, a white woman. She 
had been captnred in one of the colonies, by the Indians, 
between 17-30 and 1740, and was then a girl verging into 
\vM»manhood. Her lieauty captivated a chief, who made 
lier liis wife in the Indian fashion of that day. 

"The Indian tribes were being crowded back from the 
eastern colonies, and the tribe of (^ustaloga had retired 
from place to place before tlie white frontier men, until 
al)out 1740 it found a new hunting grouiul in this valley, 
where the white woman became one of the inhabitants 
with her warrior, and where they raised a wigwam which 
formed the nucleus of an Indian town near the forks of the 
stream above named. Mary Harris had been suiRciently 


long with the Indians to become fascinated with their no- 
madic life and entered intd all its romantic avenues, follow- 
ing Eagle Featlier, her husband, to all the buffalo, elk and 
bear hunts in the valley, and whenever he w^ent off with a 
war party to take a few scalps, she mixed his paint and 
laid it on, and plumed him for the wars, alwaj's putting 
up with her own hands a sufhciency of dried venison 
and parched corn for the journey. She was especiall}^ care- 
ful to polish with soap-stone his 'little hatchet,' always, 
however, admonishing him not to return without some 
good long-haired- scalps for wigwam parlor ornaments and 
chignons, such as were worn by the first class of Indian 
ladies along the Killbuck. So prominent had she become 
that the town was named 'The White Woman's Town,' 
and the river from thence to the Muskingum was calh'd in 
honor of her, 'The White Woman's River.' 

"In 1750, when Christopher Gist was on his travels down 
the valley hunting out the best lands for George Wash- 
ington's Virginia Land Company, he stopped some time at 
White Woman's Town, and enjoyed its Indian festivities 
with Mary Harris, who told him her story; how slic liked 
savage warriors; how she preferred Indian to white life, 
and said the whites were a wicked race and more cruel 
than the red man. 

" In her wigAvam, tlie white woman was the master spirit, 
and Eagle Feather was ignored, except when going to war, 
or when she desired to accompan}^ him on his hunting 
expeditions, or was about to assist at the burning of some 
poor captive, on which occasions she was a true squaw to 
him, and loved him much. All went along as merrily as 
possible until one day Eagle Feather came home from be- 
yond the Ohio wnth another white woman, whom he had 
captured, and who he intended should enjoy the felicities 
of Indian life on tlie Killbuck w^ith Aiarj- in her wigwam. 
She, however, did not see happiness from that stand point, 
and forthwith the advent of ' The New Comer,' as Marj- 
called her, into that liome, made it, as Pf)meroy used to 


say, 'red hot' for Eagle Feather all the time, her puritan 
idea of the marital overto])ping the Indian idea of domes- 
tic virtue. Hence, Eagle Feather, whenever he tendered 
any civilities to the 'new comer,' encountered from Mary 
all the frowns and hair-raising epithets usually applied by 
white women to white men of our day under similar sur- 
roundings, and he became miserable and unhappy. Fail- 
ing to appreciate all this storming around the wigwam, he 
reminded Mary that he could easily kill her; that he had 
saved her life when captured; had always provided her 
bear and deer meat to eat, and skins of the finest beasts to 
lie upon, and in return she had borne him no pappooses, 
and to provide for her shortcomings in this respect he had 
brought the 'new comer' home to his wigwam to make all 
things even again, as a chief who died without young- 
braves to succeed him would soon be forgotten. So say- 
ing he took the new captive by the hand, and tliey depart- 
ed to the forest to await the operation of his remarks on 
Mary's mind. Returning at night, and finding her asleep 
on her buftalo-skins, he lay down beside her as if all were 
well, at the same time motioning the 'new comer' to take 
a skin and lie down in the corner. 

"He was soon asleep, having in his perturbed state of 
mind partaken of some whisky saved from the last raid in 
Virginia. On the following morning he was found with 
his head split open, and the tomahawk j*emaining in the 
skull-crack, while the 'new comer' had Hed. Mary, sim- 
ulating, or being in ignorance of the murder, at once 
aroused 'The White Woman's Town' with her screams. 
The warriors were soon out at her wigwam, and compre- 
hending the situation, at once stai'ted in pursuit of the flee- 
ing murderess, whom they tracked to the Tuscarawas; 
thence to an Indian town near by, where they found her. 
She was claimed as a deserter from 'The White Woman's 
Town,' and, under the Indian code, liable to be put to death, 
whether guilty of the murder or not. She was taken back 
while Gist was at the town, and he relates in his journal 


that after night a white woman captive who had deserted, 
was put to deatli in this manner: sShe was set free and ran 
off some distance, followed hy three Indian warriors, who, 
overtaking her, struck her on the side of the head with 
their tomahawks, and otherwise heat and mutilated the hody 
after life was extinct, then left it lying on the ground. 
Andrew r>urncy, a hlacksmith at 'The White Woman's 
Town,' obtained and l)uried the body. 

"Maiy Harris insisted that the ' new comer' killed her 
husband with his own hatchet, in revenge for l)eing brought 
into captivity, Avhile she, as tradition gives it, alleged that 
Mary did the wicked work out of jealousy, and intended 
dispatching her also, but she was defeated in her project 
by the flight of 'new comer.' Be that as it may. Eagle 
Feather was sent to the spirit-land for introducing polyga- 
my among white ladies in the valley, and as to the 'new 
comer,' the town to which she fled Avas thence forward 
called 'The New Comer's Town' by the Indians as early 
as 1755. When NetaAvatwes, chief of the Delawares, to(jk 
up his abode there about 1700, he retained the name, it 
corresponding witli Ins own in English. When Colonel 
Boquet, in 1764, marched down the valley and deposed 
^etawatwes, he retained the name on his map. When 
Governor Penn, of Pennsylvania, sent messages to the In- 
dians in 1774, he retained the name in his oflicial paper. 
When Brodhead, in 1780, marched down to Coshocton, he 
called it by the same name. In 1827 the good old Nicholas 
Neighbor, when he laid it off in h^ts, saw that it would pay 
him to retain the old name, and did so. 

"Mary Harris married again, had cbildren, and removed 
west about the time J*ipe Wolf's tril)e removed to Sandusky, 
in 1778-9. After that she became oblivious in history ; 
but the river from Coshocton to the mouth of Killbuck is 
still called ' The White Woman's River.' " 



The AiiR'r'u'aii cH)l(>nies luiA'iiig ;i ('ougress, in 1775, uji- 
[toiiitod c'oimnistsioners to couN'eiie tlic chiefs ol" tlie wcstoni 
liKruiiis lit Pittsburgh, for the [nirpose of ex[>l:iiiiing the 
disimte between tlie Englisli government and the colonies, 
and to enlist the tribes on tbe side of the latter, llecke- 
welder relates that after the chiefs of the Dehnvares re- 
turned to tlie Tuscarawas, they proceeded to explain the 
cause of the dispute to their tribe, and did it as follows: 

"(Suppose a father had a little sou whom he loved and 
indulged while young, but growing up to be a youth, be- 
gan to think of having some help from him; and making, 
up a snndl pack, he bid him carry it for him. The boy 
cheerfully takes this pack up, following his father with iti. 
The father iinding the boy willing and obedient, continues 
in this way; and as the bo}' grows stronger, so the father 
nudces the pack in proportion hirger; yet as l(jng as the 
boy is able to carry the pack, he does so without grumb- 
ling. At length, however, the boy having arrived at man- 
hood, while the father is making up the pack for him, in 
comes a person of an evil disposition, and, learning who was 
to be the carrier of the pack, advises the father to make it 
heavief", for surely the son is able to carry a larger pack. 
The father, listening rather to the bad adviser than con- 
sulting his own judgment and the feelings of tenderness, 
follows the advice ol' the Inii'd-hearted adviser, and makes 
up a heavy load for his son to carry. The son, now grown 
up, examining the weight of the load he is to carry, ad- 
dresses the parent in these W(n"ds: ' Dear tather, this pack 
is too heavy for me to carry, do pray lighten it; I am will- 
ing to do what I can, but am unable to carry this load.' 
Tlie lather's heart having by this time become hardeneil, 
and tlie bad advisei" calling to him, whip him it he dis- 
obeys, and he refusing to carry the pack, the father orders 


Ills son to tiike up the pack and carry it off" or lie will 
whip him, and ah'ea<ly takes np a stick to heat him. 'So,' 
says tlie son, ' am 1 to he sersa^d thus for not doing; what I 
am nnal)le to do? Well, it' entreaties avail nothini>; with 
you, father, and it is to l)e decided hy hlows, whether or 
not 1 am al)le to carry a pack so heavy, then I have no 
other clioice left me, hut that of resistini>; your nnreason- 
al»le demand hy my strength, and thus, hy striking eacli 
other, learn who is the strongest.' " Snch (Indian reports 
stated) was a parahle given them ibr «the pur[)ose of ex- 
plaining the nature of the dispute. 

They further reported, "that the commissioners had told 
them that, as the dispute did not concern them, it would 
he highly wrong in them (the American people) were 
they to ask the aid of their Indian brethren in bringing 
the dispute between them and the parent to a close; for, 
hy so doing, they would be made parties to the quarrel, which 
might involve them in difficulties and dangers, particularly 
as it could not be foreseen in whose favor the rpiarrcl would 
terminate. Tluit were they to ask the assistance of their 
brethren, the Indians, and they together should fail in gain- 
ing what they sought for, they would have to suffer with 
their white brethren; and so, vice versa, the case would be 
were they to join the other side. That therefore they would 
advise them to sit still until the contest should be over, 
be friends to both sides, and not take up the hatchet against 
either; for by taking the hatchet up to strike either side, 
they must infallibly create to themselves an enemy, who, 
should it so hap[!en tliat he became the conqueror, would 
punish them, take their kind from them, &c. And, fur- 
ther, that as, in the course of the war it might happen that 
their JDrethren, the Americans, would not have it in their 
power to supply them with all that they might want, they, 
not having taken up arms against the British, would con- 
sequently be supplied from that side, with such articles as 
they stood in need of; tliat their American brethren souglit 
their welfare, and having land enough of their own. did 


not wish to deprive them of theirs, hut sono;lit to secure ' 
tlieii- coiislunt i'rieiulship us hrotlicrs, who liad spruiii!: up 
together from one and tlie same soil; that they wished to 
make thv.nx a great people, and that they would do so to 
every nation and people that should take the advice here- 
with given them; yet that they must tell them, that what- 
ever nation should take up the hatchet and strike them, 
snch nation must al)ide the consequence should thoy, the 
American })eople, hecome conquerors. Lastly (the reporters ] 
added), that in consjC!([uence of tlie good advice given them i 
by their American brethren, the chiefs of the Delawares ■ 
present at this treaty, had for themselves, and in the name 
of the whole nation, declared to the commissioners that 
they would remain neutral during the 'contest between the 
parent and the son, and not litt up the hatchet against 
either side.' " 

About this time (says Ileckewelder), while a number of 
Sen.ccas were at Pittsburgh, perhaps more for the pur[)Ose 
of learning the disposition of the western nations, particu- 
larly that of the Delawares, with regard to the side they 
should take during the contest, they had an opportunity of 
hearing Captain White Eyes deliver his sentiments, openly 
declaring in favor of the American people and their cause, 
which so chagrined them that they thought proper to otter 
a cheek to his proceedings, by giving him, in a haughty 
tone, a hint, intended to remind him what the Delaware 
nation was in the eyes of the Six j^ations (meaning that 
it had no will of its own, but was sul)ordinate to the Six 
Nations), when Captain White Eyes, long since tired of 
this language, with his usual spirit, and in an air of disdain 
rose and replied, that "he well knew that the Six Nations 
considered his luition as a conquered people, and their in- 
feriors. 'You say,' said he, 'that you had concpiered me; 
that you had cut ott" my legs ; had put a petticoat on me, 
giving me a hoe and corn-pounder in my hands, saying, 
' Now, woman, your business henceforward shall be to plant 
and hoe corn, and pound the same for bread for us men 


and warriors ! ' Look (continued White Eyes) at my legs ! 
if, as you say, you had cut them off, they have grown again 
to their proper size! the petticoat I have thrown away, and 
put on my proper dress! the corn-hoe and pounder I have 
exchanged for these fire-arms, and I declare that I am a 
man!" Then waving his hand in the direction of the 
Alleghany River, he exclaimed, " and all the country on 
the other side of that river is mine ! " 

Perhaps so hold or daring an address was never made to 
any council of Indians, by an individual chief. But it 
ought to he noticed, that White Eyes had here spoken on 
the strength of what the commissioners ,had said and 
promised at the treaty. In what they had'said he placed 
full confidence. He took it for granted that the Senecas 
woftld join the English against the American people, and 
therefore lose the land they had so artfully wrested from 
the Delawares ; and, in the firm belief that his nation would 
keep the peace, he had a right to lay a claim to it. More- 
over, his expectation went to this: that should the Six 
Nations, in consequence of the language he had made use 
of to them, take up arms against his nation — they being 
friends of the American people, and at peace with them, 
they would assist them in fighting for their just rights. . 

The report of Captain White Eyes' declaration to the 
Senecas having become known to his nation, some feared 
the consequence of such daring language, to so proud and 
powerful a body as the Six Nations, combined, were in 
comparison to them ; while others were satisfied at his pro- 
ceedings, having- long wished to resume their ancient station 
and character among the Indian nations, so clandestinely 
wrested from them by the ancestors of these very people. 
This circumstance was, however, the cause of a division 
among them, in which the Munsies took the lead. They 
pretended apprehensions that the Six Nations would re- 
sent the liberty White Eyes had taken; and made this a 
pretense of withdrawing themselves from the councils of 
the Turtle tribe, and joining themselves to the Wolf tribe. 


ISTor did the Munsey chief, Kewalike, rest until he had 
succeeded in detaching a numher of their trihe from the 
Christian Indians at Schoenbrunn, who had taken it for 
granted that their chief was secretly acquainted Avith some 
evil ■\\'hich A\'()uld befall the Delaware nation, and therefore 
wished to remove them from danger. They (the Munsies), 
retiring nearer to Lake Erie, took care to have the 8ix 
^^atious informed that they did not approve of what Cap- 
tain White Eyes had said. And Captain Pipe, at the head 
of his tribe, was glad to see a breach made, of which White 
'Ejes was to bear the blame. Pipe was an artful, cunning 
man. Ambitious and fond of power, he endeavored to 
create a mistrust in the minds of individuals of the nation 
— persuading them to believe that their chief (White Eyes) 
had entered into secret engagements with the Americi\n 
l^eople, for the purpose of having their young people en- 
slaved, while they (the chiefs) were to reap the benefit 
thereof, and be lords over them. Pipe's place of residence 
was on Waldhonding, about fifteen miles from Goshocking 
(forks of the Muskingum). Hitherto he had regularly at- 
tended the councils at the latter place, but now began to 
withdraw, probably from a conviction that his intrigues 
were known, and might one day be held up to him by the 
chiefs, and he be obliged to render an account of his 
conduct. The peace chiefs, however, pursued their usual 
course — their sole object being the welfare of the nation. 


In April, 1776, a third mission settlement was began with 
eight families, in all thirty-fiA^e persons, under their faithful 
leader, David Zeisberger, and the Kev. John HeckeAvelder. 
They laid ofi^" a town, Avithin tAvo miles of Goshocking (the 
present Coshocton), and called it Lichtenau. The Avord 
means " The Pasture of Light." The toAvn Avas laid oft 
in the form of a cross, and stretched along the bank of the 


river, on one street. The chapel washnilt equi-distant from 
the ends of the street. The head chief, Netawatwes, of the 
DeUiware capitol,had abandoned Gekelemnkpechunk,when 
the breach took place among the Delawares, and with those 
of his tribe who remained true to him, he proceeded to the 
forks of the Tuscarawas and Walhonding, and built a new 
capital called, according to HeckeAvelder, " Goshochking," 
and according to De Schweinetz, " Goschachgunk." It 
occupied the lower streets of the present county town of 
Coshocton. When preaching commenced at Lichtenau, 
Netawatwcs and his family were among the first converts. 
He had selected the spot for Lichtenau to be erected upon, 
and recommended it to Zeisberger, as he had a few years 
before'selected " Big Spring" — Schoenbrunn — for a mission. 
Sclioenbrunn, like Lichtenau, was built in the form of a 
cross, and the latter, like Schoenbrunn, was erected on the 
site of the remains of earthworks, put there by the ancient 
mound-builders. Thus the Lidian, unconscious of the fact, 
became the central figure of ages gone, and ages yet to come. 



Netawatwes lived to see both Lichtenau and Schoenbrunn 
abandoned, and surrendered to heathenism, by reason of the 
war between christian nations. 

Ileckew elder says: 

"The Chief I^etawatwes, together with the chiefs, White 
Eyes, Gelelemend (alias Killbuck), Machingwi Pnschiis 
(alias the Big Cat), and others, did everything in their 
] lower to preserve peace among the nations, by sending em- 
bassies, and exhorting them not to take up the hatchet, or 
to join either side ; to which, however, the Sandusky Wyan- 
dots insolently replied: 'that they advised their cousins 
(the Delawares) to keep shoes in readiness to join the war- 
riors.' This message being returned to them by the Dela- 


ware council, with the adiuoiiition, 'to sit down and reflect 
on the misery tliey had brought upon themselves, by taking 
an active part in the war between the English and French;' 
but they thought pi'oper to send a message to the same pur- 
port, also to the chiefs of that nation (the Wyandots) liv- 
ing in the vicinity of Detroit, advising that one of these 
messengers, to be sent with the message, should be selected 
from among their body. Having accordingly arrived at the 
Huron village, below Detroit, they were told that no mes- 
sage from the Delaware council could be laid before them, 
except in the presence of the governor. Conscious as to 
the powers conferred on them, at the time they were, by the 
Five Nations, made and declared mediators and peacemakers 
between the nations, they could not even have a doubt as 
to the legality of the message; yet, scarcely had these depu- 
ties produced their peace belts, when the governor laying 
hold of them cut them into pieces, and throwing these 
pieces at the feet of the deputies, commanded them to leave 
the place within half an hour, or abide the consequences; 
and Captain White Eyes, who had been the principal bearer 
of the message, was, after being insulted, told 'that if he 
sat any value on his head he must be gone instantly.' 

"In consequence of this insult to the nation (for the 
chiefs and council considered it in no other light), they 
went to Pittsburgh to lay the case before their agent, for 
the information of Congress, who advised them, together 
with all peaceably disposed Indians, to come under their 
protection; but, as sad experience had taught them, by the 
murder of the Canestoga Indians in the very town of Lan- 
caster, and the narrow escape of the Christian Indians in 
the city of Philadelphia from being murdered by the Paxton 
boys, no chief would venture to make this proposal known 
to his people. As to the safety of the missionaries, gov- 
ernment had advised them, through their agent, to take 
refuge at Pittsburgh; but they chose rather to suffer what- 
ever might befall them, than desert a people committed to 
their care, and especially when they were most in want of 
advice and consolation." . 


Congress having appointed Colonel George Morgan In- 
dian Agent, he that winter visited Schoenbrunn and Gnaden- 
hutten, and had runners sent out to the western Indians 
with presents to induce them to remain at peace with the 
colonies, but in that he was unsuccessful, the British hav- 
ing already from Canada been among them, and impressed 
the western tribes with the belief that the colonists intended 
to take all the Indians' land, and pointed to the settlements 
at Schoenbrunn and Gnadenhutten as the rendezvous of the 
" land stealers," as they called the Americans. 

The Delawares, however, still remained friendly, and 
Heckewelder relates of them that the Delaware chiefs, hav- 
ing at this time in their possession documents and vouchers, 
both in writing and strings and belts of wampum, of all 
transactions that had passed between their ancestors and 
the government of Pennsylvania, from the time William 
Penn tirst arrived in the country down to the present time, 
had hitherto been in the habit of meeting, at least once 
every year, for the purpose of refreshing their memories on 
the subject, by hearing the contents; as also, that of in- 
structing one or more promising young men to learn by 
heart such valuable documents, that they might not be lost 
to future generations. In assembling for this purpose, 
they chose to be by themselves in the woods, at a conven- 
ient spot, where no person could interrupt them ; and when 
any written documents were produced, they requested one 
or the other of the missionaries to attend, to read and in- 
terpret them. 

Heckewelder in his journal says: 

"The northern warriors being continually on the watch 
for such white people who might venture out to the Dela- 
ware towns, it was dangerous for any one to attempt such 
a thing. Yet it so happened that Mr. James O'llara, who 
had come out to Schoenbrunn on business, was found out 
by some of these warriors, eleven of whom were coming 
on to seize him; but halting on their way at an Indian 
cabin, nine miles distant, where the man and his sons 


were equally tVieuds to the Amerieiins, the old man dis- 
covering their intentions, privately sent oft" in the night one 
of his sons to the writer of this narrative, with the follow- 
ing verbal message: 'My friend I see that our white friend, 
now at your village, be taken from thence this night, and 
conducted to a place of safety in the settlement of the 
white people; and do not neglect to act uj) to my message. 
Hear my son farther on the subject!' The son giving the 
best assurance that at the break of day the party would be 
here for the purpose of taking, and perhaps murdering 
Ml'. O'Hara, he was informed of it, and forthwith conducted 
by Anthony, a smart and trusty Indian, through the woods 
to the Ohio River, and there taken across by w^hite people 
living on the opposite shore. The young man who had, 
agreeable to his father's instructions, immediately returned 
home, after delivering the message, seeing them sometime 
after mid-night preparing to set oft' for the purpose of ex- 
ecuting their design, questioned them as to their intentions, 
and ftnding that the supposition had been correct, he replied, 
' your errand will fail, for the white man you are after is 
no more there, but returned to Pittsburgh.' On being- 
assured of this, they bent their course another way." 

Within a fortnight after the above had taken place, re- 
ports in succession were brought to Schoenbrunn that large 
[>arties were on their way to murder the missionaries ; and 
the fear of many of the Christian Indians at this place was 
so great they could not content themselves, unless they 
had placed them out of all danger. The missionaries, 
although unwilling to go, and not believing the danger s6 
great as represented, yet had to submit, and were at night 
taken to Gnadenhutten, from w^hence, however, Ilecke- 
welder returned again in the morning, and there found the 
Munsey chief, Newalike, from Sandusky, pressing those of 
his tribe to leave the place and save themselves, since 'all 
living here would soon be murdered, if they remained in 
the parts ; ' he thought it his duty to inform the senior mis- 
sionary, at Lichtenau, thirty miles distant, of the mischief 


that was intended by the Munsey chief, and others from 
Sandusky. The missionary without delay having come 
on, and liudiug matters worse than he had expected, made 
known in a public meeting that the place would be evac- 
uated; inviting, at the same time, all such as had a desire 
to cleave to the Lord, and rely on his help, to get ready to 
follow their teachers; a last discourse was delivered, and 
concluded by a fervent prayer. Next the chapel was pulled 
down, that it might not be made use of for heathenish pur- 
poses, and the congregation left the place the same diij. 

Shoenbrunn had been the largest and handsomest town 
the Christian Indians had hitherto built, containing upward 
of sixty dwelling houses, most of which were squared tim- 
bers. The street, from east to west, was long and of proper 
width ; from the centre, where the chapel stood, another 
street run off to the north. The inhabitants had for the 
greater part become husbandmen. They had large fields 
under good rail fences, well paled gardens, and tine fruit 
trees, besides herds of cattle, horses and hogs. 

The two congregations, Lichtenau and Guadenhutten, 
about twenty-seven miles asunder, had now each one mis- 
sionary left, and the prospect before them was that of a 
succession of troubles. These two brethren had, hoAvever, 
made a covenant to remain with their people, and pre- 
ferred suffering death rather than deserting their posts. 

Added to their other troubles came the news of the 
murder of " Cornstalk,"a celebrated Shawanese chief, in the 
summer of 1777. He had been to the Ohio, and with two 
companions went over to the garrison at Point Pleasant to 
talk of peace. The Virginians shut him up in the fort as 
a hostage for the good behavior of his tribe. Hearing this, 
his son crossed over and was also shut up with his father. 
The next day the Indians on the Ohio side killed a white 
man named Gil more, and as soon as the garrison heard of 
it, they rushed to the guard house and shot Cornstalk and 
his son. Cornstalk was a celebrated warrior, but inclined 
at times to peace. He had visited Schoenbrunn and Gnaden- 


hutteii often, aud been impressed with the ideas of Zeisber- 
ger, but his tribe were war men. His death greatly ex- 
asperated the hostile Indians, and many were the threats to 
take vengeance on the Moravian settlements. Of Cornstalk, 
Wilson says that at the battle of Point Pleasant his voice 
was heard above the din of battle, encouraging the Indians 
in these words, "Be strong, be strong!" and seeing one of 
his men skulking. Cornstalk sunk his tomahawk into him. 
Dr. Doddridge, in his notes, says of Cornstalk, that after 
the Indians had returned from the battle, Cornstalk called 
a council at the Chillicothe town, to consult what was to 
be done next. In this council he reminded the war chiefs 
of their folly in preventing him from making peace, before 
the fatal battle of Point Pleasant, and asked, " What shall 
we do now, the long-knives are coming upon us from two 
routes ; shall we turn out and fight them ? " All were silent. 
He then asked: " Shall we kill all our squaws and children, 
and then fight until we shall all be killed ourselves ? " To 
this no reply was made. He then rose up aud struck his 
tomahawk in the war post, in the middle of the council 
house, saying, " Since you are not inclined to fight, I will 
go and make peace." And accordingly did so. 

On the morning of the day of his death, a council was 
held in the fort at the Point, in which he was present. 
During the sitting of the council, it is said that he seemed 
to have a presentiment of his approaching fate. In one of 
his speeches he remarked to the council, "When I was 
young, every time I went to war I thought it likely that 
I might return no more; but I still live, I am now in your 
hands, and you may kill me if you choose, I can die at once, 
and it is alike to me, whether I die now or at any other 
time." When the men presented themselves before the 
door, for the purpose of killing the Indians, Cornstalk's son 
manifested signs of fear, on observing which his father 
said, "Don't be afraid my sou, the great Spirit sent you 
here to die with me, and we must submit to his will. It is 
all for the best." 


It is related by Zeisberger's biographer, that in 1777, when 
the border war liroko out again, the Governor of Detroit sent 
a hatchet, wrapped in a l)elt of red and white beads, to the 
Shawanese, Wyandots, Mingoes, and it was to be offered 
to the Delawares, and their tribal relatives, and any tribe 
refnsing to accept it, was to be treated as a common enemy. 
Cornstalk came to the council house at Goshocking, or 
Goshoehgnnk, stating that all the Shawanese except his 
own tribe, accepted the hatchet, and his tribe came and set- 
tled at the Delaware capital, he advising the Delawares to 
hold fast to the chain of peace; they refused the war-belt 
three times, but at last accepting it, to get rid of the Wyan- 
dot messengers, they sent it back to Sandusky as soon as the 
messengers left their capital. 


One cause of the troubles of the missions was want of 
courage, jealousy, and envy among the missionaries. Of 
Zeisberger it is presumed that not one line can be found 
among the archives of the missions, in support of an aver- 
ment that he was either jealous or envious of his brothers, 
or lacked courage in emergencies. But there is no doubt of 
the fact that he was hated by one or more of the brethren 
in secret, because of his paramount influence over the In- 
dians, and his popularity at Bethlehem, and that timidity 
controlled a portion in times of danger and peril, and hence 
whenever a crisis arose at the missions over which he had 
charge, he at least found lukewarmness and indecision 
where he should have had zealous council and efficient aid. 
Ilis biographer admits that "there was a want of harmony 
among the missionaries ; they were jealous, one of the other, 
and the Indians were left as sheep without a shepherd." 

The Mouse}' Indians at Schoenbrunn were seduced to 
throw off" their allegiance as Christian converts. They 
entered into a plot, concocted by British emissaries, to for- 


sake the luissiou, join the hostile Indians, and return to 
heathenism, first capturing and sending away the mission- 
aries. Zeis])erger heing at Lichtenau was apprised of the 
conspiracy and hastened to Schoenbrnnn, only to find tlie 
town in the hands of the conspirators, and the missionaries 
who were left in charge tied. On the 19th of April, 1777, 
he called as many of the converts together as could be 
rallied, and took the road to Lichtenau via Gnadenhutten, 
and Schoenbrnnn was given over to the deserters. To show 
that the Monseys could have been retained in the church 
by moral courage, it is only necessary to state that they 
were afterward brought back to the fold by the appeals of 
Zeisberger to them, when they came raiding around Lichte- 
nau in less than a year after. But in the meantime Schoen- 
brnnn was demolislied by the hostile warriors, and when 
Zeisberger led his converts back in 1779, it was necessary 
to build a new town on the west side of the river. 

This conspiracy, trifling as it turned out to be in results, 
was but part of an extended effort to subdue the colonies 
in their effort to attain independence. The hostile Indian 
warriors, if all mustered at the time, were computed at ten 
thousand, and to array them all it was only necessary to 
break up these missions, which acted as breakwaters in 
dividing the Indian waves that would have swept other- 
wise over the border States, at a time when the colonies 
were least able to repel them. Zeisberger's moral courage 
alone saved the border States from being overrun by the 
savages in that crisis, and perhaps he thereby saved the 



Ill 1774 the Virginia government sent ont one thousand 
men under Governor Lord Dnnmore to Ohio, to cluistise 
the Indians. The larger portion proceeded to the I'icka- 
awa}^ countr}^ and defeated the enemy in several skirmishes 
along the Ohio River, and made peace with them at Ohilli- 
cothe, the principal town of the Shawanese. 

Another portion of the Virginia forces under a Colonel 
Aymer McDonald, in June, 1774, proceeded from Wheeling 
west to an Indian town, called by the Shawanese Wa-ka- 
tamo-sepe, near the present site of Dresden. The word was 
corrupted into Wakatonieka, and Wakatomica, and means 
" a town on the river-side." McDonald's force numbered 
four hundred, and when near the town it met and dispersed 
a band of fifty Indians, killing several and losing two, with 
eight wounded. On reaching the town they found it de- 
serted, the Indians having retreated across the river ; and 
failing to draw McDonald into an ambuscade, they sued for 
peace, and sent over five chiefs as hostages. He released 
two to go and bring in all the chiefs to the peace conference, 
but they did not return, whereupon he burnt the town of 
Wakatonieka and adjacent cornfields, and other Indian 
towns on his way, and returned to Virginia with his thi-ec 
chiefs, who were released the same fall by the peace treaty 
of Lord Dnnmore, made at the old Chillicothe towu. 

Abraham Thomas, when a lad of eigliteen, ran away 
from home in Virginia, and joined the Wakatonieka ex- 
pedition. In his reminiscences, he says the plan of the ex- 
pedition was for each man to cross the Ohio with seven 
da^^s' rations on his back. On the second day out they were 
joined by Colonel McDonald, who ordered a three days' 
halt, which greatly incensed the men, as the delay cut up 
their provisions. A violent storm wet their arms in the 
night, and the colonel onlered the men to discharge their 
gmis in a hollow log, to deaden the sound. "My rifle 


would not go olf, and I made a noise iu beating it with ni\ 
tomakawk. McDonald came at me with his uplifted cane 
on account of fearing that the noise would he heard by tli( 
Indians. I arose to my feet, with the ritie barrel in yii\ 
hand, in self-defense. We looked each other in the eye to 
some time. At last he dropped his cane and walked otl 
The men all laughed, and said the boy had scared tl 
colonel. From this encampment we proceeded toward ti 
Indian villages, intending to surprise them, but beton 
reaching them we encountered the Indians in ambush on j 
second bottom. We marched in three parties, Indian-filj 
columns, and received their fire. The troops dei)loyed bji 
the right and left, and the fight lasted thirty minutes, whei 
the Indians gave way in every direction. While I wa 
ascending a bank with Martin and Fox, all aiming to gaii 
the cover of some large oak trees on the top, the}' both fell 
The first was killed, the last wounded in the breast. Thos* 
men were walking in a line with each other, and an Indiai 
chief behind the tree shot them both with one ball. I tool 
no notice whence the ball came, and hastened to the tree 
Just as I had gained it the chief fell dead from the othe 
side, and rolled at my feet. It seems a neighbor had seei 
him fire at Martin and Fox, then dodge behind the tree tt 
load. The Indian had got his ball half down, and peepe( 
out to look at me, when Wilson shot him dead. The In 
dians retreated toward Wakatomica, flanked by two com 
panics in hot pursuit. We followed in the rear, and a 
the last Indian was stepping out of the water. Captain Tea 
baugh brought him to the ground. Xight coming on, th 
division was ordered to encamp iu an oak woods. Thi 
evening Jack Hayes was spjnng down the creek and sav 
an Indian looking at us through the forks of a low tree 
lie leveled his rifle and shot him between the eyes, an« 
brought him into camp. Captain Cresap-'^ was up the whoL 

■■■[iVoie — The Captain Cresap referred to is the same to whom Logan ad 
dressed his war-club letter from New Comerstown, a month after Cresap &n> 
his men had destroyed Wakatomica town]. 


iglit, going tho rounds and cautioning his men to keep 
lieir arms in a condition for a morning attack. About two 
ouns before day he silently led his men across the creek 
ito the villages, but the Indians fled into an adjoining 
iiicket and dispersed. As we were nearly out of provisions 
lie troops returned to the settlements. Tlie men became 
xceedingly famished on this march, and I, being young, 
.'as so weak that I could not carry any thing. I saw my 
rother have a good stock of tobacco, and after some be- 
eeching I got a piece, although I had never used it. It 
pvived me, and I was soon able to travel with the rest of 
hem, and was actually the first to reach the Ohio." 



Early in 1777 the celebrated Shawanee chief, Cornstalk, 
with one hundred warriors, appeared in the neighborhood 
of Gnadenhutten and camped. Ivev. Smick was in charge 
of the mission but was absent at the time. Mrs. Smick, not l 
knowing the intentions of the chief, consulted the leading 
Christian Indians as to what should be done in the emer- 
gency. The advice was to invite the chief to the mission 
house, and send provisions to his warriors, as the sure way 
of averting their hostile intentions, if any were entertained. 
Accordingly the great chief was soon invited and escorted ! 
to the house of the missionary, but his caution against be- 
ing surprised and captured by an enemy induced him to 
take with him a guard of warriors, who were provided for 
near the house, while Cornstalk became the guest of the 
lady. His commanding and noble appearance at once made 
an impression on her, while her womanly person fascinated 
the chief. He was versed suihciently in English to talk 
with her, and, after a repast, he wbiled the time away in 
recounting to her some of his adventures in life, until time 
to go to his warriors, when he departed, shaking hands 
and making a kingly bow, she pressing him diplomatically 
to call again. On the day following JVlr. Cornstalk was up 
early, and repeated his visit about daybreak. The lady was 
not up, but that nuide no difference to him. He had called 
to tell her that a party of Wyandots and Mousey s were on 
the war-path, and were accompanied by a white man, and 
that they were after Glikhiccm, the Delaware, who they 
claimed was in the town secreted, and must have him or 


his scalp. Mrs. Smick, somewluit used to the rough edge 
of border life, arose, took Cornstalk into another room and 
showed him Glikhican, whom she had been hiding from his 
enemies for some da_ys, and her husband intending to send 
him to Fort P*itt as a place of safety, but all the paths were 
tilled with hostile Indian bands going to and returning frou], 
war, and hence he had to be hid. Cornstalk, who was an 
old acquaintance of the Delaware, after some talk, told her 
he would see the chief safely on his way. So, taking a 
woman's gown and bonnet of that day, he gave them to 
(jlikhican, told him to put them on and follow. He shook 
the lady by the hand and left. That evening he abruptly 
appeared again, and told her he had sent Glikhican out of 
danger by a guard of his own warriors, and now, having 
saved his life, and perhaps hers, he affectionately asked her 
to leave the mission and go with him to his town on the 
Scioto and become his wife, as he had little doubt but that 
her husband was captured or killed. The woman arose 
within her, and yet artfully concealing her indignation, she 
begged a short time to make up her nnnd, and with a little 
flirtation on her part to please the chief, left him alone; in 
a few moments he was asleep from the fatigues of the day. 
But not her. She dispatched a runner to Salem, where 
Smick had gone for a three days' visit, telling him to hasten 
and bring back her husband, or Cornstalk would take her 
off — being then in their house. Smick set out and reached 
his home before Cornstalk awoke that night. As soon as 
the great chief became aware of his return he became much 
dejected, but frankly told the missionary of his new born 
love for the Avhite woman, and then in a manly way dis- 
avowed any intention of offense in proposing to her to be- 
come the wife of a chief. Smick, in a true Christian spirit, 
took him by the hand and leading him to her presence. 
Cornstalk made the same disavowal to her, and taking from 
his plume an eagle feather placed it on her head, declaring 
that he now adopted Mr. Smick into his nation as a brother, 
and Mrs. Smick as a sister. He then hastily bid them an 


adieu, and was S('>on off with his warriors on their j on rney. 
lie was kilUid the same summer, as elsewliere related, hut 
before going to the fatal Point Pheasant, lie ha<l again 
visited sister Smick and her husband at Gnadeidiutten. 


a — gateway ten feet wide, h h h b — bastions. 

Through the kindness of President Whittk'sy, of the 
Northern Ohio Historical Society, I am enabled to produce 
the above plan of Fort Laurens, one mile south of Bolivar, 
Tuscarawas county, surveyed by Charles Whittlesy, ,Ianuary, 



Cleveland, Ohio, March 24, 1875. 
0. JI. MiTciiENEU, Esq., New Philadelphia, Ohio: 

Dear Sir: — When I made the accompanying phin oC 
Fort Laurens in January, 1850, that part of the parapet in 
the cultivated ground was nearly obliterated, but the outline 
was traceable. The two eastern bastions were very much 
destroyed l)y the construction of the Ohio Canal, but the 
southern curtain, and most of the south-western bastion 
was then quite perfect along the edge of the woods. Here 
the base of the parapet was seven feet broad, its height four 
and a half feet, and the depth of the ditch two and one-half 
feet, with a breadth of eight feet. It was a regularly laid 
out work, though small, and was probably picketed along 
the inner edge of the ditch, connecting the earthwork and 

The ground is an alluvial plain, elevated about twenty 
feet above the water of the Tuscarawas, and the soil dry 
and gravelly. 

Across the bottom land east of the river is a bluff much 
higher than the fort, within easy cannon range. It was 
evidently built for defense against Indians, or parties without 

With this description I trust the engraving will be un- 
derstood, Charles Whittlesy, 

To aid that portion of the western Indians who had 
joined the American Colonies, as well as to punish those 
who were continually raiding on the Ohio, and killing the 
settlers of western Pennsylvania and Virginia, under the 
instigation of the British at Detroit, Congress, by resolution, 
early in 1778, appropriated $900,000 to fit out an expedition 
intended to penetrate the Indian country. General Wash- 
ington appointed General Lachlan Mcintosh, to command 
the expedition, which rendezvoused at Fort Pitt, From 
that point it cut a road to the mouth of Beaver River, and 
built Fort Mcintosh, While there the General was advised 
by Heckewelder's Moravian Indian spies, that the western 


warriors and hostile Shawanese and Delawares intended to 
oppose liis march west and give him battle at Sugar Creek, 
near the present town of Dover, Tuscarawas county. He 
received this word on the 3d of November, 1778, and on 
the 5th his army was on the march to the Tuscarawas, 
which by reason of numerous obstacles, such as I>ad roads, 
poor horses, &c., he did not reach for fourteen days. In a 
letter written by him to General Washington in April, 
1779, giving an account of what he liad done, he details all 
his troubles about Fort Laurens. Extract : 

"Camp (Pittsburgh), April 27, 1779. 

"Sir: In obedience to your Excellency's desire, I am to 
inform you of the situation of the several posts west of the 
mountains, and will add the reasons for establishing them, 
which may enable you to judge the better of their propriety. 

"When I went there first I found Fort Pitt on the fork 
of the Ohio, Fort Randolph at the point or mouth of Great 
Kenhawa, three hundred miles down the Ohio River, and 
Fort Hand on the Kiskiminatis, fixed stations and garri- 
soned by Continental troops; and they are still kept up, as 
there is an independent company raised upon the applica- 
tion of Colonel George Morgan for the sole purpose of 
maintaining each, and would not weaken the force I had to 
carry on the expedition. Besides these there were thirty or 
forty other little stations or forts, at different times garri- 
soned by militia, between Wheeling and Pittsburgh, upon 
the Avaters of the Monongahela, the Kiskiminatis, and in 
the interior parts of the settlements, which were frequently 
altered, kept, or evacuated, according to the humors, fears, 
or interest of the people of most influence, which Gen- 
eral Hand was obliged to comply with, as his -chief de- 
pendence was upon militia. Those I endeavored to break 
up as soon as I could, without giving too much offense to 
people whose assistance I so much required, as they were 
very expensive and of little service, and for that end author- 
ized the lieutenants of Monongahela and Ohio counties to 


raise a. ranging company jointly, of one captain, one lien- 
tenant, one ensign, three sergeants, three corporals, and 
lifty-fonr privates, to scont continually the Ohio River from 
Beaver Creek downward, where the Indians usnally crossed 
to annoy these two counties, and would secure them ecpially 
alike; and the lieutenant of Westmoreland County to raise 
two such companies to secure their frontiers and protect 
them from scalping parties of the Mingoes or northern In- 
dians, which would render their little force useless and keep 
our regulars entire for other occasions, 

"I found, also,'Upon inquiry, a number of stores or mag- 
azines of provisions, built at public expense by our pur- 
chasing commissary, at great distances, difficult of access, 
and scattered throughout all the counties, which required a 
number of men at each for commissaries, coopers, packers, 
guards, &c. These I also discharged and gave the stores 
u[), as, by the report of a court of inquiry, all the provis- 
ions in them which were intended for an expedition proved 
to be spoiled and altogether useless through neglect, and in 
phice of them I had one general storehouse built by a 
fatigue party, in the fork of the Monongahela River, where 
all loads from over the mountains are now discharged with- 
out crossing any considerable branch of any river, and can 
be carried from thence at any season, either by land or 
water, to Big Beaver Creek, to which place I opened a road 
and built a strong post with barracks and stores, by fatigues 
of whole line upon the Indian shore of the Ohio River, for 
the reception of all our stores, clear of all ferries and in- 
cumbrances while our troops and supplies were coming up, 
and in case I was disappointed in both. I had many rea- 
sons to apprehend it would secure a footing so far ad- 
vanced into the enemies' country, and enable me to be 
better prepared for another attempt, and show them we 
were in earnest. 

" So late as the 3d of I^ovember, Mr. Lockhart appeared 
at Beaver with the cattle extremely poor, after driving them 
four or live hundred miles, meeting with many obstacles, 


and could not slaughter them for want of salt. The same 
day 1 received a message from the savages, reproaching our 
tardiness, and threatening that all their nations would join 
to oppose my progress to Detroit at Sugar Creek, a few miles 
below Tuscarawas, where they intended giving mc hattle. 

"Immediately upon this intelligence I ordered twelve 
hundred men to be read}^ to nuirch, though we had but four 
weeks' flour, which Mr. Lockhart fortunately brought with 
him, and left Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell with the rest 
of the troops at Beaver, to escort and send after me the long- 
looked for supplies, so repeatedly promised by our deputy 
quartermaster-general, Mr. Steel, when they arrived, and 
in the meantime to finish the fort and stores. 

"We were fourteen days upon our march, about seventy 
miles, to Tuscarawas, as our horses and cattle tired every 
four or five miles from our first setting out, and were met 
there only b}' some Cochecking Delawares and Moravians 
(Indians), who informed me that the Chippewas and Otta- 
was refused to join the other Indians, upoQ which their 
hearts failed them, and none came to oppose our march. But 
unfortunarely a letter by express from Lieutenant-Colonel 
Campbell, a little afterward, informed me that no supplies 
came yet, and we had very little to expect during the win- 
ter, nor could he get the stafit to account for, or give any 
reasons for their neglect and deficiencies, which disappointed 
all my flattering prospects and schemes, and left me no other 
alternative than either to march back as I came without 
effecting any valuable purpose, for which the world would 
justly reflect upon me after so much expense, and confirm 
the savages in the opinion the enemy inculcates of our 
weakness, and unite all of them to a man against us, or to 
build a strong stockade fort upon the Muskingum, and 
leave as many men as our provisions would allow to secure 
it until the next season, and to serve as a bridle upon the 
savages in the heart of their own country; which last I 
chose, with the unanimous approbation of my principal offi- 


cers, and we were employed upon it while our provisions 

" I have the honor to be your Excellency's most obedient 
and humble servant, Lachlan McIntosh." 

Doctor Philip Dodridge, in his " Notes," published about 
1824, says: 

" Some time after the completion of the fort the general 
returned with his army to Fort Pitt, leaving Colonel John 
Gibson, wkh a command of one hundred and fifty men 
to protect the fort until spring. The Indians were soon 
acquainted with the existence of the fort. The first annoy- 
ance the garrison received from the Indians was some time 
in the month of January. In the night time they caught 
most of the horses belonging to the fort, and, taking them 
ofi" some distance in the woods, they took oti" their bells 
and formed an ambuscade by the side of a path, leading 
through high grass of a prairie at a little distance from the 
fort. In the morning the Indians rattled the horse bells at 
the further end of the line of the ambuscade. The plan 
succeeded. A fatigue of sixteen men went out for the horses 
and fell into the snare. Fourteen were killed on the spot, 
two were taken prisoners, one of whom was given up at the 
close of the war, the other was never afterward heard of. 

" Greneral Benjamin Biggs, then a captain in the fort, be- 
ing officer of the day, requested leave of the colonel to go 
out with the fatigue party which fell into the ambuscade. 
'No,' said the colonel, 'this fatigue party does not belong 
to a captain's command. When I shall have occasion to 
employ one of that number I shall be thankful for your 
service, at present you must attend to your dut}^ in the fort. . 
On what trivial circumstances do life and death sometimes 

" In the evening of the day of the ambuscade the whole 
Indian army, in full war dress and painted, marched in 
single file through a prairie in view of the fort. Their 
number, as counted from one of the bastions, was eight 


hundred and forty-seven. They then took up their encamp- 
ment on an elevated piece of ground at a small distance 
from the fort, on the opposite side of the river. From this 
camp they frequently held conversations with the people ot 
our garrison. In these conversations they seemed to de- 
plore the long continuance of the war and hoped for peace, 
but were much exasperated at the Americans for attempt- 
ing to penetrate so far into their country. This great body 
of Indians continued the investment of the fort as long as 
they could obtain subsistence, which was about six weeks, 

"An old Indian of the name of John Thompson, who 
was with the American army in the fort, frequently went 
out among the Indians during their stay at their encamp- 
ment, with the mutual consent of both parties. A short 
time before the Indians left the place they sent word to Col. 
Gibson by the Indian that they were desirous of peace, and 
if he would send them a barrel of flour they would send in 
their proposals the next day, but although the colonel com- 
plied with their request, they marched oft' without fuliill- 
ing their engagement. 

" The commander, supposing the whole number of the 
Indians had gofie oft", gave permission to Colonel Clark, of 
the Pennsylvania line, to escort the invalids, to the number 
of ele-ven or twelve, to Fort Mcintosh. The whole number 
of this detachment was fifteen. The wary Indians had left 
a party behind for the purpose of doing mischief. These 
attacked this party of invalids and their escort about three 
miles from the fort, and killed the whole of them, with the 
exception of four, among whom was the captain, who ran 
back to the fort. On the same day a detachment went out 
from the fort, brought in the dead, and buried them with 
the honors of war in front of the fort gate. 

" In three or four days after this disaster a relief of seven 
hundred men, under General Mcintosh, arrived at the fort 
with a supply of provisions, a great part of which was lost 
by an untoward accident. When the relief had reached 
within a hundred yards of the fort, the garrison gave them 


a salute of a general discharge of musketry, at the report 
of which the pack-horses took fright, broke loose, and scat- 
tered the provisions in every direction through the woods, 
so that the greater part of it could never be recovered again. 

"Among other transactions which took place about this 
time was that of gathering up the remains of the fourteen 
men, who had fallen in the ambuscade during the winter, 
for interment, and which could not be done during the in- 
vestment of the place by the Indians. They were found 
mostly devoured by the wolves. The fatigue party dug a 
pit large enough to contain the remains of all of them, and 
after depositing them in the pit, merely covering them 
with a little earth, with a view to have revenge on the 
wolves for devouring their companions, they covered the 
pit with slender sticks, rotten wood, and bits of bark, not 
of sufficient strength to bear the weight of a wolf. On the 
top of this covering they placed a piece of meat as a bait 
for the wolves. The next morning seven of them were 
found in the pit; they were shot, and the pit tilled up. 

"For about two weeks before the relief arrived, the gar- 
rison had been put on the short allowance of half a pound 
of sour flour, and an equal weight of stinking meat for 
every two days. The greater part of the last week the}^ 
had nothing to subsist on but such roots as they could find 
in the woods and prairies, and raw hides. Two men lost 
their lives by eating wild parsnip roots by mistake. Four 
more nearly shared the same fate, but were saved by medi- 
cal aid. 

"On tlie evening of the arrival of the relie% two days' 
rations were issued to each man in the fort. These rations 
were intended as their allowance during their march to Fort 
Mcintosh, but many of the men, supposing them to have 
been back rations, eat up the whole of their allowance be- 
fore the next morning. In consequence of this imprudence 
in eating immoderately, after such extreme starvation from 
the want (^f provisions, al:)out forty of the men became faint 
and sick during the first day's march. On the second day, 

136 I 

however, tlie sufferers were met by a great number of their 
frieiids from the settlements to which they belonged, by 
Avliom tliey were amply supplied with provisions." 

Major V'arnum, sometimes called Vernon, succeeded 
Colonel Gibson in command at Fort Laurens, and so re- 
mained until the abandonment of the works. General 
Mcintosh was relieved at Fort Pitt and Fort Mcintosh, and 
succeeded by Colonel Gibson, who was succeeded by Colonel 
I3rodliead, who, on the 15th of April, 1779, wrote Governor 
Reed, of Pennsylvania, from Fort Pitt, that his forces 
"have been divided — one hundred at Fort Laurens, twenty- 
live at Wheeling, twenty-five at Ilolliday's Cove, «&c." 

On the 16th of May he wrote General Armstrong, ridicul- 
ing Mcintosh for having erected Fort Mcintosh at Beaver, 
and although he was then silent as to Fort Laurens, what- 
ever criticism attached to the one attached to the other, for 
Laurens was only an out-post to Fort Mcintosh. 

May 22, 1779, Colonel Brodhead wrote to Colonel George 
Morgan that he "had got a small supply of salt meat at 
Carlisle, and sent it to Fort Laurens, otherwise the fort 
would have had to be abandoned at once." 

May 30, 1779, he wrote to Major Frederick Varnum at 
Fort Laurens, "that Moses Killbuck had just come in from 
Fort Laurens and told him that the garrison was without 
subsistence, and the men so low from starvation that many 
could not keep their feet." 

May 31, 1779, he wrote to Colonel Lochry that "Fort 
Laurens is threatened by a considerable force," and he called 
for recruits^nd horses to relieve the fort. 

Tlie fort was soon after threatened by about one hundred 
and ninety British Indians and a few British soldiers, said 
to be under the leadership of Simon Girty, but the enemy 
moved oft" toward the Ohio without making an attack. Had 
the attack been made at that time, there could have been 
no other result than surrender and massacre. 

August 1, 1779, Colonel Brodhead wrote to Ensign John 
Beck, then at Fort Laurens, that he "has notice ot two 


squads of Indians, twenty in each squad, going toward the 
Tuscarawas, and he hopes that the soldiers coming in from 
Fort Laurens will meet and scourge them." 

August 4, 1779, he wrote to General Washington that 
he " has just learned of two soldiers heing killed at Fort 

These were probably the two referred to by Heckewelder, 
who, in his narrative, says that in the summer of 1779 the 
commander at Fort Laurens sent a Mr. Sample, his com- 
missary, with a squad of men to the forks of the Muskin- 
gum to purchase corn, and such pjFovisions as could be 
obtained from the mission at Lichtenau (two miles below the 
Coshocton of this day), and from the friendly Del awares at 
Goshockiug (Coshocton), where their capital was located. 
Sample pitched his tent on the opposite side of the river 
from the Indian village, leaving one soldier to guard his 
camp and horses, and crossed over to the town. In a short 
time the scalp yell was heard across the river, and hurrying 
to the river bank they saw hostile Indians going off with 
the horses and the scalp of Sample's soldier. On the yext 
day another soldier was tired at and wounded. The Dela- 
ware chiefs sent out a force and recovered Sample's horses, 
and he returned to Fort Laurens with some provisions. 

August 6, 1779, Colonel Brodhead wrote to General Sulli- 
van from Fort Pitt, who was then in command in northern 
Pennsylvania, that he was "daily expecting the garrison 
from Fort Laurens ; when it arrived he would start on liis 
campaign up the Cannewaga," and from the fact that his 
expedition up the Alleghany did start in a short time, it is 
certain the garrison left Fort Laurens in August, 1779, but 
there is no published record of the exact date the fort was 

From all the facts about this Fort Laurens enterprise, it 
seems that Varnum's garrison had suffered so many priva- 
tions that they took what we call at this day " French 
leave" of the fort, and made their way back to the Ohio as 
best they could, in their starved condition, after burning 


everything likely to impede their retreat, or that would be 
of use to the Indians if captured. 

But the fort itself was not destro^^ed. It remained intact 
as late as 1782, as is learned from the statement of a young 
♦ man named Carpenter, who was captured b}" the Indians 
in Washington County, Pennsylvania, early that year, and 
brought by them, with a lot of stolen horses, to one of their 
camps on the Muskingum, probably Goshocking, as Hecke- 
welder called it, Goshuckgunk as the Indians called it, and 
Coshocton as we call it. Carpenter made his escape, and 
ran for his life up the valley trail, past the burned Salem, 
Gnadenhutten, and Schoenbrunn towns, and reached Fort 
Laurens, which he found unoccupied, but in good condition. 
Thence he made his wa}^ east to the Ohio over the big trail, 
and reached home in the fall of 1782. 

Henry Jolly, who was one of the Fort Laurens soldiers, 
says in a statement he published, that "the army marched 
with such rapidity from Beaver to the Tuscarawas that the 
Indians were not aware of its approach until the fort was 
near completion." This is an error. Mcintosh, in his let- 
ter to Washington, says it took fourteen days to go from 
Beaver to the Tuscarawas, a distance of seventy miles only, 
over the great trail, constantly followed by the savages in 
their raids to and from the Ohio border settlements. An- 
other trail from the lower towns of the Muskingum mis- 
sions, Lichtenau, Salem, and Gnadenhutten, passed near 
what is now Uhrichsville, and connected with the big trail 
at Painted Post, near midway between the Ohio and Tus- 
carawas, and over which the Christian Indian runners were 
constantly traveling to and from Fort Pitt with messages. 
They were as constantly dodging the hostile warriors along 
this trail; and, with a knowledge of these facts, to suppose 
that Mcintosh with twelve hundred men, marching live miles 
a day only, was not observed until he got to the Tuscarawas, 
and nearly finished his fort, is an absurdity on its face. 

Mr. Jolly also says, that soon after Fort Laurens was 
erected, a large force of Indians invested it before the gar- 



rison were aware of being surrounded by an Indian army. 
This is a mistake also. Mcintosh had called on the Mo- 
ravian Indians to meet him at Tuscarawas, with two Indian 
companies from the missions. He says l)ut about two dozen 
were there whan he arrived. These operated as scouts to 
watch the enemies' approach, for that is what he wanted with 
them ; and to suppose that these scouts and the old Indian 
hunters in Mcintosh's army would all lay asleep in the fort, 
being surrounded, without knowing it until the warriors 
showed themselves before the fort, is simply ridiculous. 

Coincident with Mcintosh, the great Delaware chief, 
White Eyes (and who had been supplanted in the aftections 
of many Delawares by Captain Pipe), had conceived the 
idea of marching an army to the Tuscarawas and building 
a fort, to awe Pipe and the British Indians. Squads of hos- 
tile warriors had come down the Mohican and Walhonding, 
and w^are roaming over and scourging the settlements, as 
did the squads under Alaric and Attila, two thousand years 
before, come down from the Black Forest and scourge peo- 
ple in the declining days of Rome. The Wyandots had an 
order to bring back to Detroit the scalps of Zeisberger, 
White Eyes, and Killbuck, and destroy the missions. 
White Ejes retired to Fort Pitt for safety, and w^hen Mcin- 
tosh's project was unfolded to him he declared that he 
would go with the armj^, and during its march White Eyes 
died of small-pox, as stated by Heckewelder. Professor 
DeSchweinitz, in his life of Zeisberger, says White Eyes 
died JSTovember 10, 1778, at "Tuscarawas in the midst of 
the army of white men." Fort Laurens was erected in 
close proximity to the ancient Indian town called " Tusca- 
rawas," which Colonel Boquet found abandoned in 1764, 
but which had over one hundred lodges or houses then still 
standing. It had been a seat of the Indian empire, where 
the chiefs of the ditferent nations met and discussed the 
"public safety," and decided on measures to prevent en- 
croachments of the whites. The great chief. White E^'cs, 
had orated there against white encroachments in by-gone 


times, unci if after guiding an army of white men there to put 
down his rival, Captain Pipe, and thwart his machinations 
against the colonies, the great chief died of small-pox in 
the midst of that army, after it had huilt the fort, tlie spot 
where Fort Laurens stood should he rememhei-ed by Ameri- 
cans as the grave of White Eyes, although General Mcin- 
tosh says his arn)y did not reach the Tuscarawas for nine 
days after White Eyes died, if DeSchwcinitz's date (No- 
vend)cr 10, 177H), is ccn^rect. Captain i*ipe, his ri\:il chief, 
on hearing of his death, declared at iSandusky, in the midst 
(»t the Britisli Indians, that White Kyes was a great man, 
l)ut having sought the ruin of his country, tlie Great ISpirit 
took him away in order that the Indian nations miglit he 
saved. In after times Congress awarded to his widow and 
family the use of a portion of the four-thousand acre 
Schoen])runn tract, below New Philadelphia, and aWout 17i>8 
she and two daughters came to Zeisberger"s mission, at 
(lioshen, and enjoyed it for a time. Her grave is said by 
some to be at the Goshen cemetery, but other accounts say 
she and her daughters removed witli the Christian Indians 
west, on the breaking up of Goshen mission, about 1828-4. 
She is described by those who knew her as a woman of no- 
V)le and commanding appearance. 

Fort Lanrens covered about half an acre, and the parapet 
walls were crowned with pickets made of the si>lit halves 
of the largest trunks of trees, which accounts in part for 
the inability of tlie Indians to capture it, although they 
had as many warriors besieging it as they had at the siege 
of Fort Pitt in Pontiac's war of 17G3, if we believe Dod- 
dridge. Portions of the earth-work can yet l)e pointed out 
(1875). In close proximity to this fort, Colonel Boipiet, in 
1764, erected his stockade fort, which may be designated 
Port Tuscarawas, and portions of wliich were visible when 
the Ohio Canal was constructed, and the spot is yet discerna- 
ble. Fort Laurens was the first fort erected west of the 
Ohio l)y order of the American Congress. The other forts 
^.heretofore, and since erected on Ohio soil, were: 


Fort Jiinandat, Sandusky Bay, by the French, in 1754; 
Fort Govver, now in Athens County, by Lord JJunmore, in 
1774; Fort llarmar, noAV in Washington County, by the 
United States, in 1785; Fort Steuben, now Steul_>envi]le 
city, l)y tlie United States, in 1784; Fort Washington, now 
Cincinnati, l)y the United States, in 1780; Fort Campus 
Martins, now Marietta, by the United States, in 1791 ; Fort 
Dilies, Obio River, now in Belmont County, l)y the United 
States, in 1790; Fort Hamilton, now a city of that name in 
Butler County, by the United States, in 1791; Fort Jeffer- 
son, now in Darke County, by the United States, in 1791; 
Fort St. Chiir, now in Preble County, by the United States 
in 1791; Fort Recovery, now in Darke County, by the 
United States, in 1791 ; Fort Defiance, now in Defiance 
County, l)y the United States, in 1794; Fort Deposit, now 
in Lucas County, by the United States, in 1794; Fort 
Greenville, now in Darke County, by the United States, 
in 1794; Fort Laramie, now in Shelby County, by the 
United States, in 1794; Fort St. Mary's, now in Mercer 
County, by the United States, in 1794; Fort Riqua, now in 
Miami County, l)y the United States, in 1794. 

In the war of 1812 the following forts were erected: Fort 
Miami, on the Maumee, by the British; Forts Sandusky, 
in Erie County; Stevenson, in Sandusky County; Seneca, 
in Seneca County; Meigs, in Wood County; Amanda, in 
Allen County; Ball, in Seneca Comnty; Findlay, in Han- 
cock County; and McArthur, in Hardin County, all in 


The man wlio caused the greatest terror among tlie hos- 
tile Indians west of the Ohio, from 1774 to 1782, was Colonel 
John Gibson, a native of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. 
He was born in 1740 at Lancaster. His first service was in 


Gtnoral F()rl)os"s cx}>cditu)ii against the French and In- 
dians, after which he became a trader at Fort Pitt, and at 
tlic mouth of Beaver Creek, where he and two others were 
captured by tlie Indians, who took him to Virginia, on the 
Kenhawa, where tlicy intended to burn him, but were pre- 
vented by a s(juaw \vho ado[)ted liim. lie remained some 
time among tlie Indians, b\it returned to Fort Pitt in time 
to take an active part in Dunmore's war of 1774, and at 
Camp Cliarlotte, seeing the great Logan, one of whose rela- 
tives he had married, he took the liberty of immortalizing 
Lt)gan l)y "working up " that famous speech. In the revo- 
lutionary war he commanded the seventh Virginia regi- 
ment, served in Xew York, New Jersey, and the western 
department, and visited 8choenbrunn on the Tuscarawas, 
as a government agent, on his way to carry the great con- 
gress six-foot peace belt to the Indians. At Schoeid)rnnu 
h'e remained several days conversing with Zeisl)erger, ob- 
serving closely all that passed, witnessing an Indian bap- 
tism, on the evening of which he and the holy man sat up 
until midniglit discussing religion. 

In 1779 he commanded for a time the garrison at Fort 
Laurens (near the present Bolivar), and although it was 
invested by over seven hundred Indian warriors for six 
weeks, and had but about one hundred defenders fit for 
duty, such was their fear of Gibson, the " Long Knife," that 
they never attempted an assault, but running short of pro- 
visions they made that the excuse for moving off. Colonel 
Gibson soon after proceeded to Fort Pitt and assumed com- 
mand thereof. A i»arty of Delawares and Mingoes, who 
were of the Indian army investing Fort Laurens, having 
tried but failed to ambush Colonel Gibson on his way to 
Fort Pitt, revenged themselves by going to the Ohio border, 
crossing to the Monongahela country, and killing seven 
white settlers. Gibson, being apprised of the murders, 
took a sufficient force from the fort and pursued the sav- 
ages. Accidentally he met a few Indians under "Little 
Eagle," Mingo chief, near Cross Creek, who, seeing Gibson, 


gave the yell and iired at him, the ball perforating his coat 
but doing no harm. Gibson was so near the chief, that 
raising his sword he cleaved "Little Eagle's" head from 
his body in an instant. Two other savages were slain on 
the spot, the residue Heeing to the forest. Gibson returned 
to Fort Pitt, smd, as tradition says, took "Little Eagle's" 
head with him, to offset the hole in his coat. He became 
more than ever the terror of the warriors, by whom he was 
called " Long Knife," and ere the M^ar closed the term 
"Long Knives" was applied to the Americans generally. 
Colonel Gibson's fame by this adventure excited the envy 
of other officers, and when he projected an expedition 
against the north-western tribes, the inability of the Gov- 
ernment to furnish supplies, and the machinations of lead- 
ing men against him, caused the total failure of the expe- 
dition. When he learned of the expeditionists in William- 
son's band, threatening death to the Moravian Indians, he 
sent a runner to warn tliem, but it came too late. This ex- 
cited the borderers against him, and they charged Gibson 
with treason to them, and when a portion of Williamson's 
men returned to Fort Pitt to kill the Moravian Indians on 
"Smoky Island," Gibson's life was endangered to such an 
extent that he was compelled to keep within the fort. He 
remained at Fort Pitt during the war. In 1790 he was a 
member of the Peimsylvania constitutional convention, and 
in 1800 was made secretary of the Indiana territory. After- 
ward he retired to private life, and died in 1822, near Brad- 
dock's tield, Pennsylvania. 



Colonel Morgan, Indian agent in 1770, was told by Dela- 
ware chiefs that the Indian army investing Fort Laurens in 
January, 1779, numbered but 180, composed of Wyandots, 
Shawanese, Mingoes, and Monseys, and four (scallawag) 
Delawares, with John Montour and his brother. 

This is contradicted by the missionaries' record at Lich- 
tenau, for on passing that place they counted about 700 on 
their way lip the Tuscarawas, and on the east bank of the 
river they paraded opposite the fort to show their strength, 
when one of the garrison counted 847 painted warriors. 
The missionary and the soldier couklnot both have lied five 
hundred on one subject at the same time when they were 
fifty miles apart, and strangers to each other. 

Moreover, the number of warriors in the northern and 
western tribes in 1779 were at that time reported upon by 
Morgan to the government as follows : Delawares and Mon- 
seys, 600 ; Shawanese, 400 ; Wyandots, 300 ; Mingoes, 600 ; 
Senacas, 650; Mohawks, 100; Cuyugas, 220 (called by Mor- 
gan Cuyahogas); Onondagas, 230; Oneidas and Tuscarawas 
(he meant Tuscaroras), 400; Otto was, 600; Chippewas (of 
all the lakes), 5,000; Pottawatomies, 400; Miamies, 300; 
and smaller tribes, 800; total, 10,000 warriors; which he 
says they coukl have concentrated at one point on the fron- 
tier in a few weeks, if necessary. 

At tlie second investment of Fort Laurens in the summer 
of 1770, Morgan sa^^s there were present 40 Shawanese, 20 
Mingoes, and 20 Delawares, who were induced by Delaware 
chiefs to move off without firing a gun ; thus the Delawares 
saved Fort Laurens. 



lleckewelder relates that in 1762, when lie and Post were 
at Post's cabin, he dare not be seen by the Indians while 
writing or reading- a- book, they suspecting it had reference 
to taking their land. 

In 1779, they had the same antipathy to paper money, 
believing that it meant "steal" on its face. Hence, when 
they sold anything to the Fort Lam^ens garrison, there 
being no hard money there, they were paid in Inick and 
doe-skin certilica-tes, which they passed to the traders for 
whisky, ammunition, &c. 

In Colonel Morgan's journal is a certificate of the kind 
vouched for by Colonel Gibson in these words : 

" I do certify that I am indebted to the bearer. Captain 
Johnny, seven bucks and one doe, for the use of the States, 
this 12th day of April, 1779. 

" Signed, " Samuel Sample, 

"Assistant Quartermaster." 

" The above is due to him for pork, for the use of the 
garrison at Fort Laurens. 

"Signed, "John Gibson, Colonel." 

The ground upon which Fort Laurens was erected, and 
around which so many historical incidents are located, is 
now part of tlie farm of the heirs of Henry Gibler, de- 
ceased, in the first and second sections ot township ten, 
range two, about ten miles due north from T^ew I'hila- 




When Girty, Elliot, and McKee deserted the American 
cause, and passed from Fort Pitt down the Mnskingiira, 
in the winter of 1778, they were followed to Goshocking 
(Coshocton) hy twenty soldier deserters also, who spread 
terror at the Delaware Indian capital, and at the Moravian 
mission, Lichtenan, near by. They represented Washington 
as having been killed, the army dispersed, and the Ameri- 
cans coming west to kill all the Indians. . 

Captain Pipe called the Delawares to the council house, 
and in a violent speech urged the Indians to take up the 
hatchet against the colonies. Even the Indian converts at 
the mission Lichtenau were aroused, and many clamored 
for war. 

Captain White Eyes replied to Pipe, and pronounced all 
these stories lies, at the same time asking the Indians to 
not take the war-path for ten days, and if word did not 
come in that time showing that these renegades were liars, 
he would go to war with his nation and be the iirst to fall. 
Ilis eloquence stayed the torrent of Indian wrath let loose 
by Pipe, and all agreed to wait the time asked. _ 

Ileckewelder was coming from Bethlehem with his ser- 1| 
vant, John Martin. They arrived at Fort Pitt jaded and 
worn, buflearning the reports that had come up from the 
valley, at once started on horseback with peace messages 
and letters from General Hand, commander at Fort Pitt,« 
to the Delawares, assuring them that all the stories were 
talse, &c. He and John Martin reached Gnadenliutten at 
midnight of the second day, and learning there that the ten 


days would be np on the morrow, again mounted, without 
rest or sleep, and rode into Gosliocking tlie next morning 
at 10 o'clock. The Delawares were painted and ready for 
the war-path. His old friends, and even White Eyes, re- 
fused to shake hands with him. Seeing the crisis, he stood 
up in his saddle, his hair flapping in the wind, and waved 
the peace letters over his head, telling the Indians that all 
those stories were lies ; that instead of "Washington being 
killed, the American army had captured Burgoyne's British 
army, and that instead of coming west to kill the Indians, 
the Americans were their true friends, and wanted them 
not to take any part in the war. White Eyes then spoke 
and calmed the Delawares, who put off their war plumes, 
except Pipe and his Mousey band, and thus was peace re- 
stored, and Zeisbergei' and his mission saved for the time 
from destruction. 

This must have taken place early in the fall of 1778, for 
White Eyes, having had his life threatened by the Pipe 
party, left the valley for Fort Pitt, joined Mcintosh's army 
and piloted it toward Fort Laurens in November. 


The settlers at Lichtenau, near Coshocton, finding that 
the war parties from the Sandusky country, passed and 
re-passed their town so often in going to and returning 
from their depredations at the Ohio River, determined to 
al)andon Lichtenau, and in April, 1779, Zeisberger, with a 
number of families set out for Schoenbrunn. Mr. Edwards 
also set out with the former inhabitants of Gnadenhutten 
for that place, while Ileckewelder remained with the bal- 
ance at Lichtenau, and these three settlements had for a 
time comparative quiet. 


During 1770 a man named McCormick, living at San- 
dusky, having learned of a plot to capture Zeisberger, or 
bring in his scalp — and at the head of which plot was Simon 
Girty — found means to inform Ileckewelder at Lichtenau. 
Zeisberger being then at Liclitenau, on a visit from Schoen- 
brunn, two guards were selected to conduct him back 
home via Gnadenhutten. When nine miles on the way 
back, which was, say two-thirds oi" the distance between 
the present Coshocton and New Comerstown, all of a sud- 
den Simon Girty and eight Mingoes of the Six Nations 
appeared before them in the path. Girty exclaimed to his 
Mingoes, "this is the very man we have come for; no^V act 
agreeable to the promise you have made." Two young 
Delawares, returning from a hunt, suddenly came into the 
path, and hearing Girty's words, stepped forward to defend 
Zeisberger and assist his two guards in case of need. Seeing 
which, and not wanting to raise any alarm among the Dela- 
^wares, Girty and his band disappeared, and the missionary 
arrived safely at his town of Schoenbrunn, which he had 
located anew this year on the west side of the river in sight 
of old Schoenbrunn. 

In March, 1780, Lichtenau was abandoned, and its occu- 
pants moved twenty miles up the river and built the town of 
Salem, near the present Port "Washington, erecting among 
other buildings, a chapel of hewed timber forty feet by 
thirty-six, with cupola and bell, and in which chapel 
Heckewelder was married the same year. 

After the evacuation of Lichtenau, Pipe and his band 
of Indians retired to Sandusky, and took up the hatchet 
against the colonies, under pay from the British comman- 
der of Detroit, 




General Brodhead, with a military force, was sent out in 
1780 to destroy the hostile Indian towns along the Muskin- 
gum and tributaries. Arriving in 1781 on the east side of 
the Tuscarawas, below Salem, he sent for Heckewelder to 
come over, and bring some articles of provisions. He in- 
formed Heckewelder that he was on his way against a band 
of hostile Indians at the forks of the river (Coshocton), and 
wished that any of the Christian Indians out hunting in that 
direction might be called in, as he did not wish to molest 
them. While at this camp a portion of his troops formed 
the plan of leaving camp to go up the Tuscarawas and 
destroy Gnadenhutten and Schoenbrunn. The plan was 
frustrated, and Brodhead marched on to White Ej^es Plain, 
where an Indian prisoner was taken, and two other In-, 
dians shot at but they escaped. He then by a forced march 
reached and surprised the towns at the forks of the Tusca- 
rawas and Walhonding, but, owing to high water, the In- 
dians on the west side of the river escaped, but all on the 
east side were captured without firing a shot. Sixteen In- 
dian warriors captured were taken below the town, toma- 
hawked and scalped, by directions of a council of war held 
in the camp of Brodhead. The next morning an Indian 
called from the opposite side of the river for the "big cap- 
tain," saying he wanted peace. Brodhead sent him for his 
chief, who came over under a promise that he should not 
be killed. After he got over a notorious Indian fighter, 
named Louis Wetzell, tomahawked him. The army then 
commenced their homeward march with some twenty pris- 
oners, but had not gone half a mile when the soldiers killed 
them all, except a few women and children, who were taken 
to Fort Pitt, and there exchanged for an equal number of 
prisoners held by the Indians. This sanguinary march was 


called "the Coshocton campaign," and many of the men in 
it, a 3^ear later, came out with Williamson and enacted the 
Gnadenhntten massacre. 

Shortly after Brodhead's campaign eight}- British Indian 
warriors arrived near Gnadenhntten and demanded tliesnr- 
render to them of Killbuck and other chiefs, whom the war- 
riors claimed were hid in the town, and whom they mnst 
have " dead or alive," alleging that these chiefs were coun- 
seling peace when their nations were at war. Being ad- 
vised that these chiefs had gone to Fort Pitt they searched 
the town, and then sent to Schoenhrunn and Salem for the 
missionaries to come to Gnadenhntten and have a talk abont 
it. The missionaries obeyed, and heard a speech from the 
head war chief, Pachgantschillas^ alias Bockongahelas, alias 
Shingask, after which the Christian Indians replied, when 
the war chief proposed and the missionaries agreed to let 
ever}^ one at Gnadenhntten have his free will, either to go 
with the warriors or stay. The warriors then proceeded 
to Salem and made the same proposal, adding that those 
who did not go would be destroyed by those who professed 
to be their friends. One family agreed to go, and the war- 
riors returned to their homes at Sandusky, where Pipe, 
McKee, Elliot, and Girty had taken up their residences, and 
were continually sending out warriors to commit depreda- 
tions and murders. At Schoenhrunn, this year, the mis- 
sionary, Senseman, came near being captured by two savages 
while in his garden. At Gnadenhntten, Edwards and Young 
were shot at and narrowly escaped. 



Ill August, 1781, under directions of the Britisli com- 
mandant at Detroit, one hundred and forty Wyandot war- 
riors, forty Monseys, and some straggling Ottawas and Mo- 
hicans, all under Pipe, Half King, Wingmund, two Shawa- 
nese, Captains John and Thomas Snake, Kuhn, a white man, 
then a chief, and Captain Elliot with two other white men 
appeared at Salem and remained a week in council. On 
the 25th of August they called the missionaries and con- 
verted Indians of the three towns to meet at Gnadenhutten 
and made known their intention of removing them to San- 
dusky and Detroit. All refused to go, but some of the timid 
were willing in case all went. 

The chiefs assembled and discussed the question of kill- 
ing the missionary leaders and driving oii' the balance to 
Sandusk3^ The killing was rejected. On the 2d of Sep- 
tember, Zeisberger, Senseman, and Heckewelder were .taken 
prisoners, and their watches with other articles taken from 
them. On the 7th Elliot took Heckewelder from Gnaden- 
hutten to Salem, and on the 8th other missionaries followed. 
On the 11th all moved off for Sandusky, leaving the three 
towns forsaken, many cattle and hogs and thi*ee hundred 
acres of corn behind. They arrived at Sandusky October 
n, 1781, and were set to building bark huts. 

On the 25th of October John Shebash and a party re- 
turned to Schoenbrunn to gather corn. On the same day 
tlie missionaries, Zeisberger, Edwards, Heckewelder, and 
Senseman, were taken to Detroit to be tried as spies, having 
been charged with holding correspondence with the agents 


of the American colonies, then in rebellion against the 
British government. 

Having arrived at Detroit, Heckewelder, in his narrative, 
gives the following account of their trial and acquittal: 

" It being by this time known in the town that the Mo- 
ravian missionaries had come in as prisoners, curiosity drew 
the inhabitants of the place into the street to see what kind 
of people we were. The few clothes we had on our backs, 
and these tattered and torn, might have induced them to 
look contemptuously upon us, but we did not iind this to 
be the case. We observed that we were^ viewed with com- 
misseration. After standing some time in the street, oppo- 
site the dwelling of the commandant, we were brouglit be- 
fore him, where, with empty stomachs, shivering with cold, 
worn down by the jouruey, and not free from rheumatic 
pains, we had again to stand until we underwent a strict ex- 
amination. Being at length dismissed, Mr. Bawbee took us 
to the house of a private French family, which consisted of 
Mr. Tybout and wife, both elderly peoj^le, and having no 
children. We were told by Mr. Bawbee, who acted as 
agent for the Indian department, that we might make our- 
selves easy for the present ; and were not forbidden to walk 
about. We soon found ourselves in a good birth, for not 
only our landlord and his wife were obliging and kind to 
us, but we found many here who befriended us — even among 
the officers themselves. In other circumstances, than we 
at tbe time were, we might have found ourselves contented 
and happy ; but, knowing that our families were not only 
suffering from hunger and cold, were also kept excited, 
on our account, between hope and fear, and being so re- 
peatedly told by the savages that we never would be per- 
mitted to return to them again, added to which the reports 
we had heard while at the rapids of the Ohio, was still kept 
alive by the Indians who were daily coming in; all which 
produced great anxiety to us. Happy we were, therefore, 
that the day had come when our conduct while among the 
Indians was to l)e inquired into in a public place; and be- 


fore a council where the accuser and the accused were to 
meet face to face. These were Captain Pipe and two of 
his principal counselors, for whom the commandant had 
been long waiting, and whom were now arrived. 

"Accordingly, on the 9th day of November, we were con- 
ducted to the council house, where we found the com- 
mandant with Mr. Bawbee by his side, together with other 
gentlemen, and a great number of Indians with the Indian 
interpreters, seated or standing in their proper places. The 
Indians of the ditferent tribes were separately seated, some 
to the right of the commandant, and the Delawares right 
before him, with Captain Pipe and his counselors in front. 
We four prisoners were placed by ourselves on a bench to 
the left; a war chief of each of the two divisions of Indians 
was holding a stick of three or four feet long with scalps 
on it, which they had taken in their last excursions against 
the people of the United States. 

" The council being opened by the commandant signify- 
ing to Captain Pipe that he might make his report, he rose 
from his seat, holding a stick with two scalps on it in his 
left hand, and addressed the commandant in a very remarka- 
ble and spirited manner with respect to the present war ; 
and that of their fathers (the British) having drawn their 
children (the Indians) into it, &c., handing him, at the close 
of his speech, the scalps. Having seated himself again, a 
war cJiief of the other party rose in like manner with his 
scalp; and after concluding his address, he also handed it 
to the commandant, who, as before, gave it to the inter- 
preter standing behind him to put aside. This business 
being finished, the commandant addressed Captain Pipe to 
the following effect, viz. : 

"'Captain Pipe, you have for a long time lodged com- 
plaints with me against certain white people among your 
nation, and whom you call teachers to the believing In- 
dians, who, as you say, are friends to the Americans, and 
keep up a continual correspondence with them, to the pre- 
judice of your father's (the British) interest. You having 


so repeatedly accused these teachers, and desiring that I 
uii2:ht remove them from among you; I at length com- 
manded you to take them, together with the believing In- 
dians, away from the Muskingum, and bring them into your 
country; and being since informed that this had been done, 
I ordered you to bring those teachers, together with some 
of tiicir i)rincipal men, before me that I might see and speak 
with them; since that time these men, now sitting before 
3^ou, have come in and surrendered themselves up tome 
without your being with them. I now ask you. Captain 
Pipe, if these men are those ot whom you so much com- 
plained, and whom I ordered you to bring before iiieV 
" Pipe replying in the affirmative, the commandant con- 

'"Well, both the accuser and the accused being present, 
it is ])ut fair that the accused hear from the accuser the 
complaints he has against them; I therefore desire you to 
repeat what you have told me of these teachers and what 
3''ou have accused them of. ' 

" Pipe, standing at the time, now turned to his counselors, 
telling them to get upon their legs and speak ; l)ut tindiiii:- 
them panic struck, he appeared to be at a loss how to act. 
Once more turning to them, he endeavored to make them 
sensible that this was the time to speak, and that the oppor- 
tunity now granted them for that purpose would be lost to 
them forever, if they spoke not. Finally, seeing them hang 
their heads and remaining mute, he boldly stood up and de- 
fended the teachers against the accusations brought against ' 
them, saying that ' they were good men; and that he wished 
liis father (the commandant) to speak good words to them, 
to treat them kindly, for they were his friends, and that he 
would be sorry to see them treated ill and hard.' 

"The commandant still persisting in having the call he 
had made on Pipe, of repeating what he had told him of the 
teachers now present, he, greatly embarrassed and casting 
another glance at his frightened and dejected counselors, 
who still were hanging their heads, he did repeat, yet 
adding : 


" ' Father, the teachers can not be blamed for this ; for 
living in our country where they had to do whatever we 
required of them, they were compelled to act as they did. 
They did not write letters (speeches) for themselves, but for 
as. We are to blame. We caused! them to do what they 
did. We urged them to it, while they refused, telling 
us that they did not conje here for the purpose of meddling 
with our affairs, but for the spiritual good of the Indians.' 

" The commandant then asking him what he wished him 
to do with us, whether he should send us out of the coun- 
try, or permit us to return again to our families and con- 
gregations, he, contrary to what was expected, advised the 
commandant to suffer us to return to our homes. 

" We being now questioned by this general ofhcer witli 
regard to our ordination and vocation, but particularly witli 
regard to our connection with the American congress, and 
whether we were dependent on that body, we answered 
that 'the society to which we belonged had for upward of 
thirty years labored among the North American Indians 
for the purpose of bringing them over to Christianity ; that 
from the commencement of our missions, missionaries had 
been couti'nually among them, who were sent by the bishops 
and directors of our church ; that congress indeed knew of 
our being among the Indians for the purpose already stateil : 
but that they never had, either directly or indirectly, inter- 
fered with our missionary concerns, nor prescribed rules for 
us to act by. That all we knew of the American congress 
was that they wished all the Indians to be at peace and not 
take part in the war on either side ; but follow the example 
of their countrymen, the Christian Indians, and join them 
in becoming an agricultural and a Christian people,' &c. 

" The commandant, stepping up to us, declared us ac- 
quitted of the charges laid against us, assuring us at the 
same time that 'he felt great satisfaction and pleasure in 
seeino; our endeavors to civilize and Christianize the In- 
dians, and would cheerfully permit us to return again to 
our congregation.' 


"On the 23d of November, 1781, they returned to Cap- 
tivestown, on the Sandusky, where they wintered with 
their converts, suffering from cold and want of provisions 
to an ahnost incredible extent. 

"There is not a doubt of these missionaries liaving be-cu 
hnnn- or shot, had the Britisli governor lia\e known of their 
correspondence witli tlie American agents. j 

" On the 20th of A^oveniber, 1779, Colonel Brodbcad, then in ■ 
command at Fort Pitt, wrote to David Zeisberger at Schoen- 
brunn, then called New Schoenbrumi, that his Indians ' can 
have powder, lead, coffee, sugar, salt, and many articles of 
(dotbino-, at tlie old rates.' In the same letter he wishes 
Zeisberger to employ an Indian spy to go to Detroit and 
find out its strength, provisions, and stores, and promises to 
pay the spy ' eighty bucks ' (dollars), or 'one hundred,' if 

" On the 12th of December, 1779, Colonel Brodhoad again 
wrote Zeisberger that their friend Joshua was willing to 
undertake ' this business,' and hopes some one will ■• be sent 
at once.' 

" On the 13th he wrote from Fort Pitt to General Wash- j 
ington that his principal reliance in getting news from the 
enemy at Detroit is on the Moravian missionaries, who 
have intelligent Indians who can get into Detroit without 
suspicion, &c. 

" On the 10th of April, 1780, he wrote to General Gates that 
'he had just received letters from the missionaries inform- 
ing him that the Indian warriors will soon give much trouble 
on the frontier.' I 

" On the 19th of April he wrote to Zeisberger that ' he was 
sorry the cold winter had kept Joshua from visiting Detroit 
as a spy.' " — (See Pennsylvania Archives ; also see Sketch of 
Joshua, the Mohican Spy. j 

Early in the winter the missionaries at Sandusk}^ heard 
that a party of Virginians, under Captain Benjamin Biggs, 
had gone out from the Ohio to Schoenbrunn and murdered 
a number of Christian Indians found there gathering corn. 


Captain Biggs had been in 1778 and 1770 one of the de- 
fenders of Fort Laurens, and in the fall of 1781 was sent 
from Wheeling witli a party to rout out and kill the Monsey 
and other Indian warriors Avho had, after the missionaries 
were carried off, taken possession of Schoenbrunn and the 
other forsaken settlements in the valley. When Biggs got 
to Schoenbrunn he found only some straggling Christian 
Indians ; these he took to Fort Pitt, and they had liberty to 
go and come as they pleased. Biggs' campaign had drawn 
no blood in the valley, and this dissatisfied the border set- 
tlers along the Ohio who were continually being raided 
upon by western Indian warriors, and their families mur- 
dered or carried into captivity. The abandoned Schoen- 
brunn, Gruadenhutten, and Salem were during the winter 
made the resting places of the warriors going to 'or return- 
ing from the Ohio' with scalps and prisoners; and small 
pursuing parties of whites from the east, as well as parties 
of Christian Indians who had ran back from Sandusky to 
the warmer Tuscarawas, made the valley one continual 
scene of excitement and discordant border warfare until the 
bloody scenes of 1782 begai^to unfold. 


AND 8, 1782. 

The British ut Detroit and their auxiliaries, Half King, 
Pipe, and others at Sandusky, used their influence con- 
jointly in the fall of 1781 to induce the missionaries and 
their Indian converts to leave the Tuscarawas and join tlie 
British. Failing in this, a party of British and Indians came 
down to the valley, as detailed in a preceding chapter, 
captured Zeisberger, Heckewelder, and other missionaries, 
gathered together the converts from Schoenbrunn, Salem, 
and Gnadenhutten and drove them to the Sandusky coun- 
try, leaving their cattle, hogs, corn, and other winter pro- 
visions behind. A portion of the stock was sent to Detroit 
and sold, not for the captives, but for the captors. A cold 
winter setting in, and being without provisions, one hun- 
dred or more of the converts asked and obtained leave to 
go back to the towns in the valley for provisions. At the 
same time warriors were sent to the Ohio to rob and mur- 
der the whites, with intent thereby to exasperate the bor- 
derers who were in the American interest, and incite them 
to cross the Ohio, and pursue the raiders to the Tuscarawas 
towns, where it was expected they would fall in with the 
Christian Indians gathering corn and dispatch them. Thus 
was the Williamson expedition planned in reality by the 
British at Detroit and Sandusky. 

A party of warriors discovering Williamson's expedition 
organizing on the Ohio, to march to the deserted Tusca- 

^' 159 


I rawas towns, immediately thereafter murdered a family 
i named Wallace, and tied toward the Moravian towns on 
j the Tuscarawas. Near to and on the west side of the Ohit) 
1 River they impaled the body of Mrs. Wallace and one child 
on trees near the trail by which they knew the settlers' expe- 
dition would take on its way to the Indian country. Arriv- 
I ing at Gnadenhutten these warriors found the Christian 
j Indians at work in their cornfields, getting together the 
I grain they soon intended to carry to their starving brethren 
j in the north-west, they informed them of the murders they 
! had committed. The Christians becoming alarmed for their 
I own safety, remonstrated with the warriors for stopping at 
I their town, and warned them oft'. Before leaving the town 
the warriors bartered, among other things, the dress they 
I had taken from Mrs. Wallace to some young and thought- 
i less Indian girls for some provisions. The Christian In- 
dians, upon the departvire of their very unwelcome guests, 
called a council at Salem for the purpose of deliberating 
upon the proper course to pursue. At this meeting it was 
agreed to remain and continue gathering the corn, and if 
the whites from the settlements came in pursuit of the mur- 
derers, to trust to the fact of their being known as Christian 
and peaceable Indians for their safety. As they had by this 
time secured the crop of corn, it was agreed to begin pre- 
parations for the return, and the day of starting was fixed. 
While these p'oor creatures were busily engaged in get- 
ting ready to carry succor to their famishing brethren on the 
Sandusky ; feeling perfectly safe, conscious of their inno- 
cence of any of the cold-blooded acts that were inflaming 
tlie settlements east of the Ohio, the Williamson party was 
on its inarch toward their towns. On the very day previous 
to the one fixed for the departure of the Christian Indians, 
March 7, 1782, and while they w©4g engaged in bundling up 
their packs, the white party mad'e their appearance, having 
laid in the forests the night before, within sight and hear- 
ing of Gnadenhutten. On their way to the town a detach- 
ment that was to go in from the north met a young half- 

160 I 

breed, Joseph Shal^osh, who was out early in the morning 
to catch a horse. Young Shabosh was struck down and 
scalped while begging for his life on the grounds of his be- 
ing a Christian and the son of a white man. From the spot 
of Sluibosh's death the detachment went to the river bank, 
from whore lliey expected to get a view of the town, and 
on the way i>assed Jacob, a brother-in-law to Shabosh, who 
was in the standing corn tying up some sacks recently tilled. 
Although they passed within thirty yards of him he was 
not discovered. lie recognized some of the whites, having 
seen tliem in the party that took the Christian Indians from 
Schocnbrunn the preceding fall to Fort Pitt, Avhence they 
were released by the commandant and returned home, he 
having been one of those taken. Jacob was about to hail 
a man he knew, when the sharp crack of a rifle checked 
him, and the next instant he beheld one of his brethren 
drop in his canoe. This so alarmed Jacob that he Hed out 
of the held and into the forest and did not stop until several 
miles away, where he remained for twenty-four hours. 

The Williamson party seeing a number of the Indians in 
a cornfield, on the opposite side of the river, sent a detach- 
ment of sixteen men, two at a time, in a large sugar trough 
for Avant of a canoe over the river, it being very high. They 
hailed the Indians as friends and shook hands all round, and 
then advised them to stop work, recross to the town, and 
prepare to return with the whites to Fort Pitt, declaring 
that upon reaching there they would be at once supplied 
with everything they needed. This being pleasing news to 
the ears of the Indians they at once repaired with the whites 
to the town. 

While these transactions wern going on at Gnadenhutten, 
John Martin and his son. Christian Indians, Avere on the 
west side of the river, obseiaring from an eminence the In- 
dians of the town and tli^Pinite men walking together aiid 
conversing in a friendly manner. Martin sent his son over 
to the town while he went to Salem to apprise the brethren 
at that place of what was going on. The Salem Indians 


sent t.wo of their lucu with Miirtiu to Giuidcnhutten, wliere 
the Willianison men appointed a party of their own nnm- 
her to ixo witli these Indians hack to Salem, and assist in 
hringing those at the lower town to Gnadenhutten. When 
the main hod}' of the Salem Indians arrived at the riv'er 
l)ank, opposite (Tiiadenhntten, they discovered hlood in the 
sand and on a canoe that was lying at the edge of the water. 
They had already given up tlieir guns, axes, and knives, he- 
ing assured that the same would all he returned when they 
arrived at Fort Pitt. Being taken over to the town they 
found the inhabitants confined, preparatory to the slaughter 
that was to take place. The whites now ceased calling 
them friends and Christians, and charged them with being 
enemies and warriors. In proof of this averment the whites 
pointed to the pewter-plates, cups, spoons, tea-kettles, pots, 
l»asins, &c., and declared it all stolen property from the set- 
tlers. They also seized the Indian horses, and pointed to 
the brands thereon as further evidence that all this property 
had been stolen from the border families. Finding all this 
property in their possession, together with the bloody dress 
that was recognized as having belonged to Mrs. AVallace, 
they were told to prepare for death, and the execution was 
fixed for the next day. In refutation of the charges, the In- 
dians accounted for the brands on the horses by offering to 
produce their own branding irons, which were used for the 
purpose of enabling them to identify their own horses. In 
regard to the other property, they insisted that most of it 
was brought by the missionaries from the Pennsylvania mis- 
sions, and the Italance bought from traders who had from 
time to time visited the towns. Finding all efforts to save 
their lives fruitless, they begged for a short time to prepare 
for death. While at their devotions their captors discussed 
the manner of putting them to death. Some were in favor 
of burning them alive, and some of killing first, then burn- 
ing the bodies after scalping. The commander, Williamson, 
became powerless in the excited and frenzied condition of 
his men, to whom had been exhibited the bloody dress of 


Mrs. Wallace, which operated on their minds, as history 
tells us, the bloody rolje of (Itesar, when shown to the Ro- 
mans by Antony, operated on their minds. All Williamson 
could do was to submit the matter to a vote, as proposed by 
tlie most excited of tbe men. I'pon taking a vote, those who 
were ill favor of saving the Indians and taking them to 
Fort L*itt, were invited to stc}» out to the front, Avhicli was 
responded to l>y but eighteen out of about one hundred in 
all (sonic accounts put the number at three hundred), the 
residue voting to kill, scalp and burn the captives. It has 
never been settled whether Williamson voted or not, the 
jiresumption being, from the fact of his being commander, 
that he (lid not vote. Those of the men who voted against 
death, then retired from the scene, at the same time calling 
upon the Almighty to witness that they washed their hands 
of the crime about to be perpetrated. Tlie victims were then 
asked if they were ready to die, and the answer being in the 
afhrmative, the work of death commenced. Heckewelder 
says that the number killed exceeded ninety, all of whom, 
except four, were killed in the mission houses, they having 
been tied there — according to Ileckwelder's version — and 
there knocked in the hetid with a cooper's mallet. One 
man. he says, taking up the mallet, began with an Indian 
named Abraham, and continued knocking down until he 
counted fourteen, he then handed his mallet to one of his 
fellows, saying, "my arm fails me, go on in the same way; 
I tliink I have dime pretty well." In another house, where 
mostly women and children were tied, Judith, an aged and 
pious widow, was the lirst victim. After they had iinished 
they retreated a short distance, but on returning to view the 
dead bodies, and iinding one of them named Abel, although 
scalped and mangled, attempting to raise himself from the 
floor, tliey dispatched him, and, having set lire to the house, 
went off shouting and cursing. 

Of the number killed sixty-two were grown persons, one- 
tliird ol" wliom were women, the remainder being children. ^ 
Two yiKiths, who were knocked down and shut up in the 


first lionso, esea]»e(l deatli. Oiu: ii;uiiim1 Tlioma!^ wai^ 
knocked down and scalped, l)ut being «»nly stunned, alter 
awhile recovered, and on looking around lie saw Abel alive, 
but scalped, with blood running down liis face. The lad 
([uickly laid down as it" dead, and had scarcely lain a min- 
ute when the party came and finished Aljel by ch()]»}»ing bis 
bead with a hatchet. Soon after they went away Thomas 
crept over tlie dead bodies to the door, and on getting out, 
bid himself until dark, when he made his way to the [tatli 
leading to Sanchisky. The other lad, who was in the house 
where tlie women were, raised a trap-door and got down 
into the cellar with another boy, where they lay concealed 
(luring the time the butchery was going on. After dusk 
they attempted to get out through a window opening in 
the foundation oi' the house. Tlie first succeeded, but the 
second stuck fast, and was burned alive, the house being- 
set on fire soon after the poor little fellow got fast. The 
two Avho escaped afterward made their w^ay to Sandusky, 
having fallen in with the Schoenbrunn Indians in their 

One of Williamson's party saved a little boy eight years 
old, took him home, and raised him to a man, when he left 
and I'eturned to his tribe. 

In Zeisberger's version of the massacre, as detailed liy 
his biographer, it is reported as occurring on tlie 8tli of 
March. lie says that the victims were tied, some singly, 
and others two and two, dragged to the appointed house, 
and then tomahawked and scalped. When the men and 
boys were all killed, the women were brought out, taken to 
the other house, and dispatched in the same manner. lie 
states that Christiana, a widow, who was well versed in the 
English language, appealed to Colonel Williamson as she 
was being led away, and he replied, "I have no power to 
help you." She was killed with the others. The massacre , 
being over, Williamson and his men returned home to the 
Ohio and Monongahela with the scalps and about one hun- 
dred horses. In the valley all was desolation. Not a war- 


rior was afterward founrl to he followina; Williamson to 
\)\y.k oft" liis men on tlieir way to the Ohio, which they 
ivaclii'tl (III the 10th of March, two days after the massacre, 
uiiniok'slud. Within a radius of twenty-five miles around 
the three hiirned towns, not a human being was known to 
he alive, while hut two or three days' marcli out on the 
Sandusky there were, perhaps, a thousand warriors, and 
they knew of Williamson's expedition having marched west 
frdiii the Ohio, hut no Avarriors intercepted him going or 
((lining. That was part of the British policy matured at 
Detroit, of having these peaceable Indians massacred by 
excited American borderers, in order to bring over to the 
Urilish si(k' all the Indian tribes united against the colo- 
nists. How completely it succeeded will be seen. 

Simon (iirty returned to the Wyandot towns, from which 
his absence had been short, Init sutficiently long to have 
enabkHl him, in disguise, to reach the border settlements, 
and, among his old acquaintances, start and hurry on the 
exitedition against the Moravian towns. On the Sandusky, 
at the present Fremont. Ileckewelder and Zeisberger first 
heard of the nnissacre by a convert, who had ran from Cap- 
tives town to a[)prise them of the new^s that had just l)een 
brought ill by a Wyandot band of warriors, who had crossed 
the valley with border scalps and stolen horses. This was 
evidently the party who had killed and impaled the child 
of Mrs. Wallace, sold her bloody dress at Gnadenhutten 
to the unsuspecting Indian converts, and then hid in the 
vicinity until the massacre previously planned was over, 
■when they ficd homeward to receive their scalp premiums 
at Detroit. At the captives' huts, where the residue of con- 
vert captives were who had not gone down to the death at 
(gnadenhutten, the news of the slaughter of tlieir relatives 
had also come in by Jacob, Avho had escaped from under 
the floor of one of tlie burning houses, and fled to the San- 

Down at the massacre ground the wolves, bears, panthers, 
and other wild beasts had gathered for a feast, and were 


fighting for a meal off the dead, but the flesh had been so 
crisped that they conkl get but little. It was truly an ac- 
cursed and desolate country, and tlie Great Spirit passed up 
and down the valley uttering the war-whoop, which echoed 
back and back from tree and dell until it reached the war- 
rior towns of the Shawanese on the Scioto and Miami, 
the Delawares under Pipe at Sandusky, Monseys under 
Welendewacken on the Wabash, and other tribes, calling 
for a revenge in corresponding magnitude to the murders 
committed on their kin. 

This was the kind of double life that Girtv irloried in, 
first on the border, exciting the whites to kill the Christian 
Indians and burn their towns in the valley; uext at the 
warrior's towns, inciting them to revenge the deaths of those 
Christians, and he lost no time in fanning the flame in their 
camp fires. At all their British camps a unanimous deter- 
mination existed to take a bloody and two-fold vengeance 
on the Americans. A vow was made that no white man 
should ever have that valley for a home, but that it should 
remain uncontaminated by his presence through all time, 
and that the boundary line of future treaties with tlie whites 
should be the Ohio forever and ever. 

To carry out their intentions, large bands of }>icke<I war- 
riors started at once to raid afresh on the Penns3'lvaui;i, 
Virginia, and Kentucky borders, and eacli prisoner was to 
be taken to the place of the massacre, and there dis[»atched 
by the tomahawk and fire brand until the two-fold ven- 
geance had been consummated, as ordered by the Great 
Spirit, or Manitto.-'^ Here it may be remarked, that revenge 
is tauglit by Manitto to be a duty more sacred than all 
others, and the Indian mind is constantly filled with the 

* INotfi. — The God of the Lenni-Lennape, or Delawares, was '■^Kitxchi " (hea- 
venly), "ManaiUo" (God) — thus " Kitschimannitto," abbreviated to " Man- 
nitto, and Manito ; this con upted to " Manitou," " Manitoa," or " Manitov/. ' 

The Algonqiiins and Chippewas' God is " Kitchi "■ — Manito/f and Manitoa. 
The Onondaga God is ''Nioli.' 

The Asiatics have a God, " Kitchi Manoa," hence some writers brinpj the 
original Indian from Asia.] 


idea that if he dies without being revenged, for some wrong 
coniniitted on his friends or relatives, there is no happiness 
in the spirit land. 

The massacre was a month old, and already the vengeance- 
ta.kini;- wai-riors on tlie Ohio, and its eastern tributaries in 
I'lMuisvlvania and Virginia, had sunk their hatchets into the 
skulls of many white borderers, who fought for life, and 
were killed in their tracks. These deaths were to be counted 
as no vengeance until the scalps were carried to the mas- 
sacre ground, dried, painted red or black on the inside, with 
the picture of a bullet or a hatchet in another color, to indi- 
cate how its owner died. In like manner were the scalps 
of tliose whites who should sufter death by fire to be painted, 
but in lieu of the l)ullet or hatchet a bunch of faggots were 
to be repi'csented on the skin side, indicative of the iire- 

Over on the Monongahela the ninety odd Indian scalps 
had been exhibited to the settlers by WiUiamson's men, and 
this suggested a raid to the Sandusky to punish the tribes 
who were still hatcheting the white borderers in Pennsyl- 
vania and Virginia. On the 25th of April, 1782, General 
Irvine, who had just assumed command at Fort Pitt (Pitts- 
bnrgh), wrote to General Washington, that two days before 
liis ai-rival about three hundred whites from the Mononga- 
liola, and among whom were some of Williamson's men, 
liad come, attacked and killed several Christian Indians, 
who had l)een captured the preceding fall at Schoenbrunn 
and brought to Smoky Island, opposite Fort Pitt. This 
atrocity added fuel to the flame of Indian war, and the gov- 
ernment at once set about dispatching a large force, under 
(>olonel Crawford, to chastise western Indians. Crawford's 
army reached the Tuscarawas about the 26th of May, and 
camped at the ruins of Schoenbrunn, withou*; having seen 
an Indian warrior, so desolate had the accursed valley be- 
come. In tlie night two warriors were seen by the officers 
wlio were passing on their "gi-and round" duty around the 
camp.. and who lired, but the warriors disappeared unhurt. 


The tiring alarmed the camp, and Crawford's men rnshed 
out pell-mell in a panic, as if surronnded by all the Indian 
hosts, who had come to appease the wrath of the great 
spirit yelling up and down the haunted valley. There were, 
however, no Indians about, yet tlie historian says that even 
Crawford, when he saw his troopers panic stricken that 
night, foresaw his coming death, and as he lay there amid 
the ruins of 8choenbrunn, his imagination conjured up the 
skeletons of the victims of Williamson's men, tiling along 
the trail on the banks of the Tuscarawas, and led by one 
Ann Charity, Their skulls were uiashed in and the bones 
of some were charred to a crisp. They were singing tlie 
Indian song of sorrow, and calling on — not our God — but 
their Manitto or Great Spirit, to avenge their death. 

Williamson, being second in command, rested in the same 
tent with Crawford, and shuddered as the latter told what 
he had seen, then peering out in the darkness he listened* 
but in vain, for the sound of the gnomes. They had gone 
on up the trail toward Sandusky. As soon as daylight 
appeared the two commanders ordered the four hundred 
troopers into their saddles, and galloped west out of the 
valley, crossing the Tuscarawas between Stone Creek and 
Sugar Creek; from thence they plunged into the wilderness 
toward Sandusky, but on a trail to the left of the one Ann 
and her spirit comrades had taken. It was now a race be- 
tween Ann and her skeletons and (Jrawford, which should 
reach the huts of the captive Christian Indians tirst. When 
he and his troopers arrived within half a mile of the Dela- 
ware huts, they were found deserted. Ann had outrun him, 
and he turned toward the Wyandot town, now called Upper 
Sandusky. It, too, was deserted. After another mile lie 
called a -council of war, and they all determined to retreat 
in case no Indians were found by nightfall. This was at a 
spot near a trail leading to Half King's residence, and on 
June 4, 1782, in the afternoon. Scouts soon came report- 
ing "savages coming," and in a few miiuites they were in 
sight taking shelter in a grove, from which tlie troopers 


clislodo-ed them, Crawford losing live killed and nineteen 
wounded. That night and next day desultory tiring was 
kc[»t u[), Crawford intending to attack and disperse the 
savages in the night, but this was frustrated in the after- 
noon by the appearance of some British troops brought 
fi'oni Detroit. On his south line also appeared two hundred 
Shawanese not seen before, the whole body of savages ex- 
ci'oding his own force. A retreat was ordered and kept up 
llir()ii"-h the niii-lit. In the morning Crawford was niissiny;. 


In tlie retreat he had become separated from the main 
l)ody b}' reason of his horse failing. In the confusion and 
panic, every man was looking out for himself, so that no 
other horse could be had. Crawford called for his son John, 
Ids nephew William, and his son-in-law William Harrison, 
who being aids to the colonel, should have been near him 
in the line of duty, and from one of whom he would have 
obtained a horse to enable him to push forward and regain 
liis position as commander. But neither answered his call. 
Doctor Knight, surgeon of the expedition, came galloping 
up, and both calling for the three men above named and get- 
ting no response, Crawford requested Knight to remain with 
him, which he did. Crawford then denounced the troops 
foi- disol)eying orders. Hot firing was going on in front, 
toward the south-west, which indicated that the enem}^ was 
between him and the main body of his troops, and he and 
Knight moved east, reaching the Sandusky about midnight, 
and by daylight of June 6, they were but eight miles away 
from the battle-Held, by reason of darkness and jaded horses. 
But by two o'clock in the afternoon they made nine miles, 
and fell in with Captain Biggs and others during the day, 
and also a woutuled officer, Lieutenant Ashley, whom Biggs 
was cai'i'ying. (camping over night, they had gone a short 
distance next morning (June 7) when they found a dead 


deer, and shortly after met a volunteer who had shot it. 
Making a meal of the deer, all started on their jonrney. 
Crawford and Knight hy this time were on foot. When 
near the present site of Leesville, on the south side of the 
Sandusky, they were confronted b}' several Indians, who 
had ambuscaded them. One Indian took Crawford by the 
hand, and another the hand of Knight. They were tlien 
taken to a Delaware camp, half a mile away, where they 
remained two days witli nine other prisoners. The Indians 
had killed and scalped Biggs and Ashley, and their scalps 
and two horses were brought into camp. On the 10th of 
June Crawford was taken to the Half King's Town, and the 
other prisoners to another town. In the night Crawford 
had an interview with Simon Girty, who was at Half King's 
Town, and whom he ottered one thousand dollars to save 
him, he having known Girty before the latter became a 
British captain. This offer becoming known to Captain 
Pipe and the other chiefs, they arranged for his death in 
the shortest possible time. He was taken to the okl town 
on the morning of June 11, with Knight and the other 
prisouers,with their faces painted black, indicating their fate- 
Pipe and Wingenund came and shookhands with Crawford, 
having known him years before. Pipe then painted Craw- 
ford's face black with coal and water, and all started on a 
trail to another Delaware town. Here they halted, and saw 
five prisoners tomahawked by boys and squaws, and their 
scalps were thrust into the faces of Knight and Crawford. 
Here Knight was given over to some Indians to be taken 
next day to the Shawanese towns. Crawford and Knight 
were then taken to Pipe's village. In the afternoon, Craw- 
ford was taken to a spot where a stake had been set in the 
ground, and a fire kindled about seven feet away. Around 
were nearly a hundred Indians, mostly squaws and boys. 
Cirty, Pipe, Wingenund, and a British ofhcer in disguise, 
were near. Knight was present, tied and guarded, but 
lived to detail these particulars: Crawford was stripped, 
his hands bound by a rope fastened to the stake and to his 


wrists, witli play sufficient to enable him to walk around 
the post, or sit down, lie then asked, after they had heat 
him, if they intended to hum him, and heing answered that 
they did, he remarked that he would bear it patiently. Pipe 
then made a speech to the Indians, who took their guns 
and shot powder into Crawford's flesh from his feet to his 
iu'<k. Tlicy then cut oft" his ears, and thrust burning sticks 
into his body. The squaws put burning faggots upon his 
feet, so tliat he literally walked on Are. In his pain he 
called on (jiirty to shoot him, but Girty replied laughingly 
that he had no gun. Ileckewelder says that Crawford also 
called on W^ingenund to save him, but the chief replied that 
the King of England, if on the ground, could not save him. 
Being almost dead he fell on his stomach, when he was 
scalped, and a squaw put coals on his head ; then he raised 
upon his feet again, and began to walk around. Knight was 
then taken away, but the next morning he was marched by 
the s[»ot, and told by his Indian guard to look at his "big 
captain," which he did, and saw only his charred bones in 
tlie ashes, around which the Indians had danced all night, 
wildly singing the scalp song of " Aw-oh-aw-oh-aw-oh." 

Knight was taken in charge by a Delaware chief, who was 
to guard the Doctor to a Shawanese town, more than a day's 
travel distant. Before starting, Knight was painted black, 
which meant that he was to sufl:er torture. The Indian was 
mounted on a splendid steed, while Knight was compelled 
to plod along in front of him on foot. 

When evening came on they halted for the night, in 
the vicinity of Kenton, Hardin County, having made con- 
siderable more than half the journey. The Indian bound 
the Doctor, and then ordered him to lay down and sleep, 
which he pretended to do, but kept awake nearly the whole 
night watching for the savage to go to sleep so he could 
make an eftbrt to escape. The chief, however, did not sleep 
a wink, but closely eyed his prisoner, evidently suspecting 
the Doctor's intention. Early in the morning the Indian 
untied Knight ami then devoted himself to stirring up the 


fire, preparatorj' to cooking some breakfast. While at this, 
and with his back toward him, the Doctor picked up a stick 
of wood that hij with one end in the tire, and with it struck 
the Indian a blow on the side of the head which felled him 
to the ground, and when in the act of drawing back to strike 
another blow, the Indian scrambled ott" on his hands and 
knees until out of reach of Knight, and then jumped to his 
feet and ran off into the forest. Knight then snatched up 
the Indian's gun and aimed to shoot him, but in the excite- 
ment broke the lock in cocking it. He then followed some 
distance, when he gave up the chase and returned to the 
camping ground, and gathering up the blanket, moccasins, 
and amunition which belonged to the chief, started on his 
way for Fort Pitt. 

He traveled on all that day and night, stopping at inter- 
vals to rest, and until the following evening, when he was 
compelled to halt from fatigue and hunger. The next morn- 
ing he threw away the gun, since he was unable to repair it. 

His course continued eastward through the present coun- 
ties of Hardin, Crawford, ]lichland,Wayne and Tuscarawas, 
to the Tuscarawas River, which he reached at a point a short 
distance above the mouth of what is known as Conotten 
Creek (sometimes called One Leg), where he rested and 
refreshed himself with various kinds of berries which he 
found in abundance in the bottoms along the river. 

From the Tuscarawas he kept a course almost due east, 
avoiding all trails and open ground, and arrived at the Ohio 
River below Fort Mcintosh. From here he followed up tlie 
river to Fort Pitt, at which place he arrived on the 4th of 
July, three weeks after making his escape. 

On the morning of June 6, Colonel Williamson gathered 
together all that was left uncaptured or unkilled, of Craw- 
ford's army, and retreated back to the Tuscarawas, seeking 
rest and sleep for his wearied troopers a short distance be- 
low Schoenbrunn. But there was no rest for him. In the 
midst of the desolation a terrific storm arose, revealing by 
its lightning Ann Charity and the skeleton spirits filing, 


this time, down the trail, followed by a band of warriors, 
each dangling from a pole a white man's scalp, all moving 
toward the massacre ground, while the miearthly scalp yell 
<>t the Great Spirit echoed np and down the valley, and 
silenced for the moment even the thunder of heaven. 

Williamson, aroused from the terrific dream, called to 
lioi'sc all his Jaded troopers, and at daylight recrossed the 
'rnsrarawas, a short distance above the place of massacre, 
with all that was intact of Crawford's army, and disap- 
peared along the iSti 11 water, over the eastern hills,all cursing, 
as they spnrrcd their horses onward, the day that brought 
them first to the haunted valley. In the night, before this 
day of gloom to Williamson, Ann Charity assembled, by her 
mysterious power, sixty-nine of the massacre victims, around 
their burnt ruins at Gnadenhutten, and calling them each by 
ehristian name as known in life, Isaac Glikhican and Anna 
Uenigna, his wife; Jonah and Amelia, his wife; Christian 
and Augustina, his wife; John Martin, Samuel Moore, 
Tobias, Adam and Cornelia, his wife; Henry and Joanna 
Salome, his wife; Luke and Lucia, his wife; Philip and 
Lorel, his wife; Lewis and Kuth, his wife; jSTicholas and 
.loaniia Sabina, his wife; Israel, Hannah, Abraham, Catha- 
rine, Joseph Schebosh, Judith, Mark, John, Christiana, 
Mary, Abel, Kebecca, Paul, Rachel, Henry, Maria, Susanna, 
rlohn, Anna, Michael, Joshua, Peter, Bathseba, Gottlieb, 
Jnlianiia, l>avid, Elizabeth, Martha, Anna Rosin a,- Salome, 
Christian, Christiana, Joseph, Leah, Mark, Benigna, Jona- 
than, (/hristina, Anthony, Ann Salome, Jonah, Maria Eliza- 
beth, (lottlieb, Benjamin, John Thomas, Sarah, Hannah, 
and Anna Elizabeth, she presented each with a soldier's 
seal [I, aeeording to Indian custom, to appease the wrath of 
the great spirit, and fultill the vow of vengeance so secretly 
made It}' her kinsmen up at the Sandusky when they lirst 
heard of the massacre. The mashed heads of the Indians 
and ihe white men's scalps were then intermingled in the 
ruins, lievenge had been taken, and that opened the en- 
traiiee of the Iinlian heaven to all who had participated in 


avenging' the massacre. All was again a desolate calm in 
the liaunted valley, save and excepting tlie noise made h_v 
the wild denizens of the forest, the wolves, hears, and pan- 
thers that had gathered about Gnadenhutten for a feast 
on the scalps of John Crawford, young William Crawford, 
William Harrison, Captain Benjamin Biggs, Lieutenant 
Ashley, and of the other sixty odd officers and soldiers 
brought down from the Sandusky, battle-ground. Over 
these the beasts fought, ran howling, sprang at each other, 
and tore the scalps into fragments, for the flesh on the bones 
of the Christian victims had been so roasted and crisped, 
as to aftbrd not even a meal to the animals tbat had come 
out from their lairs, in the surrounding hills of the Tusca- 
rawas, for a high carnival. 

In the midst of this wild tumult Ann Charity disa[»- 
peared, no one knew where. But she was no myth. She 
had lived from childhood at the missions in Pennsylvania, 
and on the Tuscarawas. Gifted with a mysterious mental 
power, her religion was half heathen, half Christian. She 
claimed to be able to call up the dead, and when the mas- 
sacre took place she resolved to try her power, and revenge 
her friends and kindred. She came down from- the Wabash — 
no one knew her — and was the first to apprise the western 
Indians of Crawford's army crossing the valley. When all- 
was over, she became again a pious Christian on White 
River, Indiana, and w^as there burned as a witch about the 
year 1806 by order of Tecumseh, the prophet. 

In a few days after Williamson crossed the valley, John 
Slover, Crawford's guide, who had been nearly captured, 
l)ut escaping his savage pursuers, crossed the Tuscarawas, 
near^the*iirescnt town of Port Washington, reaching the 
Ohio in safety. James Paul, another of the body-guard of 
Craw^ford, was captured, painted black, but also escaped 
death by fire, reaching, on his way home, the Sugar Creek, 
which he followed to its junction with the Tuscarawas, 
near the present Dover, where he proceeded up the stream, 
crossed where the Canton fording place was afterward 


lociitefl, and slejit at the so-callud "Federal Springs," of a 
later day, wliere he found a deserted Indian camp, with 
kegs and tuil'ty vessels Ij'ing around, which had been cap- 
tured !)}• the Indians at Fort Laurens three years before, 
when they stanii»ede(l Mcintosh's [)ro vision train, and on 
which provisions the savages had many jolly feasts while 
the garrison were starving. From this point Paul ])assed 
over tlie edge of the plain, whereon is at this day New I'hila- 
ih'lphia, and reaching WiUianison's trail below Schoenbrunn 
ruins, he arrived safely at Mingo bottom. But ho\v many 
more of Crawford's troopers re-crossed the haunted valley 
history saith not, for until 1785 the savage warriors after 
scal|!>, in fultillment of the vow of vengeance, were its 
only human inhabitants. In that year an, escape<l prisoner 
crossed the river at the massacre town and reached Fort 
Wheeling, luir he reported that he saw no human being 
in the valley. The bones of the Christian martyrs were 
scattered around, and the fruit trees planted by the mis- 
sitinaries were in bloom, but the limbs had been broken 
down by the bears, and the place had liecome the abode 
only of rattlesnakes and wild beasts. 

At the massacre, the first blood shed was that of a Chris- 
tian Indian named John Shebosh, who was tonuihawked 
and scaljied by Charles iiuilderback, one of Williamson's 
iiR'ii. Jle was a \'irginian, but had settled in Ohio near 
the mouth of Short Creek. After the massacre he was out 
with Crawlord's army, but escaped the fate of Crawford 
and returned home. Seven years after, in 1789, he and his 
wife were captured by Indians near tlieir cabin on the Ohio. 
When the Indians first attacked her husband and his brother, 
she hid in the bushes. The brotlter escaped; but as soon 
as Charles was tied the Indians hunted, but failing to find 
her, they told Builderback to call her by name or they would 
kill him then and there. At his first call she would not 
answer, but when he called her again, and told her of his 
fate if she kept silent, the woman came out. The Indians 
then retreated west with the two captives. Nearing the 


Tuscarawas, tliey separated into two l)ands, one taking; lilni 
toward Gnadenliutten, a]id the other, witli Mrs. Unilder- 
l>ack, cani0 to tlie Tuscarawas, higher up the stream, where 
they encamped at an Indian town, probably "Three-Leg 
Town," near the present Urichsville. In a short time the 
other l)and came up, and an Indian threw into her lap tlie 
scalp of her dead husband. The sight so overcame her that 
she swooned. They laid her against a tree, and when she 
awoke the scalp was gone. They took her to the Miami 
Valle}', where she remained a captive nine months, but was 
finally ransomed and sent to her home up the Ohio. In 
1791 she married John Green, and moved to Fairfield 
County, where she died in 1842, near Lancaster, and is said 
to have given birth to the iirst white child born in Fairfield 
County. His captors knew Builderback, and had been 
watching for him for years, determined to take revenge for 
the death of Shebosh, their relative, seven years before at 
Gnadenhutten. tSome of his Ohio River friends, who pur- 
sued these Indians, found his body a short distance from 
the spot where he had killed Shebosh. His body was terri- 
bly mntilated, and it was evident to his friends that the In- 
dians had intended burning Builderback at the massacre 
ground, but the pursuers were so close after them that they 
abandoned burning him alive, and made their escape, after 
tomahawking and scalping him. lie was the last white man 
known to have been in the massacre who paid the forfeit of 
his life for his connection therewith. Williamson escaped 
the vengeance of the Indians, although he had crossed and 
recrossed the valley four times in one year. He returned to 
Washington County, Pennsylvania, and was soon sent to 
guard the Ohio border along the river. On the return of 
peace he became sheriff of his county, had great influence, 
and regained all his popularity among the border men. 
Doddridge says that he was a humane man, but brave and 
courageous to a fault, and when called on to do any act in 
discharge of duty, he did it fearlessly as to consequences. 
Hence, when his men voted nearly unanimously for the 


inafiBjicrc of the Indians, he curried out their edict merci- , 
lessly, liiivinii' no jiower to prevent or avoid killing the 
Christian Indians. He lived manv vears afterward, hut : 
died in ])ovortv. reniendjcred only as the tirst and last actor . 
in the tragedy of the bloody valley. 



llcckewelder, who was at tlio Seneca capital in 17<>2, 
then inhabited by Delawares, called it " Tuscarawas," the 
word signifying- "old town," or ancient place. Boqnet, 
with his army, was there in 1764, and called it by the same 
name. So did Mcintosh in 1778, when he erected Fort 
Laurens, in close proximity. 

Eight miles north, Rogers, in 1761, found a town which 
he said w^as called the "Mingo Cabins." Passing up the 
river, the Mingoes, Chippewas, Ottawas or Cuyahogas, had 
a town at or near the mouth of each creek emptying into 
the Tuscarawas. Rogers spent some time in hunting with 
the Indians, and relates that eight miles south of Beaver- 
town they shot two elks. They were evidently killed on 
Sugar Creek, in the vicinity of the present Dover. 

From the ancient Seneca capital, on the border of the 
present Stark County, to Goshockgunk, at the present 
town of Coshocton, is a distance of tifty odd miles, within 
which space were " Tuscarawas," Beavertown, the Ottawa, 
town below the fording place, an old town below the mouth 
of Sugar Creek, Three Legstown, at the mouth of Still- 
water, King Beaver's hamlet, near the present Gnaden- 
hutten, Ge-hel-e-niuk-pe-chuk, a Delaw^are capital, fifteen 
miles south of the " Big Spring, King New Comerstown, at 
the present town of that name. Old Wyandot tow^n. White 
Eyes' hamlet, Custaloga's town, White Woman's town, and 
Goshuckgunk, the present Coshocton, making thirteen, 


aii«l oiifli ill its (lav the .-<i-unc of ludiiin gloiy, or cuptive's 

Of Cliristiaii townts there were Schoenbrunn, old and new, 
Giiiulenliutteii, Liclitenuu, Salem, and Post's mission house, 
ca<-li in its day the scene of Christian snftcring and heathen 

Th»' siniiitilc had been ,Jz:oing on since (irist's visit in 1750 
l)ctwiin Mu' jialc-faccd ( Mii-istiaiis and the red-faeed heathen, 
the one to filitaiii. and the r)tlicr race to retain possession of 
tlie vallfv. The roidt of the thirty years' eontliet was that 
ill 17>'4, when N'iri^-inia ceded the territory to tlie United 
States, I he two races had \vhi}»ped and scourged each other 
out of the valle}'. 

" Tlie old Tuscarawas, which had Ijeen tiowing down the 
valley, according to the geologist, Newljerry, ever since the 
carboniferous age, and had cut its channel in many places 
througli eiglity thousand years of coal formations, was still 
there, representing God's grand works for the use of man, 
iiut there was no man or audience left, for the nineteen 
towns of red and wiiite men had been demolished, and of 
their structures there was scarcely one stone left standing 
n[)on the other. 

Even the fifty yards si^uare of land, stepped ofl'at Post's 
hamlet, tor the use of the white man and his God, and 
t'onsidered then by the Indians ample for his wants, had 
returned to its forest again. 

Trne, Fort Laurens stood alone like a great ghoul, look- 
ing foi' her defenders, who had ran away in 1779, to come 
back and take possession anew, but they came not. 

Around the ruins of the modern Golgotha, Gnadenhutten, 
tlie ashes and iiones of tlie murdered Christians still strewed 
the ground, and raiding warriors hurried in terror up and 
down the river trail, either with, or after scalp victims, but 
that was all of life to be seen along the shores of the ancient 
river for a distance of tifty miles, with this exception. 



Ill Scptciul)er, 1782, f>oiue four liuiidrcd warriors iVoiii llu^ 
iiortli-west, oil the way to the Ohio, encamped at kSehoeii- 
hriiiin, as Crawford's four hundred troopers had done wdieii 
j;-(>iiii;' to the nortli-we>^t in the preceding June. They caiiie 
hack from an unsuccessful raid on Wheeling", as well as 
along the border, and rested again at Schoenhrunn, as AVil- 
liamson's routed Crawford army had rested on their way 
liome, the one army having lost Crawford, and the other 
the celebrated "-Big Foot" chief, and the legend is that as 
the savages stooped to drink at the Zeisberger Spring, tlie 
tongues of their victims tied to their necks as tro}diies of 
war, uttered unearthly moans, and the water cast Ijack by 
reflection the visages of those victims into the warriors' 
faces, which so horrified the superstitious Indians that they 
mounted in affright, galloping ofl" on the Sandusk}' trail as 
Williamson and Crawford's survivors had gone the other 
way only one hundred days before. The facts were so won- 
derfnlly coincident as to appear supernatural. The legend 
says that a mist suddenl}^ envelo[ted the spring, from out of 
which came the God of the Christian, and Mannitto, the 
God of the heathen, who, viewing the ruins made by their 
followers, banished each his kind, obliterated each the re- 
maining structures of the other, and decreeing that in the 
coming time even the spring should shrink from human 
sight, then each departed to his etherial home to renew 
their never-en(hng contlict between Christian and heathen 
on some other line. 

There are men now living who have drank from this 
historic spring, bul' after ZeisT)erger died — after his last In- 
dian had departed, to return no more, the legend was veri- 
lird — the water of tlie s[»ring did shrink from huiiiaii sight 
and human use, and remains unlit for use to this day. 



At tlif lime Kort Lau reus wiiR reduced to a garrison of 
one liiiiidr('(l men, in daiuniry, 1770, it will be recollected 
that tlu' i>aik-liorscs bringing provisions in from FortMcln- 
tosli, were stampeded by joyous firing of guns in the fort, 
and the horses and [»rovisions, to a great extent, lost. A 
party of Mingo warriors were at the time coming down the 
Tuscarawas trail, which crossed the river at what was after- 
ward called the Canton fording place, about one mile north 
of Xew I'hiladelphia of the present time, and near the ford 
was a large spring, since called the Federal Spring. The 
Mingoes caught some of the pack-horses laden with provi- 
sions and brought them to the spring, where they camped 
until the provisions were eaten up. Among them was a 
warrior chief of great stature, who had with him a white 
squaw, who had been captured in Pennsylvania, and after 
many hair-breadth escapes, had become the warrior's wife, 
out of gratitude, if not love, for having saved her life at the 

When the Mingoes broke camp, this warrior and wife 
proceeded on a visit to ISTew Schoenbrunn, about one and 
a half miles south-east of New Philadelphia, where they 
heard Zeisberger preach, and manifesting some outward 
feelings of religion, the chief and wife were solicited to join 
the mission. She assented, but the warrior refused, and she 
would not join without him. The Indian women about 
the mission then undertook to gain her over by strategy. 
At the mission was a creole squaw of great beauty, who 
gave the missionaries much trouble by her lasciviousness. 
8he possessed such fascinating charms that she was the 
envious terror of the other women, and turned the heads 
of such men as visited the mission, and it is in tradition 
that Zeisberger himself, being then unmarried, was nearly 
ensnared by her conduct and her wanton approaches, but 
succeeded like Joseph of old in withstanding the temptress. 


The Mingo was told of her, and escorted to her cabin. His 
white wife was informed of the ftxct, by the Indian women, 
they believing that she would abandon him, and become a 
convert. In jealous rage she avowed the death of both if 
found together, and repairing with her tomahawk to the 
woman's cabin, found that they had both left for the woods. 
iSlie followed their tracks to a high bluff on the edge of the 
river, a short distance above the Federal Spring, and over 
which bluff a man named Compton fell in the niglit time, 
about twenty years ago, and was killed, the precipice beino- 
nearly one hundred feet high, but higher at the time spoken 
of, in 1779, from the fact that it then descended perpen- 
dicular into the river, but since has been excavated for a 
railway track. On this bluff the jealous white s(|uaw met 
her chief and paramour face to face. It was but a look of 
a moment. He sprang up with his knife to strike, but in 
raising she struck him, and, as he fell Ijack over the ledge, 
she bounded at the Creole beauty, who had thus Avronged 
her, and she, too, went over the precipice, draggino- with 
her the white squaw to a like speedy death. Some Indian 
converts, who had followed her to the bluff, descended to 
the river, took the three corpses from the sliallow water, 
carried them to the mission houses at New Schoenbrunn, 
and related the tragedy. The missionary refused them 
burial in the Christian grave-yard; directed the bodies to 
be taken into the forest, and interred beyond the sound of 
the church bell, that once echoed from Old Schoenbrunn. 
The main incidents of the foregoing tragedy were com- 
municated by Captain Killbuck to Oencral Shane, an early 
settler, who related them to the writer more than a genera- 
tion by, and it is a curious fact, that in the summer of 1875, 
a farmer named Ilensel, while digging for ore, found on 
one of his hills, not over a mile and a half from New Schoen- 
brunn, the skeleton of a giant Indian, with the skull broken 
in, and by his side the bones of one or two females. Tliey 
had been hurriedly buried, the remains not being over a 
couple of feet from the surface, and bore evidence of having 



boon tliero notir uii liundrod yoars. It was surmised that 
thov wore jtorsoiis killed in Genei'al Wayne's Avar of 1793-4, 
hilt it is more probalilf that I hey were tho Mingo warrior 
and his squaws. 

In ITSI.iwo vcars al'lci' tlu' mission luul l)een relieved of 
the I'vil inlhu'ncL'> nl tlio artful Imlian beauty, David Zeis- 
b.To-iM- visited Bethlehem, Peunsylvania, and, althougli sixty 
vrars of age, hi' was atti'acted by the charms of Susan Le- 
ci-on, a ('liristiaii lady lliereal, and married her. She lies 
Lurried by bis side at Uoshen to-day, and there is little 
iloiibt but that the i)ious man took a wife as a shield agaiust 
tomptation in the wilderness, well knowing that notwith- 
standing tiio fact that religion is a protector of virtue, there 
are times, as all sacred and jirofane history prove, when his 
jilivsical desires and passions, make of man, if not under 
till' iiilhu-mo of a \-irtuous wife, oidy a beast on two legs, 
aftor all. 


In the year 1779, a baiul of Wyandots, on their way home 
fr(un tlie Ohio to the Sandusky, stopped at New Sclioen- 
brunn, on the Tuscarawas, about one and a half miles from 
the {)resent New Philadelphia. They had with them a 
young white woman, and two scalps, together with plun- 
der they had stolen from some murdered settlers, over on 
t lie Monongahela. 

It was night when they came in, and having whisky with 
tlicni, were turl)uleut and noisy. They called on father 
Zeisbergor, and ilenumded something to eat, telling him 
thoy inteiuled to rest that night with liim, lie complied 
with their demand, by having food prepared by the con- 
vei'ted Indian women at the mission, and taken out to the 


They had bnilt a iire in the only street or patli of the 
place, and which street was obliterated in constructing the 
Ohio Canal fifty years afterward. After feasting on the 
provisions, consisting of corn-bread and meat, and taking 
their smoke from rude corn-cob pipes, the savages prepared 
a spot nearly opposite the house of Zeisl)erger, and began 
tlieir war-dance, which was kept up for some time, with the 
usual liootings and yellings of savages, made more savage 
by tJie wldte man's whisky they had l)rouglit with them 
from the border settlements. Presently a drunken chief re- 
tired from the dancing ring around the fire into the bushes, 
but soon returned, half pulling, half carrying the young- 
woman into the ring, and by gestures bade her join in the 
war-dance. Unable to obey him, through fright and the 
fatigue of the previous day's march, she fell to the ground, 
and thus impeded their dance. Enraged with passion the In- 
dian who claimed her as his, first kicked her, then clubbed 
her, but she remained insensible to his assaults. He then 
seized her and attempted to force her into the fire, deter- 
mined to conquer the maiden's stubbornness, as he had 
understood it, or burn her. Her screams and groans aroused 
the whole mission with indignation, and about one half the 
number of the chief's comrades sided with the Christian In- 
dians in giving vent to their feelings at witnessing the scene. 
The war-dance was broken up, but the chief stood by his 
victim, with uplifted tomahawk, gesticulating to her to 
obey him, or he would cleave her skull. At this moment 
a party of white men arrived at Schoenbrunn, in puVsuit 
of the savages, who all fied, except the chief. He remained 
stolid for a moment, brandishing his tomahawk in the air, 
then burying it as he thought in the head of his captive, 
but, by a timely movement of one of the' Christian Indians 
of tlie mission with a club, the instrument of death fell from 
the chief's hand harmless by the side of the woman. In 
another moment the chief was seized, tied to a tree, and a 
guard of Christian Indians set to watch him until it should 
be determined what should l)e his fate. The missionary, 


Zeisbergcr, took the released captive to his cabin, and soon 
succeeded in restoring her to consciousness, when she be- 
\ivU\ among the men who had i>ursued the Indians, lier own 
brother. He m liis rage at the inhuman barbarities inflicted 
\\\)(m his sister, asked that he might be allowed the privi- 
k'gi', single lianded, of becoming her avenger. This was 
aeconliMl him liy his comrades, l)ut the missionar}^ here 
inter[>osed against the sliedding of the blood of the chief, 
as none had been slied, and claiming that all the inhuman 
conibict of this Indian was the consequence of liquor lie had 
obtained among white men, and that as a Christian convert 
liad saved the captive woman's life, it was his duty as a 
CMiristia!! t(^ prevent the taking of the chief's life, if possible, 
lie then directed all to kneel, and he offered up a prayer of 
thanks for the rescue of one human being from death, and 
implored the divine interference to save even this self-deter- 
mine'd murderer at the tree. His hearers acquiesced, and 
the brother, after setting his Indian victim free, returned 
with his comrades and his sister to their homes in Virginia. 
In after years, when the mission was broken up and the 
missionaries l)ecame prisoners, and were sent to Detroit, 
Zeisberger met the chief whose life he had saved, and dur- 
ing tlic time of his capture and exile from Schoenbrunn, the 
chier was by him converted to Christianity, and died in the 
.\bir:i\-i:in I'uitli at one of tlie missions of that sect. 


Uiehard Conner came from Maryland into the valley of 
the Muskingum, and Avas captured by the Shawanese and 
kv\)\ for several years at one of their towns on the Scioto. 
As a nuitter of choice between being burned, or becoming 
a Shawjuiese, lie put on their paint, and nuirried a white 
\V()ni:in who IiihI been a pi'isoner some time, and by whom 


he had one or more children — all becoming white Indians 
for the time being. 

In the delivery of prisoners, at the close of Dnnmore's 
war, in 1774, Conner and wife were delivered up by the 
Shawanese, who failed to bring in Conner's son. He and 
wife were taken to Fort Pitt, where they settled for a time. 

In 1775 they came to Schoenbrunn, where she remained, 
and became a favorite, while Conner went back among tlie 
Shawanese to find his boy. During his absence she saw 
the good being done at Schoenbrunn mission, and on Con- 
ner's return without his son, she induced him to join the 
mission with her. They built a house at Schoenbrunn, and 
when Colonel John Gibson visited Schoenbrunn, with the 
committee of congress, and having with them the great 
congress peace belt, over six feet long, as an emblem of 
friendship between the colonies and Indian tribes of the 
Muskingum, they were present at the baptism of one of Con- 
ner's children born at Schoenbrunn. Mr. Conner accom- 
panied them down the valley, and succeeded in ransoming 
his son from the Shawanese, with whisky, it is said, and 
whom he brought back to Schoenbrunn, to be educated by 

In 1781, when the missions were broken up, the Conner's 
followed the captives to Sandusky. There they remained 
after the captives left that country, except the son John, 
who, it is said, followed Zeisberger in all his wanderings*. 
The elder Conner settled a large tract of land, known after- 
ward as the " Conner farms," and died wealthy, in Michi- 
gan, leaving descendants who became prominent citizens 
in Indiana. 

In 1802, when Heckewelder brought the twelve chiefs to 
Goshen, on their way to the seat of government, John Con- 
ner was with them as interpreter. Tedpachxit and the 
chiefs were introduced by him to President Jefferson, and 
he returned with them to the Indian country. 

Of Tedpachxit, this story is told : lie was small, but liad 
been a great warrior, and was as conceited as he was brave. 


Sti'i»i»i)ii^ up to one of the generals who had been at St. 
Chiir'.s defeat, he strutted around very pompously, and asked 
the general these questions : " You not know me ? I am 
Ti'dpachxit!" The general answered, by asking, "Who 
tlie devil is Tedpaehxit?" The chief became indignant, 
and taking from his belt a string with twenty-seven dried 
hiiiiian tongues appended, he shook them in the general's 
face, and walked oft saying to himself, "He know me now!" 

Tedpaclixit was afterward induced to embrace Christi- 
anity, and was burnt as a witch by the Prophet Tecsumeh's 
orders on White lliver, Indiana, about 180(3. 

A grandson of Richard Conner, now resides at Indian- 
a[>olis, and is the head of a large business iirm in that city. 



At the old Salt Springs, in the present Trumbull County, 
the white hunters of the Ohio rendezvoused as early as 1754, 
to shoot deer, elk and other game, and remained there off 
and on, living the hunter's life, until between 1770 and 1780, 
when some enterprising Englishmen from Fort Pitt put up 
cabins, made salt in the primitive way, and took upon them- 
selves the name of settlers. 

'In the territory now composing the counties of Mahoning, 
('olumbiana, Jefferson, Stark, Carroll, Harrison, Belmont, 
Guernsey, and Monroe, were scattered cabins as early as 
the revolutionary war. 

The names of the iirst settlers in these counties, and along 
the Ohio River, were in 1785, as follows: 

Tiiomas Tilton, John ISTixon, Henry Cassill, John Xowles, 
.lolm Tilton, John Fitzpatrick, Daniel Menser, Zephenia 
Dunn, John McDonald, Henry Froggs, Wiland Iloagland, 
Michael Kawlings, Thomas Dawson, William Shift", Solo- 
mon Delong, Charles Ward, Frederick Lamb, John Rigdon, 
George Atchinson, Hanes Piley,Walter Cain, Jacob Light, 


James Weleams, Jesse Eclgeiton, Nathaniel Parremore, 
Jesse Parremore, Jacob Clark, John Custer, James Noyes, 
Thomas McDonald, John Casstleman, James Clark, Adam 
House (his x mark), Thomas Johnson, Hanamet Davis, 
William Wallace, Joseph Reburn, Jonathan Mapins, Wil- 
liam Mann, William Kerr, Daniel Dntt", Joseph Ross, James 
Watson, Abertious Bailey, Charles Chambers, Robert Hill, 
James Paul, William McIsTees, Archibald Harbson, William 
Dailey, Jonas Amspoker, ISTicholas Decker, John Piatt, 
Benjamin Reed, Joseph Godard, Henry Conrod, William 
Carpenter, John Godard, George Reno, John Buchanan, 
Daniel Mathews. 

A number had come out with General Mcintosh as far 
as Fort Laurens, in 1778, as axemen, hunters, teamsters, 
spies, and rangers. After its evacuation in 1779, they re- 
mained and took up homes on the different streams empty- 
ing into the Ohio and Muskingum. 

Colonel Brodhead, then in command at Fort Pitt, con- 
ceiving that they were trespassers on the Indian lands, sent 
out troops to drive them back across the Ohio, and demolish 
their cabins. Subjoined is one of his letters to General 
Washington, given as a curious item of the history of those 
early days of the forefathers in Ohio, who had came from 
Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, ]N"ew York, N'ew Jersey, 
and other old States. Virginia then owned, but had not 
yet ceded this property to the United States, claiming it as 
part of that State b}^ her own right of conquest and by In- 
dian treaties : 

"Pittsburgh, October 26, 1779. 

"Dear General : Immediately after I had closed my last 
(of the 9th of this instant), I received a letter from Colonel 
Shepherd, lieutenant of Ohio County, informing me that a 
certain Decker, Pox & Co., with others, had crossed the Ohio 
River and committed trespasses on Indian lands, wherefore 
I ordered sixty rank and tile to be ecpiipped, and Captain 
Clarke, of the Eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, proceeded 
with this party to Wheeling, with orders to cross the river 


at that part, and to apprehend some of the principal tres- 
passei-^ and destroy their huts. He returned without find- 
ing any of the trespassers, but destroyed some huts. He 
writes me the inhabitants have made small improvements 
all the way from the Muskingum River to Fort Mcintosh, 
and thirty miles up some of the branches. I sent a runner 
to the Delaware Council at Coohocking to inform them of 
the trespass, and assure them it was committed b}- some 
foolish people, and requested them to rely on my doing them 
justice and punishing the otfenders, Init as yet have not re- 
ceived an answer. 

:!: ^ ;K * ^ * * 

" I have the honor to be, with perfect regard and esteem, 
your Excellency's most obedient, humble servant, 

" J). Brodhead. 

*' His Excellency General Washington." 

In 1785, Colonel Harmar, commandant at Fort Mcintosh, 
also sent out troops to dispossess white settlers from the 
eastern border counties of Ohio. They banded together 
to resist the United States troops, and were actually organ- 
ized with guns and munitions of war. A compromise was 
etfected, whereby they were given time before leaving Ohio 
to prepare temporary habitations on the Virginia side. Tliey 
then abandoned their Ohio settlements for a time. 

The settlers in eastern Ohio, who were driven back across 
the Ohio by the government, were principally men whose 
descendants now till the valleys of the Tuscarawas and Mus- 
kintfum, and the eastern Ohio counties. 


The pious Germans, who had come from beyond the 
mountains, with the Bible in their hands, to teach the In- 
dian his true salvation, were wandering in the wild north- 
west, decimated, ragged, and sometimes starving, living a 


precarious life on wild game, roots, and berries, having at 
times no roof to shelter them, nor home to call theif own, 
bnt still trusting to God, in their wretchedness, and ["ray- 
ing daily, hourly, nightly, tluit he would not in his anger 
al)aiidon them, because of their want of success down on the 
Tuscarawas, but succor and give them strength to continue 
their efforts in the wilderness, to convert the heathen, and 
spread the gospel of the King of Kings. 

On the other hand, Pipe, Half King, Welendewackcn, 
Wingemund, Black Hoof, Red Hawk, Little Turtle, Blue 
Jacket, and a host of other Jackets, Hawks, and Turtles, 
some of whom had taken the missionaries, and guarded 
them to Detroit, as prisoners, not as apostles, were scamper- 
ing on fleet horses over Ohio and along the border, utterly 
regardless of the words they often had heard Zeisberger 
preach : "All having blood-stained hatchets in their hands, 
all seeking more scalps, all clamoring for more war, and a 
partition wall along the Ohio, so high and so strong that 
no Christian missionary, or other white man, should ever 
get over it, or under it, or through it into their hunting 
grounds, to build churches upon the graves of their ances- 
tors, or scare the game away by the ringing of bells, ynd 
singing of hymns of praise to the 'Unkown." 

And yet, by reason of the deaths of their wisest coun- 
selors and chieftains, such as Ketawatwees, White Eyes, 
Cornstalk, King Beaver, Little Eagle, Big Foot, and other 
chiefs, these red rovers were unable to hold permanent pos- 
session, even by tomahawk title, and although they had 
been successful in driving godly men out of the valleys, they 
were wholly unable to remain therein themselves. 

In the year 1784, Virginia ceded to the United States all 
her rights in the territory north-west of the Ohio. Con- 
gress, in the following year, 1785, ordered a survey of so 
much territory, as had been ceded by former Indian treaties, 
for tlie location of soldier warrants, and by the treaty con- 
cluded at Fort Mcintosh the same year, the Indian boun- 
dary, instead of being the Ohio River, began on the Tusca- 


i-iiAVJis, nour Furt Lauroiis, thence up said river to the port- 
ui(e, thence down tlie Cuyiilioga to Lake Erie, thence west 
jdoMii^ tlu' hd-ce shore to the nioutli of the Miaini or Odic 
Uiver, thence up that river to the portage hetween the Omc 
and tliat liranch oftlie iiig Miami wliich runs mto the Ohio, 
thence over Ihe portage to the Big Miami, thence eastwardly 
111 I he Tuscarawas at the crossing [)Uice ahove Fort Laurens. 
All Ihe land in Ohio outside of tliose lines was thus cede<l 
to the 1 'nited States, and all within those lines was to he En- 
tlian territory, e.\ce|)ting ground for forts, kv. Tliis treaty 
was signed i)y the Wyan(h)ts and Delawares, and some strag- 
gling Fiidians of other trihcs. As soon as it l)ecame known 
to tile S|ia\\aiiese and others that the Ohio liiver boun(hiry 
had heen surrendered to the whites, they sounded the war- 
whoop again, dechiring that they had been cheated and 

Congress, standing upon the literal interpretation of the 
F(M't Mcintosh treaty, ordered it to be respected, and the 
surveys to go on. In 1786 the surveys began in ranges, 
townships, and sections; the first range to run from the Ohio, 
near the [)resent Stenbenville to the lake, and the other 
ranges to be numl)ered progressively westwardly, the town- 
shi[)s to be numbered from south to north. On the 1.5th of 
Septend^er, 1786, John Mathews, a nephew of General Put- 
nam, surveyor, and his associates, reached Sandy Creek, 
and on the I8th were at "Nine Shilling Creek — the present 
Niinishillen. Here an express rider came in from Beaver, 
announcing that the Shawanese had taken up arms, were 
fe-assend)ling at their old towns, and dancing the war-dance, 
pi'epafatory to moving on the surveyors, and lifting as well 
their sca![>s as those of all white men found west of the Ohio. 
Mathews' party consisted of iifty men, thirty-six of whom 
were soldiers. Surveying was suspended, and all retreated 
lo Fort Mcintosh, [n a short time tliey moved down to 
Mingo bottom, and struck west on Crawlbrd's trail tovs.u'd 
llu! Tuscarawas to renew Iheir work. ( )n the LUh of Oclo- 
liei- IIkw left Crawford's trail and moved more in)rlli-\vcst. 


and run ubout two miles of line. On the 14th and loth they 
run about the same, continuing it each clear day up to the 
30th, Avhcn they lay in camp on account of rain. Besides 
the surveyors there were twenty-five soldiers as guards. 
On this day they lost their horses, the same having been 
stolon l»y a s([iia<l of Indians, who had hiid [)art of the }>re- 
viotis iiight within eighty rtxls, watching for scalps. Tlie 
soldiers went to building a block house, which they finished 
on tlie-31st of < )ctobor. From the 1st to the 7th of IS^ovcm- 
ber, they were on what is now the south l)Oundary of the 
seventh township of third range in the United States mi1i- 
f ar}' district. That day they struck Wheeling Creek and fol- 
lowed it to the Ohio, then crossed and took dinner at Colonel 
Zanes' house. Then went up the east bank to the house of 
a Mr. McMahau, then to the house of William Greathouse, 
sixteen miles, which they reached November 9. November 
10 they tarried and heard a sermon from a Methodist minis- 
ter, located at that early day (1786) on the banks of the Ohio^ 
in Virgin i a. No vember 1 1 , Mathews went to a Vi rgini a corn - 
husking at Harman Greathouse's, wdiere a number of set- 
tlers had gathered in. They had rye whisky in plenty, and? 
the husking being finished, they sang, danced, told stories, 
(juarreled, and all who could walk went home about 10 
o'clock in the night. Three, who were too drunk, remained 
over night, hugging the whisky bottle, and arguing religion. 
Sunday, November 12, others came in and assisted in drink- 
ing up the whisky. November 22, General Tupper, the 
acting commissioner in General Putnam's absence, left for 
the east. November 23, Colonel Sprout and a Mr. Simp- 
son left for the east, and the surveying party disbanded for 
the winter, Mathews remaining at Greathouse's, where the 
snow A\as two and a half feet deep on the 5th of Decendjer, 
17S(!. On Fel)ruary 4, 1787, he went up to Fort Steuben, 
the [)resent city of Steubenville, and remained until May as 
store-keeper of the different surveying parties. On the 8tli of 
May three surveyors came in from the woods and reported 
three persons killed and three taken prisoners by Indians. 



III July Mathews was at Wheeling, and reported Indians j 
in the vicinity, and says that a party of whites killed one ' 
aii<l wounded two Indians. On August 4, the people living 
on tiie bank of the river heard a person screaming on the 
Ohio side and begging for life. A party of whites went 
over and found one man killed and scalped. On the 7th of 
August left Wheeling for Fort Ilarmar, and after some days 
returned to Wheeling. September 21, they started with four 
men into Ohio, on Williamson's old trail, reached the ridge 
dividing the waters of Short Creek and Muskingum (Tus- 
carawas), and dug ginseng four days, then returned to the 
( )hio, and learned that three men had been killed and one 
captured by Indians while digging ginseng. On October 
11 an old man was killed by Indians near Fort Steuben. 
On the 7th of April, 1788, Mathews arrived at the mouth 
of Muskingum with forty-two men, surveyors and guards, 
where they found i*ipe's band of Delawares and Wyandot's 
holding out the hand of friendship, while other savages con- 
tinued in the work of mercilessly burying their tomahawks 
into the heads of men, women and children along the Ohio, 
from the mouth of the Muskiuo:um to Fort Mcintosh. 


After the defeat and retreat of Crawford's ill-fated expe- 
dition in June, 1782, a picked party of Wyandot warriors, 
among whom were the celebrated war chief, Big Foot, and 
his four brothers, followed the trace of the retreating whites 
until they came to the Tuscarawas, where they diverged and 
took tlie old trail leading from Fort Laurens to Fort I'itt. 
When near the present eastern boundary line t;)f Colum- 
biana County, on what is known as the west fork of Little 
Beaver Creek, they killed an old man in his cabin, and, 
taking what plunder the}' wanted, started on the trail to- 
ward the Ohio River. This murder at once aroused several 


of the border settlers, who, quickly congregating^, proceeded 
after the Indians. In this party of whites were the cele- 
brated brothers, Adam and Andrew Poe, famous for their 
courage and success as Indian fighters. The whites fol- 
lowed the Indian trail during the night, and on coming to 
the river, a little after daylight, discovered a raft tied to a 
sprout at the water's edge. Andrew Poe crept along the 
bank as stealthil}^ as a cat until he saw a large Indian (Chief 
Big Foot) and a young warrior,' standing with their rifles 
ready, and listening to the noise made by the party back 
ov^er the bank. Poe pulled on the chief, but his gun missed 
fire, and the Indians at that instant discovered him. Seeing 
that retreat was useless, Poe dropped his gun and sprang 
upon the larger Indian and threw him to the ground. At 
this the small Indian ran to the raft and got a tomahawk, 
and, while Poe and the chief were struggling on the ground, 
he approached and aimed a blow at Poe's head, but just as he 
was about to strike he received a well-directed kick in the 
stomach by Poe's foot, which sent him reeling off and threw 
the tomahawk some distance away. The young savage soon 
regained his feet, and getting the tomahawk again, made a 
stroke for Poe's head, which he parried with his left arm, 
receiving a severe cut. Poe now exerted himself to the 
utmost and succeeded in getting away from the chief, and 
picking up one of their guns shot the young one dead as he 
was making a third attack with the tomahawk. By this 
time Big Foot had regained his feet, and jumping upon Poe 
pushed him down the bank, and in the struggle both were 
precipitated into the water, where each now made a des- 
perate exertion to drown the other, Poe finally succeeding 
in getting the chief's head under and holding him there 
until he supposed him dead. Upon letting go his hold on 
the Indian's head, the latter raised and they again clinched 
for another straggle, this time getting into deep water, when 
both let go and swam for shore, which Big Foot reached 
first, and picking up a rifle aimed at Poe, who sought to 
save himself by diving under water. The Indian had got 


hold of Poe's gun instead of his own, and, it l)eing empty, 
he proceeded to load as rapidly as possible. At this instant 
Adam Poe (;ame ui>on the scene, also with an empty gun, 
and, si'ciiig his brother in the water unarmed, knew that his 
life dc]»cnded upon his loading tirst. The Indian dropped 
his r;iiiii()<l, which gave Poe the advantage, and he tired just 
as IJig Foot was cocking his piece. lie then assisted his 
wounded brother to the shore, and while doing this the 
chief, who was not killed t)ntriglit, rolled himself into the 
current and was seen no more. This was to prevent his 
scali> being taken by the whites. 

While this conflict was progressing the other whites had 
caught the remaining Indians, and, after a desperate fight, 
killed all but one warrior, with the loss of three whites and 
the severe wounding of Andrew Poe. 

It is related that the warrior who escaped from this ter- 
rific combat, made his way to the Wyandot town i^ear Upper 
Sandusky, crossing the Tuscarawas on the trail above Fort 
Laurens, and, before entering the Wyandot town, announced 
his coming by a series of dismal howls, which indicated that 
the expedition had been defeated and the chief killed. This 
solitary survivor remained in the woods a whole day giving 
vent to his grief by moaning and howling alternately. The 
whole Wyandot tribe long mourned the loss of Big Foot, 
who was one of their most revered chiefs. 

Subsequent to the closing of active hostilities between the 
Saiulusky Indians and the border settlers, the Wyandots 
determined on the assassination of Andrew Poe, in revenge 
for the death of their chief, Big Foot, and detailed one of 
their most fearless warriors to accomplish the deed. Poe 
lived near the mouth of Yellow Creek at that time, and on 
the arrival of the Indian received him with friendship, and 
showered him with the kindest attentions. Poe's cabin 
contained but one room, as they were all built in those days, 
and contained but two beds, one for himself and wife, and 
a smaller one for his children. In the evening, the Indian 
intimated a desire to remain all night if Poe and his wife 


did not oltject, when tliey assured liiiu thiit lie was perfectly 
welcome, and made up a pallet on the floor before the huge 
log-fire place. Ronyeness, which was the Indian's name, 
lay awake nntil he was satisfied that the family were asleep, 
and the while thought much over the kindness manifested 
by Poe and his wife toward him. At one time he shuddered 
to think of the deed he was about to execute, and gave it up? 
but again the death of his adored chief would come fresh 
into his mind, when he would again resolve for revenge. 
Finally, after halting between the two opinions for an hour, 
he raised and approached Foe's bedside with his tomahawk 
elevated above his head ready for the fatal blow. At this 
instant catching a gUmpse of the unsuspecting faces of Poe 
and his wife, his heart failed him, and he could think of 
nothing but their kindness and confidence. lie returned 
to his resting place and slept until morning, when his host 
loaded him down with provisions and ammunition, and 
bade him a warm and brotherly farewell, mentioning that, 
although they were enemies once, they had hurried the 
tomahawk and should remain as brothers from this time 

This Indian was a relation of the chief. Big Foot, and 
tradition says was the same man who was with him and 
escaped to tell the tale of the death. He had often attended 
the Christian Indians' meetings at their town on the San- 
dusky, and there probably received the germ of their re- 
ligion, for, after his return from Poe's dwelling, he followed 
Zeisberger into Canada, and, after wandering with the mis- 
sionaries several years, he came with them to Goshen in 
1798, a convert, and died there. Among the Indian graves 
at Goshen Cemetery repose the bones of Ronyeness, the war- 
rior who once traveled over one hundred miles to avenge Big 
Foot l>y killing Poe, but spared his life through, kindness, 
and finally died a Christian. 



Ill I he rotrcut ut" Crawtonl'.s niuii from tlio Sumluwky was 
oiu! Thomas Mills, who thought more of his horse than his 
own life. After riding across what is now Crawford, Eich- 
laiid, Wayne, Tuscarawas, Harrison, and Behiiont counties, 
upward of one hundred and iifty miles through wilderness, 
swamps, and rivers, his noble steed gave out within a few 
miles of the Ohio, in Belmont County. Mills made his way 
from that pt)int on foot to Fort Wheeling, and succeeded in 
getting the famous scout (Lewis Wetzell) to go ])ack with 
him and look for the horse. Wetzell told him of the dan- 
ger, and did all that was possible to discourage him, but to 
no purpose. Mills must have his horse or perish in the 
attempt to rescue him. They started, and, after nine miles 
travel, found the horse tied to a tree near a spring. Wet- 
zell, comprehending an ambuscade, motioned to Mills to 
run, and then made off to save his own life. Mills, instead 
of running from, ran to his horse, and, in the act of unty- 
ing him, was shot dead. The Indians, four in number, then 
pursued Wetzell, and after running half a mile, he turned, 
shot the nearest Indian, and ran on but a short distance, 
when the second Indian caught hold of his gun and brought 
Wetzell to his knees in the scuffle ; but he raised, got the 
muzzle against the savage's neck, and shot him dead. By 
jumping, Wetzell eluded the remaining two Indians, and 
loading as he ran, he turned to fire several times at his 
nearest pursuer, who each time treed. Going on, Wetzell 
reached a clearing, and, turning in an instant, shot the In- 
dian just as he jumped behined a tree too small to screen 
him from Wetzell's bullet. The fourth Indian then fled, 
and Wetzell reached Fort* Henry, at Wheeling, unliurt, 
where he recounted his adventure, and the death of •Thomas 




In the spring of 1792, tlie Indians on the Sandnsky, 
having become very bold since their victory over St. Clair 
in November preceding, made many raids on tlie border 
settlers along the Ohio, stealing horses and whatever else 
they conld get off with, and sometimes killing a white 
family if in their way. After one of these forays, a party 
of settlers determined to follow the Indians and recapture 
several tine horses which had been taken. This party con- 
sisted of John Wetzell, one of the celebrated Indian lighting 
brothers of that name, and six other border men of con- 
siderable experience in border warfare. They started from 
a point nearly opposite Steubenville, and, crossing the 
Ohio, proceeded northward until they struck the old trail 
leading from Fort Pitt to the Indian towns on the San- 
dusky, by way of Fort Laurens, on the Tuscarawas. On 
reaching the first Indian town on the trail, which was 
located on Mohican Creek, tlie}^ found their horses, which 
they took, and started on their return in the night. Fear- 
ing that they might be pursued and overtaken if they 
returned by the old trail, a southeasterly course was taken,, 
which brought them to the Tuscarawas, in the vicinity of 
what is now New Comerstown. From there the lower and 
less traveled trail was followed, which brought the party to 
Will's Creek, within half a mile of the present town of 
Cambridge, in Guernsey County, where they arrived in the 
evening of the second day after recapturing the horses. 
Here one of the party was attacked with a very severe 
cramp colic, in consequence of which a halt for the night 
was made, and a guard placed on the back trail to watch 
for any pursuers that might be after them. Late in the 
night, and when all were asleep in the camp, the guard 


havino- occasion to go to a little lirook which emptied into 
the creek a sliort distance below the camp, noticed that the 
water was rnuddy, and believing the cause to be Indians 
coming down in the water to prevent detection, aroused 
Wet/ell and informed him of the discover}-. Wetzell went 
and examined the water, and decided that the muddy 
streaks in it were the result of raccoons or muskrats mov- 
ing ahont in the brook, and then resumed his blankets, after 
ic»l<iiio- the u-iiard as to his unfounded alarm. From this 
the guard dcemetl it unnecessary to keep so strict a watch, 
and remained close to the camp. About half an hour after 
this transpired a volley was tired into the camp from be- 
hind the bank of the In-ook, and the sick man was riddled 
with bullets, as he lay on the outside. In an instant a party 
of savages bounded into the camp, yelling and brandishing 
their tomahawks in a terrific manner, and at the same 
instant the white men fled, leaving most of their arms, 
blankets, &c., in the camp. In the fight that ensued three 
whites were killed on the ground, and Wetzell and the 
other succeeded in making their way to Wheeling after 
great suttering from hunger and fatigue. The bodies of the 
killed were sliortly afterward buried by a party that went 
out from Wheeling for that purpose. One of the survivors 
of this party was William McCullough, who settled at Zanes- 
ville in 1799, and afterward became a prominent oflicer in 
the war of 1812, under General Hull. 

The Indians who made this assault were a party of the 
Monseys, accompanied b}' some of the old cojiverts of the 
Moravians who had relapsed into heathenism after the 
broiiking up of the missions in 1782, and who had returned 
to the Tusearaw^as valley because they knew the country so 
well, and for the purpose of kiUing all the white people they 
eould find in revenge for the massacre at Gnadenhutten. 
They had come upon the Wetzell party while returning to 
the valley from an unsuccessful expedition to the border 
settlements east of the Ohio, and were not a party of pur- 
suei's as has been stated in some accounts. After the fiffht 


they gathered up their phmder, and, with the twice stolen 
horses, continued their march to their camp near the ruins 
of Schoenhrunn, on the Tuscarawas. They remained in the 
valley until called away to join the western tribes in their 
attempt to repel the invasion of the Maumee country by 
General Wayne in 1794. 



In [the spring of 1774, a party of borderers called the 
Greathouse men, near the nioutli of Yellow Creek, killed 
the father, brother, and sister of Logan, the Mingo Chief. 
Logan was absent, but vowed revenge, and never ceased 
until he had thirty scalps and prisoners. He captured a 
Major William Robinson, who was taken to the Muskingum 
Shawanese town, Waketomica, compelled to run the guant- 
let and ordered to be burned alive. Logan plead eloquently 
to save his life, and succeeded, after which he took Robin- 
son to New Comerstown, and dictated while Robinson 
wrote the following letter to Captain Cresap: 

" Captain Cresap: What did you kill my people on Yel- 
low Creek for? The white people killed my kin at Cones- 
toga a great while ago, and I thought nothing of that. But 
you killed my kin again on Y'ellow Creek, and took m}^ 
cousin prisoner. Then I thought I must kill too, and I have 
been three times to war since, but tlie Indians are not angiy, 
only myself. 

'■^July 21, 1774. Captain John Logan," 

This letter was tied to a war club and left at a murdered 
settler's cabin by Logan. 

Thomas Jetferson wove from it the celebrated speech 
which has been read and recited wherever the English lan- 
guage was spoken as a sublime burst of Indian eloquence. 


John Gibson met Logan the same fall at Dunmore's 
trcatv. Cresap was also there, without Logan being aware 
of his presence, and having told Gibson he was not one of 
the Greatliouse party, nor at the massacre of Logan's rela- 
tives, Gibson took Logan aside and informed him of the fact. 
(Tiil)son then wrote down Logan's ideas, omitting Cresap's 
name ; his version was published at Williamsburg, Virginia. 
Tlie two versions brought on a conflict liotween Jefferson 
and his enemies, as to the authenticity of the speech. It 
led to great feeling among the literati, without settling 
the matter definitively. In the meantime Logan became 
famous, and even Campbell, in his " Gertrude of Wyoming," 
[loetized tliis speech for one of his heroes in after years. 

Logan, in the midst of his fame, drowned his grief by drink- 
ing liquor, and was finally tomahawked while sitting before 
his tire with a blanket over his head. Tradition says he 
hired an Indian friend to kill him. Thus ended Logan. 


*' I appeal to any white man to say that he ever entered 
IjOgan's cabin but I gave him meat; that he ever came 
naked but I clothed him. 

" In the course of the last war Logan remained in his 
cabin, an advocate for peace. I had such an affection for 
the white people that I was pointed at by the rest of my 
tuition. I should have ever lived with them had it not 
Iteon for Colonel Cresap, who last year cut oti:*, in cold 
blood, all the relations of Logan ; not sparing my women 
and children. There runs not a drop of my blood in the 
veins of any human creature. This called upon me for 
revenge. I have sought it. I have killed many, and fully 
glutted my vengeance. I am glad there is a prospect of 
peace, on account of tlie nation ; but I beg that you will 
not entertain a thought that anything I have said proceeds 


from fear. Logan diadaiiis the thouglit. He will not turn 
on his heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for 
Logan? i^ot one." 

The poet versities it thus — leaving the reader to till in 
Cresap's name : 

" Nor man nor child, nor thing of living birth ; 

No! not the dog, that \vat>;hed my household hearth, 

Escaped that night of blood, upon our plains. 

All perished ! I alone am left on earth ! 

To whom nor relative nor blood remains, 

No! not a kindred drop that runs in human veins." 


Three relatives, Jonathan, Ebenezer, and Silas Zane, 
removed from Berkley County, Virginia, to the Ohio River, 
in 1769, and settled at or near Wheeling of the present day. 
They were fond of roving and adventurous exploits. They 
soon became acquainted with the territory on both sides of 
the river, and hunted Indians as their favorite game. Jon- 
athan located the present Wheeling and Zauesville. In 
1774 he was one of Dunmore's guides iu the campaign 
against the Indian town of Wakatomaka (near Dresden), 
acted as a spy for Washington, piloted Colonel Brodhead's 
expedition up the Alleghany, in 1779, and was wounded in 
that expedition. In 1782 he was one of Colonel Crawford's 
guides in the fatal Sandusky expedition, and it is said by 
one of the prominent men of that time, that Crawford held 
him in such high esteem that before the army commenced 
its retreat he consulted Zane, who advised an immediate 
retreat, and that had Crawford acted at once on the advice 
of Zane, lie and his army would have escaped defeat. After 
the retreat began, Zane succeeded, by his knowledge of 
Indian warfare, in avoiding capture, and returned safe to 


Wheeling. He was admitted to be the best shot on the 
bordiT, and on one occasion, meeting a raiding party on the 
Virginia side, killed live Indians, one after another, with 
liis rifle ; four of whom he shot in the river as they were 
swinnuiiig tlic Ohio, and the fifth after the Indian had 
gained the Ohio side. He hid behind a fallen tree in the 
stream, and was in the act of peeping over the trunk, when 
Zane's quick eye saw the top of his head. In another 
moment his body floated down stream. Elsewhere in this 
work it is related that Jonathan Zane and John Mclnt^^^e 
laid out Zanesville, and having made successful investments 
in the Muskingum country, Zane became very wealthy. 
He also liad large possessions at Wheeling, where he died. 

Ebenezer and Silas Zane participated in the border life of 
.Touiithan, and were equally daring and good marksmen. 

In the attack on Fort Henry at Wheeling, 1782, Eben- 
ezer, then Colonel Zane, commanded, and with but a handful 
of men he kept two hundred and sixty Indians and British 
soldiers at bay for three days, when they finally gave up the 
attack and moved off. The following is his letter to General 
Irvine, commandant at Fort Pitt, announcing the result. 
It is given verbatim from the work of C. W. Butterfield, 
entitled "Crawford's Expedition Against Sandusky," he 
liaving foinid the letter among General Irvine's corre- 
sixnidcnee : 

" Weling, 14th September, 1782. 

" Sir: on the Evening of the 11th Instant a Bod}^ of the 
Kiiemy appeared in Sight of our garrison the immediately 
formed thire Lines Round the garrison paraded British Cid- 
lars and demand the fort to Be Surrenderred which was Re- 
fused aboai twelve o dock att Night they Rushed hard on the 
pickets In order to Storm But was repulsed they made two 
other attemts to Storm Before Day to '^o 'purpos. 

" about eight o clock Next morning thare come a Negro 
from them to us and informed us that thire forse Consisted 
of a I>ritish Captain and forty Regular Soldiers and two 
hundred and Sixty Indians they Enemy kept a continual 


fire they whold Day aBout ten o clock att Night they made 
a forth attempt to Storm to no better purpos then the former 
the enemy Continued Round the garrison till the morning 
of the thirteenth Instant when they Disappeared Our loss 
is none Daniel Sullivan who arrived here in the lirst of the 
action is wounded in the foot. 

" I believe they have Drove they greatest part of our jStock 
away and might I think be soon overtaken I am with Due 
Respect your obedient servt. Ebenezer Zane." 

Colonel Ebenezer Zane had a sister Elizabeth, who figured 
as a heroine in the Wheeling light. She afterward married 
twice, and died near Martinsville, Ohio, leaving a large 
family of descendants, bearing the names of her respective 
husbands, McLaughlin and Clark. Her adventure is thus 
stated : 

When the alarm was given by a ranger that the Indians 
were coming, the fort having for some time been unoccu- 
pied by a garrison, and Colonel Zane's house having been 
used for a magazine, those who retired into the fort had to 
take with them a suppl}^ of ammunition for its defense. 
The powder became exhausted by reason of the long siege. 
In this emergency it became necessary to renew the stock 
from an abundant store in Zane's house. Accordingly, it 
was proposed that one of the fleetest men should endeavor 
to reach the house, obtain the powder, and return to the 
fort. Elizabeth, sister of Colonel Zane, at once volunteered 
to bring the powder. She was young, active, and athletic, 
with courage to dare anything. On being told that one of 
the men would run less risk by reason of his iieetness, she 
replied, "Should he fall the loss will be more severely felt; 
you have no men to spare, and a woman will not be missed 
in defending the fort." She was then told to go, and 
divesting herself of some heavy clothing, struck out through 
the gate like a deer. The sight so amazed the savages that 
they cried, "A squaw, a squaw," and not a shot was fired at 
her. Arriving at the house, Colonel Zane fastened a table- 


dotli about her waist, and into it poured a keg of powder, 
when slie again ventured out. The Indians now discovered 
the object of the "s(|uaw," and bullet after bullet whizzed 
past her head, several lodging in her clothes. She reached 
the fort in safety, and the powder she had enabled the brave 
little band to hold out against the besiegers, wdio were at 
hist conipc'lli'd to retire witliout a scalp, or a pound of pow- 


Simon, George, and James Girty were from northwestern 
Pennsylvania, and in the French war, in 1754, were cap- 
tured by the Indians. Simon joined the Senecas, James the 
Shawanese, and George the Wyandots, by whom they were 
regularly adopted. Simon roamed over what is now eastern 
Ohio with his tribe, and first became prominent as one of 
the hostages taken by Boquet in 1764, in the Tuscarawas 
valley, for the good behavior of the Indians. At the ter- 
mination of the conference of Boquet and the Indians at 
Coshocton, Simon was delivered up as a captive, and re- 
turned to Fort Pitt. In 1774 he signed the peace message 
at New Comerstown, and figured in Dunmore's war on 
the side of the whites. At the beginning of the Ameri- 
can revolution he joined the militia at Fort Pitt. Early in 
1778, he asked for a captain's commission in the continental 
service, which being refused him, he deserted to the British, 
and passing down the Tuscarawas to the present site of 
Coshocton, with Elliot and McKee, inflamed the Delawares 
under Pipe to take up the hatchet against the Americans. 
Passing on to the Shawanese towns at Waketomica and 
on the Sciota, he aroused portions of the Shawanese to hos- 
tilities. Thence making his wa}^ toward Detroit he was 
captui-ed by the Wyandots, but was set at liberty by tliem 
when told that he had taken up arms against the Americans. 
The British governor at Detroit employed him in the In- 


dian service. In September, 1778, the afterward celebrated 
Simon Kenton, being captured and brought as a prisoner to 
Wappetomica, in Logan County, was sentenced to be burned 
at the stake. Girty came to see him, and they having been 
okl acquaintances, and having fought side by side in Dun- 
more's war, he made the most strenuous efforts to save Ken- 
ton's life, and succeeded for the time being, but the Indians 
a second time condemning Kenton to be burned, Girty's 
influence a second time saved him, and he was taken to De- 
troit, from where he effected his escape. 

The first we hear of Simon Girty in the Tuscarawas valley 
after his defection was in 1779, when he headed a party of 
Mingoes, who attacked a relief squad going from Fort Lau- 
rens to Fort Pitt, undet' one Captain Clark, numbering foui'- 
teen men. They were ambushed about three miles east of 
Fort Laurens, near the present town of Sandyville. Two 
were killed, four wounded, and one taken prisoner. In the 
same year he attempted to ambuscade Zeisberger on the 
Coshocton plains) but was prevented from carrying out his 
design by some Delaware Indians. In 1780 and 1781, he 
headed Indian war parties who penetrated the Ohio border, 
aud was one of the principal plotters in breaking up the 
settlements at Schoenbrunn, Gnadenhutten, Salem, and 
Coshocton, always evincing great hostility to the mission- 
aries. In the early part of 1782, he was one of the leading- 
spirits in having Heckewelder and Zeisberger tried at De- 
troit as spies. His machinations also caused the Christian 
Indians on the Sandusky to be disbanded and scattered. 
On the approach of Crawford's army to the Sandusky, he 
assisted in marshaling the Indians and defeating that expe- 
dition. It is related that after nightfall of the first day of 
the tight, when both armies had ceased tiring, Girty came 
forward ^vith a white flag and asked to see Colonel Craw- 
ford, who went out to meet him, when Girty told him that 
the Indians were three times as strong as the whites, and 
during the night would surround him, except at one spot, 
where there was a very wet piece of ground, which he 


pointed out. Kc advised ('rjiwford that if lie wished to 
save his men, to march through that gap and escape in the 
night, or they woukl all be cut off in the morning. Craw- 
lord, in the nidit commenced his retreat in that direction, 
and the next day his army got into confusion, lost their 
course, and Crawford taken prisoner, while Williamson, 
witli ahont three hundred men, made their escape. It is 
further related that when Crawford was tied to the stake, 
(iirty offered Ca[)tain Pipe three hundred and fifty dollars 
for the victim, for the purpose of making a speculation in 
saving his life, Init that Pipe told him if he uttered another 
word on the subject he would be tied to the stake and 
burned with Crawford. 

It is further stated that Girty at one time courted one of 
Crawford's daughters in Pennsylvania. It is elsewhere 
rehited that on the night before Crawford's torture he- sent 
for Girty, had un interview, and off'ered one thousand 
dollars to save his life, and that Girty promised to do what 
he couhl in the matter. But in the midst of Crawford's 
sufferings he asked Girty to shoot him, and Girty excused 
himself by laughingly saying he had no gun. 

After Crawford's death, the same year, we lind Girty at 
the great Indian council at the old Chilicothe town, organ- 
izing an Indian force of six hundred warriors, to march 
into Kentucky, where, at Bryant's station, they were re- 
i pulsed, when he retreated to the Blue Licks, and there was 
overtaken by the Kentuckians, whom he defeated with 
great slaughter. A treaty of peace being soon after con- 
cluded, hostilities between the whites and Indians ceased 
I'or a time, and Simon Girty's name was little heard of. 

Girty comes to the front again in 1790, assisted the In- 
dians in the campaign against General Harniar, took an 
active part in the defeat of St. Clair in 1791, and in 1792 
and 1793, at all the Indian councils, he earnestly advocated 
a continuance of the war against the whites. At General 
Wayne's battle of the Fallen Timbers, in 1794, Girty was 
present, encouraging the Indians. After peace was made 


with the hostile tribes, he removed from Girty's Point near 
the present Napoleon,- in Henry County, Ohio, to near 
Maiden, in Canada. He l^ecame nearly blind, and took but 
little })art in the war of 1812, and died in Canada in 1818, 
being over seventy years of age. lie left a fiiniily, with a 
name execrated wherever he was known, and yet Jonathan 
Alder, who w^as captured by the Indians, and who knew 
Simon Girty, says this of him : "I knew Simon Girty to 
purchase, at his own expense, several boys who were pris- 
oners, and take them to the British and have them educated. 
He was certainly a friend to many prisoners." 

Of the brother, Joseph Girty, we have no precise account, 
other than an attempt to cut off the ears of a prisoner 
named Oliver M. Spencer. 

George Girty led the Indians in their attack on Fort 
Henry, at Wheeling, in 1782. Other accounts say it was 
James Girty who commanded the savages there. 

C H A I' T K 11 X 


The Seneciis and Ilurons, or Wyaudots, originated along 
tlte 8t. Lawrence, where they lived peaceably for a great 
many years, but were embroiled in war by a Seneca lady, 
who refused a Wyandot for husband, on the ground that 
he had taken no scalps in his time. To gain her affections 
he laid in ambush, killed her brother, and threw his scalp 
in her lap. Instead of winning her, the two tribes were 
compelled to take up the hatchet against each other. 
The Wyandots moved away; the Senecas followed, and 
wliei-ever tliey met both were decimated. Through three 
generations they and their descendants fought, whipping 
each other along the lakes, over western Xew York, north- 
ern Pennsylvania and Ohio. At length the war ceased, 
from fear of extermination only; the Wyandots settling in 
the northwest, while the Senecas settled down in the nT)rth- 
east — both owing allegiance to the Iroquois confederacy. 
Such is the tradition. 


A legend exists of a fearful light that took place between 
the Senecas and Wyandots, on their return from Braddock's 
defeat, in 1755. They had fought side by side against the 
English army, but no sooner had they dispersed toward 
ilieir homes, than the old unsettled fend between them was 


renewed. , The Senecas took tlie trail hj Beaver, MiD2:o 
bottom, and west to Tuscarawas. The Wyandots took the 
upper trail, striking the ridge between the heads of the 
Klk Eye Creek (Muskingum) and the Hioga CCuyahoga), 
where the}^ camped. It was but a day's journey across tlie 
[)resent Stark County, to reach their enemies at the Seneca 
capital. The warriors there suspected their design, and 
sent out Ogista, aii old sachem, who met the Wyandots on 
the Wiir-path, stealthily approaching the capital. Tie sent 
back a rnnner to give warning of their coming, and, trust- 
ing to his age for protection, boldly penetrated into the 
midst of the enemy, as a peacemaker. The Senecas, upon 
being apprised of their proximity, sallied out to fight, but 
were stopped by Ogista, who was returning with an agree- 
ment, made by him and the opposing chief, to the eifect 
that each tribe should pick twenty warriors, willing to 
suffer death by single combat. When all were slain, they 
were to be covered, hatchet in hand, in one grave, and 
henceforth neither Seneca or Wyandot evej' again to raise 
a bloody hand against the other. 

Forty braves were soon selected, and each twenty being 
surrounded, the tribal war-dances were danced, and the 
death lamentations sung, when the way being cleared, the 
carnage commenced, which ended as night intervened, there 
being one martyr left, with none to strike him down. He 
was the son of Ogista, who had proposed the sacrifice. 
The aged man received his weapon, and with it cleaved oft" 
the head of his offspring, when the bands gathered the 
dead into a heap, laying their forty hatchets by their sides, 
and having raised a mound of earth over them, all repaired 
to the Seneca capital, closing the fearful scene with a feast, 
in memorium of the com})act thus sealed Avith blc^od, that 
tbe hatchet was then forever buried between the Wyandots 
and Senecas. Twenty-four years afterward, Fort Laurens 
was erected in sight of the mound. A friendly Delaware, 
at the fort, a\ as asked by the commander to explain its 
origin. lie related the aljove legend. In January, 1779, 


the tort was invested by one hundred and eighty Wyandots, 
Min.icoos (Benccas), and MonsieB, led l)y John Montour. 
Under the inii>ression that the Indians liad moved oft', a 
sfjuad of seventeen sohliers went out behind the mound to 
eateh the horses and gather wood. They never returned 
to the tort — liaving been ambushed and killed by a party 
of Wyandot and Seneca warriors, who were worshipping 
the Great Spirit at the grave of their ancestors and rela- 


One of the noted war chiefs of the Delawares was Shin- 
gask, alias Sach-gants-chillas, or Bockongahelas, and called 
by Judge Burnett, in his notes, Buckingekis, and h)T other 
writers, Bockingilla. In 1758, Post met him at Kuskuskee, 
his towni, below Pittsburgh, and took dinner with him. 
He was so noted, and had committed so many depredations 
on the border, that the Pennsylvania government offered 
seven hundred dollars for his head. Fearing capture, he 
retired west to the " Tuscarawas town," where Heckewelder 
found him in 1762, a chief, instigating the Indians against 
the English, and the foremost man to prevent Post and 
TIcekcwelder from making a permanent settlement. He 
entered heartily into Pontiac's conspiracy, and led his war- 
riors — the Turtle tribe of Delawares — in person against 
Fort Pitt. After the fall of Pontiac he retired to the Mi- 
ami and Sandusky country, and, in after years, continually 
annoyed the missionaries. In 1781 he came to Gnaden- 
hutten with his warriors, and demanded the surrender of 
Killbuck and other converted chiefs. Receiving reply 
that; they had gone to Fort Pitt, he had the town searched 
from house to house, and -made a speech exhorting the 
converts to remove with him to his own country. On their 


refusal lie proceeded to Suleni, made a like speeeli, ^)iit not 
i^ucceeding, a])audoned the valley. The Christian Indians, 
having treated him to a feast at each town, and shown him 
the greatest respect, he told them that if any one said he 
was hostile to the believing Indians they should set it down 
as a lie, and call the man who so represented him a liar. 
In Wsiyne's campaign of 1793, he led his warriors in the 
last battle, and having many wounded, he applied to the 
IJritish commander at Fort Miami, near by, for shelter to 
his wounded men; which being refused, he denounced the 
British as liars, and urged the Indians to make peace. It 
is said that it was through his influence that the Greenville 
treaty was consummated, in 1795. He died at his town, 
Wapakonneta, in 1804, nearly one hundred years of age. 

Thornhaler, in his life of Heckewelder, tells us that the 
young missionary came to the Tuscarawas, as much to study 
Indian character as to aid in the mission enterY)rise with 
Post. He was young, ardent, adventuresome, and soon 
after Post left for Pennsylvania he felt the loneliness of his 
hut and solitary life — there being no habitation nearer than 
Thomas Calhoon's trading-house, a mile distant, to reach 
which he had to wade the river, and in doing which he 
contracted a fever that would have carried him off but for 
Calhoon, who had him taken to his trading-house, and 
cared for. 

Among the visitors often at the trader's store was the 
wife of Shingask, chief at the Tuscarawas town. She was 
a white captive, of great beauty in her youth, and had been 
educated before becoming a prisoner, and wife of the chief- 
She, as a matter of course, sympathized with and ministered 
to the sick man, of her own color and race, and in that way 
gratitude appeared, and affection responded to it, in all 
probability. The biographer says that one day, after Heck- 
ewelder had gone back to his cabin, Calhoon sent for him, 
and, on coming over, he was told that a woman had re- 
quested him (Calhoon) to bring the missionary away from 
his hut, as a plot was in existence to* scalp him that night. 


On the following iiionung Callioou sent two men over to 

the house, who returned, saying that the house had beei! 
broken into the night previous, and plundered. Hecke- 
welder never slept there again, but remained with Calhoon. 
The witV' of Shingask soon died at Tuscarawas, and llecke- 
wrldcr afterward [tublished a glowing account of the funeral 
i-creinonics ; for syno[>sis of which see article on I'ost's mis- 
sion in a former cha[»ter. 

The h'gend is that the wnfe of Shingask was the same per- 
son who savc<l Heckewelder's life by notifying Calhoun (jf 
the plot, and tliat Shingask suspecting her as the informer, 
and tender friend of lleckewelder, had her put out of the 
way by the poison of the may-tipple, and the imposing 
funeral eereniony was gotten up to ward off suspicion of 
having killed the queen. The lady reader will probably 
infer that the young missionary would not have taken such 
pains to give in his history such a detailed statement of the 
funeral, unless there was some matter of the heart connected 
therewith, on his part. 

TTeckewclder, soon after being advised by the friendly 
Indians that he would lose his life in case he remained, 
speedily returned to Bethlehem, and did not marry for 
eighteen years after. 


The Delawares took possession of the ancient seat of 
[»ower, Tuscarawas, and used it as their capital, conjointly 
with sncli Senecas as remained in the valley. Afterward 
the Delaware ca[»ital was removed dowji to Gekelemukpe- 
chuk, neai- the present ISTcw Comerstown, and from there 
to (Troshockgunk. 

The chiefs, Beaver, White Eyes, Pipe, Custaloga, Neta- 
watwes, atid others, had their hamlets, or "country seats," 
|tatinnod along the river and its branches, within a day's call 


of the ancient capital ; they nevertheless were frequenters 
thereat, and with Shingask, alias Bockingahelas, as chief 
ruler at the capital, they there concerted war and peace 
measures, so far as the same affected the three tribes desig- 
nated Turtle, Turkey, and Wolf tribes, as well as the subor- 
dinated warriors of other tribes owing fealty to the Dela- 

Each chief, having a town, had also his hunting and fish- 
ing grounds, and to whieli he and his retainers repaired in 
the game and fishing seasons to enjo}'^ life free from care. 
They also had their annual hunts, when all the clans joined 
and ranged in common, in pursuit of pleasure, concentrating 
at a given place or stream, and dividing the product accord- 
ing to rank and station, and it is worthy of remembrance 
that before the white man came into the valley, these barons 
and lords of the American forest, were but little behind the 
Scottish, Irish, and English gentry of coincident time in 
Europe, in all the essentials of dignity, self-respect, and 
honor, as they understood the terms. 

Ileckewelder was at the " Tuscarawas capital," in 1702, 
and has preserved their mauners jind customs, of ^\'hich a 
jtortif^n are here given. 


lieckewelder says at that time their principal food con- 
sisted of game, lish, corn, potatoes, beans, pumpkins, cucum- 
bers, squashes, melons, cabbages, and turnips, roots of plants, 
fruits, mits, and berries. 

They take but two meals a day. The hunters or hshermen 
never go out in the middle of the day, except it be cloudy. 
Their custom is to go out on an empty stomach as a stimu- 
lant to exertion in shooting game or catching lish. 

They make a pottage of corn, dry pumpkins, beans, and 
chestnuts, and fresh or dried meats, pounded, all sweetened 


with iiiaplo sugar or molasses, and well boiled. They also 
make a good dish of pounded corn and eliestnuts, shell- 
harks and liickory nnt kernels, boiled, covering the pots 
with large [>nmpkin, cahhage, or other leaves. 

Thcv make excelluut preserves from cranberries and crab 
ai>ples, with maple sugar. 

Their bread is of two kinds; one made of green, and the 
other oi'dry corn. If dry, it is sifted after pounding, kneaded, 
sliaped into cakes six inches in diameter, one inch thick, and 
baked on clean dry ashes, of dry oak barks. If green, it is 
maslied, put in broad green corn blades, filled in wnth a ladle, 
well wrapped up and baked in ashes. 

They make warrior's bread by parching corn, sifting it, 
pounding into Hour, and mixing sugar. A table-spoonful 
with cold or boiling water is a meal, as it swells in the, and if more than two spoonsful is taken, it is dan- 
gerous. Its lightness enables the warrior to go on long- 
journeys and carry his bread with him. Their meat is eaten 
boiled in pots^ or roasted on wooden spits or coals. . 


The Indians make beaver and raceoon-skin blankets. 
Also frocks, shirts, petticoats, leggings, and shoes of deer, 
l)ear and other skins. If cold, the fur is placed next to the 
l)ody ; if warm, outside. 

With the large ril> bones of the elk and buffalo they shave 
the hair off such skins as they dressed, which was done as 
clean as with a knife. They also made blankets of feathers 
of the turkey and goose, which the women arranged inter- 
woven together with thread or twine made from the rind 
of the wild hemj) and nettles. 

The dress of the men consists of blankets, plain or ruffled 
shirts, leggings aud moccasins (moxens). The w^omen make 
petticoats of cloth, red, blue, or black, when it can be had 


of traders ; tliey adorn with ribbons, beads, silver broaches, 
arm spangles, round buckles, little thimble-like bells around 
the ankles to make a noise and attract attention. They 
paint with vermillion, but not so as to offend their husbands • 
the loose women and prostitutes paint their faces deeply 

The men paint their thighs, legs, breasts, and faces, and 
to appear well, spend some times a whole day in decorating 
tliemselves for a night frolic. They pluck out their beards 
and hair on the head (except a tuft on the crown) with 
tweezers made of muscle shells, or brass wire. The Indians 
would all be bearded like white men were it not for their 
pulling out custom. 


An aged Indian, who for many years had spent much of 
his time among the whites, speaking of marriage to Heck- 
ewelder, said : " Indian, when he see industrious squaw 
which he like, he goto him," (they had no feminine gender 
in their vocabulary,) " place his two forefinge^^s close aside 
each other — make him look like one — look squaw in the 
face, see him smile, which is all, and he say, 'Yes;' so he 
take him home. N'o danger he be cross ; no, no. Squaw 
know too well what Indian do if he (she) cross. Throw 
him (her) away, and take another ; squaw have to eat meat — 
no husband, no meat. Squaw do everything to please hus- 
band-; he do same to please squaw; live happy." 


An Indian takes a wife on trial. He builds a house, and 
provides provisions. She agrees to cook and raise corn and 
vegetal)! es, while he hunts or fishes. If both perform these 
duties, they are man and wife. If not, they separate. The 


woniaii'b labor is light in tlie house. She has but one pot 
to clean, and no scrubbing to do, and but little to wash, 
and that not often. They cut wood, till the ground, sow 
and reap, i-oiiiid the corn, bake bread in the ashes, and 
cook the meat or tish in the pot. If on a journey, the wife 
curries the baggage, and lleckewelder says he never heard 
of a wife conii)laining, for she says the husband must avoid 
h:ir<l lai)()r and stitteniug of muscles if he expects to bean 
cxitcrt hunter, so as to provide her meat to eat and furs to 
wear. The Indian loves to see his wife well clothed, and 
hence he gives lier all the skins he takes. The more he 
does for lier, the more he is esteemed by the community. 
In selling her furs, if she linds anything at the trader's 
store which she thinks would please the husbaml, she buys 
it lor liini, even should it take all she has to pay therefor. 


lleckewelder says : "I have kuown a man to go forty or 
lifty miles for a mess of cranberries, to satisfy his wife's 
longing. In. the 3'ear 1762, I was witness to a remarkable 
instance of the disposition of Indians to indulge their wives. 
There was a famine in the land, and a sick Indian woman 
expressed a great desire for a mess of Indian corn. ITer 
husljand, having heard that a trader at Lower Sandusky 
had a little, set off on horseback for that place, one hun- 
driMl miles distant, and returned with as much corn as filled 
the crown of his hat, for which he gave his horse in ex- 
change, and came home on foot, bringing his saddle back 
with him." 


It very seldom happens that a man condescends to quarrel 
with his wife, or abuse her, tliough she has given him just 
cause. In such a case the man, without replying, or saying 


a single word, will take his gun and go into tlie woods, 
and remain there a week, or perhaps a fortniglit, living on 
the meat he has killed, before he returns home again ; well 
knowing that he can not inliict a greater punishment on 
his wife, for her conduct to him, than by absenting himself 
for awhile — for she is not only kept in suspense, uncertain 
whether he will return again, but is soon reported us a bad 
and quarrelsome woman. When he at length does return, 
she endeavors to let him see by her attentions that she has 
repented, though neither speak to each other a single word 
on tlie subject of what has passed. 


Heckewelder says that in the year 1792 there was an 
Indian preacher, from the Cuyahoga, traveling about the 
valley selling a map, which he said the Great Spirit had 
directed him to make. It was about fifteen inches lonir, 
and the same in breadth, and was drawn on a dressed deer- 
skin. He held it up while preaching, pointing out the 
spots, lines, and spaces on it. An inside line was the 
boundary of a square of eight inches, and at two corners 
the lines were open abput half an inch. Across the lines 
were others an inch in length, intended to represent a 
barrier, shutting ingress to the square, except at the place 
appointed in the south-east corner, which he called the 
"avenue," leading, as he said, to the Indian heaven, and 
which had been taken possession of by the white people, 
wherefore the G-reat Spirit had ordered another avenue at 
the north-east corner, to enten which a large ditch, leading 
to a gulf below, had to be crossed, and it was guarded by 
the Evil Spirit, on the lookout for Indians, and when one 
was caught he was taken to the regions of the Evil Spirit, 
where the ground was parched, trees bore no fruit, andtlie 
game was almost starved. Here he transformed men into 


hoi-ses, to be ridden In' liini, and dogs to follow him m his 


On the outside of the interior square was the country 
given to the Indians to hunt, iish, and dwell on, while in 
the world. Its eastern side was bounded by the ocean, or 
great " Salt-water Lake," across which a people of ditferent 
color had i-onie and taken possession, in the name of friend- 
ship, of the Indians' country, and of the south-east avenue 
leading to the beautiful regions destined for Indians when 
they leave this world. 

To regain their hunting grounds, and the avenue to the 
beautiful regions beyond, they must make sacrifices, antl 
above all abstain from drinking the deadly bcsan (whisky), 
which the white strangers had invented and brought with 
them across the lake. Then the Great Spirit would assist 
the Indians to drive out their enemies, and recover their 
heavenly regions. 

On the heavenly region part of the map, fat deer and 
]>lump turkies were represented to be waiting for the hunt- 
ers, while in the dreary region they were all skin and bone, 
scarcely al)le to move. 

The. preacher concluded by telling his hearers that the 
Great Spirit had directed him to prepare a map for everj- 
family, provided the price was paid, namely, a buck-skin, 
or two doe-skins, of the value of one. dollar, for each map.* 


Black Hoof, a chief of the Shawanese, was known as a 
great orator as well as warrior. He had come from Florida 
when young and taken part in all the Indian wars, particu- 
larly distingushing himself in taking scalps at Braddock's 

* [Note. — It is a curious fact in history that this sharp Indian map seller 
came, at that early day, from the "western reserve," where the inventive 
genius of their white successors still predominates. 


defeat. In all the after wars he bore a conspicuous part, 
and at all the treaties was a principal orator. In 1795 he 
became satisfied in the uselessness of further strife, and from 
that time to his death was friendly to the white settlers. 
He never would assist in the burning of prisoners. It 
is said he was a man of rigid virtue and lived forty years 
with one wife. He lived at Wakatomeka, near the present 
site of Dresden, on the Muskingum, but removed with 
his tribe about 1817, and died in 1831, at the great age of 
one hundred and ten years, at Wapakonnetta, in Auglaize 
County, Ohio. 

He could remember that when a boy he had bathed in 
the salt-water on the Florida coast. It is related of him 
that his scalp string had upon it one hundred and twenty- 
seven scalps, which he had" himself taken during his career. 



On a dividing ridge in Belmont County issues two little 
streams — one flowing into the Ohio, called Wheeling Creek, 
the other taking a north-west direction through parts of 
Harrison and Tuscarawas counties, and emptying into the 
Tuscarawas River some six miles south-east of New Phila- 
delphia. After wandering a hundred miles south, the 
waters of these Belmont hills again meet at Marietta, and, 
mixed with those of the Ohio and Muskingum, all join 
hands, as it were, and go merrily and muddily down the 
Ohio and Mississippi, until all are lost in the sea. On one 
of these small streams, called 'by the Indians Gehelemuk- 
pechuk, by the whites Stillwater, there was an Indian 
town called " Three Legs Town," as designated on Bo- 
quet's map of 1764, and located near its junction with the 

Tradition says it was so named, after a chief who first 
resided there by the name of "Three Legs," because of the 


tai:t thai he hail an extra leg. His father was said to be 
the "-reat Shawauese ehief Blacklioof, and his mother a 
CUierokce of great beauty from the south — the climate 
having imparted to her all the ingredieuts of beauty inci- 
dent to southern white women of a later day. Blackhoof 
had brought her up into the Sciota country, and while out 
one day gathering wild [>lnnis she was attacked by a 
wounded bnlfalo, limping on three legs, but succeeded in 
escaping from him. In proper time she gave birth to a 
boy, who, like the beast, had three legs, and when he 
Icacned to walk, limped with one leg dangling after him^ 
He was in other respects perfect — inheriting all the genius 
of Blackhoof himself. The mother thought the more of 
him because of his misfortune, and instead of putting the 
monstrosity out of the way, she gave her life to his nurture 
and bringing up. On reaching the age of manhood, and 
being unable to follow the chase or go to war, he was 
ottered a chiefship and privilege to select his place of abode 
in tliis valley, lie chose the mouth of the Gehelemukpe- 
chuk (Stillwater), for the reason that immense quantities 
of tish were caught there — as they are caught there at this 
day in larger quantities than at other places along the river. 
Three Legs, being an invalid, could not expect to, nor did 
he ever, become chief over a large town, but those who 
had settled near him were old braves who had spent their J 
energies, and sat down at Three Legs town to pass the ' 
residue of their lives in fishing, smoking, and giving advice 
to young warriors. 

It happened that after Braddock's defeat, in 1755, a 
nnndjer of the captured English soldiers were brought 
down by some Shawanese, under Blackhoof, and given 
over to his son. Three Legs, to be put to death by torture, 
in their usual mode. The trail from Beaver Kiver, south, 
passed in sight of the Three Legs town, and hence it Avas a 
daily sight to see captives driven or pulled b}', on their way 
to death. Among these was a herculean Highlander, taken 
at Braddock's light, who belonged to the Scotch regiment. 


His name was Alexander Mcintosh, and it is said that he 
was by ])lood a rehitive of Lachlin Mcintosh, who l)ecanie 
an American general in the revolution, and erected Fort 
Laurens in 1778. 

Young Mcintosh, by reason of his great heighth and 
strength, was reserved from the fiery death of the other 
Itrisoners hy order of Tliree Legs, and became his l^ody 
guard, hut was doomed to be a witness to the burning of 
his fellow prisoners, and told tliat a similar fate awaited 
him in case he attemi»ted to escape. The place of burning 
was at the edge of the phiin where a steep bluff bank of 
rocks ascends some one liundred feet, from the summit of 
which the whole plain is descernible, forming one of tlie 
most picturesque panoramas in the valley. From this emi- 
nence prisoners doomed to death were thrown, and whetlier 
dead or alive when they reached the base of the precipice, 
the burning was gone through with. Mcintosh surveyed 
the eminence from below, and saw the first prisoner thrown 
over, who fell with a thud which knocked the life out of 
him. His body was thrown on a burning pile of wood. 
The second victim came down upon his feet, hurt, but able 
to stand. He was tied to a post and a lire built around him. 
The Scotchman, unable to listen to his moans, darted at the 
chief, Three Legs, sitting near, smoking his pipe, and with 
one blow of the fist prostrated him in death, then seizing 
his tomahawk hanging in the chief's belt, was but a mo- 
ment dispatching one of the two Indians attending to the 
fire, and before another minute elapsed he cut the thongs of 
his burning fellow captive, pulled him from the fire, and 
ran some little distance with him, but finding the othej- 
Indian had ran in an opposite direction he stopped, and 
loosened the withes around the legs and arms of his com- 
rade, wlio at once rose to his feet, and l)oth started u[> the 
hill to gain the summit by a circuitous path, in the hope of 
rescuing their fellow captives. The three savages on the 
summit, seeing which, and the terrible work of the High- 
lander l)elow, sprung down from the precipice to the relief of 


their fiillcii chiel', and thia enabled the Scotcliuian to reach 
and release his three fellow captives on the summit from 
the thongs with which they were tied. The four now re- 
turned for tlieir comrade, who had heeu released from the 
tiro, but unable to ascend the path, he was caught by the 
three savages below and tomahawked. Thus it stood for 
a minute — four released iirisouers against three warriors, 
the latter having their hatchets, and the former only one, 
in the Highlander's hands. In another moment they heard 
the scalp yell of the savage who had run away, and sup- 
jn)sing he had other Indians, the four whites reascended 
tiie hill and entered the forest, in a run for life — the Jligh- 
lander kei^piug in front. After running half a mile they 
lieard their pursuers; the Scotchman telling his unarmed 
comrades to keep together, while he treed, and awaited thc 
savages. Soon the most fleet one passed him, and at that 
moment received his quietus — he having come within three 
feet of the Scotchman without seeing him, and the toma- 
hawk of the latter was buried in his skull. He leaped up, 
and fell with a terrible scream, dead. The Highlander then 
rejoined his comrades, and they were not further pursued. 
Making their way east by the sun, they crossed the Still- 
water, following which they reached its source, crossed the 
dividing ridge, and were on the Ohio in two days, without 
having eaten anything save roots and bark. From thence 
they followed the west bank up the river another day, and 
tin ally crossed the Ohio by wading it near the present 
Wellsville where the river was, and is yet, fordable in low 
water. They then got assistance from a hunter whom they 
met, and who took them to a settlement on the Mononga- 

Nine years afterward, the Highlander, who had settled 
in Westmorelaml County, joined BoquetV army, and at 
Coshocton inipiired of the Iiulians what had become of 
Three Legs and his town up the river — telling them he was 
once a prisoner there, but escaped. All he could learn was 
that Three Legs had been killed by a white prisoner, and 


his town was since deserted. Mcintosh returned with the 
army to Pennsylvania, settled in Fayette County, and again 
volunteered, in 1778, at Fort Pitt. General Lachlin Mcin- 
tosh there made his acquaintance, and took him down to 
Beaver, thence to Fort Laurens, and back to Pittsburgh ; 
after which he was sent to the Tuscarawas as one of Brod- 
head's Indian killers, in 1780, and at the slaughter of the 
Coshocton Indians in that campaign the Scotchman was in 
the fore-front, boasting in his old age of having toma- 
hawked six Indians in one hour, when telling his exploits 
in Fayette County, where he died, leaving a family. 

en ATT p:r xr. 


As heretofore stated, Congress, in 1785, ordered seven 
ranges to be surveyed, and, among others, appointed Gen- 
eral J\itnani surveyor for Massachnsetts, who, being at the 
time otherwise engaged, General Benjamin Tupper came 
out in 1786 in his place. For the following facts the com- 
piler is indebted to Hon. A. T. Nye, of Marietta : 

After the completion of the sm'vey of the seven ranges, 
General Tapper returned to Massachusetts, and called upon 
General Rufus Putnam, to whom he communicated a flatter- 
ing account and description of that part of the north-west 
territory. As a result of this conference, a notice was pub- 
lished in the public prints, signed by Generals Benjamin 
Tupper and Rufus Putnam, styled, "Information," which, 
111 substance, called u}iom all officers and soldiers who had 
served in the late war, and who were entitled by ordinance 
of Congress to receive tracts of land in the (Jliio country, 
and on all other good citizens who wished to become ad- 
veutiirors in that region from the State of Massachusetts, 
for the purpose of forming a comjiany, by the name ol the 
" Ohio Company," to meet, in their respective counties, on 
a (hiy therein flxed, and appoint delegates to mci't at the 
" Bu!ich of Grapes" tavern, in Boston. 



The meeting of delegates was held at the place appointed, 
on the iirst day of March, 1786, and resulted in the forma- 
tion of the " Ohio Company," and the appointment of Gene- 
rals Samuel Ilolden Parsons and Rufus Putnam, and the 
Rev. Manassali Cutler, as a committee to make application 
to Congress for a private purchase ot lands lying in the 
"Great Western Territory of the Union." 


After a long negotiation, a contract was made with Con- 
gress for the purchase of one million and a half acres of 
land for said company, at two-thirds of a dollar per acre ; 
which amount, by failure of some of the shareholders to 
make payment, was reduced to nine hundred and sixty-four 
thousand two hundred and eighty-live acres, and was located 
on the Ohio and Muskingum rivers. 

The boundaries of the purchase were, namiely : "From 
the seventh range of townships, extending along the Ohio 
River south-westerly, to the place where the west line of the 
seventeenth range of townships would intersect that river; 
thence northerly so far that a line drawn due east to the 
western boundary of said seventh range of townships would, 
with the other lines, include one and a half million acres of 
land, besides the reserves." 

Congress re.scrc'cd two full townships for a university — sec- 
tions sixteen for the support of schools and twenty-nine for 
the support of religion — and also sections eight, eleven, and 
twenty-six for the future disposition of Congress. 

The lands of the company were divided into al)Out one 
thousand shares, consisting of lots of various sizes, and 
amounting to about eleven hundred acres to each share. 


An uclvance party, consisting of boat-builders and me- 
chanics, left Danvers, Massachusetts, in December, 1787, 
under the command of Major HaiReld White, and reached 
" Sunirills," on the Youghiogheny River, in January, and 
commenced building l)oats, 

Tlie surveyors, and remainder of the pioneers, under the 
(•(.niniand of Colom-l Ebenezcr Sproat, left Hartford, Con- 
necticut, in -January, and arrived at "Sumrills" about the 
middle of February, 1788. General Rufus Putnam, who 
had gone by the way of New York city, on business of the 
company, rejoined the party at Swatarra Creek, Pennsyl- 
vania, on the 24th bf January. 


The boats were soon afterward completed, and left with 
tlie pioneers on the 2d day of April, and landed at the mouth 
of the Muskingum on the 7th day of April, 1788. 

They immediately commenced making temporary huts, 
and erected the marque of General Putnam, in which the 
business of the company was transacted until their ^ 
was completed, a few months afterward. 


This garrison, or stockade, Avas located on the brow of 
the plain, or high ground, nearly a mile up the Muskingum 
River, and was named "Campus Martins," and included 
within its limits about one acre of land. At the four cor- 
ners of the stockade were blockhouses, used for garrison 
[tiirposes, a school, religious worship, and one by tlic gov- 
ernor of the North-west Territory. 

The first court held in the North-west Territory was in 
llie nortliwcst blockhouse. 



Between tlio Mockhouses were the bouses of the settlers — 
all inclosed by ;i }»icket made of the bodies of trees set in 
tlie groun(b Tbe })icket was about fourteen feet high. A 
well, furuishiug a plentiful supply of w^ater, was dug in the 
(.enter of the stockade, and walled with brick. At the 
"Point" (the junction of the Muskingum River with the 
Ohio), about four acres were inclosed by pickets (stockaded), 
within which were several dwelling and store-houses, and 
it covered ground which since then has been a Inisiness 
part of the town. 


On the opposite bank of the Muskingum River, at its 
mouth, Di military post had been called Fort Harmar — built 
in 1785, and garrisoned by one batallion of the regiment 
commanded by General Harmar, under Major Doughty. 
At the time of the arrival of the pioneers, General Harmar 
was at the fort. 


At a point on the easterly bank of the Muskingum, about 
twenty-two miles up the river, and one mile below the 
present village of Beverly, was built a fortitication for 
defense against the Indians, in 1700, and was occu}>ied by 
the families of the pioneers, and called Fort Fry. At a 
point still further u}» the Muskingum, ahout forty miles 
from Marietta, called Big Bottom, a blockhouse was built 
by the early settlers of that locality. 



At l>oli>iv, abuiir luurtceii miles below Marietta, a forti- 
Heatioii was also built, called Farmer's Castle, and occupied 
bv tlie early settlers — their houses being within the pickets. 
JM addition, the settlement had also a blockhouse about 
two or three miles above Farmer's Castle, called Stone's 
Stutit)ii, and some two or three miles below the castle, an- 
(.ther blockhouse, called Goodale's Station ; and down the 
river, below the mouth of the Little Ilockhocking, was a 
station called Ncwburg. 


Congress, at its session of 1787-88, appointed Arthur 
St. Clai r, Esq., as governor of the North-west Territory, lie 
was escorted from Pittsburgh by a detachment of troops, 
under Major Doughty, and arrived at Fort llarmar on 
tl.e 9th day of July, 1788. 

Oil the 15th day of July, following, a formal recep- 
tion of the governor was held at a bowery, erected for the 
occasion, near the stockade. lie was escorted by tl)e officers 
of the garrison, and the secretary of the territory — Win- 
tlii'Mp Sargent — and was received by General Kufus Put- 
nam, tlic judges of the territory — General Samuel llolden 
Parsons and James Whitehall Varnum — and the inhabi- 
tants generally. The secretary, Major Sargent, read the 
ordinance of Congress erecting the North-west Territory, 
the commissions of the governor, the judges, and his own 
commission. The first laws for the government of the new 
territory were adopted from the laws of the States, deemed 
suitable to the condition of the citizens of the new terri- 
tory by tlie governor and judges,"and were published at 
Marietta; among these, laws for establishing courts of 
general quarter sessions and county courts of common pleas. 



By the ordinance of Congress the governor was author- 
ized to make proper divisions of the territory, and hy pro- 
clamation of the 26tli day of July, 1788, he delined the 
limits of Washington County — named in honor of General* 
Washington — hounded as follows, namely: Beginning on 
the' hank of the Ohio River, where the western houndary 
line of the State of Pennsylvania crosses it, running with 
that line to Lake Erie; thence along the shore of the lake 
to the mouth of Cuyahoga River; thence up the river to 
the portage, hetween that and the Tuscarawas branch of the 
Muskingum River; thence down the branch to the forks at 
the crossing place above Fort Laurens ; thence with a line 
to be drawn westerly to the portage of that brancli of the 
Big Miami — on which the fort stood that was taken by the 
French in 1752 — until it meets the road from the lower 
Shawanee town to the Sandusky ; thence south to the Scioto 
River; thence down that river to the mouth ; thence up the 
Ohio River to the place of beginning. 


was opened on the 2d day of September, 1788, at Marietta. 
A procession was formed at the "J'oint" (the junction of 
tlie Muskingum with the Ohio River), of the inhabitants, 
and the ofticers from Fort Harmar, who escorted tlie judges 
of the court of common pleas, the governor of the territory, 
and the supreme judges to the hall, appropriated for that 
purpose, in the north-west blockhouse in " Campus Mar- 
tins." The procession was headed by the sherilf, with 
drawn sword and baton of office. After prayer by Rev. 
Manasseh Cutler the court was then organized by reading 
the commissions of the judges, the clerk, and sheritt"; after 
which the sheriff proclaimed the court open for the trans- 
action of business. 


The judges of t\m iirst court ot common pleas were: 
Geiiorai Fiiifus Putnam, General Benjamin Tapper, and 
Colonel Archibald Crary. The clerk was Colonel R. J. 
Meigs ; Colonel Ebenczer Sproat, sheriti". On the 9th day 
of September following, the court of general tpiarter ses- 
sions was held at "Campus Martius," The commission 
appointing the judges thereof was read — General Rufus 
INitnam and General Benjamin Tupper constituted justices 
of the (piorum, and Isaac I'earce, Thomas Lord, and R. J. 
Meigs, Jr., assistant justices ; Colonel R. J. Meigs, Sr., was 
clerk. The first grand jury of the territory was then im- 
paneled, viz. : William Stacey, foreman, Nathaniel Gush- 
ing, Nathan Goodalc, Charles Knowles, Anselm Tupper, 
Jonathan Stone, Oliver Uice, Ezra Lunt, John Mathews, 
George Ingersoll, Jonathan Devol, Jethro Putnam, Sam- 
uel Stebbins, and Jabez True. 


Iti the lirst year of the settlement (1788) about one hun- 
dred and thirty-two acres of ground was cleared of the 
timber and planted in corn, and produced a very good crop. 
The crop of the succeeding year was badly injured by early 
frosts; very little was suilicientl}^ matured to be tit for use ; 
but good crops of vegetables were raised. 

The loss of the crop of 1789 produced a famine, and the 
inhal)itants were greatly straightened for necessary food, 
au<l had to depeml upon the partial supply of game which 
could be killed, until the following spring, when early vege- 
tables were raised. The succeeding year abundant crops 
were raised. 



lu 1790, the first settlement was attempted in the present 
limits of Morgan County, at a point on the Muskingum 
called the Big Bottom, near the present Washington County 
line, by a company of about forty young men from the set- 
tlements in the vicinity of Marietta. It was getting late in 
the fall when the project was started, and on that account 
was discouraged by many of the older and more experi- 
enced border men. The leading spirits in the enterprise 
were men of great courage and energy, and would not listen 
to the advice of the old settlers. The company accordingly 
moved up the Muskingum with a sufficient quantity of 
provisions, and tools, and ammunition for a stay of several 
months. Reaching the site of the proposed settlement, the 
first work done was the erection of a blockhouse, for pro- 
tection in case of a sudden attack by the Indians. After 
the completion of the blockhouse, several of the older men 
of the party paired oft' and built cabins, leaving about twenty 
to occupy the blockhouse. 

At the time of these operations at Big Bottom, the In- 
dians of the valley were preparing their winter quarters at 
Waketameki (Dresden), and their other towns further up 
the valley of the Tuscarawas. While thus engaged, a runner 
brought information of the new settlement by the whites, 
and it was at once determined in council that a war party 
should drive away or kill the whites. Accordingly, at a given 
time, a l^and of between fifty and sixty warriors started down 
the river on the bloody errand. On the afternoon of the 
second day they came near the place, but not wishing to 
open an attack until fully/ apprised of the number and de- 
fenses of the settlers, they stationed themselves on a hill on 
the opposite side of the river, from where they obtained a 
full view of the whole bottom. Just before dark, on the 2d 
of Jan , 1791, the Indians proceeded to a point a short dis- 


tance np the river, where they crossed on the ice. As the 
sliatles of twilight disappeared and darkness closed over the 
valley, tlie Indians appeared on the ground, and found the 
whites at sapper in the blockhouse. While the major por- 
tion of the savages were to attack the main body of whites, a 
small l>arty proceeded to the cabins to secure their inmates. 
'1'Ik' whites in one cabin invited the Indians to partake of 
some supper, when several entered, and others stationed 
themselves at the door. The Indians inside immediately 
surrounded the table and informed the whites they were 
prisoners. Seeing resistance was useless the whites per- 
mitted themselves to be bound. 

Directly after the surrender of the cabin party, the In- 
dians burst open the blockhouse door, and shot down the 
inmates who were standing around the lire, the others 
were at once tomahawked and scalped. The only resist- 
ance offered in the blockhouse was by a woman who struck 
at an Indian with an ax, but missing his skull she cut a gash 
in his check. Another Indian shot her on the spot. 

The inmates of the other cabin, hearing the shooting and 
yelling of the savages, gathered up their arms and trap- 
pings, and put for the woods, making good their escape — 
as the Indians did not offer pursuit. While gathering the 
plunder in the blockhouse a boy, named Philip Stacey, was 
found hidden under some bedding. Two Indians at once 
raised their tomahawks to kill him, when the boy fell at 
their feet, begging for his life, as he was the only one left. 
This excited compassion, and he was spared. The Indians 
now set tire to the buildings, and left the scene. Young 
Stacey escaped the spring following, and returned to the 
Marietta settlements. The names of those killed at Big 
Bottom are given as follows : one of General Putnam's 
sons, Zebulon Throp, John Stacey, John Camp, James 
Couch, Joseph Clark, John Farwell, William James, Isaac 
Meeks and his wife, with two children. 

The party who escaped returned the next day with assist- 
ance from Marietta, and found the buildings only partly 


consumed, by reason of the timbers being green, and the 
bodies of their comrades were lying on the floors in a 
charred condition — some being beyond recognition. A 
large hole was dug inside the blockhouse, into which the 
remains were placed; and over them placed the floor punch- 
cons, and the whole covered with earth. 

The Indians raided about the neighborhood for some 
days, but did not attempt another attack on any of the 
settlements. They then returned up the valley, and were 
heard of no more during that winter. ISTotice was imme- 
diately given to all the other settlements — Wolf Creek 
Mills, Fort Fry, Marietta, Farmers Castle, and Newburg. 
The settlers immediately commenced to put their block- 
houses in a more secure condition, and to add such fortifi- 
cations as the immediate danger seemed to require. No 
regular attack was made daring the Indian war on any of 
these garrisons, but they were in constant danger and dread 
from the prowling bands of Indians who infested the neigh- 
borhood of the garrisons. Joseph Rogers, a spy or scout, 
Robert Warth, Matthew Kerr, a Mr. Carpenter, and a ne- 
gro boy were killed in the vicinity of Marietta; and a Mr. 
Davis, a woman named Dunham, and several of the Arm- 
strong family were killed at Belpre, and Major Goodale 
was captured and carried off from there, by the Indians, to 
their towns hi the north-west, and died among the Indians. 

March 15, 1792, Mrs. Brown and two young children, 
and a young girl aged fourteen, named Perses Dunham, 
were killed at Newburg. April 24, 1793, Mrs. Armstrong 
and two young children were killed, and two sons and one 
daughter taken prisoners opposite Belpre. Last of July, 
1795, Mr. Davis, while busy repairing a skiti:" on the Ohio 
above Belpre, was killed. In June, 1794, near Sherman 
Station, on the Muskingum, above Beverly, Abel Sherman 
was shot through the heart. May 10, 1794, about three 
hundred yards from Fort Harmar, Robert Warth was 


Tlie Tiuliaii war continued until the treaty of Greenville, 
the 8(1 of August, 1795, a period of nearly live years— during 
which period the inhabitants were confined to the limits of 
tiieir fortifications. In 179(3, the families of the settlers 
began to remove to their homes, and commenced clearing 
their lands and making improvements, and general pros- 
perity began to prevail Marietta began to improve rap- 
idly. Ship-building was commenced here about 1801, and 
carried on until the embargo stopped the building of vessels, 
aiul all mechanical enterprises connected therewith. The 
last vessel was taken out in the spring of 1808. 


Hon. William Woodbridge, a United Stateses nator, de- 
scribed the Marietta settlement thus, in a speech made by 
him in 1844 : 

" On the 7th of April, 1788, the first and principal detach- 
ment of that interesting corps of emigrants landed at the 
confluence of the Muskingum with the Ohio River. This 
was directly athwart the old Indian war-path ; for it was 
down the Muskingum and its tributary branches that the 
Wyandots, the Shawnees, the Ottowas, and all the Indians 
of the north and north-west were accustomed to march, 
when from time to time, for almost half a century before, 
they made those dreadful incursions into western Virginia 
and western Pennsylvania,which spread desolation, and ruin, 
and despair throughout all those regions. Having arrived 
there, they marked out their embryo city, and in honor of 
the friend of their country, the queen of France, called it 
Marietta. They surrounded it with palisades and abatis; 
they erected blockhouses and bastions. On an eminence a 
little above, and near the Muskingum, they constructed a 
more reguhxr and scientific fortification. Thus did the 
settlement of the great State commence. Among these 



colonists were very many of the most distinguislied otHcerg 
of the revolution, and of all grades. General Kufus Put- 
nam, and General Benjamin Tupper, of the Massacliusetts 
line, were there; General Parsons, of the Connecticut, and 
General Varnum, of the Rhode Island lines, were there ; 
old Commodore Whipple, of Rhode Island, who fired the 
first hostile gun from on board a Congress ship, and who, 
during the whole war, was another Paul Jones, and as active 
and daring, found his grave there — as did a near relative of 
General JSTathaniel Green ; the sons of the ' wolf catcher,' 
General Israel Putnam, and the descendants of Manasseh 
Cutler, were there; Colonel Gushing, Colonel Sproat, Colo- 
nel Oliver, and Colonel Sargent, and multitudes of others, 
distinguished alike for their bravery, for their patriotism, 
and for their skill in war, were there. Some few, very few, 
still live (1844), and whose names I recognize, who consti- 
tuted a part of this wonderful band of veteran soldiers. The 
rest, one after another, have dropped ofi:'. Many of the 
things I have adverted to, I personally saw. I was a child 
then, but I well recollect the regular morning reveille, and 
the evening tattoo that helped to give character to the 
establishment. Even on the Sabbath, the male population 
were always under arms, and with their chaplain, who was 
willing to share the lot of his comrades, were accustomed 
to march in battle array to their blockhouse church." 

RIETTA APRIL 7, 1788. 

General Rufus Putnam, superintendent of the settlement, 
and surveyor ; Colonel Ebenezer Sproat, Colonel R. J . 
Meigs, Major Anselm Tupper, and Mr. John Matthews, 
surveyors; Major Hatiield White, steward and quarter- 
master; Captain Jonathan Devol, Captain Josiah Monroe, 
Captain Daniel Davis, Captain Jethro Putnam, Captain 
William Gray, Captain Ezekiel Cooper, Peregrine Foster, 


Esq., Jurvis Cutler, Samuel Gushing, Oliver Dodge, Isaac 
Dodge, Sanmel Felsliaw, llezekiali Flint, Hezekiali Flint, 
Jr., Amos Porter, Josiali Whitridge, John Gardner, Ben- 
jamin Griswold, Eleazer Kirtland, TheophiUis Leonard, Jo- 
sei»h Lincoln, William Miller, Jabez Barlow, Daniel Bush- 
ncll, Ebenezer Corey, Phineas Coburn, Allen Putnam, 
David Wallace, Joseph Wells, Gilbert Devol, Jr., Henry 
Maxon, William Maxon, Edward Monlton, Simeon Martin, 
Benjamin Shaw, Peletiah White, Israel Danton, Josiah 
White, Jonas Davis, Earl Sproat, Allen Devol. 

August 19, 1788 arrived the first families, six in number — 
General Benjamin Tupper and wife, with three sons and 
one daughter grown ; Colonel Nathaniel Gushing, and wife 
and children ; Major Asa Coburn, and wife and three chil- 
dren ; Ichabod Nye, and wife and two children ; Andrew 
Webster and wife ; Major Nathan Goodale and wife, and 
son and daughter ; two single men, names unknown, in the 
employ of General Tupper. 

At dilferent periods in 1788, arrived Commodore Abra- 
ham Whipple; July 9, Governor Arthur St. Clair; June 
16, Dr. Jabez True and Paul Fearing, Esq.; May, Hon. 
Samuel Ilolden Parsons, Colonel Ebenezer Battelle, Cap- 
tain William Dana, Major Jonathan Haskell, Colonel Is- 
rael Putnam, Aaron Waldo Putnam, Major Robert Bradford, 
J()nathan Stone, Colonel Robert Oliver, and Colonel Wil- 
liam Stacey; June, Hon. James Mitchell Varnum, Grillin 
(jreen, Esq. — one of the directors of the company — Charles 
Green, Major Dean Tyler, and Colonel Joseph Thompson. 

In 1789, there arrived Hon. Josepli Gilman, Benjamiji I. 
Gilman, Rev. Daniel Story — in the spring — Levi Munsall, 
and William Skinner. 

In 1790, there arrived Dudley Woodbridge, Sr., and 
family, Dudley Woodbridge, Jr., Ebenezer Nye and fam- 
ily, Joshua Shipman and family. 

In 1792, there arrived Israel Putnam, Jr., and Ephraim 
Cutler, later. 


The above list does not contain the names of all who 
came ont dnring that period, as they can not now be ascer- 


The six first connties erected in Ohio were Washington, 
1788; Hamilton, 1790 ; Wayne, 1796 ; Adams and Jeffer- 
son, 1797; Eoss, 1798; Trnmbnll, 1800. These comities 
embraced all the territory of Ohio except so much in the 
north-west part as was reserved for Indian territory, by 
previous treaties with the Indians, and military posts. 

The population of the ISTorth-west Territory having, in 
1798, increased to live thousand male adult persons, they 
became, under the ordinance of 1787, entitled to a territo- 
rial legislature. Representatives were accordingly elected — 
their term being two years. The members of the house 
of representatives (there being no provision for a senate) 
were empowered to nominate ten freeholders, each owning 
five hundred acres, from whom the president appointed five, 
who constituted the legislative council, instead of a senate, 
and they to serve five years. 

The State of Connecticut, having obtained in the reign 
of Charles II of England, a grant of land running from 
I'rovidence Plantations to tlie Pacific Ocean, it was found 
that nearly four million acres were embraced in the Ohio 
territory, and which was called New Connecticut. Of this, 
Connecticut donated half a million acres in the west por- 
ti(,)n to certain sutterers by fire, and these became known as 
"fire lands." Over the balance the State ceded to the 
United States the jurisdiction, and in 1800 this territory 
was erected into the county of Trumbull — Connecticut still 
retaining the right to the soil, which was afterward divided 
into tracts and sold as part of the " Connecticut Western 


In 170ft, tlio Xortli-wcst Territory contained a population 
of Hve tlioiisand adult male inliabitants, l)eing the requisite 
nnniber to entitle the people to elect their legislators, under 
a property (puilitication of five hundred acres — as to the 
higisUitive council — the representatives to serve two, and 
the council five years. In 1799, the territorial legislature 
was ('lec;ted, organized, and addressed by the governor, after 
wbicb tbe necessary laws were enacted — the whole number 
lu'iiig tbirty-seven. William Henry Harrison, secretary of 
tlu' ti'rritory, was ek'cted delegate to Congress. 

Ln 1S()2, a convention to form a State constitution was 
called at Chillicothe, and completed its labors in less than 
Ibirty days, and this constitution became the fundamental 
law, without ratification by the people. It was not abro- 
gated for forty-nine years. The State of Ohio having been 
formally admitted into the Union, two sessions of the 
legislature were held in the year 1803, under the State con- 
stitution, and the State government regularly organized. 

The general assembly continued to meet at Chillicothe, 
except a year or two that it met at Zanesville, until 1816, 
when it was removed to Columbus, and that city was made 
the permanent seat of government. 


The couuties through which the Tuscarawas and Mus- 
kingum rivers now How, originally comprised part of Wash- 
ington county, which was organized July 27, 1788, and 
embraced about one-half the territory in the present State 
of Ohio; its boundaries being the Pennsylvania line and 
(Miio River on the east, and south and south-west the Ohio 
to (he Sciota; thence up that stream to its source; thence 
to the portage on the Big Miami ; thence east to old Foi-t 
Jjaurens, on the Tuscarawas (then called Muskingum) ; 
thence north to the Cuyahoga ; thence following that stream 
lo Lake Erie ; thence east to the Pennsylvania line. Hence 

■ 239 

the inhabitants of what is now Muskingum Count}', Mor- 
gan Count}', Coshocton County, Tuscarawas County, and 
Stark County paid taxes, settled estates, attended courts, 
&c., at Marietta, until 1804, in which year Muskingum was 
organized; and thenceforward, until 1808, Stark, Tusca- 
rawas, and Cosliocton were part of Muskingum, but in that 
year Stark and Tuscarawas being organized, Muskingum 
was shorn of the territory of those two counties. In 1811 
Coshocton was organized, and in 1818 the County of Mor- 
gan was erected, and the six valley counties, watered by the 
main streams of the two rivers abov.e named, have remained 
to the present as originally taken from the one county of 
Washington ; with occasional townships detached from one 
and added to the other, or attached to a new county formed 
east or west of the oriofinal boundaries. 


Rufus Putnam w^as born in Massachusetts in 1738. He 
received a ISTew England education, after which he went 
south with a motive to found a settlement. After explor- 
ing the lower Mississippi, and finding the natives at that 
early day averse to English settlements in their country, 
he returned to ISTew England. 

The war of the British government against the American 
colonies having been precipitated at Boston, he joined the 
colonies in their struggle against the mother government, 
and so distinguished himself that he was made a general. 
After the close of the war, he headed nearly three hundred 
officers, who had been dropped from the rolls of the army 
].»y reason of the peace, and petitioned Congress to grant 
tliem a tract of land commensurate with their service, to 


Ik- loriito<l in tlio western country. Congref?s deferred action 
on the [letition for the time being. 

General J'ntnam, in 1785, drafted a plan and submitted it 
to the government, looking to the establishment of a chain 
of military posts from the Mississippi to the lakes. Presi- 
dent Washington, penetrating the sagacious movement of 
Putnam, favorably recommended it to Congress, and that 
body directed the work to Ijegin. Fort Harmar, at the 
month of the Muskingum River, was accordingly begun in 
1785, but was not finished until 1791. 

It was one of the systems recommended by General Put- 
nam in 1785, and in which year he was appointed one of 
the surveying commissioners to la}^ off into farm lots, seven 
ranges of lands in the Ohio territory, immediately west of 
the Pennsylvania line. This land was designed to be given 
in part to the ofHcers and soldiers of the army of the revo- 
lution for military services, and in part to be sold. The 
Indians, by treaty, had relinquished their title to the land, 
but observing the surveying movements, became dissatisfied, 
declared they had been cheated in the treaty, and commen- 
cing hostilities the surveys had for the time to be suspended. 

The officers who, with Putnam, had petitioned Congress 
in 1783, for a large body of land, not getting all they desired 
from the government, met in Boston in 1786, and with Gen- 
eral Putnam as their practical business man, organized the 
"Ohio Company," determined to emigrate to the Ohio, and 
make a large and compact settlement at the moutli of the 
Muskingum. General Putnam engineered the movement, 
and in April, 1788, forty-eight emigrants reached the Mus- 
kingum, laid off Marietta, and a large number of farm lots. 
The same year eighty-four additional emigrants, mostly 
from XcAV England, arrived at Marietta, and for self-pro- 
tection they commenced a stockade fort, to which was given 
the name of " Campus Martins." In 1789, one hundred and 
tifty-two additional English emigrants arrived, and in 1790, 
four hundred French emigrants came. New settlements at 
Belpre, and Waterford, and otlier points, had been begun 


in 1780, but tlic tori-itoi'iiil govcrnnient liuvinii; heen formed 
ill 1788, with General Arthur St. Clah' as governor, Mari- 
etta took the lead, and became the seat of territorial power 
for a time. General Putnam was appointed one of the 
judges of the United States Court in the territory, and set 
about with the other judges the business of the organiza- 
tion of courts and the administration of justice. Here we 
leave him on the bench while the early career of another is 
traced up, he having from this point to lie connected with 
Putnam in the future history of the valleys. 

John Ilecke welder was born in Bedford, England, in 
1743, of German parents. He received an education for 
the ministry, and sailed for the new world. On his arrival 
in the colonies he manifested a desire to mingle in frontier 
life, and educate the Indian natives. With this motive he 
left Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in 1762, with Christian Fred- 
erick Post, and in the usual time they reached the head 
waters of the Muskingum of that day, but Tuscarawas of 
this day. Post had been to the Tuscarawas in 1761, ami 
erected a small house on the bank of the river, above the 
present village of Bolivar, which was the first house (except 
traders' cabins) built in the valleys by a subject of the Eng- 
lish government. 

A short residence satisfied Heckewelder that he was too 
early, and being admonished by a friendly Indian chief 
that if he remained he might lose his scalp, he retired to 
Pennsylvania, as Putnam afterward did to Massachusetts, to 
await events. 

Ten years later, in 1772,- Heckewelder returned to the 
Tuscarawas with David Zeisberger, and began a settlement 
for their converted Indians about three miles south-east of 
the present New Pliilad^elphia, called Schoenbrunn. Heck- 
ewelder returned to the east, and in 1773, came back 
with upward of two hundred emigrants, who were mostly 
taken in canoes down the Ohio to the mouth of the Mus- 
kingum (where Putnam and others, fifteen years later, 
located Marietta), thence up the Muskingum to Schoen- 


brunn. They brought clothing, grain, axes, boes, spades, 
iron anil nails, and farm implements with tbem, and set 
about clearing hind and ])uikling up a town; so that by 
1774, they had nearly fifty houses and a church up, and 
many acres of corn growing, and horses, cattle, and hogs 
in a])undance, for over three hundred people. He after- 
ward assisted in establishing settlements at Gnadenhut- 
tcn, Litchtenau, and Salem, on the Tuscarawas, where 
they raised corn and cattle, and converted the heathen. 
When the war between the colonies and Great Britain com- 
menced, British emmisaries visited these settlements, and, 
tlirough the influence of Simon Girty, and other renegades, 
succeeded in arraying a portion of the Delawares, Monseys, 
and. Shawncse, who had not become Christians, to join the 
IJritish, but those who had been converted, and wore clothes 
as white men, were for a time the steadfast friends of the 
colonies, through the untiring efiorts of Heckewelder, Zeis- 
berger, and other missionaries, although they were forbidden 
to take part in war. Seeing this, the British governor at" 
Detroit induced the British Indians to retire from the Tus- 
carawas to Sandusky, under Captain Pipe, from whence 
they returned in squads with their friends, the Wyandots, 
and annoyed the Tuscarawas settlements; as well as the 
whole Ohio River country. In the fall of 1789, they came 
down under the British flag, captured and drove to the 
Sandusky the missionaries and their converts, and had 
Heckewelder, Zeisberger, and Senseman sent to Detroit to 
be tried as American spies. The}^ were acquitted twice, 
hilt in the meantime about one hundred of the captured 
('hristians returned to their cornfields on the Tuscarawas 
(at which they had three hundred acres on the stalk) to 
gather the crop, and while there, in March, 1782, were mas- 
sacu'ed. This outrage drove the residue of the converts? 
except a few, into the British hostile ranks ; and with these 
few Zeisberger and the other missionaries attempted settle- 
ments in the north-west and Canada, from whence Heck- 
ewelder returned to Pennsylvania, and soon took service 


under the goveniraent — in assisting ut Indian treaties, and 
tlie surveying of the public lands in the valleys of the 
Tuscarawas and Muskiaigum. He visited I'hiladclphia, and 
was instrumental in procuring the grant from Congress of 
twelve thousand acres for the missions, to be located in 
wdiat is now Tuscarawas County. 

In December, 1786, Congress instructed Colonel llarmar, 
who was in command at Fort Harmar, at the mouth of 
tiie Muskingum, to invite the exiled missionaries and their 
Christian converts back to the Tuscarawas, but the Indian 
chiefs, Half King, Welendawacken, and Pipe, forbade tliem 
not to return under pain of death. Ilecke welder visited 
Fort Harmar in 1789, where an Indian treaty was made, 
and through the influence of General Putnam and himself, 
Grovernor St. Clair notitied the chiefs he should invite the 
Christian Indians back to their Tuscarawas settlements 
at once. The chiefs assented, except Welendawacken, 
whose capital was at the present Fort Wayne, and who still 
threatened death to Zeisberger and Ids converts, in case he 
returned with them. His hostile attitude dissuaded Zeis- 
berger from making the attempt, and thus the head of the 
valley was for the time closed against the return of the 


When the Xew England pioneers landed at the mouth 
of the Muskingum, they were met with apparently open 
hands l)y the Indians, and Captain Pipe, with one hundred 
VV^yandots and Delawares, then at the spot, reconnoitering 
the Yankees, welcomed them to their new homes. Con- 
sidering his antecedents farther up on the Tuscarawas, where 
he opposed the missionaries, and harrangued the warriors 
during the revolution, to drive every white man over the 
Ohio, this ap[»arent friendship was ominous of future hos- 


tilitv, as he had practiced the same duplicity on foi-mer 
occasions in the npper valley. 

The settlers, while they shook hands witli the warriors, 
shook tluiir own heads, as soon as Pipe departed np the 
trail, and instead of trusting to his words, they went first to 
work to hnilding defenses, stockades, &c. 

Fort Ilarniar was on the opposite side of the Muskingum 
from Marietta, and with "Campus Martins" soon erected, 
together with the stockades, they were shortly in condition 
to fight or shake hands. 

lip in the north-west, Brant had, in 1786, organized the 
trihes into a western confederation. He was the wiliest 
chief of his time, and headed the Six Nations, forming as he 
did the design of erecting the Ohio territory and the other 
Xorth-west Territory into an Indian barrier between the 
American and British possessions. In this programme he 
was promised aid by the British. It was a pleasing idea to 
the chiefs and warriors of all the tribes, and afforded consola- 
tion to the British cabinet for the loss of their colonies. 

And, right here, it may be observed that had not Marietta 
been settled when it was, in the manner it was, and by 
men from the New England States, this British plan of 
hemming in the Americans east of the Ohio River would 
undoubtedly have succeeded, and thus postponed for a gen- 
eration, at least, the creation of new States in the West. 

Even by all their stern and energetic work along the 
Ohio and Muskingum, these New Englanders were often in 
despair, and some abandoned all they had brought with 
them, to get back beyond the mountains, and wait events; 
if those who remained came out successful, those who had 
retired could come back — if unsuccessful they need not. 

No sooner had Pipe and his warriors made their recon- 
noissance at the mouth of the Muskingum, in 1788, than 
they retired from the valley, as they had done years before 
from the Tuscarawas, to plan and foment raids, and war 
ii[ioii the settlers. Under pretence of negotiating a treaty 
of peace, they assembled at Duncan's falls on the Muskin- 


gum, to meet Governor St. Clair, but instead of making a 
treaty, their "bad Indians," purposely brought along, fell 
upon the white sentries, killing two and wounding others. 
This postponed the treaty — as was intended by those in 
tlie secret — several months, meanwhile the Indians prowled 
around Marietta, and by way of " welcoming the settlers," 
killed off and destroyed the game on which the pioneers 
depended for animal food. 

In January, 1789, another attempt was made by treat}' to 
<piiet the savages, and dissipate their ideas of expelling tlie 
whites from Ohio. As soon as signed, the pioneers gave 
the chiefs a great feast (but had nothing for the rank 
and tile), and all went home up their trails, while the set- 
tlers went to surveying and clearing land, under the act of 

This treaty was made at Fort Harmar, opposite Marietta, 
between the settlers and the Wyandots, Delawares, Chippe- 
was, Ottowas, Miamis, Pottowatamies, Senecas, &c., January 
12, 1789. Early that same summer John Matthews, sur- 
veyor of the Ohio company, and his party, were attacked 
on the Virginia side of the Ohio, and seven of his men shot 
and scalped. The same summer not less than twenty men 
were killed and scalped on both sides of the Ohio. In 1790, 
the Indians attacked a number of boats owned by emigrants, 
and killed or carried off those on board. The raiding par- 
ties always had a white man as decoy, who hailed the boats 
in a friendly manner, thus enticing them near shore, wlien 
the killing took place. These white decoys were renegades, 
like Simon Girty and McKee, who had fled the colonies 
and were under the British flag. 

At length Governor St. Clair unwisely sent a message 
to the British governor, Hamilton, at Detroit, informing 
him that Colonel Harmar would go out from the Muskin- 
gum to chastise the murdering Indians on the Sandusky 
and Maumee, and hoped Hamilton would not be oflended, 
as there was no intention to annoy the British posts at De- 
troit, and elsewhere. Hamilton, although governor of De- 


troit, was a low, dirty dog, and according! 3^ showed St. 
Clair's letter to the chiefs, who appUed for aud received 
from him, powder, ball, arms, and whiskey, with which to 
carry on their murders, down on the Ohio and Muskingum, 
as well as tight Colonel Ilarmar. 

Colonel ilarmar marched an army of over one thousand 
iiK'ii into the Indian strongholds of the north-west — the 
Indians retiring before him. After destroying some towns, 
he was intercepted by the enraged savages, on his return, 
and doubled up, driven back, and so utterly routed that 
there was but little left of his army when he got back to 
the Ohio. Ilarmar was disgraced, hundreds of good men 
cut to pieces, and the border laid open more than ever to 
Indian depredations. 

By September, of 1791, General St. Clair had reorganized 
another army of twenty-three hundred troops, and started 
from Cincinnati on Harmar's trail, to inflict punishment on 
the savages. The war department was ineflicient, and its 
commissariat corrupt — the one failing to send St. Clair sup- 
plies, and the other stealing or changing what was sent, so 
that this courageous old general had not only the savages 
around him, l)ut want of good ammunition and provisions 
in his midst. In this dilemma he ordered a retreat, when 
the Indians, to the number of two thousand warriors, beset 
him, in what is now Darke County, on the 23d of October, 
1791. Three hundred of his militia deserted, adding panic 
to his cup of calamities. Still he stood his ground until 
the 4th of November, when alargebody of Delawares, Shaw- 
anese, and VVyandots drove in his outposts pell-mell on to 
the nuxin army. He rallied, but the savages being rein- 
forced, pushed his troops into the center of the camp. In 
vain were efforts made to restore order and rally again. 
The Indians rushed upon his left line, killed or wounded 
one-half his artillery oliicers, captured the guns, slashed 
and cut hundreds to pieces, and so stampeded the militia 
that they could not be checked until they ran to Fort Jef- 
ferson — twenty-seven miles from the battle-field. The gen- 


eral displayed the most heroic bravery, having four horses 
shot under him, and as many bullet-holes in his clothes. 
The tight lasted three hours, and thirteen hundred men 
were put hors de combat. 

In 1793, Wayne, in his campaign, camped on St. Clair's 
battle-held, but his soldiers could not lay down to sleep on 
account of bones strewing the ground. It is stated that 
they picked up six hundred skulls, and buried them on the 
l)attle ground, which is now marked by a small village, 
twenty-three miles north of Greenville, the county seat of 
Darke County. 

A hue and cry was raised against St. Clair for this defeat, 
over the whole country, and people demanded that he be 
shot by order of court-martial. President Washington 
refused to listen to the public clamor, and refused even a 
court of inquiry; knowing well that the blame rested more 
on the War Department than on St. Clair. He remained 
governor, but was superseded by General Wilkinson as gen- 
eral, and after the war shut himself up on his farm at Lego- 
nier, Pennsylvania, where he died, in disgrace, although 
innocent of crime or cowardice. 



After the defeat of General St. Clair, the Delawares, 
Shawanese, and other warriors came down from the " black 
forest " of the north-west, yelling the war-whoop along the 
Mohican, over to, and past the ruins on the Tuscarawas; 
down the Muskingum, Scioto, and Miami, and over into 
Kentucky and Virginia. They were plumed with bulfalo 
horns fastened on the head, and costumed witli bear-skin 
breech clouts, while scalps of the slaughtered soldiers dan- 
gled from their heels, as they urged their horses onward, 
looking like so many red demons let loose from the infernal 


reo-ioiis. They wcru Jubilant over the recent victories, and 
rc'-fchoed tlie old epithet, "No wliite man shall ever plant 
i-orn in Oliio." 

Campus Martins Ijccame the residence of Governor St, 
Clair, and son and daughter. General Rufus Putnam and 
family, General Benjamin Tupper and family. Colonel Oliver 
and family, Colonel R. J. Meigs and family, R. J. Meigs, 
,lr., and wife, Colonel Shephard and family, Colonel Iclia- 
l)od Nye and family, Major Ezra Putnam and family, Major 
OIncy and family,' Captain Davis and family, Major Co- 
Imrn and family, Winthrop Sargent, Thomas Lord, Charles 
(Jreene and family, Major Ziegler, Major Ilaflield AVhite 
and son, Joshua Shipman and family, James Smith and 
family, Jolm liussell, Ichibald Lake, Ebenezer Corey and 
family, James AVells and family, Joseph Wood and family, 
Robert Allison, Elijah Warren and family, Girshom Elagg 
and family, widow Kelly and family, and many others, wlio 
had taken refuge therein. A portion of the pioneers also 
resided across the Muskingum in Fort Harmar. One of 
the pioneers has related that as they looked out over the 
palisades, or through the port holes, they could see the war- 
riors galloping to and fro with their stained hatchets at 
arms length, shaking them in defiance at Campus Martins. 
Although shots were fired at the barbarians, they continued 
to invest the camp and pick off any one who ventured out 
to his lot, or garden, or field. 

The classic names given to the squares and avenues of the 
new city stunned these wild red men, and their indignation 
became intense as they saw portions of their land platted 
oft", and christened with foreign names, such as " Capito- 
line," "(iuadranoua," and the like. The old trail leading 
down from an ancient mound of the primitive Americans 
to the edge of the river, they found converted into a broad- 
way, with high embankments. Its classic imme '■^ Sacra 
viti.,'' given it by some latin scholar, aroused the auger of 
one of Zeisberger's educated Delawares, who had returned 
to Indian ways. He was seen to reach down and untie a 


scalp on the neck of his horse, shake it in the direction of 
the governor's residence in derision, as evincing a more 
effective way of speaking '■'■dead languages^' than the author 
of " Sacra via'^ 

He was also an artist, and riding up to the guide-board 
he effaced therefrom the Latin, substituting with war-paint 
the ominous picture of a scalp, and underneath the word 
" Gnadenhiitten." Heckewelder tells us that the Delawares, 
though not possessing the white man's art of writing, had 
certain hieroglyphics by which they described on a piece of 
bark, or on a large tree, any fact, so that all the nations 
could understand it. 

The warriors lurked in the high grass of the square 
" Capitolium," to get a good shot at the man who dared dese- 
crate their land with that word. The square " Quadranoua " 
furnished a covert from which " War Cloud" jumped as he 
lired at a Putnam pulling his flax, and " Buckshanoath," the 
Shawanese giant, was discovered in the corn planted by 
General Putnam, on mound square, and which having been 
put there in defiance of the injunction, " White man shall 
plant no corn in Ohio," was levelled to the ground with 
knives and tomahawks by Buckshanoath's warriors, so great 
was the Indian wrath. 

Outside the garrison were, at the time, some twenty unin- 
habited log houses, whose occupants fled to the blockhouses 
as the enemy approached, having been warned thereof by 
the tiring of a small cannon within the fortified camp. 
Around and about these the savages watched for such pio- 
neers as passed in and out of their camp. When darkness 
intervened, they made night sleepless with hideous yells, as 
they cavorted their stolen horses to water in "Duck Creek," 
which had also received the classical name of " Tiber," after 
that old Tiber of Rome ; or as the barbarians galloped over 
toward " Capitoline Hill," or up the " Sacra via,'' in every 
imitation of their Scythian ancestors, as they once scudded 
bare-backed along the streets and ways of ancient Home. 


Occasionally, at Marietta, the besieged New Englanders 
could see from the blockhouse port-holes, smoke on a far- 
off liill, which they hoped for a moment might be the fore- 
running signal of assistance looming up from the camp-fires 
of coming friends, but as it died away, and the mist cleared 
off, thev only saw the ■savages gathered together, dancing 
around a fire, in the midst of which was a poor, naked pris- 
oner, caught in some border settler's cabin; and, being tied 
to a stake, was suttering the slow torture, and whose screams 
for pity, nu^rcy, and life, could be heard in Campus Mar- 
tins and Fort Ilarmar, but without the power of any- one 
there to assist or save him from the fiery death. 

Such were the scenes enacted around the city first plant- 
ed on the Muskingum. Its off-shoots at Belpre, Waterford, 
ami Big Bottom, witnessed similar tragedies throughout 
these terrible years of misfortune and calamity to the 
American arms, and border families. 


He was born in Pennsylvania, of Irish parents, came to 
Wheeling when a young man, learned Indian fighting with 
the Wetzells, removed to Washington County in 1787, and 
(hiring the Indian wars killed many Indians. 

On one occasion, he and Lewis Wetzell, on Wheeling 
(h'eek, trailed a party of Indians to their camp, found them 
sitting around their fire at daylight, and one fellow sitting 
on a log eating, fell over dead from Kerr's bullet, while 
Wetzell mortally wounded another. The balance fied, and 
tli(i fighters went home with one scalp. 

In 1784, he was out trapping with Lewis and George Wet- 
zell and John Greene, at the mouth of the Muskingum, and 
in a day or two missed some of their traps. Suspecting 
Indians al»out, they pushed up the Ohio a short distance in 


a canoe, when George Wetzell was shot dead, and Kerr 
wounded by Indians on the bank. Greene, who was in the 
woods, hearing tiring, came to the river bank, and when 
near it, saw an Indian behind a tree loading. He raised his 
piece, lired, and the Indian dropped down the bank dead. 
Tlie other Indians hearing the report rushed to where Greene 
was. Seeing ten or twelve, he jumped into the river, and 
buried his body under the water among the branches of a 
dead tree. The Indians came upon the trunk of the tree, 
peering for him. He saw them but kept his face hid among 
the leaves, when the Indians failing to Und him moved off. 
He remained in the water until night, then made his escape 
up the river, and after three days overtook Kerr's partj- in 
the canoe, twenty-five miles above the site of Marietta. 
Kerr's wound kept him at home several months. 

In 1785, Kerr and two others went up the Ohio spearing 
fish. A dozen Indians fired at them, when one man in the 
boat, named Mills, fell as dead into the bottom of the boat. 
Kerr and his companion also dropped down, when the In- 
dians rushed into the water to catch the canoe and scalp 
them. Kerr kept them ofi* with his fish-spear until the 
canoe got into deep water, when they escaped to Wheeling, 
and Mills recovered, although he had a dozen wounds on 
his body. The party had no rifies along, and their escape 
from the tomahawk was attributed to Kerr's coolness in the 
moment of danger. 

In 1786 he was out with Isaac Williams and a German, 
at Grave Creek, and espied three Indians in a canoe, and a 
fourth swimming a horse across the Ohio. Kerr shot the 
Indian in the stern of the canoe, Williams shot the one in 
front, when the German, handing Kerr his rifle, the third 
Indian in the boat was shot and fell into the water, but 
hung on to the side of the canoe. Kerr reloaded, and was 
about to fire at a man lying in the bottom of the boat, but 
discovering him to be a white prisoner, shouted to him to 
knock ofi" the Indian clinging to the boat. Meanwhile, Kerr 
shot at the Indian on the horse, who jumped ofi and swam 


for tlie canoe. Tlie white man escaped out of the boat, the 
Iiuliuii got in, crossed to the other shore,. and, with a shout 
of detiance at Kerr, fled into the woods on the back of the 
captive liorse he had been riding, and which had gained 
the other sliorc just as he did. 

From 1787 to 1791, Kerr was emploj'^ed as a hunter to 
furnish thu i!;iU'i''^<J'i ^^f Fort llarmar with buffalo meat and 
venison, and to the close of the war he was engaged in 
I'very hazardous enterprise, killing several Indians in his 
(•(uultuts. After the war closed, he married and settled 
down as a farmer in Washington County, Avhere he died an 
old man, much esteemed, leaving numerous descendants, 
who reside in southeastern Ohio. 


When General St. Clair came to Marietta, in 1788, as 
governor of the North-west Territory, he left his family 
at home in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. Louisa, 
a daughter of eighteen years, educated at Philadelphia, and 
his son Arthur, came out soon after on a visit, and in 1790 
the family moved out, except Mrs. St. Clair, who remained 
at home some time longer. 

The proposed Indian treaty at Duncan's falls, in 1788, 
being postponed and adjourned to Fort liarmar, the In- 
dians prepared for peace or war, and were hostile to hold- 
ing a convention to adjust peace measures under the gnus 
of Ilarniar, and Campus Martins. 

Brandt, son of the Six Nation's chief of that name, came 
down the Tuscarawas and Muskingum trail, with two hun- 
dred warriors, camped at Duncan's falls, nine miles below 
Zunusville, and informed Governor St. Clair, by runner, that 
they desired the treaty preliminaries to be fixed there. 


The governor suspected a plot to get him to the falls, and 
ahduct him, yet nothing had transpired of that import, lie 
sent Brandt's runner hack with word that he would soon 
answer hy a ranger. Hamilton Kerr was dispatched to 
Duncan's falls to reconnoiter, and deliver St. Clair's letter. 

A short distance abov^ Waterford, Kerr saw tracks, and 
keeping the river in sight, crept on a blutf, and raised to 
his feet, when hearing the laugh of a woman, he came down 
to the trail, and saw Louisa St. Clair on a pony, dressed In- 
dian style, with a short rifle slung to her body. Stupefied 
with amazement, the ranger lost his speech, well knowing 
Louisa, who was the bravest and boldest girl of all at the 
fort. She had left without knowledge of any one, and call- 
ing " Plam " — as he was known by that name — to his senses, 
told him she was going to Duncan's falls to see Brandt. 
Expostulation on his part only made her laugh the londer, 
and she twitted him on his comical dress, head turbaned 
with red handkerchief, hunting shirt, but no trowsers, the 
breech-clout taking their place. Taking her pony by the 
head, he led it up the trail, and at night they suppered on 
dried deer meat from Ham's pouch ; the pony was tied, and 
Louisa sat against a tree and slept, riiie in hand, while Ham 
watched her. Next morning they pursued their way, and 
finally came in sight of the Indian camp. She then took 
her father's letter from the ranger, and telling him to hide 
and await her return, dashed off on her pony, and was soon 
a prisoner. She asked for Brandt, who appeared in war 
j»anoply, but was abashed at her gaze. She handed him 
the letter, remarking that they had met before, he as a 
student on a visit from college, to Philadelphia, and 
she as the daughter of General St. Clair, at school. He 
bowed ; being educated, read the letter and became excited. 
Louisa perceiving this, said she had risked her life to see 
him, and asked for a guard back to Marietta. Brandt told 
her he guarded the brave, and would accompany her home. 
In the evening of the third day they arrived with Ham Kerr 
at the fort, where she introduced Brandt to her father, rela- 


tiiii^ the incidents. After some hours, lie was escorted ont 
of the lines, returned to the fulls, and went up the valley 
with his warriors without a treaty, but crazed in love with 
Louisa St. Clair. 

In January, 1789, he returned, took no part in tlie Fori 
llarniar treaty, was at the feast, and asked St. Clair in vain 
for his daughter's hand. 

In the fall of 1791, IJrandt led the Cliippewas for a time 
diirinj^ the battle at St. Clair's defeat, and told his warriors 
to shoot the general's horse, but not him. St. Clair had 
four horses shot under him, and as many bullet-holes in his 
clothes, but escaped unhurt. Louisa's beauty saved her 
father's life, but sacrificed his fame; and after his downfall 
she left Marietta with him and the family, loaded down with 
sorrow for life. 

l*rofessor llildreth thus describes Louisa at Marietta in 

'' Louisa was a healthy, vigorous girl, full of life and ac- 
tivity, fond of a frolic, and ready to draw amusement from 
all and everything around her. She was a fine equestrienne, 
and would mount the most wild and spirited horse without 
fear, managing him with ease and gracefulness, dashing 
through the open woodlands around Campus Martius at 
full gallop, leaping over logs or any obstruction that fell in 
her way. She was one of the most expert skaters in the 
garrison. She was also an expert huntress. Of the ritie 
she was a perfect mistress, loading and firing with the ac- 
curacy of a backwoodsman, killing a squirrel from the 
highest tree, or cutting off the head of a partridge with 
wonderful [»recision. She was fond of roaming in the 
woods, and often went out alone into the forest near Mari- 
etta, fearless of the savages that occasionallv lurked in the 
vicinity. She was as active on foot as on horseback, and 
<oiil(l walk with the rapidity of a ranger for miles. Her 
immners were relined, her person beautiful, with highly cul- 
tivated intellectual powers, having been educated with much 
care at Philadelphia. After the war she returned to her 


early home amidst the romantic glens of the Legonier 

Had St. Clair given his daughter to young Brandt, the 
alhance would have averted war. His father, Joseph Brandt, 
highly educated and the most powerful chief of the time, 
was the originator of the western confederation of Indians 
in 178H. It is reasonahle, therefore, to suppose that had a 
family connection existed in 1780 with the governor of the 
North-west territory, neither Ilarmar or St. Clair wouhl 
have suffered defeat in 1791, nor would Anthony Wayne 
have had to wliip the confederated nations in 1794. 


Joseph Rogers, a Pennsylvanian, who had served in Mor- 
gan's riHe corps in the revolution, came to Marietta soon 
after its settlement to seek a home. In 1791, as the Indian 
war commenced, he and Edward Henderson were detailed 
to scout up the Muskingum. On the 13th of March, at 
night, they were returning to the fort, when two Indians 
rose and tired, hitting Rogers in the hreast, and killing him, 
within a mile of the fort. They then pursued Henderson 
down a hill, and at the bottom he met two more Indians 
who tired, one ball passing through his collar, and the other 
through a handkerchief bound on his head, ranger fashion. 
Making a short turn, he eluded his pursuers, reached the 
garrison, and gave the alarm, when every man's duty was 
to repair to his post, and the women to the blockhouse. 
Great consternation prevailed. Every one rushed to the 
blockhouse, one man carrying his papers, another liis arms, 
a woman her bed and child, and an old gunsmith with his 
leather apron filled with tools and some smoking tobacco, 
another woman had a tea-pot, another the Bible, and so on; 
when all were in, an old mother was missing. They sent 


for licr, aiul found her fixing up things and sweeping the 
Moor, she telling them she coukl not think of leaving her 
house/' even if the Injuns were coming to scalp her," until 
all was rid u}) and things in their place. It turned out in 
the morning that the Indians had retreated. The night 
hefore Rogers was shot, he dreamed that he would next day 
take a scalp or lose one, and on going out in the morning 
was so dejected that they offered to send a ranger in his 
l)lace, hut lie said a dream could not scare him from his 
duty. For not heeding the dream, Joe Rogers lost his life 
on the Muskingum. 


In the year 1790, four hundred French emigrants landed 
at Marietta from France — principally lahorers, artisans, 
hroken gentleaieu, and several of royal blood — a marquis, 
count, (tc. ; mostly poor, but a few wealthy. They had 
ranic to America just as the French revolution was com- 
mencing. They were fraudulently induced to come by rep- 
resentations made in Paris, on the part of the Scioto Land 
Company's agent, who was a brother of Joel Barlow, 
United States Minister at Paris. The agent had taken their 
money for land, when in fact the company had no title to 
land. Finally they settled, and built u[) Galli polls, wViere 
descendants yet reside. Congress donated them twenty 
thousand acres of public lands. 

Louis I'hilippe joined the French revolution in that same 
year of 1700, as a Jacobin (red republican), but having 
assisted two of his sisters, who had become odious to the 
government, to escape, he was denounced, lied to the con- 
tii\ent, wandered for some time as an exile, came to I'liihr 
delphia in 17!>6, and with two brothers — the Duke de Mont- 
peusicr and Count Beaujolais — traveled over the UniLcd 


States, returned to Europe in 1800, became king in 1830, 
was deposed in 1848, and died an exile in England, in 1850. 

While in the United States he visited the west, stopped, 
as is said, at Coshocton, Zanesville, Marietta, and Gallipo- 
lis. No one ever knew exactly his business in traversing 
the valleys of the Muskingum, but General Cass says that 
when he was United States Minister at Paris, the king 
alluded once in conversation to John Mclntyre's hotel at 
Zanesville, and told Cass how well he had been tr-eajted 

There is a tradition that the French marquis w4io came 
to Marietta with the four hundred, and who returned to 
France in 1791, was a blood relation of Philippe, and held 
valuable papers pertaining to the family interests, which 
he lost at Marietta, and that -Louis's visit to the Muskingum 
was to find some clue thereto. In the search he was fasci- 
nated by one of his countrywomen, among the Gallipolis 
emigrants — where, is not known — and contracted with her 
a " left-handed " marriage; the issue of which, under the 
mother's name, grew to manhood on the Ohio and Mus- 
kingum, went to Paris, and in the revolution of 1830 took 
part in elevating his father to the throne ; and after whose 
fall he returned to the United States, and died at New 
Orleans, where he disclosed these facts. 

The statement that Louis Philippe was once in Coshoc- 
ton rests upon the fact that when George W. Silliman, 
attorney at law, Coshocton, and grandson of Major Cass 
was bearer of dispatches to the French government, the 
king told him that he once went to a point in the North- 
west Territory, where two rivers came together, and gave 
such a description of the place, and the landlord of the 
tavern (Colonel Williams), as to make it pretty certain that 
this was the place. Colonel Williams, being afterward 
spoken to on the subject, said that Louis Philippe "had 
been at his house, and had been rather roughly treated." 

Tradition says that the rough treatment was this : He 
had an altercation with the tavern-keeper, ending in his 

258 Williams that he was heir to the French throne, and 
would not, as the coming sovereign, condescend to bandy 
words with a hackwoods plebeian. Williams said in reply, 
that here in this backwoods of America there were no ple- 
beians; "We are all sovereigns here," said he, " and I'll 
show yoii oiir power," and suiting the action to the word, 
he kifkcd ijouis Philippe out of the house; at which the 
" sovereigns," loitering around the tavern, gave three cheers. 
It is a historical fact that Louis Philippe and two brothers 
landed in Philadelphia, October 21, 1796, made a tour of 
the United States, and sailed from New York for England, 
where they arrived in eJanuary, 1800. Hence, if Colonel 
Williams did not keep tavern in Coshocton before the year 
1800, he kicked some other "sovereign" out of his house. 


In the spring and summer of 1792, every effort was made 
by the government that could be conceived, to get the 
Lidian tribes together and conclude a peace. At the insti- 
gation of British emissaries they refused to meet, unless 
assured in advauce that the Ohio should be the boundary 
in future treaties. This would have struck Marietta, the 
Muskingum, Tuscarawas, and all the Ohio valleys from the 
map of civilization, and lost to the Ohio Company a million 
acres bought from Congress at live shillings per acre. 

Putnam and the pioneers were therefore deeply interested 
in the colony. Ileckewelder could not survive, if his mis- 
sion ruins on the Tuscarawas were to be so soon turned 
over to the wild successors of the mound builders. Yet, 
strange as the fact was, there were distinguished men in the 
east willing to make the Ohio the boundary line. They 
feared the depopulation of the old, and the building up of 


new States in the west, to take from them tlic l»alance of 
political power. 

At length, in September,' 1792, General Putnam and John 
Ileckewelder appeared on the Wabash ; met the Potawat- 
omies, Wachtenaws, Kickapoos and smaller tribes, and con- 
cluded a treaty. This was the first giving way of the Indian 
barrier. That winter the Shawanese, Six iSTations, Wyan- 
dots, and Delawares agreed to hold a grand council on the 
Mauinee, which took place in early summer of 1793. The 
government sent its agents to the mouth of Detroit River 
to be ready to treat. The Indian council, finding that they 
could not obtain the Ohio as a boundary line, refused to 
treat on any other line, broke up, and all the nations pre- 
pared for war again. At this council the treaties of Fort 
Mcintosh and Harmar were repudiated as fraudulent, and 
the gifts proffered by the government were spurned by the 
Indians with contempt. Their fiat had gone forth : " N'o 
white man shall plant corn in Ohio." 

After contemplating the probable loss, not only of their 
lives, but of their million acres, the prayers for help of the 
pioneer women, and the groans of their anguished husbands, 
were heard over the Blue Ridge, and above the Alleghanies, 
and far up into the iN'ew England mountains, then a burst 
of indignation arose, and " Mad Anthony " was ordered from 
the east to the rescue of the pioneers. He came crushing 
through the forests like a behemoth. 

He left Fort Washington — now Cincinnati — with his 
legion in October, 1793, He, too, went north-west on Har- 
mar's and St, Clair's trails, building defenses as he moved 
on. At Greenville, Darke County, he wintered and drilled 
his men. In June, 1794, he camped on St, Clair's battle- 
field, and buried the bones of six hundred soldiers, bleach- 
ing there since 1791, Here the confederated tribes disputed 
Wayne's furtlier progress. Being reinforced by eleven hun- 
dred Kentuckians, he soon routed the savages, and pushed 
on to the headquarters of the tribes at the junction of the 
Auglaize and Maumee rivers. They retreated along the 


Maiimee forty miles to the rapids, where there was a British 
tort. Here tliey lyrepared for hattle. VVayue offered peace 
without a tight, in case tliey gave up the Ohio Kiver as a 
houndarv. A portion of tlie chiefs desired to do so, but the 
romaiiidcr under British intiuence refused. On the 20th 
of August he moved on the enemy, who again retreated 
a short distance and fought him. His whole force being 
l)rought into action soon routed them in every direction, 
leaving the battle-ground strewn with dead Indians, and 
Brltisii soldiere in disguise. General Wayne's loss was 
thirty-three killed, and one hundred wounded. The Indians 
in the battle numbered fourteen hundred, while the main 
body were not in action, being some two miles off, but hear- 
ing of the defeat they all scattered to their homes, and 
Wayne laid waste their towns and corn-fields for fifty miles, 
thus ending the war. 

Ill this battle were Simon Girty, Elliott, and McKee, 
who had, ever since their success in breaking up the mis- 
sions on the Tuscarawas, been the main counsellors and 
leaders among the Shawanese, Wyandots, and Delawares, 
and all the time assisted by the British garrisons in the 
region of the Sandusky and Detroit. 

The net result of the Wayne campaign was a treaty of 
peace, which was made at the present Greenville, Darke 
County, Ohio, in the following August (1795), between the 
government, represented by General Wayne, and the Shaw- 
anese, Delawares, Wyandots, Ottawas, Pottawatomies, Mi- 
amis, and other smaller tribes, at which about two-thirds of 
the present State of Ohio was ceded to the United States. 

The old residenters of the Tuscarawas and Miiskingimi 
valleys — the Delawares and Shawanese — bore a conspicuous 
i»art in the fore-front of Wayne's war — as they had in all pre- 
vious wars — to prevent the whites from making homes in 
these two valleys, so full of romance, so full of tragedies, 
and so full of the ruins of God's works. 



Zeisberger had been driven away from the valleys in Sep- 
tember, 1781, and until October, 1798, a period of seventeen 
years, he had no real resting place on the earth. Wliat 
the motive was, of an All-wise and Omnipotent God, in 
subjecting this holy man to seventeen years of persecution 
and privation, it is not for man to premise ; but on this 
pious man's return, his frail canoes coasted down the lakes 
in safety to the Cuyahoga; thence they paddled up that 
river and down the Tuscarawas to their old home, con- 
suming lifty-one days in the journey, amid perils of the 
elements above, perils of the waters below, and perils of 
the land around ; all the way some dangerous red light 
ahead — yet witliout a serious accident they landed in sight 
of the old ruins ; they laid out Goshen, they proceeded 
anew to erect a chapel — which they dedicated on Christ- 
mas day, 1798, to that same God who had smote Job of old 
and Zeisberger alike. 

One of the first persons baptised at Goshen was the 
widow of Captain White Eyes ; next came a chief of the 
Delawares, who had succeeded Captain Pipe, and who bore 
a message from the Delawares on White River, in Indiana, 
asking that missionaries be sent from Goshen to settle there. 
Two missionaries and several Christian Indians were sent 
from Goshen in 1801, and in a short time thereafter 
Joshua and Ann Charity, aged Indians from Goshen, were 
denouncd by an Indian prophet as witches, and sentenced 
to be burned, which was done by placing the victims upon 
a large pile of wood, binding them and tomahawking 
them ; after which, setting fire to the pile, the Indians 


lUinced avomid it until all were consumed — believing that 
each victim tll^^^ sacrificed relieved the tribe of a witch. 

This Indian, Joshua, Avho was sacrificed as a witch, had 
lost two daug-liters at the Gnadenhutten massacre in 1782. 

Congress having stipulated in its grant of land that all 
the former inhabitants of the three missions, and their de- 
scendants, as well as Killbnck, White Eyes, and their de- 
scendants, should have land rent free in these fom' thousand 
acre tracts, and all land not thus needed to be let out to 
white settlers. 

In May, 1799, Paul Greer, Peter Edmonds, Ezra and Peter 
Warner, Jacob Bush, and two others, from Pennsylvania, 
made settlements, and in. the following fall came David and 
Uorcas Peter, from Bethlehem, being the first white settlers 
in Tuscarawas Countj^, excepting Heckewelder, Zeisberger, 
and their co-missionaries. 

In November, 1802, twelve Delaware chiefs, on their way 
to Washington to see l^esident Jefferson, stopped and spent 
some time with Zeisberger, at Goshen. 

In 1803, Loskiel, the great historian of the missions, 
visited and remained some time at Goshen. 

In 1805, the white settlers had so multiplied that a Mo- 
ravian church was built at a new station near what is now 
lock numbered seventeen, on the west side of the river, and 
tlie same was dedicated by Zeisberger in presence of two 
hundred people, and called Beersheba. 

During this period, missions in other parts of the country 
becoming demoralized, Zeisberger's health began to fail 
under the accumulation of his sorrows, and his hearing be- 
ing imi)aired, and his e3^esight failing, and the infirmities 
of old age distressing him, he prepared for death, which 
did not overtake him until 1808, he, however, wishing to 
Ite <lcad. 

In 1808, about forty Mousey Indians, heathens, came to 
Goshen, and in a short time a second party came. Shortly 
thereafter a boat came up the river, laden with rum, which 
these Indians getting possession of, carried on such a series of 


debaucheries around Goshen that the missionaries and their 
converts fled to the hills for safety, while the white settlers 
grasped their rifles in self-protection and that of the mis- 
sion property ; Zeisberger aroused himself, called all the 
Indians together, pointed out the vicious, and ordered them 
to leave Goshen forever, which a portion of them did, the 
others remaining. 

In October, liev. Mr. Espick, also a physician, who had 
settled at New Philadelphia, was called to Goshen to attend 
Zeisberger, who died on the 17th day of November follow- 
ing, after a service of sixty-two years at various missions. 
His wife died in ten months after him. In two years after 
Gelellemund, alias Killbuck, finished his career at Goshen. 

The war of 1812 having commenced, Goshen declined, 
and was finally abandoned as a mission in 1824, and its In- 
dians retired to the far west. Thus ended the second advent 
of the missionaries and the red men in the valleys. 

No glittering marble column marks the spot where Zeis- 
berger lies, but a small square block of stone, surmounted 
with a marble slab, on which is etched his name — all that 
remains to denote the only place of rest this first and truly 
pious man ever had in the valley. 

His mission, founded at Fairfield, Canada, in 1792, still 
survives, and it is in tradition that for many years after 
Zeisberger's death, Indian converts from Fairfield made 
pilgrimages to Goshen, to clean up his grave and keep 
green the grass thereon. In 1872, Rev. Reinke, a missionary 
from Fairfield, with four Indians, William Stonefish, James 
Snake, Joel Snake, Joshua Jacobs — one of whom was a 
descendant of a convert slaughtered at the massacre — and 
also the venerable David Knisely, Rev. E. P. Jacobs, Metho- 
dist minister. Rev. Wilhelra, Lutheran minister, John Judy, 
Esq., and others, visited the graves of Zeisberger and Ed- 
wards at Goshen, and assembling around the graves, sung 
the same hymn that had been translated by Zeisberger for 
the Indians, and which had been sung sixty-four years be- 
fore, on the same spot, at the funeral of David Zeisberger 


himself. These four Indians then visited Schoenbrunn, but 
hunted in vain for the grave-j^ard of their convert ancestors, 
from thirty to forty of whom had been buried there from 
1772 to 1779. The spot was pointed out, but the converts' 
bones had l)ecn fertilizing a white man's field for a third of a 
century. These poor Indians wept at tlie sight, then sliak- 
iiig Ironi their feet the dust of the valle3% departed, never 
to return again. 


After the return of peace, 1795, General Putnam estab- 
lished a line of packets on the Ohio, from Wheeling to 
Marietta, surveyed a national road from Wheeling west 
through the Muskingum County, of to-day, and thus opened 
up highways by which new settlers reached the valleys in 
great numbers. 

lie was, in 179C, appointed surveyor-general of the United 
States, and directed surveys of one hundred and seventy- 
four townships, into subdivisions for entry under military 
warrants and other grants. He came to the Tuscarawas 
and directed the Schoenbrunn, Gnadenhutten, and Salem 
tracts, of four thousand each, to be laid off and subdivided 
into lots, for the use of converted Indians, and for lease to 
white settlers. 

General Putnam, before closing his duties as surveyor- 
general, visited and slept with Zeisberger at Goshen, then 
named the little island in the river, after his revered 
friend, and returned to his home at Marietta, where he was 
chosen, in 1802, to represent Washington County in the 
convention to form tlie first constitution for the State of 
Ohio, which was completed in thirty days. Being opposed, 
in 1800, to the election of Thomas Jefierson as president, 


he retired, after his service in the convention, to private 
life, and devoted his energies to the encouragement of public 
improvements, education', and religion, until 1824, when he 
died, at the age of eighty-six years. He was son of Elisha 
Putnam; who was son of Edward Putnam — a grandson of 
John Putnam — who came to America in 1634, and was the 
founder of the Putnam family on this continent, and whose 
descendants in the male line numbered one hundred and 
thirty-four, prior to the birth of General Rufus Putnam, in 

After the return of peace, Heckewelder proceeded to 
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and urged the P en n sylvan ians to 
come and take up homes on the Tuscarawas. He had some 
years before ceased his functions as a missionary, and be- 
came agent for leasing the lands donated in trust to the 
society, and in due time emigration set into the valley, 
dotting it over with cabins and clearings of settlers. He 
had, in 1797, with some emigrants, gathered together the 
bones of the murdered Indians at Gnadenhutten,and buried 
the same where the monument now stands. He took up his 
home there, and entered four thousand acres of land for other 
parties. He stood at the bedside of Zeisberger when he 
died, in 1808, at Goshen, and became, on the organization 
of Tuscarawas County, an associate judge of the court of 
common pleas. He remained in the valley in which he 
had lived such an eventful life, until it was settled with an 
active, vigorous race of white men, and after that returned 
to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, where he died, in 1823, want- 
ing eleven months of the age of four score years. Thus 
ended the careers of these two remarkable men, within a 
year of each other. They well deserve a monument, as the 
founders of Ohio. 



The following incident occnrred while Ilcckewelder was in 
charge of the mission at Giiadenhutten, during the Amerieaji 
ri'volntion, after the Wyandots had joined the British : ' '. 

Some Wyandots, returning from the white settlements in 
N'irginia with a prisoner, rested at Gnadenhutten. Among 
their liorses was one that had beeu stolen from the mission 
a year hefore, and which belonged to Heckewelder. The 
k'adcr of the Wyandots was prevailed on to sell the prisoner 
to the missionai-y, Heckewelder, and give up the horse, 
on the theor}' that it was a crime to hold stolen property, 
knowing the fact. He returned with his squad to Sandusky, 
where his companions told on him. He was ordered by tlie 
Indian council to return to Gnadenhutten and get the horse, 
or the scalp of its owner — the Indians in council adjudging 
the horse to have been a lawful prize in war when captured 
in Virginia. A short time after, as Heckewelder was going 
from Gnadenhutten to Salem, he was shot at from behind 
a log. In a few days he was traveling the same road, but 
had two Delaware guides, who discovered an Indian in a 
tree fork, leveling his gun at the missionary. They frus- 
ti-atcd his attempt to shoot. In a few nights the same In- 
dian entered Heckewelder's house with intent to murder 
him, but he was seized, and when asked his motive for 
wanting to kill Heckewelder, declared that it was he who 
had given up Heckewelder's horse, and he was sent back 
from Sandusky to get the horse, or Heckewelder's scalp, 
it is not stated in the history of Gnadenhutten what became 
of the assassin, but he never got back to Sandusky. The 
white [irisoner bought by Heckewelder, and whose life was 
tliereby sa\ed, was sent to Fort I^itt, from whence he reached 
his home. 



Connected with Marietta histoi^ is that of Aaron Bnrr, 
Harman Blennerh asset, and Margaret, his wife. Burr had 
honored his country by his military services in tlie war of 
independence, and was compensated by being nominated for 
Vice-President of the United States; having, in the presi- 
dential poll, received an equal vote on the same ticket with 
Thomas Jefferson, the House of Representatives had thrust 
upon it the duty of electing President and Vice-President. 
Jefferson succeeded to the first, and Burr to the second, 
ofiice. His ambition was to be President — failing which 
he conceived a project of erecting a western republic upon 
the ruins of Mexico, and becoming president thereof. He 
had with him many discontented officers, who had been 
retired to private life poor, at the close of the revolution, 
and they in turn had soldiers of their old commands, who, 
having lost their time and property in the war, were ready 
for any emergency. 

The founders of Marietta were in part retired officers, 
discontented, like those who joined Burr; but instead of 
overturning Mexico, and recuperating their finances by 
melting into money the little golden virgins and crosses of 
the Spanish churches, they chose the plan of buying land 
on the Ohio, setting up a State government, and selling 
farms to emigrants at a profit. Still, Burr looked to old 
friends in Marietta for help and sympathy. Among others, 
he became acquainted with Harman Blennerhasset and his 
accomplished wife. Blennerhasset was an educated Irish 
e-entleman, who had built a fantastic mansion on one of 
Black Hoof's islands in the Ohio, nine miles below Marietta, 
where he was enjoying a quiet and retired life, in the midst 

268 , -^ 

of a score of hilarious good fellows, who were drinking 
his mountain dew, and entertaining him with "Teddy 
O'Rourke," and the " Exile of Erin." 

Madame Blennerhasset had an outside estate of her own, 
and being an educated lady, she soon tired of hearing noth- 
ing but game and fish, dog and horse talk; hence she wished 
very often that the island would sink, or Buckshanoth and 
his warriors come back to the Ohio with their scalping 

Burr's project delighted Blennerhasset, and his powers ot 
mind entranced the lady. The island home soon became 
a commissariat for needy adventurers, while Burr flitted 
about to Marietta, Chillicothe, Cincinnati, &c., making 

In October, Burr sent Blennerhasset to accompany ex- 
Go venor Alston, of South Carolina, and his wife, Theodosia, 
Burr's daughter, to Lexington, Louisville, and other down 
the river towns, leaving Mrs. Blennerhasset at home to direct 
its management. 

Burr had studied at a glance the people he was propitia- 
ting and winning over. He knew that the men already on 
the island would be faithful to him as long as their soup 
lasted, and the hostess knew well how to make it, hence her 
place for the time being was at home. 

Up at Marietta he contracted with the ship carpenters 
for fifteen large boats, costing several thousand dollars, and 
that fact held the New Englanders' heads "level." On their 
return to the island. Governor Alston and wife were, with 
Mrs. Blennerhasset and her husband, and Burr, all invited 
to a ball at Marietta. As the dancing proceeded, and the 
wine went round, so did Burr; and in a short time he conn- 
tcracted all the gossip touching himself. It was voted a 
lie by all, especially the unmarried ladies — Burr being then 
a widower — and the wives of all who wished Marietta to 
become a great commercial ship building center, although 
a thousand miles from the sea. 


To put an effectual quietus on all suspicions, Burr, ob- 
serving Tlieodosia and Madame Blennerhasset face to face 
in conversation, clasped his daughter, wJio had a national 
reputation for all that was good and virtuous in woman, 
and imprinted a kiss, while he gave his other arm to Mrs. 
Blennerhasset, exclaiming as he pressed both, "Man rules 
the world, and woman man." Then passing round the 
whirling crowd, he sought two matrons of Marietta at a 
window, with their puritan e3'^es gazing at him. But Aaron 
Burr never shrunk from the gaze of woman, and, making 
a gracious bow, comprehending at a glance their talk to be 
about him, he asked each if she had sons. Learning that 
such was the fact, he added that he had high places for the 
sons of courageous mothers, and further desired to know 
their wishes. These spartan pioneer women, who had 
unflinchingly looked out of Campus Martins at Indian 
war in all its horrors for five years, were just as open to 
flattery as the sex the world over. They bowed at the 
words "courageous mothers." Burr passed on through the 
throng, made the acquaintance of every one, and when the 
ball closed that night he had but one opponent, and she 
Avas a spinster of the post tertiary period, who invidiously 
remarked that the ex-president of the United States had 
conquered Marietta with a daughter on one arm and a 
Pompadour on the other. 

On the day of the ball there had been a military training 
at Marietta, which, in those early times, brought a great 
crowd to the town. Burr, from his revolutionary experi- 
ence, was master of the art of war, and he drilled the militia 
on this occasion so successfully, that it was said he added 
five hnndred recruits to his expedition, having not less than 
five thousand men in all. 

His enemies began to work. The papers soon sounded 
the alarm of a disunion plot, of which it was hinted Burr 
was leader. In ISTovember, he was summoned into court at 
Frankfort to answer charges, but no proof being adduced 
to implicate him in any measure hostile to the Union, he 


was flischiir<;^ed, and a ball given in his honor. He then 
completed arrangements for Blennerhasset and his party, to 
go down the Ohio on the fifteen boats building at Marietta, 
to meet Burr at the month of the Cumberland, and there 
l>nrr to take command, and proceed down the Mississippi 
in (piest of "fortune and honor." In the meantime. Presi- 
dent Jetterson issued a proclamation, based upon dispatches 
sent him by General Wilkinson, in command of United 
States forces at New Orleans, cautioning the people against 
" unlawful enterprises in the western States." 

I>lennerhasset came back to his island home, and there 
unwittingly fell in with a United States detective, who 
avowed himself one of "Burr's men," and who, after draw- 
ing information out of Blennerhasset, proceeded to Ma- 
rietta, and thence to Chillicothe, and laid all before the 
Governor of Ohio, who sent a secret message to the Ohio 
Legislature, then in session, and that body at once passed 
necessary laws in the premises. The militia were called 
out, marched to Marietta, captured the fifteen boats, and 
jtatrolled the Ohio River. A party proceeded to the island 
to arrest Blennerhasset, but he and forty companions left 
in the night for down the river, with directions for Mrs. 
'Blennerhasset to follow soon. She went to Marietta, and ] 
while absent, the militia sacked the island home. 

lUirr was at Nashville — and ignorant of the fact that 
General Wilkinson had betrayed and exposed him — pro- 
ceeded on with his flotilla down the Mississippi until near 
Natchez, where the Governor of Mississippi and militia 
caused him to surrender. After examination his men were 
discharged, and Burr finding too many enemies in front, 
tied into the wilderness. Blennerhasset, on his return 
homeward, was arrested for treason, and committed to jail 
in Kentucky. Colonel, afterward General Gaines, arrested 
Burr in Alabama, who gave bond to appear at Kichmond, 
Virginia, on the 23d of May, 1807, and stand trial for trea- 
son. Both he and Blennerhasset were indicted ior treason, 
tried, and acquitted. 



Burr retired to England — wus expelled from that coun- 
try, and took up his residence in Sweden. In 1800, he went 
to Paris, became very poor, returned to New York, where 
he practiced law. lie died in 1883, 

Blennerhasset and his wife returned to Marietta, but find- 
ing his islaiuhhome a waste, removed to Mississippi, bought 
a thousand acre cotton plantation, which completed his ruin, 
by reason of the embargo on cotton. 

These two men caused more sensation, had w^armer 
friends, and more vindictive enemies than any two men of 
their day. Both became outcasts, though no crime was 
proven agitinst either. Blennerhasset died on the island 
of Guernsey in 1822. His wife unsuccessfully demanded 
damages against the government, and died in New York in 
1842, not in want — as some writers have declared — of means 
or friends, but possessed of both to a moderate extent. 

Time, in making all things even, developed the fact that 
the scandal touching her and Burr's secret intimacy was 
fictitious, and gotten up by his enemies to destroy his influ- 
ence among the people. She died a martyr " to state craft." 

C 11 A P T E 11 XII, 


Tlie impressment of American naturalized citizens on 
the higli seas by l>ritish orders, and British intrigues among 
the frontier Indians, brought on the war of 1812, and in 
which the white settlers of the Tuscarawas and Muskingum 
valleys bore an honorable part. But it is not the province 
of this work to detail other than the Indian incidents of 
that war. 

General Harrison commanded in the north-west, where 
the ])ropliet, Tecumseh, and his Ijrother, were instigating 
the Shawanese, Delawares, and other tribes, to engage in 
war for the recovery of the lands lost by the Indians at the 
Wayne treaty of 1795. Those of the Indian tribes who 
opposed his machinations, or favored the Americans, he 
had burned as witches as fast as caught by his spies. 

The atrocities of the prophet iinally caused General 
Harrison to issue and send a "speech" to the Shawanese 
cliiefs, sharply remonstrating against these actions. About 
this time the British became ver}' active with the Indians, 
and it soon came to the notice of the Americans. Eai'ly 
in 1808, large numbers of Indians congregated in the vicinity 
of Fort Wayne, on the Maumee, in obedience to a summons 
from tlie prophet. In the following summer the prophet 
removed to a place called Tippecanoe, on the upper waters 
of the Wabash, where he was soon surrounded by his 
deluded followers. Here he remained until 1810, when 


Governor Harrison received [tositive information that the 
prophet and Tccuniseh were inciting the Indians to o[>en 
a war with the Americans. Traders arriving at Vincennes 
from the upper country contirmed these reports, and asserted 
tliat not less than a thousand warriors were assembled un- 
der Tecumseh and the prophet. The government nuide 
prc[)arations for a war, but in order to prevent it called upon 
Tecumseh to meet the governor at Vincennes for a peace 
conference. Accordingly, in July, 1811, Tecumseh, with 
three hundred of his warriors, came to Vincennes. Gov- 
ernor Harrison told the Indians what he knew concerning 
their warlike preparations, and warned them against pre- 
cipitating a war. Tecumseh boldly denied all, and solemnly 
pledged the governor that he would return in eighteen 
days, when he would " wash away all these bad stories." 
Tecumseh failed to come on the appointed day, but on the 
27th of July he appeared with his three hundred warriors, 
and acted in quite a bold and defiant manner. The con- 
ference took place in the presence of the troops and the 
Indians, who were called out to protect their respective 
leaders in case of foul play from the opposite side. After 
several speeches on either side, Tecumseh proposed to let 
matters rest while he visited the southern tribes to learn 
their desires. So the meeting broke up without a definite 
understanding, and Tecumseh went down the Wabash on 
his proposed visit. 

This was his last appearance before the commencement 
of hostilities. In the meantime the mysterious conduct of 
Mie Indians liad excited and thoroughly aroused the whites. 
It is not proposed to detail here the movements of the In- 
dians or the government troops, which culminated in the 
memorable battle of Tippecanoe, which took place on the 
7tli of November, 1811, resulting in the defeat of the prophet 
and his force. Soon after the battle Tecumseh returned from 
his southern trip, and was much surprised and chagrined at 
the result of the contiict. He now proposed to Governor 


Harrison to be allowed to proceed to Washington, but was 
not encouraged, and tlie journey was at once abandoned. 

Tecuinseli and his brother now applied themselves with 
all tlieir energy and cunning toward fomenting a general 
war against the Americans, in which they were abetted and 
encouraged by the British on the Canada frontier. Matters 
finally assumed a serious phase, and the ball was opened by 
the forcible abduction of a party of peacefully disposed 
Wyandots by a detachment of British and Shawanese, ac- 
companied by Tecumseh, Elliott, and McKee. Sometime 
afterward a deputation of Indians, with the consent of Gov- 
ernor Harrison, went into the British camps to procure the 
release and return of all the Indians there who desired to 
return to tlieir own country. The Wyandots who w^ere held 
by the British secretly promised the deputation that they 
would all desert to the Americans at the first opportunity, 
which they did. 

Tecumseh, having returned from a conference with the 
British agents, Elliott and McKee, sent a message to the 
prophet to send his women and children w^estward, and 
march to attack Vincennes with all the warriors he could 
command, and that he, Tecumseh, would join him ere long. 

In June, 1812, war was declared against England by the 
United States. E^orthern Ohio, Lake Erie, Michigan, and 
Canada comprised the principal theater of the war in the 
"West; and among the noteworthy events were Colonel Cro- 
ghan's gallant defense of Fort Stephenson, on the present site 
of Fremont, Ohio ; Perry's victory on Lake Erie; Hull's 
surrender at Detroit; the complete defeat of the British 
under Proctor, and the Indians under Tecumseh, by General 
Ilarrison's army, on the river Thames, in Canada, and the 
gallant defense of ]^ew Orleans by General Jackson. 

Tecumseh was engaged in all the fights in the north-west, 
and at the decisive battle of the Thames he commanded the 
right wing of the allied British and Indian forces. When 
the retreat commenced Tecumseh fiercely exerted himself 
to stem the tide of defeat. And this was his last fight. Re- 


fusing to iMiii with the cowardly British, he renewed the 
contest, and sprang to the front of his savages, and hy his 
aippeals encouraged many to stand hy him. Finally, the In- 
dians gave way and retreated, when it was fonnd that their 
l)rave leader was killed, and around him lay a score of his 
hraves who fell at his side. The old story that Tecumseh 
was shot hj Colonel R. M. Johnson, who conmuxnded the 
Kentucky troops, has never been definitely settled. lie fell 
in front of where Colonel Johnson was wounded, and that 
is all that is positively known on the subject. But the In- 
<lians soon abandoned all hope of reco\ ering their old valleys. 
At the close of the war the English granted the family oi' 
Tecumseh a pension, as also the prophet, who lived several 
years afterward. Tecumseh was about forty-five years old 
wdien he was killed. 

The war on the lakes resulted as disastrously to the British 
navy as it had to the British army on land, and before the 
battle of New Orleans was fought, a treaty of peace was 
signed in December, 1814, betw-een the two governments, 
but the fact not being known at New Orleans, Packenham 
moved upon Jackson's army, and was demolished January 


The counties of Tuscarawas and Muskingum furnished 
in all about five hundred men for the war, and lost but about 


>Col()nel Robert Elliott came from Pennsylvania, near the 
Maryland line. lie had been twice married; the last time 
to a lady nained Hughes, by whom he had a daughter, who 
became the wife of General Irvine, commandant at Fort 
Pitt; he also had three sons, William, Wilson, and Jesse D. 
Elhott. The first emigrated to Canada; the second com- 
manded an Ohio company, from Trumbull County, at the 
seige of Fort Meigs, in the war of 1812; the third w^as second 


in command of Perry's fleet on Lake Erie, and his ship com- 
ing into action at the opportune moment, contributed to 
win the victory, Perry's flag-ship having heconic disabled, 
and he having to go aboard of Elliott's ship. It is a family 
legend that William and Wilson Elliott personally encoun- 
tered each other in a hand to hand fight at Fort Meigs. 

Commodore Jesse J). Elliott's son, Washington Klliott, 
was a Captain in the Mexican war, and a colonel of the 
regular army in the war of 1861. He was president of the 
court-martial that tried Captain Jack and his Modocs in 

Colonel Wilson Elliott's son, Jesse D. Elliott, is and has 
been one of the editors of the Ohio Democrat, at Xew Phila- 
delphia, Ohio, for thirty years past. Other branches of the 
Elliott's live at N'ewark. 

The Matthew Elliott, referred to in lleckewclder and 
Zeisberger's narratives, was of different ancestry. 


On General Wayne's march from Fort Washington into the 
Indian country, he so depleted the stores of Forts Hamilton 
and Jeiierson that Colonel Robert Elliott (grandfather of 
'Jesse I). Elliott, Esq., of ISTew Philadelphia, Tuscarawas 
County), who was acting in the capacity of quartermaster- 
general, was ordered to replenish those forts with army 
stores. While attending to this duty, and when on his way 
from Fort Washington to Fort Hamilton, accompanied by 
his body servant, a roving band of Indians that had struck 
out on a spying expedition shortly after Wayne defeated 
tlieir forces on St. Clair's old battle-field, wa3'laid and shot 
the colonel dead from his horse. The servant made good 
his escape by putting his horse to its utmost speed. He 
arrived at Fort Hamilton in the night, and soon after him 
came the faithful charger of his master. On the following 


morning- the commandant at the fort sent a sqiuul of sokliers, 
accompanied by the servant, ont after the body of the cokj- 
nel, which they found a short distance from tlie, spot where 
he feU. The savages had stripped it of all valuabk^s and a 
portion of the clothing. The body was placed in a box taken 
ont for the purpose, and the soldiers started with it for tke 
fort. When about one-third of the way in they wore fired 
upon by the same party of Indians who had sliot Elliott, and 
the servant, who had rode the colonel's liorse was killed. 
Tlie soldiers abandoned the remains and took to the woods, 
but were rallied by their commander, when they drove oW 
the Indians. In the meantime the savages had broken open 
the eofiin. The remains were then put into the wagon with 
those of the servant, and taken safely to the fort, and after- 
ward to Cincinnati, where they were buried side by side in 
the cemetry of the old Presbyterian church at that place. 
In 1835, his son. Commodore Jesse J). Elliott, of the United 
States Nav}', placed an imposing monument at the grave 
with the following inscription upon it: "In memory of 
Robert Elliott, slain by a party of Indians, near this point, 
while in the service of his country. Placed by his son. Com- 
modore Jesse D. Elliott, United States Navy, 1835. Damon 
and Fidelity." 

Sometime subsequent to the peace that was concluded by 
the treaty of Greenville, one of the Indians who comprised 
the murdering party, in relating the exploits he had engaged 
in during the war, said that he tired the shot that killed the 
colonel, and that when he attempted to scalp him the wig 
which Elliott wore came off, and that it created much merri-' 
ment among the other Indians, one of whom exclaimed, 
''damn lie!'' 















Champaign . 

Clark .....' 








Delaware .... 









Guerusoy .... 





Highland .... 





Jefferson... . 

Knox .' .... 


Lawrence... . 














Morgan "., 




1870. 18C0. ! 1850 . 1840. 1830. 1820. 1810. 1S(H) 

2,GG.i,2eO: 2,339,.51l' l,i)80,.'}2n l,.")lii,4fi7 






8,901 i 
20,. 589' 
29,016 ■ 
17,941 ! 
23,240 i 
37,011 j 










21,. 590 
26,. 500 





4; 598 

2,. 503 



35,096 j 














20,.329; 11,097 


21,746 11,1.50 






15,820 9,996 

8.085 2,674 

22,0.331 10,878 



6,.328l 1,4.59 



16,633 11,361 

6,316 1,854 

10,172 3,486 












13,341 j 






12,308 5,706 



18,.531( 17,200 
8,.326' 2,149 





11,861 3,85 

9 025 




' l,(ii'3 








::;;::::::;: ;:;::::::;;;i:;;;;::;; 


:::::::::::: :;•:::: 

18, .521 
31 938 




7,722 ......... 









Ill 1803, the lirst governor, Edward TitHu, was elected 
without opposition, I'eceiviiig 4,5(i4 votes. 

In 1807, Return J. Meigs received <),050 votes, against 
4,757 given for JSTathaniel Massie, hut Meigs soon resigned. 

In 1808, Samuel Huntington was elected, receiving 7,293 
votes ; Thomas Worthington, 5,G01, and Thomas Kirker, 

In 1810, Return J. Meigs was elected, receiving 9,921 
votes, and Thomas Worthington, 7,731. 

lu 1812, Governor Meigs was re-elected, receiving 11,859 
votes, against Thomas Scott, 7,903. 


111 1814, Thomas Worthiugton was elected, receiving 
15,879 votes, and Othniel Looker, 6,171. 

In 1816, Governor Wortliington was re-elected, receiving 
22,931 votes ; James Dunlap, 6,295, and Ethan Allen Brown, 

In 181 8, Ethan Allen Brown was elected, receiving 30,194 
votes, and James Dunlap, 8,075. 

In 1820, Governor Brown was re-elected, receiving 34,836 
votes; Jeremiah Morrow, 9,426, and William Ileur}- Har- 
rison, 4,848. 

In 1822, Jeremiah Morrow was elected, receiving 26,659 
votes; Allen Trimble, 22,899, and William W.Irwin, 11,050. 

In 1824, Governor Morrow was re-elected, receiving 
39,526 votes, and Allen Trimble, 37,108. 

In 1826, Allen Trimble was elected, receiving 71,475 
votes ; John Bigger, 4,114; Alexander Campbell, 4,765, and 
Benjamin Tappan, 4,192. 

In 1828, Governor Trimble was re-elected, receiving 53,970 
votes, and John W. Campbell, 51,951. 

In 1830, Duncan McArthur, whig, was elected, receiving 
49,668 votes, and Rovert Lucas, democrat, 49,186. 

In 1832, Robert Lucas, democrat, was elected, receiving 
71,251 votes, and Darius Lyman, whig, 63,485. 

In 1834, Governor Lucas, democrat, was re-elected, re- 
ceiving 70,738 votes, and James Findlay, whig, 67,414. 

In 1836, Joseph Yance, whig, was elected, receiving 92,204 
votes, and Eli Baldwin, democrat, 86,158. 

In 1838, Wilson Shannon, democrat, was elected, receiving 
107,884 votes, and Joseph Vance, whig, 102,146. 

In 1840, Thomas Corwin, whig, was elected, receiving 
145,442 votes, and Wilson Shannon, democrat, 129,312. 

In 1842, Wilson Shannon, was elected, receiving 119,774 
votes; Thomas Corwin, whig, 117,902, and Leceister King, 
free-soil, 5,134. 

In 1844, Mordecai Bartley, whig, was elected, receiving 
146,333 votes ; David Tod, democrat, 145,062, and Leicester 
King, free-soil, 8,898. 


In 1846, William Bebb, whig, was elected, receiving 
118,869 votes; David Tod, democrat, 116,484, and Samnel 
Lewis, free-soil, 10,797. 

In 1848, Seabury Ford, whig and free-soil, was elected, 
receiving 148,250 votes; John B. Weller, democrat, 147,886, 
and scattering, 939. 

In 1850, Reuben Wood, democrat, was elected, receiving 
133,093 votes; William Johnson, whig, 121,105, and Edwurd 
Smith, free-soil, 13,747. 

In 1853, William Medill, democrat, was elected, receiving 
147,663 votes; Nelson Berrere, whig, 85,857, and Samuel 
Lewis, free-soil, 50,346. 

In 1855, Salmon P. Chase, republican, was elected, re- 
ceiving 146,770 votes ; William Medill, democrat, 131,019, 
•and Allen Trimble, independent, 24,276. 

In 1857, Salmon P. Chase, republican, was re-elected, 
receiving 160,568 votes; Henry B. Payne, democrat, 159,065, 
and P. Van Trump, independent, 10,272. 

In 1859, William Dennison, Jr., republican, was elected, 
receiving 184,557 votes, and Rufus P. Ranney, democrat, 

In 1861, David Tod, republican, was elected, receiving 
206,997 votes, and Hugh J. Jewett, democrat, 151,794. 

In 1863, John Brough, republican, was elected, receiving 
288,374 votes, and C. L. Vallandigham, democrat, 187,492. 

In 1865, J. D. Cox, republican, was elected, receiving 
233,633 votes, and George W. Morgan, democrat, 193,797. 

In 1867, Rutherford B. Hayes, republican, was elected, 
receiving 243,605 votes, and Allen G. Thurman, democrat, 

In 1869, Governor Hayes, republican, was re-elected, re- 
ceiving 235,081 votes; George H. Pendleton, democrat, 
227,580, and Samuel Scott, prohibition, 670. 

In 1871, Edward F. Noyes, republican, was elected, re- 
ceiving 238,273 votes; George W. McCook, democnit^ 
218,105, and G. T. Stewart, prohibition, 4,084. 

In 1873, William Allen, democrat, was elected, receiving 


214,(354 votes; Edward F. Noyes, republican, 213,837 ; G. 
T. Stewart, prohibition, 10,278, and Isaac C. Collins, liberal, 

In 1875, Rutherford B. Hayes, republican, was elected, 
receiving 297,813 votes, and William Allen, democrat, 


In 1852, Franklin Pierce, democrat, received l<)8,9o3 
votes; Winiield Scott, whig, 152,553, and John P. Hale, 
free-soil, 31,332. 

In 1850, James Buchanan, democrat, received 170,874 
votes ; John C. Fremont, republican, 187,497, and Millard 
Fillmore, neutral, 28,126. 

In 1860, Stephen A. Douglas, democrat, received 187,421 
votes; Abraham Lincoln, republican, 221,809 ; John IJell, 
12,193, and John C. Breckenridge, 11,303. 

In 1864, George B. McClellan, democrat, received 205,599 
votes, and Abraham Lincoln, republican, 265,654. 

In 1868, Horatio Seymour, democrat, received 238,621 
votes, and Ulysses S. Grant, republican, 280,167. 

In 1872, Horace Greeley, democrat and conservative, re- 
ceived 244,321 votes; Ulysses S. Grant, republican, 281,852, 
and 3,225, scattering. 

















































ID'S 4. 


1, '.14!), 770 
1 ,4S0,( 12(3 


l(l,7.'il 1,989 
11 ,284,9.51 
5, .509,986 

<3J — ^ 

X o ^ 















15, ,556,810 






18, 107,. 540 
























ee '* S 






















Pike ; 













Tuscarawas .. 


Van Wort 








> X 

i . ■^, 

a; ^ r 




487', 8O7" 

001 ,353 


14, .5.50, 900 
19, .501, 200 


21, .138,672 








33, ,873,98(1 
10, .5.50, 280 




438,598,027 1 ,581 1,379,324 



In the valleys of the Tuscarawas and Muskingum are 
the main coal-iields of Ohio. In Tuscarawas County, the 
(State geologists estimate, at a rough calculation, all tlie 
workable coal to average 6 feet in thickness over 550 square 
miles, which, at 0,000,000 tons per mile, gives for 550 
s([uare miles, by measurement, 3,300,000,000 tons of coal, 
wliich of itself would last the people of Ohio several cen- 
turies — as per calculation of Geologist Briggs. Multiply 
this quantity by each county in the coal area, and it will be 
safe to say that a hundred centuries can not exhaust the 
coal-fields of the valleys. 


The modern geologists' theory is that the materials which 
were comprised in the formation of coal seams were washed 
into vast basins by the action of water, which at certain 
periods would rise to a level with the surface of the land. 
These sediments, it is claimed, were originally gathered 
fix)m the land by the constantly changing waters, and sub- 
sequently distributed in the basins which were low enough 
to be reached by the waves and tides of the sea. 

The plants which entered principally into the formation 
of coal were for the most part ferns, for in nearly all coal 
is found fossils of this plant. Fossils of trees, fishes, mol- 
lusks, and corals, also, are found in coal, showing conclu- 
sively that the natural products of the land and the living 
things of the sea, together, enter mainly into the compo- 
sition of coal. 

It is conjectured that at the time the highest coal seam 
was formed a permanent change affected the topography 
of our land. This change was the elevation of the high 


mountain ranges and the draining of the major portion of 
what is now hind. The length of time oecnpicd in pro- 
ducing all the changes on the surface hy which the coal 
seams were formed is entirely incomprehensihle to man, 
and must have continued throuirh countless aires. 

In this connection it is well to notice the mountain forma- 
tions, and the ghicial period. The periods suhsequent to tlu; 
carboniferous, or coal period, as known in geology are, per- 
rnian, triassic, Jurassic, cretaceous, tertiary, ([uarternary, ami 
human. Of these, from the carboniferous to the quarter- 
nary, all are wanting in this part of our continent. The 
most lucid explanation of this great break in the regular 
formations yet given, is that at the close of the coal period 
a vast expanse of our continent was raised far above the 
seas, and from that time the formations were continued 
only on the water margins, and these have changed from 
time to time, which will account for the presence of certain 
deposits in some portions of the continent which are a blank 
in others. During the progress of this great upheaval of 
land, much more powerful forces were expended in various 
localities and along certain lines, which resulted in forming 
higher elevations, and these, from contact with the ice dur- 
ing the glacial period, were reduced to our, present moun- 
tain and hill ranges. The forces that culminated in these 
elevations, stupendous as they must have been, have only 
b6en ascribed to some extraordinary volcanic action, or some 
unaccountable slowly acting but resistless power within the 

Succeeding the period which changed the level of this 
once great plain into hills and valleys, was what is termed 
the drift period, during which oceans and mountains of ice 
came doAvn from the north, traces of which are found as far 
south as Cincinnati. In their course the glaciers plowed 
down the sides of mountains and hills, dug out the basins 
of the great lakes, and in breaking up dropped tjie great 
bowlders which were frozen in them in the north, and which 
are found wholly exposed upon the hills and in the valleys 


at the present day. This period Avas followed b}^ the siib- 
mergeiR'C of the present lower hills and plains. This in 
turn was changed by the depression of the island seas, and 
the gradual drainage caused the alluvial deposits found in 
all the present valleys. As the waters receded the flow was 
reduced to lower lands where channels were formed, which, 
by the long-continued action of the waters, were worn out 
to great depths, and these channels were again filled up 
many hundreds of feet by the ebbing and flowing oi^, the 
waters, until the beds of the streams became elevated above 
the reach of the tides. Subsequent slight changes have 
occurred, but they are so well known that their mention is 
not required in this article. 


As regards the coming and going of the dift'erent seas 
over the localities in which coal has been formed from their 
sediments, and the time required to produce coal, being 
claimed by some writers to be in conflict with the scriptural 
account of the Mosaic deluge. Dr. Kitto, the great biblical 
cyclopedian, after discussing the subject, arrives at this 
conclusion: "There is no limit to Omnipotence, and one 
miracle is not greater than another. If we suppose the 
flood to have been miraculously produced, and all the diffi- 
culties thus overcome, we can also suppose that it was not 
only miraculously terminated, but every trace and mark of 
it supernaturally eflaced and destroj-ed." 

I'rofessor Lyell, the most eminent geologist of the present 
age, harmonizes the seeming contradiction between the 
natural laws governing the structure of the world and the 
scriptural account of the K^oachian deluge, thus: "li' we 
believe the flood to have been a temporary suspension of 


the ordinary laws of the natural world, requiring a mirac-- 
ulous intervention of Divine power, tlien it is evicU'ut tliat 
the credibility of such an event cau not be enluuu-ed by any 
series of inundations, however analogous, of whieh the 
geologist may imagine he has discovered the proofs. For 
my own part, I have always considered the flood as a \)ro- 
ternatural event, far be^^ond the reach of philosophical in- 
quiry, whether as to the cause employed to produce it, or 
the efecfs most likely to result from it." 

The Christian believer in the Bible narratives has no 
contradictions to reconcile between them and geology. 


Adams Coanty — Joseph Darlington, Israel Donalson, and 
Thomas Kirker. 

Belmont County — James Caldwell and Elijah Woods. 

Clermont County — Philip Gatch and James Sargent. 

Fairfield County — Henry Abrams and Emanuel Car- 

Hamilton County — John W. Browne, Charles Willing 
Byrd, Francis Dunlavy, William Goforth, John Kitchell, 
Jeremiah Morrow, John Paul, John Reily, John Smith, 
and John Wilson. 

Jefferson County — Rudolph Bair, George Humphrey, John 
Milligan, Nathan Updegrafl", and Bazaleel Wells. 

Ross County — Michael Baldwin, James Grubb, Nathaniel 
Massie, and Thomas Worthington. 

Trumbull County — David Abbott and Samuel Hunting- 

WasJungton County — Ephraim Cutler, Benjamin Ives 
Gilman, John Mclntyre, and Rufus Putnam. 

EDWARD TIFFIN, President, 

and representative from Ross County. 

Thoma8 Scott, Secretary. 


. VENTION, MAECH 10, 1851. 

S. J. Andrews, William Barbee, Joseph Banictt, Dhv'kI 
Bariiet, William S. Bates, A. I. Bennett, John II. Blair, 
Jacob Blickensclerfer, Van Brown, R. W. Cahill, L, Case, 
David Chambers, John Chany, H. D. Clark, George Col- 
lins, Friend Cook, Otway Curry, Gr. Volney Dorsey, Thomas 
W. Ewart, John Ewing, Joseph M. Farr, Elias Florence, 
Robert Forbes, H. N. Gillett, John Graham, Jacob J. Greene, 
John L. Green, Henry H. Gregg, W. S. Groesbeck, C. S. 
Hamilton, D. D.T. Hard, A, Harlan, William Hawkins, 
James P. Henderson, Peter Hitchcock, J. McCormick, G. 
W. Holmes, George B. Holt, John J, Hootman, V. B. Hor- 
ton, Samuel Humphreville, John E. Hunt, B. B. Hunter, 
John Johnson, J. Daniel Jones, James B. King, S. J. Kirk- 
wood, Thomas J. Larsh, William Lawrence, John Larwill, 
Robert Leech, D. P. Leadbetter, John Lidey, James Lou- 
don, H. S. Manon, Samson Mason, Matthew H, Mitchell, 
Isaiah Morris, Charles McCloud, S. F. ISTorris, Charles J. 
Orton, W. S. C. Otis, Thomas Patterson, Daniel Peck, 
Jacob Perkins, Samuel Quigley, R. P. Ranney, Charles 
Reemelin, Adam N. Riddle, Edward C. Roll, William Saw- 
yer, Sabirt Scott, John Sellers, John A. Smith, George J. 
Smith, B. P. Smith, Henry Stanbery, B. Stanton, Albert V. 
Stebbins, E. T. Stickney, Harman Stidger, -lames Strul>le, 
J. R. Swan, L. Swift, James W. Taylor, jSTorton S. Town- 
shend, Elijah Vance, William M. Warren, Thomas A. Way, 
ij. Milton Williams, Elsey Wilson, James T. Worthington, 
E. B. Woodbury, H. C. Gray, Edward Archbold,' Reuben 
Hitchcock, F. Case, Joseph Vance, Richard Stillwell, 
Simeon Nash, Hugh Thompson, and Joseph Thompson. 

William II. Gill, Secretary, 


VENTION, MAY 14, 1874. 

Charles J. Alln-iglit, Isaac N. Alexander, S. J. Andrews, 
Llewellyn Baber, James W. Bannon, David Barnet, Thomas 
Beer, 11. M. Bishop, John II. Blose, I'erry Bpsworth, Bar- 
nabus Burns, Absalom P. Byal, John L. Caldwell, Joseph 
P. Carbery, Harlow Chapin, Samuel W. Clark, Milton L. 
Clark, Adam Clay, John B. Coats, Asher Cook, 1). J). T. 
Cowen, Theodore E. Cunningham, R. Be Steigner, A. W. 
Doan, G. Volney Dorsey, Thomas Ewing, M. A. Foran, 
Julius Freiberg, Mills Gardner, T. J. Godfrey, Jacob J. 
Greene, Seneca O. Griswold, Harvey Guthrie, John C. llale, 
John W. Herron, George William Hill, P. Hitchcock, 
George Iloadly, Joseph D. Ilorton, James C. Ilostetter, 
S. Humphreville, Samuel F. Hunt, Lyman J. Jackson, 
Elias II. Johnson, W. P. Kerr, A. Kraemer, W. V. M. 
Layton, John K. McBride, John McCauley, John W. 
McCorniick, Ozias Merrill, George D. Miller, John L. 
Miner, Charles H, Michener, Jacob Mueller, Thomas J. 
Mullen, Henry S. Neal, William Okey, Henry F. Page, 
Anson Pease, Charles Phellis, W. H. Phillips, Francis B. 
Pond, T. W. Powell, Albert M. Pratt, J. W. Reilly, John 
J. Rickly, C. W. Rowland, Daniel A. Russell, Charles C. 
Russell, William Sample, W. E. Scolield, Charles 11. Scrib- 
ner, John D. Sears, John ShaAv, Emanuel Shultz, John A. 
Smith, James B. Steedman, T. F. Thompson, Amos Town- 
send, Thomas P. Townsley, James Tripp, R. S. Tulloss, 
George M. Tuttle, Asa II. Tyler, James S. Van Valken 
burgh, Daniel Van Voorhis, Carolus F. Voorhes, A. C. 
Voris, W. G. Waddle, Cooper K. Watson, S. P. Weaver, 
W. 11. West, C. A. White, A. White, David M. Wilson, 
Hamilton B. Woodbury, John II. Young, and William J. 
Young. RUFUS KING, President. 

Dudley W. Rhodes, Secretary. 

The constitution framed in 1874 was rejected as a whole. 


In 1875, its most ol)jeetii)iuil)le article was adopted, aiitl the 
reiiiaiiiiiig articles will be hereafter adopted, in accordauee 
with the puljlic necessities. 


The rise and progress ot" the public press in the two 
valleys, as herewith sobjoined, is as nearly correct as the 
same can be given. The newspaper, having become the 
most potent intellectual engine in the Avorld, to sway the 
pultlic mind, the historian tails in his duty as conqtiler of 
events unless his report of the pul)lic press goes side by side 
with the statistics of [loptdation and physical ami mental 

Coshocton Coil nil/ f>'<'-'-^-''- — At C(>shocton, the Aife, repuldi- 
can in politics, founded in 1824, edited by W. T. Collier, 
and circulation about 1,200 ; the Democrat, democratic in 
politics, founded in 1840, edited by J. C. Fisher, and cireu- 
lation about 1,000. 

Morgan County Press. — At McConnellsville, the Herald, 
republican in politics, founded in 1842, edited by Kahler c*t 
Foulke, and circtdation about 1,800; the Democrat, dem- 
ocratic in politics, founded in 1871, edited by F. A. Davis, 
and circulation about 800. 

31uskin(]U7n County Press. — At Zanesville, the Courier, 
republican in politics, founded in 1800, edited by Newman 
& Dodd, and circulation about 3,100 ; the Signal, demo- 
cratic in politics, founded in 1864, edited by James T. Ir- 
vine, and circulation about 1,800 ; the City Times, inde- 
pendent in politics, founded in 1852, edited by W. W. 
Pyle, and circulation about 800 ; the Farmers' and Me- 
chanics' Advocate, independent in politics, founded in 
1870, edited by J. T. Shryock, and circulation about 1,400; 
Blandy's Monthly, independent in politics, founded in 
1867, and edited by H. & F. Blandy. 

Stark County Press. — At Alliance, the Leader, Monitor, 
Review, Telegraph — four in all — edited by W. M. T'helps, 


M. McClellan, S. J. McKee, and J. W. Gillespie, an.l u^-- 
grcgatc circulation of 5,000 ; at Canton, the Repository, 
republican in politics, founded iu 1815, edited l»y Josiali 
Ilartzell, and circulation aljout 2,400; the Stark Comity 
Democrat, democratic in politics, founded iu 18.'Jo, edited 
by A. McG-regor, and circulation about 2,200; the Staats 
Zeituug, democratic in politics, founded iu 1875, edited l)y 
N. iVIontag & Co., and circulation al)out 1,340; the Times, 
democratic in politics, edited by M. A. Stewart, and circu- 
lation about 1,300; at Massillon, the Indei>endent. rc[)ul)1i- 
can in i)olitics, founded in 18(33, edited by Welker & Taylor, 
and circulation al)Out 700; the American, independent in 
politics, edited by S. iV J. Hoover, and circulation about 
800; at Minerva, the Commercial, republici-n in politics, 
founded in 1868, edited by Weaver Brothers, and circulation 
about 700. 

Tuscarawas County Press. — At New Philadelphia, the 
Ohio Democrat, democratic in politics, founded in 1830, ed- 
ited by Matthews, Elliott & Co., and circulation about 1,400 ; 
the Advocate, republican in politics, founded in 1819, edited 
by J. L. Mcllvaine, and circulation about 1,500 ; the 13eo- 
bachter, democratic in p)olitics, founded in 1871, edited ])y 
Walter & Minning-, and circulation about 1,000 ; at Dover, the 
l^eporter, indepeisdent in politics, founded in 1871, edited 
by It. Watson, and circulation about 900 ; at New Comers- 
town, the Argus, repul)lican in politics, founded in 1870, 
edited by George McClelland, and circulation about 1,000; 
at Uhrichsville, the Chronicle, republican in politics, founded 
in 1865, edited by W. A. Dittinger, and circulation aitout 

Washinqfan ('onnfy Press. — At Marietta, the Mariettiaii, 
inde[)endcnt iii politics, ibumled iu 18<>5, published by the 
Steam Ih'inting (!om[>any, and circulation a))out 1,500 ; tlie 
Register, republican in jtolitics, founded in 1801, edited by 
E. K. Alderma;i. and circulation about 2,500; tln' Times, 
democi'atc in jiolitics, founded in 1864, edited l)y S. McMil- 
len, and' circulation al)out 1,400; tlie Zcitung, neutral iu 

292 . 

politics, founded in 1808, edited by Jacob Mueller, and 
circulation about 800 ; at Belpre, the Courier, neutral in 
politics, and edited by T. II. Winchester. 

Of non-political, daily, semi-weekly, tri-weekly, 
weekly, monthly papers, and magazines there 
are in Ohio 200 

Of political papers there are 175 

Total 375 

200 non-political papers circulate 700,000 

90 republican papers circulate , 300,000 

85 democratic papers circulate 250,000 

Total circulation 1,250,000 

Of these, three-fourths are weekly issues, one-eighth 
daily, one-sixteenth tri-weeklj'- and semi-weekly, and one- 
sixteenth semi-monthly and monthly. 

The weekly issues are 937,500 

The daily issues are -. 156,250 

The tri-weekly and semi-weekly issues are 78,125 

The semi-monthly and monthly issues are 78,125 

Total issues 1,250,000 


Salt Creek empties into the Muskingum at Duncan's 
Falls, below Zanesville. On this creek the tirst salt works 
were erected in the valley, about 1796. Fifty settlers put 
in $1.50 each. They bought twenty-four kettles at Pitts- 
burgh, which were brought to the falls by water trans- 
portation down the Ohio and up the Muskingum, and 
thence carried seven miles to the salt licks on pack-horses. 


A well was dug iifteen feet deep, to the salt rock. A hollow 
sycamore, three feet in diameter, was then put down, and 
bedded into the rock, so as to prevent leakage. The twenty- 
four kettles were built in two ranges of stone, and a shed 
erected over them, with a cabin nearby. A sweep and pole 
raised the salt water up the hollow sycamore, to troughs 
conveying it to the kettles. The owners took turns in 
work, live men being required to run the works. Every 
two weeks they changed, and another set of live men took 
tlieir places. The kettles were kept boiling night and day. 
A yoke of oxen and one man kept the works in wood. 
Eight hundred gallons of water were used to make lifty 
pounds of salt, which consumed twelve hours in the mak- 
ing, and was worth three dollars. Thus, it took in those 
times six men and a yoke of oxen to earn that sum in twelve 
hours. The works, however, were a great public conven- 
ience, and settlers came forty miles to get salt. This salt 
company was kept up about three years, and afterward 
the State became the owner, and leased the works out at 
a fixed rent, until no person would pay the amount, when 
these primitive salt works disappeared. 




Zaiiesville was laid out in 1799, by Jonathan Zane and 
John Mclntyre, and the same 3"ear houses were erected 
thereon. Among other early settlers were William McCul- 
lough, Henry Crooks, Jamss Duncan, Increase Matthews, 
Levi Whipple, Edwin Putnam, and some of the Zane 

As early as 1790, attempts w^ere made to settle in Morgan 
County, but the ferocity of the Indians compelled the 
settlers who were not killed to iiee for their lives. About 
the year 1800, peace having been made with the Indians b}^ 
the Greenville treaty of 1795, settlers came and dotted the 
county here and there with their cabins; and in due time 
villages were laid out by original settlers — among whom 
are to be found the names of Anderson, McConnell, D'eaver, 
Fisher, Hoskins, Sharon, Wharton, Wood, &c. 

In 1818, the county of Morgan was formed, aud the 
county seat established at McConnellsville, the original 
owner of which was Robert McConnell, one of the inilu- 
ential men of that day in the county. 

The editor is indebted to W. G. Moorehead, Esq., for 
the names of the following early settlers in Muskingum 
County : 

J ohn Mclntyre, the founder of Zanesville ; Lewis Cass, 
Elijah Merwin, Wylys Sillimau, Samuel W. Culbertson, 
and Samuel Ilerrick — the five last being lawyers of wide 
celebrit}^ Among the prominent citizens were Judges 


Stilhvell, Fiiilcy, i'utiiam, and Jotfrios ; General Van Uorn, 
General Gi-eeii, Captains Taylor and Cass, Maiof Cass, 
Major L'ierce, Captain Pierce, George, Kicliard, and James 
Reeve; Moses, John, and Isaac Dillon; Jose])li ('Imrcli, 
James Cnlbertson, Captain Ross, Geoi-o-e Jackson, Daniel 
Converse, Robert Fnlton, Robert TTazlett, Isaac Ilazlett, 
Ilngli Ilazlett, Alexander McLaugldin, Alexander Adams, 
Nathan Finley, Colonel John Halle, James Ilampson, 
William Blocksom, Gilbert Blose, Henry Wlieeler, James 
Granifer, Henry Granger, Doctors Belknap, l^'owler, Sal- 
ford, Matthews, Rhodes, Conant, Hanna, and Mitchell ; 
El)enczer Buckingham, Solomon Sturges, J. D. Cushing — 
one of the tirst four children born in Ohio; Captain Elijah 
Ross, William Dennison — father and son; Captain lienoni 
fierce — killed at River Raisin in the war of 181"2 ; Jolin 
Dugan, Nathan, Joseph, John, James, and Absalom Rob- 
erts; James Crosby, Joseph Shepherd, Thonnis Moorehead, 
Joseph Robertson, William Pelham, Jetirey Price, diaries 
Elliott — author of a work on Romanism; Peter Strickland, 
David Young, and several families of the Adamses. 

Joseph Fisher, Esq., ex-survej^or, furnishes the following 
list of early settlers of Muskingum County : 

" William S. Dennison, whose donation to Granville Col- 
lege gave it its present name, Dennison University, came, 
when a boy, with his father, from Massachusetts to Mus- 
kingum County, aljout 1810. He is a well-known farmer 
and stock-raiser; has never aspired to anj' oihcc, but has, 
by constant attention to business, acquired a conip(.^tency. 

'-Daniel Stillwell, known as Judge Stillwell, in an early 
day one of the associate judges. of the common jileas court 
of Muskingum County, emigrated from Eastern I'enn- 
sylvania, purchased a quarter township of land — fonr 
thousand acres — in Madison township, and was a successfnl 
farmer. He was the fatlier of Ricliard Stillwell, tor some 
years judges of the court of common }»leas. The old gentle- 
man, in crossing the Muskingum River, some years ago. 
when too high to be safely forded, had his buggy upset by 


the current, and he and his granddaughter were drowned. 
Jlis youngest son, John Stilhvell, is now a resident of Ten- 
nessee, some fifteen or twent}' miles north-west of Nashville. 

"George W. Adams, the owner of Adams' mills and of 
the Ewing mills, is a Virginian by birth, came to Mus- 
kingum Count}' from Farquier County, Virginia, with his 
father, George Adams, early in the present century. His 
brother Edward and he built a mill near the present Adams 
mills, about the 3'ear 1828 or 1829, and afterward the Ewing 
mills, near Dresden. They acquired a large landed estate 
in Muskingum and Coshocton counties. He represented 
Muskingum County one term in the legislature, as member 
of the house of representatives, A. 1). 1840. 

"Jesse John emigrated from eastern Pennsylvania to Blue 
Rock township, Muskingum County, He was a respect- 
able, influential man in that part of the county. The 
father of Davis John, who represented this county in the 
legislature two terms — 1843-44, and 1845-46. 

"Henry Wheeler, aged upward of eighty years, came 
from western Virginia to Ohio, when a young man; settled 
in Muskingum County ; resides near Adamsville ; has been 
a member of the Baptist church at that place forty-five or 
fifty years, and was one of the county commissioners at 
one time. 

"Charles II. Copland came from Ilichmond, Virginia, 
when a young man. His father was the owner of a quarter 
township of land — four thousand acres — being partly in 
Madison and partly in Muskingum townships. He married 
Evelina Adams, daughter of George Adams, who was also 
a large land-owner in Madison township. Mr. Copland 
and his wife are still living in Madison. They are upward 
of eighty years old. 

" George Slack and Jacob Slack, brothers, and living in 
the same neighborhood in Washington township, Muskin- 
gum County, came from Virginia, Loudon County, early 
in the present century, with their father, John Slack — long 
•since dead. The}' are between eighty and ninety years old. 


"David Richardson and Martin Richardson, brothers, 
settled in Monroe township, Muskingum County, at an 
early day. They came from one of the 'New England 
States, and were prominent farmers in that part of the 
county. They died some years ago. 

"John Van Voorhis, an early settler of Muskingum 
County, and a successful farmer in Licking township, came 
from Pennsylvania, and died a year or so ago, upward of 
ninety years of age. His son, Daniel Van Voorhis, who 
was a representative in the legislature one session, and was 
also a member of the constitutional convention of 1873-'74, 
still resides in Licking township, near Nashport." 



Colonel Charles Williams was the first settler in Coshoc- 
ton County. Born in Washington County, Maryland, in 
1764. He married Susannah Carpenter, on the banks of 
the Ohio River, in the vicinity of Wheeling ; emigrated to 
the salt works, on the Muskingum River, and after remain- 
ing there for a time removed to the forks of the Muskingum, 
and built a cabin on the bank of the river where Coshocton 
now stands. This was i n i>he year 1800. The next year George 
and Thomas Carpenter, his brothers-in-law, arrived ; also 
William and Samuel Morrison. These men, making their 
home with Colonel Williams the first year, raised a crop 
of corn on " the praiHe," four miles up White Woman's 
Creek. This was probably the first crop of corn raised in 
the county, and was in the year 1801. The same year 
(1801) Michael Miller located the second cpiarter, township 
four, range six. He lived seven weeks on venison, bear 
meat and other game, without bread of any kind. 

The first lands located were those along the rivers. 
Among the first sections located were second quarter, 
township five, range six, Elijah Backus, of Marietta; first 
quarter, township five, range six, Chandler Price and Ben- 


jiiiiiiii Morgan, ui' Pliil:ulel})liia; second quarter, township) 
four, range six, Michael Miller; third quarter, townsiiip 
six, range eight, third quarter, township six, range nine, 
Cairnoan Medowell, of Philadelphia; third quarter, town- 
ship five, range six, third quarter, township six, range four, 
fourth quarter, township six, range five, Martin Bauni, of 
Cincinnati; third quaiter, township four, range six, Ben- 
jamin Robinson; fourth quarter, township five, range live, 
J)ennian and Wells, of Essex County, New Jersey. 

John Matthews, surveyor of Marietta, made a number 
of the early locations for non-residents, receiving a cei'tain 
part of the land as his compensation. There were thirty- 
three military sections located in Cosliocton County. 

Among the early settlers should be mentioned George 
and Henry Miller, Isaac Hoglin, George McCulloch, An- 
drew Craig, William Whitten, Elijah Newcomb, Benjamin 
Robinson, Abraham Sells. 

Colonel Williams kept the first tavern, the first store, 
and the first ferry. The house which he first erected was 
burned after a few years, with the loss of two children. 
lie rebuilt on the same lot, and here, after the county 
was organized, court was held. The hardships of frontier 
life may be illustrated by the fact that Colonel Williams' 
daughter, at the age of twelve years, would sometimes 
ride on horseback to the White-eyes Plains (six miles) lor 
a sack of grain; the next day go with the grain to mill at 
Zanesville, and return the third day. 

Major Cass located in the Muskingum valley, fourteiui 
miles north of Coshocton. 

From 1805 to 1812 the population of the county in- 
creased very rapidly, as is shown by the fac;t that Coshoc- 
ton County, embracing at that time part of what is now 
Holmes County, furnished four companies for the war of 
1812: one company of volunteers under the command of 
Captain Adam Johnston ; and three companies of drafted 
men, under the comnumd of Captains Tanner, Beard and 


(Joslidctoii was laid out in 1802, by Ebciiczcr Uuckiug- 
bani and Joliii Matthews, of Marietta, under tlie name of 
Tuscarawa. The comity was organized, and the name of 
the county seat changed, in April, 1811. "The lirst toAvn- 
ships organized were Tuscarawas, Washington, ISTew Castle, 
Franklin, Oxford, and Linton. 

Court was lirst held in Coshocton County in April, 1811, 
Little was done at'this term, except to order elections for 
justices of the peace in several of the townships. Court 
also sat in September, at which time several minor cases 
were disposed of. The first case in whicli there were any 
pleadings tiled was at the Decem\ier term, 1811 — Charles 
Williams vs. Adam Marpley ; Lewis Cass, attorney for 
plaintiii"; John Howard, attorney for defendant ; judge, 
William Wilson; associates, William Mitchell, Isaac Evans, 
and Peter Casey ; judgment of $9.56 in favor of plaintiff. 

Among the first officers of the county were, Cornelius 
P. Vankirk, sheriff; Adam Johnston, clerk and recorder; 
Wright Warner, prosecuting attorney ; William Lockart, 
county surveyor, and William Whitten, justice of the peace. 

The first resident pliysician was Dr. Samuel Lee, who 
located here in 1811. llev. J. W. Pigman, of the Metfiodist 
Episcopal church, who lived in the western part of the 
county, and Rev. Timothy Harris, of the Congregational 
church, Utica, used to preacli here occasionally about the 
beginning of the war of 1812. The first Sunday-school 
was organized in the year 1824, under the superintendence 
of James lienfrew. 

The first mill in the county was built several years be- 
fore the war of 1812, by Jesse Fulton, one mile south-east 
of Coshocton, on the farm since known as the Benjamin 
Rickets place. A mill run by horse power was erected 
soon after this on lot numbered two hundred and sixteen, 
corner of Cadiz and Second streets (the llarbaugh lot). 

The first brick house in Coshocton was built in 181 ii, 
corner of Cadiz and Second streets (the Fi'itchey house). 

Before the construction of the Ohio Canal, goods were 


brought from Pittsburgh to Coshocton in keel-boats, via 
Marietta — a slow and laborious method. Letters came 
from Philadelphia in twenty-five days — postage twenty-live 

Coshocton was visited by the " cold plague" in 1814 — 
quite a number of fatal cases occurring in the town and 

It is said that Louis Philippe, afterward king of Prance, 
visited Coshocton in the character of a schoolmaster, during 
his exile. His aristocratic notions were not in keeping 
with the republican ideas and rude manners of the frontier, 
and his stay was very short. 

Caldersburgh was laid out in 181G, on the west bank of 
the Muskingum, by James Calders. A large addition was 
subsequently laid out north of the old town, and the name 
changed to Roscoe. 

The completion of the canal marks an important epoch 
in the material prosperity of Coshocton, and other counties 
in the valley, as it afforded an outlet for the enormous 
crops of wheat which were raised after the clearing away 
of the forests. 

An incident of those early days may be worth preserva- 
tion : Five or six runaway slaves, from Virginia, made 
their way to Coshocton, and were quartered at the house 
of Pryor Foster, a colored man. Word had reached the 
citizens beforehand of their escape — a large reward being 
offered for their capture ; but such was the popularit}^ of 
Foster among the white people, that they were willing to 
assist in the escape of the refugees. Poster kept them in 
his house, and stood guard outside all night, to prevent any 
possible interference. The next morning he took them 
across the river, and hid them in a cave a mile west of 
Caldersburgh. The pursuers soon after made their appear- 
ance — pretty confident of overtaking the slaves — having 
traced them in this direction. But no satisfactory informa- 
tion was to be obtained. Some show of violence was also 
offered, and they rode out of town and gave up the pursuit. 


When it was certain that the coast was clear, Foster took 
them to the White Woman River, and tokl them to travel 
up the stream — giving them such farther directions as would 
enable them to reach Lake Erie and Canada. 

This occurrence was about the time of the construction 
of the Ohio Canal. The slaves were jaftervvard ca])turcd 
some distance north-west of Coshocton, and taken back to 



After the treaty of Greenville, in 1795, the territory now 
in Stark County attracted many emigrants, down to the 
period when it was organized into a county, with Canton 
for the county seat, which was laid out in 180(3, l^y Bazaled 
Wells, of Steubenville. 

From that period the emigrants from Pennsylvania and 
Maryland flocked in, and in later years the Germans from 
Europe came, and made it one of the rich and prosperous 
counties of Ohio. 

Among the prominent men of the county forty years 
ago — and some of whom being of the first settlers — may 
be mentioned Parker Handy, William Williams, Thomas 
Blackburn, Jacob Palmer, V. II. Kimball, John Kryder, II. 
D. Williams, David Stripe, William Dunbar, James Allen, 
John Saxton, Daniel Gutshall, Peter Kaufiman, P. Loutz- 
enheiser, Samuel Ilownstine, Samuel Lyons, George IST. 
Webb, George Crouse, George Cribbs, George Roudebush, 
Richard Sheckles, John Dunbar, Elias D. Albert, Arnold 
Lynch, William McCormick, William Sarball, Ent»s Raf- 
fensperger, Eli Sala, George B. Hoss, Harmon Stidger, 
Heram Griswold, John Harries, Samuel Lahm, Lyman 
Pease, George Slusser, Daniel Diewalt, Thomas H. Webb, 
Alexander McCulley, John, James, Elias, and Matthew 
Johnston, Oses Welch, Joseph Watson, Silas Rawson, H. 


B. riiirllnitt, Lewis Srliaefter, Al)cl and Jame^ TT. Ui^(]^ep_ 
liill, Kohurt 11. Folger, Daniel Atwatcr, (icorgc J)ic\valt, 
']i)\\]i ISclilosscr, John Myers, VV^illiam Fogle, William Tof- 
llcr, John Short, Sr., John C. Rockwell, Henry Kitziniller, 
Matthias Shcphir, l*eary Stidger, David A. Starkweuther, 
John K. Dnidjar, O. T. Browning, Judge Sowers, Peter 
Orot't, William Christmas, John Black, William White, 
Doctor Ba[iiicl, William iUichcr, Daniel Kairens[>erger, 
Andrew Meyer, Martin Wokedal, Benjamin F. Leiter, Wil- 
liam Lemon, Doctor Kohert Estep, Joseph \Litthews, Sr., 
John I'irroiig, Jonathan G. Lester, William Reed, Samuel 
Stover, Serapliun Myer, Jacol) Scdmeider, Henry Uawrei-ht, 
John Uex, John Clark, Doctor Whiting, C. C. A. Witting, 
Samuel I'etry, William Beals^ Samuel Stanker, Joshua 
Saxton, Joseph Shorb, John Hawk, Samuel Hawk, Samuel 

Of the above, Matthias Sheplar, David A. Starkweather, 
and Benjamin F. Leiter, each were members of Congress. 
John Rex was the father of Hon. George Rex, now one of 
the supreme judges of Ohio. John Saxton, Esq., James 
Allen, William Dunbar, Daniel Gutsliall, Peter Kautfmah, 
were all able editors. Several of the others named repre- 
sented the county in the legislature. The physicians named 
were able men in their profession, known far and wide. 
Tlie lawyers, Griswold, Starkweather, Carter, Lalim, and 
Belden, had no superior in eastern Ohio; and of the others 
it may be said that, as farmers and business men, tlieir in- 
fluence and examples at an early day made Stark Countj^ 
take raidv as one of the tirst-class counties in the State. 


The Krst I)uildings erecte<] in the present eoiiiity oi Tus- 
caravva-s were, so far as known, as follows: r7<><>, Thomas 
(Jalhoun, trader's house, on the west Itank of the Tusca- 
rawas, near Bolivar ; 1701, Christian Post's dwelling house, 
o)i the east bank of the Tuscarawas, near Bolivar; ITtIo, 


James O'llarn's trader house, on the east bank of the Tns- 
earawas, near BoHvar ; 1772, David Zeisbergcr's mission 
houses, on the east bank of the Tusearawas, at Schoen- 
brunn; 1773, John Christian Roth, and others, houses at 
Gnadenhutten; 1774, James Campbell and otliers, tracer 
house, at present New Comerstown; 1770, D. Zeisl)erger and 
otliers, houses on the west Inuik of the Tuscarawas, New 
Schoenbrunn; 1780, J, Heekewehler and others, houses (»ii 
the west bank of the. Tuscarawas, at Salcni ; 17IM), Oliarles 
Stevens, settler, in the present township of Fairlield ; 17!'7, 
C. Clevvell and John Carr and others, at present Onaden- 
huttcu; 1708, Mortimer Ben^ei' and others, dwellitiii's at 
Goshen ; 1707, Jacob Bush, Paul Greer, [*eter Kdmonds, 
Ezra and Peter Warner, and others of the settlers; 1700, 
David Peter o[>ened a store at Gnadenhutten lor Jact>b 
Kecksecker, and 11. Bollinger brought teams with goods foj- 
the store; 1800, Lewis Huebner, pastor's house and Bee- 
sheba church, on the west side of the river, near lock num- 
ber seventeen ; John Kinsey and George Stiffer built near 
New Philadelphia in 1804; Philip Menech built on the 
}>resent Gooden farm in 1805; John Hull built the lirst 
house in New Philadelphia in 1805; Jacob Uhrich built 
the first mid (water) at IThrichville, in 1807; the lirst horse- 
mills were put up in 1772, '73 and '74, by the missionaries; 
the first tavern built in New Philadelphia was by Leninger, 
in 1807 ; .the first still house in the county was put up by 
Gabriel Cryder, on the west side of the Tuscarawas, about 
equi-distant between New Philadelphia and Dover. A Mr. 
Vanrouff l)uilt the tirst ark, or grain-boat, at the canal at 
Dover; George Sluthour did the carpenter work. Amos 
St. Clair built the lirst bridge across the river, at Dover, in 


John Ludwig Roth, sou of Rev. John and Maria Agnes 
Roth, was 1)orn at Gnadenhutten mission, in the jtresent 
Tuscarawas (>ounty, on the fourth day of Jtdy, /\. D. 1773. 


This was the first white child born in the valley, and it is 
claimed to be the tirst in Ohio, but the white wife of a 
French officer gave birth to a child at Fort Jiinandat, on 
the Sandusky, as early as 1754, and while Ohio was French 

On the 18th of April, 1781, was born at Salem, in the 
present Tuscarawas County, Maria, daughter of John and 
Sarah Joanna Ileckewelder. Her birth has been stated as 
occurring on April 6, 1781, but the 13th is correct. 

Richard Conner- and wife had one or more children born 
at Schoenbrunn prior to 1781. 

Of the several ministers, Mortimer, Smick, Jungman, 
Edwards, Senseman, and others, none had children in the 
valley, except as above named. 


Prior to 1775 seventeen interments of Christians had 
taken place at Schoenbrunn grave-yard, on the farm now 
owned by Rev. Elisha P. Jacobs, three miles east of New 
Philadelphia. Betweeu 1774 and 1781 a larger number 
were there interred, aggregating about forty in all. It was 
the first burying grounds of Christians in the two valleys, 
and has long since been obliterated by tlie plow. 

At Gnadenhutten grave-yard an equal, if not greater, 
number of Christians were interred prior to 1782, when 
the town was burned and inhabitants slaughtered. In 
October, 1799, John Ileckewelder and David Peter, who had 
came to the burnt town in 1797, gathered up the bones of 
the slain and buried them in a cellar, on the spot where 
the monument stands. 

In 1801, Rev. William Edwards was buried at Goshen 
cemetery, as also Zeisberger in 1808, and a number of Chris- 
tian Indians. 

The above three are undoubtedly the most ancient ceme- 
teries in the county, and the first two are the most ancient 
Christian burying grounds in the State of Ohio. 



< )f tlie first proachci's in the county mention may be made 
of David Zeisberger, 1772 ; Rev. Ileckewclder, Smick, Ed- 
wards, Roth, Jnn gman, Ilnebner and Mortimer ; Kev. George 
Godfrey Miller, of Beersheba church, 1808; Rev. Christian 
Espech, Lutheran, New Philadelphia, 1811 ; Rev. Abraham 
Snyder, Lutheran, 1810; Deacon Elias Crane, LSKI; J\ev. 
John Graham, 1817; Rev. Wieland Zarman, 1818; Rev. 
Michael J. Baumberzoar, 1818 ; Rev. Thomas B. Clark, aud 
Rev. Jacob Ransberger, in 1819. 


The following are lists of the oldest inhabitants of the 
valle}', who were born prior to the beginning of the pres- 
ent century, and who were, with a few exceptions, an- 
cestors of the persons of the same name now living in 
Tuscarawas and oth^^ counties: 

Oldest Inhabitants of Goshen Toivnship. 

Born between 173(i and 1740, 'William Young. 

Born between 1750 and 1760, Mrs. Knisely, mother of David; Mrs. Judy, 
mother of John, Sr. ; Mrs. William Young, John Hoopengarner. 

Born between 17G0 and 1770, Matthias, Gossett and wife, Mrs. Lucinda 
Haltzley, Henry K^pich and wife, Philip Fackler, Isaac Cordray, Sr., Valentine 
Flack, Christian Bachman, Henry Meter, Henry Albright, Philip Jacob Fecht- 

^, Born between 1770 and 1780, Samuel W. Kendrick, Christian Casebeer and 
wife, David Stiltter, Sr , and wife, John Judy, Sr., and wife, James Wood, John 
Frederick, Henry .\uclienbaugh, Abraham Kniseley, Sr.. and wife, Philip and 
Jacob Foreman, }A\--i. V. Flack, Christian Fuller, George PLatz, Mrs. C. Bach- 
man, Casper Engler, Agnes Ellis, John McPherson and wife, Mrs J. Hoopen- 
garner, Amelia Hummell, Mrs. Henry Albright, John Suttle and wife, John 
Walby. Edward Dorsey and wife, George Stiftler, Sr., and wife. 


Oldest Inhahitants of Dover Toicnshijt. 

Born between 1730 and 1740, Mrs. Finton, mother of William. 

Born between 1740 and 1750, Mrs. Brown, grandmother of George W. 

Born between 1750 and 1760, George Helwig, Mrs. Criaswell, mother ot John; 
Elijah Critz, Mrs. Critz, mother of Andrew. 

Born between 1760 and 1770, Adam Snyder, Mrs. Wallack, Mrs. Lower, 
Philip Baker, William Finton, Christian Kore, Godfrey Imber. 

Born between 1770 and 1780, Richard Burrough, William Gibbs, Sr., George 
R. Baer and wife, William Henderson, Conrad Lower, John Mumma, Beujamin 
Wallack. Ludwig Lower, Heury Frinkenbriner, Mrs. William Finton, Paul 
Grove, Sr , James Harper, Mrs. Kauffman, mother of Jacob; John Hildt, Sr., 
Mary Burroughs, C. Noftsinger and wife, Mrs. Christian Kore, Elizabeth Har- 
mon, John Chesterman and wife, C. Ritter, Abraham Share, Jacob Blickeus- 

Oldest Inhahitants of Wai/ne Township. 

Born between 1740 and 1750, William Collett, Mrs. Burrell, mother of Ben- 

Born between 1750 and 1760, John France. 

Born between 1760 and 1770, Henry Myers, Eve Baer, Henry Duncan, John 
Bess, Sr., and wife, Jacob Bartlett and wife Daniel Bowers, Mrs. Obadiah Pat- 
terson, Adam Reamer, Cornelius Hand, Edward Jordan, 

Born between 1770 and 1780, John Aultman and wife. Eve Deardorff, George 
Wallack, John Tyler and wife, John Michael, Benjamin Gorsuch, Henry Knovel, 
John Lidey, Jacob Knaga, Mrs. Henry Duncan, Mrs, Bayliss Jennings, John 
Burrell, George Gusler, Jere. Savage and wife, Jonathan Williams, Regena 
Fulk, Mrs. Philip Bash, Abraham Beninger, Mrs Daniel Bowers, George Rickett 
and wife, John McQuiston, Sr., and wife, Jacob Snearly, James Mills, Mrs. Adam 
Reamer, Mrs. David Reshley, Aesop Johnson, John G. Miller, Michael Wallack, 
John Wright, Sr., Mary Ann Shonk-, Elizabeth Swip, Patrick Moore, Michael 
Kore and wife, John Seloz. 

Oldest Inhabitants of Sugar Creek Toivnship. 

Born between 1740 and 1750, Michael Dorner, Sr 

Born between 1750 and 1760, Mrs. Michael Dorner, Mrs. Bittle, mother of 
George; Mrs Walter, mother of John; Joseph Kine and wife, John Yotter, 
David Miller, Jocob Miller, Sr., Mrs. Mafendish, mother of William D 

Born between 1760 and 1770, John Ballman, Daniel Kaiser, Susannah Cor- 
rell, Peter Harmon and wife, John Miller and wife, Isaac Miller, Mrs. Coblentz, 
mother of Jacob ; Mrs. Jacob Miller, Sr., James Hattery, Joseph Hanlon and 

Born between 1770 and 1780, George Richardson and wife, John Walten 
Jacob Dietz and wife, Mrs. Daniel Kaiser, John Bricker, Frederick Dorner, 
Chris. Winklepleck, Peter Hostetter, George Dyce and wife, George iSmiley, 
George Miller, Abram Snyder, Daniel Yotter, Henry Kuniz, Ephriam Mid- 
daugh, Jacob Miller, Jr., Mrs. James Hattery, Christian Livengood, Leonard 
Hyder, (Jatherine Barnhouse, John Schultze, Jacob Lowe, William D. Mafen- 
dish, Mary Noel, Andrew Burkey. 


Oldf.'it Tnhahitants of Warwick Toicnship. 

Born between IT^O aad ITSO, Barney Reyscrt, Sr. 

Born between 1750 .and 1760, William Simmrrs, Sr., n^d wile, Godfrey 
Wcsthaver, HeHry Davis. 

Born between 1760 and 1770, Jesse Walton, Samuel Fry, Abraham P"ry, Mrs. 
Benjamin Lane, Jacob Royer and wife, Mrs. BHrnsy Rupert. 

Born between 1770 and 1780, Boaz Walton, Jr., John G. Hoffman, Henry 
Keller, George Metzger, John Knouse, John Demuth, Asa Walton and wife, 
John Whitehead, Joseph Sturgiss, William Hill, Joseph Madden, John Romig 
and wife, Joseph Shemal, John Richmond and wife, Richard Taylor, Catherine 

Oldest Inhabitants of Salem Township. 

Born between 1750 and 1760, Peter Good 

Born between 1760 and 1770, Humphrey Corbin. 

Born between 1770 and 1780, William rtaga and wife, Mrs. Peter (Joud, Mrs. 
FrankV)oner, Mrs. Paine, Burris Moore, Mrs. Barneby Riley, Charles Hill .'ind 
wife, Jesse Hill and wife. 

Oldest Inhabitants of York Toivnship. 

Born between 1750 and 1760, Frederick Hummell, Henry Bhawver. 

Born between 1760 and 1770, Mrs. Frederick Hummell, John Shull, John 
Pence, William Ross, Eli Barton, George Putt, John Benfer and wife. 

Born between 1770 and 1780, William Butt, Mrs. John Shull, Francis Gar- 
nant, Henry Ankeny, Samuel Deardorff and wife, Lewis Fox, Mrs Eli Barton, 
Mrs. George Putt, Christian Beaver, Mary Cummings, George W. Kubn, Wil- 
liam Wolff, Henry Shawver, John Grimes and wife, Jacob Howe, Michael 

Oldest Inhabitants of Clay Toivnship. 

Born between 1750 and 1760, John Taylor, John P. Sargood, Conrad Roemer. 

Born between 1760 and 17 70, .^dam Stocker, Barbara Wheeland, Mary Gen- 
ter, Mrs. J. P. Sargood. 

Born between 177o aod 1780, Christian Stocker, Mrs. Adam Stocker, Andrew 
Stocker, Charles L. Stevens, Martin Kiser, John G. Fox, Elizabeth Rebstocki 
Mrs. Samuel Dingman, Michael Rernmell, Henry Kaler. 

Oldest Inhabitants of Washington Township. 

Born between 175.0 and 1760, Matthew Organ, Mrs. George Hussey, Sr. 

Born between 1700 and 1770, Jonathan Arrdrews and wife, Mrs. Matthew 
Organ, Benjamin G. Duharnell, George Hussey, Jr., Joseph Taylor. 

Born between 1770 and 1780, Anannias Randall and wife, Jesse Webb, Isaac 
Webb, Jos< pli MiUer; James Hamilton, Magdalene Taylor. 

Oldest Inhabitants of Perri/ Toionship. 

Born lifivveeu 1 7.!0 and 1740, .Mrs Swain, mother of Joshua, Joaeph Johnton, 
Rebecca Kannon. 

Born between 1 7 lit and 1750, John Shaw. 


Born between 1750 and 1760, Mrs. Severgood, grandmother of Jacob, Mrs. 
Morrison, grandmother of Samuel, Peter Hammer, Thomas Archbold, Elisha 
Kilch and wife. 

Born between 1760 and 1770, John Williams, Richard Moore and wife, Ebe- 
nezer Kitch. 

Born between 1770 and 1780, Shadrack Minster, Mrs. John Williams, Stephen 
Horn, Moses Horn, Mrs. Parks, Mrs. Robert McCoy, Edward Johnson, Mrs. 
Schooly, mother of Samuel, Josei)h Johnson, Neil Morris, William George, 
Samuel Boston and wife John Wilson and wife, Gabriel Vansickle and wife, 
Timora Russell, Mrs. T. Archbold. 

Oldest Inhabitants of Rush Toivnsldp. 

Born between 1750 and 1760, Michael Sponsler. 

Born between 1760 and 1770, Thomas Gibson, John Fairbrother, Mrs. Ginter, 
mother of John, Casper Warner, Joshua Davis, William Caples, Sr. 

Born between 1770 and 1780, Michael Van Fleary, John Uhrich, Robert 
Laughlin, Mrs. Thomas Gibson, Thomas Connell, Mrs. Michael Sponsler, Esther 
Crumm, Peter Bowman and wife, Daniel Euterline, Conrad Westhaver, Mrs. 
Joshua Davis, Abijah Robinett, James Tracy, John Lambright. 

Oldest Inhabitants of Oxford Toionship. 

Born between 1760 and 1770, Samuel Tucker, John Pearce Sr., and wife, 
Mrs. Gardner, Margaret Tufford. 

Born between 1770 and 1780, Sarah Booth, Mrs. Anderson, John Mulvane, 
Lewis Roberts, William Andrews, Elizabeth Neighbor, William Neighbor, Sr., 
James Sloane, Mary Ann Salyards, Joseph North. 

Oldest Inhabitants of Dohrman Township. 

[The territory that comprised this township was subdivided, and is now Mill 
Township, Tuscarawas County, and portions of Harrison and Carroll counties.] 

Born between 1730 and 1740, Mrs. Utterbach, grandmother of William. 

Born between 1740 and 1750, Stephen Johnson. 

Born between 1750 and 1760, Solomon Delong, Adam Gott, George Dickin- 
son, Mrs. Hilton, mother of Leonard ; Thomas and William Crumm. 

Born between 1760 and 1770, George tnowdigle, Mrs. Solomon Delong, 
John Hunter, James McKay, Mrs. George Dickinson, John McElroy, Thomas 
Drummond, John Black, Stewart Auld and wife, Andrew Sewell and wife, 
John Niblack, Sr., and wife, Roliert Wilson and wife, William Blackwell, Mrs. 
Robert Gracy, William Utterbach, Susannah Blackwood, Tarleton B. Wil- 
loughby, Mrs. Robert Carson, Elijah Boston and wife, Mrs. John Johnston, 
Edward Bennett, Susannah Carroll. 

Born between 1770 and 1780, John Hooper, John Larry, William Mills, 
John McBean, Mrs. Moses Rntledge, Mrs. George Stiowdigle, Ebeuezer Ball, 
Rebecca Cox, Rezin Pomeroy, Mrs. John McBlroy, Nancy McGill, William Cor- 
bett, Isaac Eaton, James Aucksom and wife, Samuel Caldwell, Felix Richard- 
son, William Moore and wife, Asa Hamblin, George Hoskins and wife, Harmon 


Gitchell, Henry Foster, Thomas Brock, Martha Sterling, Mrs William Welsh, 
Griffith Cahill and wife, John Howell and wife, Richard French, John Cahill, 
Sr., John Moore, Arthur Ohenoweth and wife. 

Oldest Inhabitants of Lawrence Township. 

Born between 1740 and 1750, Mrs. Hartser, grandmother of Frederick. 

Born between 1750 and 17G0, Mrs. Bimeler, mother of Joseph M., Stephen 
Hoover, John Baker, MriJ. Torner, mother of John. 

Boru between 17G0 and 1770, James Mock, (Uiristophcr Platz, Magdalena 
Auch, Margaret Ackerman, Jacob Heck, John Keller, Sr , John Fashbaiigh, 
William Fashbangh, Jacob Palmer, Barney Brown, Christopher Singer. 

Born between 1770 and 1780, Mrs. Stephen Hoorer, Barbara Schock, God- 
frey Lent and wife, Casper Fetter and wife, Jacob Shearing, John Miller and 
wife, Dorothea Dietz, Jacob Kimmerly and wife, Frederick Klolz, Joseph Boy- 
ler, Peter Houseman, John Streby and wife, John Mock, John Machin, John 
Taylor, Mrs. William Fashbangh, Michael Schaeffer, George Mock and wife, 
Benjamin Brown and wife, Elizabeth Kullers. 

Oldest Inhabitants of Warren and Union Townships. 

Born between 1740 and 1750, Mrs. Holmes, mother of Jacob ; Oour^id Pearch 
Mrs. Conover, grandmother of James; Frederick Everhart. 

Born between 1750 and 1760 Charles Scott, Joseph Wilson, Joseph Rutter 
Sr., Samuel Sample, Sr., Mrs. Frederick Everhart, William Trussell John 
Beamer, John Wyandt, Sr. 

Born between 1760 and 1770, Joseph Hayes, Frederick Mizer and wife, Wil- 
liam Scott and wife, Samuel Russell, Jacob Holmes, Thomas Mills and wife, 
George Davis, John Witchcraft, Samuel Anderson, Paul Preston, John Dunlap 
Michael Smith, Robert Stevenson and wife, Peter Jennings and wife, John 
Ramsberget and wife, Samuel Lappin and wife, Martin Hoffman, Philip Senter 
Williaiu McClary, Sr., Thomas McPherson, Reuben Runyan, Peter Beamer 
Patrick Reardou, William Rherrard, Abram Richardson, Sr. and wife, Moses 
Shaw, Benjamin Price, John Tinkey, Charles X Lindsey and wife, William 
Sears, George Study. 

Born between 1770 and 1780, Samuel Griffin, Henry Machaman and wife, 
Joseph Miller, Kinsey Cahill, Robert Scott and wife, George Davis, Philip Capel 
and wife, Mary Huffman, James Russell, David Davis, James Davis, Andrew 
Miller and wife, George Alfred Andrew Black, Catherine Strause, William 
Con well, Elizabeth Marley, Daniel Swally and wife, Joseph Buskirk, William 
Albaugh, Adam Beamer, Frederick Weaver, James Sellers and wife, Jacob 
Shaffer, Peter Close, John Cross, Adam Sherrard, Nicholas Skeels, Richai;d 
Herron, Philip Miller Isaac Masters, Mary Seran, Obadiah Holmes. 

Oldest Inhabitants of Bucks Township. 

Born between 1750 and 1760, Mary vSeldenright, Jacob Lorrey, Mrs. Bennell, 
mother of William. 

Born between 1760 and 1770, Albright Kintlesberger, Stoddard Anderson, 


Mrs. Cummings, mother ot Richard, Guy Young, Mrs Helwig, mother of Benja- 
min, Mrs. Jacob Forney. Israel Penrod and wife, Peter Kern. 

Born between 1770 and 1780, David Hoover, Mrs. Guy Young, Valentine 
Thompson, Mrs. Peter Kern, Joseph Dormer, George Ourshall, John Spang- 
ler, Sr., and wife. 

Oldest Inhabitants of Fairfield Townsliip. 

Boru between 1750 and 1760, John Bowman and wife, Thomas Cordroy, Sr. 

Born between 1760 and 1770, Jacob Weaver, John McCleary, Mrs. Joseph 
Herminger, George KoUars, Margaret Long, Matthew Laird, Jacob Smiih, 
Gideon Jennings. 

Born between 1770 and 1780, Peter Wolf and wife, John Davy and wife, 
James McKee and wife, Jacob Waltz and wife, Charles Stevens and wife, Lud- 
wig vSnowland, Nathan ('orderay, George Strawn. 

Oldest Inhabitants of One Leg Township, living in 1S30. 

[This township was added to Carroll at the erection of that county, in 18.33 J 

Born between 1730 and 1740, Mrs. Gamble, mother of George. 

Born between 1740 and 1750, Mary Waggoner and Mathias Shiltz. 

Born between 1750 and 1760, Samuel Snelling, William Reed and wife, 
Adam Swihart, Sr., Henry Martin, Frederick Walters, Mrs. Warford, grand- 
mother of William. 

Born between 1760 and 1770, John Rule, Jacob Crager and wife, Ann Pat- 
terson, John Phoenix, William Gamble, Mrs. Laffer, mother of Adam, John 
Bowers, Sr., George Crumrine, Mary Warner, John Fry and wife, Joseph Jef- 
fries, William Perkins, John Getterell. William Bavard and wife, Mrs Barrack 
Roby, James Roby and wife, and Benjamin Leggett. 

Born between 1770 and 1780, Michael Thompson, George Nicholson, Joseph 
Boyd, James Palmer, Samuel .\lcKee, Daniel McMillan, John Sterling, Samuel 
Hyde, William Watkins, Joseph McDaniel and wife, Abram Warner, William 
Rouse, Michael Quinn, Jesse Clark and wife, Benjamin Knight, George Gamble 
and wife, William Ball, Daniel Black, Sarah Stoneman, Barney Bower and 
wife, Alexander Smith and wife, Mrs. Richard HufF, Patrick, Richard 
Coleman, William Kyle, Amos Doyle and wife, Henry Ball and wife, Jesse 
Carter, Eve Glass, Parian Pyle, Thomas Walker, Barrack Roby, James Parker, 
Mrs. George Crumrine, and Mrs. William Gamble. 

Oldest Inhabitants of Sandy Toivnship. 

Born between 1740 and 1750, Walling Miller and wife. 

Born between 1750 and 1760, Mrs. M. Burroway, Philip Farber and wife, 
George Barnett, Catherine Fulk. 

Born between 1760 and 1770, Elizabeth Grinder, John Lennox, William 
Baird. Elizabeth West, .Mrs. J. Johnson, Thomas McKnight, Mary Shees, Mich- 
ael Flicking and wife. 

Born between 1770 and 1780, Joseph Sadler, George Barringer and wife, 
Frederick Holtzhoj, James Bailey, John Burke and wife, Asa Menard and 
wile, Henry Wingate, Thomas McKnight and wife, William Williams, Joshua 




Was one of tlie first pioneers on 8ugar Creek. He came from 
Maryland, prior to 1807, and settled at what is now Dover, where 
he took out a ferry license as early as 1809. In company with Bohn 
and Slingluff he bought land, and laid off farm lots, and platted the 
town of Dover, which became, and has since retained the name of 
being, the great wheat market of the county. Mr. Deardorff he- 
came one of the associate judges of the court in 1808, p.nd remained 
in that position until 1824, being the longest period of service of 
any man who ever held office in the county. A man of the most 
sterling integrity in all the aifairs of life, his name became the syno- 
nym of all that was honest and upright. He left a large family of 
sons to inherit his virtues and his large property, all of whom he 
made farmers and business men. Being advised to make his sou 
Jesse a professional man,iie shook his head, but finally consented 
to try it ; and on Jesse's return from New Athens College in 1841-2, 
he was asked by the ju\3ge what class he graduated in. He replied 
that he was the best ball-player there Judge Deardorfi" died in 
1851, aud his wife Catherine is yet living in 1875, being perhaps 
the oldest of the wives of the first pioneers west of the river. 


Among the first white settlers of the county was John Tschudi — 
in English, Judy — who came to the United States in 1803, and 
reached Tuscarawas County the same year. He was descended from 
an ancient Swiss family, the head of which, Von Aegidies Tschudi, 
was born at Glams in 1505, and who wrote the Chronicles of Switz- 
erland, dating back to A. D. 1000, and coming down to 1470. The 
subject of this sketch came first to Gnadenhutteu, and being single, 
put up a cabin on a piece of land he had contracted for with John 
Heckewelder. While making rails, John Kuisely, the founder oi' 
New Philadelphia, came to the woods where Judy was at work, and 
bought a large hog of him, and engaged him to come up to town 
and assist' in raising a barn. He did so, and the hog and his work 
make the first payment on fifty acres he then bought of Knisely, 
about one mile east of New Philadelphia, and which he owned until 


liu tlieil, having added thereto by other purchases. Martiu Keller 
and Jacob Keller, with their father, had come over with Judy, who 
was saved irom being sold for passage money by their aid. Mr. 
Judy was a tailor by trade, and made clothes for the Indians; and 
at some time he put up on Water street the first house erected in 
New Philadelphia; assisted in cutting out the first road east from 
tlu! town ; and was three days helping to move Godfrey Hoft" IVom 
town to his settlement, about ten miles up the river, having to make 
a road, and in some places traveled up the bed of the river. 


Among the earliest settlers about New Philadelphia were John, 
Jacob and Abraham Knisely, Henry Latter, Major Cribbs, Peter 
Williams, James Clark, Christian Espich, John Judy, Sr., Henry 
Minnich, Greorge Lininger, George Steffler, George Stuthour, Abra- 
ham Shane. Philip Correll, David Knisely, all of whom are dead 
except the two last. Mr. Correll informs the writer that in 1811 
there were ten or twelve houses in New Philadelphia, and but three 
or four graVes in the cemetery. At Dover there was then but one 
house in the present town, and that the ferry house. At the Goshen 
mission there were about thirty families ; among whom were Chris- 
tian and John Henry, sons of the chief Killbuck ; Widow White 
Eyes and two daughters, " Big Foot" and two sons. A party of 
warriors from' Canada came to Goshen, dressed in war costume. 
Correll and others "went for them," believing there was a premium 
on scalps. They found the warriors hid in the drift on the island, 
named jby General Putnam " Zeisberger Island," opposite Goshen. 
After some parley, the Indians surrendered and were brought to 
j^il — which stood where the Auditor's ofiice now is — and remained 
there hobbled until Colonel Cass came and had them taken away. 

In the war of 1812, he says, about two hundred volunteers went 
I'rom Tuscarawas County to Port Meigs, the greater number of whom 
returned, safe. He also says several hundred Kentuckians passed 
through New Philadelphia to the scene of war, and returned home 
the same way. They had no money, and moved along in scattered 
parties, the citizens supplying them with provisions while at New 
Philadelphia, his father feeding twenty to thirty every night. Henry 
Latter was detailed as a commissary to take a loTof flour to Mans- 
field, and young Correll went along as driver of a team. He says 
that when they got to Wooster there was a panic among the settlers 


in that country, hearing that the Indians were coming with the Brit- 
ish to lay waste the whole of Eastern Ohio. The flour was quickly 
unloaded at Wooster, and the teams hurried home. On their way 
back they found the roads lined with the teams of settlers, fleeing 
east with their families. It turned out that the panic arose from 
the landing at Cleveland of a large number of parolej soldiers from 
Hull's surrendered army; whereupon the panic subsided, and the 
settlers, among whom were some in Tuscarawas County who had 
fled, returned to their homes, and the county of Tuscarawas escaped 
the devastations of war. 


Came to iNew Philadelphia from Pennsylvania as early as 1808, and 
was then about twenty years old. He took out license to keep store. 
In 1811 was appointed county treasurer, being the second in the 
county. In 1813 he married Maria, daughter of John Knisely, 
who laid out New Philadelphia, which assured his success in life. 
He served as treasurer until 1823 : and being a shrewd business 
man, became possessed of good farms and town property, which 
made him wealthy. Mr. Williams also served as county commis- 
sioner, and as associate judge several years. It is related of him 
that while judge he traveled about some in other counties, and no- 
ticing that the judges generally had arm and cushioned or hickory- 
bottomed split chairs, instead of the old-fashioned straight-backs, 
hard bottoms, with no arms, as used in Tuscarawas, he determined 
to efi"eet a reform in this respect. Shortly after his return home he 
called on Auditor King, told him what fine chairs other counties 
had provided, and asked King to furnish new chairs for our judges. 
King, who was a rigid economist, said he guessed the people would 
prefer to have neio judges instead of new chairs. The result was 
that he refused Williams' request, and no new chairs were provided 
until after Williams retired from the bench, in 1839. Judge Wil- 
liams had thirteen children, and died in 1868. His wife, Maria, 
died in 1875, aged seventy-nine years. 


Came to Ohio about 1800, and settled as a general business man, 
able to discharge any duty, being an educated man and having a 
fine mathematical mind. He served as a county commissioner, pres- 
ident of a bank, took an active part in behalf of the construction 



of the Ohio Canal through this valley, and in opening up roads 
through this county, and was always foremost in any improvement 
going on. He was county auditor from 1818 to 1820, associate 
judge from 1829 to 1880, and again from 1850 to 1852. He also 
represented the county in the general assembly, and was a delegate 
to the constitutional convention in 1851. He was perhaps the most 
practical man in his day on anything, except making money. Al- 
though he purchased largely of lands and other property, and was 
a man of ordinary economy, he died, after a useful life to his fellow- 
men, without a sufficiency to discharge his liabilities, which were 
afterward provided for by his sons out of their means. Failing to 
leave a fortune to them, as he might have done, they entered upon 
the career of life the more earnestly, and Professor Jacob Blick- 
ensderfer, Jr., to-day stands unsurpassed for his engineering and 
mathematical attainments, commanding at this time a salary equjil 
to that of a foreign minister or cabinet officer. 


These two men were in the forefront of early civilization in Tus- 
carawas, and their names are to be found in the list of the first pio- 
neers, in another part of this work. 

Knisely came about 1804; bought the thirty-five hundred acre 
tract on which he laid out JSew Philadelphia in 1805-6 ; and to pro- 
cure the county-seat to be located thereat, donated to the county 
one hundred and sixty acres and one hundred town lots. 

Laffer came about 1806 ; bought and built at New Philadelphia, 
and opened a hotel of that day, in 1808-9, which he made head- 
quarters for early settlers. 

Both were men of self-will, great energy, ambitious in their way, 
and each looked upon the other as a rival. One had the more 
money, and the other the greater brain. The power of the one 
equalized the power of the other at the start. Just then mischief- 
makers stepped in. Each had his friends and enemies, who carried 
stories to irritate. It was whispered to Knisely by one that Laffer 
had been seen taking his hay. He accosted Laffer in a rough, 
brusque manner, and taunted him with what he heard. Laffer re- 
pelled the imputation, and added that he had never stole hay, or 
sold the people, or corrupted public officers — alluding to the land 
and lot donations in the county-seat matter. Knisely repelled the 
insinuation of bribery ; and then said he could prove the charge, 


having become much heated. They parted enemies. Latter com- 
menced an action of shiuder against Kuisely for five hundred dol- 
lars damages, and caused his arrest on a capias. The trial came on 
in 1810, Kuisely employing Louis Oass and others, and Laffer em- 
ploying E. Herrick and others, attorneys. The jury found a ver- 
dict for defendant, the plaintiff failing to prove that Knisely had 
spoken the slanderous words. 

The blood of these two pioneers was now at a red heat, and Laf- 
fer being appointed sheriff of the county, it may be presumed that 
Knisely feared he would use official influence to injure him. At all 
events he was ready to continue the war, and sued Laffer for cutting 
down and carrying away some white-oak, black-oak, and hickory 
trees from Knisely's woods, claiming two hundred dollars damages. 
The jury gave him fifty dollars. Thus embittered against each 
other by bad men, they remained hostile for years, Laffer being all 
the time honored with office, whilst Knisely was equally respected 
in private life. After Laffer removed to the iSandy, and laid Sandy- 
ville out, he met Knisely one day in the road near the old Canton 
ford, both being on horseback. " Who stole the hay?" said Laffer. 
" Not you,' replied Knisely; and then he asked, " Who bribed the 
commissioners, and sold the people?" "Not you," answered Laffer. 
" That's the truth, and no lie," said an old fisherman sitting close 
by, and whom they had not seen. His testimony made them laugh, 
get off their horses, shake hands and bury the hatchet, with a drink 
of cool water at Federal Springs. From that time until they died 
they remained friends. 


Came to New Philadelphia about 1806, from Pennsylvania, where 
he was born. He was about twenty-one years of age. One of the 
first hotels at the county-seat was kept by him. In the war of 1812 
he raised two or three companies, and served on the frontier ; after 
which he served as justice, and in other township offices many years, 
and also served in the general assembly. In the war of the State 
of Ohio against the United States bank, about 1816, the bank had 
established a branch in Ohio, and refused to pay any taxes. The 
State treasurer broke open its vault, and forcibly took therefrom 
its quota of taxes. For this he was arrested by the bank, and the 
State sued, the bank claiming that under its charter it could hold 
property and do business in any State without being amenable to 


the State laws for taxes. The Ohio assembly sustained its State 
treasurer, and an excitement was the consequence throughout the 
State. General Shane raised a squad of men in the Tuscarawas 
valley to go to Chillicothe and blot the branch bank out of exist- 
ence ; but the United States court sustaining the bank, the State 
refunded the taxes, and the war ended. 

(xcneral Shane was at the time, and for a long period before his 
death, a citizen of Dover, and in the early days shipped flour and 
other articles in arks down the Tuscarawas and Muskingum, thence 
to New Orleans. He died much esteemed as one of the most prom- 
inent of the early pioneers. 


Came to New Philadelphia about 1817, and died in 18G5. He was 
engaged in building the canal, the county courthouse, and served in 
many civil positions — sheriff, treasurer, county auditor, State seno- 
tor, associate judge and presidential elector. Was one of the most 
energetic men of his day and generation, carrying with him to the 
grave the respect of all men. AVas acquainted with all the public 
men of the State, and was particularly distinguished as the most 
indefatigable of opponents of all double dealing and chicanery, 
either in or out of office. This trait, coupled with remarkable 
sagacity, as well as independence of character, made him some 
enemies, more than he otherwise would have had, but at the same 
time it saved him many troubles. Over all things he prized manly 
firmness and dignity, as well as the remembrance of gratitude for 
favors received. In this connection he often telated an incident 
which happened in the early days, in the courthouse at New Phila- 
delphia. Judge Alexander Harper had been placed on the bench 
through the friendship and instrumentality of John M. Croodenow, 
as the latter claimed. Goodenow and Harper afterward became 
estranged, for some cause or other, and on the occasion of a trial in 
which Goodenow took the leading part as attorney, he was ordered, 
for some remark made, to take his seat, which he did, but immedi- 
ately arose again and began addressing the jury, but was set down 
a second time. He then asked Judge Harper if he might say a few 
words to the jury in the way of repentance. "Certainly," said the 
judge, supposing an apology was coming. Goodenow raised to his 
full height, looking at the jury, and pointing with a quivering fin- 
ger to the judge, said: "Gentlemen of the jury, God made man, 


and thca he rcpentetl," alluding in that way to the alleged fact that 
he had made Harper judge, aud now he re{)cnted of it. 

General IJlake, when young, had been in the war ol' 1K12, and 
afterward a land warrant was issued to him In the Mexican war 
he raised a company, but failed to get it mustered into the service. 
In the 8tate militia he became a colonel and general, aud in all 
respects he was a noble specimen of a settler of the early times in 
the valley. Having never married, his property, some thirty thou- 
sand dollars, passed mainly to brothers and sisters. 


Came to New Philadelphia about 1810, and worked at his trade. 
He was of Irish descent, and worked a while at tailoring. After- 
ward, in the war of 1812, he raised a squad of cavalry for frontier 
defense, but did not get into action. During the war, three Mohi- 
can Indians, armed, came to Goshen Mission, and picked quarters 
on Zeisberger island. Some whites having been murdered beyond 
Wooster by Indians, these were sulspected. McConoell's cavalry 
went down, captured and lodged them in jail. They would have 
been killed by the cavalry, but for McConnell's courage in prevent- 
ing it. While in jail, a company of forty armed men from the West 
came to the jail to kill the Indians. McConnell again interfered to 
save their lives, and, with the assistance of John C. Wright and 
Sheriif Laflfer, succeeded. The Indians were then sent out of the 
county, and it turned out that they simply visited Goshen to see 
some Indian relatives, who were converts there. After the war, 
McConnell had a suit in court, in which the celebrated lawyer. John 
M. Goodenow appeared against him, and belabored McConnell in 
his argument. Meeting in Albert's Tavern, McConnell, then in 
li(|uor, asked Goodenow if he knew where the lawyers all go when 
they die. Goodenow confessed his ignorance, and asked to be in- 
formed. " Well," said McConnell, " they all go to h— 11." <>Ah !" 
replied Goodenow, "that is better than to go where drunken tailors 
do." "And where is that?" asked McC. "Why," said Goodenow, 
"they go to Hcckely Barny, five miles below h — 11." "And what 
is done with them there?" inquired McConnell. "Oh !" said Goode- 
now, " the devil, finding them saturated with whisky, makes his 
mince-pies out of them, without having to mix in liquor." Finding 
himself beaten, McConnell retired. 


Mr. McConnell in after times resided in Dover, became a justice, 
and, by roahion of his capacity and integrity, did a heavy business 
as magistrate. He died in Dover, in 1S39. 


Came to Tuscarawas from Pennsylvania, and settled, about 1S2-, at 
New Philadelphia, where he for some time carried on mercantile 
business with James Patrick, Sr., under the name of Coventry & 
Patrick. He then turned his attention to farming, which he fol- 
lowed very successfully, adding tract after tract to his first pur- 
chase ; and at his death, in 1872, he was the owner of about eight 
hundred acres, estimated in value at one hundred dollars per acre. 
Close in his business matters, he insisted always in having the last 
Cent due to him ; and in settling with men he made it his rule to 
pay the last fraction of a cent due to them. By virtue of this rigid 
adherence to upright dealing, he acquired the name of " Honest 
John." His personal life was unspotted, and by reason of his pe- 
culiarities he was known far and wide. He was always opposed to 
holding public positions, but occasionally the citizen.s would force 
him into a township trusteeship, and rather than pay the two dollars 
fine, he woul'd always discharge the duties, with such rigid honesty 
as to acquire sufficient unpopularity, designedly, to insure exemp- 
tion from office for years afterward. The only public position he is 
known to have held, outside of the township, was on the occasion 
of hunting for Funston, the murderer of Cartwell, the mailboy. At 
that time Mr. Coventry was detailed by Sheriff Blake as one of the 
posse to make a night raid on a house where Funston was suspected 
to be. On arriving at the place, and after surrounding the house. 
Sheriff Blake ordered a search of the house, but without success. 
Coventry and another were ordered to ascend to the loft, up a lad- 
der, and having got up, the light went out, and some one pulled away 
the ladder, so that Coventry was in the dark in a strange garret hunt- 
ing for a murderer, and no means of escape left to either. Pulling out 
the only weapon he had, a dirk knife, he and his companion groped 
about, and found nothing but a pair of men's stogies, wet and 
muddy By this time Blake had restored order below, put up the 
ladder, and Coventry descended with his comrade and the stogies, 
and the posse came away, but not until an unsuccessful attempt was 
made by a relative of Funston to get possession of the stogies. In 
the melee Coventry drew his dirk, and threatened death to any one 


touching the leather foot-gear, which deterred the inmates from any 
further interference. It afterward turned out that the stogies fitted 
the footprints in the earth near the spot where Cartwell was shot, 
and after Funston's arrest they were found to fit him, and belong 
to him, and that settled his fate. Honest John, in recounting the 
incident to the writer of this sketch, twenty years ago, said he made 
up his mind in that dark garret that nobody would ever see him 
acting as a county officer again, and he kept his word. 


Was born in Pennsylvania between 1780 and 17!I0, and came to 
New Philadelphia as early as 18 LI. Followed the avocation of a 
carpenter, putting up more of the houses in the early times of New 
Philadelphia than any other carpenter. He died, universally re- 
spected, in 18 — , leaving descendants. It is related that when the 
first bank in new Philadelphia was started, 81uthour had his shop 
on the south-west corner of the public square, where he was en- 
gaged at the house then on the lot, where Bury's store now is. 
Jacob Blickensderfer was president, and Abraham Shane cashier of 
the bank. Like all other banks of that day in Ohio, it was hon- 
estly run on paper money only, although the bills promised to pay 
in gold or silver on sight. It was started to build up the town, 
but met with a sad accident. One day a stranger stepped in with 
ten thousand dollars of the bills of the bank and demanded the 
coin. The officers told him to call in again in a short time. This 
gave them time to hide. They shut the bank and adjourned to 
Sluthour's shop. He told them he had not many shavings made, 
and that they had better separate ; that he would hide the cashier 
in the shavings, while the president, having on a pair of leather or 
buckskin breeches, had better go into the red brush, near the pres- 
ent stable of J. C. Hance, and stay until the stranger left. Thus 
they kept shady until he was out of town. In a very short time 
he returned to the bank, and having no specie for him. they let the 
bank go up higher than a kite, and it never came down. About 
1852 or '54, Peter Hines found the bank safe in a garret. It was 
an old-fashioned hair trunk, lined with newspapers, and behind 
which he found two Spanish quarters, dated 17l>6 and 1800. which 
the writer purchased for a dollar, so that he could boast of having 
all the specie of the first bank in New Philadelphia when it bursted. 



Came to New Philadclpliia about . and started the CliroDicle, 

the first newspaper in the county, which he controlled, except for a 
short period, for a quarter of a century. He has held the offices 
of county recorder, county auditor, associate judge of the common 
pleas, under State laws, and was appointed government agent to sell 
the Moravian lands ; also filled the office of postmaster, under 
United States laws, always discharging every trust imposed upon 
him faithfully. As a politician he was a warm partisan, and at the 
time of Jackson's election, being postmaster at New Philadelphia, 
he commented in his paper severely on the conduct of Major Barry, 
of Kentucky, appointed by Jackson postmaster-general, and who 
traveled to Washington in a "coach and four,'' with negroes '"be- 
fore and behind," contrary, as Patrick justly thought, to the ideas 
of American simplicity in the early times. Some one sent Barry a 
copy of the paper containing the strictures, and in a few weeks* 
Patrick lost his official head, and was P. M. no more. He relates 
in his paper of that day how he lost the recorder's office. While a 
candidate he let this man and that man have a little spare cash on 
loan, until it got abroad that Patrick was full of money, when dozens 
rushed to New Philadelphia, and bled him dry. Still they came, 
and failing to get a loan of a few dollars, the disappointed ones 
turned on bim. To make all things even, and be fair all round, he 
called in his small loans, and this turned the other set on him, and 
he was defeated, with a hip, hip, hurrah ! by both sets 6f money- 
borrowing voters, furnishing a practical illustration of the adage, 
" a little money is a dangerous thing," to a candidate for office. 
Judge Patrick is yet living, at the ripe age of — years, surrounded 
by his daughters and his three sons, whom he made printers, but 
who, refusing his advice, departed from his ways ; and one, Andrew, 
has become a banker; while the other two, James and Abraham W. 
Patrick, have become prominent lawyers. 



Died iu 1820, (Jhristian Blickensderfer, one ot the first settlers. 

Died in 1821, George Gimlans, one of the pioneers. 

Died in 1822, Abraham Mosser, Samuel Slutts, Peter Walter, all lieluiifiiiiK to 
the pioneers. 

Died in 1821:!, Henry Benfer, Jacob Butt, Jeremiah Gard, Jacob Hoiick, Sr., 
David Seldenright, Isaac Simmers, Henry Sells, Henry Van Lehn, Joseph Hock- 
steller, Sylvester Johnston, Frederick Maish, John Rebstock. 

Died in 1824, Leonard Baer, William Becher, Sr,, Grodfrey H\iga, Jr., Pliilij) 
Minich, William Warford, all original settlers. 

Died in 1825, .Moses Ayres, one of the first settlers. 

Died in 1826, Jacob Benope, Daniel Booth, Aquilla Carr, George W. ("autieid, 
Ernest Deitz, Abraham Forney, Cornelius O'Donnell. 

Died in 1827, Henry Baker, Samuel Lappin, father of Judge Lappin James 
McSweeny, John Switzer, John Welty. 

Died in 1828, Henry SlifFe, Michael Ronk, Thornton Whitacre. 

Died in 1829, Patrick Bennett, Francis Garnant. 

Died in 18.30, Conrad Bremer, Christian Baughman, Jacob Correll, Deardorff 
Isaac, John Fulk, George K. Gray, William Gibbs. 

Died iu 1831, Philip Baker, Philip Foreman, Annanias Randall. 

Died in 1832, David Foreman, Michael Kollar, Lewis Knaus, Nathan McGrew, 
Geor|je Wallick. 

Died in 1833, Michael Doll, Jacob Knisely, Henry Keller, Jr. 

Died in 1834, Charles Birmbaum, Richard Boon, Nicholas Crites, Jacob Ca- 
ble, Samuel Deard; i ff, John Shull, Benjamin Shearer, Abraham Snyder, Henry 

Died in 1835, Samuel Casebeer, Justin Clark, Valentine Fleck, Christian Gar- 
ber, Peter Joss, He7iry Saffer, Sr., Isaac B. Lee, John Knisely, Sr., the founder 
of New Philadelphia. 

Died in 183G, Peter Cribbs, Peter Cramer, Casper Engler. 

Died in 1837, William Albert, Peter Black, Stokey Craig, Thomas Conwell, 
Jacob Flickinger. 

Died in 1838, John Emerson, Jacob Kuhn, John Moffit, Abraham Mihsch, 
Leonard Parrish James H. Stow, Caleb Stark, Merret Seely. 

Died in 1839. Richard B. Carr, Henry Davy, Jacob Lanning. 

Died in 1840, Benjamin Cable, Jehu Eckman, James E. Hampson, David 
Harger, David Ramsay, Andrew Seaton, Philip Trupp, William Neighbor, Sr. 

Died in 1841, Benjamin Bear, Gabriel Cryder, William Coleman, Frederick 
C. Pfersick, David Peter, Henry Shaffer, Elisha Stockdale, Samuel Shuster, 
Godfrey Westholfen. 

Died in 1842, I'obert Harmount, Frederick Hummell, Michael T. Kohr, James 
B. Morrow, Thomas Sargent, William Sproul, Oliver Bosenbury, Peter VV alter. 


Died ill 18 4.H, George Binkley, James Stewart, Sr. 

Died ia 1844, Jesse Hill, Robert McMurray, Philip Suiter, Miltou Smith, Wil- 
liiim Nebaugh, Richard T. Burrell, Joseph HuiF. 

Died in 1845, Edwin Booth, John P. Larimer, William S. Myers, Jet^se Neigh 
bir, William Slutts, John Silvins, John Benfer, Thomas Bays. 

Died in 1846, David Casebeer, Jacob J. Miller, Henry Ankeny, Htnry Dear- 
dorft', William Gordon, Peter Good, John F. Garnant, George Grabain, John P. 

Died in 1847, Michael Hotf, George Ilyenftitz, Robert M. Kilgore, Jacob Kol- 
lar, Nathan Leggett, James Mc'Jue, William Silvins, Henry Albright, Abra- 
ham Forney, Henry Murphy, Charles Meldean, Abraham Overholtz. . 

Died in 1848, George Bugher, Sr., Ira Bates, Robert M. Dawson, John Gra 
h;tm, Thomas Price. 

Died in 1849, John D. Cummins, Henry Fackler, George H. Fogle, Henry Kel- 
ler, Samuel C. Wright, John Davy, Jacob Uhrich, George Sees, Medad Vinton 

Died in 18.50, William Gordon, George Gonter, George W. Kuhn, Lepold Fox, 
Robert Hursey, Henry Latter, Jr. 

Died in 1851, Matthew Croft, Christian DeardorfiF, James B. Gray, Benjamin 
Gorsuch, Edward LaQ'erty, Samuel McGragor, Abraham Shane. Peter Widener, 
Michael Uhrich. 

Died in 1852, Jacob Foreman, Jacob Frisbly, Joshua Sinunous, T.. Sargent- 
Died in 1653, Peter Houseman, Martin Keller, Rezin Pumphrey, James B. 
Parrish, David Rassler, David Riggle, Henry Shaffer, Christian Stocker. 

Died in 1854, Philip Dotes, George Fernsell, Oliver Rosenbury, Paul Roberts, 
George Sluthour, Elijah Welty, John Ripley. 

Died in 1855, Charles Van Buskirk, Michael Swagler. 

Died in 1856, Philip Gharky, Nathaniel Gilmore, John Hummell, Jacob 
Blickensderfer, John Tucker. 

Di( d in 1857, Jonathan Chandler, Charles Hagan, David Kitcb, George Mezer. 

Died in 1858, Henry Cramer, William Butt, Jacob Kitch. 

Died in 1859, John floagland, John Baltzly, Henry Kail, Daniel McGregor. 
James Nugen, John Sheets, Samuel Thomas, Plin Vinton, /ohn Welch, ^Samuel 

Died in 1860, John Garver, James Gribble, Jacob Kuldenback, Alfred Pum- 

Died in 1861, Andrew Creter, Bazill D. Downey, John Domer, Samuel Fry, 
James Forbes, Benjamin Blickensderfer, Henry Machanian, Walling Miller, 
Robeit B. Wilson. 

Died in 1862, Daniel Ashbaugh, Francis Gilmore, John Butt,"Robert Baker, 
Beriah Jones, Martin Keller, John Mitchell. 

Died in 1863, Daniel Anderson, Prettynian Conwell, John Domer, John Hildt, 
Sr., Philip Bremer, M. H. Bartilson. 

Died in 1864, James Eakey, John Farber, Conrad Geutsch, William Hodge, 
Andrew Bremer, John Brisbcn, Ezra Brainard, Peter Hoopiiigamer,|^Charles M. 
Sherrod, Ralph Winspear. 

Died in 1865, William Couts, Sr., Jacob Oasebeer, George H. Dent, Walter 


M. Blake, George Hoi)[)iDjfaui('r, Ahijab Rohinell, James Riitter, A. W. Sarpont, 
George Welty. 

Died in 18(36, John Brady, John Langbead. 

Died in 18(57, Harlan Beal, Kdward Boyd, George Hursey, Gershara Kilgore, 
Philip John Sparkti. 

Died in 1868, Joseph Demuth, Peter Williams, Francis Seott, Valentine 
Fleck, George Cbadwell, Peter Helmrich. Joseph Stont, George Stoody, John 
Latter, C. F. Espich. 

s Died in 1860, Henry Cramer, D. W. Stambaugh, John Gray, Hebbard Hill, 
Robert Seaman, 'obn Dearth, Peter Suawk, Abraham Nebert, Daniel Bear 

Died in 1870, Thomas Hardesty, Solomon Hoover, Nelson Hogland, John 
Minnich, Jacob Miller, Jacob Myers, Daniel Hoopengarner, Jacob Romig, Philip 
Rank, Robert Mc('oy, Michael J. Bennett, Andrew Peters. 

Died in 1871, John Dickson, Adam Fackler, Ephraim Sparks, Joseph Kep- 
linger, John Heusel, John Coventrj', Peter Edmonds, Thomas Williams, John 

Died in 1872, John M. Roberts, Robert 11. NuguU, Martin Mnmma, John 
Heller, Sr., Matthew Grace, David Sells, Joseph Hehriich, Joseph Fox, Charles 

Died in 1873, William Neighbors, John Allshouse, Israel Ricksecker, Ben- 
jamin Walton, Henry Zimmerman, John Belch, Adam Berkley, John Tomer, 
Jesse O. Piper, Lems Peter, Robert McConnell, Elijah Hank. 

Died in 1874, Andrew Lytle, Martin Kitch, Christian Gross, Thomas Fox, 
Peter Leutherman, William Reidenbach, Frederich Crater, John Walter, Dan- 
iel Christy, Joseph Slingluit', Vance P. Bonham. 

Died in 1875, Francis Render, Edward Edwards, Benjamin Warfel, John 
Andrews, Joshua Blickensderfer. 


Al)out the year 1817 a ecjlony of religions Germans set- 
tled in Lawrence township, and named it Zoar. In Europe 
they were known as "Separatists," having seceded from 
the main chiii'ch of their commnnity, and on acconnt of 
the [»orsccntiuiis entailed npon tliem, left for the United 
States. On hoard ship they made the acqnaintance oi' a 
passenger named Joseph M. liaumler, of intelligence and 
education, and, heing young, was smitten, as is said, witli 
one oi' the young females, wlnnu ho married, and uuilc(l 
his i'orruncs with the society. 


They were poor, and were assisted to the West by the 
Qtiakers, and other philanthropic sects. Baumler became 
manager, and negotiated with Jonathan Dayton, of Kew 
Jersey, for four hundred acres of land, on credit, to which 
they made additions from time to time, and paid for the 
whole by their united labor, thrown into a common fund. 
At lirst they had rude bark and log huts, but in time built 
comfortable houses, kept up a store, hotel, and shops for 
mechanics, besides farming, mining and milling. 

Mr. Baumler's name being pronounced in English Bime- 
ler, he assumed that name, and was afterward known as 
Joseph M. Bimeler. At an early day he organized the 
colony into a close corporation under the laws of Ohio, of 
which he remained the master mind until within a few 
years of his death, which happened August 27, 1853, his 
wife Dorotha having died September 16, 1852. He was 
assisted by trustees, chosen by the members annually, the 
females having the voting power the same as males. 

The colony was divided into families, for convenience, 
with a chosen head for each, who became measurably re- 
sponsible for the good conduct and morals of those under 
his or her charge. 

In 1830, Joseph M. Bimeler's family consisted at one 
time of three males and four females. Stephen Hoover's 
family consisted of two males ^nd twelve females. Joanna 
Mock's family consisted of fifteen females, and no males. 
Christian Platz's family had in it nine males and one female. 
George Goesele's family consisted of two males and two 
females. Barbara Shock had in her family seven females, 
and no male. Maria Sink had two females only. Magda- 
lena Auck had three females only. John Breymeyer had 
in his family seven males and one female. Margaret Ack- 
erman had in her family one male and fourteen females. 
Casper Fetter had in his family eight males and two females. 
Jacob Shearing had in his family eight males and two 
females. John Miller had in his family ten males and three 
females. Dorethea Dietz had in her family fourteen females. 


and no males. Maria Kuehule had in her family fourteeji 
females, and no males. Jacob Kimmerly had in his famil}' 
four males and two females. Christian Mitchely had in his 
family one male and two females. George Groetzinger had 
in his family five males and two females. Frederick Klotz 
had in his family three males only. Godfrey Lentz had in 
his faniil}' four males and four females. Making in all 67 
males, and 106 females. Of the males, 17 were under 21 ; 
13 between 20 and 30 years; 15 between 3'J and 40 ; 10 were 
between 40 and 50; 10 between 50 and 60; 1 between 60 
and 70; and 1 between 70 and 80 years of age. Of the 
females, 18 under 20 ; 22 between 20 and 30 ; 24 between 
30 and 40; 20 between 40 and 50; 17 between 50 and 60; 
4 between 60 and 70 ; and one between 70 and 80. 

As the society became prosperous, attempts were made 
to divide the property by seceding members, but all failed. 
When a member secedes, is expelled, or dies, his rights 
merge in the surviving members, and by reason whereof 
the society can never be broken up, unless by common con- 
sent, and the dissolving corporation acts. 

It has existed about fifty-seven years, and the society 
owns 6,989 acres of land, the real value of which is about 
$500,000, or an average of |70 per acre. Its personality, 
moneys, and credits do not exceed $200,000. 

In its history of nearly three score years, no instance is 
known of a member in good standing, ever having violated 
a law of the State. 

In the course of a long life of business, a large amount of 
property became legally the property of Joseph M. Bimeler, 
but ten days before his death he willed it all to the society, 
heeding in all probability the Bible admonition that it is 
harder for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven, than 
for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle. 

The following is a copy of his will, inserted here for the 
benefit of all heads of corporations, and others whom it 
may concern, in preparing for the life to come : 



" I, Joseph Michael Bimeler, oi' Zoar, Tuscarawas County, aud 
State of* Ohio,, beiug weak iu body, but of sound and disposing 
mind, memory and understandins', do make and publish this as my 
last will and testament. That is to say : T give and bequeath all 
n)y property, real, personal and mixed, of whatever kind, be the 
same in lands, tenements, trusts or otherwise, bonds, notes, claims, 
book accounts, or other evidences of debt of whatever nature, to 
the Society of Separatists of Zoar, and its assigns, forever ; hereby 
declaring that all the property T ever held, real and personal, 
within the county of Tuscarawas, has been the property of said 
Society, and was held by me in trust for said Society, to which 1 
now return it. 

"And I do hereby appoint John G. Grrozinger, Jacob Silvan and 
Jacob Ackerman, trustees of said Society, as my executors, to carry 
this^ my last will, into effect. 

" In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and affixed 
my seal, this sixteenth day of August, A. D. one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-three. 

'' Joseph M. Bimeler. [*Sw?.] 

" Signed, sealed and declared by the above named J. M. Bimeler, 
as his last will and testament, in presence of us (the words ' and its 
assigns forever,' interlined before signing). 

"Jacob Blickensderfer, 
"Joseph C. Hanoe.' 

In 1832, the cholera year, a man was put oli'a boat witli 
tlie disease, and was buried in the Zoar cemetery. 8oon 
after another was dropped from a l)oat on the towing patli 
to die. The society took him in, eared for him, and buried 
liim in a Christian manner. In a short time appeared a 
woman claiming that he was her husband and had a large 
sum of money on his person, which she wished to recover. 
She was informed that all he had about him was l)uried 
with him, as they would not disturb his apparel or any- 
thing in it. She then went away, and came back with a 
strana-er whom she had hired for one hundred dollars to 
dig up the body and recover the money. Permission being 
given, he and the woman repaired with two of the members 
to the cemetery and disinterring the body found in the dead 


iiian's clothes several liuudred dollars of paper money and 
coin. They then re-interred the remains, and arriving at 
Ihe hotel she counted the money, gave the hired man his 
hundred dollars, and offered pay to the society, but it was 
refused. She then went away with the man and money. 
That night the cholera broke out in Zoar, and became so 
virulent that it is said upward of twent}', one account says 
tifty odd members, or nearly one-third the population of 
Zoar were carried off. It is also said that the monev-dio-o-er 
and woman were both attacked, a few miles from Zoar, with 
the disease, and both died. 


The following is a list of persons owning three hundred 
acres, or upward, of land in the townships indicated, and 
probable worth, the real value being estimated at treble 
the tax value. Parties owning about three hundred acres, 
or upward, in 

Auburn Tuwnsliip. — John Laderick, 393 acres. ?!40,000 ; David 
Swihart, 420 acres, $40,000 ; Ulrich Garber, 320 acres. |;20,000 ; 
Daniel Zimmerman, 380 acres, $40,000. 

Burks Township. — Philip Mizcr, 480 acres, 140,000; Joseph 
Trently, 330 acres, $30,000. 

Clay Toionship. — R. Seaman's heirs, l.'OO acres, $70,000; Bene- 
dict Gross, 453 acres. $50,000; David uraim, 320 acres, $40,000; 
Harrison Kail, 300 acres, $25,000 ; H Wyant, 350 acres, $40,000 ; 
James Patrick, Sr., 300 acres, $30,000. 

Dover Towmhip. — David Casebeer, 500 acres, $40 000 ; Cieorsje 
W. Slungluff, 350 acres, $50,000; Michael Bair, 340 acres, $35,000; 
Daniel Oalendine, 320 acres, $30,000; Joseph Krantz, 380 acres. 
$30,000 ; VV^esley Miner, 380 acres, $30,000 ; John Overholt, 400 
acres, $40,000'; Isaac Swihart, 300 acres, $30,000; Joseph Slin-- 
lufF's huirs, 300 acres, $35,000 ; Tuscaravras Coal and Iron Com- 
pany, 430 acres, $100,000 ; Augustus Wilhelmi, 363 acres, $50,000. 

Fairfidd Township. — Conrad Goodering, 310 acres, $35,000 ; Jo- 
seph Kollar, 316 acres, $25,000; Joseph Jenkins, 350 acres, 


S26,00(»; D. McConuell. 420 acres, S35,000 : Wilson Minnis, 300 
acres, .1520,000; William Waddino-ton, 330 acres, S30,000 ; James 
MoflFat, 413 acres, $35,000 ; Tuscarawas Coal and Iron Company, ' 
1,196 acres, $200,000. 

Franklin Township. — Charles Myers, 390 acres. S40,000 ; James 
Patterson, 5o0 acres, $60,000; F. Hartliue, 323 acres, $30,000; 
James A. Saxton, 520 acres, $50,000. 

Goshen Tovmsliip. — Abraham Bour((uin, 370 acres, $50,000; Al- 
vin Vinton, (397 acres, $100,000; John W. Coventry, 550 acres, 
$00,000; R. k T. G. Gartrell, 300 acres, $25,000; John B. Read, 
470 acres, $60,000; James Waddingtou, 470 acres, $50,000; W. 
Wallace, 330 acres, $30,000 ; Valentine Wills, 580 acres, $75 (J()0 ; 
Isaac H. Kurtz, 403 acres, $50,000; David Rummell, 319 acres, 
$30,000 ; S. G. Crites, 300 acres, $30,000. 

Jf'_fferson llnvnship — John Blouse, 360 acres, $30,000 ; Joseph 
Murphy, 323 acres, $30,000; John Hawk, Jr., 425 acres, $30,000. 

Lmircna- Ihwnsht'.j). — Henry Gihler's heirs, 380 acres, $35,000; 
John Labold, 608 acres, $60,000; George F. Fisher, 300 acres, 
$50,000; Frederick Labold, 352 acres, $40,000; Zoar Separatists, 
5,789 acres, $600,000. 

Mm Tmonship.— Thomas O'Donnell, 350 acres, $30,000; John J. 
O'Donnell, 416 acres, $40,000 ; J. E. Fredenburr, 430 acres, $35,000 ; 
Fleming Bukey, 440 acres, $45,000 ; George and J. B. Dawson, 360 
acres, $35,000 ; A. G. Gatchell, 350 acres, $35,000 ; J. W. Gatchell, 
310 acres, $20,000; Francis Scott, 328 acres, $25,000; William 
Welch, 300 acres, $22,000 ; Thomas J. Forbes, 313 acres, $30,000. 

Oxford Townshij)— John Booth^ 1,310 acres, $85,000; 1). Mul- 
vaine & Sons, 750 acres, $55,000 ; Morris Creter, 520 acres, $55,000; 
John Knight, 500 acres, $60,000 ; Lorenzo C. Davis, 412 acres, 
$45,000; Elias Knisely, 387 acres, $36,000; John McDonald, 381 
acres, $20,000 ; R. H. Nugen heirs, 783 acres, $60,000. 

Perri/ Toionshijj.—WiWiam Barnhill, 340 acres, $27,000 ; Harri- 
son Miller form, 360 acres, $22,000. 

Kmh Townshij).— Jacob Houk, 390 acres, $25,000 ; N. B. Ken- 
nedy, 320 acres, $20,000 ; H. R. Ripley, 340 acres, $23,000 ; James 
Sproul, Jr., 390 acres, $27,000; Robert Sproul, 400 acres, $30,000; 
Joseph Harmon, 300 acres, $20,000 ; H. Ripley, 320 acres, $20,000. 

Sandi/ Towm^hijK— John Baily, Sr., 548 acres, $50,000 ; Michael 
Evans, 300 acres, $30,000; Reagen W. Myers, 400 acres, $50,000; 


Joseph Leins, 300 acres, $23,000; John Knotts, 430 acres, 140,000; 
George Lechner, 300 acres, S27,O00 ; Joseph Laughlin, 325 acres, 
$30,000 ; William Swaney, 360 acres, $40,000; John Farber, Jr., 300 
acres, $30,000. 

Sugar Creek Toionsliip. — Joseph Silvins, 500 acres, $40,000 ; M. 
Deitz, 487 acres, $45,000 : Daniel Cobleuz, 303 acres, $30,000 ; Daniel 
J. Miller, 310 acres, $30,000; Joseph Yodder, 380 acres, $36,000. 

Salem Towmldp. — J. & J. Bremer, 400 acres, $70,000; Conrad 
Bremer, 348 acres, $40,000 ; Leonard Hart, 326 acres, $30,000 ; 
Hebbard Hill's heirs, 320 acres, $40,000; Robert Lyons, 360 acres, 
$30,000; D. Mulvain, 350 acres, $30,000; D. Nelson, 300 acres, 
$30,000; J. A. Roenbaugh, 300 acres, $30,000; W. Robertson & 
Co., 580 acres, $170,000 ; Adam Stocker, 600 acres, $60,000 ; Paul 
Weatherby farm, 400 acres, $25,000 ; J. A. Wyant, 300 acres, 

Union Toionshq). — William Brock, 340 acres, $20,000; Leslie 
McCullough, 340 acres, $20,000 ; H. J. Oliver, 384 acres, $20,000 ; 
J. Pyle, 462 acres, $25,qp0 ; William Rutlidge, 400 acres, $25,000. 

Warren Toiomhip. — William Carnes, 450 acres, $30,000 ; Jacob 
Higgle, 435 acres, $25,000 ; David Machaman, 300 acres, $23,000 ; 
J. M. Mills, 300 acres, $25,000; A. Machaman, 440 acres, $30,000; 
Richard McClelland, 360 acres, $30,000 ; William Strawn, 450 acres, 
$33,000 ; George Steece farm, 330 acres, $24,000 ; Micajah Seran, 
360 acres, $28,000; William R. Kennedy, 300 acres, $25,000. 

Warwick Towmliip. — John Edie, Sr., 340 acres, $25,000: John 
Kuause, 360 acres, $27,000 ; Godfrey Everett. 640 acres, $48,000 ; 
John Minnich farm, 350 acres, $40,000. 

Washington Township. — H. C. Asher, 300 acres, $20,000; Isaac 
Blair, 320 acres, $20,000 ; Solomon Corley, 300 acres, $15,000 ; Lee 
Hudson, 300 acres, $20,000; Daniel Keese, 350 acres, $24,000; 
Benjamin Murphy, 300 acres, $15,000; John McCollough, 300 acres, 
$20,000; James H. Quigley, 590 acres, $40,000; James Taylor, 620 
acres, $40,000. 

Wayne Township. — Peter Fleck, 300 acres, $30,000; Amos John- 
son farm, 300 acres, $25,000 ; Frederick Rirchenbach, 310 acres, 
$25,000; Caleb Jones, 390 acres, $35,000. 

York Township. — George Ankeny, 620 acres, $50,000 ; George 
Fachler, 300 acres, $30,000 ; N. Winkler, 380 acres, $35,000. 

A number of laud-owuers have land in different town- 


ships ill smaller quantities than three hundred acres ag- 
gregating over three hundred, but this list includes only 
such men as own three hundred acres in any township. 



The following is a list of the associate judges of the court 
of common pleas of Tuscarawas county from its organiza- 
tion to 1852, when the new constitution abolished that office : 

Johh Heckewelder from 1808 to 1810; Aquilla Carr, 1808 to 1811 ; 
Christian Deardorff, 1808 to 1824; Godfrey Haga, Jr., 1810 to 181B; 
Conrad Roth, 1811 to 1812; Robert S. Caples, 1812 to 1818; Joseph 
Wampler, part of 1813; Henry Laflfer, 1813 to 1829; Nicholas Neigh- 
bor, 1818 to 1832; Thomas Cummings, 18^4 to 1833; Jacob Blick- 
ensderfer, 1829 to 1836; Peter Williams, 1832 to 1839 ; Rezin Pritch- 
ard, 1833 to 1840 ; Israel S. Lappiu, 1836 to 1852; Walter M. Blake, 
1839 to 1846; Isaac N. Roberts, 1840 to 1847; James Patrick, Sr., 
1846 to 1852; Morris Creter, 1847 to 1852; Jacob Blickensderfer, 
1850 to 1852. 


Sampson S. King, 1808; Lewis Cass, 1808; Fisher A. Blocksom, 
1808; E. W. Herrick, 1810; Robert Bay, 1810; John C. Wright, 
1812; Alexander Harker, 1812; Samuel W. Culbertson, 1812; D. 
Redeck, 1816; M. D. Pettibone, 1817; John M. Goodenow, 1817; 
Walter B. Beebe, 1818; Ephraim Root; Wright & Collier, 1818; 
Wright Warner, 1818; S. Johnson, 1819; John C Stockton; J. W. 
Lathrop, 1819; Samuel W. Bell, 1819; John Harris, 1820. 


The following is a list of the men who have served as 
commissioners of Tuscarawas county since its organiza- 
tion, in 1808: 


John Juukius, Michael Uhric-h, Philip Miunich, Booz Waltou, 
Isaac DeardoriF, Clabriel Cryder, Samuel Lappin, Jacob Blickens- 
derfer, George Davis, Michael Smith, William Summers, Peter Wil- 
liams, James Rippeth, Jacob llhrich, William Albert, William 
Rouse, Michael Doll, Abram Kuisely, Benjamin Ream, John M. 
Patton, Samuel Miller, Andrew Creter, Charles Korns, George Weltv, 
John Wallace, John Dearth, George K. Fankboner, Thomas B.iyes, 
Milton Smith, Lewis Conwell, Henry Lupher, Cyrus C. Carroll, 
David Gram, George Wallack, Jacob Houk, George Fernsel, Robert 
Seaman, John Shank, Joseph Kollar, Samuel Schweitzer, John C. 
Zutavern, Daniel Swaim, George Troelich, Joseph Kiiisey, Martin 
Kugler, William Rankin, Matthias Rudolph. 


The following named men have served as auditor since 
the organization of the county, in 1808 : 

Godfrey Hoga, Jr., from 1808 to 1809 ; Christian Espich, 1809 
to 1813; James Clark, 18i:> to 1818; Jacob Blickensderfer, 1818 
to 1820 ; Sylvester John.son, 1820 to 1822 ; James Patrick, Sr., 1822 
to 1823; Walter M. Blake, 1823 to 1825; Thornton Whitaker, 1825 
to 1828 ; Azor Abell, 1826 to 1832 ; Joseph Talbott, 1832 to 183G ; 
Thomas King, 1836 to 1840; John Everhard, 1840 to 1847; David 
Judy, 1847 to 1851 ; John Hildt, 1851 to 1855 ; Philip Uhrich, 
1855 to 1859; Benjaiuin F. Helwig, 1859 to 1863; Jesse D. Elliott, 
1863 to 1867: Oliver R, Hoover, 1867 to 1871 ; Philip Getzman, 
1871 to 1873 ; Solomon Ashbaugh, 1873 to 1877. 


The following is a list of the men who have served as 
county treasurers since the organization of the county in 

David Peter, from 1808 to 1811; Peter Williams, 1811 to 1823; 
Gabriel Cryder, 1823 to 1836; Jacob Overholtz, 1836 to 1842; 
Joseph Demuth, 1842 to 1846; Edward Peter, 1846 to 1850; John 
Buthler, 1850 to 1853; Simpson Harmount, 1853 to 1858; Levi 
Sargent, 1858 to 1860; Henry Anderman, 1860 to 1864; Martin 
Hagan, 1864 to 1866; Nicholas Montag. 1866 to 1870; William H. 
Crisswell, 1870 to 1874; Josiah Murphy, 1874 to 1878. 



The following is a list of the men who have served as 
clerks of the court since the organization of the county in 


James Clark, from 1808 to 1818; George W. Canfield, 1818 to 
182C;. (Charles S. Frailey, 182(5 to 1827; James W. English, 1827 
to 1843; Charles H. Mitchener, 18-43 to 1851 ; Joseph Walton, 1851 
to 1852, Emerson Goodrich, 1852 to 1855; Hosea T. Stoekwell, 1855 
to 1858; John D. Langhead, 1858 to 1864; Peter Kunz, 1864 to 
1867; James M. Kennedy, 1867 to 1873; Daniel C. McGregor, 1873 
to 1875 ; Thomas C. Ferrell, 1875 ; Jacob Be Greif, 1875 to 1878. 


The office of probate judge was established by the consti- 
tution of 1851, since which time the following named men 
have served : 

James Moffitt, from 1852 to 1855 ; John H. Barnhill, 1855 to 1861; 
Oliver P. Taylor, 1861 to 1867; Abraham W. Patrick, 1867 to''l870 ; 
William B. Brown, 1870 to 1876. 


The following is a list of the sheriifs since the organiza- 
tion of the county in 1808: 

Henry Davis, from 1808 to 1810; Henry Laffer, 1810 to 1813 
Henry Shetler, 1813 to 1817; Frederick Maish, 1817 to 1819 
Thornton Whitaere, 1819 to 1823; Walter M. Blake, 1823 to 1827: 
John Butt, 1827 to 1832; Jacob Knisely, 1832 to 1833; Jacob 
Kitch, 1833 to 1838; Elisha James, 1838 to 1842; John English, 
1842 to 1846; Levi Sargent, 1846 to 1850 ; Philip Uhrich, 1850 to 
1852 ; Dorsey Wilson, 1852 to 1854; Charles H. Mathews, 1854 to 
1856; John W. Lytle, 1856 to 1860; Philip Getzman. 1860 to 
1864 ; Simon Fackler, 1864 to 1866 ; Charles Howard, 1866 to 
1868; John Howard, 1868 to 1869; James Truman, 1860 to 1870; 
Jacob De Griff, 1870 to 1874 ; Robert Price, 1874 to 1878. 



The following is a list of the men who served this county 
as prosecuting attorney, from the organization to the pres- 

Edward Herrick, from 1808 to 1810; Alexander Harper, 1810 to 
1811; Robert Bay, 1811 to 1814; Wright Warner, 1814 to 1816; 
William B. Raymond, 1816 to 1818; John C. Stockton, 1818 to 

; Sylvester Johnson, 1818 to 18l^0 ; Wright Warner, 1820 to 

1825 ; Booz M. Atherton, 1825 to 1831 ; Francis D. Leonard, 1831 
to 1836; John D. Cummins, 1836 to 1842; Joseph C. Hance, 1842 
to 1844; Isaac Hartman, 1844 to 1846; Lorenzo C. Davis, 1846 to 
1848; John A. Bingham, 1848 to 1850; James B. t^ray, 1850 to 
1852; William Helmich, 1852 to 1854; Matthias H. Bartilson, 1854 
to 1858; Abraham W. Patrick, 1858 to 1862; David W. Stam- 
baugh, 1862 to 1864; Alexander L. Neely, 1864 to 1866; James 
Patrick, Jr., 1866 to 1870 ; John J. Robinson, 1870 to 1874 ; John 
W. Allbaugh, 1874 to 1878. 


The following are the names of the recorders who have 
held office since the organization of the county: 

James Clark, from 1808 to 1818; GeoKge W. Canfield, 1818 to 
1826; James Patrick, Sr , 1826 to 1836; Bower Seaton, 1836 to 
1845; Joel Warner, 1845 to 1851; Simon Bugher, 1851 to 1854; 
Matthias S. Nabor, 1854 to 1861; Asbury Insley, 1861 to 1867; 
John Mygrantz, 1867 to 1873 ; Peter W. Himes, 1873 to 1879. 

RAWAS IN 1761. 

It is well known that some of the Indians called the 
Muskingum "Elk Eye," while others called it "Moose- 
kingdom," from the fact that the elk or moose inhabited 
these valleys at one time, and by reason thereof they be- 
came the important hunting grounds of the red men in 


Ohio, and on that account were deemed of such vahie that 
the aborigines fouglit a generation hefore surrendering 
their elk country'' to the white man. 

When Gist passed down the Tuscarawas in 1750 he was 
fed on elk steak, and in 1755 Smith speaks of them as 
making excellent meat, the Indians preferring it to veni- 
son. A full-sized elk or moose was six feet high and seven 
in length, and weighed from eight hundred to one thou- 
san<l pounds, the large, s[)reading horns often weighing 
seventy pounds, and [)rotruding upward and outward from 
the head several feet, so that when the animal was run-j 
ning its nose was thrust forward, to have tlie horns fall 
along the hack, thus protecting the bod}^ to a certain ex- 
tent from thorns and briars, and preventing the horns from 
catching in the limbs overhead. They were very fleet, and 
it is said could travel two hundred miles in a day. When 
suddenly aroused or frightened the horns were kept erect, 
as a defensive weapon, and woe to the hunter who came in 
contact with an enraged animal. In the rutting season the 
males became furious, fighting each other, or even man, as 
they rushed with a noisy roar through the woods in pur- 
suit of a female, who likewise became furious i-n defense 
of her calves, two of which were born yearly, in May. The 
elks fed on grass, the bark of the maple, buttonwood, and 
twigs, and lived to the age of twenty years. They were 
hunted in March and September by the Indians, and were 
most easily overtaken in times of deep snow. They were 
sometimes caught by slip-nooses attached to saplings benl 
down in the path the animal frequented in going to and 
from the river. 

In January, 1761, Major Robert Rogers and his hunter, 
while visiting the Seneca capital, near Bolivar, went out 
hunting on one of the streams emptying into the Tusca- 
rawas. They were old hunters, and one niooulight night 
stationed themselves by the creek and bci):an iniitatii;-:' the 
noise of the bull elk or moose, knowing that he woidd 
come rushing, if in tlic vicinity of the sound, to the spot. 


to give battle to the iiitrading 1)ull who dared to venture 
near his females (the elk being more jealous than man). 
In a short time they heard the twigs and limbs cracking 
on the opposite side of the creek, and prepared to get a 
shot as he approached. Bounding down the declivity and 
into the water came the male, female and calves. The 
hunters fired, hit the calves but missed the parents, who in 
a moment were upon them, and the riiies empty. There 
was no time to run or tree, so taking out their knives they 
I'oared ami rushed, eac-h nuni [>lunging his knife at what 
he wanted — the heart of his animal; but before eitlier 
could reach it they each were tramped down by the fore 
feet of the elks, who struck in unison. 

As quick as thought the elks receded a few feet, to give 
play to their horns, and catching the hunters thereon tossed 
them both into the air, but among the spreading limbs of 
beech tree, to which each adroitly clung in an instant, and 
soon climbed out of reach. The infuriated animals pawed, 
raised on their hind legs and bellowed, but all to no pur- 
pose, and after some time, hearing a noise over the creek, 
tliey bounded across and were soon out of view. The hun- 
ters got in next day, bruised but not hurt, each having his 
elk calf for his adventure. 


The early pioneers were greatly annoyed by the wolves, 
and they embraced every opportunity to get a shot at the 
beasts, first to save hogs, sheep, and calves; and second 
to get the scal[) premium paid l)y the State, as a mark of 
hunter's merit. Whoever killed a wolf, by presenting the 
scalp, and making affidavit before the clerk of the court, 
within twenty daySj stating age and sex, and that the affiant 
killed it in the county, got an order on the treasury. 

Between 1808 and 1843, four hundred affidavits were filed, 
after which the scalp law ceased. 


Premiums were also paid for a few years upon the scalps 
of panthers, and Avild cats, or catamounts, hut the}' were 
rarely killed. 

John Mizer, in his time killed 47 wolves; Adam Reemer, 
35; Jacoh Hoopengarner, 20; Henry Willard, 15; George 
Miller, 13: John Purdee, 16; Jonathan Andrews, 10; Chris- 
tian Yotter, 11; Christian Rover, 9; Jacoh Troyer, 8; Ben- 
jamin Johnson, 8; Jacoh Alizer, 7; Benjamin Wallick, 7; 
Ahijah Rohinet, 7; William Fler, 6; John Sommers, 6; 
Henry Kail, (3; Ahram Harshberger, 6; Samuel Huft", 5; 
John Goodage, 5; John Bevers, 5; David Neeshaum, 5; 
Samuel Deardorff, 5; and scattering hunters 139, making 
in all 400. 

Many traditions have passed down to this day, at the fire- 
sides, of the adventures of the wolf hunters. 

In 1810, it is related that on Laurel Creek, in the present 
Rush township, there was a wolf den in a cave, where num- 
bers lived securely, no hunter being bold enough to enter. 
On one occasion, a hired man of John Perdue, going along 
the creek on a Saturday night, to a neighbor's house, to 
fiddle for the dancers, was attacked by a pack of wolves, 
who surrounded and were about to make a meal of him. 
He had no weapon but his fiddle, and as he was looking for 
a hollow tree hutt to shelter himself from their front and rear 
snaps, he kept them at bay for a time by drawing the bow 
over the strings, making the most unearthly noise possible, 
Avhich, scaring them off some yards, he commenced climb- 
ing a sapling, when a wolf seized him by the foot. It was 
life or death with him then, and, making a last effort, he 
shook the wolf off, and reached a height out of their way. 
They then began circling him, barking in concert as they 
ran around his tree, every third or fourth round one would 
break out of the circle, and leaping up against the tree, en- 
deavoring to reach him. Having continued in this way for 
some time in their war-dance, the pack suddenly scampered 
off, to the great relief of the treed man. He soon hoard 
dogs bark, and then the report of a rifle; he yelled, and 


attracted the part}^, who came to his relief and escorted him 
home. The next day the settlers surrounded the hill where 
the den was located, smoked the cave so strongly that the 
wolves came out one by one, and were shot, to the number 
of seven. The entrance was shut up with large stones, and 
the settlers were troubled no more by the pack. 

On Huff's run, in 1815, one of the Huffs heard a noise at 
his stable in tlie night. Quickly getting his gun he crept 
out and found five wolves tearing a hog to pieces. He sliot 
one, aud the four left. He lay in wait and soon the four 
returned when he shot a second, and lay in wait until morn- 
ing but no more came l)ack. The next night he put the bait 
hog out, and waited. Soon came a pack of half a dozen, of 
which he shot three before morning. He put the fi\'e in 
one afhdavit and got twelve dolhirs, about the price of his 


Henry Willard emigrated to Tuscarawas County shortly 
after the year 1800, and settled in the present Lawrence 
Township. He was a hunter, and the county records at- 
test that he killed, and received premiums for, fifteen wolf 
scalps in his time. 

On one occasion in the winter, when the snow was sev- 
eral inches deep, he started across the country to Killbuck 
Creek, near the present Wooster, where there was to be on 
Christmas da}' a great shooting match. In the afternoon 
he was on the west line of the county, und the walking 
hard, a crust having formed on the heaviest snowfall, on 
to[) of which lliere were some two inches of snow of the 
night before. Ascending a ridge he stopped to rest, setting 
his rifle against the body of a dead tree; and spying a bear 
track which approached the tree and turned off at right 
angles, he was curious to see if it was fresh, and finding 
that the bear track turned oft down the hill he followed it 


a rod or so, and then went back to get his rifle, satisfied 
that it Was the track of a bear made that morning. Hear- 
ing a noise, he looked toward the dead tree and saw a bear 
descending it, and in a moment bruin was at the butt, 
standing guard over WiUard's rifle. As Willard eyed him 
he set himself on his ^haunches, and seizing the rifle with 
his paws, began to wallop it against the tree, then cast it 
from him down the hillside some feet, and started for Wil- 
lard, who had unsheathed his knife and was waiting for 
the charge. As the bear raised to embrace the hunter, he 
received the knife in his abdomen, the blood spouting on 
the snow. Feeling the wound, bruin grappled Willard, 
squeezed him, and began to gnaw his neck, then falling, 
pulled him down, holding Willard with a death grip. He 
soon ceased biting, and in the effort to get the knife from 
Willard they both rolled in the snow, some feet down the 
hillside, and by chance the hunter's knife hand became 
disengaged, and he pulled upward, making a gash in the 
stomach and flank which let out part of the animal's en- 
trails. The bear and the hunter had in the scuffle rolled 
against a sapling, and for an instant both were still, the 
bear having Willard's arm in his mouth, and Willard work- 
ing the knife around as well as he could in the bellj^ Sud- 
denly the bear rose, still holding the hunter, but lettiiig go 
his armhold, he gnawing the face of Willard, who at once 
made a lunge with the knife in his released hand, and all 
was over. The bear's hold relaxed; he attempted to get 
the knife out of his body, but fell forward and expired. It 
was now sunset, and Willard, seeing" that he could not 
roach Killbuck Creek that night, made a fire, and by its 
light skinned the bear, roasted and ate some bear steak, 
went to sleep, and in the morning returned to his home, 
traveling some nine miles in the cold, with his face hacked 
and his right arm useless, but no bones broken. His boys 
went out and brought in the hide, which was long shown 
to neighbors as evidence of the most desperate fight he had 
ever been in. 


Old John Baker, west of Dover liad a siinibir encounter 
with a bear, whicli tore his tiesh and face so horribly that 
he was not recognizable for some time, lie survived the 
bear, however. 

Another instance is related of a young man in the ccnmty 
being killed l)y a bear in a deep ravine, and his bod}' could 
not be found for many years, when the bones turned u[( in 
burning the remains of a hollow tree, in a clearing. 


(_)1(1 John Mizer, who was one of the early settlers of what 
is now Bucks township, went out on Buckhorn Creek to 
secure a wolf scalp. Having fixed the bait, which consisted 
of a skinned rabbit covered with blood, he was about to 
hide near by when his practiced ear detected the tread of an 
animal l)ehind him. U])on turning to look foi' the expected 
wolf he beheld a large catamount, which, seeing him, in- 
stantly treed ; Mizer shot, and ere the report left his rifle 
the beast pounced u[)on him, sinking its claws into his back. 
With great presence of mind the old hunter instantly backed 
against a tree and pressed the catamount hard against it, at 
the same time dropping his gun and drawing his hunting 
knife, which he plunged into the beast's side several times 
in quick succession. At this unexpected turn of affairs the 
catamount let go, and endeavored to get out of its close 
(puirters. By the repeated blows from the knife its entrails 
were soon cut out and it dropped dead at Mizer's feet. The 
animal proved to be one of the largest of its species and 
measured over three feet in length. The body weighed 
about one hundred pounds, as he tested on reaching home 
with it. Aiizer's back Avounds troubled him for some time 
but nothing serious came of them, and he was soon out 
again after more wolf scalps. 



In December, 1809, John Henry, a son of the old chief 
Killbuck. Avho lived at tlie Goshen Mission town, went to 
a deer lick, in the present Warwick Township, to watch 
for and kill a large Ijuck which he had seen frequently, 
but had never succeeded in getting a shot at. Upon arriv- 
ing at the lick, Henry posted himself in the fork of a tree, 
a short distance from the path which the deer trod in go- 
ing to and from the lick. After half an hour spent in 
patiently watching for the least sign of coming deer, the 
veritable buck, followed by two does, came wj^lking leis- 
urely down the path, with their noses elevated, and snff- 
ing the air in all directions to find the location of a foe 
they detected. Just before coming opposite to the tree 
in Avhich Henry sat concealed, the buck stopped short and 
turned half round, which movement started the does on 
the back track. As the buck threw his head around to 
look after his retreating companions, the bullet from Hen- 
ry's rifle penetrated his heart, and he fell dead in his tracks. 
An instant after the report of the gun a terrible scream 
came from a tree which stood only a few feet to the right 
of Henry's tree, and there sprang a large panther down 
upon the dead deer. To reload the rifle was short work 
for Henry. He took careful aim at the animal, Avhich lay 
motionless upon the buck, looking him fair in the face. 
The powder missed tire, and in the haste to recock the gun 
the flint became dislodged and went tumbling to the ground. 
Having started out for only au hour or two, Henry had 
not taken the precaution to cany an extra flint. Here was 
a crisis not easily bridged by the boldest and most experi- 
enced of hunters, but Henry at once determined upon his 
course of action. Grasping his rifle in his left hand, and 
placing his hunting-knife between his teeth, Henry de- 
scended the tree to recover the flint, if possible. The }»an- 


tlier remained crouching upon the buck, switching his tail 
in nervous agitation, apparently at the hunter's ^clelay in 
coming within its reach. Cautiously the Indian dropped 
down the tree, a foot or less at a time, ready. at the slight- 
est movement of the panther to drop the gun and grasp 
the knife to defend himself if attacked. Down, down he 
came, every inch bringing him nearer to the claws of the 
ferocious beast, until at length his feet touched the ground. 
To snatcli up the flint was the work of an instant, but be- 
fore he could fasten it in the lips of the gun-cock the pan- 
ther uttered another scream and sprang for him. Henry 
jumped around the tree just in time to allow only one of 
the paws of the animal to graze his side, stripping his shirt 
and leggings to his moccasins. He clubbed the gun, and 
before the panther could recover for another spring, struck 
it a hard blow on the side of the head, which stunned it. 
In another moment the knife was plunged to its heart, 
where he left it in his haste to spring away to avoid the 
claws of the panther, with which it tore up the dead 
leaves and twigs in its death throes. Before the animal 
ceased its struggles Henry had replaced the flint, and then, 
to make death doubly sure, fired a bullet into its brain. 
He then skinned the buck, hung part of the carcass upon 
a sapling, and started home with the hind quarters and 
the scalp of the panther. 

The next day, being the 9th of December, 1809, Henry 
took the scalp to the county seat, where he made affidavit 
before James Clark, clerk of the court, who certified to the 
fact, upon which he received the premium ordered to be 
paid for panther scalps by the county commissioners, which 
was one dollar and fifty cents. 


Adam Reamer, wiio lived in wiiat is Wayne tow^nship, 
was born between 1760 and 1770, and was one of the first 
Tuscarawas pioneers in 1810-11, and killed in his day many 


wolves. He obtained premiums for thirty-five, and has 
liaiided down this legend to modern times. He was out on 
the French hills hunting about 1811, and passing a cabin 
was asked to assist in holding a mad woman, who had been 
wolfbitten. Her hnsi)and had shot a cub wolf, running with 
its mother. He tired at her, but the ball passed througli her 
ear and killed the cub. He carried it homo and gave the 
dead cub to his young wife, throwing it in her lap, and say- 
ing its hide would make lining for a baby cradle, which 
in those days was a sugar trough. Some weeks thereafter, 
slie saw, while sitting at the cabin door, a wolf coming in 
full speed along the path. She screamed and bounded into 
the cabin, followed by the wolf. Her husband, making an 
ax handle near by, hearing the scream, and supposing she 
had seen a snake, rushed to the door with the ax helve, just 
as the wolf was coming out. One stroke felled it, and he 
soon killed the beast, but was horror-struck to see its mouth 
tilled with saliva, and a half-healed bullet hole iu its ear. 
His wife then told him the wolf had bitten her. They ap- 
plied all the remedies and preventives then known among 
the settlers for hydropho])ia, and no troublesome indica- 
tions of madness appeared. But the bullet hole in the ear 
of the dead wolf satisfied him that she was the mother of 
the cub whose skin had been cured and pegged on the Avail, 
waiting for the time to be made into a bahy bed. In form - 
iirg his wife of his suspicion, she was terrifi^ed with ominous 
forel)odings. He endeavored to appease her by taking awa}^ 
the cub's pelt, and burying it from her sight. The circum- 
stance soon passed out of mind at their new home in the 
wilderness, surrounded by live wolves, beai's, and panthers,, 
and in due time the woman gave birth to her first boy, wlio 
soon died, but the mother had terrible dreams that she had 
contracted hydrophobia, which she actually did in a sliort 
time, and it was just as she had become most furious when 
Reamer called at the cabin. The poor mother, after suffer- 
ing intensely, and becoming so strong that two men could 
scarcely hold her in bed, died in a spasm. She was buried 


temporarily in a shallow grave near the cabin, for want of 
a grave-yard in the neighborhood. The husband in a short 
time met the old hunter, and told him that he had cut a 
tree down over the grave to keep the wolves out of it, but 
that the howling of the animals around his cabin at niglit 
so terrihed him that he would leave the country, and he 
did. Reamer, passing by the deserted cabin soon after the 
young settler had left, went to the grave, only to find that 
the wolves and forest animals had disinterred the body of 
the mad woman, and eaten the flesh from her bones. The 
country for twenty miles around was warned, and little 
else was done for a time but to hunt down and slaug-hter 

These incidents illustrate the dangers attendant upon 
the lives of the early settlers, and from which the present 
generation are exempt. In those days there were few bur- 
glars among men, but every wolf was a thief and marauder 
in its day, and caused or committed some ravage on the 

It may be remarked that old Adam Reamer was past 
sixty when he killed his last wolf, and died over three 
score and ten, leaving descendants. 


The two canals in most useful existence at this time are 
the Ohio Canal, from Cleveland to Portsmouth, 307 miles, 
and Miami Canal, from Cincinnati to Deliance, 178 miles. 

The lirst cost $5,000,000, and the second |3,750,000. 

The Ohio Canal was begun in 1825, and finished in 1832. 
The cost of repairs have been partly paid out of tolls and 
rents, and partly by taxation. The interest on the original 
cost has been paid partly from canal revenues and partlj' 
from taxation. 

Congress donated one million acres to Ohio, to aid in 
canals, which was in part applied thereto. 

When the present lease shall have terminated, in 1881, 


the lessees will have kQpt the canals in repair (except as 
to unavoidable expenses arising from destrnetion bv the 
elements), and also have paid into the revciim' fund of the 
State $200,000. 

The increase in the value of })roperty since their con- 
struction, along their lines of communication, demonstrate 
that they have more than twice paid the original cost of 
construction, and that the increased valuation of property 
along their lines, by being put upon the duplicate, have 
more than paid the canal taxes levied upon counties 
through which the canals were not located. 

The incisive and incessant efforts of railw^ay corpora- 
tions either to control or destroy the usefulness of the 
great arteries of cheap transportation in Xew York, in- 
duced that State to take active measures to protect and 
improve her canals, and the consequence is shown in the 
facts following : 


It will be seen by the census that our own State, and our 
great rivals on each side, have increased, between 1850 
and 1870, as follows : 

Pnpulat i o)} , 

lSr,0. 1S70. 

New York 3,097,000 4,382,000 

Ohio 1,980,000 2,665,000 


I^no. 1S70. 

New York 1,080,000,000 6,500,000,000 

Ohio 504.000,000 2,235,000,000 

Ynhir nf MavufarftirPi^. 

ISr.O 1S70. 

Npw York 100,000.000 307.000,000 

Ohio , 29 000,000 141,000,000 

Agqrrgatr Tnorailnv. 

JSr.O. 1870. 

New York 1.5,000,000 48,000,000 

Pennsylvania 9 000.000 24 000 000 

Ohio 10,0(10,000 23 000,000 

Indiana 4,000,000 10 000,000 

Illinois 6,000,000 22^000,000 


These %nres show that while Qhio lias increased, it is 
not in the same ratio, either in popnlation, wealth, mining 
or mamifactnres ; while in taxation her rate of increase of 
bnrthens npon the people is equal to that State in ratio. 
This fact has, in twenty years, caused Ohio to fall hehind 
her rival neighbor about two hundred per cent, in all the 
elements of wealth growing out of protection to niinino;, 
manufacturing, and farming industries. 

The portentious fact stares the people of Ohio in the 
face, that while she is the second mineral State (Pennsyl- 
vania alone excelling her), her increase is biit three hun- 
dred per cent., while the State of New York has increased 
tive hundred per cent, in the same time, b}' expanding 
her mining and manufacturing interests along her lines of 
water communication ; in widening, deepening and enlarg- 
ing the same; not to destroy railway corporations, but to 
enable the people engaged in mining and manufacturing, 
as well as in -agricultural pursuits, to compete with these 
corporations in the one great desideratum — cheap trans- 
portation to a market. 

The remedy is a change in the organic law" similar to 
the provisions in the New York constitution, which pro- 
hibits sale or destruction, and provides for tlie continual 
improvement of the water lines of the State. 


The number of miles of railways in Ohio are nearly 5,000. 
These have been constructed by private capital and credit, 
amounting by average to |80,000 per mile, or $150,000,000, 
less taxation on exceptional or special counties, townships, 
cities, and towns to the amount of $10,000,000, 

Under the laws taxing railway corporations there have 
been collected since 1846, from railways, and applied to 
general tax fund, an amount exceeding $10,000,000. 

The whole sum raised by taxation, in special localities, 


has therefore been repaid, not to the communities taxed, but 
to the State treasury for the benefit of the whole people of 
tlie State. 

The enhanced value of property in counties permeated by 
railroads, by reason of their construction, is equal to a gross 
sum that would yield an interest efpial to the tax paid by 
railroads. Thus the tax paid being $10,000,000, that sum 
is ecpial to six per cent, on a principal of $1,000,000,000, 
which is the estimated enhanced value given to the property 
in Ohio, by the construction of 5,000 miles of railway therein, 
or about $4 per acre, over the State, in counties having no 
railroads, as well as counties through which they have been 

In about forty counties, no county or municipal tax has 
been collected from communities for railroads. Hence, in 
the counties and municipalities paying no tax for railroads, 
the same resulting benefits have accrued to the tax-payers 
that accrued to the counties and municipalities taxed, so 
far as general increase of wealth is concerned over the State. 

The amount of stock paid in on construction of 5,500 
miles of railroad in Ohio is, in round numbers, $1 50,000,000. 
Their indebtedness is $151,000,000. Their average earnings 
aggregate $40,000,000, of which three-fourths is consumed 
in operating the roads, leaving $10,000,000 as net earnings, 
a})plied to interest, dividends, &c.; of these $40,000,000 earn- 
ings, about three-fifths are distributed along the lines among 
the people, for work, and labor, and materials. 

The fifty odd railroads in Ohio carr}^ annually 80,000,000 
tons of freight, and 15,000,000 passengers, to and fro. The 
saving of time and expenses of transportation compared with 
the old common carrier system, is equal to $5 per head per 
annum, by average, or about $150,000,000. 


Table op Railroads, June 80, 1874, in Ohio. 


Asht.alnil;i, Yoimg.stown & Pittsburgh Railroad 

Atlantii- * Hwnt Western Railroad 

Baltiii](irt', Pittsbur!<h&.Chicago Railway (Ohio Div.) 

Central Oliio Uailroail 

Chicagij A Canada Southern Railway 

(Jincinnati & Baltimore Railway .". 

C'ineiunati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroad 

(;iiirinnati, Hamiltim A- Imliauapolis Railroad 

Cincinnati A: Indiana Railroad 

Cincinnati A Muskin.i^uni Valley Railway 

Cincinnati, Richmond A Chicago Railroad 

Cincinnati, Sandusky & Cleveland Railroad 

Cincinnati & Springfield Railway 

Cincinnati & Whitcwatei' Valley Railroad 

Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati & Indianapolis R'y 

Cleveland & Mahoning ^'alley P.ailway 

( lc\eland. JNlt. Vernon & Delaware Railroad 

<;le\ehind & Newburgh Railroad 

<'levcland & Pittsburgh Railway 

Columlius, Chicago & Indiana Central Railway 

Colinnlius & Hockin" Valley Railroad 

Columbus, Springfield & Cincinnati Railroad 

Columbus A- Xcniii Railroad 

Dayton & 3l)cliig:in Railroad 

Dayton i L'nion Railroad 

Gallipohs, McArthur & Columbus Railroad 

Harrison Branch Railroad 

Iron Raih-oad 

Lake Erie & Louisville Railway 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway 

Cleveland, Tuscarawas Valley & Wheeling Railroad. 

Lawrence Railroad 

Little Miami Railroad 

Mahoning Coal Railroad 

Mansfiel(3, Coldwiircr A Lake Michigan Railroad 

Marietta A Ciuciiiiiaii Hailmad 

Mari.'tr;i, Pittst.iii -li a Cleveland Railway 

Ma.-sillni, ,v tlc\cl,iii,l Itailroad 

Newark. Swiinrsct \- Straitsville Railroad 

North Coin ml Ills Itailuay 

Ohio ,v >li<si>sip|>i Railway 

Ohio A Told,, Railroad 

Paiucsvillc X Youngstown Railroad 

Pittsburgh, Cincimiati A; St. Louks Railway 

Pittstiurgh, Ft. Wayne & Chicago Railway 

Rockv River Railroad " 

Sandrisky, Mansfield & Newark Railroad 

Toledii, Canada Southern & Detroit Railway 

Toledo & Maumee JNarrow Guage Railroad 

Toledo, Tiffin A Eastern Railroad 

Toledo, Wabash A WestgrU Railway 

fDeduct Newark to Col. ,owned,)ointly, counted in both 
Total ' 

Length of Track Latd. 

Main line and 

Sidings and 


other tracks. 







t 137.00 






























50. OU 













2 34 















41.. 58 






102. .'lO 













i 157.50 













3.. 54 









The first and only capital execution that has taken 
place in Tnscarawas County, was that of John Funston, 
who was found guilty of shooting William Cartwell, a 
mail-boy, in Oxford Township, on the 9th day of Septem- 
ber, 1825, under the following circumstances: Cartwell 
was carrying the horse-mail from Westcbestei- to Coshoc- 
ton, and while going through the woods, on the Coshoc- 
ton road, was shot. A man named Johnson, out hunting, 
heard the crack of a rifle, and, coming out in the road, 
found Cartwell dead and the mailbag rifled. He gave the 
ahirra, and was soon after arrested and brought to the ISTew 
Philadelphia jail (then standing on the site of the present 
auditor's office), charged with the murder. A man's foot- 
prints on the ground near the murder spot were measured, 
but disagreed in size when compared with Johnson's foot- 
prints. The murder of young Cartwell caused the most 
intense excitement, and every effort to catch the right 
man was resorted to. Johnson, in jail, told the sheriff" tliat 
he had got a glimpse of the murderer as he (Johnson) came 
out of the woods into the road, and that if he ever saw him 
in a crowd he could point him out. The entire able-bodied 
male portion of the community in the south part of the 
county were requested to meet on a certain day at the jail, 
and allow Johnson to look at them. About three hundred 
appeared, and were ranked along Broadway, and Johnson 
was brought out and passed between the ranks. After 
scanning many men very closely, he pointed to John Fun- 
ston, in the crowd, saying " That is the man." Funston 
replied, "You are a liar ! " but at once all eyes being turned 
on him, he showed fear, and began to exhibit outward evi- 
dence against himself. Fie was put in jail ; and the crowd 
went home, satisfled that the murderer was caught. After 


trial and conviction he confessed the crime, and Johnson 
was set at liberty. Sherift" Blake's return on the execution 
tells the tin ale, thus: . 

"1825, December 28th, received this writ; and on the 
30th day of December, A. D. 1825, between the hours ot 
12 o'clock, noon, and 2 o'clock p. m., I Qxecuted this writ 
by hanging the within named John Fiinston, until he was 

dead. No fees charged. .,, 

" Walter M. Blake, bherm. 

The execution took place at, or on, what is now block 
Ko 3 We^t Philadelphia. The military were called out, 
and men, women and children attended from every town- 
ship, as well as other counties. Some estimates give the 
number present at live thousand persons. 

The traveler on the Marietta and Pittsburg railway will 
see on his through ticket "Post Boy Station," south ot 
New Comerstown. It is so called from the fact that the 
post boy Cartwell was murdered there tifty years ago. 



R. J. Meigs, Duncan McArthur, Wilson Shannon, Wil- 
ham Medill, AVilliam Dennison. Jr. 


Thomas Ewing, of Fairfield County. Tnited States Sena- 
tor from 1831 tol837, and 1850 to 1851: Return Jonathan 
Meio's, of Washington, United States Senator from 1808 
to I^IO ; Benjamin Ruggles, of Belmont, United States 
Senator from ^1815 to 1833; Benjamin Tappin, of Jeffer- 
son, United States Senator from 1839 to 1815. 



Return Jouuthau Meig^, of Washington County; William 
Sprigg, Jefferson; William W. Irviu, Fairfield; Charles R. 
Sherman, Fairfield; John M. Groodenow, Jefferson : John 
C. Wright. Jefferson : William Kennon, Belmont; Charles 
C. Converse, Muskingum: Hocking II. Hunter, Fairfield; 
George W. Mcllvain, Tuscarawas. 


Charles J, Albriglit, Guernsey, 1855 to 1857 ; James Alex- 
ander, Jr., Belmont, 1837 to 1839 ; EdAvard Ball, Muskingum, 
1853 to 1857; Levi Barber, Washington, 1821 to 1823 ; J. M. 
Bell, Guernsey, 1833 to 1835; John A. Bingham, Harrison, 
1855 to 1863, and 1865 to 1873; Joseph Burns, Coshocton, 
1857 to 1859: Joseph Cable, Carroll, 1849 to 1853; James 
Caldwell, Belmont,'l813 to 1817 ; D. K. Cartter, Stark, 1849 
to 1853 ; David Chambers, Muskingum, 1821 to 1823 ; John 
Chaney, Fairfield, 1833 to 1839: Benjamin S. Cowen, Bel- 
mont, 1841 to 1843; John D. Cummins, Tuscarawas, 1845 
to 1849; William T. Cutler, Washington, 1861 to 1863; 
Lorenzo Danford, Belmont, 1873 to 1877: John Davenport, 
Belmont, 1827 to 1829; Daniel Duncan, Licking, 1847 to 
1849 ; Ephraim R. Eckley, Carroll, 1863 to 1869; Thomas 
O. Edwards, Fairfield, 1847 to 1849; Nathan Evans, Guern- 
sey, 1847 to 1851 : Paul Fearing, Washington, 1801 to 1803: 
William E. Fenck, Perry, 1863 to 1867"and 1874; James 
M. Gaylord, Morgan, 1851 to 1853; John M. Goodenow, 
Jefferson, 1829 to 1830; Alexander Harper, Muskingum, 
1837 to 1839, and 1843 to 1847 ; William'Helmich, Tusca- 
rawas, 1859 to 1861; Samuel Herrich, Muskingum, 1817 
to 1821; Moses Hoagland, Holmes, 1849 to 1851; Elias 
Howell, Licking, 1835 to 1837; William W. Irvin, Fair- 
field, 1829 to 1833; David Jennings, Belmont, 1825 to 
1826; John Johnson, Coshocton, 1851 to 1853: Perley^B. 
Johnson, Morgan, 1843 to 1845; William Kennon, Bel- 
mont, 1829 to 1833, and 1835 to 1837; William Kennon, 
Jr., Belmont, 1847 to 1849; Daniel Kilgore, Harrison, 1834 
to 1838; Samuel Lahm, Stark, 1847 to 1849: William 


Lawrence, Gruernsej, 1857 to 1859; Daniel P. Leadbetter, 
Holmes, 18o7 to 1841; Humphrey H, Leavitt, Jelibrson, 
1830 to 18-34; Benjamin F. Leiter, Stark, 1855 to 1850; 
Charles D. Martin, FairHekl, 1859 to 1861; James Math- 
ews, Coshocton, 1841 to 1845; Joshna Mathiot, Licking, 
1841 to 1843; William C. McCauslin, Jefferson, 1843 to 
1845; William Meclill, Fairfield, 1839 to 1843; Robert 
Mitchell, Muskingum, 1833 to 1835; Robert H. Nugen, 
Tuscarawas, 1861 to 1863; John O'Neill, Muskingum, 1863 
to 1865; Isaac Parrish, Guernsey and Morgan, 1839 to 
1841, and 1847 to 1849; John Patterson, Belmont, 1823 
to 1825; Thomas Ritchie, Perry, 1847 to 1849, and 1853 
to 1855; Thomas Shannon, Belmont, 1826 to 1827; Wil- 
son Shannon, Belmont, 1853 to 1857; Matthias Shepler, 
Stark, 1837 to 1839; Milton J. Southard, Muskingum, 
1873 to 1877; William P. Sprague, Morgan, 1871 LS75 ; 
David Spangler, Coshocton, 1833^ to 1837; William Stans- 
berry. Licking, 1829 to 1833; David A. Starkweather, 
Stark, 1839 to 1841, and 1845 to 1847; Samuel Stokely, 
Jefferson, 1841 to 1843; Andrew Stuart, Jefferson, 1858 to 
1855; Henry Swearingen, Jefferson, 1838 to 1841; Jona- 
than Taylor, Licking, 1839 to 1841; Thomas C. Theaker, 
Belmont, 1859 to 1861 ; C. B. Tompkins, Morgan, 1857 to 
1861; P. Van Trump, Fairtield, 1867 to 1873 ;\ Joseph W. 
White, 1863 to 1875; William A. Whittles, Washington, 
1849 to 1851; William Wilson, Licking, 1823 to 1829; 
John C. Wright, Jefferson, 1821 to 1829." 



There avc upwards of three hundred and fifty newspapers and 
and periodicals issued in Ohio. 

Of these, one-half are religious, literary, scientific, agricultural, 
and nou-political ; the residue, ninety odd are Republican, and 
eighty odd Democratic publications. 

The daily issues approximate 156,000 ; the weekly issues approx- 


imate 937,000 ; the semi and tri-weekly approximate 70,000 ; the 
sciui-monthly aud mouthly, about 86,000. Total estimated is.sues, 

It is rather au uuder thau au over estimate to couut each copy 
issued as haviug two readers, but upon that hypothesis the sub- 
joined statemeut is made, with some exceptional instances. 

The names, editors as known, and number ol' readers as estimated, 
are classified ; 


Commercial, M. IL-ilstead, independent, estimated readers over 
120,000; Encj^uirer, Fareu ct McLean, democratic, 100,000; Gazette, 
Gazette Company, republican, 80,000 ; Star, Star Publishinc: Com- 
pany, independent, 40,000; Times, Times Publishing Company, 
republican, 80,000; Free Press, C. C. Houthumb, German, 15,000; 
A^'olksblatt, Hof & Hassaurek, republican, 20,000; Volksf'rieud, Lim- 
burg & Haake, democratic, 24,000 ; fifty-three others, non-political, 
400,000. Aggregate readers, 829,000. 


Herald, Fairbanks, Benedict & Co., republican, readers, 50,000 ; 
Leader, Leader Company, republican, 30,000 ; Plaindealer, W. W. 
Armstrong, democratic, 25,000; Wachter, A. Thieme. independent, 
8,000 ; Columbia, F. Donner, democratic, 8,000 ; Auzeiger, Bohu, 
Kiuger & Co., republican, 6,000; i3ie Biene, William MuUer, dem- 
ocratic, 6,000 ; twenty-six, non-political, 200,000. x\ggregate read- 
ers, 339,000. 


Journal, J. M. Comly, republican, readers, over 12,000; Dispatch, 
Dispatch Company, neutral, 6,000 ; Westbote, Beinhard & Fieser, 
democratic, 10,000 ; Statesman, Myers & Mark, democratic, 8,000 ; 
lit'teen, non-political, 72,000. Aggregate readers, 98,000. 


Journal, W. D. Bickham, republican, readers, over 12,000; Fm- 
pire, J. G. Doren k Co., democratic, 10,000; Democrat, J. McLain 
Smith, demucratic, 8,000 ; Sunday-school Herald, 100,000 ; ten non- 
political. 40,000. Aggregate readers, 170,000. 



Coiimicn-ial, C. Wagner, readers, 10,000; Blade, J. V. Jones, 
25.000; h^xperinient, J. Vortridc, 3,000; thirteen other publieatiun^, 
10,000. Aggregate readers, 78.000. 


('Ouricr, Newman & Dodd, republiean, readers, H.OOO ; Signal, 
.Tames J. Irvin, democratic, 4.000 ; Advocate, J. T. Slnyock, inde 
pendent, 2,800; Post, A. Schneider, Uernian, 2,000; other non- 
political publications, 30,000. Aggregate readers, 44,800. 

Akron, J. F. Rowe, S. A. Lane, C. II. Knight, J. J. Wright- 
papers, Argus, Beacon, Times, G-ermania, Commercial. Aggregate 
readers, 15 000. 

Alliance, W. H. Phelps, M. McClellan, S. G. McKee, J. W. (Gil- 
lespie ; papers — Leader, Monitor, Review, Telegraph. Aggregate, 
readers, 10.000. 

L. J. Sprenkle, B. F. Nelson, Ashland, Times, Union, and Press, 
10,000; James Reed & Son, Sperry & Hawley, G. W. Flill, Ashta- 
bula, News, Telegraph, o.OOO ; C. K. Jennings, R. W. Jones, Athens, 
Journal, Messenger, 6,000 ; McClellan & Price, Barnesville, Enter- 
prise, 5,000 ; C. A. Browning, D. 0. Coweu & Co., 1). Hillin, Ba- 
tavia. Courier, Sun, and Advance, 6,000 ; J. S. T. Clarkson, J. B. 
Longley, Bellaire, Commercial, Independent, 2,500 ; Thomas tlub- 
bard, J. H. Fleehart, J. Q. Campbell, Bellefontaine, Examiner, Press, 
republican, 5.000; E. J. Hammer, BluflFton Gazette, neutral 1,200; 
J. S. Morley, Andover, Enterprise, 1,000 ; G. W. Osborne, Antwerp, 
Gazetrte, 1,000; Potto & Faus, Bellville Weekly, co-operative, 1,400; 
T. H. Winchester, Belpre Courier, neutral, 1,000; W. H. Pearce, 
Berea, Advertiser, neutral, 1,400 ; D. W. Fisher, Blooravillc Ban- 
ner, co-operative, 1 000 ; S. B. Davis, Bluifton Standard, co-opera- 
tive, 1,600; J. D. Baker, Bowling Green, democratic, 1,800; A. W. 
liudolph & Co., Bowling Green Sentinel, republican, 2,400 ; R. N. 
L'atterson. Bryan Democrat, democratic, 2,000 ; D. B. Ainzcr, Bryan 
Press, republican, 2,200; J. R. Clymer, Bucyrus Forum, democratic, 
5,000; J. Hopley, Bucyrus Journal, republican, 3,000; J. B. Coffin, 
Burton Leader, 1,000; W. B. Hearn, Cadiz Republican, republican, 
2.400; W. R. Arnold, Cadiz Sentinel, democratic, 2,000 ; John M. 
Amos, Caldwell Citizen, democratic, 2.000; W. H. Cooley, Caldwell 
Republican, republican, 2,800; Taylor k, Taylor, Cambridge Times, 


republican, 4,200 ; J. Kirkpatriek, Cambridge JcfFcrsonian, demo- 
cratic, 3,4UU ; L. Gr. Haines, Cambridge News, independent, 2,SU0; 
R. E. Watson, Canal Dover Reporter, co-operative, 1,800; A. J. 
Baughman, Canal Fulton Herald, 1,000; C. M. Gould, Canal Win- 
chester Times, co-operative, 1,000; W. S. Peterson, Canfield News, 
democratic, 2,800; Mrs. M. C. W. Dawson, Canfield Golden Mean, 
temperance, 1,500 ; M. A. Stewart, Canton Times, democratic, 2,300 ; 
N. Montag & Son, Canton Staats Zeitung, democratic, 2,800; W. T. 
Bascom, Canton Repository, republican, 4,800 ; A. McGregor & Son, 
Canton Democrat, democratic, 4,400 ; W. S. McKellar, Cardington 
liidependent, co-operative, 1,000; Frank T. Tripp, Carey Times, 
co-operative, 800 ; J. V. Lawler, CarroUton, Carroll (^hrouiele, 1,(500 ; 
S. J. Cameron & Co., CarroUton, Carroll Free Press, republican, 1,800 , 
A. P. J. Snyder. Celina Standard, democi'atic, 1,000 ; D. J. Callen, 
Celina Democrat, democratic, 2,000 ; J. J. Stranaham, Chagrin Falls 
Exponent, co-operative, 1,600 ; J. 0. Converse, Cbardon Republican, 
republican, 2,800 ; James Chambers, Chardon Times, 2,000 ; A. Mayo, 
Chillicothe Advertiser, democratic, 2,400 ; F. E. Armstrong, Chilli- 
cothe Register, independent, 3,400 ; Raper & Wolfe, Chillicothe Ga- 
zette, republican, 3,000 ; John P. Burns, Chillicothe Post, demo- 
cratic, 2,400 ; A. R. Van Cleaf, Circleville Democrat, democratic, 
3,200 ; L. C. Darst, Circleville Herald, independent, 2,800 ; Alfred 
Williams, Circleville Union, republican, 2,400 ; George E. Sweet- 
land, Clyde Review, co-operative, 1,000 ; E. S. Holloway, Colum- 
biana (New Lisbon) Register, co-operative, 1,600 ; Reig k Stoncn, 
Conneaut Reporter, republican, 2,600 ; T. W. Collier, Coshocton Age, 
republican, 2,400 ; J. C. Fisher, Coshocton Democrat, democratic, 
2,000; W. A. Browne, Covington Gazette, independent, 1,400; A. 
Billow, Crestline Gazette, co-operative, 1,600; A. N. Jenner, Crest- 
line Democrat, co-operative, 1.400 ; E. 0. Knox, Cuyahoga Falls 
Reporter, co-operative, 1 400; White & Blymer, Defiance Democrat, 
democratic, 2,400; F. B. Ainger, Defiance, Express, 1,600; A. 
Thomas & Sons, Delaware Gazette, republican, 3,000; R. F. Hurl- 
butt, Delaware Herald, democratic, 2,000 ; Hunt & Springstcad, 
Dresden Herald, co-operative, 1,000; L. G. Gould, Eaton Demo- 
crat, democratic, 1,600 ; W. F. x\lbright & Co , Eaton Register, 
Republican, 2,400 ; F. S. Reefy, Elyria Constitution, democratic 
2,000 ; George G. Wat^hburn, Elyria Independent, republican, 2,000 ; 
H. A. Fisher, Elyria Republican, republican, 2,400; J. K. Barnd, 
Findlay Patron, agricultui-al, 10,000; L. Glessner, Findlay Courier, 


democratic, 2,800 ; De Wolf Brothers, Findlay Jeff'ersonian, repub- 
lican, 3,800; F. Wilmer, Fremont Courier, democratic, 2,200 ; J. M. 
Osborn, Fremont Messenger, democratic, 2,500; A. H. Balsley, 
Fremont Journal, republican, 3,200 ; J. L. Vance, Gallipolis Bulle- 
tin, 1,400; W. H. Nash, Gallipolis Journal, republican, 2,400; G. 
D. Ilebard, Gallipolis Ledger, 1,000 ; L. B. Leeds, Georgetown 
News, democratic, 2,000 ; T. H. Hodder, Butler County Democrat, 
democratic, 2,800 ; Frederick Kgry, Butler County Telegraph, re- 
publican, 2,000 ; J. C. Springer, Hillsborough Gazette, 2,000 ; 
J. L. Boavdman, Hillsborough News, republican, 2,300; H. M. 
Adams, Ironton Journal, republican, 2,000; Albert Lawson, Iron- 
ton Commercial, independent, 1,600 ; G. R. Scriven, Ironton Demo- 
crat, co-operative, 2,000 ; E. S. Wilson, Ironton Register, repub- 
lican, 2,600; Irvan Dungan, Ironton Herald, democratic, 1,700; D. 
Mackley, Ironton Standard, republican, 2,800 ; D. S. Fisher, Ken- 
ton (Hardin County) Democrat, democratic, 2,400 ; A. W. Miller, 
Kenton Republican, republican, 1,800; W. C. Howells, Ashtabula, 
Jefferson Sentinel, republican, 2,000; A. Griswold, Lancaster Ga- 
zette, republican, 3,000 ; Thomas Wetzler, Lancaster Eagle, demo- 
cratic, 3,500 ;' Edward Warwick, Lebanon Patriot, democratic, 2,000; 
W. C. McClintock, Lebanon Star, republican, 2,000 ; H. B. Kelly, 
Lima (Allen County) Democrat, democratic, 1,600 ; Edmiston ct 
Sherman, Lima Gazette, republican, 2,300 ; Lewis Green, Logan 
Sentinel, democratic, 2,000; F. Montgomery, Logan Republican, 
republican, 1,600; M. L. Bryan, London Democrat, democratic, 
2,000 ; G. E. Ross, London Times, republican, 2,000 ; E. Mettles, 
Mechanicsburg News, 1,000; A.J. Baughman, Medina Democrat, 
1,800 ; J. H. Greene, Medina Gazette, republican, 2,800 ; Blossom 
Brothers, Miamisburg Bulletin, independent, 1,000; Bechan & Seter, 
Middleport (Meigs County) News, republican, 1,200; E. S. Hark- 
rader, Middletown Journal, neutral, 1,400; A. H. Balsley, Milan 
Advertiser, 1,000; James A. Estill, Millersburg (Holmes County) 
Farmer, democratic, 4,000 ; White & Cunningham, Millersburg Re- 
publican, republican, 2,600 ; Wearer Brothers, Minerva Commercial, 
republican, 1,000; J. F. Clough, Monroeville Spectator, indepen- 
dent, 1,200 ; J. W. Griffith, Mount Gilead Sentinel, republican, 2,000 ; 
W. G. Beebe, Mount Gilead Register, democratic, 1,400; L. Harper, 
Mount Vernon Democratic Banner, democratic, 2,600; J. II. & E. 
C. Hamilton, Mount Vernon Republican, republican, 2,300 ; 8. & J. 
Hoover, Massillon American, independent, 1,600 ; Welker & Tay- 


lor, Massillon Independent, republican, 1,()0() ; J. W. Bowen, Mc- 
Arthur En((uirer, democratic, 2,400 ; John T. Rapper, McArthur 
Record, republican, 1,200 ; F. A. Davis, McConnellsville Democrat, 
democratic, 1,600; J. R. Foulke & Co., McUonnellsville Herald, 
republican, 2,500 ; D. Jjce & Sons, Madison Gazette, co-operative, 
1,400 ; Thomas P. Foster, Manchester Gazette, republican, 1,000 ; 
Mrs. R. F. Lockhart, Mansfield Flag, independent, 1,500; John R. 
JSIetscher, Mansfield Courier, 1,200; L. D. Myers & Co., Mansfield 
Herald, republican, 3,600; Liberal Printing Company, Mansfield 
Liberal, co-operative, 2,400; J. Y. Glessner, Mansfield Banner, 
democratic, 3,500; E. R. Alderman, Marietta Register, republican, 
5,000 ; S. McMillen, Marietta Times, democratic, 2,800 ; Jacob Muel- 
ler, Marietta Zeitung, 1,000 ; Newcomer A: Williston, Marion Mirror, 
democratic, 2,400 ; George Crawford & Co., Marion Independent, 
republican, 1,400; Charles M. Kenton, Marysville Journal, 1,900; 
J. H. Shearer, Marysville Tribune, republican, 2,800; Orwig & 
Wisler, Napoleon Northwest, democratic, 2,200 ; J. S. Fouke, Na- 
poleon Signal, republican, 1,200 ; Morgan & Kingsbury, Newark 
Advocate, democratic, 5,000 ; Clark & Underwood, Newark Amer- 
ican, republican. 2,500 ; Milton R. Scott, Newark Banner, co-oper- 
ative, 1,000; Bichanan & McClelland, New Comerstown Argus, 
co-operative, 1,000; Dufi'y & Meloy, New Lexington Herald, demo- 
cratic, 1,000 ; J. F. McMahon, New Lexington Tribune, republican, 
2,000; R. W. Taylor, Jr., New Lisbon Buckeye State, 2,000; J. 
K. Krew, New Lisbon Journal, independent, 2,000; G. B. A'allau- 
digham, New Lisbon Patriot, democratic, 2,200 ; Walter & Minuig, 
New Philadelphia Beobachter, democratic, 1,800 ; Mathews, Elliott 
& Co., New Philadelphia Democrat, democratic, 2,800; J. L. Mcll- 
vaine. New Philadelphia Advocate, republican, 3,000; W. W. Red- 
field, Norwalk Experiment, democratic, 2,000 ; Pratt & Hammer, 
Norwalk Chronicle, republican, 2,000; Wickham & Gibbs, Norwalk 
Reflector, republican, 2,200; J. H. Battle & Co._, Oberlin News, 
republican, 4,000 ; George D. Kender, Ottawa News, democratic, 
2,200; W.C.Chambers & Sou, Painesville Journal, independent, 
3,000 ; E. W. Clark, Painesville Advertiser, 2,000 ; Merrill & Sco- 
ville, Painesville Telegraph, republican, 3,000 ; C. W. Potter & Son, 
Paulding Democrat, co-operative, 2,000; N. H. Callard & Sou, Pcr- 
rysburg (J ranger, co-operative, 2,000; James Timmous, Perrysburg 
Journal, republican, 1,400; D. M. Fleming, Piqua Journal, repub- 
lican, 1,400; J. C. Cole, Piqua Democrat, democratic, 1,100; O. B. 

357 • 

Chapman, Pomeroy Telegraph, republican, 3,000 ; Joseph Jessing, 
Pomeroy Wassenfreund, 1,500 ; IStalter & Taylor, l*ort Clinton 
News, democratic, 1,400 ; James Maxwell, Port Clinton Reporter, 
co-operative, 1,200; Julius Eock, Portsmouth Correspondent, inde- 
pendent, 2,400 ; D. D. W. Davis, Portsmouth Gazette, 2,400 ; C. E. 
Erwin, Portsmouth Republican, republican, 3,000 ; James B. New- 
man, Portsmouth Times, democratic, 3,000 ; McFarland & Elick, 
Portsmouth Tribune, republican, 2, GOO ; L. W. Hall & Son, Ravenna 
Democrat, republican, 3,800; M. J. Chase, Ripley Times, 1,800; A. 
Hunt, St. Clairsville Chronicle, 2,600; C. N. Gaumer, St. Clairsville 
Gazette, democratic, 2,300 ; J. F. Mack & Bro., Sandusky Register, 
republican, 5,000 ; Ernst & Son, Sandusky Democrat, democratic, 
2,500 ; Kinney & Brother, Sandusky Journal, republican, 1,000 ; 
Trego & Binkley, Sidney Journal, republican, 2.000; J. S. Van 
Valkenburg, Sidney (Shelby County) Democrat, democratic, 2,000 ; 
C. M. Nichols, Springfield Republic, republican, 6,000 ; Elifritz 
& Francis, Springfield Transcript, democratic, 2,000 ; McFadden & 
Hunter, Steubenville Gazette, democratic, 3,200 ; P. B. Conn, Steu- 
benville Herald, republican, 8,000; J. K. Huddle, Tiffin Star, 8,000 ; 
George Homan, Tiffin Presse, 1,800; Armstrong & Myers, Tiffin 
Advertiser, democratic, 2,600 ; Locke & Brothers, Tiffin Tribune, 
4,000; W. H. & C. Bidlack, Troy Bulletin, 1,200; J. W. DelVees, 
Troy Union, republican, 1,200 ; W. A. Pittinger, Uhrichsville 
Chronicle, republican, 2,200 ; P. Cuneo, Upper Sandusky Repub- 
lican, republican, 1,600; Charles L. Zahn, Upper Sandusky Demo- 
crat, democratic, 2,000 ; Buckeye Democrat Company, Urbaua, Buck- 
eye Democrat, 2,500 ; J . Saxton & W. A. Brand, Urbana Gazette, 
republican, 3,200; J. H. Foster, Van Wert Bulletin, republican, 
2,000; J. A McConahay, Van Wert Press, 1,200; W. H. Clymer, 
Van Wert Times, democratic, 1,800; John A. Clark, Wadsworth 
Enterprise, independent, 2,000 ; Andrews & McMurray, Wapako- 
neta Democrat, 2,200; J. Powell, Wapakoneta Republican, 1,400 ; 
M. Borchard & Son, Warren Constitution, democratic, 1,400 ; Wil- 
liam Ritezell, Warren Chronicle, republican, 3,000 ; William Milli- 
kan & Co., Washington Herald, republican, 2,600; F. M. Jones, 
Washington News, co-operative, 1,800; Simmons & Beasley, Wash- 
ington State Register, 1,600; W. H. Handy & Co., Wauseon Dem- 
ocrat, 1,500; Smith & Sherwood, Wauseon Republican, 1,800; S. 
F. Wetmore & Brother, Waverly Republican, 1,200 ; John A. Jones, 
Waverly Watchman, 2,500; J. W. Eyler, West Union Defender, 

• 858 

democratic, 1,800; S Burocll, West Union Scion, lepubliean, 1,700 ; 
Browning & Way, Wiliiiin^rtou Kopublican, republican, 2,100; W. 
II J*. Denny, Wilniin<i;t()ii Journal, republican, 1,S<)0; J. H. Drij^ujs, 
Woodsfield Democrat, democratic, 2,000; Jere Williams, Woodsfield 
Spirit of Democracy, 1,000 ; McClure & Sanborn, Wooster Repub- 
lican, 2,800 ; K. B. Eshelman, Wooster Democrat, 4,000 ; Patton & 
Findley, Xenia Gazette, republican, 8,000; J. Fahey, Xenia News, 
co-operative, 2,000 ; Stine <fc Marshall, Xenia Torchlight, republi- 
can, 3,000 ; Youngstown Printing Company, Youngstown Register. 
r<!publican, 8,000; S. L. H^verett, Youngstown Vindicator, demo- 
cratic, 1,000 ; A. D. Fassett, Youngstown Miner, 1,000. 

Each 61" the 850 papers and periodical editors write by average 
per issue on ten diftereut subjects. Thirty dailies, 300 times per 
year, consume "JO, 000 editorials ; and 820 weekly and other period!" 
cals, consume 167,000 editorials. 

One half of the whole are non-political, and one-half political 
editorials. Of this one-half, a moiety are the offspring of party 
feeling, and govern the mass of voters, whether right or wrong. 

But as both can not be right, it follows that the people pronounce 
indirectly upon the same annually through the ballot-box ; their 
judgment that whichever party may have been defeated, have propa- 
gated about sixty thousand lies to carrry the election. 

This is the remedy ol' civil government for purification, without 
resorting to the bayonet, as in other countries ; and thus the work 
goes on from year to year and decade to decade, the ballot-box 
annually becoming the lever ol' public opinion in making statesmen 
out of pigmies, and reducing statesmen to pigmies, in a political 
point of view. 

On the other hand, the public press builds up the fabric of gov- 
ernment, afisists religion, prevents sectarianism, and promotes the 
general wellare so thoroughly that no man, woman or child can be 
wronged in Ohio, without punishment to the wrong-doer. 

The editors engaged in this momentous labor devote their lives 
to the public good, yet generally receive as compensation more 
" kicks tlian coppers ; " and when they die, it is, with a few excep- 
tions, without remembrance, or tomb-stones, i'rom the public. 

1 9 - 1 4 8 ^1