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Full text of "Oil well records in McKean and Elk Counties, Penna."

TN 
871 



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Oil Well Records in McKean and Elk Counties, [Pennsylvania. 

BY CHAS. A. ASHBURNER, M.S. ASSISTANT GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

(Bead before the American Philosophical Society, ) 

The demand for accurate well records in the northern oil field has be- 
come very great, from the eagerness with which the producers have sought 
to find petroleum, outside of the limits of the Bradford development. 
Most of the explorers, from the way in which their wells are drilled 
by contractors, are unable to keep a complete and correct record of the 
rocks through which the drill passes, yet they are ever anxious to procure 
reliable records from other sources to aid them in their "wild cat" 
operations. 

During the past two years I have been able to obtain through the assist- 
ance of Mr. M. M. Schultz of Wilcox, a number of extremely valuable 
'and interesting records of wells drilled in the vicinity of that village. Mr. 
Schultz by his untiring perseverance has succeeded in getting records of 
no less than six wells drilled to an average depth of over eighteen hundred 
feet. All have been kept with the greatest care and most of them'under 
his personal supervision. 

No complete register of all the rocks passed through by the drill has 
ever been kept by any of the producers in the Bradford oil field. In De- 
cember, 1877, Prof. Lesley appointed Mr. Arthur Hale, of the Survey, to 
the special work of obtaining a correct record of the Dennis & Co.'s Well, 
No. 1, which was about to be drilled on the high summit to the south-west 
of Bradford. 

All of these records together with a more minute description and fuller 
discussion of the rocks drilled through, will be found in my forthcoming 
report of progress in McKean and Elk Counties. I have been induced to 
communicate to the Society a few of the more valuable well records for 
immediate reference prior to the publication of the report. 

The position of the Glean Conglomerate above the mouth of each well is 
given in feet in order that a comparison may be made between the several 
sections. All the rocks of the section are not named for reasons which 
can be better appreciated when the report is published. 

The Olean Conglomerate is the bottom of the Coal Conglomerate No. 
XII, or Millstone grit. The Bradford oil producing sand belongs without 
question to the Chemung Period, or the upper part of No. VIII. 

C. W. Dennis Co.'s Well, No. 1. 

Owned by C. W. Dennis & Co., situated on the Roger's farm, three 
fourths of a mile south 35 west of Bradford, Bradford Township, McKean 
County. 

The record of this well w r as kept by Mr. Arthur Hale, aid to Mr. John 
F. Carll, Assistant Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. 

The well was drilled in December 1877, and January 1878. Mr. Hale 
made the measurements with great accuracy, the method pursued, to- 



376 



gether with a fuller description of the facts obtained will be published in 
the District report. 

It is due Mr. Hale to state that the Dennis record is, without doubt, the 
longest detailed and accurately measured record of any oil well in the 
United States. Deeper wells have been drilled, but no record has ever 
been kept so accurate as this one to such a depth. Wherever the rock 
passed through by the drill was found to change a specimen was secured ; 
in many cases a number of specimens of the same stratum were kept, in 
order that after a more careful study the horizons or divisions might be 
shifted the better to agree w T ith the true succession of the strata. 

I hope to deposit a duplicate series of specimens in the museum of the 
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, and it is hoped that duplicates 
may be deposited in other museums throughout the States. In view of this 
fact I have given below the numbers of the specimens obtained of each 
stratum. The f-levation of the top of the well above Ocean in feet is 2055. 
The elevation of the Bradford Station of the Bradford Branch of the Erie 
Railway being 1444 feet. 

Surface clays 4' to 4' 

Sandy shale, olive-gray, micaceous, muddy ; spec. 1 11 " 15 

S. S. gray, fine, micaceous, muddy; specs. 2, 3, 4, 5 33 " 48 

Shale dark-gray, with thin micaceous sand shells, muddy ; 

specs. 6, 7 19 " 67 

S. S. gray, fine, soft, muddy ; spec. 8 8 " 75 

Slaty sandstone, bluish, fine, muddy ; specs. 9, 10 23 " 98 

Fine gray sand-shells and dark slates alternating, muddy ; 

specs. 11, 12, 13 18 " 116 

S. S. ashy gray, very fine micaceous, jnuddy ; specs. 14, 15 16 " 132 

Red shale, soft ; spec. 16 * 6 " 138 

S. S. olive gmy fine micaceous ; spec. 17 12 " 150 

S. S. dark olive gray, fine micaceous ; specs. 18, 19, 20 30 " 180 

S. S. white, mixed with green and brown, fine ; spec. 21 8 " 188 

S. S. bluish gray, fine, micaceous, muddy ; spec. 22 9 " 197 

Red shale, " paint rock " top soft, bottom sandy and micaceous ; 

specs. 23, 24, 25 18 " 215 

S. S. gray, fine, mixed with slate, a few pebbles ; specs. 26, 27.. 23 " 238 

Slate, bluish ; specs. 28, 29, 30, 31 22 " 260 

Slate, bluish, with thin plates of fine sandstone ; specs. 32, 33. . 15 " 275 

Sandy slate, dark gray, fine, micaceous ; specs. 34, 35, 36 16 " 291 

Slate, bluish ; specs. 37, 38, 39 24 " 315 

S. S. gray, fine, micaceous ; spec. 40 5 " 320 

Red slate, micaceous, muddy ; spec. 41, 42 8 " 328 

S. S. olive gray, soft, micaceous, some slate ; specs. 43, 44, 45. 39 " 367 
Red rock, mottled sandy shale, brown, green and gray ; specs. 

46, 47 , 15 " 382 

Slate sandy, gray ; spec. 48 8 " 390 

S. S. dark, very fine ; specs. 49, 50 10 " 400 



8. S. gray, very fine, hard, drillings like flour ; specs. 51-56 

inclusive 35 to 435 

Slate, sandy micaceous ; specs. 57 to 63 inclusive 38 " 473 

S. S. dark-gray, very fine, micaceous, flaky; spec. 64 6 " 479 

S. S. bluish-gray, fine, hard, remnants of fossils ; spec. 65 6 ' ' 485 

Slate, sandy in streaks, micaceous, fossil bands ; specs. 66-76 in- 
clusive 95 " 580 

Dark-gray, thin-bedded S.S., fine, micaceous, slate partings, fos- 
sils ; specs. 77 to 89 inclusive 71 " 651 

S. S. gray, fine, flaky, micaceous, fossils ; specs. 90, 91, 92 23 " 674 

Slate; specs. 93, 94 12 " 686 

S. S. dark-gray, slate partings, fossils ; specs. 95, 96, 97, 98 26 " 712 

Red rock, purplish, sanely, very fine, micaceous, fossils ; specs. 

99, 100 10" 722 

Sandy slate, dark, micaceous ; specs. 101, 102, 103 20 " 742 

S. S. fine, micaceous, alternating with slate and "chocolate" 

shale, fossils ; specs. 104 to 113 inclusive 63 " 805 

S. S. thin bedded, micaceous, slate partings, fossils ; specs. 114 

115 13 " 818 

Slate, an occasional sand-shell with fossils; specs. 116 to 136 in- 
clusive 125 " 943 

S. S. brown and purplish, fine, hard, fossils ; spec. 137 8 " 951 

Slate, dark lead color 55 " 1006 

" Red Rock," fine, purple and gray sandy slate ; specs. 147, 148. 14 " 1020 
Gray sand, shells and slate, fossils ; specs. 149 to 153 inclusive.. 24 " 1044 

Slate ; specs. 154, 155 12 " 1056 

S. S. dark, hard, fine ; spec. 156 3 " 1059 

S. S. yellow-gray, drillings as fine as flour : specs. 157 to 163 in- 
clusive 13 " 1072 

Slate ; specs. 104, 165 5 " 1077 

S. S- yellow-gray, fine ; spec. 166 4 " 1081 

Slate, sandy; specs. 167, 168, 169 7 " 1088 

S. S. dark-gray, fine, fossils ; specs. 170, 171 6 " 1094 

Slate ; specs. 172 to 175 inclusive 17 " 1111 

S. S. brown and gray, fine, soft with some slate (oil show) ; 

specs. 176 to 180 inclusive 14 " 1125 

Slate ; specs. 181 to 186 inclusive 23 " 1148 

Slate, with dark sand shells ; specs. 187 to 190 inclusive 15 " 1163 

Slate ; specs. 191, 192 13 " 1176 

Slate, with gray sand shells ; specs. 193, 194 5 " 1181 

Slate; specs. 195, 196, 197 12 " 1193 

Slate, with an occasional sand shell ; specs. 198 to 206 inclusive, 44 " 1237 

Slate, " blue slate " ; specs. 207 to 219 inclusive 63 " 1300 

S. S. brown, fine, flaky, slate partings, fossils ; specs. 220 to 223 

inclusive 17 " 1317 

Slate ; specs. 224 to 229 inclusive 28 " 1345 



S. S. dark-gray, fine, close, hard ; specs. 230, 231 6 to 1351 

S. S. brownish- gray, fine, slate partings ; specs. 232 to 237 in- 
clusive 30 " 1381 

Sand, shells and slate ; specs. 238 to 242 inclusive 22 " 1403 

Slate, sand shell at 1428' ; specs. 243 to 254 inclusive 59 " 1462 

Fine sand shells and slate alternating ; specs. 255 to 261 inclu- 
sive 25 " 1487 

Slate, sand shells at 1510', 1531', and 1573'; specs. 262 to 286 in- 
clusive 118 " 1605 

Slate, with sand shells ; specs. 287 to 291 inclusive 27 " 1632 

Slate ; specs. 292 to 295 inclusive 32 " 1664 

S. S. brown, fine, flaky. Bradford "3d" or oil prod ucing sand ; 

specs. 296 to 310 inclusive 54 " 1718 

Slate and S, S. ; spec. 311 1 " 1719 

The top of the ridge directly above the Dennis Well, No. 1, is capped 
by the Sub-Olean Conglomerate, which lies from 50 to 70 feet below the 
bottom of the Olean Conglomerate ; the top of the well is about 115 feet 
below this latter horizon. 

The sandstone and conglomerate which caps the summits surrounding 
Bradford, and which is found broken up in large masses on the hill slopes, 
comes from the Olean Conglomerate. 

Kinzua Well or "Dry Hole," P. C. L. and P. Co. 

Owned by the Producers Consolidated Land and Petroleum Company of 
Bradford, situated on Kinzua Creek, near the mouth of Glad run, in war- 
rant 3122, Hamlin Township, McKean County, and about five miles north- 
east of Kane. The land upon which this well is located together with the 
adjoining tracts are part of those originally belonging to the "McKean 
and Elk Land and Improvement Co.," General Thomas L. Kane, Supt. 

The well was drilled in the Spring of 1877, aiid the record was furnished 
by Mr. L. C. Blakeslee, Superintendent P. C. L. and P. Co. 

The elevation of the top of the well, as determined by Mr. J. W. Mur- 
phy of Wilcox, is 52 feet higher than Wilcox Well, No. 3, or 1718 feet 
above Ocean. 

Surface clays, &c 32 to 32 

Soft slate 78 " 110 

Mud slate 95 " 205 

Red rock 50 " 255 

Slate rock 38" 293 

Red rock 57 " 350 

Sand " shells " and red rock mixed 15 " 365 

Slate 35 " 400 

Sand "shell" 10" 410 

Slate 346" 756 

Mixed slate and'hard slate rock. 361 " 1017 

Mixed slate and sand "shells.".. . 358 " 1375 



Hard slate mixed with sand and " pebble shell." 370 to 1745 

Slate and sand alternating 40 " 1785 

Drilled dry. Cased at 370' 

Heavy sand " shell" at 1017' 

Sand at 1745' 

Slate " 1760' 

Sand " 1768' 

Slate " 1780' 

Salt water found in sands at 1745' and 17(58' 

Mr. Blakeslee reports that no "good show" of oil was found. A small 
gas vein was struck, position not stated. Elevation of the bottom of the 
Olean Conglomerate on the P. & E. R. R. four miles due south-west from 
the Kinzua Well is 1868 feet. The calculated elevation of the same hori- 
zon at the well is 1900 feet. 
\ 

Wilcox Well, No. 2, or Schultz Gas Well 

Owned by M. M. Schultz & Co., situated on the west branch Clarion 
River, in warrant 2676, Sergeant Township, McKean County, and five 
miles north of Wilcox, a station on the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad, 
104 miles east of the City of Erie. This well is 855 feet south, 17 degrees 
30 minutes west, of Wilcox Well, No. 1, or the old Adams Well,* which 
was drilled in 1864. (?) 

Drilling on this well was commenced about the first of the year (1876) 
and completed in the latter part of August of the same year. After the 
drilling was completed to a depth of 2004 feet, an "oil saver " was attached 
to the iron casing (5f inch), and the gas issuing from the well was conveyed 
through a two inch pipe and discharged about two feet above the surface of 
the water, which partially filled the 250 barrel tank which had been erected. 
Sufficient oil was passed to show itself as a scum on the surface of the 
water. 

Mr. Schultz conceived the idea of inserting into the well to a depth of 
2000 feet, an inch pipe, and by closing the mouth of the casing to utilize 
the pressure of the gas to force the oil out through the inch tubing. 

Mr. Schultz believed that the bulk of the oil which was found in the 
well was coming from the sand extending from 1795 to 1815 feet, in which 
the drillers reported that they had "struck" a small quantity of heavy 
green oil. In this event the immense volume of gas which was issuing 
from a depth of 1776 feet might more than counterbalance in its pressure 
the pressure of the oil from a lower horizon, and thus prevent it from fill- 
ing the hole. 

After the tubing was adjusted and the gas confined in the well as much 

* For a complete record of this well, see a paper by Prof. Lesley in the Proceed- 
ings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. X, p'ige 238; also one in the 
Petroleum Monthly of a later date. A description of a very interesting action 
of this well is given in a paper named " Description of the Wilcox Spouting 
Water Well," which I read before the Society, Sept. 2', 1877. 



G 

as two to three barrels were forced out. Mr. Schultz thinks that the tubing 
during this time must have been entirely filled with oil to the exclusion of 
gas. In this case the pressure of the gas must have been sufficient to raise 
a column of oil one square inch in section and 2000 feet high. Of course, 
such an enormous pressure could only be temporary. The oil flowed from 
the tubing but for a few moments, the gas then probably became thoroughly 
mixed up with the oil which from its low temperature quickly congealed 
and effectually choked the pipe. After a few hours the gas ceased to flow 
entirely from the well and also from the adjoining well, No. 1. The gas 
commenced to flow again with greater energy after 36 hours of inactivity, 
from both wells, Nos. 1 and 2. 

In the early part of 1877, the pressure of the gas seemed to increase sud- 
denly. About the middle of May, four months after, the gas from both 
wells, Nos. 1 arid 2, ceased to flow for the second time without any obstruc- 
tion having been knowingly placed in its way. No gas was found to come 
from either well till July 14th, when it commenced to flow again. Up to 
the present time the amount of gas increases and diminishes at irregular 
intervals. The gas from this well was used as fuel in drilling well, No. 3. 

The elevation of Wilcox Well, No. 2, is 1642 feet above Ocean on the 
corrected datum of the P. & E. R. R. which makes Wilcox Station 1527.* 

Loam and gravel 30 to 30 

Gray slate 50 " 80 

Gray slate = 2 " 82 

Gray sand 42 " 125 

Red shale 20 " 145 

Gray sand 5 " 150 

Red shale 25 " 175 

Gray soapstone (shale and clay) 10 " 185 

Red shale mixed with gray slate 155 " 340 

' Streak of soft red shale 15 " 355 

Gray slate 62 " 417 

White sand pebble rock containing gas and salt water 5 " 422 

Gray slate 228 " 650 

Dark gray slate 30 " 680 

Gray slate and sand 75 " 755 

Gray and red slate mixed 40 " 795 

Gray slate 60 " 855 

Gray slate and hard shell 5" 860 

Gray slate 5 " 865 

Gray and red slate 20 " 885 

Gray slate 25 " 910 

< Red and gray slate 5 " 915 

Gray slate 30 " 945 

Gray sand 5 " 950 

Gray and red sand 5 " 955 

* Report N. Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, p. 142. 



Gray and red slate 15 to 970 

Gray slate 15 " 985 

Gray slate and sand 5 " 990 

Gray slate 60 " 1050 

Gray slate and sand 5 " 1055 

Gray slate and sand 25 " 1080 

Dark gray sand 15 " 1095 

Very hard light gray sand 5 " 1100 

Gray slate and sand containing small bivalve shells 20 " 1120 

Gray slate and hard gray sand 5 " 1125 

Gray slate and soft sand 10 " 1135 

Hard gray sand 10 " 1 145 

Soft gray slate 27 " 1172 

Gray sand 8 " 1180 

Gray sand and slate 5 " 1185 

Gray slate containing shells 15 " 1200 

Gray sand containing first strong smell of oil 1205 to 1210 20 " 1220 

Gray slate and hard shell 15 " 1235 

Gray slate 15 " 1250 

Gray slate containing shells 15 " 1265 

Graj r slate and clover seed sand 5 " 1270 

Gray slate with hard shell 10 " 1280 

Gray slate ,10 " 1290 

Gray slate and hard shell 25 " 1315 

Light gray sand 10 " 1325 

Coarse gray sand 5 " 1330 

Slate 5 " 1335 

Hard gray sand 5 " 1340 

White sand '. 10 " 1350 

Coarse gray sand 5 " 1355 

Gray slate and shell 5 " 1360 

Gray slate 30 " 1390 

Gray sand 10 " 1400 

Gray slate , 20 " 1420 

Gray slate containing shell 25 " 1445 

Gray slate , 15 " 1460 

Gray slate containing shell 105 " 1565 

Hard gray sand 15 " 1580 

Slate and shell 55 " 1635 

Gray sand , 35 " 1670 

Coarse gray slate \ 9 " 1679 

Dark brown sand containing amber oil, greatest amount near top 

of sand.* 16 " 1695 

Gray slate 40 " 1735 

Gray slate and sand 10 " 1745 

* Probable representative of Bradford "3d " or oil producing sand. 



8 

Gray slate and shell ........................................ 25 to 1770 

Gray slate and sand ........................................ 6 " 1776 

Hard gray sand rock containing a great quantity of gas ....... 4 " 1780 

Gray slate ................................................ 10 " 1790 

Fine sand and slate ........................................ 5 " 1795 

Gray sand, upper part containing heavy green oil ............ 20 " 1815 

Gray and red micaceous sand and pebbles .................... 20 " 1835 

Gray slate ............................................... 55 " 1890 

Gray slate and red sand. ................................... 5 " 1895 

Red sand and pebbles ...................................... 5 " 1900 

White sand containing oil .................................. 10 " 1910 

White and gray sand containing oil ......................... 20 " 1930 

Gray slate ................................................ 74 " 2004 

Drilled Dry. Cased ............................ ____ 541' 

Fresh water course .................................. 42^' 

Gas and salt water .................................. 422' 

Gas increases, salt water. ............................ 538' 

Gas vein ............................................ 1172' 

First show of oil. . . ......................... 1205' to 1210' 

Sand containing greatest amount of oil, particularly at 

top of sand. Oil, amber color ...... ...... 1679' to 1695' 

Great gas vein ........ . ............................. 1776' 

Heavy green oil ................................... . 1800' 

White and gray sand containing oil ........... 1900' to 1930' 



was tubed about the first of the year, and has since been 
pumped continuously every other day. Its average daily production is 
reported to be a barrel and a-half. 

The Glean Conglomerate is not exposed in the vicinity of the Wilcox 
Wells, the lower horizon is probably 125 feet above the mouth of Wilcox 
Well, No. 2. 

Wilcox Well, No. 3, or " John's Well. 1 ' 

Owned by M. M. Schultz & Co., and situated 1782 feet north 73 degrees 
30 minutes west of well No. 2. 

The well was commenced in the early part of October, 1876, and com- 
pleted to a depth of 1850 feet about the middle of June, 1877. 

After the well had been drilled to a depth of 1720 feet, tubing was in- 
serted to a depth of 1684 feet, and it was reported that the well produced, 
by pumping, a barrel a day for about six months, when it was decided 
to drill deeper. The tubing was drawn and after losing the tools several 
times drilling was finally abandoned at a depth of 1850 feet. 

The elevation of the top of the well is 1666 feet above Ocean ; Wilcox 
Station being 1527 feet above the same datum. 



9 

Drift, as follows : 48' to 43' 

Loam and sand 5' . 

Loam and gravel 5' 

Gravel and pebble 10' 

Gravel and sand 5' 

Gravel and pebble 5' 

Gravel and sand rock 5' 

Quicksand and coarse pebble 5' 

Fine sand 3' 

Gray slate 2 to 45 

Gray slate 35 " 80 

Gray sand 37 " 117 

Red slate or shale 18 " 135 

Red shale (rock hard) 10 " 145 

Gray sand rock 10 " 155 

Red shale 5 " 160 

Red slate 20 " 180 

Gray slate 25 " 205 

Red slate 105 " 310 

Red shale 15 " 325 

Gray slate and sand 15 " 340 

Gray slate and shell 15 " 355 

Red slate 25 " 380 

Gray slate 15 " 395 

Gray slate and shell 20 " 415 

Gray sand 15 " 430 

Gray slate * . 5 " 435 

Gray sand rock 7 " 442 

Clover seed rock 8 " 450 

Gray shale 15 " 465 

Dark gray slate and shell 75 " 540 

Gray slate and shell 7 " 547 

Gray slate 43 " 590 

Hard gray slate ^ 75 " 665 

Hard dark gray shale 30 " 695 

Gray slate and sand 5 " 700 

Hard gray sand 15 " 715 

Light sand with shale 5 " 720 

White and gray sand 55 " 775 

Hard and fine gray sand 25 " 800 

Fine dark gray sand 5 " 805 

Gray slate 5 " 810 

Gray slate and shale 5 " 815 

Fine gray sand 23 " 838 

Red slate 7 " 845 

Gray sand 25 " 870 



10 

Red slate 10 to 880 

Gray slate . 35 ' ' 915 

Red slate 5 " 920 

Gray slate 15 " 935 

Soft gray sand 5 " 940 

Soft gray and white sand 15 " 955 

Dark gray sand 5 " 960 

Hard gray sand 5 " 965 

Gray sand and slate 5 " 970 

Fine hard dark gray sand 5 " 975 

Red slate 5 " 980 

Graj slate 35 " 1015 

Hard gray sand 20 " 1035 

Gray slate 35 " 1070 

Dark gray sand 5 " 1075 

Gray sand 5 " 1080 

Gray shale 15 " 1095 

Gray sand and very hard shells. 5 " 1100 

Soft gray sand 15 " 1115 

Gray and white shell 10 " 1125 

Close soft white sand 20 " 1145 

Hard gray shells 20 " 1165 

Gray slate 15 " 1180 

White and gray sand and pebbles . 10 " 1190 

Close white sand 5 " 1195 

Gray sandstone and white pebbles 20 " 1215 

Coarse white'sand 5 " 1220 

Silver gray sand 10 " 1230 

Fine white sand 5 " 1235 

Gray slate and shell 10 " 1245 

Gray slate 40 " 1285 

Gray slate and shell 25 " 1310 

Gray sand 20 " 1330 

White sand 10 " 1340 

Slate 5 " 1345 

Coarse gray sand 10 " 1355 

Soft white sand 5 " 1360 

Soft gray sand 5 " 1365 

Fine white sand 5 " 1370 

Slate and hard shell 15 " 1385 

Gray hard shell 30 " 1415 

Gray slate .. . . 20 " 1435 

Slate and shell 5 " 1440 

Hard gray sandstone 10 ' ' 1450 

White sand 5 " 1455 

Gray slate 35 " 1490 



11 

Hard gray shale 5 to 1495 

Gray sand 5 " 1500 

Close white sand 5 " 1505 

Hard white sand 5 " 1510 

Gray slate 20 " 1530 

Gray slate and shell 5 " 1535 

Hard white sand 10 " 1545 

Gray shell 5 " 1550 

Glay slate 25 < 1575 

Gray sand and shell 15 " 1590 

Gray slate 15 " 1605 

Gray sand 20 " 1625 

Gray slate 10 " 1635 

Gray slate and shell 30 " 1665 

Gray slate 10 " 1675 

Gray slate and shell 10 " 1685 

Crevice full of quicksand 2 " 1687 

Dark sand containing oil 3 " 1690 

Crevice, containing loose stones, and oil 5 " 1695 

Dark sand and oil 5 " 1700 

Coarse sand and oil 5 " 1705 

Loose slate 10 " 1715 

Light colored slate 65 " 1780 

"Gas crevice " full of stone and sand 5 " 1785 

Dark sand 7 " 1792 

Light colored slate 16 " 1808 

Hard fine sand 15 " 1 823 

White and red sand mixed, red sand like quicksand 9 " 1833 

Fine red and white sand 11 " 1843 

Sandy slate [?] 7 " 1850 

Drilled dry. Cased 547' 

Drive pipe 43' 

Heavy water course 52' 

Gas vein 593' 

First strong smell of oil 1132' 

Gas and strong smell of oil 1182' 

Oil in gray shale 1685' 

Crevice full of quicksand 1687'dr 

Oil 1690' 

Crevice containing loose stones and oil 1695' 

Oil 1700' 

Oil. 1705' 

Pumped 1720' (?) 

Oil 1780' 

Gas crevice full of stone and sand 1784' 

Gas crevice 1808' 

The bottom of the Olean Conglomerate is the same distance above well 



12 

No. 3 as well No. 2, allowing for the difference in elevation of the two 
wells. 

Ernhout and Taylor Well, No. 1. 

Owned by Capt. John Ernhout and Frank Taylor, Esq., on north side 
of Wilson Run, near south-east corner of warrant 3218, Jones Township, 
Elk County, and about 3| miles north-west of Wilcox and several hundred 
feet north of the P. & E. R.R. The tract upon which this well is located 
is owned by D. Scull, Jr., Esq., of Philadelphia. Drilling was commenced 
Jan. 15, 1878, and abandoned March 13, when the tools were lost at a 
depth of 1335 feet. It is expected after the tools shall have been recovered, 
that the w r ell will be drilled deeper. 

Record reported by Mr. M. M. Schultz. Elevation of well, determined 
by Mr. A. W. Sheafer, Aid, McKean District, 1645 feet (Bar). 

Loam and sand 40' to 40' 

Blue sand shale 160 " 200 

Blue slate 40 " 240 

Red rock 95 " 335 

Red rock, very hard 15 lf 350 

Red rock, softer 45 " 395 

Red rock 45 " 440 

Sand and shells 15 " 455 

Slate 15 " 470 

Red rock 10 " 480 

Red sand 15 " 495 

Blue sand shells 35 " 530 

Brown sand and white pebble 20 " 550 

Slate and shells 95 " 645 

Hard blue sa^nd.. 10 " 655 

Slate and shells 20 " 675 

Brown sand and white shells 5 " 680 

Slate and shells 75 " 755 

Blue sand 25" 780 

Slate and shells 210 " 990 

Red rock 20 " 1010 

Slate 50 " 1060 

White sand 35 " 1095 

Red sand 20 " 1115 

Slate and shells 135 " 1250 

Gray sand 25 " 1275 

Gray slate and shells 10 " 1285 

Gray sand 20 " 1305 

Slate and shells 10 " 1315 

White sand 5 " 1320 

White sand containing gas and strong smell of oil 15 " 1335 

Drilled dry. Cased 481' 

Gas and smell of oil 1320' 

Lost tools. . . 1335' 



13 

The position of the bottom of the Olean Conglomerate above the Ern- 
hout and Taylor Wells has not yet been determined. 

A comparison may be made between these sections and the records of 
the Wilcox Wells by means of the red shale bands. 

Ernhout and Taylor Well, No. 2. 

Owned by Ernhout and Taylor, and situated in the south-eastern corner 
of warrant 3215, Wetmore Township, McKean County, about one mile 
north of well No. 1. Tract formerly part of McKean and Elk Land and 
Improvement Co.'s lands. 

Drilling commenced March 12, 1878, mineral water " vein " struck at a 
depth of 1990 feet May 9. The well w r as afterwards drilled 10 feet deeper 
through a dark fine (coffee grounds) sand strongly impregnated with oil. 
Oil not having been found in this well in paying quantities the casing was 
drawn, and water from the fresh water ' ' veins ' ' permitted to flow into 
the hole. The gas threw out of the well water, at regular intervals, to a 
height of 125 feet, more or less.* Shortly after the casing was drawn a 
wooden plug was inserted into the upper part of the well and partially 
filled the hole. After this was done the well spouted every eleven minutes, 
the eruption lasting for two minutes. The column of water and gas rises 
above the top of the derrick (70 feet), and after several pulsations falls and 
almost ceases to spout, when it suddenly rises again repeating the action 
and vanishing entirely at the end of two minutes. 

Record reported by Mr. M. M. Schultz. Elevation of well determined 
by Mr. Sheafer, 1730 feet (Bar). 

Loam and sand 40' to 40' 

Gray slate 85 " 125 

Shells 10 " 135 

Gray slate 65 " 200 

Gray slate and shells 105 " 305 

Red shale 10 " 315 

Sand and shells 40 " 355 

Red shale 125 " 480 

Shells 30 " 510 

Red rock 50 " 560 

Gray slate 30 " 590 

Red shale 55 " *645 

Gray slate 175 " 820 

Hard sand shells 80 " 900 

Sand shell 100 " 1000 

Sand 75 " 1075 

Red rock 5 " 1080 

Red rock, "pale" 5 " 1085 

Gray slate 85 ' 1170 

*See paper which I read before the Society, Sept. 21, 1877, on the "Wilcox 
Spouting Water Well." The action in these two wells is similar. 



14 

Red rock 5 to 1175 

Soft, muddy, gritty, slate 130 " 1305 

Gray slate 80 " 1385 

Light gray slate ; . . 10 " 1395 

Sand shells 10 " 1405 

Sand, smell of oil 10 " 1415 

Sand containing heavy gas "vein." 2 " 1417 

Sand 5 " 1422 

Gray slate 48 " 1470 

Sand and shells 85 " 1555 

Dark and light gray slate 210 " 1765 

Sandy slate 45 " 1810 

Hard gray sand 5 " 1815 

Slate 65 " 1880 

Dark brown sand 10 " 1890 

Soft gray slate ; 90 " 1980 

Dark sand strongly impregnated with oil 10 " 1990 

Dark fine sand (coffee grounds) containing oil 10 " 2000 

Drilled dry. Cased..... 364' 

Gas 1415' 

Oil smell 1405' 

Strong smell of oil 1890' 

Strong smell of oil 1990' 

Heavy ' ' vein ' ' of mineral water, easily corroding 

the tools 1990' 

Sear Creek Well, or "Dry Hole," P. C. L. and P. Go. 

Owned by the Producers' Consolidated Land and Petroleum Company, 
of Bradford. Situated on Bear Creek, east side of County road between 
Wilcox and Ridgway, in warrant 3257, Jones Township, Elk County. 
Land leased from Wilcox Tanning Company. 

Drilling was commenced about April 1, 1878, and was completed in 
from 50 to 60 days. 

The record was reported by Mr. M. M. Schultz. No show of oil was 
found. 

The elevation of the top of the well is 1595 feet (Bar.) above ocean. 

Drift 25' to 25' 

Blue slate rock 25 " 50 

Red rock 15 " 65 

Blue slate 10 " 75 

Red rock 20 " 95 

Sandy or " putty" slate rock 25 " 120 

Sand rock 25 " 145 

Soft slate 12 " 157 

Hard shells. .. 5 " 162 



15 

Very muddy slate 20 to 182 

Hard slate 10 " 192 

Hard sand 8 " 200 

Hard slate 30 " 230 

Very white loose sand 35 " 265 

Hard shells and slate 5 " 270 

Very hard sand 20 " 290 

Tough slate rock 10 " 300 

Very hard shells 10 " 310 

Hard fine sand 10 " 320 

Soft slate 30 " 350 

Hard fine sand - 69 " 419 

Soft slate 10 " 429 

Hard fine sand 10" 439 

Shells 30" 469 

Very red rock 5 " 474 

Soft slate or "putty " rock 80 " 554 

Shells and slate 55 " 609 

Blue slate 15 " 624 

Red rock 10 " 634 

Blue slate 22 " 656 

Hard sand 9 " 665 

Bedrock 26" 691 

Blue slate 12 " 703 

Hard shell 4 " 707 

Red rock 86 " 793 

Blue slate -. 22 " 815 

Red rock 48 " 863 

Slate and shells 30 " 893 

Red rock 26 " 919 

Hard gray sand 10 " 929 

Soffslate and shell 167 " 1096 

Gray slate 159 " 1255 

Sand 10 " 1265 

Slate and shells 30 " 1295 

Fine red sand 10 " 1305 

Slate and shells 203 " 1508 

Sandy shells 25 " 1533 

Slate and shells 34 " 1567 

Close light sand 12 " 1579 

Soft slate 25 " 1604 

Close white sand 10 " 1614 

Slate and shells ^ 52 " 1666 

Pebble sand ". 5 " 1671 

Slate and shells 15 " 1686 

White sand shells . . 10 " 1696 



1(5 

Hard slate 10 to 1706 

Loose white sand 50 " 1756 

Slate and shells 65 " 182i 

Muddy slate 15 " 1836 

Slate and shells 12 " 1848 

Muddy slate 20 " 1868 

Slate and sand shells 30 " 1898 

Sand 22 " 1920 

Slate and shells 8 " 1928 

Slate 60 " 1988 

Slate and shells 10 " 1998 

Drilled dry. Cased 380' 

Drive pipe 25' 

Crevice drained off water 120' 

.... 230' 

Salt water 270' 

Drillers reported " oil smell " in sand from 1706 to 1756' 

The Olean Conglomerate in this locality varies very much in its charac- 
ter. It is found changing from a coarse pebble conglomerate to a rather 
fine or even shaly sandstone in comparatively short distances. The "blue 
slate rock" directly under the drift in the Bear Creek well, represents 
probably a portion of the Olean Conglomerate. 

Silver Creek Well or "Dry Hole." Burton and Wallace. 

Owned by Messrs. Burton and Wallace, of Rynd Farm, situated on Silver 
Creek, west side of County road, between Wilcox and Ridgway, in war- 
rant 3261, Ridgway Township, Elk County. Land leased from Wilcox 
Tanning Company. 

Drilling was commenced about the same time as at the Bear Creek Well, 
and was completed June 26, 1878. 

The record was reported by Mr. M. M. Schultz. No show of oil was 
found. 

The elevation of the top of the well is 1615 feet (Bar.) above ocean. 

Conductor 15' to 15-' 

Slate 15 " 30 

Gray sand 25 " 55 

Pebble sand 30 " 85 

Red slate 5 " 90 

Black sand 60 " 150 

Fine blue sand 70 " 220 

Red slate 10 " 230 

Fine pebble rock .- 30 " 260 

Dark fine sand 40 " 3uO 

Slate and hard shells 10 " 310 

Fine blue sand.. 70" 380 



17 

White slate 10 to 390 

Hard fine sand 55" 445 

White slate and hard shells 95 " 540 

Red rock 5 545 

Soft white slate 55 600 

Hard shells and slate 10 " 610 

Soft white rock 40 " 650 

Red rock 100 " 750 

White slate 15 " 765 

Red rock 85 " 850 

White slate 22" 872 

Red rock 25 " 897 

White shells and slate 26 " 923 

Red rock 40 " 963 

White slate 42 " 1005 

Hard shells and slate 20 " 1025 

White slate with shells 50 " 1075 

Hard black sand 25 " 1100 

Hard slate 75 " 1175 

Black slate and shells , 45 " 1220 

Hard white sand 15 " 1235 

Slate 10 " 1245 

Sand and shells 10 " 1255 

Hard shelly rock 45 " 1300 

Pale red rock and slate 10 " 1310 

White slate and shells 10 " 1320 

Red sand 12 " 1332 

Soft slate 13 " 1345 

Hard shells 20 " 1365 

Light red sand 10 " 1875 

Hard shelly rock 20 " 1395 

Fine gray sand ' 10 " 1405 

Hard red rock 10 " 1415 

Slate and shells 20 " 1435 

Red sand and pebbles 25 " 1460 

Hard shells 15 " 1475 

Slate and shells 35 " 1510 

White slate 10" 1520 

Gray sand 8 " 1528 

Red rock 7 ' 1535 

Slate and hard shells 45 " 1580 

Hard fine white sand 25 " 1605 

Hard slate and shells 20 " 1625 

Fine white sand 8 " 1633 

Hard shells 7 " 1640 

Fine gray sand 10 " 1650 



18 

Hard shells and slate * 15 to 1665 

Hard shells 5 " 1670 

Sand and pebbles 8 " 1678 

Slate and shells 82 " 1760 

Drilled dry. Cased 450' 

Conductor 15' 

Salt water in slate 445 to 540' 

red rock 1528 to 1535' 

Smell of oil reported in sand 1670 to 1678' 

The Olean Conglomerate is probably represented in the record by the 
sand from 30 to 85 feet below the top of the well. 

The records of the Bear Creek and Silver Creek Wells are invaluable as 
having a direct bearing upon the probable existence of petroleum to the 
south and south-east of Wilcox. 

It will be noticed that the mass of the red rocks are some 300 feet lower 
in the the Bear and Silver Creek Wells than in the Wilcox Wells, estimat- 
ing from the bottom of the Olean Conglomerate. 

The question as to whether the mass of red bands in the two localities 
are the same and whether the strata included between them and the Olean 
have thickened to the south and south-east, is extremely suggestive. 

NOTE. The records are published just as they have been reported to 
me. I have not even altered the phraseology, which is quite different in a 
number of places where the same idea was evidently intended to be con- 
veyed. 

I will merely add, for those who are unacquainted with the terms em- 
ployed by the drillers, that "shell " means any hard stratum encountered 
in the well and not, as might be supposed, a fossil. 



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