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The Ohio Magazine 

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JOYOUS 
BUCKEYE 

HOME, COMING 












Invite your Friends and 

Relatives to this Joyful Reunion 

of Native Ohioans 












COLUMBUS, OHIO 
SEPT. 2-3-4 = 5 = 6 

1907 











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THE CITY OF NEWARK, Licking County, Ohio. 

(Six Articles with Copious Illustrations. X 

NEWARK AND LICKING COUNTY HISTORICALLY CON- 
SIDERED HON. E. M. P. BRISTER 

INDUSTRIAL N'EWARK C. H. SPENCER 

FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS CARL NORPELL 

NATURAL GAS IN LICKING COUNTY 

FREDE-RICK M. BLACK 

NEWARK AS A CITY OF HOMES AND HEALTH .... 
PROF. J. D. SIMPKINS 

AGRICULTURAL INTERESTS OF LICKING COUNTY . . . 
F. N'. BALLOU 



35 
48 
61 

66 

66 

76 



PisbUshed Monthly by 

THE OHIO MAGAZINE PUBLISHING COMPANY 

American Savings Bank Building, Columbus, Ohio 

COPY TWENTY CENTS TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR 

Copyright, 1906, AU Rights Reserved 



EfUgrwd t S0€0n4 Class Umsr, Junt tf, 1006. of the PostoMcs of Colmmbns, O., undsr Att of Con- 

grtss March S, lf}9. 



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J907 



EMINENT CONTRIBUTORS 

TO THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



J908 



GENERAL FEATURES. 

Charles B. Galbreath, State Librarian of Ohio. 

Deshler Welch. 

Hon. Charles P. Salen. 

Hon. Brand Whitlock, Mayor of Toledo. 

W. S. Cappeiler, Bdltor of the Mansfield News. 

Hon. Charles Kinney, Former Secretary of 

State of Ohio. 
Hollis Kight. 

Qen. Isaac R. Sherwood, M. C. 
Waldon Fawcett. 
Lena Kline Reed. 
James W. Faulkner. 
Allen E. Beach. 

F. L. Dustman, Editor of the Toledo Blade. 
J. Howard Qalbralth. 
wmiam Lord Wright. 
Allen O. Myers. 

J. H. Newton, Editor of the Newark Advocate. 
Mrs. Edward Orton, Ohio Society. D. A. R. 
Hon. Tod B. Galloway. 
Opha Moore. 
Hon. John. T. Mack. 
Elizabeth S. Hopley. 
Webster P. Huntington, Editor of the Ohio 

Magazine. 

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT. 

Hon. Andrew L. Harris, (xovemor of Ohio. 
Hon. J. B. Foraker, United States Senator 

from Ohio. 
Hon. Charles Dick, United States Senator from 

Ohio. 
Hon. Wade H. Ellis, Attorney General oT Ohio. 
^ Gen. Charles H. Grosvenor. 
The Rev. Herbert S. BIgelow. 
Hon. J. Warren Kelfer, M. C. 
Hon. warren G. Harding, Former Lieutenant 

Governor of Ohio. 
Hon. John L. Zimmerman. 
Hon. John J. Lentz. 

HISTORICAL. 

Hon. E. O. Randall, Secretarr Ohio State His- 
torical and Archaeoloirlcal Society. 

Archer Butler Hulbert, Secretary Ohio Valley 
Historical Society. 

Hon. Daniel J. Ryan, Former Secretary of 
State of Ohio. 

P. P. Cherry. 

Joseph Olds Gregg. 

William Alexander Taylor, Ohio Society, S. 
A. R. 

Prof. J. J. Bliss. 

Clement L. Martzolff. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

Dr. W. O. Thompson, President Ohio State 
University. 

Dr. Lewis Bookwalter, President Otterbein Uni- 
versity. 



Dr. Alston Ellis, President Ohio University. 

Dr. Charles G. Heckert, President Wittenberg: 
College. 

Dr. Emory W. Hunt, President Denlson Uni- 
versity. 

Dr. Kaufman Kohler, President Hebrew Union 
College. 

Dr. Alfred D. Perry, President Marietta Col- 
lege. 

Dr. William F. Pelrce, Pf-esldent Kenyon Col- 
lege. 

Dr. Charles F. Thwing, President Western Re- 
serve University.. 

Dr. Herbert Welch, President Ohio Wesleyan 
University, 

Dr. Charles W. Dabney, President University 
of Cincinnati. 

ETHICAL. 

The Rev. Washington Gladden, D. D. 

Hon. Samuel L. Black. 

John E. Gunckel. 

The Rev. E. L. Rexford, D. D. 



INDUSTRIAL. 



Hon. W. S. Thomas. 
Conrad Wilson. 
W. F. McClure. 
A. J. Hain. 
Charles S. Magruder. 



FICTION AND VERSE. 

James Bail Naylor. 

Stella Breyfogle McDonald. 

Rodney J. Diegle. 

Kate Brownlee Sherwood. 

William A. Taylor. 

Osman C. Hooper. 

Mira Clark Parsons. 

Alec Bruce. 

S. N. Cook. 

Webster P. Huntington. 

Thomas H. Sheppard. 

Charles Kinney. 

Beecher W. Waltermlre. 

S. A. Keneflck. 



ILLUSTRATORS. 

Frank H. Haskett, Staff Photographer of The 

Ohio Magazine. 
Edward J. Waskow, Chicago. 
E. M. Ensmlnger, Bucyrus. 
A. H. MacDonald, Zanesville. 
C. M. Hay, Coshocton. 
Waldon Fawcett, Washington. 
J. R. Schmidt, Cincinnati. 
E. N. Clark, Columbus. 
Baker's Art Gallery, Columbus. 



SUBSCRIPTION COUPON 

J907 

THE OHIO MAGAZINE, Columbus, Ohio, 

Gentlemen: Enclosed find T<wo Dollars, for <a)hich please nuUl THE OHIO MAGAZINE 

for one year, m7, to „ 1908, 

Inclusive, to the following address: 

Namt „ 

Street and No ^ 

Tcm}n and State „ 



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Our Japanese Question 

A BRIEF RETROSPECT 
By Charles Burleigh Galbfeath 

State Librarian of Ohio 




HEN the navy of the Mikado 
smashed the Russian fleet off 
the coast of Korea, and Am- 
ericans went wild at the news 
of this crowning victory, few 
would have had the hardihood 
to prophesy that in less than two years 
the United States would have on her 
hands a "J^P^'^^^^ question" of su.ficient 
proportions to provoke war talk among 
staid statesmen and to fill with apprehen- 
sion an administration that has proven it- 
self a stranger to fear and the arts of 
obsequious diplomacy. The change of 
attitude within the past six months, if not 
kaleidoscopic, has been sufficiently swift 
and unexpected to prevent a lagging of 
interest on the part of nimierous Ameri- 
cans who have their eyes on the shifting 
scenes of the Far East. 

The conclusion of the Russo-Japanese 
War w^as followed in America by a period 
of enthusiastic adulations of things oriental. 
With a fervor so ardent that its sincerity 
could not be questioned, we hailed the 
followers of the mighty Mikado as the 
"greatest people on the planet." Accept- 
ing as their meed our ministrations to 
their vanity, and basking in their more 
than cordial welcome, Japanese experts, 
philosophers and savants came to our 
shores to investigate, instruct and en- 
lighten, while we looked and listened with 
a delightful appreciation akin to rapture. 
On their lips familiar words glowed with 
new messages, and their prophecies were 
received with a faith like that which 
swayed the votaries of ancient Delphi. 
While American editors were striving to 
outdo one another in eulogistic ascriptions 
to these "Britons of the East," a profes- 
! 



sor in one of our universities capped the 
climax by declaring, in substance, that the 
virtue of the white race is departing and 
that the palm of dominance in war, states- 
manship and civilization is about to pass 
to the Mongolians, led on by the sun- 
descended Emperor of Nippon. 

For all this praise and admiration there 
were obvious causes that need not be de- 
tailed here. They included our antipathy 
for everything Russian, our sympathy for 
the apparent object of Muscovite aggres- 
sion and the fervor with which we are 
wont to hail the victor in a contest of 
arms. In spite of our Christian civiliza- 
tion and the progress toward peace and 
arbitration of which we hear so much, we 
still love **the pomp and circmnstance of 
war" and reserve our choicest garlands for 

.. Jtha f onc|ua:i/lg bdjC^hons. 

'./:*Biu-a ch^ng^* it*. length "came o*er the 
sjvrit'o^-our dteam." A little cloud rose 
inJ^dJeJgkVjOftt.Qlumbia and Fair Japan. 
Both j\atjipns*&egame conscious of the fact 
t}iac:tfi«te j[if„ itJlVon the map the State 
c* ^allfcfnia.** TKe board of education in 
the city of San Francisco decreed that 
Japanese children should be segregated, 
that they should hen.^eforth attend school 
with their oriental cousins, the Koreans 
and the Chinese. I'his action was taken 
without consulting the Mikado and aroused 
the wrath of His Majesty's government. 
What followed is without precedent 
in the history of American diplomacy. 
Uncle Sam was seized by the beard, and 
his teeth were made to clatter with fear 
at a flourish of the mailed hand of Japan. 
Agents of our government were hurried 
across the continent to urge the San Fran- 
cisco board to rescind its action. The 

1 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



authority of our courts was invoked in 
the interest of Japan. The press of the 
East exerted its powerful influence to 
placate the Tokio government. The vials 
of wrath were poured out freely on the 
Californians and their fellow citizens of 
the sister Pacific states. Such was the 
state of affairs when the president sent to 
Congress his famous message. In this he 
,said, among other things: 



right to treatment on a basis of full and 
frank equality. The overwhelming mass 
of our people cherish a lively regard and 
respect for the people of Japan, and in 
almost every quarter of the Union the 
stranger from Japan is treated as he de- 
serves; that is, he is treated as the stran- 
ger from any part of civilized Europe is 
and deserves to be treated. But here and 
there a most unworthy feeling has mani- 



HIS MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN. 



"Japanese have come here in great 
numbers. They are welcome, socially and 
intellectually, in all our colleges, and in- 
stitutions of higher learning, in all our 
professional and social bodies. The Jap- 
anese have won in a single generation the 
right to stand abreast of the foremost and 
most enlightened peoples of Europe and 
America; they have won on their own 
merits and by their own exertions the 



fested itself toward the Japanese — the 
feeling that has been shown in shutting 
them out from the common schools in San 
Francisco, and in mutterings against them 
in one or two other places, because of their 
efficiency as workers. To shut them out 
from the public schools is a wicked ab- 
surdity, when there are ilo first class col- 
leges in the land, including the universi- 
ties and colleges of California, which do 



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OUR JAPANESE QUESTION 



not gladly welcome Japanese students and 
on which Japanese students do not reflect 
credit. We have as much to learn from 
Japan as Japan has to learn from us; 
and no nation is fit to teach unless it is 
also willing to learn. * * * i recom- 
mend to the Congress that an act be 
passed specifically providing for the nat- 
uralization of Japanese who come here in- 
tending to become American citizens." 



Japanese section of the message was 
cabled to Tokio before it was sent to 
Congress. Whether this be true or not, 
the sequel indicates that it was intended 
for foreign as well as domestic consump- 
tion. Less than four months after the 
delivery of this rebuke to San Francisco 
and eulogivim on Japan, the President 
wrote to the Governor of California: 
"The national government now has the 



ADMIRAL TOGO, 
Who, in the Event of War, Would Command the Japanese Navy. 



The praises of the Japanese are set 
forth in the superlative degree and their 
progress "in every walk of life" is de- 
clared to be "a marvel to mankind." 
There are also deprecatory references to 
the Calif ornians and the "mob of a single 
city," coupled with a declaration that un- 
der certain conditions the military <»f the 
United States would be used in behalf of 
Japan. 

The Calif ornians complain that the 



matter in hand and can in all human prob- 
ability secure the results that California 
desires, while at the same time preserving 
unbroken the friendly relations between 
the United States and Japan." 

There was, at the time this letter was 
written, no doubt whatever in regard to 
what the Californians desired. They were 
resolved that the Japanese should be ex- 
cluded from their shores as absolutely as 
the Chinese. Whatever may have been the 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



President's earlier impressioni, a nure 
complete knowledge of the situation and 
a fuller appreciation of the m.-naci cf 
Mongolian immigration convin:jd hi.n of 
the justice of the demands of the Cali- 
fornians, for on the 14th day of March 
he issued an executive order, under the 
authority granted by the n?w immigration 
act, directing that "Japanese or Korean 



direct from Japan to the United States. 
The net result of the brief but spirited 
agitation is, therefore, the exclusion of 
the Japanese from the mainland of the 
United States. 

The latest act of the President is a 
merited rebuke to that portion of the Am- 
erican press that has bi^en teeming with 
abuse of the Californians and specious 



COUNT AND COUNTESS OKUMU. 

The Count is the Leader of the Progressive Party and is Held 

Responsible for What Anti-American Sentiment 

Prevails in Japan. 



lab.vrers, skilled or unskilled, who have 
received passports to go to Mexico, Can- 
ada cr Hawaii, and who come therefrom, 
be refused permission to enter the conti- 
nental limits of the United States." It is 
said that there is a tacit understanding 
that no passports are to be issued to "lab- 
orers, skilled or unskilled," who come 



pleas for raising, at our western sea-ports, 
the flood-gates for the practically unre- 
stricted admission of oriental labor and 
oriental civilization. The Outlook, which 
throughout the controversy has been con- 
stantly and consistently Mongolian first 
and American afterward, about the time 
of the publication of the President's mess- 



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OUR JAPANESE QUESTION 



age issued this gleeful editorial greeting 
in anticipation of the coming of a vast 
throng of the noble yellow race : 

"If it be true that a bill may be intro- 
duced by representatives from California 
in the next Congress, demanding the ex- 
clusion of the Japanese from this country 
on the same terms that at present bar the 
Chinese, the Nation will be face to face 
with one of the most vital questions ever 
presented to it. If California is short- 
sighted enough to discriminate against the 
Japanese and to sacrifice the capital of 
confidence which this country has laid up 
in its fair-minded and disinterested inter- 
course with Japan, and to turn friendly 
feeling into hatred, it will show the blind- 
ness that falls upon those who are bent 
on self-destruction, and we do not believe 
it will secure the endorsement of the Nation 
in so great an act of folly. We think it 
more probable that an agitation to shut 
the doors of our country in the face of the 
Japanese will ser^^e to open them on more 
just and equal terms to the Chinese. The 
Outlook, therefore, will not be sorry to 
see the issue raised." 

The Independent, though its news col- 
umns have been fair and impartial, has 
pursued an editorial course that has dif- 
fered in no essential from that of its con- 
temporary just quoted. It was thrown in- 
to a veritable panic, at the first intimation 
of the displeasure of Japan: 

"It is among the possibilities that one 
of these days Japan may declare war 
against the United States; and in that 
case the Philippines and Hawaii — yea, 
and the Pacific Coast would be at the 
mercy, for a while at least — of the Jap- 
anese navy. * * * If such a war 
should ever come — which God forbid — 
a war which would be mostly on the seas, 
it is extremely doubtful if with any force 
that we could command we could at its 
conclusion drive the Japanese from Ha- 
waii and the Philippines, which they would 
surely have seized. Further, if such a war 
should be deferred a few years, China 
would almost certainly be in it with Japan, 
for our coasts as well as for our island 
possessions." 

The Independent, with characteristic 
patriotism, has us whipped before the war 
begins. This editorial wa^^ published in 



Japan, to the delectation of the populace. 
Later, when it became manifest that the 
Californians, backed by the entire Pacific 
Coast, were making a firm and telling 
stand for their constitutional right to man- 
age their schools as they deemed best, and 
their moral right to exclude the coolies 
that were thronging to their shores, The 
Independent set up this truly pitiful wail : 
"It is still further htmiiliating that, at the 
command of selfish and prejudiced ignor- 
ance in San Francisco and California, we 
should be driven to ask Japan to consent 
to a treaty excluding the admission to our 
shores of laborers from that country. Yet 
this is just what we now see." 

The coming of the Japanese coolie, it 
would seem, is the one thing devoutly to 
be desired, and yet that boon is to be de- 
nied The Independent and its numerous 
and highly respectable constituency. 

In a late number of The Outlook, the 
ubiquitous George Kennan, in an article 
intended to reopen the San Francisco 
school question and demonstrate the super- 
iority of the Japanese, quotes with great 
satisfaction an Englishman who says: 
'The Japanese are born civilized. We, 
Englishmen and American, are born bar- 
barians. Most of us become civilized, but 
we elevate ourselves in youth by effort and 
struggle." 

This is in harmony with much that such 
periodicals now especially delight in pub- 
lishing. They seem never quite so happy 
as when demonstrating what a savage, de- 
generate and unrighteous people, with one 
or two conspicuous exceptions, we Ameri- 
cans have become. 

The latest literary eflFort of the New 
York magazines to save the day for the 
Mongolians was signalized by a series of 
articles describing the ideal harmony and 
felicity that prevails in Hawaii, where 
oriental children attend the American 
schools, or, rather, where a few American 
children attend the orientalized schools; 
for Americans are distinctly in the min- 
ority, and their numbers, under existing 
conditions, are destined soon to reach the 
vanishincr point. While these special ar- 
ticles, with "appropriate illustrations^" de- 
scribe conditions altogether lovely, the 
most interesting and illuminating of the 
series is the one contributed by William 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



Inglis to Harper's Weekly of February 
16th. In the statistics given it appears 
that out of 21,358 pupils in the schools, 
public and private, only 959 are Ameri- 
cans, and more than half of these are in 
private schools. This might lead us to 
conclude that the mixed public schools are 
not especially attractive to Americans; yet 
Mr. Inglis assures us that everything is 
ideally satisfactory. Hear him: 

"In every school you will find little 
folks of a dozen races working amicably 
side by side. Such a thing as race pre- 
judice is unknown. * * * Was there 
ever such a heterogeneous company since 
Babel? Yet they are all fused in the 
great retort of our American schools, and 
they are coming out good American citi- 
zens." 

Here would have been a good pla:e to 
stop, but Mr. Inglis proceeds and inad- 
vertantly fractures his argument, which he 
calls "Hawaii's Lesson to Headstrong 
California," in the following significant 
admission : 

"So much for the Japanese in the lower 
grade schools. Everybody agrees that no 
children can be more polite and agreeable 
than they are. The principal burden of 
the complaint in San Francisco is that 
parents cannot endure to have their girls 
exposed to contamination by adult Asiatics, 
whose moral code is far different from our 
own. Whether or not there is reason for 
this complaint, is not the question here. 
That there is such a feeling of apprehen- 
sion among parents is readily found by 
any one who inquires, and it exists in Ha- 
waii no less than in California. The Ha- 
waiian school authorities long ago took 
steps to prevent the mingling of grown 
Japanese boys in classes with American 
girls." 

It would seem unnecessary to comment 
on the concluding statement. It certainly 
confirms one of the chief contentions of 
the "headstrong Calif ornians." 

But if there is one thing more than an- 
other connected with the article that is 
calculated to arouse the disgust of the 
Californians, it is the picture of the Ha- 
waiian* schools. In the motly throng of 
little tots, scarce a white face is seen. It 
tells the whole story. Hawaii has been 
Mongolianized. Californians live nearer 



than we to those islands and imderstand 
perfectly conditions there. It was these 
that the editor of the San Francisco 
Chronicle had in mind when he declared 
that the people of his State were perfectly 
willing to have all questions at issue set- 
tled by constitutional methods in the 
courts and legislative halls, but rather 
than see their land become what Hawaii 
now is, the Californians would fall back 
on the right of self preservation and ap- 
peal to arms. 

The numerical strength of the races on 
the Hawaiian islands and the inevitable 
tendency under unrestricted Japanese im- 
migration are set forth in the following 
statement : 

"Out of the total population of 160,000 
nearly 50 per cent are Japanese and 2S 
per cent are Chinese, so that all the resi- 
dents of American and European blood 
are included in one- fourth of the residents. 
This one-fourth, however, embraces also 
30,000 descendants of the native islanders. 
It is an actual fact that today not over 
2,500 persons of American birth, includ- 
ing American negroes, are citizens of the 
territory, * * * xhe Japanese and 
Koreans are steadily increasing, both by 
birth and by immigration, while it is a 
question if the American and European 
population is even holding its own, for 
there has been a considerable migration of 
the Anglo-Saxons from the islands ever 
since this government took possession of 
them." 

The situation there seems to be fairly 
satisfactory to the owners of large planta- 
tions who desire cheap, efficient and servile 
labor — who would be perfectly willing 
that the so-called lower and middle classes 
of whites should be eliminated to insure 
larger dividends on invested capital, — 
who have no interest in the future of their- 
race and small interest in the future of 
their country ; but the Californians who 
include in their ranks a comparatively 
large number of laborers, skilled and un- 
skilled, who are interested in perpetuating 
on the Pacific coast American civilization 
and the opportunity that it has meant to 
the humblest citizen, and who have the 
object-legson of Hawaii under their eyes, 
are not disposed to surrender or endanger 
their heritage for a new social order of the 



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OUR JAPANESE QUESTION" 



Spreckels type, with a few millionaires 
and their favorites in the van of swarming 
hosts from the teeming Orient. To them 
it is a question of self-preservation. For 
their attitude they have been roundly de- 
nounced by their fellow countrymen. 

Almost without exception the tone of 
the press of the Pacific slope, while firm 
and unwavering, has been calm and digni- 
fied. The San Francisco Argonaut, after 
citing the attitude of New Zealand, Aus- 
tralia, the Transvaal and British Colum- 
bia, to show that the Pacific slope states 
are not peculiar among Anglo-Saxon gov- 
ernments in their hostility to Mongolian 
immigration, and declaring that "we of 
California have been cheek by jowl with 
the Asiatics for half a century" and un- 
derstand the problem that they bring, con- 
cludes : 

"Again we say to the Eastern journals 
that there is no occasion in this question 
for a hurling of epithets or for angry dis- 
cussions. Some of them consider it odd 
that California and Californians should 
seem at this juncture so extremely placid. 
The Treason that we in California are calm 
in the presence of this crisis is : First, be- 
cause we know that we are right; second, 
because we hope to convince our country- 
men that we are right; third, that if we 
fail to convince them, we will, whatever 
they do or say, do what we know to be 
right." 

rhe press of the Coast was practically 
unanimous in its opposition to the senti- 
ments of the President's message on the 
Japanese question. The San Francisco 
Chronicle, a conservative paper that has 
usually opposed organized labor, was in 
substantial agreement with the labor or- 
gans on this question. Editorially criticis- 
ing Secretary Metcalf's report, the Chron- 
icle said : 

"The most astonishing thing is his 
threat, on the instruction of an overbear- 
ing President, that if Japanese are mo- 
lested the United States army will be sent 
here to do police duty. By what authority 
will the President send troops here to 
maintain peace in the absence of a request 
to do so by the Governor? Is he seeking 
to lay the ground for his impeachment? 
The threat was an insult, and it was utterly 
uncalled for. * ♦ The feelinoj in this 



State is not now against the Japanese, but 
against an unpatriotic President. From 
now on Mr. Metcalf will do well to stick 
by the President who can give him a job. 
He could get nothing from the people of 
his own State." 

The San Francisco Star, in the course 
of an extended editorial says: 

"We have never allowed any such inter- 
ference by the most powerful of the Eu- 
ropean nations. We made ready for war 
with England over the assertion of our 
rather vague rights in Venezuela; we 
threatened Louis Napoleon with war un- 
less he removed his troops from Mexico ; 
we told Italy that the Federal Govern- 
ment could not and would not attempt to 
compel Louisiana to pay indemnity for 
Italians lynched in New Orleans and 
were ready to go to war to uphold the 
declaration. And now comes Japan with 
a preposterous and insulting demand that 
California shall modify her school laws 
under penalty of war, and the President 
of the United States berates us with a fish- 
wife's tongue and tries to frighten us with 
a bogy. He tells us that unless we yield 
to Japan's demands, the threat of war is 
imminent. Our reply is that war is a 
thousand times preferable to dishonor." 

After intimating that the fear of the 
loss of the Philippines may explain the 
President's precipitate action the Star con- 
tinues : 

"There is a good deal of the United 
States not included in the Philippines. 
There are men and money and arms and 
ships here at home, enough to make Japan 
pay such a price for an attack upon our 
distant outposts as she will remember to 
the last day of her national existence. It 
is no boast — it is the sober truth — to 
say that this is the most powerful Nation 
potentially that ever existed in the world, 
and woe to the enemy that provokes the 
Republic to put forth in anger its power 
by land and sea." 

Here is Western confidence, in striking 
contrast to the trepidation of Eastern edi- 
tors who have been quite as profuse in 
their apologies to Japan as they have been 
vociferous in their denunciation of Cali- 
fornians. 

A writer from the Pacific Coast in the 
March number of The World's Work has 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



this to add in regard to the feeling to- 
ward the President: 

**A particular point on which Californ- 
ians feel deeply, however, is the attitude 
assumed toward them by President Roose- 
velt and the language which he levelled 
at their State. At the time of his election 
he was the most popular man in the 
United States, and his vote in California 
was the largest ever polled for any candi- 
date. It is not exaggerating to state that 
now he is most unpopular in California 
and it is not believed that he could equal 
the vote of any Democratic presidential 
candidate. There is evident here a min- 
gled feeling of resentment and regret; for 
Californians, like the people of other 
Western states, had come to look upon the 
President with special affection and pride. 
He has deeply wounded them." 

It should be remembered that the fore- 
going lines were written before the Presi- 
dent had issued the order prohibiting Jap- 
anese immigration. If he succeeds, along 
the lines of his later efforts, in getting 
what the Californians desire, and does not 
insist upon the naturalization of the Jap- 
anese, it is quite probable that he will re- 
gain any temporary loss of popularity in 
the Far West, and add the settlement of 
this delicate question to the remarkable 
achievements of his administration. 

The Japanese question, though consid- 
ered by Congress in its legal and ethical 
aspects, was not extensively debated in the 
Senate or the House. Of more than pass- 
ing interest was the speech of Senator 
(iearin, of Oregon. His appeal to the 
South suggests the basis of a new political 
alignment, which, if the question of Mon- 
golian immigration should again become 
acute, may add to the solid South a solid 
West. In this appeal the Senator said: 

**And we of the West sympathize with 
the South in the crisis through which she 
is passing : and we say to our brothers 
there. It is your trouble, and we would 
help you if we could, but we can*t. You 
understand the situation — deal with it as 
best you can in the interests of humanity, 
good government and righteousness, and 
in fairness to all, and it shall be 'hands 
off' as far as we are concerned, and we 
will trust to your honor, your loyalty and 
your patriotism to deal with it justly. 



But we say to you, at the same time, in 
God's name, do not aid by your advice or 
assist by your endeavors the plans of those 
whose efforts, if sufficiently carried out, 
will bring down upon us a condition which 
will be far worse, in the end, than the 
troubles which now beset you." 

The passage of the immigration bill, 
with the amendment empowering the 
President at his discretion to prohibit, 
practically, the immigration of the Jap- 
anese, was not accomplished without ex- 
pressions of bitter hostility from the 
minority. Senator Carmac was at times 
especially caustic in his remarks. Among 
other things he said: 

"I believe, Mr. President, speaking in 
plain words, the fact is that a foreign 
power has browbeaten the (Government of 
the United States and it has browbeaten 
a sovereign State of this Union into a 
surrender of its rights to control its own 
affairs. The attitude of this Government 
toward (California has been harsh and 
turbulent and offensive to the last degree. 
Its attitude toward Japan has been cring- 
ing, obsequious and almost pusillanimous. 
One of the President's favorite aphorisms 
has been to speak softly and carry a big 
stick. He seems to have interpreted that 
in this instance so as to speak softly to 
foreign nations and carry a big stick for 
the backs of his own people." 

In a cursory review of recent utterances 
on this question the views of certain cor- 
respondents of the gentler sex are worthy 
of notice. Like some of their brothers 
among the knights of the pen, they favor 
the practical unlimited admission of Mon- 
golians, partly because they are so intel- 
lectual and interesting, but chiefly because 
they are industrious, faithful, obedient and 
cheap laborers. Their presence in gener- 
ous numbers, bv eliminating the trouble- 
some whites, will soke, it is believed, that 
greatest of all American issues, the servant 
problem. Perhaps the most entertaining 
and certainly the most picturesque of these 
magazine writers is a certain Mrs. Bab- 
cock, of New York City, who writes 
Oriental fiction under the euphonious and 
poetic pseudonym of Onoto Watanna, 
Her most successful literary performances 
have been devoted to the natural and in- 
lierent beauties and felicities of Mongolian 



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OUR JAPANESE QUESTION 



and Anglo-Saxon amalgamation. She en- 
ters upon the discussion of our "J^P^^^se 
problem" with much fervor and relates 
some illuminating experience in the solu- 
tion of that "most important of all prob- 
lems to American women — the servant 
problem." Here is her story: 

"I myself have had servants in America 
of nearly every sort and kind. I had best 
service from the Japanese, for the simple 
reason that I found them less dissatisfied 
with their thankless work than were the 
others. But even they were affected by 
the attitude of Americans toward the ser- 
vant. I remember Dan, a cook and butler, 
whose surliness, independence and resent- 
ful looks I never understood till I ques- 
tioned him. He said, 'Mrs., in America 
to be servant is to be dog. Velly well — 
dog bark and bite. Me too'. Later I 
obtained the service of a new recruit — an 
optimistic apple-faced new-comer, whose 
shining eyes beheld everything American 
with astonishment and delight. Him I 
regretfully dismissed because of his in- 
ability to understand morals — as viewed 
by a Westerner. Taku was wont to take 
his daily bath in a tub, openly set out in 
the center of my kitchen floor, and when 
a scandalized Irish maid would walk into 
the kitchen, he would arise politely and 
bow to her from his watery retreat." 

It was "real naughty" of Bridget to 
object to this felicitous arrangement of 
Mrs. Babcock, alias Onoto Watanna, by 
which the servant problem was happily 
solved through a combination of bath-tub 
and kitchen. It is really too bad that the 
Irish lass would not bow to the evident 
desire of her mistress and adjust herself 
to the pristine simplicity of Oriental ways. 
"I am not Oriental or Occidental either, 
but Eurasian," declares Onoto Watanna. 
"I am Irish more than English — Chinese 
as well as Japanese." The mysterious 
Watanna at one time was proclaimed to 
the literary world as a Japanese lady 
whose real name was Kitishima Kata 
Haschi. Later biographical sketches sug- 
gest a different extraction and leave the 
public in doubt. Her foregoing statement 
may be accepted as literally correct, how- 
ever, for the production from which it is 
taken bears the marks of genuine hybridity. 
Possibly she has a name for each of the 



races so happily represented in her ex- 
quisite personality. 

While Mrs. Babcock has the support of 
sister magazine writers of pure Anglo- 
Saxon antecedents, there are those who 
will question the superlative importance of 
the "servant question" and the wisdom of 
its solution through unlimited Mongolian 
immigration. Some may even incline to 
the opinion that this gifted writer might 
better serve the cause dear to her heart 
through the agencies of pure fiction, in 
which she is altogether charming. 

It may not be out of place to observe 
that "the servant question" has a more 
serious aspect than the Watannas, the Mrs. 
Bacons and pampered dames of luxury 
have given it in the somewhat ludicrous 
solemnity of their discussions. It was the 
desire for cheap and docile service, coupled 
with the purpose to escape the arduous but 
salutary lesson of honest toil, and the 
failure to recognize the true nobility of 
labor, that gave us the institution of slav- 
ery and ultimately brought the scourge of 
civil war. Those who resolve, over pink 
teas, that the Orientals shall come freely 
to wheel Missus in a 'rickshaw and fan 
away the flies, are perhaps to be com- 
mended for their efforts to reach the goal 
of innocuous and inane uselessness, but 
for the future welfare of the Republic it 
may be just as well that there is between 
them and the object of their desire the 
Pacific Ocean and that greater barrier — 
those sturdy Americans who inhabit the 
Pacific slope and bear upon their ample 
shoulders the destiny of Anglo-Saxon 
civilization. 

The political aspect of our new prob- 
lem is the one that will earliest claim 
public attention. The Pacific slope has 
been thoroughly aroused on the subject of 
Japanese exclusion, and the dominant ele- 
ment of that section will not be satisfied 
until this is an accomplished fact. The 
arrangement concluded in the closing 
hours of the last session of Congress is 
not accepted as final. An influential labar 
organ of San Francisco, in an extended 
editorial under the caption, "Surrendered 
but not Settled," expresses dissatisfaction 
and declares: 

''With the exception of an inconsider- 
able minority who recognize no higher 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



motive than that of monetary advantage, 
the people of San Francisco, California, 
and the Great West are still true to the 
principle at issue in the controversy with 
the governments at Washington and Tokio. 
The demand for Japanese exclusion by act 
of Congress will be persisted in until it is 
won, and won upon its own merits." 

Ambitious statesmen and political par- 
ties that are at all concerned about the 
electoral vote of the Pacific States may 
do well to remember the Garfield cam- 
paign and the Morey letter. Although the 
Republican candidate for the presidency 
denounced this letter as a base forgery 
and declared that its "brutal sentiments" 
in favor of Chinese immigration, he had 
"never expressed or entertained," the sim- 
ple suspicion that he might favor a liberal 
admission of the Mongolians lost him one 
electoral vote in the state of California. 
In spite of her alliance with Japan, Eng- 
land has been compelled to consent to the 
exclusion of the Japanese from Australia, 
New Zealand, British Columbia, Natal 
and the Transvaal. The Pacific States 
will find a way to keep out the coolies, 
and they are entirely satisfied to accept 
President Roosevelt's definition of a coolie 
— a Mongolian laborer "skilled or un- 
skilled." That is simple and sufficiently 
inclusive. 

What the ultimate results will be is, of 
course, a matter of conjecture. An emi- 
nent and conservative journalist, who has 
spent much time in the Orient, in the 
North American Review of April 19th, 
gives expression to his views in a thought- 
ful contribution that may well be read by 



those interested in the future of the Far 
East. Among other things, he says: 

"They (the Japanese) hold us in a 
qualitv of contempt which has in it an in- 
tellectuality deeper, better defined and 
more destructive to unity than any repug- 
nance of race prejudice. They have en- 
tered the field of modern fads, simply by 
modern methods to regain the ancient 
ascendency which they believe is theirs by 
prior right. Therefore is ultimate war 
inevitable. * * * Our aims upon the 
Pacific and those of Japan have the same 
end in view; and at some spot, somewhere 
in the future, as a matter of sunple des- 
tiny, the ways will converge to the point 
of inevitable conflict. The utter impossi- 
bility of even remote amalgamation ren- 
ders the absolute supremacy of one or the 
other imperative." 

An eminent Japanese scholar and sociol- 
ogist has expressed the conviction that 
war between the two nations for the mast- 
ery of the Pacific is certain to occur in 
the not distant future. He inclines to the 
opinion that the interest of Japan would 
be subserved by a precipitation of the con- 
flict before the completion of the Panama 
Canal. The undercurrent of comment in 
the press on both sides of the Pacific is 
far from reassuring. 

While we incline to a more optimistic 
view, a reliance on the policy of reciprocal 
exclusion and a larger measure of faith in 
the efficacy of arbitration, it is well to 
recognize the fact that the Anglo-Saxon 
vanguard has reached the Pacific, where it 
faces problems, the issue of which may 
not be pacific. 




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New Work for State Makers 



By Howard Louis Conard 



ft? 



S there to be an end of state mak- 
ing, under and by the authority 
of the government of the 
United States, with the admis- 
sion of Arizona and New Mex- 
ico into the Union, either as 
one or two states, in the near future? In 
these two territories, which have just re- 
fused to be joined together in statehood, 
is contained all the continental raw ma- 
terial left for the construction of new 
states. 

During every decade which has elapsed 
since 1791, when Vermont purchased her 
liberty from New York and added the 
first star to the original thirteen on the 
flag, one or more new commonwealths have 
come into the Union; and almost every 
congress has had before it for considera- 
tion questions pertaining to the formation 
of new territories or the erection of terri- 
tories into states. 

Is there to be an end to all this, and 
are the state-makers to be left without an 
occupation ; or shall new fields be opened 
for their activities? In our insular pos- 
sessions and Alaska work may be cut out 
for them, by and by, but is there not 
material nearer at hand upon which they 
can exercise their creative genius, along 
these lines, to the advantage of the gov- 
ernment and people of the United States? 
These questions suggest themselves when 
one considers the relations of several of 
the larger American cities to the states of 
which they are, respectively, a part, and 
the influence which they exert and are 
likely to exert in the future over the des- 
tinies of these commonwealths. 

"More and more," said Mr. Henry 
Litchfield West, in a magazine article on 
"American Politics," published some time 
since, "the cities are dominating state poli- 
tics." And he then goes on to say : "The 
day will come, and that ere long, when 



the counties will simply be the automa- 
tons to register the will of the political 
bosses who rule the city wards, unless, in- 
deed, the farmers and other rural voters 
combine in order to secure for themselves 
a voice in political control. ♦ * * The 
fact is that we are approaching, if we 
have not already reached, a condition 
which means that cities will govern and 
control." 

In rural communities such a thing as an 
unfair or dishonestly conducted political 
convention or election is only heard of at 
rare intervals, while in large cities such a 
thing as a convention or election entirely 
free from the taint of fraud and various 
sinister influences has scarcely been heard 
of at all in recent years. City politics are 
very different from country politics; and 
methods of manipulating conventions, 
seeking, winning and controlling votes, 
regarded as legitimate in the metropolis, 
would shock the most unscrupulous party 
manager in a rural electorate. 

The proportion of American born to 
foreign born citizens is much smaller in 
the city than in the country. The ignor- 
ant immigrants who flock to this country 
from all parts of the world and who take 
on education and Americanization slowly, 
if at all, but who, nevertheless, soon be- 
come voters, are dumped into the great 
cities by thousands every year. The vici- 
ous and criminal classes congregate there. 
Hence the average of honesty, intelligence 
and patriotism is, unquestionably, lower 
in the city than in the country. It fol- 
lows, therefore, as a natural consequence 
that the standard of political morals will 
be lowered throughout the state as the 
result of city domination of its politics. 
This is a tendency of the times to be re- 
garded with alarm rather than indiffer- 
ence. 

The "political bosses of the city wards" 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



are, for the most part, unclean products 
ol unwholesome politics. It is bad enough 
that the making of mayors, city courts 
and city legislatures should be, in the 
main, their handiwork. Under existing 
conditions, however, they may make gov- 
ernors of states and presidents of the 
United States. Government by the "ward 
boss" is surely an evil from which the 
state and Nation should be delivered, 11 
possible, and while his elimination from 
our politics is hardly to be hoped for, the 
sphere of his influence ought, at least, to 
be circumscribed by confining him to his 
metropolitan lair. 

If the people of Greater New York 
choose to make their city a game pre- 
serve for the Tammany tiger, that, per- 
haps, is their own affair; but the remain- 
der of the state of New York should be 
detached from the jungle and thus be 
enabled to escape the peril of the ani- 
mal's political and legislative forays. If 
an epidemic of official and political wick- 
edness prevails in Philadelphia, would it 
not be wise to isolate that city from the 
rest of Pennsylvania by a permanent gov- 
errunental quarantine, which would be 
mutually advantageous to city and state? 
And may not the anarchism, socialism and 
general turbulence of Chicago be prevented 
from infecting the entire state of Illinois 
by divorcing the city from the state? 

The undesirability of city domination of 
state politics, fraught with danger as it is, 
to both state and National institutions, is 
only one of numerous strong arguments in 
favor of severing the ties that bind certain 
large cities to their states. Great cities 
have little in common with rural districts. 
New York City is more closely in touch, 
in many respects, with Philadelphia, Bos- 
ton, Baltimore and Chicago, or with Lon- 
don even, than the rest of the state of 
New York. The dweller in the country 
differs from the denizen of the city in 
thought, speech and action. The ways of 
the one are not the ways of the other. In 
customs, habits, manner of living and 
methods of doing business, they differ 
from each other as widely as do their re- 
si)ective environments. Their interests are 
seldom identical and are not infrequently 
antagonistic. The countryman, as a rule, 
has little knowledge of the governmental, 



legislative and civic needs of the city, and 
his ignorance of city affairs is fully 
equaled, if not surpassed, by the average 
city legislator's lack of capacity to under- 
stand the things that are of most import- 
ance to the country. Hence it happens 
that at every session of a legislature, in a 
state in which a large city is located, there 
is more or less misfit legislation — legisla- 
tion adapted to the city but unsuited to 
the country and vice versa. Dead letter 
laws encumber statute books as a result — 
laws enforced in one part of a state and 
ignored in others; laws respected in one 
place and treated with contempt in an- 
other. 

Sometimes it is the city and sometimes 
the rural population that is sickened by 
doses prepared by legislative doctors with- 
out understanding of their respective 
cases. It was such lack of understanding 
as this upon the part of rural members of 
the general assembly of Illinois that caused 
them, some years since, to fasten upon the 
city of Chicago a law relating to the 
granting of street railway franchises, 
which received the unqualified condemna- 
tion of three-fourths of the people of the 
city and which so inflamed public senti- 
ment that threats of violence prevented 
the city council from making the act of 
the legislature operative. A similar lack 
of understanding, or worse still, a consum- 
ing hunger for political spoils, caused the 
Bourbon, backwoods statesmen of Mis- 
souri, half a dozen years ago, to impose 
upon the chief city of that state a police 
law obnoxious to a large majority of the 
citizens of St. Louis. This invasion by 
the state of city rights, was unique in 
many respects, providing, among other 
things, that an appropriation for the main- 
tenance of the partisan police force should 
be made in advance of all other appro- 
priations for departments of the city gov- 
ernment, and regardless of the needs of 
these departments. 

Instances of like violence done to the 
principles of home rule and government by 
consent of the governed might be multi- 
plied. The fact is that the government of 
our great cities — which involves problems 
not easily solved under the most favorable 
conditions — is hampered, complicated and 
made more difficult by the organic laws 



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NEW WORK FOR STATE MAKERS 



13 



and legislative enactments of states. In 
some cases matters are still further mud- 
dled by county and even township govern- 
ments extending over city territory, with 
a multiplicity of useless officials and totally 
unnecessary expenses aggregating vast 
sums each year. 

The government of a large city could 
be reduced to its simplest, least confusing 
and least burdensome form by making 
such city an independent commonwealth, 
subject only to the government of the 
United States. Let its relations to the 
United States be similar to those of the 
three imperial cities of Germany to the 
German Empire; or in other words, let 
us erect the city into a city-state, with all 
the rights and privileges of a state. Let 
it have a government, Federal in form, a 
constitution suited to its particular needs 
and laws entirely of its own making. The 
imperial city thus erected should have the 
same representation in the United States 
Senate as a state, and its representation in 
the lower branch of Congress, being based 
on a fixed ratio, would, of course, b^ the 
same as that of a state of equal popula- 
tion. 

Is the creation of independent states in 
this country practicable under existing 
conditions? It seems to be entirely so. 
Clause I of Section 3, Article IV of the 
Constitution of the ' United States reads 
as follows: 

*' New* states may be admitted into this 
Union, but no new state shall be formed 
or erected within the jurisdiction of any 
other state; nor any state be formed by 
the junction of two or more states or 
parts of states, without the consent of the 
legislatures of the states concerned as well 
as of the Congress." 

The Constitution confers upon Congress 
the power to admit new states, and this 
authority would certainly cover the admis- 
sion of city as well as "sage brush" states 
— metropolitan states as well as states of 
primitive wilderness. To be sure. Con- 



gress could not pass any law, other than 
an enabling act, without precedent action 
by the legislature of the State from which 
a proposed city-state would be segregated. 
But an act of the New York legislature, 
for instance, might place Greater New 
York in position to knock at the doors of 
Congress for admission into the Union, 
and, Congress consenting to receive the 
applicant, would settle the matter and 
place another star on the flag of the Re- 
public. 

Illinois might say to Chicago, by legis- 
lative enactment, "I resign my parental 
relationship to you and consent to become 
your sister; go ask Congress to sanction 
the change." Pennsylvania might give 
Philadelphia her blessing and send the 
City of Brotherly Love into the sisterhood 
of states. It would seem that these states 
might be glad to be rid of the cities and 
that the cities might cherish a reciprocal 
feeling. Each of these cities has popula- 
tion enough and is rich enough and great 
enough to constitute a splendid independ- 
ent commonwealth, and the remainder of 
the state, in each instance, would still be 
a populous and powerful member of the 
Union. 

The cities named would naturally be 
the first imperial cities created. Others 
might follow% as conditions justified their 
formation. Of course, a condition pre- 
cedent to the establishment of the inde- 
pendence of a city would be the willing- 
ness of the city and its state to part com- 
pany, the ability of each to maintain a 
government of its own, and perhaps a 
written or unwritten law that the city 
should have a population of half a million 
or more. These are details to be worked 
out by the state-makers who may turn 
their attention to the independent city 
problem. The writer seeks to do nothing 
more than propose the creation of such 
cities and to ask if the matter is not 
worthy of the serious consideration of 
statesmen, publicists and reformers. 



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The Last of the Shakers 



By G. W. Berry 



A LITTLE over a hundred years 
ago, when Ohio had just begun 
to doff her virgin grandeur, and 
when only here and there were 
dotted a few log cabins, mostly 
upon her river banks, and when 
the Red Man still roamed in his wild de- 
light through his tangled haunts of glory, 
and when the bison and the elk and the 
deer and the bear knew little of their de- 
spoiler, three weary travelers trudged 
through her forest gloom, through the 
darkened shades of the wilderness and the 
darker shadows of disease and savagery.. 
They had come from the East afar, and 
for days and weeks and even months had 
bent their unwavering paths toward a new 
and fertile soil, where the seeds of a new 
faith might spring forth into an abundant 
and glorious harvest. 

In the Turtle Creek valley, between the 
two Miamis, on a soil of wonderful fer- 
tility, a settlement was started as early as 
1795. This settlement grew rapidly, and 
in a few years the burly backwoods-man, 
with muscles like the withes of a hickory 
and a heart as strong as steel, had come 
and gone and the sturdy, intelligent pio- 
neer, bringing with him from the East the 
lingering traditions of Europe ; the circuit 
preacher, whose study was his saddle horn ; 
and the long, lank school teacher with his 
musty lingual preserves of antiquity, had 
come to make it their home. 

Here these three broad-brimmed, simple- 
styled, pure-hearted travelers, John Mach- 
am, Benjamin S. Youngs, and Issachar 
Bates, came, responsive to the bidding of 
** Mother Anne Lee," who twenty years 
before, looking toward the South- West, 
pointed her anointed hand, saying, "There 
is the new field of labor." And so from 
New Lebanon, New York, they set out on 
January 1, 1805, and through long winter 
days came onward, and on the evening of 



March 22 arrived at the Turtle Creek 
settlement and the log cabin home of 
Malcham Worley, a wealthy, intelligent, 
religious pioneer. 

A great revival had swept over the 
western settlements, and the hearts of 
these Turtle Creek pioneers were ready 
for the new faith and doctrine of a dual 
deity; a paternal and maternal God; a 
combination of Christianity, Spiritualism, 
commimism and asceticism — a faith that 
demanded purity, chastity, and celibacy; 
a complete surrender of worldly posses- 
sions and life; a heart that forgave and 
loved and sympathized in all distress; an 
entire consecration. 

When these messengers from the East 
began to tell their stories of faith they 
found many followers, and within a very 
few weeks a large number of families had 
taken up the new cross. Malcham Worley 
was the first, surrendering all his posses- 
sions of lands and valuables, which were 
considerable. This formed the nucleus of 
the new settlement, and of Union Village, 
with its present 4,005 acres of land, three 
miles west of Lebanon, Ohio. 

This was the first Shaker community 
west of the Alleghany Mountains. It 
grew rapidly and within two years num- 
bered more than three hundred people. 
In 1829 it reached its zenith, there being 
over five hundred in the community; in 
1859, two hundred fifty-five; at the close 
of 1867, one hundred fifty-two, and it has 
gradually declined until now there are 
only thirty-three left at Union Village. 
Of these, twenty-seven are over seventy 
years of age and five over eighty; Mary 
Ann Holland, the oldest member, is 
eighty-seven. 

Like every sect that has broken away 
from the general trend of the masses, the 
Shakers have been persecuted. 

In the early days, when the minds of 



14 



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THE LAST OF THE SHAKERS 



15 



the people were more simple, inflammable, 
and credulous of prevarications, no mat- 
ter what nor whence the source, the Shak- 
ers, because of their exclusive regulations, 
were made the subjects of vile imagina- 
tions and the lowest kinds of blackmailing 
by people who possibly were unworthy to 
loose the latchet of a Believer^s shoe. 
Such unfounded rumors often enraged the 
neighboring inhabitants, and in 1810 a 
mob composed of 2,000 people, men and 



mittee to investigate the conditions as 
they were; and the report of that commit- 
tee, that it found the Shakers of both 
sexes and all ages, happy, content, well 
provided, and voluntary members of the 
association, led the mob to depart without 
violence. But false rumors and licentious 
imaginations were not yet through with 
this community, and in 1812, and again 
in 1813, and the last time, in 1817, mobs 
marched to Union Village to lay it low; 



ANDREW BARRETT. 



women, armed with guns and clubs, 
swords and axes, marched to Union Vil- 
lage for the purpose of exterminating the 
Shakers and leveling their homes to the 
ground ; but the cool-headed persuasion of 
such men as Judge Francis Dunlevy, 
Joshua Collett, and Mathias Corwin, Sr., 
citizens of Lebanon, who met the mob at 
the village; the honest persuasion of the 
Shakers themselves, and their invitation 
to the mob to send a representative com- 



but it is delightful to note that in every 
case the Shakers have vindicated them- 
selves, have proven their nobility, have 
shown a pure, clean life and a religious 
devotion extremely beautiful. 

The .Shakers are a religious organiza- 
tion of men and women who believe in a 
community or village, having surrendered 
all their possessions to the society. No 
one gets wages for his labor, all profits 
going into the common treasury and all 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



are fed from a coirnion store-house. 
Formerly they did their own farming, 
made their own clothing and manufac- 
tured many of the necessaries of the 
household. Their industrial departments 
have been productive of some splendid in- 
ventions, such as the buzz saw, babbitt 
metal, match siding, and the planing ma- 
chine. They have given the world such 
common articles as cut nails, the one horse 
carriage, the horse collar, metal pens, the 
flat broom and the clothes pin; and they 



the language and the life of its members. 
Tn its earlier history it taught universal 
celibacy ; but its modern contention is that 
Shakerism is only for Christian men and 
women whose physical or psychical or fin- 
ancial condition unfits them for parentage. 
There are four standings, or offices, of 
members. The highest is that of the min- 
istry, composed of men and women chosen 
for their marked intelligence and religious 
consecration. This body forms a kind of 
bishopric over the communities under their 



SHAKER BUILDIXC; AT UNION VILLAGE, ERECTED IN 1S44. 



hold the honor of having initiated the 
seed industry. 

But the more important purpose of 
Shakerism is spiritual promotion, godli- 
ness in living, purity of heart, the spirit 
of peace, chastity, simplicity in style and 
language. Their doctrine teaches human- 
ity's selfishness, the evil of warfare, con- 
fession of sins, unspotted Christianity and 
consecration to God. That such a life 
may be realized, the society brings its 
members under a rigid, seclusive disci- 
pline which attempts to train the thoughts, 



charge. They have the appointment of 
the elders, trustees and new ministers, and 
also the genital and religious welfare of 
all their societies. The elders stand sec- 
ond in rank, but their sovereignty is lim- 
ited to their immediate community and 
their office is that of spiritual protector. 
The trustees are the financiers and have 
the oversight of the property and estates 
of their community. The deacons and 
deaconesses have charge of the domestic 
affairs. 

Once the Shaker's dress was uniform, 



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THE LAST OF THE SHAKERS 



17 



simple and plain, much like that of the 
colonial Quakers and Quakeresses 3 but 
now they dress in costumes like their 
neighbors. Their church was without fur- 



ON SHAKER HILL. 

niture, except for benches at the sides, 
which were for visitors. On each wall 
were rows of wooden pegs upon which the 
men hung their hats and coats, and the 
women their bonnets, during worship. On 
Sunday morning at a given signal the men 
came from their apartments in single file 
an J entered the church on the right, re- 
moved their hats and coats, hung them 
upon the pegs, then drew up in perfect 
order on their side of the house. At the 
same time the women, coming in like man- 
ner, entering their side of the church, re- 
moved their bonnets, hanging them upon 
their pegs, and took their places in perfect 
regularity. At a given signal the whole 
company sat down flat upon the floor and 
after some moments, as if by one move- 
ment, arose and began singing some lively 
tune, and dancing, keeping perfect time to 
the music and keeping their hands moving 
gently up and down before them. Hence 
the name, "Shakers." They would con- 
tinue this dance for hours, their clothes 
often becoming saturated with perspira- 
tion and only stopping long enough at in- 
Terv'als to change the music. On some 
occasions, after dancing an hour or so, 
they would stop and sit upon the floor, 



while one of their number would address 
them — after which they would renew the 
dance. 

If you were to go back seventy-five 
years, and look into their spacious dining 
halls, you would see two long, plainly, but 
neatly spread tables. At meal time, at the 
blast of the dinner horn, the men entered 
two by two, on the one side of the room, 
drawing up in regular order a few feet 
back of their table; at the same time, the 
women entered similarly and filed back of 
theirs, and the waiters formed between 
the tables. At a signal, all fell upon their 
knees and after a few moments of prayer 
arose and sat at the tables. Not a word 
was said during the meal, and after they 
had finished they left the hall in the same 
manner in which they had come. 

There*s a thriftiness in the atmosphere 
about Union Village, in its systematic 
arrangement, its massive buildings, its- 
beautiful grounds and modern improve- 
ments. The main buildings are imposing 
structures, w4th interior artistic and sub- 
stantial. The officers' building contains 
the reception room, the offices, living 
apartments of the officers, dining rooms, 
kitchen, bath-rooms, etc. Next to the 
office building, and about one hundred 
feet from it, stands a splendid brick struc- 
ture erected in 1844, and containing a 
large number of living rooms; a spacious 



SHAKERS' OFFICERS' BUILDING. 

chapel, in which are only four short rows 
of chairs, an organ and a stand ; the main 
dining room and kitchen, with ample size 
and furniture for feeding a multitude. 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



The basement is used for a dairy, for 
store-rooms of vegetables and fruits and 
a depository for various living necessities. 
These buildings are in perfect condition, 
x:lean and neat. Across the road stands a 
building erected in 1819, a splendid piece 
of workmanship for the day in which it 
was built. It is finished in black walnut 
and is used for a laundry and shoe shop. 
A little to the south, on the same side of 
the road, stands the old church, long since 
abandoned for worship, but whose walls 
might tell the tale of many a Shaker re- 
ligious joy. In this building hundreds 
have participated in the divine service of 
-dancing, a form at which the world has 
-cften laughed in derision; but what mat- 
ters the form and formality, if the heart 
be right? 

The Society has 4,005 acres of the best 
improved and most fertile land in Warren 
County. The yield of corn, wheat, oats, 
iiay, vegetables and fruits is splendid. 
Last year's corn crop was over 5,200 
bushels. The stock is fine; great droves 
of hogs and cattle and splendid horses 
are raised. The Shakers do no farming 
themselves, but let the land out to te.ianls 
who farm on the shares. 

Under the careful management of James 
Fennessey, the present trustee, the institu- 
tion has been lifted from its financial em- 
barassment and is now free from debt. 
The other officers are Andrew Barrett, 
Mary Gass, and Climena Minar, who form 
the ministry. George Baxter is elder. 

Union Village is an ideal old folk's 
"home, with its beautiful grounds, fine 
orchards and splendid farms; its spacious, 
cheery, richly furnished and equipped 
buildings well fit it to supply physical 
needs and comforts and its soothing, rest- 
ful, pervading quietude. Today the few 
remaining people of the community, as- 
sembling in the chapel for worship, sit 



upon the four short rows of chairs, the 
men on the one side and women on the 
other, all facing the middle, and sing, 
pray and speak, much in the fashion of a 
Methodist prayer-meeting. Here assem- 
bles, perhaps, the most venerable group of 
worshippers the world has ever known, the 
average age being about seventy-five years. 

These old people are cheery and good. 
They are liked by all who know them. 
They go about their tasks with a spirit 
that is beautiful. They read papers and 
good books, and love to talk of the noble 
characters of great men and women. They 
love the beauties of Nature, and their 
hearts throb with the joys that beat in 
the bosoms of purity. In a very few years 
the story of the Shakers will be a tale of 
the past. The few that yet remain have 
donned the silver robe of age, and soon 
will descend into the darkening shadows 
of Eternity. When they are gone, there 
will remain their beautiful heme, with its 
splendid equipment, once filled with the 
devout faces of men and women who con- 
secrated their lives to God; and there will 
remain that splendid estate, worth hun- 
dreds of thousands of dollars. 

May I presume to wonder what monu- 
ment will be erected there to Shakerism? 
May 1 presume to say what a beautiful 
memorial it would be, if in their passing, 
since it i^ an old folks' home and a religi- 
ous ins'i^.uticn, it should be perpetuated 
as a home for ordained ministers of the 
gospel and the wives and widows of such 
as have grown old in the service, and are 
no longer able to care for themselves? 
What a splendid company would be gath- 
ered there! What grand reminiscences of 
consecration would pass in feebled breath, 
and what devout prayers would ascend 
from fervent lips! That would inaugur- 
ate a fitting and permanent good work, to 
follow the exit of the last of the Shakers, 



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Ohio in Southern California 



By Kenneth J. Murdoch 



The present article is the first of an illustrated series to be published by 
The Ohio Magazine^ reciting the history and usefulness of the many Ohio societies 
which flourish in various states of the Union. For years Ohioans abroad have 
evidenced their loyal attachment to the State of their nativity through the estab- 
lishment and growth of these organizations. Their distinction in this regard sur- 
passes that of citizens from any other A merican commonwealth, for Ohio societies 
are by far the must numerous and progressive of all state societies. The series thus 
introduced will pay deserved tribute to the Ohioan on other than his native soil 
and will be as interesting to those whom he has left in the old home as to his com- 
patriots abroad. 



^3^ 



DID the individual who was the 
originator of that old saying, 
"You can't keep a good man 
down/' live in the present day 
and age and in Southern Cali- 
fornia, the chances are that, if 
he were of an observing nature, he would 
so amend his words of wisdom that they 
would read, "You can't keep an Ohio man, 
or woman, either, in the rear." 

Of course, if the said individual were 
a pessimistic, cynical sort of chap, dis- 
gruntled with the world and its ways, h^ 
might close his eyes tightly and shut him- 
self up, so that he could not see what is 
so obvious to those of us who are not 
averse to using our eyes for their intended 
purpose. 

Even a passing glance by the busiest 
man shows Ohioans to the fore in our 
political, commercial, professional and 
social life everywhere, and in no place is 
this progressiveness and real worth, so 
characteristic of the true Buckeye, more 
in evidence than in Southern California. 
Time was, and not so very long ago, 
when Southern California was looked up- 
on as a rather good sort of place for peo- 
ple wljo did not enjoy the best of health, 
or for those mollycoddle folk who are too 
lazy to move around fast enough to keep 
warm in the good old winter time. How- 
ever, some Ohioans whose health was 
good and who were not lazy, came out, 



saw the possibilities that were here and 
remained to take advantage of the oppor- 
tunities, ks only an Ohioan could. 

These i^hfojns- wrote back, to their rela- 
tives and frieiids .^ the old ftome, and; 
they came out and^^ie^t coming,' uStil: to-i 
day there is no State 'in the Unioto that is 
better represented, either in point of nxmi-^ 
bers or in the character of its representa- 
tives, in Southern California than Ohio. 
There are enough natives of the land of 
politics in Southern California to make a 
good-sized city by themselves, and many 
of them call Los Angsles home. Others 
are living in some of the nearby towns 
and still others enjoying life and living 
literally, if not on, at least by the fruits 
of the earth in the orange and lemon 
groves. 

Now naturally every Ohioan is justly 
pround of the fact that he is a Buckeye, 
and if he is a bit boastful of the State in 
which he was so fortunate as to first see 
the light of day it is not to be wondered 
at. Nor is it strange that, when two or 
three Ohioans are gathered together, 
either by accident or design, they immedi- 
ately begin to talk about the greatness of 
their native State, so that the organization 
of an Ohio society by Buckeyes abroad 
follows as a matter of course. 

New York has a very flourishing Ohio 
Society. So has Washington, Philadel- 
phia, Detroit, Atlanta, Seattle, Portland 



19 



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20 



THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



and many another populous city; but it 
is doubtful that any of these societies are 
more successful or have a more enthusi- 
astic membership than the Ohio Society oi 
Southern California. This Society is a 
sturdy youngster in its seventh year, with 
headquarters in Los Angeles. Today it 
has a membership of nearly 700, increas- 
ing by leaps and bounds. Its success has 
been so great that the natives of other 



LUCIUS M. FALL. 

Present President of the Ohio Society of Southern 

California. 

States now living here have organized sim- 
ilar societies, but not one of these organi- 
zations has met with the favor that has 
crowned the Ohio society and everything 
it has attempted. 

It was in the fall of 1900, on October 
1 7, to be exact, that the first meeting of 
Buckeyes in Southern California was held. 
It was called to order by L. P. McCarty 
of San Francisco, a native of Ohio who 
firmly believed that the Southern Cali- 



fornia Buckeyes should be organized. It 
was explained that a niunber of native 
Ohioans had talked over the feasibility of 
organizing a society and decided tha: it 
was time to call a meeting and take some 
action. Professor J. M. Guinn was called 
to the chair and presided over the meeting. 

The matter of organization was talk;id 
over at length, and it was the unani.n.jui 
opinion of those in attendance that an 
association should be formed. The ques- 
tion of a charter was taken up, and 213 
persons signified their desire to b^ome 
charter members. A charter was duly ob- 
tained, and at a meeting held November 
1 7, the constitution and by-laws were 
formally adopted and an organization 
effected. 

The object of the society is, in the 
words of the constitution, **to promote 
social and fraternal relations among its 
members; to collect and distribute infor- 
mation concerning the States of Ohio and 
California and their people; to make wel- 
come visiting Buckeyes to our State, and 
to co-operate with other organizations in 
their efforts to advance the interests of 
Southern California." 

All white persons over 18 years of age, 
natives of Ohio or residents therein for 
five years or longer, are eligible to mem- 
bership, and members are to be found 
throughout Southern California. 

Meetings of the Society are held the 
first Tuesday evening of each month, and 
so popular are these meetings and so rap- 
idly has the attendance grown that it has 
been necessary, within the last few months, 
to change the place of meeting from the 
Woman's club house to the big auditorium 
of the Fraternal Brotherhood building, in 
order to accomodate all who attend. 

All Ohioans, whether members of the 
Society or not, are invited to these meet- 
ings, which are most delightful affairs. 
There is usually a short program of music 
and recitations and often times an address 
by some Buckeye who has attained par- 
ticular fame. Sometimes the speakers are 
residents of Southern California, and 
sometimes Buckeyes who are merely so- 
journeying here for the time being. Then 
after the program refreshments are served, 
old acquaintances renewed, new ones 
made, and sometimes there is dancing. 



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OHIO IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 



21 



Especial effort is always made to invite 
visiting Ohioans to these meetings, and 
many a tourist who has been a bit home- 
sick for the sight of a familiar face and 



more than one Ohioan who was seeking 
to locate old friends who had come to 
California. They have also been most 
helpful in tracing Ohioans for inquiring 
relatives and friends at home. 

A perusal of these registers is most in- 
teresting. The membership register shows 
but eleven of the eighty-eight counties of 
Ohio unrepresented. The eleven are: 
Ashland, ITancock, Madison, Mercer, Ot- 
tawa, Parry, Pike, Tucarawas, Van Wert, 
Vinton and Williams. 

Hamilton county has the largest rep- 
resentation, with seventy-eight former resi- 
dents enrolled. Cuyahoga comes next, 
with fifty-five. Then Franklin, with 
thirty, Butler twenty-four, Warren twenty- 
two, Stark twenty-one, Columbiana nine- 
teen, Clark seventeen, Trumbull sixteen, 
Lorain fifteen; Ashtabula and Wayne 
fourteen each; Crawford, Montgomery, 
Muskingum and Washington, thirteen 
each; Highland and Lucas, twelve each; 
Jefferson, ten; Clinton, Knox, Preble and 



GENERAL HARRISON GRAY OTIS. 



the sound of a "home" voice has thus 
found new friends who knew old mutual 
friends in Ohio, and the cordiality of his 
welcome has driven all thought of home- 
sickness frcm his mind. 

Every summer the Society has at least 
two outings. Last summer they were at 
Venice and Naples, with more than 600 
persons in attendance each time. At the 
Naples outing the Society members and 
their friends were the guests of Messrs. 
A. M. and A. C. Parsons, natives of 
Chardon, Geauga county, Ohio, who con- 
duct one of the largest real estate busi- 
nesses in Los Angeles and are the found- 
ers of the City by the Sea. 

In addition to the social feature of the 
Society, a register is kept at the office of 
the secretary, of all members, the part of 
Ohio they came from, when they came, 
and their Southern California addresses. 
A register is also kept of all Buckeyes, 
tourists as well as permanent residents, 
who care to leave their names. These 
registers have been of much assistance to 



LEE C. GATES, 
Fourth President of the Ohio Society. 

Summit, nine each ; Belmont, Brown, 
Darke, Miami and Richland, eight each; 
Clermont, Fairfield, Geauga, Huron, Lake, 
Morgan, Pickaway, Ross, Sandusky and 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



Seneca, seven each; Champaign, Dela- 
ware, Erie, Guernsey, Lawrence and Ma- 
honing, six each; Coshocton, Licking, 
Medina, Portage and Scioto, five each; 



and now it is always consulted whenever 
there is anything special going on of in- 
terest to Ohioans. 

Much of the success of the organization 
is undoubtedly due to the able officers who 
have guided its affairs ever since it was 
formed. Its first president, S. P. Mul- 
ford, is a prominent attorney, who hails 
from Cincinnati, and who has always 
taken a very active interest in the welfare 
of the Society. Mr. .Mulford was ably 
assisted during the first year of the So- 
ciety's existence by Prof. J. M. Guinn, 
first vice-president; Charles Cassatt Davis, 
second vice-president ; Judge D. K. Trask, 
third vice-president; J. H. Phillips, secre- 
tary, and Walter C. Durgin, treasurer. 

The second and third terms of the presi- 
dency were filled by Mr. Abner L. Ross, 
who was born in Lebanon, Warren county, 
Ohio, in 1832. Mr. Ross was in the hotel 
business for forty-five years, coming here 
from Chatanooga, Tenn., in 1898. He 
started the Hotel Rosslyn here, but a little 



W. G. TANNER, 
Treasurer of the Ohio Society. 



Adams, Defiance, Gallia, Greene, HaJr- 
rison, Noble, four each; Allen, Athens, 
Fayette, Logan, Meigs, Monroe, Putnam, 
Union and Wyandot, three each; Carroll, 
Fulton, Hardin, Hocking, Morrow and 
Shelby, two each ; Auglaize, Henry, 
Holmes, Jackson, Marion, Paulding and 
Wood, one each. 

On both the members' and the visitors' 
register are names that are known not only 
the country over but throughout the civil- 
ized world, for there are few famous 
Ohioans who visit Southern California for 
any length of time who do not find their 
way to the secretary's office and register. 

The Ohio Society of Southern Cali- 
fornia first became well known to the 
other residents of Los Angeles on May 8, 
1901, when it gave a reception in honor 
of the late (governor Nash, which was one 
of the most successful affairs of the kind 
ever given here. Then on May 9, 1903, 
it again came before the public eye with 
a big reception for the Cleveland Grays, 



NEWTON J. SKINNER, 
President of the Bank of Southern Caliifornia. 



over a year ago sold it to the Hart Broth- 
ers, who came to California from Farin- 
ington, Trumbull county, Ohio, and now 
conduct both the Rosslyn and Natick 



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OHIO IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 



23 



hotels. Mr. Ross also owned the Hotel 
Casa del Mar at Long Beach until a few 
weeks ago, but is now engaged in the real 
estate business. 



An educator, Professor J. H. Francis, 
followed Mr. Gates in the president's 
chair. Preble county also has the honor 
of being Prof. Francis' natal place, he 
having been born at Greenbush in 1867. 
He began his career as a pedagog in Ohio, 
coming here in 1896 to be the head of the 
commercial department of the Los An- 
geles High School. After that he was 
principal of the Los Angeles Commercial 
High School, which was merged into the 
Polytechnic High School, of which he is 
now the principal. "Poly High," as it is 
known, has the reputation of being one of 
the best schools of its kind in the country 
and has an enrollment in the day school 
of 2,000 pupils, and in the night school 
of 1,279. 

Mr. Lucius M. Fall succeeded Profes- 
sor Francis and is still serving as presi- 
dent of the Society. Like Mr. Gates and 
Prof. Francis, Mr. Fall is a native of 
Preble county, where he grew up on a 
farm, attending the district school during 
the winter months. Afterwards he com- 



ABNER L. ROSS, 
Second and Third President of the Ohio Society. 



To Mr. Ross, Los Angeles is indebted 
in a large measiu-e for the host of sum- 
mer visitors it now has each year from 
Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico and Old 
Mexico, as he was the prime mover in 
starting the summer travel of the mining 
men and ranchers toward Southern Cali- 
fornia. 

The fourth president was Mr. Lee C. 
Gates, a product of Preble county, Ohio, 
having been born there in 1856. Mr. 
Gates studied law, was admitted to the 
bar and practiced for some time in Day- 
ton. Twenty-two years ago he took the 
advice of Horace Greeley and started 
west. He stopped on reaching Kansas 
and remained there seven years, then com- 
ing to Southern California. He has been 
most successful in his chosen profession 
here and at present is attorney for the 
Title Insurance and Trust Company. Mr. 
Gates has taken an active part in politics 
here and las fall was the mayorality can- 
didate on the N on- Partisan ticket, making 
a most creditable run. 



A. M. DUNCAN. M. D., 
Present Secretary of the Ohiio Society. 

pleted his education at Otterbein Univer- 
sity and the University of Michigan, grad- 
uating from the law department of the 
last named. He first practiced in Central 



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24 



THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



Kansas, where he became one of the lead- 
ing advocates, serving as prosecuting 2ft- 
torney for four years. Mr. Fall has been 
in Los Angeles five years, and is meeting 
with equal success at the bar here. He is 
very enthusiastic over the Ohio Society, 
and is determined that many new members 
shall be added before his administration 
is ended. 

Mr. W. H.' Gilbert, a native of Hamil- 
ton county, is the first vice-president of 
the Society; Mrs. N. C. Dean, second 
vice-president; Dr. A. M. Duncan, who 
first saw the light of day in Crawford 
county, in 1850, but has called Los An- 
geles **home'* for some time, is secretary, 
and Mr. W. (i. Tanner is treasurer. 

Mr. Tanner was born in Da>1:on in 
1850, and lived there until ten years ago, 
when he came to Los Angeles on a vaca- 
tion and liked the country so well that he 
has never gone back. He has bsen con- 
nected with the Dollar Savings Bank for 
four years and is now its cashier. 

Among the members of the Society 
there are few who are better known than 
General Harrison Gray Otis, editor of the 
Los Angeles Times — once a Buckeye, 
now a Calif ornian. General Otis was 
born near Marietta, February 10, 1837. 
He grew up a farmer's boy, with only a 
"log-house education." He began his 
political career by serving as a delegate 
from Kentucky to the National Republi- 
can Convention of 1860, when he cast his 
vote for the first nomination of Lincoln. 
He served as a soldier and officer through- 
out the War of the Rebellion, taking part 
in fiftec'n actions, was twice wounded and 
frequently promoted, finally reaching the 
grade of lieutenant-colonel by brevet *'for 
gallant and meritorious services through- 
out tl.e war." Thirty-three years later he 
served in the war against Spain as a gen- 
eral officer, gaining honor and distinction, 
and retiring as brevet major-general **for 
meritorious conduct at the battle of Cal- 
oocan, March 25, 1899." 

General Porfirio Diaz, president of 
Mexico, is credited with this remark: 
"Few men ever become distinguished in 
even one line of endeavor, but General 
Otis is both a great soldier and a great 
editor." 

In 1865 General Otis entered journalism 



on a small scale at Marietta, Ohio, and 
at the legislative session of 1866-67 he 
was official reporter of the State House 
of Representatives, after which he became 
foreman of the Government printing oflBce 
and later was chief of division in the 
United States Patent office. He removed 
from Washington to California in 1876 
and took editorial charge of a daily news- 
paper at Santa Barbara. In 1882 he as- 
sumed editorial management of the Los 
Angeles Times, then an infant, but now 
one of the most widely known newspapers 
in the entire field of journalism and a 
conspicuous financial success. For fully a 
quarter of a century it has devoted itself 
to the development and upbuilding of 
California Del Sur. The Times is recog- 
nized throughcui the country as the fore- 
most, the boldest, the mosi aggressive and 
tl/j most perdsti^nt champion of the open 
shop, rhroughout nearly all his journal- 
istic careLT General Otis was continually 
aided by his noble, loyal and brilliant wife, 
a native of Lowell, Ohio, whose editorial, 
poetical and other contributions to The 
Times went far toward making it. Mrs. 
Eliza A. Otis died November 12, 1904, 
and sleeps in Hollywood cemetery, where 
a chime of twelve unique memorial bells 
sounds the praises of her name. 

In the financial world of Los Angeles, 
the Society is ably represented by Mr. 
Newton J. Skinner, whose birthplace was 
Northfield, Cuyahoga county. After leav- 
ing Ohio he lived in Iowa, Texas and 
New York, coming here, two years ago, 
to organize the Bank of Southern Cali- 
fornia, of which he is now president. 

Ex- Mayor Owen McAleer, who has 
just completed a term as the city*s chief 
executive, is a Buckeye, coming from down 
in the Mahoning Valley, near Youngstown. 

The Society is very proud of Judge D. 
K. Trask, born in Cincinnati in 1860, who 
has recently stepped down from the bench 
of the Superior Court, having refused to 
be a candidate for re-election. 

A Buckeye living in Los Angeles who 
has not yet joined the Society, but in 
whom the Society is greatly interested, 
and who is expected to become a member 
if he decides to remain here permanently, 
is one who is known the world over — 
Major-General Adna R. Chaffee. Gen- 



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OHIO IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 25 

eral Chaffee came into this world at Or- There are in Los Angeles hundreds of 

well, Ashtabula county, April 14, 1842, Ohio people whose names are not on the 

and his education was obtained in the rolls of the Society, but there are few of 

district schools of southern Ash'abu'a and them who have not attended at least one 

northern Trumbull counties. It was at meeting of that organization, or who have 

Warren, the county seat of Trumbull not availed themselves of the use of its 

county, that he began his career as a sol- registers to get trace of people they knew 

dier, enlisting there as a private on July "back East." 

22, 1861. After serving throughout the Every Buckeye receives a royal welcome 
Rebellion, he continued in the army, fin- from the Ohio Society of Los Angeles and 
ally becoming its head. Shortly after be- all visitors are urged to make themselves 
ing retired, having reached the age limit, known to its officers and members. 
a little over a year ago, he came to Los "Auld acquaintance" is not easily for- 
Angeles and expects to remain here at gotten by the Buckeyes of Southern Cali- 
least a year longer, and possibly perman- fornia, and the mere fact that you are a 
ently. The General and Mrs. Chaffee, as Buckeye makes you the "auld acquaint- 
well as their charming daughter, are very ance" of every other Buckeye in the Land 
popular in society. of Sunshine. 



TO A MORNING GLORY. 

Not only "glory of the morn," 

But also of the day 
Is thy fair face, embodiment 

Of purity alway. 

Thou hast not fragrance — subtle charm — 

But thy sweet innocence. 
Which makes thee seem as just from heav'n, 

Is more than recompense. 

When opened are the golden gates 

Of dawn, thy wond'ring eyes 
Unclose upon the teeming world 

With look of mild surprise; 

And, heedless of the sun or shower, 

Or winds, in bower and glade 
Thou bloomest all the livelong day, 

As in the dewy shade. 

And when the evening comes thy heart 

Is softly folded up. 
Secure from wanton gaze or harm 

Within thy petaled cup. 

Tis thus that Nature marks life's close. 

As e'er with pure in heart, 
Thy spirit sweet is shut in His 

Whose constant care thou art. 



— Charles Kinney. 



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SNOWBIRD 

A NOVEL 
By S. N. Cook 

Synopsis — The preceding and first installment of ''Snowbird/' in the June 
number of The Ohio Magazine^ related the adventure of Major Hawley and Cap- 
tain Cameron, officers in a voluntary cavalry command stationed near Pisga church 
in the Tennessee mountains, with a band of guerrillas. The events which occurred 
at the home of the Widow Catlin, where Malvina, the poor mountain girl, had her 
first glimpse of Captain Cameron, culminated in bringing the central figure of the 
drama to the Captain's quarters within the Union lines. A lapse of time now 
brings the scenes of the present and suceedinf chapters to a period ten years later. 
New characters are introduced and the old re-appear. 



CHAPTER II. 



ft? 



T was April, 1874, that Arthur 
Hawley went to Knoxville, 
Tenn. Had it been September, 
10 years would have passed 
since the father. Major Egbert 
Hawley, and Captain Cameron 
fought Lige Evans' band of guerrillas at 
the cabin of Widow Catlin. 

Yoimg Hawley had been directed to go 
to the home of Jack Fallis, the mountain- 
eer who had taken part in the stormy 
event. He had secured a berth on the 
through Pullman to Knoxville, and was 
hoping he might have the entire section 
to himself, when there appeared at his 
side a short, heavy-set man, whose first re- 
mark proclaimed him a native of that por- 
tion of the United States lying south of 
the Ohio River. 

"Beg pardon, suh, but I will have to 
share this section with you," said the man. 
Hawley made room for him, and, after 
a few remarks of a general character, the 
stranger requested an exchange of cards. 
"With pleasure, sir," replied the young 
man, well pleased to show a card bearing 
the names of those eminent lawyers, Bev- 
erly Wade and Joseph Hawley. The gen- 
tleman from the South read aloud: 

Hawley, Wade & Hawley^ 
Attorneys, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 



"I take it your name is Hawley. I 
know Beverly Wade." 

"My name, as you see, is Joseph Arthur 
Hawley, junior member of the firm of 
Hawley, Wade & Hawley." 

The card the young man received read: 

Yancey Everett, 
Attomey-at-Law, 

Knoxville, Tenn. 

"I am pleased to know you are from 
Knoxville, Mr. Everett, I am going there." 

"You are a very young man to be a 
partner of such an eminent jurist as Bev- 
erly Wade," said Everett. 

'I am a member because my uncle, 
Joseph Hawley, wished me to be associ- 
ated with him. But for him I should be 
in business with my father. Have you 
ever met my uncle?" 

"I have not, suh," replied Mr. Everett 
coldly. Presently he said: "There are 
very few men in my part of the country 
who have not heard of your uncle, even 
though they have not met hini !" 

"Yes," replied Hawley vaguely. 

"We know your uncle as a politician, 
as an enemy of our people. He is a very 
intense partisan, suh, very intense." 

"We are likely to have a storm," replied 
the young man, after a pause. "It is 
lightning in the West." Hawley saw the 
drift of the conversation, and was wise 
enough to know that an argument with an 



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27 



impetuous Southerner was a profitless pas- 
time. 

Mr. Everett, however, was not interested 
in the weather, and, after finding the cus- 
pidor, turned to Hawley and asked, "Are 
you coming to our country on a political 
mission?" 

** Politics in Tennessee does not interest 
me particularly," replied Hawley. 

**I'm rather glad for your sake that you 
are not," Everett said. 

**I beg to assure you that, if I had 
occasion to go to your part of the country 
upon matters political, I would not fail 
to go." Hawley's smile was not partic- 
ularly friendly. 

** That's all right, young man. I admire 
your grit more than your politics." 

"You will recall that I have not at- 
tempted to inflict my political views upon 
you." 

"You have not, suh, and we may as well 
drop the subject. It is surprising, how- 
ever, how they breed 'em up in your 
state," Everett remarked, musingly. 

"I beg your pardon, I did not catch 
your meaning," Arthur said. 

"The main crop of Ohio, as we see it, 
is — politicians, and largely of the Repub- 
lican persuasion." Everett smiled good- 
naturedly. 

"The opposition crop has never been an 
entire failure in Tennessee has it?'^ 

"Not entirely," replied Everett, "but 
we are drifting back into politics. Now, 
without seeking to be impertinent, may I 
ask you if legal business is calling you to 
our part of the country?" 

"Yes, and I must confess it is my first 
case," Hawley answered. 

"That is interesting, and if it is your 
first case and I can be of use to you, you 
are at liberty to command me," said the 
Southern attorney. 

Arthur then told how his father had 
campaigned in the mountains south of 
Knoxville during a part of 1864, and how 
he fought guerrillas at the cabin of Mrs. 
Catlin and came near being killed by an 
outlaw or ranger named Evans. The 
young man then entered into the details 
of the purchase of timber lands situated 
near a country church named Pisgah. 

During the recital, Mr. Everett showed 
great interest and asked questions concern- 



ing those who were present on the occasion 
of the fight. 

"Are you from that part of Tennessee?" 
asked the young man. 

"I am a Virginian by birth, and came to 
Knoxville after the surrender. However, 
I know a number of the mountain people, 
and my wife was born near Pisga'," said 
Everett. 

"Do you know Jack Fallis?" Arthur 
asked. 

"I know Fallis well, and Mrs. Catlin, 
too," he said. "You spoke about a girl 
being with Mrs. Catlin and who, in some 
manner, aided in the escape of your 
father." 

"A very brave young woman. My 
father bade me inquire for her, but I have 
forgotten the name. Fallis will doubtless 
remember." 

"My wife, when a gal, lived near there, 
and I was wondering if she might not 
have been the one," Everett said. 

"I recall her Christian name," Hawley 
said, after a pause. "It is Malvina — " 

"The hell, it is," cried Everett excitedly. 
"Now, do you know that is the style of 
woman my wife is?" 

"Your wife?" 

"Yes, suh, my wife." 

"There is my hand, Mr. Everett. Let 
me congratulate you. I am more than- 
pleased to meet the husband of the young^ 
woman who dared much to help save the 
life of my father." 

The Virginian grasped the extended 
hand, and said: "Yes, suh, I married the 
gal and never had cause to regret it. She 
is quiet at times and queer, but she is et 
loyal woman. I am proud that your 
father has spoken so kindly of her. I do- 
not know him, but I am sure he is a 
most chivalrous gentleman." 

Arthur Hawley congratulated himself 
that he had not mentioned the affection 
the girl had shown Captain Cameron. 
The husband might not have been told of 
the episode. 

"And it is Lige Evans who is living on 
your land, you think?" asked Everett, who 
had been silent some time. 

"A man named Evans is living on the 
property, and my father is of the opinion 
that it is the Evans he fought in '64." 

"Your story interests me very much, and: 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



when we reach Knoxville, I must present 
you to Mrs. Everett," said the lawyer. 

**I shall be most pleased to meet her, 
and, by the way, when I left home, the 
firm insisted that I should secure the as- 
sistance of an attorney if the man attempts 
to resist my order to move. Now, if it is 
the Evans of the war days I am to meet, 
I shall, perhaps, need more physical force 
than legal. You are familiar with the sit- 
uation, however, and know the people, so 
I beg you will assist me in this case." 

"Vou have only to command me," Ev- 
erett replied. 

"Shall we adjourn to the smoker?" 
Arthur asked. *'Do you smoke?" 

**I chew and smoke, most Virginians do, 
I reckon, and I'll join you with pleasure." 

When they had lighted their cigars, 
Yancey said: "I must tell you about the 
first time I met my wife." 

"I shall be i^erested in the story." 

"Our first meeting was rather peculiar" 
— and there was a reminiscent smile upon 
the homely face — "but Mrs. Everett is a 
peculiar woman. Most women are not 
able to meet an emergency. It is in a 
crisis that my wife, Malvina, rises to the 
situation. When it comes to getting up a 
square meal there are times she falters — 
there ain't excitement enough about it. 
At the time I refer to," he continued, "I 
was called up to the mountains to try a 
-case before a justice named Peters; and, 
by the way, he is still a justice there. In 
the midst of my argimient, a girl come 
into the court room and asked the justice 
to arrest a young man by the namt; of 
Dave Wilson, whom, she claimed, had 
stolen her revolver. The squire tried to 
hush her up until the case was over, but 
she would talk. I told the squire I would 
give way to the lady, and referred to Wil- 
son as a thief. Just then a tall young 
man, with an ugly glitter in his eyes, came 
up to me and said: *Yuh called me a 
thief ; I reckon I'll make yuh eat them 
words.* 

" 'He'll eat nothing he don't wan":,' 
said the girl as she came to my side. 
When the court was over she made m? go 
home with her, saying Wilson would kill 
me on the road somewhere. I must stay 
all night at her home, and start early in 



the morning so that he would not know- 
when I left. When I got to her home, 
which was a log cabin with two little 
rooms, I got to thinking that such a girl 
wouldn't be a bad sort of companion for 
a lonely fellow like me, and when she 
came in and saw me sitting by the o])t?n 
window she said sharply, *Git out o' thar, 
yuh wouldn't make a purty corpse nohow.' 

" 'How would I do for a husband,' 
says I. 

" 'Yuh mought do, I reckon,' says she. 

"I knew it was crowding matters, but 
I asked her then and there if she would 
have me. 

" 'P2f you want me,' she answered rather 
sadly, I thought. Then she moved my 
chair away from the window and out of 
the range of Dave Wilson's gun. 

" 'We don't need wait long,' I said. 

" 'I 'low the Squire's gone ter baid 
now,' she answered. 

CHAPTER III. 

The afternoon of their arrival in Knox- 
ville was spent by Mr. Everett and Arthur 
in going over the case. There was not 
much to do, but the papers Hawley 
brought were gone into that each might 
be familiar with the situation. 

That evening Arthur called upon Mrs. 
Everett. She was expecting him and 
greeted him with an easy grace he did not 
anticipate. It could not be said that Mrs. 
Everett was a handsome woman, but there 
was about her that indefinable something 
men accept and Arthur knew he liked her 
— liked her from the moment she said: 
"Eyes like yuh father's only biggah." 

It was a low monotone that was restful. 
Some voices thrill, some put the nerves on 
edge, while others soothe. The young man 
thought he should like to hear her talk of 
those days in '64. 

Malvina did not touch upon the adven- 
ture at Mrs. Catlin's that day, and Arthur 
did not deem it wise to bring it up. 
Arrangements were made for a ride about 
the city and environs to view grounds 
made famous by the events of the civil 
war. 

"Yuh will come to see me often," she 
said, holding his hand as he took his 
leave. 



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**So often you will weary of me," he 
said. 

"Come and see," she replied. 

The next morning was unusually warm 
for the time of year, but the team was 
waiting in front of Yancey Everett's 
home and Mrs. Everett was waiting also 
when Arthur and her husband put in an 
appearance. Mr. Everett was greatly dis- 
appointed but business prevented him from 
going that morning and he urged his wife 
and Arthur to go without him. 

"There is much that will interest you," 
he said, "and I want you and Mrs. Ev- 
erett to get acquainted." 

Arthur introduced commonplace sub- 
jects of conversation at first, but Malvina 
replied vaguely. Finally, when they had 
reached the country and were looking to 
the southward from the top of a hill, he 
asked, "Where did you live when -you met 
my father and—" 

"And that other one?" she broke in. 

"Ves, that other one," Ar bur said. 

"It was way off that a- way," and Mal- 
vina pointed toward a distant, wooded 
knob over which a soft c! v.d hunjr as a 
white plume on the cap of the mountain. 

"How beautiful it is off there," he said. 

"Yes, but so lonesome," Malvina an- 
swered slowly, "so lonesome since that 
time at Saray Catlin's." 

"You have not forgotten the dinner at 
Mrs. Catlin's, I see?" 

"Could I ever forgit?" she asked in a 
weary monotone. 

Silently Arthur watchjd the landscape, 
feeling that the conversation was drifting 
into that past which the wife of Yancey 
Everett might prefer to forget. 

"Did yuh father tell yuh all about that 
day?" she asked presently. 

"Yes." 

"Did he say I was a fool ah jut that 
other one?" 

"He did not," Arthur replied promptly. 

"But I was. I was a fool — I am yit 
sometimes — only sometimes — when in the 
dark I look out and see a star 'way up 
yander. Then I whisper to myself: 'It's 
a-lookin' down on him, it's a-lookin' down 
on him.* Sometimes in the dark I feel his 
hands a-holdin' mine as he did that day." 

"I see you have not forgotten." There 
was pity in his voice. 



"I know I ortent say this to a livin' 
soul — not even ter myself fer he is good, 
to me, Yancey Everett is. I keer fer him, 
too. Shorely I couldn't live with him ef 
I didn't, but some way it ain't just the 
same. Did yuh ever feel when some one- 
was whisperin' ter yuh as ef 5aih soul wuz; 
startin' ter fly away — yuh war so happy. 
I wuz that a-way then. Mr. Everett ain't 
a-mounting man, or I couldn't a-married 
him. I hate the ways of the mounting 
people. No saft whisperin' when the 
moon is a-lookin' down through the pines. 
No love growin* slow and sweet, like the 
maple buds comin' in Spring. They jist 
ax yuh, brutal like, ter marry." 

Malvina recalled how a mountaineer, 
over whose weak chin and straggling^ 
beard a brown rivulet was flowing, once 
stood beside her in the cabin door and 
said: "I sort o' like yuh, Malviney, but 
I'm goin' ter wah. Ef I come back we 
mought marry." She remembered how he 
walked slowly away, buttoning tightly a 
coarse gray coat, a coat that was after- 
ward stained with blood at Shiloh Church. 

Life had been uneventful for the hunger- 
ing girl until Captain Cameron had said: 
"I will not forget you." Then he had 
gone away, and long after the days seemed 
to have no mornings. In the midst of 
that lonliness Yancey Everett came. The 
mountain pines were ever whispering, and 
she had caught their low murmur — "He is 
gone; he is gone." 

"I orter keep this ter myself," she said 
after lin^ silence. "I do, only I couldn't 
help tellin' yuh all. Don't yuh know 
t bar's things you must tell or yuh suffer 
tcr.-ent. I couldn't tell Yancey — it would 
hurt him — po' Yancey. I'm a tellin' yuh, 
ca^^e yuh father was with him, and some- 
thin' about yuh makes me tell. I never 
seemed ter notice eyes," she continued, 
"till his looked inter mine. Did yuh ever 
see his big, black, flashin' eyes?" 

"No," he replied softly. 

"Gawd pity me, they air a-lookin' all 
the time, an' they won't look away — even 
when Yancey married me they kept a- 
lookin'." 

CHAPTER IV. 

The man you wish to see is in the city 
todav," Mr. Everett said, when Arthur 



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30 



THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



called at his office after the ride. Yancey 
accompanied Arthur to the hotel, where 
they found a rugged mountaineer seated 
in an easy chair looking out upon the 
street. 

"This is the gentleman of whom I 
spoke, Mr. Fallis. He came here on busi- 
ness and wishes to see you/* Yancey said, 
but he had not mentioned the name of the 
young man. 

"Howdy, I'm proud to meet yuh suh," 
and Fallis extended a muscular hand. 

"I have been desirous of meeting you, 
not only upon the business that brought 
me to Tennessee, but to know one who 
fought side by side with my father ten 
years ago," said the young man, who 
smiled genially as he saw the puzzled look 
upon the face of the mountain man. 

"I reckon jmh got the best o' me, young 
man, but that don't signerfy — ef I knowed 
yuh father an' fit with him — I reckon his 
son kin count on me, as far as I'm able 
ter go." 

"You are just as I imagined you would 
be," Arthur replied. 

"I 'low I didn't git yuh name. Ef yuh 
told me, Yancey, I've done fergot.'- 

"This is Mr. Hawley of Ohio. His 
home is in Cincinnati. We met on the 
train when I was coming home from a 
business trip to that city," Everett ex- 
plained. 

"Hawley, Hawley," Jack repeated. 

"You remember my father, Major Haw- 
ley, do you not," said Arthur. 

"As ef I could fergit him. An* jruh 
air Major Hawley's son?" 

"Yes,* *and Arthur extended his hand 
again. This time the great, strong, brown 
hand closed over one that was slim and 
white. "I was a shrivelled sort of thing," 
Arthur explained afterward, "and he did 
not know that the tears in my eyes were 
not joy tears at meeting him.'* 

"Ef I understood Yancey, yuh air here 
on business, but yuh mean ter come an* 
see me, don't yuh?'* 

"My father said it would be necessary 
to see you, Mr. Fallis, and it was my in- 
tention to go to your home this week. 
Perhaps now that I have met you — ** 

"What*s that?** Fallis asked in a sort of 
low rumble. "Air yuh thinkin* that a son 
of Major Hawley kin come ter Tennessee 



and not visit me? I live only 30 miles 
from here, an' that*s merely a good ride 
on a nice day." 

"I have long wished to come to this 
part of the coimtry, Mr. Fallis ; I have de- 
sired to visit the mountains, and being 
here you need not repeat the invitation," 
Arthiu- said. 

"Now yuh air talkin* sense; we will 
look fer yuh.** 

"Can you tell whether it was Lige Evans 
who once fought my father, who lives on 
that tract of land the Blairs used to own?*' 
Arthur asked. 

"Yes, it is Lige, and he is sellin* the 
timber. I sort o' acted agent fer the 
widder Blair an^ sold that timber to yuh 
father and others up thar,** Fallis said. 

"I have come to* request Evans to leave 
the premises." 

"I am glad ter hear that, but the best 
way to get Lige to move is ter move him 
off in a coffin. Thar is no argument so 
convincing to Lige as a gun. 

"He is just as dangerous and ugly as he 
used to be, I suppose," Arthur said. 

."He don't improve much," Jack replied. 

"We may have trouble with Lige. Mr. 
Hawley wishes me to assist him, and we 
will likely go up there together," said 
Yancey. 

"I'll be waitin' fer yuh, an* when yuh 
come, bring Malviney with yuh.** 

"That reminds me that you two must 
come to my house and stay all night," 
Yancey urged. 

"What's the use in mussin' of Malvin- * 
ey*s baids?" asked Jack. "My name is 
thar on the book an' I mought as well git 
all that's comin' when I hev to pay fer 
it. We'll fix it this way," continued Jack: 
"tell Malviney we'll come over arter sup- 
per an' talk till baid time.** 

With that arrangement Mr. Everett 
was content. Perhaps he remembered tell- 
ing Arthur there were times when she fal- 
tered — getting up a square meal. 

Arthur observed in the lobby of the 
hotel a well-dressed man whom he recalled 
seeing in the Pullman as they came down. 
He wore a tall silk hat that was replaced 
by a silk cap when he was finally seated. 
Yancey Everett had called his attention to 
the expanse of cranium and rim of dark 



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SNOWBIRD 



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hair by saying: "That's quite a deaden- 
ing. 

Presently the stranger approached the 
group and asked if Mr. Fallis was not 
one of them. Jack bowed and the gentle- 
man proceeded. "I am in the lumber 
business in Chicago and contemplate put- 
ting up a mill or two in this country if 
we can make_a deal for timber." 

**I think we kin fix yuh as far as timber 
_goes," said Jack when they were seated. 
They were discussing lumber at the sup- 
per table later and Yancey was with them. 
*'ril look fer yuh not later than Thurs- 
day," said Jack as he rode away the next 
morning. 

The gentleman from Chicago accom- 
panied Mr. and Mrs. Everett and Arthur 
to the mountains. He and Yancey occu- 
pied the front seats, leaving Malvina and 
Arthur together. The limiber dealer, 
•Clay M. Caine, and Yancey indulged in 
-an animated discussion upon the value of 
mountain timber lands. Malvina and 
Arthur said little, for she was looking 
away toward the mountains and he imag- 
ined he knew of whom she was thinking. 
Presently they heard Mr. Caine say, 
"my partner. Captain Cameron, is coming 
in a short time and I will go back to 
Chicago." 

Malvina started violently and Arthur 
saw the wave of red that came and re- 
ceded. Her eyes sought his a moment and 
then she steadily stared at the mountains 
again. "You are not saying much, Mal- 
vina," Mr. Everett remarked. 

"I'm jes* a-listenin'," she answered. 
At last they drew near the mountains 
and Malvina pointed to a desolate moun- 
tain side on which stood a lonely cabin. 
"Over thar is whar I was born," she said. 
"We are not far from Fallis' now," Mr. 
Everett announced. 

An abrupt turn in the road brought 
them in sight of a house much more pre- 
tentious than any they had seen since 
leaving the city. The place showed evi- 
dence of thrift and care and was not a 
mere patch upon the mountain side, as 
were most homes in that part of the 
<X)untry. Mr. Everett had quaintly alluded 
to these as "scabs on the lips of the 
mountains." 

"He is waiting for us," Malvina said 



as they observed Jack waving his wide- 
brimmed hat; awaiting the coming of his 
guests as eagerly as a boy to greet his 
playmates. 

Fallis led the way to a wide-spreading 
walnut tree around the trunk of which 
was built a rustic seat. There were heavy 
chairs also, made of hickory poles bent 
and fashioned into storm-defying seats 
that were restful. 

"I reckon it's more comfortable here 
than in the house," Fallis said as they 
were seated in the grateful shade. Arthur 
thought it pleasant. From the nearby 
orchard were wafted odors "sweeter than 
the perfumes of Araby the blest," he said 
to himself. 

"Jack, this is comfort, sure enough," 
said Yancey as he let the south wind lift 
and toss about the curling locks that were 
beginning to turn gray. 

Arthur observed a young girl standing 
in the door intently watching them. Pres- 
ently she started as if about to join the 
group, but paused suddenly and looked 
back. 

"\^hat do yuh want?" she asked impa- 
tiently. 

"Come in heyre this minnit." The 
voice was that of an aged woman and the 
young girl retraced her steps reluctantly. 
The girl had come near enough for Arthur 
to observe that half hidden under a tan- 
gled mass of red-brown hair were large 
expressive eyes and full red lips which 
were pouting as she turned away. Arthur 
was about to ask Jack if the young miss 
was his niece when he observed coming 
toward them a young woman of graceful 
carriage and prepossessing appearance. 

"Yuh all know my niece, I 'low, except 
Mr. Hawley and Mr. Caine." She greeted 
Yancey and Malvina heartily and took for 
a moment the outstretched hand of Mr. 
Caine. Leading her to Arthur, Fallis 
said: "Lina, this is the son of my good 
friend, Majah Hawley." 

"You are very welcome here." The 
voice was low and musical. 

"Miss Burrell," he said, "the kindly 
welcome I have received from your uncle 
and yourself will make the visit a beauti- 
ful memory." 

Into the fair face there crept a faint 



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32 THE OHIO MAGAZINE 

flush and her brown eyes, limpid and soft, knew she was handsome in her gown of 

fell before his ardent gaze. simple white muslin, and Arthur, tall and 

Over the strong bronzed face of the elegant, impressed him as a fit companion 

mountaineer a proud smile swept as he for his niece, 
viewed the picture they presented. He {To Be Continued.) 



PROMISE. 

Each side the river, in the sun 

The green fields lie in billowy swells, 
And from the belfries floating down 

The silver voice of village bells ; 
The green sward joyously foretells 

The fragrant scent of new-mow hay, 
And, looking through the mists, I see 

The gold that crowns the harvest day. 

O, joyful Promise! Sun and rain 

Across the furrows come and go; 
The song of Promise, not of Pain, 

Comes on the winnowing winds that blow; 
My sweetheart's cheeks like blossoms glow — 

The sweetest promise hidden there 
Amid the boskage of the spring, 

Resplendent in her beauty rare! 

From field and forest, emVald-crowned, 

Down to the river at our feet, 
There comes a dreamy, joyous sound, 

A soulful music, low and sweet, 
Until our hearts responsive beat ; 

And, looking through the light, wc see 
The sweet completeness that shall crown 

The rapture of the yet-to-be. 

Each side the river, in the sun 

The green fields speak of summer hours, 
The nodding wild-flowers dreaming on 

Of summer warmth and summer showers — 
We, of the opening orange-flowers — 

Until our feet in clover bloom 
Pause, and her ripened lips foretell 

The sweeter promise yet to come. 

William Alexander Taylor. 



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XLhc 

Cit^ of IWewark 

Xiching County 
©bio 



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TYPICAL CHURCHES OF NEWARK, OHIO. 



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The City of Newark and Licking 

County, Ohio, Historically 

Considered 



By Hon. E. M. P. Brister 

Probate Judge of Licking County 



'^ 



WHEN the first permanent white 
settlement of what is now Ohio 
was made by General Rufus 
Putnam and his 'forty-eight 
Revolutionary associates, where 
the Muskingum joins the Ohio 
river, on the 7th of April, 1 788, the terri- 
tory now known as Licking county was a 
wilderness, filled with wild beasts and wild 
men. The constant warfare between the 
white pioneers and the Indian occupants 
of the land continued, until the Indian 
hostilities were terminated by the treaty of 
the Government with the Indians, at 
Greenville, in 1795. From that time on- 
ward a regular tide of emigration began 
to pour into the fertile and undeveloped 
forests of Ohio. 

The first settlers of what is now Lick- 
ing County were Elias Hughes and John 
Ratliff. Ratliff was a nephew of Hughes, 
and in the spring of 1797, eleven years be- 
fore Licking County was organized, both 
the Hughes and Ratliff families came on 
foot and on pack horses to the mouth of 
the Licking. The following Spring of 
1798 they moved up the Licking and 
settled on a broad expanse of prairie 
called the Bowling Green, four miles east 
of the present city of Newark. 

Benjamin Green, a Revolutionary sol- 
dier, and his son-in-law, Richard Pitser, 
came from Maryland, and settled in the 
Spring of 1800 on Shawnee Run, two 
miles east of where the north and south 
forks of the Licking join. The same 
spring came John Van Buskirk, with his 
family. In August of that year, Isaac 



Stadden and Colonel John Stadden came 
from Pennsylvania. In September Cap- 
tain Samuel Elliott and family arrived. 
From this time on^ the tide of emigration 
poured steadily and swiftly into the new 
county. \ ••. 

Emigrants from Pennsylvania, Virginia, 
New Jersey, Maryland, New Englfind, 
Germany and Wales, settled this coimty 
principally, an important settlement being 
that of the Welsh Hills, which was made 
in 1802 by David Lewis and David 
Thomas. The descendants of these pio- 
neer Welshmen are among the leading 
citizens of the county. 

Licking was set off as a county, from 
Fairfield county, on the first of March, 
1808. It derives its name from its prin- 
cipal stream, called by the whites the 
Licking and by the Indians, Pataskala. 
The extreme width of the county, north 
and south is twenty-two and one-half 
miles, the extreme length, from east to 
west, being thirty miles. The county is 
985 quare miles in area, being the second 
largest county in the State; Ashtabula, the 
largest, having 700 square miles. The 
surface is diversified, the eastern half be- 
ing hilly and the western half level or 
undulating. The soil, on the whole, is 
well adapted to agriculture, and Licking 
has always been noted as being one of the 
foremost agricultural counties of the State. 
For many years, too, it was largely de- 
voted to sheep raising, being the first sheep 
county in Ohia Nine-tenths of the county 
lies within the old United States Military 
district; and a narrow strip of two and 



35 



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one-half miles, lying along the southern 
border of the county, is in the old Refu- 
gee tract. 

Two great improvements ran through 
Licking county that greatly accelerated its 
early development. The first was the 
National Road, or "pike," as it is gener- 
ally called, from Cumberland, Maryland 
to Jefferson City, Missouri, which runs 
through the southern portion of the 



scenery, especially in the eastern part, 
where are the Licking Narrows, where the 
Licking River has made a cut fifty or 
sixty feet deep, thrviugh the sandstone 
cliffs, which project along the course of 
the river in rugged and picturesque out- 
lines. The L C. and E. Electric Rail- 
way, from Newark to Zanesville, follows 
the Licking River, making a very pictur- 
esque route. 



HON. E. M. P. BRISTER, 
Probate Judge of Licking County, 



Photo by Hempsted. 



county, from east to west, and was built 
about lvS25. The Ohio Canal, made about 
the same time, runs through the county, 
from east to west, five or six miles north 
of the pike. The highest portion of the 
canal, Licking Summit, lies within this 
county; and great ceremonies took place 
at the Summit, four miles west of Newark, 
in 1825, when the first spadeful of earth 
was removed by Governor St. Clair. 
Licking county abounds in picturesque 



On one of the-ie cliffs was painted, 
many years ago, tlie noted ''Black Hand," 
supposed to have been done by an Indian 
artist, which was cL^-;troyed when the canal 
was built. Rain Rock, thirteen miles east 
of Newark, is a beautiful spot, where a 
stream of water pours constantly over the 
sharp rocks that project at the height of 
fifty feet and form the entrance of a small 
cave. Fallen Rocks, in the same locality, 
are among the attractions of the county. 



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THE Cn V OF NEWARK AND LICKING COUNTY 



37 



visited by many tourists. ;\nd, in fact, the 
scenery of the entire county along the 
streams of the north and south forks of 
the Licking River, t^.e Rocky Fork, the 
Raccoon and the Wakatomica, is very 
beautiful and picturesque. 

Flint Ridge, in the south-eastern part 
of the county, on a range of high hills, 
beginning about seven miles south-east of 
Newark and extending eastward along the 
cap rocks of the Ridge a distance of some 
ten miles toward Muskingum, is very in- 
teresting. Flint Rock forms the top of 
this ridge, which for the entire distance 
is filled with trenches and holes that the 
aboriginal tribes have left, while for a 



Flint Ridge was as valuable to the In- 
dians as coal and iron mines are to men 
of modern time. 

Licking county, long before it was in- 
habited by the Indian was inhabited by a 
race of men called the Mound Builders, 
traces of whose work are still found in 
many portions of the county. There is a 
mound on the top of a hill near Gran- 
ville, which has been in the perfect shape 
of an alligator. A mile and a half west 
of Newark, on the Cherry Valley, are a 
well preserved lot of earth works, built 
by the Mound Builders, in the form of a 
military fortification, covering some fifty 
acres. The grounds are now used by the 



LICKING COUNTY COURT HOUSE AND PARK. 

Photo by Smith. 



mile or so, on either side of the Ridge, the 
chippings and even large amounts of flint 
and quartz are found. The stone is prin- 
cipally jasper and chalcedony, very beau- 
tiful and capable of a high polish; it is 
found on the surface and at depths vary- 
ing from three to eighty feet. It is sup- 
posed that the aborigines would remove 
the top earth and build fires on the rock, 
which cracked and loosened it; the pieces 
were then removed and dressed by stone 
mallets to the size and shape for arrow 
and spear heads, hatchets, etc. Large 
quantities of these flint chipj)ings have 
been found hundreds of miks from the 
Ridge, where they have bi^en carried by 
their manufacturers. It is supp sid thii. 



State for the State military encampment. 
Circular mounds of earth, of the height 
of forty or fifty feet, used, it is thought, 
for signaling from one point to another, 
or watching the approach of the enemy, 
are found all over this county. 

But the greatest of all these earth works 
is what is commonly known as the Old 
Fort, about a mile and a half south-west 
of Newark and used now as the Licking 
county fair grounds, also as a resort known 
as Idlewilde Park. This work consists 
cf a circular wall of earth in the general 
shape of a horseshoe, about one mile in 
circumference. This wall of earth is about 
fifty to seventy-five feet through, at the 
widest part of the base, and twenty-five 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



or thirty feet high. Its antiquity may 
be judged from the fact that huge trees 
are growing upon the summit of the wall, 
three feet in diameter, which were un- 
doubtedly planted there after the wall was 
made, centuries ago. An interesting fea- 
ture of the remains is the ditch, or moat, 
that runs around and inside of the wall. 
It is twenty feet across and twelve or 
fifteen feet deep, and, when the accxmiu- 
lated debris is removed, the bottom of the 
ditch is seen to be beautifully paved with 
cobble stones. Near the center of the 
large ring of earth is another mound in 
the general shape of an eagle with out- 
stretched wings, and called the Eagle 
Mound. In the center of the Eagle 
Mound an excavation was made some 
forty years ago, and the remains of an 
ancient stone altar was found, with 
charred bones and embers. While this an- 
cient work was originally thought to have 
been a fort for military purposes, it is 
now thought that it was a place of reli-- 
gious ceremonies and sacrifices for some 
great tribe or tribes among the ancient 
Mound Builders. 

Licking county has always been noted 
for the energy and enterprise of its citi- 
zens, who are full of push and "get up." 
This is evident, even in the early pioneer 
days, in numerous industries, most of 
which, in the progress of time, have /be- 
come extinct. An early industry in Lick- 
ing county was the Mary Ann Furnace, 
established at Mary Ann Township, about 
seven miles east of Newark, about 1825, 
by David Moore and named in honor of 
his wife, Mary Ann. At this furnace 
were made pots, pans and kettles, and the 
old-fashioned five-plate stove — iron and 
coal being found at that time within con- 
venient distance. At the present time, 
coal, especially canal coal, is mined in 
reasonable quantities in the south-eastern 
portion of the county. Among larger en- 
terprises of an early day was the old 
Smith distillery, about two miles east of 
Newark. This distillery did a large busi- 
ness in the early days, consuming much 
of the native corn that was raised in the 
vicinity. 

Aaron Vanatta had a stove and plow 
foundery at Vanattasburg, six miles north 
of Newark, at an early day and did a 



large business. There was a plow factory 
at Luray conducted by Richard Porter. 
Three pork-packing establishments were 
built at Ik'bron, which enjoyed the ad- 
vantage cf the National Road and canal, 
\uug before the railroads were built. 
Granville contained a foundry and a pork- 
packing establishment. Near that village 
Mr. Linnell manufactured a large quantity 
of mustard. Not far from the mustard 
factory was a woolen mill which was 
operated by water. Another pioneei* estab- 
lishment of Newark was the woolen mills 
conducted by the Wilsons. 

A peculiar and anomalous highway was 
constructed in Licking county at an early 
date, called the "Plank Road." It was 
built from Jacksontown, on the National 
pike, to Newark, a distance of six miles 
and was a decidely unique thoroughfare. 
Logs, or sleepers, were sunk in the soil 
and to these were firmly spiked large 
planks, forming a road- way wide enough 
for teams to pass and much preferable to 
the almost unfathomable mud-bogs of that 
early day. As the "plank road" became 
old, however, and the loose planks flapped 
up and down at each end, the road pos-^ 
sessed decided additional hygienic proprie- 
ties as a liver agitator. 

The Licking Reservoir has been and re- 
mains a prominent feature of Licking 
county and the delight of fishermen for 
generations. It is an artificial body of 
water, with a small natural lake as a 
basis, about twelve miles long from east 
to west and from one to three miles wide, 
and was constructed as a reservoir for the 
Ohio canal, when that enterprise was at 
the height of its usefulness. The Reser- 
voir is the largest artificial body of water 
in Ohio, containing three thousand acres 
and has always been the home of the finny 
tribe, to the delight of all disciples of 
Isaac Walton. A few years ago the Ohio 
legislature made the old reservoir a public 
park and it now rejoices in the name of 
Buckeye Lake Park. Cottages have been 
erected, boat houses and hotels and vari- 
ous places of amusement have been built 
on the lake, which is about ten miles west 
of Newark and is reached by electric cars 
of the I. C. & C. Road at all hours during 
the season, from Columbus, Newark and 
Zanesville and other points ; and the Lake 



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THE CITY OF NEWARK AND LICKING COUNTY 



39 



is one of the most attractive and popular 
summer resorts in Ohio. 

A most important adjunct in the pro- 
gress of any community is railroad facili- 
ties. Newark and Licking county are 
highly favored in this respect. The old 
Sandusky, Mansfield and Newark railroad 
was the first railroad completed to New- 
ark, in 1852, extending from Sandusky to 
Newark, and is now a part of the Chicago 
branch of the Baltimore and Ohio rail- 
road. The second railroad that came to 
Newark was the old Central Ohio, which 
was finished to this point in 1854 and ran 
to Columbus. It is now jointly leased by 
the Baltimore and Ohio and the P. C. C. 
& St. L. roads and forms a link in the 
chain of both of these western lines. The 
Newark, Somerset and Straitsville road, 
now controlled by the B. and O., was com- 
pleted from Newark to Straitsville about 
1875. The old Toledo and Ohio Central, 
from Toledo to Pomeroy, runs through 
the western portion of Licking county and 
was completed about 1872. These various 
lines give two great trunk lines, the B. & 
O. and the P. C. C. & St. L. from East 
to West and afford Newark and Licking 
county the very best facilities possible for 
shipping and transportation, at low rates 
and in all directions. This fact is one of 
the many reasons why Newark has become 
such a large and important manufacturing 
center, as she has transportation facilities 
equalled by few cities of Ohio. 

With the onward march of progress has 
come the electric road. The I. C. & E. 
Railrcad, originally the C. B. L. & N., 
is a splendidly built and well -equipped 
line, running from Zanesville on the east 
through Newark to Columbus, with a 
branch to Buckeye Lake and another to 
the college village of Granville. This 
splendid road, from the first, has done a 
large and rapidly increasing business and 
has been a great promoter of the progress 
and prosperity of the City of Newark. 
Another electric road is projected south 
to Lancaster, and two others north to Mt. 
Vernon and Mansfield. 

In addition to the City of Newark, 
Licking county boasts of a number of 
towns, some of them being quite note- 
worthy. Granville, six miles west of New- 
ark, was settled by a colony of New Eng- 



enders, in 1804, from Granville, Mass. 
Granville has always been an educational 
center, being the seat of Denison Uni- 
versity, the Baptist college of Ohio, estab- 
lished about eighty years ago, and boast- 
ing a larga number of distinguished 
alumni, among whom are Dr. Samson 
Talbot, since president of the University; 
Dr. William Ashmore, for fifty years mis- 
sionary to China; Hon. Judson Harmon, 
attorney General under President Cleve- 
land, and many others. The Granville 
Female College was a noted Presbyterian 
institution that flourished for many years 
under the able management of Dr. Will- 
iam P. Kerr; also the Shepardson Female 
College, ably conducted for a quarter of 
a century by Dr. Daniel Shepardson. 

Utica is a city of some 2,500 inhabit- 
ants, north of Newark on the Chicago 
branch of the B. & O., which is very pros- 
perous, owing largely to the development 
of natural gas in that locality. Among 
other enterprises, Utica has four success- 
ful glass factories. 

Johnstown is a hustling business town 
rf 1,500 inhabitants in the western part 
rf the county and is the home of the pres- 
ent Congressman, Hon. W. A. Ashbrook 
and the present State Senator, Hon. W. 
L. Atwell. 

Other flourishing villages in Licking 
county are Pataskala, Homer, Hebron, 
Hanover, Hartford, Alexandria, Browns- 
ville, Jacksontown, Kirkersville, Gratiot, 
Chatham, Etna, Fredonia, Linnville, St. 
Louisville, Fallsburg, Vanatta and High 
Water. 

Licking county did her duty in the dif- 
ferent wars of the country, sending a 
large quota of volunteers to the War of 
1812 and to the Mexican War. In the 
late Civil War Licking county furnished 
nearly 4,000 men, being over eighty per 
cent of the whole number of her male in- 
habitants capable of bearing arms. There 
was scarcely a battle of the Civil War in 
which Licking county blood was not shed. 
In the late Spanish-American War, too, 
Licking county furnished several com- 
panies of her brave boys in blue, who 
proved at Santiago and San Juan that they 
were the worthy sons of noble sires. 

The 76th Regiment, in the Civil War, 
was raised almost entirely in Licking 



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county, and the three leading officers of 
the regiment, had remarkable fortunes and 
were among Licking county's most distin- 
guished products. Charles R. Woods was 
Colonel of the 76th Regiment. William 
B. Woods, his brother, was Lieutenant 
Colonel of the regiment and Willard 
Warner, brother-in-law, was a major. 
Charles R. Woods came out of the Civil 
War a Major General of the United 
States Army. William B. Woods became 
a Justice of the United States Supreme 
Court, and Willard Warner afterwards be- 
came a United States Senator from Ala- 
bama. 

General Rosencranz, and his brother, 
Bishop Rosencranz, were raised near the 
village of Homer, in this county. In the 
same locality were born and raised 
Madames Victoria Woodhull and Tennie 
Claflin. 

A remarkable character of the Civil 
War was a little Newark boy, Johnny 
Clem by name. Johnnie's parents were 
German citizens of Newark, who followed 
market gardening; and little Johnny, who 
was then nine years old, quite small for 
his age, used to peddle the vegetables 
about the town in the primitive days of 
Newark before the war. Sunday, May 24, 
1861, Johnny confided to his father, at 
the dinner table, that he would like to go 
to the war and be a drummer boy; but 
his father laughed at the idea as being a 
childish whim. That afternoon Johnny 
started with his little sister and brother 
to church. Leaving the children at the 
church, he said he was going swimming. 
It was a long swim, for that was the last 
they saw of him for two years. Johnny 
enlisted first as a drummer boy in the 24th 
Ohio, afterwards in the 22nd Michigan. 
He was bright and brave and easily made 
friends; like Lord Nelson, he didn't seem 
to know what fear meant. He drummed 
away through the bloody battles of Shi- 
loh, Chattanooga, Chicamauga and many 
others, and is now a Lieutenant Colonel 
in the Regular Army. 

Archibald S. White, the multi-million- 
aire promoter, of New York, is not yet 
forty years old and is a Newark boy. 

In the administration of State affairs. 
Licking county has furnished one auditor 
of state, William D. Morgan ; and one 



secretary of state, Hon. William Bell, Jr. 
Licking county has produced several 
literary celebrities. Herbert Howell Ban- 
croft, the distinguished historian, is a 
native of this county. Mrs. Helen King 
Spangler, a Newark girl, wrote "The Phy- 
sician's Wife." Miss Mary A. Sprague, 
another Newark girl, sprang into fame as 
the author of "The Earnest Trifler." 
Hon. William M. Cunningham, is the 
noted author of Masonic books. Hon. 
Isaac Smuckler and Rev. M. M. Hervey 
were distinguished historians. Dr. C. P. 
King is a writer of medical treatises. 
Hon. J. H. Newton wrote a History of 
the Pan Handle, and Mary Hart well 
Catherwood, who wrote "Lazarre," and 
other well known works, was a Licking 
county girlf 

NEWARK CITY. 

Newark, the county seat of Licking, and 
one of the most beautiful and prosperous 
cities of Ohio, was laid out in the spring 
of 1802 by Gen. William Schenck, J. W. 
Burnett and John M. Cummins, while 
what is now Licking county was still a 
part of Fairfield county. General Schenck 
called the new city after his native place, 
Newark, N. J. The record of the original 
plat, which was not recorded until the 
18th of March, 1803, says that the new 
town is laid out in block or squares of 
twenty-five perches. 

The following persons, with their wives, 
were the entire number of inhabitants in 
Newark township at that time: Richard 
Parr, Samuel Elliott, Jr., Henry Cla- 
baugh, James Black, Samuel Parr, Adam 
Hatfield, Mrs. Catherine Pigg, Abram 
Miller, James McCalley, Benona Benja- 
min, James Danner, James Jeffries and 
Beall Babbs. 

Newark was laid out at the confluence 
of the north and south forks of the Lick- 
ing, with straight, broad streets, bordered 
by handsome shade trees, that continue to 
be its greatest beauty at the present time. 
In the center of the city is a large public 
square of four acres, which constitutes a 
public park, in which the county court 
house is situated. 

The first sale of lots in Newark was to 
James Jeffries, who purchased out-lot 
number 3 and lot number 59. The first 



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rin: city of Newark and licking county 



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cabin erectied in Newftk was by James 
Black, on lot 80, where the Warden House 
now stands, and was called Black's Tav- 
ern. Samuel Elliott built the first hewed 
log house, which stood on lot 79, where 
the Sprague Wholesale Grocery now 
stands. The first preaching in Newark 
was in the Summer of 1803, by the Rev. 
John Wright, a traveling Presbyterian 
minister. The late Sarah Haughey was 
born, December 1802, in Newark, prob- 
ably being the first person born in the new 
city. 

From 1802 to 1810 Newark consisted 
of a score or two of log cabins, and the 
estimated population was about 200; in 
1820, 450; in 1860, at the outbreak of the 
Civil War, 6,750. The census of 1900 
gives Newark a population of 18,157. 
Estimated from the number of school 
pupils, which is 5,000, and the vote cast 
in the city last fall, which was over 5,000, 
the present population is 25,000, and still 
growing. The vote cast in the county last 
fall indicated a population of 60,000 in 
the county. 

Newark is a wealthy city and stands 
fourteen from the head on the list of over 
a hundred cities of Ohio, wdth a taxable 
valuation in 1905 of $7,609,010. Licking 
county stands sixteenth from the top in 
the list of eighty-eight counties, for. tax 
valuation, having an aggregate of nearly 
$29,000,000 of property. Newark's pros- 
perity is due, under the providence of God, 
to several natural causes, namely : The rich 
agriculture country that surrounds New- 
ark; the great abundance of natural gas 
that has been developed here, which not 
only supplies all demands at home for 
cheap natural fuel but is also shipped in 
great quantities to other parts of the 
State ; the excellent railroad and other 
shipping facilities; the general healthful- 
ness of the country, and the fact that 
Newark has always had live and enter- 
prising citizens, who pushed the town and 
labored together in harmony for its ma- 
terial and other advancement. 

Early manufacturing enterprises of 
New^ark were the old Newark Machine 
Works, established about 1850 and which 
manufactured portable engines and saw 
mills on an extensive scale, until the out- 
break of the Civil War. Major Willard 



Warner, of the 76th Regiment, O. V. I., 
afterward United States Senator from Ala- 
bama, was at the head of this enterprise. 
Messrs. Scheidler and McNamar some- 
time during the Civil War started a re- 
pair shop for repairing machinery, which, 
by a process of evolution, through twenty 
or thirty years, developed into two large 
machine works, one now owned by the 
Scheidler estate and one by the McNamar 
estate. 

Probably the greatest material impetus 
given to Newark was in 1871, when the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad located its 
large western shops at Newark, and made 
its general headquarters here. These are 
the largest shops the road has west of the 
Allegheny Mountains; and the shop 
hands employed here and the road men 
who also live here, number over 3,000, 
and their pay roll is quite an item in the 
interests of Newark. 

Newark has, in all, about forty large 
and prosperous industries and manufactur- 
ing establishments, only one or two of 
which shall be casually noticed, as tlTe 
subject belongs to another article. 

The Wehrle Stove Works, in the west 
end of Newark, is not only the largest 
stove manufactury established in the 
world, but three times larger than any 
other. The buildings alone cover fifteen 
acres of ground. The works, when run- 
ning full, employ 3,000 men, and the 
total output of finished stoves is 1,400 a 
day. 

The E. H. Everett Glass Works is one 
of the largest establishments of its kind 
in the United States, being employed ex- 
clusively in making bottles. The works 
and grounds occupy about twenty-five 
acres of land. Sixteen hundred hands are 
employed, and the daily output of bottles 
is now 3,500 gross, which, when the pro- 
posed addition to the works is completed, 
will be about doubled. 

Heisey's Glass Works, in the East End, 
is one of Newark^s most important in- 
dustries, employing 800 men, and manu- 
factures all sorts of fine glass ware, such 
as candelabra, vases, table ware, etc. It 
ships its goods to all markets of the world. 

There are four banks in the City of 
Newark — the First National, Franklin 
National, the Licking County Bank and 



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Trust Company, and the Newark Trust 
Company, all well capitalized and upon a 
sound foundation. The Newark Trust 
Company his just finished a sky-scraper, 
ten stories high, the first story of which 
they will occupy, and of which Newark is 
justly proud. Mr. Eli Hull begins an- 
other sky-scraper next spring. 

Newark has three newspapers — The 
Advocate, the democratic organ, estab- 
lished by Benjamin Briggs, in 1820; The 
Americdn-Tribune, the Republican organ, 
established somewhat later; and the Ger- 
man Express, an independent paper estab- 
lished by 'Mr. Fred Kochendorfer a num- 
ber of years ago. 

One of the most important factors in 
the advancement of the City of Newark 
is the very efficient Board of Trade, which 
was organized in this city about 1886, and 
at present its officers are as follows: 
William Prout, president; Carl Norpell, 
vice president; William C. Wells, secre- 
tary; I. M. Phillips, assistant secretary, 
and Fred C. Evans, treasurer. 

The Newark public schools were first 
started under what is known as the Akron 
law, in August, 1848. Professor J. D. 
Simkins, one of the foremost educators in 
the State, is Superintendent of the public 
schools and is supported by a corps of 100 
able teachers. Over 5,000 pupils are en- 
rolled. There are fifteen large school 
buildings, of which the High School, with 
the addition that is now being made, cost 
about $130,000. 

Newark has always been well supplied 
with churches. At the present time there 
are three Methodist, two Catholic, three 
Presbyterian, two Baptist, two Congrega- 
tional, two Lutheran, one Episcopal, one 
Christian, one Christian Science, one Sev- 
enth Day Adventist, one Christian Union, 
one United Brethren, one Welsh Calvin- 
istic and one Colored. Our city also 
boasts of a beautiful modern Y. M. C. A. 
building, three stories high, costing in the 
neighborhood of $60,000. 

Newark is a great headquarters for 
Fraternal and Brotherhood organizations. 
At the present time there are two Masonic 
Lodges in Newark; two Odd Fellows; 
two Knights of Pythias; one Elks; one 
each of Eagles, Camels, Foresters, Red 
men, Modern Woodmen of America, Cath- 



olic Knights of St. John, Catholic Knights 
of Columbus, Ancient Order of United 
Workmen, Druids, Royal Arcanum, Mac- 
calrjes. Path Finders, A. O. H., G. A. R., 
and Women's Relief Corps, United Ameri- 
cans. Knights and Ladies of Security, Yeo- 
men Social Friends, A. I. U., Home Protec- 
tive Circle, Brotherhoods of Conductors, 
Engineers, Brakemen and Firemen ; and 
labor and trade councils and union labor 
organizations of every kind. The Knights 
of Pythias are about to erect their own 
Castle Hall, at a cost of about $100,000. 

Newark has electric road, as before 
stated, to Columbus, Zanesville, Granville 
and Buckeye Lake ; miles of paved streets ; 
two systems of water works, one of which 
the city is now building; electric lights, 
etc., and her public buildings are among 
the finest in the State. 

The court house cost a quarter of a 
million of dollars. The Licking County 
Children*s Home is considered one of 
the model Children's Homes in the 
State. The county jail is a large stone 
structure, costing $100,000. The Newark 
Auditorium was built at a cost of $200,- 
000, in honor of the soldiers of Licking 
county, and is capable of seating 1.600 
people. The Orpheum is a popular priced 
theatre. 

Newark looks back with pride and 
thankfulness over a happy and prosper- 
ous history of over a hundred years. And 
she looks forward, with faith and hope, 
to even greater prosperity and progress in 
the century to come. Favored with so 
many natural advantages and such abund- 
ant material facilities, and the seat of so 
many large and growing industries, her 
prosperous and successful past can only 
be the herald of a still more prosperous 
and successful future. 

In addition to her business prosperity, 
Newark prides herself upon being an ideal 
home city. Here the surroundings of 
Nature are beautiful and the climate is 
extremely healthful. All the best advan- 
tages of city life are found here, without 
the disadvantages. * So, in addition to the 
unsurpassed opportunities for employment 
and the investment of capital that Newark 
affords, it is an ideal place for a home; 
and, after all, home is the crowning 
thought of human life. 



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INDUSTRIAL NEWARK 



By C. H. Spencer 



N considering the industrial con- 
ditions of the city of Newark, 
Ohio, one's ideas are apt to 
formulate themselves in large 
terms. Even in a plain and 
unvarnished resume of data it 
may be stated without question that here 
is located the largest stove foundry in the 



Q^ 



all over the world, a car manufactory that 
provides trolley cars for nearly every state 
in the Union, a machine company with an 
extensive foreign market and railroad 
shops with a monthly pay roll of $142,000, 
besides a large number of thriving indus- 
tries of lesser magnitude. 

The fact that so many industries of 



C. H. SPENCER. 

Photo by Etna Spencer. 

world, the largest glass bottle factory in such varied character have selected New- 
the world, the largest halter factory in the ark for their field of operations makes the 
world, the largest cigar factory in Ohio, a ocnclusion self-evident that here must be 
table glass factory that ships its products found extraordinary advantages. And the 

43 



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44 



THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



secret stands revealed when it is further 
stated that Newark has the largest gas 
field in the country, that it is a near neigh- 
bor V) the extensive coal fields of Ohio, 
that it has a fine water supply and that 
its shipping facilities are unexcelled, be- 
ing located on two important trunk lines, 
with a third, two miles distant, and inter- 
urban roads leading in three directions, 
with almost positive assurance of the im- 
mediate construction of a fourth. 

That Newark is beautifully and health- 
fully located, with a rapidly awakening 
spirit of civic improvement, may not be a 



the same ; if at any time bottle making 
should be checked, there are the immense 
car shops and B. & O. railway shops to 
supply Newark with dollars. Fifteen of 
Newark's leading industries have a 
monthly pay roll of $427,000, the five 
largest paying to workmen every thirty 
days more than $350,000. 

Every one of Newark's numerous fac- 
tories is characterized by a busy activity; 
all of them are expanding. Today, shortly 
after the completion of a foundry having 
twenty-two acres of floor space, Newark 
is building a glass plant that will cost a 



MAIN STREET. EAST. 



Photo by Smth. 



factor in its industrial advancement, but 
is certainly a feature to be considered in 
its aspect as a place of residence. 

Nor has Newark reached the culmina- 
tion of its development. Its vigorous and 
healthful growth indicates a strong vital- 
ity. It possesses every material necessity 
for the comfort of its people. It pro- 
duces more than it consumes. It has a 
di\ersity of manufacturing interests that 
gives it a supreme advantage over towns 
that are largely dependent upon the suc- 
cess of one or two large enterprises. If 
there is a temporary slump in the iron 
industry, the glass making proceeds just 



half million dollars, an additional car 
building shop, a new steel mill, a ten- 
story office building, a 140-room hotel, a 
$65,000 addition to the high school, sev- 
eral magnificent residences, and the Board 
of Trade has its hand of welcome ex- 
tended, offering to prospective manufac- 
turers free factory sites and seven cent 
gas. 

Considering the excellent shipping facil- 
ities, the inexhaustible supply of natural 
gas, the proximity of the great Ohio coal 
fields, the abundance of soft water — 
making boiler compounds unnecessary — 
the absence of labor troubles, good local 



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INDUSTRIAL NEWARK 



4S 



government, healthful climate, splendid 
schools and churches, rich surrounding 
agricul::ural country, hospitality of the 
people cni energy of the local Board of 



Wehrle and the late John Moser. Like 
many other giant enterprises, its early his- 
tory attracted little notice, the small 
foundry in East Newark being operated 
by a handful of men, but .when the West 
Newark site was acquired and the "Wehrle 
boys'* took hold, the business began to 
expand. The company's entire product 
consists of stoves, ranges and fire proof 
safes, the safe feature of the company 
having b^en added in 1904, when the 
plant of the Atlas Safe Company of Fos- 
toria, Ohio, was purchased and trans- 
ferred to Newark. The Wehrle company, 
of which Mr. William W. Wehrle is presi- 
dent and the active head, Mr. August 
Wehrle, vice president and general man- 
ager, is a close corporation, with more 
than a million dollars in capital and sur- 
plus. The foundry is a model plant. The 
buildings are nearly all new, and each is 
equipped with the best labor saving de- 
vices and the most improved appliances. 
The surroundings are cheerful, two parks 
adjoining the factory site contributing to 



WILLIAM L. PROUT, 
President of the Newark Board of Trade. 
Photo by Hcmpsted. 



Trade, it is no wonder that capital has its 
eye on Newark ; not surprising that in- 
vestors in industrial enterprises are increas- 
ing the capacity of Newark factories; not 
remarkable that the population of Newark 
increased from 14,000 to 18,000 in the 
years 1890-1900 and from 18,000 to more 
than 26,000 between 1900 and the present 
time. Newark is the best manufacturing 
town in Ohio, and Ohio is the best State 
in the Union. 

Newark "points with pride" to her 
great stove foundry, a concern that makes 
on an average one complete stove every 
minute — the largest stove foundry in the 
world. It has over fifteen acres under 
roof, with nearly twenty-two acres of 
floor space, and, when operating to its full 
capacity, employes 3,000 men in the man- 
ufacture of a product that finds a market 
in every one of the forty-five states of the 
Union. 

The Wehrle stove foundry was estab- 
lished in 1883 by the late Colonel J. C. 



\\"M.[.^M C. WELLS, 
Secretary of the Newark Board of Trade. 

the beauty of the environment. The 
foundry is supplied with wash rooms for 
all employees and with shower baths for 
the molders. 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINK 



A feature that is worthy of special 
notice is the Wehrle fire brigade, consist- 
ing cf three companies of fifteen men each, 
'under the direction of Mr. Charles Allen, 
who is manager of the safe department. 
These men, while receiving full pay, have 
regular bi-weekly fire drills and are fur- 
nished with apparatus for fire fighting. 
There are seven well equipped hose houses 
on the ground, with 6,000 feet of standard 
hose, lanterns, nozzles, wrenches, ladders, 
and apparatus such as is found at all well 
regulated fire stations. Each of the three 
companies is directed by a captain and a 
lieutenant, and the men are trained to act 



beginning October first and continuing un- 
til February first from twenty to forty- 
five loaded cars left the foundry daily, 
carrying Newark stoves to every section 
of the country. Now operating new core 
ovens, enameling cvlmh, and gas forges, 
the company is installing a forty-eight 
foot span electric traveling crane, to facil- 
itate handling the product in the ware- 
house. With two miles of private rail- 
way siding on the company*s ground, fully 
seventy-five cars can easily be "spotted'' 
for leading. Two years ago the Wehrle 
company took advantage of the natural 
gas development in this section and leased 



SOUTH THIRD STREET. 



Photo by Hcmpsted. 



with a precision and alertness that excites 
the admiration of the entire force. Inci- 
dentally the work of the Wehrle brigade 
has prevented serious fires and has a good 
effect upon the insurance rate. 

Of this mammoth plant the main build- 
ing, in which four cupolas are operated, 
is 140 feet wide and 1,000 feet long. Two 
other cupolas are operated in a smaller 
building 140 by 650 feet, and the several 
other large structures are used for as- 
sembling, mounting, polishing, and stor- 
ing the ware. One warehouse, 112 by 475 
feet and four stories high, at one time last 
fall was completely filled with stoves, but 



several thousands of acres of land and 
proceeded to drill. So far, the company 
has struck five good producing wells, the 
entire output from which is consumed in 
operating the electric and steam power 
plant and in running the several gas ea- 
gines distributed over the foundry. One 
engine of 125 horse power and others of 
lesser size are in operation continually. 

The company has made stoves at the 
rate of 1400 a day, but the regular daily 
average is from 800 to 900. The Wehrles 
make sixty-five styles of stoves, many of 
them in two or three sizes. 

The new safe factory now produces 



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INDUSTRIAL NEWARK 



47 



-thirty-five safes a day, the eighteen differ- 
ent sizes ranging from 300 to 3,300 
pounds. Sales agencies have already been 
^established as far west as Denver, east to 



E. F. BALL. 

Portland, south to New Orleans, and 
north to Duluth. Within a year the 
Wehrle company, whose product previous 
to that time was handled almost exclu- 
sively by a Chicago house, has established 
a sales department of its own and now 
sells direct to jobbers and dealers that 
part of the output which is not handled 
through the Chicago concern. The com- 
pany recently acquired by purchase a 
machine die plant at Coshocton. Whetlier 
this will be brought to Newark or be 
operated at Coshocton remains to be told. 
The Wehrle company's pay roll runs from 
$100,000 to $112,000 a month. 

Glass making is one of the chief in- 
dustries of Newark. The ingredients re- 
quired in the manufacture of bottles are 
here in abundance, the shipping facilities 
are unexcelled by any city in Ohio (freight 
rates the same as from the State Capital) 
and the local factories are well located 
with reference to distribution of the pro- 
duct. 

In the month of April over 400 car- 



loads of Newark-made bottles were shipped 
from this point — some of them going to 
Mexico and many to places equally dis- 
tant. This shipment, however, will by 
next November look insignificant, for a 
mammoth machine bottle plant covering 
nine acres of ground is now building at 
a cost exceeding a half million dollars. 
When the new -plant, now well under way, 
is completed, twenty-seven of the cele- 
brated Owens bottle machines will be 
operated, each one of which manufactures 
fourteen complete bottles every minute, 
each * machine operating twenty-three out 
of every twenty- four hours — an output of 
over a half million a day. 

The American Bottle Company, whose 
great strength lies in its control of the 
Owens bottle machine, is a $10,000,000 
incorporation, now having an annual capa- 
city of three hundred million bottles. M. 
W. Jack is the company's president, L. S. 
Stoehr is vice president and general man- 
ager, W. J. Crane secretary-treasurer and 
O. G. King general superintendent. Ed- 
ward H. Everett, whose factory has long 



FRANK p. KENNEDY. 

been a factor in Newark's prosperity, is 
general manager of the new corporation 
and is chairman of the. executive conunit- 
tee. The American Bottle Company pur- 



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48 



THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



chased the factories and good will of the 
Ohio Bottle Company, with factories 
located at Newark, Massillon (two) and 
Wooster, Ohio, the Streator Bottle and 
Glass Company, with a factory at Strea- 
tor, 111., and the A. Busch Glass Manu- 
facturing Company, with factories at 
Belleville, 111. and St. Louis, Mo. This 
vast industry is controlled by Mr. Everett 
and Mr. Busch, the St. Louis millionaire. 
General offices are maintained in Chicago, 
but the chief factory is in Newark, and 
the enormous natural gas field here, to- 
gether with the rich sand quarry at Black 



money paid to wage earners and greater 
prosperity for Newark. At the present 
time the local factory is producing almost 
an equal number of hand-made and ma- 
chine-blown bottles. The new plant will 
increase the output fully fifty per cent and 
will make the Newark factory the largest 
bottle plant in the world. 

Seven years ago last January the Jewett 
Car Company moved its shops from Jew- 
ett, Ohio, to Newark at the solicitation of 
the Board of Trade. At that time the 
company employed only 50 men, but the 



SECOi.D STREET LOOKINC; SOUTH. 



I'hoto bv Hcmpstcd. 



Hand, sixteen miles away, afforded ample 
inducement for the selection of this city 
as the location for the big machine bottle 
plant now under construction. The Am- 
erican Company controls eighty per cent 
of the bottle business today, and its trade 
is growing. Mr. Everett has an interest 
second to none in the Licking- Knox county 
gas fields, the largest in Ohio, and he also 
owns the Black Hand sand quarries. 

At present the local bottle factory em- 
ploys 1700 people, with a payroll exceed- 
ing $75,000 a month. The completion of 
the new machine' bottle plant means a 
great increase in working force, more 



growth starting in 1900 has continued to 
date, and at the present time the company 
is building an enormous erecting shop, 
which will mean an incrL^ase of its present 
force of 500 to 600 men. The Jewett is 
one of the model car shops in the country, 
being equipped with most modern machin- 
ery in l)oth the wood and iron working 
departments. The factory today occupies 
ten acres with floor space, simply for the 
erection of cars, large enough to accom- 
modate 125 sixty-foot interurban cars. 
The Jewett. Newark-made cars, being in 
use fnim the Atlantic to the Pacific and 
frcm tlrj lakes to the gulf, advertise New- 



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INDUSTRIAL NEWARK 



49 



ark the country over. Among tne con- 
tracts now on hand at this plant are cars 
for Brooklyn, N. Y., Tacoma, Wash., Bil- 
lingham, Wash., Portland, Ore., Cleve- 
land, O., Detroit, Mich., Milwaukee, Wis., 
and Key West, Fla. Besides orders from 
these widely separated points, the Jewett 
is building cars for Chicago, Indianapolis, 
Toledo, Denver, Terre Haute, Auburn, N. 
Y., Pensacola, Fla., Dallas, Tex., Colum- 
bus, Ga,, and Chattanooga, Tenn. At 
present the company has under construc- 
tion ten cars for the Indianapolis, Craw- 
fordsville & Western Railway. This line 
will be called the Ben Hur route, because 
it will run through the home town of Gen- 



ager; P. O. Reyman, secretary; W. C. 
Gardner, treasurer; Edwin Besuden, gen- 
eral sales agent; William Schroeder, sup- 
erintendent, and W. B. Winger ter, pur- 
chasing agent. 

The Electric Railway review, referring 
to a delivery of Newark cars to the Phila- 
delohia and Westchester Traction Com- 
pany, says, among other things : 

"These cars have the same general ap- 
pearance as the cars previously built for 
the road by the J. G. Brill Company, but 
are longer, have wider vestibules and the 
cars have seats for fifty persons. The 
new cars are 48 feet 6% inches long over 
all and 8 feet 8^ inches wide over all. 



TYPICAL PASSENGER COACH OF THE JEWETT CAR COMPANY. 



eral Lew Wallace. Two beautiful limited 
parlor cars are named Iras and Esther. 
When finished for operation they will cost 
approximately $16,000 each, and they rep- 
resent the perfection of the car builder's 
art. The Jewett Company has at present 
one order for fifty elevated cars for Brook- 
lyn, this being the fifth order received 
from that company, which shows conclu- 
sively the high quality of the product. 
Another order is for eighteen cars which 
will go to Tacoma, Wash., the cars being 
fifty feet over all, one end closed, the 
other open, this being a standard car for 
the Pacific slope. 

The oflRcers of the Jewett Company are 
W. S. Wright, president and general man- 



the length of the body being 38 feet 10J4 
inches. The bottom framing is of extra 
heavy construction, the side and center 
sills consisting of 6-inch steel I-beams re- 
inforced on each side with wood fillers. 
Intermediate sills are 4 by 6 inch yellow 
pine. The bolster is of the steam coach 
type, made up of 10 by 1 inch steel plates. 
The buffer is made of 6-inch steel chan- 
nel and the entire bottom is covered with 
steel plate y^ inch thick. The under truss 
is lJ4-inch round iron. The body fram- 
ing throughout is of white ash, except the 
long plates, which are of yellow pine in 
one continuous piece. The roof is streng- 
thened by 12-lJ^ X j/i inch steel car lines. 
The cars are equipped with Baldwin 



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trucks with 34-inch steeled wheels. The 
wheel base is 6 feet and the gauge 5 feet 
25^ inches. The cars are designed to 
round a 3 5 -foot curve. The drawbars are 
the Van Dorn type, 28 inches from the 
rail. 

*'The new equipment is. designed for 
operation by the General Electric type 
multiple-unit control, if the traffic shall 
demand it, and each car has four G. E. 
73 motors of 75 horse-power each. The 
cars are equipped with the Westinghouse 
automatic air brakes. End doors have been 
placed in the vestibule so as to permit 
passage from one car to another when the 
cars are operated in trains. 

"The interior finish of the cars is a 
very handsome design and is of vermillion 
wood, inlaid with neat marqueterie lines 
and ornaments. I'he ceiling is of full em- 
pire type, painted light green with gold 
decorations. The floor side windows are 
made to r^se to any height with the 
^ratchet stops and locks. The gothic lights 
and deck lights and the transom lights 
present a very pleasing appearance and 
are of the leaded type with colored glass. 
The cars have been provided with seats of 
the walkover type with head roll backs 
and corner grab handles, and are uphols- 
tered in green leather. Each car has a 
smoking room with a seating capacity for 
twelve passengers and this room has the 
same finish and seats as the main com- 
partment. The trimmings of the car are 
of solid bronze throughout. Heat is pro- 
vided by truss plank heaters. The win- 
dows are equipped with pantasote curtains. 

"The cars are provided with arc head- 
lights and pilots of locomotive type. The 
exterior of the car is of very pleasing de- 
sign and the railroad company and the 
builders should be given credit for having 
given prominent attention to the question 
of artistic outline." 

A. H. Heisey and Company, manufac- 
turers of fine table glassware, whose cele- 
brated trademark, (diamond H), is known 
in every city of the world, — as well in 
Tokio, Paris, Berlin and London as in 
New York and San Francisco — came to 
Newark in 1895 and began making glass- 
ware in April, 1896. The company added 
a second furnace, doubling its capacity, 



in February, 1905, and now employs 
nearly 600 people. The payroll is $200,- 
000, and the output 300,000 barrels of 
table glassware annually. 

This company, which makes both 
pressed and cut glass, has an ideal plant 
Qf three-story buildings occupying six 
acres of ground and is especially noted 
for the color of its product, which is of 
exquisite purity. Heisey glass has a color 
and finish that is distinctively Heisey*s 
and that other wares lack, and the design- 
ing department is constantly adding new 
and beautiful patterns and shapes. Many 
of the leading cut glass factories are sup- 
plied with ware from the Heisey factory 
ready to be cut, and the company also 
makes some cut glass at its factory, 
though the pressed glass is made in such 
perfection as to rival its aristocratic rela- 
tive. 

The Heisey company manufactures all 
of the Holophane Glass Company's goods, 
which in itself is a guarantee of the 
quality of the Heisey glass. The Holo- 
phane ware is made primarily with a view 
of increasing the brilliancy of the trans- 
mission of light through glass, which ob- 
ject is accomplished by making it with a 
prism both inside and out and is mani- 
festly enhanced by using glass of perfect 
clearness. After many trials of factories 
both here and abroad, the Holophane 
Company selected Heisey glass as being 
clearest and most flawless and gave the 
Heisey company the exclusive right to 
manufacture Holophane ware, which is 
known the world over — and it all comes 
from Newark. The company, capitalized 
at $125,000, is officered as follows: A. H. 
Heisey, president; E. W. Heisey, vice 
president; George D. Heisey, treasurer; 
George E, Graeser, secretary. Captain A. 
H. Heisey is also president of the Pitts- 
burg Clay Pot Company, president of the 
Glass Manufacturers' Association, a direc- 
tor of the Franklin National Bank and 
Newark Trust Company and also of the 
Manufacturers Bank of Pittsburg. Cap- 
tain Heisey has extensive natural gas in- 
terests, the company operating with gas 
from its own immense field in Union 
township, nine miles distant, but he gives 
the greater part of his time to the opera- 
tion of his su'^cessful glass industry here* 



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INDUSTRIAL NEWARK 



51 



Chief among the industries which bring 
dollars into Newark is the Baltimore & 
Ohio railway, which on the average pays 
to its 2,200 local employees the sum of 
$142,000 each month — nearly one and 
three-quarter million dollars annually. 
The payroll for June, 1907, was nearly^ 
$150,000. Within the past year the B. 
& O. company has built a new modern 
2 5 -stall round house, equipped with elec- 
tric turntable, a new depressed ash pit, a 
nt?w coal tipple, a new office building and 
a new oil house at a cost of $224,961. 
This railway company handles on an aver- 
age ninety freight trains and thirty pass- 
enger trains daily in and out of Newark. 
The B. & O. handles an average of 3,200 
freight cars per diem through the yards 
at Newark, this work requiring fifteen 
yard engines double crewed, working day 
and night. This city is the headquarters 
of the Newark division, which has charge 
of 375 miles of track extending from San- 
dusky to Bellaire, Newark to Columbus, 
Newark to Shawnee, Zanesville to Park- 
ersburg and also the St. Clairsville and 
Eastern Ohio branches. 

Besides two steam trunk lines, with a 
third, the Toledo & Ohio Central, running 
close to the west corporation line, Newark 
has splendid city and interurban trolley 
service, electric trains running at intervals 
of one hour to Columbus, Zanesville, 
Granville, Buckeye Lake and intermediate 
points. The Newark — Granville line is 
the oldest electric interurban road in ex- 
istence, having been built in 1891 at a 
time when doubt was expressed as to the 
feasibility of carrying electricity for power 
over a line of that length. It was with 
this company that the Federal Govern- 
ment made its first contract for carrying 
mail by trolley between cities and it was 
the first interurban to haul railway express. 
Rights of way and franchises have been 
serured for the proposed Newark, Martins- 
burg, Mt. Vernon and Wooster, the New- 
ark, Utica and Mt. Vernon, and the New- 
ark, Buckeye Lake and Lancaster lines. 
Promoters of one of these lines give abso- 
lute assurance that the road to Wooster 
will be built soon, and the prospects for 
all three are bright. 

The local trolley lines, including crews 
working . to Columbus, Granville and 



Zanesville, have 325 employees living in 
Newark, their average payroll being $15,- 
000 a month. 

The Pennsylvania Railway Company's 
payroll at thia point is about $50,000 a 
month. In 1906 the Pennsylvania com- 
pany loaded 4,330 cars of freight, includ- 
ing merchandise, from the platform in this 
city. 

Newark cigars are smoked in almost 
every state in the Union, this city being 
the headquarters of the largest cigar fac- 
tory in Ohio — that of Swisher Brothers, 
who make 300,000 a day or 100 millions 
a year. This busy firm keeps over 1,000 
people at work in three cities and needs 
more help. The payroll is now $10,000 
a week — over a half million a year. Mr. 
E. W. Swisher established this business 
in 1875 and it passed into the hands of 
John H. and Harry Swisher in 1891 when 
the partnership of Swisher Brothers, which 
continues in force, was organized. The 
firm manufactures over sixty different 
brands, besides many fine special brands 
which are made for jobbers from Maine 
to California. 

The Newark Telephone Company, now 
serving nearly 3,000 local subscribers, con- 
necting with 5,000 independent telephones 
in Licking county and enjoying long dis- 
tance service over the United States Com- 
pany's lines, has the distinction of being 
a pioneer in the independent field. The 
first meeting of Ohio independent tele- 
phone men was held in Newark. Back 
in 1894, when this company was farmed, 
less than 200 telephones were in service 
in this city. Today Newark has 4,000, 
both the Bell and the independents being 
represented. The local company, made up 
of 175 stockholders, has a plant valued at 
$250,000. The company has $60,000 in 
common stock, $90,000 in preferred stock 
and $25,000 outstanding bonds. The com- 
mon stock pays eight per cent and pre- 
ferred stock six per cent dividends. 

The Newark Ice and Cold Storage Com- 
pany, capitalized in Ohio for $75,000, 
two-thirds of the stock having been issued, 
has the following named officers: Henry 
S. Fleek, president; Henry O. Norris, 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



vice president; F. S. Wright, treasurer; 

F. A. Crane, secretary and manager; F. 

G. Warden, O. W. Crane and Geo. W. 
Havens, directors. The plant was estab- 
lished in 1893 under the present manage- 
ment, but the capacity and investment was 
doubled four years ago when new machin- 
ery was installed. Last year this com- 
pany manufactured 15,678 tons of ice, half 
of which was shipped out of Newark. 

Styron, Beggs and Company, manufac- 
turers of the Great Seal brands of grocers' 
drugs, flavoring extracts, ammonia, bluing 
and home remedies, have, from a small 
beginning in 1895, built up a business with 
a monthly payroll of from $1800 to $2000, 
and a force of sixty or seventy people, be- 
sides a dozen traveling salesmen. The 
business from its inception has been under 
the supervision of Mr. Frank L. Beggs, 
president of the Newark Board of Edu- 
cation, and has been and will undoubtedly 
continue to be exceptionally prosperous. 

Fifty men find employment at the 
Howell Provision Company's packing 
house. Mr. Geo. E. Howell, president of 
the company, has been in the business 
forty years and is well known among Chi- 
cago and Pittsburg stockmen. The How- 
ell Provision Company was incorporated 
April 20, 1903, has $100,000 capital and 
is officered as follows: Geo. E. Howell, 
president; Samuel Frazier, vice president; 
C. G. Haddew, secretary; J. A. Flory, O. 
C. McClelland, Geo. Green, H. W. Botts 
and H. G. Miller, directors. 

The Rugg Halter Factory was brought 
to Newark by the Board of Trade a few 
years ago, from Alexandria, the business 
having been started by E. T. Rugg in 
1890. The plant covers two and one- 
half acres of ground in North Newark, 
employs 100 to 125 people and makes 
15,000 halters and ties a day. The Rugg 
60-spindle rope mill produces 8,000 to 
10,000 pounds daily. The Rugg halters 
are sold to the jobbing trade from Maine 
to California, this being the largest plant 
for the manufacture of halters and ties in 
the world. 

The Newark Gearwood Company moved 
its plant from Baltimore, Ohio, to New- 



ark in January, 1902, through the efforts 
of several enterprising citizens. It is a 
substantial plant, incorporated in Ohio for 
$35,000, the directors being Wm. E. Mil- 
ler, W. C. Christian, F. A. Crane, W. A. 
Slanker and F. J. Bader, Ex-Senator 
Miller being president, Mr. Crane, vice 
president; Mr. Christian, secretary-treas- 
urer. The company manufactures carriage 
and buggy gearwoods, the product going 
south and west as far as Missouri, north 
through Michigan and east to New York. 
Fifty men are employed, the payrool be- 
ing $20,000. The company sells to the 
largest carriage manufacturers in the busi- 
ness. 

The Newark Furniture Company, man- 
ufacturers of oak dining tables, was in- 
corporated in 1902. Nearly 100 men are 
employed in the shop and twelve salesmen 
distribute the output to retailers from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific. The plant covers 
eight acres. The officers are: W. W. 
Wehrle, president; J. C. Brennan, secre- 
tary-treasurer; directors, Edward Thomas, 
J. H. Swisher, Carl Norpell, W. W. 
Wehrle, Harry Swisher, J. F. Cherry, J. 
C. Brennan, J. Gleichauf and Ambrose 
Schaller. 

The Scheidler Machine Company, em- 
ploying fifty men in the manufacture of 
traction, portable and stationary engines, 
boilers and saw mills, was incorporated in 
1903 with $60,000 capital, the business 
having been established in 1861 by Rein- 
hart Scheidler. The officers are: H. R. 
Scheidler, president and general manager, 
W. E. Miller, vice president; O. A. 
Scheidler, secretary and assistant manager, 
W. C. Collins, treasurer. The monthly 
payroll is $2,500. 

The McNamar Machine Shop, now un- 
der the direct management of Julius J. D. 
McNamar, was established by the late 
John H. McNamar, who was formerly 
associated with the late R. Scheidler. 
The shop makes traction engines and boil- 
ers and employs about fifty men. 

T^e James E. Thomas Company, pro- 
ducers of ingot molds, with an output of 
17,000 tons per annum, is a close corpor- 
ation whose business was started by Mr. 



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INDUSTRIAL NEWARK 



53 



Thomas in 1867. The incorporation was 
formed in 1893 with a capitalization of 
$30,000. Seventy-five men are engaged in 
the transformation of pig iron into ii\got 
molds, which are sold to the United States 
Steel Corporation and other large manu- 
facturers of steel products. 

Newark is the home of the centralizing 
plant of the Licking* County Creamery, 
which in the past seven years under the 
direction of its present proprietors, W. H. 
Davis and Sons, has made rapid strides. 
Besides selling dairy products and frozen 
desserts here, they sell to consimiers with- 
in a radius of 200 miles of Newark. Five 
thousand cows contribute 10,000 to 12,000 
gallons of milk daily to this concern. The 
wagon service embraces 60 teams and 100 
names are on the payroll. 

The Newark Machine Company, manu- 
facturers of clover hullers and manure 
spreaders, keeps a force of about 100 men 
busy. The business is managed by Mr. 
John P. McCune. A large percentage of 
the output of clover hullers goes to Ger- 
many, while the trade in the United States 
extends over a wide area. 

An index to the increasing prosperity of 
Licking county, of which Newark is the 
capital, are the figures from the auditor's 
office showing the valuation of taxable 
property. From 1901 to 1907 the tax 
duplicate showed an increase of six million 
dollars, the total for Newark city in 1906 
being $8,367,590. Here are the figures: 
1901, $23,221,177; 1902, $23,873,735; 
1903, $25,103,500; 1904, $25,689,180; 
1905, $29,481,797; 1906, $27,745,976. 

Auditor J. N. Wright is authority for 
the statement that the valuation this year 
will amount to $29,000,000. 

While perhaps not as good an index of 
a town's prosperity as the bank clearings, 
the post office receipts afford a good idea 
of the business of a city. The official 
figures from the Newark postoffice, fur- 
nished by Assistant Postmaster S. E. Sieg- 
fried, show a steady growth since 1898, 
the receipts since that period having much 
more than doubled. Here are the figures : 
1898, $19,369.28; 1899. $21,096.08 ; 1900, 
$22,891,19; 1901, $26,220.99; 1902, $29,- 
633.16; 1903, $33,152.10; 1904, $35,- 



244.26; 1905, $44,948,35; 1906, $49,- 
817.49. 

The figures for the first five months of 
1907 show an increase over the corres- 
ponding months of last year. 

Sixteen regular carriers and four sub- 
stitutes are required to handle Newark 
mail, and eight rural carriers daily leave 
the local office to cover territory s\irround- 
ing this city. In the Newark office ten 
clerks are employed. Rm>al routes lead 
from Granville, Johnstown, Hebron, Pa- 
taskala, Hanover and Utica so that a 
large majority of Licking county farmers 
have a daily mail service. The payroll of 
the Newark office exceeds $30,000 a year. 
At the last session of Congress a bill was 
passed appropriating $90,000 for a gov- 
ernment building- in Newark, but as yet 
the site has not been selected. 

The books of the county recorder show- 
ing the transfers of Newark and Licking 
county real estate, indicate much activity. 
The transfers for the past two years mun- 
ber 4,743, the expressed consideration be- 
ing $5,793,164. Here are the conveyances 
and expressed valuation for 1905-06 : 

1906. No. Con- Expressed Con- 
veyances, sideration. 

January 187 $218,777.00 

February 190 210,010.00 

March 257 325,414.00 

April 298 340,555.00 

May 267 282,838.00 

June 203 226,815.00 

July 185 285,204.00 

August 115 157,932.00 

September 160 223, 159.00 

October 207 175,745.00 

November 163 141,884.00 

December 166 151.552.00 

Total 2,388 $2,739,885.00 

1905. No. Con- Expressed Con- 
veyances, sideration. 

January 150 $182,838.00 

February 147 338,356.00 

March 255 320,081.00 

April 341 507,554.00 

May 235 255,916.00 

June 182 200.048.00 

July 170 187,942.00 

August 178 180,962.00 

September 184 184,127.00 

October 186 214,879.00 

November 165 242,442.00 

December 162 238,134.00 

Total 2.355 $3,053,279.00 



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54 



THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



Seven flour mills in Licking county, 
three of which are located in Newark, rep- 
resenting an investment of nearly $100,- 
000, consume 360,000 bushels of Licking 
county wheat annually and produce 72,000 
barrels of flour per annum. 

The Licking Light and Power Com- 
pany is adding $70,000 worth of improve- 
ments to its plant of 750 horsepower and 
when completed the property will be one 
of the best of its kind in Ohio. Col. M. 
M. Gillett is president of the company 
which is composed principally of prom- 
inent local business men. 

At present Newark, which owns its own 
electric lighting system, its Gamewell fire- 
alarm system, and which has just com- 
pleted a police patrol, is now building a 
water-works system which will cost over a 
half million dollars. 

Newark is the home of the Ohio Na- 
tional Guard encampment, but this ground 
has been offered to the State as a site for 
the proposed hospital for crippled chil- 
dren. 

Newark is twelve miles from Utica, a 
thriving village which supports three 
glass factories. 

Newark is six miles distant from Gran- 
ville, the home of Denison University, the 
great Baptist school which has been liber- 
ally supported by Rockefeller, Carnegie, 
Doane, Barney and others. Trolley cars 
run between Newark and Granville at in- 
tervals of one hour. Denison has a mill- 
ion and a quarter invested in buildings, 
ground and equipment. 

Newark is connected by trolley with 
Buckeye Lake, twelve miles away. This 
is one of the largest bodies of water in 
the State and is becoming famous as a 
siunmer resort, hundreds of Columbus, 
Newark and Lancaster people and others 
having bungalos there. 

Within the past three years five splendid 
apartment houses, one big hotel and a ten- 
story office and bank building have been 
built in Newark. For several years from 
three hundred to five hundred dwelling 
houses have been erected annually and 
work has just started upon a new Warden 
hotel, which will have 140 rooms. 

Newark has two up-to-date daily and 
semi- weekly newspapers and one good 
German weekly. The newspapers receive 



telegraph service, thoroughly cover the 
local field and carry many syndicate illus- 
trations. Newark today has more than 
nine miles of paved streets, and another 
mife of West Main street will be paved 
this summer. Newark's high school build- 
ing is to have a $65,000 addition con- 
structed this year, the contract having 
been let and the bonds sold. 

Newark has a magnificent Auditorium 
theatre and Memorial Building erected in 
honor of Licking county's soldiers and 
sailors, a splendid Children's Home and a 
beautiful park, whose distinctive feature 
is the work of the prehistoric Mound 
Builders. The architectural beauty of 
Newark's jail caused the late Bill Nye to 
remark that prisoners came to this city 
from many distant points for the privilege 
of serving time here. 

The Newark branch of the Bliss Col- 
lege of Coliunbus is to be congratulated 
for having at its head two able and ex- 
perienced men, Messrs. C. S. Jackson and 
John T. Yates. With these men at the 
helm Newark is gaining an enviable repu- 
tation for commercial training. 

The Newark Paint Company is one of 
the newer institutions of Newark. It is 
located in the new Union block and is 
developing a splendid business by honest 
and sound methods. 

The Ball-Fintze Company is another of 
the live and growing concerns of Newark, 
enjoying a rapidly increasing business as 
jobbers of rubber goods, bicycles, etc. 
This company was originally a partner- 
ship, but continued growth made it de- 
sirable to incorporate in 1902. Since then 
the increase in business has been little less 
than phenomenal. The capital stock, be- 
ginning with $25,000 in 1902, was doub- 
led in 1903 and again in 1905, and stands 
today at $100,000, all held by Newark 
business men. The company is now ship- 
ping bicycle and automobile goods into 
every state in the Union, and at the same 
time the company is the largest jobber in 
talking machines and phonographs, both 
in regard to the extent and variety of 
goods handled and the volume of business 
transacted. The company manufactures 
the Avalon line of Automobile horns and 
lamps and the Avalon bicycle. Its lines 
of talking machine goods include every 



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INDUSTRIAL NEWARK 



55 



make of American machine, record and 
accessory. The officers and directors are: 
E. T. Rugg, president; James Fintze, vice 
president ; Eugene F. Ball, secretary and 
treasurer; William Allen Veach, T. J. 
Evans, James K. Hamill, W. N. Fulton, 
E. W. Crayton and Frederic M. Black. 

Newark is the home of Goodhair Soap, 
a product that advertises the city through- 
out the United States and abroad. Mr. 
E. S. Miller has had a constantly increas- 
ing business in the manufacture of this 
product for about ten years, and capital 
stands ready to organize a company, should 
he consent, but, knowing he has a "good 
thing," he has preferred to conduct the 
business alone. 

The Pratt- Kirk Company, manufactur- 
ers of veneered doors and hardwood in- 
terior finish, bank and office fixtures, em- 
ploys eighty men. The officers of this 
$75,000 company are: P. L. Pratt, presi- 
dent; P. S. Phillips, vice president; Miss 
Claudia H. Williams, secretary and J. F. 
Hartshorn, general manager. The busi- 
ness was established in Newark eleven 
years ago. The monthly payroll is about 
$3,000. 

Newark's newest industry, secured 
through the activity of the Board of 
Trade, is now being established by the 
Ohio Rail Company, which is erecting a 
plant that will cost $100,000, employ 160 
men and turn out, beginning in July this 
year, 3,000 tons of light steel rail each 
month. Its officers are: L. B. Foster, 
president ; L. B. Richards, vice president 
and treasurer; H. N. Bernheimer, secre- 
tary, and T. J. Costello, superintendent. 
The payroll is estimated at about $15,000 
per month. The company has a branch 
office in Pittsburg and will open offices in 
different sections of the country. The 
men connected with the enterprise are all 
experienced in their line of work and the 
success of the new business is confidently 
predicted by the Board of Trade directors, 
who personally investigated the proposi- 
tion and recommend it to the people. 



Four years ago the Vogelmeier Broth- 
ers, realizing that in South Newark an 
excellent shale for brick making could be 
found in abundance, started a brick plant. 
Today thirty men are employed in making 
two and a half millions of brick annually. 

The A. G. Wyeth factory, which be- 
gan operation twenty-two years ago, is 
now conducted by A. G. Wyeth and Son, 
Ralph. About eighty people are em- 
ployed in the manufacture of sleigh run- 
ners and oil tanks, which are sent to the 
Atlantic and Pacific coasts. The Wyeths 
also enjoy a large export trade. 

A few months ago the Smith Shoe Com- 
pany of Columbus opened a branch fac- 
tory in Newark and, so well pleased with 
conditions and results are the managers, 
that the plant is being doubled in capa- 
citiy. 

Other local industries that deserve men- 
tion — for they are live, hustling concerns 
— are the Simpson Soap Manufacturing 
Company, the Simpson Heater Company, 
the Newark Wagon Works, Tucker Boiler 
Works, Bailey and Keeley, manufacturers 
of spouting, D. G. Wyeth's buggy factory, 
the Ball & Ward Carriage Factory, which 
was established in 1836, the John H. 
Kates and L. A. Stare cabinet making and 
mantel building shops, the Cochlan and 
the Nutter planing mills, the Newark Arti- 
ficial Stone and Plaster Company, the 
Reed Wire Cloth Company, and the Cen- 
tral City Stove Works, which employs 
from sixty to seventy men. 

This outline of the city's industries but 
faintly conveys a picture of industrial 
Newark; but one fact must have been im- 
pressed upon the reader's mind — namely, 
the diversity of Newark's manufacturing 
interests, as well as their stability. There 
is nothing of the mushroom growth about 
Newark. It has been steady, rapid, sure. 
And there is a reason. The Newark 
Board of Trade offers free sites for the 
right kind of factories, and natural gas at 
a figure that will be of interest. Corres- 
pondence with the Secretary of the Board, 
Colonel William C. Wells, is solicited. 



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Natural Gas in Licking County 



By Frederick M. Black 



i«: 



rHE greatest gas field in the 
country! The statement is not 
a vain boast. Covering an area 
of over two hundred and fifty 
square miles of producing ter- 
ritory, with deep wells, heavy 
rock pressure and an average future life 
computed at over eighteen years, the Lick- 
ing field is pronounced by experienced oil 
and gas operators to be uneciualled in the 
United States. 

The history of the field is much similar 
to that of other oil and gas bearing re- 
gions. As early as 1887 tens were made 
for gas in the vicinity of Newark, with 
the result that a few small wells were 
struck. In 1888 a franchise was granted 
to E. H. Everett and associates, to sell 
natural gas in the City of Newark, and 
within a short time thereafter the city was 
fairly well covered by the distributing 
system of the new company. At that time 
the gas was produced from the wells near 
Newark, but the growing demand for the 
product caused greater activity in search- 
ing for it, and the development went 
southwardly from Newark, no doubt be- 
cause about that time the Sugar Grove 
field in Fairfield county was being ex- 
ploited. 

'T'hese early wells finally went dry, the 
ga> consumed in Newark after their fail- 
ure having been drawn from the Sugar 
Grove field, which had developed a large 
number of good wells. 

It was this development in the Sugar 
Grove field that gave rise to the Logan 
Gas Company, which in 1898 acquired the 
Newark Natural Gas and Fuel Company. 
The combination of the^e two properties 
was a happy one, because one had the gas 
and the other the market. Early in 1900 
the Logan Gas Company, which had ac- 
quired a number of leases in north-western 
Licking county, drilled in a two and a 



half million gasser on the Charles Butcher 
farm, a short distance west of the village 
of Homer. The well was begun on June 
19th, 1900, by E. A. Kinsey, a veteran 
oil and gas operator, and on the 28th of 
July of that year, at a depth of twenty- 
one hundred and forty-nine feet, a power- 
ful flow of gas was struck. 

Immediately, there was a rush for ter- 
ritory. The land in the vicinity was rap- 
idly taken up, and drilling was begun on 
other leases. Mr. Kinsey drilled the next 
well on the Frye farm for E. H. Everett ; 
after that, the wells came thick and fast. 
The development extended in all direc- 
tions, but especially north and east, 
through northern Licking county in a 
northeasterly direction into Knox county, 
until today the lines of development in 
Licking county comprise some two hun- 
dred and fifty square miles, and only a 
portion of the available property has been 
prospected. 

The value of such an asset as a gas 
field is difficult of ascertainment. There 
are many elements of value, viz: the 
value of the product to the producer, the 
value to the land owner as paid in gas 
rentals, and the general value which ac- 
crues to the citizens and consumers living 
in the neighborhood of the field. Suffice 
it to say, regarding the first factor men- 
tioned, that, almost without exception, the 
companies which have gone into the pro- 
duction have earned dividends for their 
stockholders ; and in the majority of in- 
stances the earnings have been very gen- 
erous in amount. Among the companies 
now operating in the field are The Union 
(jas Company, a Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 
concern, with Theodore Barnsdale at its 
head; The Newark Heat and Light Com- 
pany ; The Ohio Fuel Supply Company ; 
The Central Ohio Gas Company; The 
Mohican Gas Company ; The Utica Gas 



56 



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NATURAL GAS IN LICKING COUNTY 



57 



Company ; The Waight Levering Com- 
pany; The Columbus Gas Company, and 
the North American Oil and Gas Com- 
pany. 

There can be no question but that the 
development of the natural gas industry is 
a most decided benefit to the land owner. 
Out of the ground, thousands of feet be- 
low the soil, which he tills and makes 
fertile for the fruits of the earth, comes 



amount. One lucky land owner is re- 
ceiving on his seven hundred and fifty 
acres the handsome annual earning of 
$3,750, while many others are receiving 
even more when the sizes of their farms 
are taken as a comparative basis. 

Thus, all through the favored parts of 
the county mortgages have been paid off, 
children have been sent to school and 
college, the luxuries increased and the 



FREDERICK M. 



this colorless, volatile fluid, released from 
its centuries of imprisonment, at no cost 
or real inconvenience to the farmer, to 
bring him an income as welcome as it is 
unexpected. 

Conservatively estimated, the total gas 
rentals paid in Licking county exceed the 
sum of three hundred thousand dollars 
annually. There are no leaseholds pay- 
ing less than fifty cents per acre annually, 
while there are many paying ten times that 



BLACK. 

Photo by Hemfsted. 



hardships mitigated through the beneficent 
gift of gas. Had the discovery of gas no 
other result than this, yet would the boon 
of it be considered incalculable. 

But there has been another benefit con- 
ferred by these artesian wells of concen- 
trated fuel — a benefit which in itself may 
not be as directly applicable to the indi- 
vidual, but is nevertheless more wide- 
spread because it comes to every man, 
woman and child living within a radius 



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58 



THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



of ten miles of the field. It can be briefly 
expressed in the words — cheap fuel, more 
factories, more work, more inhabitants, 
more wealth and in the end a higher 
standard of living. In the case of the 
Licking field there has been a healthy 
amount of competition among producers; 
enough, in fact, to result in exceedingly 
low prices for fuel gas, especially to fac- 
tories. 

At the present time gas is offered on a 
reasonably long contractual period at 
seven cents per thousand feet. This rate 
merely for steam purposes is almost forty 
percent below coal prices, and when used 
in gas engines the cost of the fuel per 
horse power is so low that the manufac- 
turer is almost ashamed to pay so little. 
There has always been a supply for manu- 
facturing purposes at not to exceed ten 
cents per thousand cubic feet, and at times 
the gas has been offered as low as four 
cents in long time contracts. Within the 
past few months a new company has be- 
gun production and has offered a rate to 
manufacturers of six cents per thousand 
feet. 

It is enough, however, to say to the 
prospective manufacturer that a seven cent 
rate is obtainable, if the item of fuel en- 
ters to any appreciable extent into his cost 
of production, not only because of its real 
cheapness in actual steam producing qual- 
ities, but because of its ideal convenience 
and lack of waste products. A contract 
for gas is made, the producer brings it to 
the consumers lot line — a meter, a pipe, 
a burner, and the equipment is complete. 
No weekly or yearly contracts for coal ; 
no shut downs because of miners' strikes 
or inadequate transportation; no contro- 
versies about low quality of fuel; no au- 
tomatic or imperfect manual stokers; no 
smoke annoyance to the consumer or to 
neighbors; no carting away of ashes, 
burning of grates and boilers ; all of these 
disadvantages removed, and at no addi- 
tioinal cost to the consumer. 

Only those who have enjoyed the use of 
natural gas as a fuel can properly appre- 
ciate its great advantage. What to the 
household is a luxury of the domestic 
economy becomes to the manufacturer a 
positive necessity. There were days when 
locomotives were run with wood in the 



fire boxes; but as soon as coal could be 
obtained it became a necessity. As a fuel, 
gas is to coal what coal is to wood. 

The qualities of the Licking field which 
take it out of comparison with other fields 
are its extent, uniformity, heavy pressure, 
and vitality. We have already touched 
briefly upon its extent and will add only 
a few words upon that feature of the field. 
As now developed, the field begins near 
the south county line at a point slightly 
west of south of Newark ; in a strip eight 
miles in width it extends northerly into 
Knox county, but veering slightly to the 
east as it pa^si^s the meridian line of the 
county, it widens to twelve miles, which 
width carries into Knox county. This 
comprises an area of some two hundred 
and fifty square miles of developed terri- 
tory. As yet the southwestern edge of the 
field has not been reached by the develop- 
ment, while the same can be said of the 
northeastern edge in Licking county. The 
indications are extremely favorable for 
the discovery of from one hundred to one 
hundred and fifty more square miles of 
producing territory. The field as now de- 
veloped passes from south to north just to 
the west of Newark. There are producing 
wells (drilled and used /by the Wehrle 
Company) located within a half mile of 
the west corporation line of Newark, but 
in speakinc( of developed territory we re- 
fer to production running from one and 
a hall million up, per well per day. The 
Wehrle Company, the largest manufac- 
turer of stoves in the world, operates its 
mammoth plan almost entirely with gas 
from wells of its own, located within a 
radius of two miles from Newark. 

One of the most remarkable phenomena 
of the field is its uniformity. By this is 
meant the unbroken extent and regularity 
of the gas bearing stratum of rock. Old 
operators who have so often at their own 
expense become acquainted with the vag- 
aries of geologic nature in other oil and 
gas fields, consider this the most perfect 
field ever discovered. Like oil, the pro- 
duction of gas is a gamble. It is a blind- 
folded attempt to accomplish something, 
and no means or method is known to sci- 
ence whereby the precious fluid can be 
accurately located. That is to say, the 
common experience of operators in other 



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NATURAL GAS IN LICKING COUNTY 



59 



fields has been to find the fluid in appar- 
ently isolated pools surrounded by abso- 
lutely dry rock. In such a case it is pure 
luck whether the gambler draws a gusher 
or a duster, a blank or a prize. 

Therefore Licking county has proved 
a Paradise — an Eldorado to the operator 
and the driller. When the fact is consid- 
ered that not over two per cent of the 
viells drilled in this county have been 
found to be dry holes, the remarkable per- 
fection of the field is apparent. In fact, 
so great are the chances against loss that 
it must have seemed to the operators "a 
shame to take the money." It has been 
almost as safe an investment as a first 
mortgage note or a government bond. 
The gas bearing sand, which in this field 
is the Clinton stratum, varies in thickness 
from five to thirty-five feet. One peculiar 
feature of the business is the fact that, in 
one or two of the very few dry holes 
drilled in, the operator found from thirty 
to thirty-five feet of the sand with prac- 
tically no gas in it. In other cases, where 
wells of tremendous out-put were found, 
the gas rock does not exceed five feet in 
thickness. Therefore, the volume and 
pressure are not necessarily proportionate 
to the thickness of the rock. 

The rock pressure in the field is an im- 
portant consideration. The two factors, 
pressure and volume, determine the out- 
put of the well, which necessarily fixes its 
commercial value. In this field the rock 
pressure varies only slightly, the uniform 
initial pressure registering about seven 
hundred and eighty pounds to the square 
inch. It is not to be expected that such 
a tremendous pressure will be maintained^ 
but it is certainly true that wells which 
have been pulled on for seven years today 
show a rock pressure of five hundred 
pounds to the square inch. This fact 
alone proves 'the statement made at the 
outset that the field is unparalleled in oil 
and gas history. 

In the Indiana fields, where gas was 
found at a depth varying from six hun- 
dred to twelve hundred feet, the rock 
pressure was much lower and the life of 
the field much shorter. The gas there has 
given out after a lapse of ten years, so 
that greater depth of the wells and in- 
creased rock pressure sesm, if not the 



cause of a longer life, at least to be con- 
comitant with it. The wells in this field 
are found at a depth of from twenty-two 
hundred to three thousand feet. The cost 
of a well entirely cased is about $3,500. 
Uncased it would cost $2,600. 

What will be the future life of the field? 
This question is of paramount importance 
to both producer and consumer. If there 
is a probability of an early failure in the 
flow, leaving the manufacturer no recourse 
but coal, he will probably not feel com- 
pensated for the expense of his change of 
location by the advantages of shipping 
facilities for raw and finished products, 
and the many other natural inducements 
of our Central Ohio cities. Therefore, he 
wants to know about the length of time 
he can expect to get natural gas from the 
local field. 

To begin with, there is just so much 
gas down there in the earth to be taken 
out, no more and no less. No one knows 
how much there is in store for us. All we 
know is how fast it is being used and 
what effect that use during the past seven 
years has had upon the rock pressure and 
volume of the wells drilled during the 
period. As before stated, the pressure has 
held up to the remarkable figure of five 
hundred pounds. Upon this basis alone 
experts have calculated the total life of 
the wells in more or less constant use at 
from twelve to fifteen years. In other 
words, were every acre of the developed 
territory being drawn upon, the future life 
of the territory would yet be from five to 
eight years. But every acre is not being 
drawn upon. It is estimated that one well 
will ordinarily take out the gas from under 
forty acres. On such a basis there is, in 
the actually developed territory, acreage 
sufficient for four thousand wells, while 
the yet undeveloped territory potentially 
is worth two thousand more wells. At the 
present time there are in operation a few 
over a total of 1,000 wells in the Licking 
territory. All of the developed and poten- 
tial territory is under lease to companies 
now in the field, so that it is fair to as- 
sume that the production will proceed no 
more rapidly in the future than it has 
during the first seven years. With capa- 
city for 3,000 more wells the probable 
total vitality of the field can therefore be 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



fairly calculated at not less than twenty- 
five years, or a future active life of eight- 
een years. 

Another lesser quality of the field which 
recommends it especially to producers and 
drillers, is its almost complete freedom 
from water. This is the bane of many 
fields and results in drowning out the 
wells, so as to almost completely stop the 
flow of gas. Another fact connected with 
the development of the field is that but 
little hill land is within the gas territory, 
the only exception being the Welsh Hills 
near Granville. 

Where gas is found, it is said there must 
be oil. Thus far there have been oil wells 
discovered, but all are on the eastern edge 
of the field. The stratum of gas-bearing 
rock is in the form of a basin, one edge 
of which comes out of the earth in the 
vicinity of Washington Court House and 
the other edge appearing at Niagara Falls. 
At Coltunbus the rock is only one thou- 
sand feet below the surface; at Newark it 
is about twenty-two hundred feet, and at 
Black Hand, where one oil well was 
found, the Clinton is three thousand feet 
down. The dip of this broad plain of 
Clinton sand is eastwardly to some point 
as yet unknown, whence it gradually 
again curves upward toward the surface. 
Evidently, the gas is found in the higher 
levels of the rock, but as yet none has 
been found in paying quantities closer 
than twenty-one hundred feet from the 
surface. What oil has been found has 
been at a depth of at least twenty-eight 
hundred feet. 

Already large leasings have been made 
of the lands to the east of Newark by 



companies more interested in oil than in 
gas, and the future may reveal a consider- 
able and reliable oil field in that region. 
Oil in paying quantities was discovered 
on the eastern fringe of the Sugar Grove 
field, which lies directly south of the 
Licking field, and experts view the Lick- 
ing field as similar in many respects to 
its southern neighbor. 

In closing, it is proper to add that all 
of the large manufacturing concerns of 
Newark are operated on natural gas for 
fuel; not only the American Bottle Com- 
pany and the A. H. Heisey Company 
glass plants, and the immense iron found- 
ries of The Wehrle Company, but the 
Licking Light and Power Company, which 
produces electric current for light and 
power by the use of natural gas engines 
in 350 H.P. units. It is calculated that 
the saving in cost per kilowatt is seventy 
per cent over steam. 

To the manufacturer, therefore, New- 
ark presents unexcelled opportunities for 
low cost of production. With cheap gas 
practically assured for a period of eight- 
een years, ample coal fields within a radius 
of a few miles, adequate railroad facili- 
ties, Newark has almost doubled in popu- 
lation in the past ten years. ' New indus- 
tries are constantly locating here, so that 
the growth has been steady and reliable. 
Prices of real estate have not soared out 
of sight, but a handsome profit has been 
netted to almost all lines of business that 
have been in operation here during the 
past fifteen years. All this has been in a 
great measure the fruit of the discovery 
and development of the Licking gas field. 




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Financial Institutions of Newark 
and Licking County 



T 



By Carl Norpell 



O 



carry on successfully the great 
manufacturing, commercial and 
agricultural enterprises of a 
city and county like Newark 
and Licking county, Ohio, it 
"^ is necessary to have sound, well 
managed financial institution^,, equipped 



Licking county, they are particularly 
blessed with sixteen banks, with an aggre- 
gate capital of $950,694 and gross assets 
amounting to $6,529,336. There are also 
five building and loan associations, with 
an authorized capital aggregating $4,400,- 
000 and assets amounting to $1,997,109. 



CARL NORPELL. 

Photo by Bakjr, Columbus. 

with a large amt unt of capital and a big A derailed statement of the capital, de« 
volume of curren:y. In addition to the posits, surplus and gross assets of these 
many other advantages of Newark and various institutions follows. 

61 



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They are managed and conducted by 
men of high character and reputation, ex- 
perienced in financial matters and in 
whose ability and moral and business in- 
tegrity the public has absolute confidence. 
There never has been a time in the history 
of this city and county, when their finan- 
cial institutions were in such a healthy 
condition; when they were so honestly and 
ably conducted, nor when there were as 
many banks and building associations with 
so much capital, deposits, surplus and re- 
sources as now. 

We have no multi-millionaires, no 
Rockefellers, no Morgans, but the wealth 
of the city and county is very evenly and 
equally distributed among the artisans, 
farmers, professional men, merchants and 
manufacturers. None of our citizens is 
vulgarly rich and none pathetically poor. 
In the highest and best sense we have 
socialism or community of interests, with- 
out agitation or organization, but by com- 
mon consent. There is no man, company 
or corporation in this city or county, 
worthy of credit, but can obtain all the 
mcney he or it needs for an honest and 
legitimate enterprise or purpose, at the 
very lowest rate of interest. 

It is impossible in an article of this 
scope to give any detailed history of the 
various financial institutions of the city 
and county. I can only allude to a few 
of the distinguishing features of some of 
the oldest and largest. 

The First National bank of this city 
was organized under the laws of the 
United States, February 3, 1856. Judge 
Buckingham was its first president and 
Virgil H. Wright its first cashier. From 
its organization to the present time it has 
been under the active management of Vir- 
gil H. Wright and his two sons, Fred S. 
and Edwin C, who are now president and 
cashier. The management has never 
changed since its organization. 

The Franklin National bank is the 
lineal descendant of Edward Franklin, E. 
Franklin & Sons, Edward Franklin's Sons 
and Joseph Rider, Robbins, Winegardner, 
Wing & Company, The Franklin Bank 
Company and The People's National bank, 
and takes its present name from Edward 
Franklin, father of John H. and Benja- 
min Franklin, who established the bank in 



1845, more than 60 years ago. W. A. 
Robbins is the present president and W. 
B. Hopkins cashier. 

The Newark Trust Company, which is 



NEW 



SKY-SCRAPER OF THE NEWARK 
TRUST COMl'AXY. 



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FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS 



63 



about to move into its new and magnifi- 
cent ten-story building, was organized in 
1903 under the laws of Ohio and is the 
outgrowth of The Security Building and 
Savings Company. T. O. Donovan, who 
recently died, was the chief promoter of 
the building association and the trust com- 
pany and was succeeded by Frank P. Ken- 
nedy, the present president. 

The Licking County Bank and Trust 
Company was organized in 1902 under the 
laws of Ohio. W. N. Fulton, who was its 
first president, is still acting as such. He 
was chiefly instrumental in the organiza- 
tion of this institution. Mr. Fulton has 
the distinction of having been four times 
elected treasurer of Licking county Will- 
iam G. Miller is the present cashier. 

All of these institutions have recently 
remodeled their banking houses, fitted th;im 
up beautifully and luxuriously and 
equipped them with the most modern and 
up to date fire and burglar proof safes, 
and all are doing a flourishing business. 

Twelve of the sixteen banks of this city 
and county are located in the surrounding 
villages as follows: 

The First National Bank of Utica, was 
organized in May, 1905, with A. J. Wil- 
son as president, who claims to be the 
oldest banker in the county. Its present 
cashier is C. B. Clark. It succeeds the 
Wilson bank, which began business in 
1891. 

The Utica Savings Bank Company was 
organized October 16, 1905, with D. P. 
Campbell president and Charles F. Gay, 
cashier. 

The Farmers* Bank of Utica was or- 
ganized in June, 1890, with Fred S. Sperry 
as president. 

The Citizens* Bank of Johnstown was 
organized March 1, 1898, with H. B. 
Rusler as president and W. A. Ashbrook, 
cashier. 

The Johnstown bank of Johnstown, was 
organized November 21, 1883, with Hor- 
ton Buxton as president and C. V. Arm- 
strong as cashier. 

The People's Banking Company of Pa- 
taskala, incorporated in 1904, with Joseph 
Atkinson as president and H. H. Baird 
as cashier. 

The Pataskala Bankin*]; Company, was 
organized March 29, 1888, with W. H. 



Mead as president and M. E. Mead as 
cashier. 

The Kirkersville Savings Bank Com- 
pany was organized August 14, 1905, with 

D. L. M auger as president and C. H. 
Emswiler as cashier. 

The Croton Bank of Croton, was or- 
ganized May 1, 1898, with H. B. Rusler 
as president and W. A. Ashbrook as 
cashier. 

The Alexandria Bank Company of Al- 
exandria, was organized April 1, 1906, 
with Maurice Wat kins as president and 
C. B. Buxton as cashier. 

The Granville Bank Company of Gran- 
ville, was organized in April, 1903, with 
R. S. Colwell as president and C. B. 
Slack as secretary. 

None of them has ever, had any financial 
trouble of any kind and their growth and 
development have been phenomenal. 

Three of the five Building Associations 
in the county are located in the city of 
Newark. The oldest is the Home Build- 
ing Association, popularly called "The 
Old Home.** It was incorporated in Feb- 
ruary, 1880. E. Nichols was its first 
president and Joseph C. Wehrle, father of 
William W. and August T. Wehrle, was 
its first secretary. Its first annual state- 
ment showed assets of $6,081.90. Its 
26th annual statement shows assets of over 
a million. C. A. Hatch is president and 

E. M. Baugher, secretary, at this writing. 
The youngest building association in the 

county was organized by the writer of this 
article in December, 1900, and incorpor- 
ated as The Licking County Building and 
Savings Company. This Association has 
never had a foreclosure. It is very con- 
servative and makes no loans to its officers 
or directors. Warren S. Weiant was its 
first president and is still acting as such, 
and Oriel C. Jones is its secretary, with 
Theodore F. Wright acting secretary and 
manager. Mr. Wright is a brother of 
Virgil H. Wright, first cashier of the 
First National Bank. 

The Citizens' Building Association of 
Newark, was organized in January, 1889. 
John H. Franklin, Jr., was the first presi- 
dent and held the office for one year, 
when Simeon E. Rhoads, the well known 
capitalist and real estate dealer, was 
elected president and is still acting as 



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such. John H. Moore is the present sec- 
retary. The present capital is $500,000. 

The Johnstown Building Association 
Company, located at Johnstown, incor- 
porated April 2, 1889, and enjoys the dis- 
tinction of being the largest building and 
loan association in Ohio in a town of 1 ,000 
inhabitants. H. B. Rusler is the president 
and Hon. W. A. Ashbrook, secretary. 

The Building, Savings and Loan Com- 
pany of Granville, was organized February 
2, 1889. Edward A. Smoots is president 
and E. J. Dorsey, secretary. This asso- 
ciation has done quite an extensive and 
very conservative business. 



These building and loan associations 
have been a wonderful aid in building up 
Newark and the surrounding country; 
through their assistance thousands of me- 
chanics and laboring men have been en- 
abled to purchase and pay for homes on 
the installment plan, who otherwise would 
still be renting. 

Philadelphia is not the only city that 
can boast of being a "city of homes." We 
are satisfied that there is not in Ohio, or 
any other state of the same size, a city 
where as many people own their own 
homes as in Newark. The following fig- 
ures speak for themselves: 



Banks. 

The Franklin Nat'l Bank 

The Licking Co. Bank 

The Newark Trust Co 

The First Nat'l Bank 

The Fist Nat'l Bank. Utica. . 

The Pataskala Bank Co 

The Citizens Bk, Johnstown. 

Granville Bank Co 

Peoples Bank, Pataskala 

Farmers Bank, Utica 

Johnstown Bank 

Utica Savings Bank 

Hebron Bank 

Kirkersville Sav. Bank 

Alexandria Bank 

Croton Bank 

Building Associations. 
Authorized Capital. 

Home, Newark 

The Johnstown 

Citizens, Newark 

The Licking Co., Newark 

The Granville 



Capital. 


Surplus and un- 
divided profits. 


Deposits. 


Assets. 


$250,000 


$82,205 


$950,000 


$1,333,000 


200,000 


40,608 


1,113,276 


1,353,885 


200,000 


107,152 


915.013 


1,222,165 


100,000 


93,440 


721,800 


923.613 


40,000 


14,212 


364,505 


430.170 


10,000 


39,033 


259,107 


308,140 




1,857 


154,143 


156,000 


is, 666 


4,745 


131,791 


154,000 


25,000 


3,(K»0 


125,000 


153,000 


27,794 


525 


102,123 


130,444 




6,im 


104.206 


110,892 


25.000 


1,772 


81,326 


108,098 


18,000 


2,800 


70,(K)0 


90,000 


15,000 


2,474 


51.094 


69,409 


25,000 


1,454 


52.850 


69,305 






40.664 


40,664 


2,500,000 


48.175 


714.514 


1,081.462 


1,000,000 


6,466 


243,5^3 


401,049 


500,000 


5.012 


200,738 


262,182 


400,000 


4,732 


138.212 


196.096 


500,000 


3,320 


19,147 


56,320 


15,850,794 


$469,668 


$6,553,042 


$8,649,954 



Estimating the population at 50,000, 
which is about 3,000 greater than was 
shown by the last Federal census (1900) 
we have on deposit $130, and invested in 
bank resources $170, for every man, 
woman and child in the county. The bank 
resources of this county have quadrupled 
since 1906. Most of the sixteen banks 
above mentioned have been organized since 
that time and many of them since 1900. 

Nearly every farmer in the county for 
a number of years has been receiving a 



dollar an acre gas rental for his land, and 
many of them are receiving a great deal 
more, while some receive as much as 
$2,000 rental upon a single farm. 

The vast amount of money paid into 
Licking county by various gas companies 
as rental and royalties, and the amounts 
received from our agricultural and manu- 
facturing products, make the financial out- 
look for this city and county exceedingly 
promising. 



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Newark as a City of Homes 
and Health 

By Professor J. D. Simkins 

Superintendent of the Newark Public Schools 



N 



wt 



EWARK is a city of 25,000 in- 
habitants and is located in the 
broad valley of a pre-glacial 
stream that, at one time, may 
have rivaled in size the present 
Ohio or even the Mississippi. 
The glaciers filled this ancient valley half 
full of clay, sand and gravel and left the 
upper half of the hills to form a two- 
hundred foot wall surrounding the city. 
It is upon this drift that Newark is 
located. This gravelly bed is over two 
hundred feet deep and furnishes as good 
natural underdrainage as can be found 
an)rwhere in the world. 

While the site of the city is compara- 
tively level, the slope is sufficient to fur- 
nish excellent surface drainage, as well as 
a sufficient grade for sanitary sewers. The 
Mound Builders selected nearly this same 
site for one of their largest towns, judg- 
ing from their extensive remains. New- 
ark was settled and organized near the be- 
ginning of the last century and has had 
a gradual growth from the first to the 
present. 



The citizens have always been industri- 
ous and rather inclined to conservatism 
and economy; hence many families own 
city property. One may travel long dis- 
tances through our main streets and find 
scarcely a rented house. Many laboring 
men of the city earn from four to eight 
dollars a day. The general aspect of the 
home surroundings evidences a civic pride 
and sturdy citizenship that characterize a 
place of happy homes and remunerative 
employment. 

The three streams that unite in the city 
to form the Licking river, have consider- 
able fall for several miles; thus they have 
a rapid current over their pebbly beds, 
which aerates and oxidizes the water, mak- 
ing it pure and healthful. The city is 
blessed with an abundance of good water 
for all purposes. Well-water may be 
reached at any point by driving a pipe to 
the level of the water in the streams. The 
well-water and hydrant water are but 
slightly "hard" and do not coat vessels 
a reddish or yellowish color, as is the case 
in many other places. Newark has a pri~ 



65 



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vate waterworks system and is inslalling a 
municipal plant. Whether the latter suc- 
ceeds in purchasing the former or not, the 
city is assured adequate protection against 
loss by fire and an abundant supply of 
pure wa^er for domestic purpo.^es. judged 
either from analysis or from the health 
record, the w^ater must b^* i)ronounced ex- 
cellent in every regard. It is easy to filter 
the water, for the valley is filled two 



found in all suburban sections and from 
present indications they will ere long reach 
the center of the city. 

Among the chief residence streets are 
Hudson Avenue, Granville, Main, Church, 
and North Fourth stret^ts. The greatest 
variety of residence architecture may be 
seen on Hudson Avenue, varying in style 
from stately colonial to severely rustic. 
Many of these beautiful homes have spa- 



J. D. SIMKINS, 
Superintendent of the Newark Public Schools. 

Photo by Hempsted. 



hundred feet deep with a great filter. 
Just west of the city a chalybeate spring 
furnishes mineral water of excellent qual- 
ity, which is bottled and delivered to all 
parts of the city. There are other mineral 
springs in the vicinity. 

The chief streets are paved with vitri- 
fied brick, approximately level, and fur- 
ni-ih splendid nad; for "bike," auto and 
other vehicles. Several other streets are to 
be paved this sunin:^r. Cement walks are 



cious lawns which have been artistically 
graded and generously planted to orna- 
mental shrubbery. This street is a popu- 
lar driveway, and the residents take pride 
in making it an object lesson in home build- 
in ^; and civic beauty. In the region of 
W'oodside and along parts of Fifth, In- 
diana, and North Fourth streets, many of 
the old homesteads occupy beautiful and 
well-kept sites. Some of the residences of 
the city occu[)y strange terraced natural 



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NEWARK AS A CITY OF HOMES AND HEALTH 



67 



sites, or sites planned by the Mound 
Builders; that of Mr. Eli Hull might be 
mentioned as an example of the latter. 
His dwelling stands on the north side of 
a circular embankment which encloses an 
acre and a half and which once enclosed 
a crescent bank near the south side. Mr. 
Hull now enters the circle at the same 
drivew^ay used by the ancient people. 
There are two depressions just to the west, 
into which the Mound Builders drained 
the site. It is not unlikely that the em- 
bankment was once twenty feet high, and 



must be mentioned the beautiful building 
and site of Woodside school, the high 
school annex in course of erection, and the 
government postoffice building that has 
been assured. The new Warden Hotel is 
to have one hundred and seventy rooms 
and is to be thoroughly modern in appoint- 
ments and up-to-date service. The Hotel 
Sherwood has just been remodelled and is 
one of the most luxurious and beautifully 
located in the Middle West. 

There is much rustic scenery around the 
city and within the county, and many 



HL'DSOX AVENUE NORTH FROM LOCUST STREET. 



it is possible that it was then thatched 
over. The circle rests on a cobble-stone 
base. Just to the north are the remains 
of parallel embankments eighty feet apart, 
which once indirectly connected the Idle- 
wilde circle with the works at Camp Mc- 
Kinley and thence extended southward to 
Lancaster. This old driveway was graded 
with a crown and may have been the Eu- 
clid Avenue of the ancient city. 

Several modern flats, an elegantly 
equipped family hotel and a skyscraper, as 
well as numerous business blocks, add to 
the variety of architecture. Besides these 



Photo by Hempstcd. 

beautiful roadways. There are the drives 
along the cliff-like walls of Wakatomika, 
Rocky Fork, Long Run, and the Licking 
river at Black Hand; while near the city 
or in it are Hudson Avenue, Lovers' Lane, 
the level roads leading along our valleys, 
those on the hills of Franklin and South 
Second street, and all others leading out 
over the city walls. From the hills of 
South Newark may be had magnificent 
views of the city and its environs. It is 
from these that the observer realizes that 
the city lies at the junction of great val- 
leys, that the streams unite here to form 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



the Licking, that the city is creeping up 
and down the valleys, that it lies in a 
forest of shade trees, that great factories 
have been established — some of them the 
largest of their kind in the world — and 
that steam trains, electric cars and auto- 
mobiles outrun the old Pennsylvania 
wagons that once crawled through the 
forest. 

Lovers* Lane is what the name indi- 
cates. It steals along the base of a mag- 



DR. EMORY W. HUNT, 
President of Denison University. 

nificent hilly woodland; it follows the 
windings of the clear, hurrying South 
Fork; it passes beneath the shade of a 
great variety of dense foliage; it is the 
way through birdland; it is the path to 
the beautiful summer residences that nestle 
far up on the brow of the wooded hills. 
Whether one drives in the deeper shade 
of Summer or in the brighter colors of 
Autumn, whether one hears the vocal song 
of the male bird atilt on the twig or the 
silent one of his mate on the nest, whether 
one is bowed with the weight of the past 
or joyous with the promise of the future, 
it is along Lovers' Lane and on the by- 
ways of its wooded hills that the still 
small voice creeps in upon him and tells 
him that Man is and that God reigns. 



Idlewilde is a beautiful site for a park. 
It is located within and around a Mound 
Builders* circular embankment. This an- 
cient curiosity, with its deep moat and 
Eagle Mound within, with its great Am- 
erican elms and other forest trees, its 
casino, lake, restaurant, electricity, play 
ground, ball park, race course, and city 
and interurban cars, distinguishes a most 
popular and accessible resort. 

Camp McKinley Park, one hundred and 
forty-two acres, not only includes a large 
circular ancient earthworks but an octag- 
onal one as well. It is also shaded by 
magnificent forest trees and has a running 
stream and wooded hills for a northern 
scenic border. VV'ithin the region of what 
is now West Newark, some prehistoric 
people erected many miles of embankments 
and may have had a large city at this 
point and farmed the fertile valleys; 
surely they did not live by hunting. 

Court House Park is a beautiful public 
square. Its fountain, velvet lawns, invit- 
ing seats, spreading elms, and Court 
House, pay compliment to those who have 
gone before, as well as to those who have 
their present care, and give rest and plea- 
sure to thousands. 

Buckeye Lake Park is accessible by in- 
terurban. This a beautiful resort and 
many Newark people have summer resi- 
dences there. This lake covers 3,100 acres 
and is the boatman's paradise. "Sur- 
rounded as it is by an ever-pleasing land- 
scape of w^ooded hills and gentle slopes 
that touch the cool and placid waters, 
whose crest is dotted with the many craft, 
from dug-out Indian canoe to little 
steamer or auto-boat, it affords the pleas- 
ure-seeker and the rest seeker all that 
park, launch, fish, cuisine, pavilion, or- 
chestra, and fine appointment can give." 

Black Hand, or, as it is sometimes 
called, "The Scenic Way," or "The Alps 
of' Licking county," is within easy inter- 
urban reach of Newark and is unsvu*passed 
in pleasing natural scenery and historic in- 
terest. At one point is a narrow gorge 
with perpendicular high walls, through 
which pass the B. & O. railroad, the in- 
terurban, the river, a footpath, and the 
canal. 

The Sixth Street Playground is well 
patronized by boys throughout the sum- 



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NEWARK AS A CITY OF HOMES AND HEALTH 



69 



mer. It is here that young base-ball play- 
ers discover themselves and are developed, 
that boys learn that other people have 
rights and that leaders are a necessity. 
This tract is suitable in every way for a 
playground and should be fully equipped 
as such. 

The V. M. C. A. Athletic Field is used 
by the V. M. C. A., high school, boys 
of the grades and other organizations. 
Besides the fields mentioned are two base- 



The Auditorium is an imposing, stone 
G. A. R. memorial building, located at the 
corner of the Public Square. Its opera 
house seats over fourteen hundred and is 
one of the finest. It is well managed and 
furnishes a very high class of attractions. 
It has a large and well-appointed stage, 
is beautifully and artistically decorated 
and has almost perfect acoustic properties. 
The Orpheum Vaudeville theater is well 
conducted and largely patronized. 



RESIDENCES AND PARK, NORTH SECOND STREET. 



Photo by Hempsted. 



ball parks. The young men and boys of 
Newark are interested in athletics, play 
clean games and find teachers and others 
competent and willing to coach them. 

Probably no city in the country has a 
more favorable opportunity for extending 
its park system than Newark. Nature has 
furnished unsurpassed sites for this pur- 
pose. The wooded hills that skirt the 
streams are near at hand, quite extensive 
in area and unsurpassed in contour for a 
park system. 



For several years Newark has had a 
Spring Musical Festival with a chorus of 
two hundred voices. This has been liber- 
ally supported, largely patronized, and 
highly appreciated. At these festivals, 
have appeared such celebrities as the well- 
known lecturer. Dr. A. J. Gantvoort, and 
such famous singers as Madame Schu- 
mann-Heink, as well as Newark's famous 
violinist. Otto Meyer. 

The city has several artists of more than 
local reputation and is proud to be the 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



birthplace and home of Belle Havens, the 
wife of Walcott, the famous painter. Mrs. 
Walcott almost rivals her husband as an 
artist. These painters often spend the 
summer here and the subjects for some of 
Mr. Walcott's masterpieces were found in 
this county. 

All the fraternal orders are represented 
in Newark. This city is noted for the 
number and activity of its lodges. The 
Masons have two, both as wide awake as 
any to be found elsewhere. Many of the 
other lodges have equal evidence of growth 
and fraternal activity. The B. & O. Or- 
ders, Elks and Masons have club rooms 
and the Knights of Pythias have pur- 



ant rivalry among the lodges, but the 
spirit of brotherly love and mutual good 
feeling prevails. 

Newark is proud of her Board of Trade. 
This organization is composed of the lead- 
ing professional and business men of the 
city. The members have faith in "Greater 
Newark," are men of ideas, force, and 
consequence — men who bring things to 
pass. They know no such thing as in- 
difference to public betterments, or half- 
heartedness in urging the many advan- 
tages of this city as a commercial and 
manufacturing center. They inspire en- 
thusiasm and confidence and never fail to 
enlist the co-operation of all citizens in 



NEWARK HIGH SCHOOL. 



Photo by Smith. 



chased a property and expect to have club 
rooms in their new building. The Odd 
Fellows have two lodges and the Modem 
Woodmen of America have the largest 
membership of any Woodmen lodge in 
this country. The K. O. T. M., Knights 
of St. John, Knights of Columbus and 
many others are growing rapidly. 

Several of the lodges have women^s 
branches, and these add largely to the 
fraternal life of Newark. There are many 
women's clubs, including social, ethical, 
religious, and literary organizations, all 
contributing to the social life of the city. 

Many of the fraternal life insurance 
orders are represented as well as those that 
grant sick benefits. There is no unpleas- 



any enterprise that their sound judgment 
champions. The marked growth of New- 
ark in population, in new industries, and 
in all attendant phases, is quite largely 
due to the unselfish', hustling, but sane 
efforts of the Board of Trade. Owang to 
this growth, property values have had a 
gradual upward trend for several years. 

Newark has two good hospitals. The 
Sanitarium is located on West Main street. 
It is equipped for general hospital service, 
as well as sanitarium. It is not old, but 
growing rapidly and can now accommodate 
thirty-five patients. The institution is in- 
corporated and is controlled by a stock 
company, maintains a two-years* training 
school for nurses, has twelve people in 



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NEWARK AS A CITY OF HOMES AND HEALTH 



71 



training, and, while having no physician 
in charge, is co-operative with all phy- 
sicians, they having a right to take their 
patients there and treat them. 



RESIDENCE OF HON. VVM. K. MILLER. 
Photo by Hempstcd. 

The Newark City Hospital is located 
on Wyoming Street. It is now a public 
institution but is the outgrowth of the 
efforts of the philanthropic ladies of the 
city. In 1898 a board of twelve managers 
was elected and the hospital thrown open 
to the public. During its early existence 
it was maintained by private donations 
from labor organizations, beneficial soci- 
eties and pay patients. The foundation 
of the institution is charity regardless of 
race, color, or religion. In 1899 the asso- 
ciation obtained a charter. Three years 
ago, after the city had voted a bond issue 
for the erection and maintenance of a city 
hospital but afterwards failed to secure a 
site, a levy of three and one- fourth mills 
was voted to the institution. The staff is 
appointed by the Board of Lady Managers 
and consists of leading physicians and sur- 
geons of the city. It is changed from 
time to time so as to give every one in 
good standing in the profession a term of 
service. The staff gives its service free of 
charge. All pay patients are permitted to 
select their own physicians and surgeons. 
At a recent meeting of the Board of Lad) 
Managers, a training school for nurses was 
established in connection with the hospital, 
to be governed by the rules in use in the 



leading training schools of this country 
and to be under the management of the 
head nurse, assisted by the staff in the 
technical instruction. The modern ap- 
pointment, strong equipment, trained 
nurses, training school, excellent staff, 
good management, charitable foundation, 
evidences of growth and efficient service 
rendered all mark the inuitution as one 
that deserves every encouragement, every 
recognition and every commendation due 
to such a satisfactory city hospital and 
training school. 

Newark has twenty-one church build- 
ings, nearly all the Christian denomina- 
tions being represented. A few religious 
societies do not own a home as yet. Many 
of the ministers are speakers of unusual 
eloquence and power. Most of the 
churches have several branch societies that 
work earnestly and effectively for the up- 
building of the church, society and good 
citizenship. The progress of the churches 
is keeping pace with the growth of the 
city. A comparatively large number at- 
tend service. One person in four is a 
member of some Christian church. The 
Y. M. C. A. owms a commodious and well 
equipped building, has a large active mem- 
bership, conducts a lecture course, main- 
tains a night school and is well managed 



RESIDENCE OF JOHN SWISHER. 

Photo by Hempstcd. 

in all of its departments. But few realize 
the value of the moral awakening given 
by this institution. It has the only ap- 
prenticeship school in the country. This 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



has been conducted fur over three y.^ars, 
the attendance doubling last year. Classes 
will be still further multiplied during the 
ensuing year. It conducts an athletic 
park and has at present seventeen baseball 
teams and several tennis courts. These 
have been organized from the grades of 
the public schools, from the Sunday 
schools and from the industrial workers. 
The equipment includes a gymnasium, 



RESIDENXE OF H. S. FLEEK, 

Photo by Hempsted. 

bowling alley, pool tables, shower baths, 
and swimming pool. The Y. M. C. A. 
is doing something toward lessening the 
tenden:y of young men to engage in Sun- 
day games. 

There are fifteen public school build- 
ings in the city and two Catholic. The 
public schools employ one hundred teach- 
ers and the Catholic fourteen. Both are 
doing earnest and efficient service. With- 
in the last three or four years the Board 
of Education has erected three new build- 
ings, built one addition and has just let 
the contract for the annex to the high- 
school, which will more than double the 
capacity of that building. Besides erect- 
ing these new buildings, the board has 
spent many thousands of dollars recently 
in repairs on old buildings, including the 
decoration of inner walls, and, with the 



aid of the Civic Improvement League and 
the Board of Trade, has beautified many 
of the school lawns. Manual training has 
been introduced in all seventh and eighth 
grades. 

The maximum salary for all grade 
teachers has been raised to $600 and for 
high school teachers to $1,100. It is the 
policy of the board to employ none but 
efficient teachers. 

By agreement the board has been non- 
partisan for several years and it has 
urged every progressive movement consist- 
ent with public economy. 

Newark is fortunate in having a first 
class college only six miles distant and 
with hourly interurban connection. Den- 
ison has long been recognized as one of 
the foremost universities in the State 
There is also an Old Peoples* Home at 
Granville. 

The city has two private business col- 
leges which are well conducted and well 
patronized, and the Y. M. C. A. conducts 
a night school, giving first class instruc- 
tion. There are also several small pri- 
vate schools. 

The city and county take pride in one 
of the best Childrens* Homes to be found 
anywhere. The management is superior 
in every regard and meets the hearty ap- 
proval of everybody acquainted with the 
way in which it is conducted. Its school 
is managed along the most approved lines, 
the appointments of the Home are ade- 
quate and well chosen, the cleanliness of 
the institution is noted by all visitors, the 
tone and spirit of the inmates indicate 
that they are indeed in a home, and every- 
thing about the premises shows sound 
judgment in management and supervision. 

It is difficult to see how our Juvenile 
Court could be improved in personnel or 
in effective work. Probate Judge Brister 
is sufficiently tempered with the attributes 
of mercy to encourage every effort at self- 
legislation on the part of the delinquent, 
but has an insight and intuition that 
locates the cause of the delinquency with 
the parents, when it belongs there, and 
governs his orders accordingly. His as- 
sistants in the persons of probation officers, 
visitiniT board and truant officer, are not 
surpas>cd in adaptation for the work, earn- 
estness, power, sound judgment, nor in 



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NEWARK AS A CITY OF HOMES AND HEALTH 



73 



:hat immeasurable personality possessed by 
i few but which goes so far in moulding 
2liil<ilife. 

The city has several newspapers — The 
Newark Daily Advocate, The Daily Am- 
erican-Tribune, The German Express, The 
Semi -Weekly American-Tribune, and the 
Semi -Weekly Advocate. All these are of 
tHe Highest type of county and city papers 
and. some of them a force in state affairs. 
They preach the doctrine of good citizen- 
ship, are among the chief factors in mould- 
ing public sentiment, are not unreasonably 



RESIDENCL' OF ARCHIE C. DAVIS. 

partisan, advocate the pclicy of placing 
honest and efficient men in office, are 
looked to for advice concerning all city 
and county affairs and are loyal supporters 
of the public schools. Public betterments 
generally are championed by the papers 
and they give no stint of praise and pub- 
licity to every movement looking to the 
general good. They do not live by prey- 
ing upon one another, nor give so much 
space to the display of evil and the deeds 
of vice that they have no room for the 
life of virtue or the achievements of righte- 
ous movements. 

The police department enrolls twenty- 
five men and uses thirty-seven telegraph 
reporting boxes, each policeman reporting 
every hour for twelve hours in succession 
each day. The city is divided into twelve 
districts, each being patroled. A first- 
class patrol wagon is manned by four men. 
It may be turned iucO an ambulance also, 
as is often required. This department is 
well conducted and does all within its 



power to furnish safety and protection to 
the people. 

The fire department has stations in the 
central, east, west, and north parts of the 
city and is well equipped with men and 
means for fighting fire. The record of the 
department inspires confidence and makes 
the citizen feel that all will be done in 
case of fire that it would be possible for 
any such organization to do. The new 
water works will furnish an abundance of 
water for fire protection. Each of the 
four companies has a combination ladder- 
truck and chemical engine, besides a hose 
carriage. The department enrolls twenty- 
two firemen, has twelve head of horses 
and makes use of the police telegraph 
system. The efficiency of a fire depart- 
ment depends very largely upon its ability 
to reach a fire in its incipiency and the 
companies of this city make enviable rec- 
ords in this regard, as attested by the rat- 
ing given by insurance companies. The 
equipments and appliances are nearly all 
new, of the highest grade, and thoroughly 
up to date. 

The city electric light plant furnishes 
arc lights for the streets and has just in- 
stalled new lamps of the very latest type 
of Westinghouse. The Citizens Electric 
Light and Power Company furnishes light 
and power for all purposes and has just 
installed two new dynamos and engines. 

An abundance of natural gas is fur- 
nished for domestic purposes at eighteen 
cents a thousand and for other purposes 
at a lower rate. As one of the greatest 
fields in the world is in Licking county, 
the city is likely to be favored with natural 
gas for fuel and light for many years. It 
has been over twenty years since natural 
gas was first used in Newark. 

On all sides the city has new additions 
laid out — probably a dozen in all. These 
sites offer a variety of landscape for home 
or factory. One may locate along the 
first bottoms of the streams, on the beauti- 
ful terraces that margin the second bot- 
toms, on the level plains of East, West, 
or North Newark, on the gravelly hills at 
Woodside, or in the sandstone hills of 
South Newark. The hills around the city 
and the famed Buckeye Lake Park offer 
unsurpassed sites for summer residences. 



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From what has been said, it follows 
that Newark is the place for health. Its 
natural drainage, good water, high eleva- 
tion above the sea and actual health rec- 
ord, together attest this fact. 

Likewise, what has been said points out 
Newark as a desirable place in which to 
have a home, and this from many view- 
points. The favorable health record, his- 



toric interest, good streets, trunkline rail- 
roads, interurban lines, natural gas, fine 
residences, beautiful scenery, the several 
parks, good newspapers, social life, good 
schools, excellent churches, general high 
class of citizenship, and the opportunities 
for employment — all these advantages 
combined — make Newark a most desirable 
place to call "home." 



IN IDLEvVILDE PARK. 



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PEACE IN LICKING COUNTY. 



The Agricultural Interests of 
Licking County 



By F. H. Ballou 



THE native resources of a country 
largely determine its future, so- 
cially and commercially. A re- 
gion whose peculiar physical or 
climatic characteristics, or both, 
render possible the production 
of abundant materials and supplies for its 
people, is possessed of advantages which 
bestow a prestige recognized and unques- 
tioned among other countries less richly 
endowed by Nature. The absence of these 
natural resources cumber a land with a 
greater or lesser degree of dependence, be- 
queathing a heritage of restriction and of 
uncertainty of reward for himian enter- 
prise and endeavor. 

It is a matter of historical record that 
the sturdy pioneers found primitive Lick- 
ing count}' a section abounding richly in 
natural resources — a land in which it was 
possible for the explorer, hunter or home 
seeker to subsist easily and well. It 
afforded pure spring water, flowing from 
beneath "a thousand hills" ; numerous 
running streams abounding in many kinds 
of fish; abundant game, both furred and 
feathered; nuts in generous variety and 
quantity ; luscious berries of many kinds ; 
tree fruits of several species; edible and 



medicinal plants in profusion, and timber 
of the finest quality everywhere, for the 
construction of cabins and primitive farm 
structures, for fencing and for fuel. As 
clearings were made in the forest, cereals 
grown and a demand for a more rapid 
means of reducing these to flour and meal 
became of moment, a peculiar quality of 
flint or "buhr-stone," native to the great 
ridge or highland, was discovered and 
utilized in the building of the ponderous 
and clumsy buhr-mills or "grist mills" of 
early days. The slow, laborious quarry- 
ing of this substance, which seems almost 
proof against the action of the hardest 
steel, and the shaping of the huge, circular, 
flinty buhrs, was, in the early pioneer days 
of the county, an enterprise of consider- 
able importance. Not far from the 
country home of the writer there are yet 
to be seen several of these buhrs in various 
stages of completion — from the rough 
block just quarried and but slightly re- 
moved from its bed, to the more nearly 
finished stone of symmetrical, circular 
form, through the center of which is 
drilled a true, round hole six inches or 
more in diameter. Similar buhrs, though 
rougher in finish, are said to have been 



75 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



used for crushing or grinding the dried 
bark of the chestnut oak so extensively 
used in tanning leather in early years. 

It may be of interest, in passing, to note 
that from this same great highland known 
as the Flint Ridge was obtained by the 
Indians the superb quality of flint so 
largely used in the manufacture of arrow 
and spear heads, edge and cutting tools of 
certain kinds, and small utensils such as 



county of today, indebted for the almjst 
unbroken succession, in great variety, of 
all the staples and luxuries of the North 
Temperate zone, gained through skilful 
tillage of the varied soils and placed up- 
on our most excellent home marke:s — 
fresh, tempting, appetizing and healthful. 
With the exception of a limited number 
of small, open plains or prairies, the en- 
tire surface of the area within the bound- 



F. H. BALLOU. 



scrapers, perforators, etc., used in the 
crude life of the forest and wigwam. 

To the widely varying topographic and 
climatic conditions found among the hills, 
valleys and plains within the boundaries 
of Licking county, must be attributed these 
unusual native resources — this remarkable 
degree of primitive independence. 

To the same peculiar physical varia- 
tions are we, as citizens of the Licking 



aries of the county was heavily timbered 
with many valuable species and varieties 
of deciduous trees. A few species of ever- 
greens flourished jind are yet to be found 
on the more abrupt slopes of the hills 
and bluffs bordering valley and stream. 
This vast area of timber has been a great 
source of wealth to the county, affording 
abundant building material of the finest 
quality, right at hand, and returning un- 



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THE AGRICULTURAL INTERESTS OF LICKING COUNTY 



7T 



told thousands of dollars as a commercial 
product. 

Twenty years ago Licking county had 
59,701 acres of woodland — an area by 
far too insignificant when compared with 
the 302,167 acres at that period under 
cultivation and in pasture. Today the 
acreage of woodland is approximately 
34,200 — a decrease of about 25,427 acres, 



characteristic alike of owners of and deal- 
ers in the prodi^ts of the forest. 

It is an encouraging sign of the times^ 
howev^er, that there is an almost universal 
awakening to the importance of the main- 
tenance of the present woodland area. 
Our Government and our State are gener- 
ously co-operating with farmers and land- 
owners everywhere, in fostering and in- 



GROVE OF CATALPA SPECIOSO. 
Licking County, Three Yean Old. 

Photo by Ballou. 



or over 1,100 acres per year, while the 
acreage of cleared land, under cultivation 
and in pasture, is 241,267. 

Thus are we forced, in relating the pos- 
sibilities, past, present and future, of our 
beloved home land, to state a few unpleas- 
ant facts and to sound certain warnings; 
for, in a region so lavishly endowed by 
Nature, thoughtlessness and carelessness 
unconsciously and unintentionally become 



creasing the cqmmendable interest in the 
improvement of wood-lots and in re-forest- 
ing waste areas of hilly land, which never 
should have been denuded of their timber, 
by planting both quick growing and the 
well known standard species of our native 
trees. 

Even highly productive farm land in 
our county and State is being set to quick 
growing species of forest trees as an 



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PRIZE HOGS ON THE KELLL-R FARM. 



Photo by Smith. 



eccnomic or commercial enterprise. I am 
happy to note that this interest in Lick- 
ing county, while in its infancy, is a vig- 
orously growing one, and that we have 
reason to hope that the time is approach- 
ing when all manner of poles, stakes, posts, 
railroad ties and building material may be 
offered upon the market as a skillfully 
produced farm crop. We are fortunate in 
being able to present, in connection with 
this s{)ecial reference to forestry interests, 
a photogra[)h of a three-year-old grove of 
hardy catalpa {Catalpa speciosa) growing 
on the farm of Mr. Geo. H. Taylor, three 
miles east of Newark and, as a matter of 
interest, not far from the location of Lick- 
ing county's first corn field, planted by 
Elias Hughes in 1798. This particular 
little catalpa plantation is considered the 
most excellent for its age of any under 
the co-operative supervision of the State 
Forestry Department, which covers hun- 
dreds of acres of newly planted forests in 
Ohio. The young forest shown in the pic- 
ture is being gradually extended; and 
other and broader areas are being planted 
within the county. "Clover Hall," Mr. 
Taylor's farm home, is one of the ideal 
homes of Licking County, and the farm 
itself of more than ordinary interest, not 
only because of its varied, well-cared-for 
crops, but from the fact that the old 
homestead has been in the possession of 
the family continuously ior 100 years — 



the present owner being of the third gen- 
eration. 

The deep interest of the writer in all 
that promises well for his home county, 
prompts the statement that the farmer or 
land owner who is in any way becoming 
interested in forestry, should write to the 
experiment station at W'ooster for forestry 
literature and suggestitms as to woodland 
improvement and planting. 

The clearing away of the forests which 
luxuriated in and bordered the many beau- 
tiful valleys of the county, exposed rich 
treasures of soil and rare possibilities for 
agricultural development. Hundreds of 
ideally situated farms, graced by modern, 
substantial, neatly kept country homes, 
each with its living spring of pure, cold 
water, are located along the irregular 
margins of the valleys — the land extend- 
ing into the valley and quite level, used 
for systematic rotations of farm crops, 
while the high, round-topped, blue grass 
hills overlooking the. level expanses below 
afford ideal pasture land for all species 
of farm live stock. 

The western part of the county is 
mostly quite level, very fertile and excel- 
lently well adai)ted to growing the widest 
range of agricultural products, for dairy- 
ing and stock raising. Much of the hill 
land, too, occupying the eastern half of 
the county, was originally very fertile, 
especially the eastern slopes, where for 



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THE AGRICULTURAL INTERESTS OF LICKING COUNTV^ 



79 



centuries the forest drift of fallen foliage 
was carried from the western slopes by the 
strong western and south-western winds of 
Winter, over the crests of the hills and 
deposited on the leeward slopes, rendering 
the soil on such protected locations rich 
in humus or vegetable matter and the vari- 
ous elements of fertility necessary in the' 
production of a wide range of agricultural 
and horticultural products of fine quality. 
The greater number of most favorably 
located farms are devoted to the growing 
of corn, wheat, oats, hay, sheep, hogs, 
cattle and the production of milk and 



tation. As a farm for general agricultural 
purposes, however, it is also most scien- 
tifically operated. Ti:e amount paid by 
Colonel Crawford in buying and selling 
horses in Europe and America, including 
freight, approximates $10,000,000. The 
proprietor also operates two other farms 
in Licking County, aggregating 1,000 
acres, largely devoted to the horse breed- 
ing and raising. Colonel Crawford is now 
on one of his frequent visits to Belgium 
and France, looking for new importations 
of fine bred stock. 

The Fleminpj Brothers, of near Han- 



"PRODUCTS" OF A LICKIXG COUNTY FRL'IT FARM. 



Plioto by Baliou. 



Other dairy products. Licking County 
stands especially well up in the front 
ranks as a producer of live stock, grain 
and forage. There were, in 1906, 10,240 
h.orses, which places us fourth in the num- 
Ir^T of horses owned, among the counties 
of the State. The Sharon Valley Stock 
Farm of Colonel Geo. W. Crawford, near 
Newark, is one of the largest and most 
important horse importing and distribut- 
ing firms in Ohio. Colonel Crawford pur- 
chased the land, which is only about a 
mile and a half from Newark, about 
twenty-six years ago, and here he has de- 
veloped a stock farm of international repu- 



over, have also long been engaged in 
breeding, raising and selling a fine class 
of horses. 

In number of cattle owned. Licking 
County, in 1906, stood fourth — Ashta- 
bula being first. At that time Licking 
had, in round numbers, 24,123. Mr. John 
Montgomery was the pioneer breeder of 
Shorthorn cattle in the county and prob- 
ably did more to improve the herds of 
beef cattle in his section than has ever 
been accomplished through the influence 
of a single breeder in this part of the 
State. Mr. J- W. L. Motherspaw has at 
present probably the finest herd of dairy 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



cows in the county. His reputation as a 
breeder of an exceptionally fine strain of 
Jerseys extends throughout the State. 

Licking has ever been prominent as a 
sheep and wool producing county. In- 
deed, only one county in the State, Har- 
rison, led Licking in 1906, in which year 
our sheep numbered 87,507 and turned off 
for the market 562,815 pounds of wool. 

The number of hogs in 1906 was 18,280. 

In growing the necessary grain and 
roughage and the maintenance of the 



per year, with the crop of 19G5, grown 
on 15,139 acres, measuring 414,817 bush- 
els. Of rye there were, in 1905, 1,365 
acres, producing 16,180 bushels. Average 
annual production for ten years, 21,724.5 
bushels. 

There were 47,392 acres of timothy 
.meadow in 1905, from which 54,454 tons 
of hay were harvested. This crop placed 
Licking County third as a hay producer 
— Ashtabula being first and Trumbull 
second. The average tonnage of timothy 



COLONEL GEORGE VV. CRAWFORD'S SHARON VALLEY FARM. 

Photo by Hempsted. 



necessary pasturage for the support of 
these vast numbers of horses, cattle, sheep 
and swine, and at the same time produc- 
ing a heavy surplus of farm products for 
market, the soil of Licking County ex- 
hibits its possibilities to a remarkable de- 
gree. The production of com for the past 
ten years has averaged 1,604,753 bushels 
per year. In 1905, the last crop of which 
statistics are at this particular time avail- 
able, was 1,575,462 bushels, produced on 
44,270 acres of ground. Oats for the past 
ten years have averaged 371,188 bushels 



hay in Licking county for the past ten 
years is 54,543. 

Clover is not so largely grown as in 
some other sections of the State, although 
its use in rotation with other crops is in- 
dispensable in the maintenance of a good 
condition of the soil as to nitrogenous 
matter and a desirable physical character. 
There were 15,579 acres of clover in the 
county in 1905, from which 20,250 tons 
of hay were taken. The average annual 
product of clover hay for ten years is 
9,689.1 tons. 



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THE AGRICULTURAL INTERESTS OF LICKING COUNTV 



81 



The average yield of clover seed for ten 
years is 5,655.5 bushels, 5,257 bushels be- 
ing harvested in 1905. 

Licking County wheat fields have 
yielded an average of 354,362 bushels 
per year for the past ten years. The crop 
of 1905 was 393,717 bushels, and was 
grown on 27,260 acres of land. 

In addition to the vast quantities of 
stable manure used, there were 3,992,244 
pounds of commercial fertilizers used in 



supply. There were 860,663 gallons of 
milk sold for family use during the last 
year of which we have statistics — 1905. 
During the same time our home dairies 
alone produced 776,033 pounds, or over 
380 tons of butter. The tendency, how- 
ever, is more and more toward the dispo- 
sition of milk to creameries or skimming 
stations, increasing the income from the 
dairv herds and decreasing the labor of 
caring for the milk product. The use ot 



APPLE EXHIBIT AT THE LICKING COUNTY FAIR. 



supplementing the natural fertility of the 
soil in 1905. 

Licking County pasture lands embrace 
over 151,000 acres. 

It naturally follows that in a section 
so abundantly favored agriculturally the 
dairy interests should be particularly prom- 
inent. As in the matter of all other of 
her food supplies emanating from agri- 
cultural or rural sources, the city of New- 
ark is especially well served with dairy 
products of highest quality and in ample 



separators in private dairies is increasing 
— the cream alone being sold. The fac- 
tory product of butter in 1905 was 381,- 
343 pounds. 

The poultry interests of the county are 
considerable, the egg product alone adding 
all of $200,000 annually to farm incomes, 
which ii greater than the financial returns 
for the butter product of the home dairies. 
In 1905 there were produced 1,221,680 
dozens of eggs in the county. 

Potatoes and other vegetables succeed in 



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almost every part of the county, these 
reaching a high standard of excellence 
both on upland soil and in the fertile val- 
leys. Potato growing in the county is at- 
taining a considerable degree of com- 
mercial importance. The crop of 1905 
was 128,473 bushels. From the fact that 
the average annual product of potatoes 
for the past ten years was 95,539.5 bush- 
els, it is evident that this particular in- 



COLONEL GEORGE W. CRAWFORD. 

dustry, which seems to be the dividing 
line between agriculture and horticulture, 
is exhibiting a steady, healthy growth. 
"Lindenwald," the beautiful farm home 
of Mr. J. F. Keller, near Newark, leads 
in the potato interests of Licking County, 
as this is a seed potato farm whose repu- 
tation extends well outside our own State 
and to foreign countries. Mr. Keller is 
an expert in potato culture and has tested 
at various times some sixty varieties, with 
the result that he has produced superior 
kinds. He is scientific and enterprising 
in all his methods. Keller's Improved 
(Jreen Mountain potato is the result of 
long and careful experiment and study 
and is probably the most valuable potato 
grown for the general market. 

In point of number of classes of large 



and small fruits produced, owing to the 
widely differing elevations, soils, locations 
and slight climatic variations, there are, 
indeed, few counties, if any, in the State, 
which surpass Licking. The hills of Cen- 
tral Ohio, of which Licking County has 
a generous portion, produce apples of a 
deeper, more brilliant color and, we think, 
of finer flavor than those of the more 
northern sections of the State. In these 
desirable attributes our apples are equal 
to those grown in the celebrated region 
embracing the rugged, sunny hills of 
southern Ohio, overlooking the valhy of 
the Ohio river. 

But while we have tl.j necessary con- 
ditions for the growing of as fine aj^ples 
as can be produced anywhere in the world, 
quality considered, the industry is but in 
its infancy. The acreage of apple orchard 
in the county was 3,885 in 1905, ^ith a 
fruit product of 16,659 bushels. This 
acreage is almost wholly made up of home 
orchards, which are, as a rule, not given 
any special care in the way of cultivation, 
pruning or spraying, which are necessary 
in the production of the choicest fruit. 
There art* a few exceptions, of course, as 
apple culture is being taken up on a scien- 
tific, systematic basis by a number of 
growers and promises liberal returns finan- 
cially for the special care bestowed. 
Other tree fruits., even our hardier varie- 
ties of peaches, succeed well upon these 
favored uplands and hill-slopes. The 
acreage of peaches reported in 1905 was 
363, with a product of 4,558 bushels cred- 
ited thereto. Pears,^ plums, cherries and 
quinces are less largely grown, although 
the demand for these suggests that extra 
care in their production would add materi- 
ally to the financial returns of our soil 
culturists. Especially should attention be 
given to sour cherries and the finer vari- 
eties of European plums, which can be 
grown to great perfection on Licking 
county soil. The dreaded twig or "fire- 
blight" of pears and quinces, for which 
disease there is yet no remedy but cut- 
ting out and burning the diseased parts, 
renders attempted production of these 
fruits quite discouraging. 

Grapes and small-fruits of all classes 
and superb quality thrive exceedingly well 
on the protected, sunny slopes in our hilly 



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THE AGRICULTURAL INTERESTS OF LICKING COUNTY 



83 



area. More than ordinary care in the 
growing of an extra fine product of these 
will, in the future as in the past, return 
to the horticulturist a generous remunera- 
tion, while our own excellent home mar- 
ket of Newark, and others within easy 
reach by steam or trolley roads, are de- 
manding a greater and greater supply of 
fresh small and tree fruits. 

Foremost among Licking county's sev- 
eral noteworthy horticulturists is Homer 
C. Price, now Dean of our State Agricul- 
tural College at Columbus. Well known, 
too, is Cary W. Montgomery, a prominent 
horticultural lecturer regularly employed 
by the State Board of Agriculture for 
work at farmers' institutes. But what is 
of even more significance, Mr. Montgom- 
ery's "Chestnut Hill" fruit and potato 
farm is an excellently well kept and in- 
teresting one — well worthy of being vis- 
ited by any one inter^jsted in modern hor- 
ticulture. 

Vegetable growing for the Newark mar- 
ket is a large and growing industry in and 
bordering the beautiful valley of the Lick- 
ing river. The quality of the vegetable 
products is of the best, as is attested by 
the fact that in competition with vegetable 
products from many different counties of 
Ohio, at the State Fair, Licking county 
exhibits have repeatedly carried away a 
most liberal share of the prize;. 

In recent years the gard.*nin<jj firm of 



Kent & Sons has been a leading one; but, 
the sons having become the proprietors of 
the foremost seed house of Newark, Mr. 
Kent Senior is now turning his attention 
to vegetable plant growing and gardening 
under glass. T. E. Adams and Alex. Wil- 
son have also long been successful market 
gardeners and winning exhibitors at the 
State Fair. 

Mr, Walter S. Weiant, one of Newark's 
leading business men, has recently taken 
up the business of gardening on a large 
scale. Mr. Weiant has erected the largest 
green-houses to be devoted to the winter 
growing of vegetables, of any near New- 
ark. The growing of green- house products 
is, as yet, in its infancy in Licking County 
where our home market, as well as other 
large markets within easy reach, certainly 
justify the awakening interest in this fas- 
cinating branch of horticulture. 

Morally, intellectually and socially the 
agricultural and horticultural citizenship 
of Licking County represents a l^igh stand- 
ard of excellence, as might reasonably be 
expected from its numerous churches, its 
modern public schools and its various 
social organizations. The county abounds 
in comfortable, well-kept, attractive 
country homes, in which peace, happiness 
and prosperity rule, doing honor to its 
positicn so near the heart (f cur great 
State, which is widely conceded to be one 
among the best in the Union. 



J. F. KELLER'S "LINDENWALD" FARM. 



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IllE 



By Himself 



A GIRL in the parlor is worth two in a 
buggy. 

Hi Hfi ^ 

In the lottery of life the bachelors are 
the blanks. 

« :► 4e 

Some automobiles are run by gasoline 
and others by lunatics. 

* * * 

After all, a dead game sport is some 
improvement over a live one. 

4t 4t ♦ 

It is in a logical line of business for a 
doctor to drive an automobile. 

* * * 

I r is in the course of Nature that horns 
are always filled at stag parties. 

* * * 

Love laughs at chains, but it is no jest 
when they come from the jeweler's. 

* * * 

\V'hen you want to know whether a girl 
is fancy free or not, offer her onions. 

4t 4e « 

In love, as in war, it takes many an 
engagement to make a real campaign. 

* * * 

Talk is cheap but is able to do more 
harm than anything else in this world. 

:► 4e « 

Ennui is the feeling that you have 
money and want everybody to know it. 



Naturally a man is greatly moved 
when he is carried away with a woman. 

:¥ * t¥ 

Those who think love is a germ dis- 
ease might try matrimony as an antitoxin. 

« 4t 4t 

The man with a baby carriage shows 
he is willing to push a good thing along. 

♦ 4t 4e 

Some men never develop a strong mind 
except in connection with a strong breath. 

♦ * * 

It seems odd that there were no men 
of war about when Venus rose from the 
sea. 

♦ :► ♦ 

One swallow does n't make a summer, 
but several swallows will make a summer 
lark. 

♦ ♦ 4t 

When business is slack we can improve 
conditions by keeping out of other peo- 
ple's. 

♦ « % 

If all the laws were enforced, there 
would be nobody left out of jail to break 
them. 

♦ ♦ * 

A poet never appears to such good ad- 
vantage as when he has had something 
to eat. 



84 



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THE BUCKEYE PHILOSOPHER 



85 



It is hard luck when your best girl 
returns neither your affection nor your 
presents. 

* ♦ ♦ . 

"Let us, then, be up and doing," says 
the poet. "Yes," says the practical man, 
"but who?" 

* * ♦ 

There is no use talking about an in- 
come tax at the present price of spring 
vegetables. 

4c 4t ♦ 

It must be true that beer is liquid food, 
because so many people get along with- 
out any other. 

* ♦ ♦ 

Among other uses of the automobile its 
adaptability for producing fines should not 
be overlooked. 

* * * 

In making a formal call on a cannibal 
king it is proper for the guest to furnish 
the refreshments. 

* * * 

Sometimes the head of the family gets 
so desperate that he goes off and spends 
money on himself. 

4t « * 

Some old couples wonder at the popu- 
larity of automobiles that require two 
hands to manipulate. 

* * * 

The rest cure is doubtless a good thing, 
but the man with a family is inclined to 
regard it as a myth. 

At * * 

A collar button is made without eyes 
in order to spare it the sight of the man 
heard swearing at it 

* i * 

The people who are most emphatic in 
•denouncing divorce are either happily 
married or unmarried. 

* * 4t 

An apartment house is a building in 
which the rooms are not large enough to 
be otherwise designated. 

nt * * 

The wild waves were probably saying 
that a man in a bathing suit is the worst 
looking thing on earth. 



When a man can't get his wife to lis- 
ten to him any other way, he can always 
do it by talking in his sleep. 

4e 4t * 

It is right that a woman should share 
a man's cares after they are married, be- 
cause that is when they begin. 

* * Hf 

We can believe in the transmigration of 
souls when we observe how readily some 
men make asses of themselves. 

* 4t ♦ 

An argument is a joint expression -el 
opinions that neither party to the discus- 
sion has any chance of changing. 

* * * 

Wives with a conscience are hereby 
notified that a Michigan man recently 
dropped dead while washing dishes. 

* * * . 

A receiver is an x-Ticer of the court ap- 
pointed to see that nobody else connected 
with the business receives anything. 

* * ♦ 

Many good people worry so much about 
what they ought to do that they don't 
have time to do what they might do. 

* * * 

The State of Ohio has $6,000,000 on 
deposit, but then it should be remembered 
that the legislature is not in session. 

* * * 

In justification of the Kansas woman 
who hit her husband with an alarm clock, 
it might be pleaded that the act was 

timely. 

* * * 

Women who appreciate a daily hint 
from Paris are laughed at by men who 
have n't sense enough to take any kind 

of a hint. 

* * * 

If the sewing machines worked as hard 
as the pianos, there might not be so much 
music in the world, but there would be 
more harmony. 

* * ♦ 

The power developed by electricity in 
this country would go out of business, if 
we could utilize the lung power exhibited 
at base ball games. 



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A Yearlms: 



WITH the present number The 
Ohio Magazine enters its sec- 
ond year and third volume. 
An editorial announcement in 
the first issue, July, 1906, de- 
clared that the establishment of 
the magazine proceeded from the recog- 
nition of a condition, not the promulga- 
tion of a theory. It took into account pri- 
marily the fact that the Buckeye State, 
with a population of more than, 4,000,000, 
resources vast enough to make it a princely 
empire in itself, a past justly celebrated 
in the history of the world's most import- 
ant Nation and a future brilliant with the 
promises of inestimable achievements, had 
no representative in the field of periodical 
literature such as was then contemplated 
in this magazine. To quote this saluta- 
tory of one year ago : 

**We have the men, the memories and 
the expectations calculated to vindicate 
the highest ambition in this direction. We 
have a history, unhappily too rarely en- 
larged upon, plainly suggesting the de- 
sirability of a literary mouthpiece for the 
State and — because of the lofty position 
of this commonwealth in the Union of 
states — for the Nation, if you please. 
We have the institutions, the industries, 
the arts, the ideas, the ambition and the 
pride necessarily affirming a condition 
which, across the pathway of this enter- 
prise, spells the word 'Opportunity.' 
Then why not The Ohio Magazine?" 

It was asserted that the periodical thus 
heralded would try to stand for Ohio 
character and represent what is best in 
Ohio manhood and womanhood; that it 
would seek a special sphere in which it 
hoped to exercise an educational influence 
for the betterment of material conditions 



and the uplifting of moral and mental 
standards ; that it would exhibit what 
cause might exist that the Ohioan should 
be proud of his State, by dealing candidly 
and comprehensively with its history,, 
progress and hope of future development. 
"In detail," said the announcement, "these 
objects will be infinitely diversified, but 
in inspiration and purpose they will be the 
same." 

On the negative side the management 
declared that The Ohio Magazine would 
not be exclusively local in interest to the 
State it represents, but would aim to jus- 
tify its existence everywhere. Its mission- 
was not to tear down, but to build up; it 
would have no war with established insti- 
tutions. State or National, that have 
proven their usefulness through genera- 
tions of human experience; if educa- 
tional, it would not be pedantic; if ag- 
gressive, not arbitrary; if dignified, not 
patronizing. It would assume no schol- 
astic or paternal tone, nor would it pander 
to the sensational or the low-minded. 
Finally, it had no ulterior objects in view, 
no axe to grind, no special interest to pro- 
mote, no purpose to serve beyond the wel- 
fare of its readers and the satisfaction of 
its business patrons. 

It is not for The Ohio Magazine to 
say how far the intentions and aspirations 
briefly outlined in this salutatory have 
been justified in the first year of its exist- 
ence. Most assuredly, neither have been 
rounded out in the fulness of mature en- 
deavor. But it is certain that a degree- 
of progress has been attained unexpected 
in some quarters, but most gratifying in: 
all. It has been proven beyond questioft 
that the field only awaited cultivation, suc- 
cess or failure depending upon the zeal 
and intelligence with which it should be 



86 



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EDITORIAL 



87 



cultivated. It has been proven that such 
zeal and intelligence would meet with the 
cordial support and godspeed of thou- 
sands of men and women in sympathy 
with the objects in view, and that to them, 
at the close of the first year of the maga- 
zine's career, and even unto the fulness 
thereof, would be due the grateful thanks 
of those who have thus far had the good 
fortune to lead The Ohio Magazine on 
its journey of usefulness. 

And so the yearling draws a long 
breath, gathers himself together and 
strikes out for better things. 



The Picnic 



THERE are people in this world 
so near nothingness that they 
look with disfavor and even 
with contempt upon that great 
American institution, the picnic. 
They see no joy in a Sunday 
school afield; they regard a family repast 
of cold chicken and bread and butter in 
the woods that were "God's first temples," 
as a lapse into barbarism, while a pretty 
girl in a swing appeals no more to their 
dormant imagination than a blushing 
peach to a chronic dyspeptic. 

But happily these unfortunate people 
are not in the majority. There is still a 
controlling element in American citizen- 
ship which holds that the picnic has vast 
advantages over any other form of social 
communion. For instance, there is joy to 
the whole gladsome circle when a careless 
swain sits on a custard pie at a picnic; 
but what pain and consternation, would 
ensue, if this pleasing event should occur 
in a dining room I To be outdoors with 
Nature, reclining on her greensward, be- 
neath her grateful trees, breathing her re- 
vivifying air, but the while concentrating 
a large part of our attention upon the 
viands adorning a white linen centerpiece 
— this is life. Where is the cuisine of a 
metropolitan hotel that can equal it? 
Talk of green turtle soup, broiled lobster 
and champagne — what is the matter with 
cold tongue, sour pickles, hard boiled eggs 
and lemonade? The fact is that every 
other form of repast is an eccentricity, 
while the picnic is an institution. 



On the part of every true American 
citizen, therefore, it is a solemn duty, as 
well as a blessed privilege, not only to 
extol the picnic among the unregenerate, 
but to acquaint himself, his family and 
friends, with its manifold virtues. In do- 
ing so he will exalt the just pride of 
patriotism and preserve one of the most 
useful institutions handed down to pos- 
terity by the founders of the Republic. 

More than that, he will conciliate his 
kindred and keep divorce out of the family. 
The trouble with many men who do not 
understand women, is that they don't go 
to picnics often enough. The picnic levels 
all s6cial inequalities and is the great com- 
promising agent of all family and neigh- 
borhood problems. It helps men and 
women to understand one another and 
learn that there is a common ground where 
artificial barriers to true happiness may be 
disposed of, to far greater advantage than 
elsewhere. 

The happiness of the Nation during 
this blessed Summer may be estimated by 
the number of picnics. A bureau of picnic 
statistics should be inaugurated at Wash- 
ington, and there could be no objection 
if a Secretary of Picnic Science were added 
to the President's cabinet. This would 
enable the sociologists to keep authentic 
record of the improvement of the race by 
this means, and the Nation, politically as 
well as morally, could not fail to profit 
immeasurably from the inn()va::ion. 



The Destiny of Species 



SCIENCE has long made a study 
of the origin of species, but 
their destiny has received less 
attention. Humanity is inter- 
ested in the origin of species 
chiefly because Man regards 
himself as the highest type and definite 
result in the scheme of evolution. There- 
fore he is pleased to observe through what 
form; of life he passed in reaching his 
present degree of progress. Conceitedly 
regarding himself as the finality of Crea- 
tion, he considers the origin of species as 
an interesting study viewed from the 
standpoint of his own present condition, 
but takes no interest in the destiny of 



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88 



THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



species, because he believes it already ful- 
filled in himself. 

But Man is as thoughtless as he is vain. 
His countless limitations seldom receive 
his consideration, while his real powers 
are tremendously exaggerated in his own 
opinion. If he thinks he represents per- 
fection in the evolution of species in this 
world — to say nothing of the next or 
some other world — he must have formed 
a very low judgment of the purposes of 
life in all its forms. 

Inadequate Man is very far from a be- 
ing worthy to be called the last species in 
evolutionary history. The greater part of 
his activities are bent upon annihilating 
space, mainly for the purpose of making 
money; but he has never put into opera- 
tion or conceived a visible physical move- 
ment that, as related to him, is compar- 
able with the agility of a gnat. The grass- 
hopper is tremendously his superior in the 
art of pedestrianism. Man's limitations 
are such that he cannot survive under 
water n:r at any CLUsiderable heighth 
above land. None of his physical attri- 
butes are definitely established, for he 
would go blind if left in a cave, and his 
limbs offer no more substantial evidences 
of permanence than his tail did some gen- 
erations ago. 

Poor Man builds Pullman cars with 
spacious observation windows on both 
sides, but he can only look out of one 
window at a time. A horse sitting in the 
car would see the whole landscape on both 
sides; while a bee, if there were no more 
obstructions in front and rear than on the 
sides, would see over, above and around, 
within the whole scope of his vision. 
Poor Man cannot even look behind him 
without turning around. Both the ante- 
lope on the mountain and the fish in the 
sea can do that, at least to some extent, 
while the insect world is even their su- 
perior in this happy faculty. 

Poor Man makes a great pretense as a 
lover and preserver of harmonies, but he 
cannot even hear the music of Nature. 
What he does hear is hardly a staccato 
note in the whole chorus of wonderful 
sounds that thrill the universe, to the de- 
light of creatures very far from human 
perfection. So, with all his senses Man 
finds on every hand tests imposed by other 



creatures which he is utterly powerless to 
approximate. 

We cannot very well imagine how to 
improve on the present species. The addi- 
tion of another nose or another eye does 
not appeal to us, although the eye might 
be of some account. But we are com- 
pelled to admit, if we stop to think about 
it, that the human species, as compared 
with other species that we know, might 
be improved with a consequent enlarge- 
ment of its powers. Man is, therefore, in 
a poor position to affirm that he is the 
ultimate thing, even in this world. The 
jackass might as well boast that his bray 
is the hern of Gabriel. 




•*Oor Japanese Question*' 

jHERE is food for no little re- 
flection in the article devoted 
to "Our Japanese Question," by 
Charles B. Galbreath, State 
Librarian of Ohio, elsewhere 
published in . this magazine. 
The inferences logically proceeding from 
Mr. Galbreath's statements of fact and 
opinion we believe will appeal to ths Am- 
erican people, whenever understood by 
them, as vindicating the attitude of the 
people of California in the present contro- 
versy. 

But, whatever the final public judgment 
may be, and regardless of what the Gen- 
eral Government or the State of California 
should do or not do in the premises at the 
present time, it is fair to assert that there 
would never be an acute Japanese question 
in this country, if it were not for our 
blundering and almost criminal policy of 
acquiring territory in the Orient. How it 
was acquired matters little ; some say by 
purchase, but the facts are more suggestive 
of conquest. It is too late now to go over 
that ground ; and yet we have a right, and 
even owe it as a duty to ourselves to re- 
gard the present situation from the stand- 
point of our ancient policies. 

This country would never invite trouble 
with Japan; an anti-Japanese feeling 
could not be fomented here without pro- 
vocation from Japan herself. Nor would 
Japan ever dream of a war with America 
— much less of deliberately conspiring to 



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EDITORIAL 



89 



bring it about — if Uncle Sam had not 
developed a carbuncle in the form of the 
Philippine Islands. This is our vulner- 
able point, just as Port Arthur was the 
vulnerable point for the Russians; and it 
is significant that, the two are about equi- 
distant as related to the seat of govern- 
ment of the two countries — Port Arthur 
about 5,000 miles from St. Petersburg, 
and Manila about 5,000 miles from Wash- 
ington. The lesson of the Russo-Japanese 
war should not be forgotten, notwith- 
standing it merely emphasized other his- 
tory relating to the attempts of various 
nations in the art of exploitation. The 
great Russian bear crouched across a con- 
tinent, but the paw that reached beyond 
the Empire had gangrene, and the blood 
poisoning which naturally set in at Port 
Arthur caused the collapse of the beast. 

If they have a Roman ambition, the 
Japanese cannot be blamed for seeing that 
the United States, since adopting a col- 
onial policy, has placed itself in a most 
vulnerable position. With American ter- 
ritory confined between the two oceans 
and the boundary lines of Canada and 
Mexico, the combined navies of the world 
would reflect a long time before commit- 
ting an assault upon us. But with the 
chain of our national strength disclosing 
its weakest link in the Philippines, it is 
hardly stronger in whole than it is in part. 
The Japanese know this, as the rest of the 
world knows it; and it is surely time for 
Americans to realize it. 

In large part we shall have ourselves 
to blame for any unfortunate develop- 
ments in the Japanese situation. 



Ohio Societies in The Ohio Magfazine 



^^ 



THE article entitled "Ohio In 
Southern California," by Ken- 
neth J. Murdoch, in the cur- 
rent number of The Ohio 
Magazine^ is a notable contri- 
bution as indicating the spirit 
of loyalty to the Buckeye State which still 
prevails among those of her former sons 
and daughters who are now living in the 
far West; but it is still more significant 
as the beginning of an extended series of 
articles to be published in this magazine, 



which will give the history and Status of 
all the active Ohio societies now flourish- 
ing in the various states of the Union. 

The New York society may bs regarded 
as the parent one, but it is not numerically 
the most important. One thousand plates 
were served to members and guests at the 
banquet of the Ohio Society of San Fran- 
cisco previous to the earthquake disaster, 
and there are probably more Ohioans en- 
rolled in the Los Angeles society than in 
that of New York. Nevertheless, the 
precedence which Ohicans in New York 
City have taken for many years in foster- 
ing this spirit of organization and present- 
ing it to the country in its best light, en- 
titles them to the ranking place as the or- 
iginators and supporters of Ohio societies. 

It must be admitted that this example 
has been followed in other states with a 
fidelity and enthusiasm unparalleled among 
other state social organizations. Ohio leads 
the van in the procession of loyal Americans 
desirous of signifying their attachment to 
the State of their nativity. The history of 
the many Ohio societies which owe their 
existence to this fact, as now proposed to 
be published in The Ohio Magazine^ 
must prove not only interesting to those 
directly concerned, but, in many instances, 
of permanent value as a record of pro- 
gress; because progress is the condition 
into which the Ohioan immediately throws 
himself, whatever his environment. 

As in the case of Los Angeles, for in- 
stance, the history of that city could not 
be written competently without substantial 
reference to the men of Ohio who have 
contributed to its development. Whatever 
is recorded regarding the Ohio societies of 
Southern California, therefore, is worthy 
of preservation as local history, and the 
same thing is true of many important Ohio 
societies, too numerous to mention here. 
In thus presenting the Ohio societies of 
the country to one another and to the peo- 
ple now living in Ohio, The Ohio Maga- 
zine predicts that all interested will be 
surprised at their number, history and use- 
fulness. It should be an agreeable work 
from the standpoint of State pride, and 
one in which, we have no doubt, the read- 
ers of this magazine will take peculiar 
interest. 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 




Qties as States 

HERE is both novelty and no « 
small degree of common senie 
in the suggestions presented by 
Howard Louis Conard's article 
entitled "New Work for State 
Makers," in the current number 
of The Ohio Magazine. They will 
prove especially interesting to the many 
persons now devoting attention to munici- 
pal problems in this country but may well 
appeal with equal force to those who do 
not dwell in our great cities ; for the divi- 
sion of government contemplated by Mr. 
Conard would affect the smaller cities and 
the country quite as well as New York, 
Chicago or Philadelphia. 

Whatever the remedy is to be, there is 
no doubt that many evils grow out of the 
dominance of state politics by large cities. 
The interests of the people of New York 
City and of New York State outside of the 
city are not often identical, when it comes 
to legislation at Albany. Their mutual 
interests are not often promoted by such 
legislation, which frequently results in an 
inextricable tangle of affairs metropolitan 
as opposed to affairs urban and rural. The 
people of New York City are not in sym- 
pathy with the people of the remainder of 
the State, in the sense that the rural com- 
munities and cities like Buffalo and 
Rochester are in sympathy with one an- 
other. Even if the influence of the metrop- 
olis and the remainder of the State were 
equal, there still would be a clash of in- 
terests, but where that of the former is 
often dominating the inequality of the 
situation becomes more obvious and in- 
spires a natural desire for reform by the 
means suggested by Mr. Conard or by 
some other means. 

Comparatively speaking, there would be 
no objection to the admission of New 
York, Philadelphia or Chicago to the 
Union as separate states, based on popula- 
tion or resources. Any one of them has 
much better claims to statehood, at least 
so far as population is concerned, than 
could have been asserted by many of the 
Western states already admitted. The 
beneficial results that would ensue from 
making states of these cities would give 
their people the home rule that they de- 



serve and relieve New York, Pennsylvania 
and Illinois of their dominating influence 
in politics. 

This new work for state makers is well 
worthy of consideration. In any event 
future states of the Union will be erected 
from those already existing, for state lines 
are now laid out practically within our 
entire territory. There are many reasons 
for believing that the partition of Texas 
is not a question as imminent as what to 
do with the government of our great cities. 
Mr. Conard's suggestions would have a 
radical effect upon the latter and should 
not be overlooked in the consideration of 
future state making. 



A G>niin^ History G>nference 



NUCH interest should and undoubt- 
edly will attach to a project 
__^ now on foot in favor of a **his- 
^iUC tory conference," especially de- 
I voted to the historic interests 
of the Ohio Valley, which is to 
be held in Cincinnati, November 29th and 
30th next, under the auspices of about a 
dozen organizations in that section repre- 
senting the Historical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio, the Cincinnati Branch of 
the Archaeological Institute of America, 
and various hereditary patriotic societies. 
The meetings will be held in the buildings 
cf the University of Cincinnati, and this 
institution will interest itself in the objects 
in view to the extent of no little practical 
aid. 

One of the chief objects of the confer- 
ence will be the awakening of interest in 
local history throughout the State, with a 
view to increasing the number and useful- 
ness of local historical societies. One 
meeting will also be devoted to consider- 
ing some practical problem in connection 
with the work of history teaching. An- 
other will take up the work of the various 
patriotic societies, and still other means 
will be elaborated in favor of the same 
general objects, which relate to increasing 
popular interest in local history through- 
out Ohio, stimulating the work of gather- 
ing and preserving historical records, and 
bringing the workers of history into closer 
relation throughout the State. 



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The Cincinnati committee having the 
preliminaries in charge consists of Charles 
Theodore Greve, Isaac Joslin Cox and 
Frank Parker Goodwin. Mr. Goodwin is 
the secretary, with headquarters at 34-35 
Observatory Place, Cincinnati; and all 
[)ersons, in Ohio or elsewhere, interested 
in the objects which the conference has 
in view, are invited to place themselves 
in communication with him. It is nsed- 
less to say that the enterprise deserves the 
cordial good will and support of intelli- 
gent Ohioans, and it is to be hoped that 
the conference will be so successful as to 
require a permanent organization to con- 
tinue its good work. 



Expensive Peace 



in 1910. Thus the inmiense expenses to 
maintain peace by squandering wealth on 
preparation for war, continue to exhaust 
the leading nations. It is a sad conmien- 
tary on human intelligence in this genera- 
tion — to say nothing of the moral teach- 
ings of Christianity — when the bare facts 
regarding continual preparations for war 
are 'laid before a world that is in reality 
peace-loving. 



Another Phase of the Thaw Case 



W 



WHILE permanent international 
peace through arbitration con- 
tinues to make some progress 
without achieving any real re- 
sults, the so-called enlightened 
nations are spending more 
money on the kind of peace that involves 
preparation for war, than ever before. 
The disease of naval extravagance is all- 
pervading and blights republics as well as ' 
monarchies. Preserving the peace by be- 
ing prepared for war is almost, if not 
quite, as expensive as war itself and saps 
the strength of international industry in 
every department of human endeavor. 

In the past ten years the United States, 
(Germany and Japan have more than doub- 
led their annual naval expenditures, and 
during the same period the expense of the 
naval program of these nations, with 
Great Britain and France added, has in- 
creased nearly ninety per cent. In all the 
countries named the increase of expense 
for the peace that is preserved by being 
prepared for war, has been vastly in ex- 
cess of the increase of population and 
production of wealth. 

England recently launched the Dread- 
^ught, the largest and most formidable 
battleship in the history of navies, but 
Japan already has specifications for a 
larger one, and the United States has com- 
pleted plans for two larger, to be finishttl 



NEWSPAPER dispatches declare 
that Harry K. Thaw, still con- 
fined in the Tombs awaiting 
his second trial for murder, is 
losing his mind. It is freely 
predicted that he will be de- 
clared insane before opportunity will ever 
arrive to declare him guilty or innocent of 
the crime with which he is charged. It 
is significant that the prisoner's mental 
condition became alarming as soon as he 
learned that the assistant district attorney- 
engaged in the prosecution of his case in 
the first trial was about to leave on a two 
or three months* vacation in Europe. 

Few decent people will desire to have 
the Thaw case recalled, in many of its 
phases, but this aspect of it deserves gen- 
eral consideration. The man has had a 
mistrial, amounting to no trial, but the 
custom of our courts, in violation of his 
constitutional rights as an American citi- 
zen, requires him to -languish or go mad 
in jail, while his prosecutors hie them- 
selves to Europe for rest or recreation. 

Nor is this an isolated case. Our ad- 
ministration of criminal law is even worse 
than that of the civil laws with reference 
to the injustice of postponed hearings, and 
Heaven knows that the civil law processes 
are bad enough. Every man imprisoned 
for alleged crime has a right and deserves 
to be tried at the earliest possible moment, 
which is very far from what will be the 
fact in the Thaw c^ase and what is the 
fact in most criminal cases. If public 
sentiment in favor of Thaw in reference 
to his crime is not justified, it will at least 
not be diminished by denying him the 
early trial to which he is entitled. 



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Corporations in Ohio 

From the Columbus, Ohio, Sun. 

IN an important and informing article ap- 
pearing in the June number of The 
Ohio Magazine Hon. Charles Kinney, 
former secretary of state, points out the ad- 
vantages of Ohio as a field for corporate 
investment. This is a subject upon which 
Mr. Kinney's views are those of an expert, 
for it was during his administration of the 
department of secretary of state, from which 
the corporations obtain their licenses and to 
which they are required to report, that many 
of the most important of the present laws 
affecting those business enterprises were en- 
acted. He is familiar, therefore with the re- 
quirements of the Ohio statutes and the priv- 
ileges and immunities they confer. 

Mr. Kinney believes the policy of a state 
with reference to corporations "is of vastly 
more importance than is that of the federal 
government, as a state may prohibit a cor- 
poration from carrying on a business that 
may be engaged in lawfully by an individual, 
or may impose such burdens as to aflfect the 
ability of the corporation to conduct its busi- 
ness at a profit." Federal laws, on the con- 
trary, operate only upon commerce and the 
instruments of commerce — that is, upon com- 
modities or things transported through, into 
or out of a state, and on the means of such 
transportatior. — and as to these, they aflfect 
all alike. Thus while the federal government 
may interdict the transportation of articles 
injurious to public heahh or morals, a state 
may permit such articles to be bought and 
sold among its citizens, and the federal gov- 
ernment is powerless to interfere. 

For these reasors, if a state pursues to- 
ward its corporations a policy of proper regu- 
lation without oppression, it is certain to at- 
tract such business enterprises. This is pre- 
cisely the policy the State of Ohio has been 
pursuing in recent years, notably since the 
stockholders' liability amendment in 1903, and 
the result has been an enormous increase in 
this form of investment here. Mr. Kinney 
says it is probable "the people builded wiser 



than they know when they assented to the 
change in our organic law which has induced 
tbis great influx of capital and stimulated 
our industries; but it is safe to venture the 
prediction that, having witnessed the bene- 
ficial results of a liberal treatment of cor- 
porations, whatever changes hereafter may be 
deemed advisable in our taxing system, the 
laws regulating corporations have come to 
stay." 

There can be no question of the soundness 
of Mr. Kinney's conclusion that the state 
gains more by a liberal policy that invites 
investment, thus increasing values, than it 
does by fleecing the corporations simply be- 
cause it has the power to do so. 



The Minister in Demand 

From the Baltimore Sun. 

THE Rev. Dr. James H. Ecob, pastor of a 
fashionable congregation of the Unitar- 
ian Church in Philadelphia, preached a 
remarkable farewell address to his flock last 
Sunday. It seems, according to reports, that 
some of the wealthy "society" folk of Dr. 
Ecob's church were scandalized at his plain, 
democratic ways, his disregard of fashions 
and some social conventionalities and his 
careless method of dressing himself. These 
things, it is reported, led to his resignation. 
"Many ministers are resenting today," Dr. 
Ecob said, "the demand of the church for a 
simply decorative ministry — a ministry that 
tiptoes gently and graciously at 4 o'clock teas 
and smiles benignly at the bridge-whist tables; 
a ministry whose pulpit utterances have the 
quality of what is known by country people 
as foxfire, a pale, phosphorescent glimmer, 
the product of decayed wood." There may be 
in some congregations, in some localities, in 
some classes of society, a demand for the 
kind of ministers described by Dr. Ecob. But 
he is surely in error when he speaks of such 
a demand as being the demand of the church. 
The demand, on the contrary, is for manly 
men in the ministry — men who understand 
other men, who comprehend their weaknesses. 



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iheir temptations, their impulses and know 
how to sympathize with them and deal with 
them. 



Discipline for Students 

From the Cincinnati Enquirer. 

THE faculty of Princeton University has 
expelled thirty-one students, nearly all 
of them members of the freshman class, 
for conducting a keg party, which is an old 
practice at Princeton. The participating stu- 
dents doubtless feel that they have been de- 
prived of a time-honored right and privilege, 
but the practice having become more offen- 
sive year by year drastic measures were taken. 
\ procession follows a watercart and a dray 
loaded high with kegs, which are subsequently 
emptied in a secluded part of the campus. 
About three hundred students attended the 
festivities this year, but only ^ thirty-one of 
them were safely identified as actual partici- 
pants. This expulsion, if it is not compro- 
mised or receded from, will be a first-rate 
lesson. Probably college life was more re- 
bellious and in worse taste than now, when 
men of present maturity were students; but 
it is by no means straight laced, not even 
universally decent, in our day. 

Unless the college managements get better 
hold of their duties some day the honors of 
graduation will be secondary to the notoriety 
of rowdyism. Even the Military Academy at 
West Point and the Naval Academy at An- 
napolis carry on hazing to such an extent that 
the officers appear to lose control, or to be 
participants in the contemptible codes which 
have often developed under investigation. 
One class of students, glad to escape from 
home-teaching, or never having had the bene- 
fit of good breeding, determines that some 
other class shall not be composed of gentle- 
men. The officers are too often helpless or 
indifferent, or governed too much by coarse 
traditions to take any action in the matter 
unless they are goaded and threatened by 
Congress. A great many young men who 
would make the best officers are kept away 
from the military and naval schools, so that 
they may not have to undergo insult and 
humiliation at the hands of those who have 
themselves been jarred in their young man- 
hood, and seek a cowardly revenge for their 
experience on innocent people. The student 
is one of the great hopes of the country. 



and in a normal state deser\'es honor; but he 
does not "own the earth," and ought to have 
that fact hammered into him with his classics 
and tactics. That is to say, the self-sufficient 
student who wants to be "tough." 



Growth of Trolley Systems 

From the Mansfield News. 

WE are very familiar with our own trolley 
lines in a way and have some con- 
ception of the amount of business they 
do. But we do not often think of what the 
aggregate trolley business of the country at 
large is. So statistics concerning the same 
of what a comparatively new means of loco- 
are interesting, as they tell a wondrous story 
motion is accomplishing. Last year about 
6,000,000 passengers traveled by trolley in the 
United States, which is four or five times 
as many as used steam cars. An average of 
17,000,000 trolley fares are collected daily in 
the country, and a third of a million em- 
ployes are connected with electric transpor- 
tation. The business is comparatively new, 
and is an illustration of the swiftness with 
which fresh adjustments of American in- 
dustry can rise. Though 260 miles of horse^ 
car lines and 240 miles of cable lines are still 
operated, they are looked upon as curiosities 
that have been belated, and will disappear as 
soon as the traffic is put in the best shape. 



New York at Japs Mercy 

From the New York Tribune. 

THE possibility of a conflict between Am- 
erica and Japan is so remote that it 
almost seems either preposterous or 
criminal to consider it. Yet it is quite obvi- 
ous that most of the talk about naval move- 
ments to which we have referred is inspired 
by the thought — we hope not the desire — 
of such a catastrophe to civilization. Per- 
haps it may be fitting to suggest to these 
amateur strategists, therefore, that if there 
were not only a possibility but an actual cer- 
tainty of war with Japan there would be 
doubts of the wisdom of rushing all our 
fighting ships to the Pacific coast for pur- 
poses of defense and thus leaving our At- 
lantic coast undefended, for the reason that 
the distance from San Francisco to New 
York is almost as great as, and that from 
Seattle to New York is much greater than. 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



the distance from Yokohama to New York, 
and that, therefore, Japan could strike New 
York with her fleet before our own ships 
could get back from Puget sound to defend it. 



The ''Blue Uws'' 

From the Crestline (Ohio) Advocate. 

AT St. Joseph's Catholic Church last Sun- 
day, Rev. H. E. Boesken, the pastor, 
said, in the course of his sermon, that 
he did not disapprove of Sunday excursions; 
in fact, he rather approved of them. Of 
course, Rev. Boesken was preaching on the 
proper observance of the Lord's Day and said 
that the Lord made Sunday that the faithful 
might serve Him and rest. It would be a 
very great wrong for a person to miss at- 
tending to their religious duties for the pur- 
pose of taking in a Sunday excursion or any 
other form of amusement. The simple mean- 
ing of his sermon was that the people should 
^ive to God the things that are God's and 
that simple and innocent amusements in- 
<lulged in on the Sabbath Day could mean no 
wrong. 

There is little doubt but that the great 
majority of people will heartily agree with 
Rev. Boesken's broad and liberal view of 
Sunday observance. There is no doubt but 
that all of us believe in a Supreme Being 
and with such a belief we certainly ought not 
be averse to giving a part of the Sabbnth Day 
to serving oUr Creator. After this has been 
well done any harmless amusement can be in- 
-dulged in without fear of doing wrong. Of 
course there are people the world over who 
will scoff at the idea of Sunday excursions, 
Sunday baseball, Sunday band concerts, Sun- 
day theatres, Sunday picnics and every pos- 
sible form of amusement which could give a 
few hours pleasure to the man and woman 
who have toiled earnestly and diligently for 
six long days with scarcely a ray of sunshine 
and certainly no amusement to lighten their 
daily labors. 

The great majority of the people belong to 
the working class. To make ends meet they 
must work; they have neither the time or the 
money to take promiscuous vacations of a 
day or two, or possibly a month throughout 
the summer. Who is it among us that is 
human who will expect this class, which is 
the great majority of the people, to spend 
their one day of relaxation from work en- 



tirely in the church or, when they are not in 
the church, to the diligent reading of the 
Bible in their homes? A merciful Creator 
does not exact such a life from his people. 

There should be temperance in all things. 
The attendance at a Sunday excursion, a 
picnic, park or day's outing does not give a 
man the privilege of becoming intoxicated, 
cut such capers as are likely to land him in 
jail or to otherwise break the law. There is 
a happy medium between the blue laws of our 
forefathers and general smashing of moral 
and civil laws. 

With summer upon us in full swing there 
ought to be pleasure for everybody. H your 
pleasure must come on Sunday then give to 
the Lord that part of the day which right- 
fully belongs to Him and use the balance as 
your conscience may direct. Be temperate in 
the expenditure of your own funds as well 
as the manner in which you expend them. 



Must Obey the Law 

From the Los Angeles Express. 

ME. INGALLS, former president of the 
^ many years ago as a "radical" among 
Big Four Railroad, was regarded not 
railway managers so far as his dealings with 
the public and frankness of utterances were 
concerned. Today he poses as the leading 
optimist in the transportation business, always 
ready with a kind word to cheer up his 
brethren who have been badly scared by the 
swinging of the "big stick," regulative legis- 
lation and ominous mutterings of the public. 

Mr. Ingalls sustains his later-day reputa- 
tion in a recent interview in which he re- 
marks that the railroad business is looking 
up, due in part to the fact that managers can 
now wake up in the morning and think of 
President Roosevelt without having nervous 
dyspepsia or stage fright. It seems the In- 
dianapolis speech of the nation's chief execu- 
tive has had a calming effect upon the situ- 
ation. Mr. Ingalls says it is because the 
speech can be taken two ways, but he added 
significantly, "The railroads have got to obey 
the law and that will be good for them." 

The veteran railroader has evidently hit the 
nail upon the head. Obedience to the law is 
the basis for all healthy social and business 
conditions and the railroads will find both 
profit and clear conscience in it 



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Awful Heresy 

From the New York Evening Post. 

THE awful heresy of tariff-revision seems 
to be gaining gfround even in orthodox 
Republican circles; when Secretary 
Taft spoke at Bath, Me., he intimated that 
the condition of the national treasury justi- 
fied a revision of the schedules. In spite of 
the large appropriations during the past year, 
there is now a surplus at Washington of 
$86,929,425. Even Mr. Tawney of the house 
committee on appropriations thinks this is too 
much. 

Of course, as long as people cherish the 
idea that it is the foreign producer who pays 
the duty, they will continue to stand the ex- 
pense of piling up this unnecessary surplus. 
When a nation has nearly ninety million dol- 
lars in ready money, it gets careless about 
the way in which it is spent. We shall also 
continue to have a lot of radical legislation 
to remedy some of our social and economic 
iil?, while the chief source remains untouched. 
Possibly it is thought to be a great patriotic 
sacrifice that a people should pay taxes to the 
government which are unnecessary, and fos- 
ter the very abuses it seeks by special legis- 
lation to remove. 



High School Fraterniti'S 

From the Indianapolis News. 

THE question of school fraternities and 
sororities grows more acute. These so- 
cieties are seen to be an ir.terference 
with proper educational life. Beginning in 
the colleges the fraternity idea has spread to 
the high school and even to the grammar 
school. We are having now interesting 
efforts to curb the evil in different mani- 
festations. In the Chicago high schools 'this 
became so great in many ways, from snob- 
bishness and inattention to study, to immor- 
ality, that the school authorities denied the 
members participation in special prizes and 
sought in other ways to abolish the societies. 
The evils that flow from the fraternity and 
sororitv' system are especially felt in high 
schools, where the pupils are young and im- 
mature, and where the teachers, having no 
authority over the pupils outside of school 
hours, are helpless to regulate or control the 
societies* activities. Experience has shown 
that they are a hindrance and not a help in 



school work. They have become an imper- 
ium in imperio, essentially snobbish and un- 
democratic, demanding an allegiance superior 
to that of the school from the members and 
exercising over them, or many of them, an 
influence inimical to the discipline of the 
school and detrimental to their own best 
good. 



An lUustratire Gise 

From the Columbus Evening Dispatch. 

HIS record in the penitentiary was bad, 
and the officials declared against the 
commutation of his sentence. Never- 
theless the board of pardons acted favorably." 
This, from recent news of the day, refers to 
Charles Carson, whose six year sentence for 
horse-stealing was cut to three years, the re- 
duction releasing him on June' 23. On July 
1, he was again arrested, for the same offense. 
The evident unfitness of the man, as a sub- 
ject for clemency, and the result of his re- 
lease, give added point to the governor's de- 
mand for more publicity in the matter of 
parol !i g and releasing prisoners. The whole 
plan of parole and pardon was based on the 
principle of benefitirg the man who gave 
evidence of reform, and of worthiness to be 
set free among honest people. 



Demand for Better Rails 

From the Toledo Blade. 

THERE is encouragement to the traveling 
public in the fact that the railroad man- 
agers themselves have gone into the 
matter of rail construction and are demand- 
ing of manufacturers a better quality of pro- 
duct. At a conference held recently in New 
York it was said that for the first three 
months of the present year there were nearly 
3,000 cases of defective rails in that state 
alone. In the single month of February 449 
rails were either broken or found to contain 
serious flaws. This discovery as a result of 
an investigation following many accidents has 
compelled the railroads to take cognizance. 

The manufacturers refuse to accept all the 
burden of responsibility. While admitting 
that steel rails are not what they should be, 
they claim that the railroads refuse to pay 
the higher price which the better grade of 
rails should bring and use a lighter rail than 
the heavy equipment now employed demands. 



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The market price of rails as now made is 
$28 per ton, and the manufacturers purpose 
advancing the price for perfect rails to $33 
per ton. 

Discussing the results of the investigation, 
the current Outlook suggests that it is an- 
other argument in favor of government sup- 
ervision. But why should federal interven- 
tion be necessary in a matter of so much vital 
importance to the corporations that have 
everything at stake? The railroad companies 
ought to understand the value of maintaining 
a safe track. Every accident is a heavy tax 
on the property. We have no doubt the total 
loss to American railways by accidents that 
can be traced directly to defective rails or 
imperfect equipment would more than pay 
the difference required to equip every mile of 
railroad with sound, heavy rails. The manu- 
facturers must likewise favor a reform lest 
the railroads, as the Pennsylvania has threat- 
ened to do, establish steel mills for making 
their own rails. From a business point of 
view, even if there were no humanitarian 
reasons, we should suppose the manufacturers 
and railroads would co-operate to improve the 
quality of rails and bring our railroads nearer 
to the .standard of European railways. 



Greatest of Railroad Projects 

From the Railway Age. 

rROM South Dakota comes brief an- 
nouncement of the largest railway pro- 
ject of the season, if not of the cen- 
tury. The United States Central railway 
company, according to report, proposes to 
build a road from Portland, Me., to San 
Francisco, Cal., "touching New York and 
Chicago" — and possibly some other places. 
The estimated cost of the road is $500,000,000; 
capital stock, $50,000,000; incorporators, Pat- 
erson, N. J. and Delhi, N. Y. capitalists; 
place of incorporation, Pierre, S. D. Further 
information as to this great enterprise will 
be awaited eagerly by. investors, supply people 
and railway men looking for jobs. For a 
line, say, 3,600 miles long, by the most feas- 
ible route touching New York and Chicago, 
an expenditure of $500,000,000, or $138,000 a 
mile, would seem excessive; but if, as appears 
to be suggested, the route is to be deflected 
far northward, in order to touch the capital 
of South Dakota, where railway regulation is 
exuberant, it is likely that the half-billion 



will be needed. If the unnamed capitalists 
of Paterson and Delhi have the $500,000,000 
to spare and want to build the United States 
Central railway with it, as a personal indul- 
gence, let them be applauded, but if they con- 
template a popular stock promotion scheme, 
offering prodigious profits at bargain-counter 
prices, let them be watched. 



The Wedding "Joke" 

From the Hamilton (Ohio) Sun. 

THE silliness of some of the "practical 
jokes" perpetrated on brides and grooms 
is becoming more and more apparent 
as the attention of the public is directed to- 
ward some new outrage devised by a kind 
"friend." Some day a genius will arise who> 
in taking charge of wedding arrangements, 
will devote his abilities and talents toward 
making the occasion one of pleasure to llie 
bride and groom and the wedding party and 
not one of terror. 

Only a few days ago a well known couple 
missed a train after being wedded becau.se 
some practical jokers had dismantled their 
automobile. 

The arrest of another well known couple 
in Cincinnati on the strength of a telephone 
message sent from here to that city is being 
generally commented on and condemned and 
the Cincinnati authorities are making an in- 
vestigation which, it is hoped, may have a 
tendency to repress the exuberance of future 
jokers. 

There is nothing so silly as a pr.iciical 
joke and there is no more inappropriate time 
for the perpetration of one than at a wed- 
ding. 



Hair Tri^gcts 

From the New York Sun. 

IN the course of a letter on the proposed 
movement of battleships, and on the prob- 
able relation of the Commander-in-Chief 
of the Navy of the United States to the promo- 
tion of that enterprise, a correspondent asks 
this question : 

"If you really believe, as you intimate, that 
the President has a perfect right to order 
any number of war vessels to any quarter 
of the globe on any errand of peace, why do 
you discern, or why do you pretend to discern, 
any possibility of mischief, as regards Japanese 
opinion, in the exercise of that right?" 



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Because, to be entirely frank, of a certain 
historical circumstance generally overlooked 
in this country but possibly well remembered 
in Japan, where the specialists are exceedingly 
<iiligcnt and thoroughgoing. We refer to the 
fact that history credits Mr. Roosevelt with 
views peculiar to himself and strikingly dif- 
ferentiated from the ordinary theories of in- 
ternational procedure respecting the larger 
movements of warships in time of peace ; views 
so peculiar and so individual as perhaps to 
warrant the Japanese of Roosevelt tempera- 
ment—if any such there be — in making an 
extremely mischievous usq of the authority 
•of his name. 

We have no doubt that the libraries of 
Tokio contain more than one copy of "The 
New American Navy, by John D. Long, Sec- 
retary of the Navy," published in 1903, the 
year following his resignation from that high 
■executive office. On pages 173 and 174 of the 
second volume of Mr. Long's respectable 
book the curious Japanese investigator or 
the unscrupulous Japanese Jingo will find this 
passage : 

"Mr. Roosevelt was an interesting person- 
ality as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, as 
indeed he is in any capacity. * ♦ ♦ He was 
zealous in the work of putting the navy in 
•condition for the apprehended struggle. His 
ardor sometimes went faster than the Presi- 
dent or the Department approved. Just be- 
fore the war, when the Spanish battle fleet 
was on its way here, he as well as some naval 
officers, regarding that as a cause of war, 
approved of sending a squadron to meet it 
ivithout waiting for a declaration of war." 

There are very likely in the public or private 
libraries of Tokio copies of the narrative of 
Mr. Roosevelt's career written by his friend Mr. 
Francis E. Leupp, whose appointment by Mr. 
Roosevelt to an important Federal office was 
subsequent to the appearance of this bio- 
graphy. On page 200 and in the sequel the 
curious Japanese investigator or the Japan- 
ese Jingo or Yellow will find further infor- 



mation about Mr. Roosevelt's theories of the 
significance of battleship expeditions and the 
proper method of dealing with them on the 
high seas. Mr. Leupp reports Mr. Roose- 
velt's words from his personal recollection 
of them: 

"One Sunday morning in March, 1898, we 
were sitting in his (Mr. Roosevelt's) library 
discussing the significance of the news that 
Cervera's squadron was about to sail for Cuba, 
when he suddenly rose and brought his two 
hands together with a resounding clap. 

" 'If I could do what I pleased,' he ex- 
claimed, 'I would send Spain notice today 
that we should consider her despatch of that 
squadron a hostile act. Then, if she didn't 
heed the warning, she would have to take 
the consequences.' 

" 'You are sure,' I asked, 'that it is with 
unfriendly intent that she is sending the 
squadron ?' 

"'What else can it be? The Cubans have 
no navy; therefore the squadron cannot be 
coming to fight the insurgents. The only naval 
Power interestCfl in Cuban affairs is the 
United States. Spain is simply forestalling 
the "brush" which she knows, as we do^ is 
coming sooner or later.' 

" 'And if she refused to withdraw the or- 
ders to Cervera?' 

" *I should send out a squadron to meet 
his on the high seas and smash it! Then 
I would force the fighting from that day to 
the end of the war.' " 

The Theodore Roosevelt of 1907 is in a 
position to do much more nearly what he 
pleases than was the Theodore Roosevelt of 
1898. That is one reason why he ought to 
avoid, even at the sacrifice of his personal 
inclinations, any naval proceeding which might 
be used by any young Jingo Assistant Sec- 
retary of the Navy in Japan to bring about 
the immeasurable and irreparable misfortune 
of a break in the friendship of that nation 
for the United States. 



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Come to Ohio 



^^HE Buckeye State offers unequalled in- 
^^ ducements to manufacturers desiring a 
change of location, and The Ohio Magazine 
is prepared to present abundant evidence to 
substantiate the statement, without trouble or 
expense to those interested. 

Upon request from any responsible source, 
The Ohio Magazine will submit to corpor- 
ations or individuals doing business outside 
Ohio the facts regarding any location or num- 
ber of locations within the state — cities, towns 
or villages — as to their industrial advantages 
and desirability as places of residence. 

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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 

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COVER DESIGN THE OHIO LADY'S SLIPPER 

Photo by F. IL Haskett, Staff Photographer of THE 
Ohio Magazine. 

THE OHIO SOCIETY OF SOUTHERN 



FRONTISPIECE . 

CALIFORNIA 

Photo by E. F. Smith. Los Angeles. 
FOIBLES AND FRAILTIES OF ROYALTY (With Two Portraits) 

WILLIAM ALEXANDER TAYLOR 

CRAWFORD'S CAMPAIGN AGAINST UPPER SANDUSKY 

(Illustrated) \. J. BLISS, A. M. 

FISHING IN LAKE MEXDOTA (Illustrated) 

HERBERT BROOKS 

THE BUCKEYE HOME COMING .... HOLLIS RIGHT 
THE OLD RED SCHOOL HOUSE (Verse) 

PHILETUS SMITH 

THE HANDLING OF BIG THINGS (Illustrated) 

.... IIL CRANES OF THE CASE COMPANY 
Conrad Wilson. 
SNOWBIRD — A NOVEL (Third InstallmenO . . S. N. COOK 
WRECKAGE (Short Story) 

STELLA BREYFOGLE McDONALD 

THE BUCKEYE PHILOSOPHER BY HIMSELF 

EDITORIAL 

THE TREND OF OPINION 

Th« City of Iroaton. Ohio. 

(Ft/ty Illustrations.) 

EARLY DAYS IN I RONTON .... HON. E. S. WILSON 
INDUSTRIAL, INVINCIBLE IRONTON . JOHN B. CORNS 
IRONTON AS A CITY OF HOMES AND HEALTH 

F. A. ROSS 

UNDEVELOPED RESOURCES OF LAWRENCE COUNTY . . 

FRED G. LEETE. C. E. 



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EMINENT CONTRIBUTORS 

TO THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



190& 



GENERAL FEATURES. 

tale Librarian of Ohio. 



Magazine. 



fayor of Toledo, 
of the Mansfield News. 
Former Secretary of 



M. C. 



of the Toledo Blade. 



the Newark Advocate, 
lo Society. D. A. R. 



Editor of the Ohio 



POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT. 

Hon. Andrew L. Harris, Gtovemor of Ohio. 
Hon. J. B. Foraker, united States Senator 

from Ohio. 
Hon. Charles Dick, United States Senator from 

Ohio. 
Hon. Wade H. Ellis, Attorney General of Ohio. 
Gen. Charles H. Grosvenor. 
The Rev. Herbert S. BIgelow. 
Hon. J. Warren Kelfer, M. C. 
Hon. Warren G. Harding, Former Lieutenant 

Governor of Ohio. 
Hon. John L. Zimmerman. 
Hon. John J. Lentz. 

HISTORICAL. 

Hon. E. O. Randall, Secretary Ohio State His- 
torical and Archaeological Society. 

Archer Butler Hulbert, Secretary Ohio Valley 
Historical Society. 

Hon. Daniel J. Ryan, Former Secretary of 
State of Ohio. 

P. P. Cherry. 

Joseph Olds Gregg. 

William Alexander Taylor, Ohio Society. S. 
A. R. 

Prof. J. J. Bliss. 

Clement L. Martzolff. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

Dr. W. O. Thompson, President Ohio State 
University. 

Dr. Lewis Bookwalter, President Otterbeln Uni- 
versity. 



Dr. Alston Ellis, President Ohio University. 

Dr. Charles G. Heckert, President Wittenberg 
College. 

Dr. Emory W. Hunt. President Denison Uni- 
versity. 

Dr. Kaufman Kohler, President Hebrew Union 
Collesre 

Dr. Alfred' D. P9rry, President Marietta Col- 
lege. 

Dr. William F. Pel roe. President Kenyon Col- 

Dr. Charles F. Thwing, President Western Re- 
serve University. 

Dr. Herbert Welch, President Ohio Wesleyan 
University. 

Dr. Charles W. Dabney, President University 
of Cincinnati. 

ETKrCAL. 

I not 
Hon. Samuel L. Black. 
John E. Guncket. 
The Rev. E. L. Rexford, D. D. 



INDUSTRIAL. 



Hon. W. S. Thomas. 
Conrad Wilson. 
W. F. McClure. 
A. J. Haln. 
Charles 8. Magruder. 



FICTION AND VERSE. 

James Ball Naylor. 

Stella Breyfogle McDonald. 

Rodney J. Diegle. 

Kate Browniee Sherwood. 

William A. Taylor. 

Osman C. Hooper. 

Mira Clark Parsons. 

Alec Bruce. 

S. N. Cook. 

Webster P. Huntington. 

Thomas H. Sheppard. 

Charles Kinney. 

Beecher W. Wattermlre. 

S. A. Kenefick. 



ILLUSTRATORS. 

Frank H. Haskett, Staff Photogrrapher of The 

Ohio Magazine. 
Edward J. Waskow, Chicagro. 
E. M. Ensmlnger, Bucyrus. 
A. H. MacDonaid. Zanesville. 
C. M. Hay, Coshocton. 
Waldon Fawcett, Washinfirton. 
J. R. Schmidt, tl^ncinnatl 
E. N. Clark, Columbus. 
Baker's Art Gallery, Columbus. 



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Gentlemen: Enclosed find T<wo DolUrs, for 'which please mait THE OHIO MAGAZINE 

for one yestr, 1907, to 1908, 

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Foibles and Frailties of Royalty 



By William Alexander Taylor 




ILLIAM IV. of England, was a 
gay, festive and eccentric king, 
and in some particulars, at least, 
one of the most notable of the 
English sovereigns. His early 
and maturer life, his personal 
habits, his sudden elevation to the throne, 
when all Europe was trembling over a vol- 
cano of revolution, make up a series of most 
interesting chapters in the history of roy- 
alty. 

Charles C. F. Greville, who was Clerk of 
Privy Council, and knew all about tne 
private lives of the Third and Fourth 
Georges and the Fourth William, belittles, 
berates and holds them up to ridicule in his 
"Journals" in which he sets down in reg- 
ular succession not only his own impres- 
sions, but the Contemporaneous opinion of 
the royalty and nobility of the period. 

The polished courtier proves himself to 
be an inexorable critic. 

Some twenty-five years ago these "Jour- 
nals" were printed in two large volumes. 
The manuscript copy and plates were 
bought at an exorbitant price, the book- 
stalls were ransacked and copies purchased 
at any price, and thus they were suppressed. 
The pretext was that they contained no end 
of scandalous stories, unfit to be printed or 
read. 

But this was not true. Occasionally some 
scandal is delicately hinted at, but that is 
all. As a matter of fact, the "Journals" 
simply stripped royalty and nobility of their 
conventional glamour and presented them 
to the reader in all their stupid vulgarity. 
The picture was a startling one. It made 
the suppression of the "Journals" a sort 
of state necessity. A few copies survived 
what was intended to be a universal de- 
struction. To one of them, which came 
into my possession within less than a fort- 
night of its publication, I am indebted for 
the facts and material foi; this paper. It 



was procured in London on the day of its 
publication and presented to me by Gen. 
W. Milnor Roberts, an American officer 
and author, who had engineering charge 
of the public works of Brazil at that time 
— in the seventies. 

William IV., otherwise known as the 
Duke of Clarence, was the third son of 
George III. He became heir apparent to 
the British throne in 1827, upon the death 
if his elder brother, the Duke of York. By 
the death of George IV., in 1830, he be- 
came king, and died in 1837, being suc- 
ceeded by Queen Victoria, mother of the 
present sovereign, who was the daughter 
of the Duke of Kent. 

That William IV. was wild, wayward 
and well nigh irresponsible, admits of no 
sort of doubt. He entered the navy as a 
midshipman and rose to Lord High Ad- 
miral by successive gradations of promo- 
tion. And yet he was never actively in 
conmiand, because of his notorious unfit- 
ness. The only way in which he ever dis- 
tinguished himself was by disobedience to 
orders and his utter disregard of all rules 
of discipline. His offices were titular and 
honorary and conferred because he was a 
king's son — not that he deserved them. 

In early life he married Adelaide, the 
daughter of the Duke of Saxe Meiningen. 
Two children were born to the union, but 
both died in infancy. Subsequently he 
maintained a morganatic marriage relation 
with Mrs. Jordan and reared a family of 
nine sons and daughters, all of whom he 
legitimized and ennobled after he became 
king. Their descendants to-day are all of 
the true blood. 

In his every-day life William IV. ap- 
pears to have been a common enough sort 
of a character, given to tempestuous drink- 
ing bouts with boon companions and often 
with the commonest rabble. In this day 
and in this countrv he would have, in news- 



101 



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102 THE OHIO MAGAZINE 

paper parlance, "a police record." When * * * without consideration or friends. 
he was elevated to the Icingship, it was lit- and he was ridiculous from his grotesque 
erally a translation from the slums to the ways and little, meddling curiosity. No- 
throne. Concerning it, Greville says: body ever invited him into their houses. 
"Never was elevation like that of King or thought it necessary to honor him with 



HIS MAJESTY GEORGE IV.. KING OF GTIEAT BRITAIN/ ETC., ETC. 
(George Augustus Frederick, Prince of Wales.) 

William IV. His life has hitherto passed any mark of attention or respect; and so 
in obscurity and neglect, in miserable pov- he went on far above forty years, till Can- 
erty, surrounded by a numerous progeny, ning brought him into notice by making 



* The engravings of this roya. pair here published are from photographs, by Baker's Art Hallery foj 

Ohio Magazine, of two rare paintings on transparent glass which were formerly in the possessioD oi 

the late William Kestieux, of Columbus. Ohio, who obtained them from a sea captain at New Orlrans i" 



1S5:^, The paintings, supposed to have been stolen in England, were so multilatcd as to eliminate the artistJ 
name. 



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FOIHLKS AND FRAILTlEvS OF ROYALTY 



103 



him Lord High Admiral at the time of 
his grand ministerial schism. In that post 
he distinguished himself by making absurd 
speeches, by a morbid official activity, and 
by a general wildness, which was thought 
to indicate incipient insanity." 



was regarded as a relief. The press as- 
sailed the character and acts of the late 
king with unparalleled ferocity the mo- 
ment the breath was out of his body and it 
was safe to do so, and extravagantly con- 
gratulated the people that it was impossi- 



HER MAJESTY, CAROLINE, QUEEN OF GREAT BRITAIN, WIFE OF GEORGE IV. 
(Caroline Amelia Elizabeth, Princess of Brunswick.) 



Strange material, truly, out of which to 
make a king. But, under existing circiun- 
stances, the change was not wholly unwel- 
come, for George IV. was universally ex- 
ecrated by his subjects, and any change 



ble for them to be cursed with a worse or 
more unworthy sovereign. The Duke of 
Wellington, the Prime Minister, paid Wil- 
liam IV. the high compliment to say that 
he was tractable and easy to manage, and 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



that if George IV. had been as excellent 
in this regard as his successor his reign 
would have been much better. 

But this compliment was paid early in 
the reign. It was never repeated later on. 

When George IV. lay dead the Privy 
Council assembled to properly witness the 
signature of William to the declaration of 
allegiance. It was an occasion of mourn- 
ful pomp and circiunstance, but the new 
king did not seem to be overwhelmingly 
impressed. When the solemn formality 
was over, and the king went to sign his 
name, the work was a little difficult, owing 
possibly to his limited literary attainments. 
But like an expert king he laid the respon- 
sibility on his ministers, with the remark: 

"This is a d d poor pen you have given 

me!" Whereat all the courtiers laughed, 
and the king joined in. 

That William rose in public estimation, 
or curiosity, when he rose in station, was 
but natural, perhaps. "There never was 
anything," writes Greville, "like the en- 
thusiasm with which he was greeted by all 
the ranks; though he had trotted about 
both town and country for sixty-four years, 
and nobody ever turned around to look at 
him, he can not stir now without a mob, 
patrician as well as plebeian, at his heels, 
All the Park congregated around the gate 
to see him drive into town day before yes- 
terday. But in the midst of all this suc- 
cess and good conduct certain indications 
of strangeness and oddness peep out which 
are not a little alarming, and he promises 
to realize the fear of his ministers, that he 
will do and say too much, though they 
flatter themselves that they have muzzled 
him in his approaching progress by re- 
minding him that his words will be taken 
as his ministers*, and he must therefore be 
chary of them." 

At the funeral of George IV. William 
IV. was chief mourner, but he indulged in 
but little pretense of mourning. He talked 
freely to his favt.rites of their approaching 
promotion and enjoined them to lose no 
time in ordering their dress coats and other 
court paraphernalia. 

"Altogether," remarked the chronicler, 
"he seems a kind-hearted, well-meaning, 
not stupid, burlesque, bustling old fellow, 
and if he doesn't go mad may make a very 



decent king; but he exhibits oddities. He 
would not have his servants in mourning 
— that is, not those of his own family and 
househ6ld — but he sent the Duke of Sus- 
sex to Mrs. Fitzherbert to desire her to 
put her*s in mourning, and consequently 
they are!" 

The idea of having one's official mourn- 
ing done by proxy isn't such a bad one, 
after all. The historian, however, does not 
state how Mrs. Fitzherbert enjoyed the 
season of grief, or "whether the king ever 
recompensed her. 

His inspection of the Coldstream 
Guards, shortly after his accession to the 
throne, furnished no end of amusement. 
For the first time in his life he rigged 
himself out in full military uniform, buck- 
ling a pair of immense gold spurs on the 
calves of his legs, which gave him the ap- 
pearance of a game-cock as he strutted up 
and down in front of the line. 

Why he wore the spurs at all, was inex- 
plicable, as he was not to ride, and could 
not have sat on a horse had he tried, but 
why he should have buckled them on in 
this manner was still more puzzling to the 
crowd. Lady Bathurst gave a reception 
on this occasion and filled the bill excel- 
lently. Speaking of Lady Bathurst, Gre- 
ville says : "She is very ugly, with a hor- 
rid complexion, but has good manners, and 
did all this (which she hated) very well." 
In short. Lady Bathurst, although morti- 
fied and amused at the strange antics of 
the king, played her part perfectly. This 
should excuse her for her homeliness and 
horrid complexion. 

William could never get the hang of 
"etiquette." Once he wanted to appear in 
Parliament accompanied by the King of 
Wurtemburg, and it was with extreme dif- 
ficulty that he was brought to see that this 
would be an inexcusable breach of eti- 
quette. So, also, he could not understand 
why a tremendous row was raised because 
he was in the habit of driving in his car- 
riage to Wurtemburg's hotel and taking 
him out for a ride occasionally. 

One day he shocked all propriety by ask- 
ing Lord Egremont to grant him permis- 
sion to come down into his country to ga 
shooting. The idea of the king asking 
permission of one of his subjects to tres- 



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FOIBLES AND FRAILTIES OF ROYALTY 



105 



pass on his lands literally convulsed the 
Privy Council. This was proof positive of 
insanity. 

He always kept the court guessing as to 
what he would do next. One night after a 
swell reception at court, the king grew 
tired of the mockeries and formalities and 
concluded to enjoy a few moment's recrea- 
tion. Accordingly, he slipped away to his 
private apartments, doffed his robe of state 
and donned a plain suit and sallied out the 
back way from the palace to ramble on 
the streets while the crowd were going 
through the formalities. On the street he 
met his friend, Watson Taylor, and arm- 
in-arm they strolled along. Soon he was 
recognized and a crowd tagged at his heels. 
A woman rushed up and, throwing her 
arms around the king's neck, kissed him, to 
the overwhelming delight of the mob, who 
cheered the performance. The Privy 
Councillors missed him, rushed out on the 
streets and soon found him in the center 
of shouting and enthusiastic multitudes. 
They started to conduct him back to the 
palace, when the good natured mob formed 
a solid phalanx and began to crowd king 
and councillors. At last the Horse Guards 
came to the rescue and dispersed the mob. 
William alone remained cool. His coun- 
cillors were anxious to get him into the 
palace, but he insisted on walking awhile 
in the garden. The whole vicinity was in 
an uproar. 

**Oh, never mind all this," said the king, 
benignly. "They haven't got used to me 
as king yet. When I walk about the streets 
a few times, they will get used to me, and 
I will attract no more attention than other 
people." 

During the early part of William's 
reign, the Duke of Wellington was Prime 
Minister. The King tried him in no end 
of ways. One morning the King sent word 
to the Duke that he would dine with him 
at Apsley House that evening. This was 
a short notice for a state dinner to which 
all the foreign diplomats and ministers and 
grand dukes must be invited, and almost 
upset Wellington. But he managed to pre- 
pare for the occasion. 

In the meantime, William had taken the 
King of Wurtemburg to Windsor to have 
a day of it. They no doubt had a jovial 
time, and were still enjoying themselves at 



dinner when some one reminded the King 
of his engagement and he ordered the car- 
riages to be got ready. Away went the two 
kings, with their suites helter skelter in 
three barouches-and-four, out-driving Jehu. 
The guests were assembled at Apsley 
House and saw them coming down the 
road like a hurricane, enveloped in dust. 

They didn't halt, but the King shouted 
to the Duke that they would soon be back. 
They drove on to the lodgings of Wurtem- 
burg, to allow him to put on his king- 
clothes for dinner, and got back to Wel- 
lington's two hours after the appointed 
dinner hour. The two kings entered the 
dining room arm-in-arm, feeling as su- 
perbly mellow as any pair of kings ever 
felt on any similar occasion. King Wil- 
liam acted as toast-master and first toasted 
the Queen of Wurtemburg, responding 
himself. 

Then he ordered the band to play, "See, 
the Conquering Hero Comes," and toasted 
the Duke of Wellington, making a speech 
that contained much of well-deserved 
praise for the duke, but garnished with so 
many strong references to France, Russia 
and other nations as to fill every one pres- 
ent with apprehension for the peace of Eu- 
rope. Asstmiing that the king voiced the 
sentiments of his ministers, there was no 
telling how soon the storm would burst. 
Every foreign diplomat sent a special mes- 
senger to his home government that night 
with a resume of the English monarch's 
speech. 

On one occasion a deputation of Free- 
masons called upon the king to present 
him an address upon his accession to the 
throne. The punctilious Duke of Sussex 
headed the delegation and desired to pre- 
sent the address at a solemn audience. To 
this William objected, saying that he 
would take it then and look over it at his 
leisure. Having duly received it, he said: 
"(jcntlemen, if my love for you equaled 
my ignorance of everything concerning 
you, it would be unbounded." 

For a king taken on the spur of the mo- 
ment this impromptu speech isn't so bad. 

While George IV. lay in the throes of 
death, it was charged, and no doubt truth- 
fully, that wagon loads of valuables were 
hauled away at night by the palace officials 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



and servants. Some valuable plate belong- 
ing to him seemed to have been overlooked. 
William IV. had doubtless heard of the 
peculation, and had an eye to the safety of 
what remained. 

On one occasion he gave a birthday din- 
ner to 100 people at St. George*s Hall, 
using the plate of his predecessor, valued 
at $1,000,000, for the table service. But 
he took the precaution to station one of his 
most trusted confidantes behind a side- 
board so situated that he could observe 
each and every guest, to see that none of 
them carried off any of the valuable pieces, 
from which we may justly infer that an air 
of suspicion pervaded the British court 
more than a half century ago. 

The prorogation of Parliament in 1831, 
after the Reform bill passed a second 
reading by a majority of one, and after the 
supplies had been refused, was a dramatic 
affair. The opposition were determined to 
defeat the Government, while the minis- 
ters were determined that Parliament 
should be prorogued. This decision was 
suddenly made after midnight on the 24th 
of April, and the king appeared in Parlia- 
ment in person, before the opposition had 
the slightest inkling of what was about to 
happen. 

When he entered the hall the Govern- 
ment was being savagely denounced, the 
booming of the cannon a moment before 
having apprised the opposition of his 
coming. His right to dissolve Parliament 
was even questioned, but he was equal to 
the occasion and acquitted himself very 
well. 

•'The king/* says Greville, speaking of 
the occasion, "ought not properly have 
worn the crown, never having been 
crowned, but when in the robing-room he 
said to Lord Hastings : 'Lord Hastings, I 
shall wear the crown. Where is it?* It 
was brought to him and when Lord Has- 
tings was about to put it on his head he 
said : 'Nobody shall put the crown on my 
head but myself.* He put it on and then 
turned to Lord Grey and said: 'Now, 
Lord, the coronation is over.* George Vil- 
liers said that in his life he never saw such 
a scene as he looked at the king, on the 
throne with the crown loose upon his head 



and the tall grim figure of Lord Grey close 
behind him, with the sword of state in his 
hand, as if the king had got his executioner 
by his side, and the whole picture "looked 
strikingly typical of his and our future 
destiny.'* 

While all was confusion and hustle at 
the palace preparatory to the start to the 
House of Parliament, some one said to the 
king that his cream-colored horses were 
not in the stables. "Then get some other 
colored horses,** said he, "it matters but 
little about the color of the horse at this 
hour of the night." 

Both George IV. and William IV. had 
remarkable memories as to their clothes. 
Before William was king, his wardrobe 
was small enough to carry in his mind, but 
after his promotion he patronized the tail- 
ors. He had a suit for every possible occa- 
sion and knew exactly on what peg it was 
hanging, if it was in its right place, and 
just what necessary articles were in the 
various pockets. 

To facilitate the changing of suits and 
have with him at all times the necessary 
articles of comfort, each suit was supplied 
with gloves, handkerchiefs, snuff-box, 
purse and a fixed amount of money, etc. 
Each suit was thus supplied with the arti- 
cles appropriate to the occasion on which 
it was worn. 

He could thus jimip into a suit in a mo- 
ment and then have every pocket supplied. 
Some of his servants imagining that he 
could not remember what he had left in 
suits taken off six months previously, began 
to pilfer the valuables. 

But no sooner did the king's hand go 
into the invaded pocket than he discovered 
the theft. Calling his head setvant, he 
ordered him to produce all his clothes and 
examine them in his presence. As each suit 
was brought out the king gave a complete 
list from memory of the articles the pock- 
ets should contain. 

In many a portion of them and especi- 
ally a part or the whole of the money was 
gone. But after that his pockets were 
never tampered with. A king who could 
remember everything that was in the pock- 
ets of 100 suits of clothes was not to be 
fooled with with impunity. 



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Fishing in Lake Mendota 



By Herbert Brooks 



WHEN possessed with the idea that 
you would like to go to some re- 
mote place, where the lake and 
its inhabitants are calling, it is 
usually when you are tired, 
worn out and satiated with care 
and life's responsibilities. Nerves are all 
unstrung, vitality at low ebb. You need a 
building up of wasted energy. It is then 
that the call of. the wild is heard in its 
most enchanting notes. If the red blood 
-of the true sportsman is stagnant in your 
^eins, it will tingle in anticipation as you 
begin to cultivate the lust for that most at- 
tractive of out-door sports — fishing. 

Don't go burdened with a cumbersome 
•outfit; rather.. start with one pole, a few 
hooks and a long silk line. In your pocket 
•carry a devon for luck; you may need it. 
Play the gam.e.,;Upon a high moral plane. 
Remember you ar£ not a warrior, going to 
battle with your^qual.,* Ffeive some respect 
for the gamy attributes of your adversaries 
and give them - a chance for existence. 
I'hey will be earnest ; their struggle is for 
hfe. Remember, when you have them 
safely hooked, common sense and fair play 
should be the rule. If you lose, congratu- 
late the enemy on his esccape and try again. 
Perhaps no state in the north presents a 
hetter opportunity for fishing than Wiscon- 
sin. Hundreds of lakes, large and small, 
are found within its borders. Fish of all 
kinds, from the fighting muskel lunge, pick- 
•erel, wall-eyed pike and small mouth bass, 
down to the everlasting perch, are abund- 
ant. 

We were camping on the extreme north 
«nd of Mendota — a beautiful, quiet lake 
— five miles wide and about ten miles long. 
Madison, the capital, is located upon its 
southern banks. Just west of the city, at 
its outskirts, are the large, handsome build- 
ings of the University of Wisconsin, whose 
grounds slope down to the edge of the lake. 



Few boats are seen upon its waters. Only 
the canoe and skiff of the fisherman dis- 
turb the calm and silent surface. There is 
a universal law in Nature that where nat- 
ural beauty prevails there is always a calm 
and an impressive silence. Mendota*s rep- 
utation as a fisherman's paradise is known 
far and wide. Here it was that the famous 
fisherman, Ex- President Grover Cleveland, 
angled his largest catch of small-mouthed 
black bass. His joy was so pronounced 
that he rewarded Billy Dunn, his guide, in 
a most substantial manner, makipg him an 
official in the Madison post office. 

On the. afternoon of our Arrival at the 
camp site, we pitched our tent on a rocky 
bluff twenty feet above the beachl Circling 
inward on both sides of this {joint were 
marshy bays full' of rushes and j lily pads. 
Great oaks and elms, interspersed with a 
few cedars, made the forest ! primeval. 
Though on\y ten miles from civilization, 
we were in the wilds of Nature, j Nothing 
could disturb us now, save the | noises of 
the woods and the swish-wash of the water 
on the rocks below. We were not long in 
the preparation and consumption of our 
evening meal, after which I strolled out on 
to the bluff, lighted my pipe and watched, 
through its curling smoke^ the close of the 
day. The scene was grand. Flocks of 
ducks across the horizon were winging 
their way back into the marshes, while 
far overhead the musical call of the brant 
was faintly heard. The sun, veiled by a 
blue mist arising from the lake, hung like 
a great red disc, while beneath every point, 
every stone, every island, lurked the shad- 
ows mystical. The shade of the woods, 
with its deeper, darker colorings, added its 
charm. 

Presently, the lake wind drove me to 
bed. I crawled in under the blankets and 
it was soon day-light. The guide, Jack 
Willson, prepared the early meal, and dur- 



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ing the repast we discussed the fishing to 
be done this day. We were anxious to be 
up and doing, so it did not take long to 
decide to try for yellow bass. Putting into 
our boat a few things for noonday lunch, 
a bucket of minnows, poles, hatchet and 
hunting knife, we were off for the fishing 
ground six miles down the lake. In the 
gray dawn of the morning the water looked 
like lead, but under the swift pull of the 
guide it assimied a silvery sheen, as it rip- 
pled away from the bow. 

Jack Willson, the young man at the oars, 
was a born fisherman. He had spent almost 



"Yes, sir/* he replied, "but 1 think they 
are all gone now, and so far as I am con- 
cerned, I am glad of it. They are vicious 
brutes.*' 

"Why are they?" I asked. 

"Well, sir, they are called the wolves of 
the fresh water lakes, and certainly they 
do not belie their name. Did you ever 
catch one?" 

"No," I replied, "nor have I ever seen 
one." 

"Well, if you'd get one on that small 
pole you have in the boat you would get 
busy and, I promise you, have a fight that 



MOONLir.HT ON LAKE MENDOT.A. 

Photo by Lucitn Pickarts. 



the entire twenty-five years of his life upon 
the water. Tall and lithe of figure, with 
muscles hard by outdoor exercise, he was 
the picture of health. He had removed 
his coat ; his arms bared to the shoulder, 
with the steady stroke of the oars the sinews 
stood out like the gnarled roots of a tree. 
I found him alert in his work and ready 
with information. 

"Willson, are there any muskellunge in 
this lake ?" I asked. 

"No, sir : 1 think not. At least, none 
have .been caught here within the past ten 
years." 

"Were there ever anv here?" 



would be interesting. They look like a 
bull dog, have the protruding under jaw ; 
teeth like a hound, a head broad as the 
stern of this boat — tell you, they go some 
in a scrap." 

A\*e were now approaching the fishing 
ground and had crept under a rock cliff 
point, with rod and reel brought out, hook 
baited and the cast made. On this partic- 
ular morning the bass were exceedingly 
dull. Apparently our choicest bait would 
not lure them. Willson rewarded my pa- 
tience by occasionally filling my pipe. An 
hour at least had passed, when a tug at 
the line made the nerves thrill, and the 



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FISHING IN LAKE MENDOTA 



109 



argument was on. The battle was short. 
Two whirs of the reel, a jump out of the 
water, a reeling in of the line, and with 
landing net a two pound beauty was tremb- 



MENDOTA'S GIBRALTER. 

iing in the bottom of the boat. Before 
noon we had secured five. 

i'he long deep shadows from the over- 
hanging cliff having reached beyond the 
point of our anchorage, and feeling well 
satisfied with one day's work, we concluded 
to break camp. It was my wish to troll 
back. So, taking out my devon, I put it 
on the line. Lying back in the stern of the 
boat with fifty feet of line out and pole 
resting on my shoulder, I proceded to doze. 
We had just rounded the point with the 
intention of rowing across the bay to the 
ledge opposite, when the devon came to a 
sudden stand. 

"Hold on, Willson," I cried, "stop the 
boat, I have snagged a part of Wisconsin!" 
I began to reel in, with the intention of 
backing up to unfasten my hooks, but 
"Wisconsin" proved to 'be a fish. Realiz- 
ing that something had happened, it started 
off on a run. The way the reel began to 
sing was evidence I had a big one in tow. 
Instantly my mind wais made up to throw- 
in the pole if all the line went out, but be- 
fore two hundred feet had spun out the 
fish stopped. It was then my chance to 
gather in, which I did as fast as possible. 
The fish, wondering what was cpaxing it 
back, followed along until within ten feet 
of the boat. The water being clear, it 
caught sight of us and with a quick turn 
that fairly made the water'^boil was off 
again, making the reel hum an air in a 



higher key, unfamiliar to my ear but never- 
theless pleasant. We could not yet deter- 
mine what our catch was, but were almost 
convinced it was a muskellunge. 

During the excitement I was careful to 
hold the pole even with the strain on the 
line, not allowing it to be in position to 
bend, because the fight was going to be 
long and in earnest. A broken pole meant 
that all would be lost. Moreover, Willson 
was told to stay by his oars and keep the- 
boat constantly sidewise to the fish. Dur- 
ing this run it had not trailed out as much 
of the line as in its first effort. Becoming 
dull, I reeled in again. This time it was 
swimming ahead of the line, so I could not 
reel in fast enough. Coming to within a 
few feet of the boat, with his head near 
the surface, he was plainly seen by Will- 
son, who yelled, "By Jove — a musky! 
Did you see his head?" 

I did not have time to notice much, for 
instantly the "musky" was going south at a 
rate that made the old silk line sizzle. 

"Swing around quick, Willson," I ex- 
claimed, "this is the time the pole goes out 
of the boat unless you can row faster than 
the fish can swim." 

But luck was in our favor ; his flight was 
cut short by the rocky bluff which stopped 
his run. Again the leel was brought into 
action and we fotight it out for twenty 
minutes. His runs were not now so active, 
and I at last succeeded in getting him near 
the side of the boat. In the absence of a 
gaff, Willson had opened the hunting knife 



A LEAl-V NOOK. 



without my knowledge, and with the long 
blade reached out to strike the fish in the 
head. In this effort he only succeeded in 
nearly dumping us both into the lake, and 



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if I had not seized his belt in time he cer- 
tainly would have gone down, but I pulled 
liim in, dripping to the waist. 

**Vou infernal idiot! What are you try- 
ing to do?" I ejaculated. "You not only 
lost the hunting knife, but came near caus- 
ing us to lose the fish. Straighten yourself 
up and see if you can't land this fellow 
accurately. He is about ready to give up. 
Watch your opportunity and when he is 
along side the boat, sink your index finger 
and thumb in his eyes. This certainly will 
numb him and we can then handle him 
easily." 

Meanwhile the muskellunge had dodged 
the knife and for the first time had run 
undef the boat. This effort, however, was 
not prolonged, so, seizing the pole again, I 



reeled in and as the fish wabbled about, 
Willson grabbed it in the eyes and hauled 
it in. 

It would be inconsistent to leave the 
subject here without venturing to give 
some expression of our joy at landing such 
a prize. For fully a quarter of an hour we 
gazed at the fish and argued as to the 
weight and length of it. In our exhilara- 
tion we went beyond the bounds of sane 
judgment, but under the circumstances our 
exuberance could be excused. 

That evening in camp the scales told the 
story — three feet, eight inches in length ; 
weight, twenty-two pounds. Our victory 
over Mendota was complete, for with only 
rod and reel we had captured from its 
silent depths the last warrior of his race. 



REVISITED 

O memories that overwhelm! 
The pebbled path along the shore, 
Long branches interlacing o'er, 

There still the venerable elm 
Whose gnarled knee often was our seat I — 
Twas there two spirits learned to meet 
One perfect life, in all complete! 

But now how void the valley where 
She used to be! 

As wistful winter dreams of Spring 
In May-like days, my whole heart thrills 
With all the loveliness that fills 

The world before young Hope takes wing. 
No blot of change on all I see! 
Yet nothing any more can be 
The same. How bleak and bare to mc. 

How empty is the valley where 
She used to be! 

— Stokely S. Fisher. 



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WRECKAGE 

By Stella Breyfogle McDonald 



JOHNSON himself told me the 
story, as we sat in the smoking 
compartment of the Pullman of 
ULagf which he was conductor. He 
^^ I had been one of the very few 
who had escaped death or in- 
jury in the terrible wreck the month be- 
fore. The passengers had pulled out of 
Pittsburg without a thought of danger. 
Then had come the shrinking sensation of 
brakes suddenly applied, followed by a 
crash, hissing steam, breaking glass, shrieks, 
moans and cries for help. Those who but 
ten minutes ago had waved gay farewells 
to their friends, were now sitting dazed, 
lying unconscious, dying, or dead, in the 
wrecked train on the edge of the city. 

Johnson is a fine fellow, tender-hearted 
and resourceful, and it was while he was 
moving rapidly about, giving all the assist- 
ance he could, that he first saw the woman. 
She was lying half-under an overturned 
seat, with a suit case across her face, and 
Johnson thought of course she was dead. 
But when he pulled her out he found she 
was breathing, and he carried her out of 
the car to a mean little cottage by the 
tracks, where he laid her tenderly on the 
ramshackle porch. He roused the woman 
inside, a slovenly creature grown insensible 
to outward conditions through the cease- 
less, grinding work contingent on raising a 
large family upon nothing. 

"Here, mother!" he said to her, "can 
you get something to put under this lady's 
head until I get a doctor ? Bathe her face 
in cold water, and send those brats away." 

*'Git!" was the laconic command the 
woman gave her offspring, and they melted 
into the house, only to appear again with 
their grimy faces flattened against the still 
grimier front window, curiosity rampant in 
each pair of round eyes. 

"O'wan," she added to Johnson, "I'll 
l^eer fer her." 



Johnson hurried back to the wreck and 
found many automobiles arriving upon the 
scene with doctors and nurses, who had 
been simimoned from all directions. There 
was plenty of assistance, so Johnson felt 
justified in asking one of the former to go 
with him to the woman, whom he believed 
to be dying. 

"Lead the way," said the doctor, curtly^ 
and followed his guide over a debris-strewn 
path. They found the owner of the cot- 
tage had loosened the woman's gown and 
tried to make her comfortable with none- 
too-clean pillows, while she bathed the 
white face with cool water brought from a 
neighboring pump. The water had partially 
levived the injured woman, and she wis 
rolling her head from side to side and mut- 
tering through her moans. The physician 
knelt down to begin a hurried examination, 
when suddenly she grasped his arm with 
surprising vigor and exclaimed, "Stephen t 
Stephen! stay with me! Don't leave me, 
Stephen — we have been so happy, dear !" 
A spasm of pain brought a sharp cry to her 
lips and she wept weakly. "Stephen, hold 
me in your arms ! You were always — first 
— dear," and her voice trailed away into 
unconsciousness. 

The doctor ^otioned Johnson to move 
nearer. "No hope," he whispered, "she is 
almost gone. Find out who she is." 

The stolid cottager leaned over the wo- 
man, lifted a chatelaine bag hanging from 
a handsome belt and pointed to a silver 
plate at the top upon which was engraved, 

"Mrs. S. H. Manning, 917 St., 

Pittsburg, Pa." 

Johnson read it with puckered brows. 
"I wonder if that is one of the rich Man- 
ninscs," 

"Yes," answered the doctor, "that is 
their street, and she looks a swell, all right. 
See here — Johnson, I think they called 
you — you cut over to the nearest 'phone 



111 



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112 



THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



and see if you can get her relatives, and 
you'll have to be blamed quick." 

Their enforced hostess jerked her thumb 
over her shoulder and said, "Grog-shop, 
next comer, got a 'phone," and Johnson 
started to run in the direction indicated by 
the thumb. 

He found four families of Mannings in 
the telephone book, but he quickly singled 
out the one followed by the initials he 
sought, and after a little difficulty got them 
on the line. 

"Hello, hello, is this S. H. Manning's 
residence?" 

"Yes, sir," came from the man servant. 

"Is Mr. Manning there?' 

"No, sir." 

"Where can I find him?" 

"At his office in the Savings and Trust 
Building." 

"Thanks," said Johnson, curtly. 

"Hello, Central, give me S. H. Man- 
ning's office, Savings and Trust Building, 
and for heaven's sake, hurry up." 

"Hello," came the answer, "who wishes 
to speak to Mr. Manning?" 

"No name. Just tell him important bus- 
iness." • 

"Well," came a quiet, dignified voice, 
"this is Mr. Manning." 

Johnson was dumb. He had thought of 
various ways in which he could break the 
news to this husband, but now he was at 
an utter loss, and was afraid he would 
bungle like a fool. 

"I called up your house, Mr. Manning, 
but your wife was not there." 

"No, she left for Baltimore not half an 
hour ago. Who is this speaking?" 

"Mr. Manning, your wife is ill." A 
smothered exclamation sounded in his ear. 
"There has been an accident to the 
train — " 

"My God, is she killed?" 

"No, but badly hurt." 

"Tell me where to come ! Quick !" 

"To the train at the foot of street, 

where I'll watch for you." 

Johnson heard the receiver drop, as 
Manning flung it wide of the holder and 
dashed out of the room. 

Leaping into his auto-car he tore down 
the avenue at a rate of speed that caused 
casual pedestrians to flee for their lives. 
But he had no thought of danger for him- 



self or others; his only fear as he dashed 
madly along was embodied in the prayer 
which constantly escaped his lips, "Oh, 
God, save her! God, don't let her die! 
Oh, my God, save my precious wife !" 
♦ ♦ ♦ 

The doctor had done all he possibly 
could, which was not much, for the wo- 
man's breath was growing more labored 
each second, and a clammy moisture was 
spreading grayly over her delicate, beau- 
tiful features. He placed his arm under 
her neck and raised her enough to pour 
some more brandy down her throat, then 
he sat back on his heels and waited for 
it to take effect. Her almost continuous, 
faint moans grew a trifle stronger, and she 
tried to put out one hand toward the 
doctor as she sighed, "Stephen, are you 
still there?" 

Dr. Brown took her hand firmly in his 
and said, "Yes," and she rolled her head 
restlessly for a while, murmuring to her- 
self, while her face grew more gray and 
pinched each moment. 

"Oh, I hope to heaven her husband gets 
here in time," thought the sympathetic doc- 
tor. "It'll be fearfully rough on him if he 
cares for her as much as she does for him. 
Why in thunder doesn't he come?" 

He turned his head and looked down the 
road that ran parallel with the railroad 
tracks to the cross street where Johnson 
was waiting, and as he looked heard the 
"honk" of a machine and saw Johnson 
spring forward. 

"Thank the Lord!" he exclaimed aloud, 
but as he said it the woman cried * out 
strongly, "Stephen! always, always you!" 
He turned his startled gaze upon her, saw 
her eyes, wide but unseeing, heard the 
meaningful gasp in her throat, and as an 
automobile dashed up the road a quiver 
passed through her body, she struggled 
once more for a breath which could not be 
bom and was gone. 

Manning ran all the way up the crooked 
little path to the porch, but when he saw 
the doctor's uplifted hand he knew that he 
was, indeed, wifeless, and he sank down 
beside the prostrate figure in a grief that 
was beyond words. 

Johnson and the doctor, moved by the 
same impulse, withdrew some distance 
away, but the woman who lived there sat 



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WRECKAGE 



113 



on the door step looking placidly on. Af- 
ter what seemed to her a very long time, 
she grew tired of the situation of a dead 
woman and grief -stricken husband, so she 
said in her toneless voice, "She thought a 
heap of you." 

The man started and braced himself up, 
for he had been unconscious of her exist- 
ence. 

**Tell me, good woman," he said, "was 
she conscious at the last?" 

"Yes, she talked about you. She call you 
to hold her, she *fraid you leave her." 

"Oh, Elsie, Elsie," moaned the man, 
"what will life be without you! Oh, my 
beloved, my first thought was always you !" 

"That what she says," droned the wo- 
man, " 'Always you, Stephen, always 
you.' '* 

The man's body seemed struck rigid. 
His face was hidden, but the cords in his 
neck visibly swelled. A second passed, then 
by a mighty effort he raised his head and 
looked at the woman, who started in 
afright at his expression. 

"Tell me more that she said," he said, 
in a tense, forcedly-calm voice. "Think 
carefully, woman, and tell me more." 

The woman looked uneasily toward the 
doctor and Johnson, who were returning 
with a third man. 

"Well," said she, "she call 'Stephen, 
Stephen, dear,' and how happy him an* her 
been together." 



The man's figure seemed to tower above 
her, as though he would strike her to the 
ground, then suddenly, as she gave a queer, 
hoarse cry, he brushed his hand over his 
eyes in a dazed, helpless way, and lost his 
anguish in a merciful unconsciousness. 

The three men came running up, and the 
new-comer said, "Sure, I know him. Used 
to work in an office next to his." 

"What happened, mother?" asked Dr. 
Brown. 

"Nothin'," said the woman sullenly, 
wishing they would all go away and leave 
her alone. "He asked me to tell him about 
her afore she died, an' I told him how she 
kep' callin' 'Stephen' an' beggin' of him 
not to leave her, an* how happy they'd 
been, an' then he fell over." 

The new-comer suddenly sat down on 
the steps with his mouth agape. 

"What's the matter with you?" asked 
Johnson, who was working with the doc- 
tor over Manning. "Haven't you any sym- 
pathy for a man who hears about his wife's 
last words? Didn't I hear how pitifully 
she begged him, 'Stephen, Stephen, don't 
leave me?' " 

The man on the steps shook himself as 
though to cast off any assimiption of pity, 
then he said, dryly, ^^His name is Samuel," 
pointing toward the man's prostrate form, 
"and his best friend and his partner is 
Steohen Bates." 




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The Handling of Big Things 

HI. Cranes of the Case Manufacturing Company 

By Conrad Wilson 

'i 

The present article is the third of the industrial series appearing in The Ohio 
Magazine under the general title, ''The Handling of Big Things" Its predecess- 
ors were "Coal and Iron on Ohio Docks" and ''Locomotives at Collinwood" pub- 
lished, respectively, in July and December, igo6. In relating the evolution of the 
electric crane the author of the present article selected the plant of the Case Man- 
ufacturing Company, of Columbus, Ohio, as the best type in this branch of manufac- 
turing enterprise in the Middle West, calculated to elucidate the subject. Here is 
indicated what relation the electric crane now bears to modern industry, in a man- 
ner to engage popular interest as well as to invite the consideration of manufactur- 
ers and engineers. 



^3^ 



OF ALL the labor-saving devices 
that have made possible the 
great industrial works now re- 
garded as a necessity in this 
progressive age, none is more 
awe-inspiring from the stand- 
point of the layman, and none more im- 
portant in the results achieved for com- 
merce and manufactures, than the electric 
crane. What the heavyweight pugilist is 
to the prize ring, the modern crane is to 
the domain of machinery. It is the levia- 
than of the industrial world, bearing to 
modem society something like the relation 
which the elephant bore to the labor of 
mankind in the days of the ancient Hindus. 
The latter probably thought that human 
ingenuity had about reached its limit when 
the pachyderm was taught to carry logs by 
the aid of bis ever-ready trunk; but if the 
prophets of India had beheld his Elephant- 
ship grabbed bodily — trunk, logs and all 
— by a mysterious monster of steel and 
iron, and swung around like a baby, they 
might have had a dim conception of what 
labor-saving ingenuity would accomplish in 
succeeding ages. Even to the modern man 
of affairs there is no spectacle more im- 
pressive than the giant strength and almost 
human intelligence exerted by the electric 
crane. 



Only within a few years the crane man- 
ufacturers have realized that this inven- 
tion might be employed to advantage in the 
lifting and carrying of burdens of widely 
varying weights. Formerly the crane was 
employed only to carry materials of very- 
great weight. Nowadays, while it is true 
that the manufacturers are turning out 
cranes of the largest capacity ever made, it 
is also true that they are making others for 
a lighter kind of work than this invention 
was originally intended to perform. A crane 
is now made to carry only half a ton, while 
the biggest brother in its family will waltz 
off with two hundred tons, with an indif- 
ference that is almost sarcastic. Between 
these two degrees of weight-carrying ca- 
pacity are cranes of all dimensions and 
possibilities in the way of performing the 
work of many men. But perhaps the most 
noteworthy tendency in the manufacture 
of these monsters of industry is the suc- 
cess with which they have been adapted, in 
the smaller sizes, to manufacturing enter- 
prises which formerly did not seem to re- 
quire them. Thus the field of their useful- 
ness is being widely and rapidly extended, 
so that there is to-day hardly any manu- 
facturer whose business requires the hand- 
ling of moderately considerable weights, 
who would not profit by the installation 



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HANDLING OF BIG THINGS 



115 



of a crane in his establishment. The fact 
is that many classes of manufacturers are 
rapidly learning this fact and acting ac- 
cordingly, supplanting slow and painful 
labor with the advantages of the electric 
crane. 

A crane in operation is one of the most 



hundred feet long would not take a peanut 
and carry it to a certain spot on the floor 
three hundred feet in front of him and a 
proportionate number of feet to the right 
or left, with more accuracy and precision 
than one of these big cranes grabs up sev- 
enty-five or more tons of steel and conveys 



A 1-TON AND 75-TON HOOK - A STRIKING COMPARISON. 



interesting sights in the world of mechan- 
ics. It carries out two objects at the same 
time, traveling forward with its inunense 
burden in the direction of the point at 
which it is to be delivered, and at the same' 
time swinging it to the right or left, so as 
to deposit it exactly where wanted. A man 
standing at one end of a machine shop five 
2 



it to a spot equally remote but with equal 
exactness. In this process the big hook at- 
tached to this immense weight may com- 
pare with the average workman as shown 
in the accompanying illustration, while the 
smaller ho«k in the same picture would 
only convey one ton from place to place. 
Some years ago 100-ton cranes were 



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116 



THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



PLANT OF THE CASE MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 



about the limit, but they are now built to 
carry two hundred tons with neatness and 
despatch, and all under the direction of a 
single workman, who operates the immense 
machine by the turning of a lever and 
travels with it. There is no more interest- 
ing spectacle than to see a dismantled loco- 
motive weighing in the neighborhood of 
twenty tons, rushed into a repair shop, 
seized by a great crane, drawn high in the 
air and conveyed over the heads of numer- 
ous others, standing on the floor of the 
shop, to the particular spot where it is to 
be lowered and operations begun to make 
it fit for the road again. In one repair 
shop in the State of Ohio this performance 
can be gone through with twenty- three con- 
secutive times, in one big repair shop of a 
single railroad company, before the capac- 
ity of the shop is reached, and the number 
thus handled is never less than from forty- 
five to fifty per month. 

A smaller crane, with the same precision, 
takes up, conveys and deposits a piece of 
metal or stone of only half a ton's weight, 
and this with a saving of labor propor- 
tionately the same as if the machine were 
the largest crane made and its burden two 
hundred tons. There is probably no other 
device having capabilities so varied. Ordi- 
narily a machine will do but one thing in 
one way, but an electric crane appears able 



to do almost anything in its line, in "any 
old way," and do it to perfection. These 
machines cost, from the smaller to the 
larger sizes, from $2,000 to $20,000 each, 
but the investment is inevitably an econ- 
omy, because of its saving of time and 
labor. 

There is no better place to observe the 
designing and building of these monsters 
of industry than in the plant of the Case 
Manufacturing Company of Columbus, O. 
Here are to be found the most practical 
and economical developments in this line 
of engineering work. The company has 
recently added to its plant ten thousand 
square feet of shop area and has otherwise 
greatly increased its facilities for expedit- 
ing deliveries — a step required by its 
growing business. 

This company for a long time has made 
a specialty of improved cranes and hoists. 
dating back thirty-five or forty years. Up 
to Sej)teml)er, 1880, the business was con- 
ducted as a partnership under the name of 
J. M. Case & Co. Then a corporation was 
formed, and since that time the plant and 
its operations have been growing at a pace 
that could only characterize the success of 
a well-manai^ed and thriving concern. The 
execiuive officers now are : President, Ed- 
ward K. Stewart ; vice president and man- 
ager. Henry S. Waite ; secretary, Harford 



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HANDLING OF BIG THINGS 



117 



T. Stewart; treasurer, John H. Roys and 
chief engineer, Charles H. Tucker. 

The plant includes the older and numer- 
ous new buildings, with ample floor space, 
and liberal yard areas commanding the 
very best of shipping facilities. The build- 
ings are conveniently arranged with regard 
to the various departments, and each is 
completely equipped with the latest ma- 
chinery and appliances required by the 
nature of the work conducted in the best 



cidentally it may be observed that this is 
strictly an Ohio enterprise, which has 
grown to its present dimensions through 
the joint operations of Ohio capital and 
brains. It has now, however, acquired a 
very extensive foreign market and must be 
regarded as a manufacturing concern of 
natianal proportions, ready to reach out to 
the markets of the world, which it has 
already entered to a very considerable ex- 
tent. 



STRUCTURAL DEPARTMENT OF THE CASE COMPANY. 
A 50-Ton Crane in Process of Manufacture for the General Electric Company, of Schenectady, X. Y. 



manner possible. The business is under 
the control of practical and progressive 
men, who have well-defined ideas regard- 
ing the commercial value of strictly high- 
grade material, expert and efficient work- 
manship, reliable and durable construction 
and moderation in charges of every de- 
scription. The company attributes its 
c^owth to this fact and to its policy of 
fairness and m small measure of liberality 
in its dealings with customers who concede 
the undeniable merits of its iirodncts. In- 



It was natural that the early sales of the 
company should be extensive in Ohio, and 
it was noteworthy that the customers thus 
obtained have ever since continued to give 
the Case Manufacturing Company their 
patronage. They include, in this State, 
such representative firms as Tlie Buckeye 
Steel Casting Company, The Jeffrey Man- 
ufacturing Company, The Mocking Valley 
Railway, the Ralston Steel Car Company 
and the Kilbournc & Jacobs Manufactur- 
ing Company, all of Columbus; the C. & 



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STEEL STORAGE YARD AND OUT-DOOR CRANE. 



TROLLEY SHOP OF THE CASE COMPANY. 



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HANDLING OF HIG THINGS 



119 



G. Cooper Company, of Mt. Vernon ; the 
Carnegie Steel Company and the Republic 
Iron and Steel Company, of Youngstown; 
the Allis Chalmers Company of Cincin- 
nati; the American Sheet and Tin Plate 
Company, of Canal Dover; the American 
Steel and VV'ire Company, of Cleveland; 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company at 
Dennison; the United States Cast Iron 
Pipe and Foundry Company, of Addyson ; 



There are Case cranes in use in Europe, 
Mexico and Canada, and the European 
market will undoubtedly be rapidly ex- 
tended. But to an American observer 
the charar-ter of the purchasing con- 
cerns in .his country is perhaps even 
more significant. In the State of New 
York they include the New York Edi- 
son Company, of New York City ; the 
St. Lawrence Power Company and the 



BIG GIRDERS ON FOUR FLAT CARS. 
The view is taken in the yards of the Case Company, and the shipment is to the Pennsylvania Railway 

Company at Altoona, Pa, 



the Marion Steam Shovel Company, of 
Marion; the Lake Shore and Michigan 
Southern Railway at Collinwood, and the 
Barney & Smith Car Company, of Dayton. 
There are from one to fourteen of the Case 
Company's cranes in each of these estab- 
lishment's, with a capacity from one to fifty 

tons. 

But substantially all of the states of the 
Union having large industrial establish- 
ments are now customers of this company. 



Pittsburg Reduction Company, of Mas- 
sena; the Pittsburg Reduction Company, 
of Niagara Falls; the Lackawanna Steel 
Company, of Buffalo; and the General 
Electric Company and the American Loco- 
motive Works, of Schenectady. In each of 
these concerns are from one to eight Case 
cranes, with capacities ranging from one 
to seventy-five tons. 

Throughout the country the products of 
this concern are finding a place in the most 



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important industrial plants of America. 
Among the purchasers are the United 
States Navy Yard at Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire, and the navy yards at Mare 
Island, California and Boston, Mass., the 
Southern Railway Company, of Ashville, 
N. C. ; the American Sheet and Tin Plate 
Company, the Carnegie Steel Company and 
The United States Engineering and Foun- 
dry Company, of Pittsburg; the Pressed 
Steel Car Company, of Allegheny, Penn- 
sylvania ; the National Tube Company, of 
McKeesport, Pennsylvania; the Midvale 
Steel Company and the J. G. Brill Com- 
pany, of Philadelphia; the Pennsylvania 
Railway Company, of Altoona, Pa. ; The 
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Rail- 
way, at Kinijsland, N. J.; the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railway, at Baltimore ; the Atlas 
Engine Works, of Indianapolis; the Lake 
Shore and Southern Railway, at Gibson, 
Ind. ; the Inland Steel Company,, of Indi- 
ana Harbor, Ind. ; the American Steel 
Foundries, the United Railways Company 
and the St. Louis Car Company, at St. 
Louis; the New York, New Haven and 
Hartford Railway; the Northern Alumi- 
num Company, of Shawinigan Falls, Que- 
bec ; the Chicago and Alton Railway Com- 
pany, at Bloomington, 111. ; the Chicago, 
R. I. and P. Railway, at Moline, 111. ; the 
Otis Elevator Company, Joseph T. Ryer- 



son & Son, and the Chicago, Milwaukee 
atid St. Paul Railway, of Chicago; the 
American Steel and Wire Company, of 
Worcester, Mass. ; the Fore River Ship and 
Engineering Company, of Fore River, 
Mass. 

It is evident that, wherever in factory, 
mill, foundry, machine and repair shop, 
stone yard or other place, in doors or out 
doors, where ponderous weights are contin- 
ually being lifted and shifted, and it is 
deemed desirable to have a safe, efficient 
and economical apparatus capable of being 
operated by a half grown boy, under the 
direction from the floor below him, there 
the modern productions of the Case Man- 
ufacturing may be installed with the satis- 
faction and profit of all concerned. 

The company enjoys the unexcelled 
sliippingv facilities peculiar to the city in 
which the plant is located. Practically all 
the Eastern and Central trunk lines con- 
verge in Columbus, and material can thence 
be laid down in any part of the United 
States, both quickly and cheaply. The ac- 
tivities of the Nation are almost at the door 
of Ohio's capital, and the State itself is 
the highroad of transcontinental commerce, 
to which fact the success of large industprial , 
concerns like the Case Manufacturing 
Company is in part due. 



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Crawford's Campaign Against 
Upper Sandusky 



By J, J. Bliss, A. M. 




RAWFORD and Wyandot, Ohio, 
counties lyiuu about the old 
Indian , portage between the 
Sandusky and Scioto rivers, are 
well named to preserve some- 
thing of the early history of 
their soil. Here met the streams of 
forced migration of the powerful Huron- 
Iroquois of the north, and their rivals, the 
Algonquins, from the east. First came 
the Wyandots, a tribe of Hurons which 
settled along Lake St. Clair and south- 
ward along Erie and up the Sandusky 
river, on which they established their cap- 
ital. Upper Sandusky, Old Town, three 
miles above the present Upper Sandusky. 
Here, at the time of which we write, 
Pomoacan, the Half King, rules as their 
chief; here they stalk the deer, shoot the 
wild fowl, catch the fish of the streams 
and lakes, trap the bear and beaver, and 
here their squaws scantily till the soil for 
meager crops of maize. From here their 
braves make forays upon the neighboring 
hostile tribes in true savage style and re- 
turn in triumph with scalp-locks as tro- 
phies dangling at their belts! 

But now come the sad days when white 
men wage war with white in nearly as 
savage a struggle for the soil. The red 
men are invited to the fray; they accept, 
and the American Revolution has a stain 
of horrors that makes Sherman's famous 
definition seem a weak synonym for war. 
And the horror of horrors is the Gnaden- 
huten massacre in Ohio's present county 
of Tuscarawas. 

In that section dwelt the Delawares, a 
tribe of Algonquins that had been driven 
over the Alleghenies and westward until 
they had arrived in the fine huning 
grounds about the Muskingum. During 

121 



the most of the period of the Revolution 
they remained friendly or neutral toward 
the Americans, but in 1780 the British at 
Detroit succeeded in winning them as 
allies. The borderers then forced them to 
leave the Muskingum, and they pushed 
on westward, many of them locating near 
the Wyandots in the present counties of 
Crawford and Wyandot, from whence 
they still kept up their murderous raids 
upon the settlers of the frontier. 

Some of the Delawares, however, had 
become converts of Moravian missionaries 
who had established the villages of Gnad- 
enhuten, Salem and New Schoenbrun, 
near where now is New Philadelphia. 
But suspicion of these Christian Indians 
developed among both Americans and 
British, and in 1781 the latter sent Cap- 
tain Elliott, Pomoacan, and Captain Pipe, 
chief of the Delawares, to bring these 
suspected ' converts to the Wyandot coun- 
try. Here in a camp near the Wyandot's 
village, the poor creatures nearly starved 
during the winter, and late in February 
about a hundred and fifty of them re- 
turned to their plantations on the Muskin- 
gxmi, to gather the unharvested corn. 
Unlucky date! For about the same time 
Colonel David Williamson set out to raid 
their villages as the British had done ; and 
for the same reasons, not knowing that the 
latter had already done the shameful 
work. He found the harvesters at their 
task; corralled over half of them in two 
huts, and the next morning a portion of 
his band entered and mercilessly slaugh- 
tered them all but one, who escaped to tell 
the awful tale. Those who fled from the 
fields when the attack began returned to 
the Sandusky and naturally gave up the 
white man's religion, relapsed into barbar- 



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ism, and readily joined their brethren in 
alliance with the British. Thus the Dela- 
wares, both Christian and pagan, were by 
the suspicion, madness and atrocious deed 
of an irresponsible band of raiders, a mob, 
welded into a closer union with the W^yan- 
dots and other tribes against the whites. 



vanquished by the Iroquois and made 
subject under the name of "women.'* 
But Ohio soil and air had their normal 
effect even upon this conquered savage 
tribe; and courage and love of liberty re- 
asserted themselves, so that the British 
found them good allies and the colonists 



THE CRAWFORD MONUMENT. 



and made the more willing tools of the 
British at Detroit. 

Thus it was that the Algoncjuin stream 
of retreating Indians fused u\Hm the banks 
of the Sandusky with the Huron-Iroquois. 
Quite different this meeting from that 
long years before in Pennsylvania, where 
in pagan battle the Dela wares had been 



most dreadful foes throughout the Revolu- 
tion and the subsequent border warfare 
that only ended with the Treaty of Green- 
ville in 1795, which opened the great 
Northwest to peaceable white settlement. 
Of the eleven tribes to whom General 
Wayne dictated the terms of this treaty 
the Wyanrlrts were the most powerful. 



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CRAWFORD'S CAMPAIGN AGAINST UPPER SANDUSKY 



12S 



In fact they held the grand calumet, 
which was the symbol of their influence 
and even authority among the tribes of all 
the territory. 

Their capital village was known as 
Upper Sandusky, to distinguish it from 
Lower Sandusky on the site of Fremont, 
and it was in the heart of the county 
named from them Wyandot. A series of 
minor villages were scattered along the 
Sandusky to its mouth and along Lake 
Erie to Detroit. But civilization was 
moving westward, and the advance guard 
in the form of trappers, traders and ad- 
venturers were roaming about the Ohio 
country, while many actual settlers were 
dwelling in western Pennsylvania and 
Virginia. The clash between natives and 
invaders was inevitable. The Gnaden- 
huten massacre was the white man's re- 
sponse to the red man's continued atroci- 
ties, which were themselves but a response 
to the invasion of the land, a challenge to 
*'the star of empire that westward takes 
its way" the bloody star that had led the 
van of Empire from Chaldea's plains 
across continents and ocean, till now it 
moved with cruel force across the fields 
and forests where a mightier empire than 
Chaldea should ere long write for its 
motto *Tmperium in Imperio." 

And of all those who "dipt into the 
future far as human eye could see, saw 
the \'ision of the world and all the won- 
ders that would be," none saw more 
clearly than Colonel William Crawford 
that the stronghold of the forces of sav- 
agery was the Wyandot capital. This 
trained and experienced frontier warrior 
well knew that Upper Sandusky and De- 
troit were places where the British dis- 
tributed supplies to their savage allies ; 
and he knew well that it was after the 
distributions that these same savages 
made their most villainous raids upon the 
white settlers. He knew that, located 
near the portage between the Sandusky 
and the Scioto, amid fertile fields and 
game-filled forests. Upper Sandusky, held 
by Wyandots backed by all the neighbor- 
ing^ tribes and by British greed and British 
gold, must be destroyed before the land 
could be safely claimed for civilization. 
His appeals to the officials, to Congress 
and to the settlers for this destruction 



remind us of Roman Cato's famous bitter 
words, "Carthago delenda est," Carthage 
must be destroyed. 

Yet who is he that urges this strategic 
move — some wanton frontier marauder, 
some lover of strife aud carnage, some 
young upstart who would win glory and 



OLEXTAXGY BATTLE MONUMENT, 

Erected » 1896, by the Crawford County Historical 

Society. 

renown, some avenger of friends or family 
whose scalps adorn the wigwams on the 
Sandusky? Colonel William Crawford 
was none of these; a retired warrior he, 
at his happy home on the banks of the 
Youghiogheny. with wife, children and 
grandchildren about him, 



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"Quiet and calm, without a feir 
Of danger darkly lurking near." 

Born in the same state and in the same 
year as Washington, with whom at the 
age of seventeen he began a lifelong 
friendship, and from whom he learned in 
the field the art of surveying, like the 
Father of his Country he early inclined 
to military affairs. Like him, too, he was 
a natural leader, a quality developed, no 
doubt, in being the oldest of eight chil- 
dren; all save a sister, Elizabeth, who 
•died when a child, being large, vigorous 
boys of Scotch-Irish blood. William and 
Valentine were sons of the first husband 
of their mother Onora ; the other five bore 
the name of the second husband, Steph- 
enson. The father's first name and the 
mother's maidea name seem to have been 
. kwt in the chaos of frontier records, but 
tradition ascribes to them the typical in- 
tellectual vigor of mind and body of the 
Scotch- Irish settlers in America. In what 
is now Berkeley county in northern Vir- 
ginia, William grew to young manhood, 
getting little from books, but learning 
leadership, woodcraft, farming and sur- 
veying. Like Washington, his mother was 
a widow and he lacked a father's guidance 
and training, but, again like him, his 
mother was well fitted to largely supply 
the lack and develop in her son a noble 
character and habits of industry and pru- 
dence. 

At the age of twenty-three his warrior 
instincts asserted themselves and as en- 
sign, still again like his friend George, he 
went with Braddock to the great defeat 
in the ambush near Fort DuQuesne, where 
his bravery and good judgment gained 
him soon after the rank of lieutenant. 
Three years later, serving as captain under 
Washington, he went with him once more 
to the Fort, which they found deserted by 
the French and ready for English occupa- 
tion. This yielding of the fine strategic 
])oint at the junction of the rivers that 
form the (^hio, was a great gain for the 
colonists and caused th^ French to ciose 
the cam})aign for the year, Novemb;^r 2S. 
1758. The name of the Fort wa- now 
changed in honor of the great P^nglish 
statesman whose name the marvelju; city 
that has arisen there still bears — Pittsburg. 



Between the two campaigns against Fort 
DuQuesne, Crawford had been in service 
along the Pennsylvania and Virginia 
frontiers in garrisons and as a scout. His 
peculiar genius and his experience in In- 
dian fighting especially fitted him for this 
work, and in it he was highly successful. 
What a different fate would have been 
that of (General Braddock, had he placed 
in command such a native leader as Wash- 
ington or Crawford I No ambush ever 
trapped these wary warriors when they 
were in command. 

But the Indians were being won from 
the French, and in that Summer of 1758 
at Easton on the Delaware river in their 
great council the Six Nations agreed to 
friendship with the English. Doubtless 
this was best, even for the colonists, at 
the time, but that friendship in the days 
of the Revolution proved most disastrous 
to their interests when as allies of Britain 
the Indians did such cruel, effective ser- 
vice. Had the savages remained enemies 
of the British, could or would the colon- 
ists have used them as allies? Perhaps 
we should ask whether Britain could have 
beaten the French, if she had not bribed 
the Indians to friendship or neutrality. 
No sage can tell the answer to either 
problem. 

Three years more of warfare as captain 
in the militia of Virginia in this French 
and Indian war, and Crawford resigned 
his commission and retired to his home in 
Berkeley county at the foot of the beauti- 
ful Shenandoah valley, since made other- 
wise famous by a modem military hero, 
gallant Phil. Sheridan. Why it was that 
this brave man, whose courage, tact, lead- 
ership and experience were so valuable as 
an officer in the militia, laid by his sword 
two years before the close of the old 
French and Indian war, we are unable to 
ascertain. Did the conditions in his home 
require his presence there? His beloved 
wife and three young children possibly 
needed his strong help and manly care. 
Or was it his aged mother who desired the 
tender sympathy and loving aid of her 
eldest son? Did he feel that with the 
surrender of Ft. DuQuesne the war was 
l)racticaUy over and that six years of 
faithful, hardy service entitled him to a 
rest from the exposure and hardship of 



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CRAWFORD'S CAMPAIGN AGAINST UPPER SANDUSKY 



125 



border warfare? His patriotism, his gen- 
erous nature, his whole character as mani- 
fested throughout all the other circum- 
stances of a varied life forbid even the 
suspicion that he retired from any per- 
sonal pique toward either associates or 
superiors. 

The annals are silent on the question, 
but at the age of twenty-nine we find him 
at home, farming, hunting, surveying and 
living the life of a borderer of the time — 
such a life as Daniel Boone, who was his 
junior by two years, was living a little 
farther to the south. For Boone, like 
Washington and Crawford, was a sur- 
veyor of the new lands. In Crawford's 
home was the wife, Hannah (Vance) 
Crawford; the oldest daughter, Sarah, 
who later married William Harrison, to 
whom she bore four sons and two daugh- 
ters; John, the second child and only son, 
who became like the father that fondly 
loved him, a fine soldier and a good citi- 
zen ; and the youngest daughter, Effie, who 
married William McCormick, to whom 
she presented but one child, Anne. Stories 
of the bewitching beauty of Sarah's oldest 
daughter, Sally, are still told in the val- 
ley of the Youghiogheny ; for in six years 
after leaving the army General Crawford 
in 1767 mounted his horse and made a trip 
up the charming valley of that river and 
selected three hundred and seventy-six 
acres of fine land in the present Fayette 
county, just opposite to where now lies 
the village bearing the name of Anne Mc- 
Cormick's husband, Connellsville. Here 
in the Youghiogheny valley he built a 
little cabin and began the gigantic task 
of cutting and burning the forests from 
such portions of the fertile lands as he 
proposed to till. His knowledge of In- 
dian traits and language still availed him ; 
for he at once began to trade with the 
friendly natives who trapped and hunted 
in those wilds. His family were still at 
the old home in the valley of the Shenan- 
doah, but he invited his half-brother, 
Hugh Stephenson, to share his cabin and 
aid in clearing land for their families, that 
he himself might have more time to sur- 
vey for other settlers. In 1 769 their two 
years of toil, with the aid of their slaves, 
had resulted in fine clearings and two 
g( od cabins, to which they brought their 



families. Here Crawford's children all 
married and settled about him. 

We can imagine something of the emo- 
tions in the breast of our hero as he left 
the home, hallowed by the associations of 
the thirty-seven years of his life, to go 
into the distant wilderness with his little 
family. Why the removal was made we 
are not told, nor why the new land was 
taken in the name of his son, nor yet 
wether it was purchased, granted, or 
gained by squatter sovereignty. Enough 
for us to know that here his family grew 
up, married and settled about him and 
that here he had a permanent, comfortable 
home, to which he could return for rcsi 
from the arduous labor of the fields, the 
wearisome surveying trips, the exciting 
and tiangerous raids of border warfare. 
Here he entertained Jiis friends and trav- 
elers with such cordiality that "Cmiw- 
ford's Place," until the death of its noble 
occupant, was recognized as a center of 
hospitality and influence for many miles 
round. On the estate has since grown the 
little village of New Haven. 

Among the friends to seek him here was 
Washington, who came in the middle 
autumn of 1770, to visit Captain Craw- 
ford and to inspect the country. The 
quarries, coal mines, water power, forests 
and fertile fields of Crawford's Place were 
much admired by the visitor, and then the 
two friends made the forty mile trip to 
Pittsburg, where they found some two 
dozen log huts occupied by traders and a 
garrison of soldiers in Fort Pitt — small 
prophesy of the future city. But of spe- 
ciel interest is the canoe voyage these now 
historic persons took down the Ohio as 
far as Gallia county, where at the Great 
Kanawha they began the more difficult re- 
turn trip against the current. On the 
down trip they had gone on shore occa- 
sionally to inspect the land. Returning, 
at the great bend in Meigs county, they 
made a cut across the neck, a distance, as 
they estimated, of about eight miles; but 
a longer and a final experience in the com- 
ing Buckeye state was had on reaching 
Jefferson county, where at Mingo Bottom, 
two and one-half miles below Steuben- 
ville, three davs were spent in rest and 
exploration. The remainder of the voy- 
age was uneventful, and soon after 



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Washington left Crawford^s Place for his 
own Mt. Vernon. This memorable excur- 
sion on which he was for the first and 
only time in Ohio, was made by Washing- 
ton for the purpose of selecting lands for 
himself and others who were entitled to 
them by an act of the Virginia Council 
in favor of soldiers and officers of the 
French and Indian war, which had nom- 
inally ended in 1763. Their hope of the 
future value of the lands must have been 
considerably raised when on "La Belle 
Riviere" their canoe passed '*a canoe go- 
ing to Illinois with sheep" ; and little won- 
der that eleven years later John Fitch 
as he made the same voyage felt that 
something better was needed for water 
transportation! However, doubtless both 
Crawford and Washington felt as Whit- 
tier later wrote, 

"I hear the tread of pioneers 

Of nations yet to be; 
The first low wash of waves 

Where soon shall roll a human sea." 

The next year Washington was to have 
accompanied Lord Dunmore on a visit to 
Crawford ; but certain business prevented 
and Lord Dunmore made the visit alone. 
-Washington entrusted to Crawford the 
selection of nearly all his western lands 
and found that his confidence in his 
friend's judgment had not been mis- 
placed. 

It was in 1770 that Crawford was made 
justice of the peace for his county and 
the next year he was again appointed by 
Governor Penn, and this put him on the 
bench with Arthur St. Clair, Robert 
Hanna and other distinguished men. 
Two years later he was made presiding 
justice of the courts. But this very honor 
wrought against him. Pennsylvania and 
Virginia having one of those early bound- 
ary quarrels, Crawford sided with his 
adopted State ; but a conflict began be- 
tween the southern Oliio Indians and the 
followers of Boone over what the Indians 
called **the dark and bloody ground" be- 
tween the Cumberland and Kentucky riv- 
ers. This led to Dunmore's war, and 
Crawford again accepted a captain's com- 
mission in the Virginia militia. St. Clair, 
with his genius for blundering meddle- 
someness, insisted that Crawford either 



discard the ermine of Pennsylvania or re- 
sign the sword of Virginia. St. Clair 
prevailed and Governor Penn revoked the 
justice's commission, the last commissioiL 
of any kind that Crawford ever received- 
from his adopted State. Thus crossed the 
paths of these, two brave Indian fighters^ 
both of whom were later to meet disas- 
trous defeat at the hands of their savage 
foes on the soil of a third state, our owni 
Ohio. Of the defeat of one, Washington,, 
the friend of both, was to exclaim, *'0, 
God I He is worse than a murderer." Of 
the defeat and death of the other he was- 
to say, "It is with much concern and sor- 
row that I have learned the melancholy 
tidings of Colonel Crawford's death. He 
was known to me as an officer of much 
care and prudence; brave, experienced 
and active." 

As survL'Vor, explorer and raider, Cap- 
tain Crawford had become thoroughly 
familiar with all the country for miles- 
around ; hence, when the Keystone Colony 
dismissed him from her service, he was 
well (jualified to open a land office and to 
act as deputy surveyor for the future 
MotlKr of Presidents. His friendship for 
Lord Dunmore doubtless had much influ- 
ence, and acting together they allotted 
lands as far north as Pittsburg in the 
name of Virginia, which Colony later 
conceded the disputed territory to her 
neighbor. 

In the Dunmore war Captain Crawford 
did good service, among other things raz- 
ing two villages of the Mingoes in the 
present county of Franklin, Ohio, and 
carrying the inhabitants to Pittsburg as 
prisoners. But the American Revolution 
is at hand; and the inhabitants of western 
Pennsylvania are assembled to decide upon 
plans against the common enemy. Craw- 
ford is there, and right glad is that fear- 
ful company that his magnanimous spirit 
can overlook the wrongs of the past and 
offer his aid and advice for the new peril. 
His voice is heard with deference; his 
name is placed on the committee to plan 
for defense. But how different the spirit 
of some petty persons who influenced the 
Council of Safety at Philadelphia to re- 
ject his offer to recruit a regiment for the 
war! Once again he turns to his mother 
State and is made lieutenant colonel of the 



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CRAWFORD'S CAMPAIGN AGAINST UPPER SANDUSKY 



127 



Tifth Virginia, and before the year had 
jpassed he is in October, 1776, made full 
•colonel of the seventh regiment of Vir- 
ginia battalions. He is with Washington 
;at the battle of Long Island and on that 
masterly retreat up the Hudson and back 
through New Jersey ; he takes that famous 
Christmas trip across the Delaware ; fights 
at Trenton and Princeton; the next 
Autumn, as reported by the great Com- 
mander-in-chief, he "fights bravely and 
Tenders efficient service" at Brandywine 
and Germantown. The next month Con- 
gress '^Resolved that General Washington 
be requested to send Colonel William 
Crawford to Pittsburg to take command 
under Brigadier- General Hand of the 
Continental troops and militia in the 
Western Department." The following 
spring he built a fort, named by his 
superior Fort Crawford, about sixteen 
miles from Pittsburg, on the Allegheny 
river. Here for the next two years he 
was frequently in conmiand and used his 
knowledge of Indian warfare to good ad- 
vantage in restraining the atrocities of t^he 
savages in that section. 

Now come the days when he begins to 
see clearly that Detroit and Upper San- 
dusky must be destroyed as strongholds of 
the two- fold enemy — British and savage. 
Hence he begins to besiege Congress for 
aid. He and General Mcintosh establish 
on the Tuscarawas the first real military 
Fort in Ohio, Fort Laurens ; he frequently 
visits it at his peril. In this same year, 
1778, he is tempted by General George 
Rogers Clarke to join him in his move 
against the British posts in the west. He 
and Clarke had become fast friends in the 
Dunmore war, and it is with a strong 
sense of duty that he is restrained from 
accepting the invitation. Clarke goes on 
his famous expedition and gains the west 
by capturing Vincennes, Kaskaskia, Caho- 
kia and minor places, thus becoming, as 
Hosmer calls him, "our first expansionist." 

Colonel William Crawford remains, to 
he given command of the forces at Fort 
Pitt, whom he forms into a brigade with 
which he protects the section, and with 
portions of whom he makes raids upon the 
savages that infest the country, especially 
after the dismantling of Fort Laurens in 
1779. 



In 1780 he tries the effect of his per- 
sonal presence upon Congress at Philadel- 
phia ; his efforts are of much avail, and 
funds and munitions of war are granted 
him in fair measure. He urges aid for 
General Clarke, who proposes to attack 
Detroit, and he emphasizes the necessity 
of destroying the Wyandot village at Up- 
per Sandusky. These things and the gen- 
eral disposition of his companies so as to 
afford the best protection to the inhabit- 
ants from the attacks of the Indians, and 
various sallies and captures of marauding 
bands, occupy the years of 1780 and 1781, 
until the end of the Revolution in Octobi^r 
of the latter year. 

Besides minor service Colonel Craw- 
ford had served six years in the French 
and Indian war, and now six years in the 
Revolution. He retains his commission, 
but is granted his request to be put upon 
the retired list and goes back to Craw- 
ford's Place to pass his later days amidst 
his family and friends, with the sweet con- 
sciousness of a patriotic duty well per- 
formed. 

But still the cry is "On to Upper San- 
dusky" ; for the savages and even the 
British of the west continue their depre- 
dations, although the war is nominally 
ended. Colonel Marshal writes to Gen- 
eral Irvine: "This is most certain, that 
unless an expedition be carried against 
some of the principal Indian villages this 
Sunmier this country must unavoidably 
suffer." Knowing the depleted condition 
of the United States treasury late in the 
Revolution, we can well understand how 
difficult it was for Congress to afford 
means for this western warfare. The 
citizens of the new republic were weary 
with the long years of fighting and were 
anxious to turn to the arts of peace. With 
the surrender of Cornwallis and the retire- 
ment of Lord North from the ministry of 
England, followed by an administration in 
favor of peace with the Colonies, the lat- 
ter felt that the war was practically at 
an end. Colonel Crawford shared in this 
sentiment and felt that the only thing 
that remained was to destroy Upper San- 
dusky and capture Detroit. It is well for 
us to remember that even in the east there 
was still much skirmishing, and not until 
December, 1782, was Charleston evacu- 



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ated; and it was November 25, 1783, 
when Sir Guy Carleton left New York. 
But it was thirteen years later when th;? 
commander left Detroit with the last Brit- 
ish forces that represented the lost power 
of (jeorge III. 

Again in April, 1782, Colonel Marshal 
writes from Fort Mcintosh, where the 
city of Beaver now stands, to General Ir- 
vine at Fort Pitt: **The people in gen- 
eral on the frontiers are waiting with an- 
xious expectation to know whether an 
expedition can be carried against Upper 
Sandusky early this spring or not." 

It is difficult at this distance for us to 
realize the terror that reigned at the time 
along the border in western Pennsylvania 
and the Ohio valley; murder in its most 
horrible form is daily done by the savages, 
who have become demons in their rage 
against the invaders of their homes and 
hunting grounds. The torch, the scalping 
knife, the tomahawk, brutal captivity, are 
the instruments of vengeance applied to 
all ages of both sexes. And we can not, 
though we would, forget that Britain 
sanctioned and indeed incited the Indians 
to their horrible outrages. We have ring- 
ing in our ears the accusation and protest 
of our friend, their own noble William 
Pitt, Earl of Chatham whose words about 
the bill for scalping knives we abbreviate: 

"But, my lords, who is the man that 
has dared to authorize and associate to 
our arms the tomahawk and the scalping 
knife of the savage; to call into civilized 
alliance the wild and inhuman inhabitants 
of the woods; to delegate to the merciless 
Indian the defense of disputed rights, and 
to wage the horrors of his barbarous war 
against our brethren ? — What ! To at- 
tribute the sacred sanction of God and 
nature to the massacres of the Indian 
scalping knife I to the cannibal savage, 
torturing, murdering, devouring, drinking 
the blood of his mangled victim! Such 
notions shock every precept of morality, 
every feeling of humanity, every sentiment 
of honor." 

*'On to the Wyandot capital" was now 
the slogan, but who should go on the 
perilous campaign and who should be their 
leader? It was decided that the troops 
should be volunteers, and a call was made 
l)v General Irvine. Each man was to fur- 



nish his own horse, clothing, arms, and 
provisions, with the expectation that he 
would later be remunerated by the govern- 
ment. The rendezvous was to be at Min- 
go Bottom, where Crawford had once 
spent the three days with Washington. 

At fifty years of age and having done 
more tjian his share of fighting, Colonel 
Crawford, though urging the expedition^ 
felt that it could be better made by younger 
men. Even when urged by General Ir- 
vine and others to go as conmiander, he 
declined, but he still held a commission as 
colonel in the Continental army and 
yielded to further persuasion. John, his 
soldier son, William Harrison, his son-in- 
law, and William, son of Valentine Craw- 
ford had already joined the company- 
made up in the neighborhood. Doubtless 
a paternal desire to be with his loved ones 
in time of danger also had its effect in 
causing the old hero to again buckle on 
his sword and enlist for the hardships and 
dangers of another campaign. So he, in 
consideration of love and affection, deeds 
a farm to his son-in-law, William Harri- 
son and on May 16, 1782, makes his will 
giving to his wife the homestead, the 
slaves, Dick, Daniel and Betty, and his 
personal property; to John he wills a 
slave, Martin, and five hundred acres of 
land down the Ohio, and the home farm 
after the death of his mother. Each of 
his grand children were bequeathed four 
hundred acres of land, except John's old- 
est son, who was to inherit the homestead 
at his father's death. To Anne Council 
and her four children he made various 
gifts, and then willed the remainder of his 
estate equally to his three children. 

Two days later he took a sad leave of 
his family. His wife accompanied him a 
short distance and then with an affection- 
ate farewell Colonel William Crawford 
with serious forebodings left forever Ids 
beloved Crawford's Place in the charming 
valley of the Voughiogheny. At Fort Pitt 
he conferred with (General Irvine and 
begged experienced officers but could be 
spared only Dr. John Knight as surgeon, 
and Lieutenant John Rose. With these he 
hastened to Mingo Bottom where he found 
about 480 volunteers, all he had requested, 
but hardly all of the character he would 
have desired, it is to be feared. However, 



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they were kindly disposed toward him as 
was shown by their election of him by a 
popular vote, as commander of the cam- 
paign, over Colonel David Williamson, 
the leader of the Gnadenhuten expedition. 
Williamson was made second in command 
as field major, Gaddis third, McClelland 
fourth, Brinton fifth, Daniel Lee brigade 
major. Dr. John Knight surgeon, Nichol- 
son, John Slover and Jonathan Zane, 
guides. Rose was Crawford's aide-de- 
camp. If Williamson felt himiiliated by 
the election of Crawford as commander, 
he suppressed his feelings and cheerfully 
urged his supporters to cordially co-oper- 
ate in the expedition. General Irvine had 
decided upon Crawford, but had humored 
the troops with an election. It is to the 
credit of the militia that their choice was 
probably somewhat influenced by William- 
son's part in the Gnadenhuten massacre. 

And now on a fine May morning (25th) 
this little army, composed mainly of Ohio 
valley frontiersmen, is formed by its great 
commander-in-chief into four columns for 
its march to the nerve center of its coim- 
try's savage foes. It is a desperate under- 
taiing by desperate men. A hundred and 
fifty miles must be traversed through the 
dense Ohio forests, over hill and valley, 
across unbridged streams and between 
treacherous swamps. Of the four hun- 
dred and eighty who sit with equipment 
of arms and food upon their horses in 
this cavalcade, how many shall even reaci 
the field of battle? What is the character 
of the personnel of this cavalcade? Is 
Butterfield right when he exclaims in his 
history of Seneca county, published in 
1847, "What other results than those we 
are about to record could be expected 
from such officers and such men?" or in 
his compliments to both in his "Craword's 
Campaign against Sandusky," published 
in 1873? 

The high character of Crawford and 
many of the officers can no longer be 
doubted; so with the men; many of them 
seem to have been mere adventurers and 
reckless borderers, but the mass were earn- 
est citizens going forth for the protection 
of homes, families and country. But what 
will be their fighting condition after an 
eleven day march through the present 
counties of Jefferson, Harrison, Tuscara- 



was, Holmes, Ashland, Richland, Craw- 
ford and to the hated town in Wyandot? 
The only suggestion of civilization in all 
that dreary march will be the ruins of 
New Schoenbrunn, one of the Moravian 
villages near Gnadenhuten, whose inhabit- 
ants had been carried off by the British 
and Indians in the early Spring and the 
houses burned by the Williamson raiders 
at the time of the massacre at the latter 
village. By these ruins Crawford en- 
camped, and there must have been food 
for reflection there, especially for Colonel 
AVilliamson. But worse than this was the 
sight of two Indians at whom their scouts 
shot that evening, for well the commander 
knew that these two rascals would fly like 
the wind to the Indian headquarters and 
give the enemy time to retreat or reinforce. 
A restless night is spent, but in the morn- 
ing the coltunns proceed, yet 

"they start, they gaze around 
Watch every side, and turn to every sound." 

June second they have reached the head 
waters of the Sandusky and pass into the 
county which, when organized in 1820, 
was named for the immortal Crawford 
because it then included the place of the 
last tragedy of his life. They encamp 
just east 9f Leesville, or about two and 
one-half miles west of Crestline, and the 
next morning, instead of moving north- 
ward to the Wyandot trail, they shift 
lightly to the south and take advantage 
of the Sandusky Plains spreading out - 
south of Bucyrus on the nearly level divide 
between the Sandusky river and Whet- 
stone creek (Olentange), a branch of the 
Scioto, and to the northwest to the Ty- 
mochtee. This afforded an almost treeless 
route for the la^t forty miles of the long 
march ; it also afforded fine pasturage for 
their horses, when, after passing through 
Jefferson, Whetstone, Dallas and Antrim 
townships, they halted for the night near 
what is now the hamlet of Wyandot. It 
is another restless night; wills are made, 
written and verbal ; prayers are said ; 
messages given to comrades for friends at 
home in case of the deaths of the senders. 

A dozen miles will bring them to their 
destination, yet the scouts have sighted no 
Indians since the two were seen at New 
Schoenbrunn. A half dozen miles brings 



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the invaders the next morning to the 
mouth of the Little Sandusky, where it 
pours into the main river. Here the guide 
called attention to the four Indian trails, 
with which he was familiar. One leads 
off to the southwest to the villages of the 
Shawnees along the Mad and Miami riv- 
ers; a second along the east side of the 
Little Sandusky to the southward, reach- 
ing the portage to the Scioto; a third 
back to the southeast and then down the 
Vernon (Owl creek) and Walholding 
rivers. The army takes the fourth down 
the east side of the Sandusky through Pitt 
township ; they are nearing the enemy now 
and are on the alert; muskets are freshly 
primed; the pace of their steeds is quick- 
ened; the trail leads into Crane township 
and there on the east bank of the San- 
dusky was the long dreaded capital of the 
Wyandots. 

But where are the inhabitants? Are 
they lurking in ambush? For there are 
no signs of life about the place. Have 
they fled in fear because of the reports of 
the two scouts? Every thing in and about 
the log houses indicates that they have not 
been in use recently. The surprised and 
disappointed troops are disheartened, but 
after an hour's rest bravely follow their 
commander three miles down the river to 
the fine springs, where now stands the vil- 
lage of Upper Sandusky. While resting 
and refreshing themselves with the cool, 
delicious spring water, mutterings of dis- 
<:ontent are frequent, and in the next mile's 
march become so vigorous that Colonel 
Crawford holds a council of the officers at 
which himself and the guide Zane advise a 
return, as there can be little doubt that the 
Indians are preparing to meet the attack 
in great force. A compromise with the 
more reckless is made, and it is agreed to 
proceed for the rest of the day and begin 
the homeward march in the morning. 
Fatal compromise! And yet if a retreat 
had been made would they have escaped 
pursuit and annihilation by a rear attack 
of the enemy? Or suppose they had en- 
camped here for the night? for now a 
scout comes dashing into the camp upon 
his swift horse, crying that the Indians are 
at hand and prepared for battle. "Then 
there was mounting in hot haste" and the 
order "Forward, march I" was given by 



Crawford through his noble aide-de-camp, 
John Rose — noble in a double sense, for 
this splendid soldier proved t : in reality 
Baron Rosenthal, a Russian from Liv- 
onia. 

A quick but cautious advance is now 
made by the cavalcade for about a mile, 
to where a little grove stands in the midst 
of the plain. The Indians are taking ad- 
vantage of the shelter of the grove, and 
the first attack by Crawford is made to 
drive them from it. This is quickly done 
with dismounted men who keep up a rapid 
firing and gain the grove for their own 
army. But Indians will not of their own 
accord fight in the open, if trees are at 
hand, so they rush for those growing 
along the river at the right ; for the battle 
is being fought on the west of the stream 
about the grove since called Battle Island. 
The gallant Major Leet prevents the foe 
from gaining possession of the trees. 
These first savage combatants were Dela- 
wares under command of their infamous 
chieftain. The Pipe. There, too, was 
Wingenund with his little band of Dela- 
wares from their village in what is now 
the northeast comer of Jefferson township, 
Crawford county; and the renegade Girty, 
whose shameful life among the redmen 
one does not care to recount, was there on 
his white horse, but keeping safely at a 
distance in his pretended bravery and 
leadership 

And now the dreaded Wyandots are at 
hand under their war chief, the bold and 
wily Zhaus-sho-toh, having come from the 
Half King's new town, eight miles below 
the one he had deserted. But who is this 
in command of the united dusky hosts? 
Plainly the Irish Captain Elliott, who has 
been sent from Detroit. With an Irish- 
man's quick perception he sees the situa- 
tion and sends The Pipe with his Dela- 
wares around by the north and west sides 
of the grove to the south in the rear of 
the Americans. The Wyandots and Rang- 
ers at the same time scatter around the 
north, hiding in the tall grass of the 
prairie, but firing as rapidly as the flint- 
lock muskets of the time will permit. The 
most are unmounted and do their fighting 
in the true skulking savage manner, 
though the outposts of the Americans 
keep them well back to the margin of the 



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CRAWFORD'S CAMPAIGN AGAINST UPPER SANDUSKY 131 



prairie ; and the sharpshooters who have 
climbed into the tree tops of the grove 
are able to pick off many of the reds as 
they raise their heads above the grass to 
fire. Elliott in full British captain's uni- 
form can be seen giving commands here 
and there to the Indians, some of whom 
venture near enough to hurl a tomahawk. 
Aide-de-camp Rose, who is everywhere 
present upon his fine steed, is chased by a 
mounted party of the enemy that threw 
their tomahawks at him, but the Baron is 
too fine a horseman to be slain in this 
manner. It is a race for life and the 
Baron wins. 

But now there is a lull in the enemy's 
firing ; hope rises in the breasts of the 
occupants of the grove, for it seems that 
they are discouraged by the death of so 
many of their nien, while evidently but 
few of the Americans have fallen. Night, 
too, is coming on, and the Indians are 
withdrawing farther into the rank grass 
of the plains. The Delawares under The 
Pipe and Wingenund build their watch- 
fires at a safe distance to the south; the 
Wyandots do likewise to the north; while 
the Americans build* their fires well out on 
either side. 

Baron Rose declares that only five of 
his fellow soldiers were killed and nine- 
teen wounded on this first day, while none 
could tell how many Indians had bit the 
dust of the plains. Both sides slept on 
their anns (if sleep they did), though 
many were busy throughout the night 
keeping guard and caring for the 
wounded. The hard, exciting day's work 
following the long march, the bad water 
and intensely hot day, and after these the 
anxious, fearful night told frightfully on 
Crawford's band, and the next morning 
he decided not to renew the attack until 
his men were in better condition. The 
forenoon is spent in caring for the sick 
and wounded and in preparation for a 
decisive night attack. There was great 
confidence of victory, because of the lack 
of spirit in the enemy's action in the lat- 
ter part of the three hours and a half's 
fighting the previous day. The early 
afternoon is spent in like manner. But 
what is this the sentinel at the north sees 
approaching? A curse drops from his 
lips, for it is Captain William Caldwell 



with Butler's British Rangers and the 
reason for the enemy's inaction now and 
restraint the evening before is evident. 
Consternation seizes the army as the ter- 
rible fact is learned, and immediately 
plans for attack are changed for those of 
defense. And there is a band of Indians 
from the Lake; and still, as if the legions 
of hell were loose, there toward the Shaw- 
nee country Crawford's exhausted band 
sees "her barbarous sons come like a 
deluge on the south.'* About two hundred 
strong they ride up 'to the west of the 
Delaware. "Indians," Rose declared, 
"kept pouring in hourly from all quarters." 
What hope now for that jaded little army 
in the prove? A council of war is held 
and 

"Forthwith from every squadron and each 

band 
The heads and leaders thither haste, where 

stood 
Their great commander." 

All agreed that "prudence dictated a 
retreat," and surely if ever warriors might 
agree with Agamemnon it was now, and 
nine o'clock that night was the hour set. 

But even in their desperate condition 
the Americans could not leave their dead 
to be scalped and mutilated by the savages ; 
so graves were dug and their nine fallen 
comrades decently buried and fires made 
over the graves to obliterate all traces of 
them. The severely wounded were placed 
upon improvised litters carried by horses. 
Four of the dead had been killed this sec- 
ond day, which had been so hot that all 
had suffered much from lack of water, 
though John Sherrard had on both days, 
after his musket was disabled, brought 
water from stagnant pools for the thirsty 
troops, even at the risk of his life. 

After sunset the men were summoned 
from their posts and formed in four col- 
umns, under the same officers as in the 
advance, except that Major Leet took the 
place of Major Brinton, who had fallen 
while fighting valiantly. These move- 
ments seem to have attracted the attention 
of the enemy, who at once began a vigor- 
ous attack, that caused the Americans to 
begin their retreat before the appointed 
time and in much confusion. However, 
all but two of the wounded men were car- 



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ried along in the central retreating col- 
umns, and as carefully cared for as cir- 
cumstances would permit. Colonel Craw- 
ford was in command and kept the troops 
well in hand, although as Rose said, 
**even in a body trained to the strictest 
discipline some confusion would have 
arisen on such an occasion.*' 

There had been some discus sion as to 
which direction to take in the retreat, but 
finally the vote was for retracing the 
route in which they had come. This took 
them between the camps of the Delawares 
and the Shawnees. In running this gaunt- 
let Major McClelland*s division was some- 
what in advance and he himself was un- 
horsed and captured. The other three 
divisions swerved to the southwest, where 
a marsh hindered their movements and 
even caused some of the horses to become 
so mired as to be left by their riders. 
The column of McClelland escaped in 
much confusion and with great loss but 
in the morning met the other three at the 
Upper Sandusky of the Wyandots which 
on their advance they had found deserted. 
Soon about three hundred had gathered 
here. But where is their gallant com- 
mander ? 

Colonel Crawford was a father as well 
as a soldier, and when he failed to see his 
idolized son John in his place he began 
a search that not only failed but proved 
disastrous to himself. It is said that John 
Crawford was in the division of Major 
Leet, who had advised a different course 
for the retreat and when over-ruled, be- 
ing self-willed and near the rear-diverged 
from the main body and took his own 
course with his ninety men. These reached 
Mingo Bottom before the others, but the 
willfulness of Leet and the paternal love 
of Crawford cost the latter's life. Leet's 
course was south to Marion county, east 
to Owl creek, down it to where Coshocton 
now is, thence over Boquet's route to Min- 
go Bottom. 

Crawford being missing, Williamson, 
the second in command, took charge of the 
main body and with the assistance of the 
ever useful Baron Rose soon had the 
troops in shape for continuing the retreat. 
On reaching the Sandusky Plains east of 
the Little Sandusky creek a body of 
mounted savages and British light horse 



troops was sighted far in the rear. In the 
midst of the afternoon these began to flank 
the retreating forces on both sides, which 
caused the Americans to make a stand a 
little northwest of where a branch of the 
Olentangy (Whetstone) crosses the pres- 
ent Bucyrus-Galion road, about five miles 
from the former place and six from the 
latter; as near as can be ascertained it 
was on Section 22 of Whetstone township, 
near where the highway crosses Olentangy 
(Whetstone) creek. A battle monument 
by the highway now commemorates the 
event. 

"Stand to your ranks, boys, stand to 
your ranks, and take steady aim, fire low, 
and remember that everything depends up- 
on your aim," were the words of Baron 
Rose, who was Colonel Williamson's val- 
uable aide as he had been Crawford's. 
The instructions were doubtless followed 
by the soldiers; for although the attack 
of the redmen and red coats was vigor- 
ous on front, r^ar and left flank, yet the 
response from the Americans was so tell- 
ing that an hour of it proved quite suffici- 
ent and the etiemy drew back. The 
weather had changed to cooler during the 
night and had been favorable for march- 
ing?, but now a cold rainstorm came on 
and drenched the army and put the flint- 
locks **out of commission." The three 
dead were buried, the eight wounded 
placed upon horses and the retreat again 
taken up. The enemy now renewed their 
attacks with such effect as to somewhat 
demoralize the columns, but Williamson 
and his officers insisted that in keeping to- 
gether in good order lay their only hope 
of safety. In this way a masterly retreat 
was effected. Each company took its turn 
at the rear to repel attacks during the six 
mile march, to where they had rested on 
their advance just east of Leesville and 
where now they encamped for the night. 
The attacking troops encamped nearby, 
and immediately began their attacks as 
the American^ left their camp in the morn- 
ing of the following day (June 7). After 
capturing two of the Americans and firing 
a final volley where Crestline now stands, 
both Indians and British disappeared aud 
neither tlieynor any other enemy disturbed 
the returning troops on their toilsome 
march to Mingo Bottom, which from the 



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CRAWFORD'S CAMPAIGN AGAINST UPPER SANDUSKY 



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Muskingum was on the route taken by 
Williamson at the time of his Gnaden- 
huten raid. 

Stragglers and small bodies continued 
to arrive at Mingo Bottom for several 
days; others went directly to their homes. 
Food supplies had given out early in the 
retreat, and anything that was eatable 
which the forests and plains afforded was 
eagerly secured and devoured. Frog^ 
birdS) groimdhogs, opossums, squirrels, 
turtles, birds' eggs, berries, birch and 
other barks, roots, all were most welcome 
to the half famished, half exhausted, re- 
turning borderers. The wonder is that so 
few were lost by death in this expedition; 
there seems to have been a loss altogether 
of not more than seventy-five or eighty 
men, and a somewhat larger number of 
horses. About ten men were killed in 
battle; somewhat more killed as captives; 
a very few died from wounds ; the remain- 
der from sickness and accident. The 
main body under Williamson have reached 
Mingo Bottom on June 13, crossed the 

I Ohio and made their final encampment; 

' tomorrow they will be discharged and re- 
turn to their anxious families and friends, 
whose suspense during those twenty-one 
days our generation can scarcely imagine. 
Of the missing how many are in the 
hands of the cruel savages? John Slover, 
the guide, is a prisoner in the block house 
of the Shawnees in their capital town, 
Wapitomica, a little below Zanesfield, but 
soon escapes in an almost providential 
manner, naked as he is, mounts an In- 
dian's pony, rides him to death the first 
twenty-five miles, continues on foot and 
reaches Fort Pitt by way of Wheeling, 
July 10. He tells of seeing near the coun- 
cil house the bodies of William Crawford 
and William Harrison, black with paint 
and powder, and the latter afterwards 
quartered at Ft. Pitt. He meets Dr. John 
Knight and tells of hearing the boasting 
of the Delaware Indian who was Knight's 
guard, and carelessly let the Doctor 
escape; of how he made the Doctor to be 
a huge giant with whom he struggled 
valiantly. Slover listened to the boaster 
for a time and then, as he knew several 
Indian dialects, told the listeners that Dr. 
Knight was a small man, which created a 



laugh that made the sore-headed brag- 
gart slink away. 

It was now Dr. Knight's turn to relate 
one of the most horrible incidents in Am- 
erican history, a natural sequence to the 
Gnadenhuten massacre, but having an in- 
nocent victim of the vengeance. Knight 
told of the efforts of himself and Colonel 
Crawford to find the latter's son, son-in- 
law, and nephew without avail; but in- 
stead they became separated from the 
other troops and, because of the exhausted 
condition of the conmiander's horse, were 
unable to overtake them. A rather feeble 
old straggler and a young boy soon joined 
them, and the old man being afoot further 
impeded their progress. Crawford was 
much depressed at not finding his rela- 
tives; at the somewhat irregular manner 
of the flight of the army, and, as he sup- 
posed, the neglect of the wounded; and 
added to these was the weakened condi- 
tion of his horse. 

However, he mustered his soldierly 
courage and they pushed on, passing the 
old cranberry marsh, through which some 
of the men were still trying to urge their 
floundering horses. They now hastened 
eastward through Crane township, ford- 
ing the Sandusky just south of Negro Run, 
crossed Eden township and passed into 
Tod, Crawford county, two miles north of 
Oceola. Here Crawford's horse and that 
of the boy fell, completely exhausted, and 
had to be abandoned. A little later they 
overtook Captain Biggs, who had gener- 
ously taken upon his horse with himself 
the wounded Lieutenant Ashley. They 
are now in Holmes township, about two 
miles north of the city of Bucyrus, where 
they spend the night. In the morning 
they veer to the southeast across the cor- 
ner of Liberty township into Whetstone 
and meet another comrade who has slain 
a deer, off of which all make a hearty 
meal. Refreshed, the party pushes on in- 
to Jefferson township. Knight gives his 
horse to Biggs, who sometime before had 
yielded his jaded horse entirely to the dis- 
abled Ashley, and about eight miles east 
of Bucyrus, where the Sandusky makes a 
sharp turn to the north, they strike the 
trail by which they had come. 

Retracing this to the camping place 



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just east of Leesville, some say in Vernon 
township, they are suddenly confronted by 
a party of Delaware Indians. Captain 
Biggs fires but misses; Crawford who has 
only his sword begs Knight not to shoot, 
and both are made captive and taken to 
Wingenund's place to the north. This 
7th of June, 1782 was, indeed, an unlucky 
Friday. Wingenund had nine other pris- 
oners and on Sunday the scalps of Biggs 
and Ashley and the horses of Knight and 
Biggs were brought to the camp. On the 
next day all were marched to Upper San- 
dusky Old Town, except Crawford and 
his two guards, who for some reason left 
the main party near North Robinson and 
went directly to the village of Pomoacan, 
the Half King, head chief of the Wyan- 
dots, which was eight miles below the Old 
Town and on the west side of the river. 
This was a hopeful indication for Craw- 
ford, knowing as he did that the powerful, 
intelligent Wyandots were less cruel than 
the Delawares and Shawnees. Vain hope! 
For here he finds The Pipe and Wingen- 
und, who had secured Pomoacan's consent 
to permit the Delawares to carry out sotne 
project, the nature of which was unex- 
plained. Simon Girty was there, also; 
but the villainous renegade either would 
not or dared not aid Crawford, even for 
the large reward offered him. The fol- 
lowing day Crawford was taken to Upper 
Sandusky Old Town, to meet the other 
prisoners. The Pipe and Wingenund had 
preceded him to the Old Town and The 
Pipe had there painted the other prison- 
ers* faces black, which all well knew 
meant death by torture ; and to Crawford's 
horror the red rasg^l, while pretending to 
be friendly, painted the captive command- 
er's face the same significant color. 

Breaking camp, the Delawares now 
started with their prisoners, as the latter 
had been told, for the Half King's town 
on the river, eight miles below. Knight 
and Crawford were attended by the two 
chiefs somewhat in the rear of the others, 
and their confidence in the professions of 
kindness in their captors was not increased 
when they saw four of their fellows lying 
along the trail, hacked with tomahawks 
and their scalps lifted, and all hope fled 
when at the site of the present Upper 
Sandusky the party shifted from the Wy- 



andot trail and went to the northwest to- 
ward Pipe Town, on Tymochtee creek in 
Crawford township, less than two miles 
northeast of Crawfordsville of today. 
To this place The Pipe had withdrawn 
with his Delaware tribe from the Mus- 
kingum country two years before, and 
/rem here he went to assist in the defeat 
of Crawford's invading army. In Salem 
township the party stopped to rest on the 
banks of the Little Tymochtee creek where 
the five other prisoners were given over to 
the women and children, who soon de- 
spatched them with tomahawks. One old 
hag beheaded John McKinley, and she 
and others used the head as a foot-ball 
for a time. 

Crawford and Knight were now hur- 
ried along toward Pipe Town, meeting on 
the way Girty, who had probably come 
over from the Half King's village to see 
what gain there might be for him in the 
captain's misfortunes.*" Indians from the 
village also came out to meet the party 
and gave the prisoners blows with clubs 
and stones as they passed down the east 
side of TvTnochtee creek to a point on its 
east bank near where the Hocking Valley 
Railroad now crosses the creek and a little 
over a half mile above The Pipe's Town. 
About a hundred Delawares were gath- 
ered there, bucks, squaws, youths and pap- 
pooses; some Wyandots had straggled in; 
and Girty and the Irish renegade Elliott, 
who had commanded at the main battle, 
were both present. Will not these white 
men be able to save the captives from 
savage torment? Will not Wingenund, 
who has known Crawford as a friend, in- 
terfere in his behalf? 

Alas ! no, for The Pipe and his revenge- 
ful followers are determined to exceed in 
atrocity if possible the massacre of Gnad- 
enhuten. To those who taunted him 
afterwards with not trying to save Craw- 
ford's life Wingenund replied: "Though 
your King George had been present with 
all his ships filled with treasures for a 
ransom, he could not have saved from the 
just rage of the Indians the life of my 
friend." Knight is there, but securely 
bound and in charge of the Delaware, 
Tutelu, who is to take him to Wapato- 
mica as a present to the Shawanese for 
their assistance in battle. 



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As the party reached this spot the most 
conspicuous object was a fire made of 
hickory poles arranged in a circle about 
ten yards in diameter and burning fiercely. 
In the center was a pole twelve or fifteen 
feet high fixed securely in the earth. Can 
it be that these red demons will bind their 
one-time friend, "The Big Commander," 
to that stake in the midst of that hot 
hickory fire? Shall he who was elected to 
lead in battle, because he had not been 
with Williamson at Gnadenhuten, suffer 
such a vicarious punishment for that man's 
sin? It is even so; and on this Tuesday, 
June 11, 1782, at four o'clock in the 
afternoon Colonel Crawford's leather hat 
and other clothing are entirely removed to 
be preserved as souvenirs among the tribe ; 
his hands are tied behind his back; but 
instead of being bound to the stake directly 
the unique and hellish plan of tying him 
to the stake with a tether about six feet 
long connecting with the thongs about his 
wrists is devised. Captain Pipe makes a 
vigorous speech and the tribe assents with 
yells. Already Crawford and Knight have 
been pounded with fists and clubs, but 
now the fiends take their guns and shoot 
powder into Crawford's naked body ; prob- 
ably cut off his ears; then several at a 
time take burning poles and thrust them 
against his body as he runs about the 
stake. He is attacked on all sides until 
he must surely feel "Which way I turn is 
hell." But this is not enough ; the squaws 
now get pieces of bark and throw hot 
coals and ashes upon him until the ground 
upon which he walks is covered. The 
brave man can suffer in silence no longer; 
he lifts up a prayer aloud, and cries to 
Girty to shoot him, but with a brutal 
laugh the degenerate man replies that he 
has no gun. Nearly three hours of this 
horrible torture has been endured, when 
he lies upon the ground face downward; 
an Indian rushes at him and scalps him 
and flings the bloody scalp into Knight's 
face; a withered squaw throws coals upon 
his head; he rises again and staggers 
around the post, while the insatiate sav- 
ages still thrust the burning poles into his 
flesh. The end approaches, and Knight's 
guard leads him away ; but in the morning, 
as they start for the Shawnee town they 
pass the spot and Knight sees the charred 



bones in the ashes — all that is left of 
Colonel William Crawford, who bravely 
fought for others' homes and most ex- 
quisitely suffered for others* sins. 

In 1800 Pennsylvania atoned for her 
earlier neglect by naming a county for 
Crawford; in 1820 Ohio bestowed a sim- 
ilar honor and thus his name was perpetu- 
ated in a most fitting manner. In 1845 
the west part of this county was made in- 
to a separate one. It includes the scene of 
the tragedy and perpetuates the name of 
the bravest, most intelligent and humane 
of Colonel .Crawford's Indian foes, the 
Wyandots, and its people have erected 
near the place of his death a fine monu- 
ment to his memory. 

Knight and his guard passed on toward 
the Shawnee town, but when a little below 
Kenton near the Scioto they encamped for 
the night. In the early morning Knight 
was unbound, and taking a brand on a 
forked stick went behind his savage guard 
under pretense of smotcing away the mos- 
quitoes, but instead wheeled and struck 
him a stunning blow across the head; 
snatched the gun and tried to fire, but 
broke the lock. He then hastily gathered 
up the Indian's powder horn, moccasins, 
bullet bag and blanket, made off for the 
northeast and after a trying trip of twenty- 
one days celebrated the 4th of July by 
arriving at Fort Pitt. 

Colonel Crawford's campaign against 
Sandusky was under government authority 
and direction, like that of Sullivan against 
the Senecas of New York in 1779, and 
those of Harmar, St. Clair and Wayne in 
the early 90's of that century against the 
Indians of the North West Territory. 
Like all of these, too, it had the sanction 
of Washington. Like Harmar and St. 
Clair, Crawford failed to win a glorious 
victory; failed to carry the border west- 
ward. His defeat even encouraged the 
savages to fiercer attacks upon the settlers, 
but the brave conunander had already 
done more than his full share for his 
country and this single failure, where un- 
expected odds were overwhelmingly 
against him, should not obscure his vir- 
tues nor the noble deeds of a life of 
heroi* service for his country and its 
frontier homes. 



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And where is the beloved John, for 
whom the warrior father died? Let us 
rejoice to know that he reached Mingo 
Bottom with Major Leet, was mustered 
out and is safe with his widowed mother 
at Crawford's Place. He is there to en- 
courage her and the family during the 
dreadful suspense until Knight's account 
of the cruel death of Colonel Crawford 
and Slover's tale of how the son-in-law 
and nephew had perished at the hands of 
the Shawnees is gently broken to them; 
and then this strong young son and brother 
is there to help assuage the awful grief 
in those three stricken homes — a grief so 
intense that we will not even try to im- 
agine it. For thirty-five years Hannah 
Crawford will nurse this grief and then 
in 1817 at ninety-one years of age will 
peacefully pass away in the very home 
which her soldier husband had built on 
the banks of the Youghiogheny. Her son 
John had died the year before at his home 
in Adams county, Ohio, near the mouth of 
Brush creek, leaving two sons to hand 
down the name Crawford to succeeding 
generations. 

But the "star of empire" shines for the 
invading race, and the final defeat is for 
paganism, even though Harmar, Crawford 
and St. Clair have failed against it ; for in 
1 794 Mad Anthony Wayne in the battle of 



Fallen Timbers on the Maumee gives to 
the combined tribes the fatal blow that 
leads to the treaty of Greenville. This 
hems them in west of the Cuyahoga and 
Tuscarawas and north of a line from the 
north point in Tuscarawas county to Lor- 
amie in Shelby county, thence to Fort Re- 
covery and thence to the mouth of the 
Kentucky river. These lands were gradu- 
ally purchased by the government ; but the 
Wyandots and Delawares lingered, the 
former being granted in 1818 a tract 
twelve miles square, of which the present 
Upper Sandusky the next year is made the 
capital. They also received lands one 
mile square in the cranberry marsh on the 
Broken Sword. Adjoining them on the 
south the Delawares were given a tract 
three miles square, which they ceded to 
the United States in 1829; but the Wyan- 
dots, among whom Methodist missionaries, 
had labored quite successfully, remained 
on the lands of their fathers until a year 
after their cession in 1842, when the 
seven hundred of them were taken in 
wagons to Kansas and placed upon a 
reservation where now is the city of Wy- 
andot, opposite Kansas City. The mission 
house still stands at Upper Sandusky, re- 
paired, and preserved in the midst of the 
old burial ground — a sad memorial of a 
vanquished race. 



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SNOWBIRD 

A NOVEL 
By S. N. Cook 



CHAPTER V. 



ARTHUR sought the shade of the 
great walnut when dinner was 
over, and in a rustic seat was 
enjoying a cigar, and at the 
same time watching the move- 
ments of a great, lazy bird: 
Slowly it circled about the top of a lofty 
knob. 

His thoughts, however, were not upon 
the bird, but upon the fair daughter of the 
mountains, the niece of Jack Fallls. What 
a charming young woman, he thought, and 
that barefooted girl, with the tangle of 
hair, who was she? 

The thick carpet of green nature had 
spread about the tree prevented him from 
hearing the approach of the barefooted 
girl, who, for some reason he could not 
explain, had kept driving Lina from his 
thoughts, and Lina's liquid, brown eyes 
had almost pierced that hitherto invulnera- 
ble armor — the pride of Arthur Hawley. 

He was startled when a low voice mur- 
mured : 

"Air yuh dreamin* or air yuh watchin* 
them buzzards?** 

"Is that a buzzard?" he asked, as he 
turned to look into the wide, questioning 
eyes. 

"Them's buzzards." 

"Why do you say *them?' there is only 
one." 

"Whar thur*s one thur's two," she said. 

"As I can see but one, the other is an 
invisible buzzard, I presimie." 

"No, the other one's a she buzzard." 

"Ah, I see," he answered, smiling upon 
her. 

"That one a flyin* aroun' is a-looking for 
aigs, and his wife is a-raisin little buz- 



zards. I reckon yuh didn't know I was 
livin' here?" 

"I did not. In fact I did not know 
there were any little ladies, just like you, 
in this part of the country." 

He waited for her to reply, but she did 
not speak — only drew closer to him. 

"My name is Arthur Hawley; what is 
yours?" 

"I'm Bess Willard," she said. 

"Is Mr. Fallis a relative?" he asked, 
seeking to get her to talk. 

"No, Uncle Jack foimd me,** she replied. 

Presently she asked: "Do you live in 
Knoxville?" 

"My home is in Cincinnati.** 

"Whur is that?". 

"Cincinnati is in the state of Ohio. It 
is situated upon the right bank of the Ohio 
river, and across the river is the State of 
Kentucky." 

"Did joih come to see Lina?" she asked 
abruptly. 

"No, why do you ask?" 

"I caint tell yuh, I 'low.** 

"I would like to know," he said. 

She explained that grandmother, or 
"Granny" as she called her, would not per- 
mit her to talk to him if he came to see 
Lina. "She says gyrls o' my aige is silly 
— I dunno if they air." 

"I don't believe you are, although some 
young girls giggle foolishly," he replied. 

"Uncle Jack is good ter me, she said 
softly, and a bit of the sunlit tangle 
touched his cheek as he bent to listen. 

"You love him, do you?" 

"Yes, 1 love him. He calls me his snow- 
bird, 'case he found me in the snow. An' 
then I kiss him,'' she said, as the gray eyes 
changed to green. 

He wondered how he could have imag- 



137 



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THK OHIO MAGAZINE 



ined her plain, almost to homeliness, as she 
appeared at first when she stood before 
him. Her face was radiant, and the parted 
red lips seemed dangerously near, for hV 
was stooping to catch her low toneh. 

**You make me wish I was your Uncle 
Jack." 

*'Then yuh would like lur, w..uldn't 
yuh?" 

"Very much indeed." 

A soft sigh escaped her, and the smile 
faded from her lips, as she said : 'Granny 
will be callin' me in a minnit. I'll show 
you the planner ter night," she said, as she 
ran away. 

What a strange but interesting child she 
is, he thought as he watched her disappear. 
He was thinking about her when Fallis 
joined him. The host was about to light 
his corncob pipe when Arthur said : **Try 
one of these." 

Fallis seated himself beside rhe young 
man as he lighted the cigar. 

**How do yuh think yo'll lik:^ rhe mount- 
ings?" he asked. 

*'f shall enjoy this visit very, very much, 
I anticipate. I was talking to the little 
girl, Bess, just now; who is she?" 

**£ call her my snow bird, *case I found 
her in the snow one mawnin"* Jack said. 
"Her fambly had been murdered by a gang 
of guerrillas one night during the wah. I 
never knowed whether Lige Evans had a 
hand in it or not, but I always suspicioned 
him. Her father was a peculiar man, 
keeping his own secrets ; but he wasn't one 
of our kind. His name war Putnam Wil- 
lard, an* while he seemed po* like most 
mounting folks, he had a house full of 
books, an' they war burned the night they 
killed him. His wife war a frail little 
body, an* she showed marks cjf beauty not 
common 'round heyre." 

"Then the little lady comes honestly by 
her peculiarities," Arthur remarked. 

"She shorely does," said Fallis 

"Vou found her in the snow, you said?" 

"I war goin' by Willard's one niawnin' 
when I seed smoke a-risin', and [ wondered 
ef they war butcherin*. I soon seed that 
the house war burned down; and, goin' to 
ther place, I seed both Willard and his 
wife hed been shot. They were lyin' near 
the burnin' embers, an' I moved 'em away. 
I had seen some hard sights in t^hc mount- 



ings them days, but it war pitiful ter see 
that po' white faced woman a-lyin' ther 
and the snow a-siftin* down over her." 

''Terrible, was it not?" and Arthur shud- 
dered. 

*'I knowed thar war a little gal, an' was 
wonderin' ef the devils killed her too, when 
I noticed a little heap o' snow clost by a 
log, an' the heap sorter moved. Whatever 
it is, says I to myself, it don't need to fear 
me. Purty soon the heap moved agin, an' 
I seed a little foot with a woolen stockin' 
on it stick out in that heap of snow. I 
brushed the snow and leaves away mighty 
quick, an' thar she war a starin' at me out 
o' them strange eyes an' not a whimper out 
o' her." 

"I'm hongry," she said. 
• " *Vuh air? Waal yuh won't be long, 
my little one,' sez I. 

"I tuck her home ter mother, an' I said, 
*1 found this little one an' she's mine. I 
want yuh ter keer for her as your own. 
She seems to me like a vine climin' roun' a 
tree ; she's twined herself roun' my heart, 
she hes." 

'*1 can understand why a man, such as 
you, can feel a deep affection for a child 
utterly alone, as she is," Arthur said. 

"Mother, she is good to her," Jack con- 
tinued, "but Bess gets out o' patience some- 
times. It's all 'count o' the scriptures. 
Mother's powerful sot on the Bible. She 
keep a-talkin' and a-readin', particular on 
a Sunday. One day Bess, she come ter me 
heyre; I war a-setting' smokin', and she 
laid her bushy head on my lap and said : 

"Do you know, Uncle Jack, I hate all 
them ole fellers." 

"Who is my little gal hatin*? says I. 

"Oh, a lot o' them ther in the Bible; 
Cain, an' Absolem, and Methuselem, an' 
Aminadab, an' some more,' she said. 

" 'What has po' ole Methusalem done as 
yuh air down on his?' I sez. 

"'How ole is Granny,' she asked. 

" "Bout seventy-two,' sez I. 

" *An' Methusalem was 900 years older 
than Granny?" 

" 'Long there,' sez I. 

" *I reckon ef he had any leetle gyrls 
round' the house, he fursed at 'em, too," 
she said. 

" *I wouldn't put it past him,' sez I. 

" 'Now, thar's David,, Uncle Jack. I 



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SNOWBIRD 



139 



uster like hini when he war a boy an' war 
out weth the sheep, but, arter awhile, he 
wasn't always good. Uncle, now was he?' 

*' *I reckon yuh right, dear,* sez I. 'He 
missed it sometimes, but yuh must not tell 
Granny thet ; she's powerful sot on David. 
She knows a lot, no one tells her,' Jack 
continued. *She let on ter me the birds tell 
her things. One Sunday last summer she 
run ofF. an' thar war no Bess all day. 
Mother and the Bible war wait in', and' I 
seed she war sorter riled. Toward evenin' 
Bess came back, an' mother openeed on her 
at onct : 

*'Whar yuh been trollopin' ?' she axed. 

*' 'In the woods hearin' the birds sing,* 
says Bess. 

*' *Thar's plenty of other days to hear the 
birds sing,' says mother. *Do you know 
what the Book sez? Remember the Sab- 
bath day ter keep it holy. Yuh hev been 
a-breakin* the day, so yuh hev, a-breakin' 
the day.' 

" *Didn' God make the birds, Granny?' 
she axed. 

" * Thet has nothin' to do with it,' sez 
mother. 

'* 'Don't He let them sing the same songs 
Sunday as they sing a- Monday? Why don't 
He make a Sunday fer the birds?' 

"1 seed mother was gettin' sort o' riled, 
an' I sed, yuh all might call this argyment 
a draw." 

" *I reckon yuh got a claim on her, Jack- 
son,' mother said, *an' I see yuh air sort of 
wropped up in her, but I'm a-tryin' to save 
her soul, my son, thet's all, a-tryin' to save 
her soul.' 

'* *I 'low, mother,' sez I, 'her religion 
seems kinder queer ter yuh an' me, but she 
won't go fur wrong jist a-listenin' ter the 
birds.' " 

There was a break in the rich, low voice, 
and a suspicion of moisture in the gray 
eyes. 
^ "This seegar is a powerful strong one ; I 
'low its sorter gone to my haid," he said. 

CHAPTER VI. 

When Jack Fallis sent his niece to school 
in Knoxville, she devoted some time to the 
study of music. Her voice was a rich con- 
tralto, and dearly her uncle loved to hear 
her sing the songs then popular. Once 



when he went to the city to visit her she 
said: "I wish to show you that I have not 
entirely wasted your money while here," 
and, seating herself at the piano, sang a 
love song of the war days, "Lorena."* 

"The years creep slowly by, Lorena," 
she sang, and the voice thrilled him. The 
theme filled his soul with unutterable long- 
ing, for like "Paul Vane," who loved Lo- 
rena, Jack Fallis once had a Lorena. She 
was not of the mountains, and the great, 
rugged, young mountaineer amused her. 
She was one who played with human 
hearts. 

VV'hen Lina came back to the home on 
the mountains. Jack hinted that a melodeon 
would be a nice thing in the house. "I 
sometimes want ter hear yuh play an' sing 
that song — yuh mind, don't yuh ? — 'The 
years creep slowly by,' " he said. "I want 
ter hear that song on a winter's evenin' 
when the winds come a-moanin' down from 
the mountaings an' I am a settin' in the 
kitchen with mother — a settin' thar 
smokin' — then I want ter hear that tune 
come a-creepin* inter my soul." 

"I know, uncle," she answered, "but let 
us wait until you are rich enough to buy a 
piano ; the girls in school did not care for 
melodeons — they are not just the thing." 

"I -sorter like them," he said. "But we'll 
see." 

Before she dreamed he was rich enough 
there was a piano in the best room and 
Lina knew by the sad, far-away look in the 
patient gray eyes when he was in the mood 
to he^r Lorena ; if, however, she saw a 
merry twinkle, she sang : 

"Oh, dearest Mae, 
Your lub'ly as de day. 

Your eyes so bright, 

7'hey shine at night, 
When de moon am gone away." 

"Do yer want ter see the pianner, now?" 
asked Bess. The sun had sunk behind a 
peak and the gloaming was near. Together 
they went to the instrvmient. "I reckon 
Lina will play fer yuh." 

"I shall be pleased to hear her," Arthur 
said as he ran his fingers over the keys. 



• "Lorena." written by Rev. Chas. Wehster. of 
Zanesville, Ohio, was known as the great love sohr 
of the sixties. 



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"Hev yuh all got a planner at home?" 
she asked. 

"Yes, shall I play for you?" He sitt at 
^e instrument, idly druimning upon it. 

"Kin yuh?" The gray eyes were full of 
wonder. Men whom she knew did not 
play on the piano. 

Presently he drifted into the sweet, ap- 
pealing chords of Lange*s "Flower Song." 
The girl drew closer and closer to him un- 
til he felt her breath upon his cheek. He 
played as he had seldom played, and when 
the chords had died away, he turned and 
saw that Bess' eyes were filled with tears. 

"I will play something brighter, Bess, 
he said. 

"No; play that agin — slow, that way. 
I heard her cryin' ; what was it about ? 
Was he goin' away?" 

"You heard her crying, what do you 
mean?" he asked. 

"I could see the gyrl and she couldn't 
help a cryin', 'case she war always lone- 
some." 

The young man discovered a new trait 
in this, to him, remarkable child. At times 
she seemed a woman, one who had known 
the world, and had suffered. In a mo- 
ment she was the child again. He 
played the song for her once more, and 
when he had finished she kissed him and 
turned away. While he was yet wondering 
whether it was the child or the woman who 
had kissed him, Lina came into the room. 
He was curious to know whether she had 
seen the caress. She might wonder, per- 
haps, what it meant — he a stranger ,and a 
guest. In the big brown eyes he saw a 
glitter like a moonbeam on the frost. 

"I took the liberty of listening," she said.- 
"I did not know you were such an artist." 

"I am very human. Miss Burrell, and 
flattery is delicious — but there are few ar- 
tists in the world. Shall I play for you?" 
he asked. 

The brown eyes seemed to be asking him 
what that kiss meant and he hoped she 
would forget. He played a Chopin noc- 
turne and the "March of Night," the latter 
a brilliant composition with a sort of ma- 
jestk movement — after which he sang, 
"Then You'll Remember Me." 

Lina had never heard the opera in which 
this sweet song is introduced, and as he 



sang, the frost disappeared and the brown 
eyes grew soft and tender again. 

"You must play for us to-night and sing 
that song again," she said. The gloaming 
had passed and a full round moon was 
peeping down through the branches of the 
walnut where thin blue wreaths of smoke 
were floating upward. Arthur had not long 
been sitting there when Malvina came. 

"1 heard yuh playin' an' it set me a- 
thinkin'," she said. 

"It would not be difficult to guess of 
whom," he replied. 

"No, not after what I told you, but ain't 
it strange that he should come now?" 

"Yes, you will doubtless meet again." 

"Yancey is ter be their lawyer, yuh 
know," she said. 

"That was a beautiful thing you said the 
day we were riding. When you told me all 
you said: 'I will never forget that I am 
Yancey Everett's wife.' " 

"Yes, I buried my love," she said, "but 
1 buried it alive." They were silent for a 
time, he wondering if after all she might 
forget when the Captain came. Might not 
this ghost of that buried love demand that 
the grave be opened. At least he feared it. 

The sun had climbed over the eastern 
range and was shining brightly in his room, 
when Arthur awoke the next morning. He 
heard presently a soft tapping upon the 
door. He did not answer, and there came 
a sharper rap. 

"Yuh won't git a bite if yuh don't git 
up." Then the little maid tripped down 
the stairs singing: 

"When holler hearts shall wear a mask, 
'Twill break yuh own ter see. 
In such a moment I but ask. 
That yuh'll — " 

The door closed and the girlish voice no 
longer reached him. 

"I fear you will think me a bit lazy," he 
said when seated at the breakfast table, 
"but I slept well and sleep, as the bard 
says, 'knits up the raveled sleeve of care,' 
and I have many raveled sleeves." 

"I don't see that yuh sleeves raveled," 
Mother Fallis said. "I reckon the girls can 
f\ex 'em if they air." 

Bess waited uupon him, saying little but 



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SNOWBIRD 



141 



np e atm g over and over again the song that 
seemed to haunt her memory : "When hol- 
ler hearts," etc. 

I am going to see Lige Evans this morn- 
ing. Miss Bess," Arthur said, "and I would 
like you to go with me and show me the 
road." 

* Will )mh take me?" she asked eagerly. 

"Yes, if you can go." 

"AVill we walk?" she asked. 

"We will take the carriage. Perhaps 
Mrs. Everett would like to go." 

"She won't keer to go, I 'low," Bess 
said, and Arthur understood. 

"I'll tell Uncle Jack," she cried, as she 
ran away to get the consent she knew would 
be given. 

Bess* eyes sparkled when she took her 
place by Arthur's side. A white sunbonnet 
rested upon the gold brown tangle. The 
white dress was of a style of former days 
when girls wore dress waists cut very low. 
Her full round throat and shoulders were 
as white as the gown and bonnet. The 
cheeks were brown, for the sunbeams would 
peep through the tangle of curls as she ran 
through the fields and lanes bonnetless. 

The low cut waist gave hint of the 
beauty of form that would be hers when 
the years of womanhood had arrived. 

Arthur Hawley realized that on a day 
not far distant, nature would fashion this 
girl into a woman of unusual loveliness. 
Hefore the home of Lige Evans was 
reached there were long, steep hills to 
climb and the team was restless. 

The attention of the driver was more 
occupied in looking after the horses than 
in watching the young girl whose eyes 
sought his with a questioning look. 

"Finally she asked, "Was yuh 'shamed 
of me yisterday?" 

"Ashamed of you?" He was intently 
watching the prancing horses. 

"Yes. wus yuh?" The face was growing 
older again as he had seen it when some 
thought troubled her.. 

"I certainly was not; why should I be?" 

"Lina said she was." 

"Did she?" 

A cool and delightful breeze having 
sprung up, we began to think of lunch. 
Around the point we had previously no- 
ticed a nook in the bank, well shaded and 
a spot carpeted with green. Running' our 



boat up on the shore, we jumped out and, 
gathering twigs, leaves and dry wood, soon 
had a good fire. Fish were next cleaned 
and frying in the pan, coffee boiling, and 
in a few more moments we were in the full 
enjoyment of our meal. The birds gave us 
welcome. The thrush and bobolinks tuned 
their throats to cadence long and beautiful. 
Nut hatches and chickadees chirped in the 
bushes, while overhead the noisy, lusty- 
crows chattered and scolded, disturbed by 
the intrusion. After lunch we resumed our 
fishing and by four o'clock had caught 
quite a number of the yellow beauties, dur- 
ing which time the game had been exciting 
and full of sport. 

*She said I acted perfectly silly." 

"About what?" he asked. 

"Yuh know ; I kissed yuh." 

"So you did. I considered that very kind 
of you. It was the most pleasing encore I 
ever received." 

"I dunno what yuh air talkin' about,'" 
she said. 

"Perhaps not; but never mind, we will 
be good friends, shall we not?" 

"Ef yuh ain't 'shamed of me." 

"Please do not refer to that again. Re- 
member I am a very old person, compared 
to you, and if a little girl choses to kiss me, 
whose business is it? When we get down 
this hill you may kiss me again." There 
was a merry twinkle in his eyes that did 
not escape the girl. 

"No, that would be silly, I reckon." 

As they approached a little log shanty, 
Bess said, "That is Lige Evans' cabin 



now. 



CHAPTER VII. 



In the low, open door sat an untidy wo- 
man, not devoid of comliness. Drink, how- 
ever, had left indelible marks upon her 
face. The dark eyes, half closed, were 
fastened upon the young man in the car- 
riage. She knew Bess, but did not deign to- 
glance toward her. She had seen but few 
young men like the one who was politely 
lifting his hat as though it was a great 
lady he was about to meet. Such were the 
thoughts that forced their way through the 
dull brain. She had been drinking rather 
heavily for that hour of the day, but Lige 
had been gone all night, and she had been 
alone in the cabin. Alone, except for such 



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company as the grizzled, long-eared dog 
afforded, the dog which growled and 
showed its teeth as Arthur called: "Is 
Evans at home?" 

"He's gone ter Williamsburg. He 
mought get home any time now, an* he 
mought be plum full when he gits here; 
fer he war away all night," she said. 

*'I will come back; I want to see him," 
Arthur said. 

'*Vuh kin come in an' wait ef yuh want. 
Ef its the timber yuh come ter see, I 
mought talk it over with yuh — the daug 
won't hurt yuh." 

Impulsively Bess placed her hand upon 
Arthur's arm as if to detain him. Observ- 
ing the act the woman flushed angrily and 
exclaimed with a sneer, "Hev yer got ter 
be the boss, Bess Willard?" 

They did not hear what else she said, 
for they drove rapidly away. She taints 
the air Bess breathes, Arthur thought. 
Giving the spirited team full head they 
went up and down the great hills at a 
merry pace. Lina was waiting their return, 
as she was to accompany Arthur to call 
upon the Widow and Nannie Catlin. 

Nannie stood near the low fence wait- 
ing for them. Nate had told her they were 
coming. She was a pretty, blue-eyed girl, 
straight and slim as a young poplar. 

"Nannie, this is Mr. Hawley," Lina said. 
"You remember his father. Major Haw- 
ley?" 

Arthur greeted the young girl so heartily 
that she was at once at ease. Nannie rather 
dreaded meeting this young man from the 
North; he might not be as friendly as his 
father, whom she remembered well. She 
remembered, too, that the major^had been 
wounded by Lige Evans while trying to get 
her in a safe place while the fight was on. 

Arthur was introduced to Mrs. Catlin, 
who, as she placed a limp hand in his, 
said : "I cain't see as yuh look much like 
yuh father. He was a mighty well favored 
man." 

There was a resenting flush in Lina's 
eyes. The compliment paid the father at 
the expense of the son did not please her. 

"My father bade me find you, Mrs. Cat- 
lin, and say to you that he has always re- 
membered you most kindly. He told me 
the story of that day in '64," Arthur said. 

"Vaas, I hain't f ergot it either; an' Mal- 



viny were here that day. I hear she come 
with yuh all." 

"We are glad to have Mrs. Everett visit 
us," Lina said. 

"Mrs. Everett ! Huh — ter me she war 
alius Malviney Stake," and there was a 
note of impatience in the voice of the 
widow. She seemed to resent the idea that 
the poor mountain girl had married a law- 
yer and lived in the city. 

"Mos' everybody is a-gettin' married 
nowadays, an' them that ain't air a countin* 
on it," she continued mournfully. "I'm 
pikein' along here erlone mosly, fer Nannie 
is mighty poor company now." 
, "Mother!" There was reproof in the 
soft voice. 

"Oh, yes, it's so; there's nobody but 
Nate in these parts." 

"Mr. Hawley don't keer to hear o' Nate 
an' me," said the young girl, softly. 

"There is no story more beautiful than 
the one they are telling, Mrs. Catlin," Ar- 
thur said. "It is the oldest story known to 
man, yet it is ever new." 

"Thar ain't no time a pore body is so 
happy as when they air in love, an' they 
ain't no time they's so wuthless," and Mrs. 
Catlin sighed wearily. 

Lina had told Arthur how Nate and 
Nannie had loved each other as children, 
and now they were engaged to be married. 
The widow was discussing the subject one 
day with the couple and ventured the re- 
mark that they were too young. 

"Don't git in inter yuh haids ter marry 
while yuh air so young. Then, again, Nate 
mought see some gal as he mought like bet- 
ter than yuh, Nannie, an' it is easier quitin' 
ef yuh ain't ingaged." 

"Mrs. Catlin," Nate answered in his 
soft, quaint way, "I reckon I love Nannie 
as well as ar'y man loves his wife. It don't 
seem as it would make any difference ef I 
hed pick o' the whole worl'. Ef Uncle 
Jack wanted me ter travel all over this 
broad jjearth 'fore I settled down, I'd go 
mebby, but I'd come back, an' ef I seed 
Nannie a-standin' thar by the fence as she 
did terday, awaitin* fer me, I'd be as happy 
as the angels wur when the sung on a win- 
ter's mawning' long ago.' 

Nannie was looking shyly at him as he 
talked, and when he paused to hear what 



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SNOWBIRD 143 

Mrs. Catlin would say, she slipped a soft, smoked silently and drowsily for a while, 

white hand into the one that was rough Looking into the embers that had burned 

and sunburnt, as she whispered, "Nate, my low, she said, as if to herself : 
Nate." "I reckon I was jist as saft once as yuh 

The widow dexterously took from the all." 
hearth a coal, and placing it in her pipe, [I'o be continued. \ 



The Old Red School House- 

In the valleys of the rivers, in the dear, old Buckeye state, 

Where we were born and joyed so long agone; 
We can see the quaint old farm-house, the road and picket gate — 

The cider-mill, the orchard, and the chickens on the lawn. 
And, standing in the background, we discern in fancy still, 
The little old red school-house on the hill. 

There were clean and honest fathers — Spartan mothers at the looms — 

Dear sisters fair, and faithful in their loves; 
Who sang the song of "Home, Sweet Home," while standing midst the blooms,. 

With upward smile, as, cooing^ coteward flew the homing doves. 
There's one thing in the picture, we can not forget nor will — 
The little old red school-house on the hill. 

When the flag was shot at Sumter, and our country called for deeds. 

In serried ranks came forth in stern array — 
From school-house, great Horatios, from that farm. Von Winkelrieds „ 

Who held the bridge for freedom, and for liberty made way; 
When in its walls the muster stands with senient pride a-thrill — 
The little old red school-house on the hill. 

Needs our country lofty leaders — fiery pillars in her night? 

Ohio's sons are in the van afar; 
In all our halls of wisdom, and each a leading Hght, 

And each a Holy Moses or a Henry of Navarre: 
In classic shade or commerce, their Alma Mater's still 
The little old red school-house on the hill. 

Philetus Smith. 



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XLhc 

Cit^ of If ronton 



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TYPICAL CHURCHES OF IRONTON. 

Photos by \f. M. Mndit. 



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SUNSET ON THE OHIO RIVER AT IRONTON. 



Photo by M. M. Mudge. 



Early Days in I ronton 

By Hon. E. S. Wilson 



w: 



THE limestone ore belt of the 
Hanging Rock iron region, was 
from eight to twelve miles wide, 

and Hanging Rock was at the 
center of it. It extended from 

Jackson county through Law- 
rence, and into Greenup,^ Kentucky. In 
this belt were built twenty to twenty-five 
furnaces. Their product was a charcoal 
pig iron, and the annual output of each 
furnace averaged 1,000 to 2,000 tons. This 
pig iron was brought to the Ohio River for 
shipment. Hanging Rock being the princi- 
pal shipping point. 

At this village lived John Campbell and 
Caleb Briggs. The former, who may be 
regarded as the founder of Ironton, was a 
practical f urnaceman, having passed 
through all experiences from ox driver to 
manager and proprietor. He was a man 
of strong intellect and long vision. Dr. 
Briggs was a scientific man who had been 
an assistant state geologist under Dr. Ma- 
ther in 1835. "He was attracted to Hang- 
ing Rock by the fine iron prospects of that 
region. 

These two men organized The Ohio Iron 
and Coal Company in 1849. The objects, 



as set forth in the charter, were to develop 
the mineral resources, encourage the con- 
version of raw material into completed 
manufactures, and to make use of the stone 
coal instead of the charcoal, if possible, in 
the reduction of ores. So far as the last 
named object is concerned, it may be noted 
that the forests were disappearing so rap- 
idly that serious apprehensions were enter- 
tained that it would not be long before the 
pig iron production would cease for lack 
of fuel. 

The charter gave the company the right 
to purchase and sell land, *'the same as a 
natural person,*' to erect iron works and 
build a railroad to their mines and fur- 
naces. On April 23d, 1849, there was a 
stockholders' meeting, at which it was 
agreed that their principal office should be 
at the mouth of Storm Creek, where said 
company proposed to lay out a town called 
Ironton, with a view of carrying out the 
objects of said incorporation. Mr. Camp- 
bell was the first president and Dr. Briggs 
the first secretary. 

Previous to this effort to centralize the 
iron enterprises, the various furnaces con- 
stituted interesting communities. Life was 



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rather rough about them, but there was not 
lacking the exuberance and kindliness of 
pioneer experience. There was money in 
the iron business, enough to make every 
furnace a local center, where there was 
more or less intelligence and gay life. 



running back to the hills. There were 325 
acres in these two farms, and they were 
plated into 350 lots. The first sale of lots 
took place June 20th, 1849. Shortly after- 
wards there were 378 acres added, making 
the original plat of the town amount to 



JOHN CAMPBELL, FOUNDER OF IRONTON. 

Photo by M, M. Mudge from an old Portrait. 



Those old furnace days were really attrac- 
tive, but when I ronton was founded most 
of the furnaces lost their social importance 
and the "iron families" migrated to the 
town. 

In May, 1849, the company bought two 
farms, beginning above Storms Creek and 



703 acres, all of which cost the company 
$18,143.11. There were other slight pur- 
chases after this, and vast additions made 
to the city, so that now it extends along 
the river nearly four miles and back to the 
hills. 

The location is a fine one. It is pictur- 



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EARLY DAYS IN IRONTON 



149 



csque and healthy, and, lying on two rolls 
or benches of the ancient basin of the Ohio, 
it provides a most excellent drainage. It 
was the dream of the projectors of I ronton 
to make it a temperance town, for in all 
the deeds was put a provision that carried 
the forfeiture to the company of any prop- 
erty upon which liquor was sold, on pay- 
ment to the owners of one-half of the ap- 
praised value. This regulation kept the 
town pretty temperate for six or eight 



education required, it could be easily ob- 
tained. 

As a shipping point for the furnaces 
Ironton became prominent. In early days 
the entire bank of the river in front of the 
young town was covered with pig iron put 
up in five ton piles. A steamboat could 
nearly always get a good shipment of metal 
at Ironton, but most of the transportation 
was made in barges and flatboats, up and 
down the Ohio River. 



SECOND STREET, AN EARLY THOROUGHFARE, AS IT IS TODAY. 

Photo by M. M. Mudgg, 



years, but in time the forfeiture feature be- 
came a dead letter. 

The men who built Ironton were sturdy, 
thoughtful, common-sense men. They 
seemed more intent on making a great city 
than on reaping profits from their venture. 
They made generous provisions for school 
houses, churches, mills and shops. In fact, 
as long as the Ohio Iron and Coal Com- 
pany had land that enterprise, religion or 



The Iron Railway was a companion pro- 
ject to the building of the town. They 
started together. The original idea was to 
build a road to connect at Bloom Switch 
with the Portsmouth branch of the Mari- 
etta and Cincinnati Railroad, but it got no 
further than thirteen miles into the hills 
of Lawrence county. It thus reached, 
within a transportation radius, Olive, Buck- 
horn, Howard Center, Mt. Vernon, Law- 



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rence, Etna and Vesuvius furnaces, and 
these were the enterprises that covered the 
banks of the river with pig metal. 

The first step to raise the town from a 
shipping point to the importance of a man- 
ufacturing center was the building of the 
Ironton rolling mill. This was soon fol- 
lowed by the Lawrence mill, a large stove 
foundry, and an extensive machine shop 
and foundry. The building of the rolling 
mills started the coal industry ; and mines 
four miles back of the town were opened 
and for yean; provided most of the freight 



ulated iron production to a great degree, 
and soon brought to the front the problem 
proposed by the charter of the Ohio Iron 
and Coal Company, viz.: the substitution 
of stone coal for charcoal in the reduction 
of iron ores. 

In 1868, Belfont furnace was built, the 
first furnace in the country to discard char- 
coal as a fuel. It was followed by the 
erection of other coke furnaces — Big 
Etna, Sarah, Hamilton and Ironton, and 
before this, through competition and the 
vast increase of production, charcoal pig 



NEW LAWRENCE COUNTY COURT HOUSE, IN PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION. 

It Will Stand in the Midst of an Historic Park Given to the City and County by the 

Founders of Ironton. 



for the Iron Railroad. There were other 
forms of manufacture, but these rolling 
mills furnished the bulk of employment for 
the town for years, and the business of the 
community depended wholly upon how it 
went with the two big rolling mills. When 
they were stopped, the town was stagnant ; 
and when they flourished, the community 
was prosperous. 

So the years ran on until the war days, 
when iron rose in price, making rich the 
holders of stock that had accumulated dur- 
ing the days of stagnation. The war stim- 



metal became an insignificant item in the 
industry of the county. During this substi- 
tution of the stone coal or coke furnace for 
the charcoal furnace, a marked change was 
taking place in manufactured iron. The 
two rolling mills that served the commu- 
nity so faithfully in early days fell behind 
in business, if not in enterprise, and the 
nail industry forged ahead and became the 
chief feature of Ironton business, and to- 
day constitutes its most important produc- 
tive interest. 

Other leading sources of Ironton's activ- 



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EARLY DAYS IN IRONTON 



151 



ity were lumber mills, fire brick works, ma- 
chine shops, foundries and latterly a 
cement plant sufficient to diversify the bus- 
iness of the town, whose main dependence 
yras and still is the iron product. These 
industries attracted a large and enterpris- 
ing population, which has gradually in- 
creased from the beginning. 

One of the early industries of I ronton 
was the Star nail mill. It maintained a 
limping existence until 1863, when it was 
bought by a party of iron men from Wheel- 
ing, who put life and money into it and 
made it the most vital of I ronton indus- 
tries. The construction of the Belfont 
furnace, four years afterwards, was a nat- 
ural result of this nail mill project and 
gave a new impulse and direction to Iron- 
ton's industries. 

So prosperous was the Belfont enter- 
prise that the Big Etna furnace was pro- 
jected and built just above town. The 
capital was a million dollars, and its con- 
struction, together with some reckless ore 
land deals, absorbed all the money of Iron- 
ton and a great deal of its credit, and into 
this scheme people had gone deep, when 
the panic of 1873 swept the community like 
an epidemic and for some time obstructed 
the progress of the city. Long lay that 
great furnace idle or unprofitable, until in 
recent years it turned out for other owner.^ 
greater fortunes than it had lost. 

In the meantime another nail enterprise 
was established, (the Kelly's) which, tg- 
gether with the Belfont, has made Ironton 
a center of nail manufacture. Since the 
war two charcoal furnaces were built at 
or near Ironton, (Grand and Monitor), but 
they were short lived, for the days of char- 
coal pig metal, except for mixers, were 
numbered. 

The population of the city grew as the 
iron industry advanced. In 1850 there 
were too few persons to be dignified by the 
name of a census, but at the end of the year 
there were 600 or 800 people in the town, 
for the demand for lots had been lively. 
The temperance feature of the charter had 
attracted many people, and the strong 
character of the men at the head of the 
town enterprise gave assurance of its suc- 
cess. 

Here are the names of some of these 



men, failure to mention which would make 
the history of Ironton incomplete: John 
Campbell,' John Peters, W. D. Kelly, Wil- 
liam Ellison, James O. Willard, Caleb 
Griggs, Joseph W. Dempsey, John Cul- 
bertson, John Ellison, Hiram Campbell, 
John E. Clark, James W. Means, George 



IRONTON MEMORIAL HALL. 

Photo by ColUtt. 

Steece — all long since gone from earth, 
and yet their names are honorably reflected 
in the memories of tjie early days of the 
city. 

From a population of nothing in 1850, 
the city reached a census of 3,700 in 1860, 
of 5,888 in 1870, of 8,857 in 1880, and of 
10,939 in 1890, and 11,868 in 1900, which 
latter figures make Ironton the largest city 
of its age in Ohio. 

Up to 1881 Ironton depended upon the 
Ohio River for its transportation and its 
traveling facilities, but in that year the 
Scioto Valley Railroad was extended from 
Portsmouth to Ironton and thus gave the 
latter a connection with the outside world. 
Before this the ice in Winter and low 
water in Summer made shipping and trav- 
eling to and from the town rather rickety 
and precarious. But this fact gave to the 
town an insularity that was not so disa- 
greeable as one might suspect, for the peo- 



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pie were generous and whole-souled and 
were able to make themselves happy an.ong 
themselves. 

Shortly after, a narrow gauge extension 
of the Iron Railroad was made to Wells- 
ton and other roads, and in 1888 the Ches- 
apeake and Ohio was built down on the 
other side of the river, and in 1892 the 
Scioto Valley, which had become the Nor- 
folk and Western, was extended up the 
river and across it into the Virginias, thus 
providing the city with abundant railroad 
conveniences. The railroads have found 
Ironton to be a profitable customer, from 
the time when the first spike was driven in 
the town. 

Ironton has had public water works since 
1869, the supply being drawn from the 
Ohio River by the Holly system. It has 
been lighted by electricity since 1888, the 
incandescent lamps being used at first, but 
afterwards were supplanted by the arcs. 
The first car on the Ironton Street Railway 
ran on July 4, 1888. Its tracks extend 
from Hanging Rock to Petersburg, a dis- 
tance of seven miles, and run the long way 
of the city, parallel with the river. It has 
passed through several hands and the 
courts and is now a part of the Camden 
system. 

As we have remarked, the founding of 
Ironton was not entirely a money-making 
project. The men at the head of the en- 
terprise mingled some high views with 
their business purposes. The temperance 



feature of the deed indicated that much. 
But their whole influence was on the side 
of morality, religion and education. As a 
consequence, these interests never lacked 
encouragement. With the exception of twa 
or three they were not men of education, 
but plain, practical men, who appreciated 
culture and moral purpose. The Ironton 
public schools have always been considered 
among the best in the State, and this ex- 
cellence can be traced back to the encour- 
agement and generous policy of the found- 
ers of the city. 

When the foundations of the court house 
were laid, corn stalks stood in the beauti- 
ful square. Within three hundred yards of 
this scene four churches were in process of 
building. It was a great impetus in the 
right direction that the spirit of the found- 
ers infused in the enterprise. It was a real . 
delight, in those early days, primitive and 
congenial, to live and grow with the growth 
of Ironton. 

Since then the city has taken steps ta 
the music of the age, becoming more of a 
cosmopolitan community and appropriating 
whatever science and inventive genius have 
brought to the world of industry. From 
the old furnace, making two or three tons 
of metal a day, with its toiling oxen and 
redolent coal pits, to the days of Belfont, 
Kelly and Big Etna, abreast with the sci- 
entific achievements of the age, was only 
about fifty years ; but the great progress of 
that period is the history of Ironton. 




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Industrial, Invincible Ironton 



By John B. Corns 



HE herculean and seemingly im- 
possible task of accurately de- 

scribing and picturing the won- 

%^ derful and remarkable indus- 

'**^ I trial activity of the city of Iron- 
ton and adjacent and contin- 
gent territory, has fallen to the lot of the 
author of this story, who is fully cognizant 
of his inability to do justice to the city. 
Yet the task is undertaken with a feeling 
that all shortcomings will be overlooked 
and excused. 

In the beginning it will be well to state 
that that portion of Ohio lying in its 
southern extremity which is lapped by the 
sun-kissed swells of the mighty river and 
bounded on the north by the rugged, pic- 
turesque and mineral-laden hills of Law- 
rence county, known as the Hanging Rock 
Iron Region, forms the theatre of what is 
perhaps the scene of the greatest indus- 
trial activity in this great State. Ironton 
bv its advantageous location is naturally 
the head and center of this fabulously rich 
region and can be likened unto the prosce- 
nium of the vast theatre, for it is here the 
strategic moves and counter plays of finan- 
ciers and capitalists, both local and foreign, 
are witnessed. They seek to control, or at 
least to have interest in, the many manu- 
facturing industries that are returning fab- 
alous wealth to their owners. 

The slow and labored breathing of the 
furnaces, the incessant rattle and roar of 
the nail and wire mills, the weird singing 
of great band and circular saws as they eat 
their way through fallen monarchs of the 
forest, the hissing steam, shrill whistles, 
and the heavy canopy of smoke almost ob- 
scuring the sun's rays, are but signs of the 
industrial activity that has made Ironton a 
name that is conjured with in the manufac- 
turing world. Thousands of men, bare to 
the waist, their great brawny arms, tough 
and pliable as iron and steel they fashion 



into commercal product, toil day and 
night, seemingly as tireless as the roaring, 
whirring machinery. They — these sons of 
Vulcan, aye, these Knights of Honest 
Labor — are the foundation of a citizen- 
ship unsurpassed anywhere in this great 
State. 

For those who are unfamiliar with the 
Hanging Rock region, which is responsi- 
ble for Ironton*s being, it will not be amiss 



Plant of the Ironton Tool Handle Manu- 
facturing Company. 

in passing to give a brief historical sketch 
of the district. The first blast furnace, 
"Old Union," was erected in 1826 in Law- 
rence County, not far from the projecting 
rock cliff from which the region derived its 
name — "Hanging Rock." John Means, 
John Sparks and James Rogers were the 
builders and operators. Franklin furnace 
in Scioto County, was erected one year 
later by a Methodist minister, the Rev. 
Daniel Young, a typical Yankee from New 
Hampshire. This progressive Easterner 
later built Junior furnace, but within a 
short time thereafter sold his interests to 
James E. Forcythe. The new owner, along 
with the Cilidden Brothers, then erected 
a large furnace which they named "The 
Empire." This was successfully operated, 
as were all the plants, and fortunes were 
made by the owners, all of whom have 
long since passed away. 

Relative to the operation of the Em- 
pire and Junior furnaces, a writer quite 
familiar with the early history of the re- 



153 



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THP: OHIO MAGAZINE 



gion gives these facts: "Up to 1840 the 
average output of the furnaces of this re- 
gion was not to exceed five tons daily, and 
when with this new furnace Mr. Forcythe 
succeeded in doubling that cast, iron mas- 
ters from Pennsylvania and Tennessee 
came tlirough the wilderness to convince 
themselves that the reports of this seem- 
ingly impossible fact were true. They 
tried in vain to lure the skilled iron maker 
away, for Empire was a model among the 
early day furnaces. Its stack was thirty- 



problems of transportation were a constant 
source of perplexity to the iron manufac- 
turer. Junior and Empire furnaces for 
many years carried their product to the 
Ohio, over a private railway, eight miles 
in length, which boasted as rolling stock 
a number of four-wheeled flat trucks run- 
ning on wooden rails, with a more or less 
dependable mule as motive power." 

It is believed that the writer of the 
above drew considerably upon his imagin- 
ation about the private railway. It is not 



THE 



•BIG ETNA" FURNACE OF THE MARTING IRON AND STEEL COMPANY. 

Photo by M. M. Mudge. 



two feet in height, the record for the re- 
gion, and it was built of brick and was 
the first to introduce the fire brick inwell. 
Its employes were housed in a neat log 
cabin village, with streets regularly laid 
out, and the furnace manager lived in what 
was considered a palatial dwelling. Lux- 
uries were few, but the manager had a 
well -stocked deer park of some twenty-five 
thickly timbered acres on a hillside over- 
looking the hamlet. 

*' Prior to the building of railways, th^; 



thought that a tramway ever existed be- 
tween Empire and Junior furnaces and the 
Ohio. At least there exists no evidence of 
it to-day. There was and still is a tram- 
way from Ohio furnace to the Ohio. A 
railroad was constructed by the Hamilton 
furnace of Hanging Rock to its mines at 
New Castle, a distance of three or four 
miles. Besides these roads, the only other 
one was the Iron road, which came into 
I ronton from Center furnace. 
The writer above quoted says that "Key- 



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stone furnace in Jackson County held its 
iron until flood time on the Big Raccoon, 
and then floated it to the river in flat boats. 
Mt. Vernon furnace hauled its iron a 
dozen miles to Ironton with ox. teams. 
Once the iron was on the river bank, 
troubles were over, as it was carried down 
stream to Cincinnati and lower market 
points on heavy barges. 

"Occasionally, in times of depression, 
those firms which were strongest financi- 
ally, were accustomed to store their iron 
along the river, to await higher prices, and 
it is related that just prior to the Civil 
War, Sinton & Means, operating Ohio and 
Union furnaces, held on their river land- 



in pig iron were only used when the 
amounts owe(} were larger than the ordin- 
ary, for the furnace companies soon inaug-^ 
urated a system of script or "white horse" 
and **pluck-me-stores," which existed even 
up to within the last decade. The laborers 
at these furnaces were generally paid in 
this script, which consisted in notes pay- 
able by the company in five or ten years in 
denominations of ten, twenty-five, fifty 
cents, one dollar and larger denominations, 
which passed as currency at the company's 
stores. 

But the custom of payments in metal is 
well authenticated. The late Johnny 
Winkler, of Haverhill, used to relate that 



PLANT OF THE FOSTER STOVE COMPANY. 



ing a solid rick of iron some six feet high 
and a mile long." (The Sinton referred 
to is David Sinton, for whom the new Sin- 
ton Hotel in Cincinnati was named.) 
"Financial difficulties were the rule, not 
the exception, in early iron making. Along 
about 1839 and 1840 Southern Ohio suf- 
fered acutely from a money stringency, and 
Mt. Vernon furnace resorted to the plan 
of paying its employes in pig iron. This 
practice was widely followed; it had its 
advantages in fostering sound business 
dealings, as a glance at the store of iron 
in his front yard was a pretty accurate 
index to a man's financial standing." 
It is thought, however, that payments 



after working something like two years at 
Ohio furnace, he quit his job to go to 
Howard furnace. He was a teamster and 
had a good team. In making the settle- 
ment with the company it was found that 
he had something like $2,000 coming to 
him, which he took in iron at $6 per ton. 
This was just a short time before the war. 
He kept the iron until the war came on. 
when he sold at a big advance. 

Olive furnace was built in 1849 
and claims distinction through hav- 
ing survived as a charcoal stack after sixty 
years of activity, and its owner, William 
M. McOugin, is still a vigorous man of 
ninety. 



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PLANT OF THE OHIO JRON AND COAL COMPANY. 



The writer quoted did not touch upon 
the universal means of transportation of 
the furnaces at that early period. Each of 
the furnaces kept hundreds of yokes of 
oxen to haul their ore, charcoal, iron and 
other freight. The keeping of these oxen 
in the winter season was a problem. When 
the hauling season was over, along about 
Christmas time, the furnace men would 
gather their ox teams in cattle droves and 
start with them to the nearest locality for 
wintering. They used to drive many of 
them up in Gallia county, where the farm- 
ers sold their corn, fodder and all in the 
shock, and agreed to feed it to them. The 
farmers in these localities fattened their 
corn shocks as much as possible, to get a 
good price for them, and many times 
fooled the iron men. The days of the ox 
teams, like the old time furnaces, are 
"past and gone." 

This brings the reader up to the city of 
I ronton; and a few facts relative to its 
history, geography, population, etc., before 
mention is made of its present industrial 
standing, are timely. 

Ironton was laid out in 1848 and in- 
corporated in 1865. It has grown steadily 



and to-day is a city seven .miles long, one 
mile wide, and with a population nimiber- 
ing fully 17,000 souls. The iron industry 
brought the city into being and has sus- 
tained it ever since, and from this industry 
it received its name. The city is an "Iron: 
Town," indeed. 

John Campbell has been termed the 
"father and founder of Ironton," and 
historically he is entitled to this, distinc- 
tion. His was the guiding genius that 
directed the forces in developing the nat- 
ural resources which abounded in the hills 
about the town. The Ohio Iron and Coal 
Company laid out the city, dedicating not 
only the streets to public use, but other 
property which has been utilized to the 
beauty, development and progress of the 
city. Among these dedications was the 
court htnise square, half of which was 
given to the county for the erection of a 
court house and half to the city for park 
purposes. Other deeds of dedication gave 
the city a market place, which was later 
used as a site for a magnificent Soldiers* 
and Sailors' Memorial Hall. Several 
churches are erected on property deeded 
to them by this company. It was through 



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INDUSTRIAL, INVINCIBLE IRONTON 



151 



the efforts of this company, the prime 
mover of which was Mr. Campbell, thajt 
the county seat was removed to I ronton 
from Burlington in 1852. 

Lawrence county, of which Ironton is 
the county seat, was settled in 1 797 by peo- 
ple from Pennsylvania and Virginia, who 
were principally of Dutch and Irish de- 
scent. From this sturdy stock Ironton 
and Lawrence county have produced men 
who have ranked high in the councils of 
the State and Nation, in governmental 
affairs and in the industrial development 



city is proud to name among its people 
such sons as Judge John K. Richards, of 
the U. S. Circuit Court; Hon. C. A.. 
Thompson, Secretary of State ; W. C. Cul- 
kins, journalist, now serving Cincinnati as- 
city auditor; and Hon.* E. S. Wilson, for- 
merlv in the government service in Porto 
Rico and now editor of the Ohio State 
Journal. Among the captains of industry 
are David Sinton, John Campbell, W. D, 
Kelly, Emerson McMillin, and of the 
present generation. Col. H. A. Marting, 
Oscar Richey, W. A. Murdock, B. H. 



PLANT OF THE KETTER BUGGGY COMPANY. 



of the country. Among the former were 
such men as Judge W. W. Johnson, who 
was en the Supreme bench of the State; 
Hon. Henry S. Neal, who was a col- 
league of the late martyred president, 
William McKinley, serving three terms in 
Congress, besides filling other places of 
honor and importance in the Nation; and 
Hon. Ralph Leete, who was a member of 
the Legislature and who probably had 
mere to do toward the establishment of 
our system of jurisprudence than any other 
one man in the State. Besides these the 



Burr, D. C. Davies, S. G. Gilfillan and 
Frederick B. Thompson, owner of Luna 
Park, New York City. 

Ironton is situated on the Ohio river, 
ten miles below the mouth of the Big 
Sandy river, which carries from the moun- 
tains of Kentucky and West Virginia un- 
told wealth. The distance to Pittsburg is 
350 miles, and to Cincinnati 140 miles. 
Ironton i-^ the southernmos*: city of the 
Buckeye State and is situated in a latitude 
which assures a splendid climate. The site 
upon which it is located has an area of 



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PLANT OF THE BELFONT IRON WORKS. 



about 1,000 acres, and practically all of 
this territory is above any flood that has 
ever occurred in the Ohio valley. In this 
matter Ironton is particularly fortunate. 

The population of the city is fully 17,- 
000 at the present time. In 1900 the Gov- 
ernment census gave Ironton a little more 
than 12,000, but during the past seven 
years the city has made wonderful strides 
in its growth, owing to the establishment 
of many new industries. As stated else- 
where, the people are mostly descendants 
from those who came from Pennsylvania 
and Virginia. They were a working p-c- 
ple, who came to wrest from rugged Na- 
ture a living, and they and their descend- 
ants have wrought one of the busiest and 
most prosperous cities of the whole coun- 
try. Its inhabitants to-day are conserva- 
tive, frugal, patient and honest. Being a 
working people, each generation is raised 
to work and to look upon life as a battle 
in which only the fittest can survive. 

SHIPPING FACILITIES. 

Ironton's location on the Ohio river 
gives it an advantageous situation in re- 
gard to transportation facilities. Water 
transportation is the cheapest mode of 
moving freight, and the Ohio river has 
operated in reducing and keeping to the 



minimum railroad freight rates. In ad- 
dition to the river, Ironton has four rail- 
roads which do an enormous business in 
and out of the city. The Chesapeake and 
Ohio, one of the main trunk lines of the 
country, reaches the city with all of its 
facilities for moving freight and with its 
splendid passenger service. This road 
maintains an immense freight depot in 
this city. The Norfolk and Western Rail- 
way, another trunk line, has just com- 
pleted its double tracking through Ironton 
and the erection of a $50,000 i)assenger 
station, said to be the finest on the road 



PLANT OF THE SOUTHERN WHEEL 
STOCK COMPANY. 

Phot4f by M, M. Mudge. 



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INDUSTRIAL, INVINCIBLE IRONTON 



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between Coiumbus, Ohio, and Roanoke, 
Virginia. This road carries in and out of 
Ironton a tonnage in excess of that han- 
dled by the same road in and out of Ports- 
mouth, Chillicothe and Circleville com- 
bined. This is a remarkable statement, 
but true, nevertheless. The Cincinnati, 
Hamilton and Dayton, and the Detroit, 
Toledo and Ironton roads both terminate 
in Ironton, and each gets a fair share of 
the freight shipments in and out of the 



years upon them they are still furnishing 
ore for many of the blast furnaces located 
within and in close proximity to the city. 
Clays of all kinds are abundant and are 
fast being developed, producing a prosper- 
ous industry, which promises in the near 
future to rival that of the iron interests. 
The clays of the county belong to the 
Kittanning clay and shales, which are the 
foundation, according to Professor Orton, 
of the great pottery industry of Eastern 



THE BRUMBERG STORES. 



Photo by M. M. Mudge. 



city. The C, H. and D. will in the near 
future erect mammoth shops here. 

Every point in the country can be 
reached easily and quickly from Ironton 
and at rates that are remarkably reasona- 
ble 

^' NATURAL RESOURCES. 

Ironton is situated in a region abound- 
ing in natural resources. It is in the very 
center of the Hani^ing Rock region. The 
hills around tbe city abound in irrn cvd. 
and after a drcin of almost an hundred 



Ohio, where these industries have grown; 
to mammoth proportions. As yet the clay 
industry in and around Ironton is in its 
infancy, but considering the rapidity . with 
which the clay, along the lines of pottery, 
terra cotta, fire and pressed brick, orna 
mental mouldings and other forms, is being 
developed, Ironton bids fair to rival East 
Liverpool at no distant date. 

The county is rich in coal deposits of 
easy access to the city. Mammoth coal 
mines are operated by the Ginn Coal Corn- 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



pany, the Black Fork Company, the Buck- 
horn Company, the Hal ley Company and 
countless smaller operators. 

The mines are located on the C, H. and 
D. and D. T. and I. roads and load cars 
•directly from the tipple. The coal is of 
fine quality, being the No. 5 vein, and in 
•some places the No. 6. 

In addition to the mines mentioned, the 
Ohio Iron and Coal Company maintains 
and operates a mammoth coal tipple in 



deposits there are vast seams of limestone, 
which is being developed and used in the 
manufacture of cement and for the build- 
ing of country roads. Limestone mining 
is a growing industry, and large quantities 
are being shipped to points outside the 
county. There is plenty of fine building 
sand, which is used in construction and in 
cement work. 

Everything needed for industrial devel- 
opment lies at Ironton's back door. It 



IROXTON'S MAMMOTH NEW HOTEL, SOON TO BE ERECTED. 

Photo from the Architect's Drawing by M. M. Mudge. 



the city. The coal is of the best and the 
company is so equipped that the tipple can 
care for all the business that may come 
to it for the next ten years. Mr. F. J. 
Ginn gives this business his personal atten- 
tion, along with his other business affairs. 
The company is the same that laid out the 
town of Ironton. Of course, its affairs are 
in new hands, but the successors to the 
pioneers have the same interest in Ironton. 
In addition to the iron, clay and coal 



can be had for the asking, and at an as- 
tonishing low figure. 

FINANCES. 

Financially, Ironton is one of the 
strongest cities in the State. It has four 
banks, and each is doing a prosperous and 
growing business on a solid foundation. 
The First National Bank has a capital 
stock of $300,000. By its last report it had 
on deposit, subject to individual check, the 



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INDUSTRIAL, INVINCIBLE IRONTON 



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sum of $397,000. The second National 
Bank has a capital stock of $125,000, and 
its last report showed the sum of $675,000 
subject to individual check. The Citizens' 



though comprehensive mention will be 
made of the many diversified industries 
that contribute to the wealth, and progress 
of the city and county. 

The increasing number of the city's 
manufacturing plants has made the town 
a veritable hive of industry. The manu- 
facture of iron and its kindred industries 
has spread the fame of the city throughout 
the land. The city was founded upon 
iron, and, like bread unto life, it has been 
its mainstay and staff. Even before the 
county and city were organized, iron mak- 
ing was a considerable industry within 
their borders, and this industry has been 
rapidly developed, until within the vicinity 
of the city there is made annually at the 
present time the enormous quantity of 
800,000,000 pounds of iron. From this 
iron a railroad could be laid from Ironton 
to San Francisco, using an hundred pound 
rail. This iron industry gives employment 
to about five thousand men. 

Among the very early furnaces were 



HON. H. W. MOUNTAIN, 
Mayor of Ironton. 

Photo by M. M. Mudge. 

National Bank has a capital stock of 
$100,000, and has $437,928 subject to in- 
dividual check. The Iron City Savings 
Bank, practically new, is capitalized at 
$55,000, and its individual deposits are 
$175,000. 

These facts and figures are convincing 
of the soundness of our banking institu- 
tions. There has been only one bank fail- 
ure in the history of the city, a private in- 
stitution "going to the wall'* during the 
last money stringency. 

INDUSTRIES. 

The foregoing but leads to whar is to 
follow — a discussion of the wonderful 
industrial activity of Ironton. It is the 
intention of the writer to show that no 
city, in this or any other State, anywhere 
near the size of Ironton, can compare 
with it in an industrial way. Very nat- 
urally, and of a necessity, the manufacture 
of raw and finished iron products will 
feature this industrial discussion, but brief, 



D. C. DA VIES, 
President of the Ironton Board of Trade. 
Photo by Af. M, Mudge, 

Union, Pine Grove, Lawrence, Center, 
Mt. Vernon, Buckhorn, Etna, Vesuvius' 
LaGrange, Hecla and Olive. The oldest 
one is Union. In their beginning these 



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A QUARTETTE OF REPRESENTATIVE IRONTONIANS. 
Photographs by M. M. Mudge. 



COLONEL H. A. MARTI NG. 



T. J. GILBERT. 



A. R. jonxsox. 



W. A. MURDOCK. 



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INDUSTRIAL, INVINCIBLE IRONTON 



163 



furnaces made charcoai iron, but since 
then all of them have changed to hot blast, 
stone coal and coke iron manufacture, with 
the single exception of Center, which yet 



likely as much to the iron education of the 
people, with whcm it has been a life time 
occupation, as to the natural conditions. 
Past successes along this line have been the 
means of stimulating the energy of the 
people in this direction. Until a few years 
ago Ironton had the largest furnace in the 
world, "Big Aetna." At the present time 
it is being operated by the Marting Iron 
and Steel Company. The furnace, al- 
though a failure at the start, has through 
the genius of Col. H. A. Marting turned 
into a veritable gold mine and is to-day 
making more than 400 tons of ircn daily, 
and the stock of the company cannot be^ 
purchased at any price. This company has 
paid yearly dividends amounting to ISO" 
per cent. Hundred per cent, dividends are 
yearly occurrences. 

The other large and modern furnaces are 
Hamilton, Pelfont, Union Iron and Steel 
and Sarah. Under construction and yet 
unnamed is a furnace of the Ironton Iron 
Company. It will have a capacity of 400 



E. W. lUXDY. 
President of the Ohio State Bankers' -Association. 
I'hoto by M. M. M'udge. 

makes charcoal ircn. This city and county 
is noted for the good quality of ircn pro- 
duced and in all market quotations local 
iron ranks at the head. Before the Civil 
War the cold blast Hecla iron was the 
standard used by the Government in the 
manufacture of its ordnance, and the qual- 
ity of the iron at that time was only ex- 
celled by two furnaces in all the world, 
and these were located in Tcledo, Spain, 
and in Asia Minor. The celebrated gun, 
known as the "Swamp Angel" of Charles- 
ton Harbor, was cast out of Hecla iron. 

Howe, in his History of Ohio, says: 
"The cold blast pig iron in Lawrence 
county was found by experiment by Eng- 
lish authority in 1855 superior, not only to 
irons of a similar make in other portions of 
the United States," but also "as compared 
with the best English iron, the difference is 
about thirty per cent, in favor of this 
metal." 

The success of the iron industry here 
has been phenomenal, and it is due very 



JOHN B. CORNS. 

Photo by M. M. Mudge. 

tons of pig ircn daily, and its construction 
will cost in the neighborhood of one-half 
million dollars, and every dollar of stock is 
owned by Ironton men. 



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The Bird lurnace, located on the site of 
the old Lawrence furnace, is practically 
new, but it is a wondt?rful success. Its 
capacity is 150 tons per day. 



jany owns and operate; Sarah Furnace, 
and the Felfont Furnace owns and 
operates Kelfc nt Furnace. They are thus 
enabled to make every i»r()cess of the nail, 
from the ore to the finished product. The 
mills employ upwards of two thousand 
hands. 

In foundry work the city ranks well up 
with other cities over the State. The 
l*\)ster Steve C'ompany, of which Colonel 
Marting is at the head, has a country- 
wide reputation and is one of the largest 
in the State. It gives employment to two 
hundred men. Stoves manufactured here 
are sold all over the country. 

The Olive Foundry and Machine Shops, 
(ilendenning and Taker Machine Shops, 
The Irontcn Koofin-^ and Corrugating 
l)lant, The Ironttn Eni,ane Works, The 
Irontcn Malleable Ircn Works, and others 
of lesser importance, furnish emplo\nneiit 
to thousandN of men. The products of 
these concL'rns are of a high order and 
find a ready sale. 



S. R. STEECE. 



Pig iron making in the city and county 
has developed kindred industries which are 
necessary to utilize the raw material of the 
furnaces. Among the industries are two 
mammoth nail mills, both of which until 
recent years manufactured cut iron nails 
exclusively. Now they manufacture cut 
nails, wire nails, barbed wire, staples, 
brads and tacks. Nails frcm a quarter of 
an inch to one foot in length are made. 
These mills are not in the "trust," but are 
the largest independent nail mills in the 
United States, (^ne of them is operated 
by the Belfont Iron Works Company, of 
which B. H. Burr and S. G. Gilfillan are 
the guiding geniuses. The other is oper- 
ated by the Kelly Nail and Iron Com- 
pany, of which Oscar Richey is the pres- 
ident. 

The combined output of these mills is 
more than 5,000 kegs of nails every day. 
These two mills have a two-thirds interest 
in the steel plant and rod mill in Ash- 
land, Kentucky. The Kelly Nail Com- 



F. C. TOMLINSON. 
LIMBER. 

Second only to the iron industry is the 
lumber business, which has grown to enor- 
mous proportions. There are within the 



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city seven saw mills, six planing mills, a 
furniture factory, two mantel factories, 
two wheel and hub factories, a wheel stock 
works, a tool handle factory, five carriage 



BOARD OF TRADE BUILDING AND POST- 
OFFICE. 

Photo by Collett. 

and wagon works, two cross tie elevators, 
two cooper shops, and others of lesser im- 
portance. The output of the saw mills is 
fully 500,000 feet per day, and an expert 
authority estimated that sufficient lum- 
ber was sawed in I ronton in 1906 to con- 
struct a three- foot board walk around the 
borders of the State of Ohio. The prin- 
cipal wood working establishments are: 
The Yellow Poplar Ltunber Company, 
The Ohio River Lumber Company, The 
Nigh Lumber Company, The Fearon 
Lumber Company, The Ward Lumber 
Company, The Ironton Lumber Company, 
The Pierce Lumber Company, Whistler 
and Searcy Lumber Company — all big 
concerns, giving hundreds of men em- 
ployment. 

The Buffalo Hardwood Company, of 
Buffalo, New York, the largest concern 
of its kind east of the Mississippi river, 
has one of its two branch offices in I ron- 
ton. Harry C. Hart, an acknowledged 
expert in lumber matters, is in charge of 
the company's Ironton branch. The I'ren- 
dergast Lumber Company, of Marion, 
Ohio, also maintains a branch office here. 
It is in charge of H. M. Gorman, an ex- 
perienced lumber man. 

There are at least twenty-five saw mills 
scattered throughout the county. 



CLAY PRODUCTS. 

Another very important industry is that 
of the manufacture of bricks and other 
commodities from clay and shale. The 
Orchard Knob Clay Works is making one 
of the best pressed bricks now on the 
market, and it is being sold in every state 
in the Union. In addition to the manu- 
facture of bricks this company is making 
a specialty of terra cotta, tile mantels, 
lawn vases, hollow tile, fire proofing and 
ornamental clay products. 

There are several other concerns manu- 
facturing bricks in this city, and among 
them are the Ironton and Ashland Fire 
Brick Company, the Peters Fire Brick 
Company, and the VVilemand and Hebling 
Brick Company. It is said that if the 
bricks made in Ironton during 1906 were 
placed end to end they would reach from 
Ironton to Denver. 

CEMENT. 

The cement industry, while yet in its 
infancy, has become one of great import- 
ance and is the result of the development 
of the clays and limestone of the county. 
The Ironton Portland Cement Company's 
plant, which was erected three years ago, 
has a daily capacity of 1.200 barrels and 
employs about three hundred men. This 
cement is of high quality And finds a ready 
market both at home and abroad. A local 
contractor, Mr. Matt. A. Mulligan, alone 



NEW C. & O. RAILWAY STATION. 

uses about 10,000 barrels of this cement 
every season. Messrs S. B. and A. C. 
Steece are at the head of this concern. 
I'he Superior Cement Company, which 



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will soon be in operation, is located near 
the site of the old Center furnace and is 
mammoth in its proportions. It will cost 
one-half million dollars and covers acres 
of territory. This plant will have a ca- 
pacity of 2,000 barrels per day, and will 
employ 500 men. One of the largest stock 
holders in this concern and one of the 
most active in its organization is Mrs. D. 



INTERIOR OF LUCAS DRUG COMPANY, 

Photo by M. M. Mudge, 

Gregory Wright, who was formerly Mrs. 
Nannie H. Kelley. She is everywhere rec- 
ognized as a woman of wonderful busi- 
ness capacity. 

The Ironton Artificial Stone Company, 
a hustling and -growing concern, uses 
cement in the manufacture of its product. 

DIVFRSIFIED INDUSTRIES. 

Other important industries that con- 
tribute to Ironton's wealth are : Two 
soap factories, two cigar factories, employ- 
ing close to seven hundred people, a shoe 
factory, a flour mill, " six bakeries, two 
wholesale groceries, one wholesale drug 
house, two breweries, three ice factories, 
two tanneries, a shoe polish factory, two 
laundries, a carpet cleaning establishment, 
three transfer and storage companies, four 
livery stables, and so on and on. The list 
is certainly an imposing one, and from it 
some idea can be gained of the wonderful 
activity of the city. Indeed, it is such 
that the Pennsylvania Railway Company, 
although not entering here, has maintained 
an elegant suite of offices in this city for 
years. Mr. H. B. Rox is the local agent 



and is building up a fine business for his 
company. 

There is in course of construction at 
this time in Ironton a mammoth bridge 
spanning the Ohio river, a magnificent new 
court house, a pure water system, a splen- 
did new Memorial hall, two railroad sta- 
tions, a^ furnace, a foundry, three or four 
business blocks, and hundreds of resi- 
dences. Not building at this time, but an 
assured fact for the near future, are a two- 
hundred thousand dollar hotel, two new 
furnaces, a steel plant and rod mill. 

A traction line operates between Ironton 
and Huntington, West Virginia, a distance 
of twenty miles, and the service is as good 
as any in the country. Two steam ferries 
make stated trips, bringing hundreds of 
shoppers from Kentucky and West Vir- 
ginia to this city ; two telephone companies, 
the Central Union and New Home Auto- 
matic companies, giving connection to all 
parts of the country, a dozen rural tele- 
phone lines in the county, four mail deliv- 
eries daily, three hustling newspapers, two 
telegraph companies, and transfer carriages 
to every point in the county, are but a few 
of the many internal advantages enjoyed by 
this busy city. 

Ironton has more and better stores and 
business houses than any city near its size 
in the State. The magnificent stores of 
Brumberg, Davies, McCauley, Hutsinpil- 
lar and Sheridan, Lucas Drug Company, 
W. A. Murdock, McNary and Mearan, are 
but a few of the long, long list. The vol- 
ume of business done is simply enormous, 
due to the fact that people come here from 
fifty miles around to do their shopping. 
The merchants and business men are hust- 
ling and energetic and have the interest of 
the city at heart. 

In closing this discussion of Ironton's in- 
dustrial activity it would be manifestly un- 
fair to pass without mention the Board of 
Trade, as to this body of splendid hustlers 
about all the credit for Ironton's present 
prosperous condition is due. D. C. Davies 
is the president and F. J. Ginn secretary 
of the organization. Every member of the 
Board has interests in Ironton and collec- 
tively it represents the wealth, culture and 
refinement of the city. Open house, with 
free public stenographers, is maintained 



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INDUSTRIAL, INVINCIBLE IRONTON 167 

continuiusly at the Board of Trade rooms, double her size. The wonderful growth 

where also manufacturers have places to she is now experiencing is, of course, due 

display their products. to the advantageous location of the town, 

Without question Ironton is one of the its natural resources and shipping facilities, 

leading manufacturing cities of the State, and to the hustling, wide awake members 

and within the next ten vears she will of the Board of Trade. 



PLANT OF THE IRONTON ENGINE COMPANY. 



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HORSE SHOE BEND, ON THE HILLS NEAR IRONTON. 



Photo by CoUctt. 



Ironton as a City of Homes 
and Health 



By F. A. Ross 



TEN miles from the point where 
the Ohio River sweeps majestic- 
ally round the most southerly 
extremity of the State of Ohio, 
its waters flow past the city of 
Ironton, situated on its northern 
bank upon a plain which rises gently to the 
surrounding hills. The elevation of this 
plain — five hundred and forty-three feet 
above sea level — its mean temperature of 
50.9 degrees, its average rainfall of forty 
inches, its thorough drainage and its ram- 
part of encircling hills protecting it from 
storms and high winds, all conduce to make 
it a spot of unusual natural fitness for the 
location of a city, and here a city has grown 
which is equally inviting to the investor, 
the toiler and the home-seeker. 

That the founders of Ironton destined it 
to be pre-eminently a city of homes is at- 
tested by liberal donations of public 
grounds, sites for churches and school 
houses and the prohibition by conditions of 
deed of sale of intoxicating liquors within 
its boundaries. Their impress has been left 
upon the inhabitants of the city and few 
communities enjoy better opportunities for 



education or for worship, or are more free 
from those habits and vices whose tendency 
is to impair good citizenship. 

Of churches Ironton has twenty-one, 
some almost cathedral-like in beauty, rep- 
resenting more than half as many denomin- 
ations. From these centers of spiritual de- 
velopment there emanates a strong senti- 
ment for Christian citizenship, which finds 
a very general response among all the in- 
habitants of the city. 

For the cause of education the citizens 
of Ironton have always made the most lib- 
eral provision and have spared no pains to 
make the public school system of the city 
second to none in the State. There are 
seven public school buildings, six of them 
of beautiful design and construction, com- 
modious and equipped in the most approved 
manner. The curriculum embraces all the 
common branches, from the primary 
through higher grades, and a high school 
course of especial excellence. The schools 
are in charge of a corps of educators of 
approved ability and character. In addi- 
tion to the public schools excellent paro- 
chial school-, are maintained by the Cath- 
168 



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IRON TON AS A CI'l'V OF HOMES AND HEALTH 



169 



olic churches of St. Joseph and St. Law- 
rence, and two business colleges afford op- 
portunities for the pursuit of a commercial 
course of study. 

The spirit of fraternity is very gc^neral 
among the citizens of I ronton, and the city 
has more than the usual number of lodges 
and societies of a benevolent, protective, 
social and patriotic character. These soci- 
eties embrace within their membership 
many of the best citizens of the community 



Course lectures and concerts during the 
Winter months and the Clyflfeside Chautau- 
qua at Clyffeside, an hour's ride by trolley 
from Ironton, in the Summer, also afford 
excellent entertainments. 

An institution of which Ironton is very 
proud is the Charles S. Gray Deaconess 
Hospital, founded by the late Colonel 
George N. Gray as a memorial to his son, 
who died in military service during the 
Spanish- American War. Here the wards 



F. A. ROSS. 



and are a potent factor for good. The 
Masonic bodies own^ and occupy one of the 
handsomest business blocks in the city-- 
Masonic Temple — which is very com- 
pletely furnished and equipped for their 
own use. 

The Masonic Block also contains the 
Masonic Theater, which is conducted in a 
manner which insures the public a program 
of wholesome theatricals of a most satis- 
factory character. The Star L?rtur.' 



are open to every citizen, and the sick or 
injured may be assured of the most careful 
attention. Three miles north of the city 
an excellent private sanatarium is main- 
tained at Gray CJables by Dr. C. G. Gray, 
and a private hospital which promises to 
be of exceptional ccmpleteness and equip- 
ment is being erected by the Keller Hos- 
pital Company near the center of the city. 
Ironton has two daily newspapers — the 
Irnnt:f>nip]i, a m(^rnin<j: i)a|)er, and the Reg- 



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IRONTON AS A CITY OF HOMES AND HEALTH 



171 



FIFTH STREET. SOUTH. 



Photo by Collett. 



ister. which is issued in the evening. The 
corporations publishing these enterprising 
and newsy dailies, The Register Publish- 
ing Company and The Irontonian Publish- 
ing Company, also publish the Tri-Weekly 
Irontonian, the Weekly Register and the 
Weekly Republican, all of which enjoy a 
wide circulation in Lawrence county, of 
which Ironton is the county seat. 

In facilities for transportation and travel 
both by rail and water I ronton is excep- 
tionally favored. The railway lines of the 
Norfolk and Western, Chesapeake and 
Ohio, Detroit, Toledo and Ironton and 
Cincinnati. Hamilton and Dayton railways 
afford excellent service for travel east, 
west, south and north, and the splendid 
steamboats plying on the Ohio River be- 
tween Cincinnati and Pittsburg make travel 
to points touched by them a real pleasure.- 

The Camden Inter-State Street Railway, 
a trolley line, extends from Hanging Rock, 
three rniles north of Ironton, through the 
city to a point opposite Ashland, Kentucky, 
five miles south, where connection is made 
by steam ferry with an extension of the 
same line operated through Ashland and 



Catlettsburg, Kentucky, and Kenova, Cen- 
tral City, Kellogg, Ceredo, and Hunting- 
ton to Guyandotte, West Virginia. 

The source of the water supply of the 
city is the Ohio River, from which water 
is pumped by the pumping station of the 
Ironton City Water Works, a municipal 
plant equipped with Holly piunping appa- 
ratus of approved design. Water is sold 
to consiuners at reasonable rates and is 



RESIDENCE OF OSCAR RICflEY. 

Photo by M. M. Mudge. 



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WINTER SCENE ON FIFTH STREET. 

Photo by Collet t. 



RESIDENCE OF E. U. WILLA <i) RESIDENCE OF WILLIAM NIGIL 

Photo by ^:. M. V.-'dge. Photo by M. M. Mudge. 



RESIDENCE OF COL. H. A. MARTING. RESIDENCE OF A. R. JOHNSON. 

Photo by M. M. Mudge. Photo by M. M. Mudge. 



KINGSBURY SCHOOL BUILDING. 

Photo by M. M. Mud ir. 



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IRONTON AS A CITY OF HOMES AND HEALTH 



173: 



supplied to hydrants located at very fre- 
quent intervals on the street for fire ser- 
vice. An extensive improvement for the 
purpose of procuring water free from the 



is easy of solution here. The city is sur- 
rounded by a country underlaid by inex- 
haustible beds of coal of high quality, any 
quantity of which may be had at a very 
reasonable cost. An artificial gas plant 
situated in (he city produces an excellent 
illuminant, and the pipe line of the United 
States Natural Gas Company supplies nat- 
ural gas from the wells at Warfield, Ken- 
tucky, in quantities sufficient to meet all 
ordinary requirements for domestic and 
manufacturing uses at low cost. The Cam- 
den Inter-State Railway Company furn- 
ishes electricity for both arc and incandes- 
cent lighting. Indeed, economy in fuel 
and light bills is one of the clear advant- 
ages which the citizens of Ironton possess. 
The maintenance of property secure from 
fire has always claimed the solicitous atten- 
tion of the civic authorities and has resulted 
in the establishment of an electric fire 
alarm telegraph system and the organiza- 



CARMI A. THOMPSON. 
Secretary of State of Ohio. 

contaminating substances common to a 
river as subject to floods as the Ohio i> 
now being made. It includes the construc- 
tion of several clusters of wells upon a 
sand and gravel bar in the bed of the river, 
through which the water w-ill be drawn. 
In passing through the sand and gravel the 
water is almost entirely freed from impuri- 
ties, as has been demonstrated by success 
ful tests, and is of excellent quality for 
use, being practically pure water. The 
completion of the undertaking will give 
the inhabitants of the city of Iront(m a 
water supply of the highest character of 
excellence. 

Ironton's streets are well lighted, being 
illuminated by arc lights of twelve hundred 
candle power capacity, suspended at inter- 
sections and kept burning all night. The 
light is furnished by a private corporation 
at a reasonable cost. 

The question of light and fuel is one that 



THE REV. nn .tames h. cotter, 

Author and Orator, Pastor of St. Lawrence 
Church. 



tion of a very efficient fire di'i)artment, 
consisting of three companies of regular 
firemen and six companies of special fire- 
men. The fire fighting apparatus embraces 



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174 



THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



a chemical fire engine and two hose trucks, 
each drawn by a team of trained fire horses. 
The sewer system of Ironton is very ex- 
tensive, ample provision being made for 
sanitary and storm water drainage. Ex- 
tensions of existing sewers and drains are 



RESIDENCE OF DR. W. E. PRICE. 

Photo by M. M. Mudge. 

made into newly built-up territory as 
needed, and a very gratifying sanitary con- 
dition prevails. 

Ironton has ten miles of paved streets, 
those in the business section being con- 
structed of vitrified firebrick and those in 
the residence district of asphalt block and 
bitulithic macadam. All are maintained in 
good condition and are kept clean. From 
the city four macadamized roads lead 
through Lawrence county, affording de- 
lightful driveways through attractive farm- 



ing and forest regions. Throughout the 
residence districts of the city the streets are 
skirted on either side with magnificent trees 
of varieties native to the region, which 
have grown in such luxuriance that in many 
places the roadways and sidewalks for 
blocks are completely enveloped in their 
shade. Indeed, these portions of Ironton, 
with their broad unfenced lawns, attractive 
homes and splendid trees, present an aspect 
in striking resemblance to that of a care- 
fully kept park. 

Ironton's most beautiful public building, 
th.e Soldiers' and Sailors' Memorial Hall, 
erected as a memorial to the soldiers and 
sailors of the vicinity who served in the 
Civil War, destroyed by fire in December. 
1905, is now about to be rebuilt. It will 
furnish a heme for the Briggs Public Li- 
brary, which for many years has supplied 
thousands cf volumes of the best literature 
for the entertainment and instruction of 
the public. 

An imposing court house is in process of 
erection in the center of the city, w^hich, 
when completed, will be one of the most 
beautiful and convenient temples of justice 
to be found in the State. 

By far the majority of the residents of 
Ironton own their own homes and are im- 
bued with the spirit of civil progress, devel- 
opment and improvement. A wholesome 
respect for law and order prevails every- 
where; and in intelligence, culture, indus- 
try and good citizenship the residents of 
Ironton are well above the average. 

It is not too much to assert that among 
these people, who dwell amid conditions 
promotive of health, prosperity .and hap- 
piness, an ideal locality for the establish- 
ment of a home may be found. 




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Undeveloped Resources of 
Lawrence County, Ohio 



By Fred G. Leete, C. E. 



HE largest and most important 
coal fields in the United States 
extend from Bradford, Penn- 
1^^ sylvania, southwesterly eight 
^^ I hundred miles to Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama, and are, on an aver- 
age, about one hundred miles in width. 
Near the middle and on the western hori- 
son of this great field, in latitude 38° 40' 
north, and longitude 82° 30' west, lies 
Lawrence County, Ohio, fronting about 
forty miles on the river of that name, and 
is three hundred miles below Pittsburgh, 
and one hundred and twenty-five miles 
above Cincinnati. And here we find the 
best developments of the geological forma- 
tions known as the Hanging Rock Iron 
Region — a field of some twenty-five 
miles in width and seventy miles long, 
extending from the northeast to the south- 
west, and famous for its production of 
charcoal iron. 

The iron and lower coal measures are 
some six hundred feet thick and are com- 
posed of layers of clays, sandstone, shales, 
iron ores, fire and potter's clay, which dip 
more or less regularly at the rate of 
twenty-five or thirty feet to a mile, from 
the west to a little south of east; and as 
the county, topographically considered, 
presents an irregular succession of rolling 
hills and valleys from two to four hun- 
dred feet high, and as the lower coals 
appear on the western border of the coun- 
t>% consequently all the minerals herein- 
after mentioned are exposed as we go 
go easterly, until the topmost or coal No. 
8, appears on the eastern side. There- 
fore all can be mined by the drift system, 
which fact is readily appreciated by the 
practical miner. 



IRON ORES. 

Iron ores are known and classified in 
Lawrence county as block ores — good for 
silicious irons or *'softures," and exposed 
above drainage in the westerly and central 
parts of the county at about sixty feet 
above the Boggs ore. Analysis, raw 45 to 
50 per cent, metallic iron, which has been 
the main dependance of several of our 
furnaces. 

Second, limestone ores, which take their 
names from the ferriferous "limestone, the 
most prominent and well known stratum 
of the region, and on which these ores aic 
deposited, and which lie from seventy to 
one hundred feet above the block oic. 
These limestone ores, with the gray kid- 
neys found in the clays above, are the most 
valuable in the region. They will make 
both strong and soft irons — car wheels, 
chilled rolls, machinery, chains, etc. This 
iron is the best made in America, if not in 
the world. The several irons analyse, cal- 
cined, 50 to 55 per cent, metallic iron, and 
there are not less than one hundred square 
miles of Lawrence county underlaid with 
these ores. 

Third, Kidney ores, named from their 
shapes, lie thirty-five to ninety and one 
hundred feet above the ferriferous lime- 
stone, and are known as the black, yellow 
and little yellow kidney ores. These are 
in demand and, when mixed with other 
ores, make a superior iron. They analyse, 
calcined, about forty per cent, metallic 
iron. Estimates have been made of the 
quantity of iron ore in the county, but the 
figures given are so great as to stagger 
one. Probably a better idea will be con- 
veyed when I say that 4,000 tons to an 



175 



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176 



THK OHIO MA(;AZINE 



acre is a conservative estimate. With our 
own ores and limestones at hand, and with 
the Lake ores con ing from the North and 
the coke from the South, I ronton becomes 
a natural place for the assembling of the 
raw materials for the manufacture of pig 
irons, with advantages second to none. 



for furnace flux by all the furnaces in the 
region, being exceedingly rich in carbon- 
ate of lime and low in impurities. It pro- 
duces the quick lime of commerce and is 
the lime from which the cement factories 
of this region make their product. This 
limestone is co-extensive w^ith the ore, is 



FRLI) G. LEETE. 



LIMESTONES. 

There are six or more well defined lime- 
stone strata, and the deposits are from 
one inch up to twelve feet in thickness. 

1. The highest, geologically speaking, 
is the Ames — usually three feet thick and 
good. 

2. Cambridge, two seams, two to four 
feet thick and good for building purposes. 

3. Shawnee or buff, two to nine feet 
thick, of little value. 

4. The ferriferous Hanging Rock or 
Gray Limestone, two to ten feet thick. 
This lime is of great value, and is usea 



the most widely known mineral of the 
counfy and is inexhaustible. 

5. Zoar or blue, two seams, one to three 
feet thick, shaley and of little value. 

MARBLE. 

In the northern part of the county, at 
about one hundred and sixty feet below 
drainage, McCiugin & Co., while prospect- 
ing, discovered a deposit of oolithic lime- 
stone, or marble, varying in thickness 
from thirteen to thirty-five feet. This 
marble deposit is more than two miles 
from east to west and one mile from north 



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L NDEVELOPED RESOURCES OF LAWRENCE COUNTV, OHIO. 177 



to south. It lies in strata frcm two to 
eight feet, with veins of fire clay inter- 
ze fling, from two to six inches. It is a 
carbonate of lime 97 to 99^/2 per cent, 
pure and would make an excellent flux for 
furnaces. The colors are dark brown, 
several sliades of buff and ohe of white. 
Ex};erts pronounce it first-class and de- 
clare that it stands the test of heat and 
cold and can be used for all purposes for 



forms an excellent roof, so tliat posting in 
mining is almost unnecessary. This coal 
is a slow burner, but is high in heat units, 
making it a superior steam coal. The 
vein runs from three to six feet in thick- 
ness and covers about twenty square miles 
in the north end of the county. The loi- 
lowing is an average analysis of the same : 
Moisture, 5.50; volatile combustible mat- 
ter, 36.86; fixed carbon, 52.51; ash, 3.99. 



PLANT OF THE ORCHARD KNOB CLAY WORKS. 

Photo by M. M. Mudge, 



whirh marble is now used, such as decor- 
ating and monumental work. 

COAL. 

Nos. 1, 2 and 3 coals of the Ohio Geo- 
logical Survey, are not developed in thick- 
ness, so far as we know, in Lawrence 
county, to an extent that we can take any 
account of them, though they underly the 
most of the county. 

Xo. 4, or Clarion coal, known as the 
limestone vein of Lawrence and Jackson 
counties, lies immediately beneath the fer- 
riferous or iron bearing limestone, which 



No. 5, or low^er Kittaning coal, is the 
most persistent and uniform coal in Law- 
rence county. The vein is from three to 
four feet thick and usually lies about 
twenty feet above the ferriferous lime- 
stone. It has a good top and bottom, is 
easily and cheaply mined, is a very strong 
and excellent coal for rolling mills and 
general purposes, cokes well, and for gen- 
erating steam it probably has no superior 
on the Ohio river. This coal is uniform 
in quality and is free from faults and 
breaks. It is found on not less than one 
hundred square miles in this county, and 



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178 



THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



will furnish an almost unlimited amount 
of coal for years to come. The following 
is a fair analysis: Moisture, 5.19; volatile 
combustible matter, 41.86; fixed carbon, 
47.69; ash, 5.26; sulphur, 1.40. 

No. 6, or Middle Kittaning ccal, locally 
known as Sheridan coal, lies from thirty 
to si.xty feet above the No. 5, is from three 
to fuur feet thick, and is a superior coal, 
being high in carbon, low in sulphur and 
other impurities, and is a very valuable 
coal for manufacturing and general pui- 
poses, the seam being the same as the great 
vein of the Hocking Valley and the Coal- 
ton coal of Kentucky, both of which are 
used in blast furnaces as coke and in the 
raw state. This coal can be traced for 



other veins, it is found underlying a large 
part of the territory, from Marion to a 
point above Waterloo, a distance of about 
nine miles, and at one place is known to 
be six miles in width. -In his chapter on 
"(las Coals of Ohio" Mr. Emerson Mc- 
Millin, now of New Vork, says that the 
Waterloo, or No. 7, gives the best analy- 
sis for the average vein of any coal found 
in Wormley's report. 

The Symmes Creek Coal Company is 
now building ten miles of railroad inta 
this territory, with a view of developing 
it. When this road is extended to the 
southern extremity of this field, a vast 
amount of coal can be secured. The fol- 
lowing is an averac:e analysis : Moisture^ 



PRODUCTS OF THE ORCHARD KNOB CLAY WORKS. 



thirty miles through this county and sas 
a large area. The following is an analy- 
sis : Moisture, 6.46 ; volatile combustible 
matter, 33.50; fixed carbon, 55.40; ash, 
3.69 ; sulphur, .76. 

No. 6 A, locally known as "Hatcher," 
lies thirty to forty feet above the No. 6, 
is three to four feet thick and is a good 
open grate coal that promises well. 

No. 7, or Upper Freeport, locally 
known as "Waterloo," from four to seven 
feet hick, is solid, bright and bears trans- 
portation well. No coal south of Monday 
Creek, says Professor Orton, in the Ohio 
Geological Survey, shows so little sul- 
phur ; and he, with other experts, says 
that it is the most valuable coal in the 
county, and that the Waterloo field is the 
richest and best undeveloped coal field in 
the State. While not as persistent as some 



6.71; volatile combustible matter, 37.10; 
fixed carbon, 50.05; ash, 6.41; sul- 
phur, .86. 

There are some seven other veins run- 
ning from a few inches to five feet in 
thickness, lying both above and below 
those mentioned, and which are worked in 
some places for domestic use and which 
are not herein considered. It might be 
interesting to note that No. 8, or Pitts- 
burgh seam, touches near the top of some 
of the higher hills in the eastern part of 
the county, with a full development of five 
feet, but the workable area is exceedingly 
small. 

CLAYS. 

Professor Orton, former State Geologist 
of Ohio, says, in Vol. 5, page 678 (Geo- 
logical Report) : "The Cincinnati district 



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UNDEVELOPED RESOURCES OF LAWRENCE COUNTY, OHIO. 179 



has ten potteries, including all kinds of 
ware — white, yellow, Rockingham and 
earthen. The clays used here are all im- 
ported and come in part from Lawrence 
county." 

Those clays are derived from a num- 
ber of well defined seams of fire and pot- 
ter's clay, and not less than four workable 
ones are in the county and almost univer- 
sal with its limits, existing in almost in- 
calculable quantities. They will make fine 
pottery, tiling, vases, chimney tops, drain 
tile, hearths, building blocks, etc. ; and it 
has been demonstrated that hese clays for 
fire brick purposes are the best in the 
State, standing well the intense heat of 
reverbatory and smelting furnaces. Re- 
cent developments by the Orchard Knob 
Clay company have conclusively proven 
the value of these clays for the manufac- 
ture of ornamental pressed brick, of a 
variety of colors and of perfect adapta- 
bility to the making of terra cotta orna- 
mental designs, perfect in shape, colors 
and strength. 

We feel that this clay industry has 
passed the experimental stage and that in 
the near future Lawrence county will be 
famous for its pressed brick, clay builam^ 
blocks and terra cotta products. 

With both the clay and coal coming 
from the same mine and over the same 
tracks and tipples, rendering their mining 
and assembling cheaper than anywhere 
else in the State, and with perfect trans- 
portation facilities over a number of rail- 
roads and the Ohio river, why is not Law- 
rence county an ideal location for a great 
development along that line? 

PORTLAND CEMENT. 

In the space of thirty feet, vertically 
speaking, from the ferriferous limestone, 
and extending from the Ohio river at 
Ironton to the northern limits of . the 
county, exist all the elements for the man- 
ufacture of the quality of portland cement 
as noted in the analyses below ; namely, 



limestone, clay-shales and coal — the 
shales, clays and limestones from the same 
drift, and the coal from a drift twenty 
feet above. 

These conditions and combinations have 
caused two immense factories to be erected 
here, one of 1,200 barrels capacity, and the 
other of 2,000 barrels is rapidly approach- 
ing completion. 

The following analyses are some of the 
practical ones made of the Ironton Port- 
land Cement Company's product, a care- 
ful study of which will convince the reader 
of its worth : 

ANALYSES OF IRONTON PORTLAND CEMENT. 





Si02 


|Fe203 


A120.h{ CaO MgO 


S03 


Aug. 


25th 


19.47 


6.83 


7.44 


62.71 1.07 


1.23 


AUR. 


29th 


19.44 


7.39 


7.95 


63.40 






Sep. 


1st 


19.82 


7.20 


7.90 


63.19 






Sep. 


5th 


19.84 


7.60 


7.34 


63.22 






Sep. 


10th 

\ 


19.56 


7.95 


7.85 


52.98 










LABORATORY REPORT. 












May 


6th, 


1903 



Cement shipped to Ohio State University, 
Columbus, O. 

Received, April 8th, 1903. 
Pats remained on glass after 3 hours in 
steam and 3 hours in boiling water. (Very 
Good.) Pats on glass in cold water adhered 
for over 4 weeks. 
Fineness. 
Percentage passing No. 200 Sieve. . 
Percentage passing No. 100 Sieve. . 
Setting Time. 
Initial set, 1 hour 25 minutes. 
Hard set, 6 hours 15 minutes. 
Tensile Strength. 

In water 
7 days 
Average 5 briquetts Neat 

Cement • • . . 875 

Average 5 briquetts 1 Ce- 
ment, 3 Sand 175 

Hot Water Test, Sound and Hard. 
Cold Water Test, Sound and Hard. 
Respectfully submitted, 

C. E. Sherman, 
Chemist, O. S U. 



82.7% 
97.1% 



28 days. 



905 
295 



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The Buckeye Home Coming 

By HoUis Kight 



T 



-^ 



HF) loyalty of the Ohioan to his 
native State, notwithstanding 
he may have long since de- 
parted from her borders and ac- 
knowledged citizenship in an- 
other commonwealth, has al- 
ways been proverbial but has never had 
the convincing demonstration that will oc- 
cur at Columbus, the capital of the State, 
during the first week of September, 1907. 
From the second day of that month to the 
sixth, inclusive, the "Joyous Buckeye 
Homecoming" will be celebrated at the 
capital and throughout the State by mil- 
lions of resident and non-resident citizens. 
The Ohio State Board of Agriculture very 
properly took the initiative in this matter, 
and the general State homecoming at Co- 
lumbus will be under its direct manage- 
ment and control. 

The Ohioan is a peculiar bird ; he never 
forgets the mother nest and is ever willing 
to return to it, if only to renew, for a 
short time, the acquaintances and memor- 
ies of former days. His loyalty to Ohio 
ideals and the institutions and the people 
of the Buckeye State is most emphatically 
illustrated by the great number of Ohio 
Societies that flourish in all the principal 
states of the Union. The citizen of no 
other state indicates a loyalty for his na- 
tive commonwealth approximating that of 
the Ohioan. Here and there we hear of a 
society named in honor of some other state 
and comprised of its former citizens who 
still retain an affection for the old home, 
but Ohio Societies are everywhere. They 
may be found in Portland, Maine, and 
Portland, Oregon, and in the latter State 
there are 13,000 sons and daughters ot 
Ohio whose names are registered with the 
Society at the State capital. All along 
the Pacific coast and in the great North- 
west we find Ohioans organized to pro- 



mote their mutual interests in bodies com- 
memorating the State where they were 
born. They extend from the forests of 
Michigan to the cotton belt of the Sunny 
South and flourish alike in the metropolis 
of the Union's most populous state and in 
far distant communities of hardly more 
than a few thousand people. 

An after dinner speaker at an Ohio ban- 
quet once put the matter very tersely. 

**VVe have all heard," he said, "of the 
historic remark that passed between the 
governor of North Carolina and the gov- 
ernor of South CaroHna. But when two 
Ohioans meet in two distant points, they 
go these gubernatorial dignitaries one bet- 
ter. The Ohioan's first salutation to his 
brother Buckeye, when encountered 
abroad, may or may not be *What will you 
have?* but his second is sure to be *When 
shall we organize?'" 

The existence of so many Ohio Socie- 
ties in so many states is in fact due to the 
Ohioan's genius for organization. These 
societies will be an important factor in the 
great homecoming celebration now imnai- 
nent. In every aspect the event promises 
to be one of the foremost in the State's 
history. The conmiittee in charge has re- 
ceived assurances indicating that not fess 
than one hundred thousand native Ohioans 
now scattered throughout the land and in 
foreign countries will return to the old 
soil on this occasion, to participate in the 
joyful festivities. Love and pride of na- 
tive heath will bring them back in great 
nvunbers, to again live over the happy days 
of long ago and revisit the cherished spots 
where in youth they loved to linger. 
Throughout the State, but particularly in 
the great central gathering at Columbus, 
there will be deep meaning in the old re- 
frain, **How dear to our hearts are the 
scenes of our childhood." 



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THE BUCKEYE HOME COMING. 



181 



Among the throngs of returning 
Ohioans will be many who marched away 
with the boys in blue in response to Lin- 
coln's call for volunteers, and there will 
be thousands who have made names for 
themselves in the commercial and profes- 
sional life of other states. 

It is appropriate that the central scene 
of this great homecoming week should be 
enacted in the State Fair Grounds at Co- 
lumbus — the most accessible point for 
such a monster celebration. It will be the 
chief trysting place for old friends to meet 
and greet one another, and talk of other 
times and other days.. Half a million na- 
tive-bom Ohioans live outside the State, 
and they will be more generously repre- 
sented in the State on this occasion than 
ever was the case with reference to a simi- 
lar event in any other commonwealtn. 

The invitation of the State Board of 
Agriculture, which has been sent broad- 
cast, declares significantly that "in the 
breast of every absent Buckeye we hope to 
create a desire that will bring you back to 
Home Sweet Home in Old Ohio — a de- 
sire to see the boys who are now men and 
the girls who are now women; a desire 
that will overcome all barriers and bring 
you back to old neighbors, the old hearth- 
stone and the family circle. 'Welcome,^ 
in capital letters, will be written over our 
doors and across our hearts." 



The responses to this enthusiastic invi- 
tation have showii by their tone how 
thoroughly it is appreciated by Ohipans 
far from the old home. And they are 
coming back — there is nv. doubt about 
that. From^ Maine to Caliloi: ia Ihey are 
coming, and from the Lakes to the Gulf. 
The Fair Grounds at Columbus are ideal 
for , this great reunion. They have no 
equal anywhere. A million dollars has been 
expended to beautify and adorn them with 
imposing buildings, pleasant driveways, 
shady walks, magnificent pavillions ana 
commodious rest rooms. Special programs 
will be arranged for every day of home- 
coming week, and in addition to the day- 
light events the citizens of Columbus will 
provide unlimited evening entertainments. 
There will be elaborate receptions, balls, 
parades and carnivals, and the entire week 
will be given over to entertainment and 
the renewal of old acquaintances and the 
cultivation of pure sentiment. 

Many distinguished men will be present 
— among them Ohio's foremost son in 
official life, the Vice President of the 
United States. It would require a volume 
to record the names of those who have 
made a place for themselves in National 
and local history, who will by their pres- 
ence in Columbus during the first week of 
September, pay tribute to the State that is 
famous as the mother of great men. 




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IbE 



By Himself 



Politics makes strange bad fellows. 
« * * 

Nothing can subdue an orator, except 

his wife. 

* * * 

Speaking of rare coins, the rarest are 
the ones we have left. 

* * * 

It takes two to make a bargain, and a 
woman to tell about it. 

* * * 

There are ample grounds for war in the 
kind of tea sent us by Japan. 

« >|c « 

The wages of sin put more money in 
circulation than the salaries of saints. 

* « )|( 

Until they take a vacation few people 
realize that there is no place like home. 

* * * 

Riches have wings, but in these days 
they seem to fly like the homing pigeon. 

5}- * * 

The man who doubts that this is the age 
of invention should read the newspapers. 

* * * 

The English language would be greatly 
impoverished, if flies were not fond of bald 

heads. 

* * « 

Considering that Justice is blind, it 
seems strange that she winks at so many 
abuses. 



Many people go to watering places 
merely to have it appear that they are in 
the swim. 

* * * 

The loudest reminiscences of Summer 
recreation come from those who do no work 
in Winter. 

He }K 9K 

Life would be insufferable to some peo- 
ple if they were obliged to get along with- 
out worrying. 

jK * * 

Perhaps our first romance is always re- 
called with pleasing emotions because it 
didn't work out. 

9|e 4c « 

The only misfortune of some self-made 
men is that they didn't delegate the job to 
somebody else. 

* * * 

One reason why so many young women 
succeed in business is that so many of their 
brothers don't. 

* * * 

It is very difficult for a man to pay an 
honest debt without feeling that he is a 
philanthropist. 

* * * 

A noteworthy thing about the poetry 
now being published is that as a rule its 
authors claim to understand it. 

* * * 

It is a good thing that the annual outing 
of the Ohio legislature is not as hard on 
the public as its annual inning. 



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THE BUCKEYE PHILOSOPHER 



183 



Notwithstanding all the speeches that 
liave been made in Fanuil Hall, Boston is 
in fear of being bombarded. 

* 4c « 

THfe people who declaim most against 
the patent medicines are the ones who can 
afford to pay big doctors* bills. 

* * * 

It is good policy to take things as they 
come, but prudence suggests that we should 
ascertain first whose things they are. 

* * * 

While it may be true that faith moves 
TOountains, it is worthy of note that civil 
engineers rely on the pick and shovel. 

* * * 

Since Oxford University has made Mark 
Twain a Doctor of Literature he ought to 
be able to get a job on some good magazine. 

* * * 

It is a good thing that the touring car 
is made for long runs, because its owner 
could seldom afford to travel any other way. 

* ♦ 4c 

A Chicago professor says that the future 
woman will have whiskers, in which case 
no home will be complete without a little 

shaver. 

* * * - 

The millenium will not come in this 

world until a man can spend his vacation 

without spending everything else he has 

earned. 

« « « 

It is not so hard to be a philosopher, 
when we recall that Solomon said a great 
many wise things and did a great many 
fix)lish things. 



The young woman whose highest ambi- 
tion is to be tanned by the sim might find 
her usefulness increased if the job were 
done by her father. 



It is certainly true that nations are like 
individuals. Nowadays it costs almost as 
much for a nation to go to war as for a 
man to go to market. 



It seems strange that so little impres- 
sion was made on the population of 
Europe by the horde of people that came 
over on the Mayflower. 

* * * 

The fact that the careful housewife puts 
her trust in Providence does not prevent her 
from putting her fruit in jars. And therein 
is the wisdom of the world. 



The quadrennial period is fast ap- 
proaching when a careful census of Ohio 
may disclose fully half a dozen citizens who 
are not candidates for office. 

* ifi an 

If the girls on the beach really looked 
as they are pictured in the illustrated pa- 
pers, no summer resort would complain 
about the absence of the male sex. 



A big salary in a freak museum is 
awaiting the American citizen who does 
n't know how to run a hotel and a news- 
paper better than the landlords and the 
editors. 




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Announcement 

TiHE present number of The Ohio 
Magazine represents the issues 
for both August and Septem- 
ber, 1907, in order to accom- 
plish, in the only practical way, 
a change in the monthly time of 
publication absolutely required by the 
greatly increased circulation of the past 
few months. 

Experience has proven that the policy 
of publishing on the tenth of the month, 
which was adopted at the begining of pub- 
lication more than a year ago, is practi- 
cable for a State but not for a National 
circulation. In order to meet the require- 
ments of the latter, and have the maga- 
zine delivered and on sale in due season 
and in all parts of the country simultan- 
eously in the future, it is necessary that 
publication should precede the first of the 
month of issue by some time. 

The plan is therefore adopted of mak- 
ing the present Numbers II and III of 
Volume III, dated September, 1907, and 
published in time to reach all subscrib- 
ers and agents by the first of that month. 
Publication in succeeding months will fol- 
low in regular order, according to the same 
policy. 



The Beneficent Lake Res:ion 

VERY summer ought to witness a 
general thanksgiving among the 
people of the Middle West for 
their accessibility to the region 
of the Great Lakes. They are 
a National blessing, but their 
beneficence naturally is most apparent to 




those within easiest reach of their beauti- 
ful shores; and hence this generation in 
the land formerly designated as the Old 
Northwest Territory owes these watery 
wastes an unpayable debt. As the faith- 
ful Hebrew turned his face toward Jeru- 
salem, or the Mohammedan toward Mecca^ 
in prayerful recognition of the blessings 
they bestowed on two of the most power- 
ful elements of the human race, so the citi- 
zens of the Middle West might well look 
from a distance toward Erie, Michigan, 
Huron and Superior and gratefully ac- 
knowledge their beneficent influence. 

This influence is not necessarily re- 
stricted to those who v.' sit these waters, 
because the favorable climatic conditions 
indiiced by them extend over a vast terri- 
tory and reach millions of people to whom 
the lakes themselves are as much strang- 
ers as the mountains are to the prarie- 
dwellers of Kansas and Illinois. But the 
nimiber of those who annually visit th« 
Great Lakes ought to be greatly increased, 
and especially from among those men and 
women of Eastern states who are thor- 
oughly convinced that* either the ocean or 
the mountains offer the supreme pleasures*, 
of existence to the Simimer idler. It de- 
tracts nothing from the delights of salt 
water or mountain air to assert that the 
Great Lakes have pleasures and beauties 
distinctively their own, not to be found 
elsewhere. So has the ocean, of course, 
and likewise the mountains East or West, 
but those who visit them annually in the 
full measure of devotion to one or the 
other ought to be broad enough and cos- 
mopolitan enough to at least once in their 
lives familiarize themselves with the Great 
Lake region, since they are able to do so 
at will. They will never have an ade- 
quate conception of this American conti- 
nent unitl they do. 

Meanwhile there are not a few good 
people on the very verge of this region 
who are entirelv ignorant ef its charms 
184 



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EDITORIAL 



185 



and for various reasons — some not alto- 
gether complimentary to them — invaria- 
bly spend their vacations at more distant 
resorts." Any man or woman in the Middle 
West who has the price and will not get 
a whiff of Lake Erie, see one sunset on the 
Flats of St. Clair or turn farther north 
toward the Georgian Bay country, deserves 
censure for neglecting his or her educa- 
tion. The Great Lakes constitute one of 
the fairest gifts of a generous Providence, 
and it is a loss to the community as well as 
to the individual whenever their smiling 
beauties lose an opportunity to awaken hu- 
man enthusiasm. 



Mr. Fairbanks and the Gtrtoon 



OBSERVERS of current events 
cannot fail to note that the 
Hon. Charles W. Fairbanks is 

an extremely popular subject 
among the cartoonists — so 

much so, indeed, that they are 
in danger of ruining their own object by 
promoting his political prestige toward 
the very end which they expect to defeat. 
Physically Mr. Fairbanks is regarded 
as a fine subject for the cartoon. He is 
long of countenance, as well as of limb, 
and has an angular aspect not unlike that 
of Lincoln, who undoubtedly would re- 
ceive equal attention from the caricatur- 
ing brethren if he were alive to-day. So 
Mr. Fairbanks is in all the newspapers an 
almost daily subject of satirical fun. 
Sometimes it is amusing, with a point well 
taken; sometimes it is merely silly, and oc- 
casionally it is brutal and misleading. It 
is just like the same kind of fun that has 
made statesmen in this country heretofore. 
The case of the late Senator Hanna 
should not be forgotten. The cartoonists 
who ridiculed and abused him did more to 
promote his political career than he ever 
did himself. In fact they began it long 
before he entertained any serious thought 
of having any political career, and they 
kept the idea so constantly before him 
that he must have been more than human 
if he had failed to accept the challenge. 
It is said on good authority that Mr. 
Hanna used to become — and with good 
cause — very angry over some of the car- 



toons directed against him, but it is also 
known that during the last few years of 
his life he freely admitted that he owed 
very much of his success to the cartoonists 
whose futile wit and unconcealed brutality 
eventually defeated their own objects. 

If they are not aware of the fact, the 
cartoonists should speedily learn that on 
one point there is not much difference be- 
tween an American statesman and a brand 
of soap. Printer's ink, applied in proper 
quantities, will make popularity for either 
one, and it is not essential that it should 
always be spread in a design complimen- 
tary to the subject. The publicity alone is 
enough, if persisted in. 

Very likely Mr. Fairbanks, now the chief 
subject of caricature in this country, un- 
derstands all this. The Ohio Magazine^ 
surveying the whole field from the stand- 
point of a disinterested observer, makes 
bold to predict that, if the cartoonists can 
be kept going at their present pace ten 
months longer, the gentleman from In- 
diana will be the Republican nominee for* 
President. 



Political Machines 



APOLITICAL machine is a con- 
trivance condemned by those 
who want to operate it J)ut 
can't It is popular among its 
constituents and unpopular 
among the opposition. It is 
neither as bad as charged by its adversar- 
ies nor as powerful as claimed by its 
friends. It may experience many vicissi- 
tudes and occasionally change hands, but 
for the fundamental purposes of its crea- 
tion it goes on forever. 

The political machine was invented a 
great many years ago — long before Co- 
lumbus discovered America. Indeed, Co- 
lumbus had a pretty good machine of his 
own, and he worked it around the thrones 
of Ferdinand and Isabella, until they 
qualified for membership by hocking their 
diamonds. The reformers set up an awful 
howl because Columbus claimed that the 
world was round, and he had a hard time 
proving it, even with the aid of the machine. 
After that he was deposed as chairman 
and sent to jail, but since then monu- 



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186 



THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



ments have been built to him and two hem- 
ispheres have fought for his bones. This 
merely shows how a machine politician 
(an establish a fine reputation, after he is 
dead. In passing it may be noted that the 
* City of Columbus, Ohio, was named to 
perpetuate the memory of Christopher and 
has ever since done so most successfully, 
by fostering the machine methods which 
he brought with him to the shores of 
America. 

Columbus, however, was by no means 
the original inventor of the political ma- 
chine. It has been known in all coun- 
tries from time immemorial and was prob- 
ably handed down by prehistoric man to 
the human races of which there is record. 
Caesar had a machine that was a wonder 
in its day and as wide-reaching and popu- 
lar among the boys as any ever operated in 
Ohio or Pennsylvania. Marc Anthony 
bolted and raised an awful howl, and in 
the end Brutus joined the seceders, and 
the two started a little machine of their 
own, just as it is done to this day. They 
said that they didn't love Caesar less, but 
Rome more, and that their machine was 
the only one that could keep the good 
Romans in office and the bad ones out. 
They were so imbued with this idea that 
they deposed Caesar by assassination, noi 
having the votes to do it with ; and yet the 
machine which they subsequently put to- 
gether was almost immediately dissolved, 
while Caesar's more than a thousand years 
afterward gave law to the republics of 
France and America. 

And so it is true that you can never 
tell during the life of it, just what kind of 
history a political machine is making. The 
Greeks had an abundance of them, the 
strongest of which was operated under 
Alexander and never appealed very forci- 
bly to the heathen whom it put out of bus- 
iness. The ancient Hebrews, also, were 
not slow in machine politics and for a lon^ 
time maintained an organization that was 
extremely unpopular among the Gentiles. 
It is even possible that the first machine 
was organized in the Garden of Eden, and 
by a woman. At any rate, it is related 
that there never was any doubt how Adam 
was gointc to vote, after he got the apple. 

These historic facts are related merely 
to show that the political machine itself is 



a permanent institution. The people who 
rail against it in reality only want it to 
change hands. 

Imported Romances 

jHE newspapers contain frequent 

accounts of young foreigners in 

^_^__^ America, who, coining hither 

^ §^ with no other capital than 

^^^ 1 brawn and industry, spend 
years in honest toil while trying 
to lay by a competency sufficient to bring 
over their sweethearts from the old coun- 
try and begin married life under humble 
circumstances in the land of promise. The 
history of each one of these imported ro- 
mances is a charming little story, at least 
in its first chapters, and perhaps it is for- 
tunate in some cases that the remainder of 
the book is not open to the public. But 
undoubtedly, as far as they go, these ro- 
mances point a moral while they adorn a 
tale. 

For the most part the swains come from 
(iermany, Italy, Russia and Poland. They 
are an infinitesimal portion of the great 
tide of immigration flowing constantly 
toward these shores and not always re- 
ceiving a cordial welcome. There should 
be some hesitancy in condemning an influx 
of immigrants which contains young men 
who have in view the sturdy objects that 
inspire ^any among this foreign-born ele- 
ment of our population. It might be well, 
first, to point out a considerable number 
of American youths who are toiling earn- 
estly and saving their money for the lau- 
dable purpose of providing a home for 
some young woman destined to be the cen- 
tral figure of a happy household. Per- 
haps it is not too pessimistic to declare 
that, not many American youths nowadays 
are engaged in this pursuit. It certainly 
may be doubted that the number of those 
who are so engaged is proportionately 
larger than the number of young foreign- 
ers striving to attain the climax of their 
romances on this side of the Atlantic. 

We may concede that the immigration 
Inisiness ran be overdone; we must main- 
tain our hostile attitude toward foreign 
contract labor ; self-preservation requires 
that there shall be no tidal wave of Asiatic 
1)1o(k1 toward this continent ; in a word. 



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EDITORIAL 



187 



Uncle Sam must ever repeat the scriptural 
warning, "Hitherto shalt thou come and 
no farther." But this fact should not ob- 
scure the genuine worth of a vast number 
of foreigners who annually sail this 'way. 
We shall have a better opinion of them, if 
we occasionally turn to consider the ob^ 
jects that bring them here and observe in 
particular how frequently they are moved 
I by impulses of human love and a desire to 
I make a home for someone beside them- 
I selves in their adopted country. 



The Haywood Gisc 

Tl H E country is glad to know that, 
after a full hearing of all the 
evidence, the jury in the cele- 
brated Haywood case at Boise, 
Idaho, could not believe that 
the monstrous story told by the 
self-confessed criminal. Orchard, was 
true. There would have been an awful 
stigma upon this generation, if that story 
had been credited. Notwithstanding its 
apparent credibility with respect to the 
criminal himself, and the detailed manner 
in which it was sought to weave into it the 
defendant in the case, few people at a dis- 
tance were able to believe it, from the pub- 
lished reports of the trial. Now that the 
jury has put the stamp of falsehood upon 
it, a sense of personal relief comes to 
many people who had feared another re- 
sult. 

Nevertheless, the testimony introduced 
at the trial does not clear the labor unions 
of all responsibility for the period of 
anarchy which led up to the offenses con- 
fessed by the chief witness in this case. 
Labor unionism will doubtless be some- 
what strengthened by the verdict, but it 
will be most deplorable if the latter is un- 
tierstood as justifying some of the tactics 
pursued by the labor leaders at the scene 
of the W'estern disturbances. 

Neither does the verdict in any sense 
atone for the offenses of those scandal- 
Tnongering newspapers which c^cquitted the 
defendant not only before it was pro- 
Tiounced, but before the trial began. The 
reports sent out by the correspondents of 
these newspapers at Boise stand as one of 




the worst evidences of prevalent yellow 
journalism. 



Electric Farming: 

HEY are doing great things now- 
adays in cultivating the prod- 
ucts of farm and garden. The 
use of electricity in this pro- 
cess is not new, but very re- 
cently has made considerable 
progress. Experiments have been tried 
for years, with the result that there is no 
longer any doubt that this mjrsterious agent 
plays a vital part in the development of 
plant as well as of animal life. Nobody 
knows just exactly how the thing is done, 
and it is not likely that the electric influ- 
ence is direct upon the plant itself, ' ex- 
cept so far as it stimulates chemical activ- 
ity and produces conditions favorable to 
growth by acting on other elements. 

One method of experiment has been to 
stretch a wire netting across a field high 
enough not to touch the growing plants, 
and circulate through it an electrical cur- 
rent. In other experiments the soil has 
been electrified by wires under and around 
the roots. By the former method it is said 
that strawberries attained an increased 
product of from 50 to 188 per ceiit., corn 
from 35 to 40 per cent., potatoes 20 per 
cent., beets 26 per cent., and other products 
in proportion. It is claimed that an aver- 
age increase of 45 per cent, could be ob- 
tained with substantially all crops on fer- 
tile land by the electric treatment. 

There is no doubt that we are breeding 
and treating vegetables and fruits with 
more success now than our ancestors bred 
horses or chickens. Cultivation is the rule 
of the age, and a vital part of it is the 
study of pedigree. Continued selection of 
varieties in the end produces the highest 
results of horticulture. Meanwhile, how- 
ever, the human race is not more interested 
in its own scientific improvement than it 
was five hundred or a thousand years ago. 
Nobody is trying to devise means of apply- 
ing an electrical current to the human 
anatomy, with a view to making a better 
man in this generation or the next. Our 
pride in ancestry continues to consist 
chieflv in the fact that one or more of our 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



remote progenitors either shed a whole lot 
of blood or got a whole lot of money. In 
other words, we still view the antecedents 
and future of the race in the same old 
light of generations gone. 

Some time, perhaps, the improvement of 
humanity will excite as much interest as 
the culture of potatoes. We can hardly 
presume that it will ever approximate the 
importance of breeding hogs, but it is to be 
hoped that there is at least some outlook 
for an electrified man. 



Hot Air 



T 



«: 



HIS title has reference to the real 
article — the hot air that is all 
around us in the Summer — and 
not to that other variety whfch 
is a current asset in business 
and a passion among politicians. 
Why 'do people who complain of the 
heat, open their windows and front and 
rear doors to let in the hot air? That is 
not the way your grandmother used to do. 
You remember that her house was always 
cool in Summer — the door latched, the 



windows down and the green blinds prob- 
ably closed, with just enough turn to the 
shutters to admit a proper degree of light. 
But the sweltering business man of our 
great cities, who holds this pleasing recol- 
lection of 'the old family homestead as one 
of the happiest memories of his life, seems 
not to profit by his observation and experi- 
ence. He throws wide the doors and win- 
dows of his place of business, which other- 
wise might be as cool as one could wish, 
to let in the broiling heat of the sidewalk 
and the sizzling reflection of light from 
torrid walls. Like the sluggard, he ought 
to go to his aunt or some of his other 
feminine relatives of an earlier generation, 
and be wise. There is no sense in com- 
plaining about the heat indoors, when we 
insist upon drawing it in. 

If you want to be comfortable in your 
home, store or office, while the mercury is 
dancing around the nineties on the outer 
walls, shut the hot air out. In this wise 
you will honor the memory of the common 
sense folk who have gone before you, as 
well as promote your own comfort and 
peace of mind. 




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The Trend of Opinion 

' State Ownership ^ and the Financial vestors recovering from their scare and buy- 



Markets 

From the New York Herald. 

* P\E FLECTIVE people must wonder 
Y\ whether the moment has not come to 
call a halt/' said the Herald on Mon- 
day, discussing Attorney General Bonaparte's 
suggestion that the government appoint re- 
ceivers to take over all corporations convicted 
of violating the law. 

That reflecting persons are alarmed at the 
prospect of a policy which would lead to the 
government operating steel plants, peddling 
petroleum and dealing in, underclothing and 
hosiery, is evident from the widespread ex- 
pressions of approval of the suggestion that 
the moment has come to call a halt. 

In the column of letters from Herald 
readers this morning "G. C. W." expresses 
his congratulations on the warning as to the 
danger of the systematic baiting of capital, 
and "G. Washington Lynch" writes from 
Saratoga, indorsing the Herald's views and 
asking Mr. Bonaparte what he has made to 
protect the widows and orphans whose moneys 
are invested in the corporations. 

Prosecution and punishment of corporations 
that violate the law is one thing, but it would 
be a vastly different thing for the federal 
government to ' take possession of them and 
operate them. The proposal is so extraor- 
<iinary that it may be doubted whether Mr. 
^naparte was serious when he spoke of it. 
Indeed, the flippant manner in which he talks 
of "bringing down" a company as a sports- 
man would shoot a bird is strongly disap- 
proved even by ardent trust-busters who 
r^ahze the vital importance of this question 
to small investors and to the prosperity of 
tbe country. 

Rightly or wrongly the recent sharp fall in 
stocks and the unwillingness of investors to 
put their funds into bonds is attributed 
largely to the light hearted way in which 
tMs proposal for wholesale receiverships was 
advanced on behalf of the administration. 
There was a moderate improvement in Wall 
street yesterday, due in some degree to in- 



ing securities, and in large measure perhaps 
to repurchase by the party that has taken 
advantage of the administration's attitude to 
conduct a protracted and aggressive bear 
campaign. 

Eleven years ago securities were depressed, 
business was brought almost to a standstill 
and labor was left without employment be- 
cause men of affairs feared repudiation — 
through unlimited coinage of fifty cent silver 
dollars. The threat of confiscation would 
produce similar results if it were taken seri- 
ously. But the American people would not 
permit repudiation in 1896, and there is na 
danger of their standing for confiscation in 
1907. 



Then and Now 



From the Toledo Blade. 



THE last great telegraph strike was in 
1883 and was directed against the 
Western Union. That strike lasted for 
a month and ended in a victory for the com- 
pany. 

There was one thing which assisted in 
bringing that strike to an end, and it was 
entirely unexpected. That was the slump in 
the telegraph business. While the corps of 
operators was greatly reduced, the business 
offered fell off so that fewer men were 
needed to handle it. When it was found 
there was a great delay in the transmission 
of messages, the public did not try to send 
so many. It relied on the mails and found 
it could get along fairly well. 

The striking operators expected business 
to keep up as usual and that the company 
would need its full quota of help. In this 
they were mistaken. Fewer men were needed, 
because of the decrease in business. 

This will probably happen again. The mail 
service of the country is excellent and busi- 
ness men will write letters instead of pin- 
ning their faith to delayed messages. 

The long-distance telephone is also a far 
greater factor in the commercial world tharr 
it was twenty- four years ago and it will now 



189 



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-be utilized .where quick action is necessary. 
The business world can better get along to- 
day with a crippled telegraph service than it. 
could in 1883. 



-Prosperity's Broad Fouadation 

From the Cleveland Leader. 

THE best times the country has ever 
known rest upon the broadest founda- 
tion upon which business undertakings 
were ever built. The base of commercial and 
industrial expansion is stronger and deeper 
and greater in extent than ever before. 

The proof is abundant. There were never 
-SO many forehanded Americans — so many 
with money to lend in proportion to the num- 
ber who borrow. The great change which 
has taken place in the condition of Western 
farmers is alone enough to make that gain 
certain. 

American industries never before had so 
wide a market for so many kinds of» mer- 
chandise. The great growth of exports of 
manufactures is evidence of that assurance of 
prosperity. American products are better dis- 
tributed than ever before, in foreign countries. 

Investments by American capitalists out- 
side of the United States and resting upon 
other industrial and commercial conditions 
4han those which exist in this country, are 
•expanding enough to constitute an important 
-source of income. The American people, as 
a whole are much less subject than formerly 
-to the influence of local and special business 
-troubles. 

Fat years of wonderful gains in every im- 
portant business have so incrieased the wealth 
of the American nation that the country has 
far more resisting power than it had a few 
years ago. It is in such condition that it 
♦could throw off commercial and industrial 
•chills, if they should come, in a way which 
would be impossible in a land less opulent. 

American prestige in the financial and com- 
"mercial world is higher than at any former 
period. The civilized nations of both hemi- 
spheres are profoundly impressed by the mag- 
'nitude of American transactions and business 
undertakings and the immensity of American 
-wealth. Canada and Mexico feel this influ- 
ence even more than Great Britain and Ger- 
many, Italy and Russia. 

If these facts, known to all men who keep 



well informed on the events of the times. 
not constitute a broad, sure foundation 
American prosperity there is no force in bi 
ness logic, no virtue in business reasonu^ 



Women in Hotels 

From the Columbus Ohio S^ 

IT is gratifying to know tliat the rigkl 
women not escorted by men to be scr| 
in restaurants, hotel roof gardoii n 
similar places of amusement and retrc^s^ 
is about to be tested in the courts of)^ 
York. The suit will be brought b\ )ia 
Harriet Stanton Blatch, a daughter of i^ 
beth Cady Stanton, and, like her mother. 
strong advocate of woman's stiffr^ its! 
equal rights. Mrs. Blatch with i ^-J^m] 
friend, visited the roof garden ofiflsl^-^ 
able hotel, but the waiter refused to Qie v^:: 
orders, explaining that it was agass: '^ 
rules of the establishment. The managfr x- 
ing appealed to, declared the rule was ithV 
for the protection of respectable wonwia. 
would be annoyed if undesirable membe'> ' 
their sex, without escorts, were admicri ^ 
the privileges of the place. 

There probably is some justice e '^ 
argument, but it is equally true, as ^' 
Blatch contended, that not only unde^'^ 
women but undesirable men, should be ti 
eluded from respectable places of public r^ 
sort. Neither will it be disputed tliai no: - 
women without escorts are unfit to ht ^ 
ceived with respectable treatment in ^'^ 
restaurants and roof gardens. There --^i 
any material difference between women ^ 
men in this regard for the true test in ^ 
case is that of character and condua ^^' 
decently behaved woman is entitled to :-' 
as much consideration as is the decenilj >^ 
haved man, while the woman who doe? 2" • 
comport herself properly, even if shf ' 
escorted by a man, should be excluded i^y^j 
public peaces where her presence would ^ 
offensive to other members of her sex. 

The trouble with the rule in qucst^^^ 
which is more common in New York th 
is in other parts of the country, is thai 
presumes all women who visit public pl^^"^ 
without male escort to be undesirable chs: 
acters. It is to be hoped the decision of ^-^'^ 
New York courts will oppose that nianife^'J' 
unfair discrimination. 



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191T 



Awful Dose for the President 

From the Cincinnati Enquirer. 

\ 10 doubt President Roosevelt is proud of 
[^ the praise of his fellow citizens, especi- 
ally if it is expressed in the modest and 
graceful terms that betoken sincerity. He is 
3 man of the times, always at the front when 
there is excitement, and with but little inlcr- 
miitence of his attitude as a hero and a dash- 
ing leader. Still, the President has his 
thoughtful spells, and is ambitious to do the 
things that belong to real statesmanship. He 
also has a keen perception of when a good 
thing has been **done" enough, and under- 
stands the dangers of the rhetoric of gush. 
The following resolution, adopted by the Re- 
publican convention of Oklahoma, will not 
appeal to him as a scholar and gentleman, 
ur elicit his gratitude : 

"We hail with pride the bold and fearless 
leader, the matchless statesman, the patriotic 
citizen, the loyal American, our honored and 
respected President, Theodore Roosevelt. He 
has unflinchingly met every issue in the open 
and firmly advocated the right. He is the 
relentless foe of greed and graft and the 
trusted friend of honest effort. He has given 
to combined capital and to organized labor 
alike a fair hearing and a square deal. He 
has compelled trusts and unlawful combina- 
tions to recognize organized Government, ob- 
^frrc the law and obey the Courts." 

This is placing too much of a burden on 
the President. It will not so much stimulate 
his friends as it will encourage his enemies. 
No man is good enough to stand so much 
tiattery. When people say so much that is 
nice about a public man they always prod 
other people to dig out and exploit things 
that are not so nice. 

The Oklahoma party machine cannot, how- 
<^ver. deceive the President. There have 
already been some strong intimations that he 
^ill feel obliged to throw his influence against 
the miserable botch work his palavering 
friends have done in writing a constitution 
^or a new state. Possibly the convention 
whi(;h overdid itself in the adoption of reso- 
lutions thought this was the way to over- 
whelm Mr. Roosevelt's probable purpose to 
see to it that if Oklahoma comes into the 
Union as a state it shall come in worthily. 

Not saving either political party from its 
5hare of the burlesque performance, the inci- 



dent of statehood for Oklahoma and Indian 
Territory has been coarsely and offensively 
pushed. A lot of people are to be projected, 
as citizens and voters who are not better 
qualified for self-government and suffrage 
than the people of our new possessions, who 
are doomed to wait for generations before 
they can be better than dependants. There 
are many thousands of splendid Americans 
in the proposed new state, acute in every- 
thing that equips for statehood, but they are 
placed on even terms with a large "citizen- 
ship" that is distinctly undesirable. It seems 
highly probable that the new state will have- 
to be "coopered up" radically before it can 
achieve practical and equal standing in the 
Union. 

President Roosevelt is one of those who. 
demand and require that the new state shall 
not enter the Union "slipshod." We doubt 
if he can be affected or diverted by the gush- 
ing resolutions of the Oklahoma Republican 
Convention. 

At least the Oklahoma statehood question, 
seems to need investigation and improvement. 
There is plenty of time. The only real hurry 
is on the part of men who want to become 
settled in the state and county offices, and 
go forth as Senators and Representatives in 
Congress. 



Savffig: the Song: Birds 

From the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 

IT is refreshing to note that two young men 
have been fined in the police court for 
shooting song birds, and their guns have 
been confiscated. But the natural joy at this 
just punishment is marred somewhat by 
thoughts of the vast numbers of birds killed 
every year whose death is not thus avengd 
It is hard to understand, and impossible to 
sympathize with, the instinct for destruction 
that leads men wantonly to sacrifice the lives 
of birds and animals whose dead bodies ar«* 
of no utility, and whose existence tends to 
make human life itself more pleasant. The 
song birds are pa>sing away fast enough with- 
out man's help. They have their natural ene- 
mies, and besides they do nm thrive so well 
near smoke laden cities as in their native 
woods and fields. Still, if every possible pro- 
tection were lent them, they would appear in 
greater numbers, with their charm of plumage 
and song to brighten the dty*s environs anil 



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the public parks. Happily the absurd and 
cruel mania of wearing birds' wings and car- 
casses on women's hats has died out. But 
thoughtless boys still wreak havoc with stone 
and air gun, and rob nests of their eggs, and 
^rown men slaughter the songsters in idiotic 
pride of marksmanship. 

There are other abuses nearly as reprehen- 
sible as this. One of them is the killing of 
game and fish in excess oi what the sports- 
man can use. It is a common thing in re- 
;gions where fish abound to see scores of large 
fish thrown awa to rot, after being caught 
for the mere savage pleasure of killing some- 
thing. The same is true of game in the north- 
ern woods. It is not unlikely that the ani- 
mals, large and small, that are shot wantonly 
and left to decay in the woods are nearly as 
many as those actually utilized for pelt or 
food. After long evolution men have learned, 
in the main, to be kind to each other. But 
they have yet to travel a long road before 
they learn to be kind, instinctively, to the 
other animals. 



The Southern Curt for G)rpofation8 

From the New York World. 

TO revoke a corporation's license is the 
latest way of settling the railroad ques- 
tion in Alabama and Arkansas. For 
•neatness and despatch there is nothing like it. 

A railroad corporation, for whatever cause, 
is brought into a state court. It has the case 
removed to a federal court. But a far-seeing 
legislature has expressly prohibited any such 
flight being put upon the majesty of a south- 
ern state, on pain of the corporation's forfeit- 
ing its right to do business. Being dutiful 
officials, the state authorities promptly execute 
the decree, and the offending railroad is sup- 
posed to pass immediately to that limbo of 
made short work of this notice to litigants, 
reform where all good corporations are dead 
ones. 

President Castro used to imagine that he 
could prevent foreigners holding concessions 
in Venezuela from appealing to their own 
governments for protection, but it did not 
work in practice. It is a common failing 
with persons who leave wills to provide that 
any heir applying to the courts shall forfeit 
Tiis share of the property, but the courts have 

Possibly the weather has been trying down 



south and has made the state officials feverish 
and hasty. In a few weeks the heated spell 
will be over and frost will threaten. The 
cotton crop will be picked. By that time it 
will be a good thing to have the railroads 
running in order to move the cotton to maket. 



The War Alarmists 

From the Pittsburgh Dispatch. 

REAR ADMIRAL STOCKTON, who has 
just returned from Europe with the 
two cruisers that represented the United 
States at the Bordeaux Maritime exposition, 
is quoted in an interview as saying that all 
the war talk he has heard was "in a news- 
paper published in New York and Paris," 
and asserting that "a correspondent who 
came aboard my flagship told one of my offi- 
cers that the paper was supporting the agita- 
tion because it wanted to see the navy en- 
larged." 

That idea may be about the mental caliber 
of a certain class of newspapers, as well as 
of Hobson. But intelligent men can see that 
the methods employed are more apt to turn 
sober, thinking people against the enlarge 
ment of the navy than in its favor. If the 
naval cult involves the systematic spreading 
of false or exaggerated reports calculated to 
inflame the jingo mind and to provoke mob 
action that might easily produce serious com- 
plication it is very likely to produce a re- 
action of common sense for a smaller rather 
than a larger navy. 

If it were possible to get to the bottom of 
the fuss we think it would disclose a more 
logical inspiration than that idiocy. There 
are at least two European, governments which 
see how they could profit by a war between 
Japan and the United States. These gOTcm- 
ments include among their methods the notor- 
ious use of funds to inspire newspaper agita- 
tion of the kind that will serve their purpose. 
The systematic and persistent spreading of 
war reports has all the earmarks of such an 
inspiration. Since it is obvious that no mat- 
ter whether the United States should beat 
Japan, or Japan the United States, Germany 
and Russia would find opportunities in the 
weakening of both governments, the intelli- 
gent people of the United States ought to be 
able to draw their own conclusions. 



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193 



aiottld the Sute Kill? 

From the Cincinnati Commercial Tribune. 

THE question propounded by The Brook- 
lyn Eagle: "Should the State kill?" is 
followed by the statement that ** Exe- 
cutions make murderers less in number." 
They certainly do, in putting one murderer 
out of the world — and sometimes ah innocent 
man — but executions in their work of dimin- 
ishing the number of murderers do not di- 
minish the number of murders. 

Whether the State should kill or whether 
it should spare is a debatable question. But 
that the State should punish is not a debat- 
able question. Moreover, the very fact that 
the State provides killing as a punishment 
for murder and does not, and will not, en- 
force the punishment is a thing kept in mind 
by the murderer when lying in wait for his 
victim. There would be fewer to He in wait, 
and fewer murders and fewer murderers if 
the State instead of promising to kill and 
failing to keep its promise to the public, 
would decree life imprisonment for the con- 
victed murderer and administer the law rig- 
idly and without respect for persons. The 
spectacle of a murderer in prison for life, 
without hope for pardon and without possible 
opportunity for doing other murders, or com- 
mitting lesser crimes, would be an object les- 
son far more effective than the conviction and 
sentence of a murderer to death with the 
sentence never carried into effect. That it 
l« not carried into effect is demonstrated by 
the fact that out of more than 8,000 murders 
committed in 1906 only 123 of the total num- 
ber of murderers were executed. On the de- 
batable question The Rochester (New York) 
Chronkrle-Telegraph says : 

In some states of society, where the ma- 
chinery of the law is crude and insufficient, 
capital punishment is necessary as a means 
of self-protection. No such condition exists 
in States so well organized as New York. 
There are strong prisons where lawbreakers 
can be put, and in some cases they can be 
reformed. 

There are other commendable features of 
the life imprisonment penalty. With the 
hanging of a man, or with shocking him to 
death by artificial lightning, there is an end 
-of all possibility of demonstration of inno- 
cence—at least there would be no benefit to 
the dead in the demonstration — while with 



life imprisonment there would be such oppor- 
tunity, and that innocent men have been 
strangled to death, or shocked to death, at 
the hands of the law is not to be questioned. 
The very fact that even one innocent man has 
been sent to death is a conclusive argument 
against the death penalty. The fact that it is 
not enforced, but is made farcical, is another 
argument against it, and that the death pen- 
alty on the statute books is not a preventative 
of murder, nor a deterrent lo murderers, is 
known to all men. 

Whether the State should kill or not kill 
may be debatable. That it does not kill and 
seldom punishes the murderer is a fact call- 
ing for methods of punishment that will be 
enforced rigidly. 



The Wireless Lesson 

From the Toledo Press. 

IT would be a blessing to the country at 
large were the telegraphers' strike to con- 
tinue at least one month, and probably 
two m.onths would be still better. 

The first good result would be the knowl- 
edge on the part of the people that fifty per 
cent of our telegraph service is not at ali 
es.sential to legitimate business or the trans- 
portation of intelligence. The lull in certain 
sorts of feverish and compressed air business 
would prove to many that the pace that kills 
is not necessary. It would save untold mil- 
lions to consumers who arc now taxed in 
their purchase for wire service which could 
be had by mail at one- tenth of the cost. It 
would also save vast sums of money now 
wasted on stock and produce gambling. 

Then think of the rest cessation of this 
wire war would bring to the weary, unstrung 
nerves of frenzied news purveyors. How de- 
lightful to pass along a public thoroughfare 
and not have a paper thrust in ones' face 
with the youthful corncrake screech, "all 
about the murder and suicide." The baseball 
craze, too, would get a rest and ten millions 
of boys would have an opportunity to learn 
who made them and what they are on earth 
for. 

Frenzied men, too, who think they must 
keep in touch at all hours, day and night, 
with their business and the world's doings, 
would have an opportunity to think of that 
time vv^hich their insane mania is hurrying 



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upon them, when their fitful connection with 
earthly things will be cut off forever. 

And lastly and not leastly, the telegraph 
operators would have an opportunity to spend 
that six million war fund. This sixty-day 
experiment would convince the public that 
half the telegraph service they imagined they 
needed was plenty. Much of the water would 
be squeezed out of the telegraph stocks while 
the nation's nerves would have a needed rest. 

By all means let the useful, restful and in- 
structive contest run its course. 



The Greatest Treason 

From the New York Sun. 

ANOTHER Federal Judge, Thomas G. 
Jones of the middle and northern dis- 
tricts of Alabama, has modified ' with 
reluctance his injunction restraining the State 
from enforcing a passenger rate law while 
litigation in the Federal courts involving con- 
stitutional rights was pending. 

The State of Alabama and the Southern 
Railway Company having entered into an 
agreement by which the company was to re- 
duce its freight and passenger rates, as re- 
quired by the new rate law, and by which 
the State was to restore to the company its 
license to carry -on a transportation business, 
Judge J*nes was obliged to suspend the in- 
junction originally asked for by the Southern 
Railway Company when it appealed to a 
Federal court to preserve its constitutional 
rights. But he took occasion to say that a 
case in equity had been presented which gave 
the Federal court ''undoubted jurisdiction," 
and he stated that if the company had stood 
on its rights "the court would have exhausted 
all the power the law gives it for the execu- 



tion of its process." But this plain speaking^ 
and resolute Federal Judge did not stop with 
this assurance. He dared to affirm: 

"The greatest treason that a court of the 
United States could commit against the liber- 
ties of the people of Alabama as well as the 
citizens of our common countr>' would be ta 
quail from the issue and abdicate its plain 
sworn duty in the administration of the law," 

As Judge Jones will be furiously assailed 
for asserting the validity of Federal process 
in the controversy between the railroads 
which set up constitutional rights and the 
"sovereign States" which undertake to sus- 
pend those rights, it becomes of interest to- 
inquire who he is, what his antecedents are 
and what his qualifications as a jurist. 

Thomas Goode Jones is a Democrat, a 
Confederate veteran, 63 years of age, and 
until his appointment to the Federal bench 
in 1901 he practiced law at Montgomery. He 
is the editor of eighteen volume> of the Su- 
preme Court reports of Alabama. He was 
Speaker of the State House of Representa- 
tives from 1884 to 1888 and Governor of Ala- 
bama from 1890 to 1894. During the great 
mining and railroad strikes of 1894 he took 
personal command as Governor of the State 
troops and restored order without bloodshed. 
To save the credit of the State he increased 
the tax rate in the face of violent opposition. 
As Commander of the State troops during the 
Hawes and Posey riots in 1883 and 1888 he 
was the strong man in grave emergencies. 

On the record Thomas Goode Jones seems 
to be fully as loyal a Southerner as Gleen of 
North Carolina or Comer of Alabama, and an 
older and better lawyer than either of them. 
As an .American citizen and a supporter of 
the constitution he need not fear comparison 
with any man. 



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Mm0r^ •» St€0n4 Omu Mmtr, Juu4 U, 1906, ^ tk4 PostoMe^ ^ C^lmmbns, O.. mmd^r Ae§ 9f C#»- 

wnu Mmrtk t, lilt. 



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1907 



EMINENT CONTRIBUTORS 

TO THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



1908 



GENERAL FEATURES. 

Charles B. Galbreath, State Librarian of Ohio. 

Deshier Welch. 

Hon. Charles P. Salen. 

Hon. Brand Whitlock, Mayor of Toledo. 

W. S. Cappeller, Editor of the Mansfield News. 

Hon. Charles Kinney, Former Secretary of 

State of Ohio. 
Hollls KIght. 

Gen. Isaac R. Sherwood, M. C. 
Waldon Fawcett. 
Lena Kline Reed. 
James W. Faulkner. 
Allen E. Beach. 

F. L. Dustman, Editor of the Toledo Blade. 
J. Howard Galbralth. 
William Lord Wright, i 
Allen O. Myers. 

J. H. Newton, Editor of the Newark Advocate. 
Mrs. Edward Orton, Ohio Society, D. A. R. 
Hon. Tod B. Galloway. 
Opha Moore. 
Hon. John T. Mack. 
Elizabeth S. Hopley. 
Webster P. Huntington, Editor of the Ohio 

Magazine. 

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT. 

Hon. Andrew L. Harris, Governor of Ohio. 
Hon. J. B. Foraker, United States Senator 

from Ohio. 
Hon. Charles Dick, United States Senator from 

Ohio. 
Hon. Wade H. Ellis, Attorney General of Ohio. 
Gen. Charles H. Grosvenor. 
The Rev. Herbert S. BIgelow. 
Hon. J. Warren Kelfer, M. C. 
Hon. Warren G. Harding, Former Lieutenant 

Governor of Ohio. 
Hon. John L. Zimmerman. 
Hon. John J. Lentz. 

HISTORICAL. 

Hon. E. O. Randall, Secretary Ohio State His- 
torical and Archaeological Society. 

Archer Butler Hulbert, Secretary Ohio Valley 
Historical Society. 

Hon. Daniel J. Ryan, Former Secretary of 
State of Ohio. 

P. P. Cherry. 

Joseph Olds Gregg. 

William Alexander Taylor, Ohio Society. S. 
A. R. 

Prof. J. J. Bliss. 

Clement L. Martzolff. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

Dr. W. O. Thompson, President Ohk) State 
University. 

Dr. Lewis Bookwalter, President Otterbein Uni- 
versity. 



Dr. Alston Ellis, President Ohio University. 

Dr. Charles G. Heckert, President Wittenberg 
College. 

Dr. Emory W. Hunt. President Denlson Uni- 
versity. 

Dr. Kaufman Kohler, President Hebrew Union 
College. 

Dr. Alfred D. Perry, Pi-esldent Marietta Col- 
lege. 

Dr. William F. Pelrce, President Kenyon Col- 
lege. 

Or. Charles F. Thwing, President Western Re- 
serve University. 

Dr. Herbert Welch, President Ohio Wesleyan 
University. 

Dr. Charles W. Dabney, President University 
of Cincinnati. 

ETHICAL. 

The Rev. Washington Gladden, D. D. 

Hon. Samuel L. Black. 

John E. Gunckel. 

The Rev. E. L. Rexford, D. D. 



INDUSTRIAL. 



Hon. W. S. Thomas. 

Conrad Wilson. 

W. F. McClure. 

A. J. Hain. 

Charles S. Magruder. 



FICTION AND VERSE. 

James Ball Naylor. 

Stella Breyfogle McDonald. 

Rodney J. DIegle. 

Kate Brownlee Sherwood. 

William A. Taylor. 

Osman C. Hooper. 

MIra Clark Parsons. 

Alec Bruce. 

S. N. Cook. 

Webster P. Huntington. 

Thomas H. Sheppard. 

Charles Kinney. 

Beecher W. Waltermlre. 

S. A. Kenefick. 



ILLUSTRATORS. 

Frank H. Haskett, Staff Photographer of The 

Ohio Magazine. 
Edward J. Waskow, Chicago. 
E. M. Ensmlnger, Bucyrus. 
A. H. Mac Donald. Zanesvllle. 
C. M. Hay, Coshocton. 
Waldon Fawcett, Washington. 
J. R. Schmidt, Cincinnati. 
E. N. Clark, Columbus. 
Baker's Art Gallery, Columbus. 



SUBSCRIPTION COUPON 



f907 

THE OHIO MAGAZINE, Columbus, Ohio, 

Gentlemen: Enclosed find f<wo Dollys, for <o)hich ple^e nuiU THE OHIO MAGAZINE 

for one ye^, 1907, to ...J^OS, 

inclusive, to the following address: 

Nurni^^ ^ 

Street and No „ 

Tcwi and State , „ - - 



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P'. 



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Joseph Benson Foraker 

By Hon. Warren G. Harding 

Former Lieutenant Governor of Ohio 

EW men of one generation reach known politically to all parts of the 

nation-wide distinction in the United States in the past quarter of a 

field of politics, or any other century. Hayes, McKinley and Garfield 

field, for that matter. Unless were made National characters through 

a man becomes a float in the presidential introduction. Ohio devotion 

presidential current, he must be really and and esteem for them were unbounded be- 



W 



WARREN G. HARDINC. 

truly great in order to show in the National fore the mark of presidential preference 

limelight. was put upon them, but it is no dispar- 

One can count on the fingers of one*s agement of any of them to say that they 

hands the Ohioans who have become all measured to less than National fame 

197 



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prior to the time when Republican Na- 
tional conventions heralded their names to 
every county in the Union. Senator Al- 
len G. Thurman was rather a National 



Young Foraker As "A Lincoln Wide-Awakc," — 
Age Fourteen. 

character before a National Democratic 
convention popularized his name in asso- 
ciation with Grover Cleveland; but the 
latter, though famed in the Empire State, 
was unknown to the Nation until made a 
presidential candidate. 

John Sherman was a statesman of Na- 
■ tional renown, but National familiarity 
with his name depended in large part upon 
the fact that he was thrice a conspicuous 
and important aspirant for Republican 
presidential preference. He was vastly 
better known than Garfield or Harrison, 
who were nominated over him, and ranked 
with Blaine in fame among his fellow 
countrymen. 

Senator M. A. Hanna won National ac- 
quaintance in piloting William McKinley 
to the White House and fixed his own 
place in National regard by the force of 
his rugged personality, his common sense 
understanding of great public questions, 
and a rare individuality which suggested 



a fair and square deal, though he noade 
no pretense in that direction. 

The foregoing references are made to 
suggest appreciation of the fact that Ohio 
today has a real National figure in the 
senior United States Senator — Joseph 
Iknson Foraker. No present day Amer- 
ican statesman is more widely known, save 
only the President himself, and Senator 
Foraker has attained his distinction by the 
force of his ability, without the introduc- 
tion of presidential aspirations or an ad- 
vertising literary bureau. His National 
eminence is founded upon the rocks of 
lofty American statesmanship. 

One evening, a couple of years ago, I 
met Senator Cullom, of Illinois, in a hotel 
lobby in Chicago. In a discussion of men 
and measures the Senator said : "No use 
talking, you Ohioans have given us one of 
the really brilliant statesmen of the age. 
No other man has such a grasp of great 



First Lieut. J. B. Foraker, 89th O. V. I. Afterward 
Brevet Captain, U. S. Volunteers and Aide de 
Camp on Staff of Major General Slocum. 

public questions as your man Foraker. No 
man has greater force. He is an honor to 
Ohio and the whole country." 

One night last Autumn, "Uncle" Joe 



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JOSEPH BENSON FORAKER 



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Cannon, the great Speaker of the House, 
who is himself & *J^ational character highly 
respected and dearly beloved, came to our 
city of Marion and addressed a political 
meeting. After the speech he joined an 
informal company for lunch at our club. 
Just before leaving, he voluntarily ad- 



no squarer man, no better or fairer fighter 
(mind you, I do not always agree with 
him) no man who honors the State and 
Nation more or renders them better serv- 
ice than Senator Foraker of Ohio." 

That voluntary and unexpected tribute, 
marked by its sincerity, had an awakening 



MR. FORAKKR AS C.OVERNOR OF OHIO., lass. 



dressed the entire comi)any in these 
words : 

"Boys, I don't know anything about 
your Ohio politics, your alliances or your 
factions, but this much I want to say, be- 
cause it is true and deserves to be said. Of 
all the men in public life today — of all the 
brilliant statesmen shaping our American 
political history — there is no abler man. 



effect ui)on a company mainly hostile to 
the man of whom it was spoken. 

A few months later another National 
character came to Marion. It was Sen- 
ator Henjamin F. Tillman of South Caro- 
lina, who gave us his entertaining but un- 
impressive view of the race problem. At 
the big table in the same club grill room, 
the eminent S-outh Carolinian was drawn 



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out to give expression on contemporary 
measures and the men solving them. 

He turned to speak of Foraker just as 
a tourist's guide enthuses over the lofty 
peak above the mountain range. "He Ls 
really a great statesman/' said Mr. Till- 
man, " a student, a man of courage — the 
fairest, squarest fighter in the Senate, the 
property of no man or no interest, a 
matchless debater and one of the really big 
Americans of his time." 

Senator Tillman went further. He said: 
"Foraker's vote on the Railway Rate bill 
was an admirable display of conscientious 
statesmanship. He is honest. There was 
many a senator hostile to the bill who 
was afraid to say it, but Foraker saw ob- 
jections from a great lawyer's point of 
view, helped to cure defects and then 
voted as he believed. It was admirable 
and characteristic of the man." 

These quotations are made to give fel- 
low Ohioans, too often blinded by partisan 
or factional prejudice, a disinterested view 
of the man, gathered from knowing wit- 
nesses in the great foriim of the best of 
American statesmanship. In the Senate, a 
body yet to be matched as a deliberative 
assembly of great men by any nation in 
the world, he has won his spurs, and 
stands today the most eminent legislator 
of the greater American Republic. 

Here in Ohio our view-point has not, at 
all times, given the correct focus of the 
man. When we knew him more intimate- 
ly he had not become the great statesman, 
but was rather a magnetic leader, with- 
out equipoise and the soberer reflection 
which mark the labors of real statecraft. 
He was a good governor, yet little notice 
was ever given his gubernatorial record, 
because it was in the background while 
the fireworks of politics distracted the 
popular eye. He campaigned for victory 
in Ohio like he fought as a young soldier 
for the Union, with a dash and reckless 



bravery that commanded admiration, even 
among enemies, and the "vim, vigor and 
victory'* campaigns will not be forgotten 
among Ohio Republicans, so long as any 
participants survive. 

On the stump he is unrivaled; on the 
convention platform he is irresistible, in 
the forum the cjual cf any debater of the 
times. Not so simply convincing as 
Blaine, not so capable of eloquent flights 
as grand old General Gibson, not so 
smooth as the Great American Commoner, 
he is surer to carry his political audience 
than any of them. 

Of no other speaker has it ever been re- 
corded that he broke up his own meeting 
by the frenzy of enthusiasm that he 
aroused. Senator Foraker, then governor 
of Ohio, did that very thing at Indian- 
apolis, in the first Harrison campaign. It 
is not recalled now just what he said, but 
those were the days of dash and daring 
and "vim and vigor," and after having his 
great audience stirred to repeated ap- 
plause and approval he flashed one of his 
typical Republican utterances, and the un- 
expected came. Cheering \\^s not enough. 
The shouting, admiring crowd started to 
march around th.e great hall, and the fires 
of enthusiasm could not be quenched. 
When all energ\^ was burned, the great 
meeting was done — broken up unintention- 
ally by the speaker himself. 

Senator Foraker commands admiration 
even where he fails to convince. The Day- 
ton State Convention of 1906 afforded a 
notable example. The warfare against the 
Federal Senators had been declared, 
though not in explicit terms. If Ohio Re- 
jjublicans were to endorse them, one lead- 
er of the opposition had said, it must, at 
least, be 'Mess cordial than the endorse- 
ment given the President." There was 
trouble in the air. Hostile newspapers 
had fomented and fed new ambitions^ 
rubbed old sores and appealed to the dis- 



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JOSEPH BENSON FORAKER 



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appointed. The chairman of the conven- 
tion had attuned his keynote speech to the 
song of the opposition. 

Then Senator Foraker was called out, 
informally and unexpectedly, and com- 
plied with reluctance. But the conven- 
tion wanted to know what he had to say. 
With fine dignity and subtle irony he sil- 
enced the inharmonious notes in the key- 
note address and then plunged into the 
thick of the issues leading to threatened 
war, notably the failure to always agree 
with the President. Senator Foraker is 
a Republican, every inch of him. Sus- 
tained by his own conscience and secure 
in his knowledge, he was in no mood for 
apology. Part of that speech is appro- 
priate for quotation here. Note the man- 
hood it displays and the pride it awakens : 

I have always thought it was a great 
honor to be a United States senator from 
Ohio. Why? Not because of the salary, 
not because of the position, but because I 
have always understood that when my 
constituency elected me, it was because 
they had the impression at least that I 
possessed the qualifications of a senator; 
that I had some ability and that I had 
good character; that I would stand 
hitched, did not require somebody over- 
looking me, and that when a great ques- 
tion arose I would be expected, speaking 
for this mighty and intelligent constitu- 
ency, to bring to bear all these qualifica- 
tions. I never understood that somebody 
was to tell me how to vote, either at that 
end of the line or this end of the line ; 
especially not about great, profound con- 
stitutional questions which lawyers differ 
about. I thought I was to work that out 
and speak for you. I have pursued that 
policy. If that is not right; if, on the 
contrary, a man is to be rebuked because 
he exercises the qualifications with which 
he is possessed, th^n you take all the honor 
away from the office, and, so far as I am 
concerned, you can take the office with it. 

That is good reading nowadays. It 
takes that spirit, that kind of manhood, 



that kind of confidence and self respect, 
to be worthy of a place in the great Sen- 
ate. It might be read as a warning 
against dangerous drifting, but Senator 
Foraker meant it only as an understanding 
between himself and the State which had 
honored him. Well, it ended the war at 
Dayton. The convention was his to lead 
as he would, and the hostile yielded to 
admiration. Then and there Senator For- 
aker might have been endorsed as Ohio*s 
choice for the presidency, but he would 
not have it so. He thought the public 
mind not yet ready for correct expression. 

To this power of speaking. Senator 
Foraker has the added advantage of a 
judicial mind for investigation, and his 
study is never ended. If he combined 
practical politics with his magnetic leader- 
ship and commanding ability, he would 
be the most powerful Republican of the 
period. He is not a great politician. At 
any rate, he hasn't worked much at it, in 
the past dozen years. He has no patience 
for details, no care for organization. Men 
who associate him with a machine have 
little knowledge of the real truth. The 
organization that followed him fifteen 
years ago was not of his making, though 
it was his to command. Today, no Fed- 
eral politician is so little possessed of a 
machine. 

The explanation is easy, and his dis- 
inclination to machine politics may be 
omitted in stating it. When Senator For- 
aker went to Washington, he was over- 
shadowed in party management by Sen- 
ator Hanna. The latter was the personal, 
intimate and political confidante of Presi- 
dent McKinley and the chief dispenser of 
political pie. Under these conditions 
Foraker's path to strength and eminence 
lay in the field of statesmanship. He 
plunged into the earnest study of great 
questions, widened his understanding 
vision and ascended to a loftier plane thani 



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political details would admit, becoming as 
conspicuous at Webster, Clay or Blaine. 

Some of his political friends have com- 
plained, and many of his old followers 
have drifted away, because he secured so 
little from the plum tree. He did not at- 
tempt to hold the bandwagon crowd, and 
it was not "his kind" to hypothecate his 
conscience for political patronage. It 
weakened him politically but made secure 
his place among the great, constructive 
' American statesmen. Had he been more 
popularly politic and less able, he might 
have drifted with the current, when drift- 
ing was the harmless course, and today he 
would have dwelt seouitflv in the echo of 
approval of the President. But Senator 
Foraker is not that kind, and Ohio's sober- 
er judgment would not have him so. He 
has many of the characteristics of the 
popular President. His impetuosity is a 
little better restrained. He is just as 
brave, just as honest and just as fully 
possessed of a mind of liis own, and he has 
a broader knowledge of the science of 
government. 

His successful fight on the Statehood 
bill was highly unselfish and disinterested. 
He believed in submitting a question of 
such vital local interest to the people con- 
cerned, and even Cannon joined the sur- 
-?nder which the people have approved. 
That stand made Senator Foraker famous 
in the great Southwest. His colonial pol- 
icies and stalwart Americanism have es- 
pecially endeared him to the great Pacific 
coast. The South knows, perhaps dislikes 
but respects him, in a combination of his 
defense of the Brownsville battalion and 
his contention for the amendments writ- 
ten in the after thought of the great Civil 
War. The East knows him as a protec- 
tionist and expansionist, as lawyer and 
statesman, and admires him as he deserves, 
while in this Central section he is the most 



conspicuous factor in the active politics 
which date from 1884. 

It is inevitable that a career so long and 
so brilliant should have developed much 
enmity and envy. He is not a little hated, 
and greatly criticized by a part of the 
people. So conscientious has he been, so 
clearly has he seen from his view-point, 
that he has been very reluctant to believe 
he has crossed the popular mind. The ef- 
fective working of the Elkins law, since 
public opinion has commanded its en- 
forcement, is slowly proclaiming the cor- 
rectness of the Senator's contention in its 
behalf, and he has an unalterable belief 
in his eventual justification in the popular 
estimate. Whether it comes or not, his 
position could not have been changed, for 
the man of courage is never driven out 
of his course by the threat of ill ^avor. 

A couple of days prior to his departure 
for Washington, for the session which 
passed the Hepburn Rate law, I called on 
the Senator at his office in Cincinnati, to 
admonish him to make sure to be right on 
the pending railway legislation. To fully 
impress him, I ventured the prediction that 
the presidency depended upon it. 

"Yes, I know," he replied. "It is a 
very big question and a very important 
one. I have been studying it earnestly for 
a couple of years, have been in the thick 
of the -investigation. I shall proceed in- 
telligently and honestly. I could not for- 
feit my self-respect, even to be president." 

Admirable, wasn't it? And character- 
istic of the man. Such a mind and such 
a personality are not of the kind to be in 
accord with every popular whim, but the 
American people value conscience and ad- 
mire courage ; and capability and honesty 
never fail to command a just estimate in 
the long run. The public needs, honors 
and must retain that character of public 
service. 



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The Fight at Culebra Cut 

By Ernest Cawcroft 

The author of the present article ha: but recently returned to this country 
^fter a protracted and critical investigation of affairs on the Isthmus of Panama in 
connection ivith the binlding of the great Canal destined to join the two oceans 
under American auspices and control. His deductions are those of an unprejudiced 
and disinterested observer and unll sound a note of renewed encouragement and 
faith to those citizens of this country who have been led to criticize the course of 
events on the Isthmus. The illustrations are from photographs for The Ohio Mag- 
azine^ especially designed to elucidate Mr. Caivcroffs description of Culebra Cut 
as thr key to the Canal enterprise. In connection with them it is gratifying to note 
that a large number of the great machines employed in the vast ivork of excavation 
at Culebra were manufactured in the State of Ohio. 



j JLEBRA CUT is the genesis of 
every problem that stands be- 
__^^^ tween the success or failure of 
%|g f the Yankee effort to connect the 
^*^ I waters of the Atlantic with the 
tides of the Pacific. It is true, 
indeed, that there is a new difficulty for 
every day in the week that work progresses 
over the line of the Isthmian Canal; but 
with every rising sun there confronts the 
Commission, the engineers and the steam- 
shovel men, the one patent, tremendous 
problem of slowly but ])ersistently and 
surely removing the mountain of dirt 
which separates the two oceans. Extend- 
ing from far below the site known as Em- 
pire to a point beyond Gold Hill, there 
is that portion of the Isthmian Canal 
known as the Culebra Division, which in- 
volves the very heart and typifies the very 
nature of every difficulty presented to the 
men seeking to unite the two oceans. Wan- 
dering over the fifty mile route of the 
Panama Canal, walking here and there 
through portions of the tropical jungle 
which smacks of malarial disease, and 
moving along the Panama Railroad down 
into the ditches through the switches 
which branch out in every direction from 
the main line, one inevitably reaches the 
conclusion that a designing Providence 
created that mountain of dirt now known 
as Culebra Cut for the purpose of pre- 



senting a supreme test to the white man's 
constructive civilization of the twentieth 
century. 

Down on the Isthmus all roads lead to 
Culebra Cut. That is coming to be under- 
stood in this country as it is accepted as 
a fact on the Isthmus of Panama. The 
man from Colon asks his friend from Gat- 
un as they meet on the Panama Railroad 
train: "What is doing on the Lfne to- 
day?" — and both understand that the ex- 
tent of the day's operations in Culebra Cut 
is the concrete answer to the question. 
Query a friend on the Isthmus as to when 
the Canal will be completed, and he seeks 
as the basis of his calculations the latest fig- 
ures as to the daily excavation of dirt in 
the Cut. Then when a yellow journalist, 
having observed canal operations from the 
other side of the hill while aboard a rail- 
road train, intimates to his countrymen 
that no definite constructive progress is be- 
ing made, the Chief Engineer cables to 
Washington the laconic answer : "Eight 
hundred thousand cubic yards of earth 
were taken out of Culebra Cut during the 
past thirty days." 

As a matter of fact this common meas- 
ure of constructive achievement is in ac- 
cordance with the conclusions of engineers 
on both sides of the water. Whether one 
favor the sea level or lock type of canal, 
it ha*;; been accepted as a fact that the 



203 



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mountain of dirt in the interior of the 
Isthmus must be mastered. The French, 
stimulated by their success in building the 
Suez with inefficient labor and without 
modern machinery, sought the elimination 
of Culebra to such an extent that it would 
be possible to send ships through the wa- 
ter way at sea level. Sobered by their fail- 



Culebra Cut is being besieged by the 
best brains and the hardiest brawn of 
America. History will record that the 
fight at Culebra was one of the great bat- 
tles of the Twentieth century. It is an 
inspiration, an incentive to patriotism, to 
traverse the region of this engineering con- 
flict with Nature. Not until one has 



AN OHIO STEAM SHOVEL WORKING ON THE SIDE OF CULEBRA CUT. 



ure and desirous of having the most prac- 
tical waterway in a minimum amount of 
time, the American engineers are seeking 
such a lowering of the Culebra hills as 
will furnish the grade for a canal of the 
lock type. This, then, is the task which 
taxes the faith, the skill, the genius and 
the energy of the Western World. 



toured the canal route between Bas Obispo 
and Gold Hill does he fully appreciate 
the pivotal nature of the fight that is be- 
ing waged at Culebra. Discoverers and 
adventurers for generations clung to the 
notion tliat tliere was an undiscovered pass, 
like tlic Yukon, through the Isthmian 
juni^le, which would afford passage to the 



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THE FIGHT AT CULEBRA CUT 



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CULEBRA CUT LOOKING SOUTH. 



ships of the world. Modern topographi- 
cal surveys, however, dissipated the dreams 
of the Spaniard and the Italian; and to- 
day engineering science is not seeking a 
natural passage, but it is bending its skill 
to the task of creating an artificial route 
through the inevitable barrier which lies 
between the two oceans. 

It is interesting, indeed, to take a glance 
at this Isthmian seat of war, both because 
its importance is still unappreciated by 
the layTnan and because of the fact that 
every day cf construction affords a newer 
view and gives added interest to the bat- 
tle for the conquest of Culebra Cut. 
Thougli you take your school map of Cen- 
tral America, it will not reveal the natural 
barriers co the unity of the two oceans, 
which exist in that region over which your 
finger passes between Colon and the City 
of Panama on the Pacific side of the Isth- 
mus. The arm-bended Isthmus renders 
necessary the construction of the Canal 
from north to south. In the interior of 
the Isthmus one finds a land of malaria, 
tropical jungle, hills, uncontrollable riv- 
ers and rising lakes. It is the plan of con- 
struction to utilize these obstacles in the 
se^^'ice of the waterway. 

As the tourist approaches the swamp 



shores of Colon, little does he realize that, 
a few miles inland there are barriers and 
obstacles which are taxing the engineer- 
ing ingenuity of the age. The interior of 
the Isthmus is the particular region of riv- 
ers and hills called mountains. The Chag- 
res river flows through the center of that 
region on the way to the Atlantic, and that 
is one of the natural keys to the situation. 
Six miles inland from Colon the tourist 
finds, as the topographical map reveals, 
rising ground surrounding the valley of 
the Chagres. Here we approach the first 
pivotal point in the canal construction and 
one which must be borne in mind in under- 
standing the incentive to the fight at Cule- 
bra. There at (iatun, the site six miles 
inland from the Atlantic-washed Colon, 
preparations are being made for the con- 
struction of a gigantic dam upwards of a 
raile in length, and with sufficient breadth 
to control the Chagres between the mile 
a[)art hills which make the river valley at 
that point. 

Once this dam is constructed and closed, 
followed by the rising waters of the Chag- 
res during the rainy season, the creation of 
an inland lake follows. The inland lake 
produced by the damming of the Chagres. 
at Gatun will overflow manv of the exist- 



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ing native villages, and, with a width vary- 
ing from one to five miles, it will render 
necessary the relocation of the Panama 
Railroad on higher ground on the opposite 
bank of the waterway. Affording a lake- 
channel forty-five feet in depth and only 
limited in its width by the elevating of 
ground wliich the river fails to overflow, 
the Gatun Dam will force the water back 
over twenty-five miles to a point in the 
vicinity of the settlement known as Bas 
Obispo. This inland lake will flood the 
intervening jungle, overflow the minor 
elevations between the points indicated 
and will allow a fleet of ships to pass at 



ing problem presented by Nature and em- 
phasized by the very fact tnat the creation 
of this inland lake eliminates the necessity 
of constructing many miles of ordinary 
canal channels. 

The reader will more readily appreciate 
the nature of this engineering battle by 
not making the common mistake of assum- 
ing that the attack upon Culebra Cut is 
confined to an effort to remove one high 
but narrow strip of mountainous country. 
As a matter of fact the height of natural 
ground which blocks the movement of the 
water of the canal towards the Pacific ex- 
tends from Bas Obispo to Paraiso. That 



TRAIN UNLOADING DIRT FROM THE CANAL. 



oceanic speed through the interior of the 
Isthmus, thus obviating the trite objection 
to a lock canal, to the effect that such a 
locked prism retards the speedy movement 
•of ships. 

Thirty miles from Colon and some 
twenty-five miles from Gatun, the lake- 
channel narrows, the ground rises to a 
point whirli the torrents of the Chagres 
cannot overflow even in the rainy season, 
and the artificial lake is thus barred by a 
nine mile hill of rock and dirt ; and tlius 
there is presented to the engineers the 
problem of piercing this mountain as the 
only means of enabling ships to reach the 
Pacific ocean. Here, then, is the engineer- 



nine mile strip of elevated country be- 
tween Bas Obispo and Paraiso includes 
such communities as Las Cascadas, F^m- 
pire, Culebra and other settlements, which 
are arising with the rapidity of shanties 
along a Western railroad extension. The 
ground in this nine mile strip varies be- 
tween 250 and 334 feet above sea level. 
There are those who have wondered 
whether, apart from the tropical weather, 
the difficulties of overcoming the engineer- 
ing obstacles of Culebra Cut were not over- 
estimated ; but when it is remembered that 
this nine mile strip, varying from 250 feet 
to the top of Gold Hill above Culebra 
station, is composed of rock, slime, gravel 



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THE FIGHT AT CULEBRA CUT 



207 



and tropical dirt ; when it is borne in mind 
that the existing prism of this canal is 
subject to frequent land-slides; and when 
it is considered that this region is washed 
by a torrential rain- fall which exceeds 
twelve feet yearly, some realization of the 
difficulties presented will be possible. 

This is an engineering fight, a battle of 
brains and brawn, that is worthy the best 
mettle of the country. The success of this 
mighty effort to reduce this nine mile ele- 
vated strip to a forty foot level aboVe the 
line of the sea, involves the blasting, the 
boring, the shovelling and the effective re- 
moval of over fifty million cubic yards of 
rock and earth. The plans for the com- 
pleted canal call for an excavation of over 
one hundred million cubic yards; and as 
the removal of over one-half that amount 
in the Culebra Division is under more dif- 
ficult circumstances than surround the re- 
mainder of the project, it follows that the 
definite progress of the work at Culebra 
and vicinity has necessitated a perfection 
of organizaion, an efficiency of labor and a 
keenness of direction not hitherto equalled 
even in the modem engineering World.. 

The writer will not and cannot soon 
forget the hot, tropical day that he wend- 
ed his way over the hill from Empire sta- 
tion to obtain his first view of Culebra, 
which is of such pivotal importance to the 
commerce and naval strategy of the 
world. As he ascended the knoll of the 
hill at Empire, he found in the distance 
his first glimpse of the practical besieging 
of Culebra Cut. One might have in- 
ferred, indeed, that a great battle was in 
progress. Looking westerly through the 
artificial valley already excavated, between 
the point of vision and the towering pin- 
nacle of Gold Hill, the writer observed 
the operations of fifty steam shovels, built 
in Pittsburg, Marion, Ohio, and other 
Ohio cities. He heard the *'puff", "puff", 
"puff" from as many smoke stacks as the 
shovels gripped the masses of dirt ahead 
and the crane-men turned the arms of the 
shovels to the dirt trains on the adjacent 
tracks. While he saw on one side the op- 
erations of the massive seventy and ninety- 
five ton shovels, he observed on the other 
the persistent work of the men in charge 
of the drills preparing the solid rock for 
an insertion of dynamite. Between watch- 



ing the steam shovels and dodging the 
passing dirt trains, the tourist had a busy 
time evading the charges of dynamite which 
explode six at a time through a battery of 
wires. 

Organization and system are the key- 
notes of the campaign that is being w^aged 
for the demolition of Culebra. Those who 
are familiar with the history of the Pan- 
ama Canal project are aware of the credit 
given to the PVench both for the excell- 
ence of their engineering organization and 
the extent of their excavation while di- 
recting affairs on the Isthmus, despite the 
wide-spread evidences of graft. It is not 
necessary to reflect upon the efforts of the 
French in order to properly commend the 
superiority of the existing endeavor; but 
while the excavation under the De Lesseps 
regime was considerable as measured in 
cubic yards of surface, the mere enumer- 
ation of figures in comparison with those 
credited to the existing organization is not 
fair to the latter. It is one thing to blast 
and shovel a million cubic yards out of 
Culebra, but it is another problem to so 
place the excavation that it will be out 
of the way for all time, or so place 
the material that it will protect the 
canal channel on the lowlands of the east- 
ern portion of the waterway. Then, again, 
it is one thing to remove that million cubic 
yards, and it is quite another to so pro- 
tect the excavated portion that it will not 
be necessary to repeat the operation. Those 
who walk through portion s of the Cut 
will witness a sight that convinces them 
of the superiority of the American en- 
deavor as compared with the futile efforts 
of the French — evidences of which are to 
be found in so many places along the 
route. The French seemingly thought 
nothing of excavating a large hole, calcu- 
lated to impress visiting stockholders, and 
then abandoning it for work on other por- 
tions of the canal. What, then, was the 
result of such operations? While the total 
French excavation was relatively large,^ 
measured from the standpoint of perman- 
ent results it was small. Let it be said 
in honor of the Americans, who, during 
two years of obloquy and criticism, insist- 
ed on perfecting a system before com- 
mencing actual constructive work on a 
large scale, that today every effort of the 



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-Steam shovels is followed by results. A 
walk through Culebra will convince any 
fair-minded man of that fact; it will as- 
:sure him that as the Cut is the supreme 
problem of the waterway, so its certain 
demolition fortells the definite completion 
of the enterprise. 

President Roosevelt manifested supreme 
wisdom in insisting on the selection of this 
'canal route, which was already traversed 
by a railroad through the tropical jungle. 
The invesigator at Culebra, as on other 
portions of the ditch, is impressed with 
the fact at the outset that the railroad is 
the key to the situation, both from an en- 
gineering and sanitary standpoint. How 
jnany people appreciate the extent of the 
system and the part that the railroad plays 
in the effective attack upon Culebra Cut? 
This canal cannot be constructed upon a 
trunk sewer plan. All of us have intelli- 
gent friends who seem to think it is only 
.necessary to excavate and throw the dirt 
along the banks of the w-aterway. But as 
the tourist obtains his first view of the Cut 
at Empire, he observes that the rapidity 
with which the dirt trains are enabled to 
move out is the measure of the day*s 
achievement. Through this region, in or- 
der to assure a prism of definite width, it 
!has been found necessary to increase the 
width from time to time as one land-slide 
follows another; and while that increases 
the total amount of excavation, it renders 
possible the placing of tracks one above 
another to accommodate the dirt trains. 

As the observer moves down the incline 
-and gradually works his way into the Cut, 
the impressive thing which strikes the 
vision is the dirt trains, one tier above an- 
other, like the seats of a theatre. It was 
the plan, and in that the men have suc- 
ceeded, to work along one level, reducing 
the strip of hill ahead to a common plain. 
Then a track is placed on the next level, 
with a parallel track to accommodate the 
dirt trains, and the steam shovel gradually 
works its way ahead again to the end of 
the Cut. One tier above another, one 
•shovel ahead of another, this operation is 
commenced, finished and renewed, from 
week to week. Fifty of these shovels at 
work, aided by the preliminary work of 
the drills and blasts, facilitates the load- 
5ng and moving of four thousand cars of 



dirt out of the nine mile strip during each 
working day. 

But not until one's Yankee blood has 
surged with pride, as he observes the op- 
erations in the Cut, can he appreciate the 
nature and extent of the system which en- 
ables men under a tropical sun to excavate 
and dispose of four thousand car loads in 
the course of every working day of the 
month. In the first place, it was neces- 
sary to secure rails from Pittsburg to 
double-track the Panama Railroad; econ- 
omy warranted the purchase of the larg- 
est possible dirt cars to supplant the dinky 
carriages of the French ; then it was neces- 
sary to purchase, ship and assemble on 
the Isthmus over two hundred large en- 
gines. Having made adequate prepara- 
tions for the removal of the dirt, orders 
were placed for steam shovels aggregating 
one hundred in number. The operations 
of these shovels, coupled with the com- 
pleteness of the system devised in moving 
dirt trains to dumps down the Line, are 
responsible for the excavation of the four 
thousand car loads during each working 
day. A train of fifteen cars is loaded by 
steam shovel; immediately it pulls out to 
a prearranged dump, and another train 
appears to keep the shovel in operation. 
The dirt trains are unloaded by a plow-like 
machine, w^hich passes along the cars and 
effectively shoves the dirt into the jungle 
below. Soon the train reappears from a 
possible ten mile trip, and this operation is 
resumed from day to day. 

But this is not the end of the system 
which has been devised in the attacking 
ot Culebra. There are tracks to be placed 
from the Cut to the various dumps, and 
switches to be shifted from time to time, 
to keep pace with the progress of the 
work. Down in the Cut it is necessary to 
supply fifty steam shovels with water and 
along the tracks run the pipes carrying the 
water from the hills; then there is a tele- 
phone and telegraph system which facil- 
itates the safe and speedy movement of 
the several dirt trains. Culebra Cut, then, 
is simply an engineering battlefield — a site 
where the drills, the blasts, the steam 
shovels and the ceaseless movement of dirt 
trains, represent the charge and fire, the 
fire and re-charge of a vast army of skilled 
men. 



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THE FIGHT AT CULEBRA CUT 



309 



Certainly the figures bear out the con- 
clusions of the eye-witness; the statistics 
demonstrate that with the passing of each 
month the increased efficiency of men and 
machines attacking Culebra is evidence of 
definite progress. During the month of 
July, 1904, 31,000 cubic yards of dirt were 
excavated at Culebra Cut; one year later 
the monthly excavation was upwards of 
80,000 cubic yards; and during the twen- 
ty-six days of July, 1906, 157,000 cubic 
yards were removed from the nine mile 
strip. It is worthy of notice that on the 
fourteenth day of March of the present 
year the daily excavation was greater than 
the amount shovelled out during the first 
month of July cited. In other words, in 
about three years, an organization has been 
created, two thousand miles from the base 
of supplies, which will take more dirt out 
of the Cut in a day than the previous 
monthly records. The present monthly ex- 
cavation varies between six and eight hun- 
dred thousand cubic yards; and with the 
passing of the rainy season a million cubic 
yards a month will be the assured exca- 
vation record of the Culebra Army. 

But back of this record of monthly 
excavation, and as a preliminary con- 
dition essential to the present effi- 
ciency of the Culebra Army, is the 
story of the conquest of the Isth- 
mian jungle. The world marvelled 
when the sanitary department of the 
Japanese Army foresaw every menace to 
the health of the Emperor's troops, as the 
little men marched over the colder fields 
of Manchuria ; but history will record that 
the department which made it possible for 
efficient white men to work under whole- 
some conditions on the disease-producing, 
tropical Isthmus performed a feat with- 
out parallel in history, and one which ren- 
ders possible the besieging of Culebra to- 
day. 

It must be understood that the excellent 
work of the sanitary department is the 
basis of every achievement on the Isthmus. 
Four years ago the Department was con- 
fronted with the problem of creating a 
Northern civilization amidst a tropical, 
Latin environment. How the French neg- 
lected this necessary feature, only to write 
their record in blood, and how every sailor 
dreaded the Isthmus as he would a pest- 



house, the world knows. Thanks to the 
persistence of the Sanitary Department to- 
day, Colon has risen above the swamps; 
yellow fever has not stalked through the 
alleys of Old Aspinwall in twelve months; 
the degenerate natives have been com- 
pelled to clean their yards, and the De- 
partment has not been backward about 
fumigating or destroying properties which 
menaced the health of the workers at the 
very door-way of the Isthmus. Through- 
out the interior of the Isthmus the work 
proceeds from day to day. The tropical 
jungle has been and is being cut down or 
burned from week to week; stagnant pools 
of water have been drained and mosquitoes 
have become a rarity; the dozen or more 
canal communities have been supplied by 
individual reservoirs, and with improved 
roads the Federal Government has made 
an effort to lessen the chances of infection 
through workers being compelled to travel 
the malarial swamps. 

Not content with improving the high- 
ways, controlling the swamps, subduing 
the jungle and furnishing water and ice, 
the Government has been successful in cre- 
ating a chain of improved communities, 
acting upon the theory that wholesome 
living conditions are essential to efficient 
labor. The community, from which af- 
fairs are directed at Culebra, is typical of 
the twelve or more Yankee towns on the 
Isthmus. While in the majority of cases, 
settlements exist at these points, the Gov- 
ernment has followed the plan of select- 
ing a new site on higher ground for build- 
ing the employee's community. Thus way 
above the Cut, situated in the most health- 
ful spot to be found between Bas Obispo 
and Paraiso, the tourist observes the Com- 
mission Headquarters, the hospital, the 
recently opened Y. M. C. A., the apart- 
ments for unmarried men and the indivi- 
dual houses for employees with famiilies. 
These family houses are constructed with 
broad verandas surrounding every side. 
These houses, being always screened, af- 
ford a sitting room for the men af- 
ter working hours; and the wide, covered 
verandas also prevent the heat from reach- 
ing the walls of the house. 

Theoretically, every unmarried man is 
entitled to one square foot of space in 
quarters for every dollar in gold that he 



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receives as wages during a month; and 
while many of the steam shovel men re- 
ceiving two hundred and ten dollars a 
month, are inclined to complain . that they 
do not secure their full quota, it is imag- 
ined that they will worry along while the 
Government every day erects additional 
headquarters for the white ^employees. 
Then individual homes are provided for 
the ^vhite men who bring their wives to 
the Isthmus, and experience shows that 
where the women are on hand to do some 
old-fashioned Yankee cooking the men are 
more contented and healthy. In fact, 
every wife who joins her husband on the 
Isthmus increases the efficiency of the 
Culebra Army proportionately. For the 
married men the Government provides 
houses, water, light and ice, while for the 
single men it cooks a meal and arouses a 
kick from one end of the Isthmus to the 
other. There are many vexatious features 
of life on the Isthmus; but when one con- 
siders that those causes of complaint do 
not relate to the wholesomeness of life 
along the Line, the wonder over the excell- 
ence of the engineering and sanitary or- 
ganization increases. 



While the Spaniard, the Italian and 
the native and Jamaican negroes are doing 
much of the routine work of the water- 
way, the five thousand American men em- 
ployed are the brains of the project, and 
they are the picked men of the Republic. 
.Mechanics, electricians, engineers and 
steam shovel men — these men must come 
with the recommendations of their em- 
ployers during the previous two years; 
their character must be above question, 
and their mental and physical capacity is 
a matter for rigorous examination both 
before leaving and after arriving on the 
Isthmus. These men are instructed to give 
detailed attention to everything pertaining 
to their health ; and the fight that this 
highly organized, efficient army is making 
at Culebra means much for the future po- 
tential capacity of these men who will win 
the battle before returning to their spe- 
cialized pursuits in this country. To have 
survived the fight at Culebra Cut will as- 
sure any man a position in the line of con- 
struction work during the decade which 
will follow the completion of the water- 
way. 

A little faith and steam shovels will re- 
move mountains. 



PACIFIC ENTRANCE TO THE PANAMA CANAL. 



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An Old Regiment of Regulars 

By C. B. Hodges 

Second Lieutenant, Fourth U. S. Infantry 

Li euietuxnt Hodges turns hack to some rare pages of American history — and 
especially of the history of Ohio — in the present article. The remarkable career 
vf the Fourth United States Infantry, from Revolutionary time to the present, 
js here set forth with fidelity to the facts of a record that not only includes the 
Revolutionary period but the War of 1812, the Meocican War, the Civil War, the 
Indian icars subsequent thereto and the Spanish- American War, The distinguished 
service of ''The Old Fourth" for a hundred and fifteen years is here sticcintly re- 
lated for the first time in print. The value and interest of the narrative must be 
apparent to the most casual reader. 



ONE hundred and fourteen years 
ago a small village of log ca- 
bins, clustered around the pro- 
tecting walls of a rude but 
staunch log fort on the banks 
of the stately Ohio, was the 
scene of much activity. Troops were ar- 
riving. They came in boats from a camp 
up the river some twenty odd miles below 
Pittsburgh, where their organization had 
recently been completed; and this village, 
nestling in an amphitheatre of majestic 
forest-clad hills, was their first station. 
The troops were the Legion of the United 
States, commanded by Major-General An- 
thony Wayne, and the "Fourth United 
States Infantry** was present as the "In- 
fantry of the Fourth Sub-Legion." The 
«^'r()ui> of cabins was Cincinnati, then nearly 
five years old, and Fort Washington, the 
rude log structure, was the military cen- 
ter of the Ohio valley. 

With this new army of regular soldiers 
<'ame to the pioneers of the Great North- 
w est hope for protection and freedom from 
tlie bloody tomahawk and the cruel scalp- 
ing-knife of the war-like Indian. For at 
that time the beautiful and prosperous ter- 
ritory now comprising the State of Ohio 
was a wilderness, the home of many tribes 
<;f these savage red men. The lives of the 
settlers were in constant jeopardy, and we 
are told that "around many a prisoner had 
been kindled his fiery sepulchre." 

^ * 21 



Generals Harmer and St. Clair had con- 
ducted unsuccessful campaigns against the 
Indians, and their failures were largely 
due to insufficient forces. The aggres- 
sions of the British on the north, their 
treacherous conduct in supplying arms and 
ammunition to the Indians and inciting 
them to deeds of violence and hostility 
against the American settlers, made it im- 
perative that the military force of the 
United States be increased. Accordingly, 
by Act of March 5, 1792, Congress au- 
thorized the raising of three additional re- 
giments of infantry and the completion of 
the two regiments then in service. The 
President was authorized to organize these 
forces as he should judge expedient, and as 
a result of this legislation the Legion was 
formed and subdivided into four parts, the 
present-day "Fourth Regiment of Infan- 
try" having its first organization as the 
"Infantry of the Fourth Sub- Legion." As 
a part of General Wayne's army, the early 
history of this regiment forms a part of 
the history of Ohio, and its services in 
the State from 1792 to 1796 did their 
part to make possible the Ohio poet's song : 

Rich fields and gardens from the desert won, 
And flowery plains in happy stillness lie; 

And steeples glitter in the noon-day sun, 
Where erst the Indian hurled his feathered 
shaft on high. 

The selection • of Major- General Wayne 
to command the army was extremely for- 



1 



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tunate. In his "Winning of the West," 
President Roosevelt says of him: **He felt 
very keenly the delight in the actual 
shock of battle which the most famous 
generals have possessed. He gloried in ex- 
citement and danger and shone at his best 
when the stress was sorest; and because 
of his magnificent courage his soldiers 
had affectionately christaned him *Mad 
Anthony*. But his head \yas as cool as his 
heart was stout." 



With the details of Wayne's expedition 
most Ohioans are more or less familiar, 
and we will therefore only sketch them 
briefly. The Legion reached Cincinnati 
in April, 1793, and, due to the high state 
of the river, had some difficulty in land- 
ing. The quartermaster reported to liis 
commander that the only suitable place 
he could find for a camp was on an ele- 
vation between Fort Washington and 
Mill Creek. *Then," replied the General, 



AN OLD COLOR OF THE FOURTH INFANTRY. 
The names of many battles participated in by the Regiment are emblazoned on its 

victorious banner. 



Such a man was the "Old Fourth's" 
first Commanding General. He accepted 
command of the army with the express 
stipulation that he should not be required 
to commence his campaign until his ranks 
were full and his men properly trained 
and disciplined. The soundness of this 
judgment is evidenced by his victorious 
war, concluding with the treaty of Green- 
ville, while his predecessors, with partially 
the same material for an army, had met 
with disastrous defeat. 



"we have *Hobson's choice* and must take 
it" ; and to this day the site of that camp 
(about where the present gas works of 
Cincinnati are located) is sometimes called 
"Hobson's choice." Drills were frequent 
and the discipline strict. Many men de- 
serted, and the percentage of sick was 
large. But the new forces were being 
moulded into an efficient army. In the 
fall the camp was moved to a point about 
eighty miles to the north, the First and 
Fourth Sub- Legions under General Wayne 



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AN OLD REGIMENT OF REGULARS 



213 



preceding, followed by the remainder of 
the army. This camp was named Green- 
ville, in honor of General (keene of the 
Revolution; it was reached on October 
13th, the march having commenced on the 
7th. Much attention was given to drill 
and instruction in the use of the rifle, saber 
and bayonet. Wayne was a great believer 
in "cold steel," but did not neglect his 
fire arms. He inaugurated a system of 
target practice, and it was said that his 



MAJOR GENERAL ANTHONY WAYXE. 

While in Command of the Legion of the United 
States, including *!The Old Fourth," Gen. Wayne 
fought the Campaign which ended in the Treaty 
of Greenville and brought peace with the Indians 
in Ohio. 



rirtemen were as skillful as the Tennessee 
hunters, whose marksmanship was univer- 
sally recognized as most excellent. Near 
the close of the year 1793, a detachment 
sent out from the camp at Greenville con- 
structed Fort Recovery at the place where 
General St. Clair had been defeated in 
1791. 

The troops were supplied by pack train 
from Cincinnati, and were on short rations 
much of the time. Lieutenant William 
Clark, w^ho afterwards became famous as 
a result of his part in the Lewis and 
Clark Expedition to the then little known 
Panfic Coast, wrote that his rifle fre- 



quently came to his aid to prevent suffer- 
ing from hunger. The regulars were 
joined by a considerable force of Ken- 
tucky volunteers in the summer of 1794.. 

The British had in 1794 constructed 
a fort at the head of the Miami of the 
Lake, and from this advanced and threat- 
ened position continued to Stctively aid the 
Indians with supplies and to encourage 
them in their depredations and resistance 
to the American forces. The hostile towns 
of the Indians began below his fort and 
extended up the river to its junction with 
the Auglaize. Toward the latter part of 
July, Wayne set out toward these hostile 
towns and reached the junction of the 
rivers on August 8th. The Indians being 
surprised fled down the river, and the 
Americans constructed Fort Defiance, a 
week being spent at the task. 

From here (general W'ayne made a final 
effort to secure peace with the Indians, 
but to no avail ; and on the 20th day of 
August he moved down the river, and the 
battle of *' Fallen Timbers", or "The Mau- 
mee of the Lake" was fought, within pistol 
shot of the British fort. The whites lost 
33 killed and 100 wounded, the Indians 
twice those numbers; it was a complete 
victory for Wayne's army. Captain Henry 
de Butts, 4th Sub- Legion, first Aide-de- 
Camp to General Wayne, was among those 
especially mentioned as distinguished in 
this battle. The savages were pursued to 
the very walls of the British fort, which 
called forth a protest from its comman- 
der. Wayne called on him to evacuate the 
position, which was refused, and, fearing 
to attack so strong a work with his small 
army, the General had everything de- 
stroyed up to the walls of the fort and then 
marched his army back to Fort De- 
fiance. Here they stayed 
two weeks, and on the 
September marched westward, 
later arriving at the 
St. Marv's and St. 



for about 

14th of 

four days 

junction of the 

Joseph's rivers. 



The hostile Indian towns thereabout were 
destroyed. Six weeks were spent here, and 
Fort Wayne w^as built by the soldiers. A 
garrison of regulars was left to hold it, 
and the remainder of the Legion (the term 
of service of the volunteers had previously 
expired) marched back to their old camp 
at Greenville, reaching it early in Novem- 



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ber. There they spent the Winter, and the 
following year, 1795, in August, the treaty 
with the Indians was ratified. 

The distinguished author of "The Win- 
ning of the West" says: "VV^ayne had 
shown himself the best general ever sent 
to war with the Northwestern Indians; 
and his victoi^us campaign was the most 
noteworthy ever carried on against them, 
for it brought about the first lasting peace 



GENERAL U. S. GRANT. 

From a presentation photograph in the possession 
of Mrs. S. M. Welch. After his graduation at West 
Point in 1843 and prior to the Civil War, Gen. Grant 
served as Bvt. 2d Lieut., 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut., and 
Captain in the "Old Fourth", U. S. Infantry. 



on the border and put an end to the 
bloody turmoil of forty years' fighting. It 
was one of the most striking and weighty 
feats in the winning of the West." 

In all these operations the Fourth Sub- 
Legion bore an honorable part, and the 
campaign is here sketched as a whole be- 
cause it is impossible to separate the ser- 
vice of any one of the Four Sub-Legions 
from that of tlie other troops engaged. 

Another of the Nation's Chief Execu- 



tives, Ohio's first President, in a speech 
at Cincinnati in 1835, said: " * * -> 
The names of these distinguished men 
* * * (Wayne and others) ♦ * * 
will be cherished by each succeeding gen- 
eration of their grateful countrymen. But 
there is another, and much more numer- 
ous class of patriots who have experienced 
nothing but ingratitude and neglect from 
the country which they so long, faithfully, 
and successfully served.* I allude to the 
subordinate officers, the non-commissioned 
officers and privates of the regular army, 
by whose patient fortitude and daring valor 
the War of the Revolution was brought 
to a close by the victory of the Miami of 
the Lake, twelve years after it was vir- 
tually closed in the Atlantic States by the 
surrender of the British at York in Vir- 
ginia. Will it be deemed that the war 
in the west * * * was not a contin- 
uation of that which established our inde- 
pendence? It is true there was not open 
war with (ireat Britain after the peace 
of 1783. But the war was continued by 
the Allies whom she had called to her 
assistance, and over whom she exercised 
control. Until the year 1794, the assist- 
ance furnished the Indians by the British 
authorities extended no further than the 
supplies (arms and ammunition) I have 
mentioned. But in that year more effect- 
ive aid was given them. The fort at De- 
troit was found too remote from the scene 
of action. A strong (regular fort was 
therefore built in the Rapids of the Miami 
of the Lake, sixty miles within our ac- 
knowledged limits. From this depot not 
only were arms and ammunition issued to 
the Indian^, but provisions also, without 
which they could not have embodied. Nor 
was this all. In the month of June, the 
Indian army, which marched from Fort 
Miamis to attack the army of the ITnitt-d 
States, was accompanied by a British cap- 
tain and some artillerists. * ♦ * And 
in the general action of the 20th of Au- 
gust following, two complete companies of 
Canadian militia acted as auxiliaries to 
the Indians forces. If these facts are 
true, and I aver them to be so, the sol- 



* Gen. Harrison was arguing for the grant- 
ing of bounties and oensions to the men who 
fought in the Western wars, many of whom 
had settled in the Ohio conntrv. 



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AN OLD RK(nMKNT OF REGULARS 



215 



diers who composed the armies which were 
engaged in the Western Wars until the 
peace of Greenville in 1795, are as much 
entitled to the bounty of their country- 
men as those who had only served in the 
Atlantic States. * There w^ould be no dif- 
ficulty in proving that the services and 
sufferings of the former were greater than 
those of the latter." 

General Harrison's statements, while 
perhaps a little overdraw^n, due to his en- 



GEXERAL PHILIP H. SHERIDAN. 

Ohio's third son to attain the highest rank in the 
U. S. Army. He was both Second and First Lieu- 
tenant in the "Old Fourth" Infantry. 



thusiasm, are in the main correct and can 
not be questioned. And while this cam- 
paign of General Wayne's can not be called 
a part of the Revolutionary War proper, 
it was indeed a glorious one and very far 
reaching in its effect. The Fourth Infan- 
try feels that it has a right to be justly 
proud of having been a part of the army of 
"Mad Anthony" Wayne, and there are no 
brighter pages in the history of the Regi- 
ment than those which chronicle its share 
in the conquest of the Ohio country from 
the allies of the English, the savage In- 
dians. 



In 1796 the legionary organization was 
abandoned, and four regiments of infan- 
try formed. During the next few years 
many changes took place in the military 
establishment, and in 1802 the army was 
reduced to only two regiments of infantry, 
the Fourth being disbanded. Due to the 
unsettled condition of our international 
relations in 1808, the army was again in- 
creased, and the Fourth Infantry was re- 
organized and stationed in the New Eng- 
land States. In. the Spring of 1811 it 
was ordered to concentrate at Philadelphia^ 
and before the Summer was passed the 
Regiment, in compliance with War Depart- 
ment orders, was again on its way down 
the Ohio to Cincinnati, its first station 
and the scene of the beginning of its 
first active campaign. Camp was made 
on the Kentucky side of the river, on the 
site of Newport Barracks, until August, 
whe'n Colonel Boyd, the regimental com- 
mander, was ordered to proceed with his 
troops to Vincennes, Indiana, and report 
to Governor William Henry Harrison, who 
had been appointed a Brigadier-General. 
Under his command the Fourth Infantry, 
with a company of the Seventh, a com- 
pany of riflemen and a force of volun- 
teers, on November 7th fought the famous 
battle of 7'ippecanoe. The loss was heavy 
on both sides, but the Indians, commanded 
by the Prophet, Tecumseh's brother, were 
driven from the hard-fought field. The' 
Regiment, which was about 300 strong, 
lost 77 of the 188 Americans killed and 
wounded. Its conduct was highly praised 
])y General Harrison, and many of its 
officers were especially mentioned. "The 
Fourth that Fought at Tippecanoe'.' (a 
sobriquet by which the Regiment was 
known for many years afterwards) by its 
gallantry in action against the painted 
warrjiors of Tecumseh's crafty brother, 
did much to make its commanding general 
in that celebrated fight Ohio's First Pre- 
sident. 

The Regiment returned to Cincinnati 
and from there marched north across the 
State of Ohio, joining the army of General 
Hull at Urbana, and with it continuin;^ 
northward on a hard march through the 
forests to Detroit. War had been de- 
clared against Great Britain, and on July 



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12th, 1812, the army crossed into Can- 
ada. 

The story of General Hull's cowardice 
and base surrender of his army is too 
well known to necessitate repetition. But 
the Fourth Infantry had one opportunity 
to add to its laurels before suffering the 
humiliation of Hull's cowardly act. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Miller, Fourth \Infantry, 
with his Regiment, to which a few other 
detachments were added, was ordered to 
move against the British and Indians be- 
low Detroit, and endeavor to bring in sup- 



Monum:rnt Marking the Site of Tort Wsshingion, 
Cincinnati. 



plies for the army, a small force of volun- 
teers sent on this duty having been sur- 
prised and routed. On the 9th day of Au- 
gust Colonel Miller's force was attacked 
from ambush by a strong force of British, 
Canadians and Indians. A hot fight en- 
sued, and the allied forces were routed, the 
Canadians and British being the first to 
flee, followed closely by the Indians. In 
this battle the latter were commanded by 
the celebrated Tecumseh whose bn^ther. 
The Pro])het, had waged unsuccessful con- 
flict against the "Old Fourth" at Tippe- 
canoe. Of Colonel Miller's seventy-five 
killed and wounded fifty-eight were from 
the Fourth Infantry. They left 40 of the 
enemy dead upon the field, and their chief, 
Tecumseh, was wounded. 

The victorious Americans were not al- 



lowed to pursue their vanquished and flee- 
ing foes, but were peremptorily ordered 
to return to Detroit, where one week later, 
with his army in good spirits and prepared 
to stubbornly resist the enemy, Hull or- 
dered a retreat within the walls of the 
fort, the infuriated troops reluctantly obey- 
ing. Without consultation with any of 
his officers, Hull hoisted a white flag and 
surrendered without resistance. He was 
tried by general court-martial, and sen- 
tenced "to be shot dead, and to have his 
name stricken from the rolls of the 
Army." The President mitigated the sen- 
tence of death, and ordered that "the rolls 
of the Army are no longer to be debased 
by having upon them the name of Briga- 
dier-General Hull." Many writers of the 
present day attempt to excuse Cieneral 
Hull's conduct on the ground that it was 
due to "imbecility of age", fear of injury 
to the population of the town, etc., and 
some go so far as to say that he has been 
completely vindicated. But for the mili- 
tary commander who hoists the white flag 
before resisting to the utmost, there can 
be no vindication. 

An acv'ount of the service of the Regi- 
ment, after reorganization subsequent to 
the War of 1812, forms a long and ex- 
tremely interesting story. It has been en- 
gaged in Indian wars from the everglades 
of Florida to the plains and mountains 
of Oregon and Washington. 

The Fourth formed a part of the Army 
first concentrated en the w- ester n frontier 
of r.ouisiana under (General Zachary Tay- 
lor, who had been one of the Regiment's 
Lieutenant-Colonels ; participated in every 
important battle, save one, from the Rio 
(}rande to the City of Mexico, and saw the 
Stars and Stripes hoisted above the "halls 
of the Montezumas." In the U. S. Mail 
Ship Ohio, commanded by Captain (after- 
wards Admiral) Schenck, U. S. N., a na- 
tive of the State for which his ship was 
named, all except two companies of the 
Regiment sailed from New York for Cali- 
fornia by way of the Isthmus of Panama 
in the fifties. The other two companies 
went by way of Cape Horn, stopping at 
Robinson Crusoe's Island en route. The 
difficulties met and overcome by Brevet- 
Captain V. S. Grant. Fourth Infantr3% 
Rcfrimental Quartermaster, in the crossing 



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AN OLD REGIMENT OF REGULARS 



217 



of the Isthmus, were many and great. 
Cholera and fever developed among th« 
troops before they reached the Pacific 
Coast, and on board the vessels after they 
had embarked from Panama for San Fran- 
dsco, the total of deaths from these dis- 
eases being one officer and 106 enlisted 
men. 

From its stations scattered along the 
Pacific Coast from the (julf of Califor- 
nia to Puget Sound, the Regiment was hur- 
ried east for the Civil War and formed a 
part of the Regular Brigade, Army of 
the Potomac, during the greater part of 
that conflict. 

Much time on the western frontier and 
participation in the Indian campaigns 
characterized the service of the Fourth 
Infantry during the thirty-odd years fol- 
lowing the War of Secession. 

The year 1898 found the gallant old 
Regiment again on the firing line, at San- 
tiago; and the first American transport. 
the Grant, that bore United States troops 
through the Straits of Gibraltar en route 
to the distant Philippines, carried on board 
the Fourth Infantry, the first part of our 
land forces to carry its colors into Mediter- 
anean waters. The greater part of the 
time since the eventful days of *99 have 
heen spent by the Regiment amidst vary- 
ing scenes of war and peace, beneath the 
tropic sun of the Philippine Islands. 

It has been the good fortune of our 
Kegiment to bear upon its rolls many of 
our Nation's most illustrious names. And 
of our officers who have attained high dis- 
tinction, the large niunber who were sons 
of the Buckeye State is nothing short of 
remarkable. The United States Army has 
had three commanders who held the full 
rank of General; all three of them were 
from Ohio, and two of them had been 
officers of the Fourth Infantry. Pre-emi- 
Tient among these is Ulysses S. Grant, the 
first General of the United States Army, 
and Eighteenth President of the United 
States. Washington was General of the 
Continental forces, but under the United 
States Government, while commanding the 
army after his terms as President, he only 
lield the rank of Lieutenant- General. 
Ceneral Grant was born and raised in 
<^hio. and appointed to West Point from 
^liat State in 1839. After hi^ graduation 



in 1843, he served in the Fourth Infantry 
as Brevet Second Lieutenant, Second Lieu- 
tenant, First Lieutenant and Captain. He 
was brevetted First Lieutenant for gallant 
and meritorious conduct in the battle of 
Molino del Rey, and Captain for gallant 
conduct at Chapultapec, while serving 
with liis Regiment. 

Generals William T. Sherman and 
PhiHp H. Sheridan were the other officers 
who had the full rank of General con- 
ferred upon them, the former being born 
in and appointed from Ohio, and the lat- 
ter, though born in New York, being 
brought up in and sent to West Point 
from Ohio. General Sherman's service in 
the regular army prior to the Civil War 
was in the Artillery. But General Sheri- 
dan was a Second Lieutenant and First 
Lieutenant in the Fourth Infantry, and 
.was serving in the latter grade with his 
Regiment in Oregon when the war broke 
out. 

Among other Fourth Infantrymen, na- 
tives of Ohio, to gain fame and high rank, 
was Major- General George Crook, the 
great Indian fighter, who served from the 
time of his graduation in 1852 to the 
outbreak of the war in 1861, as an officer 
of the Regiment. 

General August V. Kautz, one of Ohio's 
many distinguished citizens of German 
birth, graduated three files above General 
Crook in the class of 1852 at the Mili- 
tary Academy and was appointed a Bre- 
vet Second Lieutenant in the Fourth In- 
fantry. His service prior to the Civil War 
was in the Fourth. During the four years 
fightincj he twice won the brevet of Major- 
General, and after the war reached the 
grade of Brigadier-General in the regular 
Army, which rank he held at date of re- 
tirement in 1892. He died in 1895. 

Major- General George M. Randall, U. 
S. A., Retired, a native of Ohio, won his 
Second Lieutenant's commission in the 
Fourth Infantry in 1861, and was for 
years an officer of the Regiment. 

Of the officers now in the Regiment, 
Captain William F. Nesbitt has the dis- 
tinction of beinc; the only one from Ohio. 
He was born in and appointed to West 
Point from Cleveland. He has just been 
ordered back to the Academy for duty as 
an in'itructor in chemistry. 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



At present the Fourth Infantry is sta- 
tioned as follows: Headquarters, Band, 
E, F, I, K, L and M Companies at Fort 
Thomas, Ky., across the river from Cin- 
cinnati; A, B, C and D Companies at 
Fort Mackenzie, Wyoming; G and H 
Companies at Washington Barracks, D. C. 
In the absence of Colonel E. B. Bolton, 
recently promoted to the Fourth from the 
Tenth Infantry in Alaska, the Regin*ent 
is commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Leonard A. Lovering. 

When **01d Glory" floated to the breeze 
bearing but fourteen of the forty-five 
bright stars that now adorn her azure 
field, the Fourth United States Infantry 
had an organization and was inscribing 
upon the pages of time an honorable re- 
cord, which, "dim with the mist of years", 
stretches away into the past for more than 
a century. Years of war with many trying • 



campaigns and hard fought battles, and 
years of peace and plenty ; years of iso- 
lated life on the frontier and years beneath 
the waving palms and in the tangled jun- 
gles of tropic isles have fallen to its share; 
through all of these eventful decades the 
narrative of the Regiment's service is one 
of duty well performed. Upon its rolls 
are inscribed names that will be honored 
upon the earth when monuments of en- 
during bronze and marble erected in their 
memory have crumbled into dust. 

May the next one hundred and fifteen 
years* history of the Regiment and of the 
Nation redound to their honor and glory 
as have the years since Mad Anthony 
Wayne and his brave Legion commence*! 
the campaign which secured the title of 
the United States to the rich territory 
north of the River Ohio! 



TIME'S PACES 

When as a child I laughed and wept. 

Time crept; 
When as a youth I dreamt and talked. 

Time walked; 
When I became a full-grown man, 

Time ran ; 
When older still I daily grew, 

Time flew; 
Soon I shall find, in travelling on, 

Time gone. 

— Charles Houston Goudiss. 



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Riley's Hoax 



Recalling a Famous Literary Deception of the Hoosier 
Poet Thirty Years Ago 

By Elliott McCormick 



LconainU — angels named her. 
And they took the light 

Of the laughing stars and framed her 

In a smile of white. 
And they made her hair of gloomy 
Midnight, and her eyes of bloomy 
Moonshine, and they brought her to mc 

In the solemn night. 

11' has been many years since any- 
thing was written on the "Leo- 
nainie" hoax, of which the 
above verse is the first of the 
original poem, and there are 
thousands and thousands of 
readers in the present generation familiar 
with the poems of James Whitcomb Riley 
who never heard of his celebrated piece 
of deception. The poem appeared in the 
Kokomo, Indiana, Dispatch, August 2, 
1877, exactly as it appears here: 

POSTHUMOUS POETRY. 




A Hitherto Unpublished Poem of the Lamented 
Edgar Allan Poe- Written on the Fly-Leaf of 
An Old Book Now in the Possession of a 
Gentleman in This City. 

The following beautiful posthumous poem 
from the gifted pen of the erratic poet, Ed- 
gar Allan Poe, we believe has never before 
been published in any form, either in any 
published collection of Poe poems now ex- 
tant, or in any magazine or newspaper, and 
until the critics shall show conclusively to 
the contrary, the Dispatch will claim the hon- 
or of giving it to the world. That the poem 
has never before been published, and that it 
is a genuine production of the poet, we are 
satisfied from the circumstances under which 
it came into our possession. Calling at the 
house of a gentleman of this city the other 
day, our attention was called to a poem writ- 



ten on . the blank flyleaf of an old book.. 
Handling us the book, he observed that it (the 
poem; might be good enough to publish, and 
if we thought so, to take it along. Noticing; 
the initials E. A. P. at the bottom, it struck 
us that possibly we had run across a "bon- 
anza," and alter reading it. we asked who the 
author was. Then he related the following 
bit of interesting reminiscence: He said he 
did not know who the author was, only that 
he was a young man — that is, he was a 
young man when he wrote the lines referred 
to. He had never seen him himself, but 
heard his father, who gave him the book 
containing the lines, tell of the circumstances- 
and the occasion by which he, the grandfather^ 
came into possession of the book. His grand- 
parents kept a country hotel, a sort of way- 
side inn, in a small village called Chesterfield, 
near Richmoud, Va. One night, just before 
bedtime, a young man, who plainly showed 
the marks of dissipation, rappe:! at the door,, 
and asked if he could stay all night, and was 
shown to a room. That was the last they 
saw of him. When they went to his room the 
next morning to call him, he had gone away 
and left the book, on the flyleaf of which he 
had written the lines given below. Further 
than this, our informant knew nothing, and. 
being an illiterate man, it was quite natural 
he should allow the great literary treasrire go 
for many years unpublished : 

Leonainie — angels named her, 

And they took the light 
Of the laujjhing stars and framed her 
In a smile of white. 
And they made her hair of gloomy 
Midnight, and her eyes of bloomy 
Moonshine, and they brought her to me 
In the solemn night. 

In a solemn night of summer. 

When my heart of gloom 
Blossomed up to greet the comer 
Like a rose in bloom. 
All forebodings that distressed me 
I forgot as joy caressed me — 
(Lying joy that caught and pressed mo- 
In the arms of doom). 



'219 



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Only spake the little lisper 

In the angel-tongue: 
Yet I, listening, heard her whisper — 
■*' Songs are only sung 

Here below that they may grieve you, 
Tales are told you to deceive you, 
So must Leonainie love you 
While her love is young." 

Then God smiled and ii was morning. 

Matchless and supreme; 
Heaven's glory seemed adorning 

Earth with its esteem; 
Every heart but mine seemed gifted 



gularly in the evenings of 1876-7 in the 
law offices of the late Captain William K. 
Myers, who became secretary of state un- 
der Governor Claude Matthews, of In- 
diana. Their purpose was to exchange 
ideas, and, incidentally, have a good time. 
In the coterie were Myers, Samuel Rich- 
ards, whose "Evangeline" and other paint^ 
ings later attracted the admiration of the 
artistic world; a photographer named 
Clark, now dead; Will Ethel, who. with 
lliley, was one of the original **e:raphir5!'' 



"THE OLD SWIMMIN' HOLE." 

The scene is near Urecnheld, Indiana, and portrays picturesque Brandy wine Creek as it is to- 
•day. Tourists from all parts of the country have visited the spot, mide famous by James Whitcomb- 
iRiley. 



With the voice of prayer and lifted 
Where my Leonainie drifted 
Prom me like a dream. 



It was thirty years ago that young Riley 
-was haunted with the dread of remaining 
an unknown, when he was writing poetry 
at night and painting signs in the daytime, 
and later, when he was a reporter on 
the JVcckly Democrat, published at An- 
derson. Indiana, by William N. Crcan, 
Riley and other congenial spirits met re- 



— sign painters — and Riley's roommate^ 
Will N. Crean, at that time owner of the 
sheet on which Riley's talents were being 
wasted as on the desert air. 

Riley's poetic muse was making a spe- 
cially energetic struggle for recognition, 
but it came not. He became what "the 
boys" called a crank on a similar propo- 
sition to that which led to the alleged Kip- 
ling wager of several years ago. At one 
of these coterie sessions, after Myers had 
iijjivcn Shakespeare, and Richards and his 



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RILPY^S HOAX 



221 



photographic friend had dissected tlie fame 
■of artists, Riley drew from his pocket the 
omnipresent new poem — a strange weird 
thing, which followed the style of Egdar 
Allen Poe. 

Riley was a captivating reader, and the 
charm of the new poem thrilled all in 
the party. Laying it down, he returned 
to his old theory of unrecognized merit and 
gave birth to the **Leonainie" ruse by re- 
marking that if given to the world over 
Poe's name the poem would be received. 
That suggested the plan of placing Poe*s 
initials to the piece and publishing it as 
a long-lost treasure of the master of muse. 

The hoax was conceived in the old An- 
derson Democrat office, and by an arrange- 
ment with Oscar Henderson, then pub- 
lisher of the Kokomo Dis patch j and later 
auditor of state, there appeared on the 
front page of the Dispatch the statement 
and poem as here reproduced. Copies of 
the paper with the long- lost poem were 
sent broadcast and placed on the review- 
ing: desk of every literary editor in the 
country. The find attracted immediate at- 
tention. Poe's untimely death had re- 
sulted in several unpublished poems being 
found previous to this time, and many cri- 
tics accepted "Leonainie" as one of Poe's. 
Others were skeptical. 

The literary world was discussing the 
new poem, when the expose was made 
through the columns of the Kokomo Tri- 
Intncy a rival paper of the Dispatch. This 
expose was given a great circulation, and 
the flood of criticism which came in was 
crushing. The doubter assumed an "I- 
told-you-so" air, while those who had ac- 
cepted the poem as authentic vented their 
spleen by criticising the author for his 
clever deception. Some idea of these cri- 
ticisms maybe gained from the excerpts 
reproduced with this article. They are in- 
teresting reading in these days, when the 
fame of Riley has spread over two conti- 
n-^nts. 

Of special interest is the bitter criticism 
^f William Cullen Bryant's paper, in 
^vhich the writer went out of his way to 
reflect on the intelliejence of the Hoosier 
poet. Riley's friends thought he was ru- 
ined. Tt was the firsL-iOeaL literary hoax 
^nce the one perpetrated by the gloomy 

hatterton, who was driven to suicide. 



Some of the papers charged that Riley 
did not have the good taste to follow 
Chatterton's example. 

The result of this bitter display by the 
critics was that Riley made a public state- 
ment, admitting the deception and giving 
reasons which were sufficient. He re- 
signed from the Anderson Democrat and 
returned to his old home at Greenfield, 
Indiana. He continued his work and was 
soon taken up by E. B. Martindale, then 
proprietor of the Indianapolis Journal, 
now known as the Indianapolis Star. 
From that time on Riley's position was 
more dignified, and his poems signed "Ben 
F. Johnson of Boone" won him lasting 
fame. 

The old Ains worth dictionary, on a fly- 
leaf of which "Leonainie" was written, 
was from an old library at Anderson. The 
poem was transcribed on the flyleaf by 
Ethel, whose copy of Poe's handwriting 
was obtained from a facsimile reproduc- 
tion in a magazine. 

While the criticisms are interesting read- 
ing today, some allowance must be made 
for conditions which prevailed. The po- 
etic muse was invoked to a greater extent 
in those days in the preparation of a 
newspaper than is the case at present. 
When Riley appeared on the scene as a 
reporter for the Anderson Democrat, he 
began to infuse new life into eastern In- 
diana journalism by handling events 
with startling poetic license. The Demo- 
crat at once began to attract attention, then 
envy, and there were many references of 
its **cheap John poet." There was a veri- 
table fusilade of literary dornicks, not so 
much because of Riley's personality or his 
masterpiece of deception, but because con- 
temporaries desired to descredit the pub- 
lication. The Kokomo Dispatch, which 
had been favored by the then unknown 
writer, came in for its share of criticism. 

The question which confronted Riley 
presents itself to every one, no doubt, 
who is having a struggle* with ambition. 
It would be interesting to know how this 
poem would be received today if it were 
printed for the first time with the author's 
name appended. Would not the book- 
worms and the deep-thinkers get into the 
depths and dig from the lines gems of 
which the author never dreamed? Would 



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222 



THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



not a sweet, weird song be found in the 
strange meter? 

"Leonainie" will never be weighed, how- 
ever, for what it is really worth. It per- 
formed a great service in being the first 
stepping-stone to Riley's fame. 

The following excerpts are from daily 
newspaper criticisms, that were published 
throughout the country after the expose 
of the "Leonainie'* hoax was made : 

Lafayette Courier — "A cheap John poet from 
a neighboring classic burg." 

Anderson Herald — **We might have forgot- 
ten for want of veracity, but it is hard to 
condone 'Leonainie'." 

Logansport Journal — "If Riley could realize 
that an impassable gulf lies between him and 
fame as a poet, he would be justly punished." 

Crawfordsville Journal — "The verses were 
written by a young man named J. W. Riley 
of Anderson, who has obtained a local repu- 
tation for writing queer, poetry." 

Baltimore American — "The composition is 
wild enough to have been written under the 
influence of Egyptian or Terre Haute whisky. 
It is safe to affirm that the ginmills of Mary- 
land and the Old Dominion never turned out 
liquor bad enough to debase the genius of 
Poe to the level of these dreadful verses." 



Frankfort Banner — "The fellow Riley has 
achieved some additional notoriety, but it will 
not benefit him." 

Peoria (111.) Evening Call — "The poem was 
the production of an amateur verse carpenter 
named Riley, who lives in the neighboring 
village of Anderson." 

Norristown (Pa.) Herald — "Poe must have 
been wrestling with one of the biggest drunks 
of his life when he wrote it." 

Wabash Plaindealer — "Written by one who 
is merely the victim of a 'vaulting ambition, 
which overleaps itself." 

The New York Post (William Cullen Bry- 
ant) — "To get drunk was one of Poe's habits, 
to leave an inn without paying his bill was a 
thing not at all impossible to him, and to 
write a poem on the flyleaf of a book was a 
natural thing for any emotional poet to do. 
The trouble was in the poem itself. It was 
so manifestly the work of a man much lower 
in the scale of intelligence than anybody ever 
suspected Poe of being, even when he was 
drunk. The poem effectually sets at rest 
whatever suspicion there may have been, that 
the author had the material cui of which a 
poet is made, in his composition." 

Boston Transcript — "If Poe really did write 
it, it is consolation to think that he is dead." 

Nashville American — "If the spirit of Ed- 
gar Allen Poe wanders, he will surely pay his 
respects to the scalp of the Indiana man who 
brought it out." , 



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Peter, Repeater and the Woman 

Based on the Situation Indicated in Browning's 
"Light Woman" 

By Stella Breyfogle McDonald 



w 



PE I'ER FOOR sat up in his or- 
chestra chair and fixed his glas- 
ses en a box into which a party 
was entering. He saw several 
men and women whom he knew, 
but to whom he was indifferent, 
as they represented a fast set in which he 
took no interest. Then to the front of 
the l)ox came a wonderful woman, a wo- 
man all white and ruddy gold, with sha- 
dowy eyes that looked as though they had 
I'een rubbed in with a sooty finger, and a 
red mouth that invited and defied with 
changing expressions of innocence and 
knowledge. She sat down, apparently 
heedless of the many eyes upon her, and 
turned her attention toward the stage. 
But it was not she upon whom Peter's gaze 
was fixed, but young Edgar Pierce who sat 
immediately behind her, and to whom it 
was evident that the opera held no attrac- 
tion to compare with the curves of her 
•vhite shoulders or the clean turn of her 
clainty chin. 

Peter sighed audibly, and his sister-in- 
law, with whom he was, exclaimed in d 
whisper "Isn't it a shame? Edgar is such 
a dear boy I" 

"What do vou know against her, Bes- 
sie?" asked Peter. 

"Really, Peter, how should / know any- 
thing about the woman ! All I ever heard 
^^as a rumor that she was the cause of 
^he Lacey divorce, but as it was settled out 
01 court no one knew positively about it. 
And you know Fred and I met her and 
that wealthy little Jew both staying at the 
Chamoix Inn in Switzerland. The fact 
^»at she attracts all men in so marked a 
degree is rather against her, and they say 



her especial delight is to ensnare a man 
who openly professes no admiration for 
her." 

Peter groaned. "I'll confess I'm wor- 
ried to death about Repeater, Bess. He 
is such a bully boy, and so promising, but 
he told me yesterday he hadn't been in hii 
laboratory for four days and I'm horribly 
afraid of the woman's influence over him." 

Mrs. Fred Foor smiled. "Well, you've 
nothing to reproach yourself for, Peter. 
Ever since- Edgar's father died and you 
found yourself appointed guardian of an 
orphan infant prodigy, he has been your 
constant care. No wonder they dubbed 
you Peter and Repeater, the way he has 
trotted around with you, but now that he 
is twenty-four he is surely able to take care 
of himself. You gave him the finest edu- 
cation possible in his line of work, and I 
really do believe that you take more pride 
in his discoveries than you do in the finest 
pieces of marble you ever turn out." 

"I believe I do," replied Peter simply, 
"for he seems like my own boy." 

Peter Foor was a bachelor of forty- 
eight, whose name as a sculptor of rare 
ability was famous. He possessed every- 
thing desirable, a character above reproach, 
good looks, and much wealth, and yet he 
had never given a woman cause to think he 
had observed her twice. He admired the 
beautiful ones through artistic eyes, he liked 
to talk with those who were clever and 
quick at repartee, and he respected a few. 
Otherwise he was not interested, though 
many a maiden's heart fluttered hopefully 
when he was presented to her. 

The opera progressed; Lohengrin came 
and went : the troubles of Elsa grew ; but 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



Peter's attention was unwontedly wander- 
ing. He thought of the boy up there in 
the box, and of the bad effect of the wo- 
man's fascinations upon him, and he won- 
dered how he could get him out of her 
toils. It would not do to appeal to her 
to set the boy free, for he felt sure that 
would only gratify her vanity. Anything 
said to Repeater would be resented be- 
cause the lad was so terribly in earnest. 

With wrath in his soul he looked at the 
woman, when suddenly she turned her head 
hesitatingly and met his direct gaze 
They both bowed and then continued to 
look into one another's eyes until the wo- 
man smiled consciously and made a little 
inviting gesture with her fan. A wild idea 
was born in Peter's brain. Why not re- 
spond to the summons and try to cut out 
Repeater! He, Peter, had so much more 
of fame and material luxuries that he did 
not doubt what she would let the minnow 
go for the larger fish. He made up his 
mind to try it, though he was rather 
fearful of the first effect on Repeater. 

He heard the final applause, saw the 
people rising, and mechanically assisted 
Bessie in gathering up her opera acces- 
sories. After seeing her drive off in her 
brougham he returned to the foyer and 
waited until he saw Repeater*s tall figure 
and boyish face bending over a mop of 
red-gold hair. The boy saw him and ex- 
claimed, "Hello, there's Peter! Say, old 
man, come and meet Bergere." 

"Mr. Foor and I have met before, Ed- 
gar," said Helene, as Peter bent over her 
hand with a sympathetic pressure. 

"Fancy, now, and old Peter never told 
me," exclaimed the happy lad. "Say, Pe- 
tie, youMl have to excuse us as Miss Ber- 
gere and I are supping with the Swifts. 
Sorry, old man." 

"That's all right" replied Peter. Then 
in almost a whisper, he said to the wo- 
man, "When and where can I see you?" 

The flattered look on her face broke in- 
to an expression at once sly, pleased and 
wholly triumphant as she whispered back 
"St. bunstan's Flats, to-morrow at four." 

Voung Edgar saw the action and his 
face looked dark and sullen as he got into 
the carriage. Peter had never beheld such 
an expression on his face, and he knew 
guiltily wlio had brought it there. 



The next morning, as he was breakfast- 
ing in his apartments, he asked where 
Mr. Pierce was, and his valet, who also 
served the light breakfasts, replied "Beg- 
ging your pardon, sir, Mr. Pierce came in 
at three this morning feeling most un- 
common bad, sir, and I didn't have the 
heart to disturb him." 

"Very well. Brown," said Peter, "when 
Mr. Pierce awakens tell him I will see him 
at the club for lunch." 

But Repeater did not come to the clui\ 
and at three Peter went home to change 
his morning clothes and found the boy had 
gone out, leaving no word. Peter's heart 
was heavy, for he was wrapped up in the 
lad, and never before had the latter come 
in at night or gone away in the morning 
without some affectionate word for his 
almost-father. Moreover, Peter's whole 
being revolted at what he was about to 
do — he loved the lad so much that l:e 
wanted to save him, but the thought \>t 
his coming interview with the woman wa^ 
utterly distasteful to him. 

With lagging steps he was shown to the 
reception-room of her flat, and the pert 
maid tried to flirt and coquette with him 
as she said that "mademoiselle would be in 
di-rectly." 

Peter had never in his life seen so much 
blue satin and lace and gilt gathered into 
one room, nor had he smelled such heavy 
•ragrance in flowers. The odor got into 
his brain and made him feel stupid, and 
he wondered what in the deuce he was 
y'oing to say to this creature, who made 
him think of Long's "Fox-woman." He 
became aware that some one had entered 
the room, and with an effort he arose to 
ins feet and turned around. 

Surely she was a spirit, one created" by 
the evil one himself to tempt man, and 
Peter's heart beat in sympathy, for bis p^^or 
liid. Clad in the sheerest of white neg- 
ligees that clung and billowed around hir. 
with her hair loose and glowing, and stanrl- 
Ing in front of a dull gold portiere that 
brought out every sweet curve of her body, 
she so charmed the sculptor's eye that it 
was she who first broke the silence as she 
said with a laugh, "And do my eyes re- 
all v behold the famous Foor in my mode'^t 
little flat?" 

"I would indeed be famous," replied Pe* 



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PETER, REPEATER AND THE WOMAN 



225 



ter, as they sat down on a beautiful divan, 
"if I could reproduce in marble the picture 
you make. You are exquisitely lovely/' 

"Nonsense, Peter Foor, nothing could 
add to your fame. But, seriously, if you 
want me I will pose for you at any time, 
in these draperies, or — " 

**Hy George," thought Peter, *'if Re- 
peater should know she was my model 
that would settle her for him." Then 
aloud he said, "You would be an inspira- 
tion. I have in my mind a design for 
'Phryne' as she appeared before the 
judges, and dare I hope — ?" 

Helena dropped her eyes in mock mo- 
desty, then with an indifferent shrug of 
ber shoulders she looked him square in 
the eyes and asked, "Why not, monsieur ar- 
tist? Surely it would be an honor for 
Phryne to rise in snowy marble at your 
command. See, I will show you." 

She sprung up, poised lightly on her 
toes, and raised both arms over her head, 
with fingertips touching. The wing-like 
sleeves fell back from her pretty arms, the 
bare neck palpitated with a pleasant ex- 
citement, and the half-shut eyes looked 
down into his with reckless appeal. 

Peter was, after all, human, and it was 
only by the greatest difficulty that he 
gripped the conversation and kept it in the 
safe, light chatter of generalities. As he 
left the house he thought with self -disgust 
that the woman was his now. She had 
fallen into his plans as innocently as any 
fox into a trap. The fascinating little de- 
vil thought she had him in her toils, but 
he would show her as soon as he had ex- 
posed her to Repeater. 

The first modeling was arranged for the 
following Tuesday, almost a week hence, 
and during that time Peter and the boy had 
had several scenes, hot on the boy's side 
but cool and patient on Peter's, for he 
kn^w the lad was really suffering. 

"By thunder, Peter !" he stormed, "she's 
the only one I ever loved or cared to 
marry, and do you know what the fellows 
at the club say? They say you deliber- 
ately cut me out — you, Peter, who have 
been like a father to me and whom I loved 
next to Helene," and the poor boy broke 
down and wxpt. Peter tried to argue. 
"See here. Repeater, do you really care for 
a woman who left you so quickly for a man 



who could offer her more luxuries? I tell 
you, lad, she is not the woman for a prom- 
ising youth like you. You know how she 
has kept you hanging around until you 
have neglected your laboratory shamefully, 
and I did have such hopes of that last 
experiment you were working on. It would 
have established your name in science, be- 
sides being such a blessing to mankind.- 
By George! I couldn't sit by and watch 
you ruin yourself." 

**So that's your little game, is it? Do- 
ing rescue work for little Edgar, who is. 
only twenty-four and therefore not com- 
petent to know his own mind. And all at 
the expense of a woman's reputation. Youi 
ought to be ashamed of yourself, Peter — 
it makes me want to knock the words back, 
in your throat." 

"Look out, Repeater, we are both get- 
ting angry and you and I must not quarrels- 
lad. But I know what I am saying when 
I repeat that Helene Bergere is not a good 
woman." Before the words had fairly left 
his throat the boy had sprung at him and 
struck him stjuarely in the mouth. Peter 
clenched his hands to control himself, and 
exclaimed, "You young fool ! Let me tell 
you that that blow was struck for a wo- 
man who is to pose for me tomorrow for 
my statue of Phrv^ne." 

"You lie," shouted the boy, then h-^ 
threw himself upon the couch, face down- 
ward, and Peter left the room. 

Peter walked miles in the crisp air try- 
ing to work out the best plan by which 
he could win back the boy. His heart was 
sore, his self-respect was badly bruised, 
and he never could remember feeling so 
mean in all his life. One moment he raged 
inwardly, the next he groaned, and again 
his heart called out pitiously for the love 
of his boy. He went home to dress for 
dinner, wondering how he and the boy 
would meet. He let himself into his 
apartments with his pass-key and walked 
down the little hall to his owm room, but 
as he passed Edgar's door he paused, sniff- 
in;^ at an unusual, sickening odor that as- 
sailed his nostrils. 

He lept forward and tried the d'jor, 
v/hich was locked, then he rushed into the 
!ittle brcakfast-r()( m next to it, one win- 
dow of which of)ened on to the same fire- 
(^C!ipe as did Edgar's, and in a moment 



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iiiorc he jumped through the open window 
into the room. There lay the lad in a 
hu.ue arm-chair, his head hanging limply 
on bis breast, and a broken test-tube on the 
floor beside him, but he breathed, thank 
God, he still breathed. Peter dragged tlie 
■chair to the window, dashed half a pitcher 
of water into his face, and tlien ran for 
the physician in the house. After several 
iiours their energy was rewarded by seeing 
the eyes open languidly. It was a close 
^■have, the doctor said, but that if the boy 
would sleep he would be allright in the 
morning. 

**Xow, lad, did you hear those orders 
^nd are you going to obey?" asked Peter. 

''Ves," replied Edgar, "if you will say 
first that you forgive me. I didn't try 
to do away with myself because of her, 
but because I struck you, the best friend 
J ever had." 

''There, there, never mind. Repeater. 
A\'e are quits now and we'll start all over 
:again." 

The boy looked up at him adoringly and 
^.aid, half -shyly, **Say, Petie, will you sit 
Tight here by me where I can see you until 
T go to sleep?" 

The following morning Peter wrote a 
note to Helene thanking her for her kind- 
ness in having offered to pose for him but 
that he had given up the idea of Phryne 
and would devote his entire attention to a 
series of religious subjects for the new ca- 
thedral. He showed it to the boy, who 
"handed it back without a word, but who 
.^ripped his hand like a vise. Then Peter 



telephoned for a messenger- boy, and as he 
rang, one appeared, bearing two notes, for 
Peter and the boy. 

The boy opened his first, and read: 

"Dear Little Boy — 

You have been a pleasant episode in my 
life and I hate to wound you, but last night 
I had a long cable from my friend Mr. 
Hirsch, who has discovered diamonds or 
something mighty good on his South African 
land and he wants me to come out and marry 
him, so I sail, via England, in twenty-four 
hours. I am sorry that I will be too busy lo 
see you before I go. Be a good boy, and 
don't forget 

Your Friend, 

Helene." 

He looked up at Peter, who was regard- 
ing him curiously, then in silence the two 
exchanged notes, and Edgar read 

"Dear Monsieur Peter Foor — 

My engagement to pose for you will have 
to be indefinitel- postponed, as I am leaving 
tonight for the Transvaal, and I am sure that 
my future husband would not at all approve 
of 'Phryne.* I have just ordered a highball 
and now I raise it to my lips and drink to 
the health, fame and happiness of good old 
Peter and his faithful Repeater. 
Au re voir, 

Helene Bergere." 

Peter held out his hand to the boy and 
exclaimed in a voice that sounded young 
and full of joy, **What do you say to a 
few days fishing on the sound?" 

**Bully!" replied Repeater, with shining 
eyes. 




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The Improvement of Water Ways 



By Hon. John T. Mack 



w 



^M Y theme was suggested by an inci- 
y^\ dent. In the early fall I stood 
with a number of Sandusky 
city officials on a large dredge 
that was engaged in removing 
the ruck in the city channel par- 
alleling the water front leading up to the 
Pennsylvania docks. The massive steel 
tongues of the great dipper were crawling 
along the bottom of the channel, now mov- 
ing forward, now backward only to again 
advance in their effort to grapple with 
the rocks which the drill and blast had 
loosened from their bed. Soon the dipper, 
controlled as if by magic by a simple turn 
of the wrist of the man who stood at the 
levers on the forward deck, came up bear- 
ing on its rim a: hugh rock, weighing near- 
ly if not quite four tons, and dimiped it 
into the scow as easily as if it had been a 
toy. A few days before another large 
rock had been removed, on whose face had 
been worn a groove several inches wide 
and as many deep, carved by a freight 
vessel which entering the harbor loaded 
with ore had sought her mooring at the 
Pennsylvania docks, had gone aground and 
was held there for several days, entailing 
a loss to its owners of thousands of dol- 
lars in added expense and wasted time. 
I said to myself, this rock furnishes an 
object lesson which the citizens of San- 
dusky should heed if their city is to keep 
pace with other port cities in industrial 
growth and commercial development. 
From time immemorial the rock had lain 
within seventeen feet of the channel's 
surface an absolute, impassible barrier to 
the deeper draught boats entering our 
harbor. 

The most hopeful commercial sign of 
the times in my judgment is not in the 
enactment and enforcement of law^s to reg- 
ulate railroad rates, to do away with re- 



bates and unjust discriminations and re- 
strict the powers and operations of com- 
mon carriers, important as all this is, but 
in the general public awakening all over 
our land to the necessity of improving and 
enlarging and multiplying our water ways 
through a liberal policy of appropriations 
by the federal government, supplemented 
by reasonable municipal and State aid. 
With all our boast of commercial suprem- 
acy and our claims that we are a world 
power, we are far behind other leading na- 
tions of the world in the utilization and 
improvement of harbors and water ways, 
until we have reached a crisis in industrial 
and commercial development and expan- 
sion which seriously threatens further 
progress. A coal famine not long since, 
never before known in our country, due in 
large part to lack of transportation facil- 
ities under present conditions, entailed 
much suffering and crippled business over 
a large section of country. The loss in 
perishable freight alone during those 
few months, due solely to lack of adequate 
means of moving it, runs into millions of 
dollars, while the loss resulting from de- 
lays to business and the forced shutting 
down of factories owing to this one cause 
mounts up into a much larger sum. The 
Manufacturers* Record, a leading indus- 
trial paper, said: 

"A story of this situation should awak- 
en the people of the whole country to a 
realization of the fact that the quickest 
and broadest development possible of the 
transportation interests of the whole coun- 
try, into which billions must be poured, is 
the only means for the maintenance of our 
present business prosperity. Self-preserva- 
tion demands that the people of the coun- 
try shall understand the perils which we 
face." 

We have let our interior canals and 



227 



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water nays go down and abandoned valu- 
able streams once navigable, feeling secure 
in the belief that the railways, multiply- 
ing everywhere, penetrating all sections 
and increasing in trackage and carrying 
facilities with wonderful strides, would be 
sufficient to meet all possible future needs 
of internal commerce. We have been sat- 
isfied with meagre and insufficient appro- 
priations for water way improvements un- 
til our commerce has outgrown our facil- 
ities to move it, and a congestion in trans- 
portation now reached such as was not 
supposed possible. Facing a condition 
never before known, we are l)eginning to 
realize our delusion. For the first time 
since the railroad supplanted the "prairie 
schooner" and the canal b )at, railway man- 
agers confess their inability to meet our 
transportation needs. Indeed leading rail- 
road officials themselves freely admit that 
it will not be possible with all the in- 
creased facilities the roads can provide for 
years to come to move the crops, the coal 
and ore and the ])roducts of mill and fac- 
tory with reasonable dispatch. They re- 
gard the future with concern. Certainly 
the situation is anomalous in our commer- 
cial history. President J. J. Hill of the 
Great Northern, probably the ablest and 
most far-seeing railroad operator in our 
country, in a speech before the manufac- 
turers and merchants of Chicago a few 
weeks ago said: "The prevailing idea of 
the public is that the railroads are short 
of cars, while the facts are that the short- 
age is in the tracks and terminals to pro- 
vide greater opportunity for the movement 
of cars. The country is facing a trans- 
portation problem that only time, patience 
and the expenditure of enormous sums of 
money can remedy." He advocated a more 
vigorous policy of the improvement of our 
water ways by Che Federal government, 
and added that the trunk line roads would 
welcome the competition of water trans- 
portation, assured that they would still 
have all the business they could take care 
of. 

Railway officials are agreed that to 
properly handle the freight business 
of the country double the present 
trackage would be recjuired, and this 
they say it would take fifty years 
to accomplish. Mr. Hill in a letter 



to Governor Johnson of Minnesota 
the past winter -said that the railroads to 
catch up with even the present growth of 
commerce must spend in round numbers 
Syi billion dollars in development work, 
and he would have ' this enormous sum 
spent within five years of active work, an 
average outlay by the railways alone of 
over $1,000,000,000 per year for five years, 
a total siun twice the bonded debt of the 
United States at the close of the civil war, 
more than twice the entire circulation of 
the currency in the country and nearly 
twice the savings deposits in all the savings 
banks in the United States. 

No wonder such railway men as Mr. 
Hill, realizing the utter inability of the 
railroads to meet the situation, advocate 
not only the ship canal from the Great 
Lakes to the Mississippi and the dredg- 
ing and maintenance of a fifteen foot 
channel in the Mississippi River from 
St. Louis to New Orleans, but a general 
improvement of all our water ways. In 
a letter last December he declared in view 
of the inability of the railroads to move 
the heavier classes of tonnage in the en- 
tire country, "there has been no subject be- 
fore Congress in twenty years which af- 
fects so many people and will prove so 
great a benefit." This is significant testi- 
mony. 

The great advantages of a wate«r 
transportation in the movement of the 
heavier traffic are apparent. The freighter 
with her tow of barges traverses from 
headwaters to destination an unbroken 
free highway. It is owned by the people. 
No company or corporation owns hor can 
control that highway of commerce. The 
boat can travel night and day. There is 
no switching nor sidings nor blockades in 
yards and terminals to impede its passage, 
nor changes of engines and crews. She 
can make her way steadily and with little 
or no interruption whether on lake or river 
or canal. What would the great iron and 
coal interests have done, what would they 
be today without our lake shipments which 
in the season last closed aggregated the 
enormous sum of 75,610,690 net tons from 
our lake ports alone exclusive of all ex- 
ports to Canada, an increase of 8,265,070 
net tons over those of 1905 and of 24,- 
239,835 tons over those in 1904 — a gain 



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THE IMPROVEMENT OF WATER WAYS 



229 



in two years of almost 50 per cent, in lake 
: shipments from American ports? There 
I were this past season 81,270 clearances of 
vessels from these ports. The freight 
carried in vessels was largely of the low 
grade — flour, grain, coal, ore, minerals, 
logs and lumber — thereby relieving the 
railroads that much for the shipment of 
perishable goods and manufactured ar- 
ticles requiring quick delivery. The aver- 
j age freight car works less than three hours 
I a day. It is idle on sidings, in yards, 
etc., 20 to 23 hours out of the 24. The 
freight locomotive on the average works 
only enough to haul a train 54 miles per 
day and is almost as idle as the freight 
car. 

These figures alone furnish all the ar- 
gument needed to justify larger appropri- 
ations by the Federal Government for the 
rapid development and improvement of 
our harbors and water ways. They show 
that the railways cannot meet the prob- 
lem of transportation unaided by water 
traffic. The Sault canals, which measure 
only the tonnage of Lake Superior, carried 
over 47,000,000 tons of freight in the 250 
days of 1905, the season of navigation, 
and the record the past season was still 
larger by several million net tons. This 
is a greater tonnage than that carried by 
the Suez canal, the Manchester and the 
Kiel canals combined, the three greatest 
canals of the world. The tonnage that 
passes through the St. Clair River exceeds 
the combined tonnage of all our Atlantic 
seaports, and the tonnage that will go 
through the Panama Canal will be but a 
fraction of the traffic which would be car- 
ried by the interior waterways which could 
be built for the money that one canal will 
cost the government. Tt might not re- 
dound so much to the glory of our Nation 
as a world power for defence on the high 
seas in time of war, but it would be of 
far more benefit to our commerce and to 
the general welfare of all the people. Any 
policy therefore that curtails the develop- 
ment of our water ways by meagre and in- 
sufficient appropriations is not a wise pol- 
icy. Our rivers are the natural highways 
of trade and commerce and our harbors 
are the natural gateways for their outlet to 
other ports and for export. No railway 
can compete with them in freight charges. 



That railroad president was right who 
said: "There is no use trying to secure 
such traffic. We can't compete with any 
transportation line where God Almighty 
furnishes and keeps up the trackage." 

Those water ways which have been uti- 
lized for transportation have always been 
an irremovable and wholesome check on 
railway rates. The Mississippi River, 
shallow and insufficient as it is, under the 
heretofore meagre appropriations by Con- 
gress for maintaining and deepening its 
channel, furnishes a case in point. The 
shipper ,even as far east as the Atlantic 
seaboard pays a moderate rate to St. 
Louis, but to Kansas City, just across the 
State of Missouri, he must pay 50 per 
cent, more than he is charged from New 
York to St. Louis. The same is true along 
the Ohio and other leading water ways. 
These streams are used as basing points 
for freight charges because they afford di- 
rect competition in freight rates with rail 
traffic. Well removed from these water 
high ways of traffic the railroad can charge 
what the traffic will bear, and the power 
to do this is still further enhanced by com- 
binations of lines. Monopoly naturally re- 
sults. The natural difference in prevail- 
ing freight rates between water and rail 
traffic is significant. The average rate of 
freight on all the railroads in the United 
States is 7. 79 mills per ton mile. On 
some roads it is more, notably on South- 
ern and Western lines. On other roads 
more centrally located it is less, but that is 
the average. What is it on the navigable 
water ways of the country? On the Great 
Ivakes the average is .92 of a mill; on the 
Erie Canal with its present low draught it 
is 1.9 mills. On that canal with a 12 foot 
draught it is estimated it would be but 
.52 of a mill, while on the Ohio River, 
shallow as its channel is much of the year, 
to Cincinnati it is .32 of a mill per 
ton mile, and on the lower Mississippi 1 
mill. Here is a vast difference in cost of 
freight transportation on the railways of 
the country and the leading navigable 
water ways we now use. It represents an 
enormous sum the consumer must annual- 
ly pay for the products of the farm, the 
mill, the mine and the factory. And it 
suggests how much greater would be the 
saving if all our water ways capable of 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



utilization were developed by a wise, rea- 
sonable system of appropriations by the 
Federal Government supplemented by State 
aid. 

I do not need to follow this line of ar- 
giunent further. We have in our country 
not counting the seaboard a total of 43,- 
799 miles of navigable water ways. Of 
this total the Great Lakes have 2,299 
miles; the Mississippi River and its tri- 
butaries 16,500 miles, and all other rivers 
approximately 25,000 miles, while little 
Holland, today the richest nation per cap- 
ita in the world, has but 2,000 miles; 
France 4,000 miles; Belgium 1,230, and 
yet Holland has already expended in ap- 
propriations for rivers and harbors, $1,- 
500,000,000 and the United States all told 
— from the commencement in 1820, of the 
policy of improving water ways by federal 
appropriations, to 1 906— $470,000,000, 
less than one-third what Holland has ex- 
pended. France, with a mileage of water 
ways less than one-tenth that of this coun- 
try, has expended $1,200,000,000 to our 
$470,000,000. Belgium since 1875 $80,- 
000,000; Austria since 1848 $100,000,000 
Hamburg, Germany, alone has had for its 
harbor $75,000,000; Liverpool $200,000,- 
000 ; New Castle, England, for its harbor, 
$27,000,000; Marseilles, France $24,000,- 
000; Havre $35,000,000; the Harbor of 
Rotterdam, Holland, has had $9,000,000 
expended in its improvement. Our annual 
total average appropriations for all our 
harbors and rivers for the past twenty 
years has been only about $14,000,000, 
and for the past ten years $19,250,000, and 
this for a nation having over six times the 
combined mileage of navigable water ways 
of Holland, France and Belgiiun. 

In the light of these statistics does not 
the conclusion force itself that we have at 
our command a better solution of the much 
mooted problem of freight rate regulation 
and restriction than the enactment of laws 
and the establishment of commissions to 
enforce them by arbitrary rulings and re- 
sorts to the courts? In either case the pro- 
cess will necessarily be slow but in the 
former the results will be more certain and 
more lasting. Freight charges do not add 
to the value of the commodity. They are 
a tax which the producer or the consumer 



n.uit pay, and the lower that tax becomes 
the greater the benefit to the people. 

We have been living in the age of the 
railway, forgetting that God has given this 
country free internal highways, greater in 
extent and more generally distributed than 
possibly any other of the European nations 
at least, are blessed with, and it is well 
that the stern logic of events is awakening 
the public's attention and has entered the 
halls of Congress. The movement now 
definitely before Congress for the first 
time, through the persistent work of the 
National Rivers and Harbors Congress 
for annual appropriations of $50,000,000 
for a series of years is the most important 
measure today before Congress. It is to be 
national in its operation and no section 
having harbors or once navigable streams 
is to be left out. When you recall the fact 
that it costs about 7 mills a mile to move 
a ton of freight by railway and less than 
a mill in the hold of a deep water ves- 
sel, is it not strange that Congress has 
been for years trying to pass arbitrary 
laws to govern transportation rates but has 
failed to grasp the key to the situation? 
The German government has been alive to 
the situation and one of the reasons of its 
rapidly increasing trade with the Latin 
American republics and all the South 
American countries is that it has for years 
maintained a national system of water 
ways, thereby delivering its traffic for ex- 
port to the coast at a minimum cost, al- 
ways the most important item in trans- 
portation for export. In both France and 
( Germany the waterways are so thoroughly 
developed that freight can be moved by 
water without breaking bulk from prac- 
tically every part of those countries to ev- 
ery other part, at rates less than one-sixth 
as high as those by rail. Italy has just 
opened a great canal through the two pro- 
vinces of Mantua and Reggio connecting 
with the River Po. Six thousand men for 
five years have been employed in digging 
it. 

The week that the last rivers and har- 
bors bill was introduced in Congress the 
Tehauntepec ship railroad in Mexico was 
opened for traffic with a celebration in 
which the president of that growing re- 
public officiated. It opens a combined 
highway by water and rail, 130 miles 



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THE IiMPROVEMENT OF WATER WAYS 



231 



across the isthmus that bears its name. In 
its construction it had the backing and aid 
of the Mexican government. It will be a 
rival of the Panama canal when the latter 
is built. It saves 8,000 miles of travel 
from New Orleans to San Francisco, 10,- 
000 miles from New York to San Fran- 
cisco, via Cape Horn, and 1,267 miles via 
the Panama Canal. The saving in mileage 
between European ports and San Fran- 
cisco is likewise surprising, being 8,500 
miles between Liverpol and San Francisco 
via the Cape of Good Hope. In the 
trade from New York to Yokohama it 
will save 10.000 miles via Cape Horn or 
5,000 miles via Suez. Between New York 
and Manila the saving will be 1,168 miles 
over the present route via Suez. Already 
a leading New York shipping firm has es- 
tablished lines of steamers, their fleet be- 
ing equally divided between the Atlantic 
and Pacific trade, and trans-shipment be- 
ing made on the railroa;! that crosses the 
isthmus. 

The bill passed by Congress calls for an 
appropriation of a little over $92,000,000. 
Of this over $40,000,000 is immediately 
available. The remaining sum is for the 
continuation of projects already begun 
and to extend out a number of years. It 
is the largest river and harbor bill in the 
history of the country, and yet it is con- 
siderably less than one-half the annual 
appropriations made for the maintenance 
and expansion of our navy. Estimates are 
now on file with the War Department by 
government engineers which call for over 
$300,000,000 for river and harbor im- 
provements approved and recommended. 
For the past ten years only 3 per cent, of 
the total appropriations made by Congress 
has been given to this work. 

In the consideration of this subject we 
need to keep constantly in mind that it is 
the movement of the heavier and bulkier 
traffic that water transportation most close- 
ly affects, grain, cotton, ore, lumber, coal, 
meat products, and it is not surprising 
though of much concern that, while there 
has been a stupendous increase in produc- 
tion, so great and widespread has been the 
congestion of the railroads of the country 
that there has been a very heavy falling off 
in the movement of these products. For 
example while the grain crops of the coun- 



try in 1906 were more than 1,300,000,000 
bushels in excess of the crops of 1905, 
there was a decrease of over 17,500,000 
bushels in the 1906 shipments over those 
of 1905. There was a similar falling off 
in cotton shipments during 1906 as com- 
pared with those in 1905, notwithstanding 
the fact that the cotton crop for 1906 was 
some 1 1,000,000 bales in excess of the 1905 
crop. 

Time will not permit more than brief 
references to the local bearing of my sub- 
ject. Ohio is one of the states that has 
taken a leading interest in the improve- 
ment of water ways, due largely to her 
situation, the lake marking her entire 
northern boundary and the Ohio River her 
southern. With very few streams reach- 
ing into her interior navigable for any dis- 
tance, in my judgment the State has en- 
tered upon a wise policy in holding to her 
two canals and inaugurating a movement 
for their restoration and improvement. 
They can be made of great value to the 
people of the commonwealth under a wise 
plan of improvements, the cost of which 
properly extended over a series of years, 
as the work progresses, will not be a bur- 
den. Both traverse the entire State from 
the lake to the Ohio River, the one pierc- 
ing nearly the center of the State and the 
other the western third. Both for much of 
the way parallel streams which with a 
proper system of reservoirs and feeders 
will afford abundant water supply. The 
St. Mary's reservoir on the Miami and 
Erie canal is the largest artificial body of 
water in the world, covering 17,000 acres. 
Prosperous growing towns and cities are 
reached by both these canals, and they 
traverse sections of the State rich in the 
products of both the soil and the mine. 
The electric mule takes the place of the 
long eared pioneer, and their rehabilita- 
tion along the advanced modern lines of 
canal improvement and operation would 
effect a great saving over the present cost 
of transportation across the State. We are 
making a desperate effort to relieve the 
farmer and land owner of all State taxes 
and to put the burden solely on chartered 
interests and public service corporations. 
How much more sensible would it be to 
maintain a small tax on all such property 
and each year expend a reasonable sum for 



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the permanent improvement and develop- 
ment of those water ways which belong to 
the commonwealth and which could be 
made free highways of traffic for all time 
to all the people! 

I close as I began. The subject is a 
vast one, far reaching in possibilities and 
results. No country is so blessed as ours 
in the means nature has provided for 
growth and development in their fullest 
and best sense. If we are to become a 
world power in all it should mean to a 
Christian people it will not be by a great 
navy, not in great battleships, nor forts 
and defenses, nor standing armies, but 
rather in the widely diffused means and 
facilities for internal growth and advance- 
ment in all that builds for a nation's real 
and lasting power, and these lie along the 
lines of peace and industry and good will. 
They point to advantages for development 
and to attainments commercially as well as 
to all those agencies that build up and 
make a people strong, in which the great- 
est possible number may share, and in 
which all may reap some common benefit. 

That nation is strong which builds from 
within; that fosters by wise provisions 
those internal improvements in which the 
material welfare of the greatest possible 
mmiber may be touched and helped. It is 
this sort of commercialism that goes hand 
in hand with the free school, the free pub- 



lic library, the free church and all those 
higher forces which make for real thrift, 
material and spiritual, and build up intel- 
ligent, law-abiding citizenship. I have no 
fear we shall be overwhelmed by sordid 
greed massed in great combinations which 
seek to monopolize trade, to throttle com- 
petition and override law human and di- 
vine. We need, of course, to grapple with 
such, to curb them and to throw about 
them safeguards, but let the Federal Gov- 
ernment supplemented by the State and 
the municipality if need be, by wise sys- 
tems of appropriations develop those nat- 
ural resources which God has given us and 
which are the common heritage and for the 
free use of all. Foremost among such re- 
sources are our water ways. 

President Roosevelt in his latest book, 
"A Square Deal," speaks a truth we all 
need to keep in mind when he says: 

'Tt is the merest truism to say that in 
the modem world industrialism is the 
great factor in the growth of nations. Ma- 
terial prosperity is the foundation upon 
which every mighty national structure 
must be built." 

Of course there must be more than this. 
There must be a high moral purpose, a life 
of the spirit which finds its expression in 
many different ways, but unless material 
prosperity exists also there is scant room in 
which to develop the higher life. 




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SNOWBIRD 



A NOVEL 
By S. N. Cook 

The first installment of this dramatic and characteristic story of Southern lifj 
during the Civil War times, appeared in The Ohio Magazine for June, 1907, and 
succeeding installments in the intervening months up to the present number. The 
publication of the novel as a serial is now about half concluded. To all readers 
of the current number who may desire to obtain the back numbers containing the 
serial, 'I'he Ohio Magazine unll send them, postpaid, free of charge, on applica- 
tion. Just mention "Snowbird" and get all the back numbers free. This offer 
will not be renewed. 




CHAPTER VIII. 

LKJE EVANS was in an unruly 
frame of mind when the gentle- 
men called that day to notify 
him to move. As the woman 
had anticipated, he came back 
from Williamsburg "plum fulh" 
He stood in the door of the cabin staring 
moodily at them as they stopped near the 
low rail fence. 

"Howdy, Lige," called Fallis cheerily. 
Tfowdy." 

The greeting of the ex-guerilla was like 
tlie snarling of a wolf. 

"These air frens o* mine from up North 
mos'ly,*' Jack continued. "This is Mr. 
Arthur Hawley, son of an ole fren of mine. 
I reckon you mought heard tell o' Majah 
Hawley of the cavalry. This is Mr. Caine, 
of Chicago, an' Yancev, I reckon yuh done 
beerd o' him?" 

"I've seed him," growled Lige. 

"Well, havin' givin* yuh a interduction 
in a Christian sort o' way, we air ready 
to talk business." 

"I reckon yuh all didn't come ter visit ; 
ef yuh ready to talk timber I'm with yuh," 
l-ige answered. 

"I wish to talk to you about the place 
in general and the timber in particular," 
Arthur said. "You have sold some, have 
you not?" 

"Tlar's plenty o' it left ef yuh want 
it." I.ige growled. 



"You are aware you do not own this 
land?" Arthur looked steadily into the 
snake-like eyes. 

"I mought say thet's none o' yuh busi- 
ness. Ef its a furse yuh want, yuh kin 
git it dam quick." Lige made a move as 
if to draw a weapon. 

"None o' that, Lige," cried Jack Fallis. 
"None o' that; I won't stand for it. I 
low yuh know me tolerable well, an' yuh 
know 1 wouldn't ax any o' my friends ter 
come and see yuh ef I didn't count on 'em 
goin' l)ack as healthy as when they come. 
Ef ycu make a move like that agin, by the 
eternal, Lige, thar'll be a funeral right 
here, an' mighty little sniffln' over the 
corpse." 

"I'm easy scart in the evenin', Jack Fal- 
lis, but not in the mawnin'. Come some 
other day, yuh gettin me riled now," Lige 
replied. 

"Let me say a word," and Vancey Ever- 
ett spoke kindly. "I represent this young 
man and his partners. Mr. Hawley be- 
longs to one of the greatest law firms in 
the country. One of the men whose land 
you are living on is the greatest consti- 
tutional lawyer I ever met, suh." 

"What the h — 1 do I care ef lie is?" 

The discourteous reply aroused the spirit 
in Pvverett that made him a dangerous foe 
in the days when he joined in the "rebvl 
yell." An insult to Beverly Wade was an 
insult to him, and the wide, firm m<m:h 



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grew severe, and the keen eyes flashed. 
Just then the woman, uncombed and dis- 
heveled, came and stood beside the out- 
law. 

*'Vou do not care, I know that; how 
could you? You have been a thief all 
your life and you can't quit until the law 
puts its clutches on you." 

Again the hand of the timber thief 
moved nervously, but that was all. He 
saw Fallis cooly waiting for him to make 
a move to shoot. He knew, too, that the 
business which brought these men to his 
cabin would be concluded when the smoke 
lifted from the muzzle of Fallis's weapon. 

"You are not an honor to this neighbor- 
hood," continued Everett. **You had bet- 
ter go where they don't know you. One 
thing you must do, and that is to get olT 
this land." 

**Yuh mought stay fer dinner, Yan'ey 
Everett, and the little eyes glittered, while 
an ugly smile swept over the stained lips. 

"I'm obliged to you, Lige, obliged 
mightily, but my wife insists that I keep 
decent company." 

*'Yuh wife," hissed Lige. "Yuh wife — 
I knowed that speckled faced — 

"Stop, Lige Evans," and his voice rang 
out commandingly ; "not a word about a 
woman as far above your kind as a pine 
towers over the toad stood. She is my 
wife." The sneer on the face of the wo- 
man angered Yancey, who continued: 
"Why, Lige, her bare brown foot in child- 
hood was whiter than the soul of a woman 
who could give birth to a beast like you." 

"Why don't yuh k^'ll him, Lige?" cried 
the woman. "Why don't yuh kill him?" 

"I'll kill him shore enough — just wait!" 

"I did not come here to fight you, Lige," 
said Everett slowly. "You are too far be- 
neath me. I am a gentleman. I fought 
gentlemen for four years ; part of that 
time I was under that knightly soldier. 
Stonewall Jackson. There was not one 
of your kind of cattle in all his command. 
From what I have heard of you, you made 
war on women and murdered children. I 
could not brint^ myself to fight that kind 
of a human b^ing — if you are human. I 
am here, however," and Yancey's voice rose 
with indignation, "I am here to tell you to 
get off this property, and to get damned 
quick." 



"Put me off, will yuh? Put me off!" 
yelled Lige with a torrent of profanity. 
When his storm of oaths had subsided, 
Arthur said: 

"Mr. Everett and I represent the own- 
ers of the property and we have authority 
under the law to demand that you vacate 
the place. Here is the formal notifica- 
tion." Arthur offered the paper to Lige, 
who refused to receive it. 

*It is my business to leave it with you," 
and Arthur sprang from the carriage. 

"Don't vuh come inside the fence, yah 
cursed Yank! I'll fill yuh full o' holes 
ef yuh do !" yelled Lige. 

"Take the paper and read it," demanded 
Arthur sternly. 

Lige took the paper, and tearing it into 
small pieces, threw them at the young man. 

"I warn you not to cut another tree," 
Arthur said as he returned to the carriage. 

"Is thet all?" Lige asked. 

"That is all for today," was the answer 
as the party drove away. 

There was little said for a time; Ar- 
thur thinking of the threat against Ever- 
ett, and believing the vindictive scoundrel 
would attempt to murder either one of 
them, tried to form some plan to do the 
work of evicting Lige himself and not 
subject Everett to the danger. 

"I am fearful, gentlemen," he said, after 
the pause, "that there will be trouble if 
you assist me in driving that scoundrel 
from the property. He will not move un- 
less the authorities make him. I suggest 
that you let me get on as best as I can, 
without you. Mr. Fallis lives here, and 
you not far distant, Mr. Everett. With 
me, it is different. If I should escape his 
wrath now he would not likely see me 
again; at least he would not follow me 
to Cincinnati." 

"Do you wish me to withdraw from the 
case?" asked Mr. Everett. 

"I wish you to guide me in the con- 
duct of the case without taking an active 
part. You know, Mr. Everett, that scoun- 
drel will kill you if he gets the opportunity. 
He may attempt my life ; but, could I ever 
forgive myself for getting you into a case 
like this? Your life is worth more than 
all the forests of this state." 

"I thank you, suh, I thank you. No 
sauL' man seeks death unless duty demands 



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It. I ani in this case to stay, if not ab- 
solutely ordered out of it/* Yancey said. 

"Vou have a wife — I have none. I do 
not wish to place my life in jeopardy for a 
few trees, but it is more my duty than 
yours." 

"And to leave you here alone to fight 
this man would be cowardly," Yancey said. 

"Yancey is right," Jack observed. 

"What right have I to draw you into 
this, my friend?" 

"Yuh father could tell yuh, that I didn't 
weaken in '64. 

"I know that well," Arthur replied. 

"Ain't it mos' too late ter weaken now?" 

"What sort of a story could you fix up 
to tell Beverly Wade about me?" Everett 
interrupted. "You might say, you engaged 
a man who claimed to be a lawyer, by 
the name of Everett, who when threatened 
by a bully and a coward, quietly stepped 
out of the case." 

"You have no right to put it that way," 
Arthur protested. 

"You mentioned my wife a moment ago, 
and that reminds me, what would she say? 
What do you think that woman would say 
to me, if I told her I was getting out of 
the case because Lige Evans threatened 
me? I'll tell you," Yancey continued, as 
he began to grow excited, "I'll tell you 
what she would say : *Go home and do the 
cookin, Yancey Everett, an' I'll see Lige 
Evans myself.' No, sir, Mr. Hawley, I 
could not face that woman if I did any- 
thing like that. I'm in this fight, and 
I'll stay in it as long as that ugly devil 
has any fight in him." 

CHAPTER IX. 

"I must go back to the city," said Yan- 
cey, when they had returned. "You can 
go on with the case so far as getting ser- 
nce on Lige is concerned. 'Squire Pe- 
ters will notify him and continue it. "If 
Bill Simms, of Williamsburg, appears for 
Lige, he will insist upon the limit of time 
for continuance. If they do not ask for 
it we will. You may fix the date for the 
18th; I will be back here on the 16th, and 
go over the case before the trial." 

"Yuh mought make it the 25th," said 
FalHs, thinking Arthur woulH m^ home as 
soon as the case was concluded. 



"Any time will suit me," Yancey ans- 
wered. 

"Do not tempt me to stay longer; I 
am most willing, but why should I burden 
these good friends with my presence so 
long?" Arthur asked. 

"Don"t, my boy, I don't deserve that 
from the son of Majah Hawley," said Jack, 
earnestly. 

"I shall be unwilling to go when the 
time conies, but I do not wish to wear 
out my welcome," Arthur said. 

"Suppose we refer the matter to an ar- 
bitration board consisting of Miss Lina, 
Bess and Malvina," suggested Yancey. 

"With that board I'll willingly leave 
my case," Arthur answered, heartily. 

Lina and Malvina joined the gentlemen, 
as they sat in the walnut arbor, as they 
called it, and Lina asked if everything 
was settled. 

"Trouble is just beginning," Yancey ex- 
plained. 

"Then you cannot get away, Mr. Haw- 
ley, even if you wish very much to do 
so," and Lina's eyes were liuninous. 

"I will go back in the morning, dear, 
Everett was saying; "do you wish to visit 
until I come back or will you go home 
with me?" 

"Let Mrs. Everett stay; she has not been 
here for years," Lina said. 

"It is just as she says," replied Yancey. 

"Do yuh think yuh will miss me any ef 
I stay an' visit?" Malvina asked. 

"Of course I'll miss yuh, yuh know that, 
wife ; but stay an' keep an eye on this young 
man here; he may get in trouble if one 
of us is not about." 

"I hope them two girls won't make a 
fool o' yuh," Malvina said to Arthur when 
later they happened to be alone. 

"What do you mean?" he asked. 

"I reckon jealousy comes early ter some. 
That little one watches you like a hawk. 
When Lina smiles at yuh her eyes seem to 
flash lightnin'." 

"Bess is little more than a child," Ar- 
thur answered. 

"She is fourteen. She might 'a been a 
chile when we come heyre Thursday, but 
she's not now," Mrs. Everett said. 

"Let us go and see your old home one 
of these days," Arthur said, seeking to 
change the subject. 



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**Why, it's only a pore ole shack, a-settin' 
thar on the side o* the mounting a-thinkin', 
it seems ter me." 

''That's a quaint idea, Mrs. Everett. 
Sitting in its loneliness thinking, eh? It 
was to that home you went after that night 
in camp — after he had said good-night 
to you." 

"Go an' talk to the girls; yuh bringing 
him back ter me," Malvina said, as she 
arose to leave him. 

"Here you are," called Lina, cheerily, 
as she joined them under the walnut. "1 
do not know, Mrs. Everett, whether we 
can allow you to monopolize Mr. Hawley 
in this manner. " 

Malvina did not see the merry twinkle 
in Lina's bright eyes, or was not in a mood 
for pleasantry, as she answered: 

'T met him 'fore yuh did; an' I knowed 
his father, too. Yuh girls cain't have him 
all the time," and Malvina abruptly left 
them. 

"Was she in earnest, I wonder," Lina 
asked. 

"She has meditative moods at times, I 
have observed," Arthur said. "Perhaps 
she has been living in the past — these old 
home scenes recalling her girlhood days." 

"I know the story of those days; Uncle 
has told me," Lina said. "I think some- 
times she loves that northern officer yet." 

"She and Mr. Everett seem very happy 
in their relationship," Arthur replied. 

"Yes, but—" 

"But what?" 

"Suppose it is true she loves another bet- 
ter than her husband?" Lina asked. 

"She will not forget that she is Yan- 
cey Everett's wife," Arthur said. 

"Even though she does not forget — even 
though she does not see this man again — 
she should love her husband best." 

"Yes, that is very true." 

"What if she does not?" 

"Is that a misfortune or a fault?" he 
asked. 

"It is not for me to answer. I can only 
say, I would love my husband better than 
any one else on earth, or I would not 
marry him," she said. 

"Arthur thought he saw a sort of love 
light in the large, fawn-like eyes. 

"Am I not beginnintr to care for this 
sweet, unspotted girl — her whose first love- 



story has yet to be told?" he asked him- 
self. 

When Arthur Hawley left home, he took 
with him a small, but expensive revolver. 
He felt that some sort of weapon was 
needed when one visited the mountains of 
the South. When Jack Fallis saw the 
revolver he said, smilingly: 

"Thet is a very purty toy, an' might 
please Bess; but it ain't the sort we use 
heyre. Yuh see, we don't believe in ji^t 
teasin' a man till he gits mad, like thet 
bum-bee killer would make him." 

"But that is a clever weapon," Arthur 
said. 

*'I reckon ; but it ain't big enough. Now 
heyre is one; I got another left," he ex- 
plained, as Arthur was about to refuse hirv 
gift. "When yuh go after a man weth 
this, an' thar ain't a funeral, it is the fault 
o' the markmanship." 

"Do you think Bess would like this?"^ 
Arthur asked, half ashamed of the hand- 
some little weapon. 

"Did yuh ever see a child thet didn't 
like toys?" Jack's eyes twinkled merrily. 
Calling Bess, he said: 

"Mr. Hawley hes a present fer yuh." 

The young lady was not in a pleasant 
frame of mind for some reason, and did 
not reply. She took the weapon and ex- 
amined it carefully. 

"Will you accept it?" Arthur asked, as 
he noted her indifference. 

"To keep?" 

"Yes, to keep, if you care to have it." 

"Will yuh hev any?" she asked. 

"Your uncle loaned me this," Arthur 
said. 

"I give it ter yuh ter keep," Jack re- 
plied. 

"We are not likely to need this sort of 
thint< in the city," replied Hawley. 

The target practice was begun at once, 
and Jack watched them awhile. Finally 
he took the little weapon and at the second 
shot touched the bulls-eye. 

"Thet ain't so bad, Bess; yuh kin kill 
rabbits weth it, any wey." 

When Fallis was gone, Arthur asked the 
girl why she was acting in such an un- 
usual manner. "You have not had a word 
to say to me this morning." 

"Yuh don't keer much, I reckon." 

"I do care. We were great friends when 



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wift ««at to the cabin of Lige Evans. Now 
you have not a word to say.** 

"Ef Lina asks yuh fer this pistol, yuh*ll 
take it away from me an* give it to her, 
I *low." 

"What right have you to say that?'* 
His assiuned indignation moved the girl. 

'*Vou can give it away yourself, if you 
wish,** he said. 

"I will keep this always, ef yuh will 
tell me again thet yuh don*t hate me.'* 

*'I can easily answer that. I do not 
hate you; on the contrary, I think you are 
a delightful little friend when you arc 
not angiy.** 

**An* yuh don*t think me perfectly 
billy?'* she asked, eagerly. 

''Oh! It is all about that kiss, is it? 
Well, I'll give it back to you? Shall I?" 
he asked. 

"Uncle Jack is a-lookin', an' he'll laugh 
at us." 

"We cannot afford to be laughed at, I'm 
sure, but the very next time you ask me 
about that kiss I'll give it back.'* 

She looked at him slyly through the tan- 
gle of brown and gold. 

"How long air yuh goin* ter stay heyre?" 
Bess asked, presently. 

"Whv? Are you anxious to have me 
go?" 

"Sometimes I am ; sometimes I think yuh 
ort ter stay heyre always.'* 

"How about this morning?** he asked. 

"I dreamed last night yuh hed gone,'* 
she answered, evading his question. 

"I wonder if you were sorry?" 

"I reckon I like ter hev yuh stay," she 
answered, softly. 

"Good! Bess, my little friend; now we 
are friends again, are we not? Let me 
see whether these eyes are grey this morn- 
ing, or are they green?" He saw the red 
steal into the pale cheeks. 

"Let us shoot at the mark again." she 
said. 

When they had tired of shooting, Ar- 
thur asked her to take him to the woods, 
where the birds talked to her. 

"Mebbv they won't talk when yuh air 
a-listenin*,*' she said. 

"You might try them.'* 

"We*ll go." 

"The woods look cool and inviting, and 
I think T should like to be there this morn- 



ing,*' he said, as they strolled through the 
orchard. 

"What is the name of this pretty 
stream?** he asked when they had reached 
the deeply shaded banks. 

"It's Lone Creek," she said. 

"If it was only deeper, I would like tO" 
plunge in." 

"Weth yuh clothes on ? Vou would spile 
them," Bess said. 

"Little mother, I meant if I was alone."^ 

"Come; I'll show yuh the swimmin* 
hole," she said, as she took his hand and 
led the way to a bluff, below which the 
creek moved lazily, proclaiming its depth. 
Above and below this bluff the banks- 
sloped gently until the ripples kissed the 
mosses bending low to invite the caress. 

"This is glorious, Bess," said he, as he 
threw himself upon the carpet of green. 
"Listen to the murmur of the south wind 
in the trees.** 

Bess sat close beside the young man, 
while a brown thrush upon a bough above 
them sang a merry song. 

"Is that one of your friends?" Arthur 
asked in low tones, not wishing to disturb- 
the bird, A sunbeam falling through the 
open boughs turned the curls into threads- 
of gold. A bit of the gold thread touched 
his cheek, and he felt a thrill unknowrt 
before. 

"Am I falling in love with this young- 
girl?" he asked himself. The thrush was 
warbling his sweetest then, and looking up, 
Arthur cried: 

".Sing on, my rival ; sing on. I am not 
jealous of you !" 

He could not read the message Bess's. 
eyes were telling, but he understood when 
she asked: 

"Do yuh mind whac yuh said 'fore we • 
come heyre?" 

"No,** he answered. 

"I do.** 

"What?" 

The eyes were almost green, but they 
were laughing, and she asked : 

"Air yuh mad at me?" 

"O daughter of Eve, there — there — 
there — . Now let u^ ^o in the house." 

All that day Bess kept humming a them^' 
from "The Flower Song.** 

It was the next day that Jack Fallis took 
Arthur to call upon Justice Pl'^it>. He 



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•understood the peculiarities of the squire*5 
family. Close decisions were usually given 
in favor of those whom Mrs. Peters re- 
garded as friends and equals. Fallis ex- 
plained something of this to the young 
man as they rode along, and from a free 
discussion of the Peters girls he drifted 
into a rather confidential talk about Lina 
.and Bess. He did not love Lina less 
because he loved the little one so well. 
Bess was a girl, women cared little for,, 
but men liked her at once. That mysteri- 
-ous something — magnetism, perhaps — 
that which repelled her sex drew men to 
her, and Jack and his guest were in easy 
.accord when discussing the girl. 

"She likes yuh, I know," Jack said, and 
the young man wished that the vivid flush 
which came quickly to his face might not 
b? observed, for he was thinking, as Jack 
talked, of that rare moment at Lone Creek 
when the brown thrush was whistling. 

"Ves, she likes yuh in her queer way, and 
it is a mighty satisfaction ter all o' us ter 
hev the son o' Major Hawley a visitm' us. 
but as I war savin* a bit ago about the 
Peters', they air queer, an* ef they think 
yuh act sorter stuck-up it might hev some 
bearin' on the squire*s views on the case.'* 

Arthur understood perfectly and when 
he was introduced to that functionary and 
his family, was urbanity itself. 

The Peters' girls, Emily and Jane, were 
not noted in the neighborhood for their 
beauty. Emily was thin and angular, while 
Jane was plump to obesity. Nature had 
painted her cheeks a fiery red. The squire 
like his youngest daughter was round and 
rosy, wliile his wife was as lean as Cassio. 
Her voice was pitched in a high, discordant 
key. When she said "Howdy," in answer 
to their greeting, Arthur caught himself 
looking for the parrot that had spoken. 
He discovered his mistake in a moment 
as the raucous voice went on : *T meant ter 
go over ter your house yistiday, Jack Fal- 
lis. ter see Malviney and ax her ter come 
an' visit us, but Pap ther war so burned 
lazy he wouldn't hitch up the critter. 
Lisha he would hev gone but he war a 
gaddin' somewhar. I reckon it don't take 
no coax in' ter git him ter go ter yuh 
liouse. It mought be different now case 
\'uh all has company and *Lish is power- 
f'll bTii"»fiil when company is *round." 



"I reckon yuh all had better come over 
an see us. The house is still a standin' 
thar an I think we got a ruther spruce 
lookin' young man visitin* us; I wonder 
the gals warn't ovah," and Jack winked at 
the fat girl. 

**Lord Gawd, my gals," began the par- 
rot-like voice which was interrupted by 
a hysterical laugh from the red girl, while 
the other, the image of her mother, cleared 
her throat with strained effort. Mrs. Pe- 
ters did not mean anything that approached 
profanity, but this was her expression when 
profoundly moved. 'T reckon piy gals 
wouldn't shine much wher Lina is ; we 
didn't all hev yuh money. Jack Fallis. ter 
send our gals ter Knoxville, an* git style 
pumped inter 'em." 

"Come ovah an hear our young frien 
play the pianner," Jack said quickly, 
knowing the Knoxville incident was a 
source of bitterness to Mrs. Peters. 

"Kin he play on the pianner? — Is thet 
his business?" Jane asked. 

Arthur pretended not to hear and going 
to the door said: "I would like to get ac- 
quainted with that big dog in the yard." 

"I reckon one o* the gals will hev ter 
hole him or he might git acquainted weth 
yuh pants like he did a peddler's one day,*' 
said the voice. 

The red one, Jane, had joined him at 
the door and as her mother paused a mo- 
ment for breath said: 

"It mortified me mos' ter death ter see 
thet dawg a chawin them pants." 

"No doubt," Arthur answered. "Not to 
mention the mortification it must have 
caused the peddler." 

Mrs. Peters had forgotten the dog and 
the peddler when Arthur resumed his seat 
and asked: 

"Kin yuh play Ortenville?" 

"Oh, yes, I'll play it for you if you 
will come over," Arthur said. 

"Does Mother Fallis like the pianner?" 
asked Emily. 

"Wal sorter," Jack replied. "Really, 
mother's sot on a harp. She never seed 
one, but she says any instrument good 
enough fer David, is good enough for the 
Fallis family. Mother persists thet Da- 
vid could beat any pianner on earth with 
that harp o' his." 



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**rhar ain't no Davids now-a-days," 
said Mrs. Peters. 

"1 reckon thai ain't in some ways/' Jack 
replied. Turning to the squire, Jack con- 
tinued: **VVe come ovah terday ter fix a 
time fer the case, against Lige Evans, f er 
settling on them timber lands. Mr. Hawley 
will tell >^h the facts in the case, but I 
want yuh ter put it off as long as the law 
will let yuh." 

"Vancey Everett is my attorney," Ar- 
thur explained, "and he will not be here 
before the 16th or 18th. The prelimi- 
naries can be arranged today, however." 

*'Will you be ready for the trial on the 
18th?" the justice asked. 

"Not before the 20th," said Jack 
promptly. 

Arthur smiled as he assented to the date 
and would not have seriously objected had 
it been later. 

Nate was waiting for them when they 
returned. "Nannie is in the house," he 
said. "An' she come ovah ter tell yuh ter 
look out fer Lige Evans, as he is a swearin' 
ter kill yuh." 

"I reckon, Nate, he won't do no killin' 

while yuh uncle is able ter handle his)»sneer of the young girl brought an angry 

"flush to the cheeks of the young woman. 



and using such language as that to me. 1. 
feel that I should punish you. 

"Don't ever lay a hand on me, Lina. 
Burrell," the voice of the girl was deep 
and thrilling. Arthur could imagine the- 
eyes were green and flashing. 

"1 wonder if he knows you followed, 
him?" Arthur silently stole away out of 
hearing. 

"I wonder if he knows you follow him?" 
Lina was saying — I wonder too, what he- 
would think of you if he knew it?"" 
Would he not think you — or all of us be- 
long to the same class as that woman witb 
Lige Evans." 

"I did not see him in the creek — I did 
not try ter see him. I'm no more low 
down than yuh air, Lina Burrell." The 
bare foot stamped the floor. 

"Then why did you follow him?" 

"I went ter see that nobody harmed 
him," said Bess bravely. 

"I suppose he needs a miss of fourteen 
years as his guardian." The girl felt the 
sarcasm keenly and blushed. 
• "Yuh don't like it 'case he's weth me 
more than weth yuh — I know," and the 



weepon," Jack said. 



Arthur had gon>^ to the pool, or swim- 
ming hole in Lone Creek several times be- 
fore he discovered that Bess had followed 
him. So discreetly and secretly had she 
guarded him that he might not have known 
of her presence until that morning when he 
thought the end had come, but for a heated 
argument he overheard. He had asked 
Bess to join him again in target shooting 
when Lina said: "You will kindly excuse 
Bess this morning, Mr. Hawley." 

Arthur thought he detected a sharper 
note in the usually low, sweet voice than he 
had heard before. After he had arranged 
the target he discovered he had forgotten 
the cartridges and returned to the house 
to get them. As he approached the open 
door he heard an angry voice cry : 

"That is a lie, Lina Burrell, an' yuh 
know it." 

What has aroused Bess, he wondered as 
he turned away, *not wishing to play eaves- 
dropper. He heard Lina angrily reply: 

"How shameless you have grown; fol- 
lowing Mr. Hawley in the manner you did 



young 

"How can he help it? You are always, 
after him. I'm sure I do not follow him 
to his bath." Lina was rarely unkind, but 
Bess' thrust cut deeply and the retort, un- 
worthy of Lina as it was, came before she 
thought. 

"I'll hate yuh' Lina— all my life, I'll hate 
yuh for that." Bess uttered the words 
slowly and impressively and when she had 
done, turned and walked away. She did 
not return when dinner was served and 
soon Arthur started out to find her. He 
thought she might be in the woods down 
by the creek and he followed the path 
to the orchard. Bess had climbed into a 
tree and was sitting in the forks looking 
away at the foot hills and beyond these 
at the mountains. He heard her sob and 
a thrill of pity for the lonely, heart-" 
bruised girl went through him. He had 
intended going past her as if he did not 
know she was there until the sob smote 
him and he went directly to the tree and, 
calling to her, said : 

"Jump, I'll catch you." 

Not a moment did she wait. She 



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sprang toward hiin and he caught her in 
his arms and drew her closely to him. 
The tangle of hair lay upon his breast 
and touched his cheek when he bent over 
to look into her eyes. With his arms about 
her and with her head upon his breast, 
the sobs grew softer and fewer until the 
sting of Lina*s words was no longer felt. 
This was her moment of victory and even 
as she brushed the tears away she smiled, 
as she wished Lina might be looking. Ar- 
thur did not catch this smile for her face 
lay close to his heart, so closely that she 
began counting the quick throbs. 

"Bess," he said tenderly, "Bess, bravest 
little woman in the world, I do not like to 
see the tears in your eyes; those eyes are 
-very pretty, Bess, girl, and some day they 
will make glad or weary a human heart. 
Remember you have Uncle Jack. On his 
broad breast there is rest and comfort for 
a little girl when trouble comes. Then, 
there is some one else who likes you better 
than he cares to tell." 

CHAPTER X. 

Had Jack Fallis appeared at that mo- 
ment, Arthur Hawley would have stood 
before him speechless and abashed. In 
his heart there was no thought of wrong, 
but he knew that it was n^ : a manly thing 
to do. 'Bess was simply a child — nature's 
•child — and she loved him. What could 
be do, now that he knew that this passion- 
ate child had bared her sou? to him? 

Had he not encouraged this affection 
when he had kissed her twice while they 
were alone in the woods and the brown 
thrush was singing?" 

"Who?" she asked presently. He did 
not reply. He seemed to see Lina's brown 
•eyes resting upon him reprovingly. 

"Who likes me?" she asked. 

"I think I need not tell you — some day 
when you are older I will." 

A soft, sunburned hand crept up to his 
face and rested there a moment. Slyly 
she drew his head down until two sweet, 
wet lips met his. The soul of a woman 
took possession of that mountain waif of 
less than fifteen years. The caress that 
at first was as soft as the scent-laden breath 
of spring ended in a hunejering, eager kiss 
.and the wide eyes, the gray all gone and 



the green gleaming, were alive with love 
and ecstacy. The upturned face was 
radiant and her lips were as pink as the 
wild strawberries in the meadow. He 
stood silently looking at her, realizing all 
at once what it meant. 

"Ah ! there is Mrs. Everett, over by the 
fence, let us go to her; she is waiting for 
us perhaos." Bess was not eager to leave 
the orchard where the saddest and happiest 
moments of her life had been so closely 
interwoven. 

"Mrs. Everett," Arthur said when they 
joined her, "this little lady has had some 
trouble today that maybe she will care to 
tell you and does not wish to tell me. Bess 
and 1 have few secrets we cannot confide 
to each other and to our friends. I do not 
like to see her unhappy; maybe you can 
cure the trouble, who knows?" 

"She don't look very sorrorfid now," 
said Malvina. A shy, tender glance frum 
out of the long lashes rested a moment 
upon the young man as she said: 

"I 'low they'r lookin' fer me at the 
house." 

When Bess was out of hearing Malvina 
said: 

"Ain't yuh learnin' her somethin' thet 
aint in the books?" 

"Nothing for which she need blush when 
she is a woman," he answered. 

"r hope not." 

"What do you mean, Mrs. Everett?" 

"Arthur Hawley, what did them kisses 
mean?" 

"I thought you knew me well enough 
not to ask that question. Do you think I 
would instill in the mind of that girl 
thoughts that would stain her character? 
Do you think that I could bring sorrow 
into the home of Jack Fallis, who is my 
host and my friend?" 

"Yuh wouldn't mean to, I know, but — " 

"But what?" 

"Let me ask yuh Arthur, do joih love 
her?" 

He did not answer at once but looked 
into her honest eyes and replied slowly: 
yes, I love her as I would a little sister." 

"That won't do, Arthur," Malvina said. 
"I've never seed yuh kiss yuh sister, but 
I did see yuh a kissin' Bess. When a bro- 
ther kisses his sister its soon ovah, an' it 
don't matter much where, on the cheek, 



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her chin or back o' her ear. Yuh all didn't 
make any mistake o' thet kind. Ther war 
two red lips a waitin' fer yours, and ther 
didn't seem as if either one wanted ter 
quit." 

*'Do you disapprove of my affection for 
Hess," he asked quietly. 

'*What is to become o* her when yuh air 
tjone? She hes given her soul to yuh. Vuh 
ran't help seein' thet. What do yuh think 
she will do when yuh go home an' fergit? 
Won't she go down ther' to the creek bank 
wher' }nih all hev been tergether — won't 
she go down ther' an' lay on the moss an' 
pray fer yuh ter come? Won't she cry to 
her Cjawd — send him back ter me, make 
him come back to me. I couldn't help 
alovin' him, I couldn't — I couldn't. An' 
then at the last when yuh fergit thet yuh 
stole all the sweetness out o' her child lips, 
yuh'U heah some day how Jack Fallis 
found her a sleepin' down in the watah — 
jus' as he found her sleepin' in the snow 
when a baby gyrl — only this time the 
tangled curls will be soaked an' the red 
faded out o' her lips." 

"Stop: Great God! Mrs.. Everett, 
stop. Do you think I am such a wretch? 
Xo, she shall wait only until she is old 
i^nough to hear me say: "Bess, I love 
you better than all the world and I have 
come to ask you to be mine, mine always, 
always." 

"I believe yuh, Arthur, but don't fergit. 
Sometimes Bess seems like a little gyrl, an' 
at times like a woman thet has suffered. I 
had hoped though it might hev been 
Lina." Her grey eyes had grown dim. 

"Lina and I are friends. I'm sure," he 
said, "I might have learned to care for 
her, but not a word has been spoken that 
either of us do not fully understand. I 
did not know until today how much Bess 
is to me. I know how strange this must 
seem to you, Mrs. Everett. I cannot under- 
stand it myself. I come to the mountains 
and I find myself in love with a child — a 
girl in her early teens, and uneducated. 
When she sprang from the tree and I felt 
her tremble in my arms I knew there was 
no one else in the world for me, but Bess." 

"Tell Jack Fallis how it is an' don't 
look love at Lina any more. Oh, I've seed 
Aiih," Malvina said. 

There were many stories floating about 



the neighborhood concerning Arthur. It 
was reported that he was immensely weal- 
thy, or would be when his father's great 
possessions came to him. Then Yancey 
Everett had aroused the curiosity of the 
neighborhood by stories of the great law 
firm with which the young man was con- 
nected. 

Arthur was over the average height, a 
trained athlete with admirable proportions 
of figure and a strong and rait her hand- 
some face. 

He belonged to the best social class in 
his home city. He had caught many a 
tender glance from the eyes of imperious 
beauties, but fate willed it that he should 
find a heart-mate in the mountains. A bit 
of a girl, the touch of whose lips en- 
thralled him. . 

"How did a soul so old an' knowin' 
come ter a gyrl o' her aige I wondah?" 
Malvina said next day. "Po* little one, I 
understand her better than any one, I 'low. 
Like me, she's hed no chance, but ef she 
gets a chance she'll make her mark." 

"She shall have her chance if I have my 
way," Arthur replied. Malvina told of 
her conversation with Bess and how she 
learned the cause of the argument with 
Lina. By some means Lina discovered 
that Bess had followed Arthur when he 
went for his plunge in Lone Creek, and, 
as is known, sternly rebuked the girl. Bess 
explained as best she could the indefinable 
fear that possessed her when Arthur went 
to the pool. That her fears were not 
groundless was known later. 

Bess told how she came to follow him 
and in Yancey Everett's wife, she found a 
sympathizer. "I waited till he got through 
the field an' ovah in the woods before I 
left the orchard." Bess said. "Then I just 
flew till I got sight o' him. I'd dodge from 
tree to tree, thet he wouldn't see me. Ar- 
thur give me a pistol, yuh know, and I 
alius git it when I see him start fer the 
crick. I kep' sight o' hf*^ till he took off 
his coat and belt with the big Colt's re- 
volver Uncle Jack give him, then I'd git 
back o' a tree an' wait till I heard him 
plunge in. When he was in the water I 
crawled up till I could watch the bank on 
both sides the crick. Ef I didn't do that 
I think Lige would sneak on him an* kill 
him." 



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"Yuh couldn't stand that now, could 
you Bess?" Malvina asked. 

"Ef he killed Arthur Td never rest day 
or night till Lige war dead. I don't want 
him ter go to Lone Creek again without 
me. Ef I felt I hed to save him before 
he said he liked me more than any one as 
he did yisteday, why won't I go again ef 
he does? Lina said I war shameless — I 
ain't, Malvina, I ain't. He is mine now 
an' I'll see that Lige don't rob me of him. 
Do yuh think he'd be 'shamed o' me, if he 
knowed?" 

"I reckon not, dear, he wouldn't be 
worth thinkin' about ef he did — knowin' it 
war ter save his life. I keered for a man 
once, dear," Malvina continued, "when 
I war a gyrl o' seventeen, an' he war grand 
lookin' like Arthur — handsomer I 'low 
than he is — " 

Bess shook her head — "No he couldn't 
he nicer than Arthur," she said. 

"Bless yuh soul, child," said Malvina, 
"that's right, ther ain't any one in the 
world so handsome as the man we love, 
but yuh never seed this one. It was be- 
fore Mr. Everett come. He was from the 
North, too, an' a friend o' Arthur's fam- 
bly. He put his arms 'round me one night 
an' kissed me jist like Arthur did yistedy 
weth yuh." 

"Do yuh sometimes dream that he's 
kissin' yuh yit?" Bess asked. 

"Dream of 'em? Ef I could only stop 
a dreamin', but I can't. I ortn't say this 
ter yuli, Bess, yuh ain't old enough ter 
understand, but Arthur minds me o' him — 
an' he went away an' never come back." 
♦ * * 

"Yuh wanted to see my ole home, didn't 
yuh,' Arthur?" Malvina asked when she 
had told Bess' story and how she had 
guarded him in the creek. 

"Yes, why not now?" he asked. 

"I'll tell them we air goin'," said Mal- 
vina as she sought Lina and Bess. 

There was a family living in the cabin, 
and as usual in the mountains a pack of 
lean and hungry hounds rushed out, bark- 
ing furiously. 

"They are ugly looking beasts," he said. 

"Do yuh want ter go in?" Malvina 
asked. 

"Not through that army of dogs." 

Just then a troop of dirty, half-dressed 



children came running around the house. 
The eldest, a girl of fifteen years, clad in 
a ragged garment so torn that her shape- 
less, unwashed limbs were not hidden, 
stared boldly and asked what they wanted. 

"How long hev yuh lived heyre?" Mal- 
vina asked. 

"Not very long," answered the girl, who 
never took her eyes from Arthur. 

"I think yuh'd keer ter put on some 
clothes 'fore strangers any way," and Mal- 
vina frowned. The girl grinned and drew 
the one torn garment about her. Just then 
there appeared in the door a woman who 
loudly ordered the children to get away. 

"Heyre, Lize!" she said, "take this 
young un an' git out ; yuh stan' thar starin' 
like a passed o' idjits." 

"I didn't know any one war a livin' 
heyre," said Malvina. 

"I come heyre from Kaintuck a month 
or two ago," replied the woman. 

"Who told yuh ter move in this house o* 
mine ?" 

"My sister 'lowed as we mought." 

"Who is your sister?" 'asked Mrs. Ev- 
erett. 

"Lige Evans' wife," she answered. 

A smile, in which was a trace of scorn, 
appeared as Malvina asked: 

"Where is yuh husband?" 

"He's daid." 

"How long since?" 

"Mos'ly two years, I 'low," answered 
the unkempt woman, whose eyes fell be- 
fore Malvina's questioning glance at the 
infant she had given to the young girl. 

"Do yuh count on payin' any rent?" 

"I reckon I don't count on nothin else — 
that is, one o' these days. Thars a feller 
ovah thar by Pisga' as is a talkin' some o' 
marryin' me," said the woman. 

"Yuh caint make it any wuss than it is," 
said Malvina as they drove hurriedly away 
from the place. 

"I'm sorry we come," said Malvina 
when the turn in the road shut out the 
view of the old home. "I'd hoped it would 
be jist as it used ter be, lonesome, like 
when I went away. I felt a shame fer 
thet young g^-rl, who had no sense o* 
shame herself," Malvina continued. "Fer 
et seemed ter be me a standin thar. Mebby 
I war shanieles'^ then as she is." 

"I cannot think so.*^ Arthur answered. 



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"Mebby not, but what chance has 
mounting gyrls in these po' famblies got 
to lam the decent things o' life? No 
schools, no larnin, an' all livin' tergether 
like the cattle o' the fields." 

Her unforgotten girlhood had come 
back to her, but nature had formed her of 
finer clay and her environment after she 
had married Yancey Everett lifted her 
above the humble surroundings of her 
birth. 

Lina and Bess were both at the gate 
waiting for them when they returned. 
A\'hen Arthur helped Malvina from the 
carriage Lina was quick to observe that 
the visit to the old home had not been a 
happy one for Mrs. Everett. The smile of 
welcome upon the fair face of the moun- 
tain girl faded slowly. Her heart kept 
asking, "What is wrong? What hap- 
pened?" Mrs. Everett's averted gaze 
worried her. Had there been a quarrel or 
was it memory that caused the pained ex- 
pression? Even Arthur seemed at a loss 
to break the silence that was beginning to 
be embarrassing. 

Bess had been observing her new friend, 
Mrs. Everett, closely also. She saw the 
Tears glistening in the gray eyes that were 
seldom wet. When Bess wished informa- 
tu;n she did not hesitate to ask for it. 

"What is the matter, Malviny — Mrs. 
Kverett?" she corrected. 

"Thur's rattle come in over thur at the 
i)ld place." 

"I'll take the daug an' go over an' drive 
\ni out pretty soon," Bess said. 



A fleeting smile swept the face that bent 
over Bess, as she whispered, "Come ter 
my room as soon as yuh kin." Aloud she 
said: "I reckon them air cattle as won't 
go 'way fer the daug." 

"Nate will take care of the team pres- 
ently," Lina said. 

Arthur was preparing to drive to the 
stables. Lina was hoping Arthur might 
explain what caused the marked change in 
the demeanor of Mrs. Everett. Malvina 
and Bess preceded them and were about 
to go to Mrs. Everett's room when Bess 
observed that Lina and Arthur were seek- 
ing the shade of the walnut tree. 

"Wait," said Bess. . "Do yuh see Lina 
thur — she's a takin' him away from me." 

"No she ain't. I don't reckon as she 
could, now that he kissed yuh jist as he 
did. Don't be jealous, Bess, an' don't let 
them see it if yuh air. Come ter my room. 
I don't want ter be alone, an' I don't want 
ter ^Ik much. I jist want ter put my 
arms around yuh an' hold yuh close ter 
my heart. Yuh an' me is a good deal alike, 
Bess. Yo' air a gal — jist a bit of a gal, 
and the one yuh love is near }aih. The 
one I loved is far away. Maybe the Lord 
counts us as good as they air, but they 
l)elong away up yander where the eagles 
roost, an' we down here whur the hens 
hide their nests." 

"But yuh hev Yancey, don't yuh know, 
an' he is good." 

"Dear (}awd I yes, he's good — he's good,'* 
she said wearily. 

{To be continued. ) 




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An\ n^bd rifes, witWtkeiaselves tWlocik! v 










Once vibrant — m a. moments kurricijli^t- " 

Come ke tke guest of J)cb>tk tkeir messa.§e ran.: 
Tku$ ruled tke primal kw wkcn hiiqU was n^kt. 

Kotprints— l?»^l: records 9/^ tke yaaiin.§ vmi 

Qfste^itjjy kosts, s^long tketrwl well worn; 

Memorial ^primeval tronze-krowefii m2>>n.. 

His silcRt paSSm4 to 2.11 unknown, kourne . 





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Anne Sargent Bailey 

By Mrs. James R. Hopley 



THE quality of bravery is capable 
of varied definitions. The bravo 
endurance of outward condi- 

iMf tions, not subject to improve- 

^^ I ment, or of pain, not subject to 
amelioration; the brave advance 
into the decreptitude of years without loss 
of vital inteersts nor active optimism; the 
bravery of those pronounced incurable and 
who know themselves likely to die violent, 
painful or loathsome deaths; the fortitude 
of others who await terrible physical or- 
deals ,or calmly face living problems worse 
than death — these are all familiar exam- 
ples. Hourly we are made aware of the 
sublimity of the souls close about us and 
learn that it is in pain that the strong 
chain is forged whereby we are united, 
alike, to God and to our fellows. Be- 
low, the links are called sympathy, help- 
fulness, altruism, and, drawing us upward, 
become aspiration, alikeness, a divine co- 
existence. 

Ikit in contra distinction, bravery is seen 
in another and different set of manifesta- 
tions — unpremeditated, active, of one's 
own volition, choice and seeking. This is 
shown by the mere bystander who throws 
himself before a train, or into the sea, 
to save a child, a woman, a youth, whom 
he has never before seen; again in the 
thousand instances of soldierly daring, the 
storming of Missionary Ridge, in the ex- 
ample of Von Winkleried, of Hobson and 
his companions, of Custer and the an- 
cient Aztec warriors. 

To analyze the promptings of the spirit 
within us, which makes us endure, or which 
makes us dare, is the pro^'ince of the psy- 
chologist, and it is a province the laws 
of which are not likely to be reduced to 
a science. When these two forms, elec- 
tive courage and enduring bravery, are 
found to exist side by side, and so to con- 



tinue, through years and innumerable tests, 
the character thus endowed is called he- 
roic. The tremendous value of such lives 
is hard to estimate. They seem to take 
the world by the ears and set it forward, 
sometimes a decade, sometimes a cycle. 
They precipitate events and clear the way 
of obstacles when the events loom before 
us. The timid, the garrulous, the army of 
objectors big and little, are swept from 
'the path as the hurricane sweeps the huts 
of the natives in tropic islands. Such a 
force was Luther, discovering that *'Man is 
saved by Faith." 

Faith is the saving power here and 
hereafter. By it prosperity is held to its^ 
course as a great ship before constant 
winds. To lose faith is to have the panic 
already upon us. Without it no great 
work may be done. Faith in himself makes 
many a man a militant figure. A few 
lapses, the contagion of distrust spreads, 
and finally the stampede occurs among the 
followers. Up from the valleys of their 
hiuniliation, forth from the fields of their 
heroism, down from the mountains of suf- 
fering, the heroic dead glorify the horizon 
of our imagination, and I would see a 
figure blazoned there more clearly with 
that of Jean d'Arc, Sheridan on Winches- 
ter Road, Sherman on his March to the 
Sea, Columbus with his "Sail on I Sail on !*' 
or Elizabeth Fry, for prison reform ! Tt 
is the figure of Anne Bailey. How they 
all pushed the world forward I 

Voice, pen, sword, brigade or squadron, 
the commander-in-chief must be Faith. 
Such men and women inspire fear, a whole- 
some fear, as well as the desire of emu- 
lation, and they inspire a love and an ad- 
miration it is good to feel. Such a char- 
acter manifested itself in the person of 
Anne Sargent Bailey. She was born in 
Liverpool, England, in 1700 and was 



245 



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named for Queen Anne, whose coronation, 
she, with her parents, witnessed in 1706. 
When the hazardous undertakings of this 
woman are reviewed; when with them are 
found the usual domestic qualities, unsul- 
lied virtue, the inheritance of a good name, 
correct moral standards and the fact that 
these conditions were present for more than 
a century, it is strange that the name and 
fame of this old heroine are not widely 
known. 

Perhaps, upon a cherished shelf, in the 
room of the child you were, there reposed 
a blue volume called '* Women of Worth.'* 
In the education of some of us it followed 
immediately after dolls. It was probably 
not the biggest selling book of the year. 
It bore a London imprint and was not 
a bargain counter b^ok, nor, as Dorothy 
Wordsworth wrote to Coleridge, "bought 
from a haberdasher," but a beautiful book, 
one to caress, — peculiar, distinctive, indi- 
vidual ; a book that first pleased your eye 
and then pleased your fancy, written by 
an author with a tender whim, all right 
out of his heart. In it one reads of **'rhe 
Illustrious -Matron, The Teacher in the 
Wilds, The Noble Dame, The True Wifi*, 
The Worthy Daughter, The Worker < f 
Charity, The Devoted Patriot, The Es- 
timable Governess, The Sculptor's Assist- 
ant, The Friend of Columbus, The Pas- 
tor's Helpmate and The Christian He- 
roine." Now the reader I knew best, 
thrilled and chilled and glowed and wept 
over these great souls, yet none of them 
seem to rise to a more heroic plane than 
this woman of our own wilderness. 

Seized while on her way from school, 
and carried off with the cherished books 
under her arm, she was brought to Amer- 
ica, and, at nineteen, sold in Virginia to 
defray her kidnappers* expenses. 

General Lewis Newsom, an early resi- 
dent of Gallipolis, where Mrs. Bailey's 
last days were lived, appears to doubt the 
authenticity of this and says her station 
was simply that of one sold out to service 
on account of poverty and indicates that 
she emicjrated of her own free will. This 
is a mistake, due to the fart, doubtless, 
that General Newsom had no acquaintance 
with Anne Sargent Bailey until she was 
near to the close of her life. He does not 
seem to have known that she was final iv 



located by her parents, after a long search, 
and demonstrated her love for America 
by choosing this rather than England, for 
her home, so that the Sargents returned 
without her. 

Mr. William P. Buell, writing in 1885, 
makes no mention of her under the name 
employed by General Newsom. She be- 
came the wife of John Trotter of Virginia, 
then of course, an English Colony, be- 
longing to Great Britain. She had one 
child, a son, who was named William, tc» 
whom she was deeply attached as was Sa- 
rah to Isaac, for he was born in her old 
age. At the bloody battle of Point Plea- 
sant, her husband, with his Colonel, was 
killed by the Indians, and from that hour 
she became devoted ardently to the inter- 
ests of her country and the avenging of 
her husband's death. 

"Vengeance is mine, I will repay, saith 
the Lord." But how many men owe their 
defeat and how many causes owe much (,( 
their success to the tremendous force, the 
invincible will to repay in some adequate 
measure of pain or frustrated ambitions, 
the evil done to those dear to us. Chris- 
tian ethics this clearly is not, but God, 
by whom we are enjoined to honor our 
parents, can hardly look with pleasure on 
the child who presses the hand of his 
father's unjust enemy or fawns upon the 
creature who has broken his heart upon 
the whcL'l of disloyal friendship. As for 
some of us, such creatures either have no 
part, do not exist in our world of genuine 
and eternal things, or they exist for us to 
loathe, to disdain and to humiliate. 
Shakespeare's imagination never conceived 
a situation more revolting to the normal 
mind than the espousal of Hamlet's mo- 
ther to her husband's murderer. 

Not so with this woman of our wil- 
dern:?ss. The P'^^rd'^reri ( f the husband 
•^ T youth were to be hunted, harried, 
exterminated, if possible. And avenginj? 
his death, she furthered the cause of free- 
dom, made way for liberty, life and good 
ord?r in the new world. For this became 
her passion, and her services to the settlers 
as scout, soldier, provisioner of fort?» and 
as teacher to their children, were hooks nf 
steel by which, her devotion having been 
tried, they bound her to themselves and 
themselves to her. 



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ANNE SARGENT BAILEV 



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Anm Sargent was of good family, and 
her people in England of comfortable for- 
tune. But she was intensely fond of boolcs 
and on coming to Ohio in 1818, taught a 
school near Gallipolis, though she was then 
past the century mark in years. She en- 
forced her discipline, and as many of her 
I upils have since testified to the sound- 
ness of her learning and the advantagt;s 
secured through her instruction, it can not 
be gainsaid that for mental and physical 
vigor, she was one of the most remarkable 
women of any age. Her eventful career 
has been linked with that of the soldier, 
whom after many years of widowhood she 
married — John Bailey, of Virginia. Mrs. 
Bailey was not tall, was very sturdy in 
figure and of necessity adopted the dress 
of the pioneer of the border. Her face 
was bronzed by exposure and marked with 
the conflicts of her soul and the sorrows 
which had robbed her of even the little 
ease a pioneer settler's wife might enjoy. 
She hunted and fought like any soldier 
of her time and enjoyed the hazardous 
journeys in conveyances of information to 
commandants of scattered forts in the Ka- 
nawha Valley. 

Her husband had been assigned to duty 
with the garrison at Fort Clendennin, the 
site of the present city of Charleston, West 
Virginia. From this she was to make 
the most hazardous of her many journeys 
and here she was to render the most sig- 
nal, the most heroic service of her career — 
the most heroic, possibly, of that of any 
woman in any time. Mrs. Bailey had be- 
come an expert with the rifle, and her 
accomplishments as messenger, scout and 
^py were so celebrated that she had been 
called the Semiramis of America. Her 
^'i;'iU'."t*lv unerring];, and as she 
r d^ u->on her splendid black horse, Liver- 
pool, the pjift of the soldiers of the fort, 
and named for her English birthplace, 
she was an object alike of fear, veneration 
and love. She had not the «oft, timid 
warp of a protected life, but would have 
offended us, doubtless, by her striking 
characteristics and untrammelled ways of 
speech and conduct. But the virtues oi 
the pioneer, the fire of patriotism, the love 
of all that is true and brave, shone irom 
her bold eyes and glorified her in the 
field of her ©Derations. 



This lay in that stretch of valley at 
Point Pleasant to the long distant settle- 
ments of the James and Potomac in Vir- 
ginia. Sir Galahad upon his white charger, 
adventuring forth in search of the Holy 
(irail does not lay stronger hold upon the 
imagination than does this lone woman 
u|)cn her black horse, riding in sunshine 
and darkness, frozen bleakness or dewy 
spring downs, through rugged canyons and 
b'jautiful valleys, over lofty mountains and 
densely wooded hills, in the holy cause of 
freedom. Such is the instinctive preju- 
dice of sex, however, such the marvelous 
glamour of time, that this woman, unsung 
and almost unknown, holds with difficulty 
our interest, for the moment only, in com- 
parison with Tennyson's well^sung, remote 
man-hero, further weighted with youth, 
beauty, and magnificently set forth in the 
paintings by Abby. A grateful people 
may yet show their appreciation, and the 
memory of Anne Bailey be perpetuated in 
some other enduring form, if not in lit- 
erature or song. • 

Among hundreds of instances of her dar- 
ing these are selected as illustrative of 
what has been said. Upon one of these 
long journevs from Point Pleasant to 
Charleston, a band of Indians discovered 
her and, raising the w^ar whoop, came on 
in hot pursuit. In order to escape, she 
dismounted and crept into a great hollow 
sycamore log. The Indians, coming u]), 
sat down to rest upon the log in which 
she was concealed ; soon others secured 
her horse and finally led him^away. After 
their departure, she left her hiding plao.e 
and, taking up the trail, followed it till 
late at night, when she came upon the party 
fast asleep. With incredible daring, she 
crept forward, untied her horse, mounted 
him and escaped, reaching the fort in 
safety. The tale that the Indian lays gen- 
tle hands only on the squaw, or that they 
believed Anne Bailey demented, does not 
appeal with any convincing power to the 
intelligence of the reader today. No one, 
insane, could invariably proceed with the 
calm, intrepid and always successful plans 
this great woman carried out, nor could 
she fail to be the victim of the Indian's 
vengeance in wigwam or before the coun- 
cil fires, had she fallen into his hands. 

It was necessarv when encamped, to 



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walk back some distance on the trail, to 
escape the vigilance of the savages, so 
that she was compelled always to let her 
horse go free, thus nightly cutting herself 
off from means of escape, should she be 
surprised and surrounded. But the ex- 
ploit which is not paralleled anywhere in 
our history, and which exhibits the high 
and .sustained character of Mrs. Bailey's 
heroism, occurred when the garrison under 
('aptain Clendennin was notified by a run- 
ner, sent from Captain Arbuckle at Point 
Pleasant, that a great attack upon him was 
planned by the Indians. They had a large 
force and would be upon the fort within a 
few days. Settlers were immediately sum- 
moned and with their women and children 
' came into the fort. At this juncture Clen- 
dennin found that the supply of ammuni- 
tion was not only low but was nearly ex- 
hausted. About one hundred and fifty 
miles lay between Charleston and Lewis- 
burg, (Point Pleasant). The country was 
the hunting ground of the savages, and 
not a settler's house dotted the entire dis- 
tance. Volunteers were called for. Who 
will be the man to immortalize his name 
bv undertaking the journey? Only one 
could be spared. He must go forth alone. 
Not one of the brave men who listen, 
though each is a man of daring and for- 
titude, is willing to face the hideous perils 
and almost certain death by torture, wild 
beasts or starvation. 

In this crisis a woman steps forward. 
She is short, unprepossessing in her stout 
boots and skirt, short flowing locks and 
man's coat. She speaks briefly, "I will 
go." This woman will, alone, climb the 
mountains, swim the rivers, meet the perils 
hideous to the minds of men — tenfold more 
hideous to the mind and person of a wo- 
man. Her trail will be followed for hours 
by wolves, waiting to attack her horse ; 
when encamped and night has set in, she 
will be compelled to make fires to keep at 
bay the creatures of the wild. To pro- 
tect herself, should she care to slumber, 
she must construct a bed by driving into 
the ground forked posts, adjust upon them 
rails and slats, cut bougb.s and lay herself 



thereon to escape the deadly rattle snake 
and copper head. At the very earliest 
break of the dawn she must replace her 
load upon the back of the faithful horse, 
if he lives through the journey, and gu 
forth to meet the still greater perils )f 
the day. Her resolve was instantaneous 
but made with entire knowledge of what 
she was to encounter. The commandant 
yielded and accepted the heroic service. 
History has preserved sufficient records of 
the journey, as to enable us to trace it on 
the map. Doing so, we marvel at the 
sublime daring of this woman, the terrific 
force of hatred, the majestic power of 
loyalty and love. Mrs. Bailey made the 
300 miles journey. She met and overcame 
all these perils and hardships. The fort 
could not have been saved except for the 
timely arrival of the ammunition which 
she brought, thus achieving a feat un- 
paralleled even among the many instanc fs 
of heroism in the history of that period. 

Near the close of her eventful life, she 
came to her son's home at Gallipolis. 
Having so loved the wild and free life 
of the frontier, even this son of her great 
love could not tempt her to live under 
his own roof, and her independent mind 
craved her own roof -tree. In a log house 
of her own she held court. Rough and 
strong, the fiber of both mind and body 
never lost its resiliency. The people fairly 
idolized her. She was loaded with gifts 
of every sort and treated with the greatest 
respect and kindness. She was never ill. She 
only ceased to breathe; having heard a 
great voice saying, "Come up higher" her 
soul answered swiftly, silently. She was 
said to have been 125 years old. 

Her services to her country, to the cause 
of freedom, and the inspiration of her 
brave deeds, should be the ample reason 
Jor raising some fitting memorial to her 
name. Instead of this, only the delver in 
old records, only the curious seeker afttr 
the unusual, finds her name, and the place 
of her burial is on a lonely hill near the 
site of her son's home, "in the solitude 
of the woods, unmarked bv a headstone. ' 



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CAHOKIA MOUND 

By Hon. E. O. Randall 

Secretary of the Ohio State Historical and Archaeological Society 



WHILE "doing" the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition, held at St. 
Louis during the year 1904, it 
was the privilege of the writer 
in company with a party which 
included several students of 
American archaeology, to make an inspec- 
tion of the world-famed Cahokia mound. 
We crossed the Mississippi to the Illinois 
side, over the colossal bridge, one of the en- 
gineering achievements of modern invention 
and skill, which, had it existed in the an- 
cient days or Oriental glory would have 
been regarded, if not the first, then easily 
the eighth wonder of the world. A half 
hours' ride on a swift speeding trolley car 
bore us inland some six miles and landed 
us almost at the base of the great mound — 
called respectively "Cahokia Mound," 
from the Indian tribe which formerly in- 
habited the locality, and the "Monks* 
Mound," from the fact that in the year 1810 
a colony of Trappists settled thereabouts 
and occupied a monastic building, which 
they erected on the summit of the mound. 
After only a few years' sojourn the solitude 
seeking religionists returned to France. But 
little evidence remains of their occupancy. 
The Mound Builders never failed to ex- 
ercise sagacious judgment in their choice of 
sites for habitation or the erection of their 
chief structures. No better place could 
"have been found for the great Cahokia and 
its surrounding mounds than in the upper 
Mississippi valley near the juncture of the 
Missouri from the west and the Illinois 
from the northeast, a strategical point on 
the main waterways of the vast Northwest. 
Por many miles below the entrance of the 
Missouri, the east side of the Mississippi 
broadens into a plain some eight or ten 
miles in width, interrupted by a line of 
bluffs which form its eastern boundary. 
This stretch of level surface composed of 



rich, fertile, alluvial deposit is known as 
the "American Bottom." Several creeks 
cross it from the eastern rise to the Missis- 
sippi and many little lakes formerly dotted 
the thick growths of timber and prolific 
underbrush, that in the early days must 
have clothed it. 

It was a prime hunting territory for 
primitive life of a prehistoric people. Near 
the center of this Bottom and just south 
of its chief stream, the Cahokia, stands to- 
day as it has stood for untold centuries, the 
most massive and imposing monument of 
the Mound Builders in this country and 
probably in the world. Surrounding this 
mound, within a radius of two or three 
miles, in a more or less perfect state of 
preservation, in varying shapes and sizes, 
from ten to sixty feet in height, are some 
fifty lesser mounds. At still greater dis- 
tances from the center structure, in groups 
or isolated instances, are many more. Great 
numbers have been obliterated. Doubtless 
in the days of the "Golden Era" of the 
Mound Builder, hundreds of mounds dot- 
ted the American Bottom. Scores of these 
strange earth-heaps originally occupied the 
site of St. Louis and were demolished to 
make way for the lengthening streets and 
spreading squares of that metropolis. On 
these banks of the mighty river must have 
flourished a vast population whose labors 
were almost incredible in their results as 
evidenced by the relics still extant. 

Cahokia Mound is a truncated rectangu- 
lar pyramid, rising to a height of one hun- 
dred feet above the original surface upon 
which it was built. The dimensions of its 
base are: from north to south, 1,080 feet, 
from east to west, 710 feet. The area of 
the base is therefore something over sixteen 
acres. This is a greater area than the base 
of the Pyramid of Cheops — the greatest 
of the Egyptian tombs. The mound was 



249 



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originally a curious series of receding ter- 
races, four in number. 'I'he peculiar de- 
sign will be better understood by the ac- 



PLAN OF CAHOKIA MOUND FROM AIIOVE, 
SHOWING WORN SIDES. 

companying illustrations, than by any at- 
tempted verbal description. 

In the plan representing the structure as 
appearing when viewed from above, the 
lowest terrace (B) is 500 feet from the 
east to the west and 200 feet from north 
to south. From the south face of that ter- 



The next terrace (D) has an elevation of 
ninety-seven feet above the original base 
surface. Near the center of that terrace 
there formerly stood a conical mound, long 
since destroyed. The fourth terrace (E) 
is now the most elevated platform of the 
mound. Its greatest height is one hundred 
feet above the plain or three feet above the 
third terrace ; it was probably higher in its 
original condition. The area of this sum- 
mit terrace is about 200 by 160 feet. The 
dark line on tlie left of the mound, leading 
from the base to the summit is a modern 
pathway for easy ascent. The contents of 
this mound have been estimated to consid- 
erably exceed < ne million cubic yards of 
earth ; and the labor of loading and un- 
loading this material or carrying it from a 
likely distance would occupy 2,500 men 
tw^o years, working every day in the year. 
There is no dispute among scientists con- 
cerning the conclusion that this is an arti- 
ficial mound. Geological demonstrations 
and archaeological explorations have indu- 
bitably determined that this enormous pile 
of earth was built by a primitive and pre- 
historic people, so far as any evidence can 
be shown, built by the hands with imple- 
ments of the crudest and most primitive 
character. This truncated, terraced form 
of mound had its analogy in many of the 
temples of Mexico and Central America, 
and indeed in many of the early works of 



CAHOKIA MOUND AS ORIGINALLY APPEARING. 



race, a point (A) having the appearance 
of a graded approach projects due south 
for a distance of about eighty feet. The 
second terrace (C) is at the present time 
badly gutted and worn away, which makes 
it difficult to ascertain the size or elevation. 



oriental nations. Such is the monarch, 
man-made mountain as it was raised above 
the plain in the midst of this Mound Build- 
ers' country. The first view, to the archae- 
ological student, is^ apt to be dispelling of 
a preconceived idea, w.hicli is that of the 



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CAHOKIA MOUND 



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mound in its architectural prime. Its orig- 
inal clear cut lines and arithmetical pro- 
portions are blunted from wear of age. 
Deep furrows have marred its sides and 
wrinkled its front. Though resisting val- 



on the mounds, typifying the conquest of 
civilization over savagery, the inevitable 
survival of the fittest. It was a scene for 
the historian and the philosopher, the artist 
and the poet. As one writer observes; 



CAHOKIA MOUND— EAST SIDE. 



iantly, it has bowed to the storms of nature 
and the vandal assaults of civilized man. 
We climbed its jagged flank to the sum- 
mit and stood upon the elevation that lifted 
us above the surrounding plain. It was an 
amiable afternoon in September; the sun 
had crossed the Mississippi and well on his 
way to the western horizon cast a mellow 
tone over the landscape that lay before us. 
The broad valley gave us a peaceful and 
pleasing view — stretching to the east till 
cut off by the dim outline of the uplands ; 
to the west to the great "Father of Wat- 
ers" which like an irresistible flood plowed 
its way to the Mexican Gulf. Round 
about on every hand, like contrasting fea- 



"There was a double presence which was 
forced upon the mind — the presence of 
those who since the beginning of historic 
times have visited the region and gazed 
upon this very monument and written de- 
scriptions of it, one after the other, until a 
volume of literature has accumulated; and 
the presence of those who in prehistoric 
times filled the valley with their works, but 
were unable to make any record of them- 
selves except such as is contained in these 
silent witnesses." Here certainly was one 
of the great centers, if not the chief center 
in the western continent, of this mysterious 
people. 

Many writers and students conclude 



CAHOKIA MOUND — WEST SIDE. 



tures of a race vanished and forgotten and 
a people now world-predominant, were in- 
terspersed the weather beaten and depleted 
niounds and the prosperous farm homes. 
In many instances these homes were built 



that if the Mound Builders of the ter- 
ritory now embraced in the United States 
had a central government, it must from 
all evidences have been located here 
in the American Bottom of the Mississippi 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



"valley. Here in great number were found 
their largest monuments, which bear testi- 
mony to their patience and industry and 
long sojourn. In the mounds and in the 
intervening fields were found astonishing 
quantities of human bones and crude stone 
implements, of war and domestic life, sim- 
ple but eloquent witnesses of the most 
primitive stage of human progress. No 
copper or iron implements were found. 
These people had never emerged from the 
age of stone. And was this gigantic 
earthen structure their temple, their reli- 
gious tabernacle, the "great central shrine 
of the Mound Builders' empire," "upon 
which," suggests one writer and distin- 
guished scholar, "one hundred feet above 
the plain, were their sanctuaries, glittering 
with barbaric splendor and where could be 
seen from afar the smoke and flames of 
the eternal fire, their emblem of the sun?" 
Or was it some mighty tomb erected to be 
the fitting mausoleiun of a great conqueror 
•or chief — some terrible Attila, or invinci- 
ble Alaric, a Caesar or Napoleon of savage 
days? 

Small wonder that the scene pre- 
sented from that Cahokia summit awak- 
ened one's curiosity and stirred one's imag- 
ination. Marvelous relic — preservation 
of a prehistoric people, looming like the 
dome of a cathedral from the level valley 
— the arena in which a vast race had lived 
and toiled, had come, seen and perhaps had 
<:onquered, achieved their ambitions and 
proudly expended their energies. A race 
of mystery, whence and when it came, 
whither or when it went, no man knoweth 
unto this day. All is locked in impenetra- 
ble secrecy. As my companions were dis- 
cussing the unsolved riddle of the past, I 
was reminded of Volney's Meditations on 
the "Ruins of Empires" — seated amid the 
demolished architectural splendors of Pal- 
myra in the Syrian plain of the historic 
Euphrates, there passed before his "mind's 
eye" the representatives of buried dynas- 
ties and dead faiths. What a chance was 
here at Cahokia for some historico-philo- 
sophic dreamer "to interrogate ancient 
monuments on the wisdom of past times." 
Surely here were the remains of a vast and 
vanished empire. In this valley of the 
Mississippi had flourished — who knows 



how long ago — a mighty nation. They 
had builded better than they knew, for 
their simple and stupendous structures had 
survived "the tooth of time and razure of 
oblivion." 

The Mound Builder had certainly 
founded his kingdom; it had flourished, 
for he had erected imperishable and 
inscrutable memorials; imposing structurj-* 
that survived ages and races. Could some 
wizard's wand recall the procession of the 
peoples who had made their entrees and 
their exits in this Mississippi valley, what 
a varied and graphic panorama would be 
unfolded! The Mound Builder had dwelt 
here in great numbers and power perhaps 
for ages, only to join "the innumerable 
caravan that moves to that mysterious 
realm" which is the destiny of races as of 
men; then came at least one other savage 
successor, the child of the forest, the In- 
dian; bitter and bloody was the struggle 
of his stay, but his happy hunting grounds 
were to be the dwelling place of the pale 
face. Yes, even the white intruder, the Eu- 
ropean emigrant, had made this American 
Bottom memorable; it had been the field 
of the national contest for supremacy in 
the Western World; in turn the Spaniard, 
the Frenchman, the Briton and the Ameri- 
can had struggled for this winning of the 
West; here DeSoto and his gaily attired 
Cavaliers had planted the flag of Castile 
and Arragon ; here the Jesuit priest and the 
adventurous Couriers de bois had sought 
favor with the redmen and claimed the 
basin of the Mississippi for La Belle 
France; here the insatiable Anglo-Saxon 
had supplanted the banner of the Bour- 
bons for the standard of St. George and 
the Dragon; and here that patriotic and 
dauntless "Washington of the West," Col- 
onel George Rogers Clark and his heroic 
little band of Virginia riflemen had car- 
ried in triumph the Stars and Stripes and 
saved the N(;rthwest Territory to the in- 
fant republic ; and now "last scene of all 
that ends this strange eventful history." 
the peaceful homes of the American farmer 
crown the summits of the temples of the 
Mound Builders. Is this the final chapter 
or are others yet to be written? Macau- 
ley, in his famous prophecy wrote: "She 
(Rome) saw tl^e commencement of all the 



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CAHOKIA MOUND 



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governments and of all the ecclesiastical 
establishments that now exist in the world ; 
and we feel no assurance that she is not 
destined to see the end of them all. She 
was great and respected before the Saxon 
had set foot on Britain, — before the 
French had passed the Rhine, — when 
Grecian eloquence still flourished at 
Antioch, — when idols were still worshiped 
in the temple of Mecca. And she may 
«till exist in undiminished vigor when 
some traveller from New Zealand shall, 
in the midst of a vast solitude, take his 
stand on a broken arch of London Bridge 
to sketch the ruins of St. Paul." 

So the Mound Builder was here be- 



fore European civilization found its foot- 
hold on the Western continent. His relics 
have survived centuries of civilized con- 
flict. Perhaps a cycle hence some represen- 
tative of another race yet unborn, may 
stand upon the sunmiit of Cahokia and as 
he wonders over its age and origin may 
look about him and witness the ruins of an 
antique American Republic, while he re- 
calls the epitaph from Byron : 

'There is the moral of all human tales; 

'Tis but the same rehearsal of the past. 
First freedom, and then glory — when that 
fails. 

Wealth, vice, corruption, — barbarism at last. 
And history, with all its volumes vast. 
Hath but one page." 



Just A-waitin' 



I>c win's a whisperin* in de wood — 
Lawd I'd be tha' ef I could. 

Yander wha de passom's waitin' ; 
But my laigs da kind o' groanin', 
An da lef me heah a moanin'. 

Case de,passom he's a waitin' — 
Jist a waitin' in de wood. 

He's done settin' da a thinkin' — 
Sort o' looks like ef he's winkin', 

Jist a winkin's case I'm waitin*. 
Well, he 'members many a wa'nin' 
Dat he got bofe night and ma'nin', 

Dat ol' Eb was da a waitin' — 
Jist a waitin' in de wood. 

or Miss Coon, she keep a smellin', 
An she got a way o' tellin', 

Tellin' wha ol' Eb is waitin' — 
V'aitin' down da by de pastur'. 
An walkin' slo — cain't walk no faster. 

Case he's ol' an sort o' waitin' — 
Jist a waitin' by de wood. 

or Miss Coon, she set ^n' giggle 
An de passom laf an wiggle. 

Case or Eb is jist a waitin'. 
Da sort o' know dat Eb am hon'in' 
Fer de home wha' da's no moanin', 

Wha or Mammy is a waitin' — 
Jist a waitin' in de wood. 



■ Wavxe. 



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TURTLE ISLAND IX LAKE ERIE NEAR TOLEDO. 

PICTURESQUE OHIO 

By HoUis Kight 



rHE scenic beauties of the Buckeye 
State, which formerly received 
^^____^ scant recognition in the strenu- 
^§^ ous strife of industrial develop- 

^^^ I ment peculiar to a region just 
beginning to realize its great 
possibilities in that direction, have during 
recent years obtained a prominence in the 
publishers' world formerly wholly denied 
them. Indeed, the indifference of the old 
times seems to have had a reaction, pro- 
ducing a fervor to extol her charms quite 
uncontrollable by admirers of Ohio's vary- 
ing landscapes. Where their beauty was 
fonnerly lost sight of, smoke stacks ap- 
pearing more alluring than rocky emin- 
ences aad clay beds more seductive than 
scenes of waving foliage, a general desire 
is now manifested to proclaim these nat- 
ural physical attractions from the house- 
tops, and especially to rush into print in 
cr>mmcmoration of them. 

The number of works illustrating Ohio 
scenes, now appearing from numerous 
presses within and beyond the State, is 
legion. Sad to relate, while some of them 
are authentic and legitimate, with a lit- 
erary preparation worthy of the theme, the 
most noticeable thing in connection with 
others is the odor of commercialism, not 
unconnected with the suspicion of "graft." 
But at any rate, the State's natural beau- 
ties are receiving the recognition that is 
their due ; there has been a general awak- 
ening of interest in the manifold charms 



of Buckeye scenery, and even the baser 
tributes to their allurements constitute a 
confession, heretofore wanting, that the 
world is aware of what Nature has wrought 
in the State of the Union which she has 
most abundantly favored. 

In passing it ^is no less than just to 
acknowledge the value of the services of 
many men and women in this State who 
are now devoting time and energy to the 
preservation, in many localities, of natural 
beauties in danger of destruction. These 
services have accomplished a great deal, 
and promise to accomplish much more, in 
rural communities, but in the vicinity of 
the large cities there is a lamentable lack 
of enthusiasm in this cause. Urban addi- 
tions are being made on all sides at an 
immense sacrifice of natural beauty. In 
the cities themselves there is an obvious 
neglect of shade trees, and with disheart- 
ening frequency the hand of commercial- 
ism despoils Nature near tivj centers «»f 
population. There has recently been in 
Cleveland a notable awakening from this 
lethargy, and in Columbus there is a half- 
hearted movement for a boulevard system 
and the redemption of the Scioto river 
banks from their present state of desola- 
tion and consecraticn to the tin can and 
the dump pile. In other cities, also, have 
occurred desultory whisperings relative to 
reclaiming some of the bygone natural 
beauties of these places, but as a rule, not- 
withstanding the enthusiasm of many good 



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PICTURESQUE OHIO 



255 



"jjeople for reform, the immediate neigh- 
liorhood of Ohio cities is an eyesore on 
the face of Nature. 

It is refreshing to turn from these neg- 
lected wastes and lost opportunities to 
the innumerable beauty spots that exist 
in all parts of Ohio, unmarred by the hand 
of Man or in other cases made more beau- 
tiful by his cultivation of the soil. The 
agricultural sections of a large part of the 
State have a restful pigturesqueness that 



them. But, notwithstanding the encroach- 
ments of commercialism, this region will 
never cease to afford scenes of unsurpassed 
beauty, in intermingled views of land, 
water and sky. 

Turtle Island is an insular gem in the 
vicinity of Toledo, well named for its 
shape. It is one of the large number of 
islands in Lake Erie insignificant in area 
but most grateful to the eye when seen at 
some distance. It is so isolated that its 



TALLAWANDA CREEK. NEAR OXFORD, BUTLER COUNTY 



is all their own, as may be readily imag- 
ined from some of the accompanying 
photographs ; and there still remains a 
large part of the rugged scenery of the 
State existing in all its pristine glory. 

Happily the shores and islands of the 
Great Takes retain their loveliness of 
older times, emphasized by the labor of 
the husbandman, except in some isolated 
cases, where the ruthless hand of the iron 
manufacturer or quarryman has defaced 



presence comes upon one as a surprise. 
Nature has done a great deal throughout 
the (Jreat Lakes to thus relieve the land- 
scape of a waste of water, and Turtle Is- 
land is a notable example of her work in 
this direction. 

The Muskingum valley presents count- 
less scenes of calm rural beauty, even with- 
out reference to the Muskingum river. 
The accompanying farm view discloses a 
valley that would be charming under any 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



circumstances, but the buildings that here 
dot the landscape and the cultivation ap- 
parent in the soil, certainly do not detract 
from its artistic value. Moreover, they 
tell a story of remunerative toil and 
abounding prosperity that affords the on- 
looker as great a sense of gratitude as 
the natural attractions of the locality. The 
generous proportions of the buildings are 
indicative of the agricultural richness of 
this region, but the restfulness of the 



Ohio," but there seems to be no end of the 
beauties which the camera may preserve in 
this section. The accompanying view of 
Mohican Creek, searching its way among 
the hills and on all sides refreshing the 
cool verdure of its banks, is most typical 
of Coshocton county. Yet v^ry much the 
same atmosphere pervades the environ- 
ments of far away Tallawanda Creek, near 
Oxford, in Butler county, some two hun- 
dred and fifty miles to the southwest across 



A MUSKINGUM VALLEY FAR^L 



Photo by .i, H. McDonald. 



-scene gives no hint of the industrial strug- 
gles of this age. The verdure of the sur- 
rounding hills affords a fine background 
for thi-i picture, whose interest as a farm 
scene it will be difficult to find surpassed 
anywhere. 

Coshocton county is noted for its fine 
views of rushing waters, rolling hills, green 
woodlands and fertile pastures. Previous 
articles in the present series have paid due 
tribute to this garden spot of ^'Picturesque 



the expanse of this great State. Talla- 
wanda Creek laves the bases of hills and 
cuts frequent deep and picturesque ravines, 
through which great torrents once undoubt- 
edly passed. 

Much wilder than either of these is the 
vicinity of the celebrated Rocky Fork 
stream in Highland county. It w-as in 
this romantic section that "The Romance 
of the Dry Cave," so admirably related 
and illustrated in a former article by Mrs. 



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MOHICAN CREEK. COSHOCTON COUNTY. Photo by C. M. Hay, 



A GROVE IN MARION COUNTY. Photo by F. H. Haskett, 



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THE OHIO MA(;AZINK 



Lena Kline Reed in I'hk Ohio Magazink, 
had its origin. Here also is "Ship Rock," 
already pictured in the presiMit series, and 
many other picturesque and awe-inspiring 
rock formations. The country fre'iuently 
api)ears as wild as in the aboriginal days. 
J'here is no doubt that Rocky Fork is an 
artery penetrating some of the most strik- 
ing scenes amid Nature's hiding places. 

Less thrilling but 'equally beautiful ap- 
pears the view in the vicinity of Dillon's 
Falls, on the Flicking river, near Zanes- 
ville. This stream, which flows through 
the romantic Hlack Hand country, dis- 
closes many of the scenic show spots of 
Ohio and fully sustains its reputation for 



gladdening the eye of man in the present 
illustration. 

Deserting Nature in her wilder moods, 
the accompanying views of a grove in Mar- 
ion county and a dairy scene in Franklin 
county bring peace to overwrought nerves. 
The artist was no goose himself when he 
included in it the geese seen in the first 
named picture, for they are even more ap- 
preciative of its charms than the human 
variety. 'J'he trees are oak, elm and maple 
— fine specimens of each species. It is a 
grateful retreat, but only one of thou- 
sands like it, which have been spared the 
axe of the woodman and still abound in 
the Buckeye State. 



A DAIRY HERD IN FRANKLIN COUNTY. 



Photo by Haskett. 



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Among Those Present 

By The Chronicler 

INCE their first tilling, the farms As a boy John L. Zimmerman, the emi- 

of Ohio have produced crops of nent lawyer of Clark county, was "Among 

men and women entitled to even Those Present" on a farm up in Mahon- 

greater precedence than the agri- ing county, in the early sixties, doing a 

Cultural products which are the farm boy's work and "growing up with the 

foundation of Buckeye pros- country." His grandfather had settled on 

perity and greatness.. Future generations a farm in Columbiana county, in 1803. 



5 



JOHN L. ZIMMERMAN. 

will never be able to pay adequate tribute Physically young Zimmerman grew with 

to the rural life of this period and pre- the cornstalks, whose heigh th he approxi- 

ceding years in Ohio, in view of what that mates today, and mentally he expanded 

life has contributed to the possibilities of through a process of hard work and study, 

happiness, progress and culture in the years His early education was obtained at the 

to come. country school, and in the winter of 1874 

261 



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rilK OHIO MAGAZINE 



he taught school and attended Mt. Union 
college. In the fall of 1875 he entered 
Wittenberg college at Springfield, to which 
institution he has ever since been devoted. 
He was graduated from Wittenberg with 



lias served twice as president of the Clark 
C'ounty Bar Association and has enjoyed 
a wide practice for year>, but aside from 
his engrossing legal business he has found 
time to become identified very prominently 



WILLIAM A. TAYLOR. 



honors in 1879 and for two years read law 
with Judge J. K. Mower. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in October, 1881, and 
began practice in Springfield, which he 
has continued uninterruptedly to the pres- 
ent time, in May, 1882. Mr. Zimmerman 



with tht' financial and industrial life of his 
secti(m of the State. 

Wittenberg has been a hobby and a pet 
with Mr. Zimmerman since he pursued his 
education there. He has been for some 
twenty-two years a member of the board 



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263 



of directors, serving part of the time as 
president. Among his public benefactions 
is the Zimmerman Memorial Library of 
Wittenberg college, a most admirable evi- 
dence of his interest in education. He has 
also been for a long time a director of 
the Warder Free Library of Springfield, 
has served as presid^t of the National 
Improvement League of America, an or- 
ganization devoted to the physical improve- 
ment of cities and villages, and has at 



so long manifested in public affairs, muni- 
cipal, state and national. He has been a 
prominent and consistent Democrat in 
Ohio, from his youth to the present time, 
and may well be regarded as fit material 
for any demand which that party may 
make in the future in the way of individual 
public service. A good many years ago 
he showed his running qualities by mak- 
ing a phenomenal canvass for ('ongress on 
the Democratic ticket in a heavily Repub- 



l-'RAN'CIS MACMILLEX. 



various times served prominently in other 
public capacities not connected with polit- 
ical preferment or hope of material re- 
^vard. In 1889 Mr. Zimmerman was mar- 
ried to Miss Helen E. Ballard, the daugh- 
ter of a representative Springfield family, 
and they have two children. Mr. Zimmer- 
man and family have but recently returned 
from a Summer outing in Europe. 

Mr. Zimmerman is perhaps most widely 
known on account of the interest he has 



lican district, leading a forlorn hope at 
the call of his party and for the good of 
the cause. In the Democratic State Con- 
vention of 1903 Mr. Zimmerman had a 
large following for the nomination for gov- 
ernor, and his friends "have always claimed 
that he had a majority of the duly elected 
delegates. The organization of the con- 
vention, however, was in other hands, and 
radical methods resulted in another nom- 
ination. It is not known that Mr. Zim- 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



merman has any further politic al ambition. 
He is devoted to his family, his profes- 
sion and his business interests. With these 
he divides attention and service as a loyal 
sui)porter of the Evangelical Lutheran 
church, in which he has loni; bi^en a prom- 
inent fii^ure. In his personal aspect Mr. 
Zimmerman is a most approachable man, 
who sustains cordial relations toward a 
very large circle of friends. He is sympa- 
thetic and responsive, but deliberate in 



Almost everybody knows that Colonel 
Taylor was born in Perry county, because 
Perry county is so proud of that fact that 
she nL'ver fails to emphasize it when the 
opportunity offers itself. It is not neces- 
sary to state when this interesting event 
occurred, but that it was comj>aratively 
recent will be at ctnce conceded by any 
observer who will note the scope and in- 
tensity of Colonel Taylor's present activity. 
The subject of this sketch was educated 



CHARLES KIXNEY. 



judgment. As a farm product he deserves 
to rank with the best. 

JouRXAiJST, soldier, lawyer, author and 
orator — all these in one man — indicate 
a kind of universal genius or an intellect- 
ual Jack of all trades; but in this case 
Jack, far from being "good at none," is 
an adept in all those mentitmed. He is 
William Alexander Favlor, of Columbus, 
Ohio. 



in the country schools of Harrison town- 
ship and, like many another eminent 
( )hioan, himself became a teacher before 
hii twentieth year. At that age, in com- 
pany with John R. Meloy and Perry J. 
Ankeney, he bin^ame a part proprietor of 
the veteran news] aper now known as the 
New Lexington Herald. Meanwhile he 
was reading law as a side issue to journal- 
ism, and was admitted to the bar at the 
age of 21. Four years later he joined the 



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editorial staff of the Cincinnati Enquirer, 
under Washington McLean and J. J. Far- 
an. Later he was chief editorial writer on 
the Pittsburg Post and at other periods 
assistant managing editor of the New York 
Sun undtT Amos Cummin gs and manag- 
ing editor of the Pittsburg Telegraph. 
For a time he was associated with Charles 
(;. Halpin (Miles O'Riley) and Robert 
B. Roosevelt on the New York Citizen, a 



belongs to "the old school" and the best 
school of American journalism — a fitting 
although a modern representative of that 
pure journalistic era made memorable by 
such men as Thurlow Weed and William 
CuUen Lryant. 

In addition to his newspaper activity 
Colonel Taylor has found time to become 
the author of numerous literary, historical 
and statistical w'orks. "Roses and Rue" 



HORACE L. ClIAPMAX. 



literary weekly. In later years Colonel 
Taylor has done a vast amount of cor- 
respondence and general editorial and fea- 
ture work for many of the leading news- 
papers of the Middle West. His journal- 
istic writings throughout his career have 
been noteworthy for the firm and consist- 
ent convictions they expressed, their evi- 
dent sincerity of purpose and admirable 
literary style. In a word. Colonel Taylor 



is a type cf the first class named, "Ohio 
in Congress" of the second, and "Ohio 
Annals" of the third. He has written 
numerous poems that will live because they 
deserve to do so, and in this connection 
his name is not unfamiliar to readers of 
Thk Ohio Mac.azink. 

Among his notable prose articles in these 
columns should be mentioned "Revolu- 
tionary Soldiers Buried in Ohio," (July, 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



1906), and ''Living Ohio Sons of Revolu- 
tionary Sires," (February, 1907). The 
titles of these articles are indicative of 
Colonel Taylor's deep interest in Revolu- 
tionary subjects. For years he has been 
prominently identified with* the National 
Society Sons of the American Revolution 
and has filled the most important positions 
and performed the most laborious and 
valuable service as an officer and member 
of the Ohio Society of the same organiza- 
tion. He comes naturally by this liking 



ceeded in delivering om electoral vote to 
. President Cleveland in this Republican 
State. In the Democratic State Conven- 
tion of 1893 Colonel Taylor was defeated 
for the nomination for governor by the 
late Lawrence T. Neal, by only a few 
• votes, and was then nominated for lieuten- 
ant governor by acclamation. When, in 
1 906, there was a demand for a Democratic 
leader in the Twelfth Congressional Dis- 
trict against certain defeat, Colonel Taylor 
did not hesitate to make the sacrifire. He 



BRAND WIIITLOCK. 



for the traditional and historical, for his 
ancestors were Revolutionary patriots and 
he himself a soldier of the Civil War, dur- 
ing which he was one of five brothers and 
eight nephews out of the same family in 
the ranks of the Union Army. 

Since 1878 Colonel Taylor has resid^'d 
in Columbus, a prominent figure in the 
social and political life of the capital. As 
the I)emo( ratic candidate for secretary of 
state of Ohio in 1892 he came within a few 
hundred votes of being elected and suc- 



has never, however, been a seeker after 
office, although he has long been known 
throughout the State as an untiring and 
faithful servant of his party. At the pres- 
ent time none of his many activities are 
lessened on account of advancing years, 
and he is evidently destined to fill a wide 
sphere of usefulness in the future. 

In the musical culture of Ohio perhaps 
the foremost figure at the present time i? 
Mr. Francis Macmillen, the eminent youn? 



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267 



-\merican violinist, and one of the few of 
his countrymen who have attained inter- 
national musical prominence. 

Mr. Macmillen was born at Marietta, 
October 14, 1885, and first demonstrated 
liis genius for the violin at the tender age 
of five years, while residing with his 
family in Springfield, where he received 
his first instruction. So rapidly did he 
progress that at the age of seven he was 
taken to Chicago, where, as a pupil of the 
CMcago Musical College, he displayed 
such remarkable promise that he was sent 
to Berlin to continue his studies. Here, 
as a pupil in the Royal High School un- 
der the instruction of Dr. Joachim, he at- 
tained a reputation as a youthful prodigy 



Macmillen's debut in London four years 
ago, when he played at Queen's Hall, as- 
sisted by the Queen's Hall orchestra under 
the direction of Henry J. Wood, is said 
to have marked an epoch in music in Lon- 
don. So extravagant were the critics in 
[)raise of the young violinist that his Eng- 
lish reputation was practically made at one 
stroke. For three years following he 
played in concert throughout England and 
Europe. Last year he made his first Am- 
erican tour after an absence of ten years, 
!)eing assisted in his debut concert in New 
York by the New York Symphony Orches- 
tra, under Walter Damrosch. In all Mac- 
millen played over ninety concerts in Am- 
erica last vear. 



\ 



WILLIAM H. ANTRIM. 

"The Santa C'laus Postmaster" of Lebanon, Ohio. 



SO marked that solicitation for his attend- 
ance at other conservatories in Europe 
eventually resulted in his being placed at 
the Royal Conservatory at Brussels, where 
he became a pupil of Caesar Thomson. 
Here, at the age of sixteen, at the annual 
concour in June, he was declared the lau- 
reate of the Conservatory and given "the 
Grand Prix with greatest distinction," to- 
gether with the Van Hal cash prize. 

The young musician's triumph recorded 
the first instance in the history of the Con- 
servatory when such honors were won by 
an American. So elated were his country- 
men who were in Brussels at the time, that 
in an enthusiastic demonstration they car- 
ried him on their shoulders through the 
streets of the citv. 



At Marietta, his birthplace, he was re- 
corded a reception such as seldom falls to 
the lot of any artist. It was estimated 
that 5000 people met him at the train 
when he arrived at his old home. Escorted 
by the Marietta band, he was taken to the 
steps of the court house, where he played 
"Home, Sweet Home" before a silent mul- 
titude. A score of enthusiastic students of 
the Marietta College removed the horses 
from his carriage and, attaching a rope, 
drew it through the city streets, finally 
arriving at the door of the old homestead 
in w^hich he was born. Here he was ac- 
corded a second ovation. During his brief 
stay in Marietta the schools were dismissed 
by order of the board of education, the 
streets were decorated with banners and 
the occasion of his visit made a festival. 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



The June number of I'he Ohio Maga- 
zine contained one article of more import- 
ance to the business interests of Ohio than 
co.uld be readily obtained from any other 
source than its able and experienced au- 
thor, Hon. Charles Kinney, former Secre- 
tary of State and a prominent member of 
the Franklin County Bar. Mr. Kinney's 
subject was "Ohio As a Field for Cor- 
porate Investment," and his exhaustive 
treatment of this theme received wide at- 
tention and most favorable comment. Ac- 
cording to his custom in all practical 
affairs, Mr. Kinney went to the bottom of 
things in his preparation of this paper, the 
material for which could not have been 
gathered without much labor and research 
among the pigeon holes and musty tomes 
of the archives of the State House at Co- 
lumbus and industrious delving into the 
statistics gathered by the census depart- 
ment and the reports of the comptroller of 
the treasury of the Ihiited States. The re- 
sult will stand for a long time as the last 
word re(juired to show what the State of 
Ohio offers the financial world as a field 
for safe and profitable investment. 

Mr. Kinney comes from old Revolu- 
tionary stock, and his later ancestors were 
Ohio pioneers. His great grandfather, 
Aaron Kinney, came to Ohio from Penn- 
sylvania in 1804, the year following the 
Buckeye State's admission to the Union, 
and settled at the mouth of the Scioto river 
on the present site of the city of Ports- 
mouth. Dr. Thomas Waller, another great 
grandfather on the maternal side, was the 
first representative in the State Legislature 
from Scioto county following its creation 
in 1803. The subject of this sketch, 
although of Buckeye parentage, was born 
in the village of Springville, Kentucky, 
just opposite Portsmouth. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools and learned the 
trade of a printer, which he followed un- 
til twenty-one years of age. Later he 
studied law% entered the bar and "drifted 
into politics," as the saying goes. At any 
rate, since this early period of his career, 
the greater part of his life has been de- 
voted to the public service. 

Among various offices which Mr. Kinney 
has held are those of county treasurer of 
Scioto county and secretary of state, to the 
latter of which he was elected in 1896 and 



re-elected in 1893, retiring to the practice 
cf law in Columbus in 1901. In 1879 he 
married Letitia H. Yoakley, daughter of 
John Voakley, of Portsmouth. 

Mr. Kinney has exercised a considerable 
influence in Ohio politics at different times 
and has been the friend and adviser of 
some of the foremost men this State has 
produced. He is untiring in industry and 
possesses a great fund of practical infor- 
mation regarding both industrial and po- 
litical affairs. Perhaps it is not to be ex- 
pected that a man thus describe.! would 
also disclose pronounced literary tastes, but 
this is the case with Mr. Kinney, who is 
not only a reader of good literature but has 
produced some very praiseworthy poetic 
work. 

Thai- rare but desirable type of Am- 
erican citizenship, the business man who 
does not spurn public responsibilities or 
turn a deaf ear to the appeals of his party, 
is well represented in Horace L. Chapman, 
of Jackson and Columbus, Ohio. — coal 
operator, iron manufacturer, banker, mer- 
chant and aggressive Democrat. Mr. 
Chapman is all of these, with the vim and 
vigor that has been characteristic of him 
since as a youth he founded his fortunes 
by hard work in what was then little more 
than an Ohio wilderness. 

Mr. Chapman comes of English an- 
cestry. The earliest representatives of his . 
family on American shores came hither 
about 16K). Their descendants were sol- 
diers of the Revolution and of the War of 
1812. The subject of this sketch was born 
in Independence, Allegheny County, New 
York, in 1837. He received the education 
obtainable in the public schools of that 
period, but came to Ohio at the age of 
si^vente^n, arrivin*^ in C'olumbus and pro- 
ceeding thence by stage to Portsmouth, for 
there were no railways in the Southern 
Ohio valley at that time. At Portsmouth 
he established himself in business with an 
uncle in the lumber trade and remained a 
citizen of that town until 1865. Beyond 
his early education in Pennsylvania he be- 
came his own educator, read law and was 
admitted to the bar, but never practiced. 

In 1865 Mr. Chapman entered th? pri- 
vate banking business at Portsmouth un- 
der the firm name of Kinney and Chap- 



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pan, but about this time removed to Jack- 
^n and established another private bank, 
Which became a national bank in 1870, 
and of which he has been since its organ- 
kation, and still is, president. Somewhat 
later he entered the coal and iron busi- 
ness and was instrumental in the construc- 
tion of the present Detroit & Southern 
Railroad and the [ronton division of the 
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroad. 
For forty years Mr. Chapman has been 
prominent in the development of the Jack- 
son coal fields, and his interests have been 
continually diversifying themselves among 
a multitude of industries. Some years ago 
he moved to Columbus, where he now re- 
sides the greater part of the time, although 
he still retains a residence in Jackson, 
where his popularity is proverbial. 

Mr. Chapman has been a lifelong Dem- 
(KTat. He was twice elected city treas- 
urer of Portsmouth and while residing in 
Jackson served on the school board and as 
a member of the town council. He re- 
peatedly declined the nomination for Con- 
gress from the Jackson district- at times 
when it was equivalent to election, the 
district bein'^ reliably Democratic. In 
1897 he was nominated for governor by 
the Democratic State convention and at 
the ensuing election reduced the Repub- 
lican [)lurality of 92,000, the record of the 
previous year, to 28,000, which, stood as 
the banner record of a Democratic guber- 
natorial candidate in Ohio from that time 
to the election of (Governor Pattison in 
1906. For years Mr. C'hapman has been 
an influential factor in the counsels of his 
party. On numerous occasions he has 
l)een a district delegate to National con- 
ventions and was a delegate at large to 
the National convention at Kansas City 
in 1900. Mr. Chapman is one of the most 
vigorous campaigners produced by modern 
politics. He is a forceful orator and en- 
joys a keen insight into political affairs 
possessed by few men. Withal he is faith- 
ful to his large business interests and de- 
voted to his family. Quite naturally his 
value as a citizen is attested by a great 
multitude of loyal friendships throughout 
OTiio and extending far beyond her bord- 
ers. 

The literary temperament is not found 
in the public life of America as frequently 



as in Europe, but recent instances of it in 
this connection rather tend to confirm the 
idea that in future it will play a larger 
part in the affairs of government than 
heretofore. Indeed, the presidency itself 
does not seem to be unsusceptible to the 
encroachments of the literary temperament 
upon our most vital public affairs, for 
President Roosevelt was more distinctively 
a man of letters than a soldier or a poli- 
tician prior to his nomiitation for Vice- 
president on the ticket with President Mc- 
Kinley. P'rom this high demonstration of 
the place which the modern literary man 
may take in the statesmanship of the day, 
it is not unreasonable to presume that in 
cases of lesser prominence there may be 
proportionately striking examples of it. 

Mayor Brand W'hitlock of Toledo 
affords evidence that a political career is 
not distasteful to the literary temperament 
and may be of great advantage in working 
out its problems. His latest successful 
novel, **The Turn of the Balance," would 
hardly have been written if its author had 
not encountered some of the experiences 
due to his political position. Prior to this, 
however, Mr. Whitlock indicated that he 
had a strong interest in affairs political, 
in other works for which he made practical 
politics the vehicle. 

Especial interest attaches to the mayor 
of Toledo just now, on account of some 
of the questions that are uppermost among 
the municipal governments of Ohio. Here, 
for instance, are his views regarding some 
phases of the liquor traffic, recently ex- 
pressed in a well known magazine. 

Said Whitlock: "In the State of Ohio 
the Constitution declares that the liquor 
traffic shall not be licensed, and so we do 
not license it. We tax it. There is a 
very learned decision of the Supreme 
Court which will tell you the moral and 
legal difference between a license and a 
tax, but as nobody ever reads Supreme 
Court decisions unless he is paid for it, 
I presume it would be useless to give you 
the citation. Now Ohio, in her disap- 
proval of the liquor traffic, used to tax 
the saloons $350 a year. Then we thought 
of raising it to $1000. That is to say. the 
State of Ohio, which does not believe in 
the liquor traffic and thinks it is wrong, 
was dissatisfied with its share of the pro- 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



ceeds of the sin and demanded a tax nearly 
three times as large. From this we learn 
that the liquor traffic is a very wicked 
thing, that we disapprove of it and that 
we will not license it. For that last would 
be to say that we are going into partner- 
ship with the saloonkeeper; so, instead, 
we just shake him down." 

Mayor Whitlock permits in Toledo what 
is known as the "open Sunday." It is said 
of him that he would no more think of de- 
priving a respectable citizen of his Sun- 
day beer and driving him to church, than 
of entering the church and driving forth 
the congregation to join the beer-drinking 
population. 

Mayor Whitlock is a non-partisan in his 
■appointments to office. He has appointed 
men of all parties and regards fitness as 
the essential thing. He believes that it is 
the duty of every citizen to take an interest 
in public affairs and serve his fellow citi- 
zens in office when conditions indicate that 
•such service may be valuable and under- 
taken with propriety. *Tt seems to me," 
he says, "that men should live one consist- 
ent life, and their business, their politics 
and their religion should be one and the 
•same thing." 

Mayor Whitlock was born March 4, 
1869, at Urbana, Ohio. He is descended 
on his father's side from the Whit locks 
who came to America early in the 17th 
century, settling first in Massachusetts and 
spreading later to New Jersey and Wash- 
ington. On his mother's side he is de- 
scended from the Brands of Virginia and 
Kentucky. The Brand family came to 
Virginia from Scotland, where for gener- 
ations they had lived in Forfarshire, near 
Dundee. The Virginia branch of the fam- 
ily was founded by a Brand who was a 
Jacobite exile. Major Joseph C. Brand, 
Mayor Whitlock's grandfather, and one of 
the founders of the Republican party, was 
one of the earliest Abolitionists and helped 
to operate the underground railroad at his 
home in Urbana. His connection with the 
last fugitive slave case is set forth at length 
in Howe's history of Ohio and is mentioned 
bv William Dean Ho wells in his "Stories 
of Ohio." 

When his father, a Methodist clergyman, 
was appointed presiding elder for the To- 
ledo district in 1884, Brand Whitlock came 



to Toledo. He was then fifteen years old. 
He attended the local schools and took a 
course at the Toledo High School. After 
he finished his studies he became a reporter 
and worked on several of the Toledo news- 
papers. At the age of twenty-one he went 
to Chicago and for several yfears acted as 
special reporter and political editor of the 
Chicago Herald, reporting the sessions of 
the Illinois legislature and attending all 
conventions. In 1893 he was appointed 
by (Governor Altgeld as his secretary. He 
began to study law soon after coming to 
Chicago and continued his studies in 
Springfield under Senator John M. Palmer, 
who was Democratic candidate for presi- 
dent on the Gold Democrat ticket in 1896. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1894. In 
1895 he married Miss Ella Brainerd, niece 
of Senator Palmer. Early in June of 1897 
Mr. Whitlock resigned his post on the 
Chicago Herald and gave up the news- 
paper business, to practice law. He re- 
turned to Toledo in June, 1897, and en- 
tered into the active practice of law and 
has continued therein ever since. 

Before he went to Toledo, Mayor Whit- 
lock had begun to write short stories and 
articles for magazines. His first book, 
"The Thirteenth District," appeared in 
1892. It was called by Ex-president 
Grover Cleveland the best political novel 
ever written. It was followed by "Her 
Infinite Variety" in the Spring of 1904 
and "The Happy Average" in the fall of 
the same year. His latest book and his 
most important work so far, "The Turn of 
the Balance," was published in March, 
1907, and at once created a sensation. It 
is a study of our methods of dealing with 
criminals and an indictment of our entire 
legal system in the procedure and punish- 
ment of crime. 

In November, 1905, Mr. Whitlock was 
elected Mayor of Toledo on an independ- 
ent ticket, in a field of five candidates. 

The postmasters of American cities and 
villages are legion, but there is only one 
who bears the proud distinction of being 
known as "the Santa Claus postmastej," 
rivalling old St. Nick himself in the 
affections of the children within the scope 
of his official jurisdiction. This signally 



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AMONG THOSE PRESENT 



271 



honored servant of Uncle Sam is William 
H. Antrim, postmaster of Lebanon, Ohio. 

It is declared of Mr. Antrim that if one 
were to ask any child in Warren county — 
or in the greater part of Southern Ohio, 
for that matter — "Who is the postmaster 
of Lebanon?" the instant answer would be, 
"Billy Antrim, our Santa Glaus." 

And this is how it all comes about. 
Prior to Mr. Antrim's advent in the Leb- 
anon postoffice the childish communications 
mailed at that place about Christmas time 
and addressed to Santa Glaus, received 
scant courtesy. There were hundreds of 
beseeching missives suggesting the desires 
of many juvenile, hearts, but no substan- 
tial responses. When Mr. Antrim came 
into office a sudden change took place, 
and stockings that had been hung up in 
vain in former years were filled direct by 
Santa Glaus through the Lebanon post- 
office. On each recurring Ghristmas day 
"the Santa Glaus postmaster" remembered 
in some manner each child in Warren 
county and the orphans of the Ohio Sol- 
diers and Sailors Orphans* Home at Xenia. 
The result was such a spontaneous out- 
burst of childish thanks that this bene- 
factor of the rising generation repeated 
the remembrance on Valentine's day. At 
no time since has a Ghristmas holiday gone 
by in his bailiwick without a repetition of 
this manifestation of good will toward the 
children of Warren county. As an "argu- 
ment" against his appointment for a sec- 



ond term, it was even urged by some of his. 
opponents that it should be denied him be- 
cause he had permitted the children to- 
blockade the passages of the local post- 
office, to the detriment of general business- 
during the busy holiday season. 

But the Santa Glaus postmaster knew a 
thing or two himself. He buckled on the 
armor of a righteous cause and went to* 
Washington, to see President Roosevelt 
and the postmaster general. His fame 
had gone before him, and he obtained a 
personal interview with both, each of 
whom declared that it was well worth 
dropping weightier affairs of state for the 
privilege of meeting the man who had the 
nerve to treat the children of a whole 
county, besides seven hundred orphans. 
What else transpired at these interviews 
is not related, but Mr. Antrim returned 
to Lebanon with one of those smiles that 
won't come off and a firm determination to 
retain the office, as well as the title, of the 
Santa Glaus postmaster. Suffice it to say 
that he succeeded — so well, indeed, that 
his incumbency promises to be unusually 
protracted. 

Mr. Antrim was born in Harvtysburg. 
Ohio, in January, 1860. The earlier years^ 
of his life were passed in that village, 
where he became known for his genial 
good nature in all the country round about. 
He removed to Lebanon and has been post- 
master of that town since 1902. 




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Fresh Air and Mrs. White 

By William Harley Porter 




HE president of the (luild looked 
inquiringly — almost searchingly 
— around the room. This be- 
ing recognized as a final official 
review of those present, and in 
the belief that a motion to ad- 
journ would be at once entertained, there 
was a gentle sound of lady- like scuffling, as 
hands were furtively reached about for 
wraps and overshoes. 

But before the formal words could be 
offered, a tall woman arose from a seat 
directly in front of the president, turned 
halfway toward the assembly, beamed 
effusively through her large round glasses, 
and began to speak rapidly in a soft, 
wheedling voice. 

"I've just been thinking — " 

A rap of the gavel sharply amputated 
the words that had been spoken, and sim- 
ultaneously dried up their source for a 
moment. The tall woman turned toward 
the chair and made a nervous gesture in 
its direction. 

"Oh, Myra, you do cut a person off so 
short! I was just going to say — " 

"Well, then, Mrs. Ross," snapped the 
wielder of the gavel, "say it right. Here 
we've just paid the bill for our books on 
parliamentary etiquette, and you don't 
seem to have looked in one of them, even." 

The tall disturber of the peace sniiled 
deprecatingly upon the president, whose 
face grew very red. 

"Well, Myr — Madame President; was 
that right?"' 

A bow from the chair. 

"I've just been thinking, girls." The 
chairman laid down the gavel with an air 
of despairing resignation. "I believe that 
I know a way that this Guild can do some 
grand, good work ; some noble work. I 
don't really know whether we should do 
it with this organization, or with a small- 



er one to be formed within it. Sort of a 
wheel within a wheel, you know. What 
do you think?" 

The president straightened up. "Per- 
haps," she said, quite slowly and rather 
icily, "if you will make your suggestion in 
the form of a motion, we shall be able to 
discuss it in an orderly fashion." 

"Now, Myra, please don't use that 
hammer on my poor little idea. I'll ad- 
. mit that you're just the right person to do 
the knocking — it seems to come awfully 
natural — but I've just got to tell this in 
my own way." 

Several of the younger members bright- 
ened up at this, with evident pleasurable 
anticipations of further amenities. No 
response being deigned by the chair, how- 
ever, the speaker continued. 

"I think we could form a Fresh Air 
Circle that would do ever so much good 
in this town, don't you? I've been read- 
ing about the work in other places and it 
seems to me that we have a wonderful op- 
portunity right here. All that think so 
please hold up their hands.'" 

The vote was most reassuring. So much 
so, indeed, that the tall woman seemed 
slightly oppressed by so full a measure of 
success, and turned toward the chair as if 
for guidance. 

"Go right ahead — since you've got this 
far, Mrs. Ross." There was still some 
frost in the chairman's voice. 

"Well, now, I certainly don't want to 
spoil anyone's meeting. Perhaps we had 
better not make this a Guild affair. Say, 
girls, suppose you all come over to our 
house tomorrow night. I can think better 
there." 

Mrs. Ross subsided awkwardly, the 
Guild was formally adjourned, and as the 
ladies left the parish house there was a 
lively twittering over the proposition that 



272 



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FRESH AIR AND JVIRS. WHITE 



273 



had been projected into the meeting. But 
to a fusilade of questions Mrs. Ross made 
only one reply. 

''Not now," she said, "wait until I have 
consulted Jethro.'* However, when the 
matter was tentatively laid before the head 
of the Ross household, that personage 
seemed vastly more amused than im- 
pressed. Indeed, he chuckled with such 
evident delight that Mrs. Ross fidgeted 
most uneasily in her chair. 

"Now Jethro," she said, "don't laugh." 

"But, my dear, look at the thing sensi- 
bly," he replied. "Is there a man, wom- 
an or child in this town — the breeziest one 
on Lake Erie — who can't get all the air 
anyone needs by just going to the door? 
Fresh air? Heavens! that's the one thing 
we certainly have a-plenty. This is no 
shut-in, slum town. But what is your 
idea? I'd really like to know. May be 
I've got a wrong notion." 

"Well," came the hesitating reply, "I 
thought it would be so nice to get some 
old folks out for a day. Make them for- 
get their — their humble surroundings, you 
know. Some sort of a trip — " 

"Have you picked out your old folks?" 

"Why yes. That is, I've thought of one 
lHK)r woman — old Mrs. White." 

Mr. Ross exploded in a roar of laugh- 
ter that made his w^ife bite her lip nerv- 
ously. 

"Mrs. White! Well, that's good.. 
That's most too good. And I'm laying 
out an addition almost to her door, and 
am going to advertise it as the most sal- 
ubrious spot in the state." 

"Vou might treat my ideas with a little 
more dignity, Jethro." 

"Ves. but Mrs. White! Perched up 
there on ground that I wish I owned — " 

"Well, she does n't own it." 

"No, she doesn't. She's living in an 
old tumble down house that is a relic of 
what was once the finest farm in the coun- 
ty. And all frittered away. I should 
think she would like to get out of sight of 
the place for a day — or several of them. 
But really she has never wanted for 
Heaven's refreshing breezes, and all that 
sort of thing. What do you want to do; 
jolt her around the country in an automo- 
bile? Say, I'll tell you Avhat really would 
he a good thing. Get your Guild to go 



up on the hill beside her for a basket pic- 
nic. That would be the greatest good for 
the greatest number." 

Hut at the meeting on the following 
evening, Mrs. Ross was gratified by the 
enthusiastic support of a majority of the 
Guild. 

"A splendid idea, my dear." 

"So sweet." 

"And Mrs. White; the very person." 

"W^hat sort of a trip shall we give her?" 

'Inhere was only one dissenting voice, 
and that was owned by the president of 
the (Juild. "1*11 not say that I disapprove 
of the plan," she announced in a judicious 
tone, that indicated, however, some slight 
effort at condescension, "but I don't think 
that we should call it a Guild affair until 
we have tried it. Until we have had a 
successful test case, that is. Now let's see 
Mrs. White and ask her if she would like 
a little trip, and if she does, we will give 
it to her. If everything goes nicely — and 
I'm sure I'm very hopeful that it will, we 
will do more of that sort of thing — as a 
(iuild, that is." 

The buzz of approbation indicated thait 
Madame President had her Guild well in 
hand again. But this was evidently not 
ijuite her purpose, for she swiftly turned 
to the hostess.. 

"Where do you intend to send her — or 
take her — Mrs. Ross?" 

"Oh, just for a day's trip, somewhere. 
I'd thought of Put-in- Bay." The destina- 
tion was brought out in a hesitating way. 

"Fine." 

"The very place." 

"How lovely!" 

The chorus of assent was balm to Mrs. 
Ross' soul and she beamed pleasantly upon 
the group around her. 

"Well then," inquired the eminently 
practical president, "who is going to take 
her?" 

"Oh, don't let's take her," exclaimed 
Mrs. Ross. "Let's let her go alone. We'll 
fix up a nice lunch, give her some money 
to go around the island — and go in bath- 
ing if she wants to. Let's let her enjoy 
herself just in her own way. Why it would 
be almost sacrilege to hang around a per- 
son at such a time. She wouldn't be so 
free, don't you know. I'd think it would 



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274 



rHE OHIO MAGAZINE 



hardly be nice to slare at so much real 
happiness." 

She caljght lier breath and looked at 
the interested faces on either side. "Oh, 
girls," she went on, with a voice that fair- 
ly trembled with entliusiasni and emotion 
combined, "can't you just see her now? 
Can't you imagine her walking about that 
beautiful place just — just letting herself 
out? I can hear her crooning to herself 
some half forgotten song of her child- 
liood as she watches the waves roll up on 
the beach. How memories of bye- gone 
days will crowd upon her I How she will 
enjoy that ridel Think of what it will 
mean to her, after all these years, to sail 
out in the beautiful morning — sail toward 
the rising sun. Why. girls, I don't sup- 
pose she's been on a big steamboat in 
years; perhaps never in her whole life — 
her whole long, narrow life. 

"Think of her first view of the smaller 
islands she will pass. They'll be old, old 
friends or else new wonders. And can't 
you see her as the boat nears the wharf? 
How the pretty green park will appeal to 
her. And then the ride back in the glor- 
ious summer afternoon. It will be just 
heavenly !" 

*T wouldn't make the trip again for fivQ 
dollars," announced the president, and* 
then, as she saw Mrs. Ross' face fall she 
hastily added, "but I've made it so often, 
my dear. It will be different with her — 
if she will go. Do you think she will?" 
"We can find that out tomorrow." sug- 
gested one of the Guild members. "Sup- 
pose we all ride over there in the after- 
noon." 

So on the following day the residents of 
that outlying section of tbe city, that had 
once been known as the \\ hite farm, were 
startled by discovering a train of automo- 
biles and carriages climbing the little 
slope, where they discharged their cargoes 
of femininity at the door of old Mrs. 
White. The arrival of the ladies was 
breathlessly announced by two slatternly 
children who had been perched on the 
fence, near the gate, Avhen the procession 
drew alongside. 

Sitting dejectedly in the shade of a lit- 
tle porch was Mrs. White's only son — the 
father of the children — and he, apparent- 
Iv filled with a nameless fear, arose and 



slunk hastily toward the small barn, from 
whose doorway he counted twenty-two 
women crowd into the kitchen and sole 
living room of the White domicile. 

The younger Mrs. White, who had ad- 
vanced to the door with a dirty faced baby 
on her arm, fell back in some alarm be- 
fore the oncoming of the Guild phalanx, 
leaving her- mother-in-law to do the Hon- 
ors. 

The elder Mrs. White, a round shoul- 
dered, somewhat bowxd little body, vali- 
antly stood her ground beside the kitchen 
table. She was cheerily greeted by Mrs. 
Ross, while the other ladies awkwardly 
formed a half circle behind their leader. 
There was no irresolution in .Mrs. Ross' 
voice as she plunged into the middle of 
affairs. 

"How do yo\i do, Mrs. White? Thest- 
are the ladies of our church Guild. WV 
have come up to have you take a ride — to 
Put-in-Eay." 

Mrs. White sat down heavily in a con- 
venient chair. 

"Why, sakes alive! W^hat for?" 
Mrs. Ross hesitated. This was not quite 
what she had expected. "Well, we've been 
thinking that you would enjoy a day on 
the water. To get the fresh air, voa 
know." 

Mrs. White looked helplessly around 
the circle, and seemed somewhat reassured 
by the smiling expectancy she saw de- 
picted on every countenance. 
"When?" she finally faltered. 
"Why," said Mrs. Ross, "how would 
Monday suit?" 

"What you all going to do with 
Mother?" The question was asked in so 
harsh a tone that a startled flutter seemed 
to agitate the entire Guild. Hastily turn- 
ing toward the door they discovered that 
the inquiry had been made by Mrs. 
White's son, and several of the women 
nearest to him began volubly to explain 
the situation. When he had the facts in 
hand, Mr. White appeared reassured, but 
yet perplexed. 

"Per the air?" he finally queried. "Well, 
that beats me," and having thus delivered 
himself, returned at once to the barn. 

"Now don't you really think you'd like 
to go. Mrs. White?" wheedled Mrs. Ross. 



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FRESH AIR AND MRS. WHITE 



275 



"Land, / don't know. Do you think 
I'd better— or how?" 

"We think you'd have a lovely time, 
and that it would do you so much good." 

Mrs. White slowly rubbed her thumbs 
together and then thoughtfully contem: 
plated them separately, while the ladies of 
the Guild gazed expectantly upon her. 

"When did you say I have to go?" she 
asked, at length. 

"Next Monday." 

"Well," said Mrs. White, in a voice 
whose resignation evinced consent, and the 
Guild, feeling imequal to extending the 
conversation further, hastily retreated 
under cover of a chorus of good-byes. 

Early Monday morning an inquisitive 
neighbor, seeing an automobile again 
drawn up before the White home, and the 
two eldest children gazing furtively in at 
the open door, languidly inquired as to 
what might be the matter. 

"It's the Guild after Grandmother," 
came the reply in a tone of excitement. 

"What they goiilg to do with her?" 

"Give her air." 

''Air? Aint she got none where she's 
at?" 

But no answer was vouchsafed, for at 
this moment Mrs.. Ross emerged, firmly 
supporting Mrs. .White, who had some- 
what the look of Mary, Queen of Scots, 
about the middle of the final act. Mrs. 
Ross blithely "balfbled o' green fields" 
and great lakes, but the elder woman, 
gripping tightly the arm of her guide, 
looked straight ahead and answered never 
a word. 

Even at the wharf, where the assembled 
Guild was drawn up as a reception com- 
mittee, Mrs. White relaxed not. She al- 
lowed her tense hand to be grasped by two 
impulsive young things in white, after 
which she was solemnly led on board by 
Mrs. Ross, preceded by a young lady who 
We a large covered basket. This, frotn 
its size and evident weight, apparently 
contained enough luncheon for a fair-sized 
faniily. 

After having secured her charge a seat 
on the shady side of the boat, Mrs. Ross 
found the situation somewhat embarrass- 
ing. She placed the big basket in front 
of the traveler, gave a final pat to the old 



woman's arm, and hastily joined the 
Guild, which had strung itself along the 
pier, and in bright smnmer array was 
really fair to look upon. 

Mrs. White, however, gazed stonily at 
the little company — not malevolently, but 
with the face of one who fears that with 
the first word collapse will swiftly follow. 

The loudly spoken good wishes of the 
Guild were so fervent, however, that the 
set countenance of Mrs. White began to 
soften visibly. A look of interest grad- 
ually filled her eyes, and she essayed a 
faint, rather uneasy smile. 

But at this very instant there came the 
sharp clang of a gong. A gruff voice 
above her began to bellow forth strange 
commands. As though in obedience to 
the signal Mrs. White firmly grasped the 
ship's rail with her left hand, and with 
her right produced a lemon from a fold 
of her gown. She turned her eyes square- 
ly to the front, placed the tip of the lemon 
between her teeth, and became as rigid as 
though she were turned to marble. 

Not again did she turn her head. More 
orders came from the deck above; the 
ponderous paddle wheels churned the 
water to a seething froth beneath her. The 
Guild as one woman waved handkerchiefs 
and called out cheery farewells, but Mrs. 
White, as long as they could see her, re- 
laxed neither her clutch upon the gun- 
wale nor grasp upon the lemon. 

There was some motion "outside," and 
when the lake water was reached Mrs. 
White's attitude grew less rigid. In fact, 
had not a kindly "hand" appeared and 
carried her« forcibly to a sofa in the ladies' 
cabin, it is probable that she would have 
quietly stretched her length upon the deck 
beside her chair. The same well meaning 
but tactless sailor-man carefully placed 
the large basket where she could see it 
plainly when she opened her eyes, and 
softly stole away. And when Mrs. White 
did behold the food, her face grew slight- 
ly greener, and she closed her eyes again. 

She did not look on Put-in- Bay. In fact 
when the good ship moored, and for three 
hours tossed easily upon the waves beside 
the wharf, Mrs. White was quite unwill- 
ing even to raise her head. 

But she did revive when the wheels 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



finally stopped beside the home pier. She 
felt so much herself again that when she 
was escorted limply down the gang plank 
and saw Mrs. Ross at its further end, she 
was given strength to raise her voice and 
curse her with a fluency and vehemence 
that quite surprised the other passengers. 

"And I've brought back your dratted 
grub.' she said by way of conclusion. 
"\'ou knew how I was going to feel, yeh 
miserable skinny-body. Every time I 
looked at the stuff I wished it was chok- 
ing you. 

"No," she went on, with a sudden as- 
sumption of dignity, is another member of 
the (iuild offered her an arm. "Pll go 



home on the street car. I'll be beholden 
to none of you." 

On the following Sunday the church 
was favored with an Episcopal visitation. 
The good bishop delivered a most stirring 
discourse, and at its end spoke earnestly of 
church work among the lowly. 

*Tt requires great tact," he said, "and 
much common sense withal. Some there 
be who strive eagerly to do good, yet fail 
because God in his inscrutable wisdom did 
not endow them with either attribute that 
I have named." 

And every member of the Guild 
stjuirmed and twisted until she could have 
a good view of Mrs. Ross. 



WISHES 



Did I but hold the past within my hand — 
Could I blot out the years at my c(>mmand, 
Each day should die, save that one long ago, 
When first we learned we loved each other so. 

Would I could hold the future in my power! 
There ne'er should dawn another day or hour, 
Save that when I stand face to face with thee, • 
Which still my heart believes will come to me. 

— Clara Shaddav. 



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Ite 



By Himself 



The most influential woman's club is 
the rolling pin. 

* * :¥ 

Cupid shoots his arrow, but his victim 
only feels the quiver. 

* ♦ * 

Courtship, makes life brighter without 
increasing the gas bills. 

* * * 

It will not cure a cold in the head to 
get hot under the collar. 

* ♦ * 

Some people lose faith in human nature 
by being too much alone. 

* * * 

What this country needs most is gov- 
ernment ownership of brains. 

* * * 

It takes a lot of money to move the 
crops, even in a market basket. 

* ♦ * 

It was certainly a notable event in Ohio, 
^vhen Yellow Springs went dry. 

* * * 

All the world's a stage, and most of 
the people on it are bad actors. 

* * * 

The hardest test about figuring in a 
divorce suit i^ over the alimony. 
. * * * 

Deal her one diamond, and it will fill 
a royal flush on a maiden's cheek. , 



In conversation it is a wise plan to say 
as little as possible about nothing. 

* * ♦ 

All men are equal before the law but 
not quite equal in getting around it. 

* ♦ * 

When a man gets the itch for office he 
sometimes gets scratched at the polls. 

* ♦ * 

A WOMAN can dress quietly, but a man 
can't do it and wear a collar button. 

* * * • 

A SAINT is a man who likes to hear of 
the virtues of his wife's first husband. 

* * :ti 

The only thing that arouses a cow's 
wonder is to see a siunmer girl chew gum. 

* * * 

At a marked-down sale of millinery is 
where the women fight at the drop of the 
hat. 

* * * 

Dead men tell no tales, but frequently 
leave their works of fiction to their epi- 
taphs. 

* * :|c 

Women don't have the franchise in this 
country, but they wield an awful veto 
power. 

* 9|C ♦ 

Very often the cake "like mother used 
to make" goes unchallenged because she is 
not present. 



277 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



Trial marriages are not so uncommon 
in this country, where the trials begin after 

matrimony. 

* * * 

Speaking of physical culture, what's 
the matter with raising windows in a pass- 
enger car? 

♦ 9|C « 

One reason why truth is stranger than 
fiction is because it develops so few heroes 

and heroines. 

* m m 

The sex of the phonograph is evidently 
feminirfe, because it will repeat what is 
talked into it. 

9|C ♦ ♦ 

The surest way to convince a patriot 
that he is a man of destiny is to nominate 
him for office. 

3|| 4c ♦ 

The drowning man doesn't catch at 
straws with any more enthusiasm than the 
mint julep man. 

:k « ♦ 

Strange enough, the only industry in 
which standard oil cuts no figure is the 
packing of sardines. 

* * * 

Persons oppressed with the artistic 
temperament can be greatly relieved if 
given something to eat. 

4( 4( ♦ 

It is a great pleasure to. a God-fearing 
and hard working man to know that his 
pastor had a vacation. 

* * * 

Anybody can be the architect of his 
own fortunes, but the trouble comes in 
carrying out the plans. 

* ♦ * 

No man should call a woman foolish, 
because if she wasn't he never could get 
near enough to tell her. 

* * ♦ 

A man who withholds his benefactions 
during life will not be fervently thanked 
for them after he is dead. 

* ♦ * 

A great many couples who went bath- 
ing during the Simmier now know that 
they got into hot water. 



It is ft good plan to have a frank and 
open face, but people are i^t to get tired 
if it is open all the time. 

* * * 

"Leave well enough alone" is a good 
slogan for the politician, but it will never 
be adopted by the doctors. 

* * Iff 

Justice is appropriately represented as 
a woman blindfolded, because that is ex- 
actly what most men are after. 

* * * 

In these days the crowned heads of 
Europe are not making as much history 
as the bald heads of America. 

* « « 

The best thing about the closing ordi- 
nance is that when the saloons shut up at 
midnight their patrons do, too. ; 

* * * 

Any man who is not conscious of his 
own failings can get some light on them 
by mentioning the subject to his wife. 

* ♦ * 

You can always tell when there is a 
mouse near a woman, and yet slie can wear 
a rat in her hair and nobody know it. 

♦ 3tC « 

The experts logically reason that the 
automobile is good for war pmposes be- 
cause it kills so many people in times of 
peace. 

* * * 

When the old man sizes up his check- 
book at the end of the Summer, he hopes 
that watering place was visited as a last 
resort. 

* * * 

An old maid is justified in proposing, on 
the ground of "Whatever ye would that 
men should do unto you, do you even so 
to them.'* 

* * * 

This is a queer world. A bee will go 
from a honeysuckle to a dunghill, and a 
man from a caiiteloup«* melon to a chaw of 
tobacco. 

* * rti 

The imperfections of the human race 
are better understood when we look 
around and see how some children are 
brought up. 



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HE current number of The Ohio 
Magazine contains two valuable 
and timely articles on subjects 
nearly related to one another, 
the interest of which will be ap- 
parent to the most casual reader, 
whether considered together or separately. 
They are Mr. Ernest Cawcroft's graphic 
description of "The Fight at Culebra Cut," 
and Hon. John T. Mack's intelligent con- 
sideration of "The Improvement of Water- 
ways." One article shows what is being 
done for the world's commerce on the 
Isthmus of Panama by the undaunted 
courage and robust mentality of the Ameri- 
can Nation, and the other tells what might 
be done in the same cause in the interior 
of our liative country. 

Conditions at Panama, according to the 
authority of the article referred to, are well 
calculated to awaken American pride in 
the progress of this great engineering work, 
the magnitude and importance of which 
have not been approximated in the history 
of the world. But a salient point of Mr. 
Mack's illuminating article is the fact 
brought out, that the immense cost of the 
Panama canal, if devoted to the improve- 
ment of our inter! T vv «- p 
building of new ones, would solve prob- 
lems more pressmg than those which oc- 
casioned our labor on the isthmus and give 
greater return, at a less remote period, to 
the industrial welfare of the American 
people. It is very forcibly pointed out how 
far America has been behind the countries 
of Europe in solving problems of trans- 
portation by improving natural interior 
waterways and constructing artificial new 
ones. 

' Since this article was written, Mr. 
Andrew Carnegie, writing for a well- 
known English periodical, has paid very 

279 



high tribute to the German Emperor in 
recognition of his successful activity in be- 
half of river and canal transportation 
throughout the German Empire. It may 
well be reasoned from Mr. Mack's treat- 
ment of the subject that Mr. Carnegie 
would have even greater cause to congratu- 
late President Roosevelt, if he had pro- 
moted the construction of similar works in 
this country as actively and successfully as 
he has pushed the project of the Panama 
canal. 

It is also shown, not only that the trans- 
portation problem might be solved in the 
United States by the development of water- 
ways at a cost certainly not greater than 
the aggregate of the vast sums we are 
destined to spend near the equator, but that 
the railways, even as now constituted, 
would not long object to the domestic 
program. Mr. Mack cites as good an 
authority as President Hill to indicate this 
fact, and there a;re reasons far more 
weighty than his word to justify the con- 
tention. The railroads have more business 
than they can carry with their present 
trackage, and there is every reason to sup- 
pose that they would be able to profitably 
adjust themselves to conditions that would 
arise from increased facilities of transpor- 
tation through the operations of interior 
waterways. 

It is a large question, but one not more 
difficult of solution than many others 
which have been presented to the American 
people at various times. Certainly a man 
ought to be slow to advocate the abandon- 
ment of the canals in Ohio, or any other 
state, until he has made at least some 
effort to discover their possibilities of use- 
fulness. And yet it must be admitted that 
they had better be abandoned, with profit 
to the State, than to remain forever as they 
are now. 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



Thiajfi Wc Don't Hear 



THERE are some very important 
items of news that do not gain 
. much currency in the press now- 
adays. Whether the fact is due 
to the indifference of the public 
or to the mistaken ideas of the 
news editors, will not be discussed here. 
The following brief survey of the field of 
neglected news, however, will afford some 
evidence of the real condition of affairs: 

A vast ahny, composed of both sexes and 
all ages, larger than any ever enrolled in 
our wars, today arrived at thousands of 
destinations, after railway journeys of 
greater or less length, safe and well, with- 
out an accident. At the same moment an 
equal army embarked on railway trains, 
and will arrive at as many destinations, to- 
morrow or next day, in equal safety. 

But we don't hear much about it. 

Last night, after an arduous day's work, 
thousands of banks and financial institu- 
tions in this country closed their doors 
with every cent of trust funds in their 
keeping accounted for, and every obliga- 
tion to the public discharged for the time 
being, honestly and efficiently. 

But we don't hear much about it. 

There are in America millions of happy 
homes in which husband and wife are 
dwelling today Avith mutual respect and 
affection, and no shadow of the divorce 
court lurking near. There were celebrated 
yesterday countless marriages, and as many 
more will be celebrated tomorrow, that will 
not develop into domestic scandal. 

But we don't hear much about it. 

Almost every community in the United 
States is the scene of corporate activities of 
the greatest service to the public, giving 
emplo>Tnent to thousands who would not 
have it in the absence of this system, filling 
the savings banks with the earnings of the 
poor and increasing the sum of human hap- 
pines by promoting the general welfare of 
mankind. 

But we don't hear much about it. 

In the churches of the country last Sun- 
day were preached thousands of helpful 
sermons, issuing from the mouths of under- 
paid and unselfish men who dedicate the 
best that is in them to the cause of 
righteousness; and in not one congrega- 



tion was there a rumor that the pastor had 
run off with some other man's wife. 

But we don't hear much about it. 

Countless deeds of kindness were per- 
formed in the hospitals of Christendom to- 
day, and have been performed every day 
for years, and will be in the years to come. 
Devoted Sisters of Charity are giving their 
lives to the service of God ;* physicians are 
daily attending to the needs of humanity 
without pay; beneficial societies are pro- 
tecting the people against the day of want ; 
individual charities are greater than ever 
before in the history of the world; the 
teachers of our common schools, though 
ill recompensed, are preserving the life 
of the Nation by leading its youth in the 
path of knowledge. 

Everywhere modern society is vindicating 
its right to existence, and individual sacri- 
fices to that end are like the sands ton the 
seashore or the stars in the firmament. 

But we don't hear much about it. 



' Greenhorns in Town and Country 

A I dapper young man walks into a 
city grocery store, supposed to 
be owned by a hard-headed 
business man, and asks for the 
proprietor. When that func- 
tionary appears, the dapper 
'young man draws from his pocket a crisp 
roll of bills and presents them to his newly- 
made acquaintance, wit^ a blank form of 
receipt and a request to sign it. 

"What's this for?" asks the surprised 
grocer. 

"Why," replies the dapper young man. 
pointing to the receipt blank, "I supposed 
you had expected it. This is the dividend 
on your stock in the Hold Up Gold Mining 
Company, that you bought from Catchem 
& Cheatem." 

The delighted grocer murmurs his 
thanks, and the dapper young man turns 
to leave, but is followed to the door. 

"By the way," says the happy investor in 
windy securities, "you don't know where 
I could get a few more shares of that 
stock, do you?" 

The dapper young man is' wise in his day 
and generation. He will not offer a bait 
that will be open to suspicion as such. 
"I don't believe there is any to be had^"* 



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EDITORIAL 



281 



he replies. "You see, it looks like a pretty 
good thing. Still, ^ may hear of a share 
or two lying around within a day or so 
and will call you up." 

The dapper young man's investigations 
evidently bring results, for within a few 
da>'s he returns with a nice little block of 
the stock, for which the hard-headed grocer 
hands him his check. The check is cashed 
within five minutes after the transaction; 
the dapper young man disappears from the 
face of the earth, and the stock is found 
to be worth — nothing. 

The foregoing tale is not fiction. It is a 
true story, the event it describes having oc- 
curred quite recently in one of the largest 
cities of the Middle West. The history of the 
case is here set forth merely as an illustra- 
tion of the fact that the easiest victims of 
green goods games in the United States 
live in the cities, and not in the country. 
We read a great deal about the unf ortimate 
but comical experiences of Uncle Reuben 
in the city, but the fact is that there are 
more "suckers" — to use a vulgar but ex- 
pressive phrase — to the square foot in any 
large American city than will be found 
on the average on the farms of the Western 
hemisphere. The average city man is 
easier swindled than the average farmer, 
and with much less excuse. 

Another comparison of the two will not 
be unprofitable. The ruralist who goes 
to the city to spend or invest his money 
may make grievous errors and get into deep 
pitfalls; but if we will stop to think of 
the experiences of the "gentlemen farmers" 
who go from the large cities in search of 
profits or luxury in the country, we must 
very quickly admit that the benefit of the 
comparison, if there be, any, is altogether 
in favor of Uncle Reuben. 

The "business man" who laughs at the 
fanner might as well bray, for he is mak- 
ing an ass of himself when he does it. 

A Man's Face 



A 



New Jersey judge in a suit at law 
has deterimned that a man has 
some rights relative to the use 
of his counterfeit presentment. 
The decision was the result of 
a case brought by the plaintiff, 
a woman, to restrain the general distribu- 



tion of her photographs, and it tends to 
establish the possibility that in the future 
even mere man may have something to say 
about his own face. 

The illustrating art, in both the adver- 
tising and publishing business, has gone to 
great extremes in recent years. Not con- 
tent with exhibiting deceased statesmen 
on cigar boxes and fair women in the con- 
ditions of before and after taking, it is now 
making a specialty of facial contortions. 
Now it so happens that the camera is 
seldom complimentary to a subject that is 
not posing. A true picture of a horse in 
motion is about the most abominable thing 
that can be imagined, for the simple reason 
that it permanently fixes the animal in an 
attitude of such brief duration — a period 
too short to be measured by any mental 
operation receiving its inspiration from the 
eye — that the result is one entirely un- 
familiar to human observation. The legs 
of the subject appear as if tied in a knot, 
and, while the picture may show the 
agility of a grasshopper, it is far from re- 
vealing the familiar outlines of the noble 
e(|uine. 

Hut the same unfeeling camera turned 
for the fraction of a second on a man*s 
face in a moment of expression, has even 
a more dismal result. As a rule it pro- 
duces a study in idiocy or mania. Pictures 
of President Roosevelt, daily appearing in 
the newspapers, give the effect of a hyena 
in a Prince Albert coat, addressing an 
audience composed of a naturally electri- 
fied electorate. Secretary Taft in the act 
of speaking looks like a gape in an inflated 
balloon. There are snap-shots of Vice- 
President Fairbanks that give one the im- 
pression of an interrogation point with a 
pair of eyes in the loop, w'hile Mr. Bryan 
j(oes before the public as a raving maniac 
trying to escape from the rear platform of 
a passenger train. If photography ever 
becomes a lost art, and some future 
an heologist happens to dig up one of these 
pictures in a remote age, he will at once 
conclude that the human species of the 
present time, far from suggesting evolu- 
tion, showed a marked retrogression from 
the period when our ancestors dwelt in 
trees. 

I'he New Jersey judicial dictum' should 



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282 



THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



be. extended to reach such cases. Few men 
would accept a suit of clothes taken from 
ocular measurements while the model was 
turning a handspring. Why, then, should 
any man be forced to condone the offense 
of exhibiting his own face, with its line- 
aments depicted in convulsions which the 
eye does not see but which the camera 
fixes forever? 



The Avocation of Accusation 



Vi 



THE municipal campaigns now 
pending in Ohio — and in 
numerous other states, for that 
matter — seem to be based by 
the various parties or factions 
interested on one or more of the 
following propositions: 

1. That every man who believes in a 
"closed Sunday" is a crank, a bigot and an 
enemy of progress; 

Or that every man who believes in a 
comparatively "open Sunday" is a drunk- 
ard, a creature of the breweries and dis- 
tillerie*^ and an all-*round bad character; 

2. Tjiat every man who believes in 
public ownership of so-called public 
utilities is a socialist, an anarchist and 
"agin the government ;*' 

Or that every man who does not believe 
in 'public ownership of so-called public 
utilities is a tool of the corporations, a 
bribe-taker and a corruptionist ; 

3. That every man who holds office 
and is willing to hold it again is a 
"grafter," a political degenerate and a con- 
spirator against the general welfare ; 

Or that every man who does not hold 
office but is likely to get one is a "machine 
politician," a "boodler" and a keeper of 
bad company; 

4. That every man who agrees with 
him who holds to one or more of the fore- 
going propositions is a statesman and a 
friend of good order : 

Or that every man who does not so agree 
is a cheap demagogue and a foe of 
organized society. 

There may be a few more distinguish- 
ing evidences of partisan and factional 
faith in these campaigns, but space forbids 
that all should be emunerated. 

The trouble is that many otherwise good 
men in the heat of political strife forget 



the Golden Rule in its application to the 
motives, rather than the political convic- 
tions, of other men. The advocate of 
temperance becomes intemperate, and the 
believer in the present order becomes con- 
temptuous. 

Still others make an avocation of accu- 
sation. They make money out of it, or ex- 
pect to win prestige or power from it. 

Sanity, decency and the public welfare 
demand that the first class mentioned 
should moderate their zeal and cultivate 
the spirit of tolerance and charity. The 
same considerations demand that the 
second class mentioned should be routed 
like so many snakes from a field of golden 
wheat. 



^^ 



Wall Street and Beef Steak 

TlHE rich do not often suffer loss 
from a tiunble in stocks, whether 
it be a flurry in Wall Street oi 
a drop in the market quotation 
of some local security borne 
down by the fears of small in- 
vestors or as a result of the political ac- 
tivity of demagogues. The losses fall 
upon the small holder, who sells at a 
sacrifice during a period of alarm. 

While general stocks and local stocks 
in all parts of the country have recently 
been on a collapse, the price of beef steak 
has continued to hover around high water 
mark, with a persistency sorely aggravating 
to the head of a family. Stock quotations 
have gone down, but the real value of the 
securities quoted has in ninety-nine cases 
out of a hundred remained where it was, 
and the fall in market quotations has not 
given ground for alarm regarding future 
dividends. 

Meanwhile the beef steak problem has 
been ever present, but its perplexities have 
been greatly simplified by the fact that the 
people have had money to solve it. While 
it is doubtless true that the prices of food 
products are higher now than ever before 
in this country, it is also true that wages 
are in the same elevated state, and that 
the distribution of the circulating medium 
among the common people is such as to 
enable them to command many of the 
luxuries and almost all of the necesities 
of life. With the practice of due economy 



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EDITORIAL 



283 



there >\ould be no failure on their part 
to command the latter in these piping 
times of prosperity. And all this is true, 
whether the high prices are due to the 
operations of trusts or to other causes. 

There is no shrinkage of real values 
and no occasion for alarm over the con- 
tinuance of prosperity, as long as the 
price of beef steak is soaring at its 
present heigh th and the people have money 
to buy it. It is admitted that the pulse 
of the purchaser would beat with greater 
regularity, if the price were to take a 
tumble and his purchasing power remain 
wheie it is, but the fact remains that the 
beef steak situation might be far worse 
than it is. Those who are particularly in- 
terested in it do not need to concern them- 
sehes with the affairs of Wall Street. 
Whatever the decline of stock market 
quotations, real values and general pros- 
perity will not be affected, as long as the 
broiler continues to be brought into fre- 
(]uent requisition under present conditions. 




Newspapers and Railroad Passes 

TlHERE is some revival of the old 
discussion regarding the pro- 
priety of railroad passes given 
to newspapers. The custom has 
been abolished by the railroads 
in all the states that have en- 
acted two-cent fare laws, and it must be 
admitted that there has been very little 
complaint on the part of the newspapers. 
If the subject is to be revived at all, 
however, one important aspect of it should 
not he overlooked. There is not one news- 



paper in ten thousand whose policy is af- 
fected by the giving of the railroad pass, 
and there is no direct remunerative benefit 
that the railroad gets for issuing it. There 
is, however, quite as much direct benefit 
to the railroad as accrues to the newspaper 
for the frequent' favors which the latter 
necessarily confers upon the former. A 
railroad pass ^sued to a newspaper ought 
to be and usually is a courteous recognition 
of an equal courtesy from the newspaper 
to the railroad, due to conditions peculiar 
to the pursuit of joumalian and not to 
any other business. 

As a matter of news a newspaper men- 
tions a 'railway excursion that is to take 
place tomorrow. It gets nothing for this 
publicity, but the railway reaps a harvest. 
In like manner countless items of railroad 
news are continually developing and are 
printed, but for this publicity the news- 
paper gets nothing tangible, while the 
corporation receives large benefits. If a 
pass is issued to the newspaper in recog- 
nition of this fact, it is difficult to see how 
any corruption can .be implied in the trans- 
action. The railroad company cannot 
show its appreciation in any other manner ; 
it has no other means at hand to recip- 
rocate. 

For these reasons- the newspaper rail- 
road pass is by no means as bad as it is 
painted, and there are not a few men, not 
candidates for the penitentiary, who are 
of the opinion that a mistake was made 
when the railroads withdrew from the 
newspaper brethren the only possible 
recognition of favors which the latter are 
constantly extending to them. 




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With Our Correspondents 

The dfparimeHt under this title was announced in the September number of 
The Ohio Magazine as one designed to be a medium for an exchange of vieavs 
between readers of the magazine and its editorial department, in matters of in- 
terest to the general public and of special interest to our constituents as such. Com- 
munications not in excess of four hundred ^cords were solicited. Our readers' 
views on current subjects unll always be welcome. Especially desirable, however, 
will be comments on articles appearing in the magazine and suggestions for its im- 
provement and its progress, from the standpoint of those who are interested in its 
welfare. In a wordj this is to be a Readers' Editorial Department. « 



From the Vice President 

To the Editor:^ 

(WISH to congratulate you on the excellence 
of The Ohio Magazine. It is admirable 
in every respect. 

Cordially your friend, 

Charles W. Fairbanks. 
Indianapolis, Indiana. 



A Western Ohio Pioneer 

To the Editor: — 

(READ a notice of The Ohio Magazine in 
the Norwalk, Ohio, Reflector, and was 
glad to become acquainted with your periodi- 
cal. I was particularly interested in your 
article on "Ohio in Southern California," in 
the July number. 

By the way, I suppose I saw as much of 
the plains and Pacific Coast as any Buckeye. 
I left Columbus, crossed the plains in 1851, 
via Salt Lake with ox teams, landing in Port- 
land, Oregon, in the fall of 1851. I then 
went to Puget Sound by the Cowlitz river, 
with Indians ir canoes ; then went on horse- 
back to the head of Puget Sound and then 
down the Sound to Fort Steilacoom; then 
joined an expedition to hunt gold on Queen 
Charlotte's Island. I spent the winter there 
and returned to Oregon in 1857, and recrossed 
the plains with pack mules, meeting Johnson's 
army in South Pass. 

I worked on the Columbus Statesman when 
it was conducted by Colonel Samuel Medary. 
I "graduated" from the Norwalk Reflector 
office. I should add that, wherever I have 
been I have found Ohio men occupying front 



seats. I read your articles on Newark and 
Licking County with much Interest. 
Respectfully, 

H. Buckingham, Sr. 
Lawton, Oklahoma. 

* * * 

Industrial Newark 



To the Editor: — 

you will doubtless be interested to know 
that your Newark number has already 
begun to show good results from the stand- 
point of the Newark B^ard of Trade, and we 
feel that the publication will do our city much 
good. Our Board has recently undergone a 
partial reorganization and now has a secre- 
tary devoting his entire time to its work. The 
campaign for Greater Newark will now be 
prosecuted with vigor, and the Newark num- 
ber of The Ohio Magazine will be our 
heaviest shot. You are at liberty to use this 
letter as you see fit. 

Very truly yours, 

J. M. Maylone, 
Secretary Board of Trade. 
Newark, Ohio. 

* ♦ ♦ 

A Btsckeye in Maryland 

To the Editor: — 

IN the Somerset Press I noticed a review 
of your July number and on obtaining it 
was greatly pleased with it. 

I am a Lutheran minister, now located 
about nine miles northeast of Baltimore, hav- 
ing come here only a little more than a year 
ago, fresh from the Theological Seminary of 
the Capital University at Columbus. My 
284 



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WTH OUR CORRESPONDENTS 



285 



home was in Perry county near Somerset, and 
I am still a loyal Ohioan and hope ever to be, 
although a citizen of another state. My wife 
is also from Ohio, coming from Delaware. 
WTiercver I go, I hear people sounding the 
praises of the Buckeye State, among whom 
are many who have never been even within 
its borders. 

I feel that the addition of The Ohio Majga- 
ziNE to our reading table will be an inter- 
esting and profitable adjunct. It would have 
done my heart good to have been at the 
"Joyous Buckeye Homecoming," but that 
pleasure I was obliged to forego. I shall read 
accounts of it with interest. Wishing the 
magazine the greatest success, I beg to re- 
main, a loyal Buckeye, 

O. E. SWINEHART. 

Glcnarm, Maryland. 



''Otir Japanese Question^ 

To the Editor: — 

THE Coast Seaman's Journal took the lib- 
erty or reproducing in full the excellent 
article on "Our Japanese Question," by Mr. 
C. B. Galbreath, contained in The Ohio 
Magazine for July. Mr. Galbreath's position 
as State Librarian of Ohio evidently affords 
him exceptional opportunities of studying the 
Japanese question from the different view- 
points assumed by writers in different locali- 
ties. That Mr. Galbreath has taken full ad- 
^'antage of these resources is proved by his 
writings, as reprinted in this and a previous 
issue of the Journal. 

Mr. Galbreath's impartial and comprehen- 
sive treatment of the subject of Japanese im- 
migration is valuable, not only intrinsically, 
but also as affording a prospect that the light 
thus thrown upon that subject shall ultimately 
penetrate the dark places of the East. To the 
extent that this result is achieved, "Our Jap- 
anese Question" may be regarded as settled 
—and settled right. 

The Coast Seaman's Journal. 

San Francisco, Cal. 



Magazine on its merit and very creditable* 
appearance, as it reaches its subscribers from 
month to month. ' 

Now, you are busy and you need not feel 
obligated to make any reply to this. It is 
only the spontaneous expression of the appre- 
ciation which anyone feels when he observes 
the results of meritorious effort, so that words 
of commendation are only an acknowledgment 
that the obligation is on the other side of the 
ledger. ' 

With most cordial regards and best wishes, 
I remain. 

Very truly yours, 
• W. E. Marsh. 

Akron, Ohio. 

* ♦ ♦ 

A Circtilatfon Policy Approved 

To the Editor: — 

IN renewing my subscription to The Ohio 
Magazine, which I had neglected to do, 
until my attention was called to the matter 
by your letter of the 18th instant, I. desire to 
say that one sentence of the latter has my 
hearty approval/ It is as follows : "The mag- 
azine will be continued to your address t!in- 
less ordered stopped." 

That is the right policy. I would not like 
to miss a single number for it certainly fills 
a long-felt want. 

Yours truly, 
R. J. A. Boreman. 
Parkersburg, W. Va. 

* * i^i 

Prescribed for Physicians 

To the Editor: — 

(REGARD The Ohio Magazine as a good 
thing to be prescribed for physicians who 
may be induced to subscribe for it for the 
benefit of their waiting patients. Your maga- 
zine gives^ us all in my office so much plea- 
sure and good information, that I am glad 
to continue it for another year. 

Yours sincerely, * 

M. L. B.\tes, M. D. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Thanks^ Awfully 

To the Editor:— 

OT because it is of any special signifi- 
cance, coming from me, but because I 
feel like it, I want to compliment The Ohio 



N 



Another Office Standpoint 

To the Editor: — 

IN renewing my subscription to The Ohio 
Magazine, permit me to say that I have 
enjoyed it very much and find it has beea 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



extremely useful in the waiting room of my 
office. A great many people have been intef- 
ested in picking it up while waiting, and sev- 
eral have expressed a desire to subscribe for 
it. The magazine has an educational value 
that ought to be appreciated. 

Wishing its management continued success, 
I am 

Yours very truly, 

B. F. McCann. 
Dayton, Ohio. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

An Appreciation of Prosftess 

To the Editor :-- 

THE new department entitled "With Our 
Correspondents," proposed for The 
Ohio Magazine, cannot fail to be of interest 
and should call out brief but timely communi- 
cations from various quarters. 

The magazine during its initial year has 
filled an important part in promoting interest 
in the history and traditions of the State ; and, 
still further than that, it has, in its illustra- 
tions of different commercial and picturesque 
localities, given the reading public features 
not found in other periodicals. The latest 
number most happily illustrates this state- 
ment, for it contains the valuable article de- 
scribing the Indian campaign of Colonel Will- 
iam Crawford and an exhaustive treatment of 
the business resources of one of Ohio's chief 
manufacturing cities — Ironton and vicinity. 

These features, combined with literary ex- 
cellence, tasteful arrangement, fine illustra- 
tions, pleasing type and good subject matter, 
will make the magazine of great value and 
secure the preservation of its numbers for 
reference and for use beyond the passing day. 



The professional and educational interests of 
the State should find The Ohio Magazine a 
valuable assistant, and to the colonies of Ohio 
people found in almost every state of the 
Union the magazine will surely find its way 
and be a highly prized messenger of news and 
good will from "Home." I think you have 
attained the high Toad of merited success and 
that the magazine will deservedly earn a high 
and popular place among the standard peri- 
odicals of the 'day. 

Albert Kesn. 
Dayton, Ohio. 

* ♦ ♦ ' 

Goodt and Growin^f Better 

To the Editor:— 

j CANNOT do without The Ohio Magazine. 
I It has been firstclass since its beginning, 
but is getting better all the time. Assuring 
you of my best wishes, I am 

Sincerely, 

Lewis B. Hovck. 
Mt. Vernon, Ohio. 



On the Coast 

To the Editor:— 

THE fame of The Ohio Magazine has 
reached this coast, as I observe from 
the notices of the press here. Your enter- 
prise certainly deserves to prosper and there 
should be great interest in it among Ohio 
people everywhere. With congratulations and 
best wishes for success, I am 

Very truly yours, 
WiLLi.\M Jackson Armstrong. 
I^s Angeles, California. 



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What Have the Philii>pines Cost? 

From the Washington Herald. 

IN the absence of exact data> one man's 
guess is as good as another's when it 
comes to figuring the cost of the Fhilip- 
pines to date. The guesses range from $200,< 
000,000 to $1,500,000,000. The New York 
Herald, which has been inquiring into the 
sabject, estimates that it has cost the United 
States $400,000,000 to acquire and hold the 
Philippine islands. In this huge sum it in- 
cludes their initial cost, the expense o£ put- 
ting down the Aguinaldo revolt and the cost 
of maintaining the islands since that time, 
which The Herald puts at $30,000,000 a year. 
That paper, however, quotes an army officer 
as saying that the whole Philippine enterprise 
has cost us about $200,000,000. 

The last mentioned figures correspond 
closely to those given by Secretary Taft, who 
places the cost of the Aguinaldo revolution 
at $170,000,000, which, with the price paid 
for the islands, brings the total up to $190,- 
000,000. To this must be added the annual 
expenditure on the army and navy in excess 
of that which would have been expended if 
we had kept out of the Philippines. No one 
seems to know just what amount of our naval 
and military expenditure should be appor- 
tioned to the Philippines. Mr. Taft admits 
that the Philippines military establishment- 
costs $5,000,000 more yearly than it would if 
there were no Philippine scouts and were the 
army housed at home. The Philippine gov- 
ernment, of course, pays its own expenses, 
exclusive of expenditures for defense. 

The islands, then, are costing us $5,000,000 
a year to hold, without^counting the naval ex- 
penditure for their defense, which is vastly 
increased by the proposed transfer of the fleet 
to the Pacific. But even that is not all, for 
Congress has authorized a beginning in the 
work of fortifying the islands, to complete 
which will require the expenditure of $1,000,- 
000. The navy is demanding the equipment of 
a strong naval base, which will cost yet other 
millions. So that what our New York con- 
tempdrary refers to as the "stream of gold 



that goes pouring into the islands" is not yet 
at its flood. 



The Flcet^s G»nplicatfon8 

From the St. Louis Globe-Democrat. 

THAT projected cruise of the fleet to the 
Pacific threatens to bring an odd mix- 
up in Congress. The Pacific Coast, the 
South and most of the West seem to favor 
the proposition to send the fleet on th? Pa- 
cific cruise. The East opposes it. An attempt 
has been made by some of the New York 
Denwcratic papers to arouse Demotratic op- 
position all over the country to the move- 
ment of the fleet. This has emphatically 
failed, however. The loudest opponents of 
the project are Democrats, but Democrats are 
also among the most enthusiastic of its friends. 
Here are some of the grotmds of opposition: 
The transfer of the fleet will leave the Atlan- 
tic Coast defenseless. It will be an insult to 
Japan, and may goad her into an attack on 
the United States. The trip will cost at least 
$1,000,000, and therefore the Democratic party 
which has always favored economy in the ex- 
penditures of the government, is urged to con- 
demn it. By leaving the Atlantic Coast de- 
fenseless the president will be able to work 
effectively for a large increase in the navy,, 
which is another argument that is expected 
to appeal to the Democrats, as well as to the 
flag-furlers in general. 

Yet the attempt to align the Democracy, as 
a party, against the trip has not the faintest 
chance to succeed. Senators McEnery and 
Foster of Louisiana have just been to Oyster 
Bay to tell the president that they are with 
him in this cruise proposition. They declare 
that if he should be attacked in the Senate 
for this next winter they will support him. 
Moreover, they told him that a large majority 
of the people of the South are with him on 
this question. It is the same on the Pacific 
Coast and through a large part of the West. 
Both parties in those sections favor the move- 
ment of the fleet, if the Naval Board at Wash- 
ington urges it. As it is believed the presi- 
dent is acting under the advice of the Naval 



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Board in announcing that the fleet will make 
the trip, there will be no chance for anybody 
to make an effective attack upon him person- 
ally on this point. 

Says one of the Louisiana senators: "The 
people of the whole South stand with the 
president on this proposition. They want to 
give the naval officers experience in maneu- 
vering on the Pacific and in showing our 
ships in force where we have such vast in- 
terests/' Most of the Soutnem newspapers 
which are doing any talking on this 'matter 
are applauding the president. The attempt, 
therefore, to inject partisanship into it can 
not succeed. On the eve of a presidential 
election the minority party always seizes all 
sorts of pretexts to make an assault on the 
dominant organization, but there will be no 
chance in this naval movement to work up 
any hostility to the president and his party. 

Representative Foss of Illinois, chairman of 
the Naval Aflfairs Committee of his branch of 
Congress, not only favors the movement of 
the fleet to the Pacific for the experience 
which it will thus get in practical campaign- 
ing, but he wants a large part of the fleet to 
be stationed in the Pacific permanently, and 
says that we will, in the coming session of 
Congress, provide for the construction of at 
least four more battle ships. This is the 
sensible view. The cruise will teach the navy 
many things. There is no sense in keeping 
all the fleet anchored at any one spot. War- 
ships are intended to move about, and to fam- 
iliarize themselves with all the oceans. There 
is a particularly urgent reason why all our 
naval officers should familiarize themselves 
with our Pacific as well as our Atlantic 
Coast. We have more miles of coast on the 
big Western ocean than we have on the East- 
ern border, even if the Gulf of Mexico be 
counted in as part of the Atlantic Coast line. 
Trouble, when it comes, is much more likely 
to come from Japan than it is from any other 
nation, and that trouble would be in the Pa- 
cific side of the country entirely. There is 
no good reason to suppose that Japan will 
take offense at this temporary transfer of our 
big Atlantic flotilla to the Pacific, but even if 
she does take offense the cruise should not be 
postponed. We are Under no obligation to 
consult Japan in any disposition which we 
may make of our army or navy. 

Hereafter we must keep a large part of our 
fleet on the Pacific at all times. This will 



necessitate an increase in our aggregate naval 
strength, but the increase is needed, and the 
country will not grudge the extra expenditure 
which will thus be caused. In proportion to 
its aggregate naval strength Japan is making 
larger accessions to her fleet than we are to 
ours. The fleet is booked to start on D^ 
cember 15. about two weeks after Congress 
meets. The chances are that no effective op- 
position to this programme will be made by 
Congress. , 



The Artistic^ Affinity^ 

From the New York World. 

CHEMISTS first noted the disposition of 
a substance brought into contact with 
other substances to cleave to the one 
for which it has the stronger affinity. But 
it is to artists and the possessors of the 
artistic temperament generally since Goethe's 
day that we owe the application of the prin- 
ciple to human beings. The fact that the 
affinity is not always found at the first trial, 
and usually not until her youthful bloom is 
seen in contrast with fading charms at home, 
does not necessarily indicate a defect in the 
law so much as a lack of opportunities of 
comparison and selection. A husband familiar 
with green-rooms may be expected to find his 
affinity much sooner than one less favored 
with facilities. 

The Earle case has the merit of novelty by 
reason of the open acknowledgment by hus- 
band and wife of their adherence to the law 
Usually the affinity is kept in the background 
qntil the divorce proceedings make her ap- 
pearance essential to the interlocutory decree. 
But if the old reproach that America has sacri- 
ficed art to commercialism is not to be de- 
served, a professional artist should at least 
be accorded the same privileges in the choice 
of an affinity as a steel president. 



Spiritualism as a Business 

From the Cincinnati Timei-Star. 

THE examination into the competency of 
Mr. Vanderbilt, a wealthy lumber mer- 
chant of Brooklyn, is affording plenty 
of sensational material for the newspapers. 
A deluded old man, mourning the loss of his 
helpmeet, is cajoled into marrying a design- 
ing "medium" through the agency of "Little 
Bright Eyes," ostensibly a spirit, in rcah'ty 



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THE TREND OF OPINION 



289 



an Indian liapeze dancer corporeal enough to 
accept trinkets and candy. The harpy is no 
.-.ooncr mated to her victim, than she per- 
suades him to sign over his fortune to her 
ai the sacrifice of his own daughter's inter- 

Few of us realize how many people deal in 
spiritualism as a business. With their hocus- 
pocus set, crouching behind their Punch and 
Judy shows, with the circuit to the Spirit 
World established, they lie in wait for their 
victims. They impose on weaklings, and they 
prey on .human sorrow. In comparison with 
ihem such women as Cassie Chadwick, or even 
ihe indecent harpies, are like babes and suck- 
lings. Take away their clap-trap, and you 
find an outfit that an Apache medicine man 
would turn up his nose at. What with their 
spirit Tappings,*' their "astral communica- 
tions" and their table dancing, they are con- 
summate frauds, and the whole tribe of them 
ought to be tarred and feathered and run out 
•of town. 

As to the victims of those humbugs, they 
are mostly old enough to know better; but 
there is no fool like an old fool, after all ! 



Jail Ginnot Level Rank 

From the Pittsburg Dispatch. 

THE persistence of the caste feeling is no- 
torious. The "saleslady" will acknowl- 
edge no sisterhood with the "washlady." 
The bookkeeper coldly ig^nores the pretensions 
to equality of tjie more highly paid bricklayer ; 
and the Japanese administer the dose of ex- 
clusion to the Chinese laborers, against which 
they protest when applied to themselves. But 
it remained for San Francisco to produce an 
example of the haughtiness of rank between 
two criminals convicted under bribery charges, 
with the vital social distinction that the per- 
son who aspired to social equality was the 
^tibee and the haughty spirit who rejected 
^h advances was the briber. 

The story is that when Mr. Glass, corpora- 
tion mag^nate, was committed to jail under 
sentence for bribery ex-Mayor Schmitz, a 
senior resident of that institution, extended 
to him the right hand of fellowship and made 
advances toward the communion of souls in 
adversity. Glass refused to accept the asso- 
ciation. As Douglas robbed of all his powers 
and stripped of his castles and wealth proudly 
proclaimed that he was Douglas still, so Glass. 



social light, corporate magnate 4nd briber, 
haughtily holds that even in jail he still isi 
Glass and coldly ignores the outstretched 
hand of a mere politician and bribee. 

This certainly seems to bring the doctrine 
Of equality within visible distance of its finish. 
The early comic opera of Gilbert and Sulli- 
van left it ki doubt whether love can level 
rank; but when it is evinced that jail, even 
in a democratic land, does not level rank, we 
give it up. The boundaries of caste are im- 
passable. The hash-slinger will not associate 
with the mere kitchen-lady and between the 
mortar-mixer and the hod-carrier there is a 
great gulf fixed. • 



Salaries of Ohio Teachers 

From the Toledo Blade. 

LIKE many gfovertiment reports, that of the 
United States Commissioner of Educa- 
tion is slow in being compiled and 
printed. The annual report for 1905 has just 
been published, but it contains much of in- 
terest to those who have at heart the wel- 
fare of the public schools. 

The figures regarding the schools of Ohio 
show an expenditure for the year 1904 of 
seventeen and a half million dollars, with an 
estimated value of common school property 
of nearly fifty-three million dollars. The 
number of teachers employed in 1904 was 
26,469, and the average daily attendance of 
pupils was 623,707. 

But the salaries paid these teachers are so 
small that the great, rich state of Ohio should 
be ashamed of this item in the report. 

The average monthly salary paid these 
teachers in 1904 was $41.79. 

This is the pay for from six to ten month's 
work, and the teachers, of course must board 
themselves. 

The man who works at the most common 
labor would turn up his nose in disgust at 
such wages. 

Many skilled workmen make as much money 
in two days as the average teacher does in a 
week. 

The farm hand who sells his labor for $20 
a month, including board and keep, has a 
better chance for saving money than has the 
average teacher. 

The man employed to care for the horses 
and drive the mistress on her shopping tours 
is better paid than the woman who is entrusted 
with the care and education of her children. 



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There is little wonder that in some parts of 
Ohi<5 it is impossible to secure teachers in 
district schools, and children go without in- 
struction. 

The young men and women who are ambi- 
tious to get ahead in the world will not care 
to equip themselves for school work at farm 
labor wages. 

The taxpayers willingly pay millions each 
year for the support of the schools and they 
will gladly pay more for better salaries, be- 
lieving that increased wages will mean in- 
creased efficiency in the schools. 

That average salary of $41.79 a month is 
no fredit to Ohio. The schools must suffer 
unless there is a change. 



The Logic of Injustice 

From the Ohio State JotimaL 

WE take the following extract from Mr. 
Allen R. Foote's address on "The 
Products of Life/' at an annual grange 
picnic, at Mantua: 

The natural law of justice decrees that you 
shall not be a gainer by your own unjust acts. 
If you, prompted by an ignorant self-interest, 
take more than your share of the products of 
joint labor because your superior strength, 
cunning or intelligence gives you power to do 
so, the inexorable law of justice demands 
that every unjust gain in property shall be 
instantly offset by a corresponding loss in 
character. By such acts you trade in unequal 
exchange, character for property. 

This ought to be the basis of all education 
and of all life — that a man cannot really 
gain a thing by doing a wrong. We would 
carry th^ thought further than Mr. Foote Car- 
ries it. He intimates that by losing character 
a man may gain property. We say he loses 
both. He may flourish in his wrong posses- 
sion for awhile; he may live in luxury; he 
may wear the badges of success; he may 
even die in his riches; but there will come a 
day when his wrong will find its reward in 
sorrow. His home, his children, his grand- 
children will suffer for his injustice, and his 
name, once associated with gold and silk, will 
be remembered at last in rags and dirt. God's 
judgments come around in time. They never 
fail. 

The world has never caught the full mean- 
ing of the declaration — "the wages of sin is 



death." It has construed it the vefy opposia 
and goes on the idea that the wages of si 
is honor, wealth, happiness, success. Tha 
could not be a fataler error. Ill-gotten fo^ 
tune never brings a blessing to a man. }fl 
reward is some kind of curse. 

We see a fortune built up by deceit, vk 
fraud, and injustice of^some kind. The ma 
seems to flourish. He has a mansion, acd 
equipages, and luxury of every shape. Bet 
watch the history of that family. See it go 
to pieces. See the charm of filial duty broke 
and the chains of luxury pull down the sool. 
We see it all over the land. God nem 
raised a grape from a thorn. The wages of 
sin is death. 

Nearly all our social and political troubln 
could be removed if we could only learn liar 
nothing could be gained by a trick or ag in- 
direction. If we could only believe tiat tin 
thing we dishonestly got; whether it r^i 
legally got or not, we would soon lose, aki 
itself or the blessing that is supposed to gc 
with it, and act upon that idea, the dream of 
Utopia would be realized and the golden nilc 
would be the law of the land. We should re- 
member that we could not imagine a wrong 
that was not temporarily successful; no: 
could we imagine there was a God, if wrong 
finally won. 

We want to add that Mr. Foote's address 
is so full of noble doctrine, finely and fordblj 
expressed, that it is one of the very b«fi 
literdry productions that even went out a 
Columbus. 



Opposition to the Parcels Post 

From the Chicago Joamal 

MERCHANTS in small cities, in villages, 
and at country cross roads arc likely 
to overwhelm Congress with protesu 
against the adoption of Postmaster General 
Meyer's plan for a parcels post, as recently 
outlined. 

If the government should compete with ex 
press companies at a low rate, big mail order 
houses would soon have a monopoly in the 
country. Small merchants could not compete 
with them and widespread ruin would result. 
There are hundreds of thousands of such mer- 
chants, and they, their clerks, their families, 
their relatives, and their friends will all be 
opposed to the parcels post scheme. 

These merchants and the auxiliaries they 



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THE TREND OF OPINION 



291 



an bring to bear are powerful in Congress, 
ind it is hardly possible that any parcels post 
»ill can get through that body. Congressmen 
ire not going to pass legislation that would 
)ring poverty to a large class of the popula- 
ion. The country merchant is a useful citi- 
:en and at one stroke to deprive thousands 
ipon thousands of their livelihood would be, 
o say the least, decidedly unpopular. 

The parcels po§t proposition is unsound, 
and President Roosevelt and Postmaster Gen- 
eral Meyer will make a serious mistake if 
the)- commit themselves to it. 



A. Model Saloon Keeper 

From the Chicago Record-Herald. 

DOWN the state in Granville there is a 
saloon-keeper who has been reflecting 
on his responsibility, and as a result he 
has published the following card in a local 
newspaper : 

Know All Men by These Presents: I wish 
to notify the wife who has a drunkard for 
a husband, or a friend who is unfortunately 
dissipated, to give me notice in writing of 
such cases as you are interested in, and all 
such shall be excluded from my place. Let 
fathers, mothers, sisters and brothers do like* 
wise and their request shall be complied with. 
1 pay a heavy tax for the privilege of retail- 
ing liquors, etc., and want it distinctly under- 
stood that I have no desire to sell to minors 
or drunkards, nor to the destitute. I much 
prefer that they save their money and put it 
where it will do the most good to their fam- 
ilies. There are gentlemen of honor and 
workingmen who can afford it, and it is with 
them I desire to trade. I will say to those 
who trade with me, and can afford it, that I 
will treat you gentlemanly and courteously. 
Loafers are not welcome. 

F. H. KUNKEL. 

The local editor declares that the saloon- 
keeper means just what he says, and urges 
all the indirect victims of the drink evil, 
whose brothers, fathers, sons or friends fre- 
quent this man's place of business, to send 
him word of what they are suffering. If they 
take the advice the saloon-keeper will lose 
some money, and he will probably accum:ulate 
a stock of private quarrels, but he will have 
his own recompense. 

The brewers' and liquor dealers' journals 
arc complaining bitterly now of the "perse- 
cution" their business is suffering, and they 
even fear the ruin of the business from the 



public attacks upon it. If there were more 
saloon-keepers like Mr. Kunkel of Granville, 
and if there were more who took personal 
pride in obeying the laws instead of in break- 
ing them, the brewers would prol^ably have 
less reason for these mournful forebodings, 
which, as matters now stand, arc probably 
" well justified. 



The Ohio Penitentfar7 and Sing: Sin^ 

From the Columbus Ohio Sun, 

RECENT allegations made against the man- 
agement of New York's state penitei> 
tiary at Sing Sing have resulted in the 
resignation of Warden Addison Johnson and 
the sending of petitions of g^evance to Gov- 
ernor Hughes, requesting a rigid investiga- 
tion. If all the charges printed by the New 
York Herald turn up true in the investigation, 
it may be that some who are now otlFicials at 
the institution will change to a much lower 
grade. It is asserted that no small amount 
of "graft" is being realized by the sale of 
groceries to the prisoners at prices higher 
than those obtaining in the outside markets; 
that prisoners and keepers are allowed to steal 
as much of the material provided by the state 
as they care to and to sell it at a good profit ; 
that through political affiliations many pris- 
oners and instructors are given comparatively 
easy berths and escape the disagreeable duties 
of law-required labor. 

It is not until one goes through a long list 
of such charges and reads apparent proofs 
that he realizes the value of the present ad- 
ministration at the Ohio Penitentiary. The 
Buckeye state prison is coming to be recog- 
nized as one of the very best in the United 
States, and even though there are many fea- 
tures of its condition which are not just as 
pleasing as they might be, its commendable 
features greatly overshadow those which need 
a little reform. 

A few figures will show the comparative 
worth of the system now prevailing at Ohio's 
prison, and will give conclusive proof that wc 
have here a much better institution than the 
f^pous Sing Sing. The cost of Sing Sing to 
the state of New York for the fiscal year 
ending last September was $168,321, or an 
average cost for each of the 1279 prisoners of 
$131.60. In Ohio the expenses for that period 
were $289,749, or $180 for each of the 1608 
prisoners. Whereas the state of New York 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



must foot the Sing Sing bill, the legislature 
of Ohio is put to but little expense for the 
maintenance of the institution here. The Ohio 
penitentiary report for last month showed that 
a profit of $452.94 had been realized by the 
management. Thus our state prison is prac- 
tically self-supporting, while the general as- 
sembly of the Empire state must pay for sev- 
eral such institutions as Sing Sing. This 
laudable condition at the Ohio penitentiary 
will continue until 1911, when the institution 
will again become a great burden to the state 
by the enforcement of the Wertz law, requir- 
ing the employment of the prisoners in chain 
gangs and the abolition of the contract labor 
system. 



The *" Crime Wave "^ and the Mob 

From the Harrisbarg (Pa.) Patriot. 

THE "wave of crime" in New York which 
we are now hearing so much about 
seems to be the highest in the offices 
of the yellow journals. 

Undoubtedly some very horrible crimes 
agaipst women and girls have been recently 
committed in the metropolis. In fact such 
crimes are always more or less prevalent in 
such a great city and its purlieus, in which 
there are tens of thousands of vicious per- 
sons, but it is quite evident to the discrimin- 



ating reader that many trivial incidents, some 
of them entirely innocent, are magnified and 
distorted into attempts at dastardly crime. 

These publications have wrought up the 
ignorant foreigners, by whom certain sections 
of New York are densely populated, to a con- 
dition of hysteria that maniftsts itself by 
outbursts of mob violence often almost be- 
yond the power of the police to control and 
utterly disgraceful to a great American city. 

An example of this occurred on Tuesday, 
when a party of sightseer^, many of them 
women and girls, were beset by a huge mob 
because the automobile in which they were 
riding had, without the fault of the chaffcur, 
run over a boy who had been stealing a ride. . 
With great difficulty they weie saved by a 
company of reserve policemen from serious, 
injury, perhaps from death. 

On the same day a man returning from 
work guiltless of any offense whatever was 
set upon by a mob and kicked nearly to death 
because some irresponsible boy pointed him 
out alleging untruly that he was a friend of 
some other. man who had misbehaved. 

In such communities as New York the mob- 
spirit is easily excited, and those newspapers 
which pander to it are as depraved. and far 
more powerful for evil than the criminals 
whose deeds they exaggerate or invent. 




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amt€r§4 t StC9n4 Cits M&hfr, June U, 1906, ai the PostofRce ai Celumbue, O.. under Act of Con- 
gress Uorch t, ItTt. 



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1907 



EMINENT CONTRIBUTORS 

TO THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



1908 



GENERAL FEATURES. 

Charles B. Galbreath, State Librariaii of Ohio. 

Deshler Welch. 

Hon. Charles P. Salen. 

Hon. Brand Whitlock, Mayor of Toledo. 

W. 8. Cappeller, Eklitor of the Majisfleld News. 

Hon. Charles Kinney, Former Secretary ct 

State of Ohio. a 

Hollls KIght. " 

Gen. Isaac R. Sherwood, M. C. ** 

Waldon Fawcett. 
Lena Kline Reed. 
James W. Faulkner. 
Allen E. Beach. 

F. L. Dustman, Editor of the Toledo BladiS. 
J. Howard Galbraith. 
Wliliam Lord Wright. 
Allen O. Myers. 

J. H. Newton, Editor of the Newark Advoc&te. 
Mrs. Edward Orton, Ohio Society. D. A. B. 
Hon. Tod B. GaHoway. 
Opha Moore. 
Hon. John T. Mack. 
Elizabeth 8. Hopley. 
Webster P. Huntington, Editor of the Ohio 

Magazine. 

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT. 

Hon. Andrew L. Harris, Gk>vemor of Ohio. 
Hon. J. B. Foraker, United States Senator 

from Ohio. 
Hon. Charles Dick, United States Senator from 

Ohio. 
Hon. Wade H. Ellis, Attorney General of Ohio. 
Gen. Charles H. Grosvenop. 
The Rev. Herbert 8. BIgelow. 
Hon. J. Warren Kelfer, M. C. 
Hon. Warren G. Harding, Former Ldeutenant 

Governor of Ohio. 
Hon. John L. Zimmerman. 
Hon. John J. Lentz. 

HISTORICAL. 

Hon. E. O. Randall, Secretary Ohio State His- 
torical and Archaeolo|rical Society. 

Archer Butler Hulbert, Secretary Ohio Valley 
Historical Society. 

Hon. Daniel J. Ryan, Former Secretary of 
State of Ohio. 

P. P. Cherry. 

Joseph Olds Gregg. ^^. « . ^ 

William Alexander Taylor, Ohio Society, S. 
A. R. 

Prof. J. J. Bliss. 

Clement L. MartzolfT. 

EDUCATIONAL. 
Dr. W. O. Thompson, President Ohio State 

Dr. Lewis Boo'kwalter, President Otterbeln Uni- 
versity. 



Dr. Alston Ellis, President Ohio University. 

Dr. Charles G. Heckert, President Wittenberg 
College. 

Dr. Emory W. Hunt, President Denlson Uni- 
versity. 

Dr. Kaufman Kohler, President Hebrew Union 
CoUege. 

Dr. Alfred D. Perry, President Marietta Col- 
lege. 

Dr. William F. Peirce, President Kenyon Col- 
lege. 

Dr. Charles F. Thwing, President Western Re- 
serve University. 

Dr. Herbert Welch, President Ohio Wesleyan 
University. 

Dr. Charles W. Dabney, President University 
of Cincinnati. 

ETHICAL. 

The Rev.' Washington Gladden, D. D. 

Hon. Samuel L. Black. 

John E. Gunckel. 

The Rev. E. L. Rexford, D. D. 



INDUSTRIAL. 

Hon. W. S. Thomas. 
Conrad Wilson. 
W. F. McClure. 
A. J. Haln. 
Charles S. Magruder. 



FICTION AND VERSE. 

James Ball Naylor. 

Stella Breyfogie McDonald. 

Rodney J. Diegle. 

Kate Brownlee Sherwood. 

William A. Taylor. 

Osman C. Hooper. 

Mira Clark Parsons. 

Alec Bruce. 

S. N. Cook. 

Webster P. Huntington. 

Thomas H. Sheppard. 

Charles Kinney. 

Beecher W. Waltermlre. 

S. A. Keneflck. 



ILLUSTRATORS. 

Frank H. Haskett, Staff Photogn^her of The 

Ohio Magazine. 
Edward J. Waskow, Chicago. 
E. M. Ensmlnger, Bucyrus. 
A. H. MacDonald, Zanesvllle. 
C. M. Hay, Coshocton. 
Waldon Fawcett, Washington. 
J. R. Schmidt, Cincinnati. 
E. N. Clark, Columbus. 
Baker's Art Gallery, Columbus. 



SUBSCRIPTION COUPON 



^.,J907 



THE OHIO MAGAZINE, Cottsmbas, Ohio, 

Genttemen: Enclosed find T<ox> DotUrs, for <Q)hich ptesLse maU THE OHIO MAGAZINE 

for one ye^, 1907, io t90S, 

inclusive, to the following siddress: 

NMfM^ ~ - 

Street Mnd No — 

Town Mnd Slide - 



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JAMKS DALL NAYLOR, 

Author of "Ralph Marlowe", "Tlie Kentuckian", "The Sign c . the Prophet", etc, etc- 
Dr. Naylor's New Nevclette, "A Counterfeit Coin," Begins in the Current Number of 
The Ohio Magazine. 



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The Men's Clubs of Ohio 

11. The Clubs of Toledo 

By Lucas J. Beecher and Charles Quinn 

Illustrations from Photographs for The Ohio Magazine 

The present article is the second of the series devoted to the Men's Clubs of 
Ohio, appearing in The Ohio Magazine^ the first dealing with the clubs of Cincin- 

i nati having been published in June, The exhaustive and attractive exposition of 
the clubs of Toledo here afforded is a fitting recognition of their social and com- 
mercial importance and indicates, all things considered, that the city on the Maumee 

K is second to none in this State unth regard to the excellence of its organizations of 
this character. 



*^^ 



IF the progress and development 
of a city are to be measured by 
the number and excellence of 
its clubs, then Toledo is in a 
fair way to become a great 
metropolis, for the city is as 
well provided with these social institutions 
as any municipality of its size in the 
country. 

Club life in the metropolis of north- 
western Ohio is of course an evolution, 
the same as it has been elsewhere. In the 
early days of the city, when Toledo was 
struggling with several other towns for 
the distinction , of becoming the leading 
commercial centre of the Maumee valley, 
the pioneer life of the time did not admit 
of the luxury of today. The primitive 
social accommodations of the fifties and 
sixties, while adapted to the needs of the 
sturdy builders of the present day commer- 
cial structure, were as far removed from 
the splendid clubs that now administer to 
the wants of the people as is the present 
intricate civilization from the simple life 
of those who blazed a trail through the 
trackless forests of the Black Swamp. 

Five decades ago there were in Toledo 
no clubs, as we now understand the word. 
The merchants of that time did not lead 
the strenuous life. There was more time 
for fraternal and social intercourse in 
their daily associations, hence the com- 



munity resembled that of the small ifl- 
terior towns of today. But as the popula- 
tion of the city grew the "chop house" 
where the business men occasionally as- 
sembled to talk over trade conditions dis- 
appeared, to be supplanted by a more mod- 
ern institution where a chef could be en- 
gaged by the subscribing members. 

To go into the history of club life in 
Toledo would take one back to that most 
democratic of all institutions, the tavern 
of the pioneer. Here was germinated the 
seed that was to blossom forth in the 
splendid Toledo club of today, which has 
a membership of 340 of the most promi- 
nent business men of the city ; the Country 
Club, the playground of Toledo's aristoc- 
racy; the Inverness Club, which has one 
of the finest golf courses in the State; the 
Toledo Yacht Club, that is building a 
magnificent new home; the Lincoln Club, 
one of the most influential political organ- 
izations in the State; the Business Men's 
Club, and others. 

Club life in Toledo, it might be said, 
dates from about 1875, when the future of 
the city was assured. Local commerce 
had by this time reached such proportions 
as to warrant the establishment of insti- 
tutions of a social nature. The railroad 
builders had with that prescience charac- 
teristic of them foreseen the trend of com- 
ing events and stretched their tentacles of 



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steel to the heart of the city. Big indus- 
tries had established themselves within the 
confines of the municipality and the com- 
plexity of modern life becoming manifest, 
the business men inevitably outgrew their 
"Beefsteak Clubs." 



were a number of saloons and taverns 
where the Bohemian spirits of the time 
mingled. They usually occupied a large 
room either in the rear or above the liquid 
dispensaries, and here meals were served 
It is true there were no Shakespeares, Ben 



THE TOLKDO CLUIJ. 



While Toledo in its pioneer days never 
could boast a Mermaid Tavern or Temple 
Ear rendezvous, yet these famous primi- 
tive clubs of old London had their coun- 
terpart in the Maumee metropolis. P'ol- 
lowing the civil war and until 1875 there 



Jonsons, Beaumonts and Fletchers and no 
Sir- Walter Raleighs to make the gather- 
ings memorable by the brilliance of their 
repartee, the bright glitter of their genm? 
or the infinite flow of their wit, but never- 
theless there were Petroleum V. NasD}' 



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and others almost as well known. These 
congenial souls who made Northwestern 
Ohio famous in the great internecine strug- 
gle between the North and the South, spent 
many evenings together in this environ- 
ment, which was the best the city could 
then afford. While the elegance and com- 
fort of the present day clubs were absent 
there was always a "feast of reason and 
flow of soul" that would do honor now to 
any of our modern social organizations. 

THE TOLEDO CLUB. 

The first club in Toledo that might be 
dignified with the name was the old Dra- 
conion Club, that was organized in 1879. 
This institution, which had its rooms on 
Superior street in the rear of The Blade 
newspaper office, was the outgrowth of a 
small club that met over a saloon on Simi- 
mit street. Following the post-bellum 
movement of the time when social clubs 
were forming throughout the country, the 
Draconian Club came into existence with 
what was then regarded as extravagant 
quarters. The members thought they had 
reached the apex of luxuriance in the 
furnishing and decoration of their home, 
though in comparison with the clubs of 
today the rooms would appear as barren 
as the meeting place of a colony of New 
England Quakers. 

The Dranconian Club was in existence 
ten years, when in 1889 the Toledo Club 
was formed. As most of the members went 
into the new organization the old club died 
a natural death. One year after the To- 
ledo Club was launched its fine brown- 
stone building on the southeastern corner 
of Madison avenue and Erie street was 
erected. This structure is today one of 
the most beautiful in the city from an 
architectural standpoint. The massive 
blocks of stone from which the outer walls 
are constructed are suggestive of solidity 
and elegance. Having been erected before 
the age of steel, everything about the build- 
ing is indicative of the pre-modern spirit 
'Which is the very antithesis of the bustle 
and hurry of today. ' One look at the struc- 
ture and the passing pedestrian knows that 
behind those walls are rest, comfort and 
^^iet. It is a haven for the worried and 
harassed business man, a harbor of refuge 



from the commercial storms that rage 
without. 

When the building was erected it was 
thought that it would meet the needs of 
Toledo for several generations, but it is 
now practically outgrown and plans have 
been prepared by a local architect for its 
enlargement. In the beginning the usual 



J. W. MARSHALL. 
President of the Toledo Club and the Country Club. 

scheme was adopted of hiaking every mem- 
ber a stockholder in the club. Each mem- 
ber was compelled to buy one share of 
stock, the par value of which was $100. 
While thi$ proved efficacious in raising 
money for the purchase of the lot and the 
erectif)n of the building, it had its defects. 
Many of the stock shares in time became 
involved in estates of deceased members 
and it was impossible to transfer these- 
shares to others who w^ishedto join the 
club. Then, too, some members left the 
city and discontinued the payment of dues 
but refused to surrender their stock certi- 
ficates. All this resulted in a change in 
the form of the club's organization by the 



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passage of a resolution at the annual meet- 
ing recently, abolishing the stock plan and 
substituting an initiation fee of $100, this 
money to be surrendered when the member 
leaves the club. The dues are $80 a year. 
The club has decided to completely re- 
model the interior of the building and re- 
furnish the rooms. This work will be un- 
dertaken this Autumn without regard to 
the enlargement cf the structure, which 
project may also be realized soon. With 
respect to the latter undertaking it may be 



nent captains of industry in the United 
States are included in this list, among ihtx 
b:?ing Eugene Zimmerman, the railroad 
magnate of Cincinnati and the father of 
the Duchess of Manchester. Mr Zimmer- 
i^ en ccme;» to Toledo frequently on bus- 
iness and always makes his headquarters at 
the club. 

Of the older members who are now dc 
cca.ecl may b3 mentis ned \V. E. Hale of 
Chicago, cne of the greatest electric rai!- 
rca J cr";anizers cf his time. Mr. Hale, b 



THE HOSPITABLE TOLEDO CLUB. 



said that the club has in the rear of its 
lot an unimproved piece of land 20 x 60 
feet and if the addition is built the quarters 
of the organization will be greatly en- 
larged. 

As the membership of the club is limited 
to 350, the roster of the organization will 
be completed when ten more names are 
added, after which a waiting list will be 
established. The club has 100 non-resi- 
dent members who are scattered through- 
out the country. Some of the most promi- 



company with Norman B. Ream, now of 
New York, was interested in the Toledo 
Traction Company, which absorbed the old 
Robinson lines in the Maumee city and 
then sold out to the Everett- Moore s\ti- 
dicate. 

Another prominent member was VV. E. 
Pierce, Sr., who will be remembered by 
his connection with the Clover Leaf road, 
having for several years been receiver of 
the property. 

There is also on the **In Memoriam" 



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THE MEN'S CLUBS OF OHIO 



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THE COUNTRY CLUB. 



list the name of Frank H. Hurd, the silver 
tongued orator of the Maumee. This men- 
tal giant, whose voice resounded through 
the halls of congress when he represented 
the Ninth congressional district in the 
lower House, was one of the best known 
figures that ever sat in the Federal law- 
making body. He was a free trader of the 
Cobden school and like the great English 
economist he remained steadfast to its 
principles until the last. It has been said 
that were it not for the influence of Frank 
H. Hurd, the protective tariff principle 
would have become a fact in the political 
economy of the United States ten years 
before it did. 

Among the departed ones of the club 
there is also found a name that is revered 
throughout the length and breadth of the 
country. This is none other than the great 
McKinley, the martyred president who fell 
by the assassin*s bullet at Buffalo in 1901. 
While this apostle of protection was but 
a State figure in politics and long before 
his influence reached bevond the borders of 



Ohio, he was frequently entertained at the 
club and when the nation placed him in 
the executive chair at Washington he was 
made an honorary member. 

Two members, whose memory is cher- 
ished because of their connection with the 
old Draconian Club were Petroleum V. 
Nasby (David Ross Locke) and M. R. 
VVaite, seventh chief justice of the United 
States. Both of these great men gained 
their fame while residents of Toledo, the 
cne as a humorist and satirist, the other as 
a jurist. None played a more prominent 
part in molding the opinion of the nation 
on the question of slavery and in uphold- 
ing the administration of Lincoln than did 
Nasby, and there has been no more able 
expounder of the constitution on the su- 
preme court bench since the days of Mar- 
shall than M. R. Waite. 

It will thus be seen that the comparison 
between Toledo's clubs and the old chop 
house at Mermaid Tavern is not after all 
so farfetched. If the city by the Maumee 
cannot boast of poets and great essayists, 



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it had its political and ccmfnercial leaders, 
its satirists and its jurists and that they 
enriched the life of the club and made it 
more than a mere eating and drinking 
place, those who are now members can 
testify. 

The Toledo Club, aside from being a 
social centre, is of great commercial bene- 



FRANK L. MULHOLLAND, 
President of the Lincoln Club. 

fit to the city. Here are entertained all 
the visiting bankers and financiers who 
come to the city in search of opportunities 
for investment. As all the local leaders 
of finance are members of the organization, 
the visitors naturally gravitate toward this 
haven where, in a private room, they may 
lay before the Toledo capitalists their 
plans. It may safely be assumed that 
nine-tenths of the big projects that find 
realization and that are helping to so rap- 
.idly build up the city are discussed and 
planned at the Toledo Club. Here it is 
easy to find the "right people," those who 
possess the capital that will insure the suc- 
cess of the enterprise. 

Then again the club acts as a sort of 



host for the whole city. When Toledo 
wished to do honor tot Theodore P. Shonts 
after his appointment by President Roose- 
velt as chairman of the Panama Canal 
Commission, he was banqueted at the club. 
If any man of national prominence makes 
a visit to Toledo, the club represents the 
city in the entertainment. 

The club building is a three-story and 
basement structure with spendid accommo- 
dations. There is one large room where 
banquets are held and several small din- 
ing rooms for the convenience of private 
parties. In the basement is the billiard 
room and on the top floor are sixteen 
sleeping or guest rooms. 

The lot on which the club's building is 
erected is one of the most valuable in To- 
ledo. It has a frontage on Madison ave- 
nue of 60 feet and is 120 feet deep on 
Huron street, giving the structure an 
abundance of light on two sides. Being 
located in the very heart of the business 
district the property has enhanced with 
the rapid appreciation of town values un- 
til the lot is worth over $3,000 per linear 
foot. Recently an offer of $200,000 was 
made for the sixty feet, but the members, 
believing that nothing is too good for the 
club, refused to sell. When the property 
was purchased in 1889 the price paid was 
$400 per foot. 

The officers of the Toledo Club are: 
President, J. W. Marshall ; Vice-President, 
W. P. Tyler: Secretarv. Dan D. Schenck; 
Treasurer, George L. Freeman; Directors, 
the foregoing together with Henry Vor- 
triede, W. S. Walbridge and William Har- 
dee ; House Committee, Henry Vortriede, 
chairman; W. S. Walbridge and William 
Hardee. 

THE COUNTRY CLUB. 

The Country Club is one of the most 
beautiful suburban properties that may be 
found near any city in the United States. 
There are of course rural playgrounds for 
the well-to-do that have cost the owners 
much more money, but none that have 
been more bountifully endowed by Nature. 
Situated on the historic banks of the Mau- 
mee river about midway between the vil- 
lage of Maumee and Toledo, and about 
five miles from the center of the latter 
city, the club has 63 acres of beautiful 



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THE MEN'S CLUBS OF OHIO 



301 



rolling land on which a fine nine-hole golf 
course has been laid out. The property, 
which cost the members $1,000 per acre, 
is constantly enhancing in value because 
of the tendency of the residents of Toledo 
to build Summer homes along the banks 
of the beautiful stream. 

The membership of this club is limited 
to 200 and the roster has been full for 
some time, there being now a large num- 
ber on the waiting list. The«members are 
admitted on an invitational basis. The 



zation has to a great extent become a 
social center where society entertains its 
friends. The golf course is one of the 
finest in the State and in the summer 
months is thronged with players. As the 
links approach the river bank, which is 
high above the level of the water, the 
scene on a pleasant Summer afternoon is 
a beautiful one. The trim, natty costumes 
of the ladies and the white suits of the 
men as they follow the gutta percha in 
the great Scotch game, lend to the scene 



THE NEW TOLEDO YACHT CLUB. 



dues are $60 per year and all who join 
the organization must buy at least one 
share of stock of the par value of $100. 
The stock is now worth about $150. 

The club house is a commodious and 
well arranged frame structure with broad 
verandas that overlook the river. All the 
creature comforts that the most fastidious 
might desire are supplied by the house 
committee. There are splendid accommo- 
dations for all kinds of entertainment. As 
ladies are admitted to the club the organi- 



just the touch required to complete the 
picture, for the background of green foli- 
age is one that would arrest the attention 
of both poet and artist. On the property 
is a piece of beautiful woodland almost 
primeval in its beauty and the association 
of the golfers with this touch of Nature 
brings to the senses a feeling of ineffable 
quiet and repose. To escape from the 
dusty pavements of the city on a hot Sum- 
mer's day to this Elysium becomes at once 
the ambition and the hope of the busy 



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business man. Here he may for the nonce 
forget the worry and care of commercial 
life and with his family spend a few 
hours away from turmoil an J struggle. 
As the oblique rays of the sun forecast 
that the day is nearly spent, and as the 
shadows from the majestic oaks and elms 
begin to lengthen, he may wend his way 



COMMODORE JOHN F. CRAIG, 
Toledo Yacht Club. 

to the club house. Here after dinner he 
may occupy one of the big wicker chairs 
on the veranda and as the smoke curls 
from his cigar he may give himself up to 
the joys of living. 

Even if he be of a practical turn of 
mind, the beauty of his surroundings will 
now overpower his senses. No man can 
think of the stock ticker or figure on the 
sale of a bill of goods on a Summer even- 
ing at the Country Club. Lawyers forget 
their clients, doctors their patients and 
capitalists their investments when under 
the spell of these bucolic charms. All 
around one is the chirping of the crickets, 
the buzz and hum of the nocturnal insects. 
In the distance may be descried the lights 
of the city like dancing diamonds on a 
low horizon. Occasionallv an electric 



car with its lighted interior and its omi- 
nous searchlight in front passes near the 
club house on its way to Maumee, but 
this is the only reminder of the civiliza- 
tion of the city. 

To look eastward is to gaze across the 
placid waters of the river and to rumin- 
ate on the early history of the Maumee 
valley. Within a stone's throw of this very 
spot struggle^ the contending forces of 
\Vayne and Proctor, and within a mile or 
two was fought the battle that decided the 
fate of a dozen states and ga\ne to the 
young republic an empire in itself. One 
can almost see the painted forms of the 
stealthy aborigines as they paddle up the 
river on a night mission to surprise the 
camp of the hardy American frontiersmen, 
and as one sits there peering through the 
darkness the call of a nightingale to its- 
mate startles him from his reverie and re- 
minds him that it is time to wend his way 
homeward. As he enters the lighted club- 
liouse there comes floating through the air 
the sound of music and the flitting of feet 
upon the polished floor. Some of the mem- 
bers are enjoying a quiet little hop pre- 
paratory to their return to the city. In 
twos, threes and in larger groups the mem- 
bers seek their automobiles or take the in- 
terurban car back to Toledo after an after- 
noon and evening of unalloyed pleasure 
and a rejuvenation of ttie mental and 
physical man that can only be impagrted 
from communion with Nature. 

J. W. Marshall, president of the Toledo 
Club, occupies the same position in ..the 
Country Club. The vice-president is W. 
A. Gosline, Jr., and Horace W. Suydam 
is secretary. George H. Beck with has 
occupied the position of treasurer for some 
years. The directors are the foregoing 
officers and W. H. Standart, A. L. Spitzer, 
Jay K. Secor, Rathbun Fuller and Robert 
Hickson. The house committee is com- 
posed of but two members, George H. 
Beckwith and George S. Mills. The club 
was organized in 1892. 

INVERNESS CLUB. 

Another social club of which Toledo is 
prrud is the Inverness Club, which was 
organized in 1904 and has 160 members. 
The club has 80 acres of land located on 
the Toledo & Indiana electric road and 



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THE STEAM YACHT "EDITH," FLAGSHIP OF THE TOLEDO YACHT CLUB. 



about six miles from the city. The dues 
of this organization are $40 annually, each 
member being required to purchase a share 
of stock valued at $100. Besides the reg- 
ular membership there are associate mem- 
bers who contribute $50 per year to the 
club's exchequer. These are not required 
to purchase stock. The membership is 
limited to 200 and it is expected that by 
the end of this year the list will be full. 
The Inverness Club has all the advan- 
tages of the Country Club with the ex- 
ception of the river. There are the same 
physical comforts, the same shower baths 
and cuisine and musical accommodations. 
The golf course, however, is better, being 
one of the finest in the country. Recently 
the club acquired twenty acres of addi- 
tional property and is changing the course 
from a nine to an eighteen-hole. This wil. 
make it eligible for the national amateu: 
championship contests in 1908 and an ef- 
fort will be made to capture this prize for 
Toledo. Last year the Ohio State Golf 
Association held its tournament on this 
course and all the visitors expressed the 
greatest admiration for the club's property. 



The land is rolling and admirably adapted 
for golf, there being but one artificial 
hazard on the course. In the rear of the 
course is a little stretch of woodland from 
which the players may retire under the 
shade of the trees when the rays of old 
Sol become too piercing. The Toledo & 
Indiana line passes the club house and 
gives excellent service to the city. This 
club is destined to become one of the most 
important golf associations in the country, 
there being now numbered in the member- 
ship several players who compete in the 
national amateur championships. The 
composition of the members is similar to 
that of the Country Club, the lists being 
made up from the professional and busi- 
ness men of Toledo. 

The officers of the club are : President,. 
W. L, Ross; Vice-President, H. J. Hey- 
wood; Secretary and Treasurer, Harry M. 
Chapman ; Directors, the officers named. 
and J. H. Bellows, Joseph Mitcheltree, 
W. A. Owen, H. E. Adams, Harold VV. 
Fraser, B. C. Stevenson, James Thompson: 
and W. J. Rockefeller. 



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THE LINCOLN CLUB. 

For thirteen years the Lincoln Club has 
l)een an important factor in the social and 
political life of the men of Toledo and its 
potent influence has been felt in every 
•campaign that has been fought since its 
organization. Incorporated as a compara- 
tively small and purely political club of 
young men, it has survived longer than 
-any other political club in Toledo. With 
Heoublican success, it flourished. In times 
of political adversity its organization be- 
•came stronger and more tensely knit, until 



THE INVERNESS CLUB. 

HOW it is a power in the community and 
its reputation is more than State wide. 

The active membership of the Lincoln 
Club comprises more than 600 of the most 
prominent professional and business men 
of Toledo and among its honorary mem- 
l>ers are Senator J. B. Foraker, Senator 
Charles Dick and Hon. Harry M. Daugh- 
•ertv. 

The club rooms, always open and much 
frequented, occupy the entire second floor 
of the new Bell building, adjoining the 
postoffice, on St. Clair street. There is 
one large assembly room, modern and well 
appointed billiard and card rooms, two 
elegantly furnished parlors and a library 
and reading room, where the leading peri- 
odicals and newspapers are on file, and 
upon the shelves are valuable historic and 
political works. 

The secret of the political success of the 
club is in its constitutional safeguard, 
-which provides that it shall not, as an or- 
ganization, endeavor to influence in any 



way the action of any national, state, 
county or municipal convention or express 
preference for any candidate before any 
convention. The club neither knows not 
recognizes factions in the Republican 
party, but always w^orks for the success of 
the entire ticket. 

Accordin'^ to former State Senator A. 
D. Fassett, historian of the club, five 
young Toledo Reoublicans concluded in 
May, 1894, that the time was opportune 
for the organization of a Republican club 
of young men. Each of the five selected 
a friend and the ten met in Dorsey Beall's 
law office. These men were Judge Scott 
H. Kelly, Dorsey L. Beall, Fred J. Carr, 
Wellington T. Huntsman, Fred L. Zart- 
man, F. D. Hurst, Charles W. Otis, Lin- 
coln Smith, Thad S. Powell and Louis J. 
Spenker. Each of the ten undertook to 
obtain the signatures of twenty Republi- 
cans, not more than 35 years of age, to 
an agreement to form a club when 200 
such signatures had been obtained. In 
spite of the hard times of 1894, the signa- 
tures were easily obtained. An informal 
meeting was then held and it was decided 
to incorporate. Provision was made to 
issue 500 shares of stock at $5 a share and 
it was decided to call the organization The 
Lincoln Club of Toledo. 

The purposes of the club, set forth in 
the first charter were : "The advancement 
of political economy, perpetuating the 
principles and interests of the Republican 
party and of promoting friendly and social 
relations among the members of the club.'' 

The first election of officers, held Sep- 
tember 8, 1894, resulted as follows: Pres- 
ident, Dorsey L. Beall ; first vice-president, 
Joseph R. W. Cooper; second vice-presi- 
dent, T. J. Gifford; third vice-president, 
H. H. Cushinej; secretary, Fred J. Carr; 
treasurer, Fred L. Zartman. 

Two classes of members — active and 
associate — were provided for by the con- 
stitution adopted at that time. Only men 
under 35 years of age could be active 
members. Others were entitled to all priv- 
ileges of the orejanization except voice and 
vote at the business meetings and elections. 
The object was to make the young men 
more powerful, if not, indeed, dominant, in 
Republican politics in Lucas county, but 
the best service? of the old war horses 



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THE MEN'S CLUBS OF OHIO 



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were needed, so that in 1896 the age limit 
was removed and, since that time, all mem- 
bers have had equal privileges. 

In 1900, the club adopted resolutions 
requesting the late Golden Rule Mayor S. 
M. Jones and A. D. Fa^ett to resign for 
lack of loyalty to the Republican party. 
Mayor Jones had been a Republican. He 
was first elected to office on the Republi- 
can ticket but, believing that he had been 
corruptly counted out at a convention be- 
fore which he was a candidate for renom- 
i nation, became a non-partisan and, as 



THE BUSINESS MEX'S CLUH. 

such, was elected and re-elected, holding 
office until he died in July, 1905. Mayor 
Jones withdrew from the club, but Fassett, 
a stockholder, refused to be put out, and 
is still a member. As a result of this 
agitation, new members were pledged to 
vote for the "principles and candidates" 
(if the party. Recently this pledge was 
modified an^ applicants are required to 
pledge themselves only to support the 
"principles" of Republicanism. 

The elimination of the age limit, the 
modification of the membership pledge, 
and a liberal and aggressive policy adopted 
by the officers and trustees elected in No- 
vtrmber, 1905. gave the club prestige, and 
400 names were quickly added to the 
roster. It transpired at the club election 
in November, 1906, however, that the or- 
ganization had at leaU 100 more members 
than it had issued shares of stock; that 
these non-shareholding members were par- 
ticipating in the election and that non- 
members were voting proxies tha*^ th^y ha I 



industriously gathered for personal and 
political ends. Injunctions and other em- 
barrassing court proceedings were threat- 
ened, but the new officers were equal to 
the emergency. They made application to 
the secretary of state and obtained a new 
charter for the club, under the laws of the 
State providing for the organization of cor- 
porations not for profit. This eliminated 
the stock feature and placed the club in 
position to bar the votes of proxy holders. 
The reorgonization was effected without 
opposition, those who had hoped to dis- 
rupt the club being so hopelessly in the 
minority that they offered no opposition. 

During every campaign and after each 
election, the club tenders receptions to Re- 
publican candidates. Every winter a series 
of dancing parties, entertainments and 
open meetings, with short speeches, music 
and refreshments, is given, but the prin- 
cipal social feature each year is the Lin- 
coln Day banquet. This year the banquet 
was given at the Boody and Congressman, 
J. Adam Bede, of Minnesota, the wit of 
the house of representatives, was the prin- 
cipal speaker. Hon. John H. Doyle, for- 
merly one of the judges of the supreme 
court of Ohio, and who delivered the prin- 
cipal speech at the first banquet ever given 
by the club, was toastmaster. 

The members of the uniformed march- 
ing division of the club are known as the 
Railsplitters. They have been drilled to 
a state of high efficiency and always win 
plaudits at presidential inaugurations, State 
campaign openings and local Republican 
rallies. 

The list of presidents of the club, since 
its organization follows: Dorsey L. Beall, 
George W. Millard, Wellington T. Hunts- 
man, Henry A. Coleman, John StoUberg, 
C. Locke Curtis and Frank L. MulhoUand. 
Mr. MulhoUand is now serving his second 
term. His administration has been aggres- 
sive and successful socially, financially and 
politically and since he was first elected 
the club has increased in membership as 
never before. 

THE TOLEDO VA .HT CLUB. 

Originally a small and exclusively sj)ort- 
ing organization, the Toledo Yacht Club 
has become one of the largest, richest and 



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most influential of the men's business so- 
cial clubs in Northwestern Ohio. 

Launched in 1878, it has weathered 
storms of dissension among its members, 
come safely over many financial shoals and, 
notwithstanding the total destruction of its 
beautiful new club house by fire in Feb- 
ruary last, is now on the high tide of its 
prosperity. 

On the Yacht Club's membership list 
are the names of nearly 500 of the men of 
wealth and prestige in Toledo, and its 
property, consisting of real estate, lease- 
holds and boats, the latter being owned by 
individual members, represents an invest- 
ment approximating $200,000. 

The only charter member of the Yacht 
club whose name has been on the member- 
ship list for nearly thirty years, is Captain 
Joseph Hepburn, veteran yachtsman and 
boat builder of Toledo. He is of the old 
school of yachtsmen who organized the 
club exclusively for the purpose of pro- 
moting Corinthianism on the lakes and it 
is not without some regret that the fresh- 
water *'tars," whose keenest pleasure was 
found aboard ship, have witnessed the evo- 
lution of the club until now the social in- 
terests predominate and yachting, with a 
majority of the members, is a secondary 
consideration. 

When it was but a little club of amateur 
sailors, quarters were in Hepburn's boat 
house, where business meetings were held 
and the conversation was in nautical terms 
meaninijjless to the avera^^^e landsman. 

Better quarters were afterward-i obtained 
on Card Island, in Maumee Bay, and there 
a club house wa> built. A bicycle club and 
a rival yachting organization, the Ohio 
Yacht Club, wer- a'),orbed after a hard 
fought court battle over the rights of the 
respective clubs en Card Island. Later 
most of the members of the defunct Up- 
River Yacht Club were admitted to mem- 
bership. 

In 1896, under the auspices of the Yacht 
Club, the first races for the famous Can- 
ada's cup were sailed in Toledo waters, 
the contestants being the Canada and the 
American boat VanccJor. This attracted 
much attention to the club and about this 
tfme the development of the motor boat, 
which was promptly adopted by society, 
became a boon to the organization. 



A few years ago the city, for a nominal 
consideration, leased two acres of ground 
in Bay View Park, on Maumee Bay, to the 
\acht Club. Bay View Park, containing 
202 acres, was laid out in vain anticipa- 
tion of the holding of an Ohio centennial 
in Toledo in 1903. Much of the land was 
reclaimed from the Maumee river and 
Maumee bay and its lagoons and little 
islands make it an ideal location for a 
yacht club, with sheltered harbor and 
commanding a magnificent view of Lake 
Er'o. The club's lease was for 25 years 
and, as soon as it was obtained, a yacht 
club building company was formed. At 
a cost of $20,000, this company erected a 
magnificent club house provided with large 
parlors, a billiard room, ball room, ban- 
quet room, private dining rooms and guest 
rooms on the main floors, with lockers and 
work shop in the basement for the yacht- 
mj; members. 

The club increased rapidly in member- 
ship and gained in popularity. Dancing 
parties for members only and their ladies 
were given every Wednesday evening dur- 
ing the Winter, and almost every night 
some of the rooms were engaged for 
smaller private parties of members and 
their guests. The midsummer social event 
is the annual ball of the Inter-Lake 
Yachting Association at Hotel Victor>% 
Put-in-Bay. The boats of the Toledo 
yacht club fleet invariably win many of 
the championship trophies hung up for the 
yacht races, which are witnessed by throngs 
of spectators aboard the large cruisers that 
follow the course, and whose owners con- 
tribute liberally to the amenities of the 
occasion. 

The Toledo Yacht Club fleet numbers 
seventy-five boats, including sail craft and 
motor boats. The largest and most ex- 
pensive of the sail yachts enrolled with the 
club are Commodore E. T. AflHeck's yawl 
Hussar II and (ieorge Craig's sloop Shark, 
both of which wxre ocean going yachts, 
brought around from the Atlantic coast, 
and Commodore S. O. Richardson's mag- 
nificently appointed auxiliary yawl Puri- 
tana. The flags^MT) of the fleet last season 
was the beautiful steam yacht Edith, 
which has since been sold bv Commodore 
John F. Craig to Commodore Fred A. 
Price, of Chicago. Among the motor boats 



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THE MEN'S CLUBS OF OHIO 



307 



completed and under construction are a 
sixty- footer for Ed^^-ard Ford, president of 
the Ford Plate Glass Company; the fifty- 
footer Red feather for Howard Affleck and 
a 3 5 -footer for Dr. P. E. Bethards. 

Since the destruction of the club house, 
a down-town business office has been 
opened, but, before the embers were cold, 
plans were under way for a larger and 
more expensive fire-proof club house on 
the site of the old frame building. The 
new building is of concrete, 104 feet 
long by 44 feet wide, exclusive of a large 
-wing and a twelve foot veranda around 
the entire structure. It is of Vene- 
tian architecture, three stories high, and 
will cost $30,000. 

Tlic officers of the Toledo Yacht Club 
are : Commodore, John F. Craig.; vice- 
commodore, Charles A. Russell ; rear com- 
modore, Wm. L. Schumacher ; financial 
secretary, Frank R. Frey; treasurer, R. H. 
Scribner; recording secretary, \Vm. J. 
Wilson; fleet captain, C. V. Skinner; 
measurer, Walter Coakley; fleet surgeon. 
Dr. P. I. Mulholland. 



TOLEDO BUSINESS MEN's CLUB. 

The Toledo Business Men*s Club is the 
outgrowth of the defunct Seventh Ward 
Republican Club, which had a precarious 
existence for about two years. The old 
organization had for its quarters one of 
the finest residences in the fashionable 
west end of the city, at Lawrence and 
Grand avenues. It boasted handsomely 
furnished parlors, library, reading room, 
card rooms and a billiard room, but its 
support was insufficient and, a few months 
ago, the old organization was disbanded. 
The property was turned over to the new 
Business Men's Club, the objects of which 
are discursive and fraternal. At the reg- 
ular club meetings there are usually ad- 
dresses or discussions on live topics, led 
by prominent men of Toledo or invited to 
come from other cities. 

The membership of the Business Men's 
Club comprises 180 of the most substan- 
tial men of Toledo. The president ^ is 
I'>ank E. Southard. 



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WHISTLIN' ON THE PUMP 



A^'^^-STRAGGLIN' into our back yard — his 
^ hands his pockets in, 

M^n His mind all free from worry and his 

soul all free from sin — 
I remember how he used to come, some minutes 

''before school," 
And notify the folks at home that he had ''time 

to fool," 
By whistlin' up a dismal tune, like any idle gump. 
While twistin' his two legs around my father's 
pee-green pump. 



I remember how my hunger fled whene'er I heard his notes, 
Like nightingales', soar upward as from a thousand throats; 
And how my father would depose and most austerely state 
That, although "Mort" was wistlin', I could wisely let him wait. 
But such advice was lost on me, for I was on the jump. 
When my old pardner was out there, a-whistlin' on the pump. 

Lord, how the buckwheats lost their charm and syrup all its sweet. 
Which at any other moment not nothin' else could beat ! 
How cold indoors th' ungrateful world would suddenly appear. 
When music underneath the porch proclaimed that "Mort" was near! 
There may be joy that makes your heart go thump! and thump! 

and thump! 
But none like that when my old pard was whistlin' on the pump. 

Since then Tve heard some music, that cost much more to hear 

And was really seductive to an educated ear; 

And I've shown enthusiasm by joining in applause, 

When the spirit truly moved mejrom a truly earnest cause; 

But no remembrance of it all produces that queer lump 

That catches me, when 1 recall "Mort's" whistlin' on the pump. 

W. P. H. 



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A Counterfeit Coin 



By James Ball Naylor 



FOREWORD. 

This is no treatise erudite 

On Martian astronomy. 
No essay learned, teaching right 

Political economy; 
It does not deal, for woe or weal. 

With socialist histology. 
Nor does it show, nor claim to know. 

The tenets of psychology. 
In short, it is no classic score 

Of faultless style and diction. 
Parading scientific lore — 

All in the g^ise of fiction, 

A modest tale, it» meager plot 

Is noways allegorical; 
It does not lay a claim — God wot! — 

To characters historical. 
It has no art to search the heart 

Of every sect fanatical. 
Nor feels the need to frame a creed 

From scriptures emblematical. 
In fact, the author did not look 

Through musty tomes and hoary. 
To glean material for his book — 

Ifs just a little story. 

It does not treat, in any way. 

Of themes and things political; 
And may not please — / blush to say!- 

The critics hyper-critical. 
It does not claim the right to name 

Itself a MODERN novel. 
Nor beg the fate to circulate 

From mansion-house to hovel. 
In truth, the author had no thought 

Of future fame or glory; 
He simply sat him down and wrought 

A story — just a story. 

L^ENVOI. 

Dear reader, let me just repeat — 

Sans further inventory 
This is no literary treat — 

'Tis but a little story. 
Malta, Ohio. The Author. 

2 



CHAPTER I. 



SHOW him in." 
The speaker leaned back in 
his leather-covered chair and 
interlocked his strong, white 
fingers behind his head, all the- 
while puffing 'vigorously at a 
short, fat cigar and gazing fixedly toward 
the outer door. He was a man at whom 
one would turn to take a second look — 
tall, broad-shouldered, deep-chested and 
sinewy. It was not his form, however, but 
his face, that exercised so subtle an at- 
traction that the casual observer would 
hasten to niake a closer study of it. It 
was not a face beaming with kindness or 
insipid and weakly virtue, nor one in which 
were reflected the nobler of human passions 
and emotions ; but one dark with the shad- 
ows of stern determination and inflexible 
purpose — but flickeringly radiant with the 
side-lights of justice and mercy. The close- 
cropped iron-gray hair and beard were in- 
dicative of bulldog tenacity and fixity of 
will ; and the small, bright and ever-shift- 
ing gray eyes denoted fox-like cunning and 
native shrewdness. The man's age was 
about sixty ; but his firm and elastic tread 
and other indications of robust health and 
youthful vigor gave the lie to the figures. 
Such was John Travis, chief of the Se- 
cret Service of the United States. 

It was midsummer in Washington City, 
and the hour was two-thirty in the after- 
noon. A flood of blinding sunshine poured 
down upon broad streets and avenues, and 
suffocating heat waves radiated from tall 
buildings of brick and stone and shim- 
mered and danced above the broad expanses 
of asphalt pavement. Not a breath of air 
stirred, not a leaf fluttered, not a bird 
chirped; on the contrary, the leaves hung 
in a half-wilted condition upon the dust- 
covered branches, the birds hopped list- 
lessly from limb to limb, or drowsed with 
wings drooped and eyes half closed, wait- 



309 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



ing for the breath of cool air that came 
not. 

The windows of the room in which John 
Travis sat were raised to the highest point 
possible, and the shutters were flmig wide 
open. This fact, however, did not discom- 
mode the occupant of the room by interfer- 
ing in Miy way with his privacy ; for Tra- 
vis' office was on the shady side of the 
street, in the rear of the building, and on 
the second floor. 

The chief, suffering from the oppressive 
heat, had flung dignity to the dogs. He 
had discarded his coat, removed his tie and 
unbottoned his collar, and now sat idlj 
smoking as he awaited the coming of the 
person who had been announced by the f ac- 
totimi. 

The private office of the head of the Se- 
cret Service was furnished to suit his needs 
and tastes. It was richly carpeted ; a large 
baize-covered table occupied the center of 
the room, a number of chairs stood against 
the walls, and a leather-tufted couch had 
a place in one corner. The most notable 
piece of furniture was one — half book- 
case, half cabinet — that stood between the 
windows and, judging from its contents, 
was a veritable curiosity-shop in itself. 
It contained a diminutive and delicate 
pair of scales, a number of books — many 
of them musty with age — glass-stoppered 
i)ottles holding colorless liquids, a micro- 
scope, boxes of counterfeit coins, and odds 
and ends innumerable. 

Travis threw his cigar out of the win- 
dow and arose to his feet, as the door 
opened and a man entered the apartment. 

**Sit down, Raymond, and cool off," said 
the chief, motioning to a chair; "you look 
as hot as a furnace. Here's a fan. Say! 
do you know Tm awfully glad to see you?" 

"Want to use me, I suppose,*' replied 
the new-comer, as he seated himself and 
mopped the perspiration from his glowing 
•countenance. 

Travis laughed softly and said: "I 
think I've taught you in the past not to 
act upon suppositions, but to wait for cer- 
tainties." 

"I'm not acting on a supposition," the 
visitor returned, coolly ; "I simply re- 
marked that I had a supposition." 



Travis went to the cabinet between t 
windows, and returned with a box i 
cigars. 

"Here," — smiling good-naturedly,- 
"take a cigar ; it'll brace you up and p 
you in better humor. You seem a liti 
bit out of sorts." 

"I'm not feeling very well, Travis; 
need a rest." However, he took the pro| 
fered cigar, lighted it and leaned badi 
his chair, puffing serenely. Travis loob 
upon the athletic figure before him afl 
remarked satirically : 

"You look like a very sick man, Rff 
mond — a mere shadow of your forad 
self. Shall I call an ambulance to air 
you to the hospital?" 

Claude Raymond removed the cigar k 
between his lips and laughed softly. Hs 
smooth-shaven, swarthy face puckered s 
a mass of merry dimples and wrinkles, 2^ 
his steel-blue eyes danced humorously. 

"Travis," he said, "you wouldn't tiiii 
me sick, if you saw me upon my death- 
bed." 

"I would, if you looked sick," — chuck- 
ling. 

"Don't I look sick?" 

"Not a bit." 

"I want a vacation, at any rate; I 
haven't had one in four years." 

"I thought the wind was blowing frs 
that quarter. Well, you can't have it. T^^ 
got a beautiful job for you; that's whji 
was so glad to see you." 

"Of course !" 

"I want you to go over to New Ywi 
and run down a gang. They're flooding ts 
city with bogus ten-dollar bills, and t!? 
case demands immediate attention. 1^^ 
ought to feel flattered over the trust ai^ 
confidence I place in you ; lots of the boys 
would give their two eyes for the case 1 
now offer you." 

"Let one of 'em have it, then — with mv 
compliments." 

"What?" 

"I don't want it." 

"Why?" . , 

"Because I'm going off on a vacation. 

"Suppose I won't grant you the pennis- 
sion?" 

"You've taught me not to act on suppo- 
sition. Chief, but to await the proofs. 



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A COUNTERFEIT COIN 



311 



'The proofs are forthcoming. You can't 

go- 

"Look here, Travis/' — earnestly — 
"you've promised me a vacation." 

*'l know I have." 

"Well, don't you think I've earned it? 
.\nd don't you mean to keep your promise?" 

"Yes — to both your questions ; but I 
hate to let you oflE now. Where do you 
think of going?" 

Raymond leaned back in his chair, 
heaved a sigh of relief and satisfaction, and 
answered : 

"There's a little nook of paradise — a 
little bit of Eden — lodged down among 
the hills of south-eastern Ohio. I was bom 
in that part of the country, but I haven't 
seen the old place in years and years. Well, 
I'm going out there to rest and dream for 
a few weeks." 

"What's the young lady's name?" in- 
quired Travis, his eyes twinkling merrily. 

Claude Raymond, detective, stared at 
his honored chief in blank amazement. 

"What on earth are you talking about?" 
he asked at last. 

"I want to know the young woman's 
name," was the reply, calm and provoking. 

"What young woman?" — irritably. 

"The one you are going out there to 
see— the angel of your pastoral paradise." 

"Look here, Travis !" — Raymond was 
slightly nettled, which fact amused his 
chief not a little. "You seem to think I'm 
a liar or a fool — or both. The idea of 
me — a confirmed bachelor and thirty-eight 
years old — being in love ! No, sir ! I'm 
wedded to my profession — and a very ex- 
acting mistress I've found her; so much 
so that I don't care to risk another. Slight- 
ly altering the scriptural text — a man 
can't serve two mistresses. But I must be 
off; I want to get out of the city as soon 
as possible." 

With the concluding words he arose to 
Ms feet ; but Travis pointed to the empty 
chair, saying : 

"Sit down; I'm not through with you 
yet. This place you're going to — how far 
is it from Pittsburg?" 

"A hundred miles or so." 

"Do you go through that city on your 
way?" 

"Yes." 



H 



"Well, I've got a case out there for you, 
then." 

"I don't want it." 

"I know; but you'll have to take it." 

"Say, Travis ! This is a little too much 
— this asking a fellow to take a case on 
his vacation trip. It's like asking a man to 
court the acquaintance of a nightmare, or 
to take a nauseous drug for sick stomach." 

"You rebel, eh?" 

"I rebel." 

"Let me explain. This job won't take 
much of your precious time, as you're go- 
ing right through the city, anyhow. You 
can give a few hours to it and report. It's 
yet in its incipiency. Let me show you." 

The chief arose, went to the cabinet and 
returned with two letters, a number of 
silver coins and a magnifying glass. 

"Now," he went on, "these letters are of 
little importance. They're from two Pitts- 
burg banks and state that within th^ last 
few days the writers have detected a nimi- 
-ber of counterfeit silver dollars in circula- 
tion. Here are the coins that came with 
the letters. Examine them and tell me 
what you thin|c of them." 

Raymond's professional curiosity was 
aroused at once; his professional instinct 
was excited and he became interested in 
spite of himself. For the moment he for- 
got all about his summer vacation, as he 
knitted his brows and toyed with the coins 
before him. He weighed them in his hands, 
carefully inspected them with the glass, 
rang them upon the table and counted the 
mills around their edjges. At last he placed 
them in a neat pile and looked up at the 
chief without speaking. 

"Well?" Travis said interrogatively. 

"What do I think of them?" 

"Of course." 

"Three of them are counterfeits, one is 
genuine." 

"Yes, I added a genuine coin to the lot. 
Which is it?" 

"This one," Raymond said, positively, as 
he touched the top coin of the pile. 

"You're right, of course. But how did 
you determine?" 

"In the old rough and ready way. First, 
the false coins are a few grains lighter 
than the true one ; second, the final letter 
in the phrase — Tn God We Trust' — is an 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



*£,' not a 't ;' third, the notches around the 
milled rim are five or six short of the usual 
number. Then, there are only eighteen dis- 
tinct feathers in the eagle's right wing; 
besides — " 

"That'll do!" Travis cried, smiling. 
But what have you got to say as to the 
age of the false coins?" 

"They're freshly minted." 

"Each bears the date '1889,' and has a 
pocket- worn appearance." 

"Yes ; but they're fresh-minted pieces." 

"Sure?" 

"Of course, I am. They've been aged 
artificially." 

"How?" 

"By scouring, a dilute acid bath, and 
the use of a. little grease and plumbago." 

"I guess you're onto your job," the chief 
remarked, leaning back and lighting a 
fresh cigar. 

"I ought to be by this time, if ever — 
after ten years in the service." 

"One thing more. How much short in 
weight do you think they are?" 

"A few grains — eight or ten, perhaps." 

"You're close. And I've tested them; 
and they're nearly up to stahdard silver." 

"That so?" remarked Raymond. "That 
Shows one thing, then." 

"What?" 

"That it's a gang of old hands at the 
work." 

"Making them nearly standard to render 
them difficult to detect?" 

"Certainly." 

The chief nodded, and said: "I saw 
you glancing at the acids in the cabinet, 
just now. But I've weighed and melted 
and tested one of these spurious pieces^ in 
every way. However, you may repeat the 
process, if you care to do so." 

"I'm fully satisfied." 

"Well, are you interested? That's more 
to the point." 

"A little," Raymond confessed with a 
laugh. 

"A little!" Travis snorted in a tone of 
disgust. "In a case like this! Raymond, 
I'm ashamed of you. But here's what I 
want you to do : I want you to stop a few 
days in Pittsburg, on your way out to Ohio, 
and run these rascals to earth. They're 
right there in the city." 



"I don't think so." 

"Vou have a different opinion?" 

"Ves." 

"Out with it." 

"I have a theory in regard to these 
coins. If it's true, then the makers of 
them are not in Pittsburg — nor any other 
large city, for that matter. Let's reason 
on the thing. The coins are almost up to 
standard silver and they're the very best 
counterfeits I've ever seen. They are dated 
'1889,' and have been aged artificially. All 
this renders them very difficult of detection. 
You speak of the case being in its indpi- 
ency. So far as we're concerned, that's 
true; so far as the counterfeiters are con- 
cerned, I hold that it's false. Stuff so hard 
to detect has probably been in circulation 
for months. The skill with which they 
have been made and aged shows, as I've 
said, that old hands are at the business of 
shoving them. As unpleasant as you've 
made it for counterfeiters in the larger 
places in the last few years, no gang of 
old jail -birds would think of doing the 
work in one of the big cities, though they 
might shove the stuff there. Then, an- 
other thing, these coins being nearly pure 
silver, indicates that they may come from 
the mining regions of the West. The low 
price of bullion is a great temptation t( 
some of the mine owners to coin it into 
dollars, without consulting Uncle Sam. 
This is a mere guess, however, but as good 
as any other guess." 

Travis was disgusted, and his voice and 
manner showed it as he said : "How many 
times have I told you, Raymond, that your 
proneness to theorize, to act on suppositions 
and to jump at conclusions, will one day 
get you into trouble?" 

"You think that the makers of this stuff 
are in Pittsburg?"' 

"Of course I do." 

"And I think they have their plant lo- 
cated in some rural district — in a cave 
or an old barn, for instance. Well, time 
alone will tell who's right. I may be 
wrong ; I lay no claim to infallibility. ^ j 
give the matter some attention when I get 
to Pittsburg ; but I don't mean to sacri- 
fice my vacation upon the government's 
altar of mammon. If the case proves com- 
plex and shows a tendency to consume time 



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A COUNTERFEIT COIN 



313 



and nerve tissues, Til wire you to send 
on another man." 

"Rajmiond," the chief said earnestly, "I 
want you to have your vacation all right 
enough ; but you're the very man to look 
after this case." 

Raymond smiled indulgently as he an- 
swered: "And the case in New York, 
too?" 

"Yes, and the case in New York !" was 
the emphatic reply. 'Tou're the best man 
in the service ; but — confound you ! — 
you know it and are too deuced indepen- 
dent and hard to manage." 

The two shook hands, both smiling; and 
Raymond turned to go, but stopped sud- 
denly, saying: "Give me one of those 
coins ; I may need it. Good-bye, Chief, till 
I see you again." 

"Good-bye — and say! Give my respects 
to the little Buckeye woman." 

The detective shook a finger at his su- 
perior and replied fiercely: "Travis, if you 
ever hint another word about my getting 
married, I'll quit the service. Now !" ^ 
When the sound of Raymond's receding 
footsteps had died out, Travis muttered to 
himself :\ "A jolly good fellow is Ray- 
mond, and the keenest and most trust- 
worthy man in the service; but he's too 
conceited, too independent. He ought to 
have a wife; it would tame him down a 
bit." 

Then he lighted a fresh cigar, leaned 
back in his chair and closed his eyes, smil- 
ing inscrutably. 



CHAPTER. II. 

Claude Raymond made hurried prepara- 
tions for his trip. He was in a fever to 
be off. The city had never seemed so hot 
and disagreeable, the country so cool and 
inviting. He felt like a big boy just out 
of school, off to his aunt's on the farm. 
Memory sped ahead of him to the hills of 
the blue Muskingum, where he had played 
as a lad; and recollection was busy with 
the thousand and one things and places he 
had seen and known when a child. 

Would he recognize the scenes and the 
people? Perhaps not ; for years had passed 
since he had visited his birthplace. It did 
^ot matter ; he wanted to go. He would 



exchange the man-made city for the God- 
made solitudes 

Swap the dust fer fresh-mowed hay, 
Dandeli'ns an' fields o' green; 
Change September back to May — 
Jest hke tradin* sight-on-seen! 

He whistled softly to himself, as he 
packed his trunk and hand-bag, and was 
surprised to note that he was whistling the 
tune of an old song his mother had sung 
to him in his youth. Then he heaved a 
deep sigh and moved about softly and si- 
lently ; for his mother — the only woman 
he had ever loved, that had ever been more 
to him than a casual friend or acquaint- 
ance — lay sleeping beneath the sod of the 
far western prairies. 

"Let's see," he muttered, as he went on 
with his packing; "I must take my gun 
and fishing-tackle. I don't suppose there's 
any game out there worth the hunting; but 
I can give the rein to my savage instincts 
by shooting chipmunks. I remember they 
used to be a pest to the farmers out there. 
As for the fishing, a fish is a fish — no 
matter how small and insignificant; and 
it's a jolly thing to pretend one's having 
sport, at any rate. It's been a long, long 
while since I felt as care-free as I do to- 
day. I very much fear the Pittsburg coun- 
terfeiters will be unmolested, so far as I 
am concerned.*" 

A few hours later he was rolling swiftly 
westward. Arriving in Pittsburg, he went 
to one of the principal hotels and regis- 
tered under an assmned name. The next 
morning, refreshed by a night's sleep, a 
cold bath, and a hearty breakfast, he set 
about the business in hand, having in mind 
the resolve to keep his promise to his chief, 
but to perform the duty in a merely per- 
functory way. 

He first called at one of the banks that 
had written to the Treasury Department. 
Stopping at one of the side wickets, he said 
to the young man bending over a big* 
ledger : 

"Is' the president or teller in?" 

"The teller hasn't come in yet," the 
young man answered, without looking up ; 
"he's a little late this morning. But the 
president's in his private office, I think." 

"Can I get to see him?" 

"Card?" answered the pasty-faced youth, 



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sliding from his stool and extending his 
hand. 

Then glancing at the bit of pastboard he 
had received : 

"Secret Service! All right; FU be back 
in a minute, sir." 

He retreated to the president's private 
office and in a few moments returned and 
announced: "The president will see you 
at once, Mr. Raymond. Step this way, 
please." ' ' 

When the detective had entered the bank 
president's room, he found himself in the 
presence of a corpulent, well-preserved 
man of fifty years. Raymond wasted no 
time, but entered upon his business as soon 
as he was seated. 

"You're the president of this bank?" was 
his opening remark. 

"Yes, sir," replied the president, in a 
dignified and somewhat pompous manner. 

"You sent a letter to the Treasury De- 
partment," Raymond went on, "stating 
that your bank had discovered a number 
of counterfeit silver dollars in circulation. 
That letter was referred to the Secret Ser- 
' vice, and in answer to it I am here to con- 
fer with you. Do you wish to see my com- 
mission before we proceed to business?" 

The banker had been studying the de- 
tective's face and, apparently impressed in 
his favor, now answered graciously; "It's 
not at all necessary, Mr. Raymond; the 
fact that you're cognizant of the letter 
sent to the Treasury Department satisfies 
me that you're in the service of the Gov- 
ernment. What can I do for you? What 
do you want to know?" 

"Everything," was the smiling reply. 

"Everything I can tell you in regard to 
the counterfeit coins?" 

"Yes." 

"Well, to be brief, I know little more 
than was contained in the letter — which 
you undoubtedly saw. My attention was 
called to one of the false pieces about a 
week ago, by the teller. We examined the 
silver dollars we had on hand, and dis- 
covered two or three more that were spu- 
rious. Since writing the Department, we 
have found four or five others that are 
bogus." 

"Are the false pieces all alike?" 

"I think they arc." 

"Have you got them here?" 



"All but the one or two sent to Wash- 
ington." 

"May I see them?" 

"Certainly." 

The banker unlocked a drawer in the 
desk at his elbow and produced the coins. 
Raymond looked them over criticaMyi and 
remarked: "Yes, they're all right — that 
is, all wrong — all counterfeits and all 
alike. You have a very clever teller, Mr. 
Baldwin." 

"How's that?" 

"I say you have a very clever teller." 

"Well, yes — perhaps ; but I fail to catch 
your meaning." 

"My meaning is this : not one bank tel- 
ler in ten would have suspected even, that 
these coins are counterfeits." 

Mr. Baldwin keenly eyed his visitor for 
a moment. Then he said slowly and 
thoughtfully: "I don't know; they seem 
very plain to me. I had no difficulty in 
telling they were counterfeits." 

"The teller called your attention to 
them, you say?" 

"Yes." 

"Did you detect wherein they are coun- 
terfeits?" 

The banker gave a start, shook his head, 
and answered with a short laugh : "No, I 
didn't. Mr. Gimp, the teller, pointed it 
all out to me. I understand what you 
mean now. It's easy to tell a certain coun- 
terfeit, after some one has shown you 
wherein it is counterfeit ; but very hard to 
tell if a coin's good or bad, that you have 
no reason to suspect. Isn't that it?" 

"Exactly," the detective replied, smiling. 
"One naturally accepts money on faith and 
at its face value. A bank teller, even, 
does not usually inspect every piece that 
passes through his hands and does not de- 
tect a counterfeit as nearly perfect as the 
one we have been considering." 

"Mr. Gimp has been with us for quite a 
number of years," the banker said, with 
a show of hauteur, "and we have always 
considered him a trustworthy and efficient 
officer. But I don't know that he has ever 
paid particular attention to the detection 
of counterfeits. However,, he may have 
done so. At any rate, he did detect these." 

"True," Raymond said, musingly; "and 
he's above suspicion, of course." 

The banker nodded stiffly, smiling. 



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"Would you mind calling him in?" 
"Not at all." 

A minute later the teller entered the 
apartment. He was a large, handsome man 
of middle age, wearing a neatly trimmed 
blonde beard and gold-rimmed glasses. 
He was fashionably dressed and had about 
him an air of genteel prosperity. 

"Mr. Gimp," said the president, "this is 
Mr. Raynciond, of the Secret Service, here 
in answer to our letter to the Treasury De- 
partment. He desires to talk with you in 
reference to those counterfeit silver dol- 
lars." 

The two nien honored the introduction 
with a hand-shake, and Gimp remarked 
pleasantly : "Very glad to meet you, Mr. 
Raymond; and Tm ready to help you in 
any way I can." 

"Thank you," the detective replied, simp- 
ly. "Have I the privilege of asking you a 
few questions?" 
"Assuredly." 

"How was your attention first called to 
these coins ?" 

"I hardly know. Of course you under- 
stand that a part of my duties is to keep 
a sharp outlook for all kinds of coimter- 
feits. Well, I was running over a num- 
ber of silver dollars and found one of these. 
Then I began a search for others." 

"What called your attention to the first 
one?" 

"I don't remember — yes, I think I not- 
iced that it was of light weight." 

Raymond asked quickly: "You noticed 
that while running the coins over in your 
hands?" 

"I — I think so, yes." Gimp appeared 
a little confused. 

"What did you do then?" the detective 
interrogated, smoothly. 

"I examined it with a pocket-glass, and 
assured myself that it was false." 
"I see. And what did you find?" 
Gimp's face suddenly flushed; and he 
replied with considerable spirit: "You 
know what I found. Why do you ask such 
questions?" 

Raymond smiled blandly and reassur- 
ingly as he made answer : "Mr. Gimp, I'm 
simply trying to determine how hard these 
particular coins are to detect. If they are 
difficult to detect, probably they have been 



in circulation quite a while; if they are 
easy to detect, they may have been out but 
a short time. It's important that I know 
how long they've been in the channels of 
trade. Do you understand?" 

The teller had recovered his equanimity 
and replied with a laugh : "Oh, that's all I 
Well, go ahead with your questions." 

The detective proceeded: "What did 
you discover with the pocket-glass?" 

"That there was a mist^e in the spell- 
ing of the word 'trust' — the final 't' be- 
ing an *f;' that the number of notches 
around the milled edge was short of the 
requisite and that there were eighteen 
feathers only in the eagle's right wing." 

"You discovered all this on your ex- 
amination?" 

"Yes. You see after my suspicions were 
aroused I naturally made a careful exami- 
nation." 

"Naturally. What did you think of the 
age of the coin?" 

"I saw at once that it had been made to 
look older than it really was." 

"You had no trouble in determining that 
the piece was spurious, then?" 

"None whatever." 

"Mr. Gimp," the detective said, with an 
expression of countenance and an intona- 
tion of voice indicative of open admiration 
or covert irony, "you're a pretty shrewd 
man, and invaluable to the institution in 
whose employ you are. You ought to be 
in the Secret Service," — smiling blandly. 
"It will surprise you, no doubt, when I tell 
you that we of the Department have looked 
upon this particular coin as a very danger- 
ous counterfeit and one very hard to detect. 
Now, here are two dollars I happen to 
have with me. One is a counterfeit; the 
other is genuine. Be kind enough to tell 
me — if you will, Mr. Gimp — which of 
the two is the bogus piece. I don't min^ 
telling you, in all candor, that I consider 
this counterfeit a clumsy makeshift, com- 
pared with the other." And Raymond 
laughingly presented the coins to the 
teller. 

Gimp's face immediately became a study. 
He nervously stroked his beard, bit his lips 
and turned red of countenance. However, 
he took the coins and carefully inspected 
them. Then, with a rather sickly smile. 



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he remarked: "It's unfair to ask me to 
determine in this offhand fashion, you 
know." 

The president and Raymond laughed 
outright. Then the latter said : "You had 
no trouble in detecting the other, you say ?" 

"No, but—" 

"How about this one, then?" 

Gimp studied the two coins for a min- 
ute or two longer, minutely, weighed them 
in his hands, and rang them upon the desk. 
At last he made answer: "This is the 
genuine coin, and this is the counterfeit." 
And he handed them one at a time to the 
detective. 

"Right you are!" laughed Raymond, as 
he jingled them and dropped them into his 
pocket. Then he continued soberly: "Of 
course, you've no idea who's shoving this 
stuff, Mr. Gimp?" 

"None whatever." 

"And you don't know whether they're 
made :~ ^he city?" 

"I do nv.: indeed; I have no idea." 

"Well," Ra>.- ->d said, rising, "I thank 
you, gentlemen, for your promptness in re- 
porting the case and for your courtesy. If 
you ascertain anything worth reporting, 
wire the Department. Good-bye. Hope 
I may be successful in running the fellows 
down. Good-bye." 

He cordially shook hands with the two 
and took his departure. On reaching the 
street he halted as though in doubt as to 
what he should do next. A peculiar smile 
hovered about his straight, firm lip's, as he 
stood in momentary hesitation. Consult- 
ing his watch, he found that it was almost 
ten o'clock. 

"I'll do it," he resolved, and started 
down the street at a rapid pace. At the 
next corner he enterd a drugstore and spent 
a few minutes consulting a directory. 
Then he closed the book with a bang, hur- 
ried to the street and leaped aboard an 
electric car; and a few minutes later was 
rolling away toward the suburbs. 

Far out on one of the principal resi- 
dence streets, he alighted at a large and 
handsome house standing in the center of 
beautiful and extensive grounds. Critic- 
ally he inspected it from two sides and en- 
tered a few notes in his memorandum-book. 
Then he boarded a returning car and was 
soon in tlie business portion of the city 



again. Here he entered another drug- 
store, made a trifling purchase and thumbed 
over a directory. Once more on the street, 
he sought the office of a prominent real- 
estate broker ; and when closeted with him 
made brisk inquiry : 

"Mr. Edson, can you tell me who owns 
the fine residence at the corner of Blank 
and Incog streets?" 

The broker referred to a large map upon 
the wall, muttered a number imder his 
breath, and began to turn the pages of a 
large canvass-bound book. Presently he 
answered: "Harold P. Gimp, teller of the 
Capitalists' Bank." 

"Is the place for sale?" 

"I don't know; but I can find out for 
you. However, I don't suppose it is; 
I see Gimp bought it within the last year." 

"I presume he'd sell, if his price was 
offered him." 

"Probably." 

"I wish I knew," Raymond said, mus- 
ingly, "whether his financial affairs are 
such that he can afford to own the property, 
or whether they are such that the place 
might be bought at a bargain. Does he 
own stock in the bank?" 

"No, I'm sure he doesn't. I know all 
of the principal stockholders, and Gimp 
isn't one of them. But I believe I've heard 
it nunored lately that he's made a pile, 
within the last year or so, by shrewd specu- 
lation. Shall I look the matter up for 
you?" 

"Yes ; but do it very quietly. I'm going 
out of the city for a few weeks; have 
everything in readiness upon my return. 
Here's ten dollars to pay you for your 
trouble — until I see you." 

"All right," assented the broker, briskly. 
"But what's the name, please?" 

"Howard C. Curtis," Raymond an- 
swered, promptly, "but I'm not a resident 
of the city and don't care to be known 
in the deal, for the present. Keep things 
dark." 

Mr. Edson nodded knowingly, and the 
detective passed out the door. 

His next call was at the other batik that 
had written the Treasury Department. 
Here he learned nothing new except that 
the attention of the officers of this bank 
had been called to the counterfeits by 
Gimp. 



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"It was at our club," remarked the presi- 
dent, "that he showed me one of the coun- 
terfeits. Being interested, I of course 
made search and found a few, one or two 
of which I sent on to Washington. I didn't 
know the Capitalists' Bank had done like- 
wise." 

"Is Mr. Gimp a stockholder in the Cap- 
italists' Bank?" Raymond inquired, in an 
ofiOiand way. 

"No, sir." 

"You say he's a member of your club?" 

"Yes; he's belonged to the plub about 
three months, I think. He's made some 
lucky speculations of late and has bought 
him a fine property." 

The detective thanked the officials and 
returned to his hotel. 



CHAPTER III. 

After dinner Raymond retired to his 
room and sat down with the intention of 
quietly and systematically joining and 
weaving the disconnected and broken 
threads of information into a whole piece 
of tangible and certain truth. He lighted 
a cigar, placed a pitcher of lemonade up- 
on the table within easy reach, lolled 
back in his chair and gave himself up to 
concentrated thought. 

The air was close and hot, and the mut- 
terings of a distant thunderstorm came to 
his ears. Heavy drays and vans nmibled 
up and down the superheated thorough- 
fare, and a parrot in front of a saloon 
across the street cursed the passersby and 
screamed discordantly. Raymond fumed 
and sweat and mentally condemned the 
bird, the weather and everybody and 
everything — himself especially — for agree- 
ing to stop in the city at all. 

"I ought to have gone on without med- 
dling in this complicated affair at all," he 
muttered, savagely biting his cigar. "I'll 
waste half my vacation — and accomplish 
nothing, more than likely. But the devil 
of it is I've got interested! It's a most 
fascinating case. Let's see what I have: 
Gimp is the one person who discovered 
the counterfeits. His president believes 
him to be an expert, and I know him to 
be an arrant fraud ; for he failed signally 
to detect the counterfeit of the two coins 



I submitted to him, although, as I warned 
him, it was a bald and base makeshift 
compared with the one he claims to have 
detected so easily. Of course, I let him 
believe he was right and disarmed him of 
suspicion, I hope." 

He took a drink of lemonade, relighted 
his cigar, and continued his cogitatioris : 
"Gimp has purchased a fine residence with- 
in the last few months and quite recently 
joined an aristocratic and expensive club. 
His salary doesn't warrant him in doing 
these things, but he tells his friends he's 
made some lucky speculations. On whose 
money does he speculate, I wonder? One 
thing's sure : Gimp's either a smooth scoun- 
drel or an egregious and egotistical ass!" 

He threw aside his half-smoked cigar, 
wiped the perspiration from his counte- 
nance, and mused on: "I am possessed 
of the fool idea that Gimp is in some way 
connected with this case. He may be 
shoving the stuff through the bank; more 
unlikely things have happened in my ex- 
perience. If so, why does he tell his 
president and the officials of the other 
bank that it's bogus? Is it a case of over- 
caution — the case of a drunken man prov- 
ing himself drunk, by striving to appear 
sober? I believe it is. Gimp has sense 
enough to know the thing can't go on for- 

5ver, and he's fortifying himself against 
uspicion. He's shoving out the stuff to 
those who come to get checks cashed or 
bills changed — a dollar here and a dol- 
lar there. If detected, he'll be in a posi- 
tion to say: *It's an oversight; I was the 
first to discover these counterfeits — and 
promptly informed the authorities.' Of 
course, the spurious stuff is being shoved 
in other ways, probably. Now, where's it 
being made — and who's making it? The 
case must be worked from this end. I 
must determine more of Gimp's habits, 
haunts and associates; also, I must look 
up his family and relatives." 

Raymond arose, yawned, donned coat 
and hat and left the hotel. In the course 
of the afternoon and evening, by means of 
shrewd and careful inquiries directed to 
various business and professional men who 
did business at the Capitalists' Bank, he 
learned much of what he desired to know. 
He accomplished all this, too, without re- 
vealing his identity or arousing the curi- 



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osity of those with whom he talked. He 
learned that Gimp was married, but had 
no children; that he had no relatives in 
the city, but that his wife's sister had made 
her home with him until a few months 
back; that he was a careful, methodical 
man of strict probity and untarnished 
honor; that he had never been known to 
drink nor gamble, but that of late he had 
been a more or less successful speculator. 

All this did not upset the detective's 
theory ; it but added to his suspicions. He 
reasoned that this was just the sort of man 
to do the things he suspected Gimp of do- 
ing — with little chance of being appre- 
hended. 

The next day Raymond instituted pro- 
ceedings to catch the teller in the very act 
of shoving the bogus coin. Within a half 
square of the bank he bought a paper of 
a newsboy, tendering the gamin a ten-dol- 
lar bill in pajonent. 

"Can't change it, mister," said the lad, 
eying the bill suspiciously. 

"Run into the Capitalists' Bank and get 
the teller to change it/' Raymond made 
answer. "Front wicket — man with the 
beard. And no tricks ! I'll be at the door 
— with an eye upon you." 

"Oh, I'll bring y'r change back all 
right !" replied the urchin, skurrying away. 

A minute later the boy had returned and 
Raymond had the change in his hand. 
He paid the lad and sauntered from the 
spot, and when secure from observation 
made examination of the money. As he 
did so he smiled grimly, and shook his 
head in half -pitying contempt. Two of 
the counterfeit silver dollars were in the 
lot. 

The detective's suspicions were con- 
firmed ; he was convinced but not fully 
satisfied. So a few minutes later he re- 
peated the test by tendering a twenty- 
dollar bill at a fruit stand. Again the 
bill went to the bank to be changed, and 
again a number of the counterfeits put in 
an appearance. 

"I'll leave the city to-morrow morning," 
Raymond resolved, on his way to his hotel ; 
"there's no need of my staying here longer 
at present. Thus far the case is absurdly 
plain. Gimp shoves the stuff at the bank ; 
of course he may have confederates who 
are doing the same in other parts of the 



city and in other places. That doesn't 
matter, however; Gimp is the central fig- 
ure in the farce-comedy, thus far. Of 
course he doesn't receive the spurious stuff 
at the bank; he brings it there in small 
amounts, secretes it in a handy receptacle 
and pushes it into the hands of the un- 
suspecting. Then he pockets good money 
for the bad. The silver in a dollar is 
worth about fifty cents; the government 
stamp does the rest. It's the case of fifty 
cents invested winning a dollar — a cleaa 
profit of one hundred percent, on each and 
every transaction. And he runs little risk 
— or did so long as he kept his head. 
But now his days of freedom and unlawful 
prosperity are about numbered; for when 
I return I'll unravel the whole affair. It'll 
be comparatively easy to shadow him and 
find out where the coin's made. I guess 
Travis was right, though — the plant's in 
Pittsburg, or near." 

That evening Raymond was standing at 
the clerk's desk in the hotel lobby, when 
a drummer came up to settle his account. 
The man deliberately set down his bag^ 
flung the key to his room upon fhe desk, 
and asked with a yawn : 

"What's my bill?" 

"Three dollars," answered the clerk. 

The drummer leisurely put his hand in- 
to his trousers pocket, brought out the 
money, and threw it upon the desk. Then 
he sauntered over to the cigar stand and 
lighted a cheroot. The clerk was in the 
act of transferring the coins to the till 
when the detective's hand interfered with 
his design. 

"Wait a moment, please," said Raymond. 
"Will you let me see those coins?" 

"Certainly," — in obvious wonder. 

The detective took them and carefully- 
looked them over. When through, he 
smilingly returned them to the clerk's 
palm, satisfying the latter's apparent curi- 
osity, with the words : "I'm just a numis- 
matic crank. Thank you." ' 

Evidently the unusual word mystified 
the clerk, for he inquired quickly: "Do- 
you mean you're a coin collector?" 

"No — not exactly; I'm just interested 
in them." 

"Guess we all are," laughed the young 
man, as he dropped the money into the till. 

Raymond approached the drummer at 



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A COUNTERFEIT COIN 



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the cigar stand, and while making pre- 
tense of lighting a cigar said in a low tone : 

"Pardon me; but would you mind tell- 
ing me where you got the money you just 
now gave to the clerk?" 

"How*s that?" the commercial man ex- 
claimed, a puzzled expression upon his fat 
face. 

"The money you just now gave to the 
clerk," Raymond repeated — "where did 
you get it?'* 

The drummer stared hard — half in an- 
ger, half in surprise. , 

"Where did I get the money I gave to 
the clerk?*' he ejaculated. 

"Yes." 

"Well, that's a hell of a question!" 

"I know, but I have a reason for asking 
it." 

"Well, Tve no reason to answer it," — 
haughtily. 

"I think you have.*' 

"Vou do, eh? Well, I won't/' 

"No?" 

"No !*' 

The chuffy drummer was growing ex- 
cited. His face flushed and his puffy 
white hand trembled. But the detective 
maintained an unruffled composure. He 
stood looking into the cigar case and dnrni- 
ming upon it with his knuckles. 

"One of the coins you gave to the clerk 
is peculiar," he remarked quietly. 

"Peculiar?" 

Raymond nodded, and added, "Entirely 
out of* the ordinary.** 

"That so?" — aroused interest in voice 
and manner. 

"Yes.** 

"Has — has it got any special value?" 

— native cupidity alert. 
"No; it's a counterfeit." 
"The devil !" 

Raymond nodded, smiling. 

"And I suppose you had to go and tell 
the clerk?" 

"No ; I didn*t tell him. Where did you 
get it?" 

"Good; I'm glad you didn't tell him!" 

— in a tone of exultation. 

"Did you mean to pass it on him?'* 
The drummer indulged in a smart laugh. 
"Suppose 1 did?*' he said. 
"I'd have to arrest you." 
"What !'* — in unqualified amazement. 



"I'm a Secret Service officer.** 

"Tm from Missouri,*' sneefed the com- 
mercial man; "you'll have to show tne/' 

"By arresting you?" 

The drummer brought up with a suddea 
jerk. 

Then his assurance returning: "But 
Where's your badge?" 

"I'm not parading it." 

"Well, why didn't you say you was a 
detective, in the start?" 

"I don't shout that fact from the house- 
tops, when I'm working on a case." 

"I see." 

"Now, will you Jell me where you got 
that counterfeit dollar?" 

"Yes. I got it from a drayman in 
Zanesville, Ohio, yesterday. He hauled 
my trunks to the depot. I gave him a five- 
dollar bill, and he gave me back the three 
silver dollars I handed to the clerk.*' 

"You're sure?" 

"Absolutely." 

"Thank you. You don't wish to be held 
as a witness in the case, I presume?" 

"Heavens, no !" 

"Just keep quiet about our little talk, 
then. You understand?" 

"Yes — and I must be off to catch my 
train. Good-bye." 

"Good-bye." 

Raymond went to his room and penned 
the following cipher letter : 

"Secret Service Department, 

Washington, D. C. 
"Travis : 

"I'm off for Zanesville. Have found 
shovers of stuff in city. Will close up 
case on my return from Ohio. You need 
send no one on here till I advise vou. 

"Raymond." 

Then he retired, and as he was dropping 
asleep he muttered: 

"Lucky I encountered that drummer. 
Wonder if his picking up that dollar in 
Zanesville means anything?" 

The next morning he set out for the 
city of his thoughts. 

CHAPTER IV. 

On arrival in Zanesville Raymond called 
at several of the principal business houses 
and on one pretext or another succeeded 



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in examining quite a number of silver dol- 
lars. To his surprise he discovered not 
one counterfeit. 

"I don't understand the thing,'* he mut- 
tered, as he sat resting in the lobby of the 
Clarendon hotel; "that counterfeit the 
drummer had came from this city. Of 
course it may have strayed in here and out 
again — a mere accident ; but I can hardly 
believe it. J was in hope of finding some- 
thing definite here — something that would 
indicate the whereabouts of the plant. I 
thought, after my meeting with the dnun- 
mer, that I might find this place flooded 
with the stuff. \ I guess old Travis is right 
in his intuitions, after all, and that I'll 
have to abandon my theory. I don't like 
to do it, though; something keeps telling 
me that I'm on the right scent.' Well, I 
won't bother my brain any more about it 
for the present. I'll take the afternoon 
boat down the river and give myself up 
to a few weeks of rest and unalloyed bliss. 
The counterfeiters may go on their way 
rejoicing, until I'm through with green 
fields and babbling brooks." 

He arose, yawned and walked up to the 
clerk's desk and asked: "What time does 
the boat start down the Muskingimi?" 

"About one o'clock." 

"It goes through to Marietta?" 

"No, sir; only to McConnelsville." 

"That's about half way down the val- 
ley?" 

"Almost — yes, sir." 

"Well, that's probably as far as I'll 
want to go." 

"The train goes through to the Ohio 
River." 

"The train?" 

The clerk simply stared in answer to 
the question. 

"Is there a railroad down the valley 
now?" Raymond asked, sharply. 

"Yes, sir ; has been for several years." 

"Then I don't know whether I want to 
go down the river or not," the detective 
murmured, as if to himself, genuine pathos 
in his* voice. "If the iron horse has in- 
vaded the old valley I knew when a boy, 
there's little of its beauty left, probably. 
No doubt the woods are all cleared away, 
the hunting and fishing gone, and the leafy 
grass-grown solitudes changed to busy 
marts of trade." 



"Hardly so bad as that," the clerk 
laughed. "The valley is still quite wild 
in places and very beautiful all the way 
down. It's becoming somewhat of a sum- 
mer resort, though; and you won't find it 
as quiet as it tised to be. Still, it's a de- 
lightful place to spend a few weeks of the 
hot weather in." 

"Where's the boat-landing?" Raymond 
inquired. 

"At the foot of Fifth street." 

The detective glanced at his watch, saw 
that it was twelve-thirty o'clock and re- 
solved to go down to the boat. On reach- 
ing the street the thought came to him 
that he would better have a book to while 
away the time, should it chance to hang 
heavy on his hands. He went into Ed- 
miston's and looked over a number of. 
paper-bound novels. Selecting one at ran- 
dom, he threw down a bill in payment 
and, on receiving his change, was startled 
to find himself in possession of two more 
of the counterfeit silver dollars. 

He jingled them in his hand and stood 
irresolute for a few seconds, pondering 
what to do. He was irritated to think 
that the pieces should thrust themselves 
upon him — and just at a time when he 
was trying to forget that they were in ex- 
istence, or ever had been. But his pro- 
fessional pride asserted itself and his in- 
decision was but momentary. Instantly 
he mapped out a course of proceedure. 

"Are you sure these coins are all right?" 
he asked, carelessly, smiling at the young 
man behind the counter. 

The salesman looked at the detective in 
surprise and wonder, as he replied: "I've ^ 
no reason to think them otherwise, sir." 

"Of course not," Raymond laughed; 
"and you wouldn't know if they were coun- 
terfeits, probably." 

"No." 

"Which only goes to show how much 
bogus money mav be in circulation." 

"That's so." 

"And you wouldn't know where you got 
them, either — eh?" 

"Yes, I know where I got them." 

"Indeed! That's rather remarkable; a 
shopkeeper so seldom knows where he gets 
any certain piece of money." 

"A lady gave me those a half hour ago, 
in payment for a number of bound books. 



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A COUNTERFEIT COIN 



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The way Tm sure is that, when she came 
in, I had changed a number of bills and 
the till was empty of coin." 

*'l see. Is it the usual thing here to 
sell several bound books to one individual, 
in mid-simimer ?" 

"Hardly the usual thing ; but these were 
standard works that sell in any season." 

"Of whose books do you sell most?" 

"Of current fiction, you mean?" 

"No; of standard works." 

"That's a hard question.' This lady 
bought ^Vanity Fair,' ^Heine's Poems,* and 
a finely illustrated copy of *Lucile'." 

"Ah! A woman of superior literary 
taste, evidently." 

"Oh! I don't know," the young sales- 
man laughed; "a good many people buy 
books they have no intention of reading." 

"I suppose so," musingly. "Probably 
this particular purchaser wished to add to 
her showy library in her suburban home." 

"I don't think she lives in the city." 

"From the country, eh?" 

"Yes, sir — at present, at any rate. She 
mentioned several things that made me 
aware of the fact. Besides I saw her rail- 
road ticket; she took it from her purse 
and laid it upon the counter when she was 
fishing for the bill she gave me." 

"So this paragon of excellent literary 
taste is a simple country maid, after all 
and not a high-bred city dame," Raymond 
remarked, with assumed lack of definite 
interest in the talk, lounging upon the 
counter and stifling a yawn. 

The salesman was not busy and seemed 
to be enjoying the gossipy conversation, 
for he rattled on: "I'm not so sure of 
that. She was a well-bred, stylish-looking 
woman, probably about twenty-eight or 
thirty years old ; and I'm inclined to think 
she's rusticating down the Muskingum 
somewhere, though she may be from Mari- 
etta." 

"Uh-huh," again yawning. "What 
makes you think she's stopping down the 
river?" 

"Her ticket was over the O. and L. K." 

1 see. 
The detective started for the door, but 
stopped and said, with a laugh: "Well, 
I'm going down the river, and perhaps I'll 
fall in with her. I hope so. at any rate; 
I enjoy talking with cultured people. You 



couldn't give me a description of her, 
could you — that I might know her, should 
I meet her on the train?" 

"I don't know; I'll try. She's of med- 
imn height, has on a gray traveling suit 
and wears gold glasses." 

"All right — but say! Don't give me 
away, if you see her again. She'd think 
me a most impudent cur — talking of her 
as I've been doing." 

"I won't mention it." 

"Thank vou; good day." 

"Good day, sir." 

The detective left the store, turned the 
corner and looked at his watch. 

"Confound the luck!" he muttered. 
"Just when I think I'm to be free from 
work and worry, a clue bobs up to tor- 
ment me. Two o'clock, and I can't go 
by boat, drifting and dreaming, but must 
ride twenty-five or thirty miles in a stuffy 
cross-road train. And instead of having 
the pleasure of viewing the scenery and 
ruminating on the joys of childhood, I 
must be on the qui vive for' a female coun- 
terfeiter — an oldish spinster of literary 
tastes, who shoves the queer." 

He was walking rapidly, hardly know- 
ing or heeding whither he was going. 
Suddenly he brought up with a jerk and 
muttered half aloud: 

"I wonder if this does mean anything; 
or whether it's a mere circumstance — an 
accident. By Jove! I must find out what 
time that train leaves, or I'll miss it — 
and lose track of the woman. There were 
two bad dollars in that bunch of change; 
she's probably shoved quite a lot of it in 
the city today. Of course she may be an 
innocent victim — like the driunmer — and 
the whole clew may prove to be only a 
puff of smoke; but I'll soon know, if I 
can run across her." 

He hurried down to the station of the 
O. and L. K., and, going up to the ticket- 
seller's window, inquired: "When does 
the train leave for Marietta?" 

"One-forty." 

"Give me a ticket." 

Shoving the bit of pasteboard into his 
pocket, he sauntered out upon the plat- 
form and stood watching the travelers 
coming and going — a restless stream of 
humanity, reminding him of trains of ants 
he had observed when a bov. His train 



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THE OHIO MAGAZINE 



pulled into the station, and the conductor 
leaped off. Raymond approached him, 
saying: **Vou came up the valley this 
morning?" 

"Yes." 

"I'm looking for a lady from down the 
river — dressed in a gray traveling dress 
and wearing gold-rimmed glasses, of med- 
ium height, a little under middle age, in- 
telligent-looking — and rather pretty." 

He added the last as an after-thought, 
with the idea that if the woman he sought 
chanced to be attractive a conductor would 
the more readily recall her. 

Then he finished: "Did she come up 
on your train?" 

"From what point were you expecting 
her?" asked the conductor, in turn. 

Raymond didn't know, of course; but 
answered at a venture : "Beverly." 

"No lady got on at that place." 

"Well, did a lady of that description 
^et on at any point?" 

"No." 

"Sure?" 

"Yes." 

Then the conductor went on in explana- 
tion: "We were light this morning, and 
no lady of that description was on the 
train. A good-looking young woman got 
-on at Malta — in fact a number of them ; 
but the one Tm speaking of was very 
good-looking. Tve seen her a number of 
times before. She's not the one you're 
looking for, though ; she wore a linen trav- 
eling